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Full text of "Behring Sea arbitration [microform] : appendix to counter-case of Her Majesty's government"

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HEHRING SKA ARBITRATION. 



APPENDIX 



TO 



COUNTEH-CASK OF HER MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT. 



VOL. I. 



TABI.K OF C0NTKNT8, 



CciiTcspomli'iicr ivHiicitiiij^ iliilc ulsuliiiiiuiiiy I'.iitisli lummis.siiiiuM-n' Ki'imrt ... ... I-H' 

.Mr, I'lisi.T ti> Ml. HcvlKMt, Si'])tfmbei li;, IHOi' ... ... ... ... • 

Loril liiMflii'iy 1c> Mr. ll.rlpcrt, •'■•Im!ki i:i. IS'.c; ... ... ... .. 4 

.Mr. lliuliurt t.) Lord liumilHjiy, NincMulier !>, 18!>2 ... .. ... •■• '' 

Afr. Fnsli.Tli. .Mr. Hi-rbcrt, X<jVfmlH'r 9, l.-^itJ ... ... ... •-• '"• 

Mciii(ir:iii(liiiii soul, by Sir.!. I'iimiwfdlr l.i Mr. Koali-r. .biiiuary 7, ix'^-'' ... ... H> 



Traiisuilioiis (if lliissimi .In.iiim'in.v '■iinii-lii'.l iii Vnl. I of tl.c .Viiju'iiaix tn llu' riiitcd Stale; 



11 



\ 



Mr Adniiis lo Mr. liii.s!', .Inly 22, ]H-2:i 

f"'^ 15'c913 



( 'a.sc 

.MiiiiMli'r .>f Kitiiunc lo Minister nf Mariiir, .\iirir.i. l.sjil ... ... ... 1' 

Minister cif Fiiiiiiiee til r.Miinl, .Aliril in, l,SL>ii... ... ... ... ... 1"> 

llonril till 'liief .Maim.u'er. Aiail •-'■'!, l«l'i> ... .. ■• ■•• ••■ "' 

Marcli :!1, 1«LM 18 

.\ui;usl :), lH:ill ... ... ... .■■ ••■ ^'O 

Older-s In K.ali.ik Itlllre, .\u-ilsl 3, IH'-'ll ... ... ... ... ... --H) 

l!i..il.l t" Cliiel'Miilue^'iT, Mareh 15, 1«2I ... ... ... .. .•■ -' 

„ „ .Sept.'mipfr 7, lH:il ... ... ... ... ... -- 

K(-|.tcml*r2il, ISlil ... ... ... ... '-l'.', 

r,liriinry -J.s, IKU-' ... ... ... •.■ •■• -+ 

.July :tl, 'S-JJ ... ... ... ... ... -'5 

Minister of I'iiuimi- 1(1 liuanl, .ruly IH. !«-':.' ... ... ■•■ ••• ••• -'' 

.\].ril :;, IHl'-t ... ... ... ... ... -7 

Count Nesselrodeto X. S, Morilviiinir, .Vpril 11. 1.S2-4 ... ... ... ... -^ 

Minister of KiiiiUice til lioard, Se]ili!inlier 4, l«-4 

Coniit Xe.sMolrudo iu Minister of I'inain f, .Vngiisl l.S, 1824 

I'liK'eeilings of CoiifL'R'Uce. .Inly 21 , l.SL'-l 

r.onrd to Ktipreiaiiof, Miireli I'll, l>i4ll 

lioard to .\ilinj; Cliiel Maiia-er. Mareli 20. l.s.'io 

(.'liic'i' Manager lo IVnzoinan, . I une 211, l.Slil ... 

Department 111' Commerce to lioard,. lime 111, INO."> 

(,'iiiueriiiii;,' joantinu of Konrtli Charter ... ... ... ... ••• 42 

Opinion ol' ronni-il ,pf .State ... ... ••• ••• ■•• ••■ '- 

I'roL'Iamatiou ... ... .-. ••• ••• ••• ■•• ■•• '•' 

lioird to Chief Maiia;jer, .\]iril li, l.~<17 ... ... .•■ ••• ••• 44 

Kiachtii Dttieo t.; Hoard, Kelpinmy ,'<. IS17 ... ... ... ... .•• 44 

lioard to ChielMana'.'er, Manh .S, ISl:; ... ... ... ... .. 4.'i 

lioaid to Captain l.'ndakor. .\pril 22, l.S."i:l ... ... ... ... ... 4."i 

Hoard lo Chief .Mana;;ei'. .\piil 24, 1.S.".4 

No\emlifr S. l.'^.Vl ... ... ... ... ... 40 

•hiiie .">. IH."'7 .. ... ••• ••• ••■ 47 

Chief Manager to Hoard, I liiolier 7, IS."!" ... ... ••• ••• ••■ '■''' 

.Taniiary i:!. 18,19 ... ... ... ■•• ••• ■"'" 

May l:!, IHi!" "'" 

Mniiufjer of .St. I'ttul Island to Chief -Munnger, .lime 211, l.S.V.) ... ... ... -"il 

Chief >ranaL;er to r.oai.1, .Inly It'i, l«l!:! ... ... ••■ ••• ••• -■■'- 

Chief Mana.;i'r to Maiia-er of .Sl. I'aul, May 1, 1804 ... ... ... ... ''4 



:;i 



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.ill 



ir 

Kiii'iiiucnts ihuiIu'imI l.y tlu' I'liilcil SImIi-^ un iidii.c l.y Uriti-^li Agpiit ... 

Xdticu liy llrili>li A:,'i'iit, Sfiitniilii'r;l(l, IS'.iL' 

Mr. FosUT I.. Mr. Tui'iMi. Xnwii.lior ."., IHO-J 

(iovoriinr-lifncviil (il'Silionii in i Himt NcHwlroili', Fcliniary 1, I.S'Jt* 

M. I!i.;niril L. i'rivy C'omicillc.r IVsid, .Inly :.', l.SI<» (Kxtrnct) ... 

llcMinl iH Cliul' Mana.u'fi. IMmi.iry -J.'-', 1 ><•-•_' 

liCttur iif .lauimvy Ihl'I ... ... ... ■•. ••. ••• ••• 

liiiriiii <lo 'I'liyll lo .\fr. Allaln^. Diicoiiiliir ."., 1."<--1 

lii«tru(liiiiis In liiiuil Stiih'"' VfV(>iuic-mii/.i!r-, •luni' -I, ISi.T- Miiy 27, 1S!)| 

\..licr liy I'.riti>li A-ciil,Si'iiti'iii!.cr:i(P. ISOl* 

:\r. F(.-U-rtnMi 'Iui.i.cr, NoviiiiIxT-"., 1S!"1' 

.Nuliio )>\ llrilWi .\'.:iiit (1 I. Oct.ilior ."1, 1N!>2 

c.'i. Ofiniicr :'.. ls!i:i 

.Mi. I-n-lci In.Mr, 'I'lipl'iT, NnvniitMi l-J. tMI'l' 

Mr. I'ruiuli I" CiillritiT oi' Ciistiiins, San Knniri.-'id, .\iiiil I, I'^.^l 

.Mv. ilntVlu Mr. Wiii.loMi. -Inly :;i, IS.'i'.i ... 

(j.'..^raiiliic:il XoU-.s icl.iliii^ !■ lln' n.>un-> '■ I'milii- Oci-aii, ' " IVliiiii- Si-u, ' Xcirlli-K;i-.turii 
Ocwiii," ■■ FjiMU'rii drcaii,' tn il.c ni.Miiiiig of the K.\liR'9sioii ' Xoilli-West Cort-nt," .ml U' 
till' ilr|itli of ISiliiint,' Si .1 iiiiil il- (oiiiH'ctinii Willi till' lli'iiii iiftlii' 1'm( ilic 

Klfllrll ll.'MVr of M.iy 1(1. iS<;-_' iUld l..l\v nl :\Iinvl; 1, l.'^H.'^ ... 

Tifaly liclUiM'ii ( ;iv:il I;iil;iili ami Mr.\ic(), .Xnvi'liilur 2", l>i>iS 

Kxaiin>le» of I'liitL'il Siali-" I'ul.li.' I (ucniiifiit- ami AcU <.f Cn-iv--- in wliiili .-uiiiiu^ U 
ile.scrilu'il a-- a '■ IIn1ici\ ' 

Stit-MUMil.'^ mail.- liy cfilaiii wilms.^o in tin- rnind Slates" ('»«<■ rc:ii>fctin,^ llii rriliylnlf 
Islaiuls. .\:i.'.. rnnipiiiv.l .villi llm-.- piwinii-ly ni.air l>y lln- ^alla• i>cr.^nn,- in (itli.iai 
ltiliort> .. 

l,ni.l Salisliniy In Ml •!. M. Ma.nan, May i-, IS'.IL' ... 
Jlr, .1. M. Mi'rnnii In l.'nl l.'iwlKMy. .hiiiuaiy 1 I, 1.^!':; 

|;,.jinri 1a Mr. .1. .M. .M.i>ni!!i mi nl..<ri\ati.ms niaiio liy liiin i:i .-:!>L', |i.!rticiilnrly nn llic 
I'viliVlnlV l.-^laiMl ... 

Mi-liM.i,,|n;^iral .Xnt.;. l.y Ml. ('. Carpniaci ... 

K\lrai t.s illiiKtr.itiiij; llir il.iina^;c ilunc l.y ^lal.~ In i:s)i,.ri<-< 



I'llfir 



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177 



BEHlilNG SEA AHBITI{ ATION. 



Aj)|)t'ii(lix to Coiintor-Casc ol ilcr Miijostv's Govcnimt'iit. 



Vol. 1. 



Corrcspondoice relating to the Date of ^iihmittiiig British Commissioners' 

Report. 



Xo. 1. 



Mr. Fu4n- /(. Mr. IfrrlK-rt 

Sir, D<ii<(rliiHiit vf iilKt' . U'iishi')i;itoti, fiiilniibn- '27, 1S!)2. 

OX tlic Olli instant, tiic ilay ufli'i- llic ivicipt liy nic ul' tlio iJiintcil (a.-ii^ (if llor Mujusty's 
CHiVfiiiiiii'iil (iillcil t'l'i- liy tlic )irnvi.siiiMS ni Oh: Ailiilration Treaty ul' I8!»L', in a confidence which I 
IkiiI ihc liiiiinni- Im Ill/Ill with yow iit tlic l)e|iartiiicnt (pf Stale, I made kmiwn li> y<m tin" |Kiin!iil 
inqoessinn whiclj liail hccu created ii|Min nie I'V a lia.^ty ami ciirsury exaruinatiun ut that fasi', linl 1 
witlilield any fnvnial i-eprcsentatiim nn tlie .--iilijeet until 1 ccaild have an <ip]"irtiinily to lay the laaltei 

Ijelbre the i'ie>i<lc]il. His ahsenee IV this i;ii)i|,al ■lnl^ iht' attendant circunislauccs have made il 

nuuessary I'm- nie to dehiy a coinnnuniati'in t <i.M till t;»>|.'ri«iL'ikt... 

J aui now directed hy the I'lesiilcnt ai'-§''.v ".'Mt ne. lias oUevved with sarprLse and eMieiiie rei^rel 
that llie lUitisli ( 'a.se contains no eviti.cnce whalnvir touching the iirincipal fads in ilisirute, upon 
which the Trilamal of Arbitration nnml in any event lari;j',ly, ami in one event entiivly, ilepenil. No 
proof is presented npon the lHU•^Jliou .suljnuUed 1/y ;ij". T.reiu.\i oc«ie\rnin;,' the ir^ht of property or 
])i'operty interest asserted hy the L'iiileJ, ."-'lU'/s in tJ;c sums iiihalntin;; the I'rihylnir islands iji Delniiin 
Sea, or upon the ([uestion, also sulmiitted to ihe I'rihunnl of Arliitration, courerniMg the eoneurrent 
Ucfiulal ions wliiidi niifilit he necessary in a icilain contingency speeilii'il in the Treaty. 

Jl' a were fairly to he iiderred I'roni this omission thai Jio proofs on these r'liportanl ]ioints are 
intendeil to he otieroil in Ipchalf of Her Majesiy'.; Ciovernmcnt, lai ground for i ritiei. m or ohjeriioii hy 
the Government of the I'niled ,Siatcs could arise, .since il is within the exclusive province of either 
parly to dclermine what c^vidi'Uee it will suhr.dt in re.s])ect to any part i4' the eontrip\ei>y. or to 
rclV.iin from snlimitting any evidence at all. lint s\icli inference a.s to the coui-se eontemplati d hy llie 
llrili.sh (iovernnicnt does not seem eo'i.sistent with certain statements ma<le hy its Agent in the 
printed < ase suhniitted hy him. In reference to the lusserted imperty rights and interests, it is said, 
after a hrief discussion of tlu' i(Uesliin ujion the assumption that seals are/i;o nulurir: " In the 
nhsence of any indication as to the grounds upon whic'li the fniled Slates base so ui>iaccedcnled a 
claim a.s that of a right to jiroteclion of er property iu animals J'crir /inturf upon the high sea.s, the 
further consideration of this claim must of ui^cessiiy he postponcit."' (liritish ( use, ]i. Mil.) ,\nd in 
reference to th',' >uhjeit of concurrent IJcgul.ili'inti, it is .said : " The further cousideralion of the suhject 
of any ]iroi"ised llegnlalions, and of ihe evideni e. pro|iia' to he considcrcil hy tlu' Tribunal in connection 
therewith, must of neie.ssity he for the present i"Pslponcd." (llrilish I asc, p. I.'pT.) 

It wonM seem fripm the foregoing exlracis that it is lln' view ipf the Agint of the Ihilish 
Governuii'nt that he .still has an o|ppiprtunifv tpf liyiug hefoic ihc Tribunal any niatter which he nuiy 
choose tip introduce bv way of [irpjofs or eviilenco hearing upipu the ipieslion of [propertv, ipr interest in 

[117] B 



a 



till; luiiiin' 111 iiiu|nTty, ill tiic Alii-^kiiii rm-sciilH, ui- Miiuii (111' inicatiim iil' iniiciirrciit l;"j{n!atiiiiH for 
till! |in>li'cliiiii mill inrsiMvaliim ol' tlii' siiiiic; iiinl, iiiiisiiiiiili us tlio Tivaty ]iiiiviili'H lur llir sulpiiiiHsiMii 
of I'viiliMuc milv tliidU^'li till CiHci ami ( 'miiiti'l'-Cnsr.-; tlirniii iiiriiticiiird, siicli view of tlii! llriliNli 
.\','i'iil must 111' lliat iio may iiii iii|«)rati' s.irli [iinof ami iviiluin'i! in tlu' ( uii.ifi-t'asn In lir |i[i'|ianil 
liy him, liM\iii;; tin I'nitrd Stal>'^ NvilliMUl any iiiriim nf cuntiiulii'liiij,', limiting', or iinalilyiiij^ tliciu, 
lluwuvii' iipi'ii tluy Miiiy \h; ti> coiilniilirliiin, liniitaliuii, nr ipialiliralioii. 

It iiHist 111! I'viiliiit 111 till' (tiivcTiiuu'iit iif llrr liriliiiiiiic Maji'.ity tliiit liy tlio iiriivinioiui nf llii' 
Tii'iUy till' iiiii>stiiiii whillwr till! I'liitiil Stutt's liavr luiy tir(i|H riy iiitorist in tlio seals ii'fijiivil tn, mid 
till' nuc^t'iiii wlial I'niiiuiTinl Ili'i^ulalinns in llii' H|ii'rilicil riiiiiiiii.'i'nry may ln' iiucmsaiy, art! iliri'ctly 
suliliiiltcil tn tin; Triliiinnl ; tlial tin^ Tiviily ii^Miinn'S tliat rin'li paity will nr m.iy liavo alligations ii 
imikc ami i \iiliiiJt' to imnluci; nimn IhiiIi uncntions ; that tl.i' jilaiii iiinti;ni|>latioii of tin' 'rrcaty is timt 
cnili ]iaity nhall stati; ill hi.. I aso what his |proiiosiliipns uC law mr, anil ihr I'viilmier wliirli will hit 
vt'lifil upon ill siipporl of tlii'in, to thu I'liil that tlio otiii'r pmty may lia\r a lair oppoitnnity of 
showing' ill his ('oiiiiti'r-( 'am! that sui;li I'viik'iici! is ui.liUi;, or L'i'ruiii;oiiH, or jiartial, ni' snliji'L-t tu 
iiualitii'iitioii or i'X)ihiiiatioii, for wlni'h j iirposi' ;iliip; the provi^ii)!: 'm .1 ( 'innilia'-t'asi' was fiumeil. 

The I'litish A^joii! ami ('oansi;l mii.t Wi 11 aIiow tint tin' deciiiiii i!' tin; two .[iii'stioiia almvii 
rd'orri'il to must ili'pi'inl upon ihi' i'\i.Ii'iici' piinlu'eil coiiii'viiiii^' tin' nalrii' ami hiihil.s of tlii' lur-sral. 
and tlio luuthoibi of captuiL' (in 1 l.illiu;; which iin coii.iistt'Ut \ illi th' p' .iturvaiion of ihti sjjuc;ii!S ; mid 
that it is niai'ily upon lliesi; |ioiiits that oillisiin and cintiMilii-lioii npnii matters of l'u;I- .ind diiriii-eniL')* 
in respict to mattfi's ol' o]iiiiion an; rxhiliitml liy tin- slati;ini'iiU of pui-snns liki'lyto hi- iiiiidn wii.iii'ssi!M ; 
that sin'U witnosses aro, in many iiistiinri"*, umli'r tin; inllininci' of )iri!iuilii;o lUid bias, and in soiiii' opi-ii 
to till' suMpii'ioii of insincerity and unt'.utlifuliu's.s; and that thi' only way hy which litii".- jiiny may 
pi'otrt't itsi'lf lyaiu.sl the con.seiiueucu:; of fulschoikl oi- urnir is liy li.ivin,' iiii oppiiiliinily t . detect ami 
expose it. 

'riii: rri'siiii'iit cannot coiict'al lii^i astoiiinhineiit that it should ho •I'^aunicd that the I'.ritiali 
Goveviinieni is at lilieity to iutioduce a whol.; Imily of li'stiiuoiiy of this character for the lirsl time in 
its Ciiuiiter-Casu, and thus shut out the United States fioni nil o|iportnnity of deteotinii and 
ox))osini4 any ermr.s which may he crmlaiiied in it. Tin; (iowrninenl of the I'niti'd Siales canii il f.iil 
to he aware, from tie; corre.spondeme that ha-i I'.itheito lal;i;n plin'e on this Mihject Ix'tweeii tlie two 
Goveninieiils, us well us from full iiiformiUi'iii derived from the Ke|ires<'iit,a',ivi!s and A;;<'nts of Hiir 
Majesty's (ioveniment and the ( analian (iovernmeiit in the eonrse of tlie |iiiii-i'eiliii.;s and disiii-sion.s 
that have iiheaily orrnrred, not onlv ihnl it is claimed on the part of tlmse tiovernmenls that 
mnterial evidence exists to conlradict the f.uts asserted hy the (Joverniiien! of the I'nili'd Status, 
but thai u cmisidcralih; jiart of it has been alr.ady taken and pieiiared hy the Urilisli ' covermneiit, as 
to the liiiiracter, extent, and weight of wlii.h, however, tin; (Ioveniment of th' I'liiti-d State i is wholly 
uiiinfnniied. 

Till! iiropositions of law and of f,ictu|viii which the Unilod Stiitos will ri'ly in tlie .Xrliitratinn are 
precisely stated in its (.'use now in the Irinds of Her Majesty's (iovernment, and need not he 
recapitnlateii here, Jii .support of these as.sertions of fart u lar^e nmonnt of eviileiice, and all ilio 
'■viileiiee the (.iovernnient of the I'uited States will otTer, I'xcept in relmtial of that wliii;h may be 
introduce 1 on the other side, liiis been prepared and is printed in the America.i Case and its 
AplM'ndices. 

The I'.ii'ts presented in the A";;:'ican Case are iinl new. They have been the subject of loiij; 
discu»si(Mi and correspiiiule.nee between the two ( bivenimonts, mid of prolon;^ed consideration by thu 
Cuninii«sioiiei's of the respective (iovcrnmeiits apiioiuted many months before the Treaty w.os 
culebiated, and wdiose functions, set forth in Article IX of that instrnnient, were to investieate this 
subject of seal life; and the measure.-. iHcus.-ary for its ]irolectiipii. The opposini,' claims of the 
Governments in respect to these facts haye beei) ;rfco^niied and iindei-stood as coiistitntiii'^' in oiii- view 
to a hii;,'c. extcnl.and in another ''^iJ^v. I'p.' (iiip 'O'll ji'Nb'nt, tlw controversy for the deteriuinati.ni of 
which the Tribunal of Arbitratinii )!(i«.'''b('eii i.>r/;atcd. ' If tbiM.'omini.ssioners could lia\e agreed in 
respect to them, a.; was hoped .iml di'.<iiivd on bolK .siil"3,an .Vrhhnitioii mi'^dit not have been necessary. 
It is iherefoie inijiossilile for the (l'>yei'!jnmHt.'>r the rnjted f^tijte.s to believe, unless it should In; so 
itssured !iy Her Alajesty's (;ovei)iniiUit^,t1ia'l':ii'\;! ilu. inli^iitinJi'wf lli'iS.doVeinnient to brin',' forward ni) 
ovidoiii'e on these )ioints in its own lichalt'. ' '" ■ ■ ... ' '. . 

If such evidence is to In; oll'ered liereafti;r in the British Counter-Ciuse, the result of willihiddiiiL; 
it in the C.i.se already di-liveri'd will be :i,s follow.- : When presenlcd in the Cr.iinler-Case, the rniteil 
States' (iovernnient will have, under the provisions of the Treaty, no oppurlnniiy whaiever to meet it 
by ifimtlim; jiioof if any description, but niusl [iroceed iniuiedialdy to Iri.il without being able to 
offer .any contradictory, e.vpl.iiiatory, or iinpeachinn evidence. The ( ounter-Ca.se is Ihe last chance 
aSuriled by the Treaty for the intnuhictioii of any evidence at all. It is tiicii;fore provide I that tlio 
Oounter-t.'iisos shall not Im; exchanged until thirty days before the tinal submission of the ipu'slions 
for decision. And thus the whole body of the iJriti-iU evidence, if r-served for the Couiiter-Caso, 
would only conn; to the knowh'dve of the (ioveniment of the rnited .States on the eve of tlie henrins, 
without tin' privile;;e of aiiswerin;^ it. 

KsiM'cially would such a method of trial prf>ve injuriens to the I'nited .States' (ioveniment in 
respect to that brunch of the Ini.uin^' that refers to tie Uc;.,'nliitions which the Tribr.n.nl is aiithurized 
to piv.scriiie for the preservation of the .seal herd fro;;! ixtiiiction, if in the I'lmrse ;if the eoiisideiiition 
of the Case they should re.ich the conclusion that t!ie I'liitoJ Status' (levernment cannot deiiiaiid such 
jirotection as a ri'.dit. 

A strau^'e misconception se(!iiw to exist in the mind of tho Afijent of Owut Rritnin tlmt n liearin,'; 
other t'laii that provided Ml the Treaty is tn be airorded for the cnnsideration of ilie (|Uesiioii of 
Herniations, should the eontin^ency therefor arise, mid that another oiiportnniiy than the jainted ( ':uie 
is to be i^'i-antcd for the subiiii-sion of evidence nptin this ipiestion. It must be mmiifest from an 



a 



(txnmiimtioii nf llic TriNity tliat imly nim opj^irfimity i< iifTinli'il i-nfli |nr(.y '■> •<i|liiiiii I'viilmiio mi tliH 
rpir^lidll, mill tIjiiV it til U- iivilili"! i>r in IIim (iri'jilinl C.l-'o, cxiHlit wi fur iit i'vii|iMl<-c in r'O.ttll il iimy Im 
k-'jiliiiijitc ill ilm ('>iiiiili'r-(.!iiMc. Slinulil tin- Arliiinil'irs, in llii> wmiNi- nf ilicir "li'llliifMfiniis. tin I it, 
ilfi-cjisin y 111 iiiliNiilcr t!i- iiuistitili uf I'r^llliitiiHli. Ill" luitlll'f, iXt''lll,iiMil ctliriiqU'V uf ll|i> ii'ir^iliillnliH In 
111' I'niiiii'il mini \'i' lii'Iciiiiiiii'il cniiri'ly Ujnni tln' I'viilinri'iilri-aily nalniiitliMl.Hiiic.'ilii- Hiibjii't it mn' ti|niii 
wiiirli tilt; Arliitiiiliii< rail li.ivf ii<> ntlii'i' k'lmw |i.Mi),'o lliiiii that ^lln^. iiirunli-il. How far iiiitl linw j;r.i\i'ly 
tlir (icivcrmii''iili all' iit i'isii!- ii|»iii this jKiiiit may Ui s.-ci hy ivf-O'lici- to tin- riirri"<iMiiiil<ii i- ii':;n; liiii{ 
it lictwi'i'ii tluir ii"<iK'ctivf l{i']ir>'ciilalivi's luciiMli'.i;; tin,' (cli'linili'iii nf 111" Ailiilriiliii!! Tn'aty. t'liii 
ihi' I'liiU'il Stale* In- ri'iisdiialily i\|H-i't<'il tn ilim'Us.s this ini]iiiriiiiil i|iiiMliMn ii[miii !i iimm nf alvi'tmi 
evitli-in !• uiii "h il liai hiiii jio chuiicu tn mi-rt hy oniiitiT I'viilfiiiu, uml hnnliy lime iiitc'IM'.;"iitly to 
ji^riiw ? 

U in furtlicr wmlliy of r(!mnrk tliat, hy tin; |irM|i(w('il inrlliml nf timkiiiij np tlic (ViiM', tin! rniteJ 
Stiiti's' Oiivcriiiiii-nt « ill iiiit iiiily hi' ili')iiivt'il of the iiiciin.s ca' ii^jily tii tii" Hriti.-li <'viiU'iir(' hy lancif, 
hut al.iii nf till' ii|i|ii>i1iiiiiiy iiil(;i|iiali'ly tn ilim-uss it in iir^'iuiii'iil. It will In' (ilwivi-il fnmi th'' j'M- 
visiiiiiH nf lln- Tiii'y tliai tin' wiiltvn iifjiumciit iiimii tin- wliiili- Cii*' must 1mi cnni|i|i't<'il iukI ili'livi-rvii 
within thirty ilavM fimn tin; roi'i'|ilioii nf the ("ninitcr-Casi-s. iMiriii',; tlii-* tiiim the Hr^jiiiiniit mi thr 
Aiiii'iiiaii siili! iiliHt he |i|-p|uir('il. |iriiit('il. iiinl si'iit n inns tin; Alliuilii:, nlthiiii;jli it rnnsiiji-nihlr p;ir! nf 
thi- tiini! must iicressiirily lie uciiipicil hy t'ouiistil in I'-iifliin;; I'ari^ Iniin tliu Unitttt StJites. Wliih' 
this may hi; piwsihlc, thoiij{li imt oany . in ri'.ipccl tn sn niiii'h nf the ( 'usi; un has Ik'i'U for suvi'iiil i:inni Iih 
|)i-('viiiiHly i:i the hainN of f'miintl. if only nviilcnci' slii.'lly in iibultal ri'inains to 1k' liciilt with .iftcr 
till' ( '"mitc>r-(':i;ii'« an' cxi'hanjrcil. it wnnlil he iniiiiifi'Stly im|>osiihlf, if tin' hulk ninl titmiyth of tlm 
llritisli priiof.s iiri' to 1m; iii-(".'«;iiI.ii1 fir tin; first iini ' in (In* (.'uiintur-Casc, t'l pri;pan' iiiiy ar;>iiiiit'iil in 
n.'»lK!i:t of thriM til it w«nlrl Im liki'ly to h" ii'rfnl, wiihin ii piriml so sliort and ■o !nli'rrii|il<'<i. 

■ To il cnnsliii'tion nf llm ti-rins nf tin' Treaty which leails to results m) jiiiissly niijiint Hinl ito 
•gravely prejinlieial. llic (ioM-niini nl nf llie fni'eil States eaiiiiot assent. It woulil 1m;. in its juil^jnii-ut, 
smh 11 peiver-;inn of th" letter ;iiul inn-li a vinlatioii nf I'ue :i]iint of the Ttiuty as wmiM tlireai<-ii to 
ilel'eat its ohjei'ls anil he fatal to its in;;liilness. It may safely he as-.elteil liial in no jihlii'ial 
prnceeilinu ever inveiiteil fur the ileterniination of 'lispiitiil tw.lA was it allnvriil that c.iio jmrty shnvlil 
he at liheity t > iiiiroil'n,e his whole ( use in .sm h a manner as to ^ive to liis ailversiiry I'o npportunity 
to iFiesent eviileiiie in ii'jily to it, altimnirh ailoi-ileil on his onii siilu I'nll mean.; of lejilyiiij,' to lii» 
ailvelsary's testiinony. Sncli ii nnlLoil nf trial eoulil not h ■ i xpieleil to li-siilt ill a just decision. 
Kaii sueh 11 l)iop;isal heeii mad" in the jiivsent ( "use hy either of tin; Hi:'li t'ontraoliini Parties wIhh 
the |irivisiims of the 'I'n'uty were heini,' friiined, it would have h :uii ai once rejccleU not only.* 
iiiadinissihle, hut as nnwin-thy of the tJovennuijnt presunliiijf it. 

The true inl<ii; n( the lenns of ihe Tieaiy in ivspeit to the iiiodo of trial is. M tlie (iovernnipul 
of the I 'iiiteil .States respeell'iilly insists, ohvions and clear. lUit one (,\is'.' and one t'oaiiter-t'asu !MB 
plnviiled for on each siilr;. Xij issue is previously foiined. and no pleadings int'iposod. It i'J 
manifestly eonteniiilated that hotli parties .shall siuniltaneoimly snhmit to the .Vrl'ilnitoi-H ninl to enili 
ntiier, in the <'a<i; wliieh is to In' e\ih,iii;,'ed wiihin four months fioni tins r,»tilieufion of tliu Trcjity. 
their pi'iposilioiis, their i:laiins, and their evidence ii|hiii nil the imilils in dispute. Xeither K'-*"« 
forward, as in iin aclimi at law. iieiiher is entitled to wait until lie ii'ceives his adversniy'.'ifas,. livioiii 
suhinittinj; Id's own. Hoth understainl hy loiy eorrespoiidcine and iieHotiatiou wliat the controversy 
is. Then to each is allordid the npi.ir! unity to reply to the l-'a-;; on the 



otliei- silk- 



in the f 'ounter- 
(>ase wlii.'h is to he i"cchan,'ed wiihin three months alter the reception of the I'lise. Tlie laniiini'^e of 
Article IV is upon this point dci i-ive. .Vn fmilicr opportunity of .suhmittin;^ evidence nuJ u ) sucouil 
liearini; are provided for resiiectinij I'cuulation i or any other matter. 

To the Count. i-t'aMi no reply is )ir.nidi'd for excelit in urminieut, for the plain reason that it i« 
Hupposcd to conlain no evidence excpt tliat in rehnttal. This niutli ml is fair to holli .si'los, and phicM 
both on an ei|uality ; and as conlirmiii;,' the iiitentinii of the ( lovernmeiits as lo these .sti^^es nf the 
lirnccedinos of the .Vrhitnitioii, it is rei|uiivd thai the dei isiou of the 'I'ribuniil on tlie |>nint.s .suhmitteil 
to it shall, if iiossihle, he made within tlirco months from the close nf the tiriiuinents. 

The tiovernineiil of the rniti;d Si.itcs h.is riitire cnnti'lence that, in this view of tho tcfiuircaitnta 
of the Treaty, it will have the cniirurrence of Her ^fajesty'H (iovernmeiit 

Th" Government of the I'liited .States has heen, and i.s, extremely desirous that the .UbitTatiou 
should proceed, hut only incordin;^ to the Treaty, the, olijccl of which w.is tj provide a fair trial. To 
thi< end it h.is inaje an el.ihnvat" im'|)aralion, and has complied on its ii.irt with every reipiiivnient of 
tile Treaty. It would lie a source of profound rea;ret to the rniled .states' (ioverument, and, as it. 
• "Mnot doiiht, to Ifer Majesty's (ioveriiincnt, if tin; .Vrhitratitm slimild at this .s;a;^e he put in jHjril. 
Sliinld the assuram e lie received from Her .Majesty's (lovernment th;it. the a]>i>n'hension alioxn 
expressed i> unfounded, and that it is not intendeil on the part of tlml linvvrnnieiit to otfer in its 
t.'ounter-l'a-'e evidence on the points that have licen mcntioU'ii lierein, the (iov.'innient of the i'nited 
yta'es would accept the lintish Case as already deliven!d as a full coni[)liance with the rcipiii-enients 
of the Tii'aty. Itiit in the ahsence of smh an assurance, and in view of the statements niHi'.e in tliiit 
f'ase hy tho .\ncnt of (jrcat liritain herein <iuoted, I am directed liy llie rre~ident to slate that lie 
would fcj'l constmimsl to rc;,Mr(l the llritish ('use assuhmilted a* a lajlnreon ihe part of Her Majesty's 
(Iovernmeiit to coniiily with the tc;-ms of the Treaty of the IJOth Kehruary, IS!)1', anil to protest in the 
most s ilemii inanner aijainst this nnn-coniplinnce with its provisions. 

Ihit the I'n-iilent entertains the jircatest confidence that when the vie rs herein e.x|)res8ed .no 
lirouj;ht to the attention of Her Majesty's (iovcrnment, it will hasten to eoiTeei the error*- whiih have 
been made hy its l;c]ircsi iitativcs in cliarLic of its Case, and he is pleased tn ^dve the assurance in 
udvance that the (Iovernmeiit nf the I'nite.. .Stnt^ss will itssent tn any rensimnhle means that may lie 
pi-oposcd to that end hy Her .Majesty's (iovernineiit. It is to Ih' noted, however, that if the dale lixcd 
in the Treaty for the closing of the Cuunter-t'ases is to be observed, iiu time is to be lost by tho- 



|!iiti-Ii ( inviiiiMM n'. ill ^iitiiiiilliii'.r •-Uili |i|iiliii-iliiin us nniy sicin t 
rirt'iiiiiKiiiH.'-. 

It WiMllil ll'>' I"' |Mi-.-ili|i' III r.iir 

cmiri'ivis liiM nl- Mil\ Iwiii ill. Ill' l'.\ I 111 iiiiiiiiii I' 

nil MilviiiiiiiL'i' wliii'li it is i iiiiicivi'il \\:ii iml iiilii,... .. ,.. 

CVillillrr ill rllirl". it ^IllUlill IlllVl' tin- llllli .il 111' llll' ]illSfl 

iiUii tlial ill iii:il,iii'_' U|i till' Ui'|iMit 111' its < 'iiiiiiiiii<sii>iici>> it sluni 
n.ll. 
til if.'ii'i 
II w 

I ; .- .. .., , . 

iiii'iil ii|>iiii this i|ui'sliiiii, lii'iaiiHi' lit ilK f;ii'iit ^'laxilv anil i.j' llir siiIdiih e<iii8i'i|iiiin(is wliirli iiiii/lit 
rr>iill liniii a lailinr nl' tln' twii ( invi'iiiliii'iit!! tn nL;ri'i' n-<|ii.tiii 
iifliiv < iiiMinini'iil III rraih ii hiiitii.illv atiNliLliiiv M'ttlnin nl 

nilii'lii'iiiit. tliat till' (iiivi I'Ulni'lil of iIm' t'liilrl Slates lia-.n.... 

ill tlii> niiilinvi'isv siiliiniilril til llii' Triliiiiiiil of Ailiitiatinn ; Imt In tliin (miiI it niml lio 



il 111 111' lalli'.l |ui- iimlii ill,: 

li llii' iiiiii^llci' wliirli llic (iiivi iiiiiiiiil lif lln- I'liili'il Stali-H 

■ in uliirli tlic llriti-li ( asf lia-^ lii'i n iiiaili- ii[i. It was 

Ml III 111- iilliiiiiiil 111 I'illiii- parly, liiat, in takiiiy its 

•inn III' nil llii' i'\ iilriii'i' mi ilir iiiIiit -.iiji', as 

„ , _ I sliuiilil lir^l 111' |iinvii|i'il -.villi llial nl' ilu'ir 

iv].ii'si'nliiiH till' iillirr ll.iviiiinii-nt in n>iii'i I t.. iIh.si- |.iiiii|s ii|inii wliirli lIu y liavr lailt'il 

I ll'.'lri'. I'llll tllii iliNlilvilllta^ir till- I'llili'il Sinlii' ( inM'rillni'llt lUi'l'lTS In >.llli||lil til, tlinu^jll ijlllto 

Wall' III' ilH iiiijini'taiiri., latlii'i- than iliiit llii. Aiiiilnitinii hIhuiM Ik- piil in peril, 

I have I'rll it lirri'sdaiy In I'llli'l at siiliii' |cn;itli iipnii all cxiKi^ilinii .il' llii' virWi nf my (invrlli- 
.....I i.. ii.:. ..^ii.... II......,,^,. ..I' :i^ ..f,.,,! .,.'.. ill, .1 ..r it... .^. .,.:,.,,., ..<.,.., , .»i.:..i. ...;.. i.« 



It. 



1 



llllli lii-raiisn nf tlir i':iriii'.«| ili.iire 

iiii il innpiT, liii\M'\i-r, to ailil, ill 

I'litii'i' rniiliili'iiri' ill itK iiliilily tn inaiiitaiii 

111! 'I lip 
jiiilii iai 



It.s jMHiiinii 111 iii|. niiiiinvi'isy siiuinini'ii in iin' iriiiuiiai iii .Aiiuiiaiinii ; niii in iiiih (miii it iiimi no 
iiHiirili'il ill' lii'iu'tit iil'tliiiM. .siiliHlaiilial ^al'l•;,'lm^lls .■i},'aiii-<t ll.i' iiilrniliiclinii nf rrmr wliiili llic jmlii iaI 
HV.sti'iiii I'f all natiiiiH m. raii'fnlly sciini' and wliicli xm-ii' ilcji'.^iii'il In 1m' ni'iimil liy llir pinvisi'.n.i nf 
till' 'I'lralv. Ill llii' ali.si'iii.'u nf siiili xal'i'i^iiariU nil party In a jnilii ial jin'o. i-diii',' i .iii In' ri.nliili-nl nf 
till' jiriiii'ilioii nf lii.H riylits; itnli'i'd, a trinl nf a ipiuHtioii nf ri^dit, wlini niii. party lias im np|Hirl unity 

■ if iiiiKtt ill.. It III tiiiaiVi.riiKr flu, iillixril ■■ ma iiliil ol'li li.i ir>i, iif llii. iitlii.i- i1(ii..J ii,>t 1 1,.,:, I-Vii tin. iiiiiim <,!' n 



nf liii'clin'.; a. Ill iinsn 
jililiii.il pin. ri'iliii^;, 



• I, .1 (lllti .•> .1 , lllVn^llIK >f| ll^.ll, I*.!..! 1f||1- 1>I»IL* tl(|.-l l|l> 111 'in,! I llllli 

'.^aliniH ami I'viili-iici. nf tin' ntlu'i-. (lni-< iinl ili'Si ivi- llii' liainr nf 



I have, &C. 
(.Sifiiii'il) ,I()II\ W. K(i.-<TK1U 



Xi). -'. 



TV- Kin-I ,■/ llosilirii In Mr Ilirlifrl. 



.■^ir, Fiirn;iti Ojfirr, O-lulK-r 13, 18'.)2. 

I II.VVK ivrcivcd yonr dos|iati'h of the 2.Stli iiltinin, inclosing u inpy of tin; nnte addiv-ificil 
tn ynii liy tlii' Uliiti'd Stall's' .Sci'li'laiv nf .Smu. nn tliu '.'Till .Si'liti'inliifr last ri'siM'rlinj; lliu lirlirin^ 
Sea Arl.ilialinii. 

lis cniiti.'iils, the ..'I'liiial ]iiiipnrt of wliii'li ymi had pii'vimisly coiivcyt'd to iiii. I.y tcdi'L.'iiii.Ii, liavc 
loccivi'il till' alti'iitiv i^nnsidcialinii nf Hit Muji'sly's (li.vi'riiiiii'iit. and it ajipcars to tlunii tn lio iii'ics- 
.siiry tn i'\aiiiiiii' its various (.niiteiitimis ill sniiiii detail. 

Mr. l-'iister stales; — 

1. Tlial liie Tresidi'iil '-lias nliserved willi suriirise ainl I'.xlreiiie r.';,Tel that the T.ritisli Case cnn- 
taiii.s )in evi'li iK-e whatever Iniieliiiii; Ihe jirim-ipal I'a.ls in di^pnle. iipmi wliieli the Trilmiial nf .Vrlii- 
tralion iiiusl in any event liifiuly, and in mn' event ciitirily, depend. N'n prnof is preseiited iipun tlie 
Huestion siibuiitted hy the Treaty I'liR'eruiii'i llie liuht nf prnp.'rly or property iiileresl asserted liy the 
United Slates in the seah inhaliitiie,' the I'riliyl.ilV Islands in l!;lirin^' Sea, nr upon the iiueslinii, also 
submitted t'.i the Trilmnal nf Arhilialinn, enneernin;; the eoiieiiiTent lieyuliitions which might hu neces- 
sary in a eertain i.iinliiii,'eney speeiliid in the Treaty." 

-. Mr. Foster sues nn tn alliriii that the Treaty j.rovides fur the snhniis^inii of evidi'iire onl)- 
through the Cases ami Counter-Cases therein nienlioiied, and hi- infers that the view taken hy the 
liritish .\,i.'.iil iiiusl he "that he may iiunrporale sneli inoof and eviil.'Uee in 111.' Cminli-r-l 'ase In lie 
pre]iari'd I.y hini. leaving; the I'liileil States willinnt any means nf rnnliadielini,', limilin;.;, or ipialil'yiiii; 
iheni, however opi n Ih.'iy may he In enntradii-linii, liinitatinn, nr fnialilii-iitimi." 

The liiivirnmonl nf Her Ihiliniiiii' ^lajesiy eniinni admit Ihal llieie is any foundiilinn for lhe.se 
(;nni]ilaiiils, wliieh seem to lie lias:id upon a i-nn.stnictinii nf the Treaty which, in their belief and in the 
opiiiinii nf their advisei-s, is erroneous. 

The scheme of that Troaly iiiovides thai tlie live i|ii(!stinns .submitted in Artiole VI .'.himld be kept 
(iistiint from, and that the. deeisit.ii ihi renii slmuld be jirinr In, the cnlisidenitinn of any ipieslimi nf 
conenrieul l!e;;iilatiniis. whirh innsideialinn winild niily beeome necessary in ihi,' evi'iit of the live 
jioints beinu di-rided iinl'aMinrnbly In llie i-laiin of the ITiiited Slale.i. The siNlh .Vrtiele reiiuiies llml 
adisliii'-l ileeisii.n shall be yi veil on each nf these ]ininl.s, while the se\entli .Vrtiele pinvides that '- if the 
delerniinatioii of the fiiri"_'iiin'_' i|neslions as to the r\eliisive |iM'isilii'iii.u of the rniteil .Slates shall 
leave the subjeit in siu-h pnsitinn that the onnrurnnee nf (ireat Ihitaiii is nei.e.s.snry tn tin' eslablish- 
nieiit nf lle;;iilatioiis for the proper proleilion and ]iieservaliniiiif llie fur-seal iii.or habitu- liy le-nrlinj; 
to, IJehrini; Sea," the Arliitralois shall Umi detcrmiiie what eoneuri-Piit lieuiilalinlis are neeessaiy, and 
that "to aid them in that deleniiinalinn, the IJepnil of a .loinl ('iiminissinii, In be appointed by 
the ruspeclive (iovcrnineiits, .sliall be laid Infure them, with such other evideiiee as eiihi'r (ioveriimenl 
may .submit." 



It will l)c iifiloil tlmt tlio spvcnth Atlicli' nf llm Tivnty rofon only to tlin Tti'imrt nf n Joint 
(■oiiiiiii.s)(jiiii,iiii(l it ix t'y llif niiilli AHirlr mIomo inoviilcil Itiiil llif juiiit nml spvcml lti'[»irf -^ iiml n-com- 
nicnilMtioiis (if tlin C'lPiiimis'^iiiin.is may lie siilniiiltril to llu- AilMlliitm-', "kIhpiiM tlic <:iiiiliii^'iiK'y 
thiTpfor iiriso." 

Till' cvi'iit tlicrrfoTo on the lm|i|M'tiin;; of wliii'h tltn Rt'tmrt or Reports nml fnrthiT oviiU-nct nnt to 
1m' unliiiiittcil i-i tliiH iticliralcil liv llic Trciily ; — tlmt ivi'iit licin;,' tin' clrtpriiiiiiiition nf tlw five jxiints 
FnlMiiitlnl in the si\lli Aitiil • nnriivminilily to llir rhiim of thi; Uniti'il Slati.s. iiml v. lliiu tlif suhji^ct 
is '.eft in sucli ii |"i-.ilion lliiil the conriirri'Mcc of (inat I'lrilaiti is ni'Cc.vsaiy for llii' jiurirov nf oslab- 
lishin'4 |iro|K'r Iti'^'iilations. 

It will Ik> iioticcil fnitlicr tliat IIjo iiii|niri(-< of llic' ''oiinoissioncrs nrc rontin' >l liy Arlicli'S VIl 
and IX to the ipu'slioii of l;i';;tilalions, nml liavo no ii'fi'iiiiii- to ilio poinlt raiMil l^y Arii- Ic VI. 

It i< cliiir, tliiTi'fovi', tliai liy tlir Treaty it was inliMidiil tlia! tint ltc|K.rt or I.'rjioiH of tlio Com- 
nii».iioiii'rs slionM l.c prodnf-il, tiot iim pnrt of the Cntu- upon tlif tpti'iitiiind stated in Articl VI, Imt at 
a luti:r stajjc, ami ihcn only in tin- rontitr- n-y mKovc rtfirn d to. 

Witli rt'oanl to point .' of Avtirlc VI, ti.r < '.I'rnua'nl of llcr I'lilannio Maji -ly, i>-lii viiij^ tlmt 
the alliyed " ri;;lit of property or iiroi«:rty intt;"-' ' di'pciids upon i|Wi'stions of law, and not upon llu' 
haliitfl of M-als and tln' iiicicli-nts of .xeal life, li r .' Htaied proposition-, of law wliiili in tlii'ir opinion 
di-nionstrati- lliat the rlaini of siirli riylil i.s m- o.,ly nnpriM'cIc piled, lait nnteniililc. Tlie.«« pici|«i.sitiou» 
will lie foniid al ,ip. 13."i to llu, 1,^:! to ' and p mio.silion.s I.' 1''i,aiid 17 on p. MO of the (.'ugu of 
thia ( iovi rnnient. 

This luin-; the view of the (iove..iiiient of Ilrr f'.r' imie Xluje.sly, it wnuhl have lieen alt.i!^>tln)r 
inconsistent with it, ami, indeed, a;, tiicy eonceivi . iPo^'ical and iinjiroper, to have introdneiil into the 
Briti.sh (',i<e niat'.er whiih, in the opinion of Hei .^''ije.sty'.H (iovernnieut, cull only Imj le^^itiinately uimhI 
■vhen the ipie.slion oi eonenrrent lii' ;nlatio!-, ,^ nii; icoii-iideration. 

The toivernnieiit • f Her Hiil.iiii.'c ^fnii ly thei-efore reserved, and in their opinion ri'.ditly 
resened, until the tin.e ei.ntemplated ly Articles VII ami IX of the Treaty, the lonsiiler.ilion of the 
question of (oncurient llejjithitions, shonid tliij <•' i n^iMiey therefor arise, and Iler Majesty t (ioverii- 
luent ))riitest a'j.iinst the introdiietion at this staL;e. of fails toiii hih;,' seal life, which they i mteud atl'ord 
III! siippoil to the exelusive rii:lils ehiiineil liy ihu ITnited Suites, ■hirli were the oriyiual eause and 
for 1 the lir^t olijeei of this .Vrhitn' ion. 

With rev;ard to the allejiution that the I'nited States will have no means of ronlriidielin;,', liioiting, 
or ipialifyinj; the proof and evidenie addiited in the I'.ritish ( 'ounier.('a,se. tliu (ioverninonl of the 
United States ap|i4'ar to have overlooked the provision of .\rlielo VII. liy whieh, with refei.'Uie to tin? 
<inestioii of the lomurrent Hegnlution.s, expreii.i l)erini.s3ion is j;ivon to each (iuvurtuneiit to sulimit 
other evideme. 

These are the views of the t iovernnieut of Her IiriLinnii' Majesl\ . and th.y must niaiiitain their 
corrwtnesf. liut the CiovenuneMt of the Iniled Stales have e.\pre.s.sed a dilVerenl view ; they have taken 
the position that any fai ts relevant to the eonsideraiioii of eoiienne.nt lii^uhitions should have heen 
iiieluded in ihet'aseon l»'half of Her Urilaiinie .Majesty preseiitiil under .Vrtiele III, md llul theah-eveo 
of any statement of sueh facts jilaees the 1,'nilid Stales lit ;i disildvantai;e. The t'rovemiaenl of Her 
Britannic Majesty, while di.s.st utiuL; from this view, are desirous in every way to faeilitaU- the proyress 
of the .\rliitratioii. nml are theriloKr williiio to furnish al once to the ('.overnnienl of the I'nited Slittes 
ami to the Arliitratms the .sep.irale Iteport of the liritish Coiaiuissiouer^, with its Aplx-udices. I'lie 
(ioveriMiient of the I'nited Stales are ii lilierty. so far as they think lit, to treat these documents as 
part of the Case of the (Iovernnieut of Hir liritaniiie .Majesty. 

Her llritaiinic JIajesty's (ioverniiieiil must, hiiwe\er, reserve to tlieiuMlves the ri;;ht of dealin.' in 
its C'ounter-Ca-e, or at later --taiies of the pioeee(liiii;s. as eouteiiiliiated liy the Treaty, with the ipies- 
tioiis whieli have U'cn raised in the t'ase of the I'iiited States. It must also he nmlersio..d th.it Her 
I'liUiiniie Majesty's llovernim'ut reserve to thoius 'Ives the ri.u'hl of olijectin,' to the intiodi:. tioii in 
the consideration of the live jioiuts .•.uhniitted hy the sixth Article of the Treaty of matter which they 
eoiiteml to he iiTclevant, and which they consider to luive been iinpri)))erly intrudnced in that 
connection. 

The (ioverniaent of Her I'.ritannic Majesty I lave ol).ser\eil with siirpiise a su;i;;e.stion eoutaineil 
in the eoucluiliri;,' paraLjraplis of .Mr. Foster's note, that they have derived an advanta'^i' in •■ makini.'Up 
the Keport of it< t'ommissioners," liy heiii^ lirst jirovided " with thai of their collea.oues represeiilino 
the other (Joveniiuenl in respect to tlio.se points uiion which they have failed to aeree." This advaii- 
ta.;;e .Mr. Koster fuiilier •haraclerizes as important. The CJovernmeut of Her Britaunie Majesty had 
takc'ii a ilillerent vieiv at, .o the functions of the Coniuii.^siouers from that ippaniitly t,ik"n iiy the 
(ioverument of the I'uited States, llei Majesty's (ioveniineiit had i>"oarded tlieiii as independent ami 
free from conlnil iu the ]ire]iaratioii it llu ir iteport. and the duly "f strict impartiality will lie found 
to have iK'eii siHcially impressed upon tl.. iii in their iusUuetions. 

The |;e|Kiit and A]iiiendiees, in tlu' Words in wliiili tliev arc now pre?enteil to the United States, 
were ]irinted on the 21st June. 1S'.I2. and laid hefme the Queen in |iurs»i\nce of Her Majesty's 
Cuinniission. 

As t'a- time for the delivery of the Counter-Cases has now lieiMi extended by sixty days, the 
Goveniment of the Uuiied Stales will iimlialily eniiciir iu thinking' thai ample lime will he .itrmiled to 
tliat (iovenuuent for dealim: fullv witli the liejwirt, hut the tioveinment of Her Britaunie Majesty 
would lie prepared to eoneiir wiili l!ie I'liited States' (iovernuient in ai;reein,n to a further extension of 
time, shouhl the I'nited .States' tioveniuieut reipiin- it. 

You will deliver to Mr. Foster a eo|iy of this despatch, as forniinii tl'e answer of Her Alajesty's 
Goveniment to his note of the JTtli ultimo, and you will pi-esent to him at the sunie time the ai-com- 
pnnyino copies of the volume eontniniii}; the Itepoil of llii' Ihitish Connni.ssioncrs. 

[117] C 



Collies nf till' volume will lie fiinvai<!i-l to eiicli cif lliu Arbiliatm.-', ;in'l Ilei- Maie-ity's fiovcrn- 
ment iini]io9o iilsn to forwaiil to tlicm cojiies of Jlr. Toster's note niiil fif tliis despalcl.. 

T am, S:c. 
(Sij^iu'd) KOSEIIKUY. 



Xo. X 



Mi: Htrhtrl tu the Earl of Eoncbo'y. — {lUcciccd Nurcmhr L'l.) 

My Li.r.l. U'l'n/iiiiff/im. Xnr, mlin- 0, 1892. 

WITH refereuce to my tele'.'raiiH of to-ilay, I calleil at tlie Departmeiil of State tliis iiioniiiiL,' at 
the iei|uest of Mr. Foster, when lie liamleil me a note eoiilaiiiiiii; llie rejily of tlu^ I'liittMl State?.' 
Cioveiiuiient to your Lorilsliiji's despatcii of tln' l.'Jtli ultimo in nu'aril to the lieliriii;' Sea Arliitratioii. 

Alter Irricilly recaiiitiilatiiii; tin- principal jioints of this eoiiiiiuuiieation, eo])V of \vhieh 1 have tho 
honour to iiielose herowitli, lic^ slated tieil I ini<;ht consider the ilillieiilly which had arisen hetwi^i'M tliK 
two (lovernments as .settled, hut he \vi>iied at the same time to niaki^ it (dear to me that the I'nited 
States' (lovernment had aceejited ihe Ueport of the liritish liehriiiL; Sea C'omnnssioners us ]iart of the 
orijiinal Uritisli Case, under the assuniiiliou that it contained all the evidence on which Her Majesty's 
Governnunt intend to rely in rej:ard to pehyic .sealin;^ and tlie liahits of the fur-seal, ami tliat no 
fresh niatti'r relating; to these sulijects would he introiluced into ihe I'.ritish < 'ounter-l.'.ase e.\eept in 
ruply to the (pii"-tious raiseil in the I'ldled Strifes' Case. Shouhl they, however, have lieen ndstaken 
in thi.-? a.ssnniption, they intended lo insist on tlieir interpretation of the Treaty before the Trdjun.d of 
Arliitration, and to op|«ise the suhinission to tlie Arhitrators of any matter which mi^'ht he inserleil in 
the I'.ritish (,'ounter-Case which, in the o])iiiion of the I'nited Slates, would not he justilied as rulevanl 
by way of reply to their Ca.so. 

1 expiesseil my frratiticalion la the settlement of the ((nestion, and lusked him whether the I'nited 
States iT'iuired the extension of time olVii-ed hy your LorcUhip for the preparation of their Comiter- 
Ca.se. 

Air. l-'osler ri'iilied that the oH'er hail h.'i-n conimunicaled to the! I'nited Slate-' Counsel, hut that 
lie did not think any extension of lime would be ri'i|uiied. He would, however, -^U'^'^'esl unotlirially, 
in view of your Lordship's oiler, that the lime li.xeil in tla' Treaty for the presuiiialion of the printed 
AvLluiiienl should be extended by lhirl,v ihiys f..r the reasons contained in a short Meiiioianduni wliieh 
he nave me, copy of which I have ihe honour to im lose. He was anxious, he continued, to have 
your Lordship's opinion as to this su,L.",'e-tion, which he would make ollicially in a few 
mid he liopod that the former Au'reemriit which he had suu'ticsted would be 
nieiitary iic 
the Senate. 



ays ; 

..,, 'ould lie .•iccepled, aK a sup]ile- 

nielitary inslruiucnt to the Treaty would involve many f iiiiialities, and wmild rcipiire ratilicatioii by 



I have, iScc. 
(Sioned) MICHAEL II. Hi;iil!KUT 



Inclo,suie 1 in Ni 



Mr. Fmlfi- In Mr. Hrrhrrt. 



Sir, D',i",tmnit v/ Hlnli-, Wn.-thhuilon, K<,iriiil'n- !), 1802. 

I il.\n til ■ honour lo receive throu,i;h viai on the L'.'ith ultimo a copy of Lord lio^'bery's clespatcli 
<if the llilh of tlic .same month, but an acknowled','nient has been decayed foi' the reason thai thu 
interprclation placed by his Lordship upon iho:,e ]irovisions of the .Vrbiiiatioii Tivaty of the 
2'Jth l-'ebrnnry, 1S'.I2, wliii'h relate to the mode of luocciluri^ called, in the view of the rrcsidenl. for 
some lesjionse from the (lovernment of the I'liiled Stales, and thai, this could be more iiitelli;;iully 
framed after the copy of the lo'iioii of lie- llehrinu Sea I 'oinmissioiM"-' made to Her Majesty's 
Covcrnmeid, and wliirh Lord llosebery expressed a willingness lo furnish to the (ioveinment of tho. 
I'liiled Stales, had liecn e\,iminei' and the extent to which that lleptut would alfcct thu Ca>e there- 
tofore prepared on behalf <if lb r Majesty's (oivernmeiit more precisely kno.vn. 

This Hcport havin;; beiii furnished to the tlovernniint of the Uiiileil Slates and circfully 
examined, I now ]iroi<'ed to stale the views eiiterl.iiiad by thin (lovernnient upon the iiilerprelaliuu of 
the Treaty in Hie particulars above mentioned by Lord L'osrbery. That ■.ilerprctatiiui has Iieeu 
C(Uisidered wi'li the care whiih its character ilemands, und I am i-onstrained to t^ay that 1 cannot 
concur in it. It appears that, accordin;,' to thi^ view of L<ird Itosebery, all laalteis rehitino to tho 

nntul■(^ habits, and life hisloiy of iIm; fur-seals d the modes by which lliey are taken and killed, that 

is tu sa\', sulislantially, all tiie mailer ilpiui which ipieslioiis of fads arise between the parties, are 
relevant only to the (piestion of concurreiil IJeuulalious, and iiol lo the claim of a jiroperty inlcresL 



asHcrti-il liy l!in Tnlii'il :-!l;>.ti"<. Ii' ilii-< vimv Ihj con-.wl, it fullow.^ llial i\i' Tr.Mly iiial<L'.* no |ir.ivi.sin;t 
l)y wliiili till' iillu;,'iili(iii:i iiiiit ]iiii,il'< {)f tin: oiu- |(»rty \i]H>;t i; mtiownc;! inic-'tiim.s of I'li.-t may li- iirt, 
cimsiilcivtl, and nvi'icnuu' by Un! otlii'i'. I.-nl IJiwlwry liiia-eli" is alili; In )ioiiit tn no |iiovi>inu 
aliiiidiiiL; 111 llii,' |iail,ii's an ij|i|ioiliinity >(> f^si-iitial to tlie liix-i-rvatioii of llicir jnsl rights exi/i'iit that 
foiitainuil ill Aiticli- \ 1 1, wiiirli ili'claiv.s that in t!n^ iivniit tliiit tlii' Ailiiuiitui-s .iii; cuIIimI m;i'iii lo 
iMiUMiiliir tliu sn'iiji'i't of ((HilhiiiiiI l;,';,'iilat!oiis, " the liojKnt <if a Joint Cmiiiiiission to li,' a]i|i liul'jil l.y 
till' risju'flivi' (iov.'ininciilM shall In- hiiil U-fo:v thcni, witli such othi-r uviiU;iu:c as each (loViMiiiiU'iit 
may .-uluiiil." If this cliuis:' v.i-.rt; to in.- inlorinvli-l :i< ji^nuit! in>; the |iai-lii'-i to lay lirfni',' tin; 
Aiiuualois cviihiiii^ [in tiiiuiit to tin; siilijoct of concurrent lioiruhitions aftiT ihi; (.-xchau^'i; of llm (.'aso^ 
nnil till' ('ouiit(M-( 'asi's (a view to wliirii the I'uiteii States iloes not assent ). it ii'llai'.ily makes no 
))rovisioii for the fiunishiiiL; of siieli eviiU-iiee iiy the one party to the other wliieli the l.'iiileil Stites 
insists upon as the essential rnniiition for tlie estahlislinienl of truth ii|iiin the (lis|iiiteil i|iiestinns of 
fiiei. When we oliserve the iiiihisirious eare with whieli the Treaty pioviiles for the furnishing' of 
Cases and Coiintei-Cases, the lirsl desi^^ned to cout;iiii the aIlej;aliona ami proofs liy wlii'li the 
j-espective jiarties may wish to .-upport their contentions, and the hi>t to eiiahle them to meet ami 
oveiioiiie the proofs aiMueed liy tlieir adviTsuries, is it )")ssilile to dottht that this iirovisiou w:n 
intended to cover the ease of disputed matters of faet .' 

I will not rejieat the argument m-,'ed in iuy note of the -7th .Septeiulier, desii^iied to show llio 
unreasiamljleiii ss ol' impntini; to tin; fniniers of the Tri-aty an intention so iueompalihle with tiiu 
essential eouditioiis of a jndiiial proceeding as thai which ai)pe^irs to li ■ atlrihuled to them hy I.or.l 
Jhiseliery ; Imt apiin calliii;,' tlie attention of Her Maj..'<ty'.s (loverninenl to the views exinvssed in tint; 
note, I \entilie to siij^yest, for the consideration of l>ini U oseliery, that when it appears hy the Treaty 
tli:it iiuinstrious care was taken to secure to each party to the controveisy a knowledge liefnrehanil of 
the allej,'atioiis and |a-ool's of Ilie other, to the end that it C'-ntest niiylit he the more intellii^ently made 
uiid the real truth more fully and c -rtainly esliihlishtil. it is not a sound iiiethod of interpretation to 
nullify the elleel of that intent hy ailachiui; hirge imjxjrt;uiee to the mode in which particular clai'.s- s 
of the docniiieiit ale ex|iiessed. Itwcul I seem to Ik! uiorr; consonant with rciison and with the familiar 
principles of the iiiterjuetation of written documents in such cases to dispose of any amlil.;'.iou.s 
lan^'uane in particular clausits liy a iTconciliiiiT con.stnictioa winch will permit tiiu known inljuticms 
of the framers of the document t> Iiave their eifect. 

Ajijilyiui; this rule <if intcrpretaliou to the case in iiuestiou, I am of the ojiinion that the pu; li- 
c.iilar expressions u|ioii which Lnd Itoseliery relies hiive nothing in them inconsistent with the pldn 
intention of the framers of the Treaty, its luauilesnii hy tb'j main iirovisioiis above referred to. So far 
as the iiartiitular lant;uaL'e of Article VII \i concerned, two observations are to he made : — 

1. Inti rpretini; this htnouaoo as it stands in the Treaty, and without referiini^ to any fact (iliiiii h-, 
it appears to be ei[ually consistent with either view. The p lint at whi';h the Commissioners are to 
consiilir the matter of I'linciirreiit I!e;,'u!ations is fixed ; hut neither the time nor tht; iminl at which 
the j;e|ioit or olhi'r evidence is to he laid before them is fixdl. The inleiition may just as well have 
been that this should be done in the Cases, and iurnished hy the parties to each other. It is a fivipieiit 
occurrence in Jndii ial controversies that cases present all'.rnativo as]K'ct.s. Such instances do not cull 
for -ip irate lieaiiii'.' iiiid deri-ii,n ; iiut the evidence Uarin^ u[Hm each view is submitted at the outset, 
alihouuh it is well uiideisiood that ill cellaiu coiitiu^ehcies jxuU of the iillegalioiis and jiroofs will not 
he consideieil. 

i. As a m.ttter of fact, what now stands ,n Article Vfl of the Treaty was, in thi^ s-.nne lanL;ua:4y, 
part of an .\;,'reeinent entered into by the Diplomatic Ilepresentatives of the two nations bel'oiv the 
Treaty was concluded, and before the piovisious in relation to the exchanj,'e of Cases were framed. It 
is easy, theiefore. to see that all that was necessary at the time the -Article was first framed and au'iv'd 
npi.n was to ]irovide for the layiir,' befnre the Arbitrators of thi-ir Hc)iort and other evidence, leaviii'.^ 
the details of when and how such e\iiienie shouM be scuiouably fuinished by the resiiective parties to 
each iitlier to be thereafter settled in framing' other pnivisions of the Treaty. 

Touchiiii: the lan^ua'^c of .\itirle IX, relating to a continqeniv in which it is contemplated tiiat 
the li'i'iiorts miiiht not be laid before the .Arbitrators, and which contingency Lmd I'osebciy supposes 
to be that of .i ileleriiiination by the .Vrbitr-ator* nimn the live special i|UcsLiiius sulniiillcd to them 
adverse to the I'liited States. I bei.' I" submit that LonI Jioseln-ry is clearly :n error. The substance 
of Article IX was also emiiiaced In the Ai:reemeiit alnive referred to, wlii( h jac'eded the Treaty and 
created the .loinl t'onimisiion. .\lthoii'.;h at this time it was contemplated that an arbitration shoiiUl 
he provided for, it was yet Imped bv the ne^i'tiators on each •■ide that a salisf.iclnry scliemo of 
protection would be agreed to by the .loiiu (oinmi.ssion. The contin;jin(y leferred to was that of an 
iniibilily of the membeis of the Joint t.'ommissiou to (onie to an aitreeiiient satisfaitory to th'ir 
respevtive (lovernments, nnd not, as Lord lloseln'ry sn)>]K)ses. that of a deienuinalion upon the live 
special ipustions adv.'rse to the coiiti ntii'ii "f the I'liiteil States. A coiuiuuiiication i'roni Mr. Illaine, 
one of the iieLrot/niois, is apiiended hereto, showini; the circumstances uiniiu- which the autecedciit 
Ai_'reeiiicnl wa-. made, h is believed tiiat Sir .Juliai. r.iuncefote, the ue;;otiator on the pait of Her 
.Majesty's t lovei iinieul, will not ili?sint from liiis statement. 

Kor the above ieiis<ins I (animt concur in the reasoning of Ijinl IJoseherv, based upon a special 
consideration of the hiiioua;^e of paiticuha tl.iuses of the Treaty. If his inlcipietation of the Treaty ia 
oorrei t, the whole matter of the submissjiui of evidence ami of ariiuiiieiit as to malteis all'ecliiiv; tli8 
(pu'siion of iie;,'otiations is, as I have already sujf;;e.«ied, left without any pieiiiipiiiui of methods or 
limitations as to time. In view of the cari' t.iken in these particulars in the Treaty as to the Case ami 
Counter-Case and .Vriiuiueiit, it is not to be sup)K).sed that sucli an omfssion would have oecuni'd. 
The piovisious made were ]ihiinly intended to cover all matteis submitted. 1 am clearly nf the 
opinion that the clauses cited by Lmil !!o»elK>ry, when pro|>iily e\aiiiin"d in coniieetion with the 
cireumstiinces under whicli they weru fi.imetl, cuiitaiu liothin;; iiicoi sislciil with the plain ','enci,il 



iiitwitinii of tlm Tvpiity tn socuri' tn cacli ]iaitv an <i|iiioitiinity to meet iiml nvcrroinc the nllcfinfions 
mid i]ro(ifs (if lii-i ail\<'rsai'y u|>ciii (lis|aitcil iiiu'slions of I'ai'l : uiid cvoii il tlic^^i' <'laiiFii's sli'.iiM si'i'in to 
(•(iiitaiii ■.iiatlcr I'liniisliiii'.' -uiiii' siippdrf tn tin- views cxim'ssi'il Ky r.niil linsi'tHTy. a lariiiliav iiilc of 
law would icciuiri' us to siiliorilinatc the infiTt'iirc tlicy may sui.'y('st In the luaiii ]aiii»isf of tl;o jiaitit'S. 
It is a iiiatti'i-oi' IVi'iiueiit oiaaiiTciin' wliiM'c Aiiri'cini'iits ionic lirlorc .Fudii'ial 'I'liliuuals I'or iiiti'r]ir('tnlioii 
tliat iiirniiLjniitics aiv lound lu'lwiiMi tlioso jiarts of a writiu',' wliicli express llif main ]iur]ios(' of its 
fmiiiiTs and those wliii.Ii i-idatc to snliordiuati' details. Sueli ineonc'iuities are always disposed of liy a 
reeoneilin^ eonstruitinii wliieli secuies tlie main olijei't wliieli llii' parties had in view. 

I entirely at.'ri'e to tlie ohservation of Lonl RosehriT. to tin' ell'ect that the rif;lit of property in 
fur-seals di'penils uijon ipiestioas •>[ law; hut I conceive that the pi'eeisc ijuestions of law cannot ho 
known, ami eainiot. tln'fefore, he di'ti'rmined, until tlu^ farts out of whicli they arise arc known ; and I 
oannot eiuicur with Lord lloseliery in the view which appiMrs to he entertained Ipy him, tliat the facts 
C(UlPernint' the nature anri lial'its of fui-seals, and the modes hy wliicli their increase n.ay hi' n-.ado 
stibservienl to the usi'.'-. of man without eudan'.'erin;,' the existence m' the .stock, are not ]iertincnt to 
the claim of the I'ldted States to a property interest. (In the contrary, I ri'.L'ard tliesi; facts as in the 
Iii;4hest dcrree important. 

Ifavini; thus exiiress.'d the views ontertiiined hy the ( oivernmctit of the I 'niteil States upon the 
aruunieut •>( Lord L'osehery in support of liis inteqiretation of the Treaty, it iTinains for mi- to add thn.t 
[ am iiis!rucred hy the I'lesident to say that he appreciates the s]iiril of eipiity and liherality in wdiich 
Lord lio^ehevy. uliil" insisting; upon his own interpretation, jiraetically to .some extent at least, and I 
hope fnlly.yii'Ids to the (lovernmeut of the rniteil Slates the hem-lit ol' its intcrpretatinu hy I'lirnishili;.^ 
tj) the latter the sepanite Iteport of Her Majesty's < 'ommissioucrs, with the jvrniission that tlie same 
he treated as ]iart of the ori'_'iual Case on the part of (!rcat liritaiu. If, as L helieve and assume, this 
Hejiort contains suhsiantially all the matter which Her Majesty s (ioverument will itdy upon to 
.siijiport its contentions in respect to the nature and Inihils of fur-seals, and the modes of cajplurin;; 
thiiin. r entertain a confident hope that all further dilliculty upon the questions discn.ssed in this note 
luay he avoided. 

[ deem it necessary, howevi'r, to say that the ftovernmcnt of the I'mtcd States will, shouhl 
occasion arise, tirndy insist upon its inierprotation of the Treaty, and that it reserves the rij;lil to 
jirotest ac;ainst and oppose the sulnni.ssion to, an. I reception hy, the Arhitrators of any mutter which 
may he inserted in the Ihitish Counter- Case which may not \\e justified as relevant hy way of reply 
to the Case of the I'niti d States. 

The Pi-esideiit is further '_;r.itilied hy the re.idiness manifested hy Lord I'o.sehery to concur with 
the fiiivcrnmeut of the ruited .Si^oes in respect to sn(di extension of time ua may he needed in 
denlini,' with ihe Report of which he has fundshed a copy. This friendly offer will he communicated 
til the Couiisid on h'diall of the I'uited .States, and their wishes will ho made known to your Legation 
or the Ih'itish A;;ent. 

I liave, &c. 
(Signed) .lOITX W. I'd.STKR. 



Inclosnre J in No. u. 



,]fr. lUniiie to Mi: Funlcr. 



Sir, 17, M^iilisiiii I'liicf, ll'imhiniiloii. NorcmlKr H. liS'.)2 

AI-TI'd; an arl'itratinn had heen rciolvcd upon lietween the .Auu'rieau and Britisli (ioveruments, a 
special v,,\y ijoudeuce lieiwe.-u the Department of .State and l.oid .Salisliiiiy ensued, extendiui^ froni 
early in .Inly to the ndddle of N'uvemlicr IS!I|. Tlie various subjects which were to he discus.sed. and 
the points which were to he decided, hy the .Vrhitrators in the affair of the liehrinj; Sea were agreed 
n\vm in this eorrespoudence. 

A nionlli later Sir Julian I'auncefote, the T.ritisii Minister, and myself arran;4ed the corre- 
spondei'.ce and reduced Ihe propositions ;iiid couiitir-pro|iosiiicins ton .Memorandum which was signed 
hv IIS on till' iHth Decemher. Siilisei|niiiitly, the cpiestions which had arisen helween the two 
(•overnnients conceniin;; the jiiri.sdiclional ri^jhts of the fnited Slates in liie waters of the Hehrint; 
,Seii Were expressed in the fijrni of a Treaty conclnderl at Wasliinetou on the Ij'.lth Kehruary, ISilli. 
This Treaty was advised hj the .Senate on the 2!ith March. l.S',11'. latilicMl hy the President on the 
21ind Aiiril, ratilications exchanj;ed lai Ihe Ttli May, and proclaimed on the '.)tli ilav, IM!)!.'. 

In all these steps, includiui: the iiirrcspiindence witli Lord S;ilisliury, the Memoiandiiin ciuicluded 
Wtwi'en Sir .riilian and myself and the Treaty that was ultimately proclaime.l on the '.Hh May, 1.S!)2, 
rtiid which was ueeoliated liy Sir .Iiilian and myself, not one word was said or iutimalcd lespecting 
the ipiesiiun now raised hy Ihe Ih'itish (loverii incut as to a secondary siilimi.ssion of evidence ait"!- the 
llist five points set forth in .\rtiele VI had heen decided hy the .\rhiliators. Il was never inliinate,', 
that any other mode of ))roceedinii should he had than that which is expressed in .Vrticles Itl, IV. 
inid V of the Tiviiiy. 

I shall he surprised if Sir .riilian I'auniefote shall differ in the slightest degree from this recital 
«f foots. 

I have, &e. 
(Signed) d.VMKS i;. liLAINK 



9 



Iiiclosiire il ill \ii. '■>■ 
Mriiiiiriniih'iii nf J.'ji-ei i.irni rcfi-i-i-nl In m Mr. JJhiinr'.i Lii/n- vf Sm, niln'r S, 18'J2. 

TlfK T'lllii'viiir; is the t'-'Xl tif Arliolos foi' iiiSfVtiiMi in tlic I'lcliring Sua Arliitiiilinii A,i,'rcem(ii( us 
si'ttli'i! ill llii' cli;iiiiiii;iti ■ (.■rirruspoiKl.'iicc lii'twcni llie ( icvcnniiLMit nf tliv rnitcd Sttitfs iiinl tlic 
(!(jVL'riiliii'iit 111' Ci'ciit I'liitiiiii : — 

1. Wliiit rxi'liisivi' jmi, ilii'liiui in tlic S"n. ikiw knuwii ;is liii' I'.i-lnini; Sen. mid wlnii fxclusivc 
ri},'lits in tin,' si^.il li<lic'iii's lliiM'cin, did liiiHHi". assiMt ;ind I'Scici^e iniur ;iiid n]i !■ llic tinii' ol' tlio 
cession nf Aln^kii to tlii' I'liiti-d Stiitcs? 

L'. IIiiw fur wiTi' llicsc cliiinis ol' JMi'i.--dictiiiii ;i . In ll;i- ficiil lisliflii-^ lOfnoni/cd und conceded Ir_v 
lilriil I'.rituiii ; 

;i. Wiis tlic liody iif watfl- now Iciiciwn as llic llcliiin;,' Sea inuhidcil in the plinisi' " I'ai-ific (.Icuiiii," 
ns iisrd in the Tiwity nl' IX^ri liclwi-fii CJi-rat Hiitain auil I'n.ssia, and what liglits, if any, in tlir 
liiliiiii'-' Si'ii, were lii'ld and cxtln-ividy cxurriscd liy IJiissia aflri' said Ti'fiUy .' 

4. I)id iKit all llic n;4lits of llassia as to Jiilisdii tiou, and as to tlic seal tislicrics in I'diiinj,' Sea 
cast of llic wiiU'i- liovindaiT in tlic 'l"l-oiily Iictwccn tlic fiiilcd Stales ami liiis.sja of tlic ;!Otli ^laidi, 
\W7, i>ass iiniinpaircd to the I'liitcd States iiniier llial Tlcaty ' 

.".. Has tlic Ciiiteil Stati.-s any ri,':;lit.and. if so, what riL;lit of liroteetnai or pvopcrty in llie fiii-'eals 
l'rei|iicntin\' llic islands of llie riiitcd States in ndiriii,^' Sea wlicli sueli seals are loiuid outside tlic 
ordinary .".-niilc limit ' 

(i, If tlic dclcriiiinalion of the Invc^oiie^ question- as l.i tic exchisive Jini-iliclion of llic I'liited 
Slates sli.dl leave tlii! sidijcct in siuli i>o>ilion that the eolieiirrcnc-c of Ureal I'lritain is necessary to the 
estalilisliiuciit of i;i-uulations for llic i.ro]ier protection and |iieservatioii of the fnr-scal in, or haljitually 
rcsortiiiu to, tlic licliriii!,' Sea, the Arhitrators sludl tlien dclcrniiiic wlial eoiicuiTent liegulutioiis 
outside the jurisdictioiiaj limits of the rcspeclivo Cuivcrnniciits are necessary, ami over u hat vaturs 
such l.'e-ulalioiis should extend, ami lo aid tlioiii in that dctenniniitioii llie I.'cport of a Joint 
(."oniniissiiin to he niipointed liy I'le respective! Govenimeiits .^liull lie laid liufore llicin, with such other 
evidence as cither (iovcriiniciit may suliniit. 

The ConlnicliiiL; I'uwcr,- fiuthcrniorc agree to co-operate in .securinu' tlu adhesion of other Towers 
to pudi li'cyidalioiis. 

7. 'J'lie icspectivc ( 'lovcrnmcnls having found tlicniselves uiiaMe lo agree upon a reference which 
,sliall ineliidi^ the ((ucstioii of the liiihilily of each for the injuries alleged to have been .sustained hy the 
Dllicr, or liy its citizens, in eonncclion with the claims presented and urged by il, and being solicitous 
that this iiubordinalc ipicstinii should iiol interrupt or longer dcl.iy the siiliinission and iletermination 
of the iiiiiin ipieslions, do agree thai either iii;iy submit to the Arbitrators any nuestion of fact 
involved in said claims, ami ask for a limling thereon, the (picslion of the lialiility of either Govern- 
nieiil iiiion the facts found to be the snhject of further ncgotiatio!!, 

^.sioncd» .lAMKS c. rd.AlXK. 

•in.i.w I'.M'XiKruTi:. 

y>,r.;„/..,' IS, 1H01. 

Till- folliAving is the ie\i o|' the hchring >• .i doint ( ■uiiiinission .Vgrceiiicnt as settled in the 
iliploiiialic coiTcspondencc liclwirii the ( Jovcrniiicnt nf ihe I'nitcd Slates and the (ioveriimciit of (ireat 

lilitaiii : — 

Kaeh (iovcrnmciit :,U:\\\ appoi'il two Commissioners to investigale, eonjoinlly witlrtlie Cumiiiis- 
sioncrs of the other ( lovernnicnl, all llie fads having relation to seal life in lieliriiig Sea, and the 
ineasiircs necessary lor its iirojiev protection and ])reservation. 

The four (.'oinniissioiiers shall, so far as they may be able to iigieo, make a Joiul l.'cpoil to each 
of the two (iovernmeiits ; and lliey s'adl also ri'port, eillic! jointly or severally, to each (lovcrniuent 
on any points upon wldch lliey may be unable to agrei . 

These li'eporls shall not be made luiblic until they shall be submitted to tin; Arbitrators, or it 
sliidl aopiar that tlu' cniitingcnev of their being used bv the Arbitrators cannot aiisi'. 

■ ■ (Si-ncd) .l.\MKS U. ni.AIXK, 

dll.I.V.V I'At'NlKi-dTi:. 

l)a;,:)hcr IS. IS!' I. 



uital 



[1171 



D 



10 



IikIosuii' 4 in X<i. Ij. 

Mrmoiimilvm hniulril Ui Mr. Iticbn-t hi/ Mr.Fvilir. Xi.iruiUr 0, ISO-'. 

Ml!. FOSTHl! .siif^uc.-t.-i llml llic timo li\(il in lln' TumIv fur jH.'.seutiilinn nf tin; inintdl .VijjiniK-iit 
is in:uk'(iUiitf, cspcciiilly in view nf llic' 1'ulI tluit, llir Ciuim.'-lI oT tliu I'nitiicl Stati'S will have to 
(•on.-innif n onusiduiiilili- \i-m\. hI' tliiit time in cvos.sinj,' tiro dcciui iil'tiT ivcoipt uf the Cciuntci-Ciise and 
prejiuiiil i(in ol' the AiiriMiu'nl. It lias lu'en ronti nijilatnl al'lci- ih" .\rL;iiiniMit was rciujil.-iiMl to 
translate the same inlii Kreneli. It is niiiniii'st that all this (HmmoI he )iiviiiei'ly aeeiiiii]ili>heil within 
thirty (lays, llavini; in niiml the oiler niiule in T-onl Itoselwry's note of the l.'llh Ueloher of v. furllier 
e.xlensiijn of time, if cU-sired hy the t'nilc-il StJites, in view of the late date at which the Itepoit of tli(! 
Uritixh Conuiiissioners v.as delivered, \\\. Koster ]'ro|ioses that it he agreed hetweiMi th.i' two (Jovern- 
nieiits tliat, on the nieeliii;.; of tlie Trihnnal of Arhilration, if the Aj,'eiit of either (lovernnient shall n.sk 
the Arhitrators for an adjoiirnment of not I'xeeedinu' Ihiitv days to enahle ihi: printed Ar;4ument lu bo 
tiled, the A;;enl of the other (lovernmeiil will also siiii|)ort tlie uvjuest. 



No. 4. 

Sii- ./. I'imii'cfiitc ti> Mi: FvsUr. 

Dear Mr. Toster, U'<t.\hiii;iloii, Jinnitir,/ ~. 1K9U. 

WITH ifferenee to our i onver.sation at the Dejiartment of State on the .'jth instant respeetini^ 
the interpretation fihued on Arli(de VII of the Itehriiij,' Sea Tiealy in y<rar note (o Mr. Jliiliert of the 
9th Xoveniher last, ami to the appeal therein made to niysell' personally in connection with thi^ point 
under diseussion, I now hej; leave to send to yon. as airan.ued, a Memorandum of the ;jroumls on 
which 1 feel hound to di.sclai;n the views inferentially altribiileil to mc. 

I remain, &i\ 
(%ned) jri.lAN I'Al.Nt Kl'UTK 



Inclo.<iine in .No. t. 



M,iiU'i(in(/i'i,i nil Mr. I'vslcr's Xilr In Mi: llivUil njWcniiili ,■ U. IS!)L'. 



SlXCf! my return lo \Vasliin,L;toii I have had an oj'iiortuidly of examining' the oflieial ciirre,s].on- 
deuee wliii'h has t.iken phee lietween Her Majesty's (oiveinment iiiid lli.nt of the I'ldted States e;i thi^ 
ipiestion whether the .snhjeet of eoueuireni Iiej;ulations, which um'er Artiele VII of the liidiriu',' Seii 
Arliitration Tl^'aty are in the eoiiliu^eney therein mentioned lo he determimcl hy the Arhitraton?, 
shouhl have I'len dealt with in the iirinled (.'ase delivered fu hehall' of Her Majesty's (iovernmenl. 

I (ind that in a note from ;\Ir. faster ti> Mr. llerliert ipf the !tth Xoveiuher last I am inferentii " 
appealed to hy .Mr. i'oster, and also hy Mr. IJIaine, in snpjiort of the eonlention of the I'/iiied Stav.es 
(iovernmenl that the eonlinueney meiiticjned in .\rticle VII doe.s not refer 'o the dei ision of the 
.Vrhitrators on the five spociul (piestions suhmilted to them, hut to the inahility of the .loiut Com- 
inlssion to pome to lui agro'.'uient as lo the Seal lie^'idatinns. 

I am a! a loss to iinihrsland ihi.s referem e to m<', as throujjhoul the whole of my ncuotiatlon.'j 
with Mr. Illaiiif, ami (duriu-; his jnolon^ed illness) with the ,V.ssistant Seeretaries of Statu 
(Messrs. Wharton, Adee, and Moore), not one word wa.". ever sjioken or written whieh eoidd even 
su.i:}.'esl the helief that I ever held any view ns to the intention of tin' two (lovernments on iho 
point in ijucstion other than that whieh is ]>laiidy expre.ssed in Artieles \'1I and IX of the Treaty. 

With res|ieet to tho.se Artieles. Mr. I'osti.r states that the " C(in!in.U''ney relerred lo was that of an 
inahility of the memhers of the .loint Commission to eonn^ to an ajiretMuent sati.sfaetory lo their 
• lovernments, and mil, :ls Lord Kosehery .sup]oses. that of a determination upon the five spccifti 
ipiestions adverse to the eonlention of the I'liited Stales." Mr. I'ostcr ndd.s : "It is helievod 
that Sir .lulian Pauneefote, the neeotiator on the par! of Her Majesty's (ioverninenl, will not dis.seiit 
from this statement." 

I desire to reeoid my entire dissent from that view. ]l follows as a nei.'esBnry eonsefpU'iiee that if 
the Arhitrators should determine thai tin; eoncurreuee of (ireal llritain is not neees.sary to the 
estnhlishmeut of l.'eguliUious for thi' iirolei'tion of seal life, the. seal lishery wiudd theiueforth he 
exehisiv<'ly ref.'nlated hy the nomieipal law of the United StatCH, and no " eoiieurient " liejiulntionu 
Would he neees.sary. 

Therefore .Vrlide \'II providr's that if it shall he deeiiled that (he i oueurieii! f (Ireat 

ilritain in any sueh lieiiulations is necessary, the Arhitralors shall Hi' n determine what thos{. IJeyula- 
tioiis shall he. 

Ailiele IX provides that the joint ami several l!ep<iits of the D'lnmissionors ii.ay he suhmilled lo 



10 A 

tlie Arbitrators " sliciiild tin- coiitiiigciicy tliertfoi- Miisc;' ain' linllitr, lliiit ilie ('<>iiiiijissii)iicr< sImII 
Miiikc a .Tdint Ifi'i"'rt "sii I'mv .is tlicy may lir- able In a;ir(M','' ami that tbtir liciiorts, jniiit aiul several 
shall nut be luailf ijablic until they shall he suhiiiiUcil tii llu- Arbitrators, 'or it shall iiiipear that tlm 
<:ontiii;^'eiu'y of tlic.-ir bi'iii;_' nsrd by tin' Arbitratiirs I'aiiiint arisi'." 

Xd iitlier cuiitiiigcmty is mcliliiiiicci iiH.hu Treaty than that e.\|irc.ssly laid iluwii in Article V'll, 
iiaiiii'ly, a di'cisiuii uu the first live jioiiit- which shall mxcssitate eniicurreiit Kcj^idatimix Yet it isiiov/ 
|iniii(ised (111 hebalr iif the United St;ite.s' (lovenimeiit to siibgl^tiite an entirely "ew and diftiTcnt; 
" eiiiitingeiiey," mikiinwn to the Treaty, and in ■ .nitradietion with its laoral and i-ea.snnabh- 
sense. 

T\u' lernis of Aitiele \'[I are .so ilear ami unainbiyiiou;! as to jireelude any extrinsic evidem e (if 
it existed) to niodily their |aiiiio]t, for such evidence is admissible only to explain wliiiL is doulilfiil. be.t 
not to contradict wliat is jiLiiii. 

.Mr Foster incloses in his note a letter from Mr. I'laine, in which the ex-Soeretaiy of Stale, 
after brielly reviewing the lOiir.sc of the negotiations, lacjceeils as follows: " Not one word was said 
or intiuiatod lesjicctinL; tlio c(iU'stion now raisi'd by tln^ lirilisli (iovernnient as to a secondary 
subaiission of evidence after the lirst live points set forth in Article VI had I een decided liy tlai 
.\rbitrntors. It was iK'ver intimated that any other niodi^ of pioceediiej; ?boidd be had than that whicli 
is jiicscribeil by Articles III, IV, and ^' of the Treaty.' lie adds, "I .hall he .snr iriseil if Sir .1. 
Panncc^fote shall differ in the slii,'litest from this recital of faet,.s." 

In the fiisi jiluce, I bej; leavi' to reninik that the i|Heslion was not " pii.sed Ijy the liriti.sh Piovi'm- 
niciit," It w.is raised by the I'liiled States' ( !ov.'riiment, who. as I ventnre with u'reat respect to 
contend, irremiliuly snbmitie<l in their printed Cae evidence ami ar.'nnienls respectin;.^ eoncnrient 
l!i"4ill.ition- which the Arbitrators are only eiii|iowered to receive and deal with in the ciutin^'iiey 
nicntioned in Article \'ll, liiat is to say,iii the even! of coiicnrreiil le'gulatioiis Ijeiii'j; held neces.sury, 
and who afterwards ]iidte.sted aoainsl tlie absence of all such matter in the llrilish Case. 

In the next place, the omi.ssion of any provision in the Treaty ns to the mode of presentation of 
.such evidence is ipiite natiiKiKand easily exjilained. 

The I'oiitinoenry of srch evidence liein" nsed eonld not arise until after the ileeision of the Arbi- 
tiators on the livi- special ipiestioiis. It was ipiile unnecessary, therefore, to di.scnss diuinij the. 
neijotiations, and by way of anticiiinli(ai. the mode in which tli.nt eviilence shoiihl be bi'in!,i,'ht bel'nre 
the Arbitrators, Thoc ontin^ency of that evidence beiii;:; used befoie the Arbitrators niiglil never 
arise, and, if it did, the mode of its ])resentation would be a matter of procedure for the TiibiinnI 
to .settle. Imieed. any ili.scnssioii on that iioiiit would have been ]aeniatiive, a.s anticijiatiii,:; .-t 
decision adverse to the I'nited States on the live s] ccial cpiestions. 

llr, Foster suceeeded to the ollice of HeiTelary of State .tfter thi> Tivuty was si.u'ned, and his 
icl'eriMlces ti' ini'. therefoie, woiiM .seem to bc^ based entirely on Mr. lilaiue's letter. Hut it will Ik! 
observed that in that letter Mr. llhiine appeals to nie only to eonlirm his '■ recital of facts," and not to 
sa|i|ioii till' conclusion which lii^ ilraws from tlu' Treaty beiiij; silent as to the time or mode of pre- 
.seiitin^- the eviilenci' and arguments in relation to concurrent lie.uulation.s. It cannot, I thiiil;, bo 
i'int"iidi(l thai the ipiestion is nfferletl by the fact that the two .se])aiate Aiireements of the l:>th 
December, ]t<'H (of whii;h copic.i are annexed to Mr. Waine's letter) were iiltimatcly embodied in one 
and I lie same Treaty. 

I have already slated the ^rounds on which it appears to me that tin- inlcipietiuion pla< ed by 
Mr. I'oster on the Tivaty, taken in its enfirety, cannot be :.up])oiicd. 

1 think it may '«> eonvc.iii'iit, in conclusion, to recall how the two Ai;rfi(;ment.s came to he 
iiicluiled in one instrunient, contrary lothe oritjiiial intention of the Ili;^h ("ontraetiiiLj I'arties. 

The pioposal of Her Majesty's (bivernment lor the aiipointment of a .loinl t'l'mmissioii was for a 
lono .ime o]iposed by the rnited State-,' llovernnieiu. It was refii.sed by Mr. ll'aine wlieii orioin.illy 
su,u«ested in my note if the i'Hth Ajiril. l.SDll (lilue liook •' L'niled States No. i; (IM)i))," p. 4."i."i)», as 
part of a scheme of settlement of the dispute. It was a;,'nin refused by Mr. lllaine when lu-i'ssed on 
him by luc while neifotiatin:,' the nv^iliiji fin-ifli of l,Sill,as reported in my despii.tch No. ,S1 of the 
JTlli April of that year (see lilue I'.ook " I'liited Stales No. 2 ( IH!'! )," p. L'). " 

Diiiiiio the followinj; two months the negotiations were continued, on iiehalfof the I'nited Stat-'s' 
(oiVi-niiuent, by Mr. W. Wharton, the Actin, Sei-ntary of State. 

In my letters to him of the Kith and 1 Itli dnnc, l.S'.II. 1 again strongly niged llie a]i)i.iintnieiU of ii 
.loinl Commis.sion — and. indeed, under insi ructions fniin the Mai'i|uisof Salisbury, I made it a eondiiioii 
oi' signing the mu</U'i n'lniili. Itwasthi'U that the I'liited .states' (iovcrnmcnl ciaiseiited to the ap|i.piiit- 
inciii of a .Toiiit Comnii.ssioii, with a slipulalion that the Agreement should be .s'-parate from, though 
signed -imultanciiiisly wi(h,the Aibilralioii .\greeiiient (.see Mr. Wharton's letters of the HJth and -."itli 
.lime, l.SDl (Idae llook '• I'nited States No. ;j," pp. Xi and.M). 

In his letter of the 11,'ith.Iiine Mr. Wharton wiote thus: " It being imdei-tooil that an arr;ingcment 
lor a J.iint ( 'oiniuissioii is to be madeconl'.-mpoianeiai.-ly with the (••inclusion of the ternis of arbitral ion, 
I am directed by the I'lesident to prop.ise the following sejiar.ite .Agieeinent." 

The .Vgreeiiii'iils wi-re therefore ke]it separate, and with distiiicli\i' headings, nx shown in llu- 
copies annexed to Mr. Hlainc's letter, liut when the dial't Treaty was vlrawii iiii and handed lo mc for 
the ajiproval of Mi-r Majesty's (iovernmeiii I observed that it comprised both .Vgreements, and in reply 
to my iiiipiiry as to ihe reason for this deii:irtnre from llie original arrangement, I wa.-i infornieil tlial. 
the .toint Commission .\greciiicnt entailed ,iii cNpenditure of piiMic money, ainI niusl be l.iiil before iho 
Senate, as well as the .\rbilratioii .Vgreenient, and that it was considered more eonveiiienl thai Ihu 
whole arrangement shoidil be comprised in the .same instrument. This exphinalion was accordingly 
r.-)ioiteil by me to the Manpiis of Salisbury in my dcsiialcl- No. o-l of the -Uh February, 1.S',I2, 



• Tlf. ItrilMk PHrliaiiii-iit,!-) Pdj^TS r!to 1 .a thi* .^^t>moran,llttll ,ir^- iiii»vit-tl lo llu- Hritiali Cii3_\ .Aj>|v-in!i\, vol. iii. 



10 li 



tn.iisiuilli.iu' till- 'haft v{ \h,- Ticiily Ini tin- Mitv^a'. "f Her Muj-Mv.. ( n.vrnii.i,-ul. (IMiic r.....K-. 
••Iiiitia Stub's Nu. :i(l.S<.iJ)," 1.. 141.) . , ,. , 

It Wii.- iiut PU'JKi'sli'd at lIiMt liiiR' lliiil llic I'lTrut nl .•inlif«lyn].u llir t\\n Ai^iciiuciil. in nni- 
iiivtfiiiiu'Mt w.iiiM Lrtii iiitiodu. '• iiiiv iiinoviitii.M ill l!ic |iioci'.lmi' iis iiii.lcistocl wlini tlic .\Hm■mlMll^■ 
wic kcj.t s('i.uratc'. ir Miiy such I'liirt Imd licm culi'iiiiilalcil by llii' rnitnl Slntcs (.(ivi'inniiul il 
>viiii!(l smvlv li.ivr lifcu iinintcil imt t(p me at tliiit time. . , i .. 

11,1 jraii-^tVstioVCTinielll IiaviiiL' a',ne..il, in a spilil nf lilieiallty aial eniuiliatinii, I li.il llic 1,; |.ui t 

,,| the llrili-ii (Vliil.ii>'.^i i;- .'iliall Iniiii i.arl ..f llie I'.ritisli Case. 1 tiil.-,t thai llii.-< ai.s(ii>.-i(>ii may iiul 

lie leiiewr.l. r.ul as 1 lia\e heeli apicah^il to liuth by llie l.irscul ami .■X-Secivlaiy uf State, 1 teal- tliat 
nileiae <.n my vait miuhl he tak-ii as an aeiiuieseeii.e in th.' iuteiinelatloM init. on the 1 iraty 111 
Mr Fnsti'i's ll.ite (if tlie '.Itli Novemhei. I tlieirlui,. h'ol liniiiid tn nllei- the above ..bsi nations on that 
note, an.l 1 muIuiv lo lioiu- ilial llu'V n.ay throw riiilla r li^;ht on iliesiibjirt.aiul i.iodily llie e.,nebisioiis 
aniveil at Iiy the L'niled Sluti s' (lovernment. 

(Si-iiedl 

Wi'slini'jton. Ji'-iiiifmi 7, lt*!'o. 



jn.i.\N r.\i Nt'Ki'Oii:. 



Ill 


mil- 


■(•(■llll'lll^ 


Mijl- 


i! it 


cJI, 


f..il 


lll:i\ 


llul 

Ihiit 


I'lCl 

nil 


Iv in 
tllat 


iclil 


•ilcillS 



l'( iTK 



( 11 ) 



TfanshitioHS of Russian Documents furuished in United States' Case. 



[TliP lift-hnnd column coiitniiii the tnnslntions originally furnished l)_v tho Unitid Slntes' Government in Vol. t 
of the Appendix to their Cns:'. In the ri<»ht-hnnd column revised trnnsliitions are );iven. Nos. I to 10, 
12, nnd 15 hiivinj; lieeii witlidrnnn liy th(! United State*, the revised trnnsliitions of these documents have 
been made for II.t Miiie«t\"» fiovernment fron> the far-ximilet of the original Uussiaii text niinexed to tho 
Case of the United Slates'. Of the remuinder, viz., Xos. 11, l.'i, 11, and 10 to 31. the amended version*, 
recently supplied by the United Status, have Iweii adopted. Where any material differenros between tho 
original and revised translations occur the passages have been anderliiied, with tac addition of braeliets ia 
thu ciuo of interpolations.] 



Oric.iv.m. TRAN.'SLATIOX. 



No. 1. 



Almtrnrl of Lvttcv from the Mliiisler of Finance 
to Ihe. Minister of Marine. IVritlun from St. 
I'elcrshurij, April 0, ISiO. 

TUKi Comuiittec of Ministers app linted l)y 
His Majesty on ti.e 8th day of .July. 1819, 
instructed the Alinister of Internal .Affairs to 
collect all informnlion o)>tniiial)le relating to the 
deterinination of tlic future rii^lits and privileges 
of the Uussian-Ainericim Com|)any. 

Subsequently, upon liigliest request, the De- 
partment of Manufactures and Internal Commeroo. 
together with the Russian-.Vincricaii Company, 
submitted statements on this subject supported 
by the Annual Reports of the Hoard of Adminis- 
tration and by the testimoiij of the commanders 
of ships sailing in those regions, from which 
I learn that tho foreigners, especially the citizens 
of the North Amcrieaii States, come to our 
Colonies in their ships and carry on both openly 
and secretly a trade with the native inhabitjints, 
doing thereby great injury and wrong to our 
Settlements in tl eir tratti<', nnd also endangcrinf;' 
the general interests by furnishing the islanders 
with various arms and ammunitions. 

In view of the recent establislnnent at these 
Colonies, nnd of the absence of forces required 
to prevent such irregularities, and of the sm.ill 
iiuinber of Kiis.'iians scattend over an area of 
nearly 4,<M)0 versts, the Coiiipaiiy fiiuls it im- 
possible to occupy all hicaiities in siiHicient 
numbers to prevent the foreigners from main- 
taining their illegitimate interrourse with the 
nntiie inhabitants, and fniin exercising their 
pernicious intUience upon them. In this con- 
nection I linve taken into consideration that the 
interests of the Conipanv, its establisliments and 
objects are inseparal)le from the interests of the 
Government, and it ii])pears of the most im- 
perative neccssitv for the preservation of our 
sovereignty in the north-western i)art of America 

S md on the islands and w.ttcrs situ.tteil between 
leiiij to maintain there continuously two ships of 
the Imperial ileet. 

This object will, in my opinion, be most readily 
accomplished in the following manner : 

Starting in the month of .\ugust or September 
of the present year, one of these armed ships 
can sail fur the Island of Sitka, and the otlier 

ri'7.i 



ReVISEIp Tl!.\N.--r..\TION. 



No. 1. 

Copy of a Lc'terfrnni t/f Minister of Financ' to 
the Minister of Morim, ilate'i April '.», 1S20. 

(No. H.) 

BY a decision of the Council of Ministers, 
which received His ^Injesty's sanction on the 
Hth duly. ISr.i, the Minister of the Interior was 
called upon to collect fidl information on the 
question of the proposed changes in the arrange- 
ments in connection with the Russian-American 
Company. 

Subsequently, when, by His Majesty's order, 
the Department of Manufactures and Internal 
Commerce, and with it the Russian-American 
Company, were placed under the direction of the 
Ministry of Finance, tlie subject came before me 
for my con.'iider.ition. I have gathered from the 
vaiions Reports of the Hoard of Administration, 
as well as from tho observations of the Com- 
manders of ships that have visited tliose parts, 
that foreigners, especially citizens of the North 
American States, come to uiir Colonies in tlieir 
ships, and carry on both openly and secretly a 
trade with the native inhabitants, nnd do injury 
and wrung to our Settlements by their proceedings, 
and, most of all, by supplying various kinds of 
arms to the islanders. 

.\s the Colonies have only lately been founded, 
and Hs they do not possess sutKcient forces to 
remedy these evils, a small number of Itussinns 
being scattered over an area of nearly 1,000 versts, 
the Company is unable as yet to occupy all points 
in such a manner as to prevent the foreigners 
from eontinuing their foi-bidden intercourse with 
the .'\mcficans and islanders, or exercising their 
inrtiieiice over thciii. Under these circumstances, 
cinisidcring that the interests of tho Company, its 
foundation, and its objects are inscparal)ly con- 
nected with tho interests of the t lovernment, is 
appears to be very necessary, if wc arc to keep 
our hold over our pussi-ssions in the north- 
western part of .\merica ami o:'. the islands 
situated in t!ie ocean, that two -;liips of the 
Imperial navy should be kept constantly in that 
part of the world. 

This i)roposal will, in my opinion, be best 
carried out in the following manner : 

Starting in the month of August or September 
of this year, one of these ships of war sluiuld 
arrive nt the Island of Sitka, and the other at the 

E 



Original Tiiaxslation. 

for tlie harbor of Pctropavlovsk, nrrivins; there 
in tlie month of April or Mny 1S21. Tlic first 
havinj; (h.scharj;eil at Sitka any carfto which may 
be intrusted to the comnmndur, should sail to the 
northward along the American roast to Kndink ; 
should the commander receive at any of these 
places no s|)ecinl information as to forciirn con- 
trabandists from the manager of the Kiissian- 
Amcrican Company's Colonics, he may pursue 
his course to the westward, iiiid having thoroughly 
examined the shores of the Aleutian Islands, the 
coast of Kamchatka, the Kurili' Islands, [and the 
intervening waters,] he i.iay return for the winter 
to the liarhor of Petropaviovsk. 

The other ship, however, having examined the 
eastern coast of the Kamchatka peninsula up to 
62*^ of n. Ihcrn latitude an<l the west coast of 
America from this latitude to the Island of 
Unal.tska, [and the intervening waters,] sliould 
proceed to Kiidiak, and troni there to .Sitka for 
the winter. 'I'lic ohjct of tlie cruising of two 
of our armed vessels in the localities above- 
mentioned is the protection of our ' 'oloiiies and 
the exclusion of foreign v essels engaged in tnifllc 
or inilu stry iiiju rioiis to tli 
Ciinij)any, as 



12 



TiEvisF.i) Tranrlatiov. 



port of I'etropavlovsk in April or May 1S21. 
riic first, having discharged at Sitka any cargo 
she may have for that place, will proceed in a 
northerly direction along the American coast to 
Kadiak. and if she does not receive there any 
special information in regard to foreign smugglers 
from the Manager of the Colonics of the Russian- 
American Company which may cause her to 
change her plans, she can continue her course in 
a westerly direcfinii, and, after inspecting the 
shores of the Aleutian and Kurile Islands, return 
to the port of I'etropavlovsk to winter there. 



The other ship, after inspecting the eastern 
shores of the peninsula of Kanitchatka as far as 
02" nmth latitude, and the western sliores of 
Anurica from that meridian to tlie Island of 
Uiialaska, will pay a visit to Kadiak, and thence 
proceed to Sitka, where she will winter. 

The object of the cruizing of these two armed 
vessels in the localities iiicMtinned above is the 
protection of our Colonies and the prevention of 
the prohibited iiitcrciiiirse between the foreign 



interests of tlie Knssian ships on the one liaiiil, and tlie Compaiiv's 



as to tlio-^e of the native in- estahlisliineiits mid the native iiiliahitants on tin 



habit ants of those regions. 

If ill the following year, 1S21, two similar ships 
are dispatched from our Baltic ports, they could, 
in ^lay or June of the year l^22, relieve the 
ships sent out in IH'iO, and the latter could 
return to their home jiorts by the middle of 
1823. 

In this maimer two ships of war would always 
be ])re.ieiit in the Colonics, and the Coin|iany 
would Ik- assured of their iirotcetion. In addition 
to the other advantages resulting from this 
arrangement, it would afford a most excellent 
oppurl unity for the ofiicers of the Imperial navy 
to perfect tlienisclves by practice in the science 
of navigation. 

In submitting this proposition to your Excel- 
lency, 1 consider it unnecessary to enumerate in 
detail the advantages resulting therefrom, but 
}'ou must not omit to take into consideration the 
expenditure involved in such an undertaking. 
It therefore berumes necessary to know how n)uch 
the fitting out of such ships and the maintenance 
of their crews would cost the Treasury. We 
should also know whether it he possible for 
such ships to take, in addition to provisions and 
stores for their own use chiring a period of three 
years, any otlicr sujiplics which may be needed 
in Kamchatka ami Okhotsk, and how much of 
their tonnage could be devoted to the latter 
object. Tiiis information would be useful also 
for other purposes. 

The (loveriior-fjeneral of .Siberia, in his Report 
on the impoverished condition of the Yakutsk 
country, points out as the principal reason for 
this condition the burdens ini])oscd upon the 
people through transportation of (ioveriimeiit 
and commercial cargoes overland from Yakutsk 
to Okhotsk. If by means <if the vessels of the 
Imperial lleet to be dispatched to those shores 
the Yakutsk jicople arc relieved from this service 
they may devote their energies to cattle-breeding, 
already established among them, and thus better 
their deplorable condition. 

If your Excellency should find an annual 
dispatch of two such vessels, as suggested above, 
practicable, and if the two vessels, or one, as the 



other. 

rfin the following year, IHl'l, two more ships 
are sent from our Haltic ports, they should be 
able to relieve those dispatched in lUL'il about 
May or .lune 1S:*2, and the two ships first sent 
should be back in Russia about the middle of 
ISl'M. 

By this arrangement two armed vessels would 
always be jiresent in the Colonies founded by the 
Company for their protection, and, apart from 
other advantages, the officers of the Imperial 
fleet would have an excellent opportunity of 
im])roving by practice their knowlodge of the art 
of navigation. 

In eommunicafiiig this proposal to your Kx- 
ccllency, I consider it superfluous to enumerate 
all the arguments in favour of these expeditions. 
The question of the expense which will i)e entailed 
by them must, however, be considered. It will 
have to be ascertained how niueh the equipping 
of these sliips and the mamtenance of their crews 
will cost the Treasury. Also, whether the afore- 
said ships will be able to carry, besides provisions 
and stores siiniricnt to last them almost three 
years, a certain quantity of stores required for 
kamtchatka !ind Okhotsk, and what is the 
maximum weight of such stores tlicv will be able 
to carry. There is anollicr reason why this 
information would be useful. 

The Governor-fjcncral of Siberia, in his Report 
on the wretched condition <if t)ie V.akut country, 
states that he believes that the eliiei" ciusc of the 
poverty of that region is the system adopted for 
f-ansporting Government stores and merchandize 
from Yakutsk to Okhotsk, and that, although it 
is true that the old arrangements for this transport 
service were in I'slH replaced by a system of 
contracts, nevertheless the Yakuts, who were 
almost ruined before this change took place, and 
whose cattle, moreover, are constantly visited by 
disease, are scarcely able to bear the heavy burden 
iniposed on them by the transport service. 

If your Excellency should consider it practicable 
to dispatch two ships annually as proposed above, 
and if, in addition to their own stores, they arc 



13 



Original TiiAxsi..\Tinx, 

cnsc inny l>e, could take, in nildltinii to their own 
supplies, 11 crrtHiii (|tiuiitit\' of arms and ammu- 
nition for Okhotsk and IVtriipavlovsk, sucli a 
mcnstiri" would relieve tlio sntleriii:; Ya'iutcj, and 
at tliu same time afliird u partial reimbursement 
of the fiovernment's expense. [.V force ot' 
(ioUliers and sailors slioiild aNo lie stationed at 
tliu two ports mentioned above, in order to lill all 
vaeancics eaus?(l liy deatli or otherwise in the 
commands of the cruising vessels.] 

In thus laying lufiire you my thoni;hts on the 
subject, I am periiiitled In stale lliaj tliey have 
received the highest consideration of His Imperial 
Majesty, and I can assure your Kxcellency that 
the proposition meets with the liii;lie«t approval, 
and this matter is submitted to you now to enable 
you to consider tlie arran:;emints necessary to be 
made for th" purpose of taking in due time action 
looixiiig toward a renewal of the privileges and 
rights now enjoyed hy the Russiin-American 
Company under highest protection. 

True copy. 

(Signed) Zei.rn8kiy. 

CUiif CUrk. 



KF.VIREI) TllANSI.ATtON. 



able to take some for ti.e ports of Okbotnk and 
Petropavlovsk. this arrangement woulil be a great 
relief to the Yakuts, besides saving the Treasury 
considerable expense. 

In order, however, to be able to jndf^e better of 
this nuitler, it is necessary to ascertain what is 
the weight of the st'^ris that are sent every year 
fnim Yakutsk to Okhotsk, sn far as the Ministry 
of .Marine is concerned, as well as the nundjer of 
horses emplovcd in transporting them during the 
last few years. 

Having ('N])lainc(l my views on this subject, I 
request your Kxcellency to be so good as ti> give 
your uttention to what is slated above, and to 
favour Tue with your ojiinion thereon, in order 
thai I uKiv laUe it inio consiileratiiiii i coimecliim 
with the prnj.DsaU I am about to make in regard 
to the renewal of the reijnlatiiMis and priviU'ges of 
Ih"" Russian-. \mrrican Company und.'r the pro- 
tection of His Imperial .Majesty. 

.\ true copy : 

'.Siijuedl Zki.f.vskv. 

Chii'i' rliik. 



the 



ships 
Id be 



No. 2. 

Ldler Ji'oiii tlie Miiilstfi' nf Fiiiiiiir' t" l/if Hoard 
of Atliiiiiiinli'dli'iii nf till' Hii.'niiin-Aiiicririiii 
(\iiijiuiiii. ff'iiHiii from Si. Pderslinrij, Ajiril 
!0, 1«26. 

fConlidcntial.) 

TIIK lleoort of your Hoard, dated 14tli 
Xovend)er. IMl!», has, up to this tinu'. remained 
un:inswered, because the necessary intbrmation 
concerning the contracts con.'luded with the 
Knglishman I'igott had not been received. Of 
tills the Roaril spoke in its Report. 

The iuf(jrmalion is now at hand, having been 
received on the 3r<l ultimo. .\t the siune time, I 
also received detailed slatements of the appoint- 
ment by the •Government of rourt-< 'ouncilor 
Dobello as resident a-jent on the Island of 
Maniil.'i, and of the propositions of this otlicer to 
dispatch a vessel from there tn Kamchatka with 
provisimis, i?i order to convince the (iovernment 
l»nv cheaply the country may be supjdicd from 
the I'hilippine Islands. Mr. Doliello also re- 
quested permission to dispatch fnun Manilla to 
Cronsladt two ships with tea aiid other Chinese 
goods. 

All these propositions were duly submitted to 
His Majesty the llmjaror. and I have now 
received the following highest ilecisiou of His 
Imperial .Majesty : — 

1. That the contract entered into with the 
Knglisiiman I'igot can not be sustained by the 
(jovcrnment; hut since the whaling industry may 
be of use as a means of securing subsister.^e to 
the mhabitants of Kamchatka and Okhotsk in 
case of failure in the fi.sheries, and as a basis for 
establishing a new branch of trade from which 
the Hussian-.Vincriean Company may derive con- 
siderable proHt, His Imperial Alajesty has most 
graciously deigned to turn his attention to this 
subject, and has expressed the opinion that for 
this purpose a ship should be employed, furnished 
with all necessary implements sxid instruments, 
and manned with the very best officers and 
sailors. To enable the Company to secure 



\o. :>.. 

(Copy.) 

'/o the Jlrjnril of Ailiiiiiimlriiliiiu nf the Rusaian- 
Amfrienii Coiiipaiii/. 



Mhii^lri/ II f /'ill 'Til re, Ciiifntl (^Jficr, 
(Xo. 0. Secret.^' ' .//>(•;/ 10, IHi'O. 

Till', delay in replying;' to the letter from your 
Hoard of Ihe llth November last is due to the 
fact that inronnalion on llie subject of the .Vgrec- 
meiit coneliiihil with the Knglishman I'igot, 
which was mentioned in that letter, was o:dy 
received on the Sth ultimo. 

This information was accompanied by par- 
ticulars in regard to the appointment by the 
(I'overimient of "Court-Councillor" Dobello to 
resiile on the Island of Manilla, and the proposal 
.)f lliat ollicial that a shi]) should be sent with 
provisions Iro'ii that island to Kamtchatka in the 
spring, in order to show the 'Iovernment how 
cheaplv ))rovisions could be obtiiincd from the 
l'iiih))piTU' Islands. .\lr. Dobello also asked 
permission to send from Manilla to Cronstailt two 
shi|)s with cargoes of ten and other Chinese goods. 



I reported on all llirsc matters to the 
Kinperor.and have received the I'ollowin.; ins'ruc- 
tions from His Imperial Majesty: — 

1. The agreement concluded with the 
iMiglishman ri:;otisnot approved bvthe (iovern- 
ment ; sincpj however, the whale-fishing industry 
may be of use as a means of assisting the 
inhabitants of Kainlehatka and Okhotsk when the 
other lisheries fail, and as the foundation of a 
new branch of traile, from which the Russian- 
American (,\'mpany may derive considerable 
profit. His Imperial Majesty desires that the 
Company may turn their atlention to this subject, 
and employ one ship in fishing for whales, fitting 
her with all necessary appliances, and choosing 
the best officers and men ; and in order that the 
best masters may be at the disposal of the 
Company in first establishing the industry, 



OnioiSAL Tkaxslation. 



14 



■killed masters fur inaugurating tliis enterprise, 
Mr. lUibcUj Ims been iiDitructeii to enilearour to 
obtain suci), uitb tlic uiidcr»tuiuling tliat in 
additiun to tlii'ir .-cdarii'!) tbey sliall be entitled to 
certain rewards and |)reniiiini<t, inclndini; 1 poud 
of oil from every whale or other murine uninuil 
killed by them. 

2. The eonininndcr of the Govern niont of 
Irkutsk is lierehy instructed to forbid all 
foreigners, except such as have become Russian 
subjects, to eulcr the mercantile miihK or to settle 
in business in Knmchutka or Ukliulsk; niso to 
entirely |)ri)hibit foreign nieichunt- vessels from 
trading in these localities and from anchoring in 
any port of Kastern Siberia, except in ease of 
disaster. (In such cases great care shouhl be 
token that no |>art of their cargo be discharged 
or sold to anybody, under pain of confiscation of 
the ship.) It is hereby <irdercd that tliC local 
authorities shall inform the Knglishman I'avis ut 
Okhotsk and Dobello's ugent in Kamchatka that 
the (iuvermncnt does not i)ermit them to reside 
in those places, much less to erect buildings or 
other immovable property. In consideration of 
said ])rohibition, they will be awarded damages 
and afforded every facility on the part of the local 
authorities to <lispose of their propertv and to 
take their departure. Mr. Doliclhi. however, is 
hereby instructed that the ship which he proposes 
to dispatch from the l*hilii)piiie Islands to 
Kamchatka may, on this single occasion, take 
goods as well as provisions, and he shall be 
permitted to dispose of tlie same. But to prevent 
iiim from dispatching such vessels in the future, 
he is permitted to sup|)ly oidy Russian ships 
belonging to the Government or t'l our .\merican 
Company, which may call at Manilla lor supplies. 

3. I'crmission is denied to Mr. Dobello to 
dispatch two ships to Cronsladt with tea and 
other Chinese goods, since such operations do not 
accord with the views of the Uoveniment, and he is 
hereby informed that he has been and is now re- 
quired oidyto furnish information as to the prices 
of Chinese floods at Manilla,and as to w hat supplies 
and production from Eastern Siberia could be 
profitably disposed of there, to the end that all 
such infonnation may be used for the benefit of 
our Aiiicrieaii Company in all its various com- 
mercial transactions. 

Pursuant to this highest dccisiim, I have already 
addressed the (iovernor-tieneial of Siberia and 
the Minister of Foreign .Mlairs, and sent the 
necessary orders to .Mr. JJobello ; and now the 
following ])ropositions are laid before the Hoard 
of Administration of the fiussian-.Vniciican 
Company : — 

1. From the whaling industry on the eastern 
shores of Siberia the Government expects nut 
only such advantages as have been pointed out 
by the (Mjvernor-tieneral of Siberia and by the 
commander of the districts of Kameliatka in 
their comnmnicalion, of whicii copies are here- 
with appended, hut discovers in tins industry the 
promi.se of special advantages to the ('onipany, 
and therefore hopes that the JSoartl of Administra- 
tion will at once furnish the means necessary for 
taking the preliminary steps toward the inaugura- 
tion of whaling in those waters, and iiroceed, 
without waiting fur tiie inlbrnmlion requested 
from Mr. Dobello, to inform itself concerning the 
engagement of experienced masters, {s.v. A ship 
should be purchased at once and dispatched in 
the following year, if il be found impossible to do 
so daring the present. 



ItEVI.SKli TllAN.^I.ATI'iX. 

Dobello shall be c.illed upon to endeavour to 
obtain the services of such masters, who, in 
addition to the pay that may be agreeil upon, 
shall each receive, as a premium, something for 
every poad of pure oil from the whales or other 
marine animals captured by them. 

2. The authorities of Irkutsk are to be 
instructed not to allow any foreigner, unless he 
has become a Russian subject, to enter a 
merchant guild, or to settle at Kamtchutka or 
Okhotsk, and they are not to permit any foreign 
merchant-vesse' to trade at those places umler 
any circumstances, or to enter the ports of 
Kastern Siberia except in case of distress, in 
which case such vessel is not to be allowed to 
unload any part of her cargo, or endeavour to 
dispose of it, iindir pidn of confiscation of the 
.ship and cargo. Furthermore, the Englishman 
Davis at Okhotsk and Dobello's agent in 
Kamtchatka are to be informed, through your 
officials, that the Government refuses them 
permission to renniiii at those places, or to build 
houses or hold real property there ; the local 
authiirities shall alhinl them all proper facilities 
for disposing of their jmiperty and leaving the 
country. .NIr. Dobello is to be informed that the 
ship which he proposes to send from the 
I'hilippinc Islands to Kamtchatka will be allowed 
to go there for this once, and that he may sell 
the merchandize and provisions which he may 
send by her; but that he must not send any 
more ships, and is in future to coiihne himself to 
loading Russian ships whicli are sent to Manilla 
for jirovisions and inerchandize, by order of the 
Cioveniment or of our American Company. 

.'i. ilr. Dobello is refused permission to send 
two ships to Cronstadt with tea and other 
Chinese goods. >Such a ])rocceding would not be 
in harmony with the views of the Government : 
moreover, all that has ever been or that is now 
asked of Mr. Dobello is, that he shall report what 
are the prices of Chinese goods at Manilla, and 
what products of ICasterii Siberia could be 
jirotitably sold there, in order that this informa- 
tion may be made use of by our .\mcriean 
Company in all its various commcruial operations. 

Til accordance with His Imjierial Majesty's 
instructions, 1 have alreadv addressed a letter to 
the (.iovcrnor-(ieiieral of Silicria, and the .Vctiiij; 
Minister of Foreign Affairs has communicated 
with Mr. Dobello. 1 now liavc to state as follows 
to the Hoard of .\dministration of the llussian- 
American Company: — 

I. The Govcrtimcnt not only expects from the 
whale-lishing industry on the eastern shores of 
Siberia those advantages which the Govcrnor- 
tieneral of Siberia and the Superintendent of 
Kamtchatka have represented in their lte])orts, of 
wliich copies are inclosed, but also considers that 
this industry .till be profitable to the Company. 
It therefore hopes that your Hoard will not fail to 
take steps for the establishment of the industry 
with as little delay as possible, and suggests that, 
without waiting for Mr. Dobello's rci)ly, you 
should make inquiry for masters skilled in whale 
fishing, nnd take stcjis for the purchase of a ship 
suitable for this work, which should be sent to its 
destination, if possible, this year, but in any case 
not later than next year. 



• •iMi.iNAi. Than SI. ATM IS. 

?. I'.ivin^', for tin- bciiclit >f llip Ainerinin 
iL'i)iii|)nii\ . i'.\chi(li'(l ull forc'i^iiiTs frdin Kiiniclintkii 
iiikI OkliiilsK, aiul pniliiliitid IIkiii rniiii riii;!i;;iii;; 
in Iriidc [mid frnrn liiiiitiiii; jiiid lisliiii'.' in ull tin' 
wnti IS III l''u>l(rii .'•'iliiria.] llif (jovrriiiiiriit lully 
f\|iirls tliat till' ( iiiii|)aiiy, nii its piirt, will liidd 
ilsi'lf i'('s|)oiisil)lv for Kiipplyiiii; liiosi' ri'n'iinis with 
ull iK'i'cssurien. In I'liniiii'tiiiii witli tins ri'ijiiiii'- 
niciil, niid in niiisid>'i'ati(>:i uf a rc(|U('st friiiii tlic 
(iiivcrii(ip-(iriii'ral (if Silirria, tin" IViHrd nf 
Adniinintratidii will ripni'; nn tlic tcillnwini; 
IMiinlH:- 

(«.) As til till' iiicuMs liv uliioli ciiiiiniMiiicatiiMi 
fan lie inaiiitaiiifd lietwoeii \akutsU and UkliotsN 
wit limit (i|)|)rossioii of tlu' Viikut people. 

(/i.) Whether the dimpany can undertake tii 
land «t tlie iiurts of IVtropavlovsk and Okli-itsk 
provisions, espccialh" Hour and salt, from tlieir 
eorresp indents in I aliloniia or the I'liilippine 
Isliinds. in sneli ipiantities as may be retpiired by 
the (iovernnieiit forces and olliiials and by all 
other iiilii'.hitaiit-, en ployini; for this jiiirpose a 
ship which must visit the places ii. lined at least 
once u-vear and at a tiiiie previously fixed; also 
ns to the j)rohahle cust of provisions, prices of 
freight, ftc. 



(r.) To propo.sc measures for a (levelopmcnt 
and mcrcase of the lishinj; industries for the 
bcncnt of the native population of Kamchatkii 
and Okhotsk. 



>(1.) Whether the Company can undertake to 
fnrnish the districts of Kamchatka and Okhotsk 
with all the necessary articles of trade which the 
inhabitants now receive from Irkutsk, and at what 
prices. 



10 



I!r.\i.sf:ii TiiAN.'iLATto.v. 

2. Ilaving, for the benefit of the .\ii.crican 
Conipaoy, exehiih d uil foreigners from Kamt- 
eliatkii ami Okhotsk, and forhiilden Ihini even to 
come to tliosi' places to trade, the (iiivernment 
exjiei't'< that the * onipiiny, on its part, v.ill assist 
in providiiii; those places with all necessaries; 
and in view of the fact that the Giivernop- 
(Jeneral of .Siluria has more than nnce represented 
the necessity of relievii,;; the Yakuts of the 
obliliation of transporliiiL; stores by land from 
Yakutsk to Okhotsk, your Hoard is called upon 
to consider and report: — 

(«. I'y what ineniis it would be possible to 
establish eommnnicatioiis between Yakutsk and 
Okhotsk without imposing a liurdeii on the 
Yi.kuts. 

(/•.) \Vliether by i stablishiii;; communications 
with {.'aliforni.". or the I'liilippine Islands the 
Company could supply the ports of I'etropnvlovsk 
and Okhotsk willi provisions. e-|irciallv flour and 
salt, hotli lor its own olilcials and for those of the 
(ioveriinient, iij weli as for the other inhabilants, 
employing for this purpose one ship which wuuld 
remain in that part of the world, and he made use 
of for this service every year. The Hoard should 
not omit to consider whetlu r the cost of keepiii;; 
a sl:ip employed on this service would not make 
it necessary to diai'ge excessive prices for the 
provisions brought by her. 

(r.) Whether the Company cannot sujunest 
measures which would increase the jiroductiveness 
of the tisliini; industry by which the piKjr iii- 
Imhitants of Kamtchatka and the people round 
Okhotsk are chictly supported ; and, l.istly • 

(il.) Whether the Coiiipaiiy can siipplv the 
inhabitants of Kamtchatka and Okhotsk with 
such .irticles a- are iiulisiieiisable to tliem. They 
are now hroii'.dit from Irkutsk, and e.\travai;ant 
prices are chained for tliem, so that the people, 
liistiad of liavin;; their wants provided for, are 
beiu" ruined. 



3. In refusing permission to Mr. Dobello to 
dispatch ships loaded with tea and Chinese goods, 
the (Jovernment had in view the avoidance of any 
com|)lications which minlit interfere with the full 
' ■"ijovmcnt by the Itussian-.Vnieriean C(iiii|>aiiv of 
its privileges uraiiteil ov Imperial I kase, not only 
III connection with the trade in teas across the 
Chi'iese border at Kinkhta, [ lint also in'connectioii 
witli the exclusive rights of trudc and iiavinalion 
ill all the waters adiomiiu; the Sibernn as well as 
the .\mericaii possessions of Kiisoa, and all 
interior water- coiinccteil ilu'iiuiih. ] h'or tins 
purpose -Mr. UohcUo was leiiutsteil to furnish 
detailcii infoniiation of tiie trade and commerce at 
the I'liilippine Islands, [in (inler t.i ;clieve the 
Company of the necessity 



ot 



iloviii^ hirei;; 



ships and masters fo r this trade whii'li involves 
tlieir admission to waters reserveil hi r ihe 
exclusive use of the liiissiaii-American Company 
under its charter. 

In coiiclusiiiii.it is slated as the (keision of His 
Jlaiesty the Kiiiperor. iii view of p ossitile tutiirc 
complications ot this nature, that no contracts 
iiivolviiii; the ailinission. free iiavii;atioii, or ti'a<l e 
of foi'cimi ships anil foreign sniijects in the waters 
ailjoiniii!; or houm'ed by the e<iasts of the Russian 



■ 1. In refusing to allow Dobello to dispatcli two 
ships with tea and other Chinese i;oods, the sole 
object of the (lovernnient lias been to jirevent 
anythin;; which iiiiuht interfere with the rej idar 
eiHirse of our Kiaklita trade. If, how ever, the 
Kussiaii-.Vniericaii Company is able to obtain 
Chinese ^ooils in the Philippine Islands in ex- 
chainre liir wares which it cannot dispose of prolit- 
alily at Kiaklita, tlie.T is no reason why it should 
not carry on Mich :: trade. As the Conipaiiv is 
itself i'iiLra'.',ed in the Kiaklita trade, it will lake 
care not to injure its own interests, which are 
closely connecl ; ith lliat trade, by the sale of 
i^oods iinpoi'tt, .v sea Mr. Dohello has therefore 
been leipiestcd lo sujiply detailed information on 
the suhject of tiie trade witli the I'liilippine 
Islands, in oviler that it may he ascertained 
whether the Company can proHtablv exchaiifje at 
Manilla for Cliiiuse or other ;.;oods ihe furs which 
it cani;ot dispose of at KiaUhta. 

In conclusion, I have to inform your Board 
that the reason why the Spanish Goyernment 
have declined to rcco;inize "Court-Councillor"' 
Dobello as lUissian Consul is that the Court of 
Madrid consider it not in harmony with their 
colonial system that forcij^u countries should have 
Consuls in their Colonies. I'eriuission has, how- 

r 



OlIllUXAL TllAXSI.ATIOX. 
II lit! appriivi'il l)y tin' 



16 



liiipt'rinl 



Colonici will 
Gi)V('riiiiu'iil.] 

Till' Itiinrd ol A(linliii»lralioii of the Uii!i»i»ii- 
Aiiu'ricHii Ctiiiipaiiv i^ licrchy iiitiirtiiud thai 
Ci)urt-C'(iuiicil()r Ddlielln hii!< iwit Uwii recnitiiizt'd 
ns Itussimi t'niisul tiy the SpaiiiMh (iuvcniiiit'iit, 
beciiUM' till- Court nt' Miulrid ilccliirca it tr lie 
cuiitrarv to its ciiloniiil sY!«tt'in to admit fiiri'ii;ii 
Consuls tn its Colonics; hut Imviiii; :i('i|uirsci'd in 
his ri'si<lcn(f at Mnnilla and in his rMTciiiC there 
of the duties of iij^ent, it is now understood that 
the ohject of his a|i]iointiuent was oidy to assist 
vessel" of the Uussiaii-Aineneaii Coni|iauy visitinij 
Manilla in )mrely e.jninirnial transaetions. 
(Simied) Count It. liUlt^ KF. 

Miiii^fcr Of' lumiH't'. 
Count VAKOV LAMHKIir. 

/V»i'i/ Coiiiiriloi: 



l.'K.VI.HKIi TitAN-^LATlflN. 

ever, been ^'iveii to him to reside at Maiiillu, anil 
tc< dischari^i' there all the ordinaiy duties of n 
Consul. The only olijeet for whirli Mr. Dolirllo 
was sent to Maidlla was to assist our .Vn irican 
Coiii|iauy in evi ry way he eoiild. and he h.u heeii 
reniiiideil of tlii i in the instrnelioiis whiih have 
just lieeii sent to him. 



.Simied) CouMt I). (JIlUF.fK. 

Mitiiatfi- I'f Fntinti-' , 

Count YAKOV I, AMHKU I 
l'ri''y ('oiiiirillor. 



No. 3. 

Letter frnm l/ie ll"nnt "/" .loiiiimliiiUnn ■■/ the 
liii.''aiiiii-Aiiii> iciin ('(iiiipaiiij I" Cii/ituiii M. I. 
iluriirii'f. Ill the Imjieriiil S'urii, t'hi, f Maiiiii/yr 
Hf llh- Himniiiii-Jiifriiiiii t oliiiiien, H'tilten 
from SI. re/irn/'iny, A/iril i.'3, 1K20. 

(No. '2(<:>. Contidvntial.) 

ON tlie llttri instant the ^[inister of Firiaijcc 
coinniiiiiieiitt'd to the Board of .\diiiiiii>ti'ation, in 
a nicssa'^e marked eonfiileiilial. the will of His 
Imperial Majesty in the followiiis; words: — 

1. 'I'liat the contract coiieluiled with the 
Englishman I'igott is disapproved by the (ioverii- 
meiit. 

2. That the Governor of Irkutsk be in.structed 
to allow no foiei};iicrs, except such as have beoome 
Kussian Mibjccls, to join in any ;'oiiimcrcial i^uild 
or to settle in Kamchatka or Oklioi U : also to 
strictlv pi'oliibit all foreign mercantile vessels 
from visitin;; these points, (.v tradin:; in any of 
the ])orts of Kastern .Silieria, e\cept in ease of 
disaster, wiuii the strictest vigilance must be 
exercised to prevent the disjmsal of any of the 
vessel's caryo, under pain of eimfiscatioii of both 
ship and cary;o. At the same time, the Kiiylish- 
nian Davis at Okhotsk and Dobello's A^ent at 
Kamchatka must be informed that the Govern- 
ment does not permit them to reside at those 
places, much less to ae(|uire houses or other 
immovable property. The Irical authorities are 
instructed to allow them daiiia;;es for the im- 
mediate disposal of what property they have 
alreadv acnuiicd. and to see to their immediate 
departure. Mr. Dobello is to be informed that 
the ship be has proposed to dispatch from the 
riiilippine Islands to Kamchatka itii provisions 
and articles of luxury will not be allowed to visit 
Kaincbi.tka unless it be transferred to the 
ownership of a Russian subject, preference to be 
given to the Hussian-.Xmerieaii Company operat- 
ing under highest protection. 



3. I'crmission is also denied to Mr. Dobello to 
dispatch any ships to Kronstndt with teas or 
jither Chinese goods, such transaclions being in 
direct conflict with the views of the Government. 
He is also informed that no furtlier intercourse is 
possible between him and the authorities of 



No. 3. 

Fniin the I, nil nj' Ailminiiitriiliijii ')/ llie Kiixginn- 
Aiiieriritii (''1111/111111/ miller llir /initirli'iH nf 1 1 in 
[ni/ieiiiil MajeiitiJ In ('iijttiihi Mntni Iniiiurilrh 
Miirmief, iif the Ini/nriiil .\iini. I'hief Munai/er 
iif'lhe C'lliinie" njthe Jiiinniaii-Aineriiitn Com/iiiny. 

(No. 2(1,5. Secret.) 

IN a letter d.ited the Iriih irist mt and marked 
•' .Secret," the Minister of Finance informed this 
Hoard that Ilis Imp iai Majesty has directed ait 
fidlows : — 

•• I. The .\i;rccmcnt eonchided with the 
Kn;;lislmiun Pi:;ot is not approved by the Goverii- 
iiient. 

"2. The authorities at Irkutsk are to be 
instructed not to allow any foreii;n.'r. unless he 
has become a Utissian subject, to enter a meri'hant 
guild, or to settle at K.initchatka or Okhotsk ; 
and they are not to permit any fcucign iiierchant- 
vcsM>! to trade at those places under anv circiini- 
•tances. or to enter tin- ports of ll.-istern .Siberia, 
<'Xce|)t in case of distress, in which case such 
\ essci is not to be permitceii to unload any part of 
her cargo or endeavour to dis|i,'se of it, under pain 
of cordiseation of tin ship and >'ar:'o. Further- 
more, the Knglishrian Davis at Okhotsk and 
Dobello's .'igciit at Aamtchatka arc to '"■ inforiiied 
through the satiic officials that the (iovermiient re- 
fuses them |)eriiiissioii to remain at those places, 
or to build houses or hold real jiropertv there; 
and the local authorities shall atlbrd them all 
proper facilities for disposing of tluir jiropcity 
anil leaving the country. .Mr. Dobello is to be 
informed that the ship which he propises to 
despatch from the I'hilippine Islands to Kaiiit- 
ebatka will be allowed to go there for this once 
and that be may sell the merchandize and jiro- 
visions which he may send by her: but that lie 
must not send any more ships, and is in future to 
eontiiu- himself to limdiiig Russian ships which 
are sent to Manilla for jirovisions and merchandize, 
by order of the Government or of our .\nierican 
Company. 

" 3. Mr. Dobello is refused permission to .send 
two ships to Cronstadt with tea and other Chinese 
goods. Such u proceeding would not he in 
harniony with the views of the (Jovernrnenl ; 
moreover, all that has ever been, or that is now', 
asked of Mr. Dobello is that he shall rejvjrt what 



oiiri.ivvi. TiiAXsi.vTiox. 

Knttcrii Silx'rin, iiiiil tlint rvni if Mipplitii «liciiil<l 
l>v iit'fdfil fiDiii Miiiiilla iir any i^llier iKljaccnt. 
foriii(ii I'ouiitrr. Kiirli trniiKactionH would iie ii:- 
triifitcd to the Imiiils of diir Aiiii'rir:iii ('imipHiiy. 

Ilaviri!; iiiforiiiril yim <if tlic-c hij{!ii'st vii-ws, 
tilt' Mnard iif Adniinistrntinii add:* tlie fcdliiwiiiir 
v.\|ilaiiuti<>ii : — 

ilic niiilrart w'nicli wax diMnpprnvod by tlir 
Imperial (liivcrniiii'iil wh<i niiicliKlrd liy I'l^olt 
(III tlio IHili .Iiiiii'. I^l'.l, for a iicriial of ten ycar-i 
liv Mr. Itii'ciird, Ci'Miinandir of iho Kaiiicliiitka 
district, and Courl-I ouiicillor llolallo <!ii lu'lialf 
of tin' (iovcrimicnt, parties ol the: lirst part, niul 
the olmvi'-iiaimMl Kidisliiiiaii Pi.;olt on l)olialf of 
liiinsidf and ins partners, DavH. Kbliet.--. anil 
Meek, captains of American nu'rilianr-v< ssels, of 
tlie «eeond part, for tin' piupose of wlialini; and 
Imntiii'.! marine animals lor then' Inrs .iinl oil on 
the coasts of Kuinelritka and ol Kaslern Silieria, 
ill (lie liarliom, liayx, an<l straits, and on the 
i^' oils, for tlieir own benefit and piolit. witliont 
any duty or royalty, and with tlie privilege of 
currying the Itiissian llai;, and with tin' ailditional 
|)riviU"..'e of tisbiii'^ and of shippim; the catch 
tVoiii Kamchatka on payment of .'lO kopeks per 
pond on salted tisli. This contract was naturally 
considered iiy the (loverniiient to he injurious to 
the interests of the Company, siiK'e all the 
bcnetits accrued to foreigners, and no provision 
was iiiaile to protect the native inhabitants of 
those rpfjions "ho depenil for their ])rincipal 
iiieaiis of subsistence upon tish, which under this 
contract would have been earned away by 
forciniiers iiet'ore their hinging eyes. 



Ilaviii;^ thus reached the conviction that the 
real object of these schemiii!; foniuners, with 
whom it appears that Dobetlowiis allied on terms 
of intimacy, w,is not only to obiain the privileijc 
of Killing whales and of trying out their blubber, 
or the eliase of other marine animals which 
Irecpiciit our waters th;.t wash the coasts of 
Eastern Siberia, but rather to gniilually obtain 
fontiid over our Kurile an<l Aleutian Islands for 
the purpose' of huntiii.; sea-otteis ami fnr-scals, 
which object, had it liee'i iditained, would have 
.•rippled the Kiissian .\merican ('cinpaiiy. the 
Board of Admiiiistratinii expresses the following 
opinion : — 

As soon as the Imperial (ioveri.nient aseer- 
taiind that the contracts iiiiulc wen' in open 
violatii II of theprivilt ues 



Li 

l.'KMsKIl TllANHI.ATIOX. 

are the prices of Cliiiu-. "oodn at Manilla, and 
what produe's of Kastern Sibei'.' eoiild be profit- 
ably sold there, in order that this infor'nulion 
may be made use of bv our .\merirnn Company 
in its various I'ommereial ojierations." 

In iiiforndng you of Ills Imperial Majestv'* 
drcision. the Hoard wishes to make the folhwiiij; 
observations :- 

The .\greement «itli Pigot wliirh has not been 
approved is the .\greeinent coneluded on the 
iHth .luiie, lisl!», for ten vcars betwocii tlif 
ISiiperintendeiit of Kamtcbatkn, Mr. Uicord, and 
"Court-Councillor" I'obelhi, in the luriic of the 
tiovcrnnieiit on the one hanil, and the af.iresiiid 
Engli-linnn I'i'^ot on the other I and. for himself 
and for his partners, Davis, Kbbets, and Meek, 
captains of .\nierieaii mercliant- vessels, with 
reference to tisliini; for whales and extractiii!; oil 
from these and oilier inaritu- aiiiiiiuls on the siiore^ 
ol Kamtchatka and on tlmse of .'II Kasteni 
Siberia, in the iiaibours ami hays niid amongst 
the islands, for their own benetit and tree of all 
duties, \vith permis>ion to lly the Russian ll.ag, 
and a^so with reference to catching tish to export 
from Kaintchatka. a dutv 'if .'ill copecks t<i be (laid 
on every pood of lish t.ikcn and salted by them. 
T'liis .\i;rcenient, it appears, is considered by the 
(jovernment a mischievous one. because it eontaiiiK 
no provision that wnuld benetit the inhabitants of 
Kaintchatka and Okhotsk, anil, moreover, the 
people of Kaintchatka, who are often in want of 
tish on account of the scarcity of salt and the 
want of tine davs for drying the lish. •vould very 
likely be deprived, under the .\greement, of 
'MUUH) poods of tish a-year, wliieb would he 
cauiiht and carried otl" bv the above-nicntioneil 
toreiijners. 



laiited the ( 'om|)aiiv. 
II pnihinited at once all foreigners not oiilv fiom 
settling in Kamchatka or Okhotsk, but also from 
all intercourse with those regions, enjoining the 
authorities to maintain the strictest surveillance 
over their movements. Ba-siiig your own action 
upon this procecdiiif^' on the part of our Highest 
Protector, you as Commander of all our Colonies 
must prohibit with e<|Ual strictness all foreigners 
from engaging in any intercourse or trade with 
native inhabitants, [as well as from visiting llie 
waters frequented by sea-otters and fur-seals. 
over •• Inch our operations extend, ] under the 
penalty of the most severe measures, including 
the confiscation of ships and the imprisonment of 
crews engaged in this illegal tratlic. You must 
act with the greatest severity in cases where 



iTaung' discussed the scheme, which h.-'s very 
properly been rejected, of t'lc crafty aid c'lter- 
prising roreigiurs, with whom Dobello appcar't 
to be e!o<elv allied ai n result of Ins loii^ acqiiaiiit- 
aiice vvitli them, and who, if they had been ^iven 
permission t'l catch wliah's and o'lier marine 
animals and to extract their oil, would have 
hiou:;lit iiuinbers of shijis ir.aniiod by all kinds 
of crews, and would have fiequcnted not only 
the harbours and bavs of Kastern Siberia, but 
also our Kurile and .\leutiaii Islands, solely for 
the purjMisc of taking: sea-otters and sials— by 
which operations tliev would have riiinid the 
Hussian-Aiiieriean Companv — the Hoard vill now" 
explain its views with regard to thcs,' various 
matters. 

Ill view of the fact that the fiovernment has 
perceived that these schemes would lave done 
much harm |o the Company, and has prohibted 
foreigners not only from seltling. but also from 
trading, at Kaintchafk.i and Okhotsk, where there 
are established authorities, and where a surveil- 
lance can be exercised, it is your duty, .is the 
Manager of the Colonv, to usc your best endea- 
vours to carry out llis Imperial Majesty's orders, 
by strictly ])i'ohibiting the f.ireigners who may 
visit the Colony from engaging in a traffic with 
the Indians, and, in case any of them violate 
the Uegidations, not to be atr.iid to arrest the 
bold .adventurers and seize their ships, if they 
carry on a traiSe injurious to the Company's 
interests at places, or on islands, occcpied bv it, 
iind especially it they supply tiic Indians with 
arms, powder, and lead. You sliouid not even 
allow them tj enter yo.ir ports unleii yo.i tiiid 



18 



OR!r;l\AI. TllAN.^I.ATIilN. 

foreiuTier.s liavu sold to tlii' natives arms, powilcr, 
and load. Tlicy niiist bo inado to utidorstand 
that [tlic ir i irosoiiro in our walors is roiitrary to 
our h\\\^. ami lliatj tlicy will iiovor lioadiiiittod to 



any port unless you or your subordinates convince 
yourselves that suc^li is necessary for llie saving 
of life. In a word, you mast preserve an attitude 
in full accord with the vi-'ws of the luiperial 
(lovernment on this subject, [and proteet against all 
intruders th e domain <if laiiil and water uiante<l to 
m hy the ^laee ol liie Kmperor. am! necessary tor 
our continued existence and prospi'rity. ] 

Y(ni must transmit these instructions witluuit 
delay to your sul)ordinato oommanders for their 
conduct in their intercourse with foreisners. and 
especially to the eouimaiiders of ship-. i.avi<jitin<; 
our waters, [to eualil e them to drivf away the 
foreifjn intruilersj. 

The conmiunication from tlie Minister of 
Marine also contained a I'opv of a letter from '.he 
present (iovernor-Cieueral ol Siberia, emliodyiii;; 
niauv sui;;;estions aiul opinions of advantage to 
the Company. Of this dix'ument the Hoard of 
Admiidstration forwards a copy lor your guidance, 
to enable vou to nvl for the best interests of the 
Companv. 

(Sii-ned) MICn.\F,L KISSKLKF, 
VEXKDK T KKA.MKK, 
ANUKKI SK\ KKIX, 

Directors. 
April 23, 1820. 



P.S. — We herebv inform you that the Ciovern- 
meiit has decided to dispatch two shi|)s around 
the world durinj; the present summer: one to 
winter in Kamcliatka, and the other to proceed to 
Sitka and to cruise in search of foreign vcsr.els. 



liKvisKii Translation-. 

it necessary to buy soinetliini; from llieni wliioh 
the Company urgently requires. In a wm-d, you 
shoidd adopt towards these adventurous traders 
such an attitude as it is proper for the (iovernor 
of all the places occupied by the Company to 
assume. 



Do imt fail to instruct the authorities mider 
you how to deal with foreigners coming to vour 
shi.res. Special instructions should be };iven to 
the Commanders of our ;diips which arc del.-iehed 
to the various points with regard to the action 
they are to take if they lind anywhere foreign 
ships engaged in illicit trading. 

The Minister inclosed in his letter a eomimnii- 
cation from the Govermir-* icneral of .Siberia, 
which contains much that is of use to the Com- 
pany. The Board iuelo.-es a copy of this for 
your guidance in t!ie munagement of the Com- 
pany's affairs. 



(Signed) MICIIAKL KISSELKF, 
VKNKDICT KKAMKi;, 
ANDIIKISKVEIIIN. 

Direct I rs. 
(Signed) Zklkssky, 

Cltief Clfrk. 
April •Z.\,mH). 

P.S. — We have to ini'orm you tliat the (iovern- 
ment has decided to send two ships round the 
world this suimm-r : the one is to wiiiter at 
Kamtehalka. and the other ,it Sitka after driving 
awav till 



'rei;;n acheuturers. 



M. K. 



No. 4. 



\o. -1. 



Letter from the Ihard of Adiiiininlnitiou o' the 
Riis.iHiii-Aiiii rirnii Cuiiijidiij/ In Cii/'li'iil At. T. 
Mnriirict'. Chiff .^fdihif/r,- af the liussiniiAmcri- 
cnii CiiliDiien. Il'rilten front SI. Pili rithiirii, 
Murrh-M,\»'Z\. 

YOUUtwo letters from Okhotsk of the SCtli 
and 2Stli duly have been re<eived bv us wilh 
satisfaction, but with slill greater pleasure wo 
rcsd vom' just remarks relating to various subjects 
inlimatciv cunneclcd viith the < 'om)iany's interests. 
For tliis we render yon our most sincere thaidvs, 
wishing you at the same lim.'^ a safe arrival at 
your (lestination and good health, and that you 
mav always retain at heart the best interests of 
our Company. 

Your remarks to Jlr. Uiccord can not, we 
think, have been very acceptable to that gentle- 
man. From the c.i|)y herewith inclosed of com- 
n.unicutions fuan the Mnnstries, you will see that 
the Imperial (jovernmeut not on'y repudiates 
Messrs. Uiccord, l)ol)ello, and l'i;;olt, but also 
prohibited thcui altogether from trading in 
Okho; nk and Kamchatka, with the rcsidt that 
to-day the foreigners have abandoned their enter- 



St. Prter.il,i,r;ih. 
(No. L".'.').! .Marr/i .i\. 1S2I. 

Di'ar Captidn Muravicf. 

\VK were very glad to receive vour Iw.i letters 
from Okhotsk, dated resp<'ctivelv the 'iCttU and 
'.iXtU .lidy, and it gave us special pleasure to read 
your very pisi remarks on manv subjects which 
interest the Company. We thaid; v<mi heintilv. 
a:i<l hope your stay in the Colonics mav he a 
pleasant one, and that yon mayenjov good health. 
We trust that we may always see in vou a bene- 
factor of the t^'ompany. 

What you said to Mr. Hicurd cannot have been 
very pleasant to that gentleman. You will see 
from the inclosed copy of a letter from the 
Miinstry. that our (iovermucnt ha.-; not only 
put an end to the scheme., of .Messrs. Uicord, 
DobcUo, and I'igot, but has even prohibited tlicni 
from trading, at Okhotsk or Kamlchalka, hv com- 
pelling the foreigners m)« residing- at those places 
to leave them, and by forbidding foreigners to visit 



10 



OlJIGI.VAL TkAX.SLATIOX. 



Revised Tkanslation. 



11(1 nu other forcii^ners will 
tlu'so places ill llie future. 



prise HI lliat region, 
DC alloweil to visit 

The jiriiieipics involved in tliis action of the 
GovcrniiU'ii' you must also observe in dealing 
with iorei;;iiers who may visit our ('olonies, [using 
all I he forc e at your co mmand lo drive tliem from 
our waters,] Together with our new privileges, 
whicli liave already licen pr iriuili;Mti(l by the 
Minister, a/id wdicli are ordy uwaitiiit; the return 
of our Monarch, we shall also receive definite 
instruelions how to deal with loreigiiers who 
venture to cross the limits of povsessioiis ac- 
quired lout; a^o ttiroii^h it us'-ian enterprise and 
valor. 

From the same Ministerial documents you will 
sec that the ("ompany has been urged to engage 
in the whaling industry, and the necessary ex- 
perinieiils will be entered into at oiicp, though \'j 
know beforehand that no great profits will accrue 
to us tlierefr.im. sinic Kamchatka and Okhotsk 
are clislriels very thinly jiopiilated, allording but 
an insignilieant market for whale oil, ami we 
could not sell it anywhere else. In these docu- 
ments you will also iind that th(' Ooveniment 
desires the Company to supply Kamchatka and 
Okhotsk with bivadstulls, but this we are com- 
pelled temporarily to deehiic. When the " Boro- 
d.no " called at Alaiiilla. there appeared to be no 
m irket for the articles of Ilussian manufacture 
which, in Hobcllo's o|iinii>n, could be sold there 
with prolit : on this matter, liowever, vou must 
be fully intormed through our olHcers, wlio must 
have reached you long ago, and who it is to he 
lioped arc now on their return voyage. There 
only remains the hone of obtaining bread from 
California, if the .Missions there have not been 
abolished. Your information on this point has 
been gratifying to us. 

Upon all the questions submitte<l by Mr. 
Yr.i Dvsky, we have embodied our decisions in 
dcs[), itches already forwarded to yon. accompanied 
by eopies of all jiapers for use in case of loss of 
the originals which were sent on the '■ Horudino." 

During the present year no naval vessel has 
been dispatched around the world for the pro- 
tection of our Colonies, hut now two shi])s are 
being fitted out, to the command of which 
Tulubief and Fihitof have been ap|)ointed, the 
foriiur being in charge ot the scpiadron. [^ou 
will, iherefore, have an ample force jiafroliing our 
Matei-'.iiiKl prot ei tin:; our mlciestv, j In ailiht:oii, 
we send you tlic Inig " Uuiik, ' coiiiniaiided liy 
Master Klotehkof. The brig is to return to ui 
aftiT (^riiisin;; in colonial waters In the Lcconi- 
pati\iii; licw sjiapers anil jouiiials torwarded by 
the ■■ Uiiril",'" with the ai.ditlonal despatches, you 
will learn iho state of affairs in Kiirope and in 
other (Miuntries. 

Keiiewing our wishes Utr your prosperity and 
good healtii, we have, most gracious Sir, the honor 
to remain, witli the most sincere friendship and 
respect, 

Your very bumble servants. 

(Signed) Mlcn,\EI> KISSKLEK, 

VE.NKDICT KR.\MEli. 
ANDltEl SEVEIUN. 



them in future. It will be your duty to act upon 

this Order of the Government, and to do your 

best to prevent foreigners from visiting our 

Colonies. As soon .as our new Charter, which 

has .already been drawn up at the Ministry, and 

is only awaiting the return of His Imperial 

Majesty, lias been sanctioned, we shall have 

Kegulations shi.wing us bow to deal with foreigner? 

who mav cross the limit of our jurisdiction, and 

then it v. ill be your duly to put these Ke:;ulations 
. . 1 = 

,11 loree. 



You will see from the letter from the Ministry 
that the whaling industry has been handed over 
to the Company. We shall try the experiment in 
due course ; but we can fell beforehand that it 
will not be a profitable business, for Kaiiitchatka 
and Okhot.'k, being thinly populated rigions, will 
consul! e very little oil, and there is nowhere else 
where we could dispose of it. You will see from 
the same letter that the Government wants the 
Company to supply Kamtehatka and Okhotsk 
with lireadsfuffs, but this we are obliged for the 
moment to decline to do, as it is impossible, in 
view of the fact that when the " Horodino" was 
at Manilla, she found she could not dispose of 
various goods which Dobcllo said would sell very 
profitably there. Vou will have beard all the 
details of these matters from our officers, who, 
we trust, have long since reached the Colonies, 
and who may, perhaps, be already on their way 
home. The only place where we can hope to obtain 
breadstufFs is California, that is to say, if the 
?.Iissio:;s there have not been ilestroycd. AVe 
await news from you on this subject, which will 
either give us pleasure or cause us regret, as the 
case may lie. 

U c have replie<l to all the qaestions put to us 
by Mr, Vaniiflsky in the despatches which have 
been sent to you, and which were accom[)anied 
by copies of the papers sent by the " Ijoiodiiio," 
ill case the originals were lost. 

Last year no (ioverninent vessel was sent 
round the world to proted our Colonies; now two 
are being sent out under the coinniand, resjiec- 
tively, ot Tulubief ami Eilatof, the former being 
the senior oilicer ; and we are about to send out 
to you the ' Uiirik," under the comiiiaiul of 
Lieutenant Klotchkotl". The brig is to return 
iioine after yisitiie,; the Colonies. 

et all the Kiiropeaii news from the 
ire sending out to you by the 



Yuu will 
papers we 



Kurik,' 
her. 



' and we shall send you another letter by 



With aM yood wishes, (\;c, 
(Signed) MlCtlAEL KlS.SEl.KR 
VENKUICI' KliAMI'.li. 
ANDREI SEVEltLN. 



[117] 



(i 



20 



Original Tiiaxslation 

No. 5. 

Letter from the Board of Administration of the 
Russian-American Cornjinin/ to Captain M. I. 
Muraciff, of the Impcridt S'avy, Cliirf Manager 
oj the Russian-Ameriian Colonies. Written 
from St. Petersburg, Amjuit 3, 1820. 

IN order to enable you to issue your instruc- 
tions to the various offices aiitl to tlie managers 
of the Islands of St. Paul and St. George, as well 
as for your own information, we inclose herewith 
a statement of the views entertained by the 
General Government, as well as by the mannge- 
ment of the Company. You will perceive from 
this stnlement that we, as well as the Govern- 
ment, do not cnuntcnance any inloicoiirse witli 
foreigners, [or the admissiim of foreigners within 
the preci ncts ot our possessions.] eN''e]it in ease of 
absolute necessity. Heretofore, all such trans- 
actions have generally resulted in .serious losses 
to us, [and the verv presence of foreigners in our 
waters has become a vital (picstum. alleehn;; tlie 
existence ot the dinipaiiy.] The Hoard of Ad- 
ministration expects you to exercise the utmost 
vigilance on this subject, and to warn all district 
comniander.s agiiinst any intercourse with 
foreigners. To enable you to comply with tliesc 
instructions more strictly, we shall henceforth 
dispatch evc^y year a ship with sujjplies fur 
the Colonics. 

(Signed) VENEDICT KK.VMEU, 

Director. 
ANDREI SEVERIN, 

DirccloT. 



IlEvisEii Ti:ansi.ation" 
No. D. 



From tht Board of Administration vf the Rnssian- 
American Company under the Protection of His 
Imperial Majeaty to Captain Matrei Iianovitch 
Miiravief, Chief Manager of the Colonies of thu 
Russian- American Company. 

(No. 430.) August 3, 1820. 

I N order that vou may be informeii of the tenour 
ot the instructions issued to all theeoloni.il stations 
and to the managers on the Islands of St. Paul and 
St. George, wc herewith transmit a copy of those 
instructions, and hope that, as you kiu>w the 
aims of the Company and the Government better 
than the other olHcerg, you will do your best to 
carry out the wishes of the Board, and will not 
have anv de; 'ings with the foreigners, unless you 
are absolutely compelled to liave recourse to 
them to obtain something which is indis])ensable 
to vou. Such ilealiiigs liavc ahvavs hillierto 
been unprofitable, inasmuch as the prices they 
give for furs are very nmch lower than those 
which oljtiiin in Russia. The Doard trusts that 
you will take care lliat these instructions are 
carried out by the authorities of all the stations, 
more especially as there appears to be no 
necessity for these dealings, as, in future, ships 
belonging to the Couiiiany arc going to be sent to 
the Colonies regularly every year with large 
cargoes. 



(Signed) VENKDICT KR.VMER, 

Director. 
ANDREI SEVERIN, 

Director. 



Inclosure in No. 5. 

Orders from the Ru.inian-Anicriran Company to 
its Kadiak Office, Auyiisl 3, 1820. 



(No. 420.) 

THI! deceased Raranof was ficiiuently instructed 
to abstain as far as possible from all intercourse 
with the foreigners visiting our Colonics, arid also 
to inforni the subordin.ile ollicers at Kadiak, 
Unalaska, aiul the seal islands on tliis suliject. 
Now it has been decided to dispiteh annuallv to 
tlie Colonies a ship loaded with all su|)plies 
needed for the iiiaintcnanec of the people, ships, 
&c. In the years ISlfi and 1S|!) the ships 
■Kutuzof" and '• Horodino " were dispatched 
with valn:d)le cargoes, and during the pr^'sent year 
Uic " Kutuzof" will be again dispa'ehcd : con- 
.'.ctpieiitly, tli( re will be no necessity for dealing 
with foreigners in the matter of supjilies. It is 
the dcsii'i' of llis Majesty the Emperor, whieli 
has been cominunieated to our < oinpany, that .all 
such intercourse should cease, and that the 
benelits arising from the possessions acipiiri'd by 
Russia on the coasts of .\sia and .Vnierica should 
accrue wholly to the henelit of Russian subjects, 
and especially to our ('oni])any unclei' its Imperial 
tJiiarter. The Imperial (iovcrnnu'iit has also 
issued orders to expel from ('khotsk and 
Kamchatka all foreigners who come there for the 
purpose of trade; as well as to abstain henceforth 
from all intercourse with any foreigners who may 
licrcaltcr visit those shores. [Tor tlic sake of 
lireservoi_' intact our valuable pnvilrues in the 



Inclosure in No. 5. 

Instniction addre.ned hy the Hoard of Adiiiinis- 
Irntiou of the Riissiaii-Amirirnn C'lriii'aiiy under 
Ili.i Imperial Majesty's I'rotrctinn /.i il.i ()f/iee 
at Kiidiak. 

(No. 420.) 

THE late Mr. Oaranof was more than once 
directed to abstain, as far as he jiossihly coidd, 
from li;iving any dealings with the foi'rigncrs 
who come to our Cohinies, and to instnief the 
officers at Kailiak ;uid I'nal.aska ariil the managers 
on the seal islanils to adopt tlie same I'oiirse, 
^loreover. now that it has been deciiU'd. in future, 
to send to the (^olonics every vcar a ship with all 
that is wanted in the w;iy of provisions, '.aekle, &e., 
and in view of the fact tliat llie '• Kiiti:sof " and 
" Horodino " were sent init in IKIO and IKl!) 
with large cargoes, and that, in accordance with 
the decision above referred to, the " Kutnsof '' is 
to be sent out a second time, not onlv is there 
no necessity for liaviii'.; dealings with the foreigners, 
but the Governnient, who have given orders for 
those who have come lo Okhotsk and Kaniteliatka 
to trade to be sent away, and for no others to 
be allowed to come there, have so clearlv slated 
their wishes in the matter, that you must not 
even think of Irading with these forci_'ii visitors 
who oiler certain articles of luxury, wliii'h the 
Colonies can very well do without, in exchange 
for furs for which high prices can he o'llained in 
the (Janton market. Your Olliee is. therefore, 
stiictly prohihited from parting with any furs 
whatever to the foreigners in exchange for other 
goods. You should ask the Offices at Novoarkh- 



21 



Orkiixai. Ti;ans!.ation. 

waters over wliinh our tra de and iniliistrv exteiidsj aiii;elsl; 
we may well dispense -.vitli such aitieles of luxury rciniire. 
as the foreigners endeavor to make us i)ureh;ise 
from them. C'on'-efiuently, eaeh eouitnander of 
a station will he held strirtiv responsihie for tlio 
slightest infraetion of these rules, or tlie must 
trivial transnetions lietween foreigners and the 
people in liis charge. In eases of neeessity, 
j]roteelion will be aUbrJeil liy llie Connnaders of 
New ArclKiri;;el aiu! of (Jliluitsk. 

Aiiyutt 3, lS2a. Aiii/iist ^, UiO. 



I.'Kvisrri TiiANvi.ATioy. 

Okhotsk for anything you may 



No. G. 



No. fi. 



f-eftcr /rem tfie Ihiinl if Ailinhiistrnliou <if the 
Jiiissiuii-Anicn'cun Couipiiiiy lo Cajjliiin-Liiu- 
tenmil inn! Kiiii//it M. I. Miiriivi-f, CliUf Minimjcr 
of thf Kintsiiui-Ainvriciin Cuhuien. U'ril/cii 
from .S7. Vetersburg, March 1."). 18'.']. 

Mil. Y.ANOVSKV. in his Uei^oif. under date of 
Ihc ^Slh Febrna.y, l.S'iO, No. -11, dcsenhing his 
inspeetion of the fur-seal industry on the Islands 
of St. I'aul and St. George, remarks th.it every 
year a greater nnnd)er of yoiuig bachelor seals is 
being killed, while for ])ro;iagalioM there remained 
only the females, sek.atch,* .-md half sekateh.t 
< 'or.seqnenlly, only the old breeding animals 
renuiin, and if any of the young breeders are not 
kilU'd \)y autumn tliey are sine to be killed in the 
following spring. From this it naturally results 
that tlie industry decreases every year in volume, 
and that in course of lime it m;iv be extinguished 
entirely, as can clearly be seen from experiments 
made. In order to avert such disaster, it woidd 
be to our great advantage that for one year no 
seals at all should hi' killed. Then strict orders 
should bo issued that the anmial take of seals 
should not exceed IO,(i()() on St. I'aul and lO.OOO 
on ,Sl, (ieorge. Mr. Yanovsky thinks th.at under 
such rules the fur-seal will not continue to 
dinnnisli. The Bi.ard of Administration of the 
Ccimpany, while acknowledging the justice of 
these renunks, would desire that these measures 
be em|>loyed only in ea^o of a failure to discover 
other .seal rookeries on islands to the mn'thwanl 
and southward of th<' .Moutiaii chain, which it is 
hoped to discover. In the meantinu', on the 
Islands of St. I'aul and St. (ieori;e. every third year 
the first " iirival "I only should be worked m\ one 
of the islands, in turn. For instame, if on oiu' 
island the fir.st " prival " is spared, killing from 
this "prival" is dom: on the other; and, a:;ain, 
when a |}erioil of rest is observed on the second 
is'and, all three " privals " are worked cm the lirst 
island to naike up the anmuil cateli determined 
upon for both islands. In this way the people 
will not be idle during .-my year, since they can 
easily he carried lo whielu'vcr island is designated 
lor working all three " privals."' 

If, however, the i-^lands to the northward urc 
discovered, and are found to he available for 
sealing, we may, in conl'oj'nnly wilh .Mr. Vanov- 
sky's opinion, instruct the olUcials ol St. Paul and 
St. George to work them everv liflh year, limiting 
the arriiual caleh in the interval on St. I'aul Island 

• Knlli. 

t Young bulla. 

; Ibe Koril "priyal" nit»n9 tlio larger wnvM of nn In- 
coniini; t'.dp. aud it i.- ii-f'd'upan tlie nHtiiniption that Die sciU 
arc United upou tljo liluads in lhrp(' dit^Uoct. w4tok cir ■ privali." 
Ttio mcBQtUK of IUl' Icit 10 not quiU clear at thiii po.at. 



I'rnm thr Bnnnl of Ahniitiftriitlnn of the lin.isinn- 
Aiiirriruii ('iii)ij'(iiiy. under the Prutfelioit of Ilia 
Impirhil Miiji sly, to C'lji/niii Miitrei Iriiiinriich 
Murivuj] (l-f., Chh-f Mtimiijer of ilie Unss'am 
Amcrleim Colonies. 

(No. l-!-..) 

IXbis Report No. II of the 2.'')th February, 1820, 
Mr. Y.niovsky, in giving .m aceount of his 
inspection of the operations on the Islands of 
St. I'aul and St. (Ieorge, observes that everv vear 
the young bachelor s?als are killed, and that only 
the cows, "sek.iteh," an<l half '■'sc-katch" are 
left to ])ro|)agate the species ; it follows that only 
the old seals are let't, while, if any of the 
bachelors remain alive in the autumn, they arc sure 
lo be killed the next spring. The consequenec 
is, that the number af seals obtained diminishes 
every year, and it is certain that the species will 
in tinie become extinct. 

This view is confirmed by experience. In order 
to prevent tiie extinction of the seals, it would 
be well to stop the killing altogetlier for one 
season, anil to give orders that not more tlian 
■lO.OOO are ever lo be killed in anv (Mie vear 
on the Island of St. I'aul, or more than 10,'()()() 
in any one year on the Islainl of .St. (ieorge. 

-Mr. ^ anov.sky considers thai, if tliese nuasures 
arc adopted, the nninbcr of >eals will never 
diniinish. The Hoard of Administration, aIt!:ougli 
they concur in Mr. Yanovsky's view, have <le.~ided 
not to adopt the measures proposed by him unless 
it is found that there is no migration nf seals 
to the two .small inlands which are believed to 
e\ist to the south and north of the idiain of 
islands; they have decided in the meantime that, 
every fourth season the lust batch of seals arnvinj; 
at the Island of St. I'aul shall be sjvired, aiul the 
same in the ease of the Isl.ind of St. (ieorge. 
The following arrangement should be adopted. 
iHiring the season when the lirst batch is to he 
spared on the Island of St. I'aul, the killing of 
all three batelics of seals should go on (ui the 
Island of St. (ieorge. and conversely. Nd more 
Ihiin lO.CIUI seals should be killed on the Island 
of St. I'aul, or more tluni 10.0110 on the Island 
of St. (ieorge, in any one year. If this arrange- 
ment is adopted, the men will never be idle : for 
when the time comes for one batch to be spared 
on one island they can all go lo the other, where 
all three batches are to bo killed. If the small 
island- sujipiiscd lo exist to the north are dis- 
covered, and are found to be visited by seals, you 
should, as suggested by Mr. Yanov^ky, give in- 
struetiims for the employes of the (lomiiany on 
St. I'aul and St. (ieorge to go and kili .seals 
there every sixth year, and to continue lo kill 
10,01)0 on' St. I'au'l am.l 10,000 ou St. (ieorge 



22 



OlilCilSAL Tl!AX.Sl,.VTIn.V. 



to 10,000 and oi\ St. George to 10,000. We 
must suppose tli.it a total suspension of killing 
every iiftli year will effectually ^ top the diniinution 
of tlic fur-seals, and that it will lie safe at the 
expiration of the elosc season to resume killiiij; at 
the rate mentioned above. Hy strict ohse.vance 
of such rules, [and a proliihition ol' all KilliiiL' of 
fur-seals at sea or in the nasscs of the Aleutian 
Islands.] we may hope to iiiaUe tins industry a 
permanent and reliahle source of income to the 
Company, without disturhing the price of these 
vnluahle skins in the market. (Ireat care must 
be taken to prevent tiie burning of skins subjected 
to artilicial drying. This process must not he 
resorted to with salt wood (driftwixid), and if no 
otiier can he obtained, the greatest (arc nmst he 
taken to regulate the lircs. The noM-observance 
of strict rules upon this point has already been 
the cause of losses to the Conipany, anu)unling to 
millions of rubles. The latest shipment i of t'ur- 
.seals to Russia were in fair coiulition,<'onse(piently 
we may hope that equal care will be taken in the 
future. When you visit the islands you will 
make such arrangements as in your judgnicnt will 
prove beneficial to both the Company and the 
natives employed. If, from unforeseen circum- 
stances, you should be prevente<l I'rom visiting 
the islands in cpiestion, be sure to send a trust- 
worthy representative who will impress upon 
officials as well as employes tliat our Rules for pre- 
.serving these valuable animals must be observed. 
Witli the greatest respect, we are, your Ex- 
cellency's humble servants, 

(Signed) MICIIAKL KISSELEF, 
VENKDICT KR.VMEK, 
ANDRKY SEVKRIN, 
Directors of Ihc Riissiim-American 
Cowpmni. 



No. 7. 

Lctler from the Hoard of Ailinhtislraliou of the 
Riissian-Americnn Cotiipaivj to Ctij/ta'm-I.ieit- 
IciKiiit M. I. Muravit'f, ('hiif Mnnai/fr of the 
liuxs'ian - Amerirari Ciloiiies. If^rillen from 
SI. Petershurij, Sejitcmkr 7, 1821. 

TIIE Doard of Administration having received 
a copy of the Rules for the limits of navigation 
and comniunicatiim aloii'.; the coa'^t of Eastern 
Siberia, the uorth-ivest viiunt of .\nieriea, the 
Aleutian, Kurile, and other ishuuls [and the intcr- 
venini; waters.] established and conllrnwd liy Ills 
Majesty the Emperor, and trnnainiltcd to the 
(lovcrning Senate for iiromulgation and publica- 
tion, we hereby send ynu \.nv stamped co|)y for 
your guidance ami observan.'e. 'I'lu'se Rules and 
Re^ulalions will be translated into the English 
and Kreneli languages, and as sooti as these 
translations have been received we shall cmleavour 
to forward them to you by one of the naval 
vessels." 

(Signed) VENEDICT KRAMER, 

Director. 
ANDREI SEVERIX, 

Jfireclor. 



Rkviskh 'ri;A\>t.\TloN. 

every year. At the eiul <>' "very live years, the 
killing should cease o" .St. I'.ud and St. (ieorge 
for one year, for the propagation of the species; 
during that year the catch on the small islands to 
the north will inilemnify the Company for wh.it 
it loses im St. P;iul and St. (ieorge; aiul the 
following year the usual operations will be 
resumed, and 10,000 seals killed on St. I'au! and 
I(),(H)()on St. George. 

These measures will preserve the fur-seal 
industry ami ads'aiu'e the best interests of the 
Company by preventing the ])riee of the furs 
from falling in the market. Great care should 
also be taken that the skins are not spoilt by 
excessive drying in ovens, if the adoption of that 
method is sometimes made necessary by persistent 
bad weather; the managers of the i-slands should 
be very caveful (hat the ovens are not over-heated, 
and should be called upon to pay fur any skins 
that are made useless for export. The Coin])any 
have, in former times, lost about a millimi roubles 
in this manner. The fius brought to Russia 
latterly have been fairly well prepared, and it is 
to be hi'ped that this improvement will continue. 
The Hoard would be glad if, when you next go 
to the islands, you would suggest any measures 
which you thiidv would tend to improve the fur- 
seal industry; should it, however, be impossible 
for you to visit the islands at present, you will 
lose no time in giving orders for the Rules bid 
down by this Hoard to be ap|i!ied forthwith. 



(Signed) MICHAEL KISSDI-KF. 
VENEDUn' CRAMER. 
ANDREI SEVERIN. 
(Signed) Zki.knsky. 

Chief Cirk. 
March 15, IMl. 

No, 7. 

From the lionrd I'/'Ailiiiiiii.i/ro/in'i of the liKsxIini- 
AvirriaiN Conijiiiiiy iiiiiirr Ilia luijnrial Mnjixliif 
I'riitecHoii to Cajitaiii Mti/rci Iriiuorilch Mnrorief, 
6f-r., Chief Mnniiijer of the linssiati-Aiiieriean 
('oloiiivt:. 
(No. .-,10.) 

I TItAN.SMIT herewith, for your inrcu'iualion 
and guidance, u printed copy whieh ha-, been 
received bv this Board of llie Rules with r.'gaid 
to the limit of navigation anil the <irder of corn- 
munieation by sea along the shores of Eastern 
.Siberia, of North-Western America, and of the 
.\leutian, ICiirile, and other islands which have 
been sanctioned by His Majesty the I'niperor. 
and eoinniunicated to the Ruling Senale for 
publicition, Tliese Rules will be translated iut(y 
English and French, and if this Board can olitain 
copies of the English and Ereueh versions, they 
shall be sent to you by one of the Imperial 
ships. 

(Signed) VENEDICT KRAMER, 

Director, 
ANDREI SEVERIN. 

Director. 
(Signed) Zei.knskv, 

Chief Clcri- 
September 7, l.H'Jl. 



• The Rntei rctetrcd to >ri! tlic IkiEC o( 1821. 
p. I» ) 



(See Tol. I, 



()l!Ii;lXAI. Tli.V-NSI.ATION. 

Li'llvi' fiiiiii till- Jioaril of .I'li.iiiiislnitimi ly t/ir 
liiisxiaii-Aiiiriintii C(jni//iiiii/ Id (Jufilmn-Lii'ii- 
tiiuwt of tliv liii/jcrid/ Xiiii/ mill Kiiijihl M. I. 
Suraviff, Cliief .Vamii/ir of llw Jliissiun - 
American Co/unir^. II ritlcn from St. Pclcrshnri/, 
SepUml'i'r 20, tS21. 

THK ^^inistl'■ of Fiimiico, liis Kxccllcucv 
Count Dmitry Alexaiulroviti'li Giirvif, umler date 
of tlic Istli instant, lias informed tlic Hiiavil of 
Adniinisi ration of the Company tliat His Imperial 
Majesty, on the l.Jth day of the present month, 
luis most i^raeioiisly deigned to eonsicU-r in ]/rivnte 
council tlie proi)ositions huhmitted by his Kxcel- 
Icncy of ijrantinf; anew to tiie Company its rights 
and priviU'ijes for a |)criod of twontv years. A 
new set of Rules and Herniations were also taken 
under advisement, and the subsequent action, as 
evinred by tlie Imperial Edict, furnishes |)rojf of 
the sincere anxiety on the part of t!ie Imperial 
Government to assist all praiseworthv and 
patriotic entcrj)riscs, such as that representeil bv 
uur Company, and to extend over them its 
lii;;liest protection. Our au;;ust Monarch is readv 
to do all in liis power to fnrtncr the elibrts of the 
Jiussian-. American Company in sijrea'.lin;; civiliza- 
tion and Christianity in the most ili,«tant 
possessions of liu.-sia, proinisini; at the same time 
to secure to tluj Company its Hell-deserved profits 
and a<lvimta^es. 

The Board of .Vdministration of tlic Company 
has received tlie ndict and accompanying |{ej;u- 
latiuns as pronuil^'ated by the Direct inj; Senate, 
and ten copies of these documents with the seal 
of the Company allixcd are herewith inclosed. 

[\Vith this precious .\ct in your hand you will 
be enabled to assutne a new position, and to stand 
tirmly opposed to .dl atlempis on the pari of 
foreii;iiei's to iiifrnme u|)on our rijhls and privi- 
le;;es. In accordanci with the will of His Imperial 
Majesty, we will not bi' left to pni tecl unaideil 
the laiul and waters embraced in onr I'Xclusive 
privileges. A sipiadron of naval vessels is umler 
orders to pr('i)are for a crni?,e to the coast>^ of 
Norliii'Mslerii .\sia ai;d .N'orlli-wi'stern .\ineric.i. 
In vour dealiiiLrs »i(li lori'i','nersJ you will act 
especially under the provisions of the I'ollowini; 
paragraphs eoiitaiced in tlie new Kegul'illons : 
.i.'., ;!!», II, l.i. ■!!, I'l i;i, :'>!, ."eJ, ."lo, .'),") lilt, ll:', 
fi I, 117-7". [I hese p.irajraplis bear )il,iiiily iipim 
the points ill (iis|iute ln't^fcii us and otiier sea- 
fariiii; nations. We e.ih now stand iipnn our 
ri^iils. and ilrive tidii our Wi.lei> and pons llie 
intruders who threaten In ileal iidi/.e the benehts 



and iiifts must jiiaeiously liest.iwcd upon our 
Ciimpany bv liis Imperial Xiajesiy 



Faillitulness 
eariviii'' out the 



and cueruv on vour p; rl in 

]irovisions of this Kiliei wiU be diilv reported to 

and ajnircciated by the highest aiithoritic. 

I >f the copies of the doeuinents herewith in- 
closed.* you will furnish ohl- each to the oHiccs of 
New .\rchaiigel, Ivadiak, I'nala-Ka, |{os». and to 
the agents on the nortlicrn fur-seal islands, with 
inslriictioiis to coniplv with all ils provisnnis as 
far as local circnmstauccs will permit, with such 
additional explanations as vou mav see lit to 
furiiisii to the various individuals in charge. It 

* \ copy of tlic rkaec. IraD^lalcd iiit.> the Kngliiih hiigii;tj;(<, 
wiu iucldncd nitlt tliJH I, Iter, auil froiu it iit copied tlio traillal. 
lijH of Ihc fkasc iincrlcii iiiTol. i. p. 24. 

[117] 



liF.VISKIi Tk.VXSI.ATIOX. 

No. 8. 

Frooi tlif Hoard of Aihnlni'lralion of the Runsiati- 
Amcriaa Compiiiiij inulerllix Iiiipertal Majesli/s 
I'rnli'ition to Caplain .\fatvei fvannvilr/i Muraiief 
('/lief Munaijer of the Hunsian - American 
Colonies. 

(No. ,-);!2.) 

HIS Kxcellcrcy Count Dmitri .Mexandrovitch 
Ciurief, Minister of Finance, informed this I'oard 
on the Isth instant that Ilis Imperiid ^Majesty 
had been pleased to approve, at Porkhov, on the 
l.itli instant, drafts of a Charter granting privi- 
leges to this Com])any for a further period of 
twenty yetirs, and of Kegulations for its guidance. 
In inclosing copies of tlie^e papers. Count Gurief 
expressed the hope that, as they furnished to the 
Com])aiiy proof of the anxiety of the Government 
to make it a still more useful institution, this 
Board would, on its part, use its best endeavours 
to meet the wishes of the Covernment in every 
respect, and especially that it would lose no time 
in sending the necessary instructions to you as 
the Chief Manager of the Company's Colonies. 



The Hoard has also received these documents, 
m the form in which they were printed for 
puhlicition, from the Ruling Senate. Ten copies 
arc transmitted herewith. 

In these documents, and especially in the 
Hcgidations. the Governnicnt has explained the 
<luties which it expects you, and this Hoard 
through vou, to fullil. 

The Hoard docs not consider it necc:rsary to 
repeat all that is stated in the Charter and 
Regidatioiis, by which expressions of the wishes 
of the Government you will of course he guided. 
In calling; vour ptirticular attention, however, to 
paragraphs '.i.-.. .il), 11, -l.i. li, 10, l7, |f^. 1!), .->!, 

."):.'. j.i, .)."), .)(;, :)7. .'i-^. .0'.), (io, Cn', dl, nr, (is, C9. 

ami 7" of the Regulations, the Hoard lioi)es that 
vou may earn the a|>prov:d of the toivermnent by 
complving with its requirements, ami that vou 
may enable the lloaril to bear witness always to 
the usefulness iif your proceedings. 



He so good as to supply copies of the inelostires 
to the othcfs tit Novo Arkhangelsk, Kadiak, 
I'nidaska. anil Ross, tmd the De|iartineiits at (he 
northern seal islands, and to instruct them in 
detiul as to the manner in which, keeping in view 
local circumstances, the Rules now laid down 
should be carried out. I( is necessary that 
detailed iiistrnctions should be given to insure 
uniformity in the manner in which they arc 
applied, and to make it certain that they will be 

II 



2i 



Origivai. Traksi.ation. 



is necessary to add that such additional instruc- 
tions and explanations must he uniform in tenor 
and expression in order to avoid misunderstanding 
and embarrassment to tlic Board of -Vdministra- 
tion. 

Upon the receipt of such overwliehnin;; evidence 
of tlie good-will of our Monarcli toward the 
Company, we most sincerely congratulate you and 
your co-lahorers in the tield of enterprise. 

In our future correspondence we will not forget 
to furtlicr enlarge upon this suhject as circum- 
stances may require. Lacii of time prevents us 
from saying more at present. 

(Signed) VKNKDICT KRAMER, 

Director. 
ANDREI SEVEUIN, 

JJircctor. 



IjKVISF.n TllANSI.ATIOX. 

understood, as otherwise embarrassment niigiit 
be caused to vou and to this Board. 



We heartily congratulate you, our fellow- 
worker, on the happy occasion of the bestowal 
on the Company of this mark of the favour of 
His Imperial Majesty, 

This Hoard will not forget to write to you 
furtlier in regard to tlie Charter and Regulations 
if there is any point on which it considers 
exphiiiatioMs necessary. Tlie sliortness of this 
letter is owing to want of time. 

(Signed) VENEDICr KR.VMER, 

Din-rtor. 
ANDREI SEVEKIN. 

Direilor. 
(Signed) Zei.ensky. 

C/iiff Clerk. 
Sepfemher 20. 1821. 



No. 0. 

Letter frnm the fionril ij' Ailminiitration of the 
Bimsiiui-.lmfriran ('om/iKiii/ to (.'iiptdin-Lieii- 
tfiiinif It/ till' lin/ierial .\'iivi/ anil Kiiii/lit .U. J. 
Miirariif, Cliiif Miiniijicr if the Ru.isian - 
Aiiirricuii ('olinws. Wiittin frnm St. Peteml/iirn, 
Fel/ruar;/ M, W2J. 



IN your despatch No. 3C, dated the -1st 
January. 18il, ycm asked for instructions as to 
sending in one cargo all the fiM-:< remaining if 
your liands, as you did in thai year, shipping 
C0,0(«) fur-seals liy the " Borodino."' The Board 
of Administration of tlie Company informs you 
that it is necessary lo suspend for a time sliip- 
nients of fur-seals, since those .shipped by the 
"Borodino" slill remain unsold, and other lots 
arc in the same condition at Moscow and in 
Siberia. Tl esc fur-seals were not sold because 
the demand for them, as well as all other furs, has 
been greatly reduced during the Turco-(ireeian 
difficulty. However, yon need not on that 
account discontinue the shipments of the other 
valuidjle furs by the way of Okhotsk and Kron- 
stadt. [As to fnr-seals. however, since our gracious 
Sovereign has been i)lcased to strengtiien our 
claims lit j urisdii'tion ami exclusive rights in these 
waters with his strong liand. we can well atl'ord to 
reduce the mimlier of seals killed annually, and to 
[latieiitiy aw.iit the natural increase resulting 
tlieret'roin. which will yield us an abundant harvest 
ill the future.] 

In reference lo your action in dispoi^ing of the 
.lapane.se briiss cannon, we fully a])provc of what 
j'ou have done. You did not nceil them in the 
Colonies, since you must have on hand sullicient 
armament to i:t out all the Company's vessels as 
cruisers for the protection of our waters. 

(Signed) MICHAEL KISSELEF. 
V. KR.VMER. 
.VNDREI SEVERI.N. 



No. 9. 

Reply of the lionril of Aihinnislration of the 
Ji'iis.iian-Americiiii Coiiipiiiiii to Ciiptnin Matvei 
haiiocitrh Mvnn-i'f, of the Imjicrial Xnvij, 
lie. Chief .Uiiitai/cr of the llusnian-.lmerican 
Colonics. 

(Received on the " TchirikotT," October 2, 1822.) 

(No, 15.").) 

IN yinir despatch No. .'id of tlie 21st .lanuary, 
1K:21, you asked whether you were to send home 
the whole stock (meaning the stock of furs), and 
yon did in fact send it ((10.000 seal-skins) by the 
" Borodino " last year. The Board wishes you 
not to send home any more se.'d-skins for some 
time, because those that came by the "Borodino" 
are still on its hands unsold, some of them being 
at Moscow and in Siberia. There is no demand 
for seal-skills, and. in fact, the fur trade is altogether 
very .Uack, owing to tiie diHiculties between 
Turkey and (ireeee. Still, you should scud home 
the better kinds of furs via Okhotsk and 
Cronstadt. 



You also wished lo know whether you were 
right in semlini: home the .lapanese brass guns. 
The Board entirely approves your having done so, 
because they were of no use to you in the 
Cfjionies, and, in fact, it had already been proposed 
to send them Iiere from Okhotsk by way of the 
Colonics. 

(Signed) MICn.\KI. KISSELEF. 
VKNKDICT KR.VMER. 
ANDREI SEVKRIN, 
(Signed) Zei.ensky, 

Chief Clerk. 
Fchruanj 22, 1822. 



Ohioix.vi, Tran'si.atiiin-. 
X... 10. 

Letter /mm llif Hour'' of Admiiiistrntinii nf tin- 
liimnum-Amrncini Cnnij'Hiiii to C'l/'t'tin-Lieu- 
ttniint of tlif Imperial X(ii;i ■mil Kni'ilil M. I. 
Miiravii/', U'rilten from St. I'tti-rsl)iirii, 
Juli, .U", ISl'L'. 



FROM the inclosed Ministerial documents 
and the observations thcrcnn by the Board of 
Adniinistriition, you will see that Kngland and 
the L'nited States are contesting the |)rivilege3 
and marine jnrisdictidn conferred upon the 
Company. The tirst-nientioned Power ))r()tests 
against the boundary claimed l)y our (jovernment 
on the line ot" the Hist parnllel; the cither 
I'owcr against the prohibition of foreign vessels 
from approaching witliin KM) miles of our 
Colonies. In view of these ])retens!ons. His 
Imperial Majesty has deigned to instruct the 
Itussian Minister to the United States to nego- 
tiate with the tlovcrmnent of tliose States as to 
wliat measures could be taken which w(udd prove 
satisfactory to both, with a view of averting 
further disputes. 

If you should happen to become involved in 
ditliculties with foreigners on that stil)ject, you 
may allow yourself to be guided by the spirit of the 
above-meulioned docunnnts. At the sanu- time, 
wc can inform you that witliout regard to future 
negotiations His Imperial Majesty, t'lrougli the 
naval commaiuler of his general slafT, has ordered 
the CuMUuander of the frigate " Kreisser,'' about 
to sail for the Colonics, not to insist loo strictly 
ui)OM the full distance of 100 miles, while at the 
s.uiic time aliorcling the fullest prolccliou to our 
iiuiuslrics, and jjrcceeding with all foreign ships 
cjigaged in pursuits injurious to tlieui to tlic full 
exfcut of marine jurisdiction. 



25 



UeVLIED Tl'.ANSI.ATIOJf. 

No. 10. 



(Signed ) 



\. K HAM Eli. 

AXDiiia >i;vi;uix. 



lioiird of Ailministrntion of tlie liu-isian-Amcrican 
( 'ompdiiu III Ciiptain Miitvi'i Irniiin-ilrk Mtinr-ief, 
of thr liiiperial Navi/, Isr., Chiif Maiiinjcr of the 
/inssian- American Oihnies. 

(Ueceived on the frigate "Kreiser," September 3, 
18:23.) 

(No. 4,S1. Secret.) /«/)/ 31, 1822. 

YOU will see from the inclosed copv of a letter 
from the Ministry (of Fiiianee\ and the obser- 
vations of this Hoard thereon, that England and the 
United States are raising olijections to the |)rivi- 
legcs granted to the (,'olonies and to the Maritime 
Keunlations ; to the former, because our Uovern- 
ment h.ivc fixed the boundary at .'il degrees, and 
to the latter, because foreign ships are forbidden 
to come within 100 miles of our Colonies. 

In view of these pretensions, His Imperial 
Majesty has been pleased to instruct the Kussian 
Minister to the United .'^tates to agree with that 
(jovermneut upon the measures necessary to be 
adopted in order to prevent any further dispute. 
If you should have any discussion with the 
foreigners on these sul>jects, you will be guided 
by tic inclosed papers. At the same time, this 
Hoard has to inform you, in connection with 
these matters, that His Ittipi'rial Majesty has 
been ])leased to instruct the Commaiuler of the 
frigtitc " Kreiser,'" which is now on its way to you, 
tlirougli the luival head of the general staff, 
not to a])ply ths 100-iiiile rr.lc too strictly ; 
accordingly, if he found a torcign ship nearer 
than that distance he would act with rcLrard to it 
as laid down in the .Maritime Ucu'ulations.* 



(Signed) VENEniCT KRAMER. 
ANDREI HEVERIN. 
(.Signed) Zelensky, 

Cliiff Clerk: 



Inclosure in No. 10. 



Indosure in No. 10. 



Letter ffini the Minuter of Finiinre to tin' llour'l 
<>/' Ailiiiinintrfilioii of the Itiixx'riii-.lmericidi 



('iillljKllil/, ll'ri'fe 
.lilt II V?'. \Xi->. 



I mm 



St. I'vl.rsti 



r.ii'iir;!, 



'I'llK Managing Chief of the .Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs has informed me that on prescnta- 
lioii by our (lovcrmnent to the Cabinets of 
l.oiulon and Washington of ihc Rules ]n'o- 
nudg.at,e<l on the llli il.ay of September, 1821, 
concerning the limits of navigaliou aiul system of 
coastwise intercourse ahuig the sliorc'- of Eastern 
Siberia, North-western America, and the .Vleutiau 
and Kurile Islands and others, protests were 
eidercd by the English and North-.\uuu'icai\ 
Govermueuts against what they called an exten- 
sion of our domain, as well as against the rule 
forbi'lding foreign ships from apiiroiiehing the 
above •mentioned localities within the distance of 
100 Italian miles. 



Offlres iif the MiniMry of Finiiiirc, '2nil Di<isinn, 
■h;l Tiilile, to the Cliie/' Mniiiii/er uf Ike Ihissiim- 
Ameeienn Com/niiii/. 

(Received July H, 1^22.) 

(No. 938. Secret.) Jii.'ii 18, 1822. 

THl'- Head of the Ministry of Foreign .Vtfairs 
has inforuu'd me that, on our (iovcrmiicnt com- 
municating to the Cabinets of London ami 
Wa'-bingtou the Regulations for the limits of 
navigation, and for coumuinicatiou by sea along 
the shores of Eastern .Siljcria, North-western 
America, and the Alcutiaji, Kurile, and I'ther 
islamls, approved by His Imperial Majcstv im 
the 1th September, 1821, the iMiglish and North- 
American (loverumeiits nuide representations 
against wliat they term the extension of our 
dominions, as well as against the rules forbidding 
foreign ships to eonu' within 100 Italian miles of 
the above-nu'ntioued places. 



• TliiB is the litorii traiL^lalion ot" tlM Itiissian tu\t.- 
lator s nut? I 



- crraaa- 



152913 



(MlKJNAI. 'l'l;AN".Sr..VTIilN. 

Ill ooiisiiliTiiig my Hi-piirt on tliese representa- 
tions, His Miijt'.sty the Kinperor, Nvisliini; always 
to pri'siTve tlie lu'st possilile unilersta;i(ling with 
forcii;n Powers, and liavin; in view at llie sncw 
time the possil)ility of acts of violenee oeciir- 
rin^ Ijetucen Uussiao and American vessels, and 
the misfortunes wiiieli iheni'e nii^lit result, has 
deij;ned to instruct the naval authoiities to j^uide 
their action l)y his sentiments on this suhjeet. 
Tlicse instructions will he cninmunieate'' to the 
coniniamler of the two Imperial ships ordered to 
sail this year fur the imilh-west coast of 
America. In the nicantime. 1 am iinthorized to 
conmiunicale to you tlic fiillowin;;: — ■ 

1. That Union 'ruyll von Scroskerkev has Ijeen 
appointed ;is sucecsscn' to Mr. I'oletiea in the 
position of Impeiial Russian .\ml)assador and 
Minister I'lenipoteiitiary to the I.'nileil rNorth- 
Aiiicriean Stales, and ilia: he has already taken 
his departure for \Vashin;j,ton in order to consult 
with the ( ioveriinient llieie as to such mea.sures 
as may prove satisfactory to hoth and meet with 
mutual consent, avoidini; all further dithcultics 
coneerninj; our mutual rij;hts in connection with 
our ])osscss!oiis on the north-west coast of 
America. His iirineipal ohjeet will he to aholish 
all cause of complaint on the part of our .\mcricai> 
Company eonccinini; the intrusive enterprise of 
certain •uhjects of the United States, and ah i 
relieve them of a strict ohseivaiicc of the Luict 
dated <Uh Septemher, 1S21, which in every other 
respect must he sustained. 

2. In order that Uaron TuylPs negotiations 
may he facilitated and hnnight to a speedy 
eonclusion, he has hcen furnished with atninseript 
of the Russian-Anitrican Conipany's views as to 
the Rules we could ash llic (iovernment of the 
American United States to ohscrve, with a view 
to the maintenance of friendly intercourse without 
injury to the vast interests of our Company and 
those of the native iiihahilants of tliat countrv. 
The Rules to he propos( <1 «iil piohalily impiv 
that it is no loni;cr necessary to |)rohil)it the 
navigation of foreinn vessels for the distance 
mentioned in the Kdiet of Itli Scptrniher. 1821. 
and that Me will not claim jiiri-dii'tion over eoast- 
wise waters iic\ond tiic liinils a i'ccpteil hv any 
other .Maritime Pow er [for the hIioIc of our co:ist 
facing the o pen ocean. Overall int'^rior waters, 
liowever, and ovir .-lU •..atcrs inclosed hv Russian 
territory, such as the Sea of Okii risk. Herin,' Sea, 
or the Sea of Kamehalka, as well as in all 'iilf-. 



hays, and estuaries within our possessions, the 
ri^lit to the strictest control will alwavs he niaiii- 
tained.] 

In informini; me of the lii-jliest will on these 
points, the Man.ayiiif; Chief of the Miiiistrv of 
Foreign .Mhiirs expresses the desire to ohtain a 
full and clear descriptive statement of all localities 
which are at Ike jiresent day occupied by the 
Uussian-.\inerican Company, and over which the 
same Coinjiany is now ciijoyim? its exclusive 
|)rivilej;c of trade, naviuatiim, and lisherv. in order 
to make it possiljlo to asecrt.ain diliiiilelv the 
jioints to which fori'ijn vessels mav lii^ admitted 
without iii,nirv to the ('oiiipMiiv s vested r ights. 

the Manaymjf Chief ot the Ministry ot Foreign 
AfTairs adds that when, in the Charter granted to 
the Riissian-.\mericaii Company in the year 17!'!), 
the 5Dth degree of norllicrn latitude was settled 



IiK.VISK!) Tl:\NSI.ATII).N. 

')ii these representations being reported to the 
Emjteror, llis Imperial Majesty, hcin!; anxious to 
do all in hi.i |)ower to preserve the best under- 
standing in his relations with foreif^n Powers, and 
especially wishing; to prevent tin; oceurrence of 
conflicts between Russian and Ameri(!aii ships, 
which might lead . impleasaiitness, was pleased to 
give instructions to the Department of the Navy 
in accordance with these views, in eonnection with 
the sending o! two ships this year to the north- 
west coast of America. Ills Inipe"ial Majesty at 
the same time gave (U'ders for the following steps 
to be taken meanwhile : — 

1. Baron Tnvll vim Seroskerkcn is to be 
appointed Imperial Russian ICnvoy Kxtraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States 
of North .\nierica in place of M. Poletica, and is to 
proceed to Washington, without delay, to concert 
with the .Vmcrieaii (iovernment incisures to be 
taken by common eoiiseiil to prevent any further 
dispute on the subject of the extent of the 
respective jurisdictions of Russia and the United 
States on the north-west coast of America, to put 
iiu end to the complaints of our .Vmcrican 
Colonics of the jiroccedings of eeitaiii citizens 
of the United States, and by this means to make 
it unnecessary to enforce to their full e.ttcnt the 
Regulations of the 4th September, 1821, which 
we should otherwise have to apply rigorously. 



2. In order that Baron TuvU may he enabled 

the more easily to carry out the mission intrusted 

to him, the Russian-American Comiiaiiy are to 

furnish nic as soon as possible with a statement 

of the measures which we might enll upon the 

Government of the United States of America to 

take, in order that the sources from wliieli the 

Company derive their revenue may not snITer, 

and in orilcr that the iiative inhahitaiits of those 

rci^ions may rot disturb <mr Settlements by 

ccrrvintr on prohibited trade. These measures 

should he of such a nature as to make it 

unnecessary for us any longer to insist on the 

distance stated in the Rules of the Ith September, 

1S2], to he that within which no I'oreii;!! .ship 

may come, and such as to enable us to ccmfine 

ourselves to e.^en-isin^- a control over such an 

extent of water onlv as is by common custom 

cohskIitciI to he under the jurisdiction of any 

Power which lias possession of thrt seaboard, 

ami to introduciii.i^ on tli (' I'oasI sueli a system <it 

surveillance as niav be found necessarv hir ll.c 

protection ot our territorv Irom attack, and tor 
' . . . ' 

the proventiiMi of illicit trading. 

In <'oMmiuuicating to me the Kmperor's orders 
in this matter, the Head of the Foreign Ollice 
desires (hat the Company's statement may be 
accompanied by an aceur.ate iiecount of the 
localities where the Rus>ian-/\mericim Company 
has hitherto exercised the right of hunting, 
lishing. and tradm j, as well as an i ndication of 
the paralle l of latitude which I'aii be iix'd as the 
farthest limit ot our ilominiims, without giving 
rise to remonstrances and pretensions suchas 
those whi ch have lately liecii evoked . 

The Head of the Foreign Ulliec adds that, 
when the Charter granted to the Russian- 
American Company in 179!( lixed as this 
boundarv the iiJt'a degree of latitude north, and 



d to the 
ixioiis to 
t muler- 
vcrs, ami 
roiii'o of 
ships, 
ist'd to 
Navy 
ion with 
i> Mortli- 
iji'sty at 
ni;; steps 



to he 

(([•(hilar)' 

•il State's 

and is to 

) (((iicert 

res to be 

further 

of the 

If United 

ca, to put 

American 

1 citizens 

s to make 

xtent tlie 

21, which 

ously. 



(1llI(;I>fAI, Tli.VN'SI.ATION. 



27 



I!kvisi;ii Tiiaxsi.atiox. 



upon as the southern lioutidary, tliis hue «as 
looked upon as well to tlic northward of any 
possessions claimed hy other I'owcis, and one 
wliirh couM safely he eliaiiged in rase our 
Russian-American Company should he found 
oecnpyinf; territory farther south. 



For tliis reason. Privy-Counselor Count Nessel- 
rode suggests that it would he well for the 
Hnssian-American Company to eonipile in 
addition a list of its stations, the time of their 
estahlislimeiit and maintenance, together with 
any information th(\v may possess of the situation, 
strenjjth, and importance of any estahlishnients 
maintained in the vi.;inity of our |)ossessions hy 
English or Nortli-Ameriean Trading Companies. 

In order to enahle me to comply with these 
various suggestions, and in view of the urgen<;y of 
the matter in liand, I now respectfully request tlie 
Board of Administration of the Russiaii-Ameriean 
Company to furnish me, without any unnecessary 
delay, a Report containing tlie information specitied 
ahove, in duplicate, one copy to he forwarded to 
the Imperial .Vmhassador at Washington. At 
the same time, I am authorized to assure you that 
every effort will he made to secure the adoption 
of such Rules as will efTectually protect the 
liussian-Amcriean Company from inroads on the 
part of foreigners upon their vested privileges, in 
strict conforiiiitv not only with the privileges 
granted by highest Act, hut also with the Kdict of 
4th September, 1821. 

(Signed) Count D.GURYKF, 

Minister iif Fiiiii,"'!; 
Y. DRLSIIIMN, 

l:ireilvi'. 



gave permission to tlie Company to establish 
new stations even south of this line, except 
in places belonging to other Powers, no 
foreign (lovernment objected to these two points, 
hut that, on the other hand, it appears that two 
English Companies, the \ortli-Hfcst Compa.y 
and the Hudson's Bay Company, have long had 
trailing stations established on the north-west 
coast of the American continent, l)e;;inniiig from 
.I I north latitude, and extending, according to 
some accounts, to .5(i°. 

I'nder these circumstances, I'rivy Councillor 
Count Nesselrode thinks that it would be useful 
if the Uussian-.Vmerican Company would com- 
municr.te all the information in its possession 
with regard to the existence of these stations and 
the time of their establisbnient, as lie considers 
such information indispensable in order to avoid 
claims being advanced by England when we 
proceed with the I'liiled States to the delimita- 
tion of our respective territories. 

In bringing what is stated above to tiie notice 
of the Board of .Vdministration of the jliissian- 
Ameriean Company, in accordance with the 
Emperor's orders, I have to rer|uest it to supply, 
without delay and in siilHcient detail, the infor- 
mation required from it, in order that a Hrm 
basis of fact may he established on which to 
found the instructions to he sent to Baron Tuyll, 
with a view to the defence of our territory 
against unfounded claims and ijurious attempts 
on the part of foreigners, ami to the protection 
of the interests of the Russian-.Vmerican Com- 
pany, in accordance witli the aims which the 
Government had before it when drawing up the 
Charter granted to the t'omi)any, and the 
Regulations approved by His Imperial Majesty 
on the 4th September, 1821. 

(Signed Count D. GLRIKF, 

Minhler of I'iiiunrt: 
Y. DRUSIllNIX, 

Director. 



A true eopv : 
(Signed) 



The ClIIKK f'LF.nK. 



No. II. 



No. II. 



of aiiv 



k, and tor 

n's orders 
ign Ollice 
t may be 
t of' the 
Company 
hunting. 



Ki'ii'i; 



LiHer from flif MiHiKtcr i;/' Fiininrf ( />rji(irliiii'iil 
of .Sliiniifiifliivi's mill liili-rihi/ Trwle) l" the 
lionril of Ailmiiiislrnlidi) of tite. JiiixniHU- 
Ami'riniu ('oiif/'uini. Ilri/leii /hmi St. Peler"- 
/ii/r.i, Ajirll i. 1824. 

()\ the suliject of your repicsentions. under 
No. 73 of 11th Fel)riiary of this year, concerning 
the permission to foreign vessels of entering the 
harbor of New .Vrcliaiigel for the purpose of 
trading with the Chief Manager of the Ijussian- 
American Colonies for such ncccssiiries as he may 
be in want of, I have received a cominunication 
from the Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

C(mnt Karl Vassilieviteh has been pleased to 
inform me that he has submitted the matter to 
His Majesty the Emperor, and that His .Majesty, 
finding that the solicitations on the part of the 
Board of Administration of the Ru; siau-Anieriean 
Company c(mcerning the renewal of intercourse 
with foreigners in the Colonies were deserving of 
attention, lias most graciously ordained that inter- 
course and trade with foreign ships in the 

'1171 



Lett vr from tin' .VintKlir of FiiKiiire (Dipiirtiiiiiit 
of Mnniif'inliuT" mill Internal Traili) In the 
Bouiil of Attiiiiiiitilriiiioii of till- liii.t.sian- 
Aiiii'rinni t'oiiijwivi. Il'ritteii from St. I'eters- 
hiirii, Afi-il J. 1824. 

1 HAVE had a communication from the 
Minister in charLre of the Ministry of Foreign 
Afl'airs in regard to tlie representation made hy the 
Hoard of .Vdministration. dated the 11th Fehr',iar\ . 
1>'24, No. 7;!. concerning the perniissioii to foreign 
vessels to enter the harbour of New Arclianijel 
for the iHirpose of Iradiic; with the Chief .Manager 
of the Uussian-.\meriean Company onlv, in order 
to procure articles wliicli are absolutelv neecssarv. 

Count Karl Vasilevitch has informed me that 
he has made a Report on this subject to His 
Majesty the Emperor, and "that His Majesty, 
finding that the reasons which induced the Boai-d 
of Administration of the Russiaii-.\merieaii 
t 'ompany to desire the renewal of the trade which 
formerly existed in our Colonies with forei;;uers 
are deserving of consideration, has been |)lea3ed 
to command that the carrying on of trade with 



28 



OniOISAI- TUANSLATIOS. 

Colonics may lie carried on under established 
Regulations, and in one port ilesignnted fur the 
puqjosc. 

Infonniiifj you of this 'gracious permission on 
the part of Ills .Majesty tlic ICinperor, I will add 
that I am authorized to state that it is the 
intention of the proper authorities to desiijnate 
Sitka as the one port which foreifjn vessels will 
be permitted to enter for the (lurposc of trading; 
with 'he Company only. 

(^Signed) Lieutenant-! lencral KANKUIX, 
Miiiislir "/ Finiime. 
SKUGKI UVAUOF, 

Dirvctor. 



l!:;visKii Tiian.si.ation. 

foreign vessels arriving there he perniitled in 
accordance with established rei^ulations at one 
designated port." 

In notifying you of this permission of His 
Majesty the Kinpcror, I suggest that the Hoard 
of Administration, on its part, make tlie necessary 
arrangements to accomplish this object. 



(Sijjned) Licutenant-ficneral KAXKUIX, 

Miiii^tfi- i'f /'iiifiinr. 
.SKIUJKI UVAllOF, 

Pincloi: 



No. 12. 

Leilir from Coiinl Xrnsclrnile In Xiholns Smipiin- 
litch Monlriiiof'. Wrillfii frum .S7. Ptfernliiir'i, 



THK, communication of your Excelleney, dated 
20th Fcbrmuy of this year, in which you express 
your opinion on the sul)jcct of the rights of the 
Russian-.Vmcrican Company to control certain 
parts of the north-west coast of America, and on 
the threatening dispute over the limits of such 
rights, I have had the iioTiour to submit to His 
Majesty the Kinpcror. Mis Majesty, upon receipt 
of tlic connnunication, most graciously gave it his 
immediate and careful attention. His M.ijesty 
was pleased to enter into the subject witii the 
thor()Ui;]mcss and promptitude which, as your 
Excellency is well aware, he bestows njion all 
subjects relating to the welfare of Russian sub- 
jects, especially of those who by their enterprise 
and energy have contributed to the enlargcnu^nt 
and dovelopnient of the Knipire, The lOmperor 
recalls with pleasure all tli;it has been acconi- 
jilisheil by our bold navigators in tlie discovery of 
islands and coasts of .\meriea: their cITorts and 
successes, their losses and the dan^'crs incurred in 
the settlement of regien^ theretofore utiknown, 
the natural riclies of which, they were the first to 
gather in and lay befure the civilized world. 
These achievements doubtless gave us the right 
to look for commcnsurat .' advantages from those 
regions, and His Majesty's Ministers will iu)t 
during the i)resent negotiations ignore, nor have 
they at any other time ignored, this point of 
view. Hut wliile endeavouring to preserve the 
advantages gained niiilcr such dilhculties, and 
while aiixions to obtain others by all legitimate 
means, we nuist not forget tliat there nuiy i)e 
other more ini|HU'tant ])uldic interests and rcquirc- 
menls imposing othci more important duties upmi 
the (iovcrnment. 

I consider it unnecessary, my dear Sir, to 
explain to you. who are thorougldy versed in all 
branches of the science of government, that in 
political negotiations wi' canm)t conline ourselves 
to weighing; oidy the greater or lesser immediate 
advantage nivolvcd in ,i (pu'stion. His .Majesty's 
.Ministers prim.iiily consider the right and justice 
of a (piestion, ami when right or justice cannot 
be obtained without s.ierifice, they make the le^ser 
interests yield to the greater, and above all they 
strive to secure the object in view without resort 
to force or embroilment with friendly Power.*. 
AVitiuiut such sentiments no success could be 



No. 12. 



(Copy.) 



Sfy dmcious Sir, Nicholas Scmenovitch, 

I HAD the felicity of submitting to the notice 
of His Imperial Majesty the despatch of your 
high Excellency of the 20th February of the 
present year, in which you express your opinitiu 
respecting the rights of the nussian-.Vmerican 
Companv to the possession of scmie parts e.f the 
north-western coast of .\meric,i, aiul respecting 
the conditions for ter;Tiinatii>g the dispute which 
has arisen respecting the extent of these posses- 
sions. 

His Majesty having fav(mr.d)ly received the 
same, deemed your reasons worthy of his Imperial 
attention, which, as is known to your high 
Excellency, carefully ilirccted to everything that 
concerns the ])reservation of the legal intere>1s of 
li'ussian subjects, and those es])ccially which, by 
enterprise ami labour, conduce to the extension 
of national industry, and consccpiently to the 
increase of general prosperity in the F.mpire. 
The F,ni|)cror recollects with pleasure every tiling 
that has been done by our bold mariners in the 
diseovcrv of islands aiul coasts of .\mcri<'a. 
Their efforts an<l successes, even their losses and 
dangers when settling in places hitherto unknown, 
and where they first extracted the riches of Xatnre 
for the beiM'tit of all civilized mankind, have 
undoubtedly given us the right of obtaining 
advantages eoimnensurnte witli them, and the 
^lini.itrv of Hi- Majesty will, neither during the 
present negotiations, nor yet at any other time, 
lose sight of them. Hut wliile endeavouring to 
])roteet interests laboriously established, and even 
secure new advantages by all allowaiilc nieans. it 
must not be forgotten th;it there may exi-t other 
most important necessities and interests of State 
which impose very grave duties on the (iovcrn- 
ment. To you, Sir, as a man acquainted with 
every branch of tlic science of governnicnt, 1 
consider it superlluous to explain that the greater 
or smaller utility of desirable acquisitions enniiot 
serve asa guide in political negotiations. What the 
Ministry of His Imperial Majesty will teiiaeionsly 
follow is the iirinciple of riy/i/, iind there where 
it cannot with accuracy be recognized or defended 
without inordinate sacrifice!, in its entirety, it is 
necessary to take into consideration not only the 
degree of mutual demands, but also the dcirrec of 
possibility of attaining the objects of the same 
without any dangerous strain of strength. 



29 



Oltll.lVAl, TllAXSI.ATION. 

expected in nny iicijotiMtioM''. niid tliisc piincipli'i 
will miidc tin- PliMiipiitciitiariot named hv Ilis 
Imperial MnjcMty to nc^otintc tlic (pjcstiims in 
which tlip Uiissiiiii-Amcriciiii Cumpniiv is inter- 
ested. Our Ciihinet, liy ilir ri^ht nf diicovery, 
first settlement, anil develi)pinrnt, elainis sove- 
rei^'iity over Ihe islands anil western ciiast (if 
Ameriea from tin' niirllicnniiDst point to tli'i 
.^.'ith decree (if nnrtheiii latitude, (ireat Hritaiii, 
on file other hand, advances Ihe ri:;lits of the 
llndson's Hay < 'i)niii;iny, whose trudin;; posts and 
stations are heiiiir p :she(l farther and farther into 
the interior of the country, und have almost 
reached tlie iimth-west coast under the same 
parallel. The hasis upon which these eonflictiii^ 
claims are founded is nlmist identical, 'ind it can- 
not he denied that through injudicious action on 
either side the most serious and unfortunate 
consequences mifjlit at nny time arise. I'rndence 
demands a speedy a!,'reement hrtween hiith sides 
interested. The most praeticahic snUilinn seemed 
this: To estahlisli at a eertiiin distance from the 
shore n houndary line which hoth our trappers 
ami hunters and the employi's of the IIu(lson'.s 
Bay Company must lie forhiddcn to cross. The 
repiesentntivcs of Iioth Powers rccoijiiizcd the 
necessity of such a boundary, hut the width of 
the strip of coa--t necessary lor the pcaceaijle 
pidsecutioii of tiic entcr])rises of mir Colonies, 
tlic direction of the line, and its initial point on 
the mainland of .\merica, are siilijcets still uiuler 
discussion, since the Knvoy of His ISritannic 
Majesty declares l;c must wait for further instruc- 
tions fr.iin his Court. It is hanllv ncccssarv fir 
nic to repeat that in all thesi: negotiations with 
l'".ni;lnn(l we have recoj;ni?.eil, and alw.iys will 
reco;fnizc, the paramount importance of tlie 
interests of the I{ussiaii-.\ui', ricaii Company 
in this matter; on the other hand, we must 
consider the extent of ri};lits in the interior 
and the most practicable means (. f seenrin;; and 
maintainiii;; the same. As I oliserve a!)ove, it is 
necessary for the pe leeahle existence of our 
I'oliinics that their boundaries be dclincd with 
the K^eatcst ])iissil)le accuracy. The extent of 
territory between the coast aiul this boimdary 
shojld he suHicient for thi- rci|uiri'nieiits of all 
:iur cslablishinents now existing, as well as of 
such as may he founded in the future. M this 
point, most (jracious Sir, you will permit n,e t > 
reinarlc that we have no ri,nht or power to extend 
our claims in the interior of 'he .\nuu-icaii I'onti- 
ncnt to the Uociiv .'•lountains. Sucii claims 
wnuld only give rise to disputes and po-sihic 
(■(implications without anv vi^iiile a(lvantau'i's 
rcsuilin;;; therefrom. On the oilier hand, it is 
your Kxecllency's own opinion th.it ".hose regions 
aiv nearly barren and without piojier soil to 
produce breailstutVs for our ("olonie^, and since 
the principal .•md almost exclusive industry of our 
settlers consists in the capture, not of hind, but of 
marine animals, there seems to exist no necessity 
for an extended territory to the eastward of the 
biumdary now jiroposcd. Consequently there 
can he no cause lor n dispute on the subject of 
tixinj; the bomidary of this strip of coast. U'e 
must also consider that as lonj;' as we avoid such 
disputes, the neighlxiurhdod of an enli:,ditciu'd 
]icople cannot be injurious, but must be of 
advantag:" to the (^olonics, aflbrdini; facilities for 
the purchase of sujiplics in case of need. There 
is no reason to ajiprehcnd that the mere fact of 
having such a neighbour would compel us to 
abandon anv of the islands and (■oast heretofore 



ItEVIrtF.ri TllANSI.ATrO.V. 



Witliout this it is impi'ssililf to expect » iceos< 
in fU'^'otiatinns, and the^e rules have served n» 
ynides for the I'lenipofentiaries appointed by FIi< 
Imperiiil .Majesty for negotiating re«pect:ni the 
ulhiirs of the Uinsian-Anicric m Coini.any. Hv 
ri'.;ht of first discovery. ;;nd liy that which is still 
mure real, the first estalilishment of habitations 
and human activity, our Cabinet demands p isses- 
sion both of the islands and the western coast of 
.\merica from the furthest north to the ."i.'ith decree 
of latitude; but (Irtat liiita ii, on her piirt, 
represents the rights if the Iluds(!n's Bay 
Cumpanv, wh se tradin;; posts or refu'.;es, pene- 
tratiii!; further and fnitiier into the interior of 
the lands, have nearly reached the north-western 
coast, on alvuit the same parallel. 'i"hc bases 
of these mutual pretensions are similar ill 
character; at the same time it must be foreseen 
that out of the misunderstandings now arisin.; 
disagreeable (■ousequences may in time ciisiu^. and 
prudence deinands that the interests of both 
parlies should lie quickly reconciled. 

h'or this only oru' expedient presents itself: to 
establish at some distance from the coast a 
frontier-line which shall not bj infrin'.;ed by our 
cstablishnients and ! rappers, as also by the 
hunters of the Hudson'^ Bay Company. The 
I'leiiipotentlarics on both sides e(|'ially recoLjiiized 
the necessity of this mejisure : but the width of 
the coast-line necessary for the safe existence and 
eonsoliiiation of our Colonies, the direction of 
the frontier, aiid even its starting' ]ioint on the 
I'ontinent of America, still form sid>jerts of 
negotiation, and the Biilish .Vnihassador has 
declared that for continuing' tlicm he must seek 
new instiuctions from his Court. I shall not 
repeat that in these neijiitiatunis with Kir,;laiid 
we took, and will continue to t.ike, into Cipial 
consideration on the one side the requirements 
and interests of the establishments of the I.'ussian- 
Ameriean Company, and, on the other, the (le^ree 
of its iiulits of |iossessiuii in ihe interior of the 
(onlinein (f A.iieriea, and the measure of the 
nulliods for lirinly seeurin;; to the (.'ninpany the 
[xissession of these territories. 

.Vs I have said aiiove. for the peacefid exi-tence 
of I'lir < 'olonics mure th.an ;dl is it necessary to 
determine with accuracy the frontier, the extent, 
of the country between the ciiust, and this 
frontier must he sulheient and be in correspon- 
dence with the condition to what thes;- establish- 
iiients will, in all probability, in lime nttain. and 
by their means of own defence. Mere, ;;raeioiis 
Sir, von will allow me to observe that to extend 
our pretensions to tiie interi.ir of the Contiiient 
of America to the middle of the l.'ocky Mountains, 
we have neilher the ri^ht nor the pjssibilitv : 
such protensions nniy merely be the cause not 
only of disputes, but also of other most disa;.;rcc- 
.able events ; and, as it would appear to me, iherc 
is no visible adva!ita;;c in this lictitions extension 
of our conlincs. Independent of the circmnstance 
that the land in those places is almost sterile, 
affords no corn-lields, which, in the opinion of 
your hinb lOxeelleney, are necessarv for a Colony, 
is hardly abk' to proiluce good food-products, aiul 
that the princip.d pursuit of our settlers consists 
ill the capture of marine and not land animal-, it 
is necessary to bear in mind that in accordance, 
with contemplated plans these Settlements, after 
the line of frontier has been fixed, will ju'quire 
recognized and undis|iuted possession of a eon- 
siderablv extensive znno of country, und, more- 
over, that when there are no disputes respei'tiii!; 



30 



Orioinai, Tii*x.si,\Tiox. 

occufiird by us soutli of tlio t'Olli (lo!;rco of 
lalitiulo. Siicli were tlic tdiirliisiniiH ariived at 
liy His linpirial Majisty t)ii ri'iuliin; your Kxrul- 
Icnry's rDinimiiiicution. 

One pDiiit rrfiiTi'd to in your U'ttcr cipt'cially 
nttractcd His Majtsty's atti'iitioii, namrly, wliere 
5'ou, dear Sir, asserted tliut in ('(iiisccnieiK'c of 
Kii',dand's demands Russia would l)e olili;;ed to 
yield or give u|) many luilives of Aineriea wlio 
had been eonverted to (.'hristianity by uh. To 
ose subjeeti wlio bad V(jbuitarily nmie under bis 
scepl'-e, and sons of tiie lliissian C'biueli, would 
ccrtaiidv 1)C repugnant to our yreat-liearled 
Monareb ; but from all tb^ information ubiili I 
bave been aide to eolleil it would appe.ir tbal on 
tbe eoast below tbe jjtb denree of iatilude, or at 
any "jrcat distance from tbe seii-eoast in I be 
interior, tbcre exint no Settlements of tbe 
('ompaiiy or native iubaidtunts eonverted to tbe 
(•reeo-liussian faitb, and as to any >'\tension of 
our Settlements to tbe nortbward I venture to 
consider it somewbat improbable. 



llavin]^ aequaintcd you (as far as I may « bile 
resptctin;; tbe seereey of diplomatic ne};otiations) 
witb tbe present status of our arrangements witli 
Enijland, I turn to anotber subject of iTitere>t to 
your Kxeellency and all tbe members of tbe 
Company's Hoard of Manaijeis, tbe negotiations 
witb tbe North American Republic, wliieh bave 
been broHi;bt to a successful eoncbision. 

Tiic Convention which was entered into on 
the 5th April, \>^2l, and of which 1 inclose an 
abstract for vtnir information, consists of au 
a:;rcemcnt arrived at by mutual consent, aiul the 
clauses of wbieb, in my cni.don, will be niutuallv 
satisfactory and highly b'.wclici. 1. In Article III 
tbe United Slates ;! knmvh ili;i tbe sovereignty of 
llussia over tbe west coast xi America from the 
Polar Sea to latitude ' ;" M' north, while «c. on 
our side, promise (q esi ..hlisb no Settlements 
below that latitude, with the exception of such 
as bave been already mjule, especiallv the Hoss 
Colony in California, liy Article II tbe States 
undertake to forbid their citizens and -objects from 
landnii^ in any part of the Uussian Coionics 
wittiont special permission of tl.c local antliorities. 
Iti Article 1' it is agreed that liie Americans »ill 
not >ell to the sav.i^c inhabitants nf the ternlorv 
belonging to Russia any strong bcpmrs. tbe c.iuse 
of all evil among unenlightened peoples, ami, 
what is still more import. int, ibev a;;rce to 
abstain frojo selling them anv tire-arms. Here- 
by wo have been fortunate enough to aboli>h, 
by means of diplonuicy, at one stroke tbe 
principal cau<e of all disorders and bloodshed in 
that distant country, and we liave tiius laid the 
foundation for tbe peaceable existence of our 
(Iibniics. In Article IV we permit the 
American Slates to carry on, for a period not 
exceeding ten years, trading and lisbing in 
localities situate witiiin our posses-ions. To this 
clause, advantageous to them, onr Caliinct found 
itself obliged to coiii-ent for two very important 
leasons. First, because the Uovernment of the 
Nirth American Republic, not unreasona!)lv. 
ticmandod an equivalent fur tbe great advantages 

• Sic. It nil doubtlcu inlcndcJ to refer to Article V. 



IlKVI>KlP TlIAN.-I.AiliiS. 

boundaries the neigbbourbood of civilized people, 
far from being harmful, is advantageous to a 
Colony, as, in ease of necessity, lu'w means of 
obtaining food supplies are established. How 
can it be supposed that, owing solely to such 
propinquity, we shall be obliged, abandoidng the 
islands ami eoast occupied by us, to retire to the 
ilOtb degree? Such were tbe Kinperor's own 
comments oir the perusal of your high Excellency's 
despatch ; one place in particular attracted the 
attention of His .Majesty : it was tluit in which 
you. gracious .Sir, assci't that, In conseciueni'c of 
the demands of l''ngland, Husnia will be obliged 
to surrender to the fcu-mer many natives of 
America who bave been eonverted by us to 
Christianity. To lose sulijeets who have volun- 
tarily subjected themselves lu bis sceptre, and 
arc suns of tbe Russian Church, would, of course, 
alwavs be regretted by our ncdde - minded 
Moiuiich ; but. according to all tbe information 
I have gathered, it appears that neither along 
the coast, beU)W .'iJ degrees, nor yet in the 
interim- of tbe counti-y at a great distance from 
tbe sea, are their any Settlements of tbe Com- 
pany, nor any natives professing the Russo- 
(ireek faitb ; at the same time our apprehended 
retirement to tbe north is, I venture to opine, 
not very pr^drable. 

Having thus denoted (a.s fur as the secrecy 
ncr'cssary in diplomatic negotiations |)ermitted) 
the present position of our negotiations with 
Knglanil, 1 hasten to inform your high Kxeellency 
and the vvbolc Hoard of Management of the Com- 
pany that tbe other negotiation concerning its 
uflairs with the North .Vuicrican Republic has 
iiecn brcmgbt to a coiu'lusicn, and with the 
.success desired. Tbe Convention concluded on 
tbe .")tli April, IX^ !•, and lieiein inidoscd in copy 
for your inforniation, contains the ratitied condi- 
tions mutually consented to, and these are, in my 
opiirio.'i, reeipideally i'lid completely sati>aetory. 
In Article HI tlic l.'nited i^lates recognize the 
sovereign jiowcr of Russia over the western 
eoast of Amciica, from tbe Polar Seas to .■)4 40' 
o( north latitude; while we, on our ]iart, promise 
not to found Settlements below this parallel, as 
a matter of course only in those places and 
without exteniiing this provision to the Colonv 
of Ross, far distant to the south. Bv .Vrtiilc II 
the States bind themselves not to allow their 
citizens and subjects to land at Russian ( olonics 
without tbe distinct permission of the local 
authorities. Article I providi's that Americans 
will not sell to the wild natives of the region 
belonging to us either strmig liquor-, so banefid 
to tlio^c ignorant people, or, which is of still 
greater iinportanee. weapons of anv kiml. In 
this manner, alter tifteen years ;^f long-protra.'ted 
and t'ruitle.-s endeavours, having now bappllv 
attained the object of a dilbcult negotiation, we 
have for ever removed the chief cause of those 
disorders, (piarrels, and iiloodshed which have 
hitherto prevailed in that region, 1 would go 
further, and say that bv lliis. perhaps, the tirst 
solid foundation has been laid to tbe peaceful 
cxi.steiice of our Cidoides. in .\rticlc IV we 
adow the .\merican States, though for no loin'cr 
than ten years, i,. "'adc an<l tisb in places witliin 
our dominions ; to this proviso, so advantageous 
to them, our Cul(inct was obliged to consent on 
two considerations of equal cogency. I'irstlv, 
because tbe (iov<Tninenl of the North .\merican 
Republic— not withoul foundation — demanded 
remuneration for the very considerable advantage 



SI 



Original Tkanmi.atiov. 

coiiroiled tti us in otlicr Articles of tlie Coii- 
vviitiiin, especially tlmse of Article V. Sccimd, 
heciiusc tlic Aiiicriciins liiiil Ijcoii fur siiiiie time 
eiij;u;{e(l in tliis trade anil llslierv. wliieli tlio 
Cuiiipuiiy lins tliun fur been unable tii prevent 
tlieiii from duin;;; and liccausc, on tlie otiier 
luind, it was inueli better tbat tbey sliould accept 
ax a Kpecial and temporary |)rivile^e from our 
Iiunds wliat tliey might cuinc to !<Hik upon us n 
natural ri^lit in course of time ; since now the 
Americans acknowledge officially that at the 
expiration of a few short years wc have the legal 
power to entirely prohibit trading and lishing in 
that re<:ion. 



The Emperor has deigned to approve the 
Articles of the Convention by which the demands 
and interests of liolh Contracting I'arties have 
been considered a^ much as ])ossible. A close 
sciutiny of this Convention must lead to the 
conclusion that under its provisions our Colonies 
will acquire new strength. This Act may be 
looked upon as the beginning of the political 
existence and safety of the Colonies, since their 
rclati<in to foreign Powers has been for the first 
time acknowledged and made patent to the world. 
The importance of this is evident, an<l the 
meniliprs of your Hoard will doubtless realize to 
its fullest extent lliis new great benefit bestowed 
upon them by their highest Protector, who, 
never losing siuht of the true interests of his 
beloved subjects, has thus by a stroke of his |)en 
fixed their honourable status not only within his 
own dominions, but also in the eyes of all foreign 
Powers, and started you in the race of prosperity 
with all other nations of the civilized world. 

I have the honour to be, with the greatest 
respect, and with the best intentions, ypur 
hunilde servant, 

(Signed) Count XESSELUODE. 



Hevihei) Thas.si.atiox. 

afforded us under other stipulations of the Con- 
viiiti'in, especially by the conchtions of .Vrticle V. 
Second'v, because the .Americans have already 
for many years |>usi carried on this trade and 
fishing;, which the ('ompany to the present time 
cannot fii»I nu'ans to oppose; and, of course, 
it is more reprehensible for the Company to 
allow them to benefit by these pursuits as they 
Inive hitherto done by, as it were, a natural and 
an indefeasible right, than that they should carry 
them on by permission granted them by us in a 
solemn Convention, ns through this the .Vniericans 
as solemnly reco;;nizc that after the expiration of 
the few prescril)ed years we shall have the legal 
right to prohibit both trade and fishing in this 
region. 

Ills M.-ijesty the Enijieror deigned to approve 
all the stipulations of the Convention, in which, 
so far as possible, are reeoni'iled the demands and 
interests of both Contracting Parties. Having 
carefully examined this instrument, we have 
iilmost come to the conclusion that by means of 
it our Ccjlonies are the greater gainers. It is in a 
certain sense the cDnnnencenient of their p<ditical 
existence and sifi'ty, inasmnch as now, for the 
first tiine. are determined their relations to foreign 
States. The inijxirtance of this is evident, and 
the members of the Russian-Anu'rican Company 
will undoubtedly apjireciate in the fullest measure 
this new great benefaction of their august Patron, 

lio so imlefatigably labours for their good by 
protecting the riglits of his beloved Kussian 
subjects not only with all the might of our 
Empire, but by, perhaps, for him more precious 
power, (hat of respect and confidence which the 
undeviating course of his policy ser%-cs to instil 
into all Governments and nations of the civilized 
world. 

1 have the Iionour "^o be, with perfect respect 
aiul similar devotion, your high Excellcncys 
obedient servant. 

The origin.al is signed bv — 

Count NESSELUODE. 

Api-ni, 1824. 



No. 13. 

Letter from tlif ^finislcr of Finance to tlie Board 
of Adiiiiniftri'lion of the Riissian-Aiwrii un 
Company. Written from St. Petersburi/, 
September 4, l>^2\. 

THE letter transmitted to me on the 12th 
June by the Directors of the Company, con- 
taining their remarks on the ])ossiblc conseijuences 
of the Convention concluded on the 5th April of 
this year, between mir Court and the North- 
American Republic, I have submitted to the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs in the original. I 
have now received from him in reply a copy of 
the proceedings of a Special Connnittee appointed 
to consider the subject. The proceedings of this 
Conmiittee have received tiie most gracious 
approval of His Imperial Majesty, and I am 
now authorized to lay before the Board of 
Administration a copy of these proceedings, 
together with an accompanying letter from Count 
Nessclrode, dated the 21st July of this year; all 
of which I trust will prove satisfactory to the 
Board of Managers and shareholders of the 
Company. 

[117] 



No. 13. 

Letter from Minister of finance to the Jloanl 0/ 
Ailniinintralioii cf' the Riifsi'in-Americtn Com- 
p:iin:. til illrn fr'jiii SI. Pelenlmrg. Sepliinber 4, 
ltli-1. 

THE commnnicrtion of the 13th June, 1S24, 
])resented to me by the Directors of the Conipanv, 
ciinliiining tl'.eir remarks on the consequences 
which may result from the ratification of the 
I 'onvcntioii concluiled ."jth .\pril, 1S24, between 
our Court and ihe North .^nierican Republic, 
was coinmunicaied by nic ai ctiat lime in tlie 
original to the Minister in charge of the Ministry 
of Foreign .\tl'airs. Having now received from 
him the inlorniatioii that the recirded Protocol of 
the proceedings of the Special Committee wiiich 
examined this subject by Imperial order has 
received the full and entire approval of His 
Imperial Majesty, I think it necessary to com- 
nuuiicate to the Board of Administration of the 
Russian-A merican Company, for their information, 
copies of the above-mentioned communication of 
Count Nessclrode to nie, and also the proceedings 
of the Committee of the 21st July, 1S21, inclosed 
in it, together with a dr.aft of a communication to 

K 



Original Translation'. 



92 



Revised TnAxsLATioN. 



From these documents the Board of Adminis- 
tration will iiscertaiu that Ihe Company's repre- 
sentations have met with due consideration, and 
that instructions have already been forwarded to 
the Imiicrial Ambassador at Washington to the 
efTect that the extent of coast thrown open to 
subjects of tlie North-American States for the 
purpose of trade and fishery is limited in the 
south by latitude r)4° 10' nortli. and in the north 
by tlie 13ay of Yakutat (or Herin^ Ray). At the 
same time, I am authorized to state that it is the 
intention of His Majesty the Emperor to afford 
full protection to the Company's interests in the 
pursuit and catch of fur-soals, sea-otter, and all 
other marine animals. 

(Signed) Lieutenant-Gcneral KANKRIX, 

Mhihlcr of Finance. 
Y. DRUSIIIMN, 

Dheclor. 



me, prepared by his Excellency ; which was also 
read in the ab ove-named Committee and was left 
unsigned after it bad been ^iven liiial eonaideration. 
From these documents the Hoard will see that, 
for the avoidance of all misunderstandings in the 
execution of the above-mentioned Convention, 
and in conformity with the desire of the Company, 
the necessary instructions have already lieeri given 
to Haron Tuyll, our Minister at Washington, to 
the eflfect that the north-western coast of Atnerica, 
along the extent cf wliich, by the provisions of 
the Convention, free trading and fishing are 
permitted subjei'ts of the Xorth Aineri^'an Slates, 
extends from 5 1° 10' northwards to Yakutat 
(Bering's) Bay. 



(Signed) Lieutenant- General KANKKIX, 

Minister nf I'lnance. 
Y. DRUSIIIXIX. 

Director. 



No. 14. 

Ahslrnct of Comvvimralion fro)ii Count Nessehnife, 
Minixler of Foreign Affairs, to the ifininter of 
Finance. D'ritten from St. Peterslmri/, Aui/iisl 
18, 1824. 

I CONSIDER it my duty to inform your 
Escplleney that His Imperial Majesty has most 
graciously deigned to agree fully anil coin|)letely 
with the opinion of the majority of tlie members 
of the Committee a|)pointcd i.y Ills .Majesty to 
consider the interests of the Russian-American 
Company in connection with the Convention of 
the .5th (l(th) April of this year, in which 
opinion your Excellency has ;dso been pleased to 
concur. 

Consequently, I hereby forward a copy of tlie 
proceedings of the Committee, !in<l I have the 
honour to inform ymi, most gracious Sir, that 
instructions have already been forwarded to our 
Amh.'issador in conformity witii tlie eonelusions 
reached by the members of the Committee. 

I must not omit to add. also, a copy of my 
Inmible opinion on the complaints of the Uiis'^ian- 
Aineriian Companv presented to His .Majesty 
at vour Excellencv's request. 

i flatter myself with the thought that these 
(liieunieiits will •■onvinee you, most gracious Sir. 
as well as the Hoard of .administration of the 
Russiiui-American Company, that it is His 
Majesty's firm determination to ]'roteet the 
Company's interests [in the catch and preservation 
of all ninrine animals, and to secure to it all the 



No. U. 

Ahstriicl of Comnuiniralion from Count Xinsclroile, 
Mini:iter of Foreign Ajf'iirs, to tlie Minister 
of Finance. Il'rillen fnun St. Peterilturg, 
Amju^t 18, 1824. 

I DEEM it my duty to inform your Excellency 
that His .Majestv the lOmperor has been graeiou.sly 
pleased to give his full and entire ajjproval to the 
opinion cf the majority of the members of the 
Connnittee apjjointed by His M,".jesly to examine 
the observations jiresented by the Uussian- 
.Vmerican Company on the Convention of the 
,-)th (Kill) Ajn-il of this year, in which opinion jour 
Excellency was also pleased to concur. 

'riierefore, in mclosing with this a copy of the 
Protocol of the deliberations of the Connnitlef, I 
have the honour to inform yom' I'.xcellency that 
instructions in entire conformity with the con- 
clusions contained in that Protocol have been sent 
to our .Minister, Haron TuvU. 

1 .also inclose with this a draft ot a cmninuni- 
cition tc; your I'.xci'llciicy. written hy me by order 
of the Emperor, coiicerning the complaints oi' the 
Ui!ssian-.\iiierican Company, 

1 eherisli the hope that this docunienl will 
enable your Kxcelleiicy, in comiiuinieatinic to llu 
C'ompany the resoluliun of His Imperial Majesty, 
to prove to it that the (lovernment has never lost 
sii'lit of its interc-its. 



advantages to which it is entitled under 



the 



Charier 



privile 



Inclosurc in No. II. 
Proceedings of ihe. Conference Iteld July 31, 1824. 



COUNT NESSELRODE opened the Con- 
ference by a detailed explanation of the jiresent 
status of the business most graeiou.sly submitted 
to the consideration of the Committee by His 
Majesty the Emperor. He referred to the para- 
graphs or Articles of the Agreement coneUidcd 
with the Minister nf the United States concerning 
the north-west coast of America, and also to the 



COUNT XESSRLRODK opened the Coii- 
fcrenee with a statement as to the present 
condition of the matter intrusted by His Majesty 
the Kmperor to the investigation of the aB.ieinhled 
Committee. 

He called attention to the Articles of the 
Tre.Uy concluded with the Minister of the Unite.d 
States concerning the north-west coast of .\mcrica. 



33 



Oruunai, Translatidx. 



HevISED TltANSI.VTIOV. 



representations made nnd protests presented 
against this Act l)y t\u: Kussinn-Aiiicrican Coni- 

Sany in two <'onuiuinic;itioiis suljinittod to the 
linistor of Fiinnco and to the Minister of 
Foreign AITiiirs. Kiiially. lu' Miliinittcd a ])roject 
which liad hern |irpsciited for ih'icussion in the 
name of his KxioUcncy Licutenant-General 
Kunkrin, inclosiii;;- mIso tlip reply from the 
Minister for Fori'isn Affairs to thp al)ove-men- 
tloufd rpprcsoiitatioiis. This jirdject, having 
l)i't'n suliin'illod to Ills Majesty tlie Kmperor, iias 
met "ifli liiiihcst approval. At His Majcstv's 



sli the matter was now laid before thi 



libers 



of llie Committee for tlieir eonsideration. 

Diirinu; tlie readiiij; of tliese papers, to whieh 
was adcK'd a eojjv of the two letters of tlie 
Rnssiao - American Conipanv, the mend)ers 
directed their irreatest attonlion to the causes, 
reasons, and risks, as exiilained by the Company, 
as well as the reasnnin'^ wliieh had led to the 
conclusion of the • 'onvent ion, together witli the 
statement of tlie I'lenipotentinrv of the Washing- 
ton Cabinet. Due attention was also paid to the 
means pointerl out hy tlie Imperial .Ministers as 
most practicable and available ti jirevent evil 
consequences and unjust dispute. By a !uajoritv 
of voles the members of tlie Committee agreed 
upon the following;: — 

I. That the ALjrecmenI of the ."th (17tli) April 
establishes for llussia ri;?hts «hieh heretofore 
had been in doubt : that on the strcn<;tli of this 
Ai;reement these liijhts had been acknowledged 
by the (lovernmeul which would have been most 
herieliled by contest iiii; them, .and which could 
mo-t easily have injured us; that by means of 
this .Vtrrecment the undisputed soverei'.;ntv of 
llussia h.'is been established even bevmid the 
(loint mentioned in the (>ri;;inal priviiei;es an<l 
Charter granted totheRussian-.\merieanCompanv. 

•-'. That through the absolute prohibition of 
trade in arms, annnunitioi. and slroti^ liipmrs 
with the iidndiitanis of the north-west coast, 
eslabli'ei' by this Afjreement, the liussian- 
.\inerie. i Comjiany has secured an amount of 
protect i' I for which ic has repeatedly clamoured, 
but whnh it has nut hen'toforc .attained. 

!. Thill this last eonsiiU'iation is all the more 
imjioriant because, such prohibition, alfectin;; 
only Hi.ssia, pievents disturbances and open 
hoslililiis annni;; the mitivc tribes irdiabitini; our 
posscssi<:iis, while at the same tinu' it makes 
prolifahlc trade on the part of foreiu;ners « itiiin 
i)\n' domain impossible. 

1. That the Ajfroement of the 5th : 17th) .\pril 
contains also another not less important point, 
namely, the a';reemcnt (m the jiart of the 
.Vmericans to I'stablish no Settlemeiit on the 
iKU'th-west coast above latitude .") 4 4(1'. Hv 'his 
concession alone our own territ'.>rial ehiim is 
placed upon a permanent basis * 



.'i. That one of the most import oit p.oiMls {if 
the .\);reemcnt, and one of very sir( at adv.antafje 
to Hussia, lies in th, assuranci- that at the 
e\pirnlion of ten yenrs the subjects of the 
United .American States will -ens- al'ogether 
t > navi'jatc the wafers of Ihe north-wostern coast 
above latitude .1 1° 10', and to carry on their 
fishery and trade with the native inhabitants. 

• Tin- piHitlu'rimuthl ScfttitiiiTit now titTiiipi.-.l n ^ttuaUll in 
InliluiU' 57°; .cihsi'ijiiiiilly lliis Au'ivi'nK'lIt nill , iialili' Ihtui lo 
liM-atQ lltiW ilatioiis furtticr to thv iiiitth. 



and to the remonstrances which had been made 
against that Act by the Kussiaii-.Vinerican Com- 
pany in two letters commu.iieatcd bv the 
Minister of Finance to ihe Minister of Foreign 
Affairs. Finally, he presented a draft of u 
rommunication which he intended to forward to 
I.ieutenant-Geueral Kankrio. in which were 
inclosed the replies of the .Minister of Foreign 
.\fl'airs to the above-mentioiicrl reiuoiistranccs. 
This draft, havini; been laid before His Majesty 
the Emperor, has rceciveci the Imperial approval; 
but His Imperial .Majesty imposes upon the 
members of the ConiTiiittee the duty of again 
cxaniinins it. 

.\ftcr the reailin!; of this document (whieh is 
annexed to the present Protocol, together with the 
two letters from the Hussian-.\rneriean I 'onipany) 
the ileliberations were opened. The members 
turned their chief attention to the causes of the 
fears e.xpressed bv tlie Conipanv, as well as to 
the reasons whieh spoke in favour of the Conven- 
tion einichided with the Plonipotentiary of the 
Washington Cabinet; and also to the means 
which the Imperial Ministry tliinks best calculated 
to prevent all injurious and unjust interpretations. 
The members of the Committee agreed by a 
m.ajority of votes to the following Resolutions: — 

1. That the Treaty of the 5th (17tli) April 
coiilinns to llussia rights which have hitherto 
been called in question; that by virtue of tliat 
Treaty those rights are acknowledged bv the 
Government which could dispute them with great 
advantaLic and violate them with great ease; that 
by it the undisputed possessions of Russia are 
henceforward extended even beyond those boun- 
daries within which the Russian -.Vmeric an Com- 
pany was ri'quired under its ori','in.'d Charter to 
carry on the trading privileges grained 1 1 it. 

■J. That since by this Treaty the strict prohi- 
bition of the sale of arms, munilioiis of war, and 
spirituous liquors to the natives of the north- 
west coast is put into elfec!, the .Americaii Com- 
pany acquires by it the protection wiiieh it has 
.alw.ivs valued so highly, but which it ii.-is hitherto 
never been able to obtain. 

'•'>. That this last provision is the more iinjior- 
tant, iiecau^e sucii aiirohiliilion. if proinulgateil on 
the pait of Russa alone, would either draw upon 
her disagreeable consequences and tlie most 
unpleasant embarrassments, or would not accom- 
plish its olijeet, in consequence of the lack of 
means neecssary fir tiie prevention of its viol.ition 
and for the repression of prohibited tradie. 

•1. That the Treaty of the .'itli (17tli).\pril con- 
tains another nut less important Liuaranty, nanielv, 
that tl'c .\inericans will not estalilish Settlements 
on the nurth-wcst coast .above 54^ 10'. Ry this 
provision all the Settlements hitherto founded by 
the Rnssian-.Vmerican C iinpany above 57' are 
placed on a firm basis, and it is permitted to 
continue to found newimes under jiarallels farther 
to the south. 

Tj. That it is not less advantageous to Russia to 
be assured by a mutual ami amicable Coiivcntioii 
that after the expiration of ten \ears the subjects 
of the Cnited States of .America will abstain 
entirely from visiting (he waters of the North 
American coast beyond 54" lO', and from lishiiig 
and from trading there with the native inhabitants; 
for, on the one liimd, it would be impossible to 
suppose that the Stales woiiid voluntarily consent 
to such a concession without anv compensation 
whotever, and, on the other hand, all the wishes 



34. 



OlilGIXAL TUANSLATION. 



If, on the one tiaiid, it could not be supposed 
that tlie States wouUl willingly .igree to such a 
concession witliout any corresponding advantage, 
on the other liand, all that the Imperial Ministry 
had desiretl or demanded will he accorded and 
fulfilled at the end of a few years as specilied. 

6. Concerning the influence which the Agree- 
ment roiiclnded on ihc otii April may have upon 
Russia's trade with China, it is necessary to 
consider that in this trade there is invested on 
both sides a capital of 50,000,000 roubles, of 
which only 800,000 rou1)les fall to the Russian- 
American Compniiy's share, and even if the 
Company could liiing ti> Kiakhta a much greater 
number of furs, otteis, and fur seal, it would be 
found impossilile to dispose of them, and they 
would fill the market to the injury of other goods. 
At any rate, viewing the limiti'd scope of its 
trade, it cannot be coTisidcred that the Agreement 
of the olh (l~th) April can in any way injure the 
trade of Russia with China. 

7. Tiiat since tlic sovereignty of Russia over 
the shores of Siberia [ and America] , as well as over 
the Aleutian Islam . [and the intervonini; seas] , 
has long since been acknu'.vlL'd;;e(l by all I'owers, 
these coasts, islands, [and seas] just named could 
not have been ref-.rri<l to in the Articles of the 
above-mentioned Convention, which latter concerns 
only the disputed territory on the north-west 
coast of America and the adjoining i^lands, and 
that [in tlie full assurance of sueli undisputed 
right] Kussia lias loiig since established perjnaneiit 
Settlements on the coast of Siberia as well as on 
the chain of the Aleutian Islands ; consequently, 
American subjects could not, on the strength of 
Article II of the Convention of tlie 5lh (I7lh) 
April, have made landings on the coast or carried 
on hunting and tisliing without the permission of 
our Commanders or Governors. These coasts of 
Siberia and of the Aleutian Islands arc not 
washed by the Southern or Pacific Ocean, 
of wliich mention is made in Article I of the 
Convention, but by the Arctic Ocean and the 
Seas of Kamchatka and Okhotsk, which, on all 
authentic Charts and in all geographies, form no 
part of the Southcrii or L'acitic Ocean. 

8. In conclusion, we must not lo.se sight of the 
fact that the Convention of the TjIIi (l7lh) April 
settles all disputes to which the l:^ilict of the 
4th (16th) September, Ihl'l, gave rise; an Edict 
issued at the formal and repialcil icqiiest; of tiic 
Ilussian -American Com])any. These disputes 
have become of considerable impiirtance, atid 
might be renewed again if Russia should fiii to 
upliold the Convention, and in that case it would 
be impossible to foresee the end or the conse- 
quences. 'I'hese weighty re:isons induce a 
majority of the members of the Committee to 
record their opinion: '"That Ihc Convention of 
the 5th (ITlb) April must be tu^taincd, and that, 
in order to rvoid an unncces.'^ary and uiijustlllable 
altercation over this Act, General Uaron de Tuyll 
should, at the proper time, ollir a declaration 
purauH'.t to the project suggcsicd in the com- 
munication of Count Nessehode." The Minister 
of Finance and Actual State Councillor lirnshiiii.i 
agreed as to the necessity (jf sustaining the 
("onvention of the .'•'.h (IJlh) .\pril, hut they 
presented and spread upon the Minutes a special 
opinion, here appciuled, to the cfl'ccl that llaron 
«le 'I'uyll should, on the cxcliaTigc of ratilications, 
demnnd that the privilege of free trade ami lishery, 
granted by Article IV of the said Convention, 



I'lEVI.SEI) TitAXSI.ATION. 

expressed to the Imperial Ministry lu'c thereby 
fulfilled after the expiratioji of a certain period. 



G. Tliat as regards the influence, however, 
which the Treaty concluded on the 5th April might 
exert on the trade of Russia with China, it must 
be remarked that in tliis trad(; on both sides a 
capital of 50,000,000 roubles is invested, and that 
the Russian-American Comp.any jiarticipates in 
it only to the extent of 800,000 roubles, or 
thereabouts ; that even if it brought to Kiachta a 
larger quantitv of furs, otter-skins, and seal-skins, 
it would not be able to tlispo.se of them, or would 
cause material injury to <~th e-:, ortcd goods by 
glutting with its merch;.!idi4.>; r> un ' ct which is 
already very limitei., Oivi:<g v ,■' nature of its 
trade, and that conse'j ._. h ''.v .aty of the 
5tli (17th) April cai. .. y.o f,.spect injure the 
trade of Russia with Cliina. 

7. That as the sovereignty of Russia over the 
coasts of Siberia and the Aleutian Islands has long 
been admitted by all tiic I'owers, it follows that the 
said coasts and islands cannot bo alluded to in the 
Articles of the said 'I'rcaly, which refers only to the 
disputed territory on the north-west coast of America 
and to the adjacent islands; that even supposingthe 
contrary, Russia has established ))ermaiient Settle- 
ments, not only on the coast of Siberia, but also 
on the Aleutian group cf islands ; hence American 
subjects could not, by virtue of the second Article 
of the Treaty of the 5th (17tli) April, land at the 
maritime places there nor carry on sealing and 
fishingwithout the peimission of our Commandants 
or Governors. Moreover, the coasts of Si'jeria 
and the Aleutian Islands arc not washed bv the 
Southern Sea, of which alone nicii'i.in is nm-.U. i;> 
the 1st Article of the Treaty, but by the Xoi:',cri; 
Ocean and toe seas of Kamchatka and < 'Ki.tsk, 
wliich form no part of the Southern St: .,:: m.v 
known Map or in any Geography. 



8. Lastly, we must not lose sight of the fact 
that by the Treaty of the oth (l/th) April all 
the disputes to which the Regulaliuhs of the 
4tli (Kith) Se|)tend)er, bH21, gave rise are 
terminated, which regulations were issued .it the 
formal and reiterated request of the Russian- 
American Company; that those disputes had 
already assumed important proportions and wo:. id 
certainly be renewed if llus.sia did v . raiiiy the 
Treity.in which case it would be '. -^sible to 
foresee the end of them or the'i ■ i;f;.tcnces. 
These weighty rcascnis impel the iii" ." o"^ the 
members of the Committee to stuti ,.i fheir 
opinion ; — 

Tliat t!ie T-cafy of the 5th (17th) .ipril must 
■ ratified, ;:iiu that fur the ;ircveiition of any 
in iirrcet inlf, (notation of that Act, (iencral 
Varon Tuyli iiiav be instructed at tlie proper 
lime to nil' i ^ declaration mentioned in the 
dr^il't of U.e CL.mmuiiication rcail by Com.', 
Ncssc'.rode. T' e Miiiisterof Finance, and Acting 
Statu Councilh ;• Drusliiniii, while ailmittiiig the 
necessity of ratifying the 'I'n-aty of the 5th 
(17th) April, express and iilace on record the 
special opinion licrelo annexed in the Protocol, to 
the efl'cct that Uaion Tuyll shculd be instrucled 
at the exchange of the ratifications of that Treaty 



86 



OuiGixAi, Translation. 



1;KVIS1:Ii TliAXSI.ATIOX. 



slinuld extend only froii 
Intitudi' of Cross Sound. 



latitude 51° lit' to till' 



A majority of the incmhcrs (if tlic roiiimitlcc 
roiiiarlu'd tliat .•iiiice witliin tlipdc^ifjiiJitpil Iiititiides 
tlic liussian-.Viiierifan Cuiiipaiiy piisscsscd many 
.Si'ttli'nients, tlie Ilnd .\rti(.'!(' it tlie Cnnventiim 
of llif ."jtli (17tli^ .\jiiil woidd alfonl tlieni the 
<le.-ii('d protecliiiii. Mid if iiolliiii;,^ could bo done 
in tliose legions but lumtini; and ti.-^liinf;, it would 
he e\eee(iini;ly diiul)lfel vvlietlier .\ineriean citizens 
would ineur 'lie ri.-ik and expense of navigation 
for tlie purpose of carrying on trade whicli gave 
swell small ])roiiiise of reward for outlays in those 
hii;h iiorlheni latitudes, in which they conld 
enjoy tlicir privileges for ten years oidy, and 
where, at any rate, they w.iuld in luintii:g and 
fishing meet with the active competition of 
the Com)iany which hud jircceded them in those 
waters hy so many years. 

On the other hand, it would a])pear that tne 
liniitatKin contained in the opinion of his Excel- 
lency the Minister of Finance and of the .\etual 
('oniieillor <if State Drushinin would put an end 
to the comph.ints oi the .\merican Companv, 
and consequently the majority of tiie Conmiittec 
found it necessary lo examine further into the 
character of the limitations, in order to ascertain 
to what extent ihey may he adopted without 
infriiigini; u])on ihe rights and advantages result- 
ing 111 Russia from the Convention of the ."ith 
17th .\pril. 

Hince the pro[ioscd limitation designates two 
dill'ercnt points, situated under diflercnt degrees 
of latiti.de, namely: — • 

1. The Bay of YaUutat (Bering Bay), on the 
parallel of 50 .tO' ; 

:.' The Bay or Strait of Krestnoi (Cross Sound), 
on till' parallel of '>7 ; 

the li'nssian-.Vnicrican Company desires that the 
Nulijects of the United iStatcs be prevented from 
llslnng or hunting a- those two points; but the 
majority of the members of the Committee are of 
the opinion : 

As to the first of these points ( Bern.^: liav). it 
is situated under a latitude where Russia's rights 
have never been a subject of dispute, and this 
imporlant circumstance leads us to the coiu'lusion 
that it is rightly covered hy the general declara- 
tion eonccrnniL; the Aleutian l.-.lands ;ind other 
tuirtlicrn localities. With regard to tlie sicond. 
however (Cross fSound), wliicli is situated under 
latitude .'i?'. and coiise!|Uently I'onns part of the 
coast and isla:nis to which Russia's n^lit has been 
liisputcd, it wiiiild lie impiaciicable to apply to it 
tin sane rule, unless some other valid riNisons 
arc piiiduced upon wliicli to ba'-e such a dcinaiicl. 

In order to neglect no means bv which the 
liovc rnmeiit of Ills Imperini .Majesty mnv give 
proof of its fatherly imiv .if the intirests of tlie 
Hn^sian-.Vmencan Companv, (ienetal de Tuvll 
Nlionid be instructed to use every means at his 
command to persuade the U'lishiiiglon t'abinel 
that, in f.ivoriiig the limitation about to be pro- 
posed relating to Cross iSound, there is no iiiien- 
tioii or ilesire lo give any provocatnui for further 
ilispiiti^ between the two I'oweis. 

.\iid (Jcncral de Tuyll should be given to 
uiulerslaiid that the recognition of the umlispnted 
jjrimnry ri};lit of Hussi'i in those regiiuis is of 
.snpreiiie ini|un lance, not in aiiv wav io be com- 

U17j ■ ■ 



to stipulate that the right of free hunting and 
fishing granted by the XHth Article of the said 
Treaty shall extend only from 51 10' to the 
latitude of Cross Sound. 

The majority of the meiibcrsof the Committee 
could not but observe, on the cue hand, that, as 
the Russian-American Company has founded 
many Settlements in the said latitude, .Vrticle II 
of the Treaty of the ."Jtii (ITtli) April gives it the 
desired security on this subject ; that even if it 
had sim])ly organized hunting and fishing in those 
regions it isestremcly doulitful whether .\mcric.in 
subjects would undertake the expense necessary 
for voyages to those northern latitudes, in which 
tliev can enjoy their privileges for only ten years, 
and wlielher in that case they would expose 
tliemselves to dangerous compelition and would 
visit tliosc ^^■a1ers for hunting and li.sliing, where 
they bad long been anticipated by the ('om])any, 
as there would be li;tlc hnpe for tlicm of indemni- 
fying themselves fur their expenses and losses. 

But seeing, on (lie other hand, that the restric- 
tions stated in tlie opinion of tiie Minister of 
Finance and of State Councilh r Drushinin put 
an end to all the complaints of the American 
Company, the majority of the members of the 
Committee have found it necessary to investigate 
the nature of those restrictions, in order to 
ascertain how far it is possible to insist ujion them 
without prejmlice to the rights and advantages 
acerniiig from the Treaty of the 5th (I7tli) April. 



As the iiropo.scd restrictions refer to two chief 
points lying under difl'crent parallels of latitude, 
namely : — 

I. To Yakutat (Bering's) Bav. under [larallcl 
o!)" .'50 : 

'J. To Cross Bay or Sound (Cross Sound), 
under [larallel '<7' : 

the .\merican Cumpany desires tliat subjects of 
the United States iiiav not be permitted to hunt 
or fish in those bavs : tliercfore, the majority of 
the members dI the Conmiittee resolve : 

That, as regards the first of these points 
I Bering's Bay), it lies in a latitude where the 
rights (if Russia have never formed a subject 
of dispute, and that this important circumstance 
permits us to include it in the general declaration 
coiiccrniii'^ the .\leiitian Islands and the other 
northern places. 

That, as regards the second (Cro«s Snimd;, 
however, as it lie- under (he 57th degree ot nortli 
latitude, and consc(|uently wiihin the limits of 
those islands and rc.;ions t'l which Russia's right 
of sineivii;nty has lueii disputed, it is imprac- 
ticable 1(1 appiv the same rule or to base the 
claim. (4 uhieli it must iie the subject, on any 
other satis'actory proof 

That, apart iVoiii this, in order lo exhaust all 
the nica'iires showing, the care of ihe Govcrmiient 
of His Imperial .Majestv for the inteiests of the 
Riissiiin-.\iuericHii Company, it is still |)ossible to 
insiriict Ueneral i'uyll to use every eH'ort t:i 
persuade the Washiiigtsn Cabinet that, by ac- 
cepting this reslrietion rebating to Cross Sound, 
it will prevent all unpleasant collisions between 
the subjects of the two Powers. That Ceneral 
Tuvll must not, ho'.vcvcr, make this last jiroposi- 
lion unlil he is convinced that it will be accepted, 
and that il will not deter the (ioverniiieiil of the 
I'liiled States frum ratifying the Treaty of the 
Olh (Kill) .Vpril. 



36 






OiiiGiKAi. Translation'. 




l.'KVISF.n TllAXSI.ATKiN. 


pared with the Inter and compnrntivcly trivial 






concessions of the Convention witii llie Govern- 






ment of the United Stat.s, concluded the 5th. 






(17tli) April, and tliat it must, under all circum- 






stances, he sustained. 






This opinion was finallv unanimously aijrecd 


Tl 


is Kosolution was unaniniouslv .ndopted hy 


upon hv all the niemhers oi" the Coniinittcc. 


dl the meinhers of the Committee. | 


SI. I'i'tersbimi, Jiihi 21, 1821. 


Si. 


Petcrsbuni, Jiili/ 21, 1821. 


(Signed) NESSELRODE. 




(Signed^ NESSELIiODE. 


G. L. KANKUIN. 




<}. I.. KANKIilN. 


.Sl'ERANSKY. 




Sl'EKANSKY. 


DHUSIIININ. 




DIUJSIIININ. 


I'OLETICA. 




I'OLETICA. 


No. 15. 




No. 13. 


From the Bo'ird of Adniiimtralion of the h'tmsian- 


Bo'iyt 


/ nf A'hnbii.itruliini nf the liussiiin-Anniiruii 


Aiiierhaii Coiniuniy lo Cn/ilidn nf the First 


Coiii/mni/ to Cajitiiin Iran . 1 ntonnriti-h hiiprci- H 



lidiih (iittl Kiiipht Ivan Anlniiii'ilrh Kiipreinnnf. 
Il'iitlenfi-nm St. Ptterabwg, March 31, \Mi). 



FROM your dcsp.itcli Xo. Ill of the 2()tli 
April, we lecirn that you have niiuested the 
Creole Sh.Tyashiiikof to express his opiidon as to 
when you ■ ay hetjin taUinu; a full catch of fur- 
seals on the Island of St. I'aul, and when you 
may estahlish a close season on St. (Jeorge and 
the Cornni;ui<lcr Islands. The Hoard of Adioinis- 
lion res])cctfully recpiests that you will in everv 
respect act in accordance with the opiniuiis of 
Shavashnikol', who possesses a thorough know- 
led;;e of this industry. At the same lime, you 
will hear in mind tliat we hjoli U)ion the fur-seal 
catch as the most important item of our colonial 
enterprises, wliich must he preserved .at all 
hazards, even to the temporary ncijlect of other 
resources. Kverythinj; must he done to prevent a 
decrease orextcrminationol these valuable animals. 
Si;.ned) N. I'l.'OKOFYEE, 

X. KISOE. 

A. SEVEUIN, 

I linitnrs. 



No. 1(5. 

f.illcr frijiii tht liuanl of Ailniiiii'fr'h'ioit of the 
Hu.'fi'in-Aiinricini Coiii/innii In Captain nf thi>. 
IniiifrUil Xnri/ of the Sccoiiit Hank Ate.riui'lcr 
llilih lindali i\ Aclimi t'hicj Munfif'cr. 11 rillen 
frain ,S^ /''• i..^bnry. iUarch 20, IH.V!. 

FROM the c'.ospntchrs of the Hoard of .\dminis- 
tration, dated the IL'lh .\j;ril and Killi .N'oveniher, 
1K51, and the Jnd A|)ril. l.ilh May. and 2.Jrd 
Seplemher, 18r)2, vour ILvcellency must have 
perceived that one of the principal ohj'cts on the 
part of the Board of A<lnunistratloii has been to 
ni.dic the hest possible ai ran^renients for regula- 
ting the navigation of tlie vessels bclonijin^' to <iur 
colonial licet. Durin;.; the last feu years this 
])art of inir nmnifold duties has not always hecn 
allended to with thw. re^^ard to the hcsL interests 
of the Coinpanv, and consequently a few of the 
vessels have bien detained in harbours for pro- 
longed periods, w hilc otheru have been constantly 



annf, (Cc, Chiif Manuyer of Ihf Huss'iun- 
Animcan Colonies. 

(No. fi;3.) Marrh'.n, IHO. 

THIS Board learns from your despatch No. 1 14 
of the 20th .\pril that you have asked the boat- 
man Shaiashnikof to stale when, in his opinion, 
it will he ])ossil)le to hci^in lakin^; a full catch 
of seals on the Island of St. I'aul, in order to 
estahlish a close time for sealin;; on St. (Jcorge 
and the Commander Iskinds. Tiie Board rc<|ucsts 
yovi to |)ay great attention to the opinion of 
Shaiashnikof, who is a ni.an uf ( iinsiderabic 
experience, and to act upon it, remend)ering that 
the chief object lo be aimed at should be the 
improvement of the sealinj; indu.stry, aial the 
prevention of the extermination of the seals. 



(Signed) 



(Signed) Hajkno 



N. I'liOKOFlEF, 
N. KLSOF, 
A. HKVKRIN, 

JUrfctnr.i. 

in. 



Ac/iii'i ( liii f Clirk. 



NO. k;. 

Letter J mm tie Unnnl nf Aihiiniixlralion nf the 
Iti's.iian-ylinericmi Cniii/iani/ In I'a/'liiin nf the 
Iin/ien'al \<ni/ of Ihe Sei'mul Ruiil; Ale-rnmler 
llilrh Hiiilaknf, Ael'nuj Chief Maiia;irr. Written 
from St. J'rlir.ihi(ri/h', Marrh 20, IS."):}. 



./ 



FROM the dcspalclu .^ of the Board of Aihninis- 
Iralion, dated the I2th .Vpril and l(i:h Novcmb.'r, 
l.S.'')l, Nos. ."i.'ia and 1 17m, and th(i,>^: of the Jnd 
.Aliril, l.ith May, and 25th Seplcnd)er. IS.-,2, 
Nos. 147, '">''-• and l.'.'li), your Exccllem'y will 
sec that it has been one of the chief aims of the 
Hoard of .Vihninistrution to make the hest 
possible arranj^cnu nt of the vova^cs of tlio 
vessels of the colcniial Heel, since ol' late that 
arrangement has been made with(ail sulliciciil, 
reference to the true interests of the Coinpany, 
and licnce some vessels have frc(pu'nlly been 
kept lying idle in port, and others have received 
such confused instructions that thev would often 



r)nir:iN-Ai. Trakslation. 



37 



IlKVISKI) TliAXSI.VTlOX. 

employed and iiitrustpfl with duties for •.vliicli be unable to execute them all, or would icturn 
they were iiut ill lilted, letuniin;; to \ew Arch- to New Arehanpel at the very latest and most 



atifjel laic in the season and at the most dangerous 
time of the year. 

Vith a view to remedy this defect, the Board 
of .'idmiiii,-.trati(m has now a:;ri'ed upon a system 
of einplovMient for our various vessels wiiieh is to 
be strictly f.ilhnvcd in dis]iatciiinfr our <'(donial 
vessels upon their annual or semi-annual voyaf,a's 
in the sunnner and 'vinter season under normal 
circumstances. 'J'liis system will be strictly 
adhered to by llie I hicf Manai;ersof the ( olonies. 
unless imforeseen r'ireumstances arise which would 
make this observance inconsistent with the Com- 
]iany"s interests. 



For the season of IS,")," th 
consist of eight s.nilinn-vesscl 
the larger ones are: the 
'• \ikolai !,'■ the " Kadiak," and t 
and the smaller ones: '' Menshik( 



colonial tleet will 

ot wliicli number 

C/.areviich."' the 

Shciikof;" 

'• Konstan- 



tin," " Okhotsk,'' and " Tunguss : "' anti since the 
'• ('/.arcvitch," which is to leave the Colonies in 
the autninn of l!<,")i!. will be relieved by the 
" ."Sitka," of 700 tons, now in course of construc- 
lioM. and which is to sail for Xcw Archaimel in 
Is.").?, the nunil)cr of the C:)mpany's ships in 
colonial waters will remain the sanu'. Con- 
sc(]ncntly, the summer season, conl|n•isin^ the 
moiiihs Irom April t.) October, \vill j;ivc einploy- 
mi'it to eii;lit shins, while in the winter season, 
froii October to .\pril, we can keep seven vessels 
ruiinini;, without countin'.; the whale-ships of our 
t'onpany, the number of which will prohahlv 
rcai'li four. 



For the summer season of ISJl the voy.ajrcs of 
our vessels should l)i> arranged in t!ie following 
maimer: — 

1. Ore of the smaller vessels. ]icrliaps the brig 
•• Kcmstantin," shoidd .s;.il from Siika about the 
middle of .\pril with supplies for the Islands of 
Atka and Attn, ;ind fen- the Kurilo district, taking 
ihe furs from these islands to the por^ of Ayan, 
where the brig should arrive not later than the 
niuldle of .July. On this vessel tlnre should be 
an olhcial of the Company intre.slcd with the 
in'-pection of (he Company's statiiuis in the 
districts of Atka, tiie Kurile Islands, and Kam- 
clialka. [ This a'^eiit must obsi'Vc anil keep a 
record of all fnrei^n ships v,,,,, during tlee \ovaL;e, 



-iiiii ()i' llic piiNitioii ut 


llir saim- u li.ii 


.!. 


c'lV.-d, 


I'tii 1 lie iMl(ir'ni:itii)ii dt 


■inniiiiunli'is nt n 


nr 


ai'tiu-ii 


rniiscrs ami ot llic en 


<>iii:t) autiiontU'H 


i: 


Sitka, 



Kamchalka. and Av.in. )* 'I'his \essel slionl.l set 
ii:it upon the return viiyaLje ;it the end ol' August 
or the beginning of September, following its 
pri'vious course, and veturniii^ to Xcw Archimgel 
with the agent, [ who is to repea t llie obsi rvalions 
))rcser'l)cd for the outward \ii\aue.J 



• Hy aligrrvinir V.ir-i' tliiIo« llio fiiri* frnai (ho Atli.-x ;inil 
Kiirilu liislr'u'lB will ahvayn rcncli Ayan in liir.o far trail:»port.i- 
lion tu Yakult^k. am) »ill nut liuvu lu )>u >-ai'rio*l tu New 
Arelinngi'l. m liiw la-cn done in lato yoaM, (ar cliiijuiaiit tu tlie 
port t)t Aynn in llio failowinir yo:ir. Unil-T tlie M i^vstcm 
ilio fnr:* ncclllc^^»Iy in^air Iwicu ila* risk of i ;ur':i!;;'! hy hc». 



dangerous time of the year. 

Bearing in mind the fact that the ap.proachin'^ 
voyages of the coloidal tlect are well arranged, 
and that they are repeated every year with oidy 
slight variations, the lioard of .\dnnnistnillon has 
found it possible a!!:i e.vpedicnt to establish a 
regular schedule for the voyaL;e.s of the colonial 
fleet, for the navigation of bolh the summer and 
winter months, and to transmit it to the Colonial 
(jovcrmncnt for its j;ui(lance and e\ecntion, 
leaving it, however, to the discretion of the 
Chief Manager of the ('olonies t> deviat? from 
this sehedide on those occasions when, owing to 
local and unforeseen circuinstaiu'cs, it appears to 
the interest il the Coir.pany to do so. 

In the iicrformance of the vovagcs of lS,j;5 in 
the ('oionics there will be employed eight sailing- 
vessels, of whicii the following are of tin' first 
class: The " Cesarevitch,"' the " Nicholas I," 
the -'Kadiak,'' and the " Shelckoli';" and the 
following of the second class: the " Menshikoff",'' 
the •• Constantiiie,"' the '•<)kotsk," and the 
'• Tun^us ;" and, as in exchange for the ship 
" Cesarevitch,"' which ha^ to be sent hack from 
the Coloi'ies in |,si.Vi, the shi]) ".Sitka,"' of 
700 tons, which is now being built, will enter 
into ti'C composition of the colonial fleet of 
IN.")-!, and will be sent to New ,\rchangel in IKi'.i. 
In the estabiislnnent of constant ciin.munieafions 
around the world the number of the ('ompanv's 
vessels in the Coionics will idways rem.u.i the 
same, that is to say, in the summer months, 
from April to October, there will be eight, and 
from tietoher to April seven vessels, without 
counting the whaling - vessels, the number i.f 
wliirdi, by rough estimaic, will be increased to 
four. 

Ileuce tlie movements of tlie colnuial fleet, 
during the summer naviuation, beginning in 
IH.", I, Miay be nrrang,cd in the following 
man'ier : — 

I. One vessel of the second class — for instance, 
the bri.: '' Constantiiie " — must be dispatchcl frimi 
Sitka aliout the middie of .\pril with supplies for 
the Island of Atka, or .\tta, and for the Ivnrile 
district, to bring goods from those islands to 
Ayan, where ihc vessel must arrive not later timii 
tlu^ middle of July. By this same vessel theru 
may be dispatched and landed the ('umpany's 
agents sent for inspeetion to Kamchaika, where 
the vessel can stop on its passage fioie. the .Vtkii 
district to the Kurile district, without losini; 
much time, at the most imoort int ])erii)d for the 
Kaiuchatka trade, the middle of May, that is to 
say. by the ti.ne of the arrival there of the vessel 
(•oining around the world, 

• 111 arriving at Ayan this vessel will be ])laced 
at the disposal of the uovernor of the port of 
Ayan to maintain coiniiiuniciitiiui with I'etrovsky, 
and, in future, until a vessel has been 
built specially f;r that port, for voyages with 
increlmndixe and for Ir.ide with (Ji.diig and the 
other port.s of the Sea of Okolsk. M the end of 
.\ugust. or early in Scptcmln't, this vessel will 
be sent back with the despau s l.isl rcceiveu 
and with goods for the Kamchatka trade, and 
will return to Xcw .\rcliangcl, stopping on its 
way only in the Kurile district, if il lias landed 
nn Inspceior there, and at the port of I'elro- 
paulovsky. 



3S 



OlfllllXAL Tl!ANSI,ATIO\. 

S. One of the larger vessels should lenvc the 
port of New Archangel for Aynn not later than 
the 13tli May, to arrive at (lie latter port at tlie 
end of June. This ship, which must he armed, 
will carry passeni;ers, stores, and supidies for our 
Asiatic stations. [On the outward vovaie the 
course of this vessel should he l.iid to the iiorth- 
wiird of tin; cliaiu of the Ahnitian Islands, in or(U'i' 
t o meet fiireiiru sliips enterini; H eriii:; .Sea, and to 
warn tliein aijains t eruizins in pursuii ot whales 
in llie virinity of the seal islands of I lu' !'ri))ilo f 
and Co'i;niauder L'rouiiS.J At the he;;iiu:iMy of 
Auijust the ship should return to New Ar; IianL'el, 
with car^'o ami passengers from Sihei'in, <'niising 
in search of foreign vessels on the way. During 
the detention of this vessel in the port of Ayan, 
its commander will place himself imdcr the orders 
of the local colonial authorities in all eases of 
emergency, or of infrlnuement of the < 'ouipanv's 
vijj-lits and pnvdeu'es. fni' wliieh ))uri)iise the local 
eonunaiulers an' lurnislii'd with ^jiecial instruc- 
tions. 

H. A second small vessel, the swiftest of the 
fleet, prohahly the " MenshiUof," with a naval 
crew, and eonnuanded hy a naval officer, must 
sail from Sitka at the end of April for the sole 
purpose of watching the foreign whale-ships in 
the southern ])art of licring Sea imd along the 
chain of the Aleutian Islands. On this vessel 
supplies may he forwarded to Co]iper and Hcring 
Islands, aiul, perhaps, to Attu and Atka, in case 
this should not have i.icn aecoin|)lished hy the 
first vessel, referred to under No. 1 of this des|)ateh. 
On this vessel also should he placed one of the 
higher officials of the Company, with the powers 
of an inspector and geiteral agent. This vessel 
must be kept cruizing constantly over the waters 
mentioned ahove, and must not enter any of the 
h;irhors except for the purpose of ohtaiuing w.iter 
aid wood, on which occasions the stay of the 
v.'ssci nmst he limited to the hriefest possihie 
p'liod. Kach of the ahove-menti<ined islands 
must he visited hy this crui/er at least twice 
liming the s<'asou. The first time hir the ])urpose 
of landing siipplicn, imiils, and the inspector; the 
sceiiiid time to receive the furs obtained, report.-;, 
mail, and the inspector. The rommander of this 
cruizer is strictly ])r(diihited fi.'o rcmnining at 
nnchor during the jirogress of inspection, as it 
v.ould he better to call at the islaiuls several times 
than to ren:ain idle in port. The concUisioi <d' 
this cruizing voyage depends upon the time at 
which the fureiun whale-ships leave Ikrin^ Sea, 
wlieh is prohahly nt the cud of August or the 
beginning of September. 

4. The third and fourth of the smaller vessels, 
i.e., the "OUholsk" and "Tunguss," are assigned 
to tarry supplies to the redoubts and Islands of 
the Kadiak district ami to Unga Isljmd, ami to 
bring back (ins. In order to still further insure 
the Kadiak district against scarcity of supplies, 
( nc of the larger vessels sailing in the spring mav 
also take a partial cargo for I'ablof Harbor. 

."). The second large vessel must be employed 
to supply the islands of tie Unahiska district, the 
Trihilof Islands, and St. Michael's licdonht, ami 
iibo to carry on intercourse with the ccast tribes 
of ricriiig Sea, on the Asiatic as well as on the 
Anuricnn coast.s. Ueiiig first hauled ^ilh the 
BU| plies for St. Michael's and the gocds intended 
fur trutlic witli savage tiihcs, this ship may tukc 



Iir,VI,s|-;il TllANSl.Al'UlN. 

II. One vessel of the first class, preferably the 
one which will come around the world from 
Europe that year, will he sent with the animal 
cargo of ".'oods and with the sprinu; mail direct to 
Avail. This vessel nmst he sent early in Afay, 
and in no event later than the l.-ilh M.iy, in order 
that it may arrive at ,\yan by the time of the 
opening of the harbour .at the end of .'une. 
On this vessel there nmst be sent to the p )rt of 
Avan ))assengers, if there are any. salt, flo ir, and 
other cargo, .specially for that |iorl and for the 
places dependent upon it. This vcsel will 
remain at .\yau until the end of .Jul,' or the 
early part of .\ugn.-it, and will return direct to 
New Archangel with the Siberian cirgo, the 
principal mail, and v.ith jiusscngcrs, if there 
should be any. During the stay of this vessel 
at the port of .Vyan the fiovcruor of that port 
must be allowed, im c niordin.iry occasions, to 
employ it for the tr p.rrtation of men and 
goods to I'etrovshy, . y 1 therefore insirueticm s 
in conformitv with this m ust he giv en to the 
captain of this vessel. 

III. .\ second-class vessel, a fast sailer — for 
instance, the ship ■ .Mcnshikoff " — with a naval 
crew, and under the command of a naval officer, 
will be sent at the end of .Vpril to cruize and to 
keep a watch over (he foreign whaling-vessels in 
the southern part of Hehring Sea and along the 
Aleutian yroup. On this vessel will be sent 
supplies for Copper and Uehring Islands, and 
also for .\tta, or .\tka. if it is found necessary 
and docs not interfere with the movements of 
the first small vessel (section I of this desjKitch). 
On this vessel, also, in case of necessity, there 
will be sent inspectors to the above-mentinncd 
islands, and goods will be taken on it from there 
to New .\rchangel. 'I'his vessel must he kept 
continually cruizing throughout the distrier as- 
signed to it. ami may go into jiort, (or a very 
sluirt time only, for supplies of wood and water. 
This cruizer must visit the above - meiitimicd 
islands not less than twice every year ; the ''nt 
time for the delivery of sujiplies, mails, and 
inspectcu's, and the second time to take on board 
goixls, reports, and iuspectors. This cruizer 
must he strictly forbidden to await the termina- 
tion of the inspection in port, :.s has formerly 
been done and if one and the same pcrs m is 
inslri i:!ed to inspect two islands, it will lie better 
to order the cruizer to visit those islands (nice 
more rather than lie iille in port. The time 
ti.Ncd f(U' the termination of the Companv's 
cruizing is that .it which the foreign whalers 
leave Hehring !>ea, viz.. the last jiart of .\ugust 
or the beginning of September. 

IV. The third and fourth vessels of the second 
class, namely, the " OUotsk " and the "Tmigus." 
will he designated to carry supplies to the forts 
.and islam'.s of the Kaiiiak district and to the 
l>land of luga. and to b'-ing goods IVoni them. 
Fiu' the bctti r care of the KudiaU <listrict a part 
of the supplies may be sent there hy one of the 
large or small vessels early in the spring, in the 
month of .March. 

\. The second first-class vessel is intended to 
supply the island-- of the Unalaska district, the 
I'ribvlolf Islands, and I'ort Michael, and for 
trading «itli the natives on the coasts of Hehring 
Sea, as al.so on the coasts of .Asia mid .Vmeriea. 
As vessels may he "cnt to lluit region very late, 
this ves.sel, after takirg in su)iplies for Kort 
Michael and the goods intended lor trnciing with 



80 



OlilCINAI, Tl!.\NSI„VTlnN. 

on siilisequently an iipiicr ciirno of lumber and 
(ircwocid tor tlic I'ribilcif Uliiiids and tlif Unnlaskii 
disli'ict, at wliicli points Mi;iil and tl»! most 
ncrcssiirv supplies nay lie landed on tlie outward 
vnyaiic and furs picki'il up on tin' rctuni trip. 
Diirinu; tlic ivlnilc time, of tlir |)r(.Mnco of this 
sliip in tlic nortiK'Vn part of Hcrin^^ Sim and the 
vicinity of the I'riliilof Islands, the coniniandcr 
nuisl he charged with tlir duly of cruisinf; in 
sear;'h of forcinn wliale-ships inid of English 
veH>ols carrying on trade with our savages. This 
ship, also, must nial;e no [jrolonued stay at any 
nnchorauc. and must he ))lai'ed under the coni- 
niiind of a naval olliecr, with a orcw eonsistinj; 
prineijmlly ol sailojs of the n.ivy.* 



Revised TnAXSL.vTrox. 



". The fourtli larj^e vessel of the fleet, [which 
niav bo used for voyages to Kamchatka, must also 



he litt<'d (Hit 


as 


an 


armed cruiser 


Lud \\ 


■pt ni 


rea'liru'ss to i 


ro( 


ee. 


to any 


loint n 


Herii 


ii; Sea 


or ni Si 


herian 


\va 


fer 


-i, from \v 


liich tlu 


[ircscnce of 


forei;;n 


ships 


nu 


y 


)e repor 


ed l)v 


the s 


malhn" 



vessels in the course of th 



c sea.'on 



••] 



the siivajjes, may be ilispatchcd somewhat earlier, 
and may also carry Iund)er and wood for the 
I'rihylolV l.-lands and the I'nalaska district when 
it may .seem necessary. The supplies and papers 
for the above-name 1 jilaees may he delivered on 
the way there, and the furs aTid the replies may 
be reeeivid on the return voyai^e. As at the 
time of the voyai;e to the northern part of 
Belirint; Sea this vessel will als^i do duty .-is a 
cruizer to keep watcli over the foreign whalers 
and the Enylishmcn, with rei;ard to the trade 
carried on by them with our sava.:;es, it nmst in 
ni> event waste any time, and nuist be under the 
c'lmoK^ul of a iuival oflicer, and, if poss.ble, have 
a naval crew. 

\'l. The tidrd tirst-elass vessel will maintain 
comnnmicntion with California and the Sandwich 
Islands, carryini; there lumber and salted lish, and 
brin<<ing to the Colonies salt and other mer- 
chandize, if the purchase of such appears necessary 
and to the advantage of tlie Company. This 
vessel niu.st in no case waste any time in foreign 
ports, but must, immediately after deiivcriiig the 
cargo furnished, if there is no return cargo in 
readiness for it, return to \ew .\rchangel in 
ballast. But the Colonial (jovernnient must 
make every exertion always to have a cargo 
ready for immodiate dispatch to California or the 
Sandwich Islands, guiding itself by information 
received from the Company's agent at Han 
Francisco. Short lic|)orts (on the most impor- 
tant subjects) must he sent by this vessel on 
every trip, to be forwarded to the Board of 
.Administration. 

\'1I. The fourth tirst-class vessel will remain 
in reserve, and can he employed for carrying salt 
to Kamchatka in sutticient cpiantities to last 
several years ; for transporting cargoes of lumber 
to California; for tln^ iuspecti<ni of the Colonies 
by the Chief Manager, &c. In those years wlien 
it l)eeonies necessary to send to the islands of 
the .\tka district more lumber than can he carried 
by a small vessel, the voy.igo ordered in section III 
of this despatch mav be assigned to the large 
vessel, and the small vessel designated in that 
secticni m.iv remain in reserve or receive special 
instructions. 



In transmitting,' to your H\cellency the above 
(Uitlined plan for the cnipluyment of the ccdonial 
fleet, the Board of .Administration res|)ectfidly 
re(|ue:-ts that in ease the interests of the Company 
re piirc a deviation from our plans yinr Exeel- 
leiK'y will never lose sight of the fact tliat 
[the interests of the (Nnniianv arc centered at the 



present time 


ill the district • urroiinding tlie seal 


isl.'iiais ot til 


' I'ribilol and ( iininiainier groups], 



anil lliar eoiisei|Uenlly the colonial waters must lie 
visited Ijy the Conipany's cruisers constantiv and 
ill every part, in order to watch and warn the 
foreign whalers. For this purpose detailed 
iiisl ructions have been formula'.ed for our cruisers, 
as well as for tlie coinmaiiders of the whale-shijis 
of the Company, which are obliged to serve in tlie 
rapacity of cruisers when engaged in whaling; in 
Bering Sea. In all cases tlie command of a 
vessel under orders to cruise in colonial waters 
must be given to niival oHicer.s, who will thereby 
lind an opportunity to make themselves acquainted 
with the routine of rolonial transactions, while at 

* The sixth uud n portion or the Bcvcath parsgriphe beiug 
immaterial, hive not ln'in lruul>U'<l. 



[117] 



In communicating to your I'Acelleiiey the 
above regular si'hedulo of the voyages of the 
colonial licet, the Board of .\dmniislration 
respectfully recpiests you, if the interests of the 
Company rctpiirc any deviation from this 
schedule, to take special care that the large 
vessels, so far t.s possible, may never remain 
idle in port, but may be perpetually engaged in 
voyages of advantage to the ('oin|iany : that the 
colonitd se.i.s, so far as p'jssible, be visited in 
every part by the f'onipany's cruizers, for the 
|)urpoM of keeping wtiteh over the foreigners, and 
lor this purpose, in giving instructions to our 
cruizers, to conform vourself to the intended 
inovenients of the Company's wlialing-vesscis, 
which can idso do duty us cruizers if they are 
carrying on their fishery in ISehring Sea. and to 
jn'ovide that the Conipany's vessels designivted 
for visiting the many islanils of the I'olonics be. 
so far as ])ossible, under the command of naval 
otHeers, in order that they may become acquainted 
with the comlition of colonial attairs, and may 
gradually tit themselves for performing the most 



II 



10 



Okioinal TRAN'SLATIOS. 



Hkvised Translation. 



the same time their rank will j;ive authority to important duties in iV." lulministrntion of the 

our proceedings. Colonies. 

(Signed) V. POLITKOVSKY. (Signed) V. POLITKOVSKY, 

Pri.siJiiK) Officer. Pnsidlnif Officer. 

V. kli;i>fkl; v. klupfel, 

A. KTIIOLIX, A. ETllOLIN, 

N. KISOF, N. KUSOF, 

Bnron WIIAXGKL, fliiron VVHANGEL, 

Members of the Hoard. Members of the Jiourd. 



No. 1". 

Ldter /mm Cajttnin of Ihr Flmt Uriiil- und Kniijht 
Ivan Vd.-'niiccilch Fnrululin, Chief Miiinnicr if 
the BiiK/ildn- America II C'ulunicis, tu MiiifO r Iknzc- 
ruaii, of the Imperial Xaeij. U'rit/ni from the 
Colonics, June 2(i, ISGl. 

To Master Bcnzcman, of tlic Imperial Navy, 
commanding tlie steamer " Alexander the 
Second": 



No. 17. 

Letter from Coptniii of tlir Firs' Tinnl; mid Kiiii/hl 
Iruii ViinsiUerilrti Fiiriihelni, Clinf Mdiunier of 
tin: IiiiK.\iuii-.\iiierira'i ('oloiiics, to Mii,;ler 
lienzemiin, of Die Imperint Xanj. Written from 
the Colonies, June 20, lH(il. 

To Master Benzeman, of tlie Imperial Navy, 
commanding the steamer " Alexander tiie 
Second " : 



WHEN your steajucr is ready for sea, you will 
leave this port and carry out the following in- 
structions : — 

1. You will proceed to the" Kcnai Coal Mining 
Enterprise ;" on arrival there deliver the aroom- 
panying package to the Commander, Mining 
Engineer luruhelm, and immediately begin to 
take on as much coal as you can in addition to 
the cargo on board. 

2. From English Bay you will jirocecd to the 
Island of St. Paid, whore you will deliver your 
passengers, land the sui)plics. and take on local 
products for St. Michael's Kcdoubt. You will 
then proceed to the redoubt to land supplies and 
take on whatever cargo Manager Vakhrameief 
may have on hand. 

3. On leaving St. Michael's Redoubt you will 
shape your cause for the Island of St. Paul, 
where you nnist take on without fail a fnll cargo 
of fur-seal skins and local products such as oil 
and seal meat, and proceeding to the Island of 
St. Cicurge, take on in addition such products and 
furs as nay have accumulated previous to yimr 
arrival there. Thence y<ui will ))roceed to Una- 
laska, and furnish Manager Vlassuf with such 
quantities of oil and seal meat as he may be in 
need of. Y'ou will then take on the furs on hand 
at T'nalaska, and jjroceed to New Archangel. 

4. During ycjur visits to the above-mentioned 
points, you will receive all complaints submitted 
to yo\i. and, without making anv decision what- 
ever, submit tliem to nie (Ui your arrival al New 
Archangel. 

5. At St. Jlichael's Uedoubt Manager VaKbra- 
mcief will present to you two servants of the 
t.'ompany, Koslievnikof and Midiurin. for punish- 
ment for disobeying the onlers of the aulhorilies 
[ and for en;j'a;;.ng in sec ret uidawful traltic with 
T'atives] ; and 1 would suggest 10 you to ])unish 
them with rods, giving them twcntv-fivi' strokes 
each in the presence o*' the whole garrison of the 
rcdoubt. 

(). Among the passengers on your steamer will 
be the Bishop of New Archangel, Peter, who 
goes to inspect the northern Missions. Y'ou will 
show his Endnence due attention and respect, and 
carry out his wishes as far as pructicab'e. 

7. During vour l,,. , at .>t. -Michael's Uedoubt 



.\S soon as the steamer is quite ready to sail, I 
request your Excellency to leave this port and to 
carry out the following instructions : — 

I. To proceed to the Kenai coal mines, and, on 
your arrival there, to hand the inclr>sed package 
to the Governor, IVIastcr of the Mines Furuhelm, 
and to take on the steamer as much coal as the 
space occupied by your cargo permits. 

II. From English !!ay proceed to the Island of 
St. Paul, whence, after landing vour passengers, 
delivering the anniud sup])lies, aiul taking on 
board the supplies for Fort Michael, you will 
proceed to that fort to deliver the supplies sent, 
and to take in there such cargo as will be 
indicated to you by (iovenmr Vaehramesvoi. 

HI. Leaving Fort Michael, you will direct your 
course to the Island of Si. Paul, wl]cre you nmst 
immediately take on board a wiiole cargo ot seal- 
skins, supjdies, oil, and seal meat, and, stopping 
on yo\ir way at the Island of St (ieorue to take 
on board goods and supplies which may be ready 
on the arrival of the steamer, you will proceed to 
L'nalaska. and, after furnisiiing Governor \lasoll', 
on his requisition, with supplies, oil. and seal 
meat, which you will bring expressly for that 
purpose from St. Paul, you will take in a I'argo 
of such goods as nniy he readv at L'nalaska, and 
then proceed i^ New Archangel. 

i V. During the time of yoar said vi-ils to those 
places you will listen to all conijjiaints which may 
be ])resentea to you, aiul, without conung to any 
decision about them, you will report them to nu- 
on vour arrival at New Archangel. 

V. At Fort Michael two employes, Koshevni- 
koti and Makarin, will be pre^enll•d to you by 
(!overiu)r Vacliramesvoi for punishnu^nt for viola- 
tion of (iovernment Hegnlalions and for disobedi- 
ence, i"cl I f'lerefore advise you to punish each of 
tliem with twenty-live laslies in the presence of 
the whole eounnand of tlie fort. 



VI. Th' Hishop of New Archangel, Peter, will 
go by t'. -earner to inspect the Missions in the 
north. 1 request you to show bis Kcverenee all 
due attention, and to comply with all his wishes. 

VII During \m\v stay at Fort Michael take on 



OliIi7l\AI, TnAXSLATlDX. 



41 



IM'.VISKI) TllAXSI.ATION. 



yim will diisi' to l)c collected ft iiunitity of di'ift- lioard tlic steamer as niucli wood as jou possildy 
wood and deliver tlic same on tlic Island of can, and carrv it to tlie Island of St. Paul. 
St. Paul. 

VIII. If tlie fiovcriiors (if tlie island present to 
you eniployi's wlio liavc served llii'ii' time for 
tr.nisportation frooi tlie Colonies, von will receive 
tlieni on l)oar.l llie steamer. Tlie carpenter, 
Parfentef, nmsr f;u from .*■(. I aid to Sitka. 



8. If the Maiia::er.-t of tne islandss liould pre- 
sent to you any employe:; wlio have served oit 
tlieir terms foi' tniii..^|iortation from tlic Colonies, 
yon will take tluiii on board. From the Island 
of ISt. I'anl tlie eariieiiter, I':irfentyef, will require 
a passage to Sitka. 

9. It. lias come to my knowledge that in the 
present year tw.i wli,iliin;-vessels liave sailed from 
San Francisco for I lie purpose of trading on the 
Prihilof Islands [or of luiiitint; in their vicinity]. 



IX. It li.'is come to my knowled;;e tli.it two 
whaling-vessels hnd liecn sent tliis vear from San 
Francisco to trade on the Prihyloff Islands. I 
therefore retpievt vour Kxcellcnev, (liiriii!! the 



Consequently, I would sug:^est that dnniii; your time aiipoiiitivl for voiir viivai;c, to do diitv as ii 



presence in 



tho 



waters vu\i will e.\ereisc the 

[to prevent aiiv nii- 

Iwo 



duties of an armed cruiser 

lawful acts on the part not oiilv of tile^e 



otlicrs •.vli'.cl 



1 voii iti;)V lind in 



vessels, but ot _ 
HeriiiL' Sea] , 

I trust that all the various duties intrusted to 
you will he carried out to my satistiiction, and 
that you will return without unnecessary loss of 
time. 

The crew and passenger lists of the tteamer 
are hereby appended. 

The issue of rum to your crew will be made 
under existiu".' regulations. 



the e\act basis of tlie iiistructiiMis 
hcreivitli iiicloseci, which have heen approved by 
the Kmperor. 



I trust that yon will execute the instructions 
niveii you to my sati'.faction. and thai you will 
return without nineh loss of time. 

A list of the crew and passengers of the steamer 
is hercHith inclosed. 

The issue of rum to your comniaiui will be 
continued in aecordauee with existing regul.i- 
tions. 



[The portions of this paper not given were correctly translated in tJnitcd States' Case, 

Appendix, vol. i.] 
Xo. 18. No. Is. 



Lfllur friini the. I hparlmi-iit r,f Commerce and 
Maniif('ctur''s /<) tl"' Boiin.1 of A'hiniiistratUm 
i.f llie Himsinn-Aiii'rirdii Cunijiiniij. JVr'ilicn 
j'.'um St. Petersburg, June \\), Ihti."). 

THE Council of .State, after an examination of 
the proposal sid)mitted bv me concernini; the 
revision of the Charter of the Russiun-.Vmeriean 
Companv and the organization of the liussinn- 
Anieriean Colonies, directs, by a Resolution 
approved by the Kmperor on the 1 lib June, that 
in the preparation of the new Charter for the 
Russian-American Company, and of the regula- 
tions for the ;;ovcrnment of the Colonics, the 
following principles shall be adopted ; — 

1 . 'I'hc term of the privileges, riL'h.t.s, and 

obligations of the Company expir'.s on the 1st 

dav of January, 188'.'. 

• ■ • • -» 

.si. Permission is given to bring into the poris 
of .\'ew Archangel, on the Island of Sitka, of 
.St. I'cul, on the Island of Kadiak, and into such 
others as may be subsequently found convenient 
for the piirjiose, all kinds of merchandize (except 
intoxicating hevera'.;es, powder, and arms) on 
board both Itussian and foreign vessels. 

9. Special regulations shall be jircscr'bed con- 
I'crning the importation of intoxicating liquors 
and the sale thereof in the Colonies, as well as 
the furnishing of arms and powder, such e- 
gulatioiis to he of such a character as not to 
impose onerous restrictions upon the inhabitants, 
and at the same lime to guard against abuses and 
injurious eonsequenevs. 

• • ♦ • 

15. Every description of trade, except the fur 
trade, .nhall be free to .ah the residents of the 
Colonies and (o all Russian subjects without 
dislinction ur limitation. 



Letlcr from tite. Department of Commerce and 
Mawifwtiires to Hie Honril of Administration of 

tin- /t'lixxiini-^liiierirri/i ('iinijinuij. Written from 
SI. I'et.rslmnj, Jane 19, IStij. 

THR Impcii. 1 Council, having considered the 
representation • ..idc I)-' me with regard to the 
revision of the ("barter ot" the Ra>^-,ian-.Vnierican 
Company, and the organization of the Ru-isian 
.\nieriean Colonies, by its Resolution apjirovcd 
by the ihnperor on the 1 1th ,Iuiie of this year, has 
recommended — 

Tli.at the following priiici]):il basis be adopted 
in the preparalion of the new Charter of the 
Russiau-.VnuTican Company and of the colonial 
maii.igement. 

tho privileges, rights, and 
Company cMeiids to the 



The term of 
oblinalions of the 
1st January, l«8.'i. 



VIII. The importation of all kinds of articles 
of industrv and commerce liy Russian and foreign 
vessels is made free at the ports ot New .Vivliaiigel, 
on the Island of Sitka, at St. I'aul, on the Isl.md 
of Kadiak. and hereafter at others where it will 
be found desirable (with the exception cf spiri- 
ttious li(piors, powder, and arras). 

I.\. With regard to the importatimi of spiri- 
tuous liipiors and their s.de in the Colonics, and 
also the supplying the (.'olonies with arms and 
))owder, it is recommended that speci.d regula- 
tions be adopted, whicli, without oppressing the 
inhabitants, will [jrcvent tlie abuse of them, with 
all their injurious consequences. 



XV. The prosecution of every kind of in:bis*'-v 
(except the fur iiidus.ry) is perniittcd to all the 
inbabit.ints of the Colonies and to all Russhiii 
sid)jcuts, Without ilistinctidii or re.Uriction. 



42 



('nii;iN'.u, TuANsr.ATioN. 



As rc;;«r(ts tlio fur traik' : (n) Itoscrvc to tlic 
Rtissiaii-Aiiii'riciin ("oniiiany \iiitil tlie Ut .Tniiiiiiry, 
1SH2. till- exrliisivc iT^lit of cn'.Mgiiii; in llip fur 
trnde xvilliiii the foUciwiii',' limits only : On tlic 
Peninsula <if Alaska. taUiii'^ for ils nortlu'in 
1)otin<l-.iry the line fimn Capi' l)i)uu;la-, in I lie Hay 
of Kcnai. (o tlic upper sluin' of Ilianni;' LaKc ; 
upon nil tlio islands situated nlon;; llic coast of 
tluit peninsula, namely, tin- A!»ntian I.-lanil:i. tlie 
Cotninander Islands, the Kuiilc Inlands, as well 
ns upon tlic islands silunted in I'clirinu; Sea, and 
alon;; tlie wliolo western slmrc* of I^elirini; Sea. 
As regards tlic region streteliin;: nnrt!i-oa t of tlu- 
Alaska IVninsida, alc.iij; tlic vrliole of tlu" co-ist 
lip to tlic lioniidary-linc contiguous with tlio 
])nss;'s<ions of d'l'eat Urifain, and on tlic islands 
situated aloii^- tliat const, ineluditi;; Sl'.Ua and llic 
wliolc of tl.e Koliisliian .\iciripclau:o. and liliewise 
on tlic eontiiient of the northern part of America, 
the privik'ue of the Conipniiy to i;."ccliisivcly 
i'n!;ai;c in fur trade shall he aholislied. {/>) AH 
colcnial rcsiilent.s and sc! tiers who arc Unssian 
sulijects shall he nl!owc<l to en^a^e in the fur 
trade, nndcr special regulations to he ))rc>cril)cd 
upon the subject in all the ])la(:es within the 
Uussiaii possessions wherein the exclusive ri^lit 
of the Kussian-.\nicrican Company is ahulished 
as stated above. All other Kiis.sian suhjccts not 
periimnent residents of the Colonies shall be free 
to trade with the natives fur furs, but not to 
engage in hinitini; fur-bcnring aniuials. 



l;i;visi;i/ Tl:.\Nsl.\TinN. 

Ill ralnlion, liowcver, to the fur industry— 

1, To secure to the Itussian- Amcicnn Compniiy 
niitil the 1st .lanuary, ISsl!, the exelnsive right to 
carry on the fur industry and the fur trade within 
the following' limits only ;— 

On the I'cninMila of Alaska, roekoning as its 
northern limit n line drawn from Cniir" llouglas, 
in Kenia liiiv, to the head of I.akc Imiamna: on 
all the islands lying along the coast of that 
peninsula; on the Aleutian, Commander, and 
Kiirih^ Islands and llioic lying in liehring Sea, 
and nls:) nbnig the whole western co.ist of 
Bchring Sea; but to revoke in the district to the 
north-east of the Peninsula of .\la-ka along the 
whole coast to the boundary of the Hritisli 
])ossessions, also on the islands lying along this 
eoust, including in that number Sitka and the 
whole Kolosliian Archipelago, and also, on land, 
to tlic ntirtliern extremity of tlii' Ainerieaii 
Continent, tlie privilege grunted to tlie Company 
of the exclusive pr.iseeulion of the said industry 
and trallie. 

2. I'lie colonial inhabitants and the settlers 
who are Russian subjects residing permanently in 
the Cohmies are perinilted to carry on the fur 
industry, in conformity with the speci.al regula- 
tion which must he ndopted for that jnirpore, in 
those parts of tlie Kussian possessions where the 
the exclnsiyc right to the said industry is not 
reserved to the llussian-.'ineriean C,)m])aiiy ; all 
other Kussian subjects are permitted only to trade 
with the natives in fur goods, and art, not admitted 
to a share in the fur industry itself. 



A true copy 
(Signed)' 



A. TlMKDVSKI, 

C/iic/ clerk. 



A true co|)\ 
(Signed) 



A. 'I'lMKOVSKI, 

Vlii>lCl(i-K. 



[The I'.ortions of this p:ii:cr nut given were eorrrcllv Iraii'-'ated in I'liileil Slates' Case, 

Appendix, vol. i.] 



No. 1!). 



No. 1!). 



('i.iinrninff //le pniiitiiiii of ii fomiU Clntrlcr to Ilic 
Ihissiiiii-AineiicHit Ciimpmni. 

HI'S Imperi.'d .Majesty lias deigned to confirm 
the <ipini(in of the • General Session of the Couiitil 
of State concerning the revision of the Charter 
of the Uussian-Amctiean Company and the 
orgaiilzalion of the Itussian-Ameiican Colonies. 
and to order the same to be carried into cHect. 
(Signed) KONSTAM'hV, 
I'resiikiit of the Coniic'd of Slate. 
Jpril 2, \SGG. 

Ojiinio.-i (if the Council (/ Slatc-f 

The Council of State in the llcpartment of the 
Imperial Domain in its general session Inning 
c;onsidercd the JJeport of Ministir of Finance 
iroiicerning the revision of the Charter of the 
Uussinn-.Vir.eriean Company and the organization 
of the Uussian-Anicricaii Colonies, ■.'ciulered the 
following oiiinioii : In mddilication and exnlana- 
lion of the respective provisio is contained in the 
opinion of the Council of Stale, approved by the 

• II i-s i-It'ur frnm tlii> rontL'Xl t!iat it is intendt'tl tu refer to tlie 
cMtcrn Aliore of Uelirin^ Seu. 

+ i.oiHcd Irom tlie JiiurriHla nf the Imperial rminrils of I'ulilie 
roniain, Jnnunry 10 and March 2, and ul'tlic I'lttinry Couiieil uf 
Mareh 14, 18CG. 



Ciiiirerniirj thr i/r'niliitti of n Jtiiirth Clitirli 
liiiKsiiin-.\ no rieaii ( 'o/ajjiiiii/. 



to the 



TIIK Imperial Cuuncil in the Department of 
Imperial Kcononiy and in general ussenibly, 
Iniving exainined the communieation .if the 
Minister of I'inaiice on the subject of the revision 
of the Charter of the Russiaii-Ainericaii ( 'omimny 
and the organizatiin of l!ic Uussian-Americini 
(.'olonics, has adopted the following Kesokitioji in 
iiioditieation and explanation of the principal 
bases of the new Charter of the llussiaii-Aineriian 
t,'onipany and the organization of the Colonics, 
recited in the Resolution of the Imperial Council, 
approved by the ICmperor lll'.i .Fune, IS(i.): 



Orioinal Translation. 

Knippror on the 14tli June, lH(i5, concerning the 
principal features of tlie new Charter of the 
Riissinn - Ariicriniii ('(iiripiiny and of Cohinial 
re'jiihiliiiiis. it is ordained :— 

1. (As to Artieh- 1.) The duration of the privi- 
hfics ti) he i;raiitt(i for tHciity years t<i the 
Uiissiari- Anieriiaii Cnnipaiiv shall he rcekoned 
from the date of the approval of tlie C/'ljartcr, and 
not from the 1st January, IHiil'. 

3. (As to Article 15, letter «.) The exclusive 
ri':ht of the Conipany to enu!i!;e in the fur trade 
throughout the entire cuiduial territory shall he 
continuid; pnyideil that tiie manner of carrviii;; 
on such trade shall he detennim-d hv re};id:itiipiis, 
to he prescrdjcd upon consultation with the 
Miinstrv of Imperial Domains. 

'« • • • 

4. fAs to Articles S and 0.) The provisions to 
be included in the new Charter of the Company 
conrernin^ the openin;,' to free trade of tie ports 
of New Ari'liuii!;el and .Sitli.T, and of St. I'aul, on 
Kadi^iU lslai;d. and the introduction into the 
Colonics •generally of such tiade and of indnstrii s, 
also the provisions coiiccniin'; the im])ortation 
and sale ol spirituous liipiors. and the supplying; 
of arms and powd<T, shall he in accorilance with 
the propositions now submitted by the Ccunpany; 
jn'ovided that the commercial nuinopoly hereto- 
for;' enjoyed by the I 'onipany shall under no 
piitcxt he continued. 



48 



Hevised Translation. 



1. (In Clause I.) That the period of twenty 
years for the duration of the m-w privilei>es, 
ri^dits, and (djllifatiuns of the Uussiaii-.Xmcrican 
Coinpnny be rccki>ned. not from the 1st January, 
lxi'>2, but from the date of the contirniatioii of 
those privilej;es. 

'J. (In Clause \!>.) That the exclusive rii;ht of 

carryiii'.,' on the fur industry and the fur trade be 

secured to the Comp.anv throu'^hont the extent of 

the <'ijlonial territory; at the same time, with 

rcfjaril to the canvinj^ on of the tnr imlustry. 

lixed regulations musi be adopted, by agreement 

with the Minister of the Imperial I). ■main. 
• • • « 

•I. fin Clauses K and '.'.) Thai, while im-luihn:? 
in the new Charter of the Conipany the regula- 
tions conccndnu the opetMM'j; of I'iv piTts of New 
.Arehan-jcl, on Sitka Island, and St. I'aul, in 
Kndiak, for free trade, those ripranlin^ the 
permission to carrv on certain iiulustries in the 
Colonies j;enerally, and those on the subject of 
the iiTip<irtation aiul sale of s)n'.itu'ius liquors in 
the Colonies ami the supplying them with arms 
and ])owder, the recommendations mn\ presented 
by the Coiii; .>.iy on this subject be adopted, 
yvithout permittinu'. however, the commercial 
monopoly which the Company has hitherto 
enjoyed to be continued in force uniler any 
pretext whatsocNer. 



The orii;inal i.-< signed in the journals by the 
Presidents ami mendicrs. 
Certified by — 

(Signed) Yf:RMAK()FF, 

J' ire- Director. 
K. RADE'I'SKI. 

Chief of Diviaion. 



True copy : 

(Signed) 



.v. TiMKOVSKY. 



True copy : 
(Signed) 



(Signed) YERMAKOFF, 

Vice IHrei lor. 
K. RADKTSKI. 

Chief of Dirinioii. 



A. T1.MK0VSKY. 



No. 20. 
Proclamation. 



No. •!(!. 
Proclnmation. 



IT is hereby proclaimed to all whom it may 
concern that, if any person or persons, after 
reading these presents, docs not immediately 
abandon Russian territory [or waters], or continue 
forhiddcii trade or trathe, they shall he seized 
fortliwitb upon t!ie arrival of the first Russian 
vessel upon the scene of their illegal transactions, 
and taken for trial to New Archangel, and all 
{joi.'ds, as well as the vessel found in possession of 
such ])ersons, shall be eiuiliscated. 

Given at the port of New Archangel, on the" 
luirlii-we.st coiLst of America, this 8th (iOth) day 
of September, 1864. 



NOTICE is hereby given to all to whom it may 
eoiiccrn tliat if, after reading this, they do not 
immediately leave Russian territory, and do not 
desist from prohibited tratfic, they will, on the 
arrival of a Russian vessel, be arrested and sent for 
trial to Xew Archangel, Sitka, and their mer- 
chandize and ships, if such are found, yyill be 
confiscated. 



Given at the port of New .Vrchangcl, on the 
north-west coast of America, this M\ (20th) 
September, 18t)4. 



rii7j 



N 



OniCINAI, TliANRLATlllN. 

No. 21. 

Letter from thf liiiani of Aitmiuhlraliitn iif *hf 
iiUnsiun - Anwriran C'nnn'iiti/ t<t Ali'itimfrr 
Andrcicritch liiiranof, i'liirj' Mninii/ir iif l/ie 
Rit.if'mn - Amc ican Cotfinici. If'rilliii /nun 
SI. I'clersl'urij, A/iril (i, 1H17. 

TlIK Hoiiril <if Ailiniuislriiticiii nf tlic ("oniiiniiy 
incloses hcrcwifli, f .r your irif.iiMiation, a copy <pf 
u Report from tin; Ki;iklit:i oHic-i', uliiliiiK to llie 
f'avDiiriible reception liy the CliinoM- at, Kinklitn 
of fiir-sciil skins. ;inil ilcsiros yoii to use vour best 
cndi'UvouM to send to OiJiotvk for the' KiiilJila 
market siicb kinds of fnr.s as are prefcrrcil l>v tlie 
Ciiinese, and not to send any V'am^ sea-lioii 
skinii. 



44 



Iiielosnre in No. '.'1. 



lieport iif Ihr Kiii/iklti Offlrp In llw Ikiard iif 
Adiniiiislriilioii oj l/iv lliixsian - Ainvn'mii 
Cftnijittny. 

(No. 137.) h'vhruarii H, I8I7. 

THIS otHce had tlic honour to nceive on tlie 1st 
instant tlie order of tlie Hoard of Adiniaistralion, 
dated tlie lltli Hcccniber, iHlfi, No. Jl.'p, in wliicli 
directions are i;iven in disposinL; of tlie fur-seal 
skins received by the ship " Sueorof " I0 observe 
what kinds of skin.-i are preferred. In reference 
to this the oflice has the honour to report that 
the fur-seal skins from both the ships " Kon- 
slantin " and " Suvorof " were sold toijelher, liut 
it was noticed, from the manner in uhieb the 
skins were received by the Chinese, that the 
4,50 baclielor and yor-ii; bull skins from the ship 
"Suvorof " were not .nccepted as California skms, 
whicli are considered ))y the Chinese to lie worth 
one and a half times as much as the jjrays. The 
bulls and younj; bulls reeeived bv the " Kon- 
stantin" are valued still hi|;lier than the baclielors, 
although the hair on them is coarse, and cannot 
be utilized ; the skins, however, are large, of 
good texture, and of whitish-yellow colour, the 
hair hcin"; plucked (nit so as to leave onlv the fur 
on the skin. The fur thus obtained is dved and 
is then ready for use. The ^'ravs IVoin the ship 
"Suvorof" have eleanerl akin, but short hair, 
and are rather thin. They were valued lower 
than those from the •' Konstantiii."' which, 
althoujih of a paler <-olour and with reddish spots, 
arc larger in size and have a thicker and longer 
fur. Our friends (the Chinese) are very particular 
as to quality, and not less jiartieular as to size ; 
they sort and measure by inches, and they 
therefore valued the skins lirought by tin '• Kon- 
stantin" higher than the bachelors and grays 
from the " Suvorof." The young sea-lion skins 
received by this office have been exhibited, but 
inasnmeh as they have no fur and short hair, 
though they make a very good hide, our friends 
refused to take them at any ])rice, but asked that 
they he given a couple of skins to take to Kalgan, 
where they might ascertain by e.\prrininil whether 
they eoulil be utilized for any purpose. 



(Signed) DEMETllI KUZNETZOF, 

Mamiger. 
VASSILI JOUKOF, 

Bookkeeper. 



Revised Thanst.atios. 
No. 21. 

Ijell'i- finiii Ihr Tioard itf A'lmini'tritlioii of thf 
llii'xiin- Aiiieririn fnni/iniii/ to Ali'.nindifr 
Aiidriirvih'li ll(iminif, I'hie'f Mdiiiif/er of the 
Jiiis.iiiiii- .lineririiii ('idniiiin. ll'rilU'ii from 
Si. I'elurshuvy, .l/iriin, IHI7. 

IN rcplv to yo\n- ciHunmidcation the Hoard of 
.\dministr itioii inelosi's herewith an extract from 
the reiiort of the Kiaehta factory concerning the 
prolilalde trade in seal-skins with the Chinese at 
Kiaehta. ami ilesires that yi>u will make spei'ial 
elhirts to send to Okotsk, for Kiaehta. those kinds 
whicli are most acceptable to the Chinese. Do 
U'lt send any .sea-lion skins. 



inelosiire in No, '2\. 



Offire In Iif Hoard of 
I'ii.i.ii'iii-Aiiii rirnii Coiit- 



.\o. 7l.'i of the 

'le Hoard was 

of the scid- 

. oroB," to notice 

;hly than others. 

KUiour to re|)ort 

by llie ship 



Hefnrl of Iif Ki'irlild 

.Idoihihlralton of the 

ponij. 

Fe'oniurtj H, ISI7. 

THIS factory had the honour, on the 1st 
rcbruaiy, to receive the instru 'ons of the Hoard 
of .\tlministratioii of theC.,n> 
1 Ith lleceniber. IHlli), in • 
l)leascd to instruct us, in ' 
skins received by the ship" .I,, 
what kinds sire prized more hi; 
In reply, this fictiiry has the 
that the seal-skins reeeived 
'"Suvoroir" and by the '• Constan;inc " were 
disposed of in a lot, hut from the acceptance and 
deinaiids of the Cliinesc it was observed thiit the 
I'll) bachelors and young bulls brought by the 
".Suvorotf," which were not even called Californias, 
are valued by the Chinese at half as much again 
as the gravs. The bachelors broil dit by the 
" Constant' :ie" were far bi'tler, as tliev value them 
at twice the price of the u'rays; and the bulls and 
young bulls received by the '• Constantiie " still 
higher than the bachelors, although the hair on 
them is coarse and not tit for use. They are 
large and on the tlesli side are very good. They 
are rf a vellowish-wliite e")<)iir. The Chinese 
pull mil the hair and only leave the down, which 
they live, and they use them in that condition. 
The L;ravs liroiii^ht by the '• Suvorotf" are very 
clean on the Hesh sitle. but the fur is not long. 
They are thin and of less value thin those 
received by tiie " (Jonstantinc," which, although 
ti.ev are not clean on the llesli side, and although 
they have a paler colour and reddish spots, are 
larger and have longer and thicker fur. Our 
friends have very sharp eyes for quality, and not 
less for size. Thev assort and measure them to 
an inch, and hence they value those briamht by 
the " Constantine" more highly than those 
brought bv the " JSuvoroH," both bachelors and 
gravs. Tlie sea-lion skins received by thi:! factory 
ivere siiown theui, but. while they were very good 
on the llesh side, there was no down on them, and 
the hair was coarse, so that our friends will not 
take them at any |)riee ; and they only asked for 
two sea-lion skins, which they intend to carry to 
KaUan for the purpose of experimenting with 
them and seeing whether they cannot put them to 
some use. 

(Signed) DKMETRI KUZNETZOF, 

Manager. 
VASSILI JOUKOr, 

Jiook-kfeper. 






ORtOINAL ThANSLATION. 

No. 22. 

Lfller from llf fionril if Ailiiii'iiilrati><ii nf the 
It'ifnian-Arrrirnii <'iim/i"nii Id Cnptain of Ihr 
h'ir.il Itdiik- iiml Kfhilil .iilntf i',iil;fit,'ii Ktliitllii, 
< liiff Miiiiiiiiir of the /lu'Huiii - Ami-n'rnn 
Cnl'inief. IVrittvn I'rum Sf. I'elmbiir'i, 
Marr/i ,S. IHi;!. 



•46 



Revised Tiiansi.ation. 
No. 22. 

/.filer from tlif Hwixl 'if A<htiinulrntiim (,f the 
Riixninii-Aiiiiriraii (oih/unn/ In ('irji/niii nf the 
Fiml /i'Di/,- mill Jiiiii/lil Ji/nl/' Cirl'ivllrh 
Elhnlin^ Cli'iff Maiiii'ier of l/if finniniiii- 
Aiiii-ririin C'lniiii!i, IFritlen from St. I'fttm- 
buni, Miirc/i 8, 18i;!. 



Till) rfi;uliiticiiis of the fn.-M.al iiiiliistrv 
imMitiiini'd III yiiiir <li'-.|)iil('li No. '-H7 of tlie 
9tli May, ISI.{. arc liiliv iiiipnucil iui'l coiilirnu'd 
by the Uo:ii(l ot Adniiiiiitiiition. and the pniposeil 
chise season on the Ishiiid of .SI. (Jeor'_'e and the 
Coinr.mnder Ivhiiid-. is liireliy ordered. Kor tlic 
pnr|iose of preserving; tliis most viihiahle resouree, 
the lii'ard of .Vdministrntlon respeeffolly requests 
you to make it your ])crmanent nde to eonduct 
the annual eateli in sueh a manner that not only 
the rooker-i» will not he depleted, hut that they 
will he allowed to inerense, i.i:, that the annual 
increase should alw.iys exeecd the annual ealcli. 



In order not to disturb priees at present, an 
nnnual shipnient of lO.lMM) t'ur-seal skins to 



Russia will sulliee. 
(S-ned) 



WR\N(iHL. 
.\. SKVKKIN. 
N. I'ROKOFYKF, 
N. KUSOK, 

Directors. 



TMK Hoard of .\dininistratioii fuUv approves 
the arran^'ements fur kjiliii;; seals de-.eriljcil l>v 
you in despatch No. 'Js" of the lltli Mav. I^ilj. 
and permits you to irihlitute on the Commander 
Islands and St. (ieorj;e the elose season which 
you propose. In general, 'or the greatest 

possihle preservalic f this precious animal, 

the Hoard of -Administration recpie-sls you to 
adopt as on invariable rule the following: To 
prosecute the annual killing; of the seals in such 
manner that thry tv.;:y not only not he exter- 
minated on the roolierii s, but, on the contrary, 
may eonlimially mcrcase in numbers, that is to 
say, that the amount of the annual in'^rease may 
be always i^reater than the number of auimals 
killed. 

At the present time the .ihiproent of 10,000 
seal-skins to liiissia every year will he sufticient 
to prevent a (all in prices. 

(Signed) WKANfJRf., 
A. SKVKRIN, 
\. I'ROKOKYKF, 
N. KUSOF. 

DivfrtDrs, 



No. a.!. 



No. 2.S. 






Letter from the Jloaril of Ailmimflration of the 
liiissimi-Amerifttn Coinp'iiii/ In Captain of l/w 
Iiiiju'riat Xai-i/ nf' Ihv Sn'tiiiil liniih Ah'xtiiidvr 
llilc/i liiiilakiif. H'rilliii frniii SI. I'elernburn, 
April 22, ISbX 

FROM dcs|)atehes received from your FaccI- 
leney's predecessor, we learn that the fur-seals in 
the Colonies are rapidly ineieasin'.;, and as there 
is every appearance of a good m.irket for the same, 
the Hoard of .\dniinistration instructs you here- 
with to make all necessary arraii^eiiierits for 
carryin;; on the sealinj; industry on ad the islands 
frequented by these animals to the full extent of 
their capacity, without depleting the rooUeries. 
The rules for the protection ot fein lies, iSie., will 
be strictly observed as heretofore. 

Of the fur-seal caleli you \vill forward annually 
6,000 skins to Kiakhta by w.iy of Ayan ; 10,(K)0 
skins to Shanghac, ami the remaiiuler to St. I'eters- 
buri; on the t!oin|)aiiy's sliijis. 

At the present time, the Hoard of .Vdministra- 
tion orders the diseontiiniance oi' the present 
process of salting skins, as being unfavourable to 
the sale of fur-seal skins. 

(Signed) V. POLITKOVSKY. 

l're.<ii'ling Officer. 
V. KLUI'FKL, 
A. KTliOLIN, 
N. KU^OF, 
Baron URANGELL, 

Meinberg. 



Letter from the Hoard if Ailmiiiiatraluin of the 
liimiiiiin-.liiiiiican C'lni/aiiii in I'apt'iiii if llic 
/ihjiirinl A'i;r// if /be Sroinl J',iiik .ilfxnudvr 
lli/ch /.'«(/«/,../■. U'ril/eii fruiii SI. teiersbiirg, 
April 22, 1 « 53. 

SICFING, from despatches received from your 
Excellency's ))reilecessors that the seals in the 
Colonies are rapidly increasing in numbers, and 
foreseeing a re,:ular demand for them, the Hoard 
of Administration instructs you to make corre- 
sponding arrangements, in order that hercalter, 
until further instructions, the killing of seals may 
be prosecuted on all the islands which they 
frequent to sucli an extent as may seem possible 
williout impoverishing the rookeries. The rules 
for ilie protection of the cows, fie, must be 
observed as heretofore. 

Of the seals killed, (J.OOO must be sent every 
year by way of Ayan to Iviachta, 10,000 to 
Shanghae, and all that remain to St. Petersburg 
by the vessels going around the world. 

At the same time the Hoard of .\dniinistratiou 
suggests that you stop salting the seal-skins, as 
has been done heretofore, since it has a had 
cirect upon their sale. 

(Signed) V. POLITKOVSlvY. 

Presiding Officer. 
V. KLUI'FEL, 
A. ETUOLIN, 
N. KUSOF, 
Haron \V RANG EL, 

Members. 



CBIGIXAL TI'ANSLATION'. 

No. 24. 



46 



EEA'ISED TllANSLATION. 

No. 24. 



Letter from the Board of Adviinhlralion of the 
llimsiaii- American Companii to Captain of the 
First H'lnk niid Ki>i;iht Slepan Vnssilicvilch 
Voi/i'vo<lxh/, Chief Miiii'ir/ir of t/ic Hussiaii- 
Anivricnn Colonii.t. ifritlcn from St. Peters- 
hiiri/, April 24, 1S;')4. 

IN Ms (Irspatoh No. .",1R, dated the .3nih May, 
IR5.'?. Cii|it;!in Kudiikof, in reportiiiix the increase 
of fur-seals on tlio Island of St. Paul, and his 
aption vclatini; to the fur-seal industry, requests v. 
decision from tlie I?oard of Administration as to 
the luiniber of seals t<i be killed in the future, and 
t.lie grade of skins pnfiired. 



Tlic Hoard of Adininistration, therefore, respect- 
fully requests your Kxeelleucy to order the killing; 
principally of bachelors, the older the better, 
since our customers i:re e.auer to secure lar^'e 
skins. Small seals should be killed only in 
numbers sufiieicnt to supply the demand for oil 
and food for the natives. Since, however, at 
present, the demand for fur-seal skins has sonu'- 
what diminished, the caleh may be limited to 
such a number as will not interfere with a regular 
increase, until a greater demand ha? aL;ain been 
created. To this em! the Board of Managers is 
devoting all its energies. 

' (Signed) " V. KLUPI^KL, 

Presidiny Officer. 
A. ETHOLIN, 
X. KUSOF. 
Karon WRA.VGKr.L, 

Mimbers. 



Letter from the Board of Adminislratiun of t/te 
Jhtsfian- American Comjtany In Captain if the 
Firist Itanii and Ktiiijld Sleimn l-'us.iiifrvdch 
Voyev.idshij, Chief Maiiai/ir of the llii^nian- 
Anivrican Colmiii'S. Written from St. Peters- 
burg, April %i, 1851. 

CAPTAIN of the Second Class Ruck-ikoff. in his 
des|iateli No. 31s of the .iOI U May, \H'j?,, re- 
porting to the Board of Administration the 
increase of seals on the Island ol i^t. Paid, and 
the anangenients niaih^ by him, in conseiincnce, 
with re;_',iid to Killing them, inquire", ot the 
Board of Adininistr.ition what niunber of ihem 
must be killed in fut ire, and what kinds are 
preferred. 

In reply, the Board of Administration respect- 
fully reipiests vouv Excellency to order t'lat 
bachelors be killed in preference, the ohli-v the 
better, as the purchasers prefer large skins. 
Hence small seals must be killed oidy in such 
numbers as are necessary for obtijnin^ od to 
supply the demand; and. as at the pi'esent time 
the demand for seal -skins has considerably 
decreased, they must be killed, as a rule, only in 
such numbers as will not afleet their increase 
until a greater cUinand sets in, for which the 
Board of Administration is making constant 
exertions. 

(Signed) V. KLUPFKL, 

J'rifldiiii/ Officer. 
A. KT IK) I.I.N, 
N. KUSOF, 
Baron W RANG KL, 

Members. 



No. '25. 



No. 25. 



Letter frniii the lioavd of Admini.^1 ration of the 
RnKxinn-Ameriim C.mipamj to Cuplain of the 
Second Punk Prince Mak.iidui', C/iief Manaycr of 
the l\ut!'<iiin-Ami'rirun Colonim. Written from 
St. Pctersbnri/, Xovembcr, S, 18."(4. 

AT the ))re9ent time the nuirket for fur-scai 
skins is limited to the nnmher of ■l.i.dOO, namely, 
ill Xew- York, from L'O.dOO to L'I,00O;, .at St. 
i'etersburg, from l.'j.OOO to l(i,0O(l, and at 
Irkutsk, from "i.OOO to (),0n() skins, wiiich must 
all be of the best quality, /.'■ , fnll-giown males, 
lialf-gr.iwn malis, l.'Argc 'iiid mediuni bachelors. 

The whole nuudicr sent to New York iiiav be 
salted, but I he bu\ers demand that all fat m- Idubber 
be removed very earefiiUv previous to salting, for the 
better preservation ai.d fnrtiier |irepiiration of the 
skins. The skins may be shipped to New York bv 
San I'laneisco, preferaldy as supplementary freight 
on the clippers ol the New York and California 
Irade, as in this manner they <'iin be forwarded 
(juite cheaply. At .St. Petersburg only dried 
skins are m dcmami. These should be shipped 
in our own vessels, but in the .absence of such, 
they may also be shipped by !San Francisco or 
Victoria, preferably on ships hound for Lmuloii, 
where they will he consi;;iied lo IVIly and Co.. or 
to Hamburg, consigned to Strong and Co., 
thence to be forw.anlcd to tlicir destination, since 
no sliip.s bound foe St. Petersburg or Kronstadt 
can be found at Sun Fraueiseo, and to charter 
ijicclal vessels is very expensive. 



Letter from the Board of' Admimntration of the 
Piinsitm Amrririin Compani/ to Cuptnin if the 
Second L'nnh Prince .Miik.iuti;/'. Chief Mmnuier 
of the /iiiHuion - Ainericiin Cuionten. ilritten 
from SI. Pelerslnirrf, November 8, 185-1. 

AT present the sale of seal-skins has risen to 
•t.1,0()0, namely, 20,000 to 21,()0() at New York, 
15.000 to l(l,()b() at St. Petersburg, and 5.000 to 
(),000 .at Irkutsk. They must he of the best 
quality, that is to say. large and medium bulls, 
young bulls, and bachelors. 

The whole quantity sent to New York may be 
saltcl, but the purchasers re(|uest that in salting 
them the oil be removed from them as carefullv 
as possible, for the better preservation and (or 
the further dressing of the skins. They must be 
sent there by way of San F'raiuiseo, prelcrablv, 
to complete the cargoes of vessels going lo New 
York, because by this arr.ingemeiit the delivery 
of them w ill i^ost much less. 

Only dried seal - skins are in demand at 
St. Petersburg, and they must he sent there 
by our own vessels going round the world, or, 
ill the absence of these, by way of San Francisco 
or Victoria: but. preferablv. lo complete car^o on 
vessels going to London, to Mr. Pellv. or to 
Hamburg, to Mr. Sture, for further dispatch 
to their destination, as at San Fiaiieiseo it is 
impossible to liiid <-> vessel with cargo going to 
St. Petersburg or Kronstadt, uiid it would be 



Original Translation. 



47 



At Iiknisk also, (inly dry skins arc required ; 
tiicv may be forwarded by Ayan. 

At tlie same time tlie Board of Administration 
asks vou to make arianL'ements to enable you, 
willi (lie proposed iiierease in tbe tur-iieal ealeb to 
5n.0(tn skins |ier annnm, to slop I.i,<)(i0. as 
iiiilunted above, in due time to tlieir several 
des( illations, storing; tlie remainder at Xew 
Arelian^'el lor u^e in ease of special demands. In 
(iriler that ibese stored >kiiis niav not spoil in tbe 
w;irebmi>es yon will make it a ride to skip tbe 
reserve of eaeli year to Russia in tlicr fullinvin>; 
yi ar, rejilaeiiiv ibem from tbe new siir|i!us. I'be 
killiiiL; of small seals sboiild be avoided altogether, 
if possible, but, if it must be dune, for llie sake uf 
proeurini]; food, you must lind nn-iiiis of usins tbe 
skins for eUitbiie,' in tbe (^ilonies, kecpin;^ a 
stnet wateb to prevent tbeir falHii;; into tiie 
bands of foreign traders. In tbe opinion of tbe 
Hoard there eaii be no dillieultyin prepariii;; sueb 
small skins in tbe Colonies, where so many men 
are in need of em|dnyment whom we eaii more 
easily assist in this wav than with direct eharitv. 



In connection with 
iniivket for the snuill 
Aiiiiiinistration wouUl 



this objeef of finding a 
seal-skin-, the Board of 
sk vol! lo iiilroduee their 
lisr as i.ii »rli<'lc of elolhiiiL; amoiiL; the savaijes of 
tbe iiortlieni districts, wlio i ay purchase them 
wil!i other furs, which the Coinpanv could dispose 
of at a greater jirolit. The principal idijeet in 
trviiii; to accustom the natives to the use ot small 
fui-,^eal skins for their clothing is, of course, to 
prevent their falling into the hands of foreigners. 



(Signed) V. KLUPFKL. 

Pi'i'sitliin) Officcy. 
S. TKMKNKoi', 
V. /AVollvO. 

MimlifrD. 



Revised Translation. 

very expensive to charter one for that special 
purpose. 

()iily dried sal-skins are in demand at Irkutsk, 
and they must be .sent by wav of .\yan. 

The ftoani of .\dininistration therefore rejuests 
you to make arianijenients so that in future, until 
there is a possibility of increasing tbe demanL for 
seal-skins, i.bcnit as many as ')(),<',()() niav be kil'ed 
in the Cohiides every year, of good quality as 
above directed, 1.5,000 of which will be sent at 
the ))roper time to tlieir destination, and tbe 
remainder kept in reserve at New .\reliangel for 
the eontingenev of a special demanrl, and, in order 
that those stored may not be injured by lying so 
long in tiie warehouses, vou will make it .i rule to 
ship them the following year to lUissia in exchange 
for the skins of the new catch which will remain 
in the warehouses. I'urtberinorc, you will en- 
deavour, so tar as possible, to kill nunc of the small 
kinds of seal, but if it is iiinaissiblo to avoid this, 
yo'i are permitl<d to n-e them for clothing in the 
t'olouies, taking special care that they are not sold 
to foreign vessels iiudresseil. In the opinion of 
the Hui.rd of Administration there will tie no 
ditlieulty in dressing them in the Col.mies. as 
then^ are inanv people there in need of work, 
especially in the distrii-ts, to whom this woidd 
furnish the means of earning something 

.\t the same lime, in iirder to lied a market for 
small seal-skins, the Hoard of AJininistration 
requests vcni to endeavour to introduce the use of 
tbeni H.Tiong ih,' savages in tbe north, wirb whom 
they might be e.\c!:anged .'or furs, the acquisition 
of which would be of great advantage t<i the 
• 'omi^anv. In doing tl is we have ebielly in vinv 
the fact that by this means the savages would 
aeeustoui themselves to the use of seal-skins for 
their clo'.hii'.g, and thereby, so far as possible, the 
the sale of tiieni to foreign vessels would be 
prevented. 

(Signed) V. KM;PI''KL, 

/'iv.tiiliin/ Olfircr. 
N. TKI'iENKOF, 
V. ZAVOIKO. 

,IA ,,/'"/-. 



No. M. 



No. 'M-K 



Litter from lln- Jiminl iif Ailiiiiuhhufh ,_•/ l/ir 
HiLisiiiii-Aiiirrii'iin ('uiii/iiini/ In (ap/oit <>/ l/ic 
lirsl Itiiiik mid Kiiii/lit Sfi/iiin Viissihirilih 
I'lii/cimilsh/. t'liiej Xl'iiiiiiiir of l/ie l!>is.iiau- 
Ammniii ('uluiili'H. ll'iitlcii from A I'eters- 
/iiirij, Jiiiii- Tl, 1857. 

1\ reply to vour Kxcellency's despatch No. 11 
of the Ittii March, coiieerning the shi])ment of 
fir-, lo New Vork and .Shaiighae, tbe Hoard uf 
.Ailministralion has the honour to inform vou that 
the aiiuial demand for fur-seal skins in Uus'^ia 
has now imieaseil to 1,},000 dry skins, of whieb 
5,00') are for the Kiukbta market ; at this place 
onK 2,(K)0 be.ivers will he reqiiiicil. The 
remaining number of fur-seal.-, r_',OI)0 or more. 
Jirii'cipally salted (in which shape they are 
pri'l'evredl, you will dispatch in the autumn lo 
Vlessrs. Lobaeb and Sche|ipler, of New York, 
iinmeilialely niter IIm arrival of th,' sliip from the 
districts, wttli.iul snbjcetin;; the skins to any kind 
(d' ir<'atment li! New Archangel, leaving them just 
us they are when they arrive from the districts, 
and in the same puekiigcs. 



[ILT 



LiHir fioin the Hoard of Adniiiiinlralioii oj the 
liiifsiiiK-Aiiiiri'dii (^oin/iuni/ to Cn/dain of the 
First /ionk and h'iii<i/it Sic/fni Voxs'iliviili'h 
I'oijnodski/, Chiff Mniini/er nf tin- A'h.«.v/!ih- 
AiiieriC'iit Ciiloiiien. Il'rittei: from St. J'eteri:- 
liiiri/, Jiiiir '), 1857. 

IN replv to your lOxeelieney's despatch No. tl 
of the ;Uh March, with regard lo sbippii:g fur« to 
New York and Slmnghae, the lioard of .adminis- 
tration has lie honour to inform you that the 
annual demand hir seal-skins in Kussia has now- 
risen to l.'),000. 5.01 II of which are to be shipped 
to K'iaehta. Only ',',1)00 river-beaver skins are 
requind for Kiaclila: ihe reiiminiiig number of 
seal-skins, sav up lo l.'.OOO and more, preferably 
salted ones, wlneli an- Nnlned more bigiilv ibcrc, 
vou are instructed to send t.i New' \ '••:]: to 
Messrs. Lobaeb ami Shepler, in the autumn, 
i. •Mcdialelv aflerthe arrival of the \esscls from till 
districts, without subjecting them lo any prepara- 
tions at. Ne'v ,\riliangel, and leaving them in the 
same condition and packed in the same way in 
which they are received from the districts. 

o 



48 



Original TRANaLATioN. 



Revised Thakslation. 



At tne samp time the Board ot Administration 
places upon tlie men in diarjre of scaling can^s 
the stricti'st injunctions to discontinue the liiliini; 
of small gray ^eals, and iu no case to ship them 
away from the Cole nies, since they seriously 
interfere with jn'ofitable sales of fur-seals in 
liussia and in foreign markets, wlicrc only the 
larger skins secure good ])rices 

(Signed) V. POLITKOVSlvY, 

Presiding Officer. 
V. KLUPFKL, 
A. ETHOLIN, 
M. TEBENKOF, 

Members. 



With rcijard to the river-bcavfr skins the 
Roard of Administration, although it has received 
infornniticm that ihe licaver-skins have now fallen 
in tlie market at New York to 2 r. 72 k. per skin, 
it still requests you, as the prices arc not high in 
other j)laces, to ship the said hcaver-skiiis (ex<ept 
2,l)(l() which arc needcil for Kiachta) to New 
York without fail. The Board will ccminuniicate 
to y(m I'.ercafter eonccrniiif; fnrther arrangements 
with regard lo the bcaver-skins. 

Furtlicrmore, the Board of Administration 
reque:<ta you to send no other furs to New Vork, 
except, [leiiiaps, white fo.xes. which have gone 
down to almost nothing at Kiachta. iou nnist 
send no furs to Shanghae without special instruc- 
tions. 

At the same time th'? Board of Administration 
.also requests vou to give strict instructions to the 
canoemcn (" bidarkimen ") lo stop, as far as 
possible, killing tlie small gray seals, and on no 
account lo sliip them from the Colonies, because 
they greatly inteifere wilh the |)rofilable sale of 
scal-skius in Russia and in the for 'ign market, as 
the large skins alone are in special demand and 
can be sold at good prices. 

(Signed)' V. I'OMTKOVSKV, 

Pmsiiiini/ Offucr. 

V. KLUPFEL, 

A. ETIIOLIN. 

M. TEHKNKOF, 

Members. 



No. 27. 

Letter from the Chief Manager nf the liiis.nnn- 
American Cohmies to the Hoard nf Admini.ilra- 
tion of the Susxian-A mtrirnn Covipaiiij. Written 
from the Colonies, October 7, 1857. 



Concerning Fur-seals and Beavers. 

REFERRlN(i to the despatches of the Board 
No5. fi.SS and C50, dated respectively the 'ith and 
10th June, and received on the 7th September of 
this year, I have the honour lo report that the 
instructions contained therein in regard to fur-seals 
and beavers will be carried into elicit r.t once. 
From the fur-seal skins on hand 1(»,00() have liecn 
packed and forwarded by the slii|i " Czarevitch " 
to Kronstadt; 6,000 skins will be put aside for 
shipment to Kiakhte by way of .\yaii. and the 
remainder, about ."),()00 skins, not inehiding i^rays, 
will De forwarded to New York, togellnr with all 
the beaver-skins which can be collected, except 
the 2,000 skins destined for Kiakhla. 

The fur-seal skins require no working over in 
New Archangel, but when the fact is taken into 
consideration that they will have to sland the 
passage across the F.quiitor and the Tropics twice, it 
will hardly be safe to send tlicni lo .New Vork, as 
indicated in the despatch of the '?oiir(l. in llu' 
same iiaekages in which they are received from the 
various districts, ).<•., in bundles ef several lens ot 
skins, bimnd by leather straps. 

According to information received by me from 
Messrs. Loljeeb and Sheppler, the people at New 
York were greatly pleased wilh the way in which 
our skins were forwarded and packed, the same 
having been received in good order, and it is 
probable thai it would be better to cimtiinie 
packing in the same way, and, by way of expcri- 



No. 27. 

Letter from ihe Chief .Manager of the Tiunaian- 
Ameriran Colonies lo Ihe Hoard of Aihninixtra- 
lion if t/(f Ji'iisniaii-.lnieriruii Vom//(iiiy. II ritten 
from the Colonics, October 7, 1H,")7. 



Concerning Fur-Scids and Jk'avi:rs. 

IN reply to the despatches of the Hoard of 
Administration (Nos. I!.?.') and (iriO of the .'illi and 
lOtli June of this year), received on the 7lb Sep- 
tember, I have the honour to report that in lutiire 
the instruelions with rc:;ard to seals and river- 
beavers given in those despalches will be I'arried 
into due execution. lUit of the seal-skins now on 
hand iD.OOtt are packed up, which will he sent by 
the shij) '• Cesarevileh " to Kronstadt. 5.01)0 will 
be .set apart for shipment to Kiiichta liv wav of 
.Ayan, and the remainder, of which 'here will be 
about 0.000 1 leaving out the small grav seal-skins), 
will be sent lo New York, together with as maiiv 
bcaver-skins as can be collected after putting 
aside 2,000 of them for Kiachta. 

The seal-skins need no prcjiaration at New 
Archangel, but it would hardly be safe lo ship them 
to New York in the same packing 'as direcled in 
the despatch of the Hoard of Admiiiistrationj in 
which they are received from the districis — that is 
to say, lied up only with straps in bundles of 
several lens each — owing lo the fact that they 
must bear transpm-tation twice across the Iropics 
and the Equator. 

From information received by me frnm Messrs, 
I.obach and Sbepler, of New York, thev are very 
well satisticd with the paciiing in which our goods 
were shipped there, as they arrived in ^oofl 
eonditioii, and it would probably be betler, in 
.sending gonds in the previous packing, lo send 
only one or two bundles its an experiment in the 



Oricinal Thanslation. 

inent,to ?pnd two or three ]);icknc;cs in llip condition 
in whicli tliey are reeeivoil friirii tlie (-(jioniiil dis- 
tricts. 

Messrs. Loliccli n.id Shcppler iidvised lliiit in 
pacKiii;; llu; sliiiis sl'ould not lie folded on account 
of tlu'ir liabili';. id bre^ik at tlie folds; this a<lvice 
wil) I'c fr-Ilowed ill kitiuv in sliipping of skins 
aroinid ;lie world. 

The [ialtinu of fur-seals, which had been stopped 
by order of the Hoard, will he renewed next year : 
but inasniiieh as the orders to thai effect will 
reach ;he Ish.nds of .St. I'aul and St. (leori;e not 
carli<'r than in llu> sunnner of that year, the receipt 
of a sntiieient n'.iinher of salted shins from those 
islands in the same year cainui' be guaranteed. 

The experiment of saltin;; fiir-.seal skins in New 
Arehan;.;cl will also lie made. 

In rrffan' to ,^'ray seals, I have the honour to 
express the opinion that tlie nninber of such seals 
taken shonld be iiicrea.sed. Until now, onlv sucli 
number of these seals was taken as was necessary 
for obtainins; bluhher to supply the wants of the 
Aleuts on the islands and to send to St. Viicliael's 
Itedouht in cxihanijc lor skins furnished by the 
independent natives, but of late the demand lor 
bhilibcrin Xeu .Vrchanijel itself has been on the 
increase by reason of the increase in the number 
of steamers and ei'^ines. 

The blubber to be found in this market comes 
verv hinb, and in order to reduce the expense I 
sent orders to the Islands of St. I'anI and 
St. Oeorne fir suiiplies of fur-seal bin' ' it, and 
have now received about a thousand ins of 

seal oil, tlie cost of which a( San Franii -i would 
be nliout 8,000 pajier roubles. In view .f the 
a!):ive-stated considerations, while issuinj^' orders 
for the suppression, as far as practicable, of the 
killing of small gray seals, lit only l:ir oil and 
meat, as winter supplies, 1 find it necessary to 
re(|uest detinite instructions from the Hoard of 
Adiniiustration as to the absolute suspension 
of such killinu;. Should, however, the Hoard, in 
Tiew of the above-stated eir<'uinstanc 's, authorize 
the killing of ^ray seals in such (piantities as may 
i)e necessary for the supplies ol blubber and meat 
reipiired i)y the natives and residiuits on the 
Islinds of St. Paul and St. (ienr^e, in such case 
the (|uestion will arise as to the ilisposition of the 
skin. 



Al the present time, there are about ."i.OOO such 
skiiiS in the warclunise, and if about ,i,OIIII skins 
a-vear be taken, then in a lew years a (piantity 
will be accumulated which will require a <'orre- 
spoiidniglv large phice of stor.age, I am inclined 
to the opinion that in case thi> sending of such 
skins to Russia and f ireigii markets should |)rove 
unprolitablc.an allempt might be made l<i disi.ose 
of them in the Colonies for making garments and 
coals, which, if the tanning is gootl, may be 
sid)stituted for sheep-skm <'oats. 

.\s an experiinetit a few gariueiits might be 
mailc from the skins now lying unused in 
warehou.ses. 

Ill conclasion. I have the lininnir to report to 
tin' Hoard of Administration tiial, aeconliiig to 
information now rceriv-d, the fur-seal rookeries 
in all places, but particularly on the Isl.iiid of 
St Paul, are so crowded that all ,i'ailalile points 



ReVI.SED TRANSLATIOir, 

packing in which they are receivel from the 
districts of the f'olonies. 



.Messrs. Lobaeh and Shepler advise nic, in 
packing the skins taken, not to double them 
bteaiise they break at the folds, by wliieii advice I 
will be guided in f itiire in shipping goods around 
the world. 

The salting of the seal-skins, which was sio|)ped 
by order of the Hoard of .Administration, will 
be recommenced next year; but as tlic iiisirue- 
tions on this subject will reach the Islands of 
!St. Paul and St. (Icirgc ordy in the summer of 
next year, it is impossible to guarantee tliat wc 
shall be aide tii procure a sutHeient <iuaiitity of 
salted seal-skins next year. 

The experinii'iil of salting the skins at New 
Archangel will also be made. 

Witli regard to the small ^rav seal-si.:ins, I 
have the honour to express the opinion that oily 
such a number of them have been killed hitherto 
as was necessarv to procure the oil, the deniai d 
for which, without speakiini of the unavoidable 
necessity of supplying lln^ Aleuts on the ishnnls 
and ill shippini; a quantity to Fort Michael for 
exchange for furs with the savages th.eie, is in- 
creasing in New .\rchangcl itself, owing to the 
increased nundicr of steamers and steam-engines. 

The oil purchased costs very dear : hence, 
having in view the greatest possible economy in 
the expenditure of monev, 1 made arrangements 
on the Islands of St. Paul and .St. fieorge to 
procure oil from the seals, and about 2.')0 buekc ts 
of it have been receivc<l. The ])urehase of this 
qnantitv nf oil at San Kraneisco would Iiavc cost 
about ^,iHi(» paper roubles. 

I' 1, the above-nieiitionid rcasuiis, allhou;;li I 
am making .arrangements i t stopping the killing 
of small t;i:iy seals, so fai - possible, they being 
oidy fit to Inriiisb oil and -applies of meat neces- 
sary for the winter, still, I tiiid it necessary to 
respectfully request the Hoard of Admiin.stralioii 
to give me deliniti' instructions with regard to 
entirely stopping tin illing of this kind of seal ; 
hut if the Hoard .Vdmmistration should see 
fit, ni consideratiiin of the eircun',stam:es men- 
tinned, to jicrmit me to kill so many of the small 
gray seals as may be nei'essary to procure oil and 
supplies of meat lor the wini ; for ti;e inhaliitaMts 
of the Islands 'of St. Pani and St. George, in 
that ease the question would arise as to the 
disposition to be made of the skins of these 
small animals. 

At the present lime there are about ,"i,IMIO of 
them in the w.irehoiises, and by taking .!,000 every 
year a considerable number may accumulate in 
a few years, lequiring a corresponding space for 
storage, 

I suggest that, if it is not yet expedient to 
send grav seal-skins to Uu.ssia ami to hireigii 
markets for .sale, then we might try the experi- 
ment of using them in the Colotiies for robes 
and overcoats, wdiieli, after biiiig well dresKC<l, 
might take the place of the common sheop-skiu 
cuats. 

Bv way of cxperiiiu'ut a few robes might be 
made of these skins, wliieli so tar reinain unuseil 
in the warehouses. 

In conelusion, I have the honour to report 
to the Hoard of .\dir,iiiist ration that, from in- 
hirnuition wliii'h has miw been received, the seal 
rookeries everywhere, and especially on the Island 
of St, Paul, have increased to such an extent 



50 



OnioiKAL Tbaxslation. 



for breeding arc filled, 
adoquate, so that nn 
is (IccMiicd iiidi-ipciisablc 
into oHoct ni'xt ve:ir. 



and tlii'V appear to be 
extension of tlic catch 
: and tliis will be earvied 



Kevised Tkaxsiation. 

that all tbc places wliieli tln'y frccpient. are entirely 
filled, and lliere is sueli a need of room for tbcin 
that it is necessary to inerense considerably the 
number of seals kdled; and tliis shall lie done 
next vear. 



Xo. 28. 



'So. 1'.^. 



Letter from ilie Chief Mmici/ir of l/ic liufxinn- 
Aiiicrici'ii ('(Joiiif.i III tlie li<i'ir</ nf Ailiiiinislra- 
tioiiqf the l'xx.1} :n-Aiihrh'ii) Coiii/iiini/. Ilritleii 
I'rimi tlir Ciiloiiien, .liuiiuiri) 13, IS.-jO. 



Vvnreriiiitti Fur-Seals. 

IX accordance villi the instructions of the 
Board of Administration in despatch Xo. (!!)", 
dated the "illi June. IS.'iH, and received on the 



id Kovendicr. there \vere sent 



the ship 



" Kamcbatliii," in addition In the Kl.ddd onlircd 
by former in-'lruclions, lO.fldl skins whii'h liad 
been prepared and (lacked l)ef(n'c the vcccipl of 
despatch Xo. (ill7. lor sliipmcnt to X'ew York; 
thereafter there remained .i.fiOO drv skins and 
1,1 7G salted skins. \vhi''h are now sent per bri;; 
'■Kadiak"lo San Krancisco, hir Iransniission to 
Messrs. Lohach and Slu'pph'r. 

In rei^ard to tlie impiiry of tl'.e Hoard as to the 
number of fur veals which inif^ht be taken 
annually in the Colonies witiiont ileirinu'nt to the 
])rcscrvaliun of the species and to the rookeric-, ! 
Iiave the Honour to rejiorl thai, accordin^ to 
information rei'cived from the Manager of the 
I'ribylolV Isl.ands, where llie most imporlant 
rookeries arc sitnaled, and from the Commander 
Islands, the numbers of seds on all the rookeries 
have increased to sucii an extent as to render the 
space (piile inadequate, and tliat it would Ix <|tufe 
jxivsihlc to take from all I he rookeries a total of 
7(1,0(11) skins in mie si'msou, ineludiiiij the !;ravs, 
hot that, in order tolalcc Mich qnanlilv, it would he 
necessary t'l increase llie nnnilier of se-ders on the 
I'ribylutl Islands, and I he supply of firewood tor 
the (iryini; of the sUins. 

It may he jxisilively slated that the taking of 
7(>.()(1() d<ins each year lor a lonu; ])erioil to come 
will not result in the impoverishinent of the 
rookeries. 



Li'tln- frrm tlie >'l)hf Maiifnji'r of tin: Jtn.ixicu- 
Amerieini t'olnnien tt> the llditnl (if Aitiiiinh- 
Irutiiiu if tlie Hii.i.iiiiii-AmerieiiH >'oii'/»iiii/. 
U'rilleii from Hie ('oloiiien. Jiuiimrij Hi, l«5i). 



Ci'iieeriiiiii/ FiirScuh. 

In .accordance witli the instructions of the 
Board of Adinini^tralion ijiven in des|)atch 
\o. i;;i7 of ibe ."lib ,lnne. |s.">s. received on the ^nd 
Xovendicr, r.esidcs the Id.Odli seal-skins ordered 
bv previous instructions, ;d,(i(il were sent by the 
ship "Kanichalka" of those which had heen 
|ne])ared and ]).ick('(l ])rior to the ri'ceipt of 
despalch Xo. (i'.ir for shipnu'nt lo Xcw York, and 
there slill remain .i.CdO dried and l,17(i suited 
skins, which will now be sent by tbc iiarque 
" Kailiak ■' lo San Francisco, to be forwiirdeu to 
Mcssrv. [.obaeli and Shepler. 

"Willi rcf;ar<l to the question of the Board of 
.Administration as to what number of seals may 
be killed evcrv year in the Colonies without detri- 
ment lo Ihe preservalioo of the species and nlthout 
imjioverishin^ the rookeries, I hav. the honour 
to report that, as is evident from the Kc|)orts 
of ihe (ioverners of the I'ribylolV Islands, where 
the principal seal rookeries are focnd, and even 
those of tlie Commander Tshmd.s. the seals have 
increased in numbers on all the accessible places 
to such an extent that the areas occupied by iheni 
appear crowded, and it is evident from ihesc 
Heports that it would he possible (o kill in nil 
these places, ineliidiiiLt the small i,'ray seals, as 
many as 7d.""", "nd even more; hut for this 
it would he necessarv to increase the number of 
hunters, and to furnish n .sutlicient supplv of wood 
to tl'.e I'rilivlolV Islands for dryini; the skins. 

ll mav he said with certainty thai no im- 
poverishment of the rookeries will appear for 
a lonu: lime from the killing of as many as 7'U)(I0 
fur-seals. 



Xo. -"J. 



Xo. 2'.). 



Litlir Iriiiii i'liphii I uf the First /I'aiil: nml Kiiiyht 
/run \'ii:,sUiirilili Fiiriihelin. Chief Maniii/er of 
Ihe linsaiiui-Aiiiericiiii I'oloiiief, to the Jloiiril of 
.liliiiiiii.itriilioii of Ihe Hii.~!<i'iii-Anierieiiii Coiii- 
j'lini/. Written friiiii Ihe Volumes, May 13, 
1860. 



! Il.AVK (he liononr to submit to you herewith 
a lisl of iln lins oblaiiied during llie past year 
from Ihe dislricb, of llie Colonies, from whieli the 
Ho.ird will le.irn llie lullowii,^: — 

h'.ight hundred and ninely-two more sea-otters 
weie killed ihan in Ihe year IK.IS. There has not 
hceu s.) miod a season since 1>>lt,and the ioerea.se 
is conlli.cd to llie Kadia'v dlslrief, Unalaska, and 
Uriipa. 

With reference to the scn-ntter industry, Ihe 
Kadiak ollicc reports to me that pursuant lo the 



Letter f mm (\iptiiin of the First liiiiih iiinl Kiiii/ht 
Iriiii \'<i.i.iilieri/eh Fiirnhehii, Chief Mumii/i r of 
the Jliis.ii'iii-Aiiii rieiiii Colniiies. In the Ihiiinl 
of Ailiiiinislruliiiii of tin' liiitxinii-Aiiierieitn 
Ci'iiipniii/. llri lien from the Culvnieg, Mini IJ, 
18(10. 

I HAVE the honour to present herewith a 
Table of the skins procn.ed lasl year from the 
districis if llie Ci'ionies, from which the Hoard of 
Ailniiiiistralion will .see that, 8!)'.' more sea-otters 
were killed than in 1 J^.^.S. 'J'liere has not been such 
a ricli calcli siiicc^ I8tl,aiul I his increase was owing 
entirely lo ihe numiier killed in the K'adiak dis- 
Iriet, a( L'nakisl.a, and ut Urn)i. 

.\s regards the oiler catch, the Kadiak factory 
has reported lo iiic that the Chugatches, living ut 



. 



()l!Ii;lN"AI, TllANSLA'lluN. 



61 



T!r,\i.-<i;i) Tiiansi.ation. 



arrniigcments made by my predecessor tlie 
01ni;{ntcli people living in the vicinity of the Kon- 
stantin Redoubt, Imvo been permitted to hunt 
independently of the general huntini^' party, in 
places known only to themselves. On their 
arrival nt Kadink, however, it appeared that (hey 
had been hunting on grounds upon which a close 
season had been ])roclaime(l for ISoO, and where 
our jirineipal party was to have hunted during 
the current year. Under such unfortunate cir- 
cumstances, i cannot hojie to meet with the same 
success in the sea-otter industry as Kear-Admiral 
Voyevodsky aUiiined during the last year of his 
management of the Colonies. 

Of beavers 7fiO more were killed last year tlian 
in IS^.'jH. Tlie annual diflcrence in the figures 
of this industry depends altogether upon local 
and climatic circumstances, to wliieh the northern 
natives are more or less exposed. The excess 
of this year over last came chiefly from St. 
Michaels and the Kolmakovsky Redoubts. Cas- 
toreums also show an excess of 4^0 l)air over 
18.'-. H. 

Of fur-seals the output was 11,100 less than 
in IS'iH. The reason for this decrease given by 
the Manager of the Island of St. I'aul is the 
late spring, during which the females were pre- 
vented liy ice from reacliing their haiiling-p;rounds 
and thereby lost tlieir young. In explanation of 
this occurrence I inclose a co|)v of a Report of 
Mr. Rcpin, the Manger of the island. 

1 have diapatciicd Lieutenant V\ ehrnian, of the 
Im])erial Navy, to superintend the new buildings 
on St. Paul Island and to reorganize the labouring 
force, wliieh had become demoralized to a certain 
extent. 

An excess of 1,113 in this year's output over 
that of last year appeared as to foxes, and of 
1,1 7'l as to blue fo>es. .\ decrease ap))cars in 
lynx of 178 and in sables of 21'J. 

According to the Report of the Manager of 
Copper Island, sea-otters are increasing there, and 
I have issued the strictest orilers to prevent their 
being disturbed. On .AlUa Isla.id a decrease in 
sea-otters has necessitated declaring a close season. 

Only 1 poud .3f> lbs, of walrus ivory have been 
received. The manager of Unga Island roportij 
that on the Tiotthern side of the .Vlaska I'l'niiisuliU • 
in Moller Hiy, .'lOO lli>. were 'jhtpiiuil- ih .\SJ(i' 
and ls,)7, anil sinrcd lliere. On his visji'.ttt 
JMollei- Hay. in |N.')8, the ivory was not found.'tlie. 
walrus rookery had been dc.sti:6yi)d;.,;ii(d the store-' 
house burned. Who conimitttid' Ihni robberN-'is 
not known, but a few pieces of pilot breid 
and other remnants of food, as well as au oar 
from a wlialc-hoat and tracks of boots, point to 
the eonnnission of the deed i)y whalers. 

'I'liis I have the honiiur to report lo til;' llouid 
of .\dininistrutiun. 



Fort Constantine, were permitted, with the con- 
sent of my predecessors, to carry on this hunting, 
apart from the party sent out by the factory, in 
places known to them alone : after their arrival at 
Kadiak, however, with a very large number of 
sea-otters, it appeared that in the summer of 
185!) they had hunted in places where there was a 
close time, and where it will be necessary to send 
a party from Kadiak this year. After such an 
oecurreiicc, unfortunately, I do not hope to have 
as successful results from the hunting as Ilear- 
Admiral Voyevodsky in the last year of his 
administration of the Colonies, 

.Seven hundred and sixty more river-beavers 
were killed than in IS.jS. llie yearly variation 
in the figures of this indu.stry depends entirely on 
local climatic causes, which favour the northern 
savages more or less in their hunting. This 
increase, as compared with the number taken last 
year, was gained at h'orts Michael and Kolnia 
kovsky. 

Four hundred and seventy more pairs of 
eastoreums were taken than in 1858, Eleven 
thousand one hundied and sixty fewer fur-seals 
were killed than in 1M")8, The Governor of the 
Island of St. Paul assigns as the cause of their 
decrease the lateness of the sjjring, owing to 
which the cows, in forcing their way to the 
rookeries over the ice, lost their young. 

I have sent Lieutenant Verman to the Island 
of St. Paul to attend to various commissions and 
to put an end to some disturbances there arising 
from relaxation of discipline. 



Foxes killutl in exresd uf 1858 . . 
Whilo fnjcs ill f\oe.-s of 1H5S . . 
I.yn.xe.^, frwcr lli;in in 1H58 
Sftblos in cxtT^s of 1S5H 



1,H3 

1,174 

178 

219 



On Copper Island, according to the Governor's 
Report, the sea-otters arc increasing in numbers, 
and very strict orders are now given not to 
disturb tliein until tlie decrease of that animal 
ill t!ie Government of the Island of .Uka renders 
a close time iieccssar\ there. 

Only 1 puoil of walrus fiisks w.is received. 
The (iiivernor of the Island of Unga lias reported 
(o r.ii' that on the iiortlicrii side uf the peninsula 
of .M'lska. ill Mollerovsky Hav, tusks to the 
amount of ."lOO ponds were taken in the course of 
.iriifl ,)7,:an.J \verc stored there. On my arrival 
•,<t Alojictcvsky Bay, in lS."iH, the tusks which 
had hecn <'ollected were missings the walrus 
niokerics had been ruined, and everything had 
liecii burned. It is not known who stole the 
tusks, but tlieie were found \vhite hiseuits. 
provisions, a whale-boat oar, ami the prints of 
boots, wliicli proved that it was tin; whalers, 

1 have the honiiur to report this to the Board 
of .Vlministralion. 



'"/','/ ';/ /<'/fii' "/ /'(pill. Miiiiiigir 01 llif hlaii'l 
oj SI. I'mil.iliit,,! Iliv '201/1. Iiiii'c. I ><■>'.>, addressed 
tu I lie C/tie/' Miinaijcr. 

Most (iracious Sir, 

1 write to you to let you know that I received 
all your orders and instructions, and also other 
instructions froiu the captain of the steamer. 



[117] 



(Not in Russian text.) 



OkIGINAL TUAXSLATION. 

1 see that you wish me to have killed on hoth 
islands not less than 60,000 fur-seals of various 
grades. 

I would say to you, most gracious Sir, that, in 
my opinion, it would not be advisable to kill 
so large a number this year on St. Paul Island. 

The female seals came this year in May at the 
usual time after the " selvntclics " had landed. 
Only a few had come ushore, when, with a strong 
north-west wind, the ice came from the north. 
It closed around the islands and was kept there 
by the wind for thirteen days. The ice was much 
broken and was kept in motion by the sea. 

It is an actual fact, most gracious Sir, that 
the femalej could not reach the shore through the 
ice. Some of" the Aleuts went out as far as it 
was safe to go on the larger pieces of ice, and 
they saw the water full of seals. Wlien tiie 
nortli-west gale ceased, the ice remained for 
nearly a week longer, being ground up in the 
heavy swell, and no females could land. A few 
" sekatches " tried to go out to sea, but did not 
succeed. On the 10th June tlie first females 
began to land, but they came slowly, and it was 
very ln.te v/hen the rookeries began to till. Very 
few of the females — no more than one out of 
twenty or twenty-five — iiad their young after they 
came ashore. Nearly all must have lost them 
in the water, as for many weeks since tlie ice went 
away the bodies of young seals have been washed 
up by tlie sea in thousands. Tliis misfortune I 
must humbly port to you. it was not the work 
of man, but ' ' (iod. 

Your very humble servant, 

(Signed) IVAN KEPIN. 

Mantii/er of St. Paul Island. 



RkVISED TnANSI.ATION. 
(Not in Ilussian text.) 



No. 30. 



No. 30. 



Lf.tter frnm Cnptnin of the First Kunk niid Kniyhl 
Ivan Vin'x'du'yitch Fun/lieliii, Chirf MniiaiKr of 
the J'lixsian-Amcriiiiii ('(/hmits, to l/w Board of 
Admiiilstralioi: of Ihf Ititss'nin-Americnn Com- 
pamj. Written from tlw Colonies, Jul'j K>, 
186,!. . , 



Letter from Captnhi of Ihr Firft Clasa find Kniyhl 
Ivan J^i!ssilievi(r/i Fiiyiihifiii. C/iirf Maniii/er of 
the. Rnnsian-Aniericnn Colonics, to the Honed of 
A(lniini.itrtdion of the Rii^sian- American Com- 
'jianij: ' Written from the (.'olonics, .lalij 16, 
186d. ,■ ■ • 



IN reply to tiio communication a'ddrc'ssed to my 
])Viak'fossor by the Board of .•\(lmini.stn,tiui'. on rim 
Hist .January of this year. No. Ill, I have the 
honour to submit, for your consideration, tlic suli- 
joined statement of tlie cost of preparing the 
dried and salted fur-seal skins : — 



Hequiued for the Drying of Seal-skins. 

R. k. 

Wiiod fur ,'arli 1,000 skin?, '1\ fattioms, making flic 

cost of each skill .. .. .. .. ,. 2 85 

For tyiiie thi> buniU'- of 100 sl,iiis, 12 arsliiii sea-Hoii 
liiili' straps (a iiicdiunu'.izcd skin worth 4<l knpe(-ks 
yields 1(1 arthiii straps), making for one skill .. ,. 10 

Total ■> gj 

C)r 3 00 

To this we must add the pay of the Aleuts for each 

bacbelor 8eal-skin .. ., .. .. .. 75 00 

Total ;g 00 



NOTING, for immediate execution, tlie con- 
■tents'df (k's)';'.,(h No. Ill of the .ilst .lanuary, 
IHO.'i, from the lioard of Administration, I have 
the honour to submit, for tiic Honnl's considera- 
tion, the following estimates as to tiie cost of 
preparing the dried and salted seal-skins : — 

IlEQTJtRED for the Drying of Seal-skins. 

It. k. 
M'ood for each 1,000 skills, 'i\ futlioms, makin)? the cost 
of lach skin 2 85 

For tying 'lie hunillf <if 100 skins, 12 arshin sea-lion 
hith' strips (a niediilm-Bistcd skin, worth 40 kopecks, 
yieldis 10 arshin straps;, luakiui; for one skill .. .. 10 

Total 2 9S 

Or 03 

To this we must add the pay of tho Aleuts for each 

bachelor seal-skin .. ,, ., ,, ,, 0^5 

Total 78 

The frames are always prepared in Sitka, and 
are sp.nt to the islands. Their cost is not calcu- 
lated, on account of its insignificance. 



R. k. 

'.' 85 

in 

2 9.'> 
03 



ORIOINAL TBAN81ATI0N. 

IiEQUinED for the Salting of Seal-skins. 

R. k. 

The roskd contain an avcrnge of 73 skins, and rost 5 rou» 
bU'ii: th«- iron linups nnil loalpningit weigh 17 pounds, 
nistiiiK Cr. eUk.; n total uf 1 1 r. 8(1 k.: making fur 
one hkin .. . . . . . . . . .* ..0 16 

For till* proliminiry snltini; on the islands 3i pouds of 
salt are ui^ed for carh skin ; durinif the final saltiof^ in 
New Archangel, 8 ponds of salt ore nddid to enrh cask 
of 73 skins, making 4 *4 ponds for ejeh skin ; a total 
of 7 -9 ponds of solt 79 

For tying earh skin 1^ zol, twine.. ., .. *. 02J 

Fur till! wear and te^r of cooper's instruments and ina. 

teriu), approximately for LMcli skin .. .. .. 01 

Total 98 

To this must be uddid the pay of the Aleuts for each 

bachelor fur-seal ^kin .. .. .. .. .. 75 

Total 1 73 

Conccrniir; tlic p occsscs employed in pre- 
paration according to botli methuds, I imve the 
honour to report to the Board of Administra- 
tion : — 

Tlie dried fur-seal skins are prepared as 
follows: After sep:iratiiig the skin from the 
meat and carefully removing the l)lul)l)er, the 
skin is stretched upon a frame, remaining thus 
until it is finally dried. After removing the skin 
from the frame it is folded twice lcngtl;\vise and 
packcil in bales containing from ."lO to 100 skins, 
according to size, and finally the hales are bound 
with sea-lion straps. 

The salted fur-seal skins are treated as follows, 
in iiccordance with the instnictinns of Mollison, 
inclosed in a despatch of the Hoard of Admini- 
stration, No. .SI, of the C,5th. .Fanuary, IHGO: 

.\ftcr the skins are removed atid stripped of 
meat or fat, lliey are strewn W'tli salt and stacked 
in kenclies. Later, when the lahmircrs have more 
time, the s'vins are tiiken from the 1. enelies, and 
the inner side of each skin covered wltli a thick 
laver <if salt. Another skin is laid on top of this 
with its inner side down. .\ny protruding edges 
of the skins are apt to spoil, being removed from 
the inlluence of the salt ; consequently ihey are 
carefully doul>led in and both skins together 
rolled into a cylimlrical shajK'. This roll is then 
lashed with strong seine twine, riually the rolls 
arc a';aiii tied together in buniiles of from five 
to ten. 

Though the labour of carrying the skins on the 
shoidders of men and women, th? carrying of salt 
from the beach to the salt-houses, and later the 
carrying of the he.avy .salted skins Irom the 
ma;;a/,lne to the hcai'h to be loaded into bidara-i 
for transmittal to the ship is very yreat.yet the 
jirocess of drying presents still greater (iitticulties 
on account of the constant fog and niin |)ievailino: 
on the Ihibyloff Islands. Il ni.-.y be positively 
stilted that of the 2.'),(;(K» dried skins prepared 
aiinUiillv on these islands less than onc-lifth <'an 
be dried in the air. The remainder are dried in 
sod houses by the means of tires, or ni I he huts of 
the. Men ts, which are anyway too sum!! anil ill-venti- 
lated. I'or this reason, and also on account of the 
ditheultyof obtaining wood in quantities sullicieut 
for the dryiiig of seal-skins, the salting by the 
Mollison method offers the greatest advantage. 



Revised Transl.vtion. 

Uequired for the Salting of Seal-skins. 

R. k. 

Tlie casks rontain an arernge of 73 skins, and cost ,'t rou- 
bles; the iron hoops and fisteiiin^'s weigh 17 ponnils, 
costing Cr. 80 k.; n total of 1 1 r. SOk.: making for 
one skin .. .. .. .. .. .. ,. IG 

For the rpeliniinary salting on the islands, .''.J pounds of 
salt are used for each skin; during the final salting at 
New .\reh.-ingel, 8 pouds of salt are added to each cask 
of 73 skins, making 4 't pounds for rn -h skin; a total 
of 7 '9 pounds of salt 79 

For tying eaeii skin, l^zol. twine .. .. ..0 02j^ 

For tlie wear and tear of eloper's tools and material, 
approximately, for e,ich ikin .. .. .. .. 01 

Total 98i 

To this must be added the pay of the Aleuts for earii 

bachelor seal-skin . . . , . . . . . . 75 

Total 1 734 

Concerning the processes employed in the 
preparation of the skins, according to both 
methods, I have the hoii'iiir to report to the 
Board of Administration : — 

The dried .;eal-sl>ins are prepared as follows: 
After separating the skin from the meat and 
carefully removing the blubber, the skin is 
stretched upon a frame, remaining thus until it 
is finally dried. After removing the skin from 
the frame it is folded twice lengthwise am! jiacked 
in bains containing from ."lO to 100 skins, accord- 
ing to size, and iinally the hales arc bound with 
sea-lion straps. 

The salted seal-skins, in accordance with 
Mollison's i)roccss, inclosed in the despatch of the 
BoiM'd of Adminij-tration (No. 81 of the '.'."jth 
■Tauuary, 18(50), arc prepared in th<^ following 
way : 

After the skins arc reuioveil and stripped of 
meat, they are strewn with salt and stacked in 
kcnches with the others; later, when the labourers 
have more time, the skins arc taUeti from the 
kenclics.and the inner side of each skin is ccvered 
with a thick layer of salt, .\uother skin is laid 
on top of this with its inner side down. 'I'he 
edges of the skins are turned up vn the outer 
side, so as not to let the salt fall out; thev are 
roiled U|i into round binulleswith the fur side out, 
and are strongly lied with seine I wine. After- 
wards these bundles arc ticil t'fgcthcr in packages 
of from live to ten bundles each. 

Though the labour of carrving the skins on the 
shiudders of men aiul women, the carrying of .salt 
from the beach to the salt-honscs, and later the 
carrying of the heavv salted skins t'rom the ware- 
house to the beach, to be loaded into baiilaras for 
transmission to the ship, is very great, still the 
processof drying presctit* still l; renter (lifticulticsoii 
account of the constant fog anil rain ])revnilin.; 0-1 
tl'.e I'ribylotV Isl.uids. It mav be ])ositivelv sla'cd 
that of the ^."i.OOO dried skins pre])ared annu.diy 
on these islands, only onc-lifth can be driej in 
the open air. The remainder arc dried in sod 
houses, by means of tires, or in the huts of ti c 
Aleuts, which arc alri;idy cramped and sutfocatinj. 
For this reason, and also on account of the 
dillieulty of ol)tainin::; wood in cpiantitics sidlicient 
for the drying of scid-skins. the salting by the 
Mollison method offers the greater advantage. 



75 



64 



OlIKJINAL TnANSI.ATIO.N. 

No. 31. 



llEVI.sKIi 'I'|;ANSI.AT|I)N. 

No. 31. 



Letter from the Chief Mima/ier of the lliiasitin- Letter from the Chief Mumiyer of the liusiian- 
Antericaii Culonien to the Maiuiyer of the hlaiid Atiierinin Colonies Id the Mamiyir of the Islaiiit 

St. I'liiil. Written from i:itl<u, Mail 1, of Si. J'aul. Wrtllen from Silkti, May \y 



of 
IHGl. 



YOU II Reports, forwarded last year by tlie 
steani-sliip " Koiistaiil'm "and tlic l)air|iic " I'riiiro 
Mensliiliof," Imvc been received, and, in reply, I 
give you t)ie foUnwirii; instructions ;— 

As to No. 21>. Last year yon were instructed to 
fill requisitions of the .Munaiiir of Unalaslia Island 
in n certain contingency. Instructions liavc now 
been yivcn to tlie Mana:,'cr of tlie Island of 
St. Gpoiije liercafter to furnish I'nalaska with 
local products, ami it will be vour duly as hereto- 
fore to see to the supplv of IochI jiroducts for 
Sitka and St. Michael's Ucdoul)t. 

As to Xos. .30. .'51. For want of space on the 
brig '■Shclikof" I was unable to i;rurit iierniission 
to Mrs, Iraida Herman to visit this year the 
Island of St. Paul, and for the same reason I 
could not send you a cow or a bull. 

As to No. S'Z. In my instructions No. 21!* of 
last year I determined the number of fur-seals 
skins to be taken by you in each year. By order of 
the Board of .Vdministratioti 1 revoki said instruc- 
tions No. 219, as well as all ])revious instructions 
concerning the catch ' f fur-seals. I now direct 
you to take liereaftcr annually .nbout 70,000 fur- 
seal skins, of which 125,000 shall be dried, and the 
remaining 45,000 salted according to the new 
directions in your pos.-icssion. 

The 70,000 skins now ordered to be prejiared 
you must take oidy in ease no decrease in the 
nnnibei-s of the animals is ob.served, otlierwisc 
you must immediately advise nie for the purpose 
of having the nundjcr reduced with a view to 
l)reserve fur-seals for subsc(|uent years. 

.■\s these instructions will reacli you late in the 
season, and as you will consequently be unaldc to 
prejiare the whole quantity of fur-seal .skins noh 
required, I liavi' to request that you will endeavour 
to take and salt not less than 10,000 skins during 
the time occupied by the trip of the vessel from 
St. Paul to St. Michael's Kedoul)t and back, and 
to put them on board of the vessel on her second 
visit to the island. L.ist year vou sent onlv 
lO.OOO dried skins, while the order was to send 
about 20,000. in future you must endeavour to 
strictly fill the orders. 

As to No. 31. You will make a report to niv 
Buccessor as to the rewards to deserving emplovi's. 
He -vill probably visit your islainl in the course 
of tnis year. 

As to No. ;!(). I thank you for your efforts in 
regard to the vaccination of the irdiabilants, and 
I request that you will not neglect the matter in 
future. 

In regard to your request for the admission of 
your son to the (ieneral Colonial School of the 
Cinnpany at the Company's expense, I have to 
inform you that this school is not fully organized 
for the reception of boarders, and I therefore 
advise you to place your son as a boarder with 
one of your sisters here who receive pensions; 
your son when residing at Sitka can attend the 
tichool on the same terms as the ilay pu[)ilb of 
the Company. 

The brig " Sbelikof " will carry to vou a cargo 
of supplies which you will discharge, tending on 



1864. 

Y'OUIl Keports, forwarded last year by the 
steam-ship" l-'onstantine '"and the barque" Prince 
^lenshikof," have been received, and. in reply, I 
give you the following instructions : — 

As to No. 2'.i. Last year you were instructed to 
fill requisitions of the ilanager of Unalaska 
Island in a certain ccnitingency, and instrui'tions 
liave now been given to the ^Manager of the 
Island of St. George hereafter to furnish I'nalaska 
with necessary supplies, and your duties include, 
as heretofore, the furni.shing Sitka and Fort 
Michael with supplies. 

As to Nos. ;5(l. .'il. For want of space on the 
brig •' Sbelikof" 1 was unable to grant permission 
to Iraida Herman to visit the Island of St. Paul 
this year, and for the same reason I could not 
send you a cow and a bull. 

As to No. .32. In my instructions No. 21!) of 
Inat year I determined the number of fur-seal 
skins to be taken by you in each year. By order 
of the Board of Administration I revoke said 
instructions No. 249, as well as all previous 
instructions concerning the catch of fur-seals, 
and I now direct you to take hereafter annually 
as many as "0,«MM) fur-seal skins, 2.'i,O0() of which 
must be dried, and the remaining 45,000 salted 
recording to the new directions in your posses- 
sion. 

Y'ou must take the 70.000 skins now ordered 
to be prcpjired only in case no deercuse in the 
numbers of the animals is observed; other vise 
you must immediately advise nu' for the purpose 
of having the Mundier reduced with a view to the 
preservation of the seals for the years to come. 

As these instructions will reach you late in the 
season, and as you will consequently be unable to 
prepare the whole quantity of fur-seal skins now 
required, 1 have to request that you will endeavour 
to take and salt not less than 10,000 skins during 
the time occupied bv the trip of the vessel from 
St. Paul to Fort Michael ami back, and to ]nit 
them on board of the vessel on her second visit 
to St. Paul. Last year you sent only I4.(H)0 
dried skins, while the order was to send about 
2O.(H)0. In future you nmst endea^'our to strictly 
iill the orders. 

As to Xo. 31. You will make a report to my 
successor as to the rewards to zealous en.ployi's. 
lie will probably visit vour island in the course 
of this year. 

As to No. .56. I thank you for your efforts in 
regard to the vaccination of the inhabitants, and 
1 request that you will not neglect the matter in 
future. 

In regard to your retpu'st for the admission 
of your son to the Coloidal Public School as a 
Companvs boarder, I have to inform you that 
that school is not yet fully prepared for the 
reception of boarders, and I therefore advise you 
to place your son in the house of any of your 
sisters who are m)w receiving pensiinis; your son, 
while living at Sitka, can attend the school on the 
same terms as all the new-comers v.ho are not 
the Coni|)any's pupils. 

The annual supplies are sent you by the brig 
'• Sbelikof:" unload the cargo and deliver to the 



55 



OmoraAL Translation. 

tlie same vessel the accumulated furs as well ns 
your Ueports. Besides this vessel, you will be 
visited by the steamer " Konstantin " on her 
return trip from Nusliagak : this vessel will bring 
yoii about 2,500 pounds of salt, and probably some 
lo^s. 

I have ordered skippt. Archimandritof to 
proceed by this brig for an inspection of the 
island under your care ; you are therefore directed 
to comply with all his requests. 



Revised Translation. 

brig all your skins and your Reports. Besides 
this vessel, you will be visited by the steamer 
" Constantine " on her return voyage from 
Nushagak ; this vessel will bring you about 
'2J)W> poods of salt, and probably some lumber. 

I have ordered the Russian skipper Archi- 
mandritolf to proceed by this brig to inspect the 
island under your charge ; yuu are therefore 
directed to comply with all his requests.' 



[117] 



Q 



( 66 ) 



Despatch from Mr. Adams to Mr. Rush, July 22, 1823. 



[Till' I'.virwts from this (Uspatcli wliicli iippt'iir on iip. fi und 7 of Vol. II, Part 2, of the Appendix to the British 
Ciisi' were Iiikcn from pji. 212 ;incl 213 of Sinato Ivv. Doc. No. 106, .")0'.li Congress, 2nd ftt".sion. The 
following is llio compU'te version yivcii at p. 4'.)l) of the Unitfil Slates' Stnlu Papers, Vol. \'.] 

Mr. Adams to Mr. Mudi. 
(No. 70.) 
Sir, DejMHmcnt of Slnte, IVmhiiiiflon, Jidi/ 22, 1823. 

AMONO tlip subjects of negotiation with (iruat liritaiii wliieli aru pressing upnii tlio attention of 
this (iovernmeiit is tlic present condition of the norlh-we.st coa.st of this continont. This inlore.st is 
comiected, iu a manner heeoniiiif; from day to day more important, with cjur territorial riglits ; with 
the wliole system of onr intereoiirse witli the Indian tribes; with the boundary relations between us 
and the British Xorth American dominions ; with the fur trade ; the lisheries in the Pacific < )cean ; the 
commerce with the Sandwicli Islands and China ; witli our l)Oundary upon Mexico ; and, lastly, with 
our political standing and intercourse with the Kussiun Empire. 

liy the Illrd Article of tlie Convention between the United States and (ireat Britain of the 
20th October, 1818, it is agreed that any " country that may Ije claimed by either ])arty on the north- 
west coast of America, westward of the Stony Mountains, .sha'l, together with its harljours, Ijays, and 
creeks, and the navigation of all rivers within the same, be free and open, for tlie term of ten years 
from the date of the .signature of the (Convention, to the vessels, citizens, and subjects of the two 
Powers, it being well understood that this Agreement is not to be c<instrued to tin; prejudice of 
any claims which eitlier of tlie two Higli Contracting Parties may have to any jiart of llie said 
country, nor shall it be taken to allect the chiinis of any oilier Power or Stale to any |)art of the said 
country, the only object of the High Contracting Parties in that respect being to prevent ilisputes ami 
differences annjugst themselves." 

On tlie 6th October, 1818, fourteen days before the signature of this Convention, tbt! Settlen.cnt 
at the mouth of Columbia Kiver had been formally restored to the United States by order of iho 
British Government. — (.Message of the President of the United States to the House of Repre- 
sentatives, IJith April, 1822, ji. l;!. Ix'tter of Mr. Prevost to the Secretary of State of llth November, 
1818.) 

13y the Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and Limits between the United States and Spain of the 
22nd February, 1819, the boundary-line between them was li.xed at tlie 42uil degree of latitude, from 
the source of the Arkansas liive:' to the Smitli Sea, by which Treaty tlie United States acipiired all the 
rights of Spain north of tli.at iiarallel. 

The right of the United States to the Columbia River, and to the interior territory washed by its 
waters, rests upon its discovery f'niiii tlie sea and nomination liy a citizen of the United .States; upon 
its exploration to the sea Ijy Captains Lewis and Clarke ; ujiou the .'settlement of Astoria, made under 
the protection of the United Slates, ami thus restored to tliein in I81,S ; and upon this sulisei|Uent 
acipiisition of all the rights of .'^paiu, the only I'.uropean Power who, prior to the discovery of the 
river, had atiji pretensions to territorial riglits on the norlli-west coast of America. 

The waters of the Colniiiliia Kiver extend liy the Multnomah to tlie 42nd degree of latitude, 
where its source approaches within a few miles of those of the Platte and Arkansas, and by Clarke's 
liiver to the fiOth or ."ilst degree of latitude; thence descending southward till its .sources almost 
intersect those of the Missouri. 

To the territory thus watered, and iinuiiidiately contiguous to the original pos.sessions of the 
United States, as first bounded liy the Mississip|)i, they consider their right to he now established 
iiy all the principles which have ever been apidicd to European Settlements upon the American 
Hemisphere. 

By tlie Uka.se of the Enipenu- Ah'xaudcr of the -Ith (IGlb) .Seiileiiibcr, 1821, an exidusivo 
territorial right on the north-we.sl coast of America is asserted as lielougiiig to Uussia, and as 
e.xtending from the northern extremity of tlie coiiliuent to latitudes ^)V, and the navigation and fishery 
of all other nations are interdicted by the same Ukase to the extent of lUO Italian miles from the 
coast. 

When M. Poletica, the late Kiissian ^liuister here, was called ujion to set forth the grounds 
of right conformable to the laws of nations which authorized the issuing of this Decree, he answered 
in his letters of the 28th Felirnaiy and 2iid A|iril, 1822, by alleging first discovery, oicupancy, and 
uninterrupted posstssion. 

It appears, upon examination, that these claims have no foundation iu fact. The right of ili.v:overi/ 



67 



on tliis mntinpnt claimiililc liy Russiii is ri'diiceil In the ])iiiliiiMlily that, in 1741, ('iii)tiiiii Tiliiriknlf 
snw flHiii the sen till' MKillIititili ciilli'd St. Kli;iM, ill iili.piil tin; 'jlllli (Irv^'ieo of Iiuilli latiliidr. Tlii; 
Spanish iiavij^iitxirs as early us 1 ."K'J had discovuicd as liir iicirth as ")"" "id'. 

As t(i n('('ii]iiiiHy, ('a|i(aiii ('nnk in ITT'-I had Ljici I'Xpi-c.sf dcclaratidn nf M. Isinai'lofT, llie (Jliii'f nf 
tlio Rii.xsian Sfllli'iiiiMit at Oiinalaska, tliat tlii-y/in/" iki/MIii;/ uf the, (■unlinciil in AiinTir.i ; and ill 
the N'.iiii|<a Siuiiid inntriivi'i'sy licluern Sp.iiii and (Ireat HriUiin it is e.\]ili(nlly stated in I he S|iaiiisli 
dniMiiiH'iits Ihat l!ii--sia had di^rlaiined all |ireteiisiiMi Id iiileiCt're with the Spanish e.\clii>ive i-i^ditH ti) 
bfi/'fit'' I'linee William's .^niind. lalitmle (il°. No evideiiee has lieiMi exhibited uf any llnssiaii Settle- 
ment iiM lliis cMiitineiit siiiilh and east of I'riui'e W'illiiiin'.s Sound to this day, with the ex'.'eptioii ol" 
that in ralil'iiniia. made in 1810. 

It iii'Ver ha-. )«eii adniilti'd liy the varioii.s Kiirnpcaii nations wliieh have formed SeltleniciitH in 
this Hemisphere thai the oienpatinn of nil island ^'ave any elaiin whatever to territorial posses.sioiiH 
on the eomineiit to whieli it was adjoiiiin;,'. The rce.ijinized primilile has rather lieeii the revcr.se, as, 
by the law of Xature, islands iniist lie rather considered a.s itppundafie.s to eontinent.s timii continent.') to 
isliiiuls. 

The only eoloiir of elaiin allej^ed liy M. Poletica which lina an appearance of plausibility is that 
wliieh he asserts as an luitlientiu fact: "that in ITHO tin.' Spanish packet 'St. Charles,' commanded by 
Oaplain Hare, found in the latilinle 48° and 4!i° Uiissiati Sctllemi'iilM to the nnniber of eiju'iit, 
consisting in the whole of li'l families and 4IJL' individuals." l!iit, iimre than twent)' years siinte, 
Henrien had shown, in lii.s intrndiiction to the viiyii;;e of Maichand, that in tlii.s .slatenieiit there wa:-. a 
mistake of at least 10 de^'rees of latitnde, and "that, instead of 48° and 49°, it should read ."18° and 
59". Thi.s is pro'iably not the only nii.stake in the account. It rests altiij,'etliir niion the credit 
of two private lettei.s — one wrilteti from San Idas, and the other from the city of Mexico, to 
S]iain— there cnmmnnieated to a Kreiich Consul in one of the Spanish jmrts, and by him to tho 
Vreiich .Miiiisli r of Marine. They wire written in October 1788 and .\nf,'nst 1789. We have .seen 
that in 1700 h'lissia exiilicitly (lisclaimid interfering; with the exidnsive ri.i;lits of Spain to liei/uiul 
Prince William's Sound in latitude Ijl'; and Vancoiivur, in 17114, wa.s iiiformed by the llii-ssians on 
the spot that thi'ir most 'v/.syr/-;! Settlement there wa.s on Ilitcliinbriiok Island, at I'ort Ktches. which 
hdi/ liifn ixdihiixliiil In tin- rmirsr. 11/ llir 2'1'tciilinij numiitcr, and that the adjacent continent was " x'erili; 
ami uniiihiiliitiil (•(innlrit. 

I'ntil the Nootka Sound contest Great Britain had never advanced any claim to territory tipon 
the imrtli-wesl coast of Anieiica by right of occupation. I'nder the Treaty of 17G"> her territorial 
Tif,ditM were bounded by the Mississlpjii. 

t)ii tho 22nil July, 179.'!, McKeiizie reached tlie shores of the I'acilic by land from Canada in 
latitude 't'r 21' north, lonf:itiule 128= 2' west of tireeinvich. 

It i.s stated in the 'i2iid nnniber of the " tjiiarterly llevicw." in the article n]ion Kolzelaie's 
voyaj,'!', "that the whole cniintiy, from latitude TiO" ;10' to the boundary of the I'nited States in 
latilnile 48°, or tlieieabouts, is now and has long been in the actual possession of tl.e British North- 
west (.'om])any ;" that this Coiiipaiiy have a ]i<ist on the borders of a river in latitude 54" "'M' north, 
longiMide 125° west, and that, in latitnde 5,")° 15' north, longitude 129' 44' west, "by this time 
(MariHi 1822) the United Company of the North-west and Hudson's May have, in all probability, 
formed an ostablishment." 

It is not imaginable that, in the present condition of the world, itny Kiiropean nation should 
entertain the project of settling a Caluni/ on the north-west coast of America. That the I'nited States 
should I'oriii establishnieiils there, with views of alisoliite territorial right and inland communication, 
is not only to be expected, but is pointed out by the finger of Nature, and has been for many years a 
subject of serious deliberation in Congress. A jilau has for several Sessions been before them for 
establishing a Territorial Covernment on the borders of the Columbia Itiver. It will undoubtedly be 
rosuiic'd at their next Session, and even if then again postponed there cannot be a doulit that, in the 
course of a very few years, it must be carried into effect. 

As yet, however, the only useful ]iurpose to which the uorlh-wost coast of America has been 
or can be made subservient In the Settlements of civilized men are the Hsheries on its adjoining 
seas and trade with the alioriginal inhabitants of the country. These have hitherto been enjoyed in 
common by the people of the United .States, and by the British and Uii.ssian nations. The Spanish, 
Portuguese, and Kiencli nations have also participated in them hitherto, without other annoyance than 
that which resultiMl from the exclusive terrilorial claims of Spain, so long as they were insisted 
on by her. 

The United States and Great Britain have both ]irolested against the Itussian Imperial Ukase of 
the 4tli (Kith) September, 1821. At the propo.sal of the liussian ( iovcrnmeiit, a full power and 
instructions are now transmitted to Mr. .Middleton for the adjustment, by amicable negotiation, of the 
coullicling claims of the parlies on this subject. 

We have been informed liy the liai'on de Tuyll that ;i similar authority has been given on the part 
of the I'ritish Government to Sir (.'harles liagot. 

Previous to the restoration of the Settlement at the mouth of Columbia Itiver in 1818, ami again 
upon the first introduction in (,'ongi'ess of the plan for constituting a Territorial Government there, 
•some disposition w.is manifesti'd by Sirl'harli'S liagot and liy Mr. Canning to dis|iute Un- rii/Zit of the 
United States lo that establishment, and some vague intimation was given of ISriti.sli claims on the 
nortli-we.it coast. Tho restoration of the place and the Convention of 1818 were considered as a tiiial 
disposal of Mr. Bagoi's objections, and Mr. Cunning declined committing to paper those which he had 
intimated in coiiver.sation. , 

The discussinn of the Uussian pretensions in the negotiation now proposed necessarily involves 
the interests of the three Powers, and renders it manifestly proper that the United States ami Great 
Britain should come to a mutual understanding with respect to their re.i/Hclirc pretensions, a.s well as 
upon their joint views with reference to those of Russia, (.'opies of the instructions to Mr. Middleton 



B8 



nri\ tliiTct'urc, licnwith Irniisniiltccl t(i vmi, mihI tin- I'lc'siilfiit wisljes yitii to chiiUt I'lvi'ly with thf 
JJritisli (iiivcTiiiiii'iit (111 the sulijcri. 

The iniiuiiilv." scllh'il liv thi' XnnlKn SmiMil ( 'oiiviiitidii iif thi' 28th Octiilicr, IVOO, wiTc : — 

1. Tliiit Ihti rii,'ht.s 111' li.sht'ry in ihi' Soiith Si'im, nl' tnuliii;,' \,ith the iiiilivr.s <ir the imrth-wi'st 
const lit' Aiiicrii'ii, iiiid cit' iiinkiii;^ Scllh'iiicnts mi thi' rim^l itscll' I'lir the |iui|iiisi's ul' llml liaili', iinith 
ol' thi' iirJiial Si'ttleiiii'iitsi ut Simiii, wrrc (■iiiiiiiiini In all the Kuiii|ii'iiii imtimis, unil nt cniirMii tn the 
I'liitcil Stiiti's. 

L'. Thiit wi fill' lis till' liilihil Sillli'iiii'MlH lit S|iiiin hiiil cxtrliilril, hIii' ]iii,ssi'ssril tin! cxcliwivi! 
ri.uhtx, ti't'lilol'iiil, mill iil' imvi^'iitintl iillii lislu'iv, I'Mi'luliiii,' tn llii' ilistaliri' nf 10 lilil("< I'lniii tin' roasts 
811 iicliH'lli/ (icrii/iiri'. 

.'I. Tiiat nil tilt! ouiislH cif Soiil/i Aitu-riiti, ami llie ailjacunt iKlaiuls Mtith nl tlii' parUs alrraily 
iii'i;ti]iiril liy Spain, :iii Sitllriiii'iit ulimilil thcri'al'lrr lie luaile cillier liy liiiliHh or Spanish Mihjirts, 
lint nil linth siih's nhmilil le retainril tln' lilicrly nf lamliii),', iimi nf ererliiii; teiupniaiy liiiililiii ^ Inr 
the ]iiiiiii)se nf till' tif^iii'iy. These rights were also, of course, eiijoyeil hy the people of the I i. .'d 
Slates. 

The e\iliisi\e riylils nl' Spain to any part of the Anieriean eniitineiits have icaseil. That iiortinii 
of the (.'niiveiition. tlierel'nre, wliirh leenj^iiizes the exelnsive inloiiial ri'.'hts nf Spain on these 
eiiiitiiii'iit«, tlioii;,'li cnnlirtiieil as lietweeii (ileal liritaiii Mini S|iaiii hy the liist Aililitioiial Artiele to 
the Treaty of the otli -liily, 1S14, has lieeii extiii','iii-^lieil liy the fail of the iliili'lieiiileiici' of the Sniilli 
Anieriean nalinii iiinl nf Mexii'o. Tlinse iiiili'[ii'iLileiil nations will possess ihe rights iiuiileiil to that 
(■onilitinii, anil their teiiitoiies will nf inurse he siihject to no i\ti'limfe right ol' imvigiitinii in their 
vieinity, or of iiecess to iheni hy any l'oiei;,Mi nation. 

A neee.ssary eoiisei|iience of tliis slate nf tliinys will he that the Anieriean eoiitineiits lieiiee' '■"■ 
will no Inii^'er lie snhjects nf enloiiizatinn. Oeiaiineil hy eivilizeil iii.lepenileiit iiatiniis, they will be 
iieeessihle to l'',iiiopeaiis ami tn eiieli ntlier on lliiit I'ontiie.,' almie, ami the I'aeilie Oeeaii in every part of 
it will remain iijien to the navitjaliiin nf all iiatimis in like nianner with the Atlantie. 

Iiieidental to the eomlitioii nf iiiitiniial imlepi ndeiice and sovereifiiily, the rights of antei )'■ 
naviyalinn nf their rivers will helnii^; In cicli nf the Anieriean natiniis within its own lerrilori. 

The a]iplieiition nf enlonial priiii'iples of exelilsioii, therefore, laniiot he admitted hy the' i i. n 
Slates as lawful ;ipnii any part nf the iiurth-west eoast of America, or as helonjiiiii; tn any Kiirnpean 
nation. Their own Settleiiieiils there, when or^'imized as 'J'errilnrial (!overiiiiient-i, will he adapted to 
the I'reedniii nf llieir own iiistituliiiiis, and, as eon.stitucnt pails of the L'ninii, he subject to the 
piiiieiples and lirnvisimis nf their t'nnstitution. 

The ri.ulit nf eiirryiiij,' nii trade with the nations throuniiont the north-west coast they eiinnot 
reiionnee. With the liu.ssian Seltleiiieiits al Kailiak or at New Areliaiif,'el they may fairly elaim 
the iiilvantaj;i' of a free trade, haviiii; so long eiijnyeil it uiiniolested, and bei.-ail.se it has been and 
wniild inih'iniie tn be as advaiila;.'eiius at least to those Settlenieiils us to them. Ihit they will not 
contest the ri,i,'lil of llu.ssia In prohiliit the tnillie, as strictly eoiilined to the liuasian betlleiiieiil itself, 
and mil e.Ntemlin^r to the nri;_'inal natives of the coast. 

If ihe Ilrilish Xorlh-wesi and irndson's Hay Cniiipanies have any po.sts on the cn.ist, as suggested 
ill the article nf the " (.luarteily Jieview" abnve cited, the 1 1 ltd Article of the Convention of the 
L'dlh Oetnbev, IHIS, is applicable tn tliciu. Mr. !Middlc|nii is anthnri/.id by his iiistriiclions to prnpo.se 
an Article nf similar iiupnit, to be inserted in a .Inint (Jnnveiitinii between the Unititd States. Great 
llritaiir and Iiiissia, for a term of ten years finni its sigmitnrc. Y'nii are authorized to make the .same 
jnoposal to the Ihitish (!nverniiieiil, and, willi a view to draw a delinite line of demarcation for the 
future, to stipiilale that no .Settlciiient shall heieafter be made on the north-west coast or on any of 
the islands lliercto adjniiiiiii; liy Uu.ssiaii subjects south of latituili' .'jo", by citizens of the United 
States iinrth of latitude .11°. nr liy lirilish subjects cither i<outli of 51° or north of rif)''. I mention the 
latitude of ol° as the bound within which we are willing to limit the future .settleineut of the United 
States, because it is not In be doubted that the Coluinbia Hivcr iiianches as far norlli as .51", 
although it is moat lu-obably not the Taconcsche Tesse nf Mackeiizic As, however, the liim already 
runs in lalilmle 4'.!'^ to the Stony Mountains, should it be earnestly insisted upon by Great Britain, 
we will consent to carry it in continuani'c on the same iiarallel tn the sea. Copies of this instruc- 
tion will likewise be forwarded to Mr. Middlctou, with whom you will freely, but cautiously, corre- 
spond on this suliject, as well as ill relnlinu to your negotiation respecting the suiiiiressinn of the Slave 
Trade. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) JOHN QUINCY ADAM.S. 



( 69 ) 



Docitmcuts prodttced by the United States oit Notice by British Agciii. 



No. 1. 

Notiu by the British Agent, September :iO, 1S92. 

TIIK rndersif^ed, Ajjeiit of Her Brilaiinip Majesty, apiHiinteil to attend the Trilninal of Arbitra- 
tion convened nnder tlie provisions of tlie Treaty foiielnded at Wasliiiigton on the 20tli Febninry. 
1S92, lietween Her I!ritanni(r Jtajesty and i\w United States, has llie hononr, liy direction of Her 
JIajesty's (loveninient, to ;,'ive notice tliat lie ajiplics for tlie jinjdiiction by the Agent of the United 
States of eopies of tlie following doeniiieiita, tliat is to say : — 

1. The ollicial liussinii records, ref-rred to at p. 42 of the Case of the ITnited States as follows: 
"The otticial linssian records show that, alter the Ukiuse or Cliarter of 1799, granting to the 

Russinn-Anicrican Company certain exclusive contrcd of trade and inlniiization, it.s authiiritics, acting 
ander the sanction of the linssian (ioveniinent, did not permit foreign vessels to visit Kehring Sea." 

2. The correspondence referred to at p. 4;" of the Case of the United States, in connection with 
the gmnt in the year 1819, by one Itieord, then Commander of Kiinitcliutka, to one I'igott, of certain 
whaling privileges on the coast of Eastern Siberia, as follows : 

" A considerable amount of correspondence resulted, which illustrates tlie complete contnd which 
Russia claimed and actually exercised ever Beliring Sea prior to 1K21, and liow jealous she and her 
Chartered Connmy were of the intrusion of foreigners." 

3. The " exiilanatory note" presented on the 5th December, 1824, by Baron de Tiiyll to 
Mr. Adams, refeired to in the IVwit-note to p. o,") of the Case of the United Stjites. 

4. Instructions given to tli" United States' revenue-cutters or ciuizers sent to Behring Sea 
annually since the year 18(')7, icfened to at ]). 81 of the Ciuse of the United States as follows: 

"Since the year 1807 the Treasury DejHirtment has I'very year, with a single execiition, sent one 
or more revenue-cutters to Behring Sea for the pur])ose of guanliiig llie interests of the T'nited States 
centred there, including the iirolection of fur-seals, against the infractions of the law relating to 
them." 

The Undersigned, Ac. 

(Signed) CHAlil.KS H. TUPPEK, 

Agent of Her Brildnnic Majesty in this behalf. 



No.: 



Mr. Foster to Mr. Tujyper. 

Washington, Norertiher 5, 1892. 

THE Undersigned, Agent of the United States, appointed to attend the Tiiliunal of Arbitration 
convened under the provisions of the Treaty concliidi^d at Washington, the 29th Keliruary, 1892, 
b<aween the United States and Her Britannic .Majesty, herewith makes the following rejdy to a Notice 
cuUuig for the production of copies of certain dociimeiits, which Notice was delivered to him by the 
Agent of Her Britannic Majesty on the OOtli day of Sei)len!ber, 1892 : — 

In regard to i)8ragni*)h nuni'..ered 1 of saiil ><(iticB : 

The Undersigned dots not furni.sh copies of" the documents therein referred to, for the reason that 
all such documents are included in tbo.se refc'rred to in the foot-note to p. 41 of the Case of the United 
States, and these appear in V(d. i of the Appendix of said Case, following p. 'id'i. 

In regard to paragraph numbered 2 of .said Notice: 

The Undersigned herewith furnishes photo-lilliograpliic facsimiles of all documents tlicrein 
referred to not lUrcady included in those which appear in vol. i of the Appendix of the Case of the 
United States, following p. 593. 

In regard to paragrajih numbered 3 of said Notice : 

The English version of the " explanatory note " therein referred to appears in the Appendix of the 
Case of the United Stjites, us indicated in the foot-note to p. ."i.i of said Case; but for the more 
accunite information of the Agent of Her Britannic Majesty, a copy of the original t«xt of said note 
is herewith furnished. 

In resiard to paragraph 4 of said Notice : 

The Undersigned lierewitb furnishes copies of the instructions therein referred to, notwithstanding 
he is clcailv of the opinion that thev have been neither specified nor alluded to in the Case of the 



i 1 



60 

Uniterl Stiites. Tlie dopiinipnts in wliicli tlicso iiistrnctinns aro onntninorl inoludo other matters as 
well, which, lieiiij; inclevaiit tn the jireseiit iiKHiir) ami somewhat voluminous, have hecn iiinitted 
Should, however, the British Ajient feel that ho has heeu prejudiceil by any such ouiissioii, the latter 
will, upon demand, be supjilied in every case. 

The Undersigued inijiroves the occasion to renew to Mr. Tupper the assurance of his highest 
coiisideratiou. 

(Signed) JOHN W. F0STK15, 

Agc7U iif tlie UniUil Slates. 



Inclosure 1 in No. 2. 

I. — Copy of (I Lelbrfrnm Pn'ri/ Councillor Spcnvi.d-i/, Gorcnwr-Gcncrnl of Siliiria, tu Count A'a^lroilc, 
Sicrctari/ of Slate, dated Irktdsk, Fchniary 1, 18:i0. JS'o. J8. 

(Translation.) 

.IPST befiiri! this niess(>iiger was dispatcheil T received, through the Tobolsk Post-oflice, [irfibiilily 
from St. IVtcrsliiir;,'!!, a packet, in wliiili 1 found a letter aiMrc-ised to your K.xci'llency, si'venil other 
private letters, an .Vgreemeiit coniduded liy tlie (iovcrnor of Kanitsliatkii with the Knglishnian I'igott 
regarding the whale fisjiery on tlie shores of Kastern Siberia, and an envelope whiili. Ironi its general 
apjiearanee, and from the fact of its being addressed to the <!overnor-(ieneral of Siberia, a|ipeared to 
contain an olhciid conuinniication, but in which I found a private letter from M. IJicord to Ivan 
Borisovitch I'estel. 

1 have the honour to transmit all these jiajiers to your I'.xcelleney, and 1 beg to be allowed to 
make the following observations with reganl to them: 

I had the honour to inform your K.Kcellency on the 12t]i November, 1810, that I could not lind 
amongst the papers left by mv predecessor any trace of ]a'oposals madi^ by M. Dubello, or of instruc- 
tions given to him. Fiom the Agreement and letter now received, 1 concluih' thiit he was instructed, 
or permitted, amongst other things, to endeavour to establish a whale fishery on tlie shores of Kamt- 
sliatka, and it follows that this matter has already been iiii|uired into, and that some decision has been 
arrived at by the (iovernmcnt. Tender these circumstances, tlie (lovernment will only have to 
examine the terms of the Agreement. In case, lir)wever, contrary to what .ippears to be the case, the 
matter should not yet have been decided, even in principle much h'ss in detail, I venture to oiler the 
following observations : — 

1. As to the principle of the establishment of the whale fi.shery. 

The advantage of establishing it may be twofold : First, an immediate adv.antage, consisting in the 
fact that food will be supplied to the jieople of Ivamtshatka. This will be a great benelit in casi- the 
supply of fish, which is almost the only means of sulisiL-tence of the people of Kamtshiitka, should fail. 
Your Kxcellency will see, from the inclosed extract from a letter from the (iovernor of Okhotsk, with 
what delight the Tunpuz inliabiting the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk haileil, last autumn, the 
appearance of the carcasses of whales (brown u)) by the sea on their coast. The second advantage 
consists in the prospect of thi; gradual estalilisliment of winding o]ierations with wlial rs of our own. 
This advc.nt.ige is a very I'lMiiote one, and I do not think lliat whaling carried lai by (uir (loverninent is 
ever likely to be a suc(;ess. There is a great dilliM-eiicc between liaviin; ten sailors taught whaling and 
establishing a Jiussian whale llshcry ; ships, tackle, money, and, above all, a master's eye. are indispen- 
gable. But even if we consider that the ultimate, establisliment of a Ku.ssian whale fishery is possible, 
and even probable, the tollowiiig drawbacks to placing the industry in the hands of foreigners must l)o 
taken into consideration : — 

(1.) We are familiar with the complaints made by the American Company in regard to the 
bartering carried on by citizens of the I'liited States at their establishments, and in reganl to their 
supplying the natives with tire-arms. These coin])liiints are well-founded, but nothing can be done in 
the matter. It would be useless to ajijily to the I'liilcd Slates' (iovernment to stop the trading; the 
commmercial rules of the Uniteil States dn not allow such intciCi-rence on the part of their (lovcrmnent. 
The only thing to he (hjiie is tor the < 'ompaiiy to endeavour to strengthen the defences of the |irincipal 
places in the Colonies, and for the ( iovernment, at lea.st, not to favour this bireign trade, lint the 
estahlishnienl of a whale fishery on tlu! eastern shores of Siberia would undoubtedly favour it in a 
high di'gree. The establisliment of a whale fisheiy would be a pretext for, and an encouragement to, 
foreign trade. 

(2.) Although the for indii.--try in T'Caiiit--li.atka ami Okhotsk, which has been declining from 
various causes, has now become unini]ioilant, nevertheless, the present trade and its prospects for the 
future are in the hands of liussian traders. If an industry in the hands of foreigners is established (Ui 
the coast, the whole trade will certainly pass into foreign liiinds. In tlii-i thinly-populated region it is 
impossible to establish an ellectivi' sii|icrvisioii ; moreover, how is the importation of brandy, rum, itc., 
to l)U iirevcnted ? 

(M.) The American Com]iany ma" ami, in the interest of the consolidation and ]ucservation of its 
Color.ies, ought to wish to estiiblisb a whale fishery of its own, employing for the pur[iose its own 
BerviiuLs, or, at any rate, 'cpiiig the openitiims in its own hands. Its jircsent financial ]iositioii is not 
merely satisfactory, but i 'IlianI ; its opcrilions should thereibre be extended, but the .Agreement 
co.ichided with the fon'-g.., -s will place insiirmountalde obstacles in the way of such exli'iision. 

(\.) M. llicorl ,sa) , ins hotter, that, owing to the, smallness of our forces in t.liat part of the 
worlu, W'i ciinnot p.eve'it l.jreigneis from winding. In tlanirst place, wi^ may not b(^ so weak as he 
suppose'. The oeeii-,'on"l appearance of a single properly-armed ship may be sullicient to keep (piiet 
and disperse .;U il' •"'> w..dlors. In the second place, if they are able to get possession of this industry 
by force, why sIiouLt tins force bt, sii'ictioned by u formal Agreement 'f 



61 

2. Tlicso oiisurviitioiis cm llic principle of estalilishiii;,' th' wliale fishery may lio HU|)plciiientC(I Iiy- 
the fullowiiig reuiiiiks on the jffoviaimn of the Ai,'iceiii".nt • — 

(1.) If l'i;:ot( IiiiriM'ir.isked fniMU ihinj,' more tliaii a 1(iim1 ami liniitfil ])ermit lor (akinj; wlialos on 
the aliorr.-; of Kaiiit-ilialka, why is lie iiot ■^iveii sxch :i hsiiilci! ],^'niiil, wliirh ■.oulil cusily he willidniwii 
at will '! Why siuii iiii Aj^riMjiiiciit lot ten years ? In wl)at way is thii A^irei'iiieul hindiii;; on l'i;,'ott ? 
Will it, or can it, fore',' him to carry on the imhutry if he does not find it profitahle '. How easily ho 
oordil lind ])V('le\is foi e\aclin;4 or reaii'Miii',' useless the one sti|mlation whieh is in our favour, namely, 
that whieh proviihis for the instiiietion of our sailors in whalini,'. 

(■J.) Why was it eonsidi-red necessary to use in the A.;,Teerneiit tlie indefinite exjjression " Kasteru 
SihiTia." instead of the word " Kalnt-hatki " ? Uy the use of the words "E'lStern Silicria," the rifjht 
to fish for whales i« extended not only to the .Sea of Okhotsk, hnt also to the Kurile Islands, whieh our 
American <'onipany will, after this, he frai-'-d to f;iv(' up. 

(.'!). Why shiiuld these traders he allowed to ily the llnssian Hat,' ? The in.solence ol this class of 
nieii, ami the acts of violence whieh they are always eonindttin;^ on their voyaues, are matters of 
common knowled'.'c. Why shimhl they he allowed t'l shelter themselves under the Itnssian lla^; in 
.lapan, anion;,' till! Tshaktehes and elsewhere '. Instead of inert asinj; the pre>tii;i:of liiissia. as AI, liioord 
•supposes, the ^-rant of the llussian lla;,' will only add to our responsihililies and laini; odium upon us, 
esjiccially as the (iovenior of Kanitshatka will have no nu'ans whatever of resirainin;,' Tii^ott. If the 
[liou^hlless act of one of inir naval oMici is (Khvostoff ) very nearly led to a war witli .lapan at the very 
time wlien we were anxious lor peace and Iriendly intercourse with that nation, what can induce us to 
he so rash as to ]i!ace our (lag in the hands of men who are ready to do nnythini,' for money ? 



2. — Extrad from a Letter, ilatiil Jn!,) 2, 1819,./i-e/« M. liiriinl. Gfixrimr nf Knmlslinthn, to Prinj 
CounciUor I'cstel, tnte (jOceriwr-Ociurdl nf ^itn-rin. 



(Translation ) 

Since the lost messeu-er left -M. Do'idloand I have hecn itiviuj^ uur carefid attention to the 
scheme for t!ie estahlishment of a whale h.^le ly. fur whieh the piesent moment is hivonrahle. As much 
time would he lost if we aUowed the Knalishnam I'i^iotl, who is most anxious to conui to terms, to 
leave us without some ilclinite undci.standinL; havin;,' heen arrived at, we have decided to conclude 
with I'isiott "'/ rr/i n ml iriii I he formal Ai,'reement iransniitted herewith. As I have not f,'ot M. Doliello'.s 
fervid imagination. I do not e.xjiect from thi.s Aureeaient the wonderfully henelieial residts to this country 
which he aiifici)iatef. Who will helieve that in ten \ ears we shall he ahle to have whalers of onr 
own at Kamtshatka t 

The circumslanci's which led l'i','oli to conclude this Agr'.'cmeut are as follows: — 

A large whale was ca.st up liy tlie sea 20 versis iroin our harhonr. AVe all went to see it. Tigott 
was in ecstasy, as he rectijjni/.ed in it a real spermaceti whale. The purest oil is ohtained out of the 
heads of these whales, and their tat is considered ni"st vahiahle. liefore the occurrence of this incident, 
so I'ortwnaie hir ns, I'i^jott had oficn a.sserieil, in the coarse of onr conversations, during which he 
ex|ilaiiied his views with great openness, that whaliii:.: could not he made piofitalile in tliis distant and 
thinly piipidatcd country, as it would not he worth w liile to incur the expense of tilting out whaling 
vessels, lint .lifer this incident he took unite a dilleicnt view. He hegan Ijy .iskiag me fur an olticial 
permit for whaling on onr shores, and fi'V my guarantee that he and his ciinipanions would ohlaiu 
the griiit of privile,L;eR for ten years; after negotiations with Hohello, however, he decided (o si^i' this 
Agreement. I am ''onfidcnt thai it will he ap|iMVed. and that 1 shall he instructed to do all in my 
power to make it work prolital'ly for this counlry. I shall, of ciairsc, use of my hesl endeavours in 
that direction. 

The .stipulation that the whalers shidi Iw allnwcd to Ily the Uussian tlag is very advantageous to 
ns from a pnlitical point of view, esjiecially as regards our relations with the .Iiipancse. When the 
whalers happen to ajiproach the .lapaiiese const, it will he an excellent thing that the inhaliitaiits 
should see how ]iowerfiil we are, and. moreover, when the whalers are engaged in lishiiig in the north, 
the people inliahiling the coasts in that region will learn to resi>ect ns,aiid will he ke]il in check. 

In the .Vgreemeiil the ex,'ression " Kastern .'siheria" is used inslead of '■shores of Kamtshatka," in 
order to give the Americans a larger Held' hir the exercise of their industry ; we know that there is no 
hotter harhonr in these seas than retropavlovsk ; and what is Kastern Silieria hut an extent of 
waste land? liesides, if we iliv U'll use the expressiim " Kastern .*<ilieria," our whalers will not he 
ahle to lish in the Sea of Okhotsk or ronml ihe Knrih' Islands. Moreover, we must confess our 
weakness; for how could wc pn'Veut anyone frimi whaling oniairshores ! Under these eircunistanees, 
anil in view of what is stipulated in the Agreement, 1 am sure that the (li'Vernment, after examining 
the instrument, will admit that its terms are advantageo'.ts, and will not hesitate to ratify it. We do 
not ask the Oovenimcnl lo spend any monev ; we only wish to he allowed to I'miml an industry which 
will make it possihle for Kaml.shatk.i to turn to profit in ten years' time advantages whieh have lon.g 
heen potentially open. 



(Signed) 



Count JACt)V LAMBKUT. 



• Li(erttll\, "(AK^nt nf ewth," 



«2 

(Beccived on the " Tshiiikoff," October 2, 1822.) 

Board of Management of the, Kvman-Amerkan Company to Captain Matthcic Ivanoviteh Muravitff, 
Chief Manager of the Mvssian-American Colonies. 

(Concerning Pigott.) 
(No. 149.) February 28, 1822. 

Tlio Board were aware tliat Captain ri<;ott,\vlio was al Katntsliatl^u, intemled tu sail tlii'iici' to ou/ 
Colonics, and your dcsiJatcli No. S ul' the 18tli .Jnnuarv, J821, oiinlirnicil lliuni in llicir Ijuliff thai lie 
l)roposcd to visit waters bolongini; to lUi.ssia. He lias paid you a. visit, as you rcjiort, under stiess of 
weather, and you have done rlyht in assisting; him; hut he would never havi^ ecinie to Noi-o 
Arkliangelsk if he had not been I'oreed to put in to that pmt ; what he meant to do was to eolleet furs 
secretly at other places. It was witii this object, and in order to ^'el a foolini.; for this ]airpiise on the 
Aleutian Islands, or on the northern islands situated in the direetiou of I'ehriup; Strait, that he made 
his iiro]ii)sal, of whieli yon have already been informed, with le.v'ard to whalinj; and lishinj.' for the 
benefit of Kanitshatka and (Okhotsk ; in the nieantinu' he has lieen asking |ierndssi(]n from Dohello, 
M. liicord's friend, to trade with the Tshuktshi's, and to use tlie liussian flag whde so engaged. It is 
a pity that yon had not yet been informed of the right whieh has lieen ollicially declared and annomu-ed 
in the I'egnlations whieh have been sent to you by the "Apollo." of the Imperial navy; if you had 
received these Kegidathins earlier, you wnuld, no dcudjt, have searched I'igoll's shi)). i)on't let these 
impudent fellows off so easily in future. This year a Ciovernment ship, the "Ajiollo" aliove 
mentioneil, will visit you; a second ship, the " Aja.x," has lieen seriously damagtd on tin' Dutch 
coast. We hear that anothi'r shii) will lie sent instc^ail nf her. Thanks be tu (jcjii and our Kniju-ror 
for saving the (Jompauy from all troulde and exiiense in connection with thi' dispatch of these Ciovern- 
ment shi]is. Yiiu will receive hy this ujiportuniiy ri'plies to the other ini|uiries contained in your 
despatch above referred to. 

(Signed) MlCIIAKl, KlSSKl.KF. 

iSKNKDlCT KltA.MKU. 

ANUKEl SEVKUIN. 
(Signed) ZEliENSKY, Chief Clerk. 



Jitnunrg 1821. 



On the 20th September the American brig " I'edlar" arrived nt this port. Her captain is Meek, 
a brother of the Aleck who is well known to ycai. She had on board Mr. Pigott, with whom yon are 
well acii'iaiutiMl. He was the s\ipereaigo uv owner; for the cargo was undi^r his control, and he 
directed 'he nioven,enls of the shi]). He had come fioni Kamtshatka in (lighteen days, and had 
encountere<l very stnrmy weather. The sides uf the ship \vcr<' damaged, and the Imats hroken up. Tlat 
sails were also torn, and a great deal of further damage hail lieen dune. He hrought with him a letter 
of reconnaendation from JI. liicord to me. 1 knew uf I'iguit's relations with the American ('um|iany, 
but 1 could nut refu.se him permission to anchor in the roadstead here and lo rej.air his slii]i and build 
a boat with materials of his own. If I had refused to allow him to >lu this, I should have been viulaling 
the usage uf liiendly nations. I took care, ho'vever, to ]ilace rafts near his ship, and I informed him that 
if he violated the rights of the Colony in any way, or had any eomnmnications whatever with the 
Indians (i!ven for the purpose of ohtaiidng food), he would be at once arrested, and his ship and hi^r 
cargo confiscated. Of course, this annoyed him, and he told me s-o. I replied that I was justilied in 
being suspicious of the ojien enemies of tla; Company. There were at that time two men-uf-war on 
the roadstead, and this fact affurded me freipuMit uppurtnuilic-.^ uf meeting I'igutt, for he was aciiuainled 
with the ollicers of liuth uf tlieiu. They had met beynnil Itehring Strait in Kutzebue Suuud, and had 
been anehuved there tugi'ther. He. said in a hesitating way that he had been trading then.', and com- 
plained that he had been unsuccessful ; hut are his statements to be believed ? 

He had a (punitity of guns and annnunitiun with him, and suld .some guns to the otlic'crs of the 
men-of-war. 1 askeil him whether he h.id suld any guns in the nurth, and he answered that he had 
mil ; but are we to bi^lieve him :' Un my asking him whether he eunsidered that his <'ountrynu'n acted 
rightly in su|iplying tire-anus to the Kolusii, he answen'd that it was not very proper cunduct, Iml that 
the laws of their euimtry did nut |iruhihit it. and that as suun as uiu' nam fuund the tiade prulilafle, 
others did not fall to fulluw his e.vam]>le. Hi' said that in all prulialiility no nation wuuld be able to 
sto]) the trattic by force su lung as the American laws diil nut fuibid it, and that ihey never wuidd 
forbid it, bi'cause the limilalion of free trade wuuld be a viulatiuu uf thi' American < ■unstilutiun. Xo 
nation would attack them, because thi:y were .su strong. They eunsidered that seltlenient gave a right 
of governmenl, aial that eveiyune was master in his imn terriluiy ; therefore, any inl'iactiun uf the 
lav.-s of a eonutry would expose them tu the ])enallieN jaeserilied by the laws uf that cunntry, fur their 
own Coivernnn'Ul wuuld nut pruti'ct them. What do you think uf this? Was he light, ur not ? I 
must eiaifess that I was wrong when 1 said, in a letti'r to Aliehael .Miehailoviteh, that a single nuin-of- 
war wuuld be sullii'ient to put an I'lid to this tiallic. To tell the irutli, 1 did not believe it al the time; 
but I was afraid ihat a whole S'|uadldU, or at least a cou)ile of frinales, would eume down npun us. 
This prospect frightened me, butli as .\biiiager of the American Culunies and as a llussian, They wuuld 
have eaten up all lair lunvisions and cost thii l'au|ieror . ot of money, withiait doing much good. I 
am ready to confess that 1 was wrung lo yuu, tu his Excellency, and befire all the wurld. H' Kngland, 
wliieh is su ]iuwerliil at sea, and Ihi^ uther Maritime I'owers of Eurojie. lind it im) ussible tu |irevent 
these Kepubljeans from cummitliiig de|iredations under a neutral Hag, although the I'nited Stales refuse 



63 

to protont thorn, what hnpn is there that a sinijle frij^ate will ho ahle to stop this traffic on our shores, 
aliounditiL! in straits ami oxcollont harlicairs. ainl sn wrll Kiinwn to these Americans that they may lie 
called the pilots ol'lhes(! eoasts i They will always he on <;iio(l terms with thi' natives. 

In all iirohability they will not trade in arms under thi^ guns of the fort or under those of the 
fri;,'ate, but what is to prevent tlieni from tradinj,' in other phiies ? And how is it to lie proved that they 
have been enf,'a|,'ed in this tradi; ' Where is the Court which is to try thi'ni ? One witness will say 
one thinf;^, and unotbei' nnother. An em|ity eannon has lieen known to eause a war, Init (iml save our 
beloved eountry from this. New Archrinfiel is a block-house (do not be oU'eiideil at my thus ileseribing 
it), or, at any rati', it is not at all liki^ Kuropeiiu loits. It is at liest a Kolo-h fort, but it often contains 
inerchandize worth miae than a million riaible<, and an expedition to take it, or at least to destroy it, 
would not cost more than one-tenth of that sum. 

Silka is a .izreat expense, is of no ailvanta^e, and swalhnvs up the revenues of the other Settle- 
ments without bein;,' able to protect them. Then lonsidei' its distance from the other Settlements, the 
ditliculty of coininunieatin;,' with it on account of the want of:hips and the frerpient scarcity of <;ood 
sailors, or in any case, the great expen.si' of communication, the. dillii.'ully experirinced by the Chief 
Manacer in looking after the other ollices. unit the necessity Ibr liiai 1o miiko an annual tour of inspec- 
tion at the most critical time of the year, which is also the time when his iiresence at Sitka is most 
necessiiry, as it is then tliat the ships arrive, that expeditions are sent out, that work is actively carried 
on, and that the natives collect round the fort and put their designs into execution ; th(^y ave.not as 
yet vcay dangerous, it is true, but who knows what ma)' yet be in store for us ? 

Under the.sc^ einnimstances, 1 think that prudence is the better )iart of valour; hut this matter must 
he kejil tor another despatch. I will only observe, in conclusion, that I have kejit my promise not to 
(judjellish the subjects of my Iieports, but to say openly what I think. 



Inclosure 2 in \o. 2. 

Explanatory Note shown h>j lianin th. Tki/II fo Mi: Adams, Dcnmbcr 5, 1824, and filed 

Janunrij S.'j, 1825. 

Note explicative a presenter an fiouvernemeut dcs £tats-lTnis lors do I'echange dcs ratifications dan? 
le but dVcarter d'autant ]i1hs sftreinent tout motif de di.seussions futures, au moyen de laquelle 
note on reconnoitroit positivement exceiitees de la liberte de cba.sse, de peclie, et de commerce, 
8ti)iulL'(^ en favour des citoyens dcs fttats-Unis pour dix ans, /I'.s Ila Alentiemiri, /<"i cdti'-t di- la 
S'ili^ric, cl m ijiiiAml lt:s posscusiuiui Jiitt^vs siir la cdlr. nvrd-oiust ilc I'Ami'riqiic jituqu'dii 59° ;!(•' de 
latitude nord. 

XL jiarait (|Ue eeci n'est cpi'une con.sdijuencc naturelle des stipulations arret(!es, car les i-6tes: de la 
SiUric sout baignees Jiar la Her d'Ochotsk, la Her de Kamt'^chatka, et la Mer Glaeiale, et nou par la 
Mer du Sud mentioiniec^ dans I'Article I" de la Convention du 5 (17) Avril. C'cst aussi par la Mer 
du Kamlschatka ou I'Oi.ran du Nord ipu^ sout baignees Ir.t /leu Alentiennen, 

1,'intenlion de la Kiissie n'est point d'eutraver la libre navigation de rOct'an Pacifiviue. J^lle si- 
bornerait a faire reconnoitre comme bicii cntcndu et [ilacc a I'alni ile toute esiicce de doute le ]irincipe, 
que depnis le 5!)" .'10' aucun vais.seau etranger no jiourrail approcber de ses cotes et ses lies, ni y faire 
la chusse ou hi iieche ipra la distance de 2 lioues marines. Ce qui m'empechera pas d'accueillir les 
bfttimens ijtrangers avaric's ou battus par la tenipete. 



Inclosure 3 in No. 2. 
Instructions to United Hales lievenue-cuttcrs and Vruiurs. 



Treasury Department, Office of tlu Secretary, 
Sir, Washinytun, D.U., June 4, 18ti7. 

you will proceed without delay to San Francisco and take charge of the sleanur revenue-cutter 
"Linc(dn," eiunnianded by Captain White, which has been designated to make a voyage to Sitka, and 
the Hussiau possessions in America, lately ceded to the United States, to acipiire a knowledge of the 
country with u view to a due protection of the revenue when it shall have become a part of the United 
States, and for the inlornmtion of Congress ami the people. 

• ••••• 

The Vessel will be expected to leavi' San Kr.inci.sco as soon as iiossible after your arrival, and will 
lirsl proc eed quickly to Sitka to communicate with the laissian authorities, ami present the letter of 
liai-on Stocckle, herewith inclosed. It will be remembered that the country is yet subject to the 
exclusive dominion of Russia, and that until the buinal transfer of it to the l.'nitcd States the latter 
can exercise no control within its borders, except thnuigh the courtesy of the Kussian Government. 

• • • '" • ♦ • 

After visiting Sitka, you will employ the vessel according to your best judgtuent to etfect the 
jiurposes of the expedition between soiithoru limits of the countrv and the westerly extremity of the 
Aleutian Islands. 

L117J S 



64 



It is not nxpectod tliat yon will pasR to the north of tliosc islands, tliongli you arc at liliorty to do 
so if it seems best. 

• ••••» 



Cnptiiiii AV. A. Howard, 

lit'vemic-outtor Service, New York City. 



Very respectfully, 

(Signed) H. Mcculloch, 

■Si(,/-iY(()'y 0/ the Trea-viry. 



Tiramin/ Di-paiimrnf, Office nf the Secrctarij, 
Sir, Wo^hinijloti. D.C.Matrh '10,Um. 

As soon as the revenue-steamer " Wayanda," to tlie coinmaMd ul' wliicli y<ni are ordered, sliall be 
ready for sea, you will proceed to the Territory of Alaska tor the proteclion of those inter(«ts espeeially 
confided to you as an ulhcer of tlie Itevenue Marine liy the laws of the Cnited States and Kegulationa 
of *hp. Department. 

You will conmuinicate a.s often as jiossiblc with the officers of Customs in Ala.ska, olitaining all 
information in your power as to trade, illicit and t)therwise, and convey to the department all the 
knowleilge possible to give regarding means for the proteclion of the revenue, and facilitating coninierco 
in our new territory. 

T am, &e. 
(Signed) H. McCULLOCH. 

Captain J. W. AVhite, Secretary of Treasury. 

lievenue-steamer " Wayanda," 

Sau Francisco, California, 



Treasury Dejiaiimcnf, Office 0/ the Secretary, 
Sir, U'nxhinytuii, D.C, Fiiirvary 6, l.SiiO. 

Vou have been detailed to watch over the interests of tlie TnitiMl Slates on llie Island of St. Paul 
to prevent illicit traltie and the violation of Hevenue Laws, with particular reference to the Law of the 
27th July, 1868, seetion 0, forbiilding the killing of fur-seals. 

You wdl proceed to your post on the " Way;inda" under the orders of the Commander of lliat 
vessel; a sergeant's g'.iard will lie detailed by the Military Commander, with instructions to aid you in 
the execution of your duties. 

It will be your duty lo ace that the legal prohibition against the killing of seals is rigidly enforced 
on that island. Any person disregarding it will be arrested, and sent to the States Inr trial as 
required by law. This prohihilion is ilesigned chiefly to apply to killing for trade ; you an' especially 
to prevent that, liut you will not punish Aleuts living on the islaiul sbould they occasionally kill .such 
small numbers as may be absolutely necessary for their sn.stenance and clothing on the island, not to 
be carried away. 

During the seal season guns .are not to be fired, ii"r dog-j ]ierniitle<l m\ the island, nor any 
proceedings that experience lias shown apt to disturb the seal rookeries, tty to frighten and <lrive away 
the animals. 

No person not a native of the island will be permitted to land and remain on the island unless 
under authority from this Department, and no stores destined to be u.sed in aid of seal-hunting or for, 
the preservation of skins can be landed. 

Peimission has been given to Hutchinson, Kolde, and ('d., and Williams and Haven, for two men, 
selected by each of .sdd firms, I o remain on eacli island lo car<^ for the property of their principals. 
These men must conform to all the rei[uireTneius herein indicated, and, in case of their reiiisid .so to 
do, y(/ii will arrest them; and at the first op)iorlunity send tlieni to San Francisco, Di-egon, or 
Washington T<;rritory, to be delivered to the I'niteil States' Marshal, if you have reasonable evidence 
of their having violated the Law of 18(18 above cited. 

You are to pn^vent the carrying on <if illicit ti.dlie with the natives. Spirituous li(|uors in 
particular, and fire-arms not belonging to Ihe ndlitary ari' absolutely prohibited ; none such can be 
landed on the ishiiid ; any found there will be seized. Vessels coming there must bring none but 
domestic or duty-paid goods, and an! to be prt)vided with manifests certified by (be ( 'idli'ctor of 
Customs at Sitka, and with written perinissioi\ from (he same officer to enter there. Vessels direct 
from a foreign port are not ]ieriiiilted to unlade there under any circumstances. 



Lieutenant Winslow B. liarnes. 

Revenue-cutter .Service. 



Very respectfully, 

(sigtH'd) 11, Mcculloch, 

Sfcrdary of tlii 



,V„if — Any material Law, Order, or Proclamation referred to herein, or in any other instruction, 
will be found in vol i of the Appendix to the Cu.se of tiiu United States, pp. 9^-lly. 



65 

Tren.fiiry Dcpurtmcnt, Oflirr of tic Sfnrlnry, 
Sir, W'lslihiiilon, J).a., tViriuir,/ 23, 1809. 

It is desiralile that the " Lincoln," nftcr nccomplishin^ wliat lia.s been iUrskIv arranged at the 
Islaiiils of St. I'aiil and St.. ficuriie, .shall iiiocccd directly to Atton, which is iindurstnod to he the 
princi|ial lucidity of the .sca-ottcr trade, and cstahli.sh such relations with th(^ natives as .^hall picvent, 
if Ijii^^ilde, the hillini,' of .tea-otter until further onler.s, and preserve the interests of the I'niLed States 
in other rcsjieels. 

lieturninn towards Ounalaska, it is also desirable to visit other islands of the chain where sea- 
otters an! taken or where snui,L;i.;lin,i,' may be carried on. ICvery care should b(i taken to j)reserv(! the 
best relations with the inhaliitaiits of the islands, and enlist them in aid of the (uiforccmenL of laws. 
The inh.ibitants are to be informed that all the restrictions laid u]iiin trade and fur-hinitinj^ are fur 
th(!ir licMelit quite as nuich as for the benetit of the (Jovernmeiit, in(le<!d, far more, and lliey are to be 
assured that thev n-ill in no event be perndtted to suffer on account of tlnm. 

» ■ ♦ • • • • 

It will probably be advisable to vi.'^it tliese islands ajjain durin.; the autumn. 

Very respi'clfuUy, 
(Signed) H. McCULLOCH, 

Comniandins 'Otficcr of the Secrclanj of the Trcamri/. 

Kevemie-steamer " Lincoln." 

I'.S. — The " Liui'oln " havinj; been substituted for the " Wayanda " since the date of my letters of 
tlie lith February, her name is to be understood as substituted in all places in those letters where the 
name " Wayanda" occurs. 

IL McC. 



Treasury Department-, Office, of the Secretnri/, 
Sir, W<i.fl'inytoii,D.C.,Min;:h 31, IS7'^. 

The. ri'Venu. '-cutter " Reliance" under your command beini; ordered to cruize westward, you will, 
as instructed by (,'olleetor Kapers, prncei'd with your vessel to Kodiak, thence to Amdook, Ounalaska 
Island, via tlu' Oauga or ('hllulua^'i^l Island. From Ounalaska you will visit the seals islands St. Paul 
and SI. (leorf^e, from these islands sailiuj; as far north as Norton ami Kotzeinie Sound, in the autumn 
returuin,^ to Sitka, where farther instructions will be jrivcii yon. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) (1£0. S. IJOIITWKLL, 

Captain .1. M. Sehlen, Secntdry of Treasury. 

Itevenue-oulter " Reliance," Sitka, Alaska. 



Sir, 



Treiisury J)e/iartnif>it, Oflirr ifltie Srreettiry, 
Wii.HhhiijIon, D.C., J/irii 18, ISTtl. 



In.stnictions were sent to yon a few days ago to cause the " lleliauce " to bo fitted out immediately 
to cruize westward, and authority given for providing all re(pdsite supjdies, rations fiu- six munth.s, and 
a full complement of men. Vou aie also authorized to employ a surgeon for the ves.sel, bis services to 
terminate on the return of the " lieliance" to your ]iort in the fall, ]anbably not before Octolier. 

Vnu will please instruct Captain Seidell to keep a very accurate journal of everything transpiring 
on this voyage, at its tiuiainaticui foruanling to the Department chart of the eciurse of ship, ports 
visited, miles .sailed, \'c. 

Ijefore sailing on this cruize ('a)ilain Seidell will forward thrcuigh your ollice lists of ship's 
Coni)iaiiy, with iineiitoiies of property on board. Wages paiil to men will also be stated. 

Captain Seldeu will be particular to note vcss^ds bciarded or spoken on the voyage, also ve,s.sels 
seized (if any), giving names, dates, and flag, and s]iccifyiiig cause of seizuri!. 

lie will lie especi.illy obscrvaiiL (and note accordingly) of whatever occurs at tlie fur-bearing 
islands of St, I'.ml and St. Oeorge, so that tlie Department maybe properly iutiiinied upon those 
points. 

Lieutenants Ilaiisell and Mason have been ordered to the " lieliance." 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) GKO. S. BOUTWELL, 

Will. Kapers, Ksi|., Secretary of the Trcru^ury. 

(,'iillector, Ax., Sitka, Alaska. 



air, Tec'isi'cy Dc/iartmetil, Mny 2.5, 1870. 

Ily telegram of tlii! 2;ird instant the Collector of Customs at San Francisco has been instructed to 
put the reveiiuefleamer " Lincoln" in readiness for cruizing to the Aleutian Islamls, liehring Sea, and 
the Islands of St. I'anl and St. George. 

You are onlered to the ciunmand. 

Two additional oflicers. Lieutenants nateman and Coulnon, are ordered to join the vessel, and will 
shortly report to the (,'(dleclor. 

(Collector riii'liis has been instructed to cause ample sujiplies to be furnished. 

You will proceed first to Niinuimo, and obtain, if necessary, additional supjilies of coal, and from 



66 



thonco take your course direct to Ounalaska (it is not consitlL'red iiii]i()rtaiit to {,'0 to Kodiak, and it 
may be avoided, tlii; navigaton being dangerous, and, besides, nmeb more linu^ lieiiig re(|nired tban to 
sail due west to Ounalaska), wbere you can again coal, tlieuce to the islands of St. I'aul and 
St. George. 

Liuulenunts Henderson and liarnes wiU bo relieved, and will be received on board your ship to be 
conveyed to I'uget Sound, I'roni thence returning to the Atlantic coast. 

Tlie Departnu'nt relies upon your discretion and good judgment in concbicting this crui/.e to the 
best interests of the service and the (.iovennnent. To this i;nd joii will cau.se to be carefully noted on 
ship's journal all the movements of your vessel, places touched at, vessels spoken, boarded, or seized; 
if seized, under what circumstances and for wliat eau.se. 

It is essential that the l)e[iartnient be fidly informed in relation to all which may be done by you 
in performance of the duty to which the "Lincoln" is a.ssigne(l (jf protecting tlie interests of the 
Cioveriiment in those waters. 

On returning from this cruize you will proceed direct to Puget Hound. From thence you will 
forward to tlie I)e]iartmeiit your journal and reports of the cruize. 

You will acknowledge receipt of these instructions, and, jirior to sailing, forward lists of your 
officers and crew. 

Wishing yoti a safe and prosperous cruize, I am, &c. 

(Signed) GEO. 

Captain C. ^L Scammon, 

Kevenue-steamer " Lincoln," 

San Francisco, C'uliforuia. 



S. JiOUTWF.LL, 
Sccriiary v/ t/ic Treasury. 



Treasury Department, Ofiice of the Secretary, 
Sir, Washington, B.C., April 27, 1871. 

U]ion receipt of this order, you will proceed without delay to I'ort Townscnal, Washington 
Territory, r(>])orting on your arrival to the Collector of Customs at that jiort, for the connuand of the 
revenue-cutter " Keliance." 

You will acknowledge the receipt of this order, and advise the Department when it sliall have 
been obeyed. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) WM. A. KICHAKIISON, 

(,'aptain .Tiio. A. Wolnter, Jtm., Acting Secretary of the Treasury. 

Itevenue-cutter Service, Wilmington, Del. 



Telegram. 

Treasury Department, Office of the Secretary, 
Washimjton, D.C, A/ml 27, 1871. 
"Lincoln " may go to Alaska, being absent from I'ort Townsend si.\ weeks, it you and Leighton 
concur in lielieving sIk? will prevent smuggling enouuh to justify expense. 

(Signed) WM. A. lUCHARDSON, 

Acting Secretary of the Treasury. 
M. S. Drew, (.'ollector of Customs, 

I'ort Townsend, Washington Territory via Seattle. 



Treamiry Department, Office of the Secretary, 
Sir, Washington, DC, JulyTi, 1872. 

Referring to your comnmnication of the 22nd May last, stating that ytui had granted pasRage on 
the revenue-cutter " Reliance " from Kodial. to Ounalaska, Ala.ska Territory, to Professor Alplio I'inant, 
who is travelling in that region for the b -nefit of science, there being no other means of conveyance 
for him between tho.se points, and his r.je.lication having the approval of the Collector of (.'ustums at 
Sitka, &c., you are informed that your action in the premises, in consideration of the circumstances of 
the case, is apiu'oved by the Department. 

i am, &c. 
(Signed) GEO. S. BOUTWELL, ^cretary. 

OptJiin J. A. W^ebster, Jun., 

Commanding lievenue-cuttcr " Keliance." Sitka," Alaska. 



67 

Telegram. 

Treasury Department, Offlce of the Secretary, 
WaMrujton, B.C., July 12, 1873. 
Take on bonrd all necessary supplies and proceed with " Reliance " to Sitka, Alaska, and report 
to Collector for duty. Telegraph departure. 

(Signed) WM. A. RICHARDSON, Secretary. 

Captiiin J. 0. Uaker, 

Revenue-cutter " Reliance," Olympia, W.T. 



Treasury Dqmrtmenl, Office of the Secretary, 
Sir, Wanhinqton, D.C., July U, 1873. 

Coiilirinatory i)f my tclc^^rani of the 12th instiinl, you aw directed to t;ikc on board the revenue- 
cutter " Ri'liancc," midin- your cunimaml, audiciciit .supplies of jirovisions, fuel, and wntor. witli all 
articles hel(jnf;in;,' to the ve.s.sel, and, cverjahinj,' iM-inf; in icadiiies.s to proceed w'tli your coTiiniand to 
Sitka, Alaska, and report to the Collector of Customs at that port for duty in the waters ol lus 
collection district. 

You will inform the Department of the dates of your departure for, and arrival at, the station 
designated. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) WM. A. RICHARDSON, Secretary. 

Captain J. G. Baker, 

Commanding Revenue-cutter " Reliance." 



Treasury Department, Office of the Sexretary. 
Sir, Wn-'ikbiijlun. D.C., May 7, 1874. 

I transmit herewith a copy of an Act of Congress, nppruvcd the I'-^'uii April, 187-1, autliorizing the 
Secretary of the Treasury to ajipiiint a Special A^'ent, aiul t!ie Secretary of the Navy to detail an ollicer 
of llie navv, lor tlic; i)iirpose, of visiting llie various trading stations and Indian villages in the 'I'erritory 
of Alaska.'lhe Seal Islands, and tlic large islands to the nortli of llieiu, iu Ueliring Sea, and collectnig 
and Reporting all possible authentic inforuiation upon the present condition of tlie seal fisheries ot 
Ahtfika, &c. 

You are informed that Mr. Henry W. Elliott and Lieutenant AVashburn Maynard, United States' 
navy, have lieen assigned to the duty -joiitemidated by the Act of Congress referred to above, and you 
are .lutliorized and directed, upon their application, to receive thciii on board the revenue-eutter 
" Reliance," under your command, and convey them to such i)oiiits in tiie region named as they iiiay 
desire to visit in tlie diseliarge of tlie duties imposed upon lliem by said Act. It will accordingly 
be necessary for you to make provision lor supplies for an extended cruize. 



Captain J. G. Raker, U.S.Ii.M., 

Commanding lievenuc-ciUter " Reliance," 
I'ort Townsend, W.T. 



I am, c&c. 
(Signed) F. 



A. SAWYER, 

Acting Secretary. 



Sir, Treasury Department, Washington, D.C., May 5, 1875. 

Information derived from letters ot the Collector of Customs at Sitka, Alaska, from the Reports of 
Siieeuil Agents of the Department, and more especially from a recent coniinuuicatiou troiii the Secro- 
taiy of War, makes it appear necessary that a vessel sliould U: dispatched at as early a .late as possilde 
to the waters of Alaska, to aid in tlie suppression of smuggling llier.-. 

You will therefore direct Captain Scammon, ccmimandiiig the revenue-steamer "Wolcott, at 
your iiort, to immediately take the necessary steiis to prcjiare said vessel for a cruize to Sitlca ami such 
other parts of the coast of Alaska as uiioii conference with the Collector nt the latter-named port it 
niav Ije considered iieces.sary to visit, and, everytliing being in readiness, you will in.stnut him to pro- 
ceed witli tlie " Wolcott " to Sitka, and, upon his arrival, to report to the Collector there for iluty, and 
to oliev any (U'.lers the latter may give him as to cruizing in those waters compatible with the 
puriio.ses of' his voyage, and not inconsistent with his returning to Port Townsend by the 1st September 

next. 

• • • % t 



Henry A. Webster, Ksq., 

Collector ot Customs, Port Townsend, W.T. 



I am ar. 
(Signed) CHAS. 



F. CONANT, 

Acting Secretary. 



[117J 



68 

Treasurt/ Department, Office of the Sfrrelary, 
Sir, W'ndiiiujtim, 7/6'., Ajrril 'M, 1877. 

Tin; Dt'iiurtinont Imviii^' (Ictermiiu'd to ilisii;itcli tliu ivvi'iuiu-.steiuner " Itii.sli," uiidi^r your 
coiiimaiiil, to i:\\\\v.v. in tlio wiilcn of Aliiskn Mini mimoiil; lliu Si'iil Lslaiids for the jirotoctioii ol' llii^ si'ii- 
ottei- liiiiitin^-^idiuuls mid llio st'ul lisluiics, as well na llic ruvciim^ from ciistoiiiH, yon arc directed 
iimuediately iijioii receipt hereof to lake mi lioard that vessel .siiflicieiil .sii|i|ilies of provisions, i*i;c„ Cor 
a livi' months' cruize, and .such i|naMtities oi' (nel and water as can lie conveniently stonjd on lioard, 
and leave San Kraneiseo, with your e.ininiand, not latter than the 1st May next, for the wiitius icferred 
to, and nuike tlie host of your wav to the places hereafter desi;,'miled. 

» » ■ • • • • 

You will also touch at Kort Wrnnj;ol and Sitka, and leave at tho.se jilaees the copies of ]print<Mi 
orders* relalini,' to the ]iioiertioii of the (!o\ernmenl interests in those waters which will he fninishc'd 
you, and at Sitka you will confer with the t 'olleetor of ( 'astoins in relation to matler.s iiertaininj,' to the 
collection of the revenue in his district. 

From that port you will [iroeced direct to Kodiak and thence to Ounaln.ska, touchin"; at Ounjja 
and lielcov.ski en route, and [lostinj; at each of those places copies of the orders mentioned ahove, 
and conforming' to instructions comnmnicated to you in Department letter of even date herewith. 



Having supplied the " liush " with coal, you will cruize actively with said vessel amonj; I he 
Aleutian l.slands until ahont the 10th Septenilx^r, and will strictly enforce the instructions of the 
Department contained in the ]irinlcil orders and the letter of authority referred to ahove. To this end 
you will visit St. I'aul and St. (iemue at least twice during the season, and cover in your crui/inj; the 
sea-otter huntin^'-;.T(iunds from Kodiak to Diinidaska, and you will in the eoiirse of the .seii.son make 
one cruize to the wesi.ward, if iiraelicahle, as far as Attou, and touch at the principal otter-hunting 
station.? between that island iind Dunalaska. 

• ■••«• 



Captain Geo. W. Hailey, T.S.K.M., 

Commanding lievenne-steainer " Richard Kusli,' 
Sau Fninciseo, California. 



I am, &c. 
(Signed) .lOHX SIIEltMAN, 

Si)rd<iry of the Tiinxunj. 



Trenmiri/ Deportmeiit. Ofllee of the Seerrtary, 
Sir, »Wi!H///(m, yA6'., >««(•' 2H, 1R7K. 

The Department licvinfj determined In dispatch the revenue-steamer " Rush," miiler your 
command, to cruize in the waters of Alaska for the enforcement of the jirovisions of law and |irolee|i(in 
of the interests of the Government on the Seal Islands and sea-otter huntin;i-^Mounds of Alaska generally, 
you are directed to take on hoard that vessel, without delay, sullieieut sup| lies of provisions, &e., for a 
five inontlis' cruize, and such i|iiaiitities of fuel and water as can he eonvenienlly stored on hoard, and 
leave Stt)i Francisco, with your conimaMd, hy the lOth proximo, if practieahle, for the wate vs named, 
and make the hest of your way to the places hereinafter (h'si;,'iiated. 



You will ,ilso tcaich at Fort Wranj,'el and .Silka, and leave at those jilaces copies of printed orders 
relating to the protection of the (lovernnienl interests in those waters will lie furnished you. 

From the last-named )iort yon will proceed direct t<i Kodiak, and thence to Ounalaska, touching 



at Ounga and IJelcovski 
above. 



Ill i-oulr, and 



sting at each of these places copies of the orders mentioned 



Having supplied the " Rush " with coal 
Aleutian l.slands until the last of Octoher. if p 
the Department contained in the printed orders 

end you will visit .St. I'aul and St. (leoiLre at least twice during the season, aU' 
the sea-otter huiUiiig-grounds from Kodiak to Ounalaska, leaving an ollicer 



le killiu" 



I.sland during the sealing season to prevent tl 

course of the season, make one cruize to the westward, if priicticable, 

principal otter-hunting stations hetween that island and Ounalaska. 



you will cruize actively with said ve.'sel amongst the 

practicalile, and >vill strictly enhirce the instriiclions of 

the letter of authority referred lo ahove. To this 

cov<'r in your cruizing 

ind two men on Otter 

of seals on that island; and vou will, in the 



ami 



far 



Attou, and touch at the 



Captain G. W. Bailey, 

( 'ominandiug IJevenue-steiuuer " Richard Rush.' 
San Francisco, California. 



Vorv respectfully, 
(Signeii) JOHN SHERMAN, Urnrlar;/. 



• These and odier printed orders tieri-iniifter referred to will be found at pp. 100-102 of vol. i of the .Appendix to the Cane of 
the United SUtM. 



60 

Treaiturji Department, Office, of the Secretary, 
Sir, 'li'iLihinnluii, Ajuit 21, LSTil 

Hiiriii;j the <Tiiizc' of 111" nn-i'iiiti'-stoiimur " Itiisli," uinlcr yuur ciiiiiiiiiiinl, in AlasUmi n^.tiirs, tlia 
eiiHiiiii;; KtMiuii, ynii will iviusi! s.iiiiiiliii,;,M, lii.'arin;,'s, ^'^'(l^'l•a|lilil.•al iiiiil ii^ticiinjiiiiial (jliscrvatinin, iioti's 
oil lilies ami I'lirn'iiN, ami IIm'. |u.sitiiiii of rocks, liLirs, &c,, to \>ii taken in the iiiUuvst. iil' ;iciuiicc!, and, 
on return uf the " Ittisli " to San l''raiiei.sfii, .submit detailed IJeport^f of tliu satno to thu Ilepartniuut for 
trnnsniis^iiin tn the United States' Cniust Survey. 

I transmit lierewitli a cuiiy of a letter ol' the IL'tli instant from th(; .Superintendent of tlie Coitst 
Survey, makinu su,L;.;i'stioMs in i'ei;ard I i the loeidities where .speeial olwervatiims are de;iied, as 
indicated on duplical.ii wets of (,'liarts furwarded herewith, oik; of which you will return wiih your 
Report n^ferred tn a'lovu. retainim,' the other on huard the vessid. 

The (.'oasf. .'survey has cxjiressed to the l)eiiartment its appreciation of the ;,'icat importance lo 
Hcience of Ihe infonnatinn heria')fore olitained liy yon, and yuu will ^'ivc- the Hubjecl all the attention 
yon may ln^ able, duTin.i; the contemplated cruize of the " Kush," without int('rferin^' wilii tlie reyulur 
duties of the vessel. 

Very rcspectfullv, 
(Signed) .JOII.V SilKKMAX, ,SV,rW((/-//. 

Captain Geo. W. Uailoy, 

("imunandini^ l{ev<!nue-sti'amer " I'ichard Uusli," 
San Francisco, (,'aliforiiia. 



Tri'iisunj ])i part III rut, Offirr nf llir &rr<t'iri/. 
Sir, ' U'linliinijtoii, Man lo, 1 880. 

The De])arLiuent havini; determined to dispatch the rcv(Miue-stcamcr " L'orwin," under your 
command, to cruizo in the waters of Alaska for the enforcement of the pruvisions of law and prntection 
of til!! intercsls of the (Joveniment on the .Seal Islands and the sea-otter huntini,'-grouncls, anil of 
Aliuska 1,'enerally, you ere direitted to taki; on board that vessel, without delay, supplies of jirovisions 
for a six months cruize, and sullicient quantities of fuel and water, and leave .San Francisco, with your 
command, not later than the 'I'lwX instant for the waters named, and make the liust of your way to the 
places hereinafter desij;nated. 

It i." desiralile that you shuuld be in liehriuj' f^ea and the Arctic Ocean as early in tlie season as 
the opcninj; of navii-ation will |)erniit. You will accordingly proceed from San Francisco direct to 
Ounalaska, and on arrival there will take in a fresh supply of coal. From this point you will ]iriiieed to 
Norton .Sound, touching at the Seal Islands on your way. You will leave an ollicer and two men on 
lOtter Island, fur the |Hir[iosc of proteclin;,' the seals there, unless you should deciu it necessary to take 
all your conimiuid with you in your further cruize to the northward. 

It is expected that you will time the movements of your vessel so as to arrive in Xorton Sound 
before liehriu;,' .Straits are open for the passage of vessels, and that you w'ill avail yourself of the lirst 
opportunity to push into the Arctic Ocean. 

' • • « • ♦ • 

By reference to the Heport I'f Captain Oenrge W. Hailey. United .States' Iicveiiue Marine, who 
commanded the revenue-steanier " Kiish " in her cruize last year in Alaskan waters, yiiu will observe 
that Kiitzebiic .Smmd in the .Vrctic Ocean is reported as thi! rendezvous of a number of vessels engaged 
in illicit traHic wifli the natives nf Alaska in rum and lire-arms. 

You will use your utmost endeavours to apprehend any such vessels as you may liud thus eug.aged, 
and break up their illegal trade. 

• •••»• 

.Should you be able lo accomplish your mission in the Arctic Ocean early in the se;uson, or tind it 
nece.s.sary, in carryiu'.; out these instructions, tu return to the Seal Islands before the usual time (say, 
the 10th October) for the reliiru of t!ie revenue-steamer from those waters, you will make a cruize to 
the wctward from Ounalaska as far as .Vttou, with the general object of (irotecting the sea-otter 

hunting-grounds, and breaking iii' the business of Ihe illicit traders who freipieiit tliu.se waters. 

• • ' • • • • 

You will, whenever o|iportunity presents, transmit to the Department Ucports of the progress of 
your cruize. 

Verv ivsjiectbillv, 
(Signed) .lOl'lN SHKiniAX, Srrrtanj. 

Captain ('. I.. Hooper, 

('(Mumaiiding Rcvenue-stiMimer " Corwin," 
San Krauci.sco, Califnruia. 



Treasuri/ Vejinrlmcnt, Office of the Seeretan/, 
Sir, 'ir-r.s7iiH'/''"t, .'/",'/ lo, 1880. 

Ileferring lo Department letter of this date, directir.g you to proceed with the revenue-steamer 
" Corwin," under your command, to Alaska, on special duly in connection with the seal lisherios, you 
are hereby clothed with full jiowcrs to enforce the law contained in the provisions of Section lO.^tiof the 
United States' Revised Statutes, and directed to seize all vessels and arrest and turn over to the proper 
authorities any or all persons wdiom you may detect violating the law referred to, after due notice shall 
have beeu given. 



70 



You will nlso seize any liquors or nrms nttnnipted to he introihieod into tlin country without 



proper i.crmit, undiT tin; ])rovisioiis of Section 
the President dated the -Uli Kcl)ruiiry, 1870. 
A copy of said I'roclaniation is inclosed. 



Captain C L Hooper. 

Cornnandin;,' licvenne-slciiiner " Covwin.' 
San Fruneisco, I'alilornia. 



'J(i5 of the IJevised Hlalutes, and tlie I'roelanialiun of 



Very re.spertfullv, 
(Signed) .lOilN SHKItMAN, &m/.'ri^. 



Treasvri) Ihpnitmrvt. Office «/ Ihe, Snrdnry, 
Sir, »W,iH-//„«. /AC, ,-l;,n7 21, IHHl. 

Tlic hcparlnient liavin;.^ di'tevniincd to dispatch tlu; rcviMiui'-steanicr "Corwin, under your 
command, to cnii/.c in tlie waicr.f of Alii.->l;a I'cr the enforcement ol' llic provi.sions of law and llie pro- 
tection of tlic interests on the (iov<'rnnK^nt of the Seal Islands and tlic sea-otter hnn'.inj^-iirounds, and 
Alaska i;cn('ialiy, yon aic directed to take on hoard that vesscd, without delay, supplies of provisions 
for a six namtlis' crui/.i', and sullicicnt (piantities of fuel and water, and leave San Krancisco, witli yuur 
command, not later than tlu' 1st proximo, for the waters named, and make tlie hest of your way tii the 
pl.ices la^rcinafter designated. 

It is desiralile that you should he in Behrinj; .Sea and tln^ Arctic Ocean as early in tin' .'feason as 
the openiuL; of luivij^atiun will permit. You will aecordin;.,dy jiixjceeil from Sati Friineisco direct to 
Ounnla.ska, and on arrival there will take in a fresh snj'ply of (■(i:\\. From this point yon will proceed 
to the Arctic Itccan, louchinj; at the Seal Islands and at St. Michael's, if jiracticahle, on your way. 
Y(ui will leave an odiier and two men on Otter Island for the pnriiose of ])rutectinf,' the seals there, 
unless, after conferring with the Special Afjent in charf;e of the Seal Islands, yon shotdd deem it 
necessary to take all your command with you in your further cruize to the northward. Shoidd you 
enter Xortiui Sound, it is expected you will time the movenuints of your vessel so as to arrive in those 
waters hefore lielinn,!,' Straits are open lor the passable of vessids. l''(j|lowin.i,' the instrnctifuis for your 
cruize of last ye;ir ^'ovcrning the illicit traliic witii the natives, hy unauthorized jiarties, in fire-arms, 
ammunition, and distilled sjiirits, you will n.se your utmost endeavours to apprehend any vessels you 
may find enj.'aged in such illicit traffic, and break up their illegal trade. 



Captain ('. I.. TIo(jppr, 

CoPMnanding lievenue-stcainer " Corwin,' 
San Francisco, California. 



Very respectfully, 
(Signed) WILLIAM WINDOM, Secretary. 



Treamin/ Dr/inrtrrifnt, Office, of the Secrclnry, 
Sir, WdshinijUm, D.C., A]frU lil, 1881. 

Eoferring to Department letter of this date, directing yon to proceed with the revenue-steamer 
" Corwin," under your command, to Alaska, on special duty in connection with the seal fi.sheries, you 
are herehy clothed with ftdl ])o'\ers to enforce the law contained in the provisions of Section 1956 of 
the United States' lievised Statutes, and directed to seize all vessels and arrest and turn over to the 
pro])er authorities any or all persons whom you may detect violating the law referred to, after due 
notice sludl have hcen given. Herewith is transndtted, for y(nir iidormatiim and guidaiue, a cojiy of 
Department letter of the IL'th ultimo.* addressed to Mr. D. A. d'Ancona, of San Francisco, interpreting 
the law ri;;nlating the killing of fur-heaiing animals in the Territory of Alaska. 

You will also seize any tire-arms, nmnnmition, and distilled spirits attempted to he introduced 
into the country without proper ]iermit, under the jnovisions of Section 1955 or the Revised Statutes, 
and the Proelaniation of the i'resident dated the 4th I'"chruary, 1870. 
A copy of said rroclamation is inclosed. 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) WILLIAM \S\m^OM, Sccntnry. 

Captain ('. L. Hooper, 

Connnanding Ke.venue-ste.amcr " Corwin," 
San Francisco, California. 



Treasury Deportment, Office of the Secrtlary. 
Sir. Waiihiiujlim, D.C., Avyi(.il 9. 1881. 

You are directed, as soon as practicnblo after the receipt hereof, to take on hoard the necessary 
suiiiilies of juovisions, &c., for a two months' cruize, together with such (piantities of fuel and water as 
m.ay be necessary, and proceed with the revenue-steamer " Hush," under your c(uiiniand, on a cruize to 
Ahtska, for the jmrpose of ]irotecting the seal fisheries and the sea-otter hunting-gi-oimds against the 
dejiredatious of uuauthorized parties, and looking after the interests of the Government generally in 
that terntorj-. 

* See vol. i of the Appendix of thu Case of tbe United States, p. 102. 



71 

Villi will lirst toiirli nt Ouimlaskii, ami will piocwd tliciito tii tliu Islands of St. George and 
St. I'inil, anil ('(mlVr witli llic Special A^ciit in cliai;;!' of the Mial lislirrifs. 

At llic liisl-naiiicil jiiJit villi will take mi .siirli .sii|i|iliis nf t'licl lioiii tlmt in store lu'longing to the 
Beveniii' .Mariim Si'iviii' as may Ik^ iiL'ce.-isarv foi' vuur cniiziii;,'. 

Inrliisiil villi will liiiil nipii'H of (•iiiniiiiiiiicatinn in livcil at tlic Treasury Department, from which 
it Mp]peuis llial a sy.stem of illiril Iniilinj.' ami unlawful i ^iii^' nf .seals ami other fur-heurin^; aiiiiual.s i.s 
beinu' rurrieil on hy small vessels amiiiij,'sl the wali of the Aleutian archipelaou. The schooners 
" Flyiiiu' Mist," ('aptfiiii Wallcii', " Uuer," Captain l.i lijolin, ami " Ahjxander," Captain Libby, are 
ri'polteil as liein;,' en),'a,'.;eil, or ahout to eiij^ajie, in this unlawful work. 

Ineloseil, also, you will liiul a copy of the ilecision of ihe |ii partiiieiit in the case of Mr. il'Ancona. 
from whiiji yoii will see that no persons, e.\c(.')itiiin those duly iiuthon/id hy the JJepartinent, have »he 
riijht to take .seals or other lur-bearini,' aiiinials anywheri^ within Alaskan waters. l!y the same letter 
the limits of what are known as .Vlaskan v ater; ari' detiiied. 

You will exercise the utmost vi^iilanco in your search foi' parties eie.4a,i,'eil in tratlic, and in the seal 
and fur lisheries, ciuitiary to law or the liegiilations of the LlcpartniLnt, and will .'^eize any vessels or 
persons thus eiiKBced. 

Should you seize any vessel, you will obtain all possible evidiiice rufianling her illegal pursuits, 
and didiver her to the Colhctor of Customs at the port of ."^an Iiiim isco. 

l-'niiii the. Seal Islands you w ill make a cruize to the westward as far us Attou, if practicable, with 
a view to iirotecliii^c the sea-otter liuntinu' ;,'roiiiiils, and will lelurn thence by way of Oiinalaska, from 
which point you will proceed a .second time to the Seal Islands, keeiiiiij,' a sharp outlook for marauding 
vessels. 

Thence you will return to Sun Francisco by way of Kodiak and Sitkii, at which latter place you 
will commiinii'ate with the Collector of Custom.s, anil receive from bini such inforraation or suggestions 
as he may have to offer. Aftcir leaving the latter port you will touch at Victoria for a supply of coal, 
if necessary. 

Should you ])nrchase coal at this place, y.iii will ri-r i- bills therefor to the Department. 

Villi will report to the Deiiarfnieiit by telegraph the u.iy when you are ready to sail. It is desired 
that you enter upon this cruize with the least practicable delay. 

You will submit a full Ueport of your cruize under these instructions. 

Verv respectfullv, 
^Signed) Wli.LIAM WINDOM, Secretary. 

First I.iinitonant M. A. TTealy, 

Commandin',' lievenue-steanier " Rush," 
.Sin Francisco, Califoruiii. 



Trmsiinj lh-j)ii)iiiitnt, Office of the Recrdarri, 
Sir, Wii-shiixjlon. D.C., April 12, 1S82. 

The Department having determined to dispatch the nveiiue-steamer "Corwin," under your 
coinmand, to cruize in the waters uf Alaska for the eiiforeenient of the provisions of law and protection 
of the interests of the (lovernnieiit on the Seal Islands and the .sea-otter buntilig-groiuids, and of 
Alaska generally, you are directed to take on board that vessel, uithout delay, siilticieiit supplies of 
provisions for a six months' cruize, and such <iuantities of fuel and water as can be conveniently stored 
on board, and leave .San Fiancisco with your command not later lliaii (be _'."ith in.stant for the waters 

named, and make the best of your wav to the places hereinafter desiiiiiated. 

• • " " • • ■' • • 

Having supplied the "Corwin " with coal, you will cruize actively with said vessel amongst the 
Aleutian Islands, and in Xorton and Kot/elnie Sound.-, going as far as I'oint Harrow, if found 
practicable, until the L'Otli October next, and will strictly eiiloice the instructions contained in the 
printed orders and the letter of authority rel'erred to above. To this end you will visit St. Paul and 
St. (ieorge at least twice during the season, and cover in your cruizing; the sea-otter hunting grounds 
from Kodiak toOunalaska, leaving an olllcer and two seamen on Otter l.sland during the sealing .season 
to prevent the killing of seals on that isliind, and you will, in the cour.se of Ihe .season, make one cruize 
to the Westward, if practicalil 
between that island and Uuualaska. 



as far as Attou, iind touch at tlie |iriiici|ial otter-hunting .stations 



Lieutenant M. A. Healy, 

Commanding Kevenue-steamer " Corwin,' 
Sun Fiuncisco, (Jalifornio. 



Very respectfully, 
(Signed) CllAS. .]. 



FULGKli, Secrdury. 



'I'ir((!iiii-if J'lpiii-uiiiHl, Otfitr of /In- Srtrliiri/, 
Sir ' H'(i.-i/iiii:)tvn, M'nij ] 1, 18S.'!. 

file Departnienl having deicrmiued to dispatcli the revcnue-sieamer " (Airwin," under your 
conimaiid, to cruize in the waters of Alaska for the enforcement of the provisions of law and protectiou 
of the interests of the Liovernment on the Seal Islands and the sea-otter hunting-grounds, and of 
Alaska generally, you are directed to take on board that vessel, without delay, sulticieiit supplies of 
provisions for a live nionths' cruize, and such (pianlities of fuel and water as can lie conveniently 
stowed on board, and to leave San Francisco with your command by Monday, the "Jlst instaut, if 
practicable, for the waters named, and uiuke the best of your way to the places hereinafter designated. 



[117] 



U 



72 

Yon will tnnoli nt T)npnrtnrr T'liy. iind trtlro nn linnrd all t1ii> ciial that tlip " Corwiii " ciin mirry 

ronsistiMilly witli salVty, liills tor whirli, |irii|ii'i'lv ccrtilicil, you will lr;iii>iiiil lo tlii! Depart iiii'iil. Voii 
will also toiidi at Koil Wiaii'4i'l ami Siika, and Kiavr at those placi's iIk' coiiii'S of prinlcil orders 
relatiiii; to the iiiotei'tion of the tioviTiiiiii'iit iiilorests in those waters whieh will he finiiished you. 
• ♦•••• 

Havinj; siippliL'd said vessel willi i- Mil, you will crvii/.ii activoly with yimr cotnniaiid amonj,'st tiio 
Aleutian ishiiiils and in Ncu'ton and Kotzehue Sounds, i,'oinf,' as far as l'i>int Marrow, if found 
piaiiicalde, until the L'Uth October lu'xi.and will strielly enforee t\w inslruelions iMjritaincd in llie 
printed orders and the letter of authority of this datc\ To this ejid yoii will visit St. I'aul and 
St. (ntorj;e at I'ast Iwiee duriu',' the ,sea-on, anil cover in your cruizing the s,'a-otier hiintin','-;,'roiind 
from Kodiak to ( )unalaska, leaving,' an otlicer ami two.seannui on Otter Island durinv; the .sealin;^' .season 
to prevont the killing of seals lui that island, and yon will, in the cour.se of the seiusiui, niakis on« cruize 
to the wcstwaril, if practicahle, as far a.s Attou, and touch at tlu^ principid otter-hunting stations 

between that i.sland and Ounalaska. 

• ••••• 

Very respectfully, 
(Signua) ClIAS. J. FOLGER, &(•(•<•<(',//. 

Captain M, A. Healy, 

Commandiug Uuveimo-steamer "Corwiii," 
San Francisco, Calilorniu. 



Trensiirii Di'/trirtniinf, Of/In- nf tlir Scnlnr/j, 
Sir, " Wti^hinijUm, Mill/ 1 1, IH8:!. 

I^eferrin,^ to Departniont letter of this date, direetin;,' ycai to proceed « ith the reveinie-.steaiucr 
" Corwiti," under your coniuiaiid, to Alaska, on .special duty in connection with the seal lisheries, you 
are hnrehv clothed with full powers to enforce the law contained in the jirovisions of Section lO.'iti of 
the Uidteit States' lievisi'd Statutes, and instructed to seize all vessels and arrest and deliver to the 
proper authorities any or all persons whom you may detect violating,' the law ri.'fernal to, after due 
notici' shall hav(' heen ;,'iv(ui. 

You will also .seize any lii|Uors or arms attem|it(ul to he introduced into liie cimntry wiilaait 
proper permit, under the jn'ovisicnis of Section 195') of the Itevis.Hl Statutes, and the I'roolainatiiin of 
the President dated the -Ith February, 1S70. 

Very respect fn II v, 
(Sifincd) ('HAS. J. VO\X\VA\ firnrliiry. 

Captain M. A. Ilealy, 

Commanding; Hevonue-steanier "Corwin," 
San Francisco, California. 



Treasurii Drpnrtmfni , Ojjier nf llir SrcreUiry, 
Sir, 'Wmhiniihm. April 18, 1884. 

The Department having determined to dispatch the revenue-steanu'r " Corwin," under your 
command, to cruize in the waters of .Vlaska for the enforcement of the provisions of law and ]aiitectiou 
of the interests of the (Jovernment, on the .Seal Islands and sea-otter hunlin.ii-pounds, anil ol .Vlaska 
generally, you are directed to taki' on board that vessel, without delay, sulllcieiit supplies of provisions 
for a si.x months' cruize, tind such quantities of fuel and water as can be conveniently stowisl on board, 
and to leave Han Francisco with your command by thi> 2fith instant, if practicalile, for the waters 
named, and make tlie best of your way lo the ])laces herein.ifler desij;naled. 

You will proceed first to Ounalaska, where you will take a sujiply of coal from ihat in store 
belonging to the Uevenne Marine; from this point you will cruize actively with yiuir command in 
Norton and Kotzehue Sounils, going as far as I'oint Harrow, if fo\ind practicable, and amongst the 
Aleutian Islands, continuing your cruizing until the 20th (.)clober next. Yini will strictly enfm-ce the 
instructions contained in the printed orders and the lettiir of authority of this date, clothing you with 
power to make arrests, &c. 

To eflcctv.ally guard the seal lisheries and protect the seal life, yon will visit St. Paul aiul 
St. George at least twice during the season, .and you will cover in your cruizing the sea-otter hunting- 
grounds from Kodiak to Ounalaska, leaving an oMicer and two seamen on Otter Island ilurini/ the 
sealing season to prevent the killing of seals on that island. 

You will at least once in the course of tlie .season make a cruize to the westward, as far as Altnu, 
if practicable, touching at the ]irinei])al otter-hunting .stations between that ishind and Ounalaska. 



Captain M. A. Healy, 

Commanding lievenue-steamer "Corwin," 
San Francisco, California. 



Very respectfully, 
(Signed) ('HAS. ,1. ¥Ol.GVAi, Secretary. 




Treasvrii Di/iKftun iif, O/fiir nf t/tr Seintnry, 
Sir, 'ir:i.t/(tiiiit,iii,.t/'i,-U 18, 1885. 

Tlie Pepnrtnient liavinj; •littriniiUMl ti> ilispiilc li tlie ri'Veiint'-stiuiiiiM- "t'onviii," uinici- your 
coniiiiaiid, to cniizi! in t!](^ walcix nl' Aluska lur the I'nfiin'cmiMil iil' the liMvisidiis nf law ami prDtcctimi 
of till' interests (if tlie (Jiiveiiiiin'iil mi 1 lie Seal Islamls and scii-iitter luiiitiii','-i.'r"iiiiils, unci (pf Alaska 
gt^nerally, vciii are directeil Id lake mi luiaid tluit vessel, witliunl delay, snilieieiil sn|p[dii'S cpf innvisions 
for a six iiimitlis' rniize, and smli (jiianlities of fuel iind water as can lie ediiveniently slowed mi Iniard, 
and li'avi' San I'laneiseo with yppiir eoinniand by llie Ijritli iiistiml, if jirac:tiealile, lor the waters uaiiied, 
ami make the hesl of yiair way lo the |ilai'es herealter desi),'naleil. 

You will ]pr"i'eeil first to Onnalaskii, where you will take (Pii a sniiply of I'oal from th.'xt in storn 
bel'injiin^ to tlie lieveiiiie Marine. Kippiii this |ioiiit yipii will ciiiize aelively with your emiiniaml 
amoU'.'st Ihi' Aleutian Islamls, miipI in Niprton ami Kppt/elnie Sipiinds. and you will l;o as far us I'diiit 
Parrow, if I'oiiml |iractiealile, ecpiiliniiin'j your erniziiij,' until the L'Olh Orlolier ni'Xl. 

You will strictly enfoni' the instnictions tontainni in the printed orders, and the letter of 
aiitlimity ipf this dale, elothin;,' yiPii with posver to make arrests, I'iie. 

To elfeetnally j,'iiaril the seal lisheries, and jiroteet the seal life, you will vi.sit and eruizu ill the 

nei;;Iilionrli I of .St. Paul and St. (lem^c at least t«iee diirim,' the season, and you will eover in your 

crni/.inji the sea-otter liiintin.i;-;,'rouiids from Ki'iliak to < )iimdaska, le.ivin;; mi ipltieer and two seamen 
on Olter Island diirinj; the .sealing season to jirevent the killiiij,' of seals mi that island. 

You will at li'iist onee in the eiairse of the sea.son make a erilize to the westwanl, as far as Attou 
if practicable, touchiiii; at the principal otterdiuuting .stations lietwi'en that island and Ounaluska. 
iti * * * « * 

Very respect full v. 
(Signed) 1.). JIAN'XIX'i, S<-W((.-y. 

Captain ^f. \. Ilealy, 

(omnianiling Ituvcnue-steamer " t'orwin," 
.Sau Kranei.seo, C'al.fornia. 



TrcdKiirji Di Jilt rliih lit, Ol/ia- of tin- Sfiniiiri/, 
Sir, 'W'li.-iliiiiiili'ii. A/'iril 18, 188j. 

Iteferriiii,' to Departmi'iit letter of this date, direetint; you to jiroeeed with the revenue-steamer 
"t'orwin," under your eommaiid, to .Maska, mi speeial duty in emineitiipii with the seal lisheries, you 
are lierehy ehitlie.l with full powers to enfpiree the law oipiitained in the ludvisioiis of .Section Xo. 1!I.")0 
of tlii^ I'niled Stati's' lievised Statutes, and directed to seize all vessels and arrest and deliver lo the 
proper authorities any or all persons whom you may delect violatin,;; the law referred to, aftc- due 
noLiee shall have heeii given. 

You will also seizp' any liipior.s or anus attempted to he introdneed iiitpp the cimntry without 
proper jieriiiit, under the jprovisions of Section lOoii of the lievi.sed Statutes, ami the I'locUiniation of 
the I'l-csiilent dated the -Itli Keliruary, 1870. 

Very respeetfiillv, 
(Signed) D -M.VNXIXG, &o-rf«r//. 

Captain JI. \. Healy. 

( onimanding Uevenue-steanier " t'orwin." 
Sau Francisco, California. 



Tirit.Mri/ Di' I'd dull lit, Ofiiic v,f tlie Snietary, 
Sir, WK.^Iiiniitiiii. J/»ci/ 21. 188(i. 

The Department h.a.s determined to dispatch the revenue-steamer " Hear," nr.o. -oiir coiiiniand, 
on a cruize to the Seal Islands, and into the Arctic Ocean, for the enforcement o'' die provisions of 
law and the protection of the interests of the Ciovernment in that territory; also to search for and 
obtain information, if possible, of tlie ollici^rs and crew (thirty-live jier.sons in all) of the whalinij 
baripie " Amethyst," which vessel was bust seen in the Arctic Ueean, olV Cape Lisburne, the 
12tli October, 188.5, and is supposed to have been lost on one of the islands iu Behring Sea. 



74 

Yrii will therefdn; iiniiiuiliatcly piv]mr" for the vny.ige, tiikinj; on Imnrd siiflirii'nt siipplii'S of 
provifioif. !(.:■ n six nioiitlis' cniizr, nnd siicli iniantilii's of fiicl mul water aa can lie coiivi'iiiciitly 
stoWL'ii (111 liiiard, ami ]vix\\'. San Fnuiciseu with ynnr ciniiinanil at tlu' cailii'st date ]inittifalilr, and 
make tlio licst nf ymir \\<iv to tlio ])laces luMiiuatiL'i designated, and to such other jioiiits as you may 
derm iKlvi'-ablc tor the ))ui|:osP3 stated. 

You will pMci/d liist to Onnaln-ka. where ymi will take a sujiidy of eoal from that in store 
belon.uiu^; :" the lievemie Maiiiie, and ihence to the Seal Island? and into the Arelic Ocean, ;,'oinf; as 
far north as Point r>.irro\v, if found practical ile, and continuing,' your cruize as late into the .season as 
may seem to you to he advisahle. 

Y(ai will strictly eiihirce the instnictionp contaiiu'd in the jirinti'd orders anil the letter of 

Uiithority of this date, eluthiiin vou with jiewer to make arrests, &c. 

• » ■ ■ I- • ♦ • 

From tile nature of the duties in which yi u ,'iiid your coniiiian.i are ahcait to ent;ai{e, a yreat deal 
in'^st of necessity he left to ycur jmhjmeiit, and, from ytair fornier s<'rvices and exjierienee in the 
water-; of .Alaska, the |le|paitieeu' I'eels justiiieil in leaving tlu; details of your cruize to your 
discretion. 

You will tele^rap!'. the dal'. of your de),iarturo from Sau I'Vauciseo, and of the return of your 
command to tliat port. 

KespectfuUv yours, 
(Signed) (!'. S. KAlltCHILI), 

('a]itain Af. A. Ileaiy, Actiiuj Hirntiiri/. 

Conim'oi.Hiii,' lleveuuc steamer " l?ear," 
San Franei.seo, (,'alifornia. 



Ircasnrii Di} .irtmrnl. (Iffirr tif the flrnrlrtri/, 
Sir, 'llV.',''(/i-/j(m, ^///)-i7 lii, 1H80. 

Keferrinj; lo Deparluieiit le'ter of this d-^te, directinj; jou tr, proceed with the leveiiuc-steanier 
" Ilenr," uudci- your command, i the .-^eal Islands, &(•., \ou are hereby dotlied with full power to 
enforce the law contained in the provisions of Sectiiai lilolj of the Tniled States' Kevi.scil Statutes, and 
directed to .seize all ve.s.sels pinl an<".v and deliver to thi' proper authorities any or all persons whom 
you may liet'cl violating the law referred t", after dm; notice »!■ d! have been niveii. 

You will el-" seize any liijuors ir lire-arms atteni](ted to be introduced into the ■ caintry without 
pvo)ier jieiaii under the ]iro\-,iionH ^.i' iDection 19JiJ of the liuvised Statutes, and the Proclamation of 
the President daled 4th February, 1870. 

liespr ctlully .yours, 
(Sillied) ■ .':. S. FAIRCHILD, 
("aptain J[. .V. Ileah- Artiti;/ Secretary. 

('ommandiii}; !icvenue-.-,teainor ' Hear," 
San I'iaiici.'ico, Californ'-!. 



Triiisiir'i DfjMirtmint, Offirr cf l/ir SfnTtiirij, 
Sir, Wii.i/ii7i>/fim, Mill/ iH. 1X80. 

The Department haviiij; determined to dis|iat(h the re\cnue-steamer "Ciawin." under your 
command, for a cruize in the waters of Alaska lor th" eid'oi.'emeiit of the jirovisions n{ law and the 
protection of the interests of the (ioveiTiaent on the Seal I.slands and sea-otter huntin|.;-yrounds, and 
of Alaska },'cnerally, you are directed lo take on board the " Corwin," without delay, sullicieiit s\ipjdies 
of ]irovis,ons for a four months' cruize, and such i|iiantities of fuel and wati'r as can lie (■onxeniently 
stowed on bo.ird, and leave .\s!oria with your commaml at the earliest date practicable fur llu! waters 
uained, and make the best of yiuir way to the places hereinafter designated. 

You will proceed lirsl to ('unalaskn, when,' you will take a supply of mal from that in .store 
iielonjiiiu,' 111 the Itevenue .Marine. From this point you will cruize actively with your command 
aniiiiijist the .Vleutian Islands, mid in the vicinity of the Seal Isl.inds, j;oing as far north a< SI. Mathew'.s 
Isl.iiid, and eoutinuinj,' your cruize until the latter jiart of Seplemlier, unless sooner nlieved by the 
rcvenue-steiuuer ' Pear," which vessel is now on a •■ruize to the .\rctic. and is expected lo arrive at the 
Si'iil Islands on her return trip between the 1st and l.")th September iiexl. You \,ill striclly ladorci! tho 
iiislructions contained in the printed orders and the letter of aulli(uily of this date, clothiiif,' you with 
power to make arrests, &e., and you will endeavour to ell'ectiially ;;uard tlu' .seal lisli(;ries and protect the 
seal life ; and to this end you w ill lay oil' and on, around the Seal Islands, the ;;reater pari of the time, 
makiuj,' occasional visits to I'nu'a and I'lelcuvski in the sea-<itter interests. If |iractiiable. ycm will 
make one cruize durin;^ the season to the westward, as far as Attoii, tiuichiu!,' at the principal otter- 
hunt iiii,' stations between that island and i >uiialaska, at which latter ]ihice you will take on your 
sup|ilie3 of fuel and water. 

KcspectfuUv vmirs, 
(Si;;ned) " C. S. FA 1 1;< 111 1.1), 

Ca) tain Charles A. Abbey, Ai/m:; tin-rrtnry. 

('ommandiiiL; Pevinue-steamer " Corwin," 
Astoria, Oregon. 



76 



Tmistiry DrpuTtmrnt, Offur of llir Si-cretnnj, 
Sir, Wmhiivilnn, ihiy 28, lX8(i. 

IJffiTriiij,' 111 I)r;i;irtiiiciit IfttiT of this (latf, ilirccliii',' voii tn pnicwd with tlii; rcviauic-stiuiiiiur 
"Cnrwiii." iiikUt joiu' rdiniiiuiiil. In Alaska, on spucial cliity in coiiiicitidii with tho seal fislioriis, you 
ai-c licirliy clotlii'<l willi full power to ciilorcL' tlif law contaim.'d in tlic piovisionH ol' Sccliun 19.1G of 
the Uiiiteil Slates' 1-I(^vise4 Staliitc'", anil ilirected to seize all vessels and arrest and deliver to the 
proper anthoiities any or all pi'rsons whom yo'i may detect violating the law referred to, after due 
notiee shall have l>(;en f,'ivi'n. 

You will also seize any liipmrs or arms attempted to lie introjueed into the country wilhout 
proper permit, under the provisir is of Section 19u.') of the lievised Statutes, and the rroelamaliou of 



the rresident dated the Ith Fel-u r , 1870. 



Captain C A. Ahhey, 

C'ommandiii!,' lievcmic-stenmer " Corwin," 
Astoria, Oregon. 



Ite.sjiectfully yours, 
(Signed) C. S. I'AlliCllILl), 

Avtiiuj Secrrlary, 



Treasury Dipmtmint, Office of the Sccrctrtry, 
Sir, Wdxhiwjkm, May 10, 181S7. 

The Department liaH determined to dispatch the n'veiiue-steamer " Hear," under your command, 
on a cruize to Ihe Seal Islands and into the Arctic Ocean for ihe enforcement of the provisions nf law 
and the protection of the interests of the (iovernment in the- Territoiy of Alaska. Ynu will imme- 
diulely pri'pare for the voyage, and leave San Francisco, witli your conniiand, at the earliest <i.ite prac- 
ticahle. an(i make the best of your way to the places hereinafter designaled, and to such other points 
a.s y(ai may deem advisalile for the purposes staled. 

Von will |iroceeil lirst to 0\in.ilaska, wln're you will take on hoard .such quantity of coal a.s may 
be needed from that in store belonging to the Revenue Marine. Thence you will proceed to the Seal 
Islands, whete ycui will remain to guard the seal lisheries and protect the seal life until relieved by 
anolhiT revenue- vessel. 

Upon being relieveil froui this duty you will continue to cruize in I'.ehring Sea and along the 
eoa-t of ,\laska, visiting the Islands of St. Matliew and St. Uiwrence, and the .several trading posts 
aloiig the i-oast. ShouM you deem it necessary for the jirotection <if the ( iovernment interests, you 
are authorized to proceed into the Arctic Ocean as far as I'oinl U.irrow. if in yoiii judgment it can be 
done wilhiail endangering the ves.sel. 

You will time your cruize so as to return to the Seal Islanils aliout the loth Sepleiidjer ne.Nt. and 
vou will remain in tla^ vicinity of those islands as late in the month of October as you may consider 
iu"ssaiy to protect the (.jovernineiit interests there, and upon your return you will jadcied d.irect 
i'roi Ounalaska lo San Kiancisco, unless it shimld be necessary for you to go to Sitka on accamt of 
nnv seizures that niav be naide bv vo'.i or bv the revenue-steamer " Un.sh." 

• '»""• • • # 

For your guidatici' in |iiotecting the interests of the (Iovernment on this cruize, yiair .ittetitiou is 
invited to the special instructions of even date herewith. 

Keapectfully Vouis, 
(Signed) 0. S. FAllMTIll.l), ,SVc..r/'(n/ 

Caiiiain AI. A. Ilealy, 

Comnmnding Kevenue-.steanier " Hear," 
San Francisco, t'alifornia. 




1 year old. 

Yon will use the force at your eoium.md t>. the end that no pcr:;on^ attached to or lonia'cied with 
an V vessels of the L'latcd States violate tiiis law, and will .strictly cnlurce the penalties pni% idcd lot 
such violation. 



vioiaiion. 

Yon will be diligent in enforcing .hc' laws against the iniiionaiion oi 
breach-lo.uling riths ami amumiution into the Territory of .Vhiska, your attcnt 
K.xeriilive Order ol the lib .May, INS7, .i copy of which is inclosed. 

Kt>.;lii.r>t f'llllv Viiiii'.i 



iniiiorlation of into.sicating licpiors and 
ion being ilireclcd to the 



Ciptam .M. \. Ilealy, 

Commanding llevenne-steaiuer " Hear." 
San Francisco, California. 



licspectfully ycairs, 
(Si.gned) l"'. S. FAl l;cll II. 1 >, .Salary. 



L117J 



X 



76 

Tckijmm. 

Tivn.Hvrt/ Drp'irtmcnt, Oflkr of Uir Sccretunj, 
'W<i«lntigt,.i,. Minj 18, 1887. 
First ]>ara;,'r:\]ili of your instniiiinns rdati's to ill! voswls roiiinl williiii \.\w limits iif Alaska Terri- 
tory, or in tlio wati'vs tlicrcnr, I'lv^Mu'cil in vioUitiii'^ the jirovi.siuns iil' Si-ction iltnii, Ituvisud Statntes. 
Till' spucilic nmntinn of Anwrican v(s-;i'ls lias n-l'iTcnee to vinlatiim of Section llKJl, I'nviaed Statutes, 
and applies to tlieni wherever I'laiml violating tho law. 

(Signed) Hldir S. THOIII'SOX, 

Captain M. A. llealy, Acliny Secrdnry. 

(.'omuiandiui,' lievpnue-steanier " Bear," 
San I'"rancisc;o, (.'alifornia. 



Trcti.vin/ Di/uirfiiiiiif. Ofjirr vf Ihr Seir'/i'.n/. 
Sir ' U''idi)i;//(i,i, M'ly 28, 1887. 

Till! Dop.irtment having; detennineil todis]ialrli tlie revi'inie-steanicr " linsh," nnder your eiininiand, 
for a ernize in the waters of Alaska for the enfiireement of the iirovisions of law in tlmse. waters, and 
for the ]iroteetion of the interests of the (loveninient on Ihe Seal 1-^lands, you are directed In leave 
San Kriincisco, with your connnaiul, at the earliest dale praelicahle, lor the waters iianieil, and make 
the liest of your way to the jilaees hereinafter desiu'nateit. 

You will proceed tirst to Ounalaska. where you will lake a suiiply of eoiil lioiu ilial in store 
beloiiying to the Revenue Marine. 'I'hence you will proceed to the Seal Islands, re' ' , the 
re veuue-sl earner "liear" I'roiu duty at that place, and cruize actively with your comman i ;;', ;he 
view to ellectnally t;uard the seal li.sheries and jmitect I lie seal life. To this euil you .• 1! ' . off 
and on around the islands the greater part of the time, returning at intervals to Ouniiiaska 
for e.oal. 

You will remain iu the vicinity of the Seal Islands until tho latter part of .Septendier next, unless 
sooner relieved hy the steamer " I'ea]'," which ve.s.sel is expected to icturn to Ihe islands between the 
l.st and 5th Septi'uiher next. 

-Vfter hein.u relii'ved by the " 15ear " you will, if ]iraclicable, visit the Islands of Tiic;a and 
Belcovskie, in Ihe sea-otter interests, and such other jioints in that portion of .Vla-^ka as may reipiire 
your attention, and will then return to San Francisco. For your guidance in protecting the interests 
of the Oovenuneut on this cruize, your attention is invited to the special instructions of even date 
herewith. 

In carrying lait these instructions, you will cruize the " IJusli " under canvas, to assist steam, as 
far as may be practicable. 

RespectfuUv yours, 
(Signed) "(';. .S. VMllcmU), Hemtanj. 

Capt.ain L. G. .Shopard, 

Commanding lii'venne-stcanier " Rush," 
San Francisco. California. 



Tintuvry Ui'/>iii-tiiirn>. Offlrr nf Ihe Hii'Ttldrtj. 
Sir, ' » ».s/, Uiijlva, M'i'ii/ 28, 1 887. 

Referring to DepiirlmenI lelter of ihis date, direcling yon to proceed with the. revenue-sUMimer 
" Rush" to the SimI Islands, iV.e., you are hereby clotlied with full power to enforce the law contained 
in Sei'tion l'.).">6 of tlie 1,'uited Slates' Revised Statutes, which prohiliits Ihe killing of any otter, mink, 
marten, sable, or fur-se.il, or other fur-bearing animals, within the limits of Alaska Territory, or in tho 
waters thereof, except as )irovided in .Sections llKil) and I'.'tJ'J of said Statutes, and Depaitnient 
Regulations of the Jlst .Vjiril, IST'.I. Your attention is called to Section lOlil of Ihe Revised Statutes, 
which forbids the killing anywhere of female seals and seals hi.ss than I year old. 



Captain L. G. .Shepard, 

Commandiitg Revenue-steamer " Ru.sh,' 
San Francisco, California. 



Respi'otfully yours, 
(Signed) ('. S. FA1I)( IIIM), ,"?rtTri(rrv 



TriiiHiiff/ Di I'll rime III, Offi'T i>f Ihf Hecrrliiri/, 
Sir, ' lfii.^l,ui;ili,ii. Mill/ li,S, 1887. 

Referring to letter of this date, containing instructions iii relalion lo ihe eiilbieenient of !he laws 
pertaining lo the killing of .seals, \'c., you ai'C informed lliai similar iustruetious were recently sent to 
("ai)l,ain M. A. ilealy. c.oniniandiug the revenue-steamer " lliar." who telegraphed for more dclinito 
directiou.s, 

.\ iMpy of the reply lo thetelegrani of that onicer is inclosed, for your informalimi. 

Respeetfnllv vours, 
(Signed; " C. 8. FAIRCHILI), ^crc/nn/. 

< laptain L G. Shepard, 

('ominanding Kevenne-steaiiKir " Rush," 
San t'ninci.seo, (Jalifornia. 



77 

Noli:. — ('opi<!s of tlio follciwiiiL; Iclli'rs wnro alsci iiiclo'ii'il . — 

Secretary Muiiiiiii^' to tlie f 'nll.'cLor of CustoiiH at Sail Kiaiwisco, \,\\o. Olh Jfiircli, l>S,Si), fur wliich 
see vol. i, Aiipcivlix of the Uiiil.eil Slates' Case, ]i. 111:! ; Ai-tiir^ Secrelaiy t'reiieli to L). A. d'Aiicoiiii, 
till' rjtli Mai-eli, ISSl, fur wliicli see saiiii> vnliiiin', y ]i''J. 



Tiriiav.rii Drinidinrnt, Offiir nf tin- Sirreiiny 
Sir, W(i.iliiitfjli,n, J).V., M'n/'li'i, t.S8.-!. 

The Diipartiiieiit Imviiig deteniiiiiod to ilispateli tlie reveiuic-sleaiiicr " l>ear," under your 
command, fur a cruize in llie wati'rs of AlaHka fur tlie eufurcennuit tif tlie ])roviiiions of law in tlio-:e 
waters, and for llie proteetion of tlie interests of the (iovernnient on the Seal Islands, j-ou are directed 
to h>ave San Krancis(_-i', witli yi'Ur eniiiiiianil, at tlie earliest date jiractiealile, for the waters named, and 
make the hest of your way to the jilaces hereinafter desi),'nated. 

You \vill inneei.-d liisl lo Ouiialaska, and thiMire to th(! Seal Islands, with the view to elfeetiially 
^lard tiie seal lislieries, and juoteel the seal life. To this end you will lay oil' and on around tins 
islands the t;reater part of the time, ntiiniin-i to Onnalaska when neeessary, at wlii(;li jilace yini will 
take on any needed siijiplie.s of eoal frcnn that in store hfloni;iii;4 to the I'eveiuu; Marine. Von will 
remaui in the vieinily of the Seal Islamis until the latter part of .S.'ptemher next, unless sooner 
ndieveil hy the steamer " Ilash,' wliieh vessid is e.xpueted to leave San Kraneiseo ahoiit tlio 1st July, 
and ill that I'Veiit fuilher orders will he sent you. Should you reeeivo no other orders from the 
Departiiieiit, you will reliirn to San Franeiseo as ahovo directed, visitinj; on your return the Islands of 
I'li'.'a and iieleovskie, in the sea-otter interest.^ and such other points in that jMirliou of Alaska as may 
require your attention. 

Kor y<iur Lliiidaiiee in proteetiii!.; the iiiD-rests of the (lovernnieiit on this cruize, \i.ar attention is 
invited to the spi eial instructions of even date herewith. 



Ciijitain M. A. ilealy, 

ComniaiiiiiiiL; lievenue-steamia- " liear," 
San franeiseo, t'alil'urnia. 



Itespeetfullv yours, 
(Sijiiied) " (.'. S FAIKCIIII.l), .S'..r,V,„y/. 



Ti'oinun/ J)i/iiirtiiiriif, Offiir nf the lixrdnrii. 
Sir, »''-M/u«i/^«/), /y.C, J/ify'lG, 1888. 

lieferrin;; to Department letter of thi.s date, directiiii; you to proceed with the revenue-steamer 
" llear " to the Seiil Islands, &e., you -aw. hereby clothed with full power and direele.l to enforce the 
provisiuiis of law contained in Section I'JOlJ of the United States' I'evised Statutes, whicli jaohihits 
the killing of any olt<n', inink, marten, sahle, or fur-seal, or other fiir-lieariic,' mimals, within the limits 
of Ala-ka Territory, or in the waters thereof, exivpl as pnividcd in Sections ISItiO and lUtiJ of said 
Statutes, and Deiiartmi'nt l!e,t;ulalioiis of thi^ 21st .Vjiril, 187'.'. Your attention is called to Section 
IDlJl of the lievised Slatiites, which lorliids the killin;,' anywhere of female seals and seals less than 
1 year old. You will use the force at your command to tlie end that no persuns attached to or 
connected with ;iny ve-isel of the I'nited St.ites violati' thi.s law, and will strictly eiifoice the Jienalties 
provided for such violation. 

You will lie dilii,'ent in eiifmciici the laws against the iinportiction of intoxicating; liipioiv and 
Im-ecli-loiidiii;,' rilles ami aiiiniiiiiitioii into the Terrilnry of .\laska. your attention heinj; directed to the 
Kxecutive Order I'f the -llli May, 1887, copies of which arc iiichiseil. 

lii'spectfully viairs. 
(Signed) " C. S KAl IHIi I IJ ). .V., ,•,/<(/•)/. 
Captain M. A. Healy. 

Coiniiiaiidin,i; lievenue-steainer " Hear,' 
San Kraiicisc(i, < 'nlifornia. 



Tnoxiii-ji Di/mr/iii' itl, Oflirr of the SWirtun/, 
Sir, KV.sAi'/eyA./i, /AC, .lA'y i':j, 188'J. 

The I'resident liavim; desi;.;iiated the revenue-steamer " Uusli," under ycair conimaud, to criiizi' in 
the waters of Belirinj; .Sea lor the proti'dion of the seal tisheiies and the interests uf the (iovevniiieiit 
on the Seal Islands and the .sea-otter hunt iii^'-L,'ro«iid, and the eiiforccmenl of the provisions of l.iw, 
you aiv direclcd to leave .San l''raiici.-.co, with your command, at the earliest date piacticaMe, fiir the 
"watcas named, iiiocecdiii',' hy the way of I'lij^a and lielcovskie to (Iniialaska, at which phice yon will 
take on hoard .such .iupplies of coal as may he neces.sary from that in store helongini^ to the iieveime- 
cutter Servije. 

I'rom t Innalaska you wdl pincecil into I'.ehrini,' Sea, the Waters of which you will dilii;eiilly cruise, 
and arrest all per.-oiis and seize all \' -els fouiid to he or to have l>een fiiuie^'etl in any viol.ilion ui ihe 
luws of the I'liitcd Slates llierc-in, pioceediim ti. Onnalaska when neci-siry. 

Y'oii will remain with your cianmiiinl in the waters named a-- lati- in the .sensou as you may deeui 
proper to carry out the insuuetions of the I leparlinent. 

Vol! will recei\e fnuu the owners of such ves.sels lus may have sailed for Hehring .Sea on .siMlinf; 
or other l.uiitiiig voyaj^es open letter- uf recall addressed to the captains of the same, which letters 



78 

■will be lU'livcrcM! il' siirji vessels are liilk'ii in with and are found not to liave coniinittLd any violations 
of tho laws of tliu United States. 

Herewith are transmitted thirty copies (jf tho Vrcsiilent's I'roelaniation ol' tlu^ 21st March, 1889, 
for distrdimion to parties iilfected thereliy, as far as may he ])raelieahle. 

For y(air ,L;iiida:iee in jiroteetini; the interests of the Government on this ernizc^, your attention is 
iiivilcil to tho s])eei;d ins'.ruetions of even date herewith. 

You will advise the Dypartmeut by telegraph of the dale of leavinj,' San Franeiseo, and of your 
return to tliat port. 

Itespectl'iillv vours, 
(Signed) ' W. W I N i » )M, So-rctun/. 
Captain L. (!. Shejjfird, 

Commandin.i,' llevenue-.-teamer " ihlsh," 
.San Francisco, California. 

(Same to Captain llealy, of Keveuue-.steamer " Bear.") 



Trensiiri/ Di'pdrlmrnl, OJ!icr <,/' tin- Sirretary, 
Sir, \V'i«lnntilim, J).V., M,iy SA. IHH'J. 

Referrinjj to Deparftnent letter of this date, directinj; yon to jiroceed witli ihe revenue-steamer 
" liush " to cruize in ihe waters ot' lielirin.;,' Sea, yoa are hetehy clothiMl witli full ]jo\ver and directed to 
enforce the jirovisions of law contained in .Section l!).5t> of the I'nited .States' IJevised Statutes, wluc.li 
prohiliits the killing of any otter, tnink. marten, sahle, or fur-seal, or other fur-liearing animal, within 
the limits of Alaska Territory, or in tla,' waters thereof, except as ])rovided in Sections ]9il0 and 11162 
of said Statutes, and in Department lie.niilations of the L'lst \\m\, 1.H7'.). 

You will also lie dilii:ent in enforcinj; the laws at^ainst the imjiortation of intoxicating li(|Uors and 
hreoch-loadini;' rillea aial ammunition into the 'J"errit<iry of Ala.-ka. 

Youi- attention is called to the I'roelaniation of tlie I'resident dated the 21st JIarcli, 1889, and 
tho E.xeciitive Order of the 4th Febrmiry, 1870, copies of whieli are inclosed. 

I(espi\;tfully yours, 
(.Signed) \\. VJX^^XHm, Secretary. 

Captain L. C!. Sliejinid, 

Comnianiling Kevenue-.steainer " Rush," 
iSan I'rancisco, California. 



Tirasvrij JhparlmerU, Ofiirc of Ihr Sa-rclnry. 
.Sir, /(•W/iw/i'-H, />.C^.,i/m/ 121, 1800. 

You are informed that tho President lam tlcdgnated the re\c'niie-steamer " licar," under your 
conininnd, to cruize in tho waters of Behring Sea for the protection of tlie seal fisheries and the 
interests of tho tioverninent on tlie .Seal Islands and the .sea-otter hunting-grounds. You are 
accordingly clotheil with full power and are lienby directed to enforce the provisions of law contained 
in Section VMt{\ of the lievised Statutes, as supph'mented by .section J of the .\cl of the L'nd March, 
18S9, except as provided in Sections lOfiO and I'JIJ^ of said Statutes, amended by Act of Congress, 
approved the ll-ltli March, 1874, and in iJcpartnicnl Hegulations of the lilst Aiiril, 1879. 

• •«•♦» 

You will lime your cruize in tiie Arctic so u.s to reach Ounalaskii on your return trip not later 
than the 1st September next. After taking on board at the latter-nanicd jilnce a sujiply of coal from 
the .store-house, you will jirocceil info liehriiig Sea, the waters of which yon will diligently cruize, and 
arrest all persons and seize' all vessels found to be or lo ha\c been engaged in any violation of the law.s 
of the United States therein. 

If from any cause you shall find it impractieahle i.- !aki> r.ito port any such vessel with her 
tackle, apparel, furniture, and cargo, and deliver the same into the custody of the: projier ollicer of the 
United States, you will take pos.session of ih»- hig-hook, documents, and other papers pertaining 
thereto, also of all .skins of fur-bearing animals found on board tlieriof. any portion of which have heeii 
unlawfully taken in said waters, and will also scizi' the implements and ,i]i]iliances belonging to and 
n.sed by such vessel, or the crew thereof, in killing fur-hearing animals contrary tii law. .ir in taking 
and preserving tho .skins of the same. 

You will remain in Behring Sea in the iicrhirniance of tin; duly tor which the vessel has been 
dcsignateil by the I'ri'sidcnt as lat<' in the season as in your judgment may be necessary, and upon the 
completion ot this dutv von will return to San Franctsco. 

« ' ' • • • » « 

Herewith are transmitted copies of the I'resiilent's I'roelaniation of the loth March. 1890, ami 
the Law relating to tla; salmon fisheries, for distribution, a.« far as may he practiculile, lo parties affectHd 
thp.reby. 

herewith is al.so transmitted, for your infonnation and for disirilmlion, copies of iJcparlinent 
letter, ihited the 12th Slnrch, 1881. to Mr. D. A. d'Anconn, of San Francisco. 



79 

Ydii will nlvise Dopartment by telegraph (f the date >\{ leaving Seattle, and of ynur relnii] to 
Sill' Fnuicisci). 

Uespectfullv vour?, 
(Signed) " W. VVIXDOir, Sen-etary. 

Captain M. A. ITenly, 

Commanding Itevenue-stcanier " Rear," 
Seattle, Washington. 

(Same to Cajitain Ciiiils<pn, of the revenue-stranier " Kusli," and to Captain Iloojjei-, r.f the 
revenue-steamer " Corwin.") 



Tir'iKiiry /)i/i(ir/)nnil, 0//?<r iif flu: Sinr/ari/, 
Sir, nVisliin^loii, n.C, Miirvk 17, 181)1. 

Th(- Ilonoiirahle the Alloiney-IJi.'neral li.ns rr-.nipsted that a revtnue-ve.ssel he sent to Alaska for 
the purpose of arresting certain nnirderers and picking up the necessary witne.sses in that portion of 
the Territory west of Sitka, and conveying them to that \'\m:(; in time for the May term of Court. 

Ynn are aecordingly ilirerte(! to ]iroce<'d with the rev('nue.sUiin!er " r.i.iir," under your e(pmmand, 
at llie eirliest dnti^ ])racticalile, to Si'uttle, Washington, at v.hit li place you will take on Ciom the 
I'llack Diamond Coid and Mining Coirpany awh ((uantity of cniil as the ves-cl can conveidently carry. 
Tliencc' you will proceed direct to 0\ina!aska. and receive on hoard tin; lle|iuty United Stales' ^lar.shal 
at lliat ]ilace. From Ounalnsk;; you will visit the Seal Islands, for the ))r.r]ioHe of delivering tlie mails 
and receiving eommuni<-atiiHu fur the Deiiarlment. .\fter leaving llie Seal Islands, you will visit such 
places as the I>e]iuty Marslial may desire, and as in youi Judgment may !«■ expedient, fur the purpo.se 
of arresting crindnals and collecting witnes.ses, and will then proceeil to Sitka and report to the I'liiled 
Stales' .Marshal at. that place, to wluiiu you will deliver any priHoueis and others that m;iy he in your 
custody. 

Upon the completion of this duty, should it not he ahsolutely necessary for you to return to 
S.in Fniiiiiseo hel'ore making your regular cruize to the north, you will proeeeil to Seattle for fuel and 
sup|ilies, anil there await furlhcr instrneiiuiis from the I 'epartmenl. 

■^'ou will telegraph the dales of youi departun; from San I'"rincisco, your arrival and departure 
friaii Seattle, and your return to cither of the ports named, 

ViTV respectfully, 
(Signed) O. L. Sl'AULHINC, 

t'uptnin M. A. Mealy, AsitUlanI SecrtOiry. 

Commanding Ki'veiiue-steamer " Bear." 
San I'ranci.sei), Calitornin. 



II 



|: 



Tremturi) Dnjiavimcnt, Office of the Seeretarii. 
Sii. W,i.ilnnijton, D.C.. Mnrck X': , Wn. 

I'eferring to l)e|iartment orders of this date, directing yitw to iiroceed w-ith your conjuiand lo 
Alaska, you aiT herehy clothed with full power anil instructed to enforce the laws agaiii.>t tlie importa- 
tion uf liistilled spiiits and lire-arms into that Territory, and lo make arrests of nil persons lUtl .seiie all 
ves.sels found violating the .same 

In this connection your attention is invited t j Section lO.")."! of the Kevised .Statutes, authorizing 
the seizure of the aiticlcs and of the vessels (if the value of the proliihitcil articles exceeds 4U0 dollars) 
engaged in the tralliif 

Vol! will exercise greal i are in making arrests ami seizing articles, and see that you have suUieient 
evidence mi which to convict tlie parlies eiiiriigcd in this unlawful lutsiness, 

l'es]icetfullv vours, 
(Sigm'd) 0,1.. SPAULDIXC. 

CapUiin M .\ Ih'aly, J.<ti.itinil Anrlari/. 

I 'oniniandiiig licvenue-steiimer ' Hear," 
San Fraiiiisco. ( a I i forma. 



Trmsurii Dfpartvirnt, OfHf t]f th' kcnrtury. 

S'w. U'l'shinriliin, D.C, Mtiy'd. IH'Jl. 

Von are iiitiiriiied that the I'rtsuleiit has desigiiaU'd the revenue-steamer " liiisli " under youi' 

eomiaand, lo crui/.e in the watei's nf Al.iska Territiuy lor the proteeliiui •<i the skh' lislieries and the 

mtepsts of the liovernment on the .Seal Islands and the sea-otlei hunting-gionmis, Y.ni lire 

ucnidinuly dollied witli full powi-r. and are lierehy directed to enforce ilic provisions ot law conl.iiueil 

la Section lOoli of till! Iti vised Sliimtes. a-, siipplemcuted hy si 'on '.'> of llie Act ot tlie ^lid March. 

Is.S'.i, exceiit as provided in Scciioiis UKiii and HHi^i of siiid ISIalulcs, amended hy Act of I 'on.trrBss 

aiiiiroved llie U-lUi Miireh, IK'.'t. ;uid in i)c])artmeni lieguiations ol liie L'nd April. 187!'. 
^ # • * ' • • « 

You are informed that in the evnm o.' .my seiztir«?s l-eing made the United States' l)i.strict i oiirt 
at Sitka has inriadictiou over sucli cnii», 

llerewiiii are traiiamilled (o|iick 'ii llie I'uMiilcnt's rroclainalion of liie Jtli April, 18!)!, and ot 
llu' l,aw reluting to the sainiuu tiBhunuB.for distributwn, as far as may he practicable, to parties aliecteil 
tliurebv. 



1117) 



80 

Spooial instniftions in rugiird to tin; iirotpction of fiir-1 waring nnimiils in tlui Territory of Alaska, 
or the waUjrs tliereof, will lie sont to you, (Mtlior l)y tL'li';,'riii>li or l)y iDiiil, Imfori" sailini;. 

You will ruinaiii in tlic vicinity of tlio Soal Islaiid-i and Diinida^ka until tlic L'Otli Scplcinlier 
next, or until the ri'tuni of the sliinnier "Dear," whicli ves.sel in expi'cted to arrive at i Mmalaska 
from the Arctic eavly iu September next, and you will IIkmi return, with your coniniand, to San 
Fruni;i.soo. 

Vou will advise the Department by telegraph of tlie ilatc of leaving' San Fiarnisi'o, and of your 
return to tliat port. 

Kespeetfullv yours, 
(Signed) ■ CIIAIM.KS FOSTEU, .Slnr/flri^. 
Captain W. ('. Conlsoii, 

( jjnnnaudiny; lievpnui'-^tcamer " Rush," 
San Kr.ini.'isco, California. 



Tt-iii/i-iim. 

Tira-iun/ Df/miimnit, Oflirr of the Srrrrlnry, 
Wii.ihin:ilo„,J).V.'. .]ffni 27. \H9\ 
You are directed to .sail at once, under Departiuenl ortlT-i of tlie 9th instant. "(Hirv.in" will 
follow iu a lew days, anil will brin^; addition, d instruelions. Vou will eon.sider thi; final aiders i,'iven 
you when yipu sailed la-;t year re;,'ariUng your duty in proteelinj; seal life a-s bidn^; in force until you 
receive further iiistructioHL', 

(Siitned) CHARLES VOUTFAi, S>crdnr>/. 

Captain W. C. Coul.son. 

Commanding' Revenue-steamer " Rush," 
San Vrancis<:o. ( 'alitbrnia. 



No. 3. 
uVoth; hi tJir /!rilis/i Aijrnt, Srptnnhrr 30, 1892. 

THE I'lidersi^'ued, .\ijcm nf Her Brilannir Majesty ap)iointed to attend the Tribunal of Arljitra- 
tion conveni'd un<ter the )irovisions of the Treaty concluded ,it Washinttton on the 29th Fi'liruary, 
1892, lietween Her Britannic .Mujestv and the United Static-;, has the lionour, by direction .if Her 
Ma.jeaty's (lovernnieut, to jve notice that he calls for ihe production by the Fnitcd States' (!overn- 
mont of the oriiiinals of all the otticial rei'ords m- archives alluded to in Ihe foot-note to ]i. 11 uf the 
United States' Case, that is to say : — 

The documents cited in the (>ase of the United States relating to Ihe alFairs of the liussian- 
Americaii I'ompany wliich belong Iu tlie oHicial records or archives of '.he territory which wiva 
ceded to the United Stales by Russia by the Treaty of 186", as stated in the a!)ove-iueiili(nici! foot- 
note. 

The Undersigned, &c. 

(Signed) CHARI.FS H. TUIM'ER. 

Afinit iif III I- llrilniiiiir Mitjr-itii in lliis lulialf. 



No. 4. 

.\fi: Fosti r hi Mr. Th/i/h i: 

Wnxhimilim. Xtiirmhn- .'i. 1892. 
THE Undersigned, Agent of the United States appointed to attend the Triliiinal ot .\vl)itration 
convened uiuler ilic provisions of the Treaty coiicludi'd at Washington mr flic 29th February, 1892, 
betwi'eii tlie United Slatvs and \hv Hrilannii' Majesty, begs to state, in repiv to the \olice oi' tlin 
Agent of Her Ibitaiinic Alajesty delivcivd to llic I'ndersigned on the MOtli I)eceml>er. I8!)2. which 
Notice calls for the prodiiction Ijy the I'liili'ij Slates' (loveninienl uf the originals of certain doiMiments 
therein designated, that such originals will be produced at the proper time in ■•ase the Arliiiralors so 
direct. 

The Undersigned begs alsfi to -Jlal" llial such uriginals nia\ al any lime !"■ inspected at the 
Dcpaitnicnt of State, in Wasliinu'lon. by any Au'cnt wliuni Ihe I'.iiii-h (luvcnuiienl iriav a|i|iipiiit fo; 
such purpo.se. 

The Underaigned, &c. 

(Signed) .lOHN W. 1 ' ! .1.'. 



81 



Xo. 5. 

Xiilirr, hy Ike lii-ili.sli Ai/ent. 

n,-i..i,.r ;;, i.H'.i:'. 
Till'". riiiif'r,-.ij;iii'(l, A^'i-nr i>f \\n- Ilrit;iiinii; Aliijivsly iipimiiitod to ill (end lliu TriliiiiKil of Ailiitiii- 
tion oiiiivciii'il uud'i' til" ]iriivi,-<iiiii.'-. dl' tlic Tivuiy rumMuili'il iit \V;i.-liiii'^i<iii dii llic li'.hli Fcl.ruiiry, 
bc'f.wi'i'ii Ilri- liiiiuiiiiir Ifiiji-siy ami llii' I'liitcil Sl.ilcs, li;is t,Ii(! Iviiiniir, Ky ilircclinii (.r Hit .Majesty's 
GnvcriiiiK'iil, to j,'ivi! iiiitici; tlial he iiii|jlics for tlii! iiriiihRliun liy tin' A^^i'iit of tin- fiiitcil Suites of 
copy of the ilcrisioii of {\w. Tri-:isMiy Ili'|Miniiicii1, iiiul ol' tin' Ir'.lc'r ul' llic 4tli April, IM.Sl. lelVrred to 
at p. 81 of the Cii.si: (if tlic I'liitcd Stiitcs, as fullows :— 

" This di'iisioii wiis coiilii-iniMl liy tlii' Treasury lli'jiiirliiniit on (lie Itli April, liSSl, and w^.mx on 
tlic (illi March. IHHO. On this lust occasion the Secretary of the Treasury wrote as follows: ' Thu 
attent' n cf your pn'clecessor in ofii<>e was called to this suhject on tlie -Itli April, ISSl. This com 
niunicaiion is addressed to yon, iuasnincli as it is understood that certain jiarties at your jiort conteni- 
philc tlie (itlin.n out of ex]iedilions to kill fur-seals in these waters. Yon are. rcoueslcd to ^jivo due 
])idilicily to such letters, in order that such jiarties may he inforiued of the c(Uistrnetion placed hy this 
Department upon the provision of Liw referred to." 
Till' rndcrsii;iied. itc. 

(Signed^ CHAllLKS If, Tt I'l'KK. 

Aij'iil I'f IFif liritftniiii Mifji:-:/!/- in IliU lirlmlf. 
To (icneial tin' lion, .fohn W. Foster. 

Agont of the I.'uited .Slates, &c. 



No. 0. 

Notirr hy Ihr />i-ilU/i Agmt. 

U,/„li,-r :',, l.SOJ. 

THE Uudersif/iipd. .Aycnt of Her Ihitannic ^taiesty, appointed to attend the Trihunal of .Arhitru- 
tion convened under the provisions of the Treaty conelnded at Washini^ton on the l".Hli Kelnuary, 
between Her I'.ritannie Afajcsty and the I'liited States, has the honour, iiy direction of Her Majesty's 
Government, to ttive notice that he applies for the production hy the A^'cnt of the I'nited States of 
copies of the followiiii,' diicnments, that is to say: — 

1. The Ile)i.,rt of T"reii.'.iiry Aiient (iolf for the yenr 188'.', nientioncd on p. I.".'I and p. :'.4;! of the 
Cnse of the I'nitinl States. 

L'. Tin: letters and documents nientioncd in the correspondence quoted at pp. IS to 0(t of the 
United States' Case, ApjicndLx, vol. i, and especially the loUowinj;, namely: 

{it.) I'a^^c .■>!. The Heport of the lionrd of .Vdniinistratiou of the llussian-.Vmerican r'ompanv, 
dated the 14tli Novemlier. 181!); 

(//.) I'a.ue .'),"). The " communication fnini the Minister of Marine." referred to in the last jiara^rapli 
of the letter from the Hoard of .Vdiuinistvatiou of the Itussiau-Aniericaii Company to Captain .M. i. 
Mnravicf, of the Imi'crial .\avy. Chief Manager of the IIussiau-Aineriean I'ohinies, written from 
St. IVtersluirgh, the 'Jord Aliril. iSL'O : 

(c.) I'a^'e '<'). The two letters of <'a|itain M. I. Mnravief, Chief jranaj;er of the Russian-American 
Colonies, dated the ^Gth and l."<ih .Inly, respectively, referred to in the letter from the Hoard of 
Adiiiiidstralion of the liussian-.Ameriean < ''Hiipanv to the said Capliiin Mnravief, ilated the :'.lst March, 

((/.) Pane ")H. The Heiiorl of Mr. \anovsky, dated the L',")tli Feliriiary. ISl'O, alluded to in tim 
letter from the Uoard of .Vdmiiiisliation of tin' IJussiiin-.Vnierican Coiui«inv to the <.'hicf >[ana|_'er of 
the linssian-American Cidonies. dated St. l*e.ter,sliur!,di, the 15th March, ISl'l : 

(r.) I'ai.'e I'l'l. The tran.script of views of the l!u.ssian-.\iiierican Coinpaiiy, alluded to in paia- 
j;rapli :.' of till' letter from the Minisicr of Finance to the Hoard of .Vdniinistration of ihe IIu-Man- 
.ViiK'Vn all f'laupany. dated St. I'etcrslairnh, tlie l?>tli .Inly, IS'2'1, as follows: ■ 

" In onlei that Harcui Tuyll's ne^'o ialions may he facilitated and hrnn'.;ht t>i u speedy ccaiclusion, 
he has heeii furnished with a transcript of the l!ussian-.\nn'ric:iii Company's views as to the Itiiles wi' 
could iusk the 'loverninenl of the American I'nited .States to oliservc, with a view to the maintenance 
of frii'inlly intcn onrse without injury to the vast interests of our Cumpaiiy and lho.se of the native 
inhahitants of that country. " 

(/.) I'aLre >;;>. The representations of lli ■ I'.oard of .Vdministratimi of the I'ussian-Amcrican 
(.'oinpany, under N'o. 7.'! of tin 1 1th Fehmavy, ISL' t, conei mini; the jierniission to forci;.;n vessels of 
enteiim; the Ilarhour of New .Vrchan.L'cl for certain purposes, alluded to in the lirst para:,'iapli of the 
letter from the .Minister of Finance ( heparlnieiit of Miinufaclnres ami Inlcvnal Trade) to the Hoard of 
Administration of the IJussiau-Amcriciin Company, dated St. l'elerslairL;li. llie 2iid .\pril, l.Sli-l : 

(//.) I'leje (17. 'I'he letter fnaii the Ihreclors ol the l.'ussiaii-.Vnieriean I'niuiiany lo the .Miui-^ter of 
Finance, dated the llith .luue, I.S'J4, alluded to in the lirst i)ara<.,'i'ai'h of the letter from the Minister of 
Finance to 111! Hoard of .\dniinislralioM of the said < 'ompanv, d"ted St. I'eti'rsliniyh, 4th Se]itcnilier, 
1824; 

(A.) I'ajie 71. The dc-palch (No. Ill) of the 'JOth .\pril, ISIO. from Captain Ivan .Vutonevitch 
Kupreianof to the Hnaril ■ ' Adiuinislration of the liussiaii-Ameriian I'luupany, alluded to in the tirst 
paragraph of the communication from the Hoard of Adininistralion of the said Company to the .•>iiid 
Captiiiu Antonevitch Kn]ireianof, ilati'd St. I'elersburgli, iilst .March, 1S40 ; 



82 



(1.1 I'iij^c V-. Tlic (lcs|i;cl('ln>.s (if the Hoard of Ailmiiiislriitinii of tlii> nussian-Aiiierioan Coiiiiiiiiiy, 
diitnil ics|ii'itiv<ly lln' l:Jlli Apiil ami lUlli Xiivciulior, IS.'I, ami tin' liml April, Kltli May, and 
2:!rd Sciiti'iiilii'r, IS.'L', alliidfd tii in a Icttrr rniin the said linard ol' Adinini-^tratiiiii tn Caiitaiii Ilitch 
Riidakdf. Ai:liii,u; (.'liicl' Mana;.'fr, datc'd Si. rctcrsliiirudi, 20tli .Afari'li, l.s:,:'. ; 

(./'.) l'au;i' T.'V Tlu' s|ii'(iiil iMstnii'tiiiiis l'iinii«lird tlic Im-al Ciuiiniandors, alludi'd Id in tlm li'ltnr 
frnni till' liiiard of Adniinislialinn nf tlu' lius-ian-Ann'iii'an ('onipanv to Caiilain Alfxaudur Hitch 
Rndakof. Actinu Cliiif Mana'^'fr, dutid St. rclcrslmrjli. liOtli Murvh. IS."':!, its f„llo\v.s:— 

" . . . . DurinL' llic dcliMilion of this vosmcI In tlio p:irt of Ayan, its ('lunniaiidi'r will jilaoi." 
himself nndcr llie ordrrs nl' (!ic Imvil mlonial iiiitlioritii'S in all casis uf c'lni'rj^ciM'y, or of infrin'ji'nn'nt 
of the CoMipany's ri;_']its and iirivilcgcs, lor which pnr|insi; the local ConunandcMs arc rMrni.-ilii'd with 
special instrnetions." 

(/■.) I'a;,'e V.'i. The proposal of the Jliiiister of Kinanre referred to in the letter I'roiii tlie Depart- 
ment of CoMiniene and Mannfailiires to the I'.oard of Adniiiii.itratioii of thi^ Itnssian-Ainerieaii 
Company, dated St. Petersliiuijh, Ii)t1i .Imie, ISO.", as follows : — 

"TheCimneil of St;ite, after an exandnation of the ]Mnpiisal snliinitted hy nie eoneernini,' the 
re\ision of the (^'harter of the IJiissian-Anieriean (.'uinpany and the or^'ani/ation of the Itr.ssian- 
Ameriean Colonie.s, direct.s , . . ." 

(/.) I'a.^e T^. The "p'.ojeel" invited to he siilmiitted hy the lloanl of .Adiniidstralion of the 
Rnssian-Anieriran Company, in the letter from the llenartment of I'onniieree and Maiinlaetures to the 
.said Roard of Adi.iini-tration, dated St. reterslmiyh, l!Hh .Iniie, ISd.'i, as follows : — ■ 

" I . . . . hereliy invite the lio.ird to .sulinut a project to he presented for the linal consideration 
of the State ( 'onneil . . . ." 

(ill.) l'ai,'e 7S. Xo, IS of " ( 'orrespondoncc relatini; to the AM'air.s of the Russian-American 
Coni]iany :" 

(/I.) J'aue TO. The " ]iioposilions snhndtted !)y the dompany,'' allmled to in the Opinion of the 
(,'onncil of State, fection 4, as follows: — 

"4. (A> to Articles VIH and IX.) The ]irovisions to lie included in the iKnv Charter of the 
Companv concerning the openin;,' to free trade of the ])orts of Xew Archanjiid and .Sitka, and 
of St. I'anl on Kadiak Island, ami the introdnclion into the Colonies ^.,'ener.illy of snch trade and 
of iudusiries, also the provisions conci'rnin.L; tlie importation and sali' of spirilmins liipiors, and the 
suiiplyiii:,' of arms and powder, shall he in accordance with the iiro]iositiiins now snlmiiltcd liy the 
Company " 

(a)"l'ai,'e «0. The order of the I'.oard of Administration, dated the I4tli Decendjer, 1S16 
(X'o. 71"i), referred to in the ir.closure to the letter from the lioard of Administration of the Russian- 
American Companv to A. A. I'>araiuif, Chiel Jlana.ncr of the Rnssian-American (.'olonies, dated 
St. I'eterslmruh, the Cith April, 1S17 ; 

(/).) I'ajic' 81. The Ri",'nlations of the fnr-scal industry mentioned in the despatch of ('ajitain 
Etholin, (.hief Manager of th.e Rnssiaii-American Colonies, dated the 9lh May, isil! (Xo. iicST), and 
again mentinned in the letter from the lioard of .Vdministration of the llussian-.Vmerican Company 
to the .said Cajitain Htholin, dated St. I'eterslmrijh. the Stli March, ]S4:i; 

(7.) I'a.^''' 8-- The de<;iatch of Captain Rndakof (Xo. :!18), dated tlie JiOth May, IS.".;^, mentioned 
in the letter from the lioard of Administration of the Russian-American Comiiany to (.'aptain Stepaii 
Vassilievitch Vovevodsky, Cliief Alanager of the Rn.ssian-Aiaerican Coloines, dated St, IVtiM'shnrgh, 
the 24th Ajiril, 1854 ; 

(r.) I'age 84. The desimtch of Captain S. V. Voyevodsl-- "' 41 ), dated the !)tli JIarch, 18."i7, 
alluded to in the letter from the Hoard of Administration of i.. 'ian-Ainerican Company to the 

said Captain S. V. Voyevodsky, dalid St. l'ctersliurL:h, the oth .Mine, 10. , 

(s.) I'ap' .84. The de^|iatch of the lio.ird of Admini--tr.;tion of the Russian-American Company of 
the lOth .Iiine, I8."i7 (.No. (i.'iO), allmled to in the letter from the Chief Manager of the Russian- 
American Colonies to the said Heard, dated the 7l'i Octolii.'r, 18."i7; 

(/.) I'age 80. Th" despatch of the lioard of .Vdmini.ilialiou of the Ru.ssian-Anierican Com]iany 
(Xo. 0'.t7'i, dated the ,"ith ,Iniie, 18."i8, alluded to in the letter from the Chief Manager of the Russian- 
American (Colonies to the said lioard, dated the K'th .raiiuary, 18,"i9; 

(it.) I'age 88. The despatch of the lioi.id of Administration of the Russian-American Comp.iiiy, 
dated the lllsl .laiiu.ary, l8G:i. alludid to in the letter from Captain J. V. Fnrulielm, Chief Manager of 
the Russian-American Colonies, to the said lioard, dated the Kith July, 1801) ; 

(c.) I'age 8'.l. The instructions of Mollisun, inclosed in a despatch of the lioard of .\dministrattun 
(Xo. 81) of the 2.'itli .laiHiary. '8(;n. alluded tu in the letter from the Chief .Manager of the Russiui;- 
American Colonies to the said lioard, dated the 10th duly, K^Oii; and 

(v.) I'age 80. The desjia'ch of the lioard of Administration of the Russian-Aniericnn Company 
(Xo. 81) of the 2."illi .Ianual^, I SOU, allmled to (as ahove) in the said letter of the Chief Manager of 
the Russian-American Coloni.'s to the said lioard, dated the 10th July, 180.3. 

The rndeisi'.;ned. &e. 

(Signed) CHARLKS II. TIl'l'KR, 

Af/cnl of Her Hrilnnnic Mnji.ili/ in. Ihia hthnlf. 
To (ieiicial the Hon. .lolni \V, K)ster, 

.Auent of the I'nited .-'tates, I'irc. 



88 

No. 7. 

Mr. Foster lu Mi: Tupprr. 

THK I'liilcrsii^iicd, A^;f'iit (if tlie I'liiteil Statrs ii|i[iciint(>(l to ntU'iid tlie Tiilmnal nf Arliitratinii 
convened \iiid(r tin' imivisions of the Ticnty ('iiiK'liwU'd al \Vnsliinf,'ton on llio 2'M\t Fclinian, 1«!I2, 
bclwci'n the I'liitrd Stali-i and Ilcr Hrilaiinie Majesty, Ijevewilli fiiriiislicH to llie A^eiil of lli>r 
Itritaiinie Majesi ;• enpie^ of llie Inlluwinj.^ doeiinienLs, jjursuaiit to two certain Koliiis cU-liveivd to tliu 
Undersifincd on the linl ila> orOetolier, ]HOJ;— 

1. A edjiy of llu- lott.r nt the 4lh April, 1881, rcferml to at p. 81 of the ('as,, uf tlie United 
States. 

-. The llepoil of Treasury Afjcnt Goff for the year 1880, mentioned on p. 1 ri.'l and p. .'Uo of tin! 
Cftse of tin.' United States. 

With regard to the letters and doeiiniPiits n'ferred to in section Xo. 2 of one of said Notices (in 
which seilion saiil letters ami docnnients are desi,i,'iiated as tho.se mentioned in the corresponilenco 
<pniteil at Jip. 48 to !HI of the United States' Case, Appendix, vol. i), the Undersii,'ned hegs to inuli<' the 
following,' statement : — 

'I'hey ilo not, in his oiiinion, come within the i lass of doomieiils of which copies may lie aiiplicd 
for under said Treaty, for thi' reason that they arc conlained, not in the Case of th<^ Uniti'd States, lint 
in a vohnue nf the .\]iiiendiees to .saiil Ca.se. .\rticle IV limits the documents co]iie.s of which may he 
aiiplied for to such as are spi-citied iir idhided to in the ( 'ase of either party ; and the precedin;,' Article 
clearly distin,L;nishcs lietween the Cases nf the two jiarties an<l " the ilocnments, ollicial corrcspnn- 
dcnce. and uther evidence on whii h each (party) relies," ur, in other Words, the .Appendii es to said 
< 'a.ses. 

.\|iart from this, an interpretation of .\rticle IV which would concede to one party tlie ri'Jit to 
call for docnnienl.s referreil lo in tlie .Vppenilices of the I 'ase of the other )i:irty mii,dit result in 
imposing; upon the latter the lairden of a loii;; and dillicult si'arch, s\ich as the Undcrsi;,'ned lielieves it 
eciinot liave lieeii the intention of iln' ]iarlies to ]ilace u]ion one another. An inst.iuce of how j;reat 
this liurden might he is an'ordi'd l.y the re(|Uest of the .Vgent of Her liritannic Majesty herein 
referred to. 

The Umlersiu'ued, however, leoardless of the question of strict ri.!.;ht. is desinais to furnish to the 
Agent of ller llritaiiinc Majesty copies of all documents whii'h he has sii;nified hi.s wish to e.vamilie, 
and which it is within the reasunalile aliility of the Undersigned to fnrnislj. ili' therefore iJiesi'iils 
hc'rewilli copies of such of tho.se documents speciliially referred to in r.aid section Xo. o ,,s me in the 
piissessjoii nf the United .Slates' (iovernment, to wit. tho.se clesi;;naled as follows ; dl), (;/), (li), (i), (p), 
<••';, ('),("). ('■), an.l (iv). 

It is apparent from the reference thereto liy the .Agent of Her liritannic .Majesty that a nunilier of 
the documents calleil I'oi' hy him, and not includi'd in this response, cutdd liai ily lie fnund idscuiiere 
than in the archives of the llussian-.Vmerican Company at St. I'etershnrgli. 

To facilitate the identilicatiou of the copies of th(^ docunu'iits herewith presented, they have 
been marked rcspcctivelv with the same letters with which they are designated in the said section 
No. 2. 

'file Undersigned I legs to stale th.it he waives tlie f.ii'i that neither of the said .\nlices was delivered 
to him within tla^ |ieriod ]irii\idcd in .\rticle IV of the said Treaty. 

The UndersiL.'ned, &c. 

(Signed) JOHX W. UuSTEli, 

Ayail vfthe. UiM;l ,'<l„l,:s. 

\Viif>ltinijtvii. Xuvtmiri' \2, IS'.li'. 



Inclosure 1 in No. 7. 

Mr. Fi'inih to Coltntw i<J Ciistvm>:, Smi Fnineisco, Ci'liforniti. 

Trciitiuri/ Jhjiiiiiimnl, OJitr nf the ,%iirl(irif, 
.Sir, ir'a.-'/iin^lon, JJ.a. Aj'ii'/ 4. 1>^SI. 

1 transmit herewith, foi your information, co]iy uf a letter addresseil to Mr, I). .\. d'.\ncona, of 
your city, under ilate of the ll'th ullinio, in regaul to the extent of the juri.sdiclicui of the Uniteil States 
within the waters of the Ti'iiitory of Alaska, with reference lo the killing of fnr-.se.ds and ttlier fnr- 
licaring animals, under Chajiter :l. Title J:!, of the IJeviscd Statutes. 

\>in are rcqui'steil to give due |iiililicity lo such letti-r, in order tliat iiarties who may contemplate 
tilting oul expeditions to kill fur-liearing animals within the waters nf .\laska Territory may be 
informed of the construction placeil liv this De|iartmeut upon the Law icferred to. 

Verv respectfullv. 
(Signed) II. '¥. I'KKNCH. 

Adinij Siiirtdrif. 



[117] 



84 

Tncloeuro 2 in Xo. 7. 

Mr.a.ffI; Mr. Win,l„m. 



Sir, Si. I',n'l hl„ii(l. AliUn. Jul;/ I',], 1HS9. 

[ IFAVK llif liDiKiiir tn transiiiil u licport (if llic ii|)er!itiiiiis miil tin' idiijiiiim i,\' the SimI IsImiiU nf 
Alasl<a lor llii^vcar ciiiliii^ llii' iilst .Inly, 1S,S!I. I alsn accojit anil inclu-r tin' lli'iinrts uf Mr.. I. I'. Man- 
I'lii'stcr anil Caplain A. I'. Lianl, Assistant Tri'Msnrv A,L,'i'nt.s ul' St. I'anl ami Si. (icorgu ishimls 
rcspcrtivcly, tlii'V lia\iii;,' lii'cii |ii'rsiinally in ciiarur ol' llii'sc isluiiils fur tlic past twn yeans. 

'J'liu incliLSinl taliiilatnl .Mialalily Taiilvs wen' niailc liy Dr. ( '. \. f.ntz, tlic rcsiiUMit pliy.sician of 
tills islanil, arc cnrrcrl ami wurlliy of ciiiLsiilcration. I slinll conlinL' my remarks to tlm Ishunl of 
St. I'anl, as I have liad no opportunity to visit .St. (leoru'e Island siriei^ my arrival lien on tlio 
1st .Innc. I am satistieil, however, I'nini the information I have rceeiveil I'loni Colonel .rosuph 
Mnrray, Tn'asnry .\;,'ent now in eharije of St. (luor.oe Islaml, that the .same eomlition of alliiirs 
exists there as ori this (St. I'anl) islaml. 

r.y referrini; to the itemizeil statement of shins taken, yon will ohserve the lunnlier ol pnps killeil 
for fooil ilnrinj,' the fall of IMSS was L'.ITH. This was an nnnsinilly small nnmlier, exeeplinj,' the year 
)in'vions, l)ul il wan ailjnil;.'eil th" pmper per eent. to kill nniler the exisiin;,' linaimstames, anil 
respeetin;,' the fiitnvi' of the niokeries. The killini,' of a lar;,'e numher of nii'rihantahle seals for food 
followed ilnrint; the wintei-; their skins wen' salted and aeei'|iled liy the .\Iaska ( 'ompany as part of 
their ipiota of skins for this year. The first ap|iearanei' of the hulls to lla^r usual hanuls was on the 
.'ith May, hut the comiuij of these animals to the rookeries was unusually late, followed hy a late 
a]ipearanei' of the eows. .\t first il is snjiposeil that the severe winter had jireveuted the seals fnim 
returniuL; as in the i)ast, hut I'lose oliaervatiou on the part of Mr. .1. 1'. Mam-hestcr n'Vealed the fact 
that it was owiu^ to the .soarrity of the seals, whiih was to him very pereeptihieas the season advaneeil, 
ami an the killing hy the Alaska Connnercial I 'ompany iiroeiM-ded, the ilaily, weekly, and monthly 
n'eei])t.s were nnieh smaller than ever hel'oro. The small luindier of pups killed in the fall for food, 
the late a|ipearanie of ihe Imlls ami cows the folluwinj,' .sjirini,' in lar^e sehools as in the Jiast, and the 
alarinin;; deerease in the daily, weekly, and monthly reieipts of the Alaska Commen ial ('om|iany, and 
as a tl'i'iiirr 1-ix.viii hy .said Comiianyto seeure their 10(1,00(1 skins, the killinj; of smaller seals than was 
customary, attest conclusively Ilial Mr. .1. I'. Manchester's uhservations were undouhleilly correct, that 
there is .scarcity of .seals, and that within the Ia.st year or so they are, from some cause, decreasin" 
far lie3ond the increase. 

As this is the last yeni of the ]uesent lessees, and then' is a new lea.se to he made, I woidd 
respectfully sugLtesl that ■'! is of vital importance to the existence of seal lil'i' that thi; annual cpiota in 

the future he limited to the taking; of 00,000 skins as the nnixinunn from the rrihylolf Islumls 

"I'.V'OO fnjm St. I'aul, dttci', and Walrus Islands, and 7,ri00 from Si., (ieorijo Island —for the first five 
years of the lease. At the ex]iinition of said time the numlicr to he increased or decreased as the 
Secretary of the Treasury may deem advisable. The work of killing' seals and sallinj,' skins has heeu 
aceomplished only through the assistance rendered by laliour imported from dunalaska, as the mindier 
of labourers on the i.sland was too small to complete thi' task within the limited time allotted liv the 
(loverinnent. r>y reference to the Census yon will see that the inhabitants an' anmially decreasing, 
and that the females are Largely in excess of the nc.des. And hen^ 1 will say I heartily concur with 
Afr. T. ,F. li'yan, formerly TreasiM'y .\gent to these islands, who.so letter to tlie Itepartment, hearing 
date the Sth .\|iril, ISKO, upon the subject, was n'ferred to me, and in n'ply to Department letler to 
me bearing date the (ith May, ISS'.l, will say that sunn' way to infusi' new life into the.se few 
remaining peojile should be devised liy the De]iarimenl at once and s]ieedily executed before it is too 
late. It IS impossible for the Treasury .Vgelil in charge to receive leliable information concrning the 
wishes and conditions of the natives elsewhere on the .\leiiliaii chain, whctlnM- they arc williie,' or ever 
would come to these islands to live. Me has no facility for tnivclling to either (.)tler or Walrus 
Islands, both within a range of 10 miles to this i-hnid. .\iid il is his duty to visit tln'in occasioiudly, 
without it is through the courtesy extended liv the Alaska Commerci.il ('oiii)iany, and at no little 
<'X|«'nse to the ('imiliai'y. If it is deeined advisable to send a vessel along the .\leuliaii chain to secure 
stnuig, healthy male labourers, who are willing to come to these ishnids and make 1 hem (heir future 
homes, it .shoiili' be done at once, under the supervision of a Tn'a.siiry .\geiil familiar with the 
conditions of St. I'aul and .Sf. tleorge Islands, aceoinpaiiicd by a resident lihysieian from one of tlie 
islands. 

(Jn the L'Tll .June the .Alaska Commercial Company, througli Dr. H. If. Mcliityre, tlii'ir (leneral 
Manager, fnrnisheJ ..ic a boat manned and rigged, and I visited Olti'r Island and found L',000 kilhdile 
.seals, and many were in the water near by. ruder the present lease the les.sees are net allowed to kill 
.Mt!als on this island. Con.seiineiitly, they an' i;oi niolested, withoiil taken by jiirati'S, which has been 
the result once or twice in tlii' Jiast. This island and Walrus .-hoiild be inclnded in thi^ next lease. 
The numher of resident labourers on this i.sland at present is ."li, aged fniin 0:1 to \o years, classified ;is 
billows : cliil hers, ; stickers, ; flippers, S ; ,skiiiners, 32. The number of laboiinas from Oiinalaska 
is2o; these men did general work, such as salting skins, booking, biindliiig, and deliveiing them to 
the warehouse ready for shipment. This entin' work was birincrly done by the natives, but of late 
years tla^ native force became too small, compelling the .\laska Cenimereiai Company to iiitmihice 
labour from abniad. The.se men, however, an' jiaid by the Alaska Commercial Company, and the 
natives receive the entire proceeds of the catch. The number of .seals killed upon this island this' 
Hca.son was 8."i,000, and .'sea-lions 2."i. 'J'he killing commenced on the ."ith .lime, and ended on the 
.'ll.st duly. The natives realized :!.'!,7-"iO dol. iSO c. for the .season's catch, which was distrilaited as per 
inclosed statement. On the L'Olh .liine the I'liiled Slates' man-of-wai the "Tlielis," Lieiiteiiaiit- 
(,'ommander .Stockton, arrived fnini .Sitka ; also the United States' cutter the " liusli," Captain .Shepiu-d. 
The "Thetis" left the following day at noon for St. Michael's vn nut/r for Point Harrow, and tlie 



So 



"Riisli" nil lilt! liStli .Imii^ for ii nnm: thiuii^li Udiriiig Son. On tliu IStli .liily Mr. Wclmtcr, the 
Alaska (Nuiiiiiercinl ('oiii)miiy'N a(,'ciit: iit Nuilli-uast I'diiit, iliis i.slaritl. ."iu'litcil a sclidcmcr atjimt 5 miles 
(iir till' islaiici. (Ill llii; L'.'itli .Inly llic I'liitt.Ml Stales' ciittiT th(! " lliish," «'aiitaiii Shi'iiard, again 
anclioivil at the Ka.nt Laiidiiij,', and inl'unued inr tlial he liad .seized tlii> I'.iili.sli schndiicr.s "Minnie" 
and '• lilaiU Dianmnd." The Minnie " wa.s seized on the ITtli .Inly, and luul on lioard 118 stMil-skina. 
The " I'.lack Kiamond " was scizi'd dii thr 1 Itli .Inly, with 7i'< seal-.skin- aljoard. He aim informed me 
that thei'o were no less tlian thirty sclKJoners in I'.ehiing .Sea with ]>rcdatory intentions. If these 
piratical vesseLs i\n) allowed to laiU'her the .seals ivgardlesH of ago and sex, the seals of Alaska will soon 
1)0 exteriiiinuted. The |a-(is]ierity of these world-renowned rookeries is fast fading away under the 
present annual eateh .dlowed hy law, and this indisereel .slaughter now being waged iu these watera 
will iMiIy ha.sten the end of the fnr-seals of the rrihylotf Islands. Caiitain Sliepard is a faithful, 
eoiiseientious, and eiieigetii' oflieer, and is desi'iving tla; loudest eneoninni from the 1 ie|iaitnienl ; hut 
without assistanee il is iniliossihle for him to poliee these waters ell'eetnally. In the ri'liiement of 
Mr. J. I'. Maiiehester the I le]partment loses a fearless, faithful, and hononrahle uflicer; onc! who ha.s, 
in tlut iierformancn of liis duties, rellected eredil upon him.self and iKUiour to his ( ioveniment, 
Cajitain A. V. l.ond has also discharged his duties in a creditalilc manner, and rt'tircs from office 
leaving a recianl to ho envied hy his sueeessor. 

In eonelusion, I desire to say that tlio Alaska Commercial Company have not only strictly 
conformed to the reipiiiementM of the lease during the i)rc.senl season, Imt have manifested a generous 
protectorate towa.ds the natives. 

l!esi>eetfullv sulimitted. 

(Si.^rned) CHAHLKS .T. C.( )FF, 

Tiicsiifi/ Ai/iiit. 



,.^„a. 







IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




..*_ 
» 


II 1.0 HrKS us 

= lu 112 moo 

= m 

1.25 1 1.4 1 1.6 






A" 


► 


< — ^ 


O 






Photographic 

Sdences 

Corporation 







23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. M5S0 

(716)873-4503 



( 86 ) 



\ 



Geographical Notes relating to the Names " Pacific Ocean" " Behring 
Sea," " North-eastern Ocean," " Eastern Ocean," to the meaning of 
the Iixfiressioii " North<vest Coast," ami to the Depth of Behring 
Sea and its Connection u'ith the Basin of the Pacific. 



1. — On the Use of the Names "Pacific Ocean" and " HEnniNO Sea." 



ITaited Sutw' CiK, 
pp. iS, 8S. 



Ibid.. Appeadix I. 
p. 287. 



Note oil the 
ciri-iimstuiocs under 
Khii'h llchrinK S«a 
hv ^-ome to lie 80 
ouued. 



IX Kiijipurt (if tli(> !!)K"fial assertion llmt the Pacific Ocean did not inelurlo lichiin;; Sea as iliown 
by " a study <if tlie Maps. Cliarts, and writings of navigators at the time of and prior to tlie (clebra- 
tiiiii 111' these 'JVealies," it is .stated in the I'nitcd States' I'ase that "a list nf tliese Maps and ('harts 
is ajipeiMleil," fiiiin which it will Ite .seen that jjeo^aphcrs coid'urn^d npon ISehring Son "some 
sejiaratc name in mmI aiscn, either that of .Sen of Kanitchatka, ilehring Sea, North-iuisterii Sea, or 
Eastern < Kean." 

It is snlmiitted, however, that the list eannot properly lie regarded as representin<; the usage of 
•,'eogr:i|ihers, even iiu the niirrow ground of the nomenclature of oceans, seas, ,<,('., as jiriuted en the 
Maps in i|Uestion ; fur this list is, in reality, merely a selected series of such .Maps as in respect to 
their luarkiiig cnrri'SiMind. in a negative .sense (or in other wonls do not di.sagree), with the contention 
which it is wished liv the I'nited States to uphold. 

Witliout enti'ring into any .L'reat detail res)iecting the nnmornus voyages of discovery in this 
region, whirli. in the tirst in.stance, were ]irincipally ilue to llussian ellorts from the .V.siatii- const, it is 

comparatively easy to phu n reiord tlie sidicnt iVatui-es of this ImuK h of the sidi,j.-ct ; and to trac<! 

its ]iriigress, nioii! particularly liy means of the Maps puhlished from time to time in illustration of the 
results of the \arious e.xidorers. 

The tirst )iuhlisheil Map in which that )>art of the A.siatic coast, including Kanitchatka. and 
extending to and U'Vond llehring Stniits, was represented, was that in illustration of Hehring's tirst 
voyage, in IT."'", in lt'.\nville's "Atlas." It is n-produced liy Mr. \V, II. |)all, in the " .Vational 
Geogriiphiral Magazine,' Washington, IS'.IO. At this lime neither the t'ommander Islainls nor the 
Aleutian Islands wi it known hut the oci'an to the east of the .\siatii- roast is nana'd Purtir (/,■ In Mer 
Doi-iiinnli , the name, as engra\id on the Map, e.vtending from a jKiint to the west of the extr.'iuily of 
the I'euiiisula of Kanitchatka, in a noitlwasterly iliivition, to about the position which .St. .Mattliuw 
Island is now known to occupy, or to the centre of liehring Sea." 

After Itehriiigs second expeditiuii. in which the (.'omuiander himself misendily pcri.shed, but in 
the course of which tlif .\iiicricaii coast was reaehed, and the Comniander and .Meutian Islands in 
part di.scoM'ied, we Hud :i Map inililishcd by Miiller, the hi.storian and geogra])lier of the (■xiieditioii. 
This is entitled, in the Kiiglish translation oi' Midler's work, published in biiidon in ITlil, " A Map of 
of the hiscoveries made by the Itussians on the North-west Coast of Amcriia " published by the 
Royal .\i ademy of .Sc iiiices at St. rptei-sbungli, and republished in I,ondoii by Tlmiiins tleffrey.s. 

Ill this Map the islands now known as the .\leutian Islands and the t'ommander Islands aro 
indi< iiticl very iiiaii iirately, and the greater ]iart of what is now known as Iteliriiig Sea is ociupied by 
a glial coiijeitural pioinontoiy of the .\mericuii ('ontineiit, leaving a com]iaralively iiarmw and sinuoim 
body of water or strait running in a diiei tion |iroxini.itely parallel to the .\sialic coast, and separating 
the two continents. The somhein portion ,.f this is named on the Map iS'«i of k'niiidhidhi. the 
i5ortlierii Sill iij Aiiiiilii-.'xw eipiivaleiit cliaracters. llehring Strait, as now known, appears without 
name, wjiiie the wider oi can to the south is iiaiiied (irrnt Si'itth Sn nr Pmijii- (Irnni. 

\ reproduition on a smaller S' ale of the .same Map ajipears in the " London Magazine " for 1764. 
This is entitled, " .\ new Map of the North-eust Coast of .Vsja and North-west Coast of .\inericn, 
with the lale Uussian I)iscoveiies." It re|ieats the nonienclature and all the errors of the original 
Maji, but employs the term llmil Sm'tli Sm only, the addition "or I'acilie (treaii" being omitted. 

After the dale of the publication of Cook's third voyagi' in ITS-l, what is now known as IWdiring 
Sea began to ajipcar on Maps in si.mething like its true form and prop(ations, and in the .Map accom- 
panying the otticial record of his vovagea, of the ilate mentioned, we tind that sea without special 
distinctive name, and simply n'g.inled as a )>art of the I'acilie Ocean, though the names <lhtloT>Li. >Scit, 
Biiin I- Sill, and dulf nf Anmliv are eiigraveil in parts of it close to the Siberian shores, and S/ukiI 
Wnlrr and llrislnl /Ini/ ap|)eai as hsal names of eipiivalent rank on the ii]i]iosite .Vmerican coast. 

From lliis date oiiwaid the usai.'e iiecame \fty varieil. Many Maps continued to apjHMir till 1840 
or later, iipmi which no name of a ili-^lim live kiml was given to llehring Sea, while upon others it 



R7 



' Behring 

mning of 

Bchnng 



Sea." 

■>ca us tlinwn 
till' (clobra- 

s mill ( 'harts 
Seii " some 

stern Sea, or 

the nsafje of 
iiik'd on the 
ill respect to 
!io cuiitciitioD 

ivory ill tliis 

lie const, it is 

ami til tract! 

tratioii (if the 

iitehatka. ami 
leliritifiV first 
w " .Vatioiial 
amis nor the 
r/(V ,h' hi M,r 
I'xlr.^mity of 
St. Matliiuw 

I'ishi'cl, liiit in 
in Islamic in 

ex]ie(lition. 
I, "A Map of 
ishc'il liy the 
irrfvs, 

r Isliiiids are 

1 (ii'i'iipiiMl liy 
' ami NiiimiiiH 
111 si'paratiiif; 
mlihiilbi. till! 
cars witlicmt 

le" for 17G4. 

of .Aiiiuricn, 

lli(> original 

iiiitleil. 

II as lichrinj; 

Ma|) acrom- 

tlioiit speeiiil 

'lliilorHii tScii, 

-'H, ami ShimI, 

II coast. 

lear till 1840 

l«iii others it 



.\U|M HtHfcialljr re* 
ferreil to by Mr. 
Ulaine in Iiik nolo of 
UcCGlnlier IT, Icilll. 



p. 287 



hccAine cuttrimxry to extend the orifjinally lo:;ai name .Vm of K'imtihntka to the whole of tluH liod.v of 
Water. Doiihlless because of tlii^ uiiiliiHuity atlachinj; to this piirtioular iiaiiii', from its orii^iiially 
strictly local use, at later dales it Iwgan to he eustoiiiary to employ lielirin;.^'s iiaiiie for tlie sea now so 
called, till at the present lime that name may he said to have entirely siipeiveded the older one, and to 
have |ias.sed into I'omnion i;se. 

Followiii;F (III this chaii;;e, the iiaiiio Sen »f Knnilrhilka was elian;;ed to itnlf nf Komlilmlht, and 
relej^iled to its orii;inal place on the shore of the iK^niiisiiht of the .same name, while the names 
OlulorsJii and Anadir likowi.se hccanie conhiied to the i-espertive j;iilfs on the Silieiian coast. Kor tiie 
most modern nsajje in this res|iecl, see United States' Hydro^'raphic (Jdice (,'hart No. liH, IH'JO, ar.d 
British .Vdmiralty Chart No. 24t;(), I8HII. 

It is very notewoithy, however, in studying any series of Maps chronologically airanrfcd, that up 
to the middle of the present century ISehrini; Sea is freipieiitly without any general name, while the 
adjoinini; i<ea of Okhotsk is in almost every instance clearly desi^^iiated. 

Had the circumstances with respect to the noiiiciiclftture of Hehriiig Sea heeii ditfirent, and had 
that ImhIv of water Ih'cii consisU'iilly siip|ilied willi a dislimlive name on all Map>', it would, howiiver, 
liy no means necessarily follow tliiit this wax inteiuled to show that it wits not a ]mrt of the I'acitio 
Ocean. An ocean may, and iu all ciuses actually diK'S, include numeroiis seas and fiulfs as siiliordiiiate 
di" 'siiiiis. The mere fact that the name ol the .N'mth I'aiitii- Ocean, or eipiivalent iiaiiic in ii.se at 
dilleivnt )ieriods. is not usiially engraved partly upon the area of l!eliiiii<.' Sea in the .Maps, affords no 
valid argument for such separation. The name of this ocean is jjenerally found to lie enyraved. in 
lnr>{e characters, n]H)ii its widest and most open |iait, somewhere lo the south of the ."lOth parallel, and 
lK!tweeii that |)aiallel and the i<>piator. This u.sa>;e follows as a result of the actua! form of the ocean. 
and the necessity of niviiifj due |iromineiii'e to its name. 

The I'liited Slates' (iovernmciit has. in this controveivy, attacheil impurtaiiee to the very early 
employment of some distinctive name for liehriii;,' Sea, and reference has heeii made to several of the 
older Maps. 

It is, howcv. 1, snlimilted that even in restrictiiijj the nr<;unieiit to Majis, the im|Hirtant ipiestion United sittc«' Caw, 
is that relatiii){ to the .Maps and (^'liarts of the years ininiediately antecedent to I81'4 and 18:;."), in Appemlii, lol 
which years the t'onveiitions dealiiij,' with the I'kase of IHL'l were concluded. 

To such Maps tin- ne;,'otiat(irs doulitless referred. 

lievertiii},', however, to the earlier Maps specially instanced liy the I'liitcd States' (iovernraent, it 
will lie fciunil that even these do not liear out the a.sserlions hased tiy Mr. I'llaine ii|h)ii them. 

A .Map illustrating Cook's voyages, and puldished ill 1784, is first referred to as sliowing the 
" Stn nf Kiimlrhnlhi " in " alisolute contradistinction lo the (Ireitl l^mlli .Sl-.i or I'acific Ocean." 

This is doiiliiess the Map pulilishe<l by William Fadeu in 1784, and included in the list attached 
to Mr. Itlaine's note. 

in this Map the name Sin t>f Knmchnikn is written across liehring Sea, aiil (lulf nf Ainu/i/r is the 
term applied to the indentation of the coast into whiidi the river of the sanie name flows. 

The sjiccial value alUiched to this Map liy .Mr. lllaiiie, in su]iport of his contention, entirely 
disappears when the seconil edition issued ten years later is inspected, and special attention is dii-ected 
to the detailed de,scri|ition of this latter Map at p. '.14 of lliis .Appendix. 

It will lie si'cu that the seiond edition hears the same title as the first, witli the addition of a face- 
note indicating that iiiinierous iiiipiovemcnts have been inserted. One of these impiiivemetits is the 
transfer of the name A-n n/ Knmtchntkn to the waters iinmediately adjacent to the coast of that 
jH'iiiiisula, leaving the main boily of llehriiig Sea vithnul nun iH^tiniiiir >i 'me. As the natural 
coii»ei|Uelice of this change. Sin nf Annili/r appears instead of d'lilf nf Ainnli/r. 

Turning to the Maps in the ofhcially piililished accoiinl of Cmik's tliiid voyage, likewise dated in 
1784, iKitli those in the ipiarlo and oct.ivo eilitioiis, ami those also in Kremli and tieriiian translalions 
of somewhat later date, it is found that IWliiiiig Sea appears absolutely and markedly withuiU niii/ 
dinlimliir nnmr. 

The Map |)ublisheil in the " I/inilon Magazine " in I7li4, which is i,;;xt cited, is a reduction of 
MUller's Map, which has already been leleried to. 

The circumstanceH under which the mimes Sin nf Knnitilintkn anil Sm nf Aumtir appear i.:i tlie»e 
MapM have been noted on a previous imge, and are sudi as to show that neither of them can be ju.stly 
referrinl to as a|iplying to the aiva of Ilehring Sea as now known. 

In further endeavouring to niainlaiii his position as lo the essential se|iarateness of Ilehring Sea 
from the I'acilic t)ceaii, as understood by geographers of tiie time, .Mr. Ulaine adds an enunieration of 
a nmnlier of Maps as •' Inclosure li" to his hater above ivferred to. 

lie refers to these Maps in the following terms : — 

" I inclose a li.st of a large pro|K)rtioii of the most authentic Maps published ouriiig the niiiely 
years prior to IHlio in (ireet liiilain, in the I'nited .States, the Netherlands, Krancc, Spain, Cermaiiv. 
Russia — ill all Hlf" Maps— ch rrrrij nm- nf wliiih the body of water now known as liehring's ,Sea was 
plainly distinguished by a name sepaniti' from the I'acific (.)cean. On the great majority it is named 
the Sea of Kaiiisciiatka, a few use the name of lieliring while several other desigiialions are ii.sed 
The whole number, aggregating, as they did, the opinion of a large |iarl of the civilized world, distin- 
guished the sea. no matter under what name, as altogether separate finiii the I'licitic Ocean." 

It has so far only been found )iossilile to iilcniify a small iinmluT of these Ma]is, but on about 
half of these the distinguishing names " Sea of Kaiiitchatka" and ' Sea of Anadyr "are placed eilliet 
on the coast of Kamtcliatka or in the IJulf of Anadyr respectively, and im iiaiiie whati ,r iip|ieais as a 
general name for " the binly of water now known as Itehring Sea. " 

On the other Ma|i8 examined, when the name Sea o'' Kanitchalka is placed so as to include the 
whole of I'lchriiig Sea, it is in every case printed in the same character4 of ei[uivaluiil iiiiportaiicc to 
tliusu employed for the uamu of the Sea of (Jkutsk. 



No. 15 in I.iH, p. K4. 



United 8uic«'(':i«a, 
No. I (lt<Uli, f.M 



U17] 



2 A 



88 



Maps raulopiirtl in 
'Mnrlosiire (B)," 
Mr. HIainc lo Sir J. 
Fauncelole. December 
17, 1890. 



Tliis list of 105 Map.'), thnn<;1i npjiarcntly foimidable from its very lonptli, is found to extend from 
tlio joar 1743 t» tin- year \H2'J, botli iin'Iu.'ivi', niul ('(insists solely of Maps uiK)u which a spvciul 
designation of .some kind is siipimsed to Ije found for Iteliriiif; Sea. 

As already stated, this jiroves nolhiiiH witli regard to the. relation of Behring Sea to the I'aeific as 
u whole ; while it is further ohseivalile that, in ronipilin),' the list, many Mn|>s of very doubtful or 
iin|HTfeet character have Ihh'U included with others of undoubt :d nutheuticily and value. 

Thus, in n's|icct to Cook's explorations, but a single Map is cited, while the official and original 
Mails are ignored, as has already been explained. 

Again, from Thouipson's large Atlas, of date 1817, but a single Map is cited, and this without 
suili refereiK 1' as to enabh! it to lie idontitied ; while, as a matter of fact, in this Atlas, Kehring Sea 
appearx upon tlire<! Maps as the Srn of Kitiiilclinthi. On three other Maps this name is evidently 
('(mlined to the waters imtneiliately adjacent to the |)onin3ula of the same name, and on two, the 
greater part of lli-hring Sea is included without any name. 

I'nder date ISl'J, a Maj) by Hurney is (puoted as showing the name Sea of Kamkhnthi applied to 
Kehring .V-a, but the (udy Map by that .'Uth' - . " ■ ' that date which it has lieen possible to find is a 
" Chart of the north coiLst of Asia and (>; ' -• . .')rth of liehring Strait," in which the greater 

jiait of Hehring Sea is included, but withe .' 'ic, I c.h the northern (lortion of the Sea of Okhotsk, 
also included, is prominently named. 

.*<till, again, under 18i;."i, a Jlap in liutlei . l.vS (doubtless Xo. 10) is quoted as showing the 
name Hia of Kiinilclinthi, while the first Ma]i in that Atlas upon which llehring Sea appeals without 
uauie (thuug)i the Sen «/ Okhotsk and other similar seas are named) is ignored. 



Malhim'n ' Naval 
OajEfttleer," IxindoD, 
i;9S. vol. il, p. 4. 
Ibid , Tol. i, p. 42. 

Rrookea It., " Oenenl 
Gautteer," 1802. 

Montefiore, " Com- 
mercial Dietionarr," 
1803. 

"(■eotfTaphial 
Diotioaarj," Lomlon, 
1804. 

CruHwell. C , '• New 
Universal Gatettcer," 
laoH. 



Hangnail, R., 
" ('onipendium of 
Geography." ISIS. 

Rew' " Cyclopedia," 
Ix>ndon, I81U. ) 



r.alletli. J. n. A , 
" (teographi«che« 
WBrterbui-h," I'ellh, 
1822. 

" Kdinburgh Gaxet* 
te«r." edition 1822, 
vol. i, p. 432. 

" General Garetteer," 
London, 1833 

" New Ijondon 

Unlveraal (luictleer," 

I82S. 

" Edinborfih Gaiet- 

Uer," Undon, 1H27, 

rol. i, p. 4S2. 



Tlie following are definitions found in the gazetteers, dictionaries, and geographies of the world, 
both of tlie jiicseiit and old dates, touching the Pacific Ocean, IJehring Sea, Kumtchatka, &.C., which 
show that llehring .Sea has U^en from the year 171)5 down to the present regarded as {)art of the 
I'acitic Ocean. 

" Kamschntka Sea is a large branch of the Oriental or North Pacific Ocean." 

" I'eering's Straits, which is the pa.ssage from the North Pacific Ocean to the Arctic Sea." 

" IJtH-ring's Island. An island in the Pacific Ocean. [Behring's Island is in Behring's Sea.] 
" Kaniscliatka. liounded ea.st and south by Pacific." 

" KaniLsrliatko. Hounded on the north by the country of the Koriacs, on the east and south by 
tlie North Pacific Ocean, and on the west by the .S<!a of Okotsk." 

" I'eering's Island. In the North Pacific Ocean." 

" I5eering's Island. An island in the North Paoific Ocean. 

" Kauitehatka. Itiver, which rups into the North Pacific Ocean. 

" Kamtchatka. Peninsula, Injunded on the east and south by the North Pacific Ocean." 

" Islands in the Knstern or Oitiat Pacific Ocean ; Bhering's Isle." 

Behring Sea not mentioned. 

"■ Pacific Ocean ' ((iiisiiU>reil as the boundarj' of the Ru.ssian Empire, washes the shores of the 
Ooveinineiit of Irkutsk, from Tschukotskoy Noes, or ('(X)k's Straits, t<> the frontiers of China; or, in 
(jl her words, from the mouth of the liiver Aimnkan, that is, from 0,5"' to 45° north latitude. It is 
divideil into two great jiarts. That lying eastwards from Kamtshatka, lictwcen Silwria and America, 
is eaiineiitly styled tlie Ka.'steni, or Paeifir, Orean ; that on the west side, from Kamtshatka, lietwcen 
Sdieria, the Chinese, Mongolia, ami the Kurile Island i, is called the Sea of Okhotsk. From the ditlerent 
places il touches it a.ssunies ditlerent names, «.,'/., frt^m the place where the Biver Aradyr falls 
into it, it is called thi Sea of Anadyr, and alrave Kamtshatka the Sea of Kamtshatka; and the 
bay iK'tweeii the districts of Okhotsk and Kamtshatka, is called the Sea of Okhotsk, the upper 
)iart cif wliicli is termcHl Penjinskoyc More, that is, the Penjinskiau Sea, as it approaches the mouth 
of the Itivcr Penjiiie." 

" Stilles Meer. Vom 5 nordl. Br. an bis ziir Beringsstrosse aufworts 8tet« heftige Sturme." 
[llehiing's Strait is at the northern extremity of Behring's Sea.] 

" Behring's Island. An island in the North Pacific Ocean." 

" Boering's Island. In the North Pacific Ocean." 
" Beering's Island. In the Pacific." 

" Kaml.srhatka fPcninsula). On the oast it has the North Pacific Ocean, and on the west that 
large gulf of it called the Sea of Okhotsk." 



89 



" DIctioniuirc G6o- 
Rrapliii|ue l'ni»cncl," 

Seili, !'r J C, 
" (jeiiirrnjihiiirliot 
Htati'liMhra Iland- 
wt'.rterhucli," Pe-th, 
n2i, Halbcnuilt, 
1829. 

" Penny National 

Ubrmi7 Geograpbjr 

and Uiutltoir," 11130. 

Arrfiwaoiith, 

" (vraiiiujar of Modem 

ficojirapby," ]ll3i. 



" Mor I'acifii|uc. 11 sVtcnJ du nord au huiI dcpuis Ic Cercle I'olairc Arctitjue, c'eat-A-diie, depuis 
In Detroit dc liuliiing, qwi lu fnit cciiiiiiiuiii<iuur I'l TOcrnn (Jlncinl Austrul." 

" Sliili'H Slcur. Vfini 30 sudliclier lireitc Ms zum "> nordlii'lier ISreiti! vi'rdicit cs diinli soiiie 
HiMti-rkeit iind Stillo dou uuiiicii di's Stilluii M"ur.<) ; von du an Imh zur JSi-riii;^HstruN.sc ist os lit-fti^cii 
Stiirmcn uulurwurcii." 

" Bccriiig's Inland. In tlie North Pacific Ocean." 

"Piherins's Strait connect.s iho Frozen Ocean witli tlie I'acifin. 

" The Anadir IIow.h into the Paoitic Octan. 

" The |iriii(M|ial gidfs of Asiatic liussia arc : tlie (iulT of Aniidir, near Itlicrinn's Strait ; llie Sea (jf 
Ponjina, and the Uuli'of Okh'itk, between Kaintclmtkx and the mainland of Ituit.sia — all three in the 
Pacific Ocean. ' 

" L'Ocean Pacifique Boreal s'«!tend depuis le Udtroit de Rehriug jusqu'uu tropique de Cancer." " Pn!d« do h G6o. 

gnphie UnircrMlle," 
par )Ult«-Uran. 
vul. ii, p, Ilil, edition 
I83S. 

" Jj6 T)6troit de Rehring. A commencer par oe diStroit, le Grand Oc^an (ou Oc^an Pacifique) forme uiito, vol. Tiii, p. 4, 
la limite oricntale de I'Asie." 

I^HKloifl, "Diction- 

nAtre do O^ographie," 

UM. 

" Penny Cjrclopiodia," 

1840. 



" Behring (dAroit ci^lcbre). II joint I'Ocdan Glacial Arctiquc au Grand Ocean," 

"The Pacific Ocean, ll.s houndary-line is pretty well determined liv the adjacent continent."", 
which approach one another toward.^ the north, and at Behring's Strait, which .se|)Rratoa them, are only 
altout 36 miles apart. Thi.s strait may be considered as closing the Pacific on the north.'' 

" Behring (Detroit dc), k re.xtr(5mite nord-est de I'Asie, separc Continent de TAmi-riiiue et I'Oci'an 
Glacial Arcticiue de I'Ocean Pacifique. 

" Behring (Mer de). Partie de I'Ouean Pacifique." 

" Behring Strait. The channel which connects the North Pacific with the Arctic Oceans." 



" Behring (D<ltroit de). 
I'Ocdan Arctique." 



Canal dc Ibci^Bn 



unissant Ics caux de I'Oci'an Pacifi(jue a ccllcs de 



" Pacific Ocean. Between longitude TO" we.st and 110° nist, that is, for a sjiaco of over 180', it 
covers the greater part of tlie earth's surface, from Behring Stiaita to the Polar Circle, that .sciJiirates 
it from the Antarctic Ocean." 

" Behring Island is situated in the North Pacific." 

" Kanitchatka, a peninsula projecting from the north-castt-rn part of Asia into the Pacific Ocean." 

" Behring (DAroit de). Canal du Grand Ocean unissant les cau.r de I'Occ^an Pacifiiinc a cellcs de 
rOc(ian Glacial Arctique. 

" Behring Sea, .wmetimes called the Sea of Kamtrhatka. is that portion of the North Pai ilic 
Ocean lying U'twccn the Aleutian Islands and Bchriiig's Strait." 

" Behring Strait, the channel which separatts Asia and America at their nearest appmach to ei . 
other, and connects the .\rctic with the Pacific Ocean. 

" IJussian Ameiica comprises the whole of the continent of North-west America west of longitude 
141° west anil a strip on the coast extending .south t<i latitude 5."i° north, bounded on the cast by 
British America, soutli and west by the Pacific Ocean, and north by the Arctic Ocean and tiio 
following island groui)s," &c. 

" Behriug's Island. An island iu the North Pacific Ocean," 

"Behring's Strait, which connects the Pacific with the Aiotic Ocean, is formed by she approach 
of the continents of America and Asia," 

" Pacific Ocean. Its extreme soutliern Iftiiit is the Antarctic Circle, from which it strctihcs imitli- 
ward through 1 3 li" degrees of latitude to Behring's Strait, which sepamte [sir] it from the Arctic 
Ocean. ' 



" Dictirmnaire Fnl- 
ronel il'Hiiitoire ctde 
Gt'OKraphie," par 
M.N. Uouillet, Paris, 
1842. 

MoCalloirli. J. R , 
' Uoo^'rapbt(>al 
Didionar)'," London. 
11149. 

" Dii'tionnaire 
G6i'griiphi<]ue cC 
Sintitttiqiie." par 
Adrien Uuibert, Paris, 
18S0. 

" The Ncir American 
CyclopBHiia," e<liU'd 
by George Ripley and 
Charles A. Dana, New 
York, 1)161. 

" Engliab Cyelopn-di*,' 
London, ls.^4-il2. 
Geoifraphy, Tol. i, 
p. 96". 

Ibid., vol. ii, p. 854. 

" Grand Diefionnaire 

de Giographie 

t'nivertelle," par 

M, HeseliercIIe. Ain6, 

4 vols, I^SS. 

" Imperial Oasetteer," 

lg«{>. 

Harper's " Slatistical 
Gaietieer oftlie 
World, " l.y J. lolrin 
Mnilh, .New York, 
iH.'iS, 



celles I 



Behring (Detroit de). Canal ou brae de nicr nnissont les vmx dc I'OciJan Glacial Arctique a 
de rOct'an Pacifique.' 



Fullarlon's " Garet- 
teer ol the World," 
18K. 

•' Cyclopwlij of Geo- 
grapby.'M.ytbiia. 
Knigbt. int. 

" McCullcch's Geo. 
graphieal Uielionary," 
ediird by K. Martin, 

lens. 

"Grand Dietinnnaire 
Vmrertcl." ptir 
M. Pierre LarooHe, 
I'lria, idtf7. 



OD 



llouillct " nietinnnaire 
rniTcreel d'Hintoiie 
et lie (t^ognptiic." 
I'tria, IHri. 
lIlM'kle'a " Imperial 
Oaiettecr," l^iuilon, 
1874, vol. i, p. 8M. 

Ibid. 

Ibid., /ol. il, p. uS8. 



" Piinifiqiii' (rOci'nii) (lit iiussi \v firaii.l Ocdan . . . 
liihiiiifj avfc I'Oci'iin (ilaciiil Arcliiiuo." 



coiiiiiuininiic ail iioi.I par le Dotroit tie 



" IWirinj; Stroit 



t wliifli connects tlie N. I'ncilic with the Arctic Ocean. 



" American rvclo- 
pedia," New Yoik, 
1X76, vol. i. p. 4iiO. 
Ibid., p. 481. 

" Kncyclopivdia 
Hritanuii-a." nintii 
tnlitiun. IMinburgli, 
1875 90, ml. Hi, 
p. S09. 
tbld. 



" Kanitrliatka, ou ile Ueliring (^f(M• ile). I'artie tie rOoi'an I'ncifirpic." 

" Boreal or N., cxtcndini; from Ik'hrinK's Strait or tlic Arctic ("itcic to tlie Tro]iic of Cancer. . . . 
In tlu! N. till' IVitic jjr.uliially contracts in wiiltli ; the contincnt.s of Anicrica and Asia strctchin;; out 
anil a])|)ro.\iniatiii^', .so a.< to leave the coni)>anitivi'ly narrow channel of Itehrin^j's .""trait as the only 
coinnmniiation lu'twecn the I'acilic ami the Antic Oceans, llelween the strait mi the \., the 
Aleutiiiii Islanils on the S., ami the remarkalile iieiiinsiilas of .Miaska on the K. ,iml Kaui'..sclia*.ka on 
the \V., one of the largest ami bjst iletinetl braiiclies of the I'acitic is tlie Sea of Itelirin^t." 

" Itehriii^' Sea. That part of the I'acilic Ocean which lic3 immediately goutli of IV-hriof! 
Strait." 

" Hfihrinfi Strait. \ channel connecting the \orth I'acific and Arctic Oceans." 

" llehrin^'s Island, llie mo,st westerly of flic Aleutian ),'roiip in the North I'acific, in ii')' 22' N. 
latitude, Uil) K loii)iitude. It is rocky and desolate, and is only remarkalile 08 being the place 
where the navigator llchriiiy was wrecked and died in 1741. Population l.'.."«IHI." 

" Itelirin^ Strait, the narrow sea between the north-east part of Asia iiiid the north-west part of 
North America, connecting the North I'acitic with the Arctic Ocean." 

Ibid.,Tol. iviii, p. 115. "Extent. — The I'acilic Ocean (•formerly called the S<iutli Sea, and sometimes still so named by 

the French and tiennans (la .\Ier .Sud ; Sud.see, Australojean), with whom, however, la Mer (TOccaii; 
I'aciliiiue. and Itrosser Ocean, or Stillcs Meer, are the more usual desigimtions) is iHiiindeii on the 
north by I'ehrinj; Strait and the coa-sts of Itussia and Alaska ; on the eas>t by the west coasts of North 
and South .Vmerica ; on the south the iiiiaj,'inary line of the .Vntarctic Circle divides it from the 
Aiitarctie Ocean, while its westerly liouiiilary is the eiuit coast of .Viistralia, the Malay .Archiiielajio 
separatiiij; .t from the Indian Ocean, and the eastern coasts of the Chinese Kmpire. .Suiie modern 
ficograpbers place the southern limit of the Atlantic, I'acilic, and Indian Oceans at the 4ll|li parallel, 
and name the iMnly of water which surrounds the earth between that latitude and the Antarctic Circle 
the Southern Ocean. 

" AltliouHh dirteriiij? from the Atlantic in its general form, being more nearly land-looked to the 
north, tli'i I'acilic Ocean resembles it in being open to the south, forming, in fact, a great projection 
norlhwaiils of that vast Southern Ocean of which the Atlantic is another arm. 

"The I'acilic is the largest ex]mnse of water in the world, toveiing more than a quarter of its 
superticies, and com)irisiiig fully one-half of its water surface. 

" It extends through 1:12 degrees of latitude, in other words, it measures 9,000 miles from north 
to south. From east to west its breadth varies fioni about 40 miles at Behriiig Strait where Asia 
and America come within sight of each other, to 8,,"i00 miles from California and China on the 
Tropic of Cancer, and to more than 10,000 miles on the F/piator, lietwci n Quito and the Moluccas, 
where the ocean is the widest The area has lieen variously estimated at from 50,0(l0,oil0 to 100,000,000 
square miles; but, deliuing its boundaries as above, Keith .lohn.ston, from careful measurements, 
estimated it, with pixiliably a near approach to the truth, at (i7,810,OO0 square miles." 



Johnwton, H. K.. 
" Gazetteer." London, 
1877. p. 142. 
Ibid., p. 47. 

Jobnaton'p " Dic- 
ttonarr of lieoijniphy," 
London, 1877. 
Ibid. 



St. Martin'a"Nnureau 
Dictionnairc do (leo* 
KFitphie ITniveiaelle," 
tome i, Paria, 1H7II. 

liippincitt'a " ft»!Cl- 
teer ofthe Worid." 
I'biladeipbia, 1880. 



Ibid. 



lUd. 



" IWiring Sea. Tliat part of the North Pac^'c Ocean lietween the Aleutian Lslands in 50° and 
Behring Strait in 06' N., by which latter it communicates with the .Vrctic Ocean (Behriug Sea)." 

" Anadyr Kiver. Falls into an inlet of the Sea of Anadyr (North Pacific)." 

" Extending from the Arctic to t!>e Antarctic Circle, through 126' of latitude." 

" . . . . It narrows especially towards the north, where il coinmunicalcs with the Arctic Ocean by 
Behring Stniit." 

" Behring (Detroit de). Passage qui unit I'Ocdan Olocial Arctique au Grand Oc^an." 



" Behriug !^'a, or .Sna of Kamchatka, is that part of the North Pacific Ocean between the .Vleutian 
l.<laiids in latitude 5.5" north and Behring Strait in latitude 66^ north, by which latter it commu- 
nicates with the .Victic Ocean." 

" Behring Strait. The channel which .separates Asia and America .... and connects the .■Vrctic 
with the Pacific (Jcean." 

" Pacific Ocean .... extends from the .\rctic to^thc .Vntarctic Circle, over VS.i Jegrcf" " 
latitude." 



• In tbe GngUih ediUoa tbli fama i rooi-net*. 



91 



IK'troit <le 



.")."i° 2S N. 
llie pluce 



"Beliring. or Blioring. A strait sen, island, nnil bay, Xoitli Pacific Ocean." 

" Bering's Mcer. Per nordiistliehstc Teil des Stillcn Ocean's." 

"Beringsstni9.se. Mecrenge das nordaitlichste Eismcer niit deni Stilk'ii Orean vciliimlciiil." 



" Bchring Sea is that part of the North Pacific Ocean lietwcen tlie Aleutian Ixhinds . 
and Fiehring Strait." 

"Behring Sea, or Sea of Kamtclmtka, in that part of tln: Xortli Piieific ficean lietwecn thi' 
Aleutian Isliind.s, in latitude 5.5" ni)rth, and Bchring Stnut, in latitude UO' north, liv wliith latter 
ic communicates with the Arctic Oo iaii." 



Hryce and Johni'oa. 
" Cyclo|«edia of Uro- 
frsphj." I.ondun aad 
UlMgo«. Initi'. 

Brockhatm' " Coafer- 
rationn l^tiron." 
Leipijg, 1->H'.!. 

RiKcr • " (ito- 
K>lipbi*ch -'^uti«tiieh 
lexicon," L4-ip/ig, 

"niwIUerortbe 
World." l/oodoo. 
UHS, rol. !, p 199. 

" Tlic (;*«tu«r ol ihe 
World," Tbomu 
Jock, l.oodoQ, is"5. 



Behring Sea. A part of the Pacific Ocean X. of the Aleutian l.slands.' 



" Behring's Sea. North-east part of tlie Pacific lietween Asia and America.' 

" Behring Strait connects the Pacific with the Arctic Ocean. 

" Behring Sea. A j)art of the Pacific Ocean, cuminonly known as the .Sea of KaiDchrttka.' 

" Behring's Strait, connecting the North Pacific with the Arctic Ocean. 

" Behrinii's .Sua, sometimes called the Sea of Kaiurlmlka, is that portion of the N'(jrth Paiilic 
Ocean Iving between the Aleutian Islands and Pichring's Strait." 



Wurctaler'i 
" Dictionftry of Ibe 
Rnuliiti l.nii^uage," 
Fhilsdelpuia. IseT. 

■• Porkct Encjrlo- 
nip<llm." Hainpi>oD 
Lov, 1888. 

Cbamben' " iUejclo- 
pwlia." 1888. 



niarkiVf " Modern 
I'rclopKilia," !»(<» 
c.tiiioQ. 



The following letter, adiln-ssed to ^fr. Rolx'rt Uayner by Prfifes.sor Alexander Supaii, and pul>- 
lished by .Mr. Uayner in an article by him on the Behring Sea (lUestion in the New York " Kveiiing 
Post," of th(' 11th Xfarcli, ISIU, is of particular interest as embodying the opinion of om- of the 
most eminent geographical authorities of tlie day on the subject of the relations of liehring Sea to the 
Pacific : — 



in 00° and 



" Juitvs Pcrlhfs' Gmifraphiral ]n.itiliite, Editoruil Jioomt, 
"(Translation.) " Offlct of I'ltrrmnnn't f'dinnninications. 

" Honoured .Sir, "(Intha, Anremher 1(1, 1HH7. 

" In answer to your honoured letter of the 24th Octolier, I U'g to make tlie folhiwing remarks : — 

" Behring's .Sea is considered by all geoinTijihers as a part of the I'acilii- Ocean, and there cannot 
lie [the] least doubt with reganl to thi.s, [fromj however ditlerent principles of division one may 
start. 

" Behring's Strait is (lie natural topograj)hical boundary of two great ."en basins, the Pacific and 
the Arctic, and this all the more, as it nearly coincides with tlie noilliern Polar (_'iicle. In addition, 
there is the consideration that sea arms shut otV by chains of islands are just one ol the characteristic 
marks of the western |)art of the I'ueitic Ocean. As little as one can (letacli the Sea of Okliotsk or 
the Si-a of .lapan from the Pacific Ocean, just so little can one consider Behring's .Sea as iiidcpeiiileiit. 
A comparison with such iidand waters as Delaware Bay or the Sea of Azov appears entirely 
inadmissible. 

" It is, however, [cerlninly] a different question how [what] the Treaty Powers thought on tl.is 
point in 18'J4. Up to the year 1845 there w.is giwit [much] caprice and divergence in the division 
and a]HH'llation of the great seas. However, the wording of the Treaty of 18i;4 .shows that one w.is 
already acipiainted with the division of Buache (IT'ili), for he was the first one to introduce the name 
(ireat Ocean. In this division Behring Sea Is-longed to the ' Mer Septentrionale du (iranil Oii'aii.' 
Vorster, the celebrated companion of (.'(xik, also is l)eyond doubt in this regard (see [his) collecleil 
writings, vol. iv, p. 9, //). 

"It mu.st lie noted that in Fleurien's time (year eight of the first French Itepublic) the two ice 
seas (Ari'.tic and Antarctic) wttre not yet se|)arated [were not yet lo<iked upon as se|iamted] from 
the other three oceans. When Klourien intriKluced this separaticui he tcwik the Polar Circles as 
boundaries, and to this the British Commission of 1845 also acceded, as is welt known, (-'oiise- 
quently, hero also Behring's .Sea apis-'urs as part of the Pacific Ocean. 

"Hoping that these remarks will be suiticient for you, I remain. Sic, 

(Signed) "PlioF. Dlt. ALEX. Sup.VK, 

Editor of Pdcrnnmn's Cointii imieutioni. 
" Mr. Robert Rayner, 

"Salem, Mn3sachuBett&" 



In reply to a request sent by Dr, George 51 Dawson to Professor Supan (or a copv of the above 
fll7] "2 13 



02 

Icttor, M originally written in Gorman, that gcutlviiinn iiau been so kind m to write further, as 
InliiiWS : — 

" (Trnnshition.) "Juiins Pertht*' nmrfrnpliifal fimtiliile, 

' Must hondint'd Sir, " dtillm, Jiilii l."i, IS'.lli 

" I'nt'ortunntrly, I d" not jiossesd a copy of ray letter to Mr. Itayncr. Imt the tnmHhiticin npix'iii's 
t(i int' to \ip, <in ihi wIiciIl', curu'ct. Kaynrr lusked nic what was my niiininn nn the iiiifslioii fmm 
a ^'i'0};ra|iliical ]; liiil cit' view, and my ^'plv talis uniliT Iwd lieads ; — 

" 1. TiiL' prrscnl ncojinipliem idllwtivi.'jy, sci I'lir as 1 kimw, consider llclirin^; Sen as part ol the 
1'ai'ilie Ocean, ami ficnn whatever jmint nf view tlie ipii^tion is considerecj llie ciinclusion alway.'* 
arrived at is tliat lielirinj; Sea is an annex iif the I'aciCc. 

"U. This view, moreover, also jjemsrally priivailed as early as 18:24, a i ihu two earliest attempts 
at classificatinn a),'rt'(! in it. What view was held liy the Gorenniieiii* of the day is, liowever, 
<|iiesticiMalile, as there uru enough instances to show that (loveriimeiits Irou'ule themselves hut little 
with seibuce. 

" With the highest cousideratioii, I remain, iScc. 

(Signed) " Alf.x. St;i'AX. 



Noteaon rarioui 
Mft[w eiADiinod in 
eonueciion with the 
quwtiui) of UHige of 
the namefl " Pacinu 
Ocean," " Behring 
Sea," Ac. 



No. 4S in Lilt. 



An examination of all tli(^ Maps upon which the sea now called Ilehriug Sea appears |iriiminently, 
hetween alMMit ISl.j and ISli.'i (Uith inclusive), which could lie found In the .Map Department of the 
Hrltlsli Museum Library, ha.s been made; also of xomu which ap|H-ar in Uniks of travel, \'e., in the 
Printed liook Department. \ few Maps found elsewhere have also Ikjcm included. 

I''pr dates juevlous to 181."), and subseipieiit to 18;!,5, n selection only of the more important .Maps 
lias been consulted. Such selection was made by rcfeience to the (.'atnlog\u> titles of the Maiis, and 
the results of the examination of each such Map are hei-e noted, irrespective of the lienring whicli these 
may be sujiposed to have on the ipiestion at issue. The list ii-s a whole then'fore ditVers from ihat >;iven 
as an .Appendix to Mr. Hlaim''s despatch of the 17th Decendntr, 181)0 (whicli wa.s compiled for the 
])ur|Kise of making out a specitied contention), anil, so far as ;• goes, may be accepted n.s a general imli- 
c.itioii of the best usage in vogue nt and aljoiit the time of the Convention of 1824 ami 18:;"). The 
names luinted in i/(i/iV.< are In each ca.se exact transcripts of those apjiearlng on the Map. 

No Maps of a date earlier than that of the publication of I'ook's third voyage, in 1784, have been 
included In the list; iait all Maps relating to Cook's voyage, and which incluile the area of llehring 
Sen, liave lieen sought for. as Mr. Itlaliie, in his despatch nbove cited, ap])ee.r8 to |)lace siK'cial impor- 
tance on one of them. This ]iarticulnr Map, published by William Kaden, has been dealt with above 
at p. 87 of this Ap))endix, and none of the other original or otlicial Mnjis relating to ("ook's expc'dition 
agree with it in naming IJehring Sea (as >Sea of Kamtchatka or otherwise) iw separate from the North 
I'acific. l)n the contrary, none of these Maps, whether in the En(,lish editions or in the French or 
(ierman editions of Cook's voyages, give any distinctive nan u '•> I'ehring Sen as n whole. The only 
other Map relating to Cook's exjiodition upon which such sep, rate name has so far U-en found l.s one 
taken from " fiuthrle's Athus," in which llehring Seals trnmc. Sea of Kiimliholha. This is without 
date, but the "assigned date" in the Catalogue of the Hritlsh Mi'scum Library is 1811. 



1784. 1. A Grnkfui. Ciiaut, icxiiiniTiNc. the Discoveiiies madk by Captain ,Tamrs Cook, &c. Ilv 

LiEi'TKNANT Henuv Kobehts, OK Hi.s Ma.iksiv'.s Uoval Navy. In Ccjok's "Third Voyage," 4to. 
edition. I»ndon, 1784. Folio volume of Maps and I'lates accompanying text. 

This is the original of the Chart in the 8vo. eilition. Hohring Sen appears without names, 
though Olutarsloi Sen, lienver Sea, Gut/of Anidir, Slioal Water, Uriatol liay, appear aa loi-al names of 
e(iual rank. The three first close in to the Asiatic coast. 

Behrimfs Strait. North Pacific Ocean. 



1784. 2. CiiAUT OK THE N, W. Coast ok Amekica and the N. E Coast of Asia. In same original 

4to. edition. 

Ueliring Sea without name, though occupying n central ]Kisition, and shown in detail. 

Bristol Bay is the most prominent name on the whole of this part of the Chart. 

Aneulintl- Gvba appears in small letters in the gulf itself. Other names appearing in the 
Gencml Map are here wanting. 

Bhcrintjs Strait. No name on part of North PaciGc included. 



93 

3. A Oeskrai, Chart, kxiiibitino DiscovERrES made nv Cook, ny Ijeutesast Korerts, 17S4. 
BoliriiiK S(!ii witliiiul >,'«i>eral niiiiios. li-drir Sta ami (Jlulnmkoi Sea, einjmved close in to shore 
of Kanitilmlkii, (,'itl/o/ Aiuultr mid llnMol Z<oy prominently nnnu-d. 
Uthrinifi StrniU North J'acijlc Ocean, 



1784. 



4 <'HAKT OK THE N. VV. Cf)AST OF AMERirA AND THE N. K. CoAST OF A.SIA. KXI'I.OREU IN THE 
YEARS 1778 AM« 17711. l'REI'AREI> liV I.IELT. UoilKRT.S INLER THE IMMEDIATE INSPECTION UK 

Caitain Cook. I'ihushek iiy W. Kahex, Charing Cro.ss, Jii,y 2^, 1784. 
ItolirinK Si-u nauii'd Si-a of K^mehnlkn. 
JJiviri- S<:ii cloxe in to short: of Kamcliulka. 
fill of Ohitdc iM[uivrtleiil in nuik to Sea of Kamtchatha. 
Gulf of A iitiili/r, liruilol liny 
A'ortliirn I'art of I'orifie or (Irwt South &«. 
The Aleutian Islands lire very imperfectly shown. 



1784. 



5. A Oeijerai, Chart, exhibiting the Piscoveries made ry Captai.v .Tames Cook, &c. In 
" A Voyttw to the I'licitic Ocean, Ac ; Cook." 27 vols. 8vii. l/indon. 1784. 

The Chart included in the Ilritisli Museum copy of this work appears to have been niserted, and 
bears date on margin as engraved fur 8vo. edition in 178C. Uoberts' name is not liere given as 
authority. 

Hehring Sea without name. 

JiehrimjH Sir. North Pacific Ocean, ..„„.,„ , i 

On this edition of Map, Obitanlcui Si-n, Oulf of Anadir. Shoal Water, lirixlol Bat/, appear as local 
names of eiiual rank, but " Heaver Sea," shown on some other Maps of Cook's Voyages, is omitted. 



1784 



fi. A Geserai, Chart, ExiiiniTiNo the DisfovERiEs made by Captain .Tames Cook, &c. Tn 
Cook's "'ininl Voyage," 2ml edition. I/mdon, 178.->. 4to. 

ThlH seems to bo identical with that in the 1st edition (No. 1). Beliring Sea appears without 
name. Subsidiary names in IJehring Sea, &c., same as in 1st eilition. 



1785. 



7. Chart op the N. W. Coast ok America and X. K. Coast of Asia. In " Cook's Voyage," 
2nd edition. Identical with corresponding Map in Ist edition (No. 2). 



8. Carte OisfcRAi.E offiiant LES Decouvertes, &c., f,>r A. Hoberts, &e. In "Troisiime Voyage 

do Cook." Taris, 1785. 4to. , , . , t n ir c 

Uehriii" Sea apiiears, but without name, though various parts are named as follows: M. leaver. 

M. OluJanki, Gal/e ,1'Amidir, Bat fotuls, Baye JJristol. The.se aiu all engi-aved in characters of 

etiuivalent size and stylo. 

Dit. dt Behrings, Ocian I'acifique du, Nord. 



1785. 



9 A CiENERAL Chakt exhibitino Discoveries made by Caitain Cook, &c. Same Map ns last. 
Another edition. From the " I'oUtical Magazine," December 1784 and January 1785. Nomenclature 
some as above. 



1785. 



10. Carte db la C6te N.-O. de l'Amerique, et de ia C6te N.-K. dk l'Asie." In "Troisiome 

Voyage do Cook." Paris, 1785. 4to. 

Bohring Sea occupies a central position, but witliout name. , ■ > • 

mtroii de Sekring. No name on that part of Pacific to south of Aleutian Islands, wliicli is 

included. 



1785. 



11. General Charts, &c., in Cook's " DnrrrE Ueise" 2 vols. 4to Berlin, 1788. 
Behring Sea without name. 



1788. 



const. 



94 

Hfiiier Sit. OlutarJcUiJit Str, MttrhuKu ton Aniulir, npfwar as lubsidiar)' iiimdm nloao to Asiutic 
t. 

Heiiht Wiimtr, llritint llnii, Himilnrlv on Anierii'iiii const. 
Jill ri ni/s Slrniw. Ihm SoiiUiehc Slille Writ Mcrr. 



12. ClIAllTK vox DKll \()l(l>-WE.STU(iIE.N KCsTK VOX A.MKIil'A tXt> HER NoKU-OsTUrilKN KCSTK 
vo.s AsiKN, ill (Vuik's " Drill)! Jieisc." 

ItcliriiiK Sen lilt iiii'liicliMl, Ijiit without iiniiie. 

lltviuj* Slni-w. ilrer con thiuitik jmitly .ilmwii niiil )iroiiiint'nUy named. 

No nninv un piirt of Pacific inclutleil stintli of Aleiitiun Islaiuls. 



17<ll) l;!. A f'll.MlT OK TIIK N'OUTIIKIIX I'.VCIKll- (ICKAX, COXTAIXIXf. TIIK N. K. ( 'oA.iT OK .AslA AXI> 

\. \V. foAsT OK .Vmkhua, kxi'Lohki' is 177M axu 1771t itv Caitaix t .^ok. axd kiktiikii kxi'I.oked 
IX 17M'< AM> 17«'.t iiv .loiiN Mkahks. Ill " Mi-nru.s' Vipvuj,'!'." -Ito. edition. I>iiii(loii, 1790. 

Itclii int; .S'li in sliowii iix Ski i>J' KumlnehntKii. 

hflirimin Stmiln. 

A'urlh J'ldific Octnn 



\7W. 14. C'liAiiT OK TIIK N. 'iV, Coast .Vmkhk a a.nh N. K. Coast ok A.-^ia. Exri.onEi" in the years 

1778 AND 17711 iiY Caitaix Cook, axo KniTiiEH exim.okei) in the yeaks 1788 axd 1789. In 
•■ Mi-aiivs' Voyiij;i'." 4t<i. i-ditioii. I.ondim, I7'.MI. 
|{tdiriii;i S«'ii i.s .sliown ii.i Sni v/ K'lmr/tuliikd. 
Ihlirinijn Strath. 
The A'vrlhcni I'luifii- Ocniu. 



1794. 1,5. CiiAiiT OF THE \. W. Coast of .V.mkhk'a axd the N. K. Coast of Asia, explohed ix the 

VEAHS 1778 axd 1779. I'IIEI'AIIED HV LiEIT. HKXHV UoIIKKTS IXDEII the IM.'HEDIATE IX.SI'ELTION OF 

Caitaix Cook. ].oxdox. I'iiii.isiied iiy Wm. Kadkx, (Ieockai-hek to the Kixc, Chakino Cmis.><, 

.ll I.Y L'4. 1784. L'XI) KDITIOX, I'CilLISIIKD iIax. Ist, 1794. 

Tlii.s iH till! 2nd edition of ihu Mup di'Hcril)«U above (No. 4). On the face of it the following note 
>.s w ritleii : — 

"Advehtise.mext. — The interesting di.scoveries made by British nnd Anicricnn .shi]* since the fii-Ht 
publicntion of the Cliiirt in 1784, together with the jiydrogrnphical nmterials lately procui-ed frcmi 
St. Pclerslmrgh and oilier places, have eiialiled M. do la Itochetle to lay down the iiuiiicnius iniinove- 
nients which Hi>|HMir in the present edition. 

" Clwriiii/ Cnm. J„,i. \d. 1794. "W. FaDEN." 

The main Wly of Ilehring Sea, which in the Ist edition woh styled Sea of Knmrhatka.hete appears 
without any distinctive iianie. 

St" iif Kdmlrliiilhi is written on the waters immediately adjacent to the pcninsuln. 

>SfV( of Aiiiiilir rcjilacfs the Otilf nf AimiiiT of the Ist edition. 

Si a iif Oltlwld- ainiciirs as a name of ('(lual rank with Sea of Kamlchiitka and iSeo of Anadir. 

liriiier Sm is written in smaller characters along the Kaintchatkau coast to the north of 
IVlnipaulovski. 

Jllifriiiif Sfrnil, ISrinlol Bai/, 

Xnrth I'ini of tin' I'm- i fie Ocrnn or Great Smith Sta. 

The Alentiiin Islands an^ imicli more correctly given than in the Ist edition, and A'wih-Wcst Sea 
IS the term a]iplied to what is now known iw .Sitka lliglit. 



1795, IC. Map of Discovehie.s iiy Caitaixs Cook and Cleiike ox Nokth-West Coast of Amehica. 

In M. Carey's American Atlas, I'liiladeljihia, 179.5. 

Behiiiig Sea iiiipeam without a distinctive name, though it is very inaccurately represented as full 
of islands, across which the title Norllitni Arrhijielaijo is wiittcii. 
Sen nf UkoLik prominently marked. 
'julf of Anadyr, Brintol Jiay, North Pacific Ocean. 



' to Asiatic 



IlKN KCsTE 



Asia ani> 

KXI'I.dHEK 



TKF. YEARS 

1789. In 



1)5 

17. Hviiitoiiii.M'iiiE Fh.\n(,'ai.se. XlAi;rE-JI(i.M)K of Caiitk Riim itk drs rAitTiK.s Connies du 
Globe, poi u skkwh ai' Voyaob i>k I,a I'kkoisk, 1785-88. No date. I'robably alxjut 1798 or 
before, m Vuiicoiivci'h Hurvcys not inchnliMl Kinni " AtU:i ilu V'oyogo." Lu Ptiiouse. No. 1. 

Bohring Sea not nunivd, thougli .Wir il'Ucholsk, &v., uauieJ. 

Helirinj; Strait nanied Ik'l. de Behring 

I'aciiiu Uceuu uuiued Grand Ucian. 



1798. 



18. IIVDHDoiiAi'niE Ki(AN(,AisK. Cahte des C6tk3 DE i/AMiiKiQUE ET DE i.'AsiE. From discoveriei 
by Frencii frijjates " Dmis.solp " and " Astrolal)c." No 'te. ProliaUy about 1798 or Ijefore, ai 
Vancouver'." .surveys not. included. From " Atla.s du Voyago." La Perouae. No. 15. 

Behrinj; Sen not named m\ this lar[,'(i-scule Chart. 

Hehrini,' Strait named />/. di- Hehrini). 

North Paeilic named Grand Ocean Septentrional. 



1798. 



19. Chaiit of the Pacific Ocean noktii ok the Lixr. 
Behrinj; Sea named Sea of KamtKhathi. 
North Pneijic Ocean appeal's. 



Liiuriu and Whittle. London, 1799. 



20. Mai- showixo the Rl'ssiax Empiiie in " View of the Russian Empire." Took. London, 
1800. 3 vols. 8vo. 

Whole of Behring Sea included, but without separate name; on the contrary, the North Pacific 
is named us a wlmli' Kn-^tn-n Occiiii, llie first woril lying to the north, the second to the south, of the 
Aleutian Island.s. Kastern Ocean i.s \iscil in the .same general sense in the text. 

Sea of Okhotsk distinctly named. 

Behring' a Straits. 



1799. 



1800. 



21 . 2?. Kt'HsiAN Atlas, consistinc; of 43 sheets, and Diviwxii the Empike ikto 41 Govekn- 

HENT8. Publi.shed in 180U. 

Two Maps, one of E. Siberia ami Russian America, the other a large Map of the whole Russian 
Empire. Names shown in the .same way on both. 

Hebring Sea without .separate name. 

KmntihiitKa Sea off coast of peninsula. 

0/iul.ik Sal prominently marked. 

An/idyr Sen of same nuik as two above. 

Behring Strait, Bristol Bay. 

I'aeifie Ocean. 



1800. 



23. Carte GfesfcuALE ue l'Emi-ike de Russie oiviskE en 41 Gouveuxements. I'edigee en 1800 
par A. Vilbreckht. 

Names given in same manner as No. 19. 



24. Ma1> 1'LIILI.SHEU UY the Ql AllTEKMASTEH-(iEXEUAI,'s DErARTMKXT. Rlissia, 1802. 

This Map, a /lu-iiinile of wjiiuh is attarliod to the British (.'a.se, is really a Chart showing the 
Asiatic and Amcricnn coasts and tlie whole of IV'liring Sea. 

The copy in possession of Hei- Miijcsty's (iovernment is the idcnticnl one sent by Sir C. Bagot, 
17th November, 1821, in his despatch of that dale, and with MS. notes upon it. 

Behring .Sea is named, in huge letters niiiniiig from west to ea.sl, Beaver Sea. 

Kamtseliaiha Sen, in smaller letters, runs parallel to coast of peninsula of .same name, and inside 
the Commander Islands. 

North Pacific is named Soutlicrn Ocean or Still Sea. 

Beiihino Stuajt. 



1800 



1802. 



25. CllAJiT of the .STKAIT BETWEEN AsiA AND AMEIUCA WITH THE COAST OF THE TttCHtiTSKI. 

Drawn by A. Arrowsniith. 

This Map appears in an account of a geographical and astronomical expedition to the northern 
part of Russia (expedition of Billings for the Russian Government), by Sauer. London, 1802. 

This is practically a Chart of Ueliring Sea, but that sea is not separately named in any way. 

Sea of Ocholsh appears prominently. Sta oj Anadyr in bay of that name. 



1802. 



[1171 



2 C 



06 

1802, 26. VOYAUIW ALONO THE NuttTll-KAHT COAHT (IK SiniHIA, ANIi ARCTir, AND I'AcrFIC OcKANB 

DUBINi! EliillT YE.VMS, &c. (Itilliiiys' K.\|Hiliti.m.) By Onptnin Sttrytliuf. Si. I'cUTsbiirg, ISUti. 
Ui>hriii<; Sen .vitlioiit iiiiy urm-nil name. 
Sen (if Kii .itsclmtka, Ac, iiii|i<;ni- jiriTisi'ly n8 in Map No. 32, which is ii German edition of the 



1804. 



27. Oknkihi. MaI' ok \ortii and SoiTii AMEiiirA. A. Arrxwsniith. I^indon, 1804. 
All ea.stcrn iiart nf IV'lirin^' Sea inclnded as far we.st ius llelirinL; Island, but without name. 
Norik Pacific Ucean. 



1804. 



•JH. JIai' i)K Amkijk a A. Arrow.tniith. 

lichrin^' Sea without name. 

Bkcrinifs Strait. North Pacific (kmn. 



1804. 



1804. 2!>. A nKVFRAi, AND CLAatjCAL Ati.as. Ry K. Tatlison 1804. 

Map 3. The World. 

Hatlier small Map in }Iemi.s|ihere.s. No names on Itehring Sea, Okotsk .Sen. .Tapan Sea, &c., 
though IIiiil.viHS /ill/. Baffin's liny, ('hina b'ea, &v., shown. 
North Pacific llicaii appears alone, 
.•ill. Mnp .'.. A.«ia. 

Western part of liehrinj,' Sea .shown, but without name, though Sta of Gkottk, ic. named. 
Pacific Gccan. 

31. ilap 7. Xorth America. 

EiLslern part of ISehring Sea shown, but without name. 

North Parific Ocean. 



a.s8)g 



1805. 32. ('HAIITK DES NoHDrtSTI.inreN T1IEII.K vox SinililEN, DKS KISMEEIIS, I1K.S OsTOCEANS L'ND DEK 

NonD\VK.sTl.i(iiKN KCsTF (IN Amkkii'a. Kntw(,. .'ell von Sanilsehew. 

From Sarychef'.s are .nt of liilliii;,'.s' voyagcf. (iernian tmn.shilion. Leipzig, ISO."). 

I'ehring Sea without any ijemral name. 

Dan Mice rim KniiUilialhi ajiDi'ars in the western part of the .sea, to north of Commnnder and tbn 
western .Mculian I.slands, but i.s distinctly intended to apply only there. Letterinj; used iu this cose 
same with thai of Dns OiliDtsl.isrhr Mcrr. 

Bering! Strassc. Osi-Ocean u(kr ilan Slillr Mccr. 



THK 



1809. 



33. liKDKED ('MART OK I'AciKif OcEAX iiY .ViinowsMrTll. Additions to 1800. One sheet. 
This is a reiluetion of N'o. ■♦0, descrilwil Ih'Iow, lait evidently from an earlier edition than tliere 
quoted, exteniliny eipially far north, and likewise .showini: liehring .Sea without name. 



1809. 34. S.MiTn'.s Nkw (iKXKiiAi. Atla.s. Ixindon, 1S09. 

Map 1. Western Hemisphere. IJehriiig Sea named Sen 0/ Kamtschatka. 
Bcrim/s Sir. North Pacific Ocean. 

33. Mnp 3. The World. Alercator's I'rojection. 
Same as lost. 

3C. Map 28. liussian Kmpirc. 
Behring Sea immeil Sea of Kamtchatka. 

37. Jfap 31. Asia. (Jruater jmrt of Bchring Sea .shown, and portion of America, but without 
name on sea. 

Ikrimi Sir. North Pacific Ocean. Part of the latter name runs over into Behriiig Sea. 

.'IK. Map 41. America. 

Behring Sea nnined Sen of Kamtchatka. 

3;). Map 42. North Americiu (Ireater part of Behring Sea included in detail, but without name 

Bhcrini/'i, St. North Pacific Ocean. 



4t». Aiirow.smith's (.llAltT OK THE I'AClFlc OcEAN. This is a large and important Map in nine 
sheets, spuciiillv devoted to the I'ucific Ocean. Originally published 17'J8. This edition w-.ii corrections 
to 1810. Tlie"n()rlhi.rn edge of the Map runs about latitude G2° north, and it inchides the greater jmrt 
of BehrinL; Sea. but shows it as a large blank unnnined space. Bristol Bay alone is rather iwomiuently 
named. By contrast, the ,Ski of Ocholtk, Sta of Japan, and other inclosed seas aru named. 



pom 



97 



41. Kartk dk Ohosses Ocf.an. Snlfzniatin 
BrliritiR Son iininod Kitmmhnlhiirhra Mter. 



IVrthes. 1810 



18)11. 



•t'J. Ostem.'m Nkw Of.ntjiai. Arr.AH. Lonilnn, IfllO. 

Map 1. Till! WiiiM. Hi'Iniii'i Si'a witlnmt iiuiiie, tlinu^;li .Sin of Okhotil; 4c., all clearly named. 

lilii-iiiuj'n Klrail. Xorth I'luiji'. 

4:'.. Map 10. Asia. liirliiil(-< all the western part of Bclirint! Sna, but without name. 

I'arijif Onan. 

44. Map l! 1. Nil] til Aiiieriia. Iiuludcs all eiwtem part of Beliring 8oa, but without narao. 
Bheriniji SlraiU. /'arijie Ocean. 



1810. 



45. CllAliT or TliK Woiii.n. Mi'i(at(]r's I'liiirctiou .'^bowing Captain Cook's discoveries. Datu 
a.ssigni-d in latalDgui-s, IHll. (I'mm (iiilliriu'.s " Atla .") 
Hiliriiij; Sea named i^n of Kaiiiljcliatka. 
hkeriiK/i islraila. Aurlli I'acijir: Octan. 



1811. 



40 HviiiiiKiiiAi'iriiAi. I'liAiiT i>r tmk '.Vdisli; A. AinmsniiLli, 1811. 
liclirili;,' .'^ca named Sa. ff K'nixlcluttha. 
Jl<riiii/'.i Htmit. .Wnili. I'acijif (kain. 



1811. 



47. ^Iai- of thk Woiit.i) i)N Mkiicatoi:'.s I'lto-iKCTinN lu.rsriiATisci Msias'ky'.s Voyaiik hound 
Tlir. WDiiMi. St. I'elerslpiiru, ISl'J. 

Iiehiiii!,' Si'a williiail separate name. 
Ilitiiill Utiait. .Wiiih J'oi ijii Ucctin. 



1312 



•ts. Nrw ,\ti.as. I'ieldin;,' I.iicas. Baltimore. Assigned datu in catalojjun, 1812. 

M;ip :;. Western llemi.spliere. 

lleliring Sea nami'd Kumlselin'.la Sea. 

Xorlh I'ncijir Diron. 

40. Map :!. Tlie Wiirld. .Merealnr'.s rrnjeotioii. 

lielirin^; Sea slmwn, lait witleinl name. 

Ih-i riii(j\ Hli: Xorlh I'lii-ijh- (kciiii. 

fid. Ma)i 2'.'. Xijitli .Vmeriea. 

lieliring Sea named Sm of Kamtmhiilka. 

llilirUiifx Sir. J'lirijii; Urciiii. 



1812. 



."il (lor.DsMiTii'.-; .Vri.A.-!. London, 1 Si:!. 

.Mip 1. The World. Slercograpbie rrojeelion. 

Iielivin;; Sea ni>l named, ihim^h .Sea «/ Okhatsh, Srn of Jajmn, &c., named. 

Nurlh racific Uiniii. 

Wl. Mop 2. World iin Mi. rcator's Projection. 

Nam i aanip as alMive. 

')'■'<. Map 4. Asia. Same as above. 



1813. 



."i4. Ni:w Kl.KMKNTAiiY Ati.a.s. Cary. bindmi. ISIO. 

Map 1. The World. Sm of Kitmlnchnlhit |ilrteed in western part of Beliriiii; Sea adjacent to the 
peninsula of same name. \o general name I'or lleliriiig Sea. 
North Pacific Occdil. 
.I.'). Map 2. The World. Same as atiovo. 

.")(). Map 10. A.sia. 

Sea of Kamtschiitka, tlic name being placed ijuite close to the land of the peninsula. 

tt"l. Map 25. North America. Whole easteni part of Bciiruig Sea sliown, but without name. 



1813. 



98 



1814. 



'■s. Xew Mai' of Amkiiica. Smith. Loudou, 1814. 
Bi-hriiig Sen euUtd Sea of Kamscluitlca. 



18U. 59. y\\v OF THE World. Illustratinj.' the voyages and travels of G. II. von Langsdorfl'. 

langsdorff. "Voyages ami Travels, 18(13-7." l/)iidon," 1814. 4to. 2 vols. 
Tins Map is separately marked uii niargiii iis engraved in 1814. 
Behring Sea without name, tliotigli the author's route posses twice across it. 
Bcrings Strait. North Pacific Ocean. 



Id 



1815. 0<i. Piskeuton's Ati.a.s. London, ISIO. 

No. 1. The World, Western llenii.sphere. licliring Sea named Sea of Kamtdiatka. 

<il. No. o. Xortliern JIeniis)iherr (rohw rioji'ction). Behring Sea named iSca o/" Aajjiic/ia/Ja. Thb 
name, and those of Sra of Olholsh; iSru vf Jcumi, Yilloic Sai, &c., all in one size and style of lettering, 
and apimrently similarly s\d)ordinBte to Grand Nurlhcrn Ocean, which is written across tlic raoific. 

02. No. 40. About halt of the eastern part of liehring Sea is shown on this Map, but without any 
name, though there is plenty of room for its inti'oduction. Grand Norlhem Ocean written across 
Pacific. 

03. r>4. Nos. 60 & 01. The World, on Jlercator's Projection. Iichring Sea named Sea of 
Kamlachatka. In one Mnji is in same size and style of lettering as Sta of Okhotsk, in the other in same 
fonu a-s Dariss Slruit. Part of the name Grand Nurtlum Ocean extends to the west of the Kurilc 
Islands chain. 



1815. 



0.". CaCTE EXfVI'ROTYPE UK I,'A.MEUlgUE. 
IVliring Sea named Hafsiii ilii Xord. 
Behring Strait named Dd. dc Behring. 
Pacific named Grand Ocian. 



H. Brue, 1815. 



1816. CO. firARTE VON- llKl! TiEIIRlNfIS Stuas.se. August 1816. 

In Kot7elmc, " Kntdeekungs-lieise in die Sud-See," &c. Weimar. 1S21. This Chart is the 
original of that in the Engli,sh transiatiun. Lai-ge part of Behring Sea shown, but without name. 
Behrings-Stra.isc. 



1816. 07. CoMi'ENPEXSER Ai.LOEMiu.NEii A Ti.As. Geog. In.st., WeiaiaT, 1816. 

Map 2. Western Heniispheiv. Reining Sea without name. 
Bt'hring Strait named Cook'x Slra. 
N«irtli Pacific named Das Nordliclic StilU H'eltmeer. 
OS. Jlnj) 20. Asia. Iichring Sea named hen' A'nmlschalkaschtc Meet. 
Cook, (id. Behring's Stnissc. 
CO. Map 2!'. America. Part of Behring Sea shown, but without names. 



1817. 70. TiioMr.sox's New CiENEliAi, Ati.as. Kdinburgh, 1817. Folio, 

llaji 1. Hy(lrograpliii';d t'linrt of the Wovid, Mrrcator's Projection. 

Sea if Kamtdiatka engraved parallel to the peninsula, and near it. No general names for 
Behring Sea. 

Behring Sir. Kctrth Pacific Ocean. 

71. Map 2. Northern Hemisphere, Polar Projection. 
Behring Sea named Sat tf Kamtihatka. 

N. Pai ilic named O'mml Northern Uccan. 

72. Map Ti. Western llenii.spheie. 

. Sea of k'<nnlfhiill.a. \in{ evidently applied to western part only of Behring Sea. 
iS. of Anadir also appears, tlio\igli insmaller letters, in nurth-westeri Jjart of Behring Soa. 
7.1. Map 0. .N'ortlieni 1leiiiis]ihere, projected on plane of hcrizon of London. 
Bt'hiing Sea nameil Sea of Kaiidxchntka. JIheriw/ Str. 

74 Map .'!."). .\sja. Wlioli' of liehring Sea .shown. 

^Vn ./A''(mAW(<(//,r( iiigraved between y//ifrinv'.« 1. and the peninsula, end evidently confined to 
western part of liehring Sea. .Manifestly eiiuiviilent in rank to Sea of Anadir, which is engraved 
in gulf ol that name further nortli. 

North I'lici/if (h'inn. 

7". Slap ;iG. liussian Knipire. Sea of Kamlchalka on western part of Behring Sen, which is 
alone includeil. 



Str 
Sen 



Sea 



I 



99 

liheriru/'s Strait. Pacijic Octnn. 

T6. Slap 52. Aincric.i. flrontor part of Beliring Sea shown, but without name. 

Uhering's St. Xi/rtli, Pacijic Ocean. 

71. Map 5.S. North Anieiioa. About half of Beliring Sna shown, but without name. 

Bhering's StraiLi. North J'acijic Ocean. 

78. Map 74. Chart of northern i)a.ssn<,'e between Asia and America. 

Iielirinj; Sea named Sm of Knmlchatha a.s a whole. 

lichrinij'a Strait. Norlhc-ii Part of Pacijic Ocean. 



70. Chaiitk vns Ameripa. F. W. SireiL 
I'cliring Sea named Mccr von Kainlcliulka. 
Pucilic Ocean named Der Stitle Ocean. 



Niiruberg, 1817. 



1817. 



80. Ru.s.siAN' War Topographical Depot Map. General Map of Asia. St. Petersburg, 1817. 
Pehrimj iSvi so luinied, in same style of lettering as Okhotsk Sea, &.C. 
Pacijic Ocean so named. 



81. CiiARTK VON Amf.ui'a. Streit. F. Campo, Nurnberg, 1817. 
lieliiing Sea named ,1/tvr ron Kamtcluilka. 
liehriiij; Striiit naTHed llfhrinri oiler Cuoks Strasse. 
Pacific named iJcr SliUc Ocean. 



1817. 



1817. 



82. Map of CorNTitiKs roi'nd tke Xorth Pole. A. Arrowsmilh. London, 1818. 
I'ehrinj; i>ea named Sea of Kanuseiialka, 
North Pacijic Ocmn. 



83. Map of Xoiitii Polar nEoioss. II. M. I^ake, 1818. 

iiehrin^ Sea named Sea nf Kamchatka, 
North Pacijic Ocean. 



1818. 



1818. 



84. Map of Countries roi'xd the Arctic Ocean. J, Wyld. London, 1818. 
Beliring Sea named Sea oj' Kamschalka. 



1818. 



8.'). Map of Cocntries roi-nd Arctic Ocean. 
Behring Sea named Sea of Kamschatka. 



C. Smith. London, 1818. 



1818. 



8G. Aria. By Anowsmith. London, 181.''. 

Bullring Sea not named, though a large part of the western side is included. 



1818. 



87. Chart of the XnnTii Coast ok Asia, and op the Ska to the north of Bering's 
Strait. In liumey's "Chroiinlogiea! Ilisloiy of Niirlh-Kastern Voy"c-'-3 of I'ls'iovery." London, 1819. 

dealer pail of ISi liriiig Sea iiieliided, but without name, though the uortheru part of the 
Sea of Oehotzk, which i.'-, alone included, is prominently niuucd. 



1819. 



88. Bradley's Universal Atlas. London, 1819. 
Map 1. The (llolie. 
Beliring Sea without name. 
Pchrini/'s Sir. Pacijic Oceati. 

80. Mai> ;i. Asia. Shows the whole of Beliring Sco, but without imtoe, in manifest contrast to 
Sea of Oclwtsk, &c. 

Bhenni/s Str. Pacijic Ocean. 

[li7J 8D 



1819. 



90. Map 5. North America. 
Bhcring's Strait. 



100 

Includes greater part of Behring Sea, but without iiuiiie 



1820, 



91. Caete de l'Asie. Brud. Taris, 1820. 
Behring Sea nanieil Afer de Ikhring. 
Beliriug Strait mimed D^t. de Behring. 
Pacific named Grand Ocean. 



1820. 92. Rossi Ati,as. Milan, 1820. 

Map 6. World in Heiuisplicres. 
Beliriug Sea named Bacitw del Sard. 
I'ehring Strait named Sir. di Bering. 
North I'acifio named Grandr. Oceano Boreate 
9:?. Map 7. The World. Jlercator's Projection. 
Behriiig Sea appears without name. 
Behring Strait named Sirello di Bhering. 
PaciSc named Mare Pacijico. 

94. Map 25. Asia. 

Behring Sea appears without distinctive name, d'Anadir and Bi'i/ii di Bristul oicupyiug 
most of available area for name. 

95. Map o\. t'lrande Oceano. 

Behring Sea appears without name. Marc d'Oclwtsk, &c., named, and Bain di Bristul in letters 
of same size and style with these. 

90. Map 34. L'America Settentrionale. 

Slinws tlie whole of Behring Sea, but without name. 

Behring Strait named Stretto di Bheritu/. 

North I'aiitic named Oceano Borcule. 

It i.s notable that on this rather large Maj) Behring Sea has no name, thongli Sea of Ob>ld; though 
only partially included, is named in prominent characters. 

This Map bears below border, " Incisero I'anno 1821." 



1821. 



97. Chart of Beerisos Straits os Merc.^tor's Projection, August 1816. 
"Voyage ol Discovery into the South Sea," &c. English Translation. Loudon, 1821. 
This Chart bears on margin date of production, 1821. 
Lar^o part of Behring Sea shown, but without distinctive name. 



lu Kotzebue, 



1822. 



98. Map of America. By A. Arrowsmith, Ilydi-ographer to llis Majesty. liOndon, 1822. 
Additions to 1823, 

Greater part of Behring Sea included, but without name. 
Beering's Strait. North Pacific. 



1823. 



99. American Atlas. Carey and Son. Philadelphia, 1823. 
Jlaj) 3. Kastoni part of Beliring Sea shown, but without name. 
Sir. of Bhering. Pacific Ocean. 



1824. 



100. America. K. Wilkinson. I-ondon, 1824. 
Behring Sea named Sea of Kamscluitka. 



1825 



1825. 



101. Weltciiaktk in Mebcator's Projection. Von Christian (Jottluib Keichard. Nuremberg, 
j. 

Behring Sea named Mcer von A'amtsclialka. 
Bckriugs Slrassc. Nordlicher Grosser Ocean. 



101 



102. Butler's Ati.as. London, 1825 

Map 1. The World, in Hemispheres. 

Rehrinp Sea shown without nnrae, tiiough Sea ofOchotsk, &c., named. 

Bheriiig's Strait. North Pacific Ocean. 

lOS. Map IG. Asia. 

l$ehring Sea named Sea of Kamtschatha. 



1825. 



104. A New Ge\er\l Atlas. A. Finley. Philadelphia, 1825. 
Map 1. Western Hemispliere. 

Behrini; Sea named Sea of Kamtschatka. 
lihtrimfs Straits. North Pacific Ocean. 

1 05. Maj) 3. The World. Mercator'a Projection. 
Hehring Sea shown without name. 

Bheriiif/'.^ Straits. North Pacific Ocean. 
Sea of Ochotsk; Jiafflii's Bay, &c., all named. 

106. Map 4. North America. Behring Sea included in part, but without name. 

107. Map 51. Asi). Greater part of Behring Sea included, but without name. 



1825. 



1826. 



108. Smith's General Atlas. London, 1826. 

Map 1. The World, in Ilemisphei-es. 

Behring Sea named Sea of Kamlschalka. 

Bheriiufs St. North Pacific Ocean. 

] 09. Map 3 1 . Asia The greater part of Behring Sea shown, but without name. 

Sea of Anadir, in north-west part of Behring Sea, very prominently named. 

Beriwjs Sir. North Pacific Ocean. 

The latter name, as in previous edition of this Map, extends over part of Deliring Sea. 

110. Map 33. Russian Empire. 
Behring Sea named Sea of Kamtschatka. 

111. Map 47. Behring Sea named Sea of Kamtehatka. 

1 1 2. Map 48. North America. AVestern part of Beliring Sea shown, but without name. 
Blierinfs St. North Pacific Ocean. 



113. NoRDAMERiKA UND AVestindien. Veraen. 
Behring Sea named Mcer run Kamschalka. 
Behriui' Strait named Cook's Strait. 



Assigned date in Catalogue, 182T 



114. Carte Ckserale he l'Ocean PACiFiyLB. 
Behring Sea named Mer de Beliring. 



By Krusenstern. St. Petersburg, 1827. 



115. Chart of the World, upon Mercator's Projection. Cury. l.oimoii, 1827 
Behring Sea without name, tliough Sea of Okhotslc, &.c., piominenlly named. 
Behring Strait. North I'acific Ocean. 



1827. 



1827. 



IS27. 



116. The Eaton Comparative Atlas. By A. Arrowsmith. London, 1828. 
Map 3. A.siiu 

Western part of Behring Sea shown, but without names. 
Bherinrfs Strait, Sea of Ukotsk, &c, named. 
North Pacific Ocean. 

117. Map 27. Western neraisj.! ere. 

Whole of Behring Sea shown, but without name. 
Beerinfs Str. named. 
North Pacific Ocean. 



182S. 



118. A New General Atlas. 
Map 1. Western Hemisphere. 
Behring Sea without name. 
Bltering Str. North Pacific Ocean. 
110. Map 14 Asia. 
Behring Sea without name. 



Philadelphia, 1H28. 



1828. 



102 



leiis 



120. Genekal Atlas of tub Globe. By M. Malte-Rrun. Philadelphia, 1828. 
Miip of Silioria ami C'ciilral Asia shows wesU-rn part of liohring Sea only. 
Pacific Ooiin written frimi Kuiile Islands northwards beyond Aleutians. 
Seu of Okhilsk and Sctx of Anadiir so named. 

lil. Map (if tlie World in Hemispheres. 

The whole of iieliriiig Sea is shown without name, while tSru of OUwtsk is so named. 



18:29. 



IL'2. Asi,v. A. n. Freniin. Paris, 1829. 

Hehriiig Sea named Hfisxin dii Aonl, ou de Bihrintj. 

I'aiidu named Grand Un'.an, Mer dc Slid, on Uci'an Pacifique. 



!S29. 



12:1. AsiEV. Schmidt. Deilin, 1829. 
I'tliiing Sea named KamtichatkUihcs .Veer. 
liehiiiy Strait named Bdiring SIrasie. 
Pacific named Bds Grosse IVeltmei r. 



l^-9' 124. Atlas rxivKRSEL he GicnciiArmE. Ijiiiie. Paris, 1829. 

No. 111. A Map (if the World dm Mereator's I'lojeetion. Separately dated on engraving, 1832. 

liclirinr; Sia is marked Mir de lli'rini) in Ictter.s .same size and .style as those employed for Baie 
de Baffin, and h\r,L'('r tlian tliose used for J/-r d'OI./iold; M. de SiVjlvalicn, &c. 

The I'aeilic is named Orond Oci'an Kqiiiiiorial, this name running along tlie Equator. 

12.'). Xc 17. JIa|i of tlie World in Hemispheres. Separately dated on engraving, 1831. 

I'lchrinLT Sea namei. as aliove, Imt tlie Xorlh Pacific named Grand Oeian Jion'al. 

The .sin'Uing of llering on these Map.s, and tlie nami>s u.sed for the Pacific, seem to show that they, 
or previous editions of the same, were not employed by the negotiators. 



1830. 



126. As Atlas of JIopekx Geograi'IIY. A. Arrowsmith. 
Slap 1. Pehring Sea shown without name. 

Xiirth Pucijic. 

127. Map 28. Similar to last. 



1830. 



1830. 



1 28. A roMrAnATnT Atlas. P.y A. Arrowsmith. London, 1830. 
Map 27. Western Hemisphere, 

The whole iii I'lliiiiiL' Sea shown, but without name. 
Jifirinijs ^Strait. Aurt/i Pacifie Oaaii. 

129. Map 28. \orlh America. 

Greater part of liehring Sea shown, but without name. 
Beeriiifs Sir. Korlli Pacific Ocean. 



1830. 



l.'W. Amekipa. Prof. .T. M. F. Schmidt. Berlin, 1830. 
Behring Sea named Merr run A'nnilschalka. 
North Pacitic named JJic Aord ike. 



183 



I.'^l. Chaut 8H0WIN0 the Track of H. M.S. "Blossom," in " Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific 

and Bcerii.,i;\s Strait, lS2."i-28." Limdun, 1831. 
IVIiring Sea slmwii, but witln'Ut name. 
Beerimjs SIrait. Surlh Pacific Ocean. 



18.33. 



132. IlYiinnniiAniK-AL Ciiaist of thf. World. 
liehring Sea named Scaof Kamtcliatka. 
Btrinfit airail. A'orlli Pacific Ocean. 



A. Arrowsmith. London, New edition. 1832. 



ing, 1832. 
oycd for Baie 



sai. 

low ihat they. 



B to the Pacific 



idition. 1832. 



lOS 

133. ARROWSMiril's CllAliT OF THE Tacific Ocean. Sec No. 30. Another edition corrected to 
1832, and witli note below title, stating that conections \veri> made iu 1810, 1814, 1817, 1818, 1822, 
1826, and 1832. 

In the 1B32 edition the size and general outlines are as before, and liehring Sea is .still without 
name. Oilier iuclnscd sens named as before. 

It may bo suppn-sed tliat the ne},'oliator3 for Treaty of 1S2.") were supplied with corrected copy to 
1822, and it is clear that ou this copy the nomenclature must have been the same as on those of earlier 
and later dates. 



1:14. Map of the Pahific Ocean i.v 
Behrimj Sea, or Sea of KamtscJintka. 



' AiiBOWSMiTii's Atlas." London, 1835. 



13.5. WELTCnAHTE IN MeRCATOII'.S PROJECTION, 
liehring Sea named .l/cir von Kumtschnlha. 
Jbchrihija Strasse. Sordliclier Gru.iner Ocean. 



Eeichard. Nurnberg. New edition, 1839. 



136. Carte DK L'Ocijan P^cifiqi-k. In Atlas accompanying Diiflot do Morfas' work, 
liehring Sea without name, tbinigli Mer d'Okhutilc, &c., are prominently named. 
l>it. dr. Uiirinr/. Grand Ocdan Siplcntricnal. 



Paris, 1844. 



Tlie particulars above given show in what manner and to what extent the terms Sen of Kamtchntka 
anil Hiliriiif/ Sin liad been and were used, at about the time of the Ukase of 1821 and the consequent 
negotiations, in Maps, upon which the I'nited States appears to rely rather than upon distinct 
l^eogriiphical cldiiiition.s. 

in 40 of the KSii Maps ulnive (pioted a separate name (usually Sea of Kanitehiitka) is given to 
the poition of the North Pacific Ocean now known as ISeliring Sea. Ou the lemainiug 87 Maps 
no general name for the Sea ap|iears, though on 25 the names "Sea of Kanitcliatka," "Sea of 
Auailyr," " lieaver Sea," &c., are given as referring only to certain juuts of the sea adja( nt to the 
Asiatic coast. 



2. — Ox THE Use of the Names " Nortii-Eastern Ocean," " Eastern Ocean." 

IN regaril to the term Korth-Kdxtern S<ii or Kaslcrn Qnnn, which it is claimed w.is also used as a 
distiiK'tivc name for wliat is now generally known as liehring Sea, it i-? to be remarked that neither of 
these terms is noted as being used upon any of the Maps contained in the selected list brought forward 
by the I'nited States. 

1 . X(irtli-K((.'itirn Sen. — The only instances cited for the use of Knrth- Eni<tcrn Sen, as another name 
for Pehring Sea, are tlie first and third Charters of the liussiau-American Company. 

In the lirst — tiie l.'kase of 1700 — the exju'cssion used is North-Eastern Occint — not North-Kastern 
Srn — which applies to the waters frimi Hehring Strait (bnvn t3 ;iO° north latitude, and therefore 
includes waters outsiile liehring Sea. The Kuriie Islands are also distinctly nienliuncd as being 
inclu<led in the waters covered by the expression. 

In the third Cbiirter — of 1844 — Ndrth-Knatrrn. Sen is used. The wording of the paragraph does 
not make it (piite .so I'lear, as in tla^ I'kase of 1700, tlnil the Kuriie Islands are included in tlie waters 
80 desi'jiiated, tbiHi.yli the presumption is strong that this is so ; but as the suutbern limit is 54° 40' 
north latitude, the term obviously includes the waters south of liehring Sea. 

A'urth-Kiixtirit Sm is also used in the I'kase of Nicholas of the 20lh March (10th April), 1829 
(conlirming the ( 'Imrler of 1821), and evidently applies to all the waters down to .54° 40' north latitude. 
This passage is not cited by the I'nited States. 

The position assumed by the I'nited States makes it necessary for tliem to endeavour to explain 
the term North- Kiistern Ocean used in these Charters as being a distinctive nan;e for liehring Sea, but 
no other authority I'lir its use in this limited sense has been adduced, ami the Charters themselves, us 
shown above, clenrlv tail to supjiort the interpretation claimed by the rnited States, 

2. Xnnlcni (km a, — The authorities iiuoteil by the I'nited States for thi' use of this term as applied 
to Hehring Sea only are two in number: (») A Map which forms the frontispiece of " Coxes liussuin 
Discoveries;" (b) Olobe, by ]). Adams, London, 1707. This is ijuoted in a foot-note to the list of 
Ma])S, p. 200, vol. i. It did not ajipcnr in the list appended to Mr. Illaine's note of the 17th December, 
1800. 



1832, 



1835. 



1839. 



1844. 



United btiiles' Ciuc, 
p. !I3. 



L117] 



2 £ 



1780. 



104 

Witli regard to (n), it is to be observed that, although in the Map on the frontispiece of Coxe, 
edition of 1803, Eiisfcrn Oieon is written on the ocean to the north of (lie Aleutian Islands, no name is 
actually written across the comparatively small jxirtion of t\u'. ocean to the south of these islands 
included by the Map; and tliat in a further Map (facing p. 'MH) of Krenit/.in's and Li'vashetl's Voyage 
to the Fox Islands in 17C8 and ITO'J, KiiKtem Ocean is written so as to include the waters soutli of the 
Aleutian Islands as well as tlmse to the north. 

Further, in the first sentence of Chapter I, I'art I (p. 21, cd. 1803), Coxe says : — 

" The possession of Kamtchatka was soon followed by voyages of diseovery to the Nortk I\tcific 
Ocean." 

Tlien follows an account of Peter the Great's plan of a voyage to ascertain the separation, 
contiguity, or connection of ^Vsia and America, with his instructions to Vitus liccring. 

At p. 110 of the same edition tlie following pitssage occurs; — 

"A full and judicious account of all the discoveries hitherto made in the Kaxlern Oirnn may be 
expected from Mitller. Meanwhile, the following Uiirrative, extracted from original papers, and pro- 
cured from the best intelligence, may be acceptabh; to ihc^ public," 

The narrative that follows is one of voyagi's to the Aleutian Islands and Kadyak, and it is 
mentioned that the exiilorers in some instances first sailed south from Dehring Island auil Kamtchatka 
in search of land (pp. 142, 150) ; but being disappointed, bore north for the Aleutian lslan<U. 

It is thus (piite clear that the term Kadirn Omiit.ns here emiiloyed.is not a s|)ecial designation of 
Behring Sea, but a synonym of Piirijie Omtn, ])recisely analogous to the term Wislnn Orran, which is 
often employed in Kurope for the Atlantic Ocean. liehring Sra was, in fuel, a part of tiie AVi.i/irn 
Ocean of Coxe. who thus uses it in the .same sense as that in which North- Ka.s(irii iica or Oc--an was 
eni]doyed iu the liussian Charters above alluded to. 

(/).) The Globe by D. Adams, l/mdcin, I7i'", which is the only other authority i|Uiiteil for the 
limiteil ai)plication of the term /y'((s7cni finni, has not been found, though I wi > ejirlier Globes by the 
same autlior, dated 1709 [?] and 177- ['], are in the King's Library at the British Museum. 

These Globes, as is to be expected from their early dates, show a very imperfect kiiuwledge of the 
regions in (piestion. 

The names, which are in Ijitin, and the configuration correspond with those in Muller's Map, 
published in London in 1701, above alluded to at p. 8ti of this Ajipeniiix. 

liut a.ssumin^ that " Piistern Ucean " is confined to liehring Sea on the Globe of 17'J7. quoted by 
the I'nited States, this authority cannot be set against that of otht r .Maps, which clearly shuw that the 
term, which was rarely used, was not confined to the waters north of the Aleutian Islands, and was in 
most cases a synonym fur the '' racilic Ocean." The following may lie iiuoted : — 

Saver and I5exxktt's E.vst Ixwa I'ii.ot Ch.irt, No. 23, 1780. AW<™ Ucem extends along the 
parallel of 18^ north latitude and from 125° east to 150° east longitude, or from near Luzon Island 
beyond the Ladrone Islands. 



1772. Map of Asia, according to Sieur d'Anville, published by It. .Sayer, I.,ondon, 1772. 

is placed in about the same position as in preceding Map cjuoted. 



/eastern Ocean 



Moll's Atlas, Map of the World on Mf.ucatou's rKOJECTiox. The Eastern Ocean or Parts 
vnkTumm is written oil' the north-east shore of Asia, Asia north of >Iapan. 



1800. Map snowixo the Kussian Empire, in " View of the Russian Empire," 3 vols. 8vo. Took, 

London, 1800. The Xcjrlh Pacific is named as a whole Ka.-<terr Ocean, the first word lying to the 
north, the second to the south, of the Aleutian Islanils. Eastern Ocean is used in the same general 
sense in the text. 



1805. 



Charte des NoRnOsTLicnEN TiiEii.s VON SiniKiEX des Eismeers, des Ost-Oceans I'xn deb 
NoRDWESTLIciiE.v KCsTE VON AMERICA, luitworfeii voii Sariilschew, from Sarychef's account of 
Billings' VoyageJ3, (ierman tninslation, l.iepzig, 1805. 

Ost-Ocean oder das Slille Mccr. 



1826. 



Map ON Mercator's projectiox ck a part ok the Eastern Ocean auiacknt to Nortii-Wkst 
America between the Straits of Fuca and the Gulf of Kenai, edition of 1826. A Kussiau Map, 
published at St Petorshurgli. 

The words Part of the Eastern Ocean are written in three horizontal lines off the portion of the 
coast given. 



106 



Russian M\P, publishe 1 at St. Petersbur^'h 1S26, with n similar title to tliM nhtvo., Imt -iviii' tli.i 
coast from the (jiilt of raimiim to tlio Straits of Fuca. Part <>/ the Jia^kni, Oceun is writteu iiriiko 
maimer in three liorizoatil lines opposite the coast given. 



1S:.'G 



Map of the En'trances to Tonr op New Am-iiANT.Et, Tirnni-iMi tub Sounds of Sitka and 

KLOKATCHRFF, DRAWN UP FliO.M I)K..SCllIPTIOys OF STfllMAV VASir.KFF I IN 1809 AND VasII.KKF II IN 
18SS, AND ENdK.WF.n IN irVDKOCIUPIlIC DePAKT.MKNT OF MlMSTliY OF Makink, 1.S43. A IJussian 
Map, published nt St Petersburyli. J-Aulcni Ocean i.s written oil' ihi! portion uf the coast given iu tliree 
horizontal lines. 



1H4S 



Map ON Mekcator's projf.ction of the SomiERN Portion of tmf. Kolosciien.sky Arciiipei.aoo, 

DRAWN IP FROM VARIOUS JOURNALS AND JIapS, AND KNiiHAVKD IN Till; lIVDIKCillAI'llICAI. DepAUIMENT 
of THE AIlNlsillY OF Marine, 1803. A Itnssiau Map, publiolieJ at St. Peleraburgh. Ha^lent Ocean is 
writteu iu a liuu parallel to the coast given. 



1853. 



General Map of Asiatic IIussia or Siberia, and the Uu.ssiax Xoutii-American Posse.ssions. 
St. Peteusduhuh, 1859. A l{u.ssian Map, published at St. Pet^rsburgU in 18u'J. The ocean south of 
the Aleutian Islands is marked i'astern, Oreal, or Pacific Ocean. 



1859. 



3. — On the Mbanin'g of the Term " NouTn-WEsr Coast op Amertca," or 

"IN'ottTU-WEST Coast." 



Mr. ninine to 
Sir J Paanccfute. 
DMemlxr 17. 1892. 
Unilrl suui Ni,. : 
19, p. 37 



MR BLAINE, in his despatch of the 17th December, 1892, discusses the question of tlie meaning 
of the term Norlh-uvjit Coant or North-ivesl Coast of America at greater length, iind iiinre fully 
explains tiio contention with reference to it, than is done in tlie Case of the United St.ues. He writes 
as follows : — 

" The di.spute prominently involves the meaning of the phrase ' north-west coast,' or ' north-west 
coast of America.' 

• ••••• 

"The contention of this Government is that by long prescription the ' north-west coast' means 'i^^^^gT"s^ 
the coa.st of the Pacific Ocean, south of the Alaskan Peninsula, or south of tlio (JOth parallel of nortli Hriti«h r»M, 
latitude; or, to iletine it still more accurately, the coast, fioiu tlie iiorliiern border of the Spanisli Appeniiii. lol 
possessions, ceded to the ''nit<Ml States in 1819, to tlie point where the Spanish claims met the claims 
of llussia, viz., from 42° to GO" north latitude. The I'ussian authorities lor a Imig tiiiii; assumed that 
59° 30' was the exact |ioiiit of latitude, but subseipient adjustiiieiits lixcd it at 60". The plira.se 
'north-west coast,' or ' north-west coast of America' has been well known and widely recognized in 
popular iLsage in Knglnnd and America from iho date of the first Hading to that coast, about 1784. 
So absolute has been this jirescription that the di.stinguislied historian, Hubert Howe lianciolt, hiis 
written an accurate history of the north-west coast, which at ditfereiit times, during a jieriod of 
seventy-five years, was the seene of important contests between at least four (Ireat I'owers. To render 
the understanding explicit, Mr. IJancroft has illustrated the north-west coast by a carel'ully prepared 
Map. The Map will be found to include precisely the area which has been steadily maintained by 
this Government in the pending discussion. 

" The phrase ' north-west coast of America ' has not infrequently been useil siiiifily as the synonym 
of the ' north-west coast,' but it has also Ix^en used in another sense as including the American coast 
of the Kussian possessions as far northward as the Straits of lii'liring. Conliision has sometimes 
arisen in the use of the phrase ' north-west coast of America,' but the true meaning can always be 
determineil by reference to the eimtcxt." 

It can, however, be shown by actual reference to published maps and doc'unient,s (apart from the 
negotiations leading up to the conclusion of the Conventions of 1824 and 1825 liu^d in the Ibitish ( 'asc>. 
Chapter 111) : (1) That Xorth-urst Voa^ of America and liorth-west Coaul are practically identical 
expressions, " America " being in the latter case understood, and the alibreviati'd form being merely 
rrived at by the elision of that word. (2) That the full meaning of the term, in either form, included 
the western coast of North America, .starting from an indefinite point to the southward, and extending 
up to Behring Strait, wliich is defined as the northern limit. (3) That in one or other form ii hai 
nevertheless been loosely employc'd in an indefinite way as a. general name for various different pari,s 
of the west coast of Noill. America. 

The term North-west Coast, or, more fully, Ncrrtk-uxst Coast of North America, is iu fact a 
descriptive one of a somewhat peculiar character. 

Looking at the map, it will be seen that the coast which has not infrequently been so named Is in 
reality the coast of North America which faces west or south-west, aud forms the eistern and noitli- 
easteru coast-line of the North Pacific. 



Koitb-wcit (out. 



106 



llriiish <'«(!, 
A|i| fiiilix, Tol. 



Tilis term, however, appears in the title of some very p;\rly Mnpii, such ns that by MUller, dutcd 
1"<'il, whii'ii is cntitleil, " A Sliip of the Itiscoverius made liy tiie UiissiaiH on the North-west Coast of 
Aiiii'rica ; " that aceoiiipanyiii^' the original edition of Cook's third voya^te, chited 17S4, and entitled, 
"(Jliart (if tlie North- west Coast of America and the North-east Coast of Asia;" and that in 
Vuneouver's vnya;;e (17'.<H), named " A Chart showing part of the Coast of North-west Ameriea." 

The last-named ma]), however, allonls a oliie to tlie ori;;inal mcanin}^ of the term, and shows that, 
in these instances, we should read in full "Coast of the Nortli-western part of tlie North American 
continent," and, conversely, " ( 'oast of the north-eastern part of the continent of Asia." 

It is very i)r(ilial)le that the meaning of the term Anrlli-ircst Coasl of Amcrira began to \>e 
diiferently understooil at a later date, wiien it came into common nse in the United States, for the 
coast in ipiestion wius actually situated to tlie north-west nf all the inhabited centres of that country. 
Thus it hecanie ]i(issilile and uppropiiate to drop the words "of America." 

lint, in ndmi'tiiiK this, it is also evident that the A'ortli-iirst Crnist, as thus secondarily applied 
must have included the whole coast lyinj; north-westerly from the |ioint of observation, or trending 
from any <;iven point of departure on the west coast of the continent in a general north-westerly 
direction. 

It appears, howc-ver, to be maintained on the jiart of tlu* United States that, at some still later 
dii^e, the eriii iturth-irmt cuasl came to bear a (piile definite signilicatiou, as referring to a certain 
liarticnlur part of the western coast of North America. 

Ill t' is ease such ubape may be exfM-cted to be found recorded in writings or on maps at some 
particnhir (']HJch, and tlieieafter to have been cimtiiiiied with jirecision. 

The tenii is seldom fmind as a gcogra|ihical one defined verbally. In fact, the only such attempt 
at precise delinilion so far met with is that of (iieenhow (in 1S40), already (piotcd in the British Case 
(pp. (J(i-G7), from which it appears that he understood the north-west coast to extend from the 40th 
jianllel to Hehriiig Strait. 

In liuiney's " (,'lironolo<;iciil History of North-eastern Voyages of Discovery," London, 1819, 
chapter 1 '.' is eiilillcil " ( 'a|itiiiii (,'ook on the North-we.st Coast of America." Thi.s title is continued as 
a siilonote to the pai^es roilipwiiii,' as far m to ]>. -2'.\ or from the Jioint at which Cook first sighted the 
land in latitude 44^ to Uiiula^ka. Alter this jjoiiit " west coast " is substituted for " north-west 
const," thus showing where the author, who was a member of Cook's expedition, supposed the 
north-west coa.st to end. 

As the result of the examination of a large series of maps, relating particularly to the ilates near 
to tlint of the Ukase of lH:il and the Conventions of 181.'4 and IHl!.'), it is found that this term is 
scldciiii employed, anil then only with a very lax and general meaning. 

On Mnlier's Map of 17(11, republished liy .Jefl'ieys in London, the description "North-west Coast 
• if Ameriia " occurs in the title only, while the coast delineateil extends to what is now known as 
lieliring Strait. A ma]) ]iublished in the " London Magazine " in 1704, also refers to " North-west 
I 'oast of America " in its title, but as it is merely a reduced copy of AlUller's map, does not throw any 
further light oil the subject. 

Coining down to the date of Cook's third voyage in 17H4, we again find a corresponding title, viz., 
" Chart <;!' the North-west Coast of America and North-east Coast of Asia." This chart is drawn so as 
to iuclud(! the coast from the vicinity of the ]ioiul when; it was lir.st reached by Cook (about latitude 
44°) to by Ci|ie, situated north of Itehiing .Strait and in the Arctic Ccean. The same remarks apply 
to the cones])oniling ma]) in the Kreiich eilition of Coolt's Voyage, dated 1785. 

Ill 171IH, Vancouver's Voyage contains "A Chart showing jiurt of the coast of North-west 
America." and this includes the coast-line continuously from latitude 30" to a point a little west of 
Kadlak Island. 

A few years later, in 1.S02. we find Charts I to 3 published in connection with the voyage of the 
" Siitil " and " Mexicana," in Miidiid, entitled " La Coda Nunt-otied di- Amcrim." These continuously 
include from aluait latitude 17° northward and westward to Unalaska Island in the Aleutian 
chain. 

Another chart, also j)nblished in 1802, by the Quartormaster-Generars Department, Kussia, shows 
(in I'ussian characters) the legend " Part of the noitli-west const of .America " running on the conti- 
nental land from a ]ioint near the coast and to the north of liehnng Sti-ait, continuously to u jioint 
between the .'^^ird and ■')4ih ilegrees of latitude. 

li; l!nssi's Atlas, laiblishwl in Milan in 1H20, on Map 6, the name Custa nord-oucst actually 
apjienis engraveil on the face of the nia]i, and runs lioni a jioint a little to the west of the head of 
< 'ook's Inlet on ilie contiiiental land .soutliwiird to aboot the Ml\\ ]iarallel, while on another map in the 
same atlas (No. I!'.!) the words I'nrlr drllii Ci'nla Kord-oiic-t dill' America are shown extending along the 
laud from tin! longitude of Kadlak southward to latitude 3'(*,or much further than in the first instance 
notwithstanding the restriction of the title. 

In " lioiiuelcuirH Voyages," ]>ublislied in rari.=-. in 18-3, a map occurs, entitled " Carte de la Cite 
Nord-mirst irAtiu'riijiir," anil this includes an extent of coast from latitude 34° 30' northward and wcsl- 
ward to the niaiiilaiiil coast west of Kadiak Island. 

Some yeais later, in 1H44, on the elaborate map accomp.inying M. Didlot dc Morfiis' work, 
j)iililishcd in I'aris in 1S44, " Cote Nurd-oiiest de I'AiiK'riqve!' is engraved running to seaward of that part 
of the coast which exlttiuis from latitude lid'' to the entrance of the Strait of Fnca. 

The above are all of the niii] s included in the list elsewhere given, u]ion or in connection with 
which the tcini Hiirth-mft C(,ai,t itr Aolli-vrnt Ciaft of Anierun.ai its c(]uivalcnts, has been found. 
None of the naps inblithid in the I iiiiid States at oLout the dates specially referred to have been 
louiid to include it. 

Jlr. lUiiinc, in his deppatch ol the 17th Dccimber, 181'0, speciolly refers to a map " jniblished by 
the Oeogmphical Institute at Weimar" in 1803, as showing the It'urd West A'us^c, which is said to 
include " tiie coast from the Colrmbia Ilivcr (49°) to Capo Elizabeth (60°)." It has so far been impos- 



107 

siblo to consult this map, Imt the description given of it tnny doubtless be assamed as correct. It will 
1)0 noted that the iisnge hero found dn(!H not ])recisoly nyree witJi that on any of the above-cited maps, 
though most nenrly to that of Duflnt do Morfns. 

Coming down, liowever, to mucli inter tiini's, numerous instiinccs might he cpKitcd showing that 
tlic term wiis not restricted to the limits contended lor liy Sir. lihiine, niid that il lias generally been 
used witli tho utmost laxity, even by those likely to be best informed on the subject. Witness the 
foHowing : — 

" North-west Coast of Ameriea, United Slates' Coast Survey, Ik^njamin I'eirce, Sui)erintendent, ' 

1868," slieets 1 to H. These include tlu! coast continuously from the vicinity of tlio Strait of Fuca 
(sheet 1) to some di.stance west of Kadialv and Seven Islands (sheet '.i), ending to the westward between 
tho 157th and 1 'iMth meridians, and .showing the eastern part of Uristol liay. 

Again, in the United States' " Alaska. I'lu'itic (,'oast IMlot," I'art I, 188.'!, whicli was edited by 
Mr. W. II. Dall (a gentlernin whose familiarity with all historical ami geographical points connected 
with the west coast is well known), on p. liJi", under "List of (Charts i.ssued by the United States' 
Coast and (leodetic Survey — Sailing Charts — Xvrth-vcul Coast of Ameriai," is found catalogued "No. 4, 
('hirikoff I.sland to Nunivak." This particular chart is entered as "in ])re|iaration," but its title carries 
the term " north-west coast" up to or Ih'VoikI latitude (iO' villi in Ileliiing Sea. 

In Sir. lUaine's despatcli (jf tlie 17th Decemlier, 18!)(), particular importance is, however, attached 
to a small and rather poorly engraved map wliich ajijjcars in Mr. H. 11. Huncrofl's works, vol. ^x\n 
(1884), which is the liist of two volumes luimed " History of tlie North-west Coast." 

This map is entitled " AIa)i of tlie North-vvcit Const," and is actually reproduced in fac-simile in 
the dcspntcli. This map appears to be regarded as an argument conclusi\e in itself, and it is said of it, 
" The map will b<! found to include precisely the area which has been steadily maintained by this 
Government in tho jjcnding di.sci'.ssion."* 

If Mr. lilaine had written " juccisely that part of the west coast of America, ' he would have been 
more accurate, for of this coast tlie map in rpiestion actually includes from about latitude 40°, in the 
vicinity of Cape Mendocino, ti, the vicinity of that part of tlie coast where latitude 60° reaches the 
Pacific. 

Tho area of the map ia, however, a very different matter, as it stretches eastward so as to include 
Hudson Hay and Strait, Davis Strait, and llie St. Lawrence liiver nearly to its mouth : in fact, almost 
the entire nortlicrn width of the North Ameriiaii {.'onlinent. We are fortunately, however, not obliged 
to criticize this point alono by the exigencies whicli determined tlie lines upon which this particular 
map was cut oil' by the draftsman — for it is evidently by its construction a reproduction of some part 
of a more inclusive map of the continent. 

The text of the work to which it is an appendage explains the limits which tlie historian had 
placed himself under, and, at the same time, very dearly shows that he did not suppose the title of his 
work alone would render its scope clear to his readers. On the 8ec(.nd page of the first volume, and 
in explaining the scope of his work, Mr. liancroft writes : " Tlie term north-west coast, as defined for 
the purposes of litis history, includes tliu territory known in later times as Oregon, Washington, and 
British Columbia;" thus rendering it obvious that for convenience he embraced under that term 
certain parts of the west coast which subse(iuentlv shaped tliemscives into tliree distinct territorial 
divisions. As he had already treated of ,'lie history of California (vcls. .xviii and xix), this was excluded, 
and as he proposed to treat separately of Alaska (vol. xxriii), this, also, was eliminated. As a matter of 
filct, however, he found it convenient to include in his map a greater extent of the coast than that 
above defined to the north and south, as we have already seen he did not scruple to do to the east. 
His map actually includes a considerable part both of the coast and tho interior of Alaska in one 
direction, and of what is now the State of Califoinia in the otlier. 

The difficulty incident to the attempt made on the j)art of the United States to attach a perfectly 
definite meaning to the term Nurth-icejst Const is fun her illustrated by the varying definitions given in 
the Case of tho Uniteil States itself, and in Mr. Hlaine's despatch already cited. 

Thus it will be noticed, for instance, that Mr. Blaine, in liis despatch of the 17tli Dccetnlxjr, 1890, 
defines the north-west coast as extending from 42° to C0° north latitude, and marks it as terminating 
to the north at tlie 14l8t meridian. But it is defined on p. 20 of the United States' Case ns extending H K , Ex. Dou. 
from Prince William Sound to the mouth of the Columbia Kiver, thus stretching beyond Mr. Blaine's ^»- '**■ 4i«i Cong., 
northern teniiinal point by at least 150 miles, and falling short of his southern [loint by about ''° *'"• 
280 miles. Again, on p. 58 of the L^nited States' Case, as already quoted, the nortli-west coast is said 
to be limited to the west (at its northern end) by Yakutat Bay and Mount St. Elias, which, though 
indefinite to the amount of 5C miles or so, agrees more nearly with Jlr. Blaine's first-quoted definition. 
The extension of the north-west coast to Prince William Sound does not, however, agree with the con- 
tention in regard to it held on p. 58. 



• Mr. Blaine doft not appear to fcavo noticed one cnriona cireunilancc connected with lliia "csrefally prepared map." 
Id the norlhcrn part of tlio map, ecch Uintli Hcirrea of latitude ia indicattil, incluiling 70°, 6«°, and 50*. and, on tho west ccaat 
the 40ih panillel ii alio aliown by a line correcaljr placed, to Ibo south ol (ape Mcnilocino. It is, howerer, indicaied in the 
margin as latitude " 4S." On the opposite or eaEtcrn side of the map Uie line ol latitude acloally ahovn ia latitude 42; and it is 
curraetly so namrd, Tlila peculiar miitake occute both on the origiual and on the reproduction. 

[117] 2 F 



108 



iVo<« on Mapi examined, on which t/ie term " iVorlh-wat Coatt oj Ameriea" or Hi equivalent exprestioni 

arc met with. 



longit 



K.B. — Theao notes include all tiio nia]it) npnn wliich the term has been fuuml among lliose 
rontuincd in tlio gonerul uoto on maps clHcwhuru given. 

1761. 1. "Voyages from Asia to America, for comiileliiig the Discoveries of tho Nortli.West Const 

of Amorii'ji." S. Muller. Kngiisli iMlitioii. IjuhIoii, ITtil. 

Tills contains A Mai- ok thk l)iscovi;iiiKfi madk iiy tmk Kusria.nh on tub N0KTII-WK.ST (!oA«r ok 
.Vmehica. 

I'liblisheil liy tho Itoyal Aciulomjr of Sciences at St. retersl)nrgh, and republished in London l>y 
Thoa. ■lellcry.f. 

Tliis very eiirly iiiiip (thoii';!! gtjogriiphically very imperfect) and the title of the work in which it 
is contiiined. .show iIk; .sciho of prolmbly the origiu.il ii.se of tlio term north-ioest eornil wliieh there 
uxleiids iiorlliward to llehriiij Straits. 

1764. 2. A NKW Mai- OK thk Noiith-kast Cdv^t ok .\si\ and N'oitrii-\vii.sT Coast ok Amkuica. with 

THK l.Ai'K Ui'ssivN Di.soovKiilK.s. In the "London NLigiiziiic," 1701. 

This is piai'licully a rediictiuii of the liut, and 1ms a similar bearing on the question of tlie north- 
west coast. 

1784. 3. " Cook's Third Voyage." Origiiml 4lo, edition. London, 17H4. 

This contains a Chart entitled, ('ii.viir oK THE N.-W. Coast ok Ameui-^a and tub N.-K. 
(^OAST OK A.'^IA, Ac, whicli includes the American eoa.st from the point near which Cook Hrst 
reached it, about 44" latitiuh^ eontinuiiig to the termination of liis explorations at ley Cajie, on the 
Arctic Ucean, to the north of lieliring Strait. 

1785. 4. " Tiois'eme Voyage cle Cook." Paris, I78."i, 

Contains Cautk i>e i.a (.Vite N.-O. ue i.'AMKUiguE Kr de i.a COte N.-K. de l'Asik. 
The name nnrth-md cna.it is not eiigrav( d on the land of the ma)), but the map extends for the 
whole length of (,'ook's exploration, or to ley Cape, in the Arctic Ocean. 

1790. 5. A Chakt ok thk Noiitheiin IUcikio Ocea.v, containing the K. K. Coast of Asia ANir 

N. W. Coast ok Amkisk^a, kxi'I-ohed in 177S and 177'.> iiv (/'aptain Cook, and kuutheii exi'Lohed 
IN 17SH AND 178'J BY John Meaues. In " Mejires' Voyage." 4to. edition. London, 170(1. 

(Includes coast from latitude 70° north of Behring Straits Uj south end of Peninsula of Californiii j 



1790. 



1798. 



1802. 

Hritifh Casc, 
Apf-endix. vol iv 



18U2. 



I"). Chart of the N. W. Coast America and N. K. Coast ok Asia, expi.oued in the vkahs 
177^' AND 177!) BY Captain Cook, and Ki'iniiEit explohed in the yeaus 1788 and 178',i. In 
" Meares' Voyage." 4t<j. edition. London, 1700. 

(Includes coast from Cape Lisburn, N. of Behring Strait, to about mouth of Columbia Kiver.> 

7. " A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean," &i'. Vancouver. lA)nilon, 1798. 
(Contains A (.'haut siiowiNii part ok the Coast ok Noktii-west A.meuica. 

This Chart includes the coast continuously from latitude .^0° to beyond Kadiak Isliuid. 
According to the title this does not incliule the whole north-west coast. 

8. Map published nV the QUAIlTEIlMASTEKtJENEUAI.'s Depaktment. Russia, 1802. 

This shows, in Uu°3ian characters running on the mainland, I'arl of llie North-infM CtxiM uj 
America, extending from a point near the coast, and to the north of Behring Strait, continuously to a 
jpoint between the dSrd and ."i4tli acgrces of latitude. 

9. Atlas para el Viaob de i.as Goletas " Sutil" y " Mexicana." Madrid, 1802. 

tJharts 1 to 'A, contained in tliis work, entitled La Cjsta N.O. de America, include continuously 
from latitude 17° northward, and westward to Unalaska. 



1819. 



1820. 



10. Burney. "A Chronological History of North-eastern Voyages of Discovery" l/iiidon, 
1810. 

(..'liapter 10 is entitled "Captain Cook on the North-west ( 'oa.st of America." This title is con- 
tinued as a side-note to the pages throughoiit the chapter as far as p. 220, or from the point at whiirh 
Cook first sighted the American coast, in latitude 44J°, to I'nalaska, alter which wait coast is 
substituted for north-west coast. Burney was himself a member of Cook's expedition, and the use here 
made of the term shows clearly how he understood It to apply. 

11. Rossi's Ati.a.'s. Milan, 1820. 
Map (i. The World, in Hk.mispiiehe.s. 

On this Mnp (7osta Nord-mieJit appears, the letters of this title extending from a little west to the 
head of Cook's Inlet along the land southward to the 50tli parallel. 



12. Map 39. CAHTBnELLAPAKTBDELLACo8TAN0HD-0l'l!8TUKLL'AMEmi.'A. 
was chiefly to show Vancouver's recent surveys. 



The pbject of thi» map 



109 



Upon it th'j wiml Parle ddU Conta Nord-oiteat delVAmeriea extonja along tlio laml from thu 
longitude of K idiiik aoiilhwiinl to latitude Wi". 

Tliu part of tint vakmA iictuiilly inuludud iti the Map extends from lutitudv 30" nurthward and 
wealward ccnlinuuusly to a point ixtyund Kadiak Island. 

13. "Journal d'un VoyoKe autour dii Mnndn, 181C-I!)." Roquofuuil. Paris, 1H23. 
Contains Uaktk i>k i.a (^itk Nihiiwji'est D'A.MiiitHiUt:. 

This Map, rchiting Hjieniiilly Ui tho north-wo.st coiust, includes the coast continuously from lutitiidu 
34° 30' to Kadiak Island and the adjacent mainland coast to the west of that island. 

14. Caiitk liK I.A (ViTK PE I-'Amkhiquk, par M. Dullot cle Morfas. 1844. 

On this Map OVc Nurdiment lic VAmirique is engraved, running to seaward of that part of the 
coast from al)oul 60° to the Strait of Fuca. 



1823. 



1844. 



15. NoiiTii-WF.sT Coast ok Ambkica. Unitkd Status' Co.vst Subvkv. Itunjamin I'eirco, 
Superintendent. IHdH. 

Sheets 1 to .'t. Tlitw! include the coast rontiniiou.sly from the vii^inity of the Stniit of Fuca 
(sheet 1) to some distance wiist of Kailiak and Seven l.tlaiids (sIkjcI 3), ending to the westward 
between the IfiTth and 158tli meridians, and showing the eastern part of Hristol Hay. 

16. In tho " United Slates' Pacific ("oast Pilot." Alaska, P.irt I, 188:!, p. 237. 
" List of Charts issued hy the United State.s' Coii.st and (!ei)di'lic Survey," &c. 

Under the title of Saii.in(I (,'iiakt.s, Ndiitii-wkst (.'oast ok AMEttiCA, is found. No. 4. (JitlKlKorr 
Island to Niinivak. This particular (.'hart is entered as " in preparation," but its title carries the 
term " north-west coast " up to or beyond latitude 00°, iinthin Behring Sea. 



1881! 



-On the Dkpth op BEniiiNO Sea, and its Connection wrru tee Basin op 

TUE Pacific. 



1/indon, 



IT woidd appear that, in the geographical skcitch contained in the United States' Case, it is 
endeavoured to convey the idea that Piehring Sea is marked oil' from other parts of tlii! Pociiic Ocean in 
being distinctively a shallow l)ody of water. Thus we read : — 

" A js'culiar feature of Bering Sea is the extensive hank of soundings which stretches off for 
250 or more miles from the American coast, rendering the easterly portion of the sea very shallow." 

And further ; — 

" The Charts show that throughout one-third of the sea the depth of the water does not generally 
exceed 50 fathoms, and they also show that the average depth of the whole seji is very considercbly 
less than that of the adjoining .sea." 

Here, again, the statement its made must be reganled as essentially misleading, for while the 
north-ea.stern jiart of the sea is characterizeil hy depths less than 100 falh'ims, the western and south- 
western part is very deeji. That part of the Pacilic ()( can parallel and iidjacenl to the Kurile Islands 
is, in fact, one of the deejwst oceani<' valleys known, and Inus been naimd the "Tuscarora Deep," from 
soundings obtained by the United States' vessel "Tuscaiora" at a depth of over 4,600 falhoin.s, or 
about 5J mile.s. It appears from the contignration of the ocean boUdni and the trend of the coast that 
thus great depwi.ssion actually extends into the western part of lleliring Sea, which, as very few 
soundings have as yet been made in it, may considerably exceed the mean depth of the Pacitic Ocean 
as a whole, staled generally as averaging abcmt '>,!>tW fathoms. 

The (jeneral Chart of Alaska published by the United States' Coast Survey gives only a few 
soundings in tho extreme easterly corner of the deep jioition of Behring Sea, the greatest lieing 
2,147 fathoms ; the remaining deep portion is a blank on tlie Map. Vivien de St. Martin, on p. 498 <if 
vol. iv of his " Dictionary," states that a .sounding of 4,940 metres (2.700 falhoins) was obtained north 
of the Commander Islands; it is not .shown on the Coast Survey Map. Willi llie above fails in view, 
the actual average depth of Behring Sea must lie considered to be us yd a mailer of eonjecture only. 
All that can be said at present, witli the few soundings obtained, is that a considerable portion of 
Behring Sea, nearly taie-half, is not inferior in depth to the main body of the ocean. 

In resiiect to the great de|)th of a large part of its area, and llie coalcsc • ■ .if this di'prcssion with 
the l)est-marked oceanic trough of the North Pacitic, Behring Sea, in fact, ,i.ida in marked conlraal 
with other seas subsidiary to and recognized lus forming portions of the Pacific, such as Okhotsk Sea. 
Haii of Japan, Yellow Sea, and Ciii'm Siia. It is wholly dOTei'ent from such a uniformly shallow sea as 
the North Sea or German Ocean, wliicii, in so far as this single fact goes, might with greater rea.s(in lie 
stated to Iw distinct from the Alliintic Ocean 

The shallow charncler of the eastern portion of Behring Sea is, however, returned to on a later 
page of the Ca.se of the United States, where it is stiited that this — 
" prevents any icebergs from reaching the Pribylolf Islands." 

Keferring to the Charts, it is found that the greatest depth of Behring Strait is about 30 fathoms, 
and that in consequence no icebergs, properly so called, can enter Behring Sea, while any masses of ice 
which could pass the Straits would, according to the Charts, have ample depth of water to tloat all 
round the Pribyloff Islands. 



*■ Knclvro|m'(lia 
liritanuica." 
vu!. iviii. p. 121 . 
Ibid., I'Uie III. 

Ibiii.. p. 120. 



Ibid., IMitc III. 



fnilfcl s,iiie»' Line 
1-. lU. 



Kitricl from " Report 

of lo« iikI Ii'e 

MoTcmKnli In Daring 

Sm >Dd tho Arctic 
lUaiii," by Eniiiin 
Kilwiiril Mimpiuui 
U S.N., !(.»«, lip. 7,9 



110 

Th. «ct.>«l character t,f the ioe fo.m.l in BchrinR »..» appcara from tho '' j'"j'"8 ^"';^;'^ •" j^^^ 
„„.■ tw, ki Ik vi/ thai «h.ch lornm u. the l«l.- full un.l early winfr, atul m telencup... .nxl p.Ud mU, 

; ^:in^::h;;S'::.;iitin« ..u..; a„d,Hec..uiiy.t..atwhich f'-r ''U';:. tt^idt z::[' 

-„...,„ IK III.' Hi.iii'..H h'ft hv th.' olil iccj iiiov iiL'. This B'lliil m: prohttbly <!(«» lot fxlena to llie nouiii 
J:;;;;':,I sl Ml'uhlw lHlu,?:i, whih. ,1,.. ... U. a^t^^ the youthen. Umit « „„ule up of the uewer 
ii'e ami Uetuchi'd Hoes of Wfll-brokuu ic«.' 



( 111 ) 



French I'isltcry Decree ami La-^i.' oj May lo, 1862, aiu^ Man It 1 , iSSS. 



Uki-hek of May 10, xmi. 



No. Ui:;l I— /Vo-iV Iniixfri.il siir In I'rilii CUiirr, ,//' 10 Mni. 18(>2. 



1,'rai c ilr Iticii il hk vuldiiii- imtiuuiilr, Kiiiiunnir lics I'miUjai.s, a lou.i pruseuU 



ot k vciiir, .-iiliit. 

V\i 111 I.oi clii It .laiiviiT, IS'i^,* xiir la [xVhe cotii're ; 

Vu Ics Di'cnis (Irs 4 .liiillct. 1H.-,::,t .■! 1!» Xi.v.Tiiliir, IS.'.iJ ;* 

Vii I'avis (Ic lu (oiiimissiiiii I'cnrmiiriilc dcs IVcluw cidc la l)<iiimnlnlit(^ Maritimes ; 

Siir 11' rajiport dc nniic Miiiistrc Sccn'taiH' il'Klit nil Ili'jiartt'iiiciit ilt' la Marilii' et iU'm f'i)!iiiues ; 

Lu ('oiiH(;il (rAiiiiraiiti' iiilcinlii. 

Avons iluureUJ et ilucri'toiis n- qui suit : — 

Article I". La ju'clii' dc tous |M>issfiiis. cTiistnci's, ct cc)(|uilIai;eH, niitrps iiiic les huttren, est libre 
|H'iidant tdUtv raniiii' a uiic ilislaiKc dc '.) iidllcs iiii large dc In lais.M' dr liaxsc tiicr. 

La ]it"'(lif des liuitius est lihrc du 1" Si']itt'inlirL' an 30 Avril, siir Ics liaiiis liors Imies en .situes (l 
'■i niillcs dcs (('iti's, avcc tons jpatcanx ]poiilt's (ju mm iicnili's, sans lunna^'i' di'tcniiinc'. 

U'.s jirclii'urs sunt trnus d'nlisciver, dans Ics nicrs sitnccs cntic ks ci'iti's dc Kranoc cl cullcs du 
Royaiinic-liii dc la (liandc-|!ictaj,'iic ct d'Irlanilc, Ifs incscriiitidns de 1ft Cimventioii du 2 Aoflt. 
1839,5) ct du ltc;;lcint'nt Intciiiational dn L':! duin, IH4.'i. 

Art. 2. Sur !« dcniamlc dcs prud'huniincs dcs iicclicur:', dc Icurs di'lcj;u(!'s el, a dcfant, <lcs wyndiL;* 
dcs ^'cns dc incr, ccrtaincs ]ici lies jjcuveiit ttrc temiKirnircunnl intcrditcs sur \inc ctuuduc dc iner au 
dt'li ill! 3 niillcs du litlural, si ccttc nicsure Mt coinniandce par I'intcrct de la conservation des fonds 
on de la jxVlic dc jKii.ssoiis dc passajjc. 

1,'Arriiti; d'iutcrdiction est pris par Ic i'n'fct Maritime. 

Art. 3. En dedans de 3 niillcs iles cotes, la |H"clie dcs pnissons/crnstaees, et coquilla^'es, auties ijue 
les huitres, est )iernii.sc tmilc rannt'c, dc jour ct dc null, sous les conditions i.i-aiiris : — 

(1.) Les liiets tixes a simple, double on triple nap|)e,|| et les filet.s it poelie aurunt de» mailles 
d'au nioins 2:" niilliiii. in i anv. 

Le.s inarins pcnvcnt en I'aire usage en Imtcau ou iiiitniiicnt. 

(2.) Les filets tluttants^ nc sont assnjcttis a aiicunc ilinicnsion dc lyaillc. 

Sont assiniilcs aii.\ llUts tlutiant', Ics lilcts ti.\cs dont la lulinnuc intcricure est eleviJe de maniere 
a Iflisser tonjouis nn intervallc dc 20 cciitiiii. au nioins ciiticicnicnt liluc iiu-dessou.s dc la dite 
ralin);uc. 

(3.) La jjrande seine a jet aura dcs mailles dc 2."> niillini. en earn'-. 

Les diiiien.sions dcs mailles dcs tilets eni]doycs dans la Mcditcrrance rcstent fixdes telles qu'elles 
I'ont etc par Ic Dccrct dn 111 Xovenilire, IH."'.', Im-.sijue ccs dimensions sont int'erieures a eellus picscrites 
par Ic jir^seul Dceiet. 

Art. 4. Tous Ics filets, enfjiiis ct instninicnts destines a dcs pcclics spccialcs, tcllcs i[ue ccllcs des 
nn<;uilleR, dn iionat, dcs soeli'ts, cli vicltcs. laiu'oiis ct pois.sons dc )iclites cspcces, ne sont assnjcttis a 
aucunc condition de tonne, de dim iisioii, de poids, dc distance on dVpoiiuc 

L'emidoi CM est dcilaii' anx a^.'iits inariliiiies. 

lis nc ]ieuvent servir iiu'aux j;enics dc jictlies auxipiels ils sont desliiu',- el pour lesnuels ils out 
ell' dt'clarcs. 

S'ils sont employes nutixMiicnt, ils seront coiisidcre.s coninie proliilies. 

L'usage dea foeiies, liaiiieeons, ct iliaj.'ucs a eoiiuilla^cs n'est as.sujctli 'Hiaux iiicsnres d'ordre et de 
police. 

Les seines et filets destines a la lieelie dcs e|ieilanils ct des mulcts soul, s'il y a lieu, ri'elciiieiites 
]iar les I'l-el'cts Marilimes. 

Art. ."i. ( 'ontinueiit a etic ]aoliilie.? les j;nideaux, .Ljoids, el autio lilcts a poclu'. dans les llcuves, 
rivieres, it eaiiaux ct ii Iciirs cinlioMilinres. 

Art. ti. L'usii^'c lies lilels liainanl.-** pom- la peclie dc toutcs es]H''e(.s dc )hiJs^,iiis pent etic. sur la 

• lO'Biric liull. na. No. .1561. 

+ 11' «6ric, (urtie siipiili'mciitairo, riiil. n:.. N'.i. 62,'i. 

I U*" ti€rio, )iartic Kiipplt'niciituiri'. Hull. 617, No. !>-2'-*. 

§ 9' rCtIc, Hull. (178, No. SIflS. 
, I.cs filcta tixe« i*oiu ccux iini, tcnii.^ au fuliil, nu ni«\ven (!e |ii,jiiclri on dp fioidd, uc cliacpciil paH dc position iino fois calc.-i. 

\ 1.CH HIctR llotlanU sont cluy ifui vuut au ^r6 du icut. ilu i-ouiatit. dc la laUK' ou il la icnioniiiu d'un l>atcau sans jftniai.,< 
e'airAtcr au fond. 

** 1.CH tilt-'t8 (raluants iiont ccux qui. couK's au iuiid, au iiii'.*cu dc poids ]>lact'h il Iv partic inf. ricun', y sont. promcnua sous 
I'actiou d'uu'' forcr; (pielconiiue. 



1117] 



2 G 



US 



pToposition des Pn'fets Maritiinea, autoria^ par des ArrStds de notro Miiiistre de la Marino ut des 
Colonifj:, a lunins do 3 iiiilles <U! la cntc, (?aiis Ics localitu.s ou, suit 4 raisoii du la profonduur dus eaux, 
soil pi>ur tonto autre cause, il iie proseute auouu iiiconvi'uieiit 

Cos filots doiveut avoir dos mailles d'liu inoins '_'5 inilliiu. en canv. 

Dans auouu c;ts, il n'ont fait usage de filets traiiiants a muiiis de 500 metres des Imitriirea. 

Art 7. Tnule espt'ce do prche, par 'luehiiio procudi' que ee soil, a moins de S niilles ile la cote 
pent, sur une eteudue deteruiiiiee du lilti>ral, I'tre tcmporairenieut inteniite lorscpie I'interdiction vat 
reconuue ncwssiiire pour sauvegarder, soit la repix)ducti()U dea esix'-cos, soil la conservation du fnii e.t 
dn fretin. 

L'inlerdipfioii est prouonct'e par un Decret Imptjrial, renilu sur la projxisitiou de notre Ministre do 
la Marine et des t'lilonies. 

Art. S. Les I'rcfef s Maritinies fixent par des Avret(?s les I'poques d'nuverture et de cloture de la pecho 
■les huitn-s sur Ic^s bancs dans I'iutiriour des l)aies et sur ceux situi's ;i moins ile 3 niilles de la cote. 

ris detemiinent les liuitrii'Tes qui stiont niiscs en exploitation. 

(."etle peolie est iuterdite avant le lever et apri's le couciier du soleil. 

A nioiiir^ d'txception ordouuee par le Tri'lel Maritime, dans riuttn'-t du uettoyage des banes 
dliuitres, les ]K'cheurs doiveut imnieillali'mi'ut rejeter a la mer Ics imussiers. sables, graviers, et 
fragments d'ec.iilles, ainsi (pie les petites builres au-dessous des dimension.s regiementaires. 

Toutefois, dans les looalites oil il existe ti'S etulages ou autres etablissements j)ropre3 a reoevoir 
les petites huitres, ees dernieres ju'uvent y rtre di'posees au lieu clV-tre rejetees sur le funds. 

Art ".'. lies fosses et ix'servoirs a jioissons jieuvent.apivs autur'satiuu, Stre i^tidjlis sur les proprietds 
privees r»?cevant I'eau de la mer. 

Les Anvtes d'Autorisation veudiis ])ar notre Miuistn' de la iFarine et des Colonies deter- 
miueut, suivani la disposition el I'eteiidue des lieux, les oondilions d'exploitatiou de o»'s reservoirs. 

Sont i>errais, en se conforniant aux Ueglements, les depots d'ludtres, de monies, ot de coipiillagi'S 
tlans les prnprietes privc'es. 

Art, 10. A I'aveuir, il ne sera etabli aucune pecherie a poissons, soit sur le domainc maritime, soit 
sur une propriete privee. 

Li'S detenteurs de peilierles actuelleinent existantes seront tenus, lors,pi'ils en .seront ri'ipiis et 
ilans les delais ulterieureuieut dt'tenuini's, de justilier de l>urs litres de proprieie ou cles actes d'uutoii- 
satdon. 

Art 11. II est defendu de peeher, de faire peclier, di; <aler, d'acliet<!r, de vendre, de transporter, I't 
d'employer ;\ un usage (pielconque : — 

1. Les poissons ipii ne sout pas eneore parvenus a la longueur de 1 oentim, niesun'e de I'ooil 
4 la naiss:»nc<' de la queue, a moins qu'ils no soient ri'putes poissons de pa.ssage ou qu'ils n'appartieuueut 
4 une espece qui, a I'age adulte, reste nu-dessous de eeite dimension. 

2. Le-s humards et laugoiistiis au-dessous de I'd ceutim. de 1 leil a la naissaui-e de la queue. 
.">. Les huitn'S au-dessous de .") ceutim. 

Art 12. Ix-s Pr.'fet-i Maritinies determinent par des .Vrreti's toutes les mesures de police, d'ordre, 
et de pTveautiou propivs a em]>i'cber tons a(?i ideiits, dominages, avaries, colli.sious, &c., et a gaiaiilir aux 
marins le libre eiercice de la pecbe. 

Art 13. Tons les .Vnvti's reiiilus |)ar les I'n'fets Maritinies . 
a Tapprubation de notre Ministre de la Marine et (b's t'olonies. 

Art. 14. Sont et lU'ineurent rappoitees les dis|iositions des Deerets 
sont conlriiires au pn'senl Deeiet. 

Fait au Palais des Tuileries, le 10 Mai, lSti2. 



,'U matien- de jK-che coti^re sont soumia 
et R^glemeiits anttjrieurs qui 



Par I'Kmpi'reur: 

Le Ministre St^cretaire d'f'ltat. de la Marine, et des Colonies, 

(Sign^) (Jomte 1'. hk Cii.vsski.oip-L.viiiat. 



(Sigiie) 



XAPULfiON 



it des 
caux, 



. Goto 

jii cat 
nii nt 



< 113 ) 



Law oi' M.U!(ii 1, 1SKS.» 



UfipuBLKjUE Fiiasi;aise. 



No. 19032. — Loi iiyunt pour "';/il il'hthi'iHi-r tu PeV/i,- ni'x Elri'jif/ir.i Jiiiis Ira Ediix Ti rriiorutlts dc 
Fraiict. e.l il'Ah\i:ri<-, ijc \" .l/.',-s, l.S.SS. 



(ri-o!nul),'iK'i- ail ••IhuiiimI Ollic.iel " 



Mai-.s, 1.S88.) 



LK Stinat et la CliaiuliR' ili-s hc'puu's uiit Miloiili', 

Im I'rL'sidi'iit lie la IJ('|nil)li([iif ]ii'<imiilj,'iii; la Loi ilniit la ti-iioir suit : — 

Article 1". La jkVIh- est inlcnliti' aiix l)ati'aii.\ c'tmn^jers ilmis les imiix territoriales de la Kraiico 
et de I'AI.^'erie, eii dei;a d'uiie liiiiitc; 1)111 t^st flxee ii II iiiiiles iiiariiis au lar<;e de la laisse do 
H.;sse iiier. 

I'our les baies, le rayon de 3 milles est inesure a partir d'uiie ligne dioite tireecu traver.sde la Iiaic, 
dans la jiartie la jOiis rapproohen de I'entrA', au premier point on ronverture n'excede pa.s 10 milles. 
Daii.s cliaciin des uiniiiiiis.HiMui-iits uiaritime.s, et pour I'Algerie, le.s JJeerets deterniiiieut la ligne a partir 
de lai|uelle cctle limite est eomptee. 

An. 2. .'>i le patron d'un bateau etraiij^er ou le.s lioiiimes de son equipage .sont trouves jetant den 
la partie reservi'e des eaux tenitoriales I'ranraise.s uu y exeivant la ]ii'i.liii d'uiie fii(;oii 
le jiatroii est puiii d'une amende <le li) IV. au luoins et de 'i.iO fr. au plus. 
La peine de rameiide prevue a I'Aitiele preeeiielit )ieul etie portee au double on cas de 
recidive. II y a leeidive Imsque, dans le.s deux aiint'es preccjdentes, il a t'te rt^udu eoiitre le contre- 
venaiit uii jiijjemeiil pour inl'iaition a la [ire.seiite J^oi. 

Art. 4. Les oflieiers et oHieicis iiiariuii^rs eoiiiuiandi 



lilets dans 
ilUel<.'oii'|iie, 

An. :i. 



lit 



lialiuieiils dc I'fllat ou les eiiibiiii-ations 



lerlies mariliiiie.' 



conslateut les 
latean 



lit ou I'oiit foniluire le coiitrevenant et le 

constatant les eontraventions a 



plet 



garde-peelie, I't tons ollieiers et af;eiit.s eommis a la jiolice di: 
cti.traventions, eu dre.s.sent pi'ori''s-verlKd eicondui 
dans le port Kraiujais 1(! jiliis ra])pidelH'. 

lis lemiitleiit IcMirs l!ap|iorts. proee.s-verbaux, el luute 
I'ollicier dii Conimissiiriat eluirgi' de rinseri)ition maritime. 

Art. 7>. Les [iroees-verbaux doivenl etre signes el, sous iieine de millite, aflirnies dans les trois 
jonri de leiir idotnie, iiar-devant le .hige de I'aix du canton ou I'un de ses .suppb'iints, ou ])ar-devant le 
Afai/e ou I'.Vdjoint, suit de la commune d<' la n'sidenc de I'ageiit ijui a ilressc le proecs- verbal, soit di' 
eelle on le bateau a etc eoiiduit. Toutefois les ]iroces-verbiiux dressi's pai les oflieiers du Commissariat 
de la marine eliarijes de riuscriplioii miirilime, jiar les olileiers et o|)icier5 niarinitra c.imiiiandaiit le.s 
batiments du I'Ktat ou les embarealions garde-pcebe, et jiiir li's iuspeetenrs des pcelies inaritime.s lie 
sont pas souniis a rallirmatioii. 

Dans l<ius les i-as, les proeeg-verbanx doivunt,sou.s peine de nilUite, etre enregistres ilaii.s les iiuatre 
jouni ipii suivroiit eeliii de ratbrmation ou eelui de la cloture du proees-vi'rbal, s'il n'esl pas .siaimis a 
rallii'iimtiiai. L'enre^;istremeiit est I'liit en <leb(.'t. 

Art. (i. L'oHieier ou agent qui a conduit ou fait coiiduiie le bateau dans uu port Fraii(;ais le 
(!oii.sigiio eritre l.is mains du service de rinscriiiliou maritime, (pii .saisit les migins ile peelie et les 
]ir(Kliiit.n lie la pecbe tnaivcs a boni, ipiel (piVii soil le projuii'tiiiri'. Les prodiiits ile la peelie sont 
vendus, sans d«'lai, dans le iiorl ou le bateau a eti' conduit, el dans les formes preserites jiar IWrlicle V^ 
de la Loi du l."i Avril, 1H1!!>. Le )a'ix en est coiisigm'' a la cais.se des gens de nier jusqu'a Tissue ilii 
.liigeiiieiit. 

Ilidcpeiidammeiit dc^ ranielide pievue duns les .\ilieles i et ;l, le Tribunal ordoiine In destniclion 
des eiinius proliibes et, s'il y a lieu, la I'onliscutioii des cngiim non probibi's et des produits de la jiec'lie 
siiisis sur le b,itcau ou de leur (iiix. Les eiigins non judliibes siait vendus. 

Le produit de eette veiite, aiilsi cpie de eelle des |iri,dnits dc la iieclie, et le monlant des amendes, 
soul integnilciiicnt verses dans la ciiisse des inviilides de la marine. 

.\rt. 7. Les ]ioursuiles oiii lieu a la diligem^e du I'locureiir de In lieiaibliqiie on des ollieiers ilu 
( 'omiuissariat cliaiges de rfiiscriptioii maritime. 

Cos ollieiers oiil, dan- ce cius, \t\ droit d'exposer rallaire deviiut le Tribuiiiil et d'etre eiitendus I'l 
I'appiii de lenrs eiuielusioiis. 

Si les ]U)Ursuites n'oiit pas etc iiitenti'es dans les Irois mois qui suivent le jour on la contravonliou 
a e'te coinmise, I'actiou publique est |)reserite. 

* Bulletin (In Lol.^ <lo la Ri'publlque Fnn^aite, Nn, 1 1 St. 



levant lu Tribunal 
1 Loiiil;iniiiatioii et do tons les 



114 

Art 8 Les poursiiites sont porttcs ilcvant le Tribunal de Police Correctioiinclle dans le ressort 
tluquel est situe le port on ks tontrevenants ont ^-tL^ conduits. Le Tribunal statue dans Ic plus bref 

L "^I'°^'^''J|' ^^^ procis-verbaux <les officiers on agents chargiJs de constater les contraventions, comme 
il est dit h. I'Article 0, fcnit f'oi jus(iu'a iiisLriptiou de faux. _ ^ 

A defaiit de procJs-verbaux, la cnntraventidu jieut t'trc prouvee par ti-nionis. 

Art 10 Si le cundaiiiu.' u'ar.iuitte pas lanieiide et les frais, le bateau est reteuu jusquil entier 
].ayenifnt ou pendant un laps ,le temps (lui n. pent .k-passcr trnis niois pour la premiere e.mtravcnlion 
et six inoifl en eas de recidive. 

Si le eondauine interjette appel uu fail oi>iH)sition, d pent se pourvoir 
pour oblenir la libre sortie du bateau, en consiguant le mcmtant i 

Art 11 La presente l.ui lie porte pas atteinte a la liljie circulation ipeonnne aux bateaux do pecho 
etranuers iiaviguaiit on mouillaiil dans la partie ivserv.'e des eaux teiTitoriaU's Fraia;aises. _ 

i'n Deeret rendu dans la I'miiie des Iteulements d'Admiiiistration rubliqui; detennmera les regh'S 
spdciales de poliee aux.inelles. dans co cas, les bateaux de peobe devront se euiiformer. Les inlractions 
u ee li.'-k'inent sont constatOes et poui-snivies dans les f, .in.es pivxues jiar la presente Loi ; elles sont 
punies d'une amende de IG fr. au nioins et de 100 fr. au plus, r..aiis prejudice de la retenue du 

Art. lli. U u'est pas derogO aux dispositions des Conventions luteniationales et des Lois <iui s'y 

""' ""lI i.resent.; Loi, deliberee et ad.jptee par le Seiiat et par la Clmnibre des I)eput.''3, sera excicutcie 
coiimie loi de I'Etat. 

I'aii a Taris, Ic 1" Mars, 1S88. 

(Sigue) 

Le Jlinistre des Affaires fitraiigeres, 

(Sigiid) FloukeN!-. 

le (iarde des Sccaux, Ministre de la .Justice, 

(Sigiie) A. Kai.i.ik1!E.s. 

Le Ministre de la Marine et dts Colonies, 

(Signe) KliAXTZ. 



CAKNOT. 



ssnrl 
lircf 

mine 



( ll-> ) 



ntier 
itiim 

lunal 
s les 

jechu 

('■glcs 
tioiis 
sunt 
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cutue 



)T. 



Treaty of Fyiendship, Commerce, and Navigation between Her Majesty 
and the United States of Mexico. 



Siijneil (it Mrj-iri), Kovemhr 'J7, 18H.S. 



[lialificatiims uxhangal at Mexico, Fcbriuini 1 1, 18S9.] 



JIEli Majesty the (.Iuulii nf tliu I'liitwl Kiiij,'- 
doin 111' Great liritaiii and Ireland, and Ids 
Excelleney tlie President ijf tlio I'nitcd States ol' 
Mexico, Ijeini; desirous of maintaining and 
strengtliening friendly relations, and of jironioting 
conniiereial intereoiirse between the donnniona of 
Her JSritannie ^^ajesty and the territories of the 
Mexican l!e|iulilic, have resolveil to conclude a 
Treaty of Friendship, Coninieree, and Xavigation, 
and have named as their I'leuiputontiaries, that is 
to say : 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom 
of (Ireat Britain and Ireland, Sir Spenser St. 
ilolin, Jvnight Commander of St. ^Ficliael and 
.St. George, Knvoy Kxtraordinar} and Minister 
I'lenipiHentiary of Her liritannic' Majesty in 
Mexico ; 

Anil his Excellency the I'resideiil of the I'nitcd 
States of Mexico, Sefior Senador Don Eniilio 
Veliusco, ex-Minister I'lenipotentiary of Mexico in 
France, &c., &c., Ac. ; 

Who, after having conuuunicatcd to each other 
llieir respective full powers, found in good and 
due form, have agreed upon and concluded the 
following Articles: — 

AliTU'l.E 1. 

There shall he perfect peace and shiccre friend- 
ship lielween the t'niteil Kingdom of (Ircat 
lirilain and Ireland and tlie I'nited States of 
Mexico The High <'ontraeling Parties shall u.su 
their liest endeavours that this friend.ship and 
gooil understanding may lie conslautly and 
perpetiudly maintained. 

AirncLE 11. 

The Contracting Parties agree that, in all 
motters relating to commerce and navigation, any 
privilege, favour, or immunity whatever, which 
either Contracting i'urty has actually granted, or 
may hereafU^r grant, to the subjects or citizens of 
any other State, shall be extiuided iniuieditttoly 
and unconditionally to the subjects or citizens of 

fll7J 



SU Excelcncia el I'residente de los Estados 
Ifnidos Jlexicnnos y Su Majestad la lieina del 
Iteino I'nido de hi (iian llretana d Irlanda, 
deseosos de conservar y vigorizar relaeiones 
aniistosas y de prouiover el tnlfico cnaiercial entre 
los territorins de la Kepublica Mexicana y los 
dominios de Su Majestad Uriliinica, han resuelto 
celebrar um Tratado de Amistad, Comercio, y 
Xavegaci(jn, y han nombrado sus I'lenipotcnciarios, 
li saber : 

Sii Kxcelencia el I'residente dc los Estados 
Unidos Mexiiano'-, al Sefior Senador Don Eniilio 
■Velasco, ex-Miiiistro I'lenipi.teiiciario de Mexico 
(Ml Kraiicia, &c., lie., &c. : 



Y Su Majestad la Iteina del lleiiio I'nido de la 
(iraii ISretana e Irlanda a Sir Spenser St. .(olin, 
(.'aballcro Coniciiilador de San .Miguel y San 
.lorge, Enviadu I'.xtranrdiiuuio y .Miiiistro I'leni- 
potenciario de Su Majestad I'lritanica en Mexico; 

I,os cnali.'s, despiies do lial.ier.se euinuiiicado sus 
I'espectivos plenos poderes, encontrandolos en 
bueiia y debida forma, han convenido en los 
Articulos siguientes : — 

AliTICl'I.U I. 

Habra perlecta paz y sincera amistad entre la 
l!epi\blica Mexicana y el Iteino I'nido de la liraii 
Itretafia c Irlanda. l.as .\ltas Partes Contratantes 
hariin los niayores esfuerzos para ipie esta amistad 
y bueiia armoiiiu se mantengaii constante y 
lierpetuuiueiite. 



AUTICIIU) II. 

l.as I'artes Contratantes convienen en que, en 
todo lo lelativo d comercio y navcgaeion, cual- 
ipiier privilegio, favor I'l inmunidad, sea cual 
fiteix", que alguiia de las I'artes Contratantes 
teiiga coiieedidos en la actualidail i) concedioro 
en lo sucesivo I'l los aubditos o ciudadanos do 
cualnuiera otro Estado, se exteiideran inmediata e 

2 H 



116 



the other Cuntracling I'arty, it beiiiu tlii'ir inten- 
tion that the trade nnd navigation of each 
country shall be placeil, in all resiiects, by the 
other on the footing of the most favonreil nation. 



ini'onJicionalinente a los subHitcc 6 ciudadanos de 
la otra Parte l'ontratant<\ sieudo su intcucion que 
el ooniercio y navtgacion de eada pais sean 
colocados per el otro, en todo respecto, sobrc la 
base de la nacion mas favorecida. 



AimCLE III. 

The produce and manufactures of the dominions 
and piwsessions of Her liritannin Majesty which 
are imported into the United States of Mexico, 
and the produce and manufactures of Mexico 
which are imported into the dominions and 
possessions of Her liritannic Majesty, whether 
intended for consumption, warehousing, re-ex- 
portation, or tninsit, shall be treated in the same 
manner as, and, in particular, shall bo subjected 
to no higher or other duties, whctlier general, 
municipal, or local, than the produce, manu- 
factures, and goods of any third country the most 
favoured in this respect. No other or higher 
duties shall be levied in Mexico on tlie e.xporta- 
tion of any goods to the dominions and possessions 
of Her Uritannic ^fajosty, or in the dominions 
and ])ossessious of Her I'uitannic Majesty on the 
exportation of any goods to Mexico, than may be 
levied on the exportation of the like goods to any 
third country the most favoured in this respect. 



\citliiT of the Contracting I'arties shall es- 
tablish a proliibition of importation, exportation, 
re-exportation, or transit against the other which 
shall not, under like circum.stjinces, he applicable 
to any third country tlie most favoured in this 
respect. 

In like miiuner, in all that relates to local dues, 
customs foriii;dities, biokerage, patterns, or samples 
introduced by commercial travellers, anil all other 
matters connected witli traih", British subjects in 
Mexico, and Mexican eitizens in the dominions 
and possessi<,ns of Her I'lritannic Majesty, shall 
enjoy niost-favoured-nation treatment. 



In till' event of any 
Mexiian laws, ( '^lstom^ 
sullii'ient notice shall iie 
British sulijects to niak 
ments foi' meeting them. 

The Mexi<;in authorities shall, raoreover. deal 
equitably with all eases arising from unintentional 
ignorance of any of the changes atiove nii ntioiu'il. 



bangi'S being made in 
Tariif or I'ogtdations, 
jiven, in order to enable 
tlie necessaiy arrange- 



ARTICULO IIL 

I.,o3 productos y manufacturas de la Eepiiblica 
Mexicana que se importen en los doniinios y 
posesiones de Su Majestad Britanica, y los pro- 
ductos y manufactura.s de los doniinios y 
posesiones de .Su Majestad Britanica quo se 
importen en la Itepiiblica Mexicana, sea para el 
consumo, almacenaje, re-exportacion 6 triinsito, 
seiiin consiilerados de' niismo inodo, y particular- 
mente no estanin sujetos li otros ni mas altos 
derechos, ya generales, municipales, o locales, que 
los productos, manufactnr.is y niercancias de una 
tcrcera nacion ([ue sea mas favorecida ii estc 
respecto. No se impoiidr.in otros ni mas altos 
derechos on los doniinios y posesiones de Su 
Majestad Britanica il la oxportacion de cuales- 
quiera mercancias para la liepublica Mexicana, 6 
en la liepublica Mexicana a la exportjicion dc 
cualesquiera mercancias para los doniinios y 
posesiones de Su Majestad Britanica, quo los (pie 
se iinpongan li la exportacion de iguales mer- 
cancias para uii tcrcer pais que sea raas favorecido 
:1 este respecto. 

Ninguna de las I'artes Contratantes cstablccera, 
respecto de la otra, judhibiciones de importncion, 
exportacion, re-exportacion. o triinsito que no 
sean aplicables, en iguales circunstaiicias, li un 
tercer pais que sea mas favoiecido a este 
respecto. 

Igualemente, en todo lo tpie se ii'liere ;i 
derechos locales, aduanas, formal idades, corretajcs, 
modelos, 6 muestras introdm idos por ageiites 
viajeros, y todo lo demas relalivo a comeicio. los 
ciudadanos Mexicanos en los doniinios y posesiones 
lie Sii Mr.jestfiil Uritaniea, y Ins siibditos 
l>rit;inicos en la liepublica Mexicana, gozaran del 
tral:imiento ile la nacion mas favorecida. 

Kn caso lie hacerse algunas alti-iacioiies en las 
leyes Mexicanas, aniiueles o leglameiitos de 
.\duanas, se conoedera un pla/o suUiciente para 
que los st'ibditos Britiinicos cumplan con olios. 

I.as aiitnriilades Sfexieanas, adenias, liaiai;in 
roll equidad todos los casus originados ilr ig- 
iioniiicia inciiliiable de algiina de las alteraiiones 
antes mencionadas. 



.VliTlCLK IV. 

Biitiili .-hips and their cargoes shall, in Mexico, 
and Mexican vessids and their cargoes shall, in 
the dominions and possessions of Her liritannic 
Majest\. from whatever ])lace aniving, and what- 
ever I'.iay lie llie jilace of origin or destination of 
their cargoes, Ik^ treated in every respect as sliijis 
and cargoes of the most favoured nation. 

The preeediiig siipidalion jiqilics to local treat- 
ment, dues, and rhaiges in the ]ioits, basin.s, 
docks, roadsteads, harbours, and rivi'is of tho two 
countries, iiilotage, and, generally, to all matters 
coniiei ted with nangation. 

Every favour or exemption in these res)ier|s, or 
any other privilege in matters of navigation, 
which either of the (■ontracling I'arties shall grant 
to u third I'owcr, shall be esteniled immediately 
and unconditionally to the oilier I'arty. 



.\l;TlfTl.(t IV. 

Los liuqucs Mexicanos y sin cargameiitos en 
los doniinios y Jio.scsiones de Sn .Majestad liriliinica, 
y los liui|ues liiglesrs y sus cargainenlos rn la 
liepiililica Mexiiaiia. cnalqiiiera qiie .soa el liigar 
ill' sn jiioei'deni'ia, y cualquiera qui' sea el higar 
de oiigen I'l desiino de sus ciirgamenlos, seiali 
tratados, en todo resjiecto, conio los biii|ues y 
caigameiitos de la nacion mas favorecida. 

La estiimlarioii precedeiiti' si' aplica al trata- 
niietito local, dereclios y cargas en los puertos, 
foiiili'Milei'os, diques, railas, bahias y rios de anibos 
])aises, prncticaje, y, en general, li todo lo lelutivo 
;i luivegacion. 

Todo favor I'l i'xter"ion A esti" resjiedo, o 
enalqniera ]irivilegi'i en materia de navcgacion, 
qui' una ill' las I'artes ( 'ontratantcs conceda a una 
tercpra I'otenoia, se extender;! inmediata e in- 
I'.ondicimialniente ii la otra I'otencia. 



117 



Ban 
la 



All vessels which, nccordiii" to British law, lire 
to bo deemed Hritisli vossids, nml all vessels 
which, according to the law of ^Icxico, an- to be 
deemed Mexican vcssuls, shall, for the purposes 
of this Treaty, be res))ectiv(?ly deemed liritish or 
Mexican vessels. 

For the same imqiose shall he coiisiderecl as 
ports of each of the Contracting I'arties those 
which arc, or 1 ereiifter may lie, declared open by 
the respective Covernments for import or export 
trade. 

The two (Contracting I'arties agree to consider, 
a.s a limit of their territorial waters on their 
respective coa.sts, the distance of .'! marine leagues 
reckoned from the line of low - water mark. 
Nevertheless, this stipulation .shall h.ave no effect, 
excepting in what may relate to the observanci' 
and application of the Cu.stom-house Regulations 
and the measures for preventing smuggling, and 
cannot be exteiuled to other fpiestions of civil or 
criminal jurisiliction, or of international maritime 
law. 

AKTICl.K V. 

The subjects or citizens of each of the Con- 
tracting I'arties shall be permitted to reside, 
permanently or temporarily, in the dominions or 
possessions of the other, ami to occ\ipy and hire 
houses and warehou.ses for purposes of comni(;rce, 
wh(!ther wholesale or retail. They shall also be 
at full liberty to exerci.se civil rights, and therefore 
to acipiire, jX).sse.-<s,anil dispo.se of every description 
of |iropei'ty, moval)le and immnvablc, as far as the 
law.s of e.acli cunntry will permit. They may 
ac<iuirc and transmit the same to others, whether 
by purchase, .sile, donation, exchange, marriage, 
ti'stiiment,snccessi(jn iili inir.^lntu, \mi\ in any other 
njiinner, under the same comlitinns as natives of 
the country. Their heirs ami h'gal representatives 
may succeed to and take jiossession <if it, eitlKT 
in person or by jiroeurators, in the .same manner 
and in the same legal forms as natives of the 
country. 

In none of these respects .shall they ])ay upon 
the value of such properly any other or liigher 
impfwl, duty, or charge than is payalde liy natives 
of I he country. 

In every case, the subjects or eitizens of the 
(.'ontracting I'arties shall be permitted to export 
their propeily, or the proceeils thereof, if .sold, 
freely and without being s\dijei:t<',d on such ex- 
jMirtulion to ))ay any duty dilferent from (hat to 
whiili natives of the country are lialile under 
similar eircumslances. 

Tlu^ citizens or subjocts of each one of tlie 
Contracting Parties, who may he n-siding, tempo- 
raiily or pi'inianently, in the dominions and 
possesions III' the other, are subjeil in lln' l.iws if 
the lonntry where they reside, esperiallv to those 
which determine the rights and obligations of 
foreigners, on tlie same londitio'is as tho.se of 
the citizens or subjects of the most favoured 
nation. 

AiniCi.K VI. 

The dwellings, manufactiiries, warehou.ses, and 
sliiijis of the subjiMis or citi/.i'Us of each of the 
Ciiutracting I'artii's in the dominions and ])osses. 
sions of the other, and all luemisrs appertaining 
thereto, clestined fur pnrpo.ses of residence or 
commerce, shall be respected. 

It shall not lie allowable (o ]>rMe I tn make a 

search of, or a domiciliary visit to, >uch dwellings 



Todos los buqnes ([uc, conforme a las leyes 
Mexicnnns, .se considereii Mexicanos, y todos los 
bnipies <[ue, conforme :'i las leyes Kritiinicas, se 
I'onsideren liritanicos, se considerar:in respectivii- 
meiite Mexicanos 6 lirit'lnicos para los efectos de 
este Tratndo. 

I'ara los mismos efectos .se deberan entender 
por puertosde cada una de Ins Partes Contratante.s 
aquellos que estan 6 en adelaiite estuvieren 
habilitados ])or los fiobiiM'uos respectivos para el 
cranereio de iinjjortaciim o (;x|iortaeion. 

Las dos Partes Contratantes convienen en 
considerar conio limite del mar territorial en sus 
costas resi)ectivas, la distancia de 3 Icguas nmn- 
tinins cont.idas desd(i la linea de la inarea baja. 
Sin endiargo, esta estipulacion no tendr:l (^fecto, 
sino en lo relati\Ti it la vigilancia y ajilie.acion de 
his lieghimentos yVduanales y de las medidas para 
evitar el contrahando, y no podr;l extenderse a 
otras cuestioues de juriiliecion civil o criminal, o 
de derecho internacional maritimo. 



AUTICULO V. 

Lon ciudadanos I'l siihditos de cada una de las 
Partes ( 'ontratantK-'s podnin residir pcrmanente o 
tenqioralmente en los dominios o poscsiones de la 
otra ; ocnjiar y arreiidar casas y almacenes para el 
ejercicio del comercio, ya jror mayor 6 al menudeo. 
Tendnin tambieu plena lihertad en el ejercicio ile 
(ierechos civiles, y Jior consiguiente para adipiirir, 
jKLSeer y disponer de toda clase de propiedades 
'.leubles e inmeubles en cuanto lo ]iermitan has 
leyes de cada Jiai's. Pueden adquirirlas y tras- 
mitirlas a olms por compra, venta, donacion, 
permuta, matrimonio, testamento. sucesion intes- 
tada y de cualquiera otrn modo, liajo has mismas 
coudiciones que Ins natuiales del pais. Sus 
herederos y reprcsentanles legales pueden suceder 
en ellas y lomar poseaion de las nnsmas, ya 
])ersonalmeiite li por priKur.ador, did mismo modo 
y con his inism.as fornias legales que los natiirales 
did ]iais. 

Kn niniiuno de estos ca.sos paganin .sobre el 
valor de diilia jimjiiedad otros ni mius altos 
impuestos, derechos u cargas ipn^ los queseliaguen 
)ior his naturides del jiais. 

l-ai ludii caso .si; permilira ;t lus subditi.'S 6 
ciudadanos de las Partes Contratantes exporlar su 
propiedad, I'l los productos de la misma, si hidiiere 
sido vendida, lilirennnte y sin esiar sujelos en la 
i'X|iortacion X pagar derecho.i diferentes de aquello: 
;i los cuales (fstiin sonietidos en cironistaiicias 
amilogas los naturales did pais. 

I.os ciudadanos o si'iliditos de cada una de las 
Partes Contratantes nu.' n'sidan tenqioral I'l per- 

manentei ile en Ins domiuins y piisesiones de la 

otra estan sujelos a las leyes del pais de su 
lesideneia, esperialiucnte las que lijan los derechos 
y obligariones de los extianjeros, en los mismos 
terminos eii i|iie lo esti'n Ins ciudadanos o subditos 
de la nacion mas favoreclda. 

.virncui.o vi. 

Ser;in respeladas his habitacinnes, f^ibricas, 
alniaienes y tielidas di> los eiudad.inos I'l subditos 
de cada una de las Paries Conlratantes en los 
dominios y pnsesioin's de la otra, y todas la« 
locididade.s" que les scan anexas destinadas :i 
haliitacion o roniercio. 

No se perniilini bie'er catrns I'l visilas domicili- 
erias en estns habitariones y sus diqii'iidencias. (i 



118 



and premises, or to examine or inspect books, 
piipers, or nccoiints, except iinder tlie conditions 
and with the forms prescribed by the laws for 
natives of tlie country. 

The subjects or citizens of each of the two 
C'outracling I'lirlies in tlie dominions and posses- 
sions of tlio other shall Imve free access to the 
Courts of Justice for the proseoition and defence 
of their rights, witliout other conditions, restric- 
tions, or taxes beyond those imposed on natives of 
the country, and shall, like them, be at liberty to 
employ, in all causes, their advocates, attorneys, 
or agents from among the persons admitted to the 
exercise of those professions according to the laws 
of the country. 

AKTICLE VII. 

Tlie subjects or citizens of each of the Con- 
tracting I'arties in the dominions and possessions 
of the otlier .shall be exempted from all com- 
pulsory military service whatever, wlietlier in the 
army, navy, or national guard, or militia. They 
.shall likewise be exempted from all contributions, 
wliether pecuniary or in kind, imjiosed as a com- 
l)ensation for pei-sonal service, and, finally, from 
forced loans, and from charges, requisitions, and 
war contributions, unless imposed on real property, 
when they shall i>ay them ecpudly with nationals. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

The subjects or citizens of either of the two 
<'ontracting Parties residing in the dominions and 
possessions of the other shall enjoy, in regard to 
their houses, persons, and properties, the protec- 
tion of the (iovernment in us full and ample a 
manner as the subjects or citizens of the most 
favinired nation. 

In like manner the sulijects or citizens of each 
Contracting Party .shall enjoy in the dominions 
and pos.sessions of the other full liberty of con- 
science, and .shall not be molested on account of 
their religious belief. 



examinar 6 inspeccionar los libros, papeles, o 
cuentas, exccpto bajo las eondiciones y con las 
formas prescritas por las leyes para los naturales 
del pais. 

Los ciudadanos 6 siibditos do cada una de 
las dos I'artes Contratantes en los dimiiuios y 
posesiones de la otni tendnin libre acceso en los 
Tribnnales para hacer valer y defender sus 
derechos sin otras eondiciones, restricciones, o 
contribuciones que las impuesta.s a los naturales 
del pais, y, como estos, tendnin libertad para 
emplear en sus litigios los abogados, procnradores, 
6 agentes de entre las personas admitidas al 
ejercicio de estas profesiunes, conforme li las leyes 
del pais. 

AKTIOl'LO \n 

Los ciudadanos 6 siibditos de cada una de las 
Partes (Jontratantes en los domiiiinsy posesiones 
de la otra e.stariin exentos de todo servicio niilitar 
forzoso, ya en el ejercito, la marina, o la giiardia 
nacional o milicia. Tambien estaniii exentos do 
toda . . .ribiieion, sea pecuniaria 6 en espeeie, 
inipuestn en conipensacion de servicios persoiiales, 
y tinalmente, de preslamos forzosos y de cargiis, 
reiinisas y contribucioiio'i de giierni, a meiios que 
scan impucstas sobre la jiropiedad inmeuble, en 
ciiyo caso la pagariin en igiiales ti'rniinos que los 
nacionales. 

AKTICULO VIII. 

Los ciudadanos i> siibditos de cada una de las 
Partes Contratantes residentes en los dominios y 
posesiones de la otra gozonin, en sus casas, per- 
sonas y propiedades, de la proteccion del Gobierno, 
tan eompleta y ainplia como los ciudadniios o 
siibditos de la iiacion mas favorecida. 

Igualmeiite los ciudadanos I'l siibditHS de cada 
una de las Partes Contratantes gozaniu en hjs 
dominios y iiosesioncs de la otra plena libertad de 
conciencia, y no .scran molestados por razon de 
sus creencias religiosas. 



ARTICLE IX. 

The subjects or citizens of each of the Con- 
tracting Parties shall liave, in the dominions and 
possessions of the other, the same rights as natives, 
or as subjects or citizens of llic most favoured 
nation, in regard to iiatents for inventions, trade- 
marks, and designs, uikjii fultilment of th(! for- 
malities prescribed liy law. 



ARTICULO IX. 

r.os ciudadanos 6 siibditos de cada una de las 
Partes Contratantes tenilran, en los doiiiinios y 
posesiones de la otra, los misnuis dercclin.s que los 
nacionales, I'l que los siibditos o rindadauos de la 
nacioii mas favorecida, respecto li patcnlcs i\r in- 
vencion, niarias de tVibrica y dibujos jiara oljetos 
iudustriales, sienipre iine cumplan las formali- 
dades prescritas par la ley. 



ARTICLE X, 

Each of the Contracting Parties may appoint 
Consuls-Cicneral, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, Pro-Con- 
suls, and (.'onsular Agents to reside respectively 
in towns or ports in the dominions and pos- 
sessions of the other Power, each one of them 
reserving the right of excepting those places where 
it may not appear convenient to admit them 
whenever this exception is extcuued to the Con- 
sular functionaries of all other nations. 

Such Consular officers, however, shall not enter 
npon their functions until after they shall have 
been approved and admitted in the usual form by 
the Government to which they are sent. They 
filiall exercise whatever functions, and enjoy what- 
ever privileges, exemptions, and immunities arc. 



ARTICULO X. 

Cada una ilc las I'artes (,'oiitrataiitos piicdc 
nondnar Consnles-Generales, C('insiilcs, Vice-Ci'm- 
siiles, Pro-I '(insules, y Agentes Coiisulares para 
residir resjiectivamenle en las eiudadcs o piiertos 
situados en Ins dominios y ]ii)sesi(iiies de la otra 
Potencia, reserviindose cada una de ellas el derecho 
de exceptuar los lugares donde no le parezca con- 
veniente adniitirlos, siemjire ([iie esta excepcioii sp 
extienda li los fmieionarios (.'oiisulares de todas 
las denias naciones. 

Estos fnncionarios Coiisulares, sin embargo, no 
entnirAn en el ejercicio ib'. sus funciones hasta 
despues de haber sido aprobacULs y admitidos en 
la forma usual por el Goliieriio al cual ban sido 
enviados. Ejerceran las funciones, y gozarau ilc 
los privilegios, e.\enciones, e inmunidades, cuale.s- 



119 



is, CI 

las 

lull's 

•le 

s y 

los 

sus 

o 

rules 

jiiira 

( irus, 

\s al 

eyes 



or way hereafter be, granted there to Consular 
officers of the most favoured nation. 

Tlie archives and official papers of Consular 
functionaries shall bo respected as inviolable, 
without the authorities of the country being able, 
on any account, to seize them, or take note of 
their contents. 

ARTICLE XI. 

The Consuls-General, (Mnsuls, Vice-Consuls, 
and Consular Agents of eacli of the Contracting 
Parties, residing in the dominions and possessions 
of the other, shall receive from the local autho- 
rities such assistance as can by law be given to 
them for the recovery of deserters from the vessels 
of their respective countries. 



quiero que sean, concedidos 6 que se concedan en 
lo sucesivo a los funcionarios Consulares de la 
uacion mas favorecida. 

Los archives y papeles oficiales de los funciona- 
rios Consulares seriin respetndos como inviolables, 
sin que por ningun motive pucdan los autoridades 
del pais embargarlos ni tomur conocimieuto de 
ellos. 

AKTICULO XL 

Los Consules-Gcneralea, C6nsules, Vice-C6n- 
sulcs, y Agentes Consulares de cada una de laa 
I'artes Contratantes, residentcs en los dominios y 
posesiones de la otra, recibiran de las autoridades 
locales el auxilio que por la ley se ics puede dar 
para recobrnr los desertores de los buques de sua 
paises respectivos. 



ARTICLE XIL 

Any ship of war or merchant-vessel of either of 
the Contracting Parties which may be com])elled, 
by stress of weather or by accident, to take shelter 
in a port of the other, shall be at liberty to refit 
therein, to procure all necessary stores, and to 
continue their voyage without paying any dues 
other than sucli as would be payable in a similar 
case by a national vessel. In rase, however, the 
master of a merchant-vessel sliould be under the 
necessity of disposing of a part of his menrhandize 
in order to defray his exiienses, he shall be bound 
to conform to the Regulations and Tarid's of the 
place to which he may have come. 

If any ship of war or merchant-vessel of o'.ie of 
the Contracting Parties should run aground, or be 
wrecked within the territory of the other, such 
ship or vessel, and all parts thereof, and all furni- 
ture awl appurtenances Indonging thereunto, and 
all goods and tnerchandize saved tlierefrom, in- 
cluding any which may have been cast out of the 
ship, or the proceeds thereof if sold, as well as all 
papers found on board sucli stranded or wrecked 
ship or vessel, sluiU be given up to the owners or 
their agents when claimed by them within the 
period fixed by the laws of the country ; and such 
owners or agents shall pay only the expenses 
incurred in the preservation of the property, 
together with the salvage or other expenses which 
would have been payable in the like case of a 
wreck of a national vessel. 

The goods and merchandize saved from the 
wreck shall be exempt from all duties of customs 
unless cleanid for consumptivjn, in which case 
they shall pay the same rate of duty as if they 
had l)ecn imported in a national vessel. 

lu the case either of a vessel being driven in 
by stress of weather, run aground, or wrecked, 
the respective Consuls-Generals, Consuls, Vice- 
Consul.s, and Consular Agents shall, if the owner 
or master or other agent of the owner is not 
present, or is present and requires it, bo authorized 
to interpose in order to afford the necessary assist- 
ance to their fellow-oountrymeu. 

ARTICLE XIIL 

For the better security of commerce between 
the subjects of Her Itritannic Majesty and the 
citi»ena of the United States of Mexico, it is 
agreed that, if at any time any interruption of 
f.-iendly intercourse or any rupture should unfor- 
tunately take place between the two Contracting 
Parties, the subjects or citizens of either of the 

1117] 



AETICULO XII. 

Todo buque de guerra 6 niercante de una de las 
Partes Contratantes quo est(i obligado, a causa de 
mal tiempo d de accidente, a refugiarse en un 
puerto de la otra, estani en libertad para repararse 
alK, i)rocurarse lus provisicnes necesarias y eon- 
tinuar su viaje sin j)agar otros derechos que los 
que en casos semejantes se pagarian por un buque 
nacional. En caso, sin endinrgo, de que el capitan 
de un buque mercante tuviere necesidad de dis- 
poner de una parte de sr.s mercancias para cubrir 
sus gastos, estani obligado ii conformarse con los 
Reglamentos y Tarifaa del lugar a ([ue haya 
Uegudo. 

Si un buque de guerra 6 un buque mercante de 
una de las Partes t 'oiitiiitantes encalla 6 naufraga 
en el territorio de la otra, esle buque y todas sus 
partes, su aparejo y pertenencias. todos los efectos 
y mercancias salvados de i\, inclusos los echados 
fiicra del buque, o sus productos si le han ven- 
dido, asf como los papeles cncontrados a boido del 
biicpie encallado 6 iiaufrago, seran entregados a 
los iiropieturios 6 sus agentes, al ser reclamados 
por ellos en el terniino fijado por las leyes del 
pais ; y estos propietarios 6 agentes pagaran sola- 
mente ios gastos (pie se liayan causado en la con- 
servacion de la jjropiedad, asf como el salvamento 
ii otros gaatos que un buque nacional pagarfa en 
igiial caao de naufragio. 



Los efectos y mercancias salvados del naufragio 
estaran exeutos de todos los derechos de aduanas, 
a menos que se destincn al eonsumo interior, en 
cuyo caso pagarii los mismos derechos que si 
hubiesen sido iniportados en un buque nacional 

En el caso de que por razon de mal tiempo un 
buque se refugiare en un puerto 6 encallare 6 
naufragaic, los Cdusules-Uenerales, Consoles, 
Vice-Cdnsules, y Asientes Consulares, si el pro- 
pietario 6 capitan li otro agente del propietario 
no estan jiresentcs, d si e.stan presentes y lo 
pidieren, estariln autorizadoa )iaia intervenir a 
tin de impartir los auzilios necesarios a sus com- 
patriotos. 

ARTICULO XIII 

Para mayor seguridad del coroercio entre los 
ciudadanos d-^ los Estodos I'nidos Mexicanos j 
los siibditosde Su Alajestad Itritanica, seconviene 
que, si desgraciadamente en algun tiempo se in- 
terrumpieren las relaciones nmistosas ii ocurrieae 
alguna ruptura entre ambas Partes Contratantes, 
los ciudadanos 6 siibditos de una de las dus 

2 I 



120 



said Contracting Parties who may be residinj; in 
the ddtnininns or territories of tlie other, or wlio 
may be estnblisUed tlmre, in tlie exercise of any 
trade or special employment, shiiU have tlie privi- 
lege of reiniiiiiing and continuing such trade or 
employment, without any manner of interruption, 
in full enjoyment of their liberty and pro|wrty, 
80 long lis they behave peacefully iind commit no 
olTenco against the laws ; and their goods, pro- 
perty, and ellcots, tif whatever description they 
may be, whether in their own cust<jdy or inlruateil 
to individuals, or to the State, shall not be liable 
to seizure or seiinestration, or to any other charges 
or demands than those which may be made upon 
the like goods, projierty, and eH'ects l)eIonr;ng to 
native subjects or citizens. Should they, however, 
prefer to h.ave the country, they shall be allowed 
to make airangements for the safe keeping of 
their goods, property, and effects, or to dispose of 
them, and to lii|uidate their accounts; and a safe- 
conduct slia'l be given them to embark at the 
ports which they shall themselves select. 



Partes Contratantos quo residan en los dominios 6 

territorios de la otra, o que alK estitn establecidou 
ejerciendo el comercio (5 enipleados en otra ocupa- 
cion, tendnin el derecho de ])ermann('er y de con- 
tinuar en su comercio u ocupacion, sin int«,'rru|>- 
cioii alguna, con el |)leno goce ile su liberUid y 
propiedad, mientnus .«o conduzcan piuiticamente y 
no contravengan la.s leyes ; y sus l)ieue,%, propie- 
dad(is, y efeftos, de cuahjuiera clnse cpie scan, yu 
esti^n en su poder o .Minliado.f li particulares o al 
E?.tail(>, no esturan sujetos a emljaryo d .sccuestro, 
ni a otras cargus u obligacioncs que las que se 
impongan en bienes, proi)iedades y efi'clos anillo- 
gos pertenecientes li los naoiouules. Sin embargo, 
si prefiriesen salir del pais, se ies permitim hacer 
los arreglos conveiiiente.s piira la seguridad de sus 
bienes, propiedades, y efectos, li para disponer do 
ellos y para lii|uidar sus cuenta.s; y se Ies darii un 
salvo-conducto paru que se embarquen en los 
puertos que elijan. 



In 



ARTICLE XIV. 

The stipulations of the present Treaty shall be 
applicable to all the Colonies and foreign posses- 
sions of Her Britannic Majesty, so far as the laws 
permit, excepting to those hereinafter named, that 
is to say, except to — 

India. 

Tl e Dominion of Canada. 

Newfoundland. 

New South Wales. 

Victoria. 

South Australia. 

Western Australia. 

Queensland. 

Tasmania. 

New Zealand. 

The Cape. 

Natal. 



ARTICULO XIV. 

I-as estipulaciones del presente Tratado serdn 
aplicablos a todas his ("olonias y posesiones extran- 
jeras de Su Majestad liritiinica, en cuanto lo 
permitan las leyes, exceptuando las (jue en seguida 
se designan, es decir, excepto — 

La India. 

El Dominio de Canada. 

Terranova. 

Nucva Gales del Sur. 

Victoria. 

Australia MeridionaL 

Australia Occidental. 

Queensland. 

Tasmania. 

Nueva Zelanda. 

El Cabo. 

Natal. 



Provided always that the stipulations of the 
present Treaty shall be made applicable to any of 
the above-named Colonies or foreign possessions 
on whose behalf notice to that effect shall have 
been given by Her Britannic Majesty's Repre- 
sentative in Mexico to the Mexican Minister for 
Foreign Affairs within two years from the do*" -'f 
the exchange of the ratifications of the present 
Treaty. 



Sin embargo, las estipulaciones del presente 
Tratado scnin aplicables a cualquiera de las 
expresadas Colonias 6 posesiones extranjeros en 
cuyo favor se di5 noticia para este efecto por el 
Representante do Su Majestad Britiinica en 
Mdxico al Secretario de Relaciones Exteriores de 
la Republica Mexicana, dentro de dos ailos con- 
tados de U fecha del canje de las ratificaciones del 
presente Tratado. 



ARTICLE XV. 

Any controversies which may arise respecting 
the interpretation or the execution of the present 
Treaty, or the consequences of any violation 
thereof, shall bo submitted when the means of 
settling them directly by amicable agreement are 
exhavisted, to the decision of Commissions of 
Arbitration, ami the result of such arbitration 
shall be binding upon both Govarnraeuts. 

The members of sucii Commissions shall be 
selected by the two Governments by common 
consent, failing which, each of the Partie.s shall 
nominate an Arbitrator, or an equal number of 
Arbitrators, and the Arbitrators thus appointed 
shall select an umpire. 

The procedure of the arbitration shall in each 
case be determined by the Contracting Parties, 
failing which the Commission of Arbitration shall 
be itself entitled to determine it beforehand. 



ARTICULO XV. 

Las controversias que se susciten sobre la inter- 
pretacion 6 ejecucion del presente Tratado, 6 sobre 
Ins consocuencias de alguna violacion de i\, se 
sometenin, cuando se agoten los medios de arreglo 
directo pnr convenios amistosos, ii la decision de 
Comisiones de Arbitraje, y el resultado de este 
arbitrejo sera obligatorio para ambos Gohiemos. 

Los miembros de estos Comisiones senin nom- 
brados de comuu consentimiento por los dos 
flobiernos ; y no eatando de acuerdo, cada una de 
las Partes nombrara un Arbitro, 6 un niiaiero 
igual de Arbitros, y los Arbitros asf nombrados 
designankn un tercero para el oaso de discordio. 

lits Partes Contratantes deteiminanin en cada 
caso cl procedimiento del arbitraje, y no estando 
de acuerdo, la Comision de Arbitraje estard facul- 
tada para determinarlo de antemano. 



m 



ARTICLE XVI. 

The present Treaty shall continue in force 
during ten years, counted from the day of the 
exchange of the ratiticationa ; and in case neither 
of tlie two (Contracting Parties ahull have given 
notice, twelve months before the expiration of the 
said period of ten years, of their intention of 
terminating the present Treaty, it shall teniuin in 
force until the expiration of one year from the day 
on which either of the Contracting Parties shall 
have given such notice. 



ARTICULO XVL 

Gl prosente Tratado durara diez aflos, contados 
desde el dia del canje de las ratiKcacionea, y en 
caao de quo ninguna de las dos Partes Contra - 
tantes haya dado noticia, doee meses lintes de la 
espiracion de dicho periodo de diez aHos, de su 
inlencion de terminar el presente Tratado, con- 
tinuarii en vigor hasta la termiuacion de un aflo 
contudo desde el dia en que una de las Parte* 
Contratantes di^- esta noticia a la otra. 



f 



ARTICLE XVII. 

The present Treaty shall be ratified by Her 
Majesty the Queen of Great Itritain and Ireland, 
and by his Excellency the President of the United 
States of Mexico, and the ratifications shall be 
exchanged at Mexico as soon as possible. 

In witness wliereof, the respective Plenipo- 
tentiaries have signed the same, and have allixed 
thereto the seals of their arms. 

i)one, in two originals, at the City of Mexico, 
the twenty-seventh day of November, one 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight 

(LS.) SPENSER ST. JOHN. 

(La) EMILIO VELASCO 



ARTICULO XVII. 

El pre.?eiite Tratado sera ratificado por su 
Excelcncia el Preaidente de los Estados Unidos 
Mexicanos, y por Su Majeatod la Reina de la 
(•ran HretaiTa e Irlanda, y las ratificaciones se 
(•anj(!ariln en Mtixico tan pronto como sea poL.ible. 

Kn testimonio de lo cual los reapectivos Pleni- 
potenciarioa hau lirmado y sellado. 

Hecho, en dos origiuales, en la Ciiidad de 
Mexico, el dia-veintisiete de Novembre, de mil 
o';hociento3 ocbenta y echo. 

(LS.) SPENSER ST. JOHN. 

(L.S.) EMILIO VEI^SCO. 



f ■- 



1 



( 122 ) 



Examples of United States' Public Documents and Acts of Congress 
in which Sealing is described as " fishery." 



(1) 

BrltUh and Foreign 
8ut« Piparabjr 
Hertalet, toI. ii, 
p. 349. 

(2.) 
II. ofB., 42ncl Cong., 
2nd iwia., Ei. Uoc. 
lU. 



H. of R 

I It Sim 



(3.) 

44th Cong., 
. Ki. Doc. 03. 



1832, July 10. Despatch from United States' Charg^ d'Affairea to the Buonoa Ayres Minuter 

on the subject of the seal fishery of Muiviuus, Folklnnd Islauds. 
Throughout letter the tcim of " fishery " is employed. 

1871. " Fur-seal fisheries, Alaska. Letter from the Secretary of the Treaanry, tronimitting copy 
nf Report by Special Ageut in charge of the fur-seal fisheries at the Islands of St Paul and St Ueoi^, 
Alaska." 

1874. An Art of Congress approved on the 22nd April provided for a Report on " the present 
condition of the seal fisheries of Alaska ; the haunts and habits of the scul ; the preservation and 
extension of the fisheries as a source of revenue to the United States, with like information respecting 
the fur-bearing animals of Alaska gcnnmlly ; the statistics of the fur trade and the condition of the 
people or'natives, especially those upon whom the successful proaecutioa of the fisheries and fur trade 
is dependent." 

1876. " Seal fisheries of Alaska. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting, in 
response U> s Resolution from the House of Representatives, information relating to the seal fisheries in 
Alaska." 



^4.) 

H or R.. eoth Cong., 
2nd SeM., Report 
No. .1SKS. 



1889. "Fur-seal fisheries of Alaska. (29th January, 1889. — Recommitted and ordered to be 
printed.) Mr. Dunn, from the Connnitt'ie on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, submitted the following 
Report." . . . . " The Conmiittee was directed to investigate the fur-seal fisheries of Alaska, and aU 
contracts or leases made by the Government with any person or Companies for the taking of fur-seals 

or other fur-bearing animals in Alaska and to fully investigate and report upon the nature and 

extent of the rights aud interests of the United States in the fur-seals and other fisheries in Bering Sea 
in Alaska," &c. 



(5.) 
United Sutee' 8«nate, 
50th Cong., 2nd ieae., 
Ri. Doc. 106. 

(6.) 
H. of R., eiit Cong., 
lit Sen., Ex. Doc 
4.S0. 



(7.) 

United States' 
Statute*. 1887 (0 
1889, Tol. zir, 
p. 939. 

(8.) 
Slat Conir., lit 8a 
H. R.. 7903. 



lS??n. " Message from the President of the United States, transmitting, in response to Senate 
Resolution of the 2nd Januan,-, 1889, a Report upon the seal fisheries in Bering Sea." 

1890. " Seal fisheries of Behring Sea. Message from the President of the United States, 
transmitting a letter from the Secretjvry of State, with accompanying papers, touching the subjects in 
dispute between the (ioveniment of the United States and the Government of Great Britain in the 
Behring Sea, including all communications since the 4th March, 1889." 

1889, March 2. An Act making appropriations for civil expenses of Government for the year 
ending the 1.3th June, 1890. 

" Alaskan scul fisheries," for salaries, &c„ at seal fisheries in Alaska, as follows : — 
For one agent, 3,650 dollars, &c. 

1890, March 7. The Bill and the Act founded upon it under which Mr. Elliott was appointed the 
Special Agent for the purpose of collecting information on the condition of the " seal fisheries of 
Alaska." 



(9.> 
ILofR. 5UtCon(., 
2nd Seia., £>. Doe. 
144. 



1891 " Seal fisheries of Behring Sea. Message from the President of the United States 
transmitting a letter from the Secretary of State submitting the official correspondence between the 
Government of the United States and the Government of Great Britain, touching the seal fisheries of 
the Behring Sea since the 19th July last." 



(IQ\ 1892, March 28. 

52«d Cong., Irt Sew, 28th March, 1892. 
Ba. Doc 73. 



Letter to Secretary of United States with reference to Senate Resolution of the 



( 1^3 ) 



Minuter 



Statements made by certain IVitnesses in the United States' Case respecting 
the Pribyloff Islands, &c., compared loith those previously made by the 
same persons in Official Reports. 



PKOFKSSOIl .1. A. Al.LKX, a Curator in tlie American Jluseuiu of Natural History, whose 
acfuiirciiieiits and crcJeiitials will 1)« found very fully set forth on p. 3GD of the Appendix to the 
United States' (,'iiso, and who is the author of the well-known " Monograph on the Nortli American 
Pinnii)cds," furnishes, at the request of the Secretary of State of the United States, a Special Iteport 
on tlie ])iniiiiioil3, witli particular rerereiico to the fur-seuls. Tliis forms part of Vol. I of the Appendix, 
and is friMjuenlly <iuoted in the Case. Without enterini^ into minor [loiiits of criticism on this article, 
which, in so far as it relalt'il to the habits, &c., of the fur-seal, is practically a replica of the Report of 
the United States' f'oiuniissioiier.', it may be of interest to place side by side a few parallel statements 
derived frcjiu this IJeport jirepared by reciuest, and the previously written " Monograph " of the same 
author. Tlie date of the " Monograph " is 1880. 



Monograph of 1880. 

1. " The pinnipeds, or i'm?ii/)frf('a, embracing the 
seals and walruses, an; commonly recognized by 
recent sy.stenintic writers as constituting a .sub- 
order of the orili;r Fer(r, or carnivorous mammals. 
They are, in Hhort, true 6V(ni!iw«, moditied for .an 
aquatic existence, anil have consequently been 
sometimes termed " Amphibious Carnivora." Their 
whole form is modilied for life in tlie water, which 
element is their true home. Hero they display 
great activity, but on land their movements are 
confined and laboured. They consequently rarely 
leave the water, and generally only for short 
periods, and are never found to move voluntarily 
more than a few yards from the shore. Like the 
other n.arine mammalia — the Cclnrea and tiirania 
(whales, dolphins, porpoi.ses, manatees, &o.) — their 
bodies are more or ' " !'...h-liko in general form, 
and their limbs are tiansformed into swimming 
organs. As their name implies, they are lin-footed. 
Generally sjieaking. the body may be comjiared 
to two cones joined liasally. Unlike the other 
marine mammal.^, the pinnijieds are all well 
clothed with hair, while several of them have 
underneath tlie exterior coarser hair a thick, soft, 
silky under-fur. In contrasting them with the 
ordinary or terrestrial mammals, we note that the 
body is only exceptionally rai.sed, and the limbs 
are confined within the common integument to 
beyond the knees and elbows, and are hence to 
only a slight degree serviceable for terrestrial loco- 
motion. — (Op. cit., p. 1.) 

" The existing pinnipeds contain three very 
distinct minor groups or families, differing quite 
widely from each other in important characters : 
thesT arb the walruses or Oilobaenulce, the eared 
seal or Otaridce, and the earless seals or Plweidce 



Article in, Appendix I to United States' Case, 1892. 

1. " The common seals, the eared seals, and the 
walruses form a well-marked group of the car- 
nivorous mammalia, constituting a sub-order 
(I'invipcdia) of the order Camlrura. They are 
carnivore.-' si)eeially modified for aquatic locomo- 
tion and sub-aqiiatie life. Their ancestors were 
doubtless land animals, probably more nearly 
allied to the liears than to any other existing 
mammals. They are still dependent (ui the laud 
or on fields of ice for a resting-place, to which 
they necessarily resort to bring forth their young. 
'They are thus very unlike the sea-co\v.s, and the 
whole tribe, which are strictly aquatic, bringing 
forth in the water, and entirely unfitted for loco- 
motion on land " (p. 368). 

Compare also, on " the true home " of the fur- 
seal passage quoted below from p. 405, 



[117J 



2 K 



124 



Monograph — (continued). 



After statitiR that the first two groups are thp 
more nearly tiUieil, and t)iat the PhocUla may he 
contrnsleil willi these, beiii;; the lowest SW'P. 
Professor Allen adds: "The linih structure, the 
mode of life, iiud the whole economy are essen- 
the same in the two groups " (p. 2). 



A rlielt—{conliniitd). 



2. North Pacific Fur-Seai 

" Habitat — shores of the North Pacific from 
Colifumla and Japan (Peters) northward "(p. 210). 



3. " Except durinj; the season of reproduction 
these animals appear to lead a wandering life, but 
the extent and direction of their mijrrations are not 
yet well known. Steller spoke of their migrations as 
being as regular as those of the various kinds of sea- 
fowls, and tliey are recordi'd as arriving with great 
regularity at the Pribylolf Islands; but where 
they pass the season of winter is still a matter of 
conjecture " (p. 335) 



4. Under [the heading " CnUorhinus Ursinus — 
Northern Fur-seal " is the following statement : — 

" Tlie fur-si';d is well known to have been 
formerly abundant on the western ('oast of North 
Amerii.a, as fur south as CaliHunia, but the exact 
southern limit of their range I have been unable 
to determine. 

" Captain Scammon spoke of having seen them 
' on one of the San I5enito Islands, on the coast of 
Lower Caliornia, an<l many beaches were found 
fronting gullies wliere (fur) .■"..Is in large nundters 
formerly gathered, and as th', y had ])lenty of 
ground to retreat upon, tbn -je 'ers sometimes 
drove them far enoui:h b.iek to i),:ike sure of the 
whole herd, or tliat portior M' 'iiem the '^kins of 
which were desirable," 1,'f :ei-' states that tlie fur- 
seal and sea-elepliant oiioi, made tlie shores (of 
Guadaloupe Island) a favourite rc-oitiug-place, and 
refers to tlicir former occurrence on Cedros Island 
in latitude 28^" (p. 332). 



" 5. Man, of course, stands first in importance as 
an enemy of the fur-seal.but under the restrictions 
respecting the killing of tliese animals now en- 
forced at tlie Pribylolf Islands, does not apjiear to 
have a very marked infiuence in ellecting their 
decrease " (p. 381). 

6. Professor Allen, quoting llr, Itecks, with 
special reference to the harbour seal, writes: — 

" He adds tliat it is only in the spring of the 
year that this seal will 'float' when killed in the 
water, but says that he has never seen a seal so 
poor, which if killed dead on the spot would not 
have iloaled from live to ten seconds, or long 
enough to give ' ample time for rowing alongside, 
supposing the animal to have lieen killed by shot, 
and the boat to contain two hands ' " (p. 597). 

Again, referring to the bearded seal, he quotes 
Eumlien os follows : — 

" In July during the moulting time their 
stomachs contained nothing but stones, some of 



2. North Pacific Fur-&al. 

" Ilabitat — the islands in IJehring Sea, at 
present chiefly the IVibyloff and (Commander 
Islands, migrating southwarrl in winter along the 
American coast to California, and along the 
Asiatic coast to the Kurile Islands" (p. 372, 
Appetulix I). 

3. " The true home of the fur-seals of the 
eastern waters of the North Pacific and liehring 
Sea is the Pribylolf group of islands in liehring 
Sea. It is to these islands that seals repair an- 
nually to bri'cd, and there is no evidence that 
they breed elsewhere than on these islands. It is 
evident, from what we know of seal life elsewhere, 
that wore the climate sufliciently mild in winter, 
they would undoubtedly pass the whole year at 
these islands. Owing, however, to the inclemency 
of the winter months, the fur-seals are forced to 
migrate souihward in search of food and a milder 
climate." — fAppendix I, p. 405.) 

4. " Since fur-seal breeding rookeries are re- 
ported to have formerly existed on some of the 
small islands off Soutliern < 'alifiirnia, it bus been 
assumed that they were a iinitioii of tlu! Pribyloff 
herd which sometimes nunained south to breed. 
Such an as.suni])tion is entirely opposed to what is 
known of the habits and distribution of marine 
life and tlie well-grounded principles of geographic 
distribution, viz., that a fur-seal breeding on :m 
Arctic island, which it .annually travels thousands 
of miles to reach, would also clinnse for a breeding 
stiition an island in suli-tropical latitude. Fortu- 
nately, the rebuttal of this a.ssumption iloe.s not 
depend upon the gencr.ilizatinns of (be natiiralists, 
since specimens have recently been obtained (Vom 
(iuadaliiii]ie Island which sliow that while a fur- 
seal funuerly occurred there, and is still sometimes 
fc)iin<l tlicre in small numbers, it is not only not 
tlie Pribylott upecies, but a seal belonging to a 
dillerent genus, uiTllEnro only knowk ah an 

INHABITANT OF TlIK SdUTIIEKN HkMISIMIKUE " 

(p. 4'JG). 

5. " The history of the PribyloflT fur-.seal herd 
shows that tor a period of about fifteen yeai-s it 
was ]iossible to kill for commercial ]nirposes 
100,000 m.ale seals aiinually with not only no 
recognizable decrease nor deterioration of the 
herd, but appareiitiv a decided increase up to 
about the year ISHO'" (p. 407). 

" 6. Only such .seals as are instantly disabloa 
can be secured, and even many of these must be 
lost, since the s]iecifio gravity of a dead seal is 
greater than that of the water in which it is 
killed " (p. 409). 



12S 



Munojraph— (continued). 



them nearly of a ([imrtor-iiouiul weijjnt. They 
act'inncl to cut nothing during tho entire time of 
shedding, probably six weeks. Certain it is that 
they Inau all their lihibber, end by tho middle of 
Jidy have nolliing but ' white horse,' a tough, 
white, somewhat cartilaginous substance, in place 
of blubber. At this season they sink when shot" 
(pp. 571-672;. 



A rticU — (cunt tnutcC). 



Extracts from Reports and Evidence of Captain Charles Bryant (1869-76). 



1. " The pnps are about five weeks old when the 
old f.'iuales go off to fueJ." — (" On Eared Seals," 
p. 103.^ 

" I'roni that time [after being served] .she lies 
either sleeping near her young ttv .spends her time 
floating ur playing in the water near the shore, 
returning ocauiionally to suckle her pup." — 
(" Monograph of North American I'innipcds," 
p. 380.) 

" The females go into the water to feed when 
the pups are some C weeks old." — (Senate, 41st 
Congress, 2nd Session, Kx. Doe. Xo. 32, p. 5.) 

"The females, after giving birth to tlieir young, 
temporarily repair again to the water." — ("Mono- 
grapli of Xorth American I'innipeds," ]). 38f).) 

'.'. " When once in the water tlie young seals .soon 
apjiear to delight in it, spending most of their 
time (here in iday, lundiling over each other like 
slinals of li.sh." — (M(uiograi)h of Korth American 
rinnipeds, p. 387.) 

'■'<. " Thus they remain iintil October, when the 
oiliest and strongest lie.i;i!i to leave for the winter, 
and others soon follow." — (" Monograjih of North 
American l'inni|icds," pp. 3.S7, 388.) 



4. " The fur-seals resort to the Pribyloll' Islands 
during tlu^ summer months for the sole purp<ise 
of reproduction. Those sharing in these duties 
nec;essarily riMuain on or near the slion^ until tlu; 
young are able to take to tlie water. During this 
considerable period I lie old seals are not known 
to take any food." — (" ( )n Kared Seals," p. 05.) 

"The beach-masters leave the islaiuls in August 
and September." — (H. 1!., 44th Congress, Ist Ses- 
sion, Kx. Doe. No. 83, p. 177.) 

" In November the young seals slop to re.st for 
a few days on the Aleutian l.-lands, v.liere .several 
hundred arc annually killcMl by tlie natives." — 
(Senate, 41st Congress, '_'nd Session, Kx. Doc. 
No. 32, p. fi.) 

5. " About the 20th July the great body of the 
previous year's Jiups arrive and occujiy tlio slopes 
with the younger class of males, and tliey continue 
to be mixed together during tlic remainder of the 
sea.son. The 2-)'ear-oId females, which pair with 
the young males in the water )iear the island, also 
now associate with the other females." — " On 
Eared Seals," p. 11)2.) 

0. " At this stage they [the female pujts] leave 
the island for the winter, and very few appear to 
return to the island until they an; 3 years old, at 
which ago they seek tho males for .sexual inter- 
course. On the other hand, the males return tho 
folloMing year with the mature females. . . . But 
the young females, as already stated, are not seen 



1. " Tho pup is nursed by its mother from its 
birth as long as it remains on the i-slands, the 
mother leaving the islands at different intcrval.s of 
time aft(;r tin: pup is 3 or 4 day.-: old." — (United 
States' Case, Appendix, vol, ii, p. ').) 



1'. " By tho 1st Septend-er nearly all the pup.s 
have learned to swim, and until tin' time of tlieir 
departui-e from the islands spend tln.'ir lime both 
on land and in the water, but !)_, far tlie greater 
portion of thiiir time is si)ent on land." — (United 
States' Ca.se, Aiijiendix, vol. ii, p. h.) 

'■'•. " The time they [llie vouug] leave tlie islands 
is generally the middle of November, but the 
weallier is the true mark of such dcpaiture, they 
seeming unwilling to stay after the lir.it snow or 
sleet comes." — (United Stjites' Case, Appendix, 
vol. Ii, p. 5.) 

4, " I'roviding the conditions were the same on 
tht islands the year round as tliey are in tho 
sumuier, and providing the food .siipjily was siilli- 
cieiit in the immediate vicinity of llie islands, I 
think the .seals would remain on ur about tho 
islands during the entire yciir. The seals eviilently 
consider these islands their bonie, and only leave 
then, by reason of lack of loo.! and inclement 
wcathei," — (United States' Case, Appendix, vol. ii, 
p. 5.) 



."). " Returning again, this 'i'ne as ' 2-year-old3," 
the males go upon the hauln.g-grounds with tho 
bachelor .seals, and the females land on tho 
breeding rookeries. It is jirobalilc that the 
females of this age arc fertilizeil by the Imlls, and 
leave the islands in the fall pregnant."— (United 
States' Case, Appendix, vol. ii, p. tj.) 

(i. " On returning tha third year the young male 
goes again upon the hauling-grounds, and tho 
female to the rookeries, where she brings forth one 
pup." — (United States' Case, Appendix, vol. ii, 
p. 6.) 



126 



in numbers until they are 3 years old, when they 
•rrive in the height of the breeding season." — 
{" Monograph of North American Pinnipeds, 
pp. 401. 402.) 

"The masters and officers of these schooners [of 
the Al.iska Commercial Company], who are familiar 
with the seals, say they see small groups of small 
(apparently 1- and 2-year-old) seals at all times 
during July and August. Tlicse, I think, may be 
young females, whicli, as already stated, do not 
visit the island till they are 3 years old." — 
(" Monograph of Xorth American I'iunipeds, 
p. 411.) 

7. "Copulation, described more fully later, 
usually takes place in the water." — (" On Eiired 
Seals," p. 96.) 

" Owing to the position of the genital organs, 
however, coition on land seems to be not the 
natural method, and only rarely, perhaps in tliree 
cases out of ten, is the attempt to copulate under 
such circumstances efTectual. In tlio meantime, 
the 4- and 6-ye;ir-old wales aro in attendance 
along the shore. When their jealous lord is off 
his guard, or engaged in driving awuy a rival, the 
females slip into the vvaUr, wlien an attentive 
' bachelor ' seal follows her to a disiancu from the 
shore. Then brea.st to breast they embrace each 
other, turning alternately fur each other to bixiathe, 
the act of copulation sometimes couliuuing from 
five to eight minutes." — ("On Eared Seals," 
p. 100.) 

'• I have seen the male deliberately turn the 
female on her back and copulate in that manner. 
This, however, happens move frequently in tho 
water than on land. It is often observable that 
while females are landing iu great number.s tlioy 
come in lieat faster tlian the males on the rookeries 
can cover them. In such cases some of the 
females break away and escape into the water to 
meet fresher and more vigorous mates. It is in 
this way tl'.at the class of ynung males of 4 or 
."> years of age i)erforui a most important service. 

"Since 1S74, owing to tlie decrease in tlie 
number of breeding males, a much larger pro- 
jiortion of the females receive tlie males in the 
water, so that on any still day after tlie 2Utli .Inly, 
by taking a canoe and going a little oil shore, 
con.'iderable numbers may be .seen pairing, and 
readily approached .so near as to bo fully oliserved. 
Tliey are then found in single ]iairs, swimming' in 
circles, sometimes the one, soniitiines the oilier 
leading. They come together in npiiroaching the 
surface from below, the male shuiiLiiig on to the 
back of the female, and firmly clasping lier between 
his fore-llippcrs. The time of contact is shorter 
than on land, not exceeding five ininntos, but tho 
operation is repeated two or three times at 
intervals of fifteen or twenty minutes." — (" Mono- 
graph of North American Pinnipeds," pp. 405, 
400.) 

" While sufricicntly devclopeil to bo fully able 
to serve the females, they lack tho physical 
streugtii to successfully contend for a |ilace on tho 
rookery. Tlu^y haul up with the bachelors at 
night, but iluring the day aro in the water 
swimming along the shore of the rookery, always 
t'n the alert for the females that seek the water as 
idiove stated. On meeting tliem they immediately 
accompany tiiem to a little distance I'lom the 
slifire, and then perform tlie act of coition. Tho 
females, after remaining for a Hhort tinu! in tho 
Water, again return to tlio shore to their former 
places. The old males, linding they have been 
served, express their disgust in a most evident 



7. " In watching the seals while swimming about 
the islands I have seen cases where they appeared 
to be copulating in the water, but I am certain, 
even if this were the case, that the propagation of 
the species is not as a rule effected in this way, 
the natural and usual manner of coition being 
on land." — (United States' Case, Appendix, vol. ii, 
p. 6.) 



127 



manner." — ("Monograpliof Xcntli Ameiiciin I'iniii- 
peds," ]>. .•!8(j.) 

" .All of tlio seals lietwwii t and tl wins nf ii^e 
pass a liirye portion of their time iliirini; the iliiy 
in the water, retiirninf,' to the sliore at nii^'ht. 
While ill the water they swarm aloui,' the shore 
of the hree(lin;^-j)laces watchiiiL; for opportunities 
of matin;.,' with any females tiiat may ihanoe to 
be in the water." — (" JIonoi,'raph of North Ameri- 
can rinnipe<ls," p. .'!8.S.) 

"Owin;_' to the lur^'i^ nnmlier of younf; males 
constantly in the water about the rookeries, in 
adililion to the heaeh-masters, all the femah'.s were 
imprefjuateil before the lOlli August." — ("Mono- 
graph of North AnuTican I'innipeils, p. MOO.) 

8. " As soon as the males in tlu' line nearest the 
shore jjet each .seven or eight females in their 
possession, those higlwr up watch their o]iportunity 

and steal them from them In the average 

there are about fifteen females to one beach- 
master." — (" Monograph of Xorth American I'inni- 
pcds," p. "85.) 

9. In his Ih'port to the Secretary of the Treasury, 
dated the llth October, 187;', Mr. I'.rvant .says;— 

"The stock of breeding bulls has decreased by 
loss friim age and other causes .so much faster 
than thi're has been young seals grown to replace 
them, that its ]irese)it condition is oidy e(pial to 
the present demand, and the stock of half-bulls, or 
those to matuie in the next two year.s, is not 
sutHcient to meet the wants of the increase in the 
females. Under the.'^e cin um.stances, 1 feel it my 
duty to recon)nieud that for the next two years 
the number of .seals to be taken for their skins be 
limited to 85,000 jier annum."— (H. «., 44th Con- 
gress, 1st Session, Kx. ])oc. No. 8;!, p. 178.) 

" At the usual time, however, 15th June [1873], 
the rookei ies were occupied by the beach-uuisters, 
but there were a smaller number to a given area 
than formerl)', the great body of the reserves of 
1809 having lieconie re.! ued one-half." — ("Mono- 
graph of North American I'innipeds," p. 393.) 

1'.' " It was also ar-parent that the killing of so 
man) half-bidls the two jirevious years had 
redn: u to a niinimnni the nundier that hovered 
in the vicinity of the breeding rookeries, keeping 
t,he hearh-niaste's in contiinial alarm." — (" Mono- 
graph of North American I'iiniipeds," p. 394.) 

" The rapid decrease of the reserves, with the 
atteiiili.nt changes in the movements of the seals, 
cause.! consiiieraUi^ anxiety. The wise ones among 
the natives shook their heads ominously, and said 
they had predicted this from the slaughtering so 
many half-hulls <Iuriiig the previous three years. 
I feit this, but could not order dilferently, the 
Company having ihe right to .select their own 
animals." — (" Monograph of North American 
Pinnipeds," p. 395.) 

"Since 1874, owing to the decrease in the 
nundier of breeding; mal"s, a much largi'r propor- 
tion of I'emales receive llu' Miales in the water." — 
(" Monograiih of Narth American l'iiiiiii)eds," 
p. 405.) 

"A residence of sevi'ii successive seasons on the 
island, ill charge of the.s.' animals, lais furnished 
me with Ihe ilesirei! o]ipiiiluiuty [or determining 
this .surplus produc'. by actual study of tlioir 
habits and re((uirenients, ar..'. *he result is the 
killing of l(JO,(KlO jier annum ihics not leavo o 
anllicieiit number of males to mature for the wants 
of the increase in the number of females." — (II. It,, 
44th Congress, 1st Se3.sioii, Kx. Doc. No. 83, 
p. 17.0.) 

"Tims it will be .seen the method of killing does 

[117J 



8. " The average seen at one time while I was 
on the islands was from fifteen to twenty to a 
bull. ... I am of the opinion that a bull could, 
if necessary, serve 75 to 100 cows during a 
season." — (United States' Case, Appendix, voL ii, 
p. 6.) 

9. "During my observation only one class of 
bachelor seals on the islands showed any deficiency 
in numbers, and I accounted for tliis fact in my 
Report to the Secretary of the Treasury, dated the 
5th September, 1872, from which I quote :'.... 
There is now only a deficiency of one class, that of 
4- and 5-year-old seals.'" — (United States' Case, 
Appendix, vol. ii, p. 7.) 



10. " The whole time I was there there was an 
ample supply of full-grown vigorous males 
sullicient for serving all the females on the 
islands, and every year a surplus of vigorous bulls 
could always be found about the rookeries awaiting 
an opportunity to usurp the place of some old or 
wounded bull, unable longer to maintain his place 
on the breeding islands."— (United States' Case, 
Appendix, vol. ii, p. 7.) 



h 



138 



not ndmlt of the settinf; apart of a snocial number 
and taking tlie remaindor for the ijuota for market, 
and the only ))o.ssilile way to preserve the re(|uisitc 
number for breedini; purposes is to restrict the 
number to be killed so far within t lie product as 
to insiire enouijh escaping; for tliis nbject. When 
the lease was put in practical operation in 1871, 
there was a very large excess of breeiling males on 
hand ; since then this surplus has been diminished 
by the ilying out of the old seals faster than there 
has been younger seals allowed to escajjeand grow 
up to fill their places until the present stock is 
insutlioient to meet the necessities of the increasing 
number of lireeding females." — (H. K., 44th Con- 
gress, 1st Session, Kx. Doc. Xo. 83,' pp. 176, 177.) 

11. After referring to a severe gale, accmnpanied 
with .=:iiow, that swept over the Seal Islands 30th 
October, 187'!, which drove all the seals into the 
water, says : " Only a comiiaratively small number 
returned again to tlic shore. Among these were 
largo numbers of fi'males which had lost their 
young, and for several days they went about the 
breeding-grounds plaintively calling for their 
pups, in Novendit^r, when the time had amved 
tor driving the young seals to kill for the supply 
of winter food for the natives, it was found that 
only half the n\unber (5,000) requisite for that 
purpose could be obtained. Undoubtedly great 
numbers of the young seals which were driveu to 
the water by tlie storm must have become sepa- 
rated from their paients and lost." — ("Monograph 
of Xorth Ati'erican Pinnipeds," p. 397.) 

" When the sun shines for two or three hours, 
and tlu^ rocks become heated, tliere are occasional 
deaths among the beach-masters and very young 

pups from sunstroke fortunately these 

occurrences are rare, and it was only in 1874 tliat 
any appreciable number were lost from this cause. 
That year many young seals died al)out the 1st 
of August." — (" Monograph of Xortli American 
Pinnipeds," p. 408.) 

12. "These haiding-grounds are swept, and 
driven two or tbree times a-week during the months 
of June and Jul}', and the prime seals culled out for 
killing, and every seal growing up has to run this 
gauntlet for his life his .second, third, and fourth 
yaar, before he esca]ie^< to grow up as a breeding 
bull." — (11. I!., 44tii Congress, 4tli .Session, Kx. 
Doc. No. So, p. 17C.) 



13. "These beaches occu])ied by tlit intermediate 
ages, from 1 to (i years, together with the few 
superannuated ones. . . . These seals, as thev iie 
on the beaches, are surprised by the huntei-s, cut olf 
from the water, and drivcni inlanil in droves to the 
salt-houses, where they are sejmrated into groups 
of sixty or seventy at a time and surrounded by 
the sealers with their clubs. Under the direction 
of the Chief, the prime seals are selected and 
killed, and those too young or too old an- idlowed 
to go into the water and return to the hauhng- 
UTound a ;ain." — (II. li., 41th Congress, Ist 
Sessioti, 'tux. Doc. No. 83, p. 176.) 



n. " I do not think that while I '.^as there I saw 
in any one season titty deai! pi./s ( ■ the rookeries, 
and the majority of dei u pop' "Vv •• along the 
shore, having been kiil. ?": Kv iJ,, " — (United 

States' Case, Appendix, mi. ., \j, 'ii./ 



12. "Tlie driving and killing of bachclc a;..i!« 
was always carried on in the most carefu mii i.'fi-, 
and during my stay upon the >lands i.to •tim 
practically no injury caused to scjv' life by o.or 

driving Kedriving of tne (;ro,-in!; malet. 

from the various haiiling-grounds was u.alu 
at intervals of several days, and did not 
cause them any injury ; and I am thoroughly 
satisfied that there was not a single instance in 
which the vitiUity of a seal wivs destroyed or 
impaired by redriviug." -- (United States' Case, 
Appendix II, )). 8.) 

13. " In all cases, at suitable intervals and before 
driving to the killing-ground, the herd was lialtcil, 
and the males tif 5 years iild or older we' i allowed 
to escajK'.' — (Lnited States' Case, A', adix li, 
p. 8.) 



.•\ *-u^, ■ 



139 



Slcplum N. Buynitaky (1870-72). 



1. " They [tlie natives] subsist mostly on cod and 
halibut and every description of fisli they can find. 
They dry and preserve it for winter." — (H. I'., 
50th Congress, 2nd Session, Ticport No. 3883, 
p. 12.) 



1. " At the time I was on the islands I do not 
think tlierc were any fish at all witiiin .3 miles of 
the islands, and that tlie .seals to feed had to go 
farther than that from the laud. The belief is 
founded on statements made me by natives on the 
islands and also from tliu fact that fresh fish were 
seldom eaten npon the islands." — (United States* 
Case, Appendix II, p. 21.) 



Eennj A. GlUlden (1882-85). 



1. " Q. Wliat do you say about the increase or 
diminution of the nuudii.'r of seals on the rookeries 
of St. Paul and St. Geor;^o ? — A. I did not notice 
any change, but they vary in difl'erent years, in 
St. George particularly. . . . T coidd not see any 
particular difference." — (H. I!., .lOtli Congress, 
2nd Session, Keport No. 3883, p. 27.) 

2. Does not speak of dead pups before Com- 
mittee ou Merchant Marine and Fisheries, in 
1888, but in answer to "Do you know any- 
thing of seals being killed in the water by 
unauthorized persons ?" says " No, Sir."- — (H. ]{., 
50th Congress, 2nd Session, licport No. 3883, 
p .26.) 

3. " Q. I would ask whether there are not 
traduig-vessels which buy skins ? — A. Yes, Sir, 
and sti'al skins ; that is the great trouble wo had — 
to watch marauders. That was more trouble than 
anytliing else." — (11. It., 50th Congress, 2nd Session, 
Report No. 3883, p. 20.) 

" Q As agent of the Government, were you 
charged with the duty of looking after violations 
of the laws of the United States in liehring Sea 
by vess(;ls and othei-s ? — A. Yes. 

" Q. Was there miich trouble in this respect? — 
A. Yes, Sir ; a good detil sometimes. 

Q. ]>y foreign vcs-sels, by hunters of our country 
as well as foreigners ? — A. Yes, Sir. There have 
been a number cai)tmixl there. 

■' Q. What is thi^ nuest of these hunters ? Do 
they hunt in the open seas, or do they attempt to 
hunt (Ui these islands ? — A. They come to seal 
islands in the night — on moonlight nights. AVe 
took a vessel loaded with seals while they were on 
tiu! islands. Wo got intt) the vessel and took 
possession nf it while they were on the islands 
killing seals." — (II. I!., 50th Congress, 2nd Session, 
Report No. 3883, p. 28.) 



1. " I am unablo to state whether the seals in- 
creased or nut during my residence on St. Paul, 
Ijut they certainly did not decrease, except, per- 
haps, there was a slight decrease in 1884." — 
(United States' Case, vol. ii, p. 109.) 



2. " I never noticed or examined dead pups on 
the rookeries before 1884, the number being so 

small, but that year examined them In my 

juuj,ment they were starved to death because their 
mothers had been killed while away from the 
islands in search of food." — (United States' Case, 
p. 110.) 

3. " Ilaids on the rookeries by marauders did not, 
while I was on the islands, amount to anytliing, 
and certainly seal life was not affected to any 
extent by such incursions. I only knew of one 
raid upon St. I'aul Island while I was there. It 
wa.s a Japanese vessel, and they killed about 100 
seals, the carca-sses of which we found on board 
when we captured the seals." — (United States' 
p. 111.) 



Gcorijc Wardinan (1881-85). 



.\l'tcr having tohl the <'nmmitteo in 188.''! that 
he had meas\ued all tlio rookeries carefully, 
Wardmau was asked — 

" Q. Ho you put it [the ninnber of .seals] at the 
same nuiabors annually f " — A. Aliout. 1 think 
the breeding seals on the rookeries eoaie in about 
the .same uuniliers.' — (II. It., Slltli Congre.s-S, 2nd 
Session, liepoii No. oSH3, ]i. li'.l.) 

No refertMiee to inerea.-ie anywhere in evidence 
before lluubu of Kepresenlalivus Conmiittee. 



liaid.s referred to in II. It. Itcport No. 3883, 
SOlh Congress, 2ud Session, pp. .'il, 35, 38, 39. 



" r made careful examination of the rookeries 
each year, and after the first year I compared my 
yearly observations, so that I miglit arrive at some 
conclusion as to whether it was possible and expe- 
dient to increase our portion of the quota of skins 
to be taken on St. George Island without inju- 
riously atlecting .seal lift then". I am satisfied, 
from my oliservations, that the breediug-grounda 
on St. George covered greater areas in 1884 than 
in 1881, and that seal life materially increased 
between those dates." — (United States' Case, 
vol. ii, p. 178.) 

No mcution is made of raids in printed atU- 
davit. 



130 



W. B. Taylor (1881). 



1 . "So far as our observation went, and from 
wliat wo knew from infoiniatiun (ibtaim.'il from 
those who hail lieen tliere a number of years, tlie 
rookerie,« were at this time [1881]aboul as full 
as they ever were." — (H. I!., uOth Congress, linil 
Session, Keport No. 3883, p. 44.) 

2. " Q. Wlien does the youn^' seal first pi to the 
water? — A. I do not think I ean be aeeiirate in 
any statement as to that; I did know." — (H. I!., 
;• b Congress, L'nd Session, Kejidrl Xo. ;I88.'.1, 
p. 1 

■J. lines young seals will come about tlie 

village s playful, .so far as anything of that 

kind is t .rned, as a cat or d<ig would lie, but 
of couwe you cannot domesticate tliem, because 
they will not cat anything oul.side of the sua." — 
(II. 1!., ,"iOth Congress, Und Session, IJeport 
No. 388.1, p. 00.) 

4. " I believe that the capacity of the bull seal is 
limited the same as any nlher animal, and 1 liavc 
frequently connteil from thirty to thirty-live, and 
even at one time forty-two cows with one bull. 1 
think if there were nuire bulls lliere would be 
less cows to <me bull, and in tlial way the increase 
would be < leatcr than now." — (H. I!., .'JOth Con- 
gress, 2nd Ses.'iion, Keport Xci. 3883, \i. oi),) 

5. '"Tliese vessels will take occasion to hang 
around the islands, and when there is a heavy fog 
to go to tiie rookeries. Aery often .... As it is 
to-day these vessels come and kill 5,000, 10,000, 
15,000 seal every year." — H. li., 50th Congress, 
2ud Session, Keport No. 3883, p. .^4.) 



1. "From carefully obser\'ing the grounds 
formerly occupie<l liy breeding se.iLs, as pointed out 
to me bv th natives, and from statements made me 
by those on the island, I believe there were more 
^eals on the islands in 1881 than in any one year 
])revions to that tune." — (United States' I'asc, 
vol. ii, p. 17C.) 

2. " From my oU^Jcrvations I am convinced that a 
pu]) must be tj or 8 weeks old before it can swim." 
— (United States' Ca.se, vol. ii, p. 17C.) 



3. "T believe that a seal is naturally a land 
animal." — (United States' Case, vol. ii, p. 17U.) 



4. " It is my opinion that a bull is able to servo 
three to five cows a-day, and certaiidy over 100 
a .season." — (United States' Case, vol. ii, p. 177.) 



0. "There was but one raid on the rookeries while 
I was there, and that took place on Otter Island" 
— (United Slates' Case, vol. ii, p. 177.) 



T. F. Morgan (18C8-C9, 1874-87). 



1. " Q. Were the rookeries in the last years of 
your visit as full as in the beginning ? — A. Tliere 
is a larg<- increase in tlie number of animals .since 
1868, when I first went there. There is a large 
increa.se since 1874, when 1 went back. The 
breeding roukeries occupy more territory than 
they did tlien." [Evidence given in 1888.] — 
(11. K,. "lOth Congriss, 2nd .Session, lieport 
No. ".88:1, pii. 08, ti!i.) 

" Q. Then tlie result of your observalions is 
that there has been an increase in numbers ? — 
A. Yes, Sir."— (II. Ii., .JOth Congress, 2iid .Session, 
Report No. 3883, p. 72.) 



"There is no ijueslioii but what these schooners 
have had an efleel ujion the rookeries in the la.st 
three years in the difference in the way the seals 

arrive There is no question in my mind 

but *hal a very large jiercentage (jf tliose animals 
taken near the shore are females." — (II. 11., 
."iOtli C(jiigress, 2nd Session, Keport No. 3883, 
p. 71.) 

Nothing said here or anywhere else in evidence 
of dead pups being a resultant of the killing at 
eea. They ore nowhere mentioned. 



1. " In 1S85, and in every year thereafter \intil I 
left in 1887, there was a marked decrease in the 
number of marketable skins that could be obtained 
in each year during the seiiling season. We were 
able down to the last year [1887] to get our total 
catch of 100,000 seals, but in crder to get that 
number we hiul to take what in previous years 
we would have rejected, namely, undersized skins, 

t.c, the skins of young seals. In the years 

1880, 188G, and 1887 my attention was attracted 
not only to a diininution in tlie number of killablc 
seals iqipeariiig on the island, but to a decrease in 
the females as well. Up to 1884 the breeding- 
space in the rookeries had increased, and from 
that year down to 1887, when I left the island, 
the acreage covered by the rookeries which were 
occupied by seals constantly diminished." — 
(United States' Case, vol. ii, pp. 03, 04.) 

" From the year 1884 down to the period when 
I left St. tieorge Island there was a marked in- 
crease in the number of dead pups, amounting, 
perhaps, to a trebling of the numbers observed in 
former years, so that I would estimate the number 
of dead pu])s in the year 1887 at about 5,000 or 
7,000 as a maximum." Attributes mortality to 
killing of mothers, — (United States' Case, vol. ii, 
p. 04) 



181 



H. H. Melntyre (1870-89). 



1. "The seals are found indiscriminntely on the 
two islands ; that is, seals born on St. George are 
found at St. Paul, and vice vcrsd." — (H. R., 
uOlli CongTR.ss, 2nd Session, Report No. 3883, 
p. 128.) 

2. Except in the vague a.ssumption that when 
females are killed their young die, no reference is 
made in '■ Fur-Seal Fisheries of Alaska " to dead 
pups being found on rookeries. 

3. " We liad then [1873-82], and at all times 
until the marauding was actually engaged in, a 
large surplus of animals froiu which to make our 
selection. After 1883 [until 1882 .jizes right, 
see above] the sizes decreased, and have constantly 
decreased ever since." — (H. It,, oOtli Congress, 
2nd Session, Report No. 3883, p. 118.) 



•I. "The fact is tlint the bachelor seals may be 
found to-day upon a certain rookery, and at 
another time u]ioii aiiotlicr place. The result is 
the same animals, in many insti'.nees, have bi;en 
counted two or three timos." — (11. R., flOlh Con- 
gress, 2nd Session, Report No. 3883, ji. 11(3.) 

(See Morgan, II. R., fiOlh ('ongre.s,s, 2iul Session, 
Report No. 3883, i)p. 71, 72, as to change in 
rookeri(.'S and liauling-ground.'f.) 

"i, "After 1883 tiw. sizes decreased, and have 
constantly decrea.sed eviir since." — (H. I!., oOth 
Congress, 2nd Session, [deport No. 3883. p. IIS.) 

And still the lOO.OUO were taken every year. 

'Q. To what do you attribute this diminution in 
the size of the skins taken ? — A. To the !aet tliat 
after turning back our breeiit-rs a sullicient number 
of large male seals cannot be had on the islands to 
mcel the rccpiircnients of our tmde." — (II. R,, 
50tli Congress, 2nd Session, Report No. 3883, 
p. 119.) 

Ci. " There are at present [1888] in my opinion, 
too few bull seals to keep the rookeries up to their 
best condition." — (II. R, OOtb Congress, 2nd 
Session, Report No. 3883, p. 117.) 

" When we arc left only exactly the number of 
bulls we need, and a few even of these are kiUed, 
it comiilelely upsets our calculations, with the 
result of leaving too few of tliis class of animals to 
secure tlie full productiveness of tlu! nuikeries." — 
(II. It., 50th Congress, 2nd Session, Report 
No. 3883, p. 130.) 



1. "The seals are migratory and return, as I 
believe, after migration to the vicinity and 
probably to the ground or rookery on which they 
were born." — (United States' Case, vol. ii, p. 40.) 

2. Reference is made to dead pups having been 
fouiul on the I'ribyloff Islands in 1880, 1887, and 
1888.— (United States' Case, vol. ii, p. 51). 

3. " In my judgment such depletion was caused 
by pelagic sealing, and that it grew greater from 
year to year as the number of so-called poaching- 
schoonc^'S increased; and that its eflects began to 
manifest theniselvi'S about 1885 or 1880." — 
(United States' Case, vol. ii, p. 40.) 

" During the three years following 1882, namely, 
1883, 1884, and 188:>,1 was not upon the islands; 
that upon my return to said islands in 1880 I 
noticed a slight shrinkage in the breeding areas, 
but am unable to indicate the year of the period 
of my absence in which the decrease of breeding 
seals began." — (United States' Case, vol. ii, 
p. 45.) 

" Up to 1882 there was no difficulty in pro- 
curing the required number of seals." — (United 
States' Case, vol. ii, p. 45.) 

"This number [100,000] was easily secured 
everj' year from 1871 to 1885, and at the same 
time a constant increase in the .seal rookeries was 
observed " (p. 48.; 

4. "Yet their [the seals'] habits are so well 
defined and unvarying that it is an easy matter to 
determine wbeliier they increases or decrea.se from 
year to year, because tliey alvays occufiy tin; same 
portions of certain beaclies, and simply expand or 
contract the boundaries of the rookeries as they 
become more or less numerous." — (United States' 
Case, vol. ii, ]). 48.) 

5. " I left the rookeries in 1882 in their fullest 
and lu'st condition, and found them in 1880 
already slunvini; sliglit falling-off, and experienced 
that year for the lirst time .some diHic\dty in 
securing ,just the class of animals in every ca.se 
that we desired. We. however, obtained the full 
catch in that ami the two following years, .... 
but were oliliged, particularly in 1888, to content 
ourselves with snudlcr skins than we had hereto- 
fore taken." — (United States' Case, vol ii, p. 51.) 

6. " While I was located upon the islands there 
was at all times a greater luunber of adult male 
3(iels than was necessary to fertilize the females 
who hauled upon said nidkeries, and there was no 
time when there were not vigorous bulls on the 
rookeries who wen; unable to obtain female con- 
sorts." — (United States' Case, vol. ii, p. 45.) 



1117] 



:m 



1S2 



J. H. MouUon (1877-85), 



" i think liiiiiiij; llio tirsl live year.-. [l.SV7-^i2] 
I WHS lIiLTf tliuri! WHS i\n iiuTi'iisf. ami iliii'iiij; tlic 
lust tliifi! vt'iil's |liS.Sy-Sn), tlnro was im in- 
cToa.se." — (II. K., uUtli ('i>iiijre.ss, 2i]il Sfs.sioii, 
Ki'iKiit No. ;>88;i, 1). 255.) 

J Iocs not lofur to dead jjiips in rvidciice Iji'lbru 
Coinniitttiu. 



" Wliilo on St. I'aiil Island [1881-84] I do 

not think tlic niindji'V of soi.ls increased, and iu 
llie last year (1884) I tliink there wa.s a .^lij^lit 
decrease. " — United States' Ciiso, Ajiiieudix, vol. ii, 
V. 71.) 

" On St. I'aul Island 1 never saw any dead jinps 
to anu)niit to anything until 1884, and llien the 
uuniher was 411110 liolieealile." — (United States 
Case, Ajipendix, vol. ii, p. 71.) 



Joseph Murray (1889-92). 



Uolonel Jfurrav, in a letter addressed to 
Mr. Coff, and dated the ."1st July, 1800, after 
ilescriliint; a nicctim.; held hy llie natives <in 
St. tieiirLjo Island fnr the purpose of disenssinj; 
tlie i.'unses thiit lead to the ileerease in the nundier 
of seals on that island, says: "The ini'etiuj,' was 
adjourned Ironi time U< time until tliey had 
thoroujihly discussed the most important (pU'stions 
raised, and at the last meeting, lu'ld L':!rd May, 
they unanimously declared that it was their lirm 
helief and honest opinion that the seals hiul 
diminished, and would continue to diminish from 
year to year, hiicau.se all the male seals had Ijeen 
slaughtered witlaait allowing any to grow to 
maturity for use on the hreeding-ground. I made 
a note of the suggestion on tlie jonriuil of that 
day, and I am now fully convinced hy jiersonal 
ohservatio' that it is o'dv t(JO true, and that the 
natives were correct in every particidar." — 
(Senate, 50th Congress, 2nd Session, E.\. Uoc. 
No. 49, p. 8.) 



" There is only one great ca\ise of the decrease 
of the fur-.'^eid, and tliat is the killing of the 
females liy iiclagio hunting. During my observa- 
tions in 189(1 1 was led I' 'elieve tliat tlie decrease 
was jiartly cine to the la^ :f hulls on the breeding 
rookeries, and I so rejioiled to .\geiit Goll'; hut 
after thoroughly investigating tlu^ .-.iihject the next 
year b}- daily visits to the breeding-gionnds of the 
several rookeiies, where I saw nearly every cow 
with a iiiip by her side, and hundreds of vigorous 
bulls withiuit any cows, I came to the conclusion 
that there was no truth in the theory, and that it 
was the cows that were scarce and .steadily 
decreasing." — (United States' Case, Appendix, 
vol. ii, p. 74.) 

(Note. — This reference applies to St. Paul 
Island, the earlier one to St. George Island.) 



C/ittrto^l. (7o/(lS89-90). 



"We clnsed the season hy turning away 86 per 
cent, [of the seals driven], a fact which proves to 
every impartial mind that we were re-driving the 
yearlings, and, eonsidering the nunihcr of .skins 
obtained, that it was impossible to secure the 
number allowed by the lease, that we were 
merely torturing the young seals, injuring the 
future life and vitality of the breeding rookeries, 
to the detriment of the lessees, ::ntives, and the 
Government." — (Senate, 50th Congress, 2nd Ses- 
flion, Ex. Doc. No. 90, p. 5.) 

" It is evident tiiat the many preying I'vils upn 
seal life, the killing of the .seals in tlu! I'acilic 
Ocean along the Aleutian Islands, and as they 
come through the ])a.4ses to the Behring Sea, by 
the pirates in these water.s, and the indiscriminate 
slaughter upon the islands, regardh.'ss of the 
future life of the breeding rookeries, have at last 
with their combined destructive ]iowcr reduced 
these rookeries to their present impoverished con- 
dition." — (Senate, 50th Congress, 2ud Session, Ex. 
Doc. No. 90, p. 6.) 

" The prosperity of these world - renowned 
rookeries is fast fading away under tin; jn-csent 
annual catch allowed by law, and this indiscreet 
slaughter now being waged in these waters will 
only hasten the end of the fur-seals of the rribyloff 
Islands." — (Letter from Mr. Goff to Mr. Windom, 
dated St. Paul Island, Alaska, 31st Jidy, 1889.) 



"A few seals are injured by re-driving (often 
conflicted with over-driving, and sometimes so 
called), but the number so injured is inconsider- 
able, and could have no appreciable cfTect upon 
seal life tlmaigh destroying the virility of the 
male." — (United States' Case, Appendix, voL ii, 
p. 113.) 



" I believe that the sole cause of the decrease is 
pelagic sealing, which, from reliable information, 
I understand to have increased greatly since 1884 
or 1885." — (United States' Case, Appendix, vol. ii, 
p. 112.) 



138 



C. A Williams. 



" It was Ruppnsod at that time [I'arly in tim 
Russian n'gimi;] that tli(_- cniinnciicuiiu.'nt of seal 
lil'e on tim Ishmds of IVIiring and Ou]ipur pro- 
bably took ])lace liy reason of ihi' iniliscriininatu 
killinj; on tlioso islands [I'liliyh/lfJ diverting; the 
seal from tlieir iisnal haniits, ami niakinj^ llieni 
seek some other localities. 

" Q. Was there a lar^e nuniljer of seals which 
left tlio I'rihyhilf grouii and VMMit over to the 
Russian islands 1—A. You could hardly expect 
them to go in a hody. There had hardly hcen 
sealing or seal life to any extent on the Com- 
mander Islands of Copper and Behring. It had 
not attracted the attention of the Russians, but 
after the indiscriminate killing on the Islands of 
St. i'aul and St. George, it was noticed that seal 
life increased rapidly on the other islands, and 
the supposition is a natural one that thi^y were 
diverted from the islands on whicli they liad 
heretofore been undisturbed, and souglit other 
places." — (H. R., SOlh Congress, 2ud Session, Re- 
port 3883, pp. 77, 78.) 



"Tlioro is no intermingling of the two herds of 
llic l.'ribylolf and Coamiander ishmds ; may be 
so readily dislingnislied IVom each otiier tliat an 
expert wouhl have no dilllculty in at once tlirow- 
ing out from tho catch taken on the Commander 
Islands any skins of the I'ribylofl" herd ; and 
deponent understands, from persons who have had 
long e.xperienciMn tlie examination of the liviuL; 
animals, that the two lierds .so diifer as to belon:< 
to separate species of the same genu.s, and can 
readily be distinguished from each other." — 
(United Stales' Case, Aiipei'dix, vnl. ii, p. -"i:}?.) 



( 134 ) 



Report by Mr. J. M. Maconn on Observations made by him in i8g2, 
particularly upon the Pribyloff Islands. 



No. 1. 

The Marquis of Salisbury to Mr. Macoun.* 

Sir, Foreig7i Office, May 13, 1892, 

I HAVE to inform you that you hare been solectod by Ilcr Majesty's Govorn- 
mcnt to proceed to the Pribyloff Islands during the prosinit sealing season for tbe 
purpose of making furtber observations and inquiries upon points on which 
information is required for tbe preparation of tbe British Case in the Behring Sea 
Arbitration. 

Application has been made to the United States' Government for permission to 
you to visit and reside upon the Seal Islands, as stipulated in Article IV of the 
Convention signed at "Washington on the 18tli April, of which a copy is inclosed 
herewith, for your information. 

A letter of permission for this purpose, addressed to the United States' authorities 
on tbe islands, has been delivered to Uer Majesty's Minister at Washington, and by 
him forwarded to the Governor-General of Canada, from whom yon will receive it. 
You will also receive from him instructions as to your movements and proceedings, 
the payment of your expenses wliile employed on this duty (which M'ill be defrayed 
by the Govei'nment of the Dominion), tlie points to which your inquiries and obsei'va- 
lions should be directed, and the transmission of your Reports to him. 

You will pay particular attention to any suggestions or requests which you may 
n.'ceive from Sir G. Badcn-l'owcll and Dr. Dawson, Her Majesty's Commissioners for 
inquiring into the conditions of seal life in Behring Sea, and will forward to them any 
information which they may recjuire, either directly or through the Governor-General 
as may be deemed most convenient. 

Arrangements are being made for your conveyance to the Seal Islands on board 
one of Her ilajesty's ships, but upon this point you will receive detailed information 
from the Governor-General. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) SALISBURY. 



No. 2. 
Mr. Macoun to the Earl of Rosebery. 

My Loi'd, Foreign Office, January U, 1893. 

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that, in accordance with 
instructions contained in a letter dated the 13th May, addressed to me l)y the Marquis 
of Salisbury, I, on tlu; 5th .Tune, 189:2, embarked on Her Majesty's ship " Nymphe " 
at Victoria, 13ritisli Columbia, and proceeded to Unalaska I at that place joined Iler 
^lajesty's ship " ilelpomcne." and was taken to St. Paul Island, one of the Pribyloff 
group, where I landed on the 30th June. 

In accordance with Article IV of the Convention between Great Britain and the 
United States of America, permission to land on the islands had bc-.i sent me by the 
Secretary of the Treasury Department of the United States. Quarters were assigned 
nic in the bouse occupied by the agents of tlie North American Commercial Company, 
and during my stay on the Pribylolf Islands both the agents of the United States' 
Government and of tlie Company gave me much valuable information and assisted 
me in many ways in the prosecution of my work. 

During the months of July and August sev> / short cruices were made by me 

* III extension ul' short instructiona lent to Canada, April 9, 1892. 



135 

on Ih'i- .Miijcsty's sliijis " ^rclprniiono " and " Paplinc " iMtlicr I)et\vcpn St. Paul and 
St. (i(!oryu Islaiiils, or Ijofweoii tlicsi; islands anil rnalaska, and one cruizo of a week 
was niadi! for the <■) pccial piii'posc of studyinjj; tlic habits of seals ut sea ; but the; greater 
part of these two months was spent on the Prihyloff Islands in studying the habits of 
the seals and in nialiing observations and intiuiries upon jioints upon wliich further 
information Avas re(|uiicd for the preparation of the British Case in the Behring Sea 
Arbitration. 

The last week of August and first weeks of Sej)tcnibei' were spent in .1 eruizo 
to the westward on Jler Majesty's ship " ]\rel])oinene," during which T visited the 
Commander Islands and [jrocured infurniation to supplement that obtained by the 
IJritish Counnissioners in ]8'J]. 

After another visit to St. Paul Island in September [ returned io Vietoria, 
reaching that i)lace on the 2.')(h Heptember. 

Before leaving the Piibyloff Islands the Special Agents of the I'nited States' 
Treasury Department j)repared fin- me Tables sliowiiig the number of seals that had up 
to the date of my departure been killed for natives' food. These Tables T have the 
honour to inclose for your Lin-dsbip's information. 

JJuring the whole season it was important that when the work had been done 
in one place I should bi; at once conveyed to another, and though Captain A. Chase 
Parr, Iler ilaj(>sty's ship " Jlelponuine," the Senior Olllcer detailed for service 
in Bidu-ing Si'u, had no delinite instructions to that effect, he was good enough 
to consult my wishes on this and otluT matters, and arranged that there should be at 
no time any delay. "Without his active (!o-operatioii nineh valuable information would 
have been lost, and it Avould have been impossibh' to carry out my instructions as 
fully as I Avas enabled to do. Whatever success may have attended my inquiries 
is due in great measure to the assistance rendered me by Captaui Parr. 

In regard to the iiujuiries I was instructed to make, I have the honniu' to transmit 
my IJeiwrt herewith tor your Lordship's hiformation. 

I have, &e. 
(Signed) J AS. 'M. :\rACOUN. 



Inclosure in No. 2. 
Report. 

PURSUA.iST to instructions, I embarked on the Canadian Government steamer 
"Quadra" at Victoria, Jh'itish Colundna, on the !)th :ilay, lS9i', and. after calling 
at Carmannah and Cape Beat, readied the l']ast Ilaycoek Islands at about ."> o'clock 
on the mornijig of the 11th Alay. These islands are a part of the Scott group, 
and lie otf the north-west part of Vancouver Island, in north latitud<' .'jO'' IfS' and 
west limgitude 128° 17'. I visited them in one of the ship's boats, and found the 
main island to rise perpendicularly fron^ the water to a height of aliout 80 feet. 
The sea was too rough to jieniiit of our landing, so that no esamiiiation of it could 
be made for the purpose of searching for cvid(>iiee of seals having hauled out there. 
Several small rocks lie to the eastward of the larger island, and in the surf by 
one of these a few fur-s<;iis were seen, one an old bull, the otlunx either females or 
young males. Near a small rock lo the westward of the larger island ottu-r fur-seals 
were seen, either females or young males. About one-third of a mile to the 
westward of this small rock were two larger ones, the nearer rising about 20 feet 
from tilt! water, the farther about 10 i'eit. These were covered with sea-lions, there 
being not less than .")00 on the llrst and SOO on the second. 

West Haycock Island lii'S about 5 miles west by norib. of ICast JIaycock Island, 
and is shown on the Admiralty Charts to be 180 feet in height. It was approached 
from the north, and at thai end we saw several fur-seals, about .-i dozen in all. A 
landing was ell'eeted alone ])laceon this island, but no examination of it could be made, 
as it was impossible li» walk along the shon- at that place, and the heavy surf 
prevented our landing elsewlujre. The western side of the island was, liowcver, 
followed in the boat for its entire length, about one-third of a mile, and fur-seals 
were seen all along it in groups of two or three, while at the southern end there was 
a group of eight or t(!n. These seals did not swim out to sea, but kept along 
shore, or eseajjcd through sonit! of the rocky channels that separate the islets that liin 
it. A certilicate to the above elfeet was signed by the men who were in the boat .'i^'' 
me at this time, several of wliom were familiar with fur-seals ami their habits, and is 
a2)pended lo this Beport. 

1117J 2 N 



136 



A portion of AVcst ITiiyi-ock rslaiid and (ill Ihi' islets that surround it are 
Buited I'or the hauliui;i;-out of seals, as, while tluM'c is no bcacli and th(> shoros arc steep 
and rocky, tho summits of th', islets may easily ho reached by the seals. It s(!om8 
very i)robable that seals may liuul-out there, hul it \\as at the time of my visit too 
early iu the season for them to Iiave done so, and when next I passed these islands, 
late in S(>ptcmber 1892, tho weather was so rouijli that we could not yo within several 
miles til' them. 

Triangle Island lies about V2 miles to tin; north-westward of AVest Ilayeock 
Island, and was visited the same day (11th May), but a landing could be effected in 
one jilace only. At this place the skull of a fur-seal was found. It lay several feet 
above high-water mark, but no other part of the skeleton could be dise(>vered. The 
animal to which it belonged luay have been blown ashore during a storm, hut no 
drift wood was found as high above t!-e water. Alany hair-seals and fur-seals were 
seen about the islands, but more of the fornn-r than of the latter. 

The following day (li'th ilay) Virgin Jlocks of the sea-otter gnnip were reached. 
These lie iu north latitude oi" Ki' and west longitude ]2S° 15', and consist of a number 
of rocks, the largest less than ."iO feet in height, and not over 100 yards in length ; the 
extreuu! northern and .southern isli.'ts or rucks are abcnit half-a-niile apart. The one 
furthest to the south was visited first, and was found to be covered with sea-lions — 
several hundred of them. The largest island was theu ai)i)roached, and as the sea-lions 
by which it also was covered did not take alarm, a careful estimate was made of their 
number. The lowest eoniit by any one in the boat was 2,000, so that I may safely 
.say that there were at least that many there. No fur-seals were seen at that place or 
at i'earl Itocks and Watch lloek of the same group, which were afterwards visited. 
These rocks are in every way suitable for the hauling-out of seals, hut tlie ground is 
quite oecujiicd by sea-lions. 

On the i;?th !May the "Quadra" struck a sunken I'ock at tho entrance! to Ttosc 
Harbour, at the south end of Queen Charlotte Island, and shortly afterwards sank. 
Prom Itose JIarbour I went in oue of the ship's l.ioats to Tnvcr'iess, at the mouth of 
the Skeena Itive.'r, whence passage was procured to A'ietoria. I met at Inverness the 
Kev, !Mr. CoUinson, for many years a missionary among the Indians on that part of the 
coast, lie told me that the Indians sonietinies saw fur-seals a long way up I'ortland 
Canal, and that in February 18^50 a great many young seals wore taken there. In 
the description of the Seal llocks in Portland Canal in the "British Columbia 
Pilot" occurs the following: " Alany i'ur-seals seen on this cluster, August 1SG8."* 
Mr. Collinson had himself caught a fur-seal on the shore near JMasset, Queen Cliarlottc 
Islands, in lM>bruary ; it lived three days. Indians, he said, often saw th(;m ashore 
near that ])lace. 

i reaclicd A icforia the 2 tth ^iay, and while there !Mr. Alnnsie told me that 
having heard iliat seals W(n'e abundant north (/f the I'rench Frigale Isltrnds in tin; 
early winter months, he dispatched a schooner- tlie " .Mary Taylor" — on a cruize in 
these latitudes in November for the {)ur])ose of taking seals. The eaplain reported to 
him that between north latitude 30 and 40", and in about the longitude.' of tho 
SandAvich Islands, seals were .scon lor six weeks — in the latter jiart of S'ovemher and 
December — but that the weather was too rough to permit of a boat being lowered, 
and no idea could be formed of the number of seals that might be found in fine 
wcathor. The chart on which the track of the " Mary Taylor " was laid down was 
shown me, and I saw that that part of it referred to by Air. Munsie was marked to 
show that seals had been seen there. 1 was delayed there until the r)th .Tunc, when I 
embarked on Her Alajesty's ship " Nymplie," her Captain having been instrueti-d to 
convey me toUnalaska. The first seals were seen, on the vo\age northward, (1th Juno 
oil Clayo(jaot Sound, A'ancouver Island, and mitil we arrived at Aliddlcton Island 
(16th Juni;) seals in greater or loss numbers were seen every day, though the 
loss of time consequent on the wreck of the " (Quadra " resulted in my being quite 
too late to follow the main migration of seals to the northward and westward, as I had 
hoped to do. 

I landed at Aliddloton Island and examined its shori^ thoroughly, but found no 
fuv-seals there, nor any trace of their ever having been tliore. AVhile at this island 
two hair-seals were shot from a steam-cutter, and though the boat was not easy to 
turn, both floated until they were secured. 

Having heard that Port Etches, [linchenbrook Island, had been chosen as a 
rendezvous by the sealing schooners, that i)lace was next visited. Seven schooners 
were found there, and I spent part of ICth -Tune and the whole of 17th and 18lh .lune 
in obtaining information from the hunters on these vessels. All Avero quite willing to 

• Soo foot-note, |i. 464. 



137 



answer quostions, and f nscortaincd it to bo tlioir opinion tliiU; tlic srals lind liccn 
found at. sea in i^rnati'i- nnniljors aloiiij tin- coast in this s[irini,' (ISI):.*) Iliaii ever 
bol'ori); tliat inoi'c males liiid lioon taken than fcniali's ; and tliat, inclndiiii,' tlio losses 
of iiu'X|)ei'i('ncpd hunters, not o iinr cent, of the; whoji! niiinhiT of seals killed or l)adiy 
wounded are lost. Troni aetnal fif^ures ;,'iven me hy tliese liunters individually I 
jjrepared a 'I'Mhlc, and found that the nuinher lost by them, hy sinking before they 
could be recovered, was b<;t\veen 2 and IJ per cijnt. 

On one of the schooners, the " Dora Sieward," there was a youn^ fui--seal that 
had beiMi cut from its mother; it was at that time eii^ht days old. At my re(iuest it 
was placed in the water. Tt swam about the schooner, at tempt iuLf to elinib U]) th(! 
side, but alter six minutes its head bei;aii to sink, and when eii;lit minutes in tlm 
M'ater its mouth went under, and it was then takrn on boarii the si'hoon(;r. 1 learned 
at Victoria, several months later, that it had livi'il f^mrleeu days only. 

Wc left I'ort ]']tches on th(! eveninj^ of ISth.Tuiu.', and reached Unalaska 25th 
June. Thoui^h seals were in no place al)undant, a few were seen every day. 

After !i short stay .at TTnalaska, f went on board JTer Majesty's ship " Melpomene," 
and was laruhul at St. I'anI Island liOth .T\inc, wliere f was ^'iven ((uarti-rs by the 
aijents of the North Amerii-an Commercial (;(>m[)Mny, ;ind every facUity was olfered 
me by th(>m and the Sjjccial Aijents of the United Slates' Treasury Department for tlio 
prosecution of my work. 

T remained on St. Paul Island examinin;^ the rookeries there, and closely 
studyiu!^ the habits of the seals, until the llth July, when T again embarked on the 
ship "Melpomene," and rcatdied (Jnalaska the following; day. LearninLj tliere that 
the United States' erui/.er " Mohican " would start for S*' Geori^e Island the next day, 
I cd)tained passaijo on her, and was landed on that isla.id the I tth July. ]''oui' days 
were spent there, and, in company with Mr. J. Stanley Brown, then in (diari^e of the, 
I'ribylolT Islands for the United States, I visited all the rookeries and haulini^-grouiids 
on that island. 

I arrived at Unalaska airain on thclOth July.'aud was joined thi;re Iiy ^tr. ^laynard, 
of \ ietcria, British Columbia, who had been enipu;ed to take a s(Maes df pluit'ii^raplis 
for tlje i)ur[)Ose of showing the condition of the rookeries andhaulini^-grourKls in ls!)2, 
"\A'ith him I returned to St. Paul Island, and on the mornin;; of the 22nd Jidy the 
llrst pbotou'raphs were taken. All the rookeries lial been j)hof(iL,'raphed by the 28th 
.lidy; and on that day Mr. ^laynard and I were tak(;n to St. Oeori^e Island, wherelivo 
days Mere spent, and all the rookeries on that island were also photoL;;rai)hed. 

On the l?r(l AugusI If.^I.S. " ilelponiene " called for us, and on tlie evening 
of that day ^Ir. ^Maynard was- landed on St. Paul Island, while I remained on the 
'■ .Mel])omciie." The following week was spent in cruizing to the westward and 
noi'thward of St. Paul Island, for the purpose of determining at what distances fronv 
tlie islands seals were found in tlio greatest numbers. I retiu'iieil to St. I'aul Island 
on the 10th xVugust, and from that date until the 2'th August my time was oceui)ied 
in noting the change in the formation of the rod .m , and the number of seals upon 
them, and in recording all facts of importance ici; • : / to .seal life that came under 
my notice. Mr. ^laytiard during this time was employed in taking a last series of 
photographs, for the purpose of showing the increased area occupied by .seals as the 
season advanced. 

i[.i\I.S. " Dajdmo" then conveyed ^Ir. ^faynard and myself to Unalaska, where I 
rejoined the " Meljioniene," M'liile ^Ir. ^laynaril relumed to Victoria. 

Had W(!ather ke]it the " .Melpomen(>" in Unalaska ov(n'tti(! 2l')th August, Imt on the 
morning of llie 27th we start(>d on a crtuzc to the westward. No si-als went svon 
af(er passing the T72nd meridian, but this was not to be wondered at, as wo encoun- 
tered a succession of gales which caused s\ich a heavy sea that it was almost im[)os- 
siblc to stand upon the deck of the ship; and though we cruized two days not far to 
th(! southward of the Commander Islands, and a whole day between Copper and 
ll(diring Islands, not a seal was even there scon iu the water by any one. 

A landing was effected on the 3rd September at Xikolski village, Pehring Island. 
No l?e]iresenta(iv(! of the Pussian (lovcrnraent was then on lliat island, bul I liad a 
long interview with the agent of the I-'ur Company. Lie told me that about tin- usual 
number of skins had been taken, 32,000, 10,000 on each island, ami that lie believed 
there was no decrease in the number of seals on Behring Island, though .M. Llrobnitsky 
(the Govenimcnt Supiirintendcnt of the islands, then absent) had told him that on 
Copper Island a decrease had been noted. 

Tlie first sealing schooners had been seen about the islands almost as soon as the seals 
had appeared, and had continued taking seals the whole summer. I was informed by 



138 



the nircnt that muoli hcttcM- skins were taken onHohriiig Islaurl than on Copper Island, 
tho8i! rrom Ihc hitter ishiiul .-ivera^'in!^ from to 8 lbs. only in weiirht. 

Other facts learned at this jilaec will h(! referred to under their proper headiMt,^s. 

iVom ]5elirin<; Island we went to KaraLjinski Island, in latitude 0!)°, lonj^itiide 
101° ;{()' east, (ireat nnnihers of hair-seals and young sea-I ions were seen in the vicinity 
of this island, hnt no fur-seals. Wc were nnalile, however, on account of continued 
stormy weather, to go within •") miles of the island. On the return trip to St. Paul 
Island we again encountered such had weather that no look-out (!0uld ho kept for seals. 
While the ship was laid to, between neon and 5 p.ai. on the flth September, many 
fur-seals were, however, seen swimminf al)i)ut in all directions. Tlin shiji's position at 
noon that day was latitude .')S° ,">S', longitude 177" 8' west, about 2'10 miles from 
^i.. Paul Islaiul. 

St. Paul Island was reached at daylight the 11th September, and on that day a 
Last visit was jiaid to all the rookeries on that island with the oxce[)tion of lho.se 
at !Nortii-east Point, and any changes in them were noted. The next day we loft the 
island, and alter a three days' delay at Unalaska, for the jiurpose of taking in coal, and 
another delay of two days at the Shumagin Islands while the ship's boilers were 
being ov(!rhauled, we reached Victoria on the 2.')th Sej)temher. 

The following general results of the observations made are grouped under 
headings eorresi)ondiiig as nearly as possible with those followed in +he Report of the 
British Connnissioners for 1891 : — 



Fish near the Breeding Islands. 

When I landed at the village on St. Paul Island on the 30tb June, cod and 
halibut were hanging before many of the natives' houses. In answer to my inquiry as 
to where they had been caught, I was told that they had been taken less than 3 miles 
from St. Paul Island, and between it and Otter Island. 

Up to the 12th September, the date of my final departure from the Pi-ibyloff 
Islands, natives went out fishing every fine Sunday, and, in fact, every day they were 
not engaged on work for (sither the Government or the Company, and good catches of 
fish were invariably made. 

When on St. George Island the 17th July a great many cod were seen hung up 
to dry, and at dinner that day I asked the United States' Ti'cjsui-y Agents and 
the officers of the Company why they had not fresh fish on the table. I was told that 
they could be bad in abundance whenever wanted,' but that they were all tired 
of fish. 

H.M.S. "Daphne," while I was on board of her, was anchored during the 
forenoon of the 21st July in 18 fathoms of water, one-third mile off Dalnoi Point, 
St. George Island, and cod, small halibut, and scnlpin were caught in great luuuhers 
at this time. 

A holiday was given the native.^ on St. Paxil Island on Saturday, the 13ch August, 
and many of them spent the day fishing. Their boats were in .sight; all day bet ween 
and 3 miles off Lukannon rookei'v. They returned late in the afternoon w ith their boats 
half full of fish ; there were many more cod than halibut, though the latter were nuich 
the larger fish. I asked the natives how far they went out for fish later in the season ; 
they replied that they never had to go more than .") miles from land to get all the fish 
they wanted, and that it Avas oidy in SeptcinbiT that they went that far. I was taken 
to South-west Eay, St. Paul Island, by a crew of natives, on the 23rd August. During 
the brief time I was ashore they fished about half-a-mil(> olT Zapadnie rookery, catching 
two halibut and seven cod. Tliese men told me that fish were always very plenlil'ui 
near the island, but that until 1891 they bad never had time during the summer 
months to catch them ; when they Mere not driving or killing seals, tlierc were the 
skins to salt and re-salt, the Company's ship to load or unload, ;ind coal and provisions 
to be brought f'.om the landing-place to the store-houses. 

The next day salmon were seen in the lagoon near tin; village. 

When anchored about a mile olf Nikolski village, iJehring Island, the 3rd 
September, a great i^any cod of small size — 4 to 8 lbs. — were caught from the ship by 
the sailors, antl at the ^ illage I learned that they were taken close to the island at all 
times. Salmon are to be got during the whole season in tlu; river about 12 miles from 
Nikolski village, and at the village itself early in the season. 

Mr. Baldwin, who has been on St. Paul Island several years, told 1110 that small 
squid are very numerous close to the islands, and Mr. Townsend, who has in several 



189 

years been employed nsaiiMtumliston tlie "Albatross" in Behiini? Sea, said mori; than 
onc(! in my hearing that then! was no part of Behriiiij Sea that did not abound with 
tiiem. 

It is thus evident that slioukl seals, AVJiether males a:- females, rcquin? food during 
the time they resort to the ishmds (which lias not been proved), it is to he lijul in 
ahundan(!(! closi" to the rookeries, while it is further a|)|)-irent th;it th(; " natives." with 
th(! exercise of but ordinary dili^'enco on their own part, are in no way dejiendent on 
the slaughter of seals for food. 

Virgin Cows. 

While on the Prihyloff Islands in July and August of 1802 I endeavoured 
carefully to note everything (hat might throw light on the, questifni as to when the 
virgin (emaies iirst receive the males, and during that linio did not see one f(!iuale 
fcal that \>as not eillier still carrying her young, or whose size did not show that she 
was of suITicient agi' to have already had a ])hice on the brocding-t:;i(iun(ls. In other 
word.s, I nev(!r saw a virgin fi'niale upon the hreedin-.; islainis. livery leuiahs of ^niall size 
that was seen moving about the rookeries or leaving the water was watdioil, and was 
withour exception found either t ■ i;o at once to sonii; harem where slu! was plainly at' 
home, or by her mr.nner it was , ident that slie had ynuiig somewhere on tlic rookery. 
Very often, too, if watched until they lay down, it eould hi', seen that tlirir breasts 
were swollen as if full of m.ilk, though tiiis was by no means always the case. Not 
OIK! cow concerning wiiieli I was left in doubt was si'cn on any rookoiy, and I feel 
certain that no virgin (.'ow came ashore at these places. 

JLr. J. Stanley ]5rown, who had been on the islands for some weeks before I 
reached thi'm, told me (Stb .Tidy) that he had been carefully watching a number of 
harems a.s they grew, and \\as eerioin that not one virgin cow had yet come ashore. 
Ho told me at this tiuu' that he was (juite sure that these young females did not 
haul ov;t with the "hollnscliickie," V)nt spent the early ])art of the scasim in the water 
in front of the breeding-grounds and came out on iheni later on, and were then served 
either by the old bulls or by younger ones near the w.-iter. This explanation can 
hardly, liowever, be the true one, as were the virgin eows really in eonsiilerablo 
nnnd)ers in front of the rookeries, they would be seen there at all times; but olten, 
when the day was cold and cloudy, hardly a seal was .seen in the water near the 
islands, though at other times it was black with them. Where are the young females 
when lew seals arc seen in the water? 

Were it true that the young females are not served until late in the season, 
they would he either much later in bringing forth their young than the older eows, 
or they must carry their first young Cor a much shor'er time than those of following 
years, which is scarcely credible. JSut two other solutions of the question seemed to 
in(! possible : one, that females do not come to the breeding islinds, unless in very 
small nundjers, until they arrive there to give birth to their tirst young; the other, 
that these two- or three-year-old females haul-out with the holluschickie, and are 
served by the older bachelors among them. -\[r. Brown in August api)eari'd to come 
to the latter conclusion, and even pointed out to me small seals among the hollus- 
chickie, which he asserted to he 'emaies. Though ask(>d by me to shoot oni; or two of 
these small seals (as females had been shot hy his (nvka's a few days before at Zs'orth-east 
Point for the purj)Ose of dftermiiiing whetluT they had been feeding\ he declined to 
do so. Had this heen done, these que.^tions iuight at once have lieeu decided. 

After the harems had broken up, and many of the old bulls liad left the rookeries, 
younger males were observed to c(mie on them, and attempts at service were not 
uncommon, even by very young bulls, three or tour years old. These; animals were 
olt(,'n seen to tease and worry half-a-dozen or more eows one after another ; yet 
among the thousands of seals that were watched by me on the hauling-grounds, no 
.•itlempts at service were <'ver noted, llad the virgin cows hauled-out with the 
ba'dielor seals, attem])ts at service by the older bulls would have been so frequent that 
they eould not have eseajied observation ; but not only did I never see anything of 
this kind my.self, but no such instance was ever re])oite.l to me. 

It se(!ms, then, probable that at least the greater portion of the virgin cows are 
tb'st s(>rved at sea. liry;uil speilcs* of its being a common thing for young three- and 
four-year-old males to nu-et ci)ws in tlie water as they came from the rookeries, and 

• Allen, " Jlonosr.iph of Norlli .\mcric;iii riiinipeils"i3|). 3SC. ailO, -tOi, and 40G ; " (Jn Eare,! h'eals," p;!. L'tj 
aru] 100. .SiT aUo Vi'niaminov as tu virgin cows reraaiiiin;^ away from islands. 

[Ii73 lit) 



140 

tijere perform the act of coition; and tlums^h these cows were probably ones that hal 
young ones on the rookeries, many bunters and captains of se;iling-schooners with 
wliom I fonvcrsed at Victoria r.nd elsewhere assured me that, they had often seen seals 
copulating in the water, and liad shot both male and female while they were in the 
act. T)\e female, in the majority of those easos, was one that had not yet had a 
pup, thoui,'b in some iustauces they were barren cows, and a few were cows with milk 
in their breasts. 



Proportion of Males to Females on Rookeries. 

Vrhenever harems were well defined, t.nd could be readily separated from 
adjoining ones, the number of female seals was counted. It was found that though 
there Mere a few oases in which an old bull would have but two or tlu-ee cows 
about him, there were many other bulls which had fifty or more. One in particular, 
shown me by Mr. Ibown, had about him more than eighty females. This was 
'Mr. Brown's estimate. Tlie average number of females in each harem, according 
to my count, was about thirtj-, my figures giving a little over that number. My 
attention was frequently di-awn by the United States' A'.xcnts to what they called 
the great niunber of mature bulls that were without harems. Comparing mentally 
the number cf such bulls with those seen on the rookeries last year, I decided, 
while on tlie ground, that there W(!re not more than there wore in 1891, though an 
additional number of mature males must have come upon the breeding-grounds. A 
comparison of photographs taken during the two seasons show no change in the 
number of hulls without harems. During neither season were there old bulls to be 
seen in anything like the numbers mentioned by Elliott and others. 

Thus, Mr. S. N. Bnynitsky says : " Thoustinds of old bulls, Mhich have becomo 
useless for the purposes of propagation and are an incumbrance to the lookeries, might 
be killed for their blubber."* 

C'ap(ai!\ Bryant \iritcs ; " During (lie latter portion of the landing time there is a 
large excess of old males that cannot lind room on the breeding-places; these pass up 
with the younger seals, and congregate along the upper edge of the rookery, and watch 
for a chance to charge down and illi any vacancies that may (x:eur."t And, again : 
"The number of full-grown niali.'s at this date (10th Aus^ust) may be considered as 
three times greater ihan tln^ number rcciuirod, or equal to one full-gro^vn male v.o 
eveiy three or four females." J 

Elliott says, writing of the years 1872-74: "At the re.ar of all these rookeries 
there is i'lvariably a large number of able-bodied males which have come late, but 

wait patiently, yet in vain, for families Vll the surplus able-bodied 

males thiit have nut been successful in cileciin? a landiiig on tlie rookeries cannot at 
any time during tbe season be seen liere on this rear line. Only a portion of their 
number are hi siirbt ; the others are either loaling at sea adjacent, or are hauled-out in 
morose squads between the rookeries on the beaches. ''<j 

And, again : ".SCO or 400 old bulls were killed to supply skins to furnish the 
natives with canoes." Not that number could Jiavc l)cen .secured in 1&92 had the 
bulls without harems bcii, drivcni from every rookery on both islands. 

The greatest number of bulls i]i ])roportion to the cows on the rookeries wore to 
be found at North-east I'oint. I visited the rookeries there in company with 
Mr. Brown on the 2nd .Tul/. lie drew my attention to what he called tbe excessive 
numl.ier of old bulls without harems, and there certainly appeared lo be a great many, 
but knowing that their great size reiidin' them conspicuous, 1 carefully counted all thai 
were to be seen in the vicinitv of the rookeries 



ind tl 



it this jilace. Tbe bulls near each 
totals of the tlu'ce counts were !)t, SI), and 
cw liiddcn behind i-oeks, but certainly not 



rookery were counted three times, 

91 respectively. There may have liceii a 

nure than a dozen in all. I'laeini;' tli(> total munberat 100, and allowing twenty cows for 

eaeii bull, there were enough bulls on this rookery to serve 2,000 cows more than were 

there. This is assuming that all wci'e ol an age and condition that litted them for 

service. !Maiiy of them siiowed the "grey wig," whieii proved them to lie not 

yet fully grown, while others were without doubt worn-out old bulls, no longer tit for 

service. That the majority of (hem were in this condition is jirovcd by the fact that 

thoutrli attempts at service by " grey wigs " were not infrecim^nl, 1 never saw one of 



• H. U., 50th Concrcss, 2nii So«»i.>n, Rpporl No. 3883, p. ; 
t ^Uen, " Monograpli of North Amerimu I'innipedii," p. 384. 

§ CrnsiH Kcpori, pp. .Tti ."J*. 



I Ibid., p. 390. 



141 

these old hulls pay the sHc;hte«t .T!,tf,iition in any females that ■niight pass near them. 
At Znp;i(1nio rookery (}h-(\ ■Tuly). 'Mv. Brown, "Mv. Townsoml, and I notieed on several 
oeoasions a «;ow escape from a hnreni and lie down at some distanee hehind it, hut 
in only qu<\ instance was any notice paid tliem hy hulls near liy. In lliis one instance 
the cow endeavoured in many ways lo attract an old hull's attention, ruhhini,' i.er nose 
aijainst his, and striking,' him playfidly with l;"r tlippers ; he made sonn; faint resnonse, 
hut after a minut(; or two l;iy down and went to sleep ai^ain. Two other hulls lyin-? 
near them raised their heads onee or twice to ohservc what was goinj^ on, hiit no 
attempt Avas made to serve the female. 

Then,' were in 1802, in my o[)inion, more old hulls without cows in the vicinity of 
the rookeries at North-east Point than the comhined numhcr on all the other 
rookeries. At Tolstoi rookery (.Trd -Tuly) hut one (dd hull without a harem could he 
det(>cted at tlie soutli iMid of the hreeding-grouiul, where a good view can he hud of a 
great part of thi^ rookery. 

On St. Georgt; Island tliere were, in proportion to tlie total numher of seals, even 
fewer hulls ilian on St Paul Island. On tlie loth July there were not a dozen alonir 
the Avhole extent of North rookery, and hut two were seen at Little East rookery, 
and two at I'!ast rookery. Zajiadnie was visited the next day, and not a dozen were 
to he seen there. 

So Juany statements have heen ])ul)lished to tlie liffect that old hulls without 
harems are always to he found in large nunihers near hreeding-grounds, that it would 
seem tliat tlie rookeries on St. Paul Island are nearer their normal condition than 
those on St. George. 



Pups Swimming. 

The first pups I saw swimming in 1892 were in the water in front of North 
rookery on St. Oi-oriie Island the l^ih July. Tlie day was hrii;ht and warm, and the 
tide at the time of )ny visit was just heginning to flow. A great many puj)S were 
playing in the ])ools among the rocks near the edge of the sea ; in one place there 
were forty or lifty togetjier, and in many others more than half that lunnher, while 
all along the shore the yoniig seals win-e in little groups of from three to ten. No <dd 
seals wen> near them hut tliose swimming ahout in the water and those going to and 
coming from it. As the tide eam(; in somi; of tlie ])ups slowly retreated, hut 
many of tliem reinained among the rocks until the water w;is some distance! heyoiul 
them. They played alinut in much the same way as hollusehiekie do, ae.d swam from 
one rock to another and hack many times with no ajipreciahle interval of rest. 1, 
neiti' r at this lime nor on any other occasion, saw an old seal .attempt to tf^aeli a pup 
to swim, nor carry it to tlie water, nor did [ ever see anytlung that would lead me to 
suppose that ])nps learncl to swim ; on th<> contrary, a pup cut from its mother can 
swim for a long time. Ten days later these ])ups had increased considerahly in size, 
and were swiimninc: and playing 'lout in tlu> watei- in great uumhers, seeming as 
much at home there as t!ic older ; ds diil; a few of tliem were 50 (jr (JO yards from 
the shore diving witiiout api /out effort through the large waves that were 
coming in. 

I'^arly in August pups h.ad ijegun to haul-out with tlie hollusehiekie mi the norlh 
side of l^ukannon rookery nearly a mile from the rookery, and hy the niiiliUe of that 
month a gn^at many were to he s(!eii far from the rookery grounds.* Tliey were, of 
course, in greatest numhers in front of and near Lidvaunon, Ketavie, and llecf 
rookeries, hut they extended in an unhrokeu line from Tiukannon to the landinii,- 
place at the village, in places snixcd with hollusehiekie, hut very frerjuently tliere 
were no older seals near them. At IMaek JJIiilf and he! ween Zoltoi Sands and the 
village lnndin;,'-phice large; hands <i'' pups swam aliont from place to jdace or liauled- 
out on the rocks and sand. It does not seem ])ossil)le or prohahh' that the mother 
seals could (ind. th'-ir own young ones among so mi\\\\ and at such a distance from the 
breediiii^-ground, and during Ihe \vh(de timet was on the PrihylofF Islands I never 
saw a female seal suckli' a young one excejit on a rook(>ry. 

h'rom th(> time pups first go into the water they are to he seen with ])ieees of sea- 
weed in their nxniths, and th(.-re is no reason for doubting that from rhi-; time until 
they leave the island at least a eonsideiuble portion of their f<iod is eonijieiu'd of ye.a- 
wecd picked up along the shore or in the >;'<ers adjacent to it. Mr. J'^lliott saysf that 
he kiKJWS fur-seaia feed to a limifeil extent upon crustaceans and sipiid, and also to eat 
tender algoid sprouts. I'lqis, Ik; believes, live upon (naistiux'ans and scpiid for i\w. first 



S<« Elliott. 



t "Our Arctic Province," pp.330, 331. 



142 

five or six montlis they are at sea. Squid, as has been shown in another part of this 
Report, arc plentiful near the seal islands. 

When on St. George Island in 1S!.»2, Captain Webster told me that after he 
raided Eobben IJoer in 1870 ih(;rc -wi-re about (100 pups left when ibc older seals liad 
been killed. 'When he sailed away from the islands " they were L;i'(fini^ fat alunt:; the 
shore. At every kjw tide they would >j:o down to thi; bcaeh and piek u\) pieces 
of soft sea-weed, and possibly small iish, thouL;b this is doubtful." ^[r. I'edpath, 
many years a resident on the Pribylofl' Islands, also (expressed to me his belief that 
"pups" feed upon sea-weed. Mr. 11. S. Browne, who was on Co])per Island in 1892, 
told me that he saw little pups about the middle of Aui^ust eating small squid and 
other tbiufTs aloup' the beaeli, and that he never saw the mother goinj^ near the little 
"bunches" of seals that were huntinir for food for Uiemselves alunsi' the shove. 



Habits of Female Seals trhen Suchling. 

Within a few hours after a i)Uj) is horn it reeeives its first nourishment from the 
mother; and for some days, while the mother remains about the liareni and the pup is 
too young to wander far from it, there can be little or no doubt that each mother seal 
suckles her own young one alone. 

It was not tuitil the 1st .July that I first noted pups forming "])ods,"or small 
separate herds ; every harem was still well defined, but the ])U])s belon;-ing to each bad 
begun to show greatr . activity, and the older ones had to some e.vtent formed little 
" pods " a few yards distant Irom the mother seals. By the .")th 'Tilly it was noticeable 
that the pups from adjoining harems bad " ])0(lded " together between them, wliile 
the harems themselves were ^till, with few exceptions, cora))act and well defined. 

The cows lu'd not yet begun to go to the water. The few wet ones seen upon the 
rook'^ries Avcrc Mitliout exception fiMuales that were still carrying their ynung. 'J'he 
seals on a great many small harems were counted, and it was always found at this 
time that the pups and cows wen; in about equal numbers. Within tlu^ next week, 
how(;ver, the cows 'ie!j;an to go into the water, but not in great niuubers. They seemed 
content to swim about n'.?ar the shore, and were oft(>n seen liauled-out on some flat rock 
after they had bei>n but a few minutes in the Avater, and, iifter scratching themselves for 
a little while, would ))huige again into the sea, swim to shore, and go back to the 
harem to which tlicy belonged. 

On St. George Island, L'jth July, as I sat on the low elilTs overlooking a part of 
.North rookery, I saw three cows come ashore. One of these was still gravid. Each 
of the otbc;'s, on coming out, turned her head about from side to side uttering 
at short intervals a cry used l)y most female seals as they come ashore. In each 
case s(!veral pups went towards the cow ; in one inslanee live were about her at 
one time. These were smelt or uoschI over and shoved away, or struck gently witli a 
flipper, and one l)y one they dropped oiV. The cow then moved slowly back towards 
the rear of the rookery. She was "attacked " by nearly every pup she passed dose to. 
These she put away from her, calling out from time to tiim' as if for her own young 
nni). Amongst the first paps tliat had appriiachcd her was one that jiersistcntly 
lollowed her, attemjiting to suck every time she stopped, several times securing the 
teat, while the cow nosed over other pups. It was evident that th(! mother seal was 
searching for her own young one, and that she thought that the pup foUowing her was 
not it, as, often while the young one was close be>-ide her, the cow would stop at a ])od of 
])ups and examine and smell every one of them. Whenever this pup attcmjited to &u<;k 
and was seen, or ])erhaps felt, by the mother .seal, it was jiuslied away and she moved 
on, foUowi'd as before hy the pup. IShe reached at last a small harem lU'ar the h-M-k 
of the rook(>ry, where she lay down on her side and was soon aslei>]). Tlu> pup 
immediately beg.an to suck, sto|)])ing whenever the cow awakened, Avhieli ha|)pened at 
very short intervals, and beginning again as soon as the cow slept, it was at last 
satisfied, and lay down at some distance away and went to sleep. The milk had been 
taken from the two bi'casls that were uppermost, the cow not having turned over 
(as is usual when a cow is suckling her jui])) during tiie fotirttjcn minutes the 
interniptcd nursing was going on. .U, such tin;es, the cow usually jilaees herself 
so that all four breasts can be reached by the young. 

The second cov.', I'iferred to abnve, did not find bin' own pu]), nor did [ see any 
pup succeed in getting milk Irom her. She went <piietly to her own harem, and 
alter a few Hiii\ut(s went to sleep. 

On the IHth .luly, on North rookery, St. (ieorg'' Island, ;i cow was setMi hy mo to 
tome from the water, and, after calling out as if for her young one, she was approached 



143 



by several pups, as had boon noted fr('(|iuMitly before ; and, as is usual wlien cows come 
from tbo Avat(!r, these pn])s attempted to suck, but were driven away. One persistently 
fojlowed her ; the enw smelt it over many times, as if uncertain whether it was her 
own or not, but did not stop, and pushed tim pup from her. Though the pup continued 
following,' her, the cow did not cease cryini; out at inteiTals in the manner peculiar to 
them w'l'^n Ci.llin;^ for their younL' ones. Other pups came to Iier, which she smelt in 
tlie '.■sua? way, but finally slie lay down and allowed the puj) tliat had l)i.'en following 
li.r from the first to nursi-. If (Iiis jjup were lier own, it would seem that the female 
was for a long lime uncertain wlielher it was so or not, for, whih; the pup kept up with 
lier most of tin- time, and was often beside lu'r, she continued to call out as if dis- 
satisfied, and did not cease smelling all the pups tliat came to her. It is noteworthy 
that she did not so to (lie back of the rookery-ground, but, after reaching the middle of 
it, moved about to the right and left for more t liau fifteen minutes, the pup following her, 
and lay down at last on a rock that she had passed several times. Were the puj) her 
own, there is no appari-nt reason why she should not have lain down when tirst joined 
by it. Had the puj) not followed her and finally been allowed to nurse, her actions 
were suoli that any one must have concluded tliat, for more than iifteen minutes, she 
had been searehiiig for her pup without finding it. 

In both cases referred to aliove, the jnips persisted in following the cows, though 
repulsed by them, and, while in one instance the cow laid down and went to sleep, the 
pup then liel])ing itself; in the other, the cow, after a long delay, and in evident uncer- 
tainty as to wiiether tbo \m\) wei'e lu-r own or not, voluntarily suckled it. Instances 
similar to these were noted whenever any considerable time was spent in watching a 
partit'ular part of a rookery. 

At any time pujis might be seen nursing everywhere on the rookeries, but it was 
not often that a female was actually seen to come from tlie water, and, within a short 
time, find a pup to lun-se, :is would be <'xpeclt'd if it were true that she had been a long 
distance out at sea, and perhaps many days absent fi'oni ihi; rookery. When females 
were seen to cume from the sea and soon afterwards allow a pup to nurse, it was 
generally under circumstance ^uch as those above referred to. 

On the IGth July, at S nry Arteel rookery, St. George Island, I watched live 
female seals come from the water at different times. All called out at intervals as if 
for their young ones. As they slowly made their way among the li.irems many pups 
attempted to nurse, but none were allowed i.p do so, and every one of these cows, after 
wandering about for some time in an ajipavently aimless mai iier, lay down and went 
to sleep without having given u]) any milk. 

On tin,' .'{Oth .(uly at North rookery, St. George Island, I lie most siutable place 
on either island l'()r sucli observations, two hours were spent in olwei'ving the cows as 
they came ashore, and though a great many were watched from the time they landed 
until they either lay down to sleep or returned to tln' water, not one was seen to 
suckle a young seal. These and similar instances lead mi- to l)elieve that, though for 
som(! days or jierhaps weeks after a young seal is born il is suckled by its own mother 
ah)Uo; alter tlie young seals liegin to pod together along the shore, and the females 
to go into the water, little attention is ]iaid to them by tlnir mothers. Females 
suckling yiiung are to be seen on the rookeries long after tl" older pups have begun 
to go into tlu^ water, but these may in (he majority of < 'Kr h(> the latcst-Iiorn pups. 
From my observations on the rookeries of SI. I'aul and St. (ieorge Island, 1 cannot 
but believe that reuiale seals are often uncerlaiii \\hetlier young seals that nursi' are 
their own or not, and that inauy piij)s nurse without ihv old remale beim; aware of 
the fact, so that there is little chance of a very young seal starving to death unless it 
wanders quite away from the breeding-grouiul, and I am sustained in this lieliel' by 
the fact that I never saw an en.aciated or weak-looking pup on that part of a rookery 
nearest th(> water. 

It was a common thing on liotli islands to sei" pups that were lying near molla-r 
seals go (]ui(^tly to tliem and nur^o without the females ]iayini;' any attention to them, 
or apparently knowiiit,' that the |)ups were helping theinsehes. When in Vi(^toria, 
Ib'itish CdluinbiM, in October 1S!)2, .Mr. 11. S. Urowiie told me that on llie Auckland 
Islands he had watched more than one pup suck I'rom the same cow, and had heard 
there that when a mother died the pup Mould be suckled by another female. 

I was rcjieatedly told by Agents of tlu' United States' liovcrument that whenever 
females were seen coming from the water they had been out to sea for food. 'J'his was 
manifestly absurd, as when the morning was cold it was ajiparent that few seals were 
ubsent from tlu' rookeries, hut if the sun afterwards came out, or the day grew 
warmer, hundreds of seals would be seen going to the water, and late in the afternoon, 
[117] " 2 P 



144 



or towards evening, as it became cooler, they would return to their respective harems. 
At such times the water from 100 yards or so in front of the rookery would bo black 
with seals, while further out but few —and sometimes none — were to be seen. Many 
females were Avatched from the time thtsy loft the harem until they were lost among 
the multitude of swimming seals. They would slide into the water and roll about 
with evident enjoyment for a few minutes, and then come out upon some rock ; after 
a short rest they returned again to the water. Though a careful watch was often 
kept, no cow was ever seen by me to enter the water and swim out to sea. 

On the 23rd July, at Lukannon and Kctavic rookeries, more than half the seals 
were in the water, but careful examination, through field-glasses, of the sea in front 
of these rookeries, neither showed seals coming towards the land nor going from it. 

During the seasons of 1891 and 1892, but more especially in 1892, I spent much 
time at sea in the vicinity of the seal islands, and during both seasons kept a careful 
count of the number of seals seen in the water. It was noted in both years 
that while the seals were very abundant in the immediate vicinity of the rookeries, 
and a few were always to be seen lietween 2 and 3 miles from the islands, very 
few were after that to be seen until we had gone a long distance out to sea. It is 
thus evident that the number of seals going to and from the islands is very small. 

On the 11th September, when, on H.!M.S. " Melpomene," we steamed from 
North-east Point to tlie village of St. Paul — a distance of about 11 miles — being 
never more than 3 miles from the sliore, and most of the time much nearer to it, 
wlien off North-east Point, Polavina and Ileef rookeries, thousands of seals were, with 
the aid of field-glasses, seen j)laying in the water near the shore, but very few close to 
the ship at the distance stated from the land. 

No visit was paid to any rookery on either St. George or St. Paul without a 
careful examination of the rookery and hauling-grounds being made, for the purpose 
of recording the amount of excrement to be seen on them; the matter being of 
imi)()rtance in connection with the question of the feeding or abstinence of seals 
during tiie breeding season. Shortly I)et'ore labour began a female was sometimes 
seen to void a small quantity (;f excrement ; once only, in addition to this, did I see 
excrement on rookery-ground that had not been voided by pups. lu the instance 
referred to, ^Mr. Urown. who was with nie at the time, said that it was probably from a 
female that liad recently come ashore. 

In this connection Captain Bryant may ])e quoted.* He says •. " I found, in a few 
instances, wber(> newly-arrived seals had made a single discharge of rad-coloured 
excrement, but nothing ■was soon afterwards to show that sueli discharges were 
continued, or any (evidence that (he animals had partaken of food." 

Mr. Vincent Colycr, in his Report to tlie Secretary of the Interior, dated 18th 
February, 1870, likewise says: "The ass(n'tion that the fur-seal eats but little food 
from .lune to September may bo true; certainly, there was little or no offensive 
excrement even in October, when I believe it is aeknowleilged that they do get some 
food from the water." t 

On the 27th July a large pieei- of fresli, light-coloured excrement, firm, and of 
cylindrical form, was noticed on the ground where liolluseln'ekie had been; a great 
many worms, sucli as are found in seals' stomachs, were mixed with it. 

A largo harem, the resort of over 300 seals, near the west end of Reef rookery, 
was visited by me almost daily, and excrement was always ear(>fully looked for. This 
harem lay just beneath an overhanging bank, and the o])portunities for observation 
were excellent ; but, though between tweuty and thirty visits were made to tliis place, 
no excrement vas (-ver seen either on tin' brei'tling-iiiround or the slope leading to 
it, with the exception of very small pieces \oi(le(l by i)ups, wlu'eli differs greatly from 
that of older seals, both in shape and colour. AVliile it is certain tliat hollusehickie go 
to and from the water at all times, and when tluv weather is wnrm quit tlie land almost 
en masse, th<M-e is no satisfactory eviileuce to show tliat they feed whih; in the water. 
Several liundred stomachs were opened in my ])reseiice during the summerof 1892, and 
no trace ol' food was found in any nl' tliein, thougli, wliiie struggling tog(!ther in tiic 
killing-ground, some of them voided a small quantity of dark yel'u)wish ex(n'ement. 

lOlliott, hi)W( vei', says that they ilo eat when tliey go out to sea.+ lie refers also 
to the i'aet that tlir supply oi' seals on the liauliug-grounds is kept u]) d'o-ing the 
.summer by n(>w arrivals from the sea; and ^Ir. George Tingle, in a letter dated 
18th July, 1890, and addressed to Mr. C. .1. Golf, tlie Treasury Agent in charge of tho 

• " On KurcJ Seali," p. 101. 

t II. i!., list Congress, 2nil Se»sion, Kx. Doc. No. 14-4, p. 5. 

J Census Itrport, p. 44 



U5 

Pi'ibyloff Islands, says : " We have every reason to believe, from the marked increase of 
new arrivals oijine smls, that, if we were allowed to continue our killing under the law, 
we could fill our quota of 00,000 skins."* 

There can bo no doubt that immense numbers of seals resort to Behrliig Sea 
during the summer season that do not go to the islands at all, or, if at all, only very 
late in the season. 

Seals are to be seen south of the Aleutian Islands in July and August, in 
considerable numbere ; and late in July in 1892, a great many seals were siien from 
H.if.S. " Daphne " not far from Cape (Mieerf ul ; while it was reported to me that, 
a few days before this, large bodies of seals had been seen from the United States' 
cruizer " Yorktown " near tiie same place. About 25th July a whaling vessel arrived 
at Unalaska, and reported tliat there were more seals outside Unimak Pass than had 
ever been seen tliere before. These seals must havi; been non-ln'ceding seals, that is, 
hoUuschiekie or virgin and ban-en cows, possibly all three. 



Mortality among Young Seals. 

The causes that lead to the destruction of pups on the breeding islands are, so 
far as they have been noted by me — 

(«.) The wandering away of the young seals from the vicinity of the breeding- 
grounds, and subsequent failure to find female seals from whom they can obtain 
milk. This seldom occurs when; a harem is situated between a cliff and the 
water, or backed by rocky stoe})s, as at Lukannon rookery on St. Paul Island, 
and parts of North rookery on St. George Island. Pups can most easily losa 
themselves when on such rookeries as Polavina, Reef, or Upper Zapadnie on 
St. Paul Island, and Zapadnie on St. George Island. At these places they 
frequently wander a short distance to the rear of the occupied rookery-ground, 
and are soon lost, especially if boulders lie between them and the breeding-ground. 
A pup's confusion is naturally much greater at such places as Sea Lion Point 
or at lleef rookery, where, on going but a short distance inland, cricvs of seals 
c.in be heard from both sides of the point. Two or three pups so lost were seen 
by me every time I visited R(!cf rookery, and seldom with strength enough to move 
more than a few yards, if at all. Tliese pups of course die, and arc, with lew if any 
excei)tions, dragged away and eaten by foxes. While scattered dead pups were 
always to be seen on the o))en ground between the rookeries on lleef Point, none that 
had been dead more tlian a few days were ever noted, though partly-eaten carcasses 
were not infrequent, so that the number of carcasses seen at any one time includes 
but a small ))art of tlie whole numl)er tliat have died. 

During the months of July and August a great many females were watched as 
they came from the water, and althougli in a few eases they were seen to go to the 
extreme back of the occupied rookery-ground, none were seen to go beyond it. 

(h.) Many ])ups lose tiieir lives when stampedes occur, and many otlu^rs when 
bulls dash among the breeding females and their young to prevcuit the escape of a 
female from the harem. 

The scattered dead pups that are to be seen on all rookeries have been destroyed 
in either of these ways. 

(c.) A few pups probably lose their lives in the surf, or by being dashed upon 
rocks, but the number must, under ordinary cireumstanees, be very small. As early 
as the ISth .luly, and on many occasions afterwards, pujjs were watched while in tlie 
water close to the sliore, and though they were often thrown with great force against 
the rocks, no pui) was ever seen to receive the slightest injury. These causes of 
death to young seals were noted by me, but are obviously iMsulHcient to account for 
ilii! great mortality among the jiups on Polavina and Tolstoi rookeries. 

U'hile standing beside the eaiuera at Polavina rookery on the 22nd July I counted 
Its dead pnjis ; tiuw were of the same sine as tlit' living pups near them, and exhibited 
no sign of having died of hunger, nor did it ap])ear that they had lieni crushed to death 
in a stampede, as those that could be seen were at or near the limit of the rookery- 
ground. No estimate could be made of the number of dead pups that were lying on 
this rookery, as the seals lay so closely together on its southern and eastern slopes 
that but a small part of the breeding-ground was visible. Professor Everman (a natu- 
ralist on United States' Eisli Conunission steamer "Albatross"), who was willi me at 

• Scnatp, SUt Congresf, 2mi ScsbIoii, Ex. Doc. No. 49, p. 27. 



H(i 



this time, and who coiintod 120 dead pups, thouglit, •\vitli me, tliat it' so many were to 
be seen at the outer ed^cof the rookery-ground, the wliole numl)er must be very great, 
and al)out a month later (20th Aiignst) T bad ample proof that this was the case. I 
revisited Polavina rookery on this date with a native, Neh-au Mandrigan. This man 
speaks and understands English very well, and was at this time on bis way to North- 
east Point to take eharge of the gnard-bonse there. A great many dead pups were 
lying at the south end of the rookery, nearly or quite as many as were to be seen on 
Tolstoi rookery. Th(>y were lying on a sandy slope between the water and the roeky 
ledge that separates the lower from the higher parts of this rookery-ground, and Avere 
rather more gronjjed together than at Tolstoi, from 10 to 100 lying quite eloso 
together, with spaces froni o to 10 yards square between the groups. There were indi- 
vidual dead \n\ix scattered everywhere over this rookery as on all others, but on that 
part of it referred to above the mmiber was very great, and the ground on which they 
were lying was quite deserted by living s(>als. They extended as far as could be seen 
along the rookery, but as only the front sloping to tlie south coidd be seen, the number 
beyond the point to the northward could not be estimated. It was at the south end 
of this rookery that the Pritish Commissioners report having seen a fc'w hundred 
dead pups in 1801. Photogrnphs taken the Stli August show this ground with the 
breeding seals still upon it, but many dead pups may also be seen. The native 
Neb-an Mandrigan was asked how he accounted for so many dead pups ; be replied 
that he thought they had been killed when the old bulls were lighting, but a few 
minutes later said that h(> was mistaken, that their mothers must have been killed 
at sea, and the pups hav(^ died for want of food, lie at this time told me that he 
iiad never seen so many dead puj)s on any rookery before. He bad seen those on 
Tolstoi rookery in 1891, but bad not visited that place in 1802. 

Dead pups were first notie(.'d by me on Tolstoi rookery the 19th August, though 
photograp' taken by ;Mr. !Maynard on the 8(h August, while I was on St. George Island, 
show that ■ that dat(^ there were nearly, if not quite, as many of them on this rookery 
as there Avere ten days later. 

At the time I first noticed the dead pups I counted over 4,000, but they lay 
so closely together that it was impossible to judge what proportifju of the Avliole 
number was seen. I was told by th(> Treasury Agents on the island, and have no 
reason for disbelieving their statements, that when this rookery was carefully 
examined late in 1891 as many or more dead pups were found among the rocks or 
other parts of the rookery as were on the open space, and seen and sj)eeially remarked 
upon by the British Commissioners in 1891. This being so, it is reasonable to assume 
that such would be the case again this year. The dead pups noticed by me Mere on 
the same ground on which those seen last year were lying, but were scattered over ;i 
larger area, and in much greater nmnbers. 

I accompanied the liritish Commissioners wiien they inspected Tolstoi rookery 
in 1S91, and the date of my visit to that rookery this year coincided with their visit to 
it last year. Depending upon my memory alone, I ha(' lo hesitation in deciding that 
there was a greater luimber of dead pups at that place in August this year than at 
the same date in 1891, and a c(nnparison since my return from the islands of 
the photographs taken during the two seasons j)roves that Miis is und(>ul)tedlv the 
case. 

The pups when I first saw them appi.-aicd to have been dead not more than two 
weeks, and nearly all seenn'd to have died about the; same time. Very few Aver(> noted 
that were in a more advanced state, of deeoniposition tlian those about them, and the 
dozen or so that wen; seen were probably ])ups that had died at an earlier date, and 
from some other cause than that to which tliis unusual mortality among the young 
seals is to be attributed. 

The photographs taken on the 8th August showthat at that Vnv.i tliere were several 
groups of seals banled-out on grtmnd on which the dead pups lay, but on the 10th August 
it w«is almost entirely deserted by the older seals. This rookery was revisited on tike 
21st August, and attliis tiuK- an estimate was again made of the mind)(>r of dead pups. 
A large band of hollusehickie on their way from the water lo tlie haiding-ground at 
tin; back of Tolstoi rookery had stopped to rest on the ground on which the |)ups 
were lying and hid a part of them, so that on this occasion a few h'ss than ;{,8(H) were 
counted. On tlic 215rd August I again visited Tolstoi rookery in eomjjany with 
Assistant Tn^asury Agent Ainswortli, Mr. Maynard, the photogr-'ijilnir, and Anlone 
JVlelavedoff, who is the most intelligent native on St. Paul Island, and has charge of 
all th<' boats and store-houses belonging to the Company. This native acted as 
boat-steerer at the time the British Commissioners visited Tolstoi rookerv in 1801, 



1 1-; 



and that I luii^lit lu;ini his opinion rcj,'ai<liii;^ the n-lativc niuuhei' of dead pups for the 
tuo years 18!)1-'J2, J asked him (o ac'eoin[)auy luc on the (K.-rvisiou referred to above. 
^Viieii asked whetlier there were as many seals in 1892 as in 1891, he rejjlied : 
"^[on;; more than I ever saw l)ef(n'e." I, at the. time, askcnl llr. ilaynard to pay 
partieular attention to what was said, and lie has since made an affidavit to the above 
effeet, which is appended to this T!ep(jrt. 

Afy last visit to Tolstoi rookery was made; on the 1 1th September. Xo living seals 
were to be seen on that ])art of the rookery-j^ronnd on which the dead pups were, and 
it was now apparent that they extended fnrther to the left than is shown in the 
photo^i'aphs taken (jf them ; that is to say, a part of the ^^round on wliieli seals are 
shown in these photographs had dead pups on it which at that time could not be seen; 
this would add .everal liundreds to my former estimate of their number. No pups that 
liad di(!d recently wen; to be seen anywhere. It seems reasonably certain that all the 
dead ])ups seen o i this part of Tolstoi rookery died at about the same time, and I 
would include wit i them all, or nearly all, that wen; lying on the beach. These were 
doubtless thrown up by the sea, but there is no evidence that they were killed by the 
surf. 'J"he shore is sandy, and there had not been a heavy sea breaking upon it for 
more than a month ])revious to the date the dead pups were last seen. It seems 
possible that the morhility among these young pups was the result of an epidemic that 
ran its course in a few (lays, and attacked only a small portion of the young pups. 
That their deaths were not caused by starvation was very evident, as they were, with 
few (>.\ee|iti(,n!;, large ami wi.'ll developed, not small and emaciated, as is almost 
invariably the ease with those that are known to have wandered away from the 
breeding-grounds and died of starvation. It is usual for young seals that are hungry 
to congregate at the wal<'r's edge and there await the arrival of females, returning 
from the sea to tiie Ijrecding-gnninds. [ have on many occasions noted young pups 
whose continued erics wert! evidence that the little creatures were in want of food, 
and invariably pups in this condition were the most persistent in their endeavours 
to take milk from the breasts of cows as they lauiled, and would follow them 
for as great a distance as their strength would permit, returning slowly to the 
water's edge when the cow was lost sight of. Uad the dead pups seen on Tolstoi 
and other rookeries died of starvation, they would without doubt have been found 
in masses near the sea, not scattered over all parts of tlu; breeding-groimd, and 
were it possible that they had been killed by th(! surf they would have been lying 
in windrows, as was the case at S')uth-west Bay, where, on the 23rd August, 
l;io dead puj)s were found lying amoiig sea-weed at dilVerent distanec!s from tlu' water. 
Bare spaces from 10 to JtO yanls in width, on which no dead jaqis lay, separated these 
windrows of .sea-weed, showing that the high-water mark had changed from day to 
day. The pups at this [ilaee were in all stages of decomposition ; a few had died within 
a day or two, while little remained of others but their bone>, with fragments of skin 
attached. I'ups are constantly swimming across South-west Bay fnjiu Upjier to 
Lower Zapadnie rookeries, and it is probable that those lying on the beach represent 
nearly all that had been drowned, or bad from ;iny causi- died in the water in the 
immediate vicinity of this small bay, as the shore is steep and rocky on both sides 
of it, and anything lloating about is almost certain to be thrown up on this sandy 
beach. 

At iSorlh-east Point, on the 20th August, all the rookery-ground visible from 
llut(!hinsou Hill was carefully examined with a lield-glass. A few dead pups were to b^ 
s(!i'u here aud there on all jiarts of tiie brei.'ding-grounds, and in one place at no great 
distaiK^e from tin^ water, but on highei' grouiul than eoidd be reached by the sea, vi least 
SOO were visible from lluteliinsou Hill. 'I'lu' ground on which they lay much 
resembh'd that on whieii dead pujjs wen; at Tolstoi and I'oJavina rookeries, i-it Avas 
not of iKNirly so great an extent, 'flu'y lay scattered about as at Tolstoi, not in gxnips 
as at Polavina. A. earei'ui examination was made by me of all the rookerits on 
St. George Island, both befor(> and after the dead pups luul bi'cn noted on St. laul, 
but none \yv\v seen there with flie exception of a very few scattered ones, sueii as ire 
to be seen on all rookeries. 

Whites and natives on the islands were unanimous in saying that the mothos of 
the pujis found dead on the rookeries had been killed at sea, and that their youn.^ had 
then starved. During the nu)nths of .Inly, August, and September, I b.a;l frequent 
opportunities of conversing with tlu; oincers of nearly all the ships stationed in Bebiing 
Sea, both those ol tin? United States and of Creat Ih'itain, and all agreed that it 
was not i)ossible for ;i schooner to have been in and out of Behring Sea in 18'J2 
without being captured (see statement iii Appendix (C) of Captai i far', the 



[117J 



12 



MS 

Senior British Xnval Oillccr stationed at Beliring Sea). Tlic cnii/os of the various 
ships were earefuliy arraiij^ed by Captains Parr and Evans, and so planned tliat no 
part of Behring Sea to ■nliicli sealing-vesscls were likely to go Mas It'ft iinproteeted. 
H.M.S. "Melpomene" and "Daphne," and United States' sliips " Moliiean," "York- 
town," "Adams," "Ranger," "Hush," and " Corwin," were engaged in fliis work. 
No skins worth taking into account were found on the small vessels that were seized, 
and most of those they had on board were doubtless takeu outside Behring Sea, so that 
to whatever cause the excessive mortality among these young seals is to he atliihuted, 
sealing at sea can have had nothing to do with it in 1S92. 

AVlthout fully indorsing what Bryant says on this subj(H-t,lie maybe i|Uot(!d. 
He writes: ""Whentlie sun sliincs for two or three hours and the roeks beeonu! heated, 
there are oceasional deaths among the beaeliniastt-rs and very young pups fnnn sun- 
stroke, the symptoms being a nervous jerking of tin; limbs, followed by convulsions 
and death. Fortunately, the oecurrtnees are rare, and it was only in isyi that any 
appreeiahle number were lost from this cause. That year many yoiuig •-eals died about 
the 1st August.* 

Were sunstroke suggested as the probable cause that led to the death of the pups 
found on St. Paul Island in 1891 and 1892, tlic jjositions in vvhicli they wire found and 
the nature of the ground in which they lay would favour this theory. Were; the sun 
to shine for even a few hom-s upon the smooth hard ground of the rook.-ries, it would 
become so hot that seriouj injury ov death to the young seals might be the conse- 
quence, as it is well known that even the old seals dislike and are seriouslv .'iffected liy 
heat. 

Special inquiry was made by me at the Commander Islands during the first week 
in September as to whether young seals had lieen found dead in 18!)2 in larger 
numbers than usual, and several of the oldest natives were questioned by me on this 
point. I was told by them that none had been seen there but a few that had been 
killed by the surf or had wandered away from the rookery-grounds, and yet there were 
many schooners sailing from United States' ports sealing in the vicinity of these 
islands during the whole season, and in July and August a great many schooners came 
from the American coast and sealed in Asiatic waters ; many thousand skins were 
taken there, probably more than in any one season on the American side of Behring 
Sea, but no increased mortality was noticeable in the number of dead pups on tho 
rookeries. The skins of the dead pups that die on the Commander Islands are taken 
off by the natives, and a small price is paid for them at the Company's store. The men 
examined by me liad been recently at the rookeries for the purpose of procuring such 
skins, and reported that they had got no more than usual, and the agent of the 
Corajjany corroborated their statements. 



Natural Indications of former extent of Ground occupied by Seals on the Priltyloff Islands. 

While on the PribylolT Islands in 1892, my attention was frequently called to the 
yellowish grass {Glyceria (mgustata),vih\.ch grews in the vicinity of all the rookeries on 
both St. Paul and St. George Islands. It was asserted by the United States' Treasury 
Agents that this yellow grass marked the limit of the ground that had within recent 
years been continuously covered by seals, which, if correct, would tend to show a very 
great decrease in seals frequenting the islands during this time. During the entire 
season, careful note was made of all facts that could hare any bearing upon this 
question. 

1 noticed at the time of my first visit to a rookery on St. Paul Island in 1892 
(Ist July) that much of this grass-covered ground was dotted with boulders of various 
sizes, upon which were mature lichens. Even small stones that were less than a foot 
above the ground were completely encrusted V)y them, affording incontestable proof that 
even were it admitted that the yellow grass, in all probability, marked the ground upon 
which seals have been at some time or another, its presence is no evidence that tho 
ground had been occupied by them within recent years. 

The climate of tho Pribyloff Islands is in every way suited for tho rapid growth of 
lichens, and every rock and stone that has been undisturbed for a sufficient length of 
time is covered with them. 

Soon after the islands came under the control of the United States an 
embankment was built at tho back of the house now occupied by the agents of the 
North American Commercial Company. It rests upon a base or foundation about 

* " Monogrtph of North American Pinnipeds," p. 408. 



149 



4 foot in licii^lit, foiiipnsod of siufill lioiildors nnd l)rok('ii piccos of stoiu; laid niio above 
tlu; otlicr, liiit not fiistou'd loi^oflicr liy mortar (,r any other cenicnt. Tiic roujjli 
siu-raccs of tlicsc roi-l<s alTnrd tlic s|)or('s of liolicnsa nmcli better cliance (il'lixiiii; them- 
selves than tlic seiil-polished roeks near rookeiies or lianlinij-Lji'oiinds. 

Lichens are now growing,' on a ]iart of tlu; rocks of which the (oiiiidaliou is 
C()m])()sed, hut many of them — the smootlier onr.^-nre still (juitc hare. Only four 
have on tlieni lichens on which a])otliecia are apj)arent, and in tiicse cases tiiey aro 
only |iai'tlally developed, and many y<!ars must elajj'^o before thi'y reach maturity. It 
is thus evident that und(;r the most faviairable conditions, at least tw<'nty years are 
necessary for tlu; full development of lichens ijrowiny on tla.'so islands. The same or 
closely allied s])ecies on the coast of England have been found to retjuire at least twice 
that length of time to fully mature. 

In 1884, a wall was built behind a new store ercefid by the Alaska Commercial 
Company, On a few of the stones of which it is composed licliens are br'giuning to 
grow, hut there are none that show the slightest sign^ of fruetilication. Tu ISS.J, new 
(Muhatikmenls were built at both ends of the one first I'cferreil to above, or, rather, 
if \vas extended in l)oth dii-ections. On none of the rocks at the bases of these 
recently built enihaukmenf.s are lichens to bo seen with the exception of live, ou 
which are growing a lew small plants without apotbecia, and in every one of these 
cases remains of old dead lichens are to I)e found on the same rocks which were 
doul)tless there when tin; stones were placed. 

It is an accejjted fact that lichens increase nnicb moii: qu'ckly during the early 
stjiges of their growth than after they have l)cgun to mature, and while they may in a 
com])aratively small number of years give evidence ■ f bearing apothecia, a much 
longer time must elajise before they mature. The atte.i*ion of iMr. J. Stanley Brown 
and Mr. Townsend was called to the lichens growing on ii;cks on the breeding-groimds, 
and to their being lew or none on the embankments r<.lerr,xl to above. ^Ir. Townsend 
had collected several specimens of rocks on which lieb.nis were growing, " in order 
that," as lie said, " I may show how soon after sea!,> have been on the rocks they 
become covered with lichens," but when siiown ihe walls on which no lichens were 
growing he at once threw liis specimens awiy. 

As more than three-fourths, probably lour- fifths, of the ground now covered by 
yellow grass is also dotted with roeks on which mature lichens are found, it is certain 
that seals liave not been upon such parts of the rookery-grounds for many years, for ia 
dry weather these lichens arc brittle, and wf/uld crumble and b-reak oil were even a 
small number of seals to drag themselves ove • them, and when a rock is damp a single 
seal passing over it rubs off all lichens touched by it. Seals driven from the "parade 
ground " on Heef rookery pass behind that part of it called Garboteh, and, for about 
100 yards over what was formerly a part of Garliotch i-ookery. The rocks at this place 
have been completely bared of lichens on the sides timt are come in contact with by 
the seals as they travel over them, while on the opposite side they <!xlubit in most 
cases lichen-covered faces. 

Wlien on St. George Island, I noticed (15th Ju}y) at the western end of Xorth 
rookery, that a small band of bachelor or young male seals, numbering not inore than 
200, had chosen a new place for climbing up the bank that sloped from their hauling- 
ground to the sea, or at Icfist a part of the slope that had not b(!en used for many 
years, as it was covered with large tufts of grass from 18 inches to 2 feet in 
diameter, and with flowering plants of many species. The rocks, too, wore covered 
with lichens, except in the centre of the little depression up which the seals climbed ; 
here they had been all rubbed ofT. The tussocks of grass were in some places worn 
down quite to the ground, and along the line travelled over by the seals when going to 
or from the water had been worn away. Two weeks later I visited the same place, 
and found that, while tlic number of young seals haiiled-out there had not increased, 
the ground over which they moved in their passage to and from the sea oould iif>t b(> 
distinguished from that over which seals wen; known to have travelled for many 
years. All forms of vegetation had disappeared from it, while no lichens Avere to 
be seen on any part of th(5 rocks they passed over, exccjit on such places as from 
the shape of the boulders could not have been touched by the seals' bodies. 

The yellow grass above mentioned {Ghjceria angustatn) is by no means peculiar to 
occupied rookery-grounds. It grows on many placs 'n both islands, that are either not 
now frequented by seals or never have been. At Kursoolah, a bay between Zapadnio 
rookery and South-west Point, the ground is covered for a long distance with a thick, 
though short, growth of this grass, to the complete exclusion of other forms of 
vegetation. Seals have not been known to visit this place for many years. What 



.'jO 



lengtli i)f timo ijrnuiul that Ikis hoeii rubbed bnro and boatoii dnwu by soals \\ould 
roinaiii in tliat condition is uncorfain, but wlicn grass bcijins to grow upon it only a 
few blades apjicar the first y<'ar, tlic second year it forms little (dunijjs tbat sonio- 
tinios l)ear seed, wliile tbe third year it attains considerable size, a dump tben being 
from 4 to C> inelu's in diameter, ft, is impossible to determine the length of time 
required for these clumi)s 1o beconv- united so as to form a eonipaot sward. 

Early in the month of July 1S!)2, ^Mr. Urowu, ^Mr. Townscnd, and T marked out a 
small ])lot of ground about 2t) y.ards sipiaro at the back of Reef rookery. A few small 
bunches of grass of three or i'our blades each were growing upon it. This spot was 
visited many times during tbe summer, and as late as the I'jtb Scptembcn-, hut, no 
cbang(; in the grass growing on it was npiiarent. 'l^his ])articnlar piece of ground was 
chosen, as we all three were certain that if had not been oecupii-d by seals in ISOl 
Then; were large tracts of yellow grass betwceii this plot aiul Tleef rookery on flic 
one band and fiarboteh rookery on the otluu", proving the ground to be W(dl adapted 
to its growth ; y(>f in two years the grass that had grown upon it would not con- 
tinuously covei' a square yard. 

In onlv one instance was grass found growing on ground on which seals wore 
known to have been within a year ; this was at Zap.adnie rookery on the I'itb August. 
JFr. Brown i)ointed out to nu- at this time a small area near the southern limit of the 
rookery, on which, he said, seals had been lying early in flu; season. TIuwc were ntme 
on it at the time of our visit, but in a drain-like depression that ran across it little 
clum])s of /)i^'.vr7/nm/).v/n r(r.'7)(7o.vrt were growing ; no young plants of Gliji-rria imyuxlatu 
were to be seen, nrscliniiiiisid c/rspilosa might be called the charaeferisti(' gi'ass of the 
islands, as it grows cverywh(>re except in very sandy soil or on the moors and bigb 
uplands. Almost every scjnarc yard between Tolstoi and Za])adnio ro(dieries and Bogoslof 
Mountain is covered with it. It reaches to tho limit of most of the rookeries, and in 
many pbu'cs wl.ere the ground has been long unoccupied by seals, it is encroaching on 
" tbe yellow grass limit." I had, bowcver, never before seen it growing nearer than 
Ghjceria mujiistata to occupied roidvcries. I made a careful examination of the ground 
on which it was growing, and found that the little depression referred to above 
extended back to a large patcb of Dcschnmpf-'id rrrspitosn, from which the seeds had 
doubtless been carried. No other similar case Avas afterwards noted on any part of 
eitber island. 

When seals have been in considerable numbers on rookery-ground, it becomes 
so smooth and hard that, except in rare; instances such as that mentioned nbov-', 
seeds could 7iot possibly take root and grow upon it until at least one year had 
passed, and, as shown above, many years must then elapse before the ground becomes 
entirely covered by grass. 

At South-Avcst Point (Seelah) Mr. l>rown called my attention to I be large area 
covered by yellow grass, '^^()re than half of this area was dotted witli small seal- 
polished ro(dcs that were covered with mature lich(>ns, while one large patch of it was 
completely surrounded by a luxuriant growth of l']lymus. Seals ceased coming to Ibis 
place in 1887, but for many years previous to that date the numbin" had been growing 
smaller. 

It seems probable that these grass-grown areas near rookeries were at some time 
bared of vegetation by seals. I bad many o])porfunities in 1892 for noting that even 
a small band of hoUuschickie would in a week destroy every vestige of vegetation on a 
considerable area, leaving tho ground perfectly bare. As these young male seals 
change their hauling-grounds many times during the season, a considerable extent of 
new "round is bared bv them evcrv vear, and, thouii-b .seals mav not for manv seasons 
baul-out at this place again, it will, in time, heconm covered wifh Gbjcrria mujustiita, 
and cannot then be distinguished from similar areas on whieb s(-als had been many 
years before, for, when ground is once taken possession of liy this grass, it seems to 
exclude all other plants with the exception of Dcschampsin ceespitosn and a large 
Arlimcsia. 

Wlien on the islands I was again and again told that flic yellow grass marked tbe 
limit to which seals liad reached. Admitting this to be true, there is no way of 
determining what proportion of this ground has been occupied by seals at one time. 
Tho lichen-covered rocks prove that much of it lias been deserted by them for many 
years, while there are other parts of it that exhibit unmistakable (widcnee that seals 
have been on it within a few years ; and in yet other cases seals were seen in great 
numbers "in 1891 and 1892 haulcd-out to the extreme edge of the ground defined by 
yellow grass, and in not a few instances a long way beyond it. 

■\Vhcn the rookeries on St. Paul Island were last visited in September, it was 



151 

found that ni nil the larijccr rookorios, suoh ns Tlcof, Tolstoi, and Polavina, the soals had 
haul(?(l-oiit as far ns lliorc was ;iny sirens of their nvcr havinu' 1)C<;n hoforo, and in many 
cases much farth<;i' ; i)hotoi,'niiiIis showing; this wore taken at all the pi'ineipal 
rookeries. 



Comparative Numbers of Seals on the Prihijloff Islands in 1891 and 1892. 

In 1801 I arrived on St. Paul Island in company with the British Commissioners, 
and first visited the rookeries there on the 2Sth July. Loni; hd'oro that date, in 1892, 
I was, trustini; to my memory alone, tliorou<;hly convinced that there were more seals 
on t?'e rookeries and haulin!,'-jjroundsof tliat island than there were in 18!)1, and a com- 
parison of photo;^raphs taken in that yeur with tlioso procured in 1892 proves that my 
memory was not at fault. A])art from this, however, the rookery- and hauling-grounds 
themselves exhihited tinmistakahle oviilenee that the numher of seals was greater in 
1892 than 1891. At Znpadnic, Tolstoi, lleef, and North-east rookeries any increase or 
decrease in the size of the rookeries can at once be detevmined by the appearance of 
the ground that marks their linuts. There is never any didiculty in distinguishing 
ground on which seals have been in the previous year from that which has not been 
occupied by them within two or more years. The first year after seals have been on 
any particular area the ground remains hard and smooth, and it is seldom that even a 
few blades of grass show themselves. The rains of one summer and the frosts of two 
winters do much to loosen the soil, and in the second year its surface i)rcsents quite a 
different appearance. 

Before the end of August nearly all the rookery-ground that bore evidence of 
having been occupied by seals the previous season was again covered by them. At 
North-east Point in particular, it was easy to see that there bad been a material 
increase in the number of breeding-seals. Last year, the extreme limit to which seals 
reached at Hutchinson Hill was tlie crest of the hill, but in 1892 its summit was, late 
in August, covered with female seals and pups. They (extended back so far that the 
shelter for the watchmen, built some years ago on this hill, could not be reached or 
occupied without disturbing the seals. Standing at Sea-Lion Neck on the 22nd July, 
and looking nortli over the immense rookery that covers that part of North-east 
Point, Mr. Miller, who was engaged in hiking photographs for the United States' 
Government, said to mo that there were more seals there than there had been when 
he photographed the same ground about a week later in 1891. 

At lleef rookery, in 1891, the breeding-seals reached in a scattering way, in 
August, almost to the ledge of rocks that separates the breeding- and liauling-grounds 
on the south side of Beef Point, from what Elliott calls the " jjarade ground." In 
1892 breeding-seals reached (juite to (his lodge, and late in August females and 
young had in small numbers climbed uj) the rocks, and wore scattered for some 
little distance beyond them. At the south-west point of this rookery the breeding 
seals were, from the first of the season, hauled out in great numbers close up to the 
rocks that separate it from the "parade ground." This area is not included by 
Elliott in his Map of llccf rookery, showing the ground occupied bv breeding seals in 
1874. 

On the 11th August, at Lukannon and Kctavie rookeries, it was noticed that while 
all bare ground had seals scattered ov(n' it, the breeding seals bad covered so much 
new ground that it was impossible to reach (he stone cairns, or '■' niyaks," from which 
photographs had been taken earlier in the season, and which had been erected in 1891 
under Mr. Brown's directions, to mark the limit to which seals had ever reached. 

At Zapadnie rookery it was impossible to tell whether the breeding seals had 
increased or decreased, as the holluscliickie on all |)ar(s of (hat rookery arc liauled out 
betwr-cn the breeding seals and the outer edge of the hauliug-grounds, the breeding 
seals lying l)etwecn them and the water. 

At Tolstoi and Polavina rookeries the sandy na(urc of much of the soil al the 
back of the breeding-grounds made it diflicult to note how far the seals had extended 
in the jirevious year, but there was no unoccupied ground that showed signs of having 
had seals on it in 1891. 

As was to be expected, in accordance with the relatively small number of young 
seals killed in 1891, it was everywhere apparent that the number of holluscliickie had 
increased. At every hauling-ground they covered the areas on which seals had been 
last year, and at every one of them large bands of hoUuschiekio had hauled out on new 
ground. This is shown in jjliotographs of Zapadnie, North-cast Point, Lukannon, &c., 
on St. Paul Island, and North and Starrv Arteel rookeries on St. George Island. 
[117] ' 2 11 



152 

During the time I was on the Pril)ylo(T Islands I never heard anj one, white or 
native, say that there were fewer seals tlian there were? Inst year, thonu;!) it was 
frcciucntly said in my hearing (hat tluTe were not so iiany seals now as ther'- were in 
former ye.irs. ^[r. Stanley lirown expre-ised threat snrprise when he heard that the 
pclajjic catch had been hir^e, as. from the ajipearanee of the rooUerics, he had eomc to 
the c^onclusiou that but few seals could have been killed at sea. 



Injury to Sealt: resultintj from "Driviutj" on the Islands. 

When on the Pribyloff Islands T was present at four "food-killings," three on 
St. Paul Island and one (m St. Oeor'^'e Island, and was thus enabled to ('";(<rvo 
carefully the methods employed by the ai;ents of the North .American Comi n rcial 
Company, and the natives working under them, in select ing from the thousands of 
seals driven to the killing-i,'ronnds the few hundreds (hat were to be killed. I had 
expected that the driving and killing of these seals would be under the direct suiier- 
vision of an ofTicer of the (lovernnu'nt, for while it was well understood that the skins 
of the seals killed would be takcMi over 1>y the Company, (he object of the killing 
during the modus rireiidi was supposed to be not for the purpose of taking skins for 
the Company, but to sujiply the natives with food. F did not myself accomiiony 
the natives during the whole progress of a driv(! from the hauling-grounds lO 
the killing-grounds, but on three occasions on St. I'aul Island I accompanied the 
drive for some distance before the killing-grounds were reatihed. On none of these 
occasions did an ofTwer of the United States' (iovcrnment see anything of (he 'o.tIs 
until they were all driven together near the killing-ground, and once the kill " h' '. 
to be delayed for some time until the Treasury Agent reached the ground. OiU'c idy 
on either island did an ofTicer of the Government in my presence interfere in any 
way with the natives or the agents of the Company in tluMr work of clubbing and 
skinning the seals, or make to them any suggestion as to which seals ought to bo 
killed and which sjiared, and the number of seals killed on every occasion (Irj)en(led 
not upon the wants of the natives, but entirely upon the number there were in the 
drive that were thought by the agents of the Company to bo of a size that would 
give to them skins of the greatest value. The one instance referred to above was at 
the killing on the 1st July. A seal with apparently a broken shoulder was allowed 
by the natives to escape, though they noticed its condition. Colonel ^lurray then 
ordered one of them to go after it, and it was killed. At this killing less than 300 
skins were taken. A careful account was kept by me of the luimber of seals that 
were driven up to the clubbers, and were allowed to escajjc after having been huddled 
together on the killing-ground, while those of a killable size were selected from the 
drive. 

But 1 t'l per cent, of the whole number of seals driven at this time were killed, 
■while among those that escaped I counted seventeen that wi-re badly enough bitten 
or wounded to bleed considerably, and there were doubtless many more that I failed 
to notice. Three of those injured were young seals that liad evidently been struck 
by the clubbers, as they were badly cut about the head. (Jne seal, about (i years old, 
that had been wounded in the belly, M'as allowed to escape. I went to wiiere it had 
rested for a few minutes, and found as much clotted l)lood as would have filled a 
breakfast cup. Another seal had a gash in its back about 5 inches long, and though 
a four-year-old seal of the size that was being killed was allowed to go free, as the skin 
had been injured. A wounded or bleeding seal was to bo seen in nearly every small 
pod of from thirty-five to fifty that passed through the hands of the clubbers. 'I'here 
were, of course, many others that had blood on them that had come from the killed or 
wounded seals, but on the seventeen referred to above the wounds could be plainly 
seen. 

At the killing of the 25th July one young seal escaped with a broken nose, and 
another with an eye hanging out. Such things attracted no attention from either the 
natives or the officer of the Government or Company, being apparently considered by 
them to be quite matters of course. 

I noticed at every killing on St. Paul Island at wliich I was present, that as each 
little pod of seals was driven from the killing-ground to the lagoon 20 or 30 yards 
away, one or more lagged behind the others, moving with great difficulty, and by 
means of their fore-Hippers only, as if their backs or hinder parts had been hurt in 
some way. They seemed to revive after the water was reached, and it was not 
possible for me to determine whether the injury was of a kind that Avould alFect them 
permanently or not. 



16S 



No Imttcp ])r()nf of tlic injury (loiii* to seals by di'iviiig coiiM hi- liad tliaii to walk 
alon<,' (lie nmtc lolliivvi',! 'v tln'iu wlicn driven from a li;iuliiii;-ni'"imiil lo Mm; Ivillin!?- 

f^roiuul. Till' i;niiiiiil is on all sides strewn willi bones; and if tiieri- lias 1 ,i a recent 

drivi!, many roltiriLT <'arc:isses ar(^ also to be seen. The day afler a drive from .Middle 
Hill f walked fur aboni a mile from tlie sall-lionse alonj^ tlie ronle over ulLieii tlio 
seals iiad been driven, and found si'venteen eareasses of seals that bad become over- 
heated, and bad been killed so that their skins mi^hi be saved. I found cnie dead seal 
lyini; in a small ])ond of \rater, about a nnle from the l<illin'j;-nrouiids, tlirouL;'li wiiicli 
tbo seals had been driven : it bad no doubl beeoni(! exhausted, and, lyin^' down there, 
bad escaped the notice of the drivers. The fur was still i;'ood. The eareasses referred 
to above were all of animals of Ibe size of wbieb the skins would be of the weii;ht 
re(juir<'d by tli(" Company, and much better able to bear the fati^aie of tlu' loni,' drive 
than the yoniiLfer ones. 

As actual eonnlini; at four killintjs show tbat liss thati 20 per cent, <>( the seals 
driven were of what the agents of the Company coTisidored a killabb^ si/c, the 
number of young seals hurt while being driven must bo very great, but not, 
I tbiidv, greater than those injured when the mnmIs are huddled together surrounded 
by the clubbers. AVith no escajio in any direction they draw nearer one another, 
until tlu-y are at last crowded so closely together tbat little more than their heads 
are visible, exc<'pt when one ui the larger seals struggles out from among the 
others : if of a 



strugglintc mass. 



killable size, it is knocked on the head and falls back into the 
The " ]pod " is continually poked and stirred n[) by the clubber, in 
order tbat the seals may be ke])t moving; anil when all that are of the pro]ier size 
have been (dubbed the others ar<' driven IVom the killing-grounds, with cries from the 
clubbers and the beating of pans by the attendant boys. If by ebance a " killable" 
seal escapes with the younger ones, a club is thrown at it, and though many are 
.struck in this way, T nev<'r saw one stunned or prevented from reaching the lagoon, 
a short distanc" away. "Whether sucdi seals receive permanent injury it is imi)ossibl(! 
to say, but the throwing of the club at them always appeared to me an act of wanton 
cruelty, or a sort of i)astime to amuse the clubbers while the ue;ct " jiod " of seals was 
being driven up. 

While tlu! seals wore huddled togctlior on the killing-ground the clouds of steam 
rising from thcui showed jdaiidy the over-heated coiulitior; of the animals. 

'i'he only duty of tlu,' Treasury Agents at these killings a[)peareil to b(! to take 
down in a jierfuiuitory manner the number of seals killed as called out to him by the 
chief clubber. No other co>int but this was ever made on the fudd, both the 
Government and the Company depending entirely upon the counting of the skins in 
and out of the salt-houses when estimatinc' the number of seals taken. 



Raids. 

During the months of July and August 1892 no guard was stationed upon any 
rookery on either island witli the exception of Xorth-east Point on 8t. I'aul Island, 
and Zapadnie (m St. George. Polavina and Zapaduie rookeries on the former island, 
aiul (Jreat East and Starry Arteel rookeries on the latter, were left without a guard 
of any kind, and three of these four rookeries are kno^vn to bavi; been raided in recent 
years. 

On the 10th July I walked on St. George Island from the villaije to Zapadnie 
rookery with the two natives who were going to relieve the watchmen there. One 
was a young man about '20 years of age, the other a boy of 12 or 13. "When we 
reached the guarc'-bouse I found that the guards to be i-olieved were an chlerly 
man with but one arm, and a boy of about the .same age as the one referred to above. 
I was afterwards told by Dr. Noyes, the Manager on St. George Island for the 
Company, that when the killing season was at its height this one-armed man was the 
only guard kept at Zapadnie. He was unable to as.sist in any way at the killings, so 
was employed as a watchman. 

Two or three men were kept at North-cast Point, St. Paul Island, and this jjlaco 
is connected witli the village by a telephone-line. Early in August 181)2, however, 
the receiver or transmitter at one end of the line got out of order, and it was rendered 
useless as a means of communication between these places. At tlu; time of my 
departure from the island on the 12th Scpicnber it was still in this conditicm, and there 
was apparently no prosj)ect of its being repaired before next spring, iloro than two 
Lours would he required by the watchmen to reach the village were a raid to be, inado 
at North-east Point, and the same time to return with assistance. Tliis, with the 
time cousumed in rousing the people at the village, would give any r.iidcrs ample 



ir.-t 



opporhmity to do tlicir work, as I bare been assured by several men who have actually 
raided tlie islands that four liours is the time usually required to make a successful 
raid, so that North-east Point was in 1802 practically without protection. 

Polavina rookerj' is 6 miles from either the villa<;e or North-cast Point, and any 
night the wind served, or even on fofjtry days, raids might he made there and nothing 
be known of them at the village. Although Zapadnie rookery can he seen fron) the 
village, and on this account is supposed to he safe, it was at this very place that the 
skins taken by the crew of the " Borealis," late in 1891, were procured. I was told by 
one of the men engaged in the raid that, at the time it was made, a revenue-cuttcr was 
lying at anchor near the village, and less than 2 miles from the rookery, that the night 
was clear— so clear that they could see from the schooner not only the lights of the 
cutter, hut the vessel itself. Tliey wci-e desperate, however, and sailed in close to the 
rookery, landed, and secured lOO skins without being seen or heard. While on 
St. Paul Island, in 1892, three dilfercnt rookeries were named to me as the one on 
which this particular raid was made. Nothing was known of it on the islands until 
the arrival of the revenue-cutters the next spring, and the officers on these vessels had 
heard of it through the raiders themselves. 

TVhile in Victoria, British Columbia, in :May 1892, two of the crew of the schooner 
" Challenge" gave me particulars of the raid made on Great East rookery, St. George 
Island, late in 1891, and when on St. George Island in July I asked Dr. Xoyes, the 
Alanager of the Nortli Amei'ican Commercial Company on that island, for an account 
of the raid, lie told me that the morning after tlie raid a native, who had been 
collecting wood, came in with the report tliat there were dead seals on Great East 
rookery, but that no vessel was in sight. The number of seals killed was not ascer- 
tained, as tliey did not wisli to disturb tliose still on the gromd. A man was sent 
across the island, and came back with word that a schooner was anchored in Garden 
Cove. Guards were jiut on all the rookeries, hut no further attempt at raiding was 
made, and nothing more was seen of the vessel. 

Starry Arteel seems to have been in former years a favourite rookery for raiding, 
as Dr. Noyes si)oke of several raids having been made there in difCercnt seasons, 
though he did not know the names of the vessels. lie told me that in 188G a native 
came in, and infcn-med him that he had seen dead pu])s on Starry Arteel ifjokery. On 
going there he (Dr. Noyes) found a numlii r of dead seals lying on the shore, and 
while he was looking at tliem a native called out tliat he thought he saw a boat under 
the cliff to the westward of Starry Arteel. Two nativts were sent along the clills 
witli guns, but no boats could be seen. The clilTs at tiiis place are about 900 feet 
high and ovevliang the water, so tliat a boat could not he seen from above. Dr. Noyes 
said tliat schooners formerly came in elosi- to the island early in the evening and 
lowered their boats, whicJi, after making the raid, were taken under the clitfs, and the 
following night were picked up by the scliooner. 

The next day a schooner was seen far out at sea — it had been foggy before — and 
a guard was ])ut on all the rookeries. During the night two boats were detected close 
under the cliff Avhere the n.'itiviis had reported them tlie day before. The watelimen 
ordered the boats to stop, tiireateniiig to (h'c at them if they did not do so, and the 
boats not stopping they did fire, not at the men hut over tlieiii : two men were, liowever, 
wounded. Dr. Noyes did not learn until 'he following year that tiie miMi had been 
wounded. Tic Avas told of it tlieii by oHleers on the revenue-cutter " Eush," to 
which they had gone for assistance. He had never told the natives that they had 
wounded the men, as they would, lie said, rather let every seal he taken than shoot 
any one. 

In this connection ilr. "Wardman, Unitetl States' Treasury Agent on the Priliyloff 
Islands for several years, may lie quoted : " I asked a man one ds.y if he would slioot if 
we look after a pirate, and he said lie would not. It was diily with great persuasion 1 
could get him to imll me oil' in a boat. It is lU) use putting i^uiis into their hands. 
I asked him why lie would not shoot, and he said he did not want to kill a man. Thoy 
are very cowardlv."* 

Even were ■ Ttive guards placed on eveiy rookery on both islands, they would 
thus afford no reji^ jirolection against raids. They might be briiied by tiie raiders, or 
might neglect t .<'■ liities and not patrol the rookeries on dark or foggy nights, and 
even were f.ood wr i,ch kejit and the presence of raidei-s detected they would be useless, 
ai"! a" tlie inost would hut iiurry to the village for help. It is assumed that if 
a reveiiuc-r "t'oi wcr(> kiqit at each island, no fuithei protection would be- jieeessury ; 
but it has been shown that at least one sucee^'iul raid w;is made while the cutter vres 

• II. It., SOtb Congresi, 2nd Sesiion, llcport Ns. 38S3, p. 34. 



155 



any 
ling 
(he 
the 
I by 



actually in sight of tlio roolcery being raidtMl, All (.be revenue-cutters habitually 
come to aiicbor at nigbtlall when near tlio islands, if possible at the village, so 
that practically the whole island exceptini^ t' f.t j)avt of it near the villag(! is open to the 
raiders. Vessels arc known to have anchored to the northward of St. Paul Island for 
weeks, running in to the i:.!rind at night to kill seals on the rookeries. A proper 
guard , tationed at each rooaory might jirovent such raids, but a vessel anchored at the 
village can never do so. 

Number of Seals required for Food of Natives. 

Between the 19th May and the 18tii .Tune, 1892, inclusive, there were live 
"killings" on St. Paul Island, "he average number of seals taken at each killing being 
about l'J.'> ; these were doubtless sulljcient to supply the natives with fof)d, as there was 
at that time no lack cjf seals. On the 2.")th .Tune the number was suddenly increased to 
497, aiul each killing thereafter averaged a little less than 1(»0 seals. During the lli-st 
nine days of August 1:^70 seals were killed on St. Paul Island, an average of over l.'tO 
for each (i;iy, considerably more than tlu> average weekly killing earlier in the season. 
During the whole summer a certain small portion of the seal moat was dried by the 
natives for th'"ir own use, and many kegs and barrels of salted meat were, besides, 
prepared as usual for nativ's at Unalaska, and sent to them. A smoke-house was built 
under the direetioti of the United Shites' Treasury Agent, but up to the 1st .Inly no 
attempt had been marie to cure any of the flesh. The smoki.'-house was at last lilled 
with nu'at that ha<l Ium'u so.aked in brin(>, but, not having been ])roj)erly dried bel'ore 
being hung up. this first lot of nu.'at rotted and bad to he thrown away. I was told 
that later aitemj)ls were more successful, but I saw none of tln^ cured meat. As a 
rule, only the best parts of the carcasses wi're taken, aiul great quantities of fb-sh 
were left to rot upon the killin.g-grouuds after every drive. But a- small portion 
of the ilesb of the 29;5 seals killed at Polavina rookery on the Stb August was saved. 

Had the re(]uirements of the natives been considered, no more seals wiudd have 
been killed during the summer months than were a<;tually required for fooil at 
the time. It would have be(>n uuich Itctter had nu-at that was to be salted or smoked 
been prepared late in autumv instead of in .luly and August, .as there would have then 
been less risk of it spoilinu;; and had even 1,'M)0 of the seals killed during the lirst nine 
days of August been spared until November, the n;dives would have had fresh nuvat 
in greater quantily, and as it kee[)s well when frozen, its use could have been extended 
over a greater period of time. 

I walked over the killing-ground at St. Oein-gc on the 1st August, and noted 
many carcasses from which no meat a\ batevcr b.ad be(>n taken, while from others the 
fore-flippers only luid been removed. Natives were? observed on several days pre\ious 
to this to go to the killing-ground, and cnl from the carcasses meat in small (juantities 
as it was required. 'I'he seals from which the uu'at was taken were killed on the 
aist.Tuly. 

A\'hen on St. P;iul Island in IS'.ll, at the request of the Ib'ilish Commi-^sioners, Ihc 
parts of a seal that are eaten by the natives \vere cut from one weighing S.") lbs., the 
skin of which weighed 8 lbs. ; it was found that the flesi weighed 25 lbs., and the 
heart, liver, tongue, and kidiu-ys, all of whieb mav b(? and often are eaten, 5 lbs. 



AV)^' rrt'i'niiKj In titr Mrlliotl nf tnl;ii\ij Sr-als iil Srd. 

In the expectation of being .able to take seals on the way north, I to'>k with nu', 
when 1 embarked on the " (^)iiadra," a s(>alinL':-boat of the jiatlern now exelusiv<'ly 
tised by the white hunters. This boat I ke]!!, with me all summer, ;uid had ample 
opportunity of juilging of its suilahility for the work for wliieh it is intended. These 
boats n\v Ughl, swift cralt. and are so built that either end answers e(|ually well as the 
bow. They are propelled by short, paddle-like oars, commonly called [laddles by the 
sealers, the lightness of which enables th" oarsmen to pull very (juickly, and so, mIicu 
lU'eessary, turn the hoal very easily. This is seldom necessary, however, (>xcepl 
when a wounded seal is being (diased, and is not then really necessary exee])t in or<ler 
to ))ut the rowers out of danger when the hui\ter fires at ;i se.al whi<'h is badly 
wounded and eoiiies up behind ihe boat; then a lew strokes »f the oars carries the 
boat to it without the ueees>ity of ils being turned round, as one of the rowers l.ices 
each way. \\'hen necessary to go .astern fhe " boat-pulh r " In-comes the " boat- 
sleerer," and virr irrsd. The term " boal-slei-rer " is applied to the rower, or 
"paddler," who, under ordinary circuuislanccs, sits in the stern of the boat, and 
lll7i * 2 8 



166 

tliough lie assists in propelling the l)oat, faces the how and guides it as well. I saw 
many of these l)oats at various places, and all were of ahout th(! same size and huilt 
on the same model. 



ATPEXDIX (A). 

Off Triaw/k hlnrtd, Ma,/ 11, 1892. 
WK, tlie Undersigned, certify that we were with Jlr. Jlactmn when hi; visited West Haycnck 
Ishiiid this innniiriL;, and tliat we saw from the boat fur-seals all almij^ the west side of the island in 
bunches of two oi- three, while off the south end there was a liuneh of ei,i,'lit or ten. "When frij,'hteued 
they (lid not j,'o nut to sea, but kept alon;^ the shore or went into um uf the narrow cliunnel.s that 
separate the roekv islets lying oil the main island. 

(Signed) N. E. GAliDXEK,) 

n. MrCAl.I-. )■ Seamen. 

HUGH KKNNY, J 
G. G. GEKOW, Scal-lmntcr. 
WM. UWEN, Chief Mate. 



APPENDIX (B). 

Declaration of Richard Maynard. 

Dominion of Canada, Province of Britisli Columbia, 
City of Victoria. 

I, RUIHARI) MAYXAllD.of the city of Victoria, and Province of British Columbia, do .solemnly 
declare : — 

1. That durin;,' the latter part of the month of .Tuly, and for nearly th.e wliole of the mouth of 
August, I was em])loyril in taking ]ihotot;i-iiplis on the I'ribvloff T.slands. 

2. That on the' 2:ird day of Au;.,'ust, ISOL', I \isited Tolstoi liookiTy, on St. I'aul Island, in 
company with Lieutenant Ainsworth, Assistant Treasury Agent on St. Taiil tsliini!, Mr. Jfacoun, an 
Agent of the British (Government, and Aiitone Melovedofl', chief hnatman in liic ciuploy of the Xorlh 
American Ccunmercial Coni]iany. 

;f. We walked to that- part of Tolstoi Bookerj- on which dead pups were lying in great inimbers, 
and while we were all standing within a l"ew yards of the limit of the ground on wliich these dead pups 
were, Mr. JIacoun aski'd Antone MehjvedolV whether he ihought there were as many of tliem as there 
were last year, to which he rei)!ied, "More; nnue than I ever saw before." I was asked by 
Mr. Maeoun to partiiadarly note what wits saitl, and did so. 

4. And I make this soh'nni declaration conscientiously believing the same to be true, and by 
virtue of "Tlie Act respecting E.\tra-.l lulicial Oaths." 

(Signed) lilClFAbMi MAYNMID. 

Declared before me at the city of Victoria, British Columbia, this ."ith day of November, 1892. 

(Signed) A. ,St. 0. Flint, 

No/nn/ Piihlirfor lirilUh Colitmhia 

(Seal.) 



APPENDIX (C). 
Captain Farr to Itear-Admiral Bolham. 



Sir, " Afctpomcne," <it K-iqninialt, Oiiolirr 20, 18',12. 

IN answer to your Memoranduni of the 12th instant, with the attached letter from Mr. .1. Af. 
Maeoun, I have th(; honour U> furward herewith a copy of the log of this ship, ,';o far as it relates lo the 
wcatlier e.\i)eriiuiccd while cruizing in the liebring .Sea. 

2. There is also entered the days wbi'U uliservations for detiTmining the positi(ai wiue obtained, 
or ihe reveine, and tliis a})pe,irs to me to lie the must important point wii.li regard to vi^ssels having to 
ke(;p (inlsidc a certain limit ; lor I take it tlial that limit wouhl be such a distance from the islanils 
that even in the cleari'sl weather bearings would be unoblainable. 

:!. Willi reference to llie possibility of any ■ither 8i'aliiig->rliooiiers having been taking seals in the 
neighboiirhoiid uf the I'ribylolV Islands besides those cii|itiiied. [ have heard it stated that one \essel 
claimed to l.avi' doiii^ so to the e\tint of sniiic lltO skins, but I think even that is doubtful. If the; 

iriug Sea by seiiliiig-schooners is takea at oOO, I should say that it. 



tiilal nuiiilier of seals killed in 
would largely exceed the mark. 



[ have 
(Signe.1) 



Sit: 



A. A. <'. I'AUIJ, 



( 157 ) 



Comparative Stafement respecting tlic Climatic Cotiditions of certain 

Places in tJie Northern- Part of tJic North Pacific Ocean, by 

C. Carpmael, F.R.S.C., Director of the Meteorological Service of 
Canada. 



Mr. Carpmael to tlie Eon. C. H. Tvppcr, M.P., Minister of Marine and Fiditries. 

Sir, ^ Mckorolniical Offm, Toronto, Dcmnber 22, 1802. 

IK ;ir.(;iml:inri! with your ro(niest, I send ym a sliort cuiiiiiai'isnu •'( tin: cliiimti.'s lictwi'en Alay and 
Oclul.icr (if St. I'aiil Fsland, Boliriiig Island, and Kolilvn Island, with tho-in of the Kniili' Islands, tho 
coast of Kanitscliatka, the Aleutian Islimd.s, and the coast of Ala.skn. The comparison is cliiclly 
confined to ti'iniicralurc, as the pnlilishcd ini'onnaLion whicli i i'.avc bcc-ii able to lind with respect to 
nundjer of rainy days, foi;, cloud, &c., is very ineaj;rc. Such information as I liavt.t heen aide to find 
with respect to St. I'aid Island sceni.s to show that fogs and lli;ht raiii.s are of freipient occurrence. 
It is stated in the United States' Ccn.sus for ISHO, licport on the Seal Islands of Alaska, that the wind 
in summer is always ladcu with foji, while a Tabic of observations is yivcn, which shows thirty clays' 
prcci|iitali(ni in Se|)teinber 1872 with a total fall 2S'.I i.nchcs, twenty-nine il.iy.s and -'MIS inches in 
Oc.tolier, and twenty-seven days with a total fall 2'3S inches in Xoveuiber 1872; and. thc-e li;,'ures are 
fully coidirnied by the accompanyinj,' Table referrinj; to St. Paul Island, which is compiled from the 
annual lleport-s of the Chief Sij^nal Ollicer, Wa-sliiugtou. 



Mean Tnnj'eratun: 

In .May the nie.in tcm]ier,aure of tiie .Meutian Islamls is a little under Id dcy;reps. .\l St. Paid 
Island .'i.">'7 def;rees, and liebriu;,' Island it is o.'i" degrees. At Ilobbeu Nlanil, aceonlin;,' to the lairvc-s 
in the " Challeni;er " IJeport, the mean temperature woidd be about 42 degrees, but I think jiossibly the 
mean mi;,'ht be as low as -ill deforces. The mean tem])eratures in the Knrile Islands are probably 
between 111 ami 44 degrees ; along the south-east const of Kamlschatka the mean is nearly 4(1 ilcgrees. 
while at Sitka it is 47 degrees, ami at I'lU't Simjison 4S-5 degrees. 

In .lune the mean at Si. Taul Island is 404 ilegrees, iit I'ehring Island 42! degrees, and at 
Roblieii Island probably about 4.'> degrees. The " Challenger" Keport makes the Kurile Islands some- 
what over ."i." dc'i'ees, Ivit the temperature at Xeniuro, taken with those on Saglialieu Islaml and at 
Petropaulovski, .xinlil lead nie to the conclusion that ."ill degrees must be very near the mean on all 
of them, anil the wholi' of the .Vlentian Islands nnist have mean teniperatnres snmewhi're I'etween 
42 and t'.i degrees. .\t Sitl;ii. it is ."i2'4 <logrees, and at Port Simpson ."i2'7 degives. 

In duly till' mean at St. Paul Island is 4."c2 degrees, al liehring Island 471 degrees, aiiil at 
IJooben Island ]indiably a little under liil degrees. The mean in the .Vlentian Islands ranges between 
49 and .■>2 degrees, and that in the ICiirile Islands is probalily a little miiler lin degrees, and along the 
south-east coast of Kanitscliatka il is ln'tweeii '''< and Ull degrees. M Sitka it is .'i."c."j degrees, an<l at 
Poll .Simpson ."i.'ili degrees. 

In .Viigiwl llie mean at Si. I'.ml Isliind is 472 degrees, at lieliring Island ."'41 degrees, at 
Uobbeii Island it must be nearly lill ilegri'cs. ami over the greater portion of the Kurile Islands and 
iilonn' I he soiith-eaiit coast of Kaml.silialka a little under iJi) degrees, vvhilst along the .Meutian 
Islands it riinge.s between 4ll'.l ami .">li'i ilegrees. .\l Sitkii it in o.'c'.l degrees, and at Piu't Simp.soii 
."ili)! degrees. 

In Sepleniber the mean at St. Paul Island is 44'II degrees, at I'lehring Island. 4ic8, and at liolibeii 
Island it must be a little belnw ."i."> degrees, and the mean on most of tiie Kurile Nhinds. along the 
.south-east coa.sl of Kamt.sclialkii, no ;dl the .Vleiiliaii 1-land.i, .ilid ;,hilig the .-outhern coast of .\liiskn, 
and at Port Simp'^on. llie iiieaii lies iutween the extremes al these three stations. 

In October the mean at St. Paul lolaiid is :;'.)! degrees, at I'.ebiiiig Islaml :;7-2 degrees, luid at 
liobben Island aluuit 41 degrees. The more northerly of the Kurile Islunds, the south-east coast of 
Kamtschnlkii, the whole of ihe .Meutian Islands, and part of the southern coasi, of .Maska have a meiin 
ttuiipiM'aluio lying between 40 and 44 degrees, while at Sitka it is 44'.) degrees, and at I'ort SiinpHoii. 
47"5 degrees. 



158 

Tlie accompanjiug Tnblos iiro taken from viirioiis sources as marked thereon, those for Port 
Simpson from the records in this ofliee, and have lioen examined by me and found correct. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) CHAKLES CAKPMAEL, Dirtctor. 



Talk cairactcd from the "Pacific Coast Pilot;' Part I, 1891. 



Mean Temperature of the Air. 



Stations. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


^ 


5 

»-3 


►-s 


to 

<5 


1 




u 

s 




« 


„ , 


Des. 


Deii. 


D«K. 


I)e^. 


IVr. 


DcK. 


Dfg. 


Atka Isliind, Ali'Utiiins .. 


.02 10 


174 1,5 


M-9 


42-1 


49-0 


50-3 


, , 




, , 


Attu Isliinil, Aleutian? .. 


:>2 50 


186 48 


n9-fi 


48-8 


52-4 


51 •« 


47-8 


411 


35-5 


licliriiis; IriLnnd .. 


■'j.-j 14 


191 8 


a9-7 


42-7 


48-2 


54-1 


50-5 


38-8 


28-7 


I)ue I.i^h*' ^mso . . 


.50 :a) 


142 I'll 


42-4 


52-0 


(iO-a 


Bl-t; 


53-1 


40-5 


21-1 


Tcirt ToMifas, .\la-ka 


:A 1(1 


l.iO 41 


OO'.". 


5(i -4 


48-7 


59-1 


53-1 


48-8 


41-0 


Fort Wiaiii;cl. Alaska . , 


5i; 2S 


l:i2 2;i 


48-7 


55-7 


58-() 


57 -0 


52 1 


40-1 


30'7 


Kiuliuk, Unalaska 


.5a 5;i 


ICR -S'i 


!!8 7 


44 ■ 9 


49-1 


51-9 


46-9 


38 8 


33-8 


Kusunai, Saghalion I>lMnils 


48 


112 20 


■lJ-0 


50'0 


58-5 


05 '8 


53-8 


44'7 


32-3 


M'lraviit, S.iglialieji Islaml-> 


• • 




41-4 


47-7 


55' 1 


60 -li 


55 "5 


44-9 


.30-6 


(Jucen Cliailiitlc Islaiui .. 


.51 VI 


132 .58 


.. 


53 ■ 5 


57'8 


57 '5 




, , 


.. 


St. Paul Island 


.57 7 


170 19 


34-0 


41-0 


41! -4 


48-4 


45-1 


38-9 


34-8 


St. I'aul, Kadiak Island.. 


.57 48 


152 21 


4;i'0 


50-5 


54-8 


5(> 


50-4 


42-5 


35'4 



FoET Simpson, Biirnsii Cohmbia. 



Latitude, ,14^ 33' 1!8" N. ; Longitmlc, 130° LTi' 30" W.: Klevation, 35 feet. 
Mean Te-mpekatiiue. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


Julr. 


.\u(!;ust. 


Sej)teinlKT. 


Oetolxr. 


November. 




ikliteis. 


])<'f;rees. 


Deiriec-. 


Dej-rces. 


Decrees. 


Dffiees. 


I)ei;rcc8. 


1886 .. 




51-7 


56-5 


56-5 


53-1 


47 '0 


40 '8 


1887 .. 


45-9 


51-4 


.53-4 


.54-5 


51-7 


46-5 


38'5 


1888 .. 


48 3 


53-9 


55-1 


57-1 


55-1 


47-a 


39-8 


1889 ,. 


50' 8 


52-8 


56 8 


56 '0 


52-8 


49-1 


41-9 


1890 .. 


49-5 


53-9 


56 -3 


57-3 


54-1 


47-3 


45-6 


1891 .. 


48-2 


52-5 








• • 


41-1 


1892 .. 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•■ 




48 '5 


52-7 


55-6 


56-:. 


53-4 


47-5 


41-3 



>L\.\ I M I M TKMI'KRATCRK. 



Yeui. 


May. 


.Itnie. 


.luly. 


-Vu^nust. 


.•^rpteiuher. 


Ociokr. 


November. 




Decrees. 


Dei-rces. 


1 )cy:iee'i. 


DeiMees. 


Oeiinu^s. 


Decrees. 


l)ej;rees. 


188(1 .. 


, , 


6' -3 


69-5 


69-3 


67M) 


61-0 


57'0 


1887 .. 


65 


73' 11 


73-1) 


t8'0 


6|-(l 


64 () 


62-0 


IS'BS .. 


71-0 


(,5'0 


71 Ml 


(IS Ml 


72 Ml 


64 1) 


57-0 


l^"9 .. 


79 -1) 


66-0 


71-0 


73-0 


6|iM) 


65 Ml 


58M) 


1890 .. 


73 (1 


76-11 


79 -11 


73 -0 


60 -0 


60 '0 


60 


1891 .. 


69-0 


6(1 






, , 


, , 


57-0 


18U2 .. 


■• 


•• 


•■ 


•• 




•• 


•• 




71-4 


118 -9 


72'7 


70' 3 


67 6 


62 '8 


5W5 



169 



MlNIMCM TESirEKATUKE. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1880 .. 

1887 .. 

1888 .. 

1889 .. 

1890 ., 

1891 .. 

1892 .. 


Degrees. 

27'-0 
30-0 
35 
30-0 
29-6 


Degree.^. 
39-8 
35-0 
40-0 
37-0 
39-0 
40-6 


DegreeB. 
440 
36 
40-0 
42-0 
39-0 


Degrees. 
41-0 
40-0 
43-0 
42-0 
42-6 


Degrees. 
39-0 
34-0 
38 '0 
34-0 
38'6 


Degrees. 
30-0 
31-0 
29-0 
36-0 
28-6 


Degrees, 
20'0 
23-0 
17-0 
24-0 
30 -e 

19-6 




30-3 


38-G 


40-2 


41-7 


36-7 


80-9 


22-4 



NuMDEU of Day.s Cloudy. 



Year. 


May. 


JUDC. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


Xoveinbcr. 


188B .. 




17 


11 


18 


11 


22 




1887 .. 


J7 


15 


17 


11 


14 


15 


15 


1888 .. 


12 


26 


14 


18 


18 


26 


20 


1889 ., 


19 


15 


K 


21 


21 


17 


18 


1890 .. 


12 


IS 


10 


14 


18 


22 


25 


1891 .. 


11 


12 




.. 


.. 


• • 


18 


1892 .. 


• • 


•• 


•• 


• • 


•• 








14-2 


17-2 


13-2 


10-4 


IC-4 


20-4 


19-2 



NUMBEH of Day.s Precipitation 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July, 


.Vugust. 


:5ejitember. 


October. 


Xovember. 


1886 .. 




21 


« 


17 


IK 


21 


21 


1887 .. 


17 


10 


16 


17 


20 


23 


18 


1888 .. 


15 


23 


10 


1) 


20 


20 


23 


1889 .. 


20 


18 


12 


27 


24 




20 


1890 ,. 


12 


18 


IG 


11 


20 


25 


26 


1891 .. 


7 


11 


.. 


• • 


•■ 


•• 




1892 .. 


• • 


•• 


•■ 






' * 


• • 




14 


17 


12 


IC 


20 


2o 


23 



Nl.iMUKi: of Duv.- ('leal'. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


S,.| 


tleiuber. 


October. 


November. 


18S6 ,, 




3 


U 


ft 




10 


3 


, , 


1887 .. 


7 


6 


11 


n 




7 


1 


3 


1888 ., 


( 


I 


10 


6 




3 


1 


« 


1889 .. 


6 


4 


13 


.. 




1 


J 


3 


18'J0 .. 


It; 


6 


:l 


!i 




1 


•• 




1891 .. 


8 




.. 






■ • 


•• 




1S02 ., 


•• 


•• 


•• 


■■ 




•• 


•• 


• • 




8-8 


4 


U-2 


4-8 


5 


2-4 


1 



[117] 



2 T 



IGO 



Cloudinkss expressed in Percentage. 



Year. 


Mny. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September, 


October. 


November. 


1886 ., 




74 


54 


72 


54 


77 


71 


1887 .. 


66 


02 


59 


59 


64 


73 


72 


1888 .. 


57 


89 


57 


C8 


75 


89 


70 


1889 .. 


71 


70 


44 


82 


SO 


65 


76 


1890 .. 


44 


69 


G8 


64 


74 


84 


85 


1891 .. 


55 


72 


75 


.. 


• • 


.. 


72 


1892 .. 


• • 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 




59 


73 


59-5 


r,9 


09 


78 


74 



jVmoijst of Precipitation. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1880 .. 




3-60 


3-50 


9-80 


8-69 


17-43 


12-61 


1887 .. 


3-70 


3-30 


6-41 


3 -01 


13-14 


11-98 


10-62 


1888 .. 


4-59 


5-71 


3-00 


7-05 


10-77 


18-04 


13-54 


1889 .. 


6-47 


5-05 


3-48 


14-11 


10-86 


10-70 


12-70 


1890 .. 


3-20 


5-OG 


4-44 


0-78 


15-23 


12-83 


19-25 


1891 ,. 


2-92 


1-75 


.. 


.. 


• • 


• • 


17-89 


1802 .. 


•• 


• • 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 




4-19 


4 '08 


r> '01 


8-39 


11-74 


12-04 


15 '53 



NuMBKR of Day.s Foggy. 



Year. 


ilay. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1880 .. 




3 


• ■ 


, , 


"7 


1 




1887 .. 




.• 


1 


6 


3 


1 


1888 .. 


2 


1 


J 


;} 


3 


1 




1889 .. 


, , 


, , 


13 


1 


.. 


• • 




1890 .. 


6 


4 


6 





1 


• • 


10 


1891 .. 


2 


4 


4 


* • 


•• 


•• 


•• 


1892 .. 


•• 


• • 


• " 


■ « 









Sitka, Alaska. 
Reports of Chuf Sv/nal Officer, Washington. 



Latitude, 57° V N.; Longitude, ll!')'' 20' W. 
Mean Tempekatuhe (ludir.). 



Year. 


May. 


Jtine. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 




Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


1881 .. 




.. 








•• 


• • 


1882 .. 


. . 


.. 




• • 


•• 


•• 


• • 


1883 .. 


.. 






• • 


•• 


■• 


•■ 


18S4 .. 


• • 


• • 




• • 


•• 




•• 


1885 .. 


.. 


• . 


• • 


• ■ 




•• 


•• 


1880 .. 


, . 


.. 




• • 


•• 


•• 


•• 


1887 .. 


■ • 


•• 




•■ 


•• 


• • 


•• 




47-2 


Jl-9 


54-8 


50-5 


.')2'4 


4.0-7 


39-8 



IGl 



Maximum TEMPEnATunK (Fnhr.). 



bcr. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


Octolier. 


November. 




Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Decrees. 


Dcfcrces. 


Decrees. 


Decrees. 


Def^reea. 


1881 .. 




. , 


67-0 


79-0 


(!:i-8 


57-8 


52-8 


1882 .. 


09 -2 


09-6 


fifi-7 


07-7 


(U)-3 


CO -8 


51-0 


1883 .. 


f)5-2 


(12-1 


f.7-S 


64-0 


G9-4 


59-8 


52-8 


1884 ,. 


59-4 


74 -G 


67-0 


71'8 


05 -7 


.05 • 1 


55-8 


1885 .. 


79-0 


70-0 


70-0 


7J-0 


69-0 


59-0 


50-0 


1886 .. 


(il-O 


G8-0 


72-0 


72-0 


02-0 


59-0 


54-0 


1887 .. 


.'i8-0 


72-0 


fiO-O 


G8-0 


fiO-0 


•• 


•• 




65'3 


09-4 


09-4 


71-1 


fi4'3 


58-5 


5u'2 



MrXIMU.M TEMPEliATUllE (Fillir.). 



ibcr. 



53 



Year. 


ilay. 


June. 


.Tuly. 


August. 


Soptember. 


October. 


Xovcnibcr. 




Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Def-rfes. 


Def.'rees. 


Decrees. 


Decrees, 


Degrees. 


1881 .. 


, . 




4r,-o 


43 '9 


40 -5 


32-0 


22-5 


1882 .. 


32 


38-0 


-IS'O 


43-5 


34 -5 


31-0 


29-0 


1883 .. 


31-0 


38-0 


■12 '7 


42-5 


40-0 


20-0 


5-0 


1884 .. 


30 -2 


39-0 


■15-9 


•)4-4 


32-0 


20-0 


27-0 


1885 .. 


37-0 


39 '0 


■17-0 


44-0 


38 -0 


33-0 


29 


1880 .. 


310 


38-0 


45-0 


12-0 


39-0 


31-0 


23-0 


1887 .. 


28-0 


40-0 


42 


41 '0 


36-0 


•• 


•• 




33-0 


38-7 


44-2 


lo-O 


37-1 


29-8 


22-0 



■N'^^rBEii of Pays Cloudy. 



iber. 



' Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


Xoveiuber. 


1881 .. 






22 


12 


10 


8 


22 


1882 .. 


15 


19 


23 


18 


14 


17 


19 


1883 .. 


18 


23 


27 


18 


10 


19 


17 


1884 .. 


23 


20 


21 


20 


14 


25 


20 


1885 .. 


18 


10 


17 


13 


19 


20 


18 


1880 ,. 


14 


15 


15 


19 


20 


18 


21 


1887 .. 


17 


22 


23 


19 


17 


•• 


• • 



Xl'MIUCK of Days of Precipitation. 



lubcr. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1881 .. 






15 


10 


21 


13 


24 


1882 .. 


11 


io 


20 


17 


21 


19 


19 


1883 .. 


14 


17 


23 


19 


15 


'■>2 


20 


1884 .. 


•2C 


14 


8 


12 


18 


20 


23 


1885 .. 


15 


8 


10 


17 


23 


20 


24 


18SG .. 


11 


18 


15 


17 


25 


28 


29 


1887 .. 


20 


14 


21 


21 


20 


•• 


•• 



1-8 



162 



Amocnt of Precipitatioa 



Year. 


Mny. 


June. 


Julv. 

• 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1881 .. 






«• 










1882 .. 




• • 


.. 


• • 


• • 




•• 


1883 .. 




,. 


.. 


• • 


• • 




•• 


1884 .. 




.. 


.. 


• • 


•• 






1885 .. 




^^ 


, , 


. , 


• ■ 




• • 


1886 .. 


3-68 


4'53 


3-27 


10-72 


25-52 


24-82 


20-51 


1887 .. 


• • 


• • 


• • 


•• 


■ • 


•• 


• • 




4-54 


3'34 


4-89 


6-52 


12-83 


13-49 


13-68 



Cloudiness expressed in Percentage. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1881 .. 






82 


56 


69 


46 


83 


1882 .. 


60 


75 


82 


61 


73 


65 


75 


1883 .. 


72 


81 


92 


70 


70 


76 


68 


1884 .. 


85 


78 


75 


78 


60 


83 


77 


1885 .. 

1886 . 


69 
62 


44 

72 


68 
69 


59 
79 


79 
83 


80 

76 


76 
83 


1887 .. 


78 


76 


78 


71 


71 


* • 


" " 



Unalaska, Alaska. 



Latitude, 53° 53' N. ; Longitudi-, 1GG° 32' W. 
Mkan Tempekature (Fahr.). 



Year. 


Mny. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


Normal* 


Degrees. 
40-4 


DegrecB. 
45-9 


Degrees. 
49-6 


Degrees. 
50-3 


Degrees. 
46-0 


Degrees. 
40-4 


Degrees. 
34-6 



• Normal temperature obtained from Report of the Chief Signal Offieor, United States of America, 1887, 
Parti, p. 251. 

Maximi'm TEMrEiiATUKK (Fahr.). 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 




Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


1882 .. 

1883 .. 


57 


04 


78 
72 


07 
69 


GO 


61 


54 


1884 .. 

1885 .. 


58 


60 


G2 


(54 


59 


54 


53 


1880 .. 


69 


•• 






' • 


' • 





163 



Minimum Tempekatcke (Fahr.). 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Scpteuibcr. 


October. 


November. 


1882 .. 

1883 .. 


Degrees. 
*31 


Dej;rees. 
.34 


Degrees. 
40 
40 


Degrees. 
30 
38 


Degrees. 
37 
33 


Degrees. 
26 
30 


Degrees. 
23 
19 


1884 .. 
!885 .. 


31 


31 


39 


40 


34 


ab 


23 


188U .. 


31 




•• 






• • 





Xu.MUrii i)f Days Clnmly. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


.July. 


August. 


SeptcnilRT. 


October. 


November. 


1K82 .. 
1883 .. 


24 


■J"! 


23 
2.'* 


24 
24 


20 
2C 


21 
14 


24 


1884 .. 

1885 .. 


io 


22 


28 


14 


26 


19 


20 


188G .. 


U 















Number of Days nf I'ri'ciiiitiition. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


ScpU'inbcr. 


Oi.tulicr. 


NovcmbL-r. 


1882 .. 
I.S83 .. 


24 


ill 


io 


17 


26 


21 


22 


1884 .. 
188,") .. 


li 


I'j 


18 


lii 


26 


30 


22 


188G .. 


9 


•• 






• ' 







A.MOUNT of I'rccipitiitioii. 



Y'ear. 


May. 


June. 


Ji.ly. 


.\\igiibt. j SepteniliLT. ' nctobev. 

! 1 


Noveuiber. 


(Koui- years) 
Normals* 


4 -64 


■1 ■ 20 


2'78 


;:-40 ' 8-04 


11 -OS 


9-30 



• Report of Cbief Signal Oltieer, Uniteil States uf Amt'iiea, 1887, Part I, p. 2',lV. 



('LuniiNEss e.xpres.'iril in IVrcontaj^'o 



Yiur. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Au:!ust. 


Se])tenil)er. 


Octobtr. 


Novcnibir. 


1882 .. 

1883 .. 


85 


88 


81') 
89 


S6 

^2 


IS 
89 


81 
75 


■50 
87 


1884 ,. 

1885 .. 


71 


85 


92 


70 


90 


83 


84 


1886 .. 


78 










■■ 


■ ' 



[1171 



2 U 



164, 



Atk a. 
Reports of Chirf Si^inal Offinr, fVaahington. 

Liititude, 52° 10' 30" X.; brngituik', 171° 15' IS" "W. 
Maximu.m TK.Mri:iiATi:uK. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Septciubcr. 


October. 


November. 


1881 .. 

1882 .. 

1883 .. 


Degrees. 

6*2 
49 


Degrees. 

54 
72 


Degrees. 

63 

72 


Degrees. 

6H 
68 


Degrees. 

I'ii 
111) 


Degrees. 
54 
53 
53 


Degrees. 
47 
49 
57 


1884 .. 


, , 


.. 




.. 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1885 .. 

1886 .. 


'ei 


60 


Vo 


72 


•• 




•• 



MiNi.\ii:.\i Temi'KKaicbe. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


Novcniber. 


1881 .. 

1882 .. 
1888 .. 

1884 .. 

1885 .. 

1886 ., 


Degrees. 

24 
29 

32 


Degrees. 

35 
32 

28 


1 Icgrees. 

35 
38 

30 


Degrees. 

3*9 
40 

3fl 


Degrees. 

iii) 
35 


Degrees. 
30 
28 
31 


Degrees. 
28 
22 
22 



Amount of rrecipitation. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1881 .. 

1882 .. 

1883 .. 

1884 .. 

1885 .. 

1886 .. 


4'-*47 
8-19 

7* 08 


4-40 
4-20 

7'()" 


4-63 
3-88 

2-01 


5*M3 
4 '83 

fi'SO 


9*16 
9-71 


n -30 
12-18 
10-05 


10-91 

8-87 

14-72 



St. Paul Island, Alaska. 



Reports of Uniteit States' Signal Service (1873-76). 

Latitiido, 57° 38' K; Longitude, 100° 50' W. 

NuMBKTi of Day.s of I'rncipitiitiou. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


.Sci)tcmber. 


October. 


November. 


1872 .. 










;iO 


29 


27 


1873 .. 


20 


21 


2.') 


26 


27 




30 


1874 .. 


21 




•J7 


29 


2'') 




28 


1875 .. 


26 


26 


21 


21) 


211 




19 


1876 .. 


31 


13 


.. 


■ ■ 








1877 .. 




.. 




.. 








1878 .. 


, , 




.. 




.. 






1879 .. 




.. 


• • 


• • 


• • 






18R0 .. 




.. 












18S1 .. 




• • 






•• 






1882 .. 


.. 




.. 




•• 






1883 .. 


■• 




- * 


■■ 


• * 







166 

Reports of United States' Sirjnal Senwx (1 873-70, 1881-83). 
Amount of Precipitation. 



Year. 


May. 


.Tune. 


July. 


August. 


Scptombci . 


October. 


Xov('!iibcr. 


1872 .. 










■J.S!, 


:; • OS 


2-38 


1873 .. 


0-(iO 


0-5U 


•J'Cj 


2-(il 


2 '111 


.■1-89 


:i-f,l 


1871 .. 


0-58 


, , 


.■i-81 


2-02 


."■111 


■f-82 


9 ■ 28 


1875 .; 


'J-15 


0':m 


•I ■ 7,-i 


■J '7. J 


3 ■ Sil 


COO 


')-79 


1876 .. 


3-73 


I'.iG 












1877 .. 


.. 














1878 .. 
















1879 .. 


, , 














1880 .. 


., 














1881 .. 




2*23 


2 io 


4M9 


7-94 


.5-88 


7-81 


1882 .. 


I'fiS 


1-02 


3 lil 


2 -30 


■O-S!) 


<l -rir, 


n-ij 


188;i ., 


2-10 


.. 


•• 











Reports of United States' A jnal Service (1873-76). 
Gkeatest Amount of Precipitiition in one Day. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Au);ust. 


f^cptcmbi 1 


October. 


November. 


1872 .. 






.. 




0-85 


0-58 


0-31 


1873 .. 





14 


24 


0-78 


0-07 


0-44 


0-86 


0-53 


1874 .. 





•15 


,, 


0-72 


0-70 


0-85 


1-10 


1-15 


187.5 .. 


1 


23 


1-55 


1-04 


1 • 05 


1-40 


1-35 


0-17 


1876 .. 





83 


0-45 












1877 .. 






__ 












1878 .. 






.. 












1879.. 






,, 












1880 ,. 


















1881 .. 
















■• 


1882 .. 






.. 












1883 .. 






•• 

















Beportx of 


United Stat 


•s' Signal Serein: (1873-76) 


. 








l'i:mi:xTAOE of Fog. 






A'car. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Auffust. 1 Septi-niber. 

i 


October. 


November. 


1872 .. 










7-2 


0-0 


1-7 


1873 .. 


10'2 


20-7 


50-2 


48-9 


20-5 


8-1 


9 '4 


1874 .. 


121 


, , 


61-7 


22-2 


2-(i 


l-O 


1 •:; 


1875 .. 


0-3 


7-2 


11 '8 


12-8 


3-t; 


0-2 


0-0 


1876 .. 


17-3 


14-0 


•• 


■ > 






11-5 


16-0 


41-2 


28-0 i l()-3 


3-1 


3-1 





166 

Behkinh Island. 

Reports of United Statfi' Signal Senricr.. 



Latitude, 55° 14' N. ; l.onc^itiulc, V.U° 8' W. 
Ari;AN Tr..Mi'Ei;\Tii;r. (Fulir.). 



Year. 


Mny. 


Juiip. 


July. 


Auj^ust. 


Scptonibcr. 


Octolier. 


November. 


ISS'J .. 
1HS3 .. 


Digrccs. 

■i'ri-i 

3-) -T 


lJigrec'3. 

rr-9 


iJi'gri'os. 
4u'2 


48'3 


l!)c;;rfe». 
45-0 


Degrees. 
34-b 


1 Dcgrci's. 
29 -9 


• Noniiiil . . 


■i::i 


•17 -1 


jl-O 


l()-8 


37-2 


1 30-3 

1 



Mkan Jtiixiiniim 'rciiiiifmlnrc ( Kiiliv. ». 



Year. 


Mi.y. 


June. 


1 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1«S2 .. 
!HS3 .. 
1HS5 .. 


Di'Krocs. 
•13' 6 


Ik'Hrcca. 
59-5 


' I)i--n'cs. 

1 •• 


Dc^reos. 
(13'i; 


Drurccn. 
08 ■.'j 


Deforces. 

4tC0 


Dcjn'een. 

4U -3 


* Noniiiil .. 


in -3 


•lC-7 


1 51 -H 


.^j4-3 


oO'O 


41-3 


35-0 



Mkan' MiiiiiiMiiii 'rcni|» r.ituri; (l-'alii.t. 



Yenr. 


i ^-'y- 


.June. 


July. 


Auiju>t. 


Sej)temb(T. 


October. 


November. 


1HH2 .. 
lf-N3 .. 


1 lJe|;rL'C.'i. 
'.' 28-2 


1 )e^rccs. 
33-4 


Degrees. 
39 '4 


Degrees. 
44-0 


Decrees. 
35-3 

•• 


l)e};rei'n. 
19'2 


Uei;rce>. 
13-,'j 


* Norniiil . 


«. 1..) 


;;s-i 


43 '3 


47-.') 


42.,, 


32-2 


25 •(; 



.ViMiii:!: iif ('loiiily Dav.-i. 



Yciir. 


May. 


June. 


J uiy. 


August. 


Sf'ptrniiHT, 


October. 


November. 


1H,S2 .. 
1HS3 .. 




•• 




•• 


'* 


•• 




• Non.iiil .. 


23-0 


23-(l 


20-0 


22-7 


l(!-7 


18-3 


21-4 



.\i .Ml;i;i! Ill' Fair iMivs. 



Year. ^ Mai. ; June. 


J all . 


August. 


Septenib.T. 


October. I November. 


l^f.2 .. ..' .. 1 .. 

1.''K;j 








.. 


* No.mal .. b-0 5-7 ] 10 n 

1 • 


7-3 i 11 '3 


12-7 8-3 



• From Report of Chief Signal Officer, 1886, p. 411 et setj. 



167 



NfMnF.ii iif Clciir Dayfl. 



Yeiir. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Auguit. 


Septeinlicr. 


October. 


November. 


1888 .. 
1886 .. 


•• 


•• 


• • 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•Normal . . 


0-0 


M! 


1-0 


10 


2-0 


0-0 


0-3 







Cloudinf.hs oxproB.?e(l in IVrcpiitnge. 






Year. 


May. 


June, i July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 






i 










•Normal . . 


75 


75 ] CT 


7:i 


8f. 


70 


77 



Amount nt rrccipitiition. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1885 .. 


1-19 


1-63 


4-05 


2-15 


3 '32 


l-.ll 


1-84 


•Normal . . 


0-96 


1-66 


2-lti 


2 '09 


2-50 


2-60 


2-96 



From Report of Chief Signiil OHicer, 1880, p. 411 ct seq. 



rETROPAULOV.SKI. 
SuvplemerU to Btpertoriam /or jV'Uoivlugi/, SI. rdcrahtinjli, 1881 



Latitude, 53° X. ; I.oiigitiul.', ISS" 48' AV. ; Eloviitidn, 33 foot. 
Mean Temperati hk d'ulir.). 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1828 .. 
1843 .. 

1845 .. 

1846 .. 

1847 .. 

1848 .. 

1849 .. 

1850 .. 

1851 .. 

1852 .. 

1853 .. 


Degrees. 
39-0 
40-1 

39' 

41'4 
40-S 
41-5 
41-7 
40-5 
37-2 
37 -f) 


Degrees. 
50-7 
52-7 

53-4 
50-2 
51-4 
49-6 

45' 7 


Degrc'Cf. 
67-9 
60-8 

57' 2 
57-0 
57-0 
01-0 

57-0 


Degrees. 
,0'5 ■ 4 
02 ■ 4 

Go'l 

58-3 
57-0 
59-4 
59 • 9 

57'- 2 


Degrees. 
50-4 
53-1 

50-9 
52.5 
50 ■ 2 
19 -5 
51-H 

53*-2 


Degrees. 
37-6 

41-5 
40-3 

37-2 
41-2 
38-5 

4c'-5 
43-3 


Degrees. 
24-6 
30-4 

.31'- 3 
31 -S 
27-7 
25-9 
27-7 

29*5 
35-2 


Mean 


39 • 9 


50 ■ .5 


58 • 3 


.18-7 


51-4 


' J *\i 


29-3 



^oit. — Diite at this station uU style. 



[1171 



2 X 



168 

Ar.KXANDnowKA, Sariialien T>:i.axd. 
Annals of the Phytical Ohscrcalory, St. J'ctcrsburgh. 



Latitude, 50° 50' N. ; Longitude, 142° V W. ; ElevaUon, 156 feet 
Mean TEMrERATinsE (Falir.). 



Yiar. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


.\tigu>t. 


Soptembcr. 


Oc'jjber. 


November. 




Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Di'grees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


1881 ., 


441 


.w-- 


59 ■ 4 


OJ-0 


57-7 


39-9 


24-8 


1882 .. 


43-0 


54-3 


6(1 • H 


07-1 


55-9 


38-5 


10 -5 


1883 .. 


43-7 


53-4 


04 -9 


(i(i-7 


53-1 


41-9 


24-4 


18S4 ., 


41-7 


50 9 


69-2 


59-4 


52-5 


35-4 


16-5 


1885 ,. 


40-3 


40 S 


59-0 


01 -0 


50-2 


39-2 


19-9 


18SG ,. 


43 -3 


55-0 


(13 ■ 7 


01-2 


53-8 


39-2 


21-0 


1887 .. 


41-4 


..•.!.() 


59 5 


04-4 


52-3 


39-7 


23-9 


1888 .. 


42-3 


48 -2 


fiOl 


60-8 


50 -5 


39 2 


30-0 


1889 .. 


40'8 


51-1 


R5-8 


61-3 


51-3 


36-1 


20-3 


1890 .. 


40-1 


49-5 


01 '5 


07-5 


58-8 


39fi 


23-9 




42-4 


51-7 


01-4 


03-2 


53-C 


38-9 


22-1 



Maximum Tempeijatl're (Fahr.). 



Yc.ir. 


May. 


.Juni'. 


July. 


August. 


.September. 


October. 


NoTcniher. 




Degrees. 


Degr-es. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


1881 .. 


07-8 


63 -9 


81 -5 


70-6 


76-3 


65 -1 


45 -5 


1882 . 




65 -1 


72-3 


82 -4 


83-1 


75-7 


55-8 


40-3 


1883 . 




72-9 


79-0 


83 -7 


82-9 


69-6 


C7-5 


46-6 


1884 . 




66-0 


71 -0 


73-4 


77-4 


73-4 


53-2 


38-7 


1885 . 




06-7 


71-8 


79-0 


81-0 


09-3 


65 -5 


45 '5 


1886 . 




63 -0 


75-6 


81 -9 


76-1 


71-1 


00 -3 


18-7 


1887 . 




64-8 


72-0 


81-9 


87-4 


67-6 


62-8 


44-8 


!888 , 




66-2 


65-8 


SO -6 


77-7 


65 1 


62-1 


53 -6 


1889 . 




08-0 


77-2 


81 -5 


80 -4 


72 -5 


61-1 


.18 -1 


1890 . 




71-4 


62-2 


80-1 


80-0 


77-0 


57-7 


41 '2 




67-2 


71-1 


80 •(', 


80-9 


71-8 


60-1 


44-3 



>riMMI'M TKMl'P.llATri;E ( Killir.). 



Year. 


Jfay. 


June. 


Julv. 


August. 


September. 


Oetolwr. 


Xovetnber, 




Degrees. 


I>ogrees. 


I)egrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


1881 .. 


30-4 


43-5 


49-3 


47-5 


360 


16-9 


- 2-2 


1882 .. 


.^2 -0 


39-2 


47-1 


53 • 1 


37-4 


130 


- 13"9 


1883 .. 


28-6 


39-2 


.-.fl 


60-5 


.36 -3 


21-0 


- 2'7 


1884 .. 


27-1 


39 


Wi 


43-0 


33-8 


10-2 


- 12-3 


1885 .. 


28-4 


39-0 


14-(i 


45-9 


31-3 


24-1 


- 9-8 


1886 .. 


28-8 


30 -5 


t9-8 


•i<-l 


34 '3 


17'6 


- 8-1 


18S7 .. 


28-8 


423 


■.S'4 


45 1 


34-0 


I9'0 


3-4 


1888 .. 


28-4 


m-i 


45-5 


49-6 


30-9 


15-1 


14'7 


1889 .. 


28-H 


36-0 


55 • 2 


4 1 ■ 5 


33 6 


11-3 


0-5 


1898 .. 


21-4 


;io -2 


39 ■ 2 


39-0 


36-1 


22 -r. 


- 0-4 




2h-4 


38-3 


48-2 


4(.-0 


34-4 


17-7 


- 3 1 



1G9 

Ni'Mitr.i: cif (;lou(.ly I lays. 



Year 


Mny. 


Juni'. 


July. 


Au;;iist. 


Rpptcmber. 


October. 


November. 


IRSl .. 


11 


U! 


20 


12 


11 


IS 


20 


1KS2 .. 


18 


10 


12 


7 


8 


i;! 


20 


1883 .. 


12 


U 


10 


9 


10 


12 


18 


1881 .. 


10 


:i 


20 


13 


e 


15 


IG 


ISS.'i .. 


15 


\-2 


15 


17 


15 


15 


17 


1886 .. 


11 


18 


18 


18 


15 


11 


15 


1887 .. 


17 


20 


18 


13 


18 


15 


23 


1S88 .. 


18 


17 


21 


20 


12 


18 


19 


1889 .. 


20 


11 


12 


19 


13 


25 


27 


1890 .. 


19 


'25 


12 


19 


19 


11 


21 




i:.--! 


l.Vl 


15-8 


11-7 


12-7 


15 T, 


19 -r, 



XuMliEi: tif l):iys of TrecipitJition. 



Year. 


M;iy. 


Jlinr. 


July. 


August. 


Septcnil)cr. 


OcIiiIkt. 


Xovcmber. 


1S81 .. 


H 


A 


11 


if. 


13 


15 


10 


lHf<2 . 


9 


10 


9 


11 


12 


10 


15 


1883 .. 


7 


r, 


8 


10 


13 


9 


18 


1884 .. 


1 


7 


10 


1(1 





14 


15 


18S5 .. 


12 


11 


7 


17 


13 


10 


10 


18S6 .. 


12 


111 


9 


15 


15 


1(1 


11 


18S7.. 


8 


7 


13 


12 


18 


13 


21 


1888 .. 


U 


•1 


17 


17 


16 


16 


13 


1889 .. 


10 


11 


7 


10 


19 


26 


24 


1890 .. 


15 


12 


7 


9 


13 


12 


20 




9-9 


9-2 


lii-l 


13-3 


13-8 


13-5 


in-3 









Ni\iiii:i; 


A- Cl.'iir I 


i;iy 








Year. 


JIay. 


Juui'. 


July. 


Aui^u-l. 




September. 


Oftiiber. 


November. 


1881 .. 


■) 




1 


3 




4 


3 




1882 .. 


3 





4 


6 




7 


5 


•> 


1883 .. 


6 


3 


6 


3 




3 


9 


4 


188 1 .. 


6 


■\ 


, , 


4 




8 


2 


1 


1885 .. 


1 


3 


, , 


3 




6 


5 


3 


1886 .. 


3 


3 


:) 


1 




2 


1 


fj 


1887 .. 


1 


2 


2 


; 




1 


5 


2 


1H88 .. 


1 


1 


, , 


4 




4 


3 


2 


1889 .. 


1 


:; 


8 


1 




, , 


, , 




1890 .. 


1 


1 


3 


1 




o 


3 


1 




2-s 


2-5 


2-7 


2-7 




3-7 


3>C 


2-1 



( 'l,nriiiNr >,-. i'N|ivrsM'il ill I'l'iM'iilagi'. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


.1 uly. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


I8S1 .. 


on 


78 


Ml 


69 


61 


74 


84 


IMH2 .. 


(.* 


64 


65 


48 


52 


67 


82 


IN83 .. 


59 


63 


57 


59 


65 


55 


76 


l^M .. 


58 


16 


86 


67 


47 


75 


80 


1885 .. 


71 


69 


74 


76 


65 


68 


75 


1886 .. 


69 


80 


76 


81 


72 


70 


67 


1S87 .. 


75 


7U 


77 


72 


S2 


60 


87 


ISSS .. 


''2 


79 


88 


1 i 


66 


76 


81 


1889 .. 


70 


06 


62 


81 


89 


92 


96 


1890 .. 


81 


91 


67 


79 


80 


70 


80 




71 


73 


74 


71 


68 


71 


81 











170 










Amount of rrecipitatiou. 









Year. 


May. 


Juno. 


July. 


August. 


Septfmbt'r. 


October. 


November. 


18' 


















18- 


1881 ., 


1-14 


2-75 


3-91 


3-25 


2-55 


3-20 


• 72 


I8F 


1882 .. 


1-24 


1-35 


0-70 


1-15 


4-19 


1-39 


2-04 


18f 


1883 .. 


0-78 


1-39 


1-93 


1-44 


2-57 


1-79 


1-93 


I8f 


1884 .. 


0-05 


1-26 


2-69 


1-12 


0-83 


2-III1 


1!9 


18i 


1885 ,. 


1-20 


2-19 


0-51 


7-11 


2-01 


1-13 


2- 18 


18! 


1880 .. 


1-50 


2-23 


1-90 


6-96 


4-54 


1-41 


1-09 


18 


•887 .. 


l-io 


1-25 


3-23 


1-90 


4-81 


3-00 


4-83 


18 


18HS .. 


1-50 


0-33 


3-54 


3-00 


5-35 


3-90 


3-39 


18 


1889 .. 


0-98 


2-50 


1-4S 


3-11 


8-02 


5-78 


4-05 


18 


1890 .. 


2-72 


2-25 


1-09 


2-30 


5-24 


4-10 


3-46 


18 
18' 




1-297 


1-750 


2-158 


3-040 


4-071 


2-782 


2-548 

















Greatest Amount of Kaiu in one Day. 








Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


.September. 


October. 


November. 





1H81 .. 


0-.32 


0-05 


1-23 


1-03 


1-00 


0-97 


0-23 


~ 


1882 .. 


0-50 


0-44 


0-27 


0-38 


106 


0-45 


1-15 


18 


1883 .. 


0-19 


0-50 


0-07 


1-10 


0-42 


• 69 


0-.-.2 


18 


1884 ., 


0-29 


0-72 


1-02 


-50 


0-47 


0-79 


0-77 


18 


1885 .. 


0-29 


0-59 


0-10 


1-18 


0-50 


0-54 


06 


IS 


1880 .. 


0'27 


0-07 


0-49 


1-10 


1-08 


0-6H 


0-28 


18 


1887 .. 


0-63 


0-70 


1-56 


0-47 


2 05 


07 


0-55 


18 


1888 .. 


0-34 


0-22 


1-74 


0-52 


1-00 


1-03 


0-63 


18 


1889 .. 


0-76 


1-2.0 


0-73 


1-30 


1-90 


101 


0-96 


18 


1890 .. 


0-58 


0-42 


0-91 


02 


2-31 


101 


0-07 


18 
18 




















0-423 


0-622 


0-878 


0-820 


1-239 


0-774 


0-642 


18 








1 








18 
18 












KORSSOKOWSKIZ. 










Ayinals of t 
Latitude, 46° 39' N 


he Physical Observatory, i 


'<. Pdcrabttrgh 
IV. ; Elcvatio 


1, 66 feet. 








; Longitudr, 112= 4S' ^ 




MEAK TK.MPEUATLliK (Fillir.). 






u 


Vcnr. 


May. 


Juno. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 




Decrees, 


Dcurers. 


Decrees. 


Df^rces. 


DeKrees. 


IJegrecs. 


1 )e;;reos. 


1878 .. 


43-2 


.'•|5-2 


00-0 


00 -0 


59-5 


44-8 


27 • 9 


Is 


1b79 .. 


40-8 


52-7 


04 -0 


03-0 


50 -8 


45 -7 


28 -S 


u 


1880 .. 


43-;i 


50-5 


01-2 


6(; -0 


58 -5 


44 -8 


34 - 9 


i J 


1881 .. 


44 


53 • 


57-9 


63-9 


59 -5 


45-0 


32-2 


u 


1882 .. 


42-1 


52-3 


57 -2 


06 -4 


59 -5 


15 •(> 


20-1 


p 


18!j3 .. 


42-3 


52 ■ 


05-1 


70-7 


.■i9-7 


51 -K 


29-1 


l,' 


1881 .. 


, , 


, , 


. , 










1^ 


1S8/) .. 


, , 


, , 


, , 


03-3 


50 -7 


47-7 


32-7 


If 


1880 .. 


46-2 


.'iO-.i 


05-1 


68-0 


S2-1 


19 ■;: 




It 


1887 .. 


41-7 


4:1-3 


00 -8 


67 h 


50-1 


45 -3 


32 - 




1888 .. 


43-3 


45- 


00 -3 


(,3 -0 


57-4 


45-1 


35- 1 




1889 ., 


39-4 


51-1 


04 -0 


00 -0 


.')!- -7 


11 -2 


28-6 




1890 .. 


43-'i 


47- 1 


00 1 


•• 




• 








42-8 


51-4 


01 -5 


05 -9 


58 -4 


40-0 


30-7 







171 



Maximi'ii Ti:Mri;i;ATri;K (Fahr.). 



Year. 


Miiy. 


.Juno. 


July. 


August. 


.September. 


October. 


November. 




Di'^rct'H. 


I)c;;rcL:-. 


Vti'^rces^ 


Decrees. 


Deforces. 


Dcjjiees. 


Dei;reo8. 


187k ,. 


.'■.8 -3 


7.J -ll 


77-4 


84-4 


71 -7 


G3-7 


52'0 


1879 .. 


01-2 


( 4 'o 


".VG 


7") -1 


711-0 


59 -7 


41-4 


1881) .. 


r>n-7 


(i(;'2 


s;i'7 


81 •(! 


72'7 


59 '9 


49-8 


1881 .. 


J9-7 


G7-:i 


74-.-) 


79-2 


iO'5 


G2'G 


53-1 


1882 .. 


GO-fi 


72 *.'J 


TOM) 


8.'i-l 


77'7 


60 -G 


47-7 


188;i .. 


or. •,') 


GG -0 


82-2 


84 -G 


73 -G 


65 5 


58 -S 


188-! .. 


, , 


, , 




, , 


, , 


, , 


, , 


18H5 .. 


_ , 


, , 




7;i-2 


72-(» 


63 -5 


54-9 


188f, .. 


02-4 


70-2 


77-4 


79 -2 


75-4 


64-2 


, , 


1887 ., 


54 '7 


fi4 •!• 


74 •! 


82-9 


72-3 


G2-G 


.52-3 


1888 .. 


58-1 


GO-G 


7:i-4 


79 •.') 


70-5 


GG-0 


55-4 


1889 .. 


50- 1 


72-7 


75 U 


80-4 


70-0 


5G-7 


44-G 


1890 .. 


fi8'4 


04-8 


77 * 7 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 




fiO-4 


fiS-G 


7G ■ 5 


8(1 •:! 


71 -2 


G2 • " 


51-0 



Ml.MMLM TK.Ml'KIlATUIiF, (Falir.). 



Year. 


Mny. 


.Tunc. 


.July. 


Au;.'ust. 


September. 


Octolier. 


November. 




Decrees. 


Decrees. 


Dei^rees, 


Dej;rces. 


Decrees. 


Dcifrcc.--. 


Def;reeF. 


1878 .. 


29-1 


35 -8 


47-7 


52-0 


35 '4 


30-0 


8-4 


1879 .. 


2G -i 


37 'G 


60-4 


63 -8 


42-3 


;53-i 


9-5 


188n ., 


.34 '2 


.30 '9 


41-0 


50-9 


38-7 


23-0 


17-6 


1S81 .. 


31-3 


42 'G 


44-8 


51-1 


44-4 


28-6 


12-0 


1882 ., 


30 '9 


38-5 


46 -G 


50 -5 


41-9 


25-9 


9-7 


1883 .. 


25 • 3 


36 '7 


50 '2 


57-9 


45-3 


22" 8 


- 4-0 


18^4 .. 




.. 


.. 




_ , 




, , 


1885 .. 


, , 


, , 


, . 


54 ■ 


45 -5 


29 -S 


17-4 


188G .. 


34 2 


38 '1 


49-1 


54-9 


511-2 


39 -G 




1887 .. 


28 '8 


38'5 


47 '3 


52' 7 


39-9 


2G-2 


8-2 


1888 .. 


29-1 


33 -G 


41 -9 


50-0 


37-2 


23-9 


14-5 


1889 .. 


.■55 -6 


3G-0 


52-0 


49-5 


41-0 


23-5 


10'6 


1890 ., 


26 -4 


36-0 


42-8 


•• 


•• 


•■ 


•• 




30 ■ I 


37-3 


■IG -7 


53'ii 


41-9 


27-9 


10-4 



NlMllKK iif Diiv.'! (,'lyuilv. 



Y'eiir. 


-May. 


June. 


.luiy. 


Aiii^usi. 


f'eplember. 


Oclobcr. 


November. 


1878 .. 
















1879 .. 






.. 








.. 


1880 .. 


.. 


.. 








7 


12 


1881 .. 


9 


13 


ii; 


II 


(; 


7 





1882 .. 


10 


14 


9 


•1 


13 


15 


12 


188.'t .. 


■1 


4 


12 


9 


10 


11 


(i 


188 1 .. 


, , 




, , 


, , 






• • 


188.-) .. 


, . 




, . 


G 


13 


13 


11 


1880 .. 


G 


12 


12 


12 


1(1 


3 


, , 


1887 .. 


^ J 


22 


19 


9 


11 




15 


1W88 .. 


21 


22 


18 


10 


8 


10 


12 


1889 .. 


I.'. 


15 


l.-i 


12 








1890 .. 


M 


25 


Vi 


•• 


•• 


•• 






11 -3 


15-9 


11- 1 


9-9 


10-1 


8-9 


10-0 



[117] 



172 



Number of Days of Precipitation. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1878 .. 




3 




4 


1 


2 




1 


1879 .. 




, ^ 


, , 




, , 


.. 


. , 


,, 


1880 .. 




, , 


, , 


8 


12 


11 


14 


12 


1881 .. 




11 


U 


14 


8 


7 


9 


y 


1882 .. 




6 


12 


i! 


5 


10 


6 


6 


1883 .. 




3 


7 


4 


2 


13 


3 


1 


1884 ., 








.. 


• • 








1885 .. 








. , 


, , 




,. 




1886 .. 










• • 




.• 




1887 .. 










,. 




• • 




1888 .. 








., 










1889 .. 








.. 






,. 




1890 ,. 




14 


la 


8 


•• 




•• 






1 7-4 


lO'S 


()•« 


.5-fi 


8-6 


8-0 


5-8 



NuMBF.lt of Clear Days. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1878 ,, 




.• 












l^TS .. 


, , 


, , 


. , 




., 


,. 


. • 


1880 .. 


, , 


. , 


, . 




. « 


, , 


3 


1881 .. 


10 


7 


4 


8 


11 


4 


2 


1882 .. 


2 


2 


2 


5 


fi 


•t 


, , 


1883 .. 


7 


it 


3 


6 


5 


4 


9 


1884 .. 


, , 


, . 


. , 




, , 


, . 




1885 .. 


, , 


, , 




2 





5 


3 


1880 .. 


4 


4 


7 


G 


a 





, a 


1887 .. 


^ , 


2 


2 


6 


3 


6 


4 


1888 .. 


3 


2 


3 


1 





3 


.') 


18H'.) ,. 


4 





10 


I 


, , 




, . 


1890 .. 


1 


•■ 


t 


.. 


•• 


•• 


•• 




1-9 


4.1 


4-4 


■ 5 


(••■4 


5-1 


4-;i 



ri.ocDINKSS expressed iu l'erceiitaj.'e. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1878 .. 








.. 


• • 


.. 


.. 


1879 .. 




, . 






, . 


• • 


,, 


1880 .. 


, , 


, , 


• • 


88 


. . 


74 


63 


1881 .. 


45 


61 


70 


0/ 


46 


58 


60 


1H82 .. 


65 


75 


09 


-|.'i 


04 


-M 


74 


1883 .. 


46 


49 


67 


54 


58 


60 


14 


I8S1 .. 


, , 


., 




. . 






.. 


1885 .. 


, , 






67 


61 


63 


62 


188li .. 


64 


69 


62 


59 


55 


49 




1887 .. 


48 


83 


77 


58 


64 


48 


67 


1888 .. 


79 


HI 


79 


78 


'J2 


61 


111 


1889 .. 


71 


(12 


57 


62 


• • 


, , 


, , 


1 H90 . , 


')« 


90 


no 




•• 


•• 


• ■ 




GO 


71 


08 


63 


.'■7 


00 


02 



173 



Am( Unt of ['reiMiiitatioii. 



Year. 


May. 


.Juno. 


July. 


August. 


Sejilcmhcv. 


OctoljLT. 


November. 


1H78 .. 














.. 


1879 .. 


, , 








• • 


•■ 


•• 


1H80 .. 


, , 








.. 






1881 .. 
















1882 .. 


1-5A 


2-io 


-38 


1'22 


3 • 02 


2 -or. 


l-Ol 


1883 .. 


0-03 


■.'50 


(V93 


0'0(i 


2'18 


1-11 


0-11 


1884 .. 


. , 








.. 






1885 .. 


, , 








.. 






1880 .. 


,, 














1887 .. 


, , 














1888 .. 


. , 














1889 .. 


, , 














1890 .. 


2-02 


1 -89 


1-28 




•• 







GnEAi'KST Amount of Uain in one Day. 



NEiiuno, Jai',vn. 
Annual Reports of Ih Miknrolo'jicnl C'enlra! Observalorij, Tukiu. 



Litituile, 43° 20' .V.; l.nngitiulr, 1 IV ;!,r K. ; Elevation, -iu feet. 
MlUN T£Ml'i:i;.VT[i!r, (Fain-.). 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Au^'u«t. 


S'-pfonib'-'r. 


OctoliiT. 


November. 


1878 .. 






.. 




a • 






1879 .. 






.. 


• . 




. 






1880 .. 


.. 




• . 






• 


•• 




1881 .. 


^ , 










• 






1882 .. 


0-78 


0-39 


0-20 


0-54 





72 


1-17 


0-29 


1883 .. 


(1-1)2 


0-39 


0-31 


0-04 





75 


0-42 


0-11 


1884 .. 


















1885 .. 










• 








1880 .. 


















1887 .. 


















1888 .. 


















1889 .. 


















1890 ,. 


0-43 


0-34 


-35 


•• 


• 









'^'oar. 


May. 


.iur.f. 


July. 


AuifUBt. 


September. 


October. 


November. 




Di'ijn'eh. 


' Decrees. 


Uunri'i-s. 


Uv;;ri'cs. 


lU'iirees. 


Llesrets. 


Dearees. 


1884 .. 


13-2 


! 48-4 


58-0 


01-5 


57 


49-1 


35-2 


1H85 .. 


42-3 


51-1 


50-1 


62-4 


57-4 


50 -0 


41-4 


1880 .. „ 


45-3 


52-7 


00 -1 


07 


02-1 


53-2 


39 •!• 


1887 .. 


u-o 


40-1 


58-5 


05-8 


59-4 


51-1 


42-6 


1888 .. 


45-7 


i:-- 


00-1 


63-3 


58-5 


51 -3 


42-4 


1889 .. 


41-0 


49 • 1 


57-4 


04-8 


.j7-e 


48-0 


37-2 


1890 .. 


40-8 


50-7 

1 


59-2 


06 • 7 


03-3 


51 -0 


42 -3 




i.;-i; 


1 


58 -0 


04 ■ .. 


50-7 


50 -G 


40-1 



174 



Mean of Maxima Ttniptniturci (Fahv ). 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Auj;ust. 


S('|it('inbor. 


October. 


Novpinbpr. 




Dpripps. 


Dpj.'rni'8. 


DrRrcoK. 


l:(„'rpps. 


DojJIPCH. 


DcprrpH. 


Dojirpps. 


1&8J .. 


r,\-s 


50-7 


6(i -4 


68-0 


62-8 


54-9 


41 ■5 


1885 . 


50-0 


fiO'3 


(■,3-1 


r,8-7 


63 -0 


.16-1 


4G-2 


18SP .. 


r,2 • V 


.19 -0 


«r, • 1 


74-7 


07 -G 


59 ■ :. 


4,5 ■ 3 


li.87 .. 


47-8 


52-0 


(iC -0 


73 •2 


fifi-2 


57-2 


4'.i-r, 


188S .. 


M-3 


■iyf> 


no -4 


71-1 


G 1 • C. 


57-6 


473 


188!) .. 


47-7 


67'4 


(!,')■! 


72 -5 


04-4 


54-9 


43-3 


1800 .. 


.os-o 


58-3 


r.7 -3 


72-9 


70-7 


57-2 


48 -0 




SI -5 


,Vi-3 


fill -2 


71 -fi 


Cfj-G 


r.R-8 


4G (1 



AisoLUTK Jlaxiiiiuiu Temperatures (Fahi.). 



Year. 


May. 


Jmip. 


July. 


Au;;Ust. 


Scptiinliir. 


Octobur. 


Novpiutjtr. 




Dpfjrpps. 


Dp^ri'PS. 


! Ip^rpps- 


Dt'^rpc*. 


Dofirpps. 


DLfjrues. 


Dp(;r(i'~. 


1881 ,, 


fi5-8 


73-() 


80-1 


7.V2 


GO • 3 


Gi)'2 


55-0 


issr, .. 


7 1 • « 


77-0 


80-4 


82 '2 


72 •.I 


72-3 


CO -6 


18HG ,. 


G J • 7 


78 -K 


70-2 


s.vo 


82 Ml 


07 • 


.W-o 


1887 .. 


63-3 


00 -G 


83-8 


84-0 


75-9 


GG-9 


eo-3 


18H8 .. 


72-7 


60-3 


83-5 


85-8 


73 • 9 


07-3 


SO -5 


1 880 .. 


Cl-2 


75-7 


»■>■» 


77'7 


83 -.i 


61-5 


55-0 


1800 ,. 


70-0 


72-0 


79-7 


82-6 


81-0 


03-7 


63-1 




67-3 


71-2 


83-1 


Sl-0 


77 '0 


GG-.i 


r,7->) 



Mean Ifinima Tpmporaturo (Fahr.), 



Y'ear. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Auu'U-'t. 


Soptpinbcr. 


Oetubur. 


N()\ pmliiT. 




Degrpps. 


Dpfjrcps. 


Dpi;rops. 


Dphiccs. 


Dinreca. 


Up^rocs. 


Dt'^reps. 


1884 .. 


33-8 


39 -9 


60 -0 


53 ■ C 


50-7 


4(1-6 


20 -8 


1885 .. 


25-5 


30-1 


47'3 


55-0 


49 -.5 


41-7 


33-1 


18SG .. 


39-0 


4G-8 


54-7 


Gl-7 


50-7 


40-9 


34 Ml 


1887 .. 


36-4 


42-1 


51-6 


5'.' ■."> 


52- 9 


44-8 


35 -0 


188K .. 


38-1 


39 '9 


.'i2-0 


5ti • it 


52 •& 


44-4 


3G -9 


1SS9 .. 


35-2 


42-1 


51 •! 


58-3 


51-8 


41-0 


.30 -G 


1890 .. 


39 -0 


44-8 


52-7 


01-9 


.59-7 


45-1 


■■14 -9 




35-1 


41 -7 


51 '5 


5H-1 


53 1 


43-5 


33-1 



Alisni.iTi: Miiiiiiium T('iii|iciatUR;': (Falir.). 



Year. 


Way. 


June. 


July. 


Aufju.st. 


hep««nlipi-. 


(iptiibpi. 


Novpiubpr. 




Upt;ipp.«. 


I>c^rpcs. 


I)<>srpp.-. 


De^r.T.-. 


Dpyreps. 


Dp^reph 


Dpjrrep". 


1884 .. 


20-8 


33-1 


.to -7 


45-7 


■10 -0 


30 -0 


12-9 


1885 .. 


10-0 


23-2 


40-1 


43-5 


41-2 


30 -0 


22 -3 


1880 .. 


33-1 


37 • 9 


42-8 


54 ■ 7 


17-1 


3G -0 


20 -s 


1887 .. 


28MI 


35 '8 


41-0 


49 '8 


42 -3 


37-8 


19 -9 


1888 .. 


32-0 


35-1 


41 


51-1 


42 -3 


36 -3 


2.1 -4 


1889 ,, 


29 • 3 


:!5 • I 


41-5 


45-7 


41-4 


30-9 


10 -o 


1890 .. 


34 


40 -5 


41-4 


51 8 


48-2 


37 -11 


18-9 




29-4 


34-4 


40 -G 


IK'O 


43-3 ■■•■■I '<' 10-3 



175 



Number of Days Cloudy. 



Yiur, 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1»'81 .. 


i;i 


20 


20 


15 


19 


6 


10 


1885 .. 


'.J 


9 


17 


10 


13 


8 


8 


18R() .. 


11 


13 


20 


8 


16 


5 


5 


1887 .. 


11 


25 


16 


13 





10 


9 


1888 .. 


11 


22 


18 


11 


14 


9 


15 


1889 .. 


20 


13 


20 


12 


12 


3 


1) 


189 


12 


20 


15 


22 


18 


14 


7 




12-9 


17-4 


18-0 


13-9 


14-0 


7-9 


9-0 



NUJIBEK of l)ii}3 of I'recipitation. 



Yiar, 


.M;.y. 


June, 


July. 


.\u^'ust. 


September. 


Oetobir. 


November. 


1884 .. 


8 


5 


7 





1 


8 


8 


1885 .. 


10 


8 


14 


Ifi 


22 


14 


17 


1886 .. 


12 


13 


14 


9 


21 


14 


12 


1887 .. 


IS 


17 


20 


14 


15 


9 


16 


If88 .. 


14 


17 


15 


9 


14 


11 


15 


1889 .. 


13 


15 


10 


8 


14 


19 


15 


1890 ., 


9 


11 


10 


16 


17 


17 


12 




11-7 


12-3 


12-9 


ll'l 


15'7 


13-1 


13 



Number of Days Clear. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August, 


September. 


October. 


November. 


18H4 .. 






* • 


1 


1 


2 


3 


1885 ., 


4 


3 


,, 


2 


3 


5 


5 


1886 .. 


1 


1 


, , 


4 


1 


8 


5 


1887 .. 


1 




1 


3 


5 


lu 


3 


1888 .. 


2 




3 


,, 


3 


5 


4 


1889 .. 


1 


3 


1 


, , 


4 


4 


2 


1890 ., 


1 


•• 




•• 


1 


4 


2 




1-7 


l-O 


0-7 


1-4 


26 


5-4 


3-4 



Cloudiness e.xpie.ssed in rercentagc. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


1884 .. 


74 


«4 


82 


77 


84 


62 


62 


1885 .. 


68 


60 


81 


74 


70 


57 


57 


1886 .. 


61 


74 


8: 


63 


74 


62 


51 


1887 .. 


70 


G9 


77 


67 


52 


50 


57 


1888 ,. 


63 


85 


74 


69 


65 


54 


05 


1889 .. 


70 


71 


78 


62 


61 


48 


50 


1890 .. 


05 


85 


77 


87 


78 


65 


63 




67 


78 


79 


71 


69 


65 


S7 



[117] 



2 Z 



176 



Amount of Precipitation. 



Year. 


.May. 


June. 


July. 


Aupiist. 


Scptciiilirr. 


October. 


November. 


18HI .. 


3-41 


l-8'l 


3 '28 


4-71 


3 -20 


2-70 


3-44 


1885 ., 


3-85 


2- '22 


3-41 


4-22 


8-44 


7-17 


G-41 


1880 .. 


4-03 


2-94 


2-43 


4 Ma 


7-43 


2-.')7 


2 01 


18S7 .. 


5-03 


1-81 


2-07 


1-29 


3 -70 


4 02 


O'OCi 


1888 .. 


5' 00 


8 -,04 


2-19 


3-30 


(i07 


4-l.i 


a-Hr> 


1889 .. 


2-85 


2-78 


4'12 


4-40 


10 •113 


3-,')4 


1-49 


1890 .. 


3-56 


3-78 


2-68 


2 04 


5 • .58 


4-8,') 


,5 -79 




3-96 


3-42 


2-88 


3-49 


6 -44 


411 


4-15 



GnEATEST Amount ol' Uiiiii in one Day. 



Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Auj;uHt. 


Scptenilior. 


Oetiiber. 


Novetiiber. 


1884 .. 


0'99 


0-91 


0-77 


i-sr. 


1-59 


1-S6 


1-18 


188,5 .. 


1-65 


O-UB 


0-82 


2-27 


3-51 


2-30 


1-17 


1886 ,. 


0-73 


104 


1-02 


1-27 


1-64 


0-78 


0-98 


1887 .. 


0-91 


o-i;2 


0-42 


0-76 


1-16 


1-46 


2-17 


1888 .. 


1 -75 


1-86 


0-77 


1-92 


1-98 


1-53 


i-w 


1889 ,. 


0-70 


104 


2-41 


l-(il 


3-30 


1'72 


(1-32 


1890 .. 


1-75 


1'07 


1-50 


0-82 


1-81 


105 


2 00 




1-21 


1'07 


1-10 


1-46 


.... ' 


1-46 


1-31 



( 177 ) 



Extracts illustrating the Damage done by Seals to Fisheries. 



Injurien to the Fiskeriea in the Ballir. by Sealn. By Mr. Hinchelmann, 



" TIIK rdiisliiiitly iinTeiiHiii^ iiiiinl)or nf m;\h on oiir liiillic oiutsts lias bccoijn' su Hcriaiis a iliiiiticr 
to our (■mist li«hi'i'icM tliiil, it appears liij,'li tiiiio to liiiit waVH and iiii'aiis to keep these ininiiiius annuals 
away from our sIkucs. Ten or lifteeii years a;,'o, wlieii our tislieiiiien still uiiilerrated llieir .leslrui- 
tiveiiess, anil at liesl were auiuseil to see due of lliem, it Was liarilly tli(iuj;lit possihle tlial tliese animals 
would one day endani^er the fisheries on llie euasl ol' Sle.f.vick-Hiilstein, where tliey hanierly ap|>eareci 
only in small numbers and at [ilaies where there was not niueh chance of their injiirinL; lh(^ 
fisheries." 



Halt II.- Fisheries. 

Hull L'nilfiil Suite*' 
Fid)) (Joiiiuiiii^ion, 
vul. vii. i5,t7, p HI. 



" It is not easy to answer the question as tn how the evil can best be remedieii, fur even the use 
of poisonwl llsli as bait (ajiart from thi^ danj,'ei connected with this method) wo\ild not be of any use, 
because tin; seals are very choice in the seli'Clion of their fodd, and wcjuld only take to the dead liail if 
there was absolutely no chauci' to j^'ct fresli lish, a case whicli will hardly ever o'-cur in the opiui sea. 
It might be recommended to make an experiment with bnw-iicts madi- of j;ahanized imu wire, painteil 
brown, like the cnhiur nf the liow-nets usually employed, Tht^ shape of these bow-iu'ts sluaild be that 
of the common bow-nets useil for catching cod, lint the I'litrances tii the dilVerent I'hamber.s sJKiuld be 
80 arrangi^l as to make it ea.sy for the seals to slip in. Live lish — especially cud, of which the seals 
are very fond— might, if neces.siiry, be put in these bow-iuits when they are set ; but there would 
probaldy be no lack uf bait to attract the .scids, as even in wire bow-uets plenty of tish are caught. 
Such an exiierimenl, which should be made in places I'reipiented by .seals, would not involve, any great 
e,xpeuse, and would (tc^rtainly be a step toward solving tlie question us to the beat way uf protecting the 
fishermen against the seals." 



Ibid., p *i. 



Notes on the Hatcheries and Fresh-Water Fisheries of Iceland. Ihj liencd. ti. Thorarinsson. 

• ••••• 

" The attention of the I^egislative Assendily was not specially directed to this matter of protecting ((.(.land Fisheries.! 

the fisheries, nor were laws enacted on this suliject before lS,S,"i ; and thi^ ]ireseiit laws are iu many 

instances primitive, imperfec't, and inconvenient, according to the conditions of the cuunlry. ( )ne of ibid., p. 121. 
the worst features is that in regard to .sc'als, which aie so injurious to the s,dmon lisheries. This is 
contained in section 4 of tin; following .sitatule. The deicctive point about this bit of legi.'dation is that 
in all salmon rivers (with one exception) and tlieir umuths, where there are seals there ar(; also scid- 
cjitching places, ,so that the law is of little or no benelit to tiie siilmon. as it is Ibrbidden to disturb the 
seals in the places wiiere they ari; at all easily accessible." 

Section 4 relerred to is as billows:^ 

" Section 4. In rivers and their mouths where there are .salmon, it is allowed to shoot or frighten 
seals, with the restriction that the inviolability of breeding and seal-catching places, which are thus 
e.sii.!cially proclaimed, niu.sl not be infringed upon, except with the penalty of lull damages, according 
tj the estimate of good men nominated l^y the .ludge and sworn in Court" 



" N.autical M.iira7,ine," 
vol. lix. No. 2, 
Noveuilwr l»»0. 



" Owing to rewards now granted by Fishing Society of Denmark, amnunting to ,S kroners for each Denmark. 

seal killed, according to the (.'o|ienh.igen corres|)oud(;nl of («ir contemporary. ' Industries.' the 

oxtt!rmiiiation of seals is now being energetically pursneil in Hanish waters. It appears that in those 
Iwalities where tin; fishery industry has been pursued with least success the seals ino.st abound. A 
seal is .seldom seen in the neiyhlionrhood of Middlel'art, iu the Little Helt, as the fishermen in that 
neighbourhood are very active in fishing ami .seal-hunting.' 

" An riinlrairr. on the small Islaiul of Ilosselo, north of Zealand, one man scut in the heads of no 
less than 120 .seals, while another man sent in 40 within tin; last ten mouth.s. During this period 
810 seals have been killed." 



even m the present year. 



On the coast of the United States, also, similar facts have been oliserved 
as shown by tho following para'.'raph : — 

"A Lahuk Skai. MniliA'lION.— The bay fishing in Ksscx t'lainty, Massachu.setts. has been so 
seriously injure<l by the alleged dejiredalions of seals that tlu; authorities olli'red a bounty of 1 dollar 
each for killing t.lium. During 18"JI the fishermen killed forly-fbur on the coast and iu the rivers of 
the county," 



Damage in 
Kssex Ciauitv, 
ALI.S.S. 

" Forest and SlreTtn," | 
Feljruarv 11, Ia'.l2.