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( 332 ) 

AuT. II. — 1. The Birds of America, enfrrnvcd from DrauHiiox 
made in the Uuilcd States, liy .loliii James Aiuluboii, 1". U. S,, 
&c. Vol. 1. i'olio. Luiidon. 1831. 

'2. Ornithnlogiccd Bin^rajthij ; or an Account of the Habits of Iht 
Birds of the United States of America; interspersed with Ik- 
lineutions of American Scenery and Manners, Jjy tlie saim 
Author. Vol.1. 8vo. lMliiibiir«^li. 183). 

3. American Ornithology ; or the N(dnral History of the Binh 
of the United Slates. IJy Alcxaiulcr Wilson and Cliarlr- 
Lucieii Biioiiapai'te. lidited by Kobcit Jameson, l'".s(|„ 
r.R.S,, &c. 4 vols, luiiiibuigli. 1831. (Printed in Con- 
stable's Miscellany.) 

4. Fauna Boreali-Americana ; or the Zaohigy of the Norlheii: 
Perls of British America. Part Second. — Tlie I'irds. li) 
William Swainson, Esq., I'Ml.S., and Jolni llicliardson, M.IJ.. 
I'Ml.S. 4to. London. 1831. 

A N accurate knowledge of natural liistory is rarely advanced In 
-^*- the publication of general sysUnis, for there arc few minds ;il 
once .so laboriously persevering, and of such comprehensive power, 
as to be enabled to acquire, combine, and communicate tlu; totiii 
results which lie scattered over the surface of so vast a field. Jjiii 
either the elucidation of a particular department of the science 
viewed under all its known relations, or an exhibition of die scienit 
itself, considered in its universality only so far as regards a parti- 
cular country, is a more attainable object, and one nujre likely 
from the comparative case of execution, to be alt'-nded by ; 
successful issue. Still more judicious are those authors who pre- 
scribe limits, not only to the subject which they embrace, bu 
to the localities with which that subject is connected, — aiu 
hence the higher value of works like those before iis, comparii 
with the more ambitious efforts of the system-maker : the oin 
class is the result either of personal observation, here such liii> 
been possible, or of very careful and assiduous com|)arison nl 
written records ; — the other is too often a hasly and iil-concoclcit 
amalgamation of statements, generally erroneous in their liw 
anouncement, and in no way rendered less fallacious by the lapsi 
of time, or the frequency of repetition. 

In no department of intellectiud exertion is the propriety oi 
the division of labour more necessary to be kept in reniein- 
Lrance than in that of natural history ; and in none is llii 
adherence to a clear and consistent system of arrangenunt m 
indispensable. A prejudice has no doubt arisen in the minds (.i 
many general readers against the systematic compendums of iiui- 
dern naturalists, on account of the repulsive form in which tlaii 


qua I reii 
pstiiict (I 
ui laniat 
lorn thei 
|ini(ler tli 
fyc probii 
iral asp( 
Jal dece 
to secure 
ind,' as 
edge of 
bough p 
)V>d discri 
\» blende 

the a 
liorlh, is 

Be, — not 
the senses 
••me dan 
t^y scieiK 

J lien wor 
e same 
# dress 
IRuII dctiii 
|lid when 
|c still a: 
J Wo see 
tlOlis, ulii 


toous :mi( 
Uieir bai 
where — 

* Vol. 


American Ornilholnrn/. 


II DninHii^x 

m, r. U. S, 

lahlfs nfthf 
rd iritk Ik- 
jy tlic saiiu 

nf the Birch 
uxi Cliarli' 
cson, l'-s(|., 
iteil ill Com- 

lie Norlhvri, 

I'.inls. 15> 

ilsuii, M.lJ., 

ad van cell 1j} 
t"»;\v niiiuls al 
■iisivo j)o\v»'i, 
cate tlu; total 
ii lirltl. J'.ni 

the scieiict, 
ii llic scioiia 
jfanis a parli- 

more likely 
lleiuled by : 
lors who pn- 
.'iiibiace, bii 
iic'ctcd, — aiii 
lis, coiiipam 
>er : the oiii 
leie such ha.> 
(iMipaiisoii ot 
iii their fiw 
i by the lapsi 

I propriety oi 
t ill leiueiii- 

none is lla 

angenieiit sn 

the luiiidN <il 

(liuins ot" 111(1- 

II wliieh tliiii 

ciiljialioiis are too often presented. In like manner, and with 
iial ira-oii, tlie .systematic student, who seeks for precise ami 
sliiiet (klinitions, finds no satislactioii in lliose vague and misty 
elaniations wherein tlie mirage of a Uvely imagination raises 
om their proper position, and magiiities into undue dimensions — ■ 
inder tlie misused iia;ne of popular science) — a few facts, whicii 
SIC probably of no essential value even when seen under their na- 
tural aspect, and become worse than useless when gazed on thioiigli 
fial deceptive medium. As well might a Sicilian mariner, while 
iliiessiiig the delusive glories of the fafti morfjana, endeavour 
to s((uie a local habitation in that world of ' gorgeous cloud- 
id,' as the student of natural history expect to obtain a know- 
dge of nature's works from those other e(pially unsubstantial, 
ough printed, pageants. We can easily indeed imagine ' what 
iijuration and liat mighty magic' would ensue from a coiii- 
inatioii of the higher powers of genius with those more exact 
1^1(1 discriminating habits of observation which are essential to the 
pluralist, — and how beautilully the attributes of the poet might 
|j^ blended w illi those of the philosopher, — 
«: ' Recompensinfr well 

,> The strength they borrow with the grace they lend.' 

'^ the appropriate business of poetry, according to Mr. Words- 
tlorlli, is to treat of things not as they are, but as they appear lo 
be, — not as they exist in themselves, but as they seem to exist to 
ike senses and the passions of mankiiul, — there might, no doubt, be 
■Oine danger of a rather spurious oiVspriiig rising upon us, were 
M$iy science of observation thus ' married to immortal verse.' Still, 
fcowever, we hope to see at least the dawning of that better day, 
when works of science shall be accurate and popular at one and 
llie same time, — when the rigid observer of facts shall not disdain 
•o (lirss them in a pleasant and even ornament .j ^'irb, — when 
€?idl detail shall no longer be substituted for graphic des'riplion, — 
id when, msteail of the re[)ulsive features of morose at i jealous 
teiii-uiakers, wc shall continually behold what M'.ton has 
aiilifidly called * the bright countenance of truth siiining amid 

le still air of delij^htfiil studies. 
... . ® . . . 

>* e see indeed, w itli unfeigned regret, that those vain disputa- 
ns, which we had fondly hoped would have found a sutlicuiilly 
68lt('iuk'{l space in the soiled arena of jiolitics, or through the tor- 
tuous and hollow ways of polemical discussion, are now spreading 
then baiieuil intluence over the peaceful domains of science, 
where — 

«* ' More pellucid streams, 

^' All air.iilor itlier, a diviner air, 

And (iulds invested witli iiurpiiical gleams,' 
V Vol. xLYii. ^u. xciv. 8 a 




A mrrknn Onnlhohf/y. 

iiii<j;lit havo boon permitted to escape the cuiitaininatioii of sucli a 
pestilence. Uiit we greatly fear, that so far from doiii}]; all things, 
as we arc coiimiaiuled, we are unable to do an)thin<;; whatever 
witiioiit ' mnrnuirin«;s and disputinu;s.' And, no doubt, when 
the war of words is carried on by accomplished disputants, and 
the point at issue is one which accords with tiie more passionate 
sympathies of mankind, tiiere may be an intellectual pleasure in 
V itnessing the thrust and parry of two practised wran>;lers ; but 
such contentions are rcallv alike uncalled for and unwelcome on 
the part of naturalists : — the greater proportion of that limited 
class being in truth very worthy and well-meaning men, totally 
imskilK.d in the use of controversial weapons, they handle tlu in 
too feebly to inlliet any damage on their opponents — and all that 
either party gains is the derision of the public : — 

' Put up your bright swords, else tlie dew will rust them.' 

We have said that the vast materials of which the science of 
natural history is (^imposed, rendered the methodical arrangement 
of its subjects indispensable. This would be true even were our 
crt'orts conhned to the formation of arbitrary or artificial system.s, 
the principal merit of which consists in the facility they atVord in 
ascertaining the name by which a species had been prcvioiislv 
recognized by others ; for nomenclature, though not so much ;i 
«le|)artment of natural history as a convenient instrument by which 
the science may be more successfully cultivated, is yet indis- 
pensal'le to the * common good,' so long as men are desirous to 
avail themselves of the la!)ours of tholr |)iedecessors and contem- 
poraries — in other words, so long a;s they are not insane through 
egotism and conceit ; but it becomes a still more important truth 
when we look upon system, both as a means and an end, which it 
will assuredly become, in the hands of him who discovers a key to 
the natural order and alVmities of existing things, or who, by the 
power of a more exact and universal knowledge than any one in- 
dividual has ever yet acquired, shall exhibit the final result of a 
successful investigation of the mysteries of nature. 

An artificial classification of animals in natural history may be 
likened to an alphabetical arrangement of words in a dictionarv. 
Jn the one, a few unimportant, though easily-aseertaim(! 
characters, which lead to no general results in relation to the 
habits and economy of the species, are selected as the bond nl 
union, as in the other the initial letters form the accidental basi- 
of connexion ; and we might as reasonal)ly expect that tin 
highest manifeslatioiis of the literature and philosophy of a lan- 
guage should consist in marshalling together ail the words wliidi 
begin with the same letter, as that our knowledge of nature shoidil 
be rendered perfect through the iiie<liuin of an aitilicial svslein. 

' '1\k 

piud, tlia 
pis been 
fitted to 
fatter of 
lat the V 
»ny ' sy 
UA briel 

t great 
\nire not 
IWes of s 
• J liere 
Ell rope a 
tlonaliy si 
■lis res] 
tb ieelan 
HFry lew 
^ excess 

t Ieelan 
rr, and 
orth of 

Ot tlu! 

occur ni 
have nin 
leis, iieii 
leeled Ji 
founit t\\ 

Amerknn OinUhnlnr/y, 


1 of sudi a 
; ull tliin<;s, 
«^ whalever 
)iibt, wiicii 
titaiit.s, and 
picu.suie III 

ii;j,l(is ; but 

ivtlcomc oil 
liat liinitcd 

mil, tutally 
aiiille tluiii 

■uikI ail tliut 


science of 
en were our 
•iai systems, 
u-y alVoni in 
I pie\iouslv 

so iiiucli .1 
L'lit by wliicli 
IS yet imlis- 
13 desirous to 
and conlcni- 
iaiie tlirou^rli 
portaiit tnilli 
end, uliicli it 
ivers a key to 

wlio, by tiic 
1 any one iii- 
al result of a 

story may be 
a dietionaiv. 
latioii to tlio 
tiie bond »[ 
:idcntal ba^i^ 
ert tliat tin 
ipliy ot a Ian- 
words wliicli 
iiatiiii' siioiilii 
licial .system, 
' Tlic 

riie words in llic niio ease, and tlie characters in the other, con- 
ilaiitlv lead us to things which bear no necessary or essential 
jiatioii to eacii other. Hut a natural classilieation, or siuh an 
pproximation towards it as our finite capacities or means of in- 
IbiiiKttioii permit ns to attain, resembles a linely methodised 
irraiiuciiieiit ot" llie subjects of human knowledge, in which, not 
die accidi iits of literal resemblance, but the essentials of a natural 
il)(i indestructible connexion, form the only true basis of a philoso- 
^ical svstem. An assiduous and long-contiiiiied study of nature 
fenns, of course, the best precursor to a successful system of 
Jrraiigenient according to the natural order ; and when we bear in 
ftiiiid, that in the formations of most systems an opposite course 
lln-^ bed) pursued, and that animals, so tar from being classed in 
||tt onlaiice with their structure and attributes, are at once sub- 
Biiited to certain arbitrary rules, established a priori as a mere. 
aalter of convenience, we need scarcely marvel at the results, — or 
tlial the words of Locke, in reference to another subject, ' a vast 
«tp;insinii <.'iven over to night and darkness,' should apply to so 
nBniy ' systems ' of natural history. 

MA brief glance at the numerical amount of species, in a few of 
nit great classt's of the animal kingdom, will snttice to shew what 
in iiieoiiiprelieiisible and unmanageable n'.ass they would present, 
Iftiire not their parts divided and defined in accordance with the 
mles of system. 

-'J'liere are supposed to be above C0,00() species of insects in 
Eni'>|ie alone ; an^* the southern quarters of the glob(> are propor- 
tJlDiially still more prolific; for we find that colil is in general 
rfveisc (o insect life, and that even temperate countries arc in 
Ais respect much less productive than tropical and equatorial 
J%ioiis, It is probable, however, that the distribution of many 
nbrtlierii insects is still unknown. It was formerly supposed, that 
16 I {(land there were none, and that even in Norway there were 
feiy lew ; and their absence from those countries was attributed 
^ excess of cold, llorrebow contradicted this opinion in regard 
^ Iceland; and Linmeus, Thnnbeig, Paykull, (Jyllenhall, Scliiln- 
Igrr, and others, have .diowii, that in Lapland, Sweden, and the 
w>ith ot I'.urope in (general, insects are very numerous. Some 
<^ tlie fiiiost of the coleopterous kinds (such as Prnrervsi faiiricii.i) 
66cu\ ill Siberia ; aiid Pallas, Marechall de Hirberstein, Steven, 
Stverguiiu', vXdanis, and Fischer, among the nortliern writers, 
have made ns j'.ccpiainted with species which rival in si/e anrl 
•plendoiir the most gorgeous products of the torrid zone. During 
Olalsen and I'ovalsi u's residence in Iceland, one of these travel- 
leis, neither ot wlioni had much knowledge of entomology, col- 
lected JOO ditlVreiit species in one small valley; Mr, Scoresby 
found two species of bullcilly (CWms j>ateHo and MdiUca cliu) 

2 A y in 


Amoriran Ornil/inhirj)/. 

ill great numbers on the cast coast of West Circcniand, in north 
latitude 7 1""; Mr. Kirl)y Iras (lescribed several insects, captiuiil 
on Melville Island, wliicli lies in llie 7i" and 7'>^ of norlli lati- 
tude ; wliile Captain l^arry, on the last day of his attempt to 
reach the l*ole over the ice, found a small species of aphis, in 
latitude H2° '26' 44", about one hundred miles from the nean st 
known laud. 'J'his may be stated as the extreme northtiii 
boundary of insect lile. 

'I'he amount oi roller fid species in the annulosc classes, that is, 
the Crustacea aiul insects, wh-ther described or otherwise, is esti- 
mated by Macleay as exceeding lOO.OOO; anti it may safely be as- 
serted, that but a small portion, compared with tin; entire amount nf 
existing species, has been yet discovered. Our knowletlge even dl 
European entomology is, in many respects, imperfect and supcrti- 
cial ; and when we consitler that all the other quarters t)f the earth 
exhibit vast tracts of territory, with the great geographical featun s 
of which we are still unacquainted, we camiot marvel that the mi- 
nuter and less important, though scarcely less interesting, features 
of insect life should have remained unexplored. 'J'he greiit 
central deserts, woods, and mountains of Africa, and an extended 
portion of the south-eastern coast of that continent, the interior dI 
New Holland, and the islands of the l*acilic Ocean, the central 
and eastern parts of Asia, the western coasts of North Auu.-rica, 
and many of the mountain ranges and highly-elevated plateaux of 
the southern division of the New World, arc almost cntireK 
unknown, so far as regards their entomological relations. 

Of the various tribes of insects, those of the coleopterous order 
have been the most assiduously and the most successfully studied 
It is somewhere stated in a popular work, that beetles are of ficn 
kinds — the black and tlie brown. I'abricius appears to have beeii 
of another opinion ; for in his ' Systema Eleutheratorum,' he ha- 
«lcscribed 5'2bO kinds; and although that number presented a great 
accession to the amount contained in the preceding system ol 
-Linuicus, yet so rapidly has our acquaintance with tlie coleopte- 
rous tribes been extended since the period alluded to, that the col- 
lection of M, Dupont, junior, of I'aris, contains about 1(),()()(! 
species, and that of the JJaron de .lean a still greater number. 
The known coleoptera of (ireat Britain alone amount to nearlv 
3,300 and every year furnishes additional species. The total 
amount of known IJritish insects (according t<' the last rrnsiir), i> 
10,01 '2,* which is equal to nearly twice the nund>er of ascertaiiuil 
birds, and to more than ten times the number of asccrtainul 
quadrupeds throughout the whole world.f 

■* Systi'iiiiitic (';!t,'mMil'Uritisli Iiiso.'ts. IJy l'". .(. Slinciis, I'an II., ji. MC*. 
f III regard to plaats, DccaiiclollL- ('Ess.ii Elciiiciit. JcCio'igrai)!). Uotaii.';intiin:ili- 

jimerlcan Onillhologi/. 


(1, ill iioitli 

I, ca|)tiii'((l 
nortli lati- 
attcnipl to 

of aj)liis, in 
ihc iioiii(s( 

ic iioiIIk'Hi 

ssos, that is, 

wise, is fsli- 

safily be us- 

c ainoiint ol 

'i\>rc even (it 

and snpciti- 

dt" the eaitli 

lical featmf. 

that the nii- 

linji, foatiuis 

'J 'he <j;ie!it 

an extended 

he interior ot 

I, tlie ccnlial 

rill Anu'ricii, 

d phiteaux ol 

iiost entirely 


pterous order 
itully studied 
es are of tivo 
to have beer. 
jriini,' he h:i> 
ientcd a <j,\v\\\ 
nK svstem oi 
the ooleoptt- 
, that the col- 
about l(),()()i» 
ater nnndjcr. 
lunt to nearlv 
i. The total 
ast censvr), is 
of asccrtaiiii'ii 
jf asccrtaintil 


an II., J). .■"''•' 
Uijtilll.'j illtiin:ili< 

i\llIion!;h T.accpcde did not describe many inoVc than 'J()(K) 
■hlics, some years have elapaed since it btcaine e\id(iit that 
#11 observed species ol that class amounted to nearly twice the 
lliiniber; and l>aroii Cnvier has lately remarked, that the amount 
known iishes may now be estimated at (i(J<J(). 
£ I'lnfl'nn was wont to com])laiii of the ditliculty of writinj^ an orni- 
i^ioloiiieal history, because lie was already ae(|iiainte(l \\illi >S(>() 
birds, and he supposed that there mii;hl actually exist J.jOO, 
iM- even '.'()()() species. iS early (JOOO of that class have likewise 
lie( II ascertained, and many new species are in the course of being 
l^ded every Near. 

{^ ' in the animal kin<rdom,' says lierkenhout, writiii<i; about tiic 
*c;ir 17^^!), ' the miinber of species of the class mammalia hitherto 
|us( oveied is about iJ.jO; of lliis number At only are inhabitants of 
jiiitain.' Many foreign quadrupeds have been so obscurely and 
fljIiK eiirately described, that it is by no means easy to ascerta'u 
Mjilii |)iecision their actual iiinount ; but we doubt not tliut between 
8if)(i and iJOO inaiiiniileroiis species have fallen nniler the observa- 
tion of naturalists.* The Ihitish species, as might be supposed 
*"^ a limited iiisiihir district, have not been greatly increased 
recent ob.'-ervalion. J)r. riiniing, in his compendium, gives 
as the amount of this class, including, of course, the cetacca 
1 seals ; and his work appears to contain all the species yet 
)wii in JJritaiii, widi the exception of a few bats. Mammi- 
[)us animals, in general, that is to say, «iuadrupeds ;uid whales, 
nWy be located over the eaith's surface (approximately) as 
fallows : — 'Jhere are about !)() species in Europe ; I \'2 in Africa ; 
$P ill Madaga,sc;ir and the Isle of Trance ; J-'O in Soiuhern Asia 
id Ceylon; betwixt .30 and (JO in the islands of the Jiidiaii 
icliipelago; from 40 to .00 in Morlheiu Asia; above 100 in 
fordi America ; nearly 1<J0 in Scuth America ; and from .'io to 
) ill New llollaiul and \ an DieniJii's Land. .'() species of seals 
id cetacca inhabit the northern seas ; 14 the southern ; and about 
,? species of these tribes occur in the inleriiiediate latitudes, 
jitie are probably about (iO species which are strictly aquatic: — 
■. the cetacca; — CO species, such as die seals and morses, may be 
"led amphibious, in as far as they come frequently on shore, 


«Wi „ „. ...^ ^, „ _..._, 

100,110(1 jihiiiHTciiiiiiiuns sjii'i-ii's, uc slmiilil ciiiKc to the fi)aclu-,iuii tliiit tluTc vlviu 
nearly 70(i,')(ill (liiU.|-,.i,i Ui,,,)^ ^c jusfcis in tliuwiiul. How tiulv ' iii.iiiiluld ' aiu tliu 
WorlisurOiMiiiictLiii Wiiddiii ! 

•■■ iMoiuigr;ii.lii« du Miiiimiulogie. Par J , C. Tcniiniuck, tmne i. IS-V. 
,i although 


American Onuthohfjy, 

altlioii^h tlie saline waters of the ocean are llieir more familiar siinl 
aecnstonuul Iiumicn ; about lOO arc able to support llui'istl\(\ 
in till! air witli bat-like \vin<;s ; perhaps a do/eii more can skim 
from a j;reat«'r to a lesser liei<;lit, as it were upon an inclined plane, 
bv means of the extended fulness . their lateral skin; \.'> may bi 
said to be web-fuoted, and inhabit, fur the most part, the walersui 
lakes .«nd rivers: nearly 'i<K) dwell among trees ; (i() are u sublii. 
ranean j^eople, and dwell in the crevices of rocks, or in the h<il(> 
of the eaith ; about I'JO ruminating and pachydermatous, aiic 
more than 1.50 of the carnivorous and gnawing tribes (glires' 
uander through tlu! forests without any particular or |)erm;nii'iii 
habitation, and are generally endowed with the power of rii|iii 
movement. In relation to their nomishment there ar(! about .'i.)i 
mannnifcrous animals of an herbivorous or frugiv orous disp(j 
sition ; about SO whose habits are onmivorous ; l.)(> whiih an 
insectivorous, and f240 carnivorous in various degrees.* AnuHii; 
living authors the fullest summaries of the class mammalia an 
given by Desniarest, CiriHith, and M. l.<esson. 

'J'he migratory movements of animals frequently efVect an 
interchange between the zoological productions of on<; counli} 
and those of another. These movements consist of two principi 
kinds, which may be called the irregular, or intermittent, and tin 
j)eriodic;d. Of tiie former kind, (piailrupeds, such as the Iciii 
ming {Mii.i Icmmtm, Linn.), and insects, .such as various species o 
locust, present the most characteristic examples ; whilst the nutun 
of periodical migration is illustrated by the swallow and cuekdi 
among birds, and by the salmon and herring among lishes. 
the lemmings we have heard less of late years than might h:i\i 
been anticipated from the numerous accounts which last ceimir 
furnished of their history. They are described as natives of tli 
moimtains of Kolen, in Lapland ; and once or twice, in a (punti 
of a century, they appeared in vast numl)ers, advancing along tin 
ground, and devouring * every green thing.' Inmunerable band 
march from the Kolen, through Nordland and linmark, to tin 
Western Ocean, which they innnediately enter, and, after swim- 
ming about for some time, perish. Other bands lake their roiile 
through Swedish Lapland to the IJothnian Ciidph, where they art 
drowned in the same manner. If they are opposiil by the pw- 
sanls they stand still and bark at them ; and they themselves iin 
not only barked at in return, but eaten in great tptantilies by tin 
lean and hungry dogs of Jjapland. The appearance of tliin 
vermin is regarded as the omen of a bad harvest. 'Jhey :iii 
followed in their journeys by bears, wolves, and foxes, which pn 
upon tiieui incessantlv, and rejiard tiiem as the most deliciou: 

' (ollowci 
lie man 
^al the 
le ksser 
tir.! win! 
Tile iim 
le head 
ore abui 
»ny l)in! 
licli ihr- 
for tiie , 
places nio 
•pawn in 

* Miuuiiialogie, par M. JJubiniuX'st, part ii. AvcrtissiiR'nI. ii. vi, 


American Ornilfiolnijif. 


'aiiiilint' mill 

•(! «;in skim 

iiiui |»laiu', 

1,'} may bi 

lie waltMsiii 

ic a .svildti- 

iii tlu: li(ilc> 

iiatoits, ami 

il)cs («iliiTs* 


vcr of ia|)ii 

(• about .) )i 

)i()i\H (iis|)(i 

() wllilll !11( 
S.* AllKtllL' 

aiuinalia an 

ly ciW'vX :ii 
»)iic coiiiiti) 
wo i)iiii(;i|>.i 
lent, ami tin 
as tlif Ii'iii 
)iis sporifs ()i 
ili.t tlu; iiatuii 
; and curkdi 
jf ii^^lu.',s. 
u nii;j,lit liaM 
I last ct'Miiu 
natives of tli 
, in a ([uaiti 
:ing alonj; tin 
luiable baiiil 
iniaik, to tilt 
I, alter swim- 
ke their nmK 
,\lu re they art 
d by the pw- 
heniselves ;iit 
antilies by lli' 
anee of tlii-t 
St. Tiu'y :iit 
es, wliii h pit. 
inosl ilelienii. 

food * Tli(>sr excursions usually precede a rigorous winter, of 
itiiuU the lennnings seem in some way forewarned. I'or ex- 
aiiipli', the winter of 174'i, remarkable for itli seventy throuf^hout 
^r ciiele of luuea, was comparatively mild in that of Lula, 
4tli<)U<;h situated farther to the noith; the lennuin<;s nii<;;rate(i 
ftv)in the former, but remained stationary in the latter district, 
iVlialever may be the motive of these jouriu-ys, they are executed 
with siiiprisiuu; pt i>e\erancc, ami with the universal accord of tho 
fl4ii)le nation. I'he nf/irinti murium pours forth its entire hmdes, 
•Bd, for :i time, scarcely a reumant is left in their ancient habita- 
tions. 'I'lie greater proportion, however, perish before they reach 
(Jie sea, and of course few survive to icturn to their accustomed 
)nies. They do, however, endeavour to return ; for the object of 
iv'w travel to a far country, whatever it may be, is not to found a 
inltiplied or more extended empire, 'i'liis, indeed, is eviileiit 
loin the comparatively local restriction of the s|)eeies, for the true 
riiininji of the Scandinavian Alps does not appear to occur even 
liiissian Lapland ; and the kind which inhabits the countries in 
^e iieiglihnurhood of the \\ hite and I'olar seas, as far as tho 
wiitlis (it the Obi, is a species or strongly-marked variety, 
lialler by at least one-third, and of a dilferent aspect and colour. t 
Vir mif^ratoiy propensities are, however, entirely the same in 
pleieiit countries, for the species which dwells among the 
wtliern extremities of the I'ral mountains, emigrates sometimes 
kvanls Pet/.ora, at other times towards tiie banks of the Obi, and 
followed, as usual, by troops of carnivorous and insatiate foes. J 
pie manners of the species are said to present this discrepaiicv, 
lat the ^Norwegian lemmings lay up uo provisions, ami have oidy 
[single chand)er in their subterranean dwelling-places, whereas 
le ksser kiiul excavate numerous apartments, and are provident 
the winter season by storing up ample nuigazines of that species 
rein-deer moss, called lichen ruujjijcrinvs.^ 
iTIie immediate cause of those movements, which we class under 
le Iliad of irregular migration, seems to be the excessive multi- 
litalion of the species, anil the consequent want of a suflicing 
yiiisliment, which naturally leads them to seek elsewhere for a 
Die abundant supply. Periodical migrations, such as those of 
lily birds and fishes, are more probably prodiiceil by the desire 
lull these aninuds experience of returning to their native haunts 
Wr tlie purpose of producing and rearing t!ieir young in tho 
places most litted for their reception ami increase. Tishes always 
•pawn ill comparatively shallow waters ; from which we may infer, 

t. U.VI. 

•"'lit; DuiWiy's Annual Iti'^^istor for ir(i!). f ScIuuIjit, \t\. U15. B. 

X I'iillas. Nova' siuiiis (^iiailnipciluni c j^liiimn oriliuu, 
V Diet. C'lubb. il'llibt. iS'at., urticly (\inipofjnul. 




A m erica n Orn ilh ohh/y , 

tliat tlir iiifliiciioc of li^lit niul heat is, to a certain extent, neces- 
sary for the (lovelopnient of the germ of hfe ; and ihu.s, however far 
tliey may wander for a time into tlie ileplhs of ' tlie bhie |)ro- 
found,' they relnrn again to their native shores before llie eoiii- 
nieneenient of tlie l)ree(lin}» season. The fry not only fnid lluir 
nourishment more abundantly in the bays and along the eompaia- 
lively shallow lirllis of the sea, or among the sedgy banks ami 
gravelly margins of lakes and rivers ; but they are also in sudi 
8itnati(ms less exposed to the attacks of their natural foes, just ns 
the smaller tribes of birds seek protection from hawks among the. 
branches of trees, or in tin; denser foliage of die shrubbery. 

It is usually about the periods of the ecpjinoxes that the priii. 
cipal migri' y movements of birds are performed. At those 
periods strong winds are apt to prevail, and, no doubt, act their 
part in transporting these hap|)y aeronauts to their destined honi^ 
In eonsctpience of such movenienlsa regular intercourse is kept up 
between different countries, and a flux and rellux of feii'Jiered life 
maintained ; — the countries situated near the tropics sending their 
inhabitants, on the approach of sunnner, into temperate regions, 
while the latter prepare for their reception by despatching a still 
greater number towards die polar circles. On the approach 
of winter again, the hyperborean regions are left nearly desolate In 
the migration soudiwards of their winged tribes, while the tempe- 
rate regions are deprived of many beautiful songsters by a corre- 
sponding decrease of temperature, and consetpienl failure of inseil 
food, by which they are forced once more to venture, without guidt 
or compass, across stormy seas and desert wildernesses. By wlia: 
unknown and mysterious calendar are they instructed ? 

' Tiic (lod of nature is their secret guide.' — While. 

Whatever theory of instinct may be finally fixed upon as tin 
most correct and philosophical, it is obvious that we cut ratlu 
than untie the gordian knot when we talk of die foresight of tlif 
brute creation. We might as well talk of the foresight of a ba^ 
rometer. There can be little doubt diat birds, prior to Uieir mi- 
gratory movements, arc intluenced by atmospherical changes, or 
other physical causes, which, however beyond the sphere of cm 
perceptions, are suflicient for their guidance. That they are nut 
possessed of the power of divination may be exemplilied by the 
following instance. The winter of 18'J2 was so remarkably iniU 
throughout Europe, that primroses came generally into (lower in 
the end of December, — rye was in ear by the middle of ^laicli, 
and vines, in sheltered situations, blossomed about the end of tiiai 
month, — so that an assured and unchecked spring was establisiu'ii 
at least four or live weeks earlier than usual ; — yet neither ll« 
cuckoo nor the swallow arrived a single day before their acciis- 


American OmUhiilof/y, 


)n»r(l periods.* They nre, iiidoed, Itriuitifiilly and wisely directed, 
-< Veil, tlie stork in tlie iicavtiis kiiovvclli her iippoiiitcd limes; 
[nd th(; turtle, utid the cruiie, uiid the swallow, observe the tin u 
\t' their coiiiiii};;.' 

Jt is eviileiil, that of all iiattirul agents climate is the most 
Powerful in ehanging and modiiying the external ehuractcrs of tlu; 
eathered race ; and, tlu itfore, to enable ns to accpiire siieh know- 
edf^i; as may render ns enmpetent to distin<fnish hetwciii s|U'cilic 
[ifferenee and aeridental variation, we nii<>ht to pay particular 
ttention to the ellects proilnecd by local po ii"mi ; in other words, 
ic nnist study the geographical distribuiion >i' the .ipeciis. The 
jnthience oi climate upon birds, and the niv'ual relations subsistin<{ 
jilween »he general characters of the plumage '>f many liibts, and 
he temperature and odicr physical ipialities of the country in 
k\hich such tribes arc most abundant, althoii,';li among the more 
Interestmg of the general speculations 'thich ilu; science of orni- 
Ihohigy admits, have as yet, we belie' e, but sparingly occupitil 
he attention of naturalists, in fact, ornilhologv has hitherto met 
lidi scarcely any general oi philosophical illustration, and may be 
[aid to have renniined nearly stationary in those respects, dining 
fie recent progress of the higher branchts of botany ami mineralogy, 
even of entomology, and other more nearly allied departments, 
lunurons species have been descril ed, and numerous systems of 
hissification (for better or ft)r worse) have been invented ; after 
I'hich ornithologists have too often rested from their labours, 
ii.staking the nuans for the end, and believing that all was ac- 
boni])lishcd when only certain necessary steps hud been taken, and 
|he way cieiiied (though but to a limited extent) for the coni- 
^ueucenient of those more extended and more jihilosophical iu- 
juiries, without which there is little interest, and no dignity, in 
iny science, 
lliiger, in his paper on the geography of birds, has indeed 
[treated of the habitation of upwartls of 3800 species ; f but, in 
Itlu- opinion of Humboldt, he has erred in viewing them according 
Ito their distribution over the live great divisions of the world, 
-a method, certainly, by no m<jans philosophical, and little litted 
or investigating the intluence of climate over the development of 
)rgani/.ed beings ; because, as all iIk continents, with the cxcep- 
pion ot Europe, extend from the temperate to the e(juatorial 
regions, the laws of nature cannot manifest themselves Mhen wc 
5i()Up the phenomena according to divisions which are arbitrary, 
^aiid which depend simply upon the ditrerence of meridians. 

(«as)i;ir(l, MtiiKiire sur le Coucou. .foiirii. du I'hysiiil. Kxi^rii 
liuii'llari-cliu t'eliyrsiilit (k'r vi'itlioihiiit; iliT vii;'fl iilicr 

nil). JiiillLt. IS'.'l. 

_ - „ -- ri (lie fidi'. Aliliiiiiil. 

Mi]-uii ilcr KDiiiylicht'u Akadcuiiu dcr AVisbciibchultcu iu Bfiliii. Vol. iv., p. 'Jiil. 

A Swiss 


American OmUIwlogy. 

A Swiss naturalist, some time n^o, endeavoured to illustrate 
the laws according to which the birds of Juirope are dislribuietl 
over our continent. The country in which a bird produces its 
young is regarded as its proper one, and all the species which luav 
occasionally occur there, but do not breed, are classed as birds of 
passage. According to this view, such species as are birds of 
passage in one country are not so in another, although they equally 
depart from and return towards it, as the temperature declines or 
increases. Thus our native species (in Britain), in addition to our 
constant residents, are the swallow, the redstart, the willow wrens, 
the nightingale, and other summer visitants ; uhilst the fieldfare, 
redwing, wild swan, &c. which visit us during the winter season, 
are the only true foreigners, in as hr as they were born and bred 
in another country. The proper country of a migratory bird is 
certainly that in which it has been born and bred ; for, although it 
is forced, by the changes of the season, to sojourn for a great 
[)roportion of the year in regions which enjoy an almost per- 
petual summer, it never ceases to obey the periodical calls of that 
beautiful instinct, that am/)r patriee, or by whatever other name it 
may be called, by which it is made, as it were, to discern a re- 
newal of the genial spring in those far distant northern countries 
where it had its birth. The knowledge of a few general facts seems 
to have resulted from the investigation now alluded to. The nearer 
we approach the poles, the more do we find the species proper to 
those regions, and the fewer are the foreign species which make 
their appearance. Greenland has not a single bird of passage, 
that is to say, none which has not been produced in that country ; 
Iceland has only one, which remains during winter, and departs 
ill spring for still more northern countries ; Sweden and Norway 
have several more birds of passage, and they increase in nund)er 
as we advance towards the centre of Europe. Tiie amount and 
nature of the species bear a relation to the quality and quantity 
of the food by which they are sustained. Spitzbergen produces 
scarcely more than a single herbivorous species ; for there the sea 
presents almost the sole source of nourishment, and all the rocks, 
and clifl's, and icy caverns, the 

' Earthquake-rifted mountains of briglit snow,' 

are inhabited by aquatic fowls, ravens, and a few hawks. In the 
frigid zone a much greater number of inarsh birds breed than in 
any of the warmer countries of Euiope. I'Aen in regard to do- 
mestic species, each country, according to Schinzt, has its peculiar 
varieties of poultry.* 

* New Imniiries into the Laws which lire olis,rvi!(l in tlio distribution uf Vi';;t'tiiljlii 
Forms. Ktliuburgli Philosoiihie^il Journal, vol. vii., p. I'J, 


jfo^ind t< 
t^ns no 

jng ill 
l^lu ele' 
|1. lion 
Mnder ()'( 
^uring tl 

# die 
i^aw tl) 
(suidi ■,\- 
raiily ot 

Amn'wan Ornitholngtj. 


o illustrate 


rodiiccs its 

whicli iiiiiv 

as birds of 

re birds o!" 

i("y cqiiallv 

declines or 

itiou to our 

low wrens, 

10 fieldfare, 

ntcr season, 

lu and bud 

itory bird is 

, although it 

for a great 

almost per- 

calls of that 

ler name it 

iiscern a rc- 

rn conntries 

I facts seems 
The nearer 

es proper to 
which make 
of passage, 
hat country ; 
and departs 
nid Norway 
: in number 
amount and 
and quantity 
nn produces 
:here the sea 

II the rocks, 


As. In tlic 
reed lluui in 
.'gard to do- 
its peculiar 

mi of Vi';;i'(iiljli! 


J* But it is time that we should turn our attention rather moie 
■ectly to the subjects named at the head of this article. . Mthoiigli 
cannot be said to have acquired a perfect knowledge of llio 
fi^nilliology of North America, we yet possess, in the beautiful 
IJiork of Alexander Wilson, and in die inipurtant publications of 
iittcceeding writers, such an accurate and inuple history of the 
iMrds of tlie United States, as to warrant the belief that no very 
rtb'ikiiig feature of the science remains to be diicovered, at least in 
^cse districts. It is otherwise, innvever, in regard to the in 
cliast, and the extended chain of the Hocky Mountains, which, 

fe.'jiiiting an infinite variety of hill and dale, * dingle and bushy 
II,' lor the most part well watered, and enjoying, especially 
aHiioiig its western slopes and valleys, a long and continuous sum- 
fljer, may be expected to yield, not only several species peculiar to 
{ttld characteristic of its own localities, but also a considerable 
'^riety of the southern birds of passage from Mexico, and the 
pioie tropical regions of the new v, orld. It has been long ascer- 
t^ed, in regard to the species of the United States, that the 
fMthern migratory birds ascend to much higher latitudes on the 
wletern than on the eastern side of the great Alleghany chain of 

fqM|unlaiiis; * and from what we know of the line climate which 
QMracterizes the basin of the Columbia, and other portions of the 
tern territory, we may fairly infer that many species fiom 
catan, and other peninsular portions of the Isthmus, will be 
figilind to spread through Mexico, and even to extend their migra- 
tijt>ns northwards as far as the CJulph of Georgia, and its neigh- 
touring lakes. Indeed, it is an established fact, that many birds of 
ipexico, entirely unknown in the Atlantic tcrilories of the United 
tales, are met with in the interior of Uie country, and especially 
iig the range of the Kocky Mountains, in latitudes of consiilei- 
le elevation. A speci<js of water-ouzel {Cinclas Amcrkuntis), 
l^und by Mr. Bullock in Mexico, has also been received by 
i/l. Bonaparte from the shores of ?' ■ Athabasca Lake, which lies 
nder (J0° of northern latitude ;■)- Kot/ebue informs us that 
(jelling the suinmer season the rufl-necked humming-bird (Trochiliia 
pilaris), occurs along the shores of the Pacific Ocean as high 
the sixly-lirst parallel. The Californian vulture does not 
cur to the east of the llocky Mountains, and the black vulture 
^(itlinrlcs iilndii) attains to much higher hitiludes along the 
V^estern shores than among either the central or eastern territories. 
Several South American species likewise occur in the Union 
(such as Fuho dispar and Columbti leucoccjihnbi), but the gene- 
rality of these are confined to the southern states. 

* JJiUtuu'a Discourse (111 till' l»iiiu'ip:il l)o!<i(U'ra(a nC NaluniUliatory, p. 
f Auiciicau OiuitlioK>i,'y, vol. iii. p. 1. 



Atperlcan Ornilholofpj. 

There is^ indeed, no region out of iMirope, of equal extent, of 
which \vc jiossess so anijilc and correct an ornithological know- 
ledge as vc do of the United States. Of tiie three writers, 
however, to whom we owe tiiis debt, we are not sure tliat even 
one was a native of America. The first, Alexander ^\ ilson, an 
emigrant from Paisley, a poet by birtli, though a pedlar by pro- 
fession, — one who, realizing the peculiar fancy of AVordsworlii— 

' plodded on, 
Tlirougli liot and dusty ways, or peltintr storm, 
A vagrant merchant bent benealli iiis load,' 

was also the author of the most delightful collection of ornillio- 
logical biographies witii which we are acquainted.* lie describui 
the birds of the United States in a manner wiiich had either been 
previously unattemptcd, or, if attempted, had sign-.dly failed iil 
success; and, detailing the history of their haunts anil habits with 
an accuracy and animation which relieved the su!)ject of its accus- 
tomed aridity, he rendered a work of genuine science as i'ltertst- 
iny to the sieneral student as to the devoted naturalist. His book 
formed, in fact, a new era in the history of the feathered tribes; 
and, lightening the subject itself of the opprobrious weight under 
which it had long laboureil, it placed that opprobrium on tin 
shoulders of those who chose to continue their ' danuiable itera- 
tion ' of technical details, •^o the exclusion of the spirit of lill' 
Mliich pervades the beautili " originals. Wilson died as he hail 
lived — in poverty. He appt '"s to have been a man of stroii;; 
feelings, and of a somewhat m :.'tid, if not irascible, disposition; 
loving his own j)ursuils ' not \> ly, but too well ;' and either 
unabli; or disinclined to check tirosc asperities of temper whidi 
are apt to arise in the minds of men whose feelings and opinion- 
are (liametiically opposed to those of the woiUI around ihcni. 
'J'hc day-star of his life, which, under happier auspices and a inon 
prudent zeal, might have led to emolument as well as honour. Ma? 
regarded by ahnost all by wiiom he was surrounded as nothing 
more than a delusive meteor, — a sort of ' \\ ill o' the Wisp' whicli 
could never lead to good. In truth, he came into the world (par- 
ticularly the new world) at least half a century too soon. Had lie 

* AnifiicMU Oniithclof,')', or t'lo Natm-al Ilistmy oftlu" Jiinls i>f iho liiitid Slatr< 
by Alcxaiuk'i' Wilson. 'J vols. -Ito. I'liiladtlpliiii. ItJCS— II. 'i lii' (luscrii>ti\' 
liurliou of the; last voluiui: (tlu' jilaks of wliicli wuro iiri'paix'd I'lior to Wilson's diatl. 
ill LSI;!) was written liy Mr. {icori;(' Oril. Moru than ono sul)si'iiin!nt edition dI'iIk' 
L'litiri' wiirli lias heon inihlishi;<l in America, from the orij^iiial pldi's; and wu rejnift' 
to seo that these jileasant volumes (cumhined with lioiiaii.ute's Sniiplemenl. ainl 
other valuahle matter) have heen reimhlished in ' Constahle's Mibi'el'.iiny,' wheu't'e 
wliole, hesides heini; presented in a cheaii and portiihle form, has lieen melhodiiMl'y 
arvaiitreil, with notes and additional references, liy a liij;hly distin^iiibhed natiir.ili>i. 
I'rofessor J.imesuii. 


sa^ived t( 
have been, 
of oui 

it the re 
ilved and 
but fairly 
then liis d 
9$id his occ 
Ml labours 
a^ld died ii 
aid one oi 
t|f ingeniu 
<rf>' Union 
tofthose wl 
hoiK>urs, ai 
Wealth; th 
oatural his 
m^hods ai 
doMhted iin 
ilt<|St coiitii 
science fior 

led by \ 
apl mteiiigi 

a^a aUhoug 
would scar( 
which at on 
5U by ih, 
it is we I 
inigs of : 
rial nuiui 
It too lal 

artist who 
with .M. [ 

• .■\nu'riiMn 
Stetes, not i^\\ 
natnri!. liy ( 
Only the huiil I 


Amrrimn Ornithnlofjy. 


1 extent, (if 
jical kiiow- 
ec writers, 
e tliat even 
\Vilsoii, ill! 
liar by pm- 

1 of oniitlio- 

le (lescriljtil 

filluT been 

Uy failed el 

habits willi 
jf its ncc{\)i- 
: as i'ltcrest- 
II is book 
cicd tribes: 
.■fii^lit iiiulei 
iimi on tile 
nablc iteia- 
pirit of life 

1 as he hail 
n of stroll;; 


and cither 

iiper wliieli 

1(1 opinion^ 
oimd tlieiii. 

and a inon 


lononr, \va- 
as notliin; 
is]) ' uliidi 

world (par- 
Had 1m' 


fiiiU'il Slatr 
1 lu' ik'scrii't;! 
\\'iihim's I'.i'al' 
it uilitioii of tilt 
imi we n'jiiii'' 
illiplrint'lll, iUi' 
.iii\ ,' wlii'ir t'l 

■11 Illt'tlHlllilMl } 

lb! It'll iiiitur.ilM' 


|||\ive(l to later days, and been aided, as he assnredly would 
e been, (like the Drununonds and i)onglases now expl(.iing 
western wilds,) by the patronage of our public societies 
of our private cultivators of science, so as to assure him 
t the result of his researches would not only be eagerly re- 
eved and highly prized by enlightened men in all countries, 
bat fairly remunerated, even as a commercial s|)ecula'.ion, — 
tlien his dubious path through the unvisited forest, or over the 
wide-spread prairie, would have been cheered and enlightened, 
and his occasional heart-sinkings consoled by the knowledge that 
fafjl labours would not be altogether in vain. As it was, he lived 
aUd died in poverty; and may now be added as another name, 
ai|d one of the brightest, to that melancholy muster-roll which 
t|M$ ingenious D'Israeli has recorded in his historical catalogue 
ol ' Unfortunate Naturalists.' U is some consolaiion, liowevi r, 
torthose who may be still struggling with the ' res angnsta doi »i,' 
to rellect, that aUhough Linnuius commenced his life, or at least 
his manhood, by mending his own shoes, he died .'jurounded by 
honours, and in the enjoyment of competent, if not abundant, 
Wealth ; the companion of princes, and the father of a school of 
natural history, which, however various may be the opinions of 
melliods and systems, or however great the numerous and un- 
doubted improvements of modern times, aftbrded the steadiest and 
most continuous light which has ever directly resulted to zoological 
science from the labours of a single individual. 
j^A supplement to the work of Alexander W ilson has been pub- 
lillied by M. Charles Lucien Bonaparte, an accurate, assiduous, 
and mttHigent naturalist : * — 

' Peace hath iicr victories no less renowned than war ;'— 

aOd aUhough the most comprehensive circle of ornithological fame 
would scarcely have sufViced to satisfy the dazzling expectations 
which at one period might have been not unreasonably entertained, 
evpn I)y the youngest and least aspiring relative of Napohoii, 
yet it is well that one who fills the station of a private gentleman 
IIljiP lespcclable and nnassinniiig manner, should seek to associate 
feelings ol a milder and more humanising character with his iin- 
nu^rliil name. M. Monaparte's work is carefiillv, though some- 
what too laboriouslv, engraved. The plates are done bv the same 
artlfet who executed Wilson's; and although we cannot agree 
with M. Boiiiparte, that Mr. A. Lawsou is the ' lirst orni- 

* American ()niitli(iliii;j-, or tliu \atiuMl Ilistury oC IJinls iiih.iliillii'^' tlie Uiiiti'il 
St»ti;s, lint i;ivoii liy Wilsim; with I'lj^uru's ilr.iw'ii, i;ii;;t.ivi'(1, and enlimnMl fniin 
natiiri'. liy ChaiV'S Lucirii li,Miaiuit.'. .J vols. -Ito. I'hila.klplua. I S'.;.')— '.iS. 
Only tho laml birds luivo lic.ii yut imblishud. 



Amniran OrnUhoJngy. 

thological engraver of our ngp,' we have no special objection tn 
the liif^li and niinutely-iinislied filling np of llie j)lates, except tlint 
it must necessarily increase the price without enhancing the value 
of the publication, — at least in a corresponding degree ; for tlie 
truth ol nature in all large subjects, such as the generality of the 
feathered tribe, is, in fact, given with better effect by a lcs< 
laboured manner. When every feather is finished ofV so as to re- 
present, not the aspect of nature as it appears when the subject i^ 
looked at as a whole, but rather the appearance which each indi- 
vidual plume presents when examined apart, and in disconnexion 
from its neighbours, the result is to produce a degree of tlntiKs* 
of surface, and hardness of outline, which are displeasing in :nt, 
principally because they are unknown in nature. However, tin 
work is highly creditable to all connected with it, and forms a 
most valuable addition to our knowledge of ornithology. 

iJut the most signal publication on American birds is that ol 
Mr. Audubon, which, indeed, far exceeds, in size and splendoiii. 
all its predecessors in any department of zoology. The dimension^ 
of this woi k are such as to enable the author not only to represeiil 
the largest birds of the United States, of the size aid in the all- 
tudes of living nature, but to figure them in family groups so 
admirably conceived and executed, as really to form historiciil 
pictures of the greatest interest, and of the highest utility to tlu 
student of ornithology. In these and other lespects, neither lii' 
predecessors nor his contemporaries can be named as his equak 
either in Europe or America ; for we know of no one who li;i' 
at all in the same degree combined accuracy of individual ro- 
presentation with lively and energetic portraiture of genera 
forms. We know that several of the greatest artists that ever livn 
were much attachcil to animal painting, and excelled in that de- 
partment; and although the professed painter has higher objed- 
in view than to pride himself on the accomplishment of •• '•••bori- 
ously-detailed copy of individual nature, yet the stud«'nt of seieiice, 
who combines the minuter observance of natural objects w ith l!:c 
love of whatever is picturesipie or beautiful, cannot fail to be in- 
queutly offended by the discrepancies exhibited in imaginative 
works of ait, where, the greater ilifllculties having been overcoiiit, 
it would have been easy, by condescending to a little counnuii 
place inquiry and attention, to avoid errors which are oidy int 
glaring because of the ignorance of those who witness tliciii 
If a painter were to represent a greyhound pointing a covey o! 
moor-game on the side of a highland mounlaiu, the mistake woiilii 
be thought egregious ; and as soon as the instinctive habits ami 
aequiretl powers of the feathered tribes become as generally known 
as the sporting propcnsilii-b of the canine race, then Sonuixi 


nmalier : 

hi incon 

11 a bout 

i\ or IS 

ia alone ( 

as an ex 


ju«t publ 

with ana 

race, fro 1 1 





the accoii 
leader of 
W<' be; 
Le ^■ailla 
lected :nu 
of icience 
man eior 
so niiieli 
of know 
the bnr 
of wild b 
should III 
youtli :— 

n ' Fo 

Bat, i,d 

P«ges in; 

tendiim I 
under (lis 
already fo 
history, ;ii 
■Mv. Al 

American Omilhology. 


olijcction tn 
, except that 
iiig the valiii 
rt-e ; for tlie 

rality of tlie 
;t by a less 

so as to ic- 
he subject i^ 
rh eacli iiidi- 

c of fliitiies- 
casing in :nt, 
loNvever, tin 

aiul forms ;i 

ds is that dl 
id splendour, 
le dimension* 
f to represc'iil 
d in the alt'- 
ily groups sn 
irm historiciil 

utility to till 
ts, neither h- 
as his equal-, 

one who li;i 
individual n- 
e of gener;i 
that ever livm 
led in that di- 
ligher objed 
lit of •■ l:'b()ii- 
«'nt of scicnci', 
)jects with ill 

fail to be fic- 
in iuiagiuali\c 
fcii overcoiiH, 
itlle connuuii 
I arc oidy m' 
wilncss thciii 
ling a covey o! 

mistake woultl 
tive habits aiiJ 
cnerally kuow" 
then SoniuMi 

use shall cease to see lords ami ladies afield with hawks ujion 
ir wrists, which the naturalist detects as pertaining to the 

alter short-winged tribes, and which he consequently knows to 

b0 incompetent to achieve the purposes which they are represented 

« about to accomplish. 
TVor is it the illustrative portion of Mr. Audubon's work which 
is alone deserving of the highest commendation. In addition, and 
as an explanatory accompaniment to his magnificent volume of 
illusUations, which now consists of one hundred plates, he has 
ju»t published a volume of letter-press description, which abomuls 
witli anuisiug historical narratives of the habits of the feathered 
race, from the blood-thirsty eagle, 

' Upborne at evening on resplendent wing,' 
which the increasing population of the United States is prp- 
bably, every year, driving westward from its ancient eyries, to 
the uccimiplishcd and delightful mocking-bird, the acknowledged 
leader of whatevci- tuneful band may gladden the silence of the 
AflJeiicau woods. 

We bear in melancholy remembrance the fate of such a man as 
Le Vaillant, who devoted his life, and exhausted his fortunes, in 
th«|^completion of his ornithological labours, and then died neg- 
lected and in poverty, in the midst of those admiring love 
of Jcience might Iiave consoled, in his hours of sorrow, that ' old 
man eloquent,' who, in the ardour of his youthful years, had added 
so much of what was beautiful and unknown to their former stock 
of knowledge ; and who, surviving a lengthened sojourn beneath 
the binning sun of Africa, and returning unscathed by the fangs 
of wild beasts, and the poisoned arrows of wilder bushmen, little 
dreamed, that in the centre of European civilization his hopes 
should reap such a harvest of affliction, that his grey hairs 
shoulil rue even the lion's mercy which had spared him in his 
youth : — 

' For homelcKs, near a thousand homes, he stood ; 
And near a thousand tables, jiined and wanted food.' 

[t, believing that a far different and brighter destiny awails our 
erican ornithologist, and, delighting to think that our own 
;es may be, in some measure, subservient to his success, by e.\- 
nig the knowledge of a publication which necessarily labours 
er disadvantages from its rather unwieldy dimensions, we shall 
endeavour to increase the interest which we hope the reader 
already feels in his favour, by here recording a brief sketch of his 
history, aiul that of his great work, with which, we doubt not, the 
enthusiastic auliior i., prepared to sink or swim. 
■ ;Mr. Audubon, it appears, is a citizen of the United States, but 



American OrnUholofjy. 

of French parentage, if not of French birth also. For twent; 
years of liis nianliood, liis life was a succession of vicissitiido 
He attenipteil various branches of connnerce, all of which provu 
unsuccessful, chiefly in consequence of his mind being pervadii 
by a single passion, — the desire of cxploi ing the wilderness o: 
nature, and of endeavouring to express, with his pencil, wiiat In 
and nianv oilier lovers of natine must Irivc often felt to be iudtu 
inexpressible. From his earliest years, the productions of natiin 
which, in the western world, are impressed widi features of singula 
magnihcence, lay scattered around him. lie was fortunate in po- 
sessiug a father who deeply felt and revered the grandeur of tin 
works of omnipotent wisdom, and who took delight in directiii: 
his youthful mind to their contemplation. 

' He spake of plants, divine and strange, 
That every lioiir their lilossoins cluiiige 

Ten thousand lovely hues ! 
With budding, fading, faded flowers. 
They stand the wonder of the bowers, 

From morn to evening dews. 

He told of the magnolia spread 
High as a cloud, high overlicad! 

The cypress and her spire, — 
Of flowers, that with one scarlet gleam 
Cover a hundred leagues, and seem 

To set the hills on fire. 

And he of green Savannahs spake. 

And many an endless, endless lake, 
'\^''ith all its fairy crowds 

Of islands, that together lie, 

As quietly as spots of sky. 
Among the evening clouds.* 
No wonder, then, that the love of nature and of nature's woiL 
should, in after years, have haunted him like a passion. 

' They soon,' says Mr. Audubon, in his introductory address, ' iif 
(■anie my playmates ; and before my ideas were suthtientiy foruu il ; 
enal)le me to estimate the difference between the azure tints of tiii 
sky, and the emerald hue of the bright foliage, I felt that an 
witli them — not consisting of friendship merely, but bordering « 
frenzy — must accompany me through life ; and now, more than ever 
am I persuaded of tiie power of those early impressions. They i.i- 
such liold uj)on me, that, \ ,.en removed from the woods, the prairio 
and the brooks, or shut up from the view of the wide Atlantic, I iX" 
perieneed none of those pleasures most congenial to my inind. Noi'i 
but aerial companions suited my fancy. No roof seemed so secure 1' 
me as that formed of the dense foliage under wliich the feathcn"! 
tribes were seen to resort, or the caves and fissures of the nins^v 



American Ontillioloijy, 


Tor tweiit, 
f vicissiliidev 
which piovtt 
;iiig perviuki 
wihioinoss c; 
)i)cil, wliut Ik 
t to be iii(iti:i 
oils of nature 
res of singula 
tiiimte in poi 
aiuleiir of tin 
it in liirectiii: 

iiatnie's woiL 

y address, ' ht- 
leiitly funned t' 
ure tints of tin 
liat an intim.u) 
it bordering («• 
more than ever. 
oii:s. They l.ii. 
Js, the prairiis. 
i Atlantie, I I'X* 
y rniiid. Ndh- 
ned so secure tv 
1 the featlierr! 
JS of the nias»; 
' • rock-. 

Iks, to wliieh the dark -winged cormorant and tlie curk'W retired to 

t, or to {irotect themselves from the fury of tlie temi>est. 

' A vivid pleasure shone upon tiiosc days of my early youth, attended 

\]i a ealiniiess of feeling that seldom failed to rivet my attention f )r 

irs, whilst I gazed witli extacy upon tlie peurly and shining eggs, as 

ly lay emliedded in the softest down, or among dried leaves and 

igs, or were exposed upon tlie burning sand or weatlier-heaten 

Meks of our Atlantic shores.' 

tie next describes his initiation into tlic inyslciics of the art of 
lilting : — 

I grew up, and my wislics grew witli my form. These wislies, 
lid reader, were for the entire possession of all that I saw. I was 
^vi'iitly desirous of becoming acquainted with nature. For many 
ywrs, however, I was sadly disai'pointcd ; and forever, doubtless, I 
SB^st have desires that eanuot be gratified. The moment a bird was 
dead, however beautiful it had been when in life, the pleasure arising 
irom the possession of it became blunted; and although the greatest 
c^es were bestowed on endeavours to preserve the appearance of na- 
tw^, 1 looked upon its vesture as more than sullied, as requiring von- 
stwit attention and repeated mendings, while, after all, it could no 
loi{ger be said to be fresh from the hands of its maker. 1 \\ishe(l to 
polliess all tiie productions of nature, but I wished life with them. 
Tttlk was impossible: then what was to be done? I turned to my 
fftther, and made known to him my disappointment and anxiety. He 
puMuced a book of illtislrations. A new life ran in my veins. I 
tUIJied over the leaves with avidity ; and although what I saw was 
QOt what I longed for, it gave me a desire to copy nature. To nature 
I went, and tried to imitate her, as in the days of my childhood 1 had 
trifd to raise myself from the ground and stand erect before nature 
hm imparted the vigour necessary for the success of such an under- 
taking.' — Introduction, p. ">. 

^.jr'or many years lie felt sorely disappointed when ho saw that 
bl^ own prodnctioiis were worse than those in the work which his 
<Mlier iiad exhibited : — 

My iiencil gave birtli to a family of cripples. So maimed were 
1st ut them, that they resembled the mangled corpses on a field of 
|tle compared with the integrity of living men. These ditlieulties 
appointed and irritated me, but never for a moment destroyed the 
Sre of olitaining perfect representations of nature. The worse my 
Rvings were, the more beautiful did I see the originals. To have 
^1 torn from the study would have been as death to me. I\ly time 
entirely occupied with it. I produced hundreds of these rude 
itches annually; and for a time, at my request, they made bonfires 
oft the anniversaries of my birth-days.'— p. s. 

At a later period of his life, wiien his drawings had assumed a 
more j)eifect character by a nearer appioacli to tiie ease and bril- 
^ncy of uatuie, au accident occurrcil which might well have 
>! VOL. XLVii. iNo. XLiv. l.Jii damped 


American Onnlhohxjy. 

tinmped the ardour even of surli an enthusiast as Mr, Audubon, 
Having occasion to leave the village oi" llendeison iu Kentucky, 
wiu'ie lie iiad re.iiilcd for several years, and to pioceed to JMiihi- 
delpliin on business, he deposited all his long-cherisiied drawings in 
a wooden box, and consigned diein to the care of a friend. AlUr 
an absence of several months, one of his earliest pleasures, on 
returning home, was to open his box, — 

' The box was produced and opened ; — but reader feel for niu— :. 
pair of Norway rats had taken possession of the whole, utid iuid vv.iwi 
a young family amongst the gnawed l)its of papi'r, width, but a fiu 
months before, represented nearly a thousand iuhabitiints (jf the air! 
Tliejjurning heat which instantly rushed through my brain was too 
pfreat to be endured without affecting the whole of my nervous systoni, 
I slept not for many nights, and my days passed like days of ol^liviuii, 
until the animal powers being recalled into action, through tht 
strength of my constitution, I took up my gun, my note-book, ai:! 
my pencils, and went forth to the woods as gaily as if nothing hal 
happened. I felt pleased that I might now make mucli I)etter draw- 
ings than before ; and when a period, not exceeding three years ha. 
elapsed, I liad my portfolio filled again.' — p. 13. 

With sucii a zealous and unwearying dcternjination not to bi 
baiHed, we can scarcely wonder that his efforts were eventualh 
crowned with the most signal success. During his boyhood In 
was sent for a time to Europe, and at the age of seventeen Ik 
returned from France to America. Meanwhile, David, the grc;i; 
French painter, had guided his hand in tracing objects of a largi 
size : — 

' Eyes and noses belonging to giants, and heads of horses repre 
sented in ancient sculpture, were my models. Tlicse, although f 
subjects for men intent on pursuing the higher branches of the ai 
were immediately laid aside by me. I returned to the woods of tl. 
new world A\ith fresh ardour, and commenced a collection of drawing' 
wliicli 1 thenceforth continued, and whicli is now publishing under & 
title of" The Birds of America." ' 

So entire was Mr. Audubon's devotion to his favourite pursuit? 
and so much did he love the stuily of natural histoiy for ilsell 
alone, that it was only within these few years, on becoming acci- 
dentally acquainted, in Philadelphia, with Charles Lucien 15oii;i- 
parte, tiiat he began to have anyUiing in view beyond the sinipit' 
enjoyment of the sight of nature, and the practice of his art. Alti'i 
visiting IMiiladelphia and New York, he asceiuled the Hudson 
river, and crossing over some of the great lakes, he exploml 
many of the paUdess and gloomy forests which border the nnirgiiis 
of those magniticent waters. 

' It was in these forests that, for tlje first time, I communed witli 

' h I ...'■■ , _ UlJ'Si'i; 




yimrrican Ornifliologi/, 




ml to IMiil'i- 


R'lul. i\lti'r 

casiircs, on 

eel for niu— 3 

(1 luid leaiid 

ch, but a few 

ts of tbe ail! 

)raiii \vas toe 

rvoiis system, 

|,'S of oblivion, 

throi]}>-h the 

3to-book, ami 

f notliinj^ hai 

better draw- 

"ee years ha^ 

m not to bt 
e eveiituallj 
boyhood 111 
seventeen lii 
vid, the grcii: 
ct9 of a larijt 

horses repre 
;, although t 
es of the ar 

woods of tl. 
n of drawing' 
liing under tlii 

urite pursuit? 
;oiy for ilseii 
iconiing acci- 
Lucien Bona- 
lid the siiiiplt' 
his art. AlUr 
the Huiisoii 
he explored 
;r the niargiiii 

jmmuned witii 

-dj'self ns to the possible event of my vixitinpr Europe apain ; and I 
•|(t^an to fancy my work under the innltiiilyiiif^ eHbrts of the prraver. 
•)J;iIii>y (lavs, and niichts of pleasini; (Uvauis ! J read over the cata- 

tjjiie of my eoileetion, and tiionglit liow it might be possible for an 
icoiinected and unaided individual like myself to uccomjilish tho 
£-,ind schenu'. diance, and ehaiice alone, had divided my drawings 
to three ditferent classes, depending upon the magnitude of the ob- 
ets w liieli they represented ; and altliough I did not at that time 
bssess all the siiccimens necessary, I urranged them as well as I 
Juld into jiareels of five plates, each of which now forms a nund)cr of 
jy IHustration.s. I improved the whole as nmch as was in my power; 
d as I daily retired farther from the haunts of man, determined to 
feavp nothing midone, which my labour, my time, or my purse could 
Accomplish.' — p. 1 1. 

^ 'I'lic pr(( cding extracts will suflice to show that Mr. Audubon 
j4 one of those men who so dcterniiiuiteiy devote themselves to a 
f&n''-' purpose, tliat life and health being vouchsafed, it is almost 

Sjiossibh; for lliem not to succeed in its attainment. The na- 
al consecpience has been, that, froui a romantic and unknown 
odsman, with as forlorn a hope of European celel :ity as could 
ipll be imagined, he has now beconu-, and is acknowledged to be, 
^ ornithological draftsnum of his age. 

,, • L'acadt'mie,' says Baron C!uvier, in a recent report to tlie Royal 
.Ajb.'ulcmy of Sciences, ' m'a charge de lui rendre un compte verbal de 
fduvrago (pu liii a ete conminnique dans une de ses preced'jntes 
seances par M. Audtd>on, et qin a ])0ur objct les oiscaux de I'Ame- 
<lqne Septentrionale. On pent lo charartt'riser en pen de mots, en 
fflsaiit que c'est le monument le plus raagnitiquc qui ait encore ete 
(fievc a I'ornitliologie. L'execution de ces planches, si remarquable 

Sr leur grandeur, nous ])arait avoir egalement bien rtussi, sous les 
jiports (lu dessin, de la gravure, et du coloris. L'histoire des 
wseaux des etats-unis de \\ ilson egalait deja en elegance nos plus 
Beaux ouvragcs d'ornithologie. Si cehii de JVI. Audubon se termine, il 
raudra convenir que ce sera I'Amerique qui, pour la magnificence do 
f execution, aura surpasse I'ancien monde.' 

^^ Mr. William Swainson, the autlior of • Zoological Illustra- 

^ous,'* and the coadjutor of Dr. Richardson in the ornithological 
'ocpartment of his North American Zoology, has added his tcsti- 
liony to the surpassing merits of Mr. Audubon's publication : — 
'a '''"''^1 f^Ppend on the powerful and the wealthy, whether Britain 
mall have the honour of fostering such a magnificent undertaking. 
It will he a lasting mommient, not only to the memory of its author, 

tifcut to those who employ their wealth in jiatronising genius, and in 
rBujiporting the national credit. If any publication deserves such a 
distinction, it is surely this, inasmuch as it exhibits a perfection in the 

d^ - ' 

* First .Smius, in 3 vols. 8vo., 1820— lli2.} ; Second Scries, still in proj,'rtss 

2 i; ^ 



Ainorican OrnUhnhufj. 

liii^lier attributes of zooloj^ical iiiiiiitiniy nevor before lUtemiited. To 
reiu't'seiit tlio piinsiuiis and feeliMif>< of liinls, mi'j^lit until iidw liave 
been well tleeined cliinierieal. Uiirely, iiuleeil, do we sue tiieir out- 
ward forms reiireseiited witli aiiytbiiiL^ lil<u nature. In my estimsi- 
tioii, not nioro than thrca- painters ever lived wlio eould draw a liini. 
Of lliesf, tile lamented Ikirralmiid, of whom France may be justly 
])roud, was the ehief. lie lias loiij,- passod away; but his mantle Ii;h 
at lengtli been recovered in the forests of America.' 

This testimony, so freely accorded, is the more creditable to 
Mr. Atuliiboii, as Mr. Swainsoii binr-;elf is an ornilbolo^ieal drafts- 
nian of the greatest skill, and eniiiieiilly (|iiaiilied by line taste aiiil 
a long experience to appreciate the ivlali\e nierils of tiie painler 
iialnialists. His own illustrations are assuredly remarkable for 
accuracy and elegance; and, being almost all drawn on stone by 
himself, they have the additional advantage over the generality ol 
co|)per etchings, that no third parly is inlerpojed between llic 
original draftsman ami the public.* 

We shall here enter into a brief investigation of the probable 
amount of the species of birds in North America. The lir>t list, 
with any pretensions to extent or accuracy, was published by 
!Mr. Jcilerson (whose neglect of Alexander U ilson would havr 
induced us to look for him under any other character than that of 
an ornithologist), and contained the names of only lOi) species.j- 
It was followed by Mr. \\ illiain JJartram's, which t>nuinerat'(l 
21 J diflerent kinds; I and notices of some ailditional species aiu 
given by Dr. Belknaj), §> J)r. IJarton,;! anil Dr. Williams.*! '" 
the twelfth edition of the Nulnnc, whicli professed to 
contain all the birils then known to inhabit the United States 
(Catesby and iulwards being his principal sources), Liinueus 
assigns only 19^ to 2sortli America: — 

' It is true,' says M. Bonaparte, ' that lie was acfpiainted with 
several other North American birds, which also iulialiit other coun- 
tries, — those common to Europe esjiecially ; but as many of the I!).'.' 

* As liiii" I'X.imiilos of llii! litluij^raiiliic art, ainilioil t.) oniitlioloj^icMl R'jiri'si'iit,!- 
tion, wo may ineiitiou tliu work tMitillLMl ' A ( L'utur of Hirils iVum tliu Iliiiialayi 
Jloiiutaiiis,' iiy Mr. (ioulil, ut'lln; 'AmA^'^lcul Sm'iity. Wi; reijivt t ho absuiice ul' i'^- 
lilaiiatiuy K'ttLr-jucss in a I'lililicition ni' hiu-Ii iiitfivst, Imtli iVdiii tlio iiuvflty oi' 'Is 
subjects and the liLMiity (if its cvcciirnm. We aro aware that wo aro imiinisoil tin' 
iloscriptivi! ami liist'ivii-al piirliDii from tlio poii of .Mr. Vi^jfnrs ; hut our assurauc-o 
ill sufli lianils it will lio most aMy iiorlorino'l, only liicnMses our di'siro that tlic cdf- 
resiioiiilinj,' luttor-press sliouUl ai-oomii.uiy tho ilJlivory of (.'acli f.isJcuhis of flio ilhi,- 

!• Notes oil Virginia. 1782. 

I Travels tlirouj^h N'ortli and .South (Jaroliua. \7'J\. 
^ History of New Ilampsliire. 171)1. 

II I'VaLjmeiits of the Natural Ilisturv of lV!ius\lva;iia. 179'). 
^ History of Vonnoat. ISOJ. 


njoiv til 

tfeiably t 
fad, ni 

gical licl 
Hope di, 

birds ill 
Briliiin ; 
m\u:\i 1 

t ■!!..■ I 
modi ;■: 

nop/' ni^ , 
pans 1 1 iihi. 

In-. ■:...., 
dcd, I'll.-.-' 

Bewii-k";, S 
swift, ahum 

Amcilvan Oni ilhn}<tij\j. 

tn])lP(1. To 

il now iiave 

L-e tlu'ir out- 

iny cslimii- 

(IfilW !l liil'll. 

;iv lio justly 
i umutle lias 

M'L'ditiiljIc Id 
ical (Iratls- 
iic laslc ami 
llu; paiiikr 
laikaML' lor 
on sloiic Ijv 
jciK'ialil}' of 

JulWt.'tMl llic 

le probable 

:Mic lii.a \\>\, 

iibli^linl In 

would liave 

tliaii ibat of 

)() .spccics.i- 


1 .spcciis aic 

liaiiis.*! Ill 

protcs.scd lo 

uiti.'d Stall's 

s), J^iuniuu.') 

iiaiiitcd with 
t Otlll'l- couii- 

ly of tlK! I!).:; 

;ic;il rujirosi'ilta- 
ui the Iliiiialay.i 
J iibsc'iux' ol' i"i- 
\ii novelty 1)1' 't-i 
in- promisoil tin' 
v ussuraiiCL' iImI 
w tlu- ciir- 
nilus ol'tliL' ilUiv 


jIt merely iioiinriiil, wo may allow tliem to rountci'Lalancc tliosc 
Aiittcil. Of tlic I'litire iiiiiiil of, lO.'J ai'e luiid-lMi'ds, all of wliicli we 
■uvi' v.-rifii'd either as real or nominal, four exeepted, of wliieli I'iins 
iflfiuiiliitiii-i'iis alone (a real species) may liave eseaped Wilson and oiir- 
Jfcives. Of tiie tlinc ri'mtiiniiiL^s t\\o, Luniiis Cnniidciisis and l.o.un 
mitiuulfiisis, ure now well known to Le South American birds, given as 
jjorlli Amcriean l)y mistake ; and the third, Si/liin. Irnc/ii/iis, of Kii-- 
Djie, iiiav have liecii reckoned as Am;'rican, on jiccoiint of the rescin- 
luiae hetweeii it and tlie female of ^onie American warbler, probahly 
\ii in Iriclnts.' 

f .Since llic lime of J.innu'iis, several real, and a still greater 
iiiiihtr of a|)parenl, additions have been made to Ameiieaii 
briiitJiolojzy. Wilson dtsciibed 'J7(> species. \\\ \\\c Intlcx Oi- 
til/iold^'-Jciis of ly.itliain, not fewer than 404 names arc tinolleil 
IS indicative of itiiiis native to Is'orlli America ; but so jiieatly 
Surtliari;cd with nominal species is lliat lenj;tiieiieil list, that not- 
»illi>taii(iin';- the nmnerous anil well-establislieil adilitioual species 
)|iii h litive since been described by American and other writers, 
Be actual number of clearly ascertained species did not, a few 
Bms a;.;(), amount to 400. * Per ora,' says C L. llonaparte, 
ritini; in KS'J", ' si tnmoverano ']<)() specie nell' America Sct- 
atrionale;' and \\c may add, that .'Jyi of these occur in tlio 
fhiled Slates. Now the number of biids in J'^urope may be 
ited as not less than i][)J) ; but as its ornitliolouy is in a more 
iviinced sttige than that of Morlli America, and consetpiently 
iMs remains to be eirected in the way of further discovery, there 
CjRn be little doubt, tlnit mIicii the latter country shall have been 
I^lorc thoroiiLihly esplored, its feathered tribes will be found coiisi- 
Wiiibly to exceed those of Kurope. \\ c may mention a single 
fitt, en passinif, with a \iew to illustrate the extiaordinaiy /oolo- 
ff|cal riches of moic southern climates. In the Cape of (Jootl 
loiie district alone there arc above one hundred more species of 
irds than are found throughout the whole of l',uro|)e, 500 
belies having been ascertainetl to inhabit that colony.''' (neat 
lril;ii!i and Ireland produce only '277 diffcieiit kinds of birds, of 
^lieh 1 I'i are land-birds, anil 13 J aie water-birds and wadeis.'|- 

^HJiitli Al'iiiMii *Juaiti;ily Joiinial, No. I., \t. 10. 

'llu;;^ siuiniiary of mir IVatlii icmI trilus, clashed in aci'onl.incc witli tliO 
lA^luii hvsliMn, iu.,y nut Iji.' uniuli'icMinL; to thi; shukiit iil' liiilisli OniilluiloKy. 
:|pAi'i(.ii!r,-, — 'Jr Njuciis. or llu M', two i:iv lutL'ul aci[uisiliiins: viz., A'"7'//m"( ptrc- 
Wtrim and Sm/mi (Slri.r) '/(/(.ywifi ';;/i. tl;;iin'(l. tlirmi;;h inailverti.'iici.', as Au(/i/i» 
N^*m/m, ill Mr. SiUij's ' iruistiations of hiitisli Onutl',' pi. 'Jd, vol. i. 
^'lNsrsso!u:s — lOi spi-i-iis. Of tlii'so, I'ifiht ari' nivv ; v:/.., Cuniiai (Sy/clii) Siir- 

teka, Ciirrwi! .ii/h-ir/la, I'/iwiiiriini ( S;//iiii) I'lthys, .U< rutin- ii/iiiiiiis, ^ tiilhii.i liiihurilii, 
iiiiin riifrijilis, Kinheiizii liurliiliiHus ; tile saniu as the ^ri on-lifailcil liiniliiif,' of 
\yifk".s Suj'iilui.unl.") nuil I'lfih-i.jih' ii'is / ii/)//ii)iit(i. l'iji'!.r/-ix n/jil/iiix, a spicirs of 
nvil't, uljuaduut in tliu Sjiiili ol'Kuroif has I a' a lately ihot ollthi; t'oiiit ui' Iivland. 


•Ampr'ican Ornitholnrjij, 

Tlio spcrirs of iMiropo and of Noitli Ainciic!* liavo bcrti 
rliisst (1 midrr 10? pciit'iii,* of wliicli <i4 nre conimoii to Ixiili 
coiiiitiics ; 1!) (Amt'riciiii) an; lorei<;ii to I'iiiiopf, niid '24 (I'm- 
ropcaii) arc icjuully mikiiowii in AnitMica. 'J'liiis tlie {jenera ol 
J'-iiiopc amount to HS, and tlioso of Noitli Ainciira to M,'). 

I'ortlic sak(3 of tlioiso wlio take an interest in sncli coinpaiativo 
\ie\\a, we bliall present an cninneialion, in the subjoined note, (j| 
tile ^eneiu of Knrope and Noilli Ann lica, in aceintlance witli 
the arrangement of M. lionaparte. i' liie land-birils of Jai- 

Si'i' 'l'r;iiis;icli'nis of tin' llislijiy Society ul' Ni)rtliiimlitil.iii(l, Durham, uiij 
I\it'\viiistli'-iiiM)ii-'l"ym', viil. i., liait ;l, \i. il'Jl. 

ltAM)iii;s — I 'J sprciis. 

ItjiAi.i.A 1 ()ui-.n — ■)!) K\iucii's. .Irdrii iiflm is probnlily not uiilitU'il to as a Urili^li 
bird, liiit its |il,ici! iii.iy in' suiiiilicil liy Moiil.i^ii's .Iriba rrjiioKir/id/if, wliicli, iKjwrvit, 
is iiut till' Aiiirrii'aii spi'cii's, iuit Waj^lcr's .//i/fi riissiilu, a kiiiil ciiolimd to the nk 
worlil. 'I'lu' ri'i'i'iit uciiui-itioiis in tins oriliT am Siii/uihi.i Suhiiii. iiiiil .Mr. Varri'llj 
'J'liiii/ii ni/r.trin.s tii^orcd in Mr. StUiv's Illustrations, vol. ii.. \i\. -7, i'w, -). — 70 sjii'i'li's. Tlio uoVL-ltiis iiri', l'i/;jiiiis lliunl;!,, /'((Iiifiiii nihil 
jUfn/iin luiiilliitiis, and lui/ii/nfii riijliin, Wu lii'licvu that ( 'nn /Iniiiiiic/iii has hIh 
liL'i a hilli'd oil' one ol'thi.' Sht-'ll.iiid l.^li's. 

* 'I'ahilhi .Analitie.i dc (iiiii;ri di'll' l'".iU(iiia u dull' Ann.'rii.'ii St'tluiitrlonak' 
No. XXXI II. J)i'l N'uovo (iiornale du' Littirati. 

f 'I'lu' North Annricau ({fnira luit I'onnd in Knruin! aro iollowt'<l hy the lultiT.i. 
Thi' Knro) I' Ml j^uni'va which <lu not oi'cur in North Aincrii'.i, aru I'olluwud hy tlu 
K'ttcr Ji. Tho rcnniininu (j;i'ni!ra iiru ciininion to both C'ontini.'nls, 

OlIDKK .\( ( U'lrUKS. 

1. Vnllur (k) ;). (iypaitiiij (k) .'). Strix 

'2. CathartL's .1. l''."iU'o 

fi. I'sittaius (.1) 

7- Cocryzns (a) 

8. Cucohis (r.) 

!). Ynnx (k) 

10. I'icus 

11. Alct'do 

1-.'. RliTojis (:} 

lU. Nueilraga ^i',) 

II. Sinniiis 

Ifi. Icierus (a) 

1(1. Quiscdns (a) 

17. Oriolus (i;) 

18. (k) 
I'J. (.'urvus 

20. I'yrrhoforax (r) 

21. Acridotliures (k) 

5'i. Phasianus (u) 

ai. Mcluu-ris (a) 

f)!). Otis (i-,) 

CO. t'nrsorius (k) 

CI. Ot'dicii'j.nns (i;) 

62. Charadrinti 

OllUKlt I'ASfaliUKS. 





.) ; 

( iii'vioiul^us 




('\ Jisl'lus 


(.'i rilua 




Tii'hodronia (k) 






K'turia (a) 


Ipiipa (n) 


\'ireo (a) 


Trufhihis (a) 






Myolhiia (a) 




( 'ini-lus 






Taiia;;ra ( a) 






Aci-i'iitiu' ( r.) 








.Molac'ill.i (v.) 





OnDKK ClAl.l.lN 1.. 




Plfrocl'.'s (l.;) 


OiU)i:ii (iuAi.uii. 


'i'urnix (\:) 


Vunelhis (i-:) 






C'iioaia (k) 





00, Glart'ola yv.) 

70. Arannib (a) 

ffi. 'I' 

87. nUvnr 

9. 1. arils 



lit will 
|h th 
piis. li 
MR" .i.M,,_ 

Arsi'i'. ^^\ 
by ili.inii 

is COilslil 

is also tilt 
^Jii'lun, , 
f * In tl 

jiinei lean Ornilholorpj. 

Iiavo boon 
on to Ixitli 
lul '24 (Vm. 


iiicd note, III 
>riliiiu'(- willi 
iids of I'lii- 

1, Durliaiii, mill 

iMiik us aUrili'.li 
wliit'll, liciwrvi,, 

inl'iiuil 111 llii' 1'' 
(I Mr. VairviW 

: I. 

I'lcliilllit mill: 

iiiiiic/iii lias alv. 


ll liy fill! lultiT A. 
rulluwcil I'V th'. 

■Ipc in JTcnrrsil exceed tlui wntcr ones by about HO species ; those 
f|llie Uiiitetl States exceed the wiiter-biiils by towards jO ; while, 
||(ii'eat ISiitain, (a fael to be expected tVoiii our insular po.sitiiiu, 
itadeoiisecpicnllv extended siiores, as well as iVoin the lunuber of our 
mbialier islands,) the land-birds prevail over the water ones by not 
Ipore than seven species.* The birds of the continental kingdoms 
luirope exceed those of the Ibitish empire by nearls I'JO, 
ll^nh' the coimnoii grouse or nioor-game is the oidy species of 
;ji|||)ich we can with certainty boast the ex«:lusive possession. 
,10 We come now to tlie work which is placed last in our list, 

tough it is In no means the least important in onr estimation. 
II classes of readers ar<^ well actpiainted wilii Dr. itiehardson's 
jflaims to respect as snrgt'on and naturalist to two of the most 
•Emiukal)le expeditions which were ever planned ami executed by 
pie enterjirise of JSritoii.s, and with Ids high merits as the intrepid 

Jader of one of the cxploi ing parties, and a chief actor and suf- 
icr amid scenes of imminent <lan;j;er and prolonged distress, 
liich are scaietly paralleled iu tiie annals of geograpiiical dis- 
jvciv. In a prec( (ling volmne, (I'art I., containing the QikkI- 
Vpcils,) Dr. Kichardson has very amply and accurately exhibited 
ke |ir(seiit state of our knowledge respecting the mammiferous 
|iid animals of the northern parts of Ihitish America ; and the 
Batitilul volume now under consideration forms the second or 
^nilhological |)ortion of his very skilful work. He has, we per- 
feive, availed himself of Mr. Swainson's assistance, both as an 




ilnmiii (k) 

,1 (i;) 
lihis (a) 


<ra (a) 

•Ics (k) 

.. (.0 

lia (v.) 


itis (a) 

'I'.intaliis (a) 

I Ills 



i. riitaiiii>; 

I. lliiiiaiitu|nis 

77. Liinosa 

78. Si'dliiiias 
7!l. U.illus 

80. I'Drphyiio (k'j 

6\. (ralliuiila 

8J. I'lilirii ■ 
iJ.J. I'li.ilaropiis 
SI. KtHMirxiiustra 
b:>. I'latali'a 
80. Pliujiiicoiitcrus 

101. I'o.loa (a) 

KIJ. I'udiciiis 

10!. ('(ilyiiibiiB 

10 1. Ilia 

10.-). Phalfris (a) 

ion. ;\iiiriiiiiii 

107. Alca 

Oui)i;h Anseiii:3. 
ItliyiK-liops (a) !I 1. i\IiTi;iis 

■■sli'ina <J,-,. IVlccauus 

i-iinis !)li. I'lialacnieorax 

I'l-'liis '.17. 'r.ic-liviifU'S (a) 

I'loiTllaria OS. .Siila ' 

DiimiwlL'A (a) !)!). I'liacton (a) 

■ -^'I'l-i loo. I'luliis (a) 

It Will 111- jioiciivs'cl that tlio prei'dUnj^ nrrn!ii;;i'iiu^iit is soinuwliat iu acciirdanco 
th lliiil ul the „/7 sr/iiiii/, anil tlial it I'xcUidfS scvi-val of tlit- lu'w gLiicric aii|ii'lla. 
Ills. It will, [H'lliajis, lit' mil tliu luss ir.ti'Ui^'ililu im acciiuiit tci tlic ^'I'nrr.ilitv dl' 
Mlurs. Ill (In. .■Ii,/,,;i,l,j- to tliu * (iL'lUT.i uf Xuvth .Viiii'i-ioaii liiid.'.,' tliu I'lilliAvi.i^' 

■ '"'''>''Hi.i tiiuM. aliiivo miniiiL'ratcd, viz.: — (iarniliis, Tlial.issiiliuina, I'lifliuus, 
- K^T"^' * •^"""'^' l'<il'',''ila, ami (tiTuryiii-a. Of tlii'sr, tliu fjruater uuiiiliiT ari' I'iiiiiumI 

m ilniiifiiiliiviiu'iit 111' fiiniu'i- giiiiil>s^ ami tliu last is ll.u iiiily one of wliiili tlio t\in! 
n couslitjtL'il liy a new sin'cius. Tin.' tulal iiuml'Lr of i,'uiuTa foiiml in Noith Aiiifiic.i 
_}8 also llure sUtwl as iimuiiiitiiig to iiiiicty. — -cu AiiikiIs uf the Lyceum uf Aaliiru/ 
.""J"'':i "f-'^''"' 1"'*, vi.l. ii. p. ^.51. 

' '" ""' i'l'iivi' I'luinK'r.itiou w(! class the Gra/hilvni, or waik'is, aloni' with t\w 
' ♦•ati.T-low I, inopuvly so tallul. 



American Ornttholor/y, 

aullior and diaftsmaii ; and the result of tlieir combined efforts 
juesenttj a most impoitaiit aildition to our stock of kno\vlod<;e.* 

The very abuudauce of our nuitcriahs, however, ahuost detcis 
us from entering on tlie contemphition of so rich a hekl, and it 
■would be difticult, widiin the usual bounds of a jicriodical cssny, 
to undertake die discussion of more than a few of its varied and 
inexhaustible features, — indeed, we shall probably be thought lu 
Jiave already engrossed too much of our readers' time. 

We may ol)serve, in tiic lirst place, that, in the class of birds. 
the geographical distribution of individuals of the sauu; speciis, 
is nuich more widely spread than that of (juadrnpeds — a fact to 
be anticipated simply from their possession of wings. 15ut even 
the ostrich, wliich is so nearly deprived of those characteristu 
organs as to be incapable of raising itself from the surface of tlu 
earth, thougii confmcd to Africa, is yet spread over a g eat extent 
of that vast contiiu-nt from the Cape of Good Hr)pc to the C\r 
naik, and from the Cape tie \ erde to the straits of J5abel-Maniki, 
The osprey, a species of iishing eagle {Falco lialiiUus), occui^ 
identically the same in the north of Scotland, the south of I'^uropt. 
and along tiie shores of ISew Holland. We have seen Chinc.«t 
drawings of the goshawk (Falco pahunbarius) entirely resembhn: 
our native species ; and from what wc know of its intermediiiU 
stations, we may safely conclude that it inhabits the whole of tli;i 
vast tract of territory from the south-eastern extremities of Asii 
to the most western shores of Europe, and across the broad ex 
pause of the Nordi American continent. The lanmier-giu 
{(jypdios haihatua of Storr), the largest, or at least die longt.^ 
winged of all the European birds of prey, haunts the steeps d 

* It is woitliy ol' ii'c-cn<l Hint tliis is thu Krst zool(i},'ical work I'ver pul)lislu'(l \iiuli r l! 
iimin.c'.iat(.' iiiitli(irity ol llio Biilisli i;o\ iiiiimnt. It wiis fomid lucissary, witli a vii 
to RMidcr thi; i;ulilicatiim iisifiil, that many ol" its sulijutts, iiioiu csjieciully in \. 
oniitluiloijical and liotanical di'partnii'nts, slioiild lo ilUishati'<l liy iiitans ol iif^im 
lliL' I'Xi'ciisi: of w liifli ivoidd, liowL'Vi-'r, liavf i>ii'M'iitfd uu insunnoiuitable olistaclr, 1 
not his late Majesty's (^ovciiimcnt lent a liljfial aid to tliu undiitakinjj;. On an" 
I'lication wliich had the ajinoval of the Secretary of State for Colonial alliiirs. li 
'J'reasury panted KKId/., to t;e aiijilied solely towards defraxinjj; the exjienses of 'i 
illustrations. Of that sum, fidO/. was allotted to the qiiadrniieds and hirds. anil i. 
other moiety to the iis^hes, insects, and jilants. As the resolt of this enlii^htii. 
]iatronapv, we have already, in tlie iiirnier volume of the I'amni, twenly-eiuhl ailiw 
rahle ]ilates, drawn and en;;raved hy I\Ir. 'i'hon\'is LaniUeer, and iiftj-two lij.'iiui 
I'M'cuted m litho'^raiihy, witli his ;'cc\istemed skill, hy I\Ir. Swainson, and licanliliii.; 
cohnucd, adorn the jirescnt volume, which contains, in addition, ahove forty woiid-cu!' 
repre^entinij; chiefly the heads and feet of species. A\'e say nothin;,' of llie 
ilil'ar'.ir.i'nt ; hut wlioever is aci|uainti.'il with the taste "and talents of rrofi--' 
lliKiker, will not douht that it will be atiiieved in such a manner us to do honei;v: 
the scienlif'c diaracter (d' iJritain. 

^V(• shall nut lure do more than allude to an inadvertence which Mr. S. has ciii 
iiiittid, hy allowintj liis cntliusiasni for a favourite lansoit to had Idm astray {»^ '•■ 
this c.ise it may 1 e called) into a':iither and iii!p(ntant sul ject, hetwfi'n wliic: 
and his peculiar \ ru\iuce we do not ]iirceivi! the j ossihilily of a connexion. (7'wf 
JJvna/i-.IiiniiLO"^., l';;rt ii. lulroUuetory Obseivations uii tlic Nutiirul Sybteni, p''"' 


■In re; 
and die 
ajRB Moiit 

Zt)|e. u<( 

#' I'"' 
■UaJvas I 

WMd.s or 

Qf.)iic c. 

■jjt 'j'iii.s 

nof iMiTot 


tilt I 
«(1 iia 
that lio 
No. 8.-,. 

the ()l).s( 




American Ornitholofjy. 


ibincd oft'orts 
almost dctuis 
I field, and it 
liodical cssny, 
its varied and 
be thought to 

class of birds, 
same specit's. 
^ds — a fact to 
ITS. 15ut evei! 
surface of the 
' a g eat oxtcnl 
le to the Cvn- 
diiUus), occui' 
ulli of lunopc. 
: seen Cliincst 
rely rcsembiiii! 
ts intermedlaU 
e w hole of thii: 
L'mities of Asii 
i the broad ex 
! lammer-ii;i'}i 
.•ast the longi* 
s the steoi)s n 

,• putilisla'diuulirt! 
uci'ssary, witli ii vii 
111! c'sjit'Ciully ill li 
liy iiu':viis (il li};uir 
mitiiljle obstiu-li', 1 
itjikiii};. On nil. 1!; 
Coluiiial allairs. tb 

tlu! i^Xpi'IlSl'S 111 '1' 

s and billl^. and i'; 
: of tliis t'nlii;bfi^ 
I, t\viMity-i'i;;lit ailiw 
lu.d IH'tj-lwi) il|.'iii>'^ 
uihuii, and litautiliil.; 
duivi' i'lii'ly wiiiiil-''"'' 
liiii'4 111' Uic liotiiim- 
talents of riofc>:-0 
cr as to dii liunoi'.v- 

lii(di Viv. S. lias CUV' 
tad luni astray ("'''; 
,il jict, bi'twi'i'ii vim-: 
I coniH'.Nion. (i'.w" 
s'iitumlSytjtcni, !'■■'''• 

llH Pvrcncan mountains, and the central Alps, from Piedmont 
t#.Dai'natia. Jt was described as an E<ivptian species by MM. 
Mney and Savigny, and by Ibiicc as native to the Abyssinian 
"nntains. It has also been seen sailing over the vast steppes of 
Siberin". deserts, and has more recently been transmitted to 
Edinburgh Museum from the north of India and the range 
the llinialava. Tiie peregrine falcon occurs in (Jreenland, 
r(ii)e, North America, and New Holland. The short-eared 
{SIrix hrarliijolos), counnon to Europe and ^America, has 
n sent to tliis country from Canton, in China ; and the white 
barn owl (Strix f/aminca) has been observed in all the four 
at divisions of the world, to say nothing of Madeira, Mada- 
MjBcar, and New Holland, 'i he common cuckoo {Ciiculvs m- 

fiis), and the European water-hen (Ftdica citlorojjits), arc found 
lie Mauritius. The glossy ibis occurs in Europe, Asia, Africa, 
aid America; anil the golden plover is characteri'cd by an almost 
ally extensive range. Lastly, for we have not here room for 
[lore lengthened enumeration, the white- fronted or cliff swallow 
nindu liniifroiis of Say), discovered by Major Long in the 
iiliity of the I'ocky ^louiitains, and more recently observed by 
liichaidson at Fort Chepewyan, was lately exhibited to us in 
i.diiiburgh IShiseum, as forming part of a collection traiis- 
;ed some years ago by the Marchioness of Hastings from 

|»ii lejrard to the American species, the gorgeous tribe of parrots, 
the lairy family of the humming-birds, with both of which we 
wont to associate the warmth as well as the lustre of the torrid 
le. a'c now known to be much more extensively distributed 
1 Ijiilfon and some other writers of the last century sup|)ose(l. 
.IS tia belief of Bnffon that no parrot extended either north- 
Ids or soiith\\..fds beyoiul the twenty-liflh degree on either side 

.iJiis illustvious autlior,' says Mr. Pennant, ' liaviiig resolved tliat 
]iarr(jt:s slioiild pass beyuiul tlic tropic of C'ajiricorn, despises tlie 
i"iity of tlic Diitcii navigator, Spilliergen, who was eye-witness 
e woods of Terra del Fiiego, the very southern liouiidary of tlie 
lils of Magellan, in lat. 4t, l)eing full of a sj)eeics of these birds. 
in'gl\t liave cited tlic evidence of Captain Hood, who saw a small 
'ot at Cape Faniiiu' ; and lie luight have quoted Commodore Bvron, 
ays tliat, notwithstanding tl:e coldness of the climate, he ob- 
•laA*^'' l''"'"*-^ iniiunurable in the woods of the same liarliour. Mr. 
^Irards, one of the surgeons, now living at Carnarvon, informed luc 
ut ''^' ^''^^' ^'"^'" "' abundance, and tliat they were of a deep green, 
probably the very species engraved in the "' Plunelies PhiluminJes," 
J>6q, S.). Hie Count treats with the same contempt tiie authority of 
«• observant and veracious Captain Cook, who, in defaince of "the 
C#liiit's canon, liud the luirdiucss to trust to the evideueo of his own 



American Omithohrjij. 

senses, and assert that he saw parrots in tlie isle of New Zealand, an^ 
even to suffer Captain Furneaux to blab out that ]>airakeets were 
inhabitants of Van Diemen's Land, the very extremity of New IId:. 
land — both of them countries interdicted by the illustrious natural^ 
to the wliole parrot race. How greatly, again, has our aide navigntor 
aggravated matters by not silencing the learned Furster for proving 
more than one species to be found in the raw, wtt climate of IJii^k, 
Bay, in hit. 40 ; and to make bad worse, to connive at several of tht 
conii)anions of his voyage bringing into this kingdom not fewer tlia: 
eighf sjjccies of this vagabond genus, which had dared to take ir 
their residence beyond the gein'al limits of the torrid zone, which t! 
Count de ButTon had so authoritatively decreed to them, and, like : 
great creator, had said, " Hitherto shalt thou come, and no farther!" " 

The only representative of this family foiuui in tlic I nilcd Stalt: 
is tlie Carolina parrot, of which the otiier supposed species {PaW- 
taciis jierfinax) is the young. It inhabits the interior of Louisiaii:, 
and the shores and tributary waters of the Mississippi and Ohio 
and extends even beyond the Illinois river to the neigiibourhoo': 
of Lake ISIicliigan, in the 42° north latitude. 

• From these circumstances,' says Wilson, ' we might lie justified'; 
concluding it to be a very hardy bird, more capable of sustaining cii 
than nine-tenths " the tribe ; and so I believe it is, having mysi 
Been them, in the vnonth of February, along the banks of the Ohio,:: 
a snow-storm, flying about like pigeons, and in full cry.' t 

Jt appears, however, to h t more restricted on the eastern si. 
of the iMlegliany range, where it is seldom seen farllier north tli?. 
the state of Maryland, although a few stragglers are now and tlu 
met with in the vallies of the Juniata, or even about t\ventv-li 
miles to the north-west of Albany, in the state of New York 
We may judge of the abundance of this specii s, even up to 
recent period, from the statement of \ aillant, who assures us tl: 
lie saw a packet, containing above six thousand skins of tiiis bir 
which were sent to a j>luma.ssior at Paris for the formation 
ornamental dresses. § Mr. Audubon, however, informs us, th. 
their numbers are now rapidly diminishing, and that, in sons 
districts, where, twenty-five years ago, they were very plentilii' 
sc:ncely one is to be seen. 

• At that period,' he adds, ' they could be procured as far up the tr; 
hutary waters of the Ohio as the great Kcnhawa, the (Scioto, t:, 
heads of the Miami, tlie mouth of tlie Maniniee at its junction ut 
Lake Erie, on the Illinois river, and sometimes as far north-east »• 
Lake Ontario, and along the eastern districts as far as the boundar 
line between Virginia and Maryland. At tht jirescnt day, very U'' 

* Ilull'M tl) till; I'lillK-lil'S Kllllll.!il.t'uS. 

f Ami'rican Oniitlmio^y, Constalilv's '■(lifiuii. vul, i Ji. IIS. 

,; Uiirtoii's Fiaf^niriits i>t tliu Xatiiial llistoiy of IViuisylvauia. 

Ij Ilibtoiro Natua'llu dcs I'enonuits. 

JUt|to be f( 
ingilth of t 
b«iR. 1 shi 
tbv niiuibei 
lie oth 

Jntinn 1 
'hiiu natn 
sceh liy C 

' «ic < lin 

tH^ trdje. 
^wy mo 
denied t 
)otka S 
lus rolitl 
doubt, the 
of iCauadii 
tbeve two ( 
U«||r tiie h 
dtUtcc of 
jR'e havi 
short s ; ai 
iaits of 
itory in 
|r rcmar 
'^r in^lin 
Imi if die 
iv flee al 
K' it, th; 
Ik! mi 
IJ' el ol 
tO^iUv. flu- 

these, the 
iUght of tl 
tjieir gigii 
liroad vai 
' But k 



.American Ornllholnrj)/, 


Zealand, am', 
iMkcets were 

ui New IJ(,:. 
ions riatiirulis 
;il)le navigiUu: 
.T for proviii:; 
nate of i)u-l, 
several of th 

t fewer tli;.: 
ed to take i; 
)iie, wliicli t! 
ni, and, like 
lo farther!" " 
nitcd Stall 
species (/-'.vf'- 
of Louisiana 
)pi and ()lii> 

t he justified '; 

Mistaining n/ 
haviiip^ iiiysi 
of tlie Ohio,!: 


eastern sii' 
her north tli: 

now and tin 
)iit t\vcnty-(i 

New Voik 
even up to 
assures ns ll: 
IS of this bii 

ifornis us, tli 
that, in son 
very jihMitiln 

far up the Ir: 
he iSeioto, t; 
s junction \vi' 
1' north-east •; 
s tiie houiidiir; 
; da)-, very U" 

. tis. 

jUU|to be found hij^licr tlian Cincinnati ; nor is it till you reach the 
I^ltiiitth of the Oliio that jjarakeets are met with ia consideralde num- 
tHMb. 1 should think that alon? the Missisisippi there is not now lialf 
tht'numher that existed fifteen years ap;o.' 

'dihe other group to whicii we alluded above — that of the huni- 
rtrth'.;-birds — is also characterised by a nuicli more extended dis- 
tm)ution tiian wi-.s formerly supposed, although it might have 
bwii naturall'' inferred, from the abundance in whicli they were 
86^h by Condaniine in the (devated gardens of Quito, that a tem- 
pekite ( liniate was by no means adverse to the constitution of that 
tiny tribe. Mr. Bullock discovered several sjieeies on the lofty 
tgj>ii:-lanils of Mexico, ami iu tlio woods in the vicinity of the 
sppw) mountains of Oiizaba. Cook, indeed, had long before 
.pfpcnred the rntl'-neckeil species {Trocliilim vulliiris, Jjatli.) from 
.tifpolka Sound ; and Catesby, at a still earlier period, and 
,i^s;ni(ler \\ dson, in latei' limes, described the species (7Vo- 
■cif^us coluhris) so well known in the Lniti;d States. It was, no 
doubt, the latter species that was seen by Charlevoix in the interior 
o( jPanadu ; but it would be interesting to ascertain whicli of 
thejie two coniparativ(dy hardy kinds was n\et with by Mackenzie, 
lie|r the head of the Unjigali or Peace Uiver, in the iiity-fourlh 
ree of north latitude. 

'e have alreaily nuMitioned that Kotzcbuc traced the beautiful 
-necked or Nootkaliununing-bird to the 6\ along the western 
res ; and when we take into consideration the facts lately com- 
m^Ilicated by Captain King, who met with numerous members of 
t||i^ diminutive family Hying about in a snow-storm, near the 
Stjaits of Magellan, we shall perceive how great an extent of 
.teijilory in the new world is occupieil by die Trochilicke. llow- 
«,yj|r remarkable may be the lustre of their resplendent plmnage, 
thiir instinctive courage is still more worthy of our admiration, at 
Jeasl if there is truth in renuuulez Oviedo, who writes thai — 

• When they see a man climb y" tree where they liavo their nests, 
MliBy (lee at his face, and stryke In'm in the eyes, eonunyng, goviig, 
Bflfl icliiriiyu^-, with such swyftness, that no man wouhle ryghtly iiu- 
liew it, that hath not seen it.'* 

FfP lie migration of birds has, imlecd, in every age, afliirdid a 
■M^j' el ot pleasant, though sometimes inconclusive speculation 
tO'tiie students of nature ; but in no instance does it appear more 
calculated to call forth our admiration, than when exemplilied bv 
these, the frailest of the feathered race. The lofty ami sustained 
night oi the eagles and albatrosses seems only commensurate with 
tjieii gigantic size, and the irresistible sweeping of their ' .'•ail- 
broad vans ;' — 

' Jbit how,' says Dr. ^iehardson, ' is our admiration of th" ways of 

* History of tlie West ladies, traiislutcd l.y llicliard Eden, p. 1 !•',). 



Amcrkan OrnilJiolof/y. 

Providence increased, wlicii we find that one of tlie least of its da*i 
c'lutlu'd in tlie most delicate and brilliant jjhimago, and iippari'iit; 
more fitted to flutter aljout in a conservatory than to brave the fw 
(if the l)last, should yield to few birds in the extent of its mif!;ration> 
'J'he ruby-thtoatcd hunnuing-bird, which winters to the southward i. 
the United States, ranges, in summer, to the fifty-seventh paralk, 
and jierhaps even still farther north. We obtained specimens on tl, 
lilain.s of the Saskatchewan, and Mr. ]3rummond found one of tin 
nests ne.'ir the .'-ources of the Elk river. This nest is composed pri: 
cijially of the down of an anemone, bound together with a few st;ili 
of moss and lichen, and lias an internal diameter of one incli. T!: 
eggs, two in number, of a reddish-white colour, and obtuse at W 
ends, are half an inch long, and four lines and a quarter in transve^ 

'J'iii; principal value of tins volume of llio * Fauna J'oreal 
Americana,' in a merely ilcscriplive point of view, consists iiiii 
serving, in a great measure, to complete our knowledge of Noili 
American birds, by connecting, by an intermediate link, tlie onii 
ihologv of the I iiited States witii that of the piuelv arctic rcijioL 
of the new world.* We have already pointed out llie sources froi; 

* Mr. Sw.'.iiisou I'.as also liroui^lit bis cxtt'iisivi.' and nccMiriitu kuowU-djjfo of i- 
variotis i^muiis, ('.cilvrd IVoin a cart'iol analysis of tliuir t'oiistituent iiarts, lo bear u;-'. 
tlie (lil'lcult and iiuu-li-di-imtcd suljoct of tbc mitinal s_i/.\icin. Into tlif discussiuii. 
tliat vfjul(t ijiiiosl'wwv sluUl not at iTcsent enter; bnt we recommend to tbe stiuk'ul 
ornitliold^y a tarel'ul iiernsal of bis introdi:et(;ry observations ini tb.c tribes a: 
I'aniiiies of ibe insesso;i,d order. Tbe autbor's jirincipal object is to demonstrate ;i 
follouinji; iieeuliariiies in n.itnral arranj^enient, viz.: — 1. Tbat every natural serin 
beini^s, in its inogress from a s^iven iioint, eitber actually returns, or evinces a !•, 
(U iicy to return, a i^aintotbat I'.ii'.nt.tbereby forniini^a circle. "J. Tbat tbe contents of si: ■ 
a cin-le or j^roiijiare symbobciUy rcjiresented by tlie contents of ail otber circles iiu; 
same class of animals, — Ibis reseniblance beiiijj strong or remote in [iroiiortion to; 
j>roxiniitv or tbe distance of tbe Lrroujis coiiijuired. ,'i. Tbe primary divisions of ev' 
natural j^roup, of \v bate vc-r extent or value, are in ui;i:, eacb of wbicb forms its own cir 
Tbe lirst of tliuse proposiiioiis accords with Ibe views of Wacleay, Fries, Ajj;au 
()ken, and olbers. Tlie llimry of rifirtst^iilaliun, us it may be called, wbicb ii- 
volved ill tbe second proposition, was Inst jiroiiiulgated in tbe llarrv IliiloiiHilfji' 
and, accordiu); to iMr. ^Swainson, it is tbe only certain test of a natural j^ro' 
' Circles may be, and have been, formed with such a ileceitful aiiiiearaiico of folli 
\w^ n.iture, tbat tbe most eminent and the nu'st cautious liave been led into a li/ 
tbat they were strictly natural. If sucb a Ljroup is tbonj;bt to be complete or /"■'.' 
it is very well to say, put eacb of its divisions to tliu test of vetnrniiijj; into itself, '\-i 
tlie f.illacy will be discovered; bnt amoiifj; j^roups of a certain value, j^'euera and m ■ 
families more pr.rticidarly, tlieve is not one in tliree tbat cnn be so tested. Tliis: 
ability partly arises from our superficial accpiaintanee witb forms, and partly, asv: 
believe, from tliere beiiiLf many real ^'aps in tbe cliiiin of continuity. \\ itbout, tlitn- 
fore, siniie otber test for a natural ;;ronp tlian tbe mere cn'euin.-.tanee of its retiaiu;. 
into it-elf, or e\"n its simple ii.n-allelisin with a ciuitinuous j;'roup, 1 consider deicu;. 
siralion not to liave been att.iined. Tlie theory of re|ire'entatioii tlu:s steps in, iH- 
at (nice dispels ibe illusion, or ilemonstrutes tbe correctness of the series.' — /«''■■ 
ibntunj nh.iirvdiiiiiis, i'. \\i\. In tbe sub-families of jMyotberiiiie and I'ariana', .'^l' 
Sv. ainson lias in^'enionsly o.empbtied tliis principle of tbe iiiiloral system in all- 
b« '.riiii;s. — Fiiiiiiii HtiiKifi-.liiin-h iiva, \it\. ii., pp. 158 and 20'J. — It will be obser'i* 
in nr.ard to Ibe third proposition, that i\lr. .Swainson's system difl'ers li"* 
tbat of lliu (^uinarians in the number of it,-; primary divisions. lie i.s of opai: ' 
tbat the pilm.ii v ciicles o( e.icli ;;roup are invarbiMy iuur;;;, luid these lie denui.' 
iiiilCiS tlic li/imu/, the su!i-li/jii<:ii/, and the abcnunt, 


•<k}A\\ a ki 

ni*y lie atti 


^'•'he dist 

end, of( 

6lflffitli parti 

t% piirsni 

re^piis wlii 

refent peric 

dfjfjyed fror 

,tj#lie earl 

f^fVied, abi 

waa sent ou 

uatpral hist 

p^od resid 

tiiliing pos 

beasts, bird; 

iofoniis lis, 

natelj lor tl 

n^9P9 to M 

''JNtetnral 1 

lit; flic couri 

' ^(i^J'J'go to 

th#t!eik o 

* V;^:ige b\ 

HdtlU-al histc 

^Ifor twen 

tmij||l iiifori 


purpose of 

return, by 

SeiV«rii II JVC 


d^ibed b 

in«|est in 

Soi^'tv, ilii,, 

should Ih' ; 




diislii-ioiis, f, 
drejiy up m 

wiMch he c. 



Amnricnn OrnUhnlnijij. 


ist of Us flasi 
nd appiireiit; 
rave the fur 
ts mif^ration- 
! southwurdi 
i-eiith parallt. 
;c'imeiis on 

l^tikli ii knowledge of the more southern localities of the species 
11^ 1)0 attained, and we shall now present a brief skelcli of the 
<a|Jtli()l()j;ical history of the central and northern territories, 
'^iie districts termed the fur-countries may be said to coni- 
bmciid, generally, the whole of the space north of the forty- 
el^lh parallel of latitude. Although the Trench Canailians, in 

■us Ull IN ViRT • !• 1. ^1 I" i . . i .1 I 

1 f .1 tueii- nursuit ot peltry, were the nrst to penetrate tliosc barren 

■oitinoscd wi: '^^'IP"'^ \\\\\c\\ extend beyond tiie great iaUes, yet, tdl willnn a 
th a few st;:i; 'Cffipl periotl, onr entire stock of ornithological knowledge was 
tie'incli. T! djjmed from the cinploijcs of the Hudson's IJay Company, 
jbtuse at k ,iJ#he earliest collections of the birds of Hudson's Uay were 
r in traiisver'^ f^lfQed, about ninety years ago, by Mr. Alexander l-.ight, who 
Waa sent out by the company in consequence of his knowledge of 
natural history. It is also recorded that ]\ir. Isham, for a long 
period resident in the fur-countries as governor of various forts or 
trtrfjng posts, employed his leisure m preparing the skins of 
beasts, birds, and fishes. These two gentlemen, JJr. llichardson 
infoniis us, relumed to England about the year 174,3, and, fortii- 
natelj^ Ibr the advancement of ornithology, entrusted their sj)eci- 
IH9JM to Mr. George Edwards, the well-known author of the 
*'I4itural IJi.sloiy of liiids, and other rare mulescribed Animals.' 
Ittffie course of the year 174<), Ellis published his account of the 
' i^fiWiige to Hudson's J5av in the l)obbs and Calilornia ;' and 

1)1- fVlUCL'S 

lie coiiti'iitsdfsi; 
either civcles iiu; 
[ii-ulH)ilion tu : 
iivisicms of ev 
onus its own rir 
,y, Fries, A-iih 
iUeil, whidi is. 
•er I'.nlO)ii<ilii;iv 
a uuturiil j;ri' 
eiiniucc ol" ivW 
L-u led into a \-x. 
umiilete or prn 
lip; into itself, :i~ 
e, genera ami ; • 
tested. Tlii>; 
iiul I'lirtly. a''!'- 
. WitlKiut.tben- 

anna l?oreal; 
consists ill i; 
dge of Morn 
link, the oiiii 
arctic regioi, 
2 sources tiu 

kno\vled!j;e of t 

|iarts, to bear u;- 

the discussiui. 

id to the studeii; 

n th.o trilies t ^ _. _ 

o demoMbtiiitu ;j tb^tlerk of the latter vessel, whose name was JJrage, iii Ins 

y natural seiin < y^0;,ge by Hudson's Straits,' also illustrates severarpoints in 
n^lWal history. 

•*3w)r twenty years ensuing the last-mentioned period, no addi- 
ti0i|#l information was derived from these northern regions ; but 
Hr»1^^ illiain Wales, who went to Hudson's J'ay in 17()H, foi the 
piJ^ose of observing the transit of \'enus, was entrusted, on his 
return, by Mr. Graham, governor of the Company's post at 
Severn River, wi'h a collection of (juadrupeds, birds, and lishes, 
for jireseiitalion to the Royal Society. These speeiaieus were 
d^S'i^ribed by John lleinhold Eorster,* ami excited so imuii 
intflilest in the scienlilic world, that, at the desire of tiie Koyal 
So^-ty, directions were given by the governor and coiiiinittee of 
*«|^lndsou's l>ay Company that .subjects of iiatnial history 
slnilid be annually transmitted to JMigland ; and, accordingly, 
CO of itsretuun;. AMwliuiiphiev Martin sent several hundred specimens of animals 

tlu'rsttri'r'i': "'^**^''''^^^^'^'''^^^^^^ '*^ ^'^'■'' ^^''^^'''>' "*' ^^'''*^'' ''^ "'''^ governor. 
he'L^ies;-^V/''-^'f'«^*-'"^^''" successor of Mr. Martin, was still inore in- 

and I'ariaiue. M' oi'Mtious, for he not ouly prepared nunierous specimens, but 
'' 'i\nv',iWr '^''^'^ i'l> niinule descriptions of all the (piadrupeds and birds 
ilto'in ■liti'ei's'liott'^ ^*^^' l'^' t-onld olita i^, with interesting notices of their haunts, 
lie i.s of or 

A these he dcnui-- 

* rhil. Tiuus. 17/";i. 




A morican Ornifhnfof/i/, 

habits, and native names. It was, in fact, from liis ol)scrvntinni 
tlial Pennant and Latliani cliiclly derived whatever was vuliinble: 
llieir works (' Arelic Zoology,' and ' General Synopsis of I')ii(|> 
rei^arding the featiiered tribes of Hudson's Jiay. Captain Cin.l 
tliird voyage (1777 — H) made ns acquainted witli .several f^wo 
of liie north-west coasts of i\merica and IJehring's Straits; In, 
from the want of engraved representations, and the subsrqii; 
destruction or dispersion of the specimens themselves, it is 
general difiieult, if not impossible, to identify the species indici: 
with piecision. Pennant's ' Arctic Zoology' appeared in l> 
and contains the most ample descriptive catalogue of An: 
i\merican birds which had appeared prior to the present voliiii;. 

These are the principal sources of information up to the pci> 
of our own scientilic expeditions by land and sea; for altlion 
Lndreville and llearnc illustrate the habits of some of them 
common species, and the voyages of Vancouver, Portlock, Mem 
and Langsdorfl", to the north-west, and the travels of Lewis; 
Clarke to the banks of the Columbia, contributed their mitt, 
very important results were thereby obtained, lischscholtz ■ 
ChamissOj'the naturalists attached to Kotzebuc's expedition, nu; 
supposed to have acquired some knowledge of the ornithoKr 
the north-west coasts; but no satisfactory report of tiieir zooloi; 
discoveries has hitherto reached this country. The zoological |' 
tion of the appendix to Captain Ueechey's voyage, entrusted, 
believe, to Mr, \ igors, will no doubt compensate for the va;: 
ness t>f the natural history notices introduced in the delii^h 
narrative of the vova<fc itself. 

'J'he only exact information which we possess, regarding the 1) 
of th^ extreme northern coasts and islands of America, is conta 
in the apj)endixes to the voyages of Koss and Parry. The s|k 
are comparatively few along those icy shores, notwithstandiiii; 
cheering intluence of tlieir continuous solar light, — their 

' j)ohu' day, that will not see 

A sunset till its summer's done ; 

Its sleejjless siunnier of long light, 
The snow-clad oll'spving of the sun.' 

We shall here subjoin the names of the species observed 
North Georgian Islands and adjoining seas, latitude 73' to 75 '^ 

Oj^^hesc s 
urnyiii'j, I'" 

* III onu volume folio, jiresuived in tliu Library of tliu llutlsou's Hay Conipan) 
t Snowy Owl, *//7'.r uylra ; Siiuw liiiutiiifj;, Einlicritn iiiviilix ; Raven, Com'hi i r 
Swallow, Sjirciis ii/ii'ta ; AiiuriiMil (ioatsucUrr, Cii]niiiiii/yiii .liiifriauiiis ; 
l'taniii;;aii, '/'elriin rii/fslris ; S.uuUrliiiu', Ciiliilrix tueiiai in ; (iolilcn jiUiVfr, (' 
(Inns /i/iiviii/is ; Amuricaii rin^ iiluvir, C/inriii/riiis xi'm'/in/nKitus ; Tiiiustoui'. •'' 
,\(/ii.i iiilrr/'ics ; ])iiiiliii, Tiiii/iii rariiihi/i.i ; Knot, 'I'riiijia cincrra ; jiurplu saiH'; 
'l'rtii(jn vinrilima ; \'.^f\\MWM\\ curli'W, Aii'inniiin Iniicn/is ; ilat-billcil |ilialan)ii 
fiii-ujjus /ii/iciina ; Arctic tvrn, Skrmt .1/clka ; lJin-f{ouuis.tcr gull, J,anis i/l"- 


difff^nt la 
migr«toiy s 
mucii more 
partl^iels th: 
a^Q^s no 
' "' ts. 
ce no 
ase of 
tual SI 
lof ihe 1 
'o the 
iklin \v( 
the ornilhol 
the collectii 

Inif'i/s ; 

lu'li's j^iii 
IV. .!//,■ 

dHol^Vy. 7)lil//lsx 

*.*lu' .Unla' 
,jg.-, Inu'l. H 
"♦'Fauna (in 
■;j''Viz. Iu,/r„ 
'^ ' Iplcnis of ! 
AKinoir o: 
Tauna Bu 

American OrnilhohHji/. 


s obscrvntinii. 
was valiinbli- 
jpsis of l>ii(|> 
Captain Coi,. 
1 .several s|uti 
;'s Straits; In, 
llic siibsc(|ih 
iselvcs, it Is 
pecies iiKlica: 
peaied in \'' 
jgiie oF A\r 
present vuliiii;- 
ip to the pen 
a ; for alllKn 
line of tli(^ Hi 
orllock, Mcai 
'Is of Lewis, 
m1 llair mite, 
lisclisclioltz ; 
e ornitlioli)^; 
f tlieir zoolo;: 
3 zoological I' 
;e, entrusted, 
e for the v;i; 
u the deligli 

garding tlicli 
rica, is conta 
ry. The spe 
— their 

s observed in 
tie 73'to7<3 ^ 

Ill's Hay Conipn; 
Ruvun, CuiVKS f '• 
« .liiiciiauiiis ', '' 
^iolili-n iiliiviT, (' 
is; TuiiistouL', -' 
a; iiurjilu saiulj: 
liilli'd ]iluiliUiin'-' 
gull, Ao/'HS ljl>'" 


Ofiliosc species, thirty-four in all, the whole are migratory, 
sUtWiig on Melville Island in May, and departing in October. It perceived that only a single accipitrine, or raptorial bird, 
qmM|]s in these high latituilos, — lliat there are only six species of 
ilflm birds properly so called, — and that all the rest are either 
wipr birds or waders.'*' The birds of Greeidand, as given by 
Fjwricius, amount to iifty-fonr ;(- and although live of his sup- 
pOK^I species are now known to be merely synonyms of certain 
otlw^ kinds likewise included in bis list, which of course would 
redilce the number to forty-nine; yet, as Captain Sabine has 
a(^^<l iive species a.s native to (Jreeidand, which are not recorded 
byJ^abricius,J the total amount is still precisely lifty-four.'j It is 
prbj&able that a great proportion of these migrate southward on the 
approach of winter, for, even in the fur-countries, few of the bird.s 
arestiicliy resident; and the raven, and Canadian and sliort- 
biUed jays, were the only species which Dr. llichardson observed 
to l>ie equally numerous at their breeding jjlaces, in winter and 

, ijirae distribution of the migratory and resident birds of northern 
cpiui^ies is governed, according to Dr. llichardson, by very 
diQfiifiit laws, as far as climate is concerned, — the influx of 
migratory species, for the purpose of rearing their young, being 
mucli more connected with the high sunnner temperature of tlio>e 
partljlels than with the mean amuial heat, which is very low, and 
affo|tls no criterion of the number or variety of the sunnner 
visitants. In fact, the mean annual temperature decreases, as we 
advinee northwards 1^ F. for each degree of latitude, while the 
deiSPease of mean heat in July does not exceed 1. There is no 
peijetual snow on any part of die fur countries, with the cxcep- 
Uoftx)f the more elevated portions of the Rocky Mountains. 1| 

;. Ifo the two expeditions under the command of Sir John 
Fgwikli" we owe almost all that is audientic in our knowledge of 
the oniitholoay of the interior of the fur countries : and allhouuh 
the collecting of specimens in natural history formed, of course, 

'Whtle-\viu^;i'(l f^'ull, A. /('iwiiptifiis ; Arctic silvcrv ^'uU, A. onjenlntoiilcs ; Ivory jjul!, 
Li'Vl^ijirifs ; Kittiwiiki', /,. ti-uhctijlii.s ; I'drk-taiiod ^wW.L, S,ibiiiii ; Skua y:^\i\\, 
iM^^ jifiiiiiriini ; Avctu! )^ull, Lcslns iiiirasilicii ; ruliiiujn;tii'l, I'mcil/iiftn i//in'i<(/is; 
BrtJuiich's t;uilK'iiuit, Crui ISniiinivhii ; Hlack guillfiiirit, U. jrij/'f: ; Litilo guiilu- 
ran, l' J/if ; Rfil-tliniatiHl ilivcr, I'o/i/i/ihiis nrpli nlriHiiiilis ; \Vild swan, ylnns 
(ygntts ; limit '^no>e, Jnsrr lieniic/a ; Kiiii; dink, Sowalrria spcctabilts ; Eider 
dudt^V.. miil/isximit ; loiif^-tailoil duck, llitir/ila y/iwni/if. 

: .*tjFli'' •'i''l'il"Hi(/-;(/(.'o i,yA(«(/(('«.v), tliuuj^'li iHit ubsi'ivi'd in Molvillo Island, visits 
edWiy lii:;!i l.ititudcs. It has lii'un seen in HalHii's Tliroo Isliuids', on tho west coast 
Of Weenland. in lit. 71. Limi. Trans, vol. xii. j). 528. 
f' F;iuna (ii-(Ciil;!ndica. 

tViz. I'<i/i:<) /irnyrinin. Tiiiiga viiierca, L'lia Urunnichii, Ijinis argentalut (A, 
pIci-Ks ol'l''alitri. and LitrusSakmi. 
.Miniuir ou the HinU oi'Greenlnnd. Linn. Trans, vol. xii.p, Ji'J, 
Fauiu lioaiili-Aiaurieuua, vol. ii, lutryductiuii, p, xviii, 



Ammmn Omilholofjy. 

but a secondary object in comparison with tliosc p;reat pioograpliici 
problems, the solution of wliicli was k)okc(l loiwanl to as iL, 
principal and more important result, yet it is (Ulii;litrul to kinm 
that in the performance of liij^lier duties of dilheult acliitu. 
nient, and frecpientiy environed by the most appaliiuj;' daiigif., 
these intrepid men neglected notliin<j; which could in any way am 
(luce to our knowled<;e of the romitries tliey explored. The wun 
now under consideration contains two hundred and forty sptcit. 
which, with twenty-seven from the north-west coast, (either fn: 
nierly described by l*einiant, or nu)re recently observed by Caph 
Meechey, but which did not fall under the cbservalion of our hiii 
expeditions,) make the total number of ascertained species iiili; 
biting the fur-countries, as before derined, two hundred and sixi 
seven.* In the introduction to the present volume, l-)r. Kicliai 
son has presented, with his accustomed clearness and accurar 
various tabular views of the distribution of the species, bolli ; 
relation to season and locality ; and as it is only fron> dahi of lli. 
nature that a discovery of the laws which regulate the location 
birds can be elicited, we view his contributions to ornitholo^i. 
geography as of great value. Tiie subject, however, although n; 
of the highest interest, involves too many matters of detail to ailiii; 
of our entering at present upon its consideration. 

It appears that, csscnlidlhj, birds can scarcely be classed iniii 
the distinctive denominations of resident and migratory. TIioiil 
many Uiillions of a species may be observed to wing their wav 
certain seasons to or from particular countries, yet sonu; portm 
of these vast assemblages travel through a mucli shorter sp;i 
than oUiers, while perliaps an crpial number of the same spec 
sojourn for ever in the districts where they had their birth. Th 
in the Nordi (Jeorgian islands, all the individuals of every spcr 
are driven southwards in autumn by the extreme rigour of l 
hy[)erborcan region; there they are undoubtedly biids of passa^ 
In the central ami oUier portions of the fur-countries, aga: 
\\v. meet with species which occur there all the year round, a 
which, therefore, in llicir tuln^iUj, cannot be regarded as nii;^i 
tory, but of which many individuals depart in summer to the pul: 
shores both of continental America and of the North Cieoiy 
group ; while others (of the same species), on die approiicli 
winter, wing their flight to the United Stales. So, also, in I'cii 
sylvania we have several species which reside there throughout l! 
year, but of which, at the same time, numerous indiviiluals p • 
their summer in the fur-countries ; while, in die former stali 

* In iulditiim to these, tlie M. Boiiapaito emimerates thirty-six specie's wliich' 
p;rati! noitliwanls i'loin or throUi;h IVniisylvania in the spriiiy;, aii(l whicli, thn:;. 
not luiticeil liy I)i-. llieliarilson, may fairly he iiit'errs!(l to hrooil in the rur-cuMiiliio- 
Specchiu Comjxiralivo dclie OrniMujk Ui Jiona e di Fi/utk/fia, Pisa, IH'iJ, 


matty spe 

appear ih 

wmr race 

aw) even 

im conti 

OCCin spai 

•I'lni: ii V 

OMinple, I 


tudes, and 

ngioiis as 

wfijlch fee( 


Hiarin and 

diy. for di( 

pjaces ill t 

V.Perc-,' sf 

Wy»,or a SI 

birds fur r( 
the soutlnv; 
the north wi 
not tfiiuvec 
befoi* the 
setting' in 
the United 
iioH,]). 19. 
I^ is, of 
retife farth 
such as re 
thoie whic 
!, wilic 

fwiff.tliu br 

[cts wh 

—J. and 

wHWh arc; 


breediiiu;- j 

fill up the ^ 

fOKitheir eoi 

vol,. XL 


a I 


American Ornithohf/y, 


.11(1 to as lb 
litl'iil 111 kiiim 
cult luliiew. 
Iliiij^ (laugit-, 

any way con. 

(1. Tllf \V(ll! 

forty spcc'u. 
t, (uitlicr fo; 
L'd Ijy Capta; 
1)11 ot" our laii 

species iiili; 
Ireil and sixi 
, Dr. llitliiii 

and accuiar 
lecies, both i 
m da fa ol" lli. 
the location 

r, altliouj^li II 
detail to atlii; 

classed urn: 

Lory. Thou. 

11 <; their wav 

sonu- poitiii 

shorter spi: 
e same spec 

birth. Th 
f every spcr 
rit!;our ol t 
ids of pas.s;i^ 
untries, aga: 
ar round, a 
rded as nwp 
ler to the yw 
orlh Cleoi;:! 
le apiJioadi 
, also, ill I'll' 
ndividuals p ■ 
e former bUii 

ix spccii's wliicli ■■ 
iiiul wliicli, tlw- 
the rur-iM'iiilrio.- 


m^y species occur during the winter season, which entirely dis- 
appear northwards in suininer, and leave behind no remnant of 
thisir race. Several of the species which breed in the temperate 
■■4 ^'^^'i* northern parts of North America, either disappear from 
UhiI continent altogether during the colder season of the year, or 
Ojltiir sparingly in the southern states of the Union. Others take 
«iinii'> li wider range: the pigeon-hawk {Fitico ])alnmlmrins), for 
QXmii|)le, resides in Mexico during the winter, and on die approach 
offspring sets oil" at once for Hudson's Hay and other high lati- 
tudes, and is, consequently, only known in most of the intermediate 
n^oiis as a passenger in sj)riiig and autumn. The GruUatorex, 
whjlcli feed by preference in moist and marshy lands, frerpieiit the 
JJukatchewan prairies only in the spring; and as soon as the 
MWn and comparatively early summer has rendered the soil too 
dry, for their accustomed purposes, they retire to their breeding 
|l|aices in the arctic circle. 

%?j!here,' says Dr. Ricliardsoii, ' the frozen sub-soil, acted upon by tlio 
yaysof a sun constantly above the horizon, keeps the surface wet and 
spongy during the two short summer months, which suffice these, 
birds for rearing their young. Tliis office performed, they dejjart to 
the southward, and halt in the autumn on the flat shores of Hu(lsori'.s 
Bay, which, owing to accumulations of ice drifted into the bay from 
the nortliward, are kept in a low temperature all the summer, and arc 
not thawed to the same extent with the more interior arctic lands 
before the beginning of autumn. They quit these liaunts on the 
setting in of the September frosts, and passing along the coasts of 
the United States, retire within the tropics in the Avintur.' — Introduc- 
tioHt]). 10- 

It is, of course, difficult to ascertain whellicr the individuals of 
the species which breed in the higher latitudes are the same that 
retire farthest soudiward during the winter season ; and whether 
such as remain in the former latituilcs throughout tliat season are 
thoie which had previously bred in the same localities in summer. 
©IV liichardson seems to think that such is the case. 
l.iftSome species seem to ( laim a right of property within a certain 
bw^ cliasing away with great pertinacity all the other birds that they 
luster. In tlie instance, also, of the Falconidcp, and some otiier 
i, which present a marked ditforonce in the plumage of tlic old 
^oiuig, we observe that the hitler are expelled by their parents 
the breeding places, and appear, botli in summer and winter, in 
[cts whicli none of the old birds visit. From a consideration of 
and similar facts, wc are inclined to believe that, of the species 
In are found all the year witliin certain parallels, the younger 
'Tmials make tlie widest excursions in search of food or proper 
breeding places; and chat, as tliuir strength is matured by age, they 
^11 lip the casual vacancies which occur in the districts best' adapted 
fOK^their constant residence.' 

VOL. XLVII. NO. XCIV. ' ft e It 

V Ut 


American (hnilhohujy. 


Tt appcaiH from llu; tiiilli fable of lliis work {I n( rodwWu 
p. .'J9), tliat as inaiiy birds brtt-d in the sixty-loiiitli paralld ;i, 
the t'ortictli ; ami that tlie miiiibur of s|H'(-i(>s wliicli arrive In, 
the north, iiiuril)' to winter in l*einis)lvania, exceeds tlie aiiio' 
ul sneli as migrate to tiiat state troin the sonthwards tor tlit: |i 
poKe ot" breedinjif. Indeed, the intluenee of tlie line and an 
tmous snnuner ol the northern re<rions appears remarkable, iim 
veil illustrated by the tact, that while M. Itonaparte ennuura 
(inly one hniulred and lour species ns breedin<; in the nei<ililii 
hood of Philadelphia, Dr. liiehardsou assigns one hiindnd; 
forty-one as the number of those that breed on the banks ol 
Saskatchewan, in hit. 54^ 

It was our intention to have drawn a ]>arallel between the i 
thered tribes of Juirope ami JS'orth iXnierica; but we lind that 
doing so at present would force us still further to transgress lli 
jirestribtd limits which, in truth, we have already somewhat 
ceeded. In the meantime, we beg to refer the reader to 
eleventh table of the present work, which contains a list of ncaih 
hundred species counnon to the Old NVorld and the fur-couiili 

Art. \\\.^—Tho LIfi- of Anhhhhop Cranmcr. \\y the Kev. II. 

John Todd, M. A. 2 vols. 8vo. Loudon. 1831. 
* /"^ IV'E iiic my liar,' was the phrase in which Charles the I 
VT was used to call for a volume of history ; and certaiiil. 
man can attentively examine any important period of our an 
without jeniarking, that almost every incident admits ot 
handles, almost every character of two interpretations ; ami il 
by a juilicious packing of facts, the historian may make hi.s| 
ture assinne nearly what form he pleases, w ithout any direct vi 
tion of truth. 

To the characters which distinguished the period of the n 
matioii, this remark is particularly applicable. It is with aliiuK 
of them as with Wolsey in the jday. A Catharine's version ol; 
is, that he was a man who ranked himself with jirinces ; wlioi 
.simony fair ; whose own ojiinion was his law ; double in 
uords and meaning ; never jiitifiil, but when he meant to n 
mighty in his promises, in his perfoimance mean; unchaMi 
his morals — pernicious in his example. A CJrithth's xeisicii 
tiie same Wolsey is, that though certainly of an humble stocL, 
"was stamped for honour ; that if he was lofty, it w as oiil} 
those who loved him not ; that if he was iinsatislied in gt* 
he was most princely in bestowing; that he was a scholar, - 
the friend and patron of scholars; great in jirosperity, gicntt' 
misfortune, and that he crowned the glories of iiis life by dp'- 

k {Inlrodvdi: 
I ill piiralM a, 
liit'li iinive h 
i!i;ils tlie mill,', 
iinls tor tlu; \, 

I fine :iiul (m 
inaikablc, wu 
,)uiU! eitunuia 

II tlio iiei^libi 
mm hiiii(iix'il I 
llie bunks ol 

between tlic i 
we liiul tlial 
transgress ili 
ly soincwiiat 
le reader t(i 
I listofneaiiv 
lie fur-couiitr 

f the Kev. IL 
II. 1831. 
Jliarles tlic I 

and certaiiili 
)d of our iiiii 
t admits ol 
itioiis ; anil il 
y make liis ) 

any direct vi 

lod of the It 
is with ahiui- 
;'s version ol : 
iiices ; uluii 
I ; double in 
meant to n 
'an ; iiiicliaM( 
iflith's \ersioii 
humble stocl 
, it vas oil!} 
isiied ill gi*: 
s a scholai'i- 
perity, grtiiki 
s life by il)iii?