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Full text of "The works of Hubert Howe Bancroft [microform] : history of Central America : vol. III, 1801-1887"

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.MnyjWUBHiiilllimpi r 



IJ 



THE WOKK8 



HUBERT HOWE BANCKOET 



THE WORKS 



OK 



iiriJKirr iiowk ijanoroft 



voij:mk viir 



HlSTOilV OK CENTRAL AMERICA, 

XCr.. III. ).S()M887. 



SAN PRANCrSCO: 
THE IIISTOKV COMI'ANY, I'UBLIHIIERS. 

1H87. 



Knterud iicidriliiiK to Atl of ('i>iiK'ri->N in tlie Voar iJ^ftT, by 

HUBKUT H. HANCKOFT, 
111 the onioo of tlic I.Ihnirian of i;oii>;rcss, iil \Va.sliliigton. 



All ItiiihU l,',:H,',>y/. 



COXTKXTS OF THIS \()J.rMK 



CIIAI'TKIl I. 

LAST HAYS (IK SPAXislI lil't.K. 
1M)I I.S1S. 

l'..l.ular rVliuK '" <V.,tral An...,ica--Kaf.t of EvontH in Spain-n..,....-' 
mt.nu ot A.m.ri.an K.,..ality- Kei.re.entati.m in tlu- Spanish ( Virtcs 
I).l...s,v.. K...ur».«- K„.l of Saravias Ii„lc.-l'rt.8id,.nt .lose Hu.Ui- 
ii.aute II,. IVspoti,. (•.mr...-l>t...mn.l.s in tl... f.irtrs-C.nstitii- 
.<.nal Kuanu.t..os 0„i..ial H...tility-(a«,paign in Oajaea^ R.-v.,!,.- 
t-ouary Movements in Salvador War in Nicaragua- Conspiracy in 
( -uatemala- 1 roatuumt of the InsurKents^ I >i„respect to tlJ I )i„uU»- 
cioii— Iho Constitution Revoke.! Royal IXerees 

CiJAI'TKK II. 

INDKI-KNDKSCK ACIirK.VKh. 
1818-lSl.'|. 

rn.si.le„t Carlos Urrntia Mis Liberal Vie.s-Colon.l.ian Assaults- 
S,,an>shConst.t„t,o,. Restore.: Ti.e <ia.istas. or liaoos- The Ca.^s 
- .lose .el Nalle |.e.lr.. M„,,„ ,,,„,,, Jnstitntions-Kxtent ..f 
th. J ol.foal <.nv..rnn.ent-|.;cdesiastieal A,hni„istration-\V.,rk of 
Amenean .ep„t,..s - I'arty Kxeiten.ent in . M.aten.ala-l'rrntia l.eh- 

gates l.,s 1 owers-SnlKstitute Presi.lent .;avin..«iainza-C'hiapas an.l 
;•■• '-..nn.ent Sh.- See...!es fn.n. Spain and Joins the .Mexican 
'•• '1-v ....aten.ala Le.-lares f..r In.lepen.lenoe-Junta (inherna 
-- < iinvocatioii ot a Cuiirress 



r»iiK 



nigress . 

(IlAI'TKi; III. 

I N I.I.N w n II M i; \ no 
18'2I IM.".'. 



xiuan 
va 




1,1 !• u . -,.,. •-" ■•^- """i.t « oiisuitiva Itui- 

b les I)ev.cosM,ht:,ry l'r,.s«ure-lli. |Vop..,sals Aceepte.l-JlleJ.l 
Annexat.on-I'n.tests a,„l Jtesistance-War logins. . . 



42 



(V, 



VI 



iOXTKNTS. 



CIIAl'TKU IV. 

• KNTKAI, AMKKK AN CON KKKKItATION. 



Scc'cstiidii from Mi-xifti — Ar/ii's ('iiiniiai);!! I'rcvaric.iliini i>f S,ilv;iii( 

Kili sola's N'irtory Mi« Siilwi'inunt CcniiJif Lilirral Ti'iiiii:;)li in 
Costa Kicii- lloiiiluras Favors I'liioii National liiilt'peiiili-iict; Sc- 
«:iirc(l Laliors to (Ir^aiii/c a Nation — Tliu Constituent Asscnilily — 
I'roviii'ias I'niilas del Ct-ntro ik- Anu'-rira- Aliolitiou of African 
Sliivory — IVovisioiial (lovi'rnnicnt — Moilrrailos or Servilfs — l.ili"- 
riklim or Fii'lircs- Principles ami Aims of i'artii's — Mexican Forees 
Rotire — Seilitions Hej{in Salvailoran Furi'e in ( Inateniala- Confeil- 
eraeion <li!< 'entro Aint'riea- Funilanielital Lov Finances- Ailjourii- 
incnt of the Cuustitucat Asseinhlv 



\-\'.n 



r>ii 



CIIAITKIJ V. 

cossTiTrrio.NAi. (.o\ i knmk.m. 

I8'.':> is:«>. 

( ieiioral Klcctionf" — Met'ting of the First Congress ManiU'l .losi'' Arcc, 
First I'rt^siilent of tlie Uepulilie Foreiirn Itilations Aree's rre- 
varicatioiis — < 'onllict with (iuateniala - I'arty Hickerings — I^ilierals 
Quarrel with Arcc — He Joins their Opiionents Hitterncss Kngen- 
tiered I'ri'sident Versus (luatenialan Itulers Ai'i'est ot .lefo .luau 
Itarrundia Uiots at (,>ue/.altcnango— Murder of Viee-jefe < 'irdo 
Florcs- - Arcu as dictator in (iuateniala — War against Salvador — An e 
Pefeated He (lives Up the Presidency, and Cannot Iteeover It 
Woody War of iS'iO It Mora/an the N'ietor .lost' Francisco liar- 
rnnilia, Acting President l.ilicral Measures j'eacc iteston d 
Spanish Schemes T'.' 



("IIAITKU VI. 

I' I \ I 1, W A K . 

is'jit i,s:!.s. 

Ilevolntion in Homluras — Conservatives Invade the State — Second Oon- 
eral Flections — Francisco Moraziiu Chosen I'rcsidcnt — Plots of the 
Serviles — Aree's Invasion frtmi .Mexico ()ceu[iation of Honduras 
Ports hy Kxiled lidiels — Spanish l''lag Hoisted in (hnoa, and Aid 
from Ciilia— Salvailoran Authorities in Uehellion — Third (ieneral 
F'.lections — Mora/.an l!i'ek'cte(| — Failure of Colonization Plans Ka\ - 
ages of Cholera— Indian Revolt tinder Carrera — His Furly Lifi' 



KtS 



CHArTKU VII. 

lu.ssoi.rridv ok rnK kkithlk.'. 
1S;J7-1M0. 
Campaign against Camera — Several I>c|iartment8 of Cnateniala in Re- 
bellion — Jefe (lalvez Deposeil — Carrera Takes (tuatemala — .Munler 



roNTKNTS. 



N II 



ill 111 

ff s.- 

lildy - 

kfriraii 

-Lil.- 

Fiirccs 

'oiifcil- 

Ijinirii- 



!>(» 



('• Arcc, 
■•.s Vrr- 

jilltTuls 

Kiii;<'ii- 
fu tliiitn 
ririlii 

— AlTl' 

It 

() i!:ir- 
(ircil 



III 



(1 (iCIl- 

of the 
iiiliira.s 

.1 Ai.l 

It'ucral 

Uav- 

t'f 



T'.t 



108 



ill Kt'- 
Miifiler 



iif Sala/iir — I'am-ra Ai'ci'pt.-* Mtniry tn Ia'iivi? tlif City— I'ii.'t;iti>r.s|ii|i 
Otlrrt'il Miiia/aii liy tlir Ai'ist<H'i'al.s ami UrtiiMiil < 'arrrraK Siinnd 
Iti'lii'lliiiii TIk' lii'|iiiliii(' ill I'ri'il Miira/Hiii's KtloitH t<> Saxc 1 1 
Nii'araj^'iia aii'l lluiiiliiras FnrccH liivailr Salvailor Miira/;iii hi'tcits 
'riii'iii llJM Ui'trcat til Sail Salvailnr He Kmliark-' Is Ucliix'.i 
lliis|iitality ill Ciwta Kica- (!<(»•« to Soiitli Ainoiica — Tlu' K(-|iul>lii i-- 
IKmiI- Salvador .it tlir Mcri y <>i ( 'arrcni 

( IIAITKU VIll. 

• il'ATKM Al \ AMI IKiMirilA.S. 
I^-.M IMO. 

St^itc fJovcriiiiiciit of <iiiat<'iiiala— Harriimlia's Hailiuali.Hiii — His (Ivcr- 
tlii'ow- X'ici'-jfff I-'Iorrn AMsa.iHiiiati'il in i^iu'/altfiiaiino - howiifall of 
till' Lilx'ial.M in I iiiatt'iiiala Arintorratic Li'adiiw Kviliil .lifi- Mo 
liiiu- Him hitlcrclKi's, lin|i<.-ai-iiiii<'iit, and A(i|iiittal.«( -IliviTsl t'a- 
Ik'/;i's Ui'foriiis Kartiii|iiaki'.H- ( ialvc/.' Unit' ami its Ik'iii'lit.t- I'arty 
( Imposition to Him Indian OiitiinakH I'ari'erat'aptiiiVM l ■iiatiinaia 
— (lalvi/ lli'.-.ij,'ns Siili^i(|u«nt Itiilf of tlu' ArLHtocratw --< iiiati mala 
iigaiii liidi|iriidi'nt Honduras' Stati; < oivi-nmicnt- .I<fi' |iioTii>io 
HfrnTii — Karly |)is.Mcnsioiis - < 'oinayagua Assaiiltfd liy ItilxU 
MoiMzaii in till' Kiilcl llomliiras Scccilts from tin; ('ciitral Ann li. in 
< 'oiifuduratiou- Fi'dcraliiiii ikootcd out of lii:r Triitory 



ClIAI'TKli IX. 



A l:irA. 



SMAAIiul;, Ml \K\ol A, ANII I'Os 

IS-J4 lN4(t. 
Salvador State: ( Jovirmnriil — Lilirrals Ovrrtlirow ii— Sici ssioii Ironi tlu' 
riiioii San Salvador us the Fi'di'ral Scat of (ioveriimriit taiati'- 
iiiala Ih^iMisi's liir W'ill-.lufe ( 'anas am! ( 'omaiidanti' Mali'^iiiii - Nif- 
aragiia's Karly Troiililes — Sii,'j,'o and liomliardiuciit of !,ioii t)ry;in- 
i/atioii of State < oivcriiiiiciit'Hissciisioiis iiml Warfare - Kriiiitioii of 
< 'osigiiina— Sei'essioii from the Coiifidcr.itioii ( 'o-.t.i Itiea as a ('on- 
fedri'ated State .luaii Mora's Ailinilli.stration Towns' Uii'keriie^s 
Settled - JJraiilio Carrillo's Rule-- Final Secession fioiii tlii' < iiitiMl 
Anieiieaii Kepuhlie I'losiurity of the State 

CIIAl'TKU X. 

IllSSdl.l llnv OK IIIK IMUN. 

ls:!;)-is,v.'. 

Interstate Dissensions — I'acto de < 'hiiiaiidega — Confeilnraeion Centro 
Americana — Sujireiiio l>elegado ('liaimnro- Hostility of (iuiiteinala 
ami British Otiieials — Arce Invailes Salvador -War of tiio Coiifeder- 
aey against (Guatemala — Helplessness of Cliamorro — Kiel of the 
I'acto de C'liiiumdega— (.'onditiou of the State's— Ferrera's IJad Faith 



I'.T 



ii:> 



m 



iOXlKXTS. 



- Siilvmlor an«l HoinluniH a;,';iiiist Nicriragna Hormni of Iajoii 
Vice lp|■l•^^llU!llt •li>iU|uiii K. <iii/iiiuii iloiiduniM iiixl Saiviulor at War 
(iiiarilinla M Vaiiilalixiii Malt-Hpiii Ovrrtlimwii llciirwi-il KfTort-i 
to ( 'iirifcil)!r:itc (iiiattMiial.t an ln<li |iciiili'tit U<'|)iililii---< 'imta Hi<;a 
Follows Salvailor, Nicaragua, ami lloinliiraH a < 'oiifi:«liTai:y — It" 
Miort I.ifu— FiirtluT UiiMiu-cr.s.ifiil Attempts 180 

ClIAI'TKIl XI. 

lIKIM'lll.ir UK ((isTA KIIA. 
IS4I IS.-M). 

Hull' of Carrillii C<iiitiriu(!<l IMotH for itH OviTtlimw liivaHJoii of Mora- 
/aii ( 'liaiii;t; of (lovcriiiiiunt Mora/an'^ I'olicy 0|i|MH)tioii \lu- 
Volts Miirazan's Defoatuml Deatli Satisfac-tioii of tlii' Oli^'arcliH - 
Misi.suri's of tlio V'ict<»rH — New Coiistitiitioii - SuliSfi|ii('iit Aincml- 
liiciits Sedition Cantro'H A'lininiHtratioii < 'osta llica iK'clan.'d a 
|{op\ilili(' llfcofrnition l»y Spain Knlatioiis with Other I'owors — 
Hoiindary (jiii^HtionH with Nicaragua and ('olonil>ia- I'rvHidont Juan 
liafai'l Mora — Ilia Itc-proHHivu .Miiasures 21.") 

ClIAITKIl XII. 

RKTI III.IC OF MiAliAt^lA. 

I8:{8 18,-).-). 

State fiovernincnt- Director Biiitnijjo's ('oiiser\-atisin— Briti.sh Aggres- 
sion director Sandoval's llule Internal 'I'rouides-duerrero'.s Ad- 
ministration The MoHipiito Kingdom Its Origin and History — 
HuliMes Hritish I'rt^tensions Sei/nre of San .luan del Norte l)i[i- 
lomatii' t'omplieations- 'layton-lJnlwer Trinity Nicaragua Recovers 
lier Own Relations w: ,i Foreign Powers — An American War Ship 
JMinilianlH San Jnan del Nort<! Pineda's (iovernment Kstildisli- 
iiieiit of the R<:pul)lic Party Dissensions Legitimists versus Demo- 
crats — Chamorro and Castellon— (."ivil War -Death of Chauiorro — 
Fstracla Succeeds Him I'.'JS 



CMAITKIl Mil. 

I!i;i'l lil.lC OK <;i ATKMALA. 

1840 18()5. 

Pii'sident Rivcr.l Paz - C'arrera's Course — Pretonil(!cl Sedition- Dissolu- 
tion of the Assembly A ("oii.sejo Cousliluyeuti! Created Cirrora 
IJeconies President- Attempt against his Life — Revolt of Montt^r- 
rosa Carrcra's Despotism -Tlic Rejpulilii' Kstahlished Relations 
witii Otlii.'r Powers- Revolution of the Mountain -Constituent As- 
seinldy Convened — Camera's Forced llesignation and Kxile — Lilierals 
Triunipiiant- Their SipiabMes and Disintegration The Moderado 
Party — Revolution of Los Altos — Intrigues of the Serviles — Presi- 



fONTKNTs. 



pCOII 

t Wiir 

, Ui.Ni 
y— Itx 



\m 



Mora- 
t. Uo- 

ircliM - 
ViiicikI- 
litivd it 
(Wtirw — 
it Juaii 



21 r> 



• liiirits (if Martini;/, .iinl Kwcoliar * '.ui^fH nl tlnir llctiv;iiati(>iiH 
I'lircilfs lli'rall (>( Ciincrii PcfilM iif Vonni-alu'i'— ( 'lun'ni iiy.-iiii 
I'lL.Hitlfiit - I'aitiiil K.st.. ration ..I Vvavv '2i'A 

CirAI'TKIl XIV. 

•••■.•; ilI.K' OK sAI.VAIMtl;. 

iH:«t isn,'i. 

Malispiii's Aft.^— Linilo'.s ('(Ui> il'Ktat and |)c|ii>s.'ii .Icic <iu/in.'in 
Kcviilt at Santii Ana- i'ri'Hiilcnt Agnilar— Tin- Hi.iliop Kxinlleil 
N'itfri's .Mlianco with Malrsiiin iind linniluran ()li^.'arcli.s I'rrsidcnt 
\'asi'iine« Ills Itiiti.sli llllJltilitit^s- Salvadcir's Ui'litiiins witli Fi>rci>;n 
I'liwi-r.H- San Miirtin'H Administration -I Icstruftioii <'' lan .Sdva.lor 
I'rcsidi'nt ('ani]i<>- ('aniiiai^n a^jainst Walker in Nicar i. .1 i Rstiili- 
lisliniiiit 111 till' I{i|i\ililir .S.uitin'H OviTtlinnv I'lfniil'iiry of <!o- 
rai'dii liarriiis War of Salvador and Moiidnra.s ai^ainHt < inatcinalt 
and N'ii'arauua 'I'lir Litter Vii'torimi.s -Itarrins' "'' <lit — licstorati ii 
111 I'lMif iMii'iia.s as I'lcsidnit llarrins' .Sulisi'<|u<'nt !> tur.. Ilin 
Tai.' ire and Surri'iidtT liy Nicarajiua 111- Kxi'iiitioii iii -^an Salva- 
iiiH -S5 



AggroH- 
o's Ad- 
story 
Dip- 
covers 
ar Ship 
lalilisli- 
I >oin<»- 
iiiirro— 



•j:» 



I )issolu- 
|( 'arrora 
MontiT- 
rlatioiLS 
Imit As- 

iherals 
|i)diTaiUi 

-Preai- 



CHAITKi: XV. 

UKlMlll.ir OK IIDSDIUAS. 
IS^K) KS(>.">. 
I'rt-siileiit FiMTcra — Ilevohltionary Movements I'lilitieal Kxeentions 
I'resideiu'y of Juan liindo- Xew t'onstitiitimi Liiido Overthrown 
lU'li/e Iliiiidiiras' Trmihles \vith(ireat Britain liritish ( tei-np.itinii 
III Tiijer Ishind Homhardmeiit of Omna Bay Islands I'residenl 
<'al)anas- War with (luateniala — ( iiiardiola's Assassination I'm 
visional iSiiIes nl (.'.istillaniis and Montis Alli.inee \\\A\ IViirios 
L'lisuecessfiil War with < Guatemala and Nicaragua .Mniites I)e]iiisi'd 

— Kstiililitihineiit of the liepublie — Jose .M. Medina < 'Iiumu rrr^idcnt 
^Amendment of the t'oiistitution IMM) 

CirAlTKU XV!. 

w alm:i;"s i ami'aiiin rs' nh-vkai-i \. 

IS.M l,S.")t>. 

Kinney's Hxpcdition- W'illiaiii Walker .loius the l>eiiioerats — Failure of 
his Kxprditioii to Kivas -('iiolera Uieiniates the I,egitiiiiists at .Ma- 
nagua— I >i'ath of .Mufioz Walker. > Victories at Li X'lrgcu and <ira- 
iiada- Kxecution of .Minister Mayiir;,'a--\\'alkei-"s ( iiiiventinn with 
( oiral - rrovisional (iovernmeiit O.-.-ani/.-d I'resiilenI I'.ilricio 
Kivas — ( 'oinmauiler of the Forces, Waiktr— Minister of War (nrral 
I'lit to Ileath for Treiwon — lleeo'^nitioii hy .Salv.idor and Honduras 

— .Seizure of the Transit (.'ompauy's .Stcitmers^t'osta Iticans nii the 
N\'.ir-[iath — Havoc of Cholera ''.'17 



X C'UXTKXT.S. 

CHAPTER xvrr. 

KNIt OF KIMHrsrKKINi; IN I'KNTHAL AMKIIK'A. 

ISolJ-lSliT. 

I'Aiii-: 
Kccognitioii of Presitlciit Rivas by the United Stiites — Walker's Hostile 

Attitude — Kliiiiitof Rivas — Walker Makes liiiiiself I'resideut — AUi- 
aiKM' auuiiist Ilim -iK'atii of Kstrada — The Lei;itiiiiists Aeeept Rivas 
Costa Kicaus and Xicaragiiaus ill Rivas — l>estriieti(iii of (Iraiiada 
— It is ()ee\i[(ied hy Allied Forees — Walker Reoeuupies Rivas — Wlii'n- 
:Ie is Resici;ed — Siieeesses of the t'osta Rieaiis — Failure of l^oek- 
rid^e's Kxpeilition — Surrender of Walker — War of Xiearagua and 
Costa Riea — Coiuiuodorc Paulding and Walker's Second Attempt — 
Walker's Invasion of Honduras, Capture, ami Kxeeutiou — Govern- 
ment Keoriianized — I'resideut Martinez' Administratiuus •U'i 



CIlAPTKll xviir. 

roi.rncAi. i;\ kn is in cosia iticA. 
18.")(i-lSS(). 
Rewards to Walker's ( 'oii(|ucriirs Uceleetioii of Mora — His l>o\viifall ami 
I'AJlf His Ititiirii, Capture, and lv\eeution- Muntealeure's Admin- 
istratioii \'i(iKiieiM)f Parties — Compromise on .lesus .limeiie/ -His 
Peaeel'ul Rule — President Jose M. Castro — ( liai'gcs against Him — 
His Overthrow — Several Xew Constitutions -Jimenez a^ain I'resi- 
deut — His Ail)itrary Aets — }low He was Deposed — President Car- 
raii/.a (Ither Temporary Itulers— President (Juardia's Despotism — 
Failure of his Warlike Plans — His Death -Admiuistration of Prt'is- 
pero Fernandez — Preparations to Defend Independenee — His Sudden 
Death— Rernardo Soto's Peaeeful Jvule .'iTl 



CHAITKR XIX. 

DEMOCUATIC INSITririDNS IN SAi,VAI>OIi. 

1S().")-US85. 
Rule of President Ihiefias — His Conservatism — Quarrel with Honduras — 
The l^atter AUiid with Salvailoran Liherals -ISattle of Santa Ana • 
Duenas Deposed — His Impeaehment, Release, and Temporary F.xile 
- Santia'^a (ionzalez Provisional President -• lonzalez I'Ueeted Chief 
Magistrate — (Uiatemala and Salvador at War with Homluias 
Murder of Viee-presiilent Menclez—Kartluiuakes— President Valle — 
Ti'oulil" with (luatcmala — Fxeunt X'alU^ and < lonzalez-- Zaldivar's 
Long Rule— Constitutional Changes --AUianee witli Xiearagua and 
Costa Riea — Resistanee to liarrios' Plan of CoiKpiest — Salvador Vie- 
torious Restored Peaee — Zaldivar Kliminated — Revolution — F. 
Menendez Made President 'M'2 



( ON IKNTS. 



Hostile 
;-AlIi- 
t Ilivas 
iniiiadii 

i Li)ck- 
;iiii iiuil 
eiiipt - 
iovcrn- 



:U7 



ifallaii.l 

Ailiiiiu- 

lez — His 

. Hini- 

II Tix'si- 

iit C'ar- 

tisiii — 

f l'n')s- 

SiiiUlcii 



:?7I 



luras — 
\ua - 
y Kxilc 
ICiiii'f 
iliiras - 
Vallo - 
Miviii-'s 
,'iia ami 
liii- Vii'- 
idii — V. 



'M-2 



CIIAI'TKU XX. 

DKMOCUACY KKSTDKKIi IN (iUATKMALA. 
l,S(ir. |.S7:{. 



1'Ai;k 



I 



rnsidont Coma's Iliili — Partial KiVdlt.s— LilnTaLs in the A.sscnilily 
Ctiiia's Kiclirticm- Kiots in the Caiiital- Zavala's Ciiursf-Cni/ 
Ueliuilidii, lU'lVat, ami I Vatli— Arrests of Lilierals— Mdileration ol' 
till' (iDvuruinent — llcvohitioa of (!arc"a (iranailos ami l>;irrios 
rian ol I'at/ieia— ('orna Krfeatfil ami Overtiirown — (Iranailos as 
I'residcnti! I'rovisorio- -Seditions Movements (^hielled — Aliolition ol 
I'riestly Privileges — I'relatcs, .lesnits, and ('ai>ncliiiis Kx],»lli(l 
War with Homhiras — Bariios as Suhstitute I'resident -His Sever- 
ity — Kleetioiis — Barrios Chosen ( 'onstitut iunal President IKS 

CUAITKU XXI. 

KKNKWKD Kimurs H>l; IKMKAl. amkkhan imtv. 

ls7:i 1>,S.-). 

Pi. -idont Barrios of ( !ii:iteniala— l-'.ml of Uc.ietionary War — (Inateinalan 
Proj;ress - War witli .Salvador and llmiduras - Kirrios' Sueeesses 
and (lenerosity to thi' \'aiii|iiisheil ^( onstitntional Kt'Liiine in ( iuati'- 
niala Barrios" Iteileitioiis- His \'isit to tiie I'nited States-- Pe.iee- 

fnl ilti'ort to rtiito ( 'iiilral AniericM — Besort to Arms- AUiaiH f 

• Inateiiiala and Honduras — Ilirrios Attacks Salvador His hdcat 
and Heath- His Plan Ahandoned --M. L. Barillas, J'rovisioiial i'lesi- 
delit of Guatemala — Itestoralion of Peaee Hi I 

CTIArTKH XXIl. 

noNHI l;\S AKKAIliS. 
INC.") l.SSli. 

National Flat; and KscutehefHi- ( Inler of Saiita UosaMedina's Loiii,' 
Bidr His i)iirerenees with I hn nas, and Triuiiiiih Warwitli Salva- 
dor and ( luatemala- Medina 1 ii fratt'il and ( )\ iitiiiuwn ( eleo Arias 
Sueeeeils Him--His l.ilnral J'cilii'y IB is Besit hy the Conserva- 
tives—His Former Suiiporters Heiiu-e Him Pdiiciano Beiv.i Bicdines 
President -His Course Hispleasis iSarrios, Wlio Sets Medina against 
Him -Hi' is I'oreed to lti-ii.'li Mal'i'o Aurelio Soto Made i'l-i'sidi lit 
liy Barrios — Attemjited lirMilt of Kx-piesideiit Mi'diiia llis'l'iid 
and I'lxeeiition — Soto's Administration- He ( iocs Ahi'oad - His '^Miar- 
icl \Mtli Barrios, and licsiirnation Pri'siilcnt Boj:ran Filihustcring 
Schemes 4'>'A 

niAlTKlJ XXIII. 

rOI.irlCAl. AllAlltS IN MC.VUAIJITA. 

IM 17 -IKS'). 

I'rcsidont Fernnndo C.uzniau— Insurrection— ^^seonduot of Priests — 
Deteats of the Insurgents- Foreign Mediation- (ienerosity of the 



CONTKN'IS. 






( lovi'riiiiicnt — I'resiilent Vicentu Qumlni — Iiu-eption of tlic .Irsiiits 
Aims of I'artii's — IiittTiial aixl FoPfii;!! ('iiiriplicatiinis Costa liiua"s 
Hostility ami 'i'iiioi'o's Invasion I'ri'siilents (.'lianioiro and Zavala- 
^lori' I'olitical TronMi's .Irsiiils tin.' I'roniotcrs -'I'lieir Kxpulsiim— 
I'lacu Ucstorcil -I'lo^n'ss oi tlic Country l'r<siili>nt Ailiii Car- 
ilunas — Uesistancu to rrcsidunt IJarrios' Plan of l'"orc-('il Uci'oiistruc- 
tion 



471) 



CIIAPTKR XXIV. 

IMiKI'KNI'KM K oK rilK IslllMrs. 

isoi i.yj-J. 

Ailniinistralion uinliT Sjiain — Influence of Events in Kurojie and Spanish 
America on the Isthmus — Hostilities in Nucva (Jranaila — Constitu- 
tional Covernnient — Ceneral llor<''s Measures to Hold tlu' Istlinnis 
lor Spain — Mae( Jregor's Insur>;ent lv\iie(lition at I'ortohello lie 
< -taMishnient of the Constitution — Captain-general Murgeon's Itide 
— The Jsthnnis is l>eelared Inde[)endint Its Inoor])oration with 
Colondiia .lose F.ihre^^a in Tenniorary < 'onimand - .lose Maria Car- 
ri'fio Appointed Intendentc and < 'oniandante ( ieneral— Aholition tif 
African Slavery 



4.SS 



CHAITKIJ XXV. 

DIVEltS i'll.\SKS OK SKr.l'-lMIVKKNMKS T. 

isii) I so:?. 

I'an.'iniil Con;,'ross — Provincial Organizations — Al/nru's Kclnllion ;ind 
Kxecution Secession fi-oni C.iloMihia and Iteincorporation hill'cr- 
cncc's with Foreign Covernineiits -Crime l{ani[iant Summary 
Trcatnient of Criminals Itiots ,ind Massacre of Fori'ign Passen,i:crs 
- .\ttcmpts to Itoh Treasure Tr.iins Xeuti'ality Tre.itics Fstali 
li.-hnicnt of Federal .System Panama as a State — Revolutionary F.i l 
.Succession of (lovcrnors .Seilitious Character of the 



n.' 



■ins 



- A 

Po, 



unation- 



xi'volution against Covcrnor Cuii'dia .md h 



l>cath .\nothcr Political Orjjani/utioil — Rstado Solicrai 



P 



I, 



al Partv in Full Control— .Strinuciit Mea.sures ."ilO 



( lI.M'TKll XXVI. 



IM 111 IIKl! \\.\l:s AM. Ki;\01,ri'IONN. 



I'rcsi.lents ( ioitia, .Santa Coh 
Federal Ollicials Coluni 



181)3-1885. 
, and Calanclia— I'ndui Tut 



crtcrenci" ol 



•s Adniinistratiiui- President Olarte's Kn 
ergy Knmity of tin' Arraliil's Nc^i'oes -.Short and Uisturhcd liule- 
of |li,i/ and Ponce Prc-idi'uf ( 'orrcos'i Nc^ro Flcnicnt in tin 
Am 



'udcnl ( 'onscr\ativi 



d arc I)iscomhtcil — Ai'n 



P 



( (»M KMS. 



I cs II its — 
t;i Kicii's 
Zavala 
lulsiou — 
liii Ciir- 
coiistruc- 



470 



r 
l(ir :i Tiiui'- Fi'Vciisli Uiilcs nl Xt'iivi, Mini, Aizidiru, ( '(irri'o.sti, and 

Ciisoiiii C'crvt'i-ii's Long IViiuri; 'riinimrary ituk- ot X'ive.s Ijcoii - 

I'n'niili'iit SaiitiMloiniiim) \'ila -Olitiiiii.s Leave of AIimciici' I.s Siic- 

I'coik'il Ity I'alili) Ari>si'iiieiia--Ai/iiunrs li.'Volutioii Arosfiin'iia 

Klfi's ami KcsiL'iis — Outrages at Culuii Aiin'ricari Korct's I'rotrct 

I'aiianiii <'i)llaj>so ui tiu' Ucvohitioii Aizimni ami Corrcoso Im- 

prijioiifil — t'liicf I'aust's of I)isturliaiift's on tlic l.stliinii.i 



1 Spaiiisli 
t'onstitii- 
• iHtliiniis 

ii'llo It.' 

■on .s \'\u\v. 
tion witli 
I ana Cai- 
lolition ol 



4.SS 



("lIAITKiJ XXVII. 

< KMiiAi. .\Mi;i;i('\N issiin rioNS. 
ISSii. 

Kxtrnt of the ('onnti-\ -• 'liniate - Mountains anil Volcanoes— Ivirtli- 
(|nakes Ui\ris and Laki's- ( 'osla Uiea's Ana, Possessions, and 
I'olitiial l»ivi>ion and ( oiverninent Her Chief Cities -Nieaiaj,'iiii, 
her Territor.N, 'I'owns, and Munieiiial Administration Homlnias" 
K\tent, Islan<l>. Citie-i. and Loeal ( ioveriiniciit Salvador, her I'osi- 
tion. Area, Towns, and Civil Itnli' ( inatemala's Kxtent ami Posses- 
sions Her Cities and 'Towns— Inturnal Administration Isthmus of 
I'anama Area, I5ays, Ifivers, and I.slamls— I department and histriel 
|{nle 'I'iie Capital and Otiier 'I'owns l'oi)nlation Character and 
Custonis — Education -Kpidemics and Other Calamities ."itlO 



ion and 

Pill'er- 

•.lunmarv 

issenLiers 

Kstah- 

tiary Kra 

of the 

and his 

le I'ana- 



.".10 



■I'cnee ot 
lie's l''.n- 
id Itnles 
t ill thi' 
Peace 



cHAiTKii XXVI rr. 

riir. I'KCil'I.K ol' lOSIA UK A, NlrAlIAi.r A, AMI SAI.VAIMIIl. 
IS(M» ISST. 

<'entral American Population— Its divisions — (ieiieral (.'haracteristicsaiid 
Occuiiatioiis — Land (irants — Ktl'orts at Colonization-- Failure of Por- 
eij;ii .Schemes — Uejeetion of American Negroes — Character of the 
Coitta Kiean J'eople -Ihvcllings l)ress- Food Ainu.senients- Nica- 
raguan Men and Women 'I'lieir iKiinestie Life How They Amuse 
Themselves People of .Salvador — Their Character and Mode of 
J^iving ."iyy 

CHAITKll XXIX. 

TIIK I'KOl'l.i: OK lloSlnliAS AM> ( i I A IT.M AI.A. 

l.S(H)-1887. 
Amalganiatioii in Honduras — Possilile War of U.iees — Xieaipies and Payas 
/amhos or .Mosc|nitos Pure and 151acU Carilis— Idstinguishing 
Traits— Ladiuos Their Modc> of Life ( iiiati'inala and iier People — 
Ditl'erent Classes Their N'ocatioiis Improved Condition of the 
Lo«er Cl.isses Mestizos i'nie Indian i l^aealidoiies White and 
I'liper ( l.iss Manners anil ( nstoiiis Privuiling IHsea.sea — Epi- 



demics — Provision for the Indigeat, 



()08 



CONTKNTs 






CHAPTEll XXX. 

INTKLI.K" riAl, ADVAMKMKNI. 

l.S(MI I8S7. 

PACF. 

I'lililic Education — Karly KtlV)rts at Itcvtlopmuiit — Costa Rica's Measures 
— .Small Success— Kducatiiui in Xicara.L'ua — Schools ami ('ollcj;cs — 
Nioara^uan WiitiTs- Pio^'irss in Salvador ami llonduias ISrilliant 
Ki'sulls iri( Jiiatcinala rnlytotiniii: .Scliool — Stlmols of Science, Artfi, 
and 'I'rados^Instituto fortiiu Deaf, l)unil), and lilind L'uiversitj' — 
I'uMic \Vriters — Absence of I'nlilic Jjliraries — Cliui'di History in 
Central Auurica ami Panama- Creation of I Hoccses of Salvador ami 
Costa Kica — Immorality of I'rie.sts — Their Strujjglcs for Supremacy 
— Ktlorts to Break their Power -Banishments of Prelates - Kxindsion 
of Jesuits — Suiiprcssion of Monastic Orders — Separatii>n of Ciiurcli 
and State — Keliijioiis Freedom ()-l 



ClIAITKK XXXI. 



.ir l> I e I A I, 



AN 1 1 

1SS7. 



M I I, 1 r A i; V. 



.ludit'ial .System of ( luatemala — .lury Trials in the.Si'veral States —Courts 
nl liond\iras Alisi lice of Codes in the UeiiuMic IHl.itory .histicc — 
Imimnity of ( 'rime in llondiir.is .iml NiearaLtUii- ."^.dvadnr's .ln<liciary 
hilatory Procedure — Coilitication of Laws in Nicarauua — Costa 
Bican Administration — Imjiroved ( 'oilcs — J'anama ( 'ourts — ( oiod 
Coiles -Punishments for Ci'ime in tiie .*^i.\' States — .lulls uiid Peniten- 
tiaries — Military Service -AvailaMi' l-'orce of Kich .State -How 
Organized — Naval — l'"xiiemlitures — Military Schools - Improve- 
ments ti;>S 



CHAlTKll XXXII. 

ism sri;r\i. i'i;i»:i;i;ss. 

KSOl) ISST. 

Karly .\!,'ri<'ulture- ProtiH'tion of tlie Industry — Crcat Progress Attained 

Communal l/ind- Agricidtur.il AWaltii l>ecay of Cochineal - 

I>evelojimcnt of Olliir .Staples -Indigo, Coffee, .Sugar, Cacao, and 

Toli.icco - l''ood ,iiid Otlier Products — Precious Woods and Meilicinal 



P 



it.s -L 



stock A'all 



if Annual Proihution in Kacli .State 



Natural Products of Panama Neglect of Agriculture — Mineral 



Wealth-YicM of Pri 



IS Metals — Mil 



Honduras, .S;dvador, 



d Nicaragua Heposits of (iiiatemala and CosUi Ui 



.Mints 



Former Yield of Panama -Mining Neglected on tiie Isthmus In 
cipiency of Manufactures — Proihicts for domestic Use 



(;.i(i 



I 



(.ONllINTS. 



XV 



I'.MIF. 



Mciisiiri's 
L'olk'yos — 
^Brilliant 
:nec, Arts, 
ivorsity — 
listdiy ill 
vatlor ami 
iiiprciiiai'y 
Iv\pulsii)ii 
<if Clnircli 



(•>•_' I 



Bs— Courts 
,' .rustifi' — 
s .luiliuiary 
;iia — Cdsta 

ll'ts — ( 1(1(1(1 

il IViiitcn- 
tati' -H(i\v 

(;:is 



CHAPTKR XXXIII. 

I OMMKIiCK AN l> KISANCK. 



I SI 1 1 iss: 



Early State of Trade— Coiitimud St; 



III the ("(UHts Its Heiiftiuial Ktiects— Varief 



igiiatidii alter Iri(l(])eiiileiiee- St 



I'AIIK 



earn 



Kutiy and 'I'aritl's I'liports and Kxpurt.s- Fairs- A 



rief_\- ot' Stajjle-s I'oits of 



Coiiipaiiy Internal Navii,'at 
Postal Service - I', 



et't'ssorv I'lansit 



1(111- 



lli>.'l 



iways — M 



oiiev 



I'MIlk 



Railway Tiatlie- Local 'JVad. 



iii.U - 
Isth- 



rallic— Kocal Jraile of the 
iiius -I'earl Fishery -Cojoiiial Reveimo in Finances of tlie Federa- 
tion—Sources of Hcvoniio of Ka.li State -- Tlicir Ueceipts and 
Fxpeiiditlires— Foreign and Internal l»el.ts (;,;;{ 



CirAlTKIJ XXXIV. 

INI T.lioi 1. WIC I (iMMINIi A I Ion. 
I Si) I |,S,S7. 

Ancient I.Kvis on tiie Xortli-westM'assa-e- From Pern to La Pl.ita- - 

(ai'C Horn I tiscovercd - Aivlie Kej;ions MeClnre-s SnceesMnl 
Voyage (ro/iers 1 Hscovcry - Franklin's Attempts Findint,' l.y 
Xordenskiohl of the Xortli-east Passage -Projects to Tnite th.^At- 
lanticaud I'acilio Oceans across the Isthim.ses PI ins al.ont •)•( linaii- 
t.^pee-Kxph.rati.ms for a Ship-canal Itoute in Nicaragua, Panama, 
■id Ilaricn The Nicaragua Accessory Transit Conipanv -Const ruc- 



tion of the Panama Itaihcay, and its (Jreat P.eii, tits Further Ftlorts 
l-ra Canal Organi/.alion of a French Company A Ship-canal under 
< (mstrnclion across the Lsthmus of Panama I»i!Iiculties and Fxpec- 
tations -Central American K.droads and Telegraphs- -Snhmunnc 
t ahles 



<s AttaiiU'(l 
'ocliincal — 
Cacao, and 
I Medicinal 
ich State — 
— Mineral 
I, Salvador, 
X — Mints — 
thinus — In- 



(Ml I 



Pom 

] 
( 
J 
( 
J 

K 

r 

T 

ever 

ill ^ 

tioii 

t'ami 

resii) 

Ihc 

cia, i 

only 

belor 

• lispL 

iards 

'Se. 
Hi 



HISTORY 



o» 



CENTRAL AMEPvTCA. 



CHAPTER T. 



LAST DAYS OK SPANISH ItULK, 

1801-1818. 

PopuLAU Feelinc! IN Centual Amicuica- IOki-i:( t of Kvents in Spain — 

ReCOONITIDN of AmEIUCAN KylAI.ITV - i; Kl'KI SENTA 1 ION IN THE Sl'AMall 

C6rtes — Delitsivf. Ukfoums — I^nd hv >'\!:\via's Role— I'liEsiDK.NT 
Josi!: BnsTAMANTE--IIi.s Despotk; Coi'RSE -Di.MAND.s in tue C6rti:s - 
Constitution \L (Juauantees— Ofuciaf, Hostility — Campaicn in ()a- 

JACA— ReVOLUTIOiNAUY AIoVEMENIS in SaI.VAIjOK — \VaU IN NlCAUA(iUA 

— CoNSPiUACY IN Guatemala — 'J'ueataient of the Insurgents— Dis- 
respect TO the Dipotaoion — The Constitution Hevoked — Royal 
Decrees. 

The opening century was pregnant with important 
events both in Europe and America. By 1808 aft'airs 
ill Spain cuhninated in the French emperor's deten- 
tion of the king and other members of the royal 
family at Bayonne, where he forced them finally to 
resign in his favor their rights to the Spanish crown. 
The circle surrounding the captain-general, audien- 
cia, and archbishop of Guatemala was made up, not 
only of European Spaniards, but of (Guatemalans 
belonging to the so-called noble faniihes. Popular 
displeasure was manifested both against the Span- 
iards and against the provincial aristocracy.* The 

' See History of Mexico, this series. The maBSos of the people were kept 
Hut. Cent. Am., Vol. III. 1 



8 LAST DAYS OF SPANISH RULE. 

oligarchy was hated throughout the province of Gua- 
temala proper, and still more in the other provinces 
of the presidency. 

However, when the news of Napoleon's usurpation 
reached America, it caused a strong revulsion of 
feeling in Central America, as well as elsewhere in 
the Spanish dominions, even among the large class 
which had hitherto secretly fostered a warm desire 
for independent national existence. Creoles of pure 
Spanish descent, though yearning to be free from the 
old thraldom, could not bring themselves to discard 
the country which gave them blood, religion, and 
civilization. As to the educated Indians, who were 
also among the wishers for independence, like all of 
their race, they looked up to the ruling power with 
reverence and fear. Thus arose a struggle between 
the old veneration and the love of freedom; a strug- 
gle which was to last in Central America a few years 
longer, though the people were becoming more and 
more impatient, while leaning to the side of indepen- 
dent nationality. Circumstances seemed to demand 
that the ohl connection should not be ruptured till 
1821, when decisive results in New Spain brought on 
the final crisis here. When the news of Napoleon's 
acts of violence and usurpations reached Guatemala, 
popul ir loyalty was aroused, and showed itself in 
various ways. Manifestations Ijy the authorities, ex- 
pressive of fealty to the mother country and the royal 
family, met with an apparently heart}" response from 
the people. 

Advices camo on the 30t]i of June, 1808, of the 
occurrences at Aranjuez of March iOth.^ July passed 
amid mucli unxiety about affairs iti S[)ain, and the 
public mind became dej)ressed by unfavorable news 
received on the 13tl) of August. Next day, at a 



in utter ifjiiorancc, to be used, if iiecessarj', aa the blind tools of the ruling 
oligarchy. Montujar, /.'r-iriln /list., i. 0. 

T have toUI in my llititorii <•/ Mtxici, how Carlos IV. was forced to abdi- 
cate, and Ilia sou Feniuudo raised to the throne. 



SARA\aA AND FERXAXDO VII. 



of Gua- 
:ovinces 

irpation 
Ision of 
^here in 
ge class 
11 desire 

of pure 
froui the 
J discard 
ion, and 
i-'lio were 
ke all of 
Nver witli 
between 

a strug- 
iew years 
nore and 

indcpen- 
■) demand 
Itured till 
ought on 
[apoleon's 
[latemala, 

itself in 

Ities, ex- 
Ithc royal 

nse from 

Is, of the 

lly passed 

and the 

Iblc news 

lay, at a 

?>i the ruling 
reed to abdi- 



mecting of tlic authorities,^ the state of affairs was 
anxiously discussed. The mariscal <le campo, An- 
tonio (Jonzalez Mollinedo y Saravia, liad succeeded 
Dolmas on the 28tli of July, 1801, in the ofhces of 
governor, cajitain -general, and president of the au- 
diencia. H(^ had ^ecn forty years of service in the 
royal armies,* and had with him his wife, Micaela Co- 
lartc, and offspring/ 

President Saravia read to the meeting a despatch 
from the viceroy of Mexico, and a copy of the Gacctd 
jjfiviiiijr an account of the abdication of Fernando VII., 
and of (he surrender by other members of the royal 
family of their rights to the Spanish crown. After 
due onsideration, the meeting declared these acts to 
have resulted from violence, being therefore illegal 
and unjust, and not entitled to recognition. It was 
further resolved that the authorities and people should 
renew their allecfiance to the legitimate soverei<Mi, 
continue upholding the laws hitherto in force, and 
maintain unity of action, for the sake of religion, 
peace, and good order. Instructions were received" 
to raise the standard of Fernando VII., and swear 
allegiance to him, which were duly carried out/ 

The opportunity has now arrived for a radical 
change in the political status of Spanish America. 
The colonies have hitherto had no government, save 

'There were the governor, archbishop, oidorcs of tho real audicncia, 
Marqu(''3 do Ayi-incna, high officials of tho treasury, dean and chapter of tlio 
archdiocese, alcaUloa and regidores of the 'muy noblo uyaiitaniiento,' oflietia 
of tho univcisity, jnebites of the religious orders, piior and consuls of thu 
real consulado, intoiidento of Coniayagua, temporarily sojourning in the city, 
secretary of tho iuidi';ncia, commandaut of tho artillery, and colonela of tho 
militia regiments. ])iario Mix.,ix.^\Q~\^; Guat. /'or I'trn. ('//., 2-6, 83-94; 
SaraiHa, Jlanif. 

*Hia last position in Europe had been that of teniente de roy of Palma, in 
the island of Majorca. Jitarros, Guat., I. 273. 

''Gnat, por Fern. VII., 50. In 1866 their descendants were living in 
Guatemala. 

•Dec. 13, 1808. 

'The acts were performed with great solemnity and magnificence, the peo- 
ple manifesting much joy. This evidence of loyalty was warmly acknowl- 
edged. May 27, 1809, by the Junta Suprema Guberuativa of Sp.iin, sitting at 
Seville and acting for tho imprisoned kuig. Most glowing descriptions of tho 
ceremonies appear in Vinrio Mix., xi. 279-80; OuOt. por Fern. VII., 7-82, 
94-101, 158-9. 



4 LAST DAYS OF SPANISH RULE. 

that of rulers set over them by a monarch whose will 
was absolute, whoso edicts constituted their code of 
laws; the subject being allowed no voice in public 
affairs, save occasionally as a timid petitioner. But 
troubles beset Spain at this time. Her king is pow- 
erless; the friends of constitutional government have 
now the control, and proceed to establish the desired 
liberal rdgime. In order to be consistent, and to some 
extent satisfy the aspirations of their fellow-subjects 
in America, the provisional government decrees, and 
the c6rtes upon asser.bling confirm, all the rights 
claimed for Spaniards dwelling in Spain, together 
with representation in the c6rtes and other national 
councils. 

The Junta Suprema Central Gubernativa in the 
king's name declares on the 22d of January, 1809, the 
Spanish possessions in America to be, in fact, integral 
parts of the monarchy,^ and, approving the report of 
the council of the Indies of N'ovember 21, 1808, in 
favor of granting to the American dominions repre- 
sentation near the sovereign, and the privilege of 
forming by deputies a part of the aforesaid junta, 
issues to the president of Guatemala an order to invite 
the people of the provinces to choose their deputy to 
reside at court as a member of the governing junta." 



,14 



" 'No son propiamcnte colonias, 6 factorlas, como los de otraa naciones, 
Bino una parte oscncial 6 intcgrante de la Monarqufa Espaflola.' Otuit. por 
Fern. VII., 1C3-C; DiMin sind Lozauo, Leg. Mex., i. 32C-7. 

•Ayuntamicntosof head towns were to choose three honorable and compe- 
tent men, from among whom each ayuntamicnto had to draw by lot one elec- 
tor, whose name, country, age, profession, and political and moral qualifications 
must be at once made known to the president of the audiencia. After the 
names of all the nominees were in his possession, he, jointly with the electors, 
iiad to select by secret ballot three candidates of the highest recognized char- 
acter and ability, out of which three the audiencia, presided over by the 
governor-general, was to choose the deputy, to whom all the ayuntamieutos 
must forthwith send their powers and instructions. The deputy, duly pro 
vided with means to journey decorously, was required to embark for Spain, 
his yearly pay being fixed at §0,000. Alavian, llist. M(j., i. 291-2. A later 
order of Oct. G, 1 809, lequired the deputy to be a native of Spanish America 
and a resident of the province choosing him; ho was not to be the holder of 
an/ of the chief offices therein, such as governor, intendente, oidor, etc., nor 
a debtor to the royal treasury. The right of election was also given to minor 
a^untamientos; and for the choice by plurality from among the candidates of 
cities a board was constituted, with two members of the audiencia, two 



DIPUTACION AMERICANA, 5 

On the 3d of March, 1810, the electors asscniblcd in 
Guatemala and chose for deputy the colonel of militia, 
Manuel Josd Pavon y Muiioz.'" The powers given 
him by his constituents were general, but enjoined 
allegiance to the king and permanent connection with 
the mother country." 

The supremo government, early in 1810, in its anx- 
iety to be surrounded by the re[)resentatives of the 
people, hastened the convocation of cortes extraor- 
dinary. Fearing, however, that there might not be 
a sufficient number chosen for their timely attendance 
at the opening of the session, it apprised the provin- 
cial authorities, reiterating the decree a little later,'-* 
that deficiencies would be temporarily supplied until 
regularly elected deputies presented tliemselves to 
occupy their seats in the chamber. Guatemala, in 
common with the rest of America, was unable to send 
her deputies in time, and had to be represented at 
the inauguration ^y suplentes, or proxies. These *^ 
were Andrds del l^lano, a post-captain, and Colonel 
Manuel del Llano. One of the first acts of the c6r- 
tes" was to confirm the principle that all the Spanish 
dominions possessed the same rights, promising to 
enact at an early day laws conducive to the welfare 
of the American portion, and to fix the number and 
form of national representation in both continents. 

At the suggestion of the diputacion americana, as 
the body of American members was called, a general 
amnesty for political offences was decreed, with the 



canons, and two citizens named by the ayuntamiento. Ouat, por Fern. VII. , 
165-6. 

'"His competitors were Josd de Aycinena and Lieut-col Antonio Jiiarros. 

^' He waa not to give assent to the transfer of the ^Spanish dominions to 
any foreign power; tlio nation's rights must bo upheld at all hazards; and 
the last drop of blood shed for tho catholic religion, and for king and countrj'. 

"Feb. 14 and June 26, 1810. Diario M6x., xiii. 540-r)l. 

" The American suplentes were lawyers or ecclesiastics seeking preferment 
at court, or military olficers with a long residence there. Alamait, Hist. Mij., 
iii., ap. 4; Bualamante, D^ensa, 16; Dispoa. Variaa, ii. fol. 10; Zamacoin, 
Hist. Mij., viii. 450-1. The second named proxy in Nov. 1811 gave up his 
seat to the regularly chosen deputy. C6rtes, Diario, 1811, 93. 

"October 15, 1810. Alaman, Hist. Mij., iii. 10; Zamacois, Hid. Mij., 
viii. 458-9. 



r 



i LAST DAYS OP SPANISH RULE. 

expectation of its yielding the best results in tuvor of 
peace and conciliation. Froruises of reform, and of 
better days for Central America, were held out, but 
the provincial government paid little attention to 
them. Meanwhile a jealous and restless i»olice con- 
stantly watched the movements of suspected persons. 
Informers and spies lurked everywhere, seeking for 
some one against whom to bring charges. 

The promised blessings proved delusive. Instead 
of reforms, the people witnessed the installation of a 
tribunal de fidelidad, with large powers, for the trial 
and punishment of suspected persons.'^ This court 
was short lived, however, being suppressed about the 
middle of the following year, under the order of the 
supreme government, dated February 20, 1811. And 
thus Guatemala was kept quiet and apparently loyal, 
when the greater part of Spanish America was in 
open revolt. 

Saravia's rule came to an end on the 14th of March, 
1811. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant- 
general, and appointed by the government at Cddiz 
to the command in chief of the forces in Mexico. On 
his arrival in Oajaca, the viceroy, who was chagrined 
at his powers having been thus curtailed, detained 
him at that place. In November 1812, the city be- 
ing captured by the independents, Saravia was taken 
prisoner and shot.'' 

The succesfor of Saravia wrs Lieutenant-general 
Josd Bustarac ite y Guerra, appointed by the supreme 
council of re , >ncy, and soon after confirmed by the 
c6rtes genert s extraordinarias. He was a naval 

IS Installed June , 1810. Its first mcmbera were the Spaniards Jos6 
Mendez, an artillery icer, Gidor Joaquin Bernardo Campuzano, and Auditor 
de Guerra Joa(^uin If ilez. Mariire, Bosq. Hist. Cent. A m. , 5. 

"Saravia died li' a soldier, nnd hia fate was deplored even by the ene- 
mies of hia cause. Hist. Mex., iv. 48U, this series. Tiio Mexican writer Uus- 
tamante, who was not prone to praise Spanish officers, said of Saravia, ' hoin- 
bre do bien, humano, religioso, de xm corazon recto, digno de mejor fortuna.' 
Cuadro Hist., ii. 217; Alaman, Hist. Miij., iii. 325. He was accused, how- 
ever, though it is believed the charge was slanderous, of hp.ving conni\ ed at 
emuggling by the treasury officials. The charge appears in Cancelada, Tel. 
Mex., 107-9. 



ibli 



BUSTAMANTE Y GUERRA. 7 

officer, and liad made f^cvcral important cruises in tlio 
<au.sc of scienct;,'' and latterly had been civil and mili- 
tary governor of Montevideo, a position that he filled 
efficiently. His zeal against the indepiMidenls in that 
country pointed him out as the one best fitted to re- 
tard the independence of Central America. On his 
return to Spain from South America he refused to 
recognize Joseph Bonaparte, 

Bustamante is represented to have been an inflex- 
ible, vigilant, and reticent ruler. He lost no time in 
adopting stringent measures to check insurrections, 
and displayed much tact in choosing his agents and 
spies. >«lo intelligent native of tiio country was free 
from mistrust, slight suspicion too often bringing upon 
the subject search of domicile, imprisonment, or exile. 
He never hesitated to set aside any hniient measures 
emanating from the home government in favor of the 
suspected, and spared no means that would enable 
him, at the expiration of his term, to surrender the 
country entire and at peace to his superiors. He was 
successful, notwithstanding there were several at- 
tempts £.t secession. 

Meanwhile the American representatives had been 
permitted to lift their voice in the national councils. 
They had called attention to the grievances of their 
people. In a long memorial of August 1, 1811, to 
the c6rtes, they had refuted the oft-repeated charge 
that the friends of independence in America were or 
had been under Napoleonic influence. They st;t forth 
the causes of discontent, ^^ which they declared was of 
long standing, and called for a remedy. Reference 
was made to Mucanar's memorial to Felipe V.,'' where- 
in he stated that the Americans were displeased, not 

" One WU8 a cruise round the world under Mitlaspina, licing tlio next iu 
rank and commanding the corvette Atrtvida. Juarros, Guat., ii., a<lv. ix. ; 
Marure, Bonq. Hist. vent. Am., i. G; Zamacois, Hist. Mej., vi. 134; viii. fl(i9; 
Los AnnUit, Sept. 1872, 30; Salv., JiiuHoUjic., 1874, ap. 1. 

'* These were restrictions enforced by tlio crown against agriculture, min- 
ing, fisheries, manufactures, and commerce, despotism of rulers, and disre- 
gard of the merits of Americans, in keeping them out of public offices. See 
Jlist. J/cx., iv. 441-07, thisBeries. 

'*Lu the first half of the 18th century. 



r 



B 



6 LAST DAYS OF SPANISH IIULE. 

SO much because they were under subjection to Spain, 
as because they were debased and enslaved by the 
men sent out by the crown to fill the judicial and 
other offices.'" 

The organic code was finally adopted on the 18th 
of March, 1812.'^ The instrument consisted of ten 
titles, divided into chapters, in their turn subdivided 
into sections, and might be considered in two parts: 
1st, general form of government for the whole nation, 
namely, a constitutional monarchy; 2d, special plan 
for the administration of the Indies.'^" 

In lieu of the old ayuntamientos, which were made 
up of hereditary regidores, whose offices might be 
transferred or sold, others were created, their mem- 
bers to be chosen by electors who had been in their 
turn chosen by popular vote. The ayuntamientos 
were to control the internal j/il'Vc of their towns, 
their funds, public instruction within their respective 
localities, benevolent establishments, and local im- 
provements. They were to be under the inspection 
of a diputacion provincial, formed of seven members, 
elected by the above-mentioned electors, in each prov- 
ince, under the presidency of the chief civil officer ap- 

**'In the matter of appointments to oflBce, an early royal order piescribed 
that American descendants of Spaninrds should nave the preference for the 
position of curate; and yet, during the last thirty years, the most lucrative 
curacies were given to Eurnpeau Sp;auards. Of the 170 viceroys (hat ruled 
in America, four only were of American bii'tli, and clioso were reared or edu- 
cated in Spain. Out of 602 captain-generals, governors, and pi'csidents, only 
14 were Americans. Of 982 bishops and arclibishops, 70.3 wero Europeans, 
and 279 Creoles. Most of the latter were uomiuatcd in curly times, when 
Europeans were few, navigation diliicult, and mitres alTorded more work than 
money. Giterra, Rev, N. Ei<})., i. 278-85. 

"We are assured that Antonio Larrazilbal, a clergyman, Antonio Juan-c.-], 
and Jos(5 M. Peinado wero the chief authors of the instructions for Central 
American deputies in Sjiain. The Central American deputies whose namet, 
were appended to the constitution were: Larrazdbal for Guatemala; .Jos6 
Ignacio Avila for Salvador; Josi^ Francisco Morejoii for Honduras; Jos6 Anto- 
nio Lopez de la Plata for Nicaragua; and Florcucio Castillo for Costa Rica, 
Gdrten, Col. Dec, ii. 15S-62; iii. 201-2; C&rlcn, J)iario, 181,3, xvii. 210; Pa/i. 
Var., ecr. uo. 1, 109-17; Count. Polit. Monarq., l-lo-l, Larrazdbal ably de- 
fended in the c6rtes the rights of the Americans, specially of the aborigines, 
and above all, tlie national sovoreiguty. l'"()r this, after Fernando Vlf. re- 
turned to Sjtain in 1814, he was denounced by the absolutists, t'onde de 
Torre Muzquiz and Marqu(5s de Mata Florida, and confined in a fort in Spain, 
linedado Mont,, in Guat. lit cop. Leyis, iii, 348. 

"M^., Col. Ley. Fund, 34-91. 



NEW ORGANIC CODE. 



pointed by the king; tlic (.-hief and the diputacion 
were jointly to have the direction of the economical 
affairs of the province. No act of either corporation 
was final till approved by the national cortes. In 
America and Asia, however, owing to great distances, 
moneys lawfully appropriated might he used with thu 
assent of the chief civil authority; but a timely re- 
port was to be made to the supreme government for 
the consideration of the c6rtes. Such wore the chief 
wheels in the machinery of provincial and municipal 
administration. Now, as to popular rights, equality 
of representation in the provinces of the Spanisji 
peninsula, Asia, and America was fully recognized. 
The descendants of Africans were alone deprived of 
the rights of citizenship. This exclusion was combated 
with forcible arguments by many of the American 
deputies setting forth the fliithful, efficient services 
colored men had repeatedly rendered and were still 
rendering to the itation, and their fitness for almost 
every position. Many of them, they said, liad re- 
ceived sacred orders, or had been engaged in other 
honorable callings, in which they had made good rec- 
ords; besides which, they comprised a considerable 
portion of the useful mining and agricultural popula- 
tion. Unfortunately for the negro race, the American 
deputies were not all of one mind. Larrazdbal, from 
Guatemala, probably acting both on his own judgment 
and on the opinion cxpre.'^sed in 1810 by the real con- 
sulado, a.iserted the black man's incapacity, advocat- 
ing that persons of African blood should be conceded 
only the ])rivilege of voting at elections. This motion 
was supported by a Peruvian deputy. The peninsular 
members favoied the admission to lull I'ights of colored 
priests, and all colored men serving in the royalist 
armies. The measure was lost, however; but tln^ 
article as passed authorized the admission to full 
])olitical rights, b} special acts of the c6rtes, of colored 
men proving themselves worthy by a remai'kably vir- 
tuous life, good service to the country, talents, or in- 



' ;' in 

an I 

I 
I 



10 



LAST DAYS OF SPANISH RULE. 



dustriousness, provided they were born in wedlock, 
of fathers who had been born free, married to free- 
born wives, and were residents of Spanish possessions, 
practising some useful profession and owning property. 

Pursuant to the constitution, the c6rtes ordered, 
Ma}'^ 23, 1812, elections for members to the ordinary 
c6rtesof 1813.'* 

The constitution was received at Guatemala on 
the 10th of September, 1812, [)roclaimed on the 24th,, 
and its support solemnly swoi'n to by the authorities 
and people on the 3tl of November, witli great satis- 
faction and evidences of loyalty. Gold and silver 
medals were struck off to commemorate the event.'** 

The installation of the c6rtes took place, with the 
apparent a[)proval of Guatemala. The president, 
members of the audiencia, and other dignitaries who 
had thriven under absolutism, lot^king on Americans 
as 'our colonists,' became at once liberals and con- 
stitutionalists, pretending to recognize the wisdom of 
the national congress in declaring that the Americans 
were no longer colonists, but citizens of one conanon 
country. Their manifestation of September 15, 1812, 
was followed three days after b}^ one from the ayun- 
tamiento of Guatemala to Deputy Larrazdbal, in the 
same strain, suggesting the creation of a board ad- 



iud( 



mo- 



mala 
and 
all I 
Anie] 



"The junta preparatoria, Nov. 12, 1812, designated only I'J deputies to the 
Spanish eortes from Central Ameiiou (Chiiipas iiiuluiled), based on the inae- 
curate census of 1778, which gave t.">c wiiolo country — with lOl.ijOO for Chia- 
pas — 949,01.") iuhal)itants in 881 towi a. It was fixed that the 12 provinces of 
Guatemala, Chimaltenango, Quezaiteuango, Ciudad Ileal de Chiapas, Vera 
Paz, San Salvador, San 5ligucl, Chiquiniula, Sonsonate, Leon, Costa Rica, 
and Comayagua should each choose one deputy; and Guatemala, Ciudad Real, 
Leon, and Comayagua the four suplentes. Only two diputacioiics provin- 
ciales were at lirst established, one in Guatemala and cmc in Leon. Coi-tcx, 
Act, ord., i. 1813, Oct. 12,02; Mcndvz, Mem. in Pap. Var., ccxv. no. 17, 10- 
17; Conder'n Mex. and O'uat., ii. .110; Modern. Traveller's A!cx. ami Ciiat., ii. 
309-10. Later, under the constitutional regime, Chiapas was represented in 
the Spanish cortes, and had a diputaciou provincial. Lai-ralnzar, JJitcurtio, 
12. In 1812 a census was formetl to ascertain how many deputies Chiapas 
should have in tlie eurtcs. Pineda, in Soc. Met-. Oeog. lioktin, iii. 400. 

^* Que/altenango had already, Ijy its ayuntamiento of Aug. 12, 1812, e.v- 
jiressed approval of the provisions of the instrument, promising loyal obedience 
to it. In Honduras Gov. .Juan Antonio Tornos granted leave for tlie erection 
of a monument in the plaza of Comayagua, which was carried out, Cvrics 
Diario, ii., March 17, 18, 1822. 



Sj . 



EXPEDITION TO OAJACA. 



11 



visory to the cdrtes, on the reino de Guatemala legis- 
lation. 



After the fall of Oajaca during the Mexican war of 
independence, the patriot chief Morelos regarded the 
rear of his military operations as secure. Sympathiz- 
ing messages had reached him from men of weight in 
Guatemala, which lulled him into the belief that at- 
tack need not be apprehended from this quarter. To 
Ignacio Rayon he wrote: "Good news from Guate- 
mala; they have asked for the plan of government, 
and I'll send them the requisite information." It was 
all a mistake. His cause had friends in Central 
America, and enemies likewise. Among the most 
prominent of the latter were Captain-general Busta- 
mante and Archbicjhop Casaus. The ecclesiastic, witli 
a number of Spanish merchants from Oajaca who hud 
sought refuge in Guatemaki, prompted the general, 
then anxious to avenge the execution of his pre- 
decessor, to fit out an expedition, invade Oajaca, and 
harass the insurgents even at the gates of the city. 

About 700 men, mostly raw recruits, were accord- 
ingly put in the field, early in 1813, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant-colonel Dambrini, a man of 
little ability and unsavory record, and crossed the 
line into Tehuantepec. Dambrini could not aban- 
don his money- making propensities; and having been 
led to believe he would encounter but little or no 
resistance, took along a large quantity of merchandifie 
for trading. On the 25th of February a small in- 
surgent force was captured in Niltepec, and Dambrini 
had its commander, together with a Dominican priest 
and twenty-eight others, shot the next day. This was 
the usual treatment of prisoners by both belligerents. 
But on April 20th the Guatemalans were flanked and 
routed at Tonalil by the enemy under Matamoros. 
Dambrini fied, and his men dis[)ersed, leaving in the 
victors' possession their arms, amnmnition, and Dam- 



12 



LAST DAYS OP SPANISH RULE. 



brini's trading goods. The fugitives were pursued 
some distance into Guatemalan territory.'^° 

Germs of independence, as I have said, were fos- 
tered in secret by the more intelligent, and slowly 
began to develop, the movement being hastened by a 
few enthusiasts who were blind t<j the foolhardiness 
of their attempt. The government tiied all means to 
keep the people in ignorance of the state of affairs in 
Mexico and South America, and when unsuccessful, 
would represent the royalist army as victorious. Other 
more questionable devices were also resorted to.*** 

Undue restraint and ill treatment, as practised un- 
der the stringent policy of Bustamante, soon began 
to produce effects. Restiveness and despair seized a 
portion of the people; the hopes for a government 
more consonant with the spirit of the age, which had 
been held -out from Spain, evaporated. Men were 
unwilling to live longer under the heel of despotism; 
and the more high-spirited in Salvador and Nicaragua 
resolved to stake their fortunes upon a bold stroke 
for freedom. It was, indeed, a rash step, undertaken 
without concert, and almost without resources. It 
could but end as it did at every place where a revo- 
lutionary movement was initiated. 

Matfas Delgado and Nicoliis Aguilar, curates of 
San Salvador, Manuel and Vicente Aguilar, Juan 

'*Some authors give the ] 0th as the date of this defeat. Alaman, Hint. 
Mij., iii. 343-4; Bustamante, Cund. Hist., ii. 2G9-73; Zamacoii, Hist. M('j., 
ix. 9-10, 110-11. The last-named authority asserts that Danibrini again 
invaded and took the towni of Tohuantepcc, February 1814. During tlie 
revolutionary wars of Mexico, Chiapas, owing to lier isolated position, was 
not a seat of war; and even when Morclos' troops fron\ Oajaca visited Tonal.1, 
as above stated, there was no resistance. This country enjoyed peace during 
the struggle in New Spain. Larrainzar, Chiapan, in Soc. Mcx. Oeog. Bolctin, 
iii. 100. 

'8 Letters were constantly sent to the Spanish government, and to private 
persons, which were published in the newspapers friendly to the Spanish 
cause, representing the independents as banditti and murderers, and the 
Spaniards as exemplars of moderation. It was the emissarica of Hoiiaparte 
who had induced tuo Americans to rebel, they said. Trumped-up miracles 
and punishments from heaven, anathenuis, and every means suggested by foul 
fanaticism were used to make the friends of freedom odious. Arcliiii.sbop 
Casaus granted 80 days' indulgences to (tiiatemalaus not participating in the 
revolutiouaiy movements of Mexico. Puerto, Couvite, ptiii., '2-3. 



AYCINENA IN SALVADOR. 



IS 



Manuel Rodriguez, and Manuel Jose Aroe were the 
first to strike the blow for Central American indepen- 
dence. Their plan was carried into execution on Iht; 
5th of November, 1811, by the capture of 3,000 new- 
muskets, and upwards of §200,000 from the royal 
treasury at San Salvador. They were suj^ported by 
a large portion of the people of the city, and in 
Metapan, Zacatecoluca, Usulutan, and Chalatenango. 
But other ))laces in the province of Salvador, namely, 
San jMiguel, Santa Ana, San Vicente, and Sonsonatc, 
renewed their pledges of fealty to the government, 
declarinjjr the movement for freedom a sacrile<»e.''' 

The promoters of the revolt, which had been started 
in the king's name, became disheartened and gave up 
further effort, and with the dismissal of the intendente, 
Antonio Gutierrez Ulloa, and other officials, peace w as 
soon restored. San Salvador had been quiet without 
other goverimient than that of alcaldes during the 
disturbance. 

Upon the receipt of the news of these occurrences, 
Bustamante despatched Colonel Jose de Avcinena 



with ample powers to take charge of the intendencia, 
and I'cstore quiet. lie had been getting troops ready 
to send down, but by the mediation of the ayunta- 
miento of Guatemala he had suspended preparations, 
and had adopted the former course. A member of 
that body, Jose Maria Peinado, was associated with 
Ayv'uena.^^ They reached San Salvador on the od 
of December, amid the acclamations of the fickle pop- 

'^' The invitations sent the people of San Miguel to cooperate were burned 
in the plaza by the hands of the public excciitioucr. Nur were these towns 
left without the usual cheap reward of niouarchs. Sun Miguel received the 
title of 'nuiy noble y leal ;' Sau \'ieeiil<' was made a city, which title was con- 
lirnicd .Jan. Kl, ISL". According to .luarros, Gnat. (Loud, ed., \S'2[\), 'i.")?, 
many noble families dwelt in the iihux', and among its founders were sonic 
<lesccndnnts of Oonzaloand Jorge Alvarado, brothers of Pedro, tlie conqueror. 
Santa Ana was raised to the rank of villa. The parish priests of the several 
places were promoted to be canons of the chapter of tJuatcmala. COrte/i, 
Diario, ISl'J, xiv. .38, 1G7; Manirc, Jiomj. Illsl. Cent. ^l///.,i. y. 

■-* The archbidhop sent priests to preach a^iainst the insurgents. Muriire, 
Boaq. Il'isl. I'liit. Am., i. !). liuslumante, (iiadi-o /JiM., i\. 270, says that 
the w iiole country would have Ijceu dii.cu into nbellion liut lor tiie advice of 
the iible secretary of government, Alejandro iiamirci:. 



14 



LAST DAYS OF SPANISH RULE. 






ulace; their j)resence ana the exhortations of the 
missionaries rliecke'l all revolutionary symptoms. 
The authors of the revolt were leniently treated 
under a general annieisty,"" Pcinado was a short time 
after appointed Aycinena's successor as acting inten- 
dente.^ 

Another and a still luore serious attempt at revo- 
lution, which may be called a sequel to that of Salva- 
dor, had its beginning in the town of Leon, Nicaragyia, 
on the 13th of December, 1811, when the people 
deposed the intendente, Jose Salvador. This action 
was S' conded on the 22d at Granada, where the 
inhabitants, at a meeting in the municipal hall, de- 
manded the retirement of all tlie Spanish officials. 
The insurgents, on the 8th of January, j-3\2, by a 
coup-de-main captured Fort San Cilrlos. The officials 
ficd to ^lasaya. Villa de Nicaragua. — the city of 
Rivas in later times — and other towns at once adopted 
the same course. 

Early in 1812, after the iirst excitement had be- 
come somewhat allayed, a board of government was 
organized in Leon, the members of whicli were Fran- 
cisco Quiilones, Domingo Galar/a, Cdrmeu Salazar, 
and Basilio Carrillo. Bisho[) Fray Nicolas Garcia 
Jerez was recognized as gobernador intendente by 
all the towns, and his authority was only limited in 
one j)oint, namely, he was in no way to favor the de- 
posed officials. The people of Granada resolved to 
sencl two deputies to the board.'^^ 

^* Aycincna was, on the 7th of Feb., 1812, made by the Spanish cartes a 
councillor of state, and in Aug. 181.^, entered upon his duties at Cddiz. Cdrtrs, 
Diario, 181-, xvi. 10; 181.3, xxii. 21C. According to Zatnacois, the appoint- 
ment waa made only after the adoption of the constitution; it is possible that 
the appomtmeut W!V3 then renewed or confirmed, ///•-■i. Mrj,, viii. 557; Ayon, 
ApuntM, li'i-JO; RexK Cent. Am., "2-3; Halv., Diario Ofic, Feb. 11, 1875; 
Valoi.% Mex., '213-16. 

'"In 1813 he was elected a deputy to the Spanish cdrtcs, but declined the 
position on account of ill health. Cdrkx, Diario, 1813, xxii. 216. 

" A person writing from Guatemala, and referring to a document issued 
Aujruat 1811, in secret session held iu London by 33 Spanish Americans, 
after registering hi.j disapproval of its purpose, positively asserted that the 
masses were well di.sposeil, fond of peace, and respectful to authority, if somo 
agent of Satan did not turn their heads and make thcui believe thoy were 
superior beings, who needed no ruler over them. Caneelada, Td, Mex., 438. 



It 



REVOLUTION IN NICARAGUA. 



IS 



The royal officials at Masaya having called for 
assistance from Guatoiiuila, Bustaniaiitc liad 1 ,000 
or more troops placed there under coimiiand of Sar- 
gciito Mayor Pedro Gutierrez. The [)Cople of T^eo:i 
had ere this accc})ted an amnesty from Bishop Jere/, 
and thereafter took no part in movements against tlic 
crown. Granada, more firm of purpose, resolved upon 
defence; caused intrencliments to be built to guard 
all avenues leading to the plaza, and mounted thereon 
twelve heavy cannon. A royalist force, under Josu 
M. Palomar, on the 21st of April apprcjaclied Granada 
to reconnoitre, and reached the plazuela de Jidteva.^' 
Early in the morning he opened a brisk fire on the 
town, and kept it up for several hours. After a par- 
ley, next day the citizens agreed to surrender, on Gu- 
tierrez solemnly pledging the names of the king and 
Bustamante, as well as his own, that they should in 
no wise be molested. But after the royal troops were 
allowed to enter the city on the 28th, Bustamante, 
ignoring the solemn guarantees |)ledged by iiis subor- 
dinate, ordered the arrest and prosecution of the 
leaders. The governor accordingly named Alejandro 
Carrascosa fiscal to prosecute the conspirators of 
Granada. The proceedings occupied two years, at 
the end of which the fiscal called for, and the court 
granted, the confiscation of the estates, in addition tf 
the penalties awarded to those found guilty. Sixteen 
of the prisoners, as heads of the rebellion, were sen- 
tenced to be shot, nine were doomed to the chain- 
gang for life, and 133 to various terms of hard labor.'''' 

''Before the .ittack tlio city was visited by Father Benito Soto, as pacili- 
tator and coinmissioner from the l)ibliop governor. Ho tried to fulfil his 
mission without degrading his countrymen; hut aeoing the object of the war 
was to crush liberal Americans, ho made commou cause with thcGranadiiios. 
Marure, Boi<(i. Hist. Cant. Am., i. ll-TJ. Ayon, Apuntia, 17, gives the at- 
tack as occurring in August, which is an error. 

"Miguel Lacayo, Teli5sforo aud Juan Argiiello, Manuel Antonio de la 
Cerda, Joaquin Chamorro, Juan Ccrda, Francisco Cordero, Josi5 D. Kspinosa, 
FjCOH Molina, Cleto Ikndafia, Vicente Castillo, lircgorio llobledo, Gregorio 
liracanionte, Juan D. llobledo, Francisco Gomez, and Manuel I'arrilhi were 
to suffer death. Among tlio(! sentenceil to hard h.lior lor life were .IiKiii l']s- 
]Mnosa, the adelantado ot Goala liiea, Diugo Montiel, :n\d I'io Ar^iieilo. A^juii, 
ApuiUe^, 17-18; Manii\, JJu.-i'i. IliM. Cent. Am., i, IJ-ll; Ikv. Cent. Am. ,3, 



lU 



LAST DAYS OF SPANISH RULB. 



The sentence of death was not carried out, however. 
The condemned were taken to Guatemala, and thence 
transported to Spain, where the majority died as ex- 
iles. Four otliers were removed as convicts to Omoa 
and Trujillo. The survivors were finally released by 
a royal order of June 25, 1817.^* 

The conduct of the Leonese in leaving Granada «o 
bear alone the consequences of the revolution had, as 
I remarked, a bad effect upon the country."' From 
that time dates a bitter feeling between Leon and 
Grarada, and between Managua and Masaya on the 
one J art and Granada en the other.^" 

Notwithstanding the existing grievances and the 
generally depressed condition of business, the people 
did not fail to respond to the calls from the home gov- 
ernment upon all parts of the Spanish dominions for 
pecuniary aid to meet the enormous expenses of the 

•* One of them, Manuel Antonio de la Cerda, refused to accept the pardon 
unless coupled with leave to prefer cliargcs against Dustaiuantc. But an 
inlhicntial friend of tl; j general's prevented its being granted, and Cerda, to 
get out of tile countrj-, escaped on a vessel bound to Sweneu; tlience ho went 
to Cuba, and lived tliere several years under an assumed name. Lns Anales, 
Sejyt. 1, 1872, 30. The noted !Nicaraguan siatesniau, Tonu'is Ayon, justly 
bewail;! the seeming ingratitude of some if his eountry".s writers in saying 
that Nicaragua's independence had cost nothing. The liistory of that period, 
1811-21, it is true, records no bloody fields, no brilliant feats of urnis; but it 
prcKcnts an array of victims to the cause, of men who sacrificed their lives, 
liberty, and fortunes to secure their country's freedom; and these sacrifices, 
Ayon claims, should bo remembered, and the sull'urers' memory held in rev- 
erence. Apnntes, 18. Squicr, in 7\-avdis, ii. 37S, speaks of a suppressed 
revolution in Leon in 1S15, giving that city the whole credit of the first im- 
pulse to liberal sentimeut in Central America. There was no such movement 
in that year, and he probably had reference to that of ISU, tliough to Salva- 
dor certainly belongs the honor of the first attempt for independence. Pim'a 
Gate of the Pac, 3b, prints the same cn-or. 

'* More empty rewards for Leon, In ] 812 the cc'rtes acceded to the bishop's 
petition for the creation of a university in this town It was long delayed, 
however. The ayuntamiento had conferred on it the title of ■ miiy noble y leal; ' 
and that of Nueva Segovia was similarly honored. Tlie dean of Nicaragua 
was much commended in the cortes, Aug. 1813, for his loyal and judicious 
conduct. C6rteSy Diario, 1811-12, xi. 198; 1S13, xvii. 2-17, xxi. 45-G; Cdrtea, 
Col. Dec, ii. 47-8, iii. 177; Junrros, Gaat. (Lond. ed., 1823), 333-8; Belli/, 
Nil-., i. 227; Conders' Mcx. and Guat., ii. 309. Bishop Jerez had written the 
captain-general a warm letter on behalf of the Leoucsc, for whom ho had a 
special predilection, and said, 'Si me desterrasen un Leones dcjo de ser obispo.' 
Perez, Bio(j. Sacasa, 7. 

'* This bitterness originated bloody wars, and did much harm to Nicara- 
gua. Rev. Gent. Am., 3; Ayon, Apuntes, 15, 18-19; Regittro Ofic, Nov. 21, 
1846, 381. 



FANATICISM. 



17 



war against Napoleon's forces, and other pressing de- 
mands. In 1812 there were collected and remitted 
as donations $43,538. The citizens of San Salvador 
also agreed to give $12,000 for 1812, and an equal 
sum in 1813, if they could obtain a certain reform for 
the benefit of indigo-planters.^' 

We have seen how the first steps toward indepen- 
dence failed. Nor could any other result have been 
expected from the degraded condition, socially and 
intellectually, of the masses. The people were con- 
trolled by fanaticism, in abject submission to king and 
clergy. Absurd doctrines and miracles were impli- 
citly believed in; and every eflfort made to draw the 
ignorant people out of that slough was in their judg- 
ment treason and sacrilege, a violation of the laws of 
God, an attempt to rob the king of his rights; certain 
to bring on a disruption of social ties, and the wrath 
of heaven. The lower orders had been taught that 
freedom signified the reign of immorality and crime, 
while fealty to the sovereign was held a high virtue. 
Hence the daily exhibitions of humble faithfulness, 
the kneeling before the images of the monarch and 
before their bishops, and the more substantial proof 
of money gifts to both church and crown.^ 

"The §43,538 went on the ship Venganza to Cddiz, and the arrival w.as 
announced, Feb. 15, 1813, to the c6rtcs by the deputies of Guatemala. Cdrte-i, 
Diario, 1813, xvii. 239-40. 

"Marui'e, on the authority of the Gaceta de Oiiatemala, xiii. no. 11'2, and' 
xiv. no. 191, assures tis that nearly one and a half million dollars had been 
remitted by Central America to Spain, from donations and other sources, to 
cancel royal warrants. Bosq. Jlist. Cent. Am., i. 18. Tliis work, that I have 
occasion to quote so often, bears the title Bosqiiejo Ilittdrico de las licvolii- 
clones de Centra Amdrlca desdelSll hasta 1S34. Its author, Alejandro Maruru, 
who was a professor of history and geography in the university of Guatemala, 
and otherwise a prominent citizen, issued in Guatemala his 1st volume, sin. 
4to, 295 pp., with designs on the frontispiece, in 1S37; containing events to 
18'2Gonly. The publication of the otlicr two volumes, it is understood, ho 
was obliged to witlihold by order of his government. Montiifar, llc.-eua, 
Hist. Cent. Am., i., preface pp. iii. and iv., tells ns the circulation of the 2ii 
vol. was not allowed; 'un solemno auto de f(S dcvoni la cdicion cntera.' One 
copy escaped, however, from which another edition was printed in later years. 
It scathes the so-called conservative party, more properly entitled to tho 
appellations of fanatical and servile, for the infamous acts of its men tliat for 
many years misgoverned tho country. Its contents have been fully used by 
Montiifar. Tho 3d volumo has not been published, and tho author's heirs' 
Hut. Onrr. Ax., Vol. IU. 2 



LAST DAYS OF SPANISH RULE. 



The first efforts on behalf of emancipation were not 
wholly lost, as they led to definitive results in the near 
future. The next attempts also met with failure, and 
brought u[)oii their authors the heavy hand of Busta- 
mante. The first one, in 1813, was known as the 
Betlen conspiracy, which derived its name from the 
convent where the conspirators usually assembled. 
Much importance was given to this affair by the gov- 
ernment and the loyalists. The meetings were pre- 
sided over by the sub-prior Fray Ramon de la Con- 
cepcion, and were sometimes held in his cell, and at 
others in the house of Cayetano Bedoya, under the 
direction of Tomds Ruiz, an Indiau,^^ All were sworn 
to secrecy, and yet the government suspected the 
plot, and arrested some persons who had the weakness 
to divulge the plan and the names of their associates.*" 

The conspirators, all of whom were men of charac- 
ter and good standing, soon found themselves in prison, 
excepting Jos^ Francisco Barrundia, who remained 
concealed six years, and afterward was one of the 
most prominent statesmen of Central America. Ma- 
jor Antonio del Villar was commissioned fiscal to 
prosecute the prisoners. He spared no one in his 
charges, and managed to bring into the meshes of the 

long refused to allow any one to see the manuscript. This work furnishes 
an interesting account of political affairs in Guatemala from tlio first attempt 
at separation from the motlicr country in ISll to its accomplisliment in 1821, 
from an American standpoint; the intrigues by which Central America was 
yoked to IturbiJc's Mexican empire, and subsequent events culminating ia 
the second and final enforcement of independence, followed by the organiza- 
tion of the federal government; rupture between Guatemala and the general 
government, and victory of the latter; church and military aflairs; intrigues 
of parties; authorities being freely quoted to sustain statements. Tho author 
does not enter into much detail on military operations, but is quite full in his 
description of party workings, which affords a clear understanding of their 
antagonistic interests. Under the title of Efemirvles de Iok herhoa notables . . . 
de Centra America, the same writer gave to the press at (Guatemala, in 1844, 
a r2mo of 77 pp., furnishing a very brief synopsis of the chief events that 
occurred from 1821 to 1842, with tabular lists; quite useful as a chronology. 

"Among the implicated were a number of military officers whose role was 
to win over tlie troops, and gain possession of tlicir arms. 

*" The plan was to seize Bustamantc, Auditor do Gucrra Ibaficz, Archbishop 
Casaus, and all the high military officers; after which the Grauadan prisoners 
were to bo liberated, and tlio country's independence proclaimed. The royal 
ofiScials chose to add that tho parties had harbored ' incendiary and horrible 
■chemes of plunder and devastation.' 



THE PLOT OF BETLEN. 



10 



prosecution several persons who were innocent.** On 
the 18th of September, 1814, ho asked the military 
court for the penalty of death, by garrote, against 
Ruiz, Vfctor Castrillo, Jos(5 Francisco Barrundia j)ro 
contumacia, and Joaquin Yi'idico, who were hidalgos; 
and the same j)onalty, by hanging, against the sub- 
prior and ten others who were plebeians." Ten years 
of hard labor in the chain-gang of the African posses- 
sions, and a life exile from America, were pronounced 
upon others against whom no guilt was proved. Tho 
prisoners were all set free, however, in 1819, under a 
royal order of tho 28th of July, 1817. 

Among the men regarded as the most dangerous, 
and strongly suspected of being tho real managers of 
the Botlen plot, was Mateo Antonio Marure, who 
had been confined two years in a dungeon ibr the 
part he took in the disturbances of 1811." Busta- 
taniantc dreaded his presence in Guatemala, and in 
1814 despatched him as a prisoner to the supreme 
council of regency in Spain, with his reasons for this 
measure. After recounting the Betlen afiair, and 
namincT Marure as the real instifjator and manajjfer of 

*^ ^farure, Bosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. Iti; Romero, Bosq. Hist., 42; Mern. 
Jiist. Cf7it. Am., 2, 3. 

^'Miilian Ibnria, Amlrds Pardon, Manuel de San Jos6, Manuel Yot. The 
names of tho other six do not appear. Pineda de Mont. , in Gnat. , I'ecop. Leijca, 
iii. ol7-S; Hodrhjnez, Prohlma Jli.'tt., iu Salv., Diario Ofic, 1873, Apr. 1 and 
Miiy 23. The author of Mem. I!cv. Cent. Am., 7, who was evidently Lliuiled 
by prejudice against Barrundia and against tho cause, says that the Litter 
lost credit for being mixed up in the IJetlen affair with 'hombrca shi luees, 
Bin cr^dito, y sin costumbres;' and forfeited tho character for Ormnt-'ss lie 
had held in public estimation by needlessly petitioning for a pardon wlieu lie 
had not been imprisoned, and could at any time have left tho country with 
out risk. Lorenzo Moutufar, a statesman and writer, tells us, in rebuttal, 
that theso men were of good intelligence and position; that Barrundia's peril 
was imminent all the time of his concealment, and as only Spanisli vessels 
visited the ports, it would have been risky to attempt escape upon one of 
tlicm. Moreover, it w-.j impossible to foresee when independence would bi; 
attained. Under Ltio circumstances, Barrundia had to ask for pardon when 
he could get it. Costa II., Gaceta, Sept. 2, 1854. Villar, tho prosecutiuL; olii- 
cer, became notorious in 1817 for cruelties and wanton murders of unfortunate 
inhabitants of Peten-Itza, when he was commandant there. Fajardo, Inf. . . 
al Mill, de I'd., Campeche, 1828, sm. 4to, 17 pp. 

" He was the father of Alejandro Marure, born iu Guatemala, and one 
who had attained a respectable rank iu letters, at a very early age, in his coun- 
try. At the time he began to figure in its political aiTairs be waa a master of 
philosophy. Boaq. Hint. Cent. Am., i. 14-15. 



LAST DATS OF SPANISH RULE. 






' !i 



it, ho arlcls that the conspirators counted on him as a 
fearless man to carry it out, and that liis l)old language 
and writings rendered his sojourn in America a con- 
stant menace to Spanish interests. 

Another and a worse planned attempt at revolution 
than the one of 1811 occurred in Salvador in 1814. 
The government quelled it, and the promoters were 
arrested, Manuel Jos^ Arce suffering an imprisonment 
of several years.* 



44 



The reader's attention is now called to matters con- 
cerning the capitanfa general of Guatemala, which 
occupied the government both here and in Europe 
immediately before King Fernando's coup-d'dtat. 

Bustamante, evidently hostile to constitutional gov- 
ernment, and loath to suffer readily any curtailment 
of his quasi-autocratic powers, proclaimed, under the 
pressure of necessity, the national constitution, and 
l)crmitted elections under it; but between this and 
allowing the diputaciones provinciales and ayunta- 
mientos free action under the fundamental law, there 
was a wide chasm. He had no intention of tamely 
submitting to such innovations, whatever might be 
said of their merits in the abstract. In the first 
place, he postponed for three whole months the in- 
stallation of the diputacion, and when it was installed, 
refused to honor the evofit with a high mass and te 
deum, which would have b; en the proper thing to do. 
Such a recognition of the importance of the diputa- 
cion might have shake;^. ''.he faith of the populace in a 
one-man power. He next insisted on the diputacion 
having its sittings at the government house, where it 
would be at his mercy. He treated the body disre- 
spectfully in several ways,*" and as he could not make 

** Arco began to figure in the rebellion of 1811, After tlic organization of 
the federal r(?gimc he was the first constitutional president of the republie. 
liev. Cent. Am., 3; Sali:, Diario Ojlc, 1875, Fob. 13. 

*5Iu disregard of the rank and standing of th'.^ 'excelentisima diputaeion,' 
he would append only his media iirma, or surname, to its decrees and docu- 
ments, when he should have used his nanao and surname — a serious breach of 
etiquette in those til"'". 



END OF BU.STAMAXTE.S RITLE. 



31 



it subservient to his will, tiied l»y all nicaiia in his 
power to destroy its iniluenee unci usefulness. In fact, 
lie looked upon it as a mere consultative oor])oration, 
whose advice he might ask for or not, as suited his 
fancy. Lastly, he would not permit the acts of the 
(liputacion to bo published; and for the matter of 
Uiat, there was no liberty of the press. 

These complaints were laid before the national 
cortos" for redress, coupled with a petition that the 
loyal authority should remove Jiustamante from office. 
IJut grievances were unredressed, and their author 
continued wielding power in the country several years 
more. Indeed, this was not to be wondered at. The 
Spanish government had rarely, if ev(ir, shown incli- 
nation to do justice to the ruled against the high 
rulers it placed over them, or to punish the despotic 
acts of the latter. Residencias had of late become 
mere matters of form. If the complainants had 
w'^alth and influence at court, they might obtain the 
recall of the ruler obnoxious to them, but no other 
])unisliment. The prestige of authority must be up- 
hold; such was the principle acted upon.*^ Guate- 
mala was finally relieved of Bustamante's hated rule 
on the 28th of March, 1818. 

The people of Central America, like the rest of the 
Spanish dominions, were soon invited to another view 
in the political kaleidoscope. Fernando VII., upon 

*'' The chamber now had but a short time to live. Manuel Michco had 
Itieseuted his credentials in Jan. 1814, and been admitted to his seat as dep- 
uty from Chimaltenango, Guatemala. Luis Aguirro's claim to admission was 
referred back ou the petition of citizens of Ciiiquimula for his election to be 
declared null. Cdrtes, Act. ord., 1814, Jan. '21, i. 487, Maroli 20, ii. 121. 

"Se''cral accusations had been preferred hitherto against Bustamante; all 
remained unheeded, so far as it ever became known. One more was that of 
.luan Argiiello of Granada, in Nicaragua, who charged t'lo governor with un- 
just treatment of him in 1814, and demanded his trial and punishment. This 
case was ''cfore the c6rtes Oct. 20, 1820. But as the second constitutional 
epoch was so short-lived, Arguello's deznand for justice had no better result 
than preceding ones. A memorial of the ayuntamiento of Guatemala, on the 
liolitical condition of the province, expressing fear that the harsliness ex- 
tended to men f ^ r political opinions might lead to evil consequences, and 
asking for the pardon of prisoiii;rs, was presented March 24, 1814, to the 
ci'irtes. It was referred to a committee, and that was all the action taken, 
till the king in 1SI7 granted an amnesty, t'dr/ct. Act. ord., March 24, 1814, 
ii. 1,'32; Id., Diario, Oct. 20, 1820, ix. 4. 



fl LAST DAYS OP SPANISH RULE. 

his release by Napoleon a few months after the treaty 
of Valenjay,*^ returned to Spain without delay, and 
on arriving at Valencia, issued his manifesto of May 
4, 1814, setting aside the constitution, and assuming 
the authority of an absolute sovereign. He did this 
with fair promises, which he carried out when and 
how it suited him.*^ Among many decrees issued by 
the monarch soon after, which were of interest to 
Central America, was one enjoining on the archbishop 
and bishops to see that their subordinates did their 
duty faithfully, and entertained only wholesome 
opinions. No associations or leagues were to be 
tolerated which might lead to a disturbance of the 
public peace; in other words, liberty and constitutional 
government were not to be thought of '^'' Another 
decree of June l7th, demanded of the deputies from 
America having in their possession petitions from 
their constituents to lay them before the royal gov- 
ernment, in order that they might be acted upon. 
Several measures for the protection of morals and the 
advancement of civilization were also enacted. 

«Ck)ncluded Dec. 11, 1813. 

** Upon the news of the king's acts becoming known in Guatemala, the 
archbishop and his clergy, and the other authorities, offered thanks to God for 
hia release and restoration to the throne. Juarros, Ouat., ii., adv. xii. 

^Tho pope lent his support with an encyclical letter of Aug, 15, 1814, 
against fre..r --^ovry and otner secret societies, which was published June 2, 
1815. All persons afiiliating in such organizations were required to sever 
their connection with them. Fern. VII,, Decretos, 27-32, 



CHAPTER II. 

INDEPENDENCE ACHIEVED. 

1818-1821. 

Presidknt CIblos Urrutia— His Libeual Views — Colombian A.ssaui.ts 
—Spanish Constitution Restored— The Gazistas, or Bacos— The 
Cacos— JosA DEL Valle— Pedro Mdlina— Liberal Institutions- 
Extent OF THE Political Government — Ecclesiastical Administra- 
tion — Work of American Deputies— Party Excitement in Gi;ate- 

MALA — UKROTIA DELEGATES UIS POWERS — SUBSOTUTE PRESIDENT 

Gavino Gainza— Chiapas and her Government — She Secedes from 
Spain and Joins the Mexican Empibk— Guatemala Declares for 
Indefendencb — Junta Gubernativa — Convocation op a Congress. 



Successor to Bustamante in the position of gov- 
ernor, president, and captain-general, in March 1818, 
was Lieutenant-general Cdrlos Urrutia,^ knight grand 
cross of the military order of San Hermenegildo, 
which entitled him to be calbd excelentisimo senor. 
It was a difficult position. The country was at peace, 
it is true, but a political volcano was at work, and :k) 
one could foretell vr^ien the upheaval of revolution 
might occur,'' letting loose the elements of destruction, 
!is had happened in other parts of Spanish America. 
However, anocher constituti(uial term under the 
Spanish monarch was about being inaugurated, and 
this fact helped to bring un definitive results. 

' A native of Habana, Cuba. He bad £llcd several liigh otDces, the last 
bo-' • lat of governor of Santo Domingo. Jucrron, GiuU. , ii. , adv. ix.-x. ; Salv. , 
/><... .iO/c, Apr. 1, 1875,4. 

'Convulsions of nature bad been oonstaiitly occurrinrj in Qiiezaltenango 
'li.ring two months, wliich greatly alarmed tho iiopulaLKu. (tut'!'" 17th of 
Jan., 1818, a hill on tho south of the town bni'stoncn and threw o'n, enormous 
(luaiitities of ashes, covering the whole country, nin to 'ho distance of 35 
loiiguos, and flames were oocaaionallv seen. <'''r.ui\ (ai;i, isi Noiiciuao Oen., 
March 16, 1818, 4 

(28) 



24 



INDEPENDENCE ACHIEVED. 



Urrutia was a man of expeiljnce, with a well-bal- 
anced mind, whose political opinions leaned to the 
side of progress. Ho would have been well adapted 
to guide the course of events in Central America had 
it not been for the infirmities of old age. Guatemala, 
being as yet under the sway of Spain, was open to 
attack from the enemies of that government, or at 
least, to such action as they might adopt in aid of the 
disaffected portion of the people to secure their coun- 
try's independence. The latter was the plan of the 
Colombian insurgents in fitting out a combined sea 
and land expedition to operate against the ports of 
Omoa and Trujillo in 1820.' 

On the 21st of April the watch-tower at Capiro, 
in Trujillo, announced the approach of a Colombian 
flotilla of small vessels from the windward. The gar- 
rison, commanded b}' Josd M. Palomar, at once made 
preparations for emergencies. The flotilla, consisting 
of two brigantines, four large and as many small 
schooners, one felucca, and one sloop, under Com- 
modore Aury, sailed in at two o'clock,* and despatched 
a boat to shore to demand the surrender of the place 
within one hour. Nothing further was done on that 
day, however; but early the next morning the flotilla 
moved toward the mouth of the Guaimoreto, and after 
raconnoitering the defences, opened a bombardment 
with ball and grape-shot on the intrenchment and 
demolished it, which compelled the defenders to fall 
back. Th3 assailants landed 400 men and 15 horses, 
and advanced against the garrison, meeting with a 
repulse at the fourth parapet. The garrison retreated 
to the fifth line, at which the enemy was a second 
time driven back.' The vessels fired broadside upon 
broadside on the shore batteries, which were warmly 
returned. The bombardment was kept up from nine 

•Tho Spanish oflBcial account published by the governiiient of Guatemala, 
May 1 and 13, 1820, and copied lu tho Oaceta of Mex. of Juno 17th, same 
year, has it that tlic attempt resulted in tha discomfiture of tho assailants. 

*The commander's ship hoisted a flag with two blue bars and a white one 
between them showing an escutcheon. 



It S€ 

sub- 



ATTACK ON TRUJILLO. 



25 



A. M. till two P. M., when the flotilla retired out of reach 
of the batteries. A portion of the land force then 
attempted to enter the town by the rear of it, but 
was detected and compelled to retire. Early in the 
morning of the 23d, the invading troops returned to 
the vessels, leaving their horses; and soon afterward 
the flotilla put to sea, each vessel firing a broadside, 
on passing Point Castilla, against the watch-tower. 
During the night of the 24th the Colombian vessels 
dropped out of sight.^ On the 25th the flotilla ap- 
peared off Omoa, and for several days was making 
attempts to effect a landing, which being unsuccessful, 
it retired on the 6th of May, after setting fire to the 
larger brig, which had been damaged by the fire from 
the town. 

Fernando VII., under compulsion, restored the con- 
stitution of 1812 throughout his dominions. On the 
9th of March, 1820, he swore to support it, and the 
next day issued a manifesto conveying an apology for 
having set it aside in 1814, and giving plausible reasons 
for his present change of mind. On the 1 1th of April 
be issued another manifesto, addressed to the people 
of America, expressing sorrow at not having sooner 
r(:in.siai,ed the constitutional government. In another 
dccrc! of April 15th he restores to full force and vigor 
aH vh/nees of the c6rtes, both the extraordinary and 
ordinar}', for t7 o better government and progress of 
the J. \ mces in x^merica. 

It seems that Brigadier Gavino Gainza, appointed 
sub-inspector-general of the forces in Central America, 
was commissioned to bring out the royal proclamations 
and decrees for the reinstatement of the constitution, 
and of the laws which were passed under it by the 
c6rtes. There is nothing to show the precise time o[' 
!iis arrival in Guatemala, but it will suffice to statu 



Tlio Spanisli ofBcial account seta tho cnciny's casualties at 40 kilkd ami 
wounf'jil on Hhorej thoso on boiuJ could not bo ascertained. Tho .Spauisli 
luus is giveu at uue killed und two wuuudotl. 



II! 



M INDEPENDENCE ACHIEVED. 

that the diputacion provincial was installed at the 
capital on the 13th of July. 

At a preparatory sitting of the c6rtes, on the 26th 
of June, 1820, Juan N. San Juan and Josd Sacasa 
were present as representatives from Guatemala, and 
on the 2d of August Juan N. Tuero, or Fuero, pre- 
sented his credentials as a deputy elected from Chi- 
apas for the c6rtes of 1815-16, which body he found 
closed on arriving in Spain at the end of 1814.° The 
necessity -^i such a diputacion was ably discussed in 
the cdrteit. - 'le 30th of April, 1821, by Deputy 
Hermosilla, t ided by Dej uty Milla, both support- 
ing the report oi the committee on the subject. On 
the I7th of June the chamber was officially informed 
of the installation of the diputacion, and commended 
its patriotic labors.^ 

The 'junta suprema de censura,' created to adjudi- 
cate upon alleged ojffences against the law regulating 
the press, had, on the 9th of August, 1820, nomi- 
nated, and the c6rtes confirmed, the members of the 
junta de censura for Guatemala.^ 

The reestablishment of the constitutional regime 
under such favorable circumstances soon brought into 
life two great parties that for a long time bore the re 
spective names of Gazista, or Baco, and Caco. The 
gazista, with Josd del Valle as its leader,' was made 

*06rte8, Diario, 1820, ii. 19; Apr. 30, 1821, extra, xvi. 15-16; Id., Act. 
Pii6., i., June 26, 1820, 6; Aug. 2, 1820, 2. 

^A congratulatory address from the newly created corporation was re- 
ceived with marks of satisfaction, Odrtes, Diario, June 17, 1821, xxii. 6. 

* From the ecclesiostio state, Juan Joa6 Batres and Jos^ Maria Alvarez, 
with Pedro Ruiz de Bustamanto for a substitute. From the secular class, 
Pedro Molina, Jos^ Barrundia, and Lie. Vcnancio Lopez. Secular substi- 
tutes, licenciados Francisco Javier Barrutia, Felipe Neri del Barrio. Cdrtes, 
Diario, 1820, ii. 228-9. 

•A native of Cholutcco, in Honduras. Rev. Cent, Am., 1. He , aa auditor 
de guerra. Velio was undoubtedly an able man; a speech of his on equality 
before the law is spoken of with high commendation. Obsero. de la Hep. 
Mex., ii., Oct. 3, 1827, 128-33. Subsequently was a deputy to the imperial 
congress of Mexico, and when Iturbido was on the eve of succumbing under 
the dIows of the republicans, ho appointed VuUc his minister of state, which 
ofiBce ceased with tlio fall of the empire. Vallo returned to Guatemala and 
figured prominently in the government. In 1826-29 ho was a federal deputy, 
and died on the 2d of Marcli, 18.'i4, soon after being elected president uf the 
republic. The assembly on the 21at of March of the same year decreeU honors 



BACOS AND CACOS. 



27 



up of Spaniards and artisans. The cacos recognized 
as their chieftain Jose Maria Delgado.^° Their party 
was composed of members of the nobiUty, and of the 
men calling themselves independents. This party 
from the first aspired to independence, and its candi- 
dates were taken from the independent wing at the 
election of deputies and other officials. 

The gazistas, or bacos, were numerous and strong, 
for they had in their ranks the rulers, many wealthy 
merchants, and the artisans, and abundant funds at 
command, whic' were scattered without stint among 
the needy and ignorant, who were ready enough to 
sell their votes. ^^ They likewise strengthened their 
influence with the lower class by means of a pre- 
tended hostility to the aristocracy, or to what from 
that time went by the name of 'espfritu de familia.' 
They won the elections, but their triumph proved to 
be far from a solid one. 

The cacos now resolved to use every endeavor to 
accomplish independence. The connection with the 
aristocratic element was a drawback; and the abso- 
lute necessity of winning over the mechanics being 
recognized, a middle party was at once organized, 
which attached itself to the independents, and would 
have no connection with the nobles. This arrange- 
ment facilitated the accomplishment of the object in 
view. 

The political struggle was now fairly inaugurated. 
Pedro Molina ^'^ began the publication of El Editor 



to hia memory. Ouat., Recop. Ley., iii. 338-9, 348. Salvador did the name in 
April. A likeness of Valle iu given in Monh'ifar, Resena Hint. Cent. Am., ii, 
lUO. Vallo had been honored with the friendship of Benthani and other 
l']uropean tiavans; and he was a member of the French Academy of Sciences. 
Marure, iifem^rides, 36. 

'"The same man who afterward appointed himself bishop of Salvador. 
Suarez y Navarro, Hist. Mtj., 386. 

"They cajoled the artisans with the promise of checking the trade with 
Iklize, and of prohibiting the importation of foreign manufactures. 

" He was born in Guatemala on tlio 2'Jtli of Apr., 1777; studied humani- 
ties under Father Ooicoechea, one of iho lights of his time, aud received liis 
diploma of a licentiate of medicine and surgery at the ago of J'J; served in 
Nicaragua as surgeon of the batallou lijo early in tliu century, and returned 
with it to hia native city in ISll. lleatterward Hilled the position of professor 



28 INDEPENDENCE ACHIEVED. 

Constitucional, to defend American rights. The Amigo 
de la Patria appeared at the same time, and often 
opposed Molina's radical doctrines. Urrutia, now 
styling himself jefe politico y capitan general, made 
an address to the people, congratulating them and 
himself on the happy termination c" the election in 
the several parishes, and giving assui mces that every 
voter should have full liberty to cast h s vote for repre- 
sentative in the general congress, the diputacion, and 
the ayuntamiento." A portion of his address was 
specially devoted to artisans and laboring men, whom 
he warned not to allow themselves to be tampered 
with to the discredit of the government on the ques- 
tion of trade in cotton goods; for, he told them, it was 
a positive misconception that the government had it 
in view to decree freedom of foreign trade; on the 
contrary, it had endeavored to check illegal traffic, 
which had been carried on to the detriment of national 
interests and the royal treasury. 

The measures adopted by him had to some extent 
corrected that evil. By making the traders pay im- 
port dues, thf» treasury had profited, and the people 
had been saved from new taxes. Formerly, English 
goods were paid for wholly in coin; now, only one 
sixth of their cost was covered with money, and the 
remainder with the produce of the country." 

The gobierno politico de Guatemala had jurisdic- 
tion over the same extent of country as the metro- 

of medicine in the university. The degree of doctor was given him in 18I7f 
and the ofiQce of protom^dico, or head physician of the province of Guate- 
mala. Salv., Oaceta, Oct. 12, 1854. 

" He adjured all to free themselves from party influences, and to give their 
suffrages only to men vrho had their country's interests at heart. He de- 
manded of all citizens to love their country, to bo true to the constitution, 
and to respect the legitimate authorities. 

'* Urrutia, Modeh, 2-3. Constant complaints had been made to the;' na- 
tional government since 1813 against the foreign trade. The regulations of 
1778 had been made to appear advantageous to Spain and her American colo- 
nies. Foreign trade was declared a means of corruption which placed arms 
in the hands of Spain's foes. In the report now before me, the mechanics of 
the country are represented as hostile to the foreign trade. ArriUaga, In- 
formtt in Ceduiario, 66-7. 



ARCHBISHOPS. 



29 



politan," namely, 214 leagues from the ejidos of 
Motocinta on the west, and 116 leagues from Golfo 
Dulce on the Atlantic, to the Pacific coast " 

The first archbishop of Guatemala appointed by 
the Spanish crown in the present century was Luis 
Penalver y Cdrdenas," who reached his see the 3d of 
June, 1802, and on the 26th took possession. During 
his brief incumbency he founded several rectorships, 
and two primary schools for girls. His sight be- 
coming seriously affected, he relinquished the mitre, 
and returned to his native city, secretly denarting 
March 1, 1806.^*^ 

Rafael de la Vara de la Madrid, Penalver's succes- 
sor, arrived in Acajutla on the 13th of December, 
1807 ; in Guatemala city on the 4th of January, 1808 ; 
and on the 3d of February took possession of his 
office. In April 1809 he visited th; province of Vera 
Paz, where he died on the 31st of December, much 
regretted, as he had endeared himself by his peace- 
able disposition and affability." 

Antonio Bergoza y Jordan, bI.:hop of Oajaca, was 
nominated for the succession, but declined the po- 
sition. 

The next and eighth archbishop of the diocese was 

•^Tho latter had three suffragans — Leon, Comayagua, and Ciudad Real 
de Chiapas. It had also 20 vicars, 161 curacies in 424 towns, 85 valleys, 23 
doctriuas under missionaries, of which 16 were in charge of Dominicana, 4 of 
Franciscans, and 3 of the order of Mercy. 

'"Deputy Jos6 Mariano Mcndcz, from Sonsonate, gave the province of 
Guatemala 110 leagues from tiio Pacific to Santo Tonuls, and a width of 100 
leagues in some parts, and less in others, with two cities and about 294 
towns. Mem., 12-13,20; ^f('moria del cstado poHtico y <cle,<i(Utico de la capi- 
taiiia general de Guatemala, Mad., 1S21, sm. 4to, 30 pp., gives data on tlic 
economical, political, and ecclcsia.'itical condition of Central America in gen- 
eral, and of each of the divisions or provinces, including Chiapas in particu- 
lar, and proposing to tlio Spauisli government reforms deemed advisable. 

"A native of llabana, at wliich university he received the degree of doc- 
tor. Juarros, Ouat., i. 29G-7. 

" Ho consecrated in his catliedral, on the 12th of Sept., 1802, the treasurer 
of the diocese, the licentiate of theology, Ambrosio Llano, as bishop of 
Ciudad Ileal de Chiapas. 

'• He had been bishop of Santa Cruz do la Sierra, in Peru. At the time of 
his death ho was 5.') years old. The remains were interred in the cathedral, 
Juarroa, C/vcU., i. 297; Diario Mix., xii,, Jan. 26, 1810, 104. 






I 



I 



i 



10 INDEPENDENCE ACHIEVED 

Ramon Casaus y Torres, nominated by the supreme 
council of regency on the 30th of March, 1811; who 
entered the capital • m the 30th of July, and being a con- 
secrated bishop, at once began to perform episcopal 
functions.*' His nomination was ratified by the king 
on the 27th of August, 1814; the papal bulls of con- 
Ih'uiation were issued on the 15th of March, 1815, and 
Casaus received the pallium on the 28th of Septem- 
ber of the same year. 

At the sitting of the Spanish c6rtes on the 25th 
of June, 1821, the American deputies laid before that 
body a memorial setting forth the condition of their 
provinces, and the measures which, in their opinion, 
would lead to a definitive peace. They not only 
assured their Spanish colleagues that Americans were 
fully conscious of their rights as freemen, but also 
of their determination and ability to defend them; 
nevertheless, if those rights were respected, and jus- 
tice was done, existing difficulties might be obliterated. 
They believed, however, that a constitutional system 
would be impracticable in America, unless new and 
efficacious measures were adopted to enable the 
three branches of government to act freely within 
their respective bounds, and likewise to make eflfective 
the responsibility of public officials for their acts. 
Another point upon which they laid stress was the 
inutility of American deputies at the Spanish c6rtes 
unless they were effectively upheld from their respect- 
ive countries. They found other faults with the exist- 
ing government, and declared that the solution of the 
great problem would be found in the establishment 
of autonomic governments in America. 

^^ He was a native of Jaca, in Aragon; took the Dominican habit in Zam- 

foza, and completed there his education; joined the province of Santiago in 
Icxico at the age of 23; became a lecturer in Porta Coeli college, and a pro- 
fessor in the university of Mexico, by which he was made a doctor, ana by 
his order a maestro. On the 9th of Nov., 1806, as bishop of lloscn in partibns 
infidelium, he was made bishop-coadjutor of Oajaca, and consecrated on the 
2d of Aug., 1807. Juarros, OuaL, ii., adv. p. xi.-xii.; Cdrtes, Diario, xviii. 
395; Puerto, Convite, p. iii. 1. 



RIPE FOR INDEPENDENCR 



81 



Commerce between Spanish America and the 
mother country should be treated as internal trade, 
the Americans having equal rights and privileges with 
their brethren of Europe. The same equality in 
respect to civil rights and appointment to office was 
likewise to exist between the natives of America and 
Spain. If such demands were conceded, Mexico and 
Central America would pay to Spain ten million dol- 
lars within six years, in yearly installments from Jan- 
uary 1, 1823, to be applied to the cancelling of the 
national debt. They would also allow Spain two 
million dollars yearly for the support of the royal 
navy.*" 

It was now too late, however, for conciliatory efforts 
to be successful. Events crowded upon each other, 
and were beyond the control even of the men who 
made them. Central America was at peace, but the 
constitutional system recently established, with its 
popular elections and a free p»*css, after the spirit of na- 
tionality had gained so much ground, naturally tended 
to excite the public mind, emboldening the timid, and 
increasing the number of the friends of independence. 
Party spirit controlled everything ; it was felt even in 
the domestic circle. The people were prepared and 
anxious for a change, when vague rumors were set 
afloat of renewed revolutionary efforts in Mexico.^^ 
Party leaders were of one mind on the desirability of 
separation. It was generally admitted that the sub- 
jection of the country to Spain could no longer be 
maintained. Only a few high officials and Spaniards 
dissented. Now was the time, if ever, for a sound 
head and s^crong hand to helm the ship of state. Ur- 
rutia, owing to age and physical ailings, was not the 
man for the occasion; nor was he, though opposed to 
the scheme of secession, able to retard it. Under tho 

''The payments were to begin no later than ouo year after the installation 
of tho autonomic government. The allowance was to be increaaed when tho 
condition of tho two countries should become improved. 

^■^ Positive new8 of Itiirbide's defection had not yet reached Guatemala, 
Mem. Rev, Cent, Am., 2. 



:i^ 



32 



INDEPENDENCE ACHIEVED. 



circumstances, the diputacion provincial prevailed on 
the jefe superior polftico to delegate his powers to the 
sub-inspector of the troops, Gavino Gainza.^^ This 
officer at first tried to stem the torrent of revolution, 
to act as the agent of Spain, disapproving the plan of 
separation, but at the same time maintained intimate 
relations with the independents and aided their efforts. 
This party publicly circulated a paper for signatures 
to ask Gainza to proclaim independence himself. He 
pretended to be indignant; and upon the receipt 
of the plan of Iguala, formed in Mexico by Iturbide 
and Guerrero,'^* he issued a manifesto depicting it in 
the blackest colors, and ordered that all who had 
called on him to declare independence should be 
prosecuted.*^' The independents became disgusted, but 
had to make the best of the situation. They then 
resolved to play upon his personal ambition, assuring 
him that for his cooperation in their plans he would 
be retained in command, and afterward chosen the 
first chief magistrate of the young nation. While he 
still hesitated, they despatched Cayetano Bedoya to 
Oajaca for military aid from General Bravo. But on 
the messenger's arrival at Ciudad Real de Chiapas, 
he found that the place had followed the example of 
Oajaca and Tehuantepec, accepting the plan of Iguala. 
This step hastened events in Guatemala, and Bedoya 
had no need of going farther. 

The act of Ciudad Real, received Septerabe** 13th, 
caused the greatest excitement in the city of Guate- 
mala, and the government had to give way. Urged 
by the diputacion, Gainza summoned, on the 14th, the 

*' He is represented aa a fickle man, one easily influenced, and likely to 
act under the impressions of the moment. Marure, Bosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. 
21; Salv., Diario Qfic, 1875, Apr. 1, 4. Events showed he waa a man of no 
settled principles or character, who proved himself, first a traitor to hia king 
and country, and next, for self-aggrandizement, betrayed the men that in an 
evil hour placed their trust in him. 

■■'♦This plan is described in Hist. Mex., iv. 709-10, this series. 

** The order was a dead letter, however. Gainza evidently issued it to 
cover his responsibility in Madrid; at any rate, no one was arrested, and the 
manifesto was soon after retired, public affairs being allowed to take their 
Bourse. Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 4; Marure, Bosg- Hist. Cent. Am., i. 21-2. 



GAINZAS MEETING 

mands of the people ^« responsive to the do- 

"P. '!« masses, aud at the safn. r ' '™''''' *" "''"• 
pauoLstas or royal part sanf lf'«"-' *" "'^ ">« es- 

athrongofiDdependents fined thonoV'"- °" "''' '^th 
liails, and ante-chambers of (h ^ ''"'''' ''""'■'-yard, 

Amongthernandins r„cin°.thf ^"^f'n'^nt h™so 
Barrundia, Basilio PorZindl?""^! 'T" Molina, 
after began to arrive at the j"'""" ^'^'''^- Soon 
officials called to take part „ ,ff ?•?""' '""'«« the 
'"eetmg, namely, twoCnlrt'ot'' V°"^ "^ "^o 
deputized therefor; the archM I '''"''! <=«P°'-ation 
tlio religious orders heehLf^ffl^P "?! P''«''"''» "f 
treasury; who, to-rJther IvUU ,f^^ "^ *•>« «™y and 
ciaUnd undor'the-presd „c 'f ?, '''P''^'"'' P-'^vin- 
nor politico, Gainza," at o"ce Z " f '"gJ«f« ™Pe- 

After reading the deelaratio„ri„'^??r''''' *° '^"»"«««- 
bers briefly expressed f ^l-'" ^'""Pas, several mom- 
was Vall/lead'^r ofihe' gLIs^ • ,^'"=, "-' ^P^r 
vocated independence as nfSl' '"''? ^'"Quently ad- 
«dmi„gthatit should noUeT^, ''."'' j"^t^«ten^ 
^ecions had formally dete"!''™^'' «"«>« other 
■notion was seconded Thi .•" ."^ '^^O''. The 
posed all action untU final ^<„r*'""!,tP'=°'''-''>ts- o ! 
received. Every a Lmn. * '".Mexico should fe 
defeated by the energetic .ff "f ^"J'^^ting policy was 
-''o voted'^fo, an Sdiat^dfchr *?-^ indepenlente! 
-Oata „. a,. ,3^ _ """"" declaration of indepen! 

»'-£s»&|r>x,«s^^^^^^ «... ,„.„„ 



ffnoK..! *u.""''V^'fi8, without fin.* ..k.!."" '•g**'/. absented to tho 






.- .guuiea tae rea 






ii>i 



i 



11 



84 



INDEPENDENCE ACHIEVED. 



dence.'*^ Every vote favorable to indopendencc was 
received by the people with loud applause, and every 
one against it with groans. The popular preference 
became so marked and boisterous that the anti-inde- 
pendents, fearing for their lives, retired from the 
palace. 

The diputacion and ayuntamiento then, as the legiti- 
mate organs to express the public will, drew up the 
Acta dc Independencia, which was adopted, signed, 
and sworn to by all the members present.** This 
instrument, after declaring the aspiration of Guate- 
malans to be a free and independent people,"^ invited 
all citizens of the provinces to choose without delay 
representatives, on the basis of one for every 15,000 

"TLo supporters of this resolution were: Canon Doctor Jos6 Maria Cos- 
tilla, Dean Doctor Antonio Garcia Kedondo; Regente of the audiencia Fran- 
cisco Vilches, oidores Miguel Larreinaga and Torods O'Horan; deputies from 
the university, doctors Mariano Galvez and Serapio Sanchez; deputies from 
the college of lawyers, Joa6 Francisco C('>rdoba and Santiago Milla; Antonir 
Rivera Cabezas, Mariano Beltrancna, J. Mariano Calderon, Rev. Doctor J 
Matiua Delgado, M. A. Molina, members of the diputacion provincial; Mu 
riano and J. Antonio Larrave, Isidoro Castriciones, Pedro Arroyave, and 
Mariano de Ayclnena, members of the ayuntamiento; Lorenzo Romafia, gov- 
ernment secretary; Domingo Dieguez, secretary of the meeting; Friars Ma- 
xiano Perez and Jos6 Antonio Taboada, prelates respectively of the Recollects 
.and Franciscans. Some Spaniards also recorded their names in favor of such 
.action. lb. The Memoriaa de laa Revoluciones de Centra AmMca give among 
the members of the diputacion Jos6 Valdds, and leave out M. A. Molina, 5. 

^"297 years, 3 months, and 19 days from June 24, 1524, when Pedro do 
Alvarado arrived with his 300 conquistadores. 

"' Article 2d, speaking of the congress, says: It is to decide upon the point 
•of 'independencia general y absoluta, y lijar, en caso de acordarla, la forma do 
gobierno y ley fundamental quo deba regir.' Marure, who gives the text of 
the acta, iiascrts that the declaration actually was for an 'independencia ab- 
soluta do MC'jico y de cualquiera otra nacion;' and that Gainza, who favored 
.annexation to Mexico, had beforehand prepared an oatli to support it. Bosq. 
Jlist. Cfut. Am., i. 27, and ap. ii., iii. ; Alamaii, Hint. M6j., v. 340-": Ayon, 
jlpitntes, 21; Sqiiier's Trav., ii. 378; Squier'a Cent. Am., G7; Ciirvan, Porvenir 
•de Aldx., 252. Another vitul clause in the instrument was that the Roman 
■catholic religion ^^ hich the Central Americans had professed in past centuries, 
"y profcsaremos en los siglos venideros, ' must bo prcsenxd ' pura 6 inalterable, ' 
its ministers respected, and protected in their persons and property. Tlio 
prelates of the various religious communities were invited to cooperate in bo- 
Lalf of peace and harmony, endeavoring to do away with personal passions. 
Tlie whole proceeding was novel, this of Spanish officials, presided over by 
the chief agent of the king, meeting with natives of the country to decide 
■whether Guatemala should cast off the old mother country or not. Several 
other things worthy of notice happened then among them. Canon Castilla, 
though a friend of the archbishop, his prelate, who had advocated anti-iudc- 
pendence, favored the separation. Many of the officials declared for secession, 
chief among their number the gazista leader Jos6 del Valle, who held the high 
office of auditor de guerra. Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 5-6. 



"The 
Bcltraner 
Molina, 
Isidoro 
Secretarie- 
-^fy. Guat 
was made 
Diario exi 
5; Kojnero 
''^This 
"The;, 
"y persona 
and abetto 
than fori 
erty, undej 

"TheT 



PROCLAMATION OF INDEPENDENCE. H 

inhabitants, to a national congress that was to meet 
IMarch 1, 1822. In the mean time the Spanish laws, 
courts of justice, and public functionaries were to con- 
tinue as heretofore. The representatives were to be 
chosen by the same juntas electorales that had lately, 
since the restoration of the constitution, elected depu- 
ties to the cdrtes, without excluding, as the constitu- 
tion did, men of African descent from the rights of 
full citizenship.^'' The clause giving the last electoral 
college, with its majority of Valle's partisans, the 
power to choose the members of the constituent con- 
gress, is said to have been inserted in the acta by 
himself^ 

On the I7th Gainza issued a proclamation formally 
placing before the people the resolutions adopted on 
the 15th, and enjoining on all the duty of abiding by 
them, and of respecting the laws and authorities 
recognized by them. Any attempt, by word or deed, 
to restore Spanish domination was declared high 
treason, punishable with death.®* The powers of the 
congress would be constituent to adopt u form of gov- 
ernment and frame the national constitution. Mean- 
time Gainza held civil and military authority, acting 
with the advice of a provisional junta consultiva, 
formed with the diputacion provincial and seven 
additional nembers, representing respectively Leon, 
Comayagua, Costa Rica, Quczaltenango, Solold, Chi- 
maltenango, Sonsonate, and Ciudad Ileal.^'^ Neither 

"The following names appear in tlio acta: Gavino Gainza, Mariano do 
Beltrancna, Jos(5 Mariano Cakleron, Jos6 Mattas Dclj^ado, Manuel Antonio 
Molina, Mariano de Larrave, Antonio de Rivira, Jos^ Antonio do Larravo, 
Isidore de Valle y Castriciones, Pedro do Arroyavc, Mariano do Ayciiiena. 
Secretaries, Lorenzo de RomaQa, Domingo I)icp;uoz. Pineda de Mont., Recop. 
Ley. Glial., i. 1-14. Tlie news of this declaration readied Spain, and mention 
was made of it in the cortea Dec. 15, 1821, by Deputy Navarreto. COrtrs, 
Diario extraord., vi., 1821, Dec. 15, 34; Cortes, Diarh, viiL, 1822, Feb. 12, 
5; Romero, Bosq. Hist., 43-4, 66-130; Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 8-9. 

^^ This clause gave rise to much trouble afterward. 

'* The authorities were to be apprised of any plots against the new rdginie 
by persons becoming aware of them, or the latter would bo held as aiders 
and abettors of treason. Carrying concealed weapons, ringing of bells other 
than for religious service, and injuring or destroying public or private prop- 
erty, under any pretext, would be severely punished. Mix., Oac. Imp., Dec. 
1, 1821, 260-3. 

*^ The additional members were Miguel de Larreiuaga, Jos6 del Valle, J. 



i 






86 



INDEPENDENCE ACHIEVED. 



the people at large nor the meeting of the 15th created 
such a body. It was the creation of the men who 
remained behind in the hall, including Valle, who 
drew up the acta.^^ Continuing his double dealing, 
Gainza had issued his proclamation, on the IGth, for 
the election of representatives to congress. He spoke 
therein of the longing for independence since 1810, of 
the popular love for the cause which had been so 
forcibly sustained at the meeting of the preceding day, 
and concluded by inviting the whole people to approve 
the plan, and to appoint their deputies to complete 
the work. 

Before proceeding further with the political situa- 
tion at the capital of Guatemala, I will devote a little 
space to laying before the reader some information on 
one of i's most important sections, namely, Chiapas. 
The population was computed in 1813 at over 100,000 
inhabitants, of whom 70,000 were Indians; the re- 
mainder were Spaniards and mixed breeds, with a 
few negroes.^'' 

As a reward for good services and generous pecu- 
niary contributions to the nation, the Spanish cortes 
passed, October 29, 1813, a decree bestowing the title 
of city on the cown of Comitan, and that of villa on 
those of Tusta, Tonald, Tapachula, and Palenque.^ 



38 



Antonio Alvarado, Marquds <lo Aycinena, Josd Valdds, Jos6 M. Candina, and 
Antonio Roblcs. Domingo Diegucz and Mariano Galvez were made the sec- 
retaries, Marure, Efemdrides, 59. 

"^Tho acta was signed at Gninza's ho'jso o:i the IGth, and the extra mem- 
bers were appointed. Men, Jiev. Cent. Am., G. 

" Ciudad Re;il, the capital, had in the city proper 6,00(', chiefly Spaniards; 
the outsi'.'o districts and suburbs swelled t'.io population to 14,000. Mazarie- 
gos, ."ifetti. llirt. Chiapa, 51. Tlio canon of Chiapas Mariano Robles Domin- 
tuez de Mazariegos, bcinc the deputy from his province in the Spanish c6rte3 
in 181."?, laid beioio the clinmber an intsresting memorial, which was after- 
ward given to the press at Cild'", in one volume, 18mo, of 71 pages, under the 
title ol Memorhi JHntdrica de la Provinc'ui de Chiapa, He suggested means 
to develop the commerce of the province on its navigable rivers, and particu- 
larly with Guatemala and Vera Cruz. His recommendations were heeded, 
and several porta and rivers were opened to trade. Id., 33-4, 54-9; Cdrlen, 
Diario, 1813, xix. 392; Noticiono O'-.i,., Aug. 30, 1816. Mazariegos' Buccb;<sor 
was also a clergyman, Fernando Antonio Diivila, who took his seat in Nove n- 
ber, 1813. Cdrtci, Act. ord., i, 275. 

**From the time of the conquest there existed in all Indian towns ayan(»< 






THE SUBDELEGADOS. 



37 



In contravention of law, the first name of tlic three 
proposed by the intendentc to the president of G uutc- 
niala, for chief of each of the eleven subdelegaci(Mics, 
was that of some creature of the intcndente. Unfit- 
ness for the place or innnorality counted for nothing 
if the nomination suited the proposer or the confirm- 
ing power. Tliese subdelegados, by means of their 
comisarios, collected the tribute and speculated with 
it; each being a tyrant who oppressed the Indians at 
his will. 

Education was neglected; ignorance prevailed to 
such an extent that a large portion of the inhabitants 
did not know even the first rudiments of their reli- 
gion. The poorer Spaniards and the mixed 1 -reeds 
were entii'oly without education. Indeed, in nearly 
thn^e centuries, not only had the Indians not learned 
to speak Spanish, but the native Spaniards spoke 
the six Indian t(mgues of the province better than 
their own.** 

Chiapas, it is well known, had been an episco]:)al see, 
with its cathedral at Ciudad Ileal, -since the first years 
of the conquest.**^ The country is fertile and well 



micntos called oabildo!'; nn<\ composed as follows: a gobcrnador, who was a 
caci(ino oi* )iol>!o liuliau, gencvally for life, though 'sin jurisdiccion,' appointed 
formally in writing by tho principal e\ceiitivo of tlic pnivincc; two alcahlea; 
four, six, or eiglit rcgidorcs, according to ])opulation; and sonio ollicers called 
in some 'ilacea niayores, and in others alguaeiles, who aided tho regidores, 
took earo of tho eabildoa' houses, and furnished sujtpHes to travellers going 
through their towns. They were elected on tho first day of .Tanuary of eacli 
year, and were subject to tho alcalde mayor and the tcnientc of each town, 
by whom tlicy were too frequently badly treated. Mazuricjos, Mem. Jlist. 
Chin pa, 28-i!'J. 

''•• In somo Indian towns, so-called maestros were salaried from the com- 
munity funds of tho iidiabitants. Such maestros could scarcely real and 
write, and most of them were immoial and given to drunkenness. Of com so 
no j.'ood results could i)C obtained from .uch teachers. Tho Sitanioh eiirte.s in 
ISIU decreed tho adoption of me;isurcs fo;- promoting public iustiuctioii, and 
<j.i '.'lo '24tli of October enacted the establishment of a univ-ersily in tho prov- 
ince. Ml .'n-iegos, Mem. Hist. C/iiapa, 51-5^; Cdrles, Uiario, LSl.'!, xix. 'M2; 
id.. Art. ord., 1813, i. li:i, 141. 

*^Tho cathedral chapter was composed of four dignitaries, one simplo 
canon, six choir chaplains. Tho revenue of the diocese wfis limited. Tlio 
nuuiber of its parishes was forty -seven, which included tho eleven of tla capi- 
tal and suburbs. J/i/:nn'(';/os J'cw. Hint. Chiajin, -IS. From 181:) lo i8;tC, 
according to Larrainzai-, religion';, educational, ami gener.il aii'airs had at- 
tained nuich improvement. In the diocese theic were, besides t'le calliedral, 



s 



• 



hi 



38 



INDEPiiNDENCE ACHIEVED. 



watered. Its agricultural products were wheat — of 
which there was a surplus for exportation — maize, 
beans, rice, coflfee, and cacao." A variety of vegeta- 
ables in abundance, and the fruits of all climes, could 
also be obtained. The maguey was extensively culti- 
vated for pulque and aguardiente. A great deal of 
sugar-cane and good tobacco were grown. Indigo 
and cochineal were cultivated to some extent. The 
countrj'- had likewise excellent grazing. Cattle, sheep, 
goats, horses, and mules abounded. The mines of 
gold, silver, lead, copper, and iron were not worked, 
owing to the poverty of the inhabitants. The gov- 
crnor-intendento of Chiapas in 1817, Cdrlos Cas- 
taiion, as appears in the records, was a coufirniod 
royahst." 

From the time that Iturbide proclaimed the inde- 
pendence of Mexico, the canons of the chapter in the 
diocese of Ciudad Real — bitterly hostile, like the ma- 
jority of the Mexican and Central American clergy, 
to the reforms of the Spanish cortes respecting the 
church*'' — had been in comumnication with that chief- 
tain's auditor do guerra, Fernandez Almansa, who 
kept them informed on the progress of the revolution. 
The clericals looked upon the Mexican chief as the 
savior of their ancient prerogatives and inonopo- 



'Mill,,,. 



m^ 



tliroo conveuts of friars and one of nuus; a hospital, founded by Bisliop Juan 
..Ivarc/, do Toledo; an ecclesiastic college, founded by Bishop Bravo do la 
Serna; primary school;! and a university. Shice 1819 existed the Socieilad 
de Aiaigos del I'ais, to develop agriculture, industry, and learning. The 
inhabitants of the capital were quite cultured. Disrnrso, 17-18. In 181. '{the 
Spaiii^ih cintes, among other measures for the benelit of Chiapas, decreed that 
the friars of Guatemala should undertake the conversion of the Indians of 
Palenque. CorUs, Diario, 181.'}, xix. .SO'2. 

^' .Soeonuaco cacao being considered the best of America, some loads of it 
Mere sent every year to Spain for the use of the royal family. 

*'- On the 'JUtli of Dec. , 1S17, he congratulated the viceroy of Mexico on the 
triiimphsof the royal arms. The capture of Mina and other bu -esses were 
enthusiastically celebrated in Ciudad Real. Xotklono Gen., Feb. li, 1818, 4; 
a,iz. dcMcx., IS 18, i.K. 141-2. 

"Tlio bishop of Chiapas, Salvador San Martin, incurred the wrath of tho 
curtes, wiien lie was acting as deputy from Porto Rico, for hia support of tho 
royal decree of 1S14, tliat overtlirew tho national constitution. San Martin 
was dead when (,'liiapaa followed the exam]ile of Mexico in 1821. Alainan, 
Jiid. Mij., v. 344; Mdx., Gaceta Imp., i. 11, 173. 



CHIAPAS ACCEPTS ITURBIDE. 



39 



lies, and with this end in view, prepared public opin- 
ion for setting aside the authority of Fernando VII. 
and his c6rtes." 

The governor-intendente, Juan N. Batres, together 
with the ayuntamiento of Ciudad Real, proclaimed, 
on the 3d of September, 1821, the separation of Chiapas 
from Spain, and her acceptance of Iturbide's plan of 
Iguala. On the 8th all the authorities and officers, 




Chiapas. 

civil and military, took the oath to support that act, 
which was ulministered bv the cjovernor of the dio- 
cese; after which they had high mass and a sermon 
ill the cathedral, where the secular clergy and the 

" In Ciudad Real, Iturbide was called 'padre Salvador de la religion y de 
la patria.' Id., 10-12. 



40 



INDEPENDENCE ACHIEVED. 



people took the same oath*'^ before the aforesaid ec- 
clesiastic authority. The oblij^ations assumed were 
to support the Roman catholic apostolic religion; to 
secure the independence of the empire, preserving to 
that end peace and union between Europeans and 
Americans; and to obey Fernando VII., should he 
adopt and swear to support the constitution to bo 
enacted by the c6rtes of the Mexican empire. Chiapas 
was, therefore, the first province of the captain-gen- 
eralcy of Guatemala to throw off the Spanish yoke; 
sh(j at the same time separated herself from Guate- 
mala, and manifested her determination to link her 
future with Mexico. All this was made known Sep- 
tember 21st by the comandunte-general of Oajaca to 
Iturbide. The example of Ciudad Real was unhesi- 
tatingly followed by the other towns in the province. 

We have seen that Guatemala, at her declaration of 
independence, did not at once accept annexation to 
the Mexican empire. This course did not suit the 
rulers and notables of Ciudad Real, who hastened 
to manifest their displeasure at a meeting held Sep- 
tember 20th, and attended by the intendente, ayun- 
tamiento, and other official bodies, prelates, and a 
larijfc number of citizens. 

As a matter of fact, the desire of Chiapas to be 
detached from Guatemala and annexed to Mexico 
existed with some strength even before the declara- 
tion of independence;*" and Guatemala having failed 
to return an answer to the letter from the authorities 
of Chiapas, announcing her action of the 3d, this 
neLjlect had strengthened the notables of the latter 
in their resolution to recognize no other government 
than that of the Mexican empire under the treaties of 
Cordoba. It was also resolved at the meeting not to 
circulate the declaration of independence which the 

^^Tlic act of inilependeDcc was signed by Juan N. Batres, Josd Ignacio 
Larraiuzar, JosiS Dicgn Lara, Julio JostS Florca, JostS Nicolda Osuua, Esttvan 
Gonliilo, aiul Lie. Joa6 Vivos. 

■•"Soou after tliis net that desire began to assume proportions. Larrainzar, 
.A'o/Jc. Hid. Soconusco, '2S. 






CHIAPAS A PART OF MEXIOO. 



41 



jefe polftico of Guatemala liad sent. These senti- 
ments were duly seconded by the other cities and 
towns. 

In order to guard against any action Guatemala 
might take because of the course of Chiapas, at a 
formal session of the diputacion, presided over by the 
jcfe politico, and held on the 22d of October, it was 
resolved to send to Mexico a commissioner to take the 
necessary steps, and procure his province's separation 
from Guatemala, even if the latter should come to be 
thereafter a part of the Mexican empire.*^ 

*'For particulars on the final separation of Chiapas, and incorporation as a 
state of the Mexican confederation, see Hist. Mex., v. '22^, this series. 'J'he 
clergyman Pedro Solurzano was the agent appointed under tlio resolution 
referred to in the text, and he accordingly repaired to the city of Moxieo. 
Lm-rinnznr, 2ioLic, Ilist. Soconusco, 29; Mdx. Oaceta Imp., i. 1G9-73, 270-1, 
319-23, 337-9. 



CHAPTER III. 

UNION WITH MEXICO. 

1821-1822. 

First Acts of Gitatemalam Rulers — Intriodes or Paeties— Theib Evil 
CoNSEQnENCES — Gainza's Intrigoes — Independence in the Other 
Provinces — Rewards to Gainza — Troubles in Salvador— Dissen- 
sions IN Honduras — Local Squabbles in Nicaragua — Predilection 
FOR Imperialism— Costa Rica Neutral — Condition of Various 
Sections — Seceding Districis of Guatemala — Perplexities of the 
Junta Consultiva — Iturbide's Devices — Military Pressure— His 
Proposals Accepted — Illegal Annexation — Protests and Resist- 
ance—War Begins. 



Among the first acts of the junta at Guatemala 
was the promotion of two officers who were suppt)sed 
to be rchable supporters of the late movement.^ Both 
proved themselves afterward recreant to their pledges, 
by their hostility to the republican cause. 

The cacos were republicans. They strove to rid 
the country of the antiquated errors and practices, 
including in their plans the abolishment of the priv- 
ileges of the clergy, and the restriction of their power, 
wliicli had been a constant source of injury to the 
people at large. They wanted the adoption of demo- 
cratic institutions, in order to place the masses on the 
level heretofore occupied only by the ruling class. 
They succeeded in prevailing on the people to take an 
interest and a direct intervention in public affairs. 
Barrundia, Molina, and Cordoba led them to the gal- 

' They were Lorenzo Roniafia, who was made colonel of the battalion of reg- 
ulars, superseding the Spauiard Fiilix Lagrava, and Manuel Arzii, who obtained 
the command of the artillery, with the same rank. Marure, Boaq. Hist. (JetU. 
Am., i. 28. 



PARTY STRIFE. 



43 



I 



lories of the junta chamber to witness its acts, and 
even take part in its deliberations." They attacked ^ 
Vulle for the clause he inserted in the acta of the 
15th, to which I have alluded in the preceding chap- 
ter. On that point they certainly had a well-founded 
grievance, but their manner of presenting it resulted 
in a loss of confidence in the junta, the organization 
of new parties, and general distraction. The point 
taken by them, however, was decided in their favor 
by the junta. But the latter held secret sessions 
after the 20th of September, significant of sinister 
purposes. 

The other party — formerly constituting the ruling 
class — scouted the idea of equality. Most of the 
churchmen had the same feeling; for in joining thu 
movement for separation from Spain their motive had 
been to shield their menaced prerogatives, rather than 
love for America or freedom. 

On the 18th of September Gainza wrote Iturbide, 
generalissimo of the so-called empire of Mexico, that 
his course had been hailed with jo}^ and that political 
parties had consolidated on the proposition of indo 
pendence from Spain; hence he had proclaimed it. 
And that, since then, amid the transition from one 
system to another, the minds of the people of Gua- 
temala had been fixed on Iturbide, and they had 
desired to tender him their congratulations as the 
liberator of New Spain.^ 

^ A writer of the opposite party asserts that tlio practice caused much con- 
fusion, arifiiiig from ignorance. Tlio populace abused tiio privilege, and 
had finally to be excluded from the chamber. The same author speaks dis- 
paraginj,dy of the three leaders. Mem. /.Vt». Cent. Ant., 7. It is saiil of Uain 
tliut they often addressed from tlio gallery petitions to the junta, demanded 
removals of officials, and had disputes with its member., or with Ciainza. I 
have already given some account of Liarnindia and Molina. Curduba had 
sulFered imprisonment and prosecution for beiui; concerned in the revolution- 
ary movements of 1811. 

^ 'Acordeal fin en sus sentimientos, se reuni6 iiltimamente eu la opinion 
quo dcbi6 Biempre ser cl vinculo cstrccho dc su voluntad. Asi consta del tcs- 
timonio quo acompano d V. E.' The last sentence must refer to a copy of tho 
acta de independencia. Mc:, Gaceta Imp., i. G0-'2. And yet, another journal 
of Mexico, alluding to that letter, after erroneously giving' tlic writer's name 
as Gabriel Quinia, actually asserted its contents to be that (iuatemala, like 
Chiapas, liad submitted to Mexico, party spirit having been powerless to dis- 






■■■ 'iff 



44 



UNION WITH MEXICO. 



r !:■ 



The junta consultiva passed a number of decrees, 
.which were sanctioned by Gainza. Urrutia, the ex- 
ca[)tain-general, was tendered his salary and the con- 
siderations due liis rank and former office if he would 
formally rccojvnize the independence.* He declined 
with thanks, departing for Habana soon after. At 
the time of the .idoption of the acta, peaceable persons 
were assured of protection to their persons and 
property, which pledge was faithfully fulfilled. No 
opponent of independence was molested. Officials 
desirous of returning to their country were allowed 
to do so.^ 

The junta, which bore the compcllation of excelen- 
tisiiua, unanimously appointed Gainza captain-general, 
with the salary of $10,000 a year, decorating him also 
with a three-colored scarf, commemorative of the 
throe guarantees. A gold medal was voted to the 
members of the ayuntamiento, who made the solemn 
declaration of independence on the 23d of September.* 
(Committees were next appointed to study and report 
to the junta on public instruction, safety and de- 
fences, statistics, industry, and finances. Jose del 
Valle was instructed to form a plan of government.' 

Several financial measures engaged the attention 
of the junta. One of them proposed to levy a duty 
of ten per centum on gold and silver exported to 
Spain. This was never strictly enforced. Restric- 
tions to foreign commerce, and monopolies existing 
under the Spanish government, were abolished. Lib- 
eral principles were introduced, including freedom of 

turb the peace or general will of the inhabitants! M^x., Nolicioao Oen,, Got. 
11), 1821, 

* Decree of Sept 20, 1821. 

'' Decrees of Sept. 20 and 2'.', 1821. They were given two months' extra 
pay. Mem. Ren. Vent. Am., C-V. 

•' Tliia act was elTectcd amiilst great enthusiasm, and rejoicing at its ac- 
complishment witliout bloodshed. I'ersons then residing in the city who had 
favoi-cd the niovemeut had tlieir names inserted in a book. Marure, Boaq. 
JJU. Cent. Am., i. 27-.TO. 

' Another committeo was to count the population in order to apportion the 
deputies to congress. Oracias, Vuad. U^tud. , 23. 



SALVADOR INDEPCNDENT. 



45 



the press, which had been guaranteed by the Spanish 
constitution, and was now continued in tbrce.^ 



In Salvador absolute independence had been de- 
clared by the ayuntaniiento on the 21st of September, 
and proclaimed eight days after. Pedro 13arricre, 
who as tenientc Ictrado was temporarily acting as chief 
civil authority, together with the ayuntaniiento of 
San Salvador, decreed the election of seven persons 
to form a "junta subalterna econdmica y consultiva." 
There was great commotion stirred on the one hand 
by the vicar Ignacio Saldaua, and on the other by tlio 
liberals, Arce, Ramirez, and others. The next day, 
the people being assembled to effect the election, 
Barriere, pretending that his friends, the so-called 
scrviles, were in peril, retracted his former action. 
His words enraged the populace. Then he called 
out the troops to disperse the crowds, and arrested the 
republican leaders Arce, Rodriguez, and Domingo 
Lara." But on the news of his course reaching Guate- 
uiala, Delgado was despatched to Salvador as a peace- 
maker, clothed with ample powers. On his way to 
the capital he liberated prisoners, all of whom joined 
his following and entered the city with him. Bar- 
riere was sent out of the province; the troops were 
disarmed; peace was restored; a subordinate junta, 
consultiva was installed, and Delgado continued at 
the head of the government.^" 

* Before the news reached Spain of the change in Guatemala, Deputy Milla 
spoke, on the 18th of Nov., in the c6rte8 of the insufficiency of Spanisli bot- 
toms for the transportation of American produce, and demanded the privdcgo 
of using foreign vessels therefor. He alluded also to the inability of tlio royal 
navy to protect Spanish merchantmen, in proof of which he stated the fact 
tiiat five vessels had been carried off by insurgent privateers from Nicaraguan 
ports, t'drtes, Diario t'xtraonl., Nov. IS, 1821, iv. 12-13. 

•Men who had relations with Delgado, one of the junta in Guatemala. 
Mnn. Itev. Cent. Am., 9-10. 

'"Delgado assumed authority on his arrival at t.»nta Ana. jtnd used it 
effectively, though without violence. Marure, Bosq. Hint. Cent. Am., i. "'O-?. 
The extent of the province of Salvador was 50 leagues long and .30 wide; it 
was divided into the partidos of Santa Ana, San Salvador, San Vicente, and 
San Miguel, with three cities, uve villas, and 140 pueblos. Meudez, Afnti., 9- 
10. The following were the signers of independence: Pedro Barriere, Casi- 
miro Garcfa Valdeavellano, Jos6 Ignacio Saldaua, Joa6 Rosi, Millan Bustos, 



ml 



mm 



46 



UNION WITH MEXICO. 



In Honduras, on the receipt at Comayagua of the 
news that Guatemala had seceded from the Spanish 
crown, the governor-intendente, Brigadier Josd Ti- 
noco de Contreras, and the diputacion'^ refused to 
recognize the government constituted in that city, and 
took an oath to support the plan of Iguala. This 
was a virtual annexation of Honduras to the Mexican 
cuii)ire. The partidos of Tegucigalpa and Gracias, 
and the })orts of Omoa and Trujillo, would not accept 
as valid the act of the authorities at Comayagua, and 
maintained relations with those in Guatemala. The 
independence from Spain had been declared on the 
IGth of October. 

Tinoco took the two ports above named, which were 
treacherously surrendered to him." He also fitted 
out a force to march on Tegucigalpa. A counter- 
revolution, however, on the 1st of December, sup- 
ported by an approaching Guatemalan liberal force, 
set aside Tinoco's control and restored that of the 
junta consultiva." 

Gei onimo do Ajuria, Fraucisco tlel Duquc, Santiago Rosi, Trinidad E?tupinian, 
.liiim Ji. do Otonto, Francisco Ignacio do Urnitia, Narciso Ortega, and Pedro 
Miguel Lopez, secretary. Jiiiiz, C'cdcnd. Solv., G7-8; Sal v., Diur'to O/ic, Jan. 
'2(i, IST.'i, ;j; IJuKtamaufc, Cuad. Hist., vi., no. 187, 1-29; Mem. liev. Cent. 
Am., '2, D-IO. Alainan has it that Delgado seized tlie government by a revo- 
lution ill lS-22. J IK Mr/., V. 474-5. 

" Jn the Spanisli cortes, March 20, 181.'^, was read and passed to a com- 
mittee a petition of tlio uyuntamiento of Comayagua, objecting to the limited 
sco[)e of tlio decree of May 24, 1812, which authorized the establishment of 
only two iliputaciones in the whole of Guatemala, and asked for one in Coma- 
yagua witli Omoa, Trujillo, and the jiartiilo of Tegucigalpa, and that of San 
Miguel in .Salvador, within its jurisilietion, which would give the new di%u- 
tiicion a territory of 140 leagues from N. to S., and as many from E. to W. 
Cortes, JJiario, 1S1.'{, xviii. (Jl. I have no evidence as to when Honduras 
was granted the diputacion, but the fact apjiears that it had such a corpora- 
tion in September 1S21. The province was larger tiian Nicaragua, and divided 
into tlio partidos of Comayagua and Tegucigalpa, anil the nine sub-delegations 
of (iiaciasa Dins, San Pedro Zula, Tciicoa, Yoio, Olaiichito, Olancho Viejo, 
'JVgucigalpa, Clioluteca, and Trujillo, h.iving within it the ports of Omoa, 
Puerto Caballos, Puerto Sal, Triunfo de la Cruz, Trujillo, and Cartago. The 
bishopric of Comayagua embraced the whole iiitendeiicia, with 3j parishes, 
■)iiu mission, and 143 churches. Meiulez, .Mem., iS, 21. In 1821 there lived in 
Tvujillo about 2,r)00 Caiibs, the original iiihaljitants of Saint Vincent, later 
occupying the island of lloataii, whence they removed to Trujillo. They 
were a rather induoirious, honest people. C't);/;/e^7ia//',s I'oy., 2d scr., 101-3. 

'-'Omoa by Captain Bernardo Caballero, i'. Pedro Brito, and others, who 
seized and imprisoned the commandant, Antonio Prado. Marure, Bosq. Hint. 
Cent. Am., i. 3o. 

''The junta in Guatemala passed an act on the 11th of Dcs. to reward the 



-J 



LIBERTY IN NICARAGUA. 



47 






Nicaragua had, since 1813, a diputacioii provincial, 
under the decree of the Spanish c6rtcs of May 24, 
1812. Its jurisdiction extended over the di.stricts of 
Leon, Granada, Segovia, Nicaragua, and Matagalpa. 
Under the new system, estabhshcd in 1821, and since 
TJrrutia's retirement, constant questions of jurisdic- 
tion arose between the intendente and the superior 
jefe poHtico." 

On the 3d of October Colonel Crisanto Sacasa, 
commandant at Granada, issued a general order to 
the officers to report with their troops next morning, 
and take the oath to support national independence, 
pursuant to the instructions he had received from 
Captain-general Gainza. Intendente Saravia had 
been at enmity with Gainza, and when the first stops 
were taken in Guatemala for independence, he throw 
off his authority. In this he had the aid of Bishop 
Jerez and Colonel Joaquin Arechavala, commander 
of the militia, all three being natives of old Spain. 
They induced the diputacion and the ay untam lento, 
by an act of the 11th of October, to declare Nicara- 
gua seceded from Guatemala.^' This action occurred 
in Leon. But Granada refused to concur, and sent 
its representatives to the congress called to meet in 
Guatemala. Later, October 21st, the authorities in 
Leon formally accepted the Iguala plan, thereby an- 
nexing the whole province to the Mexican empire. 



villa of Tegucigalpa, raising it to the rank of a city, and bestowing on its 
ayuntuniicnto the title of 'patriotico. ' Muriirc, JJonq. Jli.it. Cent. Am., i. 37). 

" As a matter of fact, ill feeling had always existed in the provinces against 
the capital. This haired was intensiticd by tlrj respective intendeutes in 
forwarding their ambitious purposes, ^[cln. lie v. Cent. Am., 2. Lieut-col 
Miguel Gonzalez Saravia, sou of the old lieut-gen. shot in Oajaca, was the 
guv.-iutendento of Nicaragua since 1818. Naturally lie hated the indepen- 
dents for his father's rxccution. Mariirr, Dosq. Hint. Cent. Am., i. .'?4; Ayon, 
Ajiunti's, 22; Juarro/i, Ouat. (Loud. ed. 182;j), S37-8. 

'^ They would remain independent of the Spanish crown, they saiil, until 
the clouds disappeared. Mem. licv. Cent. Am., 8; Marure, lioxq. Hid. Cent. 
Am., i. .34; Ayon, Apuntes, 22; Siiarez y Navtrro, Jlist. MiJj., .'JST; Bn.ita- 
vianie, Cuatl. Hist., vi., no. 187, 1-29; Alaman, Hist. Mi'j., v. 340-8; Wells' 
J/ond., 408. Tomds Ayon, Apuntes sobre aljunos de. los aeontecimieiifos poH- 
licos de Nicciragua, Leon, 1875, 8vo, 50 pp., gives a few important memoranda 
on the political events of Nicaragua in 181 1-24, in a clear, concise, and ap> 
parcntly impartial manner. 



Simv 



>4-W^.- 



48 



UNION WITH MEXICO. 



l! ' 



The country was accordingly divided into two antag- 
onistic parties, the imperialist and the republican." 

Gainza said to the diputacion at Leon, on the 22d 
of October, that neither they nor the junta consultiva, 
nor any other body of men then existing, could decide 
upon the future of the country; none had a legal right 
to declare for or against annexation to Mexico. This 
could be arrived at only by the representatives of the 
people in the general congress." He appointed Colonel 
Sacasa comandante general of the forces in Nicaragua, 
and directed him to install in Granada a subordinate 
junta gubernativa of five members, clothed with the 
functions of a jefe politico, and which was to continue 
in power til. the status of the country should be 
fixed.'* Sacasa frankly notified the rulers in Leon of 
what he was to do, and took steps to carry his orders 
into execution. But Saravia, with the bishop and 
the diputacion, determined that no srjh junta should 
be installed. The diputacion, on the 1st of Decem- 
ber, by a special act, forbade its organization, declar- 
ing all attempts toward it subversive of good order 
and hostile to the Mexican empire, to which they 
owed allegiance; and warning all citizens to abstain 
from such efforts. 

"Saravia kept up a sort of underliandel war against Granada, obstructing 
her relations with Guatemala. Mature, Boaj, Hist. Cent. Am., i. 35. Tho 
extent of tho province of Nicaragua was 85 leagues long by 75 wide; detach- 
ing Nicoya, there were four partiJos, Leon, Realejo, Suti.iba, and Matagalpa, 
with 88 towns in all. Meiulez, Mem., 7. According to Miguel G. Saravia, 
Bosqufjo politico estadistico de Nicaragua, its population in 181.3 waa of 149,- 
751, a very imperfect census. Squier's States Cent. Am., 50. The bishopric 
of Leon comprised all tho intendencia of Costa Rica, with 40 parishes, 3 
missions, and 88 churches. Mendez, Mem, . 20. A considerable military force 
had been, since 179G, kept at San Juan del Norte; and in 1821 additional de- 
fences were erected, by government order of May 2d. This force was expelled 
after tho declaration of independence oy tho patriots. Squier's Trav. , i. 83. 

'' On the nth of Nov. ho answered in similar terms the diputacion at Co- 
mayagua. Marure, Bosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. 44-6. 

" Its members were to be chosen by electors appointed by tho ayunta- 
mientos supporting the Granada rdgime. Tliese members to choose every 
month from their own number the president. Perez, Biog. Sacasa, 5-6. Perez, 
Jerdnimo, Biografia del coronel Don Crisanto SMasa, 1875, fol., 18 pp., fur- 
nishes important data on the origin and life of a man who figured prom- 
inently and honorably in the affairs of Nicaragua from 1821 to his death in 
1824. In connection with them appear several official letters on events during 
the period between secession from Spain and annexation to Mexico. 



Sj 
supp 
di.sa[ 
2 2d 
Aiiic 
Mexi 

St'lvL't 

sumo 
a ropi 
at Lc 

Cos 

from 

She iij 

and se 

called 

Leon, 6 

A mee 

■ Ml 1 set 

<r' .11 tl: 

^'artag( 

uas foi 

the two 

•'II the J 

tlio han« 

monegiL 

cial capi 

was prcs 

the injp€ 

. "Thepe, 

Kal complic) 

'"-IS; .S'a/y. 

. -"It had. 

Its own, but 

'iiiateniala. 

(iita, Boiq. Cu 

fe''''vo it, toge 

-•''«., 54. In 

and black mei 

jJ.V (jO leagues 

l^jarraz, Villa 

^uevo, Escasi 

Ifltlian towns a 

Hist. Cew 



COSTA RICA NEUTRAL. 



40 



Sacfiba had every right to expect that Gainza would 
sup|)ort him aj^ainst attacks iVom Leon, but he was 
tlisappointed. The captain-general wrote him, on the 
22(1 of December, that it was doubtful if Central 
America could maintain a government se])arate from 
Mexico, many towns having already attached them- 
selves to the empire; and that he had expressed the 
same opinion to Saravia. Whereupon Sacasa, though 
a republican, made no further opposition to the powers 
at Leon. 



Costa Rica was privileged by distance to keep aloof 
from political troubles threatening the other provinces. 
She had seceded from Spain on the 27th of October, 
and set aside the governor, Juan Canas; but when 
culled upon to adopt the plan of the capital or that of 
Leon, she declined both, preferring a neutral attitude.^'' 
A meeting of notables confirmed the act of secession, 
nn 1 set up a provisional government entirely detached 
i'v n that at Leon, which was to reside alternately in 
Cartage, San Jos6, Heredia, and Alajuela. But this 
was found inconvenient, owing to rivalries between 
the two first-named towns; and finally it was decided, 
on the 27th of November, to place public affairs in 
the hands of Manuel Peralta, Rafael Osejo, and ller- 
nienegildo Bonilla, who were to reside at the provin- 
cial capital, Cartage. Under this arrangement peace 
was preserved, and the province never was really under 
the imperial rule.^" 

" The people acted prudently; they could but reap trouble from the polit- 
ical complications. Mem. Uev. Cent. Am., 2; Molina, Bosq. Costa liica, 4-5, 
17-lS; iS'a/y. , Diario OJtc, May 23, 1875; Loitd. Oeorj. Sac, vi. 135. 

-" It had, from the time of the conquest, a civil and military government of 
its own, but under dependence of the audiencia and cajituiu-generalcy at 
< luatemala. In matters ecclesiastic and financial it had been under Leou. Mo- 
lina, Boiq. Costa Hica, 92; Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 2. The Spanish constitution 
gave it, together vith Nicoya, a diputacion provincial. Astaburuaija, Cent. 
Am., 54. In 1812 the province had 22 towns— 12 of Indians and 10 of white 
and black men — besides farms, largo estates, etc. The extent in 1821 was IGO 
by CO leagues. The cities m ere Cartago and Esparza; tlie villas, San Jos(5 ^o 
Ujarriiz, Villa Vieia, and Villa Hermosa; the villages, Espiritu Santo, Pueblo 
Nuevo, Escasu, Alajuela, Bagasses, Las Cauas, Barba, San Fernando, and tho 
Indian towns and settlements; adding Nicoya and Guanacaste, there would be 
HiBT. Cent. Am., Vox. III. 4 



50 



UNION WITH MEXICO. 



Dissensions had now brought the country to the 
brink of civil war, and no time was to be lost in avert- 
ing it. Measures were adopted to hasten the meeting 
of congress. With tbc view of restoring peace between 
the sections, and of renderinj? harmless disturbinfj ele- 
nients without resort to arms, the junta at Guatemala 
concluded to despatch trusty commissioners to the 
provinces where secession was rife, who were to pre- 
vail on them to send deputies to the general congress. 
Other agents were to be despatched to Mexico to 
watch the turn of events at the capital.^* What 
good results those agents might have accomplished, it 
is impossible now to say. They had no occasion to 
try their efforts. Events in Mexico succeeded one 
another with such rapidity, and their influence on 
Central America was so powerful, that, even among 
the best patriots, many made up their minds to coop- 
orate toward the unfon, carried away by the idea that 
■only under the a)gis of the northern empire could 
peace, safety, and stability be secured. 

Costa Rica, we have seen, was in fact out of the 
field; at any rate, it had no share in the political strife. 
The provinces of Guatemala proper and Salvador 
were the only ones, at present, which together with 
Granada, in Nicaragua, and some portions of Hon- 
duras, attempted to preserve an independence from 
Mexico under whatever form of government rai<Tfhtbe 
adopted in that country. The idea of annexation to 
Mexico had been, however, growing popular from day 
to day in Guatemala. The important section of 



27 towns. Tlio populntion was computeil at between GO.OOO and 70,000, be- 
sides the three nations of heathen Indians in the mountains and northern 
coasts, and known respectively as indies do la Talamnnca, indios del norto, 
and indios Mosquitos, al' quite numerous. Cdrtcs, Diario, 1813, xix. 404-5. 
In 1813 tlio deputy from Costa Rica in the Spanish cortes petitioned for a 
bialiopric; but at tho time of the separation the matter had not bee.i acted 
on. Mendez, Mem., 7. 

'•"Juan do Dios Ma^orga and tho provincial of la Merced, Fray Luis Oar- 
cin, were selected for Comayuj;ua; tho prolate of tho Franciscans, Fray Josi'! 
Antonio Taboada, for Leon; tho prcbendado Jos6 Maria Castilla, Pedro Mo- 
lina, and Jo86 Francisco Barrundia, for Mexico. Mar. ire, Bosq.Ilist. 'Jent.Am., 
i. 37-0. 



ITURBIDE'S EFFORTS. 



HI 



Quczaltcnango adhered to the scheme, on the 13th of 
November, inviting Suchitepequez, Solold, and An- 
tigua Guatemala to follow the example, which they 
did soon after. And Cirilo Flores and Antonio Corzo, 
wlio in latex" years figured as most prominent cham- 
pions of derr.ocracy and suffered martyrdom for their 
cause, then supported the action of Quezaltenango. 

It was contended that Central America, after throw- 
ing cff the Spanish yoke, acquired, with independence, 
the riglit of forming such associations as might be 
mutually beneficial. This doctrine was warmly ad- 
vocated by a largo portion of the reflecting class. 
Under such circumstances, Guatemala and Salvador, 
hemmed in as they were between provinces that had 
already become annexed to Mexico, could not main- 
tain an absolute independence. 

Iturbide had largo ideas of imperial sway, and was 
bent on the acquisition of entire Central America, 
aided efficiently, as he was on this side, by the aristo- 
crats and other dissentient elements, who, perceiving 
the insignificance they would come to if the nation 
finally became constituted under a democraiic govern- 
iiicr.t. which their opponents were aiming at, labored 
with might and main to defeat the plan." They won 
over with money and fair promises a part of the peo- 
ple, and with Gainza, who expected high rank and 
offices from the new empire, bound Central A.merica 
hand and foot, as will hereafter bo seen. 

--Some of them asked for titles, decorations, and other rewards for their 
services in harnessing their country to Mexico's inipeiial car. 1^1 Pro^rc^o, 
Apr. 11, 1850. Tho organ of the empire spoko of tlio chimeriiul ideas 
of tho republicans and federalists, adding that the opposition to them was 
largo, and to bo found in tho ollicials, the liiglicr classes, and indeed all sen- 
sible persons, who well knew how small was tho niunbor of tho educated 
among them. It elaiiued that the journals published in Guatemala expressed 
the views of only a few deluded men, uIkksu ranks were becoming thinner 
every day. That same organ had given to the public certain letters from tho 
ayuhtamiento of Comitan, in Chiapas, oujicting to tho 'Jil art. of tho Guate- 
malan acta of Sept. loth, on tho ground that tho country had no resources to 
sustain a separave government, which had been evident since tho yearly al- 
lowance of $r2,00U ceased; superadded to which, they said, tho safety of 
Mexico might bo imperilled should Spain at somo future time recover posses- 
sion of Cent. Am., which the latter, if independent, could not prevent, and 
vindicate her authority over tho former. Mix., Qaceta Imp., i., Nov. 21 and 
Dec. 8, 1821, 202-7, 281-2. 



m 






ill;- 



UNIOX WITH MEXICO. 



The junta consultiva was imicli perplexed in view 
of the .situation. The iniperiaHsts daily became more 
insolent and exacting. At this critical time — Novem- 
ber 28th — Gainza laid before it a letter"^ from the 
generalissimo, making allusion to the much abused 
second article of the acta de independencia, and de- 
claring tliat Guatemala was not able to occupy as yet 
a ])lace in the family of nations, and should therefore 
link her fate with Mexico.'^* Whereupon the junta, 
at the suggestion of the marques do A^-cincna, hastily 
answered that the popular wishes must be ascertained 
before adopting any action ; promising to send the ])ro- 
posal at once to the ayuntamientos and local author- 
ities, with instructions to call on the people to give a 
formal expression of their will on the subject. This 
pronii .e was kept in a measure — the ayuntamientos, 
not the people, wore given one month's time to mani- 
fest their preference.-^ 

Soon after the arrival of Iturbide's messenger, the 
persecution of republicans was begun. The rough 
element of the population, instigated by their adver- 
saries, during the night insulted them at their liomes.''" 
Any one who either by word or writing opposed the 

"^ Dated Oct. 19th, and brouglit by Jos6 de Oflatc. 

°' 'Uuatcinala no dtbiii qucdar indcpeudiontc dc M(5jico, sino formar. . .un 
gran inii)Ciio Imjo el plan do Imiala. y tratados do Cordolja: que (Juatoniala 
Be hallaba todavfa imjiotpntc para gobcrnarso per si misina, y quo podria scr 
por lo niisiiio objeto dc la anibicion extraiijcra.' Marurc, JJosq. ll\st. Cent. 
Am., i. ;}t)— U. The ariHtocrats, now suru of Iturbide's aid, grew bolder in 
tlicir plotting. Squkr'n Trail, ii. HTS; Montufar, Iieseua Uht., iv. 3.VJ. 
Iturbido directed the eoudo dc la Cadena, on the 20th of Nov., to write very 
courteously to Mariano do Aycincna, who was well connected and had ad- 
dressed a communication to tl e libei'ator. IJiistamanle, Cucul. Hist., vi., no. 
187, 28; Moiiti\far, Ifcr na JIuL, iv. 20-2, :i3-9. 

'■'■'' The circular directed the ayuntamientos to read at a public sitting Itur- 
bide's letter, and express their opinion upon each poiuc embraced in liia pro- 
posal. Their answers as to whether they wanted annexation at once, or to 
await the action of congrer^s, wei'o to bo in Giiatcmala city on or before the 
aistof Uec, 1S21. Peti'n-Ilzd, Manif, dnlo Jit.sl., 2. This circular was drawn 
up by Valle. Tho electiona fi;) iiiunibers of the congress that had been called 
to meet in February wero to bo made as formerly directed. In Guatemala 
tho votes of heads of ''amilics wcro taken at each house by municipal agents 
in tho prcHi'aco oi a nota.y public, and duly registered. Mem. liev. Vent. 
Am., '.0-11; Alamnii, Jlixt. M'j., v. 47.")-C. 

'■"Till! cxilo of Barrundia, Molina, and others was demanded by Pedro Ar- 
rovavc, sindico of the ayiintamiento. Gainza was suspected of inciting cer- 
tain imperialists to prefer charges against tlieso parties. 



'^' A iiuni 
Jos(j chuich 
iilr.ildo Man 
iiii-'ii>.M;u(la 
■ ••-', 18.-> 

(''<•'",'/ , .c, . , 

-'■' Mdfiirf 
A/n 111,(11, Hit 

•'J I is a.o 
'f. :\lcn of J 
iia\e .--inco eo 
iiiilliing by tl: 
rendont natic 



VOTE OF THE AYUNTAMIENTOS. 



53 



plan of annexation was treated as seditious. At last 
the opposing parties had a scuffle in the streets, on 
the night of November 30th, which ended in the dis- 
roniliture of the republicans engaged in it.^^ Barrun- 
(Ua and Molina were present and exJiibitod much 
energy. The latter was in great peril of losing his 
][■■' 

On the day appointed for the receipt of the returns 
from the several ayuntamientos — naniel}^ the 31st of 
December — the junta provisional consultiva proceeded 
to the count. The result was as follows: 21 ayunta- 
mientos declared that none but the general congress 
had authority to decide for or against the union with 
]\rexico; 104 favored the annexation at once and 
iiu(!onditionally; 11 approved of the union, provided 
certain terms, which they appended, were sti[)ulated 
in the act of incorporation; 32 left the matter wholly 
to the provisional government; and two declined the 
connection in toto."'^'' Many others had not, for some 
reason, returned any answers; or if they had, the 
tjovernment in Guatemala failed to receive them on 
the appointed day. The result was made known to 
the regency in Mexico on the 3d of January, 1822, 
and on the 5th the subject was discussed in all its 
l)earings. Valle moved that the decision should be 
jiQstpiHied until the receipt of the returns of the G7 
ayuntamientos not yet heard from. Rivera, Calderon, 
and Alvarado objected to any action. Gainza advo- 
cated the acceptance of the aid and [)rotection teji- 
dcrcd by Mexico. ^^ The junta, disregarding all 

■^' A number of republicans, when acclaiming their principles near San 
Josu church, were lircil upon by an armeil force patroUiny the town willi the 
alralilc Mariano L:irrave, and two killed outriL,'ht, Mariano Bciloya and Uc- 
iniLric .Maida. Several were wounded; some arrests were made. Salt'., (iai In, 
'■J, 1S.j4; Maniri', Dosq. /list. Cent, A7n., i, 41-2, 47; J^icc. Unir. llisi, 
Cr'c'u'/ , i„^ _ , i. lil'J; Dunlopx Cent. Am., 'o7. 

■"^ Afrirmr, Bosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i., ap. v.; Mem. llev. C-nl. Am., 11; 
Alaiiiiin, Hid. Mrj., v. 474. 

•"•'llis arguments were not founded on fact. Subsequent cvcata proved 
it. Men of greater weight than (iainza, such aa Mora, I'occhio, and Zavala, 
liiive .'-ince contradictcil hia assertions. Zavala said tliat viiiatemala ^'ained 
uuthmg by the union, and that it had resources uf its own to exist as an inde- 
pendent nation, lie added that the provinces viewed with dislike the course 






54 



UNION WITH MEXICO. 



objections adduced, and the marked differences in the 
opinions of the ayuntamientos, decreed on the same 
day, January 5, 1822, that the whole of Central 
America should be annexed to the empire of Mexico, 
without other conditions than the fulfilment of the 
plan of Iguala and the treaties of Cordoba.^" In a 
manifesto of that date, it assured the people that, after 
obtaining the votes of all the authorities, corporations, 
and prominent persons, and in view of the census of 
population formed in September 1821, it was evident 
that the vote for the union with Mexico had reached 
a majority in Guatemala proper; and including the 
votes of Nicaragua, Comayagua, Ciudad Real de 
Chiapas, Quezaltcnango, Solold, and other towns 
which had a few days previously declared themselves 
for annexation, it would be found that almost the whole 
population had expressed itselfin favor of connection.^* 
No member failed to record his name in favor of the 
loss of nationality, though some had, as before stated, 
suggested that certain guarantees should be required 
previous to the completion of the surrender. 

G;iinza issued a manifesto full of generalities, de- 
clared there was no further need of electing deputies 
to congress, and assured the people of a liberal gov- 
ernment, and future peace and prosperity 



32 



Erelong 

of the aristocrats at tho capital. It could not be otherwise. Where was the 
ailvantaj,'c of a connection with the city of Mexico, which was ahnost inac- 
cessible to them? But tho rich men of Guatemala would havo it, regardless 
of conseqnei.'ccs. Ensatjo Hist, lievol. Mex., i. 180-7. 

^^Sco Jtl4. JAl'j-., iv. 710, 7-2S-d, this series. 

"' Tho junta had on tho .3d indicated to Itnrbide that its duty was to annex 
tho country to Mexico; 'coino ya so lo indico en oficio do trea del corriente.' 
Other reasons were given by it for the action taken, tho chief one being tho 
necessity of preserving the country's entirety and repose, which had Ijcen in 
danger of a rupture. The names affixed to tho manifesto arc: Gavino Gainza, 
Marquoa do Ayciuena, Miguel do Larreinaga, Joso del Valle, Mariano do 
IJeltranena, Miguel Antonio Molina, Antonio Rivera, Jos6 Mariano Calderon, 
Jos6 Antonio Alvarado, Angel M"- Candina, Eusebio Castillo, Jos(i Valdds; 
Jos(5 Domingo Diegucz and Mariano Galvez, sccrotai'ies. O'uat., Jiecop. Lci/es, 
i. 14-lG; Maritre, llosq. Hist. Cmt. Am., i.,ap. iv„-vi. ; Montii/ar, liesena Hist.. 
iv. 18-23, 40-'J; Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 8-9, 11; Bustamante, C'ucul. Hisl., vi., 
no. 187, 1-29; Alaman, Jlist. M('j., v. 470; Sua.rez ;/ Navarro, IIM. M('J., 
.380-7; Lastarria, in La America, 249; Salv., iJiario OJic., Feb. 13, 1875, 4, 
and March 28, 1870, 003; Rivera, Hist. Jalapa, ii. 218; Sqiiier's Trav., i. 
383: Kewen's Nic. and IValker, MS., 33-G; Runiero, Bosq. Jlist., 103-0. 

°^'Laa ideas do prosperidaid, objcto do la indoj-endencia, van d substi- 




1 i 



GAIXZA'S EDICT. 



bo 



events came to show how dohisive were the promises 
thus held out by the incoming regime. It was pre- 
posterous on the part of an unconstituted country, as 
Mexico then was, with a government whose existence 
was preccirious, to undertake the task of affording pro- 
tection to the people of Central America — to a people 
that had been brought under the yoke of the so- 
ealled empire in such an unprecedented manner. 

Forgetting, after a few days, the honeyed words of 
his manifesto, Gainza,^ on January 9tli, issued a 
stringent edict, countersigned by Jose Maria Cclaya 
as secretary, giving renewed force to his former edicts 
of September iTtli and December 1st, and ibrbid- 
ding, under the penalties provided by the laws against 
sedition, that any one should, either by tongue or ])en, 
ccnsuT'e or refute the action adopted as the will of the 
majority. Conversations on the subject in the streets 
or ])ubli(' ])laces were prohibited, and citizens were 
enjoined to report at once to the authorities any at- 
t(';ii[ite(l conspiracy against the new government whieli 
mi' 'lit come to their knowledu'e. Constitutional al- 
(•aides and other local authorities were charged with 
the execution of this decree. 

Cainza and his junta thus gave way to the wishes 
of the would-be oli'j;'arclis and the cler<n\ iixnoriniji; the 
fact, formerly recognized by them, that to the repre- 
sentatives of the [)eople in congress exclusively be- 
longed tlie decision of the question on the future 
status of the countr3^'" The aristocrats and clericals 
brought about difticulties to prevent the election of 

tuirso ii los partuloaoniiaosoa. . .iK'Utralizar las tuntativiis del potior aibitraiio 
y ilo Ids inoviuiiuntos populurca. ' Gninza, Mnnijlcsto, O'accla O'uh. Giuvldl., 
IS'JJ, March '2, .•{02-4; Aliix., OarHa Imp., ii. 057-1); Kc.wen, Nir. and WnlLrr, 
.Ms., .SU-O. 

^'' Ho now yivos himself a long list of titles, viz.; knight o' justice of tlio 
sricreil religion of St John of Joi'iisiilem; lieutvnaat-general by acclamation of 
the in.loi)enilent army of Guatemala; decorated with the banda nacional; her 
captain general; inspector-general of all her :. ms; superior political chief, 
intendiMit-geucral, and president of the junta provisional consultiva. J/tj;., 
ilacrla Imp., 1. 5(37-1); (jacrta Oob. (JiiaddL, March 2, 1822, 304. 

^' Only two niontha earlier tho diputaoioncs of Comayagua and Leon wero 
told that neither tho junta conaultiva nor any other body then existing had 
any such power. 



= m 






5G 



UNION WITH MEXICO. 



IS 



representatives, and took advantage of them to carry 
out their designs. The truth is, that the device re- 
sorted to, of acting upon the opinions of ayunta- 
mientos which they well knew had no authority in the 
premises, was illegal. And, indeed, could a popula- 
tion of upwards of one million, scuilered over 75,000 
square miles of territory, have duly considered so vital 
a niatter as the abdication of their national autonomy 
within the short period of thirty days? The whole 
secret of the aristocratic success lay in the pressure 
brought to bear on the country with a military force 
sent by Iturbide to support his pretensions." The 
following facts appeared in the imperial gazette of 
Mexico: The regency announced on the 12th of No- 
vember to the junta soberana that Chiapas, as well 
as the towns of Guatemala, had signified a wish to 
be received as a part of the Mexican empire, asking 
for military aid to uphold its acts. The regency 
added, that the military aid must then be quite near 
(Jhiapas, under the orders issued beforehand by the 
generalissimo, 5,000 men having already, under the 
^onde de la Cadena, crossed the Tehuantepec River. 
Tjie junta graciously assented to the so-called wishes 
of the peo[)le of Chiapas and Guatemala, giving them 
the rights of Mexican citizens.^*' 

A division under Briu'adier Vicente Filisola, with 
Colonel Felipe Codallos as his second in command, 



lUiX 



37 



'"'It was rnmored, ami doubtless believed by the people, that a formidable 
force was on the way — 5,000 men — whioh Central x\nicrica in its present di- 
vided cundition could not resist; heucc tlie premature submission with an 
appii rent good grace. J/cm. Iicv. Cent. Am., 10-11. 

'■^'^d' tied a Imp., i. 1G2-3. According to Bustamante, Ciiad. Hist., vi., no. 
187, I -'21), the party in favor of absolute independence in Cluateuiala sus- 
tained itself till a Mexican force was sent, and it was by tliis means tlic 
absorption was cITcctcd. The force Iiad not arrived, but was certainly e.\- 
pcctetl. Luis G. Cuevas, a Mexican senator, tells us that the people uf Cent. 
Am. were mostly very enthusiastic for Iturbide, and at tho same time anx- 
ious to rid themselves of the liberal party, whoso members ho calls an un- 
bridled set of demagogues. Moreover, they wanted to belong to a nation 
having so much credit abroad, and such largo resources to aid them. For- 
venir dr Mcx., 'loZ. 

^'' Conde de la Cadena was first in command, but ho resigned it on account 
of sickness. Alamaii, Hint. MrJ., v. 474-8; Suarez y Navarro, Ilkt. Mvj., 
387-S; Fdisola a la Junta Soberana, note .'5, 



TROUBLES IX SALVADOR. 



57 



began its march in November 1821; but a large por- 
tion of the men deserted on the way, and the ranks 
had to be recruited in Chiapas; and yet Fihsola linally 
arrived in Guatemala with only GOO men.^"* 

The junta provisional, after its action of January 
Stl-c, had no further reason for continuing, and so dis- 
solved itself on the 2 1st of February. Gainza, retain- 
ing the offices of jefe superior politico and captain- 
general, called into life a diputacion provincial.^^ His 
authority, liowevcr, was not regarded in Chiapas, 
Honduras, Nicaragua, nor a great part of Salvador. 
Costa Rica still remained aloof and was unmolested. 

During Iturbide's occupation of his rickety throne, 
Central America ]iad de])uties in the im])erial con- 
gress,*" and the orders of the emperor's government 
were generally obeyed. Nevertheless, pkicky little 
Salvador kept up the «ti'uggle against foreign domi- 
nation. Nearly a majority of its ayuntamientos, to- 
gether with the pricbt Delgado, tlie acting p')liiical 
chief, had signilied their wish to await the action of 
congress; and on hearing of the surrender to Mexico 
by Gainza and his junta, entered a protest and seceded, 
resolving to remain independent till the representa- 
tives of the whole people of Central America should 
decide the question of nationality.*^ 

But even here dissensions ibstered from Guatemala 
liad their pernicious effects. Santa Ana and San 
j\Iiguel had voted for annexation to Mexico, and to 
U})li()ld this action, seceded from their own j^rovincc, 
wITk.-Ii in that year led to a war between Salvador 



288(iuior, Gnat., 5S0-1, has it 700. 

="9 Tiie 3il ^ It w;i3 installed March '20, 1 S-22. Mariire, Boaq. Hist. Cent. A m. , 
i. 47; /(/., E/ondrklfs, 5. 

'"Amoiij^ tlieiu were .Josi5 del Vallc, Jnan do Dioa Mayorga, and Mnrcial 
Zeliiulua. Xarala, Eiiaii'/o J 114. Rev. Mvx., i. 1S7. Suurez y \:u';iit(j says 
that Mayorga had a secret niissiou from Salvador near the Mexican govern- 
ment, limt. Mi'j., 3S7. 

■" JAm. AVc. (.'('lit. Am., 11-12. The province was ruled by a junta i^uher- 
nativa, one of wlioso niombcr.i was Antonio Jose Canaa, one of the most distin- 
gui-ihcd among Cent. Americans, lie soon after became the second in command 
of tlio 'batallou lijo,' or'^anized to resist Iturbide's pretensions. Salv., Diario 
Oik:, Feb. 13 and 10, 1S7j. 



iyi 



l> 






i ' '' ^ 



58 



UNION WITH MEXICO. 



and Guatemala. The government at San Salvador 
gave the chief command of its forces to Manuel Josd 
Arce, with orders to bring the people of Santa Ana 
to reason, peaceably if he could, forcibly if he raust.*^ 

Arce marched on Santa Ana, when Padilla, com- 
manding a portion of the Sonsonate force which had 
been stationed in that city, retreated within its own 
territory. After compelling the town to revoke its 
act of secession, Arce went in pursuit of Padilla, oc- 
cupied Ahuachapam, then an annex of Sonsonate, 
and fmally routed that officer in the hacienda El 
Espinal." This was the first act of a bloody war, 
which will be treated in another chapter. 

In Honduras, the districts of Tegucigalpa and 
Gracias, together with the ports of Oinoa and Tru- 




Defeat of Padilla. 

jillo, repudiated the union with Mexico.** Brigadier j 
Tinoco, on hearing that a Salvadoran force had en- | 
tered Honduras, resigned his office of governor. 
Comayagua, however, continued recognizing the au- 
thority of Mexico, but not that of Guatemala.*^ 
In Nicaragua, the city of Granada disregarded the 

"Gainza bad meantime stationed troo^os iu Sonsonate, a town whicli 
liitherto belonged to the province of Guatemala proper, and afterward became 
a part of Salvador. 

" J/cm. Jiev. Cent. Am., 12-13. 

•*Tlie rest of the province had accepted that arraMgpent. Gov. Tinoco 
had made himself master of Gmoa, but a revoluty^pileased it from his 
grasp. His authority over Trujillo ceased about thl3lddle of January 1822. 
Jd.,7-d. 

*'^ The inhabitants were influenced to that courSe by Canon Nicolda Irias 
and Juan Lindo. The diputacion sent Tinoco to Mexico to report the state 
of atfairs iu Honduras. AJarure, lioaq. Hist, Cent, Am,, 37. 



sibl( 
He 



NICARAGUA AND COSTA RICA. 



I 



authority at Leon, and held relations with Gainza, 
oven after Colonel Sacasa had placed himself under 
the orders of the former.^* Sacasa had surrendered 
his charge in Granada to Cleto Ordonez,*^ who thus 
became the leader of the liberal party in Nicaragua. 
After the act of annexation to Mexico, and Salva- 
dor's act of secession, both Sacasa and Ordonez sup- 
ported the independents. 

Ordonez, finding himself in possession of irrespon- 
sible power, soon gave a loose rein to his bad instincts. 
He began to seize private property, not excepting 
even that of foreigners. Sacasa's person and prop- 
erty did not escape.*^ 

Costa Rica did not fail, though maintaining a neu- 
tral attitude, to manifest her discontent with the 
course of Guatemala, 

'" There was, in consequence, a bitter correspondence between Saravia and 
Gainza. Mem. Jiev. Cent. Am., 14. 

*' Tiu3 man was of the lowest class; bad been a common servant, and 
afterward an artilleryman, lie was once confined in a, dungeon at Trujillo, 
from wliich he escaped. When ho began to figure in politics his wit made 
him popular with the citizens. It was said that he had some knowledge of 
medicine, and hud written some creditable poetry, lie was, however, given 
to cards and free-love, but abstained from the bottle. lie was twice mar- 
ried, but left no children. Perez, Biog. Sacasa, 8; Mem. llev. Cent. Am., 14; 
Marure, Hosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. T3-4. 

** Ordonez had Sacasa and others confined in irons in Fort San C;irlos. 
Public opinion accused him of being the most active instigator of hatred be- 
tween the white and other races. Id., 74; Mem, Bev. Cent. Am., 14; Salv.f 
Diario OJic., Feb. 19, 1875. 



CHAPTEK IV. 

CENTRAL AMERICAN CONFEDERATION. 

1822-1825. 

Secession from Mexico— Arzu's Campaign— Prevarication of Salvadob — 
Filisola's Victory — IIis Subsequent Course — Liberal Triumph in 
Costa Rica— Honduras Favors Union — National Independence 
Secured — Labors to Organize a Nation — Tue Constituent Assemblt 
— Provi.ncias Unidas del Centro de America— Abolition op African 
Slavery — Provisional Government — Modicrados or Serviles — Li- 
berales or flebres — principles and alms of parties — mexican 
Forces Retire — Seditions Begin — Salvadoran Force in Guatemala 
— Confederacion de Centro Am^ric^ — Fundamental Law — Finances 
— Adjournment of the Constituent Assembly. 

Arce's invasion of territory occupied by Guate- 
mala afforded the latter a sufficient pretext, if any 
were needed, to declare war against her high-spirited 
and troublesome neighbor. Colonel Arzii was there- 
upon despatched on the 19th of March, 1822, at the 
head of a ibrce, which in a few days had been increased 
to 1,000 men, to bring Salvador under subjection. 
Arzii's dilatory movements, however, defeated the 
object of the expedition.^ He lost two months and 
more waiting for reenforcements and artillery, and by 
indecision as to whether or not he should heed the 
protestations of the Salvadorans.'' The latter em- 
ployed the time thus gained in fortifying their city, 

• His orders were to take the city of Sau Salvador on or before the 5th of 
April. Mem. Rev. Vent. Am., 12. 

■■' They claimed that their declaration of independence did not imply hos- 
tility to Guatemala, and in support of it expressed a willingness to furnish 
hostages. Their representations were of no effect, however; 'habiaenipeao 
cu sojuzgar i. San Salvador, y & este interns se eacrificaba todo.' Marure, 
Bosq. J Hat. Cent. Am., 51. 

(GO) 



thou 
Art) I 
conti 

of N; 
t;ikir 
ad\ai 
the 
to clis 
tliat t 
light 
^Vrzi'i 
were 
the UK 
the in) 
suit wi 
Arzi 
temala 
cxpcdil 
care, 
ilorans 
mala, 
pleased 
l^'ilisolaj 
was sui 
Filisola 
1822, an 
ment. 



Against 
and had fori 
^'m., 13; At 

*IIo wen 
which quart 
expected. 

''The cas 
12-13. 

"It was cl 
Buhscquently 
^-'i-'ut. Americ 
years ravaged 
-10 answ( 
Cnit. Am.,i.i 
^yex., -203-4, 1 
At any rate, h 
aitle-de-cainp 



DEFEAT OP ARZO. 



ei 



thouijli short of arms to equip a sufficient garrison. 
Aroused at last by Gainza's positive commands, Arzii 
continued his march/ and avoiding the fortifications 
of San Salvador, entered the city on the 3d of June, 
taking its defenders by surprise.* Having now every 
advantage, Arzii might have made himself mast' r of 
the place had he not carelessly permitted his tit)op3 
to disband for purposes of plunder. The result was, 
tliat the Salvadorans had time to rally, and a street 
li''ht ensued, ending with the total discomfiture of 
Arzii and his force, who with the loss of their arms 
were driven from the city.° Had the victors made 
the most of their success, they might have annihilated 
the invading force; but they failed to conduct the pur- 
suit with any skill.** 

Arzu's defeat produced a deep impression in Gua- 
temala, where such a result had been unexpected, the 
expedition having been fitted out with the utmost 
care. Fears began to be entertained that the Salva- 
dorans might become aggressors and invade Guate- 
mala. The friends of Mexico were therefore much 
pleased on hearing that the Mexican commander, 
Filisola, had been ordered to supersede Gainza, who 
was summoned to Mexico.^ With about GOO men 
Filisola arrived in Guatemala on the 12th of June, 
1822, and ten days later took possession of the govern- 
ment. He inaugurated a comparatively good state 



' Against Filisola's expressed wishes. That general was then in Chiapas, 
ami had forbidden all military operations till his arrival. Mem. Jiev. Cent. 
Am., 13; Alaman, Hist. MeJ., v. 478; Filisola d la Junta Soberana, note G. 

* lie went in by the road sloping from the volcano to the west, from 
wliich quarter, owing to the roughness of the ground, no attack had been 
expected. 

•'The casualties were not heavy on either side, ^fem. liev. Cent. Am., 
12-13. 

" It was chiefly on the superiority exhibited on this occasion that Salvador 
subsequently based her claim to a prominent place in the councils held upon 
Cout. American affairs. Many of the internal wars which for a number of 
years ravaged the country may be traced to this pretended superiority. 

' To answer charges preferred against him. Id., 15; Manire, JJosq. /list. 
Cnit. Am.,i. 53, {oMowaahy Alaman, Hist. Mej.,y.418. Cucvas, Porvenir de 
.^fex., '2o',i-4, makes the doubtful assertion that Gainza went of his own accord. 
At any late, he after.vard was made a lieut-gen. of the imperial army, and on 
aide-de-camp of Iturbide's. 



Wm 



m CENTRAL AMERICAN CONFEDERATION. 

of affairs; for though as a supporter of the Mexican 
cause, and specially of the empire, he aimed at con- 
solidation, yet his policy was a conciliatory one.* 
Ho ondoavored to obtain the assent of Salvador to 
union with Mexico without resorting to force. At 
first his course presented a pr<iniising aspect, inasmuch 
as the representatives of the former apparently made 
little objection; and on the news of Iturbido's call to 
the Mexican throne, among the many congratulations 
received by Filisola were those of Salvador, delivered 
by a special deputation. But the object, as it turned 
out, was merely to gain time. The negotiations were 
continued several months, hostilities having been sus- 
pended by both belligerents, till early in September 
it was uufiecd that further neg-otiations should be 

• • • 

carried on directly with the executive and congress 
of Mexico." This agreement was not carried out, 
however, owing to new difficulties raised by San Sal- 
vador. Filisola, who evidently would not assume the 
responsibility of war, referred the whole matter to 
Mexico for instructions. Iturbido, who had just dis- 
solved the Mexican congress for its opposition to his 
plans,^" felt no inclination to permit little San Salva- 
dor to dictate the terms of union, and disallowing the 
armistice concluded by Filisola, ordered him to begin 
hostilities forthwith if unconditional submission were 
refused." 

Leaving his second officer, Colonel Codallos, in 
charge of the government at Guatemala, Filisola be- 
gan the military operations toward the end of Novem- 



* His proclamation of July 8, 1822, expressed bis desire to be guided only 
by the best interests of the country. Mix., Oaccta Imp., 1822, C57-9. 

'••Duly authorized agents of Salvador were to go for that purpose to Mexico 
in Nov. 1822; the districts of San Miguel and Santa Ana bc.vng permitted tu 
recognize the government at Guatemala till an understanding should bo 
arrived at in Mexico. Other clauses referred to the surrender of arms seized 
by Arcc in Sonsonate, to the commercial interests of the two provinces, and 
to rules to be observed before renewing hostilities. Marure, Bosq. Hist. Cent. 
Am., 5G-7. 

>"Oct. 31, 1822. Sec Hist. Mex., v., this series. 

" Filisola d la Junta Soberana, notes 9, 10. 



!, ;.'!! 



FILISOLA'S CAMPAIGN. 



la 



bcr, taking possession of Santa Ana and marching 
upon the city of San Salvador, after having routed 
several small hostile detachments which attempted to 
check his i)rogrcss. At the same time ho published 
the decree of the Mexican government of November 
4tli, making of Central America, or the former captain- 
generalcy of Guatemala, three comandancias gene- 
rales, namely, those of Chiapas, Sacatcpequez, antl 
Costa Rica, the capitals being respectively Ciudad 
Real, Nueva (.Tuatemala, and Leon in Nicaragua.'' 
The government of San Salvador was in a precarious 
situation; although disposing of an army whose nu- 
merical force and equipment were not inferior to Fili- 
sola's, yet it had neither discipline nor experienced 
officers. The few encounters which had already 
taken place between the two forces had made it evi- 
dent that the Salvadorans could not cope with Fili- 
sola's military skill. Under the circumstances, the 
authorities of San Salvador resolved upon incorpora- 
tion with Mexico, and demanded that Filisola shoukl 
proceed no farther. They declined to inform him of 
the terms under which they would submit to anni;xa- 
tion, though offering to lay them before the congress 
in Mexico. They based this action on the ground 
that if their purpose became known in Salvatlor a 
revolution would certainly follow." 

The Mexican commander paid no heed to these 
ambiguous statements, which he considered devices 
to gain time, and continued his march. ^^ 



'■'His force consisted of about 2,000 men, chiefly from Guatemala, Santa 
Ana, San Miguel, Sonsonatc, and Honduras. 

^'■^ Marure, Bosq. Jlist. Cent. Am., GO-1; Molina, Costa Ilka, 9."]; Squier\t 
Traveh, ii. .383. Tlie decree never went into ellcct, however. 

'* The principal conditions were; establishiiient in Mexico of a roprestnta- 
tive government; Salvador's absolute indcpoudenco from (jiuateniala; paiiici- 
patii in of lier delegates in framing the national constitution; continuation in 
ollice of the present incumbents; and erection of an episcopal see. For loss 
important terms demanded on that occasion, see also Mem. llev. Cent. Am., 
10-17; Marwe, Bosq. Hist. Cent. Am., 02. 

'■^ It seems that ho again asked for instructions from the emperor, who 
pL'i'uniijtorily directed him not to lose mure timo in negotiations. ' V. S. no 
cs mas que uu soldado quo dubo atacar la ciudad, posesiouarae do ella y 
tratar a los cabecillas como perturbadores del tirden.' Mevi. I'er. Cent. A7n., 



C4 



CENTRAL AMERICAN CONFEDERATION. 



lllKf 






I 



ir i 



It was at this critical moment that the contrress of 
San Salvador, carried away by hatred to Guatemala 
and Mexico, resolved upon a singular step. On the 
2d of December, 1822, the act of incorporation with 
Mexico was repealed, and the state was placed under 
the protectorate of the Anglo-American states, as an 
integral portion thereof. Solemn protests were made 
in tlie name of that republic against Filisola's hostile 
acts. A member of the congress, Juan Manuel Ro- 
driirucz, was commissioned to make known the incor- 
poration to the government of the United States.^* 
For a short time it seems that hopes were entertained 
of an armed protection on the part of the northern re- 
public in favor of the new acquisition; but soon the 
folly of sucli expectations became apparent. Filisola 
disregarded the protests,^" and after several victorious 
encounters, routed the Salvadorans under Arce at 
Mejicanos,'^ and entered the city of San Salvador with- 
out further opposition on the 9th of February, 1823. 
Filisola fulfilled the promise he had made the preced- 
ing day to the ayuntamiento, that he would respect 
all rights, and not treat the town as a conquered coun- 
try. The only Salvadoran force remaining was com- 
pelled, on the 21st of February, to surrender at Gual- 
cince, a town on the other :^ide of the Lempa River. '^ 
This was the end of the war."" Arce, who departed 
for the United States, wrote Fihsola from Belize a 
letter full of firmness and dignity, meanwhile thank- 

17. Filisola himself coiifirnicd the above in his address t - the junta soberanr> 
of Cont. Am. of June 21, 18-2.3, note 10. 

'"Scjuier, in his yVrnv/x, ii. 383-4, rather emphatica' y comments on this 
'step exi)ressive of sympathies and sentiiricuts which st .1 exist.' 

" ' With a declaration that he was not waging war -i the \J, S., he con- 
tinued his operations.' 

'8 Feb. 7, 18'J3. ^fem. Rev. Cent. Am., 17-18. 

'^ Filisola issued passports to all who wished to quit the country, and cvcu 
furnished tliein money to leave. To the poor soldiers he afforded every facil- 
ity to reach tiieir homes. 

*" It must be aclinowledged that to the gallantry and constancy of the 
sons of this little province, Central America owed to a g'xat extent its exist- 
ence as a sovereign commonwealth. Znvnla, Rev. N. E.-^n., i. 142. See also 
Ataman, Hint, Mi'j., v. 470; Marure, Jlo.'iq. J/i^l. Cent. A7n., i. 47; Suarez y 
Nauarro, Hist. Mij., 387; Mem. Uev. Cent. Am., 11-12. 



mg I 

at ]] 

giaiK.' 
to G 

rih o 

tJie II, 
nf lU 
(.illaLij 
to Jii, 

Xicai'i 
ei'iioi' 
com pi i 
and af( 
govern 
the 



pl'O 

tlieni tl 

iii'.sfc ul) 

vinceu 

iallon 1)1 

that he 

Central 

'j^'cn ma 

i'ortor.s, 

govenini 

it from a 

tn-. Al 

^'-vohilio 

''t'lfl othei 

^'Dce to 11 

I>ein;g ; 

iiices ol" ( 

<'ive oil ( 

'"irrriiio- ^ 

^iJ'd been i 

\\ith Afoxi 

^^'the indo] 



^'ColF 



elqio 



i inoL'o ha, 

"'•'ilisolii'sc 
UiBT. Cent. 



FALL OF ITURDIDI': 



65 



ill'-'- liiui lor his liuiuauo (•(Miduct. Dclgado rctnainod 
at his liacicnda. The local authorities swore allo- 
(-iaiK.'u to tlic ^Mexican oinpirc. Fili.sola now retiii'LH.'d 
to Giiatcuiala,-^ where he arrived about the Gth or 
rih of Marcli. lie had already received the news of 
the movement in ^lexioo rcsultinL^ in tlio overthrow 
(if Iturbide. It was this that hastened his return to 
(jruatemala, and induced him to adopt a c»jursc opposed 
to his last instructions IVoni jNIexico. Granada, in 
Nicaragua, had not been reduced to obedience. Gov- 
ernor Gonzalez Saravia had asked for troops to ac- 
complish it, but Filisola declined to employ coercion; 
and after informing him and Juai\ Fernandez Lindo, 
• ■•overnor of Honduras,'' as weM as other officials in 
the provinces, of the state of affairs in ]Mex.ico, assured 
llieui that he would take no important step witlujut 
tirst obtainin;*; their assent. Indeed, after no con- 
vinced liimself that the imperial government had 
fallen never to rise aij^ain, he arriveil at the conclusion 
that he had no right to keep annexed to Mexico the 
Central American provinces; as the annexation had 
Ijeen made solely, as claimed by ]\Iexico and her sup- 
[torters, for the sake of securing stability to their 
government, and the rosoect which would be afforded 
it from a long distanco by a great aud wealthy coun- 
try. All this pr'stige had disappeared, owing to tho 
revolution at Casa Mata in ]\[oxico,-^ the pi<p .r money, 
and other arrangements made by Iturbide with refer- 
once to these nvovinces. 

L 

Being asked to summon a congress of all the prov- 
iuees of Central America, he complied, issuing a de- 
cree on the 29ih of March, 18-J;], with the view of 
carrying out the acta of Septend)cr 15, 1821, whicli 
had been annulled by the incorporation of the country 
with jMexico. This was tantamount to a recognition 
of the independence of Central xVmerica from Mexico.-* 

^' Col Felipe Coil;illo3 was ap[)ointcd governor of tlic province, 
■'-Tinoco liail gone to Mexico. 
Ill.'^f. Mcx., v., tliia serica. 

'■' Filisola'a course luis been open to criticism. Somo atLributeJ it to a cou- 
IJitJT. (Jknt. Am., Vol. III. 5 



60 



CENTRAL AMERICAN CONFEDERATION. 



:; 

: j 


1 



His (locrco was hailed withjo}' by the party friendly 
to absolute inde])endcncc. The Mexican or imperial- 
ist party was vanquished, and the people were ready 
to take an active i)art in the cominix elections. Peace 
was not only temporarily restored in Guatemala and 
Salvador, but in Nicaragua and Costa liica party 
sti'uggles were brouglit to a close. 

In Granada, Ordonez had continued committing 
many outrages. ^^ lie liad successfully repulsed Sara- 
via, who had come against him from Leon. 'J'he lattci- 
was in the act of pre[)arlng another expedition, when 
Filisola's decree was ])romulgated, and he was sum- 
moned to Guatemala. Nicaragua subsequently con- 
stituted a junta gul)eriuitiva of its own."" 

In Costa Kica, Saravia, with the aid of Bishop 
Ji'rez, attempted to force the ])rovincc into the union 
with ^[(ixico, and with that view endeavored to over- 
throw the provincial <>-overnment established at Car- 
tago. A ct)nspiracy was p/lanned there, and its authors, 
second(!(l in Ciudad Vieja, openly espoused the cause 
of Iturbidc! on the 2!)th of March. The men of the 
liberal partv tied to San Jose, and after strenu'theu- 
ing their ranks there and at Ala'uela, attacked the 
im])erialists on the ticM of Las Lagunas, near Cartage, 
and defeated them.-' The town had to surrender, 
and was occupied by the victorious independents, but 
the seat of government I'emained in San Jose.'-^ 

victim lliat Cent. Am. cdiild not I>c' liolil iis a proviiict! ili'iK'ndciit iioin .a re 
pilliiio, wliiili was pnictii^ihlo as ii tli'|n'iiili'nco of an c'm|>ii'e. Others li:ivi; 
mililioscd that ho was iiroinptcd liy iirrsoiial iiinliition. Marmo, Jiu!<q. Hi-'. 
Cm/. Am., 7.'!, ami .l/r/N. 1,'rr. Ceiif. Am., IIV, chiim tiiiit it was tlio iiiiavi)i'l- 
.iii)lo result lit the situation, wiiicii is not exactly true. With the force at lin 
comniaiul, he niii^'ht have maintained sujireniacy tor ii eonsideralilo time at 
Toast. Filisola himself said tiiat his olijiMt had Ijeen to fivert civil war. hi 
his address of July "Jl, IS'J;{, to the junlii of (iuatemala, ho assured t^iat hoilv 
tliiit his ieeo;j;nitiou of its sovereij^nty had been with tiie sanction if the .~u- 
prcnie executive tjoverninent of Alexico, communicated to him on the 18tli f 
June. Fillfola a 1 1 Juidn Sohrranii dii iliial., 1-H; /(/., Kl i'hldndano, lU-IT. 

-' Anionj^ otlu'i's, that of seizinjr, without any legal foriiiality, the 8[)ani li 
vessel Siiinrnm, whose cargo he sold to jirocurcj provisions and otlier supph s 
for his garrison. Afnriiir, V/ow/. J/isf. Cent. Am., i. 7"); Aj/on, AjiHii/f^, '2- '■'■ 

-''It was installed at J^eon on tiie 17th of April, ISL'IJ. Mariirc, Kj'i:m., >• 

-' On the l>")th of April. Mitvin-f, tj'i m., (». 

''''Several of the conspirators were iinju-isoned at the capital, though oily 
for a sliort time. Molina, i'o'<la liici, !U; AxUOmrun'jd, (\nt. Am., \'l. 






II 

tJl,' 
ot JlC] 

cmist 
Ce 
iic('ti( 
it iiat 
^» < » aci 
"11 tht 
fh,. c 
(iiipty 
• •'Uisecj 
ah uses 
and m 
iJitai- 

■'< AX w 
t(n' Jloi 

Ii;id fdp 

•'niiiK'ii 

l<illowe( 

■■<s foes. 

■'I lid dis( 

t" wliifj 

dueled \ 

tlic field 

( 'oiigi 

iindi'f tl 

-vccorih 
'■"!'■"• Ituihi, 
"•'I'l rial i\xn 
■'"J>epiitii 
''''.-''^ eoiHiiiii 
'-"yrvvl the,,, 

" Ciiov.is 
"lis to c,,,,^^ _ 

"""'')ie imp 

'•'""•II lo I'luiii 

•'"'■, -S-J-;!. ' 
.^■•■■'li.icero.li,' 
'i'-i 'llechos pos 
, "'■Ii0j.,t, 
""I'liii'y Work 
"•'iil.v delayed. 
f "' 'Ilia pas V 
''■"||<-'ont. All 



SEPARATION FROM MEXICO. 



67 



III II(Muluras, the jirovincial assembly resolved on 
tlie lOtli of ^[uy to enter into tlio union with tbo 
other jiroviiiccs of Central America, with the view of 
constitut'.ng an independent nation."^ 

Central America then, after a fii'teen months' con- 
nection with Mexico, was again in tin; same position 
it had occu[)icd at the time of separation Irom Spain. 
Xo ad\antaires had been derived ii'om that union ; but, 
(111 the contrary, numerous heavy taxes had exhausted 
the country, though the treasury '.vas invariably 
eiiiptv- Tlie whole country v.as sulfei. ing from other 
('onse(]uenc(>s of the internal wars, in the form of 
ahuses on tlif ])art of unscru[)tdous political jiarties 
and military cliiefs; none worse, however, than tho 

ilitary sway imposed l)y jSIoxico.^'* There have not 
!i( ^jii wanting th<^se who believe the separation fioni 
the noi'thern republic was a false step.'"^ 'J'he ])eo[)le 
had i'or centuries lived under the same superior gov- 
ernment, subject onlj^ to tho S[ianish ci'own. "^{'hi'ii 
I'ollowed a period when they often faced one another 
as foes. Now they were invited to sit side by side 
and discuss measures ibr tlie benefit of the great family 
to which thev all belon<>'ed. The elections were con- 
ducted with enthusiasm on the pai't of the re[)tdjlicans, 
the Held having been loft to them by the imj)erialists."'' 

Congress assend)led on the 21th of June, IS^.T,^^ 
uiidei' tlie jiresidency of Jose Mafias JJelgado,"'* tlie 

■•"Ai'Cdriling to Maniro, Ej' iw rides, (i, rcscrviii'^ the lil»eTty of I'ccii.u'iii/.iiiL; 
nni'W Itui'liidi; as tho Icgitiiiiiito ciupcror, slioulil lio liu aj^aiii ri'Simcil to llio 
ii.iliri i.il throiii'. 

•'' l>i'])iitii'a fi'din Cent. A\\\. to the Mi.'xitMii tMiugres.s comi)laiii(.'il of out- 
r:im's comiiiittoil liy ]''ili.si)l.i'.s solilii'is, to which hi.s attention was calkil to 
iiimil, thc'iii liy tho c.'.t'iuitivo of tluit i-cimlilic. 

" Ciicvas, I'o.-iriiir i/c JA.c. , L'.Tl-O, laiiionts it, considering it an ad injiiii- 
ims to Cent. Aniorica'.s licst interests. 

■'-The imperialists '.-e liniifjiron a (([loiieiics .-dmiiias nianiohras sord.is, no 
ti'iiiru lo iininio (k, (iisj)utarhis ;\ (.'lira di seuhicrta.' ,]Jitnnr, JJok'/. Jlisl. ('(lit. 
Am., S'.'-.'i. Tho intle[iendeut.s 'eontrajerou sns plani^s :i yauar las elecciones, 
y ii ii.irer odiosa.s las tropa.s mogicanas, jiroeuranilo a toda eosta, y por todfia 
kia iiii'dios posihles liaterliis ovacuar la reiiuliliea.' Man. lliv. ('cut. Am., I'O. 

^'Tho 1st of Jnno hiid jjoen tho date originally tixod npon, but Eoino prc- 
liiiiiiiary work not having lieen completed in time, tho installation waa necea- 
sarily delayed. Muriirc, Jionq. JJist. (J< iit. .liii., i. HIJ. 

"Cidapaswaa not ropresented, that proviuco having continued dutuuhud 
from Cent. Am. 



63 



CENTRAL AM EUR' AN CONFEDKRATION. 



Ill-; 



' !,i 



installation boin<4- gi'aced hy tliu pn.'sonco of Filisola 
and tlio municipal council of the city."' 

Ou the 2d of July f )lknving it assumed the name 
of Asambloa Nacional Constitu3'ente. The body was 
in session nineteen months, closing its labors on the 
2-k\ of January, 1825. Its work was momentous, 
having to organize a government imbuetl with the 
prevailing liberal spirit; to improve the im[)erilled 
linanccs; to establish relations with foi'cign powers; 
and, what was of the highest importance, to bring 
unity out of chaos. The lirst step toward the ac- 
complishment of these purposes was taken on the 1st 
of July, 1823, with the adoption of the ordinance 
which declared the provinces of the former ca[)tain- 
goncralcy of Guatemala to be free and independent 
states, confederated "ato a nation under the name of 
Provincias Unidas .el Centro do America.^" Inas- 
much as a consideral)le number of representatives 
had not arrived on that date, the ordinance was sub- 
se(|uently ratified on the 1st of October.^^ The new 
confederation was recognized by jMoxico only a littk^ 
ujoro than a year after."'^ 

Shortly after independence was proclaimed, a divis- 
ion of the powers of government into three branches 
was resolved on; namely, the legislative, to be vested 
in the asamblea; the executive, composed of three 

'5 It is sail! tliat Filisola installed tlic congress, the Mexican troops takiii,' 
part witli the native ones iu payini,' honors t j tlio national representatives. 
Till tlic ori,':uii/ation of an executive, the fir.st dcci'cc.s were addressed to 
Filisola, as superior politieul chief, f ir tlicir execution. Mem. I'cr. ( 'viit. Am., 
20. That Innly, tho lirst as well as tlic most numerous, was at the same tinii^ 
the most cnli,'htcncd that tho republic c\ er had. Mararc, JJoi'q. Hist. Cent. 
Am., i. 81!; /(/., Khm., 7; Uimt. Jt'irop. L'nc", i. 1G-'21. 

"''The full text with the names of tho delegates present appears in Mannv, 
nof<i. Hist. Cent. Am., i. xiii.-xviii.; and I'oi/ia, C'ddijo Xic, i. l'.)-'2',]. Iti 
principal clauses were: 'That the said provinces. . .are free and independent, 
from old Spain, from Mexico, and every other power, alike of the old an I 
the new world, y que no son ni deben ser cl patrimonio do persona ni faniiiia 
nlijuna.' Translations into other languat,'e3 may be seen in J'rvue Am^ricnii.i . 
i. ;i77-'J7; Dtmorralic Riv., i. 480-7. Tho act was drawn up by the deputy 
Josii Francisco Cordoba, who was a member of the committee to whom the 
matter had been referred, ^[<'m. fict'. Cent. Am., '21, 

^' GiKtf., Ii(cop. Lrijes, i. '21-,']'2. 

*^Aug. '20, 1824. Ditblan and Lor.aiio, Lnj. .Mcx., i. 713; Alamav, Mem. a 
las Cam., 9. 






f 



•ft 



niciii 

body; 

<'()iir;.- 

be 11). 

.•■■Iinnh 

debt y. 

to be 

decree 

Troi 

OccU[)Ii 

J'arlies 
di])cnd 

Ji' :'tion 

' I (hi' { 
ililr ill 

Nli'W.S i'v 

Jiaffy, a 

<']'poncn 

Juistocra 

b"M, and 

]iii 's also 

Vhelil 

frdcral re 

]''iti'iotisii 

"iijust j)ri 

lIK'llt. J( 

iiiciitand 
:\^';linst til 

inillK'Dce c 

I'l'^'doinina 
era Is wqix 
tlionty, lui 

.'"II I > 

1 'ecreo ot , 
''Tiio p:irty 

';;:i-'las.-3<,;Uic 

-Vi III! \-,;,, , 

^•■'•' I ' i»e hi:) s,|| 
l'"'''''ii. it w.'is 



OIKIAXI/ATIOX. 



nu'iuljers, to l)c clcctud bv and to be .subject to tbat 
b(»;lv; and Ihe judicial, to be exercised by the exisliug 
ri)ui;s.''''* The executive, as tlien constituted, \v;is to 
lie merely })rovisi()na], and luitil a i'undaniental code 
slmuld give it a perniarient or'j;anization. The j)ul)hc 
ikbt ^\as recoLMii/ed; (lie catliolie I'eli'.'ion was drclai'cd 
io be that ol' the state; luid i"reed(jU( of the pri's.s 



decri 



■ed. 



b'roui the moiiient that the choice of the excculivc 
occu[)ied the attention of the assenil)ly a division of 
])arties became manifest. The friends of absolute in- 
(iL'j)endence fornKcl a lai'ge mnjority; those f)f the for- 
mer Mejicanistas were fmv in number. The> lar;Li'er 
|i' ■•tion of tlie deputies v/as composed of t lie best uien 
( r l!ii' country, v.halever Iheir ])ai'(y ailihations, and 
Ihi'ir intentions were n])i'iL!^li(. 'jliose of moderate 
views from all sections lurined tliemselves int(j one 
party, and went by the name of moderados; their 
oj)])onents a])plyin^' lo tlieni the epithets ol' ser\il and 
aristocrata.^' The radicals formed another oru^aniza- 
tlon, and v/ere called ]iel.)res and libcrales, their enc- 
mi's also giving them tlie a[)pellation of anarrpiistas. 

The liheral party advocated the establishment of a 
f.'dei-al re[)ublic, and as a rule was guided l,)y a liheral 
]iatrIotism, and a desire to see the abolisluneiit of 
niijiist ])rivileges and anli(juated Ai(.H's in the goxeru- 
iiuut. Its ojjponents, in I'avor of a centrali:',ed goverii- 
inriitand the coutinualion of the old I'lieros, struggled 
ng;!inst the restrictions tliat were being ])ut to the 
iihliienee of Guatemala. Xevertheless, a lihei'al spirit 
predonxinated for a time, and thro(^ well-known lib- 
erals Vv'ere chosen to constitute the executive au- 
t'.ierity, namely, ]\[auuel Jo.su Arce,'' J)octor IVdro 

■■■'I\vivoof.Tiily l.\ 1SC3. GiiuL, Vrcop. /,- yrs, i. .T-'-^. 

"Tho ]i:irly was siiaiuly compusud <>!' nicuibcis of tlio £;)-c;.lli'.l imMo 
faniili ■:), iS^iuaiard;), iivil ;iihI miii.ury Oiiiecrs, Uio t'kr,'. y, iuul tho must iiiio- 
i';i;i, rliis:3 {,i Uio jiif-ilaUou. It wa.i lliL'iX'ioro tliu moai iuiiikjioiis. MoiUii/ai; 
y.' '.'( n,.4., iv. 2)J. 

■" A 1 ho \va;3 tlioa in tho Umlcil Status, the c\uion AiitDiii) do l^Miraziilial 
v,::i I ) ho hi:3 siili* i;ii;o il\iri!i : hU alisoiico. I.:ura;:.il) J ha\ in;,' iloiiiiu.l tho 
iM i.i 'U, it was given to Aivtouiu llivcra Cahczua. (juul., Jtcrop, L(i/(.i, i. 



'■,;■■. C^ 



70 



CKNTRAL AMEUICAX CONFEDERATION. 



•m 



li.'i 



f 



Molina, and Juan Viccnto Villacorta.^" It must be 
aeknowlodu'ctl that tliis ijovcrninont was not a stroni; 
one, the only man of" superior talent in it being Mo- 
lina, and he had little experience wherewith to found 
a republic and manage its affairs at such a critical 
period. 

A constantly increasing coolness between the gov- 
ernment and Filisola became intensified when the 
deputies from Costa Rica and Nicaragua refused to 
occupy their seats in the assembly while a jMexican 
army had virtual sway over the capital. Complaints 
also came from various quarters, of abuses committed 
by the ]\l.e.\ican soldiers,'^ and demands were made 
for their departure. Some time ela[)sed in discussions 
and negotiations, partly b(.^cause of tlilhculty in rais- 
ing the needed funds. Ijut linally, all oljstacles being 
removed, Filisola d<.'[)arted Vvith his ibrce on t\u: ud 
of .Vugust, f 823, leaving behind him a good name, 
which was little affected by ciiarges preferred against 
him at a later date.*' 

The lil)L'!;ds now were at u'reater liberty t(j carry 
(Hit tlieir plans, which involved, among other things, 
the disappearance ;f old j)ractices, including titles and 
connx'llations,'-' not i-ww the hackneyetl 'don' esca[>ing 

104-70; Mitviii-c, JJusf/. llUt. CcnI. Am., i. SS; /-/., Klhu., S; M<in. ]!rv. 

Cent. Am., '1-1. 

■•'Tlie inodrr.idos wanted Josu Dioni>io llcvnvix of Iloiiduras!, in tlu; tii 
umvirate, lo avoiil tlio uniliie iiilliicnco Sahadm v. ould cxr/cisc, iKivini; twn 
of licr citizens ill the executive, and because tliey < .:.'.'«id''r</// llf iniu iiilcl- 
leetually superior to Villaeorta. No one tli(ni<,'lit of ihid (!■ < Vulle, wii'y wn- 
then ill Mexico. CucvaH, J'orrcnir d;> Mc.v., 'l'^^^-'!, cnoiifcoji Jj^ stutea tliiii 
the supreme autliority was (jifcrcd Filisola and lie di dined it, hu decline'! 
the olliee of jefn ]iolitieo of (iuatemalii 

'^.fust ill sonic instance'!, no doubt; Imt it became know /t tiiat G.iaf< iniiliii, 
tlisguiscd s .Nb-'xicans (■■miiiiitted hostile acts to bring the ■•i'ddjer.-) \i\io di- 
ci<Mlit. J'ilisola certainly strove to ni.-iintain order and tliselidino. Mnriii' 
l!os<[. Ilisl. Cent. Am., i. Sil-iKi: Filisola, J-Ji Cli"/nilt(,io, •22-S. 

^' Josi- Francisco llanuiidia, of whom iiromiiient mention is niad<! in tlii 
history, sr'vcrely attackiil I'llisola's course in a pamphlet, which was n jilii i 
to in a small book entithd HiCiiulahini) . . . Vhrnlc I'i/i.^ota d Jo!<4 Fi'n iieis- • 
linrruiulUi, I'ucbia, IS-I, \Vl\i. The author defends himself, employing strou-.' 
iiiveetivo against his accuser, charging him with hypocrisy r.iid cowardic. 
The book gives some historical data, but owing (oits bitterness, must be re- 
ceived with e.iiition. /'Hisola after Ihat time figured a, a prominent soldii i' 
of the Mexicdii republic in Texas, and during the war of tlio U, S. and Mcn- 
ico in IStii S. 

*'Cutit. Itieiip. l^ni' '< •• «>77-8. 



DECREES OF THE UOVEUXMENT. 



71 



the g'encral refonnatory teiulcnc}'.''*' A coat, of arms 

was likewise decreed, showing the national name in 

'j;ijlden letters,*'' as also a 

liiiL;', the latter consisting' of 

tiircc horizontal stripes, the 

middle one bcini^ white, 

with the national coat of 

iirms about hall-way from 

the mast, and the other two 

hill.". 

Among other decrees en- 
acted by the assembly in 
1823, the following are 
worthy of mention : One of 
Auu'ust 2 1st, to annul all 
acts of the late unperial government affecting Cen- 
tral America; one of August 2(;tli, dei'lariuLj the 15th 
of September to be the national aimiversarv, and how 
it was to be observed — this decree' was reiterated 
by the legislative assembly ctn the Ijth of October, 
1834; one of October 27th, directing the Central 
American deputies — those of Chiapas e.Kcepteil — to 




Seal or Central America. 



Wl 



lh(l 



raw 



f. 



• •ni 



the Mexican cou'jre.- 



aml 



(jue o 



f 



Xovember loth, to I'orm a general (,'ensus.'^ 

Another measure adt)p(;eil was thiit wliieli autlior- 
izcd the executive to dismiss without formality all 
(illicials having their a[)j)ointments from the Spanish 
^*r Mexican governments. Little discretion was shown 
ill this, and <liseontent resulted, which was made man- 
ifest in the opposition met with by every measure of 
the government, wven siieh as were LToncrallv reeosf- 
iiizcd to be e4' pubhc ut iiii \ . Financial ;iiid military 
afi'aii's were m '^\vc worst possibf cmdition. I'm im- 
j»rove the ftrmer was a iliilicull task, the c\[ienscs 



' Practicallv, tli<' word 'iloii ' iicvui' 



tVll 



ilitu disuse 



Tl 



lo 111 iiiior (it cncliii'; 



oH'iciiil littLTi \\:i.-. I lianiTi-'d fnnii the fiininr '] >iii.s iruiircl*- il. 



iinicliiis iuiii.-i, 



til 'Dius, Union, J.iljeiti 



JA 



LA 



l!u.sfi. lli^l. ('<,<>. Am., i. til; /■/. 



'IVorces of tlio national :i.ssi'iiil)!y of Aug. '21 ami \ov. ."i. IS'2.'?. Jlor/m, 



C6'i(ii>t Sk., i. liij; (liii't.. lid'op. I. 



*H!i<at., I, 



tcop 



L 



1. ;i:i 



M, 



!'■•/. IH<\ Svh. C 



""J. 



.'19. 



72 



CENTRAL AMERICAN CONFEDERATION. 



::| 1 



being greater than during the colonial period, and 
several branches of rovenue, which formerly yielded 
coii.siderable resources, having disap|)eared with the 
oM (](.'[)( •ndence.'*^ As to the army, the greater part 
of it had been disbanded, and onlv one battalion of 
the regular Ibrce and a few bodies <jf militia ibrmed 
the entire defensive power of the republic. The gov- 
ernment was almost at the mercy of a handful of men, 
and it was not long before they exhibited their lack 
of discipline and loyalty. The soldiers had i'or some 
time [last shown dissatisfaction at the neglect of the 
govei'nment to pay them lluir dues. Under the cir- 
eumstanees, it was rather easy to prevail on them to 
revolt, and it was done, the leader being Captain lla- 
I'ael Ari/,a, y Tori'es.'^'^ J'he authorities, though aware 
of his nuichinations, had taken no decisive measures 
to defeat them,"' otlier than commissioning Ignacio 
Larrazdbal to make; an investiijiation. Ariza, iearinu: 
that dela}' might cause the failure of his plan, in the 
evening of the loth of September assumed the title of 
oon)mander-in-chier of the forces; and the next morn- 
ing ''- volleys of musketry and other manifestations 
apprised the alarmed inhabitants of the insurrection. 
A scene of excitement ensued. The assembly hastily 
met, and amidst the coni'usion a riiessensfer came irom 
Ariza to assure tlie chamber of his loyal clisjiosition 
toward the government, and to add in explanation 
that the position of conmiander had been forced upon 
him by the troops. The messenger was perempt(»rily 
ordered to retire without receiving any answer. A 
nundjer of enthusiastic citizens asi'ailed a portion of 
Ari/ca's men, only to be driven back fo the university 

^''I'lvcn the statistics tliat niiglil liiive Sdvoil as ahasis fur fstaMisliiivj; iiu- 
posla wcvu lint ti) lie fduiid. It way said that they had iii' boeu I'o^ \»uidt'il to 
Mexii'i) d'.iriiiy tiie iiii[H'rial rulo. 

-'"Jle was oU'eiided at nut buiii^' appointed coi)iTnandiii>:; olxcer of Ihe bat- 
talion. 

^'Thc author of .}rriii. Hrr. Cciil. Am., '23-7, fioeiiscd the ^'ovoii^nieiit of 
allowing the eonspiraey to assiune serious ju'oportioiis with the \ ie\v of oi.'^iiu- 
iiig l;ir.L;ur p )\vei'3, iiiehuling that of levying ton.'cd loans. 

"-The lltii and ITith liail been desi_i;nated to con\nicnioiato tlie indepen- 
dcnee. 



ARIZA'S TEVOLT. 



78 



buildinpf, wlicrc the assembly held its sittings. A 
bIiow of defence was made there,' ^ to enable the as- 
.sciublyinen to seek safety in lliglit. Few of their 
mi'uber remained. Negotir..tion.s were then Ix'gun to 
jircvcnt the commission of outrages by the mutinous 
.soldiers," and the government finally- gave way, and 
conrerrcd on Ariza the title of conjmander-in-chief; 
lie thereupon took iho oflicial oath on that day. The 
concession was uiade onl}- to gain time, ho[)es being 
entertained that the auxiliaries summoned from the 
surrounding country and other states would soon ar- 
ilvo. 

The rebellious captain had in the uiean time begun 
to realize his awkward jiosition. Assuming a submis- 
si\L' tone, he pi'otested his readiness to obey the gov- 
eiinnent; M-]iL'reu[)ou ho was commanded to leave the 
city and retire to Antrg'ua, where his i'orce dispersed 
before any coercive action on the part of the govern- 
UK'nt and its allies became iiecessarv. Ariza himself 
esra})ed by llight the punishment which Lis reckless 
behavior deserved.^' 

Jkit the difficulties were not yet over. The feeble 
conduct of the government, and the liumillatin<>- con- 
cessions it had made t(j the rebel, rellected so nmch 
discredit that the labors of the moderatlo party for 
til ' election of a new executive now gave promise of 
iViiitful results.'''^ On the 4th of October congress re- 
assembled, and the same day Villacorta, jSIolina, and 
liivera tendered their resignations, which were ac- 
cepLod; and in their stead, on the 4tli (;f October, 



'' A number of persons were killml and otlici 3 woninlud iii the street fight. 
Muri'i-r, Ilo^q. Ili^t. Vent. Am., i. 102-.']. On the lOtli of .Jan. folluuin;,' tlmso 
\\\j-> ])i;ii.slieit in defence of the assciiiljly were deelared 'benciiieiilns de la 
Jni',: la eu griido IieruiLO.' /(/., i.j'cm., S. 

■ ' Mariire, IJ^imj. IIM. (.'cut. Am., i. 101, gives tlie almost iucrcdili'.e ae- 
eoiiiit that the soklieiy behaved in an orderly' manner. 

■''His luincipal asai.staiit and second in eoMniand, flannel l'?strada, was 
Ka] liiuned lunl exeeuted. An erroneonsaceoniit of Ariza'y revolt is ^'i'.en liy 
i'uyilt and Binckum, Culoniiulioii, ILS-l',), who plaee it in \S'2'>, and assert it 
Waj etlfcted hy ordur of the government in Sjjain. 

'•^It found Hunport among sonu' of the deputies who had not been present 
at the clectiuu of the members of tlie cxeeutivo. Mem. lUj, Cent. Am., '23. 



74 



CENTRAL AMERICAN CONFEDERATION. 



Muliiicl Joso Arce was again elected, togjtlicr with 
Joso del Valle and Toinds O'Horan,''' and as substi- 
tutes I'or the two first, then absent, Jose Santiago 
Milla and Vilhicorta, the same person who had re- 
signed. ^^ The new government found at once its at- 
tention engrossed by the troublesome situation, which 
had arisen from the coming of a Salvadcjran force, 
called to iielp against the revolting .soldiers. Although 
forljidden to apprcjach the city, and ordered to return 
home, it refused to comply,'"^ and on the 12th of Octo- 
ber entered the city of Guatemala, all remonstrances 
to the contrary having proved unavailing. The Sal- 
vadorans occupied the cajjital three weeks, during 
which rumors were rife of their plans to pillage the 
place in retaliation of Guatemalan troops having oc- 
cupied San Salvador the previous year. Brawls and 
fights between them and soldiui's from other provinces 
were of daily occurrence. 

The I'ogular garrison and all the inhabitants breathed 
more I'reely when at last, on the 3d of November, the 
unwelcome guests departed.''" The same day tlie 
auxihary troops from Quezaltenango, who had been of 
gootl use in keeping otliers somewhat in check, als(j 
returned home. 



:;^ I 



"' The lust named being a foreigner, congress repealed the law wliitli ad- 
mitted only natives to the executive iiower, passed July Stli, when l^'ilisula 
had lieen jiroposcd a3 n, candidate. Foreigners who iiad rendered services to 
the re]iulilio were made cligiiile. Mttnn-c, Bo-^q. Hint. Cinf. Aiu., 107. 

''*' Villacorta at first ileclined the positimi, on tiic gruuixl that to exercise, as 
a mere suhstitute, the functions he had just Ik^cu discharging as proprietary i ' 
the odice, all'ccted his honor, 'eiii un paso (pie lastinialiasu honor.' A unani- 
mous resolution, however, of tlio congress, directing him t<i lid the oflice, in- 
duced him to accept it. /(/., lOT-S. It has heen .said of him for his liiial 
acceptance: 'Tuvo la falta do delicadeza do admitir la suplcncia.' J/( //(. j\'< c. 
Cent. Am., '20. 

''"■'Thu Sulvadoran commander alleged instructions from his govcriniient 
not to go i)ack till he became convinced that the assemlily could continue its 
laljors witliout hinderancc in the future. In (_!riatemaia it was said tliat he 
had been prevailed on l)y tlie liberal partj', S(tuicwhat displeased at tlie last 
elections for executive, not to heed the command to I'ctire. In consequence of 
the events of .Sept. 14th iu tJuatemala, tiio diputacion provincial at San Sal- 
vador on the 27tli of Oot. assumed tlie poweis of a junta gubernativa, ami 
cxerei.sed them till the constituent congress of the state was installed. Ma- 
rurv, Ei'cm., 8. 

'" 'No sin algtmos aparatos cscandalosos y liostiles de parte de los salva- 
dorcnos.' Mon. lieu. Cent. Am.. '27. 



" Tliey 
Oct. Man, 

"-The 
Chiapas wa 
for such ;i 
t'le provin 
^■m-1, i. 40 
C(jiit. Am. 

" -Mai ui 

tion has bet 
JJUeblo para 
(-'«"<. Am., 



A COXSTITUTIOX. 



76 



The labors of tho assembly had been continued in 
the mean time, and on the 17th of December, 18'J3, 
were decreed and ])ublished the bases of the constitu- 
tion for the republic,"' adopting a popular, reprcsmt- 
ati\e, iederal form of govui'nnu'Ut. Each one of the 
iive states, (juatemala, Salvador, Honduras, Nicara- 
o'Uii, and Costa Kiea, which w^crc to form the confeder- 
ation of Central Ameiica, was to have the same 
(livisi(jn iA' ])owcrs, and with tho same functions, in 
its internal administration, as the oeneral government 
with respect to the whole reijublic.*^- 

The labors of framiiiix the constitution lasted a 
year longer, and were terminated only on the 2i.'d of 
November, 1824, when the fundamental law of tho 
Central American republic was |)roinulgated, strict 
olx'dience thereto bt'ing solemnly sworn on the l.")th 
of April, 1825,'^' and ratified by the national congress 
tiv(' months later, namely, on the 1st of Septembtjr. 
While discussinii" the constitution, both the liberal 
and moderado })arties uscil their best efforts for tho 
ado[)tion of their respective princi[)les. The former 
trium[)hed, being especially strong in the provinees, 
whereas its antagonists resided chieily in the c;i[)it;d. 
Although a nundier of good and able men were among 
the members of the congress, their good pur[>oses 
were repeatctlly balked by [)arty spirit; and thus only 
an imperfect result was obtained in the constitution 
adopted Novend.)er 22, 1824." It was the fu'st 
effort to define tho rules for the government of a coun- 
trv which at that time was bcLiinninn' the life of an 



m 



''' TIh'V hinl been reported to the eliaiiiber ljy its coininitteo on the 'J.")ili (if 
Oct. Miirui-p, Ejhn., 8. 

"-The states had ah-eady constituted their governments by 8e]it. \SH. 
Chiaiia.s was not inehlded among tho new states. l[er admission was hit ojirii 
lor .such a time as she should apiily for it, tiu; belief in Cent. Am. beini; that 
t!ie province iiad not voluntarily attached itoclf to Mexico, iliutl., Ji'c<-op. 
Lcycs, i. 40-'J, 51)-G'J, (J8, Uli-T; Mmt. Hi v. Cnd. Am., 27; Murure, Bo-fj. Hist. 
Cad. Am., i. l'2()-l, ]4',l; L<i TrihuiKt, ii., no. 2. 

"'' -Maiure, Efcm., 1"2, gives the date as Ajiril 10th. 

''^Ccii'. Am., InJ'ormc Kobrc In CuUKlHitt:., 1-71!, and l-.'?0. This constitu- 
tion ha.9 been called 'el bcUo ideal de copiantcs y teoristas quo sonat<jn uu 
liucblo para constituirlo, y que no conocian el pais en quo naeicron. ' Mna. Il''V. 
Cent. Am., 30. 



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78 



CENTRAL AMERICAN CONFEDERATION. 



iiidcpoiuleiit nation. The constitution of the United 
States had been taken as a model; but it had not 
been borne in mind that a difference existed between 
tlie people of the northern and Central American 
icpublics at the time when they respectively gained 
tliuir independence. However good the intentions of 
tlio framers of the Central American constitution, 
they fell short of their object; for in .adopting certain 
forms, altogether inappropriate, they also introduced 
contradictory clauses. No provision was made i'or a 
fedtjial district to hold the national capital. Thus 
Cuaten)ala, wliere the federal authorities then and 
afterward resided, became also the seat of the state 
government, and in the course of time collisions were 
unavoidable.'^^ The constitution further defined the 
riglits of property and liberty of thought, as well as 
freedom of the press, and j)]aced the chief authority 
of the republic in the hands of congi'css,*"' in addition 
to the legislative power with which it was vested. 
]jaws were to be enacted by the two houses forming 
the congress, one of which was the senate, whose 
memberr. were also elected by the people, two for 
every state. This body acted as nn 'xecutive coun- 
cil, with a general supervision to iiatthe different 
high officials and magistrates la. ifully discharged 
th(;ir duties. Its president was ex officio vice-presi- 
dent of the republic.*^^ A supreme court of justice 

'^Tlie n^amMoa, foreseeing this, liail designed I^ Antigua ns the mooting 
jilaio of llie local cDiigrcss; hut tlio latter at its first siitings belected for 
iiitmu tiiiR'S tiio capital. Mnrurr, IJosq. I/lst. Cent. Am., 179. 

•^•^S'.ioli as to (k'tenuino tlio military and liiianoial bucl^ets, superintend tlio 
cihicatiou of the i)coi>lii, declare war and conclude jicaco, and regulate the 
llii:iiicial and coninicrcial interests of the ciMintry. Its nienibcra were to bo 
oUctcilattho rate of one for every .'JO.OOO inhahitants. /(/., ITl-'i. Tlicro 
wvve 17 rcprest'utatives for (!uatcniala, nine for Salvador, live for llonduras, 
nix for Nicara^'iia, and two for Costa )!ica. A/ifuhuniarin, Cent. Am., 13. 
Dimlop, d'nt. Am., Kii, says lloiuliiras hail kIx ri'])reseutatives. 

''' Att'thiiriirt;iit, Cent. Am., I."). Molina, Conta tUcn, I'.), criticises this or- 
ganization as follows: 'So eutablecio un suikkIo iiulo, un I'^jecutivo impotento 
y un conL;re»o ali.solnto. ' Necessarily the greater number of representatives 
of (iiiatemala would outweigh those of the other states, and thus make tlio 
cunstituliuu only an imperfoct copy of that which Iiad originally scr ed as a 
model. 



SLAVKIIY ABOLISHED. 



77 



was also croatod, tlio iuciiiIkts being, like those of 
cont^ress an<l senate, chosen l)y popular vote.''* 

Anionijf the most important laws enacted were 
those of December 31, 1823, and April 17 and 21, 
1S24, which emancipated all .slaves, and made free 
slaves of other countries cominj]f to Central Amer- 
ica.''' The slave-trade was ])rohibited, under the |)en- 
alty of forfeitui'c of the rights of citizenship."'^ Of all 
the nations of North America, to the Central Amer- 
ican republic belongs the honor of having first prac- 
tically abolished slavery.''^ 

The new republic also took a deep interest in a pro- 
ject for the union of all the American states.'^ Tho 
project failed, because of its impracticability. Tho 
jtarticulars of this subject arc given in treating of tho 
i'anious Panamd congress of American nations. 

The exhausted condition of the treasury appearing 
to be the chief impediment to all projected improve- 
ments, the remedy was looked for in a foreign loan, 
about $7,000,000 being borrowed on rather favorablq 
terms from a London firm.'' Tho tobacco and cus- 
toms revenues were pledged toward its repayment. ' 

"Tart of tho constitution is given in Rorha, Cuilhjo Xtc, i. .37-0; on tlio 
following piifTcs will bo found such clauses of tho oM Spanish constitution iw 
wore retaiiicil under the new system. See also I'eralta, Voda II., 5; AUa- 
l)iini(ii/n, C<'ut. Am., lU-5. 

"'■' 'So haccn librcs los csclavos quo do rcinos cxtranjcros pascn a nucstrns 
KsUidos, por recobrar Bu libertad.' Ilocho, Cddbjo Nic, i. 'Jl"J-lll; (liiat., Jt'cop, 
Lci,e<, i. 'JIT-O; Mnritre, lioxj. Hist. Cent. Am., i. IIW-.T; /(/., J'/nii., 10. 

'"Holders of slaves thus emancipated were to bo indemnilieil. Wo are 
asaiii'cd t!>at no ono ever applicil for such indeninilication. 

'' la IStO Great Britain, would-be champion of the world's high morality, 
oil one occasion claimed tho return of sonic fugitive slaves from IJclizo, and 
su]iportcd tho demand with tho presence of a mun-of-war. Notwitiistandin;^ 
liir v.cakncss, Central America refused to comply, on tho groun<l that under 
I11.T constitution tliero were no slii'cs in tho country. Croire'.i (Josptl, l'_'l-'J; 
Sqnicr'ii Trawh, ii. ."iSiVG; Itcvue Amiriuiiie, ii. ij.')0; Dunlop'i C'rn'. Am., 
Ili.'l. According to Molina, the number of slaves thus emancipated was about 
1,000. 

■"Una confedcracion general quo repre.«cntaac unida X la gran fiiniilia 
nincrieaiia.' Martirc, Uo^q. /list. C'enf. Am., i;]S. 

' IJarclay, Ucrring, Uichardson, & Co. , whose a/jent was J. Bailey. TUomp- 
sou'.f Ci'itat., 'JOG; Maniir, liosq. lti.it. Cent. Am., 1. 143. 

"'Ono of tho conditions was that tho republic should not contract for 
another loan within two years. It was estimated that tho debtcouhl bo paiil 
in "JO years. Ammhha Nac, Decrctn, Doc. 0, IK'Jl, in ild-urf, Dosq. /list. 
Ciitt. Am., i. 141. That expectation was not realized. Details will ajipear 
in connection with tho finances of tho reiiublic, elsewhere in this volumu. 



78 



CENTRAL AMERICAN CONFEDERATION. 



It is understood that a portion of the money was 
apphod to strengthening tlie fortifications, and the 
remainder was distributed among the states for their 
local requirements. 

The initiation and execution of the different meas- 
ures I have made mention of, and others of less majj- 
nitude, were the work of the constituent assembly, 
which closed its session on the 23d of January, 1825. 
If all its resolution* were not wise ones, allowance 
must be made for the many difficulties that were in 
the way, and a full recognition given its members of 
the good faith and assiduity with which they per- 
formed their work.'' 

'^ Tho total nunitwr of decrees paaaed waa 137, and of orders 1186. El In- 
dicaUor de Ouat., 1825, no. 16. 



i 



CHAPTER V 



CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT. 

1825-18;«). 

General Elections — Meeting ok the Fikst CoscREsa — Manuel Josi 

AliCE, FlIlST I'llESIDEXT OF THE UeI'IBLIC— FoKEUJN RELATIONS— ARCE'S 

ruEVAiiicATioNs — Conflict with (ii;ATKMALA— Partv ISickeiunus — 
Liberals Qitaukel with Auce — He Joins tiieir OrpONENTS — Biiter- 

NESS ENCENUEIiElJ — PRESIDENT VEIISUS (IrATEMALAN RcLERS— ARJJEST 

ofJefeJlan liARRL'NuiA— Riots at QiEZALTENANOo — McroerofVice- 

JEFE CiRILO Fl.OKES — AlK'K AS DlCTATtH; IN (jl'ATEMALA — W Mi A<;AINST 

Salvador— Ai«;e Dekeaied— He Gives rr the Presidency, and Can- 
not Recover It— liLoouY War of 18'2tJ-J)— Morazan the Victor — 
Jose Francisco Rarrundia, Acting President— Liber vl Measures — 
Peace Restored— Spanish Schemes. 



The first constitutional congress of the Estados 
Fcdcrados do Centre America was installed on the 
Gth of February, 1825, Mariano Galvcz being chosen 
j)resident,' as well as the leader of the liberal party. 
\ number of the old delegates had been reelected I'or 
the new body," whose principal duties were the elec- 
tion of a president, and the ratification of the consti- 
tution. The latter, as we have already seen, was on 
the 1st of September; the I'ormer proved a more diffi- 
cult task, and was achieved amidst contradictions and 
stormy discussions. The provisional executive power 

' Ho is represented as an able man, wlio liad formerly favoivd tlic tmiou 
witli Mexico, lint afterward joined the lil>rnil party, becoming one; of its most 
jiromineut members. Tlio author of Alim. JUv. t'cnt. ^m., 39-41, 4(>, while 
acknowledging his ability, says that he was 'do poca dolicadeza. . .do uu ca- 
nictcr false, y afectando una franqucza y una mocfcracion quo nolo gs propia.' 

'The delegates of the ditFcreiit states were in the following proportion: 
<iuatemala 17, Salvador 0, Honduras and Nicaragua G each, Costa Rica 2. 
Tlie total number being 40, and not 34 us Squier erroneously hoji it. Travels, 
ii. 388. 

J79) 



CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT. 



oioctcd in 1823 had not Ucon harmonious. Arec and 
Vulle assumed their tluties soon ixi'tvr thoir tloclioii, 
and buforo many days had Horious differences, whicli 
ended in Arce's resiijnation of the ]>residency of tho 
triuniviiate. IJein;^ replaced by Josd Manuel do la 
Ceida, he departed lor Salvador and Nicaragua, ex- 
ertin;^ hiniselt' in the paeilication of tho latter. His 
services in this direction won him much good-will, 
and it was proposed to make him the (irst constitu- 
Jonal president of the republic, a proposition that met 
with popular favor. Meanwhile his opponent, Valle, 
was also working.^ Since May 1824 the congress had 
been convoked. Both liberals and moderados had 
untiringly worked for (heir respective candidates. 
The latter seemed to have every prospect of victory; 
of the 79 votes cast, 41 being for Valle, their candi- 
date.* As 42 votes were necessary for a choice under 
tho constitution, congress assumed tho right of select- 
ing one of tho two candidates. A compromise be- 
tween the contending parties was effected, Arcc 
phiilging himself to remain neutral on certain ques- 
tions upon which the other party was much disturbed.* 
The moderados then voted for Arce, and congress, on 
the 21st of April, 1825, declared him to have been duly 
elected by a majority of twenty-two votes against (\vq 
for Vtdle. Tho latter was recognized as tho vice- 
president, and having declined the position, Mariano 
lieltranona was chosen in his place.® Tho justices of 

' Arco had in his favor the prestige of past services, and his suiTerings in 
the cause of imlepcnilcncp. Valle had thn support of those who objected to 
Salvadoran iiredoniinance. Moreover, ho liad been cduciited in Giiatcniala, 
and had property there; from which circumstances it was surmised that ho 
would 1)0 more in sympathy with that state and the so-called acrvilcs. J/rt- 
rurt: Ilonq. llkt. Cent. Ain.,'\. loO; Mi-m. lit iK Cent. Am,, '2S-9. 

*Tho totiU number of votes for tho whole rcpul)lio was 82, but three had 
bcpii rejected by congress for various reasons. JUarure, Bos<i. Hint. Cent. Am., 
i. 'J 10-1 1; Mem. I lev. Cent. Am., 40-1. 

^ Salvador insisted on having an episcopal sco, in order to be independent 
of Guatemala in ecclesiastical alFuirs. This was tho chief question at issue. 
Areo promised to leave its decision to tho next congress. Arce, Mem., .3. 
VuUo really had obtained moro votes than Arce, and congress defravided him 
of his election. MonJuJ'nr, llcnena I list., i. '2U8. 

* Ikrrundia had been elected upon Valle's refusal to accept tho oiBco, and 
likewiso deulinod it. Vallo protested against Arce's clootiou as illegal, ia 



,1.1 



KFCOGNITIOX IIV TllK UNITKI* STA lIvS. 



•1 



the siiprc'iuo couit \vvi\i cloctcd lit tho saino tiine, and 
oil llio 29tli of April' took [)Ossession of their offices. 

Tho lefogiiitioii of tho Contrjil American republic 
as an indopeiideut nation had engaged tho attention 
III' the supreme authorities at the same time that the 
internal organization was proceeding. Tho first treaty 

• (included by the new republic was on the 15th of 
March, 1825, with Colombia, Pedro Molina acting as 
its jilenipotentiary at Bogotd.* A few months later, 
at Washington, on the 5th of December, 1825, a treaty 
was entered into with the United States of America, 
with which power there had been formal relations 
>iiico tho beginning of tho year." Antonio Jose Cafias 
r('[)rescnted Central America as her plenipotentiary. 
The United States soon after accredited William 
Miller as chargd d'aftaires near the new lepublie. 
Diplomatic relations with Groat Britain and tho 
Xcthcrlands were opened early in 1825. Spain con- 
tinued refusing to recognize the independence of Cen- 
tral America, and the pope followed in her footsteps, 
as he had done in re<jard to Mexico."' 

Mvcral writings, apparently to littlo purpose. El Iiidicculor, IS'Jo, no. 'ZG et 
■■<•:[.; Kl Liberal, JS'JJ, no. 7, 8; Xididud de Ui prim, iln:, p.issim; Mariirv, 
ll'^i'l. llixt. Cent. Am., i. 2|-_'-i:{; /./., Efem., \'.\. 

' Arco, Mem., 4, has it April IJOtli, but in view of tho numoroua inisprintj 
II his work, tho ilato given in tiio text is probably more correct. It is the 
no siijijiortcd by Mnnire, Uoxq. /lint. Cfiil. Am., i. 'JKJ; Sr/nit r'.i Trnrch, ii. 
.".-iS; /jii,iloj)'.-i('(:iit. Am., I(J4. Its lirst president w.asToniAs AntoninO'lIora'i. 
Tills court supcrsedi'il the andiencia founded in lo4t at (Iraciiis.i |)iufi, and 
irnnstcrrcd in 154!) to Guatemala. Manire, Kj'em., 14. 

>■ 1 1 was for a defensive and oil'ensive alliance and e(iUi:l pri vil" .;cs of trade. 
1 1 was ratified by tho Cent. Am. ^ovt Sept. VI, IS-.'). Tin; lull text is given 
1.1 liochn. Cikligo Nic.,i.*i5-\)', Marure, liosq. /list. Ciiif. .tm., i. xxxviii.- 
vlvii. See also Ayon, Vonsid. Lim., -S-9; Gaciltt dc. S(di'., Oct. I'J, 1854. 

"It was tiierein stipulated that tho citizens of both republics Klnmld enjoy 
all the rights granted by ono or tho other to the most favnretl iiatiim. The 
viuio ri;^ht3 for political purposes were also agreed upon, that of free exercise 

• t religion being included. All clauses of a commercial character were to bo 
i;i force rj years; the others perpetually. Privileges and rights enjoyed by 
ilii- citizens of cither republic were to bo also allowed to those innnigrating 
from the other. This treaty was ratified by tho younger republic on the 'JSth 
"f Juno, 1820. Tho text in both English and Spanish may be scon in 6'. S. 
CM Doc, U. S. Acts, Cong. 19, Seas. 2, Sen. Doc. 1, i. 149-70; Am. St. 
/'('/'•. I'^or- Rcl-. ^'' 774-82; (JordotCa Digest of Laws, 328-3.">; Maruri', Ilosq. 
Hist. Cent. Am., i. xlvii.-lxv. 

'"Arco's Moss., March 1, 1820, iu Repertorio Am., i. 27'4-0; Santawjdo, 
Conijre o Panama, 7:t-5. 

HiHT. C»NT. Am., Vol. III. r, 



CONSTITUTIONAL GOVLRNMENT. 



The republic being now fairly launched, had Arco 
possessed the abihty all might have gone well. But 
he cither overestimated his administrative powers, or 
underrated the magnitude of his task; and after de- 
creeing some wise measures upon the military defences, 
he began to sow dissatisfaction by his vacillating 
policy. A member of the liberal party from the first 
day that he took part in the political affairs of the 
country, he now committed the serious error of 
abandoning the ground upon which he might havr 
trod with safety. In his endeavors to please botli 
parties, he succeeded in offending the liberals without 
securing the confidence of their opponents, who, though 
willing enough to admit him to their ranks, declined 
rendering implicit obedience. His former friends now 
openly assailed him." 

A conflict sprang up, also, between the federal gov- 
uriunent and the local authorities of Guatemala Citv, 
because the latter refused to take part in celebrating 
the anniversary of the installation of the first assembly 
on the 24th of June, and force was at last brought ti> 
bear upon them." 

The ill-feeling airainst Arce became intensified when 
tlic state government soon after decreed a transfer ol 
its seat to Guatemala, and for want of accommodations 
in public buildings, took possession of the property ol 
[)rivate citizens without their consent. The owner- 
claimed protection from the federal congress, an I 
serious disturbances were averted only by a compru 
misc. During this episode the moderados or serviles 
kept fanning the flame of discord between Arco and 
the liberals, extolling his measures. When the first 
congress closed its session, on the 25th of December, 



" Their newspapers, LI Liberal and Don Meliton, charged him with pai 
tiality and incapacity. The latter, ire its satire and ridicule, was the moi' 
formidable foe, as Arce himself ackn' vkdgra. Mem., 5. 

'■'The departmental chief of Guatemala claimed that ho was not under 
Arce's authority, but under that vi the state, then residing at La Antigua 
Congress empowered the executive to compel the local autnorities to attciul 
the celebration, and it was done. Arce, Mem., 8. 



ARCE, RAOUL, AND VALl.K. 



sn 



1825/^ tho political Icatures of tho country had notably 
chan^'od. Cut fortunately tho danger to the rcpiiblic 
froin the action of tho scrvilcs was avoided, bocan e, 
upon lots beinjj^ cast on the 1st of October for tho ro- 
iiuwals of niemburs of conjjress," the retiriut; nienibor.s 
!uii)pL'ned to be chiefly of districts where the servile 
party had majorities before, and were now re[)lat'e(l 
l)y liberals, the preponderance of the latter being thus 
increased. The second constitutional congress assem- 
blcil on the 1st of March, 182G. Among its nieni- 
I)ors was Valle, who, bent on revenge, erelong made 
( oninion cause with the liberals,'' though lu; was not 
.illowed to exercise a pre<.'ominant influence in their 
counsels. 

On the day congress opened, the president delivered 
liis message detailing the condition of the country, 
but most of it had reference to the relations with 
loivign ])owers.''' The impending rupture was finally 
hastened by the president's course toward Colonel 
Nicolas Raoul, a French officer who had recently ar- 
rive;.l from Colombia, and had been u)ade commandci' 
of the artillery and a member of tho council of war,' 
Xdtwithstanding the considerations and fav(»is con- 
Icrred on him by Arce, no sooner had he receivtid his 
appointment than he openly sided with the liberals 
anil gave utterances against the government. There- 
tore, when Raoul was summoned by congress to aid 
in the organization of the federal troops, the presid nt, 
to get rid of him, sent him to explore the northern 
coasts.*^ Arce then undertook to increase the federal 

"Tho total number of iluurccs enacted was 92, anil that of orders sub- 
mittcil to tho executive 308. For more details, bco A7 Cnilro Amir*;ino, 

iS'j(i, ns. 

"One half of tho representatives of every state had to retire, accordiug to 
tlio constitution. 

'••llo had at first declined the connection, but afterward accepted it 'paia 
d.ir rieiula suclta -X siis resuntimientos y pasionca contra el presidcntc Arce. ' 
Mim. Ilea. Cent. Am., 48. 

'^ To.\L in Itvpertorio Am., i. 273-8!). 

" Ho brought letters of rcconimcndatiou from Pedro Molina, who was 
representing Cent. Am. at Bogota, and liad a high opinion of him, as ho had 
served under Napoleon, ilarnre, lloxq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. 230. 

'"After lio completed that work he was ordered to remain on tho coast till 
furtiicr orders from tho government. Tlie congress tricil in vain to prevent it. 



8t 



CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT. 



«!' 



I 

'■I j 



i*irii 



11 



ll;ii\ 



« >> 



army to 4,000 men, under the pretext that such a 
force was needed for the pacification <»f Nicaragua, 
and the defence of the country against a Spanish in- 
vasion, rumors of which were circulating. Jn order 
to facihtate the operation, he proposed that the incni- 
bors of congress should stir up public enthusiasm in 
their respective states; but instead of acceding to his 
recommendation, several persons known to bo hostile 
to the government, among them Raoul, were selected 
by that body. All remoiistrances to the contrary on 
the ])art of Arce'* had no other effect than to iinbittcr 
the liberals against him. Charges were accordingly 
brought forth, such as his neglecting to lay before 
congress an account of expenditures during his ad- 
ministration, and his having squandered a considerable 
portion of the money raised by loan in London. The 
outcry against his conduct was growing louder from 
day to day. 

This unsatisfactory state of affairs determined Arco 
to dis.'iolve congress. Still he was loath to use violent 
means, and in fact, tliere was no need of it. One of 
the clauses of the constitution allowed the admission 
of substitutes for the deputies to congress in certain 
cases, and both parties had taken advantage of it 
without opposition. However, when the question of 
calling tlie president to account arose, the serviles 
protested against the presence of tlie liberal substi- 
tutes which gave to that party the majority.*' On 
the 2d of June the deputies from Salvador, under in- 
structions I'rom their government, which was friendly 
to Arce, abandoned their seats, their example beiii^f 
followed by those from Costa Rica and most of the 
serviles, thus leaving the chamber without a quorum. '^ 
The session was reopened, however, ten days latei-, 

'*Tho reasons adduced hy him in his Mem., 22-4, and comments on tho 
same in Marure, Bosq. Ilist. Cent. Am., i. 230-7. 

^"Ksto asunto so rcnovaba cada vcz quo (i los diputados niinistciinks 
convcnia paralizar algun {xolpo contracl egecutivo.' Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 51. 

"Tho deputies of Salvador defended their course in a long argument, 
Jiiuo 8, 1S26, calling it an inevitable result of the unlawful conduct of tbu 
majority of congress. Doc, in A rcf, Mem., 10-17. 



STATE AND NATION. 



85 



iles 

jsti- 

Ou 

iu- 

Iho 
111 
ltd", 

11 till-' 
leiiaU'3 

fof tba 



■n 



upon tli(! liberals pledging themselves not to introdueo 
;iiiy motion against the president or the scrviles, and 
UiLUceforth the discussions were confined to matters 
ol'ji general character till the 30th of June, when the 
session was closed; but the deputies of Salvador and 
( \)sta Rica had not resumed their seats. 

It was now evident that a collision was unavoidable. 
Tlio state government, controlled by the liberals, !» - 
cinno fearful that the scrviles, in their endeavor to 
suji[)ort the president, might also attack the author- 
ities of Guatemala, and under the pretext of an inva- 
.^ion threatening from Chiapas, secretly began to make 
military preparations. Salvador and Costa liiea, on 
the other hand, offered aid of troops to the federal 
g()Vernn)ent. Both parties i)rccipitated the crisis : the 
liberals bv tiieir heedless attacks on the clen;v,'"' and 
.specially by ridiculing its members; the serviles by 
raiming, jointly with the clericals, ill feeling among 
the low, ignorant classes, whom it was easy to per- 
suade that the liberal party aimed at the destructioi; 
lit' their religion. This had now become a matter of 
j^rcater case, owing to the irritation already existiii'_;\ 
caused by the forced loans and reeruitiiiLj for the ai luv 
decreed by the state government. Strange though 
it may appear, the scrviles had iio suspicion that tlu; 
lederal authorities were aware of their intrigues. The 
clash came in May 182G, when Raoul, without liax ing 
fullilled his commission on the northern coast, tendered 
his resignation, accompanied with u number of invec- 
tives against the executive, which ho subsequently 
repeated in a second letter."^ lie was arrested on the 
17th of Jul}', and subjected to the action of a cr)Ui't- 
iiiartial for disrepect and insiAordination. This rai d 
a .storm of fury in the local legislature, where Raoul's 

"Restricting the arelibishop's powers, uiid placing him to sonic extent 
iimlcr civil autliority; suppressing the subvcntiona of curates, and almliohing 
cii't.iiii privileges tho clergy liud till then enjoyed; tithes were reduced, nnd 
persons under '23 years of ago vcro not allowed to take monastic % ,i\vh. Ma- 
rure, Jiosq. JHnt. Cent. Am., i. li44-5. 

*^The full text of the resignation is given in Arce, Mem., 2.')- 7. 



so 



CONSTITUTIONAL OOVERNM KNT. 



i:ic 



it Hi •!' 



arrest was cousiclercd as an encroachment on the state's 
authority. An order ot* arrest was issued against 
Cai>tain Espfnola, the oiHccr who had carried out the 
commands of tiio federal executive, and the jefe, or 
chief of the state, Juan liaiinndia, was authorized to 
raise a sufficient lorco to sci.'.e Espfnola's person,"* and 
tho pecuniary contincfenl «if the state for federal ex- 
penses was withheld.** 

The troops despatched toariest Espiin)la iiiunbered 
300 men, and were commanded by C'ayetano do la 
Cerd.i, who encountererl his man near Aoasaguastlan. 
To a\ id l)h)odNhed, a capitulation wa?^ agreed upon 
hy botli parties until they siiould obtain furtiier orders 
from iheir respective goveriunents.'^'' 

Wln'H news of this agreement reached Guatemala, 
a few days later, simultaneously rumors came to tht; 
cars of Arce that a cou[)-de-main was contemplated 
b}' B.urumlia, with tlie evident intent of efiecting his 
removal. To anticipate the blow,'" on the 5lh ot 
September Arce secretly ordered the commander of 
iho federal forces to arrest Barrundia at an early hour 
tho following morning, and disarm the state troops, 
using force if necessary.-* This was done, the officei- 
meeting with mo resistance."^ The liberals had no 
suspicion of Arce's resolve til after its execution. 

'■** ' I'oudrA 8()J)ro las nrmas toda l:\ fucrza quo crca ncccsaria. . .Eii ciso (K 
• csistciici.-i repilcri la fucrza con la fiicrza.' JiL, .3 J. 

''^Oii the grouiul tliat only Guatemala had paid such contingent, and even 
more, and tho other states had nrbitrarily cliulcd payments. Arce was iic- 
ouscci, not without foundation, it seems, of allowing eucli discriniination. 

'•"'Oil September ,1, 1S2C; the doeumcnt merely stipulatea a tciiiiiorarysii-i- 
pension of hostilities, without further cntei-ing into tiic question. Aire, Mem., 
',',0. It lia.s been asserted that Espinola held a favorable position, and adds: 
'A pesar de csto, capituld vergouzosanicntc ' — a ehargo without iiiueh founda- 
ti^ ii, in view of tho numerical superiority of the Guatemalan forces, ^fe»l. llir. 
r,„/. Am.,52-3. 

"Arce, Mem., 39-41, gives a lengthy account of his deliberatioin, nml 
iloubts whether it would or not bo just, and consistent with his duties, to im- 
prison Barrundia, all of which is at least doubtful. 

•^Mem. liev. Cent. Am., 53. Crowe's Gonjyel, V27, and S(jiiiir\i Trnoili, ii. 
nor;, confound tho jcfo with his brother Jos(5 Francisco. Tho onlers wci>', 
' Quo en cl caso do resistencia obro fuertemento hosta concluir el nri-esto y oou- 
paeion do lasarmos.' Arce, Mem., 41-2. 

•'This non-rcsistanco is attributed to treachery on tho part of Vera, v 
Mexican commanding tho stato forces, who subsequently entered tho federal 
service. Mature, Bostj. I lint. Cent. .Am., i. 2TA-T\. 



W: r 



ARREST OF BAURUNDIA. 



87 



riie vicc-jcfc of tlio state, Cirilo Floivs, then forth- 
with assumed the govcrnineiit, aiul being ttMidorcd 
the aid of federal troops to support his authority, 
proudly rejected it.*' 

On tlie following day the 'M^fs of tiie other states 
were .•ip|)rised of liarrundia's a. rest, in a circular from 
Arce defending his course, which he declared to liavc 
lioen pursuant to duty under i\n) constitution."' Sucli 
was the j)osition assumed by ids friends and by the 
serviles in general; while the radical liberals, taklii':^ i 
dillereiit view, denounced him as a violator of the 
constitution.^" However, the energy thus displayed 
hy Arce was rather favorably looked upon, p( . 'laps 
from a feeling of relief arising from the suppv>.-,ition 
that party bieki'»ings had been brought to an end, 
inori! than iVvJiii any sym[>atliy ibr Arce. The presi- 
dent mi'.rht now have strengthened his party, but diil 
not, an(i went on committing serious mistakes. In- 
.stead of turning the imprisoned Barrundia over to the 
state assenjbly, as prescribed by the constitution, to 
bo tried upon the several charges that had been osten- 
tatiously i)referred a^jaiiist him, he allowed the lejjal 
time I'or prosecution to elapse, and then released the 
prisoner under bonds."'* 

Tlie second constitutional congress was to meet on 
tlie 1st of October, 182G, and the liberal party had, 
since Se[)tember, industriously woi'ked to secure a 
majority. JJut on the appointed day there was no 
i[Uorum, tlie members of the opposition having re- 
ilised to take their seats, evidently to prevent the 
adoption of any measures against the president.'" It 

^"Doc, in Arce, Mem., 20. 

•"It is a loii'^ tloc, giving details, ami dwelling spcci.ally on tlie part 
llaoul had playeil. /(/., 127-31. 

'■t.'oinmciita and details on the subject in Marurc, JJonq. Ilisl. C'viit. Am., 
i. 2.'i')-S; Mem. J'ri'. Cent. Am., .'j:M. 

'•^'Edto dcscnluce liizo ridiculo todo lo que dntes liabia p.-eeido un golpe 
maestro.' iMem. Jlev. Cent. Am., 54. 

^'To savo appearances, Arce pretended to induce liis supporters to as'<u. »i 
tliL'ir jwsitions in the eliamber, but there is little doubt of its being mere 
iiLuin. It has been intimated that even soino liberals declined to sit, from 
apprehension that an iuvostigation of .\ree'8 conduct might lead to civil war 






» 



CON.iflTUTIOXAL GOVEIiXMKNT. 



was rather .su.s|)ic'ious tliat tlio g()V(;rmiiciit at Sail Sal- 
vador, always IVioiidly to Arce, luul forbidden its del- 
egates to occupy their seats in congress uidess it were 
to discuss the ex[)ediency of transferring the I'oderal 
authorities to some place distant from Guatemala.^' 
It soon became apparent that tlie president's aim was 
to have his own assembly, for on the lOtli of Octt>l)ei' 
he convoked an extraordinary congress.^'' This was 
open violation of the constitution, which vested in the 
senate the authority for convoking, and moreover 
limited representation to only one delegate for every 
30,000 inhabitants. Much indignation was i'elt ])V 
the members of con<jfress, who had constituted them- 
selves into an organizmg commission, but dispersed 
on the same day that Arce's decree was published."' 
Exciting events now followed in ipiick succession. 
The vice-jefe Cirilo Flores and the state authorities 
had retired on the 8th of October to Quezalteiiango, 
where he was murdered a few days afterward — on the 
loth — by a mob of fanatical Indians.^^ The act was 

"•'Still ileclaring its allegiance to the federation. Gaz. de Mex., Jim. 'J- 
1827; Arce, Mem., TjI. 

"•The impossiliility of obtaining a quorum of members clioscu to the ~ 
congress, and impending civil war, \verc among tlio reasons assigned for hi 
action. The elections were to bo niado on the basis of two deputies for ovev.\ 
.'JO.OOO inhabitants, and Cojutcpcriuo in Salvador was appointed as the plac ■ 
of meeting. Tliis measure was at first well received by the states, br. i 
afterward rejected in conscquenco of ca decree of tho Salvador government on 
the Gth of Dec., inviting the federal deputies to meet at tho vilhv of Aliuacha 
pan. Marure, Ej'cm., 17; ^fetll. liev. Cent. Am., CO. 

^'Oct. 11, 18'JG. Marure, JJonq. Jlisl. Cent. Am., i.27S; Corn:-;. Fed. Mcx., 
Nov. '21, ISJO. 

°^lle soimht refuge in the parisli church, but %va3 pursued by the crowd. 
Ilis ouly safety lay in tiie pulpit, tho renionstrancea of tlic religious, and tin 
presence of tho host. Tho religious succeeded at times in calming thoralp 
ble, promising that I'lorea should be sent into exile. But Antonio (.'orzo, wIp > 
was ill tlic court-yard witii a few poorly armed militiamen, lired .i volley upon 
the mob, which became still more excited. The women dragged I'iores from 
the jndpit, took him out of the temple, 'y Ic iumoiaron eii iin elaustro bar 
bara y horrorosamcnte.' Mtm. Hev. Cent. Am., 57-S. S'luier's Travels, ii. 
.'190, lias it tliat the Indians had Iieeu infuriated by the harangue.i of afri:.; 
from tho jiulpit, and that the rabble slaughtered Florea at the very foot > ; 
tho altar, literally vending his body in pieces; the apparent cause of thi- 
vindictiveuess of the priests being that in tlio general levy of ta.\e3 for tin 
state the property of the convents li.id not been spared. 'iVnil thus was tin 
movement started by the aristocrat.^, seconded by their allies, tho priest-. 
Ex-president Morazan, referring to that catastrophe, uses these words: ' Tue.- 
to eu manos do un feroz popnlacho. iustigado por las funestaa ideas quo K 



K I 
I I 



MURDER OF FLORE.S. » 

utiriljuted to Arcc and liis imiiiLiliatc tVieiifis, but 
aliparcntly without much reason,^ though it must be 
athuitted that intrigues of the servile party and the 
|. reaching of hostile prie.sts aroused the i'anaticism of 
the |»o|»ulac-o to such a degree that the slightest f-ause 
would bring about the commission of outrages. The 
trouble did not end with Florcs' death, for many mcm- 
Iwifi of the assend)ly and representative council were 
<<»nipclled to flee for their lives. 

The state was now powerless, for even its military 
t'lrces disappeared before the federal troojis. The 
jil^iials in the state and re])ublie saw th< ir hopes 
il;i>^hed, and manv emigrated.** Arcc held the execu- 
live authority of both the federation and tin- .state of 
' luatt-njala; and acting upon the advice of Salvador, 
],<: began reorganization, decreeing on tin- .".1st of 
October the election of a new e.\t>cutive and Irgi.-la- 
ture for Guatemala, from which the iiihabitant^ enter- 
tained hopes of a final restoration of peace throughout 
I he rej)ublic. But those hopes wrw frusti"a<ed by a 
-uddeu change of policy on the part <»l' the Salvador 
ijovt-rnment, which surprised everybody, all the moic 
from the fact that it had heretofore lirmly supported 
the [tresiilent. 

inculc'iroii sun sacerdijtes, iierccio !il pio <lu las >ni;'ii;;(iu'.s tie Ins s.tiit<> :, :i l.i 
viitatlcsns inicuos jiiccus, yen prcscucia do lanitaristia, 4110 csIdh ciiliriiTan.' 
A-fiiiiiU*. MS., 4. Florej had been noted for liis cliinity to tlio jioor, Kixiially 
to the Indians, to wlioiii ho constantly gave nirdi<"il aid, niodiciiu", and 
'ithtr ncc«-ssark'8. Tho slato assonddy, after licin;,; rcstorcil in 1n_'!>, d^.'.-i eid 
tioiiors to iiin memory, nnd ordered j)laccd in its hall of sessions an iiisc iptiou 
in IttHTS of f;old,!i3 follows: 'Al inmurtal Vioe-jcfo Ciiidadano C'irilo I'jire.s, 
ii.irtir tie \a J.ibeitad, sat rideado en Qiiezaltenango, c 1 las aras th; la ley.' 
In May \H'.\\ tho name of C'iiul.itl Flores was yiven in his lionoi' t > tlie lieatl 
town of the district of I'eteu. Marure, Ejriii., 17, -'<. 

^The Hiicralj It.okotl upon it a3 the result of an arrangement of .\rco autl 
lii!];>ai;i»ans; tho latter declared it to liavo resultcil from an aeeiilent, or rather 
:riim \it>lent acta on the part of liberals in yue7.;dteiianL;o, sndi ,1 1 forcibly 
t.ikin',' horses in tlie night from private houses and tlu^ I'laDfisian eonvent. 
M.-ir.ire states that ho tliorou;.:ly e.\aminetl every iloeuinent liearili„' »n tin: 
aubj'Ct, anil found no cviileno against Aree tir his party. Ilnyq. iJl.^f. Cci.'. 
Am., i. '27.V8J. Tho author of Mem. llrv. <.nif. .tin., ."tS, afiiidta Arce, 
attrdiutiug the act to a KUthlen ]io))ular exeitement. Sfc also Asf.'ihitntatj'i, 
C'ht. Am., I.'i; i'rouw's <;i',kj,(I, ]"27-S; I'ikhIh, in Gii"f., lircop. Lryt^ in. 
3IS; c.jirx. F"l. Mi.v., Nov. !>, KS-JO; Dec, in An-,' Mmi., \\l-'.\. 

" Tiicrt- wai* an ell'ort towartl reeonciiiatioii, tiio liberals r>r,i ring to inaku 
concci«ions, and Arco favoring Ihcir proposals; but thoBcrvilis haughtily re- 
(lued. 



90 



CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT. 



Pedro Molina arrived at San Salvador from Panaind 
when Arce liad in his cliarge the affairs of Guate- 
mala, and had decreed the new elections for the state. 
Beinj:? a political opponent of the president, Molina 
refused to go to Guatemala to report the action of 
the Panamd congress. It was not a difficult matter 
I'or him to find congenial spirits for an intrigue against 
the federal executive. An estrangement had occuired 
between Arce and Delgado, who aspired to be bi.shop 
of San Salvador,*' and was a man of great political 
power. Moreover, it so happened that the jefe of 
Salvador, owing to ill health, had to turn over his 
office to the vice-jefe, Mariano Prndo, wh.) was under 
tlie influence of the discontented party. His first act 
was to repeal Arce's decree of October lOtli convok- 
ing an extraordinary congress at Cojiitepecjue.*- 'i'hen 
simultaneously forces were levied in Salvador, osten- 
sibly to protect congrci'S when assembled at Ahua- 
<lia[)an. Internal difficulties in llonduias led the 
federal govei-innent to intci'l'ere;^^ and thus, at the 
end of 182G, there were a number ol forces at work 
to drive Arce from the jiresjdential seat. This state 
of afl'airs continued till Februaiy 18l'7, when rumors 
of an invasion be^fan to circulate in (jiuateniala. The 
next month Salvadoran foices,under Trigueros, started 
on their march toward the capital. All doubts about 
the plans of the invading army having ceased, Arce 
displayed unusual activity in bus preparations to meet 
the enemy. With the aid of the newly chosen jefe 
of Guatemala, Aycinena, hv. increased the garrison to 






*M)wiii'r, it was said, to the publication of a pontifical IniU, whicli, iukIit 
Arcc'u t\t'(|natur, hail been restricted to (Juatenula by tlio avclibislio]i, .-i 
step that DclgaJo Bupposml to have been by Arco's insti^'ivtiuu, or at least. ;i 
lack iif interest on liia part for San Salvador. Mem. Jier. Cent. yl»n., (id. 
Arce liiniseit attributed the cstrangcmeiit to party intrigues. Mem., W. 
Dunlop, Cent, Am., lU.'i, assigns disputed about tlio erection of the bisboprir 
as tlio cause of the rupture. 

'■Arce, Mem., Gl, liuda fault with Prado's act, \. nen bis own bad been 
just as ine{,'al. 

"Colonel Milla invaded tlie statu with a federal force, captured Coniaya- 
jjuaon tiio Otli of May, 1827, and arrested tlio jefo of tbo state, llerrera 
The whole was a wanton proceediu','. .Mnmzaii, Apmites, MS., (I-J). 



.\n,CE'S VICTORY AND DKFEAT. 



01 



2,000 men, and loaviiij^ the exorvitive authority in 
charge of Vice-president Beltranuna, took personal 
command of tlie troops. Ho made an effort, Jiow- 
(ver, to avert an encounter, but without avail ;^* and 
tlicy fought, a few days later, at Guadalupe, a sliort 
distance from Guatemala, the invaders being repulsed, 
,>ud the following day, March 23d, utterly routed at 
Arrazola." This victory caused great exultation in 
( Juatemala, and Arco's prestige grow rapidly. Money 
and reeidorcements were cheerfully placed at his 
command, and he allowed himself to be carried away 
hy evil counsels to pursue an aggressive policy and 
punish Salvador.'*" 

The federal army marched in April into the state 
of Salvador, and reiinforced from Sonsonate and Santa 
Ana,'' reached Nejapa without opposition, that [)lace 
being about twelve miles from the city of San Salva- 
dor. After certain negotiations lor peace, which had 
!io satisfactory result, .Vrce attacked the city on the 
r^th of ^lay, at the head of 2,000 men, and was re- 
|)ulscd with heavy loss. His slow movements had 
niven the Salvadorans time to act.''"' Jlis retreat was 
ill good order to Santa Ana; but from this placi-, de- 
sertions having greatly diminished the force, ildegen- 
crated into llit^ht, of which the i)ursuin<j' SaKadoi-ans 
I'ailed to take advantage. Arce reached (JuajiirKjui- 
lapa toward the end of May, with only ;J00 men. 

"Tlic ODiiiiiiaiiiUjr of llio Salvadorans was un.ililo to cxphiiii liis illegal 
jionccdili;.'. j)ur., in AlVP, Mem., 4o-(i. 

*' I'uiailcil accounts, with co]ii(;3 of the odiciul exaggerated rcporis, aro 
■jivcii ill <,'(!-. ill' ^/e.c., Apr. 'JO till May I and May '2'2, Ib'll; Mariin\ Khnn., 
Ill; J/i /,(. AVc. (,'i nt. A)u., (J- -4. Decree of government of (Juftteiiiala on tiic 
■ulijnt, Marcli 'JS, 1S'J7. GiKit., Jici'"]'. Lii/es, i. '2o0. 

■'■ lliltranena and several i.'f Arcc's oliicers disapproved tho retaliatory 
\i\\n. Ayeinena, on the contrary, favored it, tliougli willing to aliidj i)y 
.Vice's decision. 

*' Until districts had seet^dcd from the state government of Salvailnr, 
attacldng Ihcnisclves to tiic federal cause. 

^'Mlc cDinmitted the error of entertaining peace proposals, which werciinadc 
•Illy to gain time. He endeavored to explain it away on the pica of Cent. 
Ami. hmilierliood: 'I'uedoyo dejar do tencr un corazon (,'ciitio ^iiiicricano'/ 
No e:f [losihlo.' Arcc, Mem., 0!). On the puiiie and following pages ii a de- 
tailed account of the action, carefully worded and extolling the bravery of his 
'iiiatemalan soldiers. Tiie otlicial reports t\n' in El Sol., Alex., July ii, I.S-'T; 
Muriire, l^'rm., 1S>. 



02 



CONSTITUTIONAL CiOVlCUNMENT. 



i(|. 



"1:, 



I'l'j- 



Tills early liiilurc of ;i war iVoiu Vvhich wore to flow 
such <,'ro;i( rcodlts brought (xliiun ou Arce; hut hy the 
ufi'orts of iVionds, conlidencc in him was restored, and 
ahout 700 men were obtained to resume o[»era1 ions by 
taking Santa Ana/^ For several months n<> events 
of importance occurred. The time was c!mplo3'ed by 
Arco in strengthening his force, with which he made 
a IVultless attempt to intercept a Salv^ador division thai 
assailed Sonsonate, Overtures for [)eace were again 
made by Salvador, but though not absolutely rejected, 
no understanding was arrived at. They gave rise. 
however, to a discussion as to whether the federal 
president was, as he thought himself, authorized to 
decide upon the question of peace or war without con- 
sulting the state government of Guatemala. **' Piqued 
at the opposition he had met, which he supposed to 
arise fi'oni want of coniidence, Arcc received with 
pleasure a request from Vice-president Beltraneiia 
to give up the army and return to Guatemala and 
take chage of the government.''' Briij^adier Fian 
cisco Ciiscaras was thereui)on madeconnnander of tin 
army on the 12th of Oetobei-, 1827. Soon after ArecV- 
return to Guatemala he took ste[)s to restore peacr. 
and issued, on the 5th of December, a decree to con- 
voke a new congress,"'' and at the same time ordered a 
suspension of hostilities. But his commissioner, Juan 

^'■'Tlic ^'ovcnmicnt of Salviulor had in May made peace j)n)posnIs, liiit t'i 
fcilcral authorities rejected them. JJocn, in Aire, J/cm., i7-ol. 

'•'"It was deeiiled in seeret session of th(! state assetnlily ou the Uitliof ()i ' 
that the state had a right to interveii':', and if it was i,i:;nored, and ti'caties di- 
pleaain;:; to tho state were eonehided, the latter should de^aeli itself from tli 
federation, and its troops eontinue oceupying the towns they then held. Arei ' 
letti'rof Oct. 17, lt^-7, to lirig. Cilsearas, in Moiili'ifiu; /.'(w/irt J/i^t., i. •_'■_'. 

'■' It may have been of his own seekini,', for ho must have seen erc^ this t!i 
great dillieulty of eouquering San Salvador with his small forec, and that I 
i'ontinuo longer in the lield would oidy hrinij him into further disreiuite, 

''■'Ex-mar((iiLi3 do Ayciucna, i)rother of the jefo of (Juateinala, called tin 
decree impolitic, illegal, and arbitrary. Tho serviles eould seo that it \\()tilu 
restore tho old congress, so hostile to th"in; and with a majority against then. 
in both houses, they might have to resort to the dangerous expedient of dri\ 
ing awivy the senators and deputies at the point of the bayonet. It was riili. 
ulous in them to rail against arbitrariness, when tliey had arbitrarily deposm 
ISarrnndia in (iuatenuila and llerrera in Honduras. It was arbitrary to Uei p 
the uaaon without a congrcs^, wliii'h was their work. MoiUiiJar, Ilvxeila II'iM., 
i. !), 'lA. 



CASCAllAS IN SALVADOR. 



93 



do DIos Mayorgn, wlio w.as to iiotiiy tlio autliorities 

at San Salvador of liis ineasuri's, was not allowed t<i 

nroci'cd to that <'ity, the Salvadorans, now recinforcod 

with oiliccis exiled IVoni Colombia,'^^ being more than 

\cv (i|)j)osed to eoneiliation. Ilostilitieii were i 
1 1 i..,.<,,-i ...ui. .,u.>...>o^;..,, ... .,.,..>.-. .64 i> 



>uine( 



I and condiK'tcd with alternatiii<_j sncce; 



Imt 



.111 the whoh', disadvitntai^eoiisly I'or tlie i'ederal force, 
dwiiiL;' ti» ( 'ascai-as' lack of strategy, and the ieni|)or- 
izin"" policy of the enemy; for the latter, whenever 
pri'sseil, would mak(! overtures of peace, protesting a 
willingness to terminate the war, though breaking 
tlu'ir ])romiscs as fast as they weri> made.'' Cascaras' 
situation was daily bi'coming jierilous, on account of 
the numerous desertions of his troops. At last, on 
the 17th of ])eeeml)ei-, a bloody enooutitcr took place 
ia the streets of Santa Ana, which terminated in a 



capi 



itulat 



um, uni 



ler which both f(H'ces were to leave 



lie ])lace the next day, Cascaras left it as stipulated, 
)ut Colonel Merino with the Salvadorans remained, 



M 



Cascaras i-eturncd. to Guatemela toward the end of 
December, the Salvadorans having regained posses- 
.■>ion of Santa Ana, and of all the other places formerly 
occupied by the federal army. 

Shortly alter, with Ayciiuna's assistance, another 
Ibderal army was organized, but Arce took good care 
to give ])ositions iu it only to trusted friends,'" As 
.soon as the organization was nearly completed, detach- 
ments were sent to check the enemy's raids in Chi- 



.|U 



imula, .'i'tdthen, under the command of a foreiirner 



iiaiiiei 



1 W 



i\ Perks, the 



army 



marc 



hed 



Liiiams 



ttl 



le 



•'^^Tlirco ItroUiera Merino, nml a Frciicliiuan iiamoil Soumaettra. Ilar.'iol 
Mi'iinowiismailo comnian<lcr-iu-uhicf, Mem. Uiv. i'<ul. Am., 7'>; Arrr, Mi tn., 

' N'oar tlic liill of La Trinidad tho federal forces wliicli hail cniitnil nf 
lliiniliiras wore defeatocl l)y Nicaraguans and Salvadorans under Lieut-enl 
K(iiiiL,'i(> Diaz. Murun', E/iin., 'JO. 

•'■' It is ditiic\dt to Huu iiow tlio (lUaloinalans coiild jdaoc faith on i)Iod.;ia 
s'l iiflcn violated; cvi 'eiitly given to gain time. 

■•'''I'iiis iiiih'd tho .second oaniiiaiijn hotwcen Salvadorans and Clnatenialans. 

■'' Tlii.s army was to bu uscil, lirst in tiul)duin,i,' Salvador, and next tjiiato- 
iM.da, whert! Arco encountered more and more opposition to his plans. Mem, 
li<:v. Cent. Am., SI-'-'. 






if 



;; .»; 



; i . 






I' I- 



94 



CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNxMEN T. 



Salvacloran headquarters at Ahuachapan. Once men' 
stratagem was resorted to by the wil}'^ Salvadoians, 
who made proffers of peace, the I'arce ending as usiial/"^ 
I n the mean time troubles broke out in the fedeial army, 
and Perks, tlie commander, was deposed by tlie iield- 
officcrs and sent to Guatemala as a prisonei-/'* The 
ronnnand then devolved upon Colonel Antonio Jose 
I risarri. Arcc tried in vain to have l*erks reinstalled, 
•ind his efforts in that direction only served to increase 
the ill feeling, which grew so strong that on th ■ 14tli 
of February, 1828, he turned over the exeeiitivi 
office, though without a formal resignation, to Jjeltra 
nena,"" who conferred the command of the federa! 
army on Brigadier Manuel Arzi'i. This officer marclRi 
at once aijainst the Salvadoians, rofusin'jf to listen tn 
any overtures for negotiations iVom their eiiief, Mc- 
riiio. The armies met at Ciialchua[)a on tiio 1st oi 
}.[arch,and the lederal troops obtaincnl a victory, whicli 
(Ii'ovc the foe back to San Salvadoi-.''' Arzu follower 
and made an assault on that citv, in which both side> 
U'ave proofs of extrat)rdinarv bravorv. The a:-sault 
failed; at the end of six hours' liuhtinL!: the assailant> 
had to retreat behind their intrenchments."- Fron: 
this time San Salvador and San Mitxuel became tin 
theatres of war. A series of encounters, none of sui" 

"'The coinniissioucrs, ua agreed upon, were to meet at Jutiapa. Tliosc c: 
the general government went there ami waited several clays; no Salvailoraii 
appcMred. 

'■'•' 'i'lic m.itiny took plaec at Xalpatagua on the 9th of Feb. j\ftirtire, K/vm.. 
-Q; Miin. llcv. i'ait. Am., 83-0. Aycineiia wrote his eousin Antonio, w,. 
was in the theatre of war, tliat in order to hinder all peace arrantjemeni-. 
lueasiired would he resorted to tiiat were unknown oven to Maehiavelli. 'Jin 
mutiny aLMiiist I'erks was evidently one of these measures. 

'"llo alleL;ed aa a reason the unwillingness of Salvador to enter into neu'ii- 
tiatioii.s as lung as he remained at the head of aflaii-a. Arfv, Mem., Si-7. Tli'' 
real cause, however, was a resolution of the assembly of Guatemala demauii 
ing his resignation, and ho was unablo to disregard it. Tliis course of thi 
a.sscmbly wa:i alto;;ether illegal, but the timo for the expiation of Aree'a polit i 
eal Bins liad arrived. Aeeording to his own statement, ho retired to his 
plantations at Santa Ana. 

''This was tho most bloody figlit of the war of 182G-9, and opened thi; 
tiiird can.paign between Guatemala and Salvador. Maruir, Ej'em., '.II. 

•■^Their supply of ammunition iiad been destroyed by fire, and their com 
nmnder h;id received a serious contusion. This light has been sinee known 
as the 'atut|Uodel viOrncs santo,' iiav.ng taken place on good-friihiy, .March 
1'.', 182S. /./., 21. 



:|.! 



(JUATKMALA AND SALVADOli. 



licicnt importance to bo loiii^thily clcscribod, lollowocl, 
witli vMryiniJf succi'ss I'or cither sidc."^ The Salvador- 
;ins liuviiiijf bcsicLjod the remnants of the federal army 
under Colonel Manuel Montiifar, at Mejicanos, alter 
ei<T^]it months conipelled them to surrender, on the 
LlOth ot* September. Tlieir coninumdcr an<l general 
stall' were held as prisoners of war." 

The division of the federal army that occupied the 
department of San ]\li<^uel, which had been defeated 
I»y General Morazan at (Jualcho on the (Jth of July, 
hein^" intercepted on its rc;treat toward the Ijcinpa, 
laid down its arms, under honorable terms, at San 
Antonio, on the 9th of October.'"'' 

'' April l.'Jtli, action of Quclepa, in which tlic Salvailorana woro dcfeatcil. 
With lliiit victory, and aiiotlur at (jiiascoran on the 'J.'ith of the same iiiontli, 
•,lio whole (Irpartincnt of Sau Miguel was linm^ht under hulijcctinn to the 
r ■ilcral f;ovurninent. June l'2tl\, peace stipulations were signed at tiie house 
1. 1' K.s(|uili( 1, Manuel F. ravoii actiu;,' for the federal government am. Matias 
I lelu'ado for Salvador, liy wliieii the former was to l>o reco'^nized l>y liie ialter, 
;i L'liieral diet wan to meet at Santa Ana, and a federal loree oeeupy San Sal- 
v.idiir; liut the Salvailor /.'ovenuncnt refused to sanetion the arr:ui';eiueut, 
.mil the war continued \xith more fury than ever. l>etads on tho;^e prelini- 
luarirs are given in M(m. Ikv. (.'cut. Am., 100-1. .luly Otli, li.itlleof (iiiaielio, 
i'W the haidis of the Lcnipa, in the departnionl of San Mi;^'uel, hetv.c i n llon- 
.UuiUis and (Juatenialans. The latter, under Col. |)ouiin,L;ue/, hi'.lierto vic- 
I iriiais. were utteilv ilefeated. Manor, Ki'vm., 'Jl-'2; Kl I.'sjin<lii I'idi., Jan. 
I'-i, 18JI). 

'■'Arzu had abandoned them to their fate. Monluj'itr, llexcru' Ili-l., i. IT-'d . 

''■' .Uornzaii, A/)iiiitii>, ^IS.; Monti'ij'ar, Hfsifut li'»t., i. o;!— 1. 'Jliuseiid(d 
<lisa.strously for the federal forces their third invasion of Salvador territory. 
The actions of (Jualelio and San Antonio were the lirst in which thej^reat 
t'eiitral American sohlier and statesuiau Francisco Morazau tigured as a j:eii- 
iral. Morazan will stand in history in many respects as the liest. and in all as 
the ahlcst, man that Central America had. Jle was born in llondiiraM in IT'.^l*, 
his fatlier being a French Creole from the \V. I., and li's motherof Tegucigalpa, 
m Honduias. His tducatioa Mas such as he could obtain in the e luntry at 
tiiat time; but hi-) quickness o.' appreiieusion and thirst for knowledge soon 
placed him far above his countrymen. Jle was of an im[ietuous tempera- 
iiH lit, and pos.^essed at the same time great decision and iicrsevciance. Jlis 
lieaiiiig was free and maidy, and hi.s manner frank and open. 'J liese (juali- 
tii s ciHild not fail to and did secure him the love and respect of his fellow- 
cit.i'ciis, giving him an inuueiise inllnence over them, lu IS'24 lie was already 
"cciipyiug the position of secretary-general of llon<luras, and later was seiia- 
tiir, and for a time acting jcfe of that state; but his temiieranieut !!ooii m;ide 
iiiiii turn his attention to martial all'airs. He ever after was noted as a re- 
imlilican of very liberal views. S'jiiicr.^ Tntrcl!<, ii. -lOO; JJitnlcii's Ci iil. Am., 
170-1; Antaltiiriiafja, Cent. Am., 17. 'J"ho writer of Mem. Jut: Cciil. Am., 
'.)'.', says that Morazan had been at one time a clerk in a notary's ollico at 
('i)iiiayagua, where ho 'iiabia dado li conocer disposieionea muy fcliccs, pero 
poco luuirosas, para la imitacion do letras 6 iirmas.' It has been said thai 
.Morazan joined the party opposed to the existing federal government at tha 
iusti;.'atiou of Pedro Molina. Uacela dc S. o'n/c , Oct. 3, Ibul. A portrait of 
Morazan is given in MoiUuj'ar, JtrMciia Hint., i. 7-. 



CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT. 






Tho condition of I'oderal aflairs was now far froui 
cncourajxinir. It niav be that Arce, had he been 
replaced, might have turned disaster; but his aj)[)H 
cation liad met with a refusal, and he took no further 
part in the political events of tho republic.*'^ After all 
hostile forces had been either captured or expelled I'roiii 
Salvador, Morazan made a triumphant entry into th( 
state capital on the 23d of October, 1828." Shortly 
before this a commission had come from Costa lliia 
to mediate between Guatemala and Salvador, but the 
latter demanded too much.*^ !Morazan's presence in 
San Salvador greatly strengthened the warlike party, 
and the idea of invading Guatemala gained favor froip. 
day to day, till it was finally carried out. After peace 
overtures had been rejected by the federal author- 
ities, Morazan began his march toward Guatemala in 
the latter end of November 1828.^ The news struck 
terror into tho hearts of the now defenceless Guate- 
malans, and no steps to meet the emergency could 
be taken, owing to lack of order, official rivalries, an I 
party intrigues. It was, as a saving measure, iinally 
decided in the assembly to tlctach the state from the 
federation, though it was never sanctioned or carried 
out. To increase difficulties, a revolution broke on! 
in the department of La Antigua, placing it under 
the protection of j\Iorazan,''" who, at the head of about 
2,000 men, assuming the title of 'ejercito aliado pro- 
tector do la ley,' laid siege to the city of Guatcmal.i, 



"•'It has been asserted that ho offcrcil his services to Salvador, and m:i^ 
slighted, M< 111. It'ci'. Cent. Am., 97-8, which iinds confirmation in Arces nu u 
statement. Mem., i^S-'.h Squier has it that Arcc went to Mexico, Tmnl-!, ii. 
402; hut tills seems to be a mistake, for he was in Guatemala in 18'_'9. 

•" A few days i)reviously, on the 'JOtli, the assembly of Guatemala dccit > 1 
a renewal of all the powers of tho state, with tho vain purpose of reniovi:i ; 
one of the obstacles to tho termination of tho war. Marun, Ej'em., '22. 

**l'rado and Morazan offered peace to the Guatemalans on condition fl :it 
the federal government should be fully restored. El Exjiirilu Pub., i\ii. 
14, 1829. 

"•Ho established his general headquarters in Aliuachapan, whence rai i^ 
were constantly made into the enemy's territory. 

'"This took place on the 22d of Jan., 1829. The sedition, though si uu 
quelled, rather hastened the action of Morazan with his allied Salvador aiul 
Honduras force. 



i^pimtcs, MS.. 
^I'Suel Moraz 
no'ii'L'3 promini 
„ 'H>n the 15 
JfoN/ii/ar, /}e.sf 
., .' lliefederi 
ti'c.r mayor-cer 
Tlie fedcralslm 
UisT. Cent. 



SUCCESS OP WOItAZAX. 



97 



assailing it from the side of fl. n ■ 
"". 1.0 5th of February uj^ ^^'''^^, ^1^1 GoJfo, 
'•>'fv fire.- This was fol.vod J'fh T. ^^ ^^^^^ ^ 
:f, t^'o garrison, which annThik ll Vf f^ ^^^^-^ «^"y 
sKlcTabJo|x,rtionoftheirrvadin^^^^^^ at lALxco a con- 

In consequence of fi.;l "° "^''"'y-'' 

f V^o of Guatemala ad T,'^^^^; ^^"^^n raised tlie 
^^^Antigua. The success'rM^^'-^^^^J ^"'^ ^^'^^-^t 
I'^'pcod by the federaTarLv r ''';^*^ 

;%^Ioct which had characteS if '''"• *^^" «^'"« 
tlnougJiout the whole p.?. • ^^ operations almost 

tala.n of the victc^y Ir o f^'"'^"' T ^^^'^^tage was 
:\Ic.razan." A strnn',, • • ''''"'''''''^^ mih-tary error. nP 

Early i„ Murcl. iloZZitl ""' •"""' ""^ '^'^^ttu^' 
;:"<' when attacked sC it ft'" ''""''""piocl MKeo 

:^f;^ "f the .e„i,e Par^Kt!^l«-- -^ 

<l'erc hodcsnatc Xl „ t ^^"' bes.eged i,i J^ Af!°° ^^^ 'I'Wtily made 

^"■•ccs that Sr?Shtt* 'V^ ^-^'-^S Lotwcei'tt^ '^ '^'^™ ^o'lowed 
fiuacauandIaja;2aJirV-?"^'''*4ainstitlrt£ I '*'"'■ ""'^ "lo few 

look mauy SoLri^ i^'^^^ P"«°°e'-- MorSlnJf ^""^"'^ Socom.sco to La 
fiooi-t's prom^enilv in f.^''^'?f.'''"'»n Kaoul, nj^!'! '^^'"o'». the name of San 



CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT. 



I, ,v 



Through the lucdiaiion of General Vervecr, minis- 
ter from the Netherlands, an attempt was made to 
brin;jf peace to the distracted country. Commissioners 
representing the several belligerents assembled, on the 
27th of March, at the house of Ballesteros, and dis- 
cussed the propositions laid before them, which werci 
rejected, and they then retired. Morazan, who was 
anxious for a compromise, s[)ecially as he had good 
reasons to apprehend the dissolution of his army by 
the small-pox epidemic which had broken out, urged 
Verveer to invite the commissioners to hold another 
conference. It took pla e; and those of Salvador, 
Honduras, and Nicaragua ]>resented four propositi(Mis, 
which were likewise rejected by the federal and Gua- 
temalan neirotiators.'^ Morazan had felt certain that 



;i^/i 



distrustctl by tho ecrviles. Arzi'i would iiot take the command, or was not 
trusted on account of Uia ill success )u tlio tliiril invasion of Salvador. Mi>i';i' 
zan had defeated Milla, Dominguez, Aycinena, Pachcco, and Prado. /(/., 
63-4. 

" The representatives were, Arbcu for Vice-president Bcltranena, Pavon 
for (Juateuiala, Espinosa for Salvador, and Morazan for Honduias and Nica- 
ragua. 1'ho last propositions of Espinosa and Morazan were tho followiii;,', 
namely: 1st. That a provisional government should bo formed in Guatenial:i, 
comiwscd of tho chief of tho state Mariano Aycinena, Mariano Prado, ami 
Morazan; '_M. That the two armies should bo reduced to 1,000 men, (iiiatr 
malaiis and Salvadorans in equal parts; 3d. That tho provisional govcrmiu nt 
should bo installed iu Pinula, and afterward enter Ciuatomala with tiiat foirc 
to give it strength and preserve order in tho state; 4th. A general forgett'iii 
ness of tiio past. Morazan, Apiiiifei, MS., 5, 1(5; MonU'iJ'ar, Jk'nfila Hist., i. (v. 
It is claimed, on the other hand, that Morazan really wanted tiio federal viiv- 
president and tho chief of the stato of (J uatcmala to throw ui> their ollicc-i, 
tho legislative assembly and representative council to ccaso exercising tht ir 
functions; and tiiat of 1820, sitting at La Antigua, and which had niado Ziii- 
tcno chief, was also to dissolve; the supremo court of justice wast0 8toi»actiii.;. 
Meantime, and until new elections took place, Morazan was to bo ciothid 
■with executive, representative, and judicial powers. Under tho pretext of 
restoring tho sway of law and constitutional order, a dictatorship, emanatin'' 
■from a war treaty, would have been created, whoso solo object was to rcwaicl 
tho victor with an unlimited authority, Tiio commissioners of tho federal and 
'Guatemalan governments refused to accede, and presented counter proposi- 
■.tiona of a ditrerent nature, namely, to tho etrcct that tho existing high function- 
airics should resign their powers, and a provisional government bo established, 
with one rcprcsentativo from each stixte, to govern till new elections and tho 
restoration of tho constitutional r(5gimc. Tiioro wero also propositions re- 
specting the government of tho state of Guatemala. Full details in ili'ni. 
Jicv. Cent. Am., 125-9, 2;U-G, which are widely difl'erent from those in Mum- 
zan, Apxintes, MS., 10. Tho government of Mexico, at tho request of tliat of 
Guatemala, tendered its mediation on the 20th of February, but it arri\ ed 
too late, and there was nothing left for it to do but to tender tho hospitalities 
of tho Mexican soil to tho ■victims of persecution. Tho full correspondeuoi' n 
to bo found in Mix. , Mevi. Rel. , 1830, 2-3; also in Stiarez y Navarro, Hist, Mij. , 



FALL OF GUATEMALA CITY. H 

those proposals would be accepted, and believed them 
to bo exceedingly generous in view of the fact that 
tlu! city could no longer hold out. However, hostil- 
ities were resumed, and on the 9th of April the forces 
under Morazan attacked the city, and a part of it was 
taken and plundered."" 

Aycinena applied on the 11th to Morazan, as 
commander-in-chief of the allied army of Honduras 
and Salvador, for a suspension of hostilities, in order 
to negotiate a capitulation which he was disposed to 
enter into. Morazan replied at once that he could 
aj^Moe to nothing but the unconditional surrender of 
the city, though offering to guarantee the lives and 
property of all jiersons existing therein.'* The fight- 
iivj; continued, and on the 12tli the place capitulated. 
The occupation was effected on the following day,*' 
and immediately Vice-president Beltranena and his 
ministers of relations and treasury, Aycinena and his 
secretary Pielago, and Ex-president Arce*^' were 



407-lt; this authority claiina that Mexican mediation nti^ht have been finally 
8U( crssful in rcatoriug peace but for the opposition of the now cliief of (itiiite- 
inala. 

'" A long account of the allcjicd outrages of Morazau's forces ap])cars in 
J/cm. I've. Cent. Am., l.'l'.'-IJ. Marure, Ej'cin., 'J4, in referring to the capture 
of ( I iiatuniala, makes no nicutiuu of any kucIi ubuscs. 

'".Morazan'a answer was adilresseJ to (.Jen. Aycinena, not recognizing tho 
latter as cliief of tiuateniala, Juan Ikirrunilia's term not having expired when 
Arce ilcposcd him, in conscqueiico of which act Aycinena rose to that position. 
The dissolved authorities of IS'JGwero now assembled in La Antigua, and .Mo- 
ni/an held relations with them. Aycinena had changed his tone; he was no 
lonycr tho man of tho manifestoes of 1827, of tho piosciiptivo decrees, nor of 
tho stringent military orders of tho first months of 18-1). lie <lid not now 
cali his opponents 'uu punado de cnemigos del 6rdeu, descamisados y I'ora- 
jidiis.' Montufar, Iieaeua Hist., i. 7--5, 7'J-S(j, 

''^Astaburuaga, Cent. Am., 18, erroneously places tho surrender on the 
-Oili. Tho termsof tho capitulation are given iu Arve, J/cm. , i)J!— I ; Moiilii/m; 
]!(■■<< iia Hilt., i. 70-7. Only tho life and property of the inhabitants were 
t;iiaranteed; the vanquished were iu all else subject to tho good-wUl of tho 
victor. Jos6 Milla y Vidaurro, iu his biographical sketch of Manuel Francisco 
Tavon, who figured iu these events, claims that the capitulation was con- 
traiy to Aycincna's wishes, who was rcjidy to defend the place foot by foot. 
Montufar, quoted above, denies the statement, adiling that it was advanced 
Rulely to make the chief of the servilcs and head man of tho nobles appear as 
a hiro, and refers to the correspondence, which will show Aycinena quite 
unxiiuis to accept the guarantee of life and proncrty. 

'"'According to Miguel Garcia Granados, wlio in later years was a liberal 
leadir and acting president of Guatemala, Axce had remained unmolested at 
iiiii house iu sight of the besiegers during the three days' attack. Jd., 103. 



100 



CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT. 



m 



"I'/m'' 



:l;'*^l 



hiUi 



b-sil 




placed under arrest."'' Morazan, nssuniing then all the 
powers of state, restored Juan 13arrundia to the posi- 
tion of jefe of Guatemala,''' whereof he had heeti 
deprived l>y Arce. The capitulation of A})ril 1 2th 
was on the 20th declared void, on the ground that 
the federal commander had failed to comply with its 
terms in not giving up all the anus his forces held at 
the time of tlie surrender.*' Morazan treated the func- 
tionaries, both federal and of the state of Guatemala, 
who had taken part in the revolution of 182G to 1821), 
with much rigor. ^* 

A period of reaction, or restoration as it was prop- 
erly called, was now inaugurated. During several 
years the servile party had held undisputed control of 
public affairs in Guatemala, crushing out all opposi- 
tion to the best of its ability. Its policy had been 
one of intolerance, and its downfall was hailed with 
joy. Morazan seemed to have been chosen by provi- 

" This was dono pursnant to orders from tho governments of the stutca. 
So says ^lorazan himself, adding that the measure was iu consonance witli 
his own views, to reduce the number of prisoners to a minimum, 'y tenia 
tambicn per objcto poncr en absoluta incapacidad do obrar A los principalis 
jefes ((uo habian Uovadola guorra d losEstados.' Apuntes, MS., lU-17. 

'''' Ho touk cliurgo of the provisional government at the end of April, Ma- 
riano Zentcno, who had held tho position ad int., was given a vote of thanks 
for his patriotism and courage. Montufar, Hesena Hist., i. 127. 

''Tho federal authorities alleged that their soldiers only had 4ol muskets, 
and not 1,500, aa demanded from them. Mem, Rev. Cent. Am., 236-9. Mora- 
zan says that soldiers were allowed to leave tho city with their arms, infring- 
ing tho 4th clause of the capitulation, and he could £ ^t only evasive onswcrs. 
Ajmntes, MS. ,17; Arce, Mt a. , 68-9, 08-103, from which tho conclusion will be 
dr.'iwa that tho charges agi ast the federal party were not unfounded. Mon- 
t^far, lieseila Hint., i. 100-* On this subject Morazan himself said: 'Nooiio 
was put to death, or had r. ley exacted from him by me. Tho capitulatiua 

n after being annulled. Duty gave way to niug- 
mse to regret it. Not that there was no bloud 
^h, and reparation to demand. Among many 
were, calling for vengeance, generals Picrzon 
hout even the form of a trial, the other taken 
hich ho intended to return to Guayamiil, his 
country, to be murdered in i,ae city of San Miguel. There were, liesides, tlio 
bnmiug and plundering of the towns of Salvador and Honduras, which 
demandeda just reparation.' Apuntes, MS., 10, 17. 

^ Ho called them to the palace, and some of them mistaking the object of 
the summons made their api>earance in full uniform. When all were assem- 
bled they were taken to prison and kept in conGnement till July 9th, wheu 
most of them were sent out of the country. Afarure, E/em., 24. 



was faithfully carried out, 
uanimity, and there was no 
to avenge, grievance to pu 
other victims sacrificed, tliei 
and Merino, tho one shot, w 
out of a Chilian vessel on 



tli'llCC 

><» cri 
iis lie 

tlH« hi 

Til." 
1^20, 
with i 
;i (ool 
aclfd 
j)arty. 
act, \v 
tivo oi 
(lut-larii 
cniistiti 
(hitcd C 
]Hl7 ail 
tioiii.sts 
those c 
l't'<lcmti( 
yiiihy () 
;.lty.«^ 
iit'^ty la 
'jciielits : 
li<»ii of tl 
of tho cu 
t'Diiiplical 
thi' asseii 
i'1,1,' that 
^Tiiatema 
of tho otl 
[^f public 
into betw 



'"Marure, 
■\mong i 
was 1 1 no i.j re: 
'iiLiito' before 
of sessions. 1 
il'^t; i. 129; . 

' 'Son reos 
^1 '•<•'', Mem., li 
^ ''The text 
G'tat., liecop. , 



\ 



I 



MOIIAZAX'S MEASURES. 



101 



(l.iKv to inflict condign punishment on tlioao who had 
>(• cruelly exercised a usurped power. Surrounded 
jis lit' was by so many diverse elements, the severity of 
tin- blows he dealt must not be all laid to his account. 
TIk^ .state assembly, which had been dissolved in 
ISJO, having again met on the 21st of April, 182!),** 
with its old president, Nicohls E.spinosa, was practically 
a tool in the hands of the victorious general, and en- 
!i( led several vigorous laws against the vanfjuislicd 
jiarty."' On the 4th of Juno the assembly [)assed an 
act, which was sanctioned by the consojo reprosenta- 
tivo on the I2th, and by Jefe Barrundia on the IHth, 
(kclaring null nil elections madi; pursuant to the un- 
ci institutional decree of the president of the republic 
(hilcd October 31, 182G, and the subsequent ones of 
1S:27 and 1828. It furthermore stamped as revolu- 
tionists and usurpers all per.sons who by virtue of 
those decrees had obtainetl and held olKce of the 
fcileration or the state of Guatemala, and as such 
j^uihy •»!' high treason, and amenable to the death pen- 
alty.'*^ On the same day was issued a so-called am- 
iu'>ty law; but the number of exemi)tions from its 
bcnelits made its name a piece of irony. *"" The posi- 
tion of the prisoners taken in Guatemala at the time 
of the capture of said city, and others, became a njorc 
coni[)licated one, in consequence of a decree passed by 
tlio assembly of Salvador on the 9th of June, declar- 
ing that it would not recognize in the assembly of 
Guatemala any authority to grant, without the assent 
of the other states, amnesty to the factious disturoers 
of public order; and that the capitulation entered 
into between Morazan and Aycinena having been an- 

"'Manire,E/i'7n., 24. 

■Among its acts was one recognizing the services of Morazan, to whom 
waa ihio ». j reinstallation. IIo was voted a gold medal, with the word 'bene 
iiiirito' before his name. A full-length portrait was ordered placeil in the hall 
of sessions. Tho decree, however, was never carried out. Moutiij'ar, Jlcsiila 
Jlist., i. 129; Marure, n/cm., 25. 

'"Son reus do ulta traicion, y como talcs, acrcedorca a la pcna capital.' 
Ani; Mem., 108; Mem. /.Vo. Cent. Am., lol; Montufar, IhseTia Jlid.,i. i:iO. 

•^'Tho text is given in full in Id., IS!--!; Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 2o3-7; 
Gmi., liecop. Leyes, i. 2J4-0. 



102 



CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT. 



'I !l 



li^i 



nulled, the captives were really prisoners of war of the 
allied states.^ A number of the prisoners were, how- 
ever, permitted to go into exile within fifteen days, 
paying first the expenses of their support while in 
prison, and one third of the value of their estates" 
into the federal treasury, as indemnification for the 
damages they had inflicted on the country. That 
privilege was not granted to the president and vice- 
president and their ministers, the former chief of Gua- 
temala, and others. In fact, it was a proscription of 
all the principal men who had sided with the servile 
party.^- It was also decreed that all salaries paid 
from October 1826 to April 1829 should be refunded. 
Harsh measures were used to force a compliance. 

The federal congress that was dismissed in October 
1826 assembled on the 22d of June/'^ under the pres- 
idency of Doroteo Vasconcelos, arid on the 25th Josd 
Francisco Barrundia "* assumed the ofl^ice of president 
of the republic, he being the senior senator, and 
having been specially called thereto by the congress, 
though the real power in the country was Morazan. 

The chief point of discussion in congress"'^ was, what 
to do with the prisoners. Some members favored 



i ! 



'2 



*" ' Y por lo mismo sujctos & la jurisdiccion militar de lo3 mismos Estados.' 
Montufar, Reseiia Hist, i. 134-5. 

" Crowe, Oospel Cent. Am., 131, erroneously asserts that all their property 
was confiscated. 

"^Arce addressed to Morazan a most virulent protest. He afterward 
boasted that he had bearded the tyrant. The very fact that he dared to send 
such a document, and did not lose his head, proves that Morazan was not 
a tyrant. Arce, Mem., 113-14. Antonio Jos6 Irisarri, Manuel and Juan Mon- 
tufar, protested before the assembly and government of Salvador, before tlio 
assemblies of all the states of the union, before Gen. Morazan, before all the 
republics of America, and before all the free people of the world. The doc- 
ument was drawn up by Irisarri, who was not a soldier, though a colonel of 
militia; the language was pure and elegant, but it was virulent and full of 
sophistry. Irisarri also in several publications boasted of his courage in 
having sent such a document. He must have known that it would not ha\ u 
any ctlFect on Morazan. The latter was a generous man. The effect wouM 
have been diderent on Rafael Carrera, whom the serviles at a later period 
made their master, as well as of the whole country. MoiUiifar, Reseiia Jlisi., 
i. 135-6. 

"' Marure has it in E/em., 25; Montiifar, RpseHa Hist., i. 137-9. 

•*Pi .trait in MontiiJ'ar, Reseiia Hist., i. 138. 

•*The senate, dissolved in 182C, waa reinstalled July 9th. Marure, Ej'em., 
25. 



EXPULSION OF FRIARS. 



103 



their execution, and though others disapproved of 
such a disposal of them, none had sufficient courage 
to openly condemn such vindictiveness. The discus- 
sions continued till July 9th, when a number of the 
prisoners were sent under an escort to Sonsonate, to 
be embarked at Acajutla and expatriated."* Two days 
later a similar blow was struck at the church, cvi- 
liently because of the sympathy of its head men with 
the servile party."' During the night between the 
10th and 11th of July, an armed force, acting under 
orders of Morazan, who issued them in accordance 
with the views of the acting president and the jefe of 
Guatemala, seized the archbishop and the friars of 
several orders, and despatched them to the Atlantic 
coast, where they were embarked for Habana. Sev- 
eral of the friars arc represented to have died on the 



vovajje. 



*^ Whether there was sufficient cause for so 



•''Arce, Mem., 122-3, and Mem. Bev. Cent. Am., 167-9, assert that tliey 
were not even allowed to make preparations for the journey, and many liad 
furthermore to start on foot. The decree of expatriation was not, liowever, 
issued till August 22d, and Josi5 del Vallc is said to have been it.s author. The 
ptrsons thus exiled for life were Arce and Beltrancna, and their ministers, 
Aycincna and Lis secretaries, Cascaras, Villar, and otlier higli military offi- 
cers, Spaniards not naturalized that served the usurping governments, and 
many other prominent officers. Others were expatriated lor various terms of 
years. Moiitii/ar, Ilescua JIi4.,i. i\l-^0; Marure, E/em., '2ij. Arceaml Ayci- 
ncna left Guatemala on the 7th of kScpt, They were required to reside in th« 
U. S. of Am. ; embarked at Omoa for Belize, and thence went to New Orleans. 

*' Dunlop, Cent, Am., 177, and fcquier, Travels, ii. 40S, speak of plota 
against the republic as tl- reason, but it was probably what the liberal 
[/iirty alleged. 

•= This step waa subsequently approved by the federal congress. Murtire, 
Lfem., 2o; Rocha, C6d\go Nic, ii. 373. The friars sent away were tlie iJo- 
Tiinicans, Franciscans, and Recollects. Those of tlie order of .Mercy were not 
L'auished; they were but few, and had not been active against the lilx;ral 
caube. The liethlehemitc hospitallers, who devoted tlieir time to teacliina 
and to the care of convalescents, were also allowed to remain. The author oi 
Mfrn. liev. Cent. Am., 170, says that the exiled priests were on the passage 
^•ilely treated, for they were allowed only sailers* rations. Montiifar con- 
I'csses that it is not likely that the '28'J friars had the succulent viands that 
Were usually prepared for them in their convents, nor the dainty dishes tliey 
were 80 often favored with from the nuns, bcatas, and all the daughters of 
ronfcssion. As for the archbishop, ho journeyed with every comfort. Juan 
B. Astnrias, who made the inventory of his property, reported on Slst of Dec, 
1S20, that §218 had been paid for a coddled mule to take the archbishop to 
the coast; he was allowed |2,000 for the expenses of his journey, and $1,008 50 
Were given to the pages for conveying him and his efTects. A person iiaving 
all tiiat cannot be said to be unprovided with edibles. Saint Peter would not 
have needed so much, lieseiic, JJist,, i, 156-7. 



1 . . 



104 



CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT. 



violent, a prococding is doubtful. However, the fed- 
eral congress thanked the executive for his zeal. The 
sentence of expatriation against the archbishop was 
not formally issued till about a year after."' On the 
28th of July the assembly of Guatemala decreed the 
suppression of all monastic establishments of men, ex- 
cepting oidy the Bcthlehemite hospitallers, who were 
allowed to remain as secular priests, and prohibited 
in the nunneries vows and professions in the future. 
All the temporalities of the suppressed convents were 
declared confiscated to the state. The federal congress 
approved this act on the 7th of September, declaring 
that the nation would no loncfer receive or recognize 
within its territory any religious orders.^™ 

Peace being linally restored, the large army of 
!Morazan was gradually dissolved, and the leader be- 
came a candidate for the presidency. The necessity 
of an energetic man, such as Morazan was, at the 
head of affairs, was quite apparent, for now difficulties 
Mere threatening from different quarters. Costa Hica, 
disapproving the course of Salvador, declared her se- 
cession from the union, and it was only after much 
persuasion that she retracted it. The federal gov- 
eriunent, and that of the state of Guatemala, now in 
charge of Pedro Molina,^"^ clashed on several occa- 
sions, and speciall}' when, in 1830, the question of 



!);-1:- 



^' In Jane 18.^0 ho was doclareil a traitor. It lias been s.'.iil that it vas 
because he accepted a pension of §.3,000 from ti;e Spanish govcrnnunt at Ila- 
bana. Archbishoj) Casaus was later appointed to administer the vacant see 
of ihil)nna, and held tli(! oflico till his death. The above-mentioned law wns 
revoked l)y the constituent assembly on the 'Jlst of June, 1839, and Casaus 
was ii'stored to all his former rights, and recognized as legitimate archbishop. 
lie was repeatedly invited to return, but never would ilo so. Giuit., liecup. 
Lfijr^, i. '24-J-3. 

""This declaration was subsequently confirmed by all the states. At a 
later time — Feb. 'J7, IS,"}-! — a further step was taken to consummate tlie sup- 
pression of monastic establishments, ordaining that the authorities sliould not 
retaiii the nuns refusing to reside in the convents where they proiVsscd. 
These measures continued in force till June '21, 18;'0, when tlio second con- 
Btituent assembly of (Juatcmala repealed them, decreeing, consequently, tin' 
rcestablisliinent of the suppressed convents. Mariire, Ejhn., i!.'). 

'"'Ilo iiad been lieelared elected on the 'J'id of Aug., 1829. Antonio I!i- 
vera Caliczas had been chosen viee-jefe. Mtmli[/'ar, AVcwa //^^^, i. 17-'-^, 
giving also a portrait of Molina. 



SPANISH EFFORTS. 



lOS 



constituting Guatemala city as a federal district again 
came upon the tapis. The state rejected the plan, as 
on every previous occasion.^"^ A project of Molina 
to reform the confederation met with the same fate. 
He favored the model of the Swiss republic at that 
time, abolishing the expensive machinery of a federal 
government, which was almost continually at variance 
wilh the different states.'"' The fiiilure of this scheme 
l)r()un"ht with it the downfall of Molina, who was 
afterward suspended on fictitious charges and tried, 
and though acquitted, was not reinstated.^"* 

The plan (^f King Fernando VII. of Spain for the 
ret'onquest of his former American dominions, and the 
sttps he was taking to aceon>plish it, naturally caused 
a sensation in Central America, where that monarch 
would be sure to find elements favorable to his views. 
Tlie so-called nobles, who had endeavored, after the 
downfall of Iturbide and the separation from ISIexico, 
to establish in Central America an aristocratic repub- 
lic, such as that of Genoa or Venice, liad been again 
balked in their aims by the successes of Morazan. In 
tluir disappointment they turned their eyes to Fer- 
nando, and through special agents, as well as through 
Ar<;hbishop Casaus, made known to the captain-gen- 
eral of Cuba that the circumstances Central America 
was then in were most pi'opitious for the restoration 
of the royal sway; for, as thoy asserted, all honest, 
ri.;ht-thinking men and women in the country yearned 
f(ir it, and the Indians were likewise anxious for the 
change. Therefore, the only opposition thereto lay in 

'^'-Ikcause the number of Guatcmiilan reprcscutativca in the frtU'ral cun- 
gR-^s woukl bo gicutly ilccrcused. Moreover, several of the licst luiMio 
hnililiiigs in the city would become imtiuiial property. Mem. Hrv. d nt. Am., 

"''I5y his plan a congrcsa representing the entire union was to wield tlio 
c\( nitivo powers in foi'ei;^u aflaira. The sehenic fell throui;li, owing to tlio 
litilc interest shown by the states, and to tlie powerful opposition ot j)erson8 
Imliiiiijr or aspiriuy to federal ollicrs, among the most prominent being Mora* 
z;ui Mem. Jiev. Vent. Am., 20I-.3, dwells extensively and coninicnts oh the 

BUljji'ot. 

"*Full particulars in Monti'ifar, licsena /list., i. 205-17. 



ine 



CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT. 



iii-iii 



the comparatively small number of aspirants to pub- 
lic offices, who made revolution in order to control 
the public funds for their own benefit. Such reports 
were full of encouragement for the Spaniards who 
were intriguing in behalf of Fernando's interests, 
which were probably also their own. 

Positive information was at last received from a 
reliable source that Spain was preparing, in Habana, 
an expedition to land at Omoa and march on Guate- 
mala, where it expected to find the requisite coopera- 
tion.*"^ This report coincided with the departure of 
the Spanish expedition under Brigadier Barradas to 
Tampico.*"^ President Barrundia, on the 3d of Sep- 
tember, 1829, issued a stirring address; and the con- 
gress, in October and November, with the sanction of 
the executive, passed an act forbidding Spaniards to 
enter or land in Central American territory under any 
pretext. The ports of the republic were closed to the 
Spanish flag, and to the products and manufactures of 
Spain, her colonies, and dependencies. 

There were not a few Spaniards who, together with 
the self-styled nobles of native birth, desired to see 
the flag of the old country waving again over Central 
America. That anxiously wished for day had become 
almost the only subject of conversation in their circles, 
of which the assembly of Guatemala took due warn- 
ing. In November it declared the sequestration of 
all property belonging to Spaniards who dwelt in the 
republic, coupled with the assurance that none shoulil 
be restored till Spain had formally recognized tliu 
independence of Central America.^"'^ 

'"'Tliis report came from Gen. Mariano Mautilla, commanding the Colom- 
bian district of the Magdalena, dated Jan. 8, 1820, and addressed to the jif'! 
of Nicaragua. It was a long time in getting to Guatemala, and the govuiu 
iiient au(f Gen. Morazan at once made preparations for the defence of tlia 
coa^t. 

"»Sce my Hist. Mex., v. 72-6. 

"" Under this decree some of the Spanish property was soUl; but after ii 
•while, upon the receipt of favorable news from Mixico, and when tiioro v;n 
a quasi certainty that Spain would not again make such attempts ua tliit 
against Tampico, the law waa revoked. But property already sold was <!'• 
olared to be legally disposed of, adding that the former owners should not bo 



WORKS OF MONTCFAR AND ARCE. 



107 



iiidomnified therefor till Spain had recognized Central American independence. 
Tlio texts of both the federal and Guatemalan decreea may be seen in Monti- 
jar, lieseiVi Hist., i. 182-7. 

Memorian para la Hiatcria de la lirvolucion de Centra America. Por «n 
GuatemcUteco. JaUpa, 1832. 16mo, 257 pp. The authorship of these me- 
moira was attributed by well-infonnod men, namely, Morazan, ex-president 
uf Central America, and the distinguished statesman and diplomate of that 
country, Lorenzo Montdfar, to Manuel Monttifar, who had been chief of staff 
of the first president of the republic, Manuel Jos<S Arce. The work begins 
with the geography and political and ecclesiastical divisions of the country, 
accompanied with data on each of the states and territories; namely, Costa 
Rica, Nicaragua, Poyais, Honduras, Salvador, Guatemala, and Chiapas, to- 
gether with some remarks on mining and other industries, military defences, 
and financial condition. The political portion, as the author himself acknowl- 
edges, is loosely put together, and lacks many necessary details, whicli he 
nttril)Utes to absence from home wlien the first sheets went to the press, 
lie claims, however, to have impartially and correctly narrated the events 
of Cent. Am. history from 1820 to 1820. This to some extent is true; never- 
theless there crops out in places class-bias, particularly in describing the 
events from 1826 to 1829, by the ideas which prevailed in the modcrado, 
otherwise called servile, party, in which he was affiliated and serving, and for 
wlioi^e acts he, like many others, was driven into exile after the defeat of that 
party on the field of battle. 

Manuel Jos4 Arce, Mtmoria de la Conducta P^blica y Administratira de 
. . . durante el periodo de su preaidencia. Mex. , 1830. 8vo, p. 140 and C?. This 
work purports to bo a defence of his administration by the first president of 
the republic of Central America, against what he calls the Blunders heaped 
uj)on his name by those who rebelled against the government and the nation, 
with documents Dearing on the revolts, the whole having been prepared svhilo 
the author was in exile. The book is a disconnected, disjointed patchwork, 
incomplete in its various records of events, and indicates, as does Arcu's ca- 
reer, a weak character. A number of meaningless and inapt quotations from 
the old classics and from law-books help to confuse the narrative still more. 



;ral 



CHAPTER VI. 



as 



<Si 



CIVIL WAR. 
1829-1838. 

Revolution in Honduras — CoNSEttVAirvEa Invade the State — Second 
General Elections — Francisco Morazan Chosen President — 
Plots of the Seuviles — Arce's Invasion from Mexico— Occupation 
of Honduras Ports by Exiled Rebels— Spanish Flag Hoisted in 
Omoa, and Aid from Cuba — Salvadoran Authorities in Rchicllicn 
— Third General Elections — Morazan Reelected — Failure of 
Colonization Plans— Ravages of Cholera — Indian Revolt under 
Carrera— His Earlt Life. 



V 



It is difficult for us to realize how long it takes and 
how hard it is for progressive man to throw away the 
fetters, temporal and spiritual, which in tinaes past he 
stupidly forged for himself. Intellectual I'ght break- 
ing ill on our old savagism finally tells us that the 
hurtful manifestations of nature are not the chastise- 
ments of offended deity; and then we wonder how 
we could have been so stupid so long, with our pope- 
worship and king- worship, and our servility to their 
satellites. Then when we first gain our liberty we 
know not what to do with it. We feel lost without 
the harness, the reins, the whip and spur. The peo- 
ple of Central America, high or low, knew little at 
this juncture of self-government. In times past they 
had observed that I'ulership consisted largely of per- 
sonal wrangliiigs for ])lace, from king and pope down 
to the lowest aspirant; of wars, political and ecclesi- 
astical, brother against brother, priests and people 
butchering and burning as if the great object of reh- 
gion and civilization was to preserve upon this earth 

(108) 



TROUBLES IN HONDURAS. 



109 



as long as possible the boll whicli \vc all hope in one 
way or another to escape hereafter. 

Note further in regard to Central America the 
strange union of widely distinct classes in their efforts 
to sacrifice the country for self. Though from some- 
what different motives, we see join hands the highest 
and the lowest, a self-styled aristocracy and the igno- 
rant rabble, aided by the priests who would not see 
their power slip from them in the general overturn- 
iiigs, all spending their energies and blood in the 
direction of utter destruction for themselves, their 
families, and their country. Fortunately there were 
others at hand whose ideas of self-government were 
different; who earnestly desired that this new plant 
of liberty — a boon which had so unexpectedly dropped 
down to them from heaven — should have in their 
midst a healthy growth, in spite of ignorance, ambi- 
tion, or superstition. 

The legislative assembly of Honduras, pursuant to 
the prescriptive law enacted by the federal congress 
in August 1829, issued a decree of expulsion, and the 
government of the state transmitted to Guatemala a 
li,st of those who had come within its provisions.^ 
Some exiles from Honduras and other states of Cen- 
tral America went to Belize to carry on their plots 
from that quarter, and soon caused a sedition in the 
department of Olancho. The vice-jefe, Vijil, used 
his best endeavors to bring the seditious to terms 
peaceably, but failed. ** It became necessary then to 
resort to force, and Lieutenant-colonel Torrelonge was 
authorized to move his troops from Trujillo against 
Olancho. The state of Guatemala was also requested 

' Most of them had been agents of Milln, and contributed to tho over- 
throw of tho Btate government. A number luul moved to Guatemala, Salva- 
dor, and elsewhere. The most prominent in the list were tiio ex-provisor, 
Nicoliis Idas, and Pedro Arriaea. The latter was sent out of the countr}' 
from the port of Omoa. Ho had been Milla's chief a^cut and adviser, and 
brouglit about the destruction by firo of Comayagua, his native place. This 
will account for bis hostility in after years to liberals, and for his active co<>p- 
eration with the despots of Guatemala. Monttifar, lieseila Hist., i. 190. 

'The pretext for the movement was to resist a moderate tax established 
by tho legislature; the real object was to bring on a reaction. 



110 



CIVIL WAR. 



to send its force stationed in Chiquimula to Gracias, 
for the purpose of aiding in the preservation of order. 
The assembly of Guatemala, on the 24th of Novem- 
ber, 1829, directed that 500 men, subject to the orders 
of the chief of the state, should repair at once to 
Honduras and quell the insurrection. The wording 
of the decree caused a disagreement between the 
president of the republic and Jcfe Molina. The lat- 
ter insisted that the 500 men to be sent to Honduras 
.should be under his orders. President Earrundiji 




SU.Cnii 



Honduras. 






could not accede to it, because the command of a mil- 
itary force operating out of the state belonged by \ii\\ 
to the federal government,' and through his miniHtci 
of war, Nicolils Espinosa, applied to the Guatemalan 
legislature for a change in the decree. Espinosa'.^ 
coumiunication caused much sensation, and the assciii 

'The friendship existing between Barrundia and Molina, from tlm earliest 
period of their political life, previous to the independenCv;, became weak- 
cucil, threatening a disruption of the liberal party. The disagreement \v:ii 
increased by Molina's opposition to the federal government remaining i:i 
Guatemala. 



i:^'^ 



REVOLT AND ELECTION. 



Ill 



bly repealed the act of November 24th, and in Its 
stead provided that the money needed to muster in 
and equip 500 men should be furnished the general 
< government out of the state treasury. 

Morazan, jefe of Honduras, and general-in-cliiof of 
the Central American forces, had marched with a di- 
^ ision upon the departments of Olancho and Opotcca, 
and to him were despatched the troops newly raised in 
(luatemala. Colonel Vicente Doniingucz was one of 
the chief promoters of the revolution of Honduras.* 
^NEorazan's military reputation made easy his road to 
victory. Ho encountered no great difficulties. Tlic 
year 1830 was inaugurated with new triumphs. Tlie 
Olancho rebels surrendered to liiui at Las Vueltas del 
Ocote, and on the 21st of January solemnly bound 
themselves to recognize and obey the government.* 
!Morazan next, on the 19th of February, routecl the 
insurrectionists of Opoteca.^ Morazan, after pael.'ying 
Honduras, intended marching into Nicaragua, if po- 
litical measures should prove insufficient to establish 
regularity there. Ho first despatched Dionisio Hcr- 
rera to the seat of Nicaraguan differences, who ful- 
lillcd his trust with zeal, and Morazan had no need of 
going to the state. Horrera had been chosen jefe, and 
was duly inducted in his office on the 12th of May. 

The time for renewing the supreme federal authorit}'" 
having arrived, elections were hold throughout the 
republic. Congress ojiened its session with due so- 
lemnity on the 27th of March, 1830. The supreme 
court of justice was likewise installed.^ The elec- 
tion of president of the republic had been also made, 

* Tlio samo who niadc the revolt of Xalpatagua, murdered Gen. Merino at 
Sail Miguel, and was defeated at Gualcho. 

'' Mar lire, Lj'em., 26. 

* Forty-one of them, including the clergyman Antonio Rivas, were sen- 
tenccd to military duty in the castle of San Felipe for live years. Fatlier 
Kivas, after serving out his term, said that ho was an innocent victim and % 
Tn:i> tyr of religion, and prayed ujiou the liberals all the maledicliuua of the 
lUSth psalm. MoHlUfar,lieseila lliM.,\. 100. 

'Cuinposed of tho citizens Niuokls Espiuoso, Josd Antonio Larrave, Ma- 
iiuilJosiS do la Ccrda, and Jacobo Ilosa. ... 



US 



CIVIL WAR. 



t'r 




M: 






I:' •}'■]•.:. 






Morazan, Jos6 Francisco Barrundia, Josd del Valle, 
Antonio Rivera Cabezas, and Pedro Molina obtained 
votes ; but by far the largest number of them had been 
polled for Morazan and Valle.^ 

The votes were counted in June. Morazan had 
the largest number; but in order to ascertain if tlio 
election had been legal, it was necessary first to de- 
clare if the basis was to be the number of votes which 
the citizens of the republic had the right to poll, or 
that of the votes actually given and counted. If the 
former, there had been no popular election, and congress 
had to decide the point between Morazan and Valle; 
in the latter case, Morazan had been popularly elected.'' 

The congress consisted for the most part of friends 
of Morazan, and he was declared president. He made 
a triumphal entry into Guatemala on the 14th of Sep- 
tember, and should have been inaugurated on the 15th; 
but it was decided that Barrundia should turn over 
to him the executive office on the IGth, in the midst 
of the festivities of national independence. This was 
done by Barrundia with that republican simplicity 
which had ever characterized the man. All the states 
sent their congratulations to Morazan, and to Bar- 
rundia for the good judgment and success of his ad- 
ministration.'" Mariano Prado, the distinguished 

• Barrundia did not want the position, and did not work for it. He wished 
Morazan to bo elected. Morazan had in hia favor the prestige of a victorious 
general. Ho was somewhat in the position of Bonaparte when he returned 
from Egypt. Valle was recognized to be the best intormed man of Central 
America; none could compete with him in literary or scientitic attainments. 
In politics he was always an opponent of the aristocracy, who execrated his 
memory, and even impudently pretended to deny his literary merits. But 
we have seen elsewhere that he was not, liko Barrundia, an uncompromisiii<; 
opponent of all governments not based on democracy and republicanism. He 
compromised with the Mexican empire, was a deputy to the imperial congress, 
where he made a brilliant record, and became a minister of the emperor, who 
sent iiim to prison when he dissolved the congress. After the emperor's over- 
throw, Valle maintained that the provinces of Central America were free to 
act their own pleasure. Ho was a popular man, but Morazan's victorious 
sword eclipsed all else just then. Id., 208. 

•It was the same question that occurred in 1825 between Arce and Valle. 
The congress at that time, in order to exclude Valle, decided in favor of tlie 
former. Valle published pamphlets in favor of the latter principle, and tlio 
congress of 1830 acted upon his arguments. 

"> Among the warmest were those of the legislature of Guatemala. The 
apokesman for the committee presenting them was Alejandro Manire. 



W: 



MORAZAX PKESIDEXT. 



citizen of Salvador who j; i , *^ 

i'l-'^n'^ancl small g nt , , l"; T^^ «'^' '«'■ i- 

■-li-.."ocs. and the islam t,'""?'' T"*»"'^ ''-■"o,,. 
I^'i; I'ccomo president. '""'<•'<' "''«•• M"raza„ 

A^nculture and tratt :'''';' ""''"""' ""l"«t 
""to be continued io„>C tt'T'""' "^"^ ''' "'^'^ 
•■t lo was let loose a.^ain " Th ''.""" "^ Political 
;;- ™ted had not rema ned I^^u^'K^^^'^y'^""^ 
«l a pkt for the destru t "m f „ rl '*^' " I"^" 
"1 ram.&ations everywh re A " ''''"''''>'' "'"«'' 
" e republic from Mevi„, Vi V"" "''« to invaile 
"""Suez was to occUDv }r "='' Sooon.iseo. D 

t-iizmaT, seized the fort at O.^, -^?,?"'""o. Ran,,,,, 
Arce eifected his invasion .v^? "'"' -°° "og'-oes - 
;!"■' discontented cIS a '' "''""t 100 .aenroKil.:,! 

f «1 at Eseuintlade «-"""■■'''"''" "'"' "•^*' - 
■ebruary 1832, b/the fo!~"'' «'' '''^ 24th ,V 

He. succeeded in escapiniwith ,f ^"""""^ P"'»ul. 

«•■""■" Guzman. bein"lnn l'"^' ,'""" "'*" Mexico 
S-m-nment troops u.Kfer Son fr ■•"; "'""^ ''•V "'o 
tfTl'^^^g over the for ', af''^''^^. hoi.tcl 

rur^ iv '^'^J* ^'onimon course ttMfi. , '"^ 

''i»m„-.»„, « J„„; „"' Nov., «Ubo«l 1 1 P. a. 



114 



CIVIL WAR. 



m m 



liiraself and those with him as subjects of tho Spanish 
king. But tho vessel was captured on her return 
with supplies, and the rebel garrison surrendered on 
the 12tti of September, after a siege of five months.*'^ 
Almost at the same time that Omoa was seized by 
tho rebels, the port of Trujillo was occupied by Vicente 
Dominguex, who had in his company Pedro (Inn- 
zalez." Tlie Central Americans had two armed 
schooners at Izabal, besides two national vessels 
under Terrelongc, and an armed schooner at Belizi\ 
Duplessis, a Frenchman, commanding tlie national 
vessel FSnix, was captured by Dominguez, taken to 
Omoa, and shot in the plaza.^^ 

Dominguez' vanguard reached Yoro on the 7t]i of 
March, 1832, and was defeated at Tercales on the Dth, 
and again at Olanchito. He fled to Trujillo, leaving 
behind 200 muskets, other arms, some money, and 
other things." He then transferred himself to Omoa, 
and with GOO men, on the 26th of March, attacked 
the government troops at Jaitique, being defeated. 
He was again routed at Opoteca, pursued in ;il! 
directions, captured, and taken to Comayagua, where 
he was put to death on the 14th of September.^' The 
rebel plot thus defeated was a formidable one. Arcii- 
bishop Casaus I'rom Habana moved his clergy. Bishoj) 
Fray Luis Garcia of Chiapas favored Ex-president 
Aree, whose friends confidently asserted that he also 



,!,;,!n,. 



'' '* The national armed schooner i<tw'm?« to. li the Ejecutivo. The Spanisli 
flags that waved over the fort and tho la' fer vessel wore dragged througli thi^ 
Btrceta of Guatemala, tied to the tailj rf ' orses, on tho day of t!io national 
anniversary. Ramon Guzman was executed at Omoa on tho 13th of Sept., I'V 
order of Col Agustin Guzman, who commanded, Terrelongc being bedriddi ii 
by a serious illness. Montufar, Ilesena Hist., i. 377-81; Mariire, Efcin., 29. 

'*A man who, though amenable to cxiie under tho law of expulsion, had 
been pardoned at his repeated supplications. 

•' Duplessis died like a hero. Hia execution was a murder, similar to that 
of Gen. Merino. Both instances served as an example of what the liberals 
might expect if tho serviles got tho upper hand again. 

'^Among them were a number of rosaries and prayers to the virgin of 
Guadalupe, supposed to possess the power of benumbing the enemy in tliu 
light. 

*»Ho is said not to have shown at the hour of his execution that courage 
which was manifested by his victims at tho scaflf )ld. 




H0W,DIU3 AND SAIVADOB. 
iiad tho support of tho Mr, ■ "' 

plans wero also in coml,;,,?/;?" S.»™rnment.» Arco's 

<lor, Joad Maria Con.c r^S'^Vi^MI''^ ^^'''^ "^ ^al™! 

not admit that tliov I,;,! , ^ '*"'='' Party «„uU 

Finciples wcroant?uatli tdV''"V'klJ. tilt t , Jr 

hoy still believed tlat 1 rl"!;: ""S"""' '» «"> people^ 

'*.,b"t r.^ht and natural '""°" "'"' '"" ""^Y Pcssi- 

.'" Sf C. '"fc't::' S'"fr e Of the peaee 
'" February 1831 inrJ .,'^^f "^^^^y had boon instilbvJ 
f^-t. 'oSctLr wik^^o^, '- *-*ncies "f 't^ nie^S 



.^c.mWy of the Tatter state rhv/ ,^"^\^,^^'"^ia- Tho as- 
,<^ongratuIatincr the Sii voW ^"^^''''^ *'^^ executive in 
J^jtion, to renrind it o 7h;:;'^'^^^"3Wy "pon its i ^ta^ 
^>f "phoJding libera] 4?"^""'^ ^' ^— ^ -td 

<l-n.bed, reaeht" gSS 1 H°»d"a3, alroa.ly 
establish his hoadcfuarter ''i''' ^qT'"" <'<«'''d''d o 
'onvcniont centre for future L*-^'"'^''''"'- »« » "lore 
»"l' t!>o authorities of S^,S I""'' ^'^ "•<='ations 

,^.., T "s ,„aa vas a senile a ll°7''"'"f"'^ ^"'•'-•cs. '^' "•""''"^J *''em- 

'luhrectly; he iiad no? fr ^^''•°" '« the framinrrrM^ '"^^"° ^ecn saved 

' f .tlio state where theTPn-^i ''^ P'^^® of abode and w?.." "° P'-esident of 

ol'jootof that state's benPvnt^.°r™"'^°fc liad ita seat of?'^' the mercy 

i'l-gft of all the assLltf « ^"* 'hospitality. On tho nf^ V^^'f' ^° ^^"^s tlio 

f'at state. It wag Zi, P''°'»9ted &y the spirit of 1.. , •' ^^^'^' ''^ ""^^ to 

t 



TJ, 



!i. ' 



!:!■:.; 

ii">:ii<;>'i 



IIG 



CIVIL WAR. 



harmonious; neither could they be harmonious under 
the circumstances. Mariano Galvez, jcfc of Guate- 
mala,'^^ desiring to avoid conflicts, despatched Colonel 
Nicolds Espinosa with letters to Cornejo, advisiiiir 
him that his agent was instructed to use his best 
offices to settle the differences between him and IMo- 
razan. Espinosa, when near Atiquizaya, heard that 
orders for his arrest had been issued, and therefore 
went back. Galvez became justly indignant at the 
conduct of Cornejo's agents. 

The president of the republic started from Guate- 
mala on the 29th of December, 1831, accompanied by 
his ministers, and journeyed toward San Salvador 
without any military force other than his body-guard : 
consequently Cornejo had no cause to apprehend any 
sudden blow at his authoritv.'* Nevertheless, on tlic 
Gth of January, 1832, Cornejo broke out in open rc- 
l)cl]ion, commanding the national executive, then at 
Santa Ana, to quit the state forthwith or he would 
1)0 driven away. Morazan, having no means of resist- 
ance, obeyed. This insult to the republic was i'ol- 
lowcd next day, January 7, 1832, by an act declaring 
the suspension of the federal compact and the seces- 
sion of the state of Salvador. Congress then em- 
powered the executive to repel invasions. The jefe 
of Guatemala admitted the obligation of his state to 
aid the general government with all its means.^'' The 
assembly of Nicaragua, backed by the jefo Dionisio 
Herrera, who was a stanch friend and supporter of 
jNIorazan, passed an act disallowing the legitimacy of 

" Galvez' record is not clean in the eyes of many liberals. Ho had be- 
longed to tho imperial party, and had been leagued with the aristocracy. lie 
was a patriot, it is true, but his j)atria was Guatemala; his patriotism did nut 
embi-aco all Central America, yuch is tho opinion given of him, with his 
portrait, by Montiifar, in lleseiln Jlist., i. 296. 

^' Besides, Cornejo had oi&ciall;' said that Morazan had neither suppor'ccrs 
nor prestige in Salvador. 

"•• Galvez liad wanted arrangements made to repel invaders, but leaving 
Cornejo, thougli ho disliked his indiscreet acts, in his position. Morazan 
was, on tho contrary, impressed with the idea that Comejo's deposal was a 
necessity. 



SALVADOR SECEDES. 



117 



the Salvador authorities and their acts, and providing 
means to support the federal government.*' 

Costa Kica, througli her minister of state, Joaquin 
Bernardo Calvo, in a note from San Josd of ^larch 3, 
1832, to the government of Guatemala, signitiud Ler 
readiness to support the laws, and with that end to 
place at the disposal of the federal executive all the 
aid in her power. A Guatemalan I'orcc was stationed 
on the frontier of Salvador, first under Colonel Cilrlos 
Salazar, and afterward under Colonel Juan Prom, a 
distinguished officer of the campaign of 1S2'J. Even 
now Galvez hoped to avert war, sending commis- 
sioners to confer with Cornejo at Ahuachapan. The 
latter received them, and appointed his own to C(jii- 
tinue the conferences; but they were suddenly brought 
to an end without results."^^ Further efforts on behalf 
• if peace were useless; the contest had to be decided 
bv war.*^ 

Morazan with a force of Salvador and Honduras 
iiien marched from the river Lcmpa to Portillo. Cor- 
licjo had GOO men in Jocoro of the de])artment of San 
Miguel. The latter were signally defeated (ju the 
14th of March, losing 500 men in killed, wounded, 
and prisoners.^' This was scon followed by pronun- 
ciamientos in several departments against Cornejo and 
in favor of Morazan. The latter lost no f.ime in 
marching upon San Salvador, which he took by 
a.ssault on the 28th of March, notwithstanding the 

^The act outlawed all persous wlio Laving been cxpcUe.i from Nicara- 
guan territory ahould upliold the authorities of Salvador. Corrc?pc>nilcnce 
vith the enemies of the country, or any expression, verbal or written, f.ivor- 
iug them, were nrndo punishable by death. Monli'ij'ar, J.iseiia J/ht., i. ."ISS. 

'*■ Cornejo had consented to negotiate, belicviii;^ the foroo on tlic frontier 
to l>e controlled by Guatemala; but on ascertaiuiug that it was under Mora- 
zan'a orders, a'^ '' 'lat Galvez bad merely intended .1 meiliation v ithout being 
nxreaut to hi . „ral obligations, his eoniniissioners broke oil' the coufereU'jes 
under various pretexts. 

'' It was a great mistake, pcrhans, not to have given tl^o state tiiu'i to re- 
flect, when it might Lave gone baclt quietly to the union. / s it wa.", lib-i.ils 
were for the first time arrayed against liberals, and the shodJiugof Mvud 
licpat animosities that never could L>e healed. The serviles, of co'ir-;*;, gi idly 
fauned the flame. 

■In fact, they hardly made any resiauiiicc. The prrsid-. it's caitialtiea 
v.ere trifling. Mature, ^J'em., 30; MorUufar, lieseila IJkt , i 34x1. 



WM 



$:t'M^ 



118 



CIVIL WAR. 



obstinato resistance of Corncjo and the garrison, the 
assailing force being made up of Nicaraguaus and 
Hondurans.^" The state authorities were deposed, 
sent to Guatemala under a guard, and subsequently 
tried by a special court created ox post facto, with the 
name of jurado nacional.^^ Morazan then assumed 
control of Salvador until constitutional authorities 
should be reorganized.^'^ This step, illegal as it was, 
gave dissatisfaction, not in Salvador alone, but in the 
other states, which subsequently seceded from the 
union; and though later retractions took place, it 
may be said that the confederation was dissolved at 
tliis period.^ 

Meantime, the federal congress had continued its 
sessions, striving to promote the welfare of .the coun- 
try by a liberal policy. A^niong the acts adopted at 
tliis time, and deserving special mention, was that 
of May 2, 18o2, abolishing the cxclusivencss of tho 
lloman religion, and recognizing freedom of conscience 
and of worship.^* This law, though practically of 
little effect, inasmuch as there were but few foreigners 
in tho C(juntry, showed that a spirit of toleration was 
gaining ground. Another important measure was tho 
adoption of Livingston's Lousiana code, and trial by 



''"Tlio following facts arc taken from Boxq. Hist. Cant. Am., lib. iii., 
chap. 11. Filiswla in ISiiJ! iioudcd 12,000 l):iyuucts to lake San Salvador. 
In 1SJ7-S, Arcc, Arzi'i, and Moutufiir failed to do it with an equal, if not a 
larger force. I a ItvJ- Morazau witli only 800 men made himself master of the 
place in lojs tlian two hours. The object of these remarks was to show that 
no credit should be given to Morazan'.s detractors in their attempts to lessen 
hi.i militiiry reputation. Montu'ar, HcHtud Hint., i, ;)i;). 

^' There were oS of them, inchiding Corncjo and Antorio J. Caflas. 

^^The new rulers, raised to power under the auspices of tho victor, de- 
clared those uf 1S;}1 and tho beginning of 1SU2 to have been illegitimate, and 
orgaiuzed courts for the trial of treason. The decrees of Juno 7 and 'JO, and 
July '1^, 1S;J2, were severe; fortunately, they were not executed with the same 
animosity displayed in enacting th'-,m. Mature, Ej'em., ."JO.- 

^•"Nicaragua seceded Dee. ',), 1832; Guatemala, Jan. -7, TS33; Salvador 
repeated her declaration on Feb. 13, 1833; Honduras and Costa Rica sepa- 
rated themselves, respectively, on tho 19th of May and 18th of Sept., 18.'i3. 
Marni-e, Ej'em., 3'2; Guat., Recop. Leyes, i. -12-3; Aftahuruwjn , Cent. Am., 20; 
Duulop''' Cent. Am., 181; Crowe'.t (Jot^pcl, 13-1; <S'7)u'c/',s TravcU, ii, 417. 

" ' Todoa los habitiintcs do la repxibliea son libres para adorar & Dios segun 
Bu coneieueia, y que cl gobioruo uacioual lea proleje en cl ejercicio do osta 
libertad.' Marun', IJ/ciii., .31. Josi^ h\ Barrundia is said to havo eil'cctively 
fathered this resolution. Salo., Gaceta, Oct. 12, 18,Vt. 






If^ 



ELEMENTS OF DISUNION. 



119 



jury. This form of trial was not understood by the 
people, and fortunately fell into disuse. 

Notwithstanding the acts of disunion passed by the 
several states, there was no serious disturbance during: 
the remainder of 1832 or in 1833. In the middle of 
the latter year^' eonj^ress adjourned, and there were 
iliir prospects of peace. Indeed, the liberals had been 
made to see the folly of disunion. The states, relin- 
quishing their antagonisms, quietly returned to the 
confederacy. The federal government, on the 20th of 
V'lril, 1833, convoked a new congress to adjust differ- 
t -es. But now a new element of discord appeared. 
liiis was the jealuusy felt by the smaller states toward 
Guatemala, which being larger in extent and popula- 
tion, naturally had a corresponding influence in the 
national congress."'' These states demanded an equal 
voice in that body, and insisted that this right should 
bo recognized before proceeding to the elections.^'' 
Guatemala, heeding the anxiety of the liberal leaders, 
assented to the demand. Some of the states pro- 
ceeded with their elections, but it soon became obvit)US 
tli;it the plan of compromise could not be satisfactory 
or ijormauo'iit, and it was dropped. Tlie proposed 
congress iic-Mi'lingly did not meet.^® 

Kum .IS V, >re current for some time in 1833 of an 
inteiK'ed invasion of Salvador by Arce, by sea from 
Acapulcc,^' bui, tncy jiroved to be unfounded. The 



^■^ July 8, 18;!3. ;j;irratulia'8 speech in closing the coiip;rea3 is given lU EL 
Cciitro Americano, iluly 11, IS.'!,'!, ;j7-0'J. 

■"'This jealousy had developed during the states' rights agitition. 

•'' Guatemala ivjcetcd this convocation by an act of June 2, IS.'i.'J. Gnat., 
liLCop. Lei/cs, i. 'JtO-I. A iirojcct appeared in the Ceiitro Amcricnno of Juno 
11, 18.)3, '28-.'i0, to tenniuato the (|uestiou of equal numerical represcnUition 
in congress for the five states. It was proposed to divide tlio territory into 
three states of aiiout the same population cacii, the executive authority to lie 
alternate'v hold by the presidents of the three stjitcs. Tlic plan was ini- 
practic:-." ■'. 

^'' 'J'.ii. :optioa of such a plan by the federal congreaa could not bo secured 
until J il.. !o 1838. The deerco or convocation issued on that date was gen- 
erally aor.(:,r ■,., and yet the diet never mot till March 17, 1842. Miirure, 
L'fciii., ,?:i. 

'"'I'ho corrcspondcnco between the state govcmments for the strict vigi- 
lance on tho coast of tliat state appears in El C'entro Americano, Oct. 18, 
1833; Motitiij'ar, Haseila J J int., ii. 41-..'. 



120 



CIVIL WAR. 



federal government transferred its seat on the 5tb of 
February, 1834/'' first to Sonsonate, and later to San 
Salvador, which for the time being quieted the jealous 
feelino" of the several states at^ainst Guatemala, But 
alter a few weeks the dissensions between the federal 
and state governments, of so frequent occurrence when 
the former was in Guatemala, were renewed in San 
Salvador, On the 23d of June, 1834, a fight took 
l)]ace between troops of the two parties, and the affair 

ended in anot n^throw of the local authorities,^^ 

wlio were prosci. under ex post facto laws." The 
state o'overmiient \, jnt first into the hands of General 
Salazar, who called himself jefe provisorio, and alter- 
Avard into those of the vice-president of the republic. 
Neither had any legal authority in the premises This 
state of afi'airs caused dissatisfaction in Salvador. 
P*>litical disturbances were also experienced in other 
states. The fiame of discord was fanned everywhere 
by the oligarchs, who found their task made easier by 
the extreme religious liberalism of the ruling party. 
Th(jir influence was felt when, on the 7th of February, 
1835, after San Salvador, together with a few sur- 
rounding towns, was constituted a federal district," 

■"Tiirsuaiit to a resolution of tlic national congress of Juno '2.j, I83I?. 
As curly .-iS lSi!(i the govcnmuiit of Salvador luiil tried to have the fotleral 
authorities reside at least 40 leagues fi'oni (Guatemala. Similar reijuests hatl 
been Ruhscqueiitly made by other states; and even in the leuislature of Guate- 
mala reiterated motions had been ]nesenled to the same ellect. But the fed- 
eralist party, as long ns it vas in the majority in eongress, strenuously 
opposed the removal, lielicving that it would bring about, as it actually did, 
the downfall of the federal system, and tlic dissolution of the federal author- 
ities. Mariirc, Ej'cm., ;jt. J\Iontiifar, Hcsiria lli^t., ii. 58-9, remjuks that 
Marurc wiien he \\i'otc the lirst two Nolnmes of his Do-iqiivlo J/inUirico was 
a liberal; in his K/cin''riih'<, written later, he speaks like a conservative. The 
change of tone is attributed to the iron inlluence of the government from 
whom ho had a salary as a professor Laalarria, in LaAnvrkti, "JoO, errone- 
ously attributes the transfer to Morazan's action to break up the induer'-e of 
the oligarchical party in (luatcmala. 

^' The iitrray lasted live hours; the federal force being under Gen. Salazar, 
and that of S.ilvador under Col .]os(5 D. Castillo. j}farun', I'j'em., 3lj. 

''■' Decree of vieo-prcsident of Sept. 1, 1831. 

"The legislature of the state had made a cession of the territory for the 
purpose on the 2Sth of Jan., 1S3J. On the !»th of March, 1830, the district 
was enlarged by the addition of Zacatccoluca. The national government 
had its capital in San Salvador till '.he 3d of -May, lS3t), wlien the assembly of 
San Salvador resumed possession of the whole territory that iiad been ceded. 
/(/., 37; Moitti'y'nr, AVw/iri JIhl., ii. UiJ-7. Dunlop, Cent. Am., 187, says that 



large 

Iiiji. 

ofelec 



".•^'■iiijiy, uoo 
tiioiiiouibera 
t'latthoothoi 
■ortiielosaof 

"'« highest p 
'J'-'l heoiieiado 
"I'irk ia follow 
elsewhere. JJ 
nw portrait. 
'It waa so 



ELECTION AND DEATU OP VALLE. 



121 



3f 



a new constitution, based on the former one of 1824, 
was generally rejected." 

Elections for supreme authorities of the republic 
were decreed on the 2d of June, 1838. The end of 
Morazan's term was approaching, and his popularity 
was to be again put to the test. There was really 
luit one man that could compete with him, Josd del 
Valle, who was leading a retired life devoted to scien- 
litic and political stud'-s; but his reputation was a 
national one, eminently Central American, and a 
large portion of the people summoned him to rulor- 
^hii). He was elected, but died before the certiticates 
of election were opened. 

The death of Valle occurred on the 2d of March, 
1834. The highest honors were paid to his memory." 
This untoward event necessitated another election to 
carry out the decree of June 1833, and Jose Fran- 
cisco Barrundia having declined to be a candidate, 
Morazan encountered no opposition and was reelected 



46 



the district occupied San Salvador and ten leagues of territory sun'oundlng 
it, S<juier\H Travels, ii. 419; Crowe's Oosjyel, 13G. 

■"Tiio opposition came not only from tlic scrviles, but from not a few lib- 
(lals. It coutaincd many liberal and ctjuablc modifications. Marurc, Efem., 
;i7, says it did not contain 'las alteracioues sustancialca (luc roiteradaa vcccs 
si' liabi.an propucsto por las Icgislaturas de loa cstados,' for wliich reason it 
wiis not accepted by the states, except Costa Ivica, which expressed assent 
May 7, 1835. Squier, Travels, ii. 4-22, also s.iya that only CosUi Rica e.x- 
I'lcsscil an acceptance of the proposed constitution, adding that the opposing 
btatcrf wanted different, and in most cases irreconcilable, reforms. Montiifar, 
l>i'sei~((t, Illxt., ii. 109-73, giving details, asserts that both Nicaragua and Costa 
Uica accepted the reforms. 

*'^ Tiie assembly of Guatemala decreed, after hearing several eulogistic 
motions, tliat all the state otlii-ials residing in the caiiital should wear tho 
liailgoof mourning three days; that t'lo bells of the churches slionhl bo tolled 
iLorniug, noou, and eve of each day; tiiat a portrait of Vallo, contributed l)y 
tho members of the legislature, should be placed in its hall of sessions; and 
that tho other states should bo requested to make manifestations of sorrow 
for tlio loss of their distinguished statesman and savant. Salvador, on the 9th 
of A]n-., 1834, decreed similar honors. Marurc, in his Efemiridcs, .'!,'), bestows 
the highest praise on Valle. 'i'erdi6 Ccutro Ana^rica, con cl fallecimiento 
Jel lieenciado JoatS del Vallo, uno do sua mas distiuguidos hijos.' This re- 
mark ia followed by a sketch of Valle's career, which has been given by me 
elsewhere. Montiifar, Jiesttia J list., ii. 95-9, ako eulogizea Valle and gives 
his portrait. 

"It was 80 formally declared by tho federal congress, Feb. 2, 1835, with 




122 



CIVIL WAR. 



For the office of vice-president, no one having ob- 
tained the constitutional number of votes, congress, 
on the 2d of Juno, 1834, chose from among candidates 
having forty votes and upward Josd Grcgorio Salazar, 
to be inducted in office on the IGth. ]\tariano Prado, 
the former vice-president, had been a.^ such at the 
head of the federal executive authority in 1831; but 
he was chosen jcfe of the state of SalvaJor, and took 
charge of that office on the 25th of July following. 
The vice-presidency and the office of a state jefe were 
incompatible. He chose the latter, and was most un- 
fortunate in the discharge of its duties. There beini^ 
then no vice-president, Josd Gregorio Salazar had 
charge of the executive in 1834 as the senior senator, 
Morazan liavirj^' for a time, and with the permission of 
the senate, absented himself Upon being elected on 
the 2d of June, Salazar continued in charge, and it was 
by his order that the federal authorities transferred 
themselves to the city of Santa Ana during San 
Martin's insurrection against the national government. 
The day after the inauguration of Morazan for the 
second presidential term, congress closed its session.*' 
No important event affecting the confederation oc- 
curred during the remainder of 1835, but the atmo.s- 
phere was filled with folly and misrule, foreboding 
the storm which was to make of Central America for 
many a day the theatre of the bloodiest of civil wars. 

It has been shown that the party in power pursued 
in general a liberal policy — too liberal, in fact, as later 
events proved. In view of the tardy development of 
the country in the old way, inducements were offered 
for foreign immigration, and an English company was 
organized for the purpose of fostering colonization in 
the department of Vera Paz.*^ Settlers were sent 



out, I 
but t 

hones 

turnei 

the ]o 

agains 

to exi 

o]ien I 

admin 

last re; 

tljo na 

bri'ak j 

initatc 

turn of 

tlie di.s] 

ollieials 

•Scare 

stole in- 

in Cent: 



the clause that be should bo placed iii possession of the office on the 14th. liL, 
155-7. 

"Feb. 15, 1835. El Corrco Atldntico, May 9, 1835. 

<*The first colonists, G3 in all, arrived from London on the schooner Mary 



REVOLT AND CHOLERA. 



12S 



out, and several hundred thousand dollars expended, 
but the scheme failed because of unskilful and dis- 
honest management.*'* Nevertheless, the servile party 
turned this incident to account, filling the minds of 
the lower classes, especially the Indians, with prejudice 
against the government, which it accused of an intent 
to exterminate the native population by throwing 
open the country to foreign influence, religion, and 
administration of justice. The innovations in this 
last respect had, more than anything else, imbittered 
the natives, and on the Gth of March led to an out- 
brrak at Ostuncalco, where the Indians had become 
iiiitatcd at being compelled to work at the construc- 
tion of prisons.^" An armed force was sent to quell 
the disturbance, out of which the judges and some 

"'^ oilicials had great difficulty to escape with life. 

E'^^ Scarcely was this trouble over when a worse one 

stole in — the cholera. The scouro-c beo-an its rava!2i:es 
in Central America early in 1837,''^ and soon spreail 

Ann Arabella, under a Mr Fletcher. Their aettlcmont took the name of Ab- 
bolsvillc. Marure, Ej'cm., 3S. 

'■'Many of tho immigrants died, while others returned to England or went, 
to the West Indies, but few remaining. Dunlop, Vent. Am., 11)1, makes ap- 
piopiiate remarks on tho 'infatuation in Kuropeans to attempt culoni/iiig on 
pi-iifuioua shores, under a burning sun, ■where no native of a tempeiate rc- 
giiMi. not even those of tho interior of the same country, can enjoy tolerable 
lieahh.' Seoalso Astabuniaga's comments on tho undertaking, t'vnt. Am. , 'Jo. 
A ,u!o wing and favorable account of tho enterprise was issued as late as ISIJO. 
t?ii' ('(lit. Am., Urkf Statement, 1 ct seq. 

'On tho Gth of March, 1S37. Maritre, Efvm., 39; Montufar, Resena Hist., 

ii. a.'l.'l. 

' B. Lambur, commissioned by Galvcz, jefc of Guatemala, to report on 
Iht' oiigiu and progress of tho disease, wrote from Accituno April ;h1: ' There 
c;ui 1)0 no doubt that cholera camo by way of Omoa to Gualan, tlionce went 
to Zacapa and to Esquipulas, this last-named town being tho focus wlu nee it 
lias iiradiated with such velocity to tho towns at present infested.' JCscpii- 
imlif is a species of Mecca which people from all parts of Central America 
aiul Mexico visit in January of each year, to worship an image of (,'lirist, to 
vliicli countless miracles have been attributed. In tho Uoletin de Autirid.H dd 
Co!' ra of Apr. 4, 1S37, appear tho following words, 'En Sau !Sur ban muerto 
miuhos romeristaa do Esquipulas.' Id., 351-3. Tho fact is, that the disease 
had been doing havoc in tho towns near tho northern coast since Feb., and 
gra'lually spread throughout tho rest of the state aud republic till toward tho 
end of the year, when it abated. The first case in the city of (Juatomala oc- 
curred on tho 19th of April, Tho mortality in that city during tho invasion 
was 819, or a littlo over tho 44th part of the population, which was nuich 
smaller than in other less populated cities. Marure, Et'cm. , 40. Sec also J>nn- 
/o;/. Cent. Am., 193-4; ScUv. DiarioO/ic, Feb. 14, 1875; Eocha, Cddi'jo Sic., 
i. -JIS-IC; ii. 163-4. 



'1 i^ iM 

• • '*' [' i', ill 



I 



^1 



p 



Wl 









I : 



:1 ■ 



124 



CIVIL WAR. 



tliroughout the towns of the republic. The govern- 
ments of the different states, and notably that of 
Guatemala, used the utmost efforts to relieve suffer- 
ing. Physicians and medical students, provided witli 
medicines, were despatched to the several districts. 
But their efforts were largely frustrated by the oppi >- 
sition of the servile party, which never ceased its woik 
oven in these days of awful distress. Determined to 
bring to an end the influence of the liberals, the servilo 
party hesitated at nothing. All means to that eini 
were made available. The priests made the ignorant 
masses believe that the waters had been poisoned in 
order to destroy the natives and make way for ioi- 
eigners.*^ Their deviltry was crowned with success. 
The low murmurs of hatred soon swelled to loud crits 
of vengeance against the government and foreign res- 
idents. Several physicians became the victims of 
popular fury, being put to death with cruel tortures.^ 
Others barely escaped death. The greatest violem-o 
was in the district of Mita, where it assumed tiiu 
form of a general insurrection. The government de- 
spatched a body of troops to dissolve a large assem- 
blage of insurrectionists. The instructions were to 
use gentle means to allay the disturbance, resorting 
to force only in case of necessity. The magistrate of 
the district, having imprudently left the strong body 
of infantry behind, had no sooner attempted to ex- 
plain his mission than the mob fell upon him and his 
guard of Ibrty dragoons, killing a number of them and 
l)utting the rest to flight. This was on the 9th oi 
June." The leader of the mob on this occasion Mas 



^^Squier'a Travels, ii. 427-8. Monti'ifar, lieseiia Hist., ii. 370-2, gives 
copies of the docuiucuta tliat were circulated. 

" Such aa inakiug them swallow the coutenta of their inedicine-chestt,, or 
pouring water ilown their throats till they died, a circumstance that was al- 
waya looked upon aa uu ovidenco of guilt. Growers Gospel, 141. Moutgomfiy, 
Ouat., speaka of au Englishman who was nearly killed by the water torUiie 
inflicted by an enraged Indian mob. 

"* On the plains of Ambelia, near Santa Rosa, accompanied with impreca- 
tions against the ley do jurados imd the so-called 'cnvcncnadores.' lb was 
the beginning of a struggle which, in lesa than two years, wrought a complete 



RAFAKL CARUEKA. 



125 



IJafael C.'irrcra, a niixcd-breed, ^vho now for the first 
time, at the age of twenty-ono, possibly a few years 
older, appeared on the stage, to become afterward the 
bitterest foe of the liberal party, and eventually the 
dictator of the country. 

Rafael Carrera was a native of Guatemala, of In- 
dian descent, of a violent, irascible, and uncommuni- 
cative disposition, base-born, ignorant, though gifted 
with talents, bold, determined, and persevering. From 
conuHon servant he became a pig-driver, and while 
such obtained much influence among the lower class 
of Indians — an influence which was due no less to 
his blood connections and the force of circumstances 
than to his bravery and capabilities/^ 

Carrera was at first a mere tool of the priests, and 



clian.^Q in public .affairs. Mature., Efem, , 41 , copied by Montii/ar, liegefia HM. , 
ii. ,ri;{; Squier's Travels, ii. 4'J8. 

"Tonipsky, Mitia, 337, says tluat C.aiTPr.a w.ia born in Santa Rosa, inii-lrd 
prob.ibly by Iho circumstanco that tli-,- first Indian outbrcalt under iiis Kid 
occurred there, lie wag born about 1815 or 1816, and was the illcgititnalo 
ollspriiij,' of Antonio Aycincna. a member of one of the chiof families of 
(iuatcmala, and of Manucla Carrillo, a servant in the paternal mansion. 
Through tlio iniluenco of tlio Aycinenas ho was immediately aflor lii.s l)irtli 
ailiipted by ono Juana Ros.a Turcios, wlioso Inisband'a name oi Carrera the 
lioy sub3P(jacntly wa3 given. Such is the version of the autlior of a niiuiu- 
script written in July 1844, and entitled Ori'icii de Carrera, in AforttZ'Ui // 
Carrera, no. 4, 1 ct seq., tlio autiicnticity of whicli is made doubtful by .soiuc 
iiiiicuiir.icies in otlicr statements, tho object evidently being to give Carrora'.s 
descent a little respectability. Stephens, VeiU. Am., i. '22^), says tiiat in 
IS'Jl) lio was a drummer-boy, leaving tho army after tho capture of <luute- 
mala by Morazan, and retiring to .Mataquescuintla, wiici-o ho becanio a 
pi:^-ilriver, or, aa Montgomery, Otiat., 143-4, lias it, a dealer in hogs, 
having risen in tho federal army as high as corporal. Dnnlop, I'cnf. Am., 
I'.i.'i, followed by Crowe's Gospel, 141, and iSquier's Trnv., ii. A'l\), essentially 
contirnis Stephens' statements. Belly, Nir., i. 1o, adds that Carrer.a was f-i- 
a time employed in tlio plantation of a Frenchman named Launionier, mar 
La Antigua. Montufar say f, of him: ' Un jiivcn como do 'Joafn's, sin nin- 
guna educacion, ni conocimicntos do ningun j(5nero, pucs no conocia siquii la 
el abecedario. Los primeros afios do su yida los emplei'i, ya de sirviento 
(lomestioo, ya de apaccntador de cerdos, ya de peon en los trabajoa do 
caitipo.' The same authority refers to Miila's eulogies of Carrera, wIjok! 
the words occur, * Carrera A pesar de su falta de educacion, y de los luibiios 
ilolavida del campo,' which might have secured for Milla lodgings in th(! 
dungeons of the castle of Guatemala. The same writer repeats tho assertion 
often made against tho Jesuit Paul, later bishop of Panamd, and raised to tiio 
position of archbishop of Bogotd, that he said at Carrera's death, in \\'\a 
funeral oration, that tne man whoso corpse was descending into tlie tomb waa 
on the rightside of God the father. All repentant villains are given some such 
post-mortem place by sympathizing ministers of the gospel. 



126 



CIVIL WAR. 




seemed to have been a believer of the lies they had cir- 
(3ulated. After he became powerful, they and their 
allies, the so-called nobles, humored his idiosyncrasies, 
and often had to put up with his insults and abuse. 
He had upon them the heel of insane revolt.^ 

^'In the early days they assured the Indians that he w&a their protecting; 
angel Rafael, and resorted to tricks to favor the delusion. Squier'a Travels, ii. 
4Jl)-30. 



B. 



ii. 



CHAPTER VII. 



DISSOLUTION OF THE REPUBLIC. 

1837-1840. 

Campaign aoainst Careeba— Several Departments of Goatemala is 
Rebellion — Jefe Galvez Dkposed — Cakrera Takes Guatemala — 

MCRDER OF SaLAZAR— CaRUEFwA ACCEPTS MoNEY TO LEAVE TUE CiTT 

—Dictatorship Offered Morazan by tue Aristocrats and Refused 
— Carreua's Second Rebellion — The Republic in Peril— Mouazan's 
Efforts to Save It — Nicaragua and Uonduras Forces Invade 
Salvador— Morazan Defeats Tuem — IIis Retreat to San Salvador 
—He Embarks — Is Refused Uospitality in Costa Rica — Goes to 
South America — The Republic is Dead— Salvador at the Mercy 
of Carrera. 



Only a week after the success of the insurgents on 
the field of AmbeUs, a numerous armed force was sent 
against them by the government, which achieved 
victory near Mataquescuintla.^ The revokition might 
have ended here but for the excesses of the govorn- 
racnt troops, which roused the Indians, and rendered 
reconcihation impossible.^ Henceforth the war was 
one of races. Carrera, upheld as he was by the 
priests, found no difficulty, in his visits from village to 
village, to induce the native population to join the 
revolt, which, notwithstanding the triumphant lan- 
guage of the military officers in their reports — calling 
the rebels cowards and themselves intrepid and in- 

'Ou the 15th of June. Mature, E/em., 41. Gon, Carrascoaa's report of 
his victory, with details, in Montu/ar, lieseiia Hist. , ii. 350-9. 

'Among the suflferors was Carrera'a wife, which circumstauco, it is said, 
awakened in him an implacable hatred. Stephens' Cent. Am., i. 226; Crowe's 
Gospel, 142. Moatsomcry, Ouat,, 144, states that Carrera was then command- 
ing' a few men of the military cordon established becanse of the epidomio, 
wliich he induced to rebel. 

(137) 



123 



DISSOLUTION OF THE REPUBLIC. 



!SH 



^i':' 



vincible — was fast spreading. Carefully avoiding 
encounters with the regular army, Carrera succeeded 
in getting together a largo force, which, though raw 
and undisciplined, often surprised and defeated detach- 
ments of the regulars, seeking a refuge when pursued 
in the inaccessible mountain fastnesses.' 

To make matters worse, the departments of Saca- 
tcpcqucz, Chiquimula, and Salamd declared them- 
selves independent of the government, and the rebels, 
of the first district,* concentrating at La Antigua, 
threatened to attack the capital. In the latter place 
a division had occurred in the liberal party ,° some ol 
whose members from this time sided with the serviles ; 
which circumstance made it more diflicult to place 
the city of Guatemala in a proper state of defence. 
A mutiny of the federal troops in the city*" increased 
the danger, but it soon was quelled with the execution 
of the ringleader. On the 27th of January, 1838,' 
Galvez despatched the vice-president, Josd Gregorio 
Salazar, and the secretary of relations, Miguel Al- 
varez, as commissioners, to confer with General Car- 
rascosa, the commander of the rebel forces, and brin;^^ 
about an amicable arrangement. The commissioners 
signed at Guarda Viejo** a convention containing the 

' The hostilities now carried on partook more of the character of highway 
robbery than of orthodox war, both parties being plundered; but the liberals 
wore the greater sufferers. 

*The provisional government constituted at La Antigua placed itself 
under the protection ol the federal authorities. Marure, Efcm., 42. 

*Tho division was created by Josd Francisco Barrundia. It is said tlint 
he joined the discontented because the jefe Galvez refused him a high olhcc 
for one of his relatives. Stephens' Cent. Am., i, 227. But looking over tlio 
correspondence that pi'ssed between them in June 1S:H7, the conclusion is 
that the cause of the disagreement was not a personal one. Barrundia op- 
posed the convocation of the assembly to an extra session, and all the decrees 
enacted by it. The correspondence produced much sensation. Galvez ended 
accusing liarrundia of having adopted, wl>?n ho was president of the repub- 
lic, some measures similar to those he had now censured. The most serious 
charge against Bamindia was his persecution of Padre Rojas, to which the 
former answered that the priest had been at the head of the insurgents who 
proclaimed the Spanish domination on the Atlantic coast, and thongh out- 
lawed for that offence, was not executed. Montufar, Reseiia Hist. , ii. 377-407. 

"The battalion La Concordia mutinied on the 26th of January. 

'Stephens, loc. cit., places these events in B'obruary, but ho ia evidently 
mistaken. Marure, Efem., 4.S, gives the 29th of Jan. as the date. 

> At 4 F. M. of Jan. 28, 1838. Id., ii. 543. 



ATTACK ON <;UATF.MALA. 



129 



foilowiniij stipulations: 1st, resignation of Galvez; 2(1, 
iit'cijpation of the ca[)ital by the forces of Saeato|)t>- 
.•|iiiz; o(i, tlu; forces in the cajjital to go out, and place 
themselves under the orders of General Moi'azan ; 4tli, 
the forces of Sacati'pequez to guai'antee the persons 
and property oi' all; jlh, the coniiuissioners would 
anange the manner of evacuating the city; Gth, upon 
the ratification of these clauses, they \ver»j to !><' car- 
ricil out within twenty-lour hours. Nothing was 
dono, however," and after four hours' waiting, C'arras- 
oosa continued his march toward the gate of Buena- 
vista, where he met the governnient commissioners, 
who assured him, with great m(jrtification, that the 
convention had not been ratified."^ 

Sacatepequez' force, 800 strong, entered the capital 
(luring the night of the 29th of January, from the 
Calvario side, reaching the plazuela do San Francisco, 
afterward known as plaza de la Concordia. The roar 
of artillery apprised the inhabitants at 1 o'clock in 
the morning that the struggle had be'.>un. Generals 
Pivui and Gorris, colonels Yafiez, Arias, Mariscal, 
Cerda, and C6rdoba, and the other officers of the 
garrison, made a stout defence. Their troops, though 
inloiior in number, were for their discipline more etK- 
ciciit than their assailants, who were mostly raw 
recruits. It was quite evident that Carrascosa and 
his colleague Carballo would waste their efforts unless 
tlujy were strongly reenforced. But the op[)onents of 
Galvez were resolved to depose him,*^ even if they 
had to make use of Carrera to accomplish their pur- 
pose. It was a fatal thought. 

Jos(j F. Barrundia was authorized by President Mo- 

'(j.ihcz woU kucw of the relations existing butwcoii Carrera n.ul t!iu revo- 
luti(iiii-)C3 of La Antigua. Tho convention of Giiiinla-Vicjo would linve savcil 
tiio biuiation. Had tho forces of tho city, consisting of 41 1 men, been placed 
uinkr Morazan, they with those of Sacatepetjucz wouM have been too strong 
for Carrera, and ho would not have entertained the idea that a powerful party 
I'jukcd to liiin for aid. 

'U'uU details ajjpear in Gen. Carrascosa's correspondence given in Montu- 
/'"'. lieseiui 1 1 hi., ii. 589-97. 

"Ainong tliein were Miguel Garcia Qranados, tho brothers Arrivillaga, 
aud their relations tlio Zepedas, together with the Barruudias. 
Out. Cent. Am., Vol. UI. 9 



I J 't <o 






130 



DISSOLUTION OF THE REPUBLIC. 



razan to onter into peaceable negotiations with Carrera, 
and the clergymen Josd Mrria dc Castilla, Manuel 
Maria Zecena, and Jose Vicente Orantcs. Barrundia, 
together with Manuel Arrivillaga, started for the 
hacienda of La Vega to confer with Carrera; but at 
Ojo de Agua they ascertained that he was at Mata- 
quescuintla, and declined to hold any conferences, and 
yet an arrangement with other opponents had been 
signed at Santa Kcsa. This document, which -.vas 
shown by Father Duran to Barrundia, stipulated the 
immediate coming of a bishop, the abolition of tho 
code and of other liberal measures decreed by Bariuii- 
dia, and that Carrera should become the commander 
of the reform forces, or in other words, the arbiter 
of the country, which was what the clergy wanted. 
Barrundia was indignant, but he had to submit and 
keep calm, else he might lose his life. He mendy 
said that the anangement needed some discussion, 
which might lead to the adoption of some amend- 
ments. Duran had not worked to promote Barrnn- 
dia's nor Molina's ideas, but his own interests. ]ii' 
coolly replied that tho matter had been well consid- 
ered, and admitted of no changes. 

Barrundia wr</tt Carrera, asking for an interview to 
explain ^lorazan's views, but Carrera appeared arjgry 
at the me,ition of Morazan's name, and declined tlio 
invitation, sa3'ing that the time for negotiations h;id 
passed, and that his march a;ifainst Guatemala was in 
order.'" He became muchmolliMed on receiving from 
La Antigua a request for his cooperation,''' and was 
now satistied that the fate of the country was in lus own 
handr,. Three days after Carrascosa's failure, Carrera 

'^ He wa3 in all thia afi'air guided by the priests. Banundia ^7a8 nccu '1 
throughout Central America of having brought about Carrcra'a invasion of 'i'' 
capital. The serviles, who were rcapousiblo for all Carrera's iniquities, li.ivi' 
endeavored to place some of tho odium en thatpatriot, wliohadnotliiugto.!" 
with it. Indeed, had Barrundia "^ono to Carrera's headquarters, ho wulu 
probably have been shot. Montu'itr, liesena Hist,, ii. 573; Sqnicr\i Travd.y 
ii. 4:J2. 

'* The chiefs of Sacatopequez had become convinced of their inability to take 
tho city, or oven to properly besiege it. 



I 



CARRERA TAKES THE CAPITAL. 



131 



s in 

:'()Ui 

)\vn 



r"'",' 






1 lake 



j. .incd him with a numerous force of Indians, and after 
some fruitless negotiations, marched into tLe city on 
the 1st of February," at the head of about 10,000 
men, women, and children, the troops of the govern- 
iiiciit having retreated in an opposite direction. The 
result of this was that Galvez ceased to be the jefo of 
the state, and was succeeded by the vice-jefe, Pedro 
Valcnzuela." 

The entry of Carrera's hordes into Guatemala might 
wrll create consternation. Outlaws and robber.s vere 
among the leaders; the soldiers were in rags,"^ and 
(«iuipped with a variety of arms, from the rusty 
musket down to clubs, and knives secured at the end 
of long poles, while others carried sticks shaped liku 
liiuskets, with tin-plate locks. Conspicuous among 
the mass of followers were thousands of women hav- 
ing bags to carry away the booty, and who gazed with 
amazement on the fine houses.^^ Shouting 'Viva la 
luligion! Mueran los exti'anjerosi' the invaders en- 
Icied the main plaza. After a few hours the work of 
rapine began, ^^ No regard was paid by Carrera and 

"Dnnlop, Ce»t. Am., 198, aiAcl Crowe, Gospel, 143, erroneously say it w.ia 
on tiie 30tli of January. 

^^ M'lrure, Eferr.., 13, places this event on the 'Jd of Fob., 1833. 

""'Carrera himself is described as baving (in ;i pair of coanso frieze trousens, 
aud a fine coat with gold cmliroidery belonging to Gen. TrcMi, which iiad been 
tilica by Moureal. For a chapeau tlio uuu' j^cncrul wore a woman's hat with 
a green veil, the property of I'rcm't; wife, wlio was known as L:i Coloinbiana. 
In lieu of decorations Carrcr.i had on his breast a number of 'cseapulariosdjl 
CVirnieii,' symbolizing the religion he had come to protect. MoiUujar, Uej^- ii'i 
JIU., ii. 574. 

■'It seems that a largo portion of the men and women had ncer seen a 
city before. 

'*Tlio physician Quirino Flores, who belonged to the opposition parry, 
aaJ was an intimate friend of Carrascosa K.ud Carballo, believing that his 
Lou.se would be a place of safety, induced tho vioc-pn!sidcnt and his family to 
use it. It so happened that a small force of Galvez entered iho lnnise, bred 
upon the invaders from tho windows and retired. Tho men lired upon were not 
of the force from La Antigua, but some of Carrera's savage horde, called from 
that time 'cachurecos,' whorushcd into tho house, lired upon tlie family, wound- 
iij;^ one of the women and a child, and killing JostS Grcgorio Salazar, tho vice- 
prciidcnt. Salazar was born in San Salvador in 1793, and had two brothers, 
Ciirlos, tho general, and Francisco, who as a captain was killed in action on 
the "JW of J une, 1834. Jose* Gregorio Salo/ar was one of the leaders in ., 1: n 
Murazan reposed tho highest trust. As senator, president of tho .■'cnate, jefe 
of Salvador, vice-president of tho republic, and acting executive .it such 
tii.L • as Morazan assuincd personal eoirmaud of tin trooiis, Salazar uiiswerv- 
iu/,y .supported progressive principles. Ilin ^x>rtrait shows a line aad intelli- 



f '•', 



132 



DISSOLUTION or THE REPUBLIC. 



I I:i1^ 



■:l! 



'A » 



his hordes to the wishes of tlie vicc-jefo Valonzuela, 
who had asked that only the force from La Antigua 
should occupy the plaza. 

The leader of the opposition urged Carrcra to leave 
the city; hut he manifested much iutli2fnation at such 
a request, and several of his chiefs refused complianct'. 
Carrera himself wanted to sack the city," and it was 
only with gi'eat effort that he was prevented. In 
lieu of pillage he was given $11,000,'" $10,000 for his 
troops and $1,000 for himself. He was also flattered 
with the commission of lieutenant-colonel and the 
appointment of comandante of Mita. A number of 
those who had defended the city having voluntarily 
joined the Sacatepequez force, Carrascosa was now 
better able to meet emergencies. He at once, by 
order of the vice-jefe, made known to Carrera that 
the interests of the public service demanded that he 
should repair to Mita and take charge of the comaii- 
dancia there. He made no resistance, and went away 
with his horde,"^ the inhabitants aijain breathiuL; 
freely for a time.^^ Thus were the serviles balked 
once more. Carrera was sent away from Guatemala, 
Valenzuela remaining in charge of the state execu- 
tive. Morazan was at San Salvador recognized as 
the chief magistrate (jf the republic, and Vijil held 
the executive office of that gallant little state. 

gent face. The murder of the vice-president, instead of culling for execration 
(HI the piirt of the priests, Diiran, Lobo, NicolAs Arellano, Antonio (lonzalez, 
and otlier.s, only brought out their diatribes again.st the victim. /(/., STO-'J. 

'"It was found at lirst diffieiilt to elicit a satisfactory niiswor from liini. 
The pillaging, though not odiuially di^crocd, liad been carried on mostly in the 
houses of foreigners. Charles Savage, U. S. consul at Guatemala, has been 
highly praised for his intrepidity in protecting from the infuriated Indians 
the foreign residents and their property. Montgomerii'.i Otiat., 14G; Stephen-'' 
Cent. Am., i. '233-4. 

-" There being no money in the treasury, it was borrov^ed from private 
persons. Stephi'ns' Vent. Am.., i. 'I'll et seq., copied by Larcnandi6re, Me.ci- 
(jiic ft Guat., 'Ji)8-9. The facts appear in the records of tho asamblea. 

■-' Had ho resisted, tho reiinforccd troops of La Antigua would in all p: ob- 
ability havo defeated his undisciplined rabble. This would not have suite;! 
Father Duran and the other priests, who expected their own triumph througli 
Carrera'a success. Those same priests aided IJarnindia and Valenzuela to rid 
the city of himself (Mid his men. Moiiliifar, AV.sr/irt Hi.i',., ii. 584. 

^^Tho priest who seemed to exercise tho greatest intlueneo ou Carrera was 
named Loho, a man of dissolute character, wiio always acconipanied him as a 
Bort of couQselloi. 



MORAZAN VERSUS CAllRERA. 



133 



Carrera and liis supporters continued, liowcvcr, 
tlieir menaces, creating no little alarm, which was 
quieted on receipt of the tidings that Morazan was 
inarching toward Guatemala with 1,500 men. On 
his arrival he found not only that the serviles had 
been deriving advantages from the disturbed political 
situation, but that the western departments of Los 
Altos, namely, Quezaltenango, Totonicapan, and So- 
lohi, had declared themselves, on the 2d of February, 
a s'jparate state under an independent government."'' 
Witl)(Hit interfering with those arrangements, ]\ro- 
lazan endeavored to secure by [)eaceful means the 
submission of Carrera, or rather, the disbanding of his 
i'oico; failing in which, he opened, on the 30th of 
March, the campaign against him. Three months 
ot' military operations ensued, the federal arms being 
vietoiious at evorv encounter, but without obtaining 
any definitive result, for the enemy defeated in one 
place rallied in another, continually increasing in num- 
bers, and never crushed.^* Morazan returned at last 
to Guatemala, where in the mean time servile influence 
liad Ijccome predominant."' The most strenuou-> ef- 
forts, even to fulsome sycophancy, were used by the 

•■^ Lou AUo-i, Mavif. Document., 1-28. Tho federal oongrcsa ratified the 
sopiirutioii oil tho Stli of June, 1838; the departments were, however, rein- 
corporated a year alter. Marure, E/ein., 43; Diinlop'a Cent. Am., 198; Asfa- 
iiirmuja, Cent. Am., 28. Moutiifar, Resfila Jlitt., iii. 9-23, furnislies a 
iKiaikd account of tho events preceding and following tho separation. The 
piMvisional government tlien established was a triumvirate formed by Mareelo 
Miiliiia, Josii M. Galvez, a:..l Tosu A. Aguilar. 

-'Stcpliens, Cent. Am., i. 239-12, details some of the military movements, 
vliich arc not of BuiHci'int interest to reproduce luro. Marure, Ej'rm., 43-1, 
says that iMorazan attacked tho rebels on tho hill ol Mataquescuintla; 'poro 
de-ipiua do Ires inesos do combates, marchas, contramarchas, y todo gi'noro do 
tiKiuiiibraa, el cj(jrcito do operaciones ticno quo rojilegarse iV la capital. . .sin 
lialieixc adclantado nada en la pacilieaciou do aquoUos pueblos.' 

'-'•'Out ho iSthof June, 1S38, thevice-jefo Vahiizuola, and the deputies I'edi'o 
M'llina, Joisi5 (Jiimhira, .Jo.si'i 1'. Barrundia, Bernardo I'^soubar, Tedro Aniaya, 
Filipo Molina, and jMiiriaiif Padilla, laid a paper brforo tho federal congress 
oil tlio war and its eonseq' noes. In this doeunuut they say, among other 
tilings, that it had been moved in tho asambleaof (iuatemala to authorize the 
1' storation of the arclibislmp and of tho religious orders, to abolish divonx', 
ami to (leolaro void the deoi'ee.s of 1829, 'decretos «|ue sostnvieroii enti'mces 
la rijv,ilucmn en favor de la.s institiiciones y do la libertad.' They accuse tho 
fti'rvilis of perversely attempting to render tho representatives of liberalism 
and progress hateful in tho eyes of tho ignorant populace. Montu/ar, L'tieua 
Jl''^t., iii. 47. 



tt^!tl-''^|j 



134 



DISSOLUTION OF THE REPUBLIC. 



serviles to win him to their side, and to prevail on him 
to accept the dictatorship.^" 

The president returned in July to San Salvador to 
quell a revolt. A few weeks later, on the 20th of 
July, 1838, the eleventh and last federal congress of 
Central America, presided over by Basil io Porras, 
closed its session.^^ Subsequent efforts to bring it 
again into life proved unavailing, and from this time 
the dismemberment of the republic made rapid prog- 
ress. Two days after the adjcurnment of congress, 
on the 22d, the state government of Guatemala was 
also dissolved, and was temporarily intrusted to the 
federal authorities,^^ though the executive office finally 
was assumed by Mariano Rivera Paz, as president of 
the council, which satisfied the people, and peace was 
unbroken, it being understood that a constituent 
assembly would be summoned at once. 

As soon as Morazan was at some distance from 
Guatemala on his way to San Salvador, Carrera, tlu; 
supposed beaten rebel leader, for whose capture a lib- 

^* Arguments, cajolery, entertainments, and every other ijossiblo meaus 
were employed to induce him to swerve from the principles he liad always 
uplield. Barrundia looked aghast on their proceedings, and describing them, 
says it is imposiblc to realize 'el cnvilecimicnto, la miscria ruin dof^stopartido 
noble aristocrdtico. ' The liaughty patricians, represented by Pavon, Batrcii, 
Aycincna, and their confreres, fawned at his feet, covered liini witli flowers, 
disgusted him witlj their flattery, feasted hiiii to satiety, and patiently bmo 
his contemptuous rebuffs as long as they hoped to win him over. After their 
failure, sarcasm, ridicule, and abuse were heaped upon him and hia iiamL\ 
Had Morazan's morals been equal to those of the serviles, ho might have ac- 
cepted the dictatorship, assumed the full powers, and tlien crushed them; 
but ho was an honest man, who always acted in good faith. Id., ITa-'J. 

*' On the ;Wth of May it passed an act declaring tho states free to con- 
stitute themselves as they might deem best, preserving, liowevcr, the populaf 
representative form of government. This amendment to tho l'2th art. of tb' 
constitution of 1824 was accepted by all tho states, excluding the restrictions 
contained in tho federal decree of Juno 9, 1838, which was rejected by .i 
majority of tho legislatures. Mature, Efem,, 44-5. Tho federal congrtsa 
passed, on the 7th of July, 183S, an act as follows: 'Tlie federated states of 
Cent. Am. are, and by riglit should be, sovereign, free, and independent po- 
litical bodies.' Guat., Jiecop. Lei/es, i. 69. 

'■" It was tho spontaneous act of tho citizens of the capital, who, in vie« of 
tho progress made by tho rebels of Mita, deemed it necessary to provide i r 
their own safety. Valcuzuela resigned, on tho 2;kl, tho executive oflico into 
the hiinds of tho asamblea. Marurc, Ej'em., 45; AIo7it.i{fai; licwfia //int., iii. 
181-5. Crowe, Oospcl, 144, attributes to Morazan tho authorship of tho net 
adopted by the citizens. 



SALAZAR DEFEATS CARRERA. 



135 



eial reward had been oflfered,"-" began to show signs of 
iiillviiig. He gathered a numerous force, with which, 
I about the middle of August, he defeated the federal 

f troops, first at Jalapa and next at Petapa. He then, 

[ J unresisted, took possession of La Antigua, a portion of 

which was pillaged, and forthwith started on his march 
tor Guatemala,^'^ A general clamor for Morazan was 
moused; but it was impossible for him to reach Guatc- 
niula in time, and the danger was iumiinent that Car- 
rera would not only take the city, but also carry out 
liis threats of burning every house in it. In this 
oniorgenc}', General Carlos Salazar, with the garrison 
of 900 men, sallied forth, and aided by a thick fog, 
surprised Carrera at Villanucva, where the latter was 
concentrating his tbrces, now about 2,400 strong, with 
tho plunder secured at La Antigua. A battle ensued, 
the bloodiest that occurred in 1837 or 1838, and Car- 
reia was routed,^^ with the loss of 350 killed and 24 
prisoners, one of whom was the notorious Father 
i)uran, the representative and agent of the aristocrats 
near the person of Carrera;^- besides giving up a 
number of federal prisoners and losing three pieces 
oi' artillery, 305 muskets, and a large number of other 

-''On the 20th of July, 1S;?S, lie was required to give himself up; failiuL; to 
do so, a reward was oflered for his apprehension, alivo or dead— Sl,r>(K) and 
two caballen'aa of laud, besides a full pardon for any oll'onces against tlio lawa 
his oaptor or captors might have committed. iSlc/Jien.'i' ( 'cut. Am., i. 'Jl'J. 

■'"Squicr, Travels, ii. 4.'35, says that Carrera entered Guatemala; he i)i-ob- 
ably meant Old Guatemala, or La Antigua. Carrera, at Jalapa, had '-'.UOO 
iiKii, while his opponent, Col Manuel Bonilla, liad about .')U0. 'J'lio hitter 
were nearly ann'li'iiited. The few ollieera and soKlieis who escaped with 
life found refuge in Salvador territory. Carrera's exeessea at this lime knew 
no bounds. lie not only ravished women, but amused himself cutting olT t lieir 
tresses and ears. Some of theso earless women entered tho city of (Juatemahi, 
and their stories produced great indignation. MoiUi!y'ar, Resetia hist., iii. '-'01; 
Marttrc, Efeyn., 45. 

"' This action took place early in the morning of Sept. 11th. S;ilazar at 
once despatched a courier to Guatemala with the news of his succes.s, whieli 
caused the utmost joy. Montufar, licseiia Hist., iii. '20(»-8; Mann-e, E/cm., 
40. Dunlop, Cent. Am., 201, asserts that no mercy was shown by tho fcileral 
troops in this encounter. By a decree of Sept. 13, 1888, pensions were granted 
to tho wounded, and to tho widows and orphans of the slain federals. Bailgea 
of lienor were also confeiTcd on tlio survivors. Ouat., J{cci>p. Leye.^, ii. C3l)-7. 

"This man's life was then spared, but some time afterward ho was shot, 
fur which the serviles called Morazan a nairderer. Montiij'ai; llcsena Hist., 
iii. 208. 



Y'U'K 



nil 



1 '" .« 



I 



136 



DISSOLUTION OF THE REPUBLIC. 



it 



!:; 



; < ■' \ 



vf:;! 



arms, besides animuuition. A portion of the defeated 
forces fled to La Antigua, and a smaller one joined the 
rebel Mangnndi, who liad 500 men. The latter, being 
ignorant of Carrera's mishap, approached Guatemala 
on the 11th, at 10 o'clock in the morning, causing no 
little commotion ; but on learning of his leader's defeat, 
he retired to the mountains. The war miirht have 
ended here had the victors followed up their success; 
but petty annoyances prevented Salazar from doing 
so, and he threw up his command in disgust,^^ though 
he was afterward induced to resume it. 

The greater part of the clei-gy friendly to Carrera 
never forsook him. It was not so with the aristocrats, 
Manuel Pavon, Luis Batres, and Pedro and Juan 
Jose Aycinena, who feared at times that they could 
not control him. After his defeat at Villanueva they 
called him an *ontrop6fago scdiento do sangro hu- 
mana.'^* At that time they asked the vicar-general, 
Larraziibal, to fulminate censures against Carrera, 
which he did,""^ Friar Bernardo Piilol also railed 
against him from the pulpit in the cathedral. ^*^ How- 
evei-, not long afterward Carrera was called from that 
same pulpit 'hijo predilccto del Altisimo.' 

The lack of energy on the part of the authorities 
after the affair of Villanueva^' enabled Carrera to re- 

'••His resignation was made before tlie body of his oiBccrs, wliicli im- 
plied ft disregard of the autliority of the govurnnicnt. The oflicers chuled 
all responsibility, alleging that they had nothing to do with his rcsignaticui. 
Tlio governniont then revoked tho extraordinary powers confen'ed on liiin 
two months prev".ously. Marure, Efem., 40. 

'*In the Ohsc i-vadorawX tho A/i6ndicc. 

^'^ Exhortac'wii crhtiana que el vicario capitular, . .dirige d loa 2>ueblo. , (/(■., 
17 p. 

^*Text of his funeral oration on the 14th of Sept. in honor of the slain mi 
the government side at Villanueva, in Montafar, liesena Hist., in. L'1U-_'1. 

^' JosiS Francisco Barrundi.a, who fought in that action, said: ' lie [Can riaj 
could have been captured or annihilatctl had ho been forthwith pursued; Imt 
no advantage was derived from such a glorious victory, and in a few days 
vandalism became again menacing.' Salazar was blamed, Moutiifar thinka 
unjustly. According to him, tho victorious troops were not in condition to 

Eursuo. This authoritj', partly on tho testimony of Gen. Carballo, lays tliC 
lamo on Rivera Paz, who had no interest in destroying a faction on which 
his party relied in tho emergency of Morazan refusing his aid to the serviles. 
Morazjin, on tho 24th of Oct., declared martial law in portions of Guatr 
mala, pereu)ptorily refused to listen to the proposals of t!io recalcitrants, -.id 
marched to Guatemala, leaving the government in charge of the vice-pi\. i- 



io 



oryr 

laid 

pan 

mala 

iiiC 

drive 

raza 

Qua 

in 

I'ecti 

thou 

many 

lie ah 

latlier 

last a ( 

"•enibei 

Were tc 

ernniei] 

Jii.s oihc 

J'ospect 

'I'luis w 

i"g. G 

^*) ])lace 

tlio sanii 

.''pccter 

"•'t carr 

•'^iiiall po] 

the prett 



CARRERA AGAIN DEFEATED. 



m 



ortranize his forces, with which he made a successful 
laid, in the latter part of October, against Ahuacha- 
])an and Santa Ana,*** returning afterward to Guate- 
mala, when, on the 4th of November, ho was attacked 
in Chiquimulilla by Colonel Carballo, defeated, and 
iliiven back to the mountain recesses of Mita.^" Mo^ 
razan had in the mean time concentrated forces in 
Guatemala, and aided Carballo's operations by march- 
ing" against the Indian chieftain from a northern di- 
iLH'tion. But all efforts to crush the enemy failed, 
1 hough the federal troops were everywhere victorious ; 
many of Carrcra's followers w^ere taken and shot, but 
ho always managed to escape.*" This warfare, or 
nithor chase, was kept up nearly two months. At 
hist a capitulation was concluded, on the 23d of De- 
conibor, at Rinconcito. Carrera and his followers 
were to Kurrender their arms *^ and recognize the gov- 
c'linncnt, which in turn was to confirm the former in 
his office of comandantc of the district of Mita, and 
respect the lives and property of its inhabitants.*^ 
Thus was Carrera a second time fj'vcn a leo^al stand- 
ing. General Guzman, who treated with him, seemed 
to place on the treacherous and barbarous mountaineer 
the same faith as if he were a civilized man and a re- 
specter of treaty stipulations." The agreement was 
not carried out by Carrera, for he delivered onl}'^ a 
small portion of useless arms, and kept his force under 
the pretext that the safety of his, district demanded 

ilent, Diogo Vijil, whom congress had chosen to succeed the murdoied Sala- 
zar. /,/., 223-0. 

^''lli.s hordes committed all sorts of outrages in these departments of Sal- 
vailor. Barnuidia, in Ei Progreso oi S. Salv. , IS.")!), no. ',i. 

"'Lcsciius6 iin descalabro do cntidad la division dol coronol Carballo.' 
Maniri\ Ej'cm., 46. 

•^Uiico lie was abnost starved to death on the top of a mountain, siii 
rounded iit its base by a largo force; but owing to some neglect lie escaped. 

"Stephens, Cent. Am., i. 244, erroneously has it that the delivery was to 
I'o of only 1,()()() muskets. 

*-Tlic president of the republic ratified the ngrcemcuc on tho 2r)th of Dec. 

'•■Tlio tact was that the arrangement at Rinconcito was prompted to (Jen. 
A:;ustin Guzman by Manuel Pavon, whom ho believed to bo a friend that 
Would give liim nothing but iionorablc advice. lie had good reason at a later 
date to think differently, when lio was taken into Guatemala in rags, tied on 
a nude, as a trophy of Carrcra's success. Movttij'ar, J!e>ieila Hist., iii. 22S-0. 



t!'4, 



S^HF 






138 



DISSOLUTION OP THE REPUBUC. 



ii:!N: 



it. The government not only had the weakness to 
enter into this arrangement, but also that of not on- 
forcing its fulfilment to the letter. This renderctl 
the renewal of hostilities but a question of time. 

I have mentioned the congressional decree of May 
30, 1838, granting the states the privilege of acting 
as best suited their views. This was tantamount to 
a dissolution of the union ; and when Morazan's second 
presidential term expired, on the 1st of February, 
1839,^* not even an outward tie remained to hold to- 
gether the several states. Morazan, and ho alone, did 
not relinquish all hope of restoring the republic, and 
without delivering up an office which had ceased Id 
exist, the strife was continued under his leadership. 
His efforts, supported by force though they were, met 
with resistance on the part of Nicaragua and Hon- 
duras, united by a treaty of alliance since January 
18, 1839, which had been entered into for the pur- 
poso of maintaining the independence and sovereignty 
of the two states." Similar agreements were made 
in the following months between nearly all the other 
states, always protesting a willingness to form a fed- 
eral convention of the Central American states, but 



opposmg 



the idea of confederation.*^ 



**After that Diego Vijil represented the unity in the federal district tn 
vice-president. The fouvcnticlo of the four nobles, Pavou, Batres, and llio 
two Aycincuas, had, however, during Rivera Paz'a rule in Guatemala, arraiit'oii 
matters to their own satisfaction, iu order to break up the union, having ut 
their disposal the requisite number of municipal districts. Their emiss;uii\i 
supported the separation in Houduras and Nicaragua. Costa Rica was gov- 
erned by Carrillo, a declared foo to Central American nationality. Tliey wci o 
now working with Rivera Paz's successor, Gen, Cdrlos Saliizar, witii almost a 
certainty of carrying their point. Salazar waa a good soldier, but as a poli- 
tician, without guile, and easily deceived. Id., 241-3. 

*'" And also to protect other states against all interference on the part of 
the late federal government. Full text of the convention iu Cent. Am. < 'oih 
stituUons, no. 4, l-o. l?y virtue of this arrangemcn'^, the combined forces of 
the two states invaded Salvador. Marure, Efem., 47. This treaty brought 
about Morazan's ruin, and the disruption of the federal union. Francisco 
Fcrr-cra, commander of the forces of llonduras, himself made it known to 
Carrcra, and it prompted the latter's rebellion on the 24th of March, 181)9, 
and his march against Guatemala, It enabled Pavon, Batres, and tiio Ayei- 
nenaa to take C; rrera in triumph into tliut city on the 13th of Apr., 18.')'.). 

^^The jefe of Guatemala, on the 17th of April, 1839, declared the I'edcial 
compact dissolved, and the resumption by the state of its absolute sovereignty. 
This declaration was ratified by the constituent assembly on the 14th of .InnG 



agair 
: in tl] 
j and t 
5 Hond 

Tl'OOf 

ritorv 

at the 

and P 

San y 

Xiboa, 

Benitc 

ritiiSa 

fi'doral; 

Eq ua lij 

tile res: 

took th( 

ill sever 

of t lie same 
a'lil iiUianci 
nii'ilo siiiiils 

Wt'IliI. iuul 

as .'; .\oroigr 
0'' a similar 
A><"i., 4S-0 
si'vcreitrnty. 
of t-'io state 
t'n'ii- scats ii 
traidfLt.-iii. 
^vi'i-,.. (lis.'^aii.- 
'ov.irlioiitic, 
tli'-iii Ilondui 
^^adonJyfou, 
ii)f rcprcscn 
tJio latter clu 
"n'.Vi-tIio83i 
votes present 
liicic u-cre ( 
""•■'iiccs. Cost 
«0'itiiyoiit to 
J;"''-' virtual] 

. ^' It Was a 
frontier of Sac 
"Thoallie, 
been connected 
^"c.to Jlorazai 
f^'i'tpz, who 1 

"Brigadier 



FIGHTING IN SALVADOR. 



133 



A conciliatory spirit, to bring to an end the war 
a<^ainst Salvador, and to act as mediator, was effected 
in those treaties; but it had no influence for good, 
ami the hostilities continued between Nicaragua and 
Honduras on the one part, and Salvador on the othei-. 
Tioops of the two former states entered Salvador ter- 
ritory in March 1839, and surprising a federal party 
at the crossings of the Lempa River, called Xicaral 
and Potacones, took without resistance the town of 
San A^icentc; but having advanced to the heights of 
Xiboa, were repulsed and beaten by Colonel Narciso 
Btnitcz.*' The allies were signally defeated at Espi- 
ritu Santo, near the Lt;npa, by the Salvadorans, called 
fi'dcrals, under Morazan, on the 6th of April. '^ 
Equally successful were Morazan's operations during;' 
tlif rest of the year. His oflBcers invaded Honduras, 
took the capital and Tegucigalpa, and routed the allies 
in several encounters.'*'' 

of tliG same year. Guat. on the 11th of May entered into a treaty of ainity 
niul alliance with Ilonduras; on the 5th of June, 24th of July, and lat of Aug. , 
niuili; siiiiilar treaties with Salv., Nic, and Costa 11., respectively. July 1st, 
llciiil. and Costa R. for the lirst time made a treaty of friendship and allianco 
as p 'vcruign states. Aug. 10th was signed at Quczaltunaugo tlio lirst treaty 
of ;i similar nature between the new state of Los Altos and Salv. Afdrure, 
Lj'uii., 4S~oQ. Costa Ilica had in Nov. 1833 assumed the plenitude of her 
Biivi rcignty. In obedience to a decree of ikaulio Carrillo, the supreme chief 
of t!ie state, dated Aug. 4, 1838, her representatives and senators had left 
their scats in the federal congress. The state recognized its share of the fed- 
eral (k'bt and paid it at once. Carrillo's decree shows that the CosLa liicaus 
vi'i-..' dissatisfied with the inequality of their representation in the national 
lower housL', wht'io Guatemala had 19 more deputies than Nicaragiia, 17 more 
than Honduras, 15 more than Salvador, and 23 more than Costa Rica, which 
hail only four representatives in the ' congreso, ' as the lower iiousc was called. 
Tile representation in the senate was equal to that of tho other states; but if 
the latter cliamber refused its sanction to any bill adopted, tho former could, 
under the 83d art. of tho constitution, make it a law by three fourths of tho 
votn present. Thus was Costa Rica made a nonentity in tho legislative body. 
There were other reasons for complaint. By a good management of her 
finances, Costa Rica always had available resources, and punctuallv paid her 
contingent to the national treasury in money. Sho was therefore taxed 
while virtually without representation. Montiifar, Jicaena Hist., iii. 2GG-73, 
310,313-41. 

^' It was a force from Leon, under Col B. Mendez, who had e- ared by thf^ 
frontier of San Miguel. MontuJ'ar, Jieseilallist., iii. 292-3. 

'" Tho allied commander was Francisco Ferrera, an Ilondureflo, who bad 
been connected with the incendiaries of Comayagua. This victory was mainly 
due to Morazan's daring. He was seriously wounded in tho right arm. Col 
Benitez, who was a Colombian, was slain. Martire, Efim., 48; Montttfar, 
Btsinallisl., iii, 293-5. 

'* Brigadier CabaQos occupied the capital Aug. 28th. He defeated the Hon- 



I !r> 



140 



DISSOLUTION OF THE REPUBLIC. 



|l'»!' 



H" 



Sj:!! 



t:,**^ 



But affairs underwent a chan<^e against him early in 
the following- year. A joint force of Nicaraguans and 
Hondurans, under Manuel Quijano,"'^ attacked tlie 
federals under Cabanas at the hacienda del Potrero, 
on the 31st of January, 1840, and forced them to leave 
the state of Honduras." A formidable servile coali- 
tion was being formed against Morazan. Nicaragua 
was resolved to drive this jefe of Salvador from the 
executive chair. Honduras, under Jiluregui, was con- 
trolled by Quijano's sword. Los Altos had becoiiio 
again a department of Guatemala, which was subject 
to Carrera's will. This chieftain, in his pronuncia- 
miento of March 24, 1839, had avowed his intontitui 
to champion the sovereignty of the several states as 
concordant with his own ideas.''^ Morazan thought 
the situation might be saved with an extraordinarily 
bold move, attacking the serviles in their headquar- 
ters, and made preparation to bring matters to a fiDal 
issue in the city of Guatemala. The serviles, on tluir 
part, pursuing their aim of overthrowing Morazan, 
entered into a league with Carre ra, and invited him 
to take possession of Guatemala. 

Morazan convoked the assembly of Salvador, and 
caused the vice-jefc, Silva, to assume the executive 
office of the state, in order to enable himself to tako 
command of the forces for the campaign in Guate- 
mala, which at first amounted to 900 men. He \v;is 
afterward joined by man}^ who had been persecuted 
by the aristocrats, who pledged themselves to con- 

•lurans at Cucsta Grande Sept. Cth, and then entered Tegucigalpa. On tho 
'Jjth, after quelling a revolt which took place on the Kith, in San Salwul'V, 
^lorazan was again viutorioua at San Tcdro Perulapan with (JOl) Salvadoraus 
over a, double force of Hondurans and Nicaraguans, who, under Forrera, had 
entered that town on their way to San Salvador, to destroy tlio '.--inuilacrii'le 
gobieruo federal que existia aun en aquella capital.' Cabanas triumiilud 
attain at Soledad on Nov. 13th. Murure, Efem., 48-ol; Monli'ifar, /iV-./i'i 
Ilkt., iii. 331-0, 440. 

'" Ferrcra was without a command for eome time, owing to his continual 
defeats. Quijano was another ' notabilidad del partido scrvil aristocniti o.' 

*' Cabanas' official report of Feb. 3d from San Antonio del Sauco fays 
that the enemy's force being superior, he had resolved to retire to San Mii,'iicl 
in Salv. Monliifar, liescna /list., iii. 451-2. 

'■' Stephens, (^eut. Am., i. 245, quaiatly remarks, ' It must have been qiiild 
new to liim, and a satisfaction to find out what principles he sustained. ' 



I ■; 



In llw 

Cl'ii lie 

tiiiiwl 
ili'O.' 
says 
ki-uel 

l(juil<J 



TRIUMPH AND DEFEAT OF MORAZAN. 



141 



and 


1 


tivc 


K 


take 


1 


alo- 


B 


was 


Wk 


itotl 


■ 


con- 


H 



quor or perish at his sido, and raithfully carried out 
the promise.*^ Morazan marched upon the city of 
(liiateuuila, and his niovenieut created the greatest 
aliiiiu when he neared Corral de Piedra. Consterna- 
tion tlicn seized the serviles."'* Preparations were 
maile, however, for defence. All men capable of bear- 
in.; arms were calletl to the service,'' and Carrera 
c^laltlished his heacUpiarters at Aceituno, his plan 
buinjj to catch the men of Salvador between the forti- 
fications of the city and his own force/" The plan 
faiKd. Morazan entered the city on the 18th of March 
at sunrise, by the Buenavista gate, and after some 
{i""liiini]:, made himself master of it, and of all the 
deibnces."'' Liberals who were in the prisons were 
•set free. Amonjx them was General Agustin Guz- 
man, whom Carrera had outrageously treated, confm- 
i\v^ liim shackled in a dungeon. Guzman hailed the 
vietiir who returned him to freedom, but was unable to 
aHorJ any aid; the shackles had made him a cripple. 
Tlio numerous prisoners taken were all treated with 
every kindness. Such had always been his practice. 
However, it was not destined that he should enjoy his 
victory. Carrera attacked him on the next day — the 
liltli — and after a fight of twenty-two hours, com- 
ptlloJ ^Morazan to retreat. °^ His forces had been sliat- 

'•■ Among them were Mariscal and Del Rio. War had beeu declared be- 
tween (Juatoniala and Salvador. The fiction of Atescatempa, Carrera'3|nocIa- 
maliona against Morazan tlio chief magistrate of Salv. , the movemont of the 
IGtli of Sept., 1830, against the lawful autlioritics of Salvador prompted and 
aidel l)y Carrera, the destruction of Los Altos the friend and ally of Salv., 
auil many other causes, constituted a real state of war. Montujar, lie-tena 
Ilisf., iii. 430. 

■■•Tiicir head men sought refuge with the nuns of La Concepciou. 

'''Mado up exclusively of Lidians, as Carrera wanted no white soldiers or 
oilieors. Steiihens' Cent. Am., ii. 111. 

•"'Tho worshippers of Carrera have said that ho intentionally allowed 
-Mora^.m to enter tho city, witli the view of besieging him, which is absurd. 
The city was full of war material, and was plentifully supplied with m lat. 

'' His otlicers who distinguished themselves in tho operations were Ccn- 
crals Cubafias and Kivas, colonels Antonio Rivera Cabeziis and Ignacio Mu- 
lespiii. and Lieut-col Bernardo Rivera Cabczas. 

"* CaiTcra'a oUicial report is dated at Guatemala on the '23d of March. lie 
does not speak of the assassination of Col Sanchez, Morazan's aido-do-oanip, 
Ity order of his brother, Sotero Carrera; nor of tho wanton massacre i^f many 
otiiers: nor of the maltreatment of women, followers of the Salvad.iran camp, 
wliieli caused the French consul to raise his voice in protest. Carrera gave 






u 



a, 



t'i >jiti.«(«« 



142 



DISSOLUTION OP THE REPUBLIC. 






' i 1^ f 



'ii 



tered at the Culvurio. The number of assailants, known 
as cachurccos, was overwhehning.*" At 4 o'clock in 
the morning ho left the city by the plaza de Guada- 
lupe with upwards of 400 men, and was far away 
before the escape became known. No pursuit of tiie 
fugitives was attempted.^ 

On arriving at San Salvador, Morazan found the 
tables turned against him. He was openly insulted 
in the streets; and becoming convinced that it would 
be impossible to raise a new army and continue the 
war, ho concluded to cease the struggle and leave the 
country. He accordingly called a meeting and made 
known the necessity of such a course in order to save 
the state from anarchy. On the 5th of April he em- 
barked at La Libertad upon the schooner Izalco, to- 
gether with Vice-president Vijil and thirty-five of his 
supporters."^ The vessel reached Puntarenas, where 
the chief of Costa Rica, Braulio Carrillo, who had 
congratulated Guatemala on the defeat of Morazan, 
refused hijn residence in the state, though it was 
granted to some of his companions."' Morazan and 

full sway to his fcrocioua instincts on that day, taking the greatest deliglit in 
butchering the vanquished. Many of the jiursued sought an asylum in ilie 
bouse of Chatllcld, the liritish consul, ami a word from bim on their ht'lialf 
would have saved their lives; but be did not utter it, and they were put to 
death. Id., 400-7; Mnriirr, JJ/em., 52. 

'* Their hatred ai^ainst Morazan was shown in their cries, accompanying 
those of 'Viva la rcliL;ion ! Guauacos, entreguen d. ese eanalla, cntrcgiunu 
esc hercjc; nosotros, dcfendemos u Dios y ;l siis santos.' They called tlair op- 
ponents 'guanacos, pirujos, nialvados, ladroncs,' and .leclared that they wiie 
going to bring back the archbishop, and the friars who were sent awav in 
182'.). 

*" Stephens, 'vlio was then on bis way from San Salvador to Guatemala, 
met the defeated troops, and in bis Cent. Am., iL CD ct seq., gives a grapliio 
description. 

"Miguel Alvarez Castro, Josd Miguel Saravia, Isidro Menendcz, fVnIo3 
Salazar, Maximo Orellana, Nicolda Augulo, Trinidad Cabanas, Enrique lliviis, 
Gerardo llarrios, Pedro Molina, with his sons Felipe and Josi?, and bis son iu- 
biw Manuel Irungaray, Antonio and Bernardo Riverji Cabezas, Jos(5 M. l~^.!v;i, 
Mdximo, Tonils and Indalecio Cordero, Antonio Lazo, and others. IV ho 
Molina refused to goat iirat, but was prevailed on by bis sons and son-in-law, 
who saw tliat bis fate would be sealed if he remained. MontvJ'at; lU •< m 
Hist., iii. 484. 

*' Pedro Molina and his sons Felipe and Josd, Manuel Irungaray, IsiJio 
Menendcz, Gen. Enrique llivas, Doroteo Vasconcelos, Gerardo Barrios, Lulu- 
lecio Cordero, Jos6 Prado, Ddmaso Lonza, and others. They were made aft t- 
ward the objects of abuse on the part of Carrillo and his coarse wife, Froilaua 
Carranz%. Id., iii. COO-1. 



: Lis V 

■> Solltj 

i Aitci 
is.su ec 

J)COJlI( 

fcdera 
' liad b( 
1823. 
TJie 
wiiicJi 
'" Ilea 
the (Jof 
TJicy t 
Aiijcric 
Hut yet 
tocrats 
wJiiJo h 
Ainoricj 
tioji off 

. Afer 

'lio Josd 

Jor (if si 

^•alJotl th 

expected 

^o Jionor 

concord ^ 

the ,subj( 

Cailas, t 

diplumati 

posed of 

Joaquin 

;i^Iaie.spin, 

i'l the bos 



FALL OF MORAZAN. 



14S 



his romaiuing companions continu'^d their voyage to 
South America, where he remained about two years. 
Alter a time, touching at David, in Colombia, lie 
issued a stirring manifesto to tlio Central American 
people.^ He was the last champion of the *Con- 
icderacion do Ccntro Amdrica,* whose establishment 
liad been greeted with so much joy on the 1st of Julv, 
1823. 

The governments of Nicaragua and Honduias, 
wliicli had promised Guatemala aid to resist JSIorazan, 
(.'< hearing of his downfall congratulated the victor on 
the defeat of the 'common enemy of all the states.' 
They thought that with the fall of Morazan, Central 
xVnierican nationality would be revived. They could 
iiut yet see that they had been the dupes of the aris- 
tocrats and their clerical allies in Guatemala, who, 
while holding out the promise of reuniting Central 
America, had been all along working for the destruc- 
tioji oi' federal nationality. 

Af.er the departure of Morazan and Vijil, Anto- 
nio Josd Cauas, by virtue of his position as a council- 
lor of state, assumed the rulership of Salvador, and 
called the assembly to hold a special session. It was 
expected that, Morazan being out of the way,^* with 
so honorable and upright a man as Caiias at the head, 
concord would be restored. But Salvador was still 
the subject of abuses, and on the remonstrances of 
Cailas, the government of Guatemala despatched a 
diplomatic mission to San Salvador. It was com- 
))osed of the former pig-driver Rafael Carrora, and 
Joaquin Duran, and had for an attache Francisco 
Malespin, a military officer whose sword had been dyed 
ill the best blood of Quezaltenango.**^ A convention 

"July IG, 1841. Tlo details the acta of the Berriles, enemies of their 
country's independence and freedom. Carrera'a career of crime ia also fully 
discussed. Morazan, Man'if., in Id., 5S5-9G; Id,, in Cent. Am. Pup., no. 3. 

"'I'lio eervilea had said that they waged war, not against Salvador, but 
against Morazan. 

•^^ The embassy brought an escort of 200 men, and Salvador had to pay all 
the expense. See the note of Minister Manuel llarbereua to the minister-geu- 
cral of Guatemala, dated May 18, 1840. Carrera was lodged in one of the 







^\W^ 



I 



144 



DISSOLUTION OF THE REPUBLIC. 



was concluded on the 13th of May, 1840, placing Sal- 
vador at the mercy of Gruatemala, Cauas having to sub- 
mit to the conditions imposed.^^ The most humiliat- 
ing condition of the understanding was not mentioned 
in the convention, namely, that the attachd Francisco 
]Malespin should remain in San Salvador, with the 
offic of comandante de armas. This treaty convinced 
the people of Salvador that they could expect no favor 
from the aristocracy of Guatemala, their implacable 
foe. 

best houses of Salvador, and his deportment clearly indicated what his early 
training had been. His first diplomatic utterances were threats, and the gen- 
eral conduct of himself and liis soldiers was so abusive that the people of the 
liberal district of Calvario in San Salvador finally resolved to fall upon and 
annihilate them. Cafias saw tho danger, and called to it the attention of 
Duran, who prevailed on his coUeagiio to leave the state with his troops. 
Montufar, Reaena Hist., iii. 487-8, 492. 

*''Tho convention was signed by Joaquin Duran, secretary of the sup. gov., 
and Lieut-gen. Rafael Carrera, on the part of Guatemala, and by Manuel 
Barlierena and Juan Lacayo for Salvador. Under art. 1st SalvadoL* was not 
to havo in office any man who had cooperated with Morazan. Art. '2d required 
of Salvador to surrender to Guatemala a number of persons, named in a list 
famished, to be retained until Salvador should be fully reorganized. Art. I^il 
forbids Salvador to permit the rfiturn to its territory of any of the persons who 
went away with Morazan. Should any return, they naust ne given up to 
Guatemala, aa prescribed in tho 2d article. Art. 4th and 7th refer to tlie re- 
turn of certain armament and of prisoners of war taken in the action of 1 8tli anl 
1 9th of March last. Art. 5th saya that the constituent assembly of Salvador 
having been called, her government must see at once to the appointment of 
deputies to the convention which waa to organize the republic. Under art. 
Gth Salvador agreed that Guatemala and the other states should appoint 
agents, who, together with her own, were to have in their charge the archives 
and other effects of the federation. Id., 489-91. 



' U 



State Gov 

TflKOW 
FALL O 

— Jefe 
— Rive 
Bexefi 
Captcje 
Akisto( 
Govern 

YAGCA ^ 
CEDtS I 
liOOIED 

Havin 

as an apj 

tiou of tl 
a cuafode 
ISOl to 1 
Jial affair.^ 
it-^ acces.s 
ginnii.g w 

I liave 
i^fd on I 
iiatuelj, u 

'^'J^tTiunci 
•^eiiibly of 

i'a Aiitio-i 

^^^^' presidq 

^Guat. Hecoi 

^'br. Ce.vt. 



I 'J 



CHAPTER VIII. 

GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS. 

1824-1840. 
State Goveenment of Guatemala — Baebundia's Radicalism— His Oter- 

THKOW — ViCE-JEFE FLORES ASSASSINATED IN QUEZALTENAXGO — DOWN- 
FALL OF THE Liberals in Gdatemala— Aristocratic Leaders Exiled 
— Jefe Molina — His Diffi;kences, Impeachment, and Acquittals 
—Rivera Cabezas' Reforms— Earthquakes — Galvez' Role and its 
Benefits — Party Opposition to Him — Indian Outbreaks — Caiuieua 
Captures Guatemala— Galvez Resigns -Subsequent Rule oi- tue 
Aristocrats — Guatemala again Independent — Honduras' State 
Government — Jefk Dionisio Herrera— Early Dissensions— Coma- 
yagua Assaulted by Rebels — Morazan in tue Field— Honduras Se- 
cedls from the Central American Confederation — Federalism 
Hooted out of heh Territory. 

Having sketched the hfe of Central America, first 
as an appendage of the Spanish crown, next as a por- 
tion of the short-hved Mexican empire, and lastly as 
a coafoderation of states, embracing the period fiom 
1801 to 1840, it is well now to glance over the intcr- 
uai affairs c f each state separately, for the period after 
its accession to the federal union down to 1840. bc- 
giniiiLg with Guatemala as the most important. 

1 have said elsewhere that the states were organ- 
ized on the same principle as the confedeiation, 
iiaiiiely, under a popular, democratic, representative 
'^ovurnment. The first constituent congress or as- 
seiuijly of the Estado de Guatemala was installed at 
La Antigua on the IGth of September, 1824,^ under 
tlif [(residency of the clergyman Josd Maria Chacon, 



^Om(. h'fcop. Leyes, i. 42, C2-9, 178. 
Hibt. Cbsi. Am., Vol. III. 10 



(1*5) 






■1 ; ;, I 



146 



GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS. 



'lb ' 



m 



!« ■• 



i!! 



m !'■'"• 



Hi 



and its first act was to call Alejandro Diaz Cabeza dc 
Vaca to be the provisional chief of the state.'"* On 
the 30th, the votes for jcfe and vice-jefe having been 
counted, and neither of the candidates having the 
requisite majority, the congress named Juan Barrun- 
dia to be jefo and Cirilo Flores to be vice-jcfo, the 
former assuming the reins of government on the 12tli 
of Oc^tober, and at once inaugurating a radical policy, 
which tended to widen the breach between liberals 
and serviles.^ No person opposed to him in politics 
was allowed to have a voice in public affairs. How- 
ever, no open rupture occurred, even during a tumult 
in February 1825, when the Franciscan friars of tln' 
college de propaganda fide refused to take the oa^h 
recognizing the constitution of the republic. TJic 
rabble supported the friars,* but owing to the oner 
getic attitude of the state government, the priests hail 
to submit. 

The assembly continued its labors. A coat of aims 
was decreed January 20, 1825, and on tlic 2(1 "t 
May took place thc^ installation <^f the executive 
council, whose prerogatives and duties were simil.ir 
in state matters to those of the federal senate in na- 
tional affairs. On the same date was also installid 
the superior court of justice. The framing of a state 
constitution was not completed till the 11th <jf Ocln- 
bcr, on wliich date it was docreod.'' After passing a 
law for the political division of the state into dcpait- 
ments," the assembly adiourned sine die one month 

^The title given tlio chief mapiistriito was th.it of jefc. Tliat of jiicpiiliiit 
was not ducrccd till Nov. "'J, 18.'!!). Mn^ure, EiVm., al. 

•'' He is rcpi-L'Sfntcilasainau of cxeitablo tciiiiieranioiit anil liansli niiuimis. 
Ho WHS a liiolhtv of .)os6 Francisco Bairundi:!. 

*Tlio pivlato of the order was snninioneil to tiiu palace of the fcdoiai u 
•'rnnicnt, anil ."i. compr^iiiiije was agreed to. Meantime the moh had .i.^ 



Med, shoiitinf:, 'Mision (jnerciiio?! Vi.a la religion! Mnera la hen ;.■ 
Muerau loa qno no (julircn niisiones!' Muriirc, IIomj. /list. Cent. Am., i. i'^'- 

^Itwas solemnly pionuih^alcd Dec. 'J(i, 18'2o. This oonstitutiou wa^ 
full forco till lliQ meeting of a second eonstitnent assembly, when it ceasid 
rule. Muriirr, Efem., l.'i; (>iiat., Rccop. I.ci/rn, i. '201-'2. 

*Vera Paz with Pden; ('hii;iiiniula. Ouateniala, and Escuintla; Sai 
jipquez with Chiinaltet'.ango; Sni'liitepe(]ucz with Solold; Quczaltcnango 
SoeouusL'o; Totonicapan and ilin Imctenango. /(/. , 4(i.'i-70. 



111- 
;i! 

;t. 

ill 
to 

ite- 
I ml 



BARRUNDIA AS JEFE. 



147 



later. Clouds had already appeared in the political 
jiorizon, the state authorities having transferred the 
seat of govcrnuient from La Antigua to Guatemala, 
ao.iinst the opposition of the national executive. 

The liberal party has been accused of havuig, with 
tlic connivance of the jefe Barrundia, committed 
fiaudc ' t the elections held in January 182G for a 
partial renewal of the representative council. In the 




Arms ov C<tATi;MAi..\. 



first ordinary legislature, which met on the 1st of 
February, a law was passed for now elections to iill 
tho council. But these and other arbitrary measures 
ol' the liberal party gave rise to such warm diseus- 
siuiis in the assembly, that Barrundia at last ignored 
the authority of the council as then existing.' Tlie 

' Dairundia induced seven of tho 'ironties to abandon tlicir scats, imd to 
inctist .'[gainst rcaolutiona enacted by tlio Ici^islaturo after tliey bail (juitted 
it. Manire, liosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. 242. 



148 



GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS. 



i!i/! 



iOoter then denounced him, and called the vice-jcfc to 
assume the government. But through the mediation 
of commissioners of the federal government, harmony 
was restored. This harmony was not to last long, 
new complications arising from another quarter. I 
have, in detailing federal affairs at this period, spoken 
()(' tlie plans attributed to president Arce to overthrow 
the liberal party, and the events which culminated 
with the dcposal of Barrundia from his position as 
jefe of the state. The first resolution taken by the 
legislature and representative council was to remove 
the capital to Quezaltenango. The new jefe, Floros, 
was at the same time empowered to organize a mili- 
tary force, raise funds, and adopt other proper meas- 
ures to uphold the state's sovereignt3^* Flores had 
advocated the removal of the state capital, but stren- 
uously opposed tbo selection of Quezaltenango as an 
unfit place for the seat of government of a liberal 
state." The assembly paid some heed to his roinon- 
strances, and tarried a while at San Martin Jilotcpec, 
where it was resolved that Barrtmdia should resume 
the reins of government; but he declined, pleading' 
ill health.^^ The assembly remained at that place till 
the 29th of September, and Ihen concluded to repair 
to Quezaltenango, considering Jilotepec not quite safe. 
Flores, accompanied by a few doi)uties, arrived ;i( 
Quezaltenango on the 8tli of October, and was re- 
ceived with a shower of ilowers. He at once set 
himself to complete the defence of the district, which 
had been already begun by Colonel Josd Pierzon," 
who had mustered into the service of the state sev- 



^This step was taken Sept. G, ISCC. Mariire, Dosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. 200; 
Mem. Ih'v, Cent. Am., 53-4. A deiiiaml from tlie fed. gov, to muster out tlic 
troops wii.s I'L'fiised in roanil terms. 

• JIu hud oiicc been a rtsidctit tlioro, and knew it to bo the most bigotc.l 
place in all Ctnit. Am. Libenil idciis liad not taken much root there, an- 1 
lauaiii'isni ruled. 

'" Jlu ut'tcrwurd attempted to recover his office, but the course events Iim 1 
taken imjieihjd it. J/cwi. Jtnn. Cent. Jiii., 57-8. 

" A ereolo from Sto Domingo, who liiid been formerly a federal ollicur; b.it 
having been arbitrarily removed from tiio position, he joined the stute causr. 



'""'•'• Cnit. .< 

'■^AlllOM.r 

^ '"AlVai.l 



PIERZOX'S CAMrAIGX. 



m 



111* 



ni 



rC- 



eiiil hundred men." Having reason to apprehend an 
attiuk from the federal authority, Picrzon was or- 
dered to Patsun to watch the enemy. It was during 
Ills absence that the events occurred leading to the 
murder of Jefe Flores by an ungovernable fanatical 
iiH.h, (»f which a description is given elsewhere. Upon 
bearing of those occurrences, and of the friars at 
( )iie/altenango having called the Indians of the ncigh- 
l)()i]iood to take up arms for the common defence, 
]'ierzf)n retreated to Totonicapan," encountering the 
Que/.altec rebels on the 18th of October near Salcajd, 
and easily defeated them. He gave no quarter. He 
demanded the immediate surrender of all arms in 
Qiiezaltenango, guaranteeing the lives of the inhab- 
itants, otherwise he would destroy the place." The 
rebel authorities had to submit, and on the following 
day Pierzon recov^ered possession of the place. Sev- 
eral draconic ordinances were issued to keep in check 
the spirit of rebellion. ^^ The leaders of the riots had, 
liowever, Hed, thus escaping the punishment they so 
liehly deserved. 

.Fuan Barrundia now made anotlier effort, from 
Sololil, to resume his former authority, but his pres- 
tige was lost, and most of his IViends liad forsaken his 
cause.'" Pierzon abandoned Quezaltenango on the 
25tli of October, and was pursued, overtalcen, and de- 
feated by the federals, under Brigadier Cdscaras, at 



''^Noiir Quczalten.iugo ho endeavored to capture Ins former eominand, now 
under Miuiiiel Montul'ar, but tlio latter escapcil. ^fl)n. licr. <'ciif. Am., 5.") G. 
Hi' hail l)eeu fi>rc\vanied l)y ^^olno servilcs of Qiiezaltenango of the anibuseado 
I'lujiared for him. Marurc, JJoiq. l/isf. Vent. Am., i. 'JO'J. 

'■'Abandoning the plan ho had formed of attacking tlie federala under 
Fi'ii..ei.suo CAsearas. 

"lie allowed four hours for the surrender: 'wi cii el tennino do euatro 
hoi:is, 110 cfeetiian V^da lo referido, la hermosa cindad do Quezaltenango disa- 
p;iuiri-,i.' Marurc, JJo.sq. IHH, Cent. Am., i. 288; Id., Kjem., IS; .Mem, 
U'l: t'nit. .'iin., 57-8. 

'^ Among them, one of Oct. 19, 1820, to punish att'-mpta at propaLrating 
Bcditiuii among the soldiers; another, of Oct. '2oth, to ^:nposc the ])unalty of 
lifath on all (.iuat';nialaus taking iiji arms against the state government. Ouz. 
dt Mcx., l)ec. 14, 1820; El ladkudor dc Llaal., of same year, no. 100; G'uat., 
Jiecu/i. JAi/es, i. 'JiS-uO. 

'"Afiaid of falling into the hands of the federal troops then marching 
i"\\:\vA Los Alto.=i, ho' retired to Ivotalhulcn, where he lived till 18'JD. 



i 









ISO 



GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS. 



^lalacatan." Picrzou, together with his friends Saget 
aiul Fauconnier, escaped, and were proscribed, but 
they managed to cross into Chiapas.'^ But it seemed 
that it had been preordained that he should perish at 
the hands of his foes. On his way to San Salvador 
to take part in the war against the federal govern- 
ment, he was taken prisoner, brought to Guatemala, 
and shot, on the 11th of May, 1827, without a trial. ^' 
Another body of liberal troops, under Cayetano do 
la Cerda, not being aware of Pierzon's defeat at Ma- 
lacatan, prepared to marcli from Los Altos to Guate- 
mala, but the soldiers were induced to rebel, and thus 
the last armed force of the state disappeared. Thi; 
members of the assembly and council who were not 
in prison either secreted themselves or emigrated, and 
the state was left without authorities. The federal 
president assumed power, antl replaced the jcfcs polf- 
ticos and military conniianders with his own creatures. 
lie published, on llie 31st of October, a deci-ee foi' 
now elections of state authorities. The new assembly 
met on the last day of the year, and on the 1st of 
INlarch, 1827, ^lariano Aycinena was chosen by pop- 
ular vote chief of the state.*'' It is hardly necessary 



to 

lie 

dci 

sue 

con 

jiid, 

oA 

ilJ)\V 
out i 

Tl 



" Oct. '2S, IS'JO. Cascaras' vaingloi'ious report is iu Gnat,, One. Gob,, Nii\ . 
2, 1S2(), and Mrx. Gar. Gob., Dec. 14, \S2G; Muriirc, L'/hn., 18; Mem. lli ■. 
Cm/. Am., r>'.)-GO. 

'* All persons afTorilini^ them aid M'ere doelared, on tlic 5th of March, guilty 
of hi^jh treason. Gunf., llec«p. Ley^, i. '_'.J0-4. Decree reiterated March L'^, 
IS'-'T; Mdritrc, Efem., I'.t. 

"All authorities agree that the execution was effected upon tiic increordu' 
of Ayciiicua, the then jcfc of Uuat., and without legal formalities. Ai'i' \ 
M( III., (IS; .Mem. J'ev. Cent. Am., 70; Astiihuruaija, Cent. Am., 10; Squie/.i 
Tr<u-il^\ ii. .'i97. Thi^ last-named writer severely condemns tiio nffected piety 
iif Aycinena, who made confession before a priest and took the connnuniiu 
l)cfoi(! si;.'ning the death-warrant. In 18i!!) 1 ho liberal party awarded extra"i- 
dinaiy honors to I'icrzon's memory, ordering that his name should bo phui il 
by llic side of Cirik) Flores", with this inscription, 'Viva el ilustro CoroiH 1 
I'icr/on en el coruzon de los buenos patriotas.' Munire, Efem., 19. 

'^"Aycinena retained his position uninterruptedly till the 12th of Apr, 
1S_'!), when he was deposed by Morazan. A legislative act expatriated him, 
and he was 'n exile tiU cai'ly in 18IW, when ho retuined to the bosom of \M 
family; Init a secouil Icg'slafivo order compelled him to leave the countiy 
again. Finally, an amnesty decree of July 2."), 1838, nstoreil him to his coun- 
try in Sept. Marnre, Efem., 18,01. Maiiai^o Cordol)a was chosen, in Mai oh 
1827, vico-jefc, and when ho resigned the office, Manuel Montilfar was calltJ 
to succeed liiin. Mem. Itiv. Cent. Am., (JO. 



.)<• 



v.as i,|, 

llii's 

aHiij-Ji 

i\u'. en 
ol\Sa!v; 
of Ay, 



^' It M 

'-'l.ieut 

"■"I-ienie 

Peiialry ho 

'O'lecrees i 
c'Hi,,.tt.d h 
l^'i'i. j;ev. 
^^^^ to be 



IS 



RULE OF AYCINENA. 



151 



to state that the elections were wholly controlled hy 
the servile party, whose views were reflected in the 
iiiw jufu's policy. Lest the existing courts should not 
deal to the liberals subjected to criminal prosecution 
Kucli punishments as their enemies desired, a military 
court, \\ith three voting members, was created, to ad- 
judicate verbally upon all causes for treason. ^^ Dur- 
ing the seven months of its existence — to the 29th 
of October, 1827 — it sentenced to the death-penalty 
upwards of ten persons, but the sentence was carried 
out ill one case only.^'* 

The history of Guatemala during Aycinena's rule 




GCATEMALA MeDAL 01' ABOUT TlIIS DaII;. 



was identical with that of the federal government, 
this jcfo being a supporter of President Arce, and 
alloicling him all possible aid in his warfare against 
Salvador, all of whicli has been narrated. Toward 
tho end of 1828, however, the successes of the arms 
of Salvador, together with certain alleged false steps 
ut' Aycinuna,-^ aroused such a spirit of discontent 

■' It was the first of its cltiss in Cent. Am., but by no means tho last. 

^- Lieut Isiilro Velazquez was executed March 30, 1827. 

•■' Jjiiiit iicy toward the proscribed Antouio Kivcra Cabezas, whose death* 
penalty lie had commuted to exile, and prohiliition of certain liooks, pursuant 
to (iccrucs of the ecclesiastical authorities, were among tho chief causes wliich 
tliuKited him many of his former supporters. MoiUiijar, Iteseria Ilial., i. 230; 
iliiii. 1,'ev. Cent. Am., 114. On tho Uth of December, 1828, he ordered such 
books to be burned. Murure, Ejhn., 22. 



Iht V- 



.! I 



1.:-: 



GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS. 



ajraiiist him and his administration, that on the 20th 
of* October the assembly passed an act for the renewal 
of all the chief authorities of the state. ^* Soon after- 
ward the project was entertained of detaching Guate- 
mala from the federation. Neither of the plans led 
to the proposed results. The latter was disapproved 
by the representative council, and the former was 
useless, as tlie incumbents wore continued in office.^' 
This caused the breaking-out of a revolution at La An- 
tigua in January 1829,'^'' which, though casil}'- quelled, 
hastened the march of the liberal forces under Mora- 
zan from San Salvador upon Guatemala.-^ After this 
leader took tlio city, on the 13th of April, 1829, 
Aycinena and the other chief men of his administra- 
tion being thrown into prison, Juan Barrundia was 
placed at the head of the government,'^^ and tho 
authorities of La Antigua were transferred to Guate- 
mala.^'' The deposed congress^'' of 1826 also reassem- 
bled on the 21st of April.^^ It must bo remarked, iu 
connection with the state's aft'airs at this time, that, 
though nominally in the hands of Barrundia and tlie 
assembly, they were virtually under Morazan's con- 
trol. To meet his constant demands for money in 
support his forces, a number of financial schemes were 
devised, the property of the serviles being almost c\- 

^'It purposed with this measure, which turned out to be unavailing, to 
remove one of the obstacles to the termination of the war by means of a peai u- 
ful arrangement. 

" They were reelected, though succeeding events prevented the courrting 
of the votes. Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 115. 

""'A revolt at Quezaltenaugo, Nov. 5, 1828, had been summarily suppressul. 
Mam re, Ej'em., 22. 

*' The districts of Sacatepequez and Eacuintla recognized the authoritin 
that were installed in La Antigua. 

''^ Ilia brother Jos6 Francisco having been made acting president, he w- 
signed for the second time the office of jefe, urging obvious reasons, but ho 
was ro(iuired by the assembly to continue discharging his duties till tlii' 
election should have been effected. Montiifar, Hcsena Hist., i. 1C7-9. 

**Tlio dispersed representative council of 182G had been reorganized at La 
Antigua Feb. 11, 1829, and its senior member, Mariano Zenteno, recognized 
as acting jcfe of the state, 

'" Tliis body voted Morazan a gold medal, and declared hini a benemo- 
rito. It also decreed that his portrait should be placed in the hall of ses- 
sions. This, however, was a spark of enthusiasm which died out. 

" Nicolds Espinosa presided, as he had done at the last sitting at Sau 
Martin Jilotepec, Sept. 20, 1826. 



clus 
that 

:N'ot 

cneii 

cutio 

(if in 

patri£ 

Xc 

choice 

in Au 

the te 

the no 

oi'atior 

whom 

brougjj 

th(3 :Hh 

i^uri 

state o 

'fhero V 

Jlotuuai 

•luiiDula 

\V(>i'L' a I 

Hiattor 1 

accompli 

f'f tho s 

ill i\\o ex 



"'''■i.vetar 

"itliout rest 

civditci with 

}'"■■ Cut, A) 

'^Montufa 

'"-\i)tonio 

JtroAii:^. 183J 
''-^'"linaM 

";Ihc1i li'o M-as 

„ '''''iveraCa 
'";•' •'^'Tvile par 

<ly.lIowiK] 
tie ,:ctc.rhatre 
'"« li.uids of Jii 



RULE OF MOLINA AND RIVERA CABEZAS. 



in 



clusively affected by them. Their property, as well a3 
that under control of the church, was taxed severely.^* 
Not satisfied with depleting the resources of the 
enemy, under the decrees of June 4th and August 
2l1c1, the late officials were made amenable to prose- 
cution in a summary manner, though finally a sort 
of ironical amnesty was granted them, involving ex- 
pntriation, which was enforced on the 28th of August.^' 

Now elections for state authorities resulted in the 
clioice of Pedro Molina asjefe,^* and he was inducted 
in August 1829. His subsequent disagreement with 
the temporary president, Josd Francisco Jiarrundia, 
tlic novel ideas ho suggested for remodelling the fed- 
eration, and the intrigues of his opponents, among 
wlioni has been named the vice-jefe llivera Cabezas, 
brouglit on his overthrow, when he was superseded on 
tlio !)th of March, 1830, by said vice-jefe.^'' 

During the administration of Rivera Cabezas the 
stati' of Guatemala enjoyed the blessings of peace. 
Tlici'o was only an encounter between the people of 
llotoiiango, now Quiche, in Sololii, and those of Clii- 
iiuiniula in Totonicapan, upon land questions. There 
were a few wounded. Rivera Cabezas arranged the 
matter to the satisfaction of both towns. He also 
aec(inn)lislied many reforms, ascertained the amount 
of tlio state debt, and introduced a proper economy 
in tin; expenditures.^" 

"■'('.lyctano do la Ccula was tho lulmiuistrailor do rccuraos, and he acted 
witlijut rcstiiction. Mariano Galvcz, Barruiidia's secretary of state, is 
cmliti'il with tiic invention of tho financial .schemes by the author of Mem. 
Hi'-. Cut. Am., VM'y-1. 

'^K^lontitfar, Hexemi Hist., i. 1.31-3, 143-51. 

^' Antonio Rivera Cabezas was chosen vice-jefe in March 1830. lie was 
sucaciled by Gregorio Marquez in Feb. 1831; Francisco X. Flores was conse- 
jcro Aucr. 1831. 

'^ Molina was impeached on trivial and inconsistent charges by the Icgisla- 
tlve liddy. Twice tried and twice acquitted; but meantime the term for 
which lie was chosen had expired, and new elections were ordered. Murnre, 
Am". til. Full details of the trials in MontuJ'ar, liesefia Hint., i. 'JO.')- 17, 

'M;i vera Cabezas wielded a powerful pen, and in a phiyful way ridiculed 
the .'^irvile party. Ilis Don Meliton dialogues did it more harm than .losi5 
del \'allu with liis grave and erudite speeches in congress. He won him.self 
thu hicter hatred of that party. The political change of 183!) placed him in 
the imnds of his enemies, and he lost much of his property. He left the 












!l i 






154 



GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS. 



Wliilo internal dissensions were exciting the people 
of Guatemala, they were forced to undergo,' on tliu 
23d of April, 1830, the tribulations resulting from oii<; 
of the s(jvcrest shocks of earthquake experienced in 
the country.^ Nearly all the inhabitants pass(;d tin; 
night in the streets, public squares, or in the open 
iields. The assembly adjourned the following day, 
and the state authorities removed to Jocotenango. 
Fortunately, no niore shocks occurred, and the public 
alarm gradually subsided, the damage done being loss 
than had been supposed."^ The clergy made use (if 
the earthquakes to arouse the rabble against tlio 
liberals.^' 



After the removal of the national seat of governuicnt 
to San Salvador, Guatemala found itself in a grtnt 
measure freed from the constant bickerings betw clii 
the federal and state authorities. The servile party 
gained by it; but for all that, the liberal spirit of the 
federal administration was st 11 felt. Pursuant to a dc- 
cree of the assembly at Jocotenango, elections for state 
authorities were made, and Jose ¥. Barrundia was Ihe 
popular choice for jefe, and Gregorio Marquez lor 
vice-jefe. Barrundia declined the ofiice, pleading a 
previous election as senator. The assembly refund 
his resignation, and Barrundia reiterated it, till his 

The vice-jefe Marquez tlkii 






wishes were granted.'*" 

country, but family ivffairs necessitated his return somo years after. In lii3 
last years his intellectual faculties declined, and the scrvilesno longer fiMixd 
him, but tiicir hatred I'cniained, and tlicir insults and abuse hastened his 
death. Ilia portrait is al.-io given. Monit'tj'ur, /'(•a Tia llisl., i. 23i5-7, -I'i- 

^' The nicst violent felt since 1773. J\Iarure, IJj'<-m., 20. 

'^Scveial buildings were df waged, among tlieni the churches of Sant:i Te- 
resa, San Francisco, and Recdlei s. Since the end of ^larch shocks had iii;eii 
cxiierienced in the vicinity of the Pacaya volcano, several villages bciiii^' al- 
most cutircljr reduced to ruins. lb. 

"'■'Tlie nun Teresa called them the cil'ccts of God's displeasure for the lian- 
ishment of the archbishop and friars. Moiihifar, licKciia. /li>if., i. 2'23-(). 

*'' The liberals wero certain that with Morazan at tlio head of the federal 
government, and Barrundia as chief of Guatemala, there would be no ills- 
agreements. Bari'undia now made a ces.sion for the benefit of public iustriic- 
tiou of nearly $7,000 — due him for salaries during the time he acted as jiiesi- 
dent. This was a generous act on the part of a man who had no private 
fortune. Ho later ceded one half of his senatorial pay for the same puipose. 
Monliifar, Itcnola Hist., i. 27;{-C. 



RULE OF GALVEZ. 



\m 



assumed pro tumporo the executive office, and retained 
as his secretary-general the clergyman of talent, An- 
tcmio Colom. New elections were called for, to bo 
made by the same electoral bodies which had effoctcd 
the last, and Mariano Galvez was chosen jefe, assuiu- 
iii-j; <i{licc in August 1831/' This chief of the slato 
endeavored to steer a middle course in the managc- 
iiKiit of public affairs, but he was only partially siu - 
cessl'iil.*- Several important measures were adopted 
to relieve the burdens of the people, and to advance 
their intellectual development." 

Galvez was not content with encouraijjing science 
a:i(l literature; he also directed his efforts to tlic ad- 
vancement of arts and industries, and the iiu[)rovenicnt 
of towns, public health, etc. Friars who had become 
secularized were granted the rights enjoyed by other 
citizens, and could, therefore, bequeath and accept 
inheritances.** At Galvez' suggestion, the assciubly 
passed the act of February 27, 1834, to enable nuns 
to al)andon their convents, if they so desired, taking 
the dowries they brought with them. Later, niar- 
riage was declared to be a civil contract that could bo 
dis>olved.''^ The measures affecting the clerov in 
their ])iivileges and revenues, the introduction of the 

"(ialvez was reelected Feb. 9, 1835, and lield the position till l\\>. 2, 
ISIiS, M liLU ho was forced to rcsiujn it. Dining his liist trim Sinn in Xascoii- 
coins \v,.d vice-jefc, and Juan Ant. ^lartiiiez eoiis-'ejuro; thiiini,' tlie f^i eond, 
IVih-i) .1. Valen/Liela, who Biiiiei'scdcd him; ^liiiiano Sanohiz do l.con was 
coil;:! ji'to in 1830, and Maiiauu lMvt:i:i I'a/ in .July ISJ'iS. "I'ho latltr al.so 
laid the executive oiiice. Suh:, Gar., Oct. 12, 1S,T»4; Murure, Kj'ctn., -i;!, 4'), 
Gl-'J. 

'-(ialvcz was not in league with the clergy or aristocracy, cm ono side; n^r 
with IJarruniliaor Morazan, on tlio other, lie wanted to toi'ni a jiartv i.f 
\vh; 'i 1,0 should bo the sole chief. This prompted hiui to oppose all parties, 
ai.d liidiight upon him juany reproachea. 

'' lutJuIy 1S."!2 tithes were abolished. On tlie IGlli of Sept. an aca('.cni\ 
of SLinircs, to take the place of the old uinversity, «,is established, and \i i, 
were aC^ached the colegio do abogados. and the jirotdiucilicato. This ac; 
ciiiy was suppressed Maich (i, 1840, and the university (if old was rcsloui. 
Mnridc, Ej'em., 32. Among other measures were the reduction of holidays 
Sewn, aside from Sundays, and the prohibition of religious processions in i.i.' 
sUrrts on working days. MoiiU'i/ur, Jie-sena Hint., i. .'iOV-lU, ii. 7lJ->S4. 

' l]vcn the ofl'spring of priests were to bo reputed as legitimate in case 
of iiilieritariee, where tho father had died intestate. Id., ii. ."iKi-T. 

'This idow at tho church was not favorably received iiy the people, an. I 
in July ISoS the resolution was suspended. 



15(i 



GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS. 



Livingston code with trial by jury, and the coloniza- 
tion l)y an Enj,'lish company at Vera Paz, gave riso 
to displeasure among tlio ignorant, which the clergy 
and the serviles did not fail to fan into a flame tint 
erelong became a conflagratie)n.''® Added to this was 
tile jealousy engendered by San Salvador having been 
made the national capital.*' 

The first outbreak occurred in March 1837, wluii 
the Indians of San Juan Ostuncalco rebelled. It was 
at once quelled, but the ravages of cholera caused in 
June the uprising at Mita. It has i)een shown in all- 
ot her ])lace tliat here, at this juncture, llafael Cam r.i 
made liis iirst aj)pearanco in the political held, inau'^u- 
rating the war that eventually dissolved the repubhr, 
and tlirough its consequences brought Guatemala to 
the verge of ruin. On the IGth of June, 1837, the as- 
sembly met in extra session, but was unable to effect 
any i'avorablo change in the situation. There were 
two bitterly opposing parties striving for control. To 
make matters worse, insurrections broke out in several 
jiarts,*^ ending with the capture of the capital by 
C'arrera on the 31st of January, 1838, and the re- 
placing of Galvez by Valenzuela on the 2d of Febru- 
ary. That same day the departments of Los Altos, 
namely, Solold, Totonicapan, and Quczaltenango, tle- 
clared themselves detached from Guatemala to consti- 
tute the sixth state of the federation, under the name 
of Los Altos.*'' A constituent assembly was installcJ 

'"Tlicy inado the Indians believe that tlic cholura was the effect of Clulvez 
and liis friends having poisoned tlio sprinys, ' ])ara destruir houibres (jui; lie- 
testaha y poblacioncs quo aborrecia.' /</.. ii. 'M.'-}. 

*' It was constantly brought forward tliat wluio otiier states had secnli'd 
from tlic confederation, Guatemala alone had contribivted to the ((inriMii 
budget, and furnished the national executive arms and money towa^ewnr 
against tlie rebellious states. 

♦'Martial law was jjroclaimed Jan. IC, 1838, in the depivrtments of S;il;i- 
tepequcz and Guatemala. Two days later La Antigua rebelled, uppoin. ; .,' ;v 
pi'ovisional government, and 8ubse(]uently Chiquinuda and 8alaniil ful! '>>cd 
the movement. Marure, Ej'em., 42-3; Squier's Travels, ii. 431; Glial., i:>'0[i. 
Liyi's, 1. 858-9. 

** The provisional government was placed in charge of Marceio Molina, 
JiiS(5 i[. Galvoz, and JosiS A. Aguilur. The assembly of Guatemala siinply 
referred the matter to the federal congress, which recognized the new state. 
MotitvJ'ar, Itesena Hint., iii. l)-'23; Giiat., Jiccoji. Lcyes, i. 43. 



^''^' 



STATE OF LOS ALTOS. 



i:.: 



at Qiu'/altcnaiigo on the 25tli of December, and 
Marcclo ^loliiia elected lirst jef'e of the state, lie 
was iiuhicted in otlice on t!io 28th.'" 

Th(> constituent assembly adopted, May 26, 1830, 
a constitution which was democratic and representa- 
tive, witli the llonian catholic as the religion oi" the 
state/' Later, it passed instructions to guide the ex- 
ecutive in his relations with the other states. IMiey 
were leased on equity and justice, and prompted by a 






i ■.,• ii„ 'i, \ \ f_C/ ■ yjr ..«« 



Los Altos. 

spirit of fraternity.^'^ The state concluded with Sal- 
vudoi-, on the 10th of August, a treaty defensive and 
ollensive, but it came to naught, for reasons that will 
lio explained. 

'" Manire, Ef/'ni., 47. 

"'I'll!' state coiii)>nse(l, on the north, the districts of Huehuetenango, Saca- 
pulas, iMalacatau, Tcjutla, Cuilco, Jacaltenango, and Sololil, together with 
ail the territory between the river I'asion and Chiapas, to where it toiichod 
till' iiiuliliiieil boundaries of Tabasco and Yucatan; on the west, Ostmic:alc() 
and Siui Mareos; on the soutli, Cuyot(^nango tmd Mazjiteiiango; on tiio east, 
Atitlaii, Solola, Joyabaj, Qiiichi'; nn<l in tlic centre, Totouicapan and Quc/.al- 
tciiiiiiL'". Montitfur, liitDfia HUI.. iii. o'Jl-o. 

■M)atia July 12, 18;W. Jd.^WM-l. 



t\ 









.viM&iii 



158 



GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS. 



lij 



.i'i')'^ 



Tlie jcfo, Molina, was an honest man and an al)]o 
jurist. He loved Los Altos, and considered it a 
necessary orj^auization for the greater lustre of the 
C'enti'al American republic; but he had little knowl- 
edge of human nature, and was easily deceived. The 
government of Guatemala pursued toward him, since 
April 13, 1839, a machiavelian ])olicy, and led him 
into tlie fatal belief that it really desired the prosper- 
ity and happiness of the new state, which had becoiiio 
tlie I'esidence of the liberals who had Icil Guatemala, 
llecing from Carrera,''^ and constantly ]iublished severe 
strictures against Carrera and the arist(.>cratic cliquo 
which surrounded him. Molina had been persuutltd 
that the Guatemalan, authorities were fi'iencli}' towai'd 
the state of Los Altos, though requii'ing that it should 
discoui'age the attacks of the exiled liberals, ilow- 
evei', jMolina, abiding by the constitutional claubcs 
declaring freedom of the press to be inviolable, an- 
swered that the Government of Guatemala had the 
right of prosecuting the writers before the courts of 
Los Altos for libel. This ill feeling was all that l^i- 
von, the Guatemalan machiavelian minister, desiied 
for future hostile ])roceedings. The opportunity was 
not wanting, and the state of Los Altos was destroyed 
by Caiivra on the 29th of January, 1840, and rein- 
corpoi'ated with Guatemala."* Molina, though ci-ed- 
ulous and vaeillating, at the last moment showed him- 
s(df to be possessed of a brave heart. He well knew 
that his atlministration had been a just (nie, that all 

the oart of 



01 



charges au'ain^t his cfovei'mnent 

''Oalvcz, .Jo.s<5 F. .•iiid Juan Barrun.lia, Siinon Vascr icclos, and otlicrs. 

''*0ii till! "JStli of Jan. a body of Qiicz.ilttc (iou[)s uiidtu' Coloni 1 (/orzo, 
wan di'I'catcd hy llio (iuatoiiKdans, iukUt (ieii. Mciitcr, -sa. It liad Imu sta- 
tioned in till.' liacic'iida of llrjiicnl, with tho doulilc cbj .'t of j.'Mai'din;; i ii the 
coast side tho tiTiitory of Lo.s Altos, an 1 of forniinf^ i ■oiiihination \vi;li the 
nii'n of Salvador, who wcro about, to iiivado (ii'.atoniala from the river I'az 
frontier. Tho triatnuiit of the fuL'itivcs by the Indians was shocking. L'oi'zo 
jii.d ]Jcut-col Cordoba i)crishcd at their hands Carrera, after defeating, eii 
tUi; "JUth of Jan., the Q\i<zaltco troops that iutenijitcd to check him nu the 
l.ei,:;lit3 of Sololil, enturcil (Jni'zaltonnngo unresisted, and put an end t > iliat 
fctatc. Its towns were taken under Oiuatcnialaa protection, on the Ii' "U "f 
their vohiiitary annexation, by decree of Fob. 2G, 1640 Marnro, Ej' ■,<"'-• 
Guat., J'cciij). Lcijrn, i. 43-50. 



C uat 

false. 
iii>uli 
( .'.'jie 
l-ate 
eitizd 
jdunrli 

Aii; 

since i 

JlissLi 

hy a J 

] 'laced 

was on 

liihitcd 

hccn n 

just. 

■suggest 

•'■'•I'ipfio 

.sons im 

I.sl'I.^' ■ 

'■"It was 

"OlJMilitted 
ti'u yovenu 
ttction. T 
''"'lid tile pi, 
vKtijiiuinai 
and iijnvard; 
i'l'st named 
S'liei-i.d objoc 
""I'epiivi 
'leld it till I 
Mtctitive oil 
'!•>', ■Vn)\trc 
"'■d of hirn, 
I'laci-.I, 1,0 . 
^»t., i. LMI. 

'■ The .'J 1 . 
todos los aci 
Oclioeientos v 
'•■'Jiiiiiiiguii in 
the iiiiliativo 
'■'■-■JiiiiMiltee. 
ui;i fur liis c,\ 
ti.Mifd to the 
«■,"" -i I'ardune 

Ot IVc ij.i'OL'ity 

''•".'•' iiivaria'hi 
wil", I'ut insi 
^'"*'; iii. 1,^,-; 



a- 



was 

lyod 



KIVERA PAZ AS JEFE. 



159 



riuatemala, by Pavon and his fellow-aristocrats, were 
f;ilso. lie did not forsake his post. Carrera grossly 
insulted him, and sent him as a prisoner to (jruatomala. 
CIciioral Guzman was reviled, forced to wear I'ags, 
liatcn, and his hair and beard pulled out. Other 
ciiizcns were shamefully treated, and their homes 
jilmidored.^" 

.Vilairs in Guatemala had undergone a g' eat change 
since the removal of Galvez from the position of jefe. 
] lis successor, Valenzuela, was dej)osed July 22, 1838, 
liv a popular movement, and ]\lariano Ilivera Paz 
placed at the head of affairs.^'' Ilis Orst official act 
was one deserving of special commendation, as it ex- 
];iljitcd a conciliatory spirit which, unfortunately, had 
luun a stranger in the country during man}' years 
past. Three days after being installed, at his s])ccial 
suggestion the state assembly nullilicd all acts of [)ro- 
siaip^ion, and decreed a general amnesty ff>r ah Mer- 
SDUS implicated in political offences since September 
Is-Jl."' 

"It was claimed tliat Carrera could not prevent tlicbo abuses, wLich were 
."oiDinittcd l)y the very people of Los Altos who rose against the pnrti.-aiiH of 
tlio L^overnincut. Tiie fact is, they ■were savage Indians under ('antra's pro- 
tcctioti, 'I'I'is chief leturncd in ti-iunijih to <!i;atumula, and was rccfivi'd 
iuiiul the plaudits of liis elerieo-arlstoeratic Kiippurters and tlio rabhl.'. IHs 
vittiji iua-iarniy Ijiought in the rear the armament and spdils of Quezaltenango, 
and iijiv.Tirds of 100 iirisoners, among ti. m Gu;:nian. Mariaoal, and Soto. 'I'lio 
lii'dt named was wounded, and ii^d to mide. 'i'lie raliijle made liini the 
s^liccial oljjoct of their .'-cotF. Moi'tt'(/tir, Jtcsii'i'i /li-<t., iii. •i;W-4!. 

^'' Depiivedof the odice Jan. 3U, ISlii); restored Ajn-. h'Stlud tliosame year; 
hold it till Dec. i:], ISfl. I.i.y 11, 18ll2, lie assnnird for tiic tiurd time ilio 
executive olUce, with the title of presidentof the idate. Gnaf., ]i'i-n> L'lji s, i. 
IT^i; M<ir,n-e, E/ihi.. ()1-'J. Stcjihens, wiio saw liivera I'az in KiK), tipeaka 
"(11 of liim, saying tliat 'in all (I.e trying jiositions in winch he wasafterward 
jlacil, ho exhiliited ni^^-e than ordinary prudence and judgment.' (.'int. 
Am., I. -20]. 

■' 'liie od and last art. contained these \voi'ds: ' Un olvipo general snlire 
todu.-i los acontecimientoa politicos dcsdc cl iiuinco do tjetiendjre do nul 
ocliiiiientos veintinno liasti la fetha; y so prohiba rigurosaniente removerloa 
full niiigim motivo.' Further than tins, do.t^ F, Barrnndia had ino\('d that 
tlif initiative should be made ui's^ciit, nnd \cpted on without being rcfcii-cd to 
:i '-'iiiii'iittee. Montiifar, who gives full details on ''m's aU'riir, blames liarrun- 
ilia f.ir ilis excessive generosiity nnd abnegation, which, lie declaics, alwaya 
li.imd to the ])rcjudicc of tii.it statesman and his jKirty, He wanted lii.s en- 
miii's pardoned. Mid tc) enjoy nil tic' ional guarantees, but tlieie was no siiirit 
of ivi if.iocity on their part. When the scrviics assumed the reins of pnwcr, 
tiny iiivarialdy abused and persecuted Harrumlia. lie was noton)y .sent into 
evil'', liut insulted there in publications tliey would forward linn. L'/.tena 
nil., iii. IbS-DO. 




160 



GUATEMALA AND IIOXDURAS. 



1 1 i H > !: 



I'MJ 



From tlic moment Rivera Paz was made the pro- 
visif»tial head of the state government, reaction set in 
and went on with flying colors. Measures in conso- 
nance witli the wishes of the retronfrcssionists wvm 
a(l()})te(l one after another as fast as they could Ix; 
drawn up/'^ These decrees should have satisfied Car- 
ixra and his supporters; but it seems thai, they did 
nt)t; his faction became more and more recalcitrauL 
lie found himself closely pressed; but, unfortunate! \ , 
General Guzman was persuaded to enter into arran^v- 
nients with him at EI Kinconcito. This, liowever, 
did not bring peace to the state for any length ot 
time. 

In the latter ])art of January 18.39 liivera Paz w;is 
de[)osed by Carlos vSalazar, militar}^ commandei- ol 
Guatemala,''' but reinstalled by Carrera on the l.'ilh 
of April. *^" This disturbed condition lasted r.ome tiim; 
longer. The state declared itself independent on tin: 
17th of April of the same year, and the only form ol 
union maintained with the other states was by speci.il 
Iri.'aties of allowance,'^' in which the states mutu.illy 
aeknowledged theii- independence and sovereignty, 
and [)ledged themselves to reconstruct Central Ann i- 
ica. All ellbrts, however, to reestablish order w.ic 

'* The executive was authorized to support the petition of the elcri^y lit 
order tliat tlio ilioceso should have a bisliop, and permitted that he shoii'l 
a|p|iro[iriate a portiou of tlie i)uhlic funds to that end. No mention was luixUi 
ot the person who was to ho hishoji. The idea was to flatter the scv( i i! 
cleri^yniin who were with Carrera hopini^ to earn a mitre. July 'Joth I'lO 
people were called to elect a cnnstituent assembly, of not less tlian fifty iiii m- 
liers, to reform, add to, or retain in whole or in jiart the constitution of (iu:i;' ■ 
mala. This decree was supported by the liberals, who foolishly believed lli:it 
tliL'ir party would lia\e the ]io\ver to reconstitute the state. The scrvilis 
iiuiled it, being sure of controilinj; the situation with Kiveia I'azat the hemi "f 
the government, and three fervile wings as his counsellors. ]leactioii;iiy 
deputies would be plentiful in the constitutional convention. The CMpitatiVii 
tux was reduced to four realcs. 'J'he assembly, now converted into a li"- 
iiialvcr l)y sleain, on the 'JUth of .luly revoked the laws establishing civil 
marriage and divorce, freedom to i)e<(ueith property, reduction of the num- 
ber of holidays, and the fiH'ther admission of ii.'iigious vows. Id., 190-2. 

'''" He ruled 'JJ inonlhs, .it the end of which he had to seek .'safety in llij:it, 
on t'arrera occupying the capital. .Udrurc, Eftin., 48, (iJ. 

""The foi'uier jjolitical order of all'airs now caino to an end, aud a new > la 
began under Carrera's auspices. (liKtt., Hcrop. Lci/ck, i. 207. 

*' The texts of tiio several treaties may bo seeu iu Convencion, in Cent, A in. 
VonatHucioncs, 5-25, 28-31; Otiut., Ji'ecop. Lciiv.'', i. .?82-0."). 



in V; 

Can 

' 'ifai 
<'i' tl 

.'idiiii' 

\>y tl 

p'Tta: 

>iasti( 

uiiivci 

•strife, 

a/id in 

Iiad ,st 

"fan I 
lic'ni^d 

1 i uu 
Aiiieric 
iiiaiiifos 
-■"1(1 iipo 
t'i«' Jtli 

'J'cll .SOI 
Un"(AS W; 
>titll(.|it 

•'11 tile 

' lll'.S(_.|| j\ 

^ii 'July 

''''I'artiiic 

^•'"istitut 

^'I'tlK! coi 

'■(■placed 



CARMKliA'S TRIUMPH. 



lei 



in vain, owing to the political complications caused by 
Carrera's rebellion in March 1839. His capture of 
Guatemala on the 19th of ]\Iarch, 1840, and tlie end 
of the stru<,^gle between him and ^lorazan, which has 
hoen narrated, did not materiallv chanixe the state of 
affairs; at all events, resolutions subsequently adopted 
liy the assembly had little weight."" The only im- 
pni'tant ones were the restoration of the fuero ecle- 
siustico,''^ and the creation of a medical laeulty in the 
university. Thus, after sixteen years of continual 
.-tiife, Guatemala found herself again an independent 
and impoverished state. Neither of the parties which 
had strivi.'U for supremacy had gained anything. The 
(.(iinnionwealth was practically inuler the dictatorship 
of an Indian chieftain, whose will even those who had 
lidncd him to attain his position dared not dispute. 

i'roai the moment that the plan of a Central 
American confetleration was eontem[)lated, Honduras 
manifested her willingness to be one of its members; 
and upon the iederal constituent assembly fixing, on 
tlic .')th of ^lay, 1824, the l)asis of organization lor 
each separate state, a local assembly of eleven dep- 
uties was assigned to Honduras. The state con- 
stituent assemlilj' met at the Mineral de Cedros,"'' and 
nn the IGth of September Dionisio Herrera was 
( liosen jefe del estado, and Jtjsd Justo Milla vice-jefe. 
in July 1825, the territory was divided into seven 
dcjiartments,*"'' and on tlu' 1 1th of December the state 
constitution was pi'omulgated. This ended the lal»ors 
ol'tlu! cinistituent body, which I'oui' months later was 
i'c[)laccd by the ordinary legislature, the installation 

''• Illinois Were paid to Carrcra anil liivora I'az. Tlicir I'portraits win; to 
1)0 jilui III in the hall of scssiuns. Mm-tirf, Ej'i'm., ').■]. A few days latiT tlio 
I'.ltli lif Mai jji was decreed a civic feastilav. Omit., liirnj). Leyrs, iii. .'MS, 

"•'Alt of Nov. i), 1840. /(/., 'JSO. 

'''Not at Agnanqneteiii\ as the fiideral cnnLji'oss had <(ecrccd. Astulitirint'ja, 
Vfiit. Am., i;(; Mariiir, E/i in., 10. Tin; last nanud, i.i his /i'o.s'/. Ili'-t. ('ciU. 
Am., 1 is, gives tlie name as Leypateric. 

''•'Cuinaya^,'iia, Tegucigalpa, (Jracias, Santa iiurliarn, Olaiicho, Voru, luid 
CLuhiti'ca, 

UibT. Cent. A.m., Vol. III. U 






wwm. 11^! 



132 



GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS. 






■|:ii'U 



'1! 



ot' wliicli at Tegucigalpa was followed by that of tlio 
rcprcscntat"n/c council at Comayagua. 

Honduras \vas not allowed to enjoy a long term of 
peace. The assembly ordered new elections for chii.t' 
of state, on the ground that Herrera's tenure of office 
had been intended to be merely provisional; but he 
held to a different opinian, and refused to surrender 
his authoi'ity. ]\[atters were made worse by the 
enmity existing between Herrera and Iriap, the gov- 
ernor of the diocese."'' Anarchy now prevailed, 
some of the departments, especially (h'acias, refusing' 
llerrera recognition. This state of things was mainly 
instigated by the [)resident of the rejtublic, Arce, who 
strove to overthiow the liberal [)arty in Honduras. 
Under the i)retence that Santa Kosa, in the depart- 
n.'.ent of Gracias, out of which the federal govermnent 
drew a revenue from tobacco, needed protection, An 
despatched there 200 men under ^[illa, the vice-jefe,'' 
who, after a short encounter with Herrera's force, 
marched upon Comayagua,''*' arriving there early in 
April 1827. The town had been hastily fortified, 
and energetically resisted thii-ty-six days; but imt 
receiving timely I'eenforcements, succumbed on tli< 
9th of ^lay, 18-17.*" Herrera was si;nt as a prisoner to 
Guatemala, and new elections were ordered in Hon- 
duras.'^' A new legislature on the ICth of Se[)teml»i r 
chose Ger6nimo Zelayajefe, but he was recognized ;is 
such only in Santa Barbara. All lil)erals were dis- 
missed from office. Francisco ]\Iorazan, who had 

'*Iri;i3 cxcoiiiimiiiiciitf'cl ITonvr.i, and the latter had him anested. Il'tli 
had iiir.iiy adherents. 

""Arec; elainis that (.iraciaa had calhil for the iirotection. .Vein., (il-'i; 
^^cln. Ji'tv. ('('III. Atn., 01. 'I'lio truth is, he liad no ri,L,dit to cxeruiso jiirisihc- 
tion tiicrc, the jihieo not being on tho frontier nor on the coast. J/o/vcf/i, 
Ajiiiiiii'.<, MS., (i. 

^^llerrera had a force to dcfiat Milla, but refrained from using it, in order 
that Honduras .should not bo accused of beginning hostilities again.-.t liio 
nation, il government. /'/., 7. 

''••.M.irure. Kj'iin., lit, givea tho 10th as the date. Dunlop. Cent. Aw., MilJ. 
gives March lUlh. Morazau attributea tho surrender to tho connnanilor'.s 
treachery. Ajiinilrn, .M.S., 8, 

'"('Icto Ijcmlana was made jcfo provisional in Se|)t. IS'27, Francisco Mora- 
zau being conacjoro in Xcv. of that year. Miirurc, Lyon., 03. 



ncen 

^■ivei 

• •.>.'a| 

dcfe;t 

i!i.->tal 

a.s.sun 

fefeiK, 

afjiu'rs 

uhejv 

troiibji 

of the 

Aroi', 

h'hera] 

as was 

the /oJh 

'I nil, th( 

.dfectiiii. 

her I8;j 

t'> roiid( 

•■^tato, w 

fi'ieiids 

JfoiKhu^ 

authorizi 
h'L-ed; an 
'■ailed 1 
met at C 



01 



\Wiic 



."■^cohi.s. 
■^Tl,c 



lere w. 
' wa.s eoi 



», ■■■' ^\Ji 

'"'■■"_ f"i lli<t., 

I '"■^'iitiiicz 

'■'i\.'uid(.tlier.s 

'.' ''''<'y Ml' I 

'■'Jie.suJtin 

'■"cclu'il f„|.,,, 

';"'W wan ,1 ,„. 
":■'"' '^f 'cu. 

•^''IniM iO.S y [.,, 

"•■^'oratioiinf'd 

, J'^.i U;iS 

y^^ «.Ultia;'o I 



LIBERAL IDEAS IX HONDURAS. 



163 



liuLii imprisoned, nut\vitlistan(Jiii<^^ the safe-conduct 
.'•iveii liini after the fall of Coniayagua, managed to 
e.^'.-apc, and subsequently rendered efficient aid to 
(Irfeat the federals at Trinidad."^ The government 
installed by Milla disappeared, Morazan temporarily 
;i>.suining the reins in November. The further inter- 
iLiciK.'e of the federal government in tiie internal 
ii flairs of Honduras has been fully narrated ol.se- 
wlit're. The country was not exempt from internal 
troubles from the close of 1829'''^ to the beginning of 
180.3, requiring J'early always the iinal inteivention 
of the federal government to bring theni to an end,'* 
Morazan's ascendency awakened in Honduras more 
Uliiral ideas than luul ever prevailed in the countiT, 
;is was evidenced in the laws then enacted.'^' Duriiig 
lluj fullowing years Honduras was comparatively tran- 
([uil, the political agitations of the re[)ublie scarcely 
liU'cctinu: her. There was a local sedition in Decern- 
In'r 183G, and the early part of 1837, contributing 
b) render much worse the iinancial condition of tho 
>tatc, which had been bad enouL*"!! before.'^ The 
tViciKls of the federation decreased from day to day. 
Honduras accepted tho act of tho fedei'al congress 
authorizing the states to constitute themselves as they 
liked; and in June 1838 the legislature and executive 
lalled for a constituent assembly to do so, which 
laet at Comayagua on the 7th of October.'*' 



"Sio his ApiiHte.'>\ ^IS., <)_!(). 

'' Tliere was a suditiouof tliu sri'silcs, licaJuil hy Fallici- Uivas;iiul otlu'rs, 
which was couclmlcd by a jjuaecalilo arraniioim-at with Morazan. .l/o ili'n'iir, 
/,V.*»'t ///.s7., i. li)l-:i, \m. 

'' .Martinez ami l.'oii, iuiplicatcd in a plot with ncj^irocs of liulizc aiul JVsca- 
lar. aiiil (itliers were ixi'L'utL'il May '_','>, lSo.>. Maiili'ifur, licsi ila llisf., ii. KtJ. 

;' i'hcy mostly all'cctcil tiic ckTgy. Muruiv, JC/i m.. '.!:j-7, ;!.")-(!. 

"'Uu^ultinglVom various causes. A law providing,' t'ora ]irovisiim:;li'un<,'niy 
ihn'kcd fdiL'igii trade. Ja the iiiterii.ir ib was at ."ii) per I't liisiajunt. A do- 
'Hi; tstnl)lisiiing a siii'.lo tax novel- conld lie earried out. Tiie almlitiou of 
iithus was a UK'asuiu whicii 'au^ed trouble. 'I'nuiil or fanatical rulers uoio 
::;;aid (jf 'cuutro cauiinig'^f \ icjos do C'ltuayaLjua. qui; ;uiieiia/:aba ii con el 
mIiuo ID'S y las iioiias dii i ilicrno,' and fauati';isiM soon brought about the 
ii-atoratajji of the tithes. Miiiitt'(jiV; I,'(.-<cna Uis(., iii. '^77. 

"Tliis was the seci'j*'' constitn-'iit assembly, and its lii'st )iresideut w;s- 
■' »v Santiago Uuezo. Tho t"Wil «': Tegucigal[ia deniauded absolute iiidr- 
Kiidtiue, dccluiing itself Kccc.iv'da.id lunier the iirolcctioa of Micarayua until 




164 



GUATEMALA AND HOXDUiiAS. 



The dc{?laratioii of indepcndeneo was solemnly pro- 
multjated in a single sentence on the 2Gth of October, 
1838.'' All further efforts on the part of ^lorazaii 
and his fellow-federalists to restore the disrupted rc- 
})ublic i>roved unavailing, as we have scen.'^ At the 
•end of Janiiary 1840, the secessionists were victorious, 
and federalism was rooted out. 

1 append a list of Honduras rulers after Mora- 
zan's short provisional administration in 1827-28.'" 



at .should be declared 



This was the work of the returned reactionists. Jd. 



"' 'Art. tlnico. E' c&tado do Honduras cs libro, soberano, dindependiente.' 
It was published by the acting jcfe, Leon Alvarado. The declaration beiiij,' 
deemed insufficient by the secessionists, another act was passed on the oth of 
Nov., to say that Honduras was independent of tlie late federal rroverunicat, 
of the governments of the other states of Cent. Am., and of any other gov- 
ernment or foreign power. /7. , '2S'2; Manirf, Effm., 47. 

'* Tegucigalpa had bef;n twice taken, and Comayagua once, by the federal 
forces. Id., 50-1. 

■'Geronimo Zelaya, primer jcfe, June 1828. J lis Jjuthority was never 
recognized outside (.f Santa Barbara. His election was !i'ially declared null, 
like all others eHectjd pursuunt to tlie convention l)y the president of the ri'- 
luiblic. Diego Vijil, vice-jetV, Apr. 18'2i). Juan Angel Arias, consejero, Di'o. 
182D. Josi"; Santtjs del Valle, cuns(;jero, July 1830. .JosiS Ant. Manjui/, 
jeie, March 1831. D'rancisco Milla, con-sejoro, March 1832. Joaquin Kiviia, 
jefe, Jan. 18.33 to Dec. 31, 183C. During his term, owing to illness, the cxif- 
ulive was tempDrarily in 'diarge of V. Ferrera, the vice-jefe, in Sept. ISiill, 
anil of J. M. JJiistiUo, con.5ejero, in Sept. 18.35. The latter was again in 
power as acting pre.udcnt in Aug. 1839. Ferrera again held the executive in 
■Jan. 1841, with the title of president of the state. J. M. Martinez, conscjirn, 
Jan. 1837. Justo Josi'- ili vrcra, jefe. May 1837. Leon Alvarado, consejcin, 
Oct. 1838. Felipe Medina. •](ia6 Alvaradu, and Lino Matute are also njcii- 
tioncd as having bad charge (jf the executive in Xov. 1838; the last naiinil 
till Jan. 1839. Juan V. Molina, consejero, Jan. 1839. Jos(5 M. Gucrn iv, 
consejero. May 1831). Francisco Zelaya, consejero, Sept. 1839. />/. , li.'i; 
Mon/uJ'ar, nfnefia Hist., ii. 133-G, 325-31; iii. 28i'-3. 



L^'IVeil 

"^paiij, 
'')'' firsi 

.Sail Sa 
iiato.- 



CHAPTER IX. 

SALVADOR, NICAKAGUA, AND COSTA RICA. 

18-24-1840. 

S\Lv.ijoR State Goveunment— Lidkiuls Oveiituuow.n— Secession from 
THE UxioN— Sax Salvador as the Federal Seat of Government — 

(ICATEMALA IMPOSES IIEIl WlI.L— JeFE CaSas AND COMANDANTE MaLES- 

ri.N" — XirARA(;rA"s Ivmu.v TRoriiLics — Sieci-: and Bo^t'sardmen r op 
Leon — Or.r.ANiz\rioN of State Government — Dissensions and War- 

EARK— ErCPTION OF CoSKii'lNA -SECESSION FROM THE CONFEDERATION — 

CosTv Rica as a Confederated State — Juan ^Iora's Adminisiration 
—Towns' Ijkkerinijs Settled— Braulio Cakrileo's RrEE-FiNAL 
Secession from the Central Amei!K'an Rkpiulic— Prosperitv of 
THE State. 

Salvador, from the earliest days that iitteraiico was 
oivoii to the idea of liberty and iinlepeiideiice from 
Spain, was ready to echo and champion it, and was 
the first to eltl'ct an organization lor self-govcrn- 
iiunt.^ The state was divided into four departments, 
Sail Salvador, San Victiiite, San ^liguel, and Sonso- 
iiate." Uiulcr the direction ot" the constituent asseni- 
Mv a state sjfovernment was orij'anized. with duan 
Viv\^nto Villacorta as jefi',^ and Mariano J*rado as 

'March '», 1S'J4, tlic local coiistituentfe assembly mot, aiul en tho Itli of 
■luly, tlio state constitution, derived oii tUe Titli oi'.liinu, was j/iililislicd, uml 
ltd sii|ipi>rt :r\voin to. Miirtir- E/ini., 10-11. 

-Si)!is.)riato liad always lieiim^uil to (Guatemala, Imt was annexed to Saha- 
lior i)U the return of tlic auxiliary f'.tce that was despatched to the foruicr 
• |VJ3 toijuell Ai'iza'- itvult, <>f which I lia\egivrii an tttcdunt. By intri^ruu 
■ ud fune, the iiihal(itaiit.-< \u»-re made to declare in J.ifor of Salvador, 'i'iio 
i',-;inii was later attachi:d lo-thclattcr, though thi; ■ hau-^e of jurisdiction lia.s 
' vi r hecu loimally acUuowleilged hy (juateniala. Some time after there was 
■i I'kiii of creatiiiu', with Sonseiiate and Santa Ana, a separate .state', but tiiu 
t' 'I ;al congro.-j did not sanction it. Marure, Ito^r/. /lis/., \, \M). 

' Ho assumed hisollice Dec. I,'!, IS'JI. Ihiriui,' tlio pcrind nf oif,'ani/ati()n 
t!ie executive was in charge of Juaa Manuel Rodriguez, who bore tlie title of 
'liiertor. I'i., Kjhti., i:}, ()•_'; ^f>m. i!r,\ d-nt. Am., [Vl. 



hii pi? 



i^ 



KiO 



SALVADOH, NICARAGUA, AND COSTA RICA. 



vlcc-jrlr. Alter iiistalliiiij;- a ,su[)f)ior court, the con- 
stituent as.senihlv adjoui-ncd sine die on the 23d of 
November, 18'24. 

Vdv a long time past tlierc liad been differenees 
between (jiuatemala and Salvador uj)on eeelesiaslical 
matters. The latter not only claimed an authorita- 
iive voice in the political afl'aiis of Central Anieriea, 
but also to be placed upon an independent footing as 
ri'Lirarded the ecclesiastical. Hence the anxietv to 
have a l)ishoprie erected at San Salvador. This mat- 
ter assumed a threatening- aspect, and engaged tlie 
attention of ecclesiastics and statesmen, as well as the 
j>ub]ie at large in both sections of the country. The 
details will bo given in a separate chapter treating of 
the church in Central America. It is in order to 
state here, however, that the disputes about the 
diocese of San Salvador had a de(^}j influence in tln' 
country's politics. The contending parties had taken 
up the question. The libei'als in both states siiled 
V, ith Jose jMatias Delgado, who had l)eeu ap|)ointe(l 
by Ihe Salvador legislature tin; th'st bishop. The sei- 
vile element, on the other hand, supported the arcli- 
bisho[) of (Guatemala. But alter a time JJelgado, 
who was not unmindful of his pur]:)oses, su[)poi'teil 
President Arce, thus forsaking his former friends, and 
Joining the servile party. A marked change oecurreil 
soon alter, however, the relations between Arce and 
J)elgado becoming cold because the latter suspected 
that Arce really sympathized with the archbishop. 
'ITie liberals failed not to strengthen that suspicion, nm- 
to f m the ilanie.* 

Jefe A'illaeorta, owing to impaired health, sui- 
renderod the government to the vicc-jefe, Mariano 
Prado," whose first act was one of ep])osition to I hi 
national government, by repealing Arco's convocation 
of OctA)ber 10th for a new cono'ress, and issuing 'in 

* At this time Snlvinlor litoaiiK' the iisyluni of tlio libcrnl ]:>ii:'tv. 

* AiTi! iilli'critl tlint Molina and otlicis liail iiuliKrJ \ iliueortii, to belicvo 
]\c Mas llui only inaii >\1jo louKi right jiolitioal wiui;gs; nut In.- fniind lie cuiiM 
not do thi-i, and so I'csiirnt'il. Miiii.,(JO !. 



RUr.K OF CORNEJO AND I'HADO. 



1G7 



(.f his own, on Decoiubci- (!, 182G, aji})()iiitin<^ Aliua- 
cliapaii, in Salva(U)r, as the |t]acc ol' asseinbhi^'c. 
Piado now began the military piv])arati()ns whicli 
weie Ibllowcd by a war between Salvador and tin; 
(ederal govemmunt, and which terminated with the 
overthrow of the servile party by Morazan. 

A Hberal policy was for a sliort time pursued in 
Sah.ulor under the rule of Josd ]\[. Cornejo, who had 
hccduie the jefc in January 1829," and ja'ace reigned 
(hii'ing the next three years. But in 1832 it was 
again disturbed. Tlie government of the state, be- 
coming dissatislied with its foi-mer hei'o, ]\Iorazan, 
a1tem])ted to secede from the union, but was brought 
iimlri- subjection.' Cornejo was deposed, and, togetht-r 
with those who aided him in the I'ebellion, was sent 
to Guatemala as a prisoner, to be dealt with according 
to law.^ Elections for authorities wei-e then held, 
and ^lariano Prado was chosen jefe," and Joaquin San 
]\rartin y IJlloa vice-jefe. A period of liberalism now 
coiiiinenced, like that of Guatemala in 1820. Several 
liberal measures were adopted, one of which was the' 
establishment — decreed August 21. 1832 — of a sin- 
i;li', very moderate, direct tax.'" This enactment, 
intended to relieve the exhausted treasurv, met with 
\ iohnt opposition in San Salvador, and sedition brok(! 
')Ut on the 24th in several wartls; but the rioters were 
dispersed. Prado issued a jiroclamation expressing 
his resolution to uphold tlie law and maintain order; 
hut as the excitement continued, ho ordered that the 
sii[)i'eine autliorities should transfei- themselves to 
the \\\\a do Cojetepeque on the 31st." On the 14tli 

•"Ciiiiveiits were iil)olishc(l March 1, 1830. A cDllrLii! was cstMliHslu'il in 
July i)f tho fiillowing year; and the stato scuincil to have rccuvurtil iV.iiii tli'' 
losses of tliL" lato 'War. 

' CiJinc'jo i'(jii](l iKit li'j in accord with tho fcilcral auihoritivs; lie was a 
soiviK', and in hajruu with their cnoinics. Jloiiti'ifitr, llr^i-iin llisl., i. ,'{,'! I. 

*'i'ii(j cxccutivo authority was held for ft while by Morazan himself. Mn- 
r,v(v, r.ftm., ;jO, G2. 

"T'l accept the ])osition he resigned the vice-presidency of tho I'epnhlic. 
Mill,! i'il'ni\ JicsrHtl J/ist., ii. 0. 

'"'I'ithes luul been siipiiresKcd and trial by jury introduced. 

" Tlio jiuhlie archives and artillery were to be also removed. The comau- 
iliiutr-L'eneral was to reniidu behind m itii four cannons and 'JUO musUets. 








u\ 



Ills 



SAIA ADOI!, MLAKAtiUA, AN 1> COSTA lUCA. 



of Xoveiiibcr tli<iT was also a seditious luovoniont in 
San MigiU'l, which was (jiirlli'd by ( 'olniu'l Beniti,'/. 

The vice-jete, Sail ^fartiii, was in aceoi-d with the 
I'evolutioiiists, and ke[>t U[> a eori'espondence with 
(Jalvez ill (iiiatemala, who wanted l*rado overthrown. 
This was Iciiown in Sail Salvador, and gave eiicoura^c- 
ineiit to the remnants of'Coniejo's party. The removal 
1)1' the eajjital was not sullicient. Another revoH, 
lii'oke out at San Salvador early in IS.'];!, and J*radt), 
together with the members of the eo-leLjisIativi? hodirs 
autl of the su})erior court, had to abandon tluir ])laccs. 
On the irsth of February the state followed the ex- 
ample oi' NiearaL(ua and seceded from the union. The 
\ iee-jefe, San Martin, who had gone into hidiiiij;' (mi 
tlie IJth of February to save himself from harm, was 
called by the revolutionists to assuniu the executive 

thority.^' In July a revolt broke out among th.' 
ians of Santiau'o Xonualco, lleadetl by Ana>t;i- 



an 



Ind 

sio A(|uino, they Ibi'ined the plan of exterminaliiiL 

the white and colored [topulation, and installing a l!'i'V' 



'rnnieiit ol native:- 



The utmost cruelties eharacli 



SiMlll 



ized this war of races, whcli was fortunately 
sup[)ressed. !Most of the ringleaders, among tlieiu 
A(|uiiu>, were ca[)tured. The chief was executed <i;i 
the •J4th of July, 18;3;}, at San Yi(.'ente.'' But peace 
did not follow the suppression ol" this rebelli(»n. Sal- 
vador, always jealous of (Guatemala, insisted on hav- 
ing the federal government renutvod iVom her rivals 
territory. At last, in Februaiy 18^4, the i'ecK'ial 

'-]Io had lost liid wrai'iiig aiiparul, and in liis sniallcli)tlius, and witii n 
travelling]; cloak on, lie took I'hargo of tlio t^'ovcrnnicnt. /</., 'Ji). Ho \\;i-< 
chosen liy the a.'<senil)ly tirst jefe on the 1st of July, KSIill. In .liine Isiil \«- 
was removed from ollicc and expelled. Maniri', /,'/« m., .'?(!, (i'J; (Iiik/., (I(V'I ', 
j).v. -J.'. 18.14, 7. 

'■^ Aijiiino was a perfeet savage, and invoked reli,i,'ion, as did Carrera souk • 
what later. Ho onec entered San Vieente with the crown of an iniai;e ol "-t 
Joseph on his head. His mode of senteueini; prisoners to death was expnh- 
tioiis. The victim was ]ilaced licfore a group of his men, who weic told lie 
was their oiieniy. 'Shoot him,' they would say, and the thinj,' was dnnc. 
Ai[;iino was iii league with the serviles, Init as they could not manage hiiii, 
they persecuted their crowned ally. Moiili'i/nr, /,'i.<<ii(t. IJisf., ii. "J I. 

"Crowe, Ootpil, 1.'!'), and Squier, 7Vr«cc'/.'., ii. 4'20-l, erroneously phm' it 
ill iHo2. 



ill;. .'•* 



Moi;!'} TUOur.L;; at ax .-alvador. 



ie» 



iiutlioi'itios (.'aniL' to it-sidv' in Sonxiiiad', mikI l.itii-, in 
.iiiiit, <it San Salva;lor. It \\;is a L;iX'at mistake to 
1 ..i»ci.'t harnionv. iJctoiv llio month was out there 
V as a str'eet light of several hours hetweeii trixtjjs of 



t\v 



1 



)()\vers. 



Tl 



le leuerals were victorious, ai 



id 



lie 



Tl 



i«; e\- 



■uti 



state's jele, San Martin, was deposed.' 
ve authority was assumed tirst l)y Ciirlos Sala- 
mander of \\\c federal forces, and afterward 



;r, com 



L.- (Jregorio Salazar, the viee-[)resitlent of the rejuih- 
!;,■. Xeither of tlieiii had a loeal title.'" {'"rom this 
time the state remaiiieil wholly under tlu^ control of 



le 



federal government ami the liberal party, which 
li. came still more cemented when in IS;!.") the capi 
1;;1 was made the federal district. En tlu; great strug 
^Ic hetweeu ^lorazaii and Carrera, of which a detailed 
iiccount has been given in a former chaj)t(M', Salvador 
l.ad to rely entirely on lu.'r own resources when her 
tiiritory was invaded in IS3S and 18;]9. 

.Vfter Mora/.an's si«>'nal defeat at (Guatemala, Saha- 



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tit submit to the force of circumstances, and to recog- 
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as Carrera went back to Guatemala, that <'(»vt'rnmeiit 



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'•'Tiio ilufciit of .San Martin by (icn. Esiiinosa was at .li^niiiisco. Cunt., 
liiiht'iii (tjii:, TiOT-D. San Martin was now forsakin l>y ( i.iUcz, tin" jclr df 
liiiuioinala. In liis old n;.'o ho usod to complain of ' las iuLciiiMTmut'i.is di 1 
i''»t..r (Jalvo/.' MoiitHj'tii-, /i(S(iiri, J/i-^t., ii. "JT. 

'''Tlio latti'r I'uk'il only fmni July to Oct., wlicii lie was tcni|")rarily .snc- 
'■ii-iliil. lirst liy tlio 'iiscjcro, Jiia(iuin Mscolan, ami tiii'ii hy the vicc-jcfc, 
■ins ■ M. Silva, tlio same iiiontii. Nii'uhis Ivspiimsa iiecaiiie jelc in A]ir. i.S.'i."), 
:iii(l wasdiiven awaj' in the Idllowiii;^ Movemlier, lieiii;,' ai'cu.sed i>f i-iuiiiolii!^^ 
'I War 1 i laces, tlio eoiisujero l''raiieiseu (ioiiie/. iieiiig his .siiccessur < u the 
l.lth of N',.v, The next ndera were: |)ie;jo \'ijil, Apr. ]S'M); 'I'iiiidieo Me- 
lioiulez, vlcejefe, Sept. KSIiti; Antonio J. C'aiias, eonsejero, May IMJK. Mn- 
run. j:/,!ii., O-J; .]/(iii/i'i/(ti; Ji'sr/m. /lisf., ii. M.l.'t. 

"' Cancia eoiiteiiipiated heconiini,' liie ruler of ( 'entral .Vuieriea, hut ha<l to 
aliuiiliiji iiis plan on Nicaragua and Jlondiiias forming a league attains: him. 
Hts hidifins wvn) not bo clUcient w hen oil' troiii their native eioniid. Sijiiii /a 
Traal., ii. 4.11--J. 




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(716) 873-4503 









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170 



SALVADOU, NICARAGUA, AND COSTA RICA. 



Antonio Canas, liad to resign,*'* Norbcrto Ramirez 
becoming the jefe provisional.*'' More than any other 
of the Central American states, Salvador needed a 
l)eriod of peace to recover from the wounds infliobd 
in nearly twenty years of warfare. She liad upheld 
the principles of liberty and union long after the others 
had given them up, and now required a prudent and 
wise government to restore her almost extinct life and 
strength. 

Wliile the other provinces experienced but few dif- 
ficulti>js in organizing themselves after the separation 
from Spain and Mexico, Nicaragua suffered for years 
from intestine strife. Tliis was not exactly a contest 
between two political parties, but rather between 
towns, and between tlie partisans of one leader and 
another; in other words, the results partly of sec- 
tioiiid hatred, and partly of personal ambition. Per- 
secutions lor political causes were of daily occurrence.*' 
A junta gubernativa, recognized by the general gov- 
eiinnent, had been installed at Leon,'*' where JBasilio 
Carrillo was the commandov "'' the forces, and claimed 
the right to rule the proA ; but there was anotlier 
junta at Granada, where tlu notorious Cleto Ordofuz 
held sway in accord with the jefe politico, Juan Ar- 
gi'iello, wliich, of course, ignored the pretensions of 
the Leonese authorities. Managua, though siding 

"Sept. 2."?, 1840. Ho had iiilcil Biiice Apr. 8tli of tlic same year. Sah:, 
JHario OJic, Feb. 14, 1875. The rcvulutioiiaiy inoveineiit of Supt. "JOtli for 
his roniDval was promott'tl by Francisco Malcapiii, Ciirivra's tool, ami a iiiaii 
who wioldcil ft fatal iniliicnco in Salvador till Gen. Joarpiin 10. (.iu/.niaii liil 
the country of him. Malcspin vas then acting for Carrera, who feared that 
a revolution of the Calvario ward of San Salvador would upset Cafias, \vlio 
was without influence, and could no longer l)0 useful to the aristoci'ats <if 
Gunt. Such a revolution would create a liberal government, and might liiiiij' 
back Morazan. Caflas was i)ut out of the way that his place might be cui'ii- 
pied by a servile tool. Moittiifiu; Jii'xciia Ili^l., iii. 49!). 

" llo held the position only to the end of 1840. His succcsaora witii tiie 
same titlo were Juan Liudo, .Fan. 1841; I'cdro Arce, Apr. 1841; Senator I>- 
coUstieo Marin, l''eb. 184'.!. Muriire, ICfein., C>'2. 

""Kn la ulterior contieuda do los partidos polftict-; do csta Proviiuia, 
pucs, no RC encuentran mas «iue pasiones; las calilicaciones do rcalistas, im- 
porialistas, 6 servi los solo Servian paraantorizar lapcrsccucion.' Ayon, Aji., 'J'>. 

"April 17, 18J.I. 



NICARAGUAX COM PLICATIONS. 



171 



V. itli Loon, Imd become the headquarters of the anti- 
it publicans, with Bishop Garcia at their head, who 
strove to rid the place from Leouese influence. Most 
(.1 Iho other towns were in a similar condition; so that 
it may be asserted that the whole province was in a 
statu of anarchy. The junta gubernativa of Leon 
;u(('i)te(l, on the 2d of July, 1823, the decree of the 
national government of March 29th, calling for a 
national congress, and declared Nicaragua united with 
the other provinces that had I'ormerly been the reino 
do Guatemala. 

On the 13th of January, 1824, a popular uprising 
in Lron caused the junta gubernativa to remove Ba- 
silio Carrillo from his command, replacing him with 
the jel'e politico, Cdrmen Salazar."' Early in the same 
voaiJu.sto Milla came with the appointment of in- 
iLiulcnte from the general government, and with in- 
structions to pacify the country ; but his mission failed.*^ 
On the 22d of July Ordoilez had himself proclaimed 
coinandantc general by the garrison and populace. 
Sonn; of the wards of Leon attenii)tcd, on the Gth of 
Au;4ust, to overthrow Ordouez and restore Melendez, 
the successor of Milla; but they were overpowered, 
Mild the city was sacked.-^* On the 14th the forces of 
Managua, under Colonel Crisanto Sacasa, captured 
portions of the city of Granada. After twenty days 
• if incessant fighting the besiegers retired in good 
oifler. On the other hand, a division of Leonesc and 
< 1 1 Muadans attacked Managua on the 24th of August, 
V, ith tlic same result. 

A junta gubernativa had been installed on the 9tli 
of the month at El Viejo, in opposition to that of the 
<;i]iital,^' and organized a force of 2,000 men, intended 

•-Tliio movement was the precursor of tho great culumities tliut were tu 
I" tall Niiaragiirt. Marure, Ej'vm., 9. 

'•''riii> troops nml the mob in Leon, on the 4th of Mny, deposi'il liiiii, iiml 
jilat'id lii.s otlioo in charge of tho alcalilc, I'aljlo Mclcndcz, who in liia turn was 
(iMvtln'iiwn II few days Inter by nnotlier Hedition headed by Ordofiez. 

-'The \ illusof Muuaguannd Nicaragua refused to recognize tho revolntion- 
my ;:ovtrnn)ont at tiie capital, and established a junta gubernativa ut tiio 
fii'.stiiuiiicd town. 

"It was formed with the ciiicf nien i.f the ' partido du Managua.' 



It': 

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172 



SALVADOR, XICAIIAO'JA, AND COSTA IIICA. 



t<> lav bic'gu to Leon. The united forces of El Viejo 
and Managua, eoninianded by Saeasa and the Colom- 
l.ian Juan Jose Salas, assaulted Leon, captured the 
'uburbs, and penetrated to the plazucla de San Juan. 
The garrison, composed of Leonese and some Grana- 
dan^r, now found itself confined to the chief plaza uiid 
ct)iitiguous blocks. During the siege, which last((i 
1 14 days, there was inces.sant fighting, both besiegiis 
and besieged exhibiting bitter animosity. Sacasa was 
mortally wounded, and died twelve days after. Tlie 
fighting often took place inside of the houses, and even 
of the churches. Upwards of 900 houses were eitlur 
(lemolii^hed or burned, and the number of dead and 
wounded on both sides was large, probably over !)(»0 
killed. The contest ceased only on the 4th of Janu- 
ary, 1825, when the besieging forces retired."* 

The villa de ^lanagua laid down its arms on (lie 
'21d of January, li^"J5, peaceably receiving ^Maniul 
Jose Arce, who had entered Nicaragua with an auxil- 
iary force from fSalvador, and with instructions to 
pacify the state. Li consequence of his arrival, th ■ 
dissensions were (juietcd for a tinie.-'^ Arce, without 
l;Io.)dshcd, also disarmed the troops of Ordoiu/ ;it 
( Jranada, anil despatched him, together with IVishnp 
( rarein, to (Juatemala. Alter having made arranL;< - 
ments I'or elections, the }>eace-maker returned to Sal- 
vador, leaving, however, a portion of the force at 
Loon. 

On the 10th of April, 1825, preliminary arraiiL,'<- 
iiuMits being completed, the first constituent assendily 

'■'"Hy ordor of Gen. Manuel JosiS Arce, who iifterward entered Lion. I'l • 
t.iiU of liuttles iind uctious durinK this unhappy period of Xicara(,'ii!i liistmy 
I'Kiy 1)0 found iu Munire, JJotiq. llust. Ceui. Am., i. L")l-G; Id., Kj'oii., II I-', 
,.); .l.'/o», ,l/)i(H^r,i, 'J8-3li; /)iiiil()i)'ii Cent. Am., lOO-'J. 

-'In till' previdus year Martin Aizi'i iiad been sent as a connnissiciiiri- i" 
I'l'stoio ]icai'o in Nicaragua. He was ordered to use genth; ineuna. liul to I'lii- 
I liiy force u,i;uin.st parlies opposing liini. To support liini, oOO lloniliinnu 
-..fro stationed ut Cliohitcca. lie arrived after tlic siege of Leon had lu-'tin, 
.•;.icl enilcavoreil ini tlio spot to bring about an arrangement Ijctwccn tli'- l"l 
i.^cient.s; but iio Was treated disrespectfully by llio Ijcsiegers, and >'.iii 
nrrtsti'd ond threatened with death by Salas. lie afterward ilecland the 
junta at Kl N'iejo revolutionary, and that its commands should bo di.sri'^'.iiiled. 
After that hu conducted the (Icfence uf Leon. Murtur, llifij., i. 137-1*. 



UULE OF AllGCELLO. 



it: 



of Xicarafjua met under the presidency of Juan Ma- 
iiui 1 Zainora, and ten days later Manuel Antonio de 
l;i ( erda was installed as jefe of the statc,"^ and Juan 
Arj^'iiclio as viee-jefe. Unfortunately there were dis- 
amvcnients on tlie part of Cerda with both the con- 
stituent assembly and Arguello, which delayed the 
laliors on the state constitution, so that it was not 
(l.crecd till the 8th of April, 182G.=«> 

The convention then adjourned sine die, and the reg- 
ular or ordinary assembly met on the 13th of August, 
at Leon, but in the middle of the following month 
removed to Granada.*' Meantime the dissatisfaction 
with Jefe Cerda had assumed such proportions that 
tlir legislative body resolved to impeach him. He 
was. accordingly, suspended, and Arguello placed 
tt'iuporarily in charge of the executive authority'. 
Niw elections were also decreed.^^ But Argiiello had 
not l'»).stered all these troubles merely to surrender the 
y;)\ iiinnent to a new man, and by intrigues cc^ntrived 
to liring about, in February 1827, the dissolution of 
the assembly.^' 

Tlie indefatigable Colonel Cleto Ordouez made, 
\\ ith the aid of troops of Leon and Senator Hernandez, 
an unsuccessful attempt" to seize the government, 
(Icrhiring Argiiello suspended. An eft'ort was also 
made by the president on behalf of Cerda, but it was 
tlefeatod by Herrera, the jefe of Honduras. The 
state of war continued; Aree reluctantly had removed, 
at Argiiello's request, the few men of Salvador that 
had been stationed in Nicaragua since 1825,'** and 

''III thu latter (tart of 1828 he was shot, iimlur tlic Bcnteuce of a court- 
niiirti.l convenetl by order of the vice-jefe .\rgttelli>. /(/., tl/'em., G3-4. 

" Its support was sworn to on the la';t day of that inontli. 

'"'I'liu fust rcpreseutatix'c council, or senate, was inaugurated at the saniu 
I'laic on the '20th of Oct., 1826. /(/., IS. 

^'<'trila would not, however, lay down his power, and continued exercising; 
it at -Mauugua. Mem. Iteo. Cent. Am., 4'i. 

^-'i'lic dissolution was 'd consecnencia de una sedicion proinovida pur il 
Vici -jpfc del niisino Estado Sr Juan Argiiello.' Alaritre, Hyem., 18. 

^'Oii the 14th of Sept., 1827. This was his third or fourth effort; all 
fruitless, however. /</., 20. 

^' lie foretold at the time that 'miiy luego veria el congreso arder otra vez 
b tea ilu la discordia eu aquel Estado. Anv, Mem., 17. 



1 1, 



r L ' 



( 



I! 



174 



SALVADOn, MCAIIAGUA, AND COSTA RICA. 



thus the only aclvcrsary of importance Arguello had 
was Cerda. The contest remained lor a loni^ tinio 
undecided. Arguello took Granada, while Cerda's 
headquarters wore first at Managua, and, when that 
place seceded, at liivas, the ancient town of Nicaragua. 

In September 1828, Cerda's party had made so 
much headway that Arguello and his followers had 
vessels in readiness to effect their escape should the 
jcfe gain another victory. But the priests, wh(> 
worked against the latter, inspired the disheartened 
Argiiellistas with renewed courage, and in anotln r 
encounter they were victorious. Cerda's star mow 
waned. A revolt planned by two of his otKcers \v;i , 
quelled, and the leaders were shot.^' This severity, 
and the heavy taxes he levied, increased his foes. ' 
At last, on the 8th of November, 1828, when Iliv;is 
was almost without troops, one of his officers, wii i 
was a relative, named Francisco Arguello, madj him 
a prisoner, and before his troops could come fioni 
Jinotepe to his rescue, a force of the vice-jefe entered 
Ivivas. A military court was at once organized, 
and Cerda, being subjected to its action,'^ was sen- 
tenced to death, and executed.^ 

Areriiello was now free from his stroiifjest adver- 
sary; but the struggle went on as new pretendeis 
sprang up, and its effects in the course of time were 
most disastrous. It hroujiht the state to a condition 
of desolation unequalled in Central America. Dio- 
nisio TIerrera, chief of Ht)nduras, undertook, under 
instructions of the federal government, in 182!), the 
task of pacifying Nicaragua. lie visited Leon, 
and succeeded in conciliating parties and restori!i;j; 

''Their project involved the aimuxation of Nicuiugua to Colombia. /.(» 
A naif X, 1872, T)*. 

•*H6 now imiposcd to surrcudcr tlio government to ArgUello or sonio mio 
else. His friends dissuaded liim, and lie was finally tlio victim of {ro)ii.iu ly. 

" His friends had obtained that the trial should bo atCrannda, but tlio 
mob at. liivas opposed bis removal at tlio moment of doparUire. A/., G;f. 

""Nov. 21), 18'2». It is said that the vice-jefe, Aigiiello, decreed a sus- 
pension of the Roiitcnco; but purposely delayed the courier, so that tin' ro- 
prievo arrived too late at Uivas. A full biography of Cerda, witii scatltiixl 
historical items, is given in Id., 29-7-. passim. 



HERI{ ERA'S RULE. 



175 



orikr; and when new elections took ])lace in May 
I80O lie was himself ehosen its jele.'' Manaj^ua, the 
last jilaie to hold out, was finally, without tl.o use of 
force, prevailed upon to recognize the newly «on- 
stitiitLiI authorities, and in June was already enjoying 
the htiiefits of peace. In order to consolidate the peace 
throughout the state, Herrera made the leaders of 
part lis leave its territory. His rule was a quiet one 
iui the next two years, and until Nicaragua was called 
upon l>y the national government to furnish her con- 
tiii;^ent of troops to suppress revolutionary movements 
huvoMil her boundary.*" 

The revolutionary spirit showed itself again in 1832. 
On December 3, 1832, the state assembly attached 
the federal revenue, and refused further recognition 
of the general government. A few months latir a 
revolt broke out against Herrera. The movenient 
oii^iiiated in Managua, and was seconded in Masaya 
and Matagalpa. Granada and Leon opposed it. 
Jcl'o Herrera at first was loath to resist it, and laid 
his icsignation before the legislature, and it was ac- 
(r])te(l on the 1st of Marcli, 1833. Hut that body, 
umlcr pojudar pressure, (\)iir da3's after revokeil tho 
resolution, and recalled Herrera to hold thee.Kecutivc 
autlioiity, with the extraordinary powers that had 
hecii decreed him on the 8th of February previous.^' 

The insurrection had spread also in jNletapa, Cho- 
(dvos, Xandaime, San Jorge, and throughout the dc- 
pavtiiient of Nicaragua. At the head of the move- 
ment was an ecclesiastic. Herrera exhausted all 

-''I'll!' iiistalliitiou of the aaseinbly was on Nos'. 1, 1'8"2!). Tlic tlcctioUM 
had l>ciii ileiTcc'il by tlie vice-jcfe, Argflollo, and lii.s ai t, iim well as tin' ( In • 
tinii-i ctt't'clfd under it, were on tlio "JiJd of M.iy, ls;tO, doclaivd to lie Icrit- 
iiiiatr. Uncha, Ctxl. Xic, i. 80. lIiTrera had bueu inducted in otlicfim tin: l_ili 
'1 May. Moiit<yi,r, /.'.■«■/(-( J/Ut., i. 1!)!^'J().3. 

''Tho services of the Nicaragiians were I'ecojjiii/ed by botii tlie I'r Inal 
lnvbiileiit and the state oasembly. lluriors weio decreed to the siirvivoi's, and 
I'di'^i'ins to tlio wonnded, and to the vitlows and orphans of tlie dead. Huvltii, 
Co'l. Xir., i. 214-15. 

" '1 Ills hist action was attributed by the revohitionista to llerreivi's uiach- 
inatidiis ami Morazau's inllucncc; but tlio truth was, that the |)coplo recog- 
nized lim era's services as tho pacilicator, and his good qualilicatiuns as a 
rulur. Monlii/ar, Jlesena JJint., ii. M-'2. 



176 



SALVADOR, NICARAGUA, AMI COSTA RICA. 



peaceful means, and liad to eujploy i\)Vco, and Maiin- 
gua was taken on the 29tli of June, 183;}." Nica- 
ragua and other places accepted the anniesty tendoicil 
them." But it seemed almost impossible to maintain 
peace for any length of time. In May 1834 Granada 
and Metapa rebelled, under one Cdndido Flores. Tin 
rebels were successful for several months, and took 
po.ssession of Managua. But on the 13th of August 
they were defeated; a few days later Granada was 
recovered, and four of the ringleaders were shot. 

In the njornmg of the 20tli of January, 1835,th< ir 
was an eruption of the volcano Cosigiiina,** attend* 1 1 
by one of tiie most terrific earthquakes ever expoii- 
enced in Central America." The event was a mei.i- 



*^ A detailed Account of tliis revolt is given in the Centra Aiwrkaiw, s'.\ 
{/7. It id Huid that :i nunihorof medaU were found of tortoisc-slicli, golil, aun 
other mtitals, with the iina-^e of Fernando VII., nnd l)oaring tlie inscriptii.n 
' Viva Fernando Vli. Key do Kspailii y do las Iudia.s, Alio do 1S28,' which iravc 

•cvolt had been in his interests. MouUihir. 



liso to tlic supposition that the revolt 1 
JiiHuui Hint., ii. H(J-8. IlerriMM i.saued a i 



|i i\ 



I proclamation calling on tlio pc >]>!(' t>i 
Htaml liy the government. Miiriir<, IJ/viii., 3.1-4. 

"Tlio assenihly, installed on the "Jlstof Aug., 18.33, at Leon, approviil all 
of Herrera 8 acts. 

''On the southern coast of Nicaragua, 1*2 leagues distant fron Leon. 

".V ilense yellow cloud rose tsudtlenly, acc<mipanied l>y a strung siiull if 
sulphur and a shower of line wliite dust. The alarmed inhabitants cIumi! 
llioi.- duors and windows, but the dust could not l)o kept out. lireathiiij.' >» 
came dirticult. Thi.s lasted nearly thiei- days. On the 'JIM, nt 1 a. m., a 
loud detonation, followed by heavy shocks of earthtiuake, rain of Siimi. aii'l 
tulul darkness, rendered the terror of liio people complete. Fliicks of liiii. 
fell dead to the ground, and wild animnis sought refuge in liiiildinjjs, T! 
frightened inhabitants ran to their yards, or hurried to tiio churclies t<> ii.i 
l)'.oic divine mercy. Forty-three hours passed l)cfore the oarlli bee luic ijiiic , 
wluM a strong wind cleared the utnio8|iliero, eiudiling tiie jn'oplc to a.sciviaiii 
the damage. 'J"hc ashes in the vicinity of tlio volcano were .several fi'ct lifcji. 
'I'lic river Chiquito had beoi wholly di'icd up, and two new is'.auils wcii' 
formed. A largo number of animals had perislied, nnd the living ones wcit in 
a state of starvation. S;ich had been the force of llie convulsion tiiai ujr 
iletouatioiis and the rain of ashes had leaclied a distance of huinlrccl. if 
l-'aniies, as far as Oajaca, .lamnica, and Bogota in (^Jolombia. Montiifa!'. I!'- 
Mriia liisl,, ii. 14.">-.")0, ill giving an accouiitof ihe cvi-iit, adil.i that ilu- pin'sis 
called il a punishment from heaven becausi' ti'Jics had been ulicilisluci, iii'' 
doni of conscience proclaimed. »■ d the decrees of 182l> and I8.S0 ii|iIk1i1. 
Tiie pari.ih priests in several tov us dining the prevailing darkness, prcac lic.l 
from their jmlpits that this slinking of the earth was a manifestation (it'tioii's 
wrath for the crimes of the liberals. S(|uier, Trav.. ii. 1 10-11, says thai tlic 
s'.iperiiilcndent of Dclifie, or hearing the explosions, mustered his \.:t'i>\'^. 
thinking that a battle was b.-im; fought somewhere near the coast. Sti'|'ii(iiv 
Cent. Am., ii. 'AH, relates 'i smidar incident of the military comniainiii' <-' 
Guatemala. 






A GREAT EAUTllQlAKi:. 



177 



(ii.iblc one for tlio Nicarajjfuans, and its abatoniont was 
iiitiiltutctl to the otficacious iutircossioii ot" their saints; 
iiii<l in connnonioration of it ilu'V still have a feast of 
tli,iiiks<fivinLr every vear on thi' '2?>d of Januarv. 



4(1 



A short i»erio(l of j>eace ibllowed. l\niy aie the 
(tlorts of man at kiliini^ eaeh other when heaven fnes 
it> artillerv! The i'\hanstetl stati; seenu'd nnahle to 
continue its suieidal eonrse. The traiMinillity was 
lii'tiktii, however, thontrh oidv for a short tinu", in 



is: 



The assend)lv hao, on the L'lst of Fi'hr 



narv 



|s;'.r», reco^niized Jose Zejteda and Joso Nuiiez as the 
(liilv (K'eted ji'fe and viee-jefe respectively. Colonel 
Zi|K(la was a distini^uished |)atriot, who had lendered 
iiiiliortant serviees to the cause of lil)(>rty. His dec- 
tinn was hailed with approval in Nicaragua, and in 
the other states of the union. He took j)ossession of 
dtlicf April 2;], 18.'J5.*'* The ,n<)vernnient experienced 
no serious ditriculty during' I 8^5(5 in the adininisti'ation 



>( public ati'airi 



It 



was encfaijfed ni nni>rovMi 



m- tl 



ic 



pulihc roads, and in other matters of (general utility. 
JJiil I So? was inanguratetl with infamous crimes, with 
the nnu'ders of the jefe Zepeda, and of the citizens 



in 


Ihll 


.. ii 


i{iv 


I I'll • 


Jjt 1 


ri- 


iiiut 


ll.! 

it' . 


vict 


aiu 


iidn 


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VfU 


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, 1 


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■111. 


■ M "1. 




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llcni 


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til III r 



nan 



Valladi 



ues, 



J 



'jvaris 



to 15 



errios, aiK 



I 1^ 



ascua 



I 



?m- 



as, which resulted from a revolt of the Ljarrison at 
m.*' The movement was prom|)tly su[)presst'd, 
the rinj^leaxler, Jjraulio Mendiola, executed. The 
-jefe, Nunez, assumed rulershi[», and during- his 
linistration a second constitutnit assembly was con- 
ed, ami connnenced its labors on the o 1 st of March, 

Accounts of the cataatroplio. (littoriiij,' tiiDrc or If.ss in di'tail.-*, nci'onliiiu' 
• vaiiiins points wIktc it was oliscrvcd, iiw j^iviii in Munin , A.VJ ;«., ."iti 7; 
' »<' ( 'flit. Am., ii. ;{."i-.S; Siiiiii /•'.•. Tfiir., ii. 110 11, liL' l{, wiili ji \ icw nf 
.olcaiio; tli/ain'n il'llil Li/i\ \\l-~; l)iiiil"ii'ii ('ml. Am., ir)-17; Ao/,</. 
Ni»'. ,/oiini., V. ;W7-!t-'; Anfiihitriifi'ia, (.'ml. Am., l!.'!; ilV//.,* J/mnl., 
; Cor. Atldiit., May !), l.s:i.">, 10; />«<•'.•. Uiur. Hist. (Ao;/., x. 'JIO-'JO. 
Ndt in ISIKI, as Diiiilop lias it. (V»/. Am., l!tl-'i. 

Ills iuini.sti'r-j;eni-'nil fora tiino wa.s .1. N. (Joii/.ali'Z, and on lii.s rcsiuiiin;,', 
iiciif^iiilo Zt'pi'da, one of the first lawyers in tlio statu, sui'd'cdi'd. Mmi- 

\ !;,.■<■ i)a i/iit., ii. ;jol'. 

Oil tiio 'J.'.tli of Jan. •\fiinirr, K/ini., 'V.), M\ Montufar, /'ixi fia /list., ii. 
ic. i_'iv('s the oflii'ial flocinnints describing; tlio 'jcciirrfnccs. 
UisT. CKwr. .\M., Vol. 111. 1.! 



I 



ITS 



SAL\ ADOll, NICAIIAGUA, AM) CO ;TA IIICA. 



1838.'' One iiiontli later, on the rJOtli of April, tlio 
state seceded from the f'ederntion, an act w Iiicli may 
be called a mere i'ormalitv, inasmuch as Nicara«rn.i 
liad not taken part, to any notable degree, in the 
aflairs of the i^^Mieral government. Xominally, how- 
ever, the idea of a union of the (Central American 
states was upheld, and still expressed in the new state 
constitution framed by the assembly and c(miirmed on 
the 12th of November, ISnS.'' Ail this was pure al- 
fectation, however, for Nicara-jfua lent her heartv aid 
to eradicate the last renmants of the i'ederation. Tin; 
coveted sovereignty was attained at last. Lati^r events 
will show whether or not it brought Nicaiagua pros- 
})erity. The present generation had grown up midst 
the noise of war, hearing the battle-cry of one or nri- 
other contending party, and it could hardly be ex- 
pected that it could a|Dpreciate the blessings of peace. '^ 

Costa Rica, owing to her geographical position, was 
almost isolated, politically, from the rest of Cential 
America. It would be wrong, however, to infer that 
lier participation in the general aflairs of the republic 
had been one of mere formality or policy for her own 
convenience or safety. Nowhere had the idea of a union 
been more warmly embraced. Four months only had 
elapsed after the bases for the organization of the 
state had been adopted by the national constituent 
convention, when Costa liica's first assembly met,'' 

'"Father Solis, the president, and others attributed to Morazan and tlio 
constitution of 1824 the evils Nicaragua had sudered from, forgetting llioao 
preceding; Morazan and the constitution. 

" liiitilied by tho executive Nov. 17tli. Given in full in Nic, Constil , in 
Cent. Am., Coihititittions, l-.'iO. A brief synopsis in S(2uier's Travcii, ii. -11- 
13. See also Mies' llxj., J8:!l), Ivi. •!(). 

''-' Daring llorrcra's term the following held the executive anthorit\ fii" 
short periods: Carlos liniz y Uolafios. Aug. 18151; Bonito Morales, Feb. C'.il; 
Jos6 Nunez, March 18.11. I find that the government was also provisi'M illy 
in charge of (Jregorio .Juarez, May I8.'1.j; V. X. llubio, .Ian. IS.'iS; .Jose .\ ii^ /, 
as jofe, March !'2, 18.';8; I'^varisto liocha, May 18."JS; .Joaijuin Cosio. 'ino 
18."!8; Patricio Rivas, director, .lunc 181)9; Joacpiin ("osio, .July IS.'IO; Hi! nio 
UUoa, Oct. 18:i!); Tonuis Vallailarcs, Nov. 18;!!). In 1810 he became diiv.tor 
del ostado; Pablo Buitnigo, director, Apr. 1811. M(iruri\ E/ein., G4. 

''Sept. 0, 1824. Molina, Costa liica, 9o, followed by Wagner, CosUi R., 



I) 



r.VKXTS IX COSTA RICA. 



m 



,11(1 on <Ijo 21st of January, 182'), (I«!rroo(l a state 
( (tiislitution." Ji» IIk' iniddlo of* April tlu' lirst ordi- 
nal v Iririslatiire Ix'v^an its labors, and on the 24tl» of 
S iiU'inljcr Juan Mora was installed as chief of tlio 
.vtatf."' This was a hiii>j>y choioe; for duiin'jf his ndo 
Costa liica cscajx'd tlu; evils which protiactod war- 
);iri' wrought in the other states of the union. Foi- 
lowiiiLT the exain|)le of Salvador, a decree was passed 
ill Si'pteinher creaiin'Lf a bishopiic ind(>pendent froni 
Nii;iia!L,nia, and appointiiiL,' Fray J^uis (iarcia the iirst 
M-hop; hut the doci'eo hecaine a dead letter. 

The first etl'eet of Mora's quiet rule; was the eii- 
l;ir;j:einent of Costa lliean territory. JJissatisfied with 
tlie jefc, Cerda of Nicaragua, tlii; disliiet of (luana- 
caste, or Nicoya, which formerly helonj^ed (o that 
.state, declared its separation, and asked to Ik; incor|)o- 
liited with Costa Kiea.''" The arrangement was ap- 
proved hy the federal congress on IJceemher Dth, and 
since then Nicoya formed ono of the five de[)artinents 
(if that statc.°' Nicaragua protested; Co.sta ]lica rc- 
i"us(Ml to restore the territory, and the matter remained 
an open subject of discussion, but never leading to 
1 lost i lit ies."*' 

I'^ariy in 182G an attempt was made" by a Spaniard 
jiained Jo.se Zamora, at Alajuela, to overthrow tho 
!,Mveniment. ]Ie attacked the quarters of the garri- 

.Vl'i, gives it as May Ctli, wliioh is cvitkntly .'i mistake. Maiuro, Kj'on., 1 1, 
has it .Sciit. tJth, ami that Agustin (jiitiiuTi'Z Lizaurzabal was itii lirst prosi- 
ilciit. 

■"CVY'I Rica, Lftj Fundnm. (San Salv., 1S2J), 2t mo, 20 pp.; .V. w. /.'< p. 
Crn/. All)., ',V2; Anfahiiriiaija, Cent. Am., 1.'!; MoliiKi, ClxI'I J'., IS. 'I'liis 
l.istiiaini'd autiior, on his p. ",•."», f/ivcs tlio dato as Jan. I'-M, ex iilciitly fol- 
hwiuit M(inirr, IJi'dii., \:>. S<]iiii'i', Tmnh, ii. liSS, makes it .1,-in. '-M. 

"■' Mai iauo Montealcgre became tho vicoji'fe. Mora war. nehcteil in Mareh 
l^'2!t, au'l nilod till toward the end of IS:!:.'. Muriire, Ehin., (iJ; 7./., Ilo^q , 
ll'.i; Mnn. y.Vc. Cviil. .1m., :!■-•. 

•"' r< r.soiial enmity l)etween IVdro Miinoz, an infliiontial man in (luana- 
casto, ,uid drdawas the main rea.son. Lou .iiiali s, ls72, .")!. 

"• i 111' ajiproval was merely jirovisional. 'J'lie other lonr arc Cartago, San 
Jo:<i', Jlvredia, and Alajuela. Molinn, C'o^la I'., .">-(). 

" Xic. y Iloml., Doc, 101-12; Ayoii, Conoid. LimitcK, 20-4; IVitrh, Mex., 

■^Ma^ure, Kfeni., 10, and Doxq., i. 2.'52-3, following A7 Indh-.tdoi; 1820, 
no. T'l. and L'l Si'maiiario, ISi'O, no. 80, gives the date as Jan. 2'Jth. Molina, 
('o.<ii A'., 90, places it on the 2Stl». 



I8() 



SALVADOR, M( AllAliUA, AM) COSTA IlICA. 



Hon, but after several hours' tijirlitiujjf was n^pulsed, 
witli most of Ills lolloweis slain, wounded, or inad< 
prisoners. A lew days al'ti-rward lie was cajjtunnl and 
shot/' During s»,'Veral years tiiis was the on!}' puhli' 
disturhance. Tho strULrj.;lo between serviles and lii)- 
erals in the other slates <lid not afleet Costa lli(;a, wliirli 
pru«lently maintained neutrality. Slu; endeavored, 
liowover, (o briuLj on peace between tho bellij^eront-. 
by aecreditin!L,^ in 18-8, Manuel A^uilar as speei.il 
envoy to (Guatemala and Salva<lor; but his mission 
proved fruitless, ehielly owin^ to tho success of tin- 
Salvador arms, and the irreconcilabh; feelinj;' thereby 
engendered.*" It was the unsatisfactory result of tlii^ 
tjflort, which in a great measure prom[)tecl Co.>t;i 
llica, after ^[ora's reelection in 182'J, to secede fiom 
the union till the federal authority should be reor- 
ganized. When tliis took [»lace, the secession act was 
revoked in January IS'H. 

In March 18;].] the second term of office of ]\[or.i 
cx[)ired; and in acknowledgment of his beneficent and 
wise pi>licy, the assembly decreed that his portrait 
should be placed in tho hall of sessions, with a highly 
complimentary insct'iption.''"* Costa Kica had mad>' 
great progress from both th material and intellectuiii 
points of view. A number of clergymen endeavore I 
to introduce a decree of tho ecclesiastical authorities oi' 
Guatemala to burn certain so-called forbidden bo(»ks. 
They failed, tho result being the importation of a largr 



"IIo confessed to have acted uiulcracommisaion from tho court of Spain. 
and as a licut-col iu its service. Seventeen of his iiartisuna were scut out ot 
tlio country. 

"' A detailed account of tiiat mission may Ixs seen in ^fem. liev. Cent. Am., 
112 II; M«r,n(i, Co-^tii /;., [)(i 7. 

*"'-" Ocu[);i cste higar rl ciiidadano Kx-gcfe Juan Mora, jior sua virtudes. y i 
oeiipania suoosivaineute, los (jui-, on el misrno destino, so hagan di;^nos de « 1 ' 
Marnvc, F^'rnt., It.'}. Moia was lain in Sau Jos(5 iu I7SJ, and iiad tilled s-cv- 
eral important trusts helore his election to the chief magistracy. After lii-i 
retirement he again held ottier olliccs till his exile in 18»;S. Returning to liis 
country in 1S4_*, he took a prominent part in public affairs. In Nov. IS4S he 
was declared a henemerito de la patria, and given a pension for life. In .May 
18.X) he heeauie president ot the sup. erne court. Honesty and integrity were 
tlu! prominent traits of his eliaractcr. \inited witii ability and liberal idcoa, 
but free from exaggerations. Molina, Conta J!., 75-G, 98, il9-'Jl. 



nru: ok callkcjos ami caimmi.lo. 



lai 



iiuiiilicr of tlio «l(iioiincc(l works. Jv^o Mora troatcd 
tlir pious proposal witli tho contempt it (IcsorvoiJ.*" 

Mora's successor *':'l\y "l<'cte(l was Jose Kafacl Oa- 
ll.nds, wlio assumed In^ -lufies in April 18;»,'{.'^' Tlio 
state at this time was en; )yinLr lil't-rty, and jjorfect 
tivcdom of the press."" it was llio asylum of tlio 
( xiies from other Cential and South American states. 
It W!is not. liowevei', alto^^ether e.\em[>t from the 
.vpirit of localism. ('arta;_;t» had been tlie cap'*^r>!, and 
wanted to lecover that |>osition. San Jose leh is a 
liiss the ahsence (A' the .supremo authorities. Ifore- 
diu and Ahijuela would not bo less than the < Mier 1 no 
places. (luanacaste was tin; only one ().ii, of the 
"jiicstion. Jlence the resolution adopted''*^ that the 
■-tatc cap! .1 should alternately he at San Jos, , C/ar- 
ta-^o. lleredia, and ^Vhijuela. A later law. of Juno 
'.'th, prescribed that the rcjiidence of the supreme 
authorities at each of said places should be for the 
iieiiod of four years. GalleLTos' rule was of short 
(luiation. lie resigned m March 1834.*^^ 

Jiiaulio Carrillo was elected jefe, and went into 
ntlice in April 1835.""' In his time several liberal 

"Costa Kica liad never been TiiiiKr the sw.iy of bishops, clergyinon, or 
ni'iiks. Tliiit fanaticiNni which lias been ho baneful to other HUitus of Sp;>.iiisli 
Aiiurica never existed here. Mouliij'ar, limruci JJint., i. '.iOo. 

"(.'«(!/., JlolctiuOjir., iS.'i.'i, no. lU, .'<70; Cuiilii A'., Col. Li'ii<i>, iv. 4-."i. fla- 
llc .'(IS was an honorable i.ian und father of a family, as veil as a wealthy 
judpeity owner. ]'.ut he was not eonvcrsant with state alliiirs, nor with tlio 
iiitri^'iKs of jj(jlitii'ians. Jlis chief aim was economy; ho wished to see tho 
luililii; treasury full of money; he cared less to apply that money in the devcl- 
o|iiii( i.t (if the country. 

'Ill jJiiMif of which were the newspapers El Notifio^o Unirerxnl, La 
T' rliiiiii, I'A Correo de Costa JUca, and the number of sheets that were con- 
stanlly issued. 

''■ l!v the assembly and council, and published by the executive, Apr. .'{, 
1^;U. A,'., i'JS-'JOl; Costa Ji'., Col. Lfye», iv. 110-12, I'JO-l. 

'•Juan Jose Lara became jefc provisorio, and in his turn was succeiMled in 
•'luie of tiie same j-ear by the vice-jcfc Agustin G. Liz;i\ir/abal, who ruled till 
.^l;lrch l,s:i,'), when, because of ill health, lie delivered thi; government to Ma- 
irul I'Vinandez, who had it till the regularly elected jei>- assumed his duties. 
Mtinnr, Ej'tm., Gl; Molina, Costa U., iW; CoMa It., Col. L'-yis, iv. I'.i'l-o, 
i.");i-(io. 

"* He was born in Cartago in ISOO, and studied in the university oi Leon, 
Xi :iiai,na. lie had never been out of Cent. Am., and conscijuently Ilia mind 
liad nevi r had tiie expanding inlluence of travel. He was accordingly full of 
I'lity prejudices. He could, however, appreciate men of merit, and avail 
liiui'ri.lt of their abilities; but if he mistrusted a man, he proved a relentless 



I 




182 



SALW^DOn, NI(AUA(;L'A, and CO.STA RICA. 



li'lLl 



innovations were niade, in audition (o those intro- 
du( ed s(tinc time previously; namely, sup[)re.ssion of 
tithes and derrease of holidays; *^^ those enactments 
aroused the clergy, and prompted them to fan, in 
retaliation, the ilame of diseord existiiii; between San 
Jose and ( 'ai'taL;'o, which culminated in an open revolt 
on the 24tli of September, 1835. 

An alliance was entered into by Cartago with Ala- 
juela and lleredia, to refuse recognition to the gov- 
ernment, and to convoke a new assembly with e(|U.il 
rejiresentative rights for the diiferent towns.'"^ The 
allied forces marchetl upon San Jose, then the seat nf 
government; but were defeated in several encounters, 
and they again submitted.'^ The i-esult of this revolt. 
was the further strengthening of San Jose, to whi<h 
place was conveyed all the armament of the stad . 
The government was equally successful in the follow- 
ing year, when an armed force from Nicaragua, led hy 
the Costa Ilican Manuel Quijano, formerly in ]ii> 
country's military service, Pedro Abellan, and fla- 
nnel l)engo, entered the department of Guanacasi( . 
and marched upon its chief town, where they expecti d 
to find support; but they only met with disapjjoint 
ment. They were iirst repulsed by the inhabitant -, 
an'? "fierward routed by the troops.'" 

x'ho peace thus restored was not of long duratini;. 
Braulio Carrillo was succeeded as jcfe of the statr ' 

foe. lie raivly pl.'ici!<l any trust in any one. Jfontii/ar, /.Vsr-Hrj Ifixf., ii. '.MS; 
Costa /'., Col. Leijes, iv. 200-7; Molina, Costa It,, 03 ct sutj. ; Wmiinr, Co.-^l'i 
liica, 20 1 -.3. 

«''I.iiw of Apr. 11 mill Aug. 25, I8."?J; Coda U., C>1. Leyes, iv. I'l;-", 
2:!,l-0; Snh'., JJifinoOJlr., M;iy 2.'>, IST."!. 

'"UovcrniiHut i--su(il a iiroulauiatiou against the rebels on the Gth of Oi i., 
IS.*].'). Cos/a. /.'., Cut. Li'ijc", iv. 27;i-SO. 

" Tho (lL'i.i^iv(! actiiiii oclui icil uu tliu 2Sth uf Oct. About .""'O ficrsoiis ] 1 1- 
islicil. Details on thdso truuMia appi'.'ir in Moliiut, Cosfn //., 9'.)-l00; J/fi- 
rnrr, J'/i m., .'SS. 'I'lic authors of thu rihcllion were niuleted in sums rangin;,' 
from !?-',0l)0 down to $,"0. Monti'ij'ar, IUm na JUil., ii. 20S-27, 2;;7-J7. 

'^'I'wo tlupuyand men eameupon llif invailei'sat tlio haeienila of S;nita li'i'^.i. 
Quijano ('.si,;i]ie(l to Nirara^aia. Tl:o governm' nt, by a decree of .lu!y 2, iS.'Hi, 
declared liim and i.tlier.s outlawed, and one of them was executed. Conta A'., 
Col. f.ci/rx, iv. .'?'_'.')-.'iO, ;>l'.)-."8. (Iiianaeastc, later knoM-n as hibiMia, ."iiil 
Nicoya, for their loyally, wero rewardc d, tliu former bein;.; made a city, :i:nl 
tho latter a villa. Slulimt, Co- (a /,'., 100; Mouti'/nt; Uifuiii Ili^l., ii. 'J;;i) i^. 

'••Carrillo held the executive oilioc till March lti;!7, when, his term haviiij,' 



REVOLT I\ COSTA HICA. 



is;i 



by Manuel Aguilar, in April 1837. A plot intended 
to oviitlirow the government was soon after deteeted, 
jiiiil the authors were sent into exile.'* But Carrillo 
had also been disappointed at Aguilar's election, and 
hcincr influential with the soldiorv, lie had hut little 
diflieulty in gettin^r together a l»arty with wliich, on 
ilii' ■ITlli of ^lay, 1H38, he deposed this oflicial. send- 
ing iiini, together with the vice-jele, Juan ^NFora, into 
l)aiii>lnncnt."'' This was the first instance in ( osta 
Ivita when the le'dtiniate government of the state 
\\a> overthrown by force of arms. It cannot be said 
that the change was altogether for the worse. Under 
Canillo's active and energetic rule the countrv made 
rapid progress in a material j)oint of view. " He saw 
at once the hopelessness of reestablishing the Central 
American confederation,'^ or of reorijanizing it so os 
to render it beneficent to tlic several states; and 
therefore, instead of making fruitless efforts in that 
direction, strove rather to isolate Costa Rica. This 
policy he impressed on the second constituent con- 
vention, which met on the 1st of November, l.SoS," 

espircil, ho surroiulcred it to Joaquiti Mora, a lirothcr of the former jcfc, Juan 
Slura, who ruled only one nidiitli, and began liis administration l>y opposing 
Bon;e (if Carrillo's moasiirea. /</., 'M'2. 

"Aguilar luid iiolitical eiienuo3 -who accused him of friendship for rartaqo, 
Hi V( .11.1, and Al:ijiu'!a, llicrehy exposing Sail Josu to now assaults. With tliis 
prrt. \t a phin wan formed to assault the barratka at San J oso on tlic night of 
All,.'. •Jiitli. Id., :iIS-'20. 

■ 'Ciiniilo \\ai recognized aa jcfo by a spciid dccreo of the assenddy ou 
tlu.'.;;ili of .hino, and reuMincd at the iiead of all'airs tdl l'>4'_', when In; was 
ovcitiU'iun in hi.i turn. Co-fa A'., CoK A'.'/;-'', iv. •2\\; Mirurr, Jj'iiii., 04; 
Moii'iihn-, Hr-ii lid ///.-,'., ii. ;iL'J-.'5. Miguel Carran.'.a, (.';ir;illo'.s father-in law, 
beciiiiK! \icc-jefe. Sfijihcii,f, Cinit. Am., i. H.'ilt. 

'"I'.e estahlialiuil a reign of despotism, in whieli hi^^ \\ill was law, restrict- 
ing lie press and punisliing his jiolitical opponents with expatriiition and 
otiiiin i>o, tliougli tliey were pardoned in IS.'JS. iJu-il:i J'. , ' 'c/. J.r)/( s, iv, .'j'_'0-l, 
V. !)li lilO, l'.t.'5-i. His fiurse made him m:iny eneinii's, uhom he trealcil with 
tlieiitiuoit burahncss. His eliungo from a liljcr.d tuh r loan arhitiiuy ono 
was liiico marked, llo wua known by the sobiifjiiet of Supo de Lo/::. A 
nun. c r of ehargcR fiLrainsl him iipjiciirin .Monlii/n; /,'■.<' ila Hist., \i\, ,"(;|-7'J. 
Dm ;!ig his fornur administration, in ls;>0, ho restored the tithes ami tlie <'x- 
ccsiio nundier of liolidays of ihi! ehureh. 

'' 'Ihe assendily had, in Apiil iSilS, passed a lesolutioii inviting <lie lederal 
cou.'! ess to call a national con'.ention tor the exelusive juiijiosa of relorming 
the Kilcnd institutions. Co4a f'.. Col. /-(//'■.-<. v. I!M1-S. 

''Carrillo could noc rule with Ihclibcral constitution of IS'2,5. To do away 
with thi.i obstacle hou-cd lis a pretex; thedcereoof the federal congiis.s of 
Mny "iD, lb;;S, oiiipoweriiig the -l.ttts l ■ reeon-.lilute themselves. The ussem* 



184 



SALVADOR, NICARAGUA, AND COS'lA RICA. 



and on the loth the formal st'pai'ation was declai'cd, 
the convention still nianilestini^ a willin'L^ness to main- 
tain a sort of union hy means of specijil treaties."" 

He al.-<o took effeetive steps to })ay olf ( 'osta llici.s 
•sliare of tlie fv)i'eifrn debt, contracted by the Central 
American republic. The state was for a lon<( time 
exempted from the .afflictions and conscipient injurious 
I'esults which visited the other states diiiinu^ the bitt( r 
last struggle in 1840 between Morazan and Carrci-.i 




U^» '-- 



CosiA Rica. 



lor the existence of the republic. The other statis 
were impoverished and biouglit to the verge of ruin, 
whereas Costa Itica, with comparative tranquilhtv, 
was constantly marching Ibrward. 



Illy of C sta Rica acceptiMl the dei'ivc on tin; Kith of July, 18.18, iunl Ciiiiilli) 
Kci/i'il tlio opportunity to got riil of a fumlaiiicntiil law that did not suit liini. 
It wan at his H\i,L,%'eHtioa that the asseiidjly, liy decree of July II, 18.'t8, cillcl 
the constituent convention. Costi A'., ' 'o/. Lcne*, iv. -48-ol, '_'7!)-81; Moiilt'iJ'', 
Jifscfia Hist., iii. 'J(>(i-7. 

'"A treaty of friendsliip and alliaiic(! was concluded July 1, ISolt, witli 
Honduras; another of tlie same character one nioutii lati'r with Cuatcnialii. 
lioth are yi\en in Conveiu-'niii, in Vml. Am. t'lum/ ilutiuii.i, 13-14. '2',i-C>. 



COAT OF ARMS AND FLAG. 



m 



The prcsiclont, on the 21st of April, 1840, decreed 
a <(iiit ot" arms and ilag ibr tlie state of Costa Rica.** 
This was abroLijated by the provisional j^overiiinent 
two years later.*^ 

"■'I'lii' tout fif iiims was .a star witli rays, placed in the centre of a sky-bluo 
ciixlo, ;iii(l liail !it tlio circimifticiifc llic iiiscrii)tion 'Kstado <lc Costiv itica.' 
'I'lii' llai,' ^■(lnsi^t(•ll of tlirce luiri/inital stri)i( s, tin: upixTinost and lowest white, 
mill tlio fc iitiid one sliy-liluo, with th'; coat (jf arms on the hittiT. The flaj; 
(if tlicnuicantilc marine w,is not to liave the coat of arms, l)ut instead of it, 
ill silver letters on the centre stripe, the inscription 'Kstado ile Costa Kica.' 
Cosia /.'., O'L Lrifx, vi. .Sllj-'JC 

•■' ritftiiKiit .Slonizan's decree of .April 20, 1842, restored the flag, arms, 
aiiil coins as before the promulgation of Carrillo's. 







* ; . V'H 



CHAPTER X. 

DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION. 

1S39-1S52. 
Interstate Dissensions — Pacto de Ciiinandeoa — Confederacion Ci;:< 

TKO AmEIMCANA — Sri'ltEMO DeLEGADO ClIAMOKKO — HOSTILITY OF GCA 
TEMALA AND liUIIISU OfIICIALS— AUCE InVAOES SaLVADOI! — WaU .1 
THE CoNIEHEIiACY AOAINST (JTATEMALA — IIl.I.l'LESSNESS OF ClIAMoKKn 

— End of Till'. Pacto hh Ciiinandeoa— Condition of the Stati.s- 
Feukeiia's IJad Faith— Salvador and IIoNDruAS aijainst Num. a 
OCA— lIoniiOKS OF Leon— Vice-pim;sident JoAyriN E. Gtzman- Hon- 

DCIW.S AND SaLVADOII AT WaU — GcaUDIoLA's VANDALISM — MaLKSI'IN 

Ovektiiuown— Renewed Efforts to Confederate— Guatemala an 
Independent Keitblic — Costa Kica Follows— Salvador, Nk aka 

GUA, AND IIONDIUAS A CONFEDERACY— ItS SiIORT LiFE — FURTIIEII In- 
SUCCESSFFL ATTEMPTS, 

The government of Nicaragua, on the 13th oi' 
Soptcniucr, 1839, following the advice of ]Mini>.trr 
Pavon of Cuatenuila, asketl for the mediation (•(' 
Frederick Chatfield, the British consul, in an en 
deavor to bring to an end the existing dissensii»iis 
with Salvador. Chatlield declined to interfere, on tlu' 
plea that Salvador, in a treaty witii the state of Li>, 
Altos, on the 10th of August, had insulted the Brit- 
ish crown.' However, on the 'J7th of ]\Iav, 1840, In 
sent to the government of Nicaragua an extract of a 

'Articles Stii nnd iUli of tlii>) trcity stipuliitcil tliat the ports of Imiii 
statc.< were to he elose(l to liiilisl' tnule until (iieat Uiilain slioulil restoiv t" 
Ceiitfiil AiiKM'ii.M the i.,l;iiiil cjf Koiitaii, thy seizure of which, to^^eilu'r witli 
its e(iiisi'c|Ueiices, is tre:iteil of ill iiiiolher jKiit of tliia vohiine. ChiiUii'M. 
wlio h;iil ln'cii favoriiii; iho views of tiiiateiiiala iiL;aiiist Iaih Altos, (leei.iiwl 
to till' latter that the.^e artieles were ntleii.sive to his gipvi'iniiieiit. Tlio f:'iv- 
t'i'iiiiieiit of the new .state, lp('iM;4 aii.\iiiM:i to avert any iiiLerruiaioii of fiiea lly 
relations, liy its minister, A,:.;iiilar, ai-suiril the eonsul, on thu ISth ot .l.iii , 
Ib-40, that the ohjuotiuiialjle articles woulil bo reacimleil. 

(ISC) 



drawn 
.sent to 
to I'fori 
Xicara< 
tliL' ace 
iH'giiini 
iii;i'liia\ 
<'Ngust 
Tlh-v re 
lltllof 
ti"u in 
cidiial I 

((('!rg;„|o 

<iv'' choi 
Mil's.-* 



ll 







EXGLISII IXTERVEXTIOX. 



187 



(.t 
.tri- 
ll ol" 
(■11- 

tlu- 

it- 

Ur 

1)1' U 

l.i.iii 

liv t ' 

lui'.'.i 
lli.'M. 



P 






tlesnatc-h of March '2d from the Bi'itish forclg^n ofHco, 
savinj,' that his sovereign would cordially metliate be- 
tween the two states, provided such mediation was 
askfil for by both, or by all the governments inter- 
ested, in which event he, Chatiield, was authorized to 
use his <j(iod oiFices. But ho was at the same time 
directed to add that Great J>ritain was not disposed 
to iMiter into any eiigiigement binding her to employ 
arnicil forces in Central America. This course was 
not pleasing to Favon, l)ut fidly satislied the execu- 
tive t)f Nicaragua. Chattield's mediation was never 
called for. 

Buitrago, director of the state of Nicaragua, was 
drawn by the force (4' public opinion to give his as- 
sent to the state taking part in a convention intended 
to reorganize the republic of Central America.'^ The 
Nieara<'uan delegates used their best endeavors for 
the accomplishment of their mission; but from tho 
beginning they ftjund their efi'orts hindered by tho 
nui'hiavelism of the aristocrats of Guatemala, and in 
disgust left the convention after tiling a protest.^ 
They returned to it afterward, however, and on the 
11th of April, 1842, tho convention made a declara- 
tion in seven articles establishing a 'ijobierno na- 
cioual provisorio,' having at its liead a 'supremo 
delegado,' with a council composetl of one representa- 
tive chosen by each of the respective state assem- 
L>lies.^ Antonio Jose Cauas was appointed supremo 

•"I'lic stiitc •.-i-^i'iniily imsscil a (locioo to that end Apiil 17, IStl.atul iip- 
poiir.ril ihc ili')uiti<'3 to luiii'i'soiit it, tlioapiKiiiitcus liciii.,' FiaiiciscoCastilloii, 
(iivjcrio Jiiaii'Z, lliiiito lu)salcM, Kx-jtlo .lu.-o Xinkz, ami Uuitinncnililo 
Zcji' ija. 'J lie last iiaimil was riprcsi'iiti'd liy Siltastiaii Salinas. (Ja-ilcilmi's 
Bfltcuoii liy the assuiiil)ly was a blow at IJuiLrago, the two lieing bitter D^po- 

UOllts. 

' 111 tlin protest tlioy sot forth tho niachitiations liioui,'ht to l>rar to iluft-'at 
tliiiii. Nicaraijna (iiul Salvador had a.-kfd liiiati'iiiala and (,'o.-.(a liica to 
rnlir the loiivcnlion. Fiiivra, the exeon live ot' Ihrnihiias, played a iloublu 
giiiu'. Ill' had rrprfsi'nt,,ti\es in the foiiviiiticjn, wh.le ho was luai,'ued with 
tlie ai'sluorats (if (iciatcniala, who spurned the itka of reorgauization. 
Moir,n,u\ Ji'i'Mi'id lli-t., iv. 141. 

'Miantinie the convention named tho KuprcnH! deloj^atc anil tho inoinhors 
of llio council. The duties of the executive oliicer were uiuUiiarious, ia« 



'W'M^^t 






I 






188 



DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION. 



(1('lciL;-a(lo. But tliis great effort on the part of the 
null imbued with a truly patriotic sj)irit came tu 
uauu^lit, l)ecause the assemitly of Guateuiala indiL,''- 
iiiiutly i-eji'cted tlie couipact of Chinandega, and I\ i- 
rei'a of J loiuhiias acted iu bad laith, Costa liua 
accepted it with certain restrictions/ 

A second effort was made on the 27tli of July at 
Chiiiande''a hy the deh.'irates of Salvador, Honduras, 
and Xicarai^ua, who passed an act to form a leaL;uc 
under the name of Confederacii^n CV'ntro Americana."^ 
Sixteen of tlie articles in the constitution conibruicil 
with the instiuctions given by the aristocrats of Gua- 
temala throuLdi the state assend)lvto the connnissioii- 
ers despatclied to the villa de Santa Kosa on the L\sili 
of Se[)tember, 1830; and yet, after their adoption ly 
the convention of Chinandega, these same persons 
nuide op[)osition to them. The fact was, that tiny 
liad been all along using deception, appointing com- 
missioners to several diets, but never intendiniif that 
a reorganization of Central American nationality 
should be arrived at.' 

volving foreign and iiitcrn.il niTiiirs. Among the foreign affairs was the iic- 
gotiuting of .1 concordat with tlio ]iojic, anil of a treaty with Spain for her 
rcfognition of Central American independence, llu was also to procure tiie 
reassembling of tlic American diet. ii(jiiicr'n Tnn\, ii. 444-"); J\loi)ti(j'iir, /.''■ 
senn Hist., iv. 147-8; llekhanlt, Xk., IW-i; Salt:, JJiario Ojk-., Fch. 14, IST'). 

''Act of tlio constituent assembly, d.atcil July 'JO, 1S4'J. Montii/ar, Jum wi, 
Hist., iv. .•304-5. 

"The act consisted of 77 articles, and was an amplification of tlic foninT 
act. Art. 4 said that the confederate states recognized the principle of injii- 
intervention by one or more states in the internal affairs of t'lo ntliers. Tiny 
bound tiienisclves never to resort to arms for tlie Bottlement of dispuud 
points, nor to jiermit tiio annexation of towns of alien jurisdiction witliDiit. 
tlie express as.sent of their sovereign. The other states of the late iiiiinii 
were granted the privilege of joining the confederacy with equal rights iui'l 
representation. Art. 14 prescribed tliat the government was to be e.xoivisiil 
througli delegates for the general objects of common benefit expressly m t 
forthiu the instrument. Art. l."). Tlie executive authority was to be in ch.iri,'e 
<if a supremo deleg;i<lo, witii a consnltive council formed wiMi one uiomhiT 
from eaeii state. Art. 10. The judicial power was intrusted to .a court coim- 
posed of memlicrs ehosen l)y tlie stato legislatures. The delegates ulio 
sulisciibed the net were; J. Nunez, (I. Juarez. Francisco Castellon, I'clio 
/eledon, and Seliastian Sidinas for Nicaragua; Mannc 1 Barborena, and .losii 
IM. Cornejo for Salvador; Manuel K. Vazquez, Monico iJue.so, and Jacobo K'lsa 
for Honduras. Civt. Am., I'acto ik Con/id., l-TJ; A'iA.s' Jlcj., Ixiv. "J; La 
i'liiuii, Jnuti ]."), 1S,")0; Moiiti'ifui', Ik.ftila y/(.s<., iv. '2(J0»S"J; I'abeltou yac, 
Oct. lit, 1S44, '21; Frorbd'K, CV/..'. Am., \\X 

' An act was passed by the constituent assembly on the '28th of July, I S41, 



PACTO DE ClIINANDEGA. 



1S9 



Guatemala accredited a legation at Leon, Gcr6niiin> 
CVnacho being the envoy, lie tried to exculpatt- 
his <_;-overnnient for its opposition to the conn)act oi' 
Cliiiiaiidoga, asserting at the same time its tinii re- 
solve to ujjhold the treaty concluded in October 184l', 
liv Pavoii. Arriaga, and Duran, and accepted by 
('o>ta Rica in May 1843.^ This opposition, notwith- 
staiiding the organization of the executive aud coun- 
cil, under the ct)mpact of Ciiinandega, was eftected at 
Siiii Vicente, in Salvador, on the 29th of ^larch, 1^-14; 
Frulo Chamorro, delegate from Nicaragua, Ijcing 
cIio>rn su[>reino delegado, Juan Lindo, delegate from 
lldiuluras, president of the council, and Justo ILr- 
roia, ex-jefe of the same state, secretary of that body. 
Tlio installation of the confederate government was 
at (iiice comnmnicatcd to the several states. 

Honduras, on the 27th of A[»ril, recognized and 
arc'([ited what had been done at San Vicente. Sal- 
vador and Nicaragua expressed much satisfaction. 
The reactionary government of Guatemala ke[)t silent, 
and on being pressed for an answer, n.-turned a cold 
and laconic one, to the cftect that the matter wouM 
1)0 laid before the legislative body; that is to say, the 
assembly which, on the 17tli of April, 1839, had de- 
clared the Central American confederation dissolved.'' 
It I'ould not be expected that such an assend)ly would 
^ivc its assent. The committee to which the subject 
was referred made an unfavorable report, whiidi the 
asseuihly accej)ted. Costa llica suggested ameiid- 
iiniits to the *[)acto de Ciiinandega.'^" This docu- 

piirpiiitiiiL,' to have in view a restoration of the union. Giiaf., Urcop. Lri/ia, i. 

'(■(iv'fi A'., Col. Lnii.i, viii. CS-HG. 1\\U treaty \v;i.s calleil l>y the \v^A^^■^ 
' trat.nl') tie union.' Carcaclio ]iii)(luceil a iioti' of .Iiuio 17, ls|;!. inim Ay -i- 
iii 11:1 iritt ratiuL; his governments ]iiotost af,Minst the expedieney and praeli- 
laljiliiy of (ntalilisliing in Central Anierie.v ' una forma ile ^^oMerno uni ai io,' 
wliiili ill in opinion wouM entail upon tlio couutiy siill jiieaier niisiuriun. s. 
Casttllon, for the Nicarat^ua executive, replied on tlio .")th of Aii:,'., (Iniyini; 
tlwt any oll'enec had been coniinittej by tntcrtaiiiinjj! o[)iniond I'avoraljle ta 
tlio late j,'ovennnent.. Moiili'i/iir. liseiia Ifint.. iv. l."il--. 

'lliwra I'az'deercc, in Hunt., licfop. Lfiic, i. 4(i-8. 

'' fosta Itica appointed delegates tu the diet. Co-t<i A'., Col. I.<'yc.'>, viii. 
57-9, 'JJ-8, 183-9. The minister of Guat. had proposed to Co.sta Rica a cou- 



100 



niSSOLUTIOX OF THE UNIOX. 



I 



■i 



iki 



i 








!«■" 


' i lir'ki-;- 


M ■ ■ ! ^ 


m 


1 


il 


yu 





iiiont never liad any practical value, for the goveni- 
nionts which were parties thereto took no account of 
the duties it imposed on them. It will be seen that 
the executive of Honduras was its covert enemy, and 
that the <]fovei-mnent of Salvad(jr oj)enly infringed a 
nund)er of its clauses, 

INIalespin, president of Salvador, was arranging af- 
fair's for a change in i'avor of a theocratic rt'nimc to 
j)lease Viteri, bishoj) of San Salvador, when ihw.s 
came that the state had been invadctl at Ati(juizaya 
b}' jManuel Jose Aire. The ex-prcsidiJiit had with 
liim troops of (jiuatemala, and a supply of arms and 
ammunition to ))ut in the hands of ^lalespin's cih'- 
mies. The question will be asked, Why did the aiis- 
tocrats of (jiuatemala. cause the invasion of Salvaihn-, 
Iier executive being their agent Males))i!i, who was, 
moreover, under the control of Jjishoj) Viteri { This 
is easily explained. IMalespin was, in the eyes of tlu; 
aristocrats, another Carrera, disposed at times to ^lip 
(Hit of their hands. It was, therefore, important to 
have him superseded by Arce, when affairs in the 
state would «;o on smootldv and to their satisfaction. 
In Arce ruling over Salvador, they would have, he- 
sides, a support against Carrera." But the ])eoph' of 
Salvador, albeit much dissatisfied with Malespin and 
Viteri, were decidedly opposed to Arce with aii>to- 
cratic surroundings. His invasion of the state only 
served to strengthen Malespin's power for a time. 
The president set the whole state in motion to lurct 
the emergency. He did even more: he asked foitlie 
assistance of the supremo delegado of the confeder- 
acy, which was promised him. Each state was to 
furnish 1,000 men; but meanwhile Salvador w a-- to 
l)lace 2,000 men at the disposal of the confedeiate 

volition of cominissidiiers fi'oiii all tlio states, .ijipoiiitrd in the in;inmr 1p '^iig- 
m'stiil, iinnu'ly, nil tlio (.'omniissioner.s were to lio <if Ciuiiti'nmla, and ilin itcii 
liy liini t'l ri'vicw the loiiqiact of Cliinau(lt'{,'ii. Tlio [imiinsition waa k jr, inl. 
'J'lic rt]H)il8 of the coniniitti'Ps in llio nssi'iiiMica of (iuatoniala ainl i u.sta 
liica n -i- gi\c'n in Moi,(ii/<ir, lli^iua Hint., iv. 'JSo-DT, ."SO, 407-t). 

"'J'liis would save tlicni from siicli blow.-) as tlio licut-gcn. iulliilnl ou 
them at I'inula and \'illa do Guadalupe, early in 1S41. 





>l .tiM, 


* 


■ OUAT 



MALESPIN AND ARCK. 



191 



,^\(^(Mitivc." Tlic general goveriinicnt agreed to use 
its utmost endeavors to avert the suhjugation of Sal- 
vador Ity Guatemala, ^[alespiii was (Mijoiiicd, on his 
part, to confine his military operations witliin tlie ter- 
iltoiy of his own state. ] fe easily got togetlier in a 
ji \v (lays at San Salvador 4,000 nien,Mith whieh foreo 
he n:arehed to the front. One ]iortion oi' the van- 
;^iiar(l, under Lieutcnant-ef)loiiel l^edro I'lscalon, on 
the jth of May, reacjied the Chingo Valley in ])ur- 
>ult of Aree, A(|uilino San ^laitin, and Guillermo 
(^)iiinlanilla, who lleel to their head(|uarters at Coate- 




Gl'atemala and Salvador. 

poqu(\ They were attacked there, and took to flight 
a second time, leaving a large (jnantity of arms and 
aniniunition. Another portion of the vanguard occu- 
pied Ghal(.'huai)a, placing a force and the artillery at 
K^aiita AnaJ^ 

^lalespin, in disregard of the command ho had re- 
ceived from the suj)reino dcdegado, marched triuin- 
phaiiily to Jutiapa, in Guatemala: in consequence of 
^vhiell, the government of Kivera Vi\z assumed that 

'-Till V were to lie paiil for l)y tlio oonfoilcrnto states. 

'^Tinsi; fiicta uppcar iu thu oUicial report to tho state Kovernmcnt on Mar 

C, IMI. 



I 



A 



PijiJ 







! ' ' 



Itt 



DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION. 



Guatemala was in a stato of war, her territory hav- 
inj^ l)ecn invaded; and Carrcra was eallud upon to use 
her forecs against tlie invadeis. A forced loan was 
decreed, and a change took place in the cabinet, Man- 
uel F. i'avon assuminuf the portfolios of relations, 
government, and war.'* Pavon was certainly tli.' 
man for the occasion. ''^ lie returned an answer to 
a note from tlie minister of the supremo delegadn, 
which Milla, his bioi,n';ipher, has pronounced an aide 
and conclusive one. JJut it was in reality a mass oi" 
abuse against Salvador and ^Ealespin. Jfo did not 
attempt to show tiiat Arce's invasion was not the act 
of tile (juattMualan go ernment, as he should have 
done; but claimed that the war agiiinst ^Ealespin was 
not a consequence of Arce's act, but of the malice of 
the Salvadorenos.^'' 

The bad climate of Jutiapa soon began to decimate 
the Salvador army, reducing it to al)out ;],000 mm. 
IMoreover, the government of Salvador, then in 
charge of Vice-i)resident Guzman, could not easily 
procure means for the support of such a force. It 
was quite evident that the time for upsetting ( ai- 
rera had not yet come; and ^lalespin's defeat wcuild 
only bring greater outrages upon the people. I'a- 
tience was necessary unthir the circumstances, it 
was consequently decided to abandon Jutiapa and n - 

'^Jo8(5 Antonio Azmitia became minister of tlie treasniy, and Maii.,il 
Ubico undcr-Kuc.-ycn. 

'^ lie could not deny Arce's invasion of Salvador, l)iit pretended tliiit u> 
prondnent man of tlie govt or of the aristocratio party bad any knowbtl. ■ "1 
ins Intention to invade, or of the source from wliiili lie oi)tained lii.^t sup| liis. 
I'avon knew well enough, but prevarication was convenient. The fart is, 
Juan A. Alvarad", (iwatenialan agent in San Salvador, hail given bis govi rii- 
nient timely information of the intended invasion. Aice'.s departun: w.ij 
open. In order to put an iuTiocent aivi)iaranee on the allair. the govt deeitr.l, 
May rj, 1811, that Arco should leave the city within "Jt liouis, and the .siiito 
within 'JO days. In an address to the people on tin; "Jd of .Inne, Rivera I'az 
says that Salvailor cnus.saries bad been detected trying to rouse the peiijM' i f 
Los Altos to insurrection, and that the plan was intended to avenge thr ili- 
feat of \SU). 'I'his is hardly true; for Malcspin had been then on Cai i era's 
side against Morazan, and bis tool in Salvudur ever since. The arislni ia!3 
had, wiien it suited their jiurposes, ]]ublished letters of liberal leaders tail- 
ing in their bands; and yet they never brought out those said to have Ikcu 
taken troni the emissaries at Los Altos. 

'•The two notes are given in Monfii/ar, Heseila Hint., iv. 531^41. 



fM.ml ,„to at tl,o liaeW,' I '."'"^''''''nwaa 

;}■: ""-i"""'- "car the eo^tio r*'' *" ""■■«''' 

ilMs n.nvcntiou was, )iowovr.J n ,g"verniii,.„t." 

.;..! .vlusd to ratify it ia,,.V''"'''''-''"''''<''^'H'''l'' 
pualeii.ala dctermineil that it i i ,=','*>-''-i""fnt „f 

eonventmn being ratitic, bv^«," '"" "*'•*"' t„ tl.o 
»".! made a declaration „f Z.„ ■ ."."'f'"'" ''dogado, 
G.«(on,ak« He re,' r t the I l""?"'"'"' '""■•■"■'I 
L.".., «|,o ),ad been driven C, r "''' '''^sidini; at 

tlltl,, „f (,e,|,,, ti ,.■„>«,>.•,'• "'"■ I'O accuses 

ll«^' |.acto de Cid„andeg:ll ^f i'ouorabk „,c„. 
»»;'; a dead letter. Honduo.? S'V "=™> ''"^ ''o- 
'•" I." lOth ..f Jul/, 844 '",%"'' ^^^'"^'''■^tcrod, 

"«»tv, v>hich was ratified b'vtot^," ^'''™''°'-' ""» ^ 
"(■«'■ Vicente f>,„ •'^ ' guvornnionts.'" 

'•'"».«,,., Apr. -a'lsil 1?',"^' ^'f<^m j,,i7,7 <•.■ i-'-'' ''"»"'» 

'w'r iij»i]-ii,.fi„..„ "-^rwui aiiicndinents ).;» . V ' •'' '^i. 

■"ovcn,. on Si^^«^ ''"miliated sSadJ • ^^.Tr^^'^^^'''^ '"^^'"S cxceo.Ie.l 

obi,,. to,.y. ^"^'^P-- Ax.d ^ct GuateSl' U tU'le '■"'""^'^''-' ^- ''- 

J liu ohiect tl,pn • • "•-'-Jaiea the couveution to ha 

obtain,,! peace. ^^ «acnficu,g a great portion of Jar ' U o 



IM 



DISSOI-UTIOX OF THE UNTION. 



* ' 




Chamorro's government was notified by Forrcra 
that auxiliary forces from Nicaragua would no lonLjcr 
be allowed to traverse Ilonduran territor}'.'* Cha- 
morro's minister, M. Aguilar, remonstrated against a 
measure which would prevent the arrival of IViciidly 
troops to defend the confederacy, whereof Ilonduias 
was a component part." Chamorro, using his lawful 
authority, ordered J. Trinidad Munoz, who coiii- 
maiidcd the Honduras force of operations, not to 
obstruct the passage of the Nicaraguan troops. ^lufioz 
disobeyed the order; and upon the Nicaraguaiis ar- 
riving at Choluteca, on the 17th of August, he re- 
quired them to leave the territory of Honduras 
forthwith; which not being done, he assailed and con- 
quered them on the 19th, after a three hours' liLjlit.*' 
This action had a great influence on the fate of (An- 
tral America; for it satisfied the aristocrats of Guate- 
mala that the supremo dclegado had no means for 
enforcing his authority or for carrying out his j)lans. 
It was virtually a declaration of war between Hon- 
duras and Nicaragua. Malespin was likewise iiii- 
boldened by it to assail Nicaragua. The latter must 
then move with the utmost activity against Fetivra, 
before Malespin, now at peace with Guatemala, eouM 
come to his aid. But difficulties that could not lie 
overcome were in the way; and it was only on the 
23d of October that upwards of 1,000 Nicarai;uans 
appeared before Nacaome, which they assaulted the 
next day, and ifter two hours oi' hard fighting, were 
re[)ulsed.'''^ 



■idently a league against Nicaragua, tbongh it (-annnt 
against the party called 'cocjuinibos,' tur ;:eiKT.il3 
now serving with Malespin. Moidul'iir, lleaefia llift. 



the an-angement wai 
bo Huiil to have bc' 
Saget and I'^spinosa w< 
iv. r)07-8, 5S1-*-'. 

"'The confederate ecutive had ordered a force of Nicaragucnses tofime 
into Salvador through he department of Choluteca, Lieut-col Agiiado being 
charged with their tr asportation. 

'■'^Thc troops could not come by sea, the port of La Union being tiicn 
blockaded by a Britisii frigate. Copy of Aguilar's note, dated Aug. II, 1M4, 
in /(/., f)G9-71. 

"''Mnfloz' report sets the enemy's loss at 156 killed, besides many prison- 
ers, and over 200 muskets, etc. 

" Tlio place was defended by upwards of 700 men under Juan Morales. 



m\ 



WAR ON NICARAGUA. 



195 



. t 



Trinidad Cabaiias and Gerardo Barrios, two ( 
Moiazan's officers, made, on the 5th of September, 
1844, an attempt at San Mijjfuel to overthrow Males- 
pin without bloodshed; but haviiiLif failed, they went 
(ilf to Nicaragua by way of La Union. Malespin'a 
minister, Josd Antonio Jimenez, then demanded of 
tliL Xicaraguan government that Cabaflas and Bar- 
rios should be either expelled or surrendered to Sal- 
vatlor for punishment. The demand was rejected. 
The (wo officers were by no means discouraged. They 
jn'iscvcred in their ellbrts, which, more than any- 
tliini,' else, finally brought about the tyrant's over- 
tiirow. By virtue of a special decree, ^lalespin took, 
(Ml the 25th of October, personal command of the 
state forces, j)lacing the executive office in charge of 
the vice-president, Joaquin Eufracio Guzman, who 
fiti tlic same day entered upon the discharge of his 
duties, giving Malespin unlimited powers for the de- 
foiiri! of the state. Such authorization did not justify 
Males])iu's carrying the war into Nicaragua.^ This 
state, after the defeat of its troops at Nacaome, had 
removed them from Honduran territory, and sued 
for peace. And yet Malespin, in violation of the 
laws of Salvador, made preparations for an ofFensivc 
war against Nicara<j:ua. 

It will bo well, before relating the events of this 
campaign, to cast an eye upon the present lamentable 
condition of the four states thus bent upon each other's 
destruction. Guatemala was ruled by the aristocrats 
^vith a rod of iron. Her financial aifairs were com- 
pletely disorganized. In Salvador Malespin had no 
other rule of conduct thun his own will and Bishop 
Vitcri's evil counsels. He believed himself surrouniled 
by enemies, and indeed he was.*^' Honduras was in a 



^f'lizman could not ^{rant such authority, as it was of tlio cxclusivo 
provincu of the state congress. It was, besides, unnecessary, as neither Sal- 
vadnr nor Honduras was invaded. 

"'lor his own security, in his absence, ho placed his brother, Calixto 
Makjpiii, as comandanto general, near Vice-president Guzman. This man 
used to opun Guzman's correspondence, and deliver him only such despatches 



III 



^ ff 




loa 



LXSSOLUTION OF THE UNION. 



disturbed state, and the victim of Ferrera's despotism. 
Nicaragua was in anything but a satisfactory situa- 
tion. The men who with their superior t.iknits, 
statesmanship, and influence niiglit have carried tho 
ship of state safely through the coming storm, Fran- 
cisco Castellon and JMaximo Jerez, were in Euro^io 
working: to undo the evils wron<rht acjainst Cential 
America by Pavon and Chatfiold. The director of 
the state, Manuel Perez/'^ lacked the prestige that 
the occasion required, Casto Fonseca, the com- 
mander of the forces, had been given the rank of 
'gran mariscal.'^^ 

The pacto de Chinandega had ceased to exist. 
Owing to hostile acts of Malespin, Chaniorro had to 
seek safety in flight. Ferrera treated Chanioiio 
with contumely, and shamefully abused him in a 
report to the chambers of Ilc^nduras, in January 
184G.^^ Malespin and his army u^ainst Nicaragua 
entered Honduras, and at Nacaome made an address 
to the president and army of II<jnduras.^^ The two 
allied presidents had a conference at Sauce on the 
7th of November, and agreed thi\t Malespin should 
be recoi^nized as the general-in-chief of their foicos. 
At Choluteca proposals for peace came from Loon; 
and on the 21st of the same month the treaty of 
Zatoca"''* was concluded, which was disgraceful to the 

as lie tiiouglit expedient. See circular of Jimenez, Guzman's minister, to 
govornura of dcpartiiicuts, of Feb. I'J, 1815, in Id., "17-18. 

"" 1 Ic was the constitutional chief. Ayon, ApuiUes, 4; Svmanario Nic, Apr. 
24, ISTJl. 

^' A pompous title, which rendered him ridiculous in the eyes of ni;iiiy, 
wliilo it cxuiti-'d jealousy on the part of otlicrs. .97»tVr'.s Truv., ii. Hit. 
Fonseca is represented as a drunkard, ignorant, and the most brutal tVMiit 
Nicaragua ever had. Life and property were subject to hia nod. Dunl'ii'i 
Cent. Am., 224-5; Wells' Jloml., 494. 

"''It should be known that Chamorro had not been a Morazanista, or even 
a liberal. lie was tiie chief of the conservative party in Nic. On Marcli -•, 
1845, his term having expired, and tiierc being no legal succes.«or, lie (kiiit'l 
that tlio ollioo of supremo delcgado ceased to exist, and commuuicatcil tin; 
fact to the governments of the several states. Moiiliij'ar, lt(.-<ena Hid , iv. 1-.'. 

"'Oct. .'U, 1844. Tho object of the war, ho said, was to avenge the insult 
inflicted by Nic, on Houd., and it was to be waged till a lasting peace cuuh! 
be secured. 

•* Here tho invaders were joined by Gen. Manuel Quijanoand 04 dragoons 
who h-d deserted from Leon. 



ATTACK ON LEON. 



197 



Ni<'aiaguan negotiators.^" A secret clause was also 
ji'Tced to, binding Nicaragua, among other tilings, to 
ivtiit; her troops from Chinandega to Chiehigalpa. 
But the authoi'ities and people of Leon preferred 
death with honor to submission to such degrading 
(kiuands. The treaty and secret clause were indig- 
nantly rejected. Perez, the director, surrendered the 
exfCLitive office to Senator Emiliano Madrid. 

In the night of November 21st the allied forces 
eniauiped in the barranca de San Antonio.^" On the 
2Gtli, at 8 in the eve jing, they were in front of Leon, 
and threw bombs into the city. The next morning 
at '.-> o'clock Malespin, being drunk, ordered an assault, 
which resulted disastrously for the invaders; for at 
sunrise he found his camp strewn with corpses.^^ 
The attack was, however, continued that day till 4 
oVIoek in the afternoon, when the allies found them- 
selves short of anmnmition, and with many of their 
chief officers killed or wound* k1. Discord now broke 
out among them, and the Hondurans wanted to 
abandon the campaign; but J. Trinidad Muhoz, act- 
ing lor Malespin, quieted them, and the struggle went 
on. That night Muuoz erected intrenchments, and 
at I)roak of day on the 28th the allies were in con- 
dition to act vi*/orously.^'' 

(Commissioners came out to the allied headquarters, 

•■'The comniissioners were Ilnrnicnegildo ZepeJa and Gurciuinio Carcache. 
Mak'spiii himself rxUd for Sal,. ;iud Huiid. Art. 1 requi. i;d \ic. to pay 
Salv. anil llond. all the ox|)ciiso3 of the present war, and to Salv. those in- 
ciUTtil in the war of April list ug.iinst Gnat., because Nie. hail failed to 
furnish her contin'^cnt of troops. This last payment was waived hy .^alv. in 
art. '.). Art. '2 calls for the surrendei' hy Nie. of all arms within her teiritory 
klunging to the allies. Art. ',i made it the duty of Nie. to di liver to the 
allied furei'S the 'facciosos' Joaquin llivera, Maximo Orellaiia, Mi;,'uel 
Ah arcz, Trinidad Cabanas, (ierardo JJarrios, Dic^'oand llanion Vijil, if found 
ill llio slate, and if they were out of it, not to allow them to reside tlurein 
Nw..iinit the consent of the allied governments. Art. 7 tiirows U[ion Nie. the 
ixptiise 1^' supporting the allied troops from the date of the ratilieation of the 
treaty till they should have roaelicd their quarters in their respective .states. 
Moiiiiifar, Ufsona Hist., iv. r/J_'-4. 

"'•iuai'diola became into.xicated and abused the deserters; whereupon half 
of tlit'iu abandoned the allied camp, and li<> was placed umU'r arrest. 
Aiuiiig tiic slain was (,'ruz (iiiardiola, a brother of the general. 




'"ll will be well to record here that Mun 
present liiliulation, was a Niciraguan by birth. 



to whom Leon owed 



id her 



1 






198 



DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION. 



and on the 1st of December a treaty was negotiated,* 
to wli it'll no ratification was given in the city, and tho 
war continued. Meanwhile there was much agitation 
in Salvador, with occasional revolutionary attempts, 
which becoming known at Leon, emboldened the 
authorities and citizens to keep up the fight, not- 
withstanding the other departments had turned against 
them.*° 

Josd Francisco Montenegro and Juan Ruiz wore 







C.nr^nlailo' 




fw^^i 






Toe/ .S' I/I .riinny •'SJ^fcVv 







Sou TU- \V ESIK K N N tCAU AU U A. 



"The negotiators for Nic. were Canon Desiili'rio Cortes and Anseliiii 
Aliiicon; for Salv. and llond., Gen. Niuokis Espinosa and J. T. Muun,. 
Under this capitulation tho terms agreed to in tho former one at Zatoca wf" 
to bo enforr-cd as regarded payment of war expenses and surrender of ariii>. 
Nic. bound herself to expel from tJic state Casto Fonseca, Cabanas, llivcni, 
OrcUana, Barrios, Alvarez, Diego, liamon and Josi5 Antonio Vijil, Doiiiin^'i 
Asturias, Jos(5 Antonio Milla, and Jos(5 Antonio Ruiz; and furtiieniidie, to 
deliver to Malespin some Salvadoraus who revolted against him at .Sau 
Miguel on the 5th of Sept., 1844. 

^"Granada took Malespin'a side, and was followed by Rivas and other 
places. It seemed as if all the actas had been written by the same haiiii, 
Moiitvfar, Itesefia //«<., iv. 600, C35-G. 



SIEGE OF LEON. 



199 



"-^ 



the commissioners of Rivas and Granada, near Males- 
pin. Their mission brought about the creation of a 
new government, which had no recognition in Leon. 
Senator Silvestre Selva lent himself to be made by 
Malcspin and his allies director supremo of Nicaragua, 
under the stipulation of ratifying the convention of 
December 1st, adding the name of Pio Castellon to 
the list of the proscribed." 

Several partial actions took place in other parts of 
the department of Leon, which turned out favorably 
for the invaders.^- But Malespin was furious at his 
failure thus far to capture Leon. The firing of his 
guns was incessant. He made a final effort, throwing 
himself at the head of a force upon the works of 
Sutiaba, which were in charge of Gerardo Barrios; 
and after some hours' hard fighting was repulsed, 
l(\ivina: the field covered with his killed and wounded. 
But there was no unity of action in the city at this 
time. Some officers believed that Casto Fonseca, 
though brave, was not competent to make a proper 
defence; and one of them, named Jose M. Valle, alias 
El Chclon, suggested that he should turn over the 
coniniand to Cabanas. Fonseca looked upon the sug- 
gestion as an insult, and in consequence Valle retired, 
and Cabauas became an object of suspicion to Fon- 
seca. The siege with its horrors continued. Tho 
fatal spirit of localism that maintained discord be- 
tween the several towns, .specially between Granada 
ami Leon, was now as ever, and till the transfer of 
the capital from Leon to Managua, a great misfortuno 



i 



r.'.vi'ia, 

■UHL', t'> 

lilt .Sail 

|l (itlicr 
hunt!. 



"Tlic most Imtniliating part of this nrrangomcnt was the ."lil chiuso, 
wlu'ieiii tho eastern ami soutlicrn ileiiartmcnts icco;;nize Malcspin ai 'pro- 
tcutor ilo lu3 Nicara;^iienses,' and gciicral-in-cliicf of tho uiiiLL'd arniios, in- 
cliuiin;^' one organized hy those tlepartnienta, till the end of the war. Id., W. 
GOO-'.'; .Vic, lif<ji«lro OjL., 12, 14, u5-C, 05, IJL», 110-l."i; Sandocal, L'cv. I'olit., 
0, l.VIS. 

'- Several odieera wcro shot, among them a number taken by Sagct, on 
the \ I .sst 1 Carolina. Malcspin issued stiingcut orcler.-i against rendering aiil 
to the l)esieged. An ollicial report from Nagaroto of Jan. '2;id, to the eoiuan- 
(laiitc at Managua, speaka of a defeat of troops of tho govt at J^con, with tho 
loss (if 'JOO killed, ;100 wounded, and many prisoners, together with 3 pieces 
of cannon and other arms, etc. .^tc, liCfjktro Ojic, 4. 



-Wr ill 



rlri'f 






■■'■ I 1 ■ ^h H 



" ■,: 1 



iSi;'? 




200 



DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION. 



for the whole country. The besiegers made the most 
of it." 

A vessel arrived at this time at Realejo with arms 
for the besieged, of wliich Malcspin got information 
from the Englishman Manning, and through Selva's 
agent lie obtained possession of 1,000 muskets, 200 
rillos, 200 barrels of powder, 200 quintals of lead, and 
12,000 flints. With this supply the operations against 
Leon were pushed with still greater vigor, and the 
city surcuml)ed to an assault by Guardioha on tlio 
24th of Januar}', 1845. INIalespin now gave full sway 
to his bloody instincts, by sliooting a number of 
prominent citizens and surrendering the town to tho 
soldiery for plunder." The outrages committed defy 
description.'*^ 

While Malespin was engaged in the Nicaragua 
campaign, the state of Salvador was preparing to 
throw off the yoke, and his brother Calixto was issuiu'jf 
arbitrary orders without tlie knowledge or assent of 
Vice-president Guzman. At last, at midnight be- 
tween tlic 30th and 31st of December, 1844, the gar- 
rison at San Salvador was surprised by a party of 
armed men from the Calvario, and captured, together 
•with the arms in the barracks.*" After that the ro- 

''It is related tliat Pcilro Zclodoii, a Costa Kican residing in Cliichigalpa, 
Nic., wrote Muiioz, depicting the liorrora of the war and tlio nceil of luaic. 
Malespin made Muiioz invite Zeledon to a conference, and when ho had liim 
in his power, demanded a ransom of §1,000, but did not get auytliing, and 
Zeledon obtained his liberty. 

"Tho only house exempted from plunder was Manning's. Many himats 
■were razed to tho ground, or bunicl purposely. 

^-'On tho first day the acting director, Emiliano Madrid, CrescencioXavns, 
cols Francisco Lacayo and Balmaceda, Capt. Valle, Jos6 M. Oscguera, :inil 
Father Crcspin were shot. Crespin's offonco was to have begged the infa- 
mous Manuel Quijano, at tho door of tho hospital for tho wounded, to ^pal■c 
them. Canon Cort(?3 was put to death afterward. Casto Fonseca, oaptMioil 
on tho coast, was tried by court-martial and shot. An eye-witness ilcrlarcil 
that '2i persons were executed by Malespin in Leon. Moutt'ifar, I'cxr/'i't lli-^f., 
iv., table no. 6, CISC; Sainlofcil, I'evisla Pclit., 7-13; Dnnlo/i'sCeiif. Am., '22', 
2;J0-:!; Nic, nrijiMro Ojir., 4-G, 14; Croicc's Gospr!, l.VJ-OI; i\ilr.<' /A,/., 
Ixviii. 1!)U. Bustamantc, Jl/^^m. Ilinf. Mex:, MS., ii. 77, speaks of Malesiiia'a 
acts of horrihlo cruelty, adding that according to the newspapers of (linit. 
Malespin had caused to bo assnssinated over 1,000 persons. 

•''Kigh'y live prisoners were released from the jail, many of whom 'i il 
been contined there for alleged political ofTenscs. 



rl t 



INDEPENDENCE OF SALVADOR. 



201 



of 
bc- 
i-av- 

of 

lor 
ro- 

(ilpa, 

[.•ace. 

him 

lusis 

anil 
lula- 
Bxiie 
fu'od 
liicil 

ll'i, 

|V:/., 

ill's 

Ivit. 



volt went on gaining largo proportions; but the rebels 
\\\rc defeated in the plain of Jucuapa, Cojutepeque, 
on ilic 4th of January, 1845. 

Tlic liberal chiefs Cabanas and Barrios, who es- 
caped from Nicaragua, reached La Union. Barrios,*^ 
with the view of rousing the Salvadorans, spread the 
rcjiort that Malespiu had succumbed at Leon. Ca- 
liMuas, a trutlifiil man, disliked the scheme, but finally 
allowed his companion to pursue his plan without 
contradiction. They both entered San Miguel on 
the 28th of Januar}', 1845, and loudly congratulated 
liis friends and acquaintances on Malespin's defeat. 
The whole department was soon in conunotion, and 
IctttrfS j)0ured upon Guzman to sound the cry ibr lib- 
erty. Calixto Malespin continued his arbitrary acts, 
and Guzman concluded to oust him from his com- 
mand, without bloodshed if possible. In this he was 
successful on the 2d of February;*^ the barracks 
wcr(! soon surrendered to him, the troops following 
his lead. The capital seconded the movement, and 
^va.s soon followed by the other departments.*' The 
•lovcnunent sent a circular to the other states an- 
iiouncing the change eflected, and it was recognized 
h\ all but ILjnduras."' 

The chambers of Salvador assembled on the 15th, 
hvl'nw which Guzman made an energetic speech, and 
Malespin was not only dethroned, but his election to 
the presidency was declared null." However, there 

'■ llu wasasoii-in-liiwof Vico-iircsiilcntGuziiiau. Tliey diirorcd in poll lies, 
li;t liaM'iti.s fully l)(>licvL'il that (Jiu'iiiauwas the person to overthrow Males- 
jiiii, an 1 imii-t 1)0 aided with sonip bold stroko. 

'" lli3 called a largo luimljcr of hi.s frieiuU to liia liouso and armed them 
with [M~;tols— he liad not a single musket at his conimaii<l. JIo then called 
the e aiaiiilanto general, and the mayor do plaza, Antonino Arevalo, and 
iiKi'le I'lisonera of thcni without resistance. Tho two escaped afterward, Ijut 
M.i'is]iii was recaptured, with a wound. 

*^\ctaof tiic capital on Feb. 2, 1S4,"). Montufar, ncacfin I/iM., iv. 71'.)-'_'4; 
.U«i,;'. Co».-.',7. Iiidrp., May 2, 1843; Li Minerva, May --'2, ISJ,".. 

^'('iista li. had heard of it by a vessel from Acajn'la, and sent her recD;j- 
nitioii heforo tho circular reached her. Tho govt t)f Kic, created by >',;! v 
jiin, recognized tSuzman. Tiio nobles of Guat. had to do tlio san' : ;::id 
Iiclicviiig themselves endowed with extraordinary good sense, added llir'r ail- 
vu' . wjih all tlio gr.avity of pcda^O'jues. Monttih'r, J^cur/ia Hist., i. (!7S. 
* lu tie ;^'round of unconstitutionality, ho being in command of the state 



i!? 










202 



DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION. 



was much to do yet to uproot him from Central 
American poHtics, as he had .he support of Honduras. 
In an encounter at Quelepa Cabauas was defeated, 
which gave the reactionists courage to approach San 
Vicente; but pubHc opinion was now so clearly pro- 
nounced against Malespin that Bishop Viteri turned 
against him, and began his eflforts to win over to the 
clerico-oligarchic party the new president, Joaquin 
Eufracio Guzman.'"^ He at once issued a decree oi 
excommunication against Ex-president Malespin.'^ 
But the government of Honduras being bent on suj)- 
porting Malespin at all hazards, Guard iola landed at 
La Union with an armed force, and occupied 8an 
Miguel; notwithstanding which act Guzman did not 
declare war against Honduras. Attributing it to 
ignorance of the true state of affairs in Salvador, he 
sent a second note, which, like the first, reUiccined un- 
answered. Malespin continued — with the assent of 
Honduras, and witliout that of Nicaragua, which had 
assumed neutrality in the contest — calling himself 
general-in-chief of the armies of Salvador, Honduras, 
and Nicaragua, and declared Guzman, the Salva- 



if ■ ' 



forces at the time the election took place. Circular Feb. 24, 1845, in Id., 
7lii>; Bl Salvudoi- lU'ticiicrado, no. '2. 

'■-'(iii/iiiiin was a Costa Itican liy birth, but had lived many years in S:in 
Miguel, .S;dv. lie entertained liberal iilciis from his earliest political life. 
His military service, nndor Morazan, began soon after the battle of GualLlin, 
and ho was present as a captain in the actions of San Miguel and Las Char- 
cas. ilo accoui[ianied that leader to (.juat. Li the invasion of Cent. Am. 
from ^lox. by Arec in ISii'J, Ciuzinan did gallant service at Jocoro, and eii- 
tcrod San Salvador with Morazan. Again during San Martin's rcbcUinii lio 
served under iiis chief as a lieut-col. The chambers of Salvador, on tlie i!)tli 
of May, 1 St."), declared (Jiizinan a 'bcnenierito do la patria,' and auarikd 
him a gold medal, nt the same time promoting him to general of division. 
Moiiliijar, JiiKcila lll^t., iv. (J'.i;}-4; Sulv., Dlirio (>fi<\, May 'Jl, IS'o. I'un- 
lop, CdU. Am., 110, says of him: lie was 'more remarkable for cunning tliaa 
honor or courage. His manners are gentlemanly; ho has no mixture of cul- 
orcd blood, and is rather good-looking, though he appears to possess but little 
talent or education.' 1 am inclined to think that iJunlop misrepresLii'iCil 
Guznian'ti character, for tJuzman proved himself a good and pure ruler, lunl 
his name is revered in the state and throughout Cent. Am. by all lovers of 
freediim and enlightenment. 

^^On the 'J.'td of Feb., 1815, grounded on tiie execution of priests at Lonii. 
The decree forbids the faitliful of the diocese to have any intercourse, veil'al 
or written, with Malespin, or to uphold or defend iiiai in any niaiiiR'!'. 
Full text in MontiiJ'ar, Itescfla Jiinl., iv. 079-81; Ihtshimaiitc, Mem. Hkt. 
Mfx., MS., ii. 78. 



i''\ 



TREATY OF PEACE. 



203 



Id., 



Jliul l-U- 

llinu ho 
l\io l'.)th 

\HU1- 

ol o'\- 
lit liUlo 

Vr, ;uiil 
l)vcr3 of 

Inuuuer. 



(loiaii chambers, and the inhabitants of upwards of 
100 towns which had set him aside, guilty of treason. 

Guzman was now menaced from several quarters; 
namely, from Malespin's partisans in San Salvador, 
tlio military at Comayagua, J. Trinidad Muuoz, who 
wanted to destroy the liberals that had escaped from 
Leon, and lastly, Rafael Carrera, who, though at 
tunes inclined to wheedle the liberals, generally had 
his claws ready to tear them to pieces. Guzman 
found the panther more untractablc than the other 
wild beasts. It was therefore necessary to place in 
Guatemala experienced tamers; but he was unsuc- 
cessful in this. His commissioners, though they 
managed by fawning to approach Carrera, met with 
poor success in their mission.** 

Guzman marched against Belloso at San Vicente 
defeated him. He next went to San Miguel, 



am 



56 



which he entered amidst the plaudits of the people. 
^Lilespin entered with him into a convention at Jocoro, 
binding himself to surrender all national property of 
Salvador and to leave the country. But the autlior- 
itics of Honduras disapproved the arrangement, and 
it fell to the ground;"''' the war continued, till on tlu' 
I8tli of April a treaty of peace and fricndshi|) >\ ;is 
concluded at Chinameca, to which the minister of 
Salvador, Dueuas, added another clause, requiring 
that both Salvador and Honduras should disband 
their troops immediately after the ratification of the 
treaty.'^' Honduras failed to ratify it, and proposed 

-''Tlifty wcro Cayetano A. Molina and Juan Antonio Alvai.-nlo. Tiiey 
askcil not merely for Carrcra's neutrality, but for his active aid, and were re- 
fenxl to the ministers, by whom they wore dealt with lU! ohildi\ n. 'Jlie 
ministers pretended that their request could not be acceded to withrmt an 
express sanction of the legislature, which was not then in session (>»• la -1; of 
a (luornin. The plea was a ridiculous one, when we consider that Carrera 
had never before consulted the wishes of the asscndily to act ids own wilt. 

'■> Malcspin had been acting there as president, nmler Ilond. support; but 
on Guzman's approach his troops disbanded, and lie lied. 

'''Ill March lS45the president of Ilond. took Malcspinand his companions 
undu- the protection of his govt. Nic, Hcjlitro <)jii\, o'i-l. 

" The conmiissioners of Ilond. were Sebastian Salinas and Leonardo Ro- 
mero; those of Salv., Jos6 Felix Quiroz and Nicohis Angulo. The treat\ vas 
ratilieil bySalv.,but rejected by tlio other contracting party. Text of the 
treaty and Duefias' additional clause, in MontvJ'ar, Disena IliM., iv. 7-tt-32. 



'f 



4 



'1 
m 



■ft 



I'll 





204 



DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION. 



that new conferences should be held at Gualcinse, 
and at the same time despatched 900 men upon that 
place under Malespin. Armed parties from Honduras 
invaded Salvador; and, indeed, Ferrera was using all 
])o.s,sil)le means to exasperate the latter state into com- 
mitting acts of hostility against the former, so that 
Carre ra might have an opportunity to take a hand in 
tlie game. 

The chambers of Salvador assembled at this time, 
and Minister Dueilas reported a treaty of peace, amity, 
and alliance with Guatemala.''* He seemed to expect 
aid frori that side of the river Paz."'' Nicaragua hnd 
extend. >d a friendly reception to two Salvador coiii- 
missioners.*" The chambers gave Guzman ample 
powers for the defence of the state. This did not 
include autliority to invade any otlier state, unless as 
a retaliatory measure. A resort to this was finally n^- 
solved upon, and a Salvadoran array under Cabanas 
marched the 24th of May upon Comayagua, meeting 
with defeat there on the 2d of June, and again at 
Sensenti on the 10th of the same month."^ The Hon- 

•''" Concluded by ("ayetano A. Molina and Juan A. Alvarado for Salv., ami 
Alcjandi'o Mariiro and Jos(5 M. do Uriuela for Guat., April 4, 184"); approved 
by tlu; constituent congress of Guat. on the '23d of the same month, ami pub- 
lioliL'd by Acting President Duran the next day. Guat., Hccop. Lerjen, i. 4l.j- 
19; Gnat., Gareti, July 8, 1853; Monit. Coiistit. Iiid., May til, 1S45; La Mi- 
iicrra. May 22, 1845. 

'* Duefias was then considered a liberal, though he was a Dominican friar 
when the convents were closed in 1839, for which reason the government of 
Guat. would not trust him. It was deceiving him. Ho was, however, the 
one most likely to succeed in keeping Carrera from aiding llonj. in the pres- 
ent emergency. Ilond. had sent Felipe Jiiuregni and Pablo Orellana to Guat. 
Tlie former was Ferrera's mentor, and in tlie councils of Pavon, Ayciiaiia, 
and Batres. At first ho was alarmed at the liberalism of the constituent cuii- 
gress, which had voted assistance to Salv. But he received assurances tl.at 
no aid would be sent except to quell revolts in tho interior; and, moreover, 
that tlie foes of Ilond. would bo stricken from tho Salvador admiuistiatioii. 
Ji'iuregui now understooil the game, and wrote his government that the voto 
o'" aid by congress practically amounted to nothing. A note containing tliese 
assurances was published in Comayagua. Guat. concluded a treaty of fr.eiul- 
eliip aiul alliance with Hond. on the 19th of July, 1845. Guat., liecop. Leijc-^, 
i. 41U--J3. 

""Dr Aguilar and Father Monterey. Nic, lieglMro O/c, 61-2, 12;!-;i4. 
Gen. Mufioz, who so elliciently aided Malespin at Leon, was now the coin. 
gen. and most promiuent man in Nic. 

"' Ferrera claimed another victory on the 7tli at Sant-' Kosa, but it was 
unfounded. /(/., 83, 88; Monitor Comtlt. Lid., Mav 21, 1845; Crowe's Goapcl, 
lCG-7. 



OUAKDIOLA'S VANDALISM. 
rlurcnos inhumanly nnf i^ i ., „ ^ 

S,.lvadorenos l^tlVcVLt^,^' '", 't ^^-"""^'-^ 
I'crrera, now flushed wlH f^^ ^"'^ ^^^"^a liosa 
-"/•' 'iietato torn, to Sa ,X"e7' f^^^^^^t ,hat lie 

t";;'pan. the disasteis of Co n-fv "" "'/'^^ "'' '"^'-^o 

^ ^nardioJa conn^nttey ^^C^^^f^^ 
I^a Union, in consequence ofil • . %?^ ^^"cJah-sn, in 
<"' <'"■ ^'5th of Jul,. "dZ/'\^''"^'^ Muiister Duoilas 

•''•^^-^^-ations^;^:!£s^':-^^^^^^ 

-_^_^__ ° ^•o'linst the seizure of 







.„. , , , <li'.aa<.T.s before rola(«|, 

f"'> ^'>niU-^-ost. lleio . "•^''■.'■'^"'•y ^"Closed bv°tl.« I ''''•^''''•^""^"t of 




203 



DISSOLUTION OF TIIK UNION. 



arrived at San Miguel with scarcely fifty men, and 
endeavored to collect his scattered forces; but his 
efforts were unavailing, and Guardiola marched into 
the city — which had been abandoned by nearly all 
the inhabitants — and gave it up to be plundered by 
his soldiers.^ 

All that part of Salvador on the Lempa and tlio 
district of Chalatenango were in the hands of the 
enemy, who acted as the master of a conquered 
country. One of the commanders was the notorious 
Manuel Quijano. The Salvadoreilos attacked him 
and were defeated. The Hondurans now felt cert:iiii 
that they could capture San Salvador. But on the 
15th of August Guardiola with 900 men attacked tho 
Salvadoreilos at the hacienda del Obrajuelo and was 
routed, losing two thirds of his force and most of his 
war material.*^* He evacuated San Miguel at mid- 
night. The authorities of Honduras soon after })uh- 
lished a suspension of hostilities in order to negotiato 
a peacc."^ An armistice was afterward signed at 
Suinpul."" Munoz of Nicaragua, for motives of his 
own, exerted himself to bring about peace between 
Honduras and Salvador, to which end he despat(;hed 
Sebastian Escobar as connnissioner to the two 
belligerents. Sensenti was tinally lixed upon as tlio 
place (or holding tho conferences, and a treaty of 
peace, amity, and alliance was concluded on the 27th 
of November, 1845, under which Malespin and Es- 
jiinosa were forbidden to set foot in Salvador without 
leave of her government.^'' 

f'^Ono house containing British property w.aa spared. The houses of two 
Frenuh nuTcliants, whose nation's flag was flying over them, were plundoiid. 
Dii III, >]>'■< Ceiif. Am., '2:',9. 

'■'In his report lie tried to cover up this serious disaster. But the fact 
was, thut he escaped vvitli only about .'iOO men, leaving on tho field upwanl 
of .'iOO muskets, and a lar;,'e number of slain, wounded, and prisoners. 
Monli'ifar. llcsc'ia Hist., iv, 700-1. 

''•'llond. troops entered Salv. after that and were defeated. Guardiola 
with ;).")0 men attacked Carballo, who had only .30, and murdered them. It is 
Baid that, this act wa.s commended by Fcrrerain his reiiort to the chambers of 
llond. 

''•'(lnxman then returned to llond. a number of prisoners who had been 
represented by his enemies as murdei'ed. 

^'' So lung as they remained in llond. the latter was to compel them to 



GUATEMALAN INDEPENDENCE. 



207 



The government of Guatemala, with a view of not 
too openly going counter to public ojiinion in the 
states desiring to see a national government established, 
iiisi rted in the treaty concluded witli Salvador on the 
4th of April, 1845, a clause apparently intended to 
promote that end.*^ And yet it was at the same time 
(Diisidcring the expediency of declaring the entire 
iii(loj)cndence of Guatemala, and gathering material 
wliich was made public in a manifesto in March 1847. 
Indoed, she had no desire to carry out the stipulations, 
though she named Joaquin Duran and Doctor Mari- 
ano I'adilla her commissioners."' Pretexts were not 
wanting, and new commissioners appointed, namely, 
Marure and Rodriguez, both of whom favored Guate- 
mala's absolute independence. The result was the 
abandonment of the plan of reorganization as entirely 
impracticable.'" The declaration of independence was 
made in the decree of March 21, 1847.'^ Carrora, 
the president, in a manifesto, set forth the causes that 

live at a great distance from the Salv. frontier. Montufar, lifxcna Hist., iv. 
T.'.ij 8; JJindop's Cetif. Am., 239-43; Xic, KeijUro OJlc, 152, 172, 221-2; El 
Ttimpo, March 12, 1S4G. 

'^liach of the contracting parties was to appoint two commissioners to 
iiK'Pt at iSonsonato on the 30th of Aug., and was to urge upon the other three 
states a consideration of the lamentable state tlic republic was in, Buu'uesting 
liuw l)er,t to do away with sucli a condition of allairs; and proposing therefor 
tlic couvocation and assembling of a constituent power, or such other measure 
as it iiiiglit deem conducive to the desired end. MoiUiijur, liesi nu Jli-^t., v. 

•-^Diiran well understood the policy of bis government. Padilla did not, 
and vuhmtecred to represent in San !~^alvador tlie ardent wishes of lluat. for 
the irstoration of tlic union. He did so in a jiatriolic speccli tiiat f:ave him 
u giiod name in Salv. and a bad one iiiOuat., where the ildccta rebulied liim. 

'" ' I'll delirio do iinaginaeiones enfermas,' it was pronounced to be. Dclc- 
t;.itos from Costa It,., JSalv., and Ciuat. were at Sonsonato on the 17th of Feb., 
ISlu, an.l lixed tlio lotli to the 20tii of April for eonfereneea. but ihey did 
not take place. On the loth of June Costa 1!., lloiul., and Salv. only were 
icprisinited. Nic. and Costa K. signiluil their ^^ iilingness to meet tlie other 
stutcs at any place they might select, llond. having suggesLed Naeaome, as 
Sonsouatc was no Ioubtv deemed safe. The wliolo plan failed at last because 
of the action ' f ouat. Mucii interesting infoimalion on the subject and 
(jllicial coi I espomlence appear \a Gnat. , Gac. Ojic. , no. 20; Costa /?. , Cot. Liytn, 
i.x. 01-3, fiS, 203-4,212-11,313-0; x. 115-17, 123-4; A'(V., /.V;/. O/c, 2:i(U30O, 
lassim; Montv/nr, Hesefia Hint., v. 310-18, .334-.J; Froi'beVs Cent. Am., 143; 
JJi/iilop'.^ Cent. Am., 2,j3-4; Niks' Roij., Ixi.x. 34. 

"'Si^jjned by Rafael Carrera, and countersigned by Josi5 Antonio Azmitia, 
luiuistor of relations. Gnat., Iterop. Leyi-s, i, 73-0; Co-ttali., Iiiformi' lieladoues, 
f^■., 1S48, 4; El Uuiversnl, June 8, 1849; Niles' Jieg., l.>cxii, 208; The Cad/or- 
nkui, S. F., Nov. 24, 1847, ii. 3. 



■tr ,t 






*i 



^H 1 f ,¥ E ' ' ill I 



I 111 



t<!i£] 



ace 



DISSOLUTION OF THE ITNION. 



Jti; 



\ 



Imd proniptoil .such a measure, which he called one of 
regeneration, and asked the people to greet it with 
the same enthusiasm tliat was shown in 1821, wluii 
the cry for separation from Spain was raised." 

Tiio secessionists pronounced it an able ellbrt; hut 
it caused a disagreeable impression in the states, jiiid 
in none more so than in Salvador. It wounded pi b- 
lic sentiment. Carrera had no legal right to (; ko 
such a step. The constituent assembly had plin ed 
him in charge of the executive, but had not made li in 
a legislator. For all that, the separation fron» tlio 
rest of (.Ventral America became an accomplished fact, 
and Carrera was declared a hero, the founder of the 
republic, and coin was struck with his bust on it.'^ 
This act was ratified on the 1 1th of September, 18-18, 
by the constituent assembly of Guatemala, when 
Carrera was no longer in power. 

Lindo was ruling in Honduras and Guerrero in 
Nicai-agua, but these two states were in accord with 
Sal va(l()r,i'rom fear of British pretensions, on the neces- 
sity of a Central American union. They constituted, 
early in 1848, the diet of Nacaomc, which urgently 
invited Guatemala and Costa Rica to join it; i)ufc 
the former peremptorily declined, alleging that the 
decree of March 21st precluded her taking any step 
backward. Costa Rica sent deputies to Nacaonie. * 

'■^Tlic document boro CaiTcni'n name, but it was no production of his ouii 
mind. The autliorsliip was attributed to Alejandro Marurc; that is ti> ^;i.v, 
bo (hew it up from the materials that had lic^n collecting for years. Iai 
J'ci isUi, tiic organ of the Sociedad EcoinJrnica, declared it tlic ollspriiiL: of 
loii^ meditation, and indeed it wa?, for tl .,• aristocrats of tJuat. had Imcii 
planning it since 1828. The full text is given in Monliifar, Iteaena Hi<t., v. 
100 --07. 

"Manuel Pineda de Mont, compiler lA Gnat., Hecop. Lryes, i. 453, chiiins, 
however, that Guat. was the last of the five states to set aside thofxUial 
govt, the last to secede, the last to continue bearing the general burdens vl 
tlie system, especially the peeuniiiry ones to sustain even the senibUuae of 
authority; and that she only adopted the resolution of March 21, 1847, iiitii" 
exhausting every cfTort, and losing all hope of seeing her wishes rcalizcil. 
The reader will judge between his statements and the facts as they have bitn 
fairly given by me. 

'Joaquin Bernardo Culvo and Juan Antonio Alvarado. The rulir of 
Costa Rica, Dr Castro, was, however, of the opinion that the live tVntial 
American states would be better off aa separate nations. MontuJ'ar, iU'sma 
Hid., V. 2G6-7; Nacaome, Dictdmen, in Cent. Am. Pumph., no. 5; frovljils 
Cent. Am,, 143. 



REPUBLIC OF COSTA RICA. 

If-; «.into,| tI,o aid of C, s a i? ■.''•' '"•' ^'""■'V. 
'^':' ' "«l'l«l l.ini to bo«„„ /i, ^"'"'"'".■in ivn„|,|i,. 

I'"l"y "f a wholly in,l,.„n, '|„r, *'" ^^"^^'■» f'.vored tl.o 
^'••it'-" ■^ "<iM'u.cIc.nt govcrmnont for their 

'""yi-oss, on tho aoth nf v , 
'"•"."•I ""-■ «-ork of fina o^«,.^t"=""*'. '^W, con.,u,„. 
r'^""'?;- tl.at tl,o title ' E. .J ; ' ''n'- "''"' " ''e^''-oo <le. 
■!' • "'-""ueo with thel'oi' rtiS'^^r"' ""■^ '"'' 
"""• ":'"<'Ii established th,r ,„f • ,' "'^ "'" ™»stitu- 
;;-'-,^nty, freeclon,, a, ''n'''r'^"»'" «i»^ 

1'"^ "".lenstamli,,. a/ul a" a f eo""-' *'''■" «'"' 
M"".'i.".t >">tio„,°„ther„o,ve,-st,l r'"T'^"' '""I '•"■ 
"" " '■"*"« of equality 'n" , ^'""^"'^ "•'■"' her 
;i"7;,"? ""t the'wiJie's of t"' "'";"!■'"■'•' ■■'-■^"'v,.,! 

g:mm „„ tho 3ist. ■'"ii'ct.oned its pron.ul- 

.■"-t;:::t:t^/i,-:^;,ft"''^-.«-'Vio,,..of 

""■I"-' !■' Nove,„be, /"j';'- "'^ '"•v'l'PUshin.v fheir 

f "' "" tlie 8th a-recd unn„ ° i ■'t*^<-^'"bl«l at Loo,, 
""■'■'■ fates, theater, trr' I ' ^''^ "'' "'"»» "f H e 

r.csi,!c.„t. 'VJS ^l^.the .loputy Xazario T.,].,,. ■ 



(I 
(ii 



a«- C..N-X. A:... Vo" n'r° "ii ^"''y ""ion on u'o\Jt ,^Ttfl''!^. ^'^"''"ct- 



rM 



*< 1. if I %. 



•ifM 



l'( 



J ' ' * 



• t 



■■ f: 



- '-r 

J' ? f , ■'•?.., . ! ■. 






:\v 



H> I 




B, mn 





c: II 



210 



DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION. 



mala and Costa Rica to join it or not. The remnants 
of the aristocratic clement, with the support of Brit- 
ish officials,"^ opposed the union, and in order to de- 
feat it, promoted revolutions in Nicaragua and Hon- 
duras. The compact went into effect, however, on 
the 9th of January, 1851, when the national repre- 
sentatives assembled in Chinandega, Jos6 F. Barrun- 
dia, representative from Salvador, being chosen their 
president.'^ 

The national constituent congress was installed at 
Tegucigalpa on the 9th of October, 1852, and began 
its labors on the following day.®" 

Trinidad Cabanas was on the 13th elected jefo su- 
prem.o of the federation, but he declined the honor, 
being desirous of disarming opposition to the new 
organization on the part of his political opponents. 
His resignation was accepted on the 26th, and Fran- 
cisco Castellon chosen on the 28th.®^ An organic law 
was enacted on the 13th of October, and communicated 
to the government of the federation.®^ The suprcnu 

Am. Miscel. Doc, 4G; Costa If., Gac. 06b., March 2, Apr. 20, 1850; ITcnd., 
Gac. Ojlc, Aug. 31, ISoO; El Shjlo, Apr. 2-_>, 1851; Nic, Corr. 1st., Dec. 10, 
1849, March 21, Oct. 3, 1850; La Union, Jan. 1, 15, 1850; GucL, Gac.,'Ko\: 
30, 1849; Salv., Gac, Dec. 7, 1849. 

'"Consul-gen. Chatlkld was olGcially advised of tho new organizatinn on 
tlic 21st Jan., 1851, and ignored ,Suc. Buitrago's note. On bc'iig remimlcil i<i 
it. May 2L'd, he returned an insulting reply July 13th, refusing liis recogni- 
tion, when the g-^>'^innient decreed, on tho 24th of Julj', to cancel his c\o- 
quatiir as consul-gen. in tlic states belonging to tho confederation, niul to 
inform his govt of tho cause. Cent. Arn. Docs, 1-C. Tiio British olliciils 
also resorted to other means to defeat wliat they called Am. policy. iSqiihn 
Cent. Am., ii. 135; El Univerml, Feb. 19, March 20, 1850; Salv., Gac, Dec. 
21, 1849; Dem. Urc, Nov, 1850, 452. 

''••Guat. and Costa R. had refused to join. Salv. Qac, March 8, 22, IS'O, 
Oct. 12, 1854; ^'lc., Corr. Int., inn. IG, 30, 1851. 

^'' The act of installation was accompanied with religious and civic cere- 
monies, tho govt of Ilond., at whoso head was Trinidad Cabanas, lioartily 
joining them. Congratulatory messages came from all friends of tlie uiiiou. 
El Sii/lo, S. Salv., Oct. 29, 30, Nov. 1, 4, 10, 14, 10, 19, 1852; Iloml., die. 
Ofic. Oct. 30, Nov. 15, 1852; Perez, Mem. Hist. Ifcvol. Nic, 17; ElPono''r, 
nos. C, 7. 

** Tho assembly also elected a vicc-jefc and four substitute councillor.-' to 
fill tho executive chair, in tho event of the jefo or membera of tho excoutivt 
council dying or becoming disabled. 

*'It set forth tho duties of the jefo supremo and councillors, tho indepen- 
dence between tho federal and state authorities, the rights of citizens, icspon- 
sibilitics of public officials, and organization of the federal judiciary, lloni, 
Gac Ofic, Nov. 30, 1852. 



A SHORT-LIVED FEDERATION. 



211 



,Xov. 

Iitiui) ou 
liu.le>l a 
Ivccogui- 

ftiul to 

tic Cfvc- 
[bcnrtily 

IJ., <•''/• 

InnorsW 
Ixocutivf 

I, iTsr"ii- 



executive authority, on the 20th of November, 1852, 
was held by Pedro MoHna, vice-jefe, four senators, 
and two acting ministers of state. The federation 
thus organized was not destined to be long lived. 
Upon the allegation that the congress had created 
a dictatorship, and referred the organic statute to 
the people instead of the legislatures of the states, 
the assemblies of Salvador and Nicaragua set aside 
the federation, and declared themselves independent 
slates.^'' Nicaragua may have receded from that act; 
but whether it was so or not, the union between Hon- 
duras and Nicaragua was dissolved by the war which 
broke out in February 1863 between Salvador and 
Guatemala, Honduras joining one of those states, and 
Xicara":ua the other. Further efforts have been 
made from time to time — 1871-76, and even as 
laii; as 1885 — to accomplish the union of the states 
under one government; but obstacles have been in 
the way, the chief doubtlessly being the personal am- 
liitiou or jealousy of rulers, and the project still re- 
uuuus as a possible event to come about in a few 
wars, as it is believed to be much desired by the 
aiajority of Central Americans.^* 

'^Salv. on tho 2l8t of March, and Nic. on tho 30th of April. The con- 
giuss, acting too precipitately, overstepped tho bounds of its powers. Perez, 
Mun. nut. l/rv.d. Xic, 17-18. 

^''.Morodctiiilson tho confederation sclicmc arc contained m Antahurtnga, 
('■i,t. Am., 110-10; ElNncionaLl^ow '27, Dec. •..' s ItJ.lS; y'c, Uol. O/ir., July 
;in, iMiii; Id., Gac, March 2, 9, 1872; /■/., S< ,n>^ :. .VtVa/., Nov. '21, Dec. 12, 
IbT:.', Feb. 0, Oct. 10, 1873; Los Ana[<':t, Dec. 1, 1S72; Mex., Diario O/ic, 
Nov. '2, 1S71; U. S. Oov. r-c, 11. Ex. IV^c, 42d Cont;. 2d Seas., i., nt 1, 
060-;;; tWa A'., Inf. JicI , 1870, 12-14; 3alv. Oar., OJic, Juno 10 July 6, 
Au;,'. 19, Oct. 20, 27, 1870; /(/., Diario O/ic, March 17, Oct. .5, i3, 1875, 
Jau. 27, 30, Feb. 2-G, 1870; Pan. St^tr and Heraid, .March 2, 1S7('; Caicedo, 
Lat. Am., 00-2; Cent, Atn., Contest al Voto, 1-23; Vhavwrro, Cuestion No' 
do lal, l-T; Harper's Montttli/ Aloif. xv'u. G91. 

I'urtlnTautlKirilii's fur the prcci'ilm^ chaptfrH arc; Mmhi/u; A'lwr/'nf Jfiff., 
viils i.~iv., passim; Id., Piscnr'^n, 1 12; <>'ii<iL, lln-np. I.'i/fs, i. 1 72, ',t(i l(H>, 
lii^7'.l, IN.VC, 1117 202, 207, 217 73, 3S2 ',»."., 4:>3-:), 401 7.'), 502 0(M», S.'.S <», 
877-^; ii. J>3 200, 0;<-' "■ iii. 2.Sti, 3;W 4.S; Jd., llvlif. Ojir., \y.',\, no. 2; is:i-.', 
nos. 17,20; 1S.'!3, ) »; 1834, nos. 34, "x;, .lulj 1."), (Kt. I,'; IS3(), no. S4; 

1S37, no. 10; 1S38, no, 53; I'nmuido VII., D.ifninnitai, 204-70, 2.S1 .">, 2;»2- 
:>il, :i:!7 40; /,/., I)<ri;tn.s, 410, 1.") 20, :i3 73, 10.-. 10, 120-.34, 140 >S2, 101- 
au, 220 3, 243-81; Ainni, Cnuxiil. f.iiiil,.-<, 204. Id., A)'nii/i.'<, pa.<siin; A.sla- 
hrwi'iii, ('. Aiiiir., 12 32, 70-80: Airr, Mini., passim; It' ir/mrdf, X/r , 70 !<; 
I<l; ('nil. Am., 37 44, 114 17. 133 4, 1.30 4,\ 20841: /'im'.s (;,i/r of' Hi- J'u- , 
:!\ .".(•., ,-)S (U; n,i,: I my. Mv.v., i. 102 3, 445-S, 477-0, 480 Oi, r>(!3 5: ii. l\:yi - 
01,03:., tl.-7--0, 077-0, 73.-., 747-52; <dac. dr Mt.r., 182,1, no. 3, U-':!, 18-2(., 



DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION. 



;'f| '' 



.lulv 4, Sept. Ki, Oct. 31, Dec. 14; 1820, Jan. 25, M.iioli 1, ."11, April -iii; 
Orvai E-'^iHin. Eiiih/., V. 307-11, 400-13, 487-505; '-, 8-21, 107-17, 302 i:!, 
383 4; vii. 3-7; j\'orl,<i. Cod. Mr., i. 19-23, SO-W, ;2-!t2, 214-Ui; ii. 22 :iij, 
1G3 4; Mo-iiziin y Carrcrd, A]>iiii/)'.% MS., 1-lS; MaUno, ('imp d'nil I'oMn /,'., 
4-5, 12; 111., ViMiilt. y X. (Iruuniht, D 10, l()-2'.»; /'/., i<o.«/. Cu.stnJ/., ]<:i^- 



1 40; Ji, 



liitr.j. Cnit. Am., Due. 11, 184!t; HI Hid., Oct. 13, 1S54; Zdimliia, M, 



(ilia 



f., ii. ]0;i-4; /(/., Stilt. 



if (,' 



Jfi-it. (liMt., 74; Su 



t., 581 2: /</., Stiifr.'i a A., 3(i()-l, 4!4-l(;, 4(itl, 482, 4!».3, 575-88, (VJ 



(illll 

(•.41-.3, (iC.3; Jil., TrairU C. Ai 



Wills' J/onil:. 
50- 



IIC), 120, 230-1, 472-83; Jon/m, 



piissini; !■/., Coiiiji. Jli-'l. C. A., 18 T.U; 



lis Jhllli/iiS 



in / 



lini'/lii ;■- 



(III- 



Ml- 



, 252-7; <'o.s,'fe J>'., Mem. Ji'elnr., 1884, 2-34, ami ( 



1 iiiicl2; A II III I Li J 1 lit. Jjii/i-i., i. (iO; ii. 1'.'2, 305; Uvrmtwh-zy /)(ir<tlo.i. Col. J><«-.^ 
ii. 81-2, 130-1; Jlirirni, DUrnr.'io, 1-12; Sitnn'Z y Nanirfo, I/i.it. Mij., .'!n(), 



407-14; Sur 



A I 



iSolire lii.i I'viturhiinoiiin dr. (hint., 1-52; Ln/oiid, ]' 



iniliuir i/n Mniidi; i. 3()7, 373-8; Lo/irriin; J)c I'aris d (liint., )8 (J4, 25(1- S; 
I'liyilt 1 1 lihirkuiii, L'liloiikiitioii, 110-24; lilrrrn, 1114. Jalnjhi, ii. 3')5; Urrinl'i, 
liiiiiittiTii, 7-12; Ziiiiiiirriit, JIM. Mij., ix. 'J-IO; Aznero i'li'tn, JiiJ'unin; l-l'.l; 



/V.'fJ 



>//•. I'lihl., Dec. 1.3, 20, 1828; .I:im. 18, Fol). 14, 182'.); II'. 



'}>}" 



Mr 



v„.l 



C. A inn:, 258-(»4, 271-4, ,300 3; Trolloji<''n W. Iiul., 3.35; Diiiiuk ihmlr.tiiiiht, 
13 2!), 150-1, 107-88, 205; Atbtit, 1411-50, li»tt-2(M), 477; (Imit., Mnn. c<.„/,. 
mini nil Ajirini, 4, 120, 14(»-58; A/., Mrmnrin, 1837, 12-22; h'ol)rrt.''iiii'.i lli^i. 
Am., ii. Il:i8'il; Kl I'riujrr.'tn, April 11, 18, 2.5, 1850; Trihinii'. Almiiimr, IS.M, 
30; lloUiii^ki, l.ii ('•iVfiiriiir, 305-31; Jfiistoii'.i Joiiniry in J/mid., 11; AV/. <' 



■i/l.itr 



xxii. 05; xxiii. 400; xxvii. 3,">5; xxviii. 37, 114 15, 304; xxix. 



Iit2, 382; XXX. 43t)-40; xxxi. 100, 172 (i; xxxii. 80,201,2.32,282,375; xxxwi. 
38; xxxiv. 8. :!(), 123; xxxv. 41, 1."m, :'.!;I; x .xvi 321; xxxviii. 3()'.t, 3115; xliii. 



208; xlv. 210; liv. 281»; hi. 41», 2!0, 243, 385; K 



34, 280; lix. lill; /;. 



ijrnilo Olisirr., 1828, 5-24, 122, in Orius dr E^ijuiiin: I'invda, Dr.-'rrip. Oivj., H- 
10; Ji'i/iiiii's Wild 1 /if r, 32-7; Noiii: Aiiiinlis Voy., xcii. 50-00, 75-7; c. 51 liii. 



04-0; I'l 



".I- 



Mo 



She 



15-21,20-3.3, 42 3, .53-80, 100-14, 122-38, 15(;. IC 



Orrrliiiiil .Miiiitlilii, XIV. 1.511-07; Liirriiiir.iir, Soronn.i 



80, 132, 108, 178; 7/ 



torio 



iiirrirniii), 



i. 273-81); h'li.f/rni CoukI C, Am., 8 25; Strninjiirny^' Mo 



4-.5, 51)-(;8, 111) 33, 144-8, 2.37-338; Ihmlnp'.i ('rut. Am., pa.ssiiii; Hmdi 



A, 



•itoj Br. JloiiiL, 28-10."), 1C>, 



400; /'///( mill Sri 



Ihittimit, 314; A'( 



J>'<}rliiiliii/, \'(iy. ilrii.c Anii'rii/iii-t, 



ennudiirr, Mr.r. rf (luiit., 2;).5-.308; 1\ 



iiriv I iiijiro Lj liir. 



rtt'.i Xoli'X 



on 



.Mr 



Com mi 



iv, 441); JJiuiliiir'.i Mr 



l\ 



api 



iii. 000-10; l.i 
I. t)4; .1 /;'/( ;•«' 



234-5; Jirjil, in Si. 



Ml. 



11 



i. 231), .315; Anromi, lli.it. Yiir., iv. 221-35; Holrtin < {fir. {.Mi.r.), 



J)ipiitiulit.-i, Lis/a de; Dor. J/i.tt. Cnl., iv. 807-8; Sum 



Inl'r 



no. I(. 
182; J)r 



Unir. J/ist. droij., x. 1)1 !)-20, 1)71; Findlny'.i Dirrrlnry, i. 223, 240; I'. mU'i, 
liipiih. do Co.ftii J'ira, 4-8; J'olynr<imi, iv. lOli; Xortli Am. I'rr., xiv. 4"_M-H1 



130-8, 14.3-5; O.shonir'.'i (liiidr to W. hid., 2.34, 201-2; 



liirn, 201-.3, 231, 543-51, 508; ( 



"roirr ,s' (loa^ 



<:l in C A I 



'.'/'"''■, 



11.')- 51. 200-22; 1.0 



\mdi.% Oct. 15, 1872, p. 471; Nov. 1, 1872, y. .53; Nov. 15, 1872, p. 50; U 



1, 1872, pp. 62-3; Dec. 1.5, 1872, y\*. 71- 



/; 



'rrdr.i, ( 'oii.st of Mimi 



Ullo 



Mi'J; 



Xir., Srmmiiirio Xic, May 30, .luly 4, IN, l>cc. 20, 1872; Jan. 2, .Marili li, 
April 17, 24, 1873; J/ii.t.irl, Mr.r. and (.'nut., .310-11); JSiiddmn'.s Arrns.i Cn.l. 
Am., 00; Bolrt. Kxtniord. (liutl., Oct. 10, l.s;i2; July 3l), 18,33; Fnrol, Id'J ."i; 
Vol, Tiinp.iky\ Mitlii, 337-43; Juijnnlii, Inj'ormr nl Miii. Itiiac, 2-3, M 1."'; 
llnrlfki ii'n itrizc Hilar Ciiat., ii. 7t»-l)7; Id., Cm/nd Amiril.ii, 1-408; Sli]'loi'-' 



Ti 



rlt C. A I 



i. 11-22, 11)5-200, 211, 225-50, 304- 



351); 



37-8, 



107-17, 205-1); TiiiMiijxion.i dual., 2, 130, 140, 100, 103, 107, 185-0 



422 3, 501)- 10; lAiilai 



A I 



•a, 250-2; Orti'iii-ni, Srrmoii, p. 



2-8,41,-, 
M; Urn. 



Miirrl., no. 1, p. 1; Co.ila Ji'irn, Lry Fnndamvntal Iti/iiriiiaila {.\h\']\n:\A, ]>>.'i'i,i, 
1-48; /'/., /,((/ /V//(/((//H'«<'(;(/(' ('().v/(t /i'. (San Salvador, 1825). ; 20; Anor.lli- 

2.58-1), 3.'i8 -02; y>'oA/..^'' '■• 
.\rta.i Conijr. '' 



Nov. 18,-)0, 440-55; SIouI'k Xir., 147-1). lliS- 



Mr.(. (lioij., 2(la ep., iii. 100-0; iv, 712-1,' 



Ml 



Id., Col. I>r 



nh. ( 



urji:, p. 



.Ml 111 y Lroiiipart, J/i.<l. Ai 



.-f., i\. 2: 
. :ii;ii 7'.'; 



.387-1)2; vi, 



!•>, 



Martin. ■< //i.it. 11'. Ind., i, J(;.3-70; Lond. (Iroij. So 

1.35; viii. 317-27; xi. 82-8; I.iinrh, Jlilarion 'I'untnil, 1757, .MS., 4-1!); mm 



Jii'/lix, subrc Jiijurma tii Criit. Am.. 1 21 : /'. 



J)o 



our 



I\ 



(ol. /^ 



AUTHORITIES. 



'2i:i 



MSS., no. 31, pp. G2, 00-70; Pinart Coll.; S. Anier. ami Omit., i. 221-a; 
l.!riiiii<i, Adii: y llrctijir., Ol.'i; JIdllc-Iiruii, Prtrk Oi'oij. I'tiiv., vi. 4(i8; Mm'- 
iiri'ld/.i J'i'D'j. AiiK'iii'it, i. 744-7; (lonlonn JJiiji'.'<t Lairs (f. S.,l,V2S-',irr, J^initirii) 
'i/rC' iiini-Aiiit'i:: HI S'njlo, .l;in. 10, May 10, IS")!; Juno 5, lSr>'_'; <!w>t. ('inn. 
unit A'/rir. Co., 1151^-7; Miirplnrsons Annuls of Com., iii. 548; iv. l.')'.!, 17'.'; AY 
Ohiv^'iutor di: la li(j<i'i>>. Mv.r., July 4, 1S'_'7; Owif., Los JN'oWw, 1-11; Jilit.'niui'z, 
Ol'liiiiin solirc Ion C/iaiiii'li'o.f, in J>oc. Orii/inalis C/ilnjia.i, 4-"); Diarin Jli.r., xi. 
'_'7'.t SO; xii. 477X0; Amrr. Aiiiinal Jfiy., KS'J.VO, 40-0; Id., 18'-'ti-7, 171-8-i; 
W'isf Iiidii.-f, l>i<'ri}i(lon, 40-50; Tonriitv, Itirol. Ilifp.-Ain., i. 11"); Itiriu' 
Anil rii'''iiii; i. .'{'.18-408; OjTn.ticion (/-".), Juno 1"), ISH."); Di'iiinr. lii r'nir, v. (iOO- 
1(1; XXX. 547; I'ldii'lloii Km:, Nov. "21, 1844; .\>., /,',■;/. < >jii:, \\-V.\, ."•'.» (JO; 
/,.).< .i/A).-, Maiiif, Doriiiiiinliuln, 1-'J8; Ainii: Cm/., Ji'iilaiii. di' Intirr., 7-10; 
I'SHi; Annwiin' llixt. Uuii'., 1S'J7, 577-8; Cor, Fid, Max., Xiv. 0, II, '11, 
l).c. 14, 18, IS-Mi; 1.V_'7, passim; FiU. l.'l, March 31, Juno 14, .luly 18, Sipt. 

I, !•, 14, 18, '2\-'l, Oct. 28; Aiiii'ri'i'ii- CniL, Civ Hrl./i; pt ii. ;U)-'J, 1 15- '_".», 1(10-1; 
Hunt., Dirrrfat, i. nos. 1, 4, 'JO, 25, .31, .32, 30, 41, 1.34; Monlif, \'oi/. dans 
I'Aiinr. ('nil., ii. 201; Jlon/ijonu'ri/'s Xarrnfiri' Jour, to diint., ',V.\-~A, 142-0; 
.1' -'. ,» Tnirillir, Mix. and CiioL, ii. 104-5, 317; Mr. ;/ J/ond., i>i>r.'<., 1-11, 
■'..'i: '■rii(/''rid, Itrri.ita Poll/., 3-7; S'Ul Juan, ( truyar'nni, 28-4.3; Alaiiiaii, Hist. 

■'f, 201-2; V. .57, 478, 014, ap. pp. 4(1-0.5, 104; Id., Afnn. Pn-^^ni/ada a 
!•' • mix, 0; Itidiri'lCs Panaiiiii, 347; Hand., (!ar.. Ojic, Fcli. 20, .liiiio .30, 
IvSm; C. Ji'ira, (liic. Coli., Jan. 20, 18,50; One. i\ic., April 1, .liino 17, 1805; 
,n.,\ -0, KSil7; San/iinijilo, Conijr. Paiianid, 73-5; Kiiiraria, Aw/. Poll/. h'-</ad., 
17-1"^; Kl ■'iniianal Xiriiraiji'irii.'<r,\. 44; Jioili/'s Ci'ii/. j-l/;/., 81-2; Ali.r. Fiinni., 
April IS, 1.SS5, pp. 40-2; J/i.i;. >/ (liiat., Cncst. Linii/ix, .52-3; Sir., Sin ra J)is- 
ai<iiiii, (i; (I'ar. ,Sali:, Oct. 12, 18.51; ,S(dr., Piario Ojir., Fcli.-May 1.S75, jias- 
••.im; March 2, 2S, Sept. 0, 1870; Sopt. 20, 1878; June 20, .Sc])t. ,5, 1870; JA>., 
Mnti. (hurra 1.-33, ]). 8; /,/., Mmi. Pilar., 1823, pp. 11-12; 1827, p. 11; 1S20, 
1>. 2; 1M12, pp. 2 3; 18.33, pp. 1-2, 1835, pp. li-A; 18.38, p. 1); 1830, jip. 2-3; 
iv;',i, MS., pp. 12-13; 1840, p. 2; 1841, in Diario Ooh. Max., Jan. 24, 1S41, 
(1. 1: .!/'.'■., Mem., ii., docs, 1, 5, 8; /(/., Mii,i. Min. I'rlar., i., docs. 2, 4, 5, 0, 

II, 12, 13; AVc., Mrmoria, in ('■ii/. Am, Pamyld., iii., no. 1, 4-28; J'ni/nr's 
lii-i. JJniij). ( 'olimii'.'i, 324-.32; (,iuarl. Itiriiw, xxviii. 157-01; (lar. dr (luat., 
(Kt. 7, l>i53; May 5, Doc. 22, '854; Cox/a Pira, JiolH. Old:, .Ian. 13, 24, 27, 
1\1.. ;!, 7, 14, 17, 28, March 14, 17, 18.55; Mill's Mr.i:, 2O.5-10; .1////., Ilniz 
('■ihwl. Sidr., 1M.3, 00-71; Id., (Inaf. Quia, 1853, l.'{-14; Id., Hand., I82'.t, 5, 
lS-;!7, 5(1-04, 00-5, 121-7. 1.33-48; Ca/iildo, /n/i:ri,ir i/iir d Ca!,ildo, 1-75; Can- 
i-'li.tii, T .. Mi:x., l.)V-ll; Cha/Jii Id's J.il/i'r to' Lord Palmnv/on, l>cc. 1.3, 1S47; 
III., I.il/i r to CunL (I'oi', i.)cc. 10, 1847, in Moxij., Corn-xjHind. rixju'r/inij Moxi/. 
T<rr., 170-2; / r A'kc.'i >!, Sept. 8, 1S5(1; Mnxi/. Kii,'</e und !/V./vi.v, 20-.30; ('oiiL- 
liii'i'x (li;!dv, 3;;'>-G; S :'ional Calendar, 18; Condir's Mix. and (iiia/., 105-7; 
C'li/ro-Ah lir.. Lii. ,n,'/»(j v(wi, 1-17; Candi', (•'ol/r dr J/ond., 5-0; ('rntro-Aimr., 
Ill/or nr so''>\ ht < ■ni'-'it-., p. 73, and p. 30; Id., Connnrion, 1-32; Cm/ro- 
Aiii' ivnno, pa. -'im; 'irtrn, .l.tas Pii^.l., ii., April 23, 1SI4, p. 320; Caxtrllon, 
li<-x. i;,l,,/., 3u, iO!; ■"/ \a.yonal, Juno 10, 20, .Uily 5, 31, Aug. 14, Sept. 2.5, 
11. c. 11, 1S.5S; ,lan. 22, KS.50; Sept. 8, ISOO; Moxi/m/o Indian, in ClairrliiWs 
'•'.//., vi. 300-11; Brririit Mo.ii/id/olaiidix, 5-7, 12, 2.'!, 28, 31-43, 220-7; Cor. 
All'iii/iro, May 0, 18.35; Jim/on's Tliir/i) Years Vi.ir, 0,5-0; Id., Jhl..it,s in 
( V/., vii. 3.S3-4; viii. 7.37, 740; ix. 700; x. 740; xi. 707; .IAwikVo J/-./., ii. 232, 
iil'J, oil, 402; Karionalidad h'x]>iiiiolii; Moxt/nito /Aun-., ims. 77-220; \ir.. Unlit. 
"/•., Sept. 0, 1802; Id., Con.iti/., 18:!8, 1-30; Id., Porx. Di},. Jl,xt., IS 22; Id., 
('•>i: U.,.\n\y 1, lS-10; Oct. 3, 18.50; Id., J>e Onh n dd Pinrtor: Mnnoz, Pe. 
/'ii.tii l.l.inx San Pedro; ()ir,xjHi de ChiL, 1>53-0.1, 45I-.54; Cnr/is, Diario, LMl, 
vui. :!:;; IS13, \ix. 404; lvS21, oxt. i., Sept. 22, p. 7; ext. iv., Nov. 18, pj.. 
I'J-l.'i; 1S35 i\ ii. 227; La Uni^n, Dee. 1, 1S40; .Ian. 1, 18.50; La Union de 
-W.'., .)ail. f). i« ;: Kl Unirersal, April 18, 18.50; April 10, lS.53; YoiJ., Sun 
I iiii: ('ill., i;. ;,', 1- S; yerdai/eras liazonex, 1-13; I'laijera Unir., xxvii. 174 7, 
Ml HI; Wril I'm. Colcnixalion de, 4; AY I'erarruziino Lilnr, ,luno 13, |S2S; 
I'"/"/-, .)Fi.iiij,ir, \:A '.), 200-27, 310-10; Cmt. Am. Pajiirx, i.-v., pa.^siiti; 
/'■';»/'< I'liriiix, xix. pt 18; cxxi. pt i. ; cxxiv. pt 0; oxlix. pt 7; olx. pt 10; 
clxvii. pt 5; ccxxvi, pt 10; L'ni/eil Sen-ire, Jour., 183,3, pt ii. 4.50; C, S. (Iitrl 



if I 3 i(t tSwi 



ii: 
I' 



214 



DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION. 



T)f>r>>., Commercial lUil., 18CG, 507-8; 18(58, 302, 728-9: Id., Cong. Olobo, 18;W- 
It, iti; /(/., Cong. Debates, 1S25-G, i. i:W3-5; 1831-2, i, 7ti7-74; Id., Aiik r. 
State Pap., For. Kel., v. 774-82; Id., 19th coug., 2il sess,, U. S. Acts ' ti. ,s- 
31; Sen, Dec. 1, vol. i., pp. 149-70; /./., 2()th cong. l.st sess., H. E.\. Doc. '2, 
p. G; /(/., 30th cong. 2(1 seas., H. Coin. Kept, 14.5, pp. 3811-5; Filixola, Mun. 
Critcrra Tix., ii. SS-9; Id., A la Junta Solierana dc Uunt., 1-8; Oaxtadediiat., 
vi. 21, 177-84, 443; ix. 7.')7; xi. 4-7, 91-2, 120-4; xiil. 3.')3, 309-70; xiv. 1- 
10, 82, 205; IMilun and Lriznno, Liy. Mi:c., i. 32(5-7; Bmianianle, Voz da In 
Patria, MS., 4; Id., Hist. Iturbidc, 1(5(»-1, 170; Id., Cmidro Ilid., MS., vii. 
108-19; viii. 177-9; Porrenir de Mr., Oct. 22, 29, 1871; July 20, 1873; I',n:, 
Mi'in. Ciiin}). Nticional, 82, 154; Id., Iiio<j. Sanuta, 3-5; FrMt, Staatvn rcu 
Mcc, 55-(52, 73-8; Ki'weus Xir. ami Walker, MS., 27-3(5, 39-(iO, 04-85; ('.,.ta 
llim, CM. Lnjf.t, iii. 4;i-5, 101-18, 129-31, 144-07, 109-88, 280-2, 297-8, 304 (!; 
iv.-v., passim; vi. 41-3, 270-SO, 304-5, 319-20; lidli/, Air., i. 71-5, lliT, 
350-2; lionirm, Bv^:;. Hist., 42-5, 60-233, 395-417, 039-795; I'ineda d<: M,„if., 
in Gnat., Jirrnp. 1 -. , iii. 347-8; Crnt, Am., Mem. Hist. lietxil., passim; Mrm, 
Hist. Cf.htro-Atn., : 1 un; Bonq. Hint. Cent. Amir., piiaaim; Id., Ej'< m. 

lledioa Notables, pass. 



CHAPTER XI. 

RErUBLlC or t'OSTA RICA. 

'S41-1856. 

Kri.F, OF Cakutllo Contisuek — Pi.dis for its Oveutiirow — Inv.xhion of 
M(ii!A/.\N— Chasck ok Govkknment— Mouazan's Policy— OrrosiTioN 
— Kkvoi.th — Moua/an\ ]>eff.at and Deai'h — Satisfaction of the 
Olkiaucus — Measckes of the Vutous — New Constitution — SrnsE- 
vc KNT Ameniiments — SEDITION — Castejo's Akministhation — Costa 
Ku'A Declauei) a Reitismc — REccMiNiTioN iiY Si'ain — Relations with 

vVlTIKi; I'OWEKS— HoCNDAHY C^tCESTIONS Willi XlCAKA(!CA AND CoLOMIlIA 
— I'UESIDENT JlAN RaFAEL MoKA — HiS REIMtESSIVK MEASURES. 

Cakkillo, bclicvin<i^ liiniselt' clotliod with unlimited 
autliority, on tlie Stli of ^larcli, 1841, issued what he 
callttl a 'levde Ljarar.tias,' i>"ivini>; himself a life tenure 
(if ottice and inviolability.' The supreme government 
was made to consist of the executive, and two chani- 
licis, named respectively 'consultiva' and 'Judicial,* 
whose members were to be chosen V)V electijral col- 
k'oes." Intending- to celebrate with eclat the inaugu- 
ration of the cdmara consultiva, Carrillo recalled from 
t xili' Juan Mora and four others.'' The consultiva, 
fuliowing Carrillo's wishes, elected Manual Antonio 

' Molina, who dciiios tlmt Carrillo was disjutscd to lio tyrannical, but on 
till' ((iMtrary anxious for tlio gcod of his country, ailding that he was ' scvcro 
y siiiiillii en su conducta, y (juu paliaha su arhitraricdad con d cjcrcicio ilu 
las virtiidcs mas rck'vaiitcs en uii niahdatario, ' confesses that on the iiresent 
lui'iisiou tliis great man committed a grave error, y/ovi/. Costii A'., 1().'{; ('nsfn 
I! lh,\ do (jnritn. >/ bit.'O'K, 24 mo.; A/., Col. Lii/. viii, l,")-,'{(), 41-1!; Sub'., 
Ihtno ({tie., 'May 'jh, IST.'t. 

-'riie former was cohstituted with as many members as tliere were de- 
piirtiiients, namely, four. Tlie latter was composed of a jiresident, two rela- 
tiins tiscales, and four justices. 

■' He insulted them, however, l)y providing that thoy sliould he under the 
Muvi illanco of the authorities. Co-y/n /{., Col. Lnj., vii. 4". 



216 



KErUBUC <JF C08TA RICA. 



Bonilla scgundo jcfc* Tlie encmios of the present 
ruler were numerous, and increasing. They called 
Morazan to their aid, through General Bermudez of 
Peru. 

^lorazan sailed from Chiriquf in Panamd, and aftt?r 
visiting several jdaccs in Central America landed 
with about 500 men at Caldera'' on the 7'h of April, 
1842. With him were generals Sagct, C d)anas, Sn- 
ravia, and Bascon.'' Carrillo heard of tie invasion 
in the evening of the 8th, and at once assumed pi r- 
sonal command of the troops to operate against the 
enemy, turning over the executive office to Bonilla, 
the vice-jefe,' and providing other measures for an 
active caminiign. Nearly 1,000 men under Colonel 
Vicente Villaseiior composed the expedition, anionic 
wlK)se captains and lieutenants were some of tlio 
wealthiest })orsons in the country.'' Morazan had 
issued a manifesto assuring the Costa Ricans that liis 
policy would be one of order, union, and progress, to 
accomplish which Braulio Carrillo must be ousted 
from power. As the government forces approaclicd 
the invaders, AHllasenor made known its contents to 
his connnand, and asked whether they were for fight- 
ing or for a peaceable arrangement. Both officers and 
men almost unanimouslv" favored the latter, and a 
convention was conchuled at Jocote on the lltli of 
April, by virtue of which the two forces fraternized, 

* Hu was married to a iiioco of Carrillo. Bonilla was faitliful to liim in 
life, and to his memory after death. 

^According to Cnl Bernardo Rivera Cahezas. Barnindia makes the fcirce 
oidy 'MM. He had at first landed at La Union, in Salvador, with '22 otlicirs 
of all ranks, and marched upon San Miguel, where he recruited "JOO nuii. .iml 
then returned to La Union. He next visitetl Acajutla and Sonsonatr, wlniu 
he ascertained the state of puhlic atfairs in Salvailor and (Juatemal;!, after 
h'^' "lUg some correspondence with the chiefs of the former state and Nii.'ii- 
ta. Tiie latter answered very olleiisively. Mnntiijhr, /iV.sr«a J/i-'f., iv. 
4?-.^)"), 14"). Kntcrtaining a favorable idea of the invitation sent him liy 
tile Costa Ricans, he .sailed for the isle of Martin J'erez, in the gulf of Foiist^'a, 
where he tiiiully organized his expedition and embarked it on the vessels 
(^nizii(ior, Asiiiirinii (Imnaiitna, Jnsij'n, /■■idbcl I/., und Coxmojmlifd. 

'^ AstdliKrntiijd, Crnt. Am., riri-G; Sail'., Dittrio Ojir., Feb. 14, 1875. 

ToMii A'., ('ill. /.CI/., vii. '248-00. 

''Among tliein Were Vicente Aguilar, Francisco and Mariano Montoalegro, 
anil Rafael Barrocta. 

'■' it is understood that Rafael B:»rroeta was the sole exception. 



MORAZAN AND SARA\aA. 



217 



l)C('omiiig one army. It \vas further agreed tluit a 
constituent assembly should bo called to reoganize 
tlie state, the government meanwhile remaining in 
('Ikii'j.c oi' ]\Iorazan, or in his absence in that of Vicente 
Yillasofior.'" This convention was accepted on the 
mxt (lay at San Jose by Carrillo, with a few additions 
A\ liieli did in no wise vitiate it, and Morazan afterward 
ratitk'd the whole at Hcredia." He was enthusiasti- 
cally welcomed at Alajuela and Heredia, and with an 
augniciited force marched on San Jose, which he 
entered without hindrance. As jefo supremo pro- 
visorio lie made Jose Miguel Saravia his sole minister 
(if state, and issued a proclamation embodying com- 
plete toriLjetfulness of all past political offences, and 
tendiTiiig an asylum in Costa Rit^a to all persons, of 
whatever party, suffering persecution in the other 
statrs.^" He next appointed a committee to revise 
the laws enacted by Carrillo, with the view of repeal- 
ing such as were deemed unwise or arbitrary, and a 
nuinher of them were accordingly annulled, the pre- 
posterous one of March 8, 1841, not being, of course, 
excepted. The state constitution of January 21, 1825, 
was revived, and the people were called upon to elect 
a constituent assembly, which was to meet at San 
Jose on the 10th of July.^'^ This body, composed of 
tliiiteeii members, one of whom was the distinguished 
(X-jefe Juan Mora, was installed on the appointed 

'"('urrillo was to leave the country with a full plodgo of safety to his fam- 
ily aiiil jiroperty. Tiie convention M'aa signed by Morazan, Villasefior, gi'ti- 
ti-ils Sam't, Saravia, and Rascon, 3 colonels, and the other assenting otiieern 
lit all ranks, including 5 Texiguas. 

"<'arrillo left the state from Puntarenas. Bonilla was also guaranteed 
Mciirity. Mtintii/tir, Rixi'i'ia J/ist., iii. (H.Vli); Xilc.i' f'<j., Ivii., 27.'). Hotii 
'uiilld and Aguilar died out of Costa R. ; the former was killed, and Ills 
iiuii'iKrcr executed. Funeral honors were ])aid in Costa R. to Agudar, Aug. 
'-'•"i, IStC). C(W<i I,'., Col. Lci/., ix. '2S'J-!M). The remains of lioth cx-chiets were 
liriiUj,'lit home by Presid. Castro's decree of Nov. 5, 1848. /'/., x. ifO.VJS; £1 
S:ilr(i,lor /fc/incrddo, .June 4, 1842. 

'- Dated Ai.ril 14, 1S42. /'/., vii. 250-1. 

'^A general order was given to prevent any interference with the elections 
"II the jiart of the troops. Copies of Morazan 's decrees to undo the evils of 
Ins ]ir(>cleeessor, and to prepare for the reorganization of the state on liberal 
luniciiiUs, are furnisheit in Id., 230-342, passim; Motitii/ar, Jfcaeila Hist., iii. 
0'.M-31, 



\ ] 



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UlilL .AAk. 



hit >'T3.| 



h I 





218 



REPUBLIC OF COSTA RICA. 



day under the presidency of Jose F. Pcralta, deputy 
for Cartago, and on the 15th of July unanimously 
elected Morazan provisional jefu of the state." 

The great political change thus effected in Costa 
Rica greatly alarmed the reactionists; and specially 
those of Guatemala, who lost no time in adopting 
measures to destroy Morazan. This chief, on tliu 
other hand, took steps toward the reorganization (if 
Central America, equipping troops therefor. Souiu of 
his measures were deemed too severe, giving rise to 
rebellion in some localities. There were intimate rela- 
tions between Carrera of Guatemala and Gemiiil 
Antonio Pinto of Costa Ilica, as well as between the 
serviles of both states, who, together with the cleryy, 
worked to promote a revolt. An attempt in Guana- 
caste by Colonel Manuel A. Molina failed, and caused 
his arrest, trial, and execution at Puntarenas.''' Colo- 
nel Molina was a son of Pedro Molina, the notuil 
champion of free principles, and however legal his 
execution may have been, it was c(;rtainly impolitic. 
His sentence might have been commuted, thus avert- 
ing the disruption which at once broke out in the 
liberal ranks. ^* 

Sagct was at Puntarenas attending to the embarka- 

'* Again <m the ."^Oth of Aug. it authorized the continuation of his gdvcni- 
nioiit till a now eonstitutifin shouM be framed. The same day it reatiirimd 
Morazau's extraordinary powers, and on the '2d of Sept. adjourned to rea^siiii- 
l>le April 1, lS4li. Among the most noted acts of this convention wire the 
following: A Vote of thanks and other honors to Morazan and Villasenor, tlio 
latter lieing awarded a gold medal with an honoralile inscription. Mma/im 
was given the title of Libertador de Costa Ilica; and on his refusing to juiIj- 
lish the decree, the assembly specially requested him to do ao. Tin- aiiiiy 
that brought about the change was honored with the name of Division JjilnT- 
tailora de Costa Rica. Tlie assembly also made a formal declaration on tlio 
20th f)f July, in favor of a federal republic. Costa Ji., Col. Ley., vii. ;U'J-')!, 
37y -82, 403. 

'■■It was strictly in accordance with the military code. His brother Fe- 
lipe, in relating the occurrence, says that a disappointment in love, and his 
removal from the comandancia of the department, preyed upon his mind, ' lo 
sobrovino una tiebre, perdio la razon, y se hizo criminal, ' But he subse(|ui,'iitly 
declared his loyalty to Moraziin, and while lying on a bed of sickness wm 
arrested. Molina, Uoki/. Costa Ji., 104. 

"^ Molina did not hear of his son's fate till after the 15tli of Sept. ( In atly 
agitated, and shedding tears for Morazan's end, his son-in-law, Irungaray, 
told him not to bewail the fate of Morazan, for he had spilled the lilooil of 
Manuel Angel. These words so shocked the aged patriot that he fell seusi- 
less to the ground. 



WAR AND REBELLION. 



219 



fliinm'il 
i:i.ssfm- 

llM'l! tliO 

fior, the 

|i' unny 
on the 

Ihcr Fe- 
liiia hH 
|u<l, '!>•' 
l|\ioiitly 

pri'iitly 
|i!4;ir:vy._ 
lliio'loi 



tion of 45 officers, 200 men, 2,000 or 3,000 muskets, 
and about 1,300 pounds of powder and load. At Ala- 
jucla wore 300 recruits of that department and 100 of 
Cattago, all commanded by Florentin Alfaro. This 
oHictr was won over by Morazan's enemies, and revolt- 
inn- ()u the 11th of September marched upon San Jose, 
wlure the people followed his example. The revolu- 
tionists then called General Pinto to the command.'' 
]\lt)iazan's body-guard of forty Salvadorans thrice re- 
pulsed the assailants, but finally had to retreat to the 
diicf barracks.'^ The jefe, together with Cordero, Ca- 
l)anas, and Saravia, and 80 men sustained another ter- 
rilik' onslaught on the 12tli. The besiegers were con- 
stantly on the increase till they numbered 5,000, and 
till' l)esieged on the decrease by death and desertion."' 
Chaplain Jose Antcmio Castro came to propose a 
cajiitulation based on Morazan's abandomnent of the 
country, and a pledge of security to his supi)orters. 
Ktlicving that his loyalty and milita-y honor were at 
stake, Morazan declined the propositions."" Pinto's 
secretary, Vicente Hcrrera, was very virulent, do- 
inauding Morazan's blood; and the chaplain reported 
tliat the jefe wanted war, refusing to recognize any 
authority on the part of his adversaries to give pledges, 
wliich enraged their commander and his secretary all 
the more.'"' The fight continued, and blood flowed 

'■ Ho was a Portuguese who came to Costa Rica while still young. In his 
early years he had been in the naval service, and acijuired some skill as an 
aitilkiynian. He married into a respectahle family of San Jos«5, and liad 
imiiicrous descendants. By the cultivation of cotiVe he made liimself wealthy, 
iuiil this together with his connection with tlie ('arrilh> family cnal)led him to 
attain the position of comandante general, and to link his name with .some 
itM[i(iitaiit events. At his house the worst enemies of Morazan had always 
liciii wik'ome<l. Montufar, Rcsena I/Lit., iii. G47-H. 

'"There were two l)arrr,cks in San Jose; one his guard occupied; in the 
otlitr were 150 men from Cartage who had no ammunitiou. ElSiijlo, Aug. Ki, 

1N.VJ. 

" Morazan tried to save his wife; but in traversing the street to reach tlie 
liiiiise if the Escalantes, amidst the deadly tire, she was taken by the enemy 
aiiil LMinveyed to the house of Father Blanco, a brother of Luz Blanco, one f)f 
Moniz.iii's mortal foes. 

•■' lie would have met with no difficulty in obtaining security for Saravia, 
whd was much esteemed by all. But tiie case was different witii otliers, 
especially Villaseftor, against whom mucii animosity was felt. 

■' Hcrrera was a stuilent when he gained this unenviable notoriety. He 



lift 



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220 



UErUBLIC OF COSTA llICA 



freely."'^ Mayorga, roniaiidantc at Cartago, rehcllcd, 
and Morazaii's situation had buconio a desperate one 
on tlio ir^tli. No reiinforccnionts could reach him, and 
provisions wereexliausted. Juan Mora and Clia[)]uiii 
Castro endeavored to bring about an arrangement, 
but the terms offered, being o})pressive, W((re rejected. 
The firing was resumed between one and twt) o'clock 
in the morning of the I4th. Morazan and his liand- 
ful of su[)i)orters, worn out by fatigue, hunger, and 
wounds, made their way through the besiegers and 
reached Cartago,"' C^abanas covering the retreat witli 
80 men. ^[ayorga's wife, who disapproved her hus- 
band's disloyalty, sent them word of their danger. 
But it came too late. Morazan and tlio rest were 
surrounded and ca[)tured. Y(jung Francisco Morazjiu 
and Saravia, arriving a little later, were also secured. 
Dece[)tion toward Cabanas was used,"' and treachery 
toward Morazan, who was promised his life. 

Early the next morning, an officer named Dari'o 
Orozco came to inform Morazan and his companions 
that they were to be put in irons, by demand of tlio 
troops. Saravia rose and seized a pistol to blow liis 
brains out; but Morazan prevented the suicide, thou^li 
only for a few moments. Ho then walked a while 
smoking, and finally submitted to have the shackles 
put on his feet, and just as it was being done he had 
a horrible convulsion which ended in death. It is 

afterward went to fJuatomala to complete his studies, and was M'cll trciteil 
and much aided by Juan Jose Aycinena and Manuel V. Pavon; and he lie- 
came their most humble henchman. Returning to Costa Rica as a lawytr, lui 
was aj)pointed after a while a justice of the supreme court. On many mca- 
sions he proved himself unprincipled, treacherous, and contemptible. 

■^■' Over 100 killed and 200 wounded. 

^^Jle had wanted to go to Tarcoles, expecting to find Saget there, Imt 
was ilissuaded by Villasenor and others. 

^*Tlie Spaniard Espinach, a reactionist of some standing who acted as a 
commissioner of the revolutionists, fearing that Morazan's popularity in Car- 
tago might bring on a counter-movement, and in order to avert it, askoil 
Morazan to instruct Cabanas to lay down his arms, and to comnianil Sagit to 
deliver those he had in I'untarenas. He assured Morazan his life was in no 
peril. His next step was to meet Cabanas at Cliomogo, telling him Moia/au 
Mils leaving tlic state l)y tlie Matina roa<l with sufficient money, and advising 
him to disband his men. Cabanas was deceived, aud went alonu to Matiua, 
where he was taken prisouer. 



BLOODY WORK. 



881 



said that lie had swaUowed poison. Tlie sliacklcs 
W( re riveted on a corpse!"' Yiilasehor stabbed hini- 
soh' witli a dai^iyer, and tell to the ground eovered with 
hlixid. uiitortunately lor him, not dead, ^[orazan was 
.shackled. The })risoners were at onee taken to San 
,T()>e. ^lorazan, though wounded, rode on liorsebaek, 
and A illasehor was carried in a hammock; but on 
arriviiiL;- at the ( 'uesta tie his Moras, Captain lienavi- 
Jcs, a L'lruvian who commanded tlieir i>uard, mado 
thcni walk to the court-house. ^lorazan on the way 
conversed with Pardo and A ijil, and rememberinj^ 
that it was the 15th of Septend)i'r, remarked to Vijil, 
" How solemnh' we are keepin*^ the anniversary of in- 
dependence !" The other pris(Miers were contine<l in 
the liuildinjj; called Los Ahnacenes, and ]Mora/an was 
left with A'illasenor as his sole companion. 

]\[()derate men strongly urged a strict observance of 
law, aside from prejudice or passion;"" but their voice 
was drowned in the uproar of the enemies of Alora- 
zau,-' clamoring for his death without, form of trial, 
regardless of the requirements of the constitution of 
lSi!o, and of the fact that he was the legitimatt; chief 



■'.Vdrmr, Efcm., 56. Saravia was a son of Miguel Oonzalcz Saravia, tlie 
fTiivi'iiicir of Nioaru^^iia, wlio attachod that province to ltiiil)i(li:"s I'liipire, and 
:i L'lMiiilsou of ((t'uoral Saravia, prcsitlent and captain-j^oneral of (iuatoniala, 
wliu iiail lii'cu appointed viceroy of Mexico, and wa« shot hy Morehis in Oajaca. 
Vimng Saravia 3 mother, (Joneepcion Najera y Uatres, was of the leaders of 
tiuitriiialan Kociety, for -which reason tlio aristocratic part}- expcctiMl much 
fi'din liini. But after completing iiis education, with evidences of extraordi- 
nary talents, he often gave expression to the most lilieral i<lea3. Before heing 
aihiiittcd to the l)ar in 1834 he had served in tlie ofiiee of the secretary of tlio 
s('tiat<', and later as a chief of bureau in the department of foreign all'airs. 
lie afterward held a judicial appointment, hciu;,' at all times noted lorahility 
and cldiiuciu'c, as Well as for his writings in Kl Si-iiKiiuirm, which attracted 
tlic attention of Morazan, who made him auditor de guerra of the federal 
army. From that time Saravia followed Morazan's fortunes, taking part in 
several actions of war, aiul thus attaining the rank of geiu'ral. He was also 
this leader's aide-de-camp, private secretary, and niinistcr-gciu'ral, lioth in 
Salvador and Costa Rica. A portrait of the young general gives him (piitt' a 
ili.stine;iiished air. 

■''Aniiinr; them were Mariano Montealegre, Juan de los Santos Madriz, 
.111(1 .l(K,'. m'. Castro. 

■■ Tlie most virulent were Luz Blanco and Herrera. Thcj^ even worked 
iili'iii til.' feelings of Pinto's family, and it is said that his daughter Petronila 
uii:ii;iiied that she saw her father sent to the scaffold by Morazan, and fell iu 
;i convulsion. 



222 



IlErUIiLIG OF COSTA lilVA. 



of tlu.' state.-** J^ut notliing availed to save liis lite. 
J'int(), like hia pnjtotype Pontius Pilate, after a slij^lit 
lu'sitatioii, signed the order of execuitioii of both Moiu- 
zaii aiul A^illaseiior, to he earrieil out within thico 
hours. Alorazan then sunnnonetl his son Franeisco, 
and dietntcd t<» hitu his last will and testament; sonio 
of its clauses are e[)itoniized helow."'' After placing,' 
in <']iariru of Alonti'alei^re a handkerchief and a few 
other oltjects for his wife, so soon to become a widow, 
he walked with dii,Miity and a firm step to the phitu 
of execution. A'^illitsonor, who was nearly dead iVoiii 
liis wound, was carried in a chair. On arriviiin' iit 
the fatal sjiot Morazan embraced X'illasi'uor, saying, 
*']\Iv dear friend, })osterity will do us justice." .l];ii- 
rundia thus di-scribes the last moments of the ex- 
president: lie <j;ave the order to pn'pare arms, saw 
that a !j;'ood aim was taken, then L>;ave the connnaiid 
to lire, and fell to the n'round. Still raising his Mecd- 
iny- head, he cried out: "I am vet alive;" wIk'U a sec- 
ond volley despatched him. Thus on the lotli nf 
8e[)tember, tlu' annivei'sary of (^entral American in- 
de[)enden<'e, just as the sun was siid<in<^' in the west, 
the soul of the noble patriot returned to the rcLiinii 
whence it came.''" 

'•""M(ir;i/;m IkkI (U'liiandi'd ;i triiil. Ho also dcsiri'tl t(i addrc's.s a ciriulir 
to tlif Liovcniiiiints iil tlii.' Nlatis, liiit it was not Jitiiiiittcd liiiii. 

-'Ho doolai'fd that lio had oxiioiuh'd tlio whuh' ot' liis own and liis ■wilt's 
usl.tto, hosidos SlS,(MM) duo to (ion. lioi'inudoz, iii I'ndowing ( 'osta Itica ^vitli 
a govornint'Ut ol hiws. 'J'iiis was his solo otienoo, for vhioh ho liad hoon nm- 
donmod to loso his lito, whioh was liirtlur aggrasatod liy a lirokon pli'lui', 
for lu' hail lioon assurod by Ksjiinaoh that his lifo ■would ho .sparoil. 'i he 
foroos lu' had ornanizod wore ori^^inally intoudod to dofi'ud ( iuanaoasti' at' I'li^t 
an oxi>ooto(l attaok from Xioaragua. Sid(so(|uontly a nund)or of voluiitnrs 
vore dotaoliod for tho paoilioation of the ro[)ulilio. Jlu roitoratod his livvo fcH' 
Contral Auu'rioa, iiri.iug ui)ou tho youth of tlio land to iniitato his oxaniplc, 
and light to rodooin hor. llo tinally disolainiod any oninity or rancor t.'Wiiril 
ids niurdorors, forgiving thoni and wishing thoin cvory possihlo haiiiiiin'^s. 
In that instrument, says lianaiiidia, 'so vo diiifaua ol alma, noblo, trainiuihi, 
y goiiorosa dol horoo (iuc dosoondia a la tumha.' 

■'"Tho ri'mains lay in Costa Kiia till, undor a decree of Pros. Castro, Nnv. 
0, 1848, thoy wore oxhumod on tlio 'JTtli, and after paying honors on tin' ttli 
of Deo., wore Kurromlerod, aooording to Morazan's wishes, to Salvador, liv 
whose authorities they woro reeoivod with high ndlitary and civic lii'iicrs 
CiwAi /i'., Cdl. Lt'ii., X. 3()8-S(. Carrora afterward treated them with iiuii:;- 
nity. JJoiifii/nr, 7i'(wr*'f JIU., iii. (ioO; iv. 21.)-'_'0, '_',-)():{; v. C.'iO •-', (iii.Vii; 
TiMitin, iu L'i'id. Aiii. Pi']>., No. 2. Further iiarticulars on Morazau's rule in 
Costa liica, aud ou his death and interment, may bu found in J\7c., Cvrno I>t., 



Miv I, I 

'/v.;.., „ 

111.'; /■:i 
I'D.; .-,; / 

!'.■<: .S.,/r. 
tf'if Ai,i,i 
'■' ,i"iini,d 
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ii-al |Mviil 
"if"i-iM,i(i, 

«1m \(,|^ 
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.i'mrii.d 
i"d,vd (|„ 
"Jl<: ./r II. 
■■■ T),,. 

■^'"'•■■l/.IM « 
^W -Alltni 

•^'"niz.iii 
-^'"i"i/:ill .sa 
net !.,.,.,! al 
111 iNii(iiit\- 

.'■''"■'' <'f'stai 
n>< !irr|„.(,.., 

■■'II, ,.^ 

>tatii,. Mas 

I'^rn; (■.,.,„ 

!''"l'llt, IIHWI. 

""'"■ov,.s,, 
■■""! tl, .',„a,. 
''■"•■ '/' '.■-,„/ 

I^!'"''^- Iiias, 
:'"'-iteIIit,.« 



MORAZAN'.S CUEATNKSS RKCOGXIZED. 



•J'JH 



ri 



Mor.izau's death oausetl niucli satist'action to tlio 
iiliiiLi- powiTS of Guatemala and Honduras.^' Tn 
iiialriuala it was an occasion lor rejoicing, witli liigli 
iiia>s and (»tlier relii;ious c(>renionies.''" The time 
caiiie, however, wlien Morazan's gi'eatness was recog- 
iii/.cd in ( iMatemala and Honduras, when tlie scrvih! 
I li iiitiit no longer had a voice in ])ul)li<' atl'airs."' 
Jlclations liad Keen suspended by the (Juatemalan 
'j,()\(rnnient with that oF (\)sta Kica, while the lattt-r 
iri(i;4iii/-ed ^ioi'a/an as its chief'.'" Treaties ot" union 
and mutual defence liad hreii made l»y the states of 
(luateniala, Salvadoi", Nicaragua, and 1 [onduiasagainst 
Costa J\ica on the 7th and Kith of October. ''' Alter 
]\i(ira/.an's downfall an attempt was made to jirevail on 

M ly I, 1SI'.»; \ili.i' AV;/., Ixiii., IS), ITti; A';-'., Unjistm Ojir., Xo. "J, 7; S'/n!' r'.i 
Tf'ir., ii. tH-!l; U'(ijt}K'iiis, Mix. vml Cnif. Am., '.M; Itiiihanlt, ( <iil. .Im., 
1 I'J: lU /'rit'insn, Oct. 'A, l.S.'iO; ry..»v".< (,•,«;«■/, l.VJ :!; Il'-n/////-, CW,; /,'., 
'.'ii.i .": Jhiiiln}!'-: C< ii/. Am., '2\':--2'2; Ii<ihi, yir., i. 7;{_4; II'.//./ Jfnn,/., 4S4- 
'.i.'i; S'llr., IHnrio < >l!c., l'\'li. 14, IST'i; llnhrit (lln-ironi l)iiiili)]i, Ti'imU in i'ni- 
li'il .\iii' rlrii, Loiiilcm, )S47, 8, .'{."iS jui. ami iiia)), is a work puriMntiiii,' to Ihi 
;i iiiuiM;il (if marly tliruo yearn' ri'sidfiici; in Central Anu'rica, ami uiN'inj,' a 
ckitcli <if tilt' liistory of the ri'iniMie, togotluT with an aeeoiuit of the- ]ihy.s- 
ii'al iMciiliaritiis, agrienltiiri', eoinnu'rec, anil .•-tate of society. .Much of the 
infonii.itioii therein is corri'et; hut on historical ami social topics the author, 
vlii was :i Scotchman, displays I narrow-inimleilness, ami a juik'nient warpeil 
liy r>riti>li [irejiulices. 

■' In the latter- his native state — his la-it will was ^lnllli^lle(l in tin' oliieial 
innriial in tin' eohinin of varieties with i>trensive remarks. These note.-., and 
indeed the wiiolc conduct of the authorities, were disgrac(^fnl. h'l J'' i/nifur, 
iif,<: .A /A.,,./.. Sciit. ir., 1S4;{. 

■-'IIm' priest .luan .lose Aycinona, who was the minister of state, hated 
Mei:i/.:in w ith a deadly hatred from the .lay that his lirother was defeated at 
Nui Antonio. This animosity liecanio more intcnsilieil, if jiossililc, upon 
Mer,i/,in eontcin]ituously ri'jectinn tho ilictatorship that was ti'ndered him. 
Mi'ia/iii said in his last will that his death was an assassination, as he hail 
iii't liecn allowed any form of trial. 15;it tin; worthy pa.lre and hisaccomidicu 
ill iiii(|uity, I'arrera, attrilmted tho crinio to heaven, and ma.le Kivcra i'a/, 
eliief of state, aocuso providence of aiding Viueutc llerrera and I.iiz Ulanco in 
its iiirpctration. 

■'Honors Were paid to his memory in the city of (Juatemal.i in 1S7<i; a 
statue was urected to him by Honduras in 18.S;{. La /'c/i iirnirioii, July 10, 
Mii; r..s/,f /,'., ^f,^m. li'diirhi',,:^, 1SS4, '_>-.'{, and iloc. 1, "J. ' 

"' livery ahusivu epithet was a[ii)lied to him in the otlicial press; tyrant, 
h.iii.lit, monster, were among the mildest. The aim was to make lum ajijiear 
111 thi' eyes of the ignorant as the only olistacle to ]ieaci^ ami reorgaiii/ation; 
■iiiil til ■ masses lielieved that he was the author of all the evils umler the sun. 
'.■■(.•. ,/'(;,(•!/., Oct. 'JS, 184'2. 

"Thi' suhscriliing commissioners wore Manuel V. I'avon, for Ciuatemala; 
I'nlro Niilasco Arriaga, for Homluras; and .loaipiiu Duran, for the oth.r two 
states, liiasnmch as Arriaga and Diiraii were Aycinena's and ravon's lium- 
'ili' satellites, till! treaties might just as well liave been signed ravon, I'avon, 
i':uou. MuHlufar, Jieneria JIM., iv. l'_'y-33; Gtutt., Jkcop. Leij., i. 3U5-408 



i|!: 



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rept;blic of costa rica. 



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',-i- 



the new government to subscribe to these treaties, but 
itfailed.«« 

On the 23d of September the civil and other authori- 
ties at San Jose passed actb setting aside the su- 
preme powers that had ruled the state since its oceuj)a- 
tiou by Morazan, and proclaiming J. M. Alfaro as jefu 
l)rovisorio, with Antonio Pinto as comandante gen- 
eral. ^^ These acts were subsequently confirmed by tlio 
people of the state. ""^ Among Alfaro's first measures 
were to forbid the return of political exiles, includiiiii' 
Carrillo; to check attempts at rebellion; to in\itc 
Morazan's soldics to return to their homes ;^'' tore- 
store confiscated property; to establish an oflScial 
journal ; and to raise a forced loan.^" Disregarding 
the remonstrances of Guatemala, the government, nf 
which Josd Maria Castro was nov/ minister-gene;ral, 
by its decree of the 5tli of April, 1843, called upon the 
people to send deputies to a constituent assembly. 
This body was installed on the 1st of June, and soon 
after adopted the groundwork upon which was to be 
erected the fundamental law of the state. *^ The as- 

^''Itis asserted that the Guatemalan government saiil that Costa Iti.a 
should appoint as her commissioner a resident of (Uiatemala. But Jose .M. 
(.'astro, the young Costa Kiean minister, thought differently. 

''They had led the revolt on the 11th and the following days. Malim, 
Bosq. Costa It, 105. 

""So says ^larure, now a confirmed ' conservador, ' adding, ' y celebrados 
con eiitusiasmo en toda la repiibliea. ' Efcm., 5G. 

'"The expeditionary force of 300 to 500 under Saget, on hearing of tlic 
troiihle at Sai. Jose, went on board their ships at I'untarenas, tluiicu 
menacing the government. Subsequently arrangements were made for tlie 
surrender of the arms and disbandiiient of the men, but owing to niisuiiikr- 
standing were not carried out, and tlie i:X[.edition dep:irted for La Libertad iu 
Salv. on the Coi/iiimbo. Costa K. afterward c-lniiaed the armament ciud sliip, 
but Salv. invariably refused to return them, ou the jdea thit tiiey bei.'iiyoil 
to Morazan's family^ 'como ganadiis en ley do guerra por aquel caiiiill"' 
Much indignation was felt iu (iuatemala and Tlonduras, and somewluil- liss in 
Nicaragua, agaiuit Salvador, because the latter, notwithstandir.g +hc ti<:itii'rt 
of 1840 au<l 164'2, and the protest to the contrary, had allowed Saget, Cab:ifiii.s, 
Barrios, and their companions, to reside in tlie state under the protect imi «t 
its laws. The first two named governments saw that for all they h:id iiki- 
nceuvred to make of the executive of Salvador a mere subinissiv ageut <it tlio 
ariiitocracy, he had now emancipated liimself from its control. Jiloii/iifir, 
Jii'^cfia J/Lft., iv. 4-5, 115-.13; Molina, Bosq. Conta It., 105-6. 

^CosUi n.. Vol. Lfij., vii. 404-lG. 

''Art. 3 stilted that the idea wi'a not yet entertained, which latiT m.!" 
formed, of declaring tlie state to be a sovereign and independent riinilil:' 
Art. 5 resolved the question of bouudarie.'i with Columbia and Nicaragua iqiua 



seiii 
of], 
certi 

of 11 

Cf.S.Scj 
VOLC" 

was < 

niiiho 

iiftcrw 

ujio/i 

assciiil 

I'lino.s,' 

''''ll-' Hi 

tliority 
tJjf fii, 
liciiiL;' (• 
tloji of 
lltli „f' 
t" take 
.i^'ciifi'al 

"Ppositi 

""' I'l'incijilus 
J"'"'''Min,;,.r 

■;-MMMi,ly „(■ • 



11 



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illc^rovtv 



fONSTITUtXr ASSKMBLV. 

soijiljy Jikcwiso enacted i. I..w i . " 

cvrtmn n„itati„„3. An „ ,t k^ "f, ""^ '"•^•''« ""''^■r 
«f mcjition passed I„. « • ^ , °*'"-''' at'ts Wortl.v 

.vs,s,„' uiider it. All ],is 11 '^''''•'*'°" "'^ '"'« sue- 
-■- "f «.u„ks was at,,td |;ir ''';'"'"^""'' »'"' " 
""^ .^'ven to General I>i ,to ' '^ """'"'■ ^"to 
"'.'"■" "f chosen s,...u,,do ;.(;, "'f'"^''" -^^^ O'va- 

"I"'" ««ve of absence bei, " Z '! ''•\^'™'"-« '•''»i>-, 

■"""■<■ .lid not ...eot\l e a, rr':r "''^ ''« *''- 
, '"; ..«".,l,ly tl,.:„ ado 'r, "'^*'."S«nen„ne„t. 
..."';■ l"-"v.sioi, for two 1 '•"..stitution, NvJ.icl, 

'-■ '.....-•t.onaries cou..tituth; fl ^""""'^y' "'"' .." 
':'"'S- elloseji l,v tl,,. „ ,T ■" 1" *'"I"'.^^»I0 powers 
foil of +1 ' ^^JJolf> dcodI,* T-i i^'^i^xs 

V '^ '^^^^' fundament,/ h ^"^ i'roinuJoa- 

' ''.'•^ April, 1844,« ad, J i^ '^'^^'^ ^''^^^J^' ou the 

.'^7'^^al, refused to do s v, "^^•^' *^^^ ^'^^'''^inlanto 
Alfaroand others. V^^of r' ^?* ^'^--'Jti ' 
;"';'"'tion, but did nc t^.„ ^, *" '"^^^^^^ ^''1 anneil 
^' -'^WAfar/rQ l^:^;;:' ^^^ -a. di.ni.s^ 
^''^" Puhlication (!f ho '^'T'';"- ^"■"'•" 

;;:Sf-^^!;-- '..Co.. kLT ^'"'^"^^-^^^ w was 



":;.!rT'^« -«*-'H..n,, coi,;::' """■ ^""^''"iiental Ja^- was 
;"; J.v "1- ■■i.ii'i,..,, tl m ' - ■ '*«■ " i'i"«» ii.o , :■"" "'"" "I'-™ '-■•■■".. 



ass li|=eisapsii! 






m 
1 1 



ti 



i 



22C 



REPUBLIC OF COSTA RICA. 



celebrated with feasts for three days. But the fact of 
Pinto's dismissal from the command of the forces 
caused serious divisions in families/^ which has been felt 
ever since in the political events of the country. TJie 
two chambers decreed by the constituent assembly 
complicated the political machinery, and the enemies 
of the new constitution exaggerated its defects. Tlit 
necessity of a senate in Costa Rica was not clear, fur 
the composition of the house of deputies was svich 
that it required impulsion rather than checks. Tlieie 
fore, what would be the mission of the senate?^" 

Alfaro reassumed tlie duties of the executive ofhce 
on the 28tli of June, on which date Castro resigned 
his position of secretary-general,*^ to take a seat in tlie 
chamber of deputies, whicli was installed on tlie .Id 
of July. The first duty of this body was to count the 
votes for senators; but the returns were coniini,^ 
in very slowly, so that the senate did not assemble 
till the 12tii of November.**^ Both houses then on 
the 15th declared Francisco Maria Oreamuno duly 
elected jefe of the state. He took possession of the 
office with reluctance.*^ The spirit of localism which 
caused so nmch trouble in 1835 was still rampant, mid 
Oreamuno found himself confronted by it. What- 
ever measure was proposed in favor of any one local- 
ity was certain to displease tlie others, liather tliaii 
contend with such difl^culties, he tendered, on the 
26th of November, his resignation, which was not 
accepted; but he was resolved to retire, and one day, 
heing more than usually disgusted, he abandoneil liis 

** Pinto was an xxncle-iu-liiw of Castro, sccrctarj'-geiicral, who umlcr tin' 
cirouinstanccs HUrrouiuling tlie govt could not ri'storo liiiii to liis oH'uh'. 

"'To givo an idea of tlio Kituatioii: Cartago's diiputitiH were tlircc i li i^'v 
men, I'eralta, ('ain)io, and Carazo. Hcredia also sent the priest Floirs. l! 
the i-'.'nators nni.st be still more grave and circumspect, where could tlu y In 
procured? Mo)iliif<ir, Hi'xctia //is/., v. 173, 

*'• His successor was Juan Mora. 

^''(W'f A'., Col. jj., viii. ;{,■)'_>;{, :i84-r). 

*^ He was a native of Cartago; a man of elegant manncr.s, culturcii witlmiit 
afTcctation, well mfornicd on general sidijtx-ts, and a highly respi^'ted i itizni 
Though not a nienihor of the l>ar, he knew enough of law to suecesst'ully ii|'iii'>' 
the lawyc-rs who constantly took advantage of the confusion existing m t'" 
old Spanish laws. 



MOYA, GALLEdOS, AND ALFAKO. 



post and went off to his home in Cartago.^ His suc- 
cessor was Rafael Moya, then president of the sen- 
ate, ' who exerted himself to do away with localism, and 
to promote harmony between the several sections ; but 
]iis senatorial term expiring on the 30th of April, 
1845, he could no longer continue holding the execu- 
tive authority, and the chamber of deputies called to 
assume its duties Senator Jose Rafael Gallegos/'- who 
Ava>5 made chief of the state at the expiration of Juan 
!Morau's second term. He took the chair on tlie 1st 
of May. An ominous cloud could already be de- 
ciied away in the horizon. The new constitution 
liad tlms early become an object of abuse, even by 
tlic nu>n who had entliusiastically ])roclaimod it, and 
!u rimoniously censured Pinto for refusing it recogni- 
tion."" 

During the elections a bloodless revolt of four regi- 
iiuiits sinuiltaneously occurred, on the 7t]i of June, 
I.s4(), at San Jose, Cartago, Heredia, and Alajuola, 
to overthrow the organic law. The movement was 
seconded at once by the people,'^ and Jose jNTana 
AU'aro was summoned to assume the reins of g(»\<i'n- 
mont, Gallegos returning to the presidency of the sen- 

'''Tiio chtimber of deiiuties censured him, l)ut his ]^)urpose of getting; I'id 
Ml tlic (.'xocutivo office was accomplished. Coidi R., Col. Lit/., viii. 8!t'2-;i; ix. 
•.•;( 4. 

' A wealthy iiuiii and head of a large family which gave him much social 
iiuiKirtaiice. During his short administration he iniiu'oved the public roads. 
Mi'lni'i, Boxf/. t'onlu ]{,, 107. He also gave im])ulse to education, though 
midcr till' old ecclesiastic-' y^tem. Montiifnr, H(.-i<na llitf., v. IT-"). 

•'H'orrcspond. on tlij subject in j<i., 184-t). 

■'^ Fault was found v,-ith tlie clause rc(|uiring tlic election l>y the people of 
nil imlilic f)inetionaries, iiu'luding the ministers of state an<l judges. It was 
Miiil I lie people should not be nu)Tested with so many elections. 

■'The manifesto issueil by the leaders comjirised the abolition of the con- 
stitution, and the frannng of another better suited to the lU'cds of tlic conn 
tiy. the iimiieiliate election of a new vicc-jefe, who nuist be a native of Costa 
Itica, not under 25 years of age, marrieil, or a widower with children, and 
piisscss property to the val'ie of no less than .'JIO.iHMI; one who had never 
lii'cM iiiiiiiually punished, e cept by a pecuniary line, nor attached for delits 
'iiiitnii'ted in tlio state; he nnist have served in other public oHices witliout 
tiuiit, and must be in favor of independence and a separate government for 
tliii st.ite. A new legislative chamber was to be immediately convoked, and 
till' niarmcr of election fixed by tlie chief; meantime, the present assendily 
Mils til continue its sittings. The chief wius to select a good port on the 
iimth ci-ast, and make a road from it to the capital with funds of the treas- 
ury, Vo.tta J{., P(tj). Siielton, nos. 1, 2; Dunloi^a Cent. Am., 252-3. 



■:l 






ii 



1, ^< . 
1', 



I ':■ 



228 



REPUBLIC OF COSTA RICA. 



ate. Every one recognized Gallegos as an upriglit 
man, against whom no complaint was made." Alt'aro 
accepted the r61c, went into office on tlie 9th, and ini- 
me(hately proceeded to carry out the [)urposes of the 
revohition. EK'ctions took place under the existino- 
constitution, Alfaro being chosen jef'e, and Jose M. 
Castro vice-iefe and secretarv-«>eneral. The latttr 
henig the intellectual superior of Alfaro, every branch 
of the administration finally fell under his control. 

The constituent assembly met on the loth of Scji- 
tember, and completed, on the 21st of January, 1S47, 
the new constitution, which was pronmlgated at onco. 
to have efl'ect from and after the Tth of Marcli. ** 
Exjierience having shown that several clauses of this 
instrument were practically inexpedient, and that 
others were not clearlv worded, under article IS" (•!' 
the same congress subsequently adopted a nuujbcr of 
amendments, which had been asked for by a majority 
of the municipalities.'" The elections for supniiic 
authorities, decreed on the I7t]i of February, took 
])lace; the constitutional congress assembled on tlic 
1st of IMay, and after counting the votes for ])resi(h iit 
and vice-i)resident on the 5th, declared Castro iluly 
elected for the first ])()sition and Alfaro for the second. 
They were inducted into office on the 8th.''^ 

Castro's admini.stration had to overcome serious 
obstacles which might bring on political convulsions 

■" Jli.s ri'moviil from tlio cxijciitive soat ro.siiltcd fnim the intrigucis of .1 
few wlio kiu'W that lio couhl not be iiiado a roiivi'iiiuiit tool. 

'"'It was (liviikMl into 14 soction.s. iilaccd tlic oxcuiitivu in a itre.sich'ut, funl 
croati'il a vit't'-iU'c.siiU'nt. Tlio k'i,'ifihitivo authority was Vfstfil in a coiiu'iiss 
of a singli! cliainbor, presiduil over hy the vicu-prusiiU'nt. Tiio Koiiiun r iih- 
olic ridigion was the only one permitted, and it remaini'd iia tliat of the st.ity 
and luuiur its protection. Casta li., L'otiKtit., 1847, \ 'H; hi., ('ondit, I'olit., 
1847, 1-118; /(I., Col. L<!/., x. 1~5G; AM.nliurwujii, Cent. Am., 41) -'.». 

•'' Nov. 'i'i, 1848, and proiiudgated l)y the executive ou the 30th. A l:iw 
regulating tlie election of the supreme authorities was passed l>ec. "Jiltli. 
(VW<i /.'., Coii.st!t. PoUt. (ed. of 1850, 8'), I-IIS; Cosla ]{., Col. Ltij., x. :i'7- 
408, 4l2'2-5'2; EL Unii'vr.wl, June 8, 184!). 

"^ El Arm Iris, Oct. 14, 1847. Alfaro was not pleased at being lowcicd tn 
tlio second place, even though he had ex-ofticio tlie jiresidemy of iMiiiiZiiss. 
Ho resignecl on the 1st of Oct. of the same year, and Juan Kafael Mori Ik- 
came his successor. Costa li., liiforme lidacioncs, ap. ; /(/., Col. Liy., x. SI>-(, 
KJO-l, 187-8. 



INDEPENDENCE DECLARED. 



'.'29 



ill iIk! near future.'" Indeed, several disturbances 
lirnkc out at Alajuela, headed hy Alfaro and his 
tVi. lids, whicli were, however, easily (juelled by Pres- 
i(l. lit Castro, and once by Vice-president Alora, when 
tlu: |)ivsi(K'nt was absent.*" The last of tlie.se trouldes 
caused some bloodshed. ''^ Albeit the revolts were put 




Ali.MS UK CoslA UlCA. 



II 



"'•'■I'^tro had cncinios in Sail .lose. l[c was .icciisimI nf liringiiig al)..ut, (la- 
tt;ii.s clismi.s.sal. This a.-i.-iiTtiou was icjicaU'.l Inmi iiiouih to iiiuiitli, and 
c.iiiii' t(i lio liflii've.l hy many. Moreover, .sumr; nica tli.it: lu' locked on as liis 
iiiiihl.s siijigustud to liini unwi.so nii'a.stirfs, with the view of (laiiiai;iii<,' his ad- 
ii.iin.tialioii. L'nt'ortiiiiatfly, oonHi'css hof,Mn to show aristocrat iotuilih ncios, 
1^ ■ ini^; tlio aholishud connicllations witliniit o|i|io:.ition on Castro's iiart. 
!»'• titlo of ExoLdlency was voted to itself, the pr.sident, and the .snpiviiie 
'Hint. ^ 

"Cistro and Mora dift'ered on many iioints. The iire.sident'a eirele con.sid- 
'^■'i Alora a dangerous eonipotitor. Congress treated .Mora with marked in- 
'lill'iviiei., tliough he had restored ^leace in Alajuela with only 'JOO men. Ho 
I'^igiied the viee-presideney. An ijeetion heing ordered, at the second 
•i|Mii|,t Manuel .lose Carazo, a friend of Castro, was elio.seii. (.'arazo was aii 
jil'l" aihl Well-informed man. lie resigned the otliee on tho 24th of \ii" 
I'm was reelected Seiit. 'J'Jd. A/., I'.IO, .-{(Mi 7, :{l() I'-', ;W7 !). 

'"'"-/'t A'., //(/ J{,/„rioi,is, 10 !•.>, •_>.•(.-). In Nov. of the same ve.ir all 



) 



MM Ml 



n 



m 



'^fi! 



REPUBUC OF COSTA RICA. 



down, the state continuea much agitated. Inflam- 
matory writings against the president were secretly 
circulated, which the government gave importance to, 
and the official press tried to counteract their influ- 
ence. Castro concluded to resign his office, but con- 
gress by a unanimous vote refused to accept the 
resignation.®'^ Costa Rica having by the act of litr 
congress, on the 30th of August, 1848, declared hw- 
self a sovereign and independent nation, under the 
title of Repiiblica de Costa Rica, that body, on tlio 
•29th of the following September, adopted a flag, coat 
of arms, and seal.""* 

Costa Rica was the first state of Central America 
to be recognized as an independent nation by S})aiii, 
which was done in the treaty of May 10, 1850, M'liicli 
was ratified by Costa Rica March 0, 1851. The iv- 
])ublic made a concordat with the Roman pontiH", \\n- 
the understanding of ecclesiastical aft'airs, on tlio 7tli 
of October, 1852. She has endeavored to maintain 
cordial relations with the powers of Europe and 
America. To that end she concluded treaties witli 
the United States of America, the Hanseatic Towns, 
France,"* Great Britian, Belgium, Holland, ]taly, 
(lermany, and several of the Spanish- American re- 
publics. With Guatemala a treatv was entered into 
\n February 1850, and the government awaited tlie 
result of the eflbrts of the other three states to << in- 
stitute themselves under one nationality; and wluii 
they failed, and the states assumed the role of iinK- 



|)nlitical (ifTciKlors woro iKirdnncd, and a war tax which had heoii Icvii'l u 
Alajiiflawasordoredri'fuudL'd. Co.-</(i II., Col. Lnj., x. 'JUD-SM), 374-(>, 410: hi., 
/'iijK Siicl/tM, iios. H-5; Moliiiii, Bi)"'!. Co.4a A'., 107-8. 

'"(.'ougrcHs took into consideration a nnnd)cr of petitions from inline ntuil 
sources liighly cf)ninienilatory of Castro's acts. Castro on the Kith oi N"^. 
had l)ccn made a general of division. Moiittifar, Jfcscnit Jlitt., v. S'J.") ti, •"'•'" 

"■"The flag had five horizontal stripes, of which the centre one occuinid 'Hi'' 
third the width of the Hag, and the others one sixth each. The centir 
was red, the one ahovc and the one xindcrncath it were white, and tlm 
two hlue. Contit R., Col. Let/., x. 3.54-(). 

"* France sent in April 1847 the corvette Ln Oi'nie to make dcmiim 
behalf of her subject Tliierriat, which Costa Rica settled by paying .^10, 



tnpi' 
itlaT 

Is on 



n.l 

•itli 
lis, 

aly, 
w- 

iiito 
llir 

•dU- 
lirll 



lil u 
/■'., 

,uti;il 
INhv, 

lll ow 

Itrii"" 
IcitlaT 

lis on 



THE BOUNDARY QUESTION. 



'J3I 



niiident republics, it made similar diplomatic arrangc- 
iiRiits with them as foreign nations.*^ 

Tliu boundaries of Costa Ilica with Nicaragua on 
oiK! side, and with Panamd, one of the states of Co- 
loiiiliia, on the other, have been a source of constant 
iiiixiety, repeatedly occupying the minds of the diplo- 
iiuitos of the three countries. Fortunately, the points 
in dispute have been peaceably discussed by the gov- 
eiiiiiiLiits, though the press and politicians have not 
always touched upon them with the same spirit. The 
district of Xicova or Guanacaste, at one time under 
tli(! government of Nicaragua, became annexed to 
Costa liica in 1824. This annexation was acce])ted 
l»v the Costa Jiican assembly, and tlie federal congress 
allowed it, in a decree of December 0, 1825, us a pro- 
visional arrangement, to be in force till an op})ortuniiy 
was had to run the boundary between the two stattss. 
Tliis congress took no further action in the premises; 
and since the dissolution of the Central American 
union, the district remained attached to Costa liiea. 
Nicaragua never assented to the segregation, though 
she made no attempt to recover the territory by force 
of arms. She has, however, endeavored to sustain 
Ik r right to it in repeated diplomatic negotiations."" 
The time came when Nicaragua, being invaded by 
Willlaiii Walker's filibusters, and the indopcndcuce of 
all Central America threatened, the citizens of the 

'•' I'uU ])iirtioulars on the foreign relations are given in Molina, Bo/i</. Casta 
/,'., II 10, (ll-'_>, ll'_'--n); III., Coup (I'liil Costa R., 3; Costa A'., Col. L,i/., x. 
Xill 47; xii. T) 18. <»4, 202-7; xv. 'J-J,"); xvi. 19."M>; xviii. <).■> (>, 171-.SS; xix. 
KIT '.I; XX. 'J4-8; xxiii. 184~'20U; xxiv. 171-97; I''., ile ]S(;'.), 2]ti~'2'2; hi., do 
iST'.l, 1)1 -:J; /,/., Oor. (/(- doh., Jan. iL', '2(), Feb. 'S.i, Maroii 9, IS.IO; Id., BoL 
<>ii,:. Doc. 8, '21, i.Hi-7, '-'9, 18r).1; .Ian. 5, Apr. '20, 18,")4; Id., Iitfoninsy M,i>i., 
Ilitiifiiiiiis, 18,")0-8<); Soli:, Diitrio, Nov. T), 187"); Con;/, (llolic, 18(10-1; Siiiitli- 
laiiiiiiii /,',j)f, 18(W, 54; Colo)i)hi<i, Dinrio Ojir., Fel). 14, 1874; U. S. (1 rt Ihir., 
liiitli cont;. '.M suss., sen. i., 19 vol. i.; /(/., ;i9tli e<ing. '2A scss.. For. Ail'. (Mess, 
and Doc.,' Dcptof St., ptii.), 4:10-45; 1,1., 40tli eong. "jascss., For. All'. (Mess, 
ami Doc, Duritof St., ptii.), 277-80; A/., 4-J.l eon^. '2d «. s., H. Kx. Hoc, 1 
Kor. U •!., p. 7 (•_'49-r)'_'); Id., 4lM cong. a.l sesa., F<ir. Kel., p. xxxv. (l.")8 01); 
I'liii. <!'ii\, Apr. 10, 1870, antl nunierons other works in varions langnajies. 

'''Mc armicd that the constitution of Costa 11. of 18*25 dcclareil her 
liiniiiiLiry to Tie at EI Salto, not at La Flor; to which Costa K. replieil that tlio 
iiistniiiKnit alluded to was anterior to the federal decree, and tiicreforo could 
nut ciiilirace Nicoya in Costa Rican territory; buc after this decree the funda- 
iiautal laws of Costd R, did take it in. 






nil 



'■-f. 






hi 



Wf 



''*n 



if 



,!, 



>1 



I' 



I 



RKPUIJUC OF COSTA RICA. 

five republics at once saw tlie necessity of liaving tin; 
(juestion amicably settled."^ The other republics, nion; 
particularly Salvador, brought their influence to beai; 
and a treaty was concluded, duly ratified, exchanged, 
antl published as tlie law, to govern the boundary ho- 
twecn Nicaragua and Costa Kica."' Under its second 
article, both contracting parties ceded a portion of 
their claims, Costa liican territory not reaching the 
lake, nor the Flor River, but merely the centre of 
Salinas ]3ay. On the other hand, Nicaragua no h )iiger 
claimed territory t() th.e Salto or Alvarado lli\er, but 
limited it to the af<»resaid bay, and to the line j»ie- 
scribed in the treaty.'*'' The acts of several congresses 

*'Nic. had (IcmandcMl the restoration in 184:$, which h;(l to the iniikiii;,' of 
a vuhuiiiiious ])r()to('ol, without any (U'iiiiitivo I'csnlt. Moiifi/j'iu; Jt'taii'iii J/14, 
ii. 'J'J'.t :{|; iv. HSl!-:{; Costa /.'., dil. A-//., viii. H-i. 

'■'"'I'lii; treaty was made at San .Jose, Costa II., on the l.")th of Apr., l\"iS, 
and signed l>y .lose M. (.'ana.s and Maximo .Icie/, i>h'nipotentiaries res[iiit- 
ively of Costa R. and Nie., and l>y J'edro R(imnlo Negrete, mediator on tlie 
]iart of Salv. The si,i;natnres of the .si cretarie.s of the thi'ee legations alsi) 
ajppear to the instrnment. Tlie ratilieations were made in (hie form, and ex- 
ehanged by the two govts on the 'Jtith of April, the same year, 'i'lu; ticaty 
M,(s,ip[)roved hy tlie ><'iearagiian eonstituent congress May iJSth, and pnhlislitii 
by President Tom;ia .M.irtine/ and his secretary of state, .hinc 4tii. I'lnltr 
its '_M article the diviiiing line was to be as follows: Starting from tin; Atliiiitic 
Ocean, tiic line to begin at tin; extreme end of J'nnta deCastilla, at tlie nioiitli 
of the River San .luan, and continne on the right bank of that sti-eani to a 
point in waters liclow the Cas^.lio Viejo, at three JOnglish miles from tiii'oiitir 
fortilications. 'J'iienee a curve was to conniienee, wliose centre shuidd ]\v 
tiiosi! works, and distant therefrom in all its course three J'Jiglisii mih s, and 
terminating at a point distant two miles from the bank of tiie river in waiters 
above the fort. Thenee tlio lino siu)nld eontimie in the direction of S;i|ic>;i 
River, which empties into Lake Nicaragua, following a course invai'ial)ly l\\u 
miles distant fi-oin the riglit margin ot the San .Inan River, with itsciuvis 
to its source in tlie lake, and from the right margin of tiio same lake to tlic 
said Sapoii River, where this line, parallel to .said margins, ends. From tlu 
point where it may coincide with tiio Sapoa River, wiiich nnist of course lie 
two miles from the lake, an astronomical line should lie drawn to the ceiitial 
point of tiie bay of Salina.s on the racitie Ocean, wiu're tlio delimitatien el 
tiic two contracting powers will terminate. The Gtii art. gives Nie. tiic ex- 
clusive control over the waters of the .San ,Tuan River from its source in bake 
Nicaiagna to the point where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean; Costa U. 
retaining tiie right of navigation in said waters for trading purposes from tlii' 
month of the river to adistance of rdiree English miles from tiio Castillo N'iejo. 
L'oc/iii, Cud. Nie, i. i:{7-tl; Co.s'/!a A'., Col. Lvii., xv. 7.")~tJ, lSl>-8; 1,1.. Injorm,- 
C'oh., 1S.-)S, 12-i;}; Ii/., Inf. lid., ]8()0, «; S'alr., OncrUi Otic, .Tune 7, \^n, 
61:1-14; HI Xaciomil, .June 20, IS.W, 10; Peraltti, liio S. JiMii,'2i-5; BMi, /.'• 
JV7f., i. :i.")!)-(52. 

"'■"The treaty, after being completed and published in tiie official journal nl 
Nie., was commnnicatod by both govts to the foreign diplomatic corps ac 
credited near them, as well as to their own representatives abroad. -Ul 
frienilly nations came to look on it as an accomplished faet« 



i^lVKUS TUKATIES. 



1" XT'" •>'ia 

oi Aicaragua in after vears ;.. ]• . , 

^^-^. officially uttemi byXi :.^,t''^^"*^> ^^"t a w.J 
;[^^u,.st rts validity. After^^:*^^^ • "^ ^^^en yeai-s 
''"'»'ts Ayon, her n.inistor of f '• '^'^ ^'^^' *-'^'«t'^I, 
l-,t to the national ."X", aif'\ f^''^' '" '^ ^- 
a".l tlie boundary question vtf' "^'"I'^tc'd ,ts validity 
•• ?^-ave diplonuUic^d^^ ^^ re.>,>ened,- givin. rEi 
-tu-eon the citizens of^E t" '"'"' ".^ ^'^tle ill M^,^ 

f''-'\ Atlast,eari; n ,88s7;fr^'""^ '''' to 
'^vuKua I^ pIenij,otentiaHet\i" r'^''^««'^''<"<iin 
"•'."^■.the dispute to a„ e, ?. %^"^^} ^"""tric-s to 
'" '>I",^- the treaty hefbic 'ho v" '''""^ Cardenas, 

-«. -"hi;; iSGt'u " ^'>;*'"^^ *'- treaty],.., , 

^"''"■'""^' "ithi,. tlu. t , , V'^ ^^'^■- ''^tahlij,; t ; ""'•^•l'"l'lic.s. Ho 
'('"■-"""'.^norcMUhoK-. „ ■'■"'"■■^ '"' ""^timoa h. /,,"?' V^ ^''" •''"'t^-, 

;''''\'>''''i''m./,,v,„ ' 'r.^T^ ^•''''«titu,.w,fc'V:,,r;'''''r''''"' <'■''* ^'ven 

"T' ^"'''' '-'. a I^ /:?*>' t" '- vhH.I an.li^ '"'-'• "f^ican,g„a^ 



5f I. 



j; !i 






i 


ifM^HMMM 


Hi^' 


'i'fflH^^H 


p ' 


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1 II 



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REPUBUC OF COSTA RICA 



1 I 



respect the boundaries then existing between them, 
and to jnter at an early convenient opportunity into a 
special convention directed to fix the dividing linc.'^ 
The antecedents of the subject will be found in a note 
at foot."* All subsequent royal provisions, down to 
1 803, tend to confirm the limits of Costa Hica that 
were fixed for Cherino <m the Atlantic side. But on 
the 20th of November, 1803, a royal order placed the 
island of San Andres, and the coast of Mosquito from 
Capo (irracias il Dios to the River Chagres, under tlie 




CusiA Rica. 



"All extract of that treaty is given in Montitfai; h'c-icnit If Lit., i. '_'S|l-!lt(. 

"'The royal coinniissiou of Diego ile Artio<la Clierino, governor, ciiiHaiii- 
general of Costa R., issued in l.")73, fixed the boundaries of the proviiui' lidiii 
the 'euihoeadura tlel Desaguadero o rio Sun J\ian de Nicaragua liasta hi 
frontera de Veraguas en el Mar Atlantico, y ilesde los liuderos de Xicova 
liasta los valles de Chiriqui en el Raeitico. ' Mnlimt, Baiq. VoiUi li., 14; /'/., 
Cox'a It. !i Nuevd Onniada, 0-10, 1(5-35. P'cliije Molina l)eing in the service 
of Costa R., and intrusted with the defence of her interests, his assirtioiis 
might he by some deemed biassed; but the testimony of .Juarros, the historian 
of Guatemala, who wrote with the offieial docs before him, is not open to tlu' 
same objection. He says, speaking of Costa R., ' sus terminos por el mar ilil 
norte, son desde la boca del rio San .Juan hasta el Escudo de Veraguas; y [mr 
el siir, desde el rio de Alvarado, raya divisoria de la provincia de Nieavauiia, 
hasta el rio de Boruea, termino del reino de Tierra Firme,' Jlontti/ai: I!' ma 
Hkt, ii. 230. 



DISPUTED TERRITORY. 



236 



supervision of the viceroy at Bogot.i. Nueva Granada, 
now Repi'ilica de Colombia, has maintained tliat this 
royal order made a new territorial division between 
tin; capitania general of Guatemala and the vireinato 
of Xueva Granada; and to the latter belongs all the 
territory alluded to in the royal order, and that said 
territory was recognized as hers by the Gual-Molina 
treaty. On behalf of Costa Rica, it has been al- 
leged that the Spanish crown never made a territorial 
division with a mere royal order. The division of 
provinces, vice-royalties, and captain-generalcies was 
cH'eeted under a pragmatic sanction, a royal decree, 
or a roval cedula. The roval order aforesaid made 
no division of territory, but merely jilaced San Andres 
and tlie ^[osquito Coast under the care of the viceroy 
at Hogotil because Spain at that time had military 
and naval resour'^es at Cartagena. Xevcrtheless the 
oidtr liad no etfect; it became a dead letter, the 
viceroy never having protected that coast. Such was 
the impression of the Central American negotiator 
of the treaty of I 825."' With this same understanding 
the federal government of Central America mado a 
contract in 1 8;3() t(» settle an Irish colony in the region 
of Roca del Toro,'" which was not carried out because 
the Xew Granadan authorities drove away the settlers, 
and liave ever since Jiekl control of the region, disre- 
garding (Vista llica's claims.'^ 

Sc\-eral diplomatic efforts were fruitlessly made to 
fix tlie boixndary.'^ The last one was made at San 

'The territorial division recoguizoil by liiiu was tliat iiiade in 1810, at 
whidi time no New frraiiadan authority had a footing in Cent. Am. teriitorj'. 
A reprosentatiou of the ayuntamiento of Cartago to the Sp. ciirtes in IS] 3 
says; 'I'dsta Rica tiene por liniitea de su territorio el rio de Cliiriqui ipie la 
separa ile l,i provincia de I'anania.' C<irtt!.f, Ditirio, \Sl',i, xix. 404. 

'*'< 'niitract of Col (ialindo, aa agent of the govt. Moliiin, lioxq. Cai/ji Ji., 
llHI 1. 

" Copy of correspond, between the gov. of Veraguas and that of Costa R. 
Moniiifiii; I, ' I s)- 111 I. Jli.H., ii. 272-3; Mot(j. Corrc-sj^Dinf., 2'2-."); /'mi., Aw.v. Ofir., 
iu P":i. Col. Jhrx., no. 31, pp. 02, 00-70: hi., Sttinuid Ifvmld, Out. IT).' 10, 
ISSO. 

■■" iMu'ing the Walker war, a treaty was made at San .Toso between P. A. 
Henvm for Colombia, and Joaquin B. Calvo for Costa Rica, which does not 
follow tile line on Molina's niaj). Modifications were made to it at Rogota, 
aiul ratitications were never exchanged. Later ou Jose M. Castro went to 



I I LS 



i ! 



236 



REl'UBLIO OF COSTA RICA. 



Joau on the 25th of December, 1880, in the form of a 
convention to refer the wettlement of the question at 
isHue to the arbitration of a friendly power, namil} , 
the king of the Belgians or the king of Spain, and in 
the event that neither of them could or would undrr- 
take it, then the president of the Argentine confed- 
eration."* It is understood that the matter was 
finally submitted to the king of Spain, and that the 
resolution was long pending. 

Political disturbances continuing in 1841), Castro 
resigned the [)residency on the Kith of Novenilx r,'" 
before congress, which had met in extra session Octo- 
ber 2d; his resignation was accepted,'*' and the same 
day Juan Rafael Mora was chosen vice-president, and 
on the 24th president of the republic, being inducted 
into oftiee on the 2Gth of Novend)er.'^' One of liis 
first acts was to grant an anmesty fi^r })olitical offences. 



IM I, 



Bogota an<l negotiated another treaty, whieh did not stipulate Molina's lino. 
This treaty was not latilied liy either govt. Tlie ne.\' attenipt was made liy 
]i. Coneoso, on helialf of C'olonihia. His negotiations were mostly verlml, 
disiegaiding arguments for the wtraight lino between I'unta de IJuriea and 
the lOseudo de N'ei'aguas; and alleging that on the N., N. K., W., ami N. W. 
of that line were C'oloml)ian settlements, whieh, under the constitutiou of 
his eountry eouM not he eeded. A treaty was entered into, however, wiiieii 
did not obtain the ratilieation of eitlier government. In Costa R. it waseon- 
sidered a ruinous one. Correoso was charged in Colond)ia with having niaile 
a damaging arraiigeinont. P(tn., (uiccUi Intino, Oct. 20, 1841; /(/., dn'm. "ji''-, 
Feb. t), KS');?; /./., /iolrtlii. Ojic, Dee. 2'), 1870; Pan., Oacvta, June ]"), I'sll, 
June lit, 1872, Aug. I'l', 2i), Oct. 31, 1874, May 21, 187(3, July 2"), Am,'. 4, 
22, .Sept. 21), Oct. VA, Nov. 10, 21, 1S78, July 11, Sept. 12, Oct. 17, 2.S, ;il, 
188); n<ni., Mem. S<r. Ook, 187V», i:S~14, 35-42; i'olomhu, Dhirio O/ir., I'di. 
2o, 187(); Co-s/'i A'., Jlcm. lid., 1851, 5; I<1., Col. Leif., xiv. 54-5. Ki'o 1; hi., 
Iii/oniiv Oiifiii., 1880, 2-4; If. S. Gort J)or.f., H. Ex. Doc. 41, p. ()4-5, vi. ii.'itli 
cong. 2(1 sess. 

•'■•Ratilie 1 by the executive, and sanctioned by the gran consejo nacionul, 
of Costa R., Dee. 27, 30, 1880. Pun., (Inrettt, Jan. Iti, 1881. 

''"Carazo, the vice-president, had done the same Oct. 2tith. Costa It., Cul. 
Lei/., xi. 210. 

''' At the same time ho \va.s declared a benemerito, and the founder of the 
rep. of Costa R. 1<1., 157-8, 224-5; El Coxtaricciise, Nov. 17, 1840. Thr 'ip- 
position, however, made severe comments on his policy as reviewed by liini- 
self. Allot, d lit reiiiuiriii, in Cent. Am. Jli.-:cel. Doc., no. 20. 

^'' Mora was a Costa Rican of rare intellectual powers, (juite couversanj; 
with her affairs; a wcaltliy merchant, who had travelled abroad, and by lii.s 
frankness and liberality won a well-deserved popularity. El Co^tarkenxe, Nov. 
18, Dec. 1, 1840; Costa /.'., Col. Ley., xi. 225-0, 234-5. Francisco M. Oiea- 
numo was elected vice-pres. Jan. 30, 1850. Id., 241-2; Costa R., Cfucetn, IV'Ij. 
2, 1850. 



1'RE.SIDENT MORA. 'SM 

Till' Ixiiuls of discipline and subordination haviniLT 1)0- 
coiiK' ivlaxod, Mora had bot'oro liiiu a difficult task to 
ri'storu jK'aco and order.""'' Ho dealt severely with the 
aiitliois of rovolutiisnary niovonients. (^astro bt'caine 
a ftiu'itive, and the others were exiletl. I'or his efforts 
to r<'store order, congress, on tlie lifjtli of June, 1850, 
MiiiiiU'd him the title of bonenierito de la patria. 

Till' president's policy was one of repression by all 
iiii;iiis: but finding himself oj)posed in the chamber, 
he nsiL;iied the executive offici', and his resignation 
not I icing accepted, took upon himself to dismiss the 
((I ' .itss, calling on the people to choose new rei)re- 
st'iitatives.'"' 

The continued revolutionary attempts ])laced the 
H'ovcnuiient in a difficult pr)sition, and promj)ted the 
pivsidcnt to adopt severe measures; hence the orders 
el exile issued against prominent citizens.^'' 

Mora and Oreanmno were on the Od of Mav, 185.'}, 
I'lected ])resident and vice-president respectively.^" 
I'eud A\as now restored, and the govermnent devoted 
it> ^ftf' tion to the promotion <.)f education, and of the 
material interests of the countrv.*^' 

"■'.V(<'., I'oi: /.-•<., May 'J, 18.">0. In an addmss ^Inra depicts the situation, 
aiiil tile attempts of Qniroz and otliur.s to disturb the poatu in San .Josi? and 
Hi riili;i, tn;;utlier witli liis nioasurcs to l)alk thcni. El prrsiil. i/c In nji. d la 
Xunni,. ,lune 8, 1S.")0. 

"■'The (ki'ivo was issued at the Hacienda do Frankfort en las I'avas, and 
iciiuiti'isigiicd by Joa(piin Bernanlo Calvo, minister of jiovt. He based Ids 
lutidii (111 the fact tiiat congress liaving declined to accept his resignation, he 
w;is iiiiiile responsible before (iod and the people of evils that might result 
fmm tlie existing order of things. Costa /{., OacHa, no. 105; El Siijlo, March 
10, IN.VJ; rr»A( /,'., (W. Lcij., xii. !»()-7. 

■".Iiisc' M. (.'astro, Bernardo llivera, and Nazario Toledo. El Siijlo (S. 
Salv.), March 4, l.sr)2. 

'"'.lune (i, isr>.'}, the j)resident's salary vas raised to 3."),0()0 a yei;r. Cnnta 
I!.. C'l Iaii., xii. 'I'MM, •.>47-8; hi., Oanta, .Inly '23, IKili; Jfoinl., OarHa 
';/('•., .lime •_'(), 18r)3; Wai/iiei; (W'( A'., 171 1.', 501) 8, '_x.»tJ-7. 

''Mill. Calvo's rept to cong. May ll!, 1854. Tiie ehaniber on the 5tii of 
Jiiiie sanctioned all the acts of the govt, and pa.sscd a vote of tlianks and 
iiiiii;ratulation to the president, 'por el acierto y prudeucia con quj la ha re- 
iuW Vom Jt, Me-7i. Bel., 15. 



m 



CHAPTER XII. 

REPUBLU' OF NU'AKA(;UA. 

ISSS-lSi')'). 

State OovEnKMENT — Dirhctor Buitr.\c;o's Conservatism — British Ac- 
cRE.ssioN — DiuEcroR iSamh)vai,'s Rn.E— Ini'eknal Troubles — ( Iiki;- 
hero's Administration — The Most^riTo Kinodom — Irs Orkjin ash 
History — Buhules — Bkitlsii 1'ketensions— Seizcre of San .Tian hki. 

NORTE — DiI'LOMATU' ( 'oMI'LICATIONS — t'l.AVTON-BlLWER TrEAI V \|i ■ 

ARAGUA Recovers her Own — Relations with Forkkjn Poweiss— An 
American War Ship Bombards San .Tian i>el Norte— PixLiiAs 
Government -KsTAiiLisHMENT of tiik Reithlh' — Party J)lssensii)N< 
— Leoitimlhts versus Democrats — Chamorro and Castellon — I'imi, 
War — Death of Chamorko — Estrada Succkeds Him. 



J ! 



Little, if iiiiythiiig, lias been said in this liistoiy of 
tlio intei'ual affairs of Nicaragua since 18;}8. L'litler 
]icr first constitution, tliat of 18'i(), the; cliicf executive 
officer of the state was called jefo (kil ostado, and lii.s 
term of office was for four years. The second oi'i^aiiic 
law, pronudi»ated in 1838, gave that functionary the 
title of director supremo, limiting- his tenure of oftice 
to two yi^ars. ]^al)lo Buitra^o seems to ha\'e i'ocii 
the first director called upon to enforce the constitu- 
tion of is;)8.^ He was declai'ed hv the chambers, (tii 
the 4th of Marcii, 1841, to have been constitutionally 
chosen. His first step was to remove from the otHco 
of ministro general Francisco Castellon, who held it 
ad inteiim under appointment by l^atricio Rivas, 

' 'i'lio followinif iiiTsous lield the oliice !nl int. liiifore him: uaiii'"ly. I'.itri- 
oil) Uiviis, .luiu' IS.'t'.t; 'oaciniu Cosio, .July 1S.'{'.(; Uiliirio UUoa, sLMiiitm in 
cliiii-;,'!-, Oct. 183!t; Toiiiiis Valliidiiros, senator, Nov. 183!); Patrii'io Kivas. 
Sfi)t. IStO. Mnruir, I'^'rw., (>4; .]fonfiifiir, /\'c/ii'i}a //int., iv. VM: II'"' 
//oi}</., 4!U. 

•'Tlii'i'e was much dissimilarity of views on political matters liotHf'ti tlii 

1238 J 



BUITKAGO, OROZCO, PEREZ. 



239 



callinof to succeed him Simon Orozco, whom he could 
more easily control. 

Buitrago treated a comnmnication fioni Morazan, 
sent him from San Miguel, with contumely; and af'ter- 
Avaid, when the ex-president, as jefe of Costa Rica, 
accivdited near him two commissioners, he declinei'. 
tu loeeive tliein.^ His course won him commondation 
tVdiii the rulers <*f Guatemala.* His term of office 
caino to an end on the 1st of April, 1848, and he was 
tt'iiu'niaril'" succeeded hv Juan do Dios Orozco. The 
otficial press asserted that the election for director had 
l)erii iiuide with perfect freedom. But no candidate 
luuinsx received the recjuisite number of votes, the 
assi'iiibly chose Manuel Perez t<> Hll the position.'' 
The state was at peace,*^ but was not to enjoy that 
l)Oiiofit loiijjf. In a pre^'ious chapter 1 have spoken of 
tlie desolating war waged within her borders by tlie 
tyrants of Salvador and Honduras. She was, nioi'e- 
u\('i', liarassed by the intemperate demands for J>rit- 
isli <laimants made bv Chatheld, the allv of tli(> 
aristocrats of (Guatemala, who went so far as to thc- 
tate to Nicaragua how to recognize and pay these 
(•l.iiiiis.' The assembly then autliorized the executive 
to arrange tlio matter in the best way possible, and 

two null, tliini;jli ("astuUiiu iiml foiitriliuti'ii to nuitraiio's cloctinii. Many 
liitti'i- ]iiililiiatioiis iip[)earc(l .suliSL'((UL'iitly tidiii tin' ^iuils of tli(3 two advcr- 
suiirs. I'trrz, Mem. IliM. li'rr. y!r., 4S. 141). 

' Tiny wcro not even allowed to iMitcr tlio stati-, ln'cauwu of the treaty of 
Oft. IS42, .-iigneil liy I'avoii, Arriaga, and Duraii. 

^'I'lie ( ^aceta eulon;i/ed liiiii, and I'avoii .said that lie wa.-i ' nii iiomlire de 
(iriK'ii (|\ie solo aspiialia a la justicia y al ileeoro.' liuitrago's jmsitiori was lie- 
I niiii]i;,r a dillieult <uu'. Mora/an ruled ill Costa Jtiea, hail not a few friends 
ui NiiMiagiia, and imblic oi>inion in the latter state favored a conventi'jn of 
>tiite.-i. On the other hand, hi' was an.xious not to foi'feit tiie jfood o|iini( n of 
the luilili'., and nuns. Upon the news of .Mora/aiTs e.xci'Utii ii reailiiiig J.eoii 
111' liad it imlilished with marks of satisfaetion. lie also olijetted, thniigli nut 
>triiniimsly, to the landing of Saget and lii.s eoniiianions, yi'le]K,'d ( 'oiiuiinhos, 
ill .Silvador. 

One of hia first acts v,as toniakoFraneiseol'astellon his niinistro general. 

'Tlie new otllcial journal, h'ri) t/c In Lvi/, in its liist nnnilper deciareil that 
;ir Oetiivian jieace reigned. .\iid iinleed, had Xie iragua hieii away from oh- 
iMxiims iiilluiniees, peace might have lieeu maintained under rejmliiiean insti- 
tiitieiis. But she was, uidiappily, surrounded by states where for a time hrutal 
fill"!' lii'Id sway. 

The claimants were Bridge, lUenton, and Manning. P'ull details on the 
ckims of the last two arc in Xic, liciii^tro ojic, 109-10, 121-3, 132-"); Dun- 
'"ji'cf (.'lilt. Am., uo-U. 



., > rat I 



51!" IM 






m I i 



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KKPUBIJC (IF NKARAOUA. 



Castellon, llio iiiinistro j^cucrul, jiroijosecl to Cliatiit Id 
to submit tlu! disputed claims to arbitration, iiamini;' 
Bisliop Viteri as the Nicaraguau arbitrator. Finally, 
ii legation was dcs])atclKHl to Loudon, Castellon bcln^- 
the minister and Miiximo Jerez the secretary.^ The 
JiJritish authorities resolved, however, to use coercion 
in order to force a settlement of tlie claims, tlu^ coi- 
vette Daphne blockading the port of Uealejo in Au- 
gust L84G; and the government, l)eing without funds 
to meet such demands at once, had to pledge the ]'(\- 
onue from the tobacco monopoly during tlie next four 
N'cars. 

Leon, after its terrible conilict with the forces of 
Salvador and I londuras, aided bv Nicarayuan allli s, 
w;;S in a shatterc^tl condition, and most of tlie fainilics 
dwelling therein M'ere in mourning, and reduced to 
indigence. ^luhoz, who so efliciently c(»operate(l In 
that result, had st-cured the coveted reward, the eoiii- 
mand in chief of t]w western department. The sr.it 
of government was at San Fei'nando, and Jilas An 
tonio Saenz assunu^d the executive duties on tlu! l.*iitli 
of .Janu.iry, 1845." Uiuler the swortl of Muiio/ the 
elections for director supremo were effected, and .lox' 
Leon Sandoval obtained a plurality vote.'' JIi'w.is 
declareil duly elected on the 4th of Ajiril. The assem- 
bly [lassed sc>veral ini[)ortant measuri's." 

l\'ac(^ had not been restored. .Disturbances \\r\v 
breaking out in several }>arts. There were revohi- 

'^Tlicy cinliarked atSau .lu:m ilcl Xorto on tlio iltli of Miucli, ISlt. I'nitli 
hiivc MiH'i" (iniirt'il iiroiuiiicritly in ]P(iliti«il larclcs, 

"Sih'.i li.iil lii'lcf tlm (itlicc liy virtue of lii.s position as m'liior .senator to iliit 
ilatc, when liis .senatorial ierin i";[iinil. 

""J'JIi votes wi'i'o cast tor liini, tlie next liigliest receivinj; only 111!'. Tin; 
otlier e.iuilidates were .lu.iii .lose JJiii/, .lose (lueri'ero, J'alile Buitrayo, j.iiiiv- 
ano J'ineda, Jose ]{osa I'erez, <1. (.'an'uciie, I'atrieio I'i.as, ami Kal.u 1 M:>- 
I'liailo. AVc., Jiiifhtro Oji':, 47 f>; Siun/ornl, Jicrindis !'(ili/., lit; J)iinli>}''-< <' nl- 
A III., 'I'M. 

"To raise two loans of .s|(M>!H) ..n:! .'Jr'I'iO.llOO, respectively, and to iruuliite 
tlie tiiiaiieial system. Trial liy inry vas snspei-.iled. An amnesty Mas issmci 
■\vitli many i'xee|itioiis ni^^ainst tlie delenders of Leon, yic, /'(■(/iK/roO'i'-, 'il' - 
7(1. Two jiortfoUos viire crea'ed; nimely, that of war, intrnsted lo l.iinj 
Ci'sar, anil that of treasury, Jilaeed in cliargo of ilesus de la Jvoili'i. ■''i^>' 
Moiitenej^'ro was ministro jicncral and of forei;,'n relations. Tin! adiiiinistiM- 
tive course of Kruto IMiamorro, as su])remo dele;,'ado of the late coiilrili r;uy, 
was aiiproved the t»tli of May, lonj,' after C'luiiuorro had vacated hi.i olliiv, 



nth 
thr 

was 

111- 

;.iv 
-dlu- 

,,fli;it 

•111.: 
[\ M:- 

li^siii'ii 
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I.ui" 
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li-tr.i- 



KKSOLUTIOX I TON Ki:Vt)LUTI()N'. 



•-'41 



t'diiaiT movoinc'uts in ^[aiiagua, and tlio govia'nniont 
scit thither Ponciano Corral to make an investiga- 
tUM, and quell the sedition. His nport brou;_;lit 
iil»( lit the ini{trisoiinient of several eitizens.'" A[ani- 
fcstations in lavc^r of Cabanas at J\ivas w^n-e put down 
\\i;li an iion hantl. On the 24th of June there was a 
icvdlt at Jieon, \vhieli Muuoz quelled, and the o'overn- 
iiient liad Ic; authors contined in San Juan del Xorte/'' 
Tli(^ ex(M'utive had jiroelainied neutrality in the con- 
t' st hrtween the i;()\-ernnR'nt of Salvador and IMales- 
jiiii, ^vlu» was sustained by Honduras; and thou;j;h he 
(■(iiicluded with Salvador at San Fernando a treaty of 
]i(a((', lViendshi[), and alliance, he also entered into a 
similar one with Honduras." The latter treaty was 
iiit''nded to bearealitv, and it is undeniable that \i«'- 
iiiii^ua was a faithlul ally antl e<)0[>erator of Honduras 
(liiwn to the treaty of Sensenti. The treaty with 
Sahadoi' was not made ni j^'ood faith on the part of 
Xic.-n'anua. 

The town of Chinande^a was, in the latter part of 
July, (aptured by i:()0 re\olutionists under Jose ^I. 
\ allc, alias El Chelon,^' who had eoiiie with sixty or 
ii'j,lity men on a schooner i'roni lja I nion, and landed 
at Cosi^iiina. '" On the lidth M.uhoz was attacked in 
Leon, hut dcfeatetl his assailants.'' '^Phe j4'ovi'rnint'nt 
iil)iiii(l()iicd San Fernando and went to ^Fana^ua.'^ 

'■ I'lulrr tilt' dcfi'i't' of .Fiiiio '2.'M, tin' prisoiici's weM'c cimfiiioil ri'sjicctivcly 
ill liranaila, M,it.ii,Ml|i,i, At(iya[i.i, Sum I'Viiiainlo, iiinl Naiiil;iyriit', and .siili- 
jii'lril to jii'ii.s(u'titi(iri liy tiu' cuuilM, .Many ihtsoms, xpcuially tlii^ |iarti.sans nt' 
I iliafias, wi'i'o Ljivfii liy ("on'al tlii! advice wliicli wan taiitaiimunt to an 
"I'i' I— tiM|iiit .'\lanagiia and not ivturn. ^ir., l;r,,l.<li;> Oiir., itO, "Hi s, |0I, 
liH. 

'■'I'lic iMiisc was tilt! indignation at tlio syinjialliy of tlio uovi rnint mI'n 
uiiits liir Mali's])iii and (iiiai'iliola. 

"Tlir tnaty with Salvador lioix' date of .May (i, IM."), and was ratilicil liy 
'Iw Nilvadoiaii cJianiKiTS .liuit- .'ftl. 

'lilt' iiiiini(i|>(d autliiiritifs and cili/fiiH of tlic |plai't', liy an at'ta on tin? 
'-"■'Ill (if .Inly, autlioriztul Vallo to takf siuli aftiim as iif dcfii'itcl lifsl to upset 
!lii' fxistuii; liovernini'iit and rostoi'o constitutional oidrr. Mmi/n/'ir, /I'l ^ii'ni 
//'-'.. V, Hill t(t; \„:, lt,',i,slrn<>ji,\, ]:iS !>. 

'■Salvador was for a tiinu siispcctcil of connivanct> with Vallc, Init she 
;'i'"Vi'il tlu; contrary. 

■ l>inctor Sandovui callcil thcni assassins ami rolihers. 

' I In wi'stcni tlt'iiartniciit iiiitl Managua were inulcted in .'?1'_',UM) ns iniii- 

■'luiii'Ill. 

lliM', cr.NT, Am , \'i>i. ill |i; 



!^ I 




<\ 



I I 

I i 



, , ,. 



24l' 



REPUBLIC OF NICARAflUA. 



Mufioz, victorious again at Cliicliigalpa, marched on 
Cliiuaiiduga, whicli he occupied witliout opposition; 
hut having to return to Leon, the insurgents retook 
it. He came hack witli a large force on the IGtli of 
August, and reoccu[)ied the place. ^'* Sandoval had, 
on the 9th, i'orhid<len the m(>n who accompanied ^lo 
razan to Costa liica from entering Nicaraguan soil 
A ministerial crisis occurred at this time, Kocha and 
Cesar resigning their ]">ortfolios, which were givtii tn 
Maximo Jerez and Buitrago."" Tlieir teimre \\a> 
necessarilv short, and thev were sui)erseded in tin 
latter part of the year b}- Fruto Chamorro and »Josi' 
Guerrero, the latter heing almost immediately sik- 
cecxled by Ijino Cesar. This new arrangement gave 
the director an homogejieous cabinet. The govci'i! 
ment was now a decidedly conservative one. 

The revolution camt^ to an end in the latter part nf 
September 1845, an anmesty bidng issued exct'iitinj 
only tlu^ chief leaui'rs, and ])ersons guilty of connuon 
crimes.'-'' 

This short truce enabled Sandoval to pay an tdiici.il 
visit to the several districts. In Chiiiandes>a tlic in- 
habitants having abandoned their homes, he issiKd 
or'Jers to bring tlunn back."'' The government \v;i,- 
levvino- heavv taxes. The citizens of Leon, Chinan- 
dega, .l']l Vic^jo, and other })laces, who were the victims 
of the self-styled "ejercito piotector de la paz," wnv 
com[>elled to su}>port the regime which had its hrin:^ 
out of the destruction of the tirst-named town. It is. 
thcrtdbre, not a mattei- of surprisi! that the [i('o]ilr ct 
many towns went off tti the woods. Tlie insuricrtinii 



" llis oHicitil ri'iioi'ts of July 8th and ITtli arc tcxtiiallv given in .1/"/-' ,' 
li,H,nn IIU., V. lO-J 4; .V(V., R,;jUlm ()fu\, I'J.S-l), VX\-\. 

'•^■' It is iiioxiilii'aliU; lu)\v tlicsL' two iiiou could Murvo in tho siiiiir r.liiiut. 
iinli'ss undor souio oni; of vurv i~uiii rior mind and cliaractor, wlnili Siinliiv.i, 
<'i'rtainly diil imt possess, .lerez was a denioi rat, a friend of ('entr.il Aimi 
iian union, and an admirer of ,Moia/an. 15uiti-ago was the opposite— a f '> 
servative, separatist, and oiiponiut of Morazan. 

■' Leaders surrendering weri; to li(' dealt \\it!i liy tlio civil courts etii' ' 
wise, if c.iiitnred, wi.ulil l)e tried under military laws, 

--' l''very one refusing to return wjs lieavily lined. ( 'iiief-of-Iitirean I'.. C.r 
tillo'a iustruclious to tliu .suhpreluct, in MuntiijUf, Jtusiim ll'tM., v. "JDIi. 



SANDOVAL AX,> MORALES 
I 1 SMS 

uinkf out a<»ain Voiu 

'""iirstv decree w,^ fl ^'' ''^ ^J^oveinber Tlu. 

:.-^^- - M-.ro c!,)featecl first I'v '{V.f'-'""'""!'- 1'l'« i">^nv- 

"I";'' «'tl' W"r<;.s .,(• /;;,";,.';'" * '« 8-over,„„..„t 
;■""'' ""t I.C. .spared" T , v",' * *',"'' '"'^ "'^"i-'-s 

i:il"rts w,.r.. mad,, (jy Bulh...,. , , 
:■"'"" .Sa.„l,„„| t„<..,ij '"'"''""/""' "tl.crs topr,.- 

''- l"i'iy „K.t fi,..,t i,;,s„„ Fe ',., ;' i;'"i"«iti'>ii. ri.o 

'"^"■■""-"•=^ Af ; r; 7 ' -■-.v !-t a,.t „;■ ti;;' 

'';;■ "';'■'' " "■■■'■^ .^u"..",,, 7i . , ""^'"^''"1 '■"■--».s 

"I i'..'.l.lJlln.l.. ' ' "-• iL'tM-uiI OH tl„. |,,.;fj, 

TI,"' I'lul of ,Sa,Kl„va|'„ ton,, „•„ 
-'"''l>- ""'t :<!„un o„ tl, , *".''\ 1*"'". ri„. as. 

-"""*■'■ ■S.-,li„as in J,is .o , I ""'■' "'« -■■^"•utivo 
"' ^'>^^'Mi.,u. to I . ; . T' '■"'""■' '"a,l,. a ,„„„i;,: 

;r'"-V"'»''.«^^^^^^^^^ .......,•„,.,.„ 



r 



Oil 



'^ ''iw;i 



I 1 ■ 



id';! I 'h 
'!| i* '> J', 



I 



-2U 



kki'lulk; of nicaraoua. 



WWtlill 



:i 1' !! :'! \ n 



■« I '} 



conservatives, "iiuxlerado y ae orden;" good relations 
^vitll the pope, and eordial frierulshi[) with thcpri(>t>: 
piihlic instruction based upon tlie requirements of the 
council of Trent. Tlie office of supremo director 
passed, on the Gth of April, into the hands of Jose 
Guerrero, who had been chosen for the constitutii)ii;il 
term.'"'' Acceding to the repeated petitions of tlie peo- 
ple of the western department, (JJuerrero decreed''" to 
make Loon the residence of the govermnent, and the 
transfer was effected July 20th, tlic ])eople of that citv 
greeting the director and his officials with joy Tin 
asseml)ly, however, prefern^d to sit at ^lanagua, nml 
did so on the 3d of Heptember.^^ 

The country stood in need of a new constitution, 
but this could not be framed at the present time. 1m - 
cause the whole attention of the government iwA 
people w;.s absorl)ed by the (juestions with (jiKar, 
Ih'itain, which were a menace to Xicaraguan terii- 
toiy, and even to tlie independence of all Ceiih'al 
America. These difficulties were connected with tlu 
possession of the territory known as the Moscjuito 
Coast, or Mos((uitia. The Spanisli autliorities to the 
li.st moment of their rule over C-'utral America acfcd 
in a manner indicative of Spain's claim of full sonci- 
eignty over that territory, disallowing the preteiuiiJ 
right of the Zambo chief who under l^ritish prottctioi; 
had Iteeii dubbed King of Mos(|uitia.''''" 

A l^ritisli aofcnt claimed some vears afterward tliat 
the relations of the Spanish and Mos(juitiau authori- 
ties had been in 1807, and even before, such as an 
held between inde[)endent powers.'"^ The so-callnl 

-"■' Saiuloval rcturnuil to 'Irauiula ami was rt'cuivuil witli <s,rc.;it luiinir. 

•'".Fnly 1(), 1S47. This iiu'asurc awakciiuil iiiucli acrimony dutsicli' <<( tl' 
huuctitcii (K'pai'tiiiciit. 

■" AV llinmiiloi; Mw. '1\), 1S47. 

■'- Seo y//.s^ Cnd. Am., ii. ,V.I'.> (i07, tliis scries. In Nov. 1S0;<, tlic wimb' 
nortli coast, iiuhnling tlic islaml of San Amlrcs, ami the Mosi|uito ('nist o\ 
tcnilin;,' t'r'oui Cajic (iracias ii J)ios lo the ( 'liayrc Ivivcr, vas jilaccd iiinicrtln' 
viceroy of Xiicva ( Jranaila; hut tivc yi'ars lator the transfer was arinullnl, :um 
the coast of >''i-i(initia restoreil to Nicaragua, to whicli it had l)ecn ainicXi'il 
by royal order of Marcli ."l, ]S0;{. 

•'■'lie liased his jireteii-;ion on tht^ fullowing incidi^iit: The Carihs nii ti.- 
Trnjillo line relielled in ISOJ hitakin'j themselves to Mosc[. territory. "li<i' 



THK MOSQUITO VOAST. 



•; ""'.t -'■■f^ miles in \m-:ulth V ' '" """"'• »".l 

;"'-;i;H,,n,.o,,„c! iTuiia,, i,i,,^f '^'i,!?'' '" '«»", «■.■,■,. „f 

';-; "" ti'^' r«''-t"^i-.. Ai '::n^^ '■' »'"- ■••"en. 

""'■• I" 1815 1„. , , ' '"•'■^''"'1 "•« -I" in.lili;.;. t 
"5";|M,- tho oeromonv -ul'l V •"'"'". Aiiustron.. ,„,- 

''■'" ' '^"'^' •■f «--^^.4"t. si,,.,. :'.;;;'■%*''"■ i- 

""■"'-••«|..mv,n„.»„.,„ ""■•"«' >i-iti"M, ,„„l a 

/■"■iu.li..! r,:,,,,,Tl l',"'"'' niun,,, . l' , „ "'■ " '•""'•■' "■..fa,. , 

,,,='■">•»■ • ..1,...., 7„ „„ "■■ '""-'■"■'•"».././„: 

'■:":;:;:" ■i;";j;:S;:,!"V"*LS' " -" - '™ :s.;:l:s^r 

J'l'it W.i.s ,I„,„, ,> • "'•> o'>t. Il(u,l,rsun\ 

^■^:-. ^^is« S^r s.st;^; - ,» " i^ f 5- »:E";r 
;'■'",'";■■' •'•"'' «'..Vv ;;?";■'' ,""■ ^-^^^ rC'^r^'r^- ■■< •"->- 




'! n ; 




3LUEFIt;i.DS3Ll'l"f 



^. .'"i Jihulii'lils IVw n'\ 'i\ 



(liilfof 
S<tii .Jiuiu 



Mi)S(jri TIA. 



Hritisli Avar ve^sol mux- i ■ • ^^^ 

^iV'U-mHiiBioH'' t''"'^'.>'^'^' Jhiu and his chiefs in 

H^f^i^ratums, and fUJ], CiWe ,!7 f ^''' ^^^^' «^' 
'vtri.'vo Jnni«elf' froni view u^ ^'^ ^'"«Jtl not 

f.'^' '-tt^N Wl.ic.h soon n, Je r^; •*'^' ^'^I^T'^^^^^ f''<"» 

^""^ •""! his Jife becai, 1: '""' ^""^ ^'^''^rt failed 

-".l.n.- h„„ presents, u.kI (tm^ ^"^^^^vst, 

'"^ ^^ ^-t India educat^n • ^'''^^ .''^'■^ the .fibct H f 
■Col Arthur ti, '-^^"^^^' -bi-edenck. 

^-T-- »"-;'»:;-- -•!;. ;;» ;;* rv^ '";;Si^s ,td,s 

;»- 1" '«"Vi>i « t Si";:' "'■""■"' ''»'"'■» «k™-,;" t,"* ;» ? ''-i 

'"»"".' ■""! c;,lat S;.; '"■■"';""'. a"'l lis ..i.iiiL ;■"'"" "» l'"'<'ry. 

:,"* ■,";i«'*'i ""'w' 's-'-'^ii".,*-". 'i i" ' " ...iS';;".',, r,';;r '" 



■ •i. J 



, j , i i ! ; I i 






■ ,'| 
kiMi 



'iij 



ilErUBLiC OF NICARAGUA. 



Moofjuito annals do not record what l>c('anie of him. 
Tlic iioxt kin^- was llohort Charles Frederick, who 
helievini'" hiniseit' a ical nioiiareli, for and in cdiisidt r- 
ation ol abundant ('(jnti'ihutions of rum, to which Ic 
was nnu'h addicted, Ix'^an to make large grants n{' 
land, some of whicli cariied with them the rights i>t' 
absolute sovereigid.y. ]Most of these grants weic 
afterward cancelh'<l, and the king was taken hy tin- 
British authorities to Belize, and kej»t under contii I. 
He died there, leaving, in a s -calh'd last will, daod 
in l^\l)ruar\' 1 H40, to Suj)erintendent ]\racdonald tlic 
regeiicv of his dominions during the minoiity of lii> 
heir, the ])riiH;ess liu'Z Ann Fredei'ick.'"' Macdoii.iid, 
whether as sucli ri'gent or as an otHcer of the Jhit- 
ish crown, a.|)[>ointed his private secretary, I'atiick 
W^alker, to reside at Jilewtields, and have charge of 
the affairs of Mos(|uitia ; sinc(> which time tlie shoic hc- 
gan to assume nmch importance, at least in a ]»olitii;il 
sense. AVaJker estai)lished a council of state, and 
soon oj)eiied a disj)ute ahout houndai'ii's witli tlic 
Central vVmerican states, giving rise to grave question.s 
which occupied the attention of other goverimieiits, 
and of whicii 1 will treat latei'. 



ii 



■l^\' 



Several atttnnpts were made smce the early days 
of tlic present century to colonize the Mosquito sIkhv, 

the Atl;mti(.' to tlio I'aeific, via tlio river San Juan and lakes NicaragiM :.;iil 
Leon, witli an imlix ami a prcfaeo l)y Ivlwafd Irving, is a littlo book ij.'^ii ip- 
tive of tlio autlioi-'s journry up the San .luan Kiver to J^^'on througli l-iki' 
Nicaragua, and of tiadini; voyages in whieli lie was many ycai's eii;.M:;t''i 
among the Indians of llond., Nie., and Costa K. His ojniortunities fm- (>!■• 
servation seem to have lieen good, and his manner of setting forth the iiiier- 
mation thus ohtained is clear and aiiparcntly reliable. On .Mosquitia aii'l lur 
govt and [leoplo he gives nuieli tliat is really interesting and useful, //. //. 
IJoiiii;/'' is/lr's S}<(iiii-ih A iiirricii, or a dcxcrijilirc, /li.-^/iir/i'n!, oiid i/i'0<jrii}'/i''''l '"'- 
count iif tin' (loiiihiiiDt.'i of Sjxiln, London, ISTS, 8', U vol., pp. xxix. .'{."(i, v. .'i.VJ, 
map and engraving, is mo.-tly a eonipilatiou. poor in style, divided iiite two 
parts. Till' lirst treats of the Spanish dominions in North Americi; thi! 
second of those in South America. Everything is treated in a eursoiy man- 
ner, and the part relating to Cent. Am. anil the istlimus of Panama is im a-ie 
and trilling. 

^-Morc details in Si/iticru Cnil. Aw., 041 .T; Mnsijiiitohml, 31-3. :fS 4(1, 
47-50, '■2'2'y '.): A'i-. jViicni. Jfism.von, (i; Cnnir.t dn.sj,,!, 'JOS-IO; S. Jmin. "'"i 
33-."), 4")-!); yHi'.'i' Jfc,/., Ixiv. 130; Fi-i.-'c/i, Stantiii run Mc.c, 1)4; Ik'f' <n 
Ci-iit. A ,1., 1.34, 140-1, ''OS 11. 



lU 



<";)w]ilchkrn-o tracts „r] 
ti;>' most iiiiportaiit 
Sir C' 



i'AILlKi.: 



LM9 



ilVyol' 



Wild 



and Were uiantcrl \ 



Mloiio- 



hlllihC 



J''"'l)''<'t, which Jati 



i"<I Glided, al 



'■!• was ]< 



^" «<'<'ii after started 



•lujH's wJio Jia,| 1,^ 
hVitisJi CVntral A 



'•'I't 18l';{, d 



""^V" us the f 



<nais 



><^"eii drawn int.) it 



'•■^iistrouslv f'oi.'f) 



"i.'idc anotJicr 



i"<-'rica La,nd ( 



In ^J 



10 



8;i!) the 



•'•^ix'riinent 



'•'"I''"'y '>i' Lond 






^'ink'd in iiiil 



w, 
ill I s 



. Jiad to 



'■'•lttTl„s,„j,al,„utt«„tl,ir,ls,.ffl, "■ 



"\l'' I^lcwh'clds, 
'd)and(»ii(.^J 



iiiti'i 



"I is t'citU 



"•;•- ^\'Hl not as h.althv. f 



«t, ]i otter tJ, 



•Ul Jli 



uid it 



;«'^^ses many natural el 



";••»>• l>osaitl tliat tl 



i^ ,i>-reater j);,i-t ,,p 



'<-' <^'onnti 



i;|'.;mom of t] 



*'i:-'i:^'.;iTi;r::;:r^';-?''''.': -ii 



It' .same nam 



»^'iuitia, is (,n tl 
I'l the Jatt 



•y 

lew- 
'^' liver and 



"' HI|e|(Js and its W,.,, . '] • ^'^"'"1" I'Ul't of IS I 



til 



' ''^^^-m- white and 488 I., :i 
the laro-er. ]-.'I,,„.^'.,i,. , ^."i<Kl< 



■SS( 



'milt 



'•'> Carlsrul 



f. J^Jlewfic.hi.s, ] 



le 



lavnio 



/ ^ 



J 



rr-.^?'!-'^" this kind 



w 



,y W alker, the Hritisl 



Y ^'^' the ]ious( 



lion 



1 tl 



le .sovereio'i 



I a«'' 



Was thei 



'tants, 
"1 two \i]. 
'*>u.ses, and 
•s Wc!i-e 



1 I't'sided 



■•^'"t and consul 



■g< 



' <>i'cuj)i(>d 
Jiei-al, with 



'J" the iL'thof Au-ust Tqjl Tir , 

<; \, n ^ ^^ <*1 Ce (.>n the 




■I f'« 






i 



•.:.".() 



KErUHLIC OF NK'AUACLA. 



B ' 



tViuatt' Tirrrd, hriiiixiiiiif with him th*' so-caUcd kiii"- 
of till' Mos(|uitos or AIoscos. At tlu! Siuno tiuu.' an 
arniccl slooj), under tlio MoH(|uito ihig and conunandt il 
1)V iV'ter Shcplicrd, entered the port. Tlie coniaii- 
dante and re veniu; officer, Lii-utenant-colonel Quijaim, 
Went to sec tlk! eonmiandini:; otHcei-s at She[)ht ids 
house, but was not received, on llie jtlea that hdtli 
the kiniic and superintendent wen; unwell. An nlH- 
cial letter iVoni him was left unanswered. At last, 
the superintendent's secretaiT, together with the < ap- 
tain of the frij^ate and the kind's secretary, called on 
(^)uijan(» and told him that on the following day ]iis 
li-ttei- woukl he answered, re(juiring his recognition n( 
the Mos(|uito king as the ally of hei- Ih'itannic .Ma- 
jesty. Quijano refused, and his visitors retired. Jlc 
reitei'ated his refusal in a letti-r to the sui)orinten»l- 
ent, and in the name of his government solenmly pro- 
tested against his pretension, as wt'll as against tlir 
insults inllicted ou his country." Ho was finally notilicil 
that if he intc^'fered with any Jh-itish or Mosipiitu 
suhjcct, hoth he and ) is govenuneiit would he Jnld 
responsihle/'"' 

Till' demands and insults of the British othcers con- 
tinued until the JAth, when tliey seized Quijaiio and 
carried him on hoard the frigate, intending to take 
him to Belize."' The Nicaraguau government, in a 
note to JJritish V^ico-consul Foster, denounced the acts 

^■' M.icildiKilil iiiiswi'i'i'il All;;, l.'itli that 'Ah- olpjt'ot ftf lii.s visit to tiic iiia.it 
liucl lii'i'ii t(i L'diivcy a iiit'ssa;.;o iit II. 15. .M. to liir ally tlio .sovi;rc'i,i.:u of tliu 
.Mosi|nito nation, and to a.-^c'crtaiii liy lii.s om n oli.srrv.Uion tlio trnc lioniiil,iiii.'3 
of (lio .Mo.s((nito iluniinions, ujion wliicli point ho w islicd to ln^ cnliulitiiii ■! liy 
lj>nijano. lie niach; furtiicr doniand.s for a rcoonnilion of his donianil, hut tlic 
Nioaiaunaii oni<'iid invarialilv n'tnrntd a n.fusal. Mii-<'/nl/iil(ii'i/, '2\\ "-'-•I '': 
A'//<.s' /.'r;/., Ixi. !tS; Ixii. 04, -JT."); Ixiii.]!*, I'.U; (J. .':. dnrt Jhu:, 11. Kx. I'(.c. 
7"), vol. X., Slst coni;. 1st suss.; }'()/^»(/'.v Mii-ni. S/iiirc, 'M -J 

'''An Iviylish Mritcr says: ' Tlii.s farco hardly so<'nu'd ci)nsistont vilh tlic 
dignity of a Hritish olliccr, gov. of a sottltnuont.' J)iiiiliip'.-i Tnii:, "Jl.") Hi. 
(Jrowe, also an I''.n^lislinian, doclaros it to have been an infanions act. ii(,.<ji(l, 
2\'2. It was not disavowed by the Krit. govt. iSijiiiii'.: Trurili, ii. 44!t;.\"«/'. 
Aniiiitc.i Villi-, xciv. '_'.">! -'J. 

•'' lie was left on a desert island on the coast. Mm-inr, llf'vii:., 54; MunKi- 
Jar, Ih'xciiii llist., iii. (iCJ. Maeilonald himself on tlu; l.ltli niiule his nets 
known to the govt of Nie., alleging that he hail l>een speeially re(j'.'i';-trcl iiy 
many pernons of San .Inan to remove (i>uijauo. The latter was nndouhlrilly 
a bad man, but uo foreign authority had any right to interfere with Jiiiu. 



UUril.^ll INlKltl-r.lMlNCK. 



col 



III 



(if tlir Tlritisli Oificiiils at Sati .Tuan as lii^li-luuidi'd, 
iiciiisiiiH' ^racdonald <if usurpiiio' tlic iianu- of lici' 
ilrit.iimic Miijtsty ill su|»j»')siii_Lj lu^r to Ik; an ally of 
til'' so-ndlcd ^[os((uito kiiij.;".'''^ The whole American 
itiiieiit hecame indioiiant at the ]^iitish proceedings 
San Jnan. There was one exception, however, 
wliicli must 1)(' <'lassiHcd as vile. Ferrcra, jcfc ot 
lidiiduras, under the inlhieiice of the servih; element 
dt' < Juatemala, allied with C-hatfield, recognized the 
Mii-c|iiito nation.'"' 

Cliatfield inl'ormed Xicaraufua that the whoUf ( *en- 
tral American teri'itory lyin^' l)(>tween Cape (Jraeias 
;i I )i()S and the mouth of the San Juan liiver hiditiioid 
tn the M(»s(|uito Uint^, Avithont jtrejudice to otiiei" 
li^lils the kinL;' mi'_';ht ha\e south of the San Juan.'' 
In Jaimary iyi(S two Ihitish war Acssels occupied 
till' |i()i't of San .Juan without I'esistaiice, replacing' 
ilie Xicaraouan olHcials hy I'lnu'lishmeii as ser\ants 

-('(insul t'liutiii'll tliiimiMl tli;it (,Miij;iii() was rciiicivdil from Mo,si|. an'l not 
Nil. tiiritory; tliut lie hail '.i'liisclf ji.itiliiil tliu ^ovt of Cent. Am. ni \ .i; 
1 \i^t('m•l; of the Mosij^. iiatio'i, and that (Jriat liritaiii wmihl not locil<. \\i;li 
iiiihirrfincu uiiou any ii.sui|iatioii of the territory of a inonareh Mith who u 
>ln' hill elose relUioiis; Miat Spain hail reeogiiiziil tlio M(is(|. natioi 



Stcoln'ii 



vi^ilicl San S.ilva'hir and <!iiateniala. Jli 



'tter vas ila 



ted 



()■ (. •_'!, In1'_'. Fiirtlier eon'es()onileueo followed l)etW(;en \ie. and C'hatlield 



ilheiit tiio former 



111 ly he seen Ul 



J/n 



//. 



■'/• 



/he. 



way to his pi'eteiision.s. The 



wliole eoiTe: 



;d. 



J{i.<L, iv. DS 111. 
Ill a treaty with Thomas L 



K 



Cdi: 14., Sept. "Jli, IS.'iO; Mn„/,,/i, 
■iii^iied ill ( 'oiiia\',iiilla I )ei 



isrf. Mnillilf 



"i\ 



/.'. 



a lli<f., iv. ll'J-14. Tlio aristoeratH 



if <;iiat. 



«a!ite.l a iiidtretiiiato of (!reat Britain over Cent. -Vi 



am 



lit 



was 



Ni 



tor 



a M'hile tliat Costa J!, had given way to the iiilliieiiec 



if 1' 



< liiitlill, and. I. .1. J''lores of Ivaiador, and had; 



iteil tl 



le selienie. 



Chat- 



liLJd lia\ iiij; eoneliided, on the "Jtith of Nov., IS-HI, a treaty witii Costa K., 
atteuiiited on the strenutli of it, on the 1st of hee., to dietate to Nie. lie 



•lil that ilili'ereliei 



hetweeii .\i 



nd ( 'osta Iv. must 



t!ie iniderstandiim, that other means won 



hi 



not 



le aiiiiealily arranLied in 
looked on with iiiiliHer- 



IV < irea 



tl'.ritii 



•'That Was pursiiant to orders from Lord raliiierstoii, i:i wdiii li for the 
lirst time a proteetorate over tlie Mosquito shore was assertnl hy ( Ireat J'.iit- 
liii. (.'hatlield and Walker had claimed I'igiits over the I'litire eastern eoa t, 
Iiiiiii Ciqie lloiiduraH to Ciiiriiiuiljogoon, an extent of 7t)0 miles, hut J'aliiirrs- 
t'lii sit the limit.s ' fl'oni I'ape Jloiidiiras down to tlu; month of tiie river f .;n 



Ml 



itiine the Xieara'4iian authorities liad ohtained, Oet. 'J8, 1; 17 



irnlll 



the I'rineess Inez, lielieviiig her the heir of IJoliert Charles Fredi 
full iiiiiniiitioii of the antiiority of Nie. over the shore of Mosij., and 



iiKiiid to all iiiti'rloping foreigners 



to h' 



I'ave the eoiii 



Hi 1.-Illll> 



jKir 



U'u-.t'i, Manh ],"), IS50. 



heeil to this arrangement. S<pt 



try. 'J'iu! IJriti 



( '<)it. 



illieia 
(;44-(;: Sidr 




KKrUBiJC OF MC\RAflUA. 



m 



i ' 



• f ihe Mosquito king', after doing wliich tlicy sailed 
away; but no sooner liad the intelligence reached tli.^ 
interior than a force was des[)atclied to San Juan, 
Avhich reoccupied the place and sent to the caj)ital as 



Sll 



])risoners the intruders.'" Whereupon the Briti 
returned in ibrce in ^VEarcli 1848, and defeated the 
Xicarag'uan detachment. Hostilities being furtlur 
prosecuted, the Xicai'aguans had to succumb before 



tl 



e superior ])ow 



■r of their foe, and consented t 



o an 



armistice, providing that the}' would not disturb San 
Juan, or attempt to reoecn])y tin; port, peiKhng the 
negotiations wliich must follow on these exei'.ts.'" 

Nicaragua, by her ablest diplomates, defended Ihp 
rights to the dis[)ute(l territory both in Europe ami 
America, without obtaining a satisfactory result, until 
the fears of CV'utral Amei'icans for tlie independence it' 
their countr}' were brought to an end by the Clayton- 
Jhdwer treaty, otherwise called the Shi[) Canal <'oii- 
^■^'ntion, concluded at A\'ashington ]»etween the Unittd 
States and ( Jreat Jirltiiin on the L'Jth of April, ISjn, 
l»y the first article of which neither power conN 
occupy, fortify, coloni/e, nor t'xerciso dominion oxrv 
Nicaragua, ( 'osta Kica, the ^ros([uito (/oast, or any 
other portion of ( *entral American territory, nor make 



use 



»l a })rotectorate m any tor 



m. 



Tl 



lus was tins 



vexed ([uestion terminated, England resigning all Ihi' 
claims to the .M.os<piito Coa:;t, and by a subsecjnriit 



■•■' S>liii<r'.-< Trnnl-i, i. 7S 80; M,inl>t, I',,;/., ii. 304; K/lnh. /,'rr., im. -Jll. 
144; Xil(.s' Ji'i;/., Isxiii. '2~'.i; TiicL-crK Mitumc J)(i<-lriii<', 4l'> -7, ."i"J-4. 

■'"]{ut till! NiiJirayiuiiis iu'\it ivliii<nii.slu'il tliuir claim of s )vurfi,:,fniy nvi.r 
tho imrt, uiir uviiu liy iiin«iii-Mtioii ivfuyiii/cd the king of > os(|(iiti), W.-., 
M,ii,lf. sohr,' Tnit., \~\\\; (■kLIIuii, lh>.-. l;rl.,'rt-'A; Xi.:, ]) : J)!pL, .•(•.'11; 
(,'iii'i-nm, Jlmil/., 17; ,Sfoiif.\< Xir., L'7S; Kl Sijlo, Nov. L"J, IS.".'; .\>., </"'.'■« 
(Ii>l>. Siipi:, Out. 14. Nov. 4, L'.*). ])(.<•. 2, 1S4S; Xilr.^' L'cj., L\x .-. 100; .sV/i.-'m-'v 
Cent. .\j)i., 047; A/., '/'/•"/•., i. l(tl-"_'. 

■''Tiio otlicr artiuloM rcior to tlic ronritnutiim (if an intci'iK ■anin i 'iiiiiiiiiii- 
oatiiiii, t'ithui' in tlio foi'ni df a canal nv of lailroad.-i, securing i e ncutiality ct 
intci'oceanic ways. Aiiinils lirit. Lfiji-i., i»7- I U), 'j:{!)41; Xif., jXiicrii, li'(«'<i\, 
1-44: Moiitii/,!,; l!i.-^r,iii. J/i.^f., iv. 87 HI; i.'os/n J,'., O'ln/n, March 4. 1^''4: 
Al>l«lt'.i Mi.K. iiml U. ,S., 340 •_'; MnViiiii, Jiosr/. Cos/a /,'., Ill; I'nhiwsKn,, vi. 
ll).")-!); vii. 40; Xic. ;/ Jlnml., hoi:, Vl'l ')\ Am. \)wirf. AVr/., iii. SlU-lM: A'/'V, 
(,hiiirt.. I'd'., xcix. 'J.'{7~70; h'l \iir/i)iitil, -rnly lU, 1S.")8; Xir.. licnnni Xi'\, 
Veh. 14, 1>S74: Jlinit\i Mnrlin,,/.,' Jl,„j., xxiii. 101)-11; Wells' WoWcr'-^ hxp'l., 
J'2b-'.'',]; Caicrdo, /.(it. Ant., 111!). 



TREATIE.S. 



253 



ticat\' concluded at Manaij^ua on the 28th of January, 
1S(!0, known as the Zclcdon-AV'vku treaty, ceded to 
Nicaragua tlic protectorate absolutely.'^"* Since tluMi 
Xicarajji'ua lias subjected the ^I()S(|uit;) Coast to a ]U't> 
I'cctd.'' Xevcrthelcss, it is understood that tlit^ In- 
dian reserve is still ruled by a chief chosen by the 
natives, assisted by a comicil, which assembles at 
]:)lc\\iields; but subject to the supreme authority of 
tlic Xicurai>uan <>()vernment. 

Xicarny'ua, as soon as slie assumed the position of 
an independent nation, hastened to open friendly 
relations with other powers.*^" Spain made with the 
ripublie July 25, ISoO, a treaty of friendship, coin- 
ing rce, and naA"i_<;ation, the first and second ai'tieles 
(if wliich fidly recognize Nicaragua's independence."' 
hailv efforts were made to arrange ecclesiastical affairs 
\\\\\k tlie ])a[)al see, a concordat being finally concluded 
at leuue Xovembcr 2, IHOf."' 

With the other Central American states Nicaragua 
made treaties, which underwent from time to tim<! 
alterations, as circtnnstaiices seeme<l to demand ftr 
IhT own or th(» general defence. Several of these 
will be made ap[>arent in the course of my narrative. 
Xicaiagua lias endeavored to maintain c(trdial nda- 

"'I'lic liicul 1 hid' was prevailed en t^ a ^'I'pt this aiTaiiL'i^iiioiit with a pcii- 
.siciii dl' .S'l. <••'() a yi'ar, duriiiy tvii years tliat is to say, till ISTO, payalilu liy tii(^ 
sii/craiii, hut tho last i-Uict dioi' in ]S(!4 or lS(i,"), ami Xic. lias ii(.'Vcr rccoj.^- 
iii/.ril his sucffssor. A'i''., CUur' <, ])i'f. t'-'i, IStiJ; KiiciirhqK Jiri/., xvii. 4{)',\; 
,V/ ■ . /,.(. I'liiitn, f]\uw 1."), ISIil; llowi. darHd, Feb. "Jd, ISIil; Jx'orw, (o<l. 
y;.., i. ll.S-'J7, ]:!2; ll'lhi, Xh:, i. 'JIC-.SOI ; Xir., Cnnr. ^fn.■«,., 1-S; J';,ii\ 
(;■:!' i/ /III' pill-., 40'.1 iL'. Kiirthor lU'tails (Hi the Moscj. (juestidii, giving ilip- 
liiiiatii! cnm'siKinileiiee anil parliamentary (liseussiuns, in //inisurd'i /'iirt. 
I'l'i., (nU-. KIO.TT; vl»//r,'/.v Jiii/. IauU, x. l'Jll-41; also in T. ,S'. (liM-t Due, 
Kv., Sill, and House, whieh are to ) nuiiu roiis to ([uote here; and like« isc in 
'■. S. Cinni. (;inlii', lS.-),-)^t;, IS.-.T-S, lS,V,t-l)(); Jrnnio </i: Ar!.- >.■<, Apr. L'l, ISuT: 
V'V. IhilrliiiOfu:, .Ian. 'J!}, Mareh 4, IS.'iT. 

•' IliHii, <•',„/. y;,:, ii. 'Jl-'J; J'nii. ,S/iir I'ml Jl^r-iU, .Mar. -JC,, ISSI; ,\'/.'., 
.1/ ". A'./., LSI 17, '.^-\± 

'"' Aiitot;raph letters were exel'.inf.;ed in 1S4S, hrtweeu I'res. llerrera of 
Ml N. and Uireetnr ( liierrero. ..\"c., (i'ln/n dali. Snyr., .^ept. ]('), 1S48. 

"I'.itilied hy \ie. Mareli -Jl, IS.")!; Hoilm. C<,<t. jXir.. i. Ij'.t, l(i;!-. yi.:, 
Ti't. ,lr /'„:, ete., 1-);?. 

'•I'.\ C-irilinal Antonelli, for the jiope, and Fernando de J.oreiizaiia for 
Nil 'I'lie treaty was in'.Misheil in the latter eonntry as a law Aug. 'JS, 
l^'i'i' A7.'., OdCit'i Goli. .Sii}ir., Oet. 7, KS4S; AWik, Vud. Nic, i. 7'.t, lii'J 7. 



i 



Ini 



m 



§^ 






V. ' HI 



IMlF 




254 



KKI'UBLIC OF XJl'AUACUA. 



tioiis witli lier neio'libors."'' The ro|)iil)lic entered intu 
frieiully tliploinatie relations with the powers df 
Eunipo iintl Anicriea, most of tht'ni haviii<4' treaties 
of amity, eommeree, and extradition t>f criminals. li> 
relations with the United States have i^enerally hi en 
intimate, made so by eonsid(>rations of iiciohhorhotxl, 
hnsiiiess intere'sts, and similarity of institutions as 
Well as l)y a mutual desire to forward the eonstru* ilun 
of a sliip canal across Xicara^'uan tfri'itory. Viicv 
have been disturbed at times. liowe\er, while iSlca- 
ra«;'ua was a transit route between the eastern states 
of th(^ ^Vmerican union, and during' the execution n\' 
schemes of American lillbusters, such as tho>e m|' 
Kinney and W^dker. 

While the ^losijuito (pu'stlon was jiendiuLi,' between 
Nicara-jfua and (ireat JJritain, eircumsLances W' ic 
hast"nin!4' a practical solution of it. An American 
coii![iany, acting under a Xicara^uan cliarter, openetl a 
transit route for passen^'ers tiiiounh the state, be-in- 
niuL;- at San ,luan tlel Xorti', which place ra])idly lilltd 
u|) with emigrants from the ITnited States, wlio lie- 
coming' munerically jjn'domlnant, met in a j)!'lmarv 
capacity and organized an independent n'oN'eiinnent."' 
^VfU'i' an indiscreet attem])t o\i the part of a Jh'itish 
i'onnnander to levy duties on an .\nierican steann i', 
which was disaNowed by his ^dvernment, the l)rili>li 
ju'otectorate over San .fuan at last virtually ceased 
Tlu' town ai:d port remained under tiie direct contiel 
of the inha1»itants, most of whom were Americans, as 
a free city."' T'lie pi'ospertty of the place was retanled 
by a dis]iute with tlie persons into whose han<ls ilie 



W-y, 



""I'ull purtic'iilais w ill l)(j fduiul ill A/., l.'iT-i;!; ^\V.-. 'J'mf. </i: cul.-' Xi 
1/ //mil/., 1-8} /'/., a. Will, 185;{-74, passiMi: /(/., ( nl. ])i"-. if Anicnln^. h'l 
'iSTl.', pussiin; A,'., 'J'ruf. rmi Coyf.i II., 1-7; Costn It., Inf. Idi. JMH, ."' I 
I'/S. I: ISS), ;M; ^<ili:, U'na/n, Aug. ll', \s:,:\, Oct. 'Jli,"lNTti, Maivli .' 
A|iiil 'JO, IMO, iiiissiiii; Ah., Mtiig. del I'nuiiL, ]87'.», i.-v. 1 -'J.'i; ami 
Jiiriims otli.'i' autlidritios. 

''''I hoy liv-it ('i\<U'a\-oro(l to rcj^aril tin; nllc^ud .Mi.simitu aullioril} , 
liiiiilly treatcil it ;i« a iihto liotimi. S /ali r\f did. /I,//., ii."i"_'. 

' 'Miiiiiuiinl oi'iliiiaiH'cs) for thi' |il loo wliicli Iiad iinw taken tli(! ii.iii 
<!ri'yt(i\\n. I'lirlinrilt, ( viiL Am., :^11-(J, lijl; Miinii; On/iiinairK, in <'(ii' 
AJ'iui:i, int. 4, 1-10. 



Mil 



.1;/'. 



'• "main, ; 

!";V"'"i'-' ill 



ARBITRAllY A( TS. 



'^oo 



transit hiul f'alk'ii, whuli produced liittcr frtliiii;', and 
resulted iu alleged iusults to Solou liorland, United 
States minister to Nicaragua, wlioso belligerent in- 
siiiift:^ carried liini away to interfere in matters which 
Were loreign to liis otHce. The sloop of war Ci/aiic, 
Coiuniander 'lollins, was des[>atched hy the American 
n(i\rrnnient to look into the cas(\ Jiolllns iissumcd 
;i liostile attitude."' niadi- arrogant demands, and the 
hiiter not heing complied with, lie homharded tlio 
tcuiion the 1 .".th of .Iidy, IS.Vt. and landing a party 
of marines, hurned it to th(^ ground."' "J'his act has 
Imtii generally ('ondenmed. The .Vmeri -an gdxcin- 
iiunt hardly conteni])latrd it; hut not ha,\ing ])im- 
i.-hrd ('ommander ILoliins, it must hear the odium. 
X'ltwithstanding these diHiculties, ])eaceal)le relations 
v,( !(■ not disturbiM.I.'''' Nicaragua also has troatic s w itli 
Jli '■■'Miu, Italy, France, England, l\'ru, and other 



li;': ;i';i • 



a.) 



' III' is .s:iicl 111 linvt; ImM'II iictinL,' r.iiilci' iiii]ii'.i]ii.M' iiilhu'iiccs. Stjiiicr'-': Ciiit. 

A ... (i."i;!. 

' 'I'lif town ;iutluii'itii'.-i li.nl nluscil tu p:iy an iinU^iiiiity. Tlii.s was tliu 
tii-,-t ilirirt augft's.sii;!! liy I'.u.' U. S. in (Jciit. Aiiioriia. A'/i-., Ihic. J)ipl,i,ii., 
7 \2: Ciistd /;., <;,ir,'/,i, .hvu: 17. -'•_', 'Jl>, IS,")-!; .S'-r/c, <,'iKvy,f, Oct. ]'_', KS.")1; 
Ti'iiiic xlliii., 1857, ;U ; r. v. <i<irf lhi<\, 'X\A coiig. isoss. 1, Sen. Dm'. S. vul. 
iv.; l>(ic. S."), vol. xii.; J'Jii, xvi. IU [i[i. ; /-/., Jl. Ex. Ihic. I, vil. i., jit iL, 

.■iN.'(-(l. 

''" /.I '■//, AVc. , ;il>5. Piildii l-'i'tl, \o/ii'i Ot'oi/fijicii--) ;/ J'ji-fiiiniiiifd.i .ii,hr< It l!i- 
jiiil,li-ii ill- yiriirrtijuii, I'ai'is, ISTIt, Hoy. S\ (J'J7 ]']> i\U'\ iiiap, is a ti'c'ati.so on 
rMr.iiai.'iia ami its liiiialiitaiit.s. Bcjiiiniiiig witli an lii.-.tiii-ical I'lviiini'' of ainiunt 
;iiiil mioiUtu N'ii'ai'agna, it gives a ix'vii'W ot' tliu topograpliy, cliiiiiito, natural 
jii'ii 'lu'ticpiis, government, proiilc, anil tlu'ir institutiuns. Tlu' \\ riii r'.s iiiim- 
):i:ci;.iu (lu tUu country's jiliy-^iial [iniillaritii's may liu set ilown as uxiul, 
tlii'i._'li siiMio ildiciuni'y i.s notml; Imt tliat on tin; political ami ailniiiiistrativu 
liiiiu lies is tini'rlialilo, .showing him to liavo hail lait lltllo knowledge oi I'cn- 
ti:il ,\iiii riiMu jiolilics. He I'viilently had not th>; documrnts ujiou which to 
tniiii a cnnci't .indginont. The (|ncstion of a canal across the islhujus ot Xic- 
aiMuiia is also r ^viewed, and a icMunc of its history given. The la-^t general 
tn.ilyv.ith tlic U. S. was negotiated in rsi)7. Tlieie \\ as also a convention 
liir 'die extradition of criminals in IS7I. iS'ie. lias made ari'angenients to pay 
Am. elaliris against hei', and on her part asked compensation tor the damages 
1 III. d hy the homlianlment of San Juan, which the Am. govt fefuscd. J'r- 
>•■. Mm. t limy. X<ii\. IS I'.t; Itorhii, Coil. Xir., i. '.K\; A>., Tint. </•■ .iwi-<- 
I'll. ('■■., iidrc A'/V. (/ liK i',H. UU., l-l(i; .V. /' Jniin dii Xor/i; /.n-.' ('iiir.n.<, 
\\l I l-J; /..(v/, A'iV., •_':!.". !l; Siili\, Dhirm<Hii:, Nov. 10, Dee. 2'-', 1.S7S: lin- 
mil, I'l'ri.-i if, fir, J'l/i/imi, I -'.'U; and a multitude of L'. S. go\ t does., and 
iitlii'i' papers. 

"Treaty witli Heluiuni, May IS, ]S,"iS; with Franco, Ajir. II, lS5fl; with 
•• Hiitiin, I-'eli. II, isiK); with Italy, March (i, iMhS; inid a i nnsnlar couven- 
iM'i iiMJe iu l.S7'J: Willi I'eni, 1S7',I." '/'/•.//, ilr AnilMnil intrf Xir. ij li Hilificn, 
1-1 '; /■'., I nlfi' Xi<\ ;/ la Frniicin, 1 "Jti; Xir., L' i/. JJinil., \\-'.M; J'liiliii, <\itl. 






li' "^ 



41 






1 1" > 



Vii nn 




250 



llEl'UIJLLC Ob' NK:ARAGUA. 



A squal)l)k; oeourrecl in 187G at Leon, in wliioli t\\r. 
Gornuiu consul and a Xicarnguan citizen were cdii- 
cerned, giving rise to a conflict between the Gerniaji 
and Xicaraguan governments, the former making of it 
a casus Ix^Ili, and demajiding, hacked by a naval foici , 
a considerable Jsuni of nioney.''^ 

Tlie political situation in the interior of Xicaragu.i, 
during tlie winter of 1848-9, w^as arything but sai 
isfactory to tlie lovers of peace. Piirties were ag 



llh 



ventuu 



tl 



len* aniUK^sitie 



The leader Bernabe S< 



moza ca})tured Kivas, and afterward became notorious 
for deeds of cruelty and robl)erv. L^irector Xorl)*i'tii 
llamirez despatched there a strong force under J. T. 
Muhoz. Somoza was defeated and captured at San 
Jorge on the 14th of Jui 



le, 



I 



vamu'ez was succeeded 



n a 

I. 



by Jose .Laureano Pineda in LS51,'^ against wJioi 
revolt broke out Au<jcust 4, 1851. haviiiLi- J. Trinidad 
Miuu)z for its leader. Pineda and his ministers Fran- 
cisco Castellon and F. Diaz Zapata were arrested. 
The ])lan failed, however. Leon, Muhoz' head(j 



uai 



ters 



was 



tak 



en i)v govennnent forces assis 



sted 1) 



troops from Honduras, and ]Muhoz surreudin'cd.'* ( 'n 
the expiration of Pineda's term in 185)), Chamoiro 
became chi(.'f of tlie state, having been elected by the 
suifraoes of the moderados. The new direct(jr was a 



I()I)-1S; nnithawl, li 



U'Jiii 



I^li.VSii; Ti'iit. lie Aiiii-<l(i(l, ('!<' 



// .V. .1/. n., 1-1.-); Aiiii.iU Brit. L, 



vie. 



nil re jMr. y tl ri'/iio < 
rviiio (le I/'iti'i, 1-1'.); A'/''., 
JJinrio O/i.:, Oct. '2'.), IST'.t. 



;/'•' 



iit,r 

i.K. .STS-Sl; Trot. <l<' AiiiM'nt, 



/(' Jtaliii, 1-17; < 'oiiniirioii ('Diiniiliir I'lifri' \i 



(I 



(lari t'l, Supt 



14, Oct. '2i;, Xov. 'J, 1S7L'; Snlr 



th 
tl 



' DaiiKiyus lor the iiijurcl (u'l-mans !?:W,01)0, and a fine of .S8.000, IrsIiIh 
(it tho (itiifial atcMsid of insulting (rernian dignity. 'I'liiw 



10 iinni.sliinrul 



10 su|iiTi(ir tiirco dictatos nnjnst ti'l'ni.s to tlu; inl'orior. 
" His toriii liugan Apr. l.'lM'.t. 
'- Ho was tiioil liy cuui't-niarli.il, sriitoni'od, and sliot.Tuno 17tli. A''.. />■ 



Ir/i 

'-",».->!»;' fV«^ Am. J//.sr</. J>o 



1.-) iS, ,luly 4, .5, l-J, IMil; Siin 



T, 



I'.M, li'.r, 



Mufitiz was rewardod with 



d.il, and till' fric'udH of the boldiors who perished rocoivod pousious. /.'■ 



('..,/. Xi 



;it;-i; 



'•' Uot<)!4ni/i d l)y the asscnildy March 14th as duly clootoil. A'r'., ('"/•• />' , 
March L'O.'lS.-)!; /ClSh/ln, March 'JS, Ihol. 



10, ISfil. .Ml 
militai'y rank. He 



lad liecii declared .1 traitor and deprived «( lu'* 
I to leave Nie., and went to re.side in Sulv 



(haniciiiii was made einmnandir of the forci's. Xir. Ihc y Ariwrdos, IS.'il-H, 
DL'-li, UtJ-IS: J/oii'l., (.nitrtiiOnr., ,T,in. l,', 1,S,")'_». 



U-eJ/ 

(•our 
lijijif) 
'-■ieiiji 
I'Ocieo 

J'l'0\-i,s 

J'uiiJi.s 

I ■'All fi 

tlie St;i 

'I'/JoWc 

decree 

tlie stni 

"ig lis 

"' ."irjns 

Ajivll 2] 

A Con 

'■'■.'iiIht, 

Inv tli,. 

'''i'uMie, 

'';t' 7 I'm, 
"( an on 
'f'-'i ten, 



"•/■■•n(re ,„„,,, 

' •^"■"•■■ll-'ll;,, i„ 

■•''>"^', l.s.-.(i 
„„•' '"""-^ "lo 



'fV'nu-nU, together \,-i,'""a^ ^^"t I'is |,nlit;',| 

™-. --• ^.t ,,...;;^^„;: --.,.. :^^ 

'/'I 7 • , . 1 JU.-5 poller ui 

j-ho io^'islativc ^ ■ ■ i j '■./'• 

i'l'f'vIsiV.n'alconstih!'^"'' S^-'"^^^'^^'^ April •!() ic.-., 

; '"7;'^ 5^- «tatc const tuc^ rr'^' }?"^' '>3' ^»ot or 
; s ate tJ. title of Kep!^^ ^^"''b' --„.,„. ,^ 

' ..^ 'f'^ (■xecutive tJ.c nunc oV ^^.'^'^^'^'.^'^'^^-tiul o.;,.. 
^^ t'on.stltuont .■)svov..Ki-. „ . 



Inl 



'\ ^<"',stituont assciaj,]v r-,]l ] 

■^^te-E— , ~.,.,:;:r :"■'"■ 







i ' -J' 




! 



!i 



i ' 



e* 1 



I I 




III 



iJiS 



IIEI^URLIC OF NI(AltA(;UA 



duties sliould (Icvolvc om the luciiibcr of the constitu- 
ent ussemhlv cjilled 1)V liini to assume tlieiii. ('Li 
morro was tlion elioscu provisional jjresidcnt, to liold 
t!ie otKee till tlie 1st of ]\rarch, 18jo. The new char- 
ter of the ]'e]»ul)lic was sanctioned on the oOt]\ of 
i\))i'il,''^ whi( h was in force oidy in Granada and otlni- 
towns {i('knowledt;iii;j; Chaniorro's L^'over'iunent. 

The op[)osition (»!' the lihcrals (•idniinat('<l in an ;;t 



kV'^aii Antonio'-;^,, W ^,uu.* ^ 
\^- ': 'W'l /--{..-/.if 3i.h\\.a'; 




.1/,,, -,.';,.,.""" I ': -"%,„...^ V 



NlTAKAdl A. 



"■'It lia'l lOi articles, ami Minu'uhat ri'strictcil tlic riglit i>i /■*<(/< nslii]-. 
crcati'd a siiiuli' cliaiiiln'r, (■(Piii])(iscil of au t'(|ual iiniiilicr nf seiiatfti'^ i*m1 r |'- 
rcscntativ" ; jiriosts were I'Xi'hiilcil troiii tlioso positiim!*. 'I li'? tiTiiis ijI C" 
picsiiU'iit, senators, ami rcitrt'siMilativcs wcri; to lugiii M.u'fi I, \*>'u<, 
last I'our years. Alter the expulsion of tlie lililinstc rs, <a juiitii l^" j/'.'ii' : 
coiii|iosi'il of the li'aJiiiff men of llio two oii[iosin;j; parties, was o^f iMitln-;'. 
whieh ileelared the eonstitiitioii of IS:{.S in force, ami a constituent a.-<-'(i'!" 
was convokeil, its menihers \w\\\\t, fl'oni anionj{ the liest ami most III 
iiu'ti of the reimhlic. A/., 'JIM; A'/V., t'ii iiiiiikiI Nk., Apr. 17, KM.'i. The pev, 
j^'ranted the executive, whuli were include. I in the fnuilaiiiental law ef I'^'t 
thouuh with the additional cjan.se tlliit when u.sing them he should r'iiert ; 
fact to the next iegi.-ljlnre, greatly alariiiod the opposition. I'criz, .1/' "'• li 
lin\ Nir., 24. 



tell 
,],.,■ 

rr.sf 
iU\tl 

u>U,i 

iiojl 

\ras 

<'f ll 
anus 

'■l.ij'iii 

lie ;is.s 
"fa In 
in.'i],-t \ 
/.(■(111, I 

''I /I iVlY'f 

i>:>r>. 

"f'M,Md\ 

■^'''/(ifjitl' 



. "Ill Nov 

"!■"'■■• '•■'.„„: 

"'"' ""'■:, I), 

„ ;',''■■ *'"'" 

,' "ii iiiai 
'"'"•Unee. J, 

,^;'"l rep,,,,, 

''!'"'">■ ten 
"Kirly,,, 

"'''■''"/ 1>,„: F. 

, ''.''"'.r '"'' til'' 
''"iiciam, 

e 



■' ""' fie|,|. /. 



•'". IN,-).-). 



^<'>m AXJ) BLOODV ^VAK. 



tt nipt at revolution I,, i , 

'••-;< mo- at Alanaoua defbatpil flu • ^ ■^■"^•^■»:"nu-„t tJien 

'"';"''^'^- «'Hi Avith the f^v'o, -;•";. ^;'^'"'''"-^""' 

^^V-^i-v astound aft , . .''"'•"''^:' <'''tain<.,l ,,- 



.'HK 



T^^' ;'""J>- tried to axxT - ^^'^''''•''■^^'''^^^"''t- 
'"^/'<"K.da and fortified tl>, ^"^^ ''«te)lo„, ,,,ti,vd 
-'7'''^'uIarsi..eof v"jt'''?r'^^^^ 

'•^ '''""'* V en,-„uater,s f ^".''''- •^"^'■»' -'i Nrries 

-'!-"% mised/'^.:v7!r^•'^ '-'-<'- was c' In- 




1^., '^I'umik;. 11,7/^,' // , -; i-"vj. rtllfl r,i) rci'iiiivt.. , . ' ' '" 'I- 



'' ■'<i!rviuo 



f w 



L'llO 



KEl'UHLKJ OF NiCAKAtiUA. 



ofcuiTud at this tinic,^' did not favor the democrats. 
He was sui'ceeded hy Joso Alalia Estrada. Coiial 
was tlie i;ciieral-iu-<'liief of the le^itiinist forces, iind 
was oru'aiiizint'' at ^lasaya an arinv to cai)ture l.i-i.n. 
The gox-eninient liad called the constituent asscnihh-, 
which met on the 8th of April with only louitnn 
niemhers, and on the 10th rv-solved that Kstr,i(|;i 
sliould j'ctain tlu^ executive until a president sIh'iiM 
hf chosen under tlu' constitution. This o'reatly dis- 
pleased Corral, who had e.\])ectt'd to he called to iliat 
position. J [e had his ln'ad(piai't<n'S in !\[anaL;'ua, and 
threatened to be revenu'ed of the men A\ho had sh^iitrd 
him.'-" 

]\Ieanwhilu ]\runo/, had L^one to ] londuras and iv- 
turned with a small division of troo[»s, the cjiief cnni- 
niand of hoth the democratic and ]londuran fniccs 
hciiiL;' \estcd in him. J]y his ad\ ice Castelloii a]i- 
j)ointed liosah'o ("ortes and J*. Ahinan connnissioncr.s 
ti> ascertain the a iews of tiie Ico-itimist chiefs \\ith 
refcin-nco to jteace ne_L»'otiatioiis. l']strada consented 
to recelvi! Cortes, ])ut not Aleman, and the formei' liad 
intei'vi(>ws ^\■ith him and his su[»porters, prevailiiiL;' nii 
tlicni to enter into ne^'otiations either in their oflicial 
or ])rivato capacity. jMunoz had aiithorized ('oitcs 
to tell ( 'oiral he wished to have a direct understand- 
ini;' with liini.^' Cortes first saw Coi'i'al, and hy ]ii.> 
ad\icc next had interviews with ]']strada, ^'e,^■a, and 
others, all of whom showed a willingness to treat t'nr 
[leacc, and asked, him to return to Leon, which lie 
did, touching at jManagua, where Corral assured lilui 
of his disposition to c(jme to an understanding witlt 
Muhoz. 

^''Tntlic li:u:i('iiil:i of Qnismapa, south fif ( iraiiailii, Marcli I'J, ISri'i. Clia- 
iiiorro was a wealthy ciii/i'ii, Imitii in (Iraiiadi. A hrav ', rcsdlnto iiriii, tinii 
ill Mistainiiij; Ins jiolitii'al jiriiu'iplcs, Imt lacUiiiL; discrii liiiatKni, iiiiil l'.imIv 
ihijii'd. i'lri-.. Mini. JIM. /,'ri: A'/V'., 12(!; Asiiil.iii-itiiiin, CnJ. Am., l>7. 

■■" ]Vrc/, Mi:,i. J/i</. li'ir. Mr., ]-2s, coiisiilorcil ttic aut oi Iho asM-iiihly as 
a Hcriniis hluiiihi'. 

*■' His ]iro]M)-iifi()iis wiTc: funal and himself wcf^ to CDiistihu,' tlieii!^' h'ts 
a junta do noliienio, ami direct iiiil)lie mII'.ijis until a ciinstit.itiniial | •■'■.nloiit 
eoiild he eleete I. If Cori'al olijueted to this arranjii'me'it, lie, M'.iiio/, m 'il'l 
I'ei'oynizo tlio legitimate goveiiimenl, [iiii\ idod < lUial hecaiuo the hoadef it. 



l>ii.M0C 




I- • W 




lit'J 



•-M-j i;i;ri"iiij( ok mcauahua. 

clur.is, and or^aiiizeil a fiiin[i;iiiy for the uoiistnictioii of an interocfunii' lul- 
way. Ill lMil{ :iiiil tliu lullnwiiig yvnv lio w;i.-i ciiipldyuil liy tlie U. S, j,'ovt ,im 
a comiiii.s.-iiiiiiur in I'ciii lurllio adjurjtint'iit <it claims a^aiiiMt tliat rei)ul)lii', mikI 
tlit'ii ilcV()ti'(l si'Vi'ial iiiiiritlis to tlu: t'\|i|oi'atioii of aiicii iit liioiiunit'iit.s in ilmt 
Country. In ISdH lie was lor a time LJ. S. consul gun. to llomi. lio visitcil 
I'lnnHKj several times lioth for ]ileasiire anil linsiiie.ss. In add it ion to the Works 
that w ill lie lierein enumerated, he eontriliuted many j)iiiieis on anti(|uitie.i ;iiii| 
other sillijeet.s to American and Knro|ieaii seientilic jieriodie.d.s. The f<illo\i ini; 
list comprises his jiriiieiiial wdiks, most of which have Ih'cii translated iiitu 
several laii;;ua^'es: Miiiii(ii«i(t'< of III'' .Uisyi.-<s!],j>i ]'(ill, i/, heing vcl. i. oi tlir 
i^mitlcsonian ('ontrilmtions to Knowleilf^e; Ahnri'/iiiiil MDiiitim iili of IIk' -tih i,i 
\<ir Ytirh\ in vol. ii. of the Smitiisonian Contriliiitioiis; A iil/i/i(i/i<s oi' ///!■ shifi' 
!>/ Scir Yiirk, with a sii|i[ilement on the antii|uities of llie west; 'I'lif S' qunt 
Si/iiiliol, {If ]\'iirs/ii]t III' tlic /'ir/yri)i-(il /'r/iirijilr.-i <;/" XnlniT in A iw rii-n: 
W'lii/.'iiii, or All II lit II ri-1 on till' MoM/iii/n ,S/i(irc, under the ])seililonyin of S^mi- 
iiel A. ]>ard; <,hiislii,ii A ihjIo-.I iin'rirniiir: /t'ljiiirl <ij' f/ir sum i/ of tin: lliiii'hiinn 
iii/i rori'i'iiic riiiliriii/; Miuiiiiiniji/i oil aiilliiir.i ir/io lini'i' wrlthii on tin ii'.uri.il. 
mil liiiiijinnics of Ci n/ml Ann rim; 'l'i-u]iifiil jihrin inn/. (Inir iroiiDinii- i.ilrin'- 
tiini: f.-i coi'tin liinjl Snnrrr/i oj' collnn mjipbi: /nriilin/i i>t' Triinl iiinl /•.'/■j./o- 
ruf/oii.'i ill, tlie liiinl of lliv liifnn. Otlier \\ orks of this aiitiior (jnoled in my 
volumes on Cciitr.il America are: A'o^w on lliv slnU'i of J/nniliiriis iiml ^nlri- 
ilni; with m.-qis and illustrations, •vvliieli gives valiialile data on tliose i (nm- 
tries. Ill treating of diplomatic relations lie expatiates on manifest il—tiuy 
and British iiitriuues, Ids conclusions not lieing prohaMy palataMo to tin siili- 
jcets of the Uritish crown, and others disposi'd to op[pose the ahsorplini ef 
more territory, or the exercise of jxdnsive inllneuee hy tliu U. S. 'ill ■ i !ii]n 
drawn hy liitchcock under Sipiier's directions are the. hest that to th it tiiim 
had lieeii ]iulilislied. 'J'riinl.-i in < 'in/riil A nn rifn, jiiir/irnldrli/ in I^'ii-itrinjini, 
N. v., IS.l;!, Svo, '2 Vol., pp. -I'Jt and l.VJ, niajis and cuts, eontain.s a d siriii- 
tiiin of alioriiiinal movements and sitenery, tom tlua" with a concise accoiiiit nl 
the history, a_^ricultural ami otiier resources, of Xiear.igua, the lair.ji.me, 
m.inuers, and customs of the people, with illustrations of the prineip.d hnil.l- 
ings, towns, ports, etc. The woi-k also di'scrilirs at leajuth the ]iroposiil iiumI 
route, .setting forth its adv.inlai;<'s. The author li.id I'Very f.n-ility as l'. ,S, 
eiiarge ilaHdires toolitain the most exact ilat.i, and usi'd them conscieutiMiisly 
anil with marked alnlity. Xirnnii/n.i, !'■•■ pi.ijn'r, .<rriii ,;/, nnnnnnrnli, lunl tin; 
propii.-iii/ iiilirnriiiiiir rninil, Loud., l.S.'i'J. N. V., 1S.")(>, li vol. This wui'k is 
similar in all respects to — in l.ict a reprint of — '/'rinl-i in. Ci nt. Am. AiietluT 
edition under the aforesaid title ap|ieai'eil in Xew York, IStiO, 1 vol. nl pji. 
(i'.U, which with tile exception of ahout IS )ip. in tlie apiiend., and a lev.- iiioii; 
illustrations, was .similar to Tnir. in ('ml. Am. Tin' Slutrsof Ci nlral A:iii ri''", 
N. Y., IS.'iS, Svo, p. 7N-, majis and illiist. The autimr issueel in IS.'i.'i. with 
the title of Xutr.i on Cnitnil Amirirn, an Svo vol. of IiKT pages, with m :i|'s :iii'l 
cuts, iiiti.'iided to serve as a hasi.s for this moru cxtonsivu one, wliieii tn its el 
the jihysical iieculi.irities, population, ]ii'oduetions, couimerce, and otliir 
resources, political organization, iihorii^ines, etc., of the country in general, 
and of the states siparately, and also of 15ili/e, the IJay islands, and 
Mosijuito shore. Squier was evidently conversant with his sulijeet. lli-' 
.style is vivid ;iiid inti^resting, as well as instructive, and the statements, as ;i 
rule, worthy of acceptance. In his treatment of diplomatic atl'airs lutwitii 
(ireat Britain and Cent. Am., in whiih his own country was iiiteresleii i.ii 
the side of the latter, ho espouses the Central American .side with .sn iiiiuli 
warmth as to awaken a sns|iicion that his judgment may have hei'U uai'l'id 
jiy his patriotism. The (|Uestion of an iutei'oceanic i-ailroad having eidrossnl 
jiulilic attention since tlie i)iililication of this Work the author felt jii-tilieil m 
reiiroduciug, under the title of Jfunihinix, I.,oncl., isyo, Vl\ 27S j)p., with a 
map, iu a more compact and accessilile form, a dcscriiition of this c.nnitry. 
\\'illi the exception of a fuller inldrination on the route, and its allcgi il au- 
vantages over all others, and an appuudi.x relating to immigration, the ww- 



'iJl!iJ(>(;|;.\|'|iv 



("its 1,1' till! ].onk Iiavo 1 



•ecu 



';""/ to III,' /;, 



fol. 

li.sllCll (111 tilis sill 



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inrtorx of il,r //, 



tii'ii. I'lit ill the 



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ill lull. Tl 



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!•-• I'lVscllt Moil* 



tTC 



' •■iiinfli,.,. ^,|;,|, 



114 



■ v,ilmii.l,st,iii.,t ^ 

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iilillii 



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that 
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"i'l'-'st, whieh .Mr ,S 



.""-■'■K'aii Jiistor 



L'l'on.s valiialile ,| 



'■"I''f,'inal. Th, 
"'ill many 



u-ei 



./ 7 



'lui'T^atli 



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rarri:^ //I 



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«\ 2 vol 



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mail: 



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y. t^'oin tl„. earliest ,| 
i-oin various sou 



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'.„:y"l4>S(, i,,,.,hyj..el 
'■"'iilLiny for „,„.„ 



g a charter f 



i<'io\rn \rrit 



tl 



0-t he visited cj?.;;, :( 

"uiss,u.yex,,Iorations f 



roin K 



'J'o 1 



II, 11 



ii-.ii-agiia for tl 



i.v ISell 
ii« a X 
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y, v\ 



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CHAPTER XIII. 

REPUBLIC OF (iUATEMALA 

1840-1805. 
Presidfat Rivkra Paz — CAUiiERA's ( Oirhf, — Pretenpeii Repittox — Tisso- 

I.rriOV OK 'IMK AssKMUI.Y — A C'dNSE.TO CoNSTITrYENTK C'KKATEI) — CaI;- 

kera Becomes President — Attempt AfiAissr iirs Life— Revui.t m 
Monterrosa—Carh era's DEsrciTisM — The KErniLic Lstaiii.isiikh— 

lU'.I.ATIONS WITH <>rilER PoWERS — IlKVOLlTION OF THE ^loiNTAIN— CoN- 

■stitl'est Ashemrly Convened— Carrera's Korcf.d Resignation am> 
P^xii.E — LniKisAi.s TRiiMniANT — Their Sq^aiuiles and Disintkciratiiin 
— The Moi)i;iiAi'o Party — Revoltiiov of Los Ai.tos — iNTRKirEs m 

THE SeRVII.KS— PRESIDKNCIES OF MARTINEZ AND EsCOIlAR — CaISES c'K 

their Uesiunaitons- Paredes — IlKCAi.f. OK Carrera — Deeds of \'en- 

(iEANCE — CaRREUA A(iAlN PRESIDENT — PARTIAL Rk.STOKATION OF PeAi K. 

Cauueka liad l)cconie so inflated l)v fiittory that lir 
actually bolii'vod himself able to >_ a upon instinct 

Guatemala, and even all Central Ai riea.' He tried 
to shak(! ort' aristocratic eontrol, and showed })UL!^na- 
ciousness toward the assembly and the administrator 
of the diocese. Obedience not being in ev(>ry instance 
given to his whims, he threatent>(l, in August 1840, to 
resign the command of the trooi)s, which he held with 
the rank of lieutenant-general." The aristocrats were 
much alarmed, and the assembly, in Hattering teriii>, 
declined accepting the resignation. He now aj)pearcd 
in the roles of financier, political economist, and enemy 
of tlie nobles, presuming to dictate a ])olicy for tlit 
protection of manufactures, agrieulture, and other 

'At this time, in 1H40, lie could neither roiid nor write, ami useil, for aii- 
pcniling liis Hi^'Uiitiire, a stamp. Later he leariieil to xign ids name. 

'•'Ho sent ills resignation to the asseml>ly, implying tliat it was cdnil' 
Becnsion on his jiart to lay it licforc that hody, us ho owed his position tlirectly 
to the Yotes of the people 

( y'4 ) 



Hi 



IIEIGX OF l)i:.Sl'OTl.S.\l. 



889 



liitiTosts. His dlsploasuro witli tlic nobles was be- 
caiiJ^o lie believed them hostile to tlie iimsHes."'' They 
i)i,iiia}jfe(l to mollify him, and he tlieii eoiiteiitcjl him- 
si It with issuing a long address, on the Dth of ()rtol)er, 
ri iterating his auxietv tor tlie jjeneral welfare, and 



IVIIK 



uistratinir auainst tlie intriLriU's of ]\\> 



pe 



rsona 



tiiiniies. 



A reign of despotism was now established, which 
(•(iiitinued u[)ward.s of tliirty years, LilxTal laws were 
alnogated one after another, and retrogressive ones 
sulistituted, ineluding a oomplete restoration to the 
clcrijv of the Auros tliev had been deprivi-d of bv the 
lilnial e(')rtes of Spain in 18*J0. C'arrera's enmity to 
the assembly bt'came more apparent from day to day. 
lie sliowed it l>v word, and bv tlu^ i)ress.'' lie could 

t write a line, ])ut others wrote for him, and printed 



im 



ame 



J 



P 



ose 



rancisco 



aitnit's appearea over Jus n 
IJaiiundia had returned from his exile, and had been 
(lio-^cn a deputy, but Ik; resigned on the ] Itli of ^[arch, 
1842, giving jutwcrlul r<'asons for his course.' lndc«-d, 
]>ariundia would have been out of place in a body 
iiKotly made u[) of ultramontane pri(!sts, self-styletl 
IK lilies, and reactionists. 

"Ml! was wr.-itliiul at tlio tlinu(,'lit tliat tlioy hail tondercil a dictatorsliii) to 
Mi>ni/;iii, and ciilistcil tlir <,'iii'/alti;cs against himself, lie diil nut foruet Ri- 
vciM I'.iz' iiroclaniatioiis calliiiif liiiii a liandit and an niilnijiii/'inid. lit; askod 
liM- tlif meaning of this last Wdrd, and on hoinj: told it, llew into a I'au'c whicii 
tlinMtiiu.'d a i'e]ietitiou of tin; iiorrid sei'ncs of l^nczalteiiango. MitiitiiOir, Ho 
HI I'm lli-i/., iii. ^>1'2. 

Mill rtfcrreil to I'avon, IJatrcM, and Aycinena, It was ivident that ho 
tiiiu know ftf .hian Fenniii Ayi'ini'iia's hargain in Madrid whiidi niado liiiii 
iii.iii|Uis do AjL'incna. 

■'Ills press was i;allod Imprenta del j'',je,'cito. Ho had lirouglit it from 
Qnez:il!cnan;:o. 

'■Several deputies, under one jiretext or another, triecl to re-ij.'!!, hut only 
the elrigyman Loren/ana was permitted to do so. T< mjixk-y's Jnunif!/, lUI-'Hl. 
A iMiii named Andrailo Mliniilly woundeil Carrer.iin the evcMinii of Aug. H, 
I**!!, lie! was murdered hy the troops, and < 'arrern, witli tile as.sont of the 
gii\ t, had the liody ipiarti'red in tile jireseneo of liumlreds of persons, and tho 
piiTes iijaeeil on exhiiiitiou at the city gates. The order for so chiing was 
Higiiid iiy Kivera I'a/, and his minister Viteri, afti'rwar<l hishop of Salvailor. 
/■/., ."iHAS; (Imrf., dm-. (h!r., no. 2*2, 8(1-7; Di(iiln]>'.i C'lif. .!»(., 24S; Xi.ii,; 
Aiiii"li.^ I'oi/., xeii. 37">; S'ili'n' Jt'f'j., Ixi. 177. 

' lie hail promised, ho said, to remain in ]irivato life. His voice wouM 
I'lmheeded. Without freeilom or inlUleliee, he enuld no lunger do tluieoun- 
'i\ iiiy good. ' Ningun jtensamieiito hay aeeptahle en la eritiea eomplieaeioii 
i' -lis Megoeios, y eu I'l niovimieuto retniL'rado (pie no Ic ha dado.' Mvntii/nr, 

!:■ ", //;.,/., iii. .v.'S-'.t; (;„r. </. .<„/,•., Oet. 1-j, ls.-.». 




:sa 



KWUULIC OF <;UATKMALA. 



Tlio treasury was so exhausted that tlic assenil)]y 
hati no means to pay its clerks. But the ecclesiastical 
coffers had an ahundaiice of money from the tithfs 
tax, and Carnra's troo[)s had to he paid, or he would 
resent the neglect. This was made evident in Sej)- 
t(Mnher 1844. llivera l*az, the president, with the 
utmost dithculties, managed to procure money for the 
pay of the soldiers from day to day; hut for son.e 
reason unexplained, it did not reach them. Carrera 
found a way to secure his ends, lie had a conference! 
with some of his oJMcers, and the result was that tlio 
battalion of regular tr<»ops revolted on the 20th, and 
sa<'ked a nnniherof shops, and tlie stalls in the market- 
place, getting an ahundant supply and luining seveial 
traders."" Carreia then gathered his soldiers in Ihe 
barra<'ks, and in order to keep u[> apjuarances, the 
next day witliout much ado or any form of trial, had 
six men shot." 

liivera l*a/., fniding his position unhearable, resigned 
it. The assembly acerpted his resignation, to take 
effect after his successor should be ajjpointed, ami 
qualily. ( arrera was cln)sen, but declined the ofliic. 
A'enancio Lope/ and IJernardino Ijeinus, a])))ointe(l in 
the order named, followed his exann)le. Kivera I'a/. 
had to remain as iiomin.'.l head of the government, 
Carrera being the actual ruler, whose demands cla>lie(l 
with the fiery-tempered Alteii, minister of stat<'. 
They had a serious (juarrel. which culminated in the 
arrest by Carrera, on the 7th of l)ecemb(>r, lS4l,"if 
Kivera I'a/, together with N'iteriand hissubonlinates.'" 

"Rivera Paz tliil not I'sciiiic insult; liut not iikhi' than ( 'iirrcra lUi im d 
needful to kooj) liiiii liuiiiMu. 

"Till' O'tm/ii, uo. 17''{, luciitiniu'il tliat uuinlnT. Otliers iiiaile it larger. 
Till" Jiulian chief Jvicanld Cal/um and otlierH on their way t" the jilaee el i\<- 
euticm, ill loud tones deelarcd tiiat tiiey hatl oidy olieyed their generalH en leiv. 

'"Carrera liad tiireateneil Viteri witli 'la fuer/a,' and tlie latter aiiswiivii 
tliat he iiail on his side 'la fuerzji de la razon.' Carrera miderstood tins to 
mean cannons and niuskets, and rushing out to tiie jiia/.a came liaek simui 
alter M'ith trooiis and artillery, surrounded the government house— linn n|'|iip- 
hite the Santa liosa church — and furiously enteretl the hud'linjj;, deinuiidin^ "I 
Kivera I'a/. to show hiiu his forces. N'lteri tiieii explaini'cl the lueanin:; ••'■ 
fuer/a de 1,1 ru/.on. Mnvfii/nr, /'isn't, i Jlist., iii. ri.'{(i-7. Scjuier, 'J'niirl", n, 
443 deacribcii Muinuthing biinilar aa iluuu by Carrera to the auHcndily. 



"0|, til, 

I ../ . 

'-OMsc 

na,Me,,t 'e, 
"■ Meinj, 

« 1 • O 

"I'l-e lif M-a 
' Tlu.yl 

•'-..III at the 



I 



SAX« i LIN Ali V r< UJTICS. 



2ti7 



])ut after oxplaimtitms Ik; ictintl his force, and calm 
was ii'storcd. On tlio refusal of Carrcra to accept 
the prcsuloncy n'sioned liy llivera Paz, J)cccnd>er 14, 
istl, the councillor A'enancio Lopez was called upon 
1(1 assume the olfice." The lieutenant-jj^eneral asked 
for a passport to leavo (iuatemala, liis {»l)ject heinjjf 
only to ohtain more Jionors and money. His plan 
S(( ins to have sueci'cded.'' Loi)ez ga\e uj) the piis- 
i(l( i.cy, and lliveia l*az for the tliird time, on the 1 Uh 
tif May, 1H4'J, was api^/mted to fill it. 

The assembly adjourned on the 4th of Xovcmher, 
1S4;], to meet again on the 1st of April, 1.S44. Uui 
Curnni had resolved to su)»[)ress it, and pretending 
an intende<l seditious movement at I 'inula, he had 
tlic sui)posed rehels fired upon, an<l the criminal f.ii'ee 
riidcd with a simulated capitulation at (juadalupf on 
llie I 1th of March, J 844, hv which the asseml)Iv was 
M t aside, and a council of government was to fake its 
|ilarc,''' The assemhly was con\oke(l, i-atilit<l its own 
(li.->lionor, gave the government full pown- to p-gidate 
administrative affairs, and decreed its own dissolu- 
tion." "J'he decree convoking memln-rs for the ni w 
council'' was issue<l on the 'J<»th of .Vjtril, and it w;.s 
foiiiially installed on the Sth of ])t'cend>er, ha\ing 
jiiiioiig itsmemhei'sa numher of liherals. I{iv<'ra l*az 
)■( signed the presidi-ncy,'" and ( "arrera was chosen his 
successor, assuming on the lltli of ])eci-nd»er anotljce 
tl'.at he had virtually controlled since the l^Ith of 
Apiil, 18;l9. At the ele«'tioii of justices of the supremo 
ceiiit, the nobles Were dei'eated.'' 'J'lie colisejo, or 

" i,ii|iiz \v;i.s a NiiNini^tian e»luc;itccl in »iu,it., .111 liniini.ililr in.iii iiml mm .ir- 
(■Hiii]i|i>lnil jurist; Init (iwiiin til liJiil IumUIi, pi isuikiI li.ili;!«, .iiiil uIIht ciiisi's, 
«;i ■ Kiitit lor till' i'Xci'iiti\ I' iitiii'c. 

' Tlu' UMHiMiilily I'oiiHiilcri'il ii liill grunting' liiiii largi' tiMi'ts nt' l.iml. 

'■ Tlu) ciiiiMtitiitioii to 1k' frairu'il wu.-i t.i lie ijitiliiil liy l\\v liist Mtli.s(i|iiiiil 
c'liiiiii'il (if (lonlilo tlie no. of rcjircsciitutivcs. Tlir ilm'. Ii.nl l"J artichs. i-'iii/., 
Jul l'.ir,.ii, '_'-"»; iV(V<V llr,,., Ixvi. 'J4'.'. 

"•Ill the 14th of .\[,iri,'li, 1S44. <!wil., /,', r„p. Iaii., i. 114 l(i. 

' "(.'miHi'jo constitnycntc ' it was lir.st ralli'il; aftfiwanl it ailoptiil tlio 
11.11111' ivt 't'oiign'so const ituyentc* 

'" liciiig uiijiointt'il I'arly in lS4'.t t'orrcgidor of .Tutiajia; wliilu 011 liis way 
tlnri' liu was nnirilcruil with othiTs. 

' I licy had I'ouiitfil on Carn'ra's aitl, ami lu' failoil thcin, for wliii'li tiicy 
aj.nii at tlifir secret coulcTvuct's rcapiiliod to him thu nainu unfnijxtjUiji,, 



■ 'I 

.1 
, 5 



< M 




llKrUBLIC OF (iUATKMALA. 



: .' 



congrcso, as it had bogun to call itself, became an ob- 
ject of bitter enmity on the part of the aristocrats and 
serviles; and Carrera's overthrow was also contem- 
l>lated by them, pretending cooperation with the lih- 
erals for its accomplisliment. The plan fell through 
])efore maturity, owing to distrust between the leaders 
of the two j)arties. Carrcra was informed of his 
danger by the confession of a dying man, but never 
penetrated to the sources of the plot.^^ During C'ar- 
rera's absence from the capital on furlough in Feb- 
ruary 1845, Joaquin Duran occu})ying the executive 
chair, a revolt took place, headed by Monterrosa and 
an oiticer named Mendez, but not being seconded by 
the people, they entered into a capitulation with Duran 
to have the city, on Jiis solemnly pledging them that 
tiiey woulil not be molested. They accordingly went 
out on the 5th as itiomised, and on the next day 
St>tero Carrera, A. Solares, and Vicente Cruz entered 
at the head of their respective forces. Carrera ar- 
rived afterward, and was received in triumph.'" 

At the expiration of his furlough Carrera reassunud 
the reigns of government. Joaquin Duran resigned 
the portfolio of treasury and war, being succeeded hy 
l^rigadier ( Jeroiiiino J*aiz. The .statt; was now virtually 
under the control of a triumvii-ate composed of liaftiel 
and Sotero Carrera, and J*aiz.-" The subse<)uent rt:s- 
ignation of ^Mitiister Najera and appointment of Jose 
Antonio Azniitia inspired a little cotifidence."' Tlie 

""A iMunlHT of ipci'soiis wciv ItliiiiUy per.sei'uti'd, jiartioularly lirijjailirr 
Monterrosa ami lii.s family. Biii-nint/itt, Jier. (!<• '.■ a I'lirtiilot, in Montii/iir, J'c- 
Diiiii lli.'ii., iv. (((ilJ. 

'^ J)iiraii'.s ii1lm1;;cs went for notliiii),'. lilood ami extermination cmleil tln' 
ilraiiia of Tel.. 1S4.'). /./., (•.(•..•{-'.); />(0(/nj.',W< ,,<. .1 ;«., 244-7. 

■'"The most ilesiHitio caiitaiii-geiierals of the colonial period, witiiout exci !)• 
tiiij; the tyrant liiistamaute, arc not to l)e eoinpared with these men. li^u- 
rumlia, in tryiiij' to cuiisole the young men who l»<;wailed tho condition of tlm 
coniitry, a.ssured tliein tliat it was transitory, 'un regimen salvajc en iiliiio 
Bi;.;lo XIX. no puede sir iierpetuo en la Aniei'iea independicnte. J^a Iti/ ii"S 
viene jior el Nortu y jmr el Sur; solo el centro esta en tiniehlaa, y esa noclie 
lU^^iilire no pnede isi'r etcr'iia.' Mmili'ifur, L'imi'ki ///.«/., v. 1). 

'^' Azniitia was an enliglitencd man, and thirstecl for no one's Mood; hut 
his inllucnec, outside of tlie foreign department, was small, and men, itnlieai'l 
and untried, weie sliot before liis eyes, without liis being able to prevent it. 
His fi'iemls claimed, however, that through him eiuat. was spared many inorf 
ttots of barbarity. 



(Kllstl 

IlrW o 

did in 
ject o 

its se.si 

liad ol 

\'icciit 

assuiJK 

;i striet 

Carrerj 

ai^ain a 

ing eoi 

tlir Con 

izrd tll( 

,1^'IVSS. 

iiifri^ue 
'■•'la and 
till' act 

I'liWrr.-'* 

( 'ari-ci 
U'idor of 
'lad no J, 

laming t 
pJot Was 
"lid thee 
Ji'td powe 
t«> J)erish 



II 



<^'uate 
''■"111 tJie 
'iV her as 



''It consist 
f'l 11,, tiling. /'/ 

""•'I'lizlia,! 
i'iiii,|,',|. ll^, J 

■iMN|,,i'rats. 

''Jirrundia 
■■'iid.-.ra, h;„l 1 
tii,ii. 

i,. ■".'!'"■ i'''i" 1 



fUNSTlTUTlOX AND CONCllESS 



209 



CO 



iistituent congress ])assed liberal laws, and issued a 
IK w constitution on tlio IGtIi of September, 1 Rio, that 
did not suit the arist(»crats, and they niatle it an ob- 
jtct of ridicule and contempt. ^'" The conj^icss dosed 
its session on the 2lst of the same month. Carrera 
liad obtained anotlicr leave of absence, and Brigadier 
Vicente Cruz, the vice-j)resident chosen by congress, 
assumed the executive office. "*' The aristocrats ki'pt 
a strict watch on Cruz, an<l lireathed more freely when 
Carrera with his ministers l\iiz and Azmitia were 
a";iin at the head of the Ljovernment. The succeed- 
iiio" conu'ress on the 1st «>f Februai'v, 1840, rejected 
tlie constitution franuHl the previous year, and author- 
ized the governm«'nt to call another constituent C(»n- 
<4i(ss. This was the result, not only of aiistocratic 
intrigue, but of violent threats on the part of Car- 
rt'ia and his minions against all attempting to sanction 
till' act of the 'desor<;anizadores' to undermine his 
|in\ver."'* 

Carrera and l\iiz, aided by Sotero Carrera, corre- 
gidor of J^a Antigua, now ruled supreme. Citizens 
liad no protection uidess they ai)[n'()ved of every act. 
Dining the funeral services of Archbishop Casaus a 
plot was made to assassinate Carrera, which failed, 
and the conspirators were seized and tried. Those who 
had powerful friends were sent into exile; the rest had 
to perish in the damp dungeons of the fort."'' 



( Juatemala, in view of the political change resulting 
tV<»m the dissolution of the feder-al compact, decreed 
liy her assembly, on the 14th of November, 184.'), a 



'•'* It consistcfl of 222 articles, .ind was rtrawn up at Quczaltcnango; it caini- 
til imtlmij,'. I'iiinhi dc Moiil., in Uiuif., Iltriqi. I.iij., i. 8(!. 

■" ( 'ruz liail rist'ii witli Carivra, Imt liad a iiiilil di.s|Hi.siti<)ii, ami was IIIk ral- 
iniiidcMl. JIu luarned cri'Kiiig that the pcopli; had nothing to txpuct iVoni thu 
.11 istocrats. 

■' Barrundia loft an account of all tlu' iirocccdiugs. Out; man only, .Tohc 
'l:inilara, had tho courage to hack his couvictiona and vote for the oonstitn- 

tiiiU. 

•''Ihr plan hai. been to shoot hint as he caino out of tlio cathedral. Duu- 
lop's Ceil/. Am., 248; Vm' K^>iii., Dee. 12, IMli. 



270 



IlKPUBLIC OK «;UATEMALA. 



new coat of arms for tlio state"" On the Oth of April, 
lHi)7, the government was empowered to make in tin; 
coat of anus sucli changes as it miglit deem judicious, 
hut ]tres(!rving the inscription, Guatimahe liespuhlici 
suh Dei Optinii Maximi protectione. Tho clwiiim' 
Mas decn^ed on the .">lst of May, ]8j8.'" A law dl 
^larcli 14, IBal, confirme<l in that of May .".I, IH.V-^^, 
cstahlishes the national flag.-'* 

The national independence of Guatemala was err- 
long recognized hy foreign ]>owers, with wliieh slu 
op( lied diplomati<' relations and iiuuh^ treaties.-'^ Tin 
fdiinal I'ccognition hy Spain took j)lace in tiu; tre;ity 
of iSlny -1), 18(1.'), suhsctjuently ratified hy hoth gnv- 
ernmeiits. (uiateinala has (Mideavdicd to injiint.iiii 
friendly relations with all. Witli the I'nited Statrs 
they have heeii (piite cordial. J)uring Carrera's rule 
his governinent gave recognition to the imperial vr- 
gime of Maximilian in ^Eexieo."" J)uring the Stuiili 
American struggle hetwi-en Chile on one side, ami 
Peru and lioliviaon tlu; other, (Guatemala maintaini <l 
liers<'lf neiiti'al. She accepte<l in IHSI the invitatiiii 
of the I'^nited States governnu'nt to he represt'ntcd 

-"Tliu iii'iiis ti> 1m! thoMe Cent. Am. iiscd on tin; oIa'lt.'^i! wiili; of liiT r.iin, 
but .sti arran^'i'il that tlii^ sun and volcaiKics slimiM lie in the eeutre of u .>hic II, 
with the iiis(rii>tion, (iuateiiiala en Centro America, 15 do Setiemlire th' |S"JI, 
li.iviuL; in the (juiver an olive erowii. 

-' .\ shield divided transver.sely into two (juarter.s; the ujilier one on an 
«i)ien lield azure with \ertieal liars argent; and tiie lower with three voliamius 
on a liudit t~k\d)lne lieM. Over the shield was a sun, and on each side ni it 
two llags with the national eolors dis[ilayed, and the extremities uathinij 
downward, and knotteil on the poles. On the right side of the shiihl is an 
oak Iiough, and on the left, one of laurel. On a white waving rilihon is tlio 
legend in golden letters, Ouatimahe Jies[iuhlica suh 1>. (). M. proteetione. 

-■"■'i'lie man-of-w.ir llag has the eoat of arms on the yellow stiMpe. 'i'ln: 
mereantile llag doc s not show the eoat of arms. Tlie llag eonsists of mv il 
stripes; the ujipii'most and lowermost, or l)e it the 1st ami 7th, hlue; \hr '.M 
and (ith white; the ltd ami oth red; and the 4th, wliieli is the eentre our, 
yellow. (iiKif,, Jt'icoji. f.ci/., i. "m-S; ]>n'iliin and Lozmn), Ln/. Mc.r., vi. II'.' 
•JO; Mr.,:, Col. L,;/. (In/. i 1850-1; i. .'WS-O; .U,r., L,,/., I,S51, IW-'.l N' « 
national ilag deereed Aut;. 17, 1S71. Gii'i/., /I'lmp. /.';/(•(, d'oh. Ihiiin<\, i. V. 

■•"'With Franei', March )S, 1S48, and one for the settlement of I'n iicli 
claims, Aug. IS, ls54: Cosla 11., Marcl I I, 1848; O. Britain, Fel>. -JO, IMH; 
U. S., March L'O, 1810; Belgium, Apr. I>.4!t; M'.x., Nov. 1850; the pope, Oct. 7, 
185'_'; I'eru, 1857; and others in later limes. 

'■^•' < 'roshi/'.i EiriiU in ('"l., MS., l'».'l. It tried to uvoitl ciitilllglements in 
the i|m'stions tlien pending hetwecn Spain and Peru. The time came, Imw- 
ever, ir 1875, when the govt was not afraid to make n^eognition of ChIki. 
then in the throes of revolution for independence from Spain as a nation. 



at a ] 

ingto 
yeai-. 
a illi] 

Nttlci 
C'll||p( 

On 
I'uiilic 
AJanir 

c(»nstit 

tlicy pi 

tile g()i 

Il(ii)|('S 

it appc; 

dt partii 

^tiiHk, i 

iiionopo 

■■ilarinin 

J'orarij^ 

t" aljcvj 

fn A 

Sacnte 

•JIK'Ilt 



V 



()( 



I' 



='FidI 
^■'.'/■, i. .'to;{ 

.hiwiU /ill/, 
•Uily •_><), ],*;■ 

'■/l"/„/rri,, ]/ 

'"■:/■ Mr.,:, 

Mriii. I'll^ , 

'-'.Molina 

committee w 

«"eh, nor wc 

■Molina 

I'lauscs ojip,,.,, 

"""Id Ixi hetl 
''■*^<inie of 
ininlplc. To 

"""'■■' of (Juat 
'"'"I '•■my, in 

MI|iJ.os,.,l to si 

, "Jim Iiidi 
■■""1 l',rced th( 



UKVOLUTION AND ROBBERY. 



Hi 



!it a proposed American conj^ress to bo hold in Wash- 
ington, hut \viiicli did not take place. In tluit same 
year, owinj^ to the maltreatment of a French citi/m, 
;i dithculty arose with France, but it was amicaidy 
^(■ttli'<l, tlic French Haix beiu'j; saluted, and a pecuniary 
<()inpensation allowed by (ruatemala.'" 

On the 8th of Ajiril the official journal gave to the 
]iiil)lic a decree a])pointin<i^ Fedro ^[olina, Alejandro 
Marure, and J, M. Urnula a committee! to frame a 
constitution for the new rcpuldic,'" a ])rojcct of which 
tlicy presi'uted in due tinu'; but, though conseryatiye, 
tlu; ijoycrnmcnt would nttt adoi)t it.'"^ TIh; si-lf-styled 
nobles Were delighted with tlieir republic, and made 
it ajipear in the rtficial paper that the peo[)le in the 
tl( [tai'tments were ('(pially so. Jhit a scjircity of brea<l- 
stutfs, attril)uted by many to the conti'iyances of 
monopolists, created disturbances in some <listricts, 
iil.iniiijig the gityei-nment. Certain taxes were tem- 
porarily remoyed, and other measures were adoi)ted 
to allcyiate the distress.""' 

Ill ^fav there was a revolutionary movement in 
Sacatepeipu^z. ' llobbery and nmrder became ot frc- 



The goy- 



(|uent occurrence in several departiuents. 

^'Full jxirtioul.irs on tlu! fdri'igii nliititnis iiiav In- t'omnl in <!iuit., /,'irop. 
L;i., i. :{l»:» SI, 4'.':{-:tO: /./., i;,il,. /V,«., i. 'Jt)'.>~l".»; Si/iiirr'.-f Tnir., ii. 4:>l •_'; 
AiiifiU liril. 1.1, li"., IStiO, ;i;W; lliiiif., <liu\, Fcl). "Jl, Miiivli 7, .M:iy :t, IS.Vt; 
.Inly ■_".», l>>^.-.:{; .I:iii. -JT, Aim-. 7, IS.M; Cmw. /.'< 1. Fbuj./s /,'<],/., i. t'.)!'; J>nr- 
•■ln,l„l,n\. J/o'.,LM].t, .•i'.'.VS; Mix., Mem. lid., IS">1, l(U| I; Dulilmi iuiA hrj,,m, 
/.'•;/. Mcr., V. 7.").")-7; A';-'. i'i>i-i: /.<, May I, .Imu; I, Am,'. 1, liSIlt; A/., (!<u: 
III!,-.. I'Vli. '.V), IS.'l; Aug 4, ISliC; f V..s/a 7.'., <!,ir.. Fell. i:i' Matcli i:{, .lunt" 10, 
ls:i4; Snlr., <!,u:, Jan. i:{, |S."i4; < •rrtshi/'.i KWnl.t in r,il., MS., itO ."), l(>-_> 4; 
/,'■"/«/, (Vu/. X!<:, i. 141-.">; .Siili:, Dinriit <>iii\, Apr. '20, Si pt. •.», 1S7.'); (>niit., 
Mriii. /,',!., ISS'.', *JiJ-7, and anm-.x 8; A-f Kx/nlit ,1, Orrhl., D.o. '_', 1S()4. 

^-Molina accoptt'il tliiis trnst holicviiig .Miiii.stLT A/niitia, witli wlioni tlni 
cciuiinitti'o wiiiilil liavo to treat directly, was a lilicral; Init A/.niitia was not 
.siiL'h, nor Would tlie uri.stocrata liavo piTuiitiid liiin to control tiic .situation. 

■'•■Molina accented, under the pressure of circunistaaccs, a uuMil)cr of 
1 l.iuses opjio.sed to his own opinioUH, thinking' that a conservative constitution 
«ciidd 1k! hctter than an imliriilled dictatorsliij). 

■■'Some of the inea«ures being imprudently executed only increaMtd the 
tiindile. To make matters worse, the monopoly ol aguartliente in tlie depart- 
merits of (iuat., Sacatepe(|uez, Ksciiintla, and Amatitlan, was given to a .single 
edMipany, in consideration of money ailvaiices to the treasury. Carrera w;us 
!-iili]iosed to shnru in the profits. 

'The ]n<tian.s rose against tlie ladinos, who deprived thorn of their lands, 
and lorceil them to >vork at rai.iiug grain, 




f 



•J7_' UKrUBUC OF (JUATEMALA. 

rrnmeiit saw ii serious revolution at liand, and uuuK" 
efforts to meet it. It tried, liowi'Ver, to show that 
the puhlic jieace was not disturhi-d.^ All nu;isui< s 
to check the revolution were unavailini>f, and tiu- |>m1- 
icy of tlie ruhrs of Sal\a<lor made the eonditioii t.| 
affairs more alarming to Carreraand his su|)[tortti>. 
Their political opjjonents n(»w thought the overtlii<.\\ 
of i\\<' tyrant was not far distant. His ((mnsellt.is 
advised him to call a constituent coiiijjress, and ])!(•- 
visionally plaee the executive office in the hands lA 
Vice J (resident Cruz, to which he acceded. The d< - 
cree for sunnnoninjjf the congri'ss was issued, and ("111/ 
assumed the presidency on the 'Joth of January." 
Xiijera and Azmitia retired, which indicated a change 
(»f policy. This ij^reatly exer<'ised the reactionists, 
and the ayuntamiento of (Guatemala, on the 4t]i ct 
Fehruary, urgently hegged Carrera to resume liis 
office, whereupon Cruz threw it up, and the forni< r 
took the chair at once. He or<»anized a new calt- 
inet," the persoimel of which was a challenge! to the 
whole liberal pai'ty. which therehy was rousi'd to 
action. The first act of the government was to revokf 
the decree calling the constituent assemhl v. All hopi 
of reform was now given U}). 

T\\v revolution went on, and notwithstanding occa- 
sional reverses made nmch headway, Serapio Cru/, a 
brother of the vice-president, and an estimable man and 
experienced soldier, taking sides with the mountainecis. 
The government was sinking under the weight of its 
depravity; and yet in those moments of despair, it 
struck a blow at its opponents, ^[olina was arrested 
on the lOtli of May. A similar order was issu< d 

■"' 'La triiii(|uili<la(l cnntinila inalterabli'.' iliiitl., lt<tr. Ojir., Aug. 11, ISIT. 
'I'lic arolibisliKit was a.skod to instruct his priests to jireatli obciliciici' tn the 
authorities anu laws; and with thu view ot winning tlie good-will of the I'o- 
niinicans tlio govt restored tiieni the large iiaeienda ot I'aleiicia, wiiicli \h\A 
l»fon theirs prior to 1^>•J'.». Tiie property had fallen into Carrera 's hamls liy 
donation from the government, and now, in order to restore it to the friars, it 
was honght from him at his own price. 

^' Carrera's decrees of .Ian. 1*2 and 22, 1X48. 

*" Foreign relations, .lose Mariano Rodriguez; government, Luis IJatres; 
trea.siiry and war, .lose Niijera. 



^i'ini, (irs • '," ''^ -"'r-.I tlu. ..)„t,.,,.„ „(. I. . 

'"-;' tl.< r with MuUnn J ''''^^^''''' «'«I>piv.ss,.J ••'' 

;"•<'•■•• <'^ the court <,r hVst '^"'""" -'^^'"•■»- A„ 

- '•'■ -I?a-^1 aa.r so L t .r:;^''";;- • '^^'"' i'^-'— ^ 

-;""s of tho fort. T : (Z '^''''i ^'' ^''^' •J^'"- 

'"?;;; ^^'tl* the oover.nnCnt - ^ ^^ ^''•^^•-" tinned ..Ih- 
' ''*' position (if f I, 

"""■'■ "i't<'nal,l,, « .;fir'"''""',"",' T'"'' '"'"l.v ''"■.."liM.' 

''•■'>-^ l"/"rc tl„. install„ti„ ,"'::: ^"t l''«'" " f-w 
; I'^ty M. l.i,,,,,,,, ,,., ■\' -^J ^Ij'-Ntly .m.st.,.l tl.e 

"'■" '""'V. T),o liix. ',.*^: 7,:;;' '"« -i.».i.s.sion";; 

'■""l'''"">'t,u' t^K ■"■ ''^^"''-'''. tl" ass, J,i' ."''■'■'■•^"' tiio .ui.l.ii;, ,,„„," 



274 



IIU'UBLIC OF (irATKMAKA 



wiinlidutc; of tlioir own, mid tli<; nactionists, tlioin^li 
liJivinjj^ a workiiiLj iMiijority in tlie asscinljly, iium 
iiiotivrs (»f ]M)liry al>.staiin(l iVoin pn'Si^ntinuj oiio nj 
tlicir paity; Imt tliry i'mally fixed Ujton a politit.il 
nonentity, wlio waH known to In; in accord witli Xuti.. 
and tlio ri.'Volutioni.sts of ('lii(|uinndji, nanioil fJu.ii! 
Antonio ^Faitincz,*' Ix'lievinLj tliat tlioij;j^li a liltnal 
hi) Would not l)e anta^jonistic to their interests. Tin 
assembly was installed r»n tlie Ijtli of August wifli 
]*edro Molina presidinuc, wlien Carrera sent in tliici 
doeinneiits, one (if wliicli was liis roiinf nation," wliicli 
was aeee)>te<l, no attempt luinii^ made to ch'tain liiiii, 
as it was tlio •general desin; tliat lio sliould leave the 



countrv 



Mart 



niez was apjiom 



.t.'d 1 



lis sueeossor 



4>l 



Tlie new president kept ( 'arrera's officers in tluir 
<'<»mman(is.'' His appointment did not satisfy tli.' 
chiefs «tf tlie revolution,'*"* and tlirougli eommissioui i> 
thoy made known tluMr demands, dated August 'J7tli. 
in f 8 articles/" The governnu'iit rejecte<l them, itiir 
I decree rcnuirinL'; their submission offered cert.iiii 



m 



ti^iins, which in their turn were not accei)ted, and tli' 
war wont on. 

Colonel Nufio had made an arrangiineut with c'lin 
inissioners ])u(;nas and An<>;ulo of Salvador for tin 
organization of Los Altos as a separate state. TIii> 

** A inercliaiit or agent; lio w.is sickly, and totally unfit for the jiositimi. 

*'Tlio (itlicr two wuru iiis nics.sagi! on ai-n. all'airs, ami his gruetin;; Id tlir 
chaiiiher on its installation. Xir., (inf. (loh. Siii>rnn., Sept. 10, IMN; .Sulr., 
(,'w. Ofir., Si'pt. it, ISTti; M'lii/ii/di; /i'isi-iki Hist., v. 470, 4!t4-r)08. 

*■' llis proscription was ducrui'il on tliu l.'lth of Oct., 1848. //<;/. <'iiil. .1" .. 
Jan. '_".>, IS.IO. Ho went to Chiapa, and the Mrxiean govt was re(jui^st<il in '. 
to li't him cross tiie frontier. El Sh/lo, Jan. 10, 18.J1. 

*"This was an unmerited slight to Vico-prosiilent Cruz, which hn rcsiiit' . 
afterward. 

*'' His ministers were ManiU'l J. Dardon of the L;i>vt; Jose .M. Vidaiin'' ■ ' 
treasury and war, and Luis Molina of foreign relations. 

'"Francisco C'arrillo, Serapio Cru/, Roberto Reyes, J. I). Nutio, anl A. 
I'ercz. 

'"The chief heiug tlu! convocation of a new constituent assenilily: tli' 
recognition of I..oa Altos as independent, cfiVirts to restore tlie Ccntrd .\iii 
republic, and meantime (luat., iSalv., and Los Altos, to be under one L'ovt; 
the revolutionary army to hold the capital an<l other important points; l!,it:ii I 
and Sotero Carrera and their agents to make good with their jimpii'ty all 
damages caused by them to private persons; objectionable jier.sons to h'' l'''"i- 
ished, and the Brit, govt to be asked to recall Consul Chatlield. 



^-^v 



J?^ 



Tliey wc 

•^■'dwidor 
uiiich Jia 
•''•>*pair o 
'''"■rals ai 

" 'lieij. ,,„ 

^'•\|TOVis 
K't,„.l ,1^. ,,^ rj 

»■•■''■ /'/., 5«S- 
,, ,; "'eilold 



roLlTlCAL I'AKTIFX 



•» 



,1„. . 



n ■ 


,.l A. 


•; th.' 


I Sm. 


,j„vt: 


ll.it."' 


rtv all 


, l,;m- 



I'otisrd tlic aristoomts, aiul tluir spokcHnian, Aiuliou, 
iiijidc such lu'oiMl statt'iniMits in tlio cliamluT that tlu; 
|iri^i<l<'iit accused hiui of talschcHMl, and closed the 
dis.ussiou. Tho aftiiir W'lhiied the hreacli aiuoiij^ 
till' liheials. Luis Moliiiain. 'ori^anizeda third party, 
tli.it took tht' iiaiut! of nio(h>ra«l<> iM(»st of wlioso nu'Ui- 
iit rs wore Ironi the liheral jt.irty and tho latter was 
lift Jiu almost insiLjnificaut miiiorify. 'i'he aristocratic 
|»;tity, alheit divided in a|tj)earaiiee. was really united.'"' 




I, us Altus. 



Tlioy wore uiscjuieted, howm'er, hy the attitute of 
Salvador in ui)holdin<^ the independtin-e <»f Los Altos, 
wliich had been organized as a state;"' l»ut did not 
(Ifspair (jf breaking up the friendship between the 
lilxrals and the i;overnnient of Salvador."" The aris- 

"Tliuir only division was in ojien ami covert scrvilcs. 

' A provisional govt was estalilislieil at yuc'/Jiltunani,'o on tin- .V.li fif Sept., 
IS4S, consisting of a trinnivirate; namely, I'resliyter Fernamlo Antonio jtavili, 
lvii;it'l lie la Torre, ami .lose Velazeo, with Manuel . I. Fuentes as Heereta;\- 
t.(!i. A/., 58S-S): Gwtf., (In,:, Sept. t2l', 1848. 

-The nolilcs, aided l)y the elergy, snrronndcd tho hrothers C'niz, and Luis 
.Mvliua uudurtook to dissuade Nulio, who was a very ignorant man. 



^11 



I' ! 






:^l 



It 

I 
i 


1*'' 




1 . 






1 


' 



'JTH 



UKl'niJI.ir <1F (iUATKMALA. 



tocrats s c tluiiisdvus t<> work to luivi; a motion iii.kIc 
by a iilx ral in tlio as.st'iiil>ly for the coiifirniatioii df 
('arr(>ra's decree of ]\lareh "J I, 184", to create tlio rc- 
]»ul>lic of (iiKitcMiiala. Siicli an act on tlie j)art of the 
liWerals would alienate from tliem the support of the 
Sahadoraiis, Jiiid reduce them to a nullitv. And \vi 
ilarrundia inadi> the motion,"" and it was rect'ived witli 
a shout of ap])l;uise, and passed on the 14tli of Sr])- 



tend)er, with only iwo nei^ative vote 



T] 



lis ratiti- 



cation was hailed with rini^injj^ of hells iuid sahosdl" 
artilh TV. 

The revolutionists of J^os .Vltos heiui^ defeated at 
San Andres,'' were ohliu'ed to submit, hut the situa- 
tion of the government was made precarious hy thr 
defeat of XuHo by the brothers Cruz, who approadird 
the capital.'" Liiable to neo'otiate jteace, MartiiK / ii - 
si'j,ned the executive otlice, and Jose ]:Jernardo Mscohar 



SU( 



'ceeded him «)n the 'isth of Novend)er, 



T\ 



le III W 



president found all his j)l;in>^ antau^onized by the aris- 
tocrats and moderados, and the cleruy ospi-cially niis- 



tiu 



4ri\ h 



dm and his ministers. 



lie miuht cie 



ilv 



have dissolved the assembly, but the act would li;ivc 
been ri'pu^nant to his principles. He concluded tn 
retirt^, but liis resignation w;is not accepted.''' Vicente 
Cruz demanded the surrendtM' «>f the ca[)ital, oil'eiiiiL;' 
security for life and pro[)erty, a few jn-rsons only e\- 

■'■'Tln' iici'i'ssity iif {irnruriiii; iridiuy fur thi' wac, wliioli ooulil not 1"' hu'l 
cxi'i'pt troiii piirtisuns of tlio nliLrari'lis, jiroiniitt'd it, as tluy iiiatU; that act nf 



ratitu'atuin a .siiu' ((ua iioii 

W/»r(|'., <;,l. I., II.. 



licl. 



1 

it; .1/' 



iiiouiiiiig tlii'ir |mrsf-striuf;s. 



i/iilin 



l,\ 



1 1 ill., V. r)!S4--r). (iau' 



and I'iiu'ila da Mniit, tlio (itliiT lilitials tiyiiiL; ti> jioi'siiadc tiioiusulvcs tluit lli^ 



sojiaiatioii would lie only tciiiiioraiy. 



■liv Col M. I'ai-dos. (. 



11(1/. 



11 



Xi 



i;,ir 



V. cm; s. c,:'A it. 



Sii]>, 



Sopt. '."J. KS4S; A/., (■,-/. /,.//. 



Nov. l!S, 'Jo, I>oo. it, 1S4X; Moii/iif'ni; I,',.fiiit 



fill ;i; 



The attempt to gain over Xiilio to tho side of the fjovt ]iroviiij; 



fid, lie had lieeii 



'I'P 



iiitud 



president X'ieeiite ( ri 



coniandanto giiier 



111. On the other liainl, \ iii 



selection of Mart 



smarting under the slight jmt upon liiiu hy tl 



St tl 



Inez tor pros., joined hi 



liroth 



le gov 



t. A/., 



u.V), TiTO 1, ,")NS, .V.)l. 



cv Serapio lu Ins anneil c<iiite>t 



Hseohar Mas an orator, a true repiiMieaii, and well disposed to dei! 



fairly liy all men, regardless of jiolitieal atliliatioiis. 



11 



is ministers were l{evd Nareiso Monterev, of covt; Basilio l'iiri"i 



relations; Mariano (Jalvcz Irungaray, of treasury; and Manuel Joiia 
old retired otli 



lii;i, all 



.f .M. 



:.f 



'Thu two opposing parties had not yet li.vcd upon his successor, 



liiMiilc 



• •/■af. (( 
wcic n 
.ulirr ^ 

'.! 'It, ( 

1' Was 
I'l.i'-is ]■( 
-'lid rwai 
<Viiz W( 

^M.Mvh. 
I'V a bul 

< .■JlJ'ei 

/I.lMrs 
"f i]iv II 

.IS. ||f,.,j_ 

'lifirailt 

1 ',v;;! h'b.. 
li;i\iii-- ;i 

*v'l|r;cahei 
'■■Tlie M, 

''"'■A Mho w,. 

,. "'A large, 
tl"ll are give, 

'Jii foriiiii 
»""l~!ers Were 

'"'■i M.niiel T 

'""lt;;.v/ol,ee 

'" '■!'■ I>riiie 

"•''■ 'Ih' arniv 

"'^•■inny; ,.1,:,, 

'''■t-< i.-illseil i.ri 
I.J ■ri .' 

, ""• •■irist. 

,'''!' lillOWll fli; 

'"'"'■•' they h.i, 
''*'^ '"^ana'fur ( 



I:KATI1 OF VICKNTK CltUZ. 



m 



!lis- 

\' 

Vf 

In 

\\W 

(■\- 



;it ill'' 

,".0 :;: 
II. I . 

O.'t'sS- 

Vuv- 

I'.v ^''^ 

loiiti-l 



III. an 



((|i;i(l."" Till' ncu^otlatlons for ]>oa<v liaviii^'- failed, 
K-( mIimi" a soroiid tiiiio sent in liis rcsii^iijitioii, and it 
W.I- a<fo|)tod, vitli marked disr('s|»Mt on the ])art of 
tl;. scrviles and niodcrados."' Nlaiiutl Tcjada was 
(iM'^-iri jtrL'sident on the oOtli of 1 )( cenilM-r, and de- 
clliM il llio honor. ^lariano I'arcdes was then a^v. 
jioiiitci!, on tilt! 1st of Jaiuiaiy, IS4I), and took tlio 
(latii which liad l)e<>n ]>i'e])ared l»y Paredes. hut he soon 
prijuitd liimself, I'ollowinnf e\|ilicith' the advice of 
hui> Uati-es, and tlins heconniiL;' a tool of the aristo- 
crats tolii'inL;- hack ( 'ari'ei-a to}»owei'.''' Arran;4enients 
\\t ic made M'ith the mountaineers, under which Ihi^- 
iidii r Vicente Cruz, liaving recoirni/ed tlie ^oMi-n- 
III it, entere<l (luatemala on the Dth of Fehruary.*^' 
J! was )i(ttieed, howevci", that Serapio C'ruz and other 
I'M' is remained outside. The men of A,;4'usLin i*ere/ 
alt'iward committed several murders, and Vicente 
(ill/, went against and del'eatod them on the "JOth of 
M iich. hut while cno-aged in the pnisuit was struck 
liy a liullet in the <-hest and fell deail."' 

( auera was known to he on the fr(»ntiei', and 
l)a!r<s und(.'rtook to ohtain tlie assent of the chiefs 
I't' the mountain for his return. Not all of tliein 
a-sinted, howevei'. Seraj'io ( 'ruz issuini^' a very sIl;-- 
liilic.iiit manifesto. (Jeneral Anustin (uiznian, the 
I'V;;! lihei'al leader, Well understood JJatres' aims, and 
!ki\1iil;' a force at J luehuetenan^o made a movt; on 
<^'ni /.altenango, defeatinj^' a larL;'e party of Indians, on 

'''I'iii' -Mdlin.is and AiTivillMi,';is, Vicl:iuiii', l):irilnii, I! irr\iiiili:i, ami Mar- 
•iiiir,'. Mill) wiTo lulil iv.<piiiisiliK,' tor till' 1;1i)im| aliiMily spillcil. 

' ' .V lar;^!' iiimilicr of oliifial docs. I'onaei'tcd \\ iili tlir 1 i>t two ailiiiiiii-itfa- 
•..111 arc given in Mvihij\n; Hisiim J/isf., v. .V.i;i (itll, lill, (;-.'-J-4t, li'.l.') Tl.'i. 
Ill loriiiin^ liis caliiiict lie f^liglilcd Luis Moliiii and his uarl.s . Ili> 
iiiiiii-tcrs wiro .Tosc .Mariano llodriciicz, llaynniiido .Xrrovo, .lo.-a.' .\|. L iiini i, 
.11 1 \1 iiiui'l Tcjada. Arroyo was sncccodod in AiitJ. liy I'l'dru N. .\rriana, 
iiiil C ic/o lieuainc iiiiii. ot war. 

'•"The iirinoipul clauses wcio: the revolutionary furotj.s to lie iiicor|iorated 
"itll the army of the reimhlii'; Vicente ( 'crna to liecoiiie geucralin iliiit of 
tiU' army; tleetions of deputies to hti inailo in iiiireiiresciitcd districts; daiii- 
i-i's c uised [irivate jLirtics liy the army to he jiiid liy the govi'rniiitMit. 

''''I'lic aristocr.its made a ^;reat display of re^'ivt at his ileatli, Imt it was 
«'!] known that they did not love him. In cliiiiinatiii:.' him from the nvo 
utioM they liMil in view to wc.ilicu tliu latter, 1ml .still wanted it to continue 
■'! a i.iLdua fur Carrura'a ruluni. 



'J7S 



liKl'UBLIC OF OUATKMALA. 



(•••lll- 



tlic wav, at San IWtolonic. This move furtlior 
j)lii-att'tl atiairs, and J^atres resolved to i^et rid of lum 
hy sultterfujjfe."' Then; were constant skirmi.slus du 
the frontier, ( c^rrera liavinuf under liiin a eonsidt laMc 
nuinlu'r of Indians."" lie; finally reached Quc/altr- 



(1 til 



il>l 



1 th 



nanufo, and tlie a.sseniolv (sniitowerecl tJie <jovcrmiitiii 
to institute nieasui'eH for an active cani})ai;4ii." On 
the l.'Jth of April, just ten years after the oecupatinimf 
dnateniala l>v Carrera, his second entrv had heci 



I aii- 



iiounei'd. JNindes swoi'e to defi'iid the city ai^aiiist 
Carrei'a,"^ which oath he never intended to ke(|i. 
Major X'ictor Zavala, coireinidor and coinaiidante nt' 
8uchite|»e(|Uez, niad(^ common cause with ( ai ii i;i.' ' 



Pared 



es. 



tl 



le adNlce or 



J 



UIS 



liati 



!'es and auaiiist ihf 



wishes of tin,' lihei'al and niodeiado leadi'rs, oim ind 
neti'otiations with ( 'iii'it'ra, which resulted in the miIi- 
mission of the latter" and his forces at (^)ue/altenaiiue, 
whei-eupon it was decreed that all hostilities au.iiii^t 
him were to cease: the order forhiddiiiL;' his retmn 
was re\'oked, his laiik of lieutenant-iji'eneial was iv. 
store<l, and finally he was j^iven the command-in-( hii t' 



aiHi 



«tf the army. '^I'he comi)aet Itetweeii the olii;ai'chy 

*■' I'iin'ilcs iiiikIi^ liiiii liflifve tlii' j;(ivt really iiiloiidiMl tu (i]i|iii.si' ( .irnii 
]Iu also ])1ci1l;i'(1 tlii!<;ovl to inotict Jios Altos, :iiiil jinividi: fur the ,i.l\.iiiir 
iiKMit cit ciliuMiKiii .iinl (•(iiniiK r<(' in tliat riMiiuii. I'lidir Midi iilidi^i ^ ( hiz 



IIIMII 



ilaccil iiiiiisflf .'iiiil liis (.»in/altocs at the .scpv 



li't' () 



f tl 



ic t'ovt ail' 



ri'Cili'il to tlic i'a|)ital, Mmtl nfur, /,'is(iiii J/i-/., v. Tli'.l 71. 



J;i 



-Mtl 



iiu wriito the 



I't from Avnto tlial lie was on liis in.iii h t. 



tlio capital, not to iiV( 
ailniniisliation, or lal 



ln' Kaiil, tlic insults litajnil upon liiin li_\ Mait 



111(7. 



up l)y-;;on('! 



I)iit t 



ils.siinlilv, 



.'fori! wliii'h liis li'ttir was la 



n restore peai'e iilid jllstli 



o rai.si! a i<ii'eigii 



in ot one inillion d 



■ pt 



tilopteii IK) peso 



lull 



other friendly .stati 



d if 



iieeessarv to roiiKAe 



th 



to proeiire 



'I' 



•apital. After ;;iaiiti 



sneh ]po\\er the a.s.seiiilily adjourned, leavinu in tiie eity a 'eoiiiision |ieiin.i- 



iKinte 



'■^ Mi 



!^"' 



,t ^aiil that aid ail'orded to ( 'arrera was treason under thi d, 



.f Oet. i:i, I.S4S. Ministert 



Uroyo ani 



^ 



I Teja 



a III a inanilcsto as-uri'd tliu 



lie of the >:o\ eiliinelit.s liest etlorts to defeat his projeets. j\i<:, <! 



laieh 17, IS4'.t. It is astoiiishiiijf that an i;,Mioraiit man like I'areili 
so easily hooclwink Luis Molina and tluM'est. They soon opened their eyi-' 
to see till! falsi iiess of tiic man they had elevated troiii the eoimnauil ol a h;it- 
talion to the eliief mauistraey, ai.<l who was on the point of eonsuminatiiii.' lii^ 
trcai'hery. ( iuzmaii saw throiij.di his plan, and t'scajied out of the eity wilh :i 



liiilier of his (,)iie/,altee ollieers I'lnil men, a 



.1 



,1.1 



in reaehiii: 



S.ilv:i- 



lleli 



on HiH'in^' the outram's of Loon l{aymil 



iist joined the mountaineers, and aided tiiem to take .lutia|pa. Imt 



do, lie left them in di 



Ust. 



'Zavala vas eonneeted hy lilootl and marriage with siipiiorter.s of Cir- 
rem in tliu aristocratic cliiiuc, 



" Tlie 
111'- eliief 
M!': .\l„ 

■' llv 
I'll.ii. ,,„ 
d(.r iir, 



TllK WAl; OF IS.-)!). 



■JT'J 



li.irliJiri.sni was consiiuimatctl.'" lie assumocl tlio coin- 
iiiaiid <»ii tlif Htli of AuiL^ust, and t)n that date and the 
\>{\[ 1k" issued i>ro('laniati(tiis convcyiiii^ his purpose of 
K-toiiiii;' peace niid order, and assuiiiiu^ tlie people 
that he was IVee ironi liatred."' Hut the work of 
\( ii^eaiice soon l»e<4aii. I'^tl'orts were made toeoiiveiie 
til. asseiiihlv with thi- ohject ill view of arrestiiii; the 
llKcral deputies who Noted for ( 'ai'1'err.'s pi'oseriptioii 
ill I sis,'' hut many of tliem had Wvd, aii<l only those 
rniiainiii^ weic contiiied in the fort hv Carrera's order 
witliout remonstrance on the part of tin- j)resid<'nt. 
It, is also said that some persons were shot. Such of 
the prisoners as did not cravis Carrera's ]»ardon were 
loired to leave the country.'' 

Tiie difference in the jtriiiciples underlying- the p<ilicy 
111' t lie rulei-s of ( iluatemala and Salxador, and tlie hit- 
ter animosity existing' hetween tliein, hiouu'lit ahoiit a 
w.ii' in iSoO, in which Salvador, Honduras, a,iid the 
(|i iiiociuts (»f Xicaran'iia were allied against (iuate- 
iiiala.'' President \'asco!icelos in\aded ( Juatemala,' ' 

"" Tlif liist tWd iKiiios wen: <it' .hiiK- 4tli and .-itli. II is .iiiiiiiintiiifiit to 
iIh chill coiii!iiaii(l was on tln' 'M ol AiiU- -Xi''-, < nrr. /</., .Iiilv I, S('|>t. I, 
Isl'.l; Mmi/n/.n; /;..■« j„i ///W., v. 77".t Ml, T-M .'). 

■' 111! Iiail ciiirn' (lisiKPsiMi to ilo liis <iiity, lit' .said. 'I'hu ayiiiitaniiciito of 
• •iiiit. oil tin: Hull lit AuL'. ;;avo a ))aiiiiiirt in lionor of <'aii'iTa. 'I'ln' loiio^^i- 
iliii' iiiisi(li:cl, liaviiii; on liis riL'lit I'arcili's, ami on tlir li'tt (arnia. (linU., 

(;.'.■.. All-. •-•:!. isj'.i. 

Tlir I'liiiiision [KTinamnti' liail rr['if.si'iiti'>l tiio ilanf.;i:r to tlii',i,'o\t iii'lori' 
C.iiiiTa iiiliTiil tiif rity, ami it.s rt'|irisiiilatioii.s ninainiiiL,' uiiliriilcil; it again 
nil till' 'JTtli of ,luly I'aili'il till' ultriition of tin' iiiiiii.strr of goNirniMcnt, ilu- 
luiiiiling r(;i|iii.situ jiroti'ttion for tlio i'f|ii'i!Sfiitativrs. Sii> Amlrcs J >aiilon'.s 
|. ttir ill Miiiihii'ir, I'lsifin Hist., \. SII-I'J. 

■ 15arrunilia liail jiono to Salv. Jiiiis .Molina wa.s now ilifialnl, and hail 
to t;o away, llu vi.-ilicil to visit San S.ilvailor, Imt riniM not faio Va.ii'oiK'u- 
!<■-, ami went to Aliiiacliaiiaii. Ivv-[iri'.siili:nt Ivsioliar, who, a.s jiri'siilrnt of 
till i'-i.Hi'inhly, .''ij.tinil tin; ]irosuri|ition aut of Oct. Ill, rMfS, iliiil in I'.vilc, ]iiPor 
.iinl iiii.suralili'; tiu' two Nuli.scriliiiiL! Mcd'rtai'irs wiii' Maiinrl Jinimaray, whom 
t'.uirr.i caiist'il to he ."hot some time aftii\\aril, ami J.oren/.u .Montiifar, tlio 
author ami utali'sinan. 

' \'asi'oiii'ilo.-i, jiri'siili'lil of Salv., lire, I, l.S."iO, aiinouiiri'd to lin |i'o|ili' 
thit fiirers of (iauti'iiiala wilo ahoiit to invadi' thr iir|i.irtmiiit of SoiiMHiate, 
«iih tiir view of imiting tlie inhahitant.s to rehel aLiain.it their ;;oviriiineiit. 
.\i; liii, .Ian. 10, IS.M, he Nets forth the motives actiiatinj; tlie oliiiiinhs, who 
liiil Caiiera tor their tool, ami I'.ritish ( 'misiil ChatliiM Inr their alls, whnh 
«ere to ile.stroy ( eiitral Ameriean lihiilus, ami to ilominier over the other 
.-•iitiims. <'(ul. Am. /'iiiii]i/i., vi. niw. 'J ami ;i. 

'I'lio iiliji etive JMiint was the eity of Onal., whieh the allies felt .-llie of 
' i|'turiiig, to jmlj^e from the eoiitext of a letter Iroin I'llefias to \ a«ooiieelos 
el .Ian. 'M, 1S.-)I. ('(III. Am. /''Unjifi., iv. no. IT 



im 









1 

"I B- 



J 



I 



KLI'UBLK' Oi' CIJATK.MALA. 



at the hoiul of an allicil lorco of Salva<l()rans, Hondu- 
raiis, and Xifura<j^uans, Itiit srcnis to liavo mot with a 
signal <l(*feat at the liaiids of an iiifci'ior force und(>r 
Carrcni, lu'ar Arada, in ( 'lii(juiniula, on the 2d (if 
Fchruaiy, wliieh coinjx'lh'd a |)reei[>)tate retreat uito 



S; 



uvadoran territorv 



( 



tl 



irrera men mare 



lH>d 



across 



tlie lint' and established Iiis lieadtiiiarters in Sant 



na. 



' and estahlislied Jus liea(l<iiu 

'I'his move demanded vin'orovis measun^s 



)iii- 



tlie [uu't tif Sahador for self-defence 

(arrera wrote; the <>oveinment of Salva<lor Fel 
ary i2lN1, that, undi'rstandinn" it wishi'd to make pea<'k'. 
))nt hesitated to ])ro]tose it because of the presence vi 
(jruatemalan troops in Sahador, he would reci'oss ll 



me, startniu; on thi' next daA 



\'et the war colli ill 



ueil, until a (letinitive treaty <irj)eaee hetwc^en <aiat.'- 
niala ami Sahador was concluded at (iuatemala nn 
tlie I "til of .August, ISj;!, and ratitied by Guatemala 
on the 14th of Septejuher. " 

The ci\il stiife i-ai^iiii;' in Guatemala led to dilli r 
eiices with 1 1 oiidui'as. whose ^'overii men t was accused mI 
ta\();in;j,' the lehels of the mountain. {{ccriminatieiis 



and 



lorder raids ensued, which culniina 



ted 



m a 



thr 



0(3 



'ears \\ar 



lit 



■tw 



ecu 



the t 



Wi 



countries, ( (Uateniala aiu- 



ing (jiuardiola and otliei' eiuMuies of ( 'abahas, the | 



ire>I- 



'( 'arroru's I'l'pmt from the licl.l cciiit^iiiicil tin' followi 



aiMc 



I lii.ss oil till' part of the couft'ilcratcs ot ")'JS 



1, '-'0(1 iMisdiicis, 1,(1(10 III) 



kfts 

kill.Ml 

llooil.s 

Hut t ' 



Illll 



I 11,000 roiiiuls <il uiniiiiiiuti 



wliilti Ills casualtit'.s wore oiih 



,1 1'. 



WOlUli 



\r,[. Tl 



Til 



at was iirolialily <iii( 



it 



liaraitcri.stic 



tals 



Salvailoraii iiiiiiisti'r called it 



'iTcra was ]iroiiiotiM 



to I) 



rat'ia sciisihlc aiiiii|iio [n'<|iR'ua 



)0 ('a|itaiii-^'i'iii'ral, anil a nieiiiorial iiicual wm 



struck ill lioiior of liis victory. Fri^r/i, J)if Sfiin/in, '.IS; Aft'tlninuvin, Cmt. 



• t; 



SO I: S'<b\, M, 



IS'JI -). 



I'clt. t'ltli, iii.irtial law was ]M-oclaiiii(Ml; l.'itli, all iikmi cajialilc of 1) 



icro called into scrvi 



were declared traitr 



tl 



tlio>'e lailiiig to (iliey, or aidlllL; tlie lllvaMir 



10 a.s.sciiii) 



Iv deerecil a forced loan of tf_M,(MKl 



iMoiitlily diiriiif; the continuance of the Mar. Xh-., i'or. />•/., .March \'i, iS.'il; 
Sab: Jiirrifii, in (inf. Am. /'ninjili., iv. no. ll! 



'lie would retnn 
fitidf., Iliili/iii (ll- Xoli' 



owevcr, if jicaccfnl overtures were not made .it our 
March 1, IS,')!. 



Tl 



e connni.ssioners wi 



re .Manuel I'". J'avon for <Juatcniala, and Francisco 



ZaMi 



f. 



ir Salvador. 



Jt 



wan a trca 



ty of 



amity and comnicieo, calling alsi) 



for extradition of army cleserters and eoinmon criniiiials ujioii formal diMiia 



for them. I'olitical refii 



ge( 



re tl) lie made to live at a consiileraiile dis 



taiice from the frontier. Neither contracting ]>arty had to ](ay any pcciiiiiary 
indemnity. (Iiiiit., /'rrnji. I.iy., i. 4;{| H; i'lt.itu It., (Iiwilii, .Sept. 10, \^yM 



Jan. ;(0, 1S,")4; Hunt.., ancc/ti 



IS.-.:!. 



(Ii'll 

latt( 

ell I 
nieli 



nity 
Ili'ife 
iin (s 
fieii. 
wliicj 

<le|,i 

i;ir. 

I'lulu' nil 
•l-Tei d IIJ 
'llt^, .\il 
filled I.ei 
"lilell Iiei 
'■'II. .Nov. 

l.s.-.;!; /',,. 
l'''-'~iiii: .1 
•-'\ ivvi- 
/•'/,•,,/, ().. 

ill. II, I, I,.;,, I 
ll '('/,„ ,/,, 

■'Tliecl 
'■"■It., ami 
i'«l'tl<'.s to.s 
I'l.iiined. 

|"Cll||i;||.y 

"■'". I'l I.. J 
'■' I iidcr 
'■Ml assemi 
jll^tiee.s of 
'lii-lit l)u re 
I"' ".is to I 
I'l'' lioti.se o 
Inle power.s 
'•'"•c.iuiicil 



"■'!■. Make J, 
■iNal.iiity, tl; 
"I'der (if ,.j,,„ 
""f'l the lion 
'"■''>'■■ .1 choie 
'I'lil, tliegov 
■'■'■"'• was for 
^•'•'>-, an. 



ir 

.sii 



KKOUiiANIZATION OF (;«)VKUNMKNT. 



■-•SI 



(lent of Honduras, in tlieir attempts to overthrow tlio 
latter. '^' At last a treaty was concluded at ( Juateniala 
oil the l.'Uh of '"'ehruary, iSjG, which the s^overn- 
iiunt of (Juateniala ratitietl on the oth of April/' 

The victorious ai'istocrats now saw their opportu- 
nity to reorj^anizc; the n'overnnient under a systi'in 
iii'irc in accordance with their iiieas; that is to say, 
iii\t stinjjf the executive with power to crush revolu- 
timi. l*aredes sunnnoned th(; constituent asseinhly 
wliich had hceii called hy ( 'arrei'a's decree of May I't, 
l^l^!, and it was installed on the Kith of August, 
|S,)|. This l)o<ly on the 19th (»f {)ctolter adopted a 
iiru constitution under the title of Acta ( 'onstituti\a 
(Ic It Hi'puhlica de ( Guatemala, containinn- IS articlcs/- 

KllnrtH wcri' iiKulo l)j- tho sister stittus to nvcit ;i war, .vinl ivcii alter it 
l.niUe (Hit Salvailor ediitiiuied her ellnrts. I'lelmiifiaries ot jHaee liail lieeii 
iiiiii ei| uiKiii, anil iieudtialiniis elite rcl into at ( '(>jiile]iei|iie liy the twii lielliirei- 
ciit-. Salva(hir acting as ineiliattir at thi; cniileieiiees; hut tliis ellort also 
I nil I because the c<iiiiiiiissii)ner at the last iiioiueiit ]ireseuteil an ultiinatnm 
mIiiiIi neither Salvailur nor Moiiiluras deemeil just, iloiiil., <liicitii Ojl''., Oet. 
:!U. Nov. IT), 'M\ Dee. ]."), I.S.".1.>; /./., liolrlin Oji,-.. Oft. i:(, Nov. li^ I >ee. .'), 
I.v.;!: /V/r:, Mmi. JH<I. Hn: XU:, IS; (liait. (/ar,/ii, July S to Nov. II, js.'i.'i, 
|.s,iiir, Jan. '21, Fuh. •J4, Se^it. 'J-J, IS.-.h A/V., <!,„rf,i, Aug. 'JO, JS.Vi; Feh. 
■J^. IV.4; <'i-.sAf A'., (;,ir</,i, Iho. I'-', KS.'):{; Jan. 7, IS, Feh. •_'», Mareli 4, 18.".4; 
A/ /.'../. Oet. i:{, KS.")4; Feh. -Jl, .Mareli 7, lN.V>; /'ni;,,,!,!. ,lr I',,-, in V.nl. Am. 
I'luiji/i., i. no. UO; iv. no. 41. Jt seems troin (iiiateniaian sourees that tho 
Ihniiliiians iiivaileil (iii.it., ami were ileleaticl at Atnlajja .Inly I'J, I.S,">.'{. <!iiitt., 
llitilni til' ytitr'iiix, All}.'. ."), |.S.")I!. 

"'Till! eoiriinissionei'H lieiiii; I'eilro re Ayeiiieiia, iiiin. of foreign aii'airs of 
<lii:it., aiiil Floreneio ( 'astiUo fnrlloinl. This treaty hoiiiiil the eontrael iiig 
|inilirs to .surrcmler deserteis from eillier army, ami eonimon erimin iN, when 
eliiiiieil. I'olitioal refugees were to he kept awav from the froiilier. No 
ji' luiiiary iiuleninity wa.s slipulateil. Cital., lUftiy. /.<;/., i. 4:!.'{-ti; (,'iiiit., liu- 

"'■I. Fell. 10, is")t;. 

■- I'liiler this law tho [iresiileiit was to he eho'-en for four ,\eaiM hy a geii- 
I 111 asseinhly coiii|iostcl of the hoii-e of n ^ i-esentatives, the an hhisho|i, 
ju^luesof thu sujii "■ eiu.it, ami the iiuiiiln is of tlie eoiiiuil of state. llo 
iiiijlit ho roelet'teil. ..ire heing Jilaeeil in [(ossessioii of the e.xeeutive olliee, 

111' «as to lie sworn h^ the archhisliop who luesiiliil, for the oeca.iio.i, over 
llii' liouse of rejire-ientatives. The e.\eeiiu\ e w,is clnlheil w itli uliiiosl aliso- 
lui.' [lower.s, being authorized, among otlii r tilings, to issue, iu aeeord w itli 
till' eniineil of state, decrees having the force of law, to raise loans, declare 
\> 11. make peaeo, ratify treaties, etc. in the event of his death or ji. rmalieat 
lii-iiliility, the executive duties devolved temjioraril^ on the niini.sters in their 
mill r (if seniority; and in default of them, on the iiiemhers of tin council; 
iiiifjl the house of lepri^seiitatives, to he forthwith siiinmoiied, could meet and 
111 il%i; a choice in general assembly. l»uriiig teiii|iorary absences of the iiie>i- 
il'iil, tlie governineiit devolved on the couneil of ministers. 'J'lie eoiineil of 
M.it. Was formed of llu! cabinet ministers, eight menilurs cliost ii by the con- 
^11 - , ami such others as the executive miL;lit appoint. Tliuy held olliee for 



''1 

1 



m 



: 4 



i,'-l 



1 * 

ii'ii^lii l 



;il'l' 



282 



REPUBLIC OF GUATEMALA. 



Another docroe rogulated the election of representa- 
tives of the chureli and other corporations in the 
national congress.'*^ 

The constituent assembly having by the 18th ar- 
ticle of the acta rescrvcil to itself the right of choosing 
the president foi' the constitutional term from Jaimary 
1, 1852, to January 1, 185(5, chose the only possible 
candidate, Rafael Carrera,^* who on the appointed day 
assiM'jed the executive office. His reputation ft)r 
courage, respect for the church, and other circum- 
stances secured a firm sui)[)(>rt to his administration. 
On the 21st of Oetober, 1854, (Airreia was proclaimed 
by a general junta of su])erior authorities president 
for life,^'' and the house of representatives on the 2'Jtli 
of January, 1855, passed an act exempting the presi- 
dent from all responsibility for the acts of his gc»\- 
ernmeut, and devolving it on his ministers.^" This 



four years ami might l>c rci'lccti'd. Tlio fullowiuj,' tiuictioiiarics iiiit(lit al>n lio 
ealU'il liy till! exi;i'iui\e to tako jiart iu tlii; (K'lihuratioii.s and vote, iiainuly: 
till' ari'litii.sliops, liisliop.s sojouriiiim in tliu ca[)ital, rt'^cnte of tlio .siqircnio 
court, j)ri'siil«nt of tlio ccolc.-iiafitii'al iliaptiT, rector of tiic university, jiiinr of 
tiio coiisulailo, jiresiilcnt of the sociedad econdinica, and conianthintu general. 
Tiic house of representatives consistecl of 5,") deputies elected for four years. 
The cahiiiet ministers had si'ats in the house, which was to njien its session 
Nov, l.'.")tli, and close it .Ian. .'Ust. The administration of justice was in- 
trusted to a sii[)ri'nie ami lower courts. 'J'lie former consisted of a re^ciuc, 
six justices, and one fiscal or attorncy-ucneral, all clm.sen l>y the couj^ress for 
four years, one half lieinir renewrd cviy two years, hut all miyht lie reelcitril. 
'.'//'/., Ii'irnj), /,ri/., i. 71l-t>7; AifnliKniiiyd, Cent. Am., J.Sl-'_'; El Sijlo, .Illiir l>. 
IfSiVJ; Sf/iiirr'.'i Ci-iif. Am., 4S.'{. 

'■•'I'liose of tiie judiciary, consiilado, uuiversity, and sociedad ecouoiiiica. 
(Illilt., /I'rcoj). /.'//., i. 140 ,"iO. 

^*S,i/i:, <;ii,;'tii, Oct. 'M, 1S.">1. 

■■'This «as tlie result of jmlilic meeting's lioM in the (Icpartmcnts liy tin; 
garrisons, otlicials, and parish priests, at which it was made to appear that it 
was tlie will of the people that t'arrcra .should lie president for life, witli tiic 
pri\ ili^nc of selecting his successor, and that other amendments shoiil.l Iu 
made to the acta constitiltiva, as pei'initted liy its l.'ith art. It is undi'i'stcHul 
that at the meeting of otlicials in the capital there was hut one dissiiitieiit 
vote to the proposition, lie had in !i manifesto of .lune l.''Jd e.\pressed a weak 
ohjeclion to the projioscd change, hut it was evidently a preconcerted jiiaii of 
the aristocrats and the military clement, (lunt., Onirfii, May 12 to Se[it. K"), 
lt>."i4, passim; O'lnit., /I'lroji. /.<//., i. S7-1I0; < '.w/.i /.'., i.'un/it, July 1-2'.), I'^'i^; 
/'/., llolvlin i>jii\, July 27, Ks.'i4; .March 17, IS.")."!; ('unrni, Mmiijicilo, in i'ml. 
Am. I'ttmyh., V. no. 21; S'lnifr'.* ('nit. Am., ril4. L'arrera lieloro this re- 
ceived honors from foreign gdvernmeiits; he was a knight grand cross oi the 
papal order of St tJregory the ( Ireat ; the sa;iie of tlie Mexican order of ( '•\vm\- 
aliijie; and knight coi'imander of tlie lkc,'ian order of Leopold. (Iwtt., Jr''"}'. 
Ley., i. IM). 

'■''This amendment conferred still -.rger powers on the president, mil 



C'AKREUA REX. 



clianije was a near approach to tlic monareliical system, 
for wliicli Carrora was supposed to have a decided 
lii'iicliaiit.''' Notwithstaii.liiij^ the strong [)()wer thus 
j>la('cd in his hands, a rovolt at Quezalteiiango tlio 
next year almost overthrew Iiini, recpiiring tlie use of 
all his forces to defeat it, at the expense of much dis- 
aster and a large numher of executions. It was only 
liv ijfreat efforts that he sncccjeded, after so manv years 
of warfare, in <|uirting the revolted mountaineers. 
This was accomplished only after peace had been 
signed with Honduras, His strong sup})()rters, ]\Ian- 
ue! Francisco Pavon and Luis J^atres, died, the 
foiiner in 1855, and the latter in 18G2.**^ 

From this time, peace being finally restt)red, with 
only occasional and })artial disturbances, the regime 
established with Carrera at its head was generally 
accjuiesced in. The repuVdic took an active pa .t in 
till' campaign against William Walker and his fili- 
busters in Nicaragua. The services rendered by its 
foiees will ap[)ear in the description of the operations 
of that campaign in a separate chapter. 

The year 18()3 was inaugurated with another bloody 
war with Salvador, the details and conse(|uences of 
which will be treated elsewhere. It is sufficient to 
s;iy hen.^ that (jiuatemalan arms were successful, and 
Carrera's power became still more consolidated, and 
its supi-emacy was felt over the rest of Central Amer- 
ica, ife ruled the country uninterruptedly till his 

i:i.iilo the tcnii of tlio representatives, uml of the coiuicillors chosen l)y tlieiii. 
M\iii years iiisteail of four. 

•■ As lif liail no knowledjie of the seieiico of ;,'ovi'i'iinicnt, the direct iiiaii- 
au'eiiieiit of jiiihlie afiairs was U'ft to tliosc sinniosc.l to possess it. Cam ra did 
iM't govciii; he merely rei>resented the unity of govrrnuu nt. 'Sin enihai-go 
(juc >u \(iluutad jirevalecia eii todo. ' As/iiliiiniiiiiii, Cent. Aiii.,ii'2. The reform 
ill r ,;aril to the i)rusi(Unitial tenure was personal, and exehisively in favor of 
Carrera. 'J'luis at his dratli tliu constitutional pi-ovi<ion was restored, the 
minister of relations, IVdro do Ayeiinna, assuuiini,' tlie reins, and at once 
.'^uiiimonin;,' the IcLtislativo liody, whiih was do faeto and de jure a return to 
cdiistitiitioiial order, /'iiinln ilr Mmil, Xdt.t, in (liinf., /{iroji. f.ifi., i- ^>7. 

"■'J'he ;.'ovt ilei;reed tliat tln'ir portraits should he ]ilaced in the hall of the 
(ouneil of state. I'avon's widow, Virtoria ZehaiUia, got a pension of ."^'.HIO a 
Near. (Uhil., J'(coj>. L'j/., ii. (JliS-'J; iii. ',i'>\. 



n 



If 



f 



'!■) 



u 



11 



l\ 



\'«. ■ ;■ 



SM UKl'lBLIC OF (iUATKMALA. 

death early in A]>i'il li^OiJ. The hiij^lit'st lioiioi's, t-ivic, 
militaiy, and icfU'siustlc, were paid to liis rt'inaiiis.**^ 
Carrcra died in tlie full (•()nvictit)n tliat lie had bcoii 
the instrument of providence in saving society and 
good order in Cuatcniala. He had l)ecn so assund 
hy his supporters, and had come to helieve it, in tin; 
face of the fact that he had been guilty (»f heinous 
crimes and was notoriously innnoral."'^ So die those 
who pass hence from the nmrderer's galh)\vs under the 
hamier of the cross, and with priestly consolation. 

•■^Tho jiovrrmiK'iit, wiio.st; tiiniif>r;iiy cliit.'f was IV'dro i]o Ayciiu'ii:!, ,is 
seiiicir caMiu't iiiiiiistcr, iluiTi'i'il April 4tli that tliu fimunil hIiouM take jilaio 
on till' ITtli.-itlt A. M., tliu remains to lie interreil in tlio eatlielral eluiiili. 
</'«//., /,'rn,)i. Liii., iii. XA-'l; A'/V., dxMn, Ayr. '1\\ May (■>-•_'(», iNi.'). 

"'' It liaf5 Ix'eu asserted that even his ministers treinhled for tlieir li\rs 
wheiiCarreni was inliiseuiis. 'I'lioiiuli tht'V knew lie wouhl eoniinit outi'a:;is, 
they oiteii iii(hired hiui to visit tliu de[iai'tnients, in iirder to have a litth' 
[leaee tlieniselves. 



t>io.1. .\.-ii-i 



-.,-^^^ 



,> ^?^^T-4j:j<^'^~i--.5^K/_jS^^ |« I Y.'»l<» J„^„ro\/ I V 




Salvador. 



OHArTER XIV. 

RKl'UBI.K ' OF SALVAIH-)R 

1839- 1. SCm 

M \i.i:spin's Af'Ts — T.i\ii()"s Coti' i>'ErAi' .\m> l)Kr(is.\i. — ,Tkfk OezMAv — Hk- 
VDLT AT Santa Ana— 1'uisii>knt A(;rii,Aii— Tim; ISisiioi- K.\i'i:i.i.i-.i) — 
ViTEKi's Ai.i.iANcK WITH Mai.ksimn ami Homhuan ()Lii:Ai!(iiM~ri;i:si- 

DKNT VASt'ONCEI.OS — ISlllTISlI IIosTII.ITir.S— SaLVADOK's KkI.ATUINS Willi 
I'liKKKiN I'OWKKS — Sa.V MaKTIN's AhMINIS TUATION — DhsITUTIIoS (IF 

San Sai.vahiii! — I'hksiukni' Camto — C'AMi'AKiN acainsp ^VAI,Kl■.K in 

XlCAKAiMA — K.STAni.ISlIMKNT (IK THK Kf.IMHI.IC — SaNIIn's OvKKrilltllW 

— I'kksidf.ni'Y of( Jkuauho IJaijkios — AVak ofSai.vaduu anh JIonihiias 

-iCAINSr (ilATKMALA ANH Nll'AliA(irA — TuK LaTIKII \'l(TilUUir.s-- IjAK- 
KIOS Fl.niUT — Ri:SI()liAII(iN oFrKACE — DUENAS ASpUKStllKNT — l?Ai; llliis' 

SnisFtjiKNT Rkitkn— His ('ai'itkk anh 8ii;reni>kh iiy Xicauaiua — 
JIis KxiXTTioN IN .San iSalvahuk. 

TiiK constituent assoniblv of Salvador, instalU^d at 
Ziicateccluca on the 1st of Aui:^ust, 18;?'.), after a reci'ss 
icopcned its session on the 2cl of January, 1H41, and 
mi the 4th there was laid before it an address, sio-ned 
Itv Colonel Francisco ^lalespin, asconuindante i^-oneral, 
and his officers who took part in the revolt of Sep- 
tcinlKT 20th, s)K)ken (jf elsewliere. In tlie document 
tlicy disclaimed hostilitvto Jefe C'ahas or his ministei', 
ov any intent to override tlie laws, assorting tliat thiy 
were, on the contrary, actuated by a stronjj desire to 
L;i\ e security to the state, and save themselves from 
iiiijiending destruction/ This address was regarded 
hy tlie liberals as a threat, inasmuch as ]\[ales})in with 
the '-arrison had wronijfullv assumed a ri^fht to delib- 
(late upon public affairs. 

' Tlioy conclude offeriiif; to the assemlily the ' swords which iiidcd to tri- 
uiiiiili iu Guat. and Los Altus over the tyrant Morazaa.' 



m 



1 



V 1 i 



! 



2S.; 



UKl'UHLR' OF SALVADOR. 



f 






ii 



Xoilx'ito l^umirez, now jcfu (»f Salvador by tlu' 
<^i;u(; of Malcspii), could no lonmr hrook tliat officer's 
intcilbivMce, and rosiijned," Juan Lindo lH!in;Li^ called 
to succeed him on the 7tli of January. The asseniMy 
and cliief mai^'istrate of the stat<! were both now under 
tlie sword of Malespin, which in its turn was <'oii 
dolled bv (Wrera of (Guatemala, That l)odv, on the 
oOth of January, 1841, passed an act to call the stale 
in futun; |{e|tubllca del Salvador."' The second con 
stitution of Salvador was adopted on tiie i8th of Feh- 
ruary.^ Under it the- k\i;'islature had two chandters. 
iiindo, tie jefe, luul a most un[)leasant [)ositioii, he- 
llevint^ hi nself surrounded by cons])iratoi's. Counting,' 
on .Malospin's supjtort, on the Gtli of Xovendier, ISU, 
N\it]i a cou[) d'etat he <lissolved the chandjers, l)ecause 
anionL>' its nn nibers were some friends of !Moray.aii.' 
His act caused much indi,i;iiation in several towns, 
and on the |:}th of January, 1842, three senatois, 
namely, .1. \". Xuila, JjU[»ario \'ides, and Antonio 
.lose ('anas, at San V^iccnte, n-solved to I'estore con- 
stitutional order. The legislative i)ody in eonse(j[nence 
assend)led there, and made a stirrint^* address to tin; 
])eople, embodyinjj;' the })olicy they intended to j^ursne." 
Ijindo tried to justifv his act of Xovendier (Jth, luit 
failed, and Senator Escolastico Marin was called to 
tem[)orarily occu[ty the executive chair,' with autlior- 

-Canas, coiisidoriiii,' himself tlio only l.nvf\il exct'iitivo, though set asiilc hy 
till! military on Sojit. '_'((tii, also iiiado liis ii'sij;nation. 

^Tht' ilotTi'f gi'iatly disiilcasuil the jicoplu, and had no effect. Hut it n'- 
vcaled the plot of the aristocrats of (luat. They apjiointed commissioiurs U> 
the tliet of (.'cut. Am., who were to pretend that tiiey favored a ri liirnnil 
union; lint their real aim was an al)sciliite se[)aration. Mnntri', il/'em., M. 

*Its supiiort was sworn to on the 1 1th of April. 

■' In a proelamatiiiu he stated tiiat the I'Xfpelled senators €aud deputies wcrft 
working to restore the oi-iler of affairs exi-<ting at tliu time of Morazaii's de- 
)iarture. His suspicions were jiartially contirnied on Morazan ai>[iearin^ at 
La Union about the middle of Fei). ISt'J. Mmili'ifiir, J'l'siiin J/isl., iv. Ii;{ 4; 
Mitruri\ Kj'ini., 54 .">; Axf'liiiruiii/ii, ('rut. A,ii., 74 "). 

""Tiiey promised to conline tlieir action to only such objects as were of 
absolute necessity, namely, t(» rid tlie government of surrouniling oI)stailis, 
make amendments or additions to tiie constitution, and pass s\icii laws as 
would conduce to its develoimient. After doing this they purposed to < Idsu 
tlieir ordinary session, and await tlie election of the constitutional chief of the 
state. ]t would then be the proper time to deliberate upon calling a constit- 
uent asseudily to review the constitution. 

'Cauas liatl beta chosen on the 1st of Feb., but afterward resigned it. 



Its oi.iigat 
''ft the oti 
eiiiigo eoni 
''Kven 
"liner to 
<^i>.sta Kioii 

'Vt. |,S, 18 
"Kvcn 






ARCK, MAiaX, (iUZMAX. 



'J87 



it v to c'staMlsh the state cajiital wliero mowt ON|)((liont/ 
Tlif oovii'miu'iit coiitinut'd for tin* time IttiiiiX '•> »^ii" 
\'i((nte, and tlic pco])!^ wore oallotl upon to i-lioose a 
|iivsi(l('iit of tlio state. 

Marin luld tlio executive autlioritv a few <lavs onlv. 

t/ (ft 

llr liacl lu'eii i^veetled by Pedro Arce, and was suc- 
rccdi'd liyJuau Jose CJu/uian. Tlio dittleulties of the 
stute lia<l not eoiiu^ to an end. (Juznian iiivoicd the 
conservative elenjent, as sliown in liis dt'cree of Jnne 
:!. IS42, issuid after hearin<if tliat !Morazan was in 
( "osta liiea, to cut oti' all rehitions with tliat state.'' 
Ill' left the executive ottiee in .Julv, and resumed its 
duties ajjjain in Sejitendxr, deelariiiL;' in a ])i'oelaniation 
that lu^ wouhl (.leal nieivilesslv with disturbers of the 

t/ 

liublio peace. 

The two li'ii^islati\'e chambers were installed at San 
\'icenti; on the 17th of September, and on the 'JOth 
counted the votes for }»resi(Ient of the state. Xo can- 
didate liavinin' the retjuisite majority, (luzman was 
asked to continu(> i)rov';. ionallv in <'hari>t! of the 
"fivernment. His inauiiuial addri'ss was a repetition 
of his manifesto of the 7th, ureatlv i»leasinn' the con- 
scrxatives.'" })ut liarmony was not lon<^ to jtrevail 
httween Salvador and (jiuatemala. The trouble arose 
fiom the independent action of Salvador in grantinsf 
an asylum to the i-enmants of ^NFoi'azan's forces against 
the protests of (Guatemala and Honduras, even thouij^h 
tilt! final decree of admission contained some very 
.scvei'c clauses." Another cause of dissatisfaction 



l^'' 
?•;*! 



Kis licalth was poor, and lie died at the liacionda di 1 .low on tlio '24111 of Fel)., 
l>iJ4. The a.ssemlily lionond liis Jiieiiiory in a special decree. Sulr., Dinrlit 
'iji'\. Kel). 14, 1S7."); Montiifiir, Jlcurfm llUt., iv. ."rtl'.t. 

' It was this govt that rejected Morazan's iiroposals when ho apiicarcil at 
L:i Union. While appreciating his patriotic pnrposi's, it could not disi-egard 
Its oliligations toward the other states, llcnce, together witii Malespin, it 
set the other govts in motion against Mora/.an, whom Malespin called 'cl eii- 
eiiiigo coinini. 

" Kveu private correspondence was forbidden. Postmasters had onlers to 
Ml h\er to governors of departments all letters received at their ollices from 
' iisti Kica. 

'"Mis ideas were commended as 'just.as, sanas, salvadoras.' (hi(U. Oar., 
Ort. IS, IM2 

" Kvcn Malespin had favored the act of the govt; for though uncidtured, 



' \'. 



288 



UHI'UBLIC OF SALVAKOU. 



tiLifuin.st Salvador was that Ciuzman would nnt 11111//I1 
the ]»rt'SH. Tlio iiid('|u'iideii((' ot' (»u/maii, and tin- 
disposition hIiowii by ^Malospiii not to be at all tinns ,1 
facile instrunu'iit of tlio aristocrats, ])ronij»trd tlio lat- 
ter to pronxtte an insui'rection of the volcanehos ot" 
Santa Ana lor their overthrow.'- Salvador, thoUL,^!) 
under the pressure of aristociatie control, still had a 
leaven of pi'ojii^ression that made itself felt. TIk^ puli- 
lication of AY A^ii'kjo dd l*iu:hU> was an eviilence of this 
fact. 'I'he Aycinenas, J*avon, ]iuis Hatres, and ("hat- 
field, unable to ccunpete with it in the field of discus- 
sion, demanded its supjiression.'" 

(luzman in his cori'es[K)ndence with l*avon upln IJ 
that joui'nal, and ^[alespin would lead it with satis- 
faction." (iuatemala resolved at least to use coercioii. 
('airt'ra established his head(juarters at Jutiapa t > 
favor the volcanehos in their icbellion,'' 

The cordial reception ui'iven in October to Colour! 
^r, (.^uijans, connnissioner accredited by Xicaraujua to 
Salvador to negotiate a treaty of friendship and alli 



lie was a Sulvjuloraii; ami luiw that Morazaii was duail, lie began to \\>U\\ to 
the ailvi<'(^ (if liis iiion? <'iili;,'litfiifil fiUow-t'iti/i'iis, ami to iimli't'staii'l tin' 
Machiavclisiii of AyciiU'iia, I'avoii, ami thfir ally Cliatlii M. 

'-.I. .1. Ayciiieiia ri'iteatt'tlly sai<l that the revolt could not he (jiielhd. ami 
it were Id'tter to aci'C'ilo to the MiNhi'H of tln' voleaiu uos. TImh will e.\]ilaiii the 
ohject of a (hie. dated Oet. IH, KS4;?, ami pidilished at ( 'oiiiayagua at tlie gii\ t 
jtiiiitiug-otrue under the .signature of ManiU'l .lose Aire. The ex-[iresident iiuil 
taken ailvaiitagi! of an amnesty deeree to return to ( 'entral Ameriea. He wa.s 
liow Very old, hilt still ambitious of jiower. Jii tiiat iiianife.sto, addre.ssed ti> 
th(! states of Cent. Am., he endeavors to demonstrate the necessity of tlicir 
auain uniting under one govt, llespokeof (iu/.maii a'ld Male.sjiiu trying to 
liold })ower for life; of intrig es to make the latter president, even if some el 
his ojiiioneiits had to be sin ; of abuses ho had been subjected to; the war 
tliose men were jilaniiiiig, v 'i the aid of Nic., against (iiiat. and Homl., <iii 
the false charge that Carre intended to anne.\' Salv. to(iiiat. He aeciiscil 
M.des]iiii of atrocities, ami y uraises Carrera, who jilaeed Mah'spiii in Salv. 
'i'he fnll tiixt of the iiiauif. is Minifiijnr, Ji'iKcrni Hid., iv. 'i'J'-'rt. 

'•'The iiiiii. of state, Agusi Morales, reminded him that freedom oi llie 
press was a iialladium of lilien in England, adding his surprise that her emi- 
sul should want such a precioi boon to dLsaiipear from Salvador. Chadiehl 
threatened to refer the .sul)jo' to his govt, and was told to do so, not failiriL,' 
to ace(uni)anj' the answers he nad received. 

'* The circulation of El A inhjo del I'lnhlo in Gnat, was forbidden; but many 
numbers got out, ami were read by artisans, students, otlicial.s. CJiitliuM 
often found it on his desk without knowing how it came there. 

'■' Several Salvadorans were murdered, and it was proved that the nun- 
derors had come from Jutiapa. The govt of (luat. pretended to have hal im 
agency in these acts. 



ill" oT(. 



'"Ill lat,. 
''1:1 A, 



--H' 



KKVOIATIOX. 



l.'»9 



jiiicf. was (lispU'UsiiiiLj to liislioj) Viti'ri, uho took a«l- 
s.iiitat^c of (luzinan's al)s«'iic(' at 8aii Vi<'i'iiti', in tlio 
lattt r |)art of tliat nioiitli, to IhIiiil;; al)out a <|uari('l 
1m twci'ii liiiii and ^ral«'s|iiii. Tlw. lattrr at this t'luw 
was said to l>e in i)uor lu-altli, and tin,; liisliop ot'tiMi 
visited liini, and in otlur ways manifcsti'd interest lor 
liiiii. A'iteri had directed liis clernjv to al)stain from 
iiitcitereneo in political afl'airs, and yet ho j)reached 
auainst Afora/an and those who had hanishetl Ar<-h- 
hi-li(»|) ( 'asans. This J)oniinican \ azijuez'" was viru- 
lent, declaring" tliat the ccc-lesiastieal authority Mould 
iiiver he under tlu; civil, and thnwiteninj;" the; }»eo|ile 
that the ])riests Would ahandon tlieni to sulKer iVoni 
jij.i'^ues, epidemics, war, and famine, it" tliey continued 
their iiii(iuitous hostility to the church.'' 

The revolution was now a fact. \ iteri and ^lale- 
s[>In sup[)orted Fray A'a/.(piez, or Fray \ (.-neno, as he 
was nicknamed. ( )nce \'a/(iue/. fuhninate<| from the 
]>iil[»it a numher of diatriltes against J'resident (lU/- 
iiian, at the same time bestowin^• uiucli praise on 
( arrera. The result was an ordiT from (Juzman, then 
at Sail Mij^uel, to l)rinL'' the friar there as a |)risoncr. 
The hishop remonstrated to ]\[ales[>in against the 
lin*;" an escort, as he wished to end the 



nidi'i', (lemanc 



iii>ults to the church hy himself leaving- the state. 
Male-^])in tried to dissuade him from his purpose, and 

A <jfreat tunudt ensued 



'•rew more eneruetic 



IS 



one night in the city, when Vitcri, ^Malespin, and 
Vaz(jue'-^ received an ovation from the rahlJe of 
l.a V 



ejjra and San Jacinto, amid repeated cries of 



ueran los lu 



k 



iin[)ios 



t' 



J' 



idiosl 



niuoran 



los li 



lerejes! mueran Jos 



if 

r 






1 



'W 



''' III later years he was hishop of Panama, hut mucli toned down. 

^' El Amiijo del PuvJilo invited him ti> discuss jiulilie questions, but not 
fiiiiii tlic pulpit, where he could not be answered. V'azfpiez did not heed it,' 
and Went on with his wrathful sermons. 

'" In his letter of Dec. 5tli, lie uses these words: 'Jorge dc Viteri no ser.-i 
oliis]io de farsa, ni permanecera jamas en unsuelo, en (pie lapotestad hiiniana 
iMiuto las ampltas lacultades que le conceden, y de que le liacen resi)onsalile 
liiH siigrados canones.' Tlie correspondence, aud hia secretary's address to 
tlio people, are given in Id., 351-4, 373. 
Hist. Cent. Am., Vol. III. 19 



h 



Ui\\:i 




290 



REPUBLIC OF SALVADUil. 



Malespin went oif to Ssln Miguel, and liad some 
violent correspondence with the president; the latt( r 
threatened to expose his intrigues if he did not foitli- 
with depart from San ^Vliguel, and then retired to ]m 
hacienda, leaving the state in tlie hands of Malespin." 
Guzman's downfall was hailed with joy in Guatemala 
and Honduras. In Coinayagua it was celebrated witli 
salvos of artillery. After Malespin's return to San 
Salvador, to please the bishop several persons were 
banished, and the Amlgo del Pueblo was suppressLd. 
Tlie executive office, by Guzman's abandonment of it, 
went into the hands of Pedro Arce, the vice-president. 
The two chambers of the assembly opened their ses- 
sion on the 30th of January, 1844. Xo presidential 
candidate having a constitutional majority, the assem- 
bly chose Malespin president, and he assumed his new- 
duties on the otli of February, after reading before 
the two bodies in assembly convened a uloeourso on 
his great love fi)r law, justice, and peace. It would 
have sounded well from the lips of a liberal, and it i^' 
barely possible that ^Malespin expressed his sentiments 
at that moment. But his education, his habits, jhhI 
the fatal influence of the men that swayed him, con- 
stantly took him out of the right path. As he was 
UTider the control of Bishop Viteri, the country niu>t 
go back to the days of obscurantism. The etfects of 
it were soon niade patent."" 

The bishop succeeded in driving out of the state tlie 
opponents of his theocratic ideas, and in bringing alioiit 
a change in the government; in fact, everything liad 
been conceded him, and his influence was paramounl. 
And yet he was not satisfied He would have tlir 
Salvatlorans believe liim a deity, but they arriveil at 

'"TIk! prosiiU'iit l)l:iiiu'il liiiii for leaving tliu cuiital at a time of distiirli- 
■ince. llu, oil his jiart. ilcmainkMl tlio govorumciit "a return to S. S;ilv. t" 
attoiul to tliu lii.slioj)'.s coiiiiilaiiits. Ho accusoil the prusitluut, in a luanilistn, 
of attomiiting to disti.rli tlio piililie puaco. 

'•"'Tliu ecclesiastical fueros were restored; the govt was authnrizcd to allow 
monasteries established, and the bishop to deinand tlic aid of tlie secular .inii 
to enforce his orders in ecclesiastical affairs. This last act was, howivir, 
issued, as it appears, with much reluctance, judging from the nuiiil" r of 
restrictive clauses iii it. 




f.\\. 



A VILLANOUS PRELATE. 



291 



the conclusion that by a great fatality their first 
bishop had turned out to be a pernicious revolutionist. 
In connection with the general history of Central 
Anierica, I have given the principal events of Sf.lva- 
(ior down to 1845, when, under the treaty of Sensenti, 
iifter a long and exhaustive war with Honduras, tlie 
state was rid of the ominous rule of the brutal ^Ma- 
Itspin. With the discontinuance of the war there was 
no need of raising further loans; the military estab- 
lisluncnt was reduced to a minimum, and the authori- 
ties and people hastened to restore the constitutional 
regime; to which end elections of senators and de})U- 
tics were at once liad, in order that the assembly 
.should meet on the loth of January, 184G, for tlie 
term of Vice-president Joaquin Eustacio (Juzman, who 
li;id charge of the executive authority, would expire 
oil the 1st of February.-^ On this date he surrendered 
tlie office to Senator Fermin Palacios. The assembly 
did not meet till four days after. The iiresidential 
election did not yield a sufficient majority in favor of 
any one, and the assembly then ap})ointed Eugenio 
Aguilar." The president was a good Christian, and 
attended with regularity to his religious duties as a 
catholic; and yet Yiteri called him a heretic; the 
reason of it being that Aguilar was a stickler for a 
constitutional government of the people, and the 
hishop was an oligarch. The latter now invented the 
fietioii that the president had the intention of exiling 
liiiii; he had the })e()ple in the Wiirds of C^andelaiia. 
San J'^stevan, and Calvario told that their bisliop was 
to he sent out of the country in tlic niu'ht of the 11th 
of 'luly. He was l)eli(!Ved by the sim[»le-iiiinded jieojile 
when he assured tlieni that Aguilar and others'""' were 

-Mluzinan hail waged war against Malosiiin, not for his own aggraiiili/c- 
mi'iit, hut to do away with arliitrary ndc, and to iistoro tin' authority of tlic 
iiiMstitutiou. This l)L'iiig accouiplished, ho rosolvi'd to ri'tiirn to privatu lil'u. 

■•'-A |ihy.sioian by 2)rofe;i.sion, and a modest, lionorahlo citizen, actuated 
hy till; piirest niotiven; an excellent family ma" and friend; hut iiidortunately, 
as cvints .sliowe<l, he waa weak wiien tirnniesa ami resolution were deinandi'il 
to upiiold Ida position. Aguilar. in hia later yeai-a, after losing his wife, was 
•irdiiiied as a priest. 

-' lMista(|uio Cnellar, J. M. Ran Martin, J. M. Zelnya, the dergynian, 
I.iiliu .Nijueudez, and Indalceio C'orde.o. 






■'& 



. I 






'J'.)'J 



UEPUIilJC OF SALVADOR. 



at tlic bottom of it. His report made a commotion 
though not quite so great a one as ha liad expected. 
Nevertheless, he made tlio most of it, writing to the 
president, on tlic 11th of July, that he knew t)f tlit- 
plot to repeat with him what had been done wiiii 
Ar(']d)ishop ( 'asans, in 1829."^ Aguilar was greatly 
surprised, and believing that with a few words lie 
could convince the bishop of his error, that same aftri-- 
noou paid the prelate a visit. He found a large 
concourse of people, before whom the charge was 
i'(i iterated, and no assurance to the contrary was ac- 
ceptrd. A tunmlt following, the president had the chief 
guard-house reenfor«'ed. Fortunately, a heavy rain 
scattered to their homes the crowds in the streets; but 
a considerable number of men ran into the e])isco[ial 
residence. That night, several persons representing 
Vitcri went to the barracks and demanded Aguilars 
resignation. The president meekly assured them (•!' 
his willingness to retire to private life ratlu;r than lie 
the author of any disturbance. Viteri now thouglit 
Aguilar was vanquished, but he had not counted on 
the determination of other Salvadorans t(> uphold tlie 
laws and the government. Quiet was restored I'or 
the time, and Aguilar went to his home at midniglit 
unmolested. The next day there was nuich ri<itiiig, 
and an attem[)t failed to relea.se the prisoners in 
the jail."' The rioters were finally defeated, and the 
bishoj) had nothing to show for his conduct but tlie 
blood shed at his instigation.'" ..Vguilar again, after 
the people had upheld his authority, showed the weak- 
ness of his character in placing the executive office in 

*' He liintcd that lie liad power to annex the state to the archdioccsr of 
(inat. The text f)f his letter in in MonliiJ'ar, lifx na JJixf.., v. M-ii. 

'^■' The oflicer Anjelino, sent to reenforce the guanl of the jail, was \v;iy- 
laid, and nearly iinirdcnMl, and in that eondition taken to the I(i.shoi)'.s lidu-^r, 
where the liishop almsed him l)y word of month, and tunieil him over to tlif 
ralihlr, hy whom he was .staljlied, heaten, and kieked. He was, ho\Mvrr, 
resened hy the priest iM. Serrano, and taken haek into the bishop's iicn:se. 
These facts were testiticil to hy Anjelino, iii the criminal prosceutiim of 
Viteri. 

^"A^ic, liegistro Ojic, 330; Dunlop'a Cent. Am., 249-CO; Iria Esp., Oct, 3, 
1840. 



tir 
A^i 

tre 
pri 

])as 

NaJ 

prc.'^ 

and 

code 

ister. 

l»isJi( 

Jnala, 

deero 

not t( 

Vv, 

n/id t 

Ilsiial 

l''s])in 
tlie trj 
•^•'dwid 
vador, 
after ]| 
-^/al,^s| 
'k' nasi 
'''■iigioji 
fiad Ik J 

,i^"\erni| 
like tJie. 
Was o'oiji 
Hi(h"jii 



"'"id. A7,. 
'^'■'1 tliat \'i1 



••'"' l"'oiiii,s(.| 
^'■•<". ThevJ 
■""' "iiarit,;! 

'"/■/.. v., s7,r 

Hi.s.lc,,., 



A WKAK KXKCUXnE. 



l."J3 



the hands of Senator Palacios; which cnilioklenea 
Vitcri to continue his intrigues and cause f'urtlier 
trouble. He issued a pastoral on the lOth of July, 
printed in his own house, which reiterated the accusa- 
tion against tlie pri'sidcnt, and otiier n)atters; that 
p.istoral"' was i'atal to his views, for the }>L'f)ple of 
Salvador made Aguilar resume the jiresidency. The 
president, in a long manifi'sto, explained his conchict, 
and issued a decree to enforce the articles of the penal 
code against ecclesiastics who made use of their min- 
isterial office to promcjte political disturbances."** The 
liisliop, condenmed by public <»pinion, fled to Cuate- 
niala, and the president then on the 29th revoked a 
tlccree of Pulacios of July 12t]i, and ordered A'iteri 
not to return to Salvadoran territorv. 

Peace and order ])re vailed after Viteri's departure, 
and the people again devoted themselves to tlieir 
usual vocations. J^ut the bis]io[) managed with ^Ma- 
losjiin and tlie lEonduran oligarchs, notwithstanding 
the treaty of Sensenti, to luring about a revolutio)i in 
Salvador."'' !Malespin attacked Chalatenango, in Sid- 
vador, wliereupon onlers were given to send tr<)o[)s 
after hini.^" N^iteri who iiad once exconnnunicated 
Malespin, and aided in liis overtlirow, n(»w said tliat 
he was destined by di\ine pro\idenc(3 to defend lh(> 
nligion and riglits of the peoph; of Salvatlor, wlilch 
li;i(l Iteen infamously abused and usurped liy tlhir 
government, ^falespin jireached reUgion, and acted 
like the i'ainous king of the JIuns. lint his prestige 
\v;is gone, and at ])ulce Xond)i'e de la I 'alma lie met 
with his first re\ei'se, wlieii he retreated to J)ulce 

•'' Tt is j^lvL'ii ill full ill M(iiitii/i'i\ Ii'i.iii'iii H'kI., v. 70-4. 

"■J'lu! dciTco w;is .l;itr<l .hily T,, I.SUi, iiii.l ivlVriv.l to articles 'JlO-l.'?, 
liiil I). 

' riio Salvaildriiu j^iivt i)iil)lislic(l a tlccn'u nL'aiii. t siilitious juTsdiis from 
lliHiil. \i,\^ Jtcjlxiro ()jii\, 'Sl'l-'^ Tlui autlioi'itics <if Jloiiil. suliiiiiily jnciii- 
i-ril that \'it( ri .sIkhiM imt Im all(i\vi'<l ti> ii'sjiU' near tlu' Salv. fidiitii r; Imt 
tin' prdiiiisi! wi'iit for nothing; N'itcri and .Malcs|iiii licini; aidrd ti-oin that 
•■td''. 'i'huy found inatiTial assistamu iu Nacioiiu', 'ICgui'igalpa, Sin-niti, 
Mild liiiai'ita. (Juardifila's iioto of Aug. 'M, l>S4(i, to tiuMuiu.-gen, of S.ilv., 
Ill A/., V. .ST, '_>.")4-7. 

ili.s ilccroo of Fcl>. 'Jl{, and ]iast()ral of .liiiu' 10, 1,S4.'». 









'A\% 









m 


'l*; "' 


fi'ti 


o -J 


!^;1' 


' y 


gj 


1 


1 




294 



REPUBLIC OF SALVADOR. 



Xombro do Maria, a town twelve inilcs from the Hoii- 
duraii frontier, and invited Vitcri to join him; hut 
tliat wortliy sent him Jiis l)lcssing, and would not e\- 
])ose his person to the hazards of war. ^NTalesphi wu.s 
defeated again by eight liundred men under General 
Nicolas Aniiulo, and fled into Honduras, leavin}; arms 
and ammunition. Etibrts were matlc to induce the 
l)eople of Santa Ana to join Ignacio AEalespin; hut 
the bishop's letters to rouse them availcvl l)ut littlr. 
Jle found no favor among the volcanenos, and on his 
way along the coast to n-acli Santiago Xonualco was 
captured, prosecuted, and executed, with some of his 
accomplices."' Francisco ^[alespin was killed at San 
Fernando, near Honduras, the iiduibitants cutting off 
his head, and carrviny; it asatrophv to San Salvaibn-.^- 
l^isliop Viteri in 1847 went to reside in Nicaragua, 
becoming a citizen of the state, to which diocese he 
was subsoijucntly translated by the ])ope. Nothing 
wortliy of mention occurred within the state in 1H47. 
The Salvador government now rcju'esented the liberal 
party in Central America, and devoted its attention 
tt) education, arts, and industries. 

Tlio pr(!sidential term under tlic constitution ])eitig 
only of two years, elections w<'re orderly elfectcd. and 
the assend)ly opened its session on the "ioth of January, 
1S4S. ])orotco Vasconcelos was the popular choice 
for the presidential term of 1H48, and enti'red uj)i>u 
his duties on the 7tli of February, 1848.'" In a con- 
ciliatory address he es(;hewed all spirit <jf partisansliii), 
tiMulering t(j all his I'ellow-citizens peace, justice, and 



h-*!- 






m\.v 



^' His i.'xiiciitiou left a l)!i(l iiiiiii'ussion in tiic imMic iniml. Ijjiiwii'in \hAr- 
spill had liL'L'ii a tri(!ii<l of Mura/aii, stTvoil witli liiiii in 1S4(), and wa.s niic of 
til.' liL'i'cK'H of tlic I'aiitiii'u of (Juatc'Uia'.a as well as of tlii! Hi\l)S('(nnnt csciih.'. 
Jlc was gcntli', kinil, ami soi'ialilc, ami liiit for VittM'i.s inlluonco ncviT wmild 
liavc joini'd tlu' nvolution. Hi; otiglit to liavi; been sjiarcd. Tliu wonicn of 
San Salvador, liotli oiii and young, idoadid for a comniutatifin of his siiitriia', 
))ut tiic j^ovt was rt'U'iitloss. 

'-'riic iicad was for some time exposed in an iron eage, to the dis^'ust of 
tlie eoninninity. It was finally delivered to the family for interment. 

■"lie olitainod l.'t,l.*2'_' votes out of a t<ptal of 1!»,L'1.">. Iking noveruor ef 
San Vieente, whe're he was exeeedinf:ly iiopular, he could not, under the con- 
Htitution, he a candidate in tiiat <leiiartnieiit. 



'■■veil 
""'ii Ji ,.„.jj, 

"if'"t and i, 
"^ I'l-'arded 
''"'• to Miin 
, "e fav( 
."''•|"'«e,. ,,,• 

'"" lile .,.,i. 
"I'i"'^e,l him. 



% 



PUESI 1 )ENT V ASCONl ELOS. 



295 



uiiKin.^^ For all that, the olij^archs abhorred hiiu. 
Indeed, his govcrmiieiit and Carrera's could not exist 
so near each other. The aristocrats well knew lie was 
not to be won over to their side, as well as the ditii- 
tulties they must workaijfainst to undermine his popu- 
liii'ity But they looked for early success from 
internal dissension and other sources.'*' Aixuilar's ad- 
ministration had riifused to recognize the republic of 
(Juateniala, and Aasconcolos' could do no less.""*^ 

The territory was twice invatled by troo])s of Guate- 
mala in pursuit of insurgents, against which Vascon- 
ct'los remonstrated, and satisfaction was given and 
accepted with good grace. He was observing a policy 
of expectancy, albeit on his guard, (jiuatenmla was 
then in the throes of revolution from which he ex- 
pected to sec the Central American nation s})ring into 
a second life; but he was mistaken in the means he 
employed. A few proclamations, written in Guate- 
mala by well-known persons, and a])pearing in the 
iianu! of Francisco Carrillo, spoke of the independence 
of ]jos Altos as the aim of a rev(jlution such as Vas- 
CDHcclos wanted.'*' Not that he expected to see an 
ahsohite e(]uality of the state, l)ut tluit there should 
iiotl)e .such differences as existed under the constitu- 
tion of IH24. He believed himself supported, an<l 
steadily marched on ui)on a path that led to his ruin, 

'■' \'a.sc»iiicelos liciil liuoii a friiunl of .Mor.iziiii, aiiil itroiriiui'iit in (luat. at 
tlu' tiiiii' till' lil)L'i'al party was iliviikul into ministerialists ami (rj)jMisiti()iiist.s. 

^'('liatlicld s [iri'ssuri! against noml. ami Xic. insjiircd tiirni witii lidpus. 
\"asi(in('i'lcis wasa {lartisan ul < 'I'ntral American nniticalinn for various n^asons, 
nut tin; luast of wiiicli was tiiat of cluMkim; tln^ ]in']iost('rons claims of the 
Hi-it. iiL;ciit. 'I'liis explains the oriniu <if futur(M]ue-^tions lielween ( liatlieM 
anil I'avon f>n one side, ami \'a>>concel(is on the othir. In I.SJ'.I, tiie lattir 
WIS made to appear liefore the oilier states as an innate foe of (Inat., whose, 
ilihiisenient and ih'strnction he strove for. 'liie govt of Salv. gave e\]daiia- 
tiniis on its couiso denying tiu! charges. Miiii/iij'nr, UnMi'm lli^t., v. S(M M. 

"'liven l.indo of llond., a militant in the reactionaiy raidvs of (inat., 
tliiiiiL;li aeUnowledginii the rcpnidie, did so with the proviso that lloml, left 
iiitartaml in forci; ( iuatemala's engagements and duties toward other states 
as 1 1 garde, 1 the reestalilishment of agon. govt, (iuardiola's note of Aug. 10, 
IM7, to min. of relations of (inat., in A/., -'iO. 

He' favored the restoration of thi^ state of Los Altos, in order to divide 
til ■ puwer of (inat., and counted on the coo|ieratiou or < luatenialaii lilierals; 
liiit I lie .,pirit of provincialism was strong with them, and a hirge portion 
(ipiM.icd him. 







i-t'l 


:|i 




1 ■• 





•la 



iVi 



KKPUBLIC OF .S.\LVADOP 



carry in<^ clown with liiin the wl ole hbcral party of 
Central America. 

Vaseoncclos kihorcd for a federation of three states 
--Guatemala, Salvador, and Los Altos — which once 
consolidated, Nicaraf^ua and lionduras would douht- 
lessly join, and later on attract ('osta llica to do the 
same. This idea had no opj)osition before the revo- 
lution of August 1848, in (iuateniala. Vasconcelos 
received many oflers of support to pi'osecute his plan. 
He accordinijfly instructed Duehasand General Anu^ulo 
to enter into .arrangements with General Xufio of 
Chiquiniula, and matle every possible effort to foico 
Carrera's resignation on the loth of August, 184.s; 
but some of the liberals of Guatemala, after ridding;- 
themselves of Carrera, neglected Vasconcelos. ])u- 
ehas was sent there with ample [)owers for the oi,^ani- 
zation of a republic of Central America, but he was 
slitihted, and accomi)lished nothin<»-. Durinti^ his stav 
in Guatemala, a di.'cree was enacted on the 14th of 
September, 1848, according to which that statt; w;is 
declared a sovereign nation and independent re[)ul)- 
lic.''^ Vasconcelos, with mU his liberalism, and placed 
as he was at the head of a libertv-lovinijf ''emocratic 
people, was still under the influence of the old colonial 
traditions. He as well as his peo[)le looked with 
admii'ation at the greatness of the United States of 
America, but lacked the courage to emulate tlirir 
example. Tln^ Tnited States had no official clinnli, 
l)ut Salvador recognized one. ]^icenciado Jgiiaiin 
(U)\ncz was des|)atched to Home to negotiate tln' ii - 
call of Bishop Viteri, the appointment of another ]»iv- 
late, and the conclusion of a concordat."" Mis mission 
was so far successful that on the ."^d of July, 1S4S, 
Tomas ^Miguel I'ineda y Zaldaha was preconizated as 
bisho]) of Antigona in partibus infidt>lium, and gi\cii 
the administration of the diocese of Salvador, A\itli 

•"■It w.w. hittt.'i'ly ciiisurccl liy till' U'.iiliiiL; lilicralM (if Salv., Nic, iiml ilmnl., 
ami nut a tow ot tlmsc (it (riiat., sudi as I'liicila Mdiit ami Jiivora C'ali( ras. 

■'"(ioine/. was a Salvaihiraii. cilin.'atuil abitiad, ami \V(.'ll vorsi;il in pnliticil 
ucononiy and lituratun;. 



I I 



BRITLSII INTKRM KUl )LIN( i. 



'-W 



tilt' right of succession. Tlic news of this nppoiiit- 
iiuiit was received witli joy, and Vascoucelos erroiie- 
(.u>ly expected to have a sui)port in the new ])relate,'*'^ 
when there was more hkehliood of liis coiiicichiii; with 
ravdii and ] lis confreres. Indeed, Zaldana, from liis 
unater wariness, was a more datigerous man tlian 
A'iteri. 

Tlie le»(ishitive cliamhers met on tlie 5tli of Fehru- 
aiy, 1841). Tlie president's term would end with the 
hc^iiinin_i«' of 1850, and there could he no reelecti(^n 
under the constitution.'" l^ut Vasconcelos' friends in- 
sistt'd on his heini^ reelected, iHM'essitatiiiLC an amciid- 
iiiiiit of the fundamental law, and in s[)ite (jf opposition 
(ilttained an act of the assemhly permitting,' the reelec- 
tion/' This was an unfortunate move, as it divided 
the liheral ])arty, and encouraged ])uenas, who wanted 
the ))residency, and was not scrujiulous as to the means 
efattainini^ it, to redouhle his maiiucevres, even though 
lie must call to his aid Carrera and l^uis Batres. 



In 184i), Salvador became involved in a quarrel 
with the ]h-itish charge d'affaires, Chatfield, resr.ltiiiij^ 
tVoiii allei»'ed claims j)referred hv him Nvith his usual 
li;ui!4htiness, on hehalf of fellow-suhjects ot" his, \'as- 
(■i)iic(.los' u'ovcrnmeiit looked on these claims as uii- 
jii>t, and I'cfusi'd them recoiL(nition. ( 'hatfield then 
caused the l»lockadin<2f hy a naval force of La Union, 
the port from which Salvador derived thi^ :L(r(!ater 

" ll(.' onniinittc'il ;iii error in suiniosiiiLj that Zaldana wouM ciriMiiort; fur 
liiiri and Ills party than fur Arthhislmii ( larcia I'llao/, wIid was iiithiuiiciMl l)y 
e,ninri J^arraziihal, tlit; iiniuthiiii'cc of ( iuati'iiialaii aristocracy. 

'' 'I'lii; foUowiii!.: is a lirici syiiojisis ot tht; coiistitiitioii: No ccch'siastic or 
Miihtary man in active service couhl lioM any civil oiiict'. ( 'oii^i'ess consisted 
nl tlie house of rejiresentatives, eliosen annually, and tin; senate, elected one 
liih every second year; it met on the 1st of .Ian. of each yi'ar, and its sessions 
"ire limited to 40 days. The president nnist not lie innler ."i'J years of a^'e 
li'ir over (ill; must have heeu a resilient of the stale for tlie tive years |iieceil- 
iiu the election, and own pro[ierty within tin" state wortli at least .sS, ();»(). 
He had to receive an absolute majority of votes; otiierw ise congress should 
clidiKe om; of the two camlidates lia\iui,' tiie largest inmdier of votes, 'I'irm 
ei nllice two years, without the jirivilege of two terms in siiceessiou. 

'Felix (,>uir(i/. was chosi^n his .substitute. Sir., Cur. />V., Feb. id, March 
7, Is.')!); <'o-if'i /'.. iliiriiii (li,h., March "J, l.S.*)(». Art. 41 of tlu' constitution, 
li'nliibiting reelection.s, was revived by an act of Feli. LT), 1S.")1. L'ciit. Am. 
I' '<ii]'li., iv. no. "JO. 



298 



KKPUHLIC OF SALVAIXJU 



'' 



*r 






11^ 



J! 

1 IS : '■' 

.5 :;. 



|! 



-,;i 






portion of licr revenue." Unable to resist, her ij^ov- 
ernnient {i<^reetl on the 12th of November, 1849, to 
acknowledge the indebtedness, and make provision fur 
its payment. The blockade was tlien raised/^ ]^ut 
this di<l not end the disagreements between Chatfitld 
and tlic Salvador government. On the Gth of August 
he made peremptory demands,"*' cou^Jed with a menace 
that if not complied with at once tlic coasts of the state 
would be blockaded by British war sliips then coming 
to act vmder his instructions. The goverimicnt of Sid- 
vador did n )t comply with the demands,'"^ and on tin- 
Kith of O(_*^.ober ])ort La Union was blockaded liy 
the British ship Champion, whoso commander notified 
the authorities that if within ten days full satisfaction 
were not given for the insults to tlie British flag, tlic 
blockade would b(! extended to the whole coast, anotlicr 
vessel being di'spatched to Acajutla to enforce it. No 
satisfaction haviiiLif been s^iven as demandi'd, tliat 
menace was carried out. The difficulties remained 
unsettled in the latter part of February 1851, though 
tlie Ih-itish war vessels had retired.*^ But they wvw 
subse(juently arrangc<l in an amicable manner. A\itli 
the excej.tion of these troubles, and the repeated differ- 
ences with tlie other states of Central America, Salva- 

"Tlic iiiiiiister nf f<ircii,'ii afliiirs, in his annual report to tlio S.ilva'lur 
auMuniMy, .Ian. *J(>, IS.'iO, spuakinj^ of Chattiolir.s courso, .says: ' Dcsatoncioiics, 
violcnoias, hbxjueo.s; lie aijui la.s rclacioiius y coinluota (jm; lia olworvailo el 
Sr. odusul iii;,'k's.' Sulr., Mem. /i'<r., ]8.")0, f). 

^' 'I lit^ liritisli liail also seizuil, \\ itli Tigor Island Itclonginf,' to llonil., sfveial 
islus of Salvailor in the gulf of Fonseca. iinlr., ilarila.. May 17, liS,"i(»; Xii-., 
Cor. I4., Dec. I, 1>S41»; (Imil., (InnUi, Nov. »), KS41); ir. S. (lort J)or., :!lst 
Cong. 'Jd .sess., Sen. Doc., 'JO it'.). 

^■'Innnediate fullihnent of tile convention of Nov. I'J, lS4!t; and a foiiii.il 
contradiction in a note to him of all aecu.sations in ollicial oi^jans of the Sal- 
vailor gdvernnicnt against (Ireat Ih'itain and her otlieials. 

■"'It oH'cred to suhniit tlie (juestions at issue to the arhitration of the U. S. 
or any of tlieir agents, ortoacce]it some otiier device that iniglit promise an iiii- 
paitial decision. 'J'he note niaUiiig the oiler, dated Aug. ITtli, was sent to 
('liatlicld liy special courier, hut he refused to receive it hccause it had net 
heeii trausmittcii tlirongh the hands of liligoras, the lirit. consular agent at 
San Salvador. Mr., Cor. /■•</., Sept. .">, L'(!, Nov. 7, tl\, IS.'iO; ,S<ilr., (hn-iin, Aug. 
'_*:(, Sept. (», 1S,")(); (f'lia/., iutatu, Nov. IG, IS.'iO; Ci'iit. Am. I'aiiivh., vi. no. 7; 
El I'ritijisn, Sept. T), USoO. 

*'' Sulr., Mill). Jffliirioiii:% 18")!. The hlockadowas removed at the friendly 
mediation of the American and I'rnssiau consuls ami others. A'/V., <'ii' /■'■> 
March 20, 1851. 



MULi'll'LlEU HOISTILITIES. 



•21)9 



(lor has maintained friendly relations with foreign 
powers, most of which have treaties with her on terms 
satisfactory to all concerned/^ 

Yasconcelos was not more successful in prescrvino; 
|)(iu'e within the state than in forcing' (iuatemala to 
iihaiidon the policy she had adopted of maintainino' an 
al)S()hitc autonomy. In his invasion of that neinii- 
hor's territory early in 1851, as we have seen in tin; 
jfrevious cliapter, he was w^orstcd, which roused pop- 
ular indignation a;j,ainst him, followed hy a revolt, 
and his deposal hy congress/" On the 1st of March, 
llic suhstitute, J. F. Quiro/, was called to occupy the 
executive chair, and did so."" The president for the 
coiistitutiiMUxl term 18al2-;) was Francisc(> Duenas, 
who succeeded in settlino; the ditferences existinir 
l)('twecn Salvador and Guatemala, 

A serious disaixreemont havini>' occurred hetween 
Salvador and Honduras, leading to hostilities, the 
government of fluati'mala, then at war with Hon- 
duras, despatched a force to Ahuacha[)an in aid of 
j)uenas, who ap[)rehended an invasion."' Toward 
the end of this term Jose AFaria do San AFartin was 
cliosen for the next. The state now returned in peac(! 

^'^ Besides arrangcincnts witli si.stcr states, the repuhlie iiiaintaiiieil tr-eatiis 
nf fiieiKlsliip, coniiMi.'ree, ami iiavii;att()U with Helgiuiri, tlie U. S., Fraiicf, 
liiiat Britain, Spain, ( ieriiiaiiy, ami nearly all the nations of Anierica. A 
(iiiiiMirilat on eoelesia.stieal atiairs was eomlmlcil with the p()|pe in LSti'J. 
Siiiii<r'.i Cciif. Am., \\\\\; (.'en/. Am., Miinl. /><ir., 48; <'(m/(i A'., Jinlilhi On'''., 
March 7, 18.3."); L'l h'ol, Oct. L'7, Ks.")4; Feh. !>, IS.m; Mr., Cor. 1st., Mareh"-JI, 
IViil; /,/., Oiicrtu, Kel). 17, Ks.'/d; ,S<ilr., tlnritu, March S, Apr. V2, 1N">(»; Auj,'. 
■", 1-J, Nov. 2"), IS."),'?; III., J)iiirii> Ojir., Fel). 'J4, 187."); /'/., Cniiror'/n/o, 1-l(»; 
l.ihrrirrrilr PariiaCUiiil., ;fl!»-;{7; 'Aihk'/-^ lint. l.,yi.^., iSlid, ;i:U; .Mi.r., Mi„i. 
I'''l., 1878, 7, 11, 4.")-J4, 1 lit; r. ,S. flort J>.,r., 4;!.l coi,.^. 1st sess., 11. Kx. Doc. 
1, lit I. li'J, ptl.', 7'.M), 8:il; A/., 48th eon,!,'. 1st sess., II.' Kx. J>oc. 1, pt l,'-.':!(i 7. 

"CoMuress was installi'il J''cl). ]8tli, ami one ot tlu^ lirst acts ot the hon.-.e 
ol .Icpiities \\a.s to pas.s an act of impeaclini(,'nt against N'asconculos, .-ind th<,' 
;riial(' constitntcil itself as a conrt to try him upon the charL'e ui violation of 
the constitution. On the '2'2A of J'eliruary, ]ileailing not guilty, hi' (lenianihd 
ii tiiid. The result was against him. Sulr.. ,S< ti. ;/ i'mn. ilr J)i]i....ii sh.i 
iii'iiif., in Criit. .[ill. Pdliqih., vi. no. ',(; ]'iisriiiiri In.i nl ,Si n., in Jil., no. l;{. 

'" During Vaseoncelos' ahsunee the otlieu had heen iiL charge of Senator 
KiMiiiisco Ihienas. 

' Tinus we see that Duenas, whos<; wont it was while ho was working for 
|"i|iM]arity to use energetic language on hehalf of liheralisni, now that he lia.s 
nachcd the goal of his anihitiou, ciianges his tune and calls for the assistance 
el Carrera against Honduras. Jlnm/., <!:iritit < >jir., .Tunc 10, 18").'i. 



vm 



KErUBLIC OF S^VLVADOR. 



to its interior aftliirs, adoptin*^ important improve- 
Hients."'" Tliero were not wanting, however, soiiu; 
attemj)ts to disturb tlie puMic peace, wliieli were for- 
tunately defeated. But the country became at tluit 
time the victim of other cahimities, such as clioleni, 
scarcity of food resultini»; from a visitation of locusts, 
and an earth(|uako which destroyed San Salvador on 
the Kith of April, 1854,"' in consecjuence of which the 
capital was removed to Cojutepeque, where it remained 
for some time. 

llafael Campo and Francisco ])uenas were elected 
l)resident and vice-president, respectively, for the cii- 
suiug term of 185()-7; and tiie latter bein^' in cliari^c 
of the executive ofiice in Jaimary IHod, in Ciuiipos 
absence, fitted out a contingent of troops to aid Nica- 
rjii^ua in her stru<if_L>le with Walker's filibusttis. 
Campo despatched reenforcemcnts in 1857, the Sal- 
vador forces beini^ under command of General (ierardo 
]iarrios. who, accordini^ to Perez, never went beyond 
liCon,"' l)ut undeitook to arrange the internal afiairs nt" 
Xicarao'ua, convokint;' a junta de notables, which juo- 
claimed Juan Sacasa president. This had no etlict, 
however. 

The state had, in 1850, constituted itself as a fv^r 

■'- l'iil)li(^ iMliicatidii WiiM iliily iitteiickMl to, now I'odu.s iiinl (inliii:iiKts ini- 
jil.iiitrd to loiulor inure rugular the luitioiml adiiiiiii.stratioii. 

•'•'This was the seventh time tlie capital was ih'stroyed; the pievious urns 
lieinLf ill I."*".'), \'t'Xi, Ki'J."), KiriCJ, ]~'.)S, and KSol); niiue of tliesi^, liowevcr, were 
to he eoiiniared in violence with tiio one of 1S.")4. It had been sii|i|iosed at 
lirst that at hast one fourth of the population had Iteeii liuried iimli r the 
ruins, hut it was «iilise(iiiintly ascertained that the iiiindier of killed diil in't 
exceed one hundred, and of wounded fifty; ainoiii,' tiio latter were the hisii(i|i, 
I'uenas, and a daui,'hter of I'res. San Martin. The wells and fountains wire 
lilled lip or made dry. The cathedral and other churches wero greatly <iairi- 
aged; the college of the Asuncion and the university hiiilding were riiiiieil. 
C)nly a few dwellingdiouses remained standing, and all Were rendered ini- 
inhidiitalile. Money was raised hy siih.scription for tiio licnefit of the destitiiti', 
the goveruniciit of ( hiat. sending a donation of iViOiM). Pimi/n ilr Monf. X''i'', 
in (iiiiit. Jt'rr,,)). L(i/., iii. IWO-oO; ,Si/iiii'r\'! Cciif. Am., .S04-7, .'{.")(); Sulr., ivu-it', 
:.;ay "Jti, 1>S.")4; ]<l'., J)i'irio Otic, .Ian. •_'(•, ]87."i; El Itid, J)ee. I, ]S.".4; f/""A, 
<!:int.i, Apr. 'JS, May lit, 1S,")4; < -ost,,. A'., diirc/n, .lime 10, .Tilly •_".», lS.-)4: J'^irk't. 
],!l(Ui[iiiii-tr, .liiiie 17, ]iS,")4. The city and ahout 'JO surrounding towns wire 
lestroyed ^lareli lit, ]S7.'J; Pan. Slur and I/cnilil, Apr. S, 1S7.S; Kl Pm-fi ii'n; 
Apr. (), May Jl, 'J."), 187:5; X!<\, Oarcfa, Apr. "i, l.S7;i. 

•'* Campo oil the 10th of ^lay, 1S,")7, Avarinly congratulated his fellow-citi- 
zens on the end of the cain]iaigii in Nic. when tlio news came of ^Valkcr's siir- 
rc.ider. A'(c., Boltihi Ojir., May 'JS, 1S."7. 



CAMi'O AND HAUUIU.S. 



:m 



and iiulcpcndcnt nation, under tlio name of TJcpi'iMica 
(111 Salvador."' This act was cttuHnncd Maivh !'.», 
18'»4, hytlic national constituent con^^rcss. 

(u'ncral 1-Jclloso, Colonel Clioto, and other officers 
of the I'xpedition deserted in Ju!ie from Leon. ]]arrios 
sent tn)oj)s after them, and they were arrested in Sal- 
va(l«»r and taken as prisoners to (\)jutepe(|UO, where 
tluv told J*residoiit ('am))o tliut l^arrios had invited 
tluiu to make a revolution a^anist his govern nicjit. 
Tluy were set at liberty on the Hth. Hairios landed 
;it La Lil)ertad with his forces on the Gth, and 
inarclicd to San Salvador, whence ho wrote Canipo 
lie liad occupied that }>lace to del'eat the revolutionaiy 
M licnii'S of Belloso and Choto. Orders were si-nt him 
t<i dissolve the forces and go to Cojutepecjue witli 2(j0 
iiitn. On the llth Barrios, together with his otHcers, 
made a ])ronunciamiento to depose Cam[»o and <'all 
Dianas to the presidency/'** T\\e ])resident on tin; 
l-th called troops to the su[)port of his government, 
[tlaced San Salvador and ( 'ojuti'})e(jui' under maitial 
law, and declared all acts emanating fi'om the vice- 
jji'esident void. J^ut it seems that the latter refused 
t(j lend himself to Barrios' plan, but on the contrary, 
supported ( 'ampo.''" Barrios liimself submittcd.'^^ 

C'ampo's successor was ^Miguel Santin del Castillo. 
This ])resident's tenure of office was of short duration. 
Ill 1858 a coup d'etat of Barrios, then a senator, 



-'Am. Ci/rlop., xiv. Oil; Lit yarioii, Apr. 14, IS")?. The Salviulor Haj; is 
ri'i|uiiT(l to 1)0 4 varas in liMigtli, with horizontal stripes, livo lilue and four 
whiti', tlio uppermost and lowermost being liliie; and a re'il union with 14 
wliite stars, covering a space up and <lowu e(piivalent to that occupied liy 
the iViur upper stripes, and to the extent of ]'„ varas. The tlag-statt' is '20 
vuras high, cxliihiting the same arrangement of colors as the tlag. 

■"On tlie 10th Barrios and a committee of ofHcers had demanded of Campo 
that tlie troops should be ordered to Cojutepequc to receive thanks for tlieir 
wrviccs, adding that a dissolution of ths force implied distrust of the general. 
C;iiiipo di.sregarded this, iiud also r» nundjcr of propositions from Barrios, re- 
iteniting his order for the disbaudment. 

•' Astaburuaga, Cent. Am., 75-(), assures us it was so, highly comuiending 
DuiMus. The president was supported by public opinion, and many of tlie 
oiticirs that had taken part in the pronunciamiento afterward tendered him 
tlu'ir services. Giint., Boletin dc Nottchiif, June 18, 1857. 

" ' No hizo otra cosa que rendir la espada ante la aiitoridad de Campo. ' 
Pn-K, Mem. Hkt. Jiev. Xlc, 2d pt, 214. 









nT 



1 1 f- 



1^1 



aos 



Ki:rUHLlC OF .SALVADOR. 



ill wliicli lio WHS aided by the vice-pivsidciit Ou/iiiuii, 
his Icitlu'r-in-hiw, forced Saiitin t<> re.sijjjn. J^unins 
sul)sr(|Uc'iitly obtained iVoiii the lej^i.shitive asHeiiildy. 
.sittiii*^ fioiii January 17 to Febniaiy 12, IH;V.), tlir 
.sanction of" liis coup d'etat, as >vt 11 as the constitu- 
tional aniendmiMits that he had not btcn able tn 
carry tliroui;li legally durinji^ Santin's rule, luanit Iv, 
to extend the presidential term from two to six yiiirs, 
and that of the deputies from two to four years. ' 
The year 18;VJ was one of restlessness, i-nn-t-ndt ivd 
jiartly by the un<;roundod fear of invasion bySaiitiir> 
friends, wlio liad taken rofujj^e in neiijibboi-inuj stutt s, 
and partly by Jiarrios' eflbrts to secure his own eli <•- 
tion to the presidency, in wldch lie was successful. 
In Aujju.st iSa!) the existin<>; disaureements betwrm 
Salvad«)r and Honduras, resultin^jf from intriL^ucs of 
refuo'ces from the former, were l)rou_<;'ht to an cm! 
through the mediation of (jiuatemala.*'" 

The republic seemed to have attained a compara- 
tivi'ly stable condition at the incominj;' of 18(!0. ilai- 
rios had been elected ])resident, and recoLCni/.ed as smh 
by the assembly,"^ He concluded in 1H()2 to hold 
diplomatic relations with tlie vice-president, who un- 
der the constitution of Honduras was entitled ti> 
occupy the executive chair of that state at the death 

'"•One liiilf of the (leputios were to l>e renewed every two years. 'I'lif 
assembly wuh to iiioet l>ieimially. Salr., Dhirio Ojic, Fell. 21, 1S7."). 

'''*' C'ouveution eoiicliideil Aug. 9, 18.")!t, 'n'tweuii Oiiat. ami Hoiul. to n^cng- 
nize the constitutional authority estahliMliiHl -w Salvador, and to niircss any 
attempt to disturh it. Houd. decl-ired hev.'«ilf disposed to ki'c[) tli<^ juaei; 
with .Salv., and Ouat. guaranteed rociidociiy i.a the part of the latter. 'J'liis 
convention was ratiliod liy Carrera, i^i'; .. •.'.), IM.V.t, and hy Barrios and liis 
miiu.ster ^I. Irungaray, .Sept. .'iOth, thu .>aiM! year, (luitl., Ji'irop. Lcii-. i. l."'' 

4:?. 

"' In his iiuiugural address, Feh. 1, 18(>0, he jiromised ca conservative imlicy: 
' Orden progreso, lihertad hicn entcudida. . . .La par y el drdeuen el intninr, 
la amistad con los estados vecinos.' Burrion, J H.tcii rsu, t>-7. But, as it will lie 
shown, his policy both in the interior an<l in regard to the other states of 
Cent. Am. met with disastrous results from the animosity it enLtendcnd. 
He had had himself made a captain-general, and was accused by his eiieiiiies 
of inorilinate vanity, insincerity, fondness for unrestricteil power, and luke- 
warm patriotism; and finally came to be looked upon as a disturber of tlio 
peace for his own aggrandizement. He accepted, without leave of tiie 
assembly, a decoration tendered him by the kiug of Sardinia. Nic, t'aj). G<'ii. 
Bamos, 3-14; Arriota, Jti'ii, del S(tlr., 2. 



uV 



INVASION OF SANTA ANA. 



MB 



(.t* ]'n>sidont Guardiola, aiul was favoivd hy pul>lii; 
(ipiiiioii, altli(>UL>li Canoraot' (Juati'uiala wass ui)li<>l(l- 
hvj; Mfdiiia, a usui[K'r ut" the pivsuUiicy. A treaty 
of alliaiuH', Itoth di-t'ensivt! and ott'nsivc, was ciiteiid 
iiiln bctwL'c'ii Salvador ami tliis vioe-invsidtiit,"' wliirli 
(lis|ilt'ascd Carrora; lie dtuiandcd explanatioiis, and 
tilt y were oiveii him.'" Tlio latter I'oiukI an excuse t(» 
j)itk a (juarrel with Barrios iu the <|uesti<)ii with the 
Salvador clergy, who had heen re(|uired to take an 
(latli of allegiance to the ijovernnieiit,'" which they 
relused to do, JVisho[) Pineda y Zaldana and a mmi- 
l»t r of his sultordinates repairinjj,' to Guatemala, where 
tliey wore honorahly recei\ed. Barrit»s was accused 
ill the ofhcial journal of settiiii; aside the conservative 
jtorky ])i'oniised at his inauguration."' An e\))editi(>n, 
under Colonel Saenz, believed to have he'cn aided hy 
Carrera, invaded Santa Ana at the cry t)f Viva la iv- 
li«;it>n! Viva el obisjio! .and took the city, hut were 
soon driven away V>y the citizens. C^irri'ra disclaimed 
any comu'ction with this afl'air. Some time after came 
.Miiximo Jerez, as minister of Nicaragua, j)roj)osing a 
plan of national uni(»n for Salvador, ilonthuas, and 
Xicaragua, with the intention of inviting (Juatemala 
and Costa llica to Join them; hut the project failed 
l)('cause of the refusal of Honduras to enter into the 
anaugtnnent. (Airrera had meantime chssuaded Pres- 
ident Martinez of Xicaragua from the scheme. 

The (luatemalan govermnent was preparing for war 
UL^ainst Salvador, and succeeded in wiiming the coopcr- 



'■Miiy \•^, 1802. Mr., Bollin Ojh:, .July 10, 1S(V_'. 

' ■ iSaii'id.s WHS sjiid to (Uitui'tuiil the pluu of ]):i;-titi(iiiiiif; ]If)ii(l., wlii(;li was 
nut rtlci'tt'cl lioiNuisu of Carrora's ili-sajipnival; Imt tlie iminKr of (luanliola 
lii'l aUdi'doil liiiu an opportunity tf> haniesM lloiid. to his car. Ifo was liko 
\\i>f aiTUsed of soheiiiiiii,' witli the aid of Maximo .Ferez to control Nic 
ll'irriii.'i, K\ por que do la caida, ;?-4; A'/i'., (i''iri/ii, March 'J.'$, May '2',\, .luiie 
li, iMiH. liarrios claimed that lie was .striviiii,' to .'iccure the rit;lits of Saiva- 
ilnr, supporting at the s.i;!ie time the patriotic aims of the Nicarag\ian lii)erald 
to istahlish a government in their country. 

'' 'The (.'apuchiu friars had also l)ceu expelled. 

' "'I'lie course of the Salvadoran govt was not to the pope's liking. Arriolr, 
l!i]>. ill I Sulv., 2. However, tiie bishop, at jiapal suggestion, oU'ercd to return 
til Ills diocese, and was told there had never heen any olijeetiou to his exercise 
of ci)iscopal functions. Barriox, Prod, d Ion Pueblos, 1-8. 



ij'i; 


,11 




1:; in 




i '' -S; 








■ 


Hi 


if 


1 


■ 


m 


1 


1 


1 



304 



REPUBLIC OF SALVADOR. 



atioii of ^lartincz.®' Honduras, being an ally of Salva- 
dor, Florcncio Xatruch was awsistt'd by Carrera to 
make a revolt in several departments aij^ainst the gov- 
ernment of Honduras, Salvador tried to avert Ims- 
tilities. Friends of peaee, amon<»' them the Amei-icaii 
and l^ritish representatives, mediated, but all Mas of 
no avail."' 

Tiic Mar eontemi)lated by Carrera was unpopular 
in (Guatemala, where the people of late years had \)vvh 
enjoviun" ])ea('eand prosperity, and feared a reeurience 
of the former desolations. But tlieir ruler Ava.s 
]>romi)ted bv a deadlv animositv to Harrios, and hv 
the fear tliat the allianee of the latter Avitli Jarez 
would eiidaiiuvr eonservatism, and consequently liis 
own p(»\V('r. Whereui)on he resolved to ciush at one 
blow tilt' disturber of tlie ])ubn(; peace, as J-Jarrios was 
calKd bv the oli<>archs."^ He invaded Salvador willi 
a larj^'e force, a proclamation preceding him to iiifonn 
tlu' people that the "svar would be against l^aiiios 
and not themselves. He felt certain of a speedy \ ic- 
toiy, and blindly assaih.'d ('oatej)e(|ue, wliere l^anies 
was entrenclieil. He was ri'))ulsed with such Ik avy 
losses''' that lu' had to retreat to his own capital. 
which he entered ]\[arch Gth at the head of only M.OOU 
men, l^ut this reverse did not di.scourage him. lb 
fitted out anotlui- ?^rmy, and started u}>on a second 
campaign that sliould be (.lecisive'" against Sabader 
and Honduras, the latter having espoused J>iiii<>s" 
cause, jMeantime jSTartinoz of Nicaraijua had <>aiii(d 
a battle at the town of San Felipe on the 2I»tli of 
A})ril, against a united force of Jerez' partisans jiiid 

"'"A treaty (if iiUiiiiico was coiieliidod with liim by Sainayoa and iMiiiia.s 
Dotli Salvador ri't'iigees, actiii;,' fur (uiat. 

'■• Notis of E. O. C'ro!sI)y, U. S. miiiister, Foh. 2, 18(i,1, and O.co. 15. Mallirw, 
Rrit. minister, Eel). 8, ISdii, to Peilro do Ayciiiena, minister of forei.:M :itlaii's 
of'.iiiat. Barrios' Miiiiijics/n, 4'i-i^'2. 

'•"'11 ne vit dans cctto derniero lutte qii'un duel d'hommo ft Imiimn'. 
Belli/, L' Airiiniiiiiif, i. 118-11). 

"••Thia wa8ontlie24thof Eel>., 180.1. Solr., DnrioOfic, Apr. 8. 187(1; lidbi, 
A Trav. VAm. Cent., ll!)-2(». Barrios, in his MaintivMo, 2>'l, asserts tliat his 
own force was 4,01)0 men, and Carrera 's (i,5()0. 

'"The army was in three divisions, two of which wero under generals 
Zavala and Cruz. 



FFICE-.SKKKKllS W AK. 



:{05 



Salvadorans.'^ Aloreover, Honduras was iuvadod by 
800 GiTuteinalans under General Cerna. Tlie Salva- 
di^ran and Honduran troops were defeated'" l)y tlie 
allied Guatemalans and Xiearaguans, on the ])lains of 
Sunta Rosa, wliieli prompted revolts in the.njjreater 
part of the departments of Salvador, proelainiing 
Duenas ])rovisional president, who organized a gov- 
eniment at Sonsonate." Intrigues were successfully 
lirnught into play upon several Salvadoran eomniand- 
crs to induce them to revolt against ]3arrios, and to 
aid his enemies."* One of those officers was General 
Santiago Gonzalez, commanding the troops at Santa 
xVna during Barrios' temporary absence at San Salva- 
dor. He made a pronunciamiento on the 30th of 
June, telling the soldiers that a shnilar movement 
had taken place the previous day at the capital, and 
Barrios was a prisoner, and his government dissolvid. 
On discovering the deception some battalions esca})ed 
and joined the president at San Salvador, GonzaK'Z 
l)ring left with a small number of troops. Carrera 
\vas now near Santa Ana, and demanded Gonzak'z' 
surri'iider and recognition of Dueiias as provisional 
lui'sident, which, being declined, Carrera attacked 
and easily defeated him on the 3d of July," the Sal- 
vadoran artillery and a large quantity of ammunition 
I'aUiiig into the victor's hands. Carrera was novv' 
ujaster of the situation,''' and his i>[)[K)nent virtually 

"' Xlc, J)i,scur(io. . .prim, nii'n:, K. Tlie iSalvadf i ii coiitiiigeut in tlie acticii 
was 1,117 iiii'ii under <lenoral Kusehio llrauamoii'A'; Imt .Jerez had tin; cliu'f 
(■iiiiiiii;iiiil of thcillifd force. .\ir., U'turfn, Aiir. IS, May 1>, 1(5, '20, '«'.'{, Juivo (i, 
.Vjit. 1-J, ISC.S; M,:, liobtin tld Piii'h., Jnlv II, l.Sti;{. 

J-.iuiRi It), KSli.S. M,:, Bolffinilrll'iir/,., .Inly 4, ISG3. 

'■'Sdiisoiiatu dcilai'cd aj^'ainst IJarrios .hiiio '2'.hh, (Jojiitepcijup .frJy 'JTtli, 
7.;nai.'.,,iu(a Au^'. 1-ltli.; Xir., Oiurtu, Auj,'. 'J'J, S.pi. lit, ISli.'S; >i/.,'jintr(i,i 
il'l I'liili.. .luly '2'A, l(S(i;{. ]''or map of Jloiid. and Salv., si,'»^ .Sijiiii'/s Cciif. A in. 

■'It lias lioeu .said that Tallicii du Caharrus, the Frcui'li cl ar),'e, cinhiav- 
firod, alter I'arreras defeat at t'oatejietiue, to jiiirsuade a iminher of French 
ollici'is who were with B;>'''-ios to leave him, which tliey refused to do. 

"< 'arrcra'8 ollicial t of Jnlv 4, KSOS. in \ir,, Jinlidu <lil Pinli., .Inly 

17, 2:!. I,S(W; /,/., (Inmu, Auk. •-"-', IStiX 

'' lie estalilisheil his headipiartcrs in C'oatcptHjuc. Zavala marched on and 
iiooii|ii(d Santa Tecla, ahont 12 miles from San Salvador; Col Iiaeta was 
''tatiiiiiecl at Chalatenango; and Col I'arker in llohasco. Sulr,, I'l-ni.'itnr., 
I; A'/i-., (liicftd, Oct. 8, \S\V.\. ])uinas in a proclamation at Santa Ana, .'nl\' 
IStii, promised that ('.'irrera ami his army, after fnlliUing their I'li.ssion, wouhi 
llisT. Ckni Am.. Voi. lU 'JO 



am) 



i;i;i'ri5i.i(' of saiaadok. 



Mi: 



without moans of ilefeiire, superjuklfd to Avliich tlin 
iiiHiK'iK'o of till! clcruy luul turned the Indians to 
Carrera's side. Barrios continu('<l liis etiorts, how- 
ev(!r, and held out four- inontlis at San Salvador, 
thoui^h clos(;ly besieged and suil'erino" from want of 
food and annuunition." He had rei'used to listen to 
])roi)osals ottering him the honors of war, believiiu^f 
thatonec in Carrera's hands his i;ite would he sealed. ' 
At last further defence was impossible, and ]>;iriio,s 
escaped out of the city early on tho 2()th of Octolx r, 
and Kul)se(|uentlv out of the country."'' The surrendrr 
of the city took place the same day, niid on the liOtli 
J)uenas, now [)laced at the head of attairs, decrcrd 
thanks and honors to Carreraand Martinez, and their 
respective armies.*"' 

I^arrios, having with him arms and annuunition, 
emhiirked at l^mannl in 1 HOT), on thi! schooner JAa///'f/'/ 
Phdias for La Inion, to jilace himself at the head of ii 
movement initiatcxl hy Cabanas in that port and San 
^ligu<'l in his favor. It was only on aii'ival that lu' 

return tn (liiiit. Iciviii;,' tlic S;ilv.'i<l(ir;iii.s to rcorjiaiiizi^ ;i friomlly f^ovcrMiiiriit, 
ill hell (it tlii^ tiii'liulfiil (iik; (it IJarriiiM, willi tlii^ Mssislaiicc (it l>isli(i[i /.iM.iii.i. 
Hai'iids a('('Usc(l hiicnaH, at I'aiiaiiia 1)('l'. S, ISii;!, dl' liaviii^ (itr( red ( 'anvia 
.^l(K),(MH( 1(11' liis assistaiKc t(i ^'iit him iiitd tlu; ^ircsiilciitial chair; to ]i;iy 
whicli a idri't'd loan was (U'orccd. He adilcil that at iiiid tiiiio Cai'ri la li il 
liiado war against tiic j^dvt dl' Ildiid. hir SoO.OOO tliat ( inardidla dticnil liiin. 
Jiiirrhi-i, Kl i'lr.iii/. lnjit., W -A. 

''Si-|it. l.S, 1S().'{, Zivala, ciiininandcr (if th(^ licsicifini.' army, and I)iiirias 
demanded a surrender, and suliini.ssidii vn the iirdvincial uovt. 1 )uenas claiiind 
t(i lie re(;(iuni/(!d as iiresideid hy ( >u,it., Mie., ;in(l lldiid. ^N'/r-., Ilnli I'm i/il /'ii'li., 
Oct. :i, l,S(i:;; a/., (,',ir,/„, (»et. 17, IHC.:?. 

'''Carrera not IdUL; alter hail M. liniiLiaray, miiii.-terdf slate, Varzun. trci.-- 
urer, ( Jen. i'erez and his hnilher, and cdldiiels .Mielar and Luna slml, lev the 
Hdle dU'eiuH^ dl havinu' serNcd in llarrids' adminislratidn. 

''••( 'arrera, Oct. .'iOlii, ealieil it a ' \crgdn/.(isa I'nua.' Curnrn, I'lmi.. I. llar- 
rids was sulise(|iieiitly in |S(i,") alhiwed liy Custa It. to I'eside in her terrilmy 
against the reindiistranees el' tin^ (ither Cent. Am. states. 'I'liese siis|ii mli .1 
relatidus with her. I'revidus td this tinu^ he hid lesjcled in X. V(irk, wlnrc 
li(! made many friends. JSie. red[i(!ned, tiu'dugii the meiji ition of the V. S. 
of ("dhimliia, (in tiie .'{1st (if May, ISti.'i, relatidUS widi Cust.i 1!.. Uarrins hav- 
ing deiiarled. (,'iiitf., Itcniy. f,ii/., i. 4r>S-l); A'/i'., d'tinfi, .lune 17, JSIi."); //., Ci'l. 
/><■,:, ISIi.'), .S-!l, ;VJ .'!. 

'"■' \it:, (i'iir//,i, Ndv. (i, I I, ISlill. 'I'Ik! (lutrages cdniniitleilliy I 'areii 1 ami 
his men are said to haV(? lieen aliudst heydud desiri|itidn. O.ie (if hi-; ails 
was td eausi! Mdrazan's grave td h(^ liroke d[ien, and his ashes to Ik; scitlrK'ii 
td the winds. Ih? insulted, plundered, and )iersecuteil eiti/ens, aiiil caiiicil 
(ill th(! Salvaddi-an artillery and trdiihies. lie tdok with liiin to (liiil. tin' 
iirisdiiers of I'aiik, and eontined them many niontlus in tho castlo of San I'l'- 
lipe situated on the deadly northern eeast 



l.'isi 

iniiiMii, 

issued 
union ;,, 
c;l(|,.,| ,, 

to l(.(,|.o 

tulioii. 

'i"n;ii'\- 
I"'''>i.!i'ii 



'Cal,,- 



Ilia 



;■'"■ '■' lirlliu, 

hi..l,,iv ,^ ,, 



cnt, 
ii;v. 

rl'll 
IIIV 

lllll. 
\\:\V- 



Jtnril 
It. tlio 

llM I'"'" 



DEATH OF BARRIO.S. 



307 



heard of the failure of that luovcniont,^^ and on his re- 
turn the schooner was struck by h,i;htnini^ in waters 
of Xiearasfua at tlie Aserradores. He sent to Corinto 
for water and provisions, and the consequence was 
tliiit a Nicarau^uan force came on board and ca[)tured 
liiin. He was taken to Leon on tlie 30tli of June.'"'^ 
Tlie lUfovernnient of Salvador demanded his extradition 
tliiit he niii'i'ht bo tried, the national con_<;re.ss havini^ 
iinjieached jiini. The result of thi.s was a convention 
iiili'red into at Leon July 14, I8G0, between Gregorio 
Arlilzu, minister of Salvador, and Pedro Zeludon, 
111' li^Dtentiary for Nicarai^ua, by which the lattijr 
Uo\'. .' •nent assented to tluj surrender of l^arrios, 
n o'r ■ iwie express stipulation that his hfe .should bo 
s|» .i« (1 whatever might be the result of his trial. "^ 
Hut the ii-ovornmont of Salvador, i!i disrouard of this 
ohhiij'ation, luul Harrios sentenced to death by a court- 
lu.iitial, and lie was executed at 4:;>0 in the morning- 
nf ;\un'nst 21)th, aufainst the T'omonstranoes of tlu; I'eji- 
nsciitative of NiearaL;'ua. The latter could do nolh- 
wj; but protest, and th.row tlie infaniv of the deed 
U|i(iii Duonas and his aihninistration. 

l)ishop Zald.MlM. returiKMl to his diocese at th(^ ter- 
iiiiii;!tioi; of th<' v. -n- in the latter ])art of J8G.'3, and 
issued a pasi.Miul letter recommendinij^ concord and 
uiiluii aiooo'^' Ills (l<>ck. The ])rovisional ^•ov<>rnin(Mit 
cnllrd oil tii{> j>c jplc to choose a constituent a.ssenibly 
to r(dru;"anize *h( 'j;o' rnment and frame a new consti- 
tution. This {issonritly met on the 1 Rth of February, 
IHCi I, and on the sanii; date sanctioned the. last re\ohi- 
tioiiaiy movinnent, which disposed J3arrios from the 
juv.Idoiicy, and called J )uenas to fill it. IJis acts to 

'^' e.ilmfi.iM li;ul j;()iit' (ifl' t(i I'liii. ill till' sf (Miner (•iitifniniln. J\irtii'iil;il'-i nl' 
till' irUrlliiiii, ami iiiL'iisiii'i'.s iiniiiiist its aiitliur^, in A'/>., 'auoIh, M;iy 0, tliiiu! 
Itl, .Inly I, I, Si;,-. 

Till! vcs.si:! •' t-jiiliu),' witlioiit i\w |i,4ii;in rc;((iiiri.:il liy l;i\v, aa \v;i.-i cc r- 
tilii-'l liy tlif i', .. •.Mi.siil ill C'oriuto. A'(C., Vol. .Icuird. y JJcc, til--; /./., 
lUi:^,,l,l />,„./,., .'.:.,. 4, \HC.\. 

"'I'lii' S;ilv. iiui': • :r .s.il iimly ncecptoil tills conilition. and tlio Nio.irai;u;iu 
Hiivt tlii'ii ilclivcn-il iJarrio.s on Imanl tlii! ln-ij^ K.ijicriiiif'iitn. .A'/>., Coni'inii) J4 
<l'J,i;;.,, 1 IS; ^V(V., Dors. /.',.'. (i la irrl., I-I'J; Air., Uwrla, July ilH, lbt)5. 









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308 



REPUBLIC OF SALVADOR. 






that date were approved, and lie was recognized as 
provisional executive till a constitutional one should 
he elected. That body at a later date j)roniulgate(l a 
new constitution in 104 articles, which like the funda- 
mental charters of the other Central American states 
at tliat time was exceedingly conservative. The oidy 
relioion recognized was the Roman catliolic. 

At the elections which took place ten months aftrr 
the pronmlgation of the new charter, ])uehas was aj)- 
parcntly elected president for the nrst constitutional 
term, and the ct ;"^'^"tional congress recognized liiiu 
as such. He took lal possession of the office Fcl)- 

ruary 1, 1805. Co^.^ress closed its session on tlio 
21st of the same month. 



I li 



t 



? i 



t :: 



CHAPTER XV 

REPUBLIC OF HONDURAS, 

18^0-1805. 

PUESIDENT FeRRF.RA — RF-V0H:TI0NAKY \i.OVEMENTS — POLITICAL EXECCTTOVS 

-PiiEsiiiKNcv OK Juan Lixdo— Nkw Con'stitu'I'ion — Lini>o Ovkr- 
TiiiiowN — Bklize — I loNnuFis'TuoruLEs WITH (iuKAT Britain —IJiirnsii 
Occupation ok Thiku Island — BoMiiAKn.MKNT ok Omoa — Bay Islam >s 
- -PuEsiDENT Caisanas- War wii'ii (JrAi'KMALA— (icAitnioLA's Assas- 
sination— Provisional Rules ok Castkllanos am> Pontes — Alllanck 
wiT'i Barrios — Ussuccesskul War with Guatemala and Nicaracua 
— ^Iontes Deposed — KsTAisrisiiMKNT ok the ItKi-uiiLic— Jose M. ^Ie- 
DiNA Chosen President — Amendment ok the Constitution, 

The house of representatives of the Estado Lil)re y 
Soborano do Honduras, on the 30th of ])ecenil)i'r, 
1840, cliose Francisco Ferrera prcsich^it/ and he took 
li()ss(^ssion of the office on the 1st of January, 1841. 
The cliamber ch)sed its session on tlie Gth of Marcli, 

It is unnecessary to repeat liere tlie liistory of Hon- 
duras down to 1844, as it lias Ix'on jL;iven in connection 
with otlier sections of Central America, Tlie state 



'Ho had l)eoii tlic aolo caii(li<lato, ohtaiuiiif,' ,'?,4(H) votes, which did not 
t'diistitiitu a niajoritj'. Fciti'IU was of ohsiuii! jiaii'iita,m;, and of iiifcrinr 
aliility. Ho was i!duoatt;<l liy a roai'tioiiary priest iiaiiiccl ( !arii\, whi>, wi ~liing 
iiiiii to hccoiiio a niusiciau of tho pai'isli chin rh at ( 'aiitai-raiias, sent him to 
T( j_'iu'ijjraliia to take Uissoiis on tho violin; hut tho hoy iiiiido no jiro;ji'css in 
that iliicction, anil linally was inado sacristan of Cantiirranas, wliicli position 
lie iiild a long tinio, till tlio rovoliitionarv movcnicnts chew liini into military 
lili', and lio began upholding lihcral princijilcs. ]lo llgiirod afterward as \ico- 
jtlc, hating his cliief, Joaiinin Rivera, l)eeausi> lu! was a domocrat. No«- wo 
«(' tiio sacristan of Caidarranas made pri''ident of the state. Francisco 
'iucll, Francisco Zelaya, and Santiago Bueso were recognized as his suhstittites 
ill the order named. Jt was also (lecreed hy tiio cliainhor that in tiic event 
"f a vacancy, ah.solute or tem]iorary, if tho substitutes should bo unablo to 
assiniio tho cxecutivo duties, tho latter should devolve on tho ministers of 
state. MonUifar, lieaala Hid., iv. l'Jl-'JO;j- Wclh' Iluitd., 494; Smiicr'n Tnn:^ 
ii. 4 J',1 

(300) 



.SIO 



Rpn'unuc OF Honduras. 



assembly was installed on the lltli of January, witli 
ceremonies more religious than political, as befitted ;i 
country where the intluencc of the church was so over- 
wlu'hning,^ The chamber bepraised Ferrera with as 
much gusto as the church had smoked him with 
incense at the cathedral, and on the 2Gth he was 
formally declared a ben(>merito de la patria, i>'id (dii 
finned as a general of division, which raidc lu. 1 Im. n 
conferred on him by the government in March 18;!'J.' 

Much Avas said at the opening of the legislativt' 
session about peace, but the fact was, that a nuniltrr 
of towns were greatly agitated, owing to the lieavy 
burdens weighing on tliem, and to the displeasure 
caused by many citizens having been driven into exile 
Amonnr these towns were Texiu'uat, La Plazuela, and 
Comayagiiela. Sa"(;os Guardiola was sent against 
them, and was not successful, though he asserted in a 
proehunation tliat he had defeated the rebels. Thv 
war spread,* and Ferrera deemed it expedient to leave 
t!ie executive office in charu'e of the ministers for a 
time, and to personally take comniand of the forces jo 
operate against the insurgents. Guardiola defeated 
tlieni at Corpus on lJic 1st of July, and captured tlieir 
correspondence, M'ith Rivera, Orellana, and the other 
leaders.^ 

An insurrection of tlie troops at Olancho took 
place in ]3ecend)er, which was soon quelled, and 
stringent measures were adopted by Ferrera against 
its promoters." Amid this state of affairs Ferrera's 
term was approaching its end, and he could not be re- 
elected a second time under the constitution of ISHf). 
Flections were held, and arrangements made so tliat 

'^ Wc are assured tlicrc were 4-t to douin masses on tliat day 
'le was cri'dlteil with having, hy his euer^ry, wisdom, and disinterested 
pat Lism, saved the state from civil war and anareiiy. 

' t"ho govt justly attributed the ni(>venient to Ivc-jefe Rivera, Orellana, 
Alvarez, Castro, and others, helieving the centre of it to bo in Leon. It do- 
niauL'd satisfaction from Nie., but ol)tained none. 

''The whole was puhlLshed in El DeHcnhridor, official journal of IIoiul. 
Every one of Rivera's letters counselled discipline, modcratiou, and houoraljlc 
dealnq, so as to save the c:uise from ohlorpiy 

"Decree of Dec. 13, 1S44. 



ho 

iJie 

als( 

ivi i.s 

Yo 

l.gi, 

!•: 

Fen 

ll.Ml 

i/ig _i 

hiin, 

4th c 

diih'a 

"iHcii 

and j; 

l»efor{ 

(Ux 

spoke; 

honor; 

Jle w 

award 

Was 

'•o/isc 

The; 

"(■ tl 

tial t 

site 

\x\7 



le 



ni 



Ju; 



an 



' I men 

fiMiv Iiy tl 
MM.S given 

"iiiii..tor.s 
tliu in.seri 
ivioinu. ' ' 

;^\ll-i|,stus, 

Jiiiii .suporif 

'■'Jiiardi 

,, '»'•« su 

Jm'u;' !io Vi 

j'Tviveni 
" Decree 



KEVOLUTIOX AND ELECTION. 



311 



lio could continue in power as minister of war witli 
the cliicf command of the forces.' Guardiola liud been 
also dubbed a beiiemerito, and Lis friends wished to 
Viiise liiin to the presidential chair, but did not succeed.** 
N'o candidate obtained the reipiisite majority, and the 
li^'isluture chose C'oroiiado Cliavez president." 

l']x-jefe liivera, taking advantn;j;e of the absence of 
i'V'rrera with most of his forces in Xicaraipia, invadetl 
lldiiduras for the purpose of overthrowing the exist- 
ing govirnment. The people failed to cooperate with 
liiiu, and he was defeated and made ])risoner. On the 
Uh of January, 1.845, he, with ]\Iartinez, Landa, and 
Julian iJiaz arrived at Couiayagua in irons. The 
iiliicial journal announced that liivera was to be tried 
aii<l {)unished. He was in fact doomed to the scafl'old 
1)( tore he was tried.'" 

(jiuardiola's atrocities in La Union and San ^Migutl, 
spoken of in a former chapter, won him additional 
]ioiiors from the subservient assL-mbly of Hoiidunis. 
He was a second time declared a benemerito, and 
awarded a u'old medal. Chavez, the tool of Feircra, 
was not neglected, lie was given the title of Padre 
(•(iiiscri[)to de la patria, with an accompanying medal." 
The assemblv closed t)n the 2;3dof ^[arch, well satislied 
of the wisdom of its measures. Another })resi(]en- 
tial election came up, and no one jiaving the recjui- 
>ite number of votes, the assembly, January 14, 
l>>ir, chose Ferrera, who declined the position, and 
.luan Lindo was then appointed, Ferrera continuing 

' I mcntioncil dsowhcrc the defeat tliia year at Naeaonic of a Nicaraguau 
fiiicc liy tlio garrison unilcr (.'oniinandant Morales. Tliu credit of tlii.s victory 
was given to I'errcra, wlio liap[)eiie(l to he in tlie ]]laee at the time, hy tlie 
iniuister.s ill eliarge of tlie cxceiitive oflice awardiii,' him a gold mcilal with 
the inscription, 'Ala lieroioidad del <}eueral Ferrera eu la hatalla de Na- 
I'Mimc' The supreme court hail compan'd him with Alexander, Octavius, 
Au-u.stus, and Napoleon. Tlio soldior.s of Jloiid. made liiin a MiUiadu.s, 
'I'lriistoclcs, and Demosthenes. Ami finally, the olficial journal pronounced 
liiiii superior to Julius C'lesar. Monti'ifnt; ll<s,ii'ia JIUt., iv. o70-i). 

~ < hiardiola was a rough and cruel soldier. 

'ilis substitutes were Francisco Giiell, Letmardo Romero, and Manuel 
Kiiii,' !io Vazquez. 

''Ivivera, Landa, and Martinez were shot together. 

"Decrees of Feb. 4 and March 10, 1840. 




mgn^ 




^B 


' '^iHi 


1' ■"';' 





mi 



REPUBLIC OF HONDURAS. 



; ! 



' J 



as war minister, with the command of the troops an- 
nexed, which was what ho desired. Guardiola was 
retained in tlie office of minister of foreign relations, 
thoui^h mifit for it. 

Wlien the army of the United States was in jNIexicf), 
Lindo seemed greatly exas])erated therehy; the presi- 
dent, without first ohtaining the sanction of the repre- 
sentatives, issued manifestos, on the 1st and 2d of June, 
1847, which were an open declaration of war against 
the United States, ^■- 

Lindo desired to control affairs for an unlimited 
time, and the constitution allowing him only a two- 
years tenure, and ct)ntaining, besides, several clauses 
repugnant to him, it was doomed.^'' A constituent 
assembly was accordingly called to frame a new char- 
ter, which was adopted at Comayagua February 4, 
1848.'* 

Lindo continued as president under the new le- 
ginie.^'' The legislature had assend)led at Cedrt)s on 
the 10th of June, 1849, when the president reported 

'■'This proceeding was coiniminicated to the governor of C'hiaita for tin; 
infoniialioiiof his goycruiiient. TlicjiroclaiiiiiliDiis were published iu Mcxicn, 
and pr(>lial)ly elsewlierc; hut 1 am not aware tliat the Auieriean j^'ovcriiiin ut 
took any action upon th(uii. A/., 'J3()-7; Sim of Aniilinar, Sept. \\, 1M7: 
El Ai-ro Ins, Sept. '-"J, Oct. 4, 17, 1847; El Jlnzwiiiiloi; Out. 3(), 1S47; iU 
SoiiDrciisc, Nov. I'J, 1S47. 

'■'It proviilcd for only one dwunhcr, and he wanted another for the aris- 
tocracy. It recognized freedom of conHciene(! and religion, wiiieh to his luiii'l 
was heresy. 

"It contained 114 articles; recognized tlie people as tlie source of poucr 
and sovereignty. All persons horn in the states of Cent. Am. and resiihiiL; 
in lioud. were given the privileges of full citizensliip. Foreigners niiuilit 
hoconie naturalized. Tlie right of sulFragi! was given to citizens over 'Jl }i us 
of ag(? wlio could read ami write. The state recognized no other religion than 
tile Uoinan ealliolie, t^xcludiiig tlio puhlie exiM'eise of all otiiers. The govern- 
ment, declared to he poptdar and npresentative, was vesteil in time powi is, 
namely, legislative, executive, and judii'ial. The executive was jihui d in 
charge of a presi<lent for four years, and not eligihle for two conseentivi^ 
terms. He ap])oint(Ml]iis ministers, who had a seat in the legislature. Tlirif 
was a council of state jirovided, its inenil)ers being one senator chosen by tlu! 
gen. assembly, one justice of tlio supremo ecnirt, the minister of tlie interior, 
tlie treasurer, and two citizens elected by the gen. assembly. The asseiriMy 
was formecl f)f one cliamlicr with 14 <leputies, being two for eacji di'paitriii m!, 
and the senate with 7 memliers. The judiciary consisted of the su[ircine aii'l 
lower courts. The supreme court was divided into two sections, of three jns- 
tiees each, fine to sit in Comayagua, and the other in Tegucigalpa. I'l.icli 
department had a jefe politico at its head, J fond. , ConxUt. tie ISJfS, 1-21 ; iSiiui r* 
Cciif. Aw., 2o8-(i.-). 

'■'The next term would begin on the Ist of Feb., 1852. 



AVAR AND TItEATIKS. 



31 S 



ht 
17: 
/.7 



tlio state at peace, and its relations with the otlier 
states on a satisfactory footing. ]3iit ho. acknowledged 
that his govornnient was hurasseil hy party conten- 
tious. Order had been maintained thns far by a strict 
impartiality toward the factions, with the cooperation 
(if some good and influential citizens.** This was not 
to last long; for on the 12th of February, 1850, 
Guai'diola, deceivt;d by representations of Felipe .T;lu- 
rtgui and the aristocrats of Guatemala, in which the 
Ihitish charge, Chatfield, had no little part, made a 
pronunciamiento au Tegucigalpa, where the govern- 
inoiit then was, and Lindo had to flee. The latter 
filially entrenched himself at Nacaimie, near the bay 
of Konseca, and asked for assistance from the govern- 
inciits of Salvador and Nicaragua, wliich under the 
terms of their confederacy they were bound to aflV)r(l 
liim. Salvador at once sent a considerable force under 
General Cabanas, and Nicaragua prepai-ed to do the 
same if necessity re<piired it. (Juardiola's movement 
was not seconded elsewhere. Ihit he n. relu^d against 
Xaeaome, and at Pespire connnissioners of Salvador 
aiitj Lindo made him understand his false position, 
and an understanding* was then had, on the '25th of 
March, by which he submitted to Lindo's authority.'' 



li:Jit 

■iU'S 

lliiiu 
I'vn- 

ll in 

IliVi' 

rllt, 

l;n>'l 
l.i"- 



The treaties of !78:> and i78() between Great Britain 
and Spain reserved to the latti'r the sovereignty over 
Belize, otherwise called British Honduras, granting to 
the settlers merely the i)rivilege of cutting dye and 
other woods,''^ using the spontaneous products of the 

"'A>., <:,v: Itt., Aui;. 1, 184!); J.a Union (S. S.ilv.), Juno IT), ],S4'.». 

''Tlio foUowiiij,' woi'i; thu tonii.s agreoil upon: a uriioral aiiiiK;sty; tlic coii- 
fidcrato iliot was to lueot at iNacanint', ju'dtoctuil liy -00 Salvailoiaiis aiiil ax 
iiMiiy NicaramiaiiM at tlio c\pL'ii.so of Jloiid. ; ainl tin; wtati! a.ssciiilily also to 
iiilii'.ss certain alhg(Ml giievaMccs; and .Jaiii-oj;ui'n coiulmt in t'osta ]{. to Ik: 
iiivi -iliiratiil. AU of which wan done, ('rn/: Am., M!-r,l. Ihir., iios. 'J',( ;!;{, 
.■ii;-4:i, r)l»-.'>; Sulr., l^wHit, March 15, Ai)r. 4, IS, May 10, 1S:.0; rV«Ar It., 
a "■,/■,, March '2, IS.IO; Xir., Cm: /■■</., Apr. 4, May 'J, 10, 1S:.(); (;,nu-</!nl,i, 
iji lit. Otic, Marcli .SO, KS.'iO; S'l'iiir'.i I'mnli, ii. IS'J. Tiio chambers on tlio 
'J'.ltii of .lune '.Icclarcil Lindo a hoiienierito de la patria, eonfi'ri'ing on him the 
liuilvipf general of division for life, from the expiration of liis proaidential 
tiiiH. J fond., (inrrta'tjir., Aug. 31, 1S.")0. 

""Tho Spaniards knew but little of this region, believing it unhealthy, 



(Ml 



311 



REPUHLIC OF HONDURAS. 



tv 



I'.' 



soil, fishing along the coast, re})iiiring their vess, Is, 
and building houses and stores. The colonists a\( io 
not to set iij* any government, either civil or millt;!! y, 
construct forts or defences, nuiintain troops of any 
hind, or i)ossess anv artillerv.'" 

(h)vcnior O'Neill of Yucatan made an expoditiini 
in 17'.)8 against the English settlers during Av;;r Kr- 
tween tlie two nations, and destroyed a nunilu r nf 
setth-nieiit-; on the llio Xuevo, hut was afterward 
repulsed hy tlie colonists and slaves of JhTize. Tliis 
circumstance was claimed to have given tlie victors 
the right of concjuest over the territory occu})ied liy 
them. IJut neitJier Spain, nor Mexico after Ik r 
independence, recognized that pretension, nor was it 
admitted hy the ]iritish parliament.*' Fuitliennorc, 
the treaty signed in London, Deccnd)er 2(5, 18"J(;, hc- 
tween Creat Uritain and !^^exico was negotiated tui 
the expro^s condition tliut the treaty of July 14, l7Mi, 
Ix'twecn tlie Spanish and 13ritish crowns sliould 1»(3 
]u Id valid and ol)servcd in all its })rovisions."^ I'lu iv- 
fore the conclusion we nmst arrive at is, that the 
soverei vnty over Belize helonus to Mexico and not to 
Great Lrituin. j\[exicu's claim has been recogni/.i <l 
])y the settlers, wlien it suited their interests, liut 
they were never ecpially dis})osed to abide by the ol li- 
gations of the treaty of 18'2G."" Their encroachments 

anil hail lian'.ly in;iilo aiiy attempts themsulvos to cut wood there. Cuiiccl:iil i, 
Til. Mcj-'trcHo, ]v,l-ll, coiiiiiuted at nearly l\venl,y-l\v(Hiulliiiii dollars tl:i' 1 i-s 
siistiiin-'d by iSp;;i!i to Iwll', including in that sinu the original cost, and tlio 
resuLi:i;,' proiiis which had accrued, mostly to the Eugliili. 

''Tli.y ^\•cre likewise forl)i;ldeu to cultivate sugar, codec, t)r cacao, or \>i 
ciigige ill ni;;uuf;;ctures; ami they were not to supply arms or ammunitioa tn 
tlio I.idi;nis dwclli:!!,' ou the frontiers of the Spanish iiossessioiis. E.-tjiiiim i Jnit. 
Coi't'iii.i, Jidy 11, I'iOC), in Cent. A»'. Patnjtii., no. 4, 1-7. 

^''Certain acts of that holy in 1817 a:i I lull), in consequence of mc.t'^inrs 
adopted to punish crimes committed in BJlize, declared that the crimes iirull 
not he ])u:'.i..hcd iuiiLt British laws, becauoO that territory was not a ]u>nion 
of llic United Ki.igdom. Pcnic/ie, llixt. lid. E'p. y MiU: con IinjL, in ,!»'•(>«", 
JIM. Yhc, iv. '2lI). 

^'Thc treaty of ISL'O, with the annexed treaties and conventions of S]i,iiii 
with England and other nations having any hearing on tho subject may liu 
found i.i Mc.i:., Dirvrho Intern., i. 437-51:4. 

-'-ViUicrs, Brit. niin. in Madrid, asked the Sp. govt in 1835, and again 
in 183{), to code to Iv.igland any right of sovereignty she might hav<' over 
Brit. Honduras. The request was not granted, bv:t it implieil that Iji'-ImhI 
in 183G did not consider herself to {)osscss the full sovereignty over Belizi;. 



HKLIZE. 



(HI Yuciituu have oontinued to the extent tluit tliey lu i\\ 
liold nuK'li more tluiii was coutlitioiuillv Jillowetl them 
\\:v AVoi)(l-euttin<>' hv tlie treaty of 17h:].-'' 

Aileetiiiii^ to i'oiget that the}' wore entitled merely 
ti) the usufruct of the country, the settlers set u[) as 
curly us 171)8 a government,"' raised troops, built iorts, 
tilled the soil, and exijrcised every ri''ht imitlvinn' full 
si>V('rei''ntv. Alexander M'J^onald, while holdiuLi' the 
ollit-e (»f superintendent,-^^' on the '2d of Xovend»er, 1640, 
si t aside the laws and usages of the country, declaring 
tliat from said date the law of England should he the 
law of the settlement or colony of British Honduras, 
and that all local customs and laws repugnant to the 
spirit of the law of England, and ojjposiul to the prin- 
ciples of ecjuity and justice, shcndd he imll.'"" In later 
vt'ars the ii'overnmeut has been in the hands of a lieu- 
t( iiant-governor, with an executi\'e and legislati\e 
council, and the colony has the usual judicial estah- 
lislinient."' 

\ illarta, Mexican luiii. fif foreign iiflFairs, ivfcrs to Vtlliurfi' cfl'orts in ii note 
(ii MuitIi '2'.i, IMS, to thu ]}rit. govt. Tlic lattur, liowivi r, in lS;i(), I'l.iiuK'd 
a l:ir;,'i r extent of ti'iritory, iuehuling the whole coast as fai' si lUh a.i the 
J;ivir S.irstoon, ami as far inland as the meridian of (larhutt's Falls on the 
ISili;^ • liiver. 

-'iV'tails in JiiiifniiMiitc, Hist. I/itrliii/c, Kil; Sf/iiiir'.-) Truvclf, ii. 412-14; 
/'/., ('(III. Am,, i'SJ 4, (>li7-JS; Armii'joh., MtJ-, ii. •>*).); M(.i: .Soc (Iidj., Ji.ilc- 
/hi, ■_'! vl^., iv. (ii>S-710; Aiuinls Brit. Lci/is., ii. SI; .Siinnz, /iijorn.c, ',V2-Ci; 
r. S. <lnrt Doc, For. All'. (.Mess, and Doe.j ])t 1, (M-ti, i)t iii. .SoO-"l), Cong. Sll, 
Srss. 1.; I<L, Fnirl'/n lUL, i. OrtO-lJl, Cong. 4.'), Siss. 1.; iSalr., /hurioOjir., Nov. 

'ji, isTS; L:i Vdzifc Mcj.,,iiui. :n, is,;.")r Sept. is), Xov. i, is82. 

-'I'he settlement, as it was called, for it had not I'ven the name of a colony, 
was ruled by a code of laws established in 1770 by Sir W. Hnruaoy. .Instieo 
was administered by a boaril of seven magistrates chosen jiiiMnally. Tiie 
chi.'f authority was the suiierintendent, a jjosition always hel I by a military 
ol'iicer, comljining the duties both of lirst civil magistrate anil commander of 
the forces. JJcui/crsoii'.i lint, llnud., 7i">-t). 

-' lie entitled himself then her Majesty's superintendent ami conimander- 
iu-iliiv'f in and over her possessions in Hond. 

-'■ .M'l)i)nald then app(.inted an executive council. He also assumed control 
of tlie tinanecs. Not satisfied with tiie right of veto, he Lgislated in his own 
[itirson by proelaniat'on, assuming the right of punishing any one acting 
against his authority or obstructing his mandates. Tiie inhabitants protested 
(iL;ainst his usurpation of powers, and appealed to the British government 
and parliament, obtaining some trifling relaxation. They also petitioned that 
tlio government should openly assume the sovereignty, so that they ndght 
possess their lands without reservation in respect to Spain or Mexico. Tiieir 
liititions did not receive any direct reply. However, the govt in 184"), sent 
out a chief justice, a queen's advocate, and other judicial appendages. Crowe h 
Gwpi-l, 205-ti. 

'" The coat of arms of Belize is read as follows: Chief dexter-argent — the 



i; f, 




! tl.l 



i^S 



aio 



lti:!TI!M(' OF HONDURAS. 



ii i 



i- 



\\- 



I'! '-f >■- 



Tlio assumption of sovoroij^nty is not Mexico's oiilv 
cause of complaint. Since the war ot* races broke out 
ill Yucatan in 1847, tlie people of Belize have sold 
arms and anununition to the revolted Indiana. Early 
in 1848 the authorities promised that the Indians 
should not l)e aided, directly or indirectly; but the 
promise was not fulfilled.^** The population is mainly 
negro, originally introduced as slaves; the rest, exccj)- 
ting a few white men, is a hybrid race resulting from 
intercourse with Europeans and Indians. The total 
population in 1871 was nearly 25,000, of which there 
Were probably 1,000 nu're males than females."" Slav- 



ery was abolished by an act of the inhabitants on tlir 
1st of August, 1840.-'"' 

The chief })roduct of the country is mahogany, of 
which some 20,000 tons were exported ammally, but 
the demand for it lately has decreased. Its logwood 
is much valued, and about 15,000 tons are yearly ex- 
})orted. Besides these staples, the countiy produces 
other woods of value, and the cahoon or coyal palm 
in abundance, from the nuts of which is extracted a 
valuable oil. Sarsaparilla and vanilla are found in 
the interior. Of domestic animals there are enough 

union jiick, proper. Chief sinister, on the proper — the chief divided from tlir 
body of the sliield by a chevron-shaped partition from the fe.ss of the Wixti r 
and sinister base. Points — tlie intermediate space azure— a ship with set 
sails on the sea, passant proper. Crest, mahogany tree. Motto, '»Sub iinrhi a 
floreo.' Supporters, negroes; tliat to tiie U'ft, with a paddle; the other to tin' 
right, witli an iixo over liis shoulder. iStoiit.'t* Sir., 'J.')S. 

^'" One of tlie superintendents — supposed to be Col Kaneourt-^ had rcUiitioiis 
■with the ferocious Cecilio Clii, which was ofiicially coninnmicated by .\ievii(i 
to the Brit, charge, Doyle, March ]'_', 1849. Anrowi, Hist. Yw:, iv. 'I'M: 
YltC, E.rpo.'i. dolt. Ci-ci/i/ns, <»8-102. 

-'••The population about 1804 was set down at not nioro than iiOO white 
persons, SOO free colored, and 3,000 negro slaves. Tlie white pop. ^'nul- 
ually decreased. In 18'J7-S, the jiop. was between 5,000 and (3,000; in ISUS, 
8,000; in IS.'iO, I'rOOO; in 180.% 'J.^OOO. S'/iiicrHCriit. Am., 587- S-Jinnn'sdic!., 
i:{-14; 0>ihonw.'<(;uiili\ 'J.'U; Valoi.^ Mcii'/ik; \M; Piins Gntr of t/ic. Par., '20. 
The town of Belize, at tlie mouth of the river of tlio same name, generally lias 
(5,000 inhabitants. The dwellings of the wealthy class are large and com- 
fortable. Besides the govt houses, court-house, barracks, and jail, there are 
several churches, episcopal, methodist, baptist, and presbyterian, and some 
large and costly lire-proof warehouses. The town lias experienced two destruc- 
tive conilagrations, one in 1854 cand another in 1803. Packet Iiit('lli<i<'iirr>\ .liiiie 
17, 1854; G'tiaL, Gaceta, Sepv. 7, 22, 1854; La Vozdc M(j., May it, 18():i. 

'" It was eft'ected without disturbance, and attended with the happiest ro- 
«ults. Crovxs Qospel, 205. 



KNCLlSll COKUCIDN. 



:ti7 



i" r tlio nrods of tlio ]>uo[)lc'. Thv cnlouy during' tlio 
last tit'teeji or twonty years lias Iti-cii on the dowiiwanl 



foiirsc. 



Ill loriiicr tiiiU'M the iK)rt of l^ehze was an entrepot 
I'wi' the nt'i;4hhoriiin' stati-s of Vucataii, ( uiateinahi, and 
Honduras," hut afler the oj>enin_tjf of direct tra(h' he- 
twi rn tliose states and tlie United ^^tat(■sand I'.urope, 
iind the diversion of trade on the ]?a('itie to Pananni, 
that source of jtros[)i'rity ceaseiL Total toinia^e 
(111 red and cleared in 187", exclusive of coastini^ 
trade, 7^5, 1)74, of wlucli 4(5, KJS were British. Value 
ot' inq)orts, in ten years endinj,' in 1877, .£1,781,17;"); 
for that year, £HK},7i)i'>, of wliii-h .£,'84,540 were from 
(inat Jiritain. A'alue of exports for 1877, X\'24J)():), 
ot" which c£'!)4,j48 went to Great Britain.'^'' The 
average rate of duties on injpt)rts is ten per cint ad 
valorem; machinery, coal, and hooks enterino' free. 
The gross amount of revenue for 18(5;i, .£27,.'5*J8; for 
1 877, .£4 1,488. Puhlic expenditure for the latter year. 

The relations of Honduras with Great Britain were 
(huing many years in an unsatisfactory state, due in a 
^rcat UK'asure to tin; schemes of certain officials of the 
latter government, who pushed ungrounded claims 
against the toi'mer in the furtherance of their plans to 
gain control of a large extent of the Central American 
coast. On the ;5d of Octoher, 1849, a British war 
sirn>at TrujiUo demanded the sum of $1 1 1,0(51 , alleged 
to l)e due to suhj(>cts of her nation. The demand not 
hcing compru'd with, an armed force was landed from 
liiT tlic next day, which occu})ied the fort and town. 
'I'lie British conunander finally accepted on account 
8l/_'()0 — all that the llonduran comandante could ])ro- 
(ure — and on reemharkino' i\rvd a vollev.'^' 

' -Much smuggling waa carried on to ami from it. 

' AiiniilfHril. I.njit., \\\. ;^i;S; Y. L'li.S; vii. 'J'JS; x. ;H8ii-7; ."^Ol-'J; xii. l.S'MO; 
xiv. ;{()4; U. S. C'oinm. HcL, l.SliH-TT, passim. Tliv Kiicifcliqh liritaii., xii. 
Kill 7. 

''■' He concluilud ti> lu'ocood to .rainaica for further instructions. El lierisor, 
iM\. 5, Fob. 1(), 1S.")0; Homl., (hicta Ojir., Oct. I'J, 1841). 



if" 



I 



iii'si: 



?} 



^1 , 



",?," 






1 



{18 



KEPUBI.K' OF HONDURAS. 



Hi' 



On the southern crast the British steamship Gorf/ou, 
ou the KJth of November, seized tlie island of Tiger, 
hoisting the British flag at Amapala.^* The authori- 
ties of Honduras, after protesting against the act, 
called the attention of the United States representa- 
tive to the British proceeding, for this island had been 
ceded to his government in September previous.^'^ It 
is presumed that Chatficld's purpose, among otlier 
things, was to prevent the construction of a canal 
jicross Nicaragua by Americans. But Admiral 
lEornbv, commanding the British naval forces in tlic 
]?aciHc, disapproved of the proceeding, removing lii.s 
men and restoring ^hc Honduran flag under a salute 
of twenty-one guns.'^^ 

A preliminary conveiiticjii was entered into at San 
.lose, Costa Klca, ]^ecember 29, 1849, between Felipe 
Jauregui, calling himself commissioner <jf Honduras, 
and C'hatlield, th.e British charge d'affaires, in nine 
articles, some c^f which involved undue responsibility 
on the part of Hontluras.''^' This treaty was disavowed 
by her government, starch 22, 1850, in a noti' to 
Admiral Hornby, declaring that Jauregui had im 
authority to m; ke it, and its stipulations being oflrii- 
sive to the dignity of the state, the legislature wiuilil 

3* Chattiild, till! Bi"t. ;hargi', ■■ras ])rcseiit at tlic; iu;t. A/., Nov. ;iO, \^V.'; 
tStout'n Xic. 278; S'lli:, (,'inr/ir. Foli. 1."), 18.')(). Tliu ohjuct of tliu st'iziin' w.is 
to securo Honduras' i)roportioii of the iiulobtodncss of (.'out. Am. t() l!i it. 
(.'I'oditors. 

^■' Undor a convuntioii in tlircu articles coiu'ludod at Leon Sojit. 'J'^, I Sill. 
Tho ct^ssiou was for (8 months, and had been mado known th(^ .samu d.it' to 
all dijilomatie agents in Cent. Am. J/iunl., d'atr/:! O/ir., Oi't. ISt, 1S4!); .\/c., 
(nr. I.-</., Nov. Hi, l.S4t». 'iho coni'sp. of the govt of Hond v.itli tin- lirit. 
cl'.iirgy ajunai's in ('int. Am. Cnrn'^pniiiL, fMdilc Tiifir, 1-^; Ct'iif. ^Ini., .1// ■'/. 
//.,'., nos. L'l, 'Jr>, '_'S; ir. S. Oorl I).:r., Cong. ;il, .^-^v-s. i», Sun. l)..c. A 1 ■JO; 
/</., Cong. ;!1, Soss. 1, H. .ronr.. IT.Sit, ISOl. 

""A'A'., Cor. Id.. J;.u. itl and sui.pl., Fub. Ki, 1850. 

•'' 1st. (irca.t lint, rceognizud the indi'punil. of I.ond. as a sovereign niiuli- 
lie, iiloilgiiig hei- good otlicea to avert any attempts against that iiid',']iriiil. 
lion I. at this time was a inend)er of a eonfederaey with Salvador and Num- 
r;i^'ua, and was made to liind herself not to dispose of any portion of hei' ter- 
rl.ory before sluUiail detinitely settled Brit, claims. '2i\. Hond. was toaeeiiilit 
w itliin six months a commissioner in (iuat. to conclude a treaty of friendsliip, 
co-.nmeree, ami navigation with (i. Brit. 'Ad. }lond. recognized tlu^ indeliti'il- 
ness of !*! 11,01)1. 4lh. Slie bound herself to pay that sum in yearly iii-^t;il- 
ments of !?]."),()()!) at ]{eltze. The otlier articles, «.Teof less importance. >'■'/'., 
(idccOf, Apr. 5, 1850; J/uiiil., Jjhji'nus <>li.si.v., 1-10, 



FUTILK I'ROTKSTS. 



•MO 



iinvor sanction them.** Meanwliile Honduras had 
nunot'd with Chatficld to accredit a commissioner to 
arrange with him for the settlement of British claims. 
Til is was done; and the long and tedious (juestion was 
Hiially arranged on the 27th ot March, 185.,, Hon- 
duras assuming an indebtedness of $80,000.'*'' 

The del)t question was not the only source of dis- 
(|uietude for Honduras in her relations with (Jreat 
iJritain. Bi'itish officials, on trumped-up ])retexts, 
usurped and held, during several years, portions of her 
trnitory. ^['Donald, superintendent of Belize, occu- 
iijcd Tioatau and other islands belonixinu' to Hon<luras 
situated in the bay of this name. The Honduran 
government protested against such usurpation, but no 
attention was })aid to its remonstrances. It dot's not 
appear, however, that (ireat Britain was claiining 
territorial riijfhts over the Bay Islands, as they were 
called.*" Soon afterward, a ]mnd)er of Cayman 
islanders settled in Koataiu and in the course of a 
few years there were about 1,000, when the su[)ei-in- 
teiident of Belize found a pn^text to assume thi> con- 
tidl. In 1849, tlie islanders {;pj)lied to Colonel Fan- 
court, then superintendent of Belize, for a regular 
u<>\ernme)it. He promised to c( nipiy with their 
wishes, but was unable, and tliov continued choosing 
their authorities. At last, m August 1850, the war 
scJKsoner ]>crhiH(la, Lieutenant J<'lly commaniiiiig, 
took formal possession of Boatan, (iuanaja or j^onaca, 
Ctila, iiarbarreta, ^Torat, Elena, etc., in l)ehalf of the 
Ihitish crown, declaring tliem a IJritish ap[H lidage 
under the name of (,'olony of tlie Bay .Isjands; against 
which the acting chief magistrate, William Fitzgib- 

'"•liiuivicui. Murcli 'J4, IX.JO, in a |Kuinplili't is^uoil at Lrmi, ik'li'inlid liis 
iiiiHliiif, iillu;4iiig that 111! hail ainiili: [xiwurs. Jnifiji,-., in Oiit. Am. /'itiii})/i., 
i. Mil. 7. 

'' Iii(k'peii(luiit of f 1,4'J.") paiil for lur j)i(i|iiirtioii of Ct'iit. Am. iii'k'litiil- 
Iiiss to Fililay. IIod^^Moll. & Co. of J.,oluloli. Ilninl., (liti-ili Olic, .lall. lid, Isri.'i. 

"Till' Uiitisli si'izoil Ixoataii .liiiio .'!, l!S;fO, ilrlviiii; away tlir .siiiall Cciitial 
.\iii('riiati Liarrisoii. Similar attuiiiiits liiivc lnoii made siiiio IT-tlJ li>' lliiti.ili 
.'siilijci ts. tlioti'4li uiisuci'i'sifiilly. The .•si'i/.uro of I.S.'tO lastcil only a short 
tiiiir, having; lu'cii ilisallowtil liy the .Mritish govuriimuut. Cruiri'\i Gwpil, 'J12; 
Mtinlu/ur, Jieneiiu Ilkl., hi. 424-7; iv. 71-5. 



320 



REPUBLIC OF HONDURAS. 



I 1 



'in 

M ! 



1 II 


t; 


i 


1 

i 


III 


1 



bon, protested on the loth of September, 1850, in the 
name of the sovereignty of Honduras/^ The islands 
were, in August 1852, under the rule of a lieutenant- 
governor."*'- A treaty was finally concluded betweoii 
the queen of Great Britain and Honduras, on the 28tli 
of November, 1859, respecting the Bay Islands, tlic 
Mosquito Indians, and the claims of British subjects, 
which settled tlie question in favor of the latter 
power/'^ Still one more trouble has occurred betwrtii 
the two nations, in which the weaker one had to sub- 
mit to tlie demand of the other at the mouth of licr 
cannon. On the 19th of August, 1873, the war ship 
Niohe, Sir Lambton Loraine conunanding, bonibardid 
Fort San Fernando of Omoa.'** The bombardment 
ceased on the Honduran authorities agi-eeing to redress 
the alleged grievances, antl paying daaiages.^^ Witli 
other nations of Europe and America — excepting 
the sister states, with which repeated bickerings 
have occurred, leading sometimes to war — Honduras 
has succeeded in maintaining friendly relation? 



46 



*'' Whoso turritorial right is iudisputalde, ' ho alleged. Ho based his 
action on the treaty of April lit, ISoO, T)otween tho U. 8. and Oreat Uritaiu, 
under which neither power was to have colfiniea or settlements in CVntral 
America. Tlie U. S. took part in defence of Honduras' riglits ami overthrow 
the British pretensions. Squiers Cent. Am., C21-(i, 740-8; Dcinocmtic J'n:, 
XXX. 544-52. 

■•■^ Under a decree of the superintendent of Belize. The eonuindaute oi 
Trujillo, by order of his government, i)rotested against the occupation >i pt. 
13, 1802. j.roml., GarHa Ofc, Dec. If)," ISJ'2; FA Shjlo, Jan. 1, 1S.")3. 

*^Art. 1. (ireat Britain rocogni/ed tlie ishimls to belong to Houd. Tin' 
latter pledged herself not to cede tliem to any other nation. Art. 2. Tliu 
former poM-er recognized as part of Hoiid. the country till then oceupicil or 
possessed by the Mosquito Indians within the frontier of the repnldic, w hat- 
ever that frontier might be. La Union da Ntc.., !Niarch i), ISGl; J'iiii'n d'lili'of 
o/f/it; I'lir., 412-15. Further details in connection with the Bay Islamls iiiies- 
tiou nir.y bo seen in Jicif J.-ilirml-i, (Jiif<'ii\'i Wcrrinit, etc.; Ln Au'v'o/i, Nov. !l, 
Dee. 2(i, lS5(i; Jliit. <>io!if. L'cr., xcix. 270-80; Cnir,,/,,, L<tt. Am., 7t)-8l>. 

■•^Tlio grounds alleged for tin's violent action were: 1st, That the lirit. 
vicc-eo'isurs rcsideiico had been broken into by Hond. troops, and ruhliil; 
2d, That Omoa was sacked by these troops, and goods to the value of sKH),- 
000 liad been stolen from Britiih subjects; 31, That some British sulijt'cts h.iid 
boon drafte<l into tlio army, and an Knglislnvonuin unjustly imprisoncil. /r,, 
Oacct.ii, Oct. '2'i, 1873; 7vV i'o/'jvv///' (/c AA'., Sept. 21, 1S73; yir., Seintiii'd Si':, 
July 27, KS74. 

^•'Streber, who counuanded the troojis accused of these abuses, delriicls 
tho riv'lits of Honduras in tlie controversy, i;i J.'.rpn/ili\ Dor. Hue, Oninn, IKI- 
44, 0;)--103. 

^"Slie had to setth;, in 1850, claims of French citizens, ami in 1^51 <it 



PRESIDENT C'ABASAS. mt 

The boundary between Honduras and Nicaragua was 
finally agreed upon in a convention dated September 1, 
1870/' In 18GG the Honduran government entered 
into a concordat with the ]>opc for an understanding on 
affairs ecclesiastical. 

President Lindo, having been a third time elected 
to the i)residency for the term to begin February 1, 
ls,r2, published on the 'Jjth of November, 1S51, a 
iiiiiiiifesto to the people, suggesting the expediency of 
calling some other citizen to the executive chair, 
pleading at the same time need of re.st/^ The ])eoj)le 
took him at his word, and chose Trinidad Cabanas 
jiresident, who was inducted into office at Comayagua 
(111 the 1st of ^larch, 1852,^^ and on the next day in 
his address to the assembly pledged his word to pur- 
i^Uf a liberal policy in observance of the principles that 
bad guided him throughout his career. His election 
was hailed as an auspicious event, and a safeguard 
against Guatemala's encroachments."" The state was 



I Si'l>t. 

Thf 
The 

I'll i>r 
Iwlal- 

Kiltr i[l' 

|>v. It, 

r.rit. 

11,1.0.1; 

■iUH),- 

U hu\ 

bv-v., 

:Mt- 

)i lit 



Trussiau sulijeots. Hond.,OacetaOJii:., Aug. 31, 1850; Jan. 1.5, 1852; Cwta Ii., 
(l,ir,t:i, Niiv. 1(), 1850. 

'■Nic. liail claimed on the N. E. the river Patuoa to its iiiouth, Hotid. 
daiiiHil the Coco to its mouth. The commissioners agreeil uiioii a coiniiro- 
inisi' line ' :t\veen those rivers, namely, the .summit of the iJiljiito cordillera, 
fi'diii the jioint •where it becomes detached from the main body, which divides 
the waters running to both oceans; and from the jitiint wjure it ami tlie lino 
iiiiitiiuus castwardly to the waters of the Atlantic in lat. lo" 10' N., and 
Itmg. .s;r 1.")' W. of (Ireenwich. Xic, Mt'tn. Itei, 1871, 5-7. 

'" .Minut this time he was on the Nic. frontier mediating' for jieace between 
thi' liilliuerents of that state. His etl'orts jiroving successful, he was warndy 
iiiiigiatuhited by his frieni'o i... Ids return. Iloml., ducitu <>jic., Nov. 'JO, 18")I ; 
Kl s:./!.,, iK'c. 18, 18.')1; ( enf. A,ii. I'awpli., vii. no. 2. 

^'' ('ii',in'iti.i, El I'n'.tid . . .d sus Coiiriml., l-(). The oHice had been provis- 
iiiiiallv in charge of .Senator Francisco (Joniez. L'l SIi/Id, Feb. 21, March !!•, 
1852. ' 

•"'('aliarias was of diuiinutivo stature, but of erect mien. He was aged 
aliciiil ."ii» at this time. His face was ))alc and nuld: his gestures Mere in keep- 
iiij; with the intelligent play of his features; his manners gentle, almost 
'iiniiianly, l>ut lieneath this placid exterior was a stern, indomitable spirit. 
.\ltrr many years of prominer 'eus a Icaih'r, during an anarchical period, even 
liisencmiis never accused hi' of seltishness or rancor. S'/iiiir's Tnir., ii. 177; 
'I'//-' Jlniiil., 184. Cabanas was a brave solilier, but could not be called a 
MiiTossful general. Perez, a jwlitical opponent, speaking of him as the chief 
l'l tiie co([uinibo party, says: 'Mai general, excelento soMado, nunca vence- 
iltii', sienipre con prestigio, y uno de lo< mas fogoaos prouiotorcs de la nacion- 
iilMlad ccntro Americana.' Mem. Ili.-it. l}ii\ Xic, 10. The assembly, Mav 21, 
ISol, hail conferred on him the title of ' soldado ilustre de la patria, ' His death 
Hist. Cent, Am., Vol. III. i\ 




. m 






!'i 



m 



n 



i I 



322 



KErUBLIC OF IIONDUR^iJ. 



at peace in the interior, and with the other states of 
Central America, except Guatemala, with which the 
relations were not harmonious, owing to the usurpa- 
tion by the latter of a portion of Honduran territory 
on tlie Copan side. This, with divergence in political 
])rinciples I'ctwecn the two rulei'S, soon brought on a 
bloody war,^^ which has been detailed in a previous 
cha])tcr."- Tlio fruitlessness of this contest prompted 
Salvador and Xicaragua to use their endeavors for 
]>eace ; but tliey ])rovi'd unavailing. What Guatemala's 
superior resources failed to accomplish on the field of 
battle was, however, brought about by means of in- 
trigue, with the cooperation of the party opposed to 
Cabanas in Honduras, headed by General Santos 
Guardiola, which rucei%ed efficacious aid from Carreia. 
General Juan Lopez h>up))orted the revolutionary 
movement witli 700 men,'' and Cabanas was over- 
thrown on the Gth of July, 185 5.''* 

At last, l)eing unal)le to cope with the daily increas- 
ing forces of the enemy, he abandoned the field, and 
rotreated to Salvador. The servilcs again took })os- 
session of the government under Lopoz.""' The presi- 
dential clectit)n took place amid this turmoil. TIk; 
state was divided into two lactions, one supporting 
] jijido and the otlier Guardiola. The friends of Lindo, 
not feeling certain of success, proposed Lopez as a 
compromise candidate, he being credited with the 

occiuTcd Jan. S, 1871. El Si'/ln, Jiuu! 12, 1S51; Nir., Odcuta, Aug. It), 1S:)1; 
Jiin. 21», 1871. 

'' Astabiiriiiiga attributes this war to Cabaftas' attoinpts to promote ;ui 
iusurrcctiou in (luat. ai,'ain.st iiis oM enemy C'arrcra. Cent. Am., 70-1. 

'''Tbe ( inatenialaus took tbe fort ami eity of Omoa, anil carried awaj' 
the useful artilliM-y, against tlie stijuilations agreed ujion at the (<uriiiii 
Wells' lloniL, r)()7-8; diiat., Oneeln, Sept. 1(>, 2:1, IS.")!!. 

'^This Lopez commanded at Omoawlien tlie place was given up in IS.Vl 
the(iuat. Col Zavala, since which he had been suspected of treachery. II i 
IfoiiiL, 515; (\,sl„ 11., Oaref'i, .Fan. 1.'., 1S,".1; I,/., JM/in O/ir., Dec. ;)0, IN 
JIoikL, (liifvtaOjh:, May 10, 1851, to Feb. 10, 1855, passim; Gmt., O'f' 
Nov. :i, Deo. 22, 18.54. 

^*Hc had received no aid from Salv., owing to Carrera having falsc>ly 
ported his intention to .sell territory to a foreign power. 

•'■'^The executive ollice went, Oct' U, 1855, into tlie hands of Vice-prcsiili 
S. Bueso, who pleading ill health left it in charge of Senator Fram 
Aguilar. Guat., OaccUt, Nov. l', 1855, Feb. 10, 1850. 



;.ll 

( T. 

: to 
//.' 
■'1: 



I'lit 
sen 



POLITICAL DESPOTISM. 



expulsion of Cabanas, but finally abandoned the plan 
and cast their votes for Guardiola, who assumed the 
executive office, February 17, 1856, on his return 
from Nicaragua, where ho had been defeated by 
William Walker Lindo had meantime been in charge 
of the government. '^^ A system of despotism was now 
established, Guardiola being but a satellite of Carrera.'^^ 
The country at this time was in a distressed condi- 
tion. Agriculture was neglected, most of the field 
liuiifls having emigrated. Business of all kinds was 
at a stand-still. There was no availal)le revenue, for 
o^ery one of its branches was burdened with debt. 
The state had a contingent of troops serving in Nica- 
ragua against Walker, supported from a special forced 
loan. To the credit of Guardiola's administration must 
lie recorded, however, that it secured peace with Gua- 
temala, and a settlement of questions pending with 
(rreat Britain. At the end of his term he was re- 



''^ Pcirz, Mem. IflH. CnmpaTin Xni\, 13. 

•''' (iuanliola was a dark-colored, stout-lmilt, and rather corpulent zambo, a 
mail of liondish instincts, bnt popular with his soldiers, whom lie indnlge<l in 
I vii'v way. Hu ])(>ssossed all the vices and was ^'uilty <if about all the criinea 
known to man. A\'hen in liis cups ho would order men to be shot by way of 
pastime. At the mention of his approach to a town, the inhabitants would 
llci' '^o the woods. Ho was the tiger of Cent. Am. J)iinlc>j>'<! ('int. Am.. 237; 
Wills' llmnl., 317; Wniypiius, J/^t.c. innl. ('( nt. Am., 30t>-7. William \'. \Vells, 
K.iyliinitidiix aiiil Adiviiturcf in HoitiliniK, New York, 8vo, r)8S pp., with maps 
anil illusti'ations, went to Honduras with the object of obtaining from her 
t'liviiiimeiit leave to work gold placers, and of opening commercial rcl.itions. 
He visited several places, both in Nicaragua and Honduras, which he do- 
s-ciiiics (piitc accurately, together with the manners and customs f>f their 
iiihaliitants. His information on mines and mining is valuable. There aro 
ill tlie work throo ^iiapters devoted to history from ISL'l to lS."i7, the j^round- 
Wdik of which is m-^ ,i!y from other authors, and one chapter is tille<l with 
(lata on eoimnerce, revenue, debt, etc., and still another treats of coins and 
currency, weiglits ;ind measures, and productions, with illustrations. Tlio 
style is good, the work readable and instructive. I'ortions are evidently 
taken from S(juier, and the illustrations are mostly identical with those 
el S(^uior"s Stall's of Vinfral Amirkii. The saiiii' author gave to the press 
ill New York, a I'Jnio, with 3 Hi pp., niap and portrait, under the title of 
W nlkirti liqii'ilitioii (o Xiriintijitii, This work, as tile title implies, is almost 
entirely devoted to Walker's career in this country, which is jiistilied as well asj 
liraiscd. Here and there he mentions soiru^ historical facts on Ihitish preten- 
.sidiis ill Mosquito, a short resume on Nicaragua, the >;icaragua transit route, 
and a .short review on colonization, eoninieree, and mining, compiled frfiiu 
several sources. There is no system or arrangement, having been, as the 
antlior alleges, 'written, published, and put in circulation in twenty days,' a 
feat few authors would go out of their way to boast of. But taken'all in all, 
tlio book is well worth perusing. 



im 



324 



REPUBLIC OF HONDURAS. 



elected. Early in 18G1 the government had a dift'cr- 
encc with the vicario capitular. The sec being tin n 
vacant, this ecclesiastic assumed the right of excom- 
municating the president, whom he accused of perse- 
cuting the church ; but the government forbade tlio 
publication of his decree, and expelled its author fioiii 
the state.''** This difficulty was subsequently arranged 
through the metropolitan of Guatemala. Disturbances 
occurred, at various places,"^ which were l^rought to iiii 
end in a short time. On the 11th of January, 18('>2, 
the pi-esident was assassinated.** At first it was feared 
that discord would reign again, and the other Central 
American governments pre])ared to mediate in tlic 
interests of peace."^ Fortunately, good counsels pre- 
vailed, and anarchical tendencies were for a time 
checked. 

Guardiola's constitutional successor, Victoriano Cas- 
tellanos, was in Salvador, and nmch against his Mill 
was pushed by Barrios to accept the position. ] [e 
rc})aired to the frontier, and had the oath of oftico 
administered to Jiim by the alcalde of the little town 
of Guarita; which was considered a strange proceed- 
ing on his part by Senator Jose Maria Medina, wlio 
had received the executive office from J. F. Montes,''' 
and invited him to the capital to enter upon liis 
duties.^' Castellanos concluded soon after an alliaiiec 
offensive and defensive with Barrios, and at a time 
when their states were at peace with the other gov- 
ernments of Central America. This step, and the 
diatribes of the press in Salvador and Honduriis 

•* Decree of Jan. 5, 18(31. La Union de Mc, Feb. 2, March 9, MayLT., ISdl. 

'"Cliielly in Nacaonie and Clioluteca. 

«« ^'^,(■., Bok/in Ojii:, Jan. 2.">, March 22, 1862. This deed was said by tlio 
cne)nie.s of Pros. IJarrioa of Salv. to liave been instigated by him. lit., Jioliliu 
Puili., July 11, 18(i;{. There was no gro\ind for the charge. The govirii- 
mcnt of (iuat. proposed to other states to recognize no administration of linn- 
duras until tbo criminals, who liad been arrested, should suffer punishiui'iit. 
Voxta II., Injhrwc. lliL, KS()2, 24. 

"'Nic. despatched P. Zi'k'dou as mediator, but the motives of his gov. Mere 
bitterly denounced by the press of C'onuiyagua. 

"^''el). 4, 18(i2. Nil-., lioUUnOJic, March 22, 1802. 

"^ Cast'dlanos declined going to the capital, and Medina went to liin rfs\- 
dence and formally surrendered the executive authority to him. 



BRIEF REIGNS. 



323 



a*;ainst the goveriiiucnts of Guatemala and Nicarag^ua, 
]iavcd the way for fresh troubles in Central America. 
Castellanos held the government about ten months, 
nearly all the time in a turmoil; and at his death was 
temporarily succeeded by Jose Francisco Montes, 
■\\li() followed in the footsteps of his predecessor, con- 
tinuing the alliance with Barrios, and hostilities against 
(iiiatcmala and Nicaragua. The serviles, assisted by 
the troops of these two states, being victorious, over- 
tlirew liim, and on the 21st of June, 180,3, placed at 
tliu head of affairs, as provisional president of the 
rei>ublic of Honduras, the senior senator, Josu Maria 
^b'dina,^^ who issued a decree of outlawry against 
!^^Jntes.''' In December the capital was for a time 
tiansf(^rred to Gracias, and on the last day of the 
same month Medina surrendered the executive office 
to Francisco Inestroza."^ On the lotli of February 
of the following year, the presidential election took 
}ilace, and Medina and Florencio Xatruch appeared 
to have obtained the popular suftrages, the former 
for president and the latter for vice-president.*''^ 

IJisturbances at Olancho were with little difficulty 
brought to an end, the rebels being defeated at Tapes- 
cos. A constituent assembly was convoked and met 
tdioform the constitution, which was done on the 19th 
of September.*"* On the 2Dth of October, the constit- 
uent assembly just prior to adjournment appointed 

'' This was the result of the defeat of the troops of Salv. and Iloiid. hy 
till' fiirces of Guat. and Nic. on the plain of Santa Kosa. 

'■'This decree is signed by Medina as 'presidentu do la reptlblica de Hon- 
dunis,' July 20, and rescinded Sept. 8, ISO.'}. Xic, BoUlin Pudi., Aug. t), Oct. 
9, IS():{. 

''" 1 lis senatorial term having expired, y'ic, Oaciin, Fel). l.'J, 18(14. 

''" Tlie election of Xatruch was afterward declared unconstitutional, Fob. 
2(i, 18()'). Nii:, Onceta, April ], IStio. 

'"Its sittings lasted from Sept. 7th to Oct. 29th. Tiie Hovereignty of the 
lit'dple was recognized. Tho catholic, any other kitid of public worship 
Iniiig fi)rl)idden, was declared the state religion. Tiio executive authority 
\*...' vested in a president for four years, with a council of ; '■ato consisting of 
ilia twi, ministers, one senator chosen by botli houses .. ..lO assembly, and 
the cliiei justice. Tho legislative power rested in a senate and house of 
deputies. The existing political division of the republic was left unchanged. 
/'/., Nov. 11, 18(55; Camps Ycar-Bool; 18G9, 527; The Am. CycUyp., viii. 790. 



(■■; 







320 



REPUBLIC OF HONDURAS. 



Medina provisional president,^ the date for the elec- 
tion of the constitutional one being fixed on the 1st 
of December. Another decree of the same date 
granted a full amnesty for all political offences com- 
mitted since February 4, 1848. 

•• He had temporarily, pleading ill health, left the execufive in the hands 
of Crescencio Gomez. The assembly appointed, as substitutes of Medina, 
Satumino Bogran, C. Gomez, and Francisco Medina. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

WALKER'S CAMPAIGN IN NICARAGUA. 

185o-18oG. 

Ki.n.ney's ExrEDiTioN — WiLLiAJi Walker Joins the Democrats — Failure 
OF HIS Expedition to Rivas — Cholera Decimates the Leoitimists 
AT Managua — Death ok Mu.voz — Walker s Victories at La ^'ilUiEN 
AND Granada — Execution of Minister Mayorca — Walker's Con- 
vention with Corral — Provisional (Jovernment Organized — Presi- 
dent Patricio Rivas — Commander of the Forces, Walker — Minister 
OF War Corral Put to Death for Treason — Recognition bv Sal- 
vador and Honduras — Seizure of the Transit Company's Steam- 
ers — Costa Ricans on the War-path — Havoc of Cholera. 

Certain men of the United States, with ideas some- 
what warped in regard to the relative rights of human- 
ity, now come forward, as in the hne of their destiny, 
to interfere in the affairs of their neighbors. Tlie 
legitimist government of Xicaragua, in May 1855, felt 
certain of ultimate triumph ove^ its democratic oppo- 
nents at Leon. Circumstances seemed to point that 
way, when the infusion of this foreign element at this 
time came to defeat all preconceived plans. 

Xews arrived from the United States of the organi- 
zation in New York, Philadelphia, and Washington, 
liy H. L. Kinney, Fabens, American, conmiercial agent 
at San Juan del Norte, and others, of an expedition 
ostensibly to establish a colony on the Mosquito Coast 
for the purpose of developing its resources, but rv \\y 
designed to overthrow the governments of Central 
America, and usurp sovereignty over the whole coun- 
try.^ Remonstrances against the scheme were duly 

' Also witli tlie view of exteudiug tlio area of African slavery, as liad been 
successfully carried out in Texas. 

'327) 






ri 






! 1 
i 
J 1 



\ .51 



'f 



B'i /t 



I i 



328 



WALKEU'S CAMPAKJN IN NICARAGUA. 



made to the American governinent, wliicli partially 
Huccceded in their purpose. However, tlie project 
was not exactly the source of the dire cahiniities that 
were erelonjj to befall Xicaray:ua.' The real dan-'cr 
lay in another direction, to ex[)lain which I must go 
back in my narrative to previous events. An Annr- 
ican named Byron Cole, who had conceived plans witli 
respect to Central America, and was well informed on 
her aifairs, arrived at Leon, in August 1854, wlini 
th(> democratic leaders became convinced that tiny 
could not take Granada. They entered into a con- 
tract with him to bring an expedition of foreigners, 
under the garb of colonists, who should receive grants 
of land.* Cole transferred his contract to AViiliam 
Walker, who at once set to work in organizing the ex- 
pedition.* He sailed irom San Francisco, California, 
May 4, 1855, on the brig Vesta, with 58 men,^ touched 
at Amapala to meet Captain Morton, Castellon's 
agent, and on the 13th of June reached Realejo, wlieit; 
he received the oreetinjjs of the cfovernment he was 



'^The expedition was antagonized by the Transit company, and arrestcil 
by the authorities of tlic U. S. as a violation of tlieir neutrality laws. Kin- 
ney reached San Juan del Norte, after .some misliaps, with oidy a few follii.v. 
ers, and was unable to do any .serious injury to Cent. Am. Cosla J,'., In/, ltd., 
1858, 4-(i; /'/., liolHin Ojir., March 10, 18.>t; Xi<:, Doc. Dipl. IIU., l.">-58. 
His arrival was after the destruction of the town by the U. S. sloop of war 
('i/iiiii; and infused new energy into the inhabitants. At a public niet'tiiig 
held on the Gtii of Sept., IS.")"), the necessity of estai)lishing a provihional gov- 
ernnient for the maintenance of peace and order was recognized, and Kinney 
was chosen civil and military governor to r'de by and with the advice of a 
council composed of live persons. Among the resolutions wiia one adopting 
a-i a basis to regulate the action of the govt, the former constitution of San 
•Juan del Xorte, or Oreytown, which was modelled after that of the U. S. witli 
a few exceptions. Kinney did not hold the position long. Ho was disap- 
jiointed in his expectations, and resigne<l; ho afterward visited Oranada, and 
at William Walker's instance an onler of expulsion was issued against liinj. 
.Sfnid's A'(V., 177-8'_>; S. F. AUn, Oct. ^, 18.")"); S. F. Oolden Era, iMareli '.». IS.'Hl. 

^Jerez had made a similar arrangement at Jalteva with one Fisher, to 
bring 500 men; and (Jov. Espinosa of Rivas stipulated with Hornsby and I'c 
Brissot for the capture of Fort San Juan from the legitimists. Tb.ese partit's 
tendered their contracts to William Walker, the so-called ex-president of 
Soi ora, who would not accept them. 

* iTnder the contract tlie so-called colonists were to arrive at Realejo in 
Feb. oi- March 1855, and the time having elapsed, Ca.stellon wrote Walkor 
Apr. Uth authorizing him to lan<l at that port ' la gente y nnmiciones, d treu de 
guerra que V. traiga a disposicion del gobit^rno provisorio.' Pfrez, Mem. ///-/■ 
Jiei\ Nic, 13G-7; Sue. Union, Feb. 15, 1855. 

' El ykarwjilemi; Aug. '^, I85G; S. F. Alta, May 5, 1855. 



[)(> in 

|ilk«r 

l>u lie 

Hid. 



DEFEAT AT IIIVAS. 



to servo from Licutoiiaut-coloiiol Felix Ramirez." .\t 
T.con he refused to serve under General Munoz/ He 
w as made a colonel of the Kicaraguan army, and with 
aa foreigners and 100 natives was despatched to the 
department of liivas, having in his company colonels 
Kiiniirezand Mendez, and Aldximo Espinosa, the last- 
named going there as prefect. Munoz at once infr)rnied 
("orral of the movement, and the town of Kivas was 
icunforced and prepared for defence. Walker obtainctl 
some advantages at first, on the 29th of June, hut 
iK'ing assailed on his left by Colonel ArgiU-llo, his 
rditigncrs were dispersed, and Ramirez' native force 
lied, and entered Costa Rican territorv.^ Walker and 

''William Walker was Itorn in Nashville, Tenn., iii ]8«'4, lieiiij^ of Suotcii 
iltscciit. After receiving a classical education, he stuilii'<l law, ami later t'ol- 
Inwcil the medical profession for a time in Philadelphia, lie tlu'U travelled 
ill Kuroiie one year, and ou hia return was connected with some of the impor- 
tant newspapers of the country, north, south, and west. Tiring of tliat, ho 
.<ia'(x'ssfully practised law in Marysville, (.'al. In liS.VJ he visited (iuaymas, 
ami from the operations of Count Kaousset, conceived tlie plan of creating 
\\itli adventurers from California independent repuhlics in some of the 
.-[larsely populated territories of Mexico. Hence his expeditious to Sonora 
.iiiil Lower Cal., of which I give full accounts in my vol. on the northwestern 
states of Mex. Few jier-^ons, unacijuainted with Walker, would suspect the 
presence of so nnich ability and energy beneath his plain exterior. He wa.s 
Imt little more than 5 ft. 4 in. in height, with a rather dull and slow ap- 
jiuarance; a man of few words, though an attentive listener, his aspect wa.i 
that of a serious, thoughtful person. A remarkable feature of his face was a 
deep, intensely brilliant blue-gray eye, large and intelligent. JSineere and 
(ItVdted to his friends, says a devoted adherent, his enmity, though not 
violent, was not easily appeased. He was indifl'ereut to i)ersonal ease and 
idiiifort, and to the acquisition of wealth. Wtll-f' ]yiilker\-< A./jm/., '2\-'A, I'J'J- 
■JOl. He was not incapable of lofty conceptions, and jxissessed courage and 
aliiRgation; but there was little of what might be called genius about liim, 
tlioiigii his mind was sufficiently unbalanced in certain directions to give hinx 
a title to that distinction. He wished to be a great man like Ca'sar or Nupo- 
It'oii, l)\it the elements of that quality of greatness were absent. He might 
liave carved for him.self a career of honor and usefulness, but for the restless 
aiiiliition that possessed him to attain a place among the notabilities of the 
worlil, even by a disregard of law and justice. The idea of manifest destiny, 
so prevalent among his countrymen, which implied tlie conquest i>f the Latin 
race in America by the Anglo-Saxon, afforded him, as he imagined, tiie op])or- 
tiinity for attaining the coveted renown, and at the same time securing, 
through his instrumentality, the future happiness of Spanish America. But 
uiifnitunately for him, he committed, at the inception of his career in Nic, 
acts wliich alienated him the men who had invited him to cooperate in the 
iniisdlidation of democratic principles; and some of his later measures, what- 
ever may be thought of his earlier ones, savored of recklessness, and of <lisre. 
gard for the good opinion of mankind. 

"iMufloz had openly ojiposed all interference of foreigners in the affairs of 
Nic. 

'They afterward returned to Leon, via Realejo, to continue sers'ing. The 
legitimists had many killed and wounded, among the tirst being Col E. Ar« 





\'i 



330 



W^VLKEK'S CAMPAIGN IN NICARAGUA. 






i '\ 



liis phalanx reached San Juan del Sur, whence thoy 
returned to Realcjo on the brig San Jose;^ and shortly 
after, Estrada, the legitimist president, went to Mana- 
gua in June, staying there until early in July, when the 
first cases of cholera occurred.^" The mortality in 
Managua from the epidemic was greater than in any 
other town, owing to the concentration of troops there. 
The army which had been organized for assailing Leon 
was destroyed within a few days ; and only a small 
body of officers of all grades, some of them in a dying 
condition, transferred themselves to Granada, entirely 
abandoning Managua. The epidemic was still doing 
its work, when the action of El Sauce took place on 
the 18th of August, between forces respectively com- 
manded by Guardiola and Munoz, in which the former 
wore defeated, and abandoned the place to their assail- 
ants; but just as success was crowning democratic 
efforts, Munoz was killed by a bullet entering his side." 
The victors, now under Colonel Sarria, did not pupsue 
the enemy, but resolutely countermarched to Leon, 
and meeting Jerez on the road, who vished to lead 
them against the legitimists, they refused to follow 
him. 

Another expedition under Walker, composed of 50 
foreigners and 120 natives, whose immediate chief was 

f Hello and F. Elizondo. Of Walker's foreign force, Col Achilles Kewcii, 
laj. Crockett, ami eight others were killed, and 12 wounded. WelW Wiilkr'^i 
EjjH'd., 52; Perez, Mem. Hist. Hev. Aic, 138; S. F. Alto, July 10, Auf,'. U, 
18.5.'); AsUihunuujn, Cent. Am., 88; Belly, Nic, i. 271; Ferrer de Coiito, Cimt. 
fie Mi'j., 155. 

' In his official report of the aifair Walker laid the blame for his ill success 
on Muiioz, who had apprised Corral of the intended operations, and had in- 
duced Ramirez to forsake him during the action. He demanded an investiga- 
tion into Munoz' contluct, and if it were not granted he would quit the service. 
Castellon informed him in reply that in the present critical condition of the 
democratic cause it was unadvisahle to displease Mufioz. After much cor- 
respondence and negotiation, Walker agreed to continue liis services. 

'"Cholera spread rapidly throughout the country, causing great havoc 
everywhere. 

" Mufioz' death never was attributed to the enemy's bullets. It was a 
regular case of assassination resulting from intrigues in his own jjarty to rid 
themselves of him. The assassin was a young lionduran named Jose Maria 
Herrera, who later deserted from Walker's ranks, and being arre.steil ami 
sentenced to death, confessed that he had kdled MuBoz. A Nicaraguan 
named Santa Maria, who was shot at San Jorge in 1857, seems to have heea 
an accomplice. Perez, Mem. Hint. Rev. Nic, 141-3 



SAN JUAN DEL SUR EXPEDITION. 



J. M. Vallo. alias El Chelon, sailed from Realcjo oh 
tlie 23d of August, and landed at San Juan del Sur 
on the 29th, his main object being to take up a posi- 
tion on the transit route between the two oceans. 
The news of his landing reached Granuda on Guar- 
(lidla's return from his ill-fated fijjfht at El Sauce. 
Guardiola went to Rivas, and assuming command of 
500 men, in the night between the 2d and 3d of Sep- 
truiber, marched against Walker. Once on the main 
road he heard that the latter had gone to La Virgen, 
on Lake Nicaragua, and rapidly countermarched to 
tl '< place, expecting to surprise the enemy. But he 
made the mistake of ^^ttacking an opponent whom he 
couki not see, and in a little while his men became 
disjiersed, and hurried back to Rivas. This may be 
.said to have been the end of Guard iola's career in 
Nicaragua,'- Corral was now placed in conmiand of 
tlic legitimist forces in the south. 

Castellon, the head of the democratic! government, 
(lieu o cholera on the 2d of September, and Senator 
}Sa;:<'ix.) Escoto was called to succeed him. 

Walker's force, after his victory at La Virgen, 
bt'came greatly augmented with native democrats.'' 
Ills movement on La Vlrfjen was intended to show 
tluit he had a sufficient force to take the offensive. 
After the action he returned to San Juan del Sur, 
Mliere he received from Corral a paper hinting at a 
desire to enter into confidential relations with him, to 
wliieh he paid no attention. His plan was to make a 
dash upon and occupy the legitimist seat of govern- 
ment, the battered city of Granada." In furtlicranco 

'- Ho was suspected of treachery. He had displeased the officers by his 
coarseness, and had spread terror among the troops with his exaggerated 
reports of Yankee valor and skill with lire-arnia. Iil., 145; WrlW Walker's 
Efied., 55-8; S. F. Herald, Oct. 10, 1855; Id., Alta, Oct. 10, ISo^;; Sac. 
Union, Oct. 19, 1855. 

" He w»s joined by such men as T., C, and Daniel Canton, Max. Espinosa, 
and Kamon Uniafia. The last named brought troops and supi)lies from Leon. 

"In the early part of Sept., Gen. Jos(5 M. Ballestero, Mufloz' successor, 
had sent two companies in the direction of Managua, mIio wore undone by 
Ciil Tonias Martinez with 200 men; on the 12th Gen. Pineda marched after- 
ward with a double force against the legitimists, but failed to meet them. 



332 



\VALKER'.S CAMPAIGN IN NICARAGUA. 



i.» .', 



of which Espinosa was despatched to Leon to ask the 
governnieut for a diversion toward Managua, so as to 
draw resources away fiom Granada. General Pinedu 
was accordingly stationed with a respectable force in 
Pueblo Nuevo. The legitimists, uuder General Hei'- 
nandez, attacked Pinedii on the 11th of October, de- 
feated and drove hiin out of the place, after which lio 
demanded of the goverinuent at Leon the surrender 
of the town, together with its garrison and militaiy 
stores, as the only means of averting the bloodshed 
which must follow any attempt at resistance. Tin; 
democrats suffered reverse, but Walker gained his 
point. Granada was left with a weak garrison. He 
had a force of 250 natives and about 80 Americans, 
with which he left San Juan at daybreak on the llth 
of October, arriving at La Virgen early the same 
morning. In the afternoon Colonel Hornsby seized 
the steamboat Virgen, and the next morning tlio 
troops were embarked and informed that their destina- 
tion was Granada. They affected a landing at ■■> 
o'clock in the morning of the 13th, and took Granada 
with little resistance from the insijjfnificant civic ouard 
which constituted the garrison. ^^ The i)lace was 
taken before a majority of the inhabitants knew wIkj 
their visitors were. President Estrada, and the min- 
isters Nicasio Castillo and Francisco Barberena, saved 
themselves on foot in different directions, wliich 
the other ministers, Mayorga and Puiz, failed to do. 
The fact is, that persons who did not get away at tlie 
moment of the invasion found themselves unalde to 
do so, and at the mercy of the enemy WalkiT, \\n\\- 
ever, checked the abuses of his soldiery, and lil)erated 
nearly 100 political prisoners, who had been kept in 
chains and at hard labor, and who now joined his 
banner to a man. He next issued a proclamation 
guaranteeing the lives, liberty, and property of legiti- 
mists promising to be peaceable. *^ 

'■' CuiTiil was in Ilivas with liis iiunicrous army. Fulgoncio Vcg.i, thr 
coiiiiiii(lantu (if (iraiiada, wlio was hated by the <luiuocratH i'» the author (it 
persecutions, hid himself and Wiis not diseovered. 

'"The legitimists who were pent up in the city tendered their allegiance, 



■-^* 



the 

s tf) 
leda 
c in 

Icr- 

[i lie 
lid' r 
itarv 
slu'.l 
Tin; 

L Ills 

Ho 

cans, 
lUh 

sanu! 

icizrd 

r tlio 

sthm- 
at ;5 
ua<lii 
riiai'tl 
was 
%v!i«> 
niin- 
vivfd 

() do. 

t the 

lo to 

liow- 

•atrd 

)t in 

fl his 

ition 

o-lti- 



tlu' 



ATTITUDE OF THE BELLIGERENTS. 



333 



Walker now manifested a disposition to treat with 
Corral, who had prepared five hundred men for an 
atti'mpt to recover Granada, Juan J. Ruiz, Estrada's 
minister of war, was despatched by water in company 
with John H. Wheeler, the American minister, to 
convey a message to Corral at Rivas; but on finding 
that the legitimist ger.eral had gone oft' to the eastern 
department, he escaped into Costa Rica. Another 
connnission went by land, and meeting the legitimist 
army near Xi.ndainie, comnmi x'ated to the general 
Walker's message to this effect: peace, on tlie condi- 
tion that the two leaders should govern the republic, 
Corral as president, and Walker as commander of the 
forces.^' The proposition was not accepted. Tlie ex- 
pciUtion which had been prepared for an effort to re- 
cu[»('rate Granada finally went to ^tasaya, where the 
legitimist government became organized, with Presi- 
dent Estrada, and his ministers, Castillo and Barbe- 
reiia. 

The officers wdio had won the victory at Pueblo 
Nuevo, fearing that their country would become a 
prey to the foreign adventurers, proposed to Escoto's 
- 'vernment a fusion of the parties, to drive Walker 
and his ui} rni'dons out of the country. This effort 
failed.'^ Walker and Valle, for tlieir successful cam- 
paign in the south, were on the 22d of October pro- 
moted to brigadier-general. The first named, angered 
by Corral's refusal to accept his proposals, and ignoring 
his own pledges to the prisoners taken at (xranada, 
reduced to close confinement some of the most promi- 



among them the minister Mayorga. There were others who volunteeroil tlieir 
ei)''|ieratinii; among them the uatiiralizeil citi/ena Charles and I'jiiile Thomas, 
Kiiiniii Ferrer, a wealthy eitizen, and the lieloved and respeeted elergynian, 
A;:i -tin Vigil, noted for his virtues, learning, and elo(iueiu'e, who from tiio 
l)iil|iii ealled Walker the 'angel tutelar de Nieai-agiia,' or tlu^ nmlh star 
tli.it was to guide Nie. to her advancement. WiJl--:' W'olbr'.'i K.fped., (i|-r); 
/Vci;. \[i'm. Jlist. Her, Xic, 150-1; Belli/, ^V/c, i. 271-2; Astuhitrwhiit, t'lni. 
Am., S<> 

''Tilt commissioners were Sebivstian Escobar, Jose Argilello Aree, Hilario 
S.ilva, am' U. Vives. /'erez, Mem. JIU. A'lr. Air., 1,V.>. 

''Tilt! commissioners, Kosalio (Jortes E,ud Ramon Mareneo, were impris- 
oned ia irons at Leou. 



1 




1' 


1 


1 






Liiuicc, 



e ' < %m 



834 



WALKER'S CAMPAIGN IN NICARAGUA. 



ncnt, among them the ex-minister Mayorga,^^ where- 
upon a commission, composed of the Frenchman Pierre 
Rouhaud of Granada, and Fermin Arana, represented 
to Corral the necessity of his coming to amicable 
arrangement with Walker, but he declined a second 
lime. Meanwhile an incident occurred which greatly 
aunravated tlie evils of the situation. Parker H. 
Frenclr" l)r()ught fifty men to Walker from California, 
who, under a so-called Colonel Fry, were to capture 
Fort San (Mrlos, wlucli tlicy failed to do. The steamer 
then returned to Granada to leave the recruits, and to 
La Vi'rgcn to land the rest of the passengers. Tliis 
was done just as some legitimist troops, under Captain 
F. Gutiei'rez, arrived. Gutierrez asserted that he had 
been fired upon from the house of the Transit com- 
pany, and returned tlie fire, keeping it up till hostili- 
ti(;s from th- other side ceased. The result was, that 
two or three passengers from the United States were 
killed. The San Carlos also fired shots at the river 
steamer on her return from the north with passengers, 
a gnu killing a woman and child. "^ This news readied 
Granada together with Corral's second refusal. Walker 
then resolved upon retaliation, to avenge the slain of 
San Ciirlos and La A^irgen, and to frighten the legiti- 
mists into accepting terms of compromise. Mayorga, 
a ^'(tun;>■ man of twenty-nino, u'enernlly esteometl for 
his fine (pialities, was the chosen victim, and sh(~it iii 
the morning of the 2.')d." K((uliaud and Arana wont 
on the 22d to Masaya, reporting Alayorga's fate, and 
urging the al)solute necessity of disarming Walkers 
wrath to avert jjfreater calamities.'^'' Added to tlieir 



'"'lliis porsdu took asylum in tlio lioiiso of U. S. Miiii8tcr Wlionlar. win 
.iscuriil him that Iil' vas uikIlt the in-dtcctiou of tin,' U. S. iiag. Hut :is 
WliccliT was iiiixi'il [iij» ill (ilihiistcriuf,' Hciitiiion. lie hroko his plcdgi- ami 
BUri'C'iiikTid Mayorga. Perez, Mem. IHxl. I'ei\ J\'ic., loT 

■^'' All Amoiiciiii, who had hv.vn tho recipient in (Jrauada of many marks of 
considiratiou, 

'■" WaMvor's organ gave a list of killed and wounded. I'Jl Nicnrarii'iemc, Nov. 
17, 18.V); S /•'. J/er<ihl,'Sm-. 4, ISrw; ,S\ F. liuUethi, Nov. o, KSo"). 

-"■' It is claimed t!'..it he had hcc i tried for treason liy a court-iiiarti.il "f 
native otiicers. WelW Wnlhr •> lufinl., 77. 

'-''J'liey rejiorted, as eomiiig from Walker, that he was resolved to .sjidut 
all the [irisoners if he did not receive at ',) I'. M. a satisfactory answer resin't- 
iug aiTaugcmeuts. Perez, Mem. Hist. Her. Nic, lu'J; Belly, Le Skaritijun, 'I'l'i. 



ASCENDENCY OF THE FILIBUSTER. 



335 



statement was a petition from the prisoners in favor 
of '»eace> and tlic alarming news that four hundred 
iiidio riflemen had arrived to hwcU Walker's army. 
The legitimist authorities concluded then to negotiate 
i\)V jcace, and scut Corral to Granada on the 23d for 
that, purpose, which was tantamount to a capitulation. 
TJie cliief clauses agreed u])()n between him and AValkcr 
Avcre : susr-^nsion of hostilities ; recognition of Patrici( > 
lilvas as provisiorial president; and reorganization of 
the two coiitcndiiiij forces into one armv, with Walker 
as its commander-in-chief"^ Corral returned to !Ma- 
saya, and Estrada, submitting to the force of circuiii- 
staiices, approved it, though his army was disposed to 
disregard the capitulation."' However, he filed a 



I tor 
ot in 
Iwont 
and 
Ikt'r's 
ItlH'ir 

ir. \vl" 
ll'.ut as 
ire ;uiil 

lu'ks of 

[ti;il "f 
l> shout 

I'Slll'I't- 

I, -rn- 



' Walker claimed to have 



nifutL 



Tlio foUdwi 



powo 



rs, anil Corral was ' facultado oinnfmoda- 



IS a synopsis < 



if tl 



le convuntio 



Lst. ] 



e^lee aiu 



I 



fi'iindsliip Iietwccn tin; contending parties; l?d. Tatricio iiivas to bejiri'sidcnt 
f(ir 14 iiiontlis, unless ho should resolve, with the advice of liis ministers, to 
oi'iirr elections hefore the expiration of that term; 'Ad. Tlie president is to 
liavt^ four ministers, namely, for war, relations, treasury, and pul). credit; 
4ili. (iovt to respect and cause to he respected chapters I'd, lid, and 4lh 



ises 'Jd and |{d of the 



"all. ( 



cnera 



1 f(i 



■tfulii 



gene 



;il 



ilati 



if tlie constitution of I.S.'kS; 



ness of and amnesty lor past p< 



ilitical oll'en 



(ith 



Kilts incurred liy lioth liellijrei-L'uts to lie reco,i;ni/ed hy tlie yovt; Ttii. .Mili- 



t:ii'\- ura 



les of liotil helligerelits to lie recognized; Xtli. All peisons d 



< irons 



(if Icavint; tlio repulijio may freely do so, witli full guaranty of ptrsons anrl 
t'st;ites; lltii. The l'"rench legion may continue in service hy hcconiiny Nica- 
r.inuaii; lOth. AN'alker to order the force in front tif .Manai'ua to retire at once 



to Leon, rediiciiiif it to ]."i() 



ifter whicii Corral sliould reduce the force 



in Managua to JUO, under (J 
('ill Lino Cesar, or some other li 



Marti 



that ill Masa\a to ."•((, under 



•alile oliiccr; lltli. The Itivas for 



cc \\i 



n 



riMiiain under (Jen. Floreiicio Xatruch; I'Jl 



T 



le govts existing in Aic. to 



cease acting u[iou hiMiig no 



tilled of this a 



rran^inu 



nt liv tl 



y the res]iictive geu- 



jicafi. 



any one refusing to comply was to he treated as a distniher 



if tlr 



Additional articles: 1st. Twenty-four hours after Jvivas' arrival in 
• iranada. Corral's army from Masaya was tocntcr ( Jrunaila, and together witii 
\\alker's, escort the president and the two generals to church to return 
Ls to ( iod for tiie restoration of peace. Walker to lie the geiieral-iii-thief 



III tl 



le a 



rmy, appm 



nted hy a s 



il dc 



Corral should surrender the 



ciiiniiiand, arms, etc., unless otherwise ordered liy tlie Uiw govt; "Jd. 'i'lie 



pivl must reside in (iranada; .'Id. Tl 



iriny was to use no other h, 



.d^;.' th. 



line rill 



hon, with the inscription Nicaragua Jndcpendiinte. /</., 1(11 4: /:'[ 



'•ii-'iniiji'ii iiM', Oct. 'J7, is," 



1(1, Ks.'i 



siiiiiia Xi 



hS'J 



'/., 



liohtiii U/ii 



W" 



!>, IS.td; Citiil., Utii-ihi 



17, l.s.").l 



11'.//./ ir.///v 



7i-S(); (liiiif., (liicttii, Nov. 1(1, liS.'ia. 



tl 



leir general, and to 



d t(i 



marc 1 1 



.\ plan had liecn formed to procliiin Martii 

li against ( Jraiiada, Imt the principal chiefs dis' .luntenauced it. Corral 
assured the troops that their former enemies were now triends and hrothers, 
ni'iiiiiiMending strict discipline 'so pena de ser p.asado jior las annas el ipio 
lie ciiikpiierii numera violase la anustad y ali an/.a promctitlus." J'lnz, Mini. 
Jli<^t. Itco. xVic, lGG-7. 



330 



WALKER'S CAMPAIGN IX NICAKA<;UA. 



I ft 



protest doclaring that the arran<:^enicnt liad been forced 
111)011 him, and therefore void."" He called on the 
otl cr governments to come, without further invita- 
tion, and 'save the independence, sovereignty, and lili- 
crties of Nicaragua ; and to that effect ai)[)oIiit(d 
commissioners with unlimited powers"^ to conclude 
adequate treaties. The fall o^ Cahanas in Honduras 
opened an opportunity in that direction. Estrada dis- 
solved his gt)vernment October 28th, and departed for 
Cliontales, but soon after had to take refuge hi Hon- 
duras. 

Fermin Ferrer and Valle, alias El Chelon, were de- 
spatched as commissioners to obtain the assent of tlie 
government at Leon to the convention of October 2;!(1, 
which, in view of Walker's rebellion, was given only 
after some hesitation."^ A. commission was despatclicd 
to Walker to thank hiin for his services, which had 
made possible a peace, and to authorize him to ratily 
the arrangement. AfL-r which the government, Octo- 
ber 28th, dissolved itself. The commissioners ''" arrived 
at Granada on the 31st, and found there the provis- 
ional president, Patricio Rivas,*' who had arrived 
from San Juan del Norte on the 30th, and occupied 
the presidential chair. He had at first appointed 
Cf)rral minister of war, Walker general of diN'ision 
and ill chief of the forces, and Norberto Kamiicz 
minister of relations. Corral was pleased witli tins 
arrangement, as Eivas was disposed to rely on him; hut 
Walker became suspicious, and the result was tiiat, 
Corral's opposition notwithstxiiding, Rivas was made 
a blind tool of Walker, and in obedience to orders ap- 

'■'* 'C'ciU liuicamentc ill imperio du liis circuiiMtancias, Sin toiitr lihir vn'mi- 
tail para tUo.' Ah:, Jiolrthi Ojif., May 'Jit, ISoli. 

''■'' iSaoaza, Duffias, Pedro J. ChaiiKirro, and two others. 

'•"'Nm-lierto Kaiuirc?, who favoreil its ratilieatioii as tlie least of two evils, 
Sfiul ill tlie oouneil: 'I know that we liavc lu^fore lis two aliy.sma; one ('l'»e 
by, and the other a little farther off: that the di.sapjtroval of the treaty i mp- 
ries us to the nearest one, a>id its approval to the other somewhat niniij 
distant.' His ad viee was followed. I'crrz, Miin. Hint. ]{ii\ Sic, ItifS. 

^"Maximo Jerez, B. Selva, A. Orozeo, llafael Jerez, Justo Lugo, P. Y"n- 
seca, and JosO Salinas. 

'"Uivas was rejiuted an lionorahle, firm, and enliglitened man. He li'nl 
repeatetlly been a eaiulidate of tlie couservativca for the executive olliee. 



hat, 



IcluSO 

I- I'ur- 
liiiorc 



ll'.m- 



Ml ItHKHOrs rUOCEKDINCS 



;s;w 



^Kilntcd a new (•;il)ln('t Avitli ji luajonty of drnuH-ruts; 
naiiu'ly, ]\[;i\iiii(> Jvvva, of relations; Ferniin Ferrer, 
(if |)ul)lic erotlit; l\irker II. Frencli, of the treasury; 
( niral retaininu;- the war portfolio. The latter now 
;>a\\' the abyss his weakness had thrown him into. 
The man who, i'liiorini'" the dutv he owi'd his cause, 
tlireatoned with death anyone proposinsj,' to him j)lans 
against Walker, now writes ]\[artinez, ocjinandante at 
.\hi;Kii»'ua, that all is lost, and lie, ]S[artinez, must take 
some steps to savi> the eountry. With this letter' were 
tiirlosed others to the same effect addressed to general.s 
(iuardiola and IVdro Xatruch, who had returned to 
Honduras."' These letters went into the hands of 
^\ alker," who at once called to his ])rcsence the len'iti- 
iiiists then in the city to forl)id the departure of any of 
them, and laid the letters Irjfore l\ivas and hiscahinet. 
Corral acknovledued the authorship, declarimj; that 
ho was solely respi>nsihle for them. It was then de- 
cided to conf.ne in prison Corral and his chief suji- 
]ioiters. This was on the 5th of Xovemher. the day 
after Corrahs troo])s had l)een, without any previous 
notice, disarmed.'"' On the Gth, it was decreed that 
Corral should be dealt with as a traitor and tried by 
court-martial, which was done in the i)rescnce and 
Avith the approval of the o^overnment, notwithstanding^ 
its il](>oality.''* ^ITie trial took [ilace, and the prisoner 
\va> sentenced to death.'" The })rison(U''s family used 
the utmost exertions to liave the sentence revoked, 

•'Tn XatriK'li lu! siiiil, 'Ndsotrns cstaiiios limy iiial, iiiuy mal, imiy iii:il. 
Ai-m'nlt'.so do KUH ii)iii;,'(i.s. Kilns iiu; him <lfj:iil(i cst;i ]u,'Siiila curga y oMjieni 
Kii sdidi'iM.' To (itiai'ilioLi, Xiiv, 1st: 'It is iiucossary that you write oiii' 
Iritii'ls (if the ]i('ril wt; uiv in, and tiiat they iiiiist go a'tlvt'ly to work. It 
tliii'.' is a (k'lay of two moiitlis, it will then lie too lati'. 'I'liiiik ol' us and oi 
Vdur dti'iTs. . . Nicaragiia, Honduras, San Salvador, anil ( luatcuiala will he lost 
II till y allow thi.s to assume jii-oportioiis; kt tlu-ni come (juickly it they ex- 
l" 't 1i> tind auxilaries. 

Iienito Lagos, the mai\ tovhom they wi've inti'Usted for delivery, took 
thrill to ( Iraiiada and gave them to N'alle, who suriiiidered tliem to \\ alkt ; . 

'Walker had, after adopting preeautions against resistanee, madi^ tiiein 
stack their arum in the pla/a, and disperse. 

'"U was a violation of the eonstitution oi 181^8, and of t'i laws. Corral. 
:i> Miiinister, could not he tried without a prior inipeaehmcut, and only !•;. 
till' Miiate; and as a jirivati; citizen, liy the common courts. 

'Hornshy was president of the court; Fry, auditor or jndgc-advocatu; 
1 leiii h, c'.mnsel for the iirisoner; and Charles Thonuis, interpreter. 

m^T. Cent. Am.. Vol. HI. jj 






J ft 




f ! m 



338 



WALKKKS CAMl'AKiN IN MlAUA(iUA. 



i' t 



but Walker was iiiilcxiMi", and tlic jx-nalty \vas inflicted 
on tlic 8th of NovendxT,"'" causini^ tlio utmost con- 
sternation in the native community. TIjo portfolio 
of war was s^iven to Selva by a decree of Novcnnbtr 
otli. A'allc wtiit to ^ranaL;'ua to ]>la('e .Pascnal J'\m- 
scca in connnaiid, \ ice Martinez, and to report if the 
latter made any I'esistanee, in which event Walker 
would have shot his legitimist prisoners, l^ut as none; 
was oll'ered, ]\rartinez having had timely warniiiL;, 
AValker had them releast'd.''" 

Walker was now master of Nicaragua. As a 
matter of fact, the secondary leaders were scattered 
and powerless, and but for tlie execution of Corral, 
and the wanton imprisonment of subordinate' officials 
and private citizens, the conservative l>arty would 
have submitted with a good gi'ace to the new order of 
things, if pledged security of life and property. It is 
undeniable that the legitimists feared the Yankees'*'* 
li'ss than they ditl the native democrats. Walker jut - 
ti'udcd a great respect for religion, without whoso 
su])p()rt, he said, no government could have stability.'"* 
He succeeded in l)orrowing from the vicar DG.'] ounces 
of fine silver belonging to the church; and it is evi- 
dent that he })laced great reliance on a numerous 
foreign immigration to keep his ranks well filletl.^" A 
dccn-e was issued at this time by the governnunt, 
and ])ublished in its oflicial journal, which might ho 
called one for the confiscation of the property of aii- 

'"Ho died bravely, Fatlicr Vifiil attoiidiug him to tlie scafluld. ]ii'\.as 
sill fc by a s([iiad of Anieiicau rilit'iiit'ii, coiiiiiiaiidtMl by Liciit-inl t'. Ji. C.il- 
man. A''fttf>iirihv/ii, Coif. Am., [)1; Pcnz, Mini, Jl'mt. Ji'ri:. JS'k., ITl-Ii; 'Stunt's 
LV-V,, l<JV-8; irr//w' WoUrr'.-* Kqird., <)-2-l. 

■'• \s oiiiiortiuiity otHiirroil, i lu'V all laii away, some to the mountains, :i;hI 
ot !'.•-; to tlio ncij^lilioi-ing states to Mork in saving their couut"v fruni t!io 
yui!.! ■ s foreign sway. 

■■' '• mkec^, so callc'il, Mcrc all foreignei'.s, of whatover nationality, scrvini,' 
Willi Walker. 

""Jose llilario Herdoeia, vicario eapitular, having addressed him a cnii- 
piatulatory letter, he answered that 'il tenior do lUososul tundamenti" dc 
toda orf;anizacion jKilitiea y soeial.' 

"'His contract with Ca.stelloii anthorized him ordy to bring SlW imiMi- 
grants; but ho soon obtained lca\-e to auyini'nt hi.^ forces, and to enlist nuii 
as best he conld. A decree published Nov. 'JI!, IS.")"), oH'ercd 27)0 acres ol laiil 
to each imnii;jrant, and jmi'. i.ii're to each family. The title deed was te I'e 
i^ssucd six mouths after arrival. Fabens was named director of ccdoniKitiin- 



ii' 



■"•:^-"„«.s, „o,M.;.sr„- .sy ,.,„„„,,, 



•"'.v I'.cv.ou.. l,.j,„| ,,„4 "„""""'''' '•ullcot.Wo without 
111-' exiles «■)„) ivacli,.,l' ir i 

•'"'■'."' <Ih. state, (Mi,,,, ■ ■' '""^■''■"■'liola, l,,„v 

^•"'i--. c.!.,-, „. J, ,""''^ "f "»t Wall..,, '•;' 

""-"■» "(• "<-^..ti.ti„r. t ':,■?■'"'/,'';• "«'<'"-mJ 

. > c>nm,.„t, I'utrealjy t„; ll".'r'!''»'"l' "id, t;,o 
I-"n,an,Us„.,.t„i„i . \",7''';'"' ''"' "" ''eaeLi,,, 

•"'■""-•t "f S,i,. .Salvador a 1' ■ ,'"'''"'»Pli«lie,f Tl,„ 
■■•"«>•'■'• " a .i,.,u|„, /"„, ']^., ''■''"""< a sutisfacto,-,. 

;'IT'"'d to Carrcra for ,'1 "'"''"■>■• ""til Kst.aila 
^;; -ul'l l,e rocog„i. d .tXiT''."'"' ^'■•''■^ told tl, 

„„„.v],or,..'- Estracla l^i,,' *; f.' 'f .^'"vcn„„..„t 
-\ iran.jru,, „,,^ difloro„tlv\ , : ^""\tlio situation of 



lilll'.s I 



I'llll (l 

"I 

^'S In 
,11,,,, 






11 ' . lit tj 




:i„is«§ 



, 









Ill 






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If'; 



M) 



WALKER S CAMPAKiN IN NI(AUA(;UA. 



for concerted action against Walkt-r/'' ^[ora in an 
eneri;"etic proclamation asked tlio })e()ple to prepare for 
tlie ilefeiice of tlieir lives and property at a moment's 
call/" VV^alker watched the conduct of Costa Ivict. 
believing it prompted by British influence mainly 
against the United States, llivas' ri'lations with tlir 
cahinct of Washington were nf)t encouraging. It is tnic 
that Wheeler, the American minister, had jtrematurdy 
recognized him, hut he ha<l not been upheld in it by his 
government. Parker It. Fn'uch, being accreilited in 
Xovend)er 1855 as minister at Washington with pow- 
ers to negotiate a treaty, was not received in any dip- 
lomatic capacity. ■'^ He was thereupon recalled, and 
diplomatic lelations were discontinued with Wheeler/' 
President Pierce issued a proclamation against tlio 
departure from the United States of filibustering exjtc- 
ditions, which were declared disgraceful and crimiiial. 
(^^abanas, in whose beludf Jerez had used his best en- 
deavors, having been refused l)y the government any 
aid,™ retired to Salvador,''' and Jerez resigned his })()rt- 
folio on the 8th of January, 185(). Soon after, the 
cabinet was reduced to one, Fermin Ferrer, wlio 
served as nnnistro general. 

Walker now endeavored to gain the good-will and 

♦'■Though tlie Costa Rioaiis had , ...don sauitaire to prevent iiitcixoui^f 
vitli chdh-Ta-stricken Niu., < ion. C'auas rouoivod orders to furnish resdurifs to 
(ien. Florencio Xatrucli, anil other otiieials of the dept of Riva.s, who lleil to 
Costa Kica on liearing of Corral's exeeution. 

*'' IJishop Uorente also warned theiu that their religion was in peril. 

♦'"Sec. of state Marcy wrote Dec. '21st, in answer to his connniuiication nf 
the I'Jth, that the pre:id(!nt saw as yet no reason to hold dijiloniatic inter- 
course with the persons ' who now elaini to exercise the political power in the 
state of Nicaragua.' lie said that the persons chielly instrumental in ovui- 
throwiiig the former govt were not citizens of Xie., 'nor have those eitizc lis, 
or any cousideralile jiart of tliem, so far as is now known lii're, freely cxpr '--i n 
tlieir approval of, or ac(piiescence in, the present condition of political athurs 
in Nicaragua.' 

''•' Wheeler was told, however, l>y the foreign nnnister of Nic. that tlioii;:li 
ollicial relations were sus])ciided, the utmost good feeling existed toward lnm. 
AV Xicoraijiii'n.-ic, Feb. 2, 1S.")0. 

•'^The assistance would have l]eeii given him hut for AValkcr, 'no in.uiil.i- 
lian los denioeratieos, sino Walker.' Jt was not for Walker's interest just 
then to engage in hostilities against any neighboring power. l\ii-., Mi'"'- 
I'iniiji. JV(ir.,'2d i)t, 21. 

■"l[o exerted himself there in promoting action for the expulsion o! 
AValker from Cent. Am. 



^•;"<^ With tlie demcorats t) d ''^ ' <lisao-ree- 

"'-"t tlie fu,sioM of all Xic... . "^'^'"'•^""'tj' to hri... 

'•'ii'l^a tJiat tlu.v must wn I + ii *''^'^^^''"«»^-rats cn,,. 
A^ alk,.. now conn t' 1 V *'i^\^I"^•^^^ t" I^eon.- 

r^ ^'^'iitnrv .supplies "h n i'.^ ^''' ^'"^'^'^'^i "'^u 

'> ^uako a ^rant to <,tlK.r m^ ' '^ ^/i^^-^l-mtiou, and 
•one Antliout .•ouiumnlcat" • P''' '^'^^^ «^>^'i-^'tl>^ 

'';:'l''7- to Walker's .o,n nu f ^ "^"'" ^'^^' ^"'' ^'^ 
^ m iavor of I^andojp], - r ! ' \["'''^ '^ "^'^^- ^•^'^^^•- 

^ '•^^^^^^'^^^^'^^^-"^^Ppointedeon.nut 



i i 



I L 



-4 i?S. Ji^rr'T" -s." »>E" r^' '5"™ -'" -;;:■ 




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Mi 



\VAMvi;i;S CAMI'AICX I.N NIC.MIACUA. 



sioiiers tt> ascertain tlu; amount f-l" the coiiipaiiN's in- 
(l('l)t(M.liu',ss, ;iiul to attacli tin ir |)ro|)<'rtv, all of Avliit li 
was iloiif with tin; utmost rapidity." Tlio traiis[)ort;i- 
ti'.)!! mcr raised a loud cry, of course, calliM;,;' upon tlu; 
I'uited States novenuneiitto recover tlieii' lake; steam- 
ers iiiid other ^■alual)les; hut the attempt \vas luisuc- 
cessful. The com])aiiy, liowevcr, had means -vvlm li 
they hi()UL;'ht into the service of the Central Anuii- 
cans to compass the destruction of W^alker. 

Costa Ikica liad failed to iioti'-o the connaunieatii n 
iiotifyinn' lier of the new order of thin.^s estahlishdl 
in XicaiaiLi^ua on tlio 2;!d of October, 1855. AValkcr 
now thoULjht the time liad come to demand from tlmt 
cal)inc;t a fraidc explanation of its course.'" ]>ut it 
])ersisted in leaving unanswered the Xicaraguan notes, 
and refused to receive Jjouis Scldessingcr, the envoy 
sent, who retired threatening war and AValkor'a resent- 
ment."' Costa ]{ica acce])ted tlic challenge of Mar. 
]\esident AEora, with the authorization of the legis- 
lative body, resolving to carry the arms of the repuhlic 
into Nicaragua, and to aid in dri\ing out the foreigners. 
War- was accortlingly declared, the strength of the 
army raised to i),000 men, and a loan levied foi' ex- 
penses.'"' After surrendering the exi'cutive othce ti> 
A^ice-presldent Oreanmno, Mora placed himself, en 
the 8th of jNEarch, at the head of an army aheiit 
.*5,000 strong,"' and in a few days was in J^agaces, at 



"' Thc! ilucroi'.s, oriU'i'.s, and oilitoriiil foiiiiiR'iits tlicrL'tui, in tlic govirniiutit's 
organ. JJl jXirdrdi/iiciisr, Vvh. '2'.i, Ksrili; Asliiliiinitnin, Cciil,. Am., 'M-H; I'ldii. 
U Mr.ini^iwi, 'JT'.'t-SO; WilW W,ill:,'r.'<K.ijKil., LMIS^l.".; ,V. /'. liiilldhi, -M:in!i 
'J2, April ](), JS:)(>; ,b'. /''. Alhi, .Mairli 'J.'!, JSrxi; Sur. i'l,),,,,, M.iivh L't. .\iiiil 
2r), IS.-)!). 

!)K i l';i,.,i ,|ii(, ix'calie do a(|nul galiim^to una franca u.Nplicacioii sdliru l;i ]iiili- 
tica ([110 ha t'stado olisorvaiKlo con rospucto al actual (Joiiiorno do J^Jicaragiiu. 
Kl y/riir(ii/iirii.ii', l'\'li. 1(1, ]iS.")(>. 

■'^Joaijiiin iJ. Calvo, mill, of n^lation.s of Costa It., in liis roport to congress, 
Auj;. 11, 18."i(i, sjiuaks of that mis.sion with coiitcnipt, '))on|iio dc'.sconociil:!. 
acjiii la nii.>ic)ii del iilibustoro, so lo hizo rogrosar do la frontora.' CoMa J'., 
Menu />/., 1, ..(•), 4. 

«^La\v.s of Foh. T, and '2S, lS.")(i; Caitt /?., Col. Lrij., xiv. 7-11, I"': >'• •'>'■ 
Govt l)t,i\, Cong. ;i4, Si'.'^s. 1, Sen. Doc, (iS, I'Jl, i:^:$-4!t, vol. xiii. 

'''Koniiiialiy; tho real coniniandcr was a ( ■crniaii ollicor nannil llanui 
liulow. /'rr<z,M)iii. Cinii]!. .\'-f.'., '-'d pt, :>-!; Cos/a J{., /'ity. Siii'lto<, nc '': 
Wd/s' Walker s KxpaL, Kii). 



COSTA ItICA TO TlIK JlKSCUi;. 



343 



nrvs. 

Cl' t" 

I', on 

JxiUt 
■s, i>t 



I'.cWi. 

.M:in!i 

. AvMl 

■u-iigii'-' 
liiiiii'iiU 



no. ^i 



tlio extroinc (^iid of tlic ,l^ulf of Xicoyu, i-cadyto cross 
the froiitici' into Nicarai^iia. W'alkir, wlio si'cincd 
to iiiisjiidi.:-!' ( *osta Jiicaii jtrowcss, sent only oOO iiicii 
under Sclil('ssiiiL;\'i', wlio on tlit; liOtli'"' eiiconntcrcd 
tlic riiciiiy's avanl jji'iiard, and after a few minutes' 
ii-liting weie put to tliL;lit, ]o>inn' a <[uantit\' of anus 
and several ]<ill(>d and wounded.''' A number of piis- 
(iiirrs ('a[>tured l»ytlio Costa ]\ieans were at onec tried 
by fourt-Hiartial and shot.''' SeldessiuLjer with a few 




W AI.KKIi's IvMM'DI I ION 



'-' I'lTcz, (iiidtid uliKVo, 4'2, j^ivcs the 'Jlst. . 

' ' At-fonliiig to (.'(ist.i Kii-.ui rcjKii-ts, diily 4.S0 (if tlicir incu tcuk jMit in 
till! iutioii, tliu cMiciiiy's (Ict'iut l)t'iii,<,' tliu otlrot of a .sin'iirisi! anil a lia\ oiict 
I'liar-f. Tlic'ir casiiallioi wi ro Kct tlowii at 4 dllliiTS ami Jo soldiurs killed. 
Till- lililm.stcrs IkuI u|i\var(l.s of "JO .slain. /(/., ■l'2-'>; Sair., ddcitii, A^v. U 24, 
l!S"iii; A';,-., lialilin On'c., A|)r. '.), Hi, 1N.">(1. lu I'alifoniia tlio report reccivi'il 
was of !)() kilkd in the li-lit ami ]'.) exeeiited. S. /■'. J//", May U, lS.")(i; JMt;i, 
Lc yirdraiiii", tlfy'.); ))'(//•>■' U'ldbrs I'J.ijik/., l,"..'! (iS. 

'■' A.-i armed iuvader^s not servinu' under tlie llag of any leeoynized nation. 
Cihl'i A'., M,',ii. lltL, 1S."(), 4; A^lnliiiniii'jd, I'm/. Am., [H. However eorreet 
the l<i.:it', it was an iiniirudent act, a^ \\'allver mit;lit retaliate on Costa liieari 
and (iilur Cent. Am. ]irisoners. Wlneler, without instrnetions irom the 
I-'. S. ;.r,,vt^ t,„ii^ uiHin himself to ollieiaUy s:iy to .Mera tliat the fxeeutioii of 



, I 



'X h 












■JH.ifeJr 



:ut 



WALKllU'S CAMl'AKiX I\ NICAH-UITA. 



men reached RivasJ, where Walker had eoncontrult d 

his furees, and unsuccessfully tried to exculpate liim 

H' (i.'i 

'IMie Costa l^icans marched to Rivas, and as tin y 
iipin'oachcd Walker retired on the Transit coinpaiiN > 
lake steamers to (iranada. Two columns of oOO each 
dislodged (»n the 7th of A])ril the Nicaraguan ,L;ani- 
sons left hy AValker in La Virg'en and San .Tuan d.l 
Sur, and on the followiiiL^ day the rest of the aiiiiy 
occupied llivas. Hut Walker soon came upon tliciii. 
Under cover of the thick ])lantain and cacao }»l;iii- 
tations, he entered unperceived in the morning;' "t 
the 11th. His attack heu^an ahout 8:130 and last.il 
till night. He captured the main plaza, and I'lnm 
the church and houses kept up a deailly fire on 
the enemy, stationed only two blocks a^vay. Tlir 
latter fought desperately, till Walker, finding hinist It' 
closely pressed hy Costa llican reenforcements iVeiii 
La Virgen ami San Juan <U'l Sur,"" and surrounded 
by Imrning buildings, gave voders for retreat, wliidi 
was silently effecti'd under cover of the darkn('>s, 
never tarrying till he reached the (iil (Jonzalez lii\(i'. 
He left behind a considerable nund)er of rifles, reveU- 
ers, and other arms, and about 50 saddled horses, 
besides his seriously wounded in the church. Tln' 
Costa Rican victory was com})lete, though at tlic 
expense of lieavy casualties.'*' The victt)rs were re- 

tlieso moil was a colil-Mooilud nmrdur, assuming at tlio Kamo tinif that tlio 
moil si'i'viiig inulor Walkor were citizoiis of his own coiuitry. Wells' II .///((•'■< 
Kiiml., ]7l)-<5. Tlio fact is that only two or three wi ro natives of the U. S. 

''■' lie was aoousod of cowardice and even of treaihery, and arrested lur 
trial, lint eseaping afterward from jirison, w is sentenced to death as a desi rter. 
Jle turned up in Tcustepe, where he \vas allow<;d to servo in the legitiiiii-^t 
force. WdW Walker's E.'prif., '2:u-S. 

""t'ommanilod respectively hy majors Alfaro Uuiz and Kcalante, anil Cel 
Salvador Mora. 

"''Tri\info complctamente sohre ellos, escarmentiindolos, y pouiendel.is 
de nuevo en ver gonzoza fuga.' Co-itii It., Mem. Jiti., IS.lti, ,"). Accordini; ti' 
Astahuruaj^a, ('(»/. Am., Uli, the Costa Rieans had lliO kille I, and \\'allier 
upwards of "JOO. Perez, Mem. Vdinp. Xm;, 2d ]it, 4S, gives the Costa ilK;iii 
casualties to have heen l.')0 killed and .'{(H) wounded; and Walker's (il) killed 
and 70 wounded. Wells, claiming a glorious victory for his hern Walker, 
says that the Costa Kican loss coidd not have been li:ss than (iOO killed; and 
that of the wounded and deserters no jirei'iso estimate coidd hi' formed. 
Walker's loss he sets ilowu at JV) killeil and as many wounded. There is no 



UX.SIAI5IJ': roWKK OK TIIK I'JliAli:. 



345 



loiitless towaril tlif first juisoiicrs tliat fill into tlifir 
liaiids. Accoi'ilin^" to Mora's iv[)oit, tlu' ^v xiiitlctl in 
the churcli Wfi'c l>ayoiU'ti'cl, and scvcntft'ii otla'is 
>liot. Walker tried to in ikc out that lie had won a 
niiat vietorv, and the event was celehratcMl in ( Jranada 
with salntes and rinnini;' ot'hflls; and his Hover-nincnt 
imhlished that the ( 'osta Jiicans had been dispci'srd 
Mild were in lull iiiulit."' 

Moia ex})eeted hea\y reiint'oreeinents from Punta 
Arenas, and had fornu'd the plan, after seeui'inLf 
(•astern Niear;ij;ua hetween the I'aeifie and tlu' <j;reat 
lake, and eiittin^" oil' the transit eoninnniieatioii, 
alrejidv susiKMided hv a L-eneral oi'dei', to assail 
Walker in his stronghold of (iranada. ]li'\vas fnr- 
tlitr eii('oni'ai;'ed in this hy news that i'orees of Salva- 
dor and Honduras were alr(>iidy on the west(>rn fron- 
tier, iimler J^elloso and Xatrueh, ivady to eoojierate 
vitli him. But the bri'akinj;' out of eholi'ra in his 
army, with terrible havoe in its raidis, neeessitated tlu; 
altiuuh^nmeiit of the project for the time. And a re- 
port havino' i-ome of plottin^s in C*osta Rica against 
Ills authority, with his l)rotlier Jose Jtiaipiin and his 
jiersonal stall', he returned home, leaving' (general 
Canas in eommand of the remnants of the army, with 
orders to Si-nd it back to Costa Una in the most con- 
venient manner, which was done, manv of the luou 
liciii^ left dead oi' dyini^ on the march. Canas found 
it unavoidable to leave his wounded and sick in llivas, 
and fearing retaliation because of the executions of 
prisf)nurs at Santa Kosa and liivas, he wrote Walker 
on tlie '1(\\\\ of April, recommendiiio' these men to his 
lirotcction, and proposint;' an exchan_»»'e of prisoners, of 

liniuir (ir profit in such mcn<lacitj'. ll''»W(/''.v K.iptL, ]7.")-SS, 24.')-"; S. /■'. 
HiiWlUi, .lunc'J, :{, ]S,")(;; S. F. Altii, .Tiiiio •_', 1S,")(); Sn,-. Cnion, .Iuir' 4, KS.'iti. 
15tlly, Li' yinirai/iKi, 'JS.'i 4, states that though thi' hutth' cost the Costa 
ltii..iiis Too iiii'ii, 'inais(jiii lit t'proiivcr <li' tvlh's |icit('s a I'cmahisseur, i|ii'a 
•liitcr (If 11! iiioineiit, il jionlit ooutiaiice dans sa lUstiiiet'.' Ills lutti r ot Ajii-il 
I'Uli to Senator WcIUt of t'al. provoil this. 

'" Minister Suliuas' ciixulur Apr. 15, 185U. Xk:, Buklin, Ojir., Apr. 10, 
ISJU 



w 


3B 




"■fl 


1 






11 




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34C 



W^^LKER'S CAMPAIGN IN NICAllAGUA. 



"wlioiii Jic liatl twenty, according to the usages of war. 
This hotter liad the desired ettect."^ 



"''■Tore/. , says : 'Trato I'uii huiiiauidail a lo.s Kolilailos (jiic lo fueroii ciicom- 
ciidaild.s.' Mfiii. Caul)). Xar., 'lA pt, 4!)-rvJ. Jtriiiniiio Pcnz, Mtiiiorin'f punt In 
J/i.-/iiria di; it ll<i'nliicinn df Xifurih/mi, ij dc In i/ii'-rrtt iinfiniiid cutilrn ln.ijill- 
bu.<trn)K,lS'.'i-]S'i7. -Managua, IHdri, 8vo, j)p. 17.'!, 21. Tlii.s lirst part of this 
autiiiir's work i.s a liistorii ;.l aououiit of tlio civil war in Nicara^'iia, in tlio years 
IS.")!-."), during wliich latter year tlic lililmster chief, William Walker, ap- 
jicareil on tlie scene, taking part with one of tlie two parties to tlie strife, ami 
tc'ui]i()rurily (lusti'oying tlie power of the other. The political anil military 
events of this ])erioil arc concisely though vividly dei)icted, so that the reaij. i- 
may heconn^ fully ini'onnecl on the motle of cari'ying on the war, and on thr 
miseralile condition of tiu! country, as well as bitter animosity exhiltiteil liy 
the ojipo-iiiig jiarties. .]!• iiiitrin.i parn Iti J/i.^^foriii. i/c li Ciuiqi'ifi'i Nnciotmi 
coiilni (i iilih>i4t ri.oiiii, IS'iii- IS'iT. Ma.saya, ISTIi, Svo, i.-iv.. and 'Jlti ]>., is a 
sei|uel or si'cond part to the ]ireceding liy the same author, in whi 'h he fur 
nisiies a detailed history of AN'alker's lililiustering schemes and carer in ^^i,■• 
ar'agua durim; ]S.")(i -7, till his linal surrendiT and removal from the counfrv; 
eridinL; with a short acciiiiit of AN'alUer's two other at tempts to invadi Cen- 
tral America. W'vv/. t<iok a pai't in the operations ayaiust Walker, and laier 
lia« occupied high positions in his country. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



END OF FILIHU.STEKINC IX CKXTRAL ANIERICA 

is:,c.-isi;7 

RuCOfiNITION 01' I'UI'.SIDKN T ftnAS l;V IIIK UNriKli S lAI IS— '\VaI.K Hu's llos- 

Tii.r. Ati'itidk— Ki.iciii' in' lli\ as — \\.\[,ki;i; >rAKr.s Ilnisi:i.i' rE;i;si- 
rir,NT--Aii.i.\Ni'K . iiArssi' ili.M--l)i;Aiii of Estuaka— Tiik Li:i:iriMisr.s 

Al'CK.I'T IllVAS -(.'( -lA RiCANS AN1> XUAIJ A( ; f A SS . ' R I V AS- I >i:SII!U(> 
•IION (IK (I KAN AD A" I T IS OlCf I'l 111 i I'.V Al.1,11 Ii Fdl.'i I'S - A\' A IK |;K RkOCCU- 

I'lEs RtVAs — \Viii:i;i; 11k is I>i:sik(;i;i) — Srci kssks or riii; CnsiA Rk'ans 
• --FAn.iiiK di' Lockiu'lIck's Ivm-kuihon — SriMtKSDKii ok Walkku — 

WaI! or NlCAIiACIA AMI ( 'oS I'A liU'A — ( 'o.M MO Hoi; i; T AIT.HP.'; Nil 

Wai.kuii's Sr.i'oMi AriKMi'i' — ^^"AI.Kl.l;'s Invasion ok IIon.huas, CaI'- 

•irUK, AND KxK.mioN — (ioVlCU.N.MKNT KiXIKOA:^ I/KD^l'UKSlDE.NT MaK- 
TINKZ' A DMIMSIKATIONS. 

After tlic (.le})artiiro of the C'osta Rifan forcos 
from Rlviis, toward tlic eiul of April or Ik «4iiiniii;j,' of 
^Jay 185G, Walker visited t\\o town, treatiiiii^ luirslily 
tlif ])rin('i[)al citizens — men \.]ui loved tln'ir country 
Ix'tter tlian they loved desinnui^ interlopeis— and caus- 
\n\X one to lie liani>'etl.' Tins was done to terrify liis 
ciu'niies. Leaxini'' llornsUv as niilitarv o-ovenior, \.-itJi 
ii garrison, Walk(-r went hai'k to (jlranathi. J lis army 
111 re was also lieiiit;- decimated by the epidemic, 
i»iit its ranks wer»j repU'iiisluMl I'mm tlie jias.sv'un'ers 
lii'ounfht by the steanisliips. wliich still were his rlHca- 
"•Iniis auxiliaries. Meanwhile the presfuce of tluM^mi- 
1 lined forces of the other etntes in th(> west was ielt 



n the towns 



o 



f til 



V Wv'sleiii d(M>artii.jnts, chic 



Hv 



m 



(' 



inn 



tales and ^Fatagalpa,'^ the natives yearning' for 



•'riiiuhfo Uaart 
Ir 



(\ a 



lo.uit 



lllllSt WllO CIUIU 



Midi the Costa Rk'ans, ami 



iii;iiiiri| 111 I'diu'fiilnu'iit 



i; 



t'liiii'in was scut to ]iut ildwii a roliclliou in Cliniitalos, and liriil ,i iiiini- 



llur nt' llltU I'XOCUtc'll. /'( 



Mr 



( 'iiiiiji. 



Milt, 



("IT) 



Iff! 



>rA 



dk 



i'-'i^'JiM 



m 



mi 



:iis 



K\l» OF ••'ILIia;sTi:i;lN(i in CKNTItAI- AMi:i;i('A. 



i 



I 



icr;'!' iVoiii torciinii (loiiiiiiiitioii. A incciiiiL;' of militaiv 
iillifcrs licld oil tlic "JOtli ot" .\|iril at Mata_in'nl)ia. 



and presided o\-el' 



l.v ( 



u'lieral 



eniaiido 



(1 



lainono. 



a(loj)ie(l resolutions in fjivor ol' resforini;' lOsti'ada as 
the lei^itiniait^ jiresideiit.'' This iiioveiiiciit cainc to 
nanu'lit; C'iiaiiiorro, bciii*'' deleaved, iiasjsed into llon- 



<liiras. 



'Pli(> vleinocratic party, «lesin)iis as uuicli as possili 



ot liein^' a\\a\' Ironi 



Walk 



er s ol)l)ressi\ (• innilelice, li.K 



'I'l 



the n'oxcnmieiit seat reiiioxcd to Leon.' The i^ciieial 
stai't('(l troni (iranada May ;!lst with his Itest ollicers 
and ;•<)() infantry, lor Leon, where he was greeted ;is 
a eoiKiuerini;' hero.' While there lie apjiroNcd of, or 
nia\' he |>roni|tle(l 



tl 



U' decree o 



f.I 



une 



Otl 



1, roin-oKni'. 



congress, and for the election ^A' a cliiel' niau'istrute 
H(> had in \ iew to Itrini;' about his own el(>ctioii a^ 
president, intending" after that to throw oil' his deiiio 



•ratic friends, uhosi' lovalt\' he distrust 



e«i 



\' 



■r\' sat 



lsfact(»rv news, hotli to him and the n'ovei'iinieiit. caiue 
at this time. The u'overnmeiit of the Inited States 
had recoL>'ii!/,ed i^'ather An'iistiii \ inii as minister 
pleiii[»otentiary accredited at WashiiiL^ton hy l'i\as. 
This reeon'nition was of ^reat ad\anta.^'i' to Walker." 

On the lltli. al'ter AN'alker had de])arted on li 
return to ( JraiKu 



111 command 



la, leaving' ( 'oloiiel Hriiiio Xa/.tni( r 
thi> ollicer ordei'ed iorein'ii soldiers t^ 
take the jilace of the nati\'es in the stei>]»les of th- 
<'athedral. Ministei-of war Jerez eounterniandi'd it, 
and heiliL!,' disobeyed by Xa/tllier,' the l;()\ erniiK iil 

\st. 'I'll r. i'(i};iii/i' lU) dtluM' j^o\ I than i;>tra(la's, (Iccl.iiii.ii the ('(mvi 



if ()« I. •-'■!. Is."i.">, voi.l, an. I Kiv; 



i\ t nil 



II: 'J.l. 'I'. 



iplMir-t that 



ivt; 



A'l'st till' t'M'oiitivf (illicn ill l'< Tiiaiiiiii ( lii/iiiali till Mstiaila'.s return to Xi 



'tth. I''i'riiaiul(i t 'iiaiiiii 



iTo ri'('(iL;iii/.ci 



lasi 



iruvisiiiiial I'diiit 



Walker iliscovi rt'd in iJiva.s a letter ti 



nil the |ire; 



tiiaiiiK'r 111' liie t'ciiri 
ileiit 1(1 .Miira treat i 



il jieiee ne^dtiations. of wliieli niitiiinu had lieeii hiiiteil In him. 

' lie issuoil .lime 4(li a ]ir(ielaiii;itiiin full nf all'i cled luxe l;ir the Niearau' 



ins. ami esiieeiallv 



illv for tlie l-eniiese, wlicnii lie I'allril illiistriniis mhis of lihnly 



ill 



I, IS.-.(1, 



iivel'snl J'i'ogre: 



^'ir., /lol'/hiO 



in 



1 S5il; AY Xiciirii'/iii //■■"', .1 nil' 



ll was fi)il(i\\ed h\ a chalii^e nf piiMir imininii in the V. S. favnrahh I' 



mil, and .■^l(i|ijii'' 



llieoliieial 



i(i|iii.siliiiii til the I'lisii III emniran 



ts til Ni 



lieiietit wa.s, inn\e\i'r, retarded li\- the eninliined ell'cirts nf the nlii Transit eeii 



jiany 



,'ents in Sin .tnan del Nmle, and nf the nppnsitiiiii 



Irnm varie'ii^ 



w toXV.ilUer' 



I hi 



.1' 



iriii',: \\ alUi r s sta\' m tlie eil \- lie made se\ erd demands, In \\ Imli 



nil 1 

. ti' 

I H . 

Ill'Ml 

'Mil" I 

[N" •• 

nil -. 

lluriy 
I ,luii'- 

■olU- 

liiuuis 

1, til'' 



DlSSKXsrONS. 



349 



liccamc iiiucli filanii'd, JJivas and Jorcz startling' 
lui'lliwitli for (Jliinaiidcufa,'^ Nvliciicc AValkcr was di- 
ivctc'd to C(jnroiitrat(! tlic foii'ii^ii forces in Ciranada. 
l'|i"ii lifariiiu' at ]\Iasiiya of tin; occui'i'cnccs of 
tilt; litli and li'tli, ]ii' countcrniarclicd as far as 
Xa^arotc, ordering' Xa/.tmcr to l)rinu,' tln'rc Ins coni- 
iiiand; after wliicli ]ic (|nai-t('i'('d Ins troops in (;<ra- 
n;ida. ])laci!i<4', iio\Vf\-cr. strmiL;' yarr'isons in Mana;j,H;i 
;i,nd Masaya. I»i\as tiioreiipon dcclai'cd \\'ali<.(r a 
ii.-urpcr, traito)', and cnoniy of tlio rcpnlilic, d(j)ri\inL;' 
lilm of Jus rank and connnand." ^\'alk(•r, on liis })art, 
l|(•])o^;(•d l\i\as, calliiiL;' I'^erniin I'^cn'or. ni'nistfr of 
liacicnda and Li'ovcrnnicnt at (Jranada. wlio had idm- 
tifird liinisclf witli liis cause, to as<unie the execntixc 
otlice, for the main ]tur]>os(\, it sccnicd, of decree 'iny an 
election for suprenii! autlioritics, ])ursuant to the con- 
\(i(,!(M.n of June 10th, though Ki\as liad revoked it 
nil i;:.. i4t]i."' 

Under tlic national constitution, tlie cliief magistrate 
was not cliosi'u hy the direct suffrages of the jieople; 
neither did it permit a military otiicer in actual oom- 

in'i'.siilciit rufiiscil h\A asscut, wliirli greatly aiijicrcil him. It was soon dis- 
covri'i'il tlwit ho liail it iilaiiiii.'il to ilispnssi'ss Itivas of the cxft'iitive ollico. 
Nii/tiiici's act was in ohcclicuco to liis onlors. 'I'lir native solilicrs \vt:vv sent 
away, anil thc^ capital was left with a garrison ot' •_'(») torcigncrs. ^V(V., Jlalii- 
III! i'>j!t\, Aug. S, Oct. •_'4, ls.")(). 

' llail it not hccn for an American resident, l)awson, they wonM have 
111 en liroiiglit hack hy Dolan, eommauilant at (hinanclega, ^\ ho had heeii 
(irdered witii his men to I^eon. /''/v., ^^l.'lll. Cciiqt. Xnc, 'lA \t\, 71. <un. 
Mariano Sala/ar ami othci's spread the report that the lililmsters intended to 
iiuirder the authorities. Sala/ar fell into Walker's hands liter, taken hy I>o 
Kri-iMit in tlie gulf of l'"onseea .Inly "JSth, ;ind was shot at, (iranad.a Aug. lid. 
F.l Xiriir'iiii'ii'iisr, Aug. '.t, IS,")('i; A7''., linliliii (>n'i\, .\ng. -7, IS.'Mi; ,S'ir. f'ldoii, 
Srpt, (i, I'S.")!). 

'■'I'ecree of .lune 'J.'ith. Otlieers and men of the foi-eign phalanx were ro- 
i(iiired to forsa!;e Walkei- and suliniit to the government, when their rank 
wiiidd he recognized, their arreaiN of pay made good, .and Micaraguan eiti/en- 
sliiji conferred on them. Such as should disoluiy, -whether n.ative or foreign, 
Were to he dealt with as traitors. .Mendurs of the foreign jihalanx wishing 
111 lave till! country weri; to ho, under another decree of the "J.Sth, ]iermittoil 
to do so. 'riiose who jiresented themseha's with arms and ammunition, aiul 
Jirevailed on others to do the same, would he rewarded. Previously, on tho 
-iltli, the colonization decree of Nov. L'l!, KS'i."), was suspended. A'/V., Jinhtiil 
iijh:, Aug. 8, l(i, lS,-|(i. 

'" \Valkcr assunied to act under the idauses of the enivventiou of Ocr. 'JH, 
IS.'i.'i. His decree liears date of .Fuue 'JlUh, and iiirther deelarrs itivas' acts 
frciiu the i'Jth nidi. Et yii'iirit'/i(<:ii.«, ,Iune -Jl, Is.-ill; AVc, Bnlifi.t 0/i,\, .\ug. 
>, ISJt). 



1 i 


\\ m 



'M 



I a* y 




t^ \ 



iiii 



:[r>o 



KM» OK KII.llUJSTKRINt! IN CKNTKAL AMKIMCA 



in.-iiKl 



lllUCll 



less a torci'')! one 



to 1. 



Vo 



led l'( 



N«>\rrili('l(>ss, In disrcui'.'U'd of iJiat law, ilic ])co[)lt: of 



liolKd l»v WalUci'!^ bavoiict 



s were 



i\\v r('i;ioii con 
made to oiv<' linii tlicir ;-;ul^^a,^■(^s lor the ollico ot ^rcs- 
idcat, and I ;'),.S.">r) votes a|»|>i'ai"r(| as cast in liis fa vdr." 
lie was dccl.ircd rlccti-d, and on ilio I'Jtli of Jii.y w.is 
indnclcd inio ollicc wiili niudi ])oin|>.''' W'luflc)', llu* 
American minislcr, i'cco<j;'nizc<l Walker as ijie legiti- 
mate jiresideid, a,nd l»i\as' iLi'overnnient jn-oteslcd 
against i(,''' and declared all I'elalions lictween ilir 
Nicai'aL;;ua.n government and W'lieelei- suspended. 
Walker's lirst act was to a)>|)oint his cahiiu^t. iii 



']ri(.'t" 



ot It, l)i"n>Li" 1^ ernnn b v\rv\ 



One of his earliest 



deci'ocs sounds the keynote to all this silly usurpalimi 
and acconn»a,nyiiiH' ini'aniy ; it was the annullini;' of llic 
federal law aholishinu^ sla,V(>ry.'' Another inranioiis 
in(>asun> was the conliscation of the estates ol" Nicaia- 
j^uans who min'ht take up aims against him. 

1)1 a circular of July oil JJivas aji[)ealed to the other 
Cc>nti"al American ^'overnnuMits i'or aiil to drive out 



tl 



le mvaiU'is, 



Tl 



11' ca,l 



was answinvd 



d h 



anil JUS 



"•(.V 



I'lnnent I'ccoonized hy (;luatemala, Honduras, and IS.il 



vailor 



tl 



lese 



tl 



irci> 



I 



)owors nn'reeinir to unite tlnii 



forces at^ainst Walkei'. Costa Hica, "was invite<l to 
cooperate, and pi'omptly did so/" 



"Tl\t> olVicial ornan |)ulilislioil tlu' rt'tunis sliowini,' tliiH result. Kl Xi 
iliicii.ir, .Inly 1-. IN.Ui. i\iv;n' iniiiistiT in a cirt'iilar i'X|)<)Sf(l tli 



I' wlidli' as 



tl ii<lo lie 



ii|ici.stiira.s y f<iiiu'ii'lu'na 



Boldii, Olii 



•21, isrxi. 



'-.S. /•'. J/,nil</, .Aui;. 1."), iSM: S. /■'. Al/n, An.i;. !.">, l.S.'Hi. 
.Milli^^tt T Salinas' luilc ol' -Xiifi. I'Jtli to Uio scfri'taiy nt state at Wasliiu;,'- 



ti>ii. ^V/('., Hull till Oji'r.. Scjit. 4, lS.")(i. 



AV .V 



Till' iitiuT iiiiiiistcrs were j.;iMi< 
iriiniiiiicnar, .Inly lit, IS.'iti, 



■rals Mati'o I'iiii'da ami Manuel I 'ar 



T 



us a( 



tiou was said to liavi' been sujjyesteil ti)«iii the .syin[iatliies ef 



iho slave-owners in the simthern statt's of the If. S. /'(iiz, Mon. Cn 



I pt. Tit. 



Ill] I 



y, 



Thi^ eonvention w.is siL;ne(l at IJuat. .Inly IS, lS,"")t>. 'the t'dUnwin;,' i:< : 



syudjisis (if the ehiel el.iuses: 1st. I'reviiMis treaties <it alliaiu 
their inilependenee and suverei^nty wei'cM'tinlii ined; 2d. Slip 



l(M' 



del'.'Mc 



tl 



leir li.rees to ex|u 



1 tl 



le adventurers 



xeeivifni/.ei 



iplila 
I I'. K 



teil t 



le Ullliill 



ead (if a, ih> faeti) govt in Nie., proiuising aid and ((idjK'iatiiin; "Ih. Invitril 



I'ost.l 1{. t 



liu the dthers in the enterprise. Aif., Boktiil i>jii'., Aug. 



Sc^jt. 10, ISi'Ki; (liiat., li'uo}!. J.ti/., i. 430-11. 



DKKKAT OF TlIK LI K ; III. MISTS. 



351 



While tlu! ovonts thus f;ir rccoT'dcd \vo)-o occurrin*:^, 
J'lstradii, tli(! loiritiiiiist cliicf, (Mitrnul Niciii;i<4u;i, and 
( .-.laMislii'd liis u^ovci'miiciit in Sonioiillo, aj>[K)intiiiL^ 
I'cdi'o .In.'Kjuiii Clianioiro liis ininis^cr-oeiui'a!, and 
(Irnci'al Tuniiis Maitiiic/. conniiaiidci' (if tlic army to 
lie raised.''' On licariiii;' liiat iJivasIiad hem jccol;'- 
iii/.c(|, if> was coni'ludtMi to Icuvt; Soniotillo, via Xucjva 
Si L^t'via to Mata^alpa, wlicro ( irosarouscd tlx; Indians. 
I!iit on llif way, at Ocotal, on tluj lotli of v\n'j,nst, 
a |)arty ol' domocrats attacked and det'eiiied them. 
I'lsti'adii tried to llee, l)ut Was overtaken and liackod 
to death. '^ The town was |)limdered, and pajx I'S scat- 
leicd, alter wliicli th') assailants W(>nt awa\'. Alter- 
ward an insti'ument was ])ieked uj) in which Nicasio 
(lei ( 'astillo was named J']strada's siiccess(;r, who at 
nnce. assumed the res])onsil>ilities ol" tlu! position. 
I lowcvi'r, (jreneral ^Martinez and l"'ernando (jiuzman, 
who, thouLi^h res[)ectini^ Jvsti'ada's oood motives, liad 
(lisa])|)roved of his jx-rsistence in ij;'<>ino- contr-ary to ao- 
coiiiplished tacts, alter his death ludd a consultation 
and concluded that the In^st policy was to coopcirato 
with lli\as' governnunit, lu'arinL;* in ]iiind the princi|)le 
(if lenitimacy, thoUi;h disrenardinii; means and persons. 
Martinez aiid (Juzman wi'iit to Jjeon, and succeeded 
with the assistance of the allied u^cnierals, and (h'en^orio 
Arhizu, till' coimnissioner of Salvador, in making an 
arrani>'ement l>v which theri! slioukl Ix; but one ljov- 
eiinnent in the repuhlic, with certain len-itlmists in the 
r;ihinet;'' j)ursuant to whii-h the latter was or^^anized 

'' Shortly .'ifterwanl tlicy were joined l>y <;oii. Fcrii.imlii Cli.imorm, soiiic 
liarcl'niitcil (itticc rs and siililiri's, aiul I'J nr 14 Frynchnicn. A littl<! later caiiii! 
U\f llmij;arian, < Jn)s, witli 'MM Indians. Tlio only arms n;i liainl wun; ."fOO 
iimsji, Is with 10 ninli'-loads nt aniinuniti.iu. 

' Siii'li was tJR' end of this luiridrahlr, vulighti'ntd. and patriotic citizen, 
wl.ii had risen hy his virtncs, talents, aii'l learninj:, Iroin a lowly jiosili.m to 
till' cliicf magistracy of his country. I'm'., M< in. Ciiiiiji. .\'i<\, •_''! j)!., 1)S KM), 

'■' I'll" ciinveidion was signed Sept. 12, ]SM, It contained among its 
cliiiises that the lirst lc!;.'i slat lire installed should convoke the constitniiil as- 
Mi'iiihly of IS,')4, or issno th*' Iwises Uw the election of another; a gen. aninc^sty 
tiif past political ort'encrss; dehts coutruelicl or damages cansecl by Imtli 
parties to he iield as iinicbtcdutss of the repviblie. /</,, llt-17; .AVc, Unktin 
Ojir., Sept. 'JO, ISOG. 



?pw 






*ii 






11' 



iiH , 









X,-2 



KND Ol' FlI.ir.L STKlilX*; IX CENTU.U, AMKllR'A. 



-.^iMT 






-f 



dm 



(ia 



as stated l)elow.'" Castillo acci^pted the arrangement 
and assumed tlu- dutic;s to which ho was called. 

The alli(Ml forces, having entered Nicaragua, occu- 
])ied l^eou in -Jnly, and in October advanci'd ii]'(>ii 
]\[anaguas forcing Walker, after several encounters 
near Xindiri Mid ]\lasaya, to n^concentrate in (jiana- 
]\Iasaya was occupied l»y the allies October 'J- 1. 
riicre was nuK li division among them, owing to nM 
]'ivalri( s, and the need of an influential conunandiv 
was evident." (general Martinez was earnestly ic- 
({uested to hasten liis movements and join the army. 
\[v had organized at Matagalpa a body of tro(»ps that 
subse(|uently bore the ))ame of Ejercito Setentrional, 
with, which he came on ; but cholera having ])lay(ii 
havoc among his Segovians at 'l'ipiti'-))a, he had ti» iv 
main in Xindiri till the scoui'ge abated, when he joined 
the allies.-'' 

Walker's forces consisted of about 1,"J00 efl'ecti\r 
men, mostly Amer'icans,the rest being English, Erencli. 
and dernuuis."' The climate was his worst iMieniy. 
A number of his men succumbed daily, victims et 
cholera and fevi r.'' The ranks were further depleted 

-" Pi'did ( '.inliual, Scl);isi.;ifi S.iliiia.s, Niciisio del Castill", and Friiiiriscn 
]>aea\V('i'e iiuulu iiiiiiistors of forci^'i rcliilioiis, giivcrmiient, war, and tri asurv 
n'.s]>citi\uly. .It'iT/ |i It llii; caiiim t, jinl'irriiig to .sorvo in t!iu licld. 

-'His troops rctivatcd al'ttT si'ttiiig fir" t<^ tho casa de alto, foriTur i-csi- 
(Ipuco of tlio cliiuf lllagi^^tratl'^^ of Nie. 1 lie allit'(l army ci'lihratcd in Maiia 
^nii tho , victory of San .lafiiito, a liaricmla, north of tho jilain of Oscotal, 
(li>tiiiit Olio day'.s niairh fioni (Iranada. Jt wan only a small attair i/i ri dity 
- i'JO rilliincn iiiiilcr J5yi'on Colo on ono .sido, ami ItiO ji:' fives uii'lcr Col f'. 
]Ostrai!a on tho othor — Imt it was important in its oflVcts. Colo W<W/'a|»tiir( il 
and killed, thi.s hoing tho oml of tho founder of hlilmsterisni i^i Nic, Tw nty- 
Sloven rilloniou voro slannhtorod; and the Nioaraguans had fin ki'M/d ■H"! 
Wounded. A'/c, JJolr/hi 'Ijir., Sept. i-'Ci, lS.-)(). 

'--Trouhles hetwoiii Salvadorans and Nicaraguans voro eoininon, Td'' 
former fratornizid with tho (Unnoeratio Leoneso. The le;4iti*»/ists did ttic 
sanio with tho « iiatemalans, whoso '2d chief, Zivala, liy his iiii</ung<' an^l 
actions, kept up a had feelin;:, not only with tho Salvadorans, bu(, With llii' 
Nicara;;uans. I'<ri~., Mmi. ('(imp. A'c. , 2d [it, [iref. ii. and lOS. 

-'■'Meantimo .several lights had taken ]ilaeo hetweeii the allied forces an I 
Walker's. 

-'He had also a small ;uid inellieient Cidian ( omjiany, ami very l'i«, if 
any. Cent. Americans, aside' from his ministers J'ineda and Car "aseos i. 

"-■'It has lieen ealcnhitcii that from lirst to last he lost from .'>.<MII> lo ('■.ml" 
men liy sickness. Se\eral of his chief odicers h.ixinx died at ahout the .-.iiiio 
timu, it was iuil)ut<.'d to tiio j/itjl/ycs «ellinj{ |ioisoned eilihles, A lottel,' of I'eh. 



my. 

S nt 
rti'tl 



l- irsl- 

MiilW 

sii>t:il, 

ir.ility 

„l II. 

|,tU|(ll 

[\ , iity- 
iitil 



'ft..' 
iIk' 
iiii'i 



if,«, if 

,,.111 III 
>;Ulli' 



THE r.ELLIflERKXT.S IX ACTION. liolJ 

1)V tlosci'tions,"" Tliis was one of tlio cliict' reasons 
why Walker abaiiflonod Managua and jMasaya to coii- 
fcntrato in Granada, keepinic, lunvever, tlie transit lino 
t'i.iiii San ,Juan del Sur to l^a Virnen. Tlio fililnister 
rilict'noAV took nd\-anta_L;'c of the division of the alhed 
iuiccs--]>i'l]oso and Jerez in ]\Ias;iva, Zavala and Ks- 
tiaila in Dirionio— and on tlie llth of October made 
n tlasli witli 800 men on ]\Iasaya, which had a yarri- 
nui of 1,000. lie entered the place at ei'j,ht o'clock 
;uul took ])o.sitions in IMoniniho, south of the town. 
Iviily on the 12th he acKanced as far as the Mocks 
( Miiti.unoiis to the ])laza, which he would undoulitcdly 
]ia\i' taken hut for Zavala's attack on Cranada."' Un 
lirarinu;' of Walker's movoment, Zavala started to the 
relief of Ivlasaya. At Dirlii, he was informed that 
^\alker was routed and in full retreat to (Granada, 
lie then charefed his course, and turned up at the 
liui\in!>'-i>'roun(l of (jiranada, with the view of iiettin''' 
the start of tlie enemy; but as the latter did not 
tniiic, and he had positive information of the ])lacc 
iieiiig weak, he nsoKt'tl to occupy it at once, thoueh a 
lu\'uy rain somewhat retanU'd the movement. He 
ii:iL;lit have taken the tmvn by sur[)rise cither from 

V'u l^-'iT. lias it that Walker rcccivod 4,(500 recruits since .Tunc 185.". Tlic 
ar.tlior sets down liis di'scrtcrs at oOO, ami lii.s dc-ad at no I'.'ss than :>,0()0, 
tlhiv Uiiiiw 'iMlii I, .")()() til 12,(MM) Imrifd in Oraiiad.i. I'mi. ^Sfur nm/ //rnilif, 
I'l'i. 17. I^-^T; y/( f //'.-(' .S'rVi;;w, Aiiijilis, ii. •_'."),'). Howovcr, an cillioial report ut 
I'. ]t. T;i>>ini)son, \\'alker's adj. -gen., dated I'eli. 'J-4-, rs.")7, lla^^ tho tnllDwini; 
li.'uris, wtdeh do iu)t i-eeni to exim.ss tlio uliole tnitli, as it nni:lit have lieen 
liiiiiilainnsi to iiavc thu real I.iet^ made known. Orit;iual nuinlier ••( men 
(ulistid 'J.'^vS of Mhoni til \»rri3 ollieers. 'J'otals of di'ath, (i.S.", df wli.iui Kl'J 
w'rre eliieers; '.i~ resiicned; 2l*>'i iliseliarijiMl; it dmiiped; 'J'.t.'! 'leserted, inehidiiif^ 
!i I'tt'u'fi^; loaviiig a toi.il (it 7.JI» ollieers and nn-^u, \\ith 111 nnaeuonnted for. 

.sttiiit'^ yic, 'jd'.t, 

'' 1' 'iir yoiitii^ Nicar.iguans, acciii.-,ed in Masaya of untiein;^ men to desert, 
wore anesU'd July '.Huh, and shot in a low hours as traitors to the I'epiihlie! 
Kl Mr^i'ii:/, HI, .■<<•, Xwii. ;{, Uv"*). Turley ami i^ iitlier.s eseapcil from (ir.inada, 
:iliil att< in]itt'd to reach IJhiWlkdiUi hy way ot' t houtalos, where tin; natives, not 
Iwlieviiiif them des(^rters from Wijiker, killed all hut oi.e or two who eseapud. 
ttrfZ, Mn,:. Cawp. X<tr., ti.l jrf, I'J'.t; S. F. AlUi, Oct. 'JO, kS5G. 

■'■ .!> rez distinmiished liimself in the def.iice, ami the gen. -in-chief of tho 
^1''"^, llaiiion Pirlloso, el.Timed a vie^iry in iiis (ilUeial lejiort of Oet. J"th, 
I'i' ■'',: that Walker 'huyd despavoridamente a la oscurida<l de la n." he,' 
li'.ivni.: idiont .">0 killed, and earryii'.j,' oil' 'JtHt wonndod. A>., JiuO-tin (>jii\, 
'*''t. 17, Nov. 7, iS.-ili. On the other side, the victory w;is elaimed for 

w.iikii- \, /'. j/M, Oet. :<i, is.-x); s. F. Jicnild, o^t. yi.'iboO. 

>1:-T. t'KNT. .Vm., \'.'I.. in. 'Si 



!■ 



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4p 



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I'i. 1 




!; : 






354 END OF FILir.USTKUI\( I IX CEXTIIAI, A.MKUICA. 

tlio iiortli to soutli, but wont round l>y .Talti>va."'^ The 
allied force liad not till then l)eon dotectod from i]\v 
city. But on the ofHccr of the day descrying gi'<iu]is, 
lie went to ascertain if they where Walker's men, and 
inniiediately giving the alarm, pre[)arations were made 
to meet th»> exi)ected assault. Nevertheless, the nllies 
at two o'clock in the afternoon occupied the l)uil<liiii;s 
on the ])laza, excepting the church, where the foreign 
sick Were intrenched. Zavala took Walker's house, 
and finding there a flag, rushed out waving it, until a 
hullet struck the tlaijf, and another his surtout, wluii 
he realized his danger. ]^oth the Guatemalans and 
legitimists gave themselves up to excesses.-^ TIk^ 
night of the 12th came on, and the churcli had n<.t 
heen taken. Hearing the cannonading or rectdviiig a 
report, early that morning Walker huri-ied hack, it 
being preferable to save Granada than to take IMasaya. 
In tlie morning of the loth, Zavala learned that tlu^ 
(Miemy was rapidly approaching, and vainly tried to 
check them at Jalteva. Zavala and Jilstrada lied In 
the direction of J)iriom(), leaving .1 considerable num- 
ber of drunken men in the streets, who were butch- 
ered. Several Guati'malnns fell prisoners. ^^ Zavala's 
assault of the i)lacc where Walker had his base of 
su})plies was a failure, l)ut it saved the allied army. ' 
A Costa Eican division under General Jose M. 
Cahas started for NicaraLTua, Xovi'nd)(>r 2(1, and not- 
withstanding the enemy's efforts to hinder it, occn}Mc(l 
San Juan del Sur and the road to La A'lrgen, thus 
cutting off Walker's conununication with either point. 
It concentrated at llivas on the 13th, and was j.iincd 



11 M 



,; I ' " 



'" To look .after the arms which had lieconio wet. So saja Perez, 
th.it Zav.'ilii, 'a iii.is do carecer de jxiicio, no conocia el a'rreno,' and J- 
Vent entirely by liis directions. MOn. Vitiiiy. 2^'tu'., "d pi lol. 

'■"•Tliey heeanie intoxicated, and .seatt^'ied in tlio .striets after ]i'i 
They di-'ieo-'ered an American merchant, friendly to the iilil. islern, lui 1 
him turtiiwiih. 

"" On Zavala and Estraila arriving at Diriomo, a j'oiinp Cuhan uai 
A. Luiiie, who had heen .sent hy (Joieouria to complete with Wall 
arrangement to liberate t'ldia, waa brought to them as a pri-oner. 1 
ordered .shot. 

''^\ F. Alto, Nov. 'Jl, liSriO; Jlnyvx' Sa;,2>.i, An-jdcs ii. i20G-7, 2'Jl', 



adcli 
tra 

unii 
kill 

m'( 



r. 
I'. 



) ' ' 1 



VERY FAIR FKJIITINC. 



35S 



liy Jerez with HOO Nioai'apfuans. It was now in coiii- 
iiiuiiicatioii witli tlio main combined annv, wliicli was 
ini'pariiii;' to assail Granada. JJelloso received iiifor- 
uiatioii from a friend in tiiat city that Walker was on 
tilt' point of niakinn' another da.sh on Masaya with (JOO 
iii'ii. The allied arniv, in the eitv and vieinitv, was 
iiM\v of ahout .'^,(100 men,''' and leaving out wounded, 
>i(k, antl servants, the elfectivo force must have been 
III less than ."),()()(). The filihusters came on tlie Ijth 
under ]^run() \im Xaztnier, a (lermaii, and wei'e nut 
niitsidc by Xicarau;uansand (iOO ( Juatenialans at three 
(I'cloek in the afternoon. Thi^ enemy opened lire, and 
the (iuatemalans tied panic-stricken. However, the 
fust charge of tlie filihusters was checked, and tlicy 
now assumed tlio defensive. The Guatemalans re- 
turned to the charge, and heavy fighting followed, 
which lasted till night. The ni'xt morning \Valkei' 
took connnand, Xaztmer heing wounded, ami puslied 
liis operations into the town, where the allies had con- 
centrated in the night, hurning a numl)er of buildings; 
lint he soon convinced himself of tlie impossihility of 
accomplisliing his purpose^ and retreated to Granada 
ill tlie night of the 18t]i."' At a council of war, it was 
resolved to evacuate the citv, after settino' lire to the 
huildings, leaving a garrison to keeji the enemy in 
elieek. Tliis Work of destruction was intrusted to 
]leimiugsen, wlio at once ordered the citizens to leave 
tlie place within a few hours before it was consigned 
to the flames. And all the time the authoi's ot" this 
vandalism were calling the Central American de- 
tlnders of life, home, and liberty savages and greasers, 

'-'Salvailorana, 1,300; CJuatcnialans, l.oOOorinorc; Xicaragiiaiisund'i- .Mar- 
tin z, 11(1 U;.-s tliau St)0. Pin-., Mi m. Caiiq). Xiic, '2d pt, IVA. 

Iho alli;'s (li.scovi'nMl lii.s tli^lit oaily oil the I'.ltli. Siscral nf liis ini"i 
W'vr inuiul ahlo('i), anil biitcluTod. The allioil coiiimancU'ra .shnwcd hirk nf 
(,';■:!■ ral liip. J'iriz, Mi ,ii. i'ain'p, Xnr., "IX pt, I."!.")-',). Alicnit this tiniL' thi; 
eiai. Anioi'ioaii.-i i'X|it'iiuiu'i'(l a scrimis lih)W in tlie Iohs of the Costa Riraii 
.s.!i. inner 0;,c(; (/r Alu-i/., which had on lioard 110 iiicii, luoiicy, and a lar,' • 
i'Ulnily ,)f arms, aiiimuuitioii, etc. After a heavy ga! , she eiieoiuitei'ed the- 
S'tii ,/iw(', alias (Irmnnlii, and after two hours' lighting, eauglit tire and was 
tlestmyed. Most of tlio wrecked men were jiieke(l up liy the Sun Jn.-ti . S. F. 
■ ill'i, Dec. L>0, ISriG; >S. F. Ihmbl, Dee. 'JO, IS-'Mi; ,b'.-c. Union, l>ec. •-'.% 1S.")G. 




1 !''i? 




1 \ 



! !' 



.'!."(■. 



:\\) ()!•' I'll.ll'.rN'lKltlNc IN' CLNTUAl, AM MUICA. 






! r 



ii'id 1 liciiiscU (s 1()\ crs of IVi'cdiiiii ;iii(l uissciniiiiitors (if 
civil i/,;i-tii III I ■ ' 

III I he (';irly iiun'iiiii;^ df llic L'M.Ii ilif iillird foi'ccs 
iiijirclud out ()l ..MMsnya, liy tin' (";irr('(;is roiul; at il 
(•'(■lock ill tti(! Jil'tcnKion tlicv wcj-c (Idirnin' oii the low 
liills of till! ( )tra baiul.'i, (Voiii ^\■l i id i tin y could sec tin' 
liojilirc, iiindc liy tlie Sf'H'-stylcd I'cucnci'aloi's oC .Latin 
/viiiciica, coiisiiiniii'^' seven cliiir-clies and llie |)uMic 
liuili!ill'4s, to'^etlier Avilli the dwelliiin's of tlie citi/eiis 
of (iraiiada. 'I'lie same day llie allies liad skirmislKs 
with tlu! enemy, and \vcre defeated."" Mai'tine/ with 
liis uieti ffoiii the north next <]ay ()|iei'ated a'^'ainst tln' 
San j'^raiicisco l)uildin<4', and the lilihustei's in fi'arei' 
Iteiii'j,' <-ut Oil" ahaudoiied. it, and concent rated in flic 
]>la/,a. Tin; uiL^iit of the "JJih was a, \(vy rainy oiir. 
'I'lie •J()th the lihliustcrs, lieiiii^' hard pressed in IIm- 
|>!a/.a, and (luadalu]ie street, ]<e|it up a coiisliint 
cannonade to keep ojieii 1 he A\ay to the lalvc. ( )n the 
L*7th the rililiiisters had heeii (Irix'en from tlic plaz;i 
and icfluced to (Juadalujie sti-eet hetutM-n \jii 8ireii;i, 
a lii'.;h house on tin' east of the parisji church, and ihe 
ruins of the, chui'ch. The ( iuateinalans jiressed them 
from tli(! soutli; t\\o Nicara-jfuans from tin; iiortli;' 
T£cnnin!4'sen's force was on the 1st of JJeceinher o|i!\' 
];■)() men, out of ;i()0 that lie had I'etained to hold i1m' 
jiositJoii of (jlranada \v'\i]\, and l)eing invited hy Z;i- 
\ala to surr(!nd(;r, proudly refused.''' 



'" lIcmiiiiL'siii li.ul liciii, it \Mis .s;iiil, ;iii ollli'i r of lIic I'rit. army, an ni'li- 
of llio ( arlisL rliict' Zuiiialaoai'i'cgiii, in S[i.iiii, ami a ;,'cmm1 iliMimrral ii: wrilM'. 
His i'r|Mirt was as lollows: JIo !iail assmiicil (■(Hiitiiaiid in tlic afliTiKMia nl 
Nov. 'J'J, JS.'it), iiiiil liad rai'i-icil iml W'alki'r'.s ordiTs to tlrslroy (li-iiiaila, ainl 
I'avi! tin; iilacc, takiiit;' away tlic stores, artiUei'y, sirk, ami tlii; AiiiericMii aii'l 
nativo laiiiili. ■^. Siuiu! of tli(! clnircli jowclry ".\as savi'il liy a jii'iost. fifii. I'. 
Sdiisa saw a lilihiistir uiinato into a chaliue, anil tiicn throw tlio LMintcnls at 
Honio Wcinion who wcru also witnesses of the aet. I'mz, Mi'iii. Ciiniji. Xif., 
•J I lit, 11. ii. l.VJ 1. 1(11 -.S; X;r., <;,irrt:,, May 'J, iMiS; /</., 'j'rln/. Srtni., M:ip!i 
7, L'S, l^.-.T; /'/., JJolr/hi Ojic, Apr. 15, 'Ji!, I>.".7; S. F. AU,i', J'ce. '-':>, I'-'';; 
liiUij, l.( \h\, i, i.'S."i (>; S'/iiiir'ti Crii/.. Am., HT'J. 

^■' At ti;l!!) they had njiward.i of V) wonnd(/il, and no snri,'(tons to attend In 
them. l)urin;4 tliu nij^ht it rained heavily. 

•"'iMirin;.; the operations, the ( inatematm generals I'arodes, ex-iiresidnit, 
and .loai|i:in Solari'S died, the latter of fever on the 'J8II1 of Kovernlier, and 
tiie former of eliolera on tiie '2.A of |)ee(tnd)er. 

"" Se'ViTal deserti'rs from his eamp in the jilantain >;rove of I)oria Sahiim 
liad made ilieir a;p|iearanee a:no;ig the alUe-, so eonipletely famished that th'V 
could hardly speak. 



W AI.KLi; \\(»l;,Vl'i:!» 



W.'ilkcr liatl ocriiliiid S;ili .Itir^f, <list;i;it 1 Ihvm' iiilirs 
IVniii |{i\;is, wlicfc ( 'jii'ias ;iimI .Iciv/ Were "ml r(iiflii'<l, 
li'.'ivIii'L'' Ilis sick :iii<( \\'oiiiii|i(| wiili ;i siiKill ^wjinl (Hi 
l!if islillld (if ( )lii('i('|Mc;" wlicrc lie thought llicy 
w.iiild In; siil'c ; Imt, ;i Jiarly of 1 rulijiiis wIlJi tlicir priest, 
Tiji'riiio <'!i|)lurt(I iliciii on tlir ls(, of I )rc('iiilii r, aii<I 
<|(slrny(Ml (ivcrylliiii:;' nii llm island lliat cituld lie of 
use to tlic fiitMiiy. W'alki'f did iidI, Iusc sio'lit n\' Ids 
liciiifiiaiil .1 Iciiiilii'jjscii, l(» wlidiii lie liiially sinl, relief 
ell tln! stcaiiihoiit \ir(j(ii, with wliii'li I leiiiiiii^seii 
(•;i|iLui('d tlie small fort that liad su hai'assed Jiiiii, 
;iiid then, l)eceml)er I .'lt!i, left oil the Itoat,, takili'j,' with 
liim the II f) eiiiaciatt'il ii»eii that, lemaiiK'd d' ]iis 
eri'^Ilial t'ol'ee. '^I'lie Site (if (Jmiiada was iidW I'ldK' ill 
pnssessioll of the allies/' wli(» discovc fed ill the wood 
;i III 
liillii 



leia 



imher of wouiHlcd lilihusters, aii<l treati d t 
iliely, cxcejdiii;^' one wlioiil tlit>y |»llt to death. 
|)eeeml)ef lltll had heel! a, day of jny in tlie allied 



(■.lllllt, OWIII''" 



to t! 



i(^ ai'iua 



] of (elleral I' 



JorellClo 



X.ilriicli with th(; first contin^'fiit of I loiidiii'aii 
tlMo|is;" hilt they were eiit ll|» ill the attack of the 



1 i»v I lennmL;st'ii. 



his ollieer'S success 111 extri- 



(■.iiiii'.:' liiiiiseH \\\U\ so much loss i,o ins opponents 



ciiised a panic anioii''" 



the allied leadel's, and i 



nviikmLT out; anew o| (hsseiisioii 



l!ell 



oso and 111 



S;il\adora,iis went hack to Masaya, I'epoi'tine' the di 



cell 



ilitiire of tlie army. Whether out of s| 



»lte, o 



rrmii ignorance of the sta.t(! of a Hairs, the ^eiier; I 
ei'leicd ( 'alias to return to ( 'osta, iJiea,, and .leiv;< t,» 
!• treat to Masa^va. 'V\\^\ latter, as a siiiiordinate, jiad 



•V ; hut ( 'afias, liaviii^' come to li^ht the lijiji 



hrs, would not e'o liadc, and accompanied ,lei 



I ■/ 1 1 ) 



' ill tlu! .siiiitliiMMi ]<ai't <it ljil;(^ N iiMnii,'ii;i, <'l:;lit m' iiiin' miles fnnii I' ■ 
<:n.i ,1, <i|' |;iv;iH. A l.ir;;i: .'iiiil Jinii|iic;ti\'i! i.;l:iiiil li.iviii;^' two t.iiwiiM ilist.iiit 1 _' 
jiiil- ■( frnm (iiic ;iii(itiii!r. 

■■'Oft. I:t, l.S,V>, Walkrr Mi-riv.'.l nil tlir i-ua d, nf ( li-aiirnla. Per. l:i, !■,.■,;, 
1m' I'll, tlicsi! uliorrs ii('V<'r ti) MT tlii'iii a;^ liu. Im tlit; miiall fnrt, knciwiiai j'.l 

I ii' ilii'ito, Ilis iiicii Icl'L a [Mile M'ilii ail iiiscrijitioii as a ri-rnnl IJiat. ( iiviiia.! i 

II III ixistrcl tliiTi'. 

' ' Xalriicli was iKil crciiiliil w itii iiiiu'li aiiilily; Imt he Mas ]ia| lini !r an I 
lii ive, ami ti> liis exert ilia 1 \v:i:i hiea iiralily ila • the e(MiMer:;tiii i ui .11 1 mil. lUr 
the caiiniaigii. 




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IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




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1^ 1 2.2 
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1.25 1.4 


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Photographic 

Sciences 

Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) B72-4S03 




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3.-.S END OF FiLIlJUSTERIXG IX CENTRAT. AMIH^ICA. 

^[asaya. Thus was liivas evacuated by tlio alliob', 
and rooc'cupic'd Ijy Walker without firiiij^ a sliot. 

The lake steauicrs were of great advaiitaj^e t(» 
Walker for the quifk transjK)rtation of men aiul sujt- 
|)lies, and on the other hand, made it necessary tliat 
the allied chiefs should have strong garrisons in 
(Jranada and Masaya, preventing a movement on La 
Vfrgen and Rivas. The president of Costa Kica 
determined to deprive Walker of those facilities. To 
this end lie despatched his brother, General Jose 
Joa(|uin AEora, with troo[)S to the confluence of tlif 
San Ci'irlos and San Juan rivers, who reached it on 
tlie 10th of ])e<'eml)er, and then going down in ca- 
noes to Scin Juan del Xorte, without encounteriiiLT 
much resistance, captured on the 24th four steamers." 
They then went u\) tlie San Juan with the steamers, 
two of which were left at the junction with the Sara- 
j)i(|Ui, and on the 28th took the Castillo Viejo mIiIi 
the steamboat Vm/oi, ladcMi with artillery, rifles, and 
r.mmunition. They next posses.sed themselves of Fort 
Sap C.'rlos, and soon after of the steamboat of tlir 
same name, which had incautionsT\- ai)pr()ached the 
i';)rt. All this being accompli Mora was pl.utd 

i:i communication with the alli« forces of Grauiula, 
raid left Walker without means of transportation liy 
water, or to connnunicate with the northern sea-coa.st. 
Had the allies acted with reasonalde promptness, both 
on land and water, Walker's end would have l»c(ii a 
matter of only a few days. But it was n-tarded \>y 
their lack of union and generalship.^- His situatinn 



"This t!Xii('<litioa Viw proinoto-l )iy Cdrneliu.s Vaiulerliilt, pri'siiliiit df 
! Ai'oosMory Transit ('(>., thfuij^h Iiis aMiit Welutor, tut ftpinMirrd in a litter 
nil tiio i'dimuamlir of l!io Hrit. iiaviil foroo to tlio Ainerieaii cmisiil. It 
lA I'arrii'il out, witli tlio as.si.itaiict; of S^ioiieor, au Am. engineer, win 



III Mail 

1i -OH ill tlio Borviro of tho coiiiiniiy oiid was a pilot on the San Juaii. Hn' 
Btoaiimrs thus t:iki'U were tlio W/iiitrr, Mori/nn, Marhuca, ami Biiliirr. J'lnz. 
:r>m. Oiwp. X„r., 21 ]it, 17(i-t); iS'/V., T<i<<j. Svteii., Fob. '28, 18.".7; .I.-/''"'- 
nnri.i, Vnd. Am., 10()-l; S. /'. Jhnibl, Jan. 31, 18.57; S. F.Alki, Jan. ill, 
I >.")7. Ollit'ial rt'imrts ami Mora's proclamation in Xir., Bolctin <>jic., J:"!- t'. 
11, 1S.57. 

^■Tliis in recogni/oil with Bhauio in tho TfMi/. Setoi., June 0, 18;i7. M 'Ul- 
timo Mfini hail, on thi Kttli of Kco., ti'inlerml' Walker's oJiiorrs niul Hillnr-i 
a f:'''c paa.iago to San Juan ild Nortj an I Now York; and the govt at Limi 



THE INV.VDEIIS UESlEGED. 



350 



was now critical. Desertions, which wo»'c frequent, 
sickness, and scarcity of food, daily decreased his 
fuive. For all that, he resisted in llivas several 
r.ssaults from both the land and lake till the 2i)d of 
Fihruary, and struck some heavy blows to the be- 
sic yers in San Jorge." 

The allied leaders had, after a council of war on 
tilt' 23d of January, at Nandainie, aj)poiuted a general- 
iii-cliief, and heads of the several d(])artnients. Tlic 
(•hit'f command wa.s conferred on Florencio Xatruch." 
WU tenure lasted but a few djiys, Jose Joaquin !Mora 
Ixiiig finally selected by the governments connnander- 
iiichlef, when he was recognized as such in general 
orders of February 19th and 20th.*" 

The allies came to the conclusion that it was ad- 
visable to closely besiege the enemy ratlier than to 
iittiinpt further assaults. Xatruch occupied and held, 
Miirch 20th, the barrio de la Puebla, south of the city, 
whic'li was the only means (jf free ingress and egress 
f(ir tlie filibusters. Thus was Walker penned. ]3ut his 
friends abroad had not for<j:otten him. Three Ameri- 
cans, Lockridge, Anderson, and Wlieat, brought oOO 
men to San Juan del Xorte in March, and undertook 
to ascend the river. Lockridge occupied La Trinidad, 
Kut Titus was repulsed at the fort. They then con- 
(ludi'd to invade Costa Kica, as was then sujtposed, 
fir tliey essayed to go uj) the Sarapiqui; but soon 
alter entering the river their steamer blew up, and 
tin- expedition came to naught.^" 

liail. na tlio 22.1, anmillol the acts of tlic adininiiitration frtmi Nov. 4, 18.")5, 
til .Imu' 1'2, 1S.")1), with a few ex<'t'j)ti(iiis. A decree ti>L-h>-e tlie transit he- 
twi ( !i tlie two oceans waa aUo iMMueil. A'ir., liolctiii Ofii\, l)ee. 2'.(, lS."(i; .Tan. 
'.'. •-•:!, I'm7. 

' 'two assaults in force, one hy Hcnningsen with 000 men, aail another l)y 
Wiilkir hinim'lf with 4."i), f.iil'.'il. Another was niai'.e on V.n- Ci.stilhi Viejo, 
'li ii ihlel hy (.'aiity, met M'ith the saine n s\ilt, thmiMli the assailants tmik tile 
Nleaiiihiiat Scott, anil C'auty hail fo iliMtmy the M'trliwn. Moras niit, Fvb. 
'.'t, I^"i7, in Pun, Mom. Cunip. Ai-.r., 2il j.t, \>>-l'M. 

"This selection was nnfavoral.ly reeeiveil h^- the gnvernnicnt, ami vat 
a.curlel hut a temporary recognition till tln! allie-l governments shimhl pre < 
tliiir wishes. /./., 182-4; AVc, lioUtin Ujir., Feh. 18, l.S.")7. 

'Tlie following appointments were also made: Caftas, 2d in comniaail; 
Ziv ill. adj. -gen.; Xatruch, inspeetor-gen.; riiainorro, (luarterniaster-gea. 

' The casualties Were GO killed and 100 wounded. The survivors returned 



Hi 



3GG 



KXl) OF FIUBUSTE11IX(; IN CKNTUAL AMKllKA. 



riio l)osiogefl, on licarin;^ of the arrival. April :U\. 
h reeiirorcenionis, of (General ^Martinez, wliosc pruw- 



Til 
with rceiilorcenionts, ot licncral ^Martinez, whose p 
ess they had learned to resj)ort, became alarmed, ;iml 
the next day oi*jjlity deserters entered the allied liius. 
An assault in force was made April 1 1th, which fuilid. 
Walker's casualties were ijuite small, while those of tlir 
assailants were heavy.*' The latter secured posse ssioti 
of San Juan del Sur, in order that Walker should rt - 
ceive nr» further aid from that (piarter. It was now 
(>vident that the filibusters could not hold out iiiin !i 
l(»n;:!^(r. The <>rigimd force (•{' 1,000, thoujjfh nnor or 
less augmented with the arrival of every steamer, liad 
become reduced to about one half that nundu-r. Tlh 
jjjarrisou had an abundance of plantains, but no iix ;tt 
other tha.i that of asses, mules, and horses. 

An ofHeer of the United States corvette Sulnt 
.]farif.'<, which had been some time lyinjjf at Sau 
Juan, came on the 24th to ^Tora's hea(l<iuartc!s to 
solicit in the name of (\innnander Cliarles H. ])avi-i 
a truce of six hours, which was granted, for the re- 
moval iVom Ivivas of the women, children, and otlit r 
non-combatants. Walker, becondng a[>prised liy that 
oHicer of the failure of Lockridge's attempt to su(<-oi' 
liim, sionified a willingiir-s to ca[)itulate, not to tin' 
oencral-in-chief of the besieging forces, as was nat- 
ural, but to connnander Davis. To this Mora ab- 
sented, in order to bring the war to an end at omi , 
and save himself from ci-rtain complications he apjiit - 
hendetl.'*"* The capitulation being signed and caiiiril 

to I'lint.i ill Ciistilla, ri'fusiiig to ^^o on. Lockridge accusud tliciii of foWMnliiT, 
ii:iil took aw;iy tlirir arms. IJiit the ini,'ii claimed the proti^ctimi of t!.r llrit- 
i h naval cuinuiaiuler. Cauty went ilown in a steamer to the hay A\iri\ ]2i!i, 
anil aft' r eniifiTriiig witli the I5rit. oliieer, ocinniieil I'lintJi «lo Castilla. m lur- 
i ig the war niati'rial. He then temlereil the men a passage to tlie I'. .*<. at 
t'le exjieiisi! of Costa ]{. This was the end of the famous LockridLf exjiiili- 
tion. /''/v;, Ml 1,1. Cinuj). jN'n'., 'Jil \>t; Air., T'l"/. iSitrti., Anril II, l^-'T; 
S. /'. J/' nil,/, April '-M, May Hi, IS.-.J; S. /'. liiilHin, April '2\', |s.">7: S. F. 
Aid,, May hi, l.S.')7; I'm. iJl iiiiliiwla, April '2'2, 18J7; A'lV., Iiol.tiii <{iir., 
April '.",t, "ls.->7. 

*' Upwards of .^0() killed, wounded, and missing. 

*'*n.' did so, even though he agreed with Xatnich, Martinez, and CIki- 
morro that the capitulation should not he neeepted unless Walker pi .i;iil 
hiaisilf not to eonimit hostilities in future against any of the allied >i.ii'''. 
lio alio wishu I to Ijj away before the arrival, then expected, of (.ien. IJarMna 



CAriTULATIOV OF \V.\LKEli. 



361 



out, Walkor and sixteen ofliccrs, after bidding adieu 
to the arniv <>n the 1st of Mav, departed under the 
escort of Zavala, for San Juan del Sui", whci-o thoy 
( luharked on the Saint Marif.^." Davis then deliv- 
eivd the city of llivas to Mora, and the rest of 
Walker's men, ahout 400 in nuujbor, wore trans- 
jiorted to the I'^niti^d States/*" 

The war hein^ ended, the' allied troops retired to 
tlieir rcspeetive states, l^ut ])rior to thri. drpaituro 
thii'e was an affair which nii;.^ht have ended in a san- 
guinary eontlict had it not been for the prudent course 
pursued hy most of the j^enerals. The trouble arose 
iVoin the ]iot-headedn<'SS of Zavala, the eouiniander 
of the Guatemalans, who had been led to believe, by 

ith larj;(' rci'iiforcoiiu'iits nf rrint;in:il;ius a!i<l S.ilvadnr.'iii-!, who wnulil 



i!.itil)tlu.ss fliiim till' yliiry of cmliiig tliu \v;ir. /'i 



M< 



'it)!». 



,/;. 



.\'. 



'_M lit, 



tl 



'"Tlic tt-rins ajirefil upon lietwceu Walker ami l>;ivi.s were: 1st. Walkci- aii<l 



ic lit oIllUlTS ol liis.s 



tall ' 



>h 



ivf Kivas witlisiiU-arui-i, iiistols, )i 



ill 



iiiirsi-s, am 



(iliuT [Mi-orial cirfct.s, umlcr I )avi.s' guaranty that they nIioiiIiI not ho inolo.stiil 
hy till' cnciiiy, hut allnwi-il to I'luhark on tlio Sninf, Mnrift at Saii .luaii ihl 
Siir, whence she shoull eonvi'y them to Panama; 2 1. The otlur (itlieers of 



Walk 



ir s army won 



hU' 



ive Kivas, with their arms, under the same guaranty 



'1 hi' .sent hy l>avis to raiiania in charge of an otiicer of the V. S.; .'M. TIk 



il lil 



e, citizen 



iiiil otlicials, hoth the wouiiiled anil well, were to s!' 



r mil r their arms to ]>avis on a vessel apart from the ile.serte'-s, .so that there 
sliciuM he no contact hetweeii the former and the latter; 4th. I'lvis pledged 
liiiiisilf to ohtain liir Central Americans then in Kivas permission to reniaiii 
i.i tlieir country with protection ol life, liherty, and property; 5th. The otlieer.>» 
slitiiild he allowed to remain at San .luaii del Sur, under the protection of the 
I'. S. cniisul, tintil an opimrtunity otfered to leave for Panama or San Fran- 
ci^i'i). The instrument hears also the signatures of C. Y. Heiiningsen, P. 
Waters, J. W. Taylor, and P. U. Thoniiison. /./., 210-1'-'; Xi<\, Iinl,r,,i Ojir., 



.III 



uiie 



mp: 
Miv (1, 17, 28, 1S.")7; /■/., '/'</<■/. ,S^■^■//., .May 9, 1(J, 23, 1S.')7; ,V(.'. l'i,h 
I I IS, hSo7; fi. F. Al/i, .Tune 17, IS, .Inly I, 2, lsr)7; .S\ F. ll> nihl, .hine Hi, 
liiUij, I.e. Xi<\, i. 2S7; Pinvii dc Mn.i/, Xd/hs, in Omit., Jlrrnji. Liij,. 



I- 

'A'>'\ 745-(i; Ufiior. J,'<i:, July lS."i7, 11^ 



Astihi 



^ r'liii'isfo iS. /■ 



\Mal,i 



/i 



iirwi.iii, l{()iiihltrii.i I 



iUi, 



• /,■ ( • 



"U" 



Crnt. A, 



Aimrloi, I'lm ilr 



Ili.<'(irin 



y </'■ «n KiUvIo (irtwil. Santiago ((.'hile), lSo7, 8vo, map, dedic, and llli pp. 
riie author of this work held a diitloiiiatic mission from Chile to Costa Kiea, 
and heing desirous of fnrni-'hiiig his countrymen gome information on Central 
Aimiiea, prepared his matirial, origin;i'ly for the Id rlMn, ilr ( 'ii miiu i/ Litrnn 
lit Santiago; succinctly giving the physical peculiarities, a'.'rieulture, coni- 
iii 'lie, au I other resources of the country, together with asullieieiit'y instriU't- 
i\i' .sketch of the history of Central America in general, as wi'll is of each 
.>ititc comprised in that term, in readahlo form. At the end is added \\\n 
iiiiiiial corresiiondence witii the si.'veral governments of Central America on 
til' in'iijecte I union of the Spanish American repuhlics. 

"The otliei.'il cortespondeuce hetweeii Mora and the govt of Nic. shows 
th'' lii-li appreciation given hy the latter to the service rendered hy Pavis. 
-V;-., iio/dm Ojft'c, May 0, 1857. 



'i 






it* 

1 ' b I 






TfV 



3^2 



END OF FILIBUSTKIIING IX CENTRAL A-MEU1Ca. 



an ovil counsellor, that the goverinnont would not 
ivturii him some arms he had lent, nor furnisli liim 
transportation, nor even pay him the honors liuu his 
rank. All this was unfounded, but he maltreated tho 
ottirer of the jjuard at tlie government house, jind 
«^ros>ly insulted the president, his ministers, and 
otlurs, threatening to hang them on the churdi (f 
Lii Merced. His conduct was violent and scandal- 
ous."'' Milxmio Jerez and hundreds t)f soldiers rushed 
to the government's defence, and there would liuvi! 
l)cen Uo(»dshcd but f<jr Barrios of Salvador, wl:o liad 
command of 1,800 men, and prevailed on Zavala to 
go back to Chinandcga, whence he marched to Guatt- 
mala, where he was received with the honors he luul 
fairly w«>ii. 

Mora r»turned to Costa Rica, leaving the coniinand 
in charge of Cafias. It is said that he had plaiimd 
to extend tlie boundaries of Costa Rica to the lake, 
which he deemed an easy undertaking, as the Costa 
Ricans had the lake st(\amers, and the Xicaraguans 
w«)ul(l l»e sure to break out into civil war. '" War was 
declared bv Costa Kiea ajjfainst Nicara'jfua on the I'Jth 
of Octolier, 1B57, and accepted by the latter in de- 
fence of her territory.''^ Rut upon a second invasion 
by Walker, peace was concluded on the IGth of Jaii- 
uar\-, 1;>JS.^ 

Walker arrived safely in his own country. Rut ho 

*' A full aooount of tho affiiir wan imhliahcd in the government's orLiii. 
Xir., H.!,t;„ ojh:, May 128, 18J7. 

*■' Ho l>:iil lurnishu<l M'ar material to l»f>th i)artiea, and tendert'd C'ii't;i 
Kiel's aid to M:irtinez. His own wonls at eiuharkiiig expre-sMed tiio M;nh.:i- 
velli.iu I'lot: ' Rsta reptlblica cstariv pronto en gm-rra; dojo las nav;:j:is 
aiiarrad.is a los gallos. Caftiis disapproved in toto of those plans. /'"■;, 
J/em. f.tmji. A'.i'-., 'Jd pt, 'JIi.'-i;i. 

**rres. Martinez of Nic. pronounced it a 'guerra injusta y traidora.' 
Sic, I'i^nirsii. . , .liiiiijni:, 1. 

•"Full p:irticulara on this war and tho terms of peace, in C'ontn /'., In- 
/.tnnel{>l., IV'iS, 2-3; /(/., Ripoa. Mot, tld Canthio, 'Mi-,\ A/V., Jhr. j/.1""' 
./OS 1S07-8, lU-l'.;, 30-1, 135-U; Aic, Mmiif'. Dim. Iwiuj., no. 5, 3; /,'■"'((, 
(.'."/. Sie., i. '•••J; Aynii, Consul. Liinitrs, 30-2. IVriz, while reyertini| to 
C'osita Kioa's plan to rob Nic. of tho Uiver San Juan, and a portion (4 tho 
1 iki-, mentions what Nic. had to suffer from tho allied forces during thi' « ir. 
'C'uantas t-xi^encias, cuantos insultos, cuantas cosas teniamo.i (juo siifnr. 
The allies a]>propriated as booty Nicaraguan movable property that was Uikcii 
from the tUibusten. Menu Camp. .A uc, Jd pi Cai-tn (rref.), p. ii* 



SECOND AND TinUlJ KXrEDlTIONS. 



sa 



was not yet satisfied with the misery and desolation 
lie had wrought upon a foreign and unofl'ending [M'oplo. 
]!(• must play the vamj'ire further; he must concjuor 
Nicaragua and be a great man. Taking advantage of 
tlic rupture between this republic and Costa Rica, ho 
prepared another expedition, with which, eluding the 
vigilance of the United States authorities, he sailed 
liuni New Orleans for San Juan del Norte. He was 
aircstod, howexxT, at Punta de Castilla, December 
btii, and sent back by Conmiodorc Paulding, com- 
manding the American home 8(juadron." Tiie ofti- 
ccr's course obtained the highest connnendation and 
gratitude in Central America, and particularly in 
Costa Rica and Nicaragua, the latter conferring upon 
him high honors. Loyal men who took up arms in 
tlio country's defence were also rewarded/'" But like 
a wild b(?ast maddened by its wounds, Walker was 
still bent on blood, if blood were necessary to subju- 
<rato Central America to his will. He fitted out a 
tliird expedition, and landing with its avant guard 
at Trujillo on the Gth of August, 18G0, seized the 
funds of the custom-house, which were pledged to tlie 
]»ritish government for the payment of Honduras' in- 
(Irbtedness to its subjects.*' The British war vessel 
Icarus entered the port on the 20th, and her com- 
niaiiding officer, Norwell Salmon, demanded that 
Vv'alker should forthwith leave the plac(\ which ho 
did, fieeing to the eastern coast, where he and his 

•'" Tho official documents connected with the affair clearly prove that the 
U. S. govt was desirous of niaiiiUiiiiing an honorahlo position 1 lef ore tlie world, 
r. S'. h'nrtDor., Cong. 35, Sess. 1, vol. vii., H. Kx. Dt.o., no. 124, 1-S2., no. 
'.M. 1: /(/.,L1., H. Jour., Id'y-l'.i, IIWW, 13GS; /./., Cong. .•}"), Scss, I, vol. i.,.Sea. 
]a. Doc, no. 13; I<1., Id., vol. xiii.. Sen. l><ic., no. ti'.i; Id., Cong. 3.'>, Ne.s8. 
2, vnl. vii., no. 10; Cowj. OIoIh; 18.")7-8, 18.")8-'J. Index 'Cent. Am.,' Tauld. 
iiL',' 'Walker,' 'Neutrality l^^iws,' ' Clay ton-lJulwir Treaty,' t-U:; Sitiut's 
-V;-., •Jll-21; Bdbi, Le Mr., i. '2'.»4-7; S. /•'. BullHin, Doc. 'Jil, 1.S57; IS. F. 
.1/'.', .Ian. 14, 185S; S<ic Union, Feb. 3, IS.jS. 

'''To Paulding 'were voted thanks, a sword of honor, and 'JO cahallcrfas 
nf liii 1. ..Vic, Jiolifin OJic, Aug. 2, I8(i'i; Iil., Lfi/>>i L'mlf., IS.'.O, 3 ,">; /,',«•/, i, 
<-''»/. A/.'., i. 217-'J:); Cotta />'., Col. Ln/., xv. 3; /<!., /ii/oruie lliL, lf>.'S, I 'J. 

'' Ids idtiniate destination M-as Nicaragua, wlioso govomineiit hastened 
lir.|i;irations for the defence of her territory, as will as to aid Hond. in the 
iv( it 111 her needing assistance. Kic, Mem. Qobcrn., ISGl, D; Id., JJcnm'Je 
il<l /'rrgil., Jan. 10, 1801. 



niU KM) OF FILIUJSTLUIXG IN* CKXTUAL AMIIIUCA. 



men underwent tlu; utmost sijU'eriuij iu that uniti- 
lijibitod marshy rei^Mon. A party of lloiulurans liar- 
ussotl them, aiul Walker was wounded in the taci' 
and h"^. Finally, General Mariano Alvarez arrived 
with a ITonduran I'oreo at Trujillo, and tojjether with 
Salmon proeeeded t<» the mouth of Rio Tinto, aniv- 
inj^ there on the 'M of September. Walker .suricii- 
dered to the Icarus, and was turned over to Alvan/., 
who had him tried at Trujillo by eourt-martial. J If 
was sentenced to death, and executed on the I'Jth <>{ 
SeptenilitT. Thus ended on the scatlbld the caret r i.\ 
William Walker, Hlibuster, pirate, or what you will. ' 

The provisional lu^ovomment of XicaraGfua on tlic 
14th of January, ISJT, or^^anized a eonsultive coumil 
of five members and three substitutes,"''' which wa-. 
iiHtalled on the 20th. To that body were refernd 
the strictures of ministers Cardi'ual and Castillo, 
u[)held by Geni'ral ^fartinez, the two former having' 
resigned their portfolios because the president ]i;itl 
declined to transl'cr the seat of _<:^overnment t<» tli-' 
eastern department.*' The council did not approve ut 
their c(»ursi', and suj^ufested that ^lartinez, undi r a 
clause in the aj^reement of September 12, 185C>, sliould 
sumn»on II. Cortes and P. J. Chamorro to fill tin' 
vacancies in the cabinet. It does not appear, linw- 
ever, that Martinez took any steps in that direction. 

The old dissensions which AValker's war had kt jit 
in abeyance now threatened to break out afnsli. 

•"" He rceeivcil tao coiisolatiim of religion from a cnthnlic priest, laving' 
joineil that faith to Imcoino jircsiclcMit of Nic. His remains v,\-ic luirii'cl in 
Trujillo. Among hi.s etfcets was found tho seal of Nicaragua, which with 
his sword the gox-ernnieiit of Hond. transmitted to that of the fiiriiier. /.'i 
Uhiiin fit' Sir., Jiin. 12, Sept. '_'.S, 18t»l; Xir., I'l/onnc Oolx-ru., no. ii. 7 !•: AV 
Xrrinn'il, Sept. 8-Oet. '27, ISiiO; /V/ri, Mfiii.'Camp. X'lr., 2d i>t, 21.". lii; 
JSrlli/, /,»■ A/V., i. 382; E-o, ///vp.-.l w., Sept. l.")-Nov. 15, 1800- 7)"(/"- <!'■ 
.•1W.X.W, Oit. 4, 181)0; J'intM (Inte of the 'v., 4'.)-50; Ifitrper'n Mo<j , xxi- WKi, 
S'M; S. t\ Jiulli't,,,, Sept. 3, 8, 17, IK, ')et. .3, J<.». Nov. 12, 18{>0. 

•'"Tiio niemhers Were: Vieario capitular, .J. il Herdoeia, J. de la Rmla, 
II. Z'peda, <rrejjorio .Inarez, and (.. Laeayo; Ruhstituten, J. liiiea, F I 'i li! 
Z:i])ita, and .Toaonin Pei-e/. Xir., f.oU'tin '>/iV., Jan. 23, 18.")7. 

•^'The le','itinii.sts claimed it to ho for the puhlic weal, wherea> tho cl.iiin- 
crats tHoiight it would damage theui. I'trez, jleiiu Cauti>, Xuc, 2d p-, I ."^ •*• 



Le^itimls 
(|rsi»lation 
^[artinez 
the cast { 
Bari'ios, c 
olltet an 
that tho o 
hiuisflf an 
jointly rro 
Cduld be a 
T!iis plan 
thfinsclvt's 
;,''ul»iL'rno, < 
was ree( yr 
oalainitv oi 
Cn|iH)lc't<'d 
and l?osul 
Jerez contii 
of October, 
ac(vj)ted, tl 
nf iiiilitai'v 
olHi-e into't 
till 11 made 
powers, anc 
Tlie fir.st 
-titute the 

tile people i 

i'l.L;' a C(»nst 
At the sue-i 
•HTez, Toinj 

pfnjMT pcrS 

t'lfi-ted aim 

"Kut forarhi 
'I'vi'Ir.l into two 
*»itli .,th<T states 
Mni.-j. ,1,1 l',),l,, 

'"'A/'-., D,,\ ,j 

"'In tliodeere 
'"tcr-: w iTc niadu 

''Only two fit 
';'S y-\\\v\\ had he 



liLOKCANIZATlOX DF (iOVKll.N.MFAT. 



aos 



1/ M-itiinlsts and tlomoorats alike Sciw in bloojlsluul juul 
(lis(»hitir)n tlio only means to settle their difrcicncis. 
Martinez and Jerez, with some of their fVii-nds j'lt.ni 
the east and west, and assisted hy (Jeneral (urard(» 
Bairios, eoniniissioner of Salvador, labored in vain to 
t'll'ict an atnieahlc arramj^cnient."' Jerez eonchkli'il 
tliat the oidy recourse now lift to avert a Wiir was for 
liiiiiself and ^lartinez to assume the responsibility ot" 
jointly jjfovernini; the country dictatorially until it 
rould 1k' a.^rain placed under a constitutional reL;inie. 
This plan beinjj^ accepted, the two h'adei>i oi'^anizid 
tluinsrlvcs, on the 24tli of June, into a junta de 
i;ul)ierno, <.)therwise called (iobierno Binario, which 
was recojrnized by both parties, and the dreaded 
calamitv of war was avoided. The orj'anization was 
C()nii»let<>d with the appointment of Grej^orio Juanz 
and Rosali'o Cortes as the cabinet. ^Martinez and 
Jerez continued at the head of aflairs until the I'Jth 
of Octoltcr, when war with Costji Rica liaviui;" bein 
acct'pted, they resolved to assume personal diiection 
of military operations, and resiL,nied the executive 
otlice into the hands of the ministei'S. ^Martinez was 
tin II made general-in-chief of the foices, with ample 
powers, and Jerez second in command."' 

The first acts of the new government were to recon- 
>titute the supreme and other courts, and to summon 
the jieopie to choose a constituent asscnibly for frani- 
iiii,'' a constitution,"'' and a president of the republic. 
At the sui::u;estion of Cortes, and with the as-ient of 
Jori'Z, Tomils ^Martinez was named to the people as a 
]irii]icr person for the exocutive office, and he was 
ik'cted almost unanimouslv."' He took the oath of 



i 



'Tiut fur arliitrtary moasurca, on the l'2th of .Tune, tlio static vimM have 
iliviilid into two ^jarts, each following itn own luiit, ovcii to iiioirimratioii 
with otliiT HtiitL'8, which Would have Ijucu thu death of the rc'iiublio. A'/c, 
M.I, -J, ,ltH'o</<r Ejrr., 18r)7, 2-3. 

'^-.V;.., Dec. y Anicnlox, 1857, l.^-VS. 

'^'lii tlie decree of convocation the lacndwrsof the executive and the min- 
istor-i V I've made iiU'litriMo for scats in that hody. 

'■'Only two electoral votes were not east for him. Tlie constituent ussem- 
Mv, wliich had lieen installed Nov. 8th, declared hiin to have been the people's 
t i"ii.f. Sic, Gaatii, Apr. IS, 16G3. 



sen 



tSl) OF FILlBUSTKUIXf; IN CKXTHAL AMKIlIiA. 



ofHco on tho 15th of X<>vuinl»or, promixiii^ to puisii. a 
jKtlicy of peace and nmciliatioti,*^' and aj)|)«»iiitiii<4 
Juarez, Maeario Alvarez, and Cortes, his n)inisti is 
re.speetivelv for foreign relations, treasury, and tf<.v- 
ernujont."*' JJurin*^ his first term there were sev* i.il 
clumi^es in the personnel of the cahinet.'' 

^Martinez' administration not only <^ave Nicarnmiu 
the lonjL^est period of internal peaee she liad ever iuul. 
hut j>romoted her prosperity in every hranch, aii*l 
notahly in finances. At tho time of its inau<^uratin!i. 
tho j^overnment had not one hundred dollars in the 
treatsury. The liberatin«( anny had not been paid dm - 
in^^ the late war, and the oidy way to adjust tlie arrtais 
was by issuing warrants, which the merchants miuu 
<rot jiossession of at sixty to cijL^hty per cent dlsiniint, 
and returned to the treasury at \tnr in i>aym(iit ot 
import duties on merchandise, thus greatly redutin;; 
the revenue from that source. The govermneiit al^n 
adopted the unusual course of assuming to indeiimitv 
J rivate persons for the losses they had sustaimd dur- 
ing the civil war, tliose resulting from the burning; "t 
Granada included."^ And yet Martinez, after his n ic- 

"^ Dinnimo Iiiaiiij., 3, Toinau Martinez was a native of Leon, and luul lucu 
en.i!:ig<'il in trnilu and mining without taking part in tho political a^;itati(ins 
of hi.i native phicu until the revohition of 1854, which did not meet liis np- 
l>roval. It is believed tliat his reserve liad made him an object of Kiisipicinii 
o:i tiie jiart t»f tlie democrats, which cireninstance forceil him to sn k a r. tii^u 
in the ranks of the conservatives, and to ondtracc, nnieli against his likiiiL', 
tiie military profession. Martinez was a lineal descendant of an heroii- wii;riiiii, 
llafaela Mora, who in 17>S0 distiuguisheil herself in the defence of Sail .In lu 
d.'l \orte against Nelson's atbick. He was in 1857 about 45 years nl.l, tall 
of stature, an<l of reserved deportment. Self-instructed, plain, anil unani- 
bitious «if popularity, ho eaix'd not for honors or display, and ubhornd syoo- 
phancy. He never useil more words than were necessary to cxiu'ess liis 
thoughts, and his whole aim, after he entered public life, w.is to siivc his 
country. Moreover, ho possessed a kiudly disposition, ami in his famil . n.- 
lations was affectionate. 

•'"l>urinK tho war with Costa Rica he commanded the forces in the till: 
meantime the executive oliico was in charge of Deputy Agustiu Avilt-s. Ho 
resumeil tho latter .Jan. 12,"), lSr)8. In tiio course of his term he sevensl timi-| 
provision:dly surrendered the oliico into the charge of others, on art(ii::it <•! 
illness, ^'!c., Dec. y Acuenlm, 18.")S, 3-7, 32; 1859, ii. VM, 137; 181)0, iu. 71, 
83-4. 177. 

*' The sovenil portfolios were abo for more or less time in charge of I'ulnt 
Zeledon, J. do la liocha, Kduardo Castillo, (.ieronimo I'erez, Miyucl Ciinliiias, 
Nicivsio del Castillo, and H. Zepetla. 

""A iuunl>er of decrees acknowledging the iudebteduess appear in A /i'., 
Dec. y Acuenlw, 18Jl), ii. 13'J-ol. 



t< irv o; 
A. 'I dor 

diMihh'l 

raii'^ihj 
TJio 

t" l*e a 
1' I'opul 
tht^ assf 

l<'L;i.sIatl 

slutuld 
coiistitu 
to this, < 
illc'^'-itin] 
liad rule 
1m r, 185 
June 24, 
Duriu] 



""The ca( 

iiiiiit was cii 
Jii'lifial. Tl 
"itliipiit reei 
"IS to g,( ii 

I'lv.'i.lentwa.- 
""t having li 

I'l'<>essill(jr I-,., 

t 'eMMsiyt of i 
'i\ years; tlk 
;'>>'.<NM)inreal 
'ill dipiitiijs' 
'i-ilf thfir nui 
''antral Amer 
I" -Vic of ten , 
'•'•"t, senator, 
y rs (if recogn 
^'"^ liiembers 
two sections 
'''"■I'ty of thou 
■'"iiileiiiigratioi 
••■'''y. invjision 
V''>"y forbi.h 
■^■.i.'2:>-4'2; 
'■'■'" >■„. y (1,1,.,. 
'■^ "|i the loth . 
... ,' ' 'i«'caiise id 
r'*'i "i June, _ 
'"■Kill that auuu 



Ni:W COXsTiTLTHlN. 



307 



tcrv of Ajiril 20, ISC.."., tiLjftinst the unitod fonva of Sal- 
\;Hl(»r and Honduras, siuvfcdj'd within six years in 
(Iciiililini^ tlu' amount of puMic rovonuos, and in ar- 
raii';;ing for the payment of tlie foreijnfu deht. 

The constituent assemhly, on the IDth of Aujjjust, 
I^.IS, adopted a new constitution, deelarin«j Niearaixua 
ti. he a sovereign, free, and independent repuhlic under 
;i popuhirrepresentiitivej^'overnment.®' Two days hiter 
the assenddy resolved to eontiime aetin*^ as an ordinary 
li^ishiture, and deerei'd tliat all puhlic functionaries 
should ntain their resj.eetive otfices until the new 
constitutional regime should have been installe»l. Prior 
to this, on the TOth of January, that body liatl declared 
illegitimate all the provisional administrations which 
had ruled Nicaragua from 1854 till the 8th of Xovem- 
1m !•, 1857, excepting only the gobierno binario from 
June 24, 1857.'" 

During the first years of Martinez' rule, the most 

""The catholic nliginii w.is jilicfil uiulcr nt.ito protection. The govern- 
iiii'iit w;in constitntod in thri'o liraiic lio.-i; n.iniely, executive, lej/isLitivn, uitil 
judicial. The exeeutlve iiiitluirity M-iw vested in a iire.sitlent fur Imir years 
without reelection for the next term. lu his ahiieiu'e or inahiUty, the othe.; 
w IS to g<. into the hamU of the senator caUed hy congress to lill it. Tho 
]irc.<i.h'nt was to he a native and resident of Nic, HO years of a^'e or upwartl.s, 
ih'l having lost tho rights of eitizen.shii> within live years of tiie election, anil 
I'lisM'ssing real estate valued at no less tlian §4,(K)0. The lej,'i.slativ(' jiower was 
I p tnnsitit of a senate and house of deputies. Tlie senators' trrin was to ho of 
iix years; they were to he at huist 'M years «)ld, and to possess no less than 
•S'.'.IMK) in real estate, one third of their nunihcr to Ikj renewed evi'ry two years. 
Tin (Kputies Were to he upwards of -o years old, and hold for four yisirs, one 
li:ilf their nundnir heing rencweil every two years. Tliu natives of the other 
Central American states were eligihle to tho senato or lu.use, af ter a n^sidenco 
in Xie. of ten or live years respectively. No chiirchinan couhl he chosen presi- 
iliiit, senator, or deiiuty. Tho justices of the HUi>reme court had to he hiw- 
y rs of recognized anility and integrity. They were to Imhl otliio four years, 
tlio inciiihcrs heing renewed every two years. Tho court was cHvidiMl into 
two .sections with at least four justices each. Tho constitution recognized 
lilierty of thought, speech, writing, ami tho press; also tho ri;;hts of propcjrty 
ami emigration. Torture in any form, cniel jiuuishnients, contiseation of pro[)- 
erty, invasion of private domicile, and estaMi.shment of special courts wito 
f'.rittly forhidden. It was promulgated Sept. 1.'., 1S.'.8. Iliu'li<t, ('ml. /.i^/Im. 
-V, .. i. 'J.-,-!'.'; Lri'!/, X/V., 309-27: Si Porr' „ir X!<:, Feh. 11, iSTi'; X;,:, M'vjii. 
'•'►'"/•». y (I'licrrii, IS.VJ, 3. Tlio l.ishop and his chapter took the oath to ohey 
it ell the 1 ".til of Apr., 1801. Lit Union tk Xlr., May 11, 1801. 

'" iJecause its acts temled to tho organization of tho country. IJut on the 
'J">tli of June, IS.IH, tho government of .Tosc M. Kstrada wa.< also e.\empte,l 
Ireiii that auuulmeut. Jlocha, VOd, Lvjk, Sk., i. 82, S'J-'JO. 



i^ 



«"' ■'in 

ri 



3f5S 



r,Ni> OF i'ii.i:;u. TKUiN!; i\ cfatuaf, amkuka. 



I 



IVloiuUv relations scmu d to exist between liiiu jkiI 
the Itiulcrs of the two jxilitieiil |iiirtie8. Jeii/ was 
intrusted wilh innK)rtant tli[»l()nuitie duties."' At tin- 
begiiininj^' < *' 18G1, the pre i«U'nt in liis niessa;;-e tn 
eongnss stattxl that tlie country was at peaeo at lioiiic 
and ahroad, Salvador l)ein.ijf the only nation tluit 
liad suspended diplomatic relations with Nieara;,Hia.'- 
Again, in January 18()JJ, the ]n'esident congratulated 
rongress that peace reigned, and the country was pn s- 
pering. Jle said with pleasure that no Xicaragw.ui 
was undergoing penalty lor political causes.'^ The 
country was at the same tinio an asylum for the i)erse- 
cuted and exiles of other states. However, this Im.'jii- 
tality ( xtended to exiles gave rise to serious dill'erenei s 
with Salvador, whose demands were invariably disir- 
garded, until Barrios threatened to blockade tlie jxnt 
of llealejo.'' The conse(|Uence was, tiiat Xicai-agiia 
and Cuatemala, })ursuant to the treaty made Sejiteiii- 
ber 20, l!^C)i2,''' became ahies in the bloody war thai 
broke out this year against Salvador and Honduras, 
details of v.hieh have been given in the liistory of 
Salvador for tliis i)eriod.'*' ^Martinez having been re- 
elected prei/ident for the ((uadrennial term from ^rareh 
1, 180:5," oflered his resignation on the trround that 



"He was niii)ointo<l minister iilcn-potcntlarj, lirst in Costa Rica, next in 
Wa:)liijij;t«in, ami wii.i t'liiiiowi-rid to neuotiute a treaty witli the Sji.ini-li 
mini -tiT at t\w latter ilace. 2>'ic., Ihc. y Afif nlox, lh.")7-8, 117, 24;J, ii. •_'l. 

'■'I'rfsid. IJarritw of Silv. coinplaiueil of the plots carrieil on agaiint liiin 
in Nil', liy n I'li^ei's, an 1 made ilenianils, such as their iK'ing ileniid the usu 
of the press, to wliicli the Nic. govt cor.lil not accede. Nii\, Mi'ii>>. </'l /'/' ■"/., 
in r.a Union /- X!r., Jan. 19, 18G1; J<1., Mvm. Idl., in 1,1., March 2, iNil. 

"'Ningiiii Nicara;^ilen8e preao, ni eonlinailo, ni expiilso por o:ir..s:is pnliti- 
cas; todos Koii Klires, s^in restricciou al;;una.' ^'/V., Guccta, Jan. 24, KS(i;{. 

^HMlicial corresp. in /.'., IV1>. 7, ISel.'l. 

'•'Trcatv of aniitv, defensive alliance, coTnmcrco, etc., duly ratilicil. //., 

Aijril 18, IS,;:;. 

'"Jen/, l-'iriiando Chamorro, antl J. D. K.itrada, for taking ]iart against 
their governmeat, were degraded to tho ranks. J</., May 23, 30, lS!i;i. 

"Congress, Fel). 14, 1803, approved all his ailministrativo acts to date. It 
had been rejiresentcd totho people that Martinez, notwithstainling tlu; clauso 
iu the constitution forlnddmg reelection, could l>o reelected, heiMUse the 
powers ho hail exercised in tlie past years had come to him, not under tlio 
constitution ■wl'.ich M'as of suliseipu'nt date, hut from the convocation decree 
of Aug. 20, 1857, and his choice was approved by the constituent assciiiMy. 



ther(> 1 
•"'•eojid 

should 

'iliie. 

^^lartinc 
sio d.J ( 

eampaig 

thi'ir sci 

g 'iieral.' 

■'I, IH(;;j 

<i.;-u'n.st .j 

dicrcoiui 

\vith tliri 

Jiad hi'L'U 

;'f'Aj)i-iI, 

"lelufhll"'- 

Touar( 
'■'t tempts i 
They aro.v 
^'■iiipIaU.(I 
tioii of Aj 
fa Is,./' ]/ 

•'^i^ted on J 

*'\ecutive ( 

<'h..sc-n,'^-]„ 
I. iscr. 
ininvd, am 



-^"■., Drrn 
'•"M- of Salv. v 
""•.'-■d.Talists. 

'"iiiing his 

•;■ '■■'^tillo, 15. ; 

' • /' I,,d„„^ ,j J 

->" . April 24, J, 

.""■A>'i.dan fn 

I'''l'';<- ^■i'■., (,;„., 

,, ■ ' ' '"nu'ress ha 

'.'■"iKs, .March J 1 

^'■'- l-'M'-^l., I8t;.-, 

, '«y 4;t:{ ,.h,ct 

'""I llrrnU, •J.\.|,; 



ruKsiDKXT m.\i;ti \ vy.. 



:{i;i> 



tliorc llli^ht 1)0 ()|>|)nsitioii to llis lioldillj^ tllc (\iV\rv ;i 



M '( '( ) 



11(1 term, lint coii'^rt'ss, on the jtli of |<\l>i 



uaiv 



l,s(!:{, (K'clincd to accept it, and rc((iicstcd that lie 
should <*oiitiiiuo at thi' hca'! of aflairs at hast for a 
liiiH'. J)iiriiiL,Mhi' \vai- wILu Salvador ami Honduras, 
MaitiiK'Z conniiandcil the army » ■ rhe fiehl, and Xiia- 
sio (Id C'astdlo acted as jux'sidmt, At the i-nd of the 
campaign, ALartimz and the trooj'S were rewarded for 
their services, he heinii; raised to the rank of captain- 
l; 'iieral.'"' Jle resumed the executive ofHco Auj'ust 
:1I, IHd.'l.'" Th«! most sti'ini^ent ordei's were issued 
against Jerez and othei's, declaring; them traitors, and 
decreeing; that revolutionists were severallv atiswerahh 
witli their property for the expenses the o-overnn • t 
had heen put to hy their acts, llowevei-, on the liOth 
of A])ril, 18(54, an M' uiisty law was j)assetl, though not 
including the chief leaders.'*" 

Toward ho end of ^fartinez' second term ftonu- 
attempts at revolution were made, and easily (juelK d. 
They aroso from a rej)resentation that ^[artinez (^^>l\- 
tcni[>latod retaining power for life; hut in a proclama- 
tion of April 24, 180(), ho pronounced the statements 
false."'' Following the example of Wa8hingt(»n, he in- 
sisted on his countrymen calling another citizen to the 
I'xecutivo chair, and Fernando Ciuzmau having heen 
( hoscn,"'" he surrendered his authority to him on March 
1. ISC>7. His rank as oaptain-genej-al had heen con- 
tinned, and upon his tendering a resignation, congiess 



■•-V;--., D>'nrtai, l.S(>7-8, pt ii. lO-Jl; /.'^x-li-r, (V„l, /,,.,,. A'/V., i. '_'•-'(). Tlif 
iiiii..'. of Siilv. vott'il liiiri a HWonl iif lidiinr t'ur aiiling to deleat JS.irnos an>l 
til.' inUralists. Sir., d'urrlii, .liinc 17, U-l, l.S(i.j. 

■'I'liring hiit xci'oiiil teriii the fnlldwinji ])ersoiis ai-tt'il as Iiis iiiinistcr.s: 
K. Castillo, 11. Selva, H. Salinas, H. I'nrtoi-arriTo, U. Alfgria. It. Cortes. 
1'. /iK'ilon, J, y. Aguilar, .J. .1. Ludcaiio, ami Antonio Silva. A'/f., Sininnul 
-W .. .\pril*J4, hST.l 

"" ■•»>ucilaii fticra de la ainnistia todos .•kjucUos (jiio coiiio aiitorcs jn'inci- 
Y.i\v<: Mr., llwrtH, April '-n>. May '1\ \SM. 

"' < 'oiiLiress hail not oiilv ajiprovnl his acts, hut gave him two xote-. nf 
tli.inks, Slarcii 11, KS(m, ami .lati. I'.t, 1>S(J7. X'n:, U'lrihi, Marih ! ISIm; A/., 
!>■■: /.<vl--l., 18()r>-(), '2l-'2; 1S.;7 8, .".. 

' liv 4lt."j electoral votes against i:V.) cast for .liiaii R. Saoasa; nectissary fur 
.1 .hou'e, iSiV A/., Oct. 27, i«r.l>; J<l., lhrni>>-s 1S07-8, pt ii. 4-;".; /'.f». S(.tr 
mill l/<rnl,l,i<\-]>. U), ]8()7. 

Jli>T. Cent. Am., Vol. 111. 2i 



I 



870 END OF FUJiiJSTERING IN CENTRAL AMERICA. 



refused to accept it.^ However, scarcely one year 
later, congress suppressed the rank altogether.*^ Ex- 
president Martinez' death occurred on the 12th of 
March, 1873, and his remains were buried with high 
honors on the 20th.^ 

"Decrees of Jan. 22 and Feb. 18, 1867. Nic.,Dec. LajisL,}867, 10-11, 25-0. 
** ' I'or estar en oposicion con las atribuciones del toder Ejecutivo. ' De- 
cree of Jan. 20, 1808. M., 1808, 3. 

^Mc, Ottceta, March 15, 1873; hi, Semanal 2iic., March 27, 1873. 



.i.M> E: 

Ad.mi.vi 

-His 1 

Him— f 

Prmidi 

Carran 

PorisM- 

'•P PrAsi 

His Sud 



i 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

POLITICAL EV^ENTS IN COSTA RICA. 

1856-1880. 

lU.wARns TO Walker's CoNQrERORS — Reelection of Mora — His Downfall 
AM) Exile— Ili.s RErrRN, Caituue, and Execution— Montealeures 
Administration — Violence of Parties — Compromise ox Jesus Jimenez 
—His Peaceki'l Rile— President JosA M. Castro — Charoks auainst 
Him — His Overthrow — Several New Constitutions— Jimenez auain 
President — His Arbitrary Acts — How He was Deposed — President 
Carranza — Other Temporarv llii ers — President Olardia's Des- 
potism — Faihre of his Warlike Pi^ns — His Df^th — A dministkation 
OF PrAspero Fernandez — Preparations to Defend Independence — 
His Sudden Death — Bernardo Soto's Peaceful Rule. 

In describing the early operations of the Costa 
Rieans in Nicaragua against Walker in I80G, I alluded 
to the sudden departure of President Mora and his 
lirother from Rivas for Costa Rica, because of tidings 
received of an attempted insurrection against the gov- 
tininent, then temporarily in charge of Vice-president 
Oreainuno. This revolt was soon quelled, and the 
kaders and officers connected therewith were arrested 
and expatriated. Oreamuno having died, Vicente 
Aguilar was chosen vice-president on the 17th of 
Sr[)tember, but resigned the position the next month.* 
A cliange of ministry tc.ok place on the 2Gth of Sep- 
ti'uiher, the distinguished statesman taking charge of 
the portfolio of foreign relations.^ The ])resident, 
owing to war against the filibusters, suspended the 

'Oct. 22il. Alhtim Semannl, Sept. 2(5, 185G; Costa R., Col. Li'y., xiv. 41-2, 

51-2. 

■ Tlie other ministers were Joaquin B. Calvo, of government and cedes. 
atlair.s; and Rafael < j. E»calantc, of treasury and war. 

(371) 



<H' '^ Ht^ 



872 



POLITICAL EVLNTS I\ tO.STA IlICA. 



artioii of tlic constitution on tlio 15th of November, 
liut iH'iH:ilt.'(i the (Ucrcc a few days liitor."' 

Tlie sui'cossful termination of the war was liailed in 
Costa liiea wich great joy, and tlie men who gavi 
this iilorious imi^e to lier history were liiirhlv lionoreil. 
The j)r(>sidt'nt was made a ca|»tain-general,* and tin- 
officers, as well as the lank and file, were promoted 
and otherwise rewarded/' 

The elections for president and vice-president of tlie 
lepultlic took place, and congress on the 4th of ^I;iy, 
IS.VJ, declared thnt Juan l^afael Mora hud heen ii- 
elected,and Kafael G. Escalante chosen for the second 
position." 

^fora's administration ha«l initiated a nmnher of 
measures tiMiding te» the advancement of the countiv. 
Among other improvements was that of the fine ii;i- 
tionnl ]);dace in San Jose. CosUi Rica had enjoyed ii 
long [teriod of internal ])cace with an increasing piMs- 
perity. !N[ora was quite po[)ular with the masses, hut 
( neountercxl opposition from the property owmk is. 
iiiei-cliant'«, and army men. For this reason he eo-ald 
not strengthen his govei'ument, and found JiimsLlf at 
the nuu'iy of a coup de main the moment the peojjlc 
thought their interests were jeopardized hy his power.' 

MJ'jc. 11, 18r)(). Costa /?., M,'m. GoUrii., 1S.")7, '-'-.'t. 

*Iu lS.")4tIio po|)o licstowi'il (lu In'in tlic lioiiorof Kiiiglit grain! cross <if tin- 
oriliT (if (irogory tlio (irtut, ami tlio Capita Kican t'oiigii.'!-a autliiirizeil liiin tn 
aooqit it. ros/ii Jl., Vol. I.r:i., xiii. -JS; xiv. 1 17-'.t. 

■' J)i'c. 2'.t, 1>S.")7, a iiicilal vas votccl. Ag:iiii, Fel>. 20, 1S58, acrosH of lioiinr 
wan ilocrcoil to tlio gfiu'ral.s aiul li(l(l-(iliic(.'r.s. Id., 207; xv. 'A. 

"Kscalaiito had Itet^ii vii'u-iprosidi'ut since Oot. Il>.">7, and at tin- jursiiit 
time was ti'iiiporarily in oliar "i" of tlio cxecutivo ollice. Iil., xvi. X) 1. 

' rolitiial gricvaiiL'(^:< and jirivato animosities wore In'onglit into action Inr 
liis ovirtlirow. Ho was accMi.sed of intending tr) keep liiniself in powii lor 
life, liUo C'arrera in (Jnaten\ala, a.s was eviileneed by Ins second reelection, 
Mliicli violated l)otli tlit^ .spirit and letter of the national in.stitntions; of his 
hiving iniposeil the weight of his own will on the linaneial de] artnient, tlie 
j.idici.iry, and even the legi liiiire, w ith the view of sotting up the ride of (Hiu 
tiniily over the ruins of repiihlican liherty; of his lumugiisiiriied the pmpi rty 
n:id lilior of odiers for hi.i own hein lit. Kvcii tlio organization of an army, 
and his campaign against ^Vall<l■r, wero niado to appear as intcndeil to iiii- 
lunve his own pi'enni:iry inteic-its, whicli were said to he in a very hai! .-.tiitr. 
1 lio charge of assumption of dictatorial jiowers does ne* seem to In; sust.iimil 
hy facts. The opposition journal, \\w All'uui SitintiKil, freely imhlishcd strung 
articles against his administration. ra:iiphlots tilled Mntli vituperation, au'l 
ti'idiicin'4 iii-t etiar act 'r, circulated without hindrance; o;io of the jiiiMica- 
l.o!H called him tlio tz.ir of Costa Uic i. Thii oppoiitioii was fanue.M}' the 



VICENTE AGUII^\.R 



873 



TTonco the revolutionary movoinent that hurled him 
iKtiii his executive ofHee in tlio iiiiilit of AuLfUst 14, 
ISoI). A provisii^nal governineiit, composifd of l»is 
j>o]itical enemies, was ut once organized, meeting with 
ii(» opposition on the part of the jtcople. It was a 
palace revolution, and no blood was s[)ilt. jMora was 
k [it in cf)ntincment, though otherwise well treated 
(luring three davs at the end of which he was tiikoii 
ti» Puntarenas, and sent out of the country on an 
.Vmerican steamer. He settleil with his fiimilv in 
vSalvador, where he introduced the cultivation <>t' 
(■( itl'ee. 

The new government now took steps to liave itself 
confirmed l)y a constituent assond)]y, and to cause its 
provisional president, Jose Maria Montealcgre, regu- 
laily elected. The influential man of the administrai- 
tinii was Vicente Aguilar, ex-vice-president, a wealthy 
iiiun, and the deadly enemy of Mora. He was the 
minister of the treasury and of war, and hy his insti- 
g;Uion some reactionary and des[)otio measures were 
a(li)[)tcd, thereby increasing the general uneasiness. 
The country was henceforth divided into two political 
jiarties, each claiming to be the re[)reseutativc of law 
and order.** 

liiireil (if persons wlio had privato grudges against Mora. Among tlie-.i 
N'u'c ito Aguilar, liis fornicr pai'tner, wlio had h.v n nunlc ti> di.s!_'org,; .SliA),(),tJ 
or nioro, of which he had wrongfully deprivuil Mora. Capitalists were hostde 
liiMUso the president !i.id ehuitered a hank. The sale of a tract of piihlio 
liii 1 near San .Tose, upon wliioli many persons had aottk'il, was made the snl)- 
jut fnr much troulile. The exile of the iiishop diil not fail to have a powi r- 
fi.l intluenee. Jiishop Tdoreute had refused to i)ay, or toalhiwhls elerj.'y to 
jiiy, an ecpiitalile t:ix deeroed hy eo;iLTe;is Sept. '_".•, I'CiS, f <r thi! support of 
liii [litals. Ho not only refus;'d eo:nplianee, l)ut incited the populace to re\<iU. 
Kiir this ho was exp'.'llod. lie wa ;, however, after Mnri'sovcrtln'ow, reealle I 
hy the provisional goVernine:it, and nded tlie dincc.e till his death, whivli 
tunk place Sept. '2:\, 1>S71. ('o-li /.'., Mr„i. Interior, IN.V.I, 'J; iSiiO, 4; A/., f W. 
l.'-j., xvi. 87-8; yi<:,<<iiri'fa, Oct. 7, 1.S71; J:^l Xnrloiiitl, ,hui. ).">, Ifi.V.t; Ji'l!;/, 
J.- Xi'riritiiii.i, i. 370-81. () 10 of I'.i • p.iMieutiom wliieli eanio out after Mcira's 
downfall, noto:dy ehar^'ed him wi.li almie of puwer, pconlatiun, and .il.uo.-t 
t'Viry conceivahle of'ence, hut of his having lirou^ht him.self into jiiditical 
pi'iiiiiiaenee hy iatri^tio, anil hy treachery tu Munixin, and to his rilatinni 
a I I friends, who, it was asserted, hrd heen ruineil hy hiin. Tliis pulilicitien 

itilated vSau Jose, April '2, lo(>;), hut is auonynums. Cwta li., Ejqms !/(»• 

ti'i*. . .('nmhio Polit., Wi pp. and 1 1. 

''The provisional administration claimed that the revolution hail not merely 
c'rumeil the personnel, hut also the principles on which the government was 
hi d, the peoplj (k'monJing greater irticdoni with clearly deliued riglits and 



I 



'<! 



874 



POLITICAL KVEN'TS IX COSIA lUCA. 



Tlio constituent assembly, pursuant to convocation, 
met on the IGth of October, and on the 2Gth of ])•■- 
comber adopted a new constitution in 142 articlts, 
wliicli was promulgated the next day. This funda- 
mental law was liberal except in the matter of relifjic;!!, 
as it neither recognized nor tolerated any form of faith 
l>ut the Roman catholic. All otluT rights of man 
were conceded." The constituent congress adjourned 
sine die on the 27th of December, and the ordinnrv 
congress opened its session on the 22d of April, 18G0, 
on the next day declaring tliat Josd ^lan'a Montea- 
logre had obtained a popular majority for the ofliee 
of president of the republic, and appointing the 29t]i 
for his inauguration On the 24th that body desi^c- 
nated the persons who were to fill the executive cliair 
in the temporary or absolute absence of the presi- 
dent/*' 

Before many months had passed, Costa Rica wit- 
nessed a catastrophe which filled the whole of Central 
America with soiTow, indignation, and shame. ]\It)ia, 
the deposed president, had solemnly protested against 
the revolutionary acts which deprived hhn of his other. 
There were not wanting men, who, either honestly or 
v.'ith evil intent, beguiled him into the belief that lie 
v/as vranted back, and would meet with a cordial recep- 
tion and support. He allowed himself to be tlr.H 

duties, auil a more extended BuflFrage, Costn /?.