Skip to main content

Full text of "Geography rectified: or, A description of the world [microform] : in all its kingdoms, provinces, countries ... their ancient and present names, inhabitants, situations, histories, customs, governments, &c. : as also their commodities, coins, weights, and measures, compared with those at London : illustrated with seventy eight maps : the whole work performed according to the more accurate observations and discoveries of modern authors"

See other formats






" lifi 1110 



U III 1.6 




WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 873-450^ 






Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions / Institut Canadian de microreproductions historiques 

Technical and Bibliographic Notas/Notes techniques et bibliographiques 

The Institute has attempted to obtain the best 
original copy available for filming. Features of this 
copy which may be bibliographically unique, 
which may alter any of the images in the 
reproduction, or which may significantly change 
the usual method of filming, are checked below. 








Coloured covers/ 
Couverture de couleur 

□ Covers damaged/ 

Couverture endommag^e 

Covers restored and/or laminated/ 
Couverture restaurie et/ou pellicul6e 

I I Cover title missing/ 

Le titre de couverture manque 

Coloured maps/ 

Cartes g6ographiques en couleur 

Coloured ink (i.e. other than blue or black)/ 
Encre de couleur (i.e. autre que bleue ou noire) 

Coloured plates and/or illustrations/ 
Planches et/ou illustrations en couleur 

Bound with other material/ 
Relid avec d'autres documents 

Tight binding may cause shadows or distortion 
along int£^rior margin/ 

Lareliure serrde peut causer de I'ombre ou de la 
distortion le long de la marge intirieure 

Blank leaves added during restoration may 
appear within the text. Whenever possible, these 
have been omitted from filming/ 
II se peut que certaines pages blanches ajout6es 
lore d'une restauration apparaissent dans le texte, 
mais, lorsque cela 6tait possible, ces pages n'ont 
pas 6t6 fiim^es. 

L'Institut a microfilm^ le meilleur exemplaire 
qu'il lui a 6t6 possible de se procurer. Les details 
de cet exemplaire qui sont peut-Atre uniques du 
point de vue bibliographique, qui peuvent modifier 
une image reproduite, ou qui peuvent exiger une 
modification dans la mtthode normale de filmage 
sont indiqu6s ci-dessous. 

□ Coloured pages/ 
Pages de couleur 

□ Pages damaged/ 
Pages endommagdes 

□ Pages restored and/or laminated/ 
Pages restaurdes et/ou pelliculdes 



Pages discoloured, stained or foxed/ 
Pages d6color6es, tachetdes ou piqudes 

I I Pages detached/ 

Pages d6tach6es 


Quality of prir 

Qualiti migale de ('impression 

Includes supplementary materit 
Comprend du materiel suppl6mentaire 

r~7| Showthrough/ 

I I Quality of print varies/ 

I I Includes supplementary material/ 

Only edition available/ 
Suule Edition disponible 

Pages wholly or partially obscured by errata 
slips, tissues, etc., have been refilmed to 
ensure the best possible image/ 
Les pages totalement ou partiellement 
obscurcies par un feuillet d'errata, une pelure, 
etc., ont 6t6 filmdes d nouveau de faqon d 
obtenir la meilleure image possible. 

Additional comments:/ 
Commentaires suppl^mentaires: 

Irregular pagination : [9], [1] ■ 77, 87, 79-626, 72 p. IMap on p. 266 is cut-off. 

This item is filmed at the reduction ratio checked below/ 

Ce document est film6 au taux de reduction indiqu6 ci-dessous. 

10X 14X 18X 22X 










Th« copy film«d h«r« has bMn r«produc«ci thanks 
to tha oanaroslty of: 

Library Division 
V y V'. Provincial Archives of British Columbia 

L'axamplaira filmA f ut raprodult grica i la 
gAnirosit* da: 

Library Division 

Provincial Archives of British Columbia 

Tha imagas appaaring hara ara tha baat quality 
possibia co/'niidaring tha condition and iagibility 
of tha orifiiial copy and in itaaping with tha 
filming cocstract apacificationa. 

Original copias in printad papar covars ara filmad 
baginning with tha front covar and anding on 
tha last paga with a printad or iliustratad impras- 
sion, or tha back covar whan appropriata. All 
othar original copias ara filmad baginning on tha 
first paga with a printad or iliustratad impras- 
sion. and anding on tha last paga with a printad 
or iliustratad imprassion. 

Tha last racordad frama on each microfiche 
shall contain tha symbol ^»> (meaning "CON- 
TINUED"), or the symbol Y (meaning "END"), 
whichever applies. 

Maps, plates, charts, etc., may be filmed at 
different reduction ratios. Those too large to be 
entirely included in one exposure are filmed 
beginning in the upper left hand corner, left to 
right and top to bottom, as many frames as 
required. The following diagrams Illustrate the 

Lea images suivantaa ont AtA raproduites avac la 
plua grand soin, compta tanu da la condition et 
da la nettat* da I'exemplaira film*, et en 
conformity avac lea conditions du contrat da 

Lea exemplairaa originaux dont la couvarture en 
papier est imprimie sont filmAs en commenpant 
par la premier plat at en terminant soit par la 
darniAre paga qui comporta una empreinte 
d'impression ou d'illustration. soit par la second 
plat, salon la cas. Tous las autras exemplaires 
originaux sont filmte en commen^ant par la 
premiere paga qui comporta une empreinte 
d'impression ou d'illustration at en terminant par 
la derniire page qui comporta une telle 

Un des symboles suivants apparaitra sur la 
darniire image da cheque microfiche, selon le 
cas: le symbols —^ signifie "A SUIVRE", le 
symbols y signifie "FIN". 

Les cartes, planches, tableaux, etc.. peuvent Atre 
filmAs A des taux da riduction diffArents. 
Lorsque le document est trop grand pour Atre 
reproduit en un seul clich*. il est film* A partir 
da I'angle supArieur gauche, de gauche A droite. 
et de haut en bas, en prenant le nombre 
d'images nAcessaire. Les diagrammes suivants 
illustrent la mAthode. 











A Catalogue of the Maps in this Book. 

i^xyOrld Fol. 12 


5 E»glan(} yScotland.JSiC Ireknd, ^i 

4 England _ *■ 2 J 

5 tVales s ' 32 

6 Scotland - " - 3^ 

7 Ireland > y' ■ 4^ 

8 Denmark ' ,1* 5" J 

9 5ji'f</f« and Norway '^ 65" 

10 MufcoviajScC' 72 

11 Po/<?»^ .^^t 80 

12 Tartary in Europe ' 88 

1 3 Moldavia J^alachiajTranftlv, 9 f 

14 Hungaria 100 
ly Germany ' ' - - 114 

1 6 The Uwi^f^ Provinces 1 60 

17 The Spati.'fli Provinces 174 

18 France 19° 

19 Spain^ y"'""'"''^'^-*^ ' ^°^ 

20 Pertug,-d > 221 

21 /r^^ , ' 225- 

22 Helvetia f or Schwitz,erland2iS 
2 J. 5<if07 and Piedmont 236 

24 5;ci/y 2 5'6 
;i ^ Scla^on.CroatiajDalmat.&'c.zSo 

26 Scrvia, Bulgaria^ &c, 2^6 

27 Greece p26^ 

25 A S I A ^ 341 
29 The7«r^. Empirein /^^34^ 

. 30 Canaan, or the Hc/y Land 3^8 

31 Armenia 362 

3 2 C>p>'«j,the Ifles of AJia Min. 375 

,33 Turkffk Empire in general 382 

34 Arabia \ .. _ , 386 

3y ^^''/^ - 392 

36 Totariain Afia 407 

3 7 Empire of the Great Mogul 4 1 f 

38 Ifidtaon this fide Ganges 423 

39 Wi<a beyond Ganges 43 i 

40 C^w/i ,r ... ■ 436 

V - 

41 Japan 444 

42 Maldives Iflands 448 

43 C^/ow 4yo 

44 The Ifles of S'Wtf 4^4 
4 )- The Philippine Iflands 4^6 
46 The Molucca Iflands 458 
'^1 A F R 1 C A 46.1 
48 Barbary 468 
4^ Fe?i ^nd Morocco- 470 

-».r-" - 


BileduIger.Zaara^Guiny^dfc, 5*0 3 

3 Ethiopia J or Habejjinia 5-09 

4 Co»?o,&;c. 5-22 
y Cajferia & MonoMotapa ^24 

6 Zangu:bar - ' 5-27 

7 The Ifles of Azores 5-29 

8 The Ozf^r;-- Iflands 5-3 1 

9 Cape Terde lUAnds 5-34 

60 Madagafcar, Sec. J37 

61 Maltha ^aq 

62 A ME k I C A ^42 

63 Magellanica ^a6 

6^ Chili And Paraguay yp 

6 J Brazile rrj 

66 •, Peru, GuyanajOaftel- 
la del Or^ &C. y y S 

67 The Weftern iflands ^64 

68 Jamaica ^£j 

69 Bermudas, between 5*74, 5*7 5* 

70 Barbadoes ejj 

71 Nni/ 5pd/» y^^ 

72 New M(xico '') y^r 

73 Florida, and the Lakes of Ca- 
nada ^87 

74 Carolina ^ 89 
75" l^l^'gif'ia ahd Maryland ^91 

76 Pet.JiIvwta.&ndNtwJerfey ^^j 

77 New £>'^/.and New ror/& 606 

78 Noithw. part of America 619 






o R, A dj-imt'^ 



In all its Kingcloms, Provinces, Countries, 

Iflands, Cities, Towns, Seas, Rivers, Bays, Capes, 
Ports \ Their Ancient and Prefent Names, Inhabitants, 
Situations, Hiftories, Cuftonos, Governments, &c. 

As al(b their Commodicies, Coins, Weights, and 

Meafures, Compared with thole at LO NDO N, 

IhftrAted with Seventy eight MAPS. 

The Fourth Edit ion f Enlarged, To which is added a Complete Geographical 
Index to the rVhoUy Alphabetically digefied. 

The whole Work performed according to the more Accurate 
Obfcrvations and Difcoveries of Modern Authors. 

By 3^0®£5^T M %,!> E H. 

_j _t. _ 


Printed for R, Morden and T. Coekerill, and.are to be fold by 
A/. Fdhia» in Mercers-Chappei-Vorch in Cheapfide^ and Ralph 
Smith at the Bihle under the Exchange xnCornhiU. M D C C. 





I • 



\ i) 


\»^"' •'V 

^^ ••. 


...•^>.. •«*' 


! I 


--• .' . . J 

>: ,. /.' 


■.6 '1 K >A ^AM^^ ;^-yy','. ii\!,^,t ^VIA'^.i^^l 



\ t 

! '|.-;---,y..r^-.:;';fi/. ' 

» » 

T K! I 



v4uIo} :<! 






— y -rir t'Pf'^B^'*-' —** 


„j-. »t^w '». <' *''y ^- 


i;o his nioft Worthy and moft Honoured Friend, 


. -I. ■. ^lt<;H*>>^_ -.^-oiV 



Qf London, M E R G H A N T. 

.3 ^ ., 'ii, ^ ■■■_ --kL-. J •-• .'. . , 

AVING ttiade many Coniiclerable Itri- 
provemencs and Additions to ttiy Geogra* 
phy in this Fourth Edition, I have all th^ 
reafoii in the world to (helter it once more under 
the Patronage of yopr Kame , whbfe Affairs 
Abroad have not only giyen you a better Ktiowcldge 
and Experience of Foreign Parts; but whofe En- 
couragement and Bounty, next to Divine Good- 
nefs , have only contributed to its Production , 
which otherwife with its poor Author, muft have 
for ever lain latent under the Horizon of unknown 
Obfcurity, and irrefiftible Poverty. The declining 
therefore the Impiitaciori of Ingratitude, is my on- 
ly Plea ; and though it may not be pleafing to you, 
yet not t-^ have done it in my Circumftances , 
would have been my juft Crime. I humbly 
therefore beg your Goodnefs will be pleafed 
to add to your former Kindneffes, That of puf- 
fing by the Imperfe(5l:ions of what is offered, in e>c- 
cufeof which, I can only fay, That as 'tis not the 



«| ..uii .(.vmmv^ppfnqf^Hppnpil 



Indufiry of one Age that can rc&ifyand compleat 
the ^r^xir of' 6f^r4/?/>j:r rior the Wbtk of any one 
man chat of Coins ^ Weights^ and Mtajures ^ {o a wcU- 
meamng Eflay towardi both , I hope will find a 
Courteous Entertainment from the more judicious 
and unprejudiced Reader : For I have this, I will 
not fay to juftify , but to excufe at lead, my bold- 
nefs and forwardnefs, That if I had known thefe 
things to have been but tolerably performed by 
Others , I 'had neither troubled my Reader , nor 
m|f-fpent my own time about the Re^ification of 
them j wherein although I have again made ma- 
ny Corrections and Amendments^ yet that 1 have 
made good feme niens Expci^ationS;, and freed 
them from all defcifts and overfights, neither my 
Fears nor my Modefty will permit me to be confi- 
dent of ^ fo that knowing this W^k which 1- have 
undertaken, is liable to common Cenfure, I am 
bold to flirowd it under your Protection, humbly 
imploring your kind reception and Pardon for this 
my Prefumption ; for which, and for the exccfs of 
many Favours,! fliallevcr pray for the Profperity of 
You and Yours j and forever acknowledge my felf, 



.'■ C f, ■ < 1 

■ ' » ' 1 i. I. 




tout mojl ffumhky mofi faithful y 

5 I 
J/ ■■ ■ 

5 1 ; V? 

ani mojl Obliged SerVantj . ? 
Robert Morden. 

.■ ) J--- 

o :::n 


U V. 

• t■h''^\^^;')>^,'<■^\''^^^■:»h V\\•^^^ ^y\\\^,\<\\ )\\VnV;i\ x^?» ;Vii'?'X 


;.> . ■■> i 

.A^v> ^it*! t>% 

To the R E A D E RV 

■. ' «.'•..«'• , ■ , » ■ » , . ■■ 

SO gre^t WAS the Attempt of ny firft PJfay, in the ptdUjhiftg 
of mj Geography Re£k.ifi*d , that for my heedlifs pre- 
jumptioH I^an, Alledge no excufey unlef{y Thdt the zeal of 
my love for its Truths fo tra»Jported my fenfes, as I coh' 
fiderednot the weight J undertook* And therefcre I agAtn ctavc 
pardon for the oudAcity of that Attempt. Humbly r^cknotvledging^ 
A Work of that concernment And difficulty in it j elf, did vet tide* 
ferve the conjunction of many heads and h an 4s \ and furely more 
adv4ntagioushadit been unto Geography f to have fallen under 
the Endeavours of fome ahle Advancers, that might have per- 
formed it unto the life. And added Authority thereto. For I am 
not ignorant of the difcourAgement of Contradiction, of the diffi- 
culty of Oijfuajtoh from s^adicdtrd beliefs, of what cold requitals 
fome have found in their Redempihns of Truth; and how ingeni^ 
cus Difcoveries have Ifien difmijfed with obliquity, and cenjured 
with fingular.ty. But the kind Reception it found from fever al 
Worthy and Learned Gentlemen, more efpeeiaHy that Influence 
that if received from the two mojl Learned Vniverfuies of the 
World, Oxford and Cambridge, hath once more drawn me upon 
the Horizon of Publick View, not as a M after, but as a poor La* 
bourer, carrying the Carved Stones, and the I'olifbed FilUrs, of the 
mre skilful Architects to fet them tn my mean Fabrick. I have 
indeed laid mybuildiKg upon other mens foundations ; for ivho im 
this Subject can do otherwife? Nor do I hold it a Plagiary to fay i 
Ihave ufed their Richeft 'Jewels to adorn this Work. In excufe 
whereof give me leave to plead, 7 hat in all Argument s and Sub- 
p£ts which have been written upon; from the h/fanc\ of Learning^) . 
to this Age, there hath hee^ ac^riffnualftrifeandifntfUtidnitrHongy 
Writers, to mend, fupply, or mit^ivdizf whdtfriever hat h le en done /S: 
before. It wonld be too tedious- fo reckon up the f^veral A'trhcrs 
on fome onefibjeCt, being a Truth Jo olvious as not to need mu:h . 



-vV-V. , 

a. Cr. 


To the READER. 



ffoof; fior is it lefs sppgrefitj thatJ/H f be Utter wiifitteidshdvt 
'" : si^rest advantage beyond t be former^ by Adding tbe exferieme 6f 
/ bis own times to tbe perufal of wbat was formerly Attuned unto \ 
. more effeaully in Hilfory and Geography \for tho ih the AxtomSy 
Theorems And Propojitions of Ldgick, Phllofopby, Mathema- 
ticks, &c> that tvbieb was once Truth remains fo for ever ; yet in 
JHidory there is AneceBity ofContinitation^ and in Geography of 
Jit er At ion from time to time ; fo that as ^tis no frefuntption to 
write upon this Subjeffy tho treAted of by otbtrs famous for heArh" 
ing And Parts ; fo it is a boldnefsjitjlfjiable by t rut by toaffirm thAt 
all former Geographies diligently compeyed with the more AC/i^ 
rate OhfervAtions And Difeoveries of late year Sy are greAtly defe* 
Hive, And frangely erroneous. And that I may net be thought to 
beftngular in my affertiont fi^ what the Indujlrious Mr, Wright 
faid in his Correilion of Errors in Navigation ; where he tells /tSf 
That the Longitude of Places would well deferve both Labour 
and Coft. And tho the Reilif cation of them n^ere more a bufie and 
expenfivework, than profitable \ yet mofi worthy aitd necejfary tQ 
be laboured in^ as without which AUChArts^MAPs^ Globes^ And all 
other Hydrographical and Geographical Dejcriptions cAnnot be 
freed from mAny intricAte ahfurdities wherewith they Are now 
every where peflered And perplexed : And who that loveth Truths 
faiih he, can patientfy endure the Mariners common And conflAnt 
complaint of i^^or 200 Leagues error in the dijiance hetwee/t 
the Bay of Mexico and the Azores ( or thAt which is more intol* 
ler able and monftrous } of 600 Leagues difference inthe diftance 
bctry^en Cape Mendoiino^ and Cape Cilifornio? And in another 
place he tells us^ that the bejl Hydrographers of that /ige found 
fuch Difficulties in labouring to bringtheir Mar me Defcrtpttons to 
feme cor re fpondence of truth f that tired herewith ^ in the end they 
have holden it impcffible \ wherein notwithfianding^ Jaith he, they 
err in holding that tobefimply impcffible, which cannot be done by 
'"^^ fuch ways and means as they know And ufe* > , ^i . 

v^ ;. And the Ingenious Mr, Hally tells us'in one of his Philofoph'tal 
^Tranfa^iionSf That the Dutch Maps nere out more than 10 De- 


Tothe READER. 

grces. B^^Sanfon'j 18 Degrees in difiame between London and 
Ballafbre. And in truth as to all the Dutch and French AUpj that 
Ihavefeen^ they mere fo falfe and imferfetl^ that as 1 was obit' 
gedin my fir ft Edition to alter many fUces in Europe j Degr. of 
Latitude, and^ore than 5 in Longitude; to make A fia and A me- 
rlci. ivhofly new, and to re^ify Akicsi more than loDegr. And 
in the Jecond Imfrejjion to infert more than 20 New Maps of 
Countries^ fome never extant in any Geography before : Hoal- 
foin thts Fourth Edition 1 have added a Geographical Index to 
the whole Worky Alphabetic ally digejled. As alfo many Cities^ 
TownSf IJlandSy Rivers, with the Ancient and Modern NameSy 
with many other Improvements, which were omitted in the for- 
mer fothat'*tisintrutha New Geography. And yet 1 know this 
wants the Helps and Advantages of a more Learned Pen, and indeed 
it ought to have been freed from thofe frequent avocations and di- 
purbances that attend a Pullick Shop andTrade.Thefe were in truth 
too great di f advantages for the rendring a Book of this nature 
fo compleat and perfeti, and offo conflant and regular a ft He, as 
might be expe^ed from others, who/ e quiet doors, and unmolefi' 
td hours afford nofuch difir actions. However ^ in the compofwg 
of this, I have taken a due regard and greater care in the choice 
of Authors ', nor have I been lefsjludious in avoiding weak and 
frivolons Relations, but to prefent plainly the Truth of Geogra- 
phy and Hiftory from its firfl beginning , fo far as 'tis made 
known to us by the mofi approved Writers. And all this after m^r 
ny years experience, not only in making and Proje^ing of Globes,^ 
Maps, &C. but alfo in examining and comparing of the Re I at i^' 
ons, Difcoveries, Obfervations, Draughts, Journals, andWri' 
tings, as well of the Ancient as Modern Geographers, Travel- 
lers, lA:2intiZ^Sy&c wherein 1 have taken much pains, andfpent 
much time ; tho to my own profit t have done nothing : Only may 
this beb^t ufefd and acceptable tothe young Gentry and Scholars 
(?/ England, and I am fur e of this one advantage, That I [hall 
have many an idle hour the lefs to account for. 







To the R E A D E R. 

. ' Some mi) yet think the Maps toofmtllt 4nd the Difeourfe too 
(borty audindeedfo do I ; hut then be f leafed to eoftfider^ that my 
Defign n'^ Brevity^ wherein I rather confulted your Advantage^ 
by rendring the Book both more Portable, and Ufs Chargeable ; 
fothat I was often times more folieitom and comer ned to confider 
what, than what not to write : Tet have induflrioujly endeavour* 
ed by infertion of the mojl important Obfervables^that nothing ma* 
terial either in the Maps or Defcriptions may be wanting^ to pre- 
fentyou withfuch afatisfa£i.ory view of the Earthly Globe^ and its 
refpeSiive parts, as may make good ou,' TitU- : For without vanity 
it may be affirmed, that 4U compendious as it is^yetyau have there^ 
in now fummed up the Reverend Obfervations of the Ancient 
Strabo^ Pliny, and Ptolomy ; the choice Rarities of the ikwhi- 
anGeographer ; the unwearied Indujiry of Mercator 4;»<^ Mun- 
fter ; the Great W or Id of Ovi^Xxu^ rfWMaginus ; theftately Vo- 
lumesof Bleau4»^ Johnfon ; the Moslem and Applauded Maps 
of Du Val 4//«i Sanfen ; nayjhe Quinteffenee of //^^ Chorogra- 
phies, Topographies, Relations, Journals, and Travels of moji 
Authors extant. So that if not large enough for the Readings o^ 
the mojl Curious and much at Leifure,yet may ferve as a helpful 
Introduiiion to their more Voluminims Trails ; and to others 
Thope,fully JatisfaSlory, At leafi 1 am confident it may be fuffi- 
cient to demon fir ate the great Errors of the Old Maps, and the 
r^ceffity of New and Larger ; but this is not to be performed with- 
out a greater Stock than I am Steward of And the Encouraging 
Gentry of England have been fo often impofed upon by pretenders 
to Mapping, that I el ef pair of making any Propofals, and confe* 
quently of ever doing of them. And indeed 'tis now time for me 
to provide for a future Efiate, where there will be better Rewards 
ffff the true and faithful Service of 

Your moft Humble and Obedient Servant, 




. '. ■■■■ tS.'^ ■.'■•: 




A N 

E N. 


'*■' !.■( 

.i 5< 


ix>9V;Vr.v/^ l:U(-\ 

V,* V 


T O 

""1 '■ ^' '*'';■ -JT^* 

' -; •. -^^'^ 


t« ^- 


I O G kAT HT is a Science whWi Tcacheth the 
Defcription and Dimenfion of all the Earth, as it doth 
together with the ffater , compote that round Body, 
which from its form Is called the Orh or Glohe of the 

i?<*r//&; DefcribingtheScicuations, and Meafuring the 

Diftances of all its parts. .' * 

The Earth is placed in refpecSfc of the other Vlanets or Stars of the 
Univerfe, according to Vtolomy and Tycho, in the Center , fixed and 
Immoveable ; but according to Copernicut , betweea the Orh of 
Mars and Fims moveable. 

For according to Celeftial Appearances, one of tbefe two Hyfothefes 
muftbe granted: i. That the Earth is placed in the Center, immove- 
able, and that all the Celeftial Bodies do move round it in their Diur- 
nal and Annual Revolutions, as in Fig, i. 

1. Or that the Sun is the Cenrer of the Planets and Fixed Stars, 
whiCi) have no daily Motion ; but that this Earth, Sea, and Air abouc 
it, hath a twofold Motion, one Diurnal, about its own Center in 24 
hours, whereby all its parts are alternately enlightned, and Day and 
Night fucceffively en joyed ; the other, its Annual Motion, by which 
it ip carried about the Sun in the fpace of a Ytar, whereby all places 
in courfe enjoy Sfring, Summer, Autumn, and fVmtff, ^ig* 2* 






I • 




% . An IntroiuUion to Geolrafihy. 

Iht^e'Hypothefes, witlj the Circles of the Sphere, and Motion of 

the Planets, you will find "explicated and demonftrated more at large, 

in my Introdu<aion to th? Ufc of the Globes,now ready for the Prefs. 

The Globe of the Earth is variouQy Defcribed by Geographers into 

Lines and PartSy which are either Real or Imaginary, 

The Rw/ parts of the Terre [I rial Globe are Earth and Plater. The 
Imaginary parts are certain Lines, which are not materially, but for the 
better underftanding of this Science, are fuppofed to bepn or above 
the Earth. \ , ' ^ * 5- 

Thefe Lines are cither Straity or Circt*lar. ThzAxis is a ft rait Line 
paffing through the midlt or Center of the E«?yr^, which is the Diame- 
ter of the Univerfe ; the extreme points or ends whereof, are called' 
the Voles ; the one Point is called^the JrBick^ or North-Fole, the other 
the AntarBickf ov South-Vole. ■\-,:^::.-'''.:- "'■"■J^ '':'""■ .^ 

Thefe Poles are twofold ; i. The Poles of the World,, or Et^uator, 
upon which is made the daily Motion from Ea/l to PFe/l: 2. The Poles 
of the Ecliptick, upon which the Earth, or all the Celeftial Bodies do 
make their Yearly Revolution from Pf^efi to Eafi, 

The Circtdar Lines are divided into the greater and the lelTer : The 
Greater Circlet are fuch as divide the Glebe into two equal parts, and 
are four in number. Meridian, Horiz,ony Ei^uator, Ecliptick ; And thefe 
are either fixed , as the E^«/»ro>- ^ti^Ecliptick ; or moveable with the 
mutation of places, as the Mtritliany and Horizon. - ■ 

The Horizon, the Boundary or Termination of our fight, is the on- 
ly Great Circle Gbfervable by theeye ; for being upon a Plain in any 
fair Day or Night, and looking where the Heavens and Earth part, 
we fee an apparent Circle, which divides the vifible part of Heaven 
from the invilible ; extending it felf intoa ftrait Line, from the Su» 
perficies of the Earth every way round about that place you ftand 
upon ;. dividing the Heavens into two unequal parts, which is defign* 
ed outby they%i6r, and k fometimes greater or leffer, according to 
the condition of the place» But this Horizon is not the true Horizon, 
but parallel to it, and therefore called the fenfible or vifible Horizon, 
comprehending all that fpace of the earth which is vifible, and di- 
. ftinguifhing it from the reft.v^^hith Kqth under, and is invifible. 

ThQ other Horizsn, whichisdiWid th^ True cr Rational Horizon, is 
a Great Circle, dividing that part of (he Heavens which is above us, 
from that part which' is under us, exadly into two equal parts,. 
paffing through the Center of the Earth, always certain and the 
lame; fuppofe ^ Line of Dire<ilion perpendicular toit, pafling through 
to thcr pointy arreftly~^b\rer our hwd, called the Zenith, and another 






,on, IS 

ire us, 


d the 




dire(ftly uftdet, our feet, called the iV<f<//r,- which are the two Poles of 
the Horizotf, and 90 degrees diftant from it. 

By this Circle our .Days and Nights are meafured ; for th«t time 
wherein the Sun continueth above the horizon, we call an Artificial 
Day, and the time that heis under it, the Night ; it alio fhews the 
Rifirig and Setting of the Stars arid Planets ; for when they come up 
froth the dark Hemifphere, they arefaid to Rife; and ptr contra , when 
they go down, are faid to Set* 

The Meridian is a Circle paffing throygh whe Voles of the Earth, and 
the Vertical or Zenith point of the Horizon, croffing it at right Angles, 
dividing the EiJ>'?/& ipto two equal parts.or Hemifpheres, in the Points 
, of North and S^uth ; the one Eafiern, the other Wefiern : And is fo 
called, becaufe when the Sun cometh to the Meridian of any place, 
it is Noon, or Mid'^ay : Many in number, becaufe all places from 
Ea^ to Pf^efi hay e (GVQral Meridian J : - ,■ viR*.v»^f(.v^<v>% ..i. 

Amongft thefe, one is of fpecial Note and Ufe, which Geographers 
call the /r// or chief Meridian: This Jirjl Meridian is that from which 
the Longitudes of places are reckoned : In this Meridian the Poles of 
the World are fuppofed to Be fixed ; and in this Circle^ the Latitude 
of Places, or Height of the Poles, arc numbred. "y^i' > f'>-^'-fi^-^p,. r;. 

The Equator, or Line under the Eqmnoilial, is a great Circle encom- 
paflingthe very middle of the Earth between the two Poles, dividing 
it into two equal parts from North to South ; and it is divided, as all • 
Great Circles are, into 360 equal parts or degrees. It is called Equator, 
either becaufe it is equally diftant from the Foles of the IVorld, or ra- ■ 
ther becaufe when the 5«« comes to this Line, which is twice in the 
Year, 'viz in its entrance into Aries, which is aboutthe loth or nth 
of March ; and again in Libra about the nth or i^tb ofSeptempor^ he 
makes equality of Dap and N^hts throughout the fVorld ; from itare 
the Latitudes of places numbred upon the Mtridian, either North or . 
Scuth ; upon it the Longitude of places are reckoned : It meafures the 
Quantity of Artificial and Natural Days, Hours, &c. Therefore its 
Degrees are called 7'e/»;>or^, Times, and is divided in to 24 hours, ij 
degrees thereof toiin hour; for ly times 24, makes 560 degrees ; 
every degree is 4 minutes of Time, for 4 times i ), is 60 minutes, or 
an hour. 

The Ecliptick, fo called becaufe the Eclipfes of the Sun and Moon 
are here made, is an Oblique Circle croffing the Equator in twoop- 
pofite Points, called theEquinodtical Points ; and is divided into 12 
parts, called the 12 Signs. It is called Via Solis, becaufe the Sun al- 
ways goes under it ia its annual Courfe j but the reft of tfie Planets 

B 2 have 

>, » 



ji,«,jg lif »M,!i5f ' n|«<}«.;i»^i«; '.uj^m'wr^m^mjg^ffm^ 

illf l||,qiy J ,, If '.^"i-jiff^ ' _;■■' 

• lamm^m 


'4 '^/» IntroMm ta GeogiMphfj 

have their deviations either Nerz-J or South from this Line, Thii Cir- 
cle hath 2 Poles ; for as the Meridians meet in the Poles of the World,, 
ib the Circles of Lovgitudt draW,n through the 12 Signs, meet in the 
Poles of the Edipticky each Pole of the Ecliptick being diftant from 
its corfefpondent Pole of the world, 2; deg. go min* and arec called 
North or ,Sonthj according to their pofition next the North or Sotttk 
Poles 0^ the World. 

The Meridian that pafleth through the Ef«w(?(J?w/ Point of the; 
Ecliftick in the beginning oiArits ana Libra, is called the E^utmtiial 
Colurt'y and that which paffetli through the b^inningof Cancer and- 
Capricorn,\s csW^d ihQ SolfiitialCoJure. , x 

Thefe C»li*res divide the Ecliptick into four eqa'al parts, which are 
called Cardinal Points ; for according to the Sun's approach unto any 
of them, the Sealbn of the Year is altered into Springs Summer, Au* 
tumn, and fVinter, 

. The Z.Pj^ Circles or Lines are Named with particular Names, as 
Tropicks And Polar Circles. ....•.-• . * . s '-., X,^ ■ 

The Trbpicks are parallel Circles to the Equator, diftant from it 2^ 
Degrees and a half: That on the Ncrtb-f\dQ of the Equator^ is called 
th^Tropick of Cancer, where the Sun hath the.greateft North declination,. 
andmaketh ourlongeft Day and (Kortefl Night, which is about the 
iitb or iitb oi June: The other on the South-fide is -called the Trc 
pick of Capricorn, in which point the 5'«w hath itsgreateft South Declina- 
tion, making pur fliorteft Day, and longeft Night, which is about the^ 
ilthor I2th oiDecemhev*. 

^/ The P(?/<j;«CWei are parallels, compaflihg thePoZfjof the^r/</at 
25 Degrees and a half diftance ; that about the North-Pole is called 
the Art ick. Circle, the otljer thsAntarftick Circle, becaufe oppofite ta, 
it ^ As in Fig..'^, 

The(^s Tropick and Polar Circles divide the Earth into five parts, 
called by the Greeks Zones, from Zavm, Cingulum, as enclofing the- 
whole Earth within their refpe<5live Diliri(Sls ; of thefe five 'Zones, 
three were accounted by the Ancientsto be ff> intemperate, as to be 
uninhabitable; one of them by reaCbn of the Suns beams continually 
darting upon the fame; and this they called the tonid Zone, termi- 
nated by the Tropicks on each fide : . The other two, the one compre- 
hended within the Arcftick Circle, and the other compafTed by the 
Antartid, by reafon of the extreme Cold^ they thought uninha- 
bitable, as being fo lemote from the Suns Beams : But only the re- 
gaining two were accounted Temperate, and therefore Habitable ; 

■ N the 


the one lyingitetween the Ar^ick Cir^^, and tht Tropiclk oi Cancer, 
and the other between the Antar<aick and thttropick o£ Capricorn. 

Thus much of the CeneralGeografby : The Special is that which fet- 
teth forth the Defcription of the Terre/lrial Globe, fo far forth as 'tis 
divided into diftindt- parts or places : And is either, i. THe Defcrip- 
tion of fome great intcgratmg part of the Earth. 2. Or of fome 
one Region, and fo is properly called Cborcgrapby, 5. Or of fome 
particular place in a Region or Counrry, which is Topography, 

According to thegreater integrating parts thereof, the Ancients di- 
vided the whole £<»rfi& into three great parts, viz, Europe, Afia, anc' 
yifrictf ; to which is now added a fourth, vix., America : Thele are again 
divided into Provinces, Countries, KingJoms, &c. And e|ich of thefe 
are again fubdlvided into Earldoms, Baronies, Lordfliips, &c, Thefe 
t4uee kinds or parts make up the perfeft Su)}je6): of Geography, 

Again, every part and place of the Earth is confidered ia its felf, or 
according, to its AJjurBs, and fo itis ^xihtv Continent or JfianJ. 
• A Continent is a great quantity of Land,, in which many great King- 
Jems and Countries are conjoined together, and not feparated one from : 
another by any Sea, as Europe, Afia, &c. 

An JJland is a part of the Earth compaiTed and environed round 
about with IVater, as Great Britain and Ireland, 

Thefe are again obfery able parts, both of Cc^?/ii»««/J and Tflands, viz. 
Pir.ivfula, Ijfbm»s,Prom4)ntorium,,* 

Peninjula qutifi penelnfula, is a part of Land, "which Being almofV enr 
vironed an^dencompafted round with Water, is yet joined to the firni 
land by fome little Ifibmus, as Africa is joined, to Afia,<^t. Mma to 
Greece, by the Greeks, called Cherfonefits,. , / 

An Ifihmus is a narrow jieck of Land betwixttwo Seas, joining the 
Pminfula to the Continent, as that of Darien in'Anserica, or Corinth in 

A Promontory is a high Hill or Mountain, lying out as an elbow of 
/ Land into the Sea^ the utmoft end of which' is called a Capfy as the . 
Cape of Gocd'Hope, and Cape VerJ. 

The AdjunHs of a place are either fuch as refpcA the Earth \t felf, 
or the Heavens : Tbofe that agree to a place in refpe<a of the Earthy 
are three in number, viz, thQ. Magnitude or Extent of a Country, the ; 
Bounds or Limits, the Quality, 

The Magnitude comprehends the length aud breadth of a place. ,./■!; 

The Bounds of a Country is a Line terminating it round about, 
diftinguifhing it from the bordering Lands or IVattrs, , • .,\ r 





• > L. 

> ; 

w /- 

i5 ^Affl^foAu^loii to Gto^fOfhyi^ 

The Quality Q^ a place is the Natural Temper and I^ifpofition 

A place in regard of the Heivfw, is either Eafi, Pf^efi, Nortb, or 

Thofe places are properly Eafi which lye in the Eafiem Hemifpbere, 
( terminated by the firft Meridian ) or whore the 5«» rifeth. 

Thofe are ^/? which lye Wefiern of the faid Mmdian^ or towards 
*• thefetting of the Sun. 

Thofe places are properly North which lie betwixt the Equator &n^ 
4rtick'?ole. " ■ ^',.*'***^f*% 

'^^ Thofe South which are betwixt the Equator and the Antartick Tole, 

The Ancients did alfo diftinguifli the Inhabitant^ of the Earth from 
thediverfitiesof (hadows of Bodies into three forts f -v/Ji. P<r//tf«, He* 
terofcii^SLtid Amphifcii : The Inhabitants of the Frigid Zone ( if any fuch 
, are ) were termed Perifiii, becaufe the Ihadow of Bodies have there a 
Circular motion in 24 hours^ the Sun neither rifing nor fetting but in 
a greacer portion of time. 

The Inhabitants of the 7^w/>cr<»/«'2^owi they called Heterofciij becaufe 

the Meridian Shadows bend towards either Pole, towards the North 

among thofe that dwell within the Tropick of Cancer and the Artick 

Circle ; towards thc'South amongft thofe that dw^ll within the Tr(h 

t pick of Capricorn and the Antartick Circle. - -^ • iv .yr -■-; -^ ^* ; '' 

The Inhabitants of the Torrid Zcj,3c they called Amphifciiy becaufe 
the Noon or Mid-day Shadow, according to the time of Year, doth 
fometimes fall toward the North, fometimes towards the South : when 
the Sun is in the Northern Siins, it fallefh towards the South : and to- 
wards the North, when in the Southern Si^s. And becaufe of the dif- 
ferent fight of oppofite Habitations, the Ancients have divided the 
Inhabitants of the Earth into Veriaci, Antaci, and Antipodes, 

The Pm^d are fuch as live under the fame Parallel, being equally 
diflant from the Equator, but in oppofite points of tiie fame Parallel. 

The ^»f^« are fuch as have the fame Meridian and Parallel, equally 
diftant from the Equator, but the one North, and the other South. 

The Antipodes are fuch as inhabit two places of the Earth which 
are diametrically oppofite one to the other. See Fig, 4. 

The Ancieus did alio divide the lanh into Climates and Parallels. 
' A Climate is a fpace of Earth comprehended betwixt any two pla- 
ces, whofe longeft day differs in quantity half an hour. 
• A Parallel hz fpace of E<«r;/6 wherein the days increafe in length 
a quarter of an hour ; fo that every Climate contains two Parallels. 


\A» IntroditSiioft to Qeogrsphp ' j 

Thefe Climates and Parallels are pot of equal quantity,for the firft is 
longer than thefeCond, and the fecond likewife greater than the third, 
&c. At the Latitude.^ where the longed days are increafed half an hout 
longer than at the Eefuator, viz,, longer than 12 hours. The firft Cli- 
mate beginsy which is at the Latitude of 8 degrees, 3*4 minutes ; and 
in the Latitude of 16 degrees, 43 minutes, where the days are increa- 
fed an hour longer than at- the Kquator. The fecond Climate btg\ns,!in^ 
(b outwards. But becaufe the Ancients, and alfo Vtohmj , jmppofed 
that part of the Earth which lies under the Equator to be inhabitable, 
therefore they placed the firft Climate at the Latitude o^ iz degrees, 
43 minutes, where the longeft day is 12 hpurs | lon^? and the fecond 
Climate to begin at th^X^atitudeoi 20 degrees, 34 minutes, where the 
longeft day is 12 hours and 5 long^&c, ;'.Tis needlefs indeed to take 
any more notice of them, than thus much only j that they that de- 
fcribe the Scituation.of places by Climes and Parallels , had 9s good 
fay nothing.: ^ / 

The Terraqueous Globe isbuut; Imaginary pointfonaparedtD. the vaft 
^panfion of the Univerfe, though of it fdf of great Magnitude } foi- 
Geographers divide it into 360 parts of degrees, and each degree into 
60 minutes, which are fo many ir<i//4» Miles j ^ that i\\q Circumference 
thereof is 21600 n;iles, and the Diameter, or Axis, is 687^ miles, 
and its Superficies in fquare miles^ is reckoned to amount to 148^ ^ o,f ^4 

of the lame mealure. ^ . '. ;.• '^iv ,4 o^m 't'-' * nr;;r' '*^"^f i"' x' ••-''^ 
*Tis a common Opinion, that 5: pF oiir En;^ItJhfeef make a Oeometrienl 
pace, lODo of thefe paces make an Italian mile, and" 60 of thefe miles 
in any great Circle upon the 5;'j6mw/furfjtce of the Earjb, or Sea, make 
a degree ; fo that a degree of the Heavens contains upon the fur face of 
the Earthy according to this account, .60 Italian miles, 20 French or 
Dutch Leagues, i j ,Gerw<z»m,iIes, ijlSpaniJh L^j^ues^and 5 6 2 EngHPf 

But according to feveral Experiments made, the quantity of a de- 
greeU thus varioufly found to be :By Albazard an Arabian, 333333 
Arabian feet in one degree, which reduced to our Englijlj mealure is 
367283 f V , or 70 miles, and ^ parts ot' a foot. By Ptolemy 
360000 Rhynland kct, which reduced to our Englijh feet is 371900, 
or 70 miles 1^ By fP'ilbrodus SneSius, An. 1613. ^/^zooo Rbptland 
feet, in Englijb 3^33°^ feet, or 67 miles fere. By Norwood m his 
Experiment between Tork and London, finds one degree^ upon the 
Earth to contain 367200 feet, which m^kes 69I. By Picar a French- 
man, about 73 Italian miles, and- is the neareftmeafufp yet found 
by thefe Experiments to anfwer to a degree of the Heavens ; fo that 





■■■"«?n*'^ ■ 


, .f 

V S: 




-■JCj" --■*-W---*-p 

'■pii: yi' 


'■»«"^WfJIPlllIi^l»i»ppiP!F""?»^''f^'«'''»»Wjy' "" 


Jtt IntrodnUfon to Geography. ' , 

the circumference ot die E</r/-6 thenis 2 yoio miles, tfiie Diantitet 
7958 in E*|g///fe mlfes. 

I'lhalllierenote, That no Country doth in all parts of its Ter- 
ritories make ufe of the fame extent ip^ meafuring: The Germans 
have their great, little, arid ordinary miles; the Leagues of France 

i ari^ 5/'^;r» are of different lengtlis, and fo are the miles in our own 

* Country. 

Xhe Earth (as wis faid before) h encompafted about with the Pf^a- 
tety which wafhing and furrOunding the dry Land, cuts out and (hapes 
fo many winding Baysy 'Creeks, and Meandring Inlets , and Teems no- 
where fo much confined and penned as in the Straits of MageUan,^tom 
whence again expatiating, it fpreads its felf into two immenfe, and 
almoft boundlefs Oceans^ which give Terminaries to the four regions 

> of the Earth, and extending it felf round them all, is but one conti- 
nued Ocean, ■' 
,.. The fVater is either Ocean, Seas, Straits, Creekt, Lakes, or Rivers* 

^" - ThQ Ocean i$ a general GolleAion or RendezVouz of all fVaters, 
The Sea is a part of the Ocean, and js either exterior, lying even to 
the fliorc, as the Britifh or Arabian Seas; or interior, lying within the 
Land, to which you muftpafs through fome Strait, as the Mediterra^ 
nean, or Baltick Seas. 

t A Strait is a narrow part or Arm of the Ocean, lying betwixt two 
Shores and opening a way into the Sea, as the Straits of Gibralter,\\\& 
Hellefpont, &C. 

A Cmy^is a fmall narrow part of the Sea that goeth up but a little 
way into th^ LUnd, otherwife called a Ba/, a Station, or Road for 

r Ships. • 

; • " A Lake is that which continually retains and keeps fp^ater in it, ai 
the Lakes Nicurgua in America, and Zaire in Africa. 

A River is a fmall Branch of the Sea flowing into the Land, court- 
ing the Banks whilft they their Arms difplay, to embrace her filver 

», waves. 

- ^ 


-4:- f% 


Of the Barnes of the Ocean, 




According to the four Quarters it had four Karnes Fro -n the E«y? 
it was called theEaftern, or Oriental Ocean ; from the Pf^efi the We- 
ftern, or Occidental Ocean; from the North the Northern, or Subten- 
trional : and from the South thQ Southern, or Meridional Ocean : But 
befides thefe more general Names,k hath other particular ^^«i7/»f/o«i, 
according to th6 Countries it boundeth upon, and the nature of the 

■r^:... :,-^ Sea: 

■ t 



, ■»♦- 

u, Aji ''v ; 


Sed : As it lies extended towards the Eafi, ic is called the Cbinedn Sea, 
from the adjacent Country of Chma: Towards the South 'els called 
Ofionm Iniicm, or the Wm» Sta, becaiife'upon it lies the Indians x 
Where it touches theCoaft of Verfia^ it is called Hare Verficum : So alfo 
Mart jir^bicum, from Arabia : So toward the Wefl is the Ethiopian Sea. 
Then the AtUmtick Ocean, from Atlas, a Mountain, or Promontory in 
Africa; but more Weftward near to America, ic is called by the Spa^ 
nkrds, Mar delNort\ and on the other Meof America, it is called Mar 
del Zur, or Mare Taeifcum, Where it toucheth upon Spain, it is called 
Oeeanus mfpanicusy by the Er^lijh the Bay oiBifcayi The 5*4 betwixt 
England und Franceis called the Channel^ between England and Ireland 
the h'ijh Sea : Between England and Holland it is called oy feme the Ger- 
man^ or rather the Britifh Ocean : Beyond Scotland it is called MareCale- 
dmum; higher towards the Nor/A it is called the Hyper boream, orFrozm. 
Sfa ; more Eajtward, upon the Coaft of Tartary, the Tartarian Sea ; or 
Scythian Ocean, &c. 

The N^mes of the Inland Sea's are, i. The Baltick Sea, by the Dutch 
called the Oofi Zee, by the Inhabitants Die Belt, lying between D£«- 
markaLtid Sweden, the chief Entrance whereof is called the 50»»</. 

2. PMifiKr Euxinus, or the J?/^ci& 5f<>; to which joins Meotis Palus, 
now Mar de Zabacke,oathG North; and Mar Marmora on the South. 

The third is the Cafpian or Hjrcanian Sea, By the Perfians, Kurfom* 

The fourth hth& Arabian Gulf, Mare Erytbaum, Mare Rubrum, or 
the Red Sea, Mer Rogue Gallis, Mare Rojjo Italis, 

The fifth is the Perfian Gulf, or the Gulf de Elcatif, & de Baffora. 

The fixth is Mare Mediterraneum^ by the Ewg/i/b the Straits, by the 
Spaniards, Mat de Levant ; the beginning or entrance of it is called the 
Straits of Gibralter, rather Gibal-Tarif, 

Now that all Places, Cities, Towns, Seas, Rivers, l^kes, &c. may 
be readily found out upon the Globe or Map, all Geographers do, or 
fhould place them according to their Longitude and Latitude ; the ufe 
of which in the abfblutefenie is to make out the pofition of any Place in 
reped of the whole Globe, or to fiiew the Scituation and difiance o^vne 
place from, and in refpeft of any other. j,^ ''^"^^ 

Longitude is the diftance of a place from thefirft Mr/i^ recfconed 
in the degrees of the Etjuator, beginning by fome at the Canaries, by 
others at the Az^es ; by reafon 01 which Confufion, I have made the 
Longitudes in this Enilipt Geography to begin from Lo^xion, and are rec- 
koned Eaftward ana Weft wara^ according af they are fituated from 

C ''■' t London 

Lonion on the cop of the Map^ An4 hjive alfo. added the £dif»V«ir 
from the Tener fto^nd abo^t the Qlob^i of ti)« Earth at tHe bottom of 
the Map, as ufually in the j;>iaek Maps« that fi> you nay by infytAioa 
only, fee the Truth or £rr9r, if yp^ compare theni mih the TakUs or. 
Maps formerly Extant.. . , f,..' m?r .• tt^^\.-\^Mt:cfii .- • 

The Latitudt of a place is Its diftance from die EfMi/^r, reckoned' 
in the degrees of the great Meridian, and is either North or Soutb^. 
according as it lies between die Nartb and Sonth^fekt of the Equatti^ 

Jn JJvenifement concemng the fr^eSilon and Ufes of 
General and Particular Maps, v -' 

Although the Defcription of the Earth upon the Globe be moft 
proper to the Underftanding, and commenfurable to Nature ; 
^et there are federal ways to projeAit in a Plane or Flat. Twoefpc- 
cially are now in ufe, one by Parallelcgram, the other by Planifpbere, 
Of the Defcription hy Parallelogram. 
This ufed to be divided into the midft by a Line drawn from Norr^ 
to South, reprefenting the great Meridian ; Crofs to this at right Angles 
another Line was drawn from Eaft to Weft for the Eejuator, The Meri- 
//M»i equally diftant,and the Parallels alfo equally extended,and ftraight 
Lines $ and this way of Projedion, tho utterly againft the Original 
"Nature arid Conftitutionof the Glohe, yet the plain Charts arc bound to 
follow ; indeed *tis ftrange to me that this Sea-Chart, being one of the 
moft principal Inftrumeats that the Mariners have for their direction in 
Sailing, and known to be fo greatly and dangeroufly erroneous, yet is 
fiijlmade ufe of by tho(e that would be accounted Excellent. 
.'^V^ ; i A- J . ^:^ of the Defcription by the Planifpherfe. 
This other way of ProjeAion, reprefentsthe face of the Earth upon 
ii Plane in its own proper figure Spherically, as upon the Glohe, the 
Gibbofity only allowed for, and this is twofold. 

Of the Sedion by the Equator. 
Suppofe the Temftrial Globe^ flatted upon the Plane of the Equatofy 
and you have this way of Projedion, dividing the Earth into two He- 
mifpheres, North and South, where the Pole is the Center, the Equav : 
tor is the Circumference, the Oblique Semicircle from Aries to Libra 
is the North-half of the Ecliptick, the Parallels are whole Circles,an<f 
the Meridians are ftraight Lines. 

Of the SeBionby theyiQtx^xati, - ■■■'-■- 
Suppofe the Terreftrial Globe flatted upon the Plane of the Meridian^ 
and you have this way of Projedion ; the Equator is here a ftraight 1 
Tine, the great Meridian is a whole Circle, and the lefler Meridian^ 
are more Circular as they come near to the great, only that wh}iGl#^ 
paffeth through the midft of the Hemifphere, dividing it intotj^d^T 
equal parts, is a ftraight Line ; fo that the Meridians do not equally in ! 
diftance concur, the Parallels are not Parallels indeed, and ^e Degrees .^ 
are unequal. However this way is that which is now moft in famion: 
it is defcribed by thofe two great Circles that take up the folio v«/ing 
Map. The Projection and Delineation of thefe and other particular 
Maps will be more at large fhewed in my Introdudion to Altronomy , 
and Geography, as aforefaid. Cz j ^^^-^ 


la A General Map of th^ Eartik 

\ii\\'i -.tK- . 

•! * 

f. f' i«t 

0/ thi Vfe'tf Mifi: i| 

Of Particular Mafs, ' " '" r r* ^ 

PftrticuUr Maps are but Limbs of the Globe; and thereFore^ tlio 

they are drawn afunder, yet they are to be made with that proportion, 

as a Remembring Eye may fuddenly acknowledge, and joyn them to 

the whoIeBody. 

They are moft commonly defcribed upon a Parallelogram ; but it 
ought to be with fuch Confideration, that being but Parts and Mem« 
bers fevered from the whole, they yet might make as great an Appear- 
ance of Integrity and Truth as can be allowed; and ought to confift 
of fuch proportions of Meridians and Parallels, as they truly confided 
of in the Globe it felf. And becauleno Countrey is exadtly fquare, lb 
mudi of the bordering Territories are ufually put in, as may mew the 
Bounds, and fill up the fquare alfo. .. - -O ^ mv% -'^;. 

The true ProjeAionoT Maps chicly confifts or depends upon the 
fore-knowledge of the true Longitude and Latitude of places; which 
having been to Notorious Falfe, 'tis ftrange to me bow the Maps can* 
be true. The Longitude is to be exprelTed by Meridians firom Eafi ta 
Wefi. The Latitude by ParaJltls from North to South : both which may^ 
be Circles or ftraight Lfnes. I havefoprojeAed all thefe ili^/>i,that the 
Top and Bottom of the fquare are always North and South, the right 
and left fides Eafl and Weft ; fo that, you fee each Country and place 
in its true Scituation, as in the Globe or general Map ; And have made 
the Parallels and Meridians both ftraight Lines,fo that the Longitude and 
Latitude are given by Infpedtion, only the Meridians are indinine and 
concurring towards the Poles, to agree to the Nature of the whole, , 
whereof they are fuch parts. And here give me leave to advertife,Thac- 
altho in thefe fmall Maps ^he Error is not very difcernable ; yet cer- 
tainly fome Foreign Geographers, vfhoicMaps are now the Fondlings 
of this Age, did not underftand the Projeftion of the Sphere : for to 
me it would have been a great fhatne tohaveexpofed the pai^sof the 
World fQ large, upon fof^tfe a Bafis ; which muft need^ render them 
intolerably folfein the Diitancesof Places, had the Longitudes ^nd La^ 
titudes been never fo well adjufted ; which indeed are as falfe as the 
Diftances are. 

As to the Graduation of thefe MapSy the Veff^eeso^ LatituJe are 
divided upon the Eafl and Weft fide ; The Degrees o£ Longitst^t^on' 
the North and South. The South Figures upon the Maps are the Longi' 
tudes from the firft Meridian, beginning at the Pike of Teneriff, aAd 
reckoned round upon the Globe to 360 Degrees.The Northern Figure? 
are the Diffurenccof Longitudes from London, and are reckoned Eaft or 
Welti according as the Scituation of the place-is Eaft or Well from 
London, I^or 




— J5li^»^ 

:^4 . 0ftheV[i9fUif$, 

For from whence to reckoft the lortititdi in all Maps, is a fault of 
moft Geogrspbers ; and I am not the dm chat have complained of it ; 
for though there be a Graduation^ yec you are uncertain where their 
firft Mtndian begins.^ 

It will not therefore be amifs, if I tell you the(everal^rM/M»io!>- 
lerved^and the DUIanceof Ungitmk between thefe Meridians^ and their 
diffivence from Lmdmy viz. ?tolomj*s Meridian was Jwmia Mmor, 
WituHtrast & HtUi^ VifiL Madtra, Ki\c Nifrro & Ortelio; rather Ar- 

' ttvtnt$tr0, tt^HeBaud, Hnrbania, Sanfotu. This Junonia was from low- 
doH %o dcgr, .« f' 

The Meridian of the Anaian Geographer is fomething dubious ; fcir 
Hercnfis Colttmne is zTown in Fri/kty between Groeninj^en and Cover den^ 
called Duveifcutz, tcfte OrteJio. The Spaniards tell U!| they are in the 
yies Gaditans^ now CaUtps Cadiz,, where are two Towers lb called', 
Olumias da Htrctles, Others make the two Mountains Aiila and Cahe, 
on both fides of the Herculeum Fret urn, now Efirechio de Gibraltery to be 
the Pillars of Hereuku ThsLtoiAhila is in Mauritania, now Mens AU 
mins, telle Ckjta, Mont des Singes, GaUis. Scbeminekeihergb, Belgis, Calpe 
Mont, now Gikalter, Cltt/ro, is a Mountain and City in Spain, over* 
agaiafl: AhiU,^ and about i8 miles diflant ; now near to, if not the 
iame with CetUa or Zenfa ; Latinis, Septa ; Grecis, Septan ; Mamt,Seni 
Marat y tefte Marmolio: But forafmuch as it was but lo Degrees from 
London, and that it paiTedby the utmoft Point of the Weftern Shore, it 
muft rather be from Heremeum Tromontorium, ( not Hartland Point in 
Devonfliire) butCtf^ Cantit^yx Morocco, which is from London about 
lO'Degrees. . j'<^, -,^.'\:.':;. 

: The Dutch Meridian is the Tike of Tenerif, the Nivaria P//». tefte 
Sanfon, But by theBifliops of Girone and Andrea Baeio, Gomera is the 

>ai]cient Nivaria, However, the Pike is the moft noted place, and indeed 
the beft, if all were well agreed, for the firft Meridian, and according 
to the beft Qbr<M:VAtic^ that haire been made,, it is from Lmdon iS 
Degrees. ■ ..t.iv \ ..^-r.' ?„.»' ,.., .-."v'-sr "^-'r' ".^''''^ '■'■-' - .'' ^iV. 

, ^oU del Ferro, (da'Pluitalia'ptoL the Pluvialia, Tlin, t^e Andrea 
Saacbio, But Niger tells us Gon$era is the PluvitaUaof old) now I.'J^« 

.^-JitJfil^GaBit; IJla de Hierro, Hifpanis ; tht French Meridian, and is 
diiraftc froilE London 20 Degrees. 

Corvo add Flores, the Meridian of many Writers and Map-makers, 
is from London- 3 } Degrees. St. Michael, die Meridian of our Englijh 
Globes, is about xy. ^ ;. 

Fico, the Meridian of DudUut Sea-Charts, is ; i Degrees. : 

-.^That of Graciofa, tii6 Englijh Hydrographer, is about 30 Degrees. 


Of the Vft of MMfs. ; j 

By thisTableyoumay eafilv know from wheftM fnoilGeographers 
begin their Lan^hkhs { 4nd aUb know how nea^ to truti, by adding 
or iubftraAiag the proper Numbers in the TalUe , to or from the 
Nui\iber found in thek Mafs, 

As to the Scale in particular \faps, it dependeth upon the Degrees - 
of a great Circle, ind the proportion of Miles in each Countrey to - 
fuch a Degree, which I have difcourfed of in P^e 2. to which I refer 
you; only take notice, That therefore I have made no Scales to the 
Ivlaps ; for the Diftanceof any two placestaken with your Compaires, 
and applied either to the Eaft or Weft-lide of your Map, which is the 
Scale of Latitude, gives you the Number of Degrees chat thofe two* 
places are diftant one from the other, which multiplied by 73, gives 
you the Number of Geometrical or //tf/M» Miles 1 by 69 , for Englifh - 
Statute Miles ; by i f for French common Leives $ by 17 3 for the SpaniSh • 
Miles; bv if for the common GtruMffy Dutch, Denmark, and Great 
TeUnd Miles ; by 10 for Hmigar'tan Miles : by Z2 for Smdift Miles ; by 
to for the Mufaman Verftesor Voreft; Dy<48o for the GrrcMiy Stadia. , 
or 4;o, according to Mr. Greaves; by 20 lor the Per&m, Arabian, ana » 
Bgypian Paralanga> now caUed Farfaehihy 24 for tne Mogtdot Indian 
Cos, according to Sanfin ; bv 2f o for the Cbinean Stades ; by 400 for r 
the Ikms of ^apar ; as for the Turks, they have no diftinoioa of their, v 
WaysbyMuw:^ lorDaysby Hoius* , 

> . •' ' 

., ,• ■r-'/'y'^ 

•.■• • .".-v 

', . ■" 

. ' ... . . ;■»■ • ?. •» 

' -• u: ' 


. ■ ■ . If I ■ It. 
^ ,- \ \ » 

, ...... ..,.:■• -.1 ..I I . - ■ 

. .-^ J [ \'< '"u j. 





■■■■' ''^- ■■ -■' '^ V' Sf ' "■"' ' \/t 

- ^' 

N-. ;*^ .. 

. vV*' 


EURO? E, one of the four ereat Parts of the World, h alfo 
^ the inoft confvclerable in re(peA of the Beaifty of her King" 
domi and Comtnmwealfbs, the ?olitenefs of her hhabitants, 
the Excellent Gofernment of her Cities; as alfo in regard 
■" of its Excellency in her Traffck and Commerce, the goodnefs of her^ 
Atr, and general Fertility. It is the leaft Part of all, yet has produced 
Che jreat Akxanim and Cafttrt of the Univerfe; contains within its 
Bounds the prindpal^art of the Ruman and Grecian Monarchies; and, 



I JP«« „t 



f, «■ P 

«^fi:^ to this day fumiflieth' tlie qr^ct partis ioff the ^cff// With Cclonks, 
Its Scituation is all in the' Northern Temperate Zifne, which free the Inha- 
bit^nts4rom the infupfiortable Heats ofjifrkk^ akd from thofe which 
atfo parch the more Southern Clime$ of Jjia: The Jir is generally 
f^eet and temperate, unleis in the remote^ Countries of the I^tb : 
The 50// affords all forts of Grain and Fruit, c^ which the other parts 
fef thcl Pf^prld are often in want : Btit her hi^^ft Glory and Prerogative 
is, that ike is not only Europt, but Cbrifiendom, and hath imbraced the 
trut Religm, But alas ! the ftrange Schifms, thefhameful Vices, the Is- 
mentable diitentions, the unchriftiail dividons about Ceremonies and 
Opinions^ are fatal £cHpfes of herbpightnefsandlpl^ndor, whoother- 
wife might jpftly have been ftilcd. The Temple of Religion : The 
Court or Policy an|d Government : The Academy of Learning : The 
Mlfi:refs of Arts and^Sciences : The Magazine of Trade : TheKurfe 
of \fi<5torious and famous People: And.theParadice of humane felicity. 
' " The length of Europe is varioully fet down by Geographers. Cluver'tm 
faith from the Cape of St. Vincent unto the mouth of the River Obj>^ is 
900 German, or 3600 Italian miles : I find that the true distance can* 
hot be more than fo degrees, which multiplied by 73, forfo many 
n)iles are found to be in a degree, makes i$$o Geometrical or Italian 
miles.S<»»/o«'sMapof E«rtf^« makes thedifVanceto be ; 5* degrees, which 
multiplied by 7?, makes 401 5*, whxh is 3 6f miles more than the great- 
eft diftance can be. But the Great New Atlas tells us, *tis 71 degrees of 
the Equator, which multiplied by 7;, makes yi8|, which is but iy^ j 
miles too large in the length of Europe, ♦ 

Af«^i««j tells us, that the diftance from Lishon to Con(tantinople is 600 
German, or 2^00 Italiar miles. The true diftance I find cannot be more 
than jzl, which multiplied by 7;, makes 2; ^2 miles. But Sanfon%MA^ 
makes the Diftance to be 36, which makes 276 miles too much. 

Heylin tells us, that Europe is in length 2800 miles , in breadthiioo 
miles; but from whence he begins, br what miles he means, the Rea- 
der cannot tell ; fo that I think he had as good have faid nothing. 

The Breadth by Cluverius from C ape Matrapan of the Mo^a, to the 
North Cape, is reckoned tobe yjo German, or 2200 Italian miles. Ma-- 
ginus makes it to be almoft 600 German^ or 2400 Italian miles. The 
true diftance or difference of tatuude is 55 degr. of the Equator, which 
multiplied by 7; makes 2 y f 5: miles. Sanjons Map.makes it 38 degrees, 
which makes 2774 miles, which is 209 miles too much. But the great 
Atlas tells us, it contains about 44 degrees, which makes 3212 miles, 
6)7 miles too brge. • ' /^- , > . •> 

Towards the North, Europe is bounded by the Northern O^e^iWjOther- 

D 4 wife 



"'H't.- , 

. I llll|l|jpffiipiPiPWR"liMilPPIi|l|««i|IPIIP«P 



wife called.tlie f«n6«»Se*^ t>y ^alibt 
. modes thofe Parts ; 'towards if 
or Jtlantick.Octflti ; by tHe ii/<fA,„^,.,.T--.. _^^--j^-.^, ... j. «»,-... ,^. 
beyond chat Sea^ by part of ^/m. i^^for the Ea(tern Bound?, ii;on» 
the MeJiterran€anSi^.^theUqtt!by ttiev are thefe: The ArciipeU^o, oft 
lybite Sea^ anc^^mly c^d the ^«f w^pa. 2. Th^ Streight oi Gallic 
poli, or fhc, Dardane^h^i otherwife icalled the Am pf j^t'Gewgey'ind^ 
formerly the Hilfefpep^r j. By Mar di\ 'Maknpora^i forniedy, ^^are fro*, 
pontis. 4. By the ^treiglit of Coxfiffntinoffei, \or tiiie^ jGanal of Mar Magr 

f teres formerly t\icTbracian Bofphtrus, f. By. the ^/<i^i^^ or Mar Maggtorjl^ 
arwerly Pontus Euxmus, 6^ By.the.iStreigljt oif,£tf/i».^ or Fejperi>^, 
othervyifethe mouth of St. jFo^ formerly the Ciwiw^rww Boffh&rtis.j3y 
Mate Lm^if, otherwife the S^oi iahaique^^n^fknais, formerly P^«r 
~ Maotiu 8. By the RiVjer DomtyOtlana- formerty ^iTtfiwi^w. 9. By a I^ine 
drawn from the mo& Eafi-ern>Wip.d'\i^ of ipo«» ,to die Isorthern^eean 
near Qht : Some there are thaw draw' thi^ Luie more to the TVefi, frohi . 
the Sources of Donn to the IfhiteSea , which \s in. Mofcovj/, majtiqg 
Europe much lefs than it is. Others inclofe withm the Limits of £«- 
ropis all the Conqu^ft of the Great puke of Mufcovy^ which are in the 
Afiaticktartary, ' :> -7..;' -, 1, ; ■ .', ! -r] ■•■,-; jjr ^•^fin 

Ettrope is divided inta Continent and Iflaiias, which contain tnerel- 
KingdomsOT Efi-ates, viz,. Towards the North, the IJles, of Great Britain,. 
containing the Kingdoms cf England, Scotland, and Ireland, thr Rrin- 
cipality q{ ^ales, with many IJlands dz\fZn^iint upon them, r ' -^ 

2 dljy Scandinavian containing the Kingdoms of 1 . Denmark^ with 'Nor- 
way, and Svfeden. zdly. The feveral Kingdoms, Dutchies, &c, of the 
Grand Czar oi Ruffia and Mafcovia. 5. The Kingdom, Eftates, &c. of, 
Toldnd and Lithuania, 

Towards the Middle, i. The Northern Eftates of Titrky in Etirope, 
viz. I. TartatiaEuropa, Walacbia, MoldaviayTranfilvania, and Hungaria: 
2. The EmjMre of Germany , with its eight Eledorates. 5. The 
Eftates of the Republick of Switzerland, The Seven United Provinces, 
The Ten fSpai/ijh Provinces. 4. The Kingdoms oi France , with its 
WXwelve Governments,, and late AcquifitionSi 

Towards the South ; i. The Kingdoms and Principalities of Spai» : ■ 
2. The Kingdom of P^T/Mg^?/. TheKing<i6ms and Eftates in Italy, Tha 
Eftates-and Dukedom of 5^ vffv, Pie//wo«^, 8cc. The Kingdoms and Iflc> • 
of Sicily, Sardinia, itid' Majorca, ^Scc, The Southern Eftates of 7«M^ in . 
Europe, \\Z..SoUvonia, Croatia, Dalmatia, Ragufa, Bofnia, Servia, Bul- 
garia, The Countreyiof Greece,, containing the Kingdoms and parts of > 
Bomania, or thraQiap^ Maetdonta^TheJlfiUa^^Albania^.Epirus isAGracia, 





■1 -'f 




Of Emfili 19 

^lieia^ IMPihfimefif, or iht Mfiri4i wSth (Be< Ifld Cif> Ne^0^M^&C* 
^ The Ijiifiis of Ewro^ff are Tested, either- in'thd 0(;^<mi^ the Aftditerra- 
pian, or ^«/!rici^ Seas. 'The IJlanJs lyidg in ths'^^Oceak, are; rhe> ){riri/& 
i/Ies afbrefaid ; Sicil/i Sardinia, Cmpca\ and bandy y are the biggeft 
IJlands in the Mediterranedit, The Iflands of< xh^Bahiek Ssa we ihail 
ipeak of in the Defcription of Denmark,' -' -■^^'^ k^ vj 

We may iionfider theEftat^s ot Europe acderieiri^gio their Titles, witib. 
tiutrcgird tdtheirDignicyyihid fayihat th^fciis^ al The E(Vate of the 
Cburcb 6r Pope in Jtafy, 2. TWO^ Empires, GeMfif^ ih6 fUrfy, The 
firftjhalf Monarchy jhalfCoibtribWWSalth: Thelatter only Monarchicah 
}. Seven Kingdoms, every one Goyern*d by their own Kings, that ac- 
knowledge no Superior, vip. England, France, Spata, Tartugal, Swede" 
land, Denmark, and Poland. That of Fr<»«ce is rtioft perfeS, ahd4e* 
fcends only to the Heirs ftiale ever fince the Salique-LaWi The fi^e other 
admit the Female. All are Hereditary, only Po/<«»^, .which is Eledive. 
There aremoreover in Europe ether lefler Kingdoms comprehended un- 
der thefe, as thofe of Bohemia and Hungary, iinder the Emperor of Ger- 
T^ny, That of Navarr under the King of Frdnce, That of Naples in Italy, 
*Sicily, Sardinia, and Majorca, under the CroWn of Spain. And thofe of 
Scotland and Ireland under the King of England. 4. Eight Electorates, 
MayencCf Treves, Cologn, Bohemia, Bavaria, Saxony, Brandenburgh, and 
the Palatinate of the Rhine. 5. One Arch-Duke, the Duke of Juftria^ 
6. Two Great Dukes, of Mofcovy and Tujcany, The Prince of the firft 
aiTumes the Title of Emperor, and indeed it is a Dukedom on which 
depends thirty other Ejutchies, and three Kingdoms. This Duke isab- 
folute over his Subjects , and is called by the general Name of 7. Six Sovereign Dukedoms, befides rfiofe that are under the 
Empire, Savoy, Lorrain, Mantua, Modena, Parma, itid Cttrland. 8. Four 
Principalities that depend upon the Turks, Tranfihania, Walachia, Mol- 
davia, and the lefler Tartary. 9. Seven Commonwealths, the Seven 
United Provinces, Switzerland, Venice, Genoa, Genevd, Luca, and Ragufa, 
To which feme add the Commonwealth of Marine in Italy. Laftly, A 
great number ofPrincipalitiesandlmperialFreeTownSjCnjoyingaSove- 
raignty in their Territories, but yet they ackno wledg a Superior Power. 
. The Ecclefiaftical Government of Europe in general , i s either Papal, 
owning the Pooe as Supreme ; or Epifcopal, owning the King as Su- 
preme in all caics, and Archbifhops and Bifliops under him. Or Su- 
perintendent, which is a kind of Epifcopal among the Lutbeians^ but 
yet owning no Head of the Church on Earth, neither Pope nor King, 
nor Civil Magiftrate. There is alfo the Presbyterian, or Sy nodical, own- 
ing a Presbytery, a Synod, or Lay-Elders, &c. as Supreme, but no 
Bifhops or Superintendents. D z Tiiefc 



/"lllfWW Ml. II l^miHMM 

; p H !ii »J|M | i. i!> I < i 


0/ EuHfe. 


There are roorPraia*p*! tmgn»gn reckotiMto be fpttkenfftthis paul 
ot theWorW} Tut<mick,i I^tin, Qreek, and. Slavonian:, The Tuf^i^ 
IS of three rprcs, Higb Dufpi, \n Germany, Safcon in England and SeofLnJ^ 
Damfh in Denmark, Sweden^ Norway and Irehnd. The Latin h corrupted 
vtitoMian, French, and Spanijh. The Gw* had formerly four Dwi^la 
the Atttck, lontck, Voricky and tyEoliek. The 5cA»w»w» Language riiS 
thtough a\\ Sclaj/Qnia, Bohemia, Poland and Aibfcovy, and all theT«r/l//fe 
Empire m Europe. There are alfo feveral other Languages of IcfsNote. 
which are dcd in r«r<»;* ; The Albanian, or Epirotick in Epirus and Ma. 
cedonta. The Cofack or Tartarian in part of. Poland and Tirr*?//. ^Th© 
Hungnian or Bi»^arian inServia, Bofnia, Bulgaria, and //«wary,&C.' the 
F/«/(r*inFi»i»«r^andL4;/tf»^, >//]& in JreAaw^ and 5«f/W. TheJSrM 
M fpoken in mie^, Cornwal, and in BJrtf<»»y in France. Bifcayn is fpoken 
only m 5fw»j' nifeai^to the Cantabrim Ocean, or Bay of ^f^/. , 




e rjini 

3 Ma- 

;c. tho 


i"'. V 





NDER^^his Title are^ comprehended feveral diftin(5l and 
famous Iflands, the whole Dominion whereof C now Uni- 
ted) is under the Command of the King of Great Bri- 
tamy &c. Bounded dn the North and Weft with the Hj'^ 
fevhorean and Vucalidmean Ocean; on the South divided from France 
with the Englifi Channel; oathe Eaft feparated from Denmark and 
Belgia with the Britifl) (by fome called the German ) Ocean : But on all 
fides environed with Turbuleht Seasy guarded with Dangerous Rocks 
andSandsy defended with ftrong Portsy and walled with a Potent and 
^ Royal Navy^.. Of thefe Iflands one is very large, formerly called Al- 
b'tMf now Great Britain^ comprehending two Kingdoms, England and 
Scotland! The Other of leiTer extent makes oneKingdom,callea Ireland : 
The other fmaller adjacent Ifles are comprehended under one or other , 
of thefe. three Kingdoms, according to the Situation and CongruitV 
with them. Many are the Changes and Alterations that thefe Iflands 
have received in their Gavernmetits (ince their Original difcovery * 
they were firft pofleffed by divers People, independent one upon the 
other, fuppofed to be the Britaim defcendcd from the GauU ; for at 
th9 Entrance of the Romans, the Ifland oi Great Britain wSiS divided in- 
to feveral Nations , each governed by his own^i»^ and particular 
Princes, different in their Ends and Counfels, and io the more eafily 
fubdued by the Roman Force. 

After' the Romans, the Englijh Saxons were called in by the Briiains, 
■ to aid them againft the ViBs, The Inhabitants of Scotland •{ who, 
after the common manner of Foreign ^«>;/7wmi, foon feized the bet- 
tef part for themfelves, and cftablilhed Seven K/»f//ow/, -commonly 
called the Saxon Heptarchy ) Forcing the Britains, the^Ancient Proprie- 
tors, to retire, (bme into Britain in France ( from whence^fome think 
they firft came) but moftx)f them into the Weftem and Mountainous 
Part, called by t\iQSaxonst fVaUjh Land, now Wales 5 where their.Po- 
ficrity ftill remains, r 












Ofthelpcf Britdift. 

riie Scan vf England in tht ttnu cf ftoloiny, iMm tn the R*tg» •/ »*• ^iffmr Antoninui Viusttimt thtytsr 
</ Rome 89a, W AbtHt 95 r*rs finc$ the C«HHtfi thiriof ty tht Emfnor Claudiu* C^Qt. ^fi « tM,. 
of tht Saxon HtotArcliy 

•ylncunt InhMbnanti- C'uMMiii.t Uitmt4, ^ '-^ncunt fvarMff 'ht 
I '' I Toii ww. 

rhe Cantii of 


The Rhegiii, 


Rhegiii, ^ 
or, > of 
Ini J 

The I«eaJ, or Sunc- 
ni of 

The Trinobantds, 
or Trinoantes. 




^ambridgertiire, ind 
Huntin g tonfliire 

Hartfordfliire Part 

ii^'n^- :-rfi' 

I he Brigantes 


The Otalini 



Frham •;■'; 
ii, . (^jNonhjupbcrland 


RucupiBt or, 

N'asomagut, or 



Vcnta Iccnorum 
Villa Fauftini 




Corltani, or^ 

. 1*1 ' 

Fart of Harcfbrdihire 
y 'vDarbyfhire 
J Glocefterfliire 
I Oxfordflure 

C ShropSiire 
^ StaSordOtire 
J Woroefterfliire 
_ . ^ , « Warwickftire 
fartoftheSiiurcs Herefcrdlhire 


[furium ;,^ 

-' Olicana. 


' Rnigodunum 





Bremen mm , 


>,or. > 

Tht ^tjtnt Ai«i0>. 

vulgo Rochefter 

!>»xi>n Htft*rchj. ., 

Wojucot-Hill, near 


Ii. Edm^pilfbury 

Maldon in £ffex 

KingUoin 01 cue 
So^th Saxons 

tlobulU, OTt 



')uaunonli . 


r Cornwall 
•y Devonftire 

C Somerfetflilre 

r Wilrfliire 
< Hamp/hire 

C Dor/etfliire 



Raga, or Ratis 


Cbrinfuffl ' ' • 

Deva, or Devan* 



Uxela. or Uiela 
Ifca Augufta 
AqOae Calid« 
Dunium , or Dumo. 

Nalc«a, orCaleva 






Riblechefter < 


Catatick in Aichm. 

Wheallcp Cafile 



Sanday - - 






Kingdom of the 
. i£aft Angles 

Kingdom of the 
Eaft Saxons 

The Kingdom of the 
Northumberi which 
was divided into 
two Kingdoms, visc< 
Deira am Ber,Qiai . 



L The Kingdom 0I 

>Vorccfter i t 



Lyitwickiel ' 


Exceter V 





The Kingdom of tht 
Weft Saxons. 



ii,4bmt tbt yiar 

* iitgtmrchj, .. 


ingUoin ot tnc 
iojih Saxons 

ingdom of the 
Haft Angles 

ingdom of the 
Eaft Saxons 

c Kingdom of th« 
orthunaben which 
as divided into 
ro Kingdoms, vit> 

. ■ ■>■■ 


The Kingdom d 

le Kingdom of th( 
Weft Saxous. 


f \y\ •t.A'.y 

■ Of BngUnJU ' :,:S^?-. •. a| ; 

^"Mcr this theDiww tjrokeji), like a violent flooiupon the Northift/i^t 
^^Jers^i and though ortenvanquilVed, yet being as often viaorious, they 
at laft feized on the Mmariby 0t E^landi which was fometimes held 
l^ the Danej, fometimes by the;^4x«« ; till Wi/fwwDuke of Norman J/ 
took it from HaroU, and eltablilhedthe Monarchy ; which hath ever 
fince continued in a Sufcceffion bf Eight and twenty Princes, down to 
our Preferit Gracious Sovereign King William. • . 

^r E N G L A N D. 




dttfctntainiMZ ths v$tattns or Shins ^ t/tmr-iitut, Vitus /mdnwnt, their Latitp4e,nmiuttJ7t^ 

1 fiance, and Meafw^ed diflmu from London. The immbtr tf M»rk$t-Tmns, •/ f^'ift^Hentrmml 


f PMrifhes in eAchComty, 0nd their Mticitnt Name/. » i ^ 

Oitntitt ir Shift, 


Cmu ««4T»w'«H I 

•LMt' C»m^'\ 



P'r.r OldN4m:i, \ 













E. ■ Bedford • 1 




Reading | 

*« 23. 








D.M.. r 

luckingham 1 

52 PO 






»i^.J^inghamui| , ,, 



E. OuAbridg 

J2 15 






Ely,B.C. . 

sa a6 




' ■ 


Chelhire C. P. 

Chefter. B. C. 

J J 17 











so 4s> 
50 27 









Darby (hi re 


qarline, % C. \ 

S-V 19 








DarWy ■ ■ '• -• 

sa {» 






•>erbia ( rum 



Expect. B. C. 

so 4j 



[fca Damnoni> 



S* 25 











(0 41 








Darha.n, B. C. 










V. C, 


Ji J8 








Ji 47 





Gloceterfliirc; ' ' 


Gloceft r, E. vT. 

fl S4 








g Sr. Albani 

Jl 4J» 








j^^ Wincheftcr, C P. 

SI 3 






Venta Belgarum 


Hereford. B. C. 







SI 8 








Huntingconfliire . 


Canterbury. C. 

52 10 









A. B, ' 

yi IJ> 








Rochefter, B. 

SI *^ 
















Longovictu ' 





ya 40 






Rjugas '> 


Lin-olnlhire • 












London, B.C. 

51 3« 






51 70 


















Norwich, B, C. 

J a 4*. 









j2 44 



Gariannorum ' 






J a J 5 
52 »o 







Antona Borealii 






5J ' 







Gabrofentum " 





Oxford, B. C. 

J2 " 

SI 4^ 










sa 4a 



. s 







J2 4< 

$a 27 










Briftol, C, P. 

ji 28 





, E. 

Bath, B. C, 

51 ^' 





Aquae Calidit 


Stafford (hire 


Litchfield, b; C. 

52 45 







I? 53 









52 " 







Villa Fauftini 

fe« Suny-'- , 


SI »2 

■50 =>! 

















Chiccfter, B. C« 
Coventry, P. '^. 

50 48 

J2 " 

52 :^8 













Salisbury, P.C, 

54 =^J 
II 3 

51 4 












52 18 








.' n; 

York, A. B. C. 

S5 j8 






E'jora um 

V'lrkOiIr' J 



<* a« 



•' rRiivmnHa 




» % 1 




- ■'' r.^:-. i> 



Of 'Engird. 


TH E better part of thebeft Ifland in the whole Earth ( anciently, 
together with Scot land ^ as was faid before, called Great Britain, 
and fometimcs^/^ww) was by Egbert the i^th King of the fi^efi S.ixons 
advanced to the Honour of <»»wfi)'tf Monarchy, who having with profpe- 
rous Armsfubdued the principal Kingdoms of the Saxon NeptarcbyyiVi' 
led himfelf the firft Monarch ; and Commanded this South Pait of Bri- 
tain (hould be called ^ngle, or EngU-lond, from the Argki a People of 
the lower Saxons, of whom he was defcended ; by the French, Angle- 
terre ; by the Germans, Englandt \ and by the Inhabitants, England. 

It is in length (from Berwick in the North, to the Ijle of IVtght in the 
South) % $0 Miles ; and from Dover in the Eaft, to the Lands-End in 
Cornwall in the ^efi, about ; i $* of the fame Miles ; whereof 70 make 
a Degree : In Compafs about'i ;oo Miles ; in Shape, Triangular ;, 
and by ^ omputation contains about 30 Millions of Acres, being about 
the Thoufandth part of the Globe; and the Three hundred thirty third 
Part of the habitable Eartff, 

England was, in the time of the Romans, divided into BritaniaPrima, 
Britanta Secunda, and Maxima Cafarienfis ; the firft of thefe contained 
the South part of England, the fecond all the ffefiernpsLVt, now called 
IFales ; and the third, the Nor^/&er» parts beyond Trent, After the fir*- 
tains hsidreceiycdthQChrifiian Faith, they divided the iame into three 
Provinces, or Archbijhopricks, viz. of London, which contained that of 
Britanta Prima ; oiTork, which contained that of Maxima Cafarienfis i 
of Caerlion, under which was Britania Secunda : Divided afterwards 
by the Saxons into Seven Kingdoms, as aforefaid. 

At prefent, England, according to its RefpeA of Church and State, 
is fubje(^ to a fourfold divifion : Firft into two Provinces, or Archbifhep- 
ricks, Canterbury and Tork ; and under thefe are 22 Bijhops, or Epifcopal 
Diocejfes, of which Canterbury hath 2 1, therefore called the Primate and 
Metropolitan of all England; and that oiTork, three: Then there are 
Deanries 60, Arch'Veanries, Prebendaries, and Other Dignities, 5*44, 
with 972 y P</rflcAw/ Benefices, and VicaridgesbMts, of good Com- 
petency for the Encouragement of the C/er|7,who,for ability of Learn- 
ing are not t»be parallel'd in the World. 




A CMogui 


Of EngUni. 


A Catalogue of the Archbifhopricks and Bifhopricks of England and 
Wales, with what Qonxmes are under theirJuriJdiBions^ and tbeNuW' 
her of Parifties and Impropriations that are in each Diocefi. 

and Stflmrich. 







Bath and Well: 








Lincoln •< 

St. Afaph 
St. Davids 

LandafF < 








Counties under each of their JuriJdtStions, 

tlath Canterbury, and part otKent, befides ) 

peculiar in the Diocefs of Canterbury. } 
Hath Yorklhire and Nottinghamfhire. 
Eflex, Middlefex and part of Hartfordfliire. 
Ourham,Northumberland,& the Ifle of Man 
tlampftiire, Surry, Ifle of Wight, Guern- 

fey, andjerfey, and Alderny. 
Carnarvenfliire, Anglefey , Merionethfliire, 

and part of Penbighfhire. 
Part of Kent. ' ' 

Cambridgfhire, and part of Ely. . 
SulTeX) and part of Hartfordihire. 
Wiltfhire and Barkfhire. 
Worcefterfliire, part of Warwickfliire. 
Lincoln^Leicefter, Bedford, Huntington, 

Buckingham, and part of Hartfordmire., 
Part of Flintihire, and part of Denbighfhire. 
Pembrokelhire, and Carmarthenfliire. 
Northampton, and Rutlandlhire. 
Glamorganihire, Monmouth, Brecknock, 

and part of Radnpribir9< 
Cumberland, and part of Weftmorland. 
pevonfliire and Cornwall. 
Chefhire, part of Yorkihire, Lancafhire,") 

part of Flint, and part qf Cumberland.^ 

Norfolk and Suffolk. r: . -; !• - • - 
Glocefterfiiire. • ' " . ^ 

Hereford (hire, Shropfliire, part of Worce 

fterfhire, and part of Radnorfhire. 
Staifordlhire, Darby (hire, part of War- 

wick(hire, part of Shropfhire. 



























1 6c 




























ThC j 

Of EnglMl %} 

'• The recon^ Divifion was by King Henry the Second into fix Circuits, 
appointed to the Itinerary Judges ; who are twice in a year in the chief 
Town of each County in their reipedlive Circuit, to determine Caufes, 
And adminifter Juftice for the Eafc of the People. 

The third is the Military Divijlan, fortheraifingof Horfe and Foot 
for the King's Service; It isalfo divided by the King's Jultices in Eyrt 
of the Foreft ; and by the King of Arms into North and South of Trevt, 
The laft Divifion is that of Shires or Counties j firft ordained bv King 
Alfred^ which are fut)divided into Hundreds or tVapentaktSy and thow 
again into Tytbings, He alfo appointed a Vice-compt or Sheriff, whofe 
Office was to looic after the Peace and Welfare of the Shire: To Exe- 
cute the Kings Writs and Precepts,and perform feveral other duties ne- 
ceflary for the Execution of Juftice, and Welfare of the People : And 
thefe Sheriffs are generally chofen out of the chiefeft of the Gentry. 
King Edward the Third ordained in every Shire certain Civil A/^gi- 
ftrates, intitled Jujtices of the Peace, whole Duties arc to look after 
the Diforders that arife in the Shire or Hundred in which they refide, 
and to punifh Offenders. 

There are in all England 2 y Cities, ^80 Great Towns, called A/<»r- 
ket'Towns ; 972 f Variflses, and in many of which arc contained feveral 
Hamlets or Villages as big as ordinary Varices, 

England is bleft with a fweet and temperate Air, the Cold in Winter 
being lefs Sharp than in fome parts o{ France and Jr<f/y, which yet are 
feated far more Southerly ; And the heat in Summer is lefs fcorching 
than in fbme parts of the Continent that lie much more Northward* 
For as in Summer, the gentle Winds, and frequent Showers, qua- 
lifie all violent Heats and Droughts ; fo in Winter the Frofts do only 
meliorate the Cultivated Soil, and the Snow keeps warm the tender 

The whole Country is exceeding Fertiky abounding with all forts 
of Gr<a/«,Rich in Vafiurey containing innumerable quantities of Cattel, 
yielding great plenty of all forts of Fow/, Wild and Tame; Its Seas 
and Rivers infinitely ftored with all variety of excellent Fifli : In its 
Bowels are found Rich Mines of Lead, Tin, Iron, Copper and Coal, as 
ufeful as advantageous to the Nation; Nor doth it want Mines of Sil- 
ver, thorare, and but in fmall quantities : It hath excellent Hot Baths, 
and divers Medicinal Springs : It is bravely furnifhed with Variety of 
pleafant Orchards and Gardens, luxuriant with all forts of excellent 
Fruits, Plants and Flowers. 

The Englifh are Governed by feveral Laws, vi2S.C(7«;wi?« Law, Statute 
Lav/, Civil Law, Canon Law, and Martial Law ^ befides particular Cu- 
ftoms and By-Laws. £ z The 



Of Eff^Uftd. 


The Cotnman Law of England is a Collecf^ionof the General Com* l 
won Cufioms and Ufages of the Kingdom, which have by length of ^ 
. time and immemorial Prefcription, obtained the force of Laws i for * 
Cuftoms bind not the Pepple till they have been tried and approved 
time out of mind. Thefe Laws were firft reduced all into one body * 
.by King Ed'tvaul the Elder, about the year 900 ; revived by King fii- •' 
•ivard the ConfefTor ; H^tlliam the Contjueror added fome of the Cultoms 
of Norwandj ; fince which Edward the Firft did fettle divers fundamen- 
tal Laws, ever fince pradifed in this Nation. 

Where the Common Law is fiient, there we have excellent Statute^ 
Lnws made by the feveral Kings of England, by and with the Advice 
and Confent of the Lords Spirttual ^in^ TemforaX and Commons of Eng- 
land, by their Reprefentatives the KnigbtSy Citiz.ens and Burgejfes duly 
Ele^ed in Parliament. 

Where Ccwwow and Statutt'LawiskQ no Cognizance, As in matters 
tranfa^led beyond the Seas, and relating to the Admiralty, &c, ufe 
is made of the Civil Lawy which ought to be the Product of the Com- 
mon Reafon and Wifdomofall Mankind,and fitted for the Intereft and 
Welfare jnot only of one Nation, but taking Care for the gener,al Af- 
fairs of all People. * 

The Canon- Law is the many ancient General Counpih ofNationaUnd 
Provincial Synods, the divers Decrees and Judgments of the Ancient 
FathfYs, &c. received by the Church of England j by which flie pro- 
ceeds in her JurifditStions ; as chiefly for the Reforming of the inward 
man, and matters accounted of a fpiritual Nature, as Cafes Matrimo- 
nial, Teftamentary, Scandals, Offences againrt good Manners, &c. 

Fore(l'Laws are, for regulating Offences committed in, or relating 
unto fome Foreft or Chafe, for prefervation of the Game, &c. 

Martial Law extends only to Soldiers and Mariners, and is not to be 
pra<ftifed in times of Peace,but only in War,and then and there,where 
the King's Army is afoot. 

The Do^rine of the Church of England is Afc(loU;;al, contained either 
in.exprefs words of the Holy Scripture, or in the %$ Articles, and the 
Book of Homilies in all things agreeable thereunfo ; the Worlhipand 
Dfcipline is in the Liturgy and Book of Canons: By all which it will 
appear to impartial eyes, that the Church of England is the moft exaA' 
and perfed Pattern of all tlie Reformed Churches in the World. Let Italy 
glory in this, that (he is the Garden of the Earth ; it may truly be. 
. laid of England^ that it is the Court and Prefence-Chamher of the Great Je^ 
bovah J which fhould engage us the more by Holy Lives to walk fuitable 
tofuch Mercies, and not to forfeit thoie ineftimablc Priviledges by our 


Of Eng}tnL \^ 

crying fins; for how can we expert that God fhould always continue 
fo gracious to us, if we continually turn his Grace into Wantonnefs ? 

EngUnA is a Free, Hereditary, Paternal Monarchy ^ Governed by one 
Supreme independent and Undepofable Head,according to the known 
Laws andCuftoms of the Kingdom; A Monarchy ^ that without Inter»- 
ruption hath been continued looo years; in a word, aGovernment 
of a perfeft and happy compofition,wherein the King hath his full Pre- 
rogative, the Nohiltty and Gentry Civil and due Refpeifi ; and the Peo- 
ple in general. Mailers of the Eflaces they can get by their Labours and 
Endeavours ; a Blefling that few Countries can boaft of: O happy and 
blefled England I Thy Valleys are like £</w,Thy Hills like Lehanon.Thy 
Springs as Sbiloe, and thy Rivers as JorJan ; a Paradife of Pleafure, 
and the Garden ofGo4, enriched with all the Bleflings of Heaven and 

Her chief Cities are London yLondinlum of ?tokmy,Ant, &Tac. [^unden 
Ger, Londra, Ira. Londres Gal. the Epitome of England, the Seat of our 
Britijh Empire,the Chamber of the King,and the chiefeil Emporium (or > 
feat of Traffick) in the world : To defcribe all things in this City 
worthy to be known^ would take up a whole Volume. I (hall only 
fay, fdated (he is in an Excellent Air, in a Fertile Soil, and on the fa* 
mous Navigable Kivcr Thamest about 60 miles from the Sea^in y i deg. 
30 min. North Latitude. 

In Length from £<i/to PP'efi feven EngltJhmWes and a half; and from 
North to South two miles and a half: But of late years fo increafed and 
ftill multiplying in Building in all her parts, that there can no Bounds 
or Limits be fet to her Circumference. The Buildings fair andftately; 
for large Piazza's,for fpacious ilraight Streets and llately Uniform BuiU 
ding, (he has not any Rival in Europe, 

It had 130 Pariflj-Churchesy befides Cbappels ; the Mother-Church is 
that of St Paul, ths on\y Cathedral of that Name in Europe: It was a 
Strudure for length 690 foot; in breath 130, in height 102 foot ; 
and contained about three Acres and a half of Ground : Built in the 
form of a peifeftCrofs, in themidlt whereof was raifed a Tower ot 
Stone 260 foot high; and on that a Spire of Timber, covered with 
Lead, 260 foot more. This (lately Monument of England, and Glory 
of the City of London, was Ruined by the late Dreadiul Conflagration 
in 1666. Yet fmce, our htcGr scions Sovereign, Charles the Second, like 
another Solomon, laid a New Foundation of uich a Fabrick, as for Mag* 
nificence, Splendor, Figure, and Excelient AtchiteBure, the IVorld never (aw . , 
the like: The Model whereof was Defigned by that Incomparable 
Arch'ite^, Sir Chriftopher Wren, . 

. , . And; 


'3© ^ , Of Eff^Uftd. •' 

Aildherclcannotbutgive afliort Accountof the vaftDamageand 
Spoil done by the forementioned Fire: It hath been computed that 
there were burnt within the Walls of the City 12000 Houfes, and 
without 1000 ; Valued at three Millions and nine hundred thoufand 
pounds Sterling. 

Befides 87 Varifh-Chunbesy the aforementioned Cathedral, the ^oyal 
Exchange, the Magnificent Guild-Hall, the Cuftom-Houfe, the many Halls 
of Comf antes, the Gates, with other Publick Buildings, valued at two 
Millions. The Warehoufes, Stuffs, Money, and Goods loft and fpoiled^ 
wer'j eftimated to two Millions of pounds. The Money (pent in Remo- 
ving ofGW/,and Warts, in the Hiia q{ Cart s^ Boat j, Torters, &C. mo- 
deftly computed at the leaft two hundred thouiand pounds: The 
whole damage amounting at the leaft to Nine Millions, nine hundred 
thouiand pounds. And what is moft Remarkable, ^hat notwithfta^ding 
thefe exceffive Loflissby Fire, the Dovouring Peftilence but the Year 
before, and the Chargeable War againft three Potent Nations at the 
fame time depending, yet within four or five Years the City was Re- 
built, divers ftately HaOs and Churches ereded ; all infinitely more 
Beautiful, more Commodious, and more Solid than before ; for which 
all praife and glory be given to God by us and Pofterity. 

The vaft Traffick and Commerce of this City may be guefled at Hy 
its Cuftoms ; which, tho moderate^ compared with the Impofitions of 
other Countries, did formerly amount to about 300000 /. fer An- 
nttm,an6 now are increafed by report to a much greater value. 

Time would fail me here, to fpeak of its Antiquity, Stately Palaces, 
Streets, Exchanges, Number of Inhabitants, Trade, and Government^ of 
its well- fortified Tower (the Grand Arfenal of the Kingdom :) Its in- 
comparable Bridge, Fublick Colledges, Schools, Hofpitals, WorkhoufeSy &C. 
I fliall therefore only add, London is a huge Magaz.ine of Men, Money, 
Ships, and all forts of Commodities ; the Mighty Rendezvous of Nobility, 
Gentry, Courtiers, Divines, Lawyers, Vhyficians, Indies, Merchants, Sea^ 
wen, and all kind of Excellent Artificers, of thf moft Refined Wits, 
and the moft Excellent Beauties in the World. 





Of EngUnL 


■ t-':*^ 



Of the Univerfities , Oxford: Oxonium Lat, Caffeva Ant> 
OxenfordSax. RhidichinQV Rhydychin Brit. And C abridge ^ 
Camhoricum Ant* Cuntabrigia Beda, Granchejier Sax* 

IN the beautiful Body of the Kingdom of England, the two Eye} are 
the two Univetfities ; thofe Renowned Nurleries of Learning and 
Religion, which for number of Magnificent and Richly- Endowed Col- 
leges , for liberal Stipends to all forts of Publick Prof«;flors, for number 
of well-furniflied Ltbraries, for Number and Quality of Stuflents, exadt 
Difcipline and Order, are not to be parallel'd in the whole World. 

So famous beyond the Seas, and fo much furpaffing all other in Fo- 
reign Parts, that they deferve c far worthier Pen than mine to Blazon 
their Excellency. I mall therefore only fay, that nothing was ever de- 
viled more Angularly advantagious to God's Church and mart's HappineJSi 
than thefe Univerfities : from whence men of Excellent Parts, after fea- 
fonable time in Study, are called forth toferve both in Church and State. 

Torkj Eboracum Ant, Eburacum TtoL Caerfrock vet Caer-Efroc Brit, is a 
City of great Antiquity, efteemed thefecond of England ; Famous for 
its Cathedral, for the Birth-place of Confian'ine the Great, and the Bu- 
rial-place of Severus the Emperor ; it is the Title of the King's fecond 
Son, and an Archbiflioprick. 

Canterbury, Durovernunt, Darvenum Ant, &• Ttol. Durovernia Beda, is 
remarkable for being the Seat of an ArchbiHiop, who is Primate of 
all England, 

Brtftol, Brifiolium, Famous for its Trade and Commerce, and for 
its Scituation in two Counties. 

Norwich, Norvicum, for its Induftry in Woollen Manufa<5lures. 

Salisbury, Sarum, for its rare Cathedral, wherein there are as many 
Doors as Months, as many Windows as Days, and as many Pillars 
asHoursin the Year. 

Windjor, Windefora, pleafantly fented on the fide of the Thames, and 
is famous for its Itately Caftle, and Roy^l Palace of His Majefty. 

Glocefter is the Title of the Third Son oi Great Britain, feated upon 
the Severn,nQdiX the IQe Aldney,vi\izvQ was fought the Combat between . 
Edmund Ironfide, King of the Englifh Saxons, and Canutus the Dane, 

I had purpofed to havegiVena more particular defcription of all the 
reft of the principal Cities m England, butmuft defer it for a Treatife 
o^ England, wherein each County is drawn for a Pocket- Volume after 
a more new and compendious way than eV5r ycc extant j I fliall 
therefore here fay no more of £^^/W. ' Of 


'♦*.•: \ «, 

Of Wales. 









WALES is a Principality adjoining to, and annex'd in Govern- 
ment with EvTtandi Inhabited by the Pofterity of the Ancient 
Britainsy who being driven out of the reft of theLand by theintruding 
Saxons i whom they fent for over to aflUt them againft the Incurfions 
of the Scots and Puhy ihelteredtliemfelves inthofe Mountainous parts, 
and to this day retain their Primitive Language, which hath the leaft 
mixture of Exotick words cC any now ufed in Euyope^bnt by reafon of 
its many Confonants is lefsplealing totheEai : The People are Faith- 
ful, and very loving to one another in a ftrange Country, and to ftran- 
eers in their own. Their Gentry brave andHofpital, but generally Tub- 
jed to Choler,fudd5niy moved to Anger, and as quickly pacified; and 
value themfelves very much upon their Pedigrees and Families. The 
Eldeft Son and tleir Apparent of our K.ings of England is always qua- 
lified, during the Life of his Father, with the Title of Prince of tVaUs. 

*Tis bounded on all fides by the Sea, except towards England^ from 
■ , ■ iich it v^as once feparated by a great Ditch called Ojf'a% Dike , in 
m^.ny places yet to hi feen, which Dike began from the Influx of the 
Pviver l^Vye, in the Sevan, and reached unto Chefier, about 8 f Miles. 
Mofi Writers tell us 'tis now divided by the River Dee, and a Line 
drawn to the River M^ye. But Monmouth being taken from it, and ad- 
ded to England, its prefent Limits are the River Dee, and aUne drawn 
to the fmall River Rumpney near Cardiff,- 

The Country is generally Mountainous, yet not without its fertile 
Vallies, which bear good Corn, and breedeth abundance of Cattel; 
which produce ftore of Butter and Cheefe. Other Commodities are^ 

fVel(Jj Fieezes, Cottons, Bays, Herrings White and Red, Hides, 
Calves-'kins, Honey, Wax. I,:hath Mines of Lead, Lead-Ore, Coals^ 
It is »' t;l) Gored with Quarries of Free-ftones, and Milftones. 

I' >u v:. contained three Kingdoms, viz. Gwineth^ Venedotia, or 
Nbn ;'•>>'.' Debtuharthi Demetiay or South-! Vales, And Foii^ijlandf 
or Matbr. jal 

'Tis now, according to an kA of Parliament in the Reign of King 
Henry the Eighth, fevered into two parts, wsi. North- ll^ales and South- 
fVales; each of thefe contain fix Counties, 1.,%. in t'.ie North, Anglef-^y, 
Mona Tac, Caernarvon ^ Denbigh , Flinty Merioneiby And Montgomery. In 
the South, Brecknock^ Cardigan, Carm^.tben, Glamorgan, Pembroke, and 
Radnor. Whofe chief Towns are, 
Beaumorifl). Bellomor 





pen the Menat River, founded by King Edward the Fim 


Aucrjraw was the Royal Seat of the Kings oi Gwimtb, oi^Nortb- 

Waks, And 





J4 '^ ^ OfWdtes^ 

Hofy'heaiy or Catfguhl of the Weljhf a noted Promontory at^ pa^ 
(age into Ireland. In this Ifland was the ancient Seat of th^Drufas, 
brought under the Hetnan Scepter by Julius ^grknla. 

Caernarvon^ Arvonia of old, thebeft Town of that Shire, ftrong by 
Nature and Art, founded by King Edward the Firft. In the Caflle 
whereof, Edward the Second, the Firft Prince of IVahi was born. . 

Banger y or Banchor, Bangoria Lat. Dignified with a BiHiop's See. 

uiherconwajfyTAiiJsd out onhe ruins oftheBanoniuM ofAnt.Cancvijofiium. 

Denhijhf Denhigbia Lat. feated on the River Cluyd , once fortified 
with a ftrong Caftle and Wall. By the Britainsy Elad Frynin. 

Ruthwy feated in the Strat. Cluyd. Pfrexhanij plenty in Lead. 

Llanfasnan, a fmall Village, is famous for its Cave in the fide of a 
Rock, known by the Name of Arthurs Round Table. 

St. Afaph, Llan-Elwy PTelJh. Fa: i » ^K. Afaphi, an ancient Epifcopal 
See, founded by Kentigem a Scoto^ op of Glafcow, in Anno 5'6o. 

Flinty which giveth Name to the v^ounty. Not far from Cajeruis is 
the famous Well of St. Winnifridy in EngUJhy Holy-welly a place of great 
note, and much reforted unto for the Cure of fevcral Difeafes. 

In this County of Flint are yet feen fome Ruins of the Bonium of 
Ant. lying upon both fides of the Dety turned afterwards into a NCona- 
ftery, and named Bayicornabury by Bedey and Banchor by Maltneshury j 
the firft of the Britains, containing 2100 perfons. 

Harlech had a ftrong Caftle mounted upon a fteepRock, but redu- 
ced to ruins ; 'tis the place of hS\7JSS for Merionethjhircy and the chief 
Market of the Mountaineers. 

Bala, feated near Llin-tegidy or Timhlemeery through which the De« 
IS faid to run, and not to mingle with its Waters. 

Montgomery y the Shire-Town, is fb called from Roger of Montgomerf, 
Earl of Shrewsbury in the Reign of the Conqueror. 

Lanvetbliny or Llanvillingy is thought to be the Mediolanium of VtO' 
lomy and Ant, 

Trelliny or fVeljh-fooly feated on the Sevemy and in a rich Vale, is the 
^reateft and beft-buik Town in the County ; and its Caftle, called 
PtfM^/j-Caftle, is a large and ftately Building. 

Macblenetby the Maglona of the Notitia. 

Mathravaly the Seat foraetimes of the Princes of Vowis, 

Brecknock, Bricbinia Lat. feated at the meeting of the Rivers Hodney- 
and Vsky over which it hath a Stone-Bridge. It contains three Parilh- 
Churches, and was once ftrengthened with a ftrong Caftle. 

Built Buelthy the BuQum of Ant. plealandy (eated among the Woods 
on the Banks of the Wie, 




a pleafant Val^gr. . ... . ...i... 

At Vrefim^i iQated on the Lug, are the A(5?cs H,ept. 

Knighton IS a well-built Borough-Town.The Weft-par t of this Coun- 
ty of Radnor IS very Rocky and Mountainous , the ftrong refuge of 
Vortigern King of the Britains, when purfued by the Saxons, and the 
ifear and hate of his own SubjeAs. ^ ^ " 'i; a..-^' • 

Smivden-HiU was the fafe retreat of bw^ew Glendor. 

CarJigany Aber tyvi Welfl). Cevetica Lat. feated on a Rock on the Bank 
of Tywj River near the Influx into the Sea, is the Shire-Town, and 
governed by a Mayor. 

Llan-beder hath a Market on Tuefdays. Aher-y-fiwith feated at the 
mouth of the Rivers 3y/M;»>-6 and R/Wo/, defcending from the foot of the 
fhilimon Mountain, as doth alfo th^Teme and IVye River. 

Llanbadernvaur is a well-built Town , graced with a fair Church, 
formerly an Epifcopal See, now the Pa.'^vChurch of Aber-y-fiwith. 

Caermarden, the Maridunufn of PPolomy, u^^on the River Tovy^ over 
which it hath a fair Stone-Bndg, and it is a Town-Corporate govern- 
ed by a Mayor, two Sheriffs, and fixteen Burgeflfes, all clad in Scarlet, 
and is alfo famous for the Birth-place of Merlin the Britijh Prophet, 
Higher, upon the top of a Hill under which runneth the Tovi, ftood 
Dinevour Caftle, the feat of the Princ€ of Soutb-fVaks, 

Newcafile on the edge of Cardiganfliire on the River Tyvi, thought to 
-be theCoventinum of Plolowy, but Lyn Savatan near Brecknock, is the Lo- 
'ventinam. Or Litentium Camb. • 

In Glamorga?}fliire, the chief Towns are Landajf, Farum ad TattaWj 
' feated on the River Tavy or Taff, having a large Cathedral, a Bifhops 
See, otherwife fcarce comparable to an indifferent Town, occalloned 
by its vicinity to Cardiff, the faireftTown in all South-Walei^Contamln^ 
twoParilhes, andoneChurch. A ftrong ftately Caftle. 'Tis governed 
by a Conftable and twelve Aldermen,d^c.Tis the place of the Affixes, 
and the beft Market in the Countrey. 

Neath, the Nidun of Ptolomj, is much frequented for Coals. |' 

Swanfey, OT /4^erf<»M^,is'an ancient Port- iRfx/e Town, of a good Trade, 
by reafon of its Coal-pits, and induftry of its inhabitants. Boverton, 
not far from Co-tvbridge, is the Bovium of Ant, 

Loghar upon the River fo called, is the Leucarum of Ant, 

Pt ;jbroke,the chief Shire-Town, feated on Milford Haven,fo large and 
capacious, that it may fafely contain a looo failof Ships, over which 
it hath two fair Bridges, a place of gocd ftrength, fortified with a 
W4II and a ftrong Caftle feated on a Rock. F 2 St. David* 






■•ti'i *,-|V. 


Of Stotitiid. 

- ' / 

St^VavUs, Mentvta^& Fatuim Davidit, once a City of good account, 
DOW only notable in that it is a Bifliop^'s See, and a fair Cathedral. ' 
Jiaverfordwefi is the Town where the Affizes are kept. 
Tetthy is feated upon a Rock, having a commodious Road ibr Ships. 

FijhguJii'd is the Ahergwaine of the IVdjli, ■ ^ , ^. 


/./ r 






of SeofUU 


tJ li I'j 

'k if* i 

t.f6>'. .'^sd: 


SCOTLANDis feparated from England by the Rivers Tmed and 
Solwajty and the Cheviot Hills : The Ancient Inhabitants were the 
Britains, divided by Ttohmy into many leffer Nfames ; by Dim and Xi- 
fhylinus into two only general, i;/j&.the Calidoniisind Meatai Afterwards 
called the ViBs towards the wain of the Roman Empire, from their 
Paintings; and for their better '^diftinftion from the civil and clo- 
thed flr/f^i»J,diftingui(hedby Ant,Marctllinti6\nio the TiBsDucaliJoriia, 
and the Ve^urioms : TheScorj^a Colony of the bordering /rz/fc intruding 
amongft, and conquering the PiBsy or Britains, all other Names worn 
out, the whole are now accounted S^of/.. 

The length of Scotla>idl find fet down by He)lin, to be 480 Miles, • 
but the breadth in no place more than 60 Miles; the truth of which 
will appear, if you confider the Latitude oi Solway-Frith, near CarliJlCf 
themoft Southern part of Scotland ; and Strait shy-head, the moft Nor- v 
thern ; you will find the greateft lengtli can be b\it 26c>Efigltjh Miles: ,^ 
and the breadth in the broadeft place more than 160 Miles,as you will v^ 
cafily fee by the Map. ,• ! 

Scotland, according to its Situation, may be divided by the Rives. • 
Tay into two parts, viz,. North and South, commonly diftingulhed by , ♦[ 
the Names of Htghland, and Lowland, The firft was the Ancient ' 
Kingdom of the Scots', The other the Old Habitation of the PiBs^ 
The People of the former are by Nature and Difpofition rude and un^ 
civil : The Inhabitants of the latter, in Di^ofitioQ, Civility, Lan- 
guage, and Habit, are much refembling the EngUflt, and are thought 
to be Defcended of the S<»xow. . yr :' 

On the. Weft part of ScotlarJ are many Woods, Mobntains, and 
Lakes : Towards the Eaft it is more Fruitful in Corn, efpecially Bar- . 
ley and Oats : Their Fruits are not very Excellent, nor plentiful : but 
they have abundance of Fifti and Fow4 ; not much Cat eel, nor big< 
Their chief Commodities are, Coarfe Clothes,- Freezes, Ft[h, Lead, Oar, 
Feathers, Mlows, Iron, Salt-Petre, Linnen-cloth,^ Tra'inOyl, fome Hides y 
and Tallow, 

The Kingdom of Scotland confifts of the Nobility, Gentry, andCow- 
Mom: Thefe with the Lords Spiyrual A^tmblQ together. in Parliament, 
when called by Wric from the iving of Great Brst/rin ; who, by reafon 
of his Refidence in K«^W<?,CDnftirutes and appoints a Vtce-Roy t^Ad 
under him at tlie faid Seffion of Parliament, called Lord CommiJfiGner, 

'■ . ' ■ '' . 

As to their Co«r/j of Judicature, they have feveral ; tlie Chief is the 
Sefion, or Colledge of Jtifitce, conflfting of a FrtfuUnt, fourteen Senators,. 







a % Of ^ddtljtftd, ' 

Ofeven of ftie Clergy, and as many oiF the Laity) whereunto is now ad- 
ded the Chancellor^ >yho is. chief; and four Lords of the Nobility ; b€- 
fees ^9 mm^-Adyocates'in^ Clerks as the Senators fee convenient. Thelc 
fit Arid admiftifterjultice^ev^ry day, from nine to twslve, except Sm- 
ffap and Monday Sf from the^rft day of Noivember KO Chri/lrftas-EvQ: and 
frdnifthe firft'dayof j^i»»»^7 to thelaft o( Fehuary : and from Trinity- 
Stinday^to xhp fiti\ i^y of Augu/l i}^\it now by A.d of Parliament the 
Summelr-Sefliohs are tai?en awiiy; and inftead thereof they are to be . 
kept in March. ' , -.C ^ ' '. 

This Court is of great ftate and order ; the Clerks write all the Ma- 
terial Heads that are pleaded at the Bar. And after the parties are 
rernoved, the, Senators confider the Arguments, and give Sentence, 
and the major part carries it. Their final Sentence or Decrees deter- 
mines all bufinefs, there being no appeal, only to the Parliament,who 
may receive and repeal their decifiye Sentence. 

The nextfapream Court is theJuftice-Court, where all Criminals 

'^■' tjre tried : it confifts of a Lord Juftice- General, and of a Lord Juftice 
Clark, who is his Affiftant. This Order was changed, yinno 1669. 
and by Aftt^f; I^arliament four Judges were appointed to fit in this 
Court with the Lord Juftice General, &c. The Jury is made up of 
fifteen , th5 major part determines the matter. Befides this Court, 
there are in every Shire or County Inferior Civil JudicatoriesyOv Courts 
kept, wherein the Sheriff of the Shire, or his Deputy ,decideth Contro- 
vcrfies and Law-Suits : but from thefe there are Appeals to theSeflfpiiS, 
dr Higher Ccpirt of Equity. There are Ijkewife Jt^dicatories^ ^^ledCpW- 
miifarials, for Ea/fy?dt/?/c^/ Affair?. /. ' »' ^ • ;,..'- ■' ,! 
Thz '^\)\zQS of Scotland 3iVQ J viz,. Edinburgh Barwick, Peehlts, Selk^r^, 
Roxburgh, Dumfreisj IVigbton^ Air, Renfrew, Latirick, or Lanock, 
Dumbritton, or Dunbarton, Boot, Inner, Ara, Terth, Strivelin^, or Ster" 
ling, Linlithgow, Clackmanan, Kmros, Coupsr, & Fife, Forfir, Kinkardin, 
df Marijchals, Aberdeen, Baritf& Errols, Elgin, Nairn , Unervefs.& R-oJs, 
Cromarty^ Tayn, Dornocky Weik, Orkney. Tl^ Conflabulary of Had^- 
dingtm,Th& Stewartyies of Strath-yern, Menteitb, Amamuile, Kurkabright. 
The Baileries of Kyle, Carrick and Cunningham. 

Scotland is alfo i'' vided into feveral Counties or Parts j Lothicn, Mercb, 

' I'eifdal, or Tiviotdale, Eskdale^ Easkdale, Liddefdale, Amandale, Nitij- 
dale, Galloway, Carrick, Kyle, Ctmningbam, Clidejdale, Leannox, Strive* 
ling or Sterling, Mentieth, Fife, Strathern, Argile^ Lorn, Cantire, Arrant, 
Albany or Bratd,Albin, Perth, /it hoi, Anguis, Mernis, Buquiham, or Buchan, 
Marr, Marray, Lohabyr, Rvffe^ Souther land, Strathnavim C^ Catbnes. 

The Government whereof is divided into two Arch-bijhopricks, Saint 



Of StofUfid. J9 

Andrews and Glafco ^ under whom are feveral Sul!ragan Bifhops. 

Its chief places are, Edinburgh^ the Metropolitan City of this King- 
dom, (Ituace in a high and wholfome Air, and a fertile Soil^ confin- 
ing chiefly of one St|^et about a Mile lit length, out of which runs 
many fmaller Lanes and Streets. 'Tisftrongly begirt with a Wall, and 
fortified by a fair and ftrong Caftle, feated on the top of a Rock : a 
place adorned with many fiir Edifices, dignified with the Courts of 
Judicature, High Court of Parliament, and a Univerficy. 
* St. Andrcitfij of old Fanum Reguli , hath a fair ProfpeA towards 
the Sea, near the fall of the Ethan : Fortified with a fair and ftrong 
Caftle ; Dignified with an Archbifliop's See. 

GlafcOf pleafantly feated on the River Cluyd, over which it hath a 
fair Bridge : A place of good Account, dignified with an Archbi- 
fliop's See, and a Univerfity. Clafymm, Script. Scot. 

Sterling, a place of good ftrength, and fortified with a ftrong Ca- 
ftle. Strivilingum, vel Strevelinum., feu Sterhnga. 

Dunhritton, a place of great ftrength, having the ftrongeft Caftle 
in all Scotland, both by Nature and Art. Cajhum Britonum, • « / 

Falkland, pleafantly feated for Hunting. 

Linlithiuo, or Lithijuo, upon a Lake near unto the Head ofthpFrithy. 
fuppofed to be the Lindum of Ptol, a City of the Dantnii. j "i<- ■ ■'- 

M»U'elborough, upon the River Eske, is memorable for a great Over- 
throw of the Scots by the English under Edufard Duke of Sofnerfet, 
Prote«9:or of England in the Minority of King Edward the Sixth. 

I^itb is a noted Port upon the Frith of Edinburgh ; the Bodotria of 
Tac, and Boderia of Vtol. 

Perth, or St. Johns-Town, a place of good Account, pleafantly (eat- 
ed at the Moiith of the River Tay, between two Greens* 

Aberdeen, fituate on the Mouth of the River Don, and dignifiec^ 
with an Epifcopal See, and a Univerfity. Aberdonia dim Devan^. 

Coldingham, Coldana Beda, Colania FtoL famous for Ife choice NunSt 
Teblis und Selkirk are Sheriffdoms for the Valleys. 

Jedburgh and Roxburgh are Sheriffdoms, the laft fatal tothe Scots by 
the deathof King James the fecond, flain in that Siege by the Englifh, 

Annan and Cajfle-Mahan, are the two chief Towns, near Solway 
Frith, the Ituna iy£/livariam of the Ancients. Abercon gives Title of 
Earldom to the Duke Hamilton. Dunbar Bara PtoL or Fara. & Dumba^ 
r«zw, is memorable for the Battel of i6 JO, S(?/>r. 2;. 

Dunfreis is a rich and vvell-tradsd Empory upon the River M//&. No- 
iius oi Ptol. and at the mouth is Caerlavtrock Caftle. Corbantorigum oi 
old, was the Houfe of the Lord Maxwells. Higher up the River is 





2^0 Of SeotUnd, . 

JVUrion^ naming the Ei lis Morton of the n.»fTie o^ Douglas. HiglitT Is .?;?«- 
^^«.tr-Caftle, whereof are intitled the Lord 6'</K^^«cr, of the Houlcor 
Name of t\\z Creitchtcns. A little remote from the River is featcd 
Gliftcarmf the Earls whereof are of the Houfe a| the C«w/^;^/j.;w/. Kir^ 
eoubright is a commodious Haven. JVtgkon a Sherifdom. Ij^hiihtrn is 
the Leucopibia of ?tol. and Canclula Caja of £<?</</. ■ ''-i ' •" • oi 
Barger.y is the Ririgonium of ^«r. C.«^/ C<;/^. the Seat of the Earls of 
the Houfe of the Kenncdja. Air is a Sherifdom, and a noted Port and 
Empory. Jirwm a fmall Port. Eglington-Caiih gives the Title to the 
Montgomcries. Douglas upon the River Douglas in Doughs-Daley names 
the Ancient and Noble Families of the Dcuglajjts. Lamic. Lanercum, a 
Sherifdom at the Confluence of the Douglas and Clnjd. Hamilton Caft'e 
upon the Cluydj the Clot a or Glota of Ptel. naming the Houfe and Mar- 
queffcs of Hamiltov. Bothwel, an Earldom upon the Cluyd, asisalfo 
Crawford of the Earls of Lindley, Renfrew ^f^anditar a, is a Sherifdom and 
Barony Hereditary to the Lord Semmts. Dunblane, a Biihop's See upon 
the Taich. Lower down at the mouin of the Frith of Forth, lie the She- 
rifdoms of Clackmannan and Kinras. Abernetb, ViHaria, at the fall of the 
River Ern into the tay, was thechfef Seat of the Kings of PiSts. Arrol 
■ vpon the Tay, the Seat of the Earls of Arrol. Athot was fometimes 
part of the Calidonian Wood, ftrong FaftnefTes of P/<?/jand Northern 
Britons. Forfar,Orrheaoi old is the Seat of the Sheriffs. Dundee, Ale^um 
& Da DoKum, a rich and noted Port at the mouth of the Tay. 'Brechin 
upon the Eske, is a Bifliop's See. Montrofs gives name to the Earls of 
. Montrofs, D»«»of«r- Caftle in Mern, feated upon a »>eep and inacceffible 
Rock, is the Seat of the Sheriff. Between Lo^uabuir and Marr rifeth 
the high Country of Badgevnth. In Bujuban lie the fmall Countries and 
Prefeduresof Bamfsarat bbogye, znd Boyn, places of Note ; in Murray ant 
Rothes Caftle, giving Names to the Earls of kjthes. Elgin, Forres, Nim, 
are Sherifdoms about the Lake Nejj, and part of the M. Grampius of 

^ Tac. exteadingHo the Lake Lomond. In Ro^s is the Country of Ardme." 

W nuchf which giveth Title to the fecond Son of the Kings of Scotland. 

'■[ ,Chanoury is the Seat of the Biihops. Cromerty is a Shcritdom. Dun Ro- 
bin Caftle, the Seat fometimes of the Earls of Sunderland, ( Rofmarcha- 
Mm of old. ) G/r«fgo Caftle, the Seat of the Ejfrl of G?//6f»«. Dur- 

- nock aftd fVtck, tlie Seats of the BiHiops. Vara, or yarari^jluarium, is 
Murry Frith. 

In this Realm of Scotland thzve are two famous and Wonderful 
Loughs, NiJJ'j and Lomond ; the firlt never freczeth in the extreameft 
V Cold, and the Waters of the fecond rage in the calmefl Weather. 

; ( 




li'c or 
•tr« is 

iris of 

It and 

:o the 


c«w, a 






tie She- 

l of the 

s. Arrol 



Eails of 
>,rr riCeth 
:ries and 
es, Nirn, 
'TKpius of 
Dun Ro- 
es. Du" 
ttriurfty is 



Of ScoPhnd* ., '/ \. 4^ 

The JJlands aljjacent and belonging to ScotJanJ, Are, i. The HehrUes 
lying on the Weft-fiile thereof, and are 44 in Namber: the chief 
whereof are,' Z//«i, Jona, Mula, Lewis, 8cc. Plentiful oflVood, Qjarn^ Saly 
mens, Herrings j Conies, Deer, Sheeny in fonie with, in others without 

The OrcaJes of Tac. or the Jpnrls of Orkney, in Number IX, ly- 


ingfrom the North and North- Eaft point oi Scotland :ThQ greateft and 
chiefeft Ifland is now called Mainland, formerly Tomonia, well ftored 
with Lead and Tin, whofe chief Town is Kirkwall^ Fortified with two 
Caftles, and dignified with the See of a Biftiop : the Inhabitants com- 
monly called Red-jhanks. 

3. Shetland l^imdiS, or Schetland^ih^Tbuk, or TJjyleoi the-Ancients, 
lying about 20 Leagues Northwards from the Orkney^ bsing many in 
Number : the chiefof which is called Sbotland, being about 60 miles 
in length : the Inhabitants are partly Scots, and partly a mixt People 
of Danes and Scots. Their Commodities are Ling ana Cod. 

Toward North Barwick, near the Shore, lieth Bas IJland, which ap- 
pears to be a high craggy Rock, and is remarkable for the great num- 
ber of Soland'Geefe, by lome called Barnacles, and vulgarly thought to 
be ingendred by the Fruit of certain Trees dropt into the Water. But 
the Hollanders report, that the Barnacles ^yNhich they call Rot-Gaufe, 
are bred in the Northern parts, and that they couple together, lay 
and hatch their Eggs. And' Gerard de Veeo in his third Navigation to 
Greenland, affirms, that with his Companions they have driven them 
from their Nefts,and taken and eaten of their Eggs. 

Befides, Anatomy difcovers in their Bodies, where the differences of 
Sexes do vifibly appear, the Males having all the fame parts as the 
common Drakes, and the Females having their Ovaria as other Birds. 

Between thelflands of Orkney and Shotland lie two Iflands ; one cal- 
led Fair-Hill, tl^B Other Fulo, about ten Leagues one from the of^her. 

Thus much, in brief, as to the Situation, Length, BVeadch,Divtfion, 
Fertility, People, Government, Chief Towns, and Iflands of Scotland, 


.■■HA-f-*—- . 







of Ireland. 


Si^'UiU cMtir $ 




UJfjde rf^IriJkAiUsi'^ 


Of InUnd. 





THE firft Inhabitahts (to omit the Fables of the 7r//fc Chronicles) 
upon probable CircumOanceSjWere the £riMf»j,togethj^r with the 
mixt Nations of the Goths^ Gauls j Afrtcansy &c. though moft Geographers 
are of Opinion, that its firft People came wholly out of Britain, being 
the nigheft to it. 

~ Ireland lieth betwixt the f i and ^6 degrees of Northern Latitude, 
or betwixt the middle parallel of the eighth Clime, where the longeft 
day hath i6 hours and a half, and the 24th parallel, or endof the locb 
Clime, where the fame hath 17 hours and a half. 

The firft Inhabitants, the M (for more ancient we find not) were 
by Vtolomy diftinguifhed into lundry lelTer People and Names : The 
Rhohgnii, Darnii, Voluntii, Vetivicmif and ErMttii, «iow containing C7/- 
fier. The Auttriy Gangani and Nagnata, inhabiting Conaugbt. The Veli- 
boriy Uttrni, VoMi, and CorionJi, now Mutjfier, The Menapii, Cattci, 
Blaniif and BrtganteSf now Leivfier : whofe Cities were Rbigia, Rbeba, 
Macolicunty Dunttm, Laberus, juerms, Nagnata, Regia altera^ Manafia, 
now Wexford, and Eblana, Dublin, whofe Interpretations, unlefs the 
two laft, we let pafs as very uncertain. Towards the wain of the Ro- 
man Empire they are named Scots (the occafion . reafon hereof we 
find not) fubduing the neighbouring Pi^s and Caledonians^ and giving 
the Name of 5<:<?^/ii»<;/ to the Northern part of the Britift Continent. 
Leaving there this new a^edcd Name, they laftly refume, and recurs 
here unto their firft and more wonted name of Irijb. 
) The firft Onfet it received, by way of Invafion, was by the Saxtm 
Monarchs, who made themCblves Mafters of fome places, but could not 
long continue in pofTefHon of them. 

The next that in Hoftile manner vifited it, were the Northern Na- 
tions, Danes J Swedes, and Normans: who fcouring along the Sea-coafts, 
by way of Piracy, and afterwards finding the weaknefs of the Ifland, 
made an Abfolute Conqueft of it, under the Conduftof one Turgelusi 
but were foon routed out by the Policy of the King of Meatb. After 
this the petty Princes enjoyed dieir former Dominions, till the Year 
1 172. at what time, the King of Leinfier, having forced the Wife 
of the King oi Meatb, was driven by him out of this Kingdom ; who 
applying himfelf to Henry the Second of England for Succour, re- 
ceived Aid, under the Leading of Richard de Clare, Sirnamed Strong- 
how, Earl of Pembroke ; by whofe good Siiccefs, and the King's pre- 
fence, the petty Kings, or great Lords, fubmitted themfelves, promi- 
fing to pay him Tribute^ and acknowledge him 'their Chief and So* 
vereign Lord. 
: r G2 > Bttt 





-. ? 

Gf Ireland, .> 

'^' \".M^"!''^-y>C 

But as the Conqueft was but flight and fuperficial, fo the Irijh fub« 
millions were but weak and fickle AfTurances to hold in Obedience fo 
confiderable a Kingdom, though the Charter was confirmed by Pope 

So that it was net iiii the latter end of Queen Elizakrh's Reign that 
tliefame was wholly lubjagated, and the Foundation laid of a lafiing 
Peace with Ireland^ which foon after was very far proceeded in by King 
'James, and now fully perfeded, according to all Human appearance, 
by our Gracious Sovereign King IVdliam ; So that now Ireland is a 
Flouiifhing Ifland, Civil in its felf, and a good additional ftrfngth 
to XhQ Brit ti^ Empire. 

Ireland (called by the Latins, Hiberma ; by the Greeks, Irnia^ by Tom' 
ponius and Solinus, called y«X'f;*»(T; by Pto!omj,juerna : by Orpheus , 
Arijiotky Straboj Stephatius and Cladianus, Jerna : by ilttftatbius, Fer* 
nia: by Diodorus, his: by the ^K/j?;^ Tverdhon : by the Inhabitants, 
Eryn. Irlandt Germanis, Irlanda Italis, Irlande Gallis , is in length 300^ 
and in breadth 130 miles: containing by computation i^ millions of 
Acres, and is about f of England and JVales. It was anciently divided 
into five Provinces, each one a Kingdom in its felf, vix.. 1. Leinfier^ 
2. Meath. j. Uljhr, 4. Cotjinaught. And f. Munjter. But noW the 
Province o\ Meatb is reckoned for a Member or part of Leinfier, 

Thefefour Provinces compofe tl>it Kingdom : as beautiful andfweec 
a Country r.s any under Heaven : being ftored with many goodly Ri- 
vers, Repleniflied with abundance of all forts of Fifli, fprinkled with 
brave !fla»i'is and goodly Lakes; adorned with goodly Woods, full 
of very good Forts and Havens : The Soil moft Fertile^ and the Hea- 
vens moft mild and temperate, but not fo clear and fubtil as the Air in 
England ; and therefore not fo favourable for the Ripening of Co' a 
and Fruits, as to the Grafs, for all kind of Cattel ; And in the Win- 
ter more fubjed to Wind, Clouds, and Rain, than Snow or Froft. 

It is an Ifland of great ftrength, as well by Nature as Art, by rea- 
fon of its Situation in fuch dangerous Seas ; and the feveral Fortifica- 
tions and Cafties that the Englifi) have built fince they were Matters 
of it. 

Its cb'cf Rivers are the fpacious SL:nnon, the rolling Liffie, the Tan- 
dy Slan)ty tlic pleafant Boyne, the Fifliy Banne, fwift Amduffe or Black- 
"Heater, fad Trowis, wide Mayre, now Bantry Bay, the Woody Barrow, 
the fpreading Lee, the Baleful Oi4re or Sboure. Befides thefe Rivers, 
there are feverai L<7^/,of which Lough Erne is the greateft, being about 
go miles in length, and if in breadth j and this, as all other of its 
Lakes, are well ttored with Fijb, 




Of ire land. 

m ;"^ 

■ ' 45 

The IrijiihiiVt had the Charafterof being Religious, (by which, 
'' perhaps, fome underftand Superftitious j Amorous, Patient of La- 
bour, Excellent Horfemen, and the meaner fort extremely Larba- 
rous, !ill Civilized by the Neighbourhood and intermixture of the 
Efjglijh^ yet ftill the wild Irijh retain feveral of their abfurd and ridi*- 
culous Cuftoms, accouni'ng eafc and idlenefs their greateft liberty and 
^ riches. * 

The Ecclefiaflical Government of Ireland is committed' to the care 
of four Jrchbijhops, under whom are 19 SufFragan-Bilhops : The 
Temporal Government is now by one Supreme Officer, fent over by 
/ the King of England, who is called the Lord Lieutenant, or Lord Deputy 
of Irelr.nd ; who for Majefty, State, and Power, is not inferiour to any 
Viceroy in Europe. . * 

Their La^J.'s are correfpondent with thofe of Eng^and, and they 
have their feveral Courts ofJ«///c^; as Chancery^ Common-Pleas^ Kings- 
Bench, Excheqmr^ Courts of Parliament j and Jufiices of the Peace in eve» 
ry County, 

The Commodities of this JJland are, Cattel, Hides, Tallotv, Buttery 
Cbeefcy Honet. War, furs, Sir It, Hemp, Ltnntn Cloth, Pipe-flaves, Wooll, of 
which they make Cloth, and feveral Manufadures, a"^ Frecz,cs, Rugs, 
Mantles, SsLC. Its Seas yield great plenty o{ Cod-fjl), Herrings, Pilchersy 
and other Fifh: Tiie Bowels of the Earth afford Mines of LW, T/Wj 

^ of I E I^N S T E R. 

This Province the Natives call Leighingh, the Rritains Lein, tlie Li- 
tins Lagenia ; and in the ancient Lives of the Saints, Lagan j and by 
r ; Englijh Leinfier. This part of Ireland for tlie generality is of a fer- 
tile foil, affording great plenty of Corn, Cattel, Fowl, and Fiih ; en- 
jojcUh a wholfome and temperate Air ; it is well watered with Ri- 
vers, well furniftied with Towns, and well Inhabited by the Gentry 
and Commonalty ; and divided into rhefe Count" ^s, Lor.gford, IVcJl- 
Meath, Eajt'Meath, Lough, Dublin, KdJare, Kwgs-Ccttnty, Qu^ens-Ccunty^ 
IVtckloiv, Caterlough, Kilkenny, and fVcxford. 

Its cliief Places are, Dublin, the Metropolitan Cicy of Ireland, by 
Ptolomy called Ehlana, by the Latins Dttblininm, by the ^vj7;, Babcleigk 
It is no lefs pleafanrly than commodioufly feated on the River />#f, 
which after a Gnallcourfe, empcieth it fclfintoa capacious Bay^ where 
it hath a good Haven, and a fair ProrpetH:; ;.nd on the South, dt^Wght 
ful Hills, which wiclgithc feveral Parks adj.iccnt, afrL\td great RecaM- 



■.1 «'■ 

■; f 

\r *. 

4^ Of IreUmt. 

tion to the Gentry : It is a City of great Antiquity, dignified ahd en- 
riched with the Refidence of the Lord- Lieutenant, as alfo with the 
See of an Arch-Bifhop, with an Univerfity, and tlie Courts of Judi- 
cature. It is beautified with many fair Buildings, viz, the Lord Lieu- 
tenant's Palace, aftately StruiSlure; the Cathedral Church, nigh unto 
which is the Archbifliop's Palace, both without the City. The Colle- 
giat-Church, called C^f-z/^-CWcA, feated in the midft of the City, and 
dignified with the Privileges of a Univerfity. The Town-Hall, or 
Tolst-Tale, 3, {a\v Stone- Building, of a Quadrangle form, where the 
Lopd-Mayor and Sheriffs, Aldermen and other Magift rates of the Ci- 
ty , aflemble together for the management and confulting of the 
Publick Concerns of the City. The (lately New Hojyttal, Defigned 
and built by the Ingenious Archite^, H^ilUam Rohinjofty Efquire : As 
alfo the New-Fort or Cafilc at Kingfale. A fair CoUedge, with feveral other 
brave Edifices. *Tis a place of great Trade, well inhabited and fre- 
quented by Nobility and Gentry, with wealthy Merchants and Shop- 
keepers. A City of large extent, and yet daily encreafes its Buildings, 
efpecially its Suburbs, which is fevered from the City by a Wall, which 
gives Entrance by fix Gates. A City, though not feated in the middle 
of Ireland, yet placed diredly oppofite to the Engli^ ihore, being 
twelve hours fail, with a profperous gale of Wind, or twenty Leagues 
difVant from Holy-bead^ a rare advantage for the maintenance of Traf- 
fick and Commerce with England^ and other parts of the World ; (b 
that in a word, there is nothing wanting that may ferve to make the 
State of a City moft magnificent and flourifhing. Carhngford and 
Dundalk^tAndi on a commodious Bay of the fame Names. 

Droghedah, or Tredagh^ fituate on the River Bnyne^ on the edge of 
Vlfter^ a fair and populous City, as well by Art as Nature, very ftrong- 
ly fortified and furniflied with a large and commodious Haven. 

V hill f ft own, or Kingl^cfr is the chief of Kings-County ; burnt by 
the Rapperees. , 

Mary-burrovj^ or Qtteenfiown, is the chief of Quecnt-County. 
Kilkenny, on the River Ntwry, the chief Seat of the Bifljop, and is 
alfli honoureJ with two Noble Seats of the Duke of Ormond, vit. the 
Caltle of Kdhenriy and Donmore Houfe ; fcitunre in a brave Mid well- 
inhabited Coantrey, a fair and wealthy Borough-Town. 

Molingar, the chief Town of IVcJl-Meath. Ralimore, well Fortified 
by the /r///;, but furrendred July \o. i6i?r, 7r//w is a Borough and 
Market Town, the chief of Eafi-Meath. 

Caterloughy commonly C/^lcH«[h, a fine Market-Town , having a 
ftrong Caftle, and the Chief of that County, Scituate near the plea- 








Hint Navigable River by Boats, frpm/Soj/f, placed above 30 >i/b mites- 
from Dublin, and in a convenient Stage from thegreateft part of Mun- 
Iter and Lfinfter, Wtcklow at the mouth of the River Letrim, is the 
chief of the County (b called. 

Rqffe, once populous, and well-traded, built by Ifahel the daugh* 
ter of Richard Strong-how , Earl of Pemhoke, feated upon a brave Na- 
vigable Ri'"er, where Ships of )four or five hundred Tun may fafely 
rids before its Key. 

Longford, which gives Name to the County, and Titls to the now 
Earl OT Ijmgford. 

Lanesborough is a confiderable Pafs over the Shannon, 

Kildare, a fair Inland Town, well frequented,defended by a Caftlej 
a Placa much celebrated in the Infancy of the Iri(h Church, for its 
St. Bridget, a holy Virgin, and Difciple to St. Patrick. 

Wexford, iesttd in the mouth of the River Slany, and drives f. great 
Trade with Brifiol. It hath a fair Pool within a Sandy Bar, lying be- 
tween it and the Sea, wherein are yearly taken great ftore of Her- 
rings, to the great advanta^;e of the Place. The River is Navigable 
by fnaall Boats up to Inijh Corfejjiibout eight miles beyond this Town, 
where there is a good quantity of Iron made, which is carried down 
the River and fo difperied into (everal parts of Ireland. 

Ferns is a BiihopsSee, Dumannon is a confiderable Caftle,command- 
ing fVaterfordH^v&n, where King WiUiam and the Prince of Denmark 
embarqu a for England, 

The chief Rivers in this Province are, i. The Boyne • The Battel at 
the Boyne in 1 690. will as well Enternize the Mem y , the Valour, the 
ConduA, the Hazard of his Majefty King WtUiam ti III^. as Lament 
the Death of the Renowned Duke Scbonberg, and of the Pcverend 
Dr. Walker, 2. The Barrow, j. The Liffe or Uffy. 4. Tuc Nuer, 
5*. The Slanj or Urrin, 

In this Province are comprehended 926 Pariflies j whereof 47 are 
Boroughs that return Parliament-men ; 16 Market-Towns 


Of the Province oi V L S T E R. 

By the Latins, Ultonia^ or XJlidia ; by the Jrifi Cui Gmly, by the 

kP'clcb, Vitro ; by the EngUfh Ulfier, 

It is now divided into nine Counties, i, Dunmgnl^ cr Tjrcovnel. 

2. London-' 


Of IriUnL 

\k r 

Lcndondtrry^ Atttrim,:3^ny'Ardin)iigbi Tyrsnti Or Tyf-Otn] Parmaniigh\ 

Iwchief pbaes are ;Z>f/J7»(7g^^/, a; Borough Town, with a good Ha^^ 
ven, and commodious Harbour: Raphoc, near the Lough SmlJe, onoo 
a City and Bilhoprick. Ballijhennon hath a good Haven. 
.; Londonderry is the befl: built Town of any in the North of Ireland, 
feated in a Ven'mfula of 40 Acres; on one fide invironed witha River^ 
and on the other fide impafitble, with a deep and Morifh Soil, ftrong» 
\y fcituated by Nature, and ftronger by Art; very remarkable for its 
Defence in the Siege 1689, Mr Ceorge IValkcr^ Kedor of Doff/^bmore 
in Tyrone J Governour, againft 20000 Irijlo, for toj" d^ys; whom nei- 
ther the Number nor Rage of the Enemies without, nor thofe more 
Cruel ones within. Famine and Sicknefs, and the Fatigue (/ War, 
could ever make them think of Surrendring. 

Culmore Forty at the Entrance of Louzh Foyle ,; is witnefs of the 
brave Undertaking , and great Succefi of the Montjoy of Derry , 
aod the Phoenix of Colrainey loaden with Provifion for the Relief of 
Londonderry f and conveyed by the Dartmouth Frigat, in breaking and 
pafling the BooWj to the inexpreflible Joy and Tranfport of tiiat di- 
ftreffed Garifon, when they only reckoned upon two days life. 
Cokaine, a confiderable place, and once gave name to this County. 
St. ?atrick*s Purgatory, is a Vault or narrow Lane in the ground, of 
which ftrange ftories are reported by the Irifh. 

Antrim gives name to the County, but Carrickfergm, or Knockfergm 
is the chief of the County^, feated upon a large and capacious Bay, 
with a fafe and con<modious Port. 

Belfafi and Lisborny or Lifnagarve, arc two thriving Towns. Connor 
is a fmall Biflioprick united to Down. Dunhce is a Caftle on the North, 
feated on a Rock hanging over the Sea. 

Down- Patrick is a Borough Town, and head of the County; a Bi- 
flioprick, famous for the Bones of St. Patnck, St. Bridget, and St. Co- 
lumbw, and one of the moft Ancient Towns in Ireland, 

Strangford gives name to a large Lough and Bay. Bangor, Hihbo- 
rough, Newton, and KiUileagh^ are Borough-Towns. Drowore is a fmall 
Bilhoprick. Newry is a Borough and Market Town, Dtmdrum and Ar- 
glas are two Sea- Port Towns. 

Armagh,or Ardmagh, is yet an Archbiftiop's See, and the Metropo- 
litan of Ireland: Here was King IVtlUarn firlt Proclaimed, in the year 
1690, by the Lord Bhwy. Charhmcnt is a Borough, and ftrong For- 
trefs, very remarkable for many Adions in the late War. 



Of IrtUnd. 



T>imgiimon is cfteehied the chief Town in the County of Tyrom, Stra- 
^tf»« is a Borough-Town. 

Cafile Omagby or Drummaragh, is a Borough-Town on the R. Vo 
water^ Ckgber is a fmall Biftiopiick. 

Eniskillmgi or Imflikillmg, is the chief Town in Fermanagh County, 
and is &!TiOus for the Valour of its Inhabitants in the late War ;reat- 
ed in an lHandin the middle oithcLskQ Earn , (which is there divided 
into two parts), and guarded with two Forts. Jarmon and Tully are 
two Caftles. Balleck at the mouth of the Lake. 

Mmagban is a Borough-Town, and chief of the County. G lajhlogh 
vtnd Clonijh are two fmall Towns. Cavan is alfo the head of its County. 
Behurbet \s2l Borough-Town. Kilmorea Bifliops See. 

Tiie chief Rivers of this ( junty are, i. The Banne, which pafles 
through the great Lake Neagb. 2. Lougb Foyle, which makes a great 
Bay or Lake of the fame Name. As alfo does, 3. Swilly, 4. Lagan 
Water, f. Neunry. 6. Po River. 

In this Province is one Archbiflioprick, 6 Bifhopricks, 60 Baro- 
nies, 14 Towns, of Trade, 54 Towns that return Parliament-men, 
30 Caftles, and 214 Parifties. 

Cffhe Province of CO NNJVGHT, or ConAught^ and 
Connagh. Lat. Conuda&cCoftachtia. 

. This I'rovince, as it is divided into feveral Counties, fo every Coun- 
ty is feverallycommemded for its Soil. Clare is faid to be a County fo 
conveniently feated, that either from the Sea or Land there can be 
nothing wiflied for more. 

Galloway is no lefs thankful to the Husbandman, than profitable 
to the Shepherd. 

Mayo is repleniflied with pleafure and fertility, abundantly rich in 
Cattel, and plenty of Honey. 

Skgo, Coafting upon the Sea, is noted for feeding-and raifing of 

Letrim is fo full of grafs and forage, that it fometlmes endangers 
^heir Cattel. 

"* Rofcommon is plain and fruitful, feeding many herds of Cattel, and 
yielding plenty of Corn. 

Clarcy or Tbomond, gives Title to an Earldom, fonietimes chilled 
Twomondy or TwoivouNy gives Name to the County. KilLdow, or Labif^ 
is a Market Town, and Bllhops See. Enis Town is a Borough three 
miles Nortb of Clare. Bonrotty is fortified with a Caftle. 

H Ci.: 



5d ' Of IreUfttL. ^^ 

Galloway, a BiihopsSee, and the third City of this Kingdom, for 
beauty and bignefs, feated near the fall of the great Lake or Rivec 
Corhes in the Weftcrn Ocean j furrendrcd to the* Efigltjhy J4ily 22. 91. 
A noted Empory, and famous for Trade ; nigh to this City is the 
Lough Garble f about 20 miles in length, and 3 or 4 in breadth ; in 
which are many fmall Ifles. 

tuam is an Archbifliops See, once a famous City, now decayed. 
Atbenree, or Aterietb, is a Borough Towflt Cknfart ftill keepeih the. 
Title of a Bifliops See. .*' • 

But the Battel of Aghrim will eternize the Valour of the Enghfu 

Mayo is reckoned the chief Town of the County, now decayed^ 
once a Biflioprick, now joined to Tuam^ and- the Jurifdldion to Ktl- 
lata, which is a fiiiall Town and Bifhoprick, near a large Bay. Caftk 
Bar is a fmali Borough Town ; in this County is the Lough Malk^oi, 
a large extent and well itored withFifti. 

Skgo, in the year 16^2, was but a very poor Town, but 'tis feated 
on a great Pafs, and moft convenient thorough* fare of all Comaugbty 
into the Province of Ulfitr ; Flanked on the Weft by a Bay of th© 
Sea, which fafely brings to it Ships of good Burthen ; and on the. 
Eaft with a Lake of about y miles in length, ftored with brave Sal- 
mon, Pikes and Trouts ; Protected by a Itrong Fort, and the whole 
Gountrey enriched with as good Land as any in Ireland ^ and Neigh- 
boured within few miles of the great Lake Earn^ %o miles in length, 
and half as broad. Being thus happily fcituate, and accompanied 
with fo many ."advantages, will doublefs be of great confequence. Acoi> 
ry, once a Bilhoprick, now ruined and united to Elfh'mm Rofcommon^. 

Letrim is feated in a fertile Soil, near the Lough Alyn on the River 
Shannon i reckoned the chief of the County. Cantck Drumrujh is alfo a 
fmall Borough Town on the River Sbamon. 

James Town^ a place commodioufly feated for Trade, upon the Ri- 
ver Sbanmn, being paflable by Boats from thence as far as Killaloo^ near 
Liwmci ; which is 80 miles or thereabouts, except the neceflity of 
once unloading by reafon of At hlone' Bridge. 

Rofcommon, which gives name to the County, otherwife poor and 
mean. Atblone^ a Bilhoprick, is a place of great ftrengch, and the Key 
of Connaugbtj on both (ides of the River Sbanmn^ joyned by a ftately 
Stone Bridge ; guarded on Conmught fide with a Caftle, andftrongly 
fortified with an Earthen Wail, but could not rcfift the Power and 
brave Attacks of the Englijh. Elph'm is a Bifliops See. Tulsk is a Bo- 
tough, and Market-Town. Boyle will be famous for the Name of the 
HQtiQUidihX^ RobiTt BoyUj Efquire, the EngUpt Philofophcr. 



Of IrtlinA. 


This Province contains %% Baronies, it hath one Archbifltoprick, 
6 Bifliopricks, beHdes Angchcnj and Mofo^ united to Tuam, 7 Market- 
Towns; 8 Places of Commerce and Trade ,* iz places that return 
Parliament-men, 24-Caftlesofold ereAion, and 366*Parinies. 

It is well watered with Loughs^and Ri\rers, plenty of Fifli and 
Fowl ; and on the Weftern Sea it hath many commodious Bays^Creeks, 
and Navigable Rivers ; but its Air not fo pure and clear as in the 
other Provinces. 

Of the Province of lA U N S T E R, lytheLmtks Mo- 
momia, hjthe Irilh Mown, or Wown. 

It is divided into j Counties, (by fome into 6 ) viz, Tipperar^, or 
Holy Crofs ; TVaterford, Corky to which is joined the County ot Def- 
wond, UmerickiStnd Kerry, Thefe Counties are divided into yi Baronies. 

It is large, Mountainous, Woody, and of a different Soil; the Val- 
leys garnimed with Corn Fields, and generally fertile ; well watered 
with Rivers and Bays, abounding in Corn, Cartel, Wood, Wooll, and 
Filhjthe laft whereof it affords in every place plenty, but efpecially Her- 
ring and Cod, near the Promontory ofEraaghy that lies between Bantry 
and Baltimore Bay. The Air mild and temperate, neither too fcorching 
hot, nor too pinching cold ; comprehending, befides many fafe Nati- 
ons for Ships, 24 Towns of Note and Trade, 66 Caftles of old ere- 
dion, and 802 Pariifaes. 

Tipperary, once a famous place for Pilgrims, now gives name to the 
County. Clonmel, in the Connty o(Ttperary,a. place of great ftrength 
and confequence, both for its convenient fcituation upon the River 
Sbottr, paiiable to it by Boats, 20 miles above fVaterford; as alfo for 
that it is the Place of Judicature for the faid County, larely made Pa- 
latine. Itis^ Market- Town and Borough. 

Cajhel or CaJJeJ, is an Archbiflioprick. Thurlei is a BoFOugh-Town 
on the River Sbure, CarickyOvCarick-Mac-Griffinyisa. Market Town on 
the fame River. 

The North part of Tipperary beareth the name of Orwond, and is 
honoured by giving Title to our prefent Duke ofOriond. 

tVaterfordy on the River Shour, a well traded Port, a Bifhops See, 
and the fecond City of Inland j tho feated in one of the moft barren 
parts, and moft foggy Air, yet it is of fafe and commodious Site for 
Trade ; for Ships of the greateft burthen may fafely fail to, antl ride 
at Anchor before the Key thereof, which is one of the beft in the 
King's Dominions^ and chief of the County. 

Ha Dunbar' 


Of TreUnii 




, Dmgurvan is a Borough Town,reated on the Sea, well fortified with a t 
Ca(tle,wiihacommodious Roadfor Ships.£iyw0r«isaBorough Town on ^, 
the River Blackwater, once a BiHiops See, but now united to Waterford, 

Corky uposithe R. Lee, the principal of chat County , and a Bifliopi- 
'See, well walled, and fitted with a very commodious Haven, confifting 
chiefly of one ftreet in length, inhabited by a civil , wealthy, and indu- 
ftrious people, generally all Etiglijh. It is the Shire-Town of the largeft, 
richeft, and bell inhabited Countrey of any in IrelanJy and the only 
ThoroughTare of all Goods and Commodities fent moft commonly 
this way owt of England, Sept'. 29. 1690. aftbr 3 or 4 brave Aflaults 
by the Englifhy it furrendfed to King JVilUt^m., tho the.Gariibn confifted • 
of poo, who were all made Prifoners of War. 
. K'wgfale upon the mouth of the River Banyj commodious Pprtiop- 
pofite to the Coaft of 5ptfi», the only fafe and ready vPort in all Ireland 
for the Englif^ Ships ana others to victual at, or refrefh theinfelves, har 
ving a lirong Caftle for its defence ; which alfij furrendred to.the 
£»g///fc, OcSlob. 17. 1690. 

r(7M^i&<>/ upon the Sea, with a fafe Road, and convenient Haven, and 

is the moft convenient place in all the South, Par^s of Ireland, froni 

whence to tranfportCatteljShecpidr.toany part of the Pf^efi of England. 

Other places in thisCounty, are Roffe, once of gpod account,anda 

l^ifhoprick, now united to Cork. Charkfville, Mallo, Brandon- Bidge, BfiU 

. limore, &c. are Borough Towns. 

Limricky or tough- Meaghy the Principal of that County, and thjB 
(burthineftimationofalltheKJngclom, fcituateinan Ifland, compaifed 
about with the River Sbanmny by which means well fortified : A weH- 
frequente(^ Empory, and a Bifbops See.Diftant from the main Ocean ■ 
about 60 miles, yet Ships of good burthen come up clofe to the very 
Walls; of a happy fcituation in refpe<5lpf TralBckand Commerce. It 
is counted two Towns, the Upper, where, Hand* the Cathedral Church 
and Caftle: The lower fenced with a Wall and Caftle. TheJaftTown 
that furrendred to . the Englijhy and compleated the Conqueft of Lrx- 
land. Kilmallock is a Borough Town,. Rich and Populous, jiskeaton ztiA 
Jtbdora are fmall Towns of note. 

;|. Dingle, a Borough and Market-Town, is^thc' chief of the County .of 

. '. *ffr<;; itis very well feated foi Navigation, upon a large Biy of the 

fame name, the mo!^ Wefiern of note in all Ireland. Arafeart is a Bo- 

rouglvTown, nigh the. Sea, and^ Bilhoprick- rM/^about.4 mUes 

.from the Sea. 

' To conclude ; Thefe four Provit|ces make up a Kingdom, as beau- 
iiful and fweet a Countrey as any ^nder Hsaven^ Jftored with many 

' goodly 





Of Df/tmdrk. ' 5j 

gQpdly Rivers^ repleniflied with abundance of i>il forts of FiHi^rprinJc- 

led with many Brave Iflandj and Lakes, adorned with goodly Woods 
; 'for building of Houfes or Ships; full of good Forts and Havens; of a 

Soil moft fertile, and the Air mild and temperate; fothat there is no- 
' thing wantinjg that may ferveto make it amoft magnificent and flou- 

riihin^ Kingdohi. 1,, , ^ 



Of Denmgri* 



• ' i 

Engl is a M6iMrchy which in formqr timesi was^ vay fcrtni- 
dable bom to Trance and lEnglmd \ and though the Englijh for 
many years have minded no other Intereft in this Country but that 
of the Sahick and North Trade ; yet fincc thefe two Crowns arpnow 
come to a clofer Union, it may be worth our while to 16oki)ack and 
confiderthe State ef that Monarchy, wherein the Engl^ hath fo 
great an Intereft by the late Marriage oS George Pt'mcQoi Dpunark with 
the Princels yf»». ^ ;., ;3.>. . v ,t ^ ' li 

Concernitig^the Origimil bf thcVJiiie, we read not many of the 
more ancicnt*<jrff* and£«n« Atithors, excepting Jomandesi^nd Venan- 
ttMs Fortunate, who yet but (lightly mention them. In the Freticb and 
Englijh Hiftories they are often remembred, firftin the Reign of Tkec- 
dorick King of An^ratiay about the year p6, under their King Cocblia- 
ri/Kf, foraging upon the Sea-coaft of GaMl-BeJgick ; flain in their return 
by Theodehert, Son to Theodorick. After this in the Reign of Charles the 
Great, under their VnncG Gotrio»s or Godfrey, then warring upon the 
Ohertriti, the Inhabitants about Rofiock tejte Krantz,w ; and invading 
FreiJIandwhh a Fleet pf 200 Sail ; threatning the Neighbouring Saxons 
with Subji6<^onj and much endangering the Empire of the French, if 
the death of Godfrey, jnd the Quarrels about Succeffion had not pre- 

Afterwards their mention is very frequent and famous during the 
Race of the Freneb Kings of theCaroline Line, and of the Monarchy of 
thQEnglifh Saxons, withTundry Fleets and Armies unrefiftible, invading 
France and £»g/<z»</,conquering and fubduing the Englifh Saxon Nation, 
and giving the name of Normandy to part of France ; for by that com- 
mon Name of Normansy the Dams^ as well as the Norweis a^n^ Swetbes 
were then called. 

The word Dane^ Saxo Grammaticus, Krantz»im, and others fabuloudy 
derived from one Dan, sl King hereof, about the year of the World 
2898. Fee anus from Henen or Denen, Hgnifying a Cock in the Danijh 
Language, the Arms of the Alani their Progenitors. But how they 
got thither is very uncertain. Andrem Velleitts in Cambden, from the 
Dabi, a people of Jfia, and Mark fignifying a Border. Etbelwardui 
from Donia, a Town fometimes fince feated herein. Montanttf, from 
^Aba ; fignifying water, in regard of the Scituation of the Country. The 
more Judicious fetch their Name from the Bay or Strait of the Sea caU 
jiecl by Mela Sinus Codanus, about which Strait, and in the Iflands ad- 
jacent^ thefe people^ fmce their firft being known, have to this day. 



Of Demffdrk: 


inhabited. From this Name hath the Country been called Denmarkk 
A Nation famous a long time for Arms^ and their many and great Vi^ 
dories atchieved abroad. Themfelves (never conquered by Foreign 
Power) Lords fometimes of England and SwetbelanJ, Yet (uch is iher 
Viciffitude of Kingdoms, th^t Denmark was in the com pafs of four 
yc.\rF,vix» 16^7, j8, ^9, and i66o. almoft conquered by the Swedes, 
the Hiftory of which Wars are well written by Sir Roger Manley ; there 
you will find the King of Swedtn fighting with a wonderful refolution, 
and continued SuccelTes; theKingof D^nm^ir/^withan undaunted and 
indefatigable courage endeavours to check his Career, till by the Me- 
diation of the Dutch and Englijh the Treaty of Rojchilt in February 
i6f8.vvas concluded, and the two Kings had a friendly Interview; 
Yet foon after this the War broke out again j for the King oi Sweden 
upon pretence of nonperformance of Articles, with much fecrefie got 
h^ioxQ Copenhagen mAui^uft i6f8« (bthat the fete of Demnark depend- 
ed upon the Invincible Courage and ConduA of King Frederick, 
who defended Copenhagen with a Royal Magnanimity till the death 
&f the King of Sweden^ when was concluded a Cecond Peace upon 
the Bafis cS the former Treaty, Not to mention the late Wars 
whenein thefe two Northern Crowns were again imbrued in blood, ■ 
where the Swedes were overcome frequently in Field-fights, and in 
Sieges, as well as at Sea. They loft JVtfmar in Mccklemburg, and lb' 
veral places in Scbenen. And the Danes had made, as well as Bran* 
denburgi brave Acquifitions and Revenges, had not the French King 
forced thern to a Reftitution. 

The Monarchy of Denmark, 2ls \ti% now united and incorporatedx 
contains two Kingdoms, Dtnmark and Norway ^ to which we may 
add Groenlind, and the Iflands of Ifeland, Shetland and Ferro. Den* 
mark is fituate between the Ocean and the BaUkk Sea, conipofed of a; 
Teninfula, contiguous to Germany ^ a Coaft adjoining to Sweden, and 
of divers Ifles which are between the Veninfttla and the Coaft, with 
fbme othejs further diftant. Containing five more general pares or 
names of i. '^■Jutland, 2. The Iflands of the SuwWp or Sundt. .3. Ha* 
litid, 4. Sehomn. 5*. Bit king. 

0/ Jutia cr Jutland; 


TH E Veninfula called Jutland, was once the Clmbria Cherfonefm of 
Vtol. from the Cimhrians its ancient Inhabitants f who were fol- 
lowed by the Jt4ites, Saxons, and Angles : after thefe came the Danes, 
by whom it is now poflefled) being divided into two parts, North 



' j^ .V. Of DenmArk. ^ -> 

and 50wf£; the 50«r/& pare is divided alfo into two Dukedoms, vk,, 
■ Ducat ftt Holfatia, or Ho/fiein, a ad Stejukenfts Ducat hs^ or Slejwkk* 

^i • Of the Dtikedom f)/Holftein, e;r ^. Ifatia Ducatus. , ;•. 

TH I S is a Woody, low and Marfiiy Country, and contains the 
Provinces of Ditbmerjia, Stormaria^ Holf'atia, and Wagria^ pro- 
perly and ftridly fo called. Stormaria, Stormaren, hath for its chief 
places Hamburgoy Manonisy Ptol, te(le Cluver, a free Imperial City, and 
a Hans'Town of great ftrength, as well by Nature as Art, adorned 
with fair and beautiful Structures, viz.. the Council-HoufejExchange, 
and nine Churches; a place of great Trade, and well relbrted to by 
Merchants and Faftors of feveral Nations. Anno i;74. this Town 
was adjudged to belong to the Earls of Holfiein, and that determina- 
tion ratify 'd by Charles the Fourth And 'tis faid that the Hamburgers 
took the Oath of Allegiance to Chr'tfiiern Earl oiOldtnburg^thQ firft King 
of Denmark of that Houfe, as Earl of Holjlein ; but fince they live as a 
= free State, and being jealous of their Liberty, or their Guilt, they are 
always in a pofture of Defence, and can upon all occafions raife 
c f oo Citizens well armed, befides their conftant Garifon, and the 
promifcd afliftance of the reft of the Hans-Towns. 2. Crempa, Krem- 
pen, a ftrong and well Fortified Town, reckoned one of the Keys of 
the Kingdom. GluckstadtfilucfiaMum, which commands the pafTage 
up the Elbe. 6. Vinnenbergy Vinntberga^ a ftrong place, and of great 
confequence. 7. Bredenberg, one of the beft Towns in the Country, 
remarkable for the ftout refiftance it mads againft PPallefiein 1628. 

Ifagria, JVageren^ hath for its chief places Lubeea, Lubeck, the Treva 
of F:ol. te(te Marc.Sanf. & BrietiojUn Imperial Free City, and a Hans- 
Toivn, and Birtiops See, built upon a rifingHiil, on the fummit where- 
of is placed the Cathedral Church, called St Maries : befides which, 
it hath nine others,The Streets are ftraight and fair ; 'tisFortfied with 
a Ditch and double Wall, in circuit about fix miles, and enjoys a good 
Trade. Heylin tells us there is not a City of Germany which can equa- 
lize it, either for the Beauty and uniformity of the Houles, the plea- 
fant Gardehs, fair Streets, and delightful Walks without the Walls ; 
feated upon the River Tr^at^e, which runs through the midftof it about 
' eight Engli^ miles from the Baltick. Guarded at the River's mouth by 
the Fort TravemunJ, and is in a ftriA Alliance with the States-General 
of the United-Provinces, ever fince Anno 1648, The other Towns 
are Newfiadty Pken, Plona, upon a Lake fortified with a Caftle, and 
belonging to a Prince of the Houfe of Holfiein^ called Holfiein Floen. 



of Vinmtrk^ ^ 

OUentfurgh, Segehert, the Lirimiru of PtoL and OUejloe, DitMarftd^ 
Ditbmarfen, hath for its chief places MeUrop, the prime Town of the 
Province. LunJen, Bri&nbutttlj & HeiJe, Holfatia, Hol/ace Gallis, Hoi- 
fiein, is the laft member of this Eftate, though giving name to the 
whole ; the chief places in it are Kiel, alias Cbilonmm, Seated upon 
the Baltick Sea, a well traded Town, with a large Haven, and flore' 
of Shipping, 2. Remborg, the faeft fortified^ and It%,ehoa on the Ri- 
ver Stoer, 

Adolfb of Scbaumherg'm the Year r 114. (h} Lotbarim Emperor and 
Duke of Saxony) was made the iirft Earl of Hot/fein. Molpb the laft 
Earl ; of which Houfe dying without liTue, the whole Edate fell to 
Cbrifiiern, Son of Theodorick Earl of Oidenberg, who being made King 
of tknmark, prevailed with Frederick the third, Emperor, to have the 
whole Ef^ate erected into a Dukedom, 1474. and by this means uni- 
ted tf> ^he Crown of Dfww<»r4:^ the Kings thereof, as Dukes of HoU 
(hin, being counted Princes of the Empire ; though they neither fend 
to the Imperial Diets, nor contribute to the publick Taxes, nor ac- 
knowledge any Subje<5lion more than Titular: Yet fmce this uniting 
of thefs two EOates, the Title of Duke of Holbein, and a good part 
of the Countrey, was in a manner difmembred from the Crown, and 
given to Adoplb, Brother of Chri^iern the Third. Afterwards ano- 
ther part of this Countrey was beftowed upon Jobn, Younger Bro- 
ther to Frederick the Second. So that now the Houfe of Holjhin is di- 
video i: ito three principal Branches, whereof the King of Denmark is 
the Head, and (landing ProteAor of the firft Branch ; The other two 
Branches are that of Hoilfteirt Gottorp, and that of Holftein Sunderburg, 
which is divided into four Branches ; fo that the Dukes of Holfhin 
are now increafedto a great number: of which the Duke of Holftein 
Gottorp is the moft confiderable ; yet was greater before he loft: rhe 
King of Denmark his Brother- in-Law's favour, by engaging too far 
with the Sivedefy whereby he loft to the King his Rights of Sove- 
raignty over the Dukedonr of Slefwicky and has little or nothing 
there left befides hisCaftle at Gottorp. And in Holflein his SubjeA are 
under Contribution, whilft himfelf refides at Hamburg, his place of 
refuge. ^ 

Slefvicenjis Ducatusy SlefwickjOr Hertzo^thumb, Incolis, •« 

TH I S is that part of Jw/Z^w^/which lies next to Hol/hin, 2nd was 
firft eredled a Dukedom by King Eric of Denmark j who gave ic 
to iValdemar ; but Male-ilTue failing, ic returned to the Crown, and 

I ' was 


}f -V 

was by Margaret^ Queen of Denmarkf Norway aftd Sweietty conibrredt 
upon Gff?r<»'^/ F^irl of Holfitm» Aftcrwacd« it fell, together with HoU 
fiein, to Chriftkrn of Oldenbmgh King of Dennfarky by whom it was 
with /ib//?w» Incorp jrated in that Crown. A Country which once in 
three or four years thf* Inhabitants let the Pools overflow the Land, 
where they catch plenty of Fifh, and the Mud inriches the Soil. Its 
chief Towns are SchUfwyck, Skfuicumj & HeiMa, te(h Crantzio, an 
Epifcopal See, and Head of the Dukedom, Seated on the River Slea^ 
whichfalls into the B<»/fic^5e/»; where it hatha conimodious Haven. 
2. Hufum, Seated on the KvJ&r Eyder, Fortified with a Caftle. 3. Ha- 
tkrs'lebetJi Fortified wi^h the Strong C ft!e Hansherg. 4. FUnshergy 
with its coffliftodiousand deep Port. Between Fknsberg and Slefwick 
is a Country that goes by the name of Afigekn, from whence En^nd 
had its firft denomination ever fince King Egbert, y. The Port of 
Chri/litrv- pries, now Fortified by the Fort Frederick. 6. Gortopj a 
Sirong Fort or Caftle^ th&Refidence of the Duke of Holfiein, ', . Fre- 
Mrkkftadt upon the Eydeti built by one of the late Dukes, int«nHing 
to iiave fet up a Trade of Silk there j to which pur pole, in the Year 
1633. he fern afplendid Embafly into^ Mufcovy dndPerjia, whofe Tra- 
vels are defcnbed by 0^<»r/«j. . •• r, • V: • 

Of North Juitland. 


NOrth Juitland is divided Into four DiocefTes, Ripeft, Arthu^en, 
JlhouY^^ s^nd iVibourg, ^ - : , 

The Dioccfs of Ripen contains feven Walled Towns, and ten Ca^ 
&les; its --hief places are Ripen^ an Epifcopal Sea, Fortified^ with a 
Caftle. 2. Koldifig I tht place whete Toll is paid for the Cattel that 
paflfes that way. 3, Frederick Odi, or Frederica, lies in a Scitua- 
tion of that importance, that Charks Gufiavm having taken it in the 
Jate Wars 16^7. opened himfelf a way to pafs his Army over the ite 
into all ':ne Neighbouring Iflands, and to alarm Copenhagen ; an khion. 
both bold and unheard of; for he marched his Cavalry and his Car- 
riages over 3 great Arm of the Sea, where ueforc a fing^ toot^man 
was afraid to expofe his life 

The Diocefs of Arthafiay or Arthufent contains feven Cities, and 
five Caftles; its chief places are Arthuftn, a well-freqeutcd Port 5 
Kalla a ftrong ^/jace, Horfens and Renderen. 


'- iJiiptpH^cipewmppfiR^^ 



Of DefmarJc: 


The Diocefi of PTthourg hath three Ca(IIes,aii3 threcWalledTow^s; 
the chief is ?flW^, where are the Courts of jfudlcature for all ^hit-^ 

The chief Jflands belonging to Denmark, that lie difperfed in the 
Baltick Sea are, Zdand, Fionia or F«w», Alfen, Arrot or <<4rw, I,4x^* 
land, Laland, Falfier, Mme, Huen, or Wsen-Ifland, and Bornbolm, 

0/ /fe Baltick Sea. 

THIS is the Sinus Codanus of the Ancients, otherwife called Suc' 
vicum Mare, feu Balticum. Die Belthy or Oofiz^e Belgify La Mar 
Baltiaue Gallit^ tVareZikovie More, RuJJis, It hath three feveral paffages 
into It irom the Ocean, all of th tn under the command of the King 
of Denmark ; the fafeft and moft ufual is that famous Strait called the 
Fretum Sundicum* Le Sund, Gallis* Straet Vi'n Sund, Batavis. Orefund, 
Danis. The Sound, Anglis, So great a palTage, that there often fails 
200, fometimes 300 Ships through in one day, and is not above four 
miles over in the narroweft place. The fecond PafTage or Inlet lies 
between the Ifland.s oi Zeiand and Funen, and is about i6 miles over, 
and is called Beltfiund, or the great Belt. The third paffage is between 
Funei^ and Jutland, not above eight miles over, and is called the lelTer 
Belt. , This Sea is laid by Captin Collings to be Frelh Water. 

0/ Zeland. 

Z Eland, of old Codanonia, the greateft Ifland of the Baltick ^eas, is 
fcituatenear the main Lindoi Scbonen, from which 'tis feparaced 
by a narrow Strait, about four mile:ovir , which is called the Sound : 
through which all Ships muft pafs that have any Trade or Commerce 
in thefe Seas, and pay a Toll, or Impofition to the King, according 
to their bignefs, or Bills of Lading ; by v/hich arifeth his greateft Re- 
venue ; And for the fecurity of this Paifage, there are bailt two very 
ftrong Caftle3,the one in this Ifle, called Cronenburg, the moft delight* 
iul Seat in the World, affording a profitable and pleafant Profpec? of 
all Ships that Sail through the Sound; the other in Schoncn, or Scan^ 
dia, called Elfenhurg. In the Reign of Queen Elizabetb our Ea/lland- 
Fleet was by the King of Denfttar kthratned to be funk in cafe they 
palTed this Sound, or Straits of £j/e»o»r ; yet they made rhe Adventure, 
having only one Man of War, was. the Minion, and kept their courfe 
( maugre alloppoTition^ without any wound received ) forwards and 
back again. .' ../ .^ ^ >;.^ ; ,;)'i...i 

- 1 a The 






^0 W ^'f'^^rk. ' " 

The chief City of this Ifl^ad^ is Baphnia Riehenhavett, Danis, 
Koppenbagen Ger. Kopenhaven Belg,Cop€nhage Gal. Copenhagen AngL the 
Metropolis of the whole Kin^'dotn, fometime the ReficJence of the 
King, a Univerfity,Seated near theSeaiwith a good Port,andfafe Road 
for Ships ; Fortified with a Strong Caftle, containing one of the 
Faireft Arfenals in Europe j wherein is a Celejtial Glok fii foot Dia?- 

Chrifiiern the Fourth having laid the Foundation of a "Nei'T 3ity in 
the little Ifland of Armager^ joined it to the old by a Bridge, and cal- 
led it by the Name olChrifilerm Haven ; fo that now it is divided into 
two parts ; in the New Town is the Royal Caftle, the Mint, the Ex- 
change, and the Arfenal before-mentioned. This City was taken by 
FreJerickj Anno 1^12. and in the Year in^* ^ftera years Siege it 
was furrendred to Chrijliern the ^d. The Citizens now enjoy the. 
greaceft privilege of any City in Europ", 

Refchildia, RojchiUt, is the Burying-place of the Danijh Kings. Elfe» 
vour, Eljimria, is near to the (Irong Caftle and Palace of Cronenhurg, 
the Fortifications whereof was, and is the Key of the Bahiek Sea, en- 
larged into the Sea with incredible charge and pains by Frederickthe id. 
The Surrender of this Caftle to the Swedes by a Stratagem, Sept, the 
6th, i6^8. was like to have loft Copenhagen, and conlequently the 
whole Kingdom. 

Fredericks herg is a Fortrgfs built in a pleafant Plain, oftentimes the 
place of the King's retiremetjt; butmoft famous for that folemn inter- 
view and Entertainment that happp^ied between the late Kings ofSwe- 
den and Denmark upon the Coh ''' Aon and Ratification of the RofcbiUt 
Treaty. Other places are Kallenburg, Rivftead. Koge, Korfoer is the 
place where King Charles of Sweden landed his Army in bis Second 
Expedition againll Denmark, Aug. 8. i6y8. five Months after the a- 
forefaid Interview of the two Kings at Fredericksburg. Neftwood. Wa- 
rjngburg, was the firft place where the King of Sweden fet his Foot in 
Zeland'm his firft Expedition. In this Ifland are reckoned 340 Vil- 

The Ifland of Fionia or Funen, is the allignment of the Prince of 
Denmark j 'tis feated between Zeland and Juitland, feparated from the 
firft by a narrow paffage called the Belt ; from the laft by a narrower, 
called Middle-far-jound. 'Tis a fertile Soil, and pleafant Situation. 

Its chief place is the well-traded 0</f»/w, an Epifcopal See, for- 
merly the Seat of the General Aifemblies of the Kingdom, now kept 
at Copenhagen: adorned with two fair Churches, and neat Buildings-; 
near this place Count Guldenkw, the Vice-roy of Norway, wasoverta- 
•• ken 



^ ;; Of Denmark, r, " (Jc 

Ken iri his Coach by Charhi King of Sweden in his firft Expedition. 
Other Towns are MiMefare, Swinbergy with feveral other good 
Towns, four Royal Caftles, and 264 Villages, befides Gentlemens 

Mfen is a fmall Ifland bslongingto the Dukedom of Skjwick, whofe 
chief place is the Caftle of Sunderberg, giving Name to a Branch of 
the Royal Family, the Duke of Holfiein Sunderberg, ' 

Arroey or Ar'tay is a fmall Ifland belonging alfo to the Duke ofShf- 

Langlandy and LaJandj the firft is the largeft, the other the moft plen- 
tiful inCornandChefnutsj whofe chief place liW^jAcai/, a Town weti 
Fortified.* ' ^ ' • - ' ^^ ; y-'r- . : 

Falfter is a fmall Ifland fertile in Corn, its chief place is Nicopin, of 
a pleafant fcituation, called the Niipks of Denmark 

Mom Ifle is about twelve miles long, and fix broad, the chief place 
\sSteko, where, the 5xi^<?^//J^ Forces found a greater refiftance than in any 
of the other Iflands. 

Huen or Ween is remarkable for the obfervations of that famous 

The Ifland of Bomholtr- was granted to the Crown of Sweden bx tne 
late Treaty of Peace ; but fince, the Dmes have exchanged it for an 
equivalent propriety of certain Lands in Scbonen. 

Crofs we now over the Sounds and take notice of the other part of 
this Kingdom*, which lieson the Eaft Continent, called Scandiaj under 
whicli general Name it contains i1>e whole Kingdom oi Norway, the 
greater part of th'e Kingdom or Sweden, id fome ip^rtoi Penmarh 
That which did belong to Denmark^ isdivjcJed into three Provinces, 
HaUand, Schcnen, and Bltk'mg, now under the King of Sweden, by the 
Rofcbih Treaty ; yet here tnentioned, becaufe the places in the Map 
are more plainly feen, than in the Map of Sweden. - * 

HaQand is a Province for fertility of Soil, fweeetnefsdf Air, ftbre of 
Fifh, plenty of Lead and Brals Mines, fcarce inferior to any ; its chief 
places are IVansbourg^ Laholm, Helmfht, Falkevburg, and Tvrkow. 

Scbonen is the pleafanteft Countrey in aW Denmark, moft abundant 
in friiits, and flioals of Herrings; its chief places are Lmden, the Me- 
tropolitan Archbiftioprick of Denmark, with its famous Dial, where 
the Year, Month, Week, Day and Hour throughout the Year, asalfo 
the Motions of the Sun and Moon through eachDejireeofthe 7jodi:cky 
the moveable and fixed Feafts, &c. are diftinAly feen, being finely a- 
dorned, andfet forth in variety of delightful Colours. Other placesare 
Htl/iftgoburgam, or Elfinborcb, fortified with an impregnable Caftle, and 



. iii»;«;)jiMi,iij4.iu.. mi^n 

^ (Jft Of Norw^i 

one of the Forts defending the Smnd over-againft Cfonenhurg, Lanfcroof/i 
> Corona-Scama, Malmogia, or Elhogen, Tillhurp Wfied, Walltlfurg, Sim^ 
ptm-'baveny And Chifiiernfiadt, or Cbrifiiern^aoff . ^ <:' ^ 

JBleking is mountainous and barren ; its chifeff places are Cbrifiian<h 
fie, Abuys, Sdborgf Ellholm, Rotenby, and CareU'baven, often mentioned 
- in the late Wars. 

Denhtark hath been an Hereditary Kingdoin ever /ince the year 
1660, for fcwfore it was Eleiftive ; fo the Nobility do not enjoy thofe 
Privileges which they did before. 

The Kingftiles himfelf. Earl of Oldenburg and Delmefiherjl, as being 
the Eighth King of that Houfe, to which (he Crovya of Denmark feU 
in the year 1448, by the Eledion oiCbrifiiem the firft j and is to this 
day in their pofTeflion. 

The Opinion of I«//&cr hath been entertained in I>^?ww/le7erlince 
theReign of Frederick the firft, who was Ele<3:ed Jm^o lyz;, fo that 
there are two Archbifhops, and thirteen Biftiops fcr Denmark, 

The Forces of this Kingdom may be known by their former, and 
«!0v; late Undertakings againft the Swedes ; by which it appears, that 
they can raife a ftrong power at Sea, and make good Levies atCand^ 
forde fence of their own I^om^/iicK^/. 
> , The Revenue of this King confifts thiefly in the great Impoft laid 

upon all Ships whidh pafs through the Sound, which is the Key of the 
Baltick ; alfo in fome Crown- Lands, a great yearly Toll made of the 
Cattel ; as alfo of the Fi(b tranfpof ted into other Countries. 


their Words and Contrads, good Soldiers both at Sea and Land. 
The Women are fair^ difcreet, and courteous, fruitful of Children. 
The Danifli Ladies love hunting, and more freely entertain at their 
Tables^ than in their Bpds, thofe that come to vifit them. 
"For great Captains and men of War, it is famous ; ior Godfrey , ot 
Gotrims, who endangered the Empire of France ;for Siveno andCanu- 
r«^, the'Conquerors of England. For men of Learning, Tycbo Brabe the 
Prince of Aftronomersy Hemmgimsi Learned Divine, BertboUnma Phyfi- 
cian and Philofopher, Jobn Ckverins the Hiftorian and Geographer. 

v^l ., •; r;^f.t^»^f^ Vy ^t'^r/.j fvo^n-T. 


"}'■'. •* ^ 

.i=^.i>>f" '■ .■■■■■■ ' 


-Of ik KiMGDOM of NORWAY.^ 



NOrvegia, Lat. Nerigos VlifhNorway^Afigl contains the Weftern part of 
the Fenhfula of ScandinaviaythQ £a(tern part being part of ^afc'iji/e- 
land. A long ridge of mountains making the reparation, leaving Nor- 
way toward the Oceattf and Sweddand toward the Baltick Sea. From 
hence are tranfported Train-Oyl^ Pitch, Stock-fift, Mafis for Ships, 
Deal-hards. The Coaft of Norway, tho of a large extent, has few 
good Ports, by reafon of thefmall IJlands and Rocks that inviron it, and 
the Gulf of Maelftroom which fwallows and endangers all the Ships 
that come nigh it. Herhinius tells us, that this Northern Cbaribdts or 
For ago, by the Inhabitants Moskeftroom, is forty miles in extent. Kir^ 
c/&«r faith 'tis thirteen miles in Circumference; that it hath a motion 
afcending and defcending fix hours, by fucking in waters, and as 
many throwing them forth again. That part which lyes toward the 
Pole, is full of Forefts and Mountains, wherein there arcfomefew 
Mines of Copper and Iron. In the year ^646, w ^ difcovered near 
Opfiow or Alijlo, a Mine of very good Gold, which gave the Inhabi- 
tants occafion to fay, that they had got the Northern Indies, But that 
Boaft endured no longer than the Mine, which prefently vaniflied for 
fear of being riflbd. 

0/?/7o, Anjloye Gallts, the Attfloga of old, it was burnt down in the> 
time o^Chrtfi-iern theFourth ILingdi Denmark, and fince called C/&r/y?w- 
na ; 'tis a Biibop*s '^qq. Aggerbad is a Cattle near to it, full North from 
Seagen, th? mott Northern pomtoi Jutland. Stafanger is a Sea-Town, 
with a good Port, near which is t\\Q¥oxt Doe swick. the Herb 
Ojjifraga of Norway, which (haps the bones of Cattel that tread upon 
it. Eaft of Drontbeim lies the Countrey of Jemperland, formerly part of 
Nor7vay,but was by the Treaty of Bromsbroo, Anno 164^, yielded to 
the Swedes, to whom it is ftill fubje£t. 

This Kingdom has five Governments, with as many Caflles, Bahus, 
Aggerhus, Bergen-b/fs, Drontbem-bus, and Ward-bus. That of Bahus, 
with a Cattle of the fame name upon a Rock, was delivered to the 
Swedes by the Treaty of Rofchtlt ; Bergbeuh the better City, the feat of 
the Viceroy, with a new Fort called Fredertshburg ; and ;i Port into 
which Veffels have an eafier entrance,and where they are fafefroni the 
Winds, by reafon of the high Mountains which inviron it : The Mer- 
chants of the H.tns'Towns have there a Houfe and a Magizine. Dron'- 
them, in Latin Nidrojta, the Court of the ancient Kings ofNmi^ay, is 



Of Nomtj. 


f '- ' 

very muuh fallen to decay, yet it ftill retains the Title of an Arclibi- 
fhoprfck, andthe remains of orte of thefaireft and moft magnificent 

• Churches of the JVbr/A. Ships ride fafe in the Harbour, Ijut they ttiuft 

• have very good Pilots to carry them in. Here the People make a kind 
of Bread of Barly-meal, and Oats, which they bake between two 
hollow Fiint-ftones, which Bread keeps thirty or forty years. The Nor- 
wegtanssxQ\\it\t fubjeift to ficknefs; and of fuch a Conftitution, that 
when they are in a Fever, one ftice of Bacon does them xnore good 

■ than a. poached Egg : Their great inclination to Sorcery, makes them 
have their reputation of Selling the Winds to the Seamen. 

Finmark, which makes part of Lapland, advances into the Frigid 
Zetie, fo that day or night continues alternately for feveral Months to- 
gether. The Inhabitant's claim nothing of Property, but take the firft 
place that pleafes them; here to day, in another place to morrOw.They 
live upon Fifi, and Huntivg, and only pay an acknowledgment of cer- 
tain Skins to the King of Denmark, and carry their Filh to Berghen.ThQ 
C2Si\Q Qi IVardhw, with a Borough of goo Houfes, the moft Nor- 
thernly of the whole Continent, is in the middle of a little Ifland, 
where it ferves only to force the payment of cettain duties from thofe 
that Traffick to Arch- Avgel'm Mofcovy. The Haven is in the Wellern 
part of the Ifland, which Is feparated from the Land by an arm of the 
Sea, about a Quarter of a League broad, through which the Ships make 
Sail, and the places adjoining are not fo fubjed to the Ice, as other 
parts of the fame Sea. '-' M, . '■■"'" 

AstoT the Norwegians, we have not read of them in any ancient Au- 
thor ; both Name and Countrey feem more lately to have been given 
from their Northern Scituation, uniting with the Danes and Swedes; 
they were better known in the time of the French Empire, by the name 
of Normans; under which appellation in the time of CW/^/ the Sim- 
fk, they got the Province of Normandy conferred on RoUo the firft 
Duke thereof. Anno 912; afterwards fetling in their own Countrey, 
they were called Norwegians, from their Northern Situation ; Govern- 
ed by their own Kings till their final Subjugation by the D<«w<ri,which 
was by means of the Marriage of Hat^uin the laft Prince oi Norway, 
unco Margaret Queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, a fecond Se- 
miramis in the Hiftory of thofe times ; who having once got footing 
in Norway, fo aflured themfelves of it, that they have ever fince po£ 
feffed it as a Tributary Kingdom, fo that now Norway and Denmark 
are both fellow-Subjeds under the fame Kin^. 

The Commodities that thefe Kingdoms afford, are, Fifh, Hides, Tal^ 
kw^ Pitchy Tar^ Cordagt, Mafis, Fir'Boards, Wainfcot, 6cQ* 




Tn E Manarchy of Suevonia, or Suecia Lat. Sweden heolis, Siude 
Gal. SuetU Ital. by the Poles,52iu;.'c/^, ^n^ Sz,wi:dz.ka>Ztemta, is 
the moft ancient in Europe, if it be true that it has had above a hun- 
dred ana fifty Km^r, and thit the firft among them was the Son ot . 
7^^'one of the S;>ns of N.ab, Perhaps forthis ^^^jj -f V^ 
at the Council of Bajil a Sw:i^^ BilKop had t\p confidence to demand 

. ^'i!'. 




■JC' '. 

>> . {\' «' 

66 Of SmdeUnd, 

of the Prefidents the precedljncy before all the uilhops df Chri^endam. 
Some Hiftorians begin to reckdn the Kingsof Sweden fl-^i^i Jernmnkuj; 
and d^niQuftrace to ui, thattb« K\t\g6om W4$ Eledive till the Reign 
oiGufiavus dii Fa/ay t or Ericus^ who made it Hereditary to his Family^ 
iij the year 1 5-44 ; and at the fame time put down the koman-Catbolkk 
Religion to embrace the Lutheran Do^rine ; under this pretence of 
Religion, Charles the Ninth of Sudermania^ deprived his Nephew Si- 
^;/w«W of his Crown, who had been the i:^tb Eledive King of P<j- 
/rt»rt?ofchat Name. In the Reign of this Emperor Charles t'he Great, 
we find- them to have been a Free State, different from that of the 
Ddiwf;, entertaining then Harieldus^nd Ragenfridusy Kings of that Na- 
tion, driven out by the Sons of Gotericus. In Reign of Sweno the 
Firft, and Canutus the Great, they were fubje<5l to the Danes.^y Queen- 
Margaret about the yean 587, theywereagain fubdued to the D.mi^. ' 
yoke ; after long Wars fundry defedions and recoveries, not fully 
delivered until the year if 25". freed by Gufiavus aforefaid, and ever 
fmce commanded by Princes of their own Nation. The ancient Inha- 
bitants of this Nation are fuppofed to be the Smones, or Sitones of Ta- '- 
€itus. Inhabiting the greater Scandia of Vtol. by Aimonius called the^ 
Suemesy in his j\Stb and 10 17? Chap. By Jornanis de Rehus Geticis, the 
Suetbict it this day ; by long corruption the Sued, giving name ta the 
Countrey now called Suetia, or Suedeland, extended for a great fpace 
of Land betwixt the Baltick and the Frozen Seas. 

The King of Swedeland ftiles himfelf King of the Swedes, Goths, Van-^ 
dais. Great Prince of Pmland, Duke of Eftonia and Carelia, Lord of 
Ipgria; and bears in his Arms three Crowns. The prefent King is. 
Charles the Eleventh, of the Family of the Palatine of De«x Vonts. ^he 
Goths and Vandals are famous in Hiftory for their ConqueOs ; So have 
the Swedes been in the laft Age through the Valour of their late 
Kings, and their Conquefts they have made upon their Neighbours, 
which had made them almoft Mafters of the Baltick. 

The Peace at Bromsbroo near Cbrifiiample, Anno 1645', obliged the 
"King ofDenmarkto reft"ore yempterland indfierendallto the Swedes^nd 
to furrender him the IQands of Gotland and Oejtl to perpetuity, with 
the Province of H«iiy4»</ for thirty years. 

The Peace of Roskil near Cofenhagen, i6f8, furrendred Haltant 
wholly to the Swedes, together with Sehonen, Blekhg, ^nd the IflaiMl 
efBornholw, (wliich afterwards returned to the Danes by exchange o£ 
other Lands) the Fortrefs of Bahus, and the Bailiwick of Dronthem^ 

The Peace at Copeii^agen 1^660, confirms the Treaty of ^oskilyCs^x^t: 
for the Bailiwick, of £Nto/^rm, andacquires the liland of^^xt. 

' ..*-' 



The AcquKicionsof the Swtdt from the Empire by the Peace o^Mim-^ 
fter, were the Dutchy of Lower Fmerama, and in the Uffn-Stetiriy Gartz, 
Dam and Gohait,^ Iflahd - and Prinopalit^ of JSi^ey;, the Ifles and 
Mouths of Otiei^ ; the Dukedoms 6f Bri^fhix\d Ferelen ; The City 5/^- 
more, and part xAMfmar, TVtldbufe^ iij WtfifbaUa, the priviledgc to at- 
tempt the reft of Vomerania, and the new Marquifate of Brandenburgb, 

The Treaty of Ohva near Danizkk, 1660, was fo advantageous to 
this Kingdom, that ^he King of Poland there utterly renounced the Ti- 
de of Kmg dSoi/edeland for the future; and confented that Livonia 
from thenceforth fliould be Hereditary to the Crown of Sweden.This 
was intended of Livonia upon the North of the River Duna, where 
only Dunemburib was rcferv'd to the Crown of Voland, according to 
the Truce made at Stumfdorffor 26 years. Anno 163 f. 

The Peace withA^^/irflv/ reftor'd to Sweden 's\\th^t the Grand Duke 
bad taken in L« www. , ' ' s^ 

The Kingof 5w^//<» pretends to theSucceffion of Ckvessitidjuliers, 
by Title from his Great Grand- father Jobn Duke of Deux Fonts, who 
Married Magdalene the thirteenth Sifter to Duke John-Wtlliam, 

In the Eftates of this Kingdom, the Countrey-men make a Cor- 
poration, or Body, as well as the other Orders. 

Swedeland contains that part of Scandinavia, which is the beft, as ly« 
ing toward the Eafi. The cold Weather is there very long, and fome- 
times very bitter; however the Inhabitants do not (o much make ufe 
of Furs, as they do in Germany; they only wear Night-Caps, Woollen- 
Gloves, Juft-a-corps, and make great Fires of Wood, wiih which 
they are well ftored. •, v^V; "\^ ""^-^{Z'-' 

There are fo few Sick Peoj^Je aii^bttg tWM^ that T by f dans and Afothe- 
emeshvfQ little or no PraAice. The Inhabitants are equally Rich, and 
their greateftRevenue confifts in Coffer, whence the moft part of the 
Europeans fttch it, to make their fmall Money, their Cannon, and their 
Bells, The Cit\' of Stockbolm sAonc has in the Caftle above 800 Pieces 
of Great Artillery ; and it is believed, that in 'all the Kingdom therd 
are above 80000. Upon review of the Militia made 1661, fourfcore 
thoufand men were Muftered in Arms. 

Tl^s Countrey being fo full of Mountains and Woods,affords very 
little»'Corn ; fo that in times of Scarcity the Poor are forced to eat 
Yery?bad Bread. The Commodities of the Countrey, 'bofides Copper, 
are Butter, Tallow, Hides, Skins, Pitcb, Rojin, Timber, and Boards. 
The Cities are very fubjedto Fire, in regard the Houfes are all built of 
Wood. The Lakes and Gulfs are more conddffable than the Rivers : 
Nor is there any trade but upon the Coafts, where there is no venturing 

K 2 without 

"A- '*• 

'■'■ I. 


■■ f 




iiij^iiifMP.i« mii^iin I 




withoat a Pilot, becaofeof the great unmber of Rockt. The la 
there is fo thick, that Waggons go rafely upon it. In other places^ 
the Snpw affords rhcin the CoQvpniency of Travelling in Sledgesi 
The Horfesare fir for War; for, Bcfide^that they are ear?ky kept, and 
rardy lick,, they are wcU ufed to the Road j they carry their Rider 
fwimining, they readily take wide Ditches, they are Couragious and 
Ntmbje; and will aifaii the Enemy of their Rider with their HeeFs 
and Tccih both together. • •. 

Undiv the Nfiaic of Smy</«» are comprehended the Countries of Go-' 
tkta, Su'-citf-prppr^a J Bothnia^ Lapponia^ Suecia Finlandiay hgria^ and 
Livonia : wherein is cotitained ^ f Provinces (befidss the Acquifitions • 
aflnerafd) wherehi Reriius reckoneth 1400 Parifhes: The two firft 
toward the Weft, and the three iaft toward the Eaft ; the Gulf of Fi»- - 
/ii«A between them both. 

Gotbia, or GothlanJy whether fo called from the Gtf?i6i, cr falfly af- 
fedi 14 thjt more glorious Name, cannot well be known, is divided 
into Of ro Gothland, and H^eftro-Gotbland '. And thofe that conquered 
Spain WCTQ C9\\tA y'i/igotbs. . ^ ■■ ' ' 

ChieF places in Ofiregotb, or Eafl-Gothland, are Calmaria, Calmer in 
Sfftalandta \s a ftrong City, and commodious Port ; the pla^c where 
the Swedes ufually (ct 5ail for Germany and Denmark, The Cittadel 
there is as highly efteemed in thefe Northern ^parts, as that of Millain \ 
in the South. Norcopiay J^oreoping, is full of Copper- Forges, which af- 
fords Cannon to moft of the Europeai/s, Lincoping a BiAiop's See, 
where OUus Magnus was born, is remarkable for the Viftory of Cbariet 
o( Sudermaniaf afteiwards King of Sweden, Pf^ad/hin, Jeatcd on the 
Lake Veter-fVefierwick^ as commodioufly kv ihzBaltick Sea : To thele :^ 
wevmay add Bofkbolm UTpoii the Ifland Oe/^W; and ^isby upon the ji' 
{Hsind Gothland. 

Wejt-GothlanJ is divided into three parts; i^. Wefirc!^otb , vihof^Q 
chief places are Gotheburgum^ Gotbeborg^ov Gtittenhorg, where King Charles 
the IXth died ; it is a New Tpwn and Port upon the mouth of the 
Wenar Lake j Scara is a Biihoprick. idly Dalia, whofe chief Town 
\s Dakborgy a fair Town well fortified with a ftrong Caflle. ^dly, Ver- ^-"V 
melandia^ whofe chief place is Carolfiade upon the Not th part of ^^We- .' 
par Lake, is noted for its abundance of Brafs. Kallandy Scm^^nd^/ 
^/t^jfeiw^, we have already treated of in Dfwwijv/fe. ^BJ^ 

Succnia, Suecia propria^ or Swedelqnd, communicates its Name to the 
other Provinces of ^his Kingdom j which is divided into 10. parts or 
Provinces, viz. Upland, in which Stockholm y or Holmia^ is the Capital 
City, accommodated, with a Royal Caltte, and a Sea-Port at the 

^ — :-A.; ,:-.-.• -^v-;;.i.-..' ^,'\:; Mouth • 


^- !► 

Of SvitMuU. 


'Mouth of the Lake Mtler^ which they formerly had a Deflgn to have 
cut into the ^(m«r- Lake, to have joined the Baitiek »nd theOcean toge- 
ther, fo to fpoil the paflage of the Sound, This fVener-Likt is (aid to 
receive 24 Rivers, and disburthen it felf at one mouth with fuch noife 
and fury, that it is called the Devih-Mouth, This City is far better 
furnilh'd than it was before the War with Germany, In the year 1641. 
they began to ftraighten the ^tieets, and build their Houfes Uniform. 
The Harbour is very Secure, fo that a Ship may ride there without an 
Anchor ; but the Tower Waxholme on the one fide, and Digna on the 
other fide, do fo command the Entrance, that no Ships can come in, 
or go out againft the Governour's will, who keeps Guard there. It 
has three Channels, which carry the VelTels between certain Iflands 
and Rocks, The King's Ships lie at Elfenafe : Upfala Uvfal^ Defend- 
ed by a great Caftle ; there is the Metropolitan Churcn, where the 
Kings are ufually Crowned, and where formerly they kept their 
Courts. The City is adorned with an Univerfity, and the moft Re- 
markable Marts in all thofe Quarters. The Cathedral has been a 
Stately Building, as they fay, lin'd or as it were, Wainfcoted with- 
in with Gold, and 'covered with Copper. The 2d Province is i'Wfr- 
ntavia , whofe chief Town is Niccpngy a Maritine Town of good 
Strength, and Strengues a Bifhop's See. 3d is Nericia, whofe Chief 
Town IsOreho, 4th is Wefimaniaf Chief Town is Arofia, n^w ^e- 
fterrss ; rich in Silver Mines, yth, Gefiriciaj Chief Town is Gevalia. 
6th, Dalecarlia, Chiei Town is Idra towiids Norway. 7th, Helfingiay 
Chief Town HudwickswaU, Seated on the Sinus Hotbnicm, 8th, A/e- 
</J;><»</w, Chief Town Selatigar. ^thj Jemptia, whofe Chief Town is. 
v^.w. 1 oth f Angermania, Chief Town is Hermfandon the Gulf. 

Bothnia'n twofold, •u/iJS. i. Oc<;identalts. idly ,Cajania, or Bothnia Oriev- 
talu'yis divided into five parts or Countries^ viz. KimijTomiajMhjVitbn 
and Urna^ on the North and Weft. Then Cajcnkrg, Quia and IV^^ fa, 
or Mujlafar on the Eaft of the Bothnia Gulf ; in the midft of whofe 
Entrance lieth a great number of Iflands, thechief of whichisv^/.jw^i-^. 

Laponia Sueaa, or Lapland, which belongs to the King o£ Sweden, 
has only certain Habitations that bear the Names of their Rivers. The 
Laponers are very fmall, the tall ft not being above four foot high; ne- 
verthelefs, formerly Six hundicd of them put to the Rout above an 
Hundred ihoufand Mojccvites that came to Invade them. They wear , 
no other habits but Skins ;and when they are Young, they fo inure 
themfelves to the Cold, that afterwards they eafily endure it, without 
any Clothes. T^ey have neither Woollen nOrLinnen; only they 
have pieces of Copper, which they call Chipponi, which they exchange 




1 ' 


70 Of SiHitUttd. 

for NecelTarlesi They have neither Bread, nor Corfij nor ttM\t, nor 
Herbs, nor Wine, nor Cattel, nor Butter, nor Eggs, nor Milk, nor 
other Supportsof life. But they have no want oF Watef : And they 
have a kind of Wild Deer, which are very fwifc, the Flefli whereof 
they live upon. iThere is a fecond part of Laponia in Denmark^ and « 
third in Mufcovy* The Mount Enaraki has three apartments of Lodg* 
ing for the Deputies 6f the three Nations. 

Finmniafeu Finnia, FinlanJ, is a Dutchy, which (bme Kings of SweJe^ 
land were wont to affign for their Brothei's Portion. It is divided in- 
to fix parts or Divifions, ift, 5tfW4?R,whofe chief places are N/fiot and 
Kexboim, taken by Vontus dt taGiS^it^yi^ii^^ Lake Ladoga, idly, ta^ 
v<3|/?/4, whofe chief places are Tavafthui, or Crontburg. jdly, North- 
FindlanJ, whofe chief place is Biomborgb, 4th, South- Finland, Qiief 
Town is Aboy a Bifhop's See, at the mouth of the River AurojakL 
fth, Nilandy whofe chief place is Borg9i a place of good Strength. 
|6th,C4fe//<7, whofe chief place is fVyborgfOxriburgbji chargeable Fortrefs. 

Iffgria, 'vtdgo Ingerland, by the Ru^Mn$ IJera, was taken from the 
Mujcnvites hy Treaty in the Year 1617. It is but fmall, but confi- 
derable for the Chace of Elkes, and for the Situation of the ftrong 
"Eovtoi Noteburg, in the midft of a great River at the Mouth of the 
Lake Ladoga. Caraldorod by the Ruffes, This Garifon was taken by 
the Swedes, all the Soldiers within being deftroyed by a Distemper 
that took them in the mouth, and hindred them from eating. Other 
places are Iwanogorod, and Coporio. 

Th^Mountains that part Norway zxaiSweden^Tthy Ortelim called the 
DoffrmiMontes,SevoMontes,ofPlift,iCCOiintcdioo miles in length,andnow 
in various places havedivers Names, notmuch material hereto mention. 

The Commodites of this Country are Copper, Lead, Brafs and Irort, 
Ox-Hidesy Goats and Buckskins , Tallow, Furs, Honey, AUom and Com. 

The Inhabitants naturally firong, adive and ftout Soldiers ; indu- 
ftrious, laborious, ingenious, and courteous to Strangers. The Wo- 
men difcreet and modeft. 

The Chriftian Faith was firft planted here by Au^garim Archbifhop 
o^ Bremen, the general Apoftleof the North. 

The Forces of Sweden are very powerful, being able to put to Sea 
more than 100 Sail of Ships, and into the Field forty or fifty thou- 
(and of Hor(e and Foot. 

And for dedding of Contcoverfies, &c. every Territory hath its 
Vifcount, every Ptdvince its Lamen, every Pariih its Lanas'tnan, or 
Conful; and there Seth an Appeal from the Confu|to the Lay-men, 
and from the Lay-mek to the Vifcount, and from the Vifcount to the 
vKing, who alone decideth the fame. Tefie Sanfot, Livonia, 



Livonia Germ, or Uflantlty if divided into two parts, vi*. Eftbmia^ 
or Efttn on the North , and ptlanMay Leit bland, or Letten on the 
South, was entirely Surrendrcd by the PoUnder, except DMnemburgi 
Formerly the Order of Carry-SvorJ Knights refided there; but in the 
time of Gregory the Ninth, that Order was united to the TtfwroM/'ci:. Af- 
terwards the Pelantftrs and Mujcovites enpycd it. Riga is the Capital 
City of Livonia : The Germans, En^ltjiij and Hollatirkrs there drive a 
great Trade in the Summer, while the Sea is open : In the Win- 
ter the Natives Trade into Mufcovy upon their Sledges. It (^andi upon 
a Plain, upon the River Duna, which in that place is about a quarter 
of a League over. The Fortifications thereof jonfilt of Six Regular 
Baftions, fcveral Half- moons, and Pallifado'd Counterfca'-ps. 

In the Year i6y6. an Army of an hundeed thoufand Adufcovites 
came to catch cold before this City, which valiantly repulfed them. 
Ternavia, Vernaw^M a well fortified place : And Derft^ in Lann Tupatum, 
fcituate on the Beck ; taken by J.BaJilius the Great Duke of Mufcovy,. 
as was alfo Feiin, a ftrong Town. Dunaboug, an Impregnable For- 
trefs, eight miles from Riga, well Garifoned by the Poku Revelia, 
Revtlj direds the Trade from Lwcww into Mujcovyt 'Tis a Biihop's 
See, and a well Traded Port. Nerva is a ftrong place, from whence 
the Neighbouring River derives its Name, where the Brave Vontus de 
la Gardia was Drown 'd. By the laft Treaties between the Crowns of 
Swtdin and Folanel, the Exercife of the Proteftant ^ well as the Ca- 
tholick Religion is permitted in Livonia, as aifo in Curland and Prttffta,, 

The Ifland of Gothland is the biggeft in the Baltick Sea, for therein 
there are five or fix Ports belonging to the Sivede: In feveral of the 
Rocks there ftill remain the Ancient Gof/6wiCharafters. And the City 
oilVtsby ftill preferves certain pieces of Marble, and Houfes that hare 
Gates of Iron or Brafs, Gilded or Silver'd over, which teftify the great 
Antiquity of the place. This City firft Eftabliflied the law for Navi- 
gation in the Balricky and began the Sea<Cards. Other IQands are 
Dagho and Oefel upon the Coaftsof Livonia, belonging to the S-wedes, 

The chief Rivers in all this Tra^ are i, Meier, 2. Delacarle; ; Anger* 
mania, 4. Uma, 5-. Lula, and 6. Torna, The principal Lakes are Lado- 
ga, or Ladesko Oz,ero, 

Melar takes its Coaft from Weft to Eaft ; the Wernr from Eaft to- 
Weft ; the Veter from North to South, through the River Motala,. 

Archbiihopricks,g. Bifliopricks \ $. Univerfitics 2. »> ' :^ 

iGulphSj 1. ^\nni Bo;hiicus, Hotbnx^e\x\co\WyQQM^^eBoddeiJj,${i 
lis. 2* Sinus Finmctts, ivn^itr^&irelncolis Golfe, di Finms GaUis« 

1 -» *'? 


: t ' • 

^f." .: 
















Of Mufcovy. 


i.. "^f^"'^'-:^":! '^i'-'' 

f •■ 


'Py- ?'5- 

Mof wwILrP"'-P"i^^2 the name of a Province fo called, 
itsNam«S^h/^-^'''^" '^' chief Cir, which hath communicated 
Its Name toall thy>rcvinces under the Dominion of the Grand Czar, 




-' ,5 

Of Muftovy^ 8fC. " 73 

or Tistfr. This Country is a part of the Europian Satrnatia, or Scjthia ; 
called alfo Ruffut Mba, or tlie Great Rujfta, whofe ancient Inhabitants 
were thp Rbuteni, or the Roxolani of P/o/. the R#, of Cedren^ The 
Bafierna Tacit, tefte Willich. From thence fome think it called l?«^<i; 
others tellus'tis called Rufjia from the colour of the Snow which co- 
lours the Fields for almoft three Quarters of a year. 'Tis the vafteft 
Country in £«»'o;'c: A Territory folarge, that were it Peopled anfwer- 
able to (bme other parts of the World, would either make it too great 
for one Prince, or that Prince too powerful for his Neighbours: But 
the Eaftern parts thereof fire vexed with th^jifiatUk Tartars y who, like 
e/fi/op's Dog, will neither dwell there, norfjffer the Molcovites. The 
Weftern parts almoft as much haraflfed by the Swedes and Poles : The 
Souchern by the TMrks and European Tartars ; and the Northern pinch- 
ed by the coldnels of the Air: This excefs of cold in the Air was fo 
vehement, that in the Year i ^98. of 70000 Turks that made an In- 
rodeinto Mofcov^, 40000 were frozen to death ; and water thrown 
up into the Air, will turn to Ice before it falls to the Ground ; Nor is 
it an extraordinary thing for the Inhibitants to have their Nofes, Ears 
and Feet frozen off; fuch is their Winter. Nor is their Summer lefs 
miraculous; for the heaps of frozen Snow, which covered the Surface 
of the Country, at the firft approach of the Sun, are fuddenly difibl- 
ved, the Waters dried up, the Earth dreffed in her gaudy Apparel ; fuch 
a mature growth of Fruits, fuch flouri(hing of Herbs, fuch chirping 
of Birds, as if there were a perpetual Spring: And though they Sow 
but in Junci yet the Heats of July and Aus^uji ftrangely quicken their 

The whole Country generally is overfpread with Woods and Lakes : 
and is in a manner a continual Foreft, irrigated by feveral Lakes and 
Rivers. Here grow thegoodlieft and talleft Trees in the World, afford- 
ing flielter to multitudes of Cattel and IVtld Bea/fs, whofe Skms are 
better than their Bodi<!\ and here is the insxhauftible Fount.iin oi U^ax 
and Homy^ as likewiffj allkinds of Fowly and fmall Birds in great plen- 
ty; moft forts of F/jffe, excellent Fruits and Roots: efpecially Onions 
and Garlick : Here is the Corn of Rbez^an and Volodomira, the Hides 
and Leather oijercufiauy the Wax and Honey of VUfow, the Tallow 
of fVologdaj theOyl andCavayer about ydga^ the Linnen and Hemp 
of great Nevogredt, the Pitch and Rofinof Duviftez,, the ^Salt of A/ha" 
can and Ro(iofy the Ermins and Sables, the black Foxes and Furs of 
5i^m^, where the Hunters have the Art to hit only the Nofes of thi 
Bealls, preferving their Skins whole and clean. 


^ Of Mufcatff^Zic. 

The Mufcovitet are naturally ingenious enough, yet not addi^ed to 
Arts or Sciences^ they do not trouble themfelves with the height of 
the Heavens^ or the magnitude of the Earth ; they amufe not them- 
felves with Syllogifms, nor wrangle whether Lcgick be an Art or 
Science. And the plainnefs and paucity of their Laws makes Attornies 
and Sollicitors as ufelefs there as Philofophers. Nor are they much 
addided to Traffick and Husbandry, being naturally lazy, it muft be 
force or neceffity that compels them to labour. Drunkennefs is very 
familiar with them, and Jqu^-vit a or Tobacco, like the Liquor of 
Circey turns them into Swine. They arc great Lyars, treacherous, craf- 
ty, malicious and revengeful, quarrelfome, though the heighth of their 
fury is Kicking; their Houfesmean and ill-furnifhed, their Lodging is 
hard, and their Diet homely ; born to ilavery, and brought up in^ 

They are for the moft part fat and corpulent, ftrong of Body, and 
of good proportion, only great Bellies and great Beards are in faihionf: 
and the Women, though indifferent handfome, yet make ufe of Paint. 
They are much retired, and feldom in publick; very refpeAful to 
their Husbands, who look upon them as a necelFary evil, beat them 
often, and treat them as Slaves. 

They only teach their Children to write and read ; which fuffices 
them, though they prefume to be Dodors. They take for their Sir- 
name the proper name of their Father. They write upon Rolls of 
Paper, cut into long fcrowles, and glu'd (for 2j or 30 Ells) toge- 
ther ; They weai long Rpbes, under which they have clofe Csats 
down to their knees, but they tye their Girdles under their Bellies: 
they make their Collations with fpic'd Bread, Aqua-vita, andHydro- 
mel, that is, Water and Honey rnixt. 

There are two things remarkable amongft the Mufiovites; one is, 
That they begin the day at the rifing of the Sun, and end it ac the 
Sun- letting, fo that their Night begins at the SunVfetting, and ends 
at its rifing. The other is. They begin their year the firft day of 
Stptemher, allowing no other Epocba than from the Creation of the 
World, which they think to be in Autumn, and they reckon yyo8 
years from the Creation of the World to the Nativity of our Saviour, 
whereas moft of our Chronologers account but 3969. 

As for their Armies, they generally confift of a looooo or 20000c, 
but then you muft count theBeafts. Botis Frederowitz, Grand Duke of 
Mofcovy^ toward the beginning of this Age, appeared with an Army 
of 300000 Men. Alexis M'tcbaelowitz. after the defeat of Stephen Rad- 
zih'f hac an Army no lefs numerous, when thedifpute was about ftop- 


.^ ^ Of ^^lifi^i &c-\ \\ ^ 

ping the Tnrh progrefs into Voland. Infanttyii bet»^er etteemed by 
them than Cavalry ^ being more able to fuftain a Siege, and patiently 
CO endure all imaginable hardfhips, rather than yield ; as they did in 
our times at the Caftle of ^ilna, and in the Fprtrefs or Notebourg. As 
to the forming a Siege, the Mufcovites underftand little, as they made 
appear before Smohnsko 1633. before Riga 16^6. and before Az,ac 
1673. Their Pons are gen&rally of Wood or Earth, upon the wind- 
ings of Rivers, OX elfe in Lakes, The chiefeft ftrength of the King^ 
dom confifts in Foreign Forces, to whom they give good allowances 
in time of War. The Vrmce bears the Title of Grand Duke, he boafts 
himfelf defcended from Auguftus, and ftiles himfelf Grand Czar, or 
Tz.aar, that is to fay, Cazar. The habits which he is faid to wear, 
make him lo«k like a Priti^ : they that treat with his Ambaffadors 
have the greateft trouble in the World to give him his Tttles, becaufe 
oftheirfo extraordinary pretenfions. In the Year 16^4. to the end 
he might make War in Poland,and uphold the CoJJacks, the Grwf Duke 
pretended, that feme of the ToUjl} Lords had not given him bis due Ti- 
tles; and that they had printed Books in Poland \n derogation of his Ho- 
ne " One of his PredecelTors was fo cruel, that he caus'd the Hat 
of c encb AmbalTadour to be nailed to his head, becaufe herefus'd 
to be uncovered in his prefence. He commands abfolutely, and the 
Mufcovites call themfelves his Slaves ; and he calls them in contempt 
by a diminutive name, Jammot Pierrot. His Will is a Law to his Sub- 
je<its, who hold it for an undeniable truth , That the Will of God, and 
the Great Duke, are immutable. His Treafure is very large, for he 
heaps up all the Gold and Silver he can lay his hands on, in his Ca- 
ftles of Dioligzen and Vologda, and never makes his Prefents or his Pay- 
ments but in Skws, or in Fifh, or elfe in fomefew Hides, or Pieces of 
Cloth of Gold, Thus liveth and reigneth this Ruffian Monarch, in 
the reputation of his own Subje(5^s, one of the greateft Sharers in the 
adventure of the World's Happinefs. 

The Religion of the Mw/cowfe; differs little from that of the Gr^f^j: 
For they follow their Faith, their Rites, and their Ceremonies. The 
principal part of their Devotions, after they are baptized, confifts in 
the Invocation of their S.iints, for every Houfe hath its Saint Pi<ftured, 
and hung up againft the wall with a fmall Wax-candle before it, 
which they light when they fay their Prayers. The Pi<ftures of the 
Virgin Mary, and of St. Nicholas their Patron, arc in great veneration 
amongft them. And the fign of the Crofs is the ordinary Preface to 
all th«ir Civil Actions. On Sundays and iheir Feftival Days, they go 
thj^e times to Church, Mornin^^||pn, and Evening, and are land- 



^^ - — ^ Of Mufcov^.kc - " ^ - 

ing, and uncovered at the time of Divine Service. BeHdes their Or« 
dinary Fafts on Wcdnefdiys, Fridays, and the Eves before Holidays, 
they have four Lents every year, during which thev eat neither Butter, . ^ 
Eggs, nor Milk, only the firft week of their chiet Lent ferves them as 
a Carnaval ; but after this the moft ftriA cf them eat no Fiih but on . 
Sundays, and drink nothing but Quaz, or fair water 

They commonly take the Communion on a Fafting-day, at Noon- 
fervice ; and if any one receives it on a Sunday, he muft not eat Flelh 
that day. 'Tis adminiitred in both kinds with Leavened Bread, and 
Wine mingled with warm Watqr. They believe no Tranfubftantiati- 
on, nor reckon no Adultery but marrying another man's Wife. They 
have many Wives, allow of Divorccment,and yet ufe the deceitful by- 
ways of Filthinefs and Incontinency. It is a dangerous matter to 
tranfgrefs the Law of Wedlock, and the Woman is terribly over- 
watched, is fufpicioufly reftrained from walking abroad. They be- 
lieve no Purgatory, but hold two diftindl places whcic the Souis re- 
main that are feparated from the Bodies. Yet allow Prayers for the 
Dead. They hold Baptifm of great Importance , and admit Chil- 
dren of feven years oM to come to the Sacrament. All thefr Images 
are in fiat Painting. They never feaft but upon the Annunciation of 
the Virgin, They have a Patriarch at Alofcoy the chief of their Religion. 
Three Jrchbijhops or Metrofolitam at Rofibou, at Sufdal, and sc Grand 
Novogrode : Bifliops at Wologda, at Refan, at Sufdal,, at Twer, at Tb- 
boUika, at Aftracarty at Cafariy at Vlefcca. at Colomna ; and almoft in all 
the Provinces of the Great Duke, being all chofen out of the body of 
their Monks. They have this good quality, that :hey force no man's 
Cunfcience ;. they hate the Roman-Catholickt for the Exorbitances com- 
mitted by them when the Tolanden became Mafters of Mofco , in the 
Year i5ii. But there are likewife fome Idolaters of them toward 
the North. 

The Rivers of Mi*fcovy are i/, Volga, the RheoiVtol. EdelTartarpty 
Tbamar Armerfisy the greateft River in Europe, throws it felf into the ^ 
Caffian Sea, after it has rouU'd above feven hundred Leagues. The 
Duvine, ajter it has run by the Cities of moft Trade in Mufcovy, by 
fix mouths empties it (elf into theGulf ofSt.N/Cifeo/^, which is called 
the IVbite Sea, becaufe of the Snow that environs it. 

The D<mn, Tanais Strah. ?lm. Mela, & alts, which feparates Europ^e 
from A(ia, begins not above a hundred Leagues from fhe place where 
it ends, and yet it winds above fi^ hundred miles, firft towards the 
Eafiyund then towards the /%/ ; formerly a conjunction of thefe three 
Rivers was defigned, to the eniUje principal Seas of our Continent 






Of MufccvjiUc, 


might have participated oti^ with another, to facilitate the Trade of 
the Ocean, Mediterraveany aKd Caffian ; but the contrivance faird. 
There are few good Cities in thefe parts, none or very few being 
paV'd, and thofe that be, are pav'd with Wood; very few Fortified 
or Wall'd, but have till d Land between the Streets. The Houfes are 
low, and made of Wood and Lome ; a m?n may go to market .^nd 
buy one of thefe houfes ready built, and fo :o be caried away ; great 
fires happen oft'timesj by reafon both of their Timber buildings, and 
for that the combuftible matter is eafily fetonfireby the great quanti- 
ty of Tapers which they light before their Images, and which the 
Mufcovites, who are very apt to be drunk, take no care to put our. - 

TheEftates of i'l/«,'co'r// comprehend 5 Kingdoms,about5o Dutchies 
or Provinces, and about 20 People cr Nations, who live by Herds or 
Communities; a Country not fo Populous as. Spacious, nor much 
frequented by ftrangers; and therefore I cannot give a certain ac- 
count of its Provinces and Nations, much lefs of their Bounds, Length, 
and Breadth, as fome Pretenders to Geography have done. 
• Mofcha, feu MafcitA, or Mo] cow, which is the Capital City, and 
the Refidence of the Grand Duke, feems lather to be a huge heap of 
Hamlets, than a good City. It had above 40000 Houfes, but now 
there are far lefs, (Ince it has been fb often plundered by the Lejjer Tar^ 
taYs,9ndi t\\Q Voles ; in Afmo 1 571. the Tartars fired it: And efpecially 
fmce the laft fire that happened there, 1668. It hath three Walls,one 
of Brick, another of Stone, a third of Wood, feparating the four 
Quarters of the Town. The greateft Ornament of the City are the 
Churches, of which St. MchaePs is the chief, in which the Tombs 
of the Tz.ars are placed ; the Steeples of the Churches are covered 
with Copper, whofe glittering fcems to redouble the brightnels of 
the Sun. 

The Tzars Caftle, called Krewelenagrod, is about two miles in Cir- 
cumference, and contains two fair Palaces, one of Stone, and the 
other of Wood, built after the Italian falhion ; befidesthe Imperial 
Court, there are feveral other fpacious Palaces for the Bojors or No- 
bility ; as alfo for Pricfts, amongft which that of the Patriarch is 
the moft Magnificent ; and over-againft the Cz>ars Palace is a fair 
Church, built after the Model of the Temple of Jerujalem, from 
whence it is fo called; near to which is the greit Market for all 
Wares and Merchandizes. Volodmere, the Refidence of the Prince be- 
fore Mufco was, lies in the moil fertile part of all Mufcovy, defended 
by a Caftle. The Riveis of Mufco and Qua are thofe whcreb)' the 

Merchants convey their Good 

to thei'o 

Igj. Little Novc" 

^ yr 

^rode U the laft Village in Europe, towards the Eaft; Pleskou is well 
Fortified, as being the Bulwark againft the PoUr and SweJef, Novo^ 
grade tbt Great, has been oneofthefour Magazines of the Hans Tawni^ 
and a Town fo Rich and Potent, that the Inhabitants were wont to 
fay, Pf%o can withff'andGod, and great Novo^orod ? But in the year i f 77, 
the Great Duke Ivan Vafilawitz. took it, and carried away, (as 'tis 
reported^ a hundred Wagons laden with Gold and Silver j yet it is 
ftill a Town of great Trade ; in the year 161 1, it was taken by the 
Swidifh General font us dela Gardie; and in the year 161;, redelivered 
to the of Mi*jcovy upon the Articles of Peace. Pleskou is the only 
Walled City. SmolenskoUs. place of great flrength. Petzora is fenced 
with Mountains. IVorotin is defended with a Caftle. Archangel is the 
Staple of all Mufcovy, by reafon of its Haven: The Duties paid at 
coming in, and going out, anfount to above fix hundred thouf^nd 
Crowns a year. The Evglijh were the firft that began to (end their 
Ships thither ; fince, they have been followed by other Nations of 
Europe, Formerly the Trade of A/«/wx(j^ was driven by pafling through 
the Sound, and putting in at Nerva ; but the great Impofitions put 
upon the Merchandizes by the Princes through whole Countries 
they Were to pafs, made them forfake that place. Rezan was the 
place that held out when the Tartars had taken Mofcow ; the Gover- 
nour whereofi when he had got the Original of the Articles of the 
Treaty Signed by the Grand Cz,ar, from the Tartarian General, refu- 
fed to furrcnder the Town, or deliver back the fchedule j which was 
the occ?fion of the Tartars overthrow, and the recovery of Mofcovy, 
and fbi; taking of Cafan Afiracan, &c. St. Nicholas alfo drives a great 
Trade at the entry of the Davine. Thefe are the only places that be- 
long to the Grand Duke upon the Ocean. Troitza near Mofcov, is the 
mott beautiful Convent in all Adufcovir whither the Grand 7'z.arsdo 
nfually go in Pilgrimage twice every year. Colmogorod'xs renowned for 
the Fairs that are kept there in Winter time : The Dwvme bears great 
Veffels to that pKice fo called. Oufhong is in the middle of the Coun- 
trey ; where it drives a good Trade, as being Seated in a place where 
two Rivers meet. Befides the White Sea is full of Shoals and Rocks 
at the entry into it, and then the Snows melting, and the Torrents 
fwelling in the Spring-time, carry the Water with fuch animpetuofi- 
ty, that Ships can hardly get in ; however there is great (lore of Sal- 
• mon caught there. Kola and Petz^mkam Lapland receive Trading Vef- 
'fels. Twer, Permie, Refchowa^ Bielk- Jarojlaw^ Ri^ifhow, Sufdal, Bie- 
lejezero, U/linga^ &c. bear the fame name with their Provinces. 

"^ As 








OfMufcovy^ Zic, 



As for the Conquefts of the Great Duke in jifiatu^Tattary, th® 
principal places are Afiman and Cajvn^ which bear the Titles of King- 
doms, befides Zavolha, and Nagais. Cafan is a great City, with Walls 
and Towers of Wood, feated upon a Hill. 'Tis Inhabited by Ruffians 
and Tartars, but the Citddal is Walled with Stone, and kept oniyhy 
Ruffians ; Afiracan was formerly the Seat of the Nagayan Tartars^ it lies 
at the mouth of the River Volgay in the Ifland Delgoy^ yo Dutch 
Leagues from the Cafpian Sea ; 'tis environed with a ftrong Stone-wall, 
upon which are feated yoo Brafs Cannon, befides a ftrong Garifon. 
Its many Towers and lofty Piles of Buildings, makes a noble Profped. 
'Tis a place of great Traffick, efpecially for Silk. In this Countrey 
grows the plant Zoophyte, that refembles a Lamb, it devours all the 
Herbs round about the Root ; ^nd if it be cut, it yields a liquor as red 
as blood : the Wolves devour it as greedily, as if it were Mutton. Lo- 
comoria towards the Obiy is fnllabited by People who, they fay, are Fro- 
zen up fix months in the year, becaufe they live in Tents environed 
with Snow, and never ftir forth till it be melted. They are broad fa- 
ced, with little eyes, their Heads on one fide, and bigger than the 
proportion of their Bodies requires j fliort Legs, and Feet extremely 
big. Thus they appear clad in Skins, with a piece of Wood inflead of 
Shooes, thefe Skins they wear in the Winter, with the hairy fides in- 
ward ; in Summer, with the hair outward ; to few them, they make 
ufeof the fmall bone^ of Fifh, and the Nerves of Be^fts inftead of 
Needles and Thread ; they are the beft Archers in the world. The 
Fingoefes exprefs their thoughts better by their throats than by their 
tongues. Thefe Countries goall under theName of 5/^frw,a Province 
which affords the faireft and the richeft Furrs, and whither the Lords 
in difgrace are banifh'd. The River Pe/iJa bounds it ; for no man 
dares go beyond it,tho Horfes and feveral other things have been feen, 
which make us believe that h is as confiderable as Cathay j which can- 
not be far from it. ;i\ 

Here is one Pat iarch, four ArchbilKopricks, eighteen Bifhops, and 
no Univerfity. 

This Countrey hath many Lake^, viz, Ladoga^ Onega, Biela'Ofera, 
Refanskoy'Oferay &c. Imamw-Oftra, the Source of the River Don. 

The molt Renowned Foreft is that of Epipbanow. Its Mountains 
are thofe oi Camenopoii^ or Stolp^ that is, the Pi'lars of the World bd^*^? 
tween thtDuvine and the Oby, faid to be the Ancient Riphean Moun- " 
tains. . J -. ' . * ^.> ''- 

-, --.•-.:•.. V. " (-' ■■ ■■■ ■••■ 

.;. .:^ ^f 

Of Poland 

"'T^' ! I 


Teknia, Hifpanu, & baits. La Pologne, Ga$t. PolanJ, Anglis, Tdkskd, 
ToUs, t)ic PoUn, Gtrmanh, ^ 

-> lU, ' l l * ■■■i.fc..— "^ 

Il»«- f I ' ll i.... , 


POLONIJ, or Po7W, which was formerly but a p. t of Sar- 
matia, is flow a Kingdom of as large extent as any In ^arope. It 
is an aggregate Bodv, conliftingof many diftind Province 5, United 
into one Eltate, of which Poland being the Chief hath given Name to 

Of PaUnl V ^^ 

the re((. It is Soo miles in length, and the breadth comprehending Li- 
*uoriia^ IS almoft as much. 

According totheJV//fcand Bohemian Hiftorians, they were, with the 
Bohemians, originally Croat ians, defcended from the Sclaves jUnd brought 
into thefe parts by Xechus and Lechus, two Brethren BanMht out ot 
their own Countrey. But this is refuted by Crowerus. The more 
general opinion is, that they were Sarmatians, who upon tha depar- 
ture of the German Nation towards the Roman Frontiers, flock'd hi- 
ther, and by reafon of their common Language, or mixture with the 
Sclavesof Illjricum, thus accounted ; and being united in the common 
Name of Selaves, fetled in that part which we now call FoLwil j the 
Eftate hereof being much improved by the Gonqueftof many^rfrw^i- 
tian Counties. But whether Zechus and Lechus, the Founders of the 
two Nations, by i\\ Hiftorians, were Strangers or Native Inhabitants, 
is uncertain, (ince all ancient hillory is filcnt herein. The time when 
thefe (bould arrive here, according to Hiftorian reports, was Anno 
649, under Lechus, a time indeed near Unto the general fiittings of 
the Barbarous and Northern Nations, and therefore the more proba< 
ble. Poland has for many ages been a diftinA Sovereignty. The firft 
that was Eledlive, was ?ia(im, (after the failure of the former Line) 
a plain Countrey- man, ele<iledDukeof Fo/^W, /^». 800. lnAnvo^6^. 
they received the Gofpel J An. 100 1, they had the Title of King con- 
ferred upon them by Or^^o the Emperour. Anno 1320, Stle^a fell from 
Poland to Bohemia, and could never be recovered. Anno 1386, they 
made the Great Duke of Lithuania, by Marriage into their King's 
Family, King ; and fo joined that Great Dukedom to Foland, Anno 
1466, Cafimir adds VruJJia^ and 15,61, Livonia, Anno 15:75", the 
Royal Family, being extindt, they chofe the Duke oiAnjou, Brother 
to Charles the 9th. King of France, but he quickly left it for the 
Crown of France, Anna i ^79. they chofe Bathor, Prince oiTranJiha- 
nia J he dying without Iffue, they chofe Sigifmund, the King of Swede's 
Son, about the year i5'9o, who turning Papift, and by the Jefuits 
Perfuafions endeavouring to alter Religion in Sivedeland, was ejedred, 
and lofing his Patrimonial Kingdom, only keeps Poland: Hence ihofe 
lafting Wars betweer> the two Nations. To him fucceeded UladiJJaus; 
famous for ihe memorable Vidlory againft the Mufcovites befieging. 
Smolensko, Annoi6^^. K.\ngCafimcr fucceeded 1648. in whofe time 
the Kingdoms became extremely imbroiled by Factions, efpecially by 
the mutinous and feditious Colfacks, and Confederate Nobles under 
Lubomirsky, and Foreign Enemies ; fo that weary of his Crown, he 
laid it down, not obtaining leave to nominate his Succeflbr. After 

M \o:\z 


Of Poldnd. 

long Contentions they chofe Michael fViefmwiski i66^. The prefent 
King is John Sobielski, renowned for the Relief of Fienna, His . 
Revenue is computed to be 600000 Crowns per Annum, ariflnc; from , 
5<i/f,and Tin, and Silver Mines : His Houfhold-Expences^ andDaugh- ■ 
ters Portions, being at the Publick Charge. Nor do the Wars at any 
time exhauft his Treafure. Toland is very Fertile \t\Rye, tVaxAnd 
Honey. Other Commodities are. Flax, Mafts, Cordage, Boards^ Wain' 
[cots. Timber, Rojin, Tar, Pitchy Match, Iron, Pot-afhes, and Brimfione, . 
It is well furniftied with Flejh, Fowl and Fiji); Rich in Furrs, the : 
faireft of which are brought thither out of Mafcovy, Near Cracovia, 
or Crakou, they dig Salt out of the Famons Salt-Pits that make a kind i" 
of City under ground, and yield a great Revenue. They boyl it in . 
Rufta, but iQ Podolia the Sun makes it. They have the Conveniency 
both of the Black and Baltick Seas^ but are not addiAed to Traffick, 
neither are they well provided with Ships. The Rivers called the ■ 
Vifittla, & n/lillus Plin. Ifiula Ptol, Vtfula Mela. Bifula Amin, Vulga ^ 
Wixel vel Wtexeh Weijfel Incolii. Vifiule Gal. Viftula Ital. The Nietnen,,, 
the Chronus of Ptol. Memel Ger. Niemen Sclavis, teft. Cromtro & Decio, 
But by Rithamer and Erafmus Pergel. And the Dwma, or Dz>-wina, the 
Rubo of Ptol Duna, empty themfelves into the Baltick, The Bory-* _ 
fhenes, Ari^. &c. Naparis Herod, Dnieper Decio. Brifna Leunel. Berefina 
Pufer & Eberficnio, Dnefier & Nefier Cromero, Nieper Mer. Clwver, Brief, .. 
The Bogg, Hypanis Arifi, Herod. Plin. &c. And the Niefter, the Tyros 
of Herod, Ptol. Tjra of Strab. & Plin. now the Nefier, or Niefier, Tejit 
Cromer, & Ekrjlin, Thefe empty themfelves into the Black Sea. The 
Vi/fttla runs by very fair Cities, but the mouths of Boryfihenes are under 
the Jurifdidion of the Turks, who in the Year 1672 took the Ukraine 
into his Protedion, having fubdued all Podolia, after the Surrender of 
the Fortrefs Kamieniek. This Kingdom is Ble<5live, being tte only ' 
place in Europe where the People at this day freely retain and pradlfe 
the Privilege to £le(5l their King ; yet the next of the Blood-royal 
commonly Succeeds. 

The Crovernment is an Ariftocratical Monarchy, where the Sena<^ . 
tors have'fo much Authority, that when we name the Quality of th©. 
State, we may call it the Kingdom and Commonwealth or Poland, 
The Senate is compofed of Archbijhops, Bijhops, Palatines, Principal : 
Cafiellains, and Great Officers of the Kingdom, The Prince, like thot 
King of Bees, or a Royal Shadow, canot a<a againft his Nobles^ 
without the Consent of the Senators : Yet his Dignity is fb &r con-> 
fid^vQd, that never any one attempted againft the Life of any of iiis^^ 
f fedeceiTois,. Xhek Kings were more anciently Free and Soveraign ^ 


Of PoUni. 


'but by the common calamity of Eledive States, now berefc of Royal 
Right and Prerogatives, having limited power, governing according 
to the ftrift Laws and Diredions of the Council and Diet, who folely 
have full liberty to confult of, and determine the main Affairs of the 
Kingdom : Thefe are of two forts, i. The Senate aforefaid: 2. The 
General Diets, which are compofed of the Orders aforefaid,of the Se- 
nate or Council, and of the Delegates of each Province, and chiefer 
City, fent in the Name of the reft of the Nobility . Thefe are for the 
more high and important bufinefs of Republick Kingdoms, not de- 
terminable by the Senate. 

Warfaii) or Farfoviay is ufually the place of Ele^ion ; and Crakoiv, 
or Cracov'tay that of the Coronation. The Archbifhop of Guefna, Pri- 
mate of the Kingdom, Crowns the King, and has almoft all the Au- 
thority during the Intenegnumi for then he prefides in the Senate^ and 
gives Audience to AmbaJJ'adors. He alfo contefts with the Cardinals 
for precedency ; and therefore there are few in Voland, His Revenue 
is above 1 5*0000 Livres a year. The Kingdom has ;hree Orders ; the 
Churchy the Nobilityy and the Third Eftate, which comprehends all 
thofe which are not of the Nobility 

Though all forts of Religions are hereto be found, yet the Roman 
Cathokck ismoft predominant; therefore the Clergy are next in Supe- 
riority ro the King ; and then the Palatines and Ca/hlianis. Written fixed 
Laws they have but a few, if any ; Guftom and Temporary Edicts be- 
ing the Rule both of their Government and Obedience. 

The Polanders wear long Garments, {have their Hair upon the Chin, 
and leave only one tuft of Hair upon their Heads, in remembrance of 
Cafimer the Firft, whom they fetched out of a Monaftery to be their 
King. They are generally handfome , tall , well proportioned ; 
good Soldiers, and Ipeak the Latin Tongue very fluently. The Gen- 
try are more Prodigal than Liberal; Coftly in their apparel, Delici- 
ous in their Diet ; very free and liberal ; but the Peafants no better 
than Slaves. The Abfolute Power they pretend to, and ill Ufages of 
the Nobles towards the Commonalty, and Feuds one with another, 
was certainly thecaufe of the Revolt of the Coffacks, and produced all 
the Diforders in the KingdorK. Their Cavalry is very confiderable ; in- 
fomuch, that if they were but united, they might be able to bring in- 
to the Field above an : noo Horfe. The Confidence they have 
therein, and their Fear to i ider a Knight ox a. Burgher too Potent, has 
made them negled foi^lfyif g their Towns. Their Horfes are of a 
middle fize, hut quick anJ li ely ; pompoufly harnelTed in Silk, Gold, 
Silver, and Precious Stones. Their Weapons are generally a Scymt- 

M 2 


■ II n! trWiWH 








^ id. 






1.25 il.4 IIIIII.6 




















23 W6:;T main STREIEI 

WEBSTER, iS"*. '>30 

(716) 872-4503 


84 Of PoUnd, 

taty iSwor^, SutteUJx^ Carhine, Bcws and Arrows. The C&Jfacks had 
always a peculiar Difciplinein War, though they were the fame Na- 
tion. At firft, they were Voluntiers that made Incurfions upon..the 
Turk and tartars. ' King Bathors reduced them into a Body, and joined 
to thejn two thoufand Horfe, to whom he affigned tlie fourth part of 
his Revenue. Their habitations are in the lower parts of Volh'mta 
and Podolia, which they call the Uk,ai»e ; which Country is the beft 
peopled, and the moft Fertile in all PoJane/. There are other CoJJ^cks 
that live in the IJIanJt of the Boryjihemsj which is not Navigable, by 
reafon of the Falls, which they call Forowis. Their Cuftom was for- 
merly to put to Sea with feveral flight Veflfels, and to plunder the 
Territories of the Great Turk that lie upon the Black Sea. Some years 
fince, thefe People Revolted, notwithftanding the Lot which was of- 
fered them of Kudack upon the Boryftbents, and began the misfortunes 
of the Kingdom ; for they leagued themfelvcs with the LelTer Tartars, 
;ind put themfelves into the Great Turk^i Protcdlion : Infomuch that 
we may fafely fay, That thelnvafion of the Swedes , the Hoftilities of 
the Mufcovites, the Irruption of the Tranfyhanians, the Treachery of 
the Coff'acks, the Rebellion of whole Armies in Poland Sindi Lithuaniay 
the diffecent FaBions of the Kingdom, the Contefts of the Neighbouring 
Nations, gave a cruel Blow to this CroWn, and were the caufes that 
moved the Great Turk to make War upon them. • ,' : 

Poland contains Ten great Divifions; four to the Weft, and upon 
i^zVifiula'. Poland, M(i4,6via, Cujavia, and Pr«^<« the Royal. Six to* 
ward the Eaft ; and to the Weft of Bory^henes, Lithuania, Santogitia, 
Tolaquia, Nigra RuJJia, Volhinia, and PodoUa. Thefe Provinces have 
beengained» for the moft part, either by Arms, or Alliances. They 
are divided into Palatinates, the Palatinates into CafieUains, and the Ca-^ 
^ellains into Captainfliips. They call the Government of places Staro^ 
Jlies. Befides thefe Provinces, there is one part of* Mufcovia, whicli. 
was yielded to the Mufcovite in the Year 1634. after that Ladi-^ 
Jlam the Fourth, before he was King, had the year before valiantly 
relieved Smolemko, and reduced to utmoft Extremity an Army of an> 
hundred thoM^and Mufcovites, who were conftrained to ask him pardon 
to fave their Lives. That Treaty which they call the Treaty of FiaJ^ 
ma, gained to Poland, Smolmsko, Novogrodeck, Sevier ki : Czernihou,. 
and other places. The Truce for thirteen years, beginning February. 
j66'j., leaves the Grand Duke of Mufcovy in the poffeflion of Smolen- 
sko ; as alfo of that part of the Ukraine, to the Eaft of Boryfihene', and' 
W-gain'd to the Crown of Poland, Dunenkurg, Poloczk and fVttepsk, 
^tiCtil PfuJJitt, or BorttJJia ( where (lands Konigsherg, or Mens Regius, a, 




OfFohnL I) 

fair City, Univcrfity, and Ma:t) generally by our Seamen calledijiit?^^- 

hiyrD-)i-<, belongs to the EleAor of Brandtnhwrgh^ who is abfblute Sove«» 
reign of it, independent from Volani. The City is fo much the bigger, 
becaufe it inclofeth two others within the fame circuit of Walls. P/- 
tavia^ Pitan, and Memeliuttif Aiemel, ire two Forts upon the Sea, of 
the greateft concernment of any in that Dominion. Curlandisa, Duke- 
dom, for which the Duke, of the Houfe^ Ketler^ does homage to the 
Crown : Kis Refidenceis at Mitaiv, the chief of the Province of Sfwi- 
getllia in Livonui\ near this City Zer^esky, the Po/i/fc General, and I,«- 
bertnisky the Great Chancellor, vanquifhed thoSv^eJifij Army, and kil- ' 
led 14000 upon the place. And FinJaw was the Seat of the great . 
Mafter of the Teutonick Order. 

Poland, the beft Peopled, is divided into Upper and Lower, The 
Higher or Little Poland, contains three Palatines, i;/2i. Crakovf, Sando^ 
mira and Lublin. Cracovia, or Crakow, the chief City in all Poland, 
where the Kings s^nd Queent^re Crowned, is inhabited by a great 
number of Gerw^w^, Jetvs, and //^z/mw, encompaffed with two ftrong 
Walls of Stone ; on the Eaft-fide is the King's Caftlei, on the Weft a 
Chappel, where the Kings are Interred. Upon the Confines of'Sile- 
fia ftands the City of Cz.entocho'iv, with the Cloyfter oiNofire-dame of 
Chrmont ; an extraordinary ftrong place, and which the Swedes be- 
fieged in vain twice, in the Year. 165'y, and i6y6. Sandemiria, or 
Sendomier.z,,*si Walled Town and Caftle upon a Hill. Lublin, ovLul^ 
linuwy is a Walled Town, with a ftrong Caftle environed with Waters 
and Marifties. Here are held three, great Fairs at the Feafts of Pente- 
cojl^ St. Simon and St. Jitde, and at Candlemas, and much reforted un- 
to by Merchants. The Lower Poland, though leffer than the Higher, 
is neverthelefs called Great Pokijd ^ becaufe it is more a. part of tha 
Kingdom than the other, and.contains eight Palatinates, viz,, Pofna, 
Kalifh, Ploczko, LyobrzWf Cujavia, Rava, Lancicia and Stradia. The Ci- 
ty of Guefna there Seated, in the Palatine of Kalijlj, is very Ancient, 
and the Seat- of the firft Kings, fo called from an Eagle's Neft, which 
was found there while it was building, and which gave occafioh to 
the King of Poland to bear Gules, an Eagle Argent Crown'd, Beak'd 
and armed Or, bound under the Wings with a Ribband of the fams.*. 
Kalifchy Calif a, is a Walled Town upon the Projna, naming the Coun-, 
try. The Province of Mazovia only has above thirty or forty thou- 
fand Gentlemen, the moil: part Cat hoicks^ Warfovia, IVar/a-w, is the 
Capital thereof, and of the whole Kingdom,. in regard the General 
Died are kept there, and becaufe its Gallic is the King's Court. Cz,er,'- 
ko is the Palatiivatc. In Cujavia (lands t\v2 C\t)' UlaJiJlau, where the 




S6 ^ OfPoUU . 

Houfes are built of Brick ; and the Lake Go^/^i^ out of which came the 
Rafs that devoured King Popiel. Pofania, or Pofeu, is a Bi/hop's See, 
feated amongft Hills upon the River Warfaw, fairly built of 5tone, fub- 
jea: to Inundations, chief of the Palatinate, [n which is alfo Miedx^yr* 
Aecze^ a ftrong Town upon the Borders of Schkjiay impregnably feated 
amongft Water? and Marflies. Kofcien, a double Walled Town a- 
mongft dirty Marihes. Siradiay SiraJ, a Walled Town and Caftle 
leatec upon the River J^alfaw, naming the Country ; fometiraes a 
Dukedom belonging to the fecond Sons of the Kings of Poland, Lan* 
cicia, Lancitz.y a Walled Town with a Caftle mounted on a Rock, up- 
on the River Bfura, Rava, built all of Wood, with a Caftle naming 
the Palatinate. Ploczkosin^. Dohrizin, are two Palatinates on the other 
fide of the Nieper. In PruJ]^a Rojal, which belongs to the King of Po- 
land, are feveral Cities, which the Knights of the Teutmick Order built: 
The Lakes and the Sea-Coaft afford great ftore of Amber. Marienburgh, 
Mariaburgumjt is a ftrong Town, where Copernicus was born ; a Town 
of good Trade, with a fair Wooden Bridge overTlie Fifiula. Dantzick 
Gedanum, one of the Capital Hans-Towns, drives all the Trade of Po' 
land, and has not its equal over all the Baltick Sea: Ic is a Free Town, 
and is priviledged to fend Deputies to the States of the Kingdom. The 
Kingof PoAi»3has fome Rights there upon Entry of Goods, and up- 
on the Cuftom. Thorn is efteemed next to Dantzkk, and Culm is con* 
fiderable. The City of Elbing contends for Priority in the States of 
PruJJia ; it is a fair City , and well frequented by EngUfh Merchants. 
The Generous Refolution of the Towns- men to maintain the Autho- 
rity of their King againft ih& Swedes, without accepting the Neutrality, 
was the prefervatioft of the whole Kingdom, 

Lithuania is the greateft Province of all thofe which compofe the 
Eftates of the Crown of Poland, It received the Chriftian Religion 
1589. now united to Poland 1466. It has the Title of a Grand 
Dukedom, wherein there are alfo to this day as many great Officers as 
in the Kingdom of Poland, The Country is fo full of Marflies and 
Sloughs, that there is no travelling in Winter for the Ice. Vikay the 
Capital City, inclofes fo many forts of Religions, that thereis no Ci- 
ty in the World where God is worfliiped after fo many different ways, 
unlefs in Amfierdam ; a Liberty too much allowed in moft parts of 
Chriftendom but raratemporum f elicit as. There are alio in Lithuania 
eight parts or Palatinates, 'viz. Brejlaw, Minfco, Mfcizlaw, Novezrodeek, 
Poloczk. Troki, Vtlna and ffitepsk^ as alfo the Dutch) of Smolensko, No- 
vogradecky Czsrnihou, with the Territories of Rohaczow and Rzeczych, 
and Sluczk, whole chief places bears the fame name; other chief 


» t 

Of va*»i. 


(• t 

places of Note in Lithuania yoa may find in the Map. Samogitia is a 
Country where the Inhabitants live very poorly ; it hath no Palati- 
nate, but its chief places are Rojunne, whofe Houles are built of 
Mudjand Straw-walls,fe/05<i»/ and Medniki, P0i^«»M communicates 
her Name to the PelanJers, who call themfeives Tolacks, as defcended 
from Lecbfts, their firft Prince. Its chief places are, Bietsko, the ftrong 
jugufioti^, and the well fortified Tycajiny or Tywckzin, where the 
King's Treafure is kept. Polefia, or the Palatine of Bre/^ci: whofe chief 
places are Pinski and Olewsh, Ruffia Nigra has feveral Names; (bme 
call it Black Rujjiay by reafon of the Wmds; others Red, becaufeof 
the colour of the Earth; SLvAiotoGMeridiolan, becaufeof its Scituation 
towards the South. Leofoly or Lemherg, an Archbiihoprick, is the 
Principal City, but Zamoskithe ftronger; it contains alio theCaftel- 
wicks of Cbelm and Belzr, and Province of Pokatia, whofe chief Town 
is Haltcz. Volhinia claims for her Capital, KioM, Pohnis, Kioff, Germa* 
nis\ an Ancient City, having once; oo fair Churches, butdeftroyed 
by the Tartars \ ftill a Bilhop's See, acknowledging the Patriarch of 
Mofcbffiif, and of the Communion of the Greek Church ; feated upon 
the Boryfibenes, where the Cojjacks have often had their Retreats : It 
was once the Seat of the Ruffian Emperors, Taken and deftroyed by > 
iSa& Tartars i6i;. and faid to be taken by the Turks in the War 
1678. In Podolia flands the well-fortified and Impregnable Kamie» 
niek, oUni Clepidava tefte Cleaver^ which hasformerly withftood the Ar- 
mies of the Turks, the Leffer farters, the Tranjyhanians, and the ?^- 
lacbians ; but at length was forced to yield to the Power of the Grand 
Signior, in the Year 1 672. fince re-taken by the Poles, but by the laft 
Treaty delivered to the Turks ; as is alfo Oczakow, thQAxiace oiStrab. 
Plin, & Ptol. 1684. theFortrefsof jF<»/7ow/;einPo</(o/wwasfurrendred, 
which confifted of f 00 men. And Dajjaw at the mouth of the Bor)^ 

In the year 1626. the Cojfacks entred the Boffhorus with 1 fo Sail of 
Saicksor Boats, each Boat carrying ;o armed men, and had 20 Oars 
on a fide, and two men to an Oar ; and on the Greci^iw-ihore burnt 
BoynO'devi and Tenicbioi, on the Afian-(]3it Stenia, and put Confiantimpk 
into a general Confternation. 

On the Banks of the River NeiJ^er Count EfierhafikW upon the Rear 
of the Turks, killed 5*00 on the place, took their Baggage with divers 
Prifoners, and gave liberty to many Chriftian Slaves. The next da>r 
he charged another party, killed a great number, and gota confidera* 
ble Booty. And afterwards having got more Recruit, he joined Bat* 
sel with them, and Cew xzoo on the plac^ gave liberty to 140a 





"WlUfWli"' ' ' 

■^11, jiiiii.jijn^i!imi^ni 


Of PoUnd. 

Chriftians, took divers oF their Commanders, with their Bag and 
Baggage, with much Gold and Silver in Plate and Money. 

1624. Forty thoufand Horfe of Tartars enters into PoJolia, and 
made Incurfions as far as Socal ; but at Rurfiinow were overthrown, 
thirty thoufand flain, and two thoufand Prisoners taken, thegreatefl: 
defeat that was ever given to the Tartars, ^« '^ v «*- y-^^- . > 

Upon a Hill between 3>r River and Cbojin, Anno 1684. the Turks 
and Tartars being 60000 under a fi^j^, received agreatlofsby Konis» 
f»o/as/titbe Tolijh General, with ijoo Horfe. 

Here are reckoned 4 Archbifhopricks, 24 Bifliopricks, and ^ Uni- 
verfities. Its chief Lakes are GoblaBeyfasy and Briale, Its chief Moun- 
tains are t\it Carpathian m\\% dividing this Country from HMng^r), 
Tranfj/hania, and Moldavia, s>^*^ ■': 

IJi» •%¥'• * 



' ■viiVRSRi^pmnif' 

TH £ Lefertarfary which lies in Europe,is (b called to diftingulfti 
it from the Gr4»</, which makes part ofjifia; it is alfo called 
Precopenps and Crim, from the Names oi the' principal Cities^ fcitua- 
ted in the Peninfula ; formerly called Taurica Cberfonefm by Vtol. from 
the T0uri a certain People ot Sepiia in £»r<7/>r. .S/r<7^0 calls it the Scy- 
tbian Cberfonef/tr, P Imy CiUs it the Ten'mJulaoit^ieTamians, ApftariHS 
calleth it the PontickCberfonefus, And P. Diaconus calletii itCberJenefa, 
The JViigtf/i 74rf<in muft not be omitted, that lye between Tana*t and 
rb^^; nor the Tartars oi Ocziacoui between the mouth of Boryfthenes 
and the Niejter^ nor the Tartan of ^Ws^i^rc^, mentioned fage $6, to the 
Eaft oiMoUavid, between the mouths of the N^/)?fr and Donaw. Be- 
iddes all thefe, there are fome that are letled alfo in Lithttanid and the 
Ukraine, adjoining to the Black Sea, 

The Black Sea is very Tempeftuous ; fo named, and fo famed from 
the terrible and frequent Shipwracks that happen in it, for want of 
skilful Pilots,, and good Havens. And the people that inhabit about 
it, are naturally barbarous and wicked, without any Religion, and 
under no Government. 

The Circumference of this Sea was reckoned by Eratoflenes, Heca^ 
tam, -Ptol. and Ammianm MarceHinm, to be 23000 Stadia, or 2875" 
miles. This Sea is called by ClaudianttSy Ponttts Amaz,onius\ by Flac" 
c«f, Pont,, Scytbicus j by Fefi. Avienus, Pont Tauricm ; by Heredotus & 
Ovofiusy MareCimmerium j by Strabo, MareColchicHm\ by Tacitus, Mare 
Ponticum \ by Ovid, Mare Sarmaticum ; by Ihe Italians, Mar Majore j by 
the Greeks^ Mauratbalajja ; by the Turks, Caradenguis. 

The Tbracian Bofpberus is certainly one of- the comelieft parts of the 
World, the Channel is about r ^ miles in length, and about two in 
breadth in moft parts. The Shores confift of rifing grounds covered 
over with Houfes of Pleafure, Woods, Gardens, Parks, delightful 
Profpeds, lovely Wilderneffcs, watered with thoufands of Springs 
and Fountains ; upon it are feated four Caftles well fortified with 
great Gun? two, eight miles from the Black Sea, and the other two 
near the n.-*uth of the Channel, built not above forty years ago to 
prevent theCoJf'acks,^c. from making Inroads with their Barks. 

The Linsmerian Bojpherus is a narrow Sea two miles broad, which 
divides Eyrope frofn j^jm, and by which thp Mtotkk Lake doth flow 
into the Euxine Sea. This Strait is called by Martiamts, Os Mcotidis j 
by Alercellinus, Putares Augttflia ; by the Italians, Boccadk Jovanni j by 
Cafaldus, Streto diC^fai and by the Tartars, Fofpera, 



>« i 




mm. I .iff II n 

■qi;PP«Hli^l|I.IW«IIJ|l, M 


Tki Itffif T4Pf4n. 


Talus Maotis is by the 7»rifci called Baluck Denguis, th^t \i, Mare Tij^ 
tium^ for 'tis incredible what a number of FiHi is caught in that Lake. 
And 'tis reported that they ufually taikjFifh there, which weigh eight 
or nine hundredpounds^andof which they make three or 400 weight 
of Caveer. Their Fifliing lafts from Oiiohtf to April The Waters do 
not rife or fall, though it partakes of the Hiver 74<m», and th^n- 
tercourfe of the Eyxine Sea. This Lake is commonly called Mtr dt 
Zahacche, or Je h Tana, Umen actolit j by die Afobians, Manl Azacb, 
the Sea. > 

From the Channel of Pahs Mrotis to Minffrtlia 'tis reckoned 600 
miles along the Coaft, which Confift of pleaunt Mountains, covered 
vvith Woods, Inhabited by the Circaffiam; by the TWA/ called C/&«r;(i; 
by the Ancients, Zageans ; by ?,Melaj Sargacianf, a Country reckon- 
ed by the Turks not worth the Conquering, nor the charge of keep* 


The Commodities that the Turks enehsLtigQ for with the Inhabitants, 
are Slaves, Honey, Wax, Leather, Chacal-skins, a Beaft like a Pox, but 
bigger ; ;|nd Zerdavas, which is a Fur that r>efembles a Aiartm, with • 
the Furs of other Beafts that breed in the Circajfan Mountains. The 
Cberks are a people altogether Savage, of no Religion, unfaithful and 
f erfidious. They live in Wooden Huts, and go almoft naked. And 
the Women till and manure theGround. They are fworn Enemies to 
thofe that live next to them, and make Slaves one of another. They 
live upon a kind of Pafte made of a very fmall Grain like to a Miller. 
But of this Country little is known to us; and what is difcovered, is 
by means of the Slaves that are brought from, thence into Turky, who 
are in a manner Savages, from whom nothing of certainty is to be 

Crim Tartary. is a Teninfula about 2co miles in length, and 5*0 in 
breadth, wonderfully populous, and exceeding fruitful, abounding 
in Corn and Grafs, but Wood and Fuel is Icarce. 

The Towns oa the Sea- fide are Precopy Lus Iowa, Mancup, Crini, 
Caffa, Kers, and Arhot ka, vfhich lies between the Blaek and Maoton 
or Ratten Seas, near to which is a great Field jo mile long, enclofed 
with water, where theTarr<iri in Winter do keep their Hergees or 

Within the Land are C<Wi?/« , and BakeJUy Seray. The Town of 
Afian}gor4>d ftands upon the Neiper, in former times there dwelt in it 
two Brothers hgul and Ungul ^ who falling atvariance> and that end- 
ing in cruel Wars, the whole Country adjacent (though pleafant and 
fruitful ), became a Wildernefs, and now lietb walte, being avail 






Thitiffef Tiff try* ^ 

t)efartj |o^ milcioref, and a thoufafid miles long, from f^ff^^pamo - 
the Coufttfy of Mufi^jr, • - ^ •,:; : ;. . 

Caffa, known to the Ancienrt by the haftieof TbeoJofia, is a g«it 
ToWHi and place of good Trade^ wherein are reckoned 4000 Houfds, 
3000 inhaWied by Mahometans, Turks and Tartars, about J 000 fa- 
milies of Armenians, and Greeks, who have their feveral Bllhops and 
Churches, that of St. Vettr's Is the biggeft. but fallen to decay ; every 
Chriftian above 1 y years of Age pays a Piafter and half Tribute to 
the Grand SigniOr, who is Lord of the City ; which is guarded 
with two Caftles, the Caflle apon the South-fide commands all 
the parts, and is the Refidence of the BafTa. t'rovifions of all 
forts are very good and cheap^ Their chief Trade is Salt-fif), Caveer, 
Com, Butter and Salt, Formerly poiTeiTed by the Gehdtfe, but taken 
by Mahofiiet the Great 1574. hath fince been fubjeA to the Turks. In 
1627^ it Was befiegedand raken by the Cdjfacks, 750 miles reckoned 
from Confiantinopte. 

Trecof, in Latin Frecofia, feated neat the place whtfre ftood the Eu- 
feterea of the Ancients. ^By the Ancient Greeks called Eupatoria, Pom- 
feicpolis, Saeer Luctts, Dromon Achtllif, Gracida Hefaclia, BakeJJ'y >Serai, , 
ot Bfijho Serf ail, is the Refidence or Court of the prefent kans of Tar» 
tary, Maneup is a ftrong Town where the Kan is faid to keep his 
Treafiiry. . 

Girm^H or Cr/m was the ancient Seat of the Kans, fuppofed to be 
thtTapbra of ?lii»y^ Of Tapbras oi Ftohmy, Once a famous Colony of 
the Greciant, 

Kers, ftands upori the Eoffhofus Cimerius, or the ftrait of Capfja, 
tlot far from the fantkaf^tttrs of the Ancients. Oczakou is fcituaced 
near the inlhsst of the great River Boryfibenes, built in or near the place 

Tanas, or Tanais of Ttolomy, fcituate 20 miles from the mouth of 
that River, is the laft City in Europe, now fubjeft td the Turks, who 
have there aGarilbn, and by them called Az,ac, ot Aza>w, 4p miles 
from Caffa, and 1500 from Confiatitinople, In- 1637. it wasbefieged 
and taken by the Mufcwites zmCoj]'acks, In the Year 1641. it was 
not recovered, though with much blood and flatighter of the Army of 
Sultan Ibrahim \ for itcoft 2000 Spabees, 7000 Janijaries, and 8000 
other Soldiers, befides MoUaviarfs, ^alacBians, and Tartars, and yet 
the Turks were forced to raife the Siege, and return home. However 
the next year it was abandoned by the Cofacks, and left a fad fpedtacle 
c^ defpair and ruin* Sinc€ taken by the of Mufcovy. 



^=;fP^ *.ii I'- gti ' - gs 

■ . . ■« » - ««ii «> l I . ^^; 



^x The Leffer TATtirf. 

The ancientlnhabitants of the E«ropf<i» lurtarp or Sermatia Emcpaa, 
were of the Scythian Race ; bnt in Cherfonefe ic lelf dwelt the ancient 
Taurii againft whom Varitu King of ?€rCm made his frui^lefs War 
with an Army of 700000. In the adlions of the Gretks and Rtfi- 
Tftavs we hear nothing of them, unlefs that the Emperor Trajan took 
the City Taphree. Afterwards growing great, by Conquering the /^Jia^ 
tick Xartarsj Mahon^et the-Great made himfeli Matter of Caffa and 
Aztow^ thereby commanding both Af^eri/, and the £mm/»« Seas. And 
in the time of Selim/u the nrft, who had Married a Daughter of this 
Crim Tartar, the Turks and Tartars grew into a League . And tho the 
Kan or Prince be £le<5tive, yet he is Chofen out of the true Line> 
and confirmed by the Grand Si^nior, who have always taken upon them 
a power to Depofe the Father, and Conttitute the Son, or next of 
that liineage, when found remifs in affording their Auxiliary helps 
to the War, or guilty ofan^ di&efpe^^ or wane of Duty to the Otto* 

- The Tartars areEfteemcdas Brothers,ornear Allies with the Turks, 
to whom, for want of Heirs Male in the Ottoman Line, the TurkijhEm'- 
pire is by an Ancient Compad); to defcend ; the Expetftation of which 
' doth keep the Tartars ia mud^ Obfervance, in-hQpes one day to be 
Lords of the World. " ■; ', 

. In the Year 1663, *^® Tartars called to the Afliftance of the Turks, 
made fuch Incurfions into Hungary, Moravia, and SiUfia, Sacking and 
Burning Cities and Towns, that they carried away 160000 Captivetf^ 
wliich they Sell to thft Turks, who go thither to Trade for this Mer-^ 
chandiz^, which is the moft profitable Commodity that T^rr^f^ affords; 
Young Boys and Girls are rated at the higheft price ; the l$tter> if- 
beautiful are , like Jewels, held at unknown Value, thougUfewof 
them efcape the Luft of the Tartars, .They live very hardly, and feed 
efpecially on Horf^fleffi, which dying in their march, they never exa- 
mine his Difeafe, but putting the Flelh under their Saddles^ baking it' 
between the heat of the Hor(e and the Man^ it is judged fufficiently 
prepared, a Di(h fit for their Prince. 

And as the poorer fort are nourifhed with a diet of raw Fieib, 
Herbs, and Roots, fuch as the Earth naturally produces, without the^ 
Concodion of Fire to prepare it for their Stomacks ; fo alfo their Hor- 
fes are of a hardy Breed, patient of Hunger and- Cold, living ufuaU 
ly upon Roots and Leaves of Trees. 

Their. Towns or Villages confift of Huts rather tban-Houfes, or 
HurMes made of flicks, and covered with a courfe Hair-cloath, o£i 
which Villages there are accounted 200000; fo that taking^one maa 

- .,...„/ / ,.;..--v.-: out 









The LefferTdrtntf. .^ ^_ 9)' 

crat of every Village, they quickly form an Army of fo many Fight- 
ing men. Thefe Portative Houfes, whjth they-caHCai»;<ir«; they put ' 
upon Wheels, and dwell in them more in the Summ'er than in the 

They never mind Sciences, but underftand what they know by com- 
mon fenfe; at)d therefore 'tts faid of them, That they have eaten 
their Books, and carry them in. their Stomacks. 

They are faid to be To much of the nature of Dd^s"and Cats, that 
they are born blind, and do not' fi^ clear till after five- rJays. ^ Their 
Eyes are not very large, but very black ; hi afunder, but quick and 
piercing. They are rather little than big, but very Targe limb'd* : 
Their Breafts high and broad, their Necks fliort, their Heads big, 
their Nofes flat, their Teeth white, their Faces round, their Xom- 
plexion tanned, and their Hair black and courfe; whilft they aw ^ 
young, their Mothers bathe them in Salt-water to harden their Skin. " 

Some of them now grown Wealthy by the Market of their Slaves, 
throw off their homely plads, to wear Sables j and fome more fru- 
gal, build Houfes, eat bread and fieOi, and drink burnt Wine, an^ 
Metheglin. Sit JoknCbarJiH tclk iis, at D^oji', or 5i»/m<p, f miles 
from Cafa, there are 200 Veflrels_yearly laden with Salt; arid that 
about a mile&om that place was a Tartarian Habitarionv but not above 
ten or t\8;'elve Houfes jwith a little Mofque, only round about them Were 
a great number of Tents round and fqUare, very well clofed, as alfo 
feveral Waggdrts,well clofed and covered, which ferve inftead of Hou- 
fes. He alfo tells us, that fome of their Tents- were hung with Tapi- 
ftry, as alfo the Floors covered with the fame, and the outfide co- 
vered with Furs i and every Family hath one of thefe Tents, and 
two others, one for their Slaves and Provifions, another for their 
Cattel. That they ftore up their Corn and Forage in deep Pits or 
Magazines under the ground, as do mod of tha Eafiern people. IThe 
Riotous and Diflblute addidt themfelves to Strong-waters, and a 
Drink called Beza, giving themfelves up to a Gluttony as Brutilh as 
that which is natural unto Swine, and reft delighted with the meer 
contentment of Idlenefs and a full Stomack. 

Juftice is adminiftred among thtTartariam by the Law of Mahomet, 
in the Cities and Towns of the Chan, and the other Sultans : They 
have their Priefts, their Judges, and their Begi or PraefcAs, who ^o 
hear and decide private Injuries ; but the Chan, with his Counfel- 
lors, do judge of Capital Matters, as Murther and Theft; In decla- 
rmg whereof they need no Law;^er nor Solicitor ; they ufe np fubtil- 
ties i>r tricks, no excufes, or prolonging matters by delays ; for the 

. ; ■ - meanife' 



S4 TbeLeJferTMrtify4 

tnwitR of them, luyi ftnngen^ do freely declare their own wrongs 
and grievances betbce thefidges, ^ad ^hie Ci64» Jiimielf, by whom 
theyarequlcklyhMrdaoddi^tched. They inftruft their Sons when 
young, in the Arabick Language; when they come to ripenefsof 
years, they ferve the Cbsn or the SuUtttit \ and when their Daughters 
are Marriageable^ they marry them to fonie of cheXhtef tartars or 
Turks. The Richeft of the Tartars in tlte Princes Court, eo civilly 
anfl decent in their Apparel, not for Oftentation and Pride, but as 
Neceflity and Decency requires. Their Judges,acCording to Mabamet'i 
Law, are a(;counted Spiritual men, and of undoubted. Equity, Inte- 
grity, and Faithfulnedu And when the Chan goeth abiX)ad in publick, 
the pooreft men may have accefs unto him ; who when he fees them, 
will examine whi^c their wantsand necefltties are, and whence they do 

" Ifliali only add thisacconnt of Tartary, by Majfellm an Italian, 
Phyfician to the Grand Viz,Ur: I for my part found Tartary a very 
pleafant Countrey, plentiful of all ProviHons, and the people much 
more courteous and oblhging to ftrangers and Chriftians, than the 
Turks are. That as to their Morals few Nations i,:z lefs vicious, being 
extremely (evere and faithfiil, having no Thieves, ut falfe WitneiTes 
amongll them, little injuftice or violence, ahd live together in union 
and peace. And that the captive Tartars in Poland ue very faithful 
and juft in whatfoever they promile, or are intcufted with. > > 

■ \ 



. ■ » , r . . . . '• 

i 4. « 

^ .'■ ■ 



•iV, .'_'..■ • r 






■■ '■ ' J ^ 


.. •. •'. 


■■: .■lV-?.-'<'.i 


• i 



/ ^ 



_ Walwhla on this fide chs Mountains. It is very Rich in 
loney anij V^^i!, 6?r which the Tenths of the Prince amount Year- 
ly to abo)^.,^ooooo Cix^wns. You ihall meet with feveral Heaps of 
ttones wlnchtbey reportlahave be«i caft up by DariMs^ King of Ter^ 
fia, when he made War againft the ScpLiafts. The Capital Cities 
thereof are, Jajp, or JaJJum. the chief Town for Wealth andTrade. 




f fiim "w, fff' » <^^ 










■''■ «. 

^-' " J 


9<5 ^ [ofWAlaM^: 

2. Soczova, Sotz,ow, & 5f#l&2S0i^ wjistbe Stteiiavo of Pw?. c^ ^»/. the 
Vaivod's S^. ^, ChotM^An, ;4r(»h'.?hr. Baud, a place of great ftrength 
near the K?/y?^^JIna dhe or^m^^ the Q>untrey; the 

place where the Poles were defeated under King Sigifmund Augufim ; 
and where King John Sobietski, a little before his Eledion, won the 
mod memorable Vidory in our Age. This Countrey was firft made 
a Tutkifi Province by Mahomet the great, An, i ^74. The Eaftern 
part, called Bejf4rabia, lies upon the Black Sea, and bebngs to the 
Grand Senior, who isMafter of the Mouth of the Damw and Mf/***; 
and who ufes all ways imaginable to Subdue the Rich Provinces of 
thQ.TJkraine, Itschief places are Biokgrod, Moldavisy Beligrad Turcis,SL 
itrong Town near the mo^ith of the River. Kilia is thQCallatia&Cal^ 
Uds Jnt, , CaUt^Strak & Plin, ti^e Laz, But Laonicus tells us, that CaU 
Utia is now, called Calliacra. And Niger faith *ti.<; called Pandalla, on 
the Euxitttr Sea» Ackerman Turcis, Moncafiro IncolAs the Hernionajfa Plirf, 
dr Mel. the HermonaBm Ptol, tefie Nigro. Nefier Alba, Turcis tefie LeuncU 
Moncapro is tbcTyras of PtoLfefie Berber (li, Zotbez.avia, Nigro, a ftrong 
place on thefame Coafl'. The Seat «f a Turkijh Sangiac, The Plain ot 
Budziack, 12 Leagues long, and half as broad, is polfefTed ' by the 
Dobruce Tartars, y/ho are the greateft Robbers in thofefparts. They 
are aboutfi' foo(i^ ^P'^\y^ about Bialigrod. This Countrey became Tri- 
butary to the 7«rit/,ii»w 148 j** 




-,^'*^-i I i 


. ^fH-r 

Of l¥ A LAC HI A 




W A LAC HI A, which lies to the South-Eaft of tranjihania, 
and exc^ds along the Danaw, was called Walachia TranfaU 
pina, to diftinguiHiit from Moldavia, It was watered by a great many 
P/ivers. Some of the Mountains are enriched with Mines of Gold. 
iVnd for the Horfes, they are the beft in Europe, The Prince, who is 
(bmetimes called Hojfodar^ and irometinies^<»j'M'fl</f, that is to fay. 
Chief of the Troops, refidcs at Tehififcb, Incol, Tervis Gal Targ&vtfio 
Ital. Tergowifcb Germ, Tergovifius, or Tergovifium, Lat. Auth. Olim Ti' 
rifcumVtol. Taros & Tura tefie, And. pays to the Grand Signior 
26000 Livres Annual Tribute. Its other places Ai^e, BraitofHijfthe Piro- 
boridava oiPteli tefie Ntgro, the Towft of moft Trade, icituat<S on the 
Datiaw, memorable for the Deftrudtion and Slaughter made by John 
the Vaivod of Moldavia. '^: .■ U -^^v^ ». • A<i^v; \,-. ^ ^ -'i^jS^r "^ ' -' '^ "' 






7utiYia\ with its ftfong Caftle, taken by SigifmunJ, Anino i f 96. 
Bucarefa is remarkable for two Bridges ; the qne of Boats, laid by 
Simn Bajja\ the other of Stone, the Work of the Emperor Trajan, 

;>;'-**> '/^"no -• = «'V' ..'■.i.-'n'^i 




TRANSILV ANl A, fo called from the Hercynian Woods, 
and Carpathian Mountains, wherewith it is encompaffed. The 
Dacia Mediterranea of the Ancients, by the Romans called DaciaRtpe*>' 
fisy & Vannadacia ; by the Hungarians y Erdelyi called alfo Seftem Cajlra, 
, from the German name Siehnhrgen, by reafon of the feven Ciries or 
Seats which the 5«»a,o»j built there, viz, Hermenfiat, Cronjtat, Nofenfiat, 
Medvfifch, Schteshurg, Claufenhurg, & WeiJJenburgh. Divers Nations for- 
merly inhabited this Countrey ; as the Jazyges, by Pliny called Adeta- 
nafia ^ the Getes, Bafiernians^ Sarmatians, Gracians, Romans, Scythians, 
Saxons, and Hungarians. The Romans did conquer it, when the Em- 
peror Trajan overcame Decehalus, King of Dacia^ and reduced it into 
the form of f Province, calling their City Zarmizegethufa, after his 
own name, Ulpia Trajana. But Galienus loft it 200 years after. After 
the Romans, the Scythians under the Condudl of Attilla, feated them- 
felves in this Countrey, and built feven Cities, the names whereof 
are Orbay, Kyfdi, Czyck, Girgio, Marotts, Arania, and Seffi, 

The Saxons fucceeded the Scythians in the time oi Charles the Great, 
who followed the example of the Scythians, and built the feven 
Cities aforefaid. Laftly, the Hungarians, who mingled themfelves 
with the Dacians ; and afterwards, being provoked by Injuries, they 
conquered the whole Countrey, in the Reign oi Stephen King of Pane 
nia. The Mountainous part of Tranfylvania was fubdued by -Alatthias 
Huniades, who took Dracula their ^aivod'e or Prince, a man of un- 
heard of Cruelty , anci after 10 years Imprifonment, reftored him to 
his former place. Tranjihania is now divided into three Nations, 
differing both in Manners and Laws ; viz. the Cicult, or Ztkkrs, de- 
fcended from the Scythians, who are a fiery and Warlike kind of peo- 
ple, amongft whom there are no Noble, or Rufiicks, but all of them 
of one rank. 2. The Saxons. 3. The Hungarians, who call them- 
felves the Nobles of the Countrey, and have great Power and Autho- 
rity-over the relt. 

■ \'> 









Of TfMfjhtuii. 




As to the payment of Taxes and Tributes, it is divided into eighir 
principal Circles onDiviHons, called Chapters ; in which are contain- 
ed ? 6 Royal Towns, and more than 176 Towns or Villages, befides 
their principal Cities, which are, i. Hermanfiadt Ger. Czehen or Zekn 
Hung, the Cibinium & Hermanmpohs of the Ancients, yielded by the. 
Turks i6f9, after much Slaughter, and a ftout Refiflance ; is the 
Refidence of the Prince, a ftrong City, well fortified both by Art and. 
Nature. Waradin ^ or Gros fVardeyn, Ger. has been extraordinarily 
fortified by the Turks, who have there made a Magazine of Arms 
ever fince the Year 1660 ;but upon Jurte the ^th, 1692. after many 
vigorous Seiges and Attacks made by the Germans, being no longer 
able to hold out againft their Efforts, and defpairing of any Relief 
the Garifon capitulated j and upon the 5*/^. 400 Germans took polTel- 
fion of the Principal Pofls of the Fortrefs ; and upon June the ^b, 
the Turks marched out of the City, and gave entire PolTeflton to the. 
Germans. This properly belongs to Hungary. Cron(tat, Kronfat Germ* 
Brajjow vel Brajfowa Hung. BraJ/'a'W Incolis, the Patrovtffa of Ptol, Stepba- 
Tiopolis, Corona, & Pratoria As^ufia, Vet. is remarkable for a fair Libra*- 
ry, and a kind of Academy, and the moft noted Emporyof the 
Countrcy,(eated amougfl pleafant Mountains^and fortified with Walls, 
Ditches and Rampires. I^ofenfiadt, Germ. Biflritia & Bef^ereze Hung, . 
the Nentidiva Vet. tirnvd^v*, in Old Manufcripts ; is a pleafant and 
fweet Town. Claufenburgh Germ. Kolofivar Hung. Claudiopolisi Vet, Zeug- 
9fia Ptol. & aliis. Befieged by the 7«r/&/, Defended by D, Retani, and 
Relieved by Scheniden with 6000 men, 1661. But Lazim tells us, that 
Zeugma is the Zazfebes, Hung, or the Mulenbach Ger. three Leagues dU. 
ftant from Claufenburg towards the South, feated in a pleafant Plain,. 
beautified with handfome Buildings, and is the Court of their Judi- 
cature; The firft Seat of the Saxons. 

Weij[embu:g, > Germ, Gyula-Feierovar, Hung, Alhajulia or Alba'CiuIia, , 
the Atulum of Ptol. was the ordinary Refidence of the Prince, or 
Vayvod of Tranfyhania. Anciently called Tarmts ; andin Trajan s time 
it was the Palace of King Decebalus, Varhellncolis. Gradifcb Sclavo. Vec» 
zol & Venecz, te[ie Lazio, is the Zarmigetbufa,or Zarmifogethufa of Ptol, 
&Ulp$a Trajana, Vet. Megies, or Medgis Hung, & Megefwar^ Medwlfcb 
Germ. Meaiefus Lat, the Pirum of Ptol. Segefuiar Incol. Scbiesburg Ger. 
Sciburgium Lattnis, is the Sandava of Ptol. tefie Lazio. Janova, befieged 
by the Grand Vizier, i6y8. and taken. 

The Countrey naturally abounds with Wine, Corn, Fruit, and 
Cattel J which the Coin of Trajan doth witnefs, in which Ceres ftood 
holding in her right hand the Horn of the Goat Amak.baa, which fig- 



Of TrunJytvMU. . .;;^ 99 

•liifieth Plenty; and in her left hand a Table with this Infcription or 
Motto, AhmAancta Dacia, The People are much of the fame Nature 
with the Hungariansy to whom they have been for a long time fubjedl, 
%ut are Ibmewhat more iiubborn and untraceable ; andl^eak the fame 
Language, with fome difference in the. Dialed only. 

Oneof the principal Revenues of Tratffyhania confifts in Salt, which 
is chiefly made at for da ; from whence they fend it into Hungary by 
the River Marifh, There are alfo Mines of Gold and Silver, and 
fdmetimes great pieces of pure Gold are found in the Rivers, that 
need no refining : So that the Hungarians , when they poffeffed 
Tranfyhania, called it their Treafury. Copper is digged out of the 
fame Mountains that the Gold and Silver comes out * f. Steel is dig> 
ged and found at Cjk; Iron at Thorofco) Sulphur and Antimony are 
found in the Copper Mines. There are feveral forts of Religions in 
Tranhlvania\ for Catbolicks, Lutherans, and Calvinifts, had the freeEx- 
erciie of their Religion there ever fince the beginning of this Age. 
The two Families of Bathori and Ragotzi, have afforded this Coun- 
try feveral Princes : It being made aSoveraignty in the year i y 12. by 
John ZapoUa, by favour oiSolyman theGreaf.. Th,Q\3& Ragotz^i, who 
was (lain in Battel againftthe Turks, in the year 16^9, was the four- 
teenth Prince: He ftyl'dhimfelf. By the Grace of God, Prince of the King- 
dom of Tranfylvania, Lord of one fart 0/ Hungary, and Earl of the Cicu- 
fians. He paid Annually to the Grand Signior a Tribute of ;ooooZ)o/- 
lars'^ the Minifters of the Port have advanced it to five hundred thou- 
fand Rix-dollars. The Emperor, as King of Hungary, pretends to have 
the Right of Inflallation of the Prince of Tranfylvania : For the Em- 
peror Rodolphffs Eftablifhed Botfcai, upon Condition that the Princi- 
pality fhould return for defed of IfTue Male. 

It hath three Navigable Rivers. The Aluta or Avata, by the Hung. 
called Ult, by the Ger. Alth. Mavifus Strab. Marm Tacit, Maros Hung. 
Merifcb or Marifcb Ger. Marons Incolis, both rifing out of the CicuJcan 
Mountains; the firft falleth into the Danube, th^ other into the Tibtfcu.f. 
The third is Samris, or Samofcb, by the Ger. Thimes. It hath many Lakes 
and (landing Waters, which are full of excellent Fifh. 

It hath great Forefts, and fpacious Woods, in which are Bears, IVtld 
Oxen, Elkes, Harts, Leopards, Martins, Does, and White Harts. 

What fhould I mention the divers kind of Birds, as Eagles, Faukom, 
TheafantSy Partridges, Peacocks, &c. ? And why fhould I reckon the fV^^ 
ter-Fowl,ns Sv:ans, Buftards, PJttp^--^ &c. ? Thisfhall fuffice concerning 

O 2 


mppiiUii niiiiMJi 





HU NG AR I A, Lat. Ind'tginii Maghr. Slavh WagknkayGermaf: 
nis Hungerland, Gallis Huttgrie, Italis & Hifpanis Ongaria, now., 
vulgarly, but improperly, called the Panmnia of the Ancients. 

The ancient Inhabitants were xhQjax.iges, Metanafia oi Ptol. inclur 
ded within the Rivers Daww and Tiffa, and the Carpathian Mountains : 
Far^ of the £><ic// lying Eaft of the River T{ffh or Tibifcm The Vaoms 

Of HttngtLrh*:^ \' lor 

or Pantiofiiif inhabiting beyond the Damw, betwixt it and the Savw > 
afterwards it was the Seat of the Hunsy Longabards and Avaresy and 
laftly of the Hungarians. So called from the Hum and Jvares, a Peo- 
ple known by the Rapines they committed in feveral parts of Europe 
under AttilaonQ of their Kings, whofe mighty AAs and numerous 
Forces are very remarkable. He it was that over-ran moft part of 
Germany f and great part of Italy y that forced his way through all the 
Nations between him and Francey beating down all the Towns and 
FortrelTes before him. That compelled the Emperor Tbeodojius to buy 
his Peace at 6000 Pound- weight of Gold,and a yearly Tribute ; Sack- 
ed and burnt ey^^uilea and Milan, fought the great Battel with t/Etius 
the Roman General, where were ten Kings prefent, and zoooao 
flain. , - * ! 

Once a great and flourirtiing Kingdom, whofe Dominions extended 
as far as t\\Q Adriatick And EuxmeScA. Now divided by the Damw in- 
to the Upper Hungary ^ lying North of the River ; and the Lower 
Hungary lying towards the South, containing before the Turkijh Sub- 
jection, 5-4 Juridiciai Refortsor Counties, viz. Abanvivarienfis, d' Aban- 
vivar i. Alhen/isj d'Ekekes-Feyeruar 2. Arvenjis d'Arva, 3. Barfien- 
y/jdeBars4. Barz,odietjfis dtiivzoA ^. J?«f/j;f w/?^, de Bath 6. . Bibs" 
rienjisy de Debreczln 7. Bijlrkienfisy de Biftricz 8. Bidogenfisy de Bo- 
drogh 9. Cajiriferrenfisy 4q Sarwar 10. CepufievfiSy dc Czepufs 11. 
C/&o»<ii'//f»/J!f, deChonad 12. Co»*»r««/J!f, deKomara 15. Gevinarien- 
fisy deGewinar 14. Hewejevfiiy Hewecz. 15*. Nontenfis^ de Sag 16. 
JavarienJiSy de Gewer IJ. . LiptovtenJtSf 6q LypcZB 18., Moramarufien' 
Jisy de Moramaruls 19. Mufonienfisy de Muzon 20. NUrienfiSy de Ney- 
tracht 21. NovigradienfiSy de Novigrad 22. Orodienfis Czongrad 23. 
Telyfienjisy Pelicz 24. Veregienfisy de Peretzaz 25". Pejlen/is, de Pert 26. 
Pp^^icw/?i de Pofega 27. Po/fl«/e»/M, dePofon 28. Ri/i(v//Sy dcKrziCs 
or Creutz 29. Sagorienpiy de Sellia 5.0. Salladienjis de Salawer 5 1. 
SarienJiSy de Saraz 3 2. Semlynienfisy de Semlyn 33. Sigeten/iiy de Szy- 
geth 34. SimlgienJtSy de Zegzard 3 f, Sirmknfisy de Szerem jii. So- 
■pronienjiiy uC Sopron 37. Strigonienfisy de Gran 38. Ternefuevjisy de 
Temefuar 39. 7o/wf»yw, de Tolna 40. Tor<j!Mf<j//ew/j', deThurtur 41. 
Tornenfisy de Torna 42. TranfchinienJtSy de Tranfchyn 4;. Tw^ocenfiSy 
de Owar 44. ValconienJtSy de Valpon 47. '/aradienfis de Varadin 46* 
VaranienpSy de Baranyuar 47. Veffrintietifit y de Vefprim 48. Ugog- 
henfisy de Ugoza 49. Unghejjfuy de Unghwar fo. Z^bokenftiy de 
Chege y I. ZagrabienfiSy de Zagrabla ^2. Zatmarienjisy de Zatmar y 3. 
Zdn'oanjiij de ^olnock 5-4, 

Pacific N. W. Historv Dapt. 


PROVING I a:, L.iJRAi^r 

VICiOiiiA, 13. C. 





Of Huftf^drU, 

\ , 


Firft Invaded by Amitrah thefecond 0//^«^<w Emperor of thtTmhl 
with almoft incredible numbers of men, who yet found that the vali- 
ant OfF-fpring of the once Vi<aorious Huns were not fo eafilyfubdued, 
but ftood as the Bulwark of the Chriftian World for 300 years, put- 
ting a ftop to the Turki^ Conqueft, and further Invafion into the other 
parts of Europe ; no other Nation being able to check their unruly 
Rage, nor fet bounds to their Empire. Yet fuch was the unhappy 
fate of That People, that after long Wars, fundry Vidories, and 
brave Refiftances, it was for the greateft part inthralled to the Turks \ 
the reftj'^containing about a third part, obeyed the German Emperor of 
the Houfeof ^uftria, defcended Irom y^»«« Sifter to Lewis the Second, 
the laft Native Prince, flaip by Solyman at the Battel of Mobacz. 

But thofe that write the Hiftory of Hungary , tell us, that though 
Scruples of Confcience, and Contefts about Religion, have been the 
Preteniions of the Difcontents and Rebellions there ; yet Ambition 
and Soveraignty have been the caufe of the Wars and Miferies of that 
bleeding Country. That their own DiviHons indeed contibuted to 
rheir Subje<Aion ; for neither the' Roman Eagle, nor the Ottoman CreC 
cent had waved proudly over their lofty ToWers, had not the Civil 
DilTentions ofthe Inhabitants, by wounding deep each other's Boibms, 
made way for the Enemy. 

The Soil of Hungary is very fertile ; the Plains, which are exceed- 
ing lovely, bear Corn in abundance ; and the little Hills produce ex- 
cellent Wines ; thofe of Tokay are highly efteemed j the 5/Vw<«» Wines 
are very rich and pleafant. And its deep Pafturages are ftored with 
infinite Herds of large and fat Cattel. 

It alfo exceeds moft Countries of Europe, in Mines of Gold, Silver, 
Tin, Lead and Copper ; as alfo Baths and Mineral Waters, fome of a 
flrong nature, which falling upon the ground, is turned to a Stone ; 
others again flow' in Winter, and freeze in Summer ; others, which 
falling into Ditches make a kind of mud, out of which tried and melt- 
ed they make very good Copper ; and others there are that turn Iron 
into Copper. 

The Veins of the Copper-Mine Tnear Newfol) are very large, and 
the Ore is very rich j in a hundred pound of Ore they ordinarily find 
20/. of Copper, fometimes 30, 40x0 60 in the hundred ; there are 
alfo two Springsof a Vitriolate Water, which turnlslron into Copper 
in 14 days time, and the Copper thus changed, is more du(Slile, 
ntaleable, and more eafily melted than the other. 
^ Three Hungarian miles from Newfol, and two from Chremnitx,, there 
a^e divers Hot Baths of great efteem, and much frequented ; at Boinitz, 




I - 

Of HHfigirU. ; toj 

there are al(b five natural Barhs;, of a gentle heat, and dehghtful 
to bathe in, being beautified by Count Valfi, then Palatine of Hun. 
gary. .■,';•.'*■• "'-''.<^' / mv,*; 

[t produces abundance of Salt, and other Provifions for Humanis 
fliftenance, plenty of Deer, Hares, all forts of Poultry, Partridges 
and Pheafants, great (tore of Sheep, great numbers of Oxen, of 
which 1 00000 are yearly fent into Italy and Germany. 

The Hungarians are generally Warriers and good Soldiers, ftrong 
of Body, well proportioned, and valiant ; more addi(5{;ed to Mars 
than to Minerva ; cruel, and great Eaters. Their Habits, as well as 
their Manners, are not far different from thofe of the Turks ; their 
Language is a kind of Sdavoniany but differing in moft places. But yet 
the Latiny the Turkijhj and the High Dutch are in ufe among them. 
There are two Arcbbifhopricksj Strigonium, and Coloeza, with ten Bi- 
fhopricks, the half whereof were in the hands of the Turks; Four Or- 
ders of Perfons have liberty to fit in their General Affemblies, the Pre- 
lates, Barons, Nol^ility and RurgeJJ'es. The Dignity of Palatine is the 
molt confiderable, next to that of the King, for which reafon the 
Hungarians would admit of no King but one of thdr own Nation. The 
Archbifiiop of Strigonium is Primate, and Perpetual Chancellor of the 
Kingdom, and Crowns the King after his EleAion. 

The chiefeft ftrength of the Country confifts in Light Horfe; The 
Horfemen are there called Hujjars, and the Infantry Heiduejues. Be- 
fides Extraordinaries, the Emperor draws out of what he poiTeiTes in 
Hungary about a Million of Livres every Year; that is, from the Sil- 
ver Mines, his Impofition upon Houfes, and his Tax upon Cattel Ex- 
ported. The Grand Signior requires a Caraz, from thofe that are under 
his Jurifdidlion , who pretends to all Hungary, and the Dominions be- 
longing to it, by virtue of the Submiflion made to Solyman by Sigif- 
mundy Son to King John, Count of Cepufa, and by the Queen his 

The chief Rivers of Hungary are, firft the great Danuhius of Ployk 
Strab. Plin. & aliis, Danubio Ital. & Hifpan, Danube GaOis. Danaw d^ 
Thonaw Germanis, which runneth quite through Hungary^- making a 
Courfe for above 300 miles from Presburg to Belgrade, And from thence 
pafling by the Shores oiServia, Bulgaria, Wallachia and Moldavia,w'nh 
many^ouths it entereth into the Euxine or Black Sea. Having from 
its firft fource performed a Courfe of above i f 00 miler. 

No River whatfoever, fo far from its difcharge into the Sea, aflford- 
cth more Naval Veftels of ftrength and fufficiency for Fight. T!ie 
Emperor hath his Veli«ls of War built like Gallies at Vienna, Preshur/, 



104 ^/ ^iftf^g^f^' ' . 

an3 Comorra, and an Arfenal for Provifions of mofe, upon occafioni* 
The Turk once had his Veflels at Grartj BuJa, and Belgrade, 

Nor hath any River afforded the like Signal Engagements and En- 
counters at this diftancQ from the Sea. At the Seige of Belgrade Ma- , 
hornet \hQ Great brought 200 Ships and Gallies well ftored, up the 
Stream. And the Hungarians fentas many down from Buda^ that af- 
ter a Iharp Encounter, they took twenty of the Turkifh Veflels, and 
forced the reft on fliore, near .the Camp ; fo that Mahomet cauikd 

' them to be fct on fire to prevent the falling of them into the Enemies 
hand. At the Siege of Buda the Chriftians had 24 Galliots, 80 fmall 
Pinnaces , and about 100 Ships of Burden, and other great Boats, 
when all mifcarried under Count Regenfdorff. 

At the Siege of Vienna by Solyman, fVolfgandm Hodder did a good 
piece of Service with his armed Veflels from Preshrg^ who fank the 
Turkish Veflels that came from Buda with the great Ordnance to bat- 
ter the Walls of K;(?«»<r. 

Nor doth any River afford fo large and well-peopled Iflands; the 
raofl: confiderable is th'e Ifland of Scbuty or Infula CituQrMm, with its 
feveral Iflands in it, containing many good Towns, befides many Vil- 
lages well peopled, and well fortified againft the Incurfioris df 'Ifeie 
Turks and Tartars. And the Ifland Raah made by the great and lefler 
•Rivers Raah. There is aiio another Ifland againfl: Mohatch; another 
at the entrance of the Dra-vui; and a new Ifland hard by Belgrade ; 
fifty years fince there was no face of an Ifland ; but by the fetlingof 
the Oufe orfilth brought down by the Savus and the Damhey it is now 
full of Trees, and what advantage or difadvantage this may be to 
Belgrade, doubtlefs a little time may fhew, tho the Turks once were 
very fecure and fearlefs of any Forces in thefe parts. Between Vice- 
grade and Vacia there is St. Andrews, or Vizze, a fair and large Ifland. 
A Vittcbdow Buda, there is Ratzenwarckt li[An6, extending in length 
40 miles, containing many Villages in it. Here the Turkifi Forces 
Encamped when they came to raife the Siege at Buda, 

2. ''The Tibifcus Viol. Ttbefis Herod. TathiJJits Plin. Tijianus Jornand, 
Tijjia, Laz, vulgo Teifs j arifing in the County of Moramarujtus, out of 
the CarpatbiatfMouMzxns, At Tokay it t^kes in the Bodroch or Bodrogus\ 
at Kafcaw the Tarczi, the Hewatz, Hovatb or Hemacb meets, and 

, rolling down the Mountains, receives the Scheya and Gayo Rjkers at 
Onoth, and a little further they all four fall into the Ttijlfe, At Zalnock 
the Zagywa, the Twna, Surwizza and Ganges j fall into it. At Czon- 
grod the Kalo, the Sebeskeres, the Fekierkenz olim Cbryfus R, Keureuz In- 
col. KraiJJ'. Germ, At Seged, the Marifus Strab, Marus Tac. Maros Hung, 





ers at 


tz, In- 


■ ■*,■*. 


Aierifcb, or MarifeJfG&m. Manns Incplis, Laftly, the Ttms Riyer falK 
into it, near us.own.cooflrtcnce into the Papftie^ \>ciw9^tiF(tro^FaraT 
Jin sinci Belgr^k4e: By this ^%%^ .TeiJJ'e comeiji 4<>wft thc^gje*^ quanr 
tity of Natural Sak-ftcwe tal^ea put pf the mA^y ^a\t-h^f}^$u} Hungary 
SLtidlTranfyhama, and carried into the adjacent and {^djgnDOunng 

Countries. ■ vtu ^h■^ -■.-:'■.. ^ .! ••;;■. ■^"".■m-n-^-:- 

3. On the Weft-f?4e of Hungary is the River ^^ah Ant, Narabo 
Ttil, Now the Raah J riCmgin Styria, atid falling intofi^e^pP^vM^^ by 
Javarin or Rahy receivipg thf Laufnit^y Binca and Gurtz,.]^'A. confi- 
derable River, and famous, for in the Year. 1664, Germany was much 
alarmed at the raifing of the Siege at Camfa, and taking the Fort Se* 
rini, much more at the Turks paffage over this River Raab; but the 
extraordinary Valour of the Ghriltians, efpeciaUy the French, put them 
to a fliafneful Flight, (o that jiftcr 8000 loft upon th'^ place. neai; Saint 
Go/i64r J, crowding ^n heaps to pafs t(^e River> ttiejiorfe trampled 
upon the Foot, and the Foot throwing themfelves headlong into the 
water, together with the Horfe, funk down and periflied, fo that 
the water was died with blood, and ^he whole Rivier covered with 
Men, Horfe a^d Garments^, all fwimming promifcuoufly, together ; 
no difference We between the yaliant and the Coward^ ifh^Pobjifl^ 
and'the Wi(e, all being involved in the fame violence and Calamity ; 
fb that t{)e waters devoured a far. greater number than the Sword, 
3Ji(h|lft the Grand Vifier Acbntet ftanding on the other fide of the Ri- 

'tir able to ^Iford no kind of help, and as void of all Counfel^nd Rea- 
fon, knew not wh^re to apply a remedy ; fuch a Defeat and Diflio- 
nour fince the time that the O^ro«w?i Empire arrived to its greatnefs, 
fuCh a Slaughter and Dllgrace that it fuffered , no Stories to that time 
make mention of; which occafioned a Truce for 29 years between the 
two Empires, by which TrUcfe the Province of Zatmarindi Z^Qlcb, 
granted to Ragotzi, returned ag^in to the Emperor; That the Caftle 
of Zacbeihyd be demolilhed. That Varadin a(nd Newhaufel remain to 
the r»^il/. ' . : '/ ' 

4. The Dravus MeU, Draus Vlin, Drabus Strab. Dravm Vtot.La Drava 
ItaU Le Drave Gal. Dratt hcoh Trab Hung, which arifing among the 
Mountains ofSaltthurg and C*r;»f^w runneth a long Courfe of about 
400 miles, through Carmfbia ind Hungary, iiWeth inter the' Danube at 
Drazat over againft Erdaed, or ErdeT^dy, the old Teutoburgium of Ant. 
and ?tol. Dr. Brown tells us, that it is agoodftream as high as ViHiich, 
where there is a Bridge over it, and at Clagcnfart he palfed over it 
upon two long Woo(^en Bridges, and anifland in the middle between 
them. ' "' . : ,v' • ' ■■ ■/ ;•- ...•■■ "• -'•'; 


-. s 


■ # 




/ ' 




.. / 

1^ ^flmgit^. 

f. lite 5Utwt l^'o/. Saitt Strak in M&, Sbdim Xivt6f&^, St4itt '^ 
M n^^S^ttilhttiS^'Gthm L$ ^«» Gtl U $. iiobld River, arifnij^ In 
t^t MiHHM^i bitwtik e^mhidaPtdfCuffiiifla^ knd fweTling b)r the 
*cc»tfidi<*6.fmirrfy<irvett'; sifter a courfe erf above jfo inile% entenMh 
the J[>*>!rti^i^at Bn^altft, At Cminhiirgi not fer diftane from the H!a4, 
it was a conHderable ftream^ which afterwards fo enlarged fts to make 
remarkable' Iflatids, one at SiJpinQ by Zagrabla, the Other Metuhirris ac 
tfieWtffofclI*5tfrwii*f^. ' 

(5M5bon ihd North* of Jyii»|f4r; att % Rivers ariffng frotti the C«- 
/!|iri&/i«« Mountains, which di^db Pt^ArMf from Bu^ar/,viz, theGr<rt» 
aitid* M/f, whith Uniting together runne;h iiifto the Dav^h, over- 
igainft 5fi'/^*»i«* or Gr<^». ' .^^' , 

r^.'i'ife'JE%>'<r, Sfthtch i^Bn$hy NtivB^fa^^ttittitth the 1>jthuh, 

tTiitP^^t ^f ^''i^^y ^^^^^ Stkcklus fifth, liAuaU the To in Jm§^, 
at Pripaty yo mlle^ from iti entrance into the hamhe ; it is a Very 
large River, dhd hith a hong Bridge over it. And at tYettfibin it 

JO. The Servitza, or brmUsi afifirtg near Vefpfmitim, ^tt^]ga$hji 
»)«, runneth into the 




%i, Vdlfo pi Vulpahusycivtt which there isa'Hri(3geai,?PW<?M« 
13. Tte kiver SiefnafB, BofwetBa, or hacunibus, 'which fallethihco 
IMiSavm, not far frorh the old Sitrmitim 

V A^hii Countre^ excelleth in Rivers^ foi^ h^th many cohiSderabfe 
and long Bridges, not ^o mention this Brid^of Bo^ts over the Ifamhy 
between Gra» and Barclan, nor of that Bndgof Boats becWeen J^ii//<( 
andP^/,,where.the i><«;»^«is half a mile over^ which is To contrived 
as to open a pafTage for Boats and V^iflfels of Burthen topafs ; nor (hall 
i namet thofe already [hentioned. There is a handfome and well-con- 
trived Bridg at CWo/2i«. ^But that ove£th$-i>4l?^^«it £/ecAisfcarcetp 
te paralleil'q jby ^ny other;; Built partly , over the Dravm^ awJ partly 
over the Fensj wliich are often overflowed, and is five miles in length. 
Having Towers huilc upon it at the dliftancepf every quarter, of a mile, 
fupported by great Jrpes ere<5ted under it, nirieortetiin a rankunta 
each Ardi, and handfoniely railed on each fide. Itcoft the,7«r4t 
^coooo X^llarsj,^tld fix years time to build it. That part of the 









in the fet^ !r«rj^/i» wars telwpeh ^i^M// ifjclEmjp^ ai 
Mahomet tfie 4>4, ar^'<3 is^ow fupbucd by a, fejSdge bf '^ 




what MojVthfcl^ .Lu;ii-ti::>;x.St,r:i; 

Lak«i /visi. the LaHe JJ Aw ovPlatiee, the Ww of 6|d> 'cxreii'd 
]ing a great length between Vtf^inmm and the J!>r<i'^/!ii,w^th.(9roeAi'6rig 
Forts upon jc i which pwa ftopMntothe cruelty of itfif^m<<^'« Soldiers, 
vHgi ^c:^ ^ftrcgfed 5ftfiwn>,/a uijtp thb pii^...^:^:^ \:y ,^ 
.,^;The^e,isJ^^o tbeJyew^^ Sea^ by thq HtmarmsXmmfX^y PKr. 
Pei/o. A pl^aiant t^lse, feyen German miles lofte, arid three~br6aai> 
in the Comn^ptii^ns of 4^;)^^ 14 Villages about j;hU Lake were burnt 
by the 7yA/,7tfr;^/^ and Rebellious f7<;//«^^^^ . • 

The Rivers and Lakes of Hungary ^re jtbun^aji^jfi Fi(hf^ J^ho 
Tf^fim.OT Teifff is cfte^ned tljemoft pi^Jiy Riyjer fif^f^ww^iil^^^ 
t|i© World, ;Tis cpmmonty ^i^ that it, jfjnfifeffvjpf jtwo parts of 
Wat^r, and one of Fi(h ; atid the Riyer Bodmck w))ich:r.uns iqtp the 
Ttkiffui as aforefaid, not far frofn Tokay iMi^oi JFuU^Fifh, thatin 
Sumrosr-f Ime when (he River i?[ low^ the People fay the W^wr ftn^ljs 
oftJFi%: diottgh the Riiyer .i^ tbifty fathom ,bro^d>'>jnd fagt« anf a 
half 4eep»v; Thisiexceedi*^ fertiiity foine afcrlbe ubt^^J^"^ SKUnelTlo- 
i^uresj^ both of m oWniftreaiii; and otheraiieeeffiohary ijoio if^:which 
lick. the ttiany Salt Mines under ground, ^ndfo rtiiy carry fonie prin- 
.ciples.of ioeCundity with th6m. The Danube . abound^th ^jth mat^y 
good; Fi^es, vis frQtitiyj^¥.m^^fii,\iXgt and .delicl6uStiC<Jrpif . a.FJOBi 
diUed S'Seydtff^ /miidh iexfceeAng i' Btke.,: ; At^fonie Scaljjfis gifeat^tore 
of i/tf tt/iswi, fohiB. 20 foot'JoVig^eftfe^hied ai:gDod Difli, ^hd io-^^jivhat 
like 5/tt;if f(?», with many other forts. And as the Rivers are full of 
FJlhy fo in the Winter ihey ane covered with many forts-of Fowls,, if 

The moft confiderable Cities of ///wjj'isrj', are BuJa, Ht4rg, Ajuk- 
cum, or ^ciiicum V.H>k &. Ant. tejh Clev. ^,$Kambria (jrCunta.aliis: By 
the (jermdnj^ cal led Offett, by the French Mude^ by :the .^jfitnUrJsy haliavs 
aud EvgliJIt, Buda 5 fo called, as fome tell us, from Buday the Brother 
o^ Att iky Anno Dom, 401. Others fuppofe it fo called from Budir.i, a 
famous Scythian People who engaged with Aitila in his famoiis Expe- 
dition. ' Yec others tellps it wascalled^Wif, from the fb iiia«y Re- 
nowned Baths in it. Tis dilhiitfrom ^f^^r^?^/^ 49 Gcrw*??; miles, ^nd 
from Vienna 5:4. tefie Baud, ^ ' - - ' - ( 

Fif ft taken from the Heathen Succeftbrs of Attila by Charles the 
Great79i. taken from the Hungarians by Suknn- 6ofyman, Afwc Dom, 
ijif.ilecoveDBd the year following by King Ftr^iwW, Brother to 
••■'^- ■ ....--■• ■-'.' Pi '- ':-.■" the- 

,, •• •'■' . -.'t :■': 

tht Etnperor CbarUi, the Fifch, who was Ele^ed King by the four 
Orders of the States of the Kingdom. But in the year i ^29. it was 
retaken by Stlyritan, and comttiitted to John Zapolia Prince of TranfyU 
vM$ia, An. 1^41. King Ferz/m^nK/fent' his General RoggenJorf with an 
Army of 40900 men, and 40, Cannon. But the Turts coming in to 
their AflSftance with a numerous Army, the Germans were forced to 

^ raife the Siege : Whereupon the Sultan politickly feized upon the City^ 
fcnt the ydung Prince Sigifmund with the Princefs his Mother into 
Tranfylvania, and kept the Town in his own hands, and made it the 
Spat of a BegUrbeir b¥ Vice-Roy, whofe Authority extended over all 
the %mAvtsotBH^g^. In 'the Year if 42, it was befieged by joa" 
ebiin Elci^or of Braiidenburgh, who was forced to draw on, and quit 
the Siege. - if9g, or 9. Count Swartz^nhurgb befieged it, but the At- 
tempt mifcarried. ^nno 1601. General Rofwtrm alfo with the Impe- 
rial Atlfiy attacked it in vain. 

■ Whdfoeter fl^fall read of theSiegesof 16R4. attd 168^. will find 
^the Stbry of the thbft famdus Sieges in the World, where Blood Was 
-fpilt like w^ter, and many brave men found their Graves ; where the 
AiTailants equalling, if fioe furpafling Titm forming JerufaUm ; and 
'Abdi Bafha no lefs DFayely<>bftinate in defending his TruO, than K^- 
'imus iif^ the Walk of Rhodh. But upon the Second of Seftembtr 

' 1 6)86^ the fame day of -ch&year when ic was taken by Solyman^ after 
it' had groaned under, the Tyrannous Yoke of the Ottoman 14; years^ 
was this great and ftrong City, the Capital of Hungaty, reduced un* 
der the Obedience of the Emperor Leopold the Firft, by the Prudence, 
Conftancy and Conduct of the CouragiousDukeof Lorrain ; theTer- 
ror <:riF the Muffelmttti andihe gceateft General of this Age. The Tiirks 
l}ave formerly experienced' the Valour of H«»W;j ana Scanderbergbi 
They have feared the Courage of the Duke of Merceun They have 

- trembled at the Condud and flaughter of the Valiant Count Serini ; 
but much morereafon have they to dread the Martial Duke oi Lorrain : 
lie it was that near Presburg routed the Rebellious Army of Teckleyi 
Hei( was that defeated the 7«r^j near CaUnburgb : He it was with the 
King of Poland, that raifed the Siege of Vienna: He it was that van- 
quimed the Enemy near Barkan, and j-efcued the King of Poland when 
the Poltjh Array was in Confufion : He it was that relieved the City of 
Cran, and routed the Army ofZeitan Jbraim Bajha : And laftly, He it 
was that whilft the GrAnd Ylzicr Sol/man looked on with a potent Ar- 
my, won thl? Glorious Conqueft, Buda. 

Not far from Buda, in the Year 1578. was fought a Battel of fo 
(l;angc a fortune between the Chriltians and the Turks^ that the Con- 

'". f 

■^ r' p\h i.:>' 



of fo 

Of HtMgAtj. 109 

querors were conquered, and the vanquiflied got the Vi<5tory. Other 
Cities arc Vofmy Hungarit Vrrsburgy Gftrmanis Vojonium d^ I'ojjonmm, the 
FUxum of Vtol. & ^»^ The City is pleaCuit,the Caftleftately, where 
the highly efteemed Crown of Hurgary is kept ; the Labyrinth, Fifh- 
Ponds, and Fountains are Noble, it is the Cat}ital of what the Houie 
of y^«/^r/<i ,poireires, ten German miles from Vtenna : Since the Lofs of 
^Iba Regahsf it is the place of Election and Coronation of the Icing's 
of Hungary. Cajjovia, Chafchaw incolis & Chafcbow, lies towards the 
Mountains, having the faireft Arfenal in the Countrey. Eperies, EperUy 
is much frequented, by reafon of the Fairs which are there kept ; 
where alfo there is a Salt- Mine about iSo Fathom deep, the veins of 
Salt are large, and there are pieces of looon /. weight ; the colour 
of the Salt-ftone is fomewhat gray, but grinded to powder, it be- 
comes white ; nor is the Salt always of one colour, but of divers ; 
there are fome pieces fo clear and hard, that they carve them into di- 
vers figures. 

Sabaria of P/w. Vtol. & Amm. Stain. Am Angem. Germ. Sztombateh 
Hung, ujte Lax.iOf but by Cluver. it is Sanvar^ Hung. Rotbenturn Ger. of 
old the Metropolis of Fannonia Superior, the Birth-place of St. Martin. 
Some report, ar-^ others believe, that Ovid >yas buried there, in his 
Return towaic (afy. 

Nittria, Hung. NeytracbtGer. a Bifliop's See. Frei^at, ot CalgotZyHung* 
a fair large Town, but burned by the Turks. Schtmnitz, the greateft 
of the Mine^Towns in Hungary y and where great quantity of Silver 
Ore is every day digged. It hath three fair Churches, and three Ca- 
ftles, and feveral Mines ; ihol^Q di IVmdfcbacbt Atidi Trinity are the 
chief, the la(^ 70 Fathom deep; the one is much efteemed, and of a 
black colour, covered with a white Earth. 

There is alfo often found a Red Subftance which grows to the Ore, 
called Cinnaber of Silver, which being grinded with Oyl, maketh a 
Vermilion as good as the Cinnaber made by Sublimation. There are 
alfo found in thefe Mines, Cry ftals, Amethyfts, and Amethyftine mix- 
tures ; as alfo Vitriol naturally Cryflalized in the Earth. And as there 
is great variety in the Silver Ore, as to its mixtures with Earth, Stones^ 
Marchafite, Cinnaber, Vitriol, &c. fo alfo in its Richnefs ; fome hold- 
ing a great proportion of Silver, in refpecjl of others: A hundred 
pound' weight of Ore fometimes yields but half an Ounce, or an 
Ounce of Silver; fometimes two Ounces, 3, 4, y, and fo to 20 Oun- 
ces ; what is Richer, is very rare. 

Moft of the Schemnitz. Ore holds fome Gold, which they fepara e 
by melting the Silver, then granulating it, and after b Jlflblving it 
^' •■ . ' • ' in 




\ 1 

^Tk Aifmfortit ttiSii^t a^td^ 4'pecuUir Vitriol^ prepared at ChrernnitZj 
whereby the Gold is left at the bottom, ahd is afterwirdS mdted, 
and the Aquafirfis is diftilled from thfc Silver, arid ferveth again , 
for ufe. ^ , ^ . : 

s Chremhrtx,, Cdfpath of old, is the oldefVMirte-TdWrtv and thellicll- 
'feft in Gold of all the reft ; 9 6 ?• years they have worked there j the 
Mine is about iq Englifh miles inlength,^ and there is one Caniculm, or 
Horizontal PalTage, 800 Fathoms long, and the depth is about 170 
Fathoms; and the X^fl/»o/«/ Pit is ICO Fathoms deep. 1 

Of the Gold Ore, fome is white, fome black, fonie red, fomc 
yellow; that with black fpots, within white, is efteemed the beft. 

There is alfo a Vitriol Mine at Qlnninitz, about 80 Fathom deep, . 
ihd Ore whereof is reddifh, arid fometimes greeniflii This Ore is in- 
fulcdin water, and after thrfee days the water is poiired off, and bdil^d 
feven days in a Leaden Veffel,till it comes to a thick graWuaiated w/hi- 
tilh Subltance, which is afterwards reduced to a Calx in aii^v^ri, 
and ferveth in the making of Aquafortis, or the feparating water lifed 
Z,t Scbremnitz,. ,, .. , , 

NewfolfOt Bijfr/cidf has the greateft Copper- works In. Wlr/W^//i7jtj;v€ 
Copperbeihgveryftrongly united to its ftorie-bed or Of^.^fhep^pa- ' 
ration is effe^ed with great labour, and difficulty, it being burnecl and 
nelt^d l4tiihes befor'e it becomes fit fprUfe. ,.* ;,,... i'4,;^ n 

Ac A little Village called Smalniky there is a Rivulet vvnicn cijanges 
particles of Iron into Copper. The leaves of Oaks that are by, tpe 
bank-fide, falling into the water, are inienfibly eaten through, arid ihe 
mdlt gixjfe particles of this water getting djereih, it is turned into a 
leaf of Copper, which being expofed'to the Sun, or only to the Air, 
hardens, and always retains its former figureof ah Oaken leaf, , ,^ ^ ■:.,^ 
At Glas-Hhtert',ikvcn EvgliJJi miles from Scfjemrfitz., there was once 
a ridh' Gold Mine ; but fince the over-running of the Countrey by 
Bethkm Gahr, it is loft. 'Tis much frequented by reafon of its natu- 
ral hot Baths. 

Eifevhacb, four miles E/tgltflj fi cm Glas- Hitteny and five or fix from 
Schemnhz,, is alfo noted for ::5 Hot Baths, the fedirnent of which is 
fed, and turneth into Stone, and it turneth Wood into Stone. 

At Hern-GriojJt , an Htrngartan mile from Newfol, jn that Mine were 
two Springs of a Vicriolate water, which turn Iron into Copper. ■ 

The feven chief Mine-To wr.snre Schmniiz,. Cimwmtz,, NewJoL Ko' 

tittigsbtrg^ Bocb(if}tz,jAn6 LilfeUnj 7'iln. . ^■. ~' • ;\" *>.v> _, .. -^ ,; !u;»\ * :; 

The ftrongefl: places belonging to theHouft o^ Auflriay were, '^fava-^ 

rlvyComaray and Leopolfiatf tlie Bulwarks of Chriftenftom. Javn-hf, 


. again 

:re ; the 

cuktSi Ot 

out 176 

d, fome 

)m deep, 
Die is in- 
ited Whi- 
in bvferi, 
^ater lifed 

^heSepa- '. 

• •■ ' ^ 
1 cqanges . 

e by, tpe 


ed into a 

the Air, 


was once 
J n trey by 
• its natu- 

r fix from 
f which is 
>ne. r 
,4ine were 
opper- rj. 

ire, jf'J'f'-.-- 
Ja I'f r/n. 

tCfrnMiMrf. Ill 

Qnllis ^4^h, RsaH^i la the PJain, oatof |ig!tt, mvkoai by the JXr" 
fi^W ) ^d Ragh GirmoHss, Gewer Hrnigmsy GiavamJfaUs, RMk, BiMbs, 
'Ttmiek Ttircis, Ic i was the j4raio o^Ant, tbie l^^ralto aifti, is forcUied 
with fe?en targe Baftions covered wich 8r!cfc, and four GaviHiers, or 
Ravelins between. Ic was Befieged by Sinan Bafa, 4h c-he tirr«e oIShI- 
tan Murat the Thitd, who at one AflTauIc loft 1200 men; biifby the 
Treachery of Count Hsrdeck, 'twas Surrendred ; after recovered by a 
Notable Surprize of Count Sv/arfunhurgb, and Cfli/»f P.*:^, With'a 
great Slaughter of the Turks, t6o6. Here alfo a^e ieverat (brcsof 
Warlike Engines and Inftruments. 

Komere, Comara, is the Crumerum Afaum, of Ant. Citmaronium df 
Bragitium ; is Moated by rha D^wrow, and ftrongly fortified. Thelflind 
of the fame Name, formerly caWed Scbuit, contains above 500 ^Villa- 
ges, and above 15000 Inhabitants, with the conveniences of iluM- 
Ing and Fifbing. FilUck, Filecum, Tokay, Tokaum at, Treffkm/Zatmdry 
Zatntaria f ind Kalo, hive been likewife fortified by Order bf the £m« 
peror, wiio keeps bardby feveral Arm^ Gallies. 

Agria,Egar Ger. Erlaw Hung, Erlaheolis, TtfrnefufOTi and C^ifia^ 
have alfo their feveral Baffas as being upon the Frontiers . The Turks 
call Temefwar, The hvineiblt ^ by fome thought to be th&Zmoeiraf or 
Zurohara 6i PtoL 

The City of Gran, StrigmnmLax*. or Oftrogon^ Brezftium Cluv,vn3 
the Birthplace df King Stetben, the firft ChriRian'King of Hungary, 
Benegedinvain by jF<^ King of Hungary; taken by Sol/mm Av^g^ 
the lotk. If 42. recovered by Count Mansftkl but r&>ta!«nj or baiefy 
Slivered in the time of Sultan Aebmet to jfy-k^ the Turkijb General* 
Trngrdde, Hung. P/We»/pfr^ Gerw. the Caftieor this placc is Seated 
upon a high Rock, where the Crown of Hungary was formerly kept ; 
and wherethe Kings of Hungary did often reme, wastakenby the Im- 
perial Army, June 16. 1684. Overagainft it licth Maroz,, or Frifiaf^ 

Neofelium, Neu-haujtl Gtrtn, Chvar Hung, which feveral times hath 
bravely withftood the furious Affault of the Turks \h\xt in Anno i66j, 
the Turkijh Power was fo great, and the Magazine took fire, that it 
was forced to yeild ; and had not fome other Chriftian Princes joined. 
their Affiftance to ti)C Emptror, and fo ftopt the Turks Career, his Am- 
bicion and Succefs had farther enlarged his Dominions. In Augu/, 
1684, it was taken by ftorrii, and the Turks Army defeated near Gran. 

Alba-Julia Lat. StulwetJ[enburg G. EkekesFe'tefwar Hung. Stolni Biograd 
Slavis, Albe RoyaU Gallts, Alba Regalis Scrip Pann. once frmous for 
the Coronation and Sepulchres of the Hungarian Kings, taken by the 
r«ryfe; I J43, loft again 159 J, when Sir Tlio. Arundi I ioxcing the Wa- 



■.*.y.. f.-;;''. ^i^*^*: 

-Tj— <^,l^^.»ti,^s^v. .,Vi /kH'.. 






Of Hkng^ty, 


' ter Tower, took the Turkijh Enfigtii and for his "Valour was made 
Count of the Etopire, and Lord jirundeloiWardow. A ftrong Town, 
; betray 'd by N, Kiresken 'the Governour thereof; upon promife of ia 
great Reward; but SelimtfSy the Son oi Solymanj for hh Treafon, cau- 
&dhim 'to be puc into a Barrel ftuck fuU of Nails, and to be tumbled 
up and down, till he miferably died. 
,, The Emperor Ferdinand the Second befieg'd Canifia^ or Canifcha 
• { when he was Arch^Ppke, butcould not take it. Nor was Leopold Ig- 
j »^tfMy/unpre fortunate in the year 1664. The Retreat of the Duke of 
- M^rceur from Cani/ta, was one of the nob left Actions of our Age. Quin- 
: que Ecclejta, Furfkircben Germ. Otegiazac Hung. VetjchenTurcisteJle Lcun- 
■'% clavioy taken by the Turks, i5'45, by lome thought to btth^Teutsburgi' 
„ um of Ant. and Ttol. Others tell us *tis the Amantia of the Ancients, 
.. tho iovoA think Amantiato be Aln.zy it is the place where Solyman died 
. during the Siege of Z^^cr/ftjin the year ry 66, Mobacz.. is remarkable for 
1 the Defeat of the Chriftans in the year i ^25*. and for that of the Turks 
' 1687. Pont. d'Ejfeckj famous for theAdionof Count Serini, who burnt 
it in vjew of all the Turkijh Army: and for the Campaigneof 1687. 
\Jl. Anno i68i. yill€':k was befieged by the Baffa of Buday with 25'ooo 
Xur^s and Tartars^ but after a br^ve redftanc^ JO: September, it was fur- 
rendred without theCovernour'sconfi;nt,and afterwards demoliffled, 
and the Walls levelled with the ground. ' 

At the fame time Le-wentz^wAS stifo abandoned and pofTei.ed by the 
^ Enemy ; aqd the Winter following, the Turks and Hungarian Rebels fei- 
' zed upon the Fortrefles of Atfol, .Neoi^fol, Scbintnitz,, an^ Cbrepinitz. 
Aw/Q If 95'. divers tiungarians b&(\6gQd Papa, and after a long Battery 
: it was delivered to theim, who fold the Inhabitants to the TurkhJ^ut 
' the Imperial Army advancing, many pf the Rebels fled. And fome of 
the chief promoters of that difturbance were impaled alive. 

Near Mtemberg the Imperial Horfe and Foot being divided in paf- 
^ fing a River, after a fliarp difpute, the Turks feized upon the Imperial 
Baggage Valued at 40000 GuiUers, when alfo the Piinces oi Savoy 
and Aremberg foon after died of their Wounds. 

1684. The Caftle oiVnguar was befieged by Teckley, and taken by 
Storm, and nioft of the Garifon put to the Sword. 
V Upon the Hills near Waccia.yj^\\Q Duke of Lorram attacked a Body of 
': ' jtoooo Turks, commanded by;the Vizier of Bud>i^, of whom were flain 
3000, ipo taken Prifoners, with Tsven 'pieces of Cannon, eighteen 
Standards, the Vizier ?nd two BafTa's (lain, .1 BalTa and ten Aga'spii' 
foners, and of the Duke's Army not a hundred men loft. 

1684. Vtrovitz^a, the Key and Entrance into Sclavoma, ca^^'t jlated, 
_.-.♦ and 

i ( 



Id %- 
ike of 

r If »»- 

(>^ died 
ible for 
e Turks 

jvas ftir- 

d by the 


d in paf- 

of Hii'voy 

taken by 

Body of 

were flain 

, eighteen 



1 5- and ^00 Janizaries marched out, and left it to the Ipt^erialijtsf after 1 1 3 
years poffeffion. 

1684, Zeben was invefted by General 5ci6«/fjf, and furrendred upon 
difcretion; all the Hun^.iriam, being about 120, were by the Count 
d' Bargarz,z,i cut in peices in revenge of Count Teckle/s Impaling alive 
divers of the Garifon of Cz,kz,uarf which was furrendred to him upon 
Articles. ^ 

BarrhfieUy a place fortified with good Walls, feveral Towers and 
Redoubts, the Garifon confining of about 400 men, capitulated and 
was put into the Command of the Imperialijts. 

Mongatz and Tkay are two ftrong places ; and in 168; were in the 
hands of Count Teckley; fince fallen into the Germans PolTeflion. 
Makoivitz was furrendred to General Schultz, O(5tober 1684. 
Intheyear 1663, Leww^a:- a ftrongplace,was delivered up to the Twr/;. 
Schinta, the Magazine of the Emperor's Arms and Artillery, was aC- 
faulted by the Vizier, but being (toutly repulfed, he raifed his Camp, 
and came before iVov/^r<?</«,aCaftleonAhighRock, encompafled with 
a Ditch of 34 foot deep, Garifoned with 600 Soldiers, and well fto- 
red with Vidluals and Ammunition, yet refigned unto the Turks, 

1663, At the fiiallow paffages of the River Muer^ Count Serini with 
yoo men, overthrew a party of 30000 Turks and Tartars, under the 
Command of the BalTa of Temij-war^ and fo delivered Croatia from a 
total deitrudion. 

InJa»,i664yBerzenche was furrendred to Count Serini andBakockza, 
And lluinque Eccle/ta for its perfidious ad, was by the Count after a fu- 
rious affault, took by Storm, and in recompence of its treacherous ftra- 
tagem, put.all the Inhabitants to the Sword, pillaged and fired the 
Town, which rcndred it a horrible fpedacle of Fire and Sword. 

At Zigethf confiding of an old and new Town,conijoined by aBridg 
which croffeth a famous Marfli or Fen, N. Sennit the Great Grandfa- 
ther of the forefaid Count, Immortalized his Fame and Memory with 
the lofs cf his Life, againft Solyman the Great, in the year i5'65, with 
an Army of 600000. > 

Serinjwary builtby Count Sey/wi, yielded to the Ti-T^x, and was demo- ' 
liflied. Leiva, before whofe Walls C. Suja^ and the Chriflians obtain- 
ed a great Vidory againlt the Turks and Tartars^ and affaulted Bar- 
cj6<?», a Palanka oppofite to Gr*^». ' j: ^ 

Since the Battel between Sjclos and MohatZy 1687, all Huigary^ 
except Temefwar in the Upper //^w^jr/, is ia the hands of the Germans, 




' ■»•-. 

,ttm^ .fyf '^ 

■'.' ■'. T'T'"'.?^'-" 


THEName oi Germans is much controverted amongft Authors;fome 
think them fo called by the Romans, who feeing the People lo 
like unto the Gauls, called them Germans to the Gauls, Others derive 
it from Ger, Hgnifying^//, and w^«, whence alfo came the Name ot 
Ah;ain, which fome fabuloufly derive from Mman. whom they wodd 
have to be the iitb King of the Dutch, ov Germans. Others fro^.^he 

-'*„•- .'- 


'6 ijcOi 



; _3t ..^ 



eople fo 
i derive 
«ame of. 
|y would 

Troni t^® 

River /4/»»»/,i>y later Writers called Almannmy wliereunto they fliould 
border.Others more probably from the Dutch Allenfen Mann; fignify- 
ing all forts of men, or all hardy and valiant. The many opinions alfo, 
and great differences we have found amongft Authors in the Interpre- 
tations of the many ancient German Nations, makes me at prefent not to 
mention them/ 'Tis generally agreed, that the Gomerians, or Cimhn, 
were the firft Inhabitants of Gaulfiermanyy and all the Nations of the 
North and fVefi of Europe ; and that the Gauhf their Off-fpring, under 
theirCaptain Segovefus, y'l^orioufly ranged overall Germany yf torn whom 
havefprung the ancient Inhabitants of this Countrey. Divided they 
were intoleveral Nations, and thefe alfo fubdivided into leifer Tribes. 
The firft Nation of the Germans, who made the Romans as well feel 
their Swords, as know their Names, were the Cimhri Teutones, and 
Amhrones, upon their Invafion of Gaul and Italy, who were overcome 
and deftroycd by ikfrfinw. - * 

After this, Cafar, upon his Conqueft of France, having paffed the 
'Rhincy and provoked the Germant, ftirfed up a tedious War ; all other 
Adventures were eafie to the daring Romans : Nothing could give 
check to Cafar*s Fortune, only the Germans j who at laft, were rather 
Triumphed over, than fubdued by their greateft Armies. How little 
was their Progrefs ? How inconfiderable were their Acquefts, after 'b 
long a War? which continued for more Generations,than others lafted 
Years : And indeed fome part of Germany, viz,, that beyond the Elbe 
and Danube, was never fo much as Attacqued. Endangered once by 
Drufitts in the Reign of Cafar Auguftits, but freed by the Vidory of 
Arminm, and the death of Varrits and his Legions ; negledcd after- 
vvards as a people unconquerable, or not worth the conquering. To- 
wards the wain kA^q Roman Empire, theNamesof the ancientlnha- 
bjtarics by little and little worn out and quite exiinguifhed through 
their Fights and Butcheries amongft themfelves; their Tranfmigrati- 
onsinro foreign Countries, their affedion and union into new Names, 
and the Fleetirigs and Invalions of the Sarmatians, and more Eaftern 
people, Germany became confounded, and peopled with thirteen, for 
the moft part, differing Names of the Saxons, Almans, French, Thurin- 
giens, Boioarians, Hun, Lombards, A'uares, Hungarians, Danes, Norwe- 
gians, Suethifl.', or Sda'VJs, whofe Original Fortunes, Kingdoms and 
States ilTuing from r!u:m. I muft rtfer for a larger Treatife of Geography, 
if God permir. Bat chc fatal period of the Reman Empire drawing on 
apace, the lu-mhs, in gundians, Aim ''nf, and other German Nations, 
break through their Oaards, difpofTefs tho RomaKsof sWGaul, Rhetia, 
and Noricum, till in the end, the French prevailing over the reft, extend 

Q 2 their 


• ■^::- 

ii6 Of Qermtny. 

their Empire over all the Modem Germany^ chiefly by the Valour of 
CbarUi the Great, created Emperor of the Weft part of France and 
Germany. Afterwards in the time of Lodovicus Pi«f, the Son of Charles 
the Great, the Empire of his Father was parcelled out into many parrj, 
viz. Italy J France f Burgundy, Lorrain,- ind Germany , amongft his Sons 
and Nephews, with the Tide of Kings ; by which means, the King- 
doms of Lorrain and Germany, United in the Perfon of Lewis the An- 
cient, were aliened from the French, and poflefled by the great Princes 
of Lorrain, Saxony, Suabia and Bavaria : As alfo by them difmembred 
into many principalities and Inferior States, all pafling under the 
Name ofAlmany or Germans, 

Germany is now bounded on the Eaft with Poland and Hungary^ on 
the Weft with France, Switzerland, and the Seventeen Provinces ; on 
the North with the 5^/^/^^ Sea, and Denmark j and on the South with 
the Alps, which part it from Italy. 

Thfe length whereof, from Eaft to Weft, viz,, from the Borders of 
Lorrain to Poland, is 766 miles, the breadth from North to South, 
from the BaltickScn, to the Southermoft part of 7)r<>/is 6^j 


miles of the fame Meafure, viz,. 7; to a degree. 'Tis fcituate in the 
Northern Temperate Zone j the longeft day in the Southern parts being 
If hours and a half; in the moft Northern, 17 hours and a Quarter. 

'Tis a fpacious Country, and very Populous ; the People 01 ftrong 
Conftitution, of a good Proportion and Complexion: very ingenious 
and ftout, much given to Drink, but of an Honeft, Noble Nature : 
The poorer fort great l^ains-takers , and the Nobles either ftout Sol- 
diers, or good Scholars. 

The Women are of good Complexion, but corpulent; good Bear- 
ers, and fruitful Breeders, ft A ' 

The Tide of the Father defcends to their Children ; fo that every 
Son of a Duke is a Duke, and every Daughter of a Dutchefs is a Dutchefs ; 
whence it follows, that the Nobility being too much multiplied, is 
no lefsimpoverifhed. 

The Language here generally fpoken, is the High-Dutch ^ a Lan- 
guage very Ancient, and hath lefs commixture with the Latin than any 
V 'iich is ufed in ihefe Weftern parts. 

No Countrey in the World is either better Planted with goodly Ci- 
i , or more Piealnnt and Healthful. A Country abounding with 
Mmes of Silver and other Metals; plentiful in Corn, IVtnes, Salt, Flejh, 
Linnen, Quick-filver , Allom, Saffron, Armour, tind Iron-works. 

The Gtrmans ixQ excellent Alcchanicks, eminent for Wa ter-works, 
Chymiliry, and Printing : Memorable is the Scory of Regtomontanm'% 


our of 

ce and \V ^ 
Charles " -^z 
is Sons 
der the 

rary ; on 
nces] on 
uth with 

)rders of . 

ol'is 6f7 
,te in the 
arts being 

1 quarter. 
of ftrong 
5 Nature : 
flout Sol- 
rood Bear- 
that every 
\ Dutchefs ; 
Itiplied, is 

a Lan- 

in than any 

goodly Ci- 
nding with 


a ter-works, 

iomontanus s 

Wooden Eagle, that flew a quarter of a mile to meet the Emperor 
Maxitmlian ; but efpecially famous is this Regic^n, for the two Grand 
Inventions of the latter Ages, 'vix,. That fatal Inftrument the G«», firft 
^ found out by Benholdw Swart a Frier. The Myftery of Printing, firft 
difcovered by a Soldier. 

The Religion of this Country is divided into ?apifs arid Trotefiants'^ 
the latter again divided into Lutherans and Calvinifts. * ■ .'\'' ' ' 

About the Year 12 yo, the Empire being greatly diftra<5led into 
many Fa<5tions, eachFaAion chofe a King of the Romans or Emperor. 
The Empire thus fluduating for about 20 years, the Princes 
met at Quidling-burg and made a League of defence togjether ; and 
meeting at Francfort they chofe Radolfhus Earl of Hapshurgiti the Year 
1270. who gaining /^ujfria, and other Territories adjacent^ was the 
firft Arch-Duke oiAuftriay about 1280. ; 

About the Year lyoo, the State oi Burgundy ^ which comprehended 
alfo the Low-Countries y was by Marraige with the H^irefs thereof, add- 
ed to the Houfe of Jujfria, 

About the fame time ( under Maximilian the Firft ) the publick 
Courts ofjudicature, called the Imperial Chamber, the Supream Tri- 
bunal and Appeal of Juftice, was fixed at Spire^ and the Empire divi- 
ded into ten Circles. 

About 1^19. Charles the Fifth, Son of Thilip King of Spain, Son of 
Maximilian the Emperor, fucceeded his father in his Eftates oi Spain, 
Burgundy, the Low-Countries, y^«/?r/<i, &c. and by Election, his Grandfa- 
ther Maximilian in the Empire alfo. Under whom the German Empire 
role to its greateft height and enlargement. ■■ - ■ 

Under this Charles all Germany was rent into two grand Factions or 
parts, Roman Catholicks, and Frotefiants^ occafion'd by Martin Luther, 
born at Ipiby in Saxony, who firft only taxed the Abufes, and obferved 
the Corruptions of the Church ; after makes a general defedion. Anno 
:^92A.. This was no fooner don:, but the Reformers make a new 
Schilm, and divide between Luther and Zulnglms, 1 5'24. which rofe 
to two grand Fa(5lions afterwards, by the name of Lutherans and Calvi' 
mftfi Hence rofe other Seds ilfo, pretending higher Reformation in 
Religion jfothat in the Year i '^I'^.Tho.Munizer occafions the Ruftick 
War. And in the Year in 4- fucceeded the Jnr{bd}t:fli at Munfier. And 
in Anno 1 5*47. began the SmalcaUhck War in ILffu, where Cafar pre- 
vails, and ruins their League; foon after the Proreftants prevail, and 
procure the Fajjavian Peace, Aftm ryyx. But in the Year 1618. the 
Bohemians rejeit the Emperor, ai»t^ E'cd the Count Palatine King of 
BohiTfji.t^^Vidi Grown Wmis^t Prague. Hence the ZJo^eww^Wararofe, and 


\ ,1 


■ r. -. 

n8^ \pfOerwtny\ ^ 

fpread over all Germcmfy changed firft into the Say.on, then into the 
SweMJhWiaf Anno i6}p. The Duke of BaiMria overcoming the Bo- 
hemians, the Palatine was ejeded out of the Upper Palatinate, out of 
the Eledlorfbipj as well as out of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Jmo 162^. 
the Duke of Saxony is flain. Anno i6;o. the King of Sweden enters 
Germany in the be.half of the Proteftants, and Princes Liberty. 1632. 
The King of Sweden^nd 7i//y the General of the Impeiialilts, after fe- 
veral Vidories and Conquefts, both dye. 16; j-. The Duke of Saxony 
and Brandenburg make Peace with the Emperor: And the King of 
Fr^wtf denpunceth War againft the Empire. Anno i6%6. the Duke 
of Saxony ;s flain, and the Imperialifts are diven out of Pomerania by 
the Swede'i. i6;9. Saxony and Bohemia invaded. The War continues 
hot by Teveral Sieges and Battels till 1648. when Af«»/tr Treaty en- 
fues, and fothe thirty years, wherein hjid periflied about 32^000. was 
ended. This Peace of Mmfier changed the Empire to that State that 
it is now at. For the King oi Sweden carried away the Dukedomsof 
Bremen and Ferden, Lower Pomerania and Stetin^ with other places in 
the Upper Pomerania. The Ifland or Principality of Rugen. The Ifle 
of IVolUn, the River and Port of Odor. The Bailiwick of P<?tf/ and New 
Clofier. The Signiory of IVtfmar and Wtldhafcn in PFefipbalia, &c. The 
King of Fr/«»<:e was to have the Cities and Bilhoprick of Mets^Toul, 
and Verdun, with Moyenvic, Pignerol, Brifac, the Landtgravedom of 
Alfatia the Higher, the Bailiwick of Hagenaw, and the Fortrefs of Phi- 
Upshurg, The Palatine of the Rhine is reftored to his Eftate in part, 
tnd made the Eighth Eledor, and High Treafurer of the Empire. And 
the Proteftants were aflerted into full Liberty of their Religion ; which 
Name arofe in the Year i ^^9. at the General Affembly at fformes, 
when the Eledor o( Saxony, the Landtgrave of HeJJ'en, the City of Ni>- 
rimberg, and others, protefted againft the Decrees of Cafar, anu ap- 
peal to an Univerfal Council. 

Germany is now an Ele<5live Empire, wherein, there are feveral Sove- 
reign Eftates, of which the Emperor is chief, who governs by Diets, 
which are almoft like the General Eftates oi Frame. The Principal 
Articles of the Government are contained in a Fundamental Law, or 
Original Conftitution and Agreement, called Aurea Bulla, or, The Gol- 
den Bull; which treats of the Ele(3:ion of the King of the Romans, the 
Duty of theEledors, of their Privileges, of the Authority of the Em- 
peror ; and laftly, of the means to maintain the Peace and Repofe of 
the Empire. This Bull is a little Book, the Original whereof, being 
written in Parchment, contains 24 Leaves, and 50 Chapters; and was 
eonftituted as the perpetual and fundamental Law of the Empire, not 



lit of 
62 y. 
ig of 


:y en- 

o. was 

:e that 


aces in 

he lOe 

id Nev^ 

c. The 

s, Toul, 

dom of 


n part, 
. And 

of No- 
ma ap- 

al Sove- 
y Diets, 
Law, or 

tie Gol- 
>fans, the 
the Em- 

pofe of 
f, being 

and WAS 
pire, not 


Of Qifm$ny\ 119 

to be altered by the Emperor, no not with the Ele^or*s codfent, by 
CharUs the Fourth 1 3 f 6. The Eledlion of the Emperor ought, 'tis 
faid, to be made at Francfort upon the Mem j though this Order, in the 
laft £Ie(5lions, has not been obferved. Befides the AlTemblies that 
concern the Affairs of the Empire in general, there are three other 
forts ; that of the Eledtors, for the Election of the Emperor : That 
of the Deputies, whither the Emperor fends a Commiffioner ' And 
thofe of the Circles : like the AiTemblies of the States in the great Pro- 
vinces of France. Of thefe Circles there are ten in the Empire; that 
is to fay, of Aufiria, Bavaria^ Suahia, of the Upper Rhine ; of the 
Lower Rhine, W '^phalia, U^^cr Saxony y "Lower Saxonf, Franconiay BuT" 
gundy ; but this laft is now no more fummon'd. Every Circle has a 
Dire<5^or Ecclefiaftick, and a Secular Director, who prefide together at 
their Affemblies. Two or three Circles may meet when one of them 
is attacqued from without, or in confufion within. 

The Empire, as it retains the Title, fo it is almoft like that of the 
Romans, though it contains not fo large an extent of ground. The 
Princes that Compofe it are of five forts: The Emperor, who is now 
of the Houfe of Auftria, the Eledors, the Ecclefiafticks, the Princes 
Secular, and the Free Cities : In the General Diets are three bodies ; 
that of the EleAors, that of the Princes, and that of the Imperial Ci- 
ties. There are reckon'd above 3 00 Sovereignties in Gerfhany, who do 
not acknowledge the Emperor, but only in point of Homage and 
mutual Agreement. 

The Houfe oiAuJiria has three forts of Dominion ; thofe oiAuliria, 
which are Hereditary to him; thofe of Bohemia, which he now claims 
as his Right; and thole of Hungary, which he hath by Eleftion. Out 
of this Houfe of Auftria the German Emperors have been Eleded for 
above 400 years, ever fince the time of Hen, 4th, when the Lords of 
the Empire began to undervalue his Authority, and Pope Gregory the 
Seventh taking occafion thereby, Excommunicated him, and ordered 
the Imperial Scepter ftiould be given to another ; Then the Germans 
aboliflied the Ri^ht of Succeffion, and alTumed to themfelves that of 
Eleding the Emperors. 

The Emperor, who is of that Houfe, ufually in his life-time caules 
his Son, or his Brother, or his next Kinfmanto be Crowned King of 
Hungary, afterwards King di Bohemia : then if he finds the Princes dif- 
pofed to it, he caufes him to be Elefted alfo King of the Romans^ that 
is, his perpetual Vicar, and Succeflbr prefiiniptive to the Empire. 

Without the Revenue of his Hereditary Territories,he would fcarce 
have wherewithal tofupport his Dignity jfor under the Title of Imperial 




Of Germnny. 



Majefty, he poiTeiTesnoLand: his principal Rights are the Election 
and Invefticure of Feofty, the Grant of Privileges, and the Right of Le- 
gitimation. He may make Laws, give Letters of fafe Conduct, eftablifli. 
Polls, make Parliaments, fettle Univerfities, eredl Burroughs into Ci- 
ties, create Offices, and out-law Cities by Proclamation. Laftly, He 
may make Kings, Dukes and Marqueffes ; and he isfuperior toallthe 
Princes of the Empire, who for that reafon have a great rcfped for him. 

The Ele(ftors are Eight in all, v;;6. the Archbilhop oiMaytnce, Arch- 
Chancellor of Germany ; the Archbifhop oi Treves, Arch-Chancellor of 
France 'fth^ Archbifliop oiCologn^ Arch-Chancellor ofltal/ j the King 
of Bohemia, Great Cup bearer; the Duke of Bavaria, Great Steward ; 
the Duke of Saxony, Great Marshal or Conftable ; the Dukeof Branden- 
burgh. Great Chamberlain ; and the Prince Palatine, Great Treafurer. 
Thefe Eledors pretend that their Dignity makes them equal to the 
Kings of Europe ; and, which is of greater moment, for that they Eleft 
and Crown the Emperor; after which the Pope, by ufurpation, pre- 
tends a Right to confirm the Eled^ion and Coronation. Four Voices 
of thefe Ele(5lors fufficesto advance any one to the Imperial Dignity : 
and at prefent the King of Bohemia only has his Seat in the Election. 
The Secular Ele(ftors may not nominate themfelves. Nor can the Lands 
of their Electorates, be alienated. In the Houfe of Saxony the Ele- 
dorfliip belongs only to the Eldeft, who (hares the other Seigniories 
with his Brothers. The EleAor of Brandenburgh is the moft Landed of 
all the reft, next to the King of Bohemia ; his Dominions contain above 
two hundred German Leagues in length; but are for the moft pare fepa- 
rated one from another ; and by the late Combuftion, and theiJFor- 
tune of War, he is become the moft confiderable Prince of that Quali- 
ty in the Empire. Anno looo. under Otbo the Third, the Eleftors 
had fixed their Eledlorfliip, which firft began by permiffion under pre- 
tence of avoiding Confufion, and for the good of the common Inte- 
reft; fome tell us, that the Ele(5tors were Inftituted after the death of 
Otho the Third. And others fay, it was in the time of Rodulfa of 
Hapsburg. The Ecclefiaftical Princes arc, TFie Archbifliop of Saltsburg, 
the Grand Mafter of the Tetitonick Order ; feveral Bifhops, and other 
great Prelates, Abbots and AbbelTes, who have no voice, but e nbody'd; 
thefe Princes are almoft abfolute over the Temporality of their Bene- 
fices; neither has Chriftendom any Prelates fo potent as they. Their 
Eledions to their Dignities belongs to the feveral Chapters, wherein 
neither the Pope, nor the Emperor, has any Right to intermeddle. 

Among the Secular Princes there is the Arch-Duke of Aufiria, the 
Princes of the Eledoral Houfes, fome Dukes, Marqueffes and Landt- 




Of Qermgttf, . xai 

graves : there are alfo fome Earls and Barons who differ only in name 
and method of the Empire. 
They have their Seat in a Body which has four Voices in the EtVatei 

^' of the Empire. But they have alfo everyone their Voices in their par- 
ticular Aflfemblies, and fome of. them Coin Money. There are fome 

. Noblemen in Franconia, in Suabia, in the Countrey of the Rhine, and 
in the Lower Alfatiuy who are abfolute in their own particular Ter- 
ritories, as the moft Potent Lords of the Empire in theirs; feveral Prin- 
cipalities mGermany are poiTelTed by one Prince alone, and many times 
one Principality belongs to many. The Free Cities, which are fo 
many Republiques, are of two forts, vix.. Imperial, and Hans Towns. 
The Imperial bear the Eagle of the Empire in their Army, either entire 
or divided ; and they have a Right to fend their Deputies to the Diets 
of the Empire, where their Corporation has two Voices. They ex- 
ceed the number of Fourfcore, and are confidered either as lying upon 
the Seats of Suabia, or the Seats of the Rhine ; and they are thus divi- 
ded from the feveral Seat^ where the Deputies of the Cities take their 
places ; the Deputy of the City of Cologn takes the firft place upon the 
UAwtf-Seat, and the Deputy of Ratisboum takes the firft place upon the 
SuabianSsnt: Some are governed by Noble Families, others live under 
a Popular Government. 

The Hans Towns are in league together, to aid one another reci- 
procally in time of diftrefs, as alfo for the maintenance of the liberty 
of their Trade, and to preferve themfelves from being overcharg'd 
with Impofitions by Foreign Princes ; but that League at this day is 
little regarded by feveral of thefe Cities, whilft every one endeavours 
to ftand upon their own bottom, and do their own bufinefs themfelves. 
Of thefe, Lubecky Cologn, ^ Br unfivick and Dantzick, are the four chief; 
Lubeck may fummon all the reft together, with the Advice of five of 
the Cities which are next adjoining to her. 

The moft famous Rivers in Germany are the Rhine, the Danube, the 
Elb, the Odar, the Vefer, and the Ems. The Rhine, Rhenus, Cajar 
Strab. Vlin. &C. Rhyn or Reign Germ. Le Rein Gallisy Rheno Italis, ari- 
feth out of the Mps in two Fountains, diftant about a days journey a- 
funder, the one aWed the f^order Rhine, or Anterior Rhenus, fourceth out 
of the Hills of the Leponti, and the Mountain Luckmanier. The further, 
named the Hinder Rhein, or Pofterior Rhenm, out of the Alps, and the 
Mountain der Vogel Thefe meeting together about a German mile 
from CW or Coire of the Grifons, afterwards continued in one Channel 
towards the North by the Cities of Co»/?<?»cf, Bafl, Spire, Worms, Mentz,^ 
and Cologn'^ encreafed by the way with the addition of feveral other 

u R '■ great 


is!i X)f Qirminy, 

great Rivers, unto die Fort Scbenken-Scbam ; from whence it is con- 
veyed into the Ocean by four Branches or Channels^ firft of the ff^ael 
by Nimfneftgefif Ttel and Bommel, until it lofeth its name in the Maes. 
2. The Leek into which the Rhine diverteth at Duerftede^ and is carried 
into the Maes betwixt Dort and Rotterdam. % . The Rhine extended 
from Schenken-Schans by HuejJ'en^ Artihem and fVagenirtg, unto Duer^ede, 
where the main River being diverted by the Leek, with a fmall Cur- 
rent, it is continued by Utricht, and through Holland unto Leyden, 
where in the Sandy Downs betwixt it and the Sea,it leaveth its name, 
and under another name of the C7//ff it is turned towards the South, 
felling into the Maes atS/w/JOveragainft the Breil. The fourth Branch 
is the I/el, drawn from the Rhine near j^rnhem, and paffing by Zut» 
fhen and Daventer, falleth into the Z^ider, or South-Sea, at Campen. 
The main Channels of the Rhine in the time ofCafar were the Rhine 
which then fell into the Ocean, at the place where is now Catwiek'm 
Holland, knd the l^ahat is or IVart, making the Ifland of the Bataviansci 
Taeitus. Chiefer Rivers received into the Rhine are the Neekar, Nieer & 
NecanSf Flav. & A. Mare, arifing in Stlva Nigra, or Sv/artz,wald near 
Rottveel, and falls into the Rhine at Manheim near Heidelberg, The 
Main, Mantts Tac out of the Mount FitchtelburgpiOing the Towns of 
Bambtt^j and PVurtz^bwrg, falleth in below Francforr, The Roer Rura, 
Scrip. Belgis, in Wifphalia, flowing hereinto at Duisburg. The Lim, 
Luppia, Tac. Lupias Strab. riHng not far from Pad&born, empties it felf 
at the IVefel. The Mr ifluing out of the Alps of the Leponti near the 
Hill of St. Got hard, is difcharged hereinto near IValdJhut. The 7/7, 
Elltts Flavins, out of Suntgow, after the receipt of almoft infinite leffer 
Rivers, falls in a little below Strasburg. The Mofelle, Mo fella Tac, Auf, 
arifing out of the Mountains of Vauge at the Confines of Lorrain, is diC- 
burthened hereinto at Coblentz, 

The Donaw Cer. le Danube Gal. Danubio Ital. & Hil'p, Danov> Ang, 
Danubim Toljb. Strab. Plin. &c. arifeth in Sehwartz^^vald, diftant about 
two hours journey from the head of the Neckar^ ar.J running Eaft- 
wards through Suavia, Bavaria, Aufiria, Hmgaria, Bulgaria. &c. after 
above rooo miles courfe it poureth into the Euxine Sea, with a great 
violence through fix Channels, according to P//»y, through feven, 
according to Sol. Strab. and A. Marc. The lower part .of this River 
was called Mer. Strabo puts the beginning of this Name atitsCata- 
rads, Pro/, at the Town Axiopolis. Vliny, where it arriveth at ////r/- 
Appian at the Confluence of it with the River Savtfs. The 


greater Rivers received hereinto in Germany, are the Ifer, Ifara. The 
Leek, Lycm. hn, oy^nus of ?toU The Nab, or Nabas, and the Marckb 
or MornHs. „ The 




mi of 




ar the 
he 1II» . 

\e, Auf' 

Is Cata- 
It llliri- 




OfQermM/ty. , ^laj 

The Ems Gtrm. Amis & Amufia Strth, Amifus & Amafiu TtoL & 
Pliny, It arifeth in fVeftfbalia near Paderhom, and is disburthened into 
the German or Britijh Ocean. 

The W?/:r, Vijurgis Pliny, Vifnrigis Ptol. Btfurgis Strab, Iturgis OviJ, 
hath its beginning in the Hilly Foreft of Duringer fVaUt , pafling by 
the Towns of Hamlen^ MinJen and Bremen, and having received the 
Fuld, and the Aller, floweth into t\i&German Ocean; the part towards 
the head is called Witrra, Verra al. JVertz,. 

The Elbe, Albis oi Pliny, Strabo, &C. rifeth out of the Hill Rifenbirg, 
being part of the Sudata, incircling Bohemia, And pafling by the Towns 
of Drefden, H^tttenburg, Msydburg, it falleth into the German Ocean be- 
low Hambourg ; towards its beginning in Bohemia, it is called the Labe. 
Greater Rivers which empty hercinto are the Muldaw, Muldavia. 
The Egra, the Saltz^a^ Salt otStrab. The Spree^ Sutvus of Ptol. Unto 
this River reached the Row/iwDifcoveries, and the French Conquefts, 

The Odor, Odera, Viadrus Ptol. This arifeth out of the Hill Oderberg 
neivOlmuntz,\n Moravia, pafling by Brejlaw, Glogaw^ Francfort and iSre- 
tin, with the Rivers Neijje and ^arta, received thereinto ; it is disbur- 
thened into the Frifch-haffnt the two Iflands UJedomund Collin with three 
Mouths, Pfyn, Swiite and Diuvenow, and fo into the Eaft or Baltick Sea. 

The chief Mountains of Germany were the Abnobi & Abnoba oiPtol. 
& Plin. near the Heads of the River Danow, and the Neccar, now called 
ScbwartZj'Wal by Sd^to, and Die-Baar.WtUychto. 

The Sudata of Ptol. or Suditi Vandalici Montes Dioniy are the Hills 
cncircling.i?*^ew/<i covered with the ^oodiSGabreta and Luna, Wenden- 
berg. & Fiecbrilberg te(le Baud. 

The Sarmatici Montes feem to fee the fanie with Sevo of Solinus & 
Plin, and Carpates of Ptol. between Poland and Hungary. Now Crapack 
d^Tarcx^al, & Ben Munch. ^ fVartTigarten, d^BieJcid & Scbeneherg, Sne- 
fefi, & BieS'fciady, Ruffis, MeUbocm Mons, c^ Tatri Sclavis, Hartz,waldt, 
Pirkhermero. Brockersberg Peucero. By Others Vogeltburg. The Hilly Coun- 
try of Hejfen between Franconia and Turingia by £. Rhenano. 

Carvancas, are the Hilly Trails of Tirol and Carintbia, now Brenner 

The Albanm of Ptol. Albius Strabo, are the Mountainsof Stiria^ 
now Scbwanberger'Albn, or AffderAlhen. Laz, -yy' v>*^ "^fif^ i*^' 

The Babi Montes, Ptol. are the Crabaten,or Krabaten Mount in Croatia, 
Cetim Alons, feu Ce^t/s, Liv, & Ptol. now Kalenberg, or Halenberg in Au-- 
firia, continued a great length between the Danow and the Dra, and 
dif^inguiOied into iundry particular Names of Scbneberg, Deubjperg, He- 
riebergjHepgferberg or Heufiperg, Semering df\ Plajfiz,. The common bcninds 
fometimes of the Countries N0r/cM;9»,and?<?»9<'''i>. Rz The 


»to«arjff w»TWigia « 


194 ^ Of Germanf, 

The moft famous Woods were the Hercyni Caf, Tae. & Vim, Hercma, 
Claud. It began after Cafar at the R^Uffj and the Confines of Helvetia, 
and was continued Eaft wards along the courfe of the Danube, unto the 
Daciim Tranfyhania,Qoma.mmg then in breadth Nine days journey, in 
length more than fixty. Parts and remainders of this Wood, were all 
thoie vaft Defarts and Foreft of the Dad and Sarmata, whofe parts 
are Martiana 5i/x'^,were the Woods covering the Hills ^htiohi,and from 
their dark Ihades called S.cbwartz,waU, or the Black Woo4. 

The Bacenis of Cafar, the Semana Silva of Ptol. now DuringenvaUt^ 
or Silva Turingica, upon the Borders of Bohemia towards Bavaria. 

Gabreia Silva Ptoh now Behaimer-waldt, or Silva Bobemica Mont, the 
Woods of the Mount Sudata towards the W. & N. 

Luna Sylva are the Woods of the Sudata toyNAiAs Taffaw, and the 

South. .,:-.^.__ 

: The Cboragrafbj of this great, but Heterogeneous Country, as was 
faid, is divided mto rnany £ftates,and tho^': Eftatesabfolute or inde- 
pendent. For the better Survey cf which, we will confider Germany 
in three great Parts, viz, Firft, Gtrmany about the Rhine : idly, Ger- 
many about the Danube ; and ^dfy, Germany about the Elbe and Oder, 
Let us begin with Germany about the Rhine ;znd firft with the Free 
County of 5iw2«»</)', now the Fre»ci6 County. . . 

FRENCH County. ' 1 

ACountrey Hilly and uneven, rifing with continual Downs and 
Mountains, covered with fertile Vineyards, fliady Woods, and 
plcafant Valleys, watered with infinite Brooks and Rivulets, purling 
down the hollow bottoms thereof; every where fo fertile, that it is 
called the Flower of France ; its chief places are Befamon, Civitas Vi- 
fontienfis Ant. Veftmtio Cafar, Vifcntium Pro/, a fair City of good ftrength, 
a Univerfity, and Archbifhop's See, and Town-Imperial, feated in a 
fruitful Valley betwixt two Mountains befet "With Vines, upon the 
Doux, with whofe itreaii?s it is almoft encompafied. 2. Dole, Dola Se- 
^uanorum, a Town of great Strength, Riches, and Beauty, and Famous 
for its Colledgc of Jefuics, fi:ituated upon the River Doux. Salino, fo 
named from the Salt-fprings thereof, from whence infinite Jtore of 
Salt is made and tranfported into the neighbouring Countries. The 
Town is ftrong,large and fair, lying in a deep hollow Vclley araongft 
Mountains, upon the impetuous Rivulet Forica. Noz,ereth is a fair 
well- traded Empory, near the Mountainous Ridgeof the 7fl«r, fbr- 
tified with a ftrong Ca(tle. Lnxout under the Vau^ue, is remaikable 




/f Of Germany, ,^ ■ ^ 125 

for the hot Medicmal Bath?: It is divided into three Shires or Ballia- 
ges of Do/f, Vohgnyy SLtid Vefcul; befides, here are numbred iq Wal- 
led Towns, and about 160 Lordfliips. This Countrey was fubjeft 
to the Princes of Aufiria, of the Houfe of Sfa'm, and under the Sfa- 
w;/fe Government, Befancon Qxce^Kd, which was a Town-Imperial, and 
belonging immediately to the Empire; But in the year 1668, the 
French King, under the pretence of his Wife's Title, with a furprizing 
fwiftneis, conquered it in the midft of Winter, in lefs then fifteen 
days ; one of the grciiteft adions that ever was performed. It ama- 
zed all Europe, and caufed the Spaniard to quit their pretenlions to the 
Crown of Portugal, However, the Treaty of Aix laChapelU reftored it 
again, but firft they difmantled all the ftrong Places, and Holds, and 
would have deftroyed the rich Salt-pits, had nor the Interpofition of 
England and Holland prevented ; but in the year 1674, Gray, WefcJ, 
and the lofs of other places, began the conipleat Conquen of that 
Countrey , by the taking of Befancon, Dole, Salin, &c.; nor could 
the Duke of Z^rr^m, and Count Caprara TcMevc it,tho they defperate- 
ly engaged the Enemy at the Battel of Sieren. 


of the 

Of L R R J IN. 

'Orth of Burgundy lies the Principality or Dutchy of Lorrain, Lo- 
thdrtngiay Lsttheringen, Lorraign ; the Duke whereof is a Prince 
ot the Empire ; and the Countrey was reckoned as a Feudatory there- 
of And by the VyrenaaH Treaty thefaid Dli1;c was to be reftored to 
his Dutchy of Lorrain, with all the places atid Towns which he had 
poflefled in Mentz,, Toul, and Verdun, furprized by Henry the Second, 
King of France, and fince. But France after feveral new pretences and 
quarrels, in 1665, invefted Marfal by the Count of Quiche, the de- 
livery of which by the Dukeof Z.orr<«;», tho it calmed thetempeft, yet 
after continual Incroachments upon his Jurifdidion, the Limits ofhis 
Territories, and his Soveraignty it felf ; one of the French Generals in 
1668, was ordered to feize his Perfon, had he not preferved it by 
leaving his Dukedom, which now France poirelTcs it all. 

The Countrey is very Woody, and fomevvhat Mountainous, over- 
fpread with the Branches of the Foreft Ardenne, and the Vaugue ; fuf- 
ficiently ftored with all neceflary Provifion. It afFord^th plenty of 
Iron, Lead, Tin, and Other Minerals : Well ftored with Likes and Ri^ 
'vers, which are full of Filh; alio ftore oi Salt-Bin, in" which there is 
very fine Salt, fvveet in tafte, and whiter than Scythian Snow, and 
brines yearly a Revenue of 1 00000 Tr^w^;.. , 

^ ' Chief. 




ii6 Of Germanf^ 

. Chief Places whereof are Mett, the DivoJurum of Pro/, and Tac. Civt' 
tai-MeMo mairicum of Ant. Meta^ & MetUyalih : The Royal Seat fome- 
times of the Fr<r«<r/> Kings of Aufirafta or H'eflnck-, An [mperial City 
(bated on the Mofel, at the Confluence of the Seilla River j befieged 
by Charles tiie Emperor, with loocpp men, ^wwa if ?2.but defpair- 
ing of fuecefslie left it, and afterwvirds caiiingoffhis Empire, in the 
Monaftery of Jujfus he ended his. life. • , ^.y 

It was the chief Seat of tlijs^?,^/tfw^jfr/w o^ Ptol, the MediomatrUi 

' of Cafcr. . • 

' 2. Tcul Tullumy Viol Cit. Lucorum & TmUo Ant.- a Bi/hop's See and 

a Town Imperial upon' the River Mvfel'^ built by Tullus Hofhlius, as 

the French Writers fay. The Metropolis of the Leuci ox Liberi. ofC<e- 

far, Lucan, anC Ptol. ilb ("••:. 

5. Nancj^ Nancejum & Naftum Vtol (He that confiders the Antonire 
Itinerary, (hall eafily find, that Antonws his ISfa/ium cannot be Seated 
in that place where Nnncryum it now j fo that N^fium is not that which 
we do now call Nancj^ but a Town 1 2 miles diftint from it, not far 
from the River Mofa, in the Barro^ucan Province, commonly called 
Nasy as appeareth by the Infcription of Stone digged up there; for 
by the Ruins it appears that this Nas was formerly a very large City). 
Seated upon the River Murra, the Refidence formerly of the Duke, 
one ftrongly Fortified, remarkable for the Difafter oi Charles Duiie 
of Burgundy i who loft the Battel and his Life near her Walls, -1476. 
taken by the French Anno 1637. And Anno 1 661, her Fortifications 
were difmantled. 

4. Verdun J Vtrodunum & Verodunum Ant. a Town Imperial, and a 
Bilhop's See, upon the R.ivcr Meufe: ,C lied alfo Ci-oitas Verdunenfium. 

5. Nicholas, 2 miles from Nancy, if Walled, would be the faireft City 
in i.orraift. Blankcnhrg, by the French Bl.wcwont, is a fair and pleafant 
Town, adorned with an Ancient Caftle, and the Dukes Palace. Nor 

■ rouft Iforget the New Fort built by King Lctvk theXlV^-^. called Saar 
Louisy built upon the River S'*re, between r.nidtrang and ^arbruck. 
By the Treaty of Kefv/ick the French reftore all Lorram to the Duke, 
except Metz,f Verdun^ Tou!, and Sar Louis. 

-i;^^^ - ^'■■■'-- " Of C L E F E.. 

THE Eftates of the Dutchy of Cleveland cont,iined whilft it was 
the entire Patrimony of thofe Dukes, i . The Dutciiy of Chves. 
2. Oi Juliers. ;» Of Berg. And 4. The Enrldoni of Mark. CLve was 
made an Earldom, Anno 911; for want of Heirs it devolved into tha 
Empire 13 fo. CW/wthe Fourth gave it to Adolpb Bilhop of C'un^ 






1 the 


:e and 

lius, as 

: which 
not far 
\) called 
:re; for 
5 City). 
; Duke, 
's Dui^e 

5, > 1,476. 


I, and a 


;e. Nor 
illed Saar 

ie Duke, 

Km it W.1S 

I of Cltves. 

\Cltve was 
into tha 
of C-'lcn J 

Of Germdny. 127 

S'tpfmufid the Emperor made it a Dukedom, 1417. Its chief Places 

SLTeClevefClivia^Cleefwcolis. 2 fVefeljlVefelia, • •• » . 

"'^'•■,.i:r:"'^' Of J V L I E R s. '■-::"''/';.:_■' 

TH E Dukedom of Juliers was United to Cleve by Marriage 1496. 
Its chief Places are JuUarsal. Guhck^yuliacum Ant. belongingto 
the Prince of Newhurg, 5. Akm Flanclris^ Ach Gtrmanify A'tx la Cha- 
felle Gallts, A<jitifgranit Italis, & At^uifgranHM from its hot Baths. Vete- 
ra Vtol. & Ant. alils. But Pyramyiti and Fighim tells US that Stanten in 
the Dutchy o^Chves, is the Vtttra of the Ancients. And Simkun will 
have it to be Berth upon the Khine. Therwagram by Rheginoni. Dedioyed 
by Attila J fince fimous for being the Metropolis of the Empire of 
C Unrngne^ and for his Burial place, pnd alfo for the Tomb of the 
r .^j:xovOiho the Third, ruined by ine J^ornians 8S2. deftroyed by 
(i\i 1 146, and again 1224 it was fired; 1624 it was taken by the 
Spr,niards; 16^6 it was again almoft dellroyed by fire, viz.. twenty 
Churches and Chappels, and about poo Houfcs. Now famous for 
its Holy Relicks, and much vifited by Pilgrims from many parts, as 
alfo for the Treaty of Peace 1668. Two Leagues from Aken is i Mine 
of Lapis Calam'marisy which hath been wrought upon for 300 years. 

Montenfs Dttcatm^ the Dutchy of Mont or Berg, its chief City is 
DuJfeUorpy a Town and Caftle, formerly the Seat of the Dukes of 
Cleves and Julters, &c. Here is alfo D«^rj/«>-^ an Imperial City, D//]?«?r- 
guw, Afcihurgitt/fj &" Difporum of 0)6, 

la the C' uiity of Marck chief pi.^ces are Soefi, or Zoefi, Sufatum of 
old, and ^-rw.wrt, Tremovia & Dcr/w^zww, both free Cities. The 
Dutchy i V r J. and Earldom of Marc ky belongs now to the Marquis 
oi Braftclenour^, AikZ o£ Berg and Juliers to the Duke of Nev^hrg. 
Meursh honour-^ci with the Title of an EarMom, now fubjedl to the 
ILin^ of Er.glandy as Prince oiOravge. 

Adjoining to whefe Countries, are the three EUfT.oral. Archbi- 
ibopricks :. 

Of M E N T Zj 

1 '.,11 f^'* • ' • • • • M' 

TH £ A/chbvfhop of Mentz, who is firftin Dignity, being Chan- 
ceiki, or" the S.^:red Empire , and hath tiie Priviledge of 
Crowning Cajar, except at ynix la Cbapelle, which then belongs to 
the Eletitor of Collen, His Jurifdidion and Territories, like fome of 


J28 ^ ^ Of GtrmMy. / 

our ETioceiTes^ U^ difperfed in feveral Countries. HisChief places are 
Mentz,y or Maintz, Germanis, Mayence^ Gallis, Magonzaltalis, Movontiacum 
Ttol. Magontiacum Tac.Mogontiacus df Mogantiacum A. Marc. Cit» Mogun- 
tiacenfis Ant. Mogmttia Rbeginoni, Magontia Eutropio, the Metropolis then 
of the Province of Germania pima. Here, is laid, was firft Invented 
the Noble Art of Printing, by John Gutenhurg, Knight, in the year 
1440. It was an Archbifhop's See in 74 f . ana was taken by the King 
(A Sweden 16} i, who there kept his Chrifimas. An Academy 1482. 
2. Ajcbafenhurgy or Afciburgianiy Afchaffenburg the place of the Arch- 
bifhops Refidence. l.Erford'mTuringia^ Bicurgium Ptol. tefie Pyramio, 
Erpbordia & Hercino, Vhordia & Frfordia, Erfurdt IncoUs, Erford Gallis, a 
City large, rich, and populous, & : ^ ed amongft thechiefeft in Ger^ 
rnanyy Governed in manner of a > StatQ; but in 1664 reduced 
again to the obedience of the Eletiur of Meptz, (ope Gallorum), 
1392 was founded an Univerfity; rf'^v' '""^ -A 


'Cf COLO 6 N E. 


•■ I- '* 

2. fX^ H E Archbiftioprick CiColhn, a fair and goodly Countrey, lying 
X. upon the left fhore of the Rbinei Its chief Places are, i. Coin 
Germ, Cologne Gallis, Colonia Agrippinen/ts Vlin. Agrippinenjts Ptol. Co- 
Ionia Agrippinenfis df Oppidum UBiorum Tac. Colonia Agnppina ^ Agvippi- 
nenfis Ant. The Metropolis of the Province of Germania Secunda» and 
a famous Colony of the Romam, brought hither in the Reign of the 
Emperor Tiberius , by Agrippina Daughter to C/gfar Germanicus, and 
Wife to the Emperor Claudius. The Rome of Germany, An Irnperial 
City, but does Homage to the Arcbifhop. The Cathedral of St,.Pe- 
ter's is of vaft'and ftupendious greatnefs.C/^/^ir's Bridge over the Rhine 
*is one of the ancienteft in Europe. Here alfoare faid to lye the Bodies of 
the three Kings that came from the Eaft to worfliip our Saviour. 
2. Bonne, Bona Ptol. Caflra Bomnfia Tac. now the ReHdence 01 the Ele- 
ctor, Seated in a plealant and fruitful part of the Countrey. This 
Archbifhop is Chancellor of 7/'^/;',. and fecond in Dignity. He isalfo 
Prince and Paftor of the Countrey andjurifdidlion 01 Leige, a Coun- 
trey very healthy and pleafant ; where are reckoned 2 j" Walled 
Towns, and 1700 Villages. But the defcription of this Countrey I 
fliall refer to that of the Spamflj Provinces, being intermixed with 
them. And ihall here only fay, that Liege is feated on the River MaeZj 
near that Valley wherein two Legions of Julius Cafar under Sabinm 
and Cotta were deltroyed by Ambioriz., Capt.iin of the Eburonesi 






ces are 

Us then 
tie year 
r 1482. 
e Arch- 
Gallis, a 
\ in Ger- 

re, i.Coln 
f ?tol. Co- 

cunda^ and 
ignot the 
znicusy and 
1 Imperial 
of St.Pc- 
r the Rhine 
e Bodies of 
ur Saviour. 
of the Ele- 
crey. This 
. He is alfo 
re, aCoun- 
\^ Walled 
Countrey I 
■mixed with 
River Maez,, 
nder Sab'inyu 
mromsi i 



-J -5; •»?-•,> 



3.^T^O this fucceeds the Archbifiioprick of Triers or Treves, Dioce- 
X fis Treveretjfis, extended along the courfe of the Mofelle, from the 
Confines of Lorrain unto the Rhine, A Countrey rather pleafant than 
fruitful, hilly and full of Woods, rich chiefly in Minerals of Iron and 
Lead: Chief Places are, r. Tritr Germ. Treves Gallis, Tnveri Itaiisy Co- 
Ionia Treverorum Tac. Augujla Mela, Augufta Treverorum Ftol, Augufia Li' 
btra Pliny, Treveres Sahiano, Civitas Treverorum Ant, the Metropolis 
then of the firft Belgica, and Refidence of the Vicar-General of Gaul, 
feated upon the M^elle, now an Archbi(hop's See, and chief of the 
Countrey, whofe bHhopis Chancellor of France for the Emperor. Built 
and named from Trebeta, Brother toNinus King of Ajfyria, Anno ante 
Ckr*(tum 1496, tefte Baud, It^ ancient Inhabitants were the Trevtri of 
Cafaraind Liv. the Treveri Fhn, d^ Mela^ tu TreviriPtol, 2. Cobolentz, 
al, CoblentZj, Legio prima Trajana Ptol, Confluentes Ant. feated at the In- 
flux of the River Mofelle and Rhine. A Town populous and well 
built, the Countrey about it very pleafant and fertile. 3. Hermanftein, 
Hermanns Saxum, alfo Ernbretflein, or Erenbreitfiein, a ftrong Caitle^ 
notable for its long Siege, 1636, oppoHte to C0k«9/i&. 

Mount-Royal upon the Mofel, buiic by the King of France, \\2l mo- 
dern and ftrong Fortification. .>^ v.; , ..:'.: % , 


Of the Palatinate of the R H I N E. 

NExt to thefe lies the Palatinate of the Rhine : Palatinas inferior 
Rheni, P/altz, Me Rbein or Nder PfaltzGarmanis, Palatinat du 
Riin. Gallis, This Countrey (before thofe unhappy Wars betwixt 
the Emperor Ferdinand the Second, And Frederick the Fifth, Count 
Palatine of the Rhine, (whereby it was much ruinated ) was accounts 
ed themoft fruitful and pleafant of all Germany, efpecially for its ex- 
cellent Rbenijb Wines. Chief Places are Heidelburg, Heidelhrga, by 
fome thought to be the Budoris of Pro/. Some Authors call it Edelberg, 
which fignifies the Noble Mountain : Others Eidleberg, which figni- 
fiesthe Near Mountain ; Ceated on the South-fide of the River Neccar, 
in a Bottom, amongft Hills. It was an Univerfity, ever fince theyeaj: 
1546, founded by Rupert Count Palatine, and much frequented. In 
the great Church was kept that famous Library, which was after- 
wards carried to Rome, and added to the Vatican. Upon the Town- 
houfe is a Clock with divers motions. The Eledlor Carolus Ludovi- 

■\' ■ 




i\6 ^ QitmAfiy\ ' 

CHS was Knight of the moft Noble Order of the Garter, Great Trea- 
furer of the Empire, and tbgether with the Elector of Saxony Vicar of 
the Empire. By the Treaty of Muvfter 1 648. he was reftored to the 
Lower Palatinate. In his Palace or Caftle of Heidelbmg are divers 
things remarkable, via. the Grotes and Waterworks. The Great 
Tun which contains about 200 Tuns. Other places are Mmheim, 
Manbemium, a Town and ftrong Fort at the Confluence of the Necear, 
or Necker and Rhine. The Bridge over the Moat of the Cittadel into 
the Town is alfo remarkable. Not far hence ftands the old Caftle 
P/aitx,, whence the Palatin4tes feem to have their Name of ?/<7//ss.. 
Grave. ■ \- .. ••jI-t'-'.S 1. • _'-■.'•'.■ 

Within the Limits of this County,andintermingIed with the Lands 
of this Prince Palatine, are the Bifliopricks of, i. Spiers, Neomagus of 
Ptol. Noviamagm hxit. Ni^meffiCcf. &Plin. telle Rhenano. .S^ir^Ita- 
lis, Sfire Gallis, famous for the Imperal Chamiber there kept, fixed 
at Francfort in the Reign of Maximilian the Firft, afterwards at Worms, 
and now laftly in the Year i yjo. tranflated hither.; 2. Of Worms 
Borbetomagus Ptol. & Bormitemagtts, Cir, Vangionenfis & Wormenjis of 
Ant. Latino Wormacia^ fimous for the many Imperial Parliaments there 
formerly held asaforefaid ; near which phce Molpbtts^ Earl of Najfaw, 
the King of the Romans, was flain in the Year 1292. by jilbert Duke 
of Aufiria, There is alfo belonging to this Biihoprick o^Sftre, Odenheim, 
or UdenheimGtT. Pbilipsburg Gal. Neomagus VtohtQ^Q J, Heroldo; taken 
by thQ Germans from the French 167J. Surrendred tatbe i7-«»c/6 1688. 
lx» theGarifon were if 00 Soldiers, 104 great Guns, 150 weight of 
Powder, and Provifions for feveral months. 

While the Dauphin viras bufied in this Siege, the Marquefs of Bouf- 
fieri f and the Baron of Monclar, made themfelves Mailers of all the 
Places round aboutj and put Garifbns into Spire, May^nce, Creufenack, 
Bauarach, Heydelburgb, and feveral other Places as far as Haylbron ,. 
great Contributions were demanded owioi Francmia, 1 00000 Crowns 
of the City of Frankfort, 300000 of tht Duke of Wtrtemburgh, But 
in June i689> we had the'News that the French had laid the Cities of 
Spire, Oppenbeim, Worms and Frankendale in Aflies. 

Weft of this Palatinate, if not belonging to it, is Zussejbrucken Inco- 
lis, Dettxpontj Gallis, the chief City of the Dukedom of the fame 
Name, by others called the Dukedom of Biponts. Charles Gujiaism was 
Son of John C<9/mffr^ a younger Brother to the Dukeof Zmry^ffc/I, but 
whether ir belongs to the Swedes, or Prince of Newburg, I do not (Cer- 
tainly find; I think it was taken by the French much about the time 
that the Prince of Lntx^lfttin received a French Garifon, 14S74, To this 



;ar of 

el into 

i Lands 
lagus of 
fir a Ita- 
)t, fixed 
: Worms, 
F Wormt 
nenfis of 
nts there 
^0; taken 
tcb 1688. 
veigbt of 

of Bfl«/- 
3f all the 
Haylbron , 
, Crowns 
rgb. But 

1 Cities of 

chn Inco- 
the fame 
Uvffs was 
>brttcky but 
Id notcier- 
|t the time 
To this 

Of Germafif. iji 

alfo let us Add the Lantgrave of DarmfiaJt, who has a Voice in the 
AffemblieSj and is of the Houfe of CaJJel, 

■^ \. 

Of A L S A T I A. 

SOuthof this Palatinate lies the Province o^ Alfatiaf Elfafs, or £/- 
fatz, Germ, yilface Gallis, a Country that fcarce yieldeth to the 
beft in Germany for pleafure and fertility, abounding with Corn, Wine, 
and fundry forts of delicious Fruits. It is divided into the Uupper and 
Lower Alface, to which the French Geographers add Suntgow and Brif- 
gowy though all other reckon the latter to belong to the Circle of 
Sch-waben. Chiefer Towns in the Lawer Elfatz are fVeiffemborg, Alba 
Sebufianay feu WeiJJ'embergumy a. fair Town at the foot of the Mountain 
Vogefusy fortified by Nature and Art. Hagenaw, Hagenoia, once both 
Imperial Towns, now fubjed to the French ; as is Zabern, Taberna, 
Ant. oncethechiefSeatofJufticeof thcfiiftiopof^/rtfj^^A. Butthe 
chief Citj of all Alfatia is Strasburgb, populous, (trong and well built. 
The Church is one of the Wonders of the World, foJ the bignefs, the 
fumptuoufnefs, and the marvellous heighth of the Steeple, 5*74 foot, 
and the inimitable Structure. The Arfenalls alfo very confiderable, and 
well provided with all forts of Ammunition and Arms ; yet furrendred 
to the French 1682. The Argentorarum oiPto\. & Cic. Argentoracenji- 
um Ant. Argentina Italis. A bifhop's See, and Imperial City. In the 
Higher Alfatia, ^vtSchleftadySchUfiadium, Elce bos of Pto\. & Ant. Ctf/- 
mar built out of the Ruines of the Argentuaria of Ptol. & Ant. deftroy- 
ed by Attila and the Huns. Enfijheimy the Vruncisoi Ant. The Upper 
Elfatz, belonged wholly to the Arch-Dukes of y^«/?rw, the Lower to 
the Billiops of Strasburg. Both challenged the Title of Landtgraves. 
But fince the Treaty of Munfter, the French have enjoyed the greateft 
part. Chiefer Towns in Suntgow are Mulhaufeny a Town Imperial, 
confederate with the Switz^ersy noted for its Gardens and Mills. Mont- 
belltardy Mens Bclligardusj Monipelgard Germanis, ftands upon the Con- 
fines of Alfatia And Burgundy , and was fubjedl tb the Duke of IVtrtem- 
burg, until it was feized upon by the French; it is noted for its ftrong 
Fortrefs, and for a Difpute between Beza And Jac. Andreay alias Schmid- 
Itaus. Chief Towns in BrifgoWy or Brifgovia^ beyond the Rhine, are 
Friburgy Fr/^wm«w,aUniverfity,built by the Dukeof Zfr/wg-pw, 11 12, 
now poiTelTea by the French j not far from whence arc to be fcen the 
Ruins of Zeringen Caftle,from whence the ancient Dukes were Entitled. 
Brifach, Mons Brifiacus Anl. a Fortrefs then of the Romans, now of the 
French \ and well fortified. But Fort Huningen near Baz,el, and Fort 

S 2 Lcu'ij 

■ 'i^' -r'jjpit'*^"*T^T^', 

,,,p, — ■•••^,>?, 


IJ2 * Of German f.' 

Lewis io the R/6^'»e, notfar from .j?<i</<w, are thje llrongeft Fortifications 
in this Country. , . , ',i,!. ■ '. ! ~ 

Come we now to the Eftates beyond the Rhine, under which we 
will take in Franconia, Hajfia^ and fVe(iphalia. ^ 

\ ., • V Of the Circle of Franconia. ; , .^ n , 

THE Circle of Franconia is divided into three parts, vix,. i. Into 
Ecdedafticks. 2. Laick. 3. Imperial Cities. So that 'tis go- 
verned by many diftindt Princes, fome of greater, others of Ids Power 
and Dominion ; but the Title of the whole is given to ihe Biftiop of 
Wirtsburg, A Countrey hedged on all fides with Forefts and Moun- 
tains, within plain, healthy and pleafant, tolerably fruitful with Corn 
and Wine. Thechiefof thcEcclefiafticksare, firft theBi/hopof ^/>/%- 
Jtwr^, Bifthurab. Wurtz,burg incolis, Evefche de Wurtsbourg Gallis. 

- Whofe chief places are Wunx^burg, Herbipolis quafi Herehipolis,Jf^trtz- 
^«>^quafi Multopolii, oX\m Marcopolisy & Paapolis, tefte Irenico. & Ar- 
tatwum Ptol. tefte Petro Apiano, featecj upon the Main in a pleafant 
Plain, environed with Meadows, Gardens, and Viny Downs. 2. The 
Bifliop of Bamberg^ Gravionarum Ptol. tefte P. Apiano. Bamberga Sl 
Pamberga & Papeburga, in Script German. This City is large, fair, 
and entirely Catholick. The Bifhop is the firft of the Empire, it ac- 
knowledgeth no Metropolitan, but depends immediately upon the 
Pope. 3 . Mergentbeimy Mergetbeim & Morkentbal, & Marientaly Merge-' 

. tbum feu Maria Domusyths Refidence of the Great Maflerof theTeuto- 
nick Order, Thefe were (bme German Gentlemen who waited upon 
the Emperor Frederick the Firft in his Expedition to the Holy Land, 
who took the Croifado, and were Inftalled at the Church or Hofpitai 
of St. Mary Jerufalem, and called Marianites, Their Order differed no- 
think from the Tempkrs of St. Jobn, but in form and colour of their 
Crofs. After the taking o(Jerufalem by Saladine, thefe Knights went 
to Ptolomais; from vfhence Frederick the Second fent for them into Gtr- 
many to fight againli the Truffians and Livonians, who at that time 
were Pagans ; which War began in the Year 1220. In a little while 
after thefe Knights had made themfelves Matters of a Country of very 
large extent, and obeyed the Order till 125 y. at which time Sigij- 
mundy King of Poland, gave the Inveftieureof Prw^rfunto Jlbert Mar-. 
quis of Brandenburg. In the Year 1^65 the Great Malter became Se- 
cular again, and took part of the Lands fubje^ to the Order, with the 

JVame of Duke of Cpar/W. . r; l- ; , 

4. The 


t'lf >i 

Of Qermany. 




tis go- 
iiop of 

2. The 

jerga &; 
ge,fair, . 
e, it ac- 
pon the 
, Merger 
le Teuto- 
;d upon 
y Land, 
'ered no- 
of their 
Its went 
nto Ger- 
lat time 
:le while 
r of very 
Tie Sigijr 
fert Mar- 
;ame Se- 


4. The Biflioprick ofEidfiaJt, or Aicbfiadt, Ala Nirafca Ant. & 
AHrtatttm tefte Gafp. Brocio near the Danube. The chief of the 
Laicks are the Marqueffes of Culltmbacb and Omhacb, the Counts of 
Holac, IVertheim and Erpach, or Erbach, who find their Original from 
a Daughter of CbarlefnaiirKe, who married to a Gentleman after flie had 
carried him upon her back through the Court of the Palace. The Im- 
perial Towns are, i. Nuremberg, J^orimburg, Nurnburg Germ. Nerober- 
ga & Noricorutn Mons, Norica C^efari. A place of great Trade, and 
well frequented by Merchants. The faireft, moft priviledged, richeft, 
and beft governed in Germany. Here the new-chofen Emperor ought 
to hold his firft Diet ; and here are the Ornaments ufed at the Coro- 
nation of the Emperors; viz. the Royal Crown: The Dalmatick 
Gown: The Imperial Cloak, c^**:. Here was MiA:iwi/w«j Wooden Ea- 
gle, that flew a quarter of a mile, and back again. And here the Bur- 
gers have power to imprifon their Children^ and caft them alive into 
the River. Here Cbarles the Great defigned ta make a Communication 
of palTage between the Danube and the Rbine, by joining the Rednitz, 
and the y^rww/ Rivers, whereby there might have been a Commerce 
by Water from the Low-Countries to r/f»»<»,and even unto the Euxke, 
But feme inconveniencies in the attempt, and his Warlike Diverfions^ 
;made him give over that noble Defign. ' ^!i /vi\'. jv.;} -r-v . :; 

2. Frankfort J Francfort, or ,Frankfurt, Francofurtum & Francpbordia, 
HelempoliSy oUm Trajeilus Francorum. The paffage or Ford of the 
Franks. A free City, and reckoned in the Circle of Franconia by moft 
Geographers, though I rather take it to be in the Circle of the Higher 
Rhine. It is renowned for its Book- Fairs, or Marts,< iri March, and 
in Septemben For its Fortrefs, and for the Ele<5tion of the ETrnperor. 
It is a large and ftrong place, divided into two parts, Frankfurt and 
Saxenbaujen, by the River Main, united by a Stone- Bridge. 

Other Imperial Towns in Franconia , are i. Schwinfort, Suevorum 
Traje6lus, Smnfordia & Suvinfurtum, feated in a fruitful Soil; 2; jRo- 
tenburg al. Tuberutn, feated upon the River Tauber, which fomc fay is 
like Jerufalem for its Scituation upon Hills, and for its many Turrets., 
g. fVeinpieim Vmifima ^yinjhemia Winfiaim. 4. AUdorff 3, Univerfity,. 

1.62^. ;■ y _." .1- t» .■'. . •< "* > - . . j0b-*^J^i'i> 

■•■» ^:^r■^ ^ . Of H A S S I A^ " :iii .•.•J>o: .-.-fi^j; 

ADjoining to F)i««»w on the North-weft is the Landgravelhip 
of Htjjen, or Hajjiay of a healthy Air, and a fruifulSoil in Corn 
and Pafturage. Sonje Authors would have it fo name J from the 






-s ;-'H.. 

f|4 OfGevmAifj. 

Catt'tans, who did inhabit this Country by changing the Letters ; 
whence it is yet called Caiz.fn-Elbogtn. Beatut Rhenarms^Ub, i. faith, 
that the Heftans coming out of IW^'Gerniarty, and having expelled 
the C<7fr/; did poifefs thefe parts, and called it afccr their own Name. 
There is none but the Houfe of Heffe that takes its chief Title of Land- 
graviate from thence. That of Mfatia was transferred to the King 
of Frame by the Treaty of Mmfier ; that of Leuchtemberg to the Hou^ 
of Bofvaria by the Marriage of Duke Albert with MariUu, Heirefs of 
that Principality j That of Thurivgia belongs to the Duke of Saxom 5 
that of Saufentburg to the Marquifsof Baden j and that of NoUembourg to 
the Houfe of Aujhiai the Count of Furjtemberg takes upon him the qua- 
ftyled Landgraves of Klegen. HaJ/ia was heretofore only a County, 
lity of Landgrave of Stilltngutn and Bath ; and the Counts of Sultz, are 
and part of the Principality of Thurmgia. The greateft part of 
the Country is now divided into two Families, the one of Cajjel, 
the other of Darmfat oiihe youngell Houfe; chief places belong- 
ing to the Landgiaves, are Cajely Cajfella & Caftlia, Cajhlla Cattc- 
rum & Stereontmm Ptol. tefte Pyramio upon the River Fuld, the 
chief Seat of the Landgraves. 2. Marfurg, or Martyurgy Marpur- 
gum & Mortis- burgam, Mattiacum Ptol. tefte Ortel. & Amajta, Baud. 
upon the River Lobriy an Univerfity founded in the Year 1426. by 
Lewis Biftiop of Munfier, Here the Landgraves have a ftately and mag- 
nificent Caftle, mounted upon a high Hill without the Town, enjoying 
a pleafant profpeft, and one of their chief ploces of Refidence. 
3. Darmfiad with its Caftle,isthe Seat and Inheritance of the youngeft 
Houfe of the Landgrave. Part of this Country of HeJJ'en belongs to 
the Abbey ofFulda^ one of the richeft and moft celebrious in Europe, 
Anno 1640. it was taken by Bannier, and here he heard a Voice in 
(he Air, Begone, Bannier, be gone, for now the time «r; yet he lived to 
get that Vi^ory at Homberg in Hajjia, bstwcen Fridberg and Francford, 
But at the Battel near the Kivtr Sale, valoroufly defending a Bank, 
be was forced to yield, and goethito Halberfi-adty where voiding much 
Blood and Matter through an Impoftume, or breaking of a Vein, he 
put an end to his life, and to all his toyl and labours. This Abbey 
was founded by St. Boniface an Englifhman: This Abbot is a Prince 
of the Empire, and Arch-Chancellorof the Emprefs, calls himfelf Pri- 
mate oi Gallia; his C6uniy is called Bu(hen, BuchaviaJ[ron\ the plenty 
of Beeches. To which we may add the Abbey of Hirchfeld betwixt 
Hejd'en and the Rhine, and intermingled lies the Confederation of ^^r- 
r*r<»M;, or a Combination of many Eftstes, viz. i. Earls or Counts of 
l^ajjaw, from whence theIlluft«ous Gr^w Af</«wff, and other Princes 



Of GerniMny. i^^ 

tttOntanii ire defcended, who has made the World un^erftand, That 
the Kings of Spam and France are not invincible j but have bravely 
ftopt their Career when they were driving apace to the Univerfal Mo- 
narchy .This County of NaJJaWyOioX^ NaJJgavf, contaiasd only a fmall 
parcel of Ground, but of late Ages has grown up into a confiderable 
Principality by the acceffion of the Counties of PTeilhrg, IJfiem, mfs- 
badttty Dillenhrg, Bdtlf-ein, &c. And therefore ufually called Najfav/ . 
Catztntlbogen, 2. Solms, well allied. 3. Hanaw, the Counts whereof 
have large Eftates, and a Juftice from which their Snbje(^s cannot ap- 
peal. 4. To this Country belongs the Counts of fVaUeck,^Mb\Q£t to 
the Lantgraves. The Barons of Limhorg have a Title of Semperfre. 
The Counts of Swartsbourg are great in Riches, with many others. < 


Contiguous on the North of Heffen lies the Circle of fVefifhalia ; a 
Country full of Woods, which nourilh many Swine, which 
make excellent Bacon ; and abounding as plentifully in other places 
with Corn. This Country is divided among the EccleHafticks, Counts < 
and Imperial Cities. The BiHiops are i. Mtinfier, a City feated on 
the River Emi, Monafiermm a\,Mmgrado & Minigrade, built by Charles 
the Great, In the Year i n 5* called New Jerufalemby the AnabaptipSy . 
and their King John of Ley den. King of Sion, who being at laft be- 
(leged and taken, was put on the top of a Steeple in an Iron Cage, 
where he was eaten up by Flies and Wafps, together with two of his 
Companions. 2. Of Padebornf or Padtrborn Incolis,o( a miraculous 
Foundation. %. Minden Minda, once a Bidioprick, buc now fetled 
upon the Marquefi oi Brandenburg with the Title of Prince, by Mhk-t 
fler Treaty, as alfo is Ferden, 4. Of Ofnabruck or Ojenbrug, Ofnabru' 
gnm feu Ofnabrucum, fo made 776. <i Carolo Magna. The alternate pot 
leflion whereof is given to th&Dake oi Brunfwick for his CeCHon of his^ 

This Circle of Wefiphalia is faid to contain four Dukedoms, t'^^. 
Weftphalia under the Archbifhoprick of Colten, whofe chief Town is 
jiremberg, 2. Berg, 3. CUves, 4. Julkrs^ which we have alceady , 
treated of. /T *' a- 

The chief Counts of Wefiphalia, ar« firft of Eafi-FrieJ^d, who id 
the year 16^3. was raifed to the. Dignity of Princer^ whofe Seat is at 
Aurickf ovAwicum. 2. The Counts or Prince of Oldenburg, & Dtlmen" 
borfl, are totally extinguifhed by the death of Antbcnj Guntber, in the 
Year 1^6. However famous, in that the Kings of De^mrk are de- 








Of German/. 

fcended from it ever finceCAri/?w«Earlof OUenhurgh was chofenKing 
of Denmark, Ann. 1/148. 5. Of Schawenburg, under the Count cJ 
Z,//);>^. Afrtr^ & Ravensburgy under Brandenburg, Hoya under Lunenbur/r 
and f/e/^. Li»ge under the Prince of Or<»»^e. Emmerland in part un- 
der the D»/fi&. Ritbarg & Piremont under the Count of Ii/>/>e, Ben- 
the'tm, Borchftenforty Rbeda, Tecklenborg, PViedf Brankborfi or Gronifeld, 
Dilleborg, Diepbolt, Mandefcheid, 8:c. under their own Counts. Ab- 
bies, vtzj, Corbey, EJ/'en, &c. yy . 

The free Cities arc, 1. Emden^ the AmaJIaPtol, te(teCleverh. 2. Her' 
verden. 3. Brake, 4. Soe/f. y. Dortmund in the County of Mark, 
6. Lemgow in the County of Lio. The Title of fTefipbalia SLsDucaX is 
ufurped by the Archbifhop ofCollen, everfince the prefcription of Duke 
Henry, Sirnamed theL/o». 

Our fccond Divifion o^ Germany was that of the Dunnbe, wherein 
may be comprehended tirll Suevia Itaiis, Schwaben Germanis, Sovabe 

Of the Circle of Suevia or Almaigne, Schwaben JmoliSf 

SovabQ Gallis* 

TH E Circle or Dukedom of Scbwaben ovAlmaigney for by thcfe 
two Names the ancient Dukedom was called ; The State was 
crei^ed under this laft Title by Clovis King of the Frencb. The firft 
Dukes were but Governours under the FrcwcA during pleafure. After 
the divifion of the Frencb Empire by the Sons of Lewis the Godly ; 
and that the Empire was tranflated to the Germans, they became He- 
reditary. The firft that tranfmitted this Honour to Pofterity was Fr^- 
dtritk the Firft, created Duke of Schwaben, or Almaigm by Henry the 
Fourth. Conradinus, taken Prifoner in Italy in his Wars againft Charles 
Duke of Anjou, and afterwards beheaded at Naples, without Heirs, 
was the laft Dukeof Schwaben, and in whom ended the Succeflion and 
Family of the Fredericks. After this Difafter the Dukedom for want 
of Heirs falling to the Empire^ became fcattered irito fundry leffer 
States, viz. Ecclefiafticks, Laicks, and Iihperial Cities. The Bifliops 
arc, I. Of Ausbourg, whofe Refidence is at DiUing. 2. Of Confiavce, 
whofe Refidence is at Mersburg. 5. Of Coire in the Grifons. Other 
Grand Prelates are, firft the Abbot of Kempton: 2. The Grand Prior 
of the Order of Maltha, whofe Refidence is it Heiterjheim about. two 
<jerman Miles South of Brifacb and Friburg. 

The Secular Princes are, 1. TheDuke of Pf^irtenburg, who was raid- 
ed to Ducal Dignity in a Diet held a Pf^orms 149 f. He hath a Coun- 


, Bert' 
i. Ab- 

. Htr- 
lucal is 
f Duke ' 




by thcfe 
tatc was 
rhe firft 
. After 
Godly ; 
iiric Her 
'^enrj the 
ft Charles 
lit Heirs, 
flion and 
or want 
Iry leffer 
; Bilhops 
nd Prior 


was raif- 
a Coun- 

try where the Mountains abound in Mines, Vines and Woods. The 
Forefts of Scbwarz.'WaUt, are well ftored with Timber- Trees, Game 
and Venifon of all kind ; the Vallies are a continuation of Meadows, 
covered withCattel, and watered with Brooks fullof FilK; the Plains 
are chick fet with Gardens likethofe of the He/perukes. His Refidence 
is at Stu'gardf StuJgardia, feated near to the Necker. There is no where 
to be feen fairer Kows of Orange-Trees,Grotta's better contrived and 
beautihedj Fountains more artihcial, nor Fruits more pleafant to the 
fight or tafte than here. They that have been SitTuhingy Tubingaol, Au' 
gufia, know how many Princes, Counts, Lords, Barons and Gentle- 
men have been 8rediathat Noble Colledge and Univerfity, where are 
excellent ProfeiTors in all Faculties; principally in thofe which are 
worthy ofllluftriousPerfons. In this Country are reckoned 63 Ci- 
ties, If 8 great Towns, 645* Villages, f;7 Water-mills, and 14 Ab- 
beys of large Revenue. He hath a fair Militia of Horfe and Foot, and 
many FortrelTes. 

2. Of the Marquifate of Baden an4 Durlach : The Marquefs of BaJea 
aQer the death of Philip chelaft of the Hochbergtan Brauch, was united 
* ^to that Anno 1^03. who dying in the Year ifif. his Lands were 

ted between his two Sons Bernard and Erne(ty who are now the 
«xtiads of two principal Branches, into which this Houfe is divided, 
viz.. Baden ind Donrlachy whok Country lies adjacent tothejR<6/»e, in- 
termingled up from Bafil to Pbilipsburgf a Country pleaCint, and Soil 
fruitful ; chiefer Towns are Baden^ giving name to the Country, and 
fo called from the Hot Medicinal Baths thereof. 2. Dmrlach, the Ti- 
tle of the fecond Son. 

3. Oi the Counts oi HobenzoUereti: The Lords of this Houfe are 
Hereditary Chamberlains to the Emperors fince the time of Maximilian 
the Firfh Their Caftle of Hobenz,olleren was ruined by Henrietta Coun- 
tefs oi fVirtembergind Mc/wr^fZ/wr//, but re-edified about the Year 1480,; 
at which time Philip Duke of Burgundy^ Albert Elector of Brandenburg, 
Albert Duke ofAu/lria, and Charles Marquis of Baden, laid the firft ftone 
of it, ufing a Tray, a Trowel, and a Mallet all of Silver. 

The Counts di Furftemburg^ who are very renowned in Hiftory, are 
both Princes of the Empire. The Marquifate of fiwr^^u', or Buclaw,, 
whofe chief place is G«;/W^. The Counts of Helfelfiein, havlfig flou- 
rifhed above 1000 years, expired forae years fince. Recbberg whole 
chief Town is Gemund. ' The Counts of Ottinguen, or Oeting, are di- 
vided Into two principal Branches, that of fValdenfiein, is Catholick, 
that of 0;r;«^«j« Lutheran. The F«^^o*i are not very ancient. Ko- 
nigsetk is new. The Papenhei^s are very faiij0US, 1 The Baronies of 








; ■vrf 

1 3 15 Wf Gtrmny. ' 

Walburg, Limhurk Jufltn^en; are ^onfidemble. Befides thefc, there are 
fome parts wholly b&ionging to the Empire. 

Corjjfafjce, Confiantia^^Qatf*^ on the Bodenx^ce, belofigeth to the Houfe 
'ofAufitia. Anno 1^48. it was outlawed by Charles thQ Fifth ; and 
is fmmous for the Coun^cil here held, Aww 1414. whoje were affem- 
bled the Efwperor Si^ifwun J j four Patriarchs, 29 Cardinals, 346 
Archblfhops and Bilhops, 5*64 Abbots and Doctors, 16000 Secular 
Princes and Noblemen; 4p Harlots, 600 Barbers, 520 Minflrels 
and Jsiicrs. The bufinefs was the depofing of three Popes, Gregory 
the J.ich at Rome, John the 250 at Bonon'u, and Renret the igth 
in S/)^/«, and fetting up /Wrfr/w>lfe" Wth. And the degrading and 
burning of Hierormoi Prague ^ and '^(m^Biis, without any refpedof the 
fafe condu<a of the Emperor %i,^;^^^/. 

" The Bodetifee by Plin. Lacas Acrovim d^ Brigaittims, is about 8 Dutch 
Miles in length, and 3 in breadth, and in its greateft depth at Merf- 
ferg about 600 yards. At the Ifland Meina-w, in the Year 1647. 
the Swijj'es digging, found a Treafure to the value of five Mrllions. Be- 
low is the Lake Venetus o(PLnj', now called the Lake of Ce/, from a 
Town of that name. ,^ 

The chief and Imperial Cities of Schivaben are, Amhurg, or Julj)urg 
d^ Augibmgh, from Augujti Burgumy where Augu(tm fetled a Roman 
Colony after Claudim Drufiw. Nero Germanicus had brought it into 
Subjedion, I^-'ufo Magus of old, and afterwards /i?ftrj^«/<? Tiberiit. Au- 
guff-a Vinckhcorum Ptol. & Aug:tfla Vwdelicium Ant. famous for its Mag- 
nificence, Town-Houfe, for being a Bifliop'sSee, and Imperial. 2. Ulw, 
Ulma, feated at the meeting: of the Rivers //er, Slave and Danube ; 
of great ftate, large, rich, and well fortified, being fix miles in com- 
pafs. Here the' Danube begins firfl: to be Navigable CharL's the 
Great defigningto makca Navigable PalFage out of the Rhine into the 
Danube, caufed a Ditch to be made betwixt the Rivers Regnitz and 
Altiinul, rwo mile long, and 300 foot broad, not far from Pafenheim 
and H^eifenberg^ where there are yet fome Remarks of that vain At- 
tempt; for by reafon of the Rains, .and Morilh Soyl, the Earth fell 
down, and filled all up. 

Kemptem CamfUumm, an Abbacy, was the ordinary Refidence of the 
ancisrii Xfukes oiSwaben^ and the native place of Htldegardis Wife to 

Dingktlfpiel or Dmkespibel upon the River fVarnitz,. was often taken 
and retaken in the late Wars. EJpnguen or Edinghy h a pretty Town 
•jpon the N ckar under the protedion of the Duke of Wirtcnburgh. Ac 
Hull is maae great qilluitity of Salt. Hailbrm or Hiiilprun is an Impe- 


^ i\ 

Of Germ Any* 1 59' 

; /rial City, yet pays the Tenth of its Wines and Grain to the Du'x of 

' :WiYttmhurg, 

'' jK<i«/^^frf«or Zr<»«/i5'«>'f» bought its Liberty for If 000 L/x>rc/. Z/»- 
daw ftands upon an Illand in the Lake Cmftance, and is joined to the 
firm Land by a Bridge 290 Paces Iong> belonging to the Emperor, 
who hath given it the priviledge of coining Money. Memm'mgkn the 
Drufomagus of Ftol. is very ancient. Nortlingen or NorMitJghen is re- 
markable for the Battel which the Swedes lolt 1634. where General 
Bunnier was (lain, and Guftavtts Horn taken Prifoner. Rotv^iel, for the 
lofs of Martial Gnebriant 1643. for being a Retreat to the Cimbri 
when beaten by the Rowans. Wimpfex, or Fuimpnai fignifying Weib- 
ffrisy for the unheard Cruelties of the Huns upon that Sex. Here For- 
tune triumphed over Valour, and Magnus Duke of fVirtemburg died in 
the Battel 1622. Gute'wund, Gaudia Mundi, noted for its Tujnaments 
and other Paftimes. Here are reckoned 3 5- Free Towns, viz,. Raven- 
fptrg,Buchaii>^U]}on the liike Federfse, Biberachy PtHllendorffyIfln,Buchorn&' 
Ut>?.rltfig€n, upon the Lake Confiance, or the Boden See. IVangen the 
Nemaria o( Antonim, Offtnburgy & Gengenbach nQan the Rhine, 6cc. 

f • O^ B AVA R I J: 

TH!E Circle of jB/JX'dn*/, BayernlncoUs, BaviereGalLty Baviera Hifp, 
& Italis. Ohm Boioria & Vtndiliciay fo called by the addition of 
one Letter from the Avarimt the remainder of the HunnsjWho having 
driven out the Nortcians, feated themfelves in this Country j and alio 
j&cyrfn.3! from th»^c/V?«jj, a People of G^//wC//^//)/w^,whofometimesdwelc 
hert The Air is wholfome, and the Country is pleafant. The Na- 
rifciar.i, Vtnddicians and Noritians were the firlHnhabirants ; is divided 
into th.^ Dutchy and Palatinciie. The Dukedom is divided into three 
parts J the Higher, the Lower, and the Archbifhoprick of i'^Z/^^i'^owrg-, 
aDiflrict,anddifl:in<a:Jurifdid:ionofitfelf.TheHigher ^<?x'>jw is gene- 
rally overfpread with Wouds, cold and barren. THc Lower fome- 
what more fruiti'ulj and abundantly more pleafant. in the Upper Ba- 
varia chief places ArQ^Mmcheny Monacbiumy or Munich upon the River 
i/cr.the Refidence of the Dukes of Bavaria^ and one of the faiceft Pa- 
laces in Europe J enjoying a moft fvveet and happy Scituation fittong the 1 
Woods, Gardens and Rivers, famous alfo for its feizure 1^ the King 
of Sweden J who found a vaft Treafury herein. In tiie Lower Bavaria 
are, i. hgolfiat, or Anglofadiumy a noted Univerfuy, founded in the 
Year 1471. and is famous for putting the firft AJPronr upon the King 
of Sweden m Germa?)y,And forced him to raife^e Siegoby LewiiDuku 

T z r r • > of 




i>,o Of GermAny, 

of Bavaria, ^. RfgerjJ}>ergj ox Regensherghy RatishotJe ; built by the 
Third JEmperbr, Claudius ftberim Nero, Called Tthrina, or Augufta iti- 
' ■ '" ^»row«i Regifter called Cafird Regiva\ famous for the 




Diets held there, and for its long Bridge j a fair and large City, beau- 
tified with a great number of Churches, Chappels, and other places 
dedicated to Religious ufes. 'Tis a Bilhop's See, and Town Imperial. 
2.Faj[faWyPataviuw,BojoduruWfVtol.&.'int,At\(}Batava of thQAmhoroi the 
* Notitia, then a Garifon-Town of the Romans, theftation of the Cohort 
of the Bat avians, now a Biftiop's See, feated at the meetings of th^ 
Rivers Danube, Inn, and Ills, and divided into three Towns, PaJfaWy 
Jnfiaty and llflat. - 

LanJjhut is a fair Town upon the Ifer. Freiftngen is a Bilhop's See, 
'feated upon a*hill. LanJJperg is near unto the Mps of Tirol, 

Donavert was a Free City till the year 1607. at what time it in- 
curred the Imperial Ban or Profcription, which was executed by the 
Duke of Bavaria, who brought it into Subjedtion, and holds it ftill 
under his X-aws. 

Confined within the Dukedom oi Bavartay\\Qi the Archbiflioprick 
of Salztburghyof a dry Rocky, and barren Soil, fome frefher Vallies 
excepted; rich chiefly in Minerals. Ths only Town of Note is 
Saltzhurgb, Salisburgum, al. yuvania of /int. ^ Cafirum Juvavienfi of 
the Notitiay the Manfion then and fixed Refidence of part of a Co- 
hort of Rof^an Soldiers, now an Archbifhop's See, whofe Revenues 
are the largeft in all Germany, feated upon the River Saltzach, where 
lies Interred the Body of Paracelfus. The more Af\cient Inhabitants 
were the VindHici, Florus, and others. ; ^ 

The Countrey of the Upper Palatinate or Nortgcw, from the more 
Northern Scituatioh of it as to the Dukedom, is a Countrey rough and 
hilly, rich chiefly in Minerals of Iron. Amberg, Amberga Cantiabis, Ptol, 
tefte P. Af>f. upon the River Ills, enriched chiefly by the Commodity 
of Iron digged out of the Neighbouring Hills. The Caftle of Lucb- 
ttmburg n\o\iT\tzd upon a Hill, gives Name to the Lantgraves fo called. 
Tfreimbt is the chief Town of the Landgraves of Luchtenberg. Newburg 
Upon the R. Swartzacb, is the place whereof are ftiled the Princes Pa^ 
htthi^jSif Newburg, the fecond Branch of the Houfe of the Eledlor of 
the /?/5m(ir, to whom this Palatinate did belong; but in the year 162;. 
the Emperor Ferdinand the Second transferred this Palatinate, with 
the Electoral Dignity, from Frederick the Fifth, Count Palatine, to 
Maximiltan D\ikQ,Q^ Bavaria, and the M«»/?«r- Treaty conferred to Ba^ 

(hip ; and an eighth place was new erected for 
e, provided chat if the GtiUdmine Branch hapr 
^ ' " ' pen 

varta t 

\ ' 


•^ the 


ir the 




of the 



'affaWy ^. 

I'sSee,- -- 

; it in- 
3y the 

it mil 

Slote is 
vienfi of 
' a Co- 

le more 
ugh and 
btsy ?tol, 
b called. 

nces Par 
edtor of 
ar 162;. 
te, with 
atine, to 
d to^<«- 
aed for 
nch hapr 

; 7- i^ Of Germany. 141 

pen to fail before the R&Mphinej the latter (hall re- enter into their an- 
cient Eledtorfhipjand the new-created one ihall be wholly abolifted. 
There is in this Countrey the Mount Pmifer, commonly called Fitch- 
telkrgb, being fix miles about ; out of which there doth flow four ''. 
famous Rivers, the Adane, the ISlah, the Sal, and the Eger, which 
winding in the figure of a Crofs, do run towards the four Corners of 
the World. The more ancient Inhabitants were the Narifci oi Tacitus, 
afterwards t[\Q BoieariartSy or Bavarians, their firfl: known Habitation^. - 

Give me leave to add fome of the old BavarianLsiws. It was enad- 
ed. That the Judge, to the end he might judge rightly, fliould have 
the Book of the Statutes, and that thereby he fliould determine and' . 
end all Suits and Controverfies. Neither fliould the Judges refpe<9: 
Perfons or Gifts ; but when he had judged rightly, he fliould have 
the Ninth part of the Compofition-Money ; but if wrongfully, he 
fliould pay twice as much as he had taken away by his unjuft Judg- 
ment; and moreover fliould be fined Forty fliillings. He that fold?- 
any thing confiderable for a certain Price, fliould fet down the bargain . 
in writing, and have wirneiTes thereunto. No bargain or Sale, un- 
lefs it were free and voluntary, fliould be firm and current. But I . 
muft not be burdenfome with the repetition of thofe Laws which, 
Johft Boeme Aubanm has treated of at Large. -,., . 



Of. AV S T R I J.: 

TH E only Arch-Dutchy in Europe^ is Auftria, or Oofi-reich, divided ' , 
into the #pper and lower Auflria, and hath united to it, as He- - 
reditary poffeilfion of that Houle, the Provinces or Dukedoms ofSr/- 
ria, Carinthtay Carmola, the County of 7/r<p/, with that of Cbilljy And 
Marquifate of Wtudtlh- March 

The particular Dukedom of Auffria, extended on both fides of the . ' 
Danube, is a Countrey pleafant, healthy, and abundantly fruitfull in 
Corn and excellent Wines. Its chief Cities and Places are, 1. Vienna, . 
yuliobona VtoL Vendum St rah. Fin J (bona Ant. d^ TJntdomana of the Au- 
thor of Notitia, & Ala Flaviana. Fabiana Hcyl JVien Ger. Wetfcb & Petz, 
Turcis. d^ Bcrch tejle Brown-. Fier, 1 Ira lis, Wiedun Volonis, Widen Bobeynii, 
Vienne Gallis, the Metropolis of Gfr;wfl?/j, feated upon the South' fide of -^ 
the Danube, the greateft River in Europe. In Circuit about yooo Geo- 
metrical paces. It is Famous for her Univerfity, for four great Piaz- 
za's, adorned with Marble Fountains and Statues; for its Cathedral 
of St. Sttpben { whofe Steeple is about 465: fpot high, confiftingof 
hewen ftone, and carved into various Figujg^ of Men, Birds, and 

Beatts ) 



141 Of GermAny* 

Beafts ) the Emperor's Treafury, the Arch Duke's Gallery, the Tica- 
fury ofthe Church, and the Sepulchre oiOtbo. The Arfenal, the Col- 
lege of the Jefuits, the Church and Convent ofthe BsneM^iines, of 
the Dominicans^ and ofthe Franci/eans, are worthy of Remark. With- 
in the City there was alfo the Hocbhug, or High-Bridge, ^hich is 
made by the eroding of two Streets at equal Angles ; the ground of 
one Street being as high as the tops of the Houfes of tht other, fp 
that to continue if, they were forced to build a Bridge or \rch in the 
lower Street to pafs over. In the Suburbs, the greateft Curiolities 
were the Favorith, or the EmprefTes Garden ; that of the Bifhop, 
and of the Earl of Tbaun, of the Prince of Ausburg^ and others ; the 
Church and Monaftry of the Carmelites^ of the Augulitms ; the Her- 
mitage of the Capuchins, and the Spaniflj Monaftry ; Remarkable alfo 
Tor plenty of Wine, of Craw-fiih, and Sallets in Winter. 'Tis like- 
wife accounted the Bulwark of this Countrey againft the TMrks^hQin^^ 
as ftrong, as well fortified ; built with part of the Money obtained 
for the_Ranlbmof Richard the Firft, King of England, taken Prifoner 
in his return from Takfiive, by Leopold the fifth Duke oi Aufiria. Fa- 
mous for the Repulfe it gave Solyman, and tlie whole power of the 
Turkijh Empire, whenx>f 200000 Men he brought before it, hecar- 
ried away but 1 18000, Jnno 1^29. And as famous for this laft Re- 
pulfe oi September the 12th. 168;. for being clofely befieged by the 
Prime Vizier with 20.000 I'urks, Tartars, Cojfacks, and Hungarian 
Malecontents on the iitb of JmIjIj 1683, and as valoroufly defended 
by that Magnanimous Hero EmeftusEudiger Count Starenbergh, asGo- 
vernour, was then manfully relieved by the Invinoiile Prince, John 
King of Poland, the Eledors of Bavaria and Saxony, the Duke of 
Lorrain, Piince Waldeck, P.Salme, P. Lcuis oi Baden, and the Marq'ns 
o{ Brandtnhurgh, Baraitb, &c. during this Siege, the Turks were faid 
to have loft 70000, and in t'te Battel more than 20^00 men ; that 
the Chriftians loft locoo or ifooo duringthe Siege, and about ; or 
400 on that great and fignal Victory, when the liirks formidable Ar- 
my was totally defeated , their Camp ( which was infinitely rich ) 
their Baggage, Cannon, and Tents all taken, and Fienna happily re- 
lieved^ wlien broijght to its laft extremity. 

Oth^E places in Aufhia are Lintz,, Aradati of Pfo/. the Refidence of 
the EmpertJir during the Siege of Vienna, no: great, but asneuand 
handfome a City as moft in Germany. The Houfes built of white Free- 
ftone, and the Caljije is of the Modern Fortification. Here is a Bridge 
over t\\QDanube\ fefefieged by 40000 Peafants of /V«//n/», in the time 
of FerdiKand the SecoH^ at laft overcome by Tapenhetm, 

1 Efis 


■ T'l'-AiL 





: Col- 
nesy Ot 
hich is 
und of 
tier, fp ., 
1 in the 
rs; the 
le Her- . 
ble alfo 


ia. Fa- 
ir of the 
, hecar- 
laft Re- 
d by the 
/6, asGo- 
ice, John 
Duke of 
A/ere faid 
len ; that 
30ut ; or 
dable Ar- 
ly rich ) 
appily re- 
nd ence of 

nc^c and 
hitc Free- 
ls .1 Bridge 

the time 



Of Germany, 14 j 

t,ns''AmfiitjVi:pot\ the River Anljm or Onu[uij near which ftood 
the Lauriacum of old, now Lorch a Roman Garifon, and afterwards a 
BiihopV See. Gmundt, is confiderable for its (lore of Salt, digged out 
of the borc\^ -ing Mountains. '^i^-^cji .UJ';. 

Mdckey Noma/c, or Alea DikBa, once the Seat of the MarquefTes of 
■Jufiria,- noted for its noble Cloifter of Betiedi^iines, which overlooks 
the Town and the Tomb of St. Colman there much honoured. At 
Stein is a Bridge over the Danube. Crembs is a Walled Town. 

Baden about four German miles from Vienna, is a pretty Walled Town,' • 
feated near a part of Mount Ct m, which divided Noricum^romPan^ 
nonia» Moft remarkable for its ^jaths, which are much frequented, and 
are nine in number. • > 

NeTvJiat is one of the Chiefeft Cities in AuHria^ it is of a Iquafe fi- ;. 
gure, with a Piazza in the middle of it. Here was Count Feter Seri- v 
ni, and Frangivanij beheaded, as chief Contrivers of the Hungarian . ' 
Revolt. * ' , 

Pretronelj or Hjiimburgy the fame, or near to the Carnmtum of P//«. c^ -^ 
Liv. Carnm of Ptol. a ftrong Hold of the Pannonians, in vain attempted 
by the Romans 170 years before the Incarnation, fubdued in the time 
of y'«^;»/?ay, .and made a Roman Colooy. Here refided the Emperor 
Antonius Phylojo^hus three years, and died at Vrndihona, now Vienna. 
AndihttQSe'verm was Eleded Emperor, ruined in after times by Attiid 
in his Incurfions, into thefe parts. 

The ancient Inhabitants of the lov/er Attfiria ^yere part of the Mar^ 
comannio^TticitTts ; thofe of the higher AuHria were part of the Novici , 
Riper/ii, and dl^e Upper Pannoma. 


Of s r T R I A 

'i^i 'A'-TX^i\^' fc ^ 

THE Marquifate of Stiriaf alias Steirmarck, is a Hilly and Moun- 
tainous Countrey, rich chiefly in Minerals. Tiie Inhabitants are 
much troubled with a Difeafe called Struma ^ or the Kir>gs-Evil, a fwel- 
ling of the Throat, proceeding from their more cold and moifl: Air, 
or from their more (harp and piercing Waters mingled with Snow, or 
with the virofe (treams and particles of Mtrcur)' or other Minerals, 
defcending from off their Mountains. ^ >*^ 

Its chief Place isGratz, Graiacum,Gracium,d^Sa'v,iriaUDOT\ the Mar. 
Petatv is the Petavmm of Ptol. and the Petcbwoi Am, Marcel. & Pdto- 
vio Ant. R'icklelpurp- d^ Pruckj or Poreigy the Bolentium and MuripoT^cs 
of the Ancients. Secknvi, or Sehu, a Bifhop's Se&, and C>//, the Celeia 
oiPlinjy are of the greateft Pilgrimages in the.i!f«'//rw« Territory. 

-. /•' 

s ^< 

^h / 




144 Of Germ Any, 

The Ancient Inhabitants were the taurifci of Strak or part of the 
JSioric't, rather a part of the Vannoniu 

Of C A R IN T H I A. 

CAr'mthia lies on the Weft of Styria : Its chief Places are Ctagenfm, 
near the Lake ^er^f/f^, Claudia Plw,teHe Laz,. A fair four-fquare 
Walled Town, with a fair Piazza in the middle, adorned with a Co- 
lumn of Marble, and a Statue of the Virgin upon it, alfo with a Sta- 
tue of the Emperor ; alfo with a noble Fountain in the middle, over 
which is a large prodigious Dragon of ftone, and Hercules with 
his Club ftanding before it. At Bkyburg are Lead-mines, where they 
have worked iioo years, and the Pit is no fathom deep. 

Si, yeit^ or St, Faith Vitopoluy feated upon the Confluence of the 
Rivers Glan and fFunUh, a Walled Town, with fix Churches and a 
Piazza with a remarkable Fountain. In fight of St, Veit are four Hills 
with Chappelsupon them, to all which upon one day^of the year the 
Inhabitants go in devotion on foot, which is near thirty Englijh miles. 
Not far from St, Veit is a place called Saal or Solva,; Ager SohjenfisyXii 
Zolfedr^ a place fruitful in Antiquities; among otbers that of the 
Kings Chair, ufed at the Inftalling of the Duke of Camtbiay which 
among other Ceremonies, whether he hs King, Prince, or Emperor, 
either himfelf or his Subititute receives a gentle box on the Ear from 
a Coantrey man. 

Lavemondty or Lavanmyndy Lavanti OBium, a Bi/hop's See. 

ViHachJuliam Carnkum & Vacorium oi.Ptol, teste Jt^ih. Sahel, upon 
the Dra, And Gruck^ a Bifiiop's See. 

The more ancient Inhabitants were the Cayni of Vtol. & Vlin, . 


• v^ Of C A R N I L A M. 

TH E Dukedom of Camiola, by the Germans Krain, is rich in Corn, 
Wine, and Oyl ; Chiefer Towns are Laihach, or Laback^ Laba- 
cunty the Pamportii of Straboj and Nauportm of Plin. Memorable for 
the ftory of the fhip Argonauta, wherein was brought the Golden 
Fleece from Pontus Euxwusy ftopped here by the bordering Mountains, 
and carried over land to the Adriatkk Sea, and fo brought back again 
unto Greece, Krainburg Is a very ftrong place. And Gorecz Goritium, near 
the Adriatkk, upon the River Lijonz^e, belongs to the Archduke of 
Aui-hia ; as alfo the Earldoms o^ Lilly and Windi^marck, the chief place 
of the firft beareth i^e fame name; the chief place oi the latter is 




a Co- , 

e, over 
s with 

of the 
s and a 

»ur Hills 
year the 
/fc miles. 

t of the 
», which 
lit from 

fel. upon 

in Corn, 
ckf Laha- 
)rable for 
e Golden 
lountains, , 
[ack again 
\iuM, near 
Ihduke of 

|e latter is 

• 0/ Germd^y, 14s 

Metlingi the MetatJuw, or Metalum of 5/r<?^. /f/>. Here alfo is the Z^rk* 
fiitzer-Sea, or the famous ftrange Lake Zirnitzer, or Ziricbnitz,, Ltt- 
geum, or Z.«^<e<i P<7/»j , of Strab. Valtts Liburnia, 8c Japsdum Falus, a 
Lake about two German miles long, and one broad. Every year in 
the month of June, the water of this Lake defcendeth under ground 
through many great holes at the bottom, and in the month oiSep' 
/*i»^frv.returneth again by the fame holes, and with a fpeedy afcenc 
fprings up to the heighth of 14 or if foot, and aflfordeth plenty of 
Fifli ; and when dry, it yields ftore of grafs for Cattel. Uriay about 
ten miles from Goritia or Noreia of old, and is famous for its Quick- 
filver Mines, one of which is between 120 and 130 fathoms deep. 
'Tis feated among the Mountains upon a River of the fame^ name 
that runneth into the Zizonfo, near which Odoacer King of Italy was 
flain in Battel by Theodorkk King of the Gotbs. 

Trie[te, Tergefium, is a Port-Town of the Emperors in the Adriatick 
Sea, as is alfo Aquikia, once the Metropolis of the C<ir»/, but deftroyed 
by Attila 45'2. and by the Lcngobards 5-90, fo that 'tis now poor and 
mean ; both properly were in Italy. Now under the Emp. of Germany. 

Ponteba, or Pont Fella j is the exad: Confines between the Venetiannd 
the Imperial Dominions; on the one fide of the Bridge live Italiam fub- 
jedt to the Venetians ; on the other Germans, fubjecft to the Empero:. 

WcHof Carintbia lies the Countreyof T^rc/jof a fertile Soil, and 
in many places Silver- Mines ; whofe chief places are Infpruck. (tASniponij 
feated on the Oenut, or /»«-River, which gave Name to the third 
Branch of y^^-Zrw, where the Arch- Dukes have a Magnificent Palace, 
fometimes the feat of Cbarles the Fifth, and Ferdmand the Firft. Trent , 
a Biihoprick feated on the River Adefis'^ famous for the General Coun- 
cil there held by Pope Paul the Third and his SuccelTors, againft the 
Do6^rines of Lutber and Calvin : It began in Anno i ^45", and conti- 
nued off and on for the fpace of eighteen years. Brixen, Brixia^ is a 
famous Biihoprick in this Countrey. 

Tyrd is a Caftle that gives Name unto thegreatefl Countrey of £«- 
fope. Schwatz. and Sterx,ingen, are rich in Silver- Mines. 

And now we are come to ourThird Divifion of Germany about the 
Elbe and OJar, where we may confider Saxony the Higher ain Lower 
Circle. The firft comprehending the Eftates of the Dukes and Ele- 
i^orates of Saxony, of Brandenburgb, and Pomerania. The other con- 
taining the Dutchies of Holfiein, of Bremen, of Luneburg, of Brunf- 
wick, of Lawenburg, of Mecklenburg, &C. Then the Kingdom of Bobe-^ 
mia, with the Dutchy of Silefia, and Marquilke o^Morjivia, 

U • # f - Qf 



Of GermAHy, 

Of the Higher Saxony^ 

WE fliall confider firft the Eftates of the Dukes antf EleAorate of 
Saxony. And here for the belter information of the Reader 
in a matter of much Intricacy, and which without the general know- -' 
ledge of the Saxonian Hiftory ( which is too large here to be inferted) 
cannot well be made plain and intelligible; we (hall therefore, con- 
trary to what other Authors of Geography have done in their Defcrip- 
tions of Saxony, tell you, That whether Jlkrt the Third deceafing 
without iffue in the Year 14 12. in whom ended thj Dukes Ele<^orsof 
Saxony of the houfe of Jnbalt ; Or whether Erick the Fifth of the Houfe ' 
of Saxon Lauenburgh lapfed his time of demanding .the Inveftiture of- 
the Eledtorftiip ; 'Tis cerrain that Frederick the Firft, Sirnamed the 
Warlike Marquifs of Mi/nia, and Landtgrave of Thuringia, was crea- 
ted Duke ElecSlor ol Saxony by the Emperor Sigifrnundm the Year 
142^. by this means the Title and Dignity of the Eledors and Dukes 
oi Saxony was quite removed out of the ancient and true Saxony y and 
confined within Thuringia, Mifnia, and the Country about Wittemburg, 
called the Dutchy of Saxony , or Ober Sacbfen. The only Poflefltons of 
the Modern Dukes. Only by a further accumulation in the Year 
I j-S;. the Houfe of Heneberg totally failing, that of Saxony took polTef- 
fion of it by virtue of a Confraternity made between thofe Princes in ■■■ 
the Year i5'5'4. And alfo that fince the laft War of Bohemia the Em- 
peror gave the Upper and Lower Lufatia to John George Elecflor of ^ 
this Houfe, who died the 8th of OSfober 16 y6, and was interred the 
4th of February 16^7. with more than Regal pomp, there being 
; f 00 perfons in Mourning, and 24 Hprfes of State covered with 
Black , and the Electorate Efcutcheon Embroidered thereon, ev^ry 
one of them led by two Gentlemen. • i' . . ?■ - 'i-^^Jv ^ 
This Elector bequeathed by his laft Will to Joh?i Geotge his Eldeft 
Son, the Lands infeparable frcm the Eledoral Dignity, viz. the 
Dutchy of Saxony, together with the Upper and Lower Lufatia, with 
fome Bailiwicks about Dr^/</e»; To/^«^«y?»f,theAdminiftrator ofMag- 
Jeber^mth twelve Bailiwicks abour Hall, and in Thuringia. To Chri-^ 
fiian, tl#Diocefs o^ MersboHrg,zndi fome Lands in Foirt land, and in the 
Mountains. 1. To Maurice,bQi\dQsthQ Dioceffesof Naumburg and ZeitZy 
all that of his EfelSoral Highnefs in the PriiKipality o^ HcneburgJIh^Q 
are all the Princes of ^^^Arow^ of the Dependents of the Eledlor Aagtifim, 
Brother to.Mauricttk}xVQ of Saxony oS a younger Houfe, who have 
their HabitatiQii at tiMtjAt Mersburg, at Naumburg, and at Drefden j 
-J i % ■ ' foa- 

, 'y».. 




0/ Gh'MdHy* 147 

for John FreJerick, Sirflamod the Magnanimous, of the Houfe of Fre- 
derick the Firft, Sirnamed the Warlike aforefaid, was in the Protcftant 
Wafs taken Prifoner by the Emperor Charles the Fifth, by whom he 
was deprived of his Lands and Eledorfliip, which was given to Mau^ 
rice aforefaid, his Kinfman ; but after five years Captivity or Impri- 
fonment, his Lands, but not the Eledorlliip, were reftored to him a- 
gain, which his Succeffors now poflefs ; which are now divided into 
three Branches, o/z^i. of 1. Altembourg &v\A Cobttrgi i.Of ff'ejimer: 
3. 0{ Gotta and Etjemch. To thefe we may add the Principality of 
Anhalt, which is divided amongft many Princes who refide at Deffavf, 
at Beremborg, at Fleskaiif, ztZerbft, and at Cotfen. Intermingled with 
thefe are the Counts of Mansfield, HobenfieiftjSchwartzhrg, Scolhcrg^ &c. 
with two Imperial Cities, Northaufen and Mulhaufenj and the Univer- 
fity of Jetia ; all thefe Eftates are contained within Mifnia, Thurifjgia, 
or Duringe, and Saxony y or Sachfen, an,d Lufatia, or Lan/enitz.. Other 
chief Cities are, i. Mifnia or Meijjmi (eatcd upon the Elbe, whence 
the Province had its Name, a Bimop's See, adorned with three fair 
Caftles or Palaces of theBifliop's, Burgraves, and of the Dukes of 
Saxony, adly, Lipfia^ Leipfigt or Leipfick, not very large, but weal- 
thy and populous, beautified with fair Buildings bf Stone, viz. theCa- 
ftle, afid St. Nicholas's Church. 'Tis a rich Empory, and noted Uni- 
verfity, feated upon the River El^er, having three Marts in the 
year : Famous alfo for two great Battels fought near unto it in the 
laft Sweelipj Wars ; One between Gujfavm Adolpbus, King o^-S-weden, 
and Count Tilly General of the Imperialifts 163 1. wherein xhzS-wedes 
obtained a great ViAory; Ttlly was wounded, and lived not long af- 
ter. In the other, torfenfon the Swede overcame Arch- Duke Leopohlus 
Gulielmm , and O^avio Piccolomini, Generals of the Imperial Army. 
And about a mile and a half from hence,at I«r2ie«,another^reat Bat- 
tel was fought 1632. between the King of Sweden and the Imperial 
Army commanded hyWallenfiein Duke ofFriedland, wherein thQ Swedes 
obtained the Victory, but the King of Sweden was flain j and on the 
Imperial fide that famous Godfrey Count of Pappenhetm\ for thar Victo- 
rious King could not die but conquering, and Pappenheim ought not to 
fall but in the company of fo great a Prince. But the chicfelHf -Bre/^^ 
den IncoliSf Drefda Italis, the Seat and Refidency of theElef^dr o^Saxo^ 
ny, Grand Marfhal of the Empire, feated upon the River Elbe, over 
which there is a very noble Stone-Bridge of 17 Arches; 'tis well for- 
tified after the Modern way, with a ftrong Wallj and a large Ditch, 
having three Gates. Places moft worth the feeing here, are the Italian 
<jarden in the Suburbs ; The Hunter's HouQb in the old Town : The 

V ^ I LleaoiS 




14S Of Germany* 

Elcaor*s Palace j His Houfe for wild Beafts ; His Stable j His Arfe- 
nal, and his Kunftkammerf or Colledion of Rarities. Here the Ltt- 
theran Women mourn in White, and fay Grace. 

4. Freihrgi a noted place, with others adjacent , for its Silver 
Mines ; a round well-walled City, with a Piazza, CaUle, and five 
Gates. In St. Peter's Church is the fair Monument of Duke Maurice 
Eledlor of Saxony , which in Offoh. 16; 2. upon the Surrender of the 
Town, coft 80000 Dollars to fave it from being ranfacked and de- 

5*. H^ttienherga^ Leuccraa Lat. Wittenhurg^ in ober Sachfen^ in an open 
Plain upon the Elbe, ftrongly fenced with Bulwarks, Walls, &c, a 
noted Univerfity for Lutheran Divines, where alfo are the Sepulchres 
of Luther J born at Eijleben, in the Earldom oi Mansfeldt\ And of Me- 

South of Mifnia, if not comprehended in it, lies a little Country 
called Voitlandj or Viteland, which feemeth to take its Name from the 
Juites or Vites, who together with the Saxons and Angles conquered 
j?m<7/«, and gave Nam(. to the \{[Qoi IVtght, Its chief place now is 
ZwickaWy Cignea in Scrip, Germ. 

, -, MarchU Brandeburgenfis, 

TH E Marquifate of Brandenburg is a large Country, well ftorcd 
with Woods, Lakes and Fens, and in fome places with Corn. 
It is generally divided into two parts, the old and the new Marqui- 
fate. The Metropolis of the Old is Brandenburg, or Brennoburgum, a 
Biihop's See, and the firft Seat of the MarqueiTes, giving name to the 
Country. The Metropolis of the new is Francfurt, Fravcofurtum ad 
0</er«7w, a Univerfity 15*06. enjoying a pleafant Scituation among 
Corn-fields, and Viney-downs, fo that Ceres and Bacchus feem both 
enamoured of it. Berlin, Berlinum, feated in the midft of the Province 
upon the bank of the River Spree, which Maginus, Bertius TVdlicbius, 
Drefftr, Prickheimer, and Other Geographers have miftaken for P/o/ow^'s 
Suevus I on the other fide of the River is Co/»,the place of the Prince 
Ele<afi^Refidence. . V/ v> ':. ' ';.V ; 

Co^k^, Coftriin, CuFlrin & Kufrin, is a very ftrong Fortrefs, faid 
never yet tSien ; it baffled the King of Sweden in the Year 163 1. H:i- 
velbufg is theSeat of a Bifhop. Stendal is the Metropolis of Alt- March, 
feated upon the Rjve: Ucbt, Soltv/edel, or Solwel (i, e. the Houfe or 
Temple of the Goi Sol) on the banks of the River Jetz,e, Gardkben, 
laid to be the Ancient {^^r^M^?, from the Image of ^ here wocfliipped^ 

Of Germ Any* 149 

IS famous for its Beer, and Hops. Oranknhwrg^ formerly Bolza-w^ af- 
fords thegreateft variety of pleafures, being encompaflcd with Parks 
and Forelts. Befides this Marquifate whereunto the Eledoral Dignity 
is annexedjthere belongs to this Prince the Dutchy of Pryffia in Poland. 
The butchy or moiety of Pomerania. The Reverfion of the Dutchy of 
Magdeburg. The Dutciiy oiClevesy and Earldom of Marck ; The Prin- 
cipalities of Halberftat'm Brunf-ivick, And Mindenin ff^efipbaha^ which hc 
had in lieu of his Refignatioh of the Higher Pomerania to the Swede. 
The Dutchy of CroJJ'en, and Lordlliip of Pregnitz. in Silejta. Thdjii- 
rifdidion oiCotbufs, orCotufisy and the other Towns in Lufatia, or Lauf- 
nitz. The Branches of this Family are the Marqueffes of CuieM' 
bach and Onfpacb. 

0/ Pomerania, or Pomeren. 

Pomerania lies extended alt along the Shore of the Baltick Sea^ di- 
vided into the Upper and Lower PomereA, now Royal and Ducal 
Pomeraniay the firft belonging to the Swedes, the latter to the Eledor 
of Brandenburg. A Country plain, populous, and in fome places fruit- 
ful in Corn, Paflurage, Honey, Butter, Wax, Flax and Beer, viz. 
the Bitter Beer of 5;efi», the Mum ofGrip/wald, the Knock-down of 

Chief Places in Pomerania Royal, are 5mm,5^ef/»«w, memorable for 
its brave Siege, and as brave defence in the Year 1671. when taken 
from the Swedes, fmce reftored again by the Treaty of Nimeguen. 

Wolliny v/h&nJuUnunt a fiouriining Emporium, ^no 1170. facked 
by Waldemarus King oi Denmark. Gripfwald a noted Uhiverfity ; its 
Fields and Cattel are tinctured with the tafte of Wild Garlick. ^V- 
gafi over-againft the Ifle Ufidom. Camin, a Bifliop*s See, over-againft 
the Ifle 01 fVollin. Straelj'undt, alias Sundis, a well-traded Empory 
over-againft the Ifle Rugen ; taken by the Eleftor of Brandenburg 
1678. but by the Treaty of Peace figned at St. Germain s en Laye, 
July 29. 1679. he refigned it back to the Swedes, 

Chief Places in Ducal Pomeran, are Colbergut the mouth of the River 
Perfandt. Cojlin upon the River Radnie. Newgarten upon thQJUtitPierf- 
beck , Stargart upon the Ina , Rugenwal upon the PTtpper,' are all 
confiderable Towns. 

The famous 0^er,having paffedGartz andGrieffenbagen, and entrirg 
into Pomeraniay divides its felf into feveral Branches or Arms, con- 
taining therein many large and fair Meadows; whereof fome are 
above twa£«^///2» miles in breadth; After it ha#paffedby Stetiny it di- 

ۥ lates 




1^0 ' Of Germmy, ^^^ 

Utes it felf into the DawMijh Sea or Lake, then into the Damantzie, 
or ? faff enwaJJ'er, and at laft Ipreads it felf intoa Vaft Frefii- water Ocean 
called Dot grojfe Frifck-Haff, extending it felf about 46 EngUjh miles 
in length, and 4 in breadth : which Lake difembogues it felf iuto the 
J?<»//itf? Sea in three Currents or Harbours, the Dmwt/w^, S-wyne, andP«- 


This (hall fuffice for the Higher ^/^xow/, or the Eighth Circle of the 
Empire. Come we next to that of the Lower Saxony ^ which contains, 

The Dutchy of Mecklenburg. 

MEchlhuriienJisfjive Megahpolitam Ducatus, lies next to Tomerania, 
along the Coaft of the Baltick Sea, c^a fruitful Soil, and rich in 
Corn. The Princes or Dukes whereof are now divided into two 
Branches; the one whereof make their Refidence at SHevin. or Schwe- 
rin, upon a great Lake,' a Bilhop'sSee, whofefirft Bifliop, 7o^» Scotus, 
was cruelly nartyred, ^nn. 1260, by the fFe»di(h Apolhtes. The 
other at Gu/lr Oft f or Guftrow, a well fortified Town, about 18 or 
20 EngUfh miles from Rofhck, and have now each of them a moiety 
of the Dutchy, and are faid to be derived from the Vandal Princes. 
However in thelateGerfw<»»^</n the Emperor madethefe Princes feel 
the weight of his Indignation, giving their Lands to fValUfiein a Sile- 
fian Gentleman, (a great Captain indeed, and renowned Soldier, who 
by a ftrange Ingratitude, and Devilifh Ambition came to a miferable 
end; the Dukeof 5/rfl» and the Earl of Effex had fuch like Defigns, 
and as Tragical Cataftrophes.) Neverthelefs they re-entred into it by 
the Arms of tht ,Gvt3X Guftavus their Cou fin- German, 1651. And 
though Mtififier^Trenty took Wifmar, yet gave them in Exchange the 
Bifliopricks of Ratz^burg and Suerin, turned into Principalites.- 
' Other chief places, are ffifmar^Wifmaria, a Hans-Town, and noted 
Pbrt upon, the Baltick, founded out of the Ruins of the great and an- 
cient City oi Mecklenburg, or Megalopolis, Anno 1240. taken by Chri- 
(I tan V. King of Denmark, 1676. from the Swedes, but according to 
the Treaty of Peace fignedat Fount ainhleau on the idolSeptentb, 1679. 
it was*^ be reftored to the Swedes within three weeks after the ratifi- 
cation of the faid Treaty ; yet in a fecond Treaty figncd on the 26th 
of the faid Month at Lmden in Schonen, it was agreed that Wijmar 
ftiould remain in the hands of the King of Denmark as a Surety for the 
Arrearsof certain Contributions due from that King to the Crown of 
Denmark', fo that ^i'i^anes, I think,ftill keep poffeffion of this Town, 


■ '■"■: ■ . '\ ■ - vr: #^ 








vn of 



0/ Germnnj, r^t 

the Obligation being not cancelled. 2. Roflocky or R'otzfioc}:, a City 
of great Antiquity, by report of the German Antiquaries. What great 
things the Ancient Roman Writers report of Lacimum, LacHmrgiuw^ind 
Rodopoli/j they appropriate to Roftocky how true, I know not j 'tis 
certain, that in the Year %i<), 'twas only afmall inconfiderable Vil- 
lagCj, built by fome poor Fifliermen on the Banks of the IVarnai novfr 
there are reckoned 140 Streets, many adorned v;iih high and ftately 
Houfes. There arc 7 times 7 remarkable things in Roftock. Seven 
great Doors to the Cathedral Church of St. Mary's y 7 large Streets 
leading to the Market-place, 7 Gates of the City towards the Land, 
7 Bridges over the JVama, 7 Towers on the top of the Town* Hall, 
7 great Bells which chime at certain hours in the Town-Hall, 7 great 
Linden Tr r r, in the Common Garden.Its moft noted Commodity com- 
monly isBetr,a. Hans City, noted Port, large, rich, and well-tradetj, a 
Univerfity founded Amo 14 1 9. Since the Treaty at Munfier, the Swedes 
have built a Fort at the Mouth of the River fVarna, and exatStToll 
or Cuftoms of all Hiips that pafs to Rojhckf to the great prejudice of 
the City. 

Come we next in courfe to Hol/^ein, which is under the Homage 
and Right of the Empire, but being in pofleflion of the Houfe oiDen- 
marky we Hiail refer its Defcription to that Kingdom, and fpeak of the 
Dutchies oi r:riwfmtk and Lunenburg. 

0//^^D«/f/;/V/<3/Brunrwick4W Lunenburg. . 

THIS was a part of the ancient Dukedom o^ Saxony, till the Pro- 
fcription of Henry ^ Sirnamed the Lww, by the Emperor Frederick 
Barbnrofa j but by the Mediation of Hewr^'iheSecondjKingofEw^/^w-/, 
his Father-in- Law, ( being reconciled unto the Emperor) had the .Ci- 
ties of iSrMw/w^/c^ and LuntnburgyyNK\\ their Countries, reftored unto ' 
him J afterwards erected into a Dukedom by the Emperor Frederick 
the Second, whofe Pofterity enjoyed thefe Dukedoms jointly till the 
Year 1450. M/hcn they were divided between iVilliam the Victorious, 
who had the Title of Brunjwick, and his Uncle Bernard who had the 
Title of I,««f«^«r^, and in their Pofterity both thefe Dutchies doftill 
continue. ^ 

111 the Dukedoms of Brunfwick al. Brutifv'igenjts, & Hannovery 
The South and Eaft parts towards Hejl'tn^ &c. iwell with Woody 
Mountains and Hills, ffarts of the ancient Hircinian^ the Northern 
pare more plain and fruitful in Corn, and other Commodities. 



v i 


\ . >v.^'" 




Chief places are Smnfwick, al Braunfwj/ck & Rrunfviga & Bruttopolis J 
the Tutifurgium of Ptol ufie Appianoy upon the River Oacer, and one of 
the chief Hans-Tov/ns, containing about feven miles in compaf, fair, 
.populous, and ftronpiy fortified with a double Wall, peopled with 
induftrious Inhabitcnts, jealous of their Liberty ; Governed in man- 
ner of a Free Eltate, held under the right of the Princes. Iti chief 
Trade is in Hides and Mum; GoJIar, Gojlaria, a Town Imperial. All 
the Houfes in this City are covered with a glittering kind of Slat; the 
Inhabitants are all Miners, and the only Trade of the Town is in dig- 
ging, cleanfing,. tempering, and vending all manner of Metals, ex- 
cept Gold; and a great many choice Minerals of the Country, as Vi- 
triol, Brimftone, Quiokfilver, Copperas, cl^<:. Holmjhfit is reckoned 
the oldeft City in Saxcny ('except Baramkk) hnik by the Emperor 
C'jarles the Great, about Jnn. Dom. 782. it is famous for its Ar-demia 
Julia^ or Univerfity. IVdfenbuttel, a very ftrong Caftle, and the 
Refidence of the Dukes of E:'mfwick, where is a famous Library ; with- 
in thefe Territories v/ere alfo included the Principality of Halbtrfiat^ 
now under r'-e Eleftor oi Brandenburg,2iX\d the Rifhoprick oi HiUedyam, 
the AJcalinfium of Vtol. & Irenicus, the Abbey Quedelimburgy whr \b" 
botefs was fometimes Princefsof theEmpirc,now fubjed to the . yale 
of Saxony. Hannover is the Seat and Title of another Branch off the 
Dukes oiBrunfwkki whofe Duke is a Catholick, and by MunfierTrcA- 
ty Bifliop of Ofnaburg, in whole Territories are Caknburg, Grubenha- 
gen, Gottingen^ and Hamelen^ where the Inhabitants keep the Records 
of the famous Piper, who in 1284. drew the Boys of the Town in- 
to a Ca* c, who were never after heard of. 

Lunabttrgenfis Duciitus^ Herfzogtbumb Lumnbourgl incolisi Dutche tie 
Lufiebotrg Ga'Iis, The Countrey is plain, the Air (harp and healthful, 
and the Soil barren. The chief Town is, Lunenburg, Luvaburgunh^ up- 
on the River Vlmey now one of fhs Six Hans-Towns, large, popu- 
lous, and adorned with fair Btiildings, whofe chief Trs je is m Salt. 
O//, or 2?//, is 'he Refidence of ti.c Dukes, about 10 Ge/>w<;;/n[5ilesdi- 
Itant from Laneburg. 




Of Bremen, Epifccpatus Breme nls. 

TH IS Diocels or Archbiftioorick ofBrenen is a Country who(e ex- 
treme parts aloiJg the Elbe and fVeftr are very fertile for Corn 
and Paf^u-age, the more inner pare? wild and barren. Bremen an 
Archbifliop's Secyand a Univerfity, or Gymnajsuwy an Imperial City, 
and the ilwrd Haii^Towii, give: name to the Countrey j it is feated 
. ■ , : j 1 \ ^ ;:.--.« \. upon 



Of Qfffkiny, 


opoii the right fide of the Wtjkr^ large, populous, lich, anJ well- era" 
ded, ahd ftrongly fenced, and is famous for its Art of drefCng Lea- 
tiier, and Cloth, and for their Fifli. 

Staday StaJtj a noted Hans-TowQ, accounted the moft ancient in 
Saxony, and once the Staple of the EvgUpj Merchant- Adventurers, 
now the place where the Ships pay Tole, ftrongly fortified. Bremerf- 
ford^ or Bremerverden, a Gaftle, and Village, where the Archblfhop 
did refide. But now the 53/;^^^^ have there a ftrong Gariibn. Charlsfiat 
is a ftrong Fort buiic by the Swedes near the mouth of the River IVejer^ 
This Country, with the*Principality of Ferden, or Vehrden, in IVefi' 
fbalia, now belongs to the Swedes by the Treaty of Munfier, and is 
annexed to their Territories and Domminions under the Title of a 

; Of LAwenhurg- . 

THIS Dutcby gives name to the Princes of Aixow-IoM/fw^wr^, who 
are branches of the fame Floufe with the Princes of Anbalt. Its 
chief place is Lawenhnr^i or Lauhnhurg, upon the £/&, a fine Town, 
but the Caftle is ruined, and the Dake lives at Ratzehrg, though he 
hath nothing there but the Caftle, the Town belonging, as was faid, 
tc che Duke of Mecklenburg, 

;. Of Magdeburg, Ditto Magdeburgenfis. 

THIS Diocefslies extended on both fides of the Elh, betwixt 
Brandenburgy and the proper Saxony The chief Town is Mag- 
deburg, ^ Meydenhufg, incolts, Meydburg, X)r Megdeburg : antiquis movu- 
mentis Patbenopolis. Mefuinum PtoL t eft is Appiano, - A Burgravefiiip of 
the EmpirCj and Archbifliop's See, giving nam?, to the Country. Re- 
edified by Editba Wife unto the Emperor Benry the Firft, and Daugh- 
ter to Edmund King of EngUnd,zxA thus named in honour of her 
Sex. Her Effigies in ftone is in the Cathedral Church, with 19 Tuns 
of Gold which Ihe gave thereunto \ though others fay it was for the 
Worfiiip of the Virgin Diana, A place of great ftate, large and fair, 
and ftrongly fortified, once the Metropolitan City oH Germany, famous 
in the Proteftant Wars for a whole year's Siege againit the Emperor 
C/6«r/«the Fifth. But facked and burnt by 7"////, and 360Q0 perfons 
put tothe Swoid^ and deftroyed 1631. and the Town almoft ruined. 
'Twas alfo famous for the firft Turnament which was in Germany, 
which was performed here in the Year 637. by the Emperor Henry ^ 
Sirnamed the Fowkr, 




1 54 Qf Gtrmnny. 

Thefe^HC tlie chief parfs of the Lower Saxmy^ and contain the 
Ninth Circle of the Empire. _ . 



Of B O H EM I A. 






BOiemuv. Tac. Beiohsmum Vaterc. liomi Ttoi. Boheim Germ, Rohewe Gallis, 
Bocmia Htj'p^msf Bohemia Itali*. Czedazem incolts tefi-e Brieto, This 
Kingdom is environed about with Mountains and Forefts^ as it were 
vyirh Fortifications. The Air Oiarp a\>A piercing, the Countrey rough 
and hilly, rich in Minerals, and yielding fufficient plenty of Corn, 
and other necelTary Provifions, Wine excepted. Firft inhabited 
by fome of the Germans j the Hermiones, who were difpofleired by the 
Bcji, who gave Name unto the Country. The Boii were routed by 
the M^rcomanni, a people oi Germany, And thefe were alfo ejedled by 
the ScUves under Zechusy Brother unto Lechm, the Founder of the 
Vch^ Monarchy, about the Year 649. called in their own Country- 
Unguage Cz^echi^ but named from the Country they feized upon, Boioha- 
frJf upon their firlt arrival. This people were governed by Dukes 
until about the Year 1086. when Uratijlans or JJladtJlaus was created 
the firftKingof Bobemia.lna. Diet at A/eM;«,,by' the Emperor Hemy the 
Fourth, about the Year 1 199. Power was given to the States to chufe 
their Princes, before being Elc(5led by the Grace of the Emperor ; 
fmce which time the Kingdom coranued Elective, though mow com- 
monly enjoyed by the next.of •-'' /od, until the Royal Line being ex- 
tinct theK'.igdom was devolved upon the Houfeof Aufiria, 

Chief Places are, ?raga Italis, Frag Imolitj Prague Gallis. Marobit- 
^um Ptol. tefte Savf. & Brief, the Capital and Royal City of the King- 
dom of £o/6fww, feated upon the KivQv MuUaWj by the BohemiamUl- 
tave; it confifteth of three Towns, the Old, the New, and the Lefler. 
'Tis an Archbiilioprick and Univerfity, where in the Year 1409. were 
rfickoned above 4000 Students under the Re<5lorftiip of John Huu 
The greateft Remarks are the Emperor's Palace, and Summer-houfe.. 
A fair Cathedral Church built 923. The Palace and Garden of Cola- 
redo. The Palace of Count Walkftein Duke of Freidland, The Bridge, 
being 1700 foot long, and gy foot broad, with two Gates under 
tworligh Towers of Stone at each end. Near Prague that deciding 
Brittel was fought, November 8. 1620. between FrederickVt'mcQ Pala- 
tine of the /?/&/«?, Elected King of Stf/ftewM, and the Emperor Ferdtnand 
the Second, where the Vidory fell unto the Imperialifts, Prague forced 
to yields and Kiog Frederick and his Queen forced to fly into Stlefia, 



UggPPHppwH _„. 1,J, ll,II.J.J|l(ppp||^*« 




15 J 

Teutcl'in Broda, by the River Saczua, a ftrong place when taken by 
Zt/'ca, who then forced the Emperor Sipfirund to fly out of Bohemia. 
^'^w/^^M'j where was fought that famous Battd'of i^e^. 24. 164;. 
between Torfienjon, and the Imperialifts, the Succefs gave the Swedes 
the advantage of proceeding further. i^^'^O/^'nia 4 

' C%,ajlaw is the place where Ztfca was buried, that famous Bohemian 
General, who fought when he was Blind ; and when dead, wiilied 
his friends to make a Drum of his Skin. 

Kuttevhurg, or Cottemburgi is famous for its Silver Mines. ' " 
■ Egra is a ftrong City, accounted the fecond of Bohemia, and chief 
Magazine of the Country. Famous for its Fountains, whofe Waters 
cure all Infirmities of the Eyes and Ears, or other parts of the Head. 

The Mountains of the Giants in Bohemia^ called Riphai or CercomJJi, 
are famous for three things ; for their Signification and Prognofticks 
of all Tempcfts, for the rarity of Plants, Stones and Gems there grow- 
ing, and for a SpeStrum called Ribenzal, which is faid to walk aboilt 
thofe Mountains in the form of a Huntfmin. Anjelmr4i de Boot tells us, 
that Rudulpbfti the Second, King of Bohemia, had a Table of Jewel; 
which he calls the Eighth Wonder of the World f it was wrough'. 
with fuch Art, that the Jewels which were fet together with invifible 
Joints , prefented a moft pleafant Landskip, naturally reprefenting 
Woods, Rivers, Flowers, Clouds, Animals, &c. the like not to be 
found in the World. - .- 

The Waters of Carolina al. Kar shady found < t Jnno i;7o. in the 
time of Charles the Fourth, will in a nights time turn Wood into a 
ftony cruft. 

That the Loadftones of Bohemia will give the point of the World, 
but not draw Iron; and that a Needle touched with one of thdfe 
Stones never points diredly North, but declines eight or more degrees 
to the Eaft. " /r}- ' - . 

That Mummies,as good as any in Egypt ■^^VQhtzn found in liohemla^ 
( a whole man of Myrrh, Amber ) Bones ot Giants, and Unicorns 
Horns, are digg'd out of the Mountains. See the Hiftory oi Bohemia 
Bohu^ao Balbim & Soc. Jef. in fol. Frag. 1679. 

Other chief Towns are Fi//e», K'.rge and Walled, 7!/^^?" upon the 
River Lauzvitz. Komrgigratz, Ger, Hradlum Regius, Kralowiknuletz. Boh, 
Kuttenburg Ger. Kutmihora Boh. Budcrcljs Ger. al, Budeion^ice Boh. Lekmc- 
rttx, Ger. al. Litomierz,iFz,e Boh, 

To thefe fome here add the Country and City of Glatz. upon the 
Borders of 5</e/?rf. 





X' ■ 




h- M^^ 



y / OfGermffji. 

Oi MofAvU, Marheriftf or Mahreft, 


1 < .^. 

IS a Country lying open only towards Au[triay and the South, up- 
on the other fides environed with Mountains and Forefls ; plain 
within, and exceedingly populous, pleifant, and fruitful for Corn, 
Wine and Pafturage. The Airfomewhat unhealthy, being debarred 
from the cleanfiiig Eaft and Northern Winds, yet it has l^veral rich 
Medicinal Fountains : And a (trange kind of t^rankincenfe or Myrrh, 
which is dug out of the bowels of the Earth. Once a Kingdom, now a 
Marquifate,fubje<5l to the Bohemians^an Appendantofthaf State fince/^». 
14 17. when 5/^///»«»</ the Emperor gave it loAlbertus King of Bohemia. 
Chief Places &TcOlmutx,,or Olmmtz, Germ. & Olmucz,. Olomutium & 
Olomuficium Latino. Holomane Bob. the Eburum of Ttol. tefie Vyram. & 
yippianoy rather Barouna tefte Laz.. A Univerfity feated on the River 
iMorava, otMarckb, which running quite through the Country, entreth 
the Donatv near PresLurgh, and gave name to the Countrey ; large 
and ftrongly fortified, taken by the Swedes, but reftored by the Treaty 

2. Brinntun, Br'm. Ger. Bruno Bohemisy thQ Arjicua oiPtol. Vilano, but 
by Sanf. *tis Hradifcb. Walled, and hath a ftrong Caftle, famous for 
the Siege of 1645. by the Sive^lz^y feated upon the River Schwartz, 
and Z-witta., '■ -"^ - . .-'j :>. . 

3. Iglaiv Germ, or Tgla. Gz.ihUwa Bobem. Geblak by the Moravians, 
on the River fo called, feated upon a Hill on the Frontiers ofBobemia^ 

' well fortified, having a large Piazza. 

4. Znoimumy Znaim, Germ. Zmymo Bobem, Lat. Znogma the Medojlani- 
um of Ptol. te^e Cluv. feated upon the River Tbeya, which divideth Mo- 
ravia from Aufiria^'is famous for the death of Sigifmund the Emperor,: 
and for its Painted Houfes, and for its Sieges of 1645". ^ -yt 

The Moravians are a plain-dealing People, ftout and good Soldiers!. 

Gradifco near Olmutz., is famous for its Myrrh and Frankincenfe, 
which contrary to the common Cuftom groweth immediately out of 
the Earth ; and the Frankincenfe groweth nacurally in the fliape and 
likenefs of thofe parts which Men and Women moft conceal, tej^e Du- 
Iravivo in his Bohemian Hiftory. 

Cren/tr or Kren/ier, by the Bohemians Kromeritz,, now one of the fair- 
eft Cities in Moravia. Ewanczitz,, once notorious for its different 
Scds in Religion ; now all Jews and Papifis. 


• r • 


. dil 







-^ Of Germdny. 

r^ i ' -;n : Qf 57/^^/ SchUfing;el& Schleften. V ; • ' 

TT IS Dutchy is watered in the middle by the River Odery whol- 
ly enjcompafled with Hills and Mountains, except towards the 
North. The Air therefore Hiarp and piercing, lying open to thole 
bluftcring Winds. The Country is rough , and Woody , yet 
adounding in Corn, the Hilly parts yield plenty of Brafs, and other 

It was once fubjedl to the King of Poland; afterwards it fubmitted, 
or wasfubjed totheKingof fii?/^e»»w, and is now an appendant of that 
State. The ancient Inhabitants, among others , were the Quadi, 
againft whom when M. Antonius the Emperor made War, and being 
in a great ftrait, the Legion of Chriftians in his Army by their Prayers 
obtained from Heaven not only Thunderihot and Artillery, which de- 
firoyed the Quadi ; but gentle Showers which refre(hed the faint and 
dying Romans, Xtphtl. in his Dion. 

Chief Places are Brejlavf Ger, fVratxlaw Bobem. Wratijlavia. The 
Budorgisy or Budorigum of ?tol. Vj/ramio & Curio. By OrteL Budorgis is 
Rattibor. ABifhop's See 970. burnt in the Year 1341. now one of 
the faireft Cities in Germany, with ftraight and open Streets. Other 
Places are GlogawCroJfeny belonging to the M. of Brandenburg. L'tgnitz, 
Schweidnitz,, fTolaWy Oppelen, TroppaWy Ratibor, Tefcheny Odfe^ Sagan, 
Jawery Brteg, MonflurbergyGrotkaWy Jegerndorfy Dukedoms and Cities: 
to which we may add the County and City of Glatz, amongft the 
Monies Sudetes 

Thus have we furroundedGfrw/;«/, andfinifhed the Survey thereof. 

As to the Revenue of the Emperor, 'tis not worth mentioning. It 
had need therefore of fome Prince, whofe own Eftate is fufficient to 
lii|Pport the Grandeur and Dignity of fo Auguft a Title. *"r-" ' 

V ij 


BY the Latins that Trcft is called Belgium, from the Belgi, the moft 
Potent People heretofore of allthele parts; which upon the Con- 
fulion of thofe Ancient Limits of Germany and France y did contain 17 
diftind: Efiates or Provinces: It isalfo called Germania Inftrior; by the 
Englifliy the Low-Countries; by the Dutcby Netherlandt j by the Italian/, 
Spaniardsy^d French, Flanders; from whence the Inhabitants were ge- 
nerally called Fiemmings, 





' 'Tis a Country feated very low, between the Banks of the Rhine 
and the Sea-fliore, from which *tis defended by extraordinary Charge 
and Indiidry with Banks and Ramparts. For Husbrandy,*tis thebeft . 
cultivated; for niultirude of Towns and Villages, the bell Peopled"; 
for their neatnefs, the mofl Remarkable; and by reafon of their Igye- 
ral Manufadures, the moft Rich of any Country in Enrofe, ^-/^'v' 
* '"Tis bounded on the North with the German or Brittjh Ocenv, which 
alfo fcparates it from Great Britain, on the Weft; and on the South 
and Eaft it borders upon Frartce anA Gerwany. 

The Ancient Inhabitants were partly fubdued by L. Drujtus, in the 
time of A(tgu(^m Cafar ; the other were before overcome by Jitliffs Ca- 
far : After which fubjedion they remainded under the Roman Empire 
until the Expiration of that Empire, when they were involved in that 
Publick Calamity under the Vidorious French, who here fucceeded 
the Remans ; the whole was contained ^nder the Name and Kingdom 
of /Mp-rafia or Ooftenreich. Afcer that the French Monarchy became 
divided amonft the Pofterity of the Emperor Lewis the Godly, this 
part hereof broke into fundry new Principalities and Governments, 
and became divided into 17 States; or Provinces, whereof fome En- 
titled their Governours Dukes ; others, Earls ; others, Lords. 

Their Names are thefe: Four Dukedoms, Brabant, Limburg, Lux* 
embwg, and Guelderland. Seven Earldoms, Holland, Zeland, .Zutphen, 
Flanders, Artois, Hainault and Namur, One Marquifate of the Holy 
Empire, comprehending Antiverf, FiveSigniories, or Lordfliips, Ma- 
lms, Utrecht, Over-Tjjd, Frujland and Groningen. Two of thefe, F/rf«- 
</cri, and part of Jrtoi/e, appertained to the Soveraignty of the Kings 
of France, quitted unto Philip the Second king of Spain by Henry the 
Second, French King, in the League of Cambray. Brabant, Flanders, 
part of Artois, Limberg, with Malines, and the Marquifate of the Sacred 
Empire, becanjv? added to the Dominion and Fatpily of Burgundy by 
Philip the Hardy. Holland, Zealand, JVefl-FreiJland, Hainalt, Luxemburg 
and Namur, by Vbilip the Good : Gelderland, Zutfheny XJtreicbt, Over* 
Tff'elund Groningen, by the Emperor Charles the Fifth. Since this Uni- 
on they were Governed in manner of Free Ettates by their Princes 
and Magiftrates, making a diftind Nation and Commonwealth by 
themfelves. Duke Charles the Fighter, Prince jiereof, had an intent 
io unite the parts then under his Government into one intire King- 
dom by the name of Burgundy. But the Provinces being Soveraign, 
and had their feveral Laws, Privileges, &c. this Project Took no ef- 
fed. In the Reign of Philip the Second King of Spain, Heir of the 
Houfeof Burgundy, and in the Year 1^66. began thofe memora- 



\ -0 

Of Germdfiy, '59 

ble Civil Broils, fa long »fflidling thofe rich an4 flouriftiJng Countries, 
continued with tbe fpoil and ranfackin^ of all tlieir Chief Towns and 
Cities, with, ;the urtfpcaliable luifery and comity of a Woody War of 
48 years j a War which coft the King of Spain the Lives of 600000 
men, and 1 5:0 Millions of Ci owns, and England not fewer than looooo 
men, and above a Million of Money. At laft, part of the Provinces 
were forced to continue under the SpanijhYokQy and part recovered 
their Liberty ; fo that now there are in the Low-Countries two Eftates, 
or Dominions^ far differing one from another ; for the one is a Re- 
publick, or rather feveral Republicks United and Confederated in 
one, and therefore called the United Vrovincesj and (commonly from 
the Principal Province ) HoUand: The other for the moft part did 
belong to the King oi Spain, as Heir to the Houfe o^ Burgundy , and is 
called the Spaniflj Frovincesy or Flanders j but of late Years the French 
King hath conquered the moft part thereof. 

As the Country is divided, fo is alfo their Religion; for the Spajii- 
ards ftridlly follow the Romiflj, and the States-General indulge the free 
Ufe of all Religions, but countenance only that of the Reformed 
Churches, according to Calvin. 

The Men for the moft part are well proportioned, unmindful of 
good Turns and Injuries; of good Invention, Frugal, and of indefa- 
tigable Induftry. 

The Women generally of good Complexions, Familiar, Adive, 
Laborious, and converfant in Affairs in the Shops and Houfes. 

Their Language, for the moft part, is Dutchy with little difference 
in the Dialed ; but in theProvinces adjoining to France, they fpeaka; 
corrupt and imperfed French, from their Language called fi^aSoons. 

The Air is Temperate, and more wholfome than formerly; tlis 
Winter more tong than cold, and the Summer like the Spring in Sou- 
thern Countries. j.„ 4 :,^^.. 

The Soil towards Germany is Woody and Hilly; but towards the 
Sea full of Pafture and Meadow-ground, which breed great ftor« of 
Cattelj which make Cheefe and Butter plentiful. : « 


•^,1 -> 

: ■ ■ V 



,1 .^M'm-i^vs^li: 

■ k^^ 


■ - - ) 

•. 'h^, ■ .: :.'..:.:, ^:,,\ \n 



^i. .^^tijAi-ii- 


Of the United P r d v i k c e i. 
Or DVT CH Republick. 

''i .r.i' 


T^^. ^^/^''^ P'-^^f ^^^are r^^ becaufe of the Unipn which 

they made together in the Year i ^79. Thev are feafS f m«!r3 

Sm f; '^■C>mtr»s, between the Dominions of tlie Kins of 
Sp»m m FWff,, and many Principalities of the Empire The p£«; 
.oftbeEmpire, which are Neighbou^ to them, artrcl of S! 




3, '..^ 



Of the Vnited Provides, 


hurgh in his Dutchy ofjuiters; the Elecflor of Rran/lefth$trgb\ah\s'DukC' 
doni ofClcves ; thcElecftot of Cologu, the Biftiop of A/««y?tfr, the Count 
of Benfbeim, and the Prince of Eaft-Fnefiand, in the Territories of the 
fame Name. 

The U»if^<s? Provinces, which formerly acknowledged the King of 
Spain, afterwards became Independent j or,* to fpeak more properly, 
£o many Commonwealths of themfcil/es, which yet all together make 
up but one Republick, under the Title of The United Vrovivces of the 
Low-Countries (^0 that the Dignity remains with the States-Generaljbut 
the Abfolute Authority ( in matters excepted in the Alliance j abides in 
the States of every Province. The Arms of this Comtnonwealth is a Li- 
on holding a Bundle of feven Arrows clofe tyed together, in aliufion 
tofo many Provinces Confederated by the fame Alliance.. And yet thefe 
Provincts have not been always fo well United, but that they have 
fometimes rather refembled a Body with fo many Heads, lome of 
which looked one way, and fome another. 

There is no Dominion in the World offo fmall an Extent, that has 
fo great a number of FortreJJ'es, and which feems to be better Defend- 
ed by the Natural Scituation of the Countrey it felf ; for it is fortified 
by the Sea, and feveral Rivers; that is to fay, the Rhine, the Meufe^thQ 
Waal, the IJJei &c. 

Befides the United Provinces, and the Territories belonging to them, 
the States have certain Towns in Brabant and Flanders, They have in 
Flanders the SleucCy Middelhrg, Ardemhurgh, the Safs of Gaunt, Axel) 
and //«/^. In Brabant, Lille, BergenrOpzoom, Breda, Boifieduc,and Grave, 
They had alfo Dahf/i and Fau^jwimont in the Dutchy of Limburgh ; and 
Maefiricht in the Bifhoprick of Liege ; won from them by the King of 
France, but reltored, and at this prefent in their poffeffion. In Germa' 
vy, they had upon the Rhine, Orlo/, H^efel, Reez,, Emeric, and Genep, 
in the Dutchy of Cleves ; and Rbmeberg, in the Eletlorate of Cologne. 
But thofe places are returned to the right Owners. Upon the edge 
of IVefiphalta, they have a Garifon in Embden, and in the Forts of £/- 
deler and Leer-ort, which belongs to the Prince of Eajl-Priejland, 

Of thefe United Provinces, four lye toward the Weft, Holland, Zeland, 
Utrecht, Que Ider land nn6 Zutphen, Three to the Eaft, OveryJJ'el, Friefland, 
and Grmingen, In their Aifemblies thefe Provinces have always given 
their Voices in this Method, Guelders and Zutphen(irf\; then Holland, 
Zeland, Utrecht^ Friejland, Over-Tjfel, and laftly, Groningen, with the 
Ommelands, Here note, that Zutpben is reckoned one of the Seventeen 
Provinces, but makes not one of the Seven, being comprehended 
under Gelderlandi fo chac chofe who will have ten under the Spanifi 

Y Jurifdicaion, 




i62 , Of theVmtU Provwch, 

' JurifdiAion, muft reckon Cambray for one, or that part of GeUcn 
which yet remains fubjed to the King of Spain. 

Each Province fends their Deputies to the Haguey where they com- 
pofe three Colleges or AlFemblies ; the States-General, the Council of 
^ State f and the Chamber of Accounts, In the Aflembliesof the States^ 
General, it behoves all the Provinces to give their Confent in general ^ 
and particular, to the Refolutions there taken, there being no fuch * 
^ thing among them as Plurality of Voices. Gueldres takes place firft, as 
being the Eldeft, and becaufe her Plenipotentiaries firft propos'd the 
Union. The Admiralty fits in five places, and has five Magazines ; at 
Roterdam, Am^erdam, Horn, or Enchyfen, Middlebourgh, and Harltngen ; 
the three firft in Holland, the fourth in Zeland, and the fifth in 
Friejland. . 

Holland ( faith Sir William Temple) is a Countrey where the Earth 
is better than the Air, and Prt)fit more in requeft than Honour ; 
where there is more fenfe than Wit ; more good Nature than good 
Humour; and more Wealth than Plearure;wherea man would chufe 
rather to Travel than to Live, and (hall find more Things l Obferve 
than Defire, and more Perfons to efteem than to Love. 

The Earldom of Holland and Zeland, together with the Neighbour- 
ing Countrey of IVefi-FriJta, was given unto tbeodoric Son to Sigebert 
Prince oi Aquitania, by the Emperor Charles the Bald. ByArnulpb their 
fourth Prince, quitting the French Allegiance,they were firft made fub- 
jedl to the Soveraignty of the German Emperors. In John the Second, * 
became added to the Houfe of Hainalt. In fVilliam the Third, to the 
lAoMk oi Bavaria. In Thilip thQ Good, to that of Burgundy, In Philip tliQ 
Second, to that of Aufiria; in whofe Reign, after forty years War, they 
were acknowledged a Free Eftate by his Son Philip the Third. 

The Province of 'Holland is of moft Power and Confideration. as gi- 
ving Name to all the reft; It is fcituate very low, and therefore fenced 
with Banks and Ramparts to keep out the Sea ; it is alfo fenny, and 
full of Marfhes, and therefore trenched with innumerable Dikes and 
Channels, to make it fit for Dwelling. 

Remarkable indeed is the Induftr^ and Trade of the Inhabitants ; 
that having little or no Corn, yet they are always provided, not only 
with fufficient for their own Ufe, but to fupply their Neighbours. 
Having no Timber of their own, they fpend more in Building of 
Ships, and fencing their Water-courfes, than any other Countrey : 
And having no Flax or Wool j. they make more Cloth of both, forts, 
than moft Countries in Europe^ 


Of the Vnited Provinces. 



The whole compafs of this Earldom is not above i8o miles, but in 
breadth no where above three hours Journey from the Sea. 

Amfierdamy fcituate on the Lake or Sea called Tie, and the Dike or 
Channel called Amftd^ in Latin Amfielodamuw & Amfterodamum ; 
builc upon Piles, like Venice \ and by the late Addition of the new to 
the old, may now vye with the richeii; andfaireft Cities of the world; 
famous for its great Trade to the utmoft parts of the Earth ; and as 
infamous tofome for its Toleration of all Religions. 'Tis the Market 
or Shop where tlie Rarities and Commodities of all Countries areex- 
pored>to Sale. 

The StaM'houfi is the Prodigy of the World, and a Miracle be- 
yond the Seven that Antiquity brags fo much of: A Building of great 
Magnificence, and as vaft Expence, begun in the year 1648. and in 
Augufi 1 6 f y. was the Dedication of it folemnized. In a Vault under 
this Stadt'houfe, fecured by the ftrongeft Doors and Locks, is kept 
that famous Bank, which is fuppofed to be thegreateft Treafure either 
real or imaginary, in the world. It is certain there is the appearance 
of infinite Riches in Bars of Gold, Silver, and inumerable Bags of 
Metals, thought to be all Gold and Silver. But the Security of this 
Bank lies not in thofe EfFeds, but in the Credit of the whole Town, 
or State of Amfierdam, whofe Stock and Revenue is equal to lome 

Dort, Dordracunti pleafant and large; fcituated upon four Rivers, 
hath thefirft Voice, as the Town where the Earls oi Holland And their 
fubje(5i;s reciprocally bound themfelves each to another. There it is 
that they Coin their Money, and their Magiftrates have the Privilege 
to go with one of their Guards. In the Year 142 r. of a City upon 
the Continent it became an Ifland, through a moft dreadful Inunda- 
tion, that Drowned about looooo People and 80 Villages. Flarkm, 
Harkwurn, is the place where the/ make their fineft Linen Cloth, and 
the whitelt in the whole Province. Famous for the Invention of Print- 
ing by La-ivrence Co/ler, and its Inhabitants for breaking <he Pelufian 
Chain. The Duke of Aha having taken it, comniitted very great 
afts of bloody Cruelty therein. Ddfh, Delj\ or DJ/r, in Latin Delphi, 
or Delfum, is the Burying-placeofthe Princes of Or<^w^«, and of great 
Trade for Cloathing ; famous for the ftory of the Storks, who cover- 
ing their young ones in the fire- time, all perifhed in the Flames ; and 
infamous for the Birth of DavtdGeorge, who called himfelf King and 
Chrift, who died in iyy6 at Bafdi, and three years after, his Bones 
were taken up and Burnt : And for the barbarons Affaffination of 
William the firft. Prince of Orange, Anno i y 5 6. it was utterly ruined 

Y z by 


1 64 '■' ' Of theVmtedFrovifiees. ' - " 

by a dreadful Fire. Anno 16^4, ic was unaccountably blown np by a 
vaft Magazine of Powder. Leyden. Ijiddunum, RatuvorHmy is the Eye, 
or as others will have it, the Garden of Holland, as well for the 
cleannefs of their Streets, as the beauty of their Houfes. It is alfo 
famous for its Antiquity, for its Library, and the Excellent Edition 
of Books there Printed ; as alfo for the entire Defeat of the Spanijh 
Army. In this City was born that Taylor, who to his ruin was made 
King of the Anabaptifls in Munjier» Strong and rich Goude, or Gouda, 
has this advantage, to be fcituated among Springs, and where the In- 
habitants en)oy the pureft Air in all Holland, Roterdam, Roterodamum, 
the place where Erafmus was born, is the beft of the twelve Cities 
which they call fmall ones , by reafon of its great Trade upon the 

The Hague, by the Dutch Den Haghe^ and St. Gtavenhagbe, ( that is 
the Grove of the Earls or Forelters), in Lat, Haga Comitis ; ic glories 
in being the principal Village, and as delightful a place as moft in the 
world I highly commended for the breadth of its Streets, the ftate- 
linefs of its Buildings, and the ihadinefs of its Walks ; and for the 
Princes Palace, and for the A ffemblies of the States-General. 

The Brillf Briela, is a well Trequented Harbour towards the South, 
in the Ifland of Foorn ; the reft of the Coaft is all Sands, with ibme 
(helter for Fiflier- boats, with the Iflands Overfiac and Gorre, 

There is alfo the rich and daily Butter and Cheeie-Market Gorkum 
Lat, Goricbemumj on the ff'ale ; a ftrong place, and one of the Keys 
of Holland: The fair and commodious Haven ScbonhovenjoT Scbonbovia. 
So called from its pleafant Gardens. 

Ac Scbevelmg was the flying or failing Chariot, which in two hours 
time would pafs with Eight and twenty Perfons from Scbeveling ta 
Putten, which is about 42 Englijh miles. It was made for the famous 
Prince Maurice, by Siwon Stevinus, a famous Mathematician. 

Ceertydenherg fmce Anno 1611. has been part of the Patrimony of 
tbe Illuftrious Houfe of Orange. 

Worcum, or M^oudrichmum, the principal Town in the Lordfliip of 
Ahena, part of the PolTeflion of the Ancient and Nobl^,'Family of 
Home, until the year 15" 68. when Philip oi Monmorency, Earl of 
Horn, was beheaded at Brufjeh by the bloody Aha. Anno 1600 it 
was fold to the States of Holland. 

Levefhin is a Cartle at the confluence of the Maes and l^VaeL 

Heufden has a good ftrong Caftle, but in Anno 1680. the Lightning 
in the night-time piercing the Walls of t!ie great Tower, fee fiie to 
the vaft Magazine of Powder, which blew up the Tower and Caftle, 
and great part of the Town. Clundert 



Of theVnitedProvMeh. 


ClnnJert ftandsin the Ifle of Ru/genhill; fortified with eight BaOi- 
ons, and fome Ravelins. 

Sevenhergenjsnow SL well peopled Vi|lage. 


Wtlkmfiadt is a place of 
confiderabfe iirength, and a good Hai' 

IJfelfieyn on the Holland Iffel, ovFoJJ'a Drujianaf now under the Prince 
of Orange, well fortified, and furrounded with Gardens and pieafanc 
Inclofure$. Its Trade con fifls much in Cables and Cordage, and other 
like ManufaAurcs. 

Vianen, in Lat. Viana & Vianda,i\\t neatnefs of whofe buildings, as 
well as the neiglibouring fields, advance the pleafantnefsof the place. 

Alfhen is fuppofed to be the Albiniana Cajtra of Ant, Roomburch is 
callea in Vdferus's Geographical Tables, Vratorium Agrippma. 

WoeJen is a ftrong Town, and a Poft of great concern, taken by 
the Frtncb, Anno i6j2. quitted Anno i6j:i. Oiielewater, or Veteres Acjua, 
pleafantly feated upon the IJfel, is noted for thebeft Hemp. Schiedam 
is a place of confiderable Antiquity, faid to have had the Privileges o( 
a City, Anno 1274. 

Vlatrdingen, or FlaerMnga, once the moft ancient and beft fortified 
Town in Holland. 

Ac Naeltwjck Frederic Winceo^ Orange built a Royal and Magnifi- 
cent Palace. 

At Laufdiaiy a League from the Hague, is the Interment of Marga- 
ret Countefs of Henebergb, and her 56^ Children born at one birth, 
if Reverend Antiquity may command our affent to all its Stories and 
Traditions. - 

^ Muyden upon the Vetcht, in the late Wars was made one of the 
ftrongeft Pofts for the Defence of Holland. 

Wefefy Wefpe, or I'fefop, is famous for its Beer, which is called the 
Flemmijh Pbj/pck. 

NaerdenK a (trong, but little Town, fortified with fix Baflions, yet 
in Anno 1672. the Garifon of 200 men, at the firft appearance of 
the French threw down their Arms and fied to Amfierdam^ which is 
diliant about three Leagues. In Augu/t 1673. *' ^^^ befieged by the 
Dutch AUpy of 2^000, but the Garifon of 3000 men quickly fur- 
rend: ed J for which the Governor was condemned to perpetual Im- 
prifonment, and all the other Oificers cafhier'd. In Anno 1481. thofe 
of C7/rtr/)f fur prized this Town (by dreiling up a company of Soldiers 
like Countiey- women going to Market), and compelled the Inhabi- 
tants to pay a vaft fum of Money to redeem tlienifelves and houfes 
frofi! the ntinofl extremities of Fire and Sword: But in the fame 
year the Naadtncrtikv/ 15*00 UltrajeBins upon ths fpor, and carried 



1^0 "^ of the Vnifed Provinces,") ^ 

off a great Booty. Anr.r i J72, it uirrendred to Frederic oi Toledo, 
who ordered all the Inhabitants ro meet together in the Market or. 
Churci"*, and then comn .nded his Soldiers to cut them in pieces. 

Alemaer, encommpaffed v/ith Marflies; when the Metropolis of ^f/?- 
Friejlafjdj called Jhe)7a ; now enrichedby its Butter and Cheefej and 
adorned with extraordinary ple-Tant Garden-^. Memorable for the 
Defeat the Inhabitants gave D. At-ua^ merely bcjaufe he gave them no 
way to efcape. 

Horn upon the 2u)der-Zee, from its pleniy of rich Villages, and 
Pafture-grounds, with pleafaiit Gardens and V/alks, called CorMcopia, 
hi May is the Fair for But*:er and Cheefe. 

Ediimy Tdther Tdam, or Tedam, a good Haven, is noted for its Build- 
ing of Ships, for making excellent Checle^ and for the Sea-Nymph, 
( Anno 14; ) that learned to fpin 

Monnekedam or MonachnJani, upon the fmall River Alonick, 

Turmerend^ formerly belonged to the Noble Family ol x^QEgmond., 
but fold to the States, Anno 1 590. 

Medewhlickjor Medemlecky whether if was the Seat of Radbodus the 
famous King of the Frizovs, is uncertain; but its commodious Har- 
bours, capable of yoo large Ships, are of great profit and Reputation 
to it. 

Eg-^:ond i a pleafant aiid fine-built Village, and gave Title to one 
of themoft Ancient and lilufirious Families of thefe Countries. 

Bevervick ( anciendy called St. /iga:has Church.) 

The Tex JjOi'TeJful'UUndj abounds with all manner of Neceflaries; 
and having a gioat influence upon the entrance into the Zuyder-Zecj 
the States have built there a ftrong Fortrefs, which is always provi- 
ded witi- a good G^.rifon. 

Flhlnul or Ululafia, calkd in Lat. flevolandia, is of a long and nar- 
iOVv' figure, havin<^ only one fingle Village at eadi end. 

At Schjyirg the Ejiglijh burnt and fired about 100 or i jo of the 
Dutch Merchant- men, with lome Men of War. Thefe three Ifl^nds, 
together with fcveral large Banks of Sand, lye along rlie Moiriiof 
the Zuyder-Zeej and in Ibme rneafure break the ivA\ Affaults of the 
raging Ocean, making two ^ood Mai bouts, 'ViZ. the 7t.vf/and Flie. 

In tne IVienrg are divers good Villages, feeding Inrge Flocks of 

Tlie Art and Induflry of the Dutch have ..inniieflcd ihemfclves in a 
:hou(And particulars, bu: in Jiothing moie th.m irf their putting Bars 
to the Occ4fi,and • * ■ • 
might be term'd Inla 

in djaining of Lakes of To great extent that they 
inland ^ej« ; fuch \vere tiic Zyn and Bawjhr in 






of theVniteslPrcvinch, ' 167 

The SQUthern Iflands of Holland are, i. The Overmaes, oppofite to 

2. The Foorrtf wherein ft^.nds the Brill, or Brebeet, upon the mouth 
of the Rbine;^ which w^s called Helim, now Ifjdel, a ftrong and well- 
fortified Town, one of the Cautionary Towns pawned by the Duub 
to Queen Eliz.ahetb, and reftored by King James the I. after it had 
been garifoned and commanded by the Englijh about 30 years. 

5. Goerc, or Goederee, which fignifies a good ftaiion for Ships, at 
the mouth of the Maes; but now its Port is much obftruifted wrth 
Sands, andinfefted with a Tempeftuous Sea. 

4. Overflacke or Ouervhckee, comprehending Several Villages, where 
is good Corn-land, but little Pafture. Thefe Iflands were formerly 
par£*of the Province of Zeland\ but upon the diftribution of a Tax 
to be paid to the Prince, they fubjeded themfelves to the States of 

Zelandy Zelandia, is the Province which was firft fet at Liberty, and 
laft confented to the Peace with Sfain-. At this day it contains the 
greateft part of the Prince of Orange^ Pofleffion. That of Vacheren, 
Walacbria, in the Map, contains ten Dutch miles in compafs, is the 
faireft of all in the Low Countries, with the City of Middkburgh, the 
Capital City of the Province, and the Staple for Wines; a Ihong 
and large Empory. Fluflnng, Fltjfmga, the Key of the Net ho lands, is 
alfo a good Harbour. Once an Englijh Garifon, and a Cautionary 
Town, delivered to Queen Elizabeth, Anno 1^8^. and rertored by 
King James Anno 1616; where the Renowned Sir Vbilip Sidney vj3ls 
the firft Governour, and died in that Service. The ftrong Sea-Town, 
Vere, or Ter-Vere^ Versa Lat, having many Staples for Herring and other 
Commodities J Famous for the moft Noble and Illuftrious Family of 
the Veres, once Earls of Oxford. Zeeburgb, or Rammekens, is ,i {!"C^ng 
Fort and good Harbour, engaged to the Englijh, but reftored to the 
Dutchy together with the Bnll and Fluflmg. 

The fecond Ifland is Scbowen, Scaldia, Lat. containing fix miles in 
Circuit; its chief Town is Zerick-Zei, or Zirr^ee, noted for Madder 
and Salt; and Hroverfiiavcn, inhabited by FHhermen; here was firft 
invented thcMartingof Herrings. The third is Ziuit-Bi'vitLndy or 
South 7:. ■tluhd, vvhofe only Town of note is Goes, or Ter-Goes. The 
fourch is i'uudtDidy or D/tymland, named thus from the abundance of 
Pigeons there breeding. It Hath no Town of Note, but is memo- 
fjble for the 'old palVage ot the Spaniards under Mondr^gon crofs the 
Se.''_, in the - \v ifT^j and for that in the year 1^20. it was over- 
wlicimcd wi:h a deluge of waters. Nonb Bivdand, once termed 





Of theVnittdProvimes* 

Zeeland\ Garden of Delights, but in that fatal Inundation of in^> 
it was entirely overwhelmed by the Sea j but lince above 2000 Acres 
of Land have been gained from the Sea. 

Tolen is an Ifland fo called from a Town of that Name, divided 
from Brabant by a narrow Creek or Arm of the Sea. The more an- 
cient Inhabitants of thefe Iflands were the Mattiaci oi Tacit m. They 
contain in all 8 Walled Towns, and about 100 Villages. The Coun- 
trey is low, flat, and Marfliy, rich in Corn and Pafturage, unhealthful 
and fubje(fl to Inundations, being kept in and defended from the Sea 
by Banks. 

The Biftioprlck or Lordlbip of Utrecht , JJtr'tceftum Amm. was firft 
occafioned by one Wtlkhrodi an Anglo-Saxon, the Apoftl-? of thofe 
parts, and firft Bi (hop hereof about the year 611. during th.'; Regen- 
cy of Vepn the Fat, The Succeflbrs of this Willihrod^ by the Libe- 
rality of the Vrmch Kings and German Emperors, attained unto as 
well the Temporal as the Spiritual Jurifdidtion, together with that 
of OveryJJelj until Charles the Fifth, who by the confent of Henry 
Count Palatine, then Biihop, feized upon the whole Temporal Domi- 
nion hereof, leaving only the Spiritual to the Prelates, which alfo 
fmce, by the Ufurpation of the States, hath likewile been taken from 
them. It has a Capital City of the fame Name, inhabited for the 
moft part by tb^ Nobility of the Countrey: But its greateft Glory 
for feveral Ages was, its being the Seat of one of the moft Ancient 
and moft powerful Bifhops in the Chriftian World : Firft called hfe- 
rius Trajeifunty or UltrajeBttm j Utriccfium^ Amm. ; feated fix horary 
miles from Am^erdaniy upon the old Channel of the Rhine ; now di- 
verted into the Lech. Mr. Ray tells us, That it was, Anno 1665, en- 
virnoed with a thick and high Wall, and a deep Trench ; yet in the 
year i6-'2, the Ultra je^ms fubmitted to the Frenchlong before it could 
be fummoned ; which Civility coft them a Million 668000 Gilders^ 
( that is, above 160000 /. ferling) which was exad:ed of them In 
Contributions between June 1672, and November 1675 > befides 
200000 Rix Dollars for a Viaticum or Foy at the departure of the 
French. There is alfo the Thorowfare Rfmjcn, the fair and Itrong 
jimersfcrty the Frontier-Town Montfort. Wtck de Dmrfiede, the Bat.i- 
vodurum ofJac. &Ttol. Diirc(fatum& Dmcfiadinm, Lat. They reckon 
about Utrecht ^6 Cities, to the farthcft whersot you may go by Wa- 
ter from Utrecht in one day. 

I'he Province of Guelden, Gueldrij, cr Gueldreey was firft fctnied by 
two Broihcrs J TVie hard and Luppola^ li.ft made Guardians of the Coun- 
try by the Inhabitants in the Reign of the Emperor Cbailes the Bald, 





Of theVHitidProvintet, 169 

It was made an Earldom by the Emperor Henry the Third, made » 
Dukedom by the Emperor Lewis of Bavaria, k^ttr the deceal'e of C^<»r/e* 
g{ Egmond, the laft Duke, by compofition between him and C(&<ir/«the 
FifthEmperor, this Province, with the Earldom of 2iifp/&<r», united for 
a long time in the Houfe of the Dukes of GelJerland, defcended-upon ' 
the Emperor Charles iHe Fifth, and added by him to his other Pro- 
vinces of the Netherlands under Phlip the Second j the greateft part 
Hiook of the Spanijh Yoke, and now -with Zuiphen governed in man- 
ner of a Free E(late, confederated with the reft oftheUnited Provinces, 
A third part of Gelderland excepted, where ftands the Towns of Rure^ 
mond^ Loyal ; Gelders, Martial ; Fenlo, Strong ; IVatchtendum and 5rr<i- 
Un, remaining yeft fubjed to the Arch-Duche(s , or Spaniards ; who 
in the Year 1627. attempted in vain to bring the Rhine to the City _ 
of Geldria, and into the Metiji, to deprive the Untted Provinces of the 
"Tr0dc of Germany. Ntm^bev^ Novicmagus al. Ntomagm^ the Capital 
City of the Dutchy of Gueldria, the Oppidum Batavorum of Tacitus, ., 
from whence Ctvilit, after a fatal overthrow given him by the 
Roma*' fled with his Army into the Ifland of nhe.Batavi, iiow 
called ^ Q Batuvfe, or Betaw. It was one of the three Palaces 
of Charles the Great, and Lewts the Pious; as al(b of the fuc- 
ceeding Emperors for four Age&; Repaired by Frederick the firft , 
Sirnamed Ahtnobardus, 1 1 f ;. taken by Prince Maurice in the Year 
if9Z. In July 1672. furrendred to th^^French upon none of thebefi; 
Terras : but in April 1 674. given up by the French upon the ranfome > 
of 82000 Rixdollars for it and the Betaw. Memorable for the Ne- 
gotiation of the Peace which was concluded about the end of 78. and 
the beginning of 79. Nimeguen the Ancient, Ruremond the Great, Zut* 
pben the Rich, ai 1 Arnheim,tht Pieafant, are the four chief Cities of 
the four Quarters of Gelderland. Ruremond upan the mouth of the Ri- 
ver Roer; Ruremunda, Lat. taken from the Spaniard, Ann. Dom. 1652. ' 
but reftored by the Peace of Munfier. 

Arnheim, th& Arenacum ofTacittts/is the Capital City of the Fr/dii;, or 
Feluwe, and thi^Seatofthe Supream Council of the Dukedom of G^/- 
der, walled about, and fortified in the Year 12; 5. deftroyed by Fire 
Ann. if2f. feated on the right fide of the Rhine, about two German- 
miles from Ntmegueny and as many from Doeskw^. One of the heft 
fortified Towns in all the Provinces ; yet attack'd and furrendred to 
the French in the fame day, 72. but for 170000 Gilders re delivered, 
with the whole Velav, ,., - 

The Province of Zutphsn bears the fame Name with the Capital Ci- 
ty, aiid palTcs ibmetimeii for a fourth part of the Duchy oi" (ieUert, ' 

-^ having • 

■' •.vi 


17a Of theVnitedPYovtmh, 

having no Voice in the Affembly of the States-General, but only con- 
joined with this Ducliy. In the Siege of which was flain that Ho- 
nour of Chivalry, and Mirror of Learning, Sir Philip Sidney, Other 
Towns in GeUria are the ftrong and encompalled Frontier Bommel, &^ 
Bommeliaj Lat. with the ]^rts of St. Andrew and Voorn making it im- 
pregnable f yet taken by the French 1672. but quitted again in 1675* 
after 14 days fpentin ruining its t'ortifications, and 36000 Gilders, 
or 3600 pound Englifh paid for their kindnefi. 

Battenborg^ Lat.Arx Bato'vorwn.Tielyiht unheal thyj fi«re», belonging t6 
the Prince of Orange, The Town and County of Culenhurg, the Forts 
Knotfenhurgy Scbevck-Seonce, and TolbuySf are confiderable; Hadenvsck 
and Ell>wg upon the Zuydir-Zeey Hattem upon the IJfel, and PTage- 
ningen Upon the Rhine, are the chief Towns m jh-nheim quarter; And 
Dflej^wr^Difmantl'd by the French in Apil 167^. 

Grollj the ftrongeft Hold in the County ofZutfhen, yet yielded after 
Tcry little refiftance to the Biihopof Munfier, Jum the 9th 1672. 

Marftiy and Fenny ffrevocrt, yet taken by Prince ^Maurice Ann. i f 97. 
aow by Pawn or Mortgage in the jppfleiiionof the Prince o( Orange, 

Over-IJfttl, or Trans IjJ'allania, (k) called from ks Scituation be* 
yond the IJJell) where the Rhine and that, Ihare their Streami toge- 
ther, by means of a Channel which Drufm formerly niade. It 
is divided into three parts ; the Twente, Tjfellandy and Drent, in which 
are contained 11 Town.", and 100 Villages; the prind pal of which 
are Dcventer, Lat. Daventria, an Imperial Hans-Town, being a famous 
Pailage over the Iffel; takenfor the States by the Earl ofi Leicester, Anno 
1^86. but furrendred by Sir ffilliam Stanley, Ann. 1^87. to the 5;><t- 
niards ; recovered by Prince Maurice, Ann. 1^91. but in the fatal Year 
1 672. it was taken by the Bifliop of Munfier, or rather betrayed by the 
Artifices of one Cello jel Broer/ma j upon the Divifion of the Conquered 
places between the Military Prelates, chisfelltothe/hareof theBifhop 
of Collen, by whoRi it was quitted in April 1674. to the States for 
42000 Rix. Dollars, 

Camptn Lat. Campi &Car»pa, feated atthe Confluence of the I[fel 'in- 
to the ZuydiT'Zee ; its main ftrength lies in its Marftiy Scituation : up- 
on the treacherous Surrender of Daventer, iCyi. this capitulated, and 
yielded up it felf; upon di'vifion it fell to the French, who about the 
hitter end of 167^. quirted it for Bcooo Gildws. 

Su'ol is fortified with double WallSj double Ditches, and very 

ftrong Ramparts and Bulwarks, and is a place of great Traflick.. In^ 

Avyd 1674. it was quitted of the Biftiop of Cokn'i Garifon, but the 

^Jk^urgraalieis, and Ibmc. others oftiieTown, were fen t toTl^/^f// r/V-6r, 

V there 


0/ tli %)ttited FtoifhUiih 


there to femaitt Prifoners till fuch time as the City had paid looooo 
Gildersforits ranfome. 

Thefc three Towns are in that part which is called YjfellanJ," 
: OUenzyl, Lat, Olden/alia & OUfalia, the Seat of the ancient Salii^ of 
no great krength nor magnttude^ yet fubje^ to frequent Changes in 
die Spaniffi Wars. 

Otma^tHy by Trkhmina, (aid to be founded by Odowarus King of the 
Francs, from whom it had its denomination. 
'^•^ VaUmbovetiy upon th&Zuydtr^Zeey is a nea£ and handfome Town, well 
feated for the importation of Corn. 

Steemvyck a fmall Town, but well fortified by Prince Maurke, who 
reoovered it from the Spaniards 1^92, Towards the end of 167;. ic 
was forc'd to pay a Ranfome of loooo Gilders to the BiHiop of Mua- 
fitrh Forces, and yet they ruined the Fortifications, and blew up the 
two Gates and the Ammunition-Houfe. Thefe are in the twsnre, Lau 
Twentia df Tubantioi ,--ii«{;, .,- 'k-^-k:-: 

The County of Duent conlifts much in Marte and Heath; but the 
two great Fens called SmiUer-Vsenen, and Echteneenetf, affords the 
Fuel-Turf, which is conveyed in great quantities to Holla^dy and the 
ptjts adjacent. Coeverden is the dhief place of thi3 County, and for 
ftrcngthinferbr to none in Europe^ jet not abov^ 6 jo pacesin compafs; 
yet commands all the confiderable PafFes thereabouts. It is memora- 
ble for many Sieges in the Spanifh Wars, too tedious to relate. In 
Ann. 167a. it was fortified with a large deep double Dirch, with ve- 
ry highaud ftrong Ram parte, defended with 7 good Baft ions, bearing 
the Names of the 7 Prox'inces,^ with well-wrought Parapets, Faufe 
Brays, and other Outworks, and a Gaftle efteemed impregnable, yet 
yielded to the Bilhop of Munfter in Julyt before ic bad been at the ex- 
pence of one man*s life in defence of fo conii^erablea Fortrefs. In 
Decimher following the Dutch by a kind of a private furprize re- 
took it. 

Groningen, comprehending the Omlands, is but ot fmall extent, where 
there is nothing more rare than Stones and Wood j fo that their Fuel 
is Turf, which they dig in great abundance. The Air is (harp and 
who'lfome. The Metropolis of this Province is Groningcnj or Gronin- 
ghen , commodioufly feated for Water and Land Carriage : Anno 
161A. was an Univerfity founded here by the Provincial States; actlw 
entrance into thepublick School is this Infcription,, Fac eaqutewnriera 
faBafmffe volts. The Refiftance made by the Gromnghert in the Year 
1672, not only raifed the Siege, but obtained theRcw.udof a dou- 
ble Vote in the Grand Council of State of the United Provinces, Other , 

Z 2 Places 

xji r> OftheV»hedProv$Heefi7r 

Places are, BcurtangTort, BtltickyJVoUtr'Scome, 1^wfck{en,^ni Lartgaeker 
Sconces. MidufoU, once a flouriHiing place, but now altnoft ruined bf 
theoucragtous Dallart, which about 406 y^ars ago fpread it felf upon 
the Ruines of 3 ; good Villages. Di»», ^ Dehbz.ilj are the two moft 
confidei able places in the OmlanJs. The laflr is a very good Havea 
111 the Year 1672. th^ Dutch Eaft India Fleet of 14 Ships, whofe Lan- 
ding was valued at 1600000 pound Sterling , had been taken by the 
Englijh, had they not got into this Port, 

fy'efi-FruJland was a Country formerly much lareet than now: The 
Ancient Friz^ont were pofTeflbrsof the Provinces ot Priejlattd^ Groningeh., 
Overyifel, fVefiphalia, and North-HoUand, called then IVeft-Fryjlandy and 
coriiiguous to the Province of Friejland: For the Zuyder-Zee, which i$ 
r.oc found in the Writings of the Ancients, was formecjby fomegre^t 
Inundation, breaking in between the Texell and the other Iflands, 
which are but the broken remainders of a continued Coa/l. It is now 
divided into three parts, viz^ Ooftergo, ff^ejhrgo, and Seven-woiden, or 
the /even Fore/^s; which comprehends two Cities, 12 Prefe<Slures, 
127 Tillages. ^ ^ 

The two Cities are, i. Leewarden, Lewardia dr LeovarduWy the largeft, 
richeft, and beft built City in the Province, and ttrongly fortified ; en- 
joying the benefit of many large Navigable Channels, honoured with 
the Supream Court and Chancery. 

Jorckum, or Docum, well fortified. The Guild- Hall and Bridge are 


moft confiderable ; it was the Refidence for the Colledge of Admiral- 
ty, now tranflated to Harlingmy a Haven Town, and well fortified, 
and may eafily be overflowed by the help of their Sluces. 

Francktry or Franicberia, is an Univer.'jry, encompaffed with a good 
Wall and Ditch, and defended with a ftrong Caftle, 

Snee^k is an ancient, populous, neat- built and well-fortified Town; 
Biilfv^aert is encircled with good Corn, and Pafture Fields. 

Of Stavenny m Lat. Stavia d^ Stavordia. The Friez,tflj Wi iters tell us, 
that it was nor only the Metropolis of the Cmntry, and chief Seat of 
their Kings, but the largeft and moft famous Empory of both. Ger- 

Tiiacliief Commodities of tl.^N'cural growth of thefe Provinces 
are Butter and Cheefe j the vzl\ being Manufacflurics which they make 
out of (lich M.iteri,ils as they fete' ^»i of other Countries; But the. 
CoTimodity that hAtn been of gpeateft advantage to them, is Fifl>; 
and that not caught upon their own Coaft neither. Their Herring- 
Trade, by computation, is worth 450000/, ftr Anmmv And tiiat of 
Cid-fjh I ^0000 }. .V/tr/. yearly. 





Of the VftitedProvhces, 


Generally the people are inclined to Navigation , and a Sea faring 
Life; and many being born on Shipboard, and bred up at Sea^know 
no other Country ; fo that their natural inclination, and necefltty of 
employing themfelves that way, hath exceedingly increafed their 
Shipping : fo that 'tis thought they areMafters of more Ships and Vef- 
felsof all forts, than almoftail Europe beM^s, 

But that which is the juf^ admiration of all men, thefe Seven Trov'mees 
are become greater, and more potent than Seventeen, in riches and 
power : Nay, they have outdone fome of the greateft Princes in £«* 
ro^. Their Cities are many and fplendid ; and yet rhere are more 
Sedts among them than Cities, and almofV as many Creeds as Heads; 
y6t fo wife in their Meetings, as never to difcourfe of Religion. Their 
Country ( in general for its Dimenfions ) is fuller of People, Cities, 
Towns, Caftles, Forts, Bulwarks, &c, for Military Defence, than 
any one Country in Europe. Their Naval Forces prodigious, befitting 
Wonders rather than Words; even a terror to the great Princes of the 
World. For their Trade, it far exceeds that of the Neighbouring 
Princes; and in the Oeconomy of it much more prudently managed : 
To every Town they aflign fome Staple Commodity ; as, to Dort, the 
German Wines, and Corn ; to Middkburg, the French .tud Spanifb 
Wines; t© Rotterdam formesly^ now to Dort, the ^Engltjh Cloth: Ta 
Harlew, Knitting and Weaving, &c. which maketh their Towns fc 
equally rich and populous. 

One Miraculous Accident I muft not forget, becaufe mentioned by 
all Writers, "jiz. That Margaret, Sifter to Earl Floru the 4th, being, 
about 42 yejrsof Age, brought forth at one Birth 565' Children, 
half Males, and half Females,the odd one a Hi^rmaphrodite\ they were all 
Chriftened by v?«/^fl Suffragan to theBifhop of Utrecht ^ in two Bafons, 
which are yet to befeen at the Church of Lajdmen^ the Males Jti», 
the Females Eliz,abttb ; imnKuiately alter they all died, and their Mo' 
ther^lfo. , , 







• r 

THESE Provinces arcfo called, becaufe fubje<St toth Monarchy 
of Spain. Ic carries alfo the Nameof F/<«»</erj, froi ' that Pro- 
vince which is thefaireft , the richeft, and the beft Peoj »Bd part. 

■Of thefe Spanifl) Provinces, four areFrc^ntiersof Frrf««j the Coun- 
ties of FlanJers, Artoif, Hainault, and the Duchy of Luxemburg. Five 
ip thetniddlcj vt^, ThQDvk^^om^ Brahant, the Marquiniteuf the 


Of ske Sfsm/b NetkerUndr. 




Empire, the Signiory of Malines ^the County of Namitr, and theDutchy 
of Limhurgh, There are alfo two Feifs of the Empire, the Bifhoprick 
of Liegt, and the Archbifhoprick of Camhray. The Kings of .S;><ii» 
were onceMafters ofthefe Provinces, and for the prefervation thereof 
have expended a good part of their Gold and Silver brought from 
the Indies, in the Wars they maintained againft the Dutch and 

The County of Flanders, Flandria Latim, Vlaenderen by the Inha- 
bitants, Flandre French, Flandes Spaniards, & Flandr a Italians, isfofuH 
of People, that it feems to be but one great City, and the lovelieft 
Country in Chriftendom ; enjoying a good and wholfome Air, and 
well water d by a great number of Rivers. All along the Coafts lie 
banks of Sand, that cover very Rich places. In the Neighbouring Sea 
are fcveral Sands and Shelves, neverthelefs Ships ride there fafe 
enough. It formerly was divided into Dutch Flanders, GaUiean Flan* 
ders, and Imperial Flanders ; This belonged fometimes uno the King- 
dom oifVeft France, and held by the Princes thereof under the Fief of 
this Crown ; quitted unto Vhiltpxht Second King of Spain^ and to the 
Heirs of the Houfe of Burgund) by Hemy the Second King of France, and' 
the League of Cawbray, ^ 

In Flanders, the principal places are Gaunt, Gandaurum, Gbendt & 
Gand by the French, one of the biggcft Cities of Europe: But though 
it hath feveral Rivers that ftill bring a- Trade to it, yet has it not the 
five and thirty thoufand Families tliat anciently it had, when it was 
able to Arm four and twenty thoufand men. 'Tis famous for the Birth 
of Charles the Fifth, and of John Duke of Lanca/fer, commonly called* 
John of Gaunt. The Cathedral is a ftately Stru<5tuf e. In the Tower 
BeOefort hangs tlie Bell Roland, faid to weigh 12000 pound. The: 
Church of St. Ba'vo is the chief; That of St. Michael is femous for ex- 
cellent Paintings. 

0{^endj Oftenda, is a Town whofe Haven they can never block- . 
up, and which was once the Theater of War, when it held out a*. 
Siege for above three years, too long for the Arch-Duchefs not to (hift: 
her Smock, being Garifonedby the Englijh, and under Sir Horatio Vere, 
who was then Governour thereof, at which Siege the 5/'«»wr//j are faid* 
to have loft one hundred thoufandmen. After the Town was yielde^> 
up, there appeared nothing but a mifliapen Chaos of Earth. Trenches- 
filled up, Curtains beat down, Bulwarks torn in pieces. 

Lille, Gal. Vljle. heel. RyJJel, or Tor IJf el, uipon Dole, the Capital; 
of Walloon- Flanders, is one of the belt \i\.ihQ Low-Countries, by reafon 
of its Wealth and Strength,.. " 


' t 



Of the SpMnifi NetMthds. 

Tourney^ Tontacum, & Dornick^ Bfi^anum of Pt$t, Civit. TuntaeeV' 
fiHtn of Ant, an Ancient City ; is mr, great, f^rong, rich, and 
well-peopted: This was the firft Town chat fubbmicted to the 
King of Vravct^ after a formal Siege, who has fet up a Parlia- 
ment, and built a very ftrong Cittadel to fecure it. It is obferved 
of Toitrnayt that it was taken four feveral times upon St. Andrew's day. 
By Henry the Eighth, King of England. 2. By ^he Emperor 


Maximilian the Firft. 3. By the Emperor Charles the Fifth. 4. By 
the Duke of Parma, if 81. Yielded to the French, An,>i66j. Douay, 
or Duacum upon the Scatfe, is conHderable for its Extent^ Strength, 
Trade, and Seminary of £«^////j Roman-Catholicks. Anno i667.Tur- 
rendred to the fV^wcA after the ftiort Oppofition of three days. The 
Church of Nofiredam is about i2oo years old : It is a Staple of Corn, 
and honoured with an Univerdty. Oudenaerd, fcicuate upon the Scheldt 
is one of the faired Towns in this Province, both for Scituation and 
Trade, commanded by a high Hill, taken by the Fr^fjcifr, 1667. in left 
than 24 hours; altho it colt the Prince of P<»r»»<» two months. y^»»tf 
1682. reftored to the Dutch by the Nimeguen-T teaty: . ' iv* -i .r 

Courtray, feated upon the Lis, is a Hold of great importance^ and 
well fortified by the French , who took it a^er a fli(JI"t Siege, An, 
1667. The Inhabitants are excellent at Diapering of Linnen. 

Dunkirk, Duneiuerca^ or Duinkirk, faid to be built about the year ' 
966. It is one or the Five Ports of Flanders, once confiderable for its 
Herring-Filliing, more for its Privateering. , . 

Anno in?* C'mrles the Vth. built a Fortrefs here; Anno iff 8. it 
was raJien and burnt by the French. Anno if 83. it was fuprized by 
Chamois , who commanded a Regiment in the Town ; not long after 
it was yielded up to the Prince of Parma, having endured all the 
Extremities of a Sipge. Anno i f 90. Prince Maurice endeavoured in 
vain to furprife it by Scalado. Anno 1647. it was after a troublefbme 
Siege taken by the Prince of Conde, with a great iofs of men, and 
the Expenceof feme £w^A/fe Blood. In Augufi, i6f2 it was be- 
fieged by Ach-Duke Leopold , and being difappointed of Relief by 
means of the Engli(h^ it furrendred. In the year i6f7 Cromwell 
having entered into a League with France, the Engltfh took Montmedi, 
St. Vtnavt, and the iirong Fort of Mardyie, and invefted Dunkirk, 
tn i6f8. Don John of yiu/Irja came with an Army of 16000. Horfe 
and Foot to Relieve Dunkirk. ; bur after a brisk Encounter was defeat- the Engitlh alone. This Overthrow, followed prefently after 
bv the Iofs of the M^rquefs of Leda^ Governor of the City, (lain in 
a bold Saiiy, occaiioned the l^jeedy furrender of the Place, which ac- 



Of thi Spdnifi NeiherUnds, 





cording to Articles came into the hands of the Engltjtj, unMo retnain- 
ed till after the Reftoration of King Charles the II. when, for Rcafons 
not to be mentioned, fold to the French King. It's true none but the 
jnexhauftable Treafure of that Rich Monarch was able to fupply 
the conftanc Charge, and vaft Disburfemenrs requifite for the raifing 
the Fortifications, tlie Citadel, the Bafln for Ships, the Harbour or 
Mould of almoft a mile in length : Prodigious indeed hath been his 
Expences in finifhing thefe indefatigable aud f^upendious Works. 

I^resy by the Dutch Tpcren, Lat. Ipra^ has fo many Leaden Pipes for 
Channels and Conveyances of Water under ground, that it is faid the 
Foundations are of Lead : It is honoured with the Tide of a Vifcount^ 
and enjoys a Jurifdidlion of a large extent ; now polTefled by the 
French, and well Fortified ; diftant from Bruges 9, and from Gaunt 1 ; 

Winnocksberg or Winnoxhergerty Ijit, Mens SanBi Winoci , or Berguer 
S,Wtnnox, 7 Leagues from Dunkirky and 7 from Ipres; it owes its 
name to a noble Monaftry ereded upon a Hill in Honour of St. IVin- 
mc an Engliflt-min of wondeful Devotion and Piety. 'Tis now made 
^ery ftrong by the French. Between it and Dunkirk are two ftrong 
Forts well Fortified, the one called Fort'Lewu, the other the Spanipj 
Fort, kept by the French to procure the more Elbow-room for the 
GAX\{onoi Dunkirk. 

Veurne or Fumes, is diftant from Dunkirk 4, and from Dixmude 
5 Leagues ; a neat Town, in a very rich Soil ; it was the Refidence 
oi Lewis ih.t nth, of France, during his Retirement with Vhilip of 

Graveling, in the middle between Dunkirk and Calau, upon the 
mouth of the River Aa, which divides France from Flanders. It was 
fortified by Charles the \th An. 1^28. with five ftrong Baftions, and 
a Citadal ; it ftands in .1 low and plafliy Level, and is environed with 
fo many Outwarks and Ditches of Water, that it feems ftrange it 
fhould be yielded up in fo fliort a time to the Englifh und French in the 
year i6j8. 

Cajfels, or Kafel, Lat. Ka/letuw, originally C^/?ei7«?», feated upon the 
top of an high Hill. Neif* tins place have been fought Three memo- 
rable Battels, by Three P^i//>r, Generals on the French fide : The firlt 
advantagious to the Low-Couiirries by the evil face of I hilip the Fair. 
The fecond was fortunate to the French, through the Courage or good 
fortune of Philip of l^alois. The third was in /Ipril, Anno 1677'. be- 
tween the Prince of 0>-an^e^ and Pijilip Duke of Orkancc : The Dutch 
were 30000 fentto the Relief of St. Omers\ but after a hoc fight of 

. A a V three 








^ '..W^ 

*v '^°'.'^' 









IT 1^ -^ 



1.4 mil 1.6 


^///// A- 


















1% <^ t 







V«iHS"tl» M.r. 14580 
(/I6) 872-4503 









^78 ^ ^ , : Of iheSfdnlib N^herlanis, 

three hours, defeated by the French, wirh the Io(sof ;ooo flain upon 
thefpot, and as many taken Prifoners : The lofsof the Faencb was 
about 2000. 

Bruges f Lat. Brttga, fcituate in a large Plain about three Leagues from 

, the Sea, and four from OJlend, abouc four Italian miles in conipa^, 

and well fortified. The new ChanneiyCUt with vaft charge to the5/»^, 

is fecured by prodigious Turn- pikes from the rage of the Sea. The 

, Canal cut by Spinola between Bruges and Gaunty is eight Leagues in 

length, and guarded by about 200 Forts and Redoubts. The City is 

; exceeding neat and well built ;-in it are fevcn Parifh Churches, that 

of St. Johns \% the Cathedral, An. if ^9. fixty Religious Houfes, and: 

three Colleges of Canons. The Jefuits College deferves moft ad- 

, miration. The Market-place is very commodious, and of a plealant 

fciruation in the Center of fix principal Streets, running from as ma- 

' ny of the chief Gates. The Palace LaFranche is nobly adorned with 

the Piiftures and Statues of feveral Emperors, Kings, Arch-Dukes,c^tf. 

^ The Women of Brug?s are faid to excel both in Beauty and Bravery. 

-. Sluce, Slufity Lat, by fome Chufula^^ once an exceeding wealthy 

place, now its Fortifications and Scituation are fuch, as render it very 

ftrong; taken by the Prince of Parma, An. i y 86. Retaken by Prince 

: Mamke, 1604. It is the largeft Harbour in all Flanders, 

All the other olaces of Flandm are generally confiderable, either 
for their Beauty or for their Fortifications, for eminent Sieges or re- 
m^rkable Battels. 

The Soil is (b fertile, that the Low-Countriet, as the Natives (ay, 
would have produced as much Riches as the Indies, had all their Ter- 
ritories been as fruitful as thit of Fumes. Near Newport or Neoportus 
was fought that memorable Battel betwixt tlie Arch-Duke Albert, and 
the States, where, by the Valour of the Enghjh, and the excellent Con- 
dui5fc of thofe Noble and Gallant perfons, Sir Francis and Sir Horatitt 
Vere, the Vidory was gained for the Stares. 

The Province oi Arrets, in Lat, Artcfta & Artbcfia^ united to the 
Crown of Francehy the i^ynn.-ean Treaty, from which it was difmem- 
bred. It enjoys a miid and rcmperare Air, with a fertile Soil, produ- 
cing all forts of Grain and Fruit, efpecially Wheat in abundance. ■ 
Arras Galits^ Artnbantm, apttcj»is, Orifi^iicu?;^ Ptol. Afrecht Ger. Araz- 
%o, Italfg. The Cipiral City thereof conlifis of a High and Low Town, 
both very ftrong ; fince the late Conqucih of ihe Frevc ' King , the. 
River which belongs to it hns been mack Navjpablo for Vefl'dsto go 
hey ond Dowty. Hefdin, HejJinum, is a Regular, Hexagoii, by which 
the River waa Navigable as far as MontrtviL B^zpaulme, Bapalma, is a 

; - place 




Of tbeSpgmifb NeiherlsiUs. 179 

pJace that dinhot well be Befieged, becaufe there is no Water in all the 
Neighbourhood. Lew is famous for the Vidory of the jFrf»c/6 in the 
year 1648. where the Prince of Ligm, and the Ma rquefs- of Gr^ii^j 
were taken, with 20 Captains, 6/00 common So'diers, 40 Great 
Guns, and 90 Enfigns. ' Bet hut: e is fair and n:rong, and makes exceU 
Jeftt goodCheefe. And Terroane, Tervatma, Tirvin, is known by its 
Riiins; At the Siege whereof. An. iji; Maximilian the Emperoc> 
ferVed in Perfort under tfie Englijh Colours. St. OmetSy Auddmaro^olts 
df Fannum S-, AudornarL is 

a /hong City, furrounded with Mar/hes,; 

wherein there" are Floating Iflands. Itisf^iaced on the River ^f/, well 
fortified with Baftions, Half-moons, Ditches, &c. ItwasAnno i66j,, 
aifaulted by Monfieur, at the fame time that Cambray was by the King 
o^ Frame \ and the Prince oi Orange coming to its Relief, being de- 
feated near Cajfal, the Town was yielded up. In fliort, the Riches of 
the People, the Canal for Coiiimerce, the Abby of St. Bertift, and the 
Engliflj Seminary of Jefuits, have rendred it a place of no common 
fame throughout all £«rof>^. ;.:.;: o.. ' ,; ^ . », i 

Aire, or Arkn, Lat. Aria, upon the Lie River, is a very ftrong 
place, being environed on three fides by a Moorilh Level, and forti- 
fied with good Ditches, Baftions , Half-moons , Redoubts , Horn- 
works, Counterfcarps, &c. on the other fide it is defendej3 with the 
ftrong Fort of St. Jawes^ or St. Francis ; in July 16^6, befieged by the 
MarefchaWc /iiMwwrw, and fur rend red. - 

Haynadt, Hannoniay by the Dutch Hemgow^ or Hdirgow, according to 
the Report of the Inhabitants, aud'the Records of the Province, ac- 
knowledgeth onTyGo^and the 5«» for their Supreme Lords; how- 
ever it has fince had other LoJds. 

Monsy called alfo Monies, and Ber^hen, the Capital City of Hemgow, 
and one of the principal Cities in the Sfamfh Provinces; wonderful 
ftrong by its Scituation, the Counrrey round about being eafily over- 
flowed. It is alfo very well fortified with all manner of Works. Con- 
cerning the Surprifalof it, Anno ipz. by means of twelve Soldiers 
pretending to be Wine- Merchants, obtained the Keys of the City,and 
fo let in fome Forces of Horfe and Foot, under Lewis of NaJJat*, bro- 
ther to the Prince of Orange ; fee Meter an^ lib. 4. and Mmrfm, lib. ;. 
Rerum Belgic, As for the Attempt upon the Fnrrh Camp, in 1678, 
near Mons, by the Prince of Orange'i Guirds, and the Ergl>(h, under 
that excellent Soldier and Valiant Earl of OJ/dry, deferves a far better 
Pen than mine to deliver it to Pofterity in a p-jculiat n>,^nner, and 
among the greatftft and moft glorious Adions of this prelcnt Age. 
Kofooner was Mom in veiled, A»» 1691. but rhe King oi France av- 

A a 2 rived 


N ^ 




1 Jo 

Of fheSpd^lb'NeihertMUb 



rived ill the Camp, the 21/? of March. The befieged all along vlgo- 

7 ronfly defended themfelves; but on the 8>A of ^/>r;/, the Burgbtrs^ 

. fpurred on by the Ecdefiafticks, and difcouraged by the Ruin of their 

Churches and Houfes, forced the Governor to Capitulate j and upon 

' the9r^. the JF>ewi6 took polTeflion of the Gate of Barramont, and on the 

lotb. the Garifon marched out to the number of 2400 men, and ^Sa 

Officers. The French put into the Town a Garifon of 4000 Horfeand 

1 0000 Foot. 'Tis reckon 'd that the Siege coft France leveral Millions^ 

. and above yooo men* 

-'This County x)f Hamault contains four Principalities, Barhancon^ 
Cbimaif Condty aftd Ligne^ three Marquifates, AiJaux,Terkn, Vergniesl 
and If Counts, 22 Baronies, 26 Abbies, 12 Signiories, 24 Fortified 
ToWns, and 9^0 pleafant and rich Villages. The Eftate is ancient, 

^ being fotlietimes a par< of the great Earldom of jirdenne, from which 
it was divided and made a diftind^ Earldom by y^/^er/c/^ Sirnamed the 
Or^htUnty one of the youngeft Sons of Brunulph Count of ArJenne, 
flain by Dagobert sl fWwcAKing, who had this part, with Title of Earl, 
. given him by Sigebert King of Aufra/ia to be held under the Sove- 
raignty of the French Kings. After long continuance and often 
changes, it was by Jaefueline the laft Princefs ( wanting Heirs), fur- 
rendred ( together with Holland, Zealand, and Wefi'Friefiand, united 
in Families ) unto Vhili^ the Good, Duke of Burgundy, her next Kint- 
man, in whofe Houfe the Right ( but the Poffeffion in the French 

'. King) now remaineth, at leaft the greateft part. Valendenncesy 
Vslentiana^ is a great , fair^ and well fortified place, taken by 
the Ftench, 1677. lying upon the Scheld. Quercetum, Quefnoy, Land^ 
decium, Landrecy ; Avenna, Avefnes\ PbilippeviUa, PhilipvilU^ and Ma- 
rhnburgh, Mariahurgum^ are ftrong places, all in the French King's 
Power ; together with Blnchy Binchium ; Marimont, not far from it, 
was one of the faireft Houles in all the Countrey, Mary Queen of 
Hungary having omitted nothing that might adorn the StruAure. The 
Battel of Senef, 1674. was one of the moft remarkable Exploits of 
that exquifite General the Prince of Conde, 

Luxemburgenfis Ducatm. The "Dntchy of Luxemburg. It wasfome- 
timcs a part otthe Principality of Ardeume. By the Emperor Charles 
ihf fourth made a Dukedom in the perfon of his Brother fFeneJlaus, 
By Elizabeth the laft Princefs, wanting Heirs, it was fold to Philhp^thQ 
Good Duke of Burgo'my, This Province contains in Circuit about 70 
Leagues, or 200 Italian miles; comprehends 20 Wall'd and Forti- 
fied Towns, and betwteen n or 12 hundred Boroughs or Villages. Its^ 
chief City is Lutzenburgfiv luxemburn, in Lat.Lutz>enburgum,orLuxenbur' 
_ gum. 

Of rhiifM^NikhitlM^^^^ lifi 

gmny& Ijueemhitrgum, (b called &OBi tht Image of the Sun there 
worshipped ; from whenc^ Tome wi^rh^ve it originally called Lucif" ; 
hurgum. Gu'wiardin and others think it to be iht- Augufta RomandwH 
rtm of ?toU It is commodioufly leated on a Hill, ftrottg and well for- 
tified, but has fuffered much by *hQ Injuries of War. It was taken 
and plundered by the Vrmcl^ under the Command of the Duke of 
Orleanct, An. 1^4*. As alfothe year following by the fame Enemy. 
jimo i$^2» the whole Councfby was laid dek»late by the Army of 
Jiawjf the 2d. oi France y led 'into Germany againft Charles lh& $tb. Nor 
wasic ever more barbarouftypilliged and harafs'd, than by the Frencb 
in Jaljf and Auguft^ An. 1673. And in An- 1674. the City was be- 
fieged, and furrendred to the Fr«»c^. 

Arlm, or Arlmmft, fo called from Ara Luna ; it retains the Titleof 
a Marquifate; ' 

TheDutchy of A/o/e//e lies along the Courfe bf that River, between 
Metz, and Triers^ is now '.inder feveral Lords and Matters. 

The Principality of y4r</w»w is very Ancient, faid to have been 
erefted in the time of the Merovifigii, the firft Royal Family of the 
Franks; and to have been governed by feveral brave Princes defcend- 
ed from Ckdion thefecond Monarch of chat Nation. 

The Earldom of Chyny'n of an ample. Jurifdidion over feveral 
Towns and Villages. 

The Earldom of Roujjy, formerly called St. ?aul,' of which little 

La Rocbe.en Arderme^ gives Title to an Earldom, made fuch by the 
Ancient Kings of Fr<a»ff, and formerly comnrehended divers Lord- 
fhips. Durhuy gives Tide to an Earldom. Marville is the Capital 
Town of aLordihip. Vianden, Vienneny & Vientbal, fuppofed to be 
fo called from an Ancient Caftle ereded by the Vandalh about the year 
885, and by them called VandeUn ; It gives Title to an Earldom which 
did belong to the Family oi Orange. 

Bafionac, NeufCbatcau, St. Vit. Mars-en famenne, or Marche enfamine, 
are fmall Towns, fome with Caftles, and fome without Walls. ^ ' " 

Theonville, Theonis Vtlla, or Tbeanvilla^ by the Dutch Ditdcnboven I Lewis 
the I4fi6 of France was not much advanced in the Fifth year of his 
Age, ere he began to Triumph over his Enemies at the memorable 
Battel of /Jofroy, 1643, and the gaining 7)&to«W/f by the Condud: 
of the Duke Z>' Anguen. Mommedif Mens mediw. Danvilliers, Damu- 
illerium, belong to the French King : And Tkoix Ttio>i,um, by the French 
Carigan. There are Ibme Lands in the Foreft oi Arden tbar ^pt* nc -o 
the Biftiop of Liege \ that is to fay^ Bovillion, Bullionnm, witU 




0/ the SpdMifi NpherUuJi. 



of a Dfirc£|r, and a (^png Cattle upoh the. Rock or high Hilt, whcrccf 
was named rhar famous G<k//«;| of JSoW/w, Duke of £flr<*i«, and the firft 
of the L4fi»/, Ki^g of Je^-w/i/c^. St. H«^«rf, towhom theHuntfmen 
make particular §evotions; And J^echtfort, that beheld the Frencifr 
\ViAors over the Spaniards at the Battel of Avin in the year 1 63 y. 
V Brabant, Brabantia, or BracblanJ, h a negleded or uncultivated 
Soil; but the Art and Ii^duftry of the Brabanttnes and Flemmings have 
now not OiHly altered but improved their barren Lands, by fowingof 
Flax, one Acre whereof is worth about 40 or fo /. After the Flax 
ispuird off, they eithe^fow the fame Land with Oats^ and upon them 
Clover- grafs feed, only Harrowing it with bufhes; which Grafs, 
after the Oats are mowed, yields a very great Pafture, and is cut three 
times in a year, and continues good for four or five years together ; 
or elfe after the Flax, they fow Rye and Turnips j what Turnips 
they do not fell, they give to their Cattel, beating the Roots and 
Leaves ( well-waih'd ) together, and then boy ling them in water, 
which makes their Cattel not only fat, but to yeild a greater quantity 
of Milk. They alfo convert their heathy Land into Hop-Grounds, 
Orchards, and Nurferies for Pear, Apple, Cherry, and Walnut-Trees 5 
and alfo Oaks, Afhes, and Elms; whereby they make a vaft advan- 
tage by their Linnen, Paper and Oyl, which with the help of their 
Windmills they prefs out of the Seeds of their Flax and Turnips, i 
lliall here only add to the Reproach of our own Sloth and Negligence, 
what hath been credibly reported. That there was no lefs than 
looooo /. worth of Flax yearly brought into England from Foreign 
Countries. But enough, and perhaps too much upon this Subjedt. 
The States of Brabant confift of, i. The Ecclefiafticks, or Abbots. 
2. The Nobles, viz. Dukes, Marquefles, &e, 3. The Deputies of the 
chief Cities, [t is divided into four Quarters, called Tetrarchies, 
and diftingu'fliedby the Names of their four principal Cities, Bruffils, 
Lovaine, Antwerp^ and Boijleduc, BruJ/els, or Bruxella, is a City very 
well peopled, the Seat of the Governor, in whofe Palace is room 
enough to lodge feveral Kings. 

The Number 7 is obfervable in many things belonging to this City : 
viz,. 7 publick Fountains ; 7 principal Streets leading to die great 
Market-place, about which ftands 7*ftately Houfes ; here are al{b7 Pa- 
xifli Churches, 7 Noble Families ; 7 Licenfcd and Sworn Midwives, 
7 Gates of Doric Work, each leading to a different Pleafureor Ex- 
ercife: The l,0»x'<ii» Gate tQ Fowling, the Algidonjontana Gate toFifli^ 
ing, the Anderlecbt to pleafant Fields, the Flandrian to Pafture Grounds, 
thzLakenQdXQ to Springs and Vineyards, the Meeblin to Gardens; 






' . ■ • ' • 

OfthiSfMH^NeiherlMs. t%y 

here was alfo at one time 7 Crowned Heads. The Church of St.G»- 
diik is. one of the faireft in all the Country. The Palace feated upon 
a Hill, is a moft magnificent and (lately piece of Building ; adjoining 
to which is a large fpace of Ground enclofed with a Wall, containing 
in it whatever can be fubfervient to the Pleafures and Diverfron of a 
Prince ■, as Grotto's, Ponds , Water-works, Gardens, Walks, and- 
places appropriated to different and particular forts of PwCcreation. The 
Senate-houfe is a noble Pile of Building. The Tower is adorned with 
a Brafs Statue of St. Michael the Titular Angel of this City. The Pa- 
lacesof the Nobility are magnificent, the Houfes of the Citizens (lately 
and fine. The Eccho is admirable, refle(5ting the voice i ^ times .* 
about three Leagues from it (lands the ample and famous Abby of /^/** 

The Channel that runs to jintwerp is one of the greateft Undertake- 
ings \n\\it Lovf-CountrieSf wherein there are pr<>digious Sluces; for 
' the making whereof, Sums of Money, no le(s prodigious, were ex*^ 
pended. The Neighbourhood of the Foreft of Scgniei lies very con- 
venient for Hunting. 

LovaitiM Lovan'wm , which fome afHrm to be the Capital City of 
Brabant f is one. of the biggeft Cities of Europe, wich a famous Univer— 
(ity, which gives the Natives occaHon to call it a City of Scho- 
lars ; BruJJ'elsf a City of Courtefans ; Antwerp, a City of Merchants;; 
and Malims, a City of Advocates, by reafon of its Parliaments. It 
is pleafantly feated upon the River DeU'^ it contains 11 Market-places,. 
12 Principal Streets, 140 LefTer; 14 Mills, 16 Bridges, and 4 Foun- 
tains for publick ufe. About the Year 1 1^0 are faid to have< 
leaft 40000 AVeavers Shops, upon each of which at leaft ;o or 40 
feveral perfbns depended for work and livelihood ; the Hall or Stadt- 
Houfe is large and coftly, adorned with variety of Figures of the mo(l » 
curious Wormanfhip; the Caflleis feated on rhe top of a Hill, fur- 
rounded with Vineyards and pleafant Gardens, and a healthy Air. 
Half an hours J,ouiny from Lcuvain Hands a Palace of the Duke of 
Arejchoty e way leading thereunto is Wonderfully rare ; but the 
Houfefor magnificence, pleafure, and convenience, has perhaps not: 
many Rivals in Europe, Other kflfcr Townsin the Quarter ofLouvain 
are Ttonen ovTtlmont, Lat, lbana\ In the Year 167^. much ruined by 
the Frrncb. S. TruytHj XfV St. Trou, La', CtntrvneSyii^ Walls were de- 
molilhcd, and its Gates blown up by the Fnticb. Strong Leave, Lat,. 
Lfva, upon the R.Oreet. Diefr, or Dujih im^ upon tie R. Demer.givcs. 
title ro A Barony, now appertaining co the i^dnce of Orange. Ctm^ 
bkitrsy Gemblacum Lat, feated upon the fteep of aii Hill, envi» 



^'■■'^«rw«Mt9IMWI»- , 


OftbiSfatfifb Netherlands^' 



rone^l by Precipices and deep Vallies. Haltn, tat. Hala, Siflen^ 
yudoigne or GeUernac. Hannuje^ & Landen, are pretty confiderable 

V Tillemont was taken by force in the Year 165^. by the F««<:/& and 
Hollandors. Niville is made remarkable by her Religious Covent of 
42 Nuns, who muft be not only Virgins and Legitimate, but both by 
Father and Mother of Noble Extradion for four Defcenti: for the fine 
Linncn-cloth made there ; and for the fair High- ways round about ir. 
Vtlvorden upon the River 5/«w, glories in an ancient Cgftle, th^Gran^J 
Repofitory of the Records of Brabant. ^ • .^ • ; ; ^ >rty;. 

, Senef^ a fmall Village, is lately memorable for the Battel fought be- 
tween the Duteb^ Confederate with 5^«/», the Empire, and the For<;es 
oi France, Ann. 1674. \ ■ . ^..- '.^'.^ 

^ Marquifate of the Empire derives 'its Name from its Scituation, lying 
upon the AncientBoundsof Fr<«»w,and theEmpire,and whitherthe Em- 
perors were wont to fend Governors, which they called Marqueffes, 
There is only theCity of y^wrjffrf in \tiAtuacutum& Aduatacumjou 5er- 
canOjAndoverpum at, Antuerphy Antwerpen incolif, Antwerp Anglts, Anveres 
'Hifp. Anvers Gal, Antorf Germ. Anverfa Italpr. Qne of the faireft and 
moft pieafant Cities in all the Low^Countfies; for which ReafotijCj^^r/^i 
the Firlt called it his Holy-day City : The Importance of theSckuati- 
on hath caufed it to be ftrongly fortified with ten great Baftions, and 
one of the Itrongeft Citadels in Europe ; flank'd with five great Baftions 
lined with Brick and Free-ftone. This Citadel was built towards 
the higheft part of the River, that it might.commanc^ the City, anlJ 
be fuccoured from that part of the Country which was fubjed to its 
Prince. The Duke oiAha who built the Citadal, caufed his Statue 
to befet up, which was afterwards taken down. The Jefuits in Ant- 
werp have a Church built all of Marble, which is faid to be the faireft 
which they have in the World. The Church dedicated to the BleflTed 
Virgin is a very magnificent Structure, in whichare 66 Chappels and 
Altars curioufly built, and fumptuoufly adorn'd with Statues and Pi- 
dures. One or the Towers adjoining to this Church is faid to be 420 
foot high, befides its top or Cover, which is y foot, and a Crofs up- 
on that 16 foot more. As to its Trade and number of Inhabitants, 
the Year if 68. may be accounted its grand Clima^eric. Then it was 
that 2JOO Ships werefeen together upon the Scheld, and 400 Veflels 
obierved to come up with the fame Tide. That 200 Waggons arri- 
ved every day laden with Paflengers, and loooo Country Carts em- 
ployed ill a day in the carriage and conveyance of Goods ; and 5*00 

. . Coaches 

,i» .' 



Of the SpAHifi NetherUtiis. 


Coaches trolling about for the Eafe and DiverHon of the Richer fort. 
Then it was that they numbred 200000 Inhabitants^ and flourilhed 
exceedingly in all forts of Commerce. 

Breda, 8 Leagues diftant from Antijerp^ is confiderable for its bignefs, 
well builtj and populous, and of Great ftrength. The Lordihip of ic 
belongs to the Prince of Orange, who has a Cattle and fair Palace m 
the Town^urprifed and taken by the SpaniafJs, Ann. if 81. recovered 
by a Stratagem of 80 Soldiers hid under a quantity of Turf in a Boat 
in the Year 1^90. Its Siege, which latted nigh a whole year, was 
very remarkable ; but all hopes of Relief at length vanifliing, it was 
furrendred to the5;>/f»/Wiatthe end oiMay, 162J. yet in^». 1657. 
by the indefatigable Valour^ and excellent Condudiof Prince Frederic^ 
ic was put into the pofTeillion of the Umud Provinces. 

The Fort Lillo, fcituate upon the Scbeld, three Leagues from Antm 
v^erpf is in the pofTeflion of :he States^ under whom it hath been gra- 
dually augmented to the bigneG of a fmall Town. Oppoflteto which 
is the Fort Uefkenjhoeck, both which being repolTefs'd, and its Fortifi- 
cations rebuilt by the Dutch, is a great Curb to the Trade of Antwerp, 
all Veifels being conttantly fearch'd which pafs to or from that 

Lire, Lira Lat, is a neat and pleafantly feated Town, therefore the 
Retirement of Perfons of Quality and Merchants, whom a happy 
temper of mind has blefs'd no lefs with Content, than Fortune with 
Riches. Herentah is a ftrong place. Hoogfiraten hath the Title of an 
Earldom. Bergen Op Zoom Lat. Bcr^a adZonam, raifed to the Dignity 
of a Marquifate by Charles the Fifth ; it is a ftrong and well fortified 
place, the Buildings fair and handfome, the Church of St. Lumbers, 
and the Marquifs s Palace are worthy of commendation. 

Soon after the violating of the Pacification of Gaunt, it was deliver- 
ed into the hands of the States: khowt the year if 88, befieged in 
vain by the Prince of ?arma,\iz\ng ftoudy defended by the Evghfli un- 
der Drury and Morgan. Ann. 1622. it was in vain befieged by Spinola ; 
never was place morefurioufly aflauked, and feldom any mote coura- 
gioufly defended. 

By the Peace of Mwip^/j^w concluded /4»». 1678. the Marquifate of 
Bergen Opzoom, with its Appendences, &c. as alfo all Plights, Adions, 
Privileges. &c. was redored to the Earl of Auvergm, one of the French 
King's chief Commanders. Steenbergen, not far from the Sea, poffef- 
fedby the Spaniards in Ann. 1622. but after theraifingof the Siege of 
Bergen Opzoom, it was retaken by Prince Mmriccj afterwards ftrength- 

B b ned 




■ .]>■- 



0/ the SpMtlb Netherldndis 

ned with new Ramparts and Bulwarks^ and with divers new Forts 
and Redoubts. '*•* 

Santulit, a large Fortrefs, defigned to have been built with 7 great 
Bulwarks, and other Works ; but a Fire, and the violent Inunda- 
tions of the ScbeUf were excipeding prejudicial to the Spanijlt Purpofes 
and Endeavours. 

The City of Boit-Ie-Ducj by the Frencb Bolducy in Latin Stlva Ducts 
iHf Bttfcum Ducts y in Dutch Hertogen Bofcby gives denomination to the 
fourth and laft Quarter of Brabant ; feveral Canals run tjhrough this 
City, over which lies y i Stone Bridges, and ; 8 Wooden ohes. The 
City is feated upon a Hill in the midft of a Fenay Level, bf> great ex- 
tent, well fortified with a ftrong Wall, a deep and broad 15itch,0out 
Bulwarks and Ramparts, and all other Works, as the Ingenuity and 
Experience of Modern Engineers could invent, to render a Town, fo 
commodioufly fcituated as this is, little lefs than impregnable. After 
'Ithc taking of Maefiricbt, Ann. 1 5:79. it fell into the hands of the 
Prince oXVarma, Ann. 1601. it was befieged by Prince Maurice jbut 
relieved by Arch- Duke filbert. But in the Year 1629. it was, after a 
tedious and difficult Siege, yielded up to Henry Frederic Prince of 
Orange, Begirt by the French, Ann. 1672. but the King's unexpecfied 
Departure k>t France, Turtnne quitted the Siege, and marched higher 
into the Country. 

Bois'le-duc has a large Jurifdi6lion, comprehending Lampin, Peland, 
Maefiand; the D\Rr\6toi Ofierufjck, and the Towns of Helmont, Eind- 
hpven, Megen, Ravefiein, and Grave. Helmont is watered by the River 
j4a, it gave uirth to Andreas Helmondanus, as the adjoining Village 
jBreeck to Geropitts Becanus. Eindbo-ven is a little walled Town upon the 
DomnT'l. Megen gives title to an Earldom. Raveftine is defended by 
a good Cafilc, Gra've is a place of great Concern, the Vt'mcQ oiOrjinge 
is Lord of it. This City is head of the fmall Earldom oi Cuyck, it 
commands a confiderable Pafs upon the Maes, and is very ftrongly for- 
tified. In the Year 15-86. it was furrendred to the Prince oi Parma 
by the Cowardife of the Governour, who therefore loft hi? Head. In 
Ann. 1602. it wasaftera Siege of two months by Prince Maurice, rC' 
duced under the Obedience of the Confederate 5/<zrf/, until the Year 
1672. when it was taken by the French, the Garifon deferting the 
place upon the approach of 40 or 70 of the Enemies Horfe : By the 
Fre7tch it was more ftrongly fortified, and -made their Store-Houfe. 
But Ann. 1675'. the D«rc^, after a clofe Siege of 3 or 4 Months, 
carried on with moft furious and continued AQaults, it was yield- 

ed up. 





Of theSfsnifi Netheridtfds: '^ j2j 

* • ' 

Mtehlin or Malines is the Reddence of the Parliament of the Cathc 
lick Vrovinces of the King of Sfain, Her Territories are very fmall, 
conilfting of about nine Villages, yet making one of the 17 Provinccsur 
Mechlin enjoys a very healthy and temperate Air, the Kxvcr Dele runs 
through cne midfl of it, dividing the City into divers Iflands, united 
by a great number of Bridges, the Tide flows up the River about a 
League above the City ; it is well fortified, and may be laid under 
Water. GnicciarMn tells us of a dreadful Tempeft whith happen'd 
herein the Month of ^ugufiy i ^46. in which the Lightning gave fire 
to 2000 Barrels of Powder in a Tower near the SanJpjrtl; afevere 
and lamentable Providence ! It is reported, That the Women of Ma- 
lines, when they are ready toLyd-in, go into Brabant tobQ brought to 
Bed, to the end their Children may enjoy the Privileges of the Bra- 
^<«w</tfn, which are very great and advantagious, granted by the eracs 
and favour of feveral Emperors, and by the goodnefs and condeTcen- 
tion of their proper Princes. There is alfo in Brabant the Dukedom 
of Jrjcbot, and the Earldom of Hooch firaten. The whole Country is 
faid to contain 80 German miles incompafs, 26 Tc 'ns f^rongly forti- 
fied both by Art and Nature; and 17 other which enjoy great Privi- 
leges. The Inhabitants have been accounted a Warlike People, but 
none of the wifeft ) of whom Erafmus's Proverb was, Brabanti quo 
magis fenefcunt eo rnagis fiultefiunt. 

Namur, Namurcum, is a Town of confequence, by reafon of the 
paiTage over the Mettfe, in that part where the Sawbre falls into her. 
Marble, Slate, and Sea-coal are thence tranfported. It was about 
the beginning of June, 1692. that the French having amafs'd iill their ' 
Forces together, that theyfet down before Namur, the Town quickly 
furrendred, but the New Fort and Caille made a vigorous defence ; 
which coil the French the lives of many men and Officers ; but being 
over-powered, on the ;o of June the Garilbn capitulated, and march- 
ed out. CbarleroyyCarolo'Regturn, upon the Sambre, is one of the belt 
Fortreffes of the Low-Countries, fmce it fell into the hands of the French, 
reftored by thj Treaty of Nimeguen to the Spaniards. 

Limburgh, Lemburgum, has only the Town of the (ame Name, which 
is of any Remark, with a (trpng Caftle upon a Rock, taken by the 
French King in the Year 1675". f^alkenburg, Falcoburgum, Lat. Faa(jue- 
ntont, and Dalem, two Earldoms, are a part of this Dutchy. Rolduc, 
Rode-Ie-Ducy by the Dutch, Hertogen Rode, is a little neat Town. Cam- 
fen is a fpacious Village, guarded with a ftrong Caflle. 

The Country of Liege belongs to its Bifhop, to whom the Inhabi- 
tants formerly gave the Title of Grace. He is eledled by the Chapter, 

B b 2 who 


■■i ,m wf »"KS 

,38 Of thiS^fiimJb NetherUnis. . 

who formerly refided at Tongres, or Tongenn, Civitas Tungrorum Vtol, 
& Advatiua Tongrorum. Here flourifhed in iht timcof the Romans^Atx 
ancient Bifhop's See, after the Invafion and fpoil by yitttUs and the 
Hims, by whom the Town was facked and deftroyed in the Year 498. 
it was removed by St. Sat^tius to Mae[trtich\ afterwards in the Year 
71;. by St, Hubert it was removed to Luick or Liege, where now it 
refteih. The Bifhoprick is of a large extent, and has many places 
within the Limits of the Neighbouring Provinces. Leige^ LeodUum 
& LeoMum^ is a City of Trade j and as they fay, the Paradife of the 
Ecclefiafticks. It is Remarkable that in the Year 1151. there were 
among the Canons of the Cathedral Church, nine Sons of Kings, 
14 Sons of Dukes, 29 Sons of Earlsyand 7 Sons of Barons. The 
EleAor oiCologrtey Prince thereof, caufed aCittadel to be built there. 
The Cathedral of L«/^«beareth the Name of St. Lumbert, who was Bi- 
fljop of Maefiricb, murthered by D^Toy &c. about the Year 622. The 
Cittadel ftandeth upon a Hill, and is of great ftrength, built to keep 
the City in fubje£lion, fince the. Year 1649. Maefireich, for its Forti- 
fications, and the £imous Sieges which have been laid to it, in that 
of i<^73* cbe Englijh fignalized their Valour under the Condud'of 
the Duke of Monmouth. The Treaty of Nimeguen reftored it to tjae 
Dutch, who now poiTels it. The Quarry of Stone about a quarter of a 
mile from the Town, is one of the nobleft in the World, far furpaifing 
the Cave of Cuflozut or Cuhola, faid to be f 00 fathoms in breath, and 
700 in length. This is two miles in length under ground, high and 
irately, no Labyrinth can be contrived more intricate, and yec 
all parts uniform. Maefwick formerly was (aid to belong to the 
Duke oi BrabaM^ and Wtck, that was an Appurtenance to the Bi*> 
/hop of Leige*s Territories. • The Spa is a neat Village in the Foreft 
of Ardenna, feated in a bottom encompalTcd with Hills. A place 
which for the vertu? of its Mineral Springs is as famous as benefi- 
cial to Mankind. Maefireich, TrajeSium ad Mofam, is compoled of 
two Towns. 

Cambrefes, now almoft environed by the Territories of France. The 
City of Cambray , Cameracum, by tht Dutch Camerick'y has two good 
Cittadejs, the guard whereof was feldom committed to any other 
than Naftural Spaniards. There is a Sun-Dial of lingular Workman- 
fliip, wrought by a Shepherd : It is a Town, which in times of Peace 
yearly expofed to Sale above 60000 Pieces of fine Cloth. It was ta- 
ken by the French at the beginning of the Year 1677. though before, 
fhe Kings of Spain, ancontradiAed by the Emperor, d»d appropriate 
to thcmfelves the Temporal Jurifdidion of Cambray , as being of the 
-:: fame 



*„*• ■*"»*. •T'^V** 

Of the Spimfi Nethertknti9. i%^ 

fameNAtion; and the Archbifhops thereof in vain follicited for their 
re-cf)abli(hmenc. Thofe Prelates were called Archbiffiops, and Dukes 
o^Cambrayy Earls ofCamhrtfis, and Princes of the Holy Empire, tho 
generally they neither had Seat or Voice in their Diet. 

The Extent of thefe Provinces is but fmall, but it is one of the beft 
peopled, and richeft fpots of Ground in the World ; more wholfome 
than formerly ; toward Germany Hilly and Woody, as we have faid ;. 
but towards the Sea, generally fertile, and full of Paf^urage. The. 
Principal Rivers of the 17 Provinces, are the Rhine, the Meufe, and 
the ScbeU, The Rhine rifes in SwitzerUnJ, running cheifly through 
Germany, After it has divided it felf at Fort Scbenk, as it enters into 
the Loii/'Countriesy it mixes with feveral other 'Rivers, and lofeth its 
Namt in the Sand a little below Ley Jen in Holland. The Menfe, which 
falls out of France and Lorrain^ has this Advantage above the Rbinty 
that (he retains her Name, and preferves her Water> ^nmix'd tillflie^ 
fall into the Ocean, where (he makes feveral good Pc us. T\\QScheli 
was formerly the Limits between France and the Emphe, in the time 
^Charles the BalJ. At Gaunt y the Lis, a Na. liable River, falls into 
it; and befc. c v: wholly lofeth its Name, it divides its felf into two 
principal Arms ; of which, the Left, which they call the Hout ; and 
the Right, which flows to Tolen, falls into the Adeu/e. Befides thefe 
Rivers, and thofe that fall into them, there are Cuts, Channels and^ 
Marihes, which ferve the Inhabitants both for TrafhcH and De? 
fence. ' ..-r.; •■'•,:•.■"■.., • v?.'^.--,- 







■.V -T 

,^. Av;. 





',::.: iES-ia^ 


Of France. 

F Ranee Auglisy Frattcla Italis f^ Hifpanisy Fr^tickreicb Gn warns y AU 
franguaTurcisy GalliaCaf. Vlin. &c. The firft Inhabitahts oi France 
were the Ancient Gauls, who pafling the Alp, under the Condudl of 
Bellovefus, Conquered the neareft parts of Iral/, called Gallia Cifalpina ; 
and under that of Segovefas, over-run the greateft part oVGermauy. The 
fame Nation under the Command oi Bnvnus, difcomfitcdthe Romansy 



Of TrAmil " , 191 

attte River -^//w, facked the City, andbefieged the Capitol. Tbefe 
were the Men whoranlacked lllyricumy Pannonia, Thrace and Greece; 
and plundred the Temple of Delpbos : But at laft were totally fubdued 
by Julius Cafar, but not without much difficulty ; for they did not 
then fcK their Liberty at fo cheap a rate as other Nations did, 1 192000 
of themjbeing ^airt, before they would fubmit to the Roman Yoak ; by 
whom the Country was divided into four parts, viz, ^arbonenjtsy or 
ijr^c^if^, containing Languedoc, Dolphin, and part oi Savoy. 2 Aeiuita' 
tiica^ (from the City Jqua Augufka, now D* Actjue) comprehending 
Gafcoigfti Guienne, Saintonge, Limofiriy Querci, Verigart, Berry, Bourbon- 
Tiois SLM&Auvergne. 3. Ce/^/c<», containing he Provinces of Bretagnt, 
Normandy J Anjou, Tourain, Maine La Beaufe, the IJle of France, part of 
Campaigne, the Dukedom o^ Burgundy, and the County oi Lionoife, 4 Bel- 
gica, containing Picardy, the rertiainder of Champagne, Burgundy, and the 
Spdntfi Netherlands. Long it ftood not in this ftate j foratjout the Year 
400. Honorius being Emperor, the Goths, having over-run S^ain and 
Italy, (ent part of their Forces and^ fubdued Gallia Narbonenfis, calling 
it Langue de Goth, afterwards corruptly Languedoc. Then extending 
their Conqueft unto the River Ligeris, now Loir?, they founded a King- 
dom, the principal Seat whereof was at Thokufe. 

About the fame time, the Burgundiones, or Burgundians, a people 
that inhabited part of the Country of the CaJJubii, and part qf the 
Country of the Marquifateof Brandenburg, together with the Vandalls 
and Suetbes, feized upon other parts of France, and conftituted a King- 
dom called J5«r^«»^, comprehending both the County and Dutchy of 
Burgundy, the County of Lionoife, Dauphine, Savoy awA Provence ,*vlhQk 
chief City was Arelate, now Aries, 

About the fame time alfo, the Franks, a German Nation having 
pafledthe Rhine, feized upon the adjacent Territories of France, where 
founding a Monarchy (under their ftrft King Pbaramond, aUVaramon) 
gave it the Name of France. 

FranceViQs excellently compad together, between the moft Flouri(h- 
ing States of Chriftendom, and in themtddbof the Northern Tempe- 
rate Zone, where the Inhabitants breathe a moftferene and healthy 
Air. In (hort it is Rich, Fertile, and well peopled ; there being 
reckoned in it about 4000 good Towns and Cities. 

Its Length from Cilaisio Toulon \% about 620 miles, 75 to a degree^ 
the 1/readthfroMi Brefr to the Borders of Lorrain, or from Bame to hhce 
m ?iedmoht is not more than 492 miles. I well know all other Au- 
tliors falfely make it much more. Molt of her Cities are equal to PrO' 
vinces, and mcftcf her Provinces are equal to Kingdom?. 










Of Frsm* 

Her Cw», her Wme, her Salty her Lintien Cloth, her Paper, and (ere- 
ta\ Matiufahures, inrich the Inhabitants. 

The Limits a:nd Bounds of this Kingdom have been various ; at 
"prefent, £aith a French Geografher, the King's Cm^uefis cannot be bound- 
ed^notby the Rhine nor by ihc Ocean, nor by* the Vyreneans, nor by ^ 
xhtAlps. And thofe that are not altogether ilrangers to the world, 
will acknowledge, Thatof all the Kingdoms of Europe there are none 
but may be faid to be inferior to France in fome refped or other. The 
greatnefsof its TcrHtoricSj, the populoufnefs of it, the number of 
choirNobility andGehtryj tn6ir1natu(ral Courage^ with tfie advantage 
of their Military Anions, and Warlike Exercifes, the Scituation of 
their Countrey, the fruitfulnefs and riches of the Soil, the prodigi- 
ous quantity of all Commodities and Maunfadlures, and the great 
Kevenues of their Kings. Thefe Advantages have in all Age$ raifed ' 
in them afoiring thoughts of the Eredion of a new Weftem Empire. 
.And how far this prelent King has goneX by his Acquifitions oflate 
years ) the reft of th© Princes of Europe may confider of. 

The Kingdom is Hereditary, and by an ancient Conftitution as they 
pretend, caXXt^thQ Salique Law, never falls into a Female Succeffion. 
And by the Lavi^ of Apennages, the younger Sons of the King cannot 
have partage with^the Elder. The King's Eldeft Son is called the Dau- 
fbin. The Monarchy, which has ftood ever fince the year 420. hath 
been upheld by the three Royal Races, o£ Marovinian, Carolinian, and 
Capetine,m a Line of 6 J Kings. Pepin thethort, Son of C/&<iy/« Mar- 
r«/,depofed Xhilclerich>the laft of the Merovignian Line, the Pope appro- 
ving and confirnfting of it. 

About the year 918, Hugh Cape tJ^iX of Paris, outed the Caroline 
Family. Since this Capettne KacehSs gone in three Families; firftin 
a dire<5t Line till i;28. then in the Houfe of Valois, till Henry the 
Fourth, of the Houfe of J?tffc/^o», Anno I ^89. 

Among other TttUs, the King. hath that oi Mofi Chrifiian, and EUefi 
Son of the Church, beftowed upon him by the Pope. 

The Arms have been Three Flower-de-luces Azure, in a Field Or, 
ever fince Charles the Sixth. ■ ' \ 

The Chriftian Religion was here firft planted by Martizlis amlDng 
the Gauls; but among the Frenchby Remigius, in the time o\ Clevis the 
Gfeat. At prefcnt the people are divided, fome following the Roman, 
others tlie Reformed Religion, which have occafioned two feveral 
MaiTacres, viz,, that or. Merindol and Chabricres 1 5-45'. upon the Bor- 
ders of France and oavoy\ the other that at Paris, 1^12. anJ novBi 
this late PerieCution. 
'■^"■■'>.^v'- ■".- yh.. V ; . . . - The 



. c 6f ffdffct - 193 

' the. kingdom fecdmpdfe^ of three OrcJers or fefta^es j t^e CKergy, 
the Nobilitf, and Commons, there arc 16 Arehbifiops, 106 Bifhops, 
befides thole of /irras, Tournay y and Ttrplgnani 16 Abbot s,VUa^di oi 
Orders, or Congregations j about ^oooo Curate flips ^ tcfides ixiany 
other Ecclefiafiical Dignities : Several general and particular Govern- 
ments^ 12 Ancient Petrfiipsj and divers of nevir Creation ; a great num- 
ber of Principalities, Dukedoms , Marquifates, EarUoms, Baronies, and 
other Lordjhips : Eleven Varliaments^ eight Chambers of accounts, zz 
Generalities, ot TublickP laces of Receit of the King's Revenue. 

There are fow Principal Rivers; the 5«»<?, whofe Water is account- 
ed the ftrongeft in the world, and^ more wholfome to drink than 
Fountain- water. The Loire, King of the French Rivers; the Garonne, 
moft Navigable ; and the Rhone, or Rofiteg moft rapid. By others thus 
CharaiSeriwd 5 the teire the fweeteft, the Rhone thb fwifteft, the Ga- 
ronne the greateft, and the Seine the richeft* 

The Seine rifethih BuriunJy, watering Paris and Roane, disburthdAe. 
ing it felf into the £»g/'y» Channel. The Se^imna of Cafar. 

Theloyrerifeth about the Mountains of Mvergne, being the higheft 
in France, watering l<!antes and Orleance, and augmenting with 72 lefler • 
Rivers, mingleth its fweet Waters in the Bifcain or Oajcoigne Sea. Tho 
Ligeris of Cafar, , y 

The RJime, or Rhofne, fpringeth up about mree miles from the 
Head of thQ Rhine, Watering Lions, Avignon, &c, and taking in 13 
leffer Rivers, falleth into ihQ Mediterranean Sea tiQur Aries. The Rhoda^ 
nusoi Cajar. 

The Garonne, running from the Pjrenean Hills, glideth by the Walls 
of Bourdeauie and Tholouje, andjtyi th the a ddition of 16 other Rivers 
dilatesitfelf into the Aquitaits, no^ Btjcatn Ocean. The Garumna-of 

The Mountains by Ancient Authors were the Gf^^ww^i by Cafar, Cam- 
mani Pjro/.c^lr<i/. running along by Languedoc, Chevcnnes,and Auvergne, 
now les Sevennes. 

The Jura,Caf.Juraffm Ptol. which divideth the Frf»c/& County from 
Savoy and the Sviifes, now called by fevcral Names. 

The yogtfrn, almoft Encircling Lorrain, and dividing it from Alfatia 
and Burgundy ; novv Vauge Mens, 5CC. 

, There are feveral Divifions of France, which refpetSt the Church ; 
the Nobility, the Courts of Juftice, and the Finances. But it fuffices here 
to fay, That the general ftate of the Kingdom was held. An. 16 14, 
after the Majejly of Lewis th? XTTT*,^. and that then all the Provinces 
met under 12 great Gove.-*i.icnts , Four of thefe Governments lye to- 

C c ward 




Of Fun^. 

ward the Nor^h.upoti the 5^e^ and thoTe other lU^ers that fall into 
-it, o/ift. PiccaJjf Normandy y the Jjle of France, AtyStCbampagne. 

Towards the middle^ adjoiftihg to theLwr*^ Bretagne, Orknoife^ Bour- 
gognty Liofinoifi. The other four, toward the South, near the Garonne, 
viz, Gttienne, Languedocy Dauphitie, and Provence : Under the Orlenoife h 
comprehended Maine, Pcrche, and Beauce : On thfs fide of the Loire, JVi- 
'pernois, Touraine, and Jnjou ; above the faid River, beyond it, Toi^ou, 
j^ngoumou, and Berry. " ' . 

Burgundy hath Brejt^ : Under Lionnois are comprehended Lionnois, Au- 
-vergncj Bsurhonnis, and Marche: Under G«/>»«e is Bearne,Gafcoigne ind 
Guienne it felf, Saintoinge, Perigort, Limofm, Qutrci, and Rovergue : UR' 
6tr Languedoc \s Cevennes. • V , ^ -. 

In each of thefe Governments are feveral great Cities, the chief of 
which I (hall fpeak of in order, viz.. In Piccardy the Storehoufe of Paris . 
for Corn, is i. Calais, called by Cafar, Port us yecius ; Portus Britapnu- 
cus, Morinerum Plin. Prom.lcitm Ptol. held by the Englifj near. 200 
years, being taken by Edward the III</. after eleven months Siege, in 
1347. but unfortunately loft by Queen Mary, i^Sl' Seated oppofite 
to Dover in England, from whence it is diftant about Ten Leagues : A-. 
flrong Town of great importance, and accounted the Key of Fr^iwf . 
Not far 'from Calais, at a place-called Agincourt was the Flower of the 
French Nobility taken and flain by King Henry theFifrh oi England^ viz. 
5 Dukes, 8 Earls,, 2^ Lords, 8000 Knights and Gentlemen, and 
ijooo common Soldiers. 

2. BulloignjCeforiacum Navale Ptol. Portus Mdrinorum Plin. Civit. Boncm^ 
nenjium Ant. Portus Gejforiacus of Cafar \ a ftrong Frontier-Town, ta- 
ken by Henry the VIIIf-& of England, t ^44. at which time the Empe- 
ror Mximilian bore Arms under the Engliflj Crofs. > \ 

5; Amiens, Samarobrina Gaf. Samarobriga Ptol. Civit. Ambianenfts Ant. . 
■ a Walled Town, featcd upon the Seine; well fortified with an Impreg- 
nable Citadel, built by Henry thclVtL But moft famous for its Cathe- 
dral, fo beautified within, and adorned without, that "tis the faireft' 
and moft lovely Stru< the Weft of Europe. 

4. St. Quint in, Augufia Romanduorum Ptol. Civit'. Veromarmorum Ant. 
Quin^iim^olis & Fanum St. QuinBine in Script is Gall, two Leagues from 
Augufia y'eromanduorum, now l^erman^y Baud. Crecie, the French G<?»»<e,fa». 
mous for their great Overthrow, and the Vid^ory of the Englifljm the . 
Reign of Pi6////> the Sixth. A ftrong Frontier-Town, memorable for 
the Battel there. An. i^y?. where King PM/p XL oi Spain, with . 
the Englifh, under the Command of the EaFl of Pembroke, overthrew , 
tbe whole Forges of the..Frwc)&. 



. i, 




,. Of Frsftce, i(^ 

Laon, a Birtiop^s See, whofe Bifhop is one of the Twelve Peers of 

France, hauduvum Ant. 

Soijpmsf Au^ufata Veffomm Ptol. ^ Bifliop's See, the laft place the 
Romans held m Gaul, driven out by Clovis the Fifth. 

^..Guife, of moft Note for the Dukes of Guife, a Family that in a ' 
little time produced two Cardinals, and fix Dukes, befides many 
Daughters married into the beft Houfes of Fr<»»«. 

In T^iormandy, formerly Neafiriaj are, i. Roven, or Roariy RhoUrna- 
gtts, VtoL Rothomngusy Ant. feated on the Banks of the River Seine , 
over which there is a famous Bridge. Taken by Htnry the Fifth 
after fix Months Siege, where were famiihed foooo, and 1.2000 
Starvelings turned out of the Town. An Archbifliops See, and Par- 
liament. In the chief Church, called Nojire-Damey is the Sepulchre of 
•JoJjn Duke of BedfirJf. It is a place of as great a Trade as any in France, 
and'one of the prinapal Cities where Exchanges are ufed.. 

Diepa, or Diepey a City of fome Traide, being a common Landing- 
place for the Englifhy in their paflage into France. And is famous for 
its Fidelity and Allegiance to Henry tjie Fourth, when thfc Guijjian F^- 
; <aion in derifion called him King oi^Diepe. 

Fakciay or Falaifty once a ftrong Townj memorable for the Story 
of Arlettht Skinners -Daughter, of whom Puke Rohrt begat William 
'. the Conqueror; in fplght to whom, and difgrace to his Mother, the 
Englifl) call Whoresy Harlots. Here alfo- was the Rofd' Tuetot, and Fer- 
, »«//, whenbefiegedty Philip the Second of France. King RicBard the 
i Firft of England to keep his promife, broke through the Palace of 
/ Wefiminftery and raifed the Siege. Gifors is a ftronglR-ontier Town. 

Haver de. Grace, "Neivhaven by the Englt^y in Latiny Fravcifcopolis ; a 
Cautionary \flown to Queen Elizabeth, tortus Gratia of old. SeeZySa- 
gium & SaiuMy is a Bifhops Seat. 

Auranchcsy Ingena Ptol. Civit. Ahrincantnm Ant. ■ . ^ • 

Coutancesy Conftantia Ant. Cherbourgy Cajaris Burgum, a ftrong Sea- 
Ccaft Town. 

Cherbourg IVicky & LaHogusy ftill laments as well as acknowledges 
the P'"'ningof 14 or i) French Capital Ships by the Englifj, Anno 

Aumaky or Albemarle, Longmvilk, Alenfon, & Damville, gives the 
Title of Dukedoms. 

Bayeux, Cit. Bajocaffiuint Ant. Caen Cadomus, graced with an Uni- 
verfity founded by Ling Henry the Fifth, King of England, and the 
Abbey, with the Tombs of William the Conqueror, and ili<?«<^ his 

C c z Lyfeux 

■-■ > 




M* .. *■■" 




Of Fraf/ee, 

Lyfeifif Cit, Lexcvirum Ant, ^urtux MAlanum Vtol. &c. a BlHiops 
See, rich and flourifliing. 

The third Government is the Ifle of Francey whofe City is Taris, 
formerly Lutetia, becaufe feated in a Clayie Soil. A City that for 
its Richesj Power, and Number of Inhabitants, may contend with 
any in ^urofe\ Seated on the Seine, and on a Soil fo fertile, that no 
City knows fuchNPlenty; *tis Dignified with the Ordinary Refidence 
of the King, its chief Ornaments are the Palace of the Louvre^ (b 
much fam a abroad : The Palaces of the Nobility, viz,. That of Lux- 
tmburg, its Palace-Royal, its Church of Nofiredame, its Univerfity, 
containing five Colleges ; the Halls of Juftice, the Courts of Parlia- 
ment. The En^Iifh held it for 16 years, and there Crowned Jiing Hen- 
ry the Fifth King of France. 

In this Province, about three miles from Parity is feated St. r>«i«*r, 
Fantim S. Dionijii , famous for the Sepulchres of the French Kings : 
The Beautiful Houfe of Fountain-belle-eau, or Fons-bello-atjua, efteem< 
ed one of the faireft in Europe. As alfo the Royal Manfion of 
Sr. Qermain, feated on the Afcent of a Hill, feven miles from Paris^ 
down the Water. And Bois Je Vihcenms, in which Henry the Fifth end* 
ed his days. 

Senlis is the chief City of the Dukedom of Valoisy the Silna NeSfam 
of Ant. which gave name to the French Kings of the Second Branch 
of the Capets, which begun in Philip Galois, Anno 1528. In his Reign 
was fought the Battel of Crecie, Anno i;4;. where was flain John 
King of Bohemia. 11 Princes, 80 Barons, 120 Knights, ancfi^oooo 
common Soldiein^ 

la Cbampaigne, the chief City is Rheimes, Duroeortum of Ctef. Duro- 
cotorum Ptol Famous for being the place where the French Kings are 
commonly Crowned and Anointed : Therein alfo is Langres, Andoma- 
^ tunum of Ptol. the Seat of the Twelve Peers of France. Trois, the 
Augujlomania of Ptol^& Civitas Tricajfium of Ant. the meeting- place of 
€W« the Sixth, and Henry xhQ <^th. Kings of France ^na England, 
where the Vidorious King was efpoufed to Katherine Daughter to 
King Charles aforefaid. 

Bretagne, or Britany, of old Armorica, lb called from the Eritains, 
who flew thither in the time of the Saxons Tyranny over them in 
England. Formerly the Titles of the Earls of Richmond. Its Sea- Port 
Towns are Brf^, Vendenna Partus, feated upon a fpacious Bay, the Key, 
the Bulwark, and beft Harbour in France. St. Makes, Aletha & Mack^ 
wwwjbuilt on a Rock"; a ftrong, fair, and populous City, yet often 
fpoiled and damaged by the Englifh. Inland Towns are, l^ants. Con- 

. , divincum 





Of JFrMffet. 

Jivincum TtoL Cit. Natnmtum Ant. (bated oh the Banks of the Z^j'rr; 
and Renmsi Condate of Vtol Cit, Rodanum Ant. the Parliament-City 
for this County. Cannes, Dariorigum Vtol. Cit. Venetmn Ant, (fcituatc 
on a capacious Bay ) the chief Town of the Old Veneti. Quimper 
Corentin, Cmjopitum Ant. S. Brieux, Briocum. Dol, Dolts. Treguier, Tre" 
corium, ohm OJifmi, S, Tol de Leon, Leona, are Bifhopricks. Morlaix, 
Mont RelaxuSf Port Ij)uis, Blauet, are well frequented Ports. - 

The Government oTOrUance comprehends Maine, Perch, Beauce, JNil- 
vemoisy Tonraine, Anjou ; ones the Title of Henry the Second, King of 
England, and Earl of Anjou, Its chief Cities are, - ' . 

I. Orleancej of old, Gennahum of C4ef, & Strah, Cenahum Vtol Att- 
relia. Its pleafant Scituation on the Loire makes it very beautiful and 
delightful. Once the Seat- Royal of its own Kings, now the Title of 
the Second Son o£ France, It long felt the force of an Englijh Siege, 
where died Great Montacute Earle of Salisbury, On the chief Bridge 
of this City is the Statue of Joan the PuceUe d« Dieu, or M^id, fo al- 
fiftant to the French in repelling the Engltfh, and raifing the Siege of 
Orleance, May the iitb, 1429. Burnt alive by the Englijh, An. 14; i. 
after which time the Affairs of the Englijh grew worfe and worfe ; 
for in An. 145 J. Charles the Burgundian fell off; and in 14 n* '^'*H^ot, 
a man of great Valour and ConduA, was flain ; and nothing was 
left to the EngltjhhMt Caltce, of all that the Efigltf) had got in two and 
forty years. 

z. Mans, (Cit. Cenomannorum by Antonius j by Ptol. Vidinum.) 
Vendofme, which gave name to Antonio, Father to Henry the Fourth. 

5. Chartres^Carnutum Ant. Ptol. Atttricum^ feated on the Loire ^ a 
fair and pleafant City, dignified with an Univerfuy for the Study of 
the Civil Law. 

4. Nevers, Noviodunum, Cafar. Nivernum al. Nivernium Ant. upon the 
Loire, dignified with an Ancient Dukedom. 

y. Tours, Cafarodunum Ptol. Turonum Ant. whers the Proteftants are 
faid firft to have begun in France ^ and were called Hugonots : Nigh to 
this place it was, that Charles Martel, Father of King Pc;>w, in An. 73 2. 
difcomfited an Army of about 400000 Saracens, of which were flain 
near 570000. 

£/o;j,pleafanily feated^and in a good Air; where the Duke of Guife, 
the firft mover of the Civil Wars, and contriver of theMaflacre at 
Paris, was flain by the command of Henry the Third. 

6, Angiers, by Ptolomy called Juliujmagus, Ande^lavttm Ant. of a 
large Circuit, well built, feated in a good Air, and made an Uni* 


'\ ■ ~ ' ■ ■■■ - ' . ■ ■'■... . 







vcrfity. Beatifarty belonging to the Duke of Lancafier, nigh which 
Town was the Duke oi Clarence, firother to Henry the Fifth, flain. 

7. ToiSiiers, by Ptol. Augu/^orifum, Civ, Pt^avorum Ant. an Univerfi- 
•ty, famous for the ftudy of the Civil Law, and for Grcatnefs faid to 
be next to Paris, In the Vine-fields, two Leagues from the City, was 
fought that memorable Battel between John of France, and Edward 
the Son of King Edward the III</. firnamed the Black Prince, who with 
8000 mm overcame the French Army of 40000, whereof loooo 
were flain, befides Nobles ; Prifoners taken were, King John, and [lis 
Son Philip, 70 Earls, yo Barons, and about 12000 Gentlemen. 

8. Rochel, feated on the Jquitain Ocean ; a place of great Trade, 
and of greater ftrength, before it was difmantled 1 627. witnefs its 
many Sieges ; An. 1^70, by Jarvil. Anno i5'73, by Byron with an 
Army of yoooo men, and 60 Pieces of Artillery. if7f, and76. 
It was attempted by Landeriau. In i f 77, by Lanfae. In the troubles 
ofif8y, and 88, it was the Retreat of the lying of JV<?T<»rr?, and 
Prince of Conde. Her Commodities, Rochel- Wine, Salt andL Brandy, 
RupeUa Ant, Mortus Santorum, i'tol, " \ ' _ 

9. Angvulefme. Encuhfma al. Cit. EtoUnenfium Ant, ' ,^' ■ ^ '' 

10. Bourges, a Town of great ftrength by Nature, and well forti- 
fied by Art: fcituate in alow Flat, amongft deep impaffible Bogs and 
Marflies: Tis an Archbiihoprick, and one of the beft Univerfities in 
France y called Avarici.nt in Cajars time, of old Bituricum Ant.Vartcum 

Sancerre, a ftrongTown, memorable for a defperate and long Siege 
in the Reign of Charles the Ninth. 

In the Province of Bourgundy, once a Kingdom, is firft, Dijon, Divio' 
Tium, built by the Emperor Aurelian ; proud in her Parliament, and for 
giving Birth to St. Bernard ; feated upon the Scafne. Next are Auxerre 
AntiJJiodoram Ant, Cbalon, CabuUinum Strab. CabaHinum Ptol. CaviUonium 
Cajar,Ca/iram Gabelionenfe Ant. Mafcon, Caftrum Macifccnenfe Ant. feated 
upon the Soa[ne,t\\Q beft Hold of King Charles the Seventh, in his hard 
Wars againft the Engltjh. . > • 

Aliz,e, now a fmall Village, formerly Alexia, the cheif Fortrefs of 
Vercingetcrix, who had 70000 men in the Town, when befieged by 
Cafar ; and an Army of 500000 Gauls^ at the back ofCaJar, to re- 
lieve their fellows j notwiihftandirg all which, the Town was yield- 
ed to Cafar, and Vercttigeterix fate at his feetj and became hisPrifoner. 
Philip the third. Grandchild to Philip the Hardy, united to this Dutchy 
almoft all the Bclgick Provinces, but Charles his Son in the War againft 
Leivis the Eleventh^ loft his Men, Money, and Life, at the Battels 

' • ■ , . . .^-- 

. 4^ 




Of Vf$nck 199 

t^Granfon, Morat Atid Nanfjf, i^j6. afterwards this Dutchy was fei- 
zed on by tht French, 

Adjacent to, and in the Government of Bourgundy, is Brefi, the chief 
Town thereof is Bourgy or Brifs j a place well built, and fo ftrongly 
fortified, that it is efteemed impregnable. x 

J. This Countrey was by the Duke of Savoy delivered to Henry the IV. 
oi France y in lieu of the Marquifate diSaluces, 1600. 

In the Province of Quien, wherein are the Provinces of Gafeoign, 
Guien and Bern, are many Cities, the cheif whereof are, Bourdeauxy 
Burdegala Strab. & Ptol. Cit. BurdegaUnfium Ant. feated upon the Banks 
of theRiver Gfrwwf ; famous for being the Birth-place of King Richard 
the II. of England : at prefent honoured with an Univerfity and Par* 
liament, and is a place of good Trade. Near to this City is thefmall 
Village called Greve, which yields thofe Excellent Wines, called Graves 

About the Year 12^9. Lewis of France gave unto Henry the Third 
fX England, the Dutchy of Guien, conditionally, that he fliould re- 
nounce all Title to his other Inheritances. It continued Englift till 

In the particular Guien is the Province Saint oignc^o^Q chief place 
is Saintes,Mediolanum of old^ Strab. Mediolanium Ptol. Cit» Santorum Ant. 
2. The Province of P«r/f or?, whofe chief place is Verigueux, Veffunaof 
TtoL Cit. Tetrogoriorum Ant. Environed with Viney-Do^vns, divided 
into two Towns, g. The Province of Limofin, whole cheif place is 
Limoges, Ratia^uhf Ptol, Lemovicum al. LemavicumAm. the Prifon of Beg- 
gers. 4. The Province of Querci, whofe chief place is Cahors, Dueona 
Ptol. Cit. Cadorcorum Ani. a Rich and Fair City. y. The Province of 
Rovergue, whofe chief place is Rodez,, Segodunum Ptol, Cit, Rotenorunk 

In the Province ofG^/fo^^w are feveral Countries, whofe chief Cities 
or Towns AVQBaz,affioffium oiPtol, Cit. Vafatum Ant. Dax or 0*Acques, , 
Atjue Aug^jta of Ptol. Cit. Aqutncium Ant. Auch^ Augufla of Ptol. Cit. 
Aufciorum Ant. an Archbifliop's See. Agen, Aginium Ptol, Agennenfium 
Ant. Condom, Condomum, a Bifhoprick. Bajonne^ Baiona Merc, neai: 

In the middle of the fmall River Fidofa, between France and Spain, 
is tlie Ifland Faifans, (not mentioned by any Geographer I know 
of) where Cardinal Maz,arine, and Don Lewis de Haro began thePy- 
reneanTxQSity the igth ofAugufi, 16^9. and whence in the Year 1660. 
hapned the Interview between the two Kings, and the Reception of 
thQ.Infanta ; when the Ifland, was divided in the middle; and a Houfe 


Of frmi^ 



builc fo, that at the Table where the two King fate to eat, the King 
di France fate in Trance ^ and the King of Spain in Spain, 

In the Government of JLionoifey&rG thefeveral Provinces of Liowife, 
*jivergne, tourbon and March. 

In Lionoife, the chief City is Lyc»/, by the Ancients, luyJunmn'^ 
feated upon the conjundion of the Rofne with the SoatiCy efteemcd the 
fecond City of France ; a Famous Mart-Town, Ancient, and the See 
of an Archbifhop, who is Primate of all France. 

In Avergne is Cleremonty Claro Montiumy upon its high Mountain, '^' 

In Bourbon f Mculins, the Centre of France. MoUnuniy of old much 

rcforted unto from all parts of i=V<«w« for its Hot Medicinal Baths. G^r- 
gobia alGergobinaCafarytefie Farad. & Belfor, . . 

In March, Cueret and Bellac, are the moft confiderable. 

In the Government of I.a»<%««</w arc, i. Tboloufe, Talofa Caf. Strah. 
Ttolomy, feated on the G/?ro»«e, the Seat of an Archbifhop, and aaUni- 
verfity; whofe large Fields, called by old Writers Campi Catalau- 
nicif ( which I rather think to be the Fields near Chalons) were memo- 
rable for the overthrow of ^«/A», King of the Hms, whofe Army 
confifted of fooooo. of which 1 80000 that day loft their lives, by 
vStius the Roman Lieutenant, who was rewarded ( by Falentinian, Em- 
peror of the J^eJ} ) with the lofs of his Head. a. Nmkon, Norbo of 
Ca[. Plin, & Narhona Suet. A. Man in the RoManlnfAncy the moft po- 
pulous and greateft Town in France, and the firft Roman Colony ( Car- 
thage excepted. ) To which Arcbelaus ( Son to Hirod King of the 
Jtws) was baniflied by Augujius. 5. Montpelier, MontpijfMnm, (ear- 
ed on a high Mountain twelve miles from the Sea j an Univerfity for 
the Study of Phyfick, the Country about affording variety of Medici- 
nal Herbs; memorable for the Refiftance it made againft Lt-wn the 
XIII. in the laft Civil War about Religion. Nifmes, Nemauftu, Strab, 
Mel Ncmauftum Vim. & Ptol, & Nemaujenjium Ant. In the Year 1 270. 
Languedoc returned to the Crown in the days of Thtltp the Third. . 

In the Government of Dauphin, ( which is the Title of the firft Sen 
of France) \%Vienna, Scituatcon the Rojne'y an Archbifliop's See, and 
rhe chief of this Province ; 2. f^alence, a Bifhop's See, andTJnivcrfity 
for the Civil Law ; a Rich, Strong, and well-traded Town ; the 
Title of C afar Borgia, when he caft off his CardinaPs Hat. ;. Greno- 
hie, Cit. Gratianopolua Ant. dccuftonorum Col. Vtol. Grationopolis Sido & 
P. Diac. a Parliament-Seat ; Briancen, Brigantio Ant. Gap, Cit, Apencen- 
jinmAnt. Sec. Of the Seven Wonders of Danphine, fee Allard Syha in 
Latm Verfe, which are, i. The Burning Fodntain : 2. The Tower 
Sane Venin; 3. The inacceffiblc Mountain: 4. The Wine- Fats of Saf- 


of th 
to Le 



Of Frafiee. 



Jinage : y. The Vinous Fountain ? 6. The Manna-€»f BrUncon : 7. And ^ 
the Fountain of B4r^»ro». H' 

Provence took its name from the Romans, who being called in by the 
MarfilianSf polTeffed themfelves of this Country until Stillico called in 
the Rurgundians, of which Kingdom it was a member^ until the time 
of the Ojirogotbi, Ann. f 04. In the Year 1480. Rbene, Grandchild 
to Leai^arDuke of Anjou, Brother to Charles the firft, gave it to hewis / 
the Eleventh Kingof Fr^wce. Chief Towns are, 1. AUrfeiUes, Majfilia, 
commodioufly feated on the Mediterranean Seif enjoying an Excellent 
Haven and Road for Ships; a place of great Trade, and well fre- , 
quented with Merchants, and a Colony of the Pbocians. '; ". 

2. Aix, Atju/t Sextia, a Parliament Seat; near this Town the C/w- 
hriy confifting of ; 00000 fighting men, as they paflTed by Marinsy ask- 
ed his Soldiers what Service they would command them to Rome \h\\t 
in then* niarch through the Alpes, (having divided themfelves) Matius ,. r 
put them ail to the Sword ; who had flain Q^ Servilius Capio^ and his ; , 
whole Army, after hisfurprifal and pillaging of the Aurum Tolojaniirr, 
3. Aries f Arelate Vltn. & Ardatam Col, Ptol. 4. Tvtilon^ Tauroentium 
Vtol Taurentium Strab. the beft Sea-port Town in all France, On the 
North-Weft of Provewc lies the principality of Or«»w^^,whofe chief place • 
is Orange, Araujia Plin. Arujio Strab. Col. Araujiorunt Ptol. C. AraHJiw' 
rum Ant. Famous for many Rare and Wonderful Antiquities ; be- * ■ 
longing of Ancient Right to his Illuftrious Highnefs the Prince of 
Orange, but of late years feized upon by the French King. 

South of which lies the County o^Venafin, fo called from Avenio, \ 
now Avignon, the chief City of it ; Famous for being the Ancient Seat ° \ 
of the Popes, for about 70 years ; faid to have 7 Parifh Churches, 
7 Monafteries> 7 Nuniieries, 7 Palaces, 7 Inns, and 7 Gates to ics 

To thcfe Governments might be added Lorrain^the Frer-^ Comte,/lI' 
face, moft part of the Spanijh Provinces, the Gourtty of RoujWon on the •• 
Coaft of Spain, being now under the French King's Conquefts ; but 
for Method and Order- (like, I (hall refer them to the proper place. 

The chief Iflands of France, are, i. Strong Bell-I(le, Venetica Sar. 
Calofm, 2. Salt Normoufiitr. ;. Ree, the Out- work to Rochd,h\.A 
to the Englijh 1627. 4. Oleron, Uliaras, whQm Richard the III. gave 
thofe Laws as Lord of the Sea, known to the World by the Title ci 
The Laws of Okron. y. The Tower dXardovan in the mouth of the 
Garonne, 6. The Ifle Oufjftnt, Uxantus; by the Erglijh, UJlnnt , oS Qi- 
againft the Liz,ard. In the Mediterranean lye the Ifles de Eres, the St^- 
cbades of Ptol, i . . 

D d Of 

— — ." u. 







fe . <• 


of Soain. 

■'-"^A.i 'mff :. 

ii/r ,: •(•!;:•! ;o^ 

:•! ;owp; y 


'in j; •-• 



.»' a;« '^ '»'>*■??" • ' 

••£*(«- 1 


Vet lisiL'y^ 







• •^irr«<« 






■ Afunin _ 




,Cai««a/ *f-'""' 


%5!?^;.«*vT5sfc _•'*••« 



^HattartJi I- 




JUto , 




KHzf V aitiaII 

/Po»r v»A&»r ▲ > 

( /- 

SPAIN, by the Greeks firft called J^m'^ 5 not from i^<;r«/ the moft 
famous River in that Kingdom ; nor from Iberi, a people of y^/7^ ; 
OuiJ igitur ( inquit Bochartus ) Ebrais "^^y Eber, CbaUait K^^V E^r^, 
vel Ibra eft tranfttw, & quia^juid eft ulterius. Inde fkrale Ebrin vel Ebrm, ter. 
mmos & iinesfiinificat : Mertto igitur Iberidiiti, qui ex Phamciumfententta 
■' urrarum 





O/Spdiff. ' aoj 

Perrarum fines uUtmos bahitf.runt. It wasalfo Called Hi/J><r/<i, either from 
HefperMy a Ring thereof ; or rather as being the furiheft Country 
Weft-ward. So alfo by the Greeh and Romans it was called 's.TM.Adf 
from fan, the Companion of Bacchm. By the Vhinicians Spantj, or 
Spbania, a Country of Rabbets or Conies j Uftly, by the Moors Mut- 

Conjointly with Portugal, it makes a great Teninfula^ htmg encom- 
pafTed with the Octan, and the Mediterranean Sea ; only towards the 
North-Eaft, for 2^0 miles^ its iirmly tack'd to the Continent by the 
Pjrtnean Hills. . 

It is fcituate in the moft Weftern part of ah Europe, in the niolr 
Southerly part of the Northern Temperate Zone, and the longeft 
Summer s day is about I ^ hours. '• 

As for the Dimenfions, it is faid to be in length from "Porto on the 
mouth of the River Duero, to Cape Creus in Catalonia, Coo Geometrical 
miles. And from Cape Gihralter to Cape Penas, in the Bay of Rifca, for 
the breadth, is 480 miles. By Cluver 760 miles in length, and 60c in 

Heylin, who follows Jofepbtts, faith, this Kingdom was firft inhabited 
byih5.r» iny oi tubal, xhQ^ono^ J apbet, being the Defcendants 
of the 7^f>/i, whocamein under Panus. 

Cluver faith, that the Celtie, a great and potent Nation, dcfcended 
from Afchenaz,, were the firft that did people Spain, and caufed the 
whole Country to be called Celtiberia, 

The next Foreigners that came into Spain, were the Pbxniciavs, 
failing from Tyrus, as Diodcrm and Strabo relate. Then the Greeks or 
Rhodians ; afterwards the Cartbagenians did overrun a great part of 
it Cunder the conduA of Amilcar, Afdrubal, and Annibal ) even from 
the Weftern Ocean, to the Pyrenes ; deftroyed Saguntum, now Mor- 
Wrf, built new Cartbage; and had not Annibals ill Fate hurried him 
ioz Italy, the whole Country had been fubdu'd to the State of Car- 

But the Cartbagenians being overcome by the Romans in the fecond 
Punick War, it fell under the Dominion of the Romans^ by whom it 
was divided into three Provinces, Batica, Lufitanica, and Terraconevjis ^ 
Batica was bounded on the North and Weft by the River Ana, novv 
Gaudiana ; on the South by the Mediterranean Sea as far as Almeria : on 
the Eaft it was feparated from Terragon by a ftraight line from Almeria 
to Cuidad Real, and contained the Kingdoms of Granara, Andaluz^ia, 
part of New Cafhtle^ and Ejiremadura, and was inh^^''?d by the Turdult 
Caftward, and by thQCeltici towards the Weft. 

D d 2 Lujitauia 

V ♦ 

' . '■,, 




- v\ 


2C4 OfSfiin, 

Lufitania was bounded on the North by the River Durius, now 
Bmro ; on the Weft by the Ocean ; on the South by the River Gua- 
iliana 5 On the Eaft by a line drawn from CuUal Real, to Samora^ a 
Town feated on the Ri»'er Duero, and contains almoft all Portugal, 
part of OUj and part of New Cattle. 

The reft of Spain went to the making up of the Province of Ter- 
ragon. . 

The Romans alfo divided Spain into two parts ; the one Citerior, the 
ether Ulterior j the firft comprehended the Province of Terragon ; the 
latter did comprife Batica and Lufitania, and fo remained until the 
time of Honorius the Emperor, when Gundertms, King of the Vandals, 
made an Irruption out of Germany, and over-can it about the Year of 
our Lord 400. The Vandals were not well fetled in their New Con- 
queft, when the Goths feized on this Country, forcing the Vandals in- 
to Batica, and after into Africa, and fo made the Conqueft abfolute. 
ThQ Sayacens and Moan invaded it in the Year 720. under the Con- 
6u6t of Mufa and Tariff, who were invited in by Jttlian, who was 
fent on an EmbafTy to the iV/oorj of Africa by Roderick the Gothijh King, 
but in the mean time defloured his Daughter Cava, which the Father 
took infuchindignation,that he procured the Moors to comcinto Spain, 
who after a Battel that lafted 7 days, in which Roderick had i;oooo 
Foot, and gyooo Horfe j and Tariffe had 50000 Horfe, and 180000 
Foot, the Moors were Vidorious ; and having haraflfed the whole 
Country, founded feveral Kingdoms therein ; but the Moors not long 
enjoyed the fole Sovereignty therein ; for the Goths having recovered 
themfelves, the Moors by little and little were brought under. Heylin 
tells us, thatatlaft Spain fell into a 12-partite divifion, viz. Leon and 
Oviedo, Navare, Corduba, Gallicia, Bijca, Telle^a, Murcia, Cafiile, Tor" 
tugal, Vakntia, Catalogne and Arragon. But I chofe rather to follow 
Cluver, Mercator, ^anjon, who all agree, that at laft Spain fell under 
the Command of feveral more powerful Princes, and was parted into 
1 5* grand Divifions, moft of which carried the Title of Kingdoms j 
five lie upon the Ocean, Bifcaia, /iftrmia, Galicia, Portugal, and v?«rt''^- 
hfia ; fiveupon the Mediterranean, Granada^ Murcia, Vakntia, Cata^ 
Ionia, and the Ifland? of Majorca, Minorca, and Tuica j and five Midland, 
viz. Arragon, Navar, the two Capites, and Leon. 

Afterwards the whole Country was reduced under the Power of the 
Kings oiCafltle, Arragon and Portugal, and under thefe three Titles it 
is, that the King of Spain at prefent poffelTeth his large Dominions, 
which he governs by- Eight Vice- Roys. But in the Year 1640. the 
Duke of Buiganza was proclaim'd King of Portugal, and ever fince it 
continues Independent, The 



Of Spdin, • 20^' 

The People of Spain site of a fwatthy Complexion, black Hair, and 
of good proportion ; ftately in all their Anions, of a Majeftical Gate 
and Deportment, grave and ferious in their Carriages, in offices of 
Piety very devout, not to fay fuperftitious ; obedient and faithful to 
their King : patient in Adverfities, not prone to alter their Refolutions ; 
in War too deliberate; Arts they efteem dilhonourable, much addided 
to Women, and naturally proud. 

Their Women fober, difcreet, indifferent handfoine, clear com- 
plexioned, loving to their Husbands and Friends ; yet by them fo nar- 
rowly watched and overlooked, that 'tis hardly poftible for them to 
have conference with any other man. 

In matters of Religion they are Roman-Catholick, and are moft 
ftridto the Rites of the Ro?nan Church, and of the Faith and Doctrine 
therein profeffed j the Inquifition being introduced againft all other 
Beliefs ; only there are fome Churches in Toledo where the Mus Arabic 
Office isufed. 

The Language is not the fame in all places ; in fome parts it hath 
a mixture of tho Frenclt: In Gramday and part of Andaluz^ia^ it par- 
takes much of the Moonflj: In other parts there is the Gotbijh, Jrahkk, 
and old Spanijlj ; but that which is common to them all, is, the Vul- 
gar SpanijJ}, or Caftilim, which hath much affinity with the Latin, and 
is faid to be a brave lofty fwelling Speech. 

Their Civil and Imperial Laws generally ufed among them, are 
intermixed with m.iny Cuftoms of the Goths ; the Ediiits and Confti- 
tutions of their feveral Kings ; thofe of the Goths firft committed unto 
writing, and to order, by Eurkuu firft King of the Goths : thofe of 
Caftik digcfted by Ferdinand the Fifth into feven Books,caUed Partidas,. 
which are read and difputed on in the publick Schools, as well as the 
Decretals, the Code, the Pandids, or any other part of Civil or 
Common Law. 

The Country is not very fertile in Corn or Cattel ; but where it is 
produ<5live of whe Fruirs of Nature, it yeilds to no part of Europe for 
Delight and Pleafure ; but for the moft part, it is either over- grown 
with Woods, or cumbred with Rocky Mountains ; the Soil of a hot 
and Sandy Nature, and deficient in Water; their chief Food being 
Sallets and Fruits, which appear in greater ripenefs and perfedion 
than in other places. 

Inrecompence jf Corn and Flefli, they have feveral Rich Commo- 
dities, vizj. Wines, Oyls, Sugar, feveral Metals, Rice, Silk, Licoras,. 
Honey, Wax, Saffron, Annifced, Raifons, Almonds, Oranges, Li- 
mons, Cork, Soap, Anchovies, Soda Barrellia, Samack, Wool, 
- Lamb- 





Lambskins, Tobacco> &c. befides the Gold and Silver which they 
tringoucof America , whereby they furnifh themfelves with thole 
other Conveniences which they want : In the Year 1 6 1 8. it was affirm- 
ed, chat fince the firft Difcovery thereof by Co/»w^«/, thQ Spaniards 
had drawn out of it above fifteen hundred and thirty fix Millions of 
Gold, of which the European Merchants ftiare the greateft part : And 
their neceffity of purchafing Foreign Commodities, empties their Pur- 
fes ; and their getting of this Gold and Silver,d&populates and weakens 
the Country. 

The Horfes df this Country are in general efteem, but thofe of y^«- 
^alufia more than the reft; however they travel upon Mules and 
AlTes, by reafon of the roughnefs of the Mountains. 

Here lived in ancient times the Giants Gerjon and Cacusj overcome 
by Hercules. Seneca the Tragedian, and Semcaihe Philofopher. j ^/»- 
tilian the Orator, Lucian anr" Martial, Fompcnius Mtla the Geographer, 
Fulgcntius and IJidore Bifhops, Ariui Montanus, Oforius, To^atus^ Ma- 

For Soldiers it had Tbeodofius the Great, Bernard del Carpio, Cid 
Rues Diasj Sanchc of Navar, Ferdinand the Catholick, and Charles the 

The Mountains oi Spain may be diftinguifhed into fix greater Ridges 
continued and knit together, and whereof the reft are parts : The 
firft are the Tyremi Mantes Strab» Mens Pjiraneus Plin. Gyrene Ptol. Los 
Mcntes Tyreneus Hifp, Les Mouses Pyrenees Gal, Monti Pyrenet Ital. ex- 
tending from the Cantabrian Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, once the 
Bounds between France and Spain ^ which in feveral places have divers 
., Names, which we (hall not here mention. 

The fecond are the Idubeda of Strab. Mela Ptol. & aliisy the l^bCiJkj 
Seld. exi^cinding from the Pyrenes near the Springs of the River EbrOf 
Southwal!ii;|s, towards* the Levant Sea, having divers Names in fevera! 

A -third Row of Mountains are coafting all along the Shore of the 
Cantabrian Ocean ; the Juga Afiurum Plin. a more eminent top hereof 
is the Mountain St. Adrian, from whofe top Vafaus Erugenfu fiith, hc 
faw both the Cantabri.iv and Mediterranean Seas, now Sierra d'Us Afiu- 
rius, d^ Movte d^Oca, Vtil, Sierra d^ Oviedo, Coquo. Vmdius Mom. Viol. 
•- V A fourth Ridge, or Branch of Mountains, are the Orofpeda o^ Strab. 
the Ortofpeda of Ptol. which at Alcaraz part into two Branches, the 
one tending towards Murcia aiid the Levant Seaj the other paffing 
ititou^ Granada, ends at the Strait of G/^>Wrtr,. the Extrcam Point 
whereof was called Calpe. 




Of Spai/t:} 207 

One of the two Famous Pillars of Henulej, oppofite to which on 
t\\fi African fide of the Straits was the Mountain Abila, the other Pillar 
the narrow Sea between, was from hence called Fretum Herculeum, 
now the Straits of Gibralnr, 

Oat of the Orofpeda, about the Town of Jlcaras, brancheth the 
fifth Ridgofthe Mountain called Sierra ik/flrc»<?, running along the River 
Gaudalquiver, until it ends at the Atlantique Ocean. The Mons Maria- 
nus of ?tol. and the Saltui Cafiulonenjis of Cafar, The Scene of the 
Warlike Exploits of Don Quixot de la Mancha. 

The fixth Branch begins about the Springs of the Duero, and keep- 
ing th^ River Taio upon the left-fide, parteth New Ci«/?i/e from the Old, 
and divides Portugal into two parts, ending at the Town Sintra, fome 
;o miles from Ltsbor. Some Authors reckon this the Idubeda Branch. 
But we find not any known Name new or ancient, only part hereof* 
in Ca(tile was by ?Uny called Juga Carpetanta, and part of it in Portugal, 
Luna Mons by Ptol. The chief of its ne^w Names sxt Sierra de Tomasy 
Vaccas Montm d'AveUy df Sierra Moltna, 

The Principal Rivers of Sfainy the Duero, Durius Plin, very full of 
Fifti. The Tagm Strah. now Taio, renowed for its Golden Sand. 
The GauJiana, Anas Strab, which, they fay, runs under ground. The 
Gauldal^uivery Batts Strab. the deepeft of all. The Ebro, Ibertts Strah. 
famous by its Name: They all of them have their Sources in Cafiile, 
but are not fo Navigable as thofe in Frgttce. The Gaudiana has gi\vn 
occafion to the Spaniards to fay, Thilpiey have the richeft Bridge in 
the World, upon which generally feeirabove loooo Sheep, and over 
which a good Army may march in battel-array. The Ancients may 
havefeem'd to have called this River very properly Anas^hy reafon it 
dives into the Earth, and rifes out again as a Duck does in the water. 
Some of the Moderns fay, that there are certain Mountams that fwal- 
low up this River. Others affirm. That it only falls into the Dikes 
and Graffs which the Country People mak« to water the Country, 
which is very barren ; however, this is certain. That this running 
under ground happens to be near the Springs of Gaudiana, and not 
towards Aferi//i», as marked down in the Old Maps: To fay truth. 
This is one qf the three Miracles of Spain ; of which the others are, 
a City encompaffed with fire ; that is, with Walls of Flint-ftones,as 
Madrid \ and a Bridge, over which the water runs, as is the Aquadudt 
g{ Segovia. 

The Cities of this Kingdom have their Names from their Excellen- 
cy : Sevil the Merchandizing, Granada the Great, Vakncia^ the Fair, 
Barcelona the Rich, SaragoJ]'ai\\Q Contented, Valadohd the Gentile, toleJo 

V. - . the 


,'* 'B 

2o3 0/ SpAtff* 

the Ancient, MaJrid the Royal. It comprehends 8 Archbifiiopricks, 
and 4 J Bifliopricks. The Archbifliopricks are, ToleJo, Burgos , Compv- 
fiella, Sevily Granada, Valencia, Saragojfa, and Tarragon. There are fe- 
veral very confiderable Sea-ports, PaJJrHff, St. Andrews Coruna, Cadiz., 
Cartagena, Alicant, &C. 

Bijcay, formerly called Cantahria, is Mountainous and Woody, 
which furnifties them with Timber to build more Ships than all the 
Provinces ' f Sp/»/» befides : It hath alfo fo great a Number of Mines 
•and Iron Forges, that the Spaniards call it the Defence of Cafiik, and 
the Armory of Spain, The Bifcayners, who weie the Ancient Canta- 
hrians , enjoy very great Privileges, and boaft themfelves never to 
have been thoroughly Conquered either by the Romans, Carthagenians, 
Goths, or Moors. They ufe a different Language from that of the other 
Inhabitants of the Countrey,which isfaid to be the ancient Language of 
Spain'yioTHS they remained in their Liberties not maftered, fo in their 
Language not altered. They differ from the reft of Spain alfo in Cu- 
ftoms, yeilding their Bodies, but not their Purfes to the King; not 
fuffering any Biihop to come amongft them ; and caufing their Wo- 
men to drink firft, becaufe Ogno a Countels would have poifoned her 
Son Safjcho. The Land, as well as in the Countrey of Giupu'coa, is 
very well Tilled; for they pay neither Tax nor Tenth, r.or Right of 
Entry. Their chief Cities are Bilboa and St. Sebaftian ; places of 
great Trade, efpecially in Wool, Iron, Chefnuts, and Bilboa Blades. 
Great Veffels cannot come M^r. Bilboa, being feated two miles from 
the Ocean, but upon a Higte^^ide. It was built or re-edified out of 
the Ruins of the ancient Vlaviobriga of VtoL by Diego de Haro, 1300. 
The Port of St. Sebafiian has a very fair Entrance, being Defended by 
two Caltles, the one towards the Eafl, feated high ; the other to the 
Wefl, upon a low Rock. St. Andero and PaJJ'agio are two excellent 
Ports, Fuentirabia the flronger place, and further Town in Spai}i, and 
Guataria the Native' place of Sehfiian Cabot, who was the firft that 
compafTed the world, in the Ship called the VtBory ; MageUams, who 
went Chief in that Expedition, perifliing in the Adion. Laredo For- 
ttis, Lauretanus, hath a fpacious Bay. Vlacenza, upon the River Denia 
is inhabited by Blaekfmiths. Tolofa upon the Orio River. Afiurta, cal- 
led by fome the Kingdom ofOviedo, is the Title of theEldeft Sons of 
the Kings of Spain, being called Princes of AJ^uria. The younger 
Children whereof are called Infants, ever (ince the Reign of John 
the FirfV. Hence were the fmall but fwift Horfes which the Rowans 
called Ajhrcones, the Ewg/f/fcHobbies. It was the Retreating-place of 
die Kings of the Goths, and feveral of the Bifhops, during the Inva- 




Of Spaih 



fioft of the Adoorsy ; for which reafon Oviedo, LHcum Afurum of Fteil, 
& Ovetum; the Capital City thereof is called the City of Kings and 
Biftiops; and indeed gave Title to the firft Chriftian Kings after th? 
Mooriflj Conqueft ; for as the Luft of Re^erick, a Gothijh King of 
Spain, firft brought in the Moors ; fo the Luft of Magnu'z^a a Moorijh 
Viceroy, proved the overthrow and. lofs of the Kingdom. Other 
Towns are ^viles on the Seafhore, near Cafe de los Venas, of old ^7- 
thium Prom. - _ 

Galicia is not fo fertile as well peopled ; its former Inhabitants 
were the GaUaiciy whence it had its name. St. J ago Compofiella, which 
Biflioprick and IJniverfity is there famous for the Pilgrimages which 
are thither made by thofe that goto vifit the Reliques of St. JameSfthe 
Spaniard's Patron. Coruna, by the Evglijh the Groine, is often men- 
tioned in our Spanijh Wars in Queen Eliz,abeth*s days. The Flat/ium 
Brigantiuvt of ?tol. Brigantium of Ant. Strong, and the chief Bulwark 
of Galicia, is memorable for the goodnefs and largenefs of her Port : 
The Rich Silver Fleet, of about thirty Millions, put in there in the 
year 1661, to avoid the Englijh, who to furprize it, had way-laid all 
the Points of the Compafs to Cadiz,,' Lugo is the Lucus Augufii o^ Ptol. 
and Ant, the Lucus of ?lin. now a Bifliop's See. Orenfe is the Aqua Ca^ 
Itda of Pro/, the Aejua Calenia of Ant. a. 13i(hop's See. T'uy is the Tude 
of Ptol. Tyde Plin. a Bifliop's See. There are about forty other Ports 
in this Province, of which, Rtvadeo, Ponte Vedra & Bajona, are the 
moft confiderable. 

Andaluz,ia, formerly Vandalitia from the Vandals. By Pliny Conventus 
Cordubevfit, is fo fair a Countrey, and fo plentiful in Corn,in Wine and 
Olives, that is paflTesfor the Granary and Magazine of the Kingdom. 
S:vil in this Province, is the Magazine of the Weal'h of the New 
World. T}[{Q Hifpalis of StrabiPtol.SiX\A?lin.' ' 

It is in compafs fix miles, compafled with ftately Walls, and adorn- 
ed with no lefs Magnificent Buildings, infomuch that there is a Spanijk 
Proverb, Cbi non ba Vtfia Sevilla, non ha Fifia meravilla. 

k He that at Sevil bath not been, 

Stru^ure's Wonder hath not feen. 

The River Batis, or Gaudelejuiver, feparatesit into two parts, which 
are joined together by a ftately Bridge ; from hence the Spaniards fet 
forth their lVe(i-Indta Fleets^ and hither they return to unload the 
Riches of the IVeftern World. It is dignified with an Univerfity, 
wherein ftudied Aviccn the Moor, and Pope Silvefier the Second ; here 
^ E e alfo 

alfo were two Pirovindal Councils held Jntie y S4, and 6^6, and the 
See of an Archbiihop^ who is MetropoUcan oiAndaluz^ia and the fortu- 
nate Iflands. Here was Ifidom Bifhop. From hence comes oar Sevil 
OrangeSj and Here Ires the Body of Chri^ofber CokmhttSy famous for . 
his DifcQvery of the New World. 

Not far from hence are to be fsen the ReKques of the Italica of 
Strab. Ptol. and Ant. the lUippa Italiea Vlin. the Country of the Empe- 
rors Trajan and Adrian^ now an obfcure Village about a League Eaft 
from SvvtL Cordova , tha-t honoured Antiquity with Lucavy and the 
two Seneca's ; and was more coHderable in the time of the Moors thin 
now. The Principal Church was formerly oneof thebiggeft Mofijues 
among the MakHmttarny next to that of Mecca. Corduh o£ StraA» VtoL 
and Mela a famous Colony of the Romans, and Head of a particular 
Kingdom, fo called ; now a Bifhop's See^ and Seat of the Inquifttton 
for this Province. Jaen is the Oningis, or Orm^is of Livfy tefit Moral, 
taken by Sclpo Afrkantis from the Canbagenianx. E€ya is the Afi^ of 
Tlin.Afygis oiPtol. the Afira^ef Liv» taken by Lucius Martiiu, or ra- 
ther deftroyed fay the Inhabitants ; read Sir fF, Rawhigh^ foL 744. lli- 
tagis VtoL & llurgis&Ilhturgis Plin. Jliturgi, Liv* Uetcr. te^e MariaiKJ^dtA 
el Rio, Clujio. Andujar, Floriand, Andujar el vieja, Amk. Moral Cafiulo 
Ant. Caftukn Ptol, Plin. Cajtaon Strah. Cajlono Car Ckfio, Cajlona la. vieja^ 
Florian. between Alcaz,ar and Baez,a, feated on theGuadelquiver, not on 
the Ana, as Heylin faith, which being under the Romans, was furpri^ 
zed by the Gerafenis^ but flain by Sertorius , entring after them at 
the fame Gate ; built 100 years before the War of Troj, tefie Mariana. 
Here Hannibal is faid to have took his Wife Himilee, And w^i one of the 
laft Towns that held out for the Cartbagcnians ; the chief City of the 
Oritani, feated upon an high Mountain, rather in New-Ca/iile, than iii 
Andaluzia near Ubeda. St. Lucar, at the mouth of the Guajalfuiver, . 
is a Town of great.Trade ; the tVefi-India Gold and Silver Plate has 
fometimes ftopp'd at the Tower of the Port, which is called the Gol- 
den Tower; butgenerally that Fleet put in at C<«//;«., or Port St. Af<*- 
nfjjwhich is near to it. Xeres de la Fontera^^ands not far from that place 
where the Moors totally defeated the Gotbs^m the Year 714. after which, 
they haralTed all S^ain without controul ; and from hence come our 
Sherry Sacks. The A^a Regia of Strab. &Plin.the A/la of Ptol& Ant. 

Medini Sidonia, the AJindum of Ptol. Afido Cafariana of Plin. whofe 
Duke was General of ths Invincible Armado, i f 88. Tanffa was fo 
called from 7iinj/f' General of the Moors in their firft Spaniflj Invafionj 
which Lodovicus Nonius thinks to have been the Famous TartiJJ'us of 
Herod. Strab. and other Authors^ rich in Gold and Silver, and vifited 



by the continual Fleets of the 75rM» Merchants, and1>ythe Pi&oc^^iin 
the Reign oi Arganthoniut, i little before their Expugnitionby Cyrus, 
and by fome thought to be the fame with that Tharfis, from whence 
Solomm*s Ships did fetch his Gold for the Temple itjerufalem. Some 
make this the fame with Carteia or 'Mela, Vtol, & Tlin. Canba of 
Ovid. Cartaa of Steph. as Curio, Mariana and Becan. but Moralus will 
have Cartheja or Carteja to be Algez,ira, whofe pofition now is alike un- 
certain, 'but both fcems to me to be the Gibal Tariff oi the Arab, or 
Gibralter Gibalter, which now gives a Name to the Famous Streighc 
which joins the Ocean and Mediterranean, and parts Europe from 
Africa, called by the Ancients Fretum Htrcukum, Gaditanum, O" Tartef- 
JtacuM, now Efirecho de Gibralttr,' Hiffanis, This Streight is in length 
36 miles from Cape Trafalger to Gibralter, in breadth at the Entrance 
18 miles, at the narroweft place about 7 Evglijh miles. Pales is the 
Port from whence Columbus firft embarqued, upon his Intentions of a 
New Difcovery: And Cadiz,, CaksAngl. & Batavis, Cadice Ital.Gades 
Caf, Tlitt. & Mela, Gadira Ttol. Erytbya, & Tartejjbs, Strab. Contimfa 
Dionyf, is the Harbour of the Rich Plate-Fleets ; a Portfo important, 
that Charles tht Fifth recommended the confervation thereof in a Ipe- 
cial manner to his Son Vhilip the Second. Antiquity there (hews us 
the Footfteps of a Temple dedicated to Hercules, with two Columns, 
either of Copper or Silver, which the Natives aver to be the Pillars of 
chat Hero, as well as the two Mountains upon each fide of theStreights 
of Gibralter : they Report, That in this Temple it was thiit Julius Ca- 
far wept when he called to mind the Prodigious Conquefts which 
Alexander the Great had gain'd at the Age of three and thirty Years, 
the confideration whereof carried him to thofe High Enterprifes ; as 
Scipio was incited by the AAions of Zenophns Cyras. 

The Kingdom o{ Granada under the laft Kings of the Moors ( who 
loft it in the Year 149 1.) was far more Rich,and better Peopled than 
it is at this day : It was alfo much more Fertile ; for the Moon had a 
thouland Inventions to water their Lands, by means of Cuts and 
Trenches, bringing the Water from great Refervatories which they 
made in the Mountains, which are calkd Mantes dHos Alpajaras ohm 

The Scituatlon of this Kmgdom, and the Pofition of the Towns, 
agrees with the Relation or Defcription which 7«//«j Cafat has made. 
The City which bears its Name, Granatum al, Granado, is the biggelt 
in all Spain ; its Buildings are of Free-ftone, fenced about with a ftrong 
Wall, on which are 130 Turrets, and it hath iz Gates. It is very 
pleafant dwelling there, by reafon of the purenefs of the Air, and 

E e z plenty 


<( 5 

r. ,' 

212 o/spAffi: 

plenty of Fqufttains; the Moors placing Paradife in that part of Hea- 
ven which IS the particular Zenith of this place. Malaga, Malaea PtoL 
Strab. Mel. Ant, a ftrong Town, and Bimop'sSec. Vekz, Maldgals the 
Sex of Ptol. Sexitanum Ant. Stx't Firmum, d^ JuUum Vlin. is famous for 
the excellency of its Wines and Jlairins. Munda is notable for Julius 
Cafar's ViAory over Pompe/s.S>ons. For near unto this place,in a Wood, 
was fought that notable and laft Battel between Ca/ar and Pcmpe/s 
Sons J the Honour of the day fell to Cafar, though not without great 
lofs. In other Battels he ufed to fay, he fought for Honour, in this 
for his Life; which not long after he loft, being murthered in the Se- 
nate- Houfe. Almeria is the Abdara Ptol. Abdera Mela, founded by the 
TyrianSf Strab. by the Cartbagenians; Plin. Antiefuera is thQiSingilia Flin, 
Alhama the Artigis of ?td. noted for its Medicinable Baths. Gaudix 
IS a Bi(hop*s See. Loxa enjoys a pleafant Scituation. Muxacra is 
thought to be the Murgis of Ptol. flm. Hnefca the Ojca oiPtoLVera the 
Vergao of Plin, 

Murcia is faid to be the Garden of Spain, by reafon of the plenty of 
Excellent fruits in thofe parts; and fo abounding in Silver Mines^ that 
the Romans kept 400 men at work. The City alfo that bears its 
name, the Menralta of Ptol. drives a great Trade in Silk. Cartagena, 
built by Afdrubalof Carthage, Father of the Great Hanrubal^ and taken 
in the fecond Punick War by Scipio Africanus, twice facked and razed 
by the Barbarous Goths and Vandals ; re-edified and fortified by Philip 
the Second, King of Spain ; Is a good Sea-Port, a fafe and large Ha^• 
hour. Caravaca affords the wood for the Crols, to which the Spani-' 
ards attribute a power to preferve Men from Thunder. 

Valencia is the moft delightful Countrcy of ?11 Spain^ The City (be- 
fides thyiame of the Province ) bears the name of Fair and Great Va^ 
kncia. jfn Archbi(hop's See, the Valentia of Ptol, Plin. d c. feated^not 
far from the mouth of the River, Duriof by Melit^ Turium Plin. 7uria& 
Turias by others ; now Guadalaviar, Plujio. A IJniverfity, where ftu- 
dicd St. Dorninick the Father of the Dominicans. Here was born under 
contrary Stars Ludovicus Vives, and Pope Alexander the Vlth. 

CuUera a Sea-Town, at the mouth of the River Xucar, formerly ^^j- 
cre», after the name of the River, and is famous in Vlntarch for the 
Vidtory of 5m<3r/;#i againft /^ow/>9'. f 

Denia^ Dianicum of PtoL Strab. Plin. and Solin, gives Title to the 
Marqucfs of Dema, fince created Duke of Lerma, 

Ahcant is known by the good Wines which are tranlported from 
thence. Upon theSea-fliore, at a place c2\\qA Morvedra, are to be feen 
the. Ruins of the Ancient Saguntum of Polyb. the deftrudtion whereof 




Of Spmi 


by Hannthal occftHoned the fecond Punick Wan A Town fp faithfu^ 
to the Romansy that the Inhabitants chofe rather to burn thetnfetves, 
than yield to Hannibal i Founded by the Zacbintbiam. Here is alfo 
the Promontory F(frr<irw of Mela, y'rtemifum Sfrah. & DiavmmCic, 
Plin. & Ptol. ?untta delEmferador, or Attemuz. tejfe Btutb. now Cabo Mar^- 
tht, the K^iuge of Sertoriu* in his wars againft Mettelm and Vomfiy, 

Laurigstefte J, Mariana, is the Lauro, or Lauron ofVlittarcb, the Lau- 
rona of tloro, which Sertorius befieged and burnt when fomfey with 
his whole Army ftood nigh, and yet durft nor fuccour \u 

Xelua is by Pierian the Incibilis or hdibilis oi Livy, where H<«»»0 
was overcome by 5«pw; h\xt Baud, faith, I»«^//« is now Trayguera, 
20 Spanijh Leagues diftant from Xelua, or Cbelua. 

Gandia gives title to the Dukes of the Houfe of Borgia. 

Segorbe or Segorve, is the Segobrega of Strab. and Plin, tefia Vafa Pluf». 
and Taraf. but the confuflon of Authors makes me uncertain what it 
now is. ' 

The Iflands of Majorqueind Minor<jue, are the Ancient Baleares, the 
Inhabitants whereof are exquifite Slingers, and great Pyrates ; they 
accuftom their Children to hit down their breakfaft with a Sling, or 
elfe to go without it; and yet as nimble as they were, they werecon* 
ftrain'd to beg aid oi AugufiusagsXn^ the Rabbets that deftroyed their 
Lands. The Books of knowledge writ by Raymund Lully are very 
much ftudiedUat Majorque, The Soil of Tvica has a peculiar quality to i 
deftroy the Serpents that are bred in the Ifland Tormentera, 

Arragon is over-run with the Branches of the Pyrenean and Idubeda 
Mountains^ and is in moft parts dry and fcanty of water, yet the Ri- 
ver Iberus runs through the middle of it. Its chief places are Sarageca, 
Caf.Augufia of Ptol, Strab. Plin. Ant. &c, a Colony and Mimicipium of 
the Roffians, before called Salduba, Under the Moors it was the Head 
of a particular Kingdom, recovered in the Year 1 1 1 8. by the Chri- 
ftians, and made the Refidence of the Kings of Arragon, an Arch- 
bifhop'sSee, and Univerfity and feat of the Inquifition,and Vice-Roy 
for the Province Taracona, or Taraz^ona, the Turiafo Ptol. TurtajJ'o Plim 
is a Biihop's See. Calatajut upon the River Xalo, founded by Ajub a 
Sarazen Prince, half a mile from which was the ancient Btlbis otPtol, . 
and Bilbilii of Strab. the Countrey of the Poet Martial. Fraga upon 
the River Senga Galiica, Flava Ptol. & Galiicum of Ant, Balbafho is the 
Burtina of Ptol, Bortina of Ant. Huefca, the Ofca of Strab, Ptol, &■ Ant, 
was the place where Ser tonus ( in Plutarcb) kept the Children of thC' 
Sfanijh Nobility as Hofta^^cs for rherr Fathers fidelity ; but the Fathers - 
revolting, the Children were cruelly murthered. Jacca amongft the 
-s^ Moun- 


%f4 OfSfiiH. 

Mouiitains, wac the 6rft Seat of the Kings of Arr«^. Amftt and 
Btnbuari, have been the Capitals of two little K.ingd6ms , Sebrar- 
Ha and Rihzorca, or Riba Curtia, Monzon is a place where formerly 
the States of ^^r«go» were wont to Affemble. 

Navarr was the fecond Kingdom for Antiquity in Spaiv, but furpri- 
fed and taken by Ferdinand the Catholick, Anno if 12. without one 
blow given. The King and Queen of J^avarr being at that time both 
F^^cb Subjeds; the Country is plain, yet on allUdes environed with 
mighty Mountains, well watered with Rivers, and fruitful : Chiefer 
Towns are Pampelona, Pcmpelon of Ptel. Strab, & Ant, firft founded by 
Tomfey the Great, after the Wars ended with Sertorius ; a BiHiop s See, 
and Seat of the Viceroys, feated in a Plain upon the River Arga. At 
the Siege of which Ignatius Loyola a Cantabrian, defended it againfl: the 
French, was almoft killed by a wound of his Leg, which occaHon'd a 
New order in the Church, viz. The Society of the Jcfuits ; videMon' 
ferrat in Catalonia, 

2, Viana, The Title of the Navarren Prince. Nigh this place Cafar 
Borgia, Son to Pope Alexander ths Sixth, was flain by an Ambulh. 
Tefie Gmcciardine, 

%, /^i^oriii( is thechiefof the little Countrey called 0W<7, or 0/^^^, 
between Navarr and Bifcay) firft built, or rather re-edified out of the 
Ruins of the ancient Villica of P/o/. Anno 11 80. by SanBius King of 
Navarr, This Countrey is divided into fix Merindida\ or Govern- 
ments, one of which lying on the other Hde of the Vyreneans, is called 
Low Navarr, and is in the hands of the French King. 

The Kbgdom of Cafiilia was at firft named BarduUa, and was the 
moft prevailing Kingdom of all 5p<ii« either by Conqueft or Intermarri- 
ages, divided into Cafiillia la Veia, or old Cafiile, and Cafiillia la Nu'evafiV 
Uew C«/i/;. Chiefer places in Old Cafitle are Burgos, Bravum & Masburg 
Ftol. tefteTarafba,& Bttrgi,once the Royal Seat of the Kings of Calf He, 
now an Archbi(hop*s See. 

Avila, the AbalaofFtol, of which ToBatus, Sirnamed AbuUvfts, was 
Bifliop, who is faid to have writ as many (heets as he lived days. 

Soria is the place where the great Standard of the Kingdom is kept ; 
not far from which, towards the Springs ot the Dmo, ftood fome- 
tiraes that famous Numantia,'m which ^000 Soldiers withftood 40000 
Romans for 14 years, and at laft gathering all their Money, Goods, 
Armour, &c. together, laid them on a Pile, which being fired, they 
atb voluntarily buried themfelves in the flame, leaving 5«/)/o nothing 
ibut the name of Numantia to adorn his Triumph. 



Segovia is the Stguhia of P/«/. Segohia Tim, & Aut. aBi(hop*s See> 
near which yet ftandeth an ancient AqueduA of the Ramans. 

Calabora upon the £^ro was the Calagorina of Ptcl, Calazuris of Strair, 
and Cakgmris of ^»r. a Town of the Vafcones, and oT the Orator 

Logronnio upon the faid River was the Juliohiga of ?toL and J/i- 
liohrica of Plin. .',*.:■. 

New CafiiUy is a Countrey for the moft part Champian and plain^af- 
fording fufficient plenty of Com, FruitSj and other neceifary proviHon. 
Qhiefer Towns are» i. MaJriJ, the Mantua of Ptol. Madritum al.xh^ 
Seat of the Kings of Spairiy and now one of the mofi fair and populous 
places of the Kingdom, well built with good Brick Houfes, many 
having Glafs- Windows, which is very rare in all Spaing the moft 
confiderable Buildings are the Piazza, the Prilbn, the King's Chappel 
and Palace, the Palaces of the Duke of Alva, of Medina. d« los Tor- 
res, &c. The EngUfl) CoUedge of Theatines, U Retire, &c. Out of 
Town, St. Perdo, and the Efcurial, or the Magnificent Monaftry of 
St. Laurence, which is about feven or eight Leagues from Madrid^ 
amongft the Spaniards paiTed for the Eighth Wonder of the World, 
and is faid to have coft King Philiptht Second above twenty Millions 
of Gold ; no great Sutn for a Prince who is faid to have expended 
700 Millions of Gold during his Reign. 

2. Toledo, the Toletum of Plin. ana Ant. then the chief City of the 
Carpetani, mounted upon a fteep and uneven Rock, upon the right 
Ihore of the River Taio, with whofe circling ftreams it is almoft en- 
compafled. By the Goths it was made the Chamber and Royal Seat 
of their Kings. LJnder the Moors it became a petty Kingdom, and their 
ftrongeft hold in thofe parts ; after five years Seige in the year logf. 
recovered by Alphonfus the Sixth, King of Caftik and Leon. Now an : 
Univerfity, an Archbifiiop's See, the richeft in Europe, whofe Bifliop 
is Primate and Chancellor of Spain. 

Alcala dt Henares, is the Complutum ofPtol. and Jnt. an Univerfity 
founded by F. Xmenes^ Cardinal and Archbifhop of Toledo. 

Calatrava upon the River Gaudiana, abandoned by the Templets, and ' 
now;^,ives name to the Order of Knights fo called, confirmed by Pope : 
Mexup.ler the Third, 1 164. 

Alc^-raz. gives name to the Mountainous Trads of Sierra de Alcaraz, 

Cu'-'ca, a Bifliop's St c:, and Seat of the Inquifition, once an Invin- 
cibk* Fo. trefs of . n . Vf^ors ag^inft the Chriftians, yet won from them 
Anno 1177. by itunctiui the becond V ing of Cafiile, 







91 6 

Of Spain. 

Siguema, or Siguefiica, is the Segontia, Strab. Tlin. the Secuntia of Uv, 
^& Stcontia Ant. Segont$ala£ia of Ptol. a City of the Celtiberiy now a Bi- 
/hop's See, having a fair Cathedral. 

The Kingdom of Leon was the firft which the Chriftians eftabliflied 
after the Invafion of the Moors. The City which bears its name, has 
in it a Cathedral famous for its beauty. The Ch.urch of Toledo is mag- 
nified for its Wealth; that of Sevll for its bignels ; that of Salamanca 
for its Strength. The City of Salamanca is honoured with an Univer- 
sity, which has the Privilege to teach the Wbrew, Greeks Arabicky and 
CbalJee Languages : They talk here of the Valley of Vatuegas, lately 
difcovered in the Mountains of this Kingdom, and which was never 
known before from the time of the Moon i ivafion ; difcovered by the. 
occafion of an Hawk of the Duke of Alva's, which was loft amongft 
thofe Mountains : His Servants clambering from one Hill to another 
in fearch of it, at laft happened into a pleafant and large Valley, where 
they fpied a Company of naked Patacoesy or Savage people, hem- 
med in amongft thofe many Rocks or Mountains. And then told 
their Mafter , That inftead of his Hawk, they had found a New 
World in the midft of Spain. Upon further difcovery and enqui- 
ry they were thought to be a remnant of the ancient Spaniards, 
who had hid themfelves amongft thefe Mountains, for fear of the 
'Romans, ' 

Of Catalonia, ani the County of Rouffillon. 

CAtalaunia, rather Catalonia, by the French Catalogne, is varioufly 
derived by Authors ; fome from Gothalonia, ofthoGoths and Ala- 
vi\ fome from the Cafieliani, the old Inhabitants hereof: Others 
from the Cattaloms, who alfo had hcr»;- iheir dwellings ; others 
from thzCattiof Germany , and the Alani ci Sarmatia, nOVf JLithu- 

Paulus Hieronymus aflerts it to be 170 dalian miles long, and 150 
broad : Boterus tells us there is numbred in this Province one Duke- 
dom, viz,. Cardona ; three Marquifates, 1 1 Earldoms, many Baronies 
and Lordfhips, 5-6 Cities, or Walled Towns, and Six hundred thou- 
fand Inhabitants, among which were loooo Fnncb Shepherds and 

Some Authors tell us the Countrey is Hilly, and full of Woods, 
yielding but fmall ftorc of Corn, Wine, and Fruits j fome fay it 
abounds with Corn, Wine, and Oyl. Others tell us it is motQ^. 


riched through itf Maritime Scitiution, than by homebred Commo- 

Chief places are Barcdotia, Barcmnot Ttol. Barebmoo^ Mila und 
Lir, Barctno of Ant. a Roman Colony, firnamed Faventia by Flirt. 
Seated upon the Mediterranean Sea, betwixt the Rivers Batulm and 
Nela, now Bejons and Rubricat, or Lobregat River, won from the 
Moors by Ltvus the Godly, Son to the Emperor Charles the Great, 
It's now a rich and noted Port. A Bifliop's See and Academy ; 
faid to be built by Hamilcar. Ant. Beutb faith it was built by 
Hercules. 'Tis the Seat of the Vice-Roy, and Inquifition for the 
Province. 'Tis beautified with ftately Buildings, both private and 
publick, with delightful Gardens: Its Port hath a Bridge or Mole 
of Seven hundred and fifty Paces into the Sea, for the better fecuring 
of Ships. 

Terragona^ Terracona Strab. & Viol. Terraco Vlin. Mela^ d^ SoUnus^ is 
plc^fantly feated about a Mile from the Mediterranean Sea, upon the 
Eaft of the River Tulcis^ now Francolino, tefte CotjitOj founded by C«. 
and Tub.Scifto during the fecond Punick War; a Repofitory of ancient 
Monuments: FtJ.Nomitfmc. 85'. Afterwards made a Roman Colony, 
and the cheif Town, giving name to the Province Tcrraconen/ls, It 
was An. I'i'ji. an Archbifhop's See, and Academy founded by Car- 
dinal Gajpar Cerven. 

Lerida, Tlerda Ant. Strab, Vtol. Vlin. Lucav. A Bifliop's See and Uni- 
verfity, feated upon the Rivers Sicoris, now Segre, or Segor, and not 
on the River Lingay and the chief City oi Arragon, ( as Heylin faith ) 
Its adjacent Fields are well llored with Vines, Corn, Fruits, and 
Oyl, oftentimes befiegcd by the French, and as often relieved by the 
Spaniards. And is famous for the Encounter which happened nigh un- 
to it, between Hercukjm the Treafurer oiSertorim Army, and ManiU 
lius Proconful of Gtf//;tf, wherein ManilltHs was difcomfired, and his 
Army routed. 

Cerdona'is a Dukedom of the fame Name, where are three things 
remarkable, A Mountain whofe Earth is like Meal or Flower. A 
Fountain whofe Water is of the colour of Red Wine. A Salt of di- 
vers Colours, but if pounded it appears only white. 

Tertoja, by the French Tortofej a Bilhop's See, feated upon the River 
EbrOf Dertofa Vtol. & Ant. DcrtoJJa Strab. Dertttfa Vlin, a Rofna}} Colony, 
JFortified with two Caflles. nde Marin. Siculum. 

Girona, Gerttnda Vtol. Ant. Vlin. a Bilhop's See and Dukedom, givtjs 
Title to the EldeftSonsof the Kings of Arragov, buik by Gaiofi yij 
years after the Flood, tejle Bctttbero. 

<v« ' 

F f 




;2i8 ^ OfSpdin. '■ 

Vicl^i by 7. Mariana^ the -^w/i of P/o/. Cor^w of Zw. T/Vw, & A(\uie 
Vcconia, A Bifhop's See. 'Twas the Rendezvouz of Count Monteriet 
Countrey Militia, when he attempted the relief of Payfarday but the 
paflages were too well fecured by the French, 

Not far from the right (hore of the River Lobregat arifeth the plea- 
fant Mountain E Julius Mons Vtol..& Medulius by others, now Monjer- 
ratoy a noted place for Miracles. Here Ignatius Loyola laid the foundati- 
on of the Society of Jefus, Amo 1^22. This Mountain is faid to be 
two Miles high, and four Miles in Circumference, ftuck full with 
Anchorets Cells, and honoured with a much frequented Chappel 
and Image of the Bleffed Virgin ; whofe ravifhing defcription read in , 
Nonius Bibliothec. Hifp. and in Zetlers Defcription of the place, in his 
Iteneries of Sfain. 

Rofas, or Rcfes, the RboJa of Pfol. and Rodope of Strab, founded 
by the Emporites or Rbodiansj under the Vyrenean Mountains j a ftrong 

Tuig de Cerday or Puigcerda, by the French Puicerdan, is the chief 
Town of the Carotani ; jugtiTn Carr-tanorum near the Pyrenean Moun- 
tains, upon the River Segre & Sicoris, one League diftant frofti 

Llivia, Livia by Julian, Toletanus de expeditione Watnba Regis Jotbo-' 
rum, Julia Libyca Ptol. & Plin, Linca, or Linz^a Florian j by others 
Jnfa ; in Sheldens Manufcript, AiiMKet, 

Campredon, a Walled Town, near the Springs of the River 7rr, of 
Old Sambraca, the Sebendunum of Ptol. Jonquera by the French^ Jun- 
auera by the Inhabitants; Juncaria Ant.Cf* Plin. TtfVKeteict'mSheL Manu- 
fcript, "'tis in the little County of Ampurdan, near the PaiTage of Le 
C»lde partus. 

Cap de Cruex by Florian W the Apbroditium of PtoLTemplum Veneris, 
<^ Venus Pyrenaa of Strab. & Plin. Partus Veneris Mela\ but Baud, tells 
US, that Port r(?»m/is now called PonVendns, five Leagues diftant 
from Apbrodtfium Prom. 

Cadaques near Rofes^ is the Cap de Quires of the Gazette, i68|. 
Balaguer, BaUegarium in Scriptis Hifp. by others Bergufin, feated upon 
the Rivsr Segre. and is famous for the Siege of the French ^ i64f. 



Of Spdift. 


" Of the County of Rouffillon. 

ROuffil'ton by the Fr<?«c/6, is included betwixt two Branches oF the 
Vyrevaan Mountains, beginning at the Mountain Cano\ The 
one extending to Colibre and C. de Creux, a Promontory that is the 
furthefl: point Eaftward of Catalonia ; the other Branch running out 
unto Salfas, This Country was pawned by John King of Arra- 
gon , 1462. to Lewis the iitb. of France^ for 500000 Crowns ; 
and reftored to Ferdinand the Catholick, by Charles the 8r-6, 1495. 
that he might not be hindred in his Journey to Naples, Ttfie 

Francis the firft. King of Fy<»»c^,parily to requite the Emperor C^^r/ex 
the ^tb. for the War he made in Provence, and to get into his hands 
Pcrp/^»dfw, one of the Doors of 5;>oi», fenthis Son Henry with an Ar- 
my to force it, y^». I f 42. but the Town was well fordficd, fo brave- 
ly manned, and fo well llored,that this Journey proved as dishonoura- 
ble to the French, as the Invafion of Proverce, and the Siege of Mar* 
feUes had been to the Emperor. 

Places of moft Note, are Perpignan, '^apirianum & Verpinianum. huWz 
out of the Ruins of Rufcimmi An. 1068. by G«i«^r^ Earl of RouJJll- 
/{)»,feated in a pleafant Plain upon the River Thdis or Thetis, a. rich and 
flourifliing Empory, and a flronghold againft the French, till the ye^i 
1642. Vide T^omium d^ M^rianum. 

CoUiure & Colibre, by the French CoUioure, EHeberri Mela, EUibsris Vhv. 
Ihberis Livi, lileris Ptol. Illyber^ Strab. 

Elna, by the French Elne ; Helena, of the Ancients, feafed upon the 
River Tech, once an Epifcopal Sec, but in An. 1604. it was tranfiated 
by Clement the 8//;. to Perpgnan. 

Cerat, Ceretum, near the River Ttch, was the meeting-place of the 
French and Spaniards Commiffioners, for regulating -^the limits and 
bounds of their Kingiloms, Anno 1660. 

BeHagardia is a ftrong place, often taken and retaken by the Frencft 
and Spaniards, feated near the entrance of Perttts into Catalonia. 

Sal, Salfufa oi Mela and Ant. taken by the French, 1640. 

Between France and Spain, are the Pyrenai Mantes, which tieth Spain 
to the Continent. The Cantabrian Ocean fiercely beating on the Well, 
and the Mediterranean gently wafliihg the Eaft ends of them ; the 
higheft pare whereof is Mount Canus, upon which in a clear day may 
be fcen both the Seas : The French fide of thefe Hills are faid to be 

F f 2 Naked 



aae Of Sptin. 

Naked and Barren; the 5;>^«i/3[» very fertile, and adorned with Trees. 
Here was Rovce Falles, fo famous for the Battel betwixt the Fyencb and 
the Moors, m which Rowland, Coufin to Charles the Great, Oliver, 
and others of the Peers of France, were put to the Rout, and zoqoo 
of the French, 

The other Dominions of the King o^ Spain, next to France, are the 
Spanijh Provinces, or Flanders, and the French County, Conquered in 
part by the King of France. In Ifa/y theDutchy of Aiilan^ Final, Or-^ 
bite'Jo, the Prote<Jtion of Piombino and Vcrto Lotigone, the Kingdoms of 
Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia, &c. In Africa, Oran, Marfel^uiver, Mel- 
iilla, Pennon de Felez,, Ceuta, and thelfle Pantalarea, all along the Coaft 
of Barbary^ upon the Mediterranean Sea. To which we muft add the 
Philipine Iflands in Jfia, and the grcatelt part of thi Iflandsand Con- 
tinent in America, - 










Of Portugal 


TJc»^«?'»^ is a Kingdom of above five hundred years Eref^ion^in the 
It f'^<(if^» part of Spam, anciently called Lu/ttaniaytaking the prefent 
KaHvT from Porto, a Haven-Town at the Mouth of the Dueras, where 
the Gaiili ufed to Land, and therefore called PortmGalhrHm, andnnce 


Qf TortugaL 



Tortugal; (Jradier from Portm and Cale^ then a ftnall Village not far 
fiom it ^ owcfl^Portus Cai^Jts, ridW Portugal.. The length of it 
'/from SouthJtQlNortfi is itboilt nxfcore Leigues. The breadth there- 
of about 2^ or 30 Leagues^ and in (bme places hfty. It is (eated up- 
on the Ocean. 

The Experience of the Inhabitants in Navigation^ has caufed their 
Kings to he kno^^n in all the four Quarters of the World ; where they 
ha?e^ had many Kings their Vaflals: asalfo the convenience of bring- 
ing into £«r0f«> the mbft rare and precious Merchandizes of the EaJ^. 
l&it Cbnquefts have extended above fiyethoufand Leagues upon the 
Coailof BrazHe, and in the Bafi-lndies, their defign being only Trade. 
It is true, that of late for feveral years they have not made any great 
Progre^, or faither Advantage, by reafon of their War with S^aw, 
and the gccat Garifons ^^ ) ~'^ 'hey are forced to keep againft the Hoi- 
lander, which hascau(ed the. furrender fome Places into the hands 
of the £is£/i/)Ei upon the Royai ^^atch between Portugal md England, 
viz. Tangier and Bombay. 

The Provinces of Portttgal have all their particular Commodities ; 
f^ey afford among other things (lore of Citrons , and excellent 

They have fome Mines ; for the Greeks and Row^ws fought in Portu- 
gal for that Wealth which the Poriuguezes fearchfor in the Indies. They 
ate fo wdt Peopled, efoecially toward the Sea, that there are to be rec- 
koned above fix hundred privileg'd Towns, and above four thoufand 
Parifhes. The Roman Catiiolick Religion only is profefled there ; and 
thofe that are of the Race of the jeTt/s, are forc'd to baptize their Chil- 

There are three Archbifhopricks, Lisbm, Braga and Evora ; and ten 
Bifliopricks ; the Archbilhops of Lisbon and Braga^ have each of them 
200000 Livres Rent. There are InquiHtions at Lisbony at Coimhra, 
and at Evora ; and Parliaments at Usbon and Porto, places of general 
Receipt of the Kings Revenue, Twenty feven Places have their Ge- 
jieralities, which are called Comanjuesy or Almoxanfates. The Order 
of Chrift that refides utTomaryM the moO ccnilderable wliichrhey have. 
The Kings are Grand Mafters thereof; for upon that Order depends 
all their Conquelts from abroad. The Knights wear a red Crofs, and 
a white one in the middle, whereas the Knights of Avts wear a Green 
Crofs, and thofe of St. James a Red one, who have their Refidence 
AiPaltndla near io^etuval. It is faid chat the Revenue of the Kingdom, 
fetting afide riiat cf the Indies ^ amounts to above ten Millions of 



Of Ptfriu^aC- 12^ 

Ifi the Year 1640. this Kingdom revolted from the King of 5^<ii», 
And at that time it was an admirable thing toconfider, tbata Secret of 
fo great importance (hould becarry'd on with fuch an exaft Secrecy 
among above two hundred Perfons, and for the fpaee of a whole year : 
The principal motives to this Revolt was, for that the King of Spai» 
gave leave toothers befides the Per;«5<?/j, toTraffickinto th& Eafi-hMes, 
together with the Tribute of the fixth part, which the King caus'd to 
be publilhed in the Year 16^6. whereby he exaded dye per Cent, of all 
the Revenues and Merchandizesof the Kingdom. It confiftsof fixPro-^ 
vinces,which areas manyGeneral Governments,E»/r«-jDo«roand Minho, 
Jralos Monies i Beyra, Efirema dura, Alenfeio,znd the Kingdom of Algarve, 
Etiire'Dauro and Minbo, is the molt delicious part, and fo well Peopled, 
that for 18 Leagues in length, and 12 in breadth, it contains above 
1:50 Monafteries well endow'd, 1460 Parifiies, jooo Fountains of 
Spring- water, two hundred Stone Bridges, and Six Sea- ports ; 
fomecalt it the Delight and Marrow of Spain. Porto by the Dutch, and 
by the Engltfh Port-a-Port ; a City, containing about 4000 Houfes, is 
a place of great Trade; and Braga, i> ^.cariaAuguftaofPtoL Bracaraoi 
Ant. and Braca oiPlin. isrenown'dfor the feveral Councils that have 
been held there, and for the pretenHon of the Archbifhop, who claims 
to be Archbifliop oi !i\\.7rales-Montes,\s{ioted with Mines,and adorn'd 
with the City of Braganza the Capital of a Dukedom of 40000 Duckets 
Revenue, wherein there are alfo fifty little Towns, and other Lands, . 
which Entitle the 'Duke oi Braganza to be three times aMarquifs,(even 
times an Earl, and many more times to be a Lord. The Princes of 
that Name, who are now in poffeffion of the Crown, ufually rcfided ' 
at Villa Vimofa ; and had a Prerogative beyond the Grandees of Spain, 
to fit in publick under the Royal Canopy of the Kings of Spain^ 
Beyra is fertile in Rye, Millet, Apples and Chefiiuts ; Her City of Co/w- 
bra, formerly theRefidence of Alphonfm thefirft King of Portugal, who 
enjoyed a longer Soveraignty than any Prince fince the beginning of the 
Roman Monarchy attained to, faith Heylen ; SaporesthQ Son of Mif dales • 
King of Perfia, whofe Father dying, left his Mother with Child, and * 
the Perfian Nobility fetthe Crown on his Mother's Belly before (he was 
quick, came fhort of him by two years ; is famous for the Univerfity, 
and for the Biihoprick. which is reckoned to be worth above a hundred ' 
thoufandLivres of Annual Rent. Edremadura produces Wine, Oyl, Salt 
and Honey, which the Bees there make of Citron Flowers and Rofes. 
Her City of Lisbon, Oltofippon of Ptol. Olijtppon of Ant, Oly/ippo Solpus, . 
and Olyfipo of Pliny, a Municipium of the Romans, S'lrnamed Faltcitas 
Julia, the Rdyal Seat of the Kings of Portugal, an Archbilhop's See, 




J ' 


■♦ ' 

SS4 Of rcrtugdl. 

ths Refidcttce oFthe Vice-Roys, a flourifliing Empory ; fcituated up- 
on five riling Hills upon the right Shore of the River Ta^Vy Tnjo Inco- 
lis, about y miles from the Ocean, having the advantage of the Eb- 
bing and Flowing of the Sea. It it faid to contain ;2 Parifh-Churches, 
^$o Streets, iiooo Dwelling- Houfes, 160000 Inhabitants, befides 
Church-men, Strangers and Courtiers ; and with the Suburbs, about 
7 miles in compafs ; the Capital City in all the Kingdom, one of the 
faireft, richeft, thebiggeft and beft peopled of Europe, The little Town 
ofBelem, which is neaf to it, is the Buryng- place of many of the Kings 
of Portugal. Sentarim is fo happy in the great number of Olives that 
grow round about it, that the Natives boaft that they could make a Ri- 
ver of their Oyl as big as tagus. It was the Scabalifcus of Vtol. the 
Scabalis of Ant. and Tlinyy Sirnamed Frafidium Julium, then a Roman 
Colony, and a Juridicial Refort, named from St. /r^we, a Nun of To- 
9ftar, here martyred and enfhrined. Setuhal, the Salatia of ?tol, is well 
fcituated, and well built, and is a Town of good Trade j ' it is the beft 
Haven in all the Kingdom, 30 miles long, and 5 broad j her Salt-pits, 
and her Wines, by what the ' relate , bring a greater Reve- 
nue to their King, than all Arragon to the King of Sfain. Menteio pafles 
for the Granary of Pertugnl^ by reafon of the Corn which it produces. 
The City oiEvcra claims the next place in Dignity to Lisbov, In the 
Year 1663. the overthrew the Sfaniards in a memc^able 
Battel near to this City. E/v^ is famous for its excccllent Oyls, and 
for the Seiges that it has profperoufly held out againft the Spaniards. 
Ourieiue is the place where was vjught that famous Battel which occa- 
fioned the Proclaiming of the firft King of Pcrtttgal'^ Portekgre is a Bi- 
* (hop's See ; Beja is fuppofed to be the Pax J^^li^ of Plin. and Ptd. Al- 
garvcj though fmall in extent, it aflumes theTitle of a Kingdom, and 
was re-united to the Crown by the Marriage of Alphonjm the Hid 
with BeatrictofCafiiki It produces Eggs,01iv«s, Almonds and Wines, 
which are very much efteemed ; and indeed the word Alga-bia in the 
Language of the Moors, fignifies a fruitful Campaign. 

Chief Towns iXQjTavila, or Ta'viraytht Balfa of Ptcf. and Plin, Faro 
is feated near the Cumnm Promontorium^ now Capo St, de Maria. Stive's 
is the Ancient OjJ'aiufba of PtoL thtOnoba of Mela, the Scvaba of Strabo, 
by the Mvors, Excuba by the Spaniards, Ejfoyy by fome Eficmber. Lagits 
is leated near the Promontorium Sicrum of Stmb. and Vtnl novv Cape 
St.r;»cf«f,from the Relicks of the Holy Martyr brought from Vahn'ia, 
by the perfecuted ChrifHans, flying the Cruelty of Abdarrabman, the 
firft King of the Spanish Moors j removed afterwards to Lisbon by King 





B .^t^man 

C . ..Vattfin 
D..^ilan . 
£ . CenaxL 

H . Vinice . 
I . I stria, . 
"L, .Xucca. . 
M.jlTTifcana. < 
N. State fff^ 
O .iT^plts 



once E 
Hcious < 
it is noi 



I Tab Anzlis, Italia IncoJis & Hifianis^ Italic OaUis, Weljcblandt Getmanis^ 
miskaZemia, Polonis,Ulofka,Sclavonice ; called alfo by the AncientF, 
Moniay Camefena,Oenotria,Hefperia, Jankula.SaUumhma^^^^ 
once Emprefs of the theo known World jftiU the faireft and moft do. 
Hcious Country oiMurofe. After fo long time, fo many Ages elapfed, 
it is not certainly decided who were herfirft Inhabitants j nor whether 

G g lome 

|[ n 

J-. ' 



Of Italy. 



\ .1, 

I • 

i \- 

fome one Nation did planHiere, after the Conftrfiofi of 5<»^f/j or that 
It was peopled by Hftltf -arvd little, ai feveraJ Nations did arrive ; 'tis 
equally dubious, whether it received its general Name at firft, or whe- 
ther particular Parts I^ firft their Apellations : 'Tis certain, that fe- 
veral Nations, at fundry times, did tranfporc themfelves thither from 
.GVcfc^jand peopled all the Sea-Coaft, faid tohQ J tims, An, Mun. 192 y. 
after whohi came 5«r«r« out oiCteet^ Evander, or Oenotrus out of Arca- 
' dia-j with'^ their Followers ; after them arrived fome Trojans^ under the 
"!C0ndu(5tof e/£w4/i whofe kind entertainment by Z.<if/«»f Kingofthe 
" Latins f occafioned the Wars between him and Turnusj King of the R«- 
tuli ; but after the Romans grew potent, all Italy fell under their Sub- 
jection until the time of Honorimi after wich leveral barbarous Na- 
tions, wss GothsjVandals, HeruleSjAndi the Hunsj pading the Mpj over- 
rifan all Italy^ and divided it into feveral Kingdoms. And when thefe 
'^ere ejected, or at leaft fubdued by the Lieutenants of the Emperor 
Juflinian, it was once more united to the Empire, till the Eraprefs5(j- 
;/&?/» envying Narjis's Honour, re called him from his Government ; 
whereupgn he opened the PafTage of the Country to ^/^fl»i«j King of 
the Lombards, whopofleffed themfelves of that Country, calling it by 
their own Name Lorgobardia, Thefe were at' length fubdued by Tetin 
King of Fr/?we, whp was called into Italy by the Bifliopof JRowf. Aicer 
that the Seat of the Roman Empire being fixed in Germany, Italy was 
reduced into feveral Parcels and Fadions/o that theSoveraign Princes 
thereof at this day, are 

'v'i. The Pope, FontifexMaximuf, under whofe Dominion are thefe 
Provinces orEftates, viz. Campania yRomania, Sabina,Vrovincia Patrimonii 
St. Fetri, Umhria, Marcbia Anconitana, Ducatus Cafinnjisy Territoria Ori* 
vetanum^ Feruftum, & Civitatis Cafielli, Vucatm Urkini, Romandiola, Bo- 
wnienfis A£er,& Ducatus Ferrarienfis, 

a. The King of Spain, Rex Hijpania, to whom belongs Regnum Nea- 
folitanum, Sicilia, Sardinia, Ducatus Mediolanenfs, Marcbionatus Finarii 
in Liguria, with others upon the Coafhof Tujcany, viz, Orbetellum, & 
tratlms adjacens, called by the Inhabitants, 5r<«/c deSi frefidii, Principatus 
Plumbinii & I'ta infitla, IJJe de Elbe. 

; . The Venetians ^ or Refublica Veneta^ under whofe Dominion are,^ 
Jfiria, Fciro^Juliam, Marcbia Tatvifina, & Ducatus Venetus, Fulgo ie Dc- 
gado, Territoria Patavinum, BUdi^tnum, Vicentinum, Veronenje, Brixiti^ 
wum, BeiTotaet^e, <^ Cremtn^.. 

•• j^. DmiiC 01 Savoy, Du/uttMiSaiaudia, to whom belongs Principatui 
ftdtmontium, and part qf Duatm Montis Ferrati^ &ComitatusNicdea. 

f. The 

Of luly. 


f. The Great Duke olcTufcany^ Magnus Dux Uetwriajc gente Mediceat 
under whom is the greater part of Heturia, viz. Fioretitinay Pifatia ^ 
SenenfisyCumVetiliano, now VoteglianOy &_ Apua, now Ponte Molt. As alfo 
the Iflands Gorgonay Igiliunti now il GigliOy Gianutumj Mom Cbrifti, &C. 
and Argom Tort us ^ now Porto Ferraio, or P. Ferraro, in the He Elhcy in 
Mart Tyrrbeno, 

6. The Genoansj or Reg>uhlica Gemenfis, upon the Coaft of Mare 
£/f«y?;V«w, to whom belongs affo C«»»;/8r4, & Capraria hfula, 

7. Dux Mantuanus e gente GorttagayKLjjdQT whom is Ducatus Mantua' 
Kus, and the greater part of Ducatus Montis Ferrati. 

8. Dux Mutimnfis e gente Efieft/tf under whom is Ducatus Mutinen- 
fisf & RbegienJtSf Principatus Carpe»fis,(^ CorregUn/ts, cum Er'mianaji, and 
great part of Carferoniana, or Carfagnana, x( ' ,, ■ > 

9. Dux Permenfis e gente Fame/ta, who enjoyeth Ducatus Permfips & 
Placentinusy Ditto Bujfetana, and great part of Principatut Vallis tari» 

10. Lucca, or Refpuhlica Lucenjisy in Heturia. 

11. Dux Majfa e gente Cibo, containing Ducatus MaJJ'a^& Principa- 
tus Carfaria, in Heturia, 

12. Duix Mirandulanus e gente pica, containing Ducatus MiranJuU 
C^^tuf Concotdia. ,m.>''^->\ 

13. Dux G aft alia e gente Gonx,aga. Under whom is Ducat fj; Zua^ 
fiatle,cum^Luz,ava^ Juzava, " f 

14. DuxSabulonetay\iTiAttth<ilin^\X\\oriQtSpain. \ ,, * 
1^* PrincepCafilionii h gente Gonz,aga, 


16, Princes Sulpburini S gente GoHzaga. 




17. Princips Moneeci e gente Grimald^, under the ProtecSfcion ot'France, 

1 8. Princeps Mafferina e gente Ferrer ia Flifiay& .MarcbionatuiCrepacorii. 

19. Princeps Plumbini e gente Ludovifta, containing Principatus Plum- 
hini & Ilua Infula, now Elbe Ificy under the Dominion of Spain, 

20. Comes Novellaria e gente Gonzaga, 

21. Refpublica S, Marini, Marcbio Fofdinovi e gente Malas-pina, in 
Valle Magra. 

22. Marcbio Montenps : Under whom is Marcbionatus Montis SanBa 

2;. Marcbic Spigni e gente Carenta, 

The Emperor of Germany has Aquilea, and the Country of GoritZy 
as alfo terge^e, Pedana & Pi/wo in Iftria. The King of France hath Fig' 
neroly with its Dependencies ; Now reftored by the Treaty of Refufick. 

Epifcopus Tridentinusy is under the Dominion of the Count of Tirol. 

Laftly, The Swijfes have four Italian Prefcdures, viz. Lu^any Lo' 
carny Mendrijia, und Madia, which before the Year iyi2. did belong 
to the Dutchy of Milan, G g 2 Of 





Of Helvetia, or 5ci&»?i 



This Count ryy which fiould have fottowed Germany , being 
m'tfpUeed in the Copy t is therefore here inserted, 

AT what time this whole Mountainous TracSf, containing many 
feveral Nations^ was comprehended under the general Name of 
Hehetiifthty were grown to fo great a Multitude, by a long Peace, 
and want of Traffiquc, that the Country, being barren, was no longer 
able to maintain them ; fo that fetting fire to their own Towns, they re- 
vived to feek oat new Dwellings; but their palTage being ftopp'dby 

1 "■■■ 

•»*.., -»v«.f.. 11, 

Of theSwiffes: 


Cafar, he fo wafted them by Civeral Defeats, that they were forced 
to crave.leave to return into their own deftroyed Country r After this, 
they continued Members of the Roman Empire, till Conquered in tlve 
times of Ho»or/«/ and Vaknt'mian, by the Burgundians and Almainsy be- 
twixt whom it was divided j after taken by the Fvench, it was made a 
part of the Kingdom of Burgundy ^ and at length by degrees brought 
under the Power of the Houfe of yiuftria^ by the forre of the Emperor 
Alberty the Son of Rodelph of Hafpurg : But the People being over- 
burthened by the Oppreffion of their Governors, taking occafion by 
thePadions of the Empire, and theweaknefsof the Aujtrian Family, 
they contra(aed a League offenfive and Defenfive, for prefervation of 
their Liberty ; into which entered thofe of Sivitz,^ Uren and Under- 
paid 1308. more ftridtly 131 y. To thefe joined Z.««r», 1332. Zu" 
rich, 13 5" I. Claris f Beamy and Zug^ 13 fi. Friburg and Soloturn, 148 1. 
Ba/tl ind Scbaflaufen J I ^01, Appenz,eely if 13. Called 5M'if%, from the 
name of the Village where firft began this Confederacy , or becaufe 
the nroftJFamous and moft Potent of them j not all united into one 
Confedera^lot^ till the Year ip3- Of no great Reputation till the 
War made upon^ them by Charles Duke of Burgundy y whom they de- 
feated in. three Battels at Granfony Moraty and Nancy. 

This Country is in length about 240 miles, and 15*0 in breadth; 
very Mountainous, affording Deer , Wild Goats, and Bears. The 
lower parts of thefe Mountains afford rich Meadows, and nouriihing 
Paftures for Cattel, wherein confifts their greateft Wealth. In fome 
places they have gpdd Wines and Corn, if the Care and Induftry of 
the HusbandmaiTDe not wanting. This is faid to be the higheO^ Coun^ 
try in all Europe; yet is no place more ftored with Lakes, and the rile 
01 iirofe famous Rivers, which run through all pares thereof, viz,. The 
Rhine Northward, through the 17 Provinces ; the Danube Eaftward, 
through Germany, Hungary ; the ?oe Southward, through Italy j and 
the it«></<»««i Weft ward through Fy<«»«. 

As the Soil, fuch are the Inhabitants, of rude and rugged Difpofi- 
tions, more fit for Arms than Civil Occupations; (erving any Prince 
that will hire them. In a word, they are tall, well prop, icioned, 
and ftrong ; naturally honeft,frugal, and induftrious ; greai lovers of 
their Liberty. 

As for the Body of their State, icconfifts of three diftind Parts, 'viz,. 
I. TYiQSchwitz^ers. 2. The 6V<»rfj which are Confederate with them. 
3. The Prefe6iuresy which are Stibjc(5lsto ih^Scb-witz^ers. 

The Schwi:z.ers are camprehended in 1 3 Cantom, viz. Suitia Sivitz-, 
UriaUren/ZranJilvania Underpaid fLuaria LticertiyTugittm Zug.Berna Bern^ 




Of thtSm^es, 

Tigurum Zurich^ BafiUa Bafel, Frilmilguffi Frihurg, SahJorum Stlotur»f 
Abbatts-tella Appenz,eel, Glarona Glaritz,^ Scafhufia ScMfbanfen. Thcfe 
make the Body of that Commonwealth^ enjoying many Rights and 
Privileges, which the others do not. 

• The fecond Member is made up of the T5wns and States Confede- 
rates with them for the Prefervation of their Liberties, viz,. The Rhx- 
tti or GrijonSi who in the year ^49 8, united in a perpetual League with 
Urerij Switz., Urt/iertvaU, Lucerrty Zuricby Glaritz, and Zug. 

The FaUjfi, P^aUife^ or Waliflandy who in the year lyj?- entred in- 
to Lengue with the feven Catholick Cantons. 

The Town of St. G<»/, in the year 14^4. obtained the Prote<5lion 
and Confederacy of the fix Cantons of Zurich, Bern, Lucern, SwitZy 
Zugf and Glaritz. The Abhot of St. Gal only with Zurich, Lucern, 
Switz and Glaritz. 

Mulhaufvn & Mulhu/ium, & Arialbinum Ant, te(te SimUrOy in AlfatiaySL 
Town Imperial, joyned in a perpetual League with all the Switzers, 

Rotweil& RotavilUf in Suavia, a Town- Imperial not far from the 
head of the £><7»<i2^, united 1 5" 1 9. with all the Cantons. v^.«. 

Bienna, Bienne tefle Baudrand, rather Biel, upon the M/er-Lake, was 
taken into the League with Bern, 1 ^47. 

Neocomium, Neufcbajlel GaUis, Novemburg Germ, with Berny Lucerh, 
and Friburg. 

Geneva, firft with Friburgy then with Bern and Zurich, ..' .. ' 

As for the Prefedures of the Soifitzers, they are fuch leffer Parcels 
and Addittaments, as have arrived to their State, and are fubjed to 
their Authority, either by Gift, Purchafe or War, viz, theTownand 
Countrey o(Baden,Bremgarten,Mellingen,Raperfvila or RaperchfwilL The 
free Provinces of IVagenthal, The County of Turgow, al. Turgea, The 
Countrey and Tawn of Sargam and fValenfat. The Prefedorlhip of 
Rheineck. The Vallies of Locarn, Lugan, Mtndrifi, and Madta. The Bai- 
liagesof Belinzova, Gajleren and Ulzenach. QiGranfon,Morat, and Orke, 
and Schwartzemburgy and the Count Verdemburg, All which Cantons 
as well as their Allies, are asfo many diftind Commonwealths, Go- 
verned by their Magiftrates, and independent upon one another. 
They have two forts of Religion amongftthem, the.Roman Catholick 
and the Proteftant : The Catholick Cantons are five,or as fome count, 
feven; the fire Cantons are, Uri, Switz^ Underwald, Lucern, and Zug: 
They that reckon feven add Friburg and Soleuri. But Zurich, Bern, Ba- 
fil and Scafoufe, are Protedant ; Glans and Appenzd are Proteftants and 
Papids mix'd together : The Catholick Cantons aflemble at Lucern, 


of the Swiffes. 13T 

and theProteftant Cantons at Afa'tv. TheGeneral AnTemblies are held 
yearly at Ba^en, which bears that Name from her Hachs. Everv C an- 
ion is free to engage where it fees convenient. Among all thcfe Cnn- 
tonr>, Zurich has the Precedency : Bern is the moft Powerful. Bafil has 
the fineft City, the Refidence, and the Rendezvous of fevcral learned 
men. The Canton of Seafbattfm has a City, famous for Trade; and in 
Solotvrn ftands a City of the fame Name, where the moft Cliriftian 
King's Ambaifador refides. Vren^ Sv^itz., UndefwaU, Glaruj and 
yippenz.<l have only Burroughs: The Order of the 13 Cantons, ac- 
cording to their Precedency, is Zurich, Btm, Lucerriy Uren, Swttz, Un- 
AtrWfildy Zugy Claris f Bafil, Frihurg^ Solotura, Scafhaufen and Appenz.el, 

Amongft die Allies of the Cantons, the Grijionsuve the moft Powerful 
of all. Their City of Coir* is the place whither the Merchandizes of 
Itsly and Germany Are brought, by reafon of its Scituation upon the 
Rhine, which in that place begins to grow Navigable. 

The Chief Cities in thefe Cantons, are Zurich, the Tigurium 0^ Caf, 
& Liv. pleafantly fcituate at the end of a Laite called Zuricb-Sc3i, or 
Ttgurinun Lacum, divided almoft into two equal parts by the River 
I Ligamm, which runs out of the Lake, but joyned together by two 

Bridges. The Houfes built of Timber, and Painted, many four or five 
ftories high. The Streets narrow, but paved with Flints and Pebbles. 
*Tis well Fortified, befides the Wall, with good Earth;Works and 
Trenches. It hath a Univerfity. Its Citizens are Rich, given to Mer- 
chandife, Bufie and Induftrious. To this belongs the Power and Autho- 
rity of fummoning the General Diets^ and having the firft place in both 

. Near Zurich was Zuinglim flain, aged 44 years, whofe Heart re- 
mained whole in the midft of the Fire, after his Body was confumed.. 
As alfo the Heart of Biihop Cranmer in England, as 'tis reported. 

Below Zurich upon the Ligamuf, enjoying a moft happy and plea- 
fant Scituation, lieth the Town of Baden, named thus from the hot 
Baths thereof, beautified with fair Buildings. The Seat of their Ge- 
heral Diets ; much frequented and reforted to alfo for its publick 
and private Baths, not fo much for Health as Pleafure. The chiefeft 
Virtue, is the quickning Power they have upon barren Women ; for 
here the Men and Women promifcuoufly wafh together, and which is 
worft, in private too. 

Bafil Afig. Bafil Germ. Bafie Gal. Bafilea Ital. Bafilia Merccl The Arial 
binum o^ Ant. tefle Cluver& Sanfon, A City large and fair. The Houfes 
built of Stone for the moft part, and painted, compafted with a dou- 
ble Wall and Trench, Rich and Populous. The River Rhine divides^ 





it into two parts, which are jpiocd together by a Bridge of fourteen 
. Arches. In this City are faid to be^oo Fountains. It gives Title to 
a Bi(hop, who is notfuffered to lodge in the Town one Night. Spanta^ 
lus an Englfi-msin was the firft Bifliop here. 'Tis an University found- 
ed by Pope P*«f the a</. 

Here was Erafmus buried; and here was held that Council, where 
.it was decreed that a General Council was above the Pope, An. 14; i. 
Near hereunto is the Village Aug^^ where ftood the City Au^t^a, 
. Rauracon,PtoL RauriacaofPlin. and Bajflia &Civitas, Befilienfiumo^ Ant. 
Bern J feated upon the Aaty with thofe Streams, Ifland-Hke, it is al- 
;nioft round encompafTed ; on that fide which is net, it is ftrongly fbr- 
Hiiied with Baftions and Outworks. 'Tis buil2 of Stone, and hath 
one long Street, with narrow Porticoes, or Clcyfters, on both Hdes. 
The great Church is oneof thehandfotneftStonc-FabricksinaUiSac'ff- 
Lttcetn is feated upon both fides of the River llufs, iiluihg forth cf 
the Lake Lucem and IValfietten'Sea, untixCxty, and plealantly feated; 
it hath four Bridges oyer the Rufs^ one fot Carts, the othsr Foot- 
Bridges, one liear a quarter of a mile long. The great Church ftands 
without the City- Wall, and is noted for its great Organ. The City is 
well traded, and much frequent.:d by Strangers, being the ordinary 
^Road between Italy And Germam, and the Rendezvous of their Mcr- 
. chandife palling that way. 

Altrof, arf open Village, is the chief of the Canton of Ureni The 
Village of .S3t//f!& gave name to the Countrey. ^j^nri&is thechiefof 
the C-nton oi Underpaid. Claris gives Name to that Canton. Zur^ is 
a Waiied Town upon the left Shore of the Zugen-Sa, Appenz^lwis 
Ibmetimes ths Seat of the Abbots of St, Gal, then Lords of the Coun- 
trey : now gives Name to the Canton. Soleturn, Solothurum of Ant, 
lipon the A(.r, was 'the place of Martyrdcns of Urftfs and his 66 The- 
ban Soldiers, in the Reign of the Emperor Diockfian. Frihmg upon 
the River Ban:.j is a handlbme Town, and Head of the Canton. 
. Scaf-bauftn i 5 feated upon the Kviqt Rhine, where all Boats and 
ploats that co.T:e down the River, unload becaafe of the CataradI: 
cr precipitous Defcentof the Rhwe at iVaJfarfal, Here,as at Zuricbgthe 
CiriLcns wear Swords when they go abroad. 

Chief Town? of the Confederate Eftates, are Geneva Caf, Genems 
Ital. Ge-ff Girjp. is pleafantly feated at th© lower end of the Lake 
Ltm.mus, p'^'v ^Gerffcrzse, or the Lake of Genx'va, divided by the River 
Khiiicn into two p.irts, which are joyned together by two Wooden 
I3i idgt^s, (hongand well furcincd with Ramparts and Baftionsof Earth; 
. ., ,, - and 


''.*., •,( ':■'.< 


Of the Smffej. «J3 

and we!! governed, wliere Vice is difcountenanced, yet Sports and 
Exercifes allowed upon the Lord's Day j the People Indultrious in 
Trading, and Provifions plentiful. Lofanne, Laufanna, the Laujonium 
jint. is a great Town and Univerfity upon Lacm Lamant. 

Coira vel Carta Ital Cbur Incolist Curia Ant.d^ Diac, is the Capital Ci' 
tyof the Gr//o»;, alrroft environed with Mountains, a Bifliop'sSee, 
whofe Inhabitants are all Proteftants, except the Bi(hop, who hath no- 
thing to do in the Government of it, yet Coins Money, which is 
currant there. This Rhatia, or Country of the Grifinsj is divided 
into three parts, i. Lega Delia, Cafa Dio, or Fadus Dootus Dei. 2. Leg>f 
Grifa. 3. Died Dritture^ov Fee Jus decern Jurifdi^ionum. 

Sion Ital. Sitten Gtr, Sedunum Caf. d^ Vlin. is the chief To woof /^/tf- 
fi.e or Wallijlands, rea chi ng along the Courfe of the Rbojne. A^Hiop's 
See, fcated upon the Rbojne in a Plain, undsrafteep biforked Moun- 
tain, fpiring up in manner of two high and precipitous Rocks; upon 
the top of the one is the Cathedral Church, and the Houfesof the Ca- 
ni.ns upon the other, which is much higher. The ftrong Caftle called 
7byrhiley inSummer-timc, the pleafant Recefs of the Bifhops, the Key 
of the Countrey. ' ■ 

Martenach is the QBodurus of Caf. & Civit. Vale72(tum /^nt. St. Mauritz, 
Jgaurutfjy now S^. Moritz, clofcd with a Caftle, and two Gates upon 
the Bridge, and the Mountains which (hut up the Countrey, which is 
within niofl: pleafant, fruitful, and happy in Corn, and excellent Pa- 
fture; where is alfo Salt Springs difcovjered, ./Inm 1^44. ncnv Siften, 
Alfo divers Fountains of hoc Medicinal Waters. Without, the Coun- 
try is environed wich a continual Wall of horrid and ileep Mountains. 
Thefurprifeof it alarmed a\\ Europe, whenfeized upon by the Count 
Fuentesy for the King of Spaw. 

Mi'llingen, Hrewgarttn^nd /V/e/fw^f^^, chief Places oUVagenthal, lie up- 
on the Ruli River. Bid appertainetii to the BUliops ot Baj7/, Neweri' 
bnrg to the Houfeof LorguevilkxrL frame, both confederate with Bern. 

The chief places ofTurgoiv, are St. Gal, featedamongft Mountains, 
not far from thaRbme, and the Lake or Con fiance. TheCity 
is Rich and well Governed, inhabited by an induftrioas People, in 
making Stuffs and Linnen Clothes. From th' iramous Monaftry hereof, 
are named the Abbots, Princes of the Empire, and of great Power 
and Reverence in this Countrey. Frawenfeld is the chief belonging to 
the Confederate Cantons. 

Chief places in the Italian PrefeAures, are Locern & Locamum^ 

feAted in a pleafant and fruitful Plain, betvixt high Mountains, nnd 

the Head of the Lake Maggiore, the Vtrbanm Lacits Strab, & Vlin. and 

. H h Lugavum 








9i4 • Of ltd}. '. ' ;; 

Xi(g<i««w,upoii the Lake tucanm, Vaulin, Lego de Litgano, Utah Luwertz- 
z^e, Helvet, 

Cbiavenna Ital. Clavema Ant, Claven, lo Italian Miles from the Lake 
Como. The Larius Strab. & Vlin. the Comacema of Ant. &^?. Diac, Lacus 
Infubria, Lago di Como Italis, Cumerfee Germanise Bormio Ical. fFcrmsy 
Germ. & Sondrio, are the chief Places in the Faltolma, Vallis Telina & 
VoUtirena Frovincia. 

The Lake oi Geneva is crofled by the Rhofne, and yet they never mix 
their Waters together. And there are Tempefts upon it, even in fair 
Weather, becaufe it lies at the foot of the Mills. The Natives report, 
That fulifts Cafar thKW his Treafure into this Lake, when he was pur- 
fued bv the Smtzers jbut hitherto they have fought for it in vain. 

TlJfcVaters of all the Lakes and Rivers in this Countrey, are ob- 
fervecrtobc of a greenilh Colour, as the Sea- Water, and yet are not 
BrackiHi or Salt. 



174// is fcituated in the middle Temperate Zone, in fliape ofa Leg, 
between the Mediterranean Sea, and the Gulph of Venice. The Alps 
( which F, Livy calls the Walls of Italy and Rome ), guard it towards 
thofe parts where it borders upon France, Savoy, Switzerland, and 
Germany. The Appenine cuts through all the length of it. Po, Adige, 
Tiber and Arno, are the biggeft Rivers. 

Theltalians are Polite, Ingenious,Subtile, and very prudent ; in Con- 
verfation pleafant; in Carriage obliging, extreme in their Cuftoms, 
temp^^rate in their Diet, faithful to their Friends ; but thefe Difpofi- 
tions are much fuUied by four Vices, Revenge, Luft, Jealoufie and 

The Women for the moft part are handfome, of good Wit, and mo- 
deft Behaviour j Saints in the Church, Angels in the Streets, Magpies 
at the Door, Syrens in the Windows, and Goats in the Gardens. 

Their Cities are therefore che fairer and letter built, becaufe the 
Nobility and Gentry ufually have their Habitations in them. 

Their Language is Courtly and Eloquent, much of the Latin ; but 
t'le Tufcan Dialed:, as being more polimed, is received at the Court of 
Rome, and among Perfons of Quality. 

The Italians count not their Hours as we do, from 12 to 12. begin- 
ning at Mid-day and Mid-night ; but begin their account from Sun- 
fetcing, reckoning from i tp 24 Hours for a Day j and therefore ne- 

■ ' ■ « ceflitated 

Of lulj. 


ceffit2.-ed to alter and new- fee their Clocks every Day, the fetting^0f 
the Sjn being a moveable Point or Term. 

In Italy are a vafl: number of Religious Houfes, where young Wo- 
men of Quality, who for want of fufficient Fortunes or Perlbnal En^ 
dowments, cannot get Husbands fuitable to thiir Birth or Quality,' 
their Parents for a fniali matter difpofe of, and fettle them there for 
their lives. 

There are alfo Hofpitals for the Entertainment of poor Travellers, 
who have their Diet and Lodging for three days (Gratis), befidcs a 
. peice of Money whfen they go away. 

There are alfo Hofpitals to take care of all expofed Children that 
are brought and put in at a Grate on purpofe; for at the ringing of a 
3ell an Officer comes and receives the Child, and carries it to a Nurfe, 
and there it, is maintained till it be grown up. 

The Nobility and Gentry of Italy chufe rather to fpend their Reve- 
nues in building fair Palaces, and adorning them with Pidures and 
Statues, in making Orchards, Gardens, Walks, than in keeping 
great Houfes, and pit ^tiful Tables. And certainly 'tis better Charity 
to employ poor people^ and give them Money for work, than to give 
them Money freely, and fuffer them to live in Idlenefs. 

One Fhanomemnobkrved at Romeby Mr. Ray was, that in fliarp Fro- 
fty weather in the middle of Winter, the Water in the Fountains 
was fo hot that he thought it had been heated over the fire. 

lialy is divided into three great parts: i. The Higher part, which 
is Lombardy^ Longobardia, containingthegreateftpartofGrt/Zw C//a//?/»<jr, 
in which lies the Dutchy^of Savoy, the Pri'^npality of Piedmont, the 
Dutchy of Montferrat, the Commonwealth c . 'oua, Riviera di Genoua, 
thoDuzchy oi Milan, Si'dhdiMilartOyOiParnJi^, Stato del Duca di Par- 
ma, of Modena, Ducat m Mutinenjis, Stato dil Duca dt ^ udena, of Man- 
toua, Stato del Duca di M^ntoua, the Territories of the ^ natians, S uo 
di Venetia, afid the Biihoprick of Tnnt, 

2. The middle part, wherein are the Dominions or Land of the 
Church, Stato della Cbiefa, or Ditio Ecclefta. The Eftates of tht Great 
Duke oi Tufcany, or Ditio Magni Ducts Heturia feuTufcia, And the Com- 
monwealth of Lucca, Dominum Reipublica Lucenjis. 

5. The lower, in which is the Kingdom of Naples, Regno di Nap^^'. 

4. To which we may add a fourth, visi, (ha adjaceac Ifl^i .i0^ 
Sardinia, Cor^a, &c. . \i ... n ^-n 1?:' 

■tv, V. 

H h2 






Of Savoy and Pied m on t. 

:--.• i.i.AiJ^..' 

THE AncienUnhabicants of this Mountainous Countrey^ were ge- 
nerally called by the Name of Allchrcgu j of whom the firft 
mentioned we find in Story, is the Atonement made by Hannihai'm his 
pafTage this way, between Bruncus and his Brother, about the Succeffi- 
on of the Kingdom; afterwards fubdued by the Romans under the 
ieveral Condut^ts of C. Domltm u^mharbtts^ and Qu, Fabnts Maxianus: 


• J Of Savoy* 2JJ 

After which, CoSim, one of the Kings of thefe Allohroges^ was infpe* 
cial favour with Aurujtus Cafavy whence it had the Name of Alp e 
Cottiiey and by that Name reduced into the form of a Province by Nero 
In the declining of the Roman Empire, icbecame a parr of the King- 
dom oi Burgundy y and paffed with other Rights to the Empire of Gtr- 

Awadis the lid. Earl of M^urienne, Was, by the Emperor Henry the 
IVth invefteu with the Title of Savoy: And Amadis the Vlllth, created 
the firit Duke by Sigifrr/mdy A tjn. i ^ 97. But the main Power and Pa- 
trimony of this Houfe, was by the Valour of the two E^rls, Thomas 
and ?exery in the Years 12 10, and \^<^6. who got by Conquella great 
part rf Viedmont ; to w' ch the Marquifate of Saluces was united by 
Marriage of the Daugh.^jr to Charles Duke of Savoy^ whofe Succeffors 
kept poffeflion of it, till Francis the Firft pretending fome Title to it, 
in Right of his Mother, a Daughter of the Houfe of Savoy, annexed 
jc to the Crown of France ; from which it was recovered, during the 
Civil \\(arsof France, by the Savoyards, about iy88. by whom 'tis 
(till pofTelTed : By reafon of the difficult and narrow ways, and thofe 
full of Thieves, it was once called Malvoy ; but the paflages being 
opened by the Induftry of the People, and purged of Thieves by good 
Laws, it was called Savoy, Salvoy, Sahaudta. Lat. Savoia Italh, La Sa^ 
voye, Gallis. 

It is full of thofe Mountains which we call by a general name of 
.Alps, though feveral Branches have their peculiar Names: ^\dcunt C(- 
»/j, and little St. Bernard, open the two moft confiderable Paffages in- 
to Italy. 'Tis a Country he;althy enough, but not very fruitful, except 
fome Valleys, which aie very fertile and delightful. 

The common Peopld are naturally dull and fimple, and unwarlike, 
but the Gentry civil and ingenious. It paffes for the moft noble and 
primier Dukedom of Chriftendom ; the power and prefence of whofe 
Dukes are the more confiderable, becaufe Mafters of the moft part of 
the paffages out of France mto Italy ; and by the poifQiTton of Piedmont, 
the County of iV/w,and other Signiories. 

Under the name of Savoy are comprehended thefe fix pArts, Sahatt- 
dia propria. La Savoye, Genevenfis Comitate, Le Genevois, Mauriana, 
La Maurienne, Tarantaifia, La Tarantaife. Foi^miacum, Le Fojfigny, d^ 
Cabilltcus Tragus, Le Chablais. 

Chamber fi Chambericum, Cbamberiacum or Carmeriacum, Civarro',Cie, 
tefie Canali, & Forum Vicontii, tefie Pineto, is the Capital City of the 
Dukedom, and the refidence ofa Parliament ; fortified with aftrong 

Caftle,and good Out worHs, 


I I 


11 mmm 



Mi ^'*'<'> 


Montmeliat), MonmeliaKum^ is the place of ftrengch, with a Ciradel 
that defends the reft of the Mountains, almoftinacceffible, where they 
fay the Keys oi Savoy are locked up. Taken by the French 1691. 

MonflUrs Movflfitrium is an Archbilhop's See, the Civifas Cantontm 
of Avt. Annecy Annedum^ was the Relidence of theBiiliops o^dve've. 

Ripatle was the Retiring-place of Fehx the IVth, before and after 
his Pontificate, that Prince living at peace in fuch a retirement fpom 
bufinefi, thatit became a Proverb, To /ive atRipaik, ofthofe that only 
took their plealtire, and lived at eafe. 

Other Places are Clufe, Clufa, Fantium Santti Johanjiis. St. Jean in 
Mauriene Tbor,on, Thononium, or Ihumnittm. Le Rourg St. Morice. 
In the Mountains bordering on this Country and France, are the Pro- 
geny of the Albigenjisy which about the Year 1100. ftoodfor the Li- 
berty of the Church, and the Do(5lrineof their PredecefTors j and a- 
boutthe Year 12 fo. they were almoft utterly ruined by the Popes and 
French Kings. The remainder preferring their Confcience before ihei r 
Country, retired up into the Mountains, and by their Induftry and 
good Husbandry, made thevery Rocks to bring forth Herbage for their 
Cattel, and here they worfhipped God according to the Reformed 
Churches until the latter end of Francis the Firft, when happen'd the 
Maflacre of Merinianum, or Martgvan GnlUs, and Chabrieres. And in 
the Year 1662, and 1665. they were again perfecuted and malTacred 
by the Savoyards. Mr. Ray in his Travels of 1665. met withfomeof 
the Proteftants of Z,«cfr« and Angrcna^t Turin, who told him that they 
were in number about ifooo Souls, and 2000 Fighting-men; that 
they dwell in 14 Villages, that they are the only Proteftants in /r^/>', 
and have maintained their Religion 1200 years. But what have been 
done to them Hnce 1684. Hiftory is (llent; until the Expedition of 
the Fauclois, 1689. 

Wfthin the Limits jo f Savoy is the Signiory o^ Geneva, about eight 
Leagues in compafs, feated on the Lake Lemanus, divided into two 
parts by the Rhojne, well fortified, and a flourifliing Univerfity, go- 
verned by a Common Council, confifHng of 200, the fourchiefwhere^ 
of are called Smdiques. The Church-Government conHfleth of I^ay- 
men and Minifters, begun by C'<?/t/;«, Anno 15:4^' Formerly it was the 
Soveraignty of the Duke of Savoy (and therefore mentioned in this 
place ) but fince the reliftance of the great Siege 1 ^89. they have flood 
on their own Liberty, and are reckoned a Cofmiton\4rea)ili.n^ .IJ 

■■■■■■i ■■ ■•■:,•,-■ hor • v>:.r ' ... 



•■*\ ^ v-- '■-' V<*»i. 



Of Piedmont y Fiemont Gallky Prhwipatus Pe- 
domontana^ Litt, Gallia Snbalpna^ Plin. &c. 

IT is now in the poffeffion of the Duke of Savoj. The ancient In- 
habitants whereof, were the SaUjJii, Libya and Taurim^ all van- 
quiihed by the Rowans, fubdued afterwards by the Lomhartis, of whofe 
Kingdom it remain'd a part till its fubverfion, and then became divi- 
ded into feveral Eftates, till conquered by Thomas and Vettr Earls of 
Savoy, in Anno 148 1. 

PofTefled after by the French, upon pretence of a Title by the afore- 
faid Marriage ; after recover'd by the Savoyard, Anno 1 j88. And in 
the year 1600 compounded with Henry the Fourth, the County of 
Breft being given in exchange for the Marquifate ofSaluJJ'e, Marchefato 
fli Saluz,z,o It alts, wliofe chief place is Saluz.z,o ItaL Saluce Gal. Augufia 
Vagienmrum, & Salina Ptol. of which, together with the reft of Pied^ 
tnont, and fome places of importance in Montferrat, this Family oiSa- 
'voy do now ftand poffelTed of. 

A Country very fertile in Corn, Cattel, Wine and Fr'iits, Hemp 
and Flax, compared with Savoy and Swltz.erlarJ, but inferior to the 
reft of Italy, to which it did belong. 

It contains if Marquifates, 52 Earldonis, i6oCaftIes, or Walled 
places : divided into thefe parts, viz,, Ducatas Augufianus, k Duche de 
Aou(ie. MarchioKatm Segujinus, le Marquifate de Suje. Mar;:hionatus Efo^ 
redia, le Man^uifate d'' Juree. Marchionattts Saluttaruw, le'Marquifat deSa^ 
luffe. Marchionatas Ceva. Le Mar qui fat de Ccva, Comitatus A(letijii, le 
Conte d' Ajle, Dominium Vercelknfe, la Seigmtme de Verced, To which is 
added Candvenfis TraBus, la Canavefc. 

The principal Town whereof is 'I'itrin,AugUjfa Taumiorum Tolih, Tim, 
Ptol. Taiirafia App. &Liv. the Court and Palace of the Duke of Savoy, 
fcituace on the River Po, a place very important for the Guard of 
Italy, and fortified with a ftrong Cictadel j adjoning to it is a Park of 
the Duke's, fix miles in Circuit, full of Woods, Lakes and plealant 
Fountains, which makes it one of the fweeteft Scituations in Euror. 
The See of an Archbifliop, and ah Univerfity where Eraftxus took 
his Degree. 

VerctUt, & VercelU, Ptol Vcrce^l Gallis, a ftrong Town^ bordering 
upon M/^;«5 and by the Treaty reftored to the Duke of 
Savoy, " ' 






Of Montfemt. 



l^ice iOr Nizzcy Nicaa Strah. Liv, Urhs Vedidntiorumj built out of the 
Ruins of Cemelcr.eunty Vtol, Cey*jtUony Vlin. Cemda. I^ot. fix miles North- 
wards. Seated at the Influx of the River l^arusy near the Sea ; beauti- 
fied with a Cathedral Church, the Bifliop's Palace, a Monailery of 
Nuns, and an Impregnable Citadel , famous for the refinance of a 
Navy of 260 Sail, under the Turkijh Admiral Barbarcfa, Anno 1 ^43. 
given by Joanna Ludo'vico II. to the Duke of Savoy ^ ^?<5f. The Coun 
try is called "iskaenjii Comitatus, la Contado di Nizz,.:, Inrolis, La Comte 
ds Nice Gallts. And is famous for the Aftronomer Hipparcbusy and the 
Poet Partbentus. Near which is the Harbor yUla Franca, Where the 

Dukes Gallies do ride. Jurea, or Hiurea \s ths Eporedia o^ Pfol.' 

Eporredia Plin. Evoradia Strab. Eporadir j-Atit. EwftJ\A Sbeld. a Bifliop's 
See and ^ivcs Title to the Marquijate del Juree, Com Cuneum^ taken by 
the Frencb 1641. now it belongs to the Duke of ^^jx'^-, a ftrong walled 
Town. Suj'e SeguJiuM, Ptok Segufio Plm. & Ant. is the chief place of 
the Segujinus Marcbtonatm. Civa, the Ceba Cafium & Ctbanum Vlin. and 
gives name to a Marquifate. Aoufie, Aofia & Augfl-. Gerw. At>cjf & AoH 
Gallisy is the Augufla Pratoua Plin, & Ptol. and the chief of Augufia 
Vucaiusy anciently a Roman Colony, and now for greatnefsand beauty 
of her buildings may compare with the moll ftately Cities of Lombard], 
Saluz.z,a halts, Saluda j Saliva^&Attgnfia l^agicnmrumo^ the Ancients ; 
SalucCj Gallisj is the chief place, Mircbcjato di Saluz,x,o. Carmantoky 
tiowCarmagmUy isfeated two miles from the Po River, and nine from 
the Tenarus. Quura< is the Cbcrafcco or Ctuya',cOy Carrea Plin. 

Clarafcum & ChieraJcOy famous for the Peacq made Anno 163 i. The 
Principality of Maj/er an is undtr the Government of its own Prince, 
( egevte Ferrera Fhfca ) who is a Dependant on the Pope. 

Ptgneroly Pmaroliam Pinarolo ItaL Fortified with a Caftle of great 
importance; fold by Cbarlej Emanudto Lewis t\\Q Thirreenih of f ranee. 
Anno 1631. a Commodious Pafs from France to Ital) on all occafions 

Of Montferat, or Montis Ferratt Ducatus^ 
Monferato 1 talis y Monferrat Gallis. 

TH E Efbte or Country of Montferat doth in part belong to the 
Duke of Mantua, and the reft to the Duke oi Sa'vojy a Moun- 
tainous Country, but of a fertil Soil. The River Tenarus parts the 
Polleflions of A/<z«r«<ifrom that of 6'<?V7. 

. Chief 





Of Qeftoid* 


Chiefplaccs belonging to thcDuke of Mantua^ are the impregnable. 
Fortified Cafale, or Cajal, upon the Po, Bodkicomagum & Bodmcomagut 
of Plitt. & PtoK Anno 1640. the French beat the Spaniards off from 
the Siege of Cajai^ and in their Camp took 60000 Duccats and 4 
Chariot that coft 8000 Ducacts. Surpfifed by the French^ 1691. 

It is fortified with a Caftle and ftrong Citadel , the fureft Key to 
the Eftate of the Duke of Mantua, and indeed to all Italy, 

Alba, Alba Pompeia, where Pertinax the Roman Emperor was born, 
but barbaroufly murthered by the Pretorian Soldiers; now belongs to 
the Duke of Savoy, fince the Peace of ^wr/»-, or Pace Clarafci. 
^ Trin Gallis,Trino Italis^ Tridinum &Tridinium f^eteri, a walled Town, 
reftored to the Duke of Mantua by the Peace aforefaid, 

Acejuiy Ae^ua StatelU Strab. A^ua Statyella Plin. belonging to the 
DukQ of Mantua. 

Chief Rivets are the Great and J-ittle Doire, The Stura, the Dena- 
fus, and the Bormio. 

.'.<■), \ ,. 

.-'i'f »"1 

I' '5..? V;*lj 

1 V |. ^i t* 

Of the State of Genomy Ref-publka Genuenfis 
V il GenovefatOy feu Riviera di Genona* > 


• ftS^-, \- 


ONce v^y large, at prefent containing only the Ancient Liguria 
in the Continent, the Ifle Corjica and Capraria 

The old Ligurians were a ftout and Warlike Nation, vanquifiied by 
the Romans, and made one of the 1 1 Regions of Italy, in Auguftus 
Cafar\ Divifion ; andpne of the 17 in the time of Conjl amine thz Em- 
peror. A Country very Mountainous in the Land, and full of craggy 
Rocks to the Sea, but among thofe Hills are Rich Valleys, abounding 
in Citrons, Limons, Oranges and Vines, which produceth excellent 

Tis Mn length about i yo miles, in breadth not one fourth part fo 
much, tho fome Pretenders to Geography tell us, 'tis 100 in length, 
and not fo much in breadth. : 

The chief City whereof is called Genoua,of old Geti:ta\ fifft built by 
Janus the firft King of Italy, but miferably deftroyed by Mago the Bro- 
ther of Hannibal '^h\jL\\t again by the Senate oi Rome, but again ruined 
by the Lombards, and re-edified by Charles the Great, fcituate on the 
Shore of the Ligurian Sea, full of (lately Palaces richly adorned within 
and without, to which are joined pleafant and delightful Gardens. Its 
Strada Nuaija or Newfireet, being along and fpacious Street, on each 

It fide. 





nil . I ' I m mwiaK 

24^ ^/ Qtnoui* 

fide, embelliAied with ftately Palaces, for the noft part all fLj»orted 
with vaft Pillars of Marble, not to be parallel'd in the World : Among 
which is the Jefuits College, and Magnificent Church, but inferior to 
a new Church, over one of whoie Altars (to omi( other Ornaments 
of an exceflive value j are placed four Pillars of wreathed Aggat of an 
incredible greatnefs. The Palace of the Doria with its famous Bird- 
Cage. To which we may add its new Mould built even in the Sea, 
which makes the Port fencompalTed with fair Buildings, In form of a 
Theatre ) twice as large, and much fafer than before ; oppofite to 
which, on a Pharos is a Lanthorn of great bignefs, to give light to 
Sea-men iri the Night. This City is in circuit about 8 Miles, fortified 
towards the Sea by Art, towards the Land by Art and Nature. Now 
Genotia, la Suferha. The Inhabitants are addided to Trade and Ufu- 
ry. The Women are allowed the liberty of the Streets. 

Other places of Note, are Sarzaua^ or Serezana, a ftrong Fortrels 
within the Confines of Tujcany* Frwcipattts Adtmaci, AJonaco Incolis, 
Mburgues GaBisj Hercules Monaci fortm of old, is a fmall, but a ftrong 
Town, feated upon a Rock under its own Prince Gente GrimaUi, 
Aon. 1641. it received the French Protedion. Finale is the FoUio^a 
of yifit. tefie Siml. Taken by the French 1691. as was alfo, 

Oneglia, a Principality under the Duke of Savoy, te fit Baud, 

Savona Savo Liv. famous for the Interview of Ferdinand of Spain, 
and Levfis the lar^of Frame, as alfo for yielding three Fopes to the 
Church of Rome, Vintimiglia Ahmmimum Ttol, Albintimilium Tae, Al- 
hintemelium Cic. Vintimilium Var. and Alhenga, Albingaunum Flin, Albi* 
gaunum Ttol. both well fortified. 

As for their Government, the principal of their Magiftrates hath the 
Name of Duke, to whom there are adiitant 8 Principal Officers, which 
with the Duke are called the Signeury, which is alfo in matters of 
greateft concern fubordinate to the General Council confiiiiogof^oo 
Perfons, all Gentlemen of the City, who with the Signeury, confiitute 
the whole Body of the Commonwealth. 
' Their Forces have been loooo ready to Arm at any time, and 
2 f Gallies always ready in the publick Arfenal, 4 Gallies at Sea to fe- 
cure their Trade. 

1[hey are now under the Shelter and Protection of the Spaniards. 





A .,.^..1 

/%' - 


Of the Dutchy of Milan. Dncatus Mediola- 

/; , nenjis Stato de Milano. ^ 

WHofe Ancient Inhabitants were the Infubrts^ but is now under 
the Obedience of the King of Spahtf feated in the beft part of 
LomffarJjf, richin Natures gifts, and for its wonderful Fertility eitcem- 
ed the Flower in theGardenof /r<7/y, and the Nobleft Dutchy in Chri- 
ftendom; the ways are there very pleafant, fet out almoft as ftraitas 
a Line, with Channels of running Water, and rows of Trees on both 
fides ; the moft dcfivab'.e Place to live in that can be feen, if the Go- 
vernment were not lb cxcertive fevere, that there is nothing but po- 
verty over all this nch Country. 

Its cheif City is Milan y Me/iioUnuM Strab. Plin. Milam Itat. Meyland 
G«j;«». which tho fo often r|^ined,and its Foundations fown with Salt; 
having been befieged 403 and taken 22 times ; yet it exalts it felf as 
the faireft and greateft City of all LombarJyy (bated in a wide Plain, 
environed with feveral Rivers, ftrongly guarded with a fpaclous and 
almoft impregnable Caflie, beHdes its other Fortifications; the Build- 
ings fair and ftately, three efpecially very magnificent, itsGaftlebr 
Cittade!,Hofpitalor LazMretre, itsCathedral or Dome ; here are 36 Mo- 
nafteries of Niins, 50 Convents of Friers, 9 y Parochial, ti Collegiat 
Churches, moft of which are ftatclyStruAures, beautified with curi- 
ous Pointings, Images and Sepulchres. In the Cabinet of the Chanoim 
SetaOa^ are rare Curiofities, both of Art and Nature. 

The whole City is about 10 miles in compafs, exceeding populous^ 
containing ;ooooo Inhabitants ; very rich, having many Families of 
Nobility andGentry, of great Commerce by reafon of its Misrchants, 
Shopkeepers and Artificers,, and a general Staple for all Merchandizes 
from FrancBy Spain, and Other pans of Italy and Germany, 

Other places in Milan, arei t^avia, PapiafeuTicinum, made an Uni- 
verfity by Charles the IVth, guarded with a Caftle, and adorned with 
thericheft Cathedral in Europe, worth ^ooooo Crowns per Annum, 
famous for the Battel in which Francis the firft King of France was ta- 
ken Prifoner by Charles the Vth. 2. Alexandria, or AleJJandria, now 
theftrongeft Work of the wholeDutchy ; well fortified againft the A(^ 
faults and Batteries of the French, ;» Cremona, feated on the Banks of 
the ?oe\ a place of good Trade, its Houfes ftately, its Streets large, 
beautified with curious Gardens, famous for its high Tower and'Ca- « 

I i 2 thedral 




2,44 Modeftdf kc. 

thedral Church. Here Vifelliui*s Soldiers were defeated by the Forces 
of Veffajian, and the Town fired by them. Lodi is the Lam Pfimpeja 
of the Ancients, a Frontier Town, bucamiferableGarifon, 20 miles 
from Milatiy in the remtian Territory. Tortona U the Dertona Vtol. & 
Tlin. Derton.Stfpb. Dertbon or DartboTj J 5/r<»^. taken by the Freucb, i6^i» 
after delivered to the Spaniards. Novara, Crewa & Mortara^ are alio 
confiderable. Her Lakes are L^go Magiore, yerbanm Lacus of Strab. va 
length 300 Stadia, $6 miles, .ind 6 broad, with her two Borrtmean 
Iflands, the lovelieft Spots of Ground in the World. 2. Lago Del Co- 
ma. %. Lugam LacMSj or Lugo di Lugano. Its Rivers are OUiusy now 
Oglio River ; Abdut, now Adde River; Lambrus fl. bodie, Lambro Ri- 
ver, Ticinus'fi. now Tc/ine River, which runs with fuch a force, that in 
3 hours with one Rower, Dr. Burnet was carried ;o miles. Sencizfl, 
or Scejia River. 4. Coma, or Cowum, where the Vlinies were born, 
on the South of the Lagodt Coma, aforcfaid, a Lake 48 miles in length. 
Laricus Lacus, Strab. & ?Un» 

Of Modena. • c 

THE Dukedom of Modena, Dusatus Mutinenfts, Stato delDuca di 
Modena, contains the Cities oi Modena and Reggio, with the Ter- 
ritories adjoining to them, Modena the Capital City, anciently better 
known by the name of Mutina, famous for the firft Battel between An- 
tony and Augufius Cafar, Now the Refidence of their Duke, whofe 
Palace, though not outwardly great, yet is richly attorned within ; 
whofe Cabinet or Mufeum, is well furnifhed with choice of natural Ra- 
rities, Jewels, &c. BrijJeOo, Brixel/um Tlin. & Ptol. famous for the Death 
of Otbo the Roman Emperor, who here flew himfelf, becaufe his Army 
was unfortunately vanquifhed by ViteUtHs, Reggio, Regium Lepidi, a 
Place that has occafioned great Stirs between the Popes and the old 
Dukes of Ftrrara, Here are many Sculptors both for Ivory and 
Wood. ... , . . 

■ , • • • ■ ,< » 

Of Parma. 

TH E Dukedom of Parma, Ducat us Parmenjts, or il Ducato di Par*- 
ma, is much of the fame nature for Soil and Air, as Modena. 
Its cheif City Parma, is feated in a fruitful Plain, y miles diftant 
60m the yi/i/fwwf, about four miles incompafs, adorned with many 
■. ' rich 

Of MsMtHtf, ^^% 

rjclr and ftately StruAures very populous, and well inhabited by Gen* 
try, who are muchaddi«aedto Learning, Arts and Arms; the Ground J 
about this City are of excellent Paftorage, which feed abundance o* ' 
Sheep. Here is made the curious rarmajan Cheele fo much efteemed 
throughout all Europe, • 

The Duke hath here his Palace, a place of great delight and (late ; ; 
its Churches are beautified and rarely embellilhed with Pictures and 

2. Piacenztty or Piaeentia, famous for <he Refiftance which it made 
both to Hi^nmhal and j^ftirubal; now renowned for its Fairs quarterly 
kept, which all Itafy, Germany, and other Countries do frequent, and 
here make their Exchanges. 

The River Trehia was witnefs to the overthrow of the Romans by 

OftheDntchyofMsinma, .: 

TH £ Dukedom of Mantua, Ducatus Matitttanm, Ducato di Mantoua 
It alts, is a Country plentiful in Corn^ Pafturei Wines, and all 
for of Fruit; Mantoua the cheif City, is feated in a Lake, 20 miles 
in ^^^mpafs, by nature very ftrong and well fortified ; having no en- 
trance, but over Cawfies. The Dukes Palace is fair and (lately, and 
the beft furniihed in all Italy, except his Palace at MirmiroUa, ^ miles 
from the City, which for the Pleafures and Delights thereof, and for 
its rich furniture and beautified Gardens^ may acceptably entertain 
the beft Prince in Chriftendom. Mantoua is of Great Antiquity, Schot" 
}»i faith, 'tis 4 Miles in compafs, hath 8 Gates, and about foooo 
Souls. It was miferably attacked by the Germans, 1619. and by the 
Emperor Ftrdinand the lid's Army in th& Year 1630. The Duke*s 
yearly Revenue isfaid to be 400000 Crowns; yet the prefent Duke is 
very poor, being indebted to the Venetians, as Lett faith, four Millions 
of Crowns, There are befides four or five fmall Princes, but Sove- 
raign Lords, viz,. Novellara, GuafieSa, Bozolo, Sahionetta, whofe Male- , 
line is failed ; CaftigOone and Solfare, 

As alfo of the Eftate of the Dutchy of Montferrat, which doth in 
part belong to the Duke of Mantua, the other part to the Duke of 
Savoy, as axorefaid. 





Of the States of Venice. 

THE r-emefnes of the Venetians are very full of liivers, Lakes 
and Cha/inelsj 'cis a Rcpublique of above i zoo years ftanding, 
and ths Bulwark of Chrifiendom againftthe Turks, The chief City is Ve^ 
vice or Venetia, ieated at the bottom of ti)e Auriatick Sea, or Gulpb bf 
Venice, builc on 72 IHands, u*i(^anc from the main Land about five 
mile, and defended fro;ri the fury of the Sea by a Bank of (fomefay) 
60, other 3f miles in length; open in feven places, which fervefot 
paflages for Boats or Gondola* s, ol which there are i^oo. but for Ships 
orVeiTels of great burchen, the only paifage is at Malamocct, and Ca« 
ftle Lado, which are ftrongly fortified ; it is about 8 miles in.compaiS) 
having about 4000 Bridges, of which that of the Rialto is the chief, 
built over the Grand CanaU The Lagunes or Shallows -^f Venice, fuik 
of late fo much, that the preferving it f^ill an Ifland^ is^ like to become 
as great a charge to the Venetians, as the keeping out of the Sea is to 
the Dutch, 

ItSy^r/eWis the moft beautiful j thebiggeft, and the be/^ furnilRed 
in aU x:<Ar«;«)belng about two miles in circuic, where thf ^^^^yskeep 
200 GallieSj with all Materials for War. j ^ r ; . 

fits Magazine of all forts of Engines and Arms for Sea and Land^ 
among which are xooo Coats of Plates gvrni/Ked with Gold, and co- 
vered with Velvet. 

But above all, its Church of St. Mark, reported to be the iaireft 
and richeft in all the World, a Church of admirable Mofaick Work , 
wi^h Pillars of Merble, Porphiry, &c, and for the inllde the Riches 
ot it are (b great, the Images, Tombs, &c. (b glorious, the Altars fo 
adorned with Gold^ Silver, Pearls, and Precious Stonei, that aii th« 
^Veafury of the State may fef^m' to be amaffed in die decking of it. 

In this City are 200 particular Palaces, built of Mirble, adonied 
wi^h Columns, StatueSi Pictures, &c. of great value, of fuch gran- 
deur, as that (hey are fit tc lodge, and give entciC^tRrnent to any 
Prince J 17 Rich Hofpitals, 5:6 Tribunals, orC >urtsofJaliice, 67Pa- 
rilh Churches, 26 Monafbsries of Nuns, y4 Covents of Friers, 1 8 Chap- 
peis, 6 Free Schools,and its Piazza's fumpcuoufiy adorn jd with Statues, 
Paintings, &c. 

As for wie Religion of this State, though they tolerate that of the 
Gttik Church, they profefsthat of the Church cf »Rcwf, but with cau- 
tion and refped to their own Aiithoiity. 



c^ -, Of Vtmeh ^ 

dt their Forces Ibme efthnate may be made by the Arms (hey 
brought againi^ Lewis the XUth, where they had itooo hien of Arms, 
3000 Light Horfe, and ijoooo Foot, moK of their own Sabje^s, 
without any detachments from their Forts or Gariibns. 

And a fignal Evidence of their power at Sea, was their great F^et 
let out againft the Grand Sigmtfr tor the War of Cyprus, Anno i yyo. 
in which they manned out one great Gallion, 11 great Gallies, 2 f tall 
Ships, and 150 GaUies oflefleriize. To fum up all, they once held 
A War lor feven years togeiher againft all the Princes of Eur ope, -e,xc&^t 
England 'y in all which time they neither wanted Men nor Money. 

We may conclude therefore, That as Europe is the Head of the 
World, and Itah the Face of Europe ; fo Feniceis the Eye of Italy, the 
faireft, ftrongeft- and moft adlive par in that powerful Body. 

The Annual Revenues of this Repulick, according to Mr. Rap 
information, was about five Millions, and 300 and 20000 Venetian 
Duccats yearly. 

Other Cities with their Territories belonging to the State of r*»/ff» 
are thepleafant Vicenz.a, or Vicentia ; the Healthy, Populous, and Fruit- 
ful Brefcia, Brixia. The i>rong Forti efles Crema, fix miles off which is 
the famous Cave of Cnftoza, 4000 foot long, and 5000 broad, and 
thr-jemiks in circuit, w'th .Its ftately Temple SanBa Maria deOaCruce, 
and Bergamo, The pleafant Phy fick-Univerfity Padoua, Padua, the Pa- 
taviumofxhs Ancients, built by ^w/ewr, and is famous for the Birth 
of Livy, Zaharelj and Maginus^ noted for the Civility of the Men, and 
Chaftity of the Women, with its Garden of Simples. Tarvijium, Tre- 
vifi, with its excellent Wheat. Verona, with its Hill Baldus, famous 
for Medicinal Herbs. The Territory of Friuli, where is the well- 
fortified ?alma, Feltre, and BeUunc The Territory of Ifiria, l(irie Gall. 
Hjfiereicb Germ, where is TrieJ^j or Tergejlum, Vetana; now Pedena, be- 
longing to the Emperor. CittaNova, qt <L^fnoniayParenz,o,Parentum, . 
and Vda. Rovigo once belonging to the Dukedoni of Ferrara, with 
C/6;c^^w, the Bulwark of Tfw/cf. 

Belides all thefe, the State of Venice commands a great part of DaU 
mafia , with the Iflands Corfu, Cephalonia, it'uuca, Zan.^ Ctthera, and 
others. The ifleof St. Maure, and theftrong Prevefa, were in the 
Year 168 f. conquered from the Turks ; and the More."!. 

The Biftioprick of Trent, which belongs to its proper Biftiopj is in 
the Protedion of the Houfe of Aufiria : Its chief City of the fame 
name. Is inhabited by Italians and Germans , and is famous for the 
Council held there. But of this we have treated of more at large in 
the Defcription oiTirol in Germany. 


yj w Mtti W a n'W i i ii wnH »«!a£?i'"' " ■.i*itawiifc.c.?rr?-";;aa<*'^ 


':<> % 


,^ 0/ ^i&^ JE/?/^^^/ of the Cburch or Po^e. 

TH E Second part of Italy , according to our Method, contains the 
Ef^ates of the Cbuub, o{Tufr:any., and Lucca i The Teritories of 
i^c Church are the more confiderable, becaufe the Vope, to whom they 
belong, is a Spiritual as well as 'x Temporal Prince, Chief and Sove- 
reign Pontifex, as he ftiles himfelf,of allC*6r|/Jc»//(?w : Patriarch of Rome, 
and of the fVefi ; Vrimate and Hexarcbof ItaJjf, Metropolitan of cheSuf- 
fragan-Blfhops of Rome, and BiCiop of St. John Laterati. 

The chief City is Rome, formerly the Capital City of the moft con- 
fideiable Empire in the World ; Miftrifs of the faireft part of the Uni- 
verfe : Famous for her great men that excelled in Valour, Juftice, 
and Temperance. The Seat of Kings,ConfuIs, and Emperors ; faid to 
have been jo miles in compafs, and her Walls fortified with 7^0 
Towers. But now not having the Moiety of its former priftine Splen- 
dor and Magnitude, fcarce containing 11 miles in circuit; yet few 
Cities can compare with her;if we conffder her Antiquity,her Churches, 
her Palaces, and other Curiofities. Here was the Capitoliaved from 
the F.ury of the Gauls by the Cackling of Gee(e. It was twice burnt, 
once in the Civil Wars of Manus and Sylla^Andi in the Wars of Vej^a' 
Jian and Vitelliui. Here was the Temple of Janus open in the time of 
War, and fhut in the time of Peace, which happened but three times 
during all their M'narchy : i. In the time of Numa. 2. After the 
Tunick War. And ;. .•' the Reign of Augufiusy when our Saviour 
waf born. Nor muft I forget the Pcwre MoHe, a mile out of the City, 
anciently Vons Mdvius^ where Confiantine was (hewed the Crofs, with 
thele words, U hoc Signo Vmces. This City is feated on the Banks of 
the Rivet Tyber f foFmerly upon ten Hills, though now chiefly in "-he 
Campus Martius. ) On the topof the Vatican Hill is the proud Palace of 
the Vopesy large enough to entertain three Sovereign Princes at once, 
and their Attendant^; beautified and enriched with excellent Paint- 
ings and Curiofities, with the Garden Bckedere, famous for its rare 
Plants, delightful Walks, and curious Statues. On this Hill is the 
Church of St. Veter^ the moft fplendid and famous in ail Rome\ the 
moft fumptuous, ftarely, and magnificent Strudure in the World ; of 
that Majeft4ck bulk and greatnefs, that it exceeds in alldimenfions the 
moftfamous Temples of the Ancients; in length yzo Foot, and i,^<^ 
in breadth ; adorned with Paintings, Tombs, and other choice Re- 
liques. My Bounds willnot permit to rpi;ak of its other Chuiches, Ho- 

- ' fpitals, 






Of the Eflates of the Church or Pope. 249 

fpitalSjMonafterieSjConvents ;of its Libraries, as the Vatican^ the Jefuits 
CW%e,8£C.The Palaces of the Cardinals are ftately Strudures,and rich- 
ly adorned J to which are joined pleafant Gardens. Here are feveral 
PM2i2i<i's,abundance of Antiquities and Statues,whichl fhall not name; 
but may not forget the Caftle of St. AngelOf which for its ftrength, is 
efteemed impregnable, unlefs ftarved ; and here the Pope liveth in 
more State than any Prince in Chriftendow. The chief of the other Ci- 
ties andTerritories belonging to the Eftates of the Church,are Bologna, 
(alias) Bomnia; famous for its Study of the Civil Law,for the Pope's 
Palace, or retiring- place ; Rich, Populous, and well inhabited by No- 
bility and Gentry, the chief Univerfity in Italj. Ferrara,Ferrarea^ with 
its Iron-Mines, beautifully built,adorned with many Superb Edifices; 
in the midft of it is a fpacious Market-place into which do open about 
twenty uniform Streets. And Cowachh, with its Eels.The once fair Ha- 
ven Ravennayin the Province of Romandiola, whsn Cajar Augttfius kept his 
Navy there ; famous for the Seat of the Emperor Homrius, and Succef- 
forsof the Gothifh Kings; of the Exarchs^, and of its Patriarch; now 
the Haven is choaked up, and its land covered with Water. Cervia, 
invironed with Fens, is famous for its great quantityof Salt , as 
Fienz,a is for its Eartlien Ware. Urhin, Url^wm;^, feated at the bottom 
of the Appevine Hills, once famous for a fumptuous Palace ar d a mod 
excellent Library ; as alfo for Tolydore Virgil^ the Author of '.he Hifto- 
ry of Evgland. Rimini^ Ariminum of old, the taking of which fo fright- 
ed Pompey, that he left Roftte^ Other Places are Fam, the Sea-Port- 
Town to Urlfin. Semgaglia jthc Sem-Gallia of old j and Pefaro,both Ma- 
ritime Towns. On the Banks of Mi 0, of old Metaurusj was fought 
the great Battel betwixt Afdrubal the brother of HanmLal^and the two 
Confuls, Ziviusand Cl. Neroy where ^65000 of the Cnrthagemam were 
flain, 5:400 taken Prifoners, as Livy writeth. 

Ancona, in Marchia Auconitanaj or Strato MorcJn del Ancov/i, the befl; 
Haven of Italy towards the Adriatkk Sea : And here T muft not for- 
get Loretto, or St. Maria Lattretaney famous for the Church of the Wv- 
ginMary*^ a ftately Structure, richly adorned with Pr'jfents, Offerings, 
and Gifts of Princes, Nobles, &c. whofe Organs and other Mufick 
makes an harmonious Sound to thofe that gq on Pilgrimage thither, 
either for Devotion, or Penance. A/'coliis the Afculum^ near which 
fought the fecond Battel between t\\Q Romans and Pynhus'^ it was alfo 
the Seat of the War called Bdlum^ociale. Macerata the Seat of the Go- 
vernours of this Province; Firmo the ftrong. 

Perugia, or Peru/ia is chief of the Province fo called, feated on the 
Banks of Tyhr in a rich and fruitful Soil ; Here it was that Augu/ht 

K k belieged 



^ J 


, «*"»•-•,. i'-. 



Of thi EfidUs of thtChmh or Pofe, 


befieged L. Antoniusy and Fuhia, the Wife of iW. Antony z and near to 
this City is the Lake Je Perugia, of old Thrafemeney of about 30 miles 
in compafs ; near whofe Banks HannihaldGw Flaminius, and i yooo of 
his Romans. Spoleto, in the Dutchy of Umbr'tay of great Antiquity ,where 
are yet remaining ftately Aquaduds, the Temple of Concord, and the 
Ruins of a fpacious Theatre. Here is alfo the high Orvieto, in the Pro- 
vince of Orx;/>r/», featedon a high Rock. In Terra Sabina are Narni, Ne- 
quino, and Terni, In Campania Romana, the chief places befides Rome are 
Ardea, now ruined, once the Seatof 7«r»«j King of the J?«f«/i,the 
Rival and Competitor to a/Eneas ; taken by Tarq, Superbus, the refuge 
of the Romans when the Gauls had taken Rome ; as is a\{oAlba Longa, 
once the Seat of the Sylvian Kings ; after the Dae! between the three 
Brethren of the Horatii and Curatii, it was ruined by Tullus Hoftilius. 
Interamnaof old,on the River ASia,where Brennus with KxsGauls ovef 
camethe Roman Army of 40000, and marched to Row;e,and had a- 
greed for 1000 pound weight of Gold toforfake the City, but before 
the payment of the money, they were vanquiflied by Camillus. Alba the 
Seat of the SyhianYiAng%. Paleftrina, Vranefte, of old the refuge oiMaritts 
againft 5yi7<»,who killed 12000 of the Citizens when he tooktheTown. 
Ofiia, built by Anctts Marcius, leated atthe mouth of Tiber, but its Ha- 
ven flopped up ; whofe BiOiop confecrates the Pope. Lavinia, fo named 
from La'^ji/ria Daughter to Latinus King of the Laurent ini, married to 
\/£neas. Trivoli, Tibur of the Ancients. 

Chief Places in the Patrimony of St. Peter, are Feii a City once of 
great ftrength, wealth, and compafs. In the affaulc of which, ;o6oC 
Bie Fabii were flain in one day, only one Child left at home, who re- 
ftored the Family, and was the Anceftor of Fabius Maximus, the Pre- 
ferveroi Italy agaln^ Hannibal: After a Siege often years, this City was 
taken and deftroyed by Furius Camillus. Civita Veccbia, a Maritine Town 
abounding with Allom; here are kept the Popes two Gallies, maintain- 
ed by ; 0000 Duckets, the yearly Tribute of 40000 Curtezans.7Vrr<ici- 
na is the ancient Anxumtav the PromontoriumCirceium, now Monte Cir- 
cello, famous for the dwelling of the Enchantrefs Circe. Monte Fiafcone^ 
where is the fo much celebrated Wine near the Lake Voljinii, now BoU 
fena. Vtterbo is a large and well-fcituate Town, where is the Monument 
ofPopQjobn 21, in the Domo» Here are Sulphure-Wells^ and hoc. 

Intermingled with the Elhte of the Church, lies the Dutchy of C^r- 
firo, wifh the Town of Ronciglione, the Countrey of Citta di CafteUo» 
Sfrafo del Duca di Parma, whofe chief place is Cafiellana» The Sabatia, , 


^*t ,"-i^ 

Ni...! " ' h . 

now ilDueato di Iiracciano,thQ Title of the Family of the Vrjinesy near 
the Lake fo called. And laftly, theRepublick of Marino, a little Town 
on the top of a high Hill or Roc&. The whole Territory is but one 
Mountain about threemilesin length, and about ten miles round, con- 
taining three Villages more, and eight Corn-Mills, and twoPowder- 
Mills, and about 4 or poo Inhabitants, of fighting-men about lyco. 
It hath been a Free State or Commonwealth for about a 1000 years, 
as the Inhabitants boafl:. 

Of Tufcany, La Tofcana» 



use ANT comprehends the greater part of the Ancient Hetru- 
or Etruria, and is a Countrey full of fpacious Fields, and 


fruitful Valleys, fwelledhere and therewith pleafant Mountains, abun- 
vdantly ftored with delicious Wines, and other BleffingsofNature: Its 
Metropolis is Florencey FlorentiajOr F/orinzala i3el/a, a fair and flourifhing 
City about fix miles in compafs ; feated in a fruitful and pleafant 
Plain ; the River Jrno divides it into two p ^rts, which are joyned to- 
gether by four fair Stone-Bridges : Famous for the Stately and Magni- 
ficent Palace of the Great Duke, richly adorned : and for the largenels 
of the Building, the Architedure, and Ornaments of it, as alfo for the 
Gardens, Fountains, Statues, Rarities, in the Gallery, in the Clofets, 
in the Armory, and in the Argenteria, equalling,if not furpafling moft 
Palaces in<E»ro;>«. The Cathedral or DowoSt. Maria Florida, is alfo one 
of the chief Ornaments of it ; as alfo the New-Chappel of St.Lorenzo, 
faid to be the moft rich and magnifick Structure in the World. 

The fecond City is Pifa, once a rich, populous, and flouriihirig City 
when a Free State ; now poor, and muchdefolate; feated at the en- 
trance of the River Arm into the Sea, recovered to the Florentines by 
the Valour of Sir John Hawkwood, an Engltjhman, now much eclipfed 
of its former Riches and Power : Memorable for its fair AqttaduB of 
about po Arches ; its Cathedralw'ith Brazen folding Doors, curioufly 
engraved ; and its Steeple ibhuiky that on all fides it feems crooked at 
the top, ready to fall on the Head of the Spedator. 

Siena , an Inland City, feated in a large, pleafant, and fertileTerri- 
tory; enriched with Mines of Silver, and (lore of Marble ; adorned 
with beautiful Buildings ; as the proud Palace, the lofty Tower of 
Mangioy its Domo built of black and white Marble j parf of it paved 
with inlaid Marble, containing part of the Hiftory of the Bible. 


• 4 


K k 2 


g mjumai m K n tf j fj mg^fggm 



, Legom, or Livoma, Partus Liburnus of old> a fair and beautiful Ctty^ 
accounted the ftrongeft, and one of the principal Towns of Trade in 
the Mediterranean Sea, and the Scale of the Florentine Dominions, by 
whom it was purchafed of thcGenoefes for 120000 Duckets j now the 
Refidence of many Merchants and Strangers. The Haven within the ' 
Mole is but fmall,but there is good riding for Ships without. Here the 
Wind isEafterly in the Forenoon, and Wefterly in the Afternoon, and 
after Sun-fet, no Wind (Hrring. Ac Pifioya firft began the Quarrels of 
the Ntri and Beanchiy and of the Guelfe and GibeUint. 

The Commonwealth of Lucca is about 80 miles in compafs, very 
fertile, and fo well Inhabited, that in two or three hours time it can 
have ready 50000 men in Arms. The chief City Lucca^ is a Free 
Town rich and fplendid ; well Fortified, and Adorned with many 
fair Edifices, and ftately Churches, of which that of St. Martin is the 
chief: 'Tis feated in a Plain about two miles in Circuit. It bought its 
Liberty of the Emperor Rodolphut, and hath been ever fince very zea- 
lous to preferve fo fair a purchafe. It was the Meeting-place of Pom- 
fey Cafar, and CraJJus, where they joined into a Confederacy. And 
here the Women walk the ftreets more freely than in other Cities^of 
Italj. The publick Revenue is thought to be 100000 Crowns ^^r 
Annum, Their Olives the beft in Italy, 

Adjoining to Lucca^ are the Principality o^Malefpine, and the Princi- 
pality of MaJJa, containing only MaJJa and Carrara ; the laft is often 
the Refidence of the Prince, the other is noted for its white Marble. 

The Great Duke in all his Dominions is fupreme and abfolute Lord, 
and impofes what Taxes and Gabels he pleafes ; every Houfe pays to 
him the Tenth of its yearly Rent. No Houfe or Land fold, butat leaft 
one tenth part goes to him. No Woman married, but he hath 8 per 
Cent, of her Portion. And every one that goes to Law, pays 2 per Cent. 
of what he fues for.' Every Heifer pays a Crown. And not a Basket of 
Egg: that comes to Market bu^ pays fome Toll. Befides the Territo- 
ries of Florence and Pifa^ called the old State, of which he is abfolute 
Soveraign,and the Territory of Siena, called the new Stare, for which 
he is Feudatory of the King o( Spain: He is alfo poireffed of a great 
part of the Ifleof Elba^ which he holds oi Spam : part of Graffignana, 
bought of the Marquefles of Af^/e/^iw. The Earldom of St. F/or^:, pur- 
chafed of the Strozzi, The Marquifate of .9.;>-^w(?. And the Earldom 
o( P it igliano and Saranp, and fome other fmall places for which he is 
Feudatory of the Emperor. Radicofam in Tufcany, and Burgo San Se- 
fukhro in Umhriaj for which he is Feudatory to the Pope. 

■/■-'■ ' 


^ "^t^ 

His Citadels and Fortrefles are well Fortified, and provided with 
Ammunition and Viduals, in which he keeps four or yooo Soldiery in 
conftant pay. He isable to fend into the Field 40000 Foot, 5000 Horfe. 
He can put to Sea twelve Galiies,'two GalealTes, and twenty Ships of 
War. ,v'' '._.,■ ^rir/, . ". . r r .^ ; , 

Intermingled in theTerritories of thsGreat DnkejUrs the Principality 
of Piombmo, Noted for fome Mines of Leadj.Forcified with a ftrong 
Caftle, in the Hands of the Spaniards^ as alio fome other Ports and 
Places on the Sea, viz,. Telamm, Remarkable for the great Battel foughc 
near unto it by the Romans and the Gauls, where Attilus was flain, buc 
the Vidory was got by iy£milius^ with the flaughter of 40000, and 
1 0000 Prifoners of the Enemies. 

E^at deUi Pre/iMj OrhitellojPortus Hcrcole, and Moute Argent arfl^^iQiW 
fubjedt to the Spaniards, and ftrongly Garifoned by them. 

Of Naflesy or Neapolitanum Regnuniy La- 
tin; Regno di Napoli^ IncoL 

TH E Third part oi Italy we have comprehended under the King- 
dom of Naples, of large extent, and very Fertile ; abounding 
with Wines and Wheat, and famous for its brave Horfes : Here you 
may fee large and beautiful Fields over-fhaded with rich Vines, thick 
and delightful Woods watered with fweet Fountans, wholefome 
Springs, Medicinal Waters, Baths of divers Virtues ; enriched with 
Mines offeveral Metals, and decked with fundry Phyfical Herbs : Re- 
pleniihed with fair and beautiful Cities and Towns. 

The chief City is I>Japles, one of the fai reft in Etirop/! ; Seated on the 
Mediterranean ftiore, amongft plealant Hill5, and fruitful Fields ; Forti- 
fied with four brave Caftles, befidss a ftrong Wall, Ditches, Towers, 
&c. Enriched and Beautified wich many fupofb Strudures,and magni- 
ficent Churches, Monafteries, Colleges, P«\laces of Princes and No- 
bles, with pleafant and delightful Gardens ; a commodious and fafe 
Port and Haven, where arc kept (lore of Gallies. Here was the Rebel- 
lion under AJaJfanelfvy and in this City the Difeafe Morhits Gallicuswzst 
firft known; and nigh unto it ftands the Hill A/owre Gro^^?, formerly 
Vejiivufs; no lefs famous now for its Gra'ro Wines, than of old For its 
callingforth fmoke and flames of fire. Upon the very top is a great Pit 
or Hollow in form of an Amphitheatre of about a mile round. Near 
to v/hich is the Grotta di Cane, where the venomous vapour afcends 
not above a Foot from the Ground, c, . ^ Other 



" BJ gL ' feSt 


^r^ Of Nsples. 

Other places of Note, are imporrant Cajeta, on a Capacious Bay. 
Delicious C4^tf4, the Pleafures whereof enervated the ViAorious Arms 

., of Harmibal. JSfola was witnefs of Hannibal's overthrow by Marcellits. 
Near Cuma was the Lake Avernm , with its unwholfome and Sulphu- 
reous ftink, fo infected the Air, that the Birds flying over, lofe their 
Lives. At Puteoli, now Poz.x.t4oloy was the Bridge of Ships to Baia three 

■ miles over, made by Caligula in a Bravado to awe Neprune, and to ex- 
ceed the like Afts oi Xerxes and Darius, Mifenum was one of the Stati- 

' onsofjiugufims Armada, as Ravenna was the other that awed the 
whole Roman Empire, and the Burial-place ofi Mtfenm the Companion 
of t/£neasj tefie Firg. ^^ ..^ . / • ■ 

Baia, famous for Antiquities, viz. the Sweating Vault, or Bagne dt 
7r//o//, and Afwfff</e Ctfwrtf, raifed by an Earthquake. 

And here was vSneas\ Defcent into Hell, Fabled by the Poets ; and 
the Cave or Grot of one of the Sybills. The Grot or Hole through 
Mount PattJtlypftSj about a mile in length, and 12 Foot high, and broad 
enough for two Carts to pafs one another. Jmalfe, where was invent- 
ed the Mariner's Compals Anno i-^oo. by Flavio. The Phyfick-School 
Salerno, Nero*s 100 Churches under Giound in the Ro^ks, and his 
admirable Fifh-pond within the Earth, within a mile of the Sea ; in 
, the Cathedral is the Monument of Hildebrand, or Vo^e^Gregory the jtL 
The Sea-fliore folecaftryy once Buxentum. The well-traded Mart 
' Lanciam, four miles from the Adriatick. Teate, now Viti di Chieii^kven 
miles from the Sea. 5«/wo, OW's Birth-place. The Lakes ejtnaund 
Varanus, memorable for Eels; and for that draining cannot diminiHi 
them, nor floods encreafe them. Locris is famous for the Law-maker 
Zakucusjan6 for the Victory ofCunomus an eiccellent Mufician, upon 
Arifionus of Rbegium, of the fame profeffio'n. Ga/Jipoli, affording abun- 
dance of OyJ. Manfredonia an Archbi(hop's See, with its Capacious 
Harbour and Impregnable Caftle^ Populous St. Severine, the Rich 
u , Soiled Barri. The high, fteep, and full of cragged Rocks, Angela, 
ol. Garganus Mons, a place Defenfible by Nature, and Strong by Art. 
The Important Haven-Town Bereukm, now Berletta. The poor 
Village Canna, near the Banks of Aufidus, now Lafanto, once me- 
morable for the great Defeat that Hannibal gave to the Romans, of 
whofe Army he flew 42700 in one place. 

Rich Leccff, The Choaked Haven Brindifl. The Capacious Port 
/ OtrontOf Hdruntum of old, taken by Mahomet the Great, Amio 148 1. 


■ .•* S", 

' ''•'.■ 



Of Ndples: a51 

Hie once well fortifiodMR^MKm, «ow Rajmo. Old Tarentum, where - 
lived Arcb/tas, fo famous for his Flying Dove. The Ancient Cofentia, 
now Cozenza, on feven "Hills ; feared between two Rivers, of which 
the one turneth Hair red, and Silk white; the other Hair and Silk 
black. St. Eufbenie, where Rofes grow thrice a Year. And Defolate 

:.J ^■ 

To conclude; here are in this Kingdom Twenty Archbilhops, One 
hundred twenty feven Bifhops, Thirteen Princes, Twenty feven DukeSj 
Twenty four Marqueffes, and Ninety Earls. v % 

The Fourth General p^rt of Italy^ we faid , might comprehendi J 
the Iflands oiSicilj/, Sardinia, Corfica, &Q| 



T- t 

- \ 

V '1./ 

<■ i- 

.1 ,t' 

X V 

'- A. 


•'J e < 




Briil1BKMMf*»iii«iilliWllliil i i lrt iii iiiliii|i|iiii >i mill i n ijn j.i I < i w ii ii »i 


OF all the Iflands in the Mediterranean-Sea, Siciljf is the moft 
Eminent, both for its Repute and Bignefs : It was once, if 


we may credit the Ancients, joined to the Contimnt, parted 
by an Inundation of the Sicilian Sea from Italy ; now divided 
by a fmall Channel a mile and half broad, between Me(fma and Regio, 
called the Far^ or ?bare of Mejfma\ once terrible from the frightful 

. . • u. - Names 


Of Sitily. . V fj7 

Names of ^cyUa and Cbarj/bJis 5 the firfl: a Rock, towards the North 
in Italy ; the other a Gulph, or Whirlpool, on Sicify-fidQ, which gave 
the occafion of the Proverb, Inciilit in Scyllam cupiens vitare Charyb- 
dim J now not fo dangerous or aifi ightful to the skilful Pilot. 

It had its name from the Siculiit a People of Italy ; before that, it 
was called Sicaniay from King Sicanus, who came thither before the 
Trojan War, with a great number of Ibertans. By the Greeks, called 
Trinacr'ta^ by the L<i^wj, Tr/fw^/r^, from its three Promontories. It 
is placed under fo favourable an Afpedt of the Heavens, and fo rich 
a Soil, that the Mountains themfelves, even to the tops thereof, are 
found fruitful. 

The People that now inhabit it, are ingenious, eloquent, and full 
of talk , prone to revenge , fubtle , envious , and flatterers , va- 
liant, and greedy of Honour, not much addidted to Traffick or La- 

This Ifland was famous for ^^fchylus^ the firfl Tmgedian of Fame ; 
Diodorus SicultHj theHiftorian; Ewpeifocles, the firft Inventer of Rhe- 
torick ; Euclid, the famous Geometrician; /irchimedesy the Mathema- 
tician, who made a Sphere of that art and bignefs, that one ftanding 
within, might fee the feveral motions of every Orb. -' '• 

The chieT Places are, i. Mefftna, of great ftrengrh, as well by Na- 
ture as Art ; ftrongly walled, fortified with Bulwai ks , a ftrong Ci- 
tadel, and a commodious Haven ; beautified with fair and ftacely 
Buildings ; the chiefeft place of Traffick in the whole Irtand ; we I 
frequented with Gentry, Citizens and Strangers, who live in great 
delight and pleafure. It lately, in a Rebellion, was under the Com-' 
mand of the Frmch j but they abandoning it, 'tis now returned to the 
Spanijli Government, who have four Cafiies, and the City as many 
in their Command. The City Gates fland open all night, for any to 
go in or out. The Government is by fix Jurors, foar of the Genti y, 
and two of the Citizens. 

Its other places of note, are Sy>\'jcrf0i, once tlie Metropolis of t! e 
whole Ifland; th;;grtate(^ and good. ie!t Cicyof thet'.'rcvii ; of a ftrong 
firuation, and excellent profped : The Ruins and Foundations of it 
do f^ill demonflrate its priftine Grandeur. N^'o. a City which here- 
tofore contended with Syracuje for grearncTs ; fciruate on a very high 
Rock, unacceflible on all fides, "but by one narrow pafiTage. 

The fair and capacious Harbour Pnjjhri, the never- fortified Haven 

Angtifia. The Navel of the Ifland, Cali-ro Giovanni, with its Mines cf 

Salt, Lcontim^ with its Lake, the Filhing wiierenf \=> yearly worth 

, 18000, fome fay jooooo Crowns. The Midland Town Enna, v;here 

Ci . ■ LI Vluto 




,• .*■ 




Of SUilf. 

Vlttto is faid to have ravifh'd Vroferpine, Fanormus, now Palermo, fci- s 
tuate on the Weft Cape of the Ifland, beautified with large Streets, 
delicate Buildings, ftrong Walls, and magnificent Temples, with its 
Artificial Haven, forced out by a mighty Pierre , a Work of vaft ex- 
pencp; an Archbifhop's See, an Univerfity, and Competitor for Trade 
with MfJJina. The Port Trapani, was the Drepanum of old , affords 
the beft Seamen. 

The Ruined £rtx, near Mont St. Julian, the Seat of King Aceftts, 
who fo kindly entertained t/£neasy and his wandring Trojatiu The An- 
l cient Catana, the ftrong taormina^ TauromeMum, near where the C/- 
clops dwelt ; near M(laz,z,o was Sextus Vomfeim defeated by Augufius, 
Gtrgantiy the Agrigentum & AygeuK of old, is famous for the Tyrant 
^ Thaiarisy and the brazen Bull of Pertllus. * 

The chief Hills in this Ifle, are lAont HybUy famous for its Bees and 
Honey ; and Mount t/£tna, for its once continually fending forth 
Fl<«mes of Firej the Flames now commonly not being fo great and 
vifible as formerly ; but the extraordinary Eruptions and Conflagra- 
tions, when they happen, are ftill as terrible and amazing, as ruinous 
and deftruAive to the Countrey. 

The Ancient 9y£gatbes, at the Weft end of Sicily^ are famous for 
the Defeat of CatuUm by the Carthaginians in the fiirft Tunic War. 

Sardinia y Sardegna Ital. Zerdegna Hifp. Strab. & Sic.^Sardon Hefy. 
Sandaliotis Flat. Ichnufa Plin, once a Carthaginian Colony ; the next 
Ifland to Sicily for greatnefs in the Mediterranean, where the Earth is 
more benign than the Heavens ; the length about 45' German miles, 
the breadth about 26. Its chief Places are, Calaris Plin. CaraUis Ptol. 
now Cagliari, the Seat of the Vice-Roy ; a good Haven, and well 
frequented. Here is the Beaft called Mufoli, of whofe skin is made 
the right Cordovant Leather. Here is alfo the Herb, from whence 
comes the Proverb, Rifus Sardonicus. 

Corjica was firft .called Therafne, afterwards Cyrnm ; in length about 
50 German miles, the breadth about 20. It was firft inhabited by the 
Tufci, afterwards by the Carthagimans, then by the Romans^ then by 
the Saracens, and now by the Genouans. The moftconfiderable Places 
now, are AMaz,, Calui, Bomfaci and Bajfia : Of old, Aler/a and 
Mari.iva were the moft noted. 

Tiie chief of the Ligarjan or Tufan Iflands, are Elba, Jim Plin. Ptol, 
Mda. jt/£rhalia Sirab. about 40 miles compafs ; famous for its two 
Ports, Porto Longone, and Porto Fcrraro ; the firft belongs to the Spa- 
niards, the other to the Duke of Florence j other Iflands are, Gorgona, 
Caprata, Monte Chrijio, Giglio, &C. ' V , 

.,_ L^ . - ■■ ^ '• ^ ' The 



}'V . 





OfSUily, , ^c . ^'^^9 

The nies of Naphs are 18 in number, the -chief of wtiichi are the 

Impregnable Jfchia^ ty£naria Plin, The Acjlum of Ferdinand King of 
NafltSi in the time o^ Charles t\\t\lllt\i of France. 2. froebita. 3. C4- 
pria, the Retirement of Auguflus and Ttberius, 

<t/£oUa or Vulcania & Liparara InfuU, & Hepbajtiadet Gracit, now 

' -'^ the Ifles of Uparl^ are about 12 in number; two of them, viz,. Strom- 

Ir bolt and Vukam, do ftill burn and flame, and are famous for the Fa- 

• ble of t/£olusy and for the firft Naval Vi(5tory of the Ancient 1^0- 


^: ' The Iflands in the ^<^ri<f/ici& Sea, are 1/0/4 i/« Tremtfi, formerly D/0- 

nndea hJuU, fo called from Diomedes, King of vStoli^r, who after the 



• Tr<);4« War fettled here. 

r^;;: •'•■ 

. ."i 


• •; 

-f'. V 




♦•ft, . 



__^^.;.,^;;- *f. 


0.^ A.; 

!<f /i • ■■' ■■'■ 



f' . t.%|-..t! 



'. ^•.^^ 

'y. -4- • 


Vvliitl V c 


. i' - ' ■■■• M "-'^ , 


,.,«iw«4t.-=r=:t-.;-»i«^j«'*i- ' 

'..•...>.: J.-../ 

.■■: ■. . .. ' 1 . .J \'. -■»■'.' ■ ' ■ 

LI 2 

f'«V«i»«. ^ 


.am i i i iii l Ulii.'-! 





... ^r' 


(^ Sclavcnia; iy ri&<? Germans or Dutch 

Writers, Wikdishlandt, 


SClavonia, VEfclavoma Gallis, Scblavonia Italis : According to the 
Latin Authors, it did contain Wiricum Hodiernum, viz. Dalmatia, 
Croatia, Bofnia, & Sclavonia fropria ,- But now, as it is properly taken, 
lying betwren the Dravits and Savusy it is part of the Kingdom of 
/Jii«^^7, and contains the Countries of Sermierf, Vakowar, Pcfega, Wf. 






}.-v i a? 














Of Cro$Hd.. 


raditiy and Zegrahia : A Country more fit for grazing of Cattel, than 
for Tillage (Tor the Sheep bring forth twice a Year, and are (horn 
four times i) Its chief Commodities are Horfes for fervice. Oxen, 
and other wild Bead:, which yields them abundance of Hides, Tallow, 
Butrer, Cheefe and Wool ; as alfo Wine and Oyl, with fome Veins 
of Gold and Silver. Its chief Places are, Pofega^ or Segovitz.a, a Place 
of great (trength ; and GraMska, Gradifcba, Graciatia of old, under 
the Tyranny and Bondage of the Turkijh Garifons. Zagrabia, Sifopd, 
Vtol, iefte Moi, Agram, Warafd'm, Variana aliis Varafdium, te^e Laz,to 
VarianaCafira in Libro Nofitia, belonging to the Houfe of Aufiria\ and 
Copranitz or Caprancaa, sl fair and ftrorg Place, under the Power of 
the Venetian. Sirmifcb Germ. Sereim Huytg. Sinnium of old, Valcouvar, 
Valcum Ant, Veltx,, SimUro. Firovitza, the Key and Entrance into Scla^ 
venia, Ann. 1684. capitulated, and 600 Jamz,artes marched out, and 
left it to the Imperialifts, after 113 years polTeflion. 

TheCaftle of Butcbin and TValf9, furrendred to Count Dunewaldtm 
Sept, 1687. Ejjeck was allbdeferted by the Turks, where were found 
52 pieces of Cannon, 4 Mortarpieces, and a vaft quantity of Ammu- 
nition and ProviHon. ^offega. fcituated about 4 Miles from the Save, 
was alfo at the fame time abandoned, and left by the Turks, and ga- 
rifoned by Count Dnnewaldt. 

Of Croatia, or Crabaten. ; 

CRoatta, By this generaj Name v ere all the more Inland parti of 
Sclavofiia , calleJ. The rcafon of the Name we find not ; it 
was brought hither nrft by the Sclaves. It is a Country, for the moft 
part, cold and Mountainous, yet reafonably fruitful, with all necelfary 
Provifions for the life of man ; were it not for the Ci>t^i effion and 
Neighbourhood cf the Turks, to whofe Injury it is continually expo- 
fed : Its chief PUces are, i. Siffig^ famous for the notable Refiftance 
which the Turks there found, Anno 1^9?. fi. Wihitx,, once the Me- 
tropolis of the Countrey ; ftrongly fortified by Nature and Art, but 
taken by ihQTitrksy Anno 1^91. But the chief Place in Cro«jf//i be- 
longing to the Emperor, is now Carelftat, the Refidence of the Go- 
vernor or Vice- Roy, Count Herberfiein, Anno 168^. 

This Country contained anciently the more Inland pprt of Ly- 




' \ 

•\ -i- 



Of Bofftiaf Dalmafia^ Sec. 




G ^>< 

BOj'nia It alts, Bofn'ta Gallhf Boffen Germ, was anciently accounted A 
part of Croatia ; by Ptol. part of lHyricum ; by Cluver p.trt of Pano- 
nta. To me it feems to contain the more Inland part of the Dalmatia 
of P7/M. and Ptol. and together with it, it was united to Hungary, un- 
der the Homage whereot it was eredled into a Kingdom, but of a (Kort 
continuance ; for in the Year 1464. Mahomet the Great furprized 
and took it, and converted it to a Province of the Turkifij Empire. 
The Places of nioft importance therein, artjaicza or Jazyge, ior its 
Scituaiion on a Rocky Precipice, an unfordable River Plenay and an 
inaccdTible Caftle, accounted Impregnable. 2. Bofna Serajum, Bqfna 
Strat, the Metropolis and chief of the Country. 3 . Bunialucum & Vam* 
iwluchaj forniefly Banjaluch, the Refjdence of the Bo/nian Kings. Na- 
med thus from the River Bofna, or from the River Btffi, a People of the 
Lower Majia^ expulfed thence by the Bulgarians, and fleeing hither. 
'Tis now a Turkijh Province, commanded by a BaJJa, and contains the 
Dutchy of St. Sabba, now HtrtZjegovina, tefi^ Luae. • ■ . . - ./ 

Of Dalmatia^ lUiricum Folib. lUiris Ptol. 

lUiria Stefb. 

THIS Province was by the Ancients divided into Lthmia on the 
Weft, and Dalmatia on the Eaft, now vulgo Scbtovonia, te(te Baud, 
It lies along on the Sea Goaft of the Adriattck Sea, and is now poiTef- 
fed by the Venetians and the lurks : The chief places polTelTed by the 
Venetians, SLVcSpalato, Spalatum dim Epetium, now Zarnovia, or Zarnou' 
fiiza,teHe Lucio, a Maritime Town, and the Emporium of the Venttians ; 
feated in a moft pleafant Vallt^ in a Pentnfula, joined to the firm Land 
of Dalmatia by an Whmus of about a mile over, and is guarded by a pro- 
digious Precipice of Mountains to the firm Land, through which it hath 
only one PaUage, which is defended by a Fort built upon a Rock, jult 
in the Entrance, with an open Port, but unfecure Bay for great Ships. 
Cltjja, fuppofed to be the Jndretium of Strabo, and A*tdcrium o^ Ptol. 
is a ftrong Fort more by Nature than Art, fcituated upon a Rock, 
which ftands juft in the middle of the Paflage between the Mountains, 
whic*: is fo narrow, that not a Man or Horfe can pafs by without the 







• ' 0/ Ddlmafia, 6cc, 16} 

Licenfeof their Caftle. It is now in the pofTeflion of the yenetians, ta- 
ken from the Turks, 1647. under the Conduct of theSignior FeJ'colo; 
it is about 8 miles North of Spalato, and 4 from Sakna, 

In 1 647. Obraoz^za, Carim, Ortijfina^ Velino , Nadtno, Urana, Two 
and Salomj were fubdued toi the Venetian Arms by the profperous Suc- 
cefs of Fofcolo. And Sehemco befieged by Mabowet Tedlij who was forced , 
to raife the Siege with the lofs and (laughter of many of his Soldiers. 
Zegna, the'Senia of the Ancients. 

Zara, the Jadera of Ptolomy ; ftrongly fortified, and well mann'd ; 
of a commodious Scituation, almoft encompaffed with the Sea, only 
the Eaft-end joined to thefirm Land j now very ftrong, being fecured 
by divers Redoubts, and 4 Royal Baliions, and a new Line of Forti- 
fications, which makes it the moft confiderable and ftrongeft Place in 
all Dalmatia. 

Sebenico is a ftrong Fortrefs, feated on a rifing Hill, whofe fpacious 
Port is fecured by the Fort of St. NicQlas, and the Hills, by a Citadel, 
and the new Works of St. ychn. Salona, a Roman Colony, and the 
ordinary Arfenal for their Navies,* well known in Ancient Stories 
for the Retreat of Dioclt/ian, and ihe Garden of his Retirement, after 
..e had renounced the Empire. 

Tr^u, Tragurium of Strabo and Plin. is fcituated between the firm 
Land, and a little Ifland Bua joined to the Land by a Stone-bridge, 
and to the Ifland by a Wooden Bridge; it is, about 18 or 20 miles 
Weft from Sfalato. 

Leffifia is the Ifle which Ftol. calls Fharia, Strabo Pharas, very high. 
Rocky and Mountainous, reckoned about 100 miles in compafs; ac 
the South-end is a good Haven, where is the Town, having a Citadel 
on the top of a fteep Rock. The place is noted for theFifiiing-Trade 
of Sadelity vvhicii are like -.47;fW/f^; 100 miles from Zara^ 30 miles 
South from Spalato^ and 50 miles North from LiJJe. 

Almijfa, the Peguntium of Ptolomy, or Pigantia\ feated on a high 
Rock, and defended with a ftrong Caftle, now belonging to^ the 7«rA/, 
tcfie B'!ud. 

Ca(ile Novo,a. ftrong Fortrefs within the Gulph of Cat arc, taken by the 
Vemtian^ underthe Conduct of General Cenaro, 1687. Cataro, Jfcr'tv'ium 
Vim. Alcri'Vicn Vtol. a Strong-hold alfo or the Venetians SigsKn^ the Turks. 
But Mr. IVheekr faith, 'tis the firft Town belonging to the Turks. 

Budua, the Butua of Ptol. is thelaft place of the Venetian: on the D.d- 
matian Shores. Places more belonging to the Turks, are Narctjza, Dul- 
rt?«Cj or Ulcimum of old, a City of indiiierenc good Trade, wliere 
ihe Iravks have a Conful j containing about 7 or 8oqo Inhabitants. 





fiPlii !.iiai«ji» 1 

. a^4 

Of Ri^ufa. 


Scudariy the 5co<Jr4 of Old ; ftrongly feated on a ft^ep Rock, Memo- 
Table for the years ftoat Refiftance which it made againft Mahomet the 
Second ; but taken Anno 1 978. by the lurh. And y4/e/?<7, the L//7i« of 
Old ; the fartheft Town of all Dalmatian where Soanderbsg was buried. 

Of the Commonn>ealth of Raguia. : 

THIS is a fmall Commonwealth, whofe Town and Territories 
are in Dalmatia , upon the Gulph of Fenice , and which pays 
annually to the Turk ^ooo<ty^lavres, as being environed by the Terri- 
tories under his Jurifdi^tion, and not able to fubfift without the 
Grand Signm\ Idve. It makes feme Acknowledgment alfo to the 
Fenettansy as Mafters of the Gulph. It keeps good Correfpondence 
alfo with the Princes of Jf^^/r; and endeavours to preferve themfelves 
under the Protection of the King of S^ain^ to vyhom it pays Tri- 
bute in the Perfon of the Viceroy of Sicily. The Gentlemen mud 
marry Ladiei, if they defire tj be accounted Nobles of /J<sr|f«/<i. Con- 
trary to the Cuftom of other Nations, they count the Age of men 
from the Conception, and not from the day of their Birth. The Re- 
venue of the Republick is about ^coooo Livres. The Inhabitants 
addid themfelves altogether to Trade. In the year 1667. a great 
Misfortune befel the City , it being almoft all fwailowed up by an 
Earthquake. Their Principal Port is that of the Holy Crofs, Santo 
Cruccy about nine Miles from the Ciry. The cnief Governor is cal- 
led the Redor ; but his Government lafts but one Month. The Citi- 
zens change every day the Governor of their Caftle : Neither do they 
let him enter into his Command but in the Night, and then they 
blind his Eyes. T^e Turks have a kindnefs for the Rjgufansy becaufe 
they pay ^heir Tribute exadly, and becaufe they have, by their 
means all the Commodities of Europe whicii they (land in need of. 
They give them thofe Privileges which they grant to no other Chri- 
ftian; for they permit them to buy Provifions in their Dominions: 
For theCountrey about R*4gu(a is fo barren, full of Rocks and Stones, 
that if it brings forth any thing, 'tis by means of the Earth which 
they fetch from other parts. The Town is well built , and forrilicd 
with Walls, and a Cattle ; a noted Emporyj and of a good Trade ; 
the Efifhurus of old. 

I. Sabioneera is a Town feated on a long flip of Land (^oppcfite to 
Curz,olt) belonging to the Republick oi Raguja^ where are many de- 
lightful and fruitful Gardens. 

2. Santa 

■ I 

■ \ 

Of Rdgitfs. ««^ 

i, SdmaCreet, the Entrance good, thePort Urge, deep, and fecure, , V; 
i beingtvcry way Land locked by Mountains round it, covered with v ••^' ^ 

• Vineyards, Gardens and Houfesof Pleafure of the Ragufiantk ■ , " '1; 
4 3. Budoa y the Buluaof Ptol, ":i the laft place of the ^(fwfww on the. . > /.** aj; 

Dalmatian ttiorps. Butua o£ Plin. Bnthot Stepb. A,^l,'^-/'l''''^-y\^'^-]^'y^-^:i''-'--- 
! 4. The Gulphof LoJrin was anciently the Gulph of Anoloniay wfiert li:j|j 
1 , Ctefar nirrowly efcaped with his Life and Fleet., *Tis a tlangerous paf- - - • 
' iage, about i yo miles over. 
I Curx,ola by StraboyCorcyra Nigra , once belonging to the Republiqua ' . ,< J/'^ 

• of ii<»j»^«/«,but taken from them by theP^i'wfww^ by a cunning Exchange, v,' ' 
The Town is of the fame Wame, and feated upon a Peninmla, is a Bi- 
ihop's Seat, and Walled ; beddes which there is about five Villages. 

Along the Coaft of Dalmatia lies a great clufter oflfladds, Z)«/>rdMfci 
; cba Tunis y Liburmdes Infula by Strab. the Names of the chief y oil witt 
find in the Maps, moft of them belonging to the Venetians^ which are 
j Ciid to contain 40000 Inhabitants. 






; 'i. 

•«■ c 


— s * . . 



M m 

SERHA, or ^Ztrvia, as (ofne c.iil it, contains part of Maijia Superior, 
and partofD^/»V(j//<jof oldj it had once Kings of its own, now ex- 
tind It vvasonceunder the Uungarhn K\r\g% \ now wholly poflelTed 
b.y the Turks. It is now divided into Maritine and Midland ^eww, ff/c 
Joj^uLticio.Sovia Miritima ' Chulmia, now Herzegovina, QXiendcth 
towards Dnimatia and AlbiWta. Serzia Miditerranea is divided into two 
parts, x/i. Rujiia M^d htfu. It is a fruitful and pleafant Countrey ; 
confining of Plains, Wuuds, and Hills, not without ftout Men, good 
Horfes, Wincf., andconvenieiu Riveri. Once well ftored with Mines 
of Gold and Silver, but thofc now decayed, or loft, and the People 
grofb and ludc, addicted to Winv^and falls in tlieir Promifes. Its 




Of ServU. t'6'-j 

Its chief places are, Belgrade^ once the Bulwark of Chriftendom> 
bravely refifting the Power of Amurab the Second, and Mahomet the 
Great, repulfed by the Valour of Hmmiafles ; at which time Mahomet 
himfelf was wounded in the Breaft, loft his Ordnance, and 200 of his 
Ships, deftroyed by a Fleet which came from Ruda j but taken by So- 
lyman ijio. Seated ihe is upon the confluence of the Darube and the 
Savtis, having the great Rivers Tihtfcus, the Dravu:, and Morava run- 
ning into the Danube not far from it; as brave a fcituation for Trade, 
as any Inland place in Europe. It is now adorned wich two large Bez.e' 
fieemsy or places where the Richeil Commodities are Sold ; with a No- 
ble Caravatifara and Mofchea, with a Mettrefcck or College fcr btudents. 

Zenderin^Singdunum Ant, Semendera Lat. Siwedto Grac. taken by A- 
murab the Second, 1438. 

Scopia. Scupi Ptol. by the Tu>kj caWedUfchopia^ aGity of greatTrade, 
Seated in the remoteft part of Servia, or Mcs^n SHptrior, or rather on 
the Confines of Macedonia. It is afair and large Town, having a great 
Number bf Mofcbeas j once a Bishop's, after sn Archbiftiop's See^ now 
noted for a great many Tanners^ that make excellent Leather. '^:'. 

Great A<ftons have been hereabouts performed in the times of the 
Romans, efpecially by Regiliianus. Hereabouts alfo ftood Parcecopola, and 
Uipianum of old. 

Jagodna is pleafantly fcated in a fair Cnnntrey, halfway from Ftehna 
to Confl-antimple, 

Halli Jahijar is a confiderable place, where there is a Church with 
two fair Towers. 

Lefoa, or Lefcovia, feated upon the remarkable River Lyperitza^ the 
Maneder of Moefia, 

The Hills between Servia and Macedonia, area part of Mount Ha>musy 
of which the M, ChJJura, one of the Spurs or Excurfions, Ihines like 
♦ Silver, confifting i Muicovia Gh^ . . , 

Urania is a fti'ong Pdfsj which the Caftle commandeth, and locks up 
the into Macedonu, 

The chief Rivers of Servia are, i. Morava, Mo^chim of old ; is divi- 
ded into two Streams, the one named Moravi di Bulgaria, the other 
Moravi di Servia, which uniting, run into the Danube at Ze?iderin ; fo 
that by this River the Commodities of Servia and Bulgaria arc carried 
into the Dmube, and fo difpcrfed in Hinigaria, Aufhia, 8ic. Not far 
from which was that great Slaughter of the Turks by Humiades, who 
with loooo Horfe fet upon the Turkfli Camp by Moon-light, flew 
; jooojand took 4000 Prifoners. And 2. Remarkable Lypmfzi.^, which 
Dr. Browfi faith,that in lefs than twelve hours they pafl>dit ^0 times> 

M m 2 Of 

? <i 


•■• I". 



t J*" ^..H^.^iii 



Of Bulgaria. 

BULGARIA is a Countrey generally full of Woods and t)e(arts, 
the moft unpleafant and unpeopled of all the Dacian Provinces ; 
but the lower parts not without fome Plains and Valleys. 
The Inhabitants of a Natural fiercenefs, yet patient of Toyl and 


Its chief places are, Sophia Trocop, Sofia It alts ^ Sophie Gallis, the Tthifca 
of Ptol. tefie Ntjr. & Mol. the Seat of a Begkrbeg^ under whom are 21 
Sangiacs ; feated in a long and fruitful Valley three miles diftant from 
a high Mountain, covered with Snow all the year. It is Beautified with 
many fair Hanes and Baths^ a ftately College, and fair Mofques. 

Axiopoltf) Gabcz tefie Laz.. Flotz. Marc. & Celanarnick, Baud, on the 
Banks of the Danavf, which fiom this Town begins to take the Name 
oilfter. Mefembriay fcituate on the Euxire, Mtrcianopolts^ much menti- 
oned in the ftories of the Goths^ for the Fights and Battels they had 
there with the Emperor Claudius. Nicopolit, by the Turks Sciltaro, tefie 
Ltunc. & Nipboliy memorable for the Founder of it, the Emperor Tra- 
jan ; more for the many great Battels fought near unto it, whereof 
one was by Sigifmund the Emperor, and King of Hungary^ who with 
an Army of 130000 Chriftians befieged it, and Bajazet came to the 
Relief of it, got the Vtdory, with the lofs of above fixty thoufand 
Turks, killed 20000 Chriftians, and moft of the reft took Prifoners.The 
Second between Michael, Vaivod oiValachia, and Mahomet the Third, 
over whom Michael got a Remarkable Vidory. Varna, the Oyonifipolis 
of the Ancients, on the Euxine Sei ; RemarkAble for the firft flight of 
Hunniades, and the Death of Uladifiaus King of Hungary ^ 1444. Siltftria, 
the Ordinary Abode of a Turkifis BaJJ'a. Temova, the ufual Refidence of 
the Princes of Bulgaria. Budtna. once o( great Importance* but burnt to 
the Ground by Hunniades, not far from the Old City Oefcus Trihallorunt, 
Acridus, the Birth-place of Juftinian ; by the Turks called GiuflandiL 
Tomi, or Tomos, to which Ovid was Baniflied; fome fay 'tis at this day 
called Tmifwar; others would have it to be Kiovia. D'mogetia Ptol Di- 
nogutia & Dmignltia Ant. Denigti ex Tab. recens, Dt mago Nigro. Callatia, 
Callacis Ant, Calatis Strab. d^ Plin. Kilia Laz,, vu'g Bialcgrvd. Calliacra^ 
Laonico. Pandalla Nig. Ifirofolis Plw. & Ptol. Iftroj Strab. tifria Arriano, 
Stravico Cafial. Grojj'ea Nig. & Proflaviza Baud, much fubjedl to the ir- 
THgtions ot the Vobrufian Tartars. 



GREECE, once the moft celebrated part of the Worl(3/in the ■ 
prefent Latitude and Extent thereof,hath for its Ealkrn Bounds' 
tYiQ sy£gcanSQ!L,thQ Hellefpont, PropontjSy a.nd the Tiiracian Bofphortis: 
For its Southern, the Crettan and the Ionian Sea; on the Well, the 
Mriatick Sea J and on the North, only Uilited to the lelt of £«re/ > 
the Mountain Hismn'* 



i" ' i i n i I I inw 

,' '^f;l\ 


tjo Of Greece* 

Confined aeBrft to j4ttieaf and the parts adjoining, only then cal- 
led Helles, from King Helien, the Son of Deucalion; the Inhabitants 
Heleties in ^cred Writ : and Greedy from King Gr<e<:«i, the Son of Ce- 
cropsy the fifft'King of J'ri6«»ifc6mmunicated afterwards to Tbejjalyyio 
Veloponnefusy thefj to £fir«/, and laftly to the Macedonian Empire. 
'^ The firft Inhabitants of Grw« did live each under their proper Ma- 
giftrates in fevcral Cities, until Tbilip King of Macedonia, clearing his 
own Couritrey of the l^w-ww, fubdued Acbaia, Thracia^ and a great 
part of Peloponnefus. And fucceeded by Alexander his Son, who retained 
his Father's Conquefls, and vaMui/hing Darius the great King of Ter- 
fia, and other Kings of India^ founded the Grecian Monarchy, but in 
the height of his Sacceflesdiedjbeing Poyfoned at Bahylon. Afterwards 
the Romans became Makers of it ; and after that the Goths and Huns 
did rather Harrefs than Inhabit it.Laltly, thz Saracensy nowthe7«ry^/, 
and the Victorious K(?werw», fliare it under their Obedience. 

Hence it is that Greece hath loft \%i former Divifion of Countries,and 
their Names, and received new ; that which was particularly called 
Greece, is now called Livadia ; Velopennefusy Morea ; Thejfalyy Janna ; 
Epirusy Canina ; Macedonia is divided into four parts; that next Janna 
is called Camenalitariy that which borders upon Dalmatia is called Alba- 
ma ; cliat next to Tbracey is named Jamboly ; and the midft of the Coun- . 
trey retains its old Name Macedonia. Laftly, Tbracia is now called 

The Grecian yOncQ a Nation in matters of Government Famous, 
in Arms Glorious, in Arts Admirable ; addidedto the love of Vir-r / 
tue. Civil of Behaviour, afFeders of Liberty, and every way^'Noble ; 
only in their Commonwealth Principles, and Civil Diflentions un- 
happy. But now under the Tttrkifj Yoke, their Spirits are low, their 
Knowledge is Ignorance, their Liberty contented Slavery j their Yir-. 
tues Vices, their Induftry Idlenefs ; They are generally of good Pro- 
portion,and of a fwarthy Complexion : Their Women very well fa- 
voured, brown, and exceffive Amorous : In Habit and Garb both 
Sexes generally follow thofe under whom they live. 

Their Primitive Language needs no Commendation, being well 
known for its lofty found. Elegancy, and fignificant Expreffions, ge- 
nuine Suavity, and happy Compofition of words j Excellent for Phi- 
lolbphy and the Liberal Arts, but more txccllent for that fo great a 
part of the Oracles of our Salvation i& delivered therein ; but now 
not only the Natural Elegance is !oft, but the L^.nguage almoft de- 
voured by the Livgua Franca^ Twk/IJ}j and Sckvoiiia^t Tongues. : 


.jf ^v 



Of Qreeie. 




' The Chriftian Religion Was here firft Planted by St. VauJ, who went 
into Macedonia, pading thence to TheJJ^iloniea, from thence to Athens^ 
and thence to Corinth^ watering the greateft part of Greece with the 
Dew of Heaven : But now confidering theTyranny of the Turks on the 
one fide, and the Temptations of Preferment on the other, *tis almolt a 
wonder there (hould be any Chriftianity left amongft them ; yet the 
Gates of Hell cannot prevail againft this affliifted Church ; for its mem- 
bers are endued with a Divine Humility ,Patience,andConftancy; their 
Priefts are reverenced, the Articles of Faith and Rules of a Holy Life 
preferved ; their Fafts and Feafts obferved ; the power of the Keys 
Exercifed, and the Judicature of the Church preferred before that of 
the Divan. As to thii material Points of their Religion, I (hall refer to 
theDefcription of my 5m/»r«r<?-A/^/)i. ' . ; .. 

' This Countrey hath formerly been Famous for Miltiades, Ari(i\deiy 
and Themfiocki of Athens ; Lyjander and Agejilaus of Sparta ; Pelopidas 
and Efamimndas of Tbebes ; Aratas and Philoparweut of Acbaia ; Vyrrhus 
o( Epirusj Vbilipoi Macedon, Alexander the great,braveCommanclers.For 
Plato, Socrates, Ari/lole, D'mnc Philofophers : For Demofthenes, Ifocrates, 
t/£fcbines. Eloquent Orators. Hefod, Homer, Uq. Excellent Poets ; Solon 
and Lycurgus, Eminent Law-givers. Xenophon, Tbuciades, Platarcb, He- 
rodotus, famous Hiftoriographers J with feveral other Authors and 
Promoters of Arts and Sciences, too tedious to relate. But to proceed 
to the Provinces. 

The Inhabitants of Greece were of old divided into three forts, viz, 
the lones, the more famous whereof were the Athenians. The Dores, the 
nioft renowned of whom were the Lacedemonians; and the <iAEoles,who 
fent Colonies into AJia, near to Vhocaa. By the ancient Writers called 
Achei, Acbiai, Argivi, Danai, Dolopes, Dores, Driopes, Hellenes, lones, MyV' 
midones, and Pelafgi, 

The Province oiRomania,or Romeka, is the Ancient Thrace, by 5'/^- 
fbanus. Aria ; by fome Scythia ; by Jofephus, Thyras from Thiras theJ 
Son of Japhit ; by the Turks now called Romdi: A Countrey neither of 
a Rich Soil, nnr pleafant Air, yet well Inhabited. But the chief Glory 
of this Province, ind of all the Ottoman Empire, is the Renowned 
CAty Conftantimile, ir<imerly called X^^wj, ByzjamiumyZnA Nova Roma^ 
now by the Greiks Iifi'.m^oh, and by the Turks Stawhl; feated in the 
Latitude of 40 D.^v'. i'<5« Infliape Triangular, commanding the Pro- 
pontis,^Boiphoros, AnfXEuxme Seas; Seated on a Haven fodeep and Ca- 
pacious, that the Turks, for its Excellency, call ic the ?orto{ the world. 
At this day the chief Buildings are the Turks Seraglio, and the Temple 
or Mofque of St. Sophia, for 13eauty and Workmanlhip exceeding ad- 
miiabl^ to behold. The 

;> . 

' ..^ 








1.25 1.4 II 1 h 

= Hi 

^ 6" 






33 WEST MAi^* <iTREEi 

WEBSTER, ly V. 14580 

(716) 8'? 4503 




4 -.Hi 


Of Grihe. 

,■■> (,' 

The Seritglh is a vaft place, inclofed and divided from the reft of the 
^ City with a Wall three miles in compafej wherein are ftately Groves 
of Cyprcfles, intermixed with delightml Gardens, Artificial Fountains, 
and all varieties of Pleafurcs which Luxury can effect, or Treafure pro- 
cure. The principal Beauty of the City is the Scituation Of it on the 
Mountains ; Crowned with Magnificent Molques with gilded Spires, 
refle^ing the Sun-beams with a marvellous fplendor. 

Other Cities of this Provinc^'are AnJriampplift or HadrUmpolts Ptol. 
formerly Orefi-a Lampridio. Ujcudavay feu Ufcudama Ammiano, Andemop(h 
U , & Tunis Endren, tefle Busb. a fair large and Well-compofed City, ' 
with fair and ftately Mofques, efpeclally one built by Sultan Solyman the 
Second, a very Magnificent Structure. 

Galltpoli, formerly Callipolis , feated near the HeJiefpont within the 
Sea of Marmora, the firft City that ever the Turks poiTefted in Europe, 
' furprized by Solyman, Anno i ? f 8. 

Below Gallipoli is the ftraiteft paffage of the Heliefpont, formerly fa- 
vtnous for Xerxes's Bridge, but efpecially for the two Caftles, 5e#o/ and 
Abidosy noted for the Story of Hero and Leander, now called the Dar* 
dantUes, orOldCaftles, the new Caftles being at the mouth.ofthe 
HeUefpontf and are the Bulwark of Confiantmople, as the Caftles on the 
Thracian Bofpborus are on the other fide. Galata or Pera,\s oppofite to 
<lonfiantmopk, where live all the Foreign AmbaiTadors, Refidents and 
Envoys. Belgrade is 12 or if miles Northwards, where are the Sun- 
mer-Houfes of the Nobility, and the coftly Aquadu(5ls that fupply Con- 

St. Stephanoes is inhabited moft by Chriftians. At Great Scl^ecmajhe 
are the Seraglio's of the Nobility. Selimbria hath Mofques, a Baz,ar 
and Greeck Churches. Heraclea Leunc, Heraclia Soph, Penntbus Vlin. df 
Ptol. its Harbour makes it a Peninfula of four miles in compafs ; now 
an Archbifliop's See, and its Church the beft in Turkj : Noted alfo of 
old for the PaUcqs of Fefiatianj Domitian and Antonwus, Emperors of 
Rome ; as alfo for its Amphitheatre cut out of one entire Marble. 

Rodefe, Redaflum Plin. Bifantbe VtolRodoJio Sopbi, 30 miles from 
Heraclia, feated on the fide of an Hill, at the bottom of a Bay, peopled 
with about ijooo Inhabitants, Chriftians, Twr/^j and j^es^i ; much 
frequented, but of little Trade. 

Myriopbyton by the Greeks, Murflon by the Turks, it hath about 200 
Houfes, about five miles from Rodef-o. 

Abdera, now Afperofa, was the birth-place of Laughing Democritus, 

n^nos, now Enio & Eno Grec. Tgnos Turcis, a Town of great ftrength 
and fafety, therefore aa honourable Prifon. LyfimachM, once of great 

Irapor- ' 




Importance, now Hexintily, faid to be built out of the Ruins oiVhiUi- 
foliy from fbtUf the Father of Alexander. 

CarJia, Cardiofolis VtoL wai. the Birth-place of Etimenes, a Currier's 
Son, but a famous Warrier, Qua Stefh, & Pauf. eadem Lyjimacbia & 
Hexantillo. Caridia, tefte Soph. 

The Province or Kingdom of Macedonia^ was fo called from King 
Mactdoy Son oiO/tru, Others fay it had its name from a Son of Ju- 
piter and Ttya ; or as Solinrts fays from Macedoj a Son or Grandchild 
of Ducalion, called alfo tydEmathia Vlin.'& Peonia, fy^monia Livio. For* 
merly it contained feveral Provinces, (the Names wkhereof are in my. 
Sheet-Mapof Grffcf J and 'tis faid was Inhabited by lyo feveral Na- 
tions. By the Ancients it was divided into four Principal parts, viz. 
Prima J Secunda, Tertia, Quarta, Thjft towards the Weft, or the 
Fourth part, is now called Albania. That part toward the N. E. firft 
and fecond part, is called Jamboli. That in the middle retains ^^^e 
NimQoi Macedonia Propria. That towards the South is called Cotntno- 
litari, containing part of Macedonia Tertian an3 fome part of Tbejfalta. 

The chief Towns of Albania, or Pars Occidentalis Macedonia, are, 

I. Dyracbium CaC. Cic Ptol. &c. & Epidamnus Thucyd.Plin.&c. 
Darazzo d^Drazzl Turcis, once memorable for the Valour of Scavo, 
who alone fo longrefilted Pompe/s Army, that he had 220 Darts ftick- 
ing in his Shield, yet was C^/^r foiled. It was taken by Bajazet from 
the Venetians, Anno i499« 

"2. Inacceflible and Impregnable Crwrf, thought by fome to be the 
Epicaria of Ptol. George C a/Hot, or Scanderbeg, took it by a wile ; but 
Amuratb the Fourth loft his Life before it. The Antigonia of Ptol. tefte 
Soph. & Lazzio. 

3. AulonoiPlirt.& Ptol. now r<»/o«4 fcituate over-againft Otranta 
in Italy , and about 60 miles diftant, 30 miles from Valona, Land- 
wards cifeth a Fountain of Pitch mentioned by the Ancients, with 
which mixing Tar, they Careen fliips. Deferted and demoUIhed by 
the Feneteans,' 1691. 

4. Apolonia Liv. & Ptol. PoUina, Piergo, & SoJJopoli, tefte Baud, (feres 
Nigro, a Town of great note in the times of the Romans, and the Key 
of Greece, memorable for the Study of Auguftus Cajar, 

' 5". Sfeftigrade, or Veftig ade, the Spetia of Laonic. Turcis Sucrige tefte 
Leund. Oxypyrgium Greets, tcfle Soph, one of the laft Towns taken by 
Scanderbeg, as Dibra was the firft. 

The Rock or Ifland Safmo, fix miles from Vahna, houndeth the 
Gulf of /Wr««o; Drilo, Strab. Ptol.& Plin. Drinax Ntgro, Dnno aliis.Le 
Golphe de Drin Gallis. Golpho Delia Drino Italis. Nor far from this Ifland 

N n N. E. 


bi' Ti'i, .15 






Of Greecf. 


N. E. are the Falls of Vifcaria, the Fifli they pickle , the Roes they 
fait and dry in the Sun, and fo make Botago, 

Other places are Jlhampolij 40 miles from Duraz.z.o, and 3 f from 
\Aliffio in Dalmatia, Eladafagni the Daulia of P/<?/. re/?« Mol. Locrida ; 
Lychnidm Liv. Diod- & Ttol. Lychvid'ion Tolyb. Lychmttus tlerod. c^ Stefk* 
A Lake, and Archbiftioprick of Macedonia y J ufiiniana Primafthtn/ichrj' 
dm t'Ochrida, Turcis GiufiandU. 

Chief Towns in JamboU were, i. Stagira Vlitt. Sfepb, Diod. Stantira 
Ttol. i\it Country o^Arifiotle, tefie Laertio, now Liia Nova. tefieSopb, or 
Macra tefie Nicatoo ' 

2. VaUene Vlin. fhkgra Herod, Vatalene Ttol Tataknts Mol. Catiijlro 
St>ph,Tarcho3 or Taffo Nardo. Sacred to the Mufes. 

3. Amfbipolis Herod, Thucyd. &crNeafoUs Ant, Ckrijlofoli Sofb, Em- 
holt Turcis, 

s. CavaJla, Oefima Thucyd. & Ttol. the Cahjla Ttol, Cavyla Cedreno 
tefis Leonol (^ Bucepbala tefie Brietio. 

y. ConteJJ'ay which gi^es its name to the Gulf, Golfo di Contefa Ca- 
fialdo. Golfo di Monte Santo, Soph, i\\Q Stryntonicus Sinus of Ttol. 

6. Tbejfalonicay now Salonicbi Soph, to whofe Inhabitants St. Taul 
writ his Epiftles ; very populous' of Chriftians, Turks and Jews, and 
of great Commerce, feated at the bottom of the Gulph Salonicbi. The 
Sinus Thermam, or rather Thermaicus of Strah, & Ttol. diftant from 
Conflantinople about 320 miles, and from Duraz,z^ !^:>out 2 go miles. 

7. Siderocapfa the Cbryfites of Liv. tefie BeSo, & Scydra Ttol. famous 
for its Mines of Gold and Silver, fo advantageous to the Turk, as the 
report exceeds belief. 

8. Mount Atbos of Liv. & Strah, Acroathon, or Acrotbon Tlin. & 
Mela. Acrffthoon Herod. Atbos %lcron. a Gracis dyiSv og^f, now Cima di 
Monte San6lo. San^. Laure, & Agios Laura, Monafiir h Turcis & Seidi- 
dag tefie Leun^. Inhabited from the beginning of Chriftianity with 
Hermits, afterwards with Monks according to the Order of St. Bafil, 
It (lands in a Peninfula very fruitful, being 160 miles ^bout, where 
they have 20 Monafleries, and about 600 Kaloiis, They pay looo 
Dollars a month, and have fafe protedion. The Town Kareis is in 
the middle of the Mount, where there is Turkijh Aga, and a Marker. 
Their Churches and Furniture are excceeding rich, and all are daily 
employed according 10 their feveral degrees and qualifications. 

Tor one of Plin. & Mel. a Tor one f Ha Neptuni tefie Steph.Lango Sopb. Ca- 
file RampOy Nardo & Pine to. Rainero vel Reiner Ntgro. Agiomana, or Aio-^ 
r»ana Cajleldo j from hence Toronaicus Sinus, now Golfo di Agiomcna, or 
Atomana €afi, Golfo di Ramfo vel Ram fa Nardo. 







9 Towns in Macedonia properly fo called^ and in Comemlitariy are, 
* I. Veia of Strab. Vlin. Ptol. &C. Jenix^a, or Janizza Soph, Zucbria 
Nip-o, the Birth-place of Alexander, /*■>/.:; C^ 

2. Vitdna of Ptol. Steph. &c. Cbitro Soph, taken by Cajfandefj the So» 
of Antipater, who murthere^ Oljmpias the Mother, Roxana the Wife, 
and Hercules the Heir apparent to Alexander the Great. 

5. Berrha, or Berraa pfPlin Strab, Ptol. &c. Flrw 5o;'j&. JBaw Twrrw 
r«/tf Lirww^. where St. P<i«/ and Silas preached. 

4. .<4</fj^<i Ptol. Edejfa Liv. &Polyb, &z/Egaa aliis. Fodena Mol, Soph, 
&' aliis, r! * 1! 

5". Ancarijlus Ptol. Fofianza tefte Theveto aliis Erifo. ' ';" 

6. Tyrijfa Ptol. Ctrefei Mercator^Ditiorigriza d>* Xerolibado aliis, 

7. Sro^i of ?//». Liv. & Ptol. in Pelagonia regione, Starachino Nardo* 

8. Antigonia in Migdonia reg. Coiogna Pineto^ aliis Antigoca. 

Of fhefjalia. 

in J- 


TH E Province of Tbejfaly was called ammonia & Fyrriraa ; by 
Strabo. Efiiaotis^ by P//». Drjofisy by DW, -<^r|^w Pelafgicum, by 
Homer. Comtnolitari Cafi. Tl)umeneftrra Gett^ao, Lamina Lazio. Btlt the 
greateft part is now called lanna tefe Brietio. It is a Country no lefs 
fruitful than pleafant, famods for the Hill Olympas, rifible ac a great 
diftance, confiftingnotof one rifingPeak, but extending a great way 
in length from Eaft to Weft, remarkable for the Exploits of Paulus 
fL/Emiluf, of Appiutf Claudius , and of the Conful Martim^ of which, 
fee Sir Walter Raviletgh^ lib. i. Cap. 7. For the Mountainsof Pelion and 
OJJ'a, For the Hill Othrys, the Hill Oeta, where Hercules is faid to have 
burned himfelf with a poifoncd Shirt. For the pleafant Valley of 
Tempe, called the Garden of tlie Mufes. For the Pharfalian Fields, 
where the Empire of the Roman Univerfe was difputcd in two great 
Battels ; the one between Cafar and Pcmpey, the other between Brutus 
and Cajfms'on the one fide, and Anthony and Augujlus' on the other. 
Here lived thz Mirmarlons, over whom ^c;6ii7fj was Captain at the War 
oiTroy. The chief places are, Li«rij^, Larizzo Soph.Tt:7wee Sbeir, Tur- 
risj an A rchbiflioprick, inhabited by Cbrifiians, Turks and Jews ; plea- 
lancly feated upon a riling ground,. on the upper part whereof ftands 
the Palace of the Grand Signior, refuted alfo for the Tow'n where Acbd- 
m was born. 2. Ternovo, a large and pleafanf City, about t^n miles 
Weft'.vardsof /.i^ri//^^, where moll of the Inhabitants are Chriftians, 
there being i3 Churches, and but three Mofques. 3. Dimitria^la^ De- 

N n 2 metrus 


Of GrieU. 

V: \ 

metrias of pld ; by Tlin. the' fame with ?e^afay oF great ftrength by Art 
and Nature. 4. Pegafay now rolo, in which the Ship called yirgo was 
faid to be built. Armiro, Argot Velafgicum al. LariJJ'af the Seat of a 
Turktjh Sangiac. Dcmichiy the Lamia of Tolyb. Cic. Ptol. &C. HomiU 
Ptol, Homolium Vlift, Qmole Straboy Homolus Stepb. HomoUum Liv. a City 
and M. in Thejfalj/y vide Virgil, lib. 7. z/£neidosj now Lamina tefte MoL 
Lartly, jrf»»;», which gives name, to the Country, an Archbiflioprick, 
that hath under it four BifKopricks, Argiro'CaJiro, Delvinoy Butrinto^ 
and Glykaon* Dolicbe Ptol. is the TecbaTa of Mere* & Briet. Alcbria, 
Fiflano. Trita, or Tricca, once the Biihoprick of Hdiodorus, the Author 
of the Etbiopick Hiftory. ':'/'/>. ■ - \' >:: •^ ' 

> : (?f E P I R U & 

- &" 

TH E Province of Epirm, now Canina, rather Chimera & L. Arta 
tef^e Baud, is mountainous and barren, languifhing under the 
Turk'tfi) Tyranny. Divided by fome into Cbaonia Ttefprotia, Acarnania 
^t/£t(flia. But by Brietiminio Cbaonia^ Thefportia.CaJfiopaay Acarnania^ 
Ampbilocbia, Atbamania, Dolopia and Molojfiaj once a Country very po- 
pulous, until PW«/ e/£w///«f ^eftroycd 70 of their Cities in one day. 

Places of moft note weteDodona, memorable for the Temple and 
Oracle of Jttpiter, fcituate in a fair Grove of Vocal Oaks. 

Ambracia Caf. Cic. & Strab. Ampracia Herod, now VArta^ the Regal 
Seat of King Pyrrj&»j, accounted by Hannibal, next to Alexander, the 
fecond great Soldier of the World. 

Allium near Cape tigula, nigh unto which Augufius and Anthony 
fought for the Empire of the World. 

Nicopolis, now Vrevefa, built by Augufius , yielded to the Venetiam 
1684. where were 200 Turkt, who* were conduced near to Arta^ 
44 Pieces of Cannon, 18 of Braft, and 1200 Inhabitants which re- 
mained, whereb;,' the Turks have loft 1 00000 Crowns yearly by the 
FiHiery. And after the taking of SanEia Maura by General Morofini, 
he caufed his Troops to make a defcent at Dagomeftro, who advanced 
fo miles Into the Country, and ruined the whole Province ofAcarna- 
ma, and burnt two great Towns, called Uragoji, and Zapandi, and 
feveral Villages. 

Cajfiope, now Joanna, or "^annina, faid to be the Metropolis of the 
Country, which I fuppofe to be the fame with Janna in Tbejjalp 

Hecatom^doti, in the Wars oi Cyprus called Stipoto, now Chimera^ 






Of Greece. 


Toromf now Ferga, Buthrotuf, now ButrintOy belonging to the Vtifii' 
fians, Ana^oflaj I'lin.Scc. now yoniz,z.a te/te Soph, Leunc. ^ 
In this Province is Mount PinJus, facred to ApoOo, and the Acnce,- 
raunian Mountains, the Rivers Acheron and Cocj/fus, faid to be the Ri- 
vers of Hell ; and here was Oljrnftas the Mother of Alexander born. 

Of A C H A I /^. 

THE Province of /^Ci6<xw, once caWcdHeSas&GraciatcfieTliMo, 
LivalUa & Rumdia tefie CafiaUc, of old divided into Baotiaj At- 
tica, or Hellas, Alegaris, fbocis, Locris Ox,ola, Doris, ^yStolia, & Opuno- 
rum rf^w. Now by the Tw^^j called Livadia> A Country famous in the 
Authors of the ancient times, for the Gallantry of»its Men, and for 
the Statelinefs of its Strudures. 

Places of moft note in Attica were, i. Athens, k^vh, or At him, vul- 
garly called Setines, in Lat. ;'8 degr. y min. A City heretofore a- 
dorned with all thofe Excellencies of ftrength and beauty which Arc 
or Coft could add untoit ;a large rich and ftately City, the Nurfery 
of Learning, and the Source of all Arts and Sciences; once called the 
famous Athens, the City of Thefeus, built by Xecrops, and ruled by 
Kings yfo years, then by Archontes for 600 years; then by the thirty 
Tyrants, till expelled hy Tbrafibulus, and by the help of EpaminonJas 
it obtained the Sovereignty of Greece, and many Ifles of the Egaan 
Sea for 70 years ; till it fubmitted to Philip of Macedon, and Alexander 
the_Great. Afterwards was much deftroyed by Sylly\ but reftored by 
Adrian the Emperor, and afterwards received various Fates, till it 
was enflaved by Mahomet xhe Second ^4^. now taken from them by 
the brave Mortjini, 1687. 

The Inhabitants are now, according toEfq; Wheelers Defcription, 
167^. about 10000, three parts Chrittians, the reft 7«r;?:/, who per- 
mit no Jews to live among them. 'Tis an Archiepifcopal See, and has 
the Bifhops of Salona, Libadla, Granitz,:/, and Thalanta under it. It 
affords a vaft number of Antiquities, viZ.. the Temple of VtHory, by 
the Turks made a Magazine for Powder : The Arfenal of Lycur^s : 
Minerva*s, 01 Vr; /St mow's Temple, DeMcflencs Liimhorn^ ths Oclogott 
Tower of the Winds, Thefeus^ Temple, Adrians Pillar, the founda- 
tion of the Areopagus, the Theatre of Ba^us, the Temple of Jupiter 
Olpnpius. Laftly, the Acropolis or Caflle on tlie South of the Ciry, up- 
on a hard Rock , and inacceffible on ail lldes , fave the W. S. W. 
from this Cittadel is the Hill Mi/cstm, and the Mount Anchrfmus, now 

St. Gcorgio^ , 

Of Greece. 


i? 8 

St. Gcorgio. And S. E. from Athens is Mount Hymetw, now Ttlevouni 
& Lambrarouniy whore is plenty of Bees and Honey. All provifions 
of Fleih, Fifli, Fowl, Corn, Wine md Oyl, are cheap here. Their 
Merchandizes are Oyl, Turky-Leathcr, Raw Silks , Pcrnocochi, 
Cake, Soap, Honey, Wax, &c. ' ^^ - ":■/ ''-'-^ -"'< '^ 

The Town hath eight Vlatoma's or Pari (lie?, and about yo Parifli- 
Churches, lyo Chappels, and feveral Convents. 

Its two.chief Ports are Vortus Tyrausj now called ?Qno Liove by the 
Fravks, Turcis^ Dracona ; more Sou[h, Port Municbia, now HagiOy & 
Vkalaras Fortui, now Port Nicolo. 

Other Places in Attica arc, i. Marathon^ famous for the Marat honian 
Bull (lain by Thefeus^ and for thedefeatof the Numerous Army of £><7- 
rhts by Miltiades\ now a ruined Village. 

2. Eliujis or £/«/;« C/r. c^ 5rr<j^. now Lep/i?ta, buried in its own 
Rubbifh ; it lies at the Foot of the M. Kerata, or Gcrata, Here was the 
Temple of Ceres, her Sacrifices called Si:cra Ekufinia, and her Myfteries 
unclean and Devililli, and once the Fortificationof the thirty Tyrants 
of Athens, A mile off Weft, is the Spring Av^ivov, i. e. Floridas, where 
Ceres fat weary wich the fearch of Vroferfina ; and North is the Ekufi- 
nian Plain, and the Cjahcron, now Elitita Mountains. 

5. Thyle, now Bighi Cafiro, or Ca^a, TVheekr^ was the place where 
Tbrajibulus began his Exploit of Expelling the Thirty Tyrants, and de- 
livering his Countrey. 

4. FanorMus Strab, & Ptol. a Sea-Town, now Vorto R'apBai Soph. 
whence the Athenians failed to Dclos to carry the Prefents to Apollo fent 
from the Hyperboreans. 

5. Braunn, now Urannia, where Was the. Temple of Diane. 

6. Rhamvus, now Tama Cajlro, or Hcbrao Ca^ro, famous for the 
curious Statue of J>iemejis. 

7. i^alene, now Angelopico, where the Athenians have their Country- 

8 Fsntditus Mons, now Vendtli, where is a Monaftry of 100 Cakires 
on a Mountain of curious Marble, in which areGrotca's incrufted with 
curious Congelations. . - 

9. Frcmcntonuw Siaimw, now Cape Cokmii^ from the white Pillars 
of Minava'^ Temple >et Handing j and the Town Siwiumj oneof the 
^i\Koi, or BurgtCs-Towns of the Athinians, 

Places in BoLutia are, i. Thibes, I'lva Soph. Stives & Slibes Baud. VA- 
ther J/;."!;.?, IVlncUry inLat. 58. degr. 22. min. Built by Cadmus,tefielj9' 
Mre,nnd fabled to be walled with Ampbicns Harp. Famous in old tiaie 
tor tJis Wars of Ercccks and VoUcinesj Sons oiO<:dipus, Here lived Ptfo- 





pUas and E^<<w/w»^^/,wbo overthrew the Laceclimomans at the Battel o' 
LeuSira and Mantinea. Northwards is the Tbtbean Lake^ now Hjlica 

2. AuIiSf now Aulidey is famous for the Grecians Shipping out for 
the Trojan War. 

;. Lebadeuy not Lebadia telie Baud. teBe Zardo, now LivadiOy or 
Libadia, ff heeler, and gives name to all Acbaia. 

The Chriftians have here four Churches, and the Turks five Mofchs. 
Their Trade is in Woollen Stuffs and Rice, and near it is the Tropho- 
fiian Cave and Grove, where was an Oracle given by Japter, 

4, /^jcr<^<», the Birth-place of Ht/o//. ^ 

, y. Cbarona, that of Plutarcb, ^ 

6. Granitza, a Bi(hoprick. 

7. Coronaa, the fame or near to Dymnia, i. e. two Months, bectufe 
Corn is (owed, ripe and reaped in that time, teih fVheeler. Here were 
the Coronai Agri, where the Games Pambriotia were Celebrated. 

8. Alalcomene, probably now St. Georgia , where is a Convent, and 
two Churches. 

• 9. Tbefpia, now Neocorio, hence Muja Tbefpiades. 

10. Platea, now faid to be called Cocla/m whofe Plain was Mardo- 
nm flain, 160000 Per/tans, and oi the Grecians but 699. 

11. Lf«ffr<i, betwixt 7i6e//ji<» and Plarea, now Par apagia, in whofe 
Plains the Tbebam overthrew the Spartans, fome of whom had ravilh- 
ed 5ce</<»/«/ Daughters. . 

12. Tbisba, now Rimo CaHri\ it hath now about 100 Cottages of 
Greeks and Albanefe's. 

15. Tanagra of old, Graz &" Pamandria, now Scamino, its Ruins arc 
large ; it hath about 200 Houfes, and many Greek Churches ; 'tis fcitu- 
ate near Mount Cerycius, on the River AJopus, that divides Attica and 
JS^ofw, over againft Oro;)«/. , '"" 

Its chief Lakes are, i. TheLakeof z:,w<i//w, formerly called Cc/><»« 
c^ Cephi/is, about forty miles in compafs. The Streams and Torrents 
that fall into it would drown all Baotia, but for the Subterraneous 
Channels, the Wonders of Art and Nature, that fuck in the water, 
and convey it into the <i/£gean Sea: Thefe Subterraneous C(?f<«^<!7//&<?, 
are about fifty in all. 2. The Hellca Paulus, now Lake Thiv^s. 

Its chief Rivers are Afcpus, now Scawtnc, and CepbiJJus River. 

Its chief Mountains were, i. Helicon a Poet is decanti(/imis, Mufis 
Sacer. by the Inhabitants called Eialia, now Zagara, If heel. 2. Citha^ 
ron Alonsj Mufis Sacer, now Elatea MonsyteHs Wheel, 







a,Bo "' ■ ^ . . •-■ ^.- Of Grtich ■ .^^^•' 

Chief Places in i/£.tolia are LefantOf UaupaStus Ttol, NtopaBus Cic* 
NaupiiHum Vltn. Lepattti GalliSf EpaBos Gracis, Emebracbri Turcisy teFie 
Leovc. An Archiepifcopal City, now built from the Sea-fhore to the 
top of a high Conical Mountain, having four Ranges of Walls be- 
fore the Calile, which is feated on tlie top of the Mountain . Its Har- 
bour is narrow at its entrance, and (hallow ; where 'tis faid, the fa- 
mous Cofair Durack Bty^ Baftia ofCandia relided. In the year 1408. 
it was fubjeA to the Emperour of ConBantimple, but the Emperour 
Emartuel ^ave it ioih^iVenetiavSiViho fo fortified it,that in the year 1471. 
it deftroyed ;oooo Tnrks^ and the Army forced toraifethe Siege; 
but BajuZjCt the Second with and Army of i f 0000, attacked it by Sea 
and Land, and brought it to a moft deplorable eftate, and took itirom 
them 1499. But in the year 1687. it was retaken by Generaliflimo Mo- 
nfijfi. The Trade is Leather, Oyl, Tobacco, Rice, Barley, Wheat, 
Furs, &c. Near this Town was that famous Sea-fight betiwxt the 
Venetiam and the Turks^ where 29000 Turks were killed, 4000 taken 
Prifoners, with 140 Gall ies, and 1200 Chriftian Captives redeemed, 
i5'7i. At the Entrance of this Gulf of LepantOj by the Ancients Si- 
fius Crijausj Sinus Corinthiacut, & Mare Alcyonum^ (aid to be 100 miles 
in length, are two Caftles called alfo the Dardanelles of Lepantc, not 
far from the Promontories Rbium & Jntirrhjum, Capo S. Jndraa, Baud. 
rather C. Antirio. 

Other places in <t/Etolia are Caljdon with its Foreft, where M(!eag.r 
flew the wild Boar, now Aiten tejle Cjuaco^ rather Gallata PP'heeL Here 
the River Evenus, over which the Centaur NeJJus carried Hercules Wife 
Dfjaneirc, to have ravilhed her. Alfo the River Acbekus, much 
fabled^ by the Poets. The zy£ioliam were a turbulent and unruly 

Chief places in Locris are, AmphiJJa^Lamb'ma tefie Nigro, Anfifa Baud, 
S4o7ui^ Wheel, once the chief place of the Locrti Oz,elorum, feated now 
on a Rock under a Mountain, that joyns Mount Corax and Parnajj'us, 
Mufis SacLY opiid PceraSj Partiafo d^ Ltacura tcih S'pb. Licoura, Wheel. 
The Turks have here feven Mofchs, and the GrefiljfixChurche$,v^hofe 
Bi2iop is under the Arch-bi(hop of Athens : They Trade with To- 
bacco and Cottons. • 

Turcbocoreo^ thought to be the ancient LiUa^ is feated near the 
River Cephijm in the middle of a Plain between Mount Otta and 
the ThermopyU, famous for King Lco7jidas defence ; faid to be a 
Town of the Lccit EficnemidcSf fo called from the Mount and Town 

■ 'h*:i:i 





^us Ctc, 
isj teHe 
to the 
alls be- 
ts Har- 

thc r> 

ir 1408. 
an 47 1. 

Siege J 
c by Sea 

it from 
imo Mo- 

Iwxt the 
)o taken 
;ients Si' 
00 miles 
ante, not 
e<?, Baud. 

heel. Here 
•ules Wife 
ri, much 
d unruly 

ififa BauiJ, 
ated now 
a. Wheel. 
with To- 

Otta and 
to be a 
id Town 


Cf Greece. ^'^ ' " sSi 

ThalavJa on the South- fide of the River Platatiim, a Bifliopricfc 
«nd a large Town by the Ruins of Churches and Towers; a mile out 
of Town it feems to be the City Opus ; hence Locrii Opuntii, & Sinus 

s " Drepanum & Molycrium Strab & ?tol. Trapani Nigroy now Capo Jt Pra" 

Chief places in PAcmarc Delphos, or Delpbi, Salona Ni^ro, CafiriSopb, 
& WhetL once famous for the Oracle of -^fa/fo, who delivered his fay- 
ings in Amphiboli's and daric Sentences, whereby he deceived his De- 
votee's, ,vj Craffui and Pyrrhus j feated it was on the middle of the 
South fide of the Mount ParnaJJus, whQVQ Ducalm and Fyrrbafuved 

2. Daulis, now Dalia, noted for King Tercut, who raviflied Phi' 

5 . Cyrrha Plin. & Ltv, Cbyrra ?;ol, Afpropiti Z^rdo & Nardo^ now 7>w- 
mochiy l-Vheeler. 

■< 4. Anticyrrba Vtol. Anticyra Pauf, famous of old for its Helebore, 
now in Ruins near to the Afpropiti Sinus. 

^. Tpbia, the Navil of the World, remarkable for the Aflembly of 
the Ampbi^tiones that condemned the Pbocians for Sacriledge. 

0^ Chief Places in Megaris are Megara^ feated in a Valley towards the 
Gulph of Engia, once comprehending two Rocks, now but one, ha- 
ving three or four Cottages oi Greeks, muchinfefted with Pyratesj fa- 
mous once for the Megarica of Euclidy and for the Fable of King 
NyJJas Purple Hair. 

2, Towards the Harbour Minoa is the rujned Fortrefs Nicaa, and 
the Dodeca Ecclefia ; Weft are the Scirenides Rupesy now Kakifcalia, or 
Bad Bay ; and the ancient Cromium, the Bounds between Attica and 

Peloponnefusy now Moreay isthemoft Famous Peninfula in the World j 
Bounded with the Sea only, where it joineth to.Greecehy AnMmusot 
fix miles in breadth; very Memorable for the Fruitlefs Defign^isC di- 
vers Kings and Emperors to cut it through, and to make a perfect 
Ifland of it ; and for the I/^bmian Games inftituted by Tbefeus ; and 
for the Wall ofHexameli built by the Emperor Emanuel 141;. demoli- 
flied by Amurab the Second 1424 ; 1465. rebuilt by the Kefiettans in 
I J days, with 136 Towers. 

A Country it was once abounding with all things, as well for the 
Delicacy and Contentment, as Neceflary for the Life of man ; and for 
the bignefsof it, none in the World hath fi^flfered in the Ruin offo 

O o 



■ I 
) : 

ttt . \ 0/Gmth '. ^ 

many brate and ftately Cities, yet the beft Inhabited of *11 Gr#<(f^be- 
ing well Seated with Ports and Havens on all fides of it. • ' ■ 

This plcafani part of G^mhas not always had thenameof A/«'^#^ 
as 'tis now called ; Straho faith that it was once called yirgo or jir^of^ 
from a famous City of that name within its Confines; And9y£iMUa 
from t^^inlusi a famous King of the Syeonians. Apollo Jerus and Plifty 
call it ylpif , from .Apis the third King of the Argives , Son of 
ty£gialiis, and alfo yeUfgia. Afterwards it had the Name of PeU- 
fouveftts^ from tehfs th? Son of Tantalus King of Phrygias^tld T^^geta, 
now Merea. 

As to its Bignefsj Authors difagree, ^o^/orr allows it 36^ miles in 
Circuit. Bour/ion J63. Vorchaccbi ^73. Bleau^ Sacrtfio, and Viwcli^ 
make it 600. Ba.¥drand ffo. ^trtiho makef the length 1400 Stadia, 
Sagrtdo makes it a 170 miles from the Ifibmus to Modon. Baudrand 
make& it 1 50 from Cmntb to Tenarium from, and from C. ScbiMt to C. 

It was by Vtflomy ^nd others divided into eight parts, M^iia Propria, 
Arcadia, Argia, Corintbia, Elis, Luconia, Mtjfenia and Sicyonia* Tomfonir 
Mt Afek divided ii mto but fix of thofe parts ; he left out Qtrimbia 
and Stcjfoniai. ^ \ , 

Morry and A<}«^r^W make four Divifions, viz. Ducatus Clarefitia, the 
Dutchy of Clarence, Of Cbiarenza, which comprehends Acbaia Propria, 
Sicyma and Corintbia. 9. Behedera, which contains Elis and MeJ/iniOk 
3. Saccania , or the leiTer Romania, containing the ancient Argia oc 
^gQU 4, Tracmia., comprehending Laconic and Arcadia, 

Places mod Famous are, i. Patras, an Arch-Bifhoprick, known ca 
the Rom(ins by the Name of /^w^w/^, Aroo Patrenfis, called alfo Ntiipa- 
tria by the 7iwr>^j ; now Badra and Balabutra, tefte Lctme. Memorable 
for the Death of St. Andrew the Apoftle ; and now a Town of good 
Trade in Raw Silks, Leather, Honey, Wax,Wool, Cheefe, and Cur- 
rans. Situate near the Strait which openeth into the Bay of Corinthy 
now Lepanto, a Strait Fortified on both fides with two Caftles by Bo* 
ja^eti tofegure the Entrance of the Bay; taken by Andrew Daria i J71, 
Recover-edby S'o/jfw^jw the Magnificent July 1687. abandoned by the 
Turks, andpoffeffed by the A'^we/i^w/. 

Cbiarenza the Cyllere ofPlin. Ptol. & Thucy tefie Soph,r Antravidn Nig^ 
But Br lit as will have Dyine,olim Stratcs & Cauconia, to be Clarenz.a, oncQ 
the Capital City of that Dutchy, now fome flight Traces of it arc all 
ihat is vifible. Six miles from the Cape Tornefe, Cbelonates Prom StraK 
is the Caftle or Fortrefs of Tormzej now by the Turks Bkmouzzi, 
tefie Wk^el* ClemcmtH, QorQnelli*- 





fylaK^Strak Thneyd. &c. AbaritiM Prol Nelea, ffofftfrdf JeJfeVattf. & 
Coryphafinm refit €tefh. Navarino Sopb. Zonicbia L(U*>H. now ^.uncbw^ or 
Navaririf lo miles diOant from Coron ; is famous for Its Port, where 
2000 Vcflels may ride at Anchor ; about five miles long, and three 
broad, having an Ifland lying before it ; on the right hand it is guai dcd 
with a (trong Caftle called New Naverin ; on the other hand Aands old 
Navsrin, formerly called Pylus. 

Modotty lo miles from Ctfrcw, by the Turks Matuntyby VUn. Metbcne; 
its Situation by Nature and Art makes ic ftrong,having a fafe and com- 
modious H.iven, taken firft by the Venetians in the year 1 124. In the 
year 1498. it was taken by Bajazet with a great Slaughter. And in the 
year 1685'. retaken by the Venetians, 

Cortm, once Tedufus Nifi, Lauremb. Epea, Vauf. hath a ftrong and ad- 
vantagious Situation on the r»c;ht fide of Cape Galioy the Acntui Prom, 
of the Ancients taken by Bajaz^et 1498. Taken again by General Dona 
ic;;.butfoonagain returned to the Tirr^i/fc yoke. Bur '" the year i68f. 
after the defeat of the 7«r^//fc Camp, and a vigorous rc'^Oance, it was 
taken by afTault, with a dreadful (laughter of all the Inhabitants, by 
theVenetiansyWho found 128 Pieces of Cannon,ofw». ich 6 ' were Brafs. 

Calamata the Ah^ea Ptel.Tburia & Epea Strab. te/te Sopb. ("buc j^baais 
Cbiorisy Mol. And the Tburium of Ptol, & Tbyrea Plin, is now Cume^ra^ 
tefie Mol) The ThaUme o{ Strab, & Pauf. Tberamne Plin, Tberapne Solino 
& MeUy te/fe Gemiftro. But Niger will have TbaUmt to be Bajilopotamo, 
or Vafilipotamo ; and Mol. will have it BArboliza, It is feated at the bot> 
torn of the Bay ofCorony about a mile from the Sea, on the Bank of the 
River Pamifus of Strabo, Stromio Niger, defended with a ftrong Cadic, 
with Regular Fortifications, taken by the Venetians i68f. Nigh to 
which is the Lake Lernay where Hercules flew the Monfter Hydra ^ as 
alfo Mount r(f»«ir«j, where was the Cave (called thedefcent of Hell) 
out of which he drew the Dog Cerberus j and Namea was the place . 
where he flew the dreadful Lion. As was alfo Zarvara a Fortrefs much 
favoured by Nature, but much more by Art, which was delivered up 
to General Morojini in fight of the Captain BaiTa with a numerous and 
powerful Army, who dared not to attempt its fuccour. 

Cbielefay is a Fortrefs of great importance for its advantages of Na- 
ture and Art, feated upon a Ibep Rock, a mile and half from the Sea ; 
of a Qmdrangular FigurCj Flanked with five great Towers, not far 
from the place where once Vttulo ftood. It furrendred to the Venetian s 

PaJJovah a Fortification feated in the Province of A/uj/«<;, oppofite to 
Cbiele fa, And Port />'/;«/<?, yielded to the Venetians 1685'. without aftroke, 
and dcmoliihed. O o 2 As 





.1^4 "' ' -''■ Of Greece, 

Asalfo ^hc Fo.rtrefi of Maina, built where once ftood theanutnt ' 
Ccrfapolis, by the Ottomans called Turcotogli Olimienas, by the Greeks Ca" 
ffro Ji Adaina^ by the Turks Monige, demolifljcd in the year 1 570. 

Mrfitray Seated in a large Plain, full of fraall Villages, Olive and 
Mu'berry-Trees, about 2f miles :''om the Sea, the Mountain Taygetus 
"^ commands it on tlie Weft 5 once Sparta^ then LaceJamorty once one of 
the moft famous of the Grecian Cities, now fhrunk to a little Town, 
icarcely (hewing any Remains of its former Glory. Hiftorians do not 
agree who was its firft Founder ; fome fay it was Spartus the Son of 
King Amklas, others the Princefs, King. Lacc^amons Wife, who was 
called Sfarta ; fome affirm it was Cccrops, and others attribute it to 
Sfartus the, Son of Thoronem King of ^r?w, Contemporary with the 
Patriarch Jacobs and make it older than Rome 985 years. The Caftle is 
fo advantagoufly feated, that Hiftories aflure us it was never taken. 
In theyear i687.furrendred to the Venetians, : .• • f Sr-^ 

Mah'ajia, the EftJauruSyLimcra & ' Monentbafia oUht Anctents, has a 
very advantageous Situation in a little Ifle on a Rock, waflied by the 
waves of the Archtpelagut, yet enjoying feveral Sources of fweet clear 
Springs,inacceflibleOn all fides but one place, which is defended with 
a thick tripple Wall, and joined to the main Land by a Wooden Bridg, 
having a very fpacious Port, and well defended: yet though its Situ- 
ation renders it almoft invincible, by its ill fortune it hath under- 
gone feveral Changes : Taken from the Greek Emperors by the French 
and Venetians^ Anno 1204. In theyear i f 57. it was taken by Solyman, 
and during the Wars ofCanMa it was attacked by the Fenetjans and ta- 
ken, who dcmolifhed the Portland left it. There isanother EptJaurasin 
Arg'ta, called Efculapia Soph, famous for the Temple of x/£fculapius. Ft' 
giada iTtirOiCberromJi Soph, 

Napolt Ji Romania yUmongH the Celebrated Cities, once the Glory of 
Argia 5 this is now the chief, the Anafhia of Herod, Xenoph. & Strab. 
Nauplia Ptol. Napli Soph, built by Nauplus King of Eubaa, the Son of 
Neptune and Amimone, and Father to Falamedes. About two miles in 
Compafs, almoft furrounded by the Sea, and defended by a Caftle, as 
the Harbour is by a Fort, built upon a RocK about 500 foot into the 
Sea, fo that both Nature and Art have confpired to render it ftrong ; 
now an Arch-Bilhoprick, and the Refidence of the Governour of the 
Province. Containing 6000 Greeks, bcfidcs a great numberof other 
Inhabitants; firft taken the Venetians j joined with the irencb; 
taken foon after by KmgGiovapiJJ'a, who left terrible marks of hisiage 
and fury,by putting the whole Garifon to the Sword, and facking the 
Tovvn.Aflaulted it was by Mahomtt the Second with a powerful Army, 



0/ Greg^. 


h Cw 







)n of 


it to 

Ith the 

m is 


bii« in vain ; fo Safyman alfo had no more fortunate fucccis, but by a- 
. greement obtained it from the Republick. Thefe two !aft places are all 
that the Turk now hath in the Morea, fo that. £j>^ Venetians a|6 llgW 
Mafters of all that Countrey. ' „. ,-■*■:', 

Argos, of this Nameare three Cities in Greece^ viz. i. Argos Amphilo^' 
cbium in Epirutf now An[ilocba. 2. 4^gos ?elajgicum in TbeJJ'iliay nOw 
Armiro. 3. -/^j^"^/ Pelopcnue/facuntj once tboroma, Jaffiay Hypoboky DipoPn', 
or Dipjion. Seated on the River Inacbus , now Plan:z,z,t Soph, not fat 
from the Ruins of the Ancient Mjeenia ; Founded by btacbus in the 
year of the World 2197. and continued for ^46 years under Kings, 
then a Commonwealth, now only retains the Name of its paffed Giory, 
though feated in a delightful Plain, about 24 miles from the Sea, a- 
bounding with Wine and Oyl, and ;^1 forts c7 Grain, and defended 
with a Caftle feated on a Hiil. Here King Pynbus waskilled with a 
Tile from the hands of an old Woman. 

Trapoltz.z^, Megalopolis Polyb. Strab. &Chri(lianopolis diBatejfe Baud', 
Leondari, or Leontari Sopb. by the Turks called Mora Orta, the Center . 
of the Morea^ the chief place in the once famous Arcadia, the Birth- 
place oiPoljbiM the Hiftorian. 

Corintbf the Corinthus of Strab. and Toljb. Epbjiro Lauremh. by t\\Q 
Inhabitants Coranto, and by the Turks Gerame. In the Lat. of ; 8, 
degr. 14. m. had its foundation from Aletes, who Wvtd intlie time ofCe- 
erops 3066. So advantageoufly feated in the mid ft of t\\z Iflhwus, 
that foms have called it the Eye of Greece^ others the BjI wark of the. 
TeloponnefuSf and the fplender of Gnece, This City formerly fo rich 
and Magnificent, i:> now nothing more than a wretched Remnant of 
Wars and of Time, and hath prcferved nothing more of its priljline. 
Grandeur than its own Ruins. 

The famous Fortrefs of the Acrocorintbusy the Guard of Corintby 
muft not be paiTed by without a particular Remembrance. Bui|t 
upon the point of a, high Rock, and ftrengthened with a itout 
Wall very ftrong both by Art and Nature; yet after the taking of 
LepantOy the Serafquier being terrified by the Venetian Forces, had fet 
fire to it, and left it ; where the Veneitans found 47 Brafs and 4 Iron 
Guns 1687. , . 

Thus have I as briefly as poffible given an Account of the Chief Ci- 
ties now extant in the Morea, the Stage and Theater of Ai5tion in , 
the late Wars. 

The chief Mountains in thjis Peninfua are the Foloej or Vhole Moun- . 
tain, near which was feated the City oiolympia, famed by the Poets 
for the Country of the Centaurs fliin by Hsrcnks, after his being Vi- 

' 4 ' 

■^ « 


Of (irmi. 


'», r 

<5torious over the Nem^m Lion, the Leman Hydr^^ and ^ Erjimax^j 
than Boar:'^-'^ '■'' ^^^T-m^.-r^ v^ift^,cc;il^a7:v'3'dff l>irii?.ri:j^; •• -^at-p 

Cylem Mons, at the top whereof are yet to be feen the Remains of 
the Temple of Mercury, 

Lycaui MonSf memorable for the Sacrifice of the Tyrant Arifiarchus, 
made to the publick Rage of the Lacedemonians. 

Menalus MonSi for its (hady* Grover and refreihing Air, Dedicated 
to Fan. ""^ V^' "" ^'^ 'n-^\.. ,^'^m:i'iii;t\ 'U..'? -. »,u\5d-' .o 

Mws Sepia, for the Death of Efites, (>ung by a Serpent. -4 'u^ 
^ Monies Poylizi, for Dianas Temple, called alto StympbaliJes. f 

MomMtntiay or Mitena, which gives a ProlpeA to tb^ Gulph of C#- 
ron, where the proud Fanes of Pluto and Projerpina once ftood , at 
the foot of Mount Nonaeres, at the foot whereof roul the fatal 
waves of Styx. Laftly, the Tageta, Sacred (o Bacchus^ Ceres, JpoHo, 
-and Diana, ^ ^ -^ , r. :;••£ j •, n , * ;:■■• 1 

Chief Rivers are, Alpheus Ptol. SccCarhon, or Darhon s vulgo, Orpka, 
Soph, much famed by the Poets, who te)l us alfo of its Subterraneous 
paiTage to its beloved Fountain Arethufa in Sicily, 

Eurotasy now Vajjalipot antes. Iris Niger, Homerus Pint, it runs by Mt_fi:^ 
tra, and falls into theGulph of Celcbma; in Summer very dry and 
Ihallow, but in Winter fometimes overflowing its bounds, ir^.^^uifli,: 

Inachus, now Planmzza, once Craniavor, then HaliacmoVy called 
Inacbus from the Son of Oceanus and Thetu, whofe Itory is well 

1 muft not forget the River Pamyfus, Strab, PUn. & Amatbus^ 
Panyjus Ptel. Stromio, Niger, Tifeo , GioviOy which falls into the tjulph 
'ofCcron, ••- -, ■■ - ;• uaifev\?»,ii,, ■ •; 

All Europe affords not a place comparable to this pleafantPcninfula. 
Its fruitful Plains flourilh with plenty, adorned with the charms of 
v&riety. Its high Hills, though thought unpleafant obje(5is for their 
cragginefs, yet endowed with excellent Plants, and delicious Fruits ; 
and Its Climate is foft, ferene and temperate. Here we may have 
the Melancholy view of the Imperial Seats of the Corintbianst Lacedi" 
monians, Syconians, Myctnians, Elians, Arcadians, Py leans, and MeJJ'emans, 
now lying buried in their own Ruins. 

U' s 





0/ Grieer. 




.r-^- i 

■ t: 

Of the Iflands in the iEgean, Cretan, and 
Ionian Sear. , . . -.J 







THE Iflands that are adjacent to Gnuey are^ i. Such as are in the; 
JrcbipelagOy or the e/f^Mii Sea, which are about 4;, and of late 
years have had 14^000 Inhabitants that paid the Heracb or Follmoney 
to the Turks ; few or no Turks live in them, becaufe of the Corfaires: 
Being Cbrifiians they are fubje<9: to the Metropolitan of Scio, and are 

§overned by their own ^rcbontes, and admire their own poor FreC' 
om. 2. The Ifles of the Cretan Sea, that are the Bar of the Arches,^ 
9. The Iflands of the Jmian Sea, now all under the Venetian, 

Of the iEgean Jjlet. 

TH E chief of thefe Iflands are, 1. Negroprnt, by the Greeks called 
Egriposy but formerly Macrisy AhaKtis,An6 Eubaa-^ it lyes Eaft of 
Achaia, from which it is faid to be once feparated by an Earthquake, 
which made the narrow Strait called Euripus, whofe ebbing and flow- 
ing is not only feven times a day, but fometimes 11,12, 13, 14 times 
in the fpace of 4 or ^ hours- This Ifland is Queen of the e/£^«tf» Sea, as 
well for fertility as greatnefs ; about a 100 miles in length, and 2 j in 
breadtbj and is plentiful in Sheep, Kids and Goats, Fifli, Wine and 
Fruits, and all other provifions. The chief City is l^e^roponty or Egripoty 
on a Peninfula near the place where Chalet flood, a place formerly of 
great wealth and power, and fmce fo well fortified, that it cofl the 
Turks A. D. 147 !• 40000 men in the taking of it from the Venetians ;:, 
there S.Erizz,o was murdered ; and his beautiful Daughter Sigtiora Anna 
rcfufing the fplendid Courtfliip of Mahomet, was hewn in pieces by 
him. 2. CariftusyViO^ Carijh, hence Columne Carifia. 3. The Promon- 
tory CapberuSy now Doro, where Nmpltus the Father of PalemeJes (ha^ 
ving by his falfe fires infeveral parts of the lfland,ruined and deftroy- 
ed2oo Gr/^fww Ships, and many thoufand men) drowned himfelf, be- 
caufe UlyJJiis and Diomedes efcaped. The whole Ifland is now under 
the Turks, 

2, Stalaminey once Lemnotj memorable for the fabulous fall of f'^ulcan, 
and for the Entertainment of Jafon and the Arjrovr.uts by Ilypfv^yle, 
Daughter to King Thoasy Son of Bacchus and Ari-ulne ; now noted for a 

- Sove- 


Of Gruce. 


Sovereign Mineral Earth againft Infe(aions,Poyfon,ancl cures Wounds, 
■&c. it is gathered Augu^ Cxb. by the Greek Monks with much Ceremo- 
fiy, and many Religious Preparations, arid made into fmall Pellets feal- 
ed with the Turks Seal, and called Terra SigiSatay and fo difperfed to 
the Merchants. ;. Scirosy the lurking place o^AchiUesy as Oritlius con- 
ceives ; others think it to be one of CycUdeSf more Southerly. ^.Jbajfms, 
now Tajfo, 'tis 40 or f o miles in compafs, fruitful in Wine, &c, and 
Woody. On the North it has a Town fitu ate upon a good Harbour, 
y. Samdthrace^ efua/i Samos Tbracia, formerly Dardama and Leaco/ta ^ it 
has plenty of Honey and wild Deer, and commodious Harbours, now 
much infeftcd by Pyrates. 6. Imbrus^ now Umbro, ten miles from 
■Samotbrace, and about ;o miles in compafs, *t!s Mountainous toward 
the Eaff, and has a well- watered Plain tothe Weft. 7. Ahnefus, now,:o. 8. Scopelms, now SiU^elo. 9. Sciat&us, now Siatfa, of which 
little memorable. 

;. The Gulph o^Sarov, now E^/«<«,haththefeIQands. i. Epna, now 
Engiay the Country of «/£<7<-«i,who was fabled to be Judg of Hell,with 
R,idamavthu!And Minos It is 18 miles in compafs, and has the Town 
tyEgina, that confifhof 800 Dwelling-houfes, and from the Caftle is a 
finr^rofpecft ; here the Greeks and Latins have each a Church. Here is 
plenty of Corn, Cocten, Honey, Wax, Almond,and Carobs, and Red- 
legged Patridge?. Betwixt the Iflands Afgefiri, Metopi, D(uronifa, Moni^ 
and it felf, is a Harbour where Ships may ride. 2. Cophinidia isS. W. 
And fo is, 5. Calabria^ now Porus, i Smiles in compafs, now inhabited 
by Albamjes ; here Derncjthenes was bani(hed,and poyfonedhimfelf to 
avoid the Fury of Anttpater. 4. Salamts, now Colouriy yo miles in 
compafs ; it has three Towers, i Colouri, has now about 400 Per- 
sons. 2. Metropisy 30 Houfes. 3. Awbalachi^ near this was the ancient 
City Salami, near which was the Overthrow of Xerxes his Navy, 
where 200 of his Ships were funk, and moft of the reft taken by the 
yjtbtmafu, S^c. Here alfo was the Birth-place of vSWow, and the Royal 
Seat of 7c/;zwc«the Father of /^/ja;. ^. Lypfocalalia, 6. Megala Kira, 
and Micra Kir.}, two Scoglio'sy one formerly called Kara, on which 
Xerxes fat in a S:her Tbroie to behold the fight of the NavicF. There 
are other fmatl Iflands and ScngUo's which I omit for brevity's fake. 
The Inhabitants of thefe Iflands had a f^ayvo 'e and a CaddJ, but now 
rhey are left to themftlvts^ and pay fhe Captain haijia'/8^3 DoHais 
for all Duties. 

4 TheC;tA/^/f.f, now thelflands of the/rc.6fjj the chief are, i. D - 
/('/, foi e ly Ort;gUi, now S. Deli, becAufe it comprehends the Ifland 
Rbineia Weft. It" is now defoUtc^ though formerly noted for the re- 




, now 

Of Gmct* 




T. D- 

ception of Lato»af where llie was delivered otJpoBo and Diatta» Apollo 
had here a Temple, and the circumjacent Iflands called CyckdisQti' 
dowed \t, and fent prefents to it. 2. Mycone, or UvmvQ^, 4 miles diOant 
Eaft,and 30 miles in Circuit.The Inhabitants are all Pyrates,yetChrifti- 
ans, and have 30 Greek Churches, and a Latin one. The Women are 
handfome, but not chafte. Here is plenty of Corn and Wine, but little 
Wood and Water. They are Tributaries to the Turks, j. Terns, now 
Ttiia, formerly fiydrufa, and Opbiufa, itlyeth high, being a large heap 
of Marble Rocks, but in many places covered with a fertile Soil. Its 
chief Town ftandis in the middle of the Ifland on a poimed Rock, on 
the higheft part whereof is the Caftle, which afFordeth a curious Pro- 
fpeAover moft part of the Archipelago. Here the Venetian General of the 
Archipelago refidea. 4. Tberamnia, Poljagos o( old, in moft Maps Fermen~ 
ta ; it is much frequented by Paraly ticks, Lame, &c. by reafon of its 
many Baths and hot Springs that are very Diaphoretick. f. Seripbosy 
by the Greeks Serfo, In moft Maps Serpbanto, it hath a Town and Har* 
bour on the South-fide, with a Convent of Greek Monks. 6. Paros, or 
Fario, form erly TaStya and Mima, famous for its good Air, and excel- 
lent Marble ; it was dedicated to Bacchus, becaufe Wine is here no mora 
than Twelve-pence a Barrel ; under the Marble Mountain is a Grotta 
with Figures of aH forts of Woods, Groves, Trees, Pillars, and rare 
Poetical Fancies, framed by the falling of Water congealed into Mar- 
ble, which by Candle light is a moft furprizing Workmanftip of Na- 
tiire. 7. Siphanto, hath ten Villages, famous for excellent fruit, and 
beautiful Women. Here is a Monaftry in which the Greek Nuns are 
firft initiated. 8. Argentera, from a Mine of Silver, by the Greeks Ktf^Ks, 
by Ptolomjf and Straho Kiya\i(, it hath fome Inhabitants. 9. Alilo, 'tis 
faid to have one of the beft Ports of the World, now a refuge for Cor- 
fairs* 10. Bello'Pola, or Ifila Brugiala, becaufe burnt and blown up noc 
many years fince with Subterraneous fires. ij./^fiJros,oncQ Cauros and 
Amandros. 1 2. Nazos, no\y Necfia, or Nixia, of old In/ula Veneris and 
Dyonijia, remarkablcfor the goodnefs and plenty of its Wines, and for 
the excellent Marble 0/)*&/f«. 13. Cbia, or Cbeos, now Zea, with others 
of lefs note. 

5". Tl "parades, from rn^^a, becaufe fcattered in the Sea; the prin- 
cipal are 12 in number, 1. A[irypalea, now St ampalia. i.Anapbe, now 
Namfio. 3. Helen J, now Macronifa, where }^aris enjoyed the fair Helena. 
4. Sos, where Homer \i£a\d to be buried, f. LaguJ'a. 6. Fhocufa.n, pbje- 
cajia. 8. Pbilocandros, 9. Scbinufa. 10. Strybia. luThera, the Birth- 
place of the Poet Callimacbus, 12. Gierra, &C. 


60 Cytberaf 

"Tn--^ ■■■-/,■-'■ 


Of nrieii, 

' 6. Cjtberat now Gerigo, S. of Adorea the Birth-place of Fems and Hlr- 
/«ff4. It'siU peopled, of a barren and Mountainous Soil ; it has plenty of 
Sheep, Hares and Fowls, efpecially Turtles, Genus's beloved Birds. On 
the South it has a Town, and a good Harbour on the Eaft-Point St. Ni^ 
colo. Here was the Temple of Fenusy out of which Hdena was ftolen. 
On the South are the Scoglws Ovo and Cerigotto. The reft of the 
Iflandsof the ty^gean Sea we (hall refer to the defcription of Af a Mi- 


The Cretan Idands ; x. Candia, formerly Hecatompoltf, MacronnefuSf 
Uta, Tekbinia and Creta. It is feated in the mouth of the t^gean Sea, 
at the Entrance of the jichipelago, in fight of j^fia and Africa ; fo ad- 
vantageoufly fituated, th&t Jrifiotle faid it was the only proper Seat of 
an Univerfal Empire. It is above 270 miles in length, and about fo 
in breadth. It hath been famous for the Wars of the 7/f<»»/ againft the 
Gods; for its excellent Ships and Archers ; for the Bull that raviihed 
Europa ; for the Amours of Pa/ipbae &nd Ariadne ; for the cruelty of the 
Minotaur ; for the Government oi Saturn \ for the Habitation and Se- 
pulchre of Jupiter ; for the Laws of Minos and Rhiidamantbm ; for the 
Labyrinth of Dadalus ; and many other things the Inhabitants boaft of; 
but there is no belief of men that were always accounted Lprs,AS Tit. 1. 1 2. 
outof Epimenides. Anciently it had an 100 Cities, 40 remaining. in the 
time of Vtolomy, i, Gnojjm, no'W Cimfus. 2. Cydon, now Canea, Mater 
Orbium, hence Voma Cydonia, now Adam*s Apples, j. Eleutbera, or £7- 
tbraa. 4. Miletum, named 2 Ttm, 4. 20, with Ail. 27. 7, 8, &c. and 
17 . y. Gortynay hence Spicuta Gortyntay their beft Arrows. 6. Di- 


S:amnum. 7. Ampelus. 8. Minoa^ now A'Uemara. The chief Mountains 
are, i. ldayi\\Q higheft in the Idand, now called P/iloriti, from the top 
whereof may be difcerned both Seas. 2. Di^ey now Setbia and Lafibi. 
3 . Leuciy a long Chain of Hills called of late di Madara, la Spbacbia, and 
la Sfacioces. The Rivers are none of them Navigable, but the defed: 
is fupplied with good Harbours and Bays. The Mttllet Scarus was a great 
Hony, Wax, Gum, Olives, Dates, Ralfins, but little Corn. This Ifland 
was firft Governed by Saturn, then by Jt^pifer, who was Interred at 
GnoJ[os\ then fucceeded Minos his Son, begotten on Europa ; after that 
the Ifland wasCjoverned by a Republick ; and in the time of Fompey the 
Great it was fubdued by the Romans ; then the Emperors oiConflanti" 
mpk were Mailers of it ; after it was given to Boniface M. oi Montferrat, 
who parted withic to the Femtians Anno Dam. 1204. But the Turks in. 
the year 1669, after a War of 24 years quire expelled the Venetians, 
and fo became Maflersof it. This Ifland is now divided into four Ter- 






!i<iitii<"<m^ I I j.iipii.iii^qfipi|pnppf^q|pppp! 



ricories, which bear the Name of fo many Principal Cities, vizjCandin, 
Canea^ Retimo, &nd Sittia. The ^r'lncipaWortrettes iltq Grakates, SiiJa, 
and Spinalonga, held by the Venetians. CanMa, the Capital City, fo ftrong 
by Artand Nature^that it was the Bdwark of Chriftendom, and main- 
tained it felf againft many long and defperate Sieges of the Turks, be- 
fore it furrendered to them. Other Iflands are, 2. Claude, Adt. 27. 16. 
now Goz,a. ;. Dia, now Standia, 4. Lefo^, now Chri^ind. 5*. vSgilia, 
now Cecerigo, Crete had one Archbifhop, and eight Bifliops. 

Ti&^ Ionian Ijlands. 

I. rjTAnty anciently Zacynthus, in North Lat. 36. degr. 30. min. 
X J The Town is ftretched along the fhore, and is very popu- 
lous, according as the reft of the Ifland, that has yo Towns and Vil- 
lages, fome Springs ; it is infetted with frequent Earthquakes. The 
Greek Church is here, as in other places, undsr the Venetiariy much La- 
tiniz,ed in their Dodrine, though they hate the Church of Row^ The 
Latins have here a Bifhop, and divers Churches and Convents. The 
Englijh have a Fa<ftory, but no Priefi, as in other places, and they 
feem to the Natives to live wichout Religion, to die without hope, 
as they are buried wichout decency, to the difgrace of our Reformed 
Church, and the great fcandal of them that are without. Here is 
plenty of Currans,Wine,Oyl, Melons, and other good Fruits. i.Stra- 
f hades, two Ifles, f o miles South oiZant j here live many Greek Monks, 
well fortified. 3. Cepbalonia, formerly Samos, Malena, and tcleboe 5 
'tis 120 miles in Circuit, the greateft Ifle in UlyJJes Kingdom. Ar- 
gopli, a large Port every way Land-lockt, the Refidence of the yene- 
tian Froveditor; the chief Town is Cefalona,\t affbrdeth abundance of 
Currans, Wine, Oyl, &c. Thiaki, four or five miles over-againft 
Port Pefcarda, it affords abundance of Curran?. y. Ithaca, for- 
merly Dalichium, nOW Valde Compare, the Birth-place of Ulyjfes now 
without Inhabitants, yet it has good Currans. 6. Ecbmades, five 
Scoglio's, now called Curz,olari at the mouth of the River Achekus ; 
near thefe were fought the Battels of AUium and Lepanto. 7. St. Mauro, 
by the Greeks Lucas Leucada, and Nerilos ; 'tis feparated ftomAcarna- 
nia by a Streight of five Paces over, and three or four foot deep in 
water; the Caftle is ftrong, called St. Mauro, Delivered up to 
General Morofini, July 1684. The Port is good, and named 
Chimeno, and the IQand Leucas ; 'tis inhabited with Turks and Greeks^ 
moft are Pyraces ; 'tis thirty or forty miles in Compafs^ and fruitful 

P P i in 


Of GraHe. y 

in Com, Piftore, Oranges, &c. S. C^fu , (ormcrly Ccn^a, iS'o 
miles in Coinpafi, but lor & Rock Weft, the Town would be almoft 
knpcegnabk ; iki the Caftle £aft refides the Venetian General by Sea 
atid Land, to whom the other Iflands appeal. The Ruined Towns are 
Cktffiapiay now Csjfopo. 2. Cberfapdit, now p4»Iaopoli; here arealfo the 
Gardens diAkmous^ &c. The Inhabttants are very revengeful ; here 
is plenty of Wine, OyXy and Fruits, but little Com. The Greeks have 
here a Proto-pafpa ifubjeA to the Bifiiop of Cepbahnia, but the Latins 
have a Bifhop. Thus much for the Gracian Iflands in the t/fgaan, 
Cretan, and Ionian Seas. . . 

■^<i, i 

1 ■ ''■'' ■■^Tj.y . ■ 



•• ; ' r . I ■ ' " •■ 

'''': ll < ' --jr' y..:- 

-■■ - ' • " ' '(• - 


* i. * ^ 

r ,-. A •• 

1 ) 

nlf,^. ...»t 

. fll !•■•■ 

li '! 



.%iS ^|^*^^Vn.Sk.V'.j,.wi '^u 


The prefent State of the Comtrtesy Forts^ 
and other Places ^ which belong to the 
Europeans in the Weft and Eaft Indies. 

TH ERE wereatfirftbut two Nations in Earope thatSuccefs- 
fully undertook long Voyages by Sea, or who fcnt Colonies 
into Diftant Climates: The Sf'^wwr^/j toward the Weft, and 
the TortugaU into the Eaft. Thcfe alfo obtained from Pope 
Alexander the Sixths a Donation of all Lands undifcovered ; but the 
other Europeans were not fatisfied at the Pope's Liberality ; for theJSIw- 
gUffiy Dutcby and French, would alfo have their fliare j fince which time 
there have been feveralChanges in thofe Countries ; that Rigor which 
the PortugaUnd Spaniard udsd to exclude all other Nations, ferving on- 
ly to deftroy themfelres. 

The French have firft in Canada, Montreal, the Three Rivers, Quebec, 
Tadoufac, and other Places upon tlie great River of St. Laurence, and 
upon Sufferance or Incroachment, they pretend to that which we call 
Nova Scotia^ the IJlanddf Cape Bret an. In New-found-Land, they have 
Bay Plaifance, and Bay Blamlho. 

2. Among the Iflands called Antilles, part of St. Cbrifophers, St. BaV" 
tholomews, Santa Cruez, St. Martins, Guadaleupe, La Defirke, Maria Galante, 
Lis Saintes, Martinique, St. Aloifia, Grenada, and the Grevadins, La Tortite, 
and feveral Colonics in the Weftern part of the Spani^ Iflandj other- 
wife called SanBo Domingo. % ., Upon the Southern Continent of Ame- 
rica upon theCoaft of Guyana, the Ifland of Cayene, where ftands the 
Fort St. Michael de Ceperoux, now called Fort St. Louis : The Iflands of 
Corou, Coonama, Comorih,&cc. 4. The Trade of the Coaft of Africa, up- 
on the Rivers o{ Senega) where they have a Fort: A'fo upon the River 
of Gambia, at Ruffque near CapeVerd, at great Se/lre, at Ardra, and ma- 
ny other places in Guinie. f. Fort Dauphin, and many other Fortrefles 
in the Ifland of Madagafcar, called by them the Dauphin Ifland. The 
in.mds of St. Marie, Bourbon, and Diego Rots ; The Bereaux, new Suraf, 
aud other places in the Moguls Country. In the Kingdom ofTmquiny 
at Siam, in the Ifland of Java, and in other places. 

The Spaniards polTefsthe largeft and beft part of all A?»erica, where 
they have a great number of Cities: i. In Northern America, New 
Spain, where are the Parliaments of Mexico, Guadalairaand Gu3timala\ 
tliQ Iflands of Cuba, Uifpanida, Boriqmn, Sec. beficlesSt. Auflins, and St. 



19* Of theEAfiandWefi.Mies. 

Matthews in Fieri Ja, and fome part of New Mexico. In Southern 
America^ the GoUen Cafitle^ otherwife called the Continent, where are 
the Parliaments of Panama^ and of the new Kingdom of Granada, Peru, 
where are the Paliaments of Quito, Lima and de la Plata. Cbtli and 
Paraguay, which comprehends the Country oiTucuman, and de la Plata, 
The Iflands alfo of Solomon in the South Sea. 3. All along the Coaft 
of -/4fr/V<?upontheSea-fliore, Laracbe, MabamortiAnA the Canaries, 4.T0- 
ward the Eaft, molt part of the Philipine IJlands, otherwife called the 
ManiUts. They had alfo fome part of the Mde^ues, but thefe they have 
long Hnce quitted. 

The Portuguefes enjoy all the Coaft of Bra/il in Southern America,iind 
all along upon that Coaft the Captainfhips of Para, Maranbaon, Ciara, 
Rio,Grande,Paraiba,Tamaracba,Pernambuco,Seregippe,BaiaJe Todos loi San- 
tos, Los Ifleos, Porto Seguro, Spirit Santo, Rio Jattetro, & San Vincent e. To- 
wards the mouths of the Amazon River, kfiero, Corduha and Cegemine. 
2. In Africa, upon the Coaft of the Kingdom of Morocco, Ma^agan. 
Some Forts upon:the River of St. Dominic ; Upon the Coafts of Guiny, 
Congo and Angola ; and certain Habitations in the JJland of St. Thomas, 
The Azores, Madera, undi Porto-Santo. The Ijlands ot Cape rerd,Sin6 of 
the Prince Fernando Poo, Annabon^^c. 5. Several Places in the Eafi-In- 
Mes,v\z. Cafreria, upon the Coaft of Manamotopa, the Caftle of Sofala, 
the Village of Sena, a Fadory with a little Fort at Cape C rientes,wit[i 
other ftrong Houfes upon the Entries of Guama, and the Rivers upon 
the Coaft. In Zanguebar, which is upon the Coaft oiMelinda. The City 
and Caftle of Mozambique, with the ftrong Fort of St. Mark ; FaAories, 
and fome little Forts at Angoxa and Quillimarre, The Caft le of Quikay 
and a' Fadory in the Ijlands Monfia. The City and Caftle of Mombaz, 
the Caftle of Melinda, with the Villages and Fadories of Pale, and 
Ampaze. TheTradeof the Coaft of ^/r/t^, from the Cape of Good^ 
Hope to the Red-Sea, In the Ifland Zocotora, at Aden, Fartarch and liaU 
fara. In Perfia, Fadories and half the Cuftoms of the IJland of Baha^ 
rem and Congue : the Traffick to Benderrich, to Cape Jajefues and other 
places. In India belonging to the Great Mogul, Damaen, with the Forts 
of St.John, Kielme, Matrt, and BaramporBecaim^ the Fort Bander a, othQT' 
wife called Mamra, the Village of Tana fortified with three Baftions; 
the Rock of Ajlerim, Ougueli upon the Ganges ; the Trade of Agra, 
Amadabat, Cambaye, Surat, Baroche, Bengala\ and in Decan they have 
Chaui with the Forts of Morro, Caranga, the Village of MajJ'agon. Gca 
with her FortrelTes in the Country of Bardes, and the Ijlands of Cor an 
-and Dix/^r,and fome other Lands about GM.Upon the Coaft of China, 
Macao, In the IJland Solor, the Vill-ige and Fort cf Larentoi^ue : The 
• . Traffick 

OftheEaftdndlVeJI'Indies^ i^f 

Traffickof Vtrfia, Gokonda Araean Vegu^anacerin^ Ligor^ OMa^ and Other 
Places of SiafftfCamhoya^zrid the Ifland ofTimor. :r.. w. -t- r • 

The E*>gliPi have extraordinarily augmented their Territories inr 
America. They Trade to, and polTefs all the Northweft p^rt of Jmencn^ 
New-Tor k J New-Jerfeyj Venfilvaniay Mary-Landy Virginia^ Carolina, Ncw- 
England, moft part of the Ifle of New-found- Land , all Bermudas, Long- 
IJland, Manbatten, now New-Tork, &C Of the Lucaya Ifles, as New. 
Providence, &c. Among the Southward Ifles, Barbadoes, Barbouda, An' 
guilla, part of St. Chrifiofhers, Montferrat, Mevu, Antigo, Dominico, and 
part of St. Vtncent, St. Katherine's l(le, called the Ifland of Providence^ 
Jamaica, and Trinity IJle. The Holy point. They had fome Colonies ir> 
Surenam, Maroni, Sinamari, &c. with fome Forts upon the Coaft of 
Guyana. In Africa, Tangier, near the Streights. Fort St. Andrew upon 
the River of Gambia. Fort St. Philip, toward the River St. Dominico. 
Tagrin, Madrebomba^ TaxoraripCape Corjjo, Emacham, or Nefcbange, and 
other places in Guinea, and the Ifland of St. HeUens. Madrefpatan, and 
Fort St. George upon the Coaft of Cormandel. The Ifland of Bombay, An- 
gediva. A Factory at Suratt and Bantam, with Houfes where the Prefi' 
dents live. They have alfo Factories at Jfpahan and Gombru, where they 
have half the Cuftoms: a Trade at ^^j^r*?, Amadabat, Cambaya, Brodra, 
Barocbe, Dabul, Pettapoli^ Majfipatan, at Balafor, Oguely, andar Dacam 
Bengal, &tPrianam &n6 Jamby in, Sumatra. In Siam, Camboya, Tunijuin, 
and the Ifland Formofa, 

The Hollanders Were expelled out of their New-HolJand in America. 
However they ftillpoflefsthe Iflands of St. Eujtace, Saba, Curacco, where 
they have the Fort Amfterdam, and Toboge, or New-Flu^nng, if not late- 
ly beaten out by the French. The City of Coro upon the firm Land. The 
Colonies of Rio Poamaron, where there is the New City of Middleburg, 
and the Fort Nova Holland ia. Rio Efe^uebe, a wide and great River, at 
whofe mouth lyeth three great Iflands, ViZ,. Lugewaen, Magrieten, and 
P^rro^j Ifland. Higher up the River are feven other Iflands, and ".riher 
up the River is the Fort K/c^-ox'fr-^//. Rio Demarary, andRiver ^«r^ie- 
Z.OS. The Colony of Soronam , where is the Fort Pamanbo. The 
River Capervjca, or Aperruvaca, and the River ffinypoco, or Tfaia- 
poco, and other places upon the Coaft of Guyana. In Africa, Arguin, 
and Goree, toward Cape Verd, where they have a Fort and Facftoties at 
Rujifque, at Porto d'Ale, and Joal. St. George of the Mine, the Forf'ot* 
the Mine, the Fort of IS!af/iiu, or Moure, Cormentin, Axime, andBotrco 
in Guin) upon the Gold Coaft. Many Forts in Congo ; &c. at the Cape of 
Good Hope, and at Table Bay tvAk) Forts more, in the Iflands of A/^/^'j- 
gafcarznd St. Maurice Upon ihQQQdL^ofMalahavpr.Gr^iiarcdorjMangaLr, 



•> I 


Of the Edft iHd mjl Indies. 


CananoryCrangamrjCocbinjCoulan. Upon theCoaft'of CormantieffTutieorifi, 
NegapatanfKarkal/e^And Gutldrts neatPalJtcafe.ln the Ineiian Peninfula be- 
yond Ganges, Malacca with (he Forts and Ifland belonging to it. In the 
Ifland of CeyloH, NegombOfColomh^Ga^e, Baticah, Trinjmltmal^,yafmpa' 
. tatty and a Fortre(s called Blakenkurg in the Ifland of Manar. In the Ifland 
oijavayjacatray called Bataviay and its Dependencies. The Ifle jimfter- 
dam, Leydefi, MuidUhurg, Delft, Ettckyfen and Horn. The Ifle or Bt-' 
ttta, part of the Molucca JJlatuh. in Ternato, the Forts Tacomma, Ta- 
lucco, Malaya , and Gammalamme. In Motir, the Fort of Naffau : 
In Macaian, T^ffafo, TabilloUa, Naflatjuia, otherwife Nabaca, and' 
Maurice, In Bacbian, Gammadere, and Lahoia* In G/A^/e, ^<7^(;'/ and 
Coma, In the Ifland of AmboynayCoubella and loi/ztf. In the £W<i 
JJIands, NaJJ'au , and 5f«^w in Neray and Revenge in Vowkway, The 
Redoubt Hittow in the lue Hittow, In the ^«»// e/ ^o/cr, For/ f/f«7, 
Forf Janpaudam, otherwife called Roterdam near the City o^MacaJJar, 
The Iflands of ^^-vo and Boc^nesir Macajjar, with another Fort in 
Timor, Part of the Southern Land, which is called New Holland, 
where lies Carpentaria, the Lands of Diemens, Witz., Endracht, Edels, 
Lewin, and Nuttz,. Several FaAoriesin Per/ia, as atCombru, Congoi and 
Jfpahan. In the Territories of the Grwr^tgw/ at -<^_^r<r, Amadahat, Cam- 
hay a, Baroche, Surrat, Ogueli, Kafan Bafar, Daca, Vatna, and Bipilipatan 
In Decan it Fingerla, mCoromandel', itTsnega-patan, itGoleonda, Maf- 
lipatan, Valicate, Datjcberon, and Binccla-patan. In Vegu at Ava and 
Siriam. In Siam at 0//w. In the Ifland of Sumatra, at Tttoti, Priamam, In- 
dapout, Gillebar, Jambi, Palinbam, and other places. In the Ifland of Ja- 
va at Bantam and Japatra. In the IJland of Celebes at Manadaand Ma- 
cajj'ar, ' The Trade of the Ifland of Zocotora. Upon the Coaft of Arabia, 
At Mecca. Aden, and Fartacb, Inthe IJlands of Larek, Re/em, and others 
near to Ormus. At Porca, and raoft parts of Malabar. At Orixa in Bif- 
negar, in Aracan, in Pfg«. At Tanaz.ertm, at Pfr<i, atThor, Paban, Pa- 
tane, Singora, Bordelongy Ligor, on the Coaft of Malabar. At Tunefiiin, 
Chincheo, and other places of CA/W; And at Kima in the Ifland of 
Borneo, At Naugueja^ue neur Japan. And excluding all other Nations, 
they pretend to the only Trade upon tke Oriential Coifi of Sumatra, 
Japan, Amboyna, Balli, and other places. 

The Danes have alfo Colonies in botl^he Indies. They have Naw 
Denmark in the Northern part of Atmrica. The Fort of Frederick 
Burgh, with three Baltions that Command Cape Corfo in Guiny ; and 
the Caftle oichrijtiansburgh hi the fame Country in the Kingdom of 
Accata.Krankebar, otherwife called Tr.'imgo Baj, and Dansbw-gb upon 

the Coaft of Cormandd, 






1., '■.'<*. ^ahrj' !iflic 

.ci',v*\ .'i\ yy 


Money commonly is the me^n tor all Commodities: it is the Si- 
news and ftrepgth of a Scace^chp Lifeand Soul of Commerce. 
Geometricians fay, That two Lines equal,to a tl^ird Line, are equal 
o.neto another $ lb is Money a tbiiidLineby whtcball things are made 
equal in Value, not Mdttria prima, becaufe it ferves a^ually to no 
Ufe, but potentially to all. 

Coin feemeth to come from the Frntcb ; Coin, a Corner ; for the 
Ancienteft fort of Coin was cornered, not round. 

The firft ufe of Money was to fupply every mans particular wants 
by a Pledge thereof. .j , , j , , i'v«?tv i ' 

The moft Ancient Money was of the pureft Gold, becaufe it had 
greatnefs of Weight, clofenefs of Parts, fixation, pliantnels^ or foft- 
ncTs, immunity from RufV, and Beauty or Colour. And the Alchi< 
mifts, who have moft vexed that Body, fay, that 'tis harder to de« 
ftroy Goldj than to make it. Silver is next to it^ and is moredudlile 
than any other Metal, except GoL4 ,> • ,. 

The purenci. ad tinenels of Money, and the weight, is obferva- ' 
ble for the intrinfick value thereof. The outward Form or Chara> 
^er of the Prince or State, forthe extrinfick knowledge of Money. 
The intrinfick value of Money or Coin is fo much as there is pure 
Gold or Silver in it, in /inenefs and weight. As for Gold, it is divi- 
ded into 24 parts, called Garrets; fo that when *tisfaid, Gold is 2^ 
Carrats iine, there is a zyb part of Allay mingjed with it. Or if 22 
Carrats fine, then there is a 12th part of Allay, &c,^he Ancient 
Standard of Sterling Gold was in Edward the Third's time 23 Car- 
rats ; . grains and one half of fine, and half a grain of Allay. 
Dr.Cbamberlain in his Prefent State of England faith, 'tis now 22 Car- 
rats of fine Gold, a^d 2 Carrats of Allay. The Silver is 1 1 Ounces 
and two peAny weight fine, and 18 penny weight of Allay, which 
^Ifo agrees with what that Author faith tis now. 

'Tis manifeft that the moft proper Meafu re in Nature for Gold and 
Silver, is weight ; and the Pracflice of Antiquity doth confirm it j * 
for the Shekel, Mina, Talent, and Drachme, bothof the Romans 
and Grecians, were the names of feveral forts of weight. 






Of Mof$eyor€om\ 

Of tbi Proportion between Gold and Silver ^ 

This proportion muft needs differ in feveraT times sind places^ accord- 
ing to the fcarcity or abundance of thofe Metals ; and indeed I find 
much variety amongft Authors, what it was amongft the Hebrews^ both 
as to Times and Interpretations. P^mcr alledges the fame place&^to 
prove, that the Proportions were 2f for one, which other Autbort do 
aUedge to prove it to be aboTC 4^ for one; and others 10 fijr one^ 
*Tis the general confent, that ih^the times of .the Flori/hing of the 
Gred4» Commonwealchs, thfe Proportion of Silver to QoW was 12 to 
And Livy tell us, that the e/^f«/w»i agreed with the Romms to 


pay ten Talents of Silver, inftead of every Talent j^ God. 

In France in the Year 1614. the Proportion did arifc to 15, want- 
ing about a feventh part, to one of Gold. 

In Germanj in the Year 1610. the Proportion held 13 for one, 
fomeiimcs a little more, fcmeiimes a little left. 

The Proportion in Spain hath for a long time been as 12 to one. 
In the United Provinces , by the Placcard 1622. it Was about 12, 
and two thirds fine Silver to one of Gold.' 

And in England m thai/^th Year of Q.Elizabetby the ancient 5/*r- 
ling Standard of Gold and Silv^was altered, and a pound of fine 
Gold valued at 1 1 /. of fine Silver, and 7/. 10 </. over. And in the 
Second Jaccbiy the Proportion was 12 for one, bu t after raifed by Pro- 
clamation. The Proportion was 1 ; /. of fine Silver to i /. of fine Gold, 
at 24 Carrats to the Pound : afterwards I find it at 14 and one third. 
The raifing of the Price of Money both of Gold and Silver, as it 
hath been ancient, fb it hath been a great Confufion and uncertain- 
ty among Coins; for the /4s, which was Originally coined of a pound 
weight by the Romans, was in the firft Vunick War brought to two 
ounces, and the lelTer parts of it were abated proportion ably. By ?a- 
firius it was reduced to half an Ounce. The Denarii of Silver were 
at firft currant for 10 As^ at length reduced to a Drachma, which is 
8 in the Ounce, and the leffer parts were abated in proportion. Af- 
terwards it was worth 16 As. And their Solidiaurei were coined of 
48 pieces in the pound ; and in the time of Jufiiman they were 72 
in the pound. And for fome hundreds of Years moft Princes and 
Slates have vied one upon another who fiiall raife their Money higheft. 

Bat as Money was firft invented and chofen to be the Inflrumentof 
Exchange and Meafure of all things, to avoid the trouble and charge^ 
able Carriage of Commodities from one place to another : So was Ex- 






m' ' 



jf the 

!2 to 
arts to 


r one, 
ro one. 

t*-' ■ 

of fine 
id in the 
by Pro- 
e third, 
^er, as it 
a pound 
c to two 

By Fai- 
rer were 
which is 
3n. Af- 
oined of 
were 72 
nces and 
cl charge^ 


change of Money alfo firll dsWfed to av.'^i^ the aaflger and adTciuur^ 
thereof from place to place. ^^, / ri? >• -; . ,. . > v / ; 

By the Exchanges, all Princes Coins arQ brought into one and the 
felf-fame quality and parity ; for the real exchange is grounded upon 
knowledge of the Part or Value for Value of the Moneys of eachfe- 
veral Country according to their feveral Standards, abating or allow* 
ing^ according to the Value, Weight, andFinenefs of the fame, and 
(b r^Aifying both the one and the other in equality and true value. 

Bjbt though the intrinfick value be the principal Rule by which Ex- 
ch;i(^nges are fquared, yet there are many other Circumftances which 
do vary and alter the Exchange : As the Plenty and Scarcity of money, 
the Occafions and Necefltties of Princes ; lil^e Trade and Cc mmerce of 
Merchants, whofe Eftates being continually traverfed from one Coun- 
try to another, and from one Coin to another, do give and take as their 
occafions and the Rules of the Exchanges conduce to their profit. 
Hence the "Bankers in /frf//, Spam, and France, bsine thesreat Takers 
and DeTiverers of moneys at their feveral places oFmeetmg, do con- 
cur in fettiflg the Rates and Prices of Exdiange for their own Com- 
modity and Advantage, which are ieen fo varioufly to aker, and dai- 
ly to riie and fall by thofe that ulc this Myftery; fo that although I 
have given the common Eftimate of Foreign Coins to the Standard of 
Londvnf as they are commonly valued, yec accoiding to the Rules of 
Exchange they wit' be very different 


Of the Roman Coin. 

TH E General Names for Money among the Romans are three, 
Monet a, Nt$fnm^ Pecmia. 

Mmeta, ^ whence the French Mimno^e )hecauCs it fhcweth the Au- 
thor, the Value, and the Time. ~~ , - 

l^HtniiSj or N :4mm Hi! ^ fiaich l^o(/iusj h Nu^/ia, or rather of a Greek Ori- 
ginal e/jri TK i'o/!/«, from the Law. 

PeciiniJ, -Either from the Images of Cattel Oamped upon it, or 
from their skin out of which money was Coined. 

The Names »if ths Brafs money among the Romans^ were yl(, t^acft 
t/4?5, the twelfth part of a Roman penny, value of our money ; far- 
things; 5tfww, half an ds\ Irtens, i third of an ^j j Qu/^rarJ^ 
I fourth of an /is j Scitanf, 1 (ixch of an //, 5 of a farthing, &i\ 




< ' * 




Mrthings; benarius the new, in value at 7<f, half-penpy. Sefitrtimh^ 
jng 2 and ^ half <»/?»,. in vaUe i </. 3 farthings and a hi\^. Bi^atus i^a- 
'dratusf having the Image of a Chariot, the fame with a Roman new De-^ 
'narius,FiS}ortafm the jm^S^, of Vi<^ry, CiWed, Quimrins, in value ;</. 
5 farthipgSr LMlax ;jthe i^nth part ol ^the Reman penny, in y4ue 3, wi- 
things. Olidlies the fncth part of the R^pt/ft Pfnari 1 d, \, ^ fb- '-^y -tr' • 
* Of the Roman C^\6. Coins, there was the Jmient piece or Cof/ful^ 
of a / of Gold in value. 17 i. id, ^ farthings. The Emperor's Coin 
or Piece 5I of a /. of Gold, value i j* j. Half a Piece called ^uritu 
Drachfpalit J weighing oaQprachKfe^VA\ueys.^.^,.TremtffiiTr$e»s,or a 
third part of the Emperor'^ Coin, value y*.i ' 

As to the Coins of Gold after th^tr^nflatingpf the Seat of the Em- 
pi re to B)z,antiumy I find thefe ; Conflaniine Pieces of Gold, value 8 /. 16 </• 
; farthings and f. Thefe were currant until the days of Valentinian, 
who, as alfo Falens, ArcaJius, Honoriusy and others, made their Coin 
fomewhat heavier, but all differed little in the weight of their 
Coins ; the Vakptinm pk^e ^f ^^^^d, called Sext^lus, w^^s. ^c^Qqnfje^ 
'in value \oi^''\:r:'^'y:^:^\-.\:^.^^\, --V.^^pn.* ■ ■ .M)n' virNu-r: 
. Thechiefiiom<}» Coins valued with our Money, were the 7<}/r»r»ffirj 
containing 24 Sefiertia, 6000 Roman pente, value 187/. 10 i. Then 
the Sefiertmm, containing 1000 Sefierces, was valued at 7 /. 16 /. "^d. 
Libra J vel pendo, a pound, 12 ounces, 96 drams,4p^rt lefs than the 
Grecian pound, was in value ; /. 

\ ., According to this account I find C<»/99i//Rrrhis Fine, fooo^^o Pieces of 
Brafs, was of our Money 1 J62 /. 10 i. vide Liv. Lib. 6. 

So Hcj[Ji>4s the Stage- player, his 1000 Deneers ot Roman ^ence, his 
daily reward, was ;i /. y /. vide Macrob. /. 3. tf. 14. 

Thaii'i 6emAnd o£ Demofibenes, loooo Deueers, was ;i2./. 10*, 
25*0000 Deneers the price of C/ccro's Head to AntoniuSf was 7812 /. 10 /. 

At this r^te like wife was the Supper of Caligula, valued at 78125' A 

And Julius Cafar gave unto Sevilia the Mother of Brutus^ a precious 
Stone, which he boMght 60 times, valued at 4687 y /. The Heap of 
Brafs rrioney gathered by Curio the Son of Valerius, viz. Sexcentits.SeJier" 
tiumt, value 4687 5*0 /. Max. lib. 9. c. i. 

t^fop the Tragedian Stage-player left unto his Sen Ducent its Sufi er" 
#ff«m, value i5:6zyo A 

And the Remains of Cr.^ffus^s Wealth after the lotb, to Hercules, 
and his Publick Treat of the People of Romey and had given to all the 
Citizens 3 Months Corn^ were 7100 Talents, value 13312^0 /. . , 


-i' >> 





The RoMOM Treafury taken from Captives and Enemies, began by 
Julius Cafar^ was Millies Sefiert turn j which is looooo Thoufand Sefi, 
or I Million loo M ooo. and in value of our Money was 7812^0 /. 
^ Emilius Paulus brought into the Treafury from the Macedonian Cap- 
tives, Bis Millies Centtes, that is, two thoufand hundred thoufand H. S, 
or 5f/?crj, valued at 1 64062 y /. * ^ « 'j^ ^ - 

The Money which at five Triumphs was brought unto Julius Cafar 
by the Captives, was Sexisi, Millies Sefi, viz,, fix Millions of Millions, 
value at 4682^00/. 

Lentulus the Southfayer was worth before the Libertines impoverifh- 
ed him, Quater Millies Sefiertium, iri?. 4000 hundred H. S, valued at 
3x2^000^ ■ :■.';-... X'^'^^T-'-'^ -'-■''1 .»s;rr hrtii6'ii'J"-.^'5n«A a- 
, Julius Cafar. in the beginning of his Confulfhip, took out of the Ca- 
pitol 3000 /.of Gold,, iand put in fo mUch Brafs-money, valued at 
108000 /. 

Antiocbm to have peace with the Remans paid them 1000 Talents.^ 
value 2812500/. 

And the Tribute laid upon the Afians by Attonius was 20000 Ta^ 
kftts, value 37JOOOOP /. 

,x^ Kotnarn Li^id Meafures I find were 

CHtlearfive • ' ■ — — » ■ • » « — »■■ ■ ■ '"■ 

Ligulus '' '!i •-'- ■ -■ " - « 46080 

Cyathos « •■■ ' — i— « — . 11 5*20 

Acetabulum ' > ■ ■' - ■ -'^ ■ 7680 .. 

. Quart arios • ■ — - ■ — - 3 840 

. - Heminai .i.,.; - ^..., .,., — .,-..-^1^20 

Sextarios ' ^ ■ • — •■~— « ~.> ^ .-. — —-.... — , ^60 ,. ■■ 
Congios ■ ■ ■■■ ■■ »■■■'«■ 160 

Modius."' ■■ ■ ^ ».....«ii. n ..- ■■ ■ 60 
XJrna ■ ■»-- » ' " . 40 

Ampkora ■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ ■'■— ^ 20 

Cadus ' . ^'^ •" " " - ■ ■■ ■ "^ ■» " i-i i^g 

Cauleus \»< - ■■-. !■ i 



The Komi^Meafures of Length were. 

Digitus ■ - ■ - — : ■■«ii r 80000 

Pollux " .< ■ I ■rill ,.i , 60000 

{the Lefi i 1,. . , . 20000 

the Greater ———— 66661 



0/ Memfw Coh. 

ly^^^ ' fit ^mmm 

^' : Cubkm 

Fafus — 
StaJum — 

- ■ ' ■ '■ 200O 
— —— lOOO 
"-— TT— — "" 8 
— — — I 

Their Square Meafures were, x. AUus-minimm, 4 foot broad, and 
120 long. viz,. 48c Square feet. 2. Clima, about 60 feet Square. %.Vorca, 
A piebe of Land ;o toot broad, and 120 foot long, containing 3600 
Square £eet. 4, AHus QmdrMtmyh^^ an Acre, or 4 Porca\ ^.Jugerum, 
an Acre of Ground in length 240 foot, in breadth no, which maketh 
28800 fqiim feet. 6. Centuria, 100 Acres, or 11^20000 fquare feet. 
7. Saltttsy a Poreft or La<td containing 4 Centuries, cr 400 Acrest 

\ f ..' A TahU of tie Romm Pomti. 



Granunt — 6912 
Siliejua — - 1728 
Obul^ — «— J75 
Scrufulittn ^ ■•» 288 
DraehpM — — 96 

U»CM - ■ ■■* — 12 

I,/^4« ■ ■ ■■ 1 

Of by another Au- 
thor thus : 

Grains — yo4o 

Obch — — '^64 

ViHoriatii — -^^ 168 
Denarios'^'' " - 84 
Ounces — .— — — 12 
jLr^rtf * ■ I 


As, I^ihra, PonJo, Solidus ; a Pound was 12 Ounces 7fj9jr weight : 
So I alfo find, - 

Grains "" • ■ —-^ ' ' ' 82I 

Oioles " »- -'-' • • " ■ '■• ■■- " "— ■ ' " ■ (5| 

Scruples-^ .,»-.^~.. ». ■— .■ — ■ gj 

Pracbms - ' '• ■■ ' .-• if 

Denarios *' — ■ . -^> j ^ 

.... - - -, ■ " , .' -V. 


And tbcRomAtiTalejjttohe, 

- . -, ■ . . ,,^'''. ' ' iX^'li 

A//«i« — — — •- 
Li^y<* ■' ■ — 

Ounces * 

Tenny-weights ■*- 
Drachms* '«— 


— r..- lyooSthc fame with 
— - loyooj thci/if^i«»'i2y/. 

— - xiooo" 
•—— 56000 





Of Mmr ir Coiif. 




Darim Statir, having the Image of Svgitarim, oo&taining iDrams, 
was worth I y Shillings Elf Zip Gold, 

The Stater of Cix,icMs weighing 28 Drams, was in value i pound 
I (hilling. ' 

The Talent containing 6p Mina\ and every Mina a hundred Drsms ; 
vix^ 6 thoufand Drams to sl Talent, was valued at 187 pound 10 (hil- 
lings SterUtig, 

'- The greater Talent of 8 thouland Drams j was valued at lyo pound 
ffierlingi fo was the 7tf/c»r of £^ypf. 

Th^Talent of Babylon AX, 7 thoufand, was valued at u8 pound if 
(hillings. The Talent^ of ey£gina at 5 12 pound 16 (hillings ; and that of 
Alexandria containing 12 thoufand Drams, at 375^ pound fierling. 

The Crcchn Silver Coins. . 'v . 

The Stater of Mace Jon was in value z u^d. farthing, and 2 thirds, 

fierling, . -^^ - 

The Stater of Corinth, 1 s. S J. ha\{-penny fierling. -^'^^ '^ ' 
The Didracbmum with the Image of an Ox, was in value i i. ; </. 

The Drachma marked with Minerva's Candle, weighing with :he 
liow«» penny, value /^K/i«f 7// f 

0/ Grecian Viftances, 

The DaByhs or Digitus^ a fingers breadth — — . 

iA<ufj, the lefTer Palm of four fingers breadth — 

Spithame the greater Palm 12 fingers breadth 

Pes, 4 Palms 16 fingers , lefs than the Roman foot by half \ 

an Inch, greater than the Hehren by one fourth — y 

The Cnhits were of 5 forts, viz. of 1 8, of 20, and of 1 

24 fingers in breadth — — — ■■' ' ■■ 3 

The Orgya, Pajfus, a pace 6 foot 4 Cubits — - —~ 

StraJ)um,Ordja/,i furlong loo paces, 400 cubits, 600 feet' 
Midare, S Stradia ov furlongs, a Mile —»—.—. — 


-* 8000 



■ 1000 


— — r 


There was alfo the farafatfga, about twenty- nine or thirty furlongJ, 
and the Scbanus which foine make to be fixty furlongs, others but 32 
iurlones. - '^ >» ' . . 


,»mr^C£t, -fj^ Grecian LquidMedfures lifers . ./ 

Tiie Awfbcra of Attica, containing 12 C/fcow, 72 Zefiesot Sextario'. 
■Cbus, <^ Cbngit^f is (ix Sextarios : the AmpbfrreihiM of a Metreta, 

Then there is the.Co«/e half a Sextarius, the (laartarifts a fourth of 
a Sextarius, Oxibapbum an eighth, Chjatbos the ss C«»<^^^ the 3^ of a 
SextartHt, idyfirum the^, Cbemes the ^, and CccbUar the ^s of aSfx- 

-j ^ 

Of the Grecian Weights. 

■I •■ S i.l ^ 

The lefier Talented fixty pounds, the Pound of twelve ounces and 
a half, the Ounce of eight Drachms, the Drachm of three Scruples, 
the Scruple of two Oboles, one Obole of one and a half Lupine ; fo 
that a hundred Drachms of Attica are ninety fix of the Romany And 
the lefler pound of Attica is but feventy five Drams, the greater hun* 
drcd: one pound of the greater is 1 1 of the leflfer, and the gfeater 
a^<i/p»/ contained ^o /. . -^. 

■ . ' - .' ■ -v 

*The Thyftck Weights mentioned by Diofcorides and 


The Mina or Pound of fixteen Ounces, and the Libra or twelve 
Ounces, ninety fix Drachms, two hundred eighty eight Scruples, five 
hundred feventy fix Oboles, and fix thoufand nine hundred and 
' twelve Grains. 

The parts of a Pound were Sextans two Ounces, Qt*adrans three 
Ounces, 7V/>»i four Ounces, ^/c««x five Ounces, ^^//^y^j half a Pound, 
5'tfx/«»x feven Ounces, i5« eight Ounces, D0</r<«»j nine Ounces, Dex- 
tans ten OuiiCes, Df«wx eleveft Ounces, &c, ' j^J^ 

For the Hebrew Coins^ &c. Sec Jerufalcm* 


- \ 




jOf the Coins, Weights and Meafnres of tbt 
Chief Cities in^mo^Q, 

0/ Alicant. 

Licant , feated on the Mediterranean Shore, is a Commodious 
Road for 5%pi«^; It affords Wines, Raifins, Licoris" An- 
nifeeds, Hard Soap, Soda Barrilla, and Almonds. 

The Coins, are Livres, Solds, and Denier s, 1 1 Denitrs make 
a Soldj 20 Soldt a L/vr*, which is about y </. Sterl. Here are alfo Rids 
which they call Currant Money, afingleRw/ beingreckon'dabove^<^. 
Sterling : the Currant Money is of leis worth than Plate from 7 to i6 
fer Cent, according to the Plenty or Scarcity of Pieces of eight in the 

The Weights are the Cargo, Quintal^ and Rcve of 24 /. being 18 
Ounces J and the Roveo{ ^61, being 12 Ounces; all grofs Commo- 
drties are weighed by 24/. to the Rove, &nd^ Roves to the Quint aly and 
2 ^i»/^/janda half to the Cargo, the iiitintal96l. becaufeof 18 Ouh« 
t;es to the Pound, make 108 Englijh. 

Pepper, tloves, or Spices, and other Commodities of Value, are 
fold by the Rovex>( 36/. being 12 Ounces to the Pound, whofe^/»- 
tal IS 120 7. which is about 18 or 20 per Cent, lefs than the Englifh ml. 
Here the Rove or Cantar is a quarter lefs than at Cadiz, or Mallaga, '-' 
? The Meafure is the Vare, which makes 3 <f Inches EngUfh and |. 
r The dry Meafure is the Hatiagtte, whereof five make 8 Budiel EngliJIj. 
I The Wine Meafure is the Cantar,which is about two Gallons Englijh, 
' Note that 12 Barrachiliai is a Chiaze, which is equal with 4 Horn* 
mocks of Cadiz, or MaUaga. 

' ■ Salt at a /{/«/ a Meafure ; you arc according to Cuftom to have one 
Meafure for the Ships ufe without Money. . -^ 

•>v ■ • . ■ :^^:- ^-' ■ Of Amfterdam. ' ' '^ ^rj'^ •;*'l : ^^^' "^•'.■- 

THIS City by reafonof its vaft Trade to Foreign Part?, affords 
plen^ of all known Commodities in the World; thefeveral 
Commodities of Europe, the Drugs, Spices and Silks of Jjta, thePro- 
duft of ^fricflf and the Riches of America, 

^/ ■ • — ■■ R. r ' . ■:■ . : ■: -'Their 



Of the Coins i Weights^ and Meafuris^ 

Their Money or Coin is often inhanfed or dcbafed as they f^ft occa- 
fion, but commonly is found to be the fame as in the account at Ant'.\ 
Tverf. Their Livre or Pound which is 20 /. Flemifh^ and 120 Stivers, 
maices a Pound of Grofs, and 20 Stivers or SoUs Turmis makes a Gil- 
tier, which is commonly 2 s. Sterhne; ; and 6 Stivers is a Flemijh Shil- 
ling, and J 5riwri is reckoned as much as 6 J. Sterling. Befides thefe, 
all Coins of Europe do here pafs currant, and are paid and received in 
Merchandize according to their value. The- Duccatoons are equal to 
lo D«fci6 Shillings, or 60 Stivers ; Patatoom are equal to 48 Stivers,. 
or 8 Dutch Shillings. / ;.^ v- > 

Their Weight is the Poumicf 1 6 Ounces, 100 whereof malces their 
(luintal, which makes at London 108, or 109/. neat. 

Their Meafure is the EU, which is | of a Yard Englifh ; fo that loo 
Eh makes at London 74 Yards,or 60 Ells and a half, fome fay $s EUs, 

; i 

Of Antwerp, or An vers. 

4 •;' 

TH E former and Ancient Trade of this City was as great and 
eminent as now Amfierdam is. 

Commodities here found, are Tapefiries, TiBures, feveral Manufa^ 
^«r«, and other the Commodities of Flanders, ^v- ' • ; .: 

Their Accounts are here kept by Livres, Solds and Denters*, whicb 
they term Pound, Shillings, and pence of Groffes ; 12 Gre^* making 
a Sold, and 20 Sold a Livre or Pound Flemifh. 

The Currant Money here, as generally through all the Spanijh Pro- 
vinces, are (befides the Spanijh and Imperial) Doits ; of which 8 makes 
a Stiver, ^und 6 Stivers AShiWing Flemijh ; and 20 Stivers makes a Gil- 
der, 6 Gilder ! a Pound Flemijh ; which is reckon'd for 12 /. Sterling, 
and 20/. Sterling for 35 i. 4. d. Flemijh; but in Exchange *tis fome- 
times more than ; 6 i. Flemish ; for a pound Sterling, 

Their Weight is the Quintal of 100 /. of 16 Ounces />frL which 
makes at London 104. /. 

Their Meafure is the Ell Flemijh, which is one fourth of a Yard En- 
glijh, fo that ICO Ells Flemijh makes 60 Ells, or 75" Yards Englifj. 

Corn is'fold by a Meafure called the Fertuki whereof 57 and a, 
half makes a /,<«/? aiAmflerdain, which is 10 Quarters Englijh. 

Wine is fold by the Stoop, the y^we, and the Butt ; p Sreo^u is one 
4me, and if2 67oo;)/ Is a Butt: the 5/c<?/> makes at Lc«</tf» 7 Pints, and= 
the Ame 42 Grt//fl«j Wine-meafure, 

, ■ ■ 0/ 


Of Coins, tVeights, d/td Uufmh^ 


Bllha is a Town of great Trade, and much frequented by Mer- 
chants ; Seated two mile from the Ocean : Its Commodities 
are Iron, Chefnuts and Wool. 

,A The Coins are the fame as ufed throughout Spain, Vide Madrid 
and Sevil. 

As to their Weights, they make ufeof two Kintals, the one being 
loo /. Subtile, which produceth at London iii or 112 /. the other is 
only proper for Iron, which makes at London 128/. 

Their Meafure is the Fare, of which 109 makes 100 Yards Englijh. 
^ Corn is fold by the Hanega, j whereof makes a Quarter Englijh. 


0/ Cadiz. 

HERE their Weight of Gold is more than in Italy, the Pifiol 
being two Grains heavier. To a Dobleon you mud add 4 
Grains; to a double £>o^/fo» you muft add 6 Grains. 

Cy Copenhagen. ... ;. 

Copenhagen, the Seat of the Danifh Kings in»Winter ; Commodities 
are Hides, Tallow, Stockfilh, Armour, Cordage, Mafts, Pitch, 
Tar, Deals, Wainfcot, Buck-skins and Salt-filh. 

Coins herecurrant are the Dollars and Shillings ; 66 Shillings makes 
a Rtx Dollar, which is f Shillings 5rer//»jf. 

They keep the Accompts by Marks of 16 s. Danijh: and their Ex- 
changes are made by Rtx-Dollars, which is the currant Coin of the 

Their Weights are the great and fmall Hundred, viz,, one of 120 /. 
the other of 112 /. which are divided into 12 parts, or Stones, at 
lo/. per Stone. 

They have alfo a Skip pounds which makes ;2 Stone at 10 /. per 
Stone, which is 520 /. or 20 Lis pounds of 16 pound mark , is a 
Skip-pound. And the 100 I. EngLjhU found t;o be 92 at Copenhagen, 

Their Meafures I find no where certain ; the beft that I can fix upon 
is, that 100 Yards JE«g/«/fc makes about 163 Ells there. 

^ R r 2 Of 



Of Ccins^ Weights^ dnd Meifnres. 

Of Conftantinople. 

COnjiant'mopU is the Seat and Refidence of thQ Great Turky enjoying 
the Advantages of the EuxineAnA Mediterranean Seas ; of which 
^ti& obferved. That thetirft Emperor that Commanded it, was a BaU- 
win, and a Baldwin that loft it. That a Conjtantine built it, a Gregory 
being Patriarch; and a Con^antine loft it, a Gregory being Patriarch: 
And it was gained by Mahomet ^ and a Mahomet (according to the Turks 
' Prophecy) fliall lofe it. .1 

The Commodities are Grograins, Camlets, Mohair, Carpets, An- 
, nifeeds, Cottons, Galls, &c. 

The Coins currant are Afpers, 80 whereof is accounted a Dollar, 
and 120 Afpers to the Sultanies of Gold : a Rial of 8 and a half is a 
Sultanie of Gold. The Lion Dollar at 7 y Afpers. The German Seftine 
at 70 Afpers. The Rial of 8 for 80 Afpers. Sometimes the Sultanie, 
Hungar, or Chequin, is worth 10, 12, or ij Afpers more than 80. 
And in Merchandize it doth pafs for 90, 100, or 110 Afpers. 

Thevmot tells us, that the Alpers are little pieces of Silver ftampt with 
the Grand Stgnior's Najjie, and are worth about 8 Deniers, or 3 Far- 
things a-peice. The IfoUtte is worth y y Afpers. The j^lfanies, or 
German Rix Dollar, is worth 1 8 Afpers. The Pia/tre, or Pk^e of 
58 Solsy is commonly worth 90 Afpers, fometimes but 80. j\nd 
then the j^jj'anie is worth but 7^ Afpers. The Turkifh Chequin is 
worth 2 Viafters. The Venetian is worth 10 Afpers more. And that 
a Purfe contains po Piafers^ or 45-000 Afpers. 

ThQ Canter, which is 1 5-0 Rottes, the Rotteis 12 Ounces, the Ounce 
12 Drachms, the Drachm is 16 Quirats, the Quirat is 4 Grains. The 
Oque contains 400 Drachms, 176 Drachms is a Lodero, and 100 Lo- 
deroes is accounted to be 42 Oe^ues, and called a Quint ar, ox Cantar^ 
which is 120 1. Englifl). 

Silk is fold by the Baleman, which is fix Oaks, or 16 /. and one 
thiid Epgljl) ; but weighed by the Lodero, 1 3 Lcderoes, and 1 12 Drachms 
makes a Baleman. 

ThQMitigal, or Mid ical, is i Drachm and a half, which is z^Kil- 
lats, 20 Alitig:ih of Gold is 3 Ounces Eughjii, The Chequir, Sultanie, 
or Huv^ar, is 18 Kill (lis. 

The Meafure is the Picos, one of Cloth, a. of which makes three 
Yards Er.gli{h, and is about 26 Inches and a half. 

Tlie Second is the Grogram or Chamlet P/Vt?, containing 24 Inches, 
24 whereof makis 16 Yaids JL>^/,;/^. 
s Corn 



■ WWl'!^; 

Of CoifiJi Weights^ tuid Mesfum. ^ 309 

Corn is fold by the Killowy and weigheth about 20 0»ks\ ind eight 
Killows and two thirds is a London Quarter. 

Wine and Oyl is fold by the Meter^ which makes 8 Oaks^ and is 
about two thirds of a Gallon EnzUfb. 

'.'. ••• • •,♦ ^1 1 «>■ . Ma, 

., Cy Cracovia. . "^ V 

. ;ri 

CRacovia,^ tho the Metropolitan City of Poland , yet of fmall ac- 
count in Trade. 

Its Coins are the Gold Ducat, of the fame value of the Hungarian 
Ducat. Grofzes, Orts, andRix-dollars. iSGrofzmakean Ort, 30 
Grofz make a Gilder or Florin, 6 Gilders make a Ducat, 5* Orts of 
18 Grofz makes a Rix-dollar, and 4 Orts of 22 and a half Grofz 
makes a Rix-dollar, which in Specie is worth 40 Polifh Grofz, but in 
Buying and Selling it is accounted 36 Grofz. They make Contra(5):s 
by Silver Gilders or Florins, but no fuch real Coin. 

The common weight is the pound, j^6 whereof is accounted a 
Quintar, which makes in London 114 pounds circa ; and the 100 
pound of London hath yielded here about 120 pound. 

The Meafureof Length is the Ell, which is half of the Englijh Ell, 
but their Linnens are fold by the Shock, which contains 57 Ells and 
A^\f Englifh. . , . ' ' • ; 

' / ^ Of DantzicL / 

' * 

DAntzick, Seated about an Englifh Mile from the Bahick Shore, on 
the River Viftula ; the faireft City, and greateft Trade of any in 
trujjia. Her Commodities are Wheat, Rye, Oats, Pot-alhes, Clap- 
boards, Flax, Hemp, and Canvas. 

Their Coins are Dollars, Gilders, Grofz, and Pence. The Rix-^ 
dollar is worth 90 Groiz, which is commonly valued at 4 j. 6 d. Stev' 
Img. A Gilder is woith 50 Grofz, and 18 of their Pence makes a 
Grofz. So that a Gilder is about i s. 6 d. Sterling. 

They keep their Accounts by Gilders, Grofz, and Pence. And they 
reckon one great Mark is 2 l-'o!:f}} Gildtrs , and one Tdijh Gild^^r is 
worth two \tiicv Marks, one leffer Mark is worth ly Grofx, .and the 
Grofz is 1 8 Pence. And a Grofz is vi,'orth 25 of a Farihio^i; Sterling. 

Their Weightis the Pound, whereof 116/. at London makes 100/. 
There is alfo theSkip-pound.and the Lis- pound, 16 or i4M.irk-pound 





310 CffCloim, Weights f gtid Mesfures. 

is one Lis-pound, and 90 Lis*pounds makes one Skip-pound by the 
fmall Stone of 24 /. But there is a great Stone to weigh grofs Wares 
of 34 i whereof iq /. to the Skip-pound of 340 /. 

Their Meafure for Length is jhe Ell, 100 Ells whereof makes in 
LWo» about 49 Ells. ''*' * ' "' "■ 

The Meafure of Beer is the Fat, which contains 180 Scoops. 

The Meafure of Corn is the Laft, which contains 60 ShcfTels, ^6 
whereof makes a Laft in AmjhrdantyOt 10 Quarters and a half £»g/ijfc. 
And 4 Sheifels make one Mud, which is theShip-pound of 34/. 

^M f. 

Of Florence. 



Florence is Seated on a Fruitful and Pleafant Plain, near the Conflu- 
ence of the River Arm and Cbianiy firft built by Sylla, made a Co- 
lony by the Triumviri ; razed by the Lombards^ Rebuilt by Charles tb$ 
Great; bought its Liberty oi Rodolpbus ; and laltly, Subjeft totheA/e- 
Jices, now Dukes of Florence. 

The Commodities that this City produceth, are the produ<a of the 
Dukedom, viz.. Wines, Oyls, Silks both raw and wrought into feve-. 
ral Fabricks, as Taffaiies, Sattins, Velvets, Plufties, and Grograms. 

The Coins here currant are Ducats of 7 Livres per Ducat, which is 
reckoned for y j. 3 <^ Sterling. The Livre is 20 Solds, which is valued 
9 a. Sterling. The Livre is alfo divided into 12 Craches, wheraof 8 
is a Julio, which is6d. Sterling ; j Quatrins is a Crach, and 60 Craches 
makes a Livre. 

They keep their Accounts generally in Livres, Solds, and Deniers, 
12 Deniers to a Sold, and 20 Solds to a Livre. 

The Weight is the Quintal, or loo /. of 12 Ounces to the Pound, 
which 100 makes at Z,Wfl» 78 /. 

The Meafure is the Brace, and 4 Braces is a Cane, and 100 Braces 
are found to make 48 Ells and a half, or 60 Yard? and a half. 

Wine is fold by the Cogno, which is lo Barrels, each Barrel 40 Me- 
tadels, or lo Bottles, and the Barrel is to weigh 120 /. 

Oyl is fold by the Orcio or Barrel, and (o.itains g* Metadels, 
which fliould weigh 85-/. 

" Wrought Silks are here fold by the Pound for Livres, and not by 





» ; 

Of Coiftfy WiightSi Mi Mufurts. 
^ ;; V • ^f Frankfbrd. 


FKrankford is a Free City, Fan^ous for fhe Ele^ion of the Emp^ 
rors, as alfo for two Fairs or Marts for Books Annually kept^ 
the one in Lent, the other in September, 

The Weight is the Pound of i6 Ounces, of which there is three 
Quintals, the one of loo/. for fine Goods, the other of 120 for 
grofs Goods, and the third of 132 /. for Food ; the 100 /. makes ae 
London 108/. 

The Meafures of Length are two, one for Linnen, the other for 
Woollen, both Ells differing about two ftrCent* 100 Ells whereof 
make ac Lmdon about 48 Ells. 

■,-\ .'-.\ »'> 

■* ■ * 



0/ Genoua. 

THIS City is Inhabited by the greateft Money-Mongers in Europe. 
Their Coins here currant are Deniers, whereof 12 makes a Sold, 
4 Solds a Chavalet, f Chavalets, or 20 Solds, a Livre, which is i /. 
4 d. Sterling. 90 Solds makes a Crown of Gold, a Ducat in Silver 
is 4 Livres. 

They keep their Accompts by Livres, Solds and Deniers. ' 20 De- 
niers is a Livrc, and y Livres a piece of Eight. Here note, thai a 
piece of I currant Money is worth but 96 Solds. But St. Georges 
weighed 104 Solds. 

Their Weight is the Pound of 12 Ounces, and 2y Pofind is a 
Roue, 6 Roues is a Kintal ; and 100 /. Genoua is 70 /. I EngU^ ; and 
1 Pound Enghjh is 17 Ounces Genoua j and 112 /, Engltjh is 5:8 /. Ge- 
mua. And the Quintal is 100 Rotelles, which makes ip fmaller 
Pounds, and is 106/. Englt(h. The grofs Quintal of lyo /. is of 18 
Ounces to the Pound. 

The Meafure is the Cias, which is of two forts, one for Silk, which 
is of 9 Palm>, whereot* roo makes 26 Yards Englijh; the other for Lin- 
nen and Woollen is of 10 PaIhis, and makes 2I Y&rds Englijh. 

Wine is fold rhere by the Miferold, whereof j makes a Botta Di^ 
mina, and cwo Barrels makes a Miferold, which is 100 Pints. 

Oyl is fo'd by the Barrel, 14 whereof makes a Tan of 236 Gal- 
lons to the Tun. 

•-^. . ' . ■ • " ' Of 


Of ComSf Weight s^ sftd Meafires. 

■ •■..' . , 

Of Hamburgh. 

HAmbufgh is aFree City of the Empire enjoying the Priviledge of 
a Hanfe-Town ; the Haven is guarfi<;d with an Iron Chain, the 
City adorned with nine Churches^ a Senate- Houfe, and Exchange. 

The Merchants Exchange here for London by the Pound Sterlings 
for other places upon the Rix dollar, at ^4 Stivers. 

A Dollar is here faid to be worth 3 Whit-pence, one Whit-penny 
is worth 18 Shillings, oneShilling to be 12 pence, andonePenny two 
Hellers. A Mark is 16 Stivers, and 7 Marks and a half is 20 s. Fit" 
mijh. '^-^ ' " 

Their Weight is the Pound, 120 whereof is their Quintal, and 
makes at London 107 or 109 /. 

The Meafure is the Ell, 100 whereof makes at London 45 Ells and 
a half, and 100 Yards at London makes about 162 and a half, or 163 

Corn is meafured by Schepel, 90 making a Laft, and 83 Schepels 
is 10 Quarters Englijh, 

0/ Lcgorn, flr Livorn. 

Commodities are Oyls, Wines, Silks raw and wrought, Anchove;, 
Annifeeds, Rice, Argal, with other Italian Commodities. 

Coins are Qu-^treens, <■ whereof make one Scratch or Craca, 
12 Scratches or Cracd's is one Livre, which is 9 d. Engli(h, 8 Craca's 
is one Julio, which is 6 d. Engltfh, C Livres or 9 Julio's is one Dollar, 
which varieth according to the Exchange ; 7 Livres is a Ducat, which 
is f /. 9 d, EngU^, And 7 Livres 5 is a Scudoe, or Crown D'oro, 
wllich is % s. J d. I Sterling. 

The Accompts are kept in Dollars, Solds and Deniers, 12 Deniers 
to a Sold, and 20 Solds to a Dollar. Charges of Goods are kept in 
Livres, Solds and Deniers, and brought into pieces of 1 1 f Solds per 
piece, which is called Ihort Money, of which y Livres and 3 quarters 
is a Dollar, and 6 Livres or 120 Solds makes a DolLir, v^hichis cal- 
led Long-Money. Exchanges are with Londm for 5*6 j. ti. per 
piece. MarfeiHes for 60 Surneife/'cr piece. • Naples Ducats 92 for— 
Pieces 100 Venice Ducats Dcbank 103'^ for Pieces 100. with Solds 11} 
tor a Dollar. 


Of Coins] Weights] And MeafurK jij 

Commodities fold by the Pound 12 Ounces. All forts of Silks ia 
JuHos ; Cloves , Cinamon , Indigo, Cochineal , StoraXj Benjamin, 
' Manna and all other Drugs in Livres. Rtdjfia Hides, in Solds. 

Commodities Sold by the Kintal; Pepper, Cinamon/ Caflia, Lig- 
num, Nutmegs, Wax, Tinn, in Ducats. Cotten-wool, Cotten- 
yarn, Ginger, in Ducats ; Gawles in Livres. Commodities fold by 
the 1000/. 

Lead, Campeach, Faxiimbuck, in Ducats ; Pot-aihes in Dollars. 
Sugars of all forts by the Kinta! of 1 5* i Pound in Scudoes or Crowns. 
Newfound-Land-Fifh by the Kintal of 160 /.in Julio's j Hci rings by 
the Barrel, and Pilchards by the Hogfhead in Dollars. 

Their Weight is the Pound of 12 Ounces, of which 1 5'and a half 
makes tlie Pound ErgUpu, fo that their Quintal of 100 /. is 77 /. chree 
Ounces I English ; or 14^/. there, is 112 /. Enghfh. By a late Ac- 
compt I find that their Kintal of 100 /. makes 76 /. Evgliflj, and 148 /. 
there,is about 112 Evglt(h; and that their Kintal of Sugar is iji/. a 
Kintal of Fiffi 160 of their Pound. 

The Meafures of Legorfj, 4 Braces makes a Lane, which is 2 Ells 
Englijli', 8 Braces IS y yards E»gLf,j. 

The Quintal of Allom is 130 /. which makes 100 /. 6 Ojnces | 

The Quintal of Wool is 160 /. and makes 12; /. 5 Englijh, 

Corn Meafure is a Stax, 3 Staxes is a Sack, 8 Sacks, or 24 Stars, 
is Moggio. A Stax, if the Corn be g^iod, will weigh $0 1. Euglifh, 
3 Sacks and three quarters makes the £»»//(& Quarter. 63 Mina's at 
Genoua makes 100 Sacks at Legom, and 12 Mina's makes a Tun of 
40 Bulhels Winchefter Meafure. 

Wine is fold by the Coy no, which is lo Barrels, one Barrel is 20 
. Flaskj and 2 Mettidals is a Flask. 

Oylis fold by theOxcio or Barrel, and fiiould weigh 8y /. and hold 

Coxal and Colchefter Bays are fold by theCayne in Livres, Serges 
and Perpctuanoes, Sayes, &c, are fold by the piece for Dollars. 

oy Lions. 

Llom is Dated upon the Conflux cf the 'S.o^m and Soam^ is famous 
for itsTrade of Silks, and for Exchanges. Their Coins currant, 
and Accompts keeping, are the fame with Varu. 

For Weights, I find three forts, vi'i,. The King's weight, the Towns 
weight, and the Silk weight. 

S f The 

JI4, ^f C'w*/, Weight s^ AnAMUfurh^ 

The Town wdght is zoo /. of 1 6 Ounces, which maketh at Un- 
ion 96 /. 

The Meafure is the Alne, 7 whereof makes in Lonhn 9 Yards, fo 
that 'tis about a Yard and Quarter at IW09. 

Of Lisbon. > ' 

Commodities are, Honey, Wine, Oyl, Fruits, Fifii, Salt, white 
Marble, Ailom ; and befides Drugs, Spices, Cottons, Callicoes, 
Precious Stones, Silks, and other Eaft-hdia^ Verfia^ Arabia, and China 

Coins are a Vintin, \yhich is 20 Res, or 5 J. Ster. A Rial, which 
is 40 Res, or two Vintin, 6 d. Ster. A Telton is 100 Res. 400 Res 
is an Old Crufado or Crown, yoo Res is a New Crulado or 
Crown. 600 Res is a Piece of Eight, icoo Res is a Mill Rea. 

Weights are 16 Ounces to a Pound, 32 Pound isa Rou;, 4 Roues 
is a Kintal, ^4 Roues is a Tun. This V/eight is 2J or 3 fer Cent. 
greater thai: the Englifh. The Quiiital, which is of two forts ; the 
greater Quintal, whereby they weigh Sugars and all Spices, except 
Pepper and Cinamon, is divided into four Roues, each Roue being 
52 /. which is 1 28 /. at 16 Ounces to the Pound, and is bigger than 
the Efiglijh hundred by 16 /. 

Pepper is fold by the Quintal of 121 /. which is juft our Hundred, 
and Cinamon by the Quintal of 128 1. Englifh. 

Meafures are of two forts, the one is the Varefor Linnen, Silk, or 
Stufis ; and in meafuring, to every Vare is given an Inch; (b that the 
Vare is 42 Inche* and three quarters, which is almoft an EH Engltflj. 

The other, called the Coveda, maketh three quarters of a Ifard 
Evgljjhj and to this there is no advantage given. 

Meafure for Corn is the Alquier, three of which makes a Bufliel of 
Wihcheftcr Meafure, and ^ of the Alquiers makes the Hanaque, i j AU 
^uiers makes a Tun of i?n/o/ Water- meafure, 60 Alquiers makes a 
M^-; of Salt, icroMoys of Salt is 33 Weys Englijh, 3 Alquiers makes 
a Bufiiel, 1 3 Chants makes an Allmuden, and 5-2 Allmudens is a 
Tun of Wine. 

Of London. ' 

WHEN Julius Cajar firft entred this Ifland, certain Iron Rings 
were currant inftead of Money ; afterwards the Romans 
brought in the Ufc of Gold, Silver,, and Brafs Coins. 




-■■::r*:^^%-'--'\ Of Com, Weighs] dni Meafures^ " jij 

In the time of Richard the Firfi-, pure Money was Coined in the 
Eaft oi Germany, whereof fome of thofe Eafierlings were fent over for, 
and employed in his Mint ; from thence our Money was called Eajt^ 
erlingy or Sterling Money, as fome think j but others fay, of the Sax- 
on word Ster, weighty. 

The Coins here, and throughout all England, as well Gold as Sillver, 
are feveral, and of a different value, but all reduced to Pounds, Shil- 
lings, and Pence; all Coined of Gold and Silver ; only in relation to 
the Neceflity of the Poor, and Exchange of great Money, a fmall 
piece of Brafs, called a Farthing , or fourth part of a Penny , hath 
been permitted to be Coined, but no man enforced to receive it in 
pay for Rent or Debt, which cannot be faid of any other State or 
Nation in the world befides. Four Farchings make a Penny, 12 
Pence a Shilling, and 20 Shillings a Pound Sterling. 

No Monies in any Mint are made of pure Gold and Silver, becaufe 
they are too flexible, and therefore allajied with Copper. The Stand- 
ard of Crown Gold is 22 Carracs of fine Gold, and two Carrats of 
Allay in the Pound weight Iroy, which is divided into 44 parts and a 
^alf, each part is to pafs for 2c s. and the half part for 10, which is 
44/. 10 s. the Pound Troy. The Allay of fome Gold Coins is all Sil- 
ver, as the Guinec Gold, which renders the Gold Coins fome more 
white, fome more yellow. The Standard of Sterling Silver is u Ounces 
and 2 penny-weight of fine Silver , and 18 penny- weight of Allay 
of Copper out of the fire; fo that 12 Ounces of pure Silver with- 
out any Allay, is worth 3 /. 4 j. 6 ^. and an Ounce is worch^ s. 4 d, 
halfpenny, but with Allay it is worth but ; /. and theCunce 5 s. 

Of Weights there are two forts ufed throughout all England, viz,. 
Troy IVeight, and Avoirdufoije Weight, 





"Pound Troy 

The Ounce 

Penny weigh 

kn'' ers divide the^ 








into ^20 





Penny weight. 






'Tis alfo divided into 24 p.irts, wliicli a:c ''V.Ie.l Carrats, fj that 
each Carrat is 10 penny weight Tro)^ or half an Oaiice. And this Car- 
rar is divided into four parts, which are called; fo thac 
the Carrat-grain is two penny weight and a half,or 60 ordinary Grain 

S f 2 ' 



516 Of Coins^ Weights^ dni Mcdfurh, 

fo there are 480 Grains in the Ounce, and 5'76o Grains in the Pound. 
By this weight are weighed Pearls, precious Stones, Gold, Silver, 
Bread, and all manner of Corn and Grain, and this weight the Apo- 
thecaries do or ought to ufe, tho by other Denominations, their leaft 
weight is a Grain, , 

20 Grains 
5 Scruples 
8 Drams 
1 2 Ounces 


'a Scruple, 
/a Dram, 
|an Ounce^ 
a Pound. 

AvoirJtipoife Weight is reduced into feveral Denominations , viz,. 
Tuns, Hundreds, Quarters, Pounds, and Ounces ; fo that 

16 Ounces 
28 Pound 
4 Quarters 
ro Hundred 

!','• ■''rund, 
*\ arter 
'"^^^^Ka i.indred, or 112/. 
^a Tun. 

By this weight are weighed all Grocers Ware, Flefii, Butter, Cheefe, 
Iron, Hemp, Flax, Lead, Steel ; alfo all things whereof comes wafte. 
All Meafures in England are either Applicative, or Receptive. 
The fmalleft Applicative Meafurt is a Barley Corn, whereof. 

3 In Length 
12 Inches 
*3 Foot 
I Yard and a quarter 

1 Foot and a half 

2 Cubits 
J Foot 
6 Foot 

1 6 Foot and a half 
14 Perch 
8 Furl, or 320 Perches . 

"an Inch. 

a Foot. 

a Yard. 

an £11. 

a Cubit, 

makes ^ a Yard. 


a Geometrical Pace, 
a Fathom. 

a Perch, Pole, or Rod. 
a Furlong. 
v.a Mile EfjgUjli. 

So that a Mile, according to the Statute of Henry the Seventh, ought 
to be 61,7,60 Inches, 1760 Yards, ioj6 Paces, 320 Pole, or 5-280 
Foot, that is, 280 Foot more than the Italian Mile ; 60 Miles more 
exadly, 69 and a half, makes a Degree, and 360 Degrees, or 25020 
Miles com^afs the whole Globe of the Earth. Re- 


* > Of Coins ^ Weights^ sftd Mesfures. 3;7 

Receptive Meafures are two-fold : Firft of Liquid or moift things : 
Secondly, of dry things, whereof about a Pound Avoir dupoife make a 

2 Pints 

2 Quarts 

2 Pottles , ' 

8 Gallons 

2 Firkins - 

2 Kilderkins, or 32 Gallons 

9 Gallons 

2 fuch Firkins, on 8 Gallons 
2 fuch Kilderkins, or 36 Gallons 

1 Barrel and half, or 54 Gallons 

2 Hogfhead 

2 Butts or 2 Pipes 

a Quart. , 
a Pottle, 
a Gallon, 
a Firkin of Ale. 
a Kilderkin. 

^^"^^'^"^ a Firkin of Beer., 
a Kilderkin, 
a Barrel cf Beer, 
a Hoglhead. 
a Butt or a Pipe, 
l^a Tun. 


Confifting of 1728 Pints or Pounds; and a Barrel of Butter or So,ip 
is the fame with a Barrel of Ale. The E«g///fc Wine-meafures are fmal- 
ler than thofe of Beer or Ale, and hold prooortion as four to five ; fo 
that four Gallons of Beer-meafure are five C tllons of Wine-meafure, 
and each Gallon of Wine is eight Pound Tmy weight ; fo ,thar a 
Roundlec of Wine holds eighteen Gallons , half a Hogihead thirty 
one Gallons and a half, a Tierce of Wine holds forty two Gallons, 
a Hogfhead fixty three Gallons , a Punchion eighty four Gallons , 
a Pipe or Butt a hundred twenty fix, and a Tun two hundred fifty 
two Gallons, or two thoufand and fixieen Pints. 

Dry Meafures are thofe in which any kind of Dry Goods are 
meafured, as Corn, Coal, Salt, &c. of which there is the Pint j 
two Pints make a Quart, two Quarts a Pottle, two Pottles a Gallon, 
two Gallons a Peck, four Pecks a Bulhel, four Buflielsa Comb or Cur- 
nock, two Combs a Quarter, four Quarters a Caldron, fivj Quarters 
a Weigh, ten Quarters a Laft or Weigh, which contains f 120 Pints; 
where note, that the Corn Gallon is bigger than the Wine Gallon, 
and lefs than the Ale or Beer Gallon, and is in proportion to them as 
3 ; to 28 and 3 y, and is counted 8 pouads Troj weight. . 




Of Corns, Weighty sftd Meafum: 
Of Lubeck. ^'-■- - - 

IT S Coins currant are the Rix-DoUarsj worth 48 Stivers j the Mer- 
chants DoiS^^r at ; 5 5^;wrj, the Steck-Dollar&t ^2 Stivers, the Mark 
ac 16 Stivers, the GuU is one Mark and 8 Stivers, ths Real'is 2 Marks 
and 14 Stivers, and y of their Stivers is 6 //. Sterling, and one 5fiwr is 
12 Fenving. 

Their Weight is the Pound, of which is made a Centner and a Schip- 
pound, one Schip-pound is 2oLif-pound, or 280/. i Centner \i 8 Lif- 
pound. A Tun of Salt is 20/. A Stone of Flax 20/. A Stone of 
Wool is 10/. one Pound is 16 Ounces, or 32 Lodt, 

Their Meafurc is the Ell, 8 whereof make in London y Yards. 

0/ Madrid. - 

MAdrid, the Court of 5^tf/», and greateft Village in the World: 
The Coins here, are the general Coins of Spain, viz. the Ducat, 
which is 375" Mervedes in Exchange, and is called by fome the Dobkn 
ofCafiiles "Thd Cafiiliano which is worth ^S$ Mervedes. 
The Florin of Caf^ile worth 265- Mervedes, 

The SpaniJhDuQSLt hath eleven Rials of Plate, and a Rial is 34 Mer- 
vedes, a Ducat is generally valued about p. 6d. Englijh, and the Rial 
at 6 pence. 

» . Of Malaga. 

MAlaga , Seated on the Mediterranean, abounds in Raifins and 
Wine. Their Moneys are general witha^l Spain. 
They generally keep their Accompts in Bcillon or Brafs money, by 
Rials, Ducats and Mervedes, 34 Mervedes make a Rial oi Beillon, which 
according to the Law of the Kingdom fhould be worth yo in the Hun- 
- dred lefs then a Rial of Plate or Silver, upon the accompt 1 00000 
Mervedes AVQ worth about 61 1. Evgh^j, But becaufe the Silver Coin 
in Spain is now Cent, per Cent, better than the Money of Bcillon, which 
is moft part of Copper, looooo Marvedes is worth but half of that 
Money : So that Biillon is not intrinfecally worth fo much as the 
PrinCe puts upon it. • 


tiver is 

s 8 Lif- 
tone of 


World I 

le Ducat, 
e Doblon 

;4 Mer- 
the Rial 

ifins and 

jney, by 
», which 
the Hun- 


m, which 
' of that 
:h as the 

' ; .^ Of CohSf ^ei^hff, ami Mtsfkres^ ^ip 

Their Weight is the Quintal or C. which they divide into four JKc«c' 
or Parts of 2y/. at i6 Ounces fer Pound, each Ounce contains 
J 6 Drachms, each Drachm 28 Grains ,• and this Quintal or C. makes 
in London 106 Averdufois. 

Their Meafure is the Vare, of 32 or 38 Inches EngUjli. 

Wine-meafure is a Roue, which is divided into eight fmall Meafbres 
called Somhresf and is in England four Gallons, and 2f of thefe fill a 
Pipe, which is a hundred Gallons Englijh. 

Oyl-meafure is the Roue of 2 y /. 

Dry- meafure is the Hgnoque, which is divided into two Almodei, 
making one Bufliel and a half in weight, by heap 144/. by Strike, 

99 /. Englijh, 

Meflena Weights and Meafures. 

TWelve Ounces is a Pound by which Silk is fold. 2 Pound \ make* 
a Rottela, 100 pound, that is between 70 and 71 /. Engltjh, and 

100 Rottela" s makes a common Cantar, which is 176 /. Englijh, 

Of its Meafure: 8 Palmes makes a Cane, which is reckoned 23 yards 
Engli(h, buc found above 84 Inches. 

Coins are, 20 Grains, or 2 Carkens is a Tarrie, which is ^ d. Ster- . 
ling. 30 Tarries make an Ounce, which is 11s. 6 d. Sterling. 12 Tar^ 
ries is a Crown, or Smdo, which is y s. Sterling, 11. Tarries is com- 
monly reckoned a DoUor, as Exchange. 

Accompts are kept in Ounces, Tarries and Grains, 20 Grains to a 
Tarrie, and 3 o Tarries to an Ounce. Perpetuanoes are fold by tlie piece 
for Crowns. Cloth , Bays, &c. by the Cane for Tarries. Pepper, 
Indigo, by the Cantar, for Ounces. Lead and Iron by the Cant at for 
Crowns. AndSilk of all forts by the Pound, for T^irr/w. 


THEIR Currant Money are the Imperial Coins j other Coins^ 
as Spanift, French and Italian, pafs here in Merchandize. The 
Crown of the Gold of the Sun is worth 96 or 98 5o/ ; the Ducat of 
Gold is in Circa a hundred Sol ; the Ducat Imperial is valued at four 
Livres; a Crown of Gold Italian is five /.iz/z-w and fix Sol Imperial; 
and the Crown paffeth in Commerce for a hundred and ten Sols, and 
the Ducat for as much. 


3 10 ' ^ Of CoinSf Weights, and Menfmsl '' * 

Weight is the Quintal o^z. hundred pounds which makes at London 
feventy pound. 

Meafure is the Brace, a hundred whereof makes at London forty 
three Ells., .'. 


0/ Marfeillcs. 

AT Marfeilles the loo pound is in Englilh 88 /. |, and 8 Talms 
makes a Cane, which is 2 Yards \ Etigltfh. The Muld of Corn 
is 60 BuHiels, or % Quarters EngUfli, , 


THeir Coins arc the Cuppeckj ten wereof make a Greven, and ten 
Grevens is a Ruble, which is about 8 s. Sttrlwg, by fome lo j. 
Sterling. There is alfo the Altine, by which name all Receipts and 
Payments are made, 3 3 whereof, and one Crapeck, makes a Rubble, 
which is an Imaginary Coin, and not Real j 3 Cuppecks make an 
Altine, ' > ' 

Weight is the Zelotneck, of which ninety fix make a pound, forty 
pound a Pood, and ten Food a Berccvet ; fo their P()o</ is thirty! five 
pound Ef2gli(h, 

Meafure is called an Archine, which is about 27 Inches in Circa, fo 
that a hundred Arcbmes arc found to make about feventy five Yards 
Englifh, '. 

* , Of Naples, 

THeir Commodities are Wines, Oyls, Silks raw and wrought, 
Saffron, Almonds, Argal, Briraftone and Annifeeds. 
Their Coins are, fix Cavals or Ca'vaSas makes a Turnefe , two Tur- 
nejj'es a Grain, ten Grains a Carline, two Carlines a Tarrie, and y T^tr- 
r/f/ a Ducat; which is p. Sterling. 

Their Weight is a pound of twelve Ounces, which makes eleven 
Ounces f E»glt(h. or ^, fo that a hundred pound there produceth 
71. pound Efjghjh. A Dollar as valued at- 96 Grains according to Ex- 
change. 6 Ducats make an Ounce, by which the 'Cuftoms are rated. 
AIlGoods paying 9 1 Grains per Ounce, according to the value. Ac- 
compts are kept in Ducats, Tarries and Grains, 20 Grains to a Tarrie, 
and 5 Tarries to a Ducat. 

? The 

ton Jon 

)f Corn 

and ten 
me lo s. 
;ipts and 
a Rubbky 
make an 

id, forty 
lirty! five 

Circa f (b 
ve Yards 



two Tur- 
nd f Jar- 
its eleven 
ng to Ex- 
are rated, 
lue. Ac- 
) aXarrle, 


Qf Coins, Weights, 4nd Mufnr^ j%£ 

The RotteSo is thirty three Ounces and a half, a hundred RotteUoes is 
the Cantar of 277/. which produceth 196/. at fixteen Ounces fer 
pound in London. 

Oyl is fold by the Salm, five and and a half is reckoned for a Tun, 
which is z? 6 Gallons E»?/(l». • 

\.^\:,.?. ^ ■-'.. V !..' C/* Nuremburg. -^ , 

THeir Weight is the Pound of fixteen Ounces, of which are two 
feveral i^uintahy the one of a hundred pound, the other of a 
hundred and twenty pound ; and the hundred makes at London a hun- 
dred and eleven pound. 

Their Meafureisthe EII^ ahundred whereof makes at London sboMX. 
fixty three Ells. - . ' 

, Of Paris. 

PAris is one of the three Cities in France where Exchanges are made, 
and gives the Rule in matter of Coin to the other Cities. 

"^he Coins here, as generally through ir^jrwr^, AreDeniers; twelve 
whereof makes a Solj and twenty Sols a Livre ; and by thefe they 
keep their Accompts ^ 

But the common Coins are the Gold and Silver £ew^«r*s, the Gold 
Le'wts weighing eleven Deniers and twelve Grains, the fame weight 
witlithe Spanejh Fiffol, and the fame Standard ; once it was ten Livres, 
now it paiieth for Eleven Livres ; the French Livre is commonly reckon- 
ed to be one Shilling fix pence Sterling, and the Golden Lewis 16 s, 
6d. Englijh. 

The Silver L«M;*f weigheth twenty one Deniers md twelve Grains, 
little more than a Spaniflt piece of Eight, and about the fame Standard, 
and now goeth for three Livres, or fixty Sols, and is accounted for 
4/. 6d. Englijh ; but the Par in Exchange is fometimes lefs than $6, 
fometimes more than 72 d. Sterling for a Crown French, 

Their Weight is the Quintaloia. hundred pound, at fixteen Ounces 
to the pound, which makes at London a hundred and ten pound 

Their Meafure is the Alne^ which makes about forty five Inches 




•-^.j io 

R/G ^, an Archbifliop's See, and of great Commerce. Commo- 
dities here fornd, are Hemp both Rine and Pafs, Flax,Ofens, and 
String-flax f Clap- Boards, Wainfcpts, Oart, Tot-ajhes, &C. 

Coins are RixJoBars, Guilders, and Grofx, ; thirty Grofz, is a Guilder, 
three Guilders a Z>0il^4r ; and a GM//</er is one Shilling and fixpence Ster' 
ling, as vulgarly reckoned. 

Weight is the pound, whereof twenty make a Ie//>w»</; and twen- 
ty Lifpound a Ship-pound, which is three hundred and a quarter Engltjh, 

Meafure is the £11, whereof a hundred fixty fix and a half make a 
hundred Yards Englfpi, ^' - • • ' v - 

Of Roan. 

THE Kintal At Roan in Normandy is 104/. Engltfh 119/. The 
Aulne is 46 Inches £ff^///^ ; but for Linnen isaflowed 24 Aukes, 
for 20. 

Two Deniers make i'Doohk, 12 Deniers make a ^om, 20 50»i make 
a LfxTtf, which is js,6d. Englijh, and is called a Fr^»/& ; 60 Sols, or 
3 Livres is a Fr«»cj& Crown, or Lew^, which weighs 21 Deniers 
12 Grains, and is 4 a 6d, Englifh, 

Of Rome. 

THeir Coins are Ducats or Croji'wj of Gold, which is worth eleven 
Julio's or Paulo's; the Crown of Silver is worth ten Julio's, the 
Julio is worth ten Bajoches, or forty Quatrins, the Bajoche is worth one 
Sold£ouT Dfwcrj fmall Money of Rome, 

lll^heir Weight is the ^in;^ of a hundred ppund, which makes in 
Ltndon eighty ppund. 

Their Meafures are two, the one for Woollen, the other for Lin- 
nen; the o^e is the Cane, and eight Palms make a Cane, aqd thirty 
Canes is fifty five Ells and a half Engltjh. 

The other is the Brace, whiclii is three Paln^ an^ a h^fof th^faid 


Of Quidi WiightV mH mfurhi 


niy and 

ce Stev 

] twen- 
make a 

/. The 
4 Aukes, 

ms make 

Sols, or 

I Deniers 

'th eleven 
olio's, the 

makes in 

r for Lin- 
ipd thirty 



' Of sm Mild Ctdiz. 

Slvil is the faireft Gty of all Spain, and of the great<5ft Trade. ; 
Its Commodities are Wool, Silk and Oranges, Gold, Silver, 
Tobacco, Ginger, Cottons, Sugar, C^-f. being the produd of the We- 
ftern InMes, 

The Merchants keep their Accompts as in other places ofSfain, in 
Mervedes and Rials ; and the Exchanges are made upon the imagina> 
ry Ducat oi ^j^ Mervedes, which is fomething above $ s, SJ.Sterhn^, 
But the Rial inSivUis worth but 34 Mervedes, and fo fome keep their 
Accompts in Rials of 34 Mervedes to the Rial, which is about 6 pence 
ETiglifljy and foit is generally efteemed throughout all Spain, 

The DoblcnoiCafiilc is worth 37 > Mtrytdes, but the Dohlon currant 
oiCarline Money is |j Mervedes. ■" ■>' 

. ;4 Merves is a Rm/, 8 JRw/; is a piece of Eight, and ji Rials is 
a Single Piftol, 64 7?wA is a Double Piltol. 

Note, that there is an Advance of 6 per Cent, on Pieces of i above 
8 Rials. And 2 R/Wj BeiUon b one RW of Plate, 

Their Weight is the Ktntal of 100 /.Subtle, at 4 Roves to the Kir. 
tal, each Rox/e being z$l. which Kintal is faid to make about 108 /. 
in Enilifli. , ' •,•■ ) ^.^•r^', >:..Jrj/ f", -. ._. ,'V,;|; \ 

The Common Meafure is the F'are, a hundred whereof makes' in 
London 74 Ells. 

Liquid Meafure is the Rove, which is about 4 Gallor^s Englifi, Fpjir 

Qttarteels is a Somar.. 8 5(J»»<»w is a JRow for Oyl anfl Wine. ^ ^^'^ 

naga of Corn is a Bufhel an^ half Englijh,^ _ . , , ' 1 ' ; 

■.'•>!.';.. :!-'' I>rw. r-- ^):!f .'• "-:•":<••■;' Jii^.iiv iLiJw .\nj; .1 "V: 

... ^ 0/" Stockholm. 1,:-. i.<i 

S7<?fi6W«»isfeatedinwa(tFy Marflies, upoti tlieLakeAieilbr, fecured 
by the two Forts, tVaxhtlm and Digne, beddes fortiHed with a 
Itrong Cattle, wherein are faid to be 400 Brafs Guns. 

Her Commodities are Iron , Steel, Copper and Lead, and other 
Minerals ; alfo Honey, Wax, Tallow, Hides, from Mojcow. 

Coins are the fame generally currant in all Sweeden, mz. D6^i:r:, 
which are divided into Marks, 8 whereof makes 3^ Dollar, by which 
they Exchange in other Countries. 

Their Weight and Meafure is the fame, as far as I can find, with 

'.•'■■ ^ T c 2 Of 


OfColns^ JViightSi skd Mesfii^iit 


0/ Venice. 

" .r .0/ Vienna. ,^ 

THeir Weight is the pound, which in fome Commodities is divi- 
ded into 32 Coots, and in fome into 28 Pints ; the loo/. doth 
make at London 12J /. in Circa, 

Their Meafuresare two, the one for Linnen, the other forWooI- 
len; the hundred yards at London makes here a hundred and three 
Ells in Linnen, and a hundred and thirteen Ells in Woollen.. • , 

Their Exchange is by Riz,dollars of eight Shillings Flemijh, and by 
Dww^i of Gold at twelve Shillings F/fw/j^.. 

Ttleir Commodities are Wines, Oyl, Rice, Paper, Quick-filver, 
Looking-glafs, Annifceds, Venice-Treacle, Aloes, Silk; the 
Commodities of Turkie, and the produft of India, Perfta, Arabia, and 
Egift, ■ . 

Accompts are kept here by fome in Livres, Soh and Grofz,es, reckon- 
ing 12 D«»/fn Grolz to the Sol, and 20 Soh to the Lix&ei s; Sol and 
z Deniers is a Crofz, and 24 Grojz, makes a currant Ducat, which is fix 
Livrei 4 Soh. 

By others in Ducats and Grojz^s, at 6 L/wj-j and 4 Soh fer Ducat j 
reckoning 24 Grofz, to a Ducat. ^ . . 

Others by Livref., Soh and Deniers of P/Vctf/i, which is th^ currant 
Coin of the City- ■;'^ i- '.^sK.fc ^5,.^:....^ ^^v^r..-.. ^,r.i.w!,.i*>Jv oiwjx 

' The^Dftcrf/ of Gdldis worth 24 Deniirs; tner Livre of Grofzes are of 
two forts, one </e JS<?»co, ufually valued*at4/. /^d. Sterling, rfieotlier 
At 3 /. 4 J. which varieth according to the rife and fall of Money in 
Exchange. ' ^ 

By the Monthly account of 1687, 'tis faid that the Ducats which 
were worth 7 Livers, will go henceforward for no more than 6. The 
Pifloh which were valued at 11, are fet at 9 Livrej 12 Soh, and the 
reft proportionable. 

Their Weights are of 4 forts, the 100 /. Grofz.\si^%l. Subtle, and 
ie6 Englifl}. 

Thb 100/. Subtle for fine Goods, is 83/. and a half Grofz, , and 
makes at London 6j^I. fome fay 66, And ioo £»^///^ is i5'i f^enice 
' The ICO /. of Silver or Gold Thread is 116/. 8 Ounces Subtle, 

The other is for Silver, Gold, and Gemms. 



IS divi- 
|o /. doth . 

I r Wool- 
id three 

I, and by 

. " *■,'■■ 
Silk ; the 
rahiay and 

r, reckon- 

5 Sol and 

fhkh is fix 

per Ducat, 

he .currant 

^ 'HUii.. 

>fzet'ZYQ of 
, theotlier 
Money in 

\cats which 
an 6. The 
Is, and the 

S«^//tf, and 

hofz, , and 
1 5" I Venice 

1 Subtle. 



0/ Cc#«/, Weights^ and Mesfttres. ^x% 

Their Meafures are two, called the Braces, the one for Silks, Da> 
mask, ^c. of which j 5m«/ make 3 Yards EngUfh, pr one 5r4ctf is 
22 Inches g £:»g///Z?. 

The other for StufFa, Linnen, &e. whereof ^ makes 2 £lls and a 
half Engltjh, or the ^rut* is 2 y Ewg/^/fc Inches. 

Wine is fold by a Meafure called the Amphora which is 4 Bigorz,a*s\ 
the Bigorza is 4 Quarts, the Quart ^Sachies, ihcSacbie 4 LfraV. 

Oyl is fold as well by weight as meafure, the meafure is called the 
Miro, which makes by mealure 2y /. and by weight 30 /. 3 Ounces. 

Of the Coins y Weights and Meafures of the 
i. . Chief Cities in A^u, ^ , , . 


1 Of Arabia. 

i f . . ■' 

^ H ^H E Money of j4rabia*h called Larlm, and are in value as 
I one of the Fretich Crowns, only they want in weight 8 Sous 
I of the Frwc/6 Crown, or Rial of Spain, which is about 14 

JAi. ;)frC««f. lofs. Tliefe £rfr/»j are the Ancient Coins of ^7?*7, 
,but only currant in Arabia, and at Balfera, and along the PerfianGulf, 
where they take 80 Larins for one Toman, which is yo Abajfls. Ano- 
ther Author I find, that faith, that all the Coins throughout all Ara- 
bia, efpecially Arabia Falix, are the fame, or at lead dp correfpond 
with thofe under the Grand Signio/s Dominions. In other places, viz,. 
the A/per, 60 whereof (or rather 80 ) makes a Rial of 8 Spanijh, or a 
Dollar I alfo 100 Afpers are reckoned for a Sultanie, Cbe>^uin, Zecbin, 
or Sheriff, which are the common Gold Coins, and held to be ^bout 
8 J. Ster. 

That their Weights are alfo much tne fame with thofe of Turkey, 
viz,, the Drachm, of which 10 makes an Ounce, and 14 Ounces a 
Rotello, 24 Rotello\ is a Fracello, which is 25/. 1 z Ounces Englifh, 1 f 
Fracello'sls ACantar^ or as 'tis called at AJea^ a Babar, making about 
^86 1. Englijh. 

Their Meafure is alfo Turkijh, viz.. the ^ico, efteemed to be 26 In- 
ches and a half Englijh, 

■ ■■! -■ . •■ ■■"■■ \ V 



•"V— ff ^'V'^T'- 


<■ "-flfft- 

^U^ OfCoiMi, Weights f hhA Meifa^ei. 

Of the Cbkf Cms in Turkey, &*c. 

fl.r ?>--» 

/ 0/ Aleppo. 

ALepfoh the moft Famous City of all the Grand Sijrnms Domini- 
ons, and is felted about loo Englijh miles from JlexanJretta 
or Scamlaroon, which is the Sea-port and Road for all Ships to lade 
or unlade their Goods, which sxt tranlported by GameU to Alefpo. 

Commodities are Silks^ Chamlets, Galnuts, Vfilaneed, which is a 
fort of Acorn-fliell ( which the, Curriers ufe to drefs their Leather ) 
Gotten. Yarn, Mohairs, Soap, Drugs of all forts. Galls, &c. 

Coins of the Country are Shehees, of which 16 make a Piece of 
Eight, and 14 of them a Lyon Dolbr. The Sultanie, which is two 
Dolhrsor Pieces of Eight, which is 80 Afpers, the Lyon Dollar is 
70 Afpers. 

Thevenot fays. That aC Aleffo the Piaiter of Rials is u'orth 80 Af- 
pers. The Boguelle 70. The Schaied y Afpers, and 16 Schaieds for 
a Plainer, and 14 for a Boguelle. 

The Weights are the Drachm, artd the Rottulo, which differs in 
Drachms according to the Commodities. 

The Rottulo is 4/. 1; Ounces, that is 720 Drachms. 

The Rottulo for the Verjian or Ledg-filkis 680 Drachms, 72^^ Ounces. 

The Balladine Rottulo is 720 Drachms, 745 Ounces. 1 he Alepfo 
Rortle7«ef. ' 

The tripo;; Silk Rottulo is the fame. 

The Caftravan Silk Rottulo is 6co Drachms, 4 /. Enghfhy and y /. 

The Alefpo Wells is 120 Dnchms, i; Ounces Ettgltflj. - 

The Cyprus Gotten Kintal of 100 Rottulo's 5-06/. Englifh. 

The Kintal of 100 Rottulo's is 62 j/. Levorm, 

The Oque contains 4.00 Drachms. 

Others tell us, a Kintal of ico Rottulo's is 450 /. EvgUpi, called a 
Can tar. 

A Wefro of Silver is 100 Drachms, and there is a Wefno of 3600 
Drachms, 60 Drachms to one Ounce, a.'d 10 Ounces to the Rottclio, 
which is about 4 /. 14 Ounces AvrirJupoije ; fo that 1 12 /. Avcrdufoije 
is 22 Rottello's 8 Ounces ; and 100 Rotcello's is a Cantar, which is 
48 1 /. Avoirdupo'tie. 


Gold, Silver, PreciousStones, c^r. arefoldby theMittagal, which 
is one Drachm and a half: a Drachm is fixty Carrats, and a Carrat 
is four Grains, 

The Meafufc is the Pico, which is 27 Inches, or threequartes bfa 
Yard Erglijh, 

The meaiiirc Pikeisfofa Yard£»f/</fc. . . '■ 

» * 

Of Alexandria. 

A Kintal is 10; /. EngUlh, A 100 Rottulo's is lor per MerfeiUes, 
530 Rottulo's is a Sctba, which is 120/. Livome. 

0/Bagdat. - 

THevenot tells us, that the Patman makes three Rottuloesof Aleppo, 
or 6 Oques and 3 Ounces. That the Abaffi is worth there two 
Chau and 5. The Piafter Rial is worth 8 Cbaitj ^and each Cbait y Pa- 
fas, and the Vara is 4 Afpers. The Boquelle is worth 7 Cbau» The 
7«r/^i/fcC%«/» is worth 18, th& Venetiani<) Chaii, 

Of Smyrna. 

C^/1^r»^ Weight, 180 Drachms is a Rottello. 

\^ 100 Rottelio's is a Kintal of 45* Oaks, and is 119/. Englift, 

44 Oaks i? a Kintal. 

2400 Drachms, or 6 Oaks is a Battman. 

40 D Drachms is an Oak, which is 2/, 11 Ounces, Avoir, Englijh, 

800 Drachms is a Chigue. 

25*0 Drachms is an Oak Opium. ' { \ 

120 Drachms is an Oak of Saffron. v r ., » 

146 Drachms is a Pound £»f///fe. . '' 

To reduce Rottulo's into Oaks, multiply by 9, and take the half 
theieof cubing off the Laft t igure, and multiply that by 20. To bring 
Oaks into Rottello's;>erCf»/. that is, multiply by 20, and divide by 9. 

To bring Rottello's into Battmans, multiply by 3, ..n off the laft 
figure, and divi'^e by 4, adding the remainder to t' 3 figure cut off, 
•vhich mult, by 60. 

To bring Battman's into Rot. mult, by 40, and divide by 3. 

To reduce Battmans into Kintals, mulr. by 2, and divide by r f . 

To bring Kintals into Batt mans, multiply by if, then take the half ; 
for 75 Battmans is a Kintal. By 





Qf Coinsi 0^(igkl^ 4nd ^sfkre/v 

By the Kimal of 4 f Oaks are fold Gotten*yarn in forts, Galls, 
AUoai, Lead, Brazeel-wood, Bees-wax, Valonea, Logwood, Steel, 
Sugar, Gums, Almonds. By the Kintal of 44 Oaks is fold Cocten- 
wool, and Sheepswool in forts, Tin, Annifeeds and Boxwood. 

By the Buttman is fold fcveral forts of Silks. By the Oak- is fold 
Pepper, Cloves, Mace, Benjamin, Galbanum, Sea-horfe-Teeth,Gum- 
Arrabeck, Indigo, Wormfeeds , Caffia of C^iro^ Senna , Rhubarb, 
Scamony, Agarick, Cochineal, white Cordivants; and by the 
Cheque is fold Goats Hair beaten or unbeaten. 

Commodities are Raw Silk, which the Armenians bring out of P/r- 
fia, Chamlet-yarn, and Chamlet or Goats-hair, which come from y^»- 
gourif Gotten twifted, Skins and Cordovants of feveral colours, Cali- 
cuts white and blew. Wool forMatriflcs, Tapeftries, quilted Cover- 
lets, Soap, Rhubarb, Galls, Valleneed, Scammony,^ and Opium. 

The Cuftom paid by the En^lt(hh 3 per Cent, as generrally through- 
out all Turkey. 

The Coins currant of Smyrna arc the fame with Confiantimfky and 
they keep their Accompts in the fame nature, and therefore I fhall 
refer you thither. 

The Weights of5w;rw;» and 5fw are the fame, i/i?.. the Drachm, of 
which 1 80 makes a Rottello, 100 Rottcllo's makes a Quintal, which 
is 4^ Oaks, and is 119 /. Englijh; 400 Drachms alfo make an Oak, 
which is 2/. II Ouncgs and a ha\( Avoirdupoife Englifh. 

Their Meafure is the Pico, which is about ^ of a Yard Englifu 

Of Jerulalem, or of the Hebrew Cohs^ &c. 

ALihough in all the Land of Judaa^ Talefttne^ or the Holy Land, 
there is not now any City of Trade or Commerce ; yet 1 cannot 
omit what was once Remarkable, and may be of ufe to many to knovtr 
the Coins, Weights and Meafures of the Jews in the flouriihing days 
of their State and GrandetT, 

Cold. A Darken, or Dragmon, of which we read Es:,ra 8. 27. and 
Ezrjt 2. 6, 9. in Greek ^es^Xf^^y which the EKgliJh render a Px^chm, the 
value was about i<j; s. Eng^ifh-^ the Drachm of Silver i s. ^d. ■) 

Silver. AGorabj rendred Gerahand Megnahy the C(6<»///c Para phrafe, 
by the Greeks^ Obolos; by the En^lifh, a Piece of Silver, i Sam. 2. 56. 
Exod. 30. 3 1, accounted to be about 1 dl 

Stiver, Argenteus, Heb. Cefephy or Kejfph, a Pieceof Silver ; when it 
ftandeih for a Shekel of the Sanduary, it is in value is. 6d. when it 
fiandsfor a comnion Shekel, it is i s, id, 


Of Coi/fs, JVei^'^fSf dHd Mtdfurh, 







' Argent em i Qraeus the Attkh Drachm, AB 19. 19. valued at feven 
pence half-peny. 

hraff, A Janus or Afarium, by the Rabbins Ifir, by the Greeks Afio' 
rion ; a RtmanCom weighing four Grains, the 96 part of the Vigab, 

Shekel, Matth. 10. 29. is in value one Farthing and \. 


Silver » Denarius the Roman Peny, A/<iw. 18. 28* with the Image 6f 
C^e/i»r, Ai4»r. 22. 21. It was a fourth of the Stlgah of the Caldea,xs^ or 
Shekel of the Hebrews^ in value feven pence half-peny £ff^/^; and this 
was the common Peny. 

Silver, Drachma, one fourth of tke Shekel^ equal to the Roman De- 
narius or peny, Luke 1 y. 8, 9. 

Silver. Di(lrachmttmh.2Mz^\ifkt\, thepeny of the San^uary, Exod, 
30. i;. was IS, %d. 

Gerab, in the C/&ji/</irtf Paraphrafe Megna, thtMega of the Arabians ^ 
one fifth of a Drachm, ^part of a Shekel of the Sanduary, thr^ehalf- 
pcncQ Englifh. ?:-.. -i i .: - 

Kefepb, Gen. 20. 16. & 23. 16. & 43. 21. & 1 Sam. 18. li. the 
fame with Cefepb^ and Argenteus Hebraus, thQCbalJeanSilgabovJevfifii 
Shekel, 2 s. 6 a. 

Kejhitab Heb. a Lamb, Gen. ;;. 19. 3^0/]Er. 24. 24. Job 42. 11. the^ 
lame with OMus and Gercb, . •" .'.i' 

A A/4»«/& of Silver contams 5o Hebrew Shekels, Ezek. 4;. 12. is 1% 
Englijh 7 /. 10 /. 

A A/<i»fi& of Gold, it weigh'd 100 Hebrew Drachms, 200 GrecuA 
Drachms, or 100 Shekels , i Kings 10. 17. 2 Cbron, 9. 16. of our 
Money it made 75:/. '' 

ThQ Shekel {xomShakel, Tonderare & Lihrare, was twofold, th^She- 
kel of the Sand);uary, and the common Shekel, which was but half 
the other. The Shekel by fome was reckoned, a^ -as faid before, for 
zs.6d. Englijh; by Sir fValter Raleigh at 2 j. 4 by Mr. Greave^ 
and the Primate ol Ireland, at 2 s. fZ according to which one Manj^ 
of Silver will be 7 /. j d. of our Money. 

One Talent will make ^62/. 10 j. Gold is generally accounted ts 
be 12 times as much in vdue as the like quantity of Silver. The pro- 
portion in Egland being one to 14 and one third, that is one Ounce 
of Gold is worth of Silver } /. 14J. xd. and the Ounce of pure Silver 
is worth $ s.^d. half peny ; fo that a Drachm of Gold at 17/. ^ d, 
ob^l, the Shekel is 2 /. 9 s. The Talent will be 43 jo /. According to 
which Computation King David and his Princes gave towards the 
buildingof the Temple 838Millions477Thoufand 3 62 pounds 13/. 6-^. 






0/ Ctfiif/, Weights^ md Mtafuris, 

* ; T -f Q/* '^^ Hebrew ff^/^/&r/. ' 

The Common Weights were "*. f or Weights of the SanAuary. 
8 Drachms I | i6 Drachms 

V ^'^^ 4 Shekels ^: .- - , > ^ 8 Shekels 
^V 2 Staters .-'^-^'"^ ' ' I 1 a Staters 


.-<-■'-'' I 1 4 


■ ■ ■■^..■•^'> 

A Shekel Is about the weight of an EngUfh half Crown, or half an 

f3» Mr. Greaves and Rivet faith, that thediftiiKaionof adouble 
§hekel, the one Sacred, tqmXio tYi^Tetra-Drachme, theotiicrProphane 
weighing the Didrachme, is without any folid Foundation in Writ, and 
without any probabilty of Reafon in a Wife State. » :i ff :ia 

The H«^r£3/^ Cubit contained of our meafure according to Guildhall 
Standard,, 17 Inches ^ or | of an Inch, exaftly anfwermg to the Ro- 
man foot and a half. It was a meafure from the Elbpw to the Fingers 
end, vulgo Si foot and a half, Deut. 3 . 11. The holy Cubit contained 
two common Cubits, i King. 7. i y. i Chron. 3. i f. The King's Cubit 
was three fingerslonger than the common Cubit. v v ji ,^ , ^ > 

The Geometrical Cubit contained 6 common C^ubits, according 
to which was l>Joab's Ark built. 

The Barah, tranflated often MiUarium, lignifieth fo much ground 
as may be travelled in half a day between Meal and Meal. 

Kaneb, Arundo, the Reed, fix Cubits and a hand's breadth, Ez,tk, 
40., f. the ufe of it was to meafure Building, Rev. 2j. if. 
' * Stadium, a Furlong, containing iij paces. ^ 

Za^bady Zemed, and Berotb, Gen. ^f. 16. a little way or piece of 
grbund containing 1000 Cubits, an Hebrew mile, about 500 Englijh 
^ .Ztrtfkp Spitbama, and D^dransy a Span; Exod. 38. 16. lfa» ^0. ii. 

Dry Meafure, 

'' 1 find the Epbab is ftated at yi/. I which reduced into EngJtflj Mea- 
' fure makes (ix Gallons one Pottle and half a Pint, and i o Epbahi made 
one Omer; the Omer was 1 Pottle i Pint 3 Ounces, and 10 Omen 
,tiiade I Efbab, 






' I c '• '" 'I \^ ■* -'V 


Cf Com, Weights, Mfid Mesfins: 
^"- ' ■ Liquid Meafure, .V ' > -^ 

■J «-. '■■ ■ ......'. ,,^ .," ; ■ '-'5',:' i- 

■'■ Their Liquid Meafiires were the Log, Hitt, ahd Bath ; The 54/<&is 

ordinarily reckoned of like quantity with the Epbab, tnore exactly it 

is 51 Pints and a half, or by others 6 Gallons one Pottle and a half. 

The Hin is one Gallon and three quarters of a Pint, which is the 

6^/&. partof^B^;j&. 

The Lo^ is the one u of the Hin, that is | of a Pint, and ^ of an 
Ounce, that is 3 quarters of a Pint, wanting but the | part of an 
Ounce ; fo that the | part of a Hlxi isalmoft one quarter of a Pint. 

' 0/the Cotp^f kcofPevCiSL. -^ '/ ^ 

TH E Commodities of Perjia are Gold, Silver, Raw Silk in great 
abundance j fome Drugs and Spices, Wine-fruits, feveral Manu- 
factories, 'viz,. Carpets, Arra^-work, Hangings, Cloath of Gold and 
Silver, and fine CottenCloths. 

The Coins in Perfia are Real and Nominal; Real Coins are Bifii's 
Shaxet*j, Mamoudts and Ahaffis; ^Bifii is a tenth of an AbaJJi, a Sbaxet 
is a fourth of an Ahaffi, and the AhaJ[Ji is valued at 16 d. Sterling, or 
18 Sous 6 Denier s. The Nominal Coins are Larins, Ors, and Tornund: 
a Tarh is 2 Shaxes |, and 18 Larins to a Tomond in Commerce at Gam^ 
rm, but in no other place ; an Or is accounted for Ave Ahaps, 6 u 
lid* Englijb, and a Tomond for ten Oi or fifty Abajfis, which i$ in 
value 3 /. 9^. EKgli(h. Rix Dollars And Pieces of Eight paG for 14 
Shaxets, or 5 AbaJJi's I p^r Piece. 

Tbevenot tells us. That the Tiafiers are commonly worth 13 5^/&<9i/ if 
full weight ; i; I a B//?/. The Bifii confifts of 4 Casbegbis, of which 
10 makes a Schais, The moft currant Money are the Abaffi's, Matpcu- 
dtf, Scbau and Casbaghis ; the. AbaJJi is of the value of 4 Schftky wl^h 
is about 18 Sols French The Mamottdi contains two Scbflis, whioh is 
about 9 50/f, the iSrii/ about 450/^3, and ihQ Casbeghi ^ Denifrs\. The 
Jo«7o»</ is' worth if Ftajicrsy or ^oAbdjjTs^ the 5fl«»e/fo is worth three 
Abfljjis or 12 Scbats. 

•^H in Geometry, It' kwaof cells us, the Ffr/^j^j make ufe of a certain 
Meafure called a i-ayjangey which is 3 Miles. The Miles contain 
4000 Cubits, the Cubit 24 Fingers (^ which by an Experiment he 
made, he finds roi^c 18 Inches, or a common Foot and half, which is 
exadly theCubii-^f *fheFiriger is 6 Barly-corns laid fide-ways, fo that 

U u 2 the 



3J2 Of Coins^ Weight s^ and Mea/ures, 

the Mile will be 6000 common Feet. And a degree to to contain 22 
Farjangesj Of Parafivges, and | which is much about a French League. 

Their Weights are various, viz,, the MaurJJhaw, which is about 
13 pound Avoirdu^oif^ for Silk. 

Tlie MaundSurrat contains two and a halfof the other, and is ufed 
for grofs Goods, efpepially at Gombrou. 

The Load, or Cargo, which contains thirty fix Maundjhav^s, makes 
zbovLt ^S6 I. Avordupois. 

The Mittigal for Gold, &c. whereof fix and a half makes an Ounce 
Venice. / , . 

The Rattee for Diamonds, Pearls, &c, wherein are twenty Vah, 
and twenty three Vah makes an Englt^ Carrack. 

Their Meafuresare two, called Cavedoes, thegreateftisan Inch lon- 
ger than the Engli(h Yard, and the lefTer is three quarters of the other, 
agreeable to the Fieo of Turky, 

TavernierfMh, Their Wine, as all other things, are fold by weight, 
and not by meafure; and that in the Year 1666. the whole account of 
Wines made at Scirof amounted to 20002 y Mens, the only weight for 
Win^is, containing nine pound French at fixteen Ounces to the pound, 
or 412; Tuns at 300 Pints to the Tun. 

Of the CoinSf &c. under the Domimn of the Great Mogul. 

inpHE Commodities in Surrat, Cambaia, Amadabat, and generally 
I throughout the Mogul's Country, are Precious Stones, Agats, 
Jalper, fevcral Drugs, Civet, Sugar-Candy, Indico, Lacque, Salt- 
petre, Musk, Borags, Ogium, Myraboles, Ginger, SalArmoniac, 
Amber and Rice ; all forts of Cottens, Callicoes of all forts. Carpets 
and Coverlets of Leather, artificially wrought with Silk of all Co- 
lours, Sattins, Taffaties, Velvets, feveral ManuCiAoiies of Wood 
carved and imbelliihed, as Desks, Chefts, Boxes, Standiflies, &c. 

Coins. The Roupy of Gold weighs two Drachms and a half and 
eleven Grains, and is valued in the Country at fourteen Roupies of 
Silver, and the Roupy of Silver is reckoned at thirty Sous ; fo that a 
Rcupji of Gold comes to twenty one Livres of France, the half Roup/ 
comes to ten Livres ten Sous, and the quarter Roupy to five Livres five 

As for their Copper-money, the biggeft fort is generally worth two 
Sous, the next one Sous, the next to that 6 Dcniers, or a Pecha. In 
Surrat, Cambaga, Barach, Boudra and Amadabatg five Mamtudies goes 
• . / for 

. ■ ■ i 






Of CohSf Weight s, nffd Meafures,. " ' jj) 

for a Crown or Real ; and for fmall iMoney they ufe AlmontJif whereof 
forty, fometimes forty four, goes for a Vecha, which is 6 DenUn in 
value ; there are alfo little pieces of Copper, whith are called Pechas, 
whereof twenty they give for a Mamaui^ ; there is alfo in fome parts 
Shell-money , fifty or fixty of which makes a ?echa j as for the Ma- 
mauJy, it is always valued at forty i*eeha. 

Their Weights are various. As for Gold, Silver, Civet, Musks, 
Bezarftones. &€. they have the Weight called the Toll, which is 12 
idajjesj and is feven penny fixteen grains Troy weight Enghfl) ; nine 
Demers eight grains French. 

Thtvenot tells us, That at Surrat there are divers Heads of Weights 
and Meafures, but the moft common Weight ufed in Trade is the 
Man, which contains 40 Serres or Pounds, and the Pound of Snrrat 
contains fourteen Ounces, or thirty five Tales. That all Gold and 
Silver is weighed by the Tok, which contains forty Mangelis, which 
makes fifty fix of our Carats, or thirty two Fales. A yale is 3 Gongys. 
That two Tolets 55 makes one Ounce of Paris weight. 

The A/dw makes 40 pound weight all the InMes over 5 but the Pounds 
or Serrti vary. The Pounds of Surrat are greater than thofe of Qal- 
conda ; and the Pound at Agra is double to that at Surrat , viz,. 28 
Ounces or Serres, 

The Silver Roupe is as big as an AbaJJiol Terfia, it weighs a Tole, 
and commonly paifes for thirty French Sols, but is not worth above 
29 or 31 Pechasj, fometimes 325. The Pecha is worth fomething 
more than 10 French Denhrs^ and 68 BaJan or bitter Almonds for a 

For Silk there is the Pice, whicli is five Mittigals and a half, or two 
Toles, * 

The common Weight for other Cotnraodities is the Sear, which is 
various in feveral parts ; tho^ear at Agra is twofold, the one is twen- 
ty fix Pices, which is 26 1 Ounces^ the other is thirty Pices^ which is 
22 Ounces Avokdupoife. 

The Sear oi Surrat is eighteen Pices^ which is i ;i Ounces ^w/W«- 
j>oife : Tavernier Mthy *tis | of a Pound, and the Pound is of fixteen 

There is alfo the hundred Weights called MaumU; forty Sears make 
a Maund of thirty three pound Engujl), and forty Sear makes a fmall 
Maund oifiky four Pound § 0' Englifh. Tavemier faith. The Man is 
69 Pound at 1 6 Ounces to the •'ou'nd ; but the Af<i» which they weigh 
their indico withal, is but ^; iaund. 



5H Of Cows, Weights, gnd Mesfures^' 

Their Meafurcs are aWcd the Ceva Jo otCohit, thefhorter is ufcd for 
Silk and Linnen, and is 27 Inches EngUflj ; the other CovaJo is diffe- 
rent in feveral places, viz,, ac Sunaty Camkoja, &c. it is thirty five 
Inches, but in Jgra, DeUi, &c. it is thirty two Inches. 

All Grains and Liquid Commodities are fold by weight, there be- 
ing no Concave Meafure in any of the Mogul*s Territories. .. > • 

' Ti. .. t 

■.'; \-r cy Pegu WArackan;-'-' ' '■ .; ^^^:f 

TH E King of Pegus Silver Coin weighs two DracRms and a half 
and twelve Grains, and makes about twenty Sous Hx Deniers. 
And his Fano's or little pieces of Gold weigh feven Giains> fifteen of 
which palTes in value for a Real or French Crown. ,",".', 

The King of Arackans Money weighs two Draehms and a half 
and fifteen Grains, and makes twenty one Som : He Coins no Gold, 
but Trafficks in Gold uncoined ; the Metal is not worth above four*- 
teen Carats, one Carat being the third part of an Ounce. 

Of the Money which the Englifh Coin in the Indies. 

TH E Money which the Englifh Coin at the Fort of St. George upon 
the Coaft oiCormandeli they call Fagods (as thofc of the Kings 
and Rajas of the Country are called ) are of the fame weight for good- 
nefs, and pafs at the fame value, which is about the weight of the 
French half Piftol ; but the Gold is of bafer Metal, fo that an Ounce 
is not worth above forty two gr forty three Livres, and not going for 
more than 4 Roupies. And ac the famous Port of Bombay, the Englifh 
have built a ftrong Fort, and Coin both Silver, Copper, and Tin, 
but that Money only pafToth among the EngUfh, and the Villages along 
the Coalt for two or three teagues about, as 'tis reported. 

•V^ i 

Of the Money which the Dutch Coin in the Indies. 

•; A T Valicate t\-\Q Dutch Com VagodsoiGoM, and 7? <?»/'it7 of Silver, 
jr\ being of the fame weight of thofe of the Great Mogul, or the 

' King of Golconda and Vtfapor ; they have alfo fmall Copper Money. 
Four Roupies to a Vagod, which i abcut fix French Livres. There is 
alio Fanons half Gold, and halt Silver, fix and a half with half a 



Of Cififffy Weights^ 4f$d MedfureSf 


quarter-piece, makes a Roupie, and 26 i a Pagod, Gaz,ers arefmall Cop- 
per-pieces, 40 of which go to a Fanon, ^ 

0/ the Money in Sumatra. ' 

THE Money of Gold coined hy'the King of Men/is better than 
the French Louis in goodncfs , an Ounce being well worth 
yo Franks ; it weigheih ten Grains , and is worth 16 Sous and 8 De- 
niers of Fnneb Money ; Another Author faith, that the Coins here 
are the Catte, which is 8 Tayk, or 6 pound 8 Shillings Sterling, A Tayle 
is 16 Maffes, or 16 Shillings Sterlk^ ; and a Mafsis 4 Cupany, which 
is twelve pence Sterling. 

Their Weight is the Bahar, wliich is 200 Cattes, a Catte is 29 Oun- 
ces Avoirdufoife Englifli. 

^v- .., 

TH E Commodities natural of Goa are inconfiderable, but in Trade 
thereis the Commodities of the JW/^/, oi Perfia, Arabia, Chim, 
&c. viz.. Precious Stones, Gold, Silver, Pearls, Silk, Cotten, Spice?, 
Drugs, Fruits, Corn, Iron, Steel, &c. 

The Coins there, are the Pardaus Sberapbin, worth ^00 Rees of Pc:3 
tugaly or 4 Shillings 6 pence Englifh. 

The Pagod of Gold is worth 10 Tango's, and 4 Tanga*s in good Mo- 
ney is one Pardau, and one Tanga is worth 4^good Ventins^ a Ventin is 
worth I J Bafaracos, and the Bafaracos is about 2 Rees of Portugal 

The St. Thomas of Gold is worth 8 Tanga's, and the Pardaus de 
Reales, is about ^^o Res of Portugal, 

Their Weight for Spice is the Bahar, which is three Quintals and a 
half of Portugal Weight , and another for Sugar, Honey, &c, which 
is called the Maund, which is 12 pound of the aforefaid Weight. 

Their Meafures for Length are the fame with thofe of Usbgn, 

Their Meafures for Gi^ins, Rice, &c, is the Medida, 24 whereof 
is a Maundy and twenty ^Aaunds is a Candel, which is about fourteen 
Bulhels EngLfh. 


■ all 





Of Coins, Wt'iiks, Mi Mufnrtu 
Of the Coaft of Cormandel. 

V «>»■.-''. .•'.'• ^-->*^. '^ "" 


THeir Commodities are Sugars, Pintedoes^ Grains, FruicSj Drugs, 
Precious Stones, Criftal, &c. 
Their Coins are the Vagoi of Gold, which is 36 Fanans^ a Fanan 
is about I d, value, and fo the Psg^i is 9/. but the crue value is 8/. 
6d. or thereabouts. s ./. .' 

Their Weight is the CanJet, which is 20 Mamnts, a Maimd^o Sesri, 
or 22. Majfes, which is 26 Pound 14 Ounces E^r^//^. ^ 


0/ Bantham. 

TH E Commodities are Pepper, Sugar, Pre(erved Ginger, Rice, 
Honey, &c. as alfo the produft of other places. 

The Money coined here are only pieces of Copper minted, in the 
midft whereof is a hole to haug them on a firing, which they call 
Petties, 1000 whereof are in value about f Shillings Sterling. But 
the Merchants keep their Accompts by Spanijb Reals of 8, which are 
currant for all forts of Commodities. 

Their Weights are the Babar, which is ; Picals, or 569 Pound 
Er/glijh, the Pical is 100 Catteesj or 132 Pound Englijh ; and a Cattee 
is 200 5 Ounces EtigLjh. 

Their Meafure of length is the Covet, that is, one fifth of an Engliflt 
Yard. . - 

Their Dry Meafure is a Gantang, which is 21 pound Er/glijh. 

0/Siam. - / 

T HE Commoditiesof5ww are Gotten, Linnen, Wine of Co^/xr, 
or Indian Nuts, Benjamin, Lac, Calamba, Camphora, Bezar, 
and Gold. 

The Coins there are a piece of Gold Coin, which weighs 18 Grains 
more than the Frer^ch half Piftol, and is worth 10 s. yd. Sterling. 

The Silver Coin is about the bignefs of a large Hazel-Nut, weighs 
; Drachms and a half and 25 Grains , and is worth about 2 Shillings 
y psncc Stcrlwg. ■ X. 




Of Cohs, fVeigXitSf Mffd MisfiiMs. jj; 

Their Weights are the Bahar, which is of two forts, their great Ba- 
bar is loo Cat tees, a Cattee is 26 TaiUf a 7«i/f is one Ounce and a half 
of Lisbon. 

The fmall Babar is alfo zooCattetf a C\;rff i§ 22 r^/Zw, a r<»i/« is an 
Ounce I of Lisbon Weight. . ''' " •• '• ''• ' 



0/ China. 

THE Commodities are Rice, Wheat, Wool, Cotten, Flax, 
Silk fAW and wrought into feveral forts of Stuffs, Fruits^ Ho- 
ney, Wax, Rubarb, China-Roots, Wines, Sugar, Camphire, Musk, 
Civet, Salt, Gold, Iron, Tin, Seel, Quickfilvcr, Saltpetre, Porcc- 
laine Difhes, Precious Stones, Rubies, Saphires, Agats, Pearls, &c. 

They pay their .V)oney by weight, which is denominated by Ta- 
lents and Meafures. 

In all the Kingdom of China there is no Money coined eitherOold 
or Silver; that which they make ufe of in payments is only in Lumps, 
or pieces of Gold or Silver of divers forms and weights. - * ^ • 

The pieces of Gold, hyiht Hollanders C2^\Q^iG4ftfcbt^tf is worth 1200 
Gilders of Holland J or loi/. ^ s. 5r«r//w/r j the other pieces which v<^cighs 
but half as much, is in value according to its proportion ; an Ounce 
of this Gold is worth ; /. 3 Jt. Englijh. 

In Trade every man carrieth about him a pair of Sheers to cut and 
divide their Money ; as alfo Scales and Weights to weigh it, and to 
proportion his Money according to the value of the Commodity he 

Their Weights are the Babar, which is faid to differ in feveral 
places ; but the common Babar of China is 300 Cattees^ a Cattte is 
i6Tailes, which is about 20 Ounces and ; quartQTS yivoirdupoife ; fo 
that the Babar is about 190 / Engltjh. 

There is alfo the Bahar for fmall weight of 200 Cattees, 22 Taile to 
a Cattee, and SiTaile is one Ounce and a half ^'z;o;r</»/'0//e; fo that the 
Babar is 412 /. Engltpj. 

Of Japan. 

THE Commodities of Japan are Wheat, Millet, Rice, and ex- 
cellent Barley, divers Metals, as Gold, Silver, Copper, Tin, 
Lead, Iron ; their Pearls are great, but Red. 

The Gold of Japan is in value vTorth ; /. if ^. the Ounce; there is 
one Coin or Piece of Gold which weighs one Ounce fuL Drachms^ 

Xx which 


Of Cmm^ Wtlghu^ Md Mufms. 

which comes to about 6 Pound 1 1 Shillings ; Pence; there is alfo 
another that weighs the third part of the great one, vix,. half an 
Ounce 48 Grains, and comes to 2 /. ; t,^d. Sterling, 
, There are alfo fcveral pieces of Silver called hj^otSi feme weighing 
7 Ounces, at five Shillings the Ounce, comes to thirty five Shillings; 
others of 2 Ounces 3 Drachms and a half, which comes to 12 Shil- 
lings 10 Pence i Sterling ; and fo proportionable in value according to 
their weight, are the reft. 

, There is alfo Copper Money, which they thread to the number of 
^00, which is the value of a Tell or Tatle in Silver, which the Dutch 
reckon to be worth % GelJers and a half, which is 6 Shillings 4 Pence I 

Their Weights are the Fiakiny which is 12 y Dutch Pounds, one Fia- 
kintnsikcs 100 Cat tees, one Cattee 16 Taile, ont taik 10 Maet, and a 
Cattee is by fome accounted 21 Ounces Avoirdupife. 

Their Meafure for length is the Tattany or Ichiny which is about 
2 Yards « Englijh, or 6 Rhynland feet ; 60 Ickitns or Icbim is ;o Rhyn' 
land Rods, and 180 Rods is a Jafan Mile. 

Their Dry M[eafures are th^Ganty which is 3 Cocas , which is three 
Pints Englijh, 






of CotMt, iVei/'hn, sni Mafuns, ' 

? ) 9 

\ \ 

t'erfian Money. 

A BaHi, or z Mamoudi s 

I Mamoudi's, or 

I Chey ets 


A Casbeke fimple — — 

A double Casbeke 

One Or ^^ 

One Toman — • 




1 1 



.1 DenJers 

.. i.) ri 

Chalets — ~— 

Double Ca^bekcs 

double as* ekes 

Denier;* i iialf penny 

Dcnieri-— — — •- 

Abafli's — - 

Uvres I Denier \ Piafler 

Indian Money. 

ALarinof Arabia, &c,', 
A Mamcudi's— - — 
A Roupy of Gold-— 
A Roupy of Silver — 

A Pecha r — ^ 

Arakan-Money— — - 

A half Roupy 

Tipoura Silver 


Fano ' — — -— 

Agen Gold 

MacaffarGold — 
Camboya Silver-' 

Siam Gold 

Siam Silver '•- 

Afem Fanos '^ 

Afem Silver 



















Ecu, or French Crown- 

Livres — 

"SOUS — 

Sous — 
APiftol: APiftolin 
Gold is 1 1 Livres 
Ecu — 
Sous 8 Deniers • 
Sous 8 Deniers- 

Sous — 

Livres i Sous— 
Sous 4 Deniers • 


Sous — 










Livres ► — — 

Sous 8 Deniers- — — 
Real- ■ ■- .,, , — 
Sous 6 Deniers-*— — 
Livres 10 Sous - — 

/ ' < i^ 




China Goltfcuc- 

Chinl Silver Pieces— 

Pegu Gold Fanos 

Pegu Silver '— 

Japan Gold » ■ ^, , 

Japan Silver Pieces 1 50 |Sous- 

Thefe Computations are made, fupportng a French Crown to be in 
value y4^/. or j^s, 6d. Sterling, the reputed Par, fo that a Sous is in 
value 9</. and 10 Deniers 2. 

X X 2 A 

1 III ! I III I .1 ■ ' ' 






I o. 






































Of Corns f, WiightSi Mifd Medfmres.^ 



A Table containing the Proportion that the Englifh Foot bea etfitotHe 
Meafares of other Places, divided into 12 Inchesand Tenths. And 
the Proportion of il^ouna weight AvoirJupotle divided into 100 parts, 
beareth to the Foreign Pounds | carefully coHedcd from the Tables 

of Sne Hint, Dogetty Greaves, Ricmlus, ocC. ^' 

Amfi'dam j 










' ' Foot 

I Fool- 

; ■ 1 Foot 

I .: Ell 


Brace or £11 

Bdogne, or 
; Bomma 
\ Bremen 
I Cairo •■• '-j 
[China •] I 

Ctiogn ' 


Dantx,ig ?, 

Vort J| : 
Prancfoi't dntht Main 






Lisbon * 
Lovaint \ 
Lyons ^ -■■ 

s- foot 

, £11 


i'- Vare 

* Foot 


- Ell 

































I 2; 

I 42 


i- .V , 








D O 

^ Brace 
Parts Royal Foot 

Perfian Arach 

R/^<i Foot 

RomatjFoot on p 
the Munum. > 
of Cojjuuus, J 
Of Statilius 
Roman Palm 
^/><»». Palm, or 7 

5p<a». Vare, or 

Rod ^f. 4. Pal 

Toledo Foot 

. Vare 

Turin Foot 

r«r/l)i/fc Pike at 

Venice Foot 

Univerlal Foot , 
or a Pendulum, 
that will vibrate 
i;2 times in a 




















6|i 43 


I 23 



3 o 




1 2 




>o 8 

c 00 




4rf f«1 



■O O 

a <M 

A S 4 A. 






iiii^i.Mt ."i' j^/k'- 

ASIA is one of the Tripartite Divifions of our Continent;; 
if we confider the Advantages which the Author of Nature 
hath given it ; or the inemorable Adions which have pafTedl 
in it ; 1 hat the firit iVfonariiiies and Religions have here had theic 
rife : That the chief Myitcric:> both of the Old and New Law, werti 
here laid open: That from iience alt Nations of the World, and ail 

, Axtft 

1 / 


3:41 ?^ Of ASIA. 

Arts and Sciences^ had meir firft beginning : We may juftly prefer ic 
before the orlier parts of the World. 

It is (cait'd in the Oriental parts of our Continent, and moft part 
in the temperate Zone, what it hath under the Torru-i being either 
Veninuh 01 Ips, uhich the Waters and Sea do ffiuch refrefti. 

It extends from Smtma iq the Wtfty to the fartheft part of Tartaria 
near J^fjo in the Ea/f, four thoufand and eighr hundred Miles ; and 
f/om the lowermoft point of Malacca in the Soitth^ to the Streights of 
TVtt^aii in the Norths it rt»al<;es four thcufand and two hundred Miles 
of \fi^y to a degree. In this length And breadth we do not compre- 
hend the Iflands which beVong to /4fia\ which are as great^ as rich, 
and poffibly as numerous, as in other parts of the Univerfe. 

W hether it took its Name from ^Jia the Daughter of Oceanus and 
T/&er*f, Wifeof 7<»f'fr«f, and Mother x)f Prcwiffife^w ; or from ^/w the 
Son of Atti, a King of Ljdta ; or from jijius the Philolbpher, who 
gave the haltadtunj to the Trojans ; or from the Vbanecian word /ijja^ fig- 
' nifying Medium \ thtft Originations to me are uncertain ; moft cer- 
. tain it is, that this Name was hrft known to thQGreeks on that Coaft 
" oppofite to them, after it was given to that part of the Country ex- 
tending to the Eupbrarts, called ^fia minor, and at laft was communi- 
); > cated to all that Oriental Continent. 

Many are the Religions there followed ; but the Jewi, Mabumetam 

and Idolaters, fai;i^xceed the Chriftians in number. I dolatry began in 

I ' t^e time of the Jj/yriam; Judaifm among the Hebrews ; Chriftianifm 

i in the Holy Land^ butfirft fo caPsdat Antiocby and Mahumetanifiri in 

, Arabia. • ■ 

^''if f Mdbttmdamfm is receivea oy the four principal Nations of A/ia ; 
t ' thsTurkij /irabiansy Ferfans And Tartars. The Turks g\ve the moft 
' liberty, the Arabs are moft fuperftitious, the Terfians are moft rational , 
arid the Tartars are moft fimple. Some have made feventy and two 
Se<as among them, whieli may be reduced to two ; That which the 
Turks follow, according to the Dodrine of (^w^r ; and that which the 
^£r/'w7« follow, accordiiigto H^/y's Inftrudions : Thefe have their Pa- 
triarch at Ifpabafiy the Turks theirs at Bagdat. The Greeks have alfo 
their Patriarchs here, known under the titles of Antioch and JerujaUw, 
There are alfo other Chriftians, a% Jacobites, who have their Patriarch 
.-It Carawtty otherwife called Amtda ; the Ne/lortans, the Copbitei, the 
Gtorgiansj the Armenians, and the Maronttes, The Two latter ihave 
two Patriarchs, the one, at the Monaftery of the Three Churcbes near 
Erivan in Armenia, the other at Cmobm in Mount Ltbanw, 






'Afia towards the Weft is feparated from Africa by thtRedSca, And 
by the I^bwits of Sues. It is divided from Europe by feveral Seas and 
Straights already mention 'd in theDefcriptionof £«>opf. Toward the 
other Regions of the World, AJta is environed by the Tartarian, Chi- 
Indian, Verfan and Arabian Seas. 


The principal Seas within the Country, are the Crir/;5w», ihiEuxine, 
and the Perfian Sea. The Dead Sea is very fmall in refped of the reft, 
yec it is famous for being in the Holy Land, 

The principal Rivers of AJia^ are Euphrates, Tigris, hdw, Ganges, 
Croceui, Kiang, and Obi- 

Caucafas and Taurus, fo celebrated by the Ancients, are the higheft 
Mountains ; b^ut feveral Countries give tiitin feveral otherNames. 

We find that the Air of Afia is almoft every- where temperate. And 
if we confider her Gold, or Silver, her Precious Stones, her Drugs, 
her Spices, her Silks, we may aver it to be the richeft, as well as the 
moft noble part of the World. Among other of her Produds, we molt 
efteem the Diamonds ofNarfingue, the Pepper and Ginger of Malabar , 
thsSiilks of Bengale, the Rubies and Lack of PegUy the Porcelane of Chi- 
>»^,^the Cinamon of Ceylon ^ the Gold of Surat, the Camphire of Borneo, 
the" Cloves of the Molucca's, the Nutmegs of Bamla, and the Sandal of 

Of the Seven Wonders of the World, there were four in Afia. ; 
The Temple of Epbefus, the Maufokum in HultcamaJJus, the V.'alls of 
Babylon, and the Rbodian ColoJJ'us, The Statue of Olympian Jupiter in 
Europe, The Egyptian Labyrinth, and the Pyramids in Africa, 

The Afiaticks h«.ve been always a Sofc ind Effeminate People, ex*- 
cept the Mountainiers and the Tartars, who by their Incurfions perpe- 
tually vex'd their Neigqbours. Their ( >ats of Arms are nothing like 
thofe which the Families of Europe bear, being compos d only of the 
Letters of their Names, to which they add (bm»times the Names of 
their Predeceflbrs. Their Embaffies, confidering the Piefents they 
make one to another, are but a kind of Trade and Exchange of Mer- 
chants, wherein everyone looks after the true value, and foto make 
his advantage. 

Afia is in fubjedion to four Potent Monarchs, who a:eableto bring 
mighty Armies into the Field : The Grand Sigmor, wno refides in Eu- 
rope, the Sultan of Perfia, the Cham of Tartary, at this day King of Chi' 
na, and the great Mogul. Belldes thefe, there are feveral great Princes 
in Georgia, in Arabia, in Tartary, in hidta, and in molt part of. the 
Ifles. Several Nations alfo maintain their Liberty by living among 
the Mountains. 








As to the Divilion of this part of the World, Tome Authors divide 

it into Interior and Exterior, in reference to Mount Taurus: By 

means of which Mountain the Greeks m^kn two grand Parts, the fiift 

tothe N)fth, the Utter to the South. I fhall firft divide it into TaraFtrfva, 

and Iflands, The Counrties oi ^heTerra Ftrma toward the H'tft ^ are 

Ajiatick Turkj y Georgia and yimhia. Toward the middle, Perfiai 

toward the Norths Tartary; ro the Eafi, Cbim; an -J to the Sou-'>, In- 

dia ; divided Hkewife into Terra Ftrma, which is the En^pire of the 

Great Mogul] and into two Feninhlasy one on this fide^^ the other 

beyond Gtviges^ The Iflands in the Ea/lcrn, or Indiar. Sejs, ( which 

are the biggeft, the richeft, and more in number than in aiiy other 

part of the-Wwld ) are the Maldi^s, Ccylov, the Iflands ofScnJe, viz. 

Sumatra, Borneo^ y/tiuij &C. of J^f'^rf^ the I'hilfpinn^ and the Moluccas. 

There arefome Ifles appertaining to ^^/«/ in the Meuitaatje.m, as Cyprus 

and Rbodes'y and others in the Archipelago^ as MattUmo, Sao, Samos, &C. 

So that Afia now ftands divided in thefe Monarchies or 
Principal Parts, Viz.. 

Turhe in Ajpt 






The Empire of the Mogul 

India within Ganges 

India without Ganges 

Whofe chief 
Cities are 


Aleppo, Cairo, Smirna, 
Ttfflis, AkazJtke and Cori. 
Mecca, Medina^ Mocha, 
Htfpahan, Tauris, Scirof. 
Surmarcband, Batch, Camul, 

IPequin, Canton, Hanchew, 
Agra, Labor, Surrat, 
I Goa, Calicut, Golconda, 
i. ^^P*'» Siam, MaJlaca, 

.r, 1 

Oriental Ocean, Japan, Sumatra, Borneo. 
Iflands in the -^Mediterranean Sea, Cyprus, Rhodes. 

Archipelago, Meteliino, Scio, Samosy &c 





•i Ruti 

cJl. &/,. 


h LutllK 

P. PXa^/i 

1 ■ ■ 






. y 

r,:,' ;;. •■'M^Y."-«icill<l»^'-i'**''.. r: 


Of Tutky in Afia 



Siatiqui Turkty comprehends more than the 7!ow<i» Empire, in 
this part of the World; Thofe Dominions did not often ex- 
tend beyond the River Euphrates: This beyond the River 

Once the Temperature of the Air exceeding fo d and healthful^ 
now every five or fix Years the Peftilence deftroys , Uions. 

Yy ^^^ . The 



. %»'»?^ 


^ 'r- 

t ! 

j^4 Of Turky in JftA, ; - 

The Soil formerly exceeding plentiful of all Fruits, both for ufe- 

4ii:d pleafure ; now generally wafte and barren. ^' Tl ^'1 

Oncc very populous and full of Stately Cities j now lamenting the 
Ruine and Deftrudion of them 

The Mahometan Religion is chiefly profefs'd in moft places thereof, 
only there are iomt Jews SindiGreek Chriftians niix'd among them. As 
to their Manners, a Cadi or Turkijl) judge judicioufly obferv'd, that 
the Turks were to be blam'd for their Lechery, the Jews for their Su- 
perftition, and the Chriftians for their Litigioufnefs. 

Molt excellently Seated is this part of the World, fcr it lies in the 
midil of our Continent, in the temperate Zone, being water'd by the 
wlioleCourfe of Euphrates and ligns, with the convenience of Four 
Seas, the Me d it err am av, the Euxine, the Cafpiatj, and the PerfianSoLSj 
by which it Commerces with the principal Regions of the World, and 
chi^iiy with that of tlie Ea^-ImJies. 

Four great Provinces are in this Aftatick Turky. Anatoha, Turcomania, 
D'tar'ot^tk and Syrm. Anatolia, or Afia Mnwr, is almoft a Veninjula lying 
berween the Black Sea, the Archipelago, ihc Mediterranean, and theRi* 
ver Euphrates The Ancient Greeks were wont to ftore it with Colo- 
nies, and the Grand Cpus did not think his Emprie confiderable with- 
out ir. For the fame Reafon have fo many Battels been fought either 
to preferve or conquer it. The Ancients divided this Anatolta or AJia 
;l://^^/^:,intofeverallel^er Parrs orRegions,i;;2:,. Powrwiand Bithima, Papb' 
lapnta, Cappadocia, Armexia Minor, Ctlicia, Ijauria, Vampbilia, Lycta, 
Carta, jotiia, zy£olis, Lydia, orM^onia, Vifidia, Lycaonia, Galatia, Vhry- 
gia Major and Minor, Mijta and 7rcas, Here I had intended to have gi- 
ven a larger Defcription of all the ancient Names of places, &c.cQt\' 
taintdinthisy^ywr;^«ef Turky, 'viz>.\i\ Afia Minor, Mesopotamia, Armenia^ 
AjJyri.:,'Caldea, or Babylonia, Arabia, Terra SanHa, Syria, &c. But 
having lately defigned fix Plates, vulgarly called Scriptural Maps, 

Fir^; Of all the Earth, and how after the Flood it was divided a- 
niong the Sons of Noah. 

Sicond, Of Paradife, or the Garden of Eden, with the Countries 
circumjacent inhabited by the Patriarchs. 

Third, The 40 years Travel of the Children of IJrael through the 

' fourth, Canaan, or the Holy Land, as it was divided among the 
12 Tribes of i/^fJ, and travelled through by our Saviour. 

.Fi^'th, The TO^els of St. Paul, and other of the Apoltles, in the 
propagating oi^e Gofpel. 

^_ ,# Ir Sixth, 



Of Turky in J/ia. 



Sixth, yerufalem, as it flojriflied in our Saviour's time. , ;•"; 

Ifliall therefore here only give you the prefent Stat and View of 
thofe Coantries, and refer you to my Defer) ption of thofe Maps, 
which will be a moft compleat Epitomy of the whole Hiilory of thofe 
Eafiern Countries. It now contains four B(gl<rhcgs^ or principal Go- 
vernments, that of Natolia, AtCutaye, or Cute, Turch , ttjte Leuncl 
Cutaige, or Cbiutaietefte Baud, Kiot^i, P.Ricant.oi Cur/jwania at Co(rm or 
Gogn't, the Iconium of Cic.Zenoph, Piin. of Amafia at Tocar. or Siwns^ or 
Suvas the Sebafiiopolis of Vlirt. and Vtol. of AlacIuL at Marax^h , or Mu' 
rafch, by the Turks, ZulcaJie. The City of Barfa, the Frufa of Sink 
?Un. & P'o!. Vrufias Solinoy Bur/a Belon, Burufs Turcis, t(fit LeuncJ. built 
by King Vrufias who betrayed Hannihal, Ann. Aluvd. 3297. taken by 
the T«r?/, A. D. i;oo. It wasthe Refidenceof cheKingsof Bit by ma, 
and of fome of the Greek Emperors, and lafily of fome of the Turkfli 
Emperors, till they won Confiantinople, The firft of the Ottomav Race 
were buried there, except Solyman the firft, who would be buried at 
the Mouth of the DarJaneh near Gallipoli ; It yields to none ualefs Ccn- 
fiantmople, either for Wealth, or number of Inhabitants. Ntcomedia, 
Comedia, Nicor, Ifms;iMid & Ifmir Turds, lejie I.euncl. 'tis now a place 
of great Traffick for Silks Cottens, Wool, Linen, Fruits, Pots, Glaf- 
fes, and other Commodities. Nice, or Ifmchy Nuaa of Strab, Hin. & 
Ttol. prius Antigottia Strab, Olbia Plm. Ancore Steph. {nich d^ Nichcr, Le- 
uncl. Nichea Soph, is famous for the firft General Council of ; 18 Bi- 
fhops, Ann, 325". and for the Refidence of the Grecian Empero s after 
the Franks had taken Conflantimple, Anno 1201. Angoari & Ar.oara 
Leuncl. EnguniTurcisy Ancyra Strab, & Flin. Angyra exCodice Graco, fa- 
mous for Tamerlan sW^ovy o^Qi Bajaz^et, Emperor of the Turks \ and 
before that ior Pompefs Vidory over Mithridates, and now for gcod 
Chamlets. Troy, Vergamus, and S<,rdts, have been Royal Cities. Toy, 
renowned for the Ten Years dege of the Greeks, whofe Ruins alio 
are mix'd with the Remian^ of fome modern Strudures. Penramus. 
by the Turks Bers;anta, is about 60 or 64 miles N. N. IV. from Swrna, 
watered by the River G/<:«/, is fimousfor the Wealth of King Afalus, 
who overcame \\\QGalafaovG^illo'Grtcians'\n a Bloody Battel, was Con- 
federate withtheRow.?^. ag.|iafi Kirfg i'bih--fo\- the lnvent'u;n oi Parch- 
ment, for the Birth place oi Galen, for its T^pedry, and for its being 
one of the SevenChuichcs. T\\3ito^ Sard is, by Homir AL one, for the 
Refidence of Crxjus, and other the Kings of Lydia, S/n^'pr upon tie 
Bkck'Sea, for its Copper Mines, and for the Refidence of iW/f^r/J^ff/, 
the moft formidable Enemy of k\\q RomMis. Scutari, formerlyC*(?^/a- 
^ow, where the Fourth General Council was held, Vi8,iipw a T.iferp.b'.e 

Y y 2. ^ >^ Villa^o 



^48 Of Ti^rky m AfiA. ' ' "^ ' 

Village wiihheapsof ancient Ruines and M< -iiiments of Dcftruftion.' 
/iMo/,nowone of the Dtfri<»w/x, was famous for the Loves of Hero and 
Leandery and for the Paffage of Xerxw's prodigious Army over a Bridge 
of 674 Gallies. Foglia Vecchia, formerly Pbocaa, the Mother oi Mar- 
feilles ; the firft City which was taken by a formal Siege, by Harpagus 
Lieutenant to Grand Cyrus. Smirna, Ifmar Turcisylfor Trade by Sea and 
Land, is the moft celebrated City in the Levant ; hither the TVefiem 
Fleets are bound, and from hence the faireft Caravans fee out, feated 
at the Bottom of a Gulph, which is feven Leagues in length, defended 
with a Caftle or Fort in fuch a part of the Gul{)h, that no Ship can 
efcape its Command. 

One of the Seven Churches of^fia* at this day a great City, but 
not fo great and beautiful as formerly ; here are the Ruines , of the 
Amphitheatre, where it is faid St. Pol/carp was expofed to fight. with 
Lions. ^ 

This City is very populous, wherein is reckoned no lefs than Sixty 
thoufand Turks, Fifteen thoufand Greeks, Eight thoufand Armemans, 
Six or feven thoufand Jews, befides European Chrifiians. 

Smirna is a place of great plenty, the Soil abounding with Oil and 
Wine. The Sea affords good ftore of Fiih, and Fowl is very cheap. 
But the Heats are very exceffive in Summer, and would he infuppor- 
table, were it not for the Breezes that come off the Sea about 10 in 
the Morning, and continues till the Evening; but the Plague and ma- 
lignant Fevers that fucceed it, are more deftrucftive. Over the Gate 
01 the upper Caftle the Roman Eagles continue ftill Engraved, and a 
great Head of Stone, by the7«r^j called Coidafa^ which fome think it 
to be thfe great Amazon Smirna, which gave Name to this City. 

Ephefus , Efefi Soph. Figena or Fieha Ca(t. Ayafaluck Turcis Ricaut, 
During theTrojan War, /'//wy tells us it was called Jlopes, then Ortigia, 
by Lyfimachus Arjinoa; then Morgas, then Ephefus, ^^ Miles from 5mir. 
»^, and about f Miles from the Sea upon the River Cayfter, another of 
the 7 Churches of A{ja. Once famous for the Temple of Diana, (aid 
to be Four hundred twenty five Feet in length , Two hundred and 
twenty in breadth , fupported with One hundred and twenty feven 
Marble Pillars Seventy feet high, Two hundred and twenty years a 
building, feven times fired, the laft time was in the Night that Alex- 
avder was born. 

Laodicea, more anciently P/0/^0///, one of the 5even Churches, now 
forgotten in its Name, and overwhelmed in its Ruines, which are by 
the Turks called Eskihifar, not far from a place called Dingiz,let,mhZ' 
bit^d by, (ir«iti,fcated upon the River Ljchu 



is a 



;/ Of Tufhy inAfU. , 349 

TbjUdetpbiaf another of the Seven Churches, by the Turks Alaflur 
her, or the fair City ; is yet adorned with Twelve Churches which 
profefs the Cbriflian Faith. *Tis feated on the Rifingof the Moun- 
tain tmolusy and watred with .the River Tathlm ; And is a place of 
Trade, being in the Road of the Perfian Caravans. 

Tbyatiray Akyfar by the Turks, the lad of the Seven Aftan Churches, 
is a City well inhabited, and of a very confiderable Trade of Cotton- 
wooli which they fend to Smima. 

MieropoliSf Seidefcbecbcr Tunis , tefle CrMjJii) ^ Leuncl. Pamhck-kalafs 
Smitb, Afbiom-CaraJJar Tavern, is feated over againft Landieea, where 
are now to be feen the Ruins of vaft Fabricks, and the Grotta or Via- 
toninm of Strab. famous for thofe pedilential Vapours which it per^ 

Melaxo Mol. Meleffo aliis, formerly MiUtMtj fent feveral Colonies 
abroad, and a long time withftood the Kings of Lydia, Halicamaf- 
futy famous for the Maufoleum built by Queen Artemifiay in memory 
of Maufolus her Husband. Xanthut^ famous for the ftout Refiftance 
of its ancient Citizens againfl; Harpagits, Alexander and Brutus^ in all 
which Sieges theyfuffered all Extremities imaginable. Sattalta^ other- 
wife Antali, lends its Name to a Gulph hard by. Tarfus, Tarfos 
Tlin. TarfoEuropisj Terajfa Incolis , Tercis, Turcis Leuncl. once a famous 
Academ}', Archbiflioprick, and MetripoHtan of C///<rw, built by 5^r. 
danapalut, Anno^Mundi ;44o. po/l- Roman 60 I/odore. It hath alfo 
beenC3\\Qd Antoniana, Severiana & Hadriana, the place of St. P<i«/'s E- 
ducation. Cogni the Iconium of old , advantageoufly fcituated in the 
Mountains. Tw£«^, where the learned y^jpij;!/<;w/«j was born. Amajia^ 
Amafea y Strab. & PtoL Amnafan Turcis, is famous for the Birth of 
Mithridates and Strabo, for the Matrydom of Theodoras y and for the 
Refidence of the Eldeft Son of the Grand Signior, built in the Hollow 
of a Mountain. ZeU not far off, built by Ztila Son of Nicomedei, fa- 
mous for the Vi<^ory of Pbarnaces over Strabo. Tnbizond, Trapefus < 
Strab, C/" Pltn. Mil. &c. Trabifonda & Trebi[onda Europais. Tarabafar Tur- 
cit tefte Leuncl the Scat of an Empire ot (hurt continuance, viz^, 200 
years from the year 1261, to the year 1460. now the Refidenceofa 
Turkijh Baflia. Tocat, thenewC^/drw of old, h a fair City, and one of 
the moft remarkable Thoroughfairs in the £<?/?, where are lodged ■ 
the Caravans from PerJia,Diahei^uer, B.^gdat yCoTifianrliwfkj Smhna, and ' 
other places. The Chijlians have there twelve Churches, and there : 
refides an Archbiftiop, that hath under him Seven Suffragans. The 
only place in all A/ta, where Saffron grows; in the middle of the Town ■) 
is a great Rock, upon the top whereof is an high Caftlc, with a Ga- 



■ / 




■ «■■ . 

• jyo ' Of Vurky in Jfid. . r 

rifon to command the Ncighboaring Parts; *iis govern'd by an Aga 

and CaJi for the Dafhaw lives at Siwas, which is the ancient Stba(tta^ 
a large City, t'lree days Journey from Tocat. Laiaz,z.Of the famous 
JJJ'ns near to Fji^e -..ylioa^ where feveral Battels have been fought. In 
modern Story, that of a Soldan of Egyft againlt RajaZjet the Second, 
. Emperor of c!ie Turks^ wherein he was detcatcd. In the fame place 
Alexancler the Great defeated Darius in perfon. There VeutUius Bajj'us 
yanquiOi'd the Parthians. And Stverus the Emperor overcame Fejcen' 
ffimsNt^er h'ls Rival in the Empire. Nor far off llooJ the ancient An- 
chiiilej built in the fame day and year in which Tar/us was by Sar^ia- 
napalus. Satalta, Attalta Fiol. yintalia TurciSy tefle Umc. is famous for 
its rich TupfJ^ries, and for giving Name to the Neighbouring Gulph, 
founded by Ptokmy Phd-uUlphus King of Egypt. Among the Rivers of 
AJta the Lefs, there is did'TbcrfKoJoni upon whofe Banks the Amazons 
inhabited now called Parmon, H.iliy Hilysy Strab. Ftol. & Plm. Laly 
Nig, Cafiirwa^ P. Gyl. Otmagiucb't d^ Aytotu Turcis^ tejh Uu^cl was the 
Bounds of the Kingdom ot C;r«; and Crafus, Gramcus tow^id the Hel- 
Icfpontf Gramca Sauj. Laz,'Xjara, ttfie Nig. was the Witnefs of the firft 
Vidory o( AiixanJertbe Great over the Pa^olus Strah,Plin.& 
Chryforboas Sol now Sarabat near to Sardts and Thyatn was famous 
for its Golden Oar ; Meandtr^ Strab. Plm.&Zenoph. Meandros Ptol. nov/ 
Madre, ex Aulocrene fonte oriens, for his Swans and his Windings. Cyd- 
nusnt^T Tar/us J now, Carajti Leuncl. whofc Waters werefo cold, that 
they kill'dthe Emperor Frederick Barbarojja, whobath'd himfelf there- 
in. And Alexander y who did the fame, was forfaken and given over 
by allhis Phyficians. 1 , - 

Thcmoft renowned Mountains of the LeJJer A(ta,zvz Taurus, which 
divides all AJia into two parts^ as we have laid already ; it is the mod 
famous Mountain in the World, for its Height, its Length, and for 
its Members Caucafus and Imaus, Ida, near to Troyj is famous for the 
judgment of Peris between the three Goddefles. On Mount Tmolus 
Midas preferred Pan's Pipe before Apollo's Harp. On Crag us was the 
Monfter Chimara made tradable by Belleropbon. On Latmas pafled the 
Loves of the Mocmnd Endymion. Mount Stella for the fatal Overthrow 
of Mithridates by Pompeyj and's by Tamerlain. 




" Of 


Of Turkyin Jfu. 


,.i- • 

*. ' 

■ ( 

STria, Soria, halts , La Sourie^ GaUis ; Sur'tflariy Turcis ; Sottrifiatij 
Incoln, By the Ancients it was divided into tliree principal parts, 
njiz,^ Sfri i Propria, Fhxnicia and Valefima, or the Holy Lund. At pre- 
fent thtTurks divide it into thre-^ BcghrbegSy viz. of Halep, or AkpfOf 
Tripoli or Tarabolos J and Jcham or Dawafcus, which contains 16 or 20 
Sangiacks, whofe Name and Scituations being for the mod part to 
us unknown, I fliall follow the Ancient Geography , and firlt fpeak , 


Syria Propria. 

In the Divifion or Parts of this, I find much Contrariety among all 
Geographers, and in all Maps. Bauthatid tells us, 'tis divided into 
Comagena, Vhjstiicia, Calofyria, Valmyrenay and SeUttcia. In another 
place he faith, its parts are Syria Fropria, Ccclocyria, Canagenej and VaU 

Cluwrius faith, 'tis divided into Antiochene, Comagene, Ceelo-Syria, 
and Palmjrenr, 

Golnitz,, divides it into Comagena , Seleucia, Calo'Syria , and Utt- 

Heyliftj into Vhcsniciaj Ceelo-Syria^ and S)ycph«nicia\ Bleau/mtoComa- 
genay Ceelo-Syria, Vhosntcia, Demafcena^sind Faltnyrcna. 

I come therefore to fpeak of the chief places in. Syria Proprw, which 


I. Antiochj or Antiochia magna ^ Iheopclis a jttHtni^rJO Jmperatore^ 
Rebbata k S. Trivitate, by the Turks Antacbia Leuncl. oncc the Metre- 
foils of Syria, firuate on the River Orcntes , now Ajji, or Hafei, 12 
Miles from the Mediterranean Shoar. Once adorned with ftately. 
Palaces, Temples, &c. The Seat of ibme of the Roman Empe- 

The Suburbs called Daphne, from Apollo's Miftrifs fo called, turned 
into a Laurel, now 5- Miles from Ant'cch^ was accounted one of the 
molt delicious places in the World, famous for the Oracle and Tem- 
ple of Apollo, who was here worfhipped in a Grove 10 miles in 
compafs, planted with CyprelTes, and ocher Trees, fo full and clofe 
together that the Beams of the Sun could not dart through; wate- 
. ■ -^1 



j5i - • Of Turky in Jfu, 

red with pleafant Streams^ beautified with Fountains^ and enriched 
with variety of Fruits. 

jilcffiy, Cbalybon Rawol^o & Voftello, Berssa, Bereu, or Beree, Zonarg, 
Cedrtm& P. GylU Hteropolis te^e Belknio. Sanfom& Brietit, Atprclent 
jiltffo or Haltf, is the greateft and principal City of all ^/r^^and one 
of the mod famous of the Eafif&nd the 3d in the Ottoman Empire, if 
we confider it as the Rendezvous of the Caravans^ and of the Tw' 
kijh Armies ; as the Magazine of Jewels , of Spices, of Silks, and 
other coHly Commodities which are brought thither by Sea and Land, 
and from thence fent into other pai ts of the World by the Pore of ^- 
Itxandretta or Scandaroon 

3. Hamab Leunel. Hamous Bellon, Aman aliit & Datnant in Mappa 
Bleau^ is the Apawea or Apamia of the Ancients, built by SeUncus, 
and fo called from the Name of his Wife, feated in the midft of a 
great Plain , encompalTed with pleafant Hills, abounding in Corn 
and Wine. Its Orchards ftorcd with variety of Fruits and Palm- 
Trees Its Gardens watered with many Channels drawn from the 

4. Hams, Hemz. Turcit, Human Bell Chtmps Toftel. d^ I, KyJo, Ca» 
mJuNigro, is the Emifa Eujeb. Emiffa Vtol Hemefa Tlin, for pleafant fci- 
cuation much as the fame with Hamab, 

f . Seleucia, built near the Mouth of Orontes by Sekucus, efteemed 
the greateft City-builder in the World, viz,, 9 of his own Name, 16 
in memory of his Father Antiodus, 6 bearing the Name of his Mother 
LaoMceay and three in remembrance of his Wik Apameta, befidesfeve- 
ral others, either built, repaired, or beautified by him. It had the 
Surname of Pieria, called SilfoSoUin Nig. & SeUucbe-Jelber, Lame Sido^ 
niitjfi, • . 

6. Zeugma, feated on the Banks of the River Eupbrates, where A- 
Uxander the Great paifed over on a^ Bridge of Boats. 

7. Samofatba, Scempfaf L. Sidonienjiy near the Banks of the Eupbrates, 
over which there was a Bridge for a paiTage into Mefopotamia ; here was 
born Lttetan, and Paulus Samofatenus , Patriarch of Antioch, who was 
condemned for Herefy. 

8. Palmira, Amagara Ortel. Fayd. Sanf. feated near the Defart of A- 
rabia, famous for Zevobia, who flood in opposition with Gallienus for 
the Empire of the Ea(t, but was taken Prifoner, and led in Triumph 
through Rome by Aurelian. 

9. Adada is memorable for the Vidory that Aretus King of Arabia 
obtained againft Alexander King of Jewrj, 

-hi'l ' 

10. Da- 




\l. V 


10. Dsmsfcm, Dsmafco Enrop^eit, Sciam Mina^, Scbam incolis Leuncl, 
Damst GaOiSf once the chief City of Syrky and one of the mod an- 
cient in all yifu, feated near the River Cbryforrhoas, Hharpbar Hebrau, 
MegeU Bell. Farfar & FtrneGiJh in a Soil fo fertile in Gardens^ Or- 
chards and Vineyards, a place fu plealant with Rivets and Fountains, 
fo furfeiting of Deliglits, fo ravi/fiing with Plcafures, thatfome have 
called it, The Paradtje of the iVorU ; famous for the Temple of Zacha- 
riai, garnifhed with 40 (lately Porches, and adorned with ab(.ut9ooo 
Lanthorns of Gold and Silver. Ruined and deftroyed by the I'er/ians, 
MaceJontanSf Romans^ Parthians, Saracens , T<irtan , by the Solclant of 
Efryptt and by the Turks. After the Battel of IJI'ms, AUxandtr the Great 
found in Damas 200000 Talents of coined Money, and 5*00 Talents 

LauJtcba, Laodicea Cic. Strah, Tliti, Laodice Folyb. fo called from 
Laodictt the Wife of Antiochnsy and Mother of Seleucusy firnamed C4- 
biofa, called Liz,x,a & Licbe Minad. & OUvario, 100 Miles from Da- 

There was alfo another Laodicea, Vtot. upon the Sea coaft, jo 
Miles from Antiocb Weft. Rbamata llabratSy Lyche incolis tefie Mol. 

Beritusy no IV Barutii or Berite , once much frequented by Mer- 
chants, and others, near which is that noted Valley where ( as it 
is faid ) St. George, by killing the Dragon^ redeemed the King's 

Biblus, now Gihbeletby was the Habitation of CinivMs the Father of 
Myrrba, Mother to the fair Adonuy from whom the ^kighbou^ing Ri- 
ver took its Name; once a Bifhop's See, nowdefolate. 

I had almoft forgot Alexandretta or Scanderoorty the Sea- port of Aleppo, 
SL confufed heap of paltry Houfes inhabited b> the Greeks, who keep 
Fudling Schools for the Mariners, and other meaner fort of the Peo- 
ple ; only the Dwellings of the Vice-Confuls are very covenient : 
BatTavernter (aith, They muft be Men who love Money that accept of 
thofe Employments; for the Air, like that at Ormusy is fo bad, in ^^ 
Summer efpecially, that if it doth not kill , yet they* cannot avoid |^^ 
very dangerous Diftempers : And after fome ftay there, to remove , 
to a better Air, is to endanger their Lives : But Amij'acra fames. 



1 -fr 


Z z 

.>t'l ■ 


■ . 5<r ' ■ 





\, -u 


0/ Melbpotamia. 

TH E fadan-Aram oi the Scripture, Trak'm by the Verfians^ Jazzl- 
rey by the Arabfans, Meredin by the Armemans, by the 7«Vi^j D<- 
arbuk, is a Ven'mfuU oetween the Euphrates and 73'_^r«y on the ^«/, 
5o«f/& and Eafi ; and on the North, the Mountains feparate it from 
Turcomania ; the South part defart and barren , the Northern pare 
abounding wirh Corn and Wine. 

A Country memorable for che Birth (A Abraham Sind Rebecca ; thet 
long Abode of Jacoby and the Birth of nis Children, the Original of 
the Hebrew Nadon. 

Succeffively fubje^led to the Babylonian , jijjjriansf Medes and Ftr- 
ftam ; from them conqiicr'd by the Romm.' j recover'd again by the Ver- 
fiansp cnen fell into the power of the Saracens, and now enflaved un- 
der the Turks „ 

Orfha, or Qurfa, is tht ancient Edej'a ; Edeffa, Ttol. & Vlin, Edefa. 

Erech, by the Hebrev/s and Ra^es, as Villamvanus tells us, Orfba by 
Vaulus Jovius. Rotas by Haitbonus, Rhoas & Rhoa Niger. Orfa by 
V^CyUtHs, Robtii aL Orrhoai Arab. The Capital City oi Mefopotamia, 
where they drefs the Yellow Cordovant Skins, the Blue at Tocat, the 
R^d a: Diabeker. 

Carrh Anown to the Romanslov the death of wealthy Crajfusy Orfa 
Baud, hiren, Nig» & Sanf^ Dr. Leonard Ranwolfy who in Anna if 75*. 
was at Haran, tells US it was then called Opbra, 1 1 days Journey, or 
232 Miles from Mo/ltloi- Nmvih ; That it was a fair City, wellinha^ 
bitedj and richly furniPied vvith Merchandize, but efpeciaDy with fair 
Coverlets of divers Colours^' 

Tivernier and Thfvenot tell 115. That Our "a is built where ftood the 
indtnt ^dtj[a. r.irnorable in the Chuich-Hiftory for the Story of Aba^ 
garus'^ and in Roman Hiftcry for the death of the Em^vot CaracaUa i 
and, by tiie Report of the Inhabitants, the place where Abraham li- 
ved : So that Haran, EdejJ'a, Cnrrka, and Orfa, feem to me to be all 
the fame City. The Walls of the City are of Free Stone, w'.th Bat- 
tlements and Towers, but Ruinous within ; upon the South- Ode there 
is a Cadie upon a Hill, with fome old pitiful Guns. The City is go- 
verned by a Bafliaw. 

Diarbeker , or Diarbe^uir , is alfo "^he Caramit or Carahemit 
TiffciSf tefe Liuncl. the Amida of froccp, Amman Viol, Hcmit tncolis 


vmn^jftifm i 

■ rt, 1! 

cfi«i Confiantia Jiifa tefie Baud. ' iZoriga Mokt. (eated near the Tygrhy a 
Frontier Town of great Strength, the Seat of a Turkt^ Ba(h»w, coA- 
taining two or three fair Piazza's^ and a magliificent Molque, for- 
merly a Chriftian Church. Tis wel^ peopled, containing, by Re- 
port, 2000 CbrifiianSf \Armtnions, the reft NefiortapSf and ibme few 
Jacobites. Famouii for its Red Manetjuins, furpaffing in Colour all 
others in the laft, as alfo (ci excellent Wine and good Bread. 

Bir, or Birigeonf is feated on the Euphrates^ upon the Brow of a 
Hill ; Plenty of Bread, Wine, and Fife. 

Sbarmely Tav. TcharnuUck Thtv. is a very good Town, with a fair 
Inn, and very good Baths round about it, near which is a Moun- 
tain; on the top whereof is a Fortrefs, with a Garifon, which the 
Grand Vijier in the Year i6;i. after his lofs at Pagdaf, intended to 
have made his Refuge, but was ftrangled before ^ could accomplilh 
hisdefign. . ^ ; t ! 

Dadaaardia Tav. The Ruins whereof denote «( t& ha vtf b^en a 
large Town ; but now the Inhabitants have no othier tfabication but 
she Hbllows of Rocks. 

Coufafar Tav* Kodgiafar Thev, is* a Village where you pay the Ca- 
ftoms of Diarbecjuir Tav. rather of Merdm te(te Thev. 

MerdiH, Marde Herob. Vtol. Merdino Onupb. Mirdin, Barb. Mirdanum 
Vrocapo , two Leagues from Kodgiafa*-, b a littler City feated on a 
Mountain^with good Walls, and a Caftle,where is reddsnt a Balhaw^ 
who bath under him 200 S^ahts, and 400 Janijaries. 

Karafara Tav. Caradene Tbev. ihews the Ruins of feven or eight 
ChUfches, and wa&^nce a great Town, one day's journey from 

Niibin is but the fli^dow of the ancient Nifibit of Strflh, Vtol Plut, 
?lm, and formerly a great Town> now haidly an ordinary Vil^ 


Moful^ upon the Weft fide of the River Tygris, is encompaifed with 
Walls of rough Stone, plaiftered over with little pointed Battlements 
on the top. It hath a Caftle built of Free Stone, arid the Walls are 
about three Fathom high ; on the Land-fide feparated from the Town 
by a Ditch five or fix Fathoms broad, and very deep. In the Caftle 
there are fix large Guns, whereof one is broken, and one is mount- 
ed ; feveral Field pieces, whereof two mounted. 

The Tygris here in Sammer is not broader ttian the River Sein in 
France, but deep and rapid, and in Winter tis as broad again. 

And here I cannot omit w'lat Tbev^mt affirms of Sanfon's Map of 
this Countryi vtz,* That belides the mift^kes of Rivers, he hath 

Xz z made 


1 I 






Of Ttir'kj! w Jfith 

made fo many Faults in the poHtion of Places in their Diftaoccs, as 
alfo in their Names, that nothing of the Country is true in the 

KiTjn -.■• '- *'• /••••^ ■••'' --■ ■'•:.•• ' . ■ /'.' 

Diarheci, taken in general, comjprehends j^rz,erum, the /ijfyris if 
eld, and Terac the ancient CbaUea, or Bahylotiia, the chief Cities where- 
of are Babylon and Niniveb, which were heretofore very famous, now 
altogether ruined : Ni»ix/e-6 jui^ over againft A/o;W, was the Refidence 
of the King of ^Jfyria, 24 Leagues in Circuit. The voluntary death 
of 5W<j»<»p«»/«i, and the Repentance of the Inhabitants, have renown- 
ed it in Story. Towards the Frontiers of Ajjyria inhabited a War- 
like People, called, The Curds^ where many great Battels have been 
fought, viZ,. That at Arbela and GaugJ>fitela, Vim. or Gavgamela Strab. 
now near to, if not the fame with Schiahrazur, the Seat of a Turkijh 
Btgkrbegi Renowned for the ViAory of Alexander the Great againit 
Darius, killing above 400000 Perfiansy with the lofs of 500 Macedo- 
fiUfis. There the Caltpbs won the Battel of Maragu , which made 
thcmMafter^iof aH Ptrfla. And near to Chuy, Selim defeated IJhmael 
Sephi, who had always been a ViAor before. Babylon lay a fmall day*s 
Journey from Bagdat, which ftands upon the Tjgm, and is only a heap 
of Ruins in a place called Fekugia, near to which they (hew the place 
where ftood the Tower of Babel, famous for the Confufion of Lan- 
guages. " 

This Babylon was built by Nimrod, whom fome affirm to be Belui, 
Semiramii and Nehchadnezz,ar much augmented it : The firft of the 
two having encompafled it with fuch Walls as were accounted one of 
the Seven Wonders of tbt fVorld ; and the high and fair Gardens upon 
the Terras were no lefs admir'd. It was taken by Cyrus, by Darius, hy 
Alexander the Great, who died there, and by Selemus. The Power and 
Wealth of Babylon was fo great, that it contributed more to the Grand 
Cyrus, than the third part of all his Dominions. Next to Babylon, Se- 
leucia, called Coci&f Sina Alexandria, then Seleucia, from Antiochus the Son 
of SJucius, teft-e Aiartiano, now Bagdad, or Bagadat ^tefie Sanfone ; was the 
moft confiderable City in all Afia,zn6 c hen Ctejiphon : Baghdat, or Baga- 
</. //.generally called Babylon,\s not only the Rendezvous of feveralMer- 
chants, but alfo of the Mahometans of all parts of Afia, who go to vifit 
the Sepulchres of Omar and Haly, and other Mahometan was a 
long time the Refidence of the Caliphs. Ulit, who was one of them, was 
Matter of one of the greateit Monarchies in the world, for it extended 
from the moft Weftern parts of B^rb^, to the Eafi-hdies, Another 
Calith of this City, at his Death left Eight Sons, Eight Daughters, 
Eight Millions of Gold, Eight thoufand blaves, and the Addition of 


OfTurkymAfid. isi 

Eight Kingdoms to his Dominion. In the year i6;8. when Amurat^ 
the Fourth re-tool^|it from the ?tr(iansy he caufed three men out of 
every Tent through his Army to be caft into the Moat^ and over them 
a vai^ number of Bavins and Wool-Sacks y that he might the more 
eafily AlTault the Town. Kufa, or Mtcba Alt, is a City« for which 
the Mabomztans have a particular Veneration, as being the Burying- 
place of Haly, Baffora, or Balfora, is the Teredm of Strab. Vlin, ?tol. a 
Town near the Mouth of Tygris, which they of the Country call Sbat, 
It is large and pleafant, by reafonof its Palm-Trces. The conveni- 
ency of its Ports furniihes India and Verfia with Dates, which are Bread 
and Wine to thofe that know how to order them. Some few years 
fince, Balfora fell under the Jurifdi^tion of Alp-Bajfa, whoftirdhim- 
fdf King thereof, who left it to his Succeflbrs , who enjoy it from 
Father to Son, paying a fmall Tribute to the Grand Signior, who is 
afraid to opprefs him left he fhould Revolt ; but thefe two laft Places 
properly belong to ^rrf^w. , 

■ K 


y * 


( '. /. 








Z ZMulon 
I Ifaclier 

B B»ajamia 
i Juilali 
5 5>tneon 



(Pa0e. 3 

tut . 


V.*... . 




iMl D I, AND 




. ,^r-^. -^<?«>.^ /■^"»M jV r^;;i-^/^j:£^-^^.v^w/--V/^ 

fpohma^. /-,M ■ hlc-ratt ^f-^ , . "mf* V — ^ iVl » •• '^^ *£/i. 

y.^y-'Ma \ , • ■JMnacH,:..»£„haJJa X^ ^ .- f ^ 

J.iJJa E Sarcit .'j^^..t ,^ ^..iA.. J"..: y * ~^*'- 





^^"iio ^<'"'- jM^ ^,«i siuLk 

f .Cmauf; a ; ^ 

\:Bifihti,:..-- . 


Anlel ] 
• A'aic (J / Miaianite5 


V*... o Dtbcn 

fi jMoabites 



V"*^ Mtatia 

' ^" A^^- /'!'.'^7l ''JfKcJtfJtk ^^^«r^,-^ 

T. His Country wasfirft Inhabited by Canaan the ^^x\o\Cham, and 
called by his Name. He dying, left it to his Eleven Sons, that 
bore the Name of the Children of Qanat^n, at what time it contained 

Ji King- 








tht Iin 


And th 


Ion by 

back ur 

Jttis, ; 

with th 
and aft( 
Htrol i< 
the i^'n 
ed and 
vince, ai 
Cajavy u 
when x\ 
long afr 
the Wa 
pie and 

JfWs wc 

new Coi 
but 7«/, 
»t\d 98 
and the 
the Cap 
cxii d in 
Ir. wh 
4bou& th^ 



ft Kitig^mi, artdjf Satrapet: Divided afctfrwir^s iiito t2 'tribes^ 
niac bore the Names of the Sohs of Jacob anid Jfrdel, being conquered 
by Jcjhua, and pofleiTed by the Ifraelites; who for ^86 years were go- 
verned by Captains and Judges; after that, for 418 years, by King^ 

From Rihohoaw 10 Tribes revolted, who chole the fugitive Jeroboam 
iot their King: His SucceiTors were ftiled Kings of Ijratly fo that it then 
contained two Kingdoms, vtz,. i ft, of J»i^<»i6', whole Regal Seat was 
Jtruialtfh ; 2d, of / r<nl, whofe Seat Was at Samaria. After 2f 9 years, 
ih^ Iiraelhn were led into Captivity by the King of Jj/yria, lomefay 
beyond the Cafptan Mountains , from whence they never returned*^ 
And ihe ^//'^r/^vi poiTeffed their Land , and were called Santarita^f^; 
The People of Ju^^ab were alfo afterwards carried Captive into £tf^^-\ 
ion hy N buchaJt}ez>z.!ry after fet at liberty by Cyrus y and returnedv 
back under rhe Condud of ZerubbabA, After this, they were called 
7#ttj, and the Country Jewry '^ and for about 364 years they were 
governed by /://-//?ocr<jf;, Mm\\i\iQ Maccabees, v/ho^ after many ConHic^s 
with iheir powerful Neighbours, upheld the Government i ; 1 years ; 
during which interval, the Romans un6cr Vompey conquer *d Judea ; " 
and after the Death o{ Antigomsy the laft of the K^q^oik\\q Maccsabees^ 
Hirol is made King by Jugufius &ndi /intbony i a naan of admirable 
Virtues and execrable Vices , fortunate abroad, unfortunate in liis 
Family ; his Life tragical, his Death defperate. After whofe Deaths 
the Kingdom was divided into Two parts, half of ir had the Title <^f 
Etbmrcb^ the other half divided into two Tetrarchtes, Arcbelaus banifil-, 
ed and dying in Exile, his Etbnarchy was reduced into a Roman Prth 
vince, and the Government commitred unto Vontms Vtlate, by Ttbtrim 
Cajary under whom our Saviour ^ the Holy Jefus^ did fufFer D^^th» 
when the Jews cried out. His hlood be upon Us and Ours, A wiih not 
long after effetfted with all fulnefs of Terror; for the Calamities of 
the War inflided by Gallus, Vt pafian and Ttius, exCeed both Exam-^., 
pie and Dercription,and deftroyed about iioooo People. The Lan^ 
deftioyed, and on every Head an Annual Tribute impofed j the 
Jt-ivs were quiet until the Reign of Adrianj when again they raifed 
new Comniotions, being headed by Berochab their counterfeit Mtjfiah^ 
but "{uhus S(verusj LicutQn&nt to Adrian , razed 5:0 of their Strong-holds, 
anv*! 98 J Towns, and flew ySoooo ; fo that the Countries lay wafte, 
and the ruined Cities became an Habitation for Wild Bealts, and 
the Captives were tranfported into Spam , and from thence agaia 
exit d in the year lyoo. 

In which Interval of time, the Country inhabited by other People,, 
%boui (h& time of Confianfine, embraced the Chilian Keligion: But ifi> 

* • die: 



' i-/^..i 



ti ■ . 

360 O/Turk/ myifidi 

^b Keign of Pbocas, the Perjfiant over-ran the whole Ccunti'y otTaU* 
/Hr/fj inflidine unheard of Tortures on the Patient Chrifiians. No 
fooner freed from that YokCj but they fuffercd under a greater by the 
execrable Saracefis, under theCondud of Omar, who were long after 
expulfed by the Turks, then newly planted in Perjia by Tangrofilix, 
When the Cbrifitans of the fVefi , for die recovery of the Land, fet 
forth an Army of ^00000, Godfry of Bol^ne the General, who made 
thereof an abfolute Conqueft, and was eleded King of Jerufalem, in 
the 89th year of that Kingdom ; and during the Reign of Guy, the 
Cbrifiians were utterly driven out and deftroyed by Saladine^ the 
Egyptian Sultan, who held it until Selytnus the Firft , Emperor of the 
turks, who in the year ip?- added the Holy Land, together with 
T.^pt, unto the Ottoman Empire, under whofe Power it now is go- 
verned by Two Sanz»iacks,\xti^QT the Bafifa of Damajcus, one refiding 
at Jerufalem, the Other at Naplous. It is now for the moft part inha- 
bited by Moors and Arabians , thofe polTeffing the Vallies , thefe the 
Mountains ; fome few Turks, many Greeks, with other Chrifiians of 
ail Seifts and Nations ; fome Jews, who inherit no part of the Land, 
but live as Aliens iii their own Country. 

The Chorographical Divifion of C ANA A N. 

This Land of Canaan, within Jordan, was divided into five Principal 
Parts or Provinces, viz, i/, Jewry in the South, where King David's 
Thione was fet, and the Holy City built, comprehending the Two 
Tribes of Judab and Benjamin, id, Samaria in the midft, the chief 
Seat of Ihe Ten Tribes of Ifrael, containing the Tribe of Ephraim, and 
the half Tribe of Ai<a»tfj^j. ^d, Galilee in the Nortb-Ea^, where Chnfi- 
Jefus was very converfant, and was divided into the Higher and iht 
Lower, containing part of A^ur, all Napthaliy and part of Zebulun. 
4fi&, Pbcentcia on the North-Wefi part of Canaan, containing the Sea- 
coaft of Afnur and Zebulun. ^tb, The Land of the PhiUflins upon the 
Wefi of Canaan, whofe Country was allotted to Judah, Dan, and 5/- 
meon, thefe were always great Enemies to the Ijraelttes j and from 
them was the whole Land called Palefiine. 

The Land of Canaan, without Jordan, poireflfed by the Amoritcs, 
who had driven out the Moabtte id Ammomtes, contained three Prin- 
cipal Parts ; i/, Part of the ifs^ingdom of Sihon King of the Amo- 
rites, in Hejhbon, taken from the Mabisesy which was given to the 
RtHbenita. id, The Land of Gtlead, which contained part of the 

, Kingdom 

' of Turl^ in Aftd* ^ 

Kifigdon of hihon, laktn from th? Ammi^ei ;*4n4part cjf |e1iQ;King- 
dom of O^ Kirtg oiB^Jhaff, which was given to mcGaJites. ^V, The 
reft of the^Kingdom ofC^^ with half Gilead^ and the RegiDnof^r- 
^tf^, was given to the half Tribe of-Maf7ajJes : All- which aFe-«eiineated 
in the Miip, as alfo the Names of the Chief Cities and Towns in 
each Tribe. 

Once a Country fo fertile, that it was called, A Land flawing with 
Milk and Homy ; adorned with pleafant Mountains, and luxurious 
Vallies ; neither fcorched with Heat, nor pinched with Cold. The 
Wealth and Power of it fo great, the People , Cities and Towns fo 
numerous, that there was no Countrey in the World that could com- 
pare with it. But now rtmiiins a fearful Monument of Divine Ven- 
geance, a fad and difmal Mirror for all other like finful Countries to 
view their DelHny by. Jerufalemy though fallen from her ancient 
Luftre, deferves (till our remembrance. Once her Kings, her Princes, 
her Temple , her Palaces were the Greateft, the Richefl-, theFaireft, 
and moft Magnificent in the World. Once a City Sacred and Glori- 
ous, the Seat of infinite Ma jefty, the Theatre of Myftcries and Mira- 
cles, the Diadem in the Circle of Crowns, and the Glory of the yni- 
yerlTe, but now Icabod : It was ruined by Nehchadnezzar ; Veffafian 
and I'itus utterly razed it, and deftroyed above Eleven hundred thou- 
fand People. 

To delcribe this Country in all its Curcumftances, to fpeak of its 
Laws, Religion , its Divifions , Wars and Alterations; to write of 
all the various Tranfadlions that have hapned \j \t^ would require a 
Volume of it felf. I fliall therefore leave it to my atcrvlaid Defcription 
of this part of the World, where I Ihall give a more particular Geo- 
graphical and Hiftorical Relation of its Cities, Towns, and other me- 
morable Tranfadlions, which will be a very ufeful and neceflary In- 
trodudion into the Princi^ias of ancient Geography and Hiftory, 

A a a 


,(» '■^ :i iv 1 93. ^'.^/j'i'^ 


Of AR M E NI A Major, 



ARmenia is divided by the River EHphratesinto t-'O parts, Major 
and Minor. TCegreater Armenia is by the Tmk call'd 7ttww<»- 
hm; by the PerfiansTkcura^ Emme, or Aemnoe ; by thr NeftorianSfZel' 
htcdibts, by 5i««^», Curdifian, by C/«i/cr, P^p«/ and C«r#/i. 

' ' The 


Of Turkty in Ap$. I^j 

The Andenc Inhabitants were the Mardi , and GordUti ; now the 
Tunomartt Sind Cmdet, The lirft are faid to be defcended from Tur^ne- 
fitm in Tattarji from whence came the Turku The later are defcended 

from the Ancient People of -4/5''^"'« 

Ptolomy difided Armenia into four principal Parts, which contained 
20 Provinces, and 87 Cities. 

Vliny accounted 120 Strategies, Governments, or particular Jurifdi<- 
<ftions of every Province. 

A Conntry much better known, and more Famous in Ancient Time 
than now. The Advantage of its Bounds, the Nature of its Situati- 
on ,the Magnificence of fome of its Kings, among which,7)^r«7«a,Son« 
in-law to Mithredates King of Pontusy hath been the moft Famous ; its 
Greatnefs,Government,and Riches, much contributed to its Renown. 

In this Country are the Heads of four Rivers, Euphrates j Tygris^ 
Vba/is and Araxes. 

Euphrates y Teratb Mofes, Frat^NicoiaioyMorct fiuTuircis ; from one fide 
of the Mountain A/mj^o/ falls this River, which divides Armtfiiaind 
Mefopotamia from Afia Minor, Syria and Arahia, dQfcendsintoChaUea, 
where it waters the Ancient Babylon , and joyns with Tigris fome what 
below Bagdat, 

Tigris, Hidekel Ebraii , TegilCaftal & Pinero, Diglatb Jofepho, de- 
fcends from the Georgian Mountains, falls into divers Lakes, lofes it 
felf divers times in the Earth, cuts through the Mountains, (eparates 
Mejopotamia from AJJyria, wafhes the Ruines o( Ninivehj receives the 
Branches of the Euphrates , and difcharges it felf into the Per/tan 

Pha/is^orFaJfayhath its Head in the fame Mountain with the Euphra- 
tes, and runs its Courfe towards the North ; and after it hath palfed 
ICO Bridges, falls into the Euxine Sea. 

Araxes, Arap, Achlar Leuncl, Caj'icz,. Thtt,. runs Eaft ward, and joins 
it felf with Kur, wCyrusy whofe Rife or Spring is from the other fide 
of ihe Mountain Mirgol, and then falls into the Cafpian Sea, Since 
thefts Rivers have here their Springs, Sanfon tells us, That if there yet 
remains any marks by which we may difcover the place where the Ter- 
reltrial Paradife was placed, it was rather in this Country, than in 
any other. But Sir John Shardin makes the River Phajis to arife from 
the Caucafus Mons, about 3 p Miles dil^ant, and to run South into the 
Pontus Euxinus. 

The Armenians are generally of a healthy, ftrong, and lobufVous Bo^ 
dy, their Countenance commonly grave, their Features well propor- 
tioned^ and Qf comely Perfonage, but of aMeUnghoi^ a^Sacumine 

A a a 2 Air. 

J^' ■■ 


5^4 . .Of T^^/iV^-** • 

Ajr». ,In their Humoiars, Cqvetoi^ and Sordid, Heatly^adCWjftiivte ; 
of a dull and ftupid Appreh«nf]on,unl«fsin,M?rchandiaet^nd Trade. 
Yet, 'tis obieryed, That thofe that are brought up in other Countries, 
are of a more acute Underllandin^, plcAling and merry in Behaviour; 
but the Women arc commonly ill Ihaped, long nofed, and not fo 
much as tolerable handfome. Ric. 

Armtnui was conquered in the Year i ji T'hy Sd'tmm theFirft,and 
^oniitxed to che Ottoman Dominions; yet the Armenia'hs pretend they 
-cannot be made Slaves by reafon of certain Privileges which their 
Predeceflbrs obtained from Makomit^ when they aflifted him to fettle 
his Empire ; upon which confideration moft of the Merchants of 
Imky go by the Name of Arnnmayn. 

The >^rwf«/.i« Church is Ruled by fourPatriarchs^thechief of which 
refidesat Etcbmeafen Ric. Ecs-Mia'zifpChar^LCba}is;lee Cbil/e by theTurks, 
or Ouncb Chilfe from the Three Cburchesy which are there built in a 
Triangle^ about two or three Leagues from Rivan or Erivan. 

The chief Places now are Erz,irum, TbeotJoftopolis, P. GtUioj Sinera Mi- 
Tiadalo^ Azirii aliis, a Frontier Town, and great Thoi"ough-Fare, the 
Refidence of a Baflia. TheEIoufes are ill built of Wood, without any 
Order or Proportion, where are fome Remains of Churches. Tavet" 
nier tells us, That though it be very cold, yet Barley grows there in 
40 days, and IVheat in 60. 

£n.^, after Garifoned by Mufiapha, was taken by Storm, and was 
lefs of Emirbamz, firft Conteit with the Turk. 


Cars, Carfe, or Cbarfa Leunc. a large City , but thin Peopled, feated in 
agood^oil, the Rendezvous of the Grand Signms Army. Adaysjour- 
ny from KarjAre to be (een the Ruins of a great City called Amkagee, 
ftrongly fituate in a Marjhy Tav. 

. * w -..V. plenty of Wine ; 

not far from this City are to befeen the Ruins of the Ancient Artaxata, 
the Seat of the Ancient Kingsof/trwfww, n-fe Taverrner: So that Tcflt$ 
m Georgia QiT\nQX. be the Artaxata of the Ancients, as in our Geographi- 
cal Dottionanes. 

Nt^JJiv:}ij, or Nacbavavy the Ncxunnao^ VtcL according to the Opi- 
nion of the Armenians y is the moft Ancient City of the World, three 
Leagues fi cm Mount Ararat y the place where No^j/j lived aft (ir he 
came out of the Aik. There is feen the Ruines of a great Molque, 
which, they Hiy, was one of the moft ftately Buildings in the World, 
' €reded in memory of ^eab 5 burying- place. 


In the CanJerattVlaaa^t notfii froo) Nafftvfln, was fought a memo- 
rable Battel bewixcihtj T«>-4/ and Pafunsy whsre both the Emperors, 

Seljm and (fmael, were prefent. 

-.. Kift, the Aremita iHm. Artcwitta Sirab. Artfundita Vtol. is a great 
City upon the fide of the wide Lake AraJJa, or Arfatiias, now Lake Je 
l^til}av, feared on the top of a high Mountain, and is the Seat of a Tttr- 
kij}) Begin- i!(^. 

BetJiSj by fomc fiid to-be the Tt^ravocerta of Plin. ^ Tic. belongs 
to a Bey, or Prince of the; Country, who neither acknowlcd;»es the 
Gr<wd Si^nior^ nor the Pnfl^n- StiUan. Icis fcitu-tte between two high 
Mountains, guarded with aCaillc .lod Draw Bridge. The Bey, be- 
fides the (trength of his Pafles , is able to bring above 25-000 Horfe, 
bolides Foot into the Field. Near this place tiie Verjiars obtained a 
great Vi<5lory iover theT«r;^>, in wiiich weie flain five Snrzjuicks^ ^600 
yaniz^rtes, 2cooo Soldiers, 40 piecesof Cannon taken, and Sv/ymans 
Serafflio, in which were Beauties he not a little doted on, when Ibra- 
-6/wBafla was ilrangled by a Mute. 

Old Julpha or Zuifa was the Ancient Habitation of the ArweniaKs, 
which Sbi: Abbas c.irricd into l^erfu, and is thought to be the Ariam- 
mene of the Ancients. 

Afi-abat, a League from the Aras^ the only»Country that produceth 
the Ronas Root, whofe ufe is to dye Red, and for which there is a vaft 
Sale all over T'trfia and India. ■ . . . 

Marante is famous for the burying place of Noab's Wife. \ 
Sophiana is more like a Foreft than a City. 

The Convent of St. S^rpz&f'm near Nakfivaftf was the retiring place 
of St. MartheWf and St. Bartholomew ^ in the time of their Perfecution ; 
a noted place for Devotion. . v 


Of Georgia. 

BEtween the Bl^ck Sea and the Cjfpian, lies Ge r^i^i-^ fb called by the 
Gnciivi f om the word Gtorgot^ whicli fignifies Hubbandmen : 
Some would hv/e tliis Name derive it felf from chat of St.Gm^^', the 
Patron Saint of all the Chriftians of the Greek Church Under the 
general N^me whereof, we^coniprehend Mingrelia ; Gtirffifi^m, Zmrui^ 
and Co^r^ania: Piovinces which the ancient Romans could not fubdue 
by reafort of the ruf; ''nefs of the Mountains, which were known to 
the Ancients by ihe Nani'; oi Caucajusy made famous by the Fable of 
Pro^mrbcus. Mmgrtt.^^ v^ith Avogafia, are thfi fame with Cvlcbis , oc 
little .nore: Famous rot t' is Ar.ours ofjafon and Aledea^ and for the: 
Conqa'vit of the GoUm lluoe by the Argonautu Gm-- 










1.25 1.4 


•^ 6" — 






(716) 872-4503 


* J'^ WJ>.. 







Gurgifan li the dncietlC Iheria ; Zutria anfwers to theancienc Athnia ; 
and Cmntinia or Careajjia compofech Some part of the jifiatic Sarmatin 
on the South of Dm. 

The ancient Kingdom of Cbokbk was notfd fmill as now 'tis rec- 
koned, whenitexti^aded from the Falus Maotist as far as Iberiay whofe 
Capital City was alfo fo cailed^ where our Modern Geographers place 
Fajfo. Th^ Cor ax and i'bafis , famous Rivers in ancient Hiftory, now 
called CoSurs and /?w»?, ferve for its bounds, in length no Miles, 
in breadth about 60. It is tiow divided into three parts , viz,. Min- 
■gretia, Guriel, and Irrtiretta. 

Mirtgrelia, Odtjche Ivcol. is a Country full of Hills and Mountains, 
Vallies and Plains, almoft covered with Woods. The Air is temperate, 
but very moift and unwholfome, in regard of the extreme wet Wea- 
ther ; fo that in Summur the moifture of the Earth, being heated by 
the Sun, caufech frequent Peftilences, and other Difeafes, very dan- 
gerous to Strangers. It abounds with many Rivers, which fall from 
the Mountain CMc^/ffx, and diCchargeinto the Black Sea^ viz. CoJours, 
the Corax of the Ancients. The Tuchtur, which Arrian calls Sigamus. 
The So€Mm, fuppofed'to be the Terjcen of Jrrien, and the Jba^eris of 
Ttol The Languty the yi/tolpbus of old The Kelmbel, or Ctbi of Ar- 
The Cianifcari, Cianeus of the Ancients. The Scbenifcari, or Ri 


ver Horfe, by the Greeks Htfpus. The jibafcia, or Glgucm of Strabo, 
the Carles of Arrian, and the Caritus of Ptol, Thefe two Rivers inter- 
mix with the famous Pba/i^y about 20 Miles from the Sea, 

The Pbafis, by the Turks Facbsj by the Inhabitants Rme, at the 
Month is about a Mile and half over. There are feveral fmall Iflands 
in the Mouth of it, upon the biggeft of which Sultan Morat built a 
Fortrefs in the Year i^^* when he attempted the Coni|ueft of that 
Country, the Ruines of which are now to'be feen, but noRemainders 
ef the Temple efRbea to be feen, which was confecrated to the Wor- 
{hip of Chrift in the Reign of the Emperor Zetio^ nor any Ruines of 
the ancient Sebafia, or the famous Colchis, now to be feen. And the 
City Fa/6, placed where Cbolcis ftood by our late Gecgraphns, is alfo a 
great miftake, tefie Sir John Cbardm, who was upon the place. 

The Country produceth little CornorPulfe, the Fruits are moft 
wild and unwholfome; that which thrives belt istheGrape) of which 
tbere is great plenty, and the Wine moft excellent, litrong, and a 
good fiody, pieafing to the Tafte, and comfortable to the Stomach ; 
fo that if the People knew how to make it rightly, there would be 
ao better in ^^. 

^- -" - ■ '■ • ■ '" ■/ " Their 



QfTurkfw^fisd ^Sf 

Their uftial Grain is Gom, which is as ftniillas Coriander Seed* i 
and very much refembles Millet, which isfowed in Spring-time after; 
the Eune manner as Rice, by making a hole^h the ground with then: 
Finger, then put in the Grain, and cover it, which produceth a Stalk 
like to the Sugar-Cane, at the end of which there is an Ear that con- 
tains above ;oo Grains. This boiled into a Pafte, is the only Bread 
of all the Inhabitants of the Black Sea, from Pains Maotu round to Tre- 

Befides this Gom, they have Millet , Rice, Wheat and Barley, 
which two laft they fow upon the Ground without plowing ; for the 
Ground is fo foft, that it takes root a foot deep in the Mold, and 
comes up without any trouble. > ^ ^ > i-r 

The ordinary Food of the Country is Beef and Pork very plenty, 
and lb good that the World affords no better. Their Wild-Fowl is 
good, but fcarce. Their Venifon is the Wild Boar , the Hart, the 
Stag, the Fallow-Deer and Hare, which are mo(^ excellent. There 
are Partridges, Pheafants, Quails, and Wild Pigeons in abundance. 

In the Mountains ofCaucaJus are bred great numbers of Eagles and 
Pelicans, Hawks, Hobbies, and other Birds of Prey, and other Ihange. 
Fowl, unknown in our Parts. And the Foref^ produce a number of 
WildBeafts, asTygers, Lions, Leopards, Wolves and' ChacalSi 

At^igivitas is a Church with Three Bodies, where they fay St. ^». 
4rew preached in that place, and thp Catboliccs once in his life goesc 
thither to make the Holy Oyl. it. 

In Minrnlia are neither Cities nor Towns, only two Villages by 
the Sea-fide. Ifgaour is the chief Port and grand Market of Mmgrelia.. 
Anarghia is the mofl confiderabie Village built, where flood the anci- 
ent HeracUa, But all the Houfes are fcatterred up and down in the 
Country, that you cannot travel a mile, butyoufhall meet with three, 
or four together. . . r 

There are about nine or ten Caftles, at the chiefelt whereof, called- 
Rms, the Prince keeps his Court. *Tis furrounded w*tha flight ftone 
Wall, and Guarded with a few Cannon, but the reft of the Caftles 
have none. Sapias is the name of two Churches^, one of which b^ 
\ongi to the Theatirtes. 

The Mingreltan Men are endued with all mifchievous Qualities^ 
there is no wickednefs to which they are not inclined. All Addidled 
to Thievery, which they make their Study, Employment, Paftime 
and Glory. AiTadination, Murther, Lying, are efteemed noble; and 
brave Anions. Drunkennefs, Fornication, Adultery, Bigamy, In^^ 
ce(^, are Virtues in Mingrtlia, . Other wife gpod Soldiers, well ihaped^, 
"-- ■-■'•- jj^ 





OfTufk^h JfH. 

ride a Horfe well, and hfaft^le their Lance „ with extfaofdinanr dex- 

teriCV* .^^?:nh^i^ !!^w"yWOf ?tliDiriW >^1jHff;fi^ if*S'* 4j^ 

The Women of Qualitf 'are very Hahdfome and well ftaped, having^ 
Features and Glances ^vifiry charming and obliging, nacuraliy fubtle 
andquicu of Appiehenfion, cxtrenielv civil and eomplementdi, other- 
wife the moft wicked in th« World ' M.?ugl.ty, perfidious, deceitful, 
cruel, and impudent ro procure their LovtMs, or to dcDroV them. 

The Educaiion of Child' en in AltrgrtLa^ is the moft lewd and vici- 
ous in the world ;' their Fatheisbring them up t6 Thievery, and thek 
Mothers to Obfcenky. ^ 

The Inhabitants of CVttM/«f that herder upon Co/ci&i/, are tht Ala- 
res, whole Countrey" was foimeriy the Northern Frontier of /irmet^ia^ 
The SuiTTi's, the GJgu'.<, the Ccraacles, by the Turks caWcd CaraCherksy 
that is the BLrk GmYjIuTK, hy-rnicn of the Fogs and Clouds* that 
darken ihtirSky, though elfe they are the faireft People in the world. 
Formerly thty were Chi iftians, and yet retain fonie Relicks and Cu- 
ftomsof it, but now profefs no Religion, but live by Robbery and 
Rapine, igyorant of all Arts and Sciences, more rail and portly than 
other People, furious in their loo'kfs, and their DiipoHtfortsandCou- 
wge no lefs lavage ; the moft daring Robbers, and moft refolute Af- 
(aflinfttn the world. ^ '" L .- 1* ^ i > 

The Nagajen-Tartars for thema^f^Tt: inh-^'-'t the Champaigne land 
about /^/?r<?c.r', living in Tents fenced With Hakes and Palifadoes, to 
fecure themfeUcs from theAffaults andlnfolendesof Ni^ht-Robbers, 
and the Kalmuck Tarwm , who oftentimes furpnze them unawares, 
and cariy away both Men and Cattel. ' '' ' '^' •^*^'^^; ^ -^ n. j > 

The Country of Curtei is very fmall ^ feparatcd tcom Mitigrelia by 
the River Pbtifn And in every thing, as to its Nature and the Man- 
ners of its Inhabitants, it rcfembtes il^w^rf/w, for the^ have the fame 
Religion, Cuiioms, and ihe fame Inclinations to Lying, Robbery and 

Gonieis a large Caftle, Four-fquare built, of hard and rough Stones, 
of a great bujk, feated upon the Sea- fide; tt hath frur Walls and two 
Gates, but n j Trenches nor Fortifications; belonging to the Prince of 
Curiel, diftant from tbajis about four Miles. 
. Akalzjtkt is a Fortrels, built upon the defcent cf Mount. Cj«w/«/, 
feated in a hollow place among Hillocks, fortificdwith double Walls, 
and flanked with Towers, both buill with iJartlercents aftfer'the An- 
cient manner, defended with a few Gun-., and is the refidejice of a 
Turkifh Baifa. Adjoining to this Fortrefs is a large Town, corlfifting 
of about four hundred Houfes , all new , and of a !at^ Ereif^ion, 



Of Twtkt i^ :A^4. . , j6# 

inhabited by Tmkt , Anmrnam^ Georgians , Greekt, Jem and Ciri- 

Imiretta is called by the Turks, Path^ebeoukj'or Vacbakoutcljotik, the 
•Little Prince ; is a Country full of Woods and Mountains, but the 
Valleys are lovely, and the Plains moft pleafant : Here Money is coin- 
ed, and here are feveral Towns ; but as for the Manners and Cuftoms 
of. che Inhabitants, they are the fameas in Mingreita. The King hath 
feur good Caftles, viz.j, 5M»</<r^feated upon the (ideof a Valley, Regia 
s,nd Scorgiay both alm»^iaacceffible in the Mountains, and naturally 
fortiHed; 4 C«tatis, fi<Rl<fng the Name of the Town and Country 
round it; perhaps the Gatmne of Viol. 90 miles from the Mouth of 
the River Tbafis, built at im foot of a Hill, conlifting of about zoo 
Houfes; it hatha Fortre^ built with feveral Towers, and a double 

Thefe Three Kingdoms are tributary to the Turks, The Tribute of 
the King of Imirretta is 80 Boys and Girls,! from ten to twenty years 
of Age. The t^rince of Gmiel pays 46 Children of bo:h Sexes. And 
the Prince of Mingreita 60000 Ells of Linnen Cloth made in that 
Countrey. • 

The Princes of Mingreita give themfelves the Title of Dadian, that 

the Head o( Juftice. 


"- .■ *■ 

0/ Gurglftan. 

(jT^ Eor^ia'yhy dur^modemGepgraphersand the Per fans, is called Our" 
' A, T gifiavyhy the Georgians CartbueL By fome Authors 'tis divided 
into four particular Provinces, viz, Imirette and Guriel, of which we 
have fpoken before ; ^.Caket; ^.Cartbuel, Thefe two laft are un- 
der the Person Dominion; ^nd this is that which th&Perjtans call Gur^ 
§ifia», and the Georgians Carttbueli, * 

It is a Country full of Wood, and very Mountainous, yet enclofes - 
a grear number of plealant Plains ; and the River Kur, the C^rus of 
the Ancients, runs through the midft of it. "^^ " 

^ The Temper of the Air is very kindly ; their Fair Weather begins 
about Majft and lafts till the end of November, The Soil, if well wa- 
tered prouuces all forts of Grain, Herbs and Fruit in abundance ; 
therefore as fertile a Country as can be imagin'd, where a man may d 
live both delicioufty and cheap. Their Bread as good as any in the 
world, and their Fruit of all forts is very delicious. Nor is there any 
part of Europe that produceth fairer Pears and Apples, or better tafled ; 
^or any part oiAfia that brings forth more delicious PcKH^ranates. 
:\ B bb V jT Thdr 

1 - 





Their Cattel very good and pleatiful ; their Fowl of all forts is incotn^ 
parable. There js no better Meat in the world than their young Por- 
kers, of which there are abundance. The Cajpian Sea and Kur River 
furniiti it with all forts of Salt and Frelh Fifli ; and there is alfo nol 
Country where they drink more or better W^ne r.NoMen are more 
addicted to their fenfual PleafureiS, andbeailtal Volupruoufnefs , thit 
is to Drunkennefs and Luxury; neither are the Women lefs vicious 
and wicked, having an extraordinary Indination to the male Sex, andi 
contribute more to that torrent of tJncleanneis, which overflows alL^ 
theCountry. ■ .' ^ • a » 

Nature, faith ^^ John Char dirty bath beftowed upon the Women of 
that Country Graces and Featurts which are not other-where to be 
feen; fo that *tis impoffible to beholdthem without loving of them ; 
more charming Countenances, nor more lovely Statures and Propor- 
tions can be penciled forth by the Art of nian : They are Tdll, 
dear Limb*d,Pluntpand^ Fully btk iiot over-fat, and extremely flen- 
der in the Wafte ; but tHatvi'hicb fpoils all^ is their Nafty Shifts, and 
Painted Faces. t ; 

The Men are naturally witty ; nor would there he more Learned 
Men, or more Ingenious Nfafters in the world, were they but improved 
by the knowledge of Arts and Sciences; but their Education is fo mean 
and brutifli having nothing but bad Examples, that thofe Parts are 
altogether drowned in Vice and Ignorance , fo that they are gene- 
rally Cheats and Knaves , Perfidious, Treacherous, Ingrateful and 

There are feveral Biflibps in Georgia j an Archbi/hop and aPatruirch^ 
whom they call C^ttbttimi There are alfo many Churches ; but no- 
thing remains of Chriilianity, unlefs the name of their Faffs, for they 
neither know or Prai^fe the leaft Precept of the Law of JefusCirifi, 

The Church- men alfo will be as drunk , and keep Female Slavas 
for their Concubines as well as ethers. , 

The Nobility exercile a more Tyrannicai power over th€ir Subjeds 
than in Mrtgreiia, challenging a right over their Eftates, Liberty and 
Lives ; if they feize upon them, whether Wife or Children, they fell 
them or difpofe of them as they pleafe. 

The Province of Carthuel contains no more than four Cities, Gw, 
SurantyAly and Teflu \ Gm, orKori, ^rmaticc or Harmaftis, of old, tefi^e 
SanJ. is a fmall City featedin a Plain, between two Moutitains, upon 
the Bank of the River Chur, at the foot of a fmall Hill, upon which 
there is a^jFortrefs buiit, which is garifoned by Native Vtrfidns, 






^MT^m Js a fmill Town ^ but the Fortrefs is Urge and well built^ ha- 
ving loo Men in garifon. 

Teflit, 4^taxata Flin^jirtaicU Tae, Artaxisfsta Strah. by the Georgians 
CaUf by fome Tehik-cala \ h called aMo Darel Melee ; by P. Jovtus 
Cboim, the faiceft Qty in Getrgig, feated at the bottom of a Mountain, 

• se the foot of which runs the River Cur. The City is encompaffed 
with ftrong Walls, defended with a large Fortrefs on the South-nde; 
it contains about 14 Churched, fix belonging to the Georgians , and 
the reft to the Armenians. The Cathedral, which is called Sion , is 
feated upon the Bnnk of the River , built of all fair hewen Scone. 
There is not a Mo(que in Teflii, though the City belongs to a iVi^^o- 
iffif/<iff Emperor, and governed by a A/<ii&omf/<7i» Prince The Bazars 
or Market-places are very fair and large , built of Stone. - The Inns 
or CaravaHjera*s are no lefs beautiful. The Prince's Palace is one of the 

* moft beautifal- Ornaments in Tefiu ^ it hath been twice under the 
-power of the Turk*, once in the Reign ol^mael the fecond, King of 

Ferfia, and in the. Reign of his Succedfor. Sofyman took it almoit at 
'"the fame time asr he didT<i«w. 

The Kingdom of Caket is at prefent in fiibjedion to the King of 
Terjta, governed by his Viceroy. . The Cities are all Ruines, unlefs 
that which is called Caket or Kaket. 

In the Northern part of that Kingdom, thQAmax,ons arefuppoH^d to 
have inhabited. Ptol. fixes their Country in the 4/?4fi<:^ Sarmatia to 
the Weft of Wvlga. Quintim Curtius faith alfo, that the Kingdom of 
Thalefiris was near to the River Pbafis; and Strah, fpeaking of the 
Expeditions of Pompey and CaniMfts, is of the fame opinion. 

i^iria borders upon the Cafpian Sea; , its chief places are Derbent, 
Caucajid! Porta, Plin, or Vyla Iberia Ortel, 'Demir & Temir-Cavi Turcis, > 
Aieicandrii., Porta Ferrea & Cajpia Porta, of old, now belonging to * 
,the pHt/ians ; it is a great Market for Slaves, and is a ftrong wall'd 
Town, Cud to h^^ built by Alexander the Great. And Tarky, at this / / 
day under the L uke of Mof^covy. Some Authors tell us of Stranu or 
Zambanacb, which ariiwers to* Kn^dt'Alhana, of Zitacb, or Gorgora, 
thought to be the Ancient Getara, or Gagara oiPtolomy, and Cbipeche 
to be the Ancient Chabala, f 

Itccuatains the C;Vca(/?.Mi and D age J! an Tar tar si The Circaffian Coon- ,,,/ 
try is very fertile, producing good ftorc of Fruit and Grain, and aifcr^- 
good Pafture Ground. The Men arevery Corpulent and Robuftjluve ] ; 
broad Faces, but not fquare, like the Crirps and Calwucks; of a I'war- If^ 
* tiiy yellow Complexionjihaving their Heads and Beardsafcer a ftrange ' 


maimer: a 

furly ill natur'd People, good Moife-mcn:jrheir Anr.s 

B b b 2 »,| arc 






5?a Of Turk^uf Jlfid^, "^ 

are a kind of long Bow, which ihev handle with great dexferity.^ 
Their Won^en are verv fair and lovefy, with black Eyes, well pro- 
portioned in their Bodies, of a middle Stature. 

The Dagefian or Dagbefidn Tartars inhabit the Hilly Country, which 
lies towards the Sea ; the Men are in Shapeand Habit much like the 
Circas-Tartarj ; their Arms are Bow and Arrows , and a Scimitar : 
When they ride out, they have Spears and Launces, a Helmet and 
Target i great Men-ftealers, whidi they fell to the Tttrhs and Perfians. 
The Dagefian Tartars are fubjec^ to feveral Princes and Lords, who 
are independantlyibveraign. 

About Detbent appear the Ruins of a )yall, which, is laid to reach 
as far as the Eux'mt Sea ; and in many places of the Country appear 
the: Ruins of many Caftles. 

Scbamachy^ Sammachi& Suwmapbi, thtCyrcfoJ'is ofTtckCtrcambate^ 
T^rjtsi Cjfflttb^Arabibusy was once a ftrong place, but in the Wars of 
the Turk and' Perjiam it was difmantled, and .made an open Village. 
The Streets are narrow, ijae Buildings low; . itharh a fpadous Market" 
place or Began , having feveral Shops, and Galleries, rich in MecchaA». 
djz^s and Manu&dories,Mt mu^fjibje^ to Earthquakes. 

. ". » ■ ■ UA |, ' .."M i . J ^ t i mi ii' TMM » ' I' l l J miN i m i . » 

v-.rr-'"..S- .«• ^»' 



p/- --<• \ 

"■■yf i> . 
I - - 




^ W 4 •• ,^i>.....,^. 4 «"jJ---' 

>me ortfiefe Matids hare bcca^rc^ remaEl[able to Afltiquity, ^o«^^ * 
\^ thers CO us at prefent. The moft remarkable are ; 
I. TeneJos, Calydna & Leucopbrj/n. Fuji. Phertice & Lyrnejfus Tlihi Tmdo -f • 

50^. which produce moft excellent Mttfcadioe Wines andch^p^ftituace' - 


■^;- . 

■ : n 




?^74 OfrurhymAftM. 

near the Mouth oF die f^eilVyJ^«/ eppofitc to Troy^ famous for the con- 
. cealing of the Grecian Navy. 

2. Met i lino, Ltibes jtu'Mjt Una ^ of old Antijj'a, Tthf^ia, Maearea, 
Hemerte, Lafia^ t/Eg)ra & <ty£tbiofey Vltn. & aliis. Its chief City is A/e« 
telim, whicli for i.ts greatncls, and excellency of its Wine, gives Name 
to the Ifland. Here was Sapfho born, the Inventrcfs of iheSafpbick 
Verfe : Vtttacus, one of ihe Sages of Greece ; and Arion the Dolphin 

. Harper. 

3. Chios, of old ty£taliaj ^/Etbale, Maoris & Pityr/a , now Cbio Or 
Scio, by the TurJks Sacher, by the VerfiansStghix, diftant from the /w/- 
an Shores about four Leagues, in compafs about 124 Miles. It afford- 
Cth excellentFruirs in great plenty, but is mott remarkable for its Mu- 
fick,for its Honey, for the Church of its Convent of Niomefn, once 
one of the fairelt in the world. And for the Sepulchre of Homer. It 
uas given to the Ger.nues by the Emperor ^Wrc«/V«/P<i/rfo/ofwi, and by 
them poffeffed. Ann. 1 J65. it wasifcy Selimvt SecunJu, fraudulently 
furprized and taker, and now fubjeift to the Turks, , > 

4. To the Weft of this Ifland lies PJyra, a (mall Ifland now called 
P/<ir<?,witnefs of the unhappy Fate of a great part of the Venetian Fleet 
-1647. and ihe lofs of G. Grimani, then drowsed. 

5". Icaria, novf Nic^ria, of old Do]ichei,Macrir& Icbtbiefa. It abounds 
in Corn and Pafturage, in compafs about So Miles, and is remarkable 
for the Shipxack of Icarus. The pooreft^ and yet the happieft Ifle of 
the whole \/£gean Sea; the Soil Barren, but the Air healthful j their 
Wealth but fmall, but their Liberty and Security great. 

6. Samos is one of the greatefl and moft remarkable Iflands of the 
Archipelago, the Qountt!^ oivphagoras, apd pnee a Kingdom, and go- 
verned by its own Kings. .It is now about 2^ French Leagues in com- 
pa(s, and counts 18 To^ns gfnd Villages, 'xl^f-xM i - V ' /^ 
The Riiines of the dtd City of Samos^ are fix Miles in compafs, o\ti 
againft theoldCity ; about a Mile diftant ftand the new, ndw called 
M(g(ile Chora, where is the Refidence of the Archbiftiop (lately in Iw- 
don) tht'CaJee Aga, ^c. Mont Ctrcetius, Or the Mountain Kkrk^, \$ 
4 thehigheft of the whole Ifland, and is covered with Snow almoft all 
, lihe \ear, and hath a Lake on the top well ftprcd with Eels. • 

The little Samos abounds with a Flower which hath a fragrancy 

-^ like Musk, and hath alfo this ^uaUty, Xhat'^nie dpth ^pt dep^y^ut 

^^tiugment the fragrancy -of its Imelly, This Flower is^trtfttiCplanted^to 

• oVdiie.choiccft Gardens of CQr.ffqnuno^ki^vi^ xhaQravd Si^pij^,'^^^\t^hi? Turin^t^* '^^^ty\^/\'i' ^--^.'-^-^'/r v-r^r^'^/Xf^^ 

- ' ^-C V - '. Car'Icvajj/ 


JUJ.Vf'W — ~. 



OfT0rkri$JJfd. J7^ 

CarUvMJ^ is the (econd Town in the Ifland, having f 60 Mou(es> 
and five Churches ; a place of great Trade to (ea, and yet their ^ort 
is fo unfafo) that they are forced to load their Veflels amore, and fo 
launch them off. Nor mu(^ I forget the SamUn VefTels, fovereign for 
diverrufes in Phyfick and Chirurgery. 

Between Nicaria and Samos, lie the noted Rocks once called MeUn- 
tbiii now Fornoli. 

7. Vatbmtsy Palmofa, Soph, & Bt I. now Pat ifio , by Georgefifies, 36 
Miles in compafs. - • 

Once famous for the Refidence of that great Apoftle St. Jch», and 
for thofe wonderful Revelations which that Evangelift had there, du- 
ring his Banifhment in the time of the Perfecucion undGr Domitiatf, 
which to him indeed was Afocalypfey but to all others Apocrypha, 

The Port called Scala on the Weft fid6 towards Naxos, is the beft 
of all in the Archipelago^ near which fs a Rock of a great heighth, cal- 
led SjnopSf from the Magician in St. Jobni days. The Ifland is well 
ftored with Vines, Fig-Trees, Lemon and Orange Trees and Corn, 
but all fubjed to the Robbery of Py rates, as well Chrifiians asMabe' 
mttans ; fo that Poverty is their belt Prote<aion againft Rapine, and 
Patience the only Remedy againft their Tyrannical Oppreffion. 
, t8. ;Hfr0», nqvjr I^^i about 1 8 Miles in compals, noted for Aloes, 

9. Clarot, now Calamo, 40 Miles in compafs, very mountainous, 
oncefacred to ^;)oi?&, abounding alfo with plenty of Aloes. 

10. Cous, GcSf or Coa, formerly Aleropes, Carta & N/mpbaa, now 
LanfTOf Nig. Stanoora^ Turcit, It is iiO compafs 70 Miles, furnifhed 
with fweet and pleafant Streams ; and is famous for being the- Birth- 
place of HippocrattSy the |lj$|^iver of Phyfick ; and ApiJles the famous 

11. Car pat bos, now Scarpante,}n compafs 60 Miles, ftored with the 
heft Cow/. , ,i;;..j4t<iki .. 

1 2. Rbo^us, Opbiufa df T^lcbitiify Strab. A/feriay. ^/£thraay Ttinacria, 
CorytnUay Foejjay AtabyriayMaearjtai^CatoJja^ according to the Anci- 
ents, in compafs is i; 5* Miles. Its Soil Fertile, its Air temperate ; 
plentiful in all things as well for Delight as Profit ; full of excellent 
Paftures, adorned with pleafant green Trees. The Sun is here fa 
corfftaj^t, tliatjt was dedicated to the Sun, and held facred toVhabusy 
to whom they i^redted tlwt vaftC«>/p^i^iof Brafs, accounted one of the 
Se'ven Winders of the World y faid to be fo Cubits in heighth, every 
Finger as great as an ordinary Statue, and the Thumb too gieat to 
be fathomed, msAfiby Charetes of Lindus, It was 12 years a making, 
and 66 years afterwards thrown down by an £arthquak€*| 900 Ca- 

■f« • 





Z^6 ; Of fitrfy m Afid» 

mels were taden with the Bralt which was ufed about ic to faftenatiS 
hold faft the St,ones. 

The Town or City is well fortified with a trebblc Wall, and five 
IVrong Fortrefles, embracing a moft fafe and admirable Haven, given 
to the Knights of Sr. J»bn J9 AcrtfOX Jerujahm, by Emanuel the Greek. 
Bmperor in the year i;o8. but in the year 1^22. after it had been 
defended agaioft the Infidels 214 years, ic was taken by Solyman the 
Great i aAd after fix Months Siege it was furrendred. HSerius being the 
great Mafter, to. the general diflionour of the.Ch 'ftian Princes in 
3ieir .tardy Succors. 

1;. Cyprui, oi old Crypta, or Ojpton. Vtollt was alfd called C*rtf/«r^ 
Cithin& Cetiwat'then JruafbHfia, Paphia, SaUmiuity Macaria, Cttke" 
reo, Acbamantist Ajperia, CoHinU & Eroja, It is in circuit, according 
. to StrMb. 4317 Miles. To Vlin. ; 7 f . From the Rocky fliorc of CUicia 
60 Miles, and from the Coaft of Syria 100. During the Empire of 
ihe Verftam and Macedonians ^xi contained nine Kingdoms : but by VtoL 
divided into four parts,Stf/<i>w/»<», Amatbufia, Lapatbta, and Papbia, (6 
nam-d of their principal Cities. 

I. Salamii Ptol, Salamim Vlin, was built "by Teucer, when banifhed 
by his Father Ttlamm. ^• 

Afterwards called Conftantia Stefb. hvit deftroyedby the Jewfin the 
days of the Emperor rr<»;4». ., 

And laftly, by the Saracens in the Reign of Reraditu's, from the 
Ruines whereof the Hamacojtas, Fama Augitj^a, now Fatnag«(ta wascre- 
a«d by King Cufta^ the Father of Qieen#r«/i64riw,fjimousin Storv for 
the Unfortunate Valour of the yienetians, -under the Command of Sig- 
uier BragraMne, againft the furious Aflaaks of the Army of Sefynsus II. 
conduAed by Mufiapbaj, who caufedthem all to be murthered but the 
<jovernour, whom he fiead alive, after the Surrender of the Place up- 
on honourable Conditions. 

In Lapatbiat where once ftood Jremitbus, Trimetbus Ttol. Tremifanfa, 

^r Tremifftge Sopb^ now ftands the Regal City of Nicofia, LeuJ/ta & 

Leucotbebn Gnec. Ledrinfisij^ Leutbeon So^fc of a circular Form ^ and five 

^ Miles in circumference^r taken -by the aforefaid Mu/apba, Ann. 1570. 

...with an uncredible Slaughter. 

North of this and upon the Se3if ^OodCeramia, or CeroniaCirynia, 
^'\'Tlifi,Carynia &Cermium Ortel, nowCerivesy ereded by C;r«i, a ftrong 
^lace, yet yielded to the Turks hdiore it was befieged. 

Amatbus, now Limifo, Sacred unto Venus, and wherein the Rites 
andSacrifices'of her /^^o»/mj were annually celebrated ; faid to be built 
by Am^f who was the firft that conquered Cyprus Our late Naviga- 

Of Turkyiit AfiA* 377 

tiotls tell us, chat Laniebo is the City from whence our Marchandizo 
comes chat is laden at Port Salines or Larmca, fo called ; of the abun- 
dance of Sate chat is there made, and here the Tnrk firft landed his 
Army, the chief Port in Cyprus, 

Further Weft ward is a Frommtoryy in form of a Ven'mjulay now cal- 
led, Capo deUe Gatte, formerly Curiof, from a City not fardiftant of the 
fame Name, now called Epfcopia, On this Promontory is the Ruines 
of a Monaftery of Greek Coloieros, who bred up Cats to dcftroy Ser- 
pents, and to return home upon the found of a Bell, and therefore by. 
fome called the C<»;>« 0/ O/^/. 5,^ 

Vhrurium Promont. now Bianco, is the place from whence they werb 
thrown that but prefumed to (ouch Jpollo*s Altar in the adjoining^ 

Paphos Nova, PtoL NeapapbosyPlin.PaUpaphos, Strab,& ^itl", .Pa» • 
fbyum Poly b. now Baffo, or Bapho, built by ^gapenor, five .i.^esfrom 
the old Papboj, faid by Ovid to be built by the Son of Pifmtlion, by. 
his Ivory Statue J fuch, faid to-be, in regardof her Bf.r uiy. Others ■ 
fay it was built by Cyneras, Father and Grandfather to Morfis , wha 
having fworn to aial* MeneUus with jo Ships , fent him only one, 
vvith the M . -lels of the other in Clay to colour his. Perjury. - Both 
places famous for the Worfliip olVenus^ and the Sacrifices which her. 
Votaries of both Sexes did perform in their natural Nakednefs : But 
her Temples were razed to the ground by the proci^rement of St. Bar-^ 
naby, not only here, but throughout the Ifland. 

Eaft wards of Capo St. Pifano, formerly Pro.Acamas, was the City . 
Arfinoe, now Le fear e, LufigyOt Cr'tfoca &. Ak^'endrctta, renowned for 

the Groves of J'^P'^'*- 

This Iflandboaftsof the Births ofJfclapiaJes, Solon, ZenothQ Stoick, , 

ApoUonius and Zenophen, . A Country abounding withal! things necef- 
fary for Life, and therefore called ^/W^cam,; and afforded matter to. 
build a Ship from the bottom of the Keel, to the top of her Top- 
gallant, and to furnifh her with Tackle and Munition. In Summer 
exceeding hot and unhealthy, annoyed with Serpents. The Brooks, 
for Rivers it hath none, are often exhaufted by the Sun, and for 
56 years„ in the time o{ ConfiaKtine, it never rained. It was firft pof-. 
feflcdby the Sons of Japbet, paid Tribute tolWz Eyjptain A mafis^con'. 
quered by BduSf and governed by the Pofterity of Teuary until Cyrm. 
expulfed the nine Kings that there ruled. After the Greciavs repoflTeft. : 
the Sovereignty, and kept it until the death of N/f^c/^j; th^inirfellun-. 
der the Government of the Ptolemy's; then the Wealth of it allured. " 

C c c ' ' ber . 

the KoWiins to giake i Conqueft of it j reftored to CUopatra, 

C 2 


.<,^>*<r^^ ' 

, A».^ 



X r 

1^8 Of Tmfyif$Jf^Sh. 

ber Sifter Arfinoe, by Antonius ; but he overthrown, it was made ». 
l?o»;tf» Province, and with the IVanfmigration of the Empire, fiib- 
nvittcd to the Biz,antint Emperors, governed by a Succeffion of Dukes 
for 800 yearSjWhen conquered by our i?icW<;/ 1, and given in Exchange 
for the Titular Kingdom Jtrufakm, unto Guj of Lufignan, in whofe 
Family it continued until y^«». 1475. It was then by CatharinaCcu 
ifeliay a Venetian Lady, the Widow to King James the Baftard , who 
had taken it by force from his Sifter Car/i?rr*,refigned to the Vtnetians ; 
who, 97 years after, loft it to the Turks, under whofe Yoke it now 
groaneth. 'Tis for the moft part inhabited by Greeks, whofe Ecclefi- 
aftical Eftate is governed by the Archbifliop of Nicofia, and the three 
Biihops of Famago/aj Paphus, and Amathm. 

its chief Mountain is Olj/wpus, containing 50 niiles in its Bafis, now 
called the Mountain of the Holy Crofs, cloathed with Trees, and ftored 
with Fountains and Monafteries, poffeffed by the Greek Coloieres of the 
Order of St. Bafl. 

Its Commodities are Oil, and Grains of feveral forts. Wine, that 
lafteth for eight years. Raifins of the Sun, Citrons, Oranges, Pom- 
granates. Almonds, Figs, Saffron, Coriander, Sugar, Turpentine, 
Rhubarb, Colloquintida, Scammony, &c. Cotton, Wools, Charac- 
lets, Salt, Sope, Afhes. 

There are Mines of Brafs, fome Gold and Silver, Green Soder, Vi- 
triol , Alom , Orpiment, White and Red Lead, and Iron, divers 
kind of precious Stones, viz>, the Emerald and Turky^ 

Thus having defcribed the chief places of the Ottoman Empire,I /hall 
alfo givea fiiort account of their Government, Policy, Religion, &c. 

In order whereunto, we need not fo much regard their firft com- 
ing out of Scythia, Anno ^yj, nor when they feized on Armenia Major, 
giving it the t^ame of Turcomania, Anno 844. nor when Trangrolipix 
overthrew the Perjian Sultan, 1030. nor yet when Cutlu Mofes revolt- 
ed from him, and niadea diftindl Kingdom in Arabia : But whenO/- 
toman, by ftrange Fortunes, and from fmall beginnings, fwallowed 
up the other Families into the Ogu/tanTribe, and united them i-ito 
one Head, Anno 1300. from thence muft we deduce the firft Founda- 
tion of the Ottoman Empire: They had then no Government but what 
was Martial and Arbitrary in the higheft degree; wherefore it is not 
ftrange, if their Laws are Severe, their Juftice Ri^or, their Govern- 
ment Tyranny : That their Emperor (hould be ablolute, uncontroula- 
blcj whofe Speeches may be irrational, and yet Laws J whofe Ai^ions 
'■''^ . r..- ' irregular. 


- u 



Of Tmhy in Jfid. 


irregu!ar, and yet examples j whofs Sentences and jQcfgrnents, tho 
corrupt and inconfidsrate, yet are irrefifrible. Decrees. 

So that when one refleds on the fmall reward for Vertue, and no 
punifhment for thriving Vice j how men are raifed by Flattery , Chance, 
and the fole Favour of the Prince, to the weightieft and moft ho- 
nourable Charges of the Empire, without any previous deferts, or ex- 
perience of Parts or Abilities : When one confiders, that one Frown 
of their Prince cuts them ofT, that th^ir Treaf^re is their Snare, and 
their Riches will inevitably effedl their Ruine, though they have all 
the Arguments of Faithfulnefs and Honefty ; one might admire the 
long continuance of this vaft Empire, and wonder at the encceafe of 
its Dominions. 

But that which cements all Breeches, and cures the greateft Difor- ** 
derSjv is the quicknefs and feverity cf their Juftice, which makes evert v 
Crime relating to Government, equal, and puniflies ic with the latt 
and extreamelr punifhment, Death. And to die by the Hand, or 
Command of the Grand Simory with an entire Refignation, is ac- 
counted thehigheft point ofMartrydom, the greateft reward of Faith- 
fulnefi, and the confummation of all Honour. Otherwife this great 
Body wouldburft with the Poyfon of its own ill Humors, and fpiead '■■ 
into ruinous DiviHbns. 

The Youth, that are defigned for the great Offices of the Empire, 
arecalled by the Turks Jcboglansy whichare of Chriftian Parents, taken ^ 
in. the War, or pcefented &om remote Parts, fo that they have no o- - 
ther Relations nor Dependencies ; no other Intereft ta ferve, belides 
that of their Great Mafter, to whom they are taught by Education, 
and compeird by neceflity, to be faithful : And indeed they are the 
beft adapted Inftruments for fuch a Tyrannic Prince, whom he can . 
raife without envy, and deftroy without danger. 

Their chiefeft ftudies and learning is in Reading and Writing, being - 
inftruded in the Arabian Tongue, wherein the Secrets and Treafure of 
their Religion and Laws are contained, efpecially the Alcoran. The . 
more Polite and Ingenious learn the Fer/?<w» Tongue, which fits them 
with Eloquence, corr'^iSs the grofsnefs, and enriches the barrenness of r 
the Turktfj Language. 

They have fome Ejcks of Poetry, written both in Terfian^nA Ara- 
hick; but as for Logick, Phyfick,, Metaphyfick, and Mathematicks, , 
they are wholly ignorant of them : Some certain Rules of Aftrology 
theyha>Fe, with wliich they bufie themfelves in Prophefies of ktiire 
Contingencies in the Affairs of the Empire: As for Geography, the 
wifeft and greateft amongft them have not the lead inrpedioa into ic, 

C c c z . nor .- 

' * ,. 





380- of i^urky h Afid. * ' 

nor durft their Seamen heretofore venture beyond fight of Land, ha- 
ving little knowledge of the Art of Navigation, until fome improve- 
ment, which of late they have made therein : As for Hiftory or Chro- 
nology, they underftand fo little, that the moft Learne-fl affirm Job to 
be a Judge in Solomons Court, and that Alexander the Great was Gene- 
ral of his Armies. 

The Vifter Az.em, or Prime Vijier, whofe great Office of Charge and 
Truft, as it is the higheft, fo it is the neareft to Jove's Thunderbolt, 
and moft expofed to Envy and Deftrudion. It being-the Policy of the 
great Princes of the Eaft to conftitute one on whom all the blame of 
mifcarriages in Government might be thrown, whilft^hey with the 
more freedom enjoy theirSoftnels and Luxury. This great Minifter, 
'*. as he is the Reprefentative of the Grand Signior, becaufe to him all the 
power of the Sultan is immediately devolved 5 fo he is the Head or 
Mouth of the Law ; and to him are all Appeals made, and his State 
and Greatnefs lives in the Honour of him whom hereprefentsjand his 
Power, in refpeft of his Inferiors, is as ample as his Matter's who 
gives it him. Next to this Viper Azem, are the feveral Beglerhegs, which 
are fo many general Governments, upon which depend feveral Sangi- 
acks or Provinces; there being in Turkic about 50 Beglerbegs, whereof 
22 are //«'/, that is, fuch as have their Revenue allotted them in the 
places that they govern, colle«aed by their own Officers according to 
Commiffion : Of which the firft is Kiotai, or Cboutaja of Anatolia, t he 
yearly Revenue of which is a Million of Ajfers, ana hath under its Ju- 
rifdi(%ion 14 Sangiacks, and the Command of 22 Caftles. The 2d is 
at Cogni, or Iconium in Caramania, whofe Revenue is 660074 Afpersy 
and contains 7 Savgiacks, and lo Caftles. The 3d Diarbeker, or San-- 
giar, whofe Revenue is a Million 200660 Afpers, and hath 19 San- 
giacksy of which a 1 1 are properly belonging to the 0//ow«« Royalties, 
and arc Curaian Countries, called Hukenmet, or SalineyV/hkh haveno 
Lords or Timariots to command them, but are abfolute Mafters of their 
own Eftates. The.4th is Sehantf or Damas, whofe Revenuels a Milli- 
on of Afpers y and hath 7 Sangiacks, and 5* Sangiacks Saline, The yth 
is Sivfas in Armenia^ which hath 900000 Afpers Revenue, and 6 San- 
giacks, and 19 Caftles. The 6th is that of Erzerum, on the Confines 
of Georgia, which hath a Revenue of a Million 200660 Afpers, and 
contains ii Sangiacks, &n6 12 Caftles. The 7th is the Government 
of IVan or Van in Media , of a Million 132209 Afpers , and hath 
14 Sangiacks. The 8th is Tehilder, on the Confines of Georgia, with 
a Revenue of 925:000 Afpers, and 9 Sangiacks. The 9th is the Go- 
vernment of Sdeberezurm Affyria, which hath a Million of Afpers, and 
^': - '' ■ ' • ■ . 20 San- 

/ t 

Of Turky in Aftn. }8i 

20 Sangiacks. The loth is Halep , or yileppty which hath 877772 
Afperj, and commands 7 Sangiacksy and two in which are no Timariots. 
The I ith is Marafcb, near the River Euphrates, being a Revenue of 
6284^0 AfperSf itid commitids ^ Safigiacks. The 1 2th is the Go< 
vernment of Cyprus, or Kibros, allowed a Revenue of 5*006 fo Afpers^ 
and commands 7 Sangiacks , 4 with Has, and ; with Saline , and 
14 Caftles. The 13 th is Tripoly of Syria, or Tarabolas Scham, hath a 
Revenue of 800000 Afpers, and 4 Sangiacks. The 14th is Trahiz.ond, 
formerly the Imperial Sat of the Comneni, Tea ted on the £<yx;»f Sea; 
This hath no Sangiacks , but the Revenue is j^^S^o Jfpers, with 
14 Caftles. The lyth is that of Kari, hath a Revenue of 82o65'o 
^pers, and commands 6 Sangiacks. The i6th is that of Moful ,- or 
Nineveh, in Anuria, a Revenue of 68 10 y 6 jifpers, and commands 
5 Sangiacks. The 17th is of Ri;fe<», hath a Revenue of 680000 Afpers, 
and 7 Sangiacks : Thefeare the Beglerhegs in ^y7<». Of th6feinJ£«ro;>f, 
the iSth^i'is^. that of Romuliis the moft honourable ; the Seat of the 
Pafca, or £<7/]E>4 , is at Sophia , it hath a Million and loocoo Afpers 
yearly Revenue , commands 24 Sangiacks, whereof Adorea was one, 
tho now made part of the Revenue ofthe Queen- Mother. The 19 th , 
is the charge of the Kupu^an, or General of the ffbite Seas, whofe Re- 
venue is 88 f 000 Afpers; he is Admiral of the 7«r/fe//fc Fleet, ard com- 
mands i; Sangiacks, whofe ReHdence is ac Galipoli. The 20(h is that 
of Buda i:; Hungary, it commands 21 Sangiacks. The 21ft is that of 
Temepwaer, and hath 7 Sangiacks. The 22d is that of J5fl/»<7, now 
c^iWedi Sclavonia, which commands 8 5«>srj^fVc/^/. Thofethat are with 
Salary, or paid out of the Grand Sigpior's Treafury, are firft, that of 
Grand Cairo, or Mijir, who hath a Revenue of 600000 Scheriffs, or Ze- 
f i&i»x, a year, and commands 16 Sangiacks, befidesas much is the Tri- 
bute paid the Grand Signior, and another Sum of 600000 Zecbir.s year- 
ly goes to the Payment of the Turks. The id is the Government of 
Bagdet, or Babylon, which hath a Revenue of a Million and 7000C0 
A^ers, and commands 22 Sahgiacks. The 3d is that of Timen in Ara^ 
bia Felix, whofe place of Refidence is Aden, upon the Red Sea,v/h.\(:\i 
is now under the power of the Arabians. As is alio the Governn.ent 
of Habelcb, upon the Confines of the Abajfmes, now wholiy loft to the 
Turks. And the Government of ^o/rrf, or B<///«y<», a Maritime City in 
the Sinus Verficm, where were reckoned 26 Sangiacks, but now the 
Turks have no power there. Laftly, the Government of Labfe , on 
the Confines of Ormus, where p'^^ ^' giacks, but poor and inconfi- 
derbale. . : ^ . ■£'' 


. -^ -<■ 

To thefe, we fliould a44 t|\« Governroents of Algien, Twwy and 
TtipoUin Batbary, but thefe a^e oow much fallen off from the Turk's 
obedknce, and almoft indepcpdent^and fubfifting of them&Wes. 
; Befides the Dominion of the Grand Signior already mentioaedy he 
pofleffes 5«<i^«€w upon the RfdSea ; Dolfar and Ekaltfy Afafhy of A^ae, 
at the Mouth of Don ;Temr<fck, near the Faltu Meotis ; Caga, aadothei: 
^hces in Le£er Tar tary; BtjJarahiayOcz.iacoiUy and I>tt//4», towacdsthc 
Mouth of the Niepery and the Kingdomiof Zihit an d Zidaty m Arabia 
th* Happy. All which ioa^ be feeain the Jbllowipg Map. 


So ^ in Itfs than 300 Yeari, the7t»nls have made Coni^iiefts in 
Euroft^Afiat and Afrita^ as confiderable asthofeof the Romans^ who 
5>ent 8yo e're they acconiplifti'd theirs. 

The delightful Fields of Afia, the pleafant Plains of Greece^ the 
Plenty of Egypt, the Fruitfulncfs of the N//^, the Luxury of Corinth^ 
the Subftanceof PekpoHttefm, Letmos, Scio, with other Iflesof the Ege- 
an Sea, the Spices of Arahia^ the Riches of great part of Vtrfia and 
Georgia, all Armenia and Ajjyria, the Provinces of y^//<« Minor, the Coun- 
tries of 5yrw, VaUftine and Pbanicia , the Principalities of Moldavia,, 
Valackia, Romania, Bulgaria, Servia, and the heft part of Hungarid, 
concur altogether to fatisfy the Appetite of this Turkipt Sultan j In all the 
Extent of this vaft Territory, the Lands and Houfe's, as wfeU ^s the Ca- 
ftles and Arms, being all his, and at his fole Difpofa) and Gift ; only 
CO l^ands dedicated to Religious Ufes hedifclaims all Right., and will 
not ( to thcvfliame of our Sectaries) violate the Penetralta of the San* 

Theabfolute and unlimited Power of this Prince is evident by his 
Titles, 2S,God on Earthy The Shadow of God, Brother to the Son and Moon, 
The Giver of all Earthly Crowns, &c. And 'tis an ordinary faying, That 
the Grand Signior is above the Law, that the written Law is Contrpu- 
Uble,that his Mouth is the Law it felf, and thepowet of an infallible 
Interpretation is in him. 

It is vulgarly known to all, that their Law was compiled by Mahc- 
met with the help of Sergius the Monk, whofe infamous Life is parti- 
cularly recorded by many Authors,and coo tedious cobe repeated here: 
1 (hall therefore only fay , That though there is a great diverfity amongft 
Doctors as touching the Explanation of their Law ; yet Chere are five 
Articles, or Fundamentals thereof, to which every Turk is obliged. 
I. Cleanefs in the outward parts of the Body and Garments. 2. To 
make Prayers five times a day* 5. To obferve their Ramazan , or 
monthly Faft. 4. To perform faithfully the Zekat, or giving of Alms, 
y. To make their Pilgrimage to Mecha, if they have means and pofli- 
bility to perfoiwi it. The fole Article of Faith required to be believed, 
is, That there is but one God, and Mahomet his Prophet. 

When Mahnmetamfm was firft weak, and therefore put on a modeft 
Countenance andplaufibe Afpe<5l to deceive Mankind, then it courted 
and favoured the Chriftian Religion, drawing its Tenets and Do- 
ctrines in fome Conformity to that Rule, confeffing Chrift to be a 
Prophet, and greater than Mofes, that he was born of a Virgin, &c. 
But as foon as its Government encreafed, and that by Arms and bad 
Arts the Grand Stgnior had fecurcd his Kingdom j his promifes of To- 



384 OfAtrky in ^p4. 

leration and Indulgence were changed into a har/her Note, and his 
£dids were then for Blood <>.?d Ruine ; whac knots of Argument he 
could not untie, he cut, and mac^e his Spiritual Power as Targe as his 
Temporal. Yet to'^/'irds h'rroHowers, he rendred his Precepts eafie 
and pleafant, acceptable to the Fancy and Appetite, as well as to the 
Capacity of the Vulgar : Reprefenting Heaven to them, not in a fpiri- 
tual manner, or Delights unexpredible, and Ravifliments known on- 
, ly in part to illuminate Souls; but with grofs Conception of the Beau- 
ty of Women, of the Duration of one A<aof Carnal Copulation, of 
the beaftly SatisfaAlon of a gluttonous Palate f and that Perfuafion 
and principle in their Catechtjm, That the Souls of thofe who die in 
the fVars 'again^ Cbrifiiam, are therefore ioMttsdiately tranfporied to 
Paradife, muft necelTarily whet the Swords, and raife the Spirits of 
the Soldiers, and is the reafon they run fo eagerly to their own Slaugh- 
ter J efteeming their Lives and Bodies at no greater Price than the va- 
lue of Stones and Rubbifli to fill Rivers and Ditches. 

' The Mufti is the principal Head of the Mahometan Religion, or O- 
racle of all doubtful Quenions in their Law, and is of great efteem 
amongft the Turks. When he paffeth Determination in any Cafe, it is 
brought to the Cadie or Judge, and the Grand Signir himfelf will in 
no wife contradi<5t or oppofe it ; fo that Law^Suits of the greateft mo- 
ment are concluded rnan hour without Arreft of Judgment, Appeals^ 
or other dilatory Arts of Law. 

The State of Marriage is accounted both Honourable and Holy a - 
mongftthe Turks, yet thePriefts or Churchmen hath the leaft hand in 
the Solemnity, but it is performed by the Cadie or Judge. Tdygamie 
is freely indulged to them by their Religion, as far as the number of 
four Wives. And leaft this Confinement fhould feem a reftridlion of 
their Liberty, and free ufe of Women, every one may befides enjoy 
his Women Slaves, which is not much envied by the Wives, folong as 
.they enjoy theirdue Maintenance, anda reafonableftiare in theirHuf- 
bands Bed : For if negle(aed above a Week, (he hath Remedy by Law; 
and if fhe befo modeft not to die for the Default, fiie is often fo inge- 
nious to contrive a fupply of her Wants, being accounted the moft la- 
fcivious of Women, and excel in the moft refined and ingenious Sub- 
lilties to fieal their Pleafure; which if difcovercd , the Blood of her 
Family is reckoned tainted and difgraced ; but the Husband getting a 
Divorce, quits himfelf of his Wife and Diftonours together. 
- Among all the Piivileges that the Sultan enjoys above his SubjeAs, 
this one he has Icfs than they, that he cannot marry, yet hath as many 
Women as fl-rves his ufe, tho never fo libMinous, which are kept in 
ikcSeragiio, like Horfes in Stables, Circum- 



Of Turky in Afii, 385^ 

Circumcijion Is not reckoned one of the Five Points which confti- 
tute a true Mahometan Believer, but is only propofed as a tryal and 
proof of iClan's obedience to the more necelTary parts of the Law. 

They never Circunicife tlicir Children untiithe Age of 7 years, 
and upwards ,• and then they do it by a Barber or Chyrurgion. 

The Forces of the Turks are very numerous, their Armies well dit- 
ciplin'd, and the Belief of Predefiinatim , befides the ufe of O^/V/w, 
makes them bold to undertake any Enterprife. Their Militia is ot two 
forts,one receives Maintenance from certain Lands befto wed on them 
by the Grand Signior : And thefe again are either Zaifns or Ttmariots^ 
which together may amount to about 1 00000 Men, and come under 
the general Denomination ofS^ahts, axid compofe the Turkijk Horfe. 

The other fort, which receive their conftant pay in ready Mo- 
ney, out of the Grand Signior s Treafury, are tlie janizaries, who are 
now increafed to the Number of an 1 00000 , and the next main 
Sinew of the Ottoman Power ; being confidered in the Wars, they 
are the beft Difciplined Soldiery ofthe Turkijh Camp. 

Befides thefe in Eppt^thtrc are 20000 Horfe, paid at the Charge 
ofthe Country, ana 80000 Ttmariots t the Crim Tartars are alfo to 
furni/h him with an looooo Men, ana the Prince in Perfon to lead 
them, if the Grand Siptior come into the Field ; otherwife but half 
the Number. And the Princes of Valachia, Moldavia^ and Tranjiha-- 
nia, are never excufed from Perfonal attendance in tlie Camp with 
6 or 70Q0 Men apiece. 

But thc^Ottoman Armies are not now fo renowned for their Chi- 
valry and Difcipline , as in former times ,• that ancient Sublimity 
and Majefty o^ the Sultan is much abated, their Forces by Land de- 
cayed, their Maritime Power weakened, nothing remains of their 
Ancient Government and Val©r ; nor doth the Ottoman Court re- 
munerate the Services^ exaU the intereft ofthe Cavalry, or main- 
tain the Reputation ofthe Janizaries ; but grow Rich and Luxuri- 
ous with Peace and Plenty, they, are much declined from their 
Greatnefs and Powep: : for in this vaft and large Empire Countries 
are depopulated j Villages abandoned, whole provinces, as pleafant 
and fruitful as Tempe or TkeJJalj , uncultivated and turned into a 
Defert or Wildernefs. 

, • .t 

•■•\7 . I- ■■'^ 

f i ' . I 

ii.;./.:'i.«:'"'; • . 










, .j,.\. 





m* the Name from W* . which figoifie, a i),/^ .-^oKoS 

"P"'™"' mi^m^tm^m^m 



Of Arahia, 


SarakejWhich fignifics Robkry. They that deduce the Etymology from 
Saraby affirm^That the Saraz,ens, being at firft called Agarens, chofo 
rather to bear the Miftreffes than the Servants Name, and fo changed 
their AffeUatien. 

The Arabians that live in Cities, go by the Name o^ Moors. They 
that live in the Deferts are divided into Tribes, and every Tribe into 
Families, which have every one a particular CheikyWho acknowledges 
thcfupremeCAw^. Thefe Vagabond -<4r<j^i<MM boaft thcmfelve^to be 
the moft Nobj€ People in the World ^ for wliichreafon they never 
ally themfelvci with any other Nation but their own. They could 
never be fubdufed either by the t/£gypttansj Perjigns, Greeks, Romans, 
or Turks : Button the contrary, they have i'etled themfelves in feve- 
ral Parts of ^J?/V<»,where they have a large Dominion. They wan- 
der up and down in that iaHiion , the better to find out Patturage 
for their Cattel, and to free themfelves from die oppreffion of the 
Turks. The Bajha's of the Grand Siinior, who are their Neighbours, 
and the Caravans, are forced to give Money to the Cheiksy to pre- 
ferve themfelves from being molefted or delpoiled by them in their 
Journies. Under U//V, one o£ the Caliphs, or Arabian Princes, their 
Empire extended from Meffa, upon the Atlantick Sea, to the River 
Indus I {o that in length it exceeded the JRo«;<»», Empire. 

The Arabick Language is fo enchanting, that 'tis a common Hy-' 
perbole. That the Saints in Heaven, and thofe in Varadife, fpeak it : And 
as in it the Holy Decalogue was given, fo , as an Allay, therein was 
hatched the Pelujive Alcoran, and therefore is generally received in 

Thefe AnMans, hecAuie of their continual lying in the open Fields, 
were once sn counted the hQ{{ Afirologers and Phyfidans in the World, 
as Rbajis and .Mefue , Avicen and -^o/^rroM Philofophers ,• Algazaks, 
Hali, Albumawr Aftrologers ^ great Geographers Leo and Abulfeda. 

The Bedtiins aftd Bengebres, who are the moft known People, are 
fo inclined to Robbery , that their principal Maintenance confifts 
in plundering ol Paffengers, claiming a Priviledge to demand jjfe- 
maeh Right from the Sons of Ifaac. They are very dextrous on 
Horfeback, in maiuging their Bows and Half-Pikes, lb that Thirty . 
Turkish Mufqueteers will hardly attack Ten of thefe Arabians arm- . 
ed after theii* manner. .: 

• Their Wealth confifts in Herds of Cattel and Horfes,which wil^?' 
travel great Journies ,• of which they make fo great reckoning, thhi' 
they keep a Regiftw ©f their Breed^ which is approved by certain 

Dddi _ J ■ They 


■V";-.> .- 




388 Of Arahia, . . ; ■ r , 

Tliey fit at Meals upon their Hceb ,• and the oldeft among them* 
wears the richeft Habit, and the moft gay Colours. Their prede- 
ceffors forbad Building, and Tilling their Lands ^ alledging, that 
were but to invite Enemies to invade , and make them a Prey to 
enjoy it. 

The Succeffion of the Kingdom belongs to that Noble Pcrfoit 
who was firft born after the King was proclaimed. And, indeed, to 
compare the Manners and maxims of the Jfiatkks and Etirofeam to--' 
gether, we may fay. That thQ Art^Umi arc lik& the Jir<f /m»/ , the 
Verjtans like the Frenchy and the Turks like the Spaniards,- 

Arabia^ in general, was ftiit catted" .E^/&w/»/4, is fubjedl to fuch ex- 
ceffive Heats, that People are cohftrained generally to Travel by 
Night. There are abundance of Mountains, but few Rivers. It Js 
divided into three parts. The Stovfy^th^Dcfert, x^QHaffy. The two 
firft belong, almoft, to the Turk ; the Happy Arabia acknowledges 
feveral petty Princes. 

The Stony Arabia Barraab, Nahathaa Vtol, Rarra Cafiald. Bingau- 
tal Zeigkr. RathaUAJba^h incolis, was anciently poffeffed by the Mi- 
dianiteiy Moabites, Amafekitesy and the Uumaausy or Edcmites, The. 
Lands of the Ammonites or AmorittSy and of Og King of BaJhui/^v/GtG 
parts o^ Arabia Petrea ; though it be alfo true, that fomd part of yf- 
rabia Deferta belonged' to the ^rniaelites and Amalekites ,• The Inha- 
bitants thereof at this time pay a Tribute to the Bajjha o( Cairo.'' Pf- 
tra gave it its Name, which fignihes a Rocky whereon it was^ built, 
was a place of great ftrength , and much noted as wettin Holy- 
Writ, as in prophane Hiftory. Bcfieged in v^in by Severusy and be- 
fore him by Trajan, who was compelled to throw ^away his Im{)e- 
rial Habit, and flie for his Life. 

Yet AmazJahy King of Judah , after he had flanghtered loooo 
of the Kdomiiesy took it by War , and called it Joktheel y 2 Kings' 
14. 7. I • -ii.A'. ryArmh j;:'./ ,;.v?^v ;c; ■■■•' ' . ? 

The Soldans of Egypt , for the exceeding ftrength thereof,- kept 
therein all their Trealiires^ Of this place, fee more in the Defcrip- 
tion of C<3!»<i</», and the bordering Countries. 

Bofiraj now BuJJeretby is a place of good Efteem , I fuppofe the, 
iame with Petra. > .1. [' ■ . > 

Tory Or El Tor, Upon the Red Sea y is a pittiful Haven, defended by 

a Four-fquare Caftle ^ near to it are found Champignons, petrifedvbite 

' Coral y Seal-skins ySmall Oyfiersy and fometimes Sea-Monfiers Hke men. 

They report that this was the Haven Ez,ion Geber, (rom which Solomon 

fent hisShips for 0^/6/>.Mount Hmb and Sinai are famous in Scripture, 








Of ArahU, 


' "i 'Atahla the Defer t, or Seriara , is a pUkce almoft quite deiiitiite of 
Water ,* or if there b« any Welis , the Watet- is for little fervice. 
Jna upon- the Euphrates ( the place where the Gr^w^ Seigniors Tri- 
bute is paid '3 as the Lord of the Country) is the beft place in it. 
There is one King in jirahia that has a moving and portative City, 
that is to fay, it confifts in Tents, which he can command them to 
carry where he pleafes. Sumifcafae is thought to be the aiKicrit Sa- 
bay whence the Magi fet forth to adore Chrift, and the Qucitn t© 
y{(\Z Solomon, . . '.) - . ; 

But Sir Thomas Herbert tells us^ That, after the Flood, NimrodSo-^ 
vereignizing at Babylon , his Brother Havilah feated his Colony in 
Sufianaj Seba, Raamah , tand Sahbata^ in Arabia. Seha or Sheba ^ed 
on the Weftern Coaft adjacent to the Red Sea , where he built a 
City after his own Name, fropi whence the Queen caroe that vifn 
ted 5o/owo», as he fuppofdth.j ' u 

ThuxSab^ta planted the South-part oi Arabia ,• and Raamah , or. 
Rhegma, on the North-eaft part towards Balfera , where they built 
Cities after their Names, mention'd Ezek, 27. 

In thefo^parts was the Wildertiels where the Children of Ifracl 
wandered 40 years. Here Mofes eftabliflied Ecclefiaftical and Po- 
litical Laws. Here was the burning Bufh , the Water-bearing 
Rock , the Mountains of 5/«« and Horeb , and Mount Hor where. 
Aaron died: 

The HappfArabia^ Hyaman or AimaryGemen or GiamenTurcis^Mar- 
motta, Sarraceni* ; Sabaa, Plin. carries that Narpe, as being a more: 
fruitful Soil than either of the two. It breeds excellent Horfis^Man^ 
na, Cinnamon, Myrrhe, Balfam , Benjamin , Incenfe , and other Per-* 
fumes,* fo tha.t ii Aromatick Gmns ^ Succulent Fruits , Fragf 
Flowers J and fuch fort of Delicacies pleafe thy fenfe, fay, Arabia is. 
the Phanix of the Eafi, and with Danaus, The Efttome of Delizht, and. 
with St. Aufiin, Paradife. The Air is temperate and healthful. Tlie. 
Country enriched with pleafant. Streams and Fountains , whofe: 
Waters are Medicinal. 

Aden is a Town gf great Trade, ftanding in « little Peninfula, at: 
the foot of a Mountain guarded with two Caftles towards the Norths 
and a fmall Fortrefs at the Entry into the Haven. The Portuguefes^ , 
when they firft fettled themfelves in the J»«^iw,,had a defign to niaka 
themfclves Mafters of this City;, as alfo o£Ormus and Malacoa, But 
the Turk prevented them from taking Aden, the King whereof they . 
hung at the Yards-Armof the Admiral's Gaily. Since which, fomet; 
* other Revolutions have happen'd, fo that the Natives of the Coun- 
try have again difpoifeffed the Turks, Mwtd and Medim are famous 





390 Of AiniiA^ • ^ 

for the Pilgrimages of the Mahomttam : For which they that make 
them, are in high efteem among the reft. They go j^articularly to 
Mecca, to pay their Devotions to a Fourrfquare Houle, which they 
call Tie Houfi afhod, and pretend the fame to have been built by 
Abraham. This City, containing about 6000 Houfcs, ftands about 
a days Journey from the Red Sea, being the place where Mahomet 
wasDorn, whofc Body was afterwards tranflated to A/tf^/iw*, upon 
the ^{{cox^i^y oi Albuquerque the Fonuiuefes defign to have furpri- 
zed the Port of Ziden, otherwife Giddcy widi an intention to have 
carried away that Muhometan Relique. The Country about Mecca 
produceth abundance of that fortofBerry,of which Cojfeeis made. 
Kufa, or Kalufa the Holy City, callecl Rafiack when walled by 
Otnify the Burial place oiMmis-Ali , Saint, Kin^ and Prophet of 
the Verfiant, ; > > 

Medina is three days Journy from the Red Sea the burying place 
oi Mahomet y as the Turks pretend. The Sepulchre or Tomb where- 
in Mahomet lieth,is encloled within an iron Grate and covered with 
Green Velvet, which is every year made new, and fent by the GrW 
Seignior, t\iQ old one being by the Prieftscut in little pie;pes,and fold 
at great Rates, as Reliques, to the Pilgrims. In the. Temple where 
this Tomb is placed, there are faid to be 2000 Laiftps of Gold and 
Silver,wherein is Ballam,and other Rich Oaours,Ointments and Oils 
continually kept burning. They would impofe it for a Mirac!e,that 
his Tomb fhould hang in the Air by means of the Loadttone: But 
befides that there is no fuch thing,were it true, there were no won- 
der in it; For Democr'ates the Athenian ^y the Order ofPtolome^ King 
of Egypt , undertook to make the Statue ofArJinoe all of Iron, and 
to hang it up in the fame manner. And in the Temple of Serapis 
in Alexandria, there was an Iron Sun that hung in the Air by the 
force of a toadftone, being a rare piece of Workmanfliip. 

The Prince of Mecca ^ called Sultan Sheriff, is one of the moft po- 
tent Princes in all Arabia : His refidence is ufually at Ahnacharana^ 
feated on the top of an high Mountain of difficult accefs. 

Sanaa is one ^t the greateft, faireP-, and ftrongeft Towns of Ara' 
bia, adorned with Vineyards, Meadows and Gardens. 

Dafar is one of the chief Ports upon the Red Sea, next to 2ibit, 
near the mouth of the Red Sea, which is Fair, Rich, and of great 
Trade for Drugs, Spicer, Verfimes, &c.Oncethe Refidence of a Turkiflj 
JBeglerbeg; before that,th£ Seat of a King, beheaded by the Turks, slz 
the fame time when the King of A Jen was hanged at the Yards- Arm 
of the Admiral's Ship. The Parts ofDolfar and Pefcher ire moft 


.> - .' 




renowned on the South-CoaftforFrankincenfe. ThcCrinJ Signiffr. 
the Verjian Sophi, and other Mshometan Monarchs , oft-times fend 
himPrefenesjandthe firft allows him alfo feme part of the Revenue 
of Egypt becaufe he is of the Race of Mabormty and to oblige him 
to be kind to the Pilgrim Turks, 

Fartach, a Kingdom and City near the Sea^ CaMem, Guheihamah 
Alibinaliy AmahzAridiny Masfatey Mafcalaty and yemen, are fo many 
Siiltanies or petty Kingdoms in the Happy Arabia : MitfcatCy or Maf^ 
c/ttfyifytiot f&r from Raz^lgate, Coradanmnftol.Macm Amiamy thought 
CO be Rhngumay Rhegma of Pt§l. the Raamah of Kx>ek. 27. 22. for- 
merly belonging to the Portuguefe yha^y for a long time,, all the Tt-ade 
of the Indies to Meccay through the conveniencyof the Cities ii/f<»r//; 
or the'ancient Gtrra, which communicates its name to the Verfinn 
Gulph, and Lah[a^ or Lax»avch, Sobsr m the Eaftern part had alfb 
formerly the Trade, but fince the fame hath been tranflated to Or- 
fnus and Gomhron, Mocha upon the ked Sea is an open City, indif- 
ferently well built , and fortified with a fmall Caftle. In it there 
live Jfwsy "Perjiansy Armenians y hdiansy and Banians : So that it is a 
Town of great Commerce ,• and there it is, that all the Pilgrims 
land that come from the halts to Mecca. It hath alfo much increa- 
fed in Riches ana iv mte, in regard that the Veffels that come from 
Sues to, Aden, rather chule to unlade there, to avoid the dangerous 
paiT^ges of Babel'Mandel, Diedori hfula, Arriam. tefie Rhamtffio, 


( / 

r,'t„:\..U '^u/.-V-." •• \ 

', , Ml- IT > 

'•' ' . } 

1 1 

■■:♦■■. 4., 



; ■%■- 




.r.ia ./•'■« xo' h:i . Vjr,-.:! ' 

'Hi -^ - * i 


THE Jungdom or Empire of Pff/^, is at prefent one of the 
greateftand moft famous o{ Afia ^ yet is but a part of the 
ancient Empire of the Verfiam ,• for the -^^Jr/Vw Monarchy contained 






alt that whi::h both TmrkssiA Vetfim^x this day poiTers in that part 
of the World : And beginning under I^kj^ lansa 1 3 or 1400 years, 
ending in that Notorious and effeminate Epicure, SardMiafalut, 

After which it was divided into that of the Mides and Bahioniatis, 
who continued it lefs than 300 Years. Then the Perjims made them* 
felves Matters of it during 200 and odd Years, under CyrMs Son of 
Camhyfes, Son of Cyrus, Son of Dmus, Son of Achamenes . Son of 
Ferfis jWhOy laith I/idore, gave Perfia its Name. In Nimrois oays, cal- 
led Chufa, or Cuth; in CbeJorlaomers, and to Daniel's time, Ehm; sS- 
terwards Perfia, from Perfius, Son otPerfeus, a Grecian Hero, Son to 
Jupiter, by Danae the Daughter ofAcrifius, Afterwards called Arfaca^ 
&om Ar faces the Heroick Parthian. After by the Inhabitants, Arua^ 
By the Tartars, Corfaca, By the Arabians, Saraednca* By the Turhs^ 
Azamia and Axmia, Farfi & Farfifian Incolis. 

The Macedonians and Greeks fucceeded ,* for having Ruined the 
Empire of the Perfians, they gave a beginning to that of the Maee^ 
donians : But Alexander the Great held this Empire but few Years, and 
dying, it was Cantonized out among his Captains,who, taking die 
Title of Kings, waged War againft each other, till the Remans CA- 
zed the Weftem, and the Partbians the Oriental part of that Mo- 

Thefe Partbians freed themfelves from the R^ile of the Maeedo^ 
nians 2 ^o years before the Birth of Chrift,4nd reigned neat ^ 00 years. 
Artaxerxes reftored the Perfian Government 228 Y'cars afterCnrift s 
Nativity. About the Year 6oy , the Calif h of Bagdat , Omar, or 
Hopmar, the Third after Mahomet, became Mafter ofit. So thatP«n- 
fta, after a long uninterrupted Succeffion of 28 Kings ftom Artax- 
erxes, fets in an eclipfed Cloud, and becomes fettered under the I- 
ron Yoke of a Saracenick Bondage ^ once garniflied with 22 King- 
doms , formidable to the Roman Emperors , and Miftrefs of the 
greateft part ofAfi^. 

In the Year 1257 or 8, the l^rf^fw exterminated the whole Race 
of the Caliph of Bagdat. And in the Year 1472. the Turcomans of 
Armenia got the Kingdom. But about the Year i foj. IJhmael So- 
fhi once more re-eftabliflied the Perfians in the poffefliion of the O- ' 
riental part of that ancient Empire, which now extends from the 
Tygris and Euphrates on. the Weft, almoft to the River Indus on the 
Eaft ^ And from the Perfian Gulph , and the River Ow.i on the 
North, to thf; Perfian and hdian Seas on the South. 

But that you may the better underfland the full extent of theDo- 
minions of this large Kingdom, I fhall give you the true Number of 

E e € / the 






3^ OfPirfa.. -■ - 

the Provinces of tjie whole Gpntinent of Per/£* , according to the- 
old and new Defcriptions of fevetal Geographers. 

And firft the old Names by CW«r^were GedroJia,Cart9tania, Dran- 
gana^ Aracofia^ 'Parofamtfs, BaHriana^ Margiana, HyreanUfy Aria^ Par- 
tbiay Verjisy Sufiana, -^JJin^ta^ Media. ; 

The new Names Sarc, Cufiftan, Elaran, Farfi, Arac, Elfabar^ Diar- 
gumtnt y Corafotty Sablefiatty Candahory Sigefiaffy Chejimury Kirmarty 

2. By Baudraity old Names , Media, Hyrcaniay Margianay Affyria 
parSy Sujianay Partbiay Aria, Paropanifusy Caldeay Perjiay Caramaniay 
Drangidna, Arachofiay and Gedrofia, 

The new Names are ServanyGilw, Dikmon, AyrackAgemiy Taher^ 
efi*ny Gorgiatty Khamus, Churdifiany Corafan, Terack, Cujifian, Farfi, 
Khtrma>ty Sififian, Macheran, Candahor, and Sahlefian, 

I. Therefore this Monarch poTeffeth a great par^ of the great 
Armtma, which we call Tttnomania y efpecially that part which is 
feated between the two Rivers Kur and Arasy the Cyrus and Araxes 
of old : This Country is one of the moft beautiful and richeft pie- 
ces of Land in all Perfiay by the Natives called Iran, or Karabag. 

2* Shirvan, or Sciurwaity all along the Ca^ian Sea, part of Media. 

3. The Province Ed^erhaijan, or Azerbeyan ; And thefe two Pro- 
vinces make up the ancient Mediay Sarch. Clu. 

4. Is Kylan, or Guilan, Perfisy whi>*h is the old Hircaniay S,/ava M, 
Angiol.Diargument MercHyrachJE-rythroeo and comprehends feveral o- 
ther Provinces, as Mefandrauy Lnbetx,any Refcht and Ketkert 

5*. Is Eftarabat , Tabifiran , or Tocharijian , formerly Margiana ,. 
Jefelbajh Cafi. Tremigan Pinetdy which* extends to the River Oxus, 

6. Zagathayy or Sacathay Nig. is- the Province of thtOusbec Tartars 
or Mauranahary comprehending all the ancient Sogdiana , and part 
oi B:.S;riana &C. 

7. Gorajpin , Semere Merc, is fome ipart of Ba^riana , now BaUer 
Ramuf. Charoffany Cafiald. which alfo comprehends the Province of 
Heri , or Eri , remarkable for the greateft Trade of any in Perjia, 
The Aria oioXd. . - ■ 

8. Sahlefian , {QTmerlyParopamfus, Calcbifitin Cafi. Navagrot. M. 

9. The Territories and Cities ofCandahof and Cabuly compre- 
hend the ancient Aracofisy now belonging to the Mogul, 

10. Is Sigifian Marc, formerly Drangiana ; aliis Ilment. 

II. Is Kirman, or Cbirmain, and Comprehends all the Territories 


of the ancient Carmaniahor Atiing upon the Indian S>ciy containing 
the Province of , , 

1 2 . Makeran, v/hcrdn is Circan^'Patan^ and the Province oiDulcinda, 

13. Cujifian Mind, Chits Merc, whidh was heretofore called Sufiana, 
14^ Is Hieracky or ErackAgemi^ the Ancient Varthla, Nig. Charef- 

fen J and lies in the midft of all Verjia , Arach Merc, & Minad. Texdi 
Alph. Hadr. Corafan, Nigro. 

I J". Is Farsj ( which Laet calls Fare ) Farjiftan Merc, and is the 
ancient Terjiay whereof Perfepolii was the chiet City. 

16. Is Diarhcky Merc. Az^mia Bel. (oimQrly Mefopotamia, between 
Euphrates and Tygris. 'r;., ; i ■ -V . 

17. Is Curdifian, or Arzerum, formerly -Ajjjria, expending all along 
the Eaft-fide of the River Tygris ^ from the Lake Van, to the Frontiers 
of Bagdat. 

18. Is Terach, or Hierack-Arabi , otherwife the Country oi Baby- 
lon, or Chaldea. Thefe three ^aft Countries being moft now under 
the Turkijh power^ we have already difcourfed thereof. 

The Government of Perfia'is Defpotick, or abfolutely Arbirrary, 
the King having the fole power of Life and Death over all^iisSub- 
jeds^without any Tryals, or Law-proceedings. Nor is there any So- 
vereign in the World more Abfolute than He; yet, in the exercife 
thereof it is faid to be gentle and eafie, fupportaole both to Perjiam 
and Strangers. And for the Laws of Hofpitaiity, they are fo ftriftly 
obferved, that the King will have all Strangers to be his Guefts. The 
general Title given to the King oiTerfia is that oiShuy though the 
Vulgar call him by the Name of the Sophi,v/\\\Qh is a proper Name. 
The Ferjians had ever a very great Veneration for their Sovereign. 
And,at this day, they believe it to be a greater AfTeveration to fwear 
by the Name of their King , than by the Name of their God, perhaps 
out of the fame belief with thofc of Achem in Sumatra^-who hy, that 
God is far off , but the King is near at hand. The Wealth of this 
King is very vaft, as appear'dby theTreafure which Alexander ^OMn^ 
in the Coffers 01 Darius. And to defcend towards our Times, Sha 
SophiyOtiQ of their laft Kings, had no lefs than 7400 Marbesoi Gold- 
Plate for the ordinary Service of his Court. 

The King deceafmg, the Eldeft Son afcends the Throne, whilft 
his Brothers are kept in the Haram , and their Eyes put out ,• and 
oi "centimes the Children of the King's Brothers and Sifters alfo, to 
avoid Competition for the Sovereignty, and Rebellion. 

The State oi'PerJia is diftinguilhed , like moft of the European 
States, into three Bodies. 

Eee 2 / The 

, t 




396 ^ Of Ftrfia. 

The firft of the Sword, which anfiuFcrs to the Nobflfty. 
The fecond is that of the Gown, which anfwers to the Law and 
Religion. / 

The third i:i compofed Of Merchants, Handicraftfmen^ and La- 

The Afbemat DouUt is the Prime \finifter in Temporals, the St- 
ire in fpirituals, whofe Oflices are much the fame with the Grand 
Vijkrs and the Mtfii in Turfy. 

The greateft part of the Lands in Perjta belong to the King and 
are farmed by private perfons j the reft are meafured. and pay fo 
much a meafure. The King hath alfo a vail Income by Merchan- 
difes that pay Cuftom and Toll. 

The Commerce of this mighty Empire confiftsin Trade of the 
Country^ and Foreign Traffick. The Country Trade is in the 
hands otPerfians and Jews. The Foreign Trade is in the hands of 
the Jrmeniatuy who are Fadors for the King and Noblemen. 

Their Commodities arc curious 5i/(b, exquifi^e Carpets and Ttffues, 
with other MatufaSures of Gold, Silk and Siher, great quantities of 
Linnen Cloth of all forts of Colours. Their Sealskins and Coat-skim 
are tranfported by the Hollanders into hdia and Japan, as ilfo into 
Mofcwy and Foland. The famous Ronas Root is tranfported over all 
India, great ftorc of dried Fruits, of Candid ^inees, and BoxesofMar- 
malet made at Balfera, Fruits pickled in Fenegar, fii/eet Water, Almonds, 
Raifins, and Purgative Prunes • They vend abundance of their C<rwe/i 
into Turkf, great ftore of Horfes and Mules into hdia, said a prodigi- 
ous number of Sheep into Natalia and Romania. 

The natural Compledion of the Perjtans is Tawney^as may be feen 
hythcGaures, the Original Inhabitants of the Country ;; butthepre- 
fent Perfians, by rcafon of their frequent. Marriages with f^Xx Georgian 
Women^ have contra^ed a better degree of Comelinefs and Beauty. 
The Jufticeamong them is very exad and fpeedy. Suits being de- 
termined upon the place. Murther feverely.punifhed, and extraor- 
Anary Care taken for the fecurity of the High-ways, for Thieves 
find no mercy j and if a Merchant be robbed, the Governour of 
the Province makes good the Lofs, 

The Air of Per/J» varies according to the diverfity of its fituation ,» 
the Country of Edzerheitzutn is very fbarp and cold, but healthy; the 
Air ofKilan is very unwholfom j but the Province of Mazandran, 
from September to March, fcems a kind of Terreftrial Paradife. At 
Jjfahan m the middle ofPerfia, there are fix months of hot, and fix 
months «f cold weather. In the Southern Provinces the Heats are 
/' ^ very 

■ ' ■ -f 

^ Of Tsrfiai "''"' ^97 

very exceflSve : In fbme parts the Snow falls tliree or four times in a 
Sealbn andfometimes very thick ; but Rain there is very little. As 
for Woods there are none in all the Country; and Springs are very 
fcarce to Travellers. 'Tis a. Country generally mountainous^ out of 
fome of which they dig Salt, as Stones out of a Quarry; and there 
are fome Plains there^where the Sand is nothing but Salt. Of late 
feveral Copper Mmes have been found out, of which the Natives 
make all forts of Kitchin Houihold-ftufF: their Lead comes from Ker^ 
man, their Iron and Steel from Corazan and Casbin ; fome Mines of 
GoId^nd.Silver there were, but the Expence is more than the Profits ^ 
The Provinces of G«;/<?» andMazandran furnifli'd all Per/£i with Oil ►. 
Armenia ^MingreUayGeorgia and MMia abound in Vineyards, but their 
Vines they bury all Winter, and take them up in the Spring. The 
Flowers ofPerJta are not comparable to thofe of Em-ope for Variety or: 
Beautyi.nor are their Applcs,Pcars,Oranges,Granates,Prunes,Cher- 
ries,Quinces,Cheihuts,Medlers,and other forts of Fruits fo well taft* 
ed as ours ; yet their Apricocks,the better fort, are better than ours f: 
which when you open, the Stone cleaves in two, and the Kernel^ 
which is only, a fmall Skin as white as Snow,ismoftpleafantto the 
Tafte ; {o likewife their Melons are moft excellent, very plentiful^ 
and more wholefome than ours. 

Their Fowl are much the fame as we have in Ettrope, and their 
Poultry^ arc very plentiful, only there are no Turkies. All forts of 
Water-Fowl are commonly in fome parts of the Country ;. and as 
for Birds of Prey it. wants none. 

The Native inhabitants are generally very inquifitive after future 
Events, confulting their Afirokgerslikc Oracles ; much addideC to ill: 
Language, but never blafpheme God, nor fubje<ft to fwear ; iiaturally , 
great Differnblers and Flatterers. exceflSve in their Luxury andEx- 
pences, much accuftomed to Tobacco and Coffee, and to make mu- 
tual Vifits ,• , generally. addiAed to Play and Paftimes ; yet the men 
never dance, nor do they ufe walking to and again as we do. 

The two great SeAs amongfl the Followers of Mahomet ( which 
are moft violent againfl each other) are the Turks and Verfians. The. 
Eirft hold Mahomet to be the Chief and ultimate Prophet ; the latter . 
prefer J*»/y before him, and efleem his Infpirations greater, and his-. 
Interpretations of the Law more Perfed and. Divine ; and their 
Grand Feftival is the Feaft ofHocen and^HuJfeifj, The King permits- 
the Carmelites, Capuchins , Juftin-Fryers, and Other Orders^ to have 
their Houfes and Churches in liis Jloyal City of ^«-&^»,where their; 
Superiors live in nature of Ainbaflkiwxs.for the.ChriftianErJnces :. 

' Tliey. 




398 ' OJ PerfiA, :" 

They arc as fuperftitious as the Turks, and believe material Enjoy- 
ments in Varadifes^ tho others, naore refined, affirm. That Beatitude 
tonfifts in \he ferfeH knowledge of the Sciences ,• and for the Senfes, they 
jhalth^'ve their fatisfaBion according to their quality. 

Their Women are efteem'd the hanfomeft in all Jfia, their Hor- 
fes the nimWeft, their Camels the ftrongeft : And in the Country 
they commend the Bread ofTez,decas, the Wine ofSchiras, and the 
. Women o^Tezd. 

The Perjtan Language is fo fweet , that it is only in ufe among 
, the Women and Poets ; the King and Nobility generally ipeaking 
the Turkijh Tongue. 

The greateft Trade is at Bagd^t for Turky, and AtGomhonfor the 
hdies. The Kings of ?er/?<« permit Strangers to trade upon their 
Coafts, but not to build Forts : and the Mogul and Emperor o[ China 
obferv€ the fame Policy in their Dominions. They lie between two 
. potent Neighbours, the Turk and the Great Mogul. The Strength of 
their Kingdom confifts chiefly in its Situation, being furrounded by 
high Mountains and vaft Deferts. IJhmaelSophi brought into the Field 
an Army of 300000 Men againft ^sW/w Emperor oi the Turks. And 
other Perjian Kings have had Armies ot 7 or 800000 Men : But ge- 
nerally their Armies now a-days confift not of above yo or 60000 
Horfe , befides 30000 which are always kept upon the Fron- 

The Militia is divided into three fort5,which are the Corfchis, ge- 
nerally called Kefel-Bajhi, or Red-heads, in number about 22000 all 
good Soldiers and Horfemen. 

The fecond fort, the Goulams or Slaves, RenegadoGwr^/^»/, who 
are about 1 8000, being alfo Horfemen. 

The third fort are the7l?/e«l^«j,whoare compofed of Men taken 
from the Plough, as moft he for Labour j they are Footmen arm'd 
with a Scimetcr and Mufquet. 

The Perjians, efpecially the Rich, are much leis-fubjeA to Sicknefs 
than the Europeans ; nor are they much troubled ^ith the Pox, for 
the dry Air ot the Country is an Enemy to it ,• befides, they go often 
to the Bath, to fwcat out the Venom of that Diftemper ; for as for 
7ny Method of Phyfick, they have none j Diet is the chief Reme- 
/ which thePhyficians prelcribe in all Difeafes, and account moft 
, ^ereign. 

They divide the Natural Day into four parts,- from Sun-riling to 
Noon, from Noon to Sun-fet, hom Sun-fet to Midnight, and from 
Midnight till Sur.rife i and in the Vulgar Computation of Time,make 


Of Perfia. 399 

vSt of Lunar Month t;w\iich they always begin from the ftift appear- 
ance of the New Moon: But in their Aftronomical Accounts, they 
make ufe of Solar Months. The Firft Month begins upon the nth 
of our March, the day of the Vernal Equinox being the firft day of 
their Year ; upon which Day if a Per^an hath not money to buy 
him a new Habit, he will mortgage his own Body to have one. . 

ThQ'Per/ians betroth their Children very young , at nine or ten 
years ; anci among the Jrntenians iome are married and lie together 
at five or fix,* their Law allows them but four Wives, but they may 
have as many hired Women asthey pleafe, and rnay alfo enjoy their 
Slaves whom they purchafe ,• the Children both of the one and of 
the other are accounted Lawful, and inherit .ill alike. The Nobility 
oi^ thePer/ia7ts istbunded upon their being deicended ^vom Mahomet, 
and thefe have the Title oi Mir or Prince ,• and the Daughters that 
ofMirza or Princeft. 

The Perfians wear Red Turbants , the Tartars ofGiagatay Green' 
ones : The 7«r^i/fc Turbants are White, and the Greeks Blue. And as 
they are thus diftinguiflied in the Colour of their Turbants, fo if 
we regard the natural Enmities of Nations, we ftiall find as great an 
Antipathy between the Turks and Perfians, as there is between ^he 
Chine fes and Japanners, the Armenians and Nefiorians, the Arabians 
and AbaJJines, the French and Spaniards, the Italians and Greeks, the 
Germans and Pclanders, the Danes and Suedes, or the Mufcovites and. 

The Capital City of all Per/ia is Ifpahan, built hy Arfaces,'who enlar- 
ged theP<jr/i&i4»Dominions,and called Dara,3iketwa.rAsA^adara,^\{o 
Njwzamena by Ben. yonas Hagifian , Clu. Ashahawn by the Arabian 
Geographer ^ Saphaou Mandcvel. Spahawn Herb. Sfahan, A^achan, 
Izpaan and Hijpahan,in fome Maps and Authors, y 57 Miles from the 
Perfian Sea, 360 from the Ca^ian, 450^ from Babjlon, and 870 from. 
Candahor : By which laft diftance, agreeing very near with what Ta- 
vernier makes it -vix,. 390 Agats , ( every Agat being a Province 
League) I find Perfa is at leaft ; or 400 miles too much in length 
in moft Maps, and in fome much more : As it is the Refidenee of 
the PerfianlLing, and in the Centre of his Empire, Noble ^ asfeat- 
ed on a vaft Plain,which extends three ways i j or 20 Leagues,fair* 
and pleafant J for Air healthy,* confidering her Palaces, ftately^ her- 
Gardens delicious and fragrant ,- her Piazza's, and the Wealth of her.^' 
Bazars or publick Market-places rich and populous ; only the Streets 
ane narrow and dark, and annoyed with Loads oi Ordure and Filthy, 
in the Summer Dufty^ and. in the Winter Mir^. ^"' 






[ P^^. 


4^0 Of Perfia. 

Zulpha, or Jeff hey Herh. is a little City, feparated from I^haban 
by the River S$nderoM , and is a Colony oi ArmenUns , who enjoy 
Lands and great Priviledgcs. They have i j or 16 Churches and 
Chappels, anii no Mahometans may live amongft them. 

Schiras, Sherazz, ^ Perjis, Schirafium Baud. Sheraz, Herh. Siafhas Ben 
yonaSjXiriat Dm Garcias/Zyroi V^Venet.CirecathaStefh.CyropolfsMuf- 
laedini-Saddi : A City no lefs ancient than great, according to that 
Proverb, ^ando Schiras erat Schiras ttmcCairus erat ejus pagusj And is 
now the Second City for Magnificence in the Per/tan Monarchy, 
pleaiantly feated at the end oFa fpacious Plain circumvolved M^ith 
lofty Hills, enriched by Trade, made lovely by Art. The Palaces 
rife fo amiably, the Mofques and Hummums with their CaeruleanTileSj, 
and gilded Vanes, among the CyprelTes fo glitter by receding the 
Sun-beams in a curious fplendor. The Vineyards,Gardens,Cy preffes. 
Sudatories and Temples, ravidiing the Eye and Smell ; fo that in 
every part fhe appears fair and delightful. 

Here Cyrus, the moft excellent of Heathen Princes, was born ; 
and here his Body (all but his Head, which was fent to Pifagard) 
lies entombed. 
Here the Great Macedonian glutted his Avarice and Bacchifm. 
Here the firft Sybel fung our Saviour's Incarnation j And here 
a feries of 200 Kings have Iwayed their Scepters. 

The Government oi Schiras is one of the Higheft Commands 
for a Subjed, and is particularly famous for the molt excellent AVines 
in all Perfia. 

Tavemier tells us. That now it looks rather like a Town half ru- 
ined, than a City; And that there is a wonderful Well, which is i ^ 
years rifing to the top, and i ; Years falling or finking to the bottom. 
Perfefolisy by the Greek and Latin Authors, Elamis by the Perjians and 
Oriental Niitions,when in its Perfedion was the Metropolis of the 
World, & TotiusOrhisSplendor,whcn in itsflourifliing conaition, faith 
jD. Siculmy and ^ Curtim, the Richeft, the Nobleft, and the Lovelieft 
City under the Sun ; fo beautiful and fo (lately in its Strudure, being 
moft of Cedar and CyprefsWpod, the Order of Building fo curious 
and r^ular, as it was in that Age juftly ftiled. Tie Glory tfthe World. 
The Succefs oiAnticchus Epif banes ax Jerufakm,vfh&Ti he facrilegioul^ 
iy raviflied ten Tuns ofGold,madehim march toPer/eW/V withan Ar« 
^ my, in hopes of getting the greateft Exchequer in the World ^ for tho 
BaMon and Shujhan were very rich, the one furni/hing the Macedonian 
ViAor with f 0000 Talents, the other with 9 Millions of Gold, and 
f 0000 Tdlencs in Bullion; yetinFrj^fsAtrthere was found 120000 Ta- 




kms I or according to 5rr<jf^ 32 Millions, 7^0000 Pouncls. 

Time would fail me to mention the lofty Palace of the Terfian Em- 
perorsjwhich for Situation,Profpe<ft, Richnefs in MaterialSjand Cu- 
riofity of Artj rendred it incomparable of that Majefty and Splendor, 
as put the World's Conqueror into amazement at his entrance there- 
into. But alas! this rich and famous City, yea, the Palace alfo,was 
at a drunken Feaft, in a debauched Humour, by the inttigation of 
Thais, and at the command oi Alexander , fet all on fire j an Ad which 
the Great Prince would have quenched with his Tears ^ but pre- 
ceding raifchiefs are not amended by fucceeding Lamentations: but 
of the Maufoleaj the Temple dedicated to Anaia, or Diana ^ and of the 
Ruins of it at this day, called Chilmanory or Chehelminor, Vide Her- 
beris Travels. 

Comejhaw, where Sir R. Shirley was once Commander, thought to 
be the Cattnaza,whQre there the memorable Battel betwixt Artaxer- 
xes and Cyrus his Brother was fought. Others think it the fame 
which Pliny called Paradona, or Orebatys oi'Ptol. 

Near Gheez, is a narrow Strait, the Mountains on either fide are 
very precipitous, and. vaftly high, not more than 40 Yards broad, 
and 8 Miles long , and is one of the three noted Paflages through 
the Mountain Taurus, which leads to Hircania ,• through this Strait 
the fair Aniaz,onian came to Alexander. 

Perifmv Herb. Ftrufcheuch Val, is noted for the abundance of Phea- 
lants, and other Game for Hawking. . 

Afiiaraff Herb.Efcref dc Val. is about two Miles from the Cajpian Sea, 
in Latitude 38 degrees, 17 minutes, due North from IJpahan. Here 
Sha Abbas gave Audience to Sir Dodmore Cotton the Englijh Ambaf- 
fador, and is but five miles from Ferrabaut the Hircanian Metropolis. 

Ferrabautj or EJlrabut u^on the C^^ian Sea,fome take this for the 
Remains of the old Amarufa, fomeior the Socanda Ptol. others fup- 
pofe it to be the Phraata, W\\\Q\i Mafctis Antonius befieged when he 
invaded Media, to be revenged for the Death of Crajjiis the Rich, who, 
with 30000 of his men, were flain by Phraartes the Parthian. 

Omoul, by fome Zarama, by others Ladrac^ta, wheve Alexarider fe- 
freflied his Army in the purfuit o^BejJ'us the infamous BaBrian ; Others 
think it to be the Remains oiNabarca , where the Oracle of Dreams 
was famoufed. The Inhabitants obferve fix or feven feveral Sabbaths. 

At DamoanX\ieJe'ws inhabit in great numbers , having, as they 
report, been feated, ever fince theTranfplantation from Canamhy 
SalmJiaJJ'er, 2 Kings 17. 6. and alfo fay, that upon the £><?»/(?<?» ^(lJpun- 

tain Ni;<r//s Ark refted. /'J 

F f f 1 Tyroan 



401 " Of Terfia. 

Tjroan feems to be the RhazMtt^a ofStrah. a City of about 3000 
Houles. The Women are lovely ^ and curious in Novelties ,• but the 

.Jealoufie of the Men confines them ; yet vetttis rebus gllfcit 'volun- 

Sufaj or Sujlian, every where famoufed for one of the three Roy- 
al Palaces the Median Monarchs fo much gloried and delighted in ,• 
was the place where Ahafimerus kept his Court^and fome other Kings : 
yilixatuJer there e{pou{cd Statyra the Verfian Princefs, and Daughter of 
Darius, AnA Efhejiion her Sifter. Here he made a Feaft for 9000 Guefts, 
to each of which he gave a Cup of Gold. Here he got joooo Talents 
in Silver, and 9000000 Millions of coined Gold ,• now Valdac or BaL 
dacbjP.Venet.SuJfraCafi.Soufter Sanf. {e&tQ^ upon the River ChoaJ}is, a 
River of fuch account with the P«/</» Emperors, that no Water but 
ofChoaJfisj no Bread but from y^Jfoj in Thrygia^ no Wine but the Cha- 
lybonian in Syrla^ no Salt but from Memphis in t/£gypt, conld pleafe 
their Palates. It was calledC7/<jii in Daniel^Eulaus Vlinjiritiri Sanf, Here 
Cyrus the Great entertained his moft beautiful Parthea. Here Akxan^ 
Her gave loooo Talents to pay the Debts of thofe that had a mind 
to return into Greece, and received a recruit of goooo young Soldi- 
ers. Here it was alfo that Hefter obtained fo much favour for the 
Jews, and where Haman was hanged in the place o^Mordecai, It is 
related, that the Palace of Sufa, built by Darius , was enriched by 
Memnon, with the Spoil of the Great Thebes in 9y£gypt, and that the 
Stones were faftened with'Gold. Next VerfefoUs it was reckoned one 
of the moft fumptuous Fabricks of the Kings oiTerfia^ but this Ci- 
is iiow wafte and defolate. - 

C0»go or Bander Congo, is a City upon the Gulph of Batfara, not 
much unlike Toulon in Provence : It rofe from the Ruins oiOrmus, 
as well asGombron ; nnd there is a Cuftom-houfe, of which the Per- 
Jians and Fortuguefes divide the Profit. 

Laar^Corrha, Ptol. Laodicea Pynetus, Seleucia Elymiadis Affian, Lara 
Band, Laar P. Venet (gives its Name to a certain piece of Silver Mo- 
ney coined there, and) contains above 4000 Houfes , and a little 
Cittadel. Some belieup it to-be the ancient Pafagardes, where the 
Grand Cyrus vanquiflicd Afiyages, and tranflated. the Empire of the 
Medes into that oiPerfia, Calanus, an Indiart Philofbpher , fuffered 
a Toluntary Death there, in Hght of the whole Macedonian Army. 

^ It has been much difpeopled by Earthquakes^ which often happen 
in thole Parts. i _ ; . 



Of Perfia. 


Larr IS the Capital City of the Pro vince, which formerly bore the 
Title of a Kingdom ; it is enclofed on both fides with high Moun- 
tains, being built round about a Rock, upon which there ftands a 
CaftlCjWhere the King keeps a Garifon ^ the mod part of its inha- 
bitants zxqJcws j there is no Water but Rain-water jWhich does not 
happen fometimes for three years together, which Water ftanding 
in the Ciftterns fo long, breeds Worms, and whether you ftrain or 
boil it,ihere will remain afoulnefsand corruption in it,which breeds 
Worms in the Legs and Feet of men i&n^J,B.Tavcrnkr faith,That 
at his return to Varis the fifth time of his Travelling, he had one 
came out of his Left Foot an Ell and a half long, and another from 
the Ankle of his Right Foot an Ell long. 

At Jaarown.ov Gaarom y^hout 20 FarfangSjOr 61 E»^/(/7j miles from 
Larry the Inhaoitans are moft Jews who tell us, they are the Iffue 
oiReubeny Gad, and the half Tribe of Af<7w<ij^^/,who by Tiglath Pilaf 
fer were carried captive to this place, 2 Kings 17. 6. and that the 
OiF-fprings of Dart, Zchnkn, Jifur and NuphtJoali were planted at 

Near this place is a precious Liquor or Mummy growing, care- 
fully preferved for the King's fole ufe. It diftils only in Jitne, from 
the top of thofe mountains, a moft redolent Gum, fovereign againft 
Poyfon, a CathoUcon for all forts of wounds. 

Tauru, (the Ecbatana of the Ancients, the Metropolis of the Em- 
pire of the Medes ) by the Turks Taberyz, ^ by Ez,ra, Achntetba, is a 
great City, and well peopled, the general Mart for Turkj, Mufco^y, 
the Indies, and ?erfia ,• for all forts of Mercha»ndize,efpecially Silks. 

Anno I y 14. the Grand Signior Seljm fent a Baiha with an Army, 
and ranfack d it ; 1 5:30 Soljman invaded it with fo much fury, that 
it flamed many days ,• reviving again it was made proftrate to Ibra- 
him Bafhas Luxury i y34' ^"^ ' y^y. it groaned under the greateft 
SuiFering,when Ojman Bafha, Slave to ^w«r<??, perpetrated all man- 
ner of Cruelty. 

In the year 1650. itwasalmoft mmt^hy Sultan Amurath, hut noyft 
re-edified, the Buildings of Brick being baked in the Sun. At this 
City are feen the Ruins of ftately Strudures, or great Mofques or 
Temples of a prodigious height and magnitude. In one dedicated 
to Diana, the Great Artaxerxes fequeftred the fair AJ^aJia , whofe 
]3eauty made him and his Son Competitors. Here are drelfed the 
greateft part of the Shagreen Skins that are vended all over Verfia, 

Casbin. Cax,byn Herb, KazAfin by the Ferfians; The Arfatia of the 
Ancients , or Arffaca oiStrabo, Here Parmenio was killed , and 

Fffa EfhefiioH 



yj- . 

404 OfPerJia. 

EfhefiimjAUxanders Favourite, diedj and a Monument ercAcd^upoa 
which was fpent 1 2000 Talents, or 7 Millions of Crowns. Then did 
the Altar fmoke with Incenfc^andTearsVere ofFer'd up in Sacrifice, 
and the dead Corps worfliipped as a Deity. It is a great City with- 
out Walls, thought to be the Rages in Tobit, the beft half of it is in 
Gardens, feated in a large and fair Plain, 30 miles in compafs. Here 
died Sir Robert Shirley, and Sir Dodmore Cotton^ihQ Ambafladors who 
went for Verfia,jinno i6i6.\\2is\n%no gilded Trophies to adorn their 
Sepulchres, only their Virtues, which will out-laft thofe bubbles of 
Vsnity. Here alfo died Abbas the Verfian Monarch in the year 1628. 
Sauvay Herb.. Saba de Fa I. a. City pleafantly feated upon a rifing 
hill, in a fruitful Country, much clelightful for aerial Mufick, el- 
pccially the Nightingale. 

A Thoufand 7varbling Notes their Throats dlfflays^ 
Whkb their fweet Mufick chants as many "ways. 

About 1 1 Leagues from Tauris, a Lake about i c Leagues compafs, 
in the middle of which is a little Hill , that rifes infenfibly, out of 
"'hich there bubble out many little Springs ,• and the Earth which 
they water is of twoftrange diltin^t Qualities; for one fort ferves to 
make lime, the next to that is a hollow fpungy Stone , and under 
that is a white tranfparent Stone, which is onely a congelation of 
the Waters of thefe Streams: for fometimes you fball meet with 
creeping Animals congealed therein ; for one piece fent to Sha 
Abbas, Tavernier ofFered i yooo Crowns, in which was a Lizard a- 
bout a foot long. 

Ardevil is not only famous for the Royal Sepulchres o^ Sha Sefi, 
and other Per/Mw Kings, and for the Pilgrimages that are made to it;, 
but alfo for numerous Caravans of Silk,wbich render it one of the 
• moft confiderable Cities mPerJta : ttis of a moderate bignefs, feat- 
ed in a lovely opening of the Mountains , die Avenues of it are 
very pleafant, being Allies of great Trees , wA is watered with a 
River that runs thorow the middle of the City 

Sultanyj Tigranocerta, Tigranopol/s, and Tygranofetra , tefie Af piano, 
Sultania. J«vio, Sa'va. Bonacciolo. Bitlis Baud, is a very large City,* and 
if you will believe the Armenians , they will tell you , that there 
-were once near 800 Churches in it. 
^.Kom,Coom, Herb. Cama,ArbaBa, or Coama of old ; by fome,Hc- 
tatomfolis, is one of the great Cities ofiVerfia, in a fat Country, a- 
bounding with Rice ana excellent Granates^ thacwhi«h is moft re- 



markable is .1 large Mofquc,wherc are the Sepulcliresof 5/*^ 5f/ard 
Sha Abbas the Second, the Tomb of SediRnima, the Grand-Daugh- 
ter of Hrf/i^and the Tomb o{ FatimaXifbra the Daughter ofMahemet. 

Cafchan is alfo a large City, and well peopled, ftorcd with 5/7/6- 
weavtrs, which make the bett purfled Sattins mix'd with Gold and 
Silver. The Houfes are fairly built. The Mofques and Baths are 
in their Cupoloes curioufly caeruleated with a feigned Torquoife. 
The Buz,z,ar is fpacious and uniform. The Caravanfira is the moft 
(lately Fabrick of that kind in Perjta. 

Baktty gives its name to the Cafpian Sea ,• and near to it there 
is a Sfring of Oil, which ferves all over Perfia to burn in Lamps. 

Kirman towards the Ocean affords very fine fteel, of which they 
make Weapons vciy highly priz'd ; For a Scy miter of that Steel 
will cut through an Helmet with an eafie Blow. 

Ortntis formerly bore the Title of a Kingdom. As to the Name, 
it was called Organo and Gera by Vtrrerius , Necrokin by B. Jonas, 
Zambri by the Tartars, Vorotia by Niger, Ormufia by Jcfefhus,