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Full text of "The Welch Indians, or, A collection of papers respecting a people whose ancestors emigrated from Wales to America in the year 1170 with Prince Madoc (three hundred years before the first voyage of Columbus) [microform] : and who are said now to inhabit a beautiful country on the west side of the Mississippi"

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rt- i-. » MUVIir 































• l> 




OR, ' 






(three hundred VEARS before the first VOYAGE 

OF Columbus), 

And who arc laid now to inhabit a beautiful Country on the 
Weft Side of the MississiPi. 







NO, 151, !• I.F.ET-STREET. 

Price One Shilling. 










YOU arc engaged in ihe moft honour- 
able of all purfuits, the difFufion of evangelical know- 
ledge among the benighted heathen. With unex- 
ampled liberality you have difpalched a number of Mif- 
fionaries to Otaheite, and other iflands of the Pacilic 
Ocean. You have now in contemplation the benevo- 
lent plan of chriflianizing the poor opprefled Africans. 
May the Almighty Saviour fucceed your philanthropic 
labours ! 

Permit me to introduce to your compafTionaie no- 
tice a numerous and long-neglefted race of men, origi- 
nally Britons, and ftill retaining the ancient Britiih 
language ; but feparated by the vaft Atlantic from this 
illumined ifle for more than fix hundred years. 

If we may credit the mod rcfpedable telHmonies, 
they preferve among them, with religious veneration, a 
manufcript volume, which is, with the greatefl: proba- 
bility, fuppofed to be The Bible, that blcfled book 
which is able to make us wife to falvatlo!^ They 
cannot read it, yet long to know its contcius ; tliey 
have wept when Grangers have vKifed them, unal)le like 
themfelves to perufe it. Tradition has taught them to 
exped that fome meffenger of God will one day come 
among them, and unlock the iacred cabinet. I in- 



C Ivr ) 

dulge the hope that this honour is referved for the 
Englifli Miflionary Society. Thrice happy fliall that 
man be efteemed, who, (landing up among them, and 
holding the Bible in his hands, fhall cry in the Britifh 
tongue, " I am come from Madoc's country to read 
and explain to you this holy book of God, and to 
preach among you the unfearchable riches of Chrift.*' 

Gentlemen, the following pages contain hiflorical 
relations of the emigration of Prince Madoc from 
Wales, with a numerous train of his followers in the 
year 1170; together with a variety of remarkable cir- 
cumflances reported by travellers, and corroborating 
proofs from writers of different nations, all uniting to 
confirm the faft of their exiftence on the banks of the 

If this publication fhould draw forth further, and 
ftill more i'atisfaclory, information concerning them, 
and efpecially if it Ihould induce you to extend your 
generous and compaflionate regards to their diftant 
abode, it will afford the mofl cordial joy to, 


Your humble Servant, 


Mai ch\0, 1191. 



No. I. 

'flit Difcoz-ery ef America //v the Welch, from The Univerjal 
Ilijlory, Vol. xliv. p. 'J. 

WF, miift not omit mat. the lVe!chc\o.\i-n a more ancient 
dUcovcry than any y<'t })n)clucC(J ; ailcrling tluit 
Prince Madoc, lun otOwen Guincth, was caft on tiie coaft 
of KloiicUi as early as 1 ITO or 1 190. 'Jliough, indeed, lomc 
Itxik. on this relation as fabulous, it has a 2;cat many t:ovru- 
horating ciixumihmccs thai make it appear not iuipiobablc ; 
for Meredith ap I-Jheiic, who gives us tlie aeeount, was prior to 
Oliinibus, and died in the year 1477, whieh is fifteen years 
l,efore Columbus began his expedition. To this we may-_ 
add the affinitv between tlie language of the Welch, and oi 
fome of the lettlements in thoi'e parts, whicli receives fome 
weight from the evidence of Nir. Davies, who tells us he met 
with a whole fettlement that fpoke the Welch language in its 
uttermoft puvitv ; and Irom the tradition of lome of the inha- 
bitants, whoaliert tiiat their anceftors eauic from u country 
l:('V(;nd the great waters, nearlv about the lame time, from 
the lame i)jinl of the eompals, ur fiom the riling of thj? 

Xo. 11. 

^lic fcllo'-'^.nn^^ icas f'y.fud (iniony^ the Piipcrs of thi late Ludy 
Fiajti, cf Crtjty Ihnje, in Lnuchijhhe *• . 

Columbus's Discovery or America quf.stiowed. 

THK chief thing lliat indui cd nie to look into fome authors 
Jicre mentioned, was my reading a fmall book iu oftavo, 

Gentleman's Magiuuie. \i»<.), Vol. il. i . i')6-. 


( 6 ) 

lent me by a French gentlemnn lo perufe about twenty-five 
years ago ; it was tranilated into Knglifh, and gave an ac- 
count oi' a great nation of Indi-ms within-land from Cape 
Florida that a>5laiil!v fpcak Welch. 

1. Plcal'e to look into James Howell's Letters, vol. ii. 
p. 71. concerning, the ancient Britlaines, and you will find that 
Maddocap(Jv\en, a Prince of Wales, made two voyagesfmm 
Wales to America, the fiiil in the year 1 HO, -vvhich is three 
hundred and fixLeen years before Columbus faw it. He died 
at Mexico, and tliis following epitaph was found engraven on 
liis tomb in the Welch language : 

** Madoc wifmio ydie wedd, 
Jawn y( nan Owen Gwynedd, 
Ni fennum dvi i'lg enricldocdd, 
Ni dv mawr ondy mcrvedd." 


•* Madoc ap Owen was 1 calTd, 
Strong, tall, and comely, not cnthralVd 
With home-bred pical'ures ; but for fame, 
Through land and fea 1 fought the iame. " 

2. See iliird volume of the Voyages of the Englifh Na- 
tion, by Uichard llackluyt, Student of Chrifl Cliurch, in 
Oxford, p. 1. 

3. ice i^agett's Chrifiianography, p. 47. 

4. See the third and kill volume of the Turkifh Spy, 
p. 2u'i. 

5. See Purchas's Pilgrimage, book viii. p. 9,99. 

6. Sec Brougliton, who afiirnis that the laith of Chrlft was 
preached in America by fome of our lirrt planters that preach- 
ed in Britain. 

7. See George Abbot, Lord y\rchbifliop of Canterbury's 
Hiftoryof the V\ orld, p. 255, 56, and 57, who inforuis us, 
that King Arthur had fome knowledge of America, and that 
a Prince of Wales iirft f'jund it out. 

8. See the Welch Cambria, wrote by David Powtll, and 
Sir John Price, Knt., tranflated into ICr.glilh by Humphry 
Lloyd, Gent. ; iliivc you will lee the reafons that induccq 
the Prince Madoc ap Owen Ciwvnedd to tr.ivch 

9. See Sir Walter Kaleigh's I'liltorv of tlie World, an4 
the w( r s il.e n :ti". csufcd whentl.ey talked fogclhcr. They 
fay the.'e cjid the iikc words : gwruiuJo, which is hearken, 
or liften, in VV ek h ; a bud with a white hca^l, they call 
pengwyn ; tm. while rock, carcgwen ; a jiver, gwndwr; an4 


( ^ ) 

there is a promontory, not far from Mexico, called Cape 
Breton, ail which are Brililh words ; and many more words 
of like nature ; which does manifelHy Hicw that it was that 
country that Frince Madot's people inhabited. 

No. III. 

The following Account cf Madoc and his Family^ taken frohi 
IVetch Jli/hrians and Poet^., appeared in the Monthly Mui(a'^ 
zine for Deiember, \.19(i,Ji^ncd Meiron. 

OWAIN, Prince of 6^j«fz, who died in the year 11C9, 
had nineteen children ; the names of the fons were, Hhodrit 
Cyuoric, Jiiryd, Mcrcdyz, EdiL-nl, ('yuan, '/t/V«, Mael^ony 
^Lywelyn, JorwerthyDav^z^Ccidwiillofi^ liynicll. Cade!!. Madoc^ 
jLifiien, iind Phylip; of tlicle, Ji/iodri, IJywcII, Davyr., and' 
Madoc were the moll diftincuiflicd. Hywcll was a fine poet, 
as appt^ars by his compohtions, of which eight are prc- 
ferved. His mother was a native of Ireland ; and, tliouch 
not born in wedlock, he was the firft who afpircd to the 
crown after the death of Owain, which event no looner took 
place, but his brother Daiyz became his competitor, under 
the fanflion of a legitimate bivth. The coiuecjuencc was^ 
that the country became embroiled in a civil war. 

Inriuenced by dilguft at the unnatural dilien^ions among 
his brothers, Madoc, who is reprefented of a very mild dil- 
pofilion, refjlvcd upon the matchleis entcrprlze of exploring 
the ocean weftward, in fcarch of more tranquil icenes. The 
event was, according to various old documents, the difcover- 
ing of a nev/ world, from which he cfFciSlcd his return, to in- 
form his country of his good fortune. I'he conlcqucnce of 
which Wits the fitting-out of a iecond expedition ; dxxAMadoCf 
with his brother Hit yd. Lord of Clocran, in Ireland, prevailed 
upon ft) many :o accompany them, as to fill feven Ihips; and 
failing from the IHc of Lundy, they took an eternal leave of 
Wales, 'i'herc is a large book of pedigrees flill extant, 
Written by JmoH Sre^va, who llourilhcd in the age pieccd- 
ing the time of Coluvdius, where the above event is thus no- 
ticed, in treating of the genealogy of Owain Gwynez^ 
** Aladoc a Riryd a ^awfant dlr yn mpcll yn y Merzucryzy ac 
ytto y cyvannezafanty Madoc and Riryd found land far in 
the fea of the weft, and there they fettled. '/^w«ry, the fon 

b 2 of 

( « ) 

o{*L\iveIyny fccms to have cotnpofed two trf Ms po6ims in 
the time between the firftand the lecond of the two vovagcs 
of Madoc. One of" thele pieces mufl: be confidercd of groat 
importance and curiofitv : it is an invocation, as if he were 
undergoing tlic iicry ordeal, to exonerate himfelf fiom hav- 
ing any knov.'lcdgc of the fate of Madoc \ the fccond, being 
a panegyric upon /iV/o//;/, another brother, has a remarkable 
allufion to the fame event. It is thus tranllated : 

" Two princes, of ftrong palhons, broke off in wrath ; be- 
loTcd by the muUitiide of tlic earth. One on hind, in Arvju, 
allaying of arabition ; and another, a placid oiie, on the bo-* 
fom of the vail ocean, in great and ininiealurable trouble, 
prowling after a poflelfion eafy to be guarded, cflranged from 
iW for a country." ^ 

No. IV. 

Ohfcrvauons on the Madawciwvs, by IViliiam Given. Pul~ 
lijhcd in the Gentlonan's Magazhu., 17yi, Vol. i. p. 32L'. 

TMK ernigratitm and confoqucnt fettlemcnt of iMadawg 
ab Owain Owvncdd on the Amciicancontinent, v;!s an event 
which, considering the period when it is reported to have 
happened, it is no wonder Ihouid have been diieredited, not- 
withflanding the proc^fs of hiftorical documents, and the more 
explicit evidence of the fa£t, that the dclccndants of fuch 
t-migration do now exill: as a diftinft race, unmixed from the 
aboriginal natives. Indeed, one of the kevicws of laU 
month, unfortunately for its credit as a prophetic oracle, in 
paffing its judgment on Dr. W'illiams's inquiry refpeding 
Madawg's voyage, calls it a revival of the ainioll exploded 
fvibjeft : however, I have the latisfaftion of having received 
fuch proofs refpe(?\ing the lurious occurrence in the hillorv 
of antient Britons. :i.. will pmcuie it the full credit from the 
world it has licrctwfore received from myieif and many of 
mv friends. 

Within tlicfe hill two years i have received no lefs than 
three feveral accounts, pcrfc£lly agreeing with one another, 
proving the cxiftente of an extenh\e nation of white ]ieo})ie, 
fpeukhig the \\ elch language ; and we find them even no- 
ticed in our connuon maps, under the name of the White 
Padoueip:, the centre of tliembeijig about hit. 40, long, luo, 
rliwaj-h \\\L. curious circuuiflancc of a white people being 



placed here hath not atliac^cd the public notice. Thofe tit^ 
counts aic now mull dccifivcly co: rftboratcd by tlie telliniony 
of Mr. Bowles, and the companions of his expedition to this» 

'1 hcMadawgwys, or the people of Madawg, are very well 
known to the Creeks, and tlie other Indians in general, and 
;u'e called indifcriininately the Padoucas, and the White hiJ 
dians. Mr. liowJcs deicribrs them to be as nx'hite asivcate, 
\\ji\\ng foil. c nd,Jome Jundv, and Joi:,e black Iwir. 'J'hey arc 
very numerous, and one of the mod warlike nations on 
the Continent, lie travelled their ibuthern boundary from 
one end to the other. The tradt they inhabit is rather hig.'i 
nnd hilly; but one of the tnoj} f)u'itf:d and diiightj'ul coun- 
t)iii ht liud t'vcr Jftu. Vour'.^, ice. 

w ILLIAM o^VE^^ 


((it-nthnutns Ma^az:nf, IT:.'!, ¥<;!. i. p. o97.^ 

'rMl''a( counts whi: h were received prior to Mr. Bowles's 
conuuunieaUons lud not furniilied mc with the name by 
which the W elch Indi.ins weie known : but, on compvuing 
Lliem together, 1 was fully of opiiuon that the Padoucas wcic 
thule ]>eople ; efpecidly as that name was but a lliglit de- 
viation in found from Madawgwys, the real appellation which 
we may julUv iup])o1o thev give ihemrdvcs, 'riierctore it 
made a verv ri);\ible irvtorrHion on mv mind, when the rirlt 
tiling Mr. Bowles laid v,\:s, ih.'. y are called, tlic Padou- 
cas, in conlimialion of the idea i IkuI formed, prior tu any iu- 
(]uiry being made at all on the iubj'\'l. And ns to the 
muii important point, wlietlu r the luuguagc i"p<.kcn by tjioic 
people wris /fVA//, the proois I'.ddiicod wctf ■.■(ju.nlv (a .t;n.- 
torv and clear : there was, faid Mr. ii, a W witli mc 
at lioine, who eic aped ironi the Spaniards in iNkxico, Iw 
making his wav acrois the Continent, pailing tlrruugh the 
rouiitrv of the P.;dut.icas ; where, to his lirear furpnfe, h« 
foinid hinilflfwith.1 people tpeakiiighisown language. Me re- 
m.'.incd among ilicm for foine tin-.c, -.nd hnnu! they I: -.t fou;f 
books, \vhii.h were wrapped uy in llins. and religiouilv pre- 
ferwd, and coiifidi.vcd to be fome kind of !n\tlciie;i. as Uiertt 
wasa tradiiioii thai tliok things coiitaijied^an aee<nint rrorn 
whenci- tiiev had conn-. 'I the Padouias ipeak the 
W'elen language is fuillur < onrirnied by Ur. Price, one of 
the com], nions of Ml . InusU^. who was burn anwnalr iLt-;" 


( 10 ) 

He, after obfcrving his being acquainted with Welch him- 
felf, declared that his t"..thcr, wiio was a Wdchman, had 
opportunities of frequent interviews, and convcifcd with the 
Padouras in his native hingiiagc, ns he had Hvcd thegreateil 
part of his Hfc, and died in the Crcelc Country. 

iVIf. Bowles, in eon'equcnce of being told at what period 
Mada'v:'s emigv..tion t(Kik phue, obTervcd, that his fol- 
lowers could nj'. have in rcaled to fo numerous a people, 
conhdeiing haw few rhev were when they emigrated. But 
the arecunts of Mr. Pi ice and of the Rev. Mr. Rankinr of 
Kentucky, agiee in faying, that the Fudoucas have lately 
lellened their number, through the rage of civil difcord. 

Mr. Rankin aifo rcprefcnts, that there are evident traces 
of their having fovnieriy inhabited the country about Ken- 
tucky i partieul.irly vjftis dug, which flill remain unfilled, 
and rxi'itu «/' bmlumgs^ neither of v^-hich were the works of 
the Indians. From the luft particulars wc may infer, that 
the Welch Indians, found by Morgan Jones in North Caro- 
lina, about one I:undi\ d jnd thirty years ago, were the Pa- 
doucas, or at leafl; a p.irt of them ; who, receding into fuch 
of the interior parts .is were unpolieiled by the natives, as 
the European CulonilLs fpic.d over the maritime countries, 
remained ftationar;, for a lime on the banks of the Ohio ; 
but, in confecjiience of exploring that river to its junt 'on 
with the Minilhpi, and lUil preifing onward, they dik-ov* "- 
ed, and finally fettled in, the beautiful region where wcn-A 
Und them. 


This letter concludes, by lamenting the fubjeft has not 
excited more attention ; but oblcrves, that there are now 
two or three pcrft;ns, properly qualified, delh-ons to fct out 
upon the expedition, but deltituio of the necellary rcquiiue — 
money— to carry it into elicih 

No. V. 

'fhc foUjiv'ing h extfai^ed from a Letter of the Rev. Mr^ 
Lynn., of A'oifc/i, to a Mr. IVilllam Owen. 

I HAVE bellowed fomc attention upon the fame fubjpft ; 
fcut itispoffbic I am pohefled of very little relating to it that 
is new to you. I have Icea icveral letters from a refpec'l- 


{ n ) 

able inhabitant of Kentucky, from f'«ne paflagcs of which 
I could not help concluding, that Ivladawg and his attend- 
ants niuit have landed foinevvhcre on the Ihores of Florida, 
Georgia, or one of the Carohnas, and from thence pailed 
by degrees to Kentucky ; and afterw ;;.(.'s wcitward, acrofs 
the MilTilTipi, till they iinally fettled in that country which 
thcv nmv inhabit. In one of tlic above-nicnlioucd letters I 
met with the following paffage : 

" You requeft an account of the Welch Indians. Such a 
people I believe there is far to the wclhvard of us, on tlie 
Milfouri river, the main branch of the MiiilHipi. 1 have 
fomc authentic accounts of fuch a people, ca:led the White 
Panes, or bearded Indians. Indeed the dilcoveries made 
among us, by abundance of nice earthen ware, &c. &c. 
often ploughed up in fomc of our fields, indicate that our 
country, iieretofore, has been fettled by whites. "Jut of 
late, Sir, a report has prevailed, that a number of our peo- 
ple, exploring that part of the country, came to a cii/Ierent 
tribe, and could not talk with them. I'hcy came back with 
pur people to fomc others they had at a camp. A VVcIch- 
nrin, that was in the camp, could talk with tliom ; but they 
excee<kd Inin, as not being li) corrupt in their hniguage. 

ft has been reported tliat miliionaries were to be fent, if 
they could be got, to fee if it was them. 

1 muil not forget to tell you, that I am in polTcirion of the 
copy of a curious letter, from a Mr. Crochan to the late 
Governor Dinwiddie, on this fame fubjcft. The original is 
depolited in one of the public otiiccs ; and a copy of it was 
fome tin^e ago procured by iVI.iurice Morgan, Efi]. late Se- 
cretary to Sir Guy Carleton, and is as follows ; 

IVinchcJier, Augujl 24, I753y 

•* Mav it pleask your Honour, 

" LAST year i underfcood, by Col. Lomax, tliat youf 
Honour would be glad to have lomt; infornuilion of a nation 
of people letlied to the welt, on a ■' large livcr that runs to the 
Pacitic <.3cean, commonly culled the IVclch Ituiums. As i had 
an opportunity of gathering fome account of ihofe people, 
I m;ike bold, at the inilance of Col. Crelilip, to fend you 
the following accounts. As I formerly hod an opportunity 
of being acquainted with ievcral French traders, and parti- 
cularly with one tliat was bred up from his infancy amongft 

f The tint Oregan. 


' • .' 

( -12 ) 

the; Wcflcrn ladians, on the weft fide of the lake I'.rie, 
he informed me, that the tirft iutelHgencc the French had 
of them was by fo:ne Indians feuled at the baek of \ew 
Spain ; who, m tlieir way hi)me, happened to lofe thein- 
felves, and fc.l dovvn on this fettlement of people, which 
they took to be r'lcnch, bv their talking vi-ry quick : fo, on 
their return to Canada, tliey informed the Governor, that 
there was a large fettlement of French on a river that ran 
to the fun's fettiiig; that they were no Indians, althoup;h 
they lived within tiicmielves as Indians ; for they could not 
perceive thattiuy traded vith any people, or had any tr<ide 
to fea, for the V had no boats or Ihips as thev could lee ; and 
though they had guns amone,ft: them, vet thev v.ere fo old, 
and fo much out of order, that they made no ufe of them, 
but hunted with their bows and arrows for the fupport of 
their families. 

On this account, the Governor of Canada determined to 
{end a partv to difcover wluLlicr thev were French or not ; 
and had 300 men railed for that purpol'e. But when they 
were ready to go, the Indians would nol go with them, but 
told the Governor that if he lent hut a few men, thev would 
go and Hiew thciu the c<Hintrv : on which the (Governor 
lent three voung priells, who diclfcd thenifelves in Indian 
dLCiTcs, and went with thofe Indians to the place wliere thefe 
people were fettled, and found them to he Welch. They 
brouj^ht foiue old JVcic/! liib/es ^ to fatisfy the Governor 
, that they were there ; and ihey told the Governor thnt tliefc 
people had a gieat avcrfion to the I'rench ; for ihcy found 
bv them, that they had been at fidl fettled at the mouth ut' 
the river Mi'.iiiiipi, but had been almoll cut off by the 
French tlu-re. So that a fmall remnant of them efcaped 
back to where they were then lettled, but had huce be- 
come a numerous people. The Govei .nor of Canada, on this 
account, determineil to ruife an armv of Irench Indians to 
r i ii'id cut them jiF; but, as the French have been eni- 
barralied in ^v•ith feveral other nations nearer home, I 
bi.'lievc thev have laid that projett alidc. — '1 he man who 
furnilhc 1 nie with this account told me, that the mellen- 
?;crs, who A\ ent to make this difcoverv, weie gone llxtecn 
nionth.s In-i'erc they returned to Canada, fo that thofe peo- 

• Lfff tlu'ni b\- Wflclimen, wiio f-ll in with ihcm at different limes. They 
h.ive A lioo;-', Id tiiaiiuscripl, vvliicii t ev wi uld not part wiiii. 

I am inJucccI Ij liilnk ii wa> a dctu'lied iribe of ilusi' people lliat was f iiind 
. , there, ;uid h ivi' pr.'ul to ...i. tliiTc arc pait of tlit'in reiiviiiriiff iiniJjr tlid iiiimc 
»f Kaiu'.z, lu 11 i..-; f.ili of tlit river Akatis.i inly Uie .Vlississipi. 



( 13 ) 

pie muft live at a great diflance from thence due weft. This 
is the moft particular account I ever could get of thofe peo- 
ple as yet. I am 

Your Honour's 

Moft obedient humble Servant, 
(Signed) GEORGE CHROCHi\ N. 

N. B. Governor Dinwiddle agreed with three or four of 
the back traders to go in queft of the Welch Indians, and 
promifed to give them ,£500 for that purpofe ; bufhe was 
recalled before they could let out on that expedition. 


No. VI. 

Further Accounts of the Welch Indians, publijlied in the Gen-- 
tleman's Magazine for 1792, Vol. ii. p. 597. 

MUCH has been faid for fome time paft with refpeft to 
the exiftencc of the above tribe of Indians, inhabiting a traft 
of country bordering on the MifTouri, in the province of 
Louifiana, or New France, in North America, who are fup- 
pofcd to be defcendants of a party of the Welch nation, who 
left Wales with Madoc, Prince of that country, in the year 
1 170, which is a period of 322 years prior to the difcovcrv of 
America by Chriftoplier Columbus. It is a pleafing futisfac- 
tion to the contemplating mind of the curious, to alcertain a 
proofof intereftingcircumftances, which has hitherto refifted 
the invciUgation of ages. The Society of Gwincddigion, 
hold at the George, in George-yard, Lombard-ftreet, have 
Lad the matter in contemplation for a length of time ; and 
however defirous their inducement mightbe to bring the mat- 
ter to ■• '"vilis, nothing effectually h:isbecn hitherto done. In 
riccompulhing an undertaking where there is fome rill;, two 
objefts will naturally arile, which will require much delibe- 
ration: Theftrft, to adopt a wcU-digcfted fyftem ; 2dly, to 
find ways and means to carry that lyllem into cfFcft. It ap- 
pears to me highly worthy of being remarked, that, Ihould an 
attem[)t ever be made to invcftigate this interefting period of 
hiftory, with regard to the firft difcovcry of America by Eu- 
ropeans, the lending perl'ons prr)perly qualified to thofe 
tribes called the Welchor White Indians, would be attended 
with very little expcnec, and ftill IcCs danger. 

As evcrv information touching what I have before faid, I 
am well alfurcd, will bo plf-afing to the curious inquirer, I beg 
leave to give verbatim the copy of u letter 1 received from a 

C ijtntleman 

( 1+ ) 

gentleman who has lived at New Orleans, and on the banks 
oi^ the Mifliflipi. upwards of twehty ycavs, and who is now in. 
London : . ^ ^ 

Dear Sir, ' " ' Cheapfick, January 28, 1791:;. 

1 now return you the pamphlet, written by Dr. Williams, 
on the rubjcit ot the Padoucas, or Welch Indians. 

If .\h". loncsdid inlfiCiOfind atribeof Indians in the ncit>h- 
bourhood of Carohna, who Ipokc the ^Velch language, it Is 
very certain that for thcfc many years patl no vellige of it 
rcmainsamong the tribes inhabiting that country, or its ncigli- 

On the other hand, it is well known that, within thefc fifty 
years paft, a numbcrof tribes have, fromwarand debauchery, 
become cxtinft, and that others (as encroached on by tlie 
white people) have removed weftward ; I myfelf having 
known within thefc twenty years fevcral fmall tribes of the 
ancient Indians to have removed to the weftcrn iide of the 
?.iifrilTipi ; am«)ng thofe, and in the neighbourhood of the Spa- 
nilh fettlements, there yet remains the remnant of a once 
powerful nation, called the Mobilians, reduced at prefent to 
iibout twenty families. ^I'heir language, with refpedl to the 
dialcifls of the Creeks, Chatilaws, and Chickefaws (the moft 
powerful tribes now inhabiting the back of (jeorgia, llic 
Carolinas, and Virginia), would appear a mother tongue \ 
for they can undcrftand, andconvcrfe with all thofe tribes in 
their different dialects, but yet fpeak a language which no 
other tribes undcrfland. 'I'his has been frecjuently proved 
bv thofe French who have acquired the Mobilian language. 

That the natives of America have, for many years pail, 
emigrated from the caflward to the weftward, is a known 
fi(ff. That the tribes, mentioned by Mr. Jones, who fpokc 
the Welch tongue, may have done fo, is much within the 
order or" probability ; and that a people, called the Welch 
or White Indians, now rcfidc at or near the banks of the 
Miffouri, 1 have not the leaii- doubt of, having fo often been 
aiTured of it by people who have traded in that river, 
and wlio could have no pofTibic inducement to relate fuch a 
flory, unlefs it had been founded in faft. 

Since writing the above, a merchant from the ».;inois 
country, and a pciibn of reputation, is arrived in London, 
lie afliires me there is not tiie fmallell doubt of a people 
pxifting on the wellern fiaeof the Millifiipi, called by the 
[rcnch the White bearded Indians, none of the natives of 
America wciiriog beards , thiit tliefe people arc seally white ; 




( J5 ) 

that they arc faid to confift of thirty-two villages or towivs ; 
are exceedingly civilized, and vuflly attached to certain re- 
ligious ceremonies ; that u Mr. Cli., a merchant of reputar 
tion at the Illinois, has been to their country, which is, 
as he fuppofes, upwards of a thoufand miles from the 

Having been prevented from calling on you as I intend- 
ed, 1 now return you the pamphlet, and will, at any time 
you pleafe, procure you a meeting with that gentleman. 

Yuur's, 6cc. 


I have the fatisfaftion to add, that I have met the 
nbovc gentleman fevcral times ; that he conlirms the lat- 
ter part of this narrative; that Mr. Ch. is a near relation ot 
his i that when Mr. Ch. was intro«Iuced to the Chief of the 
Padouca nation, he was received with much ioicmnitv, ow- 
ing to his being of white complcxiv^ii, and by which circum- 
Aance, as far as Mr. Ch. could underlliind by being amongil 
lliem, he was deemed an angel of (iod, his hands ii.nd feet 
being walhcd by order of the Chiettain, who appealed much 
atlvanced in years, his hair being lon^ and perfectly white ; 
that the ])eopU; chiefly fubfiil by the prodiRc of the cha( e ; 
that the inilriiments they nfe on the occaiion are generallv 
bows and arrows; that tlie further he advar.ced from the 
frontiers, the different tribes lie palfed through were the more 
civilized; that he fuppolcd the realon to l)e (which 1 am 
afraid is the cale) owing to the continual encroachment 
made on their land by the white peo^ 'e in thiMe parts con- 
ti^^uousto them. 

'J he late trani'atStions on tlie back frontieis < f the I'nitcd 
States of America, it is probable, are owing to the lame cir- 
( umdanie. U may be necefiarv to remark, that the dil'^ancc; 
from the mouth of the Miniiripi to the entr.mce of the .Mil- 
fouri into it, is about I'JOO miles; that the navigation of die- 
Miilifiipi ujiw.irds is fedious and difncult, ovving to the cur- 
rent coi\iinually running the iame way, by which means tho 
velfels employed on the occafion feldom make that diilancc 
in lefs lliau tliive months; a light boat, v>.-ell- manned, how 
ever, might go from New Orleans to the Milfouiis in fix 
weeks, and from Kentucky on the Ohio in Iris tlum three 
weeks, whereas, on their return, the fame diilance is made 
in a few days ; that '.he country burdtriiig on thojc rivers 
is extremciv fcriile ; that in very feveie winteis they ate 
fubjctlt to froil, which is generally of lliert ciiiiat^yn • 

C2 t«U; 

' ■ ( !<» ) 

every article for the ufe of man grows almofl fpontaneoufly ; 
that large numbers of buffaloes are taken ; the hides and tal- 
Jow of thole animals, as well as deer-ikins, beaver, 6cc. arc 
carried down the Mifliffipi to New Orleans, from whence 
they are exported to different parts of-l'iurope ; that all forts 
of timber and naval llores are to be had in abundance ; that 
during the late war, had the Minifters or the public fervants 
of the Crown of the country, had its real intereft at heart, 
they would, in preference of the bufinefs of St. Kuftatia, have 
taken pofleflion of New Orleans, the key of the MifTiffipi, 
and by that means have opened the navigation of that river, 
which, in the hands of the mercantile genius of the Britifh 
nation, would be opening a mine of wealth which would have 
filled the channels of commerce of this country. It would 
alfo have tended to another grand objeft — it would have af- 
forded an afvlum to the American Loyalifts (with whom I 
have ever differed in political opinion), were they inclined 
really to relieve them, inftead of fending them to the ba'rren 
rocks of Nova Scotia, where they find it difficult to raifc a 
common fized cabbage, where it is deemed a wonder to fee 
a field of twelve acres abound with grafs fix inches long. In 
this it will be a pleafure to me to be controverted. 


No. VII. 

^ Letter from Mr. Edward JVil/iaws. GentlemarC s Magazinf, 
1791, Vol. ii. p. 6-l;3. 

ABOUT twenty years ago I became acquainted with a 
Mr. Dinon, of Covty, in the county of Glamorgan. He had 
" been about thirty years abfent from his native country, and 
during a great part of that time an Indian trader from. Phila- 
delphia. Being once with fomc friends in his company, and 
the iV elch langu^igc being the fubjeft of convcriation, he 
told us that there was in North yXmerica a tribe of Welch 
Indians, who fpokc the Welch language with much greater 
purity than we fpeak it in Wales. Indulgingmy natural inquifi- 
tivctiirnof mind, Idcfiiedhimtofavour me with an accountof 
wlialhckncvv of tholc people, upon which hegave me the fol- 
lowing information, vi%. that about Uie year 1750, being oi->e 
of u party of live or fix traders, thev penetrated much farther 
than uluii into tlic rcmo'e parts of the continent, far beyond 
the MillJliipi, where, to tlicir great I'urprile, they found a na- 

( n ) . -*• 

tion of Indians, who fpokc the IFeul'i tongue ; they gave 
Mr. Binon a very kind recc[)tion, but were very Jufplcious of 
h'is Engl'ijh companionsy and took, them for Spaniards or 
Frenchmen, with whom theyfeemcd to be at w«r ; but Mr. 
Binon foon removed their doubts, on which a friendly in- 
tcrcoLirfc enfiied. 'Ihofe Indians had iron amongft them, 
hved in ftonc-built villages, and were better cloathed than 
other tribes. 'I'herc were fome ruinous buildings amongft 
them : one appeared like an old W elch caflle ; another Jike 
a ruined church, bcc. ihey flicwtd Mr. Binon a MS. 
book, which they carefully kept, believing that it contain- 
ed the myftcrics of religion, and laid, that it was not long 
fmcc a man had been among them who underllood it. This 
man (whom they eftccnicd a prophet) told them, they faid, 
that a people would fome time vii'it tlicm, and explain to 
them the myl\crics contained in tlicir book, which would 
make them completely happy. 'J hey very anxiouily alked 
Mr. Hinun if he underftood it ; and, hcir.g anlWcicd in ihe 
jicgative, appeared very lad, and carncilly clefired him to 
fend one to them who could explain it. At'tcr he and his 
fellow Knglilh travellers had been for fome time amongft 
them, they departed, and were conduced by tholi; friendly 
Indians for man^ days through vq/i dejcrts, and were pku- 
tifully fupplied by them with a profujioncf provijion, which 
the woods afforded ; and after they had been brought to a 
place they well knew, they parted with their numerous In- 
dian guides, ivhc wept bitterly on th.eir taking leave of thcirij 
and very urgcnih intreaicd Mr. Binun to tend a perfon to 
them who could interpret their bonk. On his arrival at Phi- 
ladelphia, and relating the llorv, he found that the inhabit- 
ants of tlic 'Welch tra^t had feme knowledge of thefc Indians, 
juid that fome Wcichmen lu:d before been amongft them. 


Captain Cook found plenty of iron at Noolka Sound, that 
did not appear to be of I'.uropean, Spanilh, American, or 
Afiatic manufafture. 

The I'adoucas arc in about 1 10 degrees weft longitude, 
according to moft maps ; Nootka Sound is IL'5 weft, accord- 
ing to Cuptain Meares ; by whole difcovcrics, it appears 
that thofe two Indian nations have an cafy communication 
with each other by the ftraits of Juan dc luca and the 
river Orcgan, which apj)cars to have been difcovcrcd as tar 
as ten degrees, at leaft, eaft of Nootka. 

In Coxe's Defcription of I.ouifiana, &:c. 1722, it is faid, 
pa^c Mi (fee ahu p. It)), that the I3an>n La Hontan having 


( IS ) 

traced the MifTiuiii for eight hundred miles due wcrt:, 
found a vail lake, on which inhahitcd two or three great 
nations, much raorc civilized than other Indians ; and favs, 
that out of this lake a gr^'al river difcmbogues itfelf into the 
South Sea. — '2ucr\- — Docs not tliis river fccm to be the 
Oregan of Captain \Uarcs ? 

Charlevoix, vol. ii. p. l;2.t of the K.nglilh tranflation, 
mentions a great lake very far to the weft of the Milhfhpi, 
»n the banks ofwhic/i are a people rtjimhlhig ilic I'Venc/i, u-it/i 
kuttans on their clo.iths, living in cities, and n//>:^ horfcs in 
hinting the buffalo : that they are cloathcd -u.-ith the fkins of 
that animal ; but vjithov.t any arms but the bovj and arrovj. 

BolTu, in his account of f.ouiliana, vol. i. page 182, fays 
that he had been informed by the Indians of a nation of 
cloathcd people, far to the wclhvavd of the Miililhpi, who 
inhabited great villages bud' ivitli zvhite Jiones, navigated in 
great piragnas on the great [alt Zfati r lakes, and were govei ned 
iy one grand defpotie cJtiej, iv/io foit great armies into the field. 

It deferves attention that the Maftotatas of Charlevoix, 
and the Matocantes of Coxo leein to retain fomcthing of 
Madoc in their qames. 

Boflii, page 30:5, obfervcs that " Powel, an Knglifli wri- 
(rr, mcuuons, in his Hiftory of Wales, that, in the year 
i 170, there was a w'ar in that country for the luccellion to 
the throne. A baftard took the crown from the legitimate 
children : one of the latter, whofc; name was Mad k, em- 
barked in ordt r to make new diiroverics. Divc*5ting his 
courfe to the weftward, he came to a country, the fertility 
and beautv of which was amazing. As this country was 
without inhabitants, Madar. fettled in it. llalluii aflints 
us that he made two or three voyages to Kngland to fetch 
inhabitants ; who, upon the account he gave of that fine 
rounti-y, went to lettle witli him. The l''nghlh believe that 
this Prince difcovered I'i^gniia. Peter, Martyr icems to give 
a proof of it, when he lays that the nations of I'irginia and 
thole of Guatimala celebrate the memory of one of thcFr 
ancient heri)es, whom they call Madoc. Several modern 
ttMvellcrs have teund ancient Britifh words ufcd bv the 
North American nations. 'J he celebrated Bifliop Nirholfon 
btlievcs that the Welch language has formed a conliderablc 
part of the languages of the American nations. 'J'hcrearc 
antiquarians who pretend th;'t the Spaniards got tl'iCir double 
or guttural / fll) from the Americans, who, according to 
the Englifh, mull luivc gut it tloni the Welch." 

( li> ) 

No. VIII. 

Jn Outiitie of the Uijlory of the Madaw^mys, by Mr. IV. 
Oivcn. Gentleman's Ma^aziuf. 1191. Vol. i. p. 3'J9.'- 

IN the yczx 1170, Mudawg, a younger ion of Owen 
(JwvnecUl, piincc of AValcs, oblciving a continual 
itrife icign among his bixlhrcn for a fcanty inheritance of 
barren rocks, determined to try his fortune in fcarch of a 
moie peaceful country. He accordingly fitted out two 
lliips, iind failed weihvard, and diicovered the fouthcru 
Ihores of North America, as the event has proved. Leav- 
ing part of his followeis there, he was enabled providen- 
tially to return to Kurope ; and, on reprefenting to his 
countrymen what had hunpened, lb many of them were 
induced to Iharc in his cntcrpri/.e, that, in his fecond emi- 
gration, he failed nearly in the fame direction, with lea 
Ihips, completely filled, but without beiiig lb furtunate as 
to fall in with them he had left behind in his firfl voyage. 
'I'hcrc arc good grounds to alTert that Madawg, in this fe- 
cond voyage, fell in with the coall of the Carolinas ; for^ 
the firll: difcovcry of the defcendants of that emigration was 
made by the Rev. Mr. Morgan Jones, in 1685, who found 
them, or at leaft a part of them, up Fontigo river. \n 
coniequence of the iluropean colonics fprcading over that 
country, or for fome other caufes, they removed up the coun- 
try to Kentucky, where evident traces of them have been late- 
ly found; fuch as the ruins of forts, miilllones, earthen w;!re, 
2tc. It is prcfumed that, as their fituation was fecluded, and 
not liable to be molcflcd, they left it only inconfcqutMicc of 
diicovcring a more inviting country ; and none could be 
jnore fo than where they finally li ttlcd. The centre of the 
lountry of t!ie Madawgwys, and their villages arc 
moil numerous, is about ?,6 degrees north latitude, and 102 
«iegrees well longitude of London ; but they extend (pol-- 
ilhlv in detached connnunitics) from about 31 degrees north 
latitude, and .0" degrees well longitude, to 43 degrees uorih 
jatitude, and 110 degrees well: longitude. 'I'lic general 
name of Cvmry is not loft among them, thougli they cali 
llicmfelves Madavvgwys, ALidogiaid, Madagiaint, and Ma- 
dogian ; names of the lame import, meaning the people (.f 
MadaWG:. Mence the French travellers in Louifiana Iv.v.k: 

<alled them Padoucas, Matocantcs, and other namvi 
bciiring ii llmilitudc; tu what tiicy call tiicmfelves, and i>> 



I 20 ) 

which they arc known to the native Indians. — From the 
countrv of the Madawgwys fome of the rivers run eaftward, 
and oUu'is to the weft : by the former they come into the 
MiHouvi, :inj fo inio the MifTiffipi, bringing with them ikins, 

Eickled l)L»ftalo-tongn(-s, and other articles for traffic ; and 
V the Litter they liavf a cv):T;niunication with the Pacific 
ocean, from a grtat filt water lake in their country, down 
tl)e Orcgan, or the great river cf the weft, through the 
^ftrailsof fuuii de luca, and other openings. The charafter 
of thcll' iniuhited Cambrians, who are a numerous people, 
is that they arc very warlike ; are more civilized than the 
Indians ; live m large villages in houfes built of flone ; arc 
commodiouily clad ; ufc horfcs in hunting. They have iron, 
of which they make tools, but have no fire-arms ; and they 
navigate tlie lake in large piragnas. 'I heir government is on 
the feudal fyilem, and their princes are conlidered as the di- 
rect defiendanis of Madawg. 

No. IX. 

ji Letter concerning t/:e IVclcJi Indlaus by the Hev. JoJJium 
Thninas^ of l.comhiJ}''r, "xitii addillonal Remarks by Mr. 

Lcominftcr, .//</)' 30, 1791. 
THr^ Ivcv. Thomas Jones, of Nottage, in the county of 
Glamorgan, .vent to America In 17 37. His fon Samuel was 
then tinee vears of age. He gave him a liberal education 
in I'hiladelphia, where he took the degree of Dof^or of Di- 
viaitv. He (J)r. Samuel Jones) wrote lately to the Rev. 
Mr. 'Wiliiam Richards, of Lynn, m Norfolk." In that letter 
lie iavs, Ipeaking of the Madocian Indians, " the finding 
of them would be one of the joyfulleft things to me that 
could liLippen. I think I fhould immediately go among 
tluin, t!u)ugh I am now turned 55 ; and there are in Ame- 
rica N\'clch picaciiers ready to fct out to vilit them as foon 
j.s the way to their cuunlry is difeovcred." 

I'he Rev. Morgan J'Mwards, yV. M. went over to Phila- 
delphia in ITiil. He is a native of Monmouthlhire. In a 
Jt.tter 1 had from him, dated Newark, in Pcnnfylvania, fuly 
1j, 176ti, he lays, in your book (Hancs y Bcdyddvvyr) 
you take notice of the Welch who emigrated with Madoc 
ap Owen (nvvnedd to Ameri<. i in 1170. One Mr. John 
I-jjloii has lately (17S1; publillied a book, iiUituled,''"'l'he 


rom the 

; aft ward, 

into the 

m Ikins, 

fHc ; and 

e Pacific 

y, down 

ugh the 


s people, 

than the 

one ; arc 

avfc iron, 

and they 

nentis on 

as the di- 


'is by Mr. 

', 1191. 
coiintv of 
imucl was 
lor of Di- 
the Hcv. 
:hat letter 
le rinding 
me til at 
50 among 
; in Amc- 
111 as foon 

to Phila- 
le. In a 
ania, July 
th Madoc 
Mr. John 

( 21 ) 

Difcovcry, Settlement, atid prcfcnt State of Kentucky ; 
wherein, after mentioning the ftory of Madoc ap Owen, he 
has tilde words: J his account has fcveral times drawn the 
attention of the world ; but as no velllgcs of them (the 
^Vclch) had then been found, it was concluded, perhaps too 
ralhly, to be a fable, or, at leaft, that no remains of the 
colony <'xiftcd ; but of late the Wellern fettlers have re- 
ceived freciuent accounts of a nation at a great diftancc up 
the Milluiri (a branch of the Milfiflipi), in minners and ap- 
pearance icItMiibling other Indians, but fpc iking Welch, 
and retaining ibme ceremonies of the Chriitian wodhip ; 
and at lenj^ih this is univerlally believed to be a f:i£t. Cap- 
tain Abraham Chaplain, of Kentucky, (a gentleman whole 
veracity may be depended upon) alfurc'l nie that in the late 
war, being with his company in ganilon in Kaikalki, fome 
Indians came there, and, fpeaking the Welch language, 
were perfectly undeiftood, and converled with, by two 
Welchnien in his company ; and that they informed them 
of their iltuation as above." — Thus far tranfcribcd out of 
Mr. I'ilfon's book. 

Then Mr. M. I'.dwards proceeds: — j'he fiiid Miflliuri 
river is faid to run a courle of 'MMO miles before it falls 
into the Milhlfipi. Kentucky was difcovered by one James 
M'l'ride in 175 K Since the peace abundance of people 
have emigrated there. This country was certainly inhabit- 
ed by white people many years ago, as appears by the 
remains of two regular fortifications, the plowing up of 
broken earthen ware, a pair of millllones, &c. ; all which 
were unknown to the Indians. Mr. Kilfon afcribes them to 
the Welch, who removed from thence to the MilTouri, as 
he fuppofes. — I'hus far Mr. Morgan Edwards. 

As this is a new affair, or rather a fubject long and deep- 
ly buried in oblivion, and of late thus railed up, 1 can fay no 
more to it of any importance. I have heard fome hints of 
Welch people being about the Mifliflipi about forty years 
ago, and fome other hints of no ufe now ; becaufe 1 do not 
pcrfedtly remember the particulars and authority of them. 

1 am, &e. 


In addition to the above account of Mr. Thomas, I here 
add a palTage from his Hanes y Bedyd durgr, i. e. The Hif- 
tory of the Baptills in Wales, mentioned above. In Englifh 
thus : — " Many authors mention this Welch nation (in 
America). The following words are in a letter from Mr. 

J> Reynold 

( 22 ) 

Kcvnold Ilowells to Mr. Miles, dated Philadelphia, 17.^2: 
'^J Ik; Welch Indians arc found out ; they arc Tuiiatcd on the 
weft fide of the great river MifTiliipi." 

Mr. Owen and Mr. \V'illiams had an opportunity hitely 
of eoniulting Mr. William Priehard, bookleller and printer, 
of Philci'lelpliia, who is now, or lately was in London, about 
the Wek h Indians. He told them that he had often heard 
of them, and that they were, in Pennlylvania, univer- 
I'ally believed to be very far vvellward of the Miililhpi, and 
that he had often heard of people that had been anionglt 
them ; but the moft particular account that he had receiv- 
ed was what he heard within thcfe very i'cw years of ])r. 
Samuel Jones (who is mentioned in Mr. Jofliua Tliomas's 
letter). He knows now, he fays, fevcral in Pennlvlvania 
who have been aojongll t.hofe Indians ; and is very aflivc at 
prefent in that country in endeavouring to obtain all the in- 
formation pofhble on this curious fubjeft ; and fays that, if 
he Ihould be but very little alTillcd, he would iuunediately 
vifit thefe Welch tribes. 

No. X. 

Jnj'crmatlon re [pelting the Welch hid'wnsy obtained by /a'» 
Ameyiecni MiJJiojiariei, in the lent lltiC. 

IN the year 1766, the Rev. Meflis. Ikatty and Duffield 
were fent, by the Synod of New York and I'hiladclphia, (o 
vifit the inhabitants on the frontiers of Pennfylvania, and 
the Indians fituatcd beyond ihcm *. Their errand to the for- 
mer was, to inquire what aliiftance llicy needed with rel"pc(i\ 
to their religious concerns, in confequenees of the diftrcllcs 
occafioned by the late war ; and by viliting the latter, to ex- 
;imine whether they difcovered any favourable difpofition to 
receive ihe miniftry of the Golpel. 

In the courfe of their journey they met with a Benjamin 
tStitton, a pcrlon who had betn taken captive by the Indians, 
liad been in different nations, and lived many years among 
them. From him they had the following relation : 

" When he was with the Chaftaw Nation, or tribe of 
Indians, at the Miffiiripi river, he went to an Indian town, 

* About joo miiej v.cst of Philadclpliid. 


A vciy 

( 23 ) 

a very confidcrablc diftancc from Kcw Orleans, whole in- 
habitants were of different complexions, not fo tawny as 
thole of the other Indians, and who fpoi«;e Welch. He faid 
he law a book among them, which he fuppofed was a Welch 
Bible, wh.ich thev careful Iv kept wrapped up in a Ikin, but 
that they could not read it ; and that he heard fome of thoic 
Indians afterwards, in the Lower Shavvanaugli town, fpeak 
AV'elch with one Lewis, a Welchman, captive there. This 
"Welch tribe now live on the welt-fide of the Milfillipi river, 
a great way above New-Orleans." 

On the lame journey thev alio met with a I.ev'i Hicks, 
wlio had been captive with the Indians from his youth, and 
w!io allured thcMii, that, when attending an embalfv, he liad 
been in a t(nvn of Indians on the weft-lidc of the Milfilhpi 
river, the inhabitants of wnich talked Welch (as he was 
told, for he did not underftand them) ; and their interpreter, 
Jofcpli, law lome Indians, whom he lUppoled to be of thii 
fame tribe, who talked Welch, and repeated fome of their 
words, which he knew tu 1."^ Welch, as lie had been ac- 
quainted with fome \Velch people. 

" Correfpondent hereto (adds Mr. Beatty), I have been 
informed, that, many years ago, a cler(j,yman went from 
Ihitain to Virginia, and having lived fome time there, went; 
from thence to Soutli-Carolina ; but, cither becaufcthe cli- 
mate did not agree vvil!) him, or for fome other realon, re- 
lolved to retur,i to Virgtuia, and accordingly fet out by land, 
iiccompanied with fome other pcrfons ; but travelling through 
the back parts of the country, which was then very thinly 
inliabited, fuppoling verv probably this was the neareft wav, 
Ik; fell in with a partv ot' Indian warriors, going to attaelc 
the inhabitants of Virginia, againlt wliom they had declared 

" The Indians, upgn examining the clergyman, and find- 
ing tliat lie was going to Virginia, looked upon him and his 
rompanions as belonging to Virginia, and therefore took 
them all prifoners, and lei them know tliey mull die. The 
ell rgyman, in preparation for another world, went to prayer, 
and. being" a Welchman, praved in the Welch language ; 
poHiblv becaufe this language was mofl familiar to him, or to 
pi'event the Indians underllanding him. One or more of the 
party of the Indians was lurprilcd to hear him piav in their 
language. Upon this they Ijioke to him, and linding that 
he could underftand their Ipeech. they got the lentence of 
death reverlcd : and thus tliis happy (.iicuuilhin<,e was the 
means gf I'uvine his life. 

J:) 2 ■ " They 

( 24 ) 

" They took lilin h;u:k witli them into ihcir country, 
where he found ;i tribe whofe native hmguage was Weieh, 
though tlie diiilecl was a Ultle dili'ovent from his own, which 
lie loon came to undcribuul. TIr-v lliewed a book, 
which he found to be the Diblc, but which tliey could not 
read ; and, if 1 laiilake not, his ability to read it tendfd to 
raife their rec^ard for Iiiin. 

" Me ilayed fonie lime among them, and endeavoured to 
inftruft them in the Chriftian reh'gion. lie at length pro- 
pofed to go b:a:k to his own countrv, and return to (hem 
with fome other teachers, who would be able to infuuft 
them in their own language ; to wiiich propofal they conlent- 
ing, he actovdinglv let out from thence, and arrived in Bri- 
tain with full intention to ictuvn to them with fome of his 
countrymen, in order to te;ich thefe Indians Cluillianity. 
But I was ac(]u;tinti;a that, not long after his arrival, he was 
taken lick and died, which put an end to his fchemes." 

SitttoH farther laid, that he oblerved iome culloms among 
the Dcliiwarc Indians relembling thofe of the Jews; and 
that from fome of their aged men he had the following 
tradition : — That of old time their people were divided by a 
river, nine p:irts of ten palling over the .ivcr, and one part 
tarrying behind ; that thev knew not, certainly, how they 
firft came to thiii continent, but account tl\us for Ihei'- fettling 
where they now are : that a k'ng of their nation, when they 
formerly lived far to the weft, left his kingdom to his two 
Ions ; that the one making war upon the other, the latter 
determined to fee k anew habitation, and accordingly let out 
with a number of his })eople ; and that, after wandering to 
and fro, for the Ipace of forty years, they came to Delaware 
Mver, where the/ fettled Lilo years ago ; that they kept an 
account of tliis by putting a bhick bead, every year iince, on 
a piece of wampum kept for th;u purpoie *. 


• Dr. CoKim Af.i.'i.T, \nh\i Mdffmlla CbrLii .Imrr'nar.-i, p. 3, q'lotc"! an author, 
whom he docs not nami', who says, " It ut may cndit any re;-or(ls bfsidfs the 
Holy .Scripture, I know it iriii>,hl bo said and provt"! well, that this new world 
was known, ami u/irtly inliahncd bv Bnl.uns, or by iitrDnt, from l-.n;^:am{, three 
or four huriilr-'d years b^jfoie the Spjn^arJs ^-owmi^ ihiilir ;" wiiieh ascition, 
tlie Doi'tor adds, ia dcinon>trated from ll,(? disciursfs oetw.eii the MrMuant and 
the i'ptniiirJt al their lirst arrival, a:id ihr Popish rfli(|U,s, a^ well as JJrili^^ 
words and trrii'.s, which the Sttaniiinls tl vn found amouR ih'" Mttlcnns ; as well 
as from undoubcd paasagcs, not only in other authors, but in tlie Brihtb annals 

Dr. Mather, after cbservinp that mankind geiu-ially agr-'c to give ilic honour 
of discovorinpr America to Columbus, addx, «♦ , vnd yet the siory ol Coiumbut liiui- 
uil inuti be corie(:i£d truni ttiw iutvrmvdvii of U* k F'S'^t that one Smi-hx, a 



ild not 
ided to 

( 25 ) 

[Taken fiom a pamphlet, entitled " The Journal of a 
Two Months' "^four, with a View of promoting ReHgion, 
&c. &c." By Charles Beattv, A. M. London. 1768.] 


THE reader has now 'v^forc him all the information I 
have been able to collcft on this curious and difputcd fubjcft; 
upon which 1 beg leave to offer a few remarks. It is diffi- 
cult to fuppofe that hiftorians and poets Ihould have 
combined to impofe on the world by a fabricated fiory of 
Madoc's emigration. It is admitted that tlie art of naviga- 
tion was very imperfeflly undcrftood in the twelfth century ; 
yet furely it is polfible that the voyages here related, might 
be performed '. The idea of a wellcrn hcmifphere might 


n.ilivr of flt'tii, in Sf),mt, did boforc liim find out these reginns. He tells us, that 
£iinchz, usinp to trade in a small vossel to tin' Cmaries, was driven by a furiou« 
and tedioub tempest over unto these western rounirii^ ; and at his return lie gave 
to Calen, or Coivmhus, an account of what lie had seen, but soon after died ol a 
disease he had got on Ins dangerous voyai^e." He further add.s, "Indeed the twa 
( tb.Hr, father and soti, under the coiiniiission of our King Uer.ry VH. entering 
upon iheir ))Cllerou^ undertakings in the year 1497, made further discoverie* 
ol Aineriea ttian either tV/wmiur or /'irf/iHrtuj. Yea, since the ('aii;/x tnjde a Jii- 
rovery of tliis CoNTlNi VT m 1497, and it was l4yS before Co/umAw discov. retl 
any part of the ("ontiiient, I know not why the ftpan'uri should go uniivalied in 
the claim of this tiew work!." 

• Since the above went to the press, the following communicaiion has been 
received from a fiiend. 

" It is much more iniprnbable, that'therc should be no foiiiidaliosi for all the 
reports that have been made of Mad.'c's voyijjes, and tiie existence of Welcti 
Indians in North America, than that an expedition should have been uiiderta- 
Ken ill Ilie 12th centurv, siinilarto those which were lepeatedlv pcrloriiud in 'ht? 
15th. 'I'he niariner's compass was probiM) known at the furuiir period ; fur 
it ih described by a French poet, who wrotv ciriy in tue 1 jili century : but the 
applicalicin of astr( nomy, which had been customary Iron) leniole antiquity, 
mi^ht have sulliccd for a voyage to America witii persons who had cour.i);? 
enouj;h Ibi the enterprise. Brhaiti was at that time celebrated for its marine; 
and, indeed, bad b en so 600 years before. In the lleet which Kichard I. 
equipped, in the yiar 1190, wire more than 160 thiee-masted ships. Hcnctf 
the expressions of Matthew, of sS'cstminsii r, who wrote in the 1 4tli contiir., 
need not be considered as very hyperbidical : " O l'.n|j|and ! lliou wast lately 
n|ual to the ancient Cl'.aldcjns in power, piosperitv, and filory. Tlie ships of 
'I .irshisli could not be compared uitli thy ships, which brought thee spiies, .Mid 
every precious lhiii(f» from the four corners ol the world." There were many 
ten-ports tdvbritted furcumnieive, and none more «9 than Unstolj at the p«riu<i 


( 2.i ) 

have occurred to Madoc as wr!l :is to Columbus ; and; by 
tlie aid of Inch knowledge as mariners could then attain, he 
might be enabled to maintain a wcftcrly courfc, provided he 
had fufficicnt courage to pcrievcre in it. 

'I'hc numerous tcrtimonics ot" rei'peftable perfons, totally 
tmconnef^ed with each othej-, ;inci who have actually cun- 
vcrfed with the Welch Indians, can Icarcely be uuertioncd ; 
for they could have no poffiblc interell in the invention and 
propagation of a falfchood. 

It is, indeed, fomcwhat remarkable that more pains have 
not been taken, bv the inhabitants of the new or old world, 
to invelligatc a fubjeft of fo much curiofity and imporlance. 
The complete dil'covery of this nation may prove highly in- 
tcrefting. A new and extenlivc fource vf commerce may 
po'hbly be opcMied by a friend'v intcrcourfe with them ; and. 
what is infinitely nrore important, we, as Chriilians, may 
become the happy inllrumcnls ofconvcving to them the in- 
eftimablc blefTmgs of the Gofpel of Chrill. 

Unaccountable and criminal fupincncfs, in this rcfpeft, li 
chargeable upon almoft all Chriftian countries. "I'he great 
command of our Saviour has been already forgotten — "Go 
yc into all the world, and preach the Clofpel to every crea- 
ture." Commendable diligence has been exerted in making 
geographical difcoveries ; and tlie mercantile world has not 
tailed to extend its commeicial efforts to the ends of the: 
earth ; but our infidelity has led us to undervalue the glorious 
Gofpel at home, and to be carelefs about its univerfal fpread. 
This conduft, however, is inexcufable, if, according to the 

of Madoc's voy.ige ; previous to wliicli (he Flemings had been settled liy Hen- 
ty I. in I'embroJvL'sliire. It Is probable that, from either of these places, Madoc 
might obtain siifricieiit assistance for the equipment of iiis vcistis, if he needed 
it. For tliciie and many otiier instances of the early maritime power of Britain, 
liie reader may refer to Hackluyt's Voyages, and I)r, Henry's History. 

"That modern writers have concvirred to disrreiHt the whole account ^^ ill not 
appear surprisiiif?, nor of much consecjuencc, whc)) it is considered that ihoaj;e 
in '.vliich we live is remarkably prone to disregard the evidence of fatjis, to 
which any natural imprubabilily is attributed. It is often the case that cavils 
arise from the ignorance of those who make them ; and one of the objeclions 
that has been raised against the proofs of Madoc's expedition ali'ords a striking 
instance ofthistiuth. Amoi>gst several Welch words ih it are said to be Ui^ed 
by Amerioin Indians, is the name given to a well-known sca-f'ow', the Penguin, 
l^hich, in the Britisli lansjuage, signifies u-hiit l;e,id. To oppose this argu'iient, 
it has been confidently asserted that the Penguin is not an iidiabitaiit of the 
northern hemisphere ; although it is, in fact, the most coitinon bird upon the 
coasts of North America. There is more scirihlance of force in the objection, 
that the Peii^^uin's head is not white, but bla.-k. Yet as the rest of the bird, 
when it swims, appears of the latter colour, and it has a white patch about th« 
«ye, it might be so called on that account : and this derivation is at least mor« 
kkeljr than that whivh is substituted by the obje^tur),'' 

~ opinion 

( 27 ) 

opiiiion of the late celebrated Dr. Johnfon, *' to oinit for a 
year, or for a day, the moft clFu-acious methods of ad- 
vancing Chriftianity is a crime of the greateft magnitude ■■■.'* 
J'lic recent formation of fcveral focieties in England, Scot- 
land, and America, for the purpole of fending Millionarics 
among llic Heathen, mufl afford finccre pleaiure to tlie gc- 
jiuinc dilciplcs of Chrill ; and I cannot hut think that the 
W'clcli Indians have the ftrongefl: claim imaoinable to the 
regard of thofe Societies, i indulge a hope, that the exill- 
cnce of ilich u people will be ellablilhed bcyor.d a doubl, 
an»l that fome effectual means will be devifed to fend Welch 
pieachers among them. 

I have been credibly informed, that, in the year 17n;5, a 
Mr. John Evans, a native of Wales, who had relided lomc 
years in London, was {Irongiv inclined to recognize his 
IJritilh brethren on the Milfouri ; and aec(jrdingly went to 
America. 1 know it to be a fact, that, ha\ing obtained 
proper letters of recommendation, he left the houfe of J)r. 
Jones, near Philadelphia, early in the Ipriiig of that year, 
and let out upon his long journey, through Kentucky, to the 
Milliflipi. Eor a long fcalon nothing was lieard of him, and 
his friends began to fear that he had periOied. But I have 

a letter fnnu the Rev. Mr. 1) , of Somerfetlliire, who 

received information from his fon in America, that Mr. 
Jvvans had returned in I'afety, having fully accomplifhed the 
ob)e£t of his iournev. 'I he following is an extract : 

" He ftates, that a young Welchman is returned from a 
long journey which he had undertaken, with a view to dif- 
covcr whether luch a people exillcd as the Welch Indiajis. 
lie faith, this perfon has dilcovered fuch a tribe, inhabiting 
the country wert of tlie mouth of the Milfouri about 700 
miles ; that they treated hiu^ with friendlhip and holpitality, 
ami adopted him as their ion. Their language is the old 
IJriiilh, and he particularly noticed the conunon words io be 
the fame as are now in ufe in Wales to defcribe the fame 
ohjccls ; i'uch as houfes, light, windows, water, bread, &c. 
^('. The hirtory thefe Indians give of thcmfelvcs is this: 
'I'liat their anceilors came from a far countrv. and landed at 
ihe mouth of the MiffilTipi from thirteen lliips, about the 
year ut'C'hriil 1018 ; there tliey built a town ; but lincc that 
jeriod, their delccndants have been falling back to their 
j.ieleut refidence.'' 

* ,9ee a Lrtter on (his tubi«(.^ hi Bgswcll's Life ufDr. Johnson, vol, i. p. 2S6. 



( 28 ) 

It is more than a year flncc I received this intelligence. 
I have made the moft diligent inquiries concerning Mr. 
Evans, but have received no further information ; but hope 
Ifoondiall, in anfwer to Icveral letters fent to America. 
Should no certain information be received of, or by, Mr. 
Evans, I trull that the very ftrong probability of the cxift- 
cnce of fuch a people, as evinced bv the preceding papers, 
will induce the Miflionary Society, or fomc other body ot 
Chriitians in England, or America, to lend a fufficient num- 
ber of perfons, properly informed and provided, fully to in- 
vcftigate a matter lb replete with curiolity and importance. 


( 29 ) 


T S C R I 


SINCE the foregoing pages were font to the prcfs, I have 
procured Dr. Williams's p- -iphlct, entilicd, An In- 
quiry into the Truth of the Traut^ian, concerning the Difco- 
•uery of America, by Prince Aladog ab Owen Givynedd, and 
which I had long fouf;!it for in vain, not knowing its proper 
title. To this trad, and another he has fuioe publifhed '', 
I gladly refer the reader who wilhcs fur further information 
concerning the Welch Indians. 'I'he Dodtor appears to be 
a pcrfeft mafter of the fubjeft, and has beftovvcd much 
learned labour upon it. Moll of the circuniftani,:cs here re- 
lated are contained in his pamphlets ; the ancient hiitovians 
and bards, who fufl; recorded the exploits of iMadog, are 
cited, and their charaders defended. The author alio 
largely aniwers the objedions of Dr. Kobertlon, Lord Lvt- 
tleton, and others, againft their authority. Iroiii thefe pub- 
lications I fhall take the liberty of making the foliovvini-, 
extracts, tending to enlarge and confirm the teilimoniei. al'- 
ready adduced. 

No. XI. 

The Firfi Difcovcry of the Welch Indians, by the Rev. 
Morgan Jona, in the rear loGO. 

'• TMF.vSK prefents may certify all perfons whatever, tliat 
in the year KitiO, being an inhabitant of \'irg;nia, and 
C:hapUiin to_ Major General Hrnnet, of Maafonian Countv, 
the laid Major Hcnnct and Sir AViiliam Be'keiev lent iwo 
Ihips to Port Royal, now called South Carolina, which is 
(ixty leagues to the louthward of Ca[.etair, and I was fent 

Entit'cl, Farther C^jerrMicnsm the Discoiiry if ..'mfriciiby tie I'.uri'b an.r. 1792. 

SoM bv VViiite and boiis flca-tucct , and J. Joliiistn, fct. i'aiil'a Cliur, ii- 
yard, l.omlon. 

K therewith 


( 50 ) 

therewith to he their miniftcr. Upon the 8th of April \vc 
fet out from Virginia, and arrived at the harbour s ra ;U'h of 
Port Royal the IDlh of the fame month, v. here we waited 
for the refl of the fleet that was to fail from i'aib^oocs and 
Bermuda, with one Mr. VVeit, v/ho was to 1a Deputy Go- 
vernor of the fald place. As foon .is the f.c^ei, m, tho 
fmalleft \ elfeis that were with us lailed \!p the river to u place 
called the Oyfter Point. There I conti'.uied about eight 
months, ail which time being ahnoll: llarved for want of 
provifions ; I and iivc more travelled through the wildcrncfs 
till we came to the Tufeorara coi.ntrv. There the Tiifco- 
rara Indians took us prifoncrs, bccauie we told tlicm that 
we were bound to Roanock. That niglit the/ carried us to 
their town, and fhut us up clofc. to our no Imall dread. 
The next ckivthey entered inlo a conlultation abou*^ us, which, 
after it v.-p.s over, their interpreter told us that we muft pre- 
pare ourii-lves to die the next morning. Thereupon being 
very much dejefled, and fpeaking to thiseffccl: in ilie Bn\M(h 
tongue, " Have I elcaped fo many dangers, and mult 1 now 
be knocked on the like a dog !" than prcft'iitly an In- 
dian came to me, which afterwards appeared to be a war 
captain belonging to the Sachem of the Doegs (whofe ori- 
ginal, I find, muif- needs be from the old Britons), and took 
me up by tlie middle, and told me, in the Rriiifli tongue, 
" I Ihouid not die ;" and thereupon went to the Kmperor of 
'J'ufeorara, and agreed for my ranfom and the men that were 
witii me. 'I hey then welcomed us to their town, and enter- 
tained us vevv civilly and coidialiy lour months ; during winch 
time 1 had tlie opportunity of convcrhng with them f.mii- 
liarly in the Eritilti language, and did preach (o them three 
times a-wcek in the fame language ; and they would ( onfer 
with me about any thing that was dillieult therein: and, at 
our departure, they abiindantlv Aipplied us with whatever 
was neceffary to our hipport and well-doing. 'J hey are fei- 
ded upon Pontigo * river, not far from Cape Atros. This 
is a brief recital of my travels among the Doeg Indians. 


" Son of John Jones, of Bafaleg, near 
Newport, in the county of Mon- 

* I'cntign mw bodfiivpd from llie Wolrli P, n/ 5 jfc, Tlie Smith's Bridff-; or 
Pani y qo, The biuitli's V alley. Dotg Indians isf robably a corriiptioiiof il/auV^'f 

«f I am 

( 31 ) 

<* I am ready to conduft any Welchman, or others to 
the countrv. 

" New York, March 10, 16S5-6*." 

It can fcarcely be doubted that Mr. Jones was the clergy- 
man of whom Mr. Ikatty liad heard Ibme unperfedt account, 
and which vvc have related page 23. 

No. xir. 

The TeJl'nnoyi;j of Captain Tfaac Steuiart. 

CAPTAIN STEWART gave the following account,' 
March r(H2, and which was publliln^d in the Public Adver- 
tiler, Odl. S, 1785. He was taken prifoner in the year 
n<' i, by the Indians, about 50 miles well: of Fort i*itt, and 
fortunately delivered from the cruelties luffered by his com- 
panions. Picing redeemed from his Captivi*--, which conti- 
nued two years, he accompanied a VV'ciJiraan atid a Spa- 
niard to the welhvard, crolfing ihe Millilhpi near Rouge, or 
Red River, up " hich they travelled 700 miles, when Jiey 
found a nalioi , i' Indians remarkably while, 'f'he \V'elch- 
man was dcL, imined to remain with thcni, becaufe he un- 
dcrftood their language, which differed but little from his 
own. The chief men of the town laid, taat their ancollors 
came from a foreign country, and landed on the eaft lide 
of the MilhlTipi, dclcribing particuhuiy the countrv now 
called Florida ; and that, on the Spaniards tnking poiiellion 
of Mexico, they tied to their then abode. And as a proof 
of the truth of what they advanced, he (the 
brought forth rolls of parchment, which were carefuUv tied 
up in otters' ikins, on which were large chara6^ers *vritten 
with blue ink. Captain Stewart could not underlland theib 
charaftcrs, nor could the \Velchman, as he could not read 

«' I am 

* This letter was sent, or given, to Dr. Lloyd, of Teunsylvniiia, hy whnin it 
vas ininsniitteil to CMvirk's Llwyil, Esi]. of Dul y f'r.iu, in M.jr i^omery.l'ire ; 
and afterwards to Dr. Pioit, of tlic Ashmoleai; Museum in (ixvid ; and in- 
serted ill tlif Cjentlcman's Mag.n^ino, 1740, by tlic Ktv. 'f liiophilita Evans, wiio 
observes, that several British words used by the Mexicans, when their country 
was discovered by the Spaniards, tend to confirm the Iniih of Madoir's voyajre : 
for instance, Fingvyn, While-head, the name n'H i nly ef a hire, but of a higli 
and bare rock; (.iroeio, Welcunic ; Gxvtihihi.r, While or hnipid v.a'pf; ff,jra, 
15 re id; To,!, Futlur; Mam, Mother; B:iJj, a Cow; Cig-Jar, a Partridge, 
&c. &c. 

E 2 even 

( 32 ) 

tycn his own language *. The people appeared to be bold , 
hardy, and intrepid, very warlike, and the women beautiful 
when compared with other Indians. . • 

No. XIII. 

*'' TeJl'tDionies of various Traders^ isfc. 

MR. RICHARD BURNELL, a gentleman who went to 
America in Ho:}, and has (incc returned, informed Mr. 
Williams, that during his refidencc at Philadelphia, he be- 
came acquainted with many ancient Britons, who aflured 
him that the \Velch Indians were well known to many in 
that city ; and that a Mr. Willin, who obtained the grant of 
a large traft on the MilTilTipi, took with him, among nii-ny 
other fctdcrs, two Welchmen, who perfeftly underllood the 
language of the Indians, and convcrfed with them for hours 
together, 'riiefe Welchmen aflured Mr. Willin that the 
Indians fpokc W^elch ; that fome of them were fettled in 
thofe parts (in the diftrifl: of the Natches), others on the 
the wcft-fidc of the Miffilfipi, and fome in very remote 

Mr. "WlLi.TAMs had an interview with Sir John Cald- 
well, Barr. who, dining the laft war, was Rationed on the 
eaft-lide of the Mifiilhpi, who laid there were fome Welch- 
men in his cumpany, who undcrftood the language of the 
Indians (the Panis, or Pawnees), which was >Velch ; and 
that they are a people conliderahly civilized, living in hcufes, 
cultivating the ground, and brought up in habits of induflry, 
which other Indians are llrangers to. 

Mr. Rimingtok, an Knglifhman, who had been among 
t!ic Indians, informed Mr. Williams, that being at an Indian 
mart at tlie forks of the Ohio, fome llrange Iniiians came there 
from the wcfl of the MiiiiiTipi, who were not underftood by 
the Shawanefc Indians ; but one Jack Hughes, a Welch- 

• It is pos?iI)!c 'hat the .MSS. FJiblc (if such it was) might be written in 
Crtt': chara<'"fC'r.-, abbelny thou;,'ht more sacred, whicli accounts for theC.iptain 
iiij: bung able to leac! tlieiii ; but the Clerg_vman, befori; alluded to, ii said to 
li;!>'e ttcunmicudcd liiuiicif to the Indians byrcadiiig them, which is very pro- 



( 33 ) 

man, who was with Mr. Rimington, underftood them well, 
and was tlieir interpreter while they llaid. He immedi- 
ately recognized them as the Welch Indians. 

Mr. Gir.soN, a trader, told Mr. Kennedy, a gentleman 
now in London, that he had been among Indians who fpoke 
W'cicli ; and that he had eonverfed, at different times, with 
very many others, who afTured liim that tliere is I'ueh a peo- 
ple. 'I'he cultivation of their e(juntry, and the eiviiization 
of the people, is a niatter of aftoniihment to the traders in 

Dr. Wii.mams alfo relates the particulars of a convcr- 
fation between Mr. Owen and General Bowles, a Cherokee 
Chief, who was in London a few years ago. The General 
liad travelled all along the ioulhcrn boundary of thecountnr 
inhabited by the Welch Indians, and abundantly confirmed 
tlie accounts we have already given of tlurn. This is the 
convcrfation referred to in pages 8 and 9 of this ])amphlet. 

I Ihall only add, from Dr. Williams's intcrctling publica- 
tions, fome oblcrvations he makes, in anivver to ih.c fup- 
pofed impratSVicability of Madoe's voyage at lo early a pe- 
riod as the year I nu. 

Ileobfervcs, that the maritime force of the Britons was 
very coniidrrabic in the days of jul'us (Ja:far, and that tlic 
realbn (jf his invading this ifland was, bccaufe the Britoiia 
alliflcd tlie Gauls by land and lea ; that their naval powv.r 
iiiiifl have been very relpedable, when " Vincula dare 
Oecano," and " Briiannos fubjugarc," were convertible 
terms. Me alfo obft rves, it is admitted that " the Phoeni- 
cians and others i'ailcd to Britain, and other countries, for 
tin «nd lead, and to the Baltic fea for amber ; voyages 
which feem as dithcult as that of Madog's, and a longer na- 
vigation. It was hardly poffiblc for the Britons not to learn 
how to navigate fliips, when they faw it was done by others *."■ 
Me admits that, probably, chance firft threw Prince Madog 
on the American eo.iO: ; and fuppofes, that on his return to 
AV'alcs (for he made two voyages) he might fall into the 
current; which, it is laid, runs from the Weft India Iflands 
northward to Cape Sable in Nova Scotia, where, interrupted 
b ■{ the laiid, it runs eaitward towards Britain. 

In t!ie nin;li ccnlary, AlfieJ the Great liad a very formidable fleet. 



(31. ) • 

But I refer again to the Doftor's pamphlets, in which the 
reader will find a lunJ of entertainment, and, if I mitlake 
not, verv fatista£lory proof of the voyages of Prince Madog, 
and the prefcnt exiitence of the W'cirh Indians in America. 
I cannot hut unite with him in wilhiiig that a fubfcription 
were opened, for the purpofe of fending proper perfoi.s to 
afeertain the fn't, beyond the pcfhbiiity of doubt ; hoping 
that the difcoveiy would lead to the moft important and 
falutury ends. 

,_ '■ , . ylpiU 10, 1797. 

THE reader will rccollet^, thai a Mr. Evans fet out in 
the year 17P3, determined, if poffible, to find out his 
Cambri-Ameriran brethren. I am happv to be able, in 
tonfequence of a letter 1 received yefterday from the Rev. 
Mr. 'J homas, of Eeominflcr, to give the public fome fur- 
ther account of him, and of his journey ; fiom which it 
will appear, that Mr. D. was miJintbrmcd when he wrote 
to England (as mentioned page 14), "that John Evans had 
fully accomplilhcd the objeA of his journey :" it may be 
iiopccf, howevci-, that he is in a fair way of lb doing. 

Mr. Thomas informs me, that John Evans was born near 
Carnarvon ; that he is the fon of a Welch preacher, in con 
nexion with the Mcthodifts ; and that he is a young man of 
very good character, prudent, good-natured, and much in- 
clined to travel. Mr. Morgan '\.ees, an intelligent perfon, 
who went to America in the year 1794, has written to his 
friend at Hala, in Merionethlhire, giving the following ac- 
count of this adventurous traveller. 

" John Evans, is, at laft, gone up the river MifTouri, in 
quell: of the Welch Indians. He was taken by the Spaniards, 
una impriloned at St. Louis, on the MilhlTipi. By the in- 
lercelhon of a Welclunan, living at that place, he was li- 
berated. About that time. Judge Turner came into the 
province of Cahokia and Kafkalkia, on the MiifiiTipi, ex- 
ecuting his office in the country N. \V . of the Ohio. The 
Spanii'h Ccernor paid him a vifit, and in converfation men- 
tiuned a John I'A'anr>, who thought to go up the Miflbuii ; 
but added, that he had detained him till Le could get further 
account of hiux and his defign. Judge 'lurxaer, it feems, 


{ 35 ) ■ 

iiad prcviuufly hcHvd fomcthing of Jolin Evans, and rcquefl- 
cd the; Govcvnov to permit liim to proceed on his journcv ; 
obl'ervinf;, that if he could not lind out the people in view, 
yet his joui;i/:v might prove a common bcnciit to the woild. 
in confequcnce of this requtft, the Ciovcrnor not only pro- 
niifed Mr. Evans pcmilfion to proceed, but to give him a, 
letter of reeommendati(jn, written in Spaniih, French, and 
Knglifli, to be prefcnted as occalion might require ; toge- 
ther with fume articles that would be acceptable to the 
Iiidians uc might meet ^ilh on his way. Judge Turner was 
alfu fo obliging as to give him every needful inftru6tit)n how 
to conuu(-t himt'clf among the Indians, with dircdlion to 
keep a journal, &c. So tiiat now he is more likely than 
ever to fuccced. Before he returns he is to follow the Mif- 
fouri up to the very fpring-head ; to viht the Volcano ; and 
to bring proof, if lie can, that he has touc'ied upon the 
Pacific Ocean. He is then to receive uooo dollars of thij 
Spaniih Government. — Thus the W'elchman, ihould he live 
to return, whether he fucceed or not in difcovering the 
Welch Indians, will obtain a comfortable fupport for his 
life, and his diary may probably be worth a very confiderable 
ium.^' . 

Tiie Editor onlv adds, that he will thankfully receive 
any communications on this^t from AV'ales, America, 
or any other part of the world ; and intends to communi- 
cate to the public the iiitcrefting intelligence he may be 
favoured with, lie alfo holds himfelf in readinefs to alFift, 
as far as he mav be able, in furthering any attempt for the 
4ilcovering, civilizing, or Chriftianizing the Welch Indians. 



r ' 

JuJ! piihlijlied, by T. Chapman, Flcet-Jlreety 




July 28, 1796, 

On occafion of the Deilgnation of the First Missionariet. 

to the Iflands of the South-Sea. 
The Sermon by Henry Hunter, D. D. Minhler of the 

Scots Church, London Wall ; 

The Charge by Edward Williams, D, D. Minifter at 

Rothcrham, Yorklhire. 

To whicli is prciixeJ, 


Of the Order of the Solemnity of that Day. 

Price One Sruliivr. 


preached in London at the Formation of the 

September 22, 2 >, 24, 1795, 

By the Rev. Dr. Haweis, Aldwinckle, 
Rev. George Burder, Coventry, 
Rev. Samuel Gre:i'.'u:ed, NVoburn, 
Kcv. John Hey, Driltol, 
Rev. Rowland Hill, ^L A. Surry Cliapel, 
Rev. David Boguc; Cofport. 

To wiilch are preiixed. Memorials refpedling the Eftabliflt- 

nu/nt and lirll yVttempts of that Soeiety. 

Price Two ShUlni^^ ar.d i'ixpcMcc. 


Prcaclied in London at the Second General Meeting of the 


May II, 12, 13, ]19b, 
Bv the Rev. Mr. Lambert, Mull. 

Rev. Mr. IVntverols, \VallIngford, 
Rev. Mr. Jay, Bath, and 
Rev. Mr. Jones, Llangan. 

To which arc preiixcd, the Rroceedings of the Meeting, and 
the Report of the Oiredtors, 

^Vit.h a i\iriralt of Captain Wilson. 

Pr'u-r TixQ Shlil'ino^i and Sixpence. 



of the ]