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Full text of "B. Bradshaw's ABC dictionary to the United States, Canada, & Mexico, showing the most important towns and points of interest [microform] : with maps, routes, etc., also large general skeleton map showing the various steamship routes to various ports"







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CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 



PALMER HOUSE 



rjIHE only Fire Proof Hotel in the city, 
and the most comfortable ; conducted 

on both the American and European 
plans. 



PATRONIZED BY THE 

PRINCESS LOUISE 

AND 

PRINCE LEOPOLD, 

ALSO CONSTANTLY BY 

Lord and Lady DUFFERIN 

AVHEN- IN CHICAG-O. 



■ 1 



Rooms with Meals, 

3 Dolls, a Day and upwards. 

Without Meals, 

3 Dolls, a Day and upwards. 






CORSICA. CORSICA. 

AJAGCIO. 

The Peirl of Winter Resorts in Eorope. 

From six to eight degrees warmer in temperature than 
any station on the Riviera. 



NO DUST, NO HIGH WINDS, NO MISTRAL. 



rilHE BAY OF AJACCIO is one of the safest, 
J- largest, and most beautiful in the Mediterranean 
Sea, and is the best anchoring station for yachts 
cruising during winter. The historical associations of 
the town are universally known. The whole island is 
inexhaustible in scenic effects, and artists have found 
unlimited scope in subjects. Its mountainous districts 
surpass even those of Switzerland in wildness, without 
having its drawbacks, as they are accessible at all 
times of the year. The fishing is superior, and good 
shooting can be had. 



Easy and accelerated Steamboat communication 
between Marseilles, Nice, and Leghorn. 



Invalids will find the quiet and repose so necessary 
to their recovery, whereas the healthy can have ample 
recreation and exercise. PROVINCIAL- I *'" ARr* 



B. BRADSHAWS 

ABC 

DICTION APvY 



TO THK 



UNITED STATES, 

CANADA, & MEXICO, 

SHOWING "HE MOST IMPORTANT TOWNS AND POINTS 

OF INTEREST. 



WITH MAPS, ROUTES, SiC, 

ALSO 

LAEGE GE]NERAL SKELETON :^[AP 

188G. 

All Rljhffi Reset- red. Ci>piiri'j}tt. 

LONDON: Trubnek c^ Co., 57 & 59, Liicloate Hill. 



& Co. 
MEXICO: Thomas Cook & Sox. 



NEW YORK: IxTEKKATioxAr. NkwsCo. | SAN FRANCI8C0: Svmli t. Cvr«^ox 
CHICAGO : R\XD, McNally & Co. ; 

Mac C^r.UKG & Co. 
MONTREAL: C. R. Ciiisiior.M & Co. 

MELBOURNE, SYDNEY, & ADELAIDE, (ii :o. RonKirrsox Si Co., Limitkd ; 
PARIS: 2"), Ruo do la Paix. NJCE : 2 {, Avciiuo dc l.i(;;ir,!, H. Bkadsh aw A: Co.; ' 
BERLIN, LEIPZIG, & VIENNA, F. A. Buockhms; MILAN, FLORENCE, & 
ROME, Ermaxo Lokschkh; MADRID, Baillv, Baillieuks & Co. 



(Z 



I 



ihs 



\ 



LoNDOIf : 

WATERLOW BROS. & LAYTON, 

2i & 25, BiKCniy Lane, E.G. 



I' E E r A C E . 



The lendenfy of tlio presont nf*Q is ever towards a search for more cxtcntled 
iiiul now fields of tnivol, whether for Ijiisiuess or j)loiisurc. This has 
iiKhu'oil lis to coin])ile this ^uide. Our iiitfUtiou has heen to l;e as brief 
as jxjssible, consistent with clearness and precision. Wo hope we havo 
(?iiccee(h)d, at least to some extent, and that this work maybe found worthy 
of the attention of the travellini^ pul^Iic. 

In the tables of fares, times, etc., at th'j end of the volume, no effort has 
been spared to ensure accuracy, as far as iiossiblo ; the distances aro ^iveu 
by the shortest lines, which arc named. It should be noted, however, that 
the shortest routes in distance do not in every instance make the shortest 
time, owing to the condition of the track. The fares aro those in force at 
the time of go'nvj; to i)ress, but they aro beiiig continuiiUy altered owinj^ to 
competition and " pools." Those named aro, it is believed, a fair averaj,'e. 

To many places of considerable local importance no route whatever is 
j^ivcn, which in every case ik owluij to thr oniiggiun (if the Ginrntl I'lmneiigei' 
m/c«/j* of the lines loatling t(j the same to furnish the needed information. 
The reader may fairly assume th.it such American lines as offer much 
temptation to the English tourist travel— and which can accommodate that 
trattic- are glad to get a notice of their enterprises placed before intending 
English travellers, especiall3' where it costs nothing to do so. The reader 
may therefore also assume that no line of travel, which its managers feel 
to be first class, is omitted from the following pages. 

In future editions a larger amount of detailed informaticm, under such 
heads as hotels, doctors, bankers, dentists, etc., will bo given. This year 
we had only time to visit personally the Presidents and leading officers of 
the American Trunk Lines, and our reception by such men as Mr. 
Vanderbilt, Mr. Huntington, Mr. Garrett and others was more than ccjrdial. 
Next season we hope to bo able to visit man}' of the General Passenger 
agents who did not seetheir wa.y torci)ly to our applications for information. 
This was an omission on their part, which thej' now possibly see reason to 
regret. At any rate, their want of courtesy in this matter has compelled us 
to narrow theidan of our work, as we naturallj' reckoned on being supplied 
with information by the railwaj* companies, whose first interest should bo 
to make their respective districts known. A personal inspection of every 
town and place of interest on our part is well nigh impossible over territories 
of such immense extent. 

The large map intended to accompany this work could not be got ready, 
for similar reasons ; and we beg to express our thanks to Messrs, Thomas 
Cook & Son for lending us their maps for this issue. 



LoxDON : Imperial Buildings, 

Ludgate Circus, E.C. 
Nice : 23, Avenue de la Gare. 
•3Ut jHlt/M;^ ^ |x .J 



B. BRADSHAW & CO. 



a2 



TAIiLE OF CO^'TEXTS. 



UNITED STA.TES. 

PiiEP.VRATORV 

*■• **• 4,1 

D.^-sei-iMtion and Maps of so:no of the important Railways 
Dosoription of Towns 



PAOE. 

7 
U 
iQ 



CANADA. 

Pui:pak.vtouy 

Description of the Canadian Grand Trunk Railway 

Description of Towns 



19.J 
199 

2<;2 



MEXICO. 

Phepabatokt 

Doscyiption of the Mexican Central Railway 

Description of Towns 



219 
230 
211 



TABLE OF PARES, 

Timas, itinerary, &c., to different towns and points calculated from 
Chicago 

Ditto ditto from New Orleans 
Ditto ditto from New York 

••• ••• ••• ,,, 

Ditto ditto from San Francisco 
Advartiscments ... .», 



281 
288 
292 
302 
305 



UNITED STATES. 



AREA AND EXTENT. 

Tho domain of tho Stars and 
Stripes lies between tho 25th ;ind Wth 
deyreo north latitndo, stretching? 
rijj^ht across the ("ontinent from tho 
Ath\ntic to tlie I'acillc shores. Tliis 
Kre;it territory is lionndod on the 
north hy the British i)ossessions of 
Canadii.aml on t lie south l)y the Gulf of 
Mexico and tiio Hcpublic of Mexico. 
Tho snporlicial area is, according to 
tin Census f)f June 1st, 1880=3,557,000 
siiuiire Eni^-lish miles (Alaska in- 
cluded). It is divided into 38 States, 
8 Territi-ies, and I District, besides 
the territory of Alaska, bougbt inl8H2 
from the Russians. Tho principal 
rivers in this vast rcfjion are : The 
Mississippi, which, with its tril>u- 
tarios, drains an area of 2,155,;<r)0 
Sfjuaro Kn<,'lish miles; tlio Columbia 
River; tho Colorado River, to the 
Gulf of California; tho Rio CJ-rande ; 
tho Colorado River to tho Culf of 
Mexico ; Alabama, Savannah and 
Hudson Rivers. Tho main phj'sical 
features are easily i^rasped. The prin- 
cipal elevations arc tho Appalachians 
in tho cast and near the Atlantic coast, 
and the ( 'ordillcras in the west or near 
the Pacific coast, the latter l)eing much 
larger in extent, &c. ; between tho two 
lies tho Mississippi Valley and tho 
northern lakes. Its flora and fauna 
are very varied, ami the mineral 
resources are inexhaustible. The 
coast lines offer splendid harbours, 
ivnd the great rivers easy access by 
water to the greatest portion of tho 
country. 

POPULATION. 

According to tho Census of 1880, 
tho entire population amounted to 
50,145,336 (including Alaska). Of these 
25,518,820 wore of tho male sex, 
and 24,6JG,963 females. Its very 
mixed elements were as follows : — 



Natives, 4.3,175,810; foreigners, 
0,079,013; white, 43, lo:.','J70 ; coloured, 
0,580,703; Chinese, 105,013; Indians, 
00,407. The most populous States arc- 
Rhode Island, with hO persons i)er 
scpnire kilometr ' nd Massa-'husetts, 
with n3 ; whilst hu district of 
Columbia shews U8l per sipuire 
kilometre. The uast poptihitc'dof tho 
States: Nevada and ')regon, with 0*2 
and 07 pCi ;<(iuaro kilometre rc- 
sncctively ; and of the territories 
Wyoming, Montana, and Arizona 
stand lowest, each with 01 prr sijuaro 
kilometre. 'I'he largest and most 
populous towns are (Census I88O) : — 

New York 1,-J0rt,2n9 

Philadelphia !s47,170 

Brooklyn 500,003 

Chicago 503,ls5 

Boston 302,839 

St. Louis 3.")0,518 

Baltimore 332,313 

Cincinnati 255, 139 

San Francisco 233,959 

New Orleans 210,090 

The English and Germans con- 
tribute the largest contingent of the 
immigrants, but there is no nation 
nor country which has not sent its 
representatives in larger or smaller 
numbers. 



CONSTITUTION. 



Ith 
De- 



Declaration of Independence : 
July, 1770. Constitution of 17tli 
comber, 1787, separating the powers 
of State into three independent 
corps, distinct ono of the other : tho 
executive power (President), legisla- 
tive power (Congress), judiciary 
power (Supreme Court, Ac), Federal 
capital : Washington, District of 
Columbia. Tho President is elected 
everj' four years, and his powers begin 
on March -ith at noon, and. finish 
March 4th at noon. Since 1802 the Re- 
publican part}' has held the power for 



PROViNCAL LIBRARY, 



8 



IJRADSHAW S UNITKD STATES. 



25 years, but in ISSo the Democrats 
came in luuler J'resitlent Cleveland. 
Tiie i)roseut i.s the 25tli lej^ishitive 
period. The Coiif^ress i.s com[)osc(l of 
the S/'iKitf and Chtimbcr of Jlfprsi-iifa- 
t'ven, and must meet in session at 
least once a year. Tlio Senate is 
elected by tlie 'iH States, each State 
<>leotint; two senators. Tliey are iii- 
dividually named for six years by tliu 
le,i,'islative authorities of eaeh State ; 
every two 3'ears one-third of tlic sena- 
tors are subjected to r.^-election. Tlic 
President of the Senate lias a casting? 
vote in case of a tie, but has no vote 
otherwise. The representatives are 
elected by each State separately f or twv) 
years, and h:ive been since 2t>th May, 
1S79, 292 in number. The Vice-Presi- 
dent of the United States i)resides in 
the Senate. The judiciary power 
rests in the hands of the (xenei'al- 
Advocate. In a matter of law he is 
councillor to the President and the 
several heads of departments ; he 
extimines the appeals, and directs 
all the legal matters of the (io- 
vernmeut. The Church being com- 
pletely separate from the State, 
there are no ecclesiastical authorities 
Bub'^rdinat:? to the Government. 

ARMY AND NAVY. 

The territory of the United States 
is divide I iutothree military districts. 
The lirstistho Missouri Division, with 
head-(puirters at Cliicago ; the second 
the Atlantic, with New York as hoad- 
(piarters ; the third the Pacific Divi- 
sion, with San Fi-ancisco as a centre. 
Tiie first has eight regiments of 
cavalry, and 20 regiments of infanti'y ; 
the second two regiments of infantry 
and four regiments of artillery ; the 
third four regiments of infantry, 
three regiments of cavalry, and one 
regiment of artillery. This is the 
r3gular army, besides which each 
State is supposed to have a mHit'ui, 
which, however, it would be ditttcult 
to unite in case of war, though each 
male capable of bearing arms, from 
his 18th to 45th year, is liable. This 
and the regular army is supposed to 
bring the army to the total of 
3,105,00) men. In only a very few 
SLates is this militia eflL'ient. The 
chief of the army is the Minister of 
War. The regular armv is com;)osed 
of 2.155 ortlccrs and 25,()i.,'0 men, or 
in all 20,474. 



The ppi'AOiinel of the vnt'y consists of 
one a Imiral, 1,722 otticers (active), 
including staff, and 2s3 pensioned 
olficers, 205 inidcr oHicers, 7,500 sea- 
men, and 750 boys. The marine cori)s 
embraces HOofficers and l,!»:iy seamen. 
The fleet is composed of 24 armour- 
l)lated, 59 screw, and six i)addle 
steamers, 22 sailing vessels, two tor- 
pedo boats, and 25 tugs. In all 139, 
(,'f which only 57 are in active service. 

STATES & TERRITORIES. 

Alabama, Arkansas, Ca'ifornia, 
Carolina-North, CanJina-South, Colo- 
rado, Coimecticut, Delaware, Florida, 
(Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, 
Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, 
Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, 
Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, 
Nel)raska, Nevada, New llamj)shire. 
New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, 
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennes- 
see, Texas, Vei'mont, Virginia, West 
Virginia, Wisconsin. 

District of Columbia. 

Territories of Arizona, Dakota, 
Idiiho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, 
Washington, W^'oming ; an I Alaska 
as a colony. 

SOCIETY. 

American society is, as a matter 
of course, very heterogeneous, there 
being no such thing as nominal rank 
or aristocracy. Yet society here, 
as elsewhere, manages t) have its 
higher and lower grades, depending 
mainly upon intelligence, position, and 
wealth. Tho lines, however, are not 
strictly drawn, and access to the one or 
the other set is easily gained. There 
is also an aristocracy of l)irth, which of 
all others is the most exclusive. This is 
chiefly composed of the earlier settlers 
in Massachusetts, tho Dutch in New 
Y'ork, and the cavaliers of Virginia, 
&c. Boston is the head of the intel- 
lectual society, New Y'ork of the pluto- 
cratic, and Philadelphia of the blue 
blood. The West and South aremoi^e 
accessible to money than to other 
recommendations. 

The hos])italityof Americans ispro- 
verl)ial, though in this respect a lino 
is beginning to be drawn already, 
owing chiefly to tho little response in 
Europe, when Americans visit the old 
c )untry and the friends there, made on 
tho latter touring in tho States. The 
intercourse between the j'oung of tho 



r.RADSHAW S UNITED STATlv 



9 



nsists of 
(active), 
Biisioueil 
,500 seii- 
ne corps 
isciimon. 

annour- 
paddlc 

two tor- 
nalliai), 
i service. 

)RIES. 

I'ifornirt, 
ith, Colo- 
, Florida, 
L, Iowa, 
a, Maine, 
,li('Ui<j;an, 
Missouri, 
ini)>.shire, 
>, Oregon, 
, Teunes- 
lia, West 



Dakota, 
CO, Utah, 
;l Alaska 



a matter 
l)us, there 
iual rauk 
ty here, 
have its 
lopending 
]ition,aTid 
ire uot 
ho one or 
. There 
which of 
e. This is 
r settlers 
in New 
IVirginia, 
he intel- 
hepluto- 
the blue 
are more 
Ito other 

jns is pro- 
3ct a lino 
I already, 
Iponse in 
(it the old 
I made on 
es. The 
bff of the 



two sexes is very free, and they are 
left at an early aire to take care of 
themselves. The i)arty of "woman's 
ri<?hts," thou.irh havini^ many a<lvo- 
cates, has not succeeded as yet in 
^■ainimr much Ic^iil or sociiil power. 
Education is very much promoted, 
not only l)y (Tovennncnt but by 
private philanthro])y. The yearly 
eductationul expenditure of public 
money amounts to iilH,()(M>,oo(). 

FINANCE. 

Owino: chiePy to the i)rotective cus- 
toms' system, the finances of the Union 
are in a (jood condition, notwithstand- 
ing the verv heavy expenses of the 
Civil Wars of l,sG2-4. The Hudiret f.f 
18Si.5 was : Receijjts, 313,(M)0,O(»i) dols.; 
Expenses, 258,(K)(),()()() dols. Amoiif^'st 
the receipts in 18^2-3, 211,700,197 dols. 
are derived from customs' duties, c)r 
neai'ly the whole exi)onditurc. In- 
direct taxes, LU,72(>,3G9 dols.; direct 
taxes, 108,157 dols.; sales of land, 
7,955,86tdols.; and sundries, .30,79(5,(595 
dols.; in all, receipts 398,287,582 dols., 
of which more than half came in 
from customs' duties. Coufravij fo 
the Eiiiflixh Jixcal Ki/xfeiii, only a very 
small part is derived from direct 
taxation. The exiionditure of 1882-3 
was iu all 2(5."), K)8, 137 dols., the details 
being as follows :— 



Civil Service and several 

Depend 

War Department 

Navy do 

Pensions 

Indians 

Interest of Public Debt 



dols. 

. .08,078,022 
.1.8,911,3X3 

.15, 2 S3. 13 7 
.00,012,57 1 
.. 7,302.59.) 

59,1(50,131 



Cash in hand 



Dols. 203,108,137 

The whole public debt was, on the 
1st July, 1883, 

dols. 

Boaring interest 1,33-<,229,150 

Not be iring interei-it ... 53^,111,103 
Annuities 7,'^3l,ll5 



l,8Sl,171,728 
... 3 15,389,9; »3 

Dols. l,53s,78l,825 



The abovo speaks volumes ao^ainst 
Eiiirlish free trade. 

The !<epa"ate debts of the differen' 
States amount iu total to 267,703,000 



dols., Miis«a"husotts heading thfl 
list with 32,512,0(M> dols. and Virginia 
following with 31,(5.V2,000 dols. At the 
1)ottom of the li>t are Colorado with 
231,000 dols., and Iowa with 215,000 
dols. 

PRODUCE AND MANU- 
FACTURES. 

Previous to lS7t) the most important 
sourco of wealth was agriculture ; 
sincethen, mauufacturesand industry 
have become, with mining, the chief 
occujiation of the people. 22 jjcrcent. 
of the male poi)ulation were engaged 
in agriculture iu 187(>, and theiuiml)er 
of farmers i)ossessing hfildings of at 
least hO acros, atnounted in 1871 to 
close upon 3 millions. 73 5.000 s(iuaro 
miles are under cultivation, and this 
increases every year. Wheat is the 
staple produce, then maize, oats» 
])otatoes, tobacco, cotton, sugar, wiiu>. 
Cattle-breeding is another chief source 
of we:dtli. Timber, fishing, huntintr, 
etc., arc all very ])ro(lnctive, though 
the whol >S!ilo destruction of forests is 
oeginning to tell unfavourably. 

Since 1870 the people began to turn 
their attention from the field to the 
factory. There were then 252,118 
manufactorii's in operation, with an 
invested c:ipit'il of ,i;l,2(M),0()0,O0O, 
l)aying £15,870,O()0 in wages, and 
giving a yearly yield of iJ9,250,(M)O. 
This was besides the mining interests. 
The i)rincipal mnnufactures are iron 
and steel miiteri:il for rnilways, tools, 
agricultural impleni'iits, cotton sjtin- 
ning, and we;iving, ^^c. The]irincipMl 
mines are gold and silver, but (;oal, 
oil, iron, &.c., are almost equally 
productive. 

Cr-IMERCE. 

While in 1873 the imports exceeded 
the exports by some 00,000,000 dols., 
in 1883 the figures of 751,7i)0,0(K') dols. 
for total imoorts and 825,800,000 dols. 
for total ex|)')rts, shewing a surplus 
over inipr)rts of 71,ltH),000 dols., 
demonstrate a'^'ain to evidence the 
result of the Am u-ican protectionist 
system, in c )mp.'iris )U with En.i^lisli 
free tradt?, where the value of exports 
is constantly gr.)wing less than that 
of imp'irts. * Of the exports of 18M3, 
l(),20O,0iHl dols. were precious metals, 
and 19,000,000 dols. manufactures of 
foreign ])roduction. The i)rincipal im- 
ports are woven goods, roi)es, tropical 
and sub-tropical pro luce, &c., and the 



10 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



principal exports, prain, bread-stuffs, 
live and dead meats, cotton, oils, 
grease, and resinous matter. 9,49J 
vessels under the American, and 
2J,40S vessels under foreign flags 
entered tlie ports, and 9, tlW American 
and 23,629 foreign left the American 
ports in 1883, of which 10,382, and 
14,812 respectively, were lf):ide<l. The 
commer^^ial fleet consists ()f 5,249 
steamers, and 1G,G97 sailing vessels, 
and the whole tonnage of shipping 
(including barges, canal l)oats, and 
vessels of every descrii)tion) amounts 
to 4,235,487, of which 2,823,01)0 tons 
belong to the Atlantic, 327,000 to the 
Pacific, 72t,000 to the interior lakes, 
and 301,000 tons to the Mississippi and 
other rivers. The carrj'ing trade of 
the United States declined consider- 
ably during the Civil Wars, though 
since then it has steadily increased. 
Only one of the many steamer lines 
plying between England and the 
States is owned in the States. 

RAILWAYS 

On the 1st of January, 1883,114,928 
English miles of railways were in 
full operation, of which 0,155 were in 
the NewEnghmd States, 17,922 miles 
in the Middle States, 17,<;93 in the 
Southern, 07,501 in the Western, and 
5,597' in the Pacific States, The total 
receipts were 770,350,710 dols., 
and the total expenses 159,073,839 
dols. A great amount of European 
money, i)viiicipally English, is 
sunk ' iu these linos, and many 
of them are worked at a heavy 
loss. The iiassenger trains consist 
only of one class, called by courtesy 
1st class. The cars are divided in 
the middle— lengthways, and the 
seats arc on either side this i)assage; 
each seat has room for two passen- 
gers. Passengers can thus go while 
the train is moving from one car to the 
other, the whole length of the train. 
The scats are not very comfortable, 
but on most express trains, drawing- 
room and sleeiiing cars are running, 
which exceed anything in comfort 
known iu Europe, the charge being tri- 
lling in comparison. Tickets should 
bel)Oughtat the various ticket offices 
or at the station. For tickets bought 
in the train an additional charge is 
made. Passengers should bo careful 
to inquire, on tlie conductor passing 
the cars at frecjuent intervals, for 
their arrival station, as no stations 



are marked in uhe European fashion, 
nor are they called out aloud when 
the train stojis. 

POST AND TELEGRAPH. 

The postal system is very extensive, 
and efficient in a degree. The number 
of offices open in 1883 was 47,083, and 
the amount of work done is enormous, 
no country surpassing the States in 
the number of comrmnications pass- 
ing through the post, calculated at 
per head of the population. The total 
receipts in 1883 were 45,508,692 dols., 
and totalexpenses 42,816,700 dols. The 
total of te!egrai)h lines in operation in 
1883 were 104,0(K) English miles (ex- 
cluding those of Railway Companies, 
Government, and private indivi- 
duals). The telephone lines extend 
over 100,000 English miles, and 
the telephonic despatches exceed 
120,000,000 in numl>er. The Western 
Union Telcgraj)!! (.'ompany is the 
principal owner, with 12,917 offices, 
14^1,294 English miles of line, and 
432,726 English miles of wire. The 
total number of telegraph ofllces 
open is 14,377, and in 1m8:{ the numljer 
of olespatches exceeded 70,000,000. 
The Western Unioii Company had 
19,454,903 dols. receipts, and 
11,791,553 dols. expenses. 

MONEY. 

The cui'rency of the United States 
consists of gold and silver, the 
standard coin being the dollar. Gold 
coins are of 1, 5, 10, and 20 dollars; 
silver of 1 dollar, 50, 25, and 10 cents, 
called half ami quarter dollars, and 
dime respectively. There are also 5 
cents nickel and 1 and 2 cents 
cojiper coins. The chief money used 
in daily intercourse is the baiik-uotcs 
called "greenbacks," if United States, 
Treasury notes, and the National 
bank-notes. The pjiper money is now 
on a par with gold and siver coins. 
There are bank-notes of 1, 2, 5, 10,20,50, 
100, 500, and, 1,000 dollars. The pound 
sterling has an ei|uivalent value va- 
rying between 4 dols. 80 cts. and 4 dols. 
90 cts., and the English shilling is 
equivalent to nearly a (fuarter dollar. 
English, as well as foreign bank-notes 
and coins, have no official circulation, 
l)ut can be exchanged in nearly all 
towns, and will be taken at most hotels. 
The most convenient mode is, how- 
ever,circular notes, or a letter of credit 



ashion, 
I when 



ionsive, 
number 
;S3, iiud 
)rmous, 
tatcs in 
IS pass- 
ate cl at 
'he total 
)2 dols., 
dIs. The 
dtion in 
lies (ex- 
11 panics, 

indivi- 
, extend 
3S, and 

exceed 
Western 

is the 
7 offices, 
no, and 
re. The 
[i cilices 
! niimber 
.),(H)0,000. 
\\\y had 
and 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATK>'. 



11 



upon a New York bank, and thence 
another upon their correspondents in 
the different parts or towns intended 
to be visited, ft is not a Ivisablo to 
carry too much ready money, espe- 
cially ffoinj^ "West. 

CUSTOMS, PASSPORTS, &c. 

The examinations of lufrcragc at the 
ports of arrivnl are coTuhictcd very 
ritridly, thoujrh perfctly courteously 
and politely. Tourists should only take 
with thcui such articles as are strictly 
considered of persoiuil use. Larpre 
fiuantities of new cloth, silks, linens, 
lace, ciffiU's, jewellery, Ac, are most 
sea.rched for ; and tourists will lind it 
always bettor to declare before-hand 
anytiiiuH' they consider dutiable rather 
than to let the officers find such arti- 
cles for themselves. In case visitors 
consider articles unduly taxed, the 
best thiufi^ is to pay the duty on the 
spot, and lodu:e a complaint at the 
Treasury Department in Washin<?ton. 

Passports for the States are not 
essential, but for all emerifoncies 
tourists should not be without one. 

Traveller^ should provide them- 
selves with either a bag or a trunk, 
about 15 inches high, for on 
boai-d the steamer. These trunks 
are pat under the lower berth. A 
folding or extension cane-chair will 
be found a great comfort on board. 
All steamers have bath-rooms, but 
when passengers are numerous, 
they are in great request, atid it is 
advisable to ai)ply to the person in 
charge immediately on arriving on 
board, and lix an hour fur the daily 
bath. Against sea-sickness there ex- 
ists no remeilj/, and the only thing is 
to get accusLomed to the motion. 
This generally takes ])lace after the 
first or second day of the journey. 
Fees on board are usually as fol- 
lows, though not compulsory : Table 
steward, 10s. ; cabin steward, l(»s. ; 
boots, 2s. (id. ; and in the smoke-room 
the hat goes round at end of journey. 

CLIMATE, HYGIENE AND 
DRESS. 

As the differences of climate are 
very great, the tourist 1ms to carry 
with him rather more luggage 
than in other countries. The sum- 
mers are hotter and the winters are 
colder than in Europe. California 
has only two seasons— wet and dry. 



Xew England and ^liddlo States aic 
trerpiently buried in snow, whilst the 
Southern States enjoy their best 
season, and the traveller has to ])ro- 
vide for these changes. Travellers 
should, therefore, always be dressed 
warmly, as it is undoubtedly better 
to STiffer from heat at noon, than at 
evening and night, or sudden changes 
of temjieraturefromanycold. Woollen 
underclothing should always be worn, 
and a wrapi)ororrug be constantly at 
hand. In hot weather t'.ie jn'otectiou 
of the neck against the sun's ra.vs 
is essential, as sunstroke is by no 
means infreiiient even in the North. 
Througlu)ut the United Stat(>s, alike 
in large and small towns, the water 
sup])lied for drinking purposes must 
bcregard'.'d with the utmost suspicion. 
It, is largely due to this, that Ai)()l- 
linaris Natural Mineral Wat;u', bcmir 
an absolutely pure drinking watiM", is 
so generally consumed there, and the 
traveller will find u > ditllcuky in ob- 
taining it at the hotels and elsewhere, 
Tlie best time to start would be '"a 
September, visit Caiui'la andNorthe n 
States during September and October, 
and, as winter sets in. go more 
southerly, so as to be during De- 
cember, .lanuai-y, and I^obruary, in 
Mexico and the Southern States. 

LUGGAGE-CHECK 

SYSTEM. 

On American railways and steam- 
ers lOOlbs. of luggage is allowed to 
each a'lult passenger, free of charge. 
Practically it is much more, as it is 
weighed only with rare exceptions, 
and then only when it appears to the 
officials to be greatly in excess. 

The passc-nger having his ticket,^ 
presents this and his luggage to 
the " Baggage Master." This official 
attaches to each parcel a brass-plnte 
uumbereil, and hands to the traveller 
the duplicates, one for each article, on 
l)resentatiou of which at destination 
the luggage is given up to liim. The 
luggage maybe "cheeked" in this 
way over very long routes, /.c, from 
NewYork to Chicago, from New York 
to Omaha, etc., without the traveller 
requh'ing to concern himself in any 
way abrjut it. The Company are res- 
ponsible on delivering check, up to 
a certain limit in weight and value. 
It is very rare that luggage is lost in 
this way. On arrivalthe checks should 



12 



BRADSHAW'S UNITED STATES. 



l)s irivcn to the hotel porter, if ali^ht- 
in{?at an hotel. If at a private houf'e 
the express men passinj? through tlie 
trains before arriving' at pi-iuciijiU 
towns, shouUl he employed: he 
will t?ive receipts in exchange 
for checks, and the lufjffaj,'e is gene- 
rally deposited at address t'lvcn 
within the hour after arrival. In 
hoth cases the traveller is (luite sate. 
Jn case the traveller is detamel en 
route, the luK'jja-re will he safely 
stored without extra charge at desti- 
nation, until the owner roileems it 
himself or sends for it (of course 
deliverinj? or sendini? checks). Ihe 
charge of expressmeu for delivery ot 
lutrf?aire is 25 to 40 cents i)er parcel, 
l)u"u this is sul)ject to arrangement. 

HOTELS. 

The profession of "mine host" is 
€ortainly developed to the utmost limit 
of perfection in the States, The 
hostolries justly enjoy the reputation 
of heing the largest, best conducted, 
and most comfortable in the world. 
Of course there is little or nothing of 
the homeliness I*]nropoans are accus- 
tomed to find in England '"r the 
Continent, which, by the b^'e, is 
disappe!\i'ing more and more every 
year. In America, hotel keeping is 
conducted on a large scale, much as a 
lijrge dry goods store, or any business 
Avhere ])eople are more attracted l)y 
the quality and price of goods sold, 
thin hy th3 proprietor's amiability, 
friendship, or good will. On the other 
luiid these caravanserais aro as near 
l)a;-fectionas they can well be. The real 
American way of hotel keeping is the 
continental living "en pension," or a 
fixed charge for room, meals, attond- 
» ance, &c., per day. This is in the 
he^t from 2^ dols. to 5 dols. per day, 
though in the West very good accoiii- 
molation can he had also for IJ dols. 
and 3 dols. In the larger towns are 
also hotels conducted on the European 
system, i.e., charging apart for every- 
thing used or taken. This is generally 
ir.)re expensive, though it give's 
visitors greater fi 'lorn for disposing 
o.' their time. At a few hotels the 
two systems are combined. At hotels 
on the " American plan " a consider- 
able reluction is maie, if arrango- 
ments be raivde per week inste.id 
of per day, hut this should bo don"" on 
entering the hotel. Extras and sun- 



dries which irritate travellers in 
Europe so much in their bills are not 
known, and feeing may be dispens-cd 
with altogether. It is done .some- 
times, but not as an ohligation as 
with European servants. All hotels 
have bath-rooms, and the larger one.s 
have rooms with l)ath-room adjoin- 
ing for which 1 dol. per day extra 
is charged. Letter boxes, telegraph, 
ticket offices, barber's shops, etc., 
e'-c, are mostly found in all large 
houses. 

CONVEYANCES. 

The railway accommodntion lias 
been i)artly described in the para- 
gra])h on 'railways. The average 
speed is 30 miles an hour, though CO 
and even 00 mile.s is not unusual. 
The charge in Eastern and Middle 
States is about 2 or 3 ce^its per mile ; 
iu the Southern and Western States 
from 3 to 5 cents per mile ; children, 
from five to 12, half price. Through 
tickets for distant journeys cost gener- 
ally much less than ordinary tickets. 
Thej^are mostly only available for the 
day and train,' but if travellers wish 
to stop eii route the conductor must be 
applied to for a " Stop over check," 
A seat or berth, in Pullman cars, costs 
generally from 2 dols. to 3 dols. per 
day extra. Tickets for railway 
journeys should be bought at office be- 
fore starting, as, on taking them in 
the train a small extra chai'ge is made. 

Steamer accommodation is very 
good. This mode of conveyance is 
less expensive, but also less speedy 
than rail. On the other hand the 
scenery is more enjoyed, A ticket 
gives the passenger a right to a berth 
in the lower cabin. A berth in the 
upper or state room is charged extra 
from 1 to 2 dols. per night, and meals 
are extra and charged alxmt 1 dol. for 
each, if not a la cxrte. Tickets can bo 
taken on board. 

The diligence or "stage coaches" 
are only running now in remote dis- 
tricts and fountains. The charge is 
generally 10 to 15 cents per mile. 
In fine weather this is undoubtedly 
the best mode of enjoying the 
countrj-, if the traveller has time. 
They are mostly very comfortable and 
efficient. 

In towns the usual conveyances are 
the tramways. Omnibuses and hack- 
ney carriages are at the stations and 



BRADSHAW's UNITED STATES. 



ellers in 
Is are not 
cUspeiiijcd 
lue bonie- 
ofation as 
All hotels 
irger ones 
m adjoin- 
ilay extra 
elegraph, 
)l)s, etc., 
all large 



S. 

tion has 
Lhe para- 

avoranfe 
hough CO 

unusual. 
'1 Middle 
[ler mile ; 
rn States 
children. 
Through 
)st gener- 
y tickets. 
>le for the 
ers wisli 
r must be 
■ check." 
ars, costs 
dels, per 

railway 
office be- 

thera in 
I is made. 

is very 
yance is 
* speedy 
land the 
A ticket 
) a berth 
h in the 
red extra 
rid meals 
1 dol. for 
ts can bo 

coaches " 
ante dis- 
charge is 
•cr mile. 
r)ubtcdly 
ing the 
as time, 
able ami 



13 



linding stages. The former charge 
.)<) cents per scat s.iid courj^e ; the 

w?fh Vm!^^ ''^''^' «-:^P«»«ive. compared 
^v ith iiuropoan prices. 

TOITBIST, CIRCULAR AND 
EXCURSION TICKETS. 

^u^""- '^ ^f'Y^VC, so in America, ex- 

h Tmn?..-'''^^^'" ^^?""^ •'summer and 
,'uyV' V""^ ^^-"^^'e »>eeome quite an es- 
tabhshod custom. They are issued 
nt greatly reduced rates. They are 
ff^nerally available for 30, GO and {,0 
<Mys, according to the distance. Thev 
embrace the principal points of in- 
teiest and are arranged in series, so 
tliat the tourist has a choice of trips 
trom a day or two up to m davs He 
can consult his own convenience, 
stoppmg and lingering en route wher- 



, ever he chooses. Lists and all inforrr.a- 
! tion concerning such tours, as also the 
I tickets then, selves, cau be had Sflb 
! ai)plicatu)n to the central offices in fche 
larger towns. The various tourist 
iiiul traveli.ng agents have improved 
upon this, inasmuch as the Railway 
Companies oidy issue Uieso tickets 
with a hxc 1 route, to which the travel- 
ler has to adhere. These agents com- 
pose round trips at the will and the 
tanoy of the tourist, which of cfjurse is 
pretera],Ic. On tlie other hand, the 
reductions made by the Companies 
cannot bo allowed by these a-ents. 
lhe only jiomt gained is more con- 
venience, and, if investing in hotel 
coupons, an economy in the hotel bilN 
otlierwise the tickets arc sold at the 
usual rates of the Companv. 



m CCS are 
nd hack- 
ous and 



^^ 



^ 



i 



The Fall River Line Steamship, and Old Colony 

Railway Companies. 

The most popular route to Newport, Fall Kiver, 
Kingston, Provincetow^n, Boston, etc. 



The most maofnificent, comfortable, and olegimt steamers of the Full 
River Line, " ini<rrim" and " Bristol," leave 28th Pier, North River, New 
York dailj', every afternoon, Sundays included. Connectinj? trains leave 
Newport and Fall River the next morning for Cape Cod, New Bedford, and 
(ill points on the Old Colony Railway system. Passengers for Martha's 
Vineyard and Nantucket take the New Bedford Express Train, and 
cr)nneot at the latter point Avith steamer, landing them at the Islands 
the same morning. 

This is the most convenient and most enjoyable means of travel between 
New York and the tip end of Ymikre Ldntl, or the summer and sea-bathing 
resorts of Rhode Island and Massachusetts, the first and perhaps the most 
fashionable among which is Newjiort. It is situated n.mrlj' at the entrance 
to the beautiful Narraganrsctt Bay, one of the finest roadsteads in the 
world. The api)roach is wide and decj), and the view from the deck of 
the steamer on a fine summer morning is not easily described in words. 
The lazy surf, the craggs, cliffs, rock, forts Adams and Wolcott, the 
green lawns, and the supcrl) viHas dotting the shore— all rei)ay the traveller 
for rising, dressing, and hiistening on deck in the early dawn. 

Besides its acknowledged standing as the most select of all American 
sea-bathing resorts, Newport has its history. Up to the War of Indepen- 
dence its commerce was more important than that of New York, and 
even to-day its trade with the West Indies is considerable. The older 
portions of the town still shew some fiuaint and venerable buildings, while 
the superb avenues of the new quarters are crowded with handsome and 
very costly villa residence^. These belong to the wealthy and cultured 
classes of America, who have selected Newport as a residence. The 
Society meeting here in summer is very select and refined, and more 
than usuallj- exclusive. The Imge hotels^ such as ave found at Saratoga, 
Longbranch, etc., are here entirely without a raltson iVeIre, inasmuch as 
the visitors who pass the summer in Newport have built their own 
homes. Here they are wont to dispense a lavish hospitality, altogether 
beyond the irangination of an inhabitant of the old world. The "Casino" 
recently erected is the centre of life at certain hoiu's of the day. 

The traveller with leisure should visit the following points of great 
interest on the line of the Old Cokmy Railway. They arc also visited in 
part by the sto-imers of the Fall River Line : Plymouth, "Wollaston Heights, 
Quincy, Braintroe, Abingdon, Hiinson, Halifax (with fine fishing and 
shooting), Plympton, Weymouth, Hiugham, Marshfield, Brockton, Lake- 
ville, Marion, New Bedford, Sandwich, Falmouth, Barnstable, Taunton, 
Dighton and Fall River, Lowell, Fitchlmrg, Yarmouth, Woods Holl, 
Nantucket, and a. great many other places, each rivalling the other for 
attractiveness in scenery and social life. 

Fall Ricer, also called the " Border City," merits a closer attention. 
It is the eastern terminus of the Fall River line of steamers and the home 
of spindles, i.e., a great centre of the cotton sjnnning and weaving industry. 
On the eastern shore of the Bristol Neck, and almost opposite Fall River, lies 
Mount Hope, with its interesting historical recollections. The summit 
affords a very fine view over the whole of Rhode Island, with Warren and 
Bristol in the foreground, and Providence and Newport in the distance. 

For further and more detailed information, tickets, etc., apply to the 
Company's Agent in New York, Mr. George L. Connor, Pier 28, North 
River. 



V 




The 



The 



1% 



Tl 
River 
York ( 
Newpi 
nil po 
Viney 
cr)nric( 

the S!J 

Tl 
New ^ 
resort! 
fiishio 
to the 
world, 
the s' 
The Ij 
^recn 
for ri{ 
B( 
sea-ba 
(lence 
oven 1 
portio 
the SI 
very < 
classe 
Sociel 
than 
Long'l 
the V. 
homo 
heyori 
recen 
T 
interf 
part 1 
Quinc 
shoot 
ville, 
BigW 
Xanf 
attra( 
I 
It is i 
of spi 
Oath 
Mour 
affor( 
Brist' 
F 
Conij . 
Rive; ; 



i 






B 

a, 

n 

S; 
SI 
fr 

7.! 



1 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILWAY. 



Lines East of Ohio Kiver. 

Uiiltimoro, M(l., t.() Washiii^'toii, D.C 

Relay Station, Md., to Washiiij^ton Junction, Md. 
Wnshinffton, !).(,'., to Washintrton Junction, Md. ... 
Alexandria Junction, Md., to Shcidierd, Md. 
Washington Junction, Md., to (lraft(tn, W. Va. ... 

Grafton, W. Va., to rarkcshuri,', W Va 

Grafton, W. Va., to Whcolini,', W. Va 

Weverton, Md., to Hatrcrstown, Md 

Frederick Junction, ^Id., to Frederick, Md 

WheelinET, W. Va.. to Gleiiwood, Pa 

Harper'.s Ferrj', AV. Va., to Lexintrton, Va 

I'ittsburjr, Pa., to (.'mnhcrland, Md 

ConnclLsville, I'a., to Uniontown, Pa. 

Ih'oftdfonT, Pa., t(» Mt. Pleasant, Pa 

Rockwood, Pa., to Jolinstown, ]*a 

We.st Pittsburjr to Finleyville, Pa 

Baltimore to Curtis Bay 

Rumncy to Green Springs 

Total cast of Ohio River 

Lines "West of Ohio River. 

Wheeling, W. Va., to Columbus, O 

New."rk, O., to Sandusky, () 

Chicago Junction, O. Chicago, 111 

Newark, O., to Shawnee, O 



Total West of Ohio River 



Total miles east of Ohio River 
„ west „ „ 



u\o 


miles. 


5!).7 




1J.7 




12.5 




211.0 




KU.O 




(M).2 




21.2 






:^.5 




VA.H 




I»i2.() 




Ui).5 




13.0 




9.0 




15.1 




IH.J) 




9.5 




16.0 




liver 1,085.2] 


miles. 


r. 

137.0 miles. 


116.2 


If 


271.0 


ft 


13. i 


>• 


River 507.6 miles. 


1,085.2 




5H7.G 





1,652.8 

Stop-Over Checks, good for 15 day.s from date of issue, will bo 
granted ui)on application of i)a.ssenger holding first-class unlimited tickets. 



Arrangements for B. & O. Sleeping and Parlour Car 

Service. 

EASTWARD. 

Train No. 1 leaves Chicago 5.10 p.m., Pittsburg 8.35 a.m. B. & O. New 
Buffet Sleeping Cars, Chicago to Pittsburg, Washington and Baltimore, 
dail3\ B. & O. Parlour Car?* Pittsburg to Baltimore, daily. Entire train 
runs through from Chicago to Baltimore. 

Train No. 3 leaves St. Louis 7.0 p.m. B. & O. Palace Sleeping Cars, 
St. Louis to Louisville, Cincinnati, Washington and Baltimore, daily. 
Sleeping Cars, Louisville to Cincinnati, daily. yJntire train runs through 
from Cincinnati to Baltimore. 

Train No. 5 leaves Chicago 8.10 a.m., St. Louis 8.0 a.m., Cincinnati 
7.31 p.m. B. & O. New Family Room Sleeping Cars, Cincinnati to Wash- 



10 



iMfADsiiAw s v\rn:r» states. 



«i 




'rruiu No. 10.') li'iivL's L'iuciniiati 7.10 p.m., daily. Kutirc train runs 
tlir<>uj,'h t(i l•ittsl)llri,^ 

'I'miii No. '»,") l»'iive.s Washiiii,'toii 3.15 p.m. B. & O. Purluur Cars t(» 
Uultimore, <laily, e.\cc'i)t Siinlay. 

"WESTWARD. 

Tniiii No. 2 leaves Bjiltimore y.o ]).m., H. & O. Palace Slcopiiiff Cars, 
]{iiltiiiiiir(! to ('liica.-ro, Ciiiciiiiiati and St. Lonis, daily. Slct-jjinj; Cars, 
Cincinnati to Lfjnisvillt', daily. Kntire train rnns throuj^li to Cincinnati. 

Train N ). !■ leaves Ha!tini(trp s.J..") a.m., Washinu'ton d A'i li.m, U. I't O. 
New ({iifTi't Sleei)in'.r Cars, Ualtiinore to ChicaL,'o, d»iily. JJ. \ (). rarloia* 
Cars, J}altimoi(« to I'ittsl)nr.Lr, daily. I{. A; O. Palace Sleepinj,' Cars, Pitts- 
l)nrL!' to Chicago, daily. Kntire train runs throuKli from lialtiniore to 
Chica^'o. 

Train No, leaves Paltimorc 2.0 p.m., Pittsburg 7.15 p.m. P. & O. New 
Family Slcpin'-r Cars IJaltiniore to Cincinnati, daily. P. iS: O. Palaco 
SlccpiuLr Cars, Pittsburg to Cincinnati, daily. Parlour Cars, Cincinnati to 
St. Louis, daily. Kntire train runs through to Cincinnati. 

Train No. lo(i leaves Pittsl)urg H.io p.m. P. A: O. Slec])ing Cars, 
Pittsljurg to Cincinnati, daily. Kntii-e train runs tliroughto Cincinnati. 

Train No. 12 leaves Hultimore 7A't p.m., Washington 9.0 i).m. P. & O. 
Palace Sleeping Cars, Pa'.timore tj Pittsl.uirg, daily. Entire train runs 
through to Pittslturg. 

Tiain No. IS leaves Paltimorc 10.30 a.m. B. & O. Parlour Car.s to 
AVashingtun, daily, except Sunday. 

Connections. 

At Baltimore with Baltimore & Potomac; Northei'n Central ; Phila- 
delphia, Wilmington & Baltimore and Western Maryland Uways. ; also with 
steamers for Europe and steamers for Norfolk, Portsmoutli, etc. Afc 
Belay Station with Washington Branch. At Annapolis Jc. with Anna- 
l)olis Jt Elk Pidge Rway. At Bladensburg with Alexandria Braneh. At 
Metro])olitan Junction with Washington Branch. At Washington witli 
Alexandria Branch; !Metro])olitan Branch; Washington Branch, and 
B.iltimoi'e & I'utomac and Virginia Midland Bways. At Washington 
Junction with Metrojwlitan Branch. At Weverton with Washington 
County Branch. At Haiper's Ferry with Harper's Ferry & Valley Briinch. 
At Shenandoah Junction with Shenandoah Valley Rway. At Martinshurg- 
with Cumberland Valley Rway. At Sir John's Run with stages for Berkeley 
Springs. At Cumberland with Pittsburg Division ; and Cumber- 
lan<l A: Pennsylvania, anil Pennsylvania Rways. At Pieilmont with 
Cumberland &" Pennsylvania Rway. At Grafton with Parkersburg 
}iranch, over which, in connection with Cinci., Wash. & Bait. Rwn^v'., 
through cars aic run from lialtimore to Cincinnati and St. 
Louis without change. At L, F. Junction with Laurel Fork &, San(l 
Hill Rway. At I'arkersburg with Cin. Wash.. <fc Bait. Rway. At 
Bcnwood with Central Ohio Division. At Wheeling with Wheeling, Pitts- 
burg it Baltimore Branch, and Pittsburg, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railway. 
At Bellaire with Central Ohio Division, and Cleveland & Pittsburg Rway. 
At Quincy with BoUaire & St. Clairsville Rway. At Cambridge with Cleve- 
land & Marietta Railway. At Zanesville with Pittsbxirg, Cincinnati & St. 
Louis Railway. At Newark with Lake Erie Division, Straitsville Division, 
and Pittsburg, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railway. At Mt. Vernon with 
Cleveland, Mt. Vernon & Delawai'e Rway. At Mansfield with New York, 
Pennsylvania & Ohio Rway. ; North- Western Ohio and Pittsburg, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago Railways". At Shelby Junction with Cleveland^ Columbus 



f 



IIHAIISIIAW S fXITICD STATKS. 



17 



(MtK'imiiiti \- TiiiliauiJpoliH liiilwiiy. At ('hi('iif,'o .Imicfirii with jiiiictlnji 
of Cliic it.'() Divisinii with l.iiki' Kric Division. At 'I'ltliii with Imlinii!!, 
MlitoniiiiLrriii \ Wt'st. Itailwiiy um'I N(irth-\\t'>t('iii ( »liin Ifinhv.iy. At Fos- 
t >ri.i witiiCdl., Ilo. Va. \ To'. Huiiv. aiitl Luke Krie \ Wi'stcni Hiilway. At 
Drsiilt'i* with Ciui'iimiiti, lliitniltoii A; Dayton Itway. .\t iKiianoe with 
Wjiliiisli, St. L (uis ,t I'ifitic Uiiiway. At Aul»iii;i .Iiinction with I^ako 
Slion; vV Mi"li. So. I{way. ami Wal)ash, St. liouis \ racitii- l{ lilway. At. 
Avilhi with (iranil HM]>i'i« ii'itl Intliina liway. At .Milt'onl .Innction witlu 
Cini'innati, \Val)ash iV .Miclu_Mu Uway. At WalkiTton .lunction witl> 
Wabash, St. liOuis iV i'afific Wailway. At WtUsh oro witli ChicaL-^o^V: (i.-and 
Trunk K.iilwny. At Aliduwilh fionisviih>, Now Albany \ Chici^'o Hail- 
way. At Miciiiiran ("L-ntral .Imuaion with .Michiiran Cent. Itway. At I'hi- 
cajro with raiiroatls (livcrtriuy- At Cohirulxis with Indiana. lilooniinirtoiL 
A: WosttM-n ; ("hn't'laml, (.'ohiiuhus, Cincinnati, iV In(lian:ii»oh'> ; ('IcM'land, 
Mt. Vernon A: J)i'lawaro; ('ohim'iiis, HiH-kiiiLT Valloy iV Toie lo ; I'ittslmrL'^ 
Cin'-innati \ St. liftiiis, and Scioto ValU'y H lilways. At .\f( niicvillc with 
liUko Shoi'c \ Miclii'^an SoiUlicru Kiihvay. At Sandusky witli Indiana, 
nioomiuu''ton kV Western Railway, and I.ako Shore A. Miciii'jan Suiithcri!. 
J{ lilway. At Cliarlston with Sheiiand lah ValU'y Mway. At StiM>liui!.r with 
Viririnia Miillaud Railway. At Staunton with Chesapeake iV Ohio Uway. 
At Washintriou, I'a., with rittshiire-, Cincinnati iV; St. Louis Railwav,, 
and Waynoslmi-y A; Washiiitrton Hway. At .Junction Citv with ritl.-liiirL'', 
Cincinuiti & St. liOuis Railway. At Frederick with lV'iI;i>ylvaniii 
Hway. At lIager«towu with Cumberland Valley and Wf.stcrn .MarihimV 
Uways. 

The Route and its Connections. 



From the West to Baltimore and Washington. 




/ 



Chicau''o Railway, nud oiu^lit miles beyond, the track <it" tin' ( 'hiciii/o and 
(iraiid Trunk Railway is crossed, a!id at Wellsboro the Wabash, Sr. Loui--^. 
and racific Railway is crossed. The train now enters the dense limber land 
of Northern Indiana, which extends to the l)orders of tli ' State at Deshler. 
At Milford connection is miidu with the Cini'innati, Wabash and .Mi(diiLraii 
Uway., and at Avilla with the (rrand Rajtidsand Indiana Rway. Aubiii-n i* 
the .tuu'.'tion of the Lake Shore A; Mich. S.)utheru Railway, and the Wabash, 
St. Louis ct Paoilic, and the latter is airaiu crossed at Detiam-e. Deslder, on 
the Ohio State Line, is the juMCtion of the Ciuciiuiati, Hamilton iV; I)ayt(»ii' 
Kway. Counectiou ismadeiit Fostoria with the Columbus. HockinLrVal.it 
Toledo, Ohio Central and the New York, Lake Erie vt Western. At 'I'iflin the 
Indiana, IJloomiuirton & Western and the North-Western Oliio. The San- 
dusky river is crossed at this ])oint. The line now])asses throimh a ]»leasant 
farmin*^ country to Chicago Junction. The railroad repair sh(i))sare located 
here, and a branch line runs twenty -eiffht :uile8 north to Sandr.sky, on Lake- 
Erie. liCavinj? Chicai^o Junction, the train runs south through a jiroductivo 
" ' """ " :-.-^i-- /<i 1 1 /.-I 1.- /.•-.•-. .• . hidiana- 



iriaiie at .mouul > eruou wiiii iiie <. ie\ eiaiiu, .uouiil v ernou iv ue.aware uway.. 
and from Newark a branch road runs thirty-three miles to Columbus, the- 
State capital. A hotel and dininy-room and the car and locomotive sliojj.s. 
of the railroad are located at Newark. The east-bound train now pas.se.s 
throuirh (me of the richest a<fricuhnral counties in the State, the laml bocom- 
in'j:more ruLfired as the Ohio river is ajiproached. At Zanesvilie a momentary 
view is ha'l from the train of one of the handsomest cities in the State. 
The lino enters Bellaire, the last town in Ohio, by a solid stone archway 
viaduct of i'i arches, averaging 3J feet ei'ch, covering a distance of 1 ,433 feet^ 



18 



BRADSIIAVV S UNITED STATES. 



and passing? the town over the tops of the houses and thence crosses the 
pictiiresfiuo Ohio river by one of the finest ])rid<;ros in the countiy, which, 
with its approaches, is one and three-fourth miles in lenL,^th, \V heel 'nt?, the 
cajjital of West Virg'inia, the spires of which are scarcely visible from the 
railway ))ridc?e, is four miles up the river, and is reached by local trains 
from Bcnwood, the first station on the east bank of the Ohio. The train 
now runs over level lowlands for several miles,, and enters the Pan Handle 
of West Vir^^inia. The scenery becomes ruij:<,'ed and ])icturesc|ue. Precipi- 
tous mountain passes open before the train, and ))riii<jfes Jiud tunnels are 
passed in (luick succession. Wellint,' tunnel (2,200 feet) and Boardtree 
tunned (i.dOO feet, under a mountain dividin,!< the States of Pennslyvania 
and NVest Virtifinia), are passed east of Canicron. At P^airmont the Monon- 
gahcla rivijr is crossed, and the line takes a sinuous course round the ruf<<?ed 
hills, following the picturesque scenery and the wjnding course of the 
Valley river to Grafton. The Cincinnati and St. Louis trains meet the 
Chicago line at this junction. A ])leasant hotel and dining station have 
))ecn l)uilt by the railway, and the car shops of the company, located here, 
supply work for several hundred men. 

From Cincinnati and St. Louis. 

From St. Louis passengers by the Baltimore and Ohio route take th3 
Ohio and ilississippi Rway. (see descrijjtion) to ('incinnati, and travel 
thence by the Cincinnati, Wash. & Balto. Railway to Belpre, where, crossing 
the Ohio river l)y a bridge erected at a cost of .S1,00(),0(M), the tourist arrives 
without cVange of cars, at I'arkersburg, on the branch line of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Rway. The line thence traverses the ])ictures(ino mountains of 
West Virg.nia, passing several small mountain hamlets, and hundreds of 
oil wells, from which is obt'iined a heavy, dark green oil, extensively used 
for lubricating all kinds of machinery. This valuahle ])etr.deum is pumped 
lip from natural rock reservoirs far below the surface, and is kei)t in large 
tanks (seen near the line). The railroad takes a tortuous course tlirough the 
dithcnlt mountain jiiisses, generally following the course of a mountain 
stream, and ])assiug no fewer than twenty-three tunnels and fiftj'-two 
bridges in 104 miles, between Parkersbnrg ami Grafton. 

Leaving Grafton, the east-bound trains begin the long ascent of the 
Alleghany mountains, down which the Three Forks river tumbles. Near 
Tunnolton the train runs through the great Kingwood tunnel, which is 
4, b'J7 8-10 feet long, and in building consumed nearly three years' time of 
3,000 men, costing finally iuore than .51,000,000. The scenery of this region 
has a grandeur oif its own, almost unparalleled anywhere east of the Rocky 
Mouutiiins. Leaving Tunnelton, th? line now begins a i"ai)id descent, chim- 
berin'/ along anarr()w, yet massively built gallery, from which is seen (on 
the luft), -100 feet below, the chocolate-coloui'ed current of th-.i fani:ius Cheat 
river as it descends through a valley between bold and imijosing mouutiiins. 
The descent of the train is rapid and ])rccii)itous, and in a few minutes 
the level of the i-ailroad is reached at Rowlcsburg. The line now begins 
another asci.nt, with the Salt Lick river tumbling at its side, and, taking 
the right siuc of the train, some of tVie finest scenery in the mountains 
is seen ])etwcon Rowlcsburg and Ci-anberry, the next station. One mile 
]>eyond Crani)erry (on the Maryland State line), a. view is given, on the 
right, of thirty' miles of the West Virginia and Maryland mountains. 
Crossing the Youghiogheny river near Oakland, several fine summer hotels, 
surrounded by picturesipxe ])ark-lawns, are passed on-the great x\lleghany 
plateau, for the highest point on the line is now reached. Altamont is 
2,720 feet above the se». Thence the train begins another descent, more 
rapid than the last, steani l)eing shut off and the brakes ai)])lied for 
seventeen miles (to Piedmont), makiug a descent of nearly 2,000 foet. 
During this desccjit the Savage mountains are seen on the left, beyond 
the dee]) ravine of the Savage river. Piedmont, at the continence of the Crab- 
tree and the Xorth fork of the Potomac river, is the seat of large rail- 
I'oad repair shoi)s and the intersecticm of the celebrated Georges creek 
coalfields. The lini now recrusses the Potomac, to the Maryland shore, 



I 



15RADSHAW S UNITT-::) STATES. 



19 



the 

eiir 

1 is 

of 

rion 

)cky 

im- 

lOilt 

lis. 
utes 
ins 
iiiff 
ins 
ii!o 
tlio 
ns. 
els, 
my 
is 
ore 
for 
;ot. 
md 

!ll). 

il- 



by a fine double iron bridprc, nnd rnns north-east down the vnlloy between 
Knol)ley mountiiiu'^ ^on the rij?lit) mid Will's and Dan's inountains (on 
the left), and in twenty-ei^ht miles arrives at Ciunborland, tlie second 
city in Maryland, and at which point the Company have located their 
great steel rail works. 

The Pittsburg' Division diverjres here. Trains run north by this line, 
crossiiiiif the Pennsylvania Sttite line at Ellerslie, six miles from (.'um- 
berland, then tiu-ninf^ westward, meetint,' the Youtrhio^hen river at ('on- 
fiuence. Tlu; line thence follows tena-Mously the course of the river in 
all its windiiiLTS throuj^'h the mountains, and meeting the ^bmoinrahela 
river at .M('lvees])ort, follows its ritrht bank for fifteen miles to I'lttsburf/. 

beaviny Cumberland, with tlic river, and the Chesaiieake i"t Ohio canal 
(on which the bituminous coal of ("umberland isbronu'litto the tide-water at 
(Tcoryetowu) on the riiriit, the train soon crosses the I'otomac a<rain to the 
West Virt?inia shore, ami passiuytlie tall cliffs called Kelley's Hocks, iiluiifres 
into the (Jreen SjirinLT Valley, crosses the ])road intervals opi)osite Old Town, 
ami then bridires the Soutli Fork of the Potoniic and the Little ('acajiou 
creek. I']merLrin.tr from the I'aw Paw tunnel, liiic nitru'ed scenery is seen on 
l)oth sides of the line to the Doe (hilly tunnel, which is 1,200 feet lon^', ami 
pierces a, mountain 1,700 feet hij^h. The train now clambers round the sharp 
curves of the Upper Potomac, with the river and canal, ])leasant compan- 
ions, on the left, and, crossinic the ^'reat ('acai)ou river, enters Sir John's 
Run -one of the most noted and beautiful jilac.s on the line. The famous 
old summer resort of the Yirijinians, Berkley Si)riiiji's, is reached by the 
staire (three miles) from the station. 'J'he train now bcLrins the ascent 
of N(n'th mountain, ]>assin'j: (on the left), near Cherry Uun, the ruins 
of old I'ort FrfMlerick, a stone work built by Viry:inia. as a frontier 
p.ist in 1755, and afterwards (177')) occupied by British troo)!-;, CrossinsJT 
a dreary u])laiid, on which Martin sburir, oceujiied liy Confederate troops 
in 18(51, is situate<l, the line follows the Tuscarora viiiley, crussinjr, near 
Kearneysville, the Ojicquan creek. The train then descends the 
valley 'of Elk Prancli; then the raj^ids of the I'otomac are seen 
on the left, and the ruins of the old United States arsenal (on the riyht), 
and the train sto])s at Harper's Ferry. The ]^)tomac and Shenandoah 
rivers, both in (piestof a iiassaire throuu-h the blue Ridpfe, meet here, split the 
mountain, and rush away to the sea, lea v in, t;' one of the most stupendous 
and beautiful jraiis in nature. The Maryland heiirhts across (he Potomac 
(on the left), the ^'iririnia (London) hei.ud'its over ithe Shenandoah (on the 
riL"ht), and Bolivar h'.'iu-jits, risinu: from IIar])er's Ferry, beim;' three States 
within the brea'lrh of a shallow river. Earthworks and battlements aio 
still discenuble on the heiu-hts, and mark the sccmcs of some of the severest 
flt4-htinff in the Secession War. Leavinu- Harper's Ferry, the train crosses 
the Potomac, at the nuuith of the Shenandoah, by a line iron bridge, and 
traverses the ,<xreat ua]), passing under the cliffs of Elk mountain. Beyond 
Point of Rocks (junet'onof the old line to Baltimore), th(> line crosf^es the 
unfruitful Mont^^omevy county, and in one hour arrives at Washinfrfon, the 
train stoiijun;? (C. St. and N. J. Ave. Stati(m) fairly under the shadow of the 
Ca])itol. LeaviiKj: Washington for Baltimore and the Fast, the uneasy out- 
lyin<r landscajic of a trreat city and the National Cajiital are soon left behind, 
and the line jiasses tlirou^h a ncfrlected ]iasture land. The Atrricnltural 
Colleure of Maryland is seen in a series of buildin<j:s crowniiiij: a line of 
hei^bts (on the left), near Paint Branch. Annapolis, the State Caiiital, i.s 
roa:.'hed in twenty-one miles by a liranch line south-west from Anna])olis 
Tuuction. Crossiuy tiic hilly country on the borders of Howard county, 
I he train passes (riprht), ii'Vir Dorsey's, the Maryland House of Correction. 
A fine view is had (on the riirht) of ' the deep valley of the Pata])sco river 
from the famous Washington via,duct. The train stoiis at tlie Belay deiiot, 
a line station and hotel, and thence follows the course of Boberts' Bun, 
passin.Lr the old Winan's estate, ami the first American tele<rra]>li, con- 
structed in 1881 by national ap])ro])riation. Crossing Gwynn's Falls by the 
Carrollton viaduct, the train enters Camden Station, Baltimore. Thenco 
the Philadelphia and New "k'ork train crosses the bay by t,he lar^'-e transfer 
steamer Canton, thus affording a pleasant view of tlie city and harbour. 



V 



THE 



CHICAGO, BURLINGTON, AND 
QUINCY RAILWAY LINE. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 

P.tivciPAT, c.i-itorn torrnimi^ of tli3 extensive " linrlington ronte " railway 
ssy.stoin, '■ ic'i c msists of several railroads either owned, leased or operated 
l)V' the ( "iiica'jr.), liurlin-^'^on and Quincy Railroad Comi)any. In the matters 
v»f facilities for a!l kinds of tratlic, mileage, sn])3ri()r eciuipment, excellent 
ro id hj is, sni ).)th tracks, raachanical devices for comfort and safety, and 
« )und financial mana'^ement, the linrlintj^ton route maybe mentioned as 
one of th ) best illustrations of tho vast and elaborate scale on which success- 
ful railr.)ads aro c^nductod in America. It includes 5,<)()0 continuous miles 
•of stcjl track in its systom, and from east to west it not only extends for 
l,<)i)i) miles in an unbroken lin3 from Chicago direct to Denver, but has two 
main lines to tho latter point from Chicago, one cid Kansas City, the other 
via Pacific Junction. It has as well, numerous important through lines, 
running in a n )rthern and southern directi(m from both its eastern and 
^vostern terminals. Its main lines and many branches traverse the six 
.^reat spates or" Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado, and 
T3 ich all their important cities and towns. All trains at Chicago of tho 
Barlintrton route arrive at and depart from the Union Passenger Stati(m, 
■o'l Canal Street, between Adams and Madison Streets, except Dubuque, 
•Sicmx ("ity, and St. Paul trains, which leave from central depot, foot of 
Lake Street. Trains make connection in Union Passenger Station with 
ithrough trains fr.mi New York and all points in the Kastern States. 
Through trains, elegantly equipped with Pullman palace and buffet sleeping 
c:ivs, reclining chair cars, dining cars, and luxurious passenger coaches, leave 
<.Uiicago (;/(( the Burlington route for Denver {cid either Kansas City or Pacific 
Junction), Des Moines, Council Blufts, Omalia, St. Josef)h, Atchistm, Kansas 
<Uty, Ce lar Rai)ids, St. Paul, Dubuciuo and Sioux <'it3'. Owing to its 
vr30grciphical j) osition, passing as it does for so great a distance dii'ectly 
througli the "heart of the cimtinent." the Burlingtfui route is the 
^jrinciijal line between the East and San Francisco, Portland, and the City 
of Mexico. 

PEORIA, ILLINOIS. 

One of the eastern termini of the Burlington route. Trains having 
through reclining chair cars, connecting with trains having through Pull- 
m.m sle3])ing cars, and dining cars run from Peoria via this route to 
Kansas City by the way of Quincy. Trains connecting direct with 
thr«)ugh main line trains, having dining and sleeping cars, are also run 
from Peoria t^ Burlington, Council Bluffs, Omaha, and Denver. In 
uddition, trains are run from this point direct to St. Louis. All trains of 
ifche BurUngt)n route from Pecn-ia connect with through trains from Cin- 
cinnati, Iudianai)olis, Louisville, and jMiints east and south east, thus 
forming a through traffic line beiwoon such points and the west. 

ST. LOUIS, MISSOUKIi 

An eastern and 8(nithern terminus of the Burlington route, over which 
thi'ough Pullman sleeping cars are run over two distinct lines, (me to Rock 
Island, conn acting with trains for Milwaukee and points in the North- 
Western States, and tho other to Burlington, Cedar Ra])ids, Minneai)olis, 
jiud St. Paul, connecting at the latter jwint with trains to St. Vincent, 
AVinnii)og, and all points in the extreme North-Western States and 
fc^rrito.'ies. The^e Bui'lingfcon route trains also connect with the through 
trains oa its mi'u line to the West, on which are run through Pullman 



V. 






HINGUH3JN. 



T A< 



PoicTF 

I ■■./« 



XittleJkTLifol, , 



r^ 



«»4a' 



laX' 



Columhid 



^Jr^rXr: 






OK 












HELKNA 



SAL^ 



I 



.N°">:7 



Uruntingtou 



■'■ Fort : 



inonx 



o\^a G N 



£:.. .u9« CITY w? *• niFi^°"''5°i?r/ - ^r?" ' , .i*>^' -«$«''i 



ShosTioti 



Si7i;cr CityX 






Delta 



^2.^.3>^. 



WM 'm 1 N G ' 



tH 



.UNION y^ 



cC.'^ 



Tetania V 



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'/ 



; 



'lUaij, 






;cno ^.H" 4^ -^ I 
cyVirginia City 



€ 



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XNCJ 



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Wfi, 



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kj.sALT LAKE ci/rv J'»ri i^mnr^. 

^■' V-Pr„,Aritv>^ North ParhT-yT^ 
^ i^Xp e.»SSriil Middle Pc^ 

Green RiverT*««,5j^0UNv/ "^ ^wi 

\1 JPio^e I ^""^"-"O Ouray ' CwcAolP 

% \v '\ j I Antelope Spring 

[\ \V^ IBuTlionvillH 

\ 

f^JieclvK 



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[Colton 



5*A R I Z N A 1 



^^ jfATbuViuergue | 
^V. &T. Juuctioiii 

if > I _^ 



!C<<.<W^^.^^* 



^ijver Gity 



!M E#X I C<0 



Burlinstor^ 



^Route4-m -p^ 

CHICAGO W'^M™ 

BURLINGTON &IIUINCY|% ^Mi%. fl y 

and Connecliqg linesfp 



Rincou 






Taso ael^Nbrtej 

Carmen! 
UTermoiillo 



^El Paso 
3^' 



N',\*^^* 



IK\ 



/ 



FAC. 



fi"J)ISMAKCIL . 'y^^'^J^X^'- 









^ \r;\*/ . A y Slnnnner ' 

Al-ti'if. PAUL 1 \.\MKrriU : p.*;:-: 



^ \ 1 \ WJ.8_C Q H'S\l N 




(> 
I 




tX- 









3UR1 
lumeacna. 



lint Cy, 



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/# g [ 

nula}, .i'jKl -Las Vdg 

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,E1 Paso 



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NV. 


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i 



15RAI)SHAW S UNITKD STATLS. 



21 



l)uffet and palace sleeping cars, uiiiing cars and elos.mt pas?oii<?cr com 
to Council Bluffs, Omaha and Denver. Trains over thost> linos t,) St. L 



coaches 
Louis 
connect in Union doi)ot with all through trains to New Orleans and 
l)rincipal points in the South. 

ST. JOSEPH, MISSOURI. 

One of the main lines of the Bur'.inrrton route, runninu: between Chicatro 
or Peoria and Kansas City, riu Quiney, and over which a service of throu,urh 
recliniui? chair cars, dinii'i'^ cars, and' Pullman palace sleepin,' cars is maui- 
tained on two dailv trains each way. It can also be reached from Chicaj^o, 
via the City of Cluiriton, In Imna, and the main line of the Burlinirlon routo 
in I(nva, sleepini^- cars beiu'.^ available for the entir,; distance ri<i this second 
line. It is also located on the short lino of the Burlim,nnn route from 
Kansas City to Des Moines, Iowa, l)etwee!i which ijoints throui,'h sle^pin^ 
C:irs are run. In addition, it is on still another liiu' of tin* same route, 
runnimj through trayis ami sleeping cars to Omaha and Coiuicil liluiYs. 

ATCHISON, KANSAS. 

A "Western terminus of one of the lines from Chicag) of the Burlington 
route, and over which throuu-h Pullman palace sleei)ers are run. Also one 
of the junction ])oints of the s-.une route, where connection is made with 
through trains to Mexico, all points in the South-Westeru States and terri- 
tories, and the so-called " Southern routes" to Californiii. In addition, it 
is one of the Eastern termini of several important lines of the Burlington 
route, running to the principal i)oints in the State of Nebraska, and to 
Denver, Colorado. Sleeping cars are also run over this route by an 
Hdlitional line to Omaha and Council Bhitfs. ^ 

KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI. 

To and from this point the lines of the Burlington route diverge in 
a northern, eastern and western directi(m and extend to a largo nmnber 
of the principal cities of the West. It is reached from Chicago i»« one of 
the lines of this route, over which two daily trains are run each way, 
elegantly erpiipped with Pullman i)alace sleeping cars, dining cars, reclin- 
ing chair cars, and luxurious jjassenger coaches. This particidar " Chicago 
and Kansas City Line " of the Burlington route forms an important i)art 
of the direct railroad lines to the City of Mexico and to Southern Cali- 
fornia points. It also forms a part of one of the two lines of the Bur- 
lington route between Chicago and Denver. The Western division of this 
Chicago and Denver lino begins at Kansas City, and through trains with 
sleeping cars are run from that point to Denver, Through trains and 
sleening cars are also run over the Burlington route from Kansas City to 
Des Moines, Iowa, where counectitm is made with trains for points 
in the North-West; from K.uisas City to Council BlutTs and Omaha, and 
from Kansas City to Minnoa]iolis and St. Paul. All Burlington route trains 
connect in union depot at Kansas City, with the principal lines for the 
South and South-West. 

PACIFIC JUNCTION, IOWA. 

A railway junction point in the State of Iowa, near the^Iissouri River, 
at which the main line, extending from Chicago to Denver, of the Burling- 
ton route crosses another line of the same route extending from Kansas 
City to Council BlutTs ; also the point rid which trains of this route are run 
between Omaha anrl Kansas City. 

COUNCIL BLUFFS, IOWA. 

Reached from Chicago ])y through trains over the main line in Illinois 
and Iowa, of the Burlington route. Trains cquip])ed with through Pullman 
buffet and palace sleeping cars and elegant i)assonger coaches. A railroad 
jimction point from which oyerland exi)ress trains are run to Portland, San 
Francisco and points in the extreme North-Western States and territories. 
Trains with unrivalled eipupment, including sleejjing cars, are also run 
over the Burlington route from this point to St. Joseph, Atchison niul 
Kansas City, coimectiug at cither tf the two latter cities with tr.iins for 



22 



r.RADSIIAW S UNITED STATES. 



the City of Mexico and points in the Great Soiith-Wcstorn States and terri- 
tories. ' On the opposite side of the Missouri River, from C'ouuoil Bluffs, is 
Omaha, the two cities beint? connected )).y a brids^o. From Omaha, the 
Burlinytcm route runs throuf^h trains, haviuf? sleeping cars attached, direct 
to Denver, connectinj:? at tlie hitter point, with trains for Salt Lake City, 
Ogden and San Francisco. 

OMAHA, NEBRASKA. 

Reached via the Burlington route from Chicago on through exjiress 
U'.iins having dining cars anrl Pullman palace sleepers attached. In 
addition, through trains witli sleeping cars are run from this point over 
the same route, south to Kansas (^'ity, and west to Denver, connecting 
at the latter point with trains for the far AVest and Pacific coast points. 
Also trains over its own lines to all the ])rincipal cities, towns, and laud 
points in the State of Nebraska, and in Noi'thern Kansas. 

DENVER, COLORADO. 

The extreme western terminus of the Burlington route, reached from 
Chicago by either of two lines of that route ; one of these, I'id Pacific 
.Junction, traverses the great States of Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, and Colorado 
in an unbroken line of i,(MM) miles of smooth track, steel rails and pei'fect 
road beds, over which elegantly-equi])ped trains, with through Pullman 
palace sleeping cars are run for the entire distance between Chicago and 
Denver. The other line from Chicago, via this same route, is by the way of 
Kansas City, and passes through portions of the States of Illinois, Missouri, 
Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado, with through trains e(iually welleriuipped, 
and running over erpilrily smooth tiacks and jierfect road l)eds, as well as 
being provided with the same appliances (such as interlocking switches at 
important points, &c.) for the comfort and safety of passengers as is main- 
tained on the line first menticmed. Reclining chair cars and Pullman 
sleepers are run over this line cid Kansas City, the latter being maintained 
for the entire distance to Denver, and dining cars are run on both lines. At 
Denver these trains connect in Union Depot with through trains for Salt 
Lake City, San Francisco, and all points in California, iiassing en route the 
most magnificent mountain scenery of the American Continent; also with 
trains for the famous health and pleasure resorts of Colorado. On account 
of the great length of these through lines, as -well as the Union Depot con- 
nections at both its Eastern and Western Termini, the Burlington Route, 
has become the great through line between the East and West, and the 
principal line to Denver and San Francisco. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 

Reached cid the Burlington route, over whose lines elegantly-eriuipped 
express trains, with through Pullman sleei)ers, are run as follows": — Over its 
own track from Chioigo direct to Denver, either via Pacific Junction or 
Kansas City ; from Chicago direct to Council Bluffs ; or from Chicago direct 
to Kansas City. 

PORTLAND, OREGON. 

Reached by the Burlington route, over whose lines elegantly-equipped 
ti'ains, having Pnllman buffet and i)alace sleeping cars, are run from 
Chicago to Council Bluffs ; or trains having through Pullman sleeping ears 
from Chicago to St. Paul. 

CITY OF MEXICO, MEXICO. 

Reached by the Burlington route, over whose lines through trains, having 
reclining chair cars, Pullman palace sleeping cars, dining cars and luxurious 
passenger coaches are run from Chicago to Kansas City or Atchison. 

ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA. 

Through Pullman palace sleeping cai's are run to this point over the 
Burlington route from Chicago. From St, Paul through Pullman sleepers 
are run to St. Louis, and to Kansas City, via Council Bluffs, over the 
Burlington route. 



>-^ 



THE SANTA FE ROUTE. 



THE GREAT MIDDLE ROUTE TO CALIFORNIA. 



3t 



THE ATCHISON, TOPEKA AND SANTA FE RAILWAY, 

Tilt Albuqueuql'E and Mojave, 

Now well known to transcontinental travel, traverses almost entirely a 
re.ti^ion whose climate is but a modification of i)eri)etnal summer. There arc 
no snowbound trains, lons^ delays or disagreeable and perilous winter un- 
certainties. Storms, either of winter or summer, are almost unknown. 
Even on the gradual ascent of the western plains the traveller is already in 
a celebrated health-resort. Amid the unsurpassed sccnerj' of New Mexico, 
Colorado, Arizona, and Southern California, cold, ordinarily considered, is 
unknown. 

Traversinsx some of the most strikinc? wonders and remarkable scenes of 
nature, this route lies also amid the (piaint surroundinj^s of that older 
civilization to which the majority of travellers are as yet strangers. Adobe 
towns, Puel)lo villages, <iueer customs and costumes, and the oldest and 
happiest civilization of America appear immediately beyond that miracle 
of modern progress, Middle and Western Kansas, where ten years of 
o 3cuj)ancy have produced all the results of a century in any other land. There 
are the scenes that seem to have been set by nature at most untimely hours 
and immediately after the I'esultof some Titanic election had been declared ; 
Manitou, the Garden (^f the Goils, Chej^enne Canyon. There is Las Vegas 
Hot Springs, with its colossal hotel and uneiualled pleasure grounds ami 
baths ; Santa Ft', El Paso, Los Angeles, and all that lies between these 
points through the gardens and vineyai'ds of Southern California up to San 
Francisco, or by way of San Francisco to Honolulu, Sidney or Auckland, 
India, China or Japan. 

The Santa Fe route is especially adapted to the business it advertises, 
and in every case fulfills its promises. Its facilities for through Californiti 
business have lately been largely increased. Leaving out all cimsiderations 
of pleasure, and passing ^)y all the delightful rests and stopping places 
made bj' nature and improved by man, there is no rout, by which the 
traveller can reach the principal points of the Pacifi'- <'';ast more 
cpiickly or surely. There is no transcontinental lino having a road-bed in 
all res))ects equalling this. "Winter or summer there ai'C no delays. It uses 
every inaprovement known to modern advancement. By mere accident it 
lacks precisely nineteen miles of being the shortest of all routes between 
the Missoiiri River and S.iu Francisco, and is practically able to discount 
the time-table of any other I'oute by t-everal hours. Its "desert," imme- 
diately east of Mojave, is the narrowest and cleanest of all those howling 
wildernesses which, by a peculiar dispensation of Providence, every trans- 
continental line must cross. Asa scene of impressive desolation, studded 
with gigantic cacti and floored with conci'ete and vast expanses of black 
and jagged lava, walled b3- blue movintains and glowing with yellow light, 
this "desert," traversed at a speed of forty miles an hour, is one of 
the most impressive scenes of a remarkable journey. 



24 



TU^VDSHAW S UN'ITKD .STATUS. 



P'or the lm-*'nc-!>< mm who is in i\ Imrry, tho invalid who is in search of 
hoilth, or the tourist wiio tnivcl.s for ])lo i.sure, thj (tre it Middle Route to 
the l*a(!ific5 Cojist; his no e |U;il in smoothness of trd-'k, oleLfiince of 
e(|ui|)rnent, diversity of scenery and interest, re.ijuhirity of timo and 
certainty of connections. 

NEWTON. ^ 

Tho contro of the ntrricultural district of Kiusis. From here branch 
numerous lijies southward, on which are many Eni^Iish settlers, prosjjenntf 
f^'reatly. The A. 'i\ A; S. F. Riilway Hotel at tin station is i)articularly K"<>dt 
and Mr. Irwin, its man ttj^jr, a th(n''ou<,'h sportsm.m. This i.s a K^cat centro 
for prairie <^rouse or chiokeus. 

DODaS CITY. 

Those it of tho vast cattle trade of Kansas and tho In lian territory ; 
countless thousunds of auim lis are driven here, als ) from Texas, for sale 
and shi])mcnt t) Kansiis City and Cliicairo, by tin Atchison, To])eka and 
Santa Fe rail I'outv). Dod^e is interestinj^ tj st )!> at, but the t(jwn, though 
hirge, affords no reallj' comfortable hotel. 

LAS VEGAS HOT SPRINGS. 

Here is docidedly the i)lace t) brcik the journey on the middle route 
(Atchison, To])3ka and Santa Fc) to San Francisco, Los Anijoles, San 
I)ie;?o, or the CiLy of Mexico. For ye irs be /"ore tho fame of Las Vegas Hot. 
Springs reiched tho ears of modern science, the nativ'C Indian resorted to 
thotn whenever his hardy C(mstitution feU, "out of sorts." Tho distance 
and time tjken to run hero from Chicago will be f(mnd in the route table, 
and show that this health resort is about half way from Chicago or St. Louis, 
to tho centres of interest on the Pacific Coast. 

"•"•as Vegas Hot Springs, though in hititude 35' 40", arc ple.isant 
all turough summor ; their altitude being G,7i)'.) feet. Being nestlctl among" 
the fo't hills of the Rockies, and at the entrance of the Gnllinas Canon, 
they also arc sheltered from all violent northerlj' storms in winter. 

The Montezuma -a magnificent hotel here -has been recently burned, 
hnt The Sfo He JIoKsc off evii capital accommodation ; its limited size, how- 
ever, renders it desii-able to write ahead to tho manager for rooms. No 
great disappointment, however, can ever occur, because in the town of 
Las Vegas, only six miles off by rail, there is am])le hotel accommodation — 
not, however, of so excellent a character as that afforded by The Sfoup 
House, The climate at the Springs is dry, and there is a great excess of 
clear over clouded days. The Springs are forty in number, varying from 
75 degrees to 140 degrees Fahr. No. Si)ring furnishes, alone, 3»),000 gallons 
of v'ater to the bathhouse daily. All these remarkable Springs have been 
walled in and covered, and being on the hillside they deliver their supplies 
through pipes into the handsome bathhouse at the foot of the glen. 

The skin after a bath in these wators has a soft, velvety feeling, and n 
most pleasant freshness. The resident physicians are men of great ex- 
perience, and have found the diseases cured, or benefited l)y these waters 
are rheum itisra, gout, skin diseases, mental exhaustion, and dysnepsia, but 
persons suffering in other ways have derived very great relief here. There 
are two bathhouses, one for water, and the other for mhd l)aths. There 
are eight different sorts of baths given, varying in price from 2s. upwards. 
Tho mud here appears under the microscope gelatinous, its earthy 
])roperties having undergone a complete eluxn2"e from the percolation 
through It for centuries of hot chemical water. The mud baths are given 
in a very peculiar manner, viz., in ordinary tubs, and have become moso 
])opular. It may in conclusion bo said that the progress of pulmonary 
dise vse has been almost absolutely arrested a,t Las Vegvvs Hot Springs. 
Hotel rates rango from 12s. to IGs. per day. 



RHADSIIAW S UNITFCD STATKS. 



25 



Some Southern Californian health resorts reached 
by the Great Middle Route:— 



)f 

IS 

in 

p 

in 

[s 
It 



LOS ANGELES, SANTA MONICA, SAN 
GABRIEL, PASSADENA, &c. 

Los An'^clos, tho c.iiiitfil (if Soiithenx ('Mlifoniiii, lit-* iriviitly iiioroiisod 
in sizj au'l wo.ilth iliiriuij the last few yours, duriuLr whicli tlio Atliiiitic! 
nnd Pacific and other extensions of the Atcliis )ii, Topcka and Santa Ft* 
Railroad Invo reached it, irreatly shortening? its distinr-c from the Atlantic 
and Mid-We-*tern cities. It now numbers ."{o, ()(»!> inhaUitants, and is tin; 
centre of tourist and business travel in Southern Californi i. All manner of 
lileasjint cxcMirsions may bo made comfortably form her.'. It is only an 
hour's run by rail to Santa Monic i, tho favourite s^M-batlunir resort of the 
Los ATinfclans. Another ])retty line of local rail, the " Los Antreles and San 
Gabriel Valley," runs in less than an hour thronjrh I'assaleni, whore, for 
mile after mile stretcdies before the eyeoran<;e and lemon y'''"ves, vineyards, 
and orchards. This line terminates at the Sierra Madre Villa, a first-class 
hotel, most picturesijuely situated in its own grounds, at the foot of the 
mountains. Mountain and sei air combines to form a i)erft'ct atmosjdienj 
hci*e, and only the want of railway comnnmicatiou has hitluM-to ki'pt this 
cliarminf? hotel and its oran,<»e fifroves from ])ecomini; famous. From its 
observatory may be seen the whole length of the San (Jabriel Valley in 
perpetual sunli^jrht. Whilst behind rise the (Jrand Siena Madre Mountains 
offerinof close at hand to peri)etual sunshine all the AIi)ine experience 
that ma.y be soufjht by the adventurous mountain climber. From here it is 
only a pleasant night's rail run to Sa:i Diego in a Pullman sieei)or. 

MADERA (for the Yosemite Valley). 

Madera is a station on the Southern Pacific Railway. 'I'hnaigh Pullmans 
from Kansas City, vid the Atchison, Tojieka and Santa Fe antl Atlintic and 
Pacific Railroads run through it. The hotel at Madoi'.i is comfortable. 
From there large stigo-ooaches stirt for the YosomitJ Valley evary day 
during the late spring an I early summer se.ison. 

SAN DIEGO (On California Soiithern Railway). 

Johnson's Enc.yclo])a'dia states, at page Sfi, that " The climate of San 
Diego is shewn by the recorded observations of the United States Signal 
Service, established there, to bo the mildest and most equable of which any 
knowledge exists." 

Whilst in New York the mean tempera tiire for January is 31, 
in San Diego it is 57. In August it is 87 degrees in New York, whereas in 
San Diego it is 72. Unlike most other of the Pacific seiisido resorts, San 
Diego has a pleasantly dry climate, the mountains behind it attracting the 
Pacific fogs and rain-clouds to them. The hotels are good, the harbour large, 
nnd affording comi)lote shelter for boating and fishing excursions. The 
Mexican >)oundary is a few miles to the south. Steamers run from San 
Diego to Santa Barbara and San Francisco. 

RIVERSIDE (California Southern Railway). 

Has one of the bopt hotels in California, and is situated amidst the 
largest fruit and vine fields of the State ; the Ijoauty of the carriage drives, 
exquisite cleanliness of the fruit cultivation, and the residences of all the 
cnltivators, lar^•e as well as small, being of such critrcme neatness, renders 
this the typical garJ.en spot of California. 



26 



nUADSHAW S UXITKD STATES. 



DESCRIPTION OF TOWNS. 



J ) 



Abenftquis Springs {Vcr,:ioiif).— 
Near Hollows Falls. 

Hotels : Fall Mountain Uotol. 

A small but ijleasant rcsf)rt for 
invalids, with hiylily tonic sprinjjs, 
poHsossinj,' medic'iiinl i)roi)erties. 
The scenery is very Ijcnutiful. The 
hotel is close to the s]»rinKf<. A j^ood 
path leads to top of Table Rock, 
whence there is an extensive view 
of Connecticut Valley. 

Reached by Connecticut River 
Railway, from New York, cut 
Springfield, in 9i hours. 

Adams {Massochusetia). — Five miles 
from Cheshire. 

Hoteh : Greylock House. 

A thrifty manufacturing town, 
with hirge weaving and spinning 
mills and other factories. The best 
point to visit, Greylock Moitufaiu, 
3,500 feet high, the highest eleva- 
tion in Massachusetts. A carriage 
road almost to the summit renders 
the ascent easy. The view is grand, 
embracing Berkshire Hills, the val- 
ley of the Hoosac and Housatonic, 
the Green Mountains, the Catskills, 
and Mounts Monadnoek, Tom, and 
Holyoke. Another and more ditii- 
cult, but more picturesijue, route to 
the Greylock is from North Adams. 

Reached by Boston and Albnnj- 
Railway, from Springfield, via Pitts- 
field, in 3 hours. 

Adirondacks, The. — In the 

northern part of New York, 
between Lakes George and Cham- 
plain and the St. Lawrence River. 
Extends Northwards to Canada 
and Southwards almost to the 
Mohawk River. 

Thirty years ago, this remarkable 
elevated plateau, composed of moun- 



tains, valleys, lakes and rivulets, 
etc., was scarcely known save to 
hunters, trappers and lumbermen. 
It extends over more than 150 miles 
in latitude and 100 in longitude. 
Its ajiproximate elevation above the 
level of the sea is 2,000 feet. Tho 
five mountain ranges traversing 
this plateau from south-east to 
north-east nin almost parallel, and 
terminate in Lake Chauiplain. Tho 
general elevation of these moun- 
tains surpasses that of any east of 
the Rocky Mountains ; tho entire 
number exceeds .'jOO, but only a very 
few have received names. The 
highest (Mount Marcy) is 5,3:J7 feet 
high, and scarcely any are below 
5,000. The scenery they present is 
wild ard savage. Their slopes are 
covered with primeval forests, and 
their bare and rocky summits with 
moss, grass and Alpine plants. 

In the valleys are many largo 
ard small lakes. Some of these are 
exceedingly lieautiful. They are 
said to exceed 1,000 in number. 
Most of them are 1 ,500 feet above 
the level of the sea, while one. Lake 
Perkins, siaads at three times 
that elevfition. The largest are 
Long Lake, Saranacs, Fulton, 
Tupper, Colden, Henderson, San- 
ford, Raquette, Newcomb and 
Pleasant Lake. The scenery is 
very grand indeed and resembles 
what the Swiss and Scottish High- 
lands might have been before they 
had been brought under their pre- 
sent cultivation. A great many 
rivers, rivulets and brooks con- 
nect them. The greatest is the 
Raquette — which, after a course of 
over 120 miles, falls into the St. 
Lawrence. 

The vegetation of this reginn con- 
sists of forests of bircti, beech, 
maple, ash, hemlock, spruce, f.r, 



Al'KNAQUIS Sl'KlXUS — AKHOX. 



bn- 



ccdiir aiul whito pino. Iiitho lower 
hiiuU the ci'diw, Jiimurack, luick- 
iniitack and lii-iiilook t'oini Hliii'i>t 
iinpeiietnibloswainp.s. Tliu Kauna 
is repro^ioiitod li.v tho i)aiilher, 
black bear, \v(/lt', wild cat, lynx and 
wolverine. Moose i^' said lu hu ex- 
tinct, l)ut deer are abundant. Tbc 
llsber, sable otter, mink, niuskrat, 
fox, hadK*^!', woodeluu'k, rabljit and 
S(liiirrel in several varieties arc still 
encountered in jfreat numbers. 
Birds arc numerous, and anion jr 
them war catrUs, liawks, owls, 
loons, d\u'ks, cranes, herons, ravens, 
crows, partritlL'Os, merit special 
mention. Salmon, speckled and 
lake trout, swarm in the lakes and 
rivers. 

Plattsburg, Ausable Clinsm, 
Elizabeth Town, I'ort Kent, West 
Port, Lake Placid, Keeseville, I'aul 
Smith's, Prospect House, Miller's 
IJartlett's, Lucerne, North Creek, 
Blue Mount Lake, Lonj? Lake Vil- 
hiKO, Shroon Lake Village, and 
Root's arc the dilYerent railway 
stations and points of departure 
for excur.sions. The fares from 
New York vary Ijctween 8 dols. and 
16 dols. to the different stations. 
For description of different excur- 
sions from above centres see each 
of them in text. 

Guides: Maj' be had at any of 
the hotels, at 2 dols. or 3 dols. 
per day; they will provide l)oatg 
and all other re(iuisites. Each 
traveller should have a s'uide to 
himself; the cost of living does 
not exceed 1 dol. per week when 
once in the woods. 

Tho most fre(iuented route by 
which the Adirondacks are entered 
is by way of Plattsburg. Other 
favourite routes arc vid Port Kent, 
West Port and Elizabeth Town, 
Shroon, Long and Rarpiette Lakes, 
etc., though all are of equal variety 
and interest. 



Adrian (JficAi^aH).— Near Toledo; 
population (1870), 8,500. 

Hoteh: Toledo, City, 

The largest city in southern Michi- 
gan, in a rich agricultural country. 
Well built and with prosperous 
manufactories. There is here a 
monument to the soldiers who fell 
in the Civil War; Central Union 



St'hool liuililings is one of the ftnes^ 
in the West. 

Hi'iicliL'd by Michiirim Southern 
Railway, from ("liia^'o, in «> hours. 

Aiken (CaroUtKi, Soitth), —On tho 
I'ro.iticr of South Carolina and 
(Jeoriria; poiJulation (1sm»), l.soo. 

JMrln: Highland Park, Aiken, 
Clarendon. 

Built upon a table-land about fUM) 
or 700 feet above tho level of the 
sea, this is one of the most famous 
and most fronuontod winter resorts 
in America. Tho vegetation is 
scanty, and consists of but little 
grass and very few minor i)lants ; 
the southern or stone i)inc, how- 
ever, finds a good soil here, and vast 
forests of it encircle the town on 
all sides. The main ifvcnue is 205 
feet in width, and the others 150 feet. 
The houses are large and ])lea8ant, 
very far apart from each other, and 
surrounded by gardens with largo 
trees and rare southern plants, 
kept uj) at great cost owing to tho 
barrenness of the soil. This luxu- 
rious vegetation of jasmine, rose 
bushes, orange, wild olive, lig trees, 
Ijamboo, Spanish bayonet, and 
numberless vines and crcei)ers, 
oiler a strange contrast to the bare 
streets, composed of sand as whito 
and dry as on the seashore, 
The air is remarkably drj^ and 
pure, and the ]iines contribute 
largely to its health-giving ixjwers. 
The winter is, so to sjjoak, like 
*' four months of Juno " in mildness 
and geniality. Mean temperature 
03. H (leg. Eahr. in the year, and 
40.4 deg. in the three winter months. 
Average rainfall, 7.10 inches in 
the three winter months, and 40. 30 
inches for the year. Much visited 
by rheumatic and gouty patients, 
as also by invalids suffering from 
consumption. 

Reached by South Carolina Rail, 
waj', from Charleston, in 4^ hours. 

Akron (Ohio). — Near Cleveland; 
population (1880), 17,000. 

Hotels : Sumner House, Empire 
Hotel. 

Built in a rich agricultural 
country, it is situated about 400 feet 
above the level of the sea, at the in- 
tersection of the Pennsylvania and 
Ohio and Ohio and Erie Canals. 



23 



BRADSHAW S l;:^:ITKD STATES. 



]t po3sor-ise.-; numerous mills, fac- 
t-)ries, etc., driven hy the waters 
of the canals aud of the Little Cuya- 
ho;^a Hiver. F'lour and woollen 
^oods are exported. In the vicinity 
there are large bads of mineral fire- 
proof paint. 

Reached hy New York, Lake Eric 
an I Western Railway, from Cin- 
cinnati, in lU hours. 

Alatoona (Georgia).— SmuW villaro, 
•11- miles from Dalton. 
llutth : The Alato:)ua House, 

General Johnson, retreating from 
Resaca, took up his jjositiou here, 
which was considered impreg- 
nahle. He was for ed back, how- 
ever, by the Confedrates to Chat- 
tahoochee and Atlanta. 

Reached by Kasi Tennessee, Vir- 
p; nia a id Georj^ia Flailway, from 
Cievela.Kl, in U hours. 

Albany {'^cw Yor'k).—\ Railway 
cciitre on the H idson; population 
nearly 100,(M)0. Capital of New York 
S'ate. 

ILtteh : Delavan House, Stauwix 
Hall, American, Dunlop, Globe, 
BiMinswick, Mansion and Konmore ; 
prices from 2^^ dols. to 4 dols. per day. 

Rpiiding liooms in State Library, 
New Capitol, and at Young Men's 
Christian Association in Pearl-street 
a'^d North Pearl-street, Tramways 
intersect the city. It has three iror 
bridges, eight daily newspapers, 
and a good number of weeklies and 
iTKmthlies, 

Albany was founded by the Dutch 
in 16U, and next to Jamestown, 
Virginia w as the earliest European 
settlement in the original 13 states. 
The present name dates from 160J., 
in honour of the Duke of York and 
Albany (James II.). It was chartered 
in 1686, and made the capital in 1798. 
It is a large commercial centre at 
the head of the navigaticm of the 
Hudson, the great Erie Canal and 
Champlain Canal, and n station for 
several important railways. 

Broadway is the main business 
street near' the river. State-street, 
bA a steep ascent from Broad- 
way, leads into Capitol-sfpiare, in 
which are the public buildings. 
The iVf«' Capitol, begun in 1871, is 
now finished, and almost entirely 
occupied. It is built of Maine granite 



in Renaissance style, and will be, 
when completed, the most splendid 
and largest building in ATuerica, 
with the exception of the Wash- 
ington Capitol. On the highest 
point of the city it is 320 feet 
high, and is 3<H) feet by 400 
feet stjuare ; the porticoes cover 
over more than three acres, and the 
walls are KKS feet high. The " Staffs 
Lihniri/ " in the Capitol has over 
150,(HhI volumes, together with 
collections of curiosities and his- 
torical relics, Sfate Hall, in Eagle- 
street, is of white marble. Citi/ 
Hall is in Eagle-street and Wash- 
ington Avenue. Tke City liuihl- 
inijg. State Ariieual, Gooeniment 
liiiildinf/ii, Yunng Men^» A^xociatioti, 
State Geoloffiral aud Agricultural 
Hall, Mtdical Collige. There are 
above 50 churches, of which only 
the Cathedral of the Immaculate Coii' 
cption (Eagle-street) and St Jo»iph 
(Tenbrook-street) are noteworthy. 
The stained-glass windows in the 
Cathedral are amongst the richest in 
America, St. Peter's, Second Re- 
formed, and First Pi'esbyterian, are 
handsome new churches. The j. hidley 
Obxercafori/, on the Observatory-hill, 
north of the town, was founded and 
endoweu by Mrs. Blandina Dudley. 
The Penitentian/, one mile west of 
the city, is a model prison, and con- 
ducted on the contract system. 
The hospitals and charities are nu- 
merous and noteworthy, and the 
e lucational institutions are very 
efficient. The !'</« lif^nnelacr Manor 
House and Schui/ler Houne are build- 
ings of the earlier period of the city 
and interesting, Washington Park 
is handsomely laid out and is the 
fashionable rendezvous. On the 
ojiposite side of the river are the 
p ipulous suburbs of G r jenbush.East 
Albany, and Bath on the Hudson, 

Reached 1)y New York, Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, in 8 hours, or by steamer 
from New York in 13 hours. 

Albion (Xew York). — A small but 
attractive village on the road from 
Rochester to Niagara Falls, Capital 
of Orleans County, 

The Court House, Gaol, and Sol- 
diers' Monument, are objects of 
interest. 

Reached bj' New York, Centra 1 
and Hrdson River Railway, from 
New York, in 13^ hours. 



ALATOONA — ALTON, 



2ri 



nu- 
the 



m. 
itral 
from 
Imer 

but 

Jroin 

)ital 

ISol- 
of 

Itrnl 
L'om 



I 



Alexandria (Virgiuia).— On the 
south side ot the River Potomac, 
and Steven miles below Washiti^ton. 
Hote'if: Pot)mac, City, Lee. 

Ikiih in 1718, it is a fpiaint old 
town. The pew (No. 59) in which 
Wa-<hington sat in Christchurch, 
and No. 16 in same church occupiefl 
by General R. K. Leo, Museum 
Court House, Odd Fellows' Hall, 
Theolo^'ical Seminary, and National ; 
Cemetery, outside the town, are I 
obiects ot interest. I 

Reached by rail and ferry l)oat8 i 
from Washington every hour. j 

Alexandria Bay {New York).— On \ 
the St. Lawrence, faciu-j the 
Thousand Islands. 

llittrh: Thoasand Islands and 
Crossmon. 

This, a small villajre on the New 
York sViore o<"" the St. Lawrence, is 
the chief summer resort in the 
nei;,'hbourhood of the Thousand 
Islands. On the islets near the 
bay are numerous villas, one of 
them owned by Mr. Pullman, 
the palace car owner. Excellent 
boatintf and fishinar. Wild fowl is 
very abundant. Close by are the 
Theresa Lakes. 

Frequent steamers between Cape 
Vincent and Clayton. 

Reached from New York, by 
New York Central and Ulica Bhick 
River Railway, in 14 hours. 

Allejrhany City {Pe)n>»ylainui).~ 
On the west shore of the •* llejjrhany 
River, opposite Pittsburg; popu- 
lation (1880), 78,7110. 

Jlofcis: Central, Alleghany House. 

A great manufacturing centre, 
many of the Pittsburg manu- 
facturers have their costly resi- 
dences here. The City Hall, Alle- 
ghany Library, St. Peter's Church, 
with' })as-relief over entrance, the 
Western Penitentiary, the Semin- 
aries, Western University, Observa- 
tory, Park, with Humboldt Mon\i- 
mcnt, are objects of interest. The 
Soldiers' Monument, erected to 
those who feU in the Civil War, 
is a graceful column, with variously 
armed soldiers at the base. The 
Hampton Battery Monument is 
also worth seeing, and the view 



is very fine ; conno 'tol with Pittt--.- 
burg by several l)ri(lges. 

Reached by the Pennsylvania 
Railway,from Blairsvil'.e, iii ij hours. 

Alleghany Springs 'J'irr/iiiiu).— 
In the Alleghany ilountains, and 
near Staunton. 

Jloteh : Springs House. 

Built upon undulating ground, 
the scenery is vjry wild and 
l^icturesque, and t'.ie" village con- 
sists only of the hotel and a few 
cottages. Close by is the Puncheon 
run Falls and Fisher's View. '1 he 
waters are alkali-saline, and useful 
in dyspepsia, biliary secretions, 
costivencss, scrofula, jaundice, and 
incipient consiunption. 

Reached by Norfolk and Western 
Railway, from AUegliany, three 
miles diligence. 

Allentown {Pen>i.\i/Inni!<i). — Near 
Ea.ston, and botuetn Jordan Creek 
and Lehigh Paver ; population 
(1880), 18,()(M). 

Jfofeig : City, Lelaud, Commercial. 

A regularly and w^U built town, 
with tramways on thj principal 
streets. Stands (>u an eminence. 
A thriving jdacc, with County Couit 
House and County Prison, ami 
several schools, all of which are 
attractiv^e and noteworthy. Muli- 
lunberg College and Mammoth 
Rock, with tine views, as also 
se\ eral mineral si)rings, are a little 
outside the town. 

Reached by Central Railway of 
New Jersey and LehiLrh Valley Rail- 
way, in 2k hours, from New York. 

Alton (////»ojx). — Overlooking the 
Mi8sissii)pi ; i)opulation (188()),9,( tiO. 

Iluteh : Depot, Brent. 

Built upon a high limestone hill, 
this is a prosperous centre of a rich 
farming country, for which its river 
navigation and three railway ter- 
mini adapt it wonderfully. Several 
manufactures and lime and building 
st(me are exported, beat of a bishoj)- 
ric, the Jiotnan Catfialic Ciithednil is 
very large. The fonuer ftate Pevt- 
tenfiari/ and ShurtleJ^' (ulh genre ah > 
objects of interest. Three milen 
below Alton is the c( ntluence of 
Missouri and Mii-sissij.pi. 

Reached from Chicago, by Chicago 
and Alton Railway, in 10^ hours. 



30 



BKADSIIAW S UXITKD STATES. 



Alton Bay {New ILtiupshirc). — The 
most southern point of Lake 
Winnepessiukee. 

Jlotch : Winnepesaukee House. 

Built at the head of a narrow 
estuar^', resemblinjf? more a river 
than a lake ; it is a centre for excur- 
sions on the beautiful lake. In the 
vicinitj'are Sheep Mountain, Pronjtecf 
mil. Mount Major. Lon^^ee Pond 
and Merry Meeting Lake are all ol)- 
jects worth a visit. Mount Belknap 
affords a verj- fine view of the 
country. 

Reached Ijy Boston and Maine 
Railway, from Boston, in 41 hours. 

Altoona (Pennsylcaniu). — At foot of 
Alleghanies, and at head of Tucka- 
hoe Valley; population (I88()),20,0(K). 

Hotels: Logan, Brant's, St. 
Charles. 

A handsome town, built since 
1850. The machine shops of the 
Pennsylvania Railway are here, and 
have materially assisted the rapid 
growth of the town. All trains stop 
here for refreshments, and travel- 
lers arriving at night stop so as to 
cross the Alleghanies l)y daylight. 
For the next 11 miles after Altoona 
some of the finest scenery and 
greatest engineering feats on the 
whole Penns3'lvania Railway may 
])e seen. Going west left side of car, 
and going east right hand side 
should be selected in order to have 
a good view. Near the summit is a 
tunnel of 3,612 feet long. Cresson 
Springs are 2\ miles beyond this 
tunnel, 3,000 feet above the sea. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from Philadelphia, in 11 
hours. 



Amlierst {Massachusetts). — 95 miles 
from New ^ondon; population 
(1880), 4,000. 

Hotels : Amherst Hotel. 

A charming, irregularly - built 
town, noted for its college, pic- 
turesque surroundings, and highly 
cultured society. Situated on a hill, 
it commands an extensive view. 
Grace Church and First Congrega- 
tional Church are worthy of atten- 
tion. The ColUge, iowwAQA in 1821, is 
one of the first in America as regards 
educational resonrces. The view 



from it is very fine. The collections 
in zoology, l)oLany, geolog^', Ac, are 
among tlie richest, and are all open 
to visitors. The Shepard Cabinet of 
minerals is said to Ije only sur- 
lias.sed by those of the British Mu- 
seum and Imperial Cabinet in 
Vienna. The collection of an- 
cient impressions in stone of ante- 
diluvian animals is without a rival. 
The Memorial Chapel, Wulkt-r and 
Williston Halls, are worth inspec- 
tion. The Massachusetts A.gricul- 
tural College, with the DurfeeFlant 
House, was founded in 1860, and is 
the most successful agricultural 
school in the country. 

Reached by Central Vermont and 
New London Northern Railway, 
from Brattleljoro, in 10 hours. 

Amsterdam {New I'>rAr). — Popu- 
lation (1880), 11,700. 

Hotels: City, Central, Brunswick, 
Commercial, and German. 

Situated on the Mohawk River 
with the Erie Canal opposite. A 
manufacturing town with Opera 
House, Union Hall, Newton and 
Sanford Halls. 

Reached by New York Central 
aiTd Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, in 6 hours. 

Anderson {Indiana). — Population 
(1880), 1,300. 870 miles from New 
York. 

Hotels : Commercial. 

On the road from New York to 
St. Louis, situated on an eminence 
on the left bank of the White River, 
in a very fertile country. Close ))y is 
a dam of 34 feet elevation, the water- 
power thus obtained being used t > 
drive numerous manufactories. 

Reached l)y Chicago, St. Louis 
and Pittsburg Railway, from Cin- 
cinnati, in 4} hours. 

Andover {Massachusetts). — Essex 
County; population (1880), 5,200. 

Hotels: Mansion House, Elm 
House. 

An old town in the manufacturing 
and agricultural interests. TownHall 
and Philipps' Academy, one of the 
oldest in the Union, founded in 1778. 

Reached by Boston i,nd Mpino 
Railway, from Boston, in \ hour. 






ALTON BAY — ASHLAND. 



31 



Irk to 

lience 

liver, 

I by is 

later- 

3d t ' 

jouis 
Cin- 



ting 
rail 
[the 
778. 
lino 



Ann -Arbor {Michigan)— Seat of 
"Wiishtenaw county ; population 
(1880), 8,0()0. 

llotch : Leonard House, St. James, 
Cook's. 

Situated on Ijoth sides of the 
Huron River, it is the seat of the 
Michigan VnicernHy. The latter 
stands in a park of 4-H acres 
planted thickly with trees. Fees, 
almost nominal, and consequently 
large numbers of booh male and 
female students arc attracted, 
T'n'rfrsift/ JIall, Ghserratory, large 
Lihrarg and Micfnim, Union School, 
and Hangstert^cr's Hall, worthy 
of notice. Five mineral springs, 
with a water cure establishment, 
in the town. Opera JFouse, and 
several fine churches. 

Reached by Michigan Central 
Railway, froni Detroit, in H hours. 

Annapolis (Mnri/laixl). — Capital, 
and Seat of Anne Arundel County ; 
population (1880), 6,5(KX 

Hotels : City, Maryland, Caroll. 

Situated on the Chesapeake Bay, 
at the mouth of the Severn. A naval 
port, with packing and canning 
fruits and fresh oyster business. 
Seat of the U. S. Ifa'cal Academg and 
Sf. John's College, Masonic Hall and 
Agscmhlji Rooms. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from Baltimore, in 1^ 
hours. 

Appalachicola(F^orit7a).— Popula- 

tio!\ (ISSO), 1,100. 

JTf'it'U : Southern. 

\i:. (''^cay until recently, it is 
b .:)<.r .ig to spring into new life 
agai I. Ti is charmingly situated at 
the enirance of the river of the same 
name. Connected with Columbus, 
Georgia, by steamers on the river. 
Close byare '(InrKeys, Somewhat 
taken up as a winter resort. 

Reached by Florida Railway, from 
Jacksonville, via Waldo, in 5 hours. 

Appleton {Wisconsin), — Seat of 
Outagamie County ; population 
i:.S80), 8,100. 

^ fat els: "Waverley, Briggs. 

Situated on the Lower Fox River, 
it is a great manufacturing and 
mercantile centre. Bertschy and 
Turner Halls are worthv of notice. 



Reached l)y Chicago, Milwaukee, 
and St. Paul Raihviiy, to Milwaukee, 
from Chicago, thence by :Mihvaukce 
and Northern Railway, in 8^ hours. 

Asheville (North Carolina).— Foim- 
lation(1880),2,Gr>0. 

Hotils : The Eagle, Swannanoa. 

Built in the lovely vnlley of the 
French Broad River, 2,250 feet above 
the sea level, it commands one of the 
finest mountiiin views in America. 
Charming natural parks surround 
the place, and within easy excui*- 
sion distance some very grand 
scenery may be enjoyed. The town 
is very hnndsomely built, and 
private residences, hotels, churches, 
schools banks, &c., adorn it. 
Several newspapers. Good hunting 
and fishing. Indian ^founds, mines 
and caves, are woithy of inspec- 
tion. The White Sulphur Springs 
and Million Springs are of interest. 
If time, make an excursion down 
French Broad River by rail. Lover's 
Leap (35 miles), and' 11'arm Springs, 
with an hotel in a beautiful 

rove of trees. Mount Pisguh and 
Mount ^ntchell will repay the 
trouble of an ascent, as also Balsam 
Range. Guides can be had at tho 
hotels. 

Reached by Western North Caro- 
lina Railway, from Salisbury, in 8 
hours. 

jLah.lB,nd{Pennsj/lrania). — Schuylkill 
County; population (1880), (i,ol4. 

Hotels : Ashland, Union, Ameri- 
can, Mansion, Loucust Mountains. 

A thriving mercantile community, 
with Opera House, Odd Fell oirs' Hall. 

Reached by Lehigh Valley Rail- 
way, from Shararokin, in 1 hour. 

Ashland {Wisconsin). — County seat 
of Ashland County; })opulation 
(1880), 1,000. 

Hotels : Chequamegon, Colby, 
Russel. 

The town is situated on Chequa- 
megon Bay, Lake Superior, and is 
rapidly increasing in extent and 
commercial im])ortance, chiefly 
manufactures and lumbering. 
Large iron ore and lumber docks 
are now ''"ing built. It is also 
resorted to as a summer resort ; 



82 



IJRADSHAW S UNITKD STATES. 



there is an Op'^ra House and Theu- 
ire C'lJitiiqiif. (.'entrc of four durer- 
cnt lines of rnihvay. 

Reached hy Wisconsin Central 
Railwiiy, ciu Abbotsford, in IG 
hours. 



Astoria (Orrjo>i).— Connty scat of 
Clatsop Count V ; poinilation (l8Si)), 
C.oOO. 

Hotels : Parker House, Occident. 

Handsomely built at the mouth of 
the ColonibiaRiver, its inha1)itauts 
iiro laincipally occupied with sal- 
mon canninj^-, lumbering, and ship- 
Ijinjjf. There arc 19 salmon 
canning? establishments, employing? 
ns many as 3,500 hands in fishing 
iind preservinsr. Has also sav 'jiilis 
daily and weekly newspapei, 
l)re\veries. Liberty Hall is woi 
of notice. 

Reached hy Oregon and California 
Railway, from Alb.iny, in U-i hours. 

Atchison {Ku m^a ») .—Cowniy seat of 
Atchison County ; populationllSSO), 
18,100. 

Hotels : The New By ram. 

Iff/ »Ari?rs; Atchison National Bank. 

Medical: Dr. Campbell, Dr. Hol- 
land. 

Built quite recent"y,i; i < beautifully 
situate'l on the rignt l)ank of the 
Missouri. It is a very important 
Railway centre, as many as 5)0 trains 
running in audout daily. Has large 
manufac airing interests in flour 
mills, machine shops, engine works, 
furniture and carriage worky, 12 
churches, several l)anks, theatres, 
l)ublic halls. A fine bridge across 
the river connects the town with the 
railways, terminating on the other 
side. Trains run daily, with I'ull- 
man car accommodation, to Pue))lo 
and Mexico. 

Roached by Atchison, Topeka, and 
Santa ¥o Railway, from Topeka, 
via Valley Falls, in 2 hours, 

Athens (O.uo).— Seat of Bolpre 
County ; i)r)pulation (1830), 5,000. 
Holds : Commercial. 
I'leasantly situated on the Hock- 
ing River, it has a consideraV)lo and 
rapidly increasing trade with the 



surrounrling country. Seat of Ohio 
Uiiiversifi/, founded 1801. Lunatic 
Asi/liiin ; in the neighbourhood are 
several Indian mounds. 

Reached by Cinchmati, Washing- 
ton, and Baltimore Railway, from 
"Washington, in 3^ hours. 

Athens {Ororgia). — County seat of 
Clarke County; popuhition (1880), 
nearly 7,CK>0. 

Hotels : Newton House. 

Built on the Oconee River, it is a 
l)usy manufacturing and commer- 
cial centre. Demfiree's Hall is 
worthy of notice. In the vicinity 
is Gainsville, with its mineral 
springs, a favourite resort. 

Reached by Georgia Railway 
from Union Point, in 2 hours. 

Athens (Pmnsi/Ivania). — Close to 
Tinvauda; popiilation (1880), 1,600. 

Hotels: Towanda, City. 

A flourishing small community, 
on the Sus(iuehanna and Chenning 
Rivers. It stands on the site of 
Diahoga, the important Indian 
village, where the massacre of 
Wyoming was perpetrated. Close 
l)y is Spanish Hill, named from the 
fact that old Spanish coins have 
been found litre. 

Reached l)y Lt^high Valley Rail- 
way, from New York, in 15 hours. 

Atlanta (G^^ov/VO.— Capital of the 
State; 721 miles from Washington. 
I'opulation (1880), about 50,000. 

Hotels : Westminster, Kimball, 
Mnrkham. 

Bankers: Gate City 
Bank. 

Medical: Dr. R)Och, 

strong. 

The most important 
town of Georgia, and 
passed by Savannah as 
centre. T1.3 agricultural, manu- 
facturing and commercial interests 
of the State are centred here. 

Its rapid growth is owing to the 
railways centring here, and the 
activity and enterprise of its in- 
habitants rejicmble those of a 
Northern rather than a Southern 
city. It is built in the form cf a 

. V 



National 
Dr. Arm- 
business 
only sur- 
a cotton 



ASTOKIA — AUnURN. 



if Ohio 
jiinutic 
od are 

isliins?- 
-. from 



seat of 
(1880), 



r, it is a 
oninicr- 
Uidl is 
vicinity 
mineral 

Railway 

fS. 



Close to 
0), 1,600. 

itnunity, 

;hennin<? 

LC site of 

Indian 

sacre of 

Close 

rom the 

ns have 

ley Eail- 

liours. 



il of the 
hington. 
000. 
Kimball, 

National 

)r. Arm- 

Hhusiness 

ily sur- 

cotton 

manu- 

liuterests 

Ire. 

Iii^ to the 
land the 
If its in- 
ic of a 
Bouthern 
Irm of a 



circle, having a diameter of about 
three miles. It is picturesquely 
situated upon hilly ground, 1,100 
feet above the sea, and the Union 
Passenger Station occupies the centre, 
whence the streets radiate. State 
House, City Hall, First Methodist 
Church, Union Station, Opera House, 
Custom House, County Courts, and 
Chamber of Commeyc, are all objects 
of interest. A Capitol is being 
l)uilt at on erpeuse of about a 
million dols., State library and 
Young Men's Library. The memo- 
rable siege of the town during the 
Civil War attaches special interest 
to Atlanta for the tourist. The vital 
importance of its possession doomed 
the Confederacj' when it was 
captured by Sherman on Sept. 2, 
1881. Shortly before surrendering it 
was reduced almost entirely to 
ashes l)y Gen. Hood. Close by is 
Gainsvilie, with mineral springs. 

Reached bj^ Georgia Railway, from 
Augusta, via Union Point, in 7^ 
hours. 



Atlantic City (yew JersM/).—Seat 
of Atlantic County ; population 
(1880), 6,000. 

Hotels: United States, Surf House, 
Congress Hall, Brighton, Seaside, 
Chalfonte. Prices at these vary 
from 2i dols. to 4 dols. Senate, 
"Waverley, Ocean, Ruscombe, Dennis 
Cottage, and Fothergill's, witli 
prices from 10 dols. to 20 dols. per 
week. 

A favourite resort of Philadel- 
phians, but all parts of the States 
arc represented during the sea- 
bathing season. It is mainly 
situated on an island. Its beach 
is safe and one of the best on the 
whole coast. Principal bathing 
hour 11 a.m. Good boating, hunt- 
ing, and fishing can be had. It is a 
fashionable resort. Bameijat, Ware- 
town, West Creel', and Tuckerton, are 
the famous hunting grounds. Bri- 
gantine Beach, a little north of the 
town, is celebrated for its numerous 
shipwrecks, and called by sailors 
the "graveyard." Long Beach is 
also near by. The place can accom- 
modate over 40,000 visitors. 

Reached by Camden and Atlantic 
Railway, from Philadelphia, in 2\ 
hours. 



Attleboro (Massachusetts) . — Bristol 
Coimty ; population (1880), 11,500. 

Hotels : Ryder House. 

Built on both banks of the Mill 
River, it is chiefly a manufacturing 
town, especially for jewellery. The 
Union Hall can accommodate 700 
])cople. 

Reached by Boston and Provi- 
dence Railway, from Boston, in 
1^ hours. 

Auburn (Kew I ort).— Capital of 
Cayuga County ; population (1880), 
22,000. 

Hotels : Gaylord House, Osborne, 
National. 

Situated 2^ miles from Owasco 
Lake, the outlet of which i)nssea 
through the town. The town is 
pleasantly laid out, almost all 
streets having rows of trees, 
Genesee street being the principal 
thoroughfare. It is interested 
chiefly in manufacturing and 
commercial pursuits, and contains 
some fine buildings. The County 
Court House, St. Peter's, St. Mary's, 
and First Presbyterian Church, 
Zoological Seminary and Auburn 
Prison are worthy an inspection, 
the latter covering over 18 acres of 
ground and being surrounded by a 
stone wall 30 feet high. W. H. 
Seward resided here for a great 
many years, and is buried in the 
cemetery on Ford Hill. Owasco 
Lake, a favorite summer resort, 
is 11 miles long and about one wide, 
surrounded by steep hills. There 
is a small steamer plying in 
summer. Cayugi Lake is 38 miles 
distant. 

Reached by New York Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
Syracuse, via, Marcellus, in 1 hour. 

Auburn (Jfrtiwt-).— Seat of Andro- 
scoggin County ; population (1880), 
9,600. 

Hotels: LakeAubum, Elm.Maine. 

Situated on the Androscoggin 
River, and chiefly occupied in manu- 
factures. The Union Hall has seats 
for 700 people. 

Reached by Maine Central Rail- 
way, from Portland, vid Danville, 
in 2 hours. 



M 



r.RADSH/. .V S UNITED .STATKS. 



Augusta (3/<t;«f).— Capital of State 
and seat of Kennebec County ; pop- 
ulation (18S0), 9,000. 

Hotels: Cony, Augusta, North. 

Situated on the Kennebec River, 
45 miles above its mouth. Its site 
is beautiful ; the town is well 
built, and has abundance of shady 
trees and shrubs. Sfate IIousp, Couk 
Ilonse, I'lxftne AHtflnin, Kcnnehcc 
Arsenal are all worthy of notice. 
Half a mileabov-c the city is the dam 
across the Kennebec, 58 i feet lonjr, 
furnishing immense water power. 
It is a mercantile and manufactur- 
ing centre. 

Reached hy Maine Central Rail- 
waw, from Portland, vUi Brunswick, 
in 2\ hours. 



Augusta (6rfo>*7ia).— Seatof Rich^ 
mond County; population (1880), 
32,000. 

Hotels : Augusta, Planters, Globe, 
Central. 

Situated on the Savannah River, 
t is chiefly a commercial and 
manufacturing town, cotton trade 
being its chief staple. The streets 
cross each other at right angles, 
which are all broad, while some have 
fine avenues of trees. Broad-street, 
two miles long and 165 feet wide, is 
the principal one. On it ai'e the 
chief hotels, banks, and shops, 
and in the centre is the Confederate 
Monument, the finest in the South. 
Greene-street is the most beautifully 
planted street, and is 168 feet wide, 
with handsome residential man- 
sions. Citi/ Hall, Masonic Hall, Odd 
FclloKs' Hall, and Opera House are 
worthy of an inspection. The 
Augusta Canal supplies the town 
and the manufactories with water 
from the Upper Savannah River 
and is nine miles long. C'ltif 
Cemetery and Fair Grounds (47 acres) 
afford most agreeable walks and 
drives. Summeryille, reached by 
horse cars, is the suV)urban villegia- 
tm-a of Augusta, and a fine view is 
obtained thence of town and sur- 
rounding country. There is an 
Arsenal and Workshops. Across the 
river is Hamburg, with Schultz 
Hill, a celebrated picnic ground. 

Reached by Central Georgia Rail- 
way, from Savannah, via Millen, in 6 
hours. 



Aurora (////»o/«).— Kane County 
population (1880), 12,000. 

Hotels : lYQvaoxit, Fitch, Empire, 
Evans, Huntoon's. 

Situated on both banks of the Fox 
River, whose waters are employed 
as driving power in its manuifac- 
toi-ies. The Burlington and Quincy 
Car Manufactory employs some 
700 men. It has Electro-plate and 
other manufactories ; and some fine 
buildings, amongst which are the 
City Hull, 14 churches, a Colleyi, 
and Opera House. 

Reached by Chicago and Town 
Railway, from Chicago, in \\ hours. 

Aurora ( Indiana ). — Population 
(1880), 5,000. 

Hotels : Eagle, Indiana. 

Situated on the Ohio River, it is 
a large trading centre for the sur- 
rounding farming country, of which 
it is the shipping port. 

Reached by Ohio and Mississippi 
Railway, from Cincinnati, in 1 hour, 

Ausable Chasm (New York).— In 
the Adirondacks and near the 
village of Port Kent. 

Hotels : Lake View House. 



Keeseville National 



Bankers i 
Bank. 

Medical : Dr. Pope, Dr. Talmadgc, 
Dr. Barber. 

This is a gorge lormed by pro- 
jecting hills into'the Ausable River. 
At its narrowest the bed is only 
fi'om six to eight feet wide. A 
little further down, it widens to 
about 50 feet, the rocks fall perpen- 
dicularly into the river from about 
100 feet high. It is almost two 
miles long, and has branches 
running at right angles into 
fissures of striking and beauti- 
ful scenery. Stairways, walks and 
galleries lead to the principal points 
of interest ; boats, constructed ex- 
pressly, conduct visitors through the 
entire chasm. Half-a-dollar is the 
fee to view the chasm, including 
boat from Table Rock to the Pool. 
An additional 50 cts. is levied to 
boat from the Pool over the Rapids. 

Reached from Port Kent by stages 
(Smiles). 



I 



AUGUSTA — r.ALTIMOni: 



County 

, Empire, 

Df the Fox 
employed 
manufac- 
nd Quincy 
)ys some 
•plate mid 
some fine 
h ai'C the 
a Coll op ', 

find Iowa 
\\\ hours. 



Population 



i?iver, it is 
or the sur- 
y, of which 

Mississippi 
i, in 1 hour. 



YorTc).—ln 
near the 



ise. 
National 

Talmad^c, 



id 



d by pro- 
ible River. 
is only 
wide. A 
widens to 
ill perpen- 
rom about 
most two 
branches 
•les into 
d beauti- 
walks and 
pal points 
cted ex- 
ough the 
lar is the 
includinf? 
the Pool, 
levied to 
e Rapids, 
by stages 






I 



I 



Austin (r<'T-».v).— Capital of State, 
and seat of Travis County; popula- 
tion (HS0),12,(H)(); 

Il'}f-'!.i: Avonue, Citj", Raymond 
Brunswick, 8 I'.ithfrn. 

Built upon the north bank of the 
Colorado River, 160 miles from its 
mouth, iL is a very pretty place in 
a beautiful situation on an amphi- 
theatre of hills, overlooking the 
valley a!id prairie-s bej'ond. The 
public ltuildini?a arc all constructed 
of a wliito lime-stone, resembling 
marble. Principally engaged in 
commort'ial and agricultural (cot- 
ton) intere.st.s. Capitol Square^ 20 
acres of ground ou a gentle hill, 
with Capitol ou top. Sitpreme 
Court, Trciisury onl Gmiernl Land 
Office, are situated here. Connti/ 
Prison, Deaf and Dumb, Blind, and 
Lnn'tfic Ai<i/hims, Coxinty Courts &xi(\. 
Miirket lEoHSP with municipal offices 
on se'T'Oi'.d floor, are all noteworthy. 
A bridge 9i><) feet long spans the 
Colorado River at Austin. The 
river is navigable by steamboats in 
winter up to the town. North of 
the Capitol an artesian well has 
been sunk to the depth of 1,300 
feet, whence flows a small stream. 

Reached by Houston and Texas 
Central Railway, from Burton, in 7 
hours. 

Avon {New York). —Near Rochester; 
population (18S0), 1,700. 

IloteU at the Springs : Knicker- 
bocker Hall, Congress Hall, Sana- 
torium. 

Only noted for its saline, sulphur- 
ous springs, which are very much 
visiteil in summer, as a cure for 
rheumatism, indigestion, and cu- 
taneous diseases. The waters are 
used internally and externally. 
There are three springs. 

Reached by Buffalo, New York, 
and Philadelphia Railway, from 
Pittsburg, via Oil City, in 22 hours. 

Ballston, or Ballston Spa {New 
I'orA-) .—County seat of Saratoga 
County; population (1880), about 
5,000. * 

Hotels : Ballston, Sanssoucis, 
Medberj''s, American, Milton,Eagle, 
Commercial. 

This formerly fashionable and 
still frequented resort was noted for 



its mineral sprini^s, but is now 
altogether superseded by Saratoga. 
It is now chiefly engaged in manu- 
facturing pursuits, of which the 
paper mills are the prir.cipal. 

Reached by Delaware and Hud- 
son Canal Railway, from Saratoga, 
in i hour 

Baltimore {Mitriihind),—C\\\ci City 
of the State, and one of the principal 
ports of entry of North America ; 
population (l^SO), 333,000. 

Hotels: Maltby, Barnuni's City, 
Eutaw, Carrollton, *Mi>iint Vernon, 
*St. James, Guy's ; all charge from 
2^ dols. to 4 dols. including every- 
thing. There areanur^berof Board- 
iiif/ itoHses which charge from dols. 
to 12 dols. per week. 

Restaurants : Pepper's, Painter's 
Guy's Hotel, Maltby House. 

Conveyance : Tramways and omni- 
buses charge 5 cts., and run every- 
where. Two and four-wheeled 
hackneys at the stations and dif- 
ferent points in the town. Tariff 
is posted inside of all, and in case of 
disi)ute, apply to police. Price per 
course (from boat or station) 75 cts. 
for one person ; each additional 25 
cts. ; each trunk or package 15 cts. ; 
per hour 1^ dols., and each addi- 
tional hour 1 dol. ; omnibus runs, 
to all the suburbs and outlying 
places dailj'. 

Railway Stations: The Philadel- 
phia, Wilmington and Baltimore 
Railways in President-street ; the 
Northern Central Railway and Bal- 
timore and Potomac in comer Cal- 
vert-street and Franklin-street ; the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railway in 
Camden-street ; Western Maryland, 
corner Hillen and Exeter streets; 
and Maryland Central Railway, 
corner North-avenue a ad Oak- 
avenue. 

Theafresand Entertainments : Grand 
Opera House, Halliday - street 
Theatre ; Front-street Theatre, Aca- 
demy of Music, Concordia Opera 
House, Monumental, Masonic Tem- 
ple, Peabody Institute and Assembly 
Rooms. 

Race Course is at Pimlico, outside 
the town, 2 miles N,W. 

Reading Rooms: Peabody Insti- 
tute, Mercantile Library, Maryland 

n2 



ae 



BllADSHAW S UNITKIJ STATES. 



i' 'I 



Institute, Baltimore Library and 
Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion. 

Mufeuma: The Maryland Academy 
of Art (opposite the Cathedral)— 
introduction through a member, 
reabody Institute ; Athenauim, 
Myers and Hedian, 46, N. Charles- 
street. W. T. Wiilterw' Private 
Museum in ]Mount Vemon-place, 
No. 65, is one of the richest in Ame- 
rica and admission may bo obtained 
by writiug to the owner and enclos- 
ing card. 

Clubg : The Union, City. 

Foxf and Tehnraph ; In the Ex- 
change Buildings in Gay-strcct. 
Open from 8 a.m. to 11 p.m. 

English Consul : D. Donohoc, 
Consul. 

Bankers : Bank of Baltimore. 



T. C. Green, Dr. 
Agent)* 



Medical : Dr. 
Griggs. 

Ticket and Excursion 
Thomas Cook & Son, 87, Second 
street. 

Baltimore, now the sixth city in 
population in the States, is pic- 
turesquely situated on the North 
side of the Patapsco river, 14 miles 
from the entrance into Chesapeake 
Bay, and 200 miles from the sea. It 
is situated on undulating ground, 
well laid out, covering almost 12 
square miles, all is thickly covered 
with buildings. Apart from its 
commercial importance, its hand- 
some park and a few monuments, 
it has little of attraction for the 
tourist. Jones' Falls divide the 
city in two equal parts. The 
harbour is capacious and safe, con- 
sisting of an inner (for small craft) 
and an outer basin (for large ones). 
Baltimore-street is the chief tho- 
roughfare. North Charles-street, 
Mount Vernon-plaee and Braodway 
are the most attractive and fashion- 
able promenades. Favourite drives 
Bxeihroxigh Druid Hill Park to Lake 
Roland (6 miles), to Govanstoint (4 
miles), and to Franklin (5 miles). 

Baltimore was founded in 1729 by 
Lord Baltimore, whose name it 
bears. The first pavement was laid 
in 1782, and at the same time the 
first diligence ran to Philadelphia. 
The chief trade is shipping, and in 
grain shipments it runs New York 
very close. Its industry and manu- 



factures embrace smelting and 
iron works, rolling miliH, nail and 
locomotive works, and cottnn mills 
(2,300 in all). The preserved fruit, 
vegetables, and oysters form staple 
products, and are sent out in enor- 
mous quantities. Its tanning 
works are likewise very impf)rtant. 
Baltimore is also callc(l the "monu- 
mental city," from its numerous 
monuments. They may thus be 
enumerated : First, the nafhingfon 
3Ionunient is the most important. 
It stands 210 feet high, and is in the 
form of a Doric column, built of 
brick, with a casing of white 
marble, and has the statue of Wash- 
ington (16 feot) o:x top. There is a 
fine view from balcony. It stands 
on Mount Vernon and Washington 
Places. Battle Monnment^in Monu- 
ment-square, is in memory of 
soldiers who fell in September, 1814, 
against the British forces. The 
Wildey, Wells, McComus, and Foe 
monuments are only of local inter- 
est, though worthy an inspection. 
The principal buiidiiigs are Court 
House, Exchange, Maryland Institute 
(promotion of mechanic arte), and 
I'eahndy Institute, with free library of 
60,(X)0 volumes. The highest class 
instruction is given here in music, 
literature and art. Mount Vernon 
Church and First Freshyterian are the 
most noteworthy churches. The City 
Hall, Stock Exchange, Netv Corn una 
Flour Exchanqe, Jiialfo Buildings^ 
Masonic Temple, Odd Fellows' Hall, 
American Insurance Buildings, Sun 
and Merchant's Shot Tower, are all 
fine buildings. The Cathedral on 
Cathedral-street is of gi-anite, and 
very fine, and the Unitarian is 
equally imposing. The John Hop- 
kins University (endowed by John 
Hopkins, a prominent citizen, with 
3,000,000 dols.) on corner of Druid- 
hill and Howard-avenue, and the 
John Hopkins Hospital on Broadway, 
rank amongst the finest in America. 
The Atheneeum, with libraries and 
picture galleries, in St. Paul's-strcet, 
the Academy of Sciences in Mulberry- 
street, State Normal School, and City 
College, form, with the Maryland 
Institute and Peabody Institute, the 
chief educational establishments in 
the city. 

The State Inaane Hospital (near 
Catons ville, six miles from the town) , 
the Hospital for Instruction cf the 






i! 



I 



n.V:, riMOUH— I5ATH. 



•>7 



inpr and 
nail and 
Um milla 
ed fruit, 
•m staple 
in cnor- 
tanning 
iportant. 
c*'monu- 
lumcrous 
thus be 
\ii>hitigtoH 
1 porta nt. 
I is in the 
l)uilt of 
)f white 
of Wash- 
riierc is a 
It stands 
Lshington 
in Monu- 
mory of 
ibcr, 1814, 
cs. The 
and Foe 
ical intcr- 
ispcction. 
iro Court 
\ ItifUtttte 
irtc), and 
library of 
jest class 
in music, 
Vernon 
n are the 
The City 
Corn and 
3uildi»qg, 
vs' Hull, 
uff». Sun 
are all 
cdral on 
lite, and 
arian is 
■)hn Hop- 
y John 
en, with 
f Druid- 
nd the 
adway, 
m erica, 
es and 
5-strcet, 
Iberry- 
nd City 
ryland 
3, the 
ents in 

(near 

stown), 

of the 



n 



Blind, Mdunt Hope llosf'.fn!, Man/- 
liind Jl'jgp'titl lor Iiisa!i(?, Kpincoiiid 
Chiircli J£omr, liujj ]'iiw Aki/Iuiii, 
Sheppiu'd AnijliDii (scvon niilos from 
town), and Mor.nt lli.i)e retreat 
(four mile-;), are the principal 
charitable institutes of the town. 

Di'tiid Hill Fin'k- ((5^0 acres), and 
Patterson Park (70 acres), with 
several s(iuarcs, are the chief recrea- 
tion grounds. The former is very 
be.iutifiilh' laid out, and a fine view is 
to be had from the tower at the head 
of the lake. It is the best wooded, 
and the trees are amoii^ the finest 
in any park in America. From the 
Restaurant in Druid-hill-park some 
line views are obtained, and near 
by are a few zoolopriciil specimens, 
and the fish-hatching house of the 
Fisheries Commission. London Park 
Cemetery, Greenmonut Cemefery, and 
Zorndne Cemetery have many very 
fine monuments, and, like all ceme- 
teries in the States, are beautifully 
laid out. 

On the Race Course (about 2 
miles from the town) i-aces take 
place in Spring and Autumn. 
Federal Hill, purcliAsed by the town 
for a public park. Fori MoHenry, and 
the railw'iy tiinneh in the vicinity, 
are well worth an inspection. 

Reaciied by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from New York, in 7 
hours. 



Sangor {Maine). — Seat of Penobscot 
County J population (IShO), 16,850. 

Hotels : Bangor Exchange, Bangor, 
American, Franklin, Penobscot, Ex- 
• change. 



Merchants Bank. 
Dr. A. E. llamlin, 



Dr. 



Bankers. 

Medical , 

T. U. Coe. 

Bangor is the second city of Maine, 
and as a lumber market is one of 
the first in the world. It is on 
Penobscot River, CO miles from the 
the sea, very solidly and hand- 
somely built, and very wealthy for 
its size. Shipbuilding, slate quar- 
ries, and the ice trade employ a 
great many hands. 

The Granite Custom Hrnse, Bangor 
Theological Seminary, Nocembega 
Hall and Post Office are handsome 
edifices ; the New Opera House is one 
of the finest in Neiv England. A dam 
across Penobscot River furnishes 



the j)owor necessary for the Tuills in 
the town ; 10 niilos north of Manirtir 
is Glenbnrn, on Pushaw Lake, 
notcfl for good lishitig. Steamers 
run between Bangor, Portland, and 
Boston three times a week. 

Reached hy Boston and Elaine 
Railway, from Boston, via Portland, 
in 10 hours. 



Bar Harbour (3f(//^;r^.— On Mount 
l)es>,Mt Island, S.K.of Bangor ; itoi)U- 
lation (ISSO), «)50. 

Jl'ihln: Rodick, Grand Central, 
AVest End, Atlantic, Kockaway, 
Hotel des lies, Deeiing, New])ort, 
Lyman, Ocean, Lookout, Sr. Sau- 
veur, belmoiil ; i)rices fromsdols.to 
23 dols. per week. 

Bankers: C. C. Barrill. 

Medical : Dr. ri. Langton, Dr. E. F. 
Sanger. 

Pleasantly situated on the east 
shore of tiie island ; it takes its 
name from a sandy bar which con- 
nects it with the largest of the Por- 
cui)ine Islands, which lie exiictly 
opposite. It is known among the 
locality as East Eden. The. 
scenery of the neighbourhood being 
pleasant, it is the centre of excur- 
sions into the interior of the island. 
Eagle Lake, G rcen Mountain, Ktbo, 
Mount Nfwporf, Via Mala, Oicens, 
Schooner Head, Great Head^, Spouting 
House, Thunder Cave, Otter Creek 
Cliffs,(h'om.v:c\V& Cove, and Jordan's 
Lake are all equally interesting 
points for excursions. Somes' Sound 
divides the lower portion of the 
island, and South- West Harbour and 
Somesville are situated here. Dog 
Mountain with F.agle Cliff, Fernald's 
Point, the Sounds, have good fishing, 
and boating is one of the chief 
pastimes. 

Reached by Boston and Maine 
Raihvaw, from Boston, via Portland, 
in 17 hours. 

Bath (3fa!«e).— Seat of Sagadahoc 
County; population (1880), about 
12,000. 

Hotels: Sagadahoc, Columbian, 
Bath, Sherman, Central, Commer- 
cial. 

Situated on the Kennebee River, 12 
miles from the sea, but little of in- 
terest to the tourist in the town. 



38 



IJRADSIIAW 8 UNITED STATKS. 



.; ! 



Principally occupied in shipbuiUl- 
iiif,', and tiierc are some largo nhoe 
manufiictories. Columbian, City 
and Music Halls arc the principal 
buildings. 

Reached by Boston and Maine 
[{iiihvny, from Boston, i"/(i Portland, 
ill ii\ hours. 



Baton Rouge. — Former Cai)ital of 
Louisiana; population (1880), 8,000. 

Hoteh : City, Commercial. 

Pleasantly situated on the last 
elevation met with on descending 
the Mississippi, and about K) feet 
above the highest level of the river. 
The buildings are all of French and 
Spanish appearance and architect- 
ure, and the aspect of the town from 
the riv^er is very curious and fairy- 
like. Tlie principal buildings are 
Dcrif, Dumb, and Blind Institute, State 
Prinon, and Arsenal. The banks of the 
Mississippi from this town to New 
Orleans are like a garden, every 
available space having been brought 
iinder high cultivation. 

Reached by Louisville, New Or- 
leans and Texas RaiUvay, or 
steamer from New Orlears, in i 
hours. 

Batavia (Illinois). -Kane County; 
population (ISSD), &.000. 

Hotels : Revere, Tolman. 

A manufacturing town on the Fox 
River, with little of interest except 
the Music Hall. 

Reached by Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy Railway, from Chicago, 
in 11 hours. 



Batavia {New Tork). — Seat of Gene- 
see County ; population (1880), 7,500. 

Hotels: Washburn, St. James, 
Hooper Park, Genesee, Ellicott. 

Situated on the Tonawanda Creek, 
it is handsomely laid out in large 
broad streets, beautifully shaded. 
The Institution of the Jilind and 
•Cotmty Court House are handsome 
buildings. Occupied in commei'cial, 
agricultural, and manufacturing 
pursuits. 

Reached by New York, Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, »fa Rochester, in 11 
hours. 



Battle Creek (3/»cAf>w).— Calhoun 
County; population (1880), 8,000. 

Hotels : "Williams, Lewis. 

A manufacturing town situated 
on the confluence of Battle Creek 
and Kalamazoo Rivers. Has very 
fine water power to drive its mills. 
There is a large and complete 
Sanatorium in the suburbs. Also 
machine shops of ('hicago and 
Grand Trunk Railways. Opera 
House and Centennial Hall are the 
only noteworthy buildings. 

Reached by Chicago and Grand 
Trunk Railway, from Chicago, via 
Valparaiso, in 7 hours. 

Bay City (iT/'i(«;/!.-7fl»)-— Seat of Bay 
County ; population (1880), 30,000. 

Hotels : Campbell, Frazier. 

Finely situated on Saginaw River, 
4 miles from head of Saginaw Bay, 
in Lake Huron, opposite West Bay 
City, with which it is connected by 
a Ijridge. It is chiefly occupied in 
Qshi.ng, in which ))usiness it comes 
second onl^ to Newfoundland. 
Salt and timber are staple in- 
dustries. There is an Opera House. 

Reached by Michigan Central 
Raibvaj', from Jackson, via 
Saginaw, in 5 hours. 

Bay St. JjOMia (Mississippi).— Seoit 
of Hancock County; population 
(1880), 1,978, fixed, but in season 
some 8,000. 

Hotels : The Crescent. 

A summer and winter watering 
place on Bay St. Louis, on the Gulf 
of Mexico, with 9 miles of macadam- 
ized road along the beach for driv- 
ing. Very fashionable. 

Reached by Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from Mobi'e, in 3 
hours. 



Beaumont {Texas). — Population 
(1880), 2,000. • 

Hotels : The Beaumont. 

Charmingly situated on the 
Neches River, is only noteworthy 
for its saw mills. It is the centre of a 
large timber trade. 

Reached by Galveston, Harris- 
burg and San Antonio Railway, 
from New Orleans, in 12 hours. 



lUTON U0U(;E — liLLLLVlLLK. 



tit' 



via 



Itering 

Ic Gulf 

ladam- 

driv- 

iNash- 
in 3 



latiou 



the 
lorthy 
re of a 

irris- 
^way, 



Bedford {Peinisi/Iriniut). — Xcnr 
II)mting(]ou ; popiilation (l8««t), 
2,011. 

JLifeh: Sprincfs Hotel, at the 
Springs. 

Only noteworthy for the saline- 
chalybeate waters, li miles from 
Bedford. They are charmingly 
situated in a picturesque glen at a 
great altitude. The climate in sum- 
mer is delightful. It has long 
l)ecn a favourite resort for a 
great number of pleasure seekers 
- and invalids. The waters are re- 
ported good in dyspepsia, diabetes, 
mcipient consumption, and skin 
diseases. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from Philadelphia, in 8^ 
hours. 



Belfast (3/«f/w^). — Seat of Waddo 
County; population (1880), 5,303. 

Hoteh: .\merican. Phoenix, New 
England. 

Bankers: Belfast National Bank. 

Medical ; Dr. J. G. Brooks. 

A prosperous maritime port on 
Penobscot Bay. Has some shii) 
building, and otherwise little of 
interest. Hay ford Hall is the only 
building of any note. 

Reached by Boston and Maine 
Railway, from Boston, via Port- 
land, in 11 hours. 

Bellaire (0/ao).— Belmont County; 
population (1880), 8,000. 

Hoteh: Globe, Belmont, Ameri- 
can, National. 

Pleasantly situated on the Ohio 
River, 4i miles below Wheeling ; it 
has only manufacturing and agri- 
cultural interests, and little to 
attract the tourist. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from Chicago, via New- 
ark, in 15 hours. 

Bellefountaine (OAio).— Seat of 
Logan County; population (1880), 
4,400. 

Hoteh: Metropolitan, Logan, 
Station. 

This is a flourishing town, with 
large commercial interests, being 
surrounded by a populous and pro- 



ductive agricultural orjuntry. It 
derives its name fimn the ma'n.v Wuv 
springs in the vicinity. Severn 1 
factories and the cotinty buildiii^.'-s 
are the chief objects of attraction f" r 
the tourist. 

Reached l)y Cleveland, Colunilius, 
Cincinnati and In(liunai)olis Rail- 
way, from Clevolaiul, in SJ hours. 

Beloit (Wiscou)*\n).—V\OCk Counfv: 
population (18H0), 5,000. 

Hotels : Salisbury, Goodwin, d in- 
mercial. 

This thriving town is situated on 
the Rock River, and in the midst of 
a very extensive j)lain, on a rise <tf 
50 to 00 feet. Very tine and l)roa<l 
sha^' .' streets, andsojne noteworthy 
churches. First Congregational is 
one of the handsomest. The College, 
founded in 1847, is another interest- 
ing building, and is much fre- 
quented. Has abundant water 
power, and factories of woollen 
goods, carriages, scales, flour mills, 
etc. 

Reached b.y Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul Railway, from 
Chicago, via La Crosse and Sioux 
City, in 32 hours. 

Belleville (iVi??(' Jersey). ~Yj^m\ 
County; population (1880), 3,000. 

Hotel : Mansion House. 

A manufacturing centre, engaged 
chiefly in indiarul)ber, wire and 
copper produce. Ter^perance and 
Passaic Halls arc the largest places 
of resort. 

Reached by Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna and Western Railway, from 
New York, via Mountain View, in 
1| hours. 

! Belleville (///i«oi«).— Seat of St. 
' Clair County; population (1880), 
i 10,682. " 

I Hotels: National, Belleville, 
I Thomas', Hinckley, Aberer,Tieman. 

This busy community is situated 
on Richland Creek, and has its chief 
interests in manufacturing and 
agricultural pursuits. Beyond the 
Academy of Music, little of note. 

Reached by Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from St. Louis, in 1 
hour. 



40 



IJKADSHAW S L'MTKD STATKS. 



li 



tl 



il 



Bellville i Tpsi i x). — Hctxt of Auhtiu 
C'Diiiity ; population (lHH(»), 0(X). 

lloteh: Citj", IlarliifF, Maiiiiiii.i,'. 

A Hniall ineroaiitilo coinmuiiity, 
but risiutr rapidly. 

Heat'liL'tl hy Houwton and Texas 
Uaihvay, from Hempstead, ivm Aus- 
tin in 7i hours. 

Bellows Falls (Vfirmnni).—^^ the 
White Mountain District ; popula- 
tion (HS()),3,7Wi. 

Jloftln: Island House, Town's. 

A well-frei|ucnted summer resort, 
pleasantly situated and laid out. 
The Falls are about half-a-niile 
from the vilhiire and ni*e best seen 
from the bridjre. They forma series 
of rapids in the Connecticut River 
for about a mile alon^ the base of 
Moitiit Kilbiirn on the New Hamp- 
shire side. Close by are the Abend- 
rjniti S]iri>if/M, 

Reached by Central, Vermont 
and New London Northern Railway, 
from New York, cui J3rattleboro, in* 9 
hours. 

Belvidere {Neir Jersey) .—On the 
Delaware ; popalation (1880), 2,5(X>, 
IJoteh : American House. 

A ])retty village, built on both 
banks of the request Creek on its 
omptyint? into the Delaware. It has 
considerable manufacturing? inter- 
ests, due to its fine water power. 

Reached l)y Lehigh and Hudson 
River Railway, from Greycourt, in 
10. i hours. 

Benicia {California). — Solano 
County near Sacramento ; popula- 
tion (1880), 1,8(H). 

Hotels : Benicia. 

Once the C'apital of the State. 
Made very important progress dur- 
ing the last five years. Its situation 
is very advantageous on the north 
side of the Straits of Carquinez. 
Factories for agricultural imple- 
ments, tanneries, &c., form, besides 
shipping, the principal occupation 
of the inhaliitants. The largest sea- 
going ships can load and unload 
here. Two Female Seminarieg and 
one College. Arsenal of the States, 
and large machine shops of the 
Pacific Mail Company. 

Reached by Central Pacific Rail- 
way,from San Fi*ancisco, in 2 hours. 



Bennington {Vmnoii/)- -llonning- 
ton County ; populati(»n (l880),0,l()0. 

Jloftls : Stark, (Jate's, Putnam, 
Kim Tree. 

Situated in a charming valley, 
800 feet above the level of the sea, 
handsomely and substantially built, 
and consi(lered one of the ])'rettiest 
towns in th(> State. Exten.sivc 
cotton mills and hosiery mauufac- 
tories. JirtnihitjfoH Cnifrr, one mile 
distant, is the i'cvolutionary village 
(Catamount Tavern burnt in 1871). 
Jloostic, an adjoining township, was 
the scene of the Itattlc of Renning- 
ton in 1777. Excursions to Minoit 
Anfhoni/, Mount Proxftrcl, l'c(ertibi<ri/, 
'find Jiii/ Pond; Lrhanon Springs nvo 
also close b.y. 

Reached by Bennington and Rut- 
land Railway, from ]{utland, in ',i 
hours. 

Berkeley Springs {West Virginia). 
—Morgan County, near Lynch- 
burg, and 2i miles from Sir John's 
Run. 

JLitih : Spring's Hotel. 

A small watering place, with 
indifferent waters (74deg. F.), con- 
sisting onlj' of the Hotel Baths and 
dependent buildings. Very much 
frequented, owing to the surround- 
ing forests and romantic countiy. 
Was often visited by Washington, 
and was already popular in 1816. 
Five si)rings, with a yield of 2,000 
gallons per minute. Very largo 
inscina\ considered amongst the 
finest in Virginia. The water con- 
tains little mineral principles, but 
is said to be invigorating, though 
this may be due more to the sur- 
rounding woods and the mountain 
air. 

Reached by Norfolk and Western 
Railway, from Norfolk, via Lynch- 
burg, in 8 hours. 

Berkshire Hills {Massachusetts).— 
Berkshire County. 

An agglomeration of hills, lakes, 
and rivulets, very noted and much 
frequented as a summer resort, on 
account of its beautiful scenery and 
fortifying air. Great Barrnigton^ 
Lenox, Lee, Pitt»Jield, Shaker Village, 
Lebanon Springs, North Adams, Grey- 
lock Mountain, Williamstown, and 
Hootac Tunnel are the principal 



MKIJA'ILLK — lillJ.INiiS. 



41 



nmnj?- 
,0,100. 

itnam, 

valley, 
he sen, 
y l)uiU, 
rettiest 
tensive 
luufae- 
rie mile 
villajfo 
I 1H7I). 
lip, was 

euui!>K- 
Mount 

embitt'if, 

iiiffs are 

ml Rut- 
ul, in 3 



h'ginia). 

Lynch- 

r John '8 



D, with 
b\),con- 
iths ami 
y much 
rround- 
omitiy. 
lington, 
in 1816. 
lof 2,000 
large 
St the 
ber con- 
ies, but 
1 though 
he sur- 
)untaiu 

K^estern 
iLynch- 



\ett«).— 

lakes, 

much 

lort, on 

Iry and 

\i)>gto}t, 

yHhige, 

Grey' 

, and 

Incipal 



centres and stopping jdaees, and 
for further detailed information see 
those. 

Iteac'hed by No\V York and Ifarlem 
Railway, and New York and New 
Haven Railway, or by steamer from 
New York, v'ut Bridgeport, iti Hi 
bour8 to Pittsfleld. 

Bethlehem (AVm- 7f<r«j;)*<A/<v).— Coos 
County, in the White Mountains ; 
population ( 1880) , 9(K). 

Jloft'h: Strawberry- Ilill, Mapple- 
wood, Sinclair, Prospect, Hcllcvuo. 

One of the Uiost iiopular summer 
resorts in the White Mountain 
region. Klovation very high, and 
town claims to be the" highest in- 
habited i)lace cast nf tlie Rocky 
Mountains. It is l»oautifully Imilt, 
and a great centre for exciii'sions. 
It commands a \ cry extensive and 
])eautif ul view of the whole mounta in 
range. Muiinf AgaxMiz is ascended 
from here (2,012 feet). 

Reached ))y Boston and Lowell 
Railway, from Boston, cid Lowell, 
in U hours. 

Bethlehein(PfHH«.y/rflHNO.— North- 
ampton County ; population (1880), 
11*000. 

Hoteh: American, Eagle, Pacific, 
Sun, Central, W^ishington. 

It is pleasantly situated on both 
banks of the Lehigh River, and is 
resorted to in summer for its fresh 
and invigorating air. The chief 
seat in the United States of the 
Moravian Brotherhood, founded 
here in 17-41. LchU/h Unirergitt/, 
established in 1865, ii.is all 
tuition free. The Ohl Moravian 
Jinildhiffg, in Church How, are 
well i>reserved. The Moravian 
Church, Boug' School, Female Semi- 
nary and Museum are also buildings 
of note. Bishopgthorpe Seminary is 
also worth an inspection. Opera 
House and Citizens' Hall are the 
leading assembly rooms. Iron fac- 
tories and foundries are staple pur- 
suits. 

Reached by Philadelphia and 
Reading Railway, from New York, 
via High Bridge,' in 3 hours. 

Bethel (lfatw«). — Oxford County; 
population (1880), 2,100. 

Hoteh : Mountain House. 



A lovely village, with mineral 
si)nngs, nne views of the H'hife 
Mouuliiin*, and very comfurtable 
accommodation. 

Reitt'hedby (JrandTrunkRailway, 
from Portland, cid Danville, in \\\ 
hours. 

Beverley (MagxachuMeffn).— Kssnx 
County; i)opulation (ls>so), 8,450. 

ILutch : Carey's, Station, Waver- 
ley. 

A manufacturing town, with a 
pleasant and very extensive beach ; 
the suburbs along the coast show 
some very tine gardens and beauti- 
ful residences. It is a very old 
place, and very busy with shoo 
manufacturing. Toivn and Banqurt 
JLiUtt are the jdaces of assembly. 

Reached by Boston and Maine 
Railway, from Boston, via Chelsea, 
in 50 minutes. 



Biddeford (Maine).— York County ; 
population (1880), 13,(KH). 

Hotels: Biddeford and Yates 
House at the Saco Pool. 

Situated on the Saco River, the 
fall (55 feet) of which furnishes a 
flue water power for both Biddeford 
and Saco. The Saco Bool, a large 
sweet water })asin scooped out of 
solid rock and connected with the 
sea, lies in the middle of the former. 
Reached by steamer twice daily, 
from Biddeford. Close by is Oid 
Orchard Beach and Scarborough 
Beach, two famous sea-bathing 
places. 

Reached by Boston and Maine 
Railway, froin Boston, via Portland 
Point, in 15 hours. 

Billings (Monta)m).~In the Bad 
Lands ; population (1880), 1,600. 

Hott'ls: Badlands, City, Central. 

Beautifully situated, at the head of 
8teaml>oat navigation on the Y'ellow- 
stone River, in a very picturesque 
and fertile valley. A few years ago 
it was only a landmark onthe mai^s 
for land speculators, but is raiiidly 
increasing in size and population ; a 
school and two churches have been 
built, and a university, and two 
parks are being laid out, the latter 
for private residences. It is chiefly 



42 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATKS. 



■V>', 



occupied in cattle raising and min- 
ing pursuits. It iiromises to \o a 
very important station on .he 
Northern Pacific Railway, whch 
has machine and repairing shops 
here and at Helena, the capital. 

Heachod by the Northern Pacific 
Railway, from Glcndivc, in OJ- hours. 



Binghamp :on (iv;- 10 York) . — Seat 
of IJroomc County; population 
(1880), 18,500. 

Hotels: Exchange, Crandell, Ben- 
net, Lewis. 

Though cliieflj- a mar.ufacturing 
town (cigars, coal, iron, leather, 
boots, etc.), it is being gradually 
resorted to as a summer station. It 
is beautifully situated on the junc- 
tion of the Susquehanna and 
Chenani^o Rivers, in a wide plain. 
Court Jlouttr, Bank Buildings, Mill- 
fury Store House, Asylum for Chronic 
Insane, etc., are very fine buildings 
and worthy an ins])ection. Susque- 
hanna Orphanage, St. Mary's 
Orphan'ige, and the Asylum j'or 
Inebriates, are other interesting in- 
stitutions. On Mount Prospect is a 
hydro])athic establishment. 

Reached by Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna, and Western Railway, 
from New York, via Scranton. in 7 
honrs. 

Birmingham (^^rti<n»'/) .—Jefferson 
County population (1880), 4,050. 

Hotels . Kentucky.Nixon's, Relay, 
St. Charles, Central, Richards. 

A very thrifty industrial town, 
with coa' and ir'^i mines, but with 
little else to inte ^-st the tourist. 

Reached by Cincinnati, New 
Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway, 
from Cincinnati, via Chattanooga, 
in 16i hours. 

Bismark {D.ikotah). — Capital of 
Territory and seat of Burleigh 
County ; population (1880), 5,000. 

Hotels : Merchants, Custer, Sheri- 
dan, Western. 

Situated on the Northern Pacific 
Railway on its crossing the Mis- 
souri (east bank) ; it is chiefly 
occupied in commission and agvi- 
cultural pursuits. It is the whole- 
sale and distributing point for 
North-Western Dakotah. There are 



two halls, the Athenajum and 
Union, but little else of interest for 
the tourist. The environs afford 
ample sport for huntovs and fishers. 
Reached by Northern Pacific 
Railway, from St. Paul, in 19^ hours. 

Black Hawk (Colorado). — Near 
Denver; population (1880), 1,540. 

Hotels: European. 

A mining town, very busy and 
increasing rapidly, irregularly built 
along the mountain side. Numeroias 
foundries and stamping mills, and 
Professor Hill's Reduction and Smelt- 
ing Works are cai*ried on here. But 
beyond the very wild scenery in the 
environs there is little to interest the 
tourist. 

Reached by Burlington and Mis- 
souri Railway, from Denver, in ^ hour. 

Black Kiver Falls (Wisconsin).— 
.Tackson County; jDopulation (1880), 
1,150. 

Hotels: Lake's. 

Situated on the Black River, it 
has a very extensive timber trade 
and a good future in store. 

Reached by Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paixl Railway, from Mil- 
waukee, via Mauston, in 42- hours. 

Blackstone (Massachusetts). — Wor- 
cester County; populatioK (1880), 
above 5,000. 

Hotels: Union, Lincoln. 

Situated on the Blackstone River, 
it has large cotton j""d woollen 
spinning and weaving . jills. 

Reached by New York and New 
England Railway, from Boston, in 
1 hour. 

Bloomington (Indiana).— Near 
Gosport; population (1880), 2,800. 

Hotels : City. 

A small town, chiefly occupied in 
agricultural pursuits, and noted 
as the seat of the State Urifrersity 
(admittance of both sexes), with 
Law Schools which enjoy a high 
repute. Close by are Mitchell and 
Salem. 

Reached by Louisville, New 
Albany and Chicago Railway, from 
Louisville, via New Albany, in 4 
hours. 



BINGHAMPTON — DOONJOX. 



13 



and 

3t f 01- 

ifEord 
shers. 
aciflc 
lours. 

Near 
540. 

J and 
■ 1)uilt 
nerous 
(, and 
Smelt- 
;. But 
in the 
est the 

1 Mis- 
\ hour. 

\inn), — ■ 
(1880), 



iver, it 
r trade 

Iwaukee 

m Mil- 

ours. 

L— Wor- 
(1880), 



River, 

,'ooilen 

Id New 

Iton, in 



Near 

5,800. 

bied in 

noted 

rersity 

. with 

high 

Hi and 

New 

[, from 

in 4 



% 



Bloomington (///i«o(V). — Seat of 
MacLeau County; population, 
22,000, 

Hotels : Ashley, Phoenix. 

A very important town, increasing 
rayndly in population and coruiner- 
cial importance, and chiefly engaged 
in shipping and manufacture. Also, 
owing to its being a Ir.rge railway 
centre, there are ?*>vjral extensive 
construction and machine repairing 
shops. It is handsomely and sub- 
stantially built, and has important 
educational institutions. The Opera 
House, Durify Hall, Weshyan Uin- 
ren^ifi/. Court Hoii^e, and Major 
Female Collrge are buildings worthy 
of note. 

Reached by Chicago and Alton 
Railway, from Chicago, in G hours. 

Bloomsburg {Penmylcania). — Scat 
of Columbia Countj'; population 
(1880), 3,800. 

Hotels: City, Exchange, Ameri- 
can, Central, Station. 

Pleasantly situated on Fishing 
Creek and northern branch of 
Susquehanna River, it is mainly 
suppoi-ted by the surrounding agri- 
cultural districts ; also iron and 
its munufacture. Opera House and 
several public halls. 

Reached by Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna and Western Railway, from 
New York, via Scranton, in 8 hours. 

Brockport {New York). — On Ex'ie 
Canal ; population (1880), 4,100. 

Hotels : Washington. 

A i)rettily-8ituated village, with a 
fine State Normal School building. 
Some manufactories. 

Reached by New York Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
Buffalo, via. Niagara Falls, in threo- 
fiuarters of an hour. 

Bois6 City (/<^/^o).— Capital of the 
State ; population (1880), 2,000. 

Hotels : City, American, Exchange. 

A pleasantly-situated town on an 
affluent of the SnakeRiver, as yet out 
of the reach of tourists. Within 
a few years it will bo connected by 
railway from Great Bend City, when 
it will undoubtedly increase with 
rapid strides. 

Reached by Oregon Railway and 



Navigation Company, from Dalles 
J'ity, branching at Great Bend City 
to Baker City, in 19 ' urs. 

Bolivar (Tenuessre) .— 'Scav ,h\(:]<>i -u • 
population (188'> , 2 Olh). 
Hotels: Citv. 

On the Haichoo River, a very 
handsome :ni I thriving liitle com- 
munity. Tl.. liver is navigable for 
steamers during about nine months. 

Reached by Illinois Central Rail- 
way, from Ciiioago, f.'« Jackson, in 
9a hours. 



Bolton {Xrir I'y/v'i-). -- On Lake 
George; population (ISSO), abcnt 
500. 

Hotels: Bolton, Luke View, Mohi- 
can, Wells. 

After Caldwell the largest village 
on the lake, and much resorted to 
for its quietness as a summer 
station. It is situated on the west 
shore, having Prospect Mountain at 
its back, as also on high ground 
several small lakes. G<! uotiskie Bay, 
Shelving liock and Tongue Mountain 
as also Fourteen Mile Island are 
worthy a visit. 

Reached by Delaware and Hud- 
son Canal Hallway, from Saratoga, 
via Caldwell, in 2\" hours. 

Boone {Iowa). — Boone Counts ; P<^])- 
ulation (1880), 3,5oo. 

Hotels: Eagle, Lincoln, Kt. 
John's. 

A thriving village, situated on a 
little rising prairie, two miles from 
the Dcs Moines Itircr. It is sur- 
rounded by a rich and productive 
farming ;ountry, and is principally 
engaged in manufacture, coal trade, 
and n .^ricultural produce. On the 
Des Moines River some very rugged 
and wild scenery may be enjoyed. 

Reached 1)y Chicasro and, North- 
western Railway, from Chicago, 
via Cedar and Clinton, in 2 hours. 

Boonton {New Jersey).— 'Scar Den- 
ville ; i)Oi)ulation, -tjooo. 

Hotels: Boonton, 

A small bu^ busy manufacturing 
town situati on the Rockaway 
River and Morris Canal, 'J'h'e 



44 



13KADSHAW S UNlTEl^ STATES. 



li! 



l ilii 



I 



region is very mountainous, and 
offers some fine views. 

Reached by Delaware.Lackawanna 
and Western Railway, from New 
York, in 1| hours. 



Boonville {New York). — Near Tren- 
ton Falls ; population (1880), 1,700. 

Hotels: Commercial. 

Situated at the entrance to the 
John Brown'' 8 Tract, the southern 
part of the Adirondacks rcpioii. 
Being comparatively little visited 
and less settled, it offers good 
sport in hunting and fishing. Guides 
and outfit can be had here. Fulton 
Lakes are close by. 

Reached by New York Central 
and Utica and Black River Rail- 
way, fi'om New York, via Utica, ■ 
in 165 hours. 1 

Boonville {Misnonri). — Scat of ; 

Cooper County; population (1880), i 

3,855. ! 

Hotels: City. ' 

A busy town, situated on the 
Missouri River, and principally 
engaged in manufactures, flour mills 
and pork packing. The Thespian 
Hall is the principal place of 
assembb'. 

Reached by Missouri Pacific Rail- 
way, from Sedalia, via Clifton, in 
1^ hours. 

Bordentown {yew Jersey). — Bur- 
lington County; population (1880), 
6,050. 

Hotels : American, City, Washing- 
ton, Bordentown. 

A very thrivin;^ manufacturing 
town on the Delaware River and Dela- 
ware and Raritan Canal, chiefly occu- 
pied in shipbuilding. Much visited 
by Pbiladelphians as a summer 
resort. The Mansion and Park of 
Joseph Bonaparte, ex-King of Spain, 
is the chief oVjject of interest. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, Amboy Branch, from Phila- 
delphia, in H hours. 

Boston {Massachusetts). — Suffolk 
County. One of the principal ports 
of the United States, and chief 
city of the State, though not its 
capital. Population (1880), 362,850. 



Hotels : Clarendon, Brunswick, 
American, Adams', Crawford, Milli- 
ken, Revere, Tremont, Parker, 
Young's, United States, Vendome, 
Comrnonwealth, Quincy, Creighton, 
New England, National. Charges 
from 2 dels, to 5 dels, per day in- 
clusive. 

Restaurants: Copeland's, IVeber'Sf 
Younff's, Parker House. At Ohcr'$ 
French cuisine prevails, and for 
game and fish specialities visit 
Taft's. Restaurants also at the 
various railway stations. 

Conveyances: Very extensive and 
complete system of tramways ; 
charge 6 cents. Carriages at rail- 
way stations and at various places 
in the streets ; tariffs regulated bj'' 
law, per c curse one passenger in city 
proper 50 cents, outside this 1 dol., 
each additional passenger 60 cents. 
From 12.0 to 6.0 a.m. double fares. 
Per hour 1 dol. 50 cents, and each 
additional or fraction 1 dol. Omni' 
buses on principal streets. Several 
Perries for East Boston and Chelsra, 
and the other suburbs are connected 
by bridges. 

Stations : Tie Lowell Railway Sta- 
tion (very fine; in Causeway-street, 
and Eastern Railway and Fitchhury 
Railway Stations in same street, and 
almost together. The Boston and 
Albany, in Kneeland-street ; Maine 
Central, in Haymarket-square ; the 
Providence, on Coliunbus-avenuo ; 
Old ColonyRailway, in South-street ; 
Boston Revere Beach and Seguin, in 
Atlantic-avenue ; and New York 
and New England, in Summer- 
street. 

Theatres and Amusements: The 
Boston is the largest in New Eng- 
land. The Museum (select), Park 
and Globri (stars) ; Windsor, Bijou, 
Howard (varieties) . Music Hall', the 
finest in the country, and with 
largest organ but one in the world. 
Association Hall, Horticultural Hall, 
Tremont Temple, Hawthorne Rooms, 
and Chickering Hall. 

The horse races take place at 
Mystic and Beacon Park, outside 
the town. 

Reading Rooms : The Athenceum 
(introduction by a member) ; the 
Public Library, access free. Reading 
Rooms also at all leading hotels and 
at Young Men's Christian Uniou 
and Association. 



I 



I300NVT LLE— BOSTON. 



45 



iwick, 
, Milli- 
arker, 
dome, 
^hton, 
tiarges 
ay iu- 

Ohir't 
1(1 foi" 
J visit 
at the 

ve and 
iways ; 
at rail- 
, places 
ited by 
r in cUy 
i 1 dol., 
) cents. 
3 fares, 
id each 

OliDti- 

Several 
Chehi'it, 
nnected 

ffcr,9 Sfa- 
street, 
tchhuiy 
et, and 
ton (tnd 
31(1 hie 
re ; the 
ivcnue ; 
street ; 
guiu, in 
York 
ammer- 

The 
iw Enp:- 
, Park 
i, Bijou, 
all, the 
d with 
world. 
il Hall, 
oonis, 

lace at 
loutsido 

Vhenceum 

r) ; the 

leading 

tels and 

Uniou 



Cli'l*: Somerset, Union, Central, 
and St. Botolph arc the leading ones. 
Admission throuo^h members' intro- 
duction. 

Post (Hill Tt'Irjraph Offices: IMilk- 
street, and open from 7.30 a.m. to 
7.30 p.m. 

Art Colhctiona : The Musevm <>f 
Arfx (admi<>sion 25 cts.), splendid 
buildinsr, with extensive collections 
in Art-S([uaro; at Studio Jiuil'.lint/^ 
and Boston Art Cluh occasional ex- 
hibitions take place ; Williams & 
Kverctt and Dull Ix. Richards are 
private sales naileries. 

F)ifjllsh Consul : Ch. A. Henderson, 
Consul. 

Bankers: Peabody, Kidder & Co. 

Mtdical: Dr. Craigh, Dr. "White. 

Ticket anJ Excursion Afjents : 
Thomas look ix, Son, 107, "Washing- 
ton-street. 

The foundation of this, the capital 
of Massachusetts, and the chief 
town in New Euglund, was laid in 
1623 by the Rev. W. Blackstone. 
Some Dorchester settlers came soon 
after, and settled on Shawwut, 
which they named Boston, after the 
})irthplace in England of their 
leaders, Johnson and Cotton. The 
first gt)vernor was John "Winthrop. 
From this time the town grew 
rapidly. In 1740 the first dissatis- 
facti(.)n with the home government 
began, and in 1705 the early meet- 
ings of the " Sons of Liberty *" under 
the old Liberty Tree were stifled by 
the British forces. In 1703, the 
first wharf was built, already the 
extensive trade of the town Ijeing 
therebv cimsiderably increased. 
The first church was 'built in 1032, 
and in 1030 the lirst court was 
held. The great fire, in 1872, des- 
troyed property to the amount of 
70,00t),000 dols. 

Boston is situated at the western 
extremity of Massachusetts Bay, 
and eaibraces Boston proper, South 
and East Boston, Charlestown, 
Brighton, Dorchester, Rox])ury and 
West Roxbury, covering al)Out '25,000 
acres. Boston proper, on a penin- 
sula with ver>' uneven surface, 
covers about 700 acres, and three 
hills, Copps, Fort, and Beacon. 
East Boston has the deepest water 
of the harbour, and the largest ships 
lie here principally. Charles- 
town and South Boston are con- 



nected with the town by bridges ; 
Chelsea, Cambridge, and East 
Boston by ferries. 

The streets in the older portion of 
the town bear a strong resemblance 
to the streets of an P^nglish town, 
though somewhat modeniized since 
the great fire. The newer jiortions 
have wide, straight, and well-piived 
regular streets, some of which are 
hands(mie. Washington-street is the 
chief thoroughfare; Pearl-street, 
centre of the largest 1)oot and shoo 
trade in the world, and Treniont and 
Winter streets arc leading streets for 
general retail shops. State-street is 
the Boston Wall-street : Summer, 
Chauncey, and Franklin streets the 
wholesale dry goods (juarter. Com- 
monweal th-acenue is one of the finest 
streets, being 240 feet Wide.with rows 
of trees and pleasure ganlens. The 
residential or fashiomiblo (luarterg 
are west of the common (Back 
Bay), along Charles River. The 
surroundings of the town are beauti- 
ful, and the chief driving centre is 
around Chestnut-hill Itcservoir. 

Boston Common: A noble park, 
extending over 48 acres, is Ijounded 
by Beacon, Charles, Roylston, Park, 
and Tremniit-strcots. It was for- 
merly a ]iavade ground, and the 
English built a fortiiieil camp on it 
in 1 ". The elm trees on the com- 
mo! riu sliady avcmies, which ate 
much -rowtlod in siniimer. Soldii rx' 
Monuniint, on I'higstuff-hill, is very 
fine, and wa. (.'ompleted in 1877. 
The Public Gard ns, 23 acios in 
extent, are separated from the com- 
mon by Charles-street, very tast- • 
fully laid out and adorned witli 
statues, fountains, &c. Sfatues of- 
Washini/ton and Frerett .ire worth 
noticing ; others are Ether and 
and Sumner monuments. The 
Beacon (or Back Bay) Park, ctm^ of 
Beacon-street and Mystic '\irk, 
opposite Charlesto\ni, ii.. also 
favourite pleasure grounds, the 
races taking place here. 

The State House, on Beacon-hill, 
with gilded dome, a very hand- 
some building of Corinthian archi- 
tecture, was begun in 1795 and 
completed in 1708. Its gilded dome, 
seen from all parts of the town, 
stands 116 feet high; in front are 
bronze statues of Horace Mann and 
Daniel Webster. The open Colon- 
nade, the Doric Hall, with collections 



46 



BRADSIUW S L'MTi: D STATES. 



I' !<' 



of flag8 and guns, etc., and the 
Rotunda are on the gronncl floor. On 
the upper floor are the Halls for 
House of Jtepreseniutives and Senate, 
State Lihrary, Cabinet of Curiosities, 
and Archives. Visitors should ascend 
the dome for the superb view. Close 
by the State House is the Athrnmuin, 
with a library of ovor l.io.OOO vol- 
umes. The A'n^ricau Society of 
Arts and Sciences has rooms and 
library in the Iniilding. Close by 
are Louisburg (with some statues) 
and Pemberton-squares, and in 
Somerset-street are the otlices of the 
University. 

City Hall, one of the most im- 
posing buildings of the town, in 
School-street, is in the Italian 
Renaissance style,' and has a dome 
109 feet high. The interior is 
striking, and in front of the hall 
are some statues by Greenough aiid 
Ball. 

The Post Office, occupying the 
block comer formed by Milk, Water, 
Devonshire streets and Post-office- 
square, is an immense granite 
building (Renaissance), not quite 
completed yet. It is intended to l)e 
the finest building in New England. 
The interior arrangements are 
worthy of inspection, especially the 
Cash noom in Marble. The Custom 
House at the end of India-street 
(Doric architecture), was erected in 
1847. It has a dome, and is sur- 
rounded by massive granite columns 
weighing 42 tons each. 

The Pullic Library in Roylston- 
street contains 4(X),(X)0 volumes and 
alK)ut 150,000 pamphlets, and some 
valuable collections. Of churches 
the Trinity CJiurch, Huntington- 
avenue, is" one of the most note- 
worthy, as being one of the finest, 
largest, and most splendidly deco- 
rated of the States. New Old South 
Church (with a tower 248 feet) and 
Second Church likewise merit a 
visit. The Masonic Temple (corner 
of Tremont-street), of granite, with 
fine halls ; and the Society of Natural 
History's Buildings (with library of 
12,000 volumes) m Berkeley-street 
is also interesting. In Boylston- 
street (20) is also the granite Gothic 
building of the Young Men's Christ- 
ian Union. The Museum of Fine 
Arts, on Art-square, a red-brick 
building with ten*a-cotta bas-reliefs 
and adornments, has extensive 



collections (entrj 25 cts.) ; and the 
Boston Art Club BuHdlvg, near New 
Old South Church, on same square. 
Of churches in the fashionable 
(juarter the following are note- 
worthy : First Baptist Church, First 
Unitaria7i Church, Central Congrega- 
tional, Arlington-street RXidFmmanuel 
churches. The Massachusetts Churi- 
table Mechanics' Association and the 
New England Manufacturers' and 
Mechanics' Institute are on Hunting- 
ton-avenue, both magnificent builtl- 
ings. 

The roston Music ^a//,inTrem()Ut- 
street, is one of the finest in America, 
and noted for its immense organ. 
The Horticultural Hall, near by, 
used for fairs, flower shows, etc., 
is also worthy a Aisit. 

In the old' part of tlie town, on 
Dock-square, is the Qniiicy Market, 
two storej's high and 530 feet long : 
at the head of State-street is the old 
State House, a very venerable struc- 
ture, erected in 1747. It was the 
scene of very important movements 
and events, amongst which were the 
Declaration of Independence, recep' 
Hon of Washington, etc. On Dock- 
S(iuare is the Funeuil Hall, the most 
interesting building in the State, 
and known ns the " Cradle of 
Liberty." It was built in 1742, and 
given by Peter Faneuil, a Huguenot 
merchant, to the town. Burnt in 
1761, and rebuilt in 1762, it was the 
scene during the Revolutionary War 
of many great and eventful gather- 
ings. Numerous portraits adorn the 
public hall on second floor, rendered 
also famous by the famous lectui-es 
of Adams, Everett, We))STer, etc. The 
l)asement has shops, and a market- 
place in the centre. Tl\e " Old 
Merchanti<' Exchange,'" 55, State- 
Street, wiv^ a fine building, but l)y 
the fire and subsequent remodelling 
has lost in architectural beauty. 
County Court House, on Court- 
square, is a fine building in Quincy 
granite. 

The MasiachusettsIIr^torical Society 
Buildings, King's Cfiujiel, with ad- 
joining first burial ground in the 
town, and Boston Museum (25 cts. 
entrance) are all onl" emont-street, 
and, if time allows, are worth an 
inspection. The City Hofpital, in 
Harrison-avenue, is a large gitanite 
building in 7 acres of ground; 
the Odd Fellows' Hall in Berkeley- 



BOSTUX. 



47 



and the 
lear New 
e square, 
ihionable 
,re iiote- 
>'ch. First 
Congrega- 
Kmmanuel 
its Churi' 
I and the 
•ers' and 
Huntinff- 
;nt build- 

Treniout- 
America, 
56 organ, 
near by, 
Dws, etc., 

town, on 

feet long : 
) is the old 
,ble struc- 
, was the 
lovementfci 
1 were the 
ice, recep' 
On Dock- 
\, the most 
;he State, 
Cradle of 
1742, and 
uguenot 
Burnt in 
t was the 
[nary War 
1 gather- 
.dorn the 
rendered 
lectures 
', etc. The 
, market- 
lie " Old 
|5, Statc- 
^, but by 
iiodelling 
beauty. 
Court- 
n Quinry 

\al Socleti/ 
(with ad- 
Id in the 
(25 cts. 
fit-street, 
•orth an 
)itul, in 
le granite 
1 ground ; 
Jerkcloy- 



street is also a fine building. In 
Concord-street are the Roman 
Catholic Orplianage, the Church 
of the Immaculate Conception 
(fine music and interior decoration), 
and Bout on College. On Harrison- 
street is the Church of St. James, 
and on Franklin-street the New 
England Conservatory of Music. 
The Cathedral of the Holy Cross 
(Roman Catholic) on "Washington- 
street is the largest and finest in 
New England. Old South Church 
in Milk and Washington street is a 
historic relic, built in 1729, and used 
as a place of meeting for the revolu- 
tionary chief. s of 1776, and later as 
a riding school. Benjamin Franklin 
was baptized in it, and the " Boston 
Tea Party " was organized here. 

In the business quarter are also 
many fine structures, mostly erected 
since the fire in 1872. The Rialto 
Buildings, the Simmons Cathedral, 
Sears, Franklin, Brewer Buildings, 
and office of New York Mutual Life 
Insurance Company, Equitable Life 
Insurance Company, and New 
England Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, are the most noteworthy. 

The Charitable Institutions em- 
brace — The Perkins Institution for 
the Blind, on Mount Washington in 
South Boston ; the Carney Hospital, 
near by : the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, on Charles River; the 
Soldiers' Home, Powder Horn Hill, 
Chelsea; Xaval Hospital, close by; 
the Lunatic Asylum and House of 
Correction, in South Boston; City 
Hospital, in Harrison-avenue ; and 
the Marine Hospital, very large and 
fine, in Chelsea. The Work-and 
Alms-houses are on Deer Island. 

Cemeteries beyond those men- 
tioned are also on Copp's Hill, north- 
east of the town. The North Burying 
Ground, the second established in 
Boston, is very well laid out and 
carefuUj'' kei)t ; Mount Au])um 
Cemetery is very beautiful, and with 
beautiful views on Charles River. It 
contains tombs of Longfellow, Story, 
Winthrop, Adams, etc., and several 
very beautiful monuments. A 
granite tower on top of the hill 
affords a fine view over the city. 

Amongst the many excursions for 
which tile environs of Boston give 
ample scope, Cambridge, literally a 
suburb, must be mentioned in the 
first place. It has been the home of 



Longfellow, Holmes, Russell, 
Lowell, and other noted American 
citizens ; but above all it is of great 
interest as one of the two academic 
cities of North America, and the seat 
of Harvard Ifnirersity. It was first 
called Newtown and settled soon 
after the Boston colonj', but subse- 
(]uently called Cambridge in honour 
of the University in England, where 
John Harvard, the founder of the 
University, and other leaders had 
studied. Founded in 1636 by Rev. 
John Harvard, and incorporated 
1650, it is the oldest and most richly 
endowed in America. Besides its 
collegiate department, it has depart- 
ments for law, medicine, dentistry, 
science, art and theology. In 1880-81 
it had 220 teachers, andL about 1,4(K) 
students. The University lands 
comprise over 60 acres, and contain 
18 academical buildings, shaded 
with fine elms and other trees. The 
finest is Memorial Hall, in memory 
of the stvidents who fell in the War of 
Secession. It is large and well im)- 
portioned, and 2(K) feet high. The 
Great Hill is the principal apart- 
ment, 104 feet by 60 feet. In the 
Vestibule are the tablets of the stu- 
dents (136) who fell in the war. The 
Theatre holds 1,300 persons. The 
University Library, a Gothic build- 
ing known as Gore Hall in form of 
a La.tin cross, has a groined n^of 35 
feet high, and contains about 150,000 
books, while the University has 
about 100,000 more in different other 
halls. The Governing body of the 
University consists of one President 
and.six Fellows, and a board of over- 
seers, who meet in University Hall. 
There are i7 Professorships. The 
course extends over four years. 

The old house, also called 
Bishop's Palace, nearly opposite Gore 
Hall, was General Burgoine's head- 
quarters in 1777. On the common is 
the venerable Christ Church. Near 
the college-yard are the Zoological 
Museum and Gymnasium, and north- 
west the Botanical Gardens and Oi- 
servatory. On the common in front 
of Shepard Memorial Church is the 
Wash ington Elm, under which Wash- 
ington assumed the command of the 
Americans in 1775. It is thought t 
be over 300 years old. 

To Charleston, -north, of Boston and 
accessible by the tramways from 
Scollay-square, is the Famous Bv.n- 



^m 



48 



HRADSHAW S L'MTED STATI'.S. 



Ni 



ker Hill Monument, on the site 
of the old redoubt at Breed's Hill, 
and commemorative of the battle 
fought on June 17, 1775. It is an 
obelisk of Quincy granite, 30 ft 
square at the l)ase and 221 feet 
high. The observatory on the top 
gives a magnificent view, including 
the entire environs of Boston. The 
Navy Yard is also at Charleston, 
it extends over 100 acres, and 
has among other objects of interest 
the longest rope walk in the States. 
The immense drj"- dock should be in- 
spected. Other points hxq Brighton, 
celebrated for its cattle market, 
Point Shirley, liecere - Beach, and 
Chelsea Brookline, a beautiful town, 
reached by the Mill Dara from Bos- 
ton. It is famous for the Reservoirs 
of the Boston Water Supply being 
situated here. The most celebrated 
is the Chestnut Hill Reservoir (capa- 
city 800 million gallons), and round 
it is the favourite drive of Bostoni- 
ans. 

Reached by New York and New 
Haven Air Line, and New York and 
New England Railways, from New 
York, in 8J hours. 

Boulder (Co/orarfo).— Near Golden, 
and Canon City ; population (18S0), 
3,000. 

Hotels : Colorado and Boulder. 

A mining town, which is only 
interesting for its proximity to 
Boulder Canon and The Falls, Peabody 
Springs, Belmont Iron Works, Ei'e 
Coal Mines, and Gold Hill. Th^ 
Canon is a stupendous mountain 
gorge, 17 miles long, with almost per- 
pendicular solid rock walls, rising in 
Rome places to about 3,000 feet. A 
rushing mountain stream runs in the 
middle, finding its course here and 
there impeded by huge blocks of rock 
or fallen trees, making the scene 
especially weird and picturesque. 
The Falls of Boulder Creek are about 8 
miles ahead, with a mining settlement 
close by. 

Reached by Union Pacific (Denver 
Pacific Branch) Railway, from Denver, 
in 2s hours. 

Bowling Green (Kentucky).— Seat 
of Warren County; population 
(1880), 5,000. 

Hotels : Merchants, American, 
Morehead House, Potter. 



Is situated on th(5 Big Bu-ren 
River, at the head of navigation, 
and is chiefly interested in agricul- 
ture, manufacture and commerce. 
During the Civil Wars it wasa i)oint 
of strategic importance for defend- 
ing the appi'oach to Nashville. 

Reached by Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from Louisville, via 
Elizabethtown, in i hours. 

Bozeman {Monia7ia).—SeAt of Bozo- 
man County; pooulation (1880), 
2,500. 

Hotels : Yellowstone, County. 

A very busy and prosperous town 
on one of the affluents of the Mis- 
souri River. The Yellowstone Park 
was reached from here by diligences 
before the completion of the rail- 
way. It has extensive interests in 
coal, gold, silver, iron and cojjper 
mines, and several flour and saw 
mills, and is rapidly increasing in 
commercial importance and popula- 
tion. It has a Court House, six 
theatres and public halls, five 
churches, tlii'ee banks, and the Land 
Office Buildings are worth visiting. 
Close by is Fort Ellis. 

Reached by Northern Pacific 
Railway, from St. Paul, in 36 hours. 

Bradford (Pennsyh-auia). — Mac- 
Kean County; population (1880), 
9,200. 

Hotels: Henderson, St. James, 
Burt, Aiken. 

A very busy manufacturing town 
on the junction of four railways, 
principally engaged in glass and 
furniture manufacture and petro- 
leum refineries. There is an Opera 
House, 

Reached by Bradford, Bordell, 
and Kinzua Railway, from Wells- 
ville, via Bolivar, in 4 hours. 



(Minnesota). — 136 miles 
Paul; population (1880), 



Brainerd 

from St. 
10,000. 

Hotels: City, European. 

Very pleasantly situated, and regu- 
larly built, on the Mississippi and at 
the junction of main line and branch 
line of St. Paul of Northern Pacific 
Railway. It lies in the midst of the 
great Minnesota pine forests, and is 
a very busy and thriving place. It 



IIOULDER — BRIDGEPOUT. 



49 



Hji'tcu 
/igatiou, 
agricul- 
mmerce. 
,8 a point 
■ defend- 
He. 

id Nash- 
ville, via 



, of Uo/.G- 
i (1880), 

mty. 

3US town 
the Mis- 
")ne Park 
ili^enccs 
the rail- 
erests in 
i copper 
and saw 
sasing in 
I poi>ula- 
nige, six 
tils, Ave 
the Land 
visiting. 

Pacific 
JG hours. 



— Mac- 

(1880), 

James, 

|ng town 
>ilways, 
iS and 
petro- 
m Opera 

iBordell, 
Wells. 



16 miles 
(1880), 



idregu- 
|i and at 
1 branch 
Pacific 
it of the 
and is 
je. It 






\ 



has extensive railway car and ma- 
chinery repair shops, occupying as 
many as 1,200 men. It has many 
fine i)uilding8, is lighted Ijy electri- 
city, and has a fine Opera Houxe. 
The Northern Pacific Hospital is also 
worth inspection. There are also 
three public parks, many churches, 
schools, &c. A great centre for shoot- 
ing nnd fishing excursions. 

Reached by Northern Pacific, from 
St. Paul, in 4^ hours. 

Brandon( T>r»j6»f).— Near Rutland ; 
population (1880), 3,500. 

Hot eh : Brandon, Rutland. 

A very pleasantly-situated village, 
amidst fine scenery, which attracts 
a great many visitors in sum- 
mer. It has some manufacturing 
interests, with marble quarries, iron 
ore and kaolin mines. There are 
several factories for mineral paint. 
Lake Dunmore is near Salisbury, 10 
miles distant. 

Reached by Central Vermont 
Railway, from Montreal, via Bm*- 
lington, in 5i hours. 

Branford {Connecticut).— 82 miles 
from New York; population (1830), 
3,500. 

Hotels: Double Beach, Branford 
Point. 

Only noted for having in its 
limits Branford Point, a summer 
and sea bathing resort. About 
half-a-dozen other hotels along the 
sea shore. Indian Neck and Stoney 
Creek, near by, arc good places for 
boating and fishing. 

Reached by New York and New 
Haven Railway, from New York, in 
85 hours. 



Branford {Florida). — Suwanneo 
County ; population, 1,000. 

Hotels: Branford. 

Pleasantly situated on the Suwan- 
nee River, at the head of the navi- 
gation. It has some commercial 
and manufacturing interests. It has 
twice weekly steamboat communi- 
cation with Cedar Keys and Key 
West. 

Reached by Florida, Central and 
Western Railway, from Jacksons- 
ville, vid Houstoun, in 3i hours. 



Brattleboro ( Vermont) . — 43 miles 
from Northampton ; population 
(1880), 4,470. 

Hotels: Brattleboro, Brook's. 

A very finely situated and hand- 
somely built community, on the 
west bank of the Connecticut and 
mouth of Whetstone Creek. 
Much frequented as a summer 
resort on account of its magnificent 
scenery and pleasant drives. A fine 
view from Cenutert/ Hill (monu- 
ment of J. Fif"- , .i" a.) The Insane 
Asylum and I'J-^iey Cottage Organ 
Works, besides numerous other 
factories, make the place very busy. 
On the other bank of the river is the 
pretty town of Hinsdale (by bridge). 

Reached by Central Vermont and 
New London Northern Railway, 
from New London, via Norwich, 
in 65 hours. 

Brenham {Texas).— ^eoi of Wash- 
ington County; population (1880), 
4,200. 



Hotels , 
Central. 



Exchange, Pennington, 



Advantageously situated on the 
crossing of the Houston and Texas 
Central and Gulf, Colorado and 
Santa F«5 Railway. Commercial 
and agricultural pursuits. There 
is an Opera House and several pub- 
c halls. 

Reached by Houston and Texas 
Central Railway, from Galveston, 
in 5i hours. 

Bridgeton {New Jersey) .— Seat of 
Cumberland County; population 
(1880), 8,750. 

Hotels : Davis's, City. 

/ maritime port on both sides of 
of the Cohausey River. Has an 
Opera House and several public 
halls, and is largely occupied in 
manufacturing and agricultural 
pursuits. 

Reached by New Jersey Southern 
Railway, from New York, viA 
Barneagat, in 5^ hours. 

Bridgeport (Connecticut). — Fair- 
field County ; population (1880), 
29,200. 

Hotels : Sterhng, Atlantic. 

Situated on an island of Long 



50 



JJUADSIIAW S UNITKD STATKS. 



Isi.inl C>,und, in tho mouth of the 
Pe luonnock River. It has very 
large manufacturing intoi'ests, and 
is increasing rapidly. Sewing 
macliines and hardware are the 
principal manufactures. It is 
handsomely built, and the x'esidential 
part is on GoMen Hill. It has an 
Op/'fu House, 8 banks, 15 churches, 
and 2 <Uily newspapers. 

Reached by HousAtonic Railway, 
from N'ow York, via New Haven, in 
'i hours. 

Bridgton (AfaiMe).— Near Portland; 
population (ISSO), 1,000. 

Hut 'Is : Lake House. 

A small village, coming into pro- 
minence for its vicinity to lir'ulijfon 
Centre, which is becoming a favour- 
ite summer resort. There are seve- 
ral small lakes, and Pleasant Mouh' 
tain gives a fine view. 

Reached by Boston and Maine 
Railway, from Portland, in half an 
hour. 

Brighton and West Brighton 

{New York). — On Coney Island. 

Hotels : Engemann's, Vandeveer's 
aiul Norton's at West Brighton; also 
the Elepluxnt Hotel. 

A very much frequented sea bath 
on the east end of Coney Island. 
Au Iron Pier extends over 1,000 
feet into the sea, with restau- 
rants, bath houses, music pavilion 
and promenades. The Elephant 
Hoid, built in the shape of 
an elephant, is a curiosity. An 
observatory, 300 feet high, affords 
an extensive view. There is an 
aquarium, pavilion, show booths, 
etc., giving the place an air of a 
huge fair. Music on the plaza 
twice daily. The Ocean Parkway 
Drive from Brooklyn ends here. 

Reached by Brooklyn, Flatbush, 
and Coney Island Railway, from 
Brooklyn," in half an hour. 

Bristol {Tennessee). — Sullivan 
County ; population (1880), 3,000. 

Hotels: Thomas, Virginia. 

A lively and busy manufacturing 
town on the frontier of Tennessee 
and Virginia ; little of interest to 
the tourist. The surroundings are 
picturesque. 



Reached by Norfolk and Western 
Railway, from Norfolk, via Lynch- 
burg, in 15 hours. 

Bristol {Pennsylvania). — Bucka 
County; population (1880), 5,600. 

Hotels: Delaware, Classen, Cot- 
tage, Railroad. 

A thriving commercial and manu- 
facturing community on the Dela- 
ware River opposite Burlington, 
and at the terminus of the Delaware 
Division of Pennsylvania Canal, 
offers little to the tourist. There are 
two public halls. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way (New York Branch), from New 
York, via Jei'sey City, in 2 hours. 

Brooklyn {New York).— King's 
County; population (1880), 570,000. 

Hotels: Mansion House, Pierrc- 
pont, Brooklyn Heights, Clinton. 

Restaurants : Habel's, Dieter's. 

Ferries: Wall-street Ferry, Fulton 
Ferry, and South Ferry. The best is 
Fulton Ferry, as it communicates 
with Brooklyn tramways. Besides 
these principal ones there are about 
half-a-dozen others. But visitors 
will prefer to either walk or cross 
by steam car the Ectst Eiver or 
Brooklyn Bridge, the latter a ■wonder 
of engineering skill. 

Conveyances: Tramways from. Ful- 
ton-street to all parts of the town 
(fare 5 ct°.) ; Steam Cars are running 
on Atlant c-avenue, and afford rapid 
transit (5 cts.), with stations everj- 
few blocks ; Hackney Carriages must 
be arranged for by the drive. 

Post Office : Washington-street, 
near City Hall. 

Medical: Dr.Muiioz, Dr. Stephens. 

Dentist : Dr. Clark. 

Brooklyn, though really a portion 
or suburb of New York, in 
virtue of its being the third 
largest town of the United State.s, 
claims more than a passing notice. 
From its accessibility and the 
moderate rent of its houses com- 
pared with New York, it is a 
favourite place of residence with 
New York business men. The nu- 
merous and elegant churches, pubUc 
buildings, and magnificent private 
dwellings render it equally fashion- 



1 



IJlULKilON— HROWXSVILLE. 



51 



I Western 
d Lynch- 



— liucka 
), 5,600. 

son, Cot- 

nd manu- 
the Dela- 
irlington, 
Delaware 
a Canal, 
rherc are 

nia Rail- 
rom New 
hours. 

- King's 
I, 570,000. 

5, Pierre- 
linton. 

eter's. 

•y, Fulton 
he best is 
aunicates 
I Besides 
ire about 
visitors 

or cross 
"River or 

wonder 

cm Ful- 
le town 
running 
rd rapid 
is everj- 
yea must 
e. 

i-street, 
ephens. 

portion 
rk, in 
third 
States, 
notice, 
id the 
corn- 
is a 
e with 
?he nu- 
, public 
jrivato 
lishion- 



ablc. Fulton street and avenue, i 
Flatbush and Clinton avenues arc ' 
fine thoroughfares. It is situated j 
across the East River, and at the 
west end of Long Island, on rising 
and undulating ground. Settled ir. i 
1625, near Wallabout Bay l)y Wal- 
loons, some events of the Revolu- 
tionary war give interest to some of 
its localities. The battle of Long 
Island was fought at the back of the 
town on the heights, where the 
united forces were defeated by the 
English with a loss of 2,(XH) out of 
5,000. 

Frospect Park is well laid out, 
and the favourite drive is the 
Ocean Parkway, extending to 
Coney Island. Some magnificent 
views are obtained from here. 

The Suspension Bridge, which is the 
principal object of interest, connects 
Brooklyn with New York. Its 
length, comnrencing in New York, 
opposite the City Hall, is 6,000 feet, 
and its width 85 feet. The stone 
towers are 268 feet high, and the 
width of span 1,600 feet. From high 
water mark to the bridge the height 
is 135 feat. Begun in 1871, its con- 
struction has taken 14 years, at a 
total cost of about 17,000,000 dols. 

The City Hall (corner of Court 
and Fulton streets) and Court House 
are close by. The latter is built 
of marble and in the Corinthian 
order of architecture. The Nacy 
Yard covers over -iO acres. The Dry 
Dock is worth inspecting. Several 
vessels may be seen on the stocks 
half completed for years. The 
Marine Hospital on \Valla])0Ut Bay. 
The Atlantic Dock, fronting Go- 
vernor's Island, with long granite 
piers and immense warehouses, 
should be visited. The Catholic 
Cathedral (Vanderbilt - avenue), 
Plymouth Church (Orange-street), 
Church of the Pilgrims (Remsen- 
Street) and Holy Trinity Church 
(Clinton-street) are among the most 
noteworthy in this City of Churches 
(nearly 250 in all in Brooklyn). 

The Municipal Buildings or Totcn 
Hall, next to the Court House, Long 
Island Historical Society Building in 
Pierrepont-street, the New Park 
Theatre, Court Square and Haverley^s 
Theatre and Academy of Music 
are all buildings attracting atten- 
tion. The Mercantile Library, with 
60,000 volumes aind fine reading 



rooms, ou Montague-s-treet, as ul^o 
the AcddeDiy of Design, same street, 
the County Prison in Raymond 
street, tlie Youny Men's Christian 
Association, the Penitentiary ii\ Nost- 
rand-avonuc, and Long Island Colli gt 
Hospital in Heniy -street ax'e wo "th 
a visit. 

The Washington Park (;J0 acrc>«), 
between Myrtle and do Kalb 
Avenues, was the site of extensive 
fortifications during the War of In- 
dependence, of which Fort (Jrceno 
was the principal. It has some very 
fine views. Greenwood Cvimttry (by 
cars from Hamilton Ferry), said to 
be the most beautiful in the world, 
on Gowanus Height, extends over 
500 acres, and was opened in lKi:i. 
It is beautifully laid out, an<l can be 
taken as a model for similar es- 
tablishments. Its main entrance, 
in Fifth-avenue and Twenty-third- 
street, is a very fine structnre. Ex- 
tensive views are afforded by the 
hills, and the extent of carriage 
drives is above 19 miles, the foot- 
paths being 17. There are some su- 
perior monuments, of which we men- 
tion Charlotte Canda's, Firemen'^, 
Pilots, Mad Poet's (Mac Donald 
Clark), etc. The bestimiu'cssion tVn- 
a visitor will be obtaii;ed from the 
main avenue, called '^' The Tour.'' 
Four miles on the east of Green- 
wood Cemetery are the Cyprers Hllh 
and Evergreens Cemetery. 

P^xcursions to Brighton, West 
Brighton, Coney Islanil, Rockaway 
Beach, and Manhattan Beaches by 
frequent trains (see these). 

Reached from New York, by ferry 
boat from Fulton-street, in 20 
minutes. 

Brockton {Massachusetts). — Near 
Boston; population (18S0), 13,008. 

Hotels: Hollbrook, Brockton, 
Winters. 

A most thriving town, with exten- 
sive furnicure, shoe and carriage 
v.'orks, but of little inlerost to the 
tourist. 

Reached by Old Colony Railway, 
from Boston, via Braintree, in one 
hour. 

Brownsville {Tennessee) .—T a it of 
Harwojd County ; population (1880), 
2,500. 
Hotels: Gait, Exchange. 






IHLVDSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



1: 



A thriving manufacturing town, 
with cotton mills, commercial and 
agricultural intci-ests. There i.s an 
Opera House with 1,(XX) seats and 
some C'lurt Buildings. 

Reached hy Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from Louisville, in 11 
hours. 



Brunswick {G corn in). — Seat of 
Glynn County ; population 3,500. 

lloteh : The Nelson. 

Situated on St. Simon's Sound at 
the mouth of the Turtle River, it 
hfls a charming ])osition and i.s 
principally engaged in timber, 
cotton, and commission business. 
The town has nothing worthy of 
attraction. 

Reached by Erunswick and West- 
ern Railway, from All)any, via Way- 
cross, in 8 hours. 



Brunswick (3/rtjH<'). -Androscoggin 
County; population (1880), 2,.oOO. 

Hotels : Brunswick. 

Bankers: First Naticmal Bank. 

Medical: Dr. R. B. Bibl)er, Dr. 
Fuller. 

Advantageously situated at the 
head of the tide-water on Andros- 
coggin River ; it is a thriving town, 
principally noteworthy for the Bow- 
doin College, with a picture gallery, 
standing in a beautiful grove of old 
pine-trees. It is worth inspection. 
It is principally occupied in manu- 
facture. 

Reached by Boston and Maine, 
from Portland, in 1| hours. 



Bryan (Texas). — Seat of Brazos 
County; population (1880), 2,790. 

Hotels: Campbell, Barnett, AVal- 
dron. Commercial, Prima Vista. 

A thriving commercial com- 
munity on the Houston and Texas 
Central Railway, and rapidly in- 
creasing. There is an Opera. House 
and an Academy o/ilfw«ic, each with 
500 seats, but little else of interest 
to the tourist. 

Reached by Houston and Texas 
Rftilway, from Houston, «?»<? Hemp- 
stead, in 4 J hours. 



Brynmawr {Pennsulra)iia).—^\x\Q 
miles from Philadelphia; popula- 
tion (1880), 500. 

Hotels: The Brynmawr. 

A rising and very fashionnble 
summer resort. The surrounding 
country is beautifully laid out in 
charming walks and drives. A 
graded avenue extends toFairmount 
Park, near Philadelphia, uniting 
there with Bclmont-avenuo iU 
principal drive. The Railway Sta- 
tion is remarkably elegant. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from Philadelphia, in half an 
hour. 

Bucyrus (0/«o.)— Seat of Crawford 
County; population, 4,000. 

Hotels: Deal, Western, Monnett. 

A thriving place on the Sandusky 
River, with large manufacturing 
and commercial pursuits. There 
are several mineral springs, and a 
well of inflammable gas in the neigh- 
bourhood. A well-i)reserved sj^eci- 
men of a Mastodon was found here 
in 1838. There is a public hall with 
600 seats. 

Reached by Ohio Central Rail- 
way, from East Tolec o, via Berwick, 
in 3 hours. 

Buffalo {Netv Fort).— Seat of Eri« 
County; population (1880), 156,0(K). 

Hotels: Genesee, Mansion, Tifft, 
Bloomer, Bonney, Continental and 
St. James'. 

Conveyances: Tramways, through 
principal streets and to suburbs 
(5 cts.), diligences to surrounding 
country towns. Steamboats to the 
principal ports on the lakes. 

heading Rooms : At Young Men's 
Christian Association in Main- 
street. 

Clubs : Union, Sporting. 

Theatres and Amusements : St. 
James, Academy of Music, Adelphia 
Hall. 

Music Hall: Main-street. 

Post Office : Corner of Washington 
and Seneca streets. 

Bankert: First National Bank. 

Doctors : Dr. Graves, Dr. Bevan. 

Buffalo is the third town in size in 
the State of New York. It is situ- 



BRUNSWICK — BURLINGTON. 



53 



;//f/).— Nino 
ia; populil- 

-r. 

fashionnMo 
urroundmtr 
laid out ill 
drives. A 
• Fair mount 
ia, iinitiiicr 
avenue iu 
fiilway Sla- 
nt. 

ania Rail- 
in half an 



f Crawford 
X), 

, Monnett. 
Sandusky 
ufaeturin^ 
s. Thero 
igs, and a 
Ltheneiffh- 
•ved speci- 
fouud hero 
c hall with 

tral Rail- 
I Berwick, 



t of Eri» 
156,0(X). 

on, Tifft, 
3ntal and 

throucfh 
suburbs 
•oundinfT 
ts to the 

5. 

ig Men's 
Main- 



nh: St. 
Adelphiu 



hington 

ank. 

Bevan. 

size in 
is situ- 



i 



:itL-d :it the eastern extremity of 
Lake Krie and western terminus of 
the Krie Ciinal.on Buffalo Creek, and 
head of Niayara River, and is the 
centre of 11 railways. Its harl)our 
is the lar<rest and safest on the lake, 
and its wator front is Ave miles lonjf. 
Its diief element of business is the 
naviication on the lake, but its 
manufactures arc also im])ortant, 
embracing,' brass, iron, tin, antl 
eo])per wares. Malting and ))rew- 
ini; form another very important 
J)ranch. The linKinn or Dockg, ffie 
WhnrvPM, Grain Elrc(tfor», and some 
of the iron works arc very interest- 
ins?, and should l)c visited. The 
very iMrire ]>assent;er stations of 
Central and Krie Railways, and 
their freight stations of immense 
size, shouM likewise be inspected. 

It was founded iu ISOI l)y the New 
Holland Land Company, sacked 
and burned by Indian and ?]nglish 
forces in 1814, re-built in 1815, and 
incorporated iu 1832. Since the 
termination of the Ph'ie Canal its 
increase has Ijeon verj- rapid. 

The chief thoroughfares are Main- 
Kfrcet, N'uiijtira and Delaware gtreetx. 
The lower part of the first is in the 
business quarter, and the upper 
part is occupied by private resi- 
dences, the majority having fine 
lawns and gardens in front. The 
town is handsomely built, with 
broad and straight streets crossing 
at right angles. Some beautiful 
residences in the upper part of the 
town are worthy of notice, and 
the system of Parkways, which 
has been laid out in the new 
quarters, connecting many of the 
principal squares with each other, 
and the Park (530 acres) adorned 
with fine V)ridges, fountains, and 
drives, should be visited. Near the 
river, on a hill 60 feet high with 
rery fine views, is old Fort Porter, 
where several companies of in- 
fantry are stationed. 

The principal buildings are : — 
The City Hall and Court House, of 
granite, erected in 1880; the Custom 
House and Post Office ; the Youiicr 
Men's Christian Association building 
(Pearl-street) ; the Arsenal, in 
Broadway; the General Hospital 
(High-street) ; the State Armoury 
(Virginia-street) ; the Penitentiary 
(High-street) ; St. Paul's Cathedral 
(Pearl-street) ; and St. Joseph's 



Cathedral (Franklin-strect), are 
very line, amongst a great many 
others. iS7. Jose/ih's (back of cathe- 
dral), Ciinisins (WashingKm-street), 
and Meiliral Colleges (Main-street) 
are among the leading educational 
institutions of the town and occupy 
handsome preniises ; the Buffalo 
Foiiale Acadenty (Delaware-street), 
the Jltafhrofe School (Pearl-street), 
and St. Mary's Aradenn/ (in Church- 
street), and the State Jfunual School, 
iTi North-street are also fine. The 
Jiiiffalo Jlistoricdl Socii /,y and Society 
of JVdfural Sciences, have largo 
libraries and valual)le collections. 
The Grosa nor Library (Main-street), 
with about 12,000 " volumes, was 
founded and endowed by SethGros- 
venor, a citizen of Buffalo. The 
l)ooks are said to be very rare 
H])ecimens. The Inyleside Home for 
Fallon Women (Seneca-strrect), the 
Church Charity Foundation (Rliotle 
Island-street) for Aged Women and 
Orphans, the Orphan Asylum (Vir- 
ginia-street) and several others are 
the principal charity institutions 
and worth a notice. The State 
Lunatic Asylum (near ButtaloPark) 
in grounds of 203 acres, with a 
frontage of 2,7(X) feet, will be the 
largest of its kind when finished. 
(Visiting day : Thursdays). 

The International Bridge over 
Niagara River was comi)'leted iu 
1873, is an immense structure, 
and serves four railway companies. 
Pleasant di'ives to Forest Lawn 
Cemetery, Black Itock and Fort 
Frie. .Niagara Falls are 22 miles 
distant. 

Reached V>y Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna and Western Railway, 
from New York, via Scranton, in 
15 hours. 



Burlington (Iowa). •-Seat of Des- 
moines County; population (1880), 
19,450. 

Hotels : Gorham, Barrett, Union. 

Finely situated on the Mississippi 
River ; it is one of the largest towns 
in Iowa, and of great commercial 
importance,with manufacturing and 
agricultural interests. The business 
part is upon low ground along the 
bank of the river, but the residences 
are on some hills behind, and have 
some fine views of the river scenery. 
It is a beautiful town, connected 



u 



I? R A DSII A W S U X IT K D STAT ES . 



|tl 






with Eiutt Bio'liti;)toa hy an iron 
Raihcay Jirith/e acroHis tlie river, of 
superb dimensions. The river is 
hero a broad and bcantiful stream, 
and tho liills on ))oth bankf* arc 
covered with orchards and vine- 
yards. It is re;iiilarly built and 
\aid out, and contains an Vniceritlii/ 
(Baptist), attracting many students, 
a commcrcinl collojjfe, several 
churches, and a i)ublic library. 
Tho Ontifit Opera and New Opera 
House, Mozart and Union Hall are 
noteworthy buildings. 

Reached hy Chicago, Burlinjjrfou 
and Quincy Railway, from St. 
Louis, eld Keokuk, in 10 houi's. 

Burlington {New Jemei/). — IJuv- 
lington County; population (iHHO), 
7,700. 

Hotels : Atkinson's, Belden's, 
Lutphen's. 

Pleasantly situated on the Dela- 
ware, oppos'iteBristol, Pennsylvania, 
and has a prosjjcrous trade in shoe, 
iron manufactures, and aprricul- 
tural produce. Some handsome 
churches and school buildings, and 
JiurlingtoH College (Episcopal) is 
worth a visit. Opera House and 
City Hall arc other prominent build- 
iuffs. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way (Aiiiboy Division), from Phila- 
delphia, in li hours. 

Burlington {Vermont). — ^etyi of 
Chittenden County ; populatioii 
(1880), 12,000. 

Hotels: Van Ness, American, 
Quincy. 

This, the larcrest town in Vermont, 
is situated on Burlington Baj'', east 
coast of Lake Champlain, and is a 
])ort of entry. Its ]josition on a hill 
above the lake is beaiitiful. First 
settled in 1783, it has since become 
one of the greatest timber markets 
of the country. The approach from 
the lake, as it is built in the form of 
an amphitheatre, is exceedingly 
picturesque. Tho mills preparing 
timber for market are extensive 
and numerous, and tho number of 
articles of manufactured wood is 
very extensive. Also cotton mills 
and marble quarries, etc. The Uni. 
versity on the top of the hill is the 



principal building, eii Iwwod Iiy the 
State, with a grant of 20,(KK>aLTes()f 
laud, and is ^elf-supporting ; used 
during the War of Independeiict! as 
an arsenal and bairacks. Burnt in 
1N21 and rel)Jiilt iti siuiio year, (Jen. 
Lafayette layiiiir the corner 
stone. Library, 17,*K)0 volumes, and 
a collection of u(t,(HM> spcciinoiis in 
natural history. The viov.- froTu 
the dome is ciiohauting. The IHI' 
lings Lihrarg near b^' is a fi'iv struc- 
ture. The Cathedral of St. .\farg 
nm\ St. PanTs Church aro line 
churches, aininr,'' many othov>. On 
the puVdic sciuare, in ctntre oi' town, 
are the Court Honfe, l'o»t OJh'ri, and 
Custom House, as also the Flffcher 
Library and City Hall, Opt ra House 
on Church-street, the Haibvay Sta- 
tion near the wharf, are all fine 
buildings. The Frocide.ice Orphan 
Asylum and Lal-e View Retreat are 
leading charital )le institutions. The 
Agricultural College, now united with 
the University, has a library of 
20,000 volumes. Lake Vnw Cctuctery 
and fjrreen Mot' lit Cemetery are botti 
worth a visit. An excursion should 
be made to the adjoining village 
of Winooski, close to High Bridge, 
with a beautiful canon. Burlington 
is also the seat of a Bishopric. From 
the hills the view embraces Lake 
Champlain, the Adiroudacks, and 
Green Mountains, 

Reached by Central Vermont and 
New London Northern Railway, 
from New York, via Montpellier, in 
4 hours. 



Cairo {Illinois).— Sieat of Alexander 
County; population (1880), 9,000. 

Hotels: Planter's, HuUiday, Ar- 
lington, St. Charles. 

Bankers : First National Bank. 

Medical: Dr. George Parker, Dr. 
W. R. Smith. 

Sitiiated at the southern point of 
Illinois, on the confluence of the 
Ohio SiV^d ^Mississippi, on a low 
Etretch of land, subject to inun- 
dations, and hence very unhealthy. 
This probably accounts for the 
decadence of the place. Vast sums 
of money were expended upon 
improvements in levees and dams ; 
during the Civil War it was an im- 
portaiit depot for supplies. Tho 
Custom House, Opera House, and 



15LKMNT.T0N— CAMSTOtlA. 



55 



ImWo;! by thu 
.'(),(KH»a;.T«.'H()f 
nviiu^ ; used 
;])eii(le!H'e jis 
C8. Hiinit ill 
10 year, (icii. 
the curner 
rolumos, and 
■ipeciiiitMis ill 
' view from 

itr. The n;f. 

I a fv.vj s:vm-. 
iif St. Miti'ff 
vh me fine 
■ others. C)n 
:itreoi" town, 
'«^ 0/^"'< , and 

the Fletcher 
Ojiffii Jfouse 
Biilln-tn/ Std- 
are all fine 
Jcice Of/ihiiji 

Jtetreat are 
.utions. The 
*• united with 
\ libraiy of 

i(ic Cciiiiiery 
ir>f are both 
rsion should 
v.n^ villa{?e 
iigh Bridge, 

Burlington 

opric. Prom 

■aces Lake 

ducks, and 

jrmont and 
Railway, 
itpellicr, in 



Alexander 
0), 9,0()0. 

iday, Ar- 

1 Bank, 
'arker, Dr. 

point of 
ice of the 
m a low- 
to inun- 
nhealthy. 
for the 
'ast sums 
ed upon 
d dams ; 
s an im- 
es. The 






tuse. 



and 



Cult nil/ Bn'ldiu<j», ami a few others 
are noteworthy, but the place pre- 
isentH few attrnctious. Intended by 
its fouTideis to become an ciuporium, 
it never attained greatness, and is 
now chioHy occupied in manufac- 
turing and commih^ion business. It 
is cuunected by a steam ferry with 
('olumbu^j oppoHite, and is also a 
shopping pbicc of the Ohio and 
Mississippi River Steamers. 

leached by Illinois Central 
h'.ilwuy, from (Jhii ago, in 9 hours. 

Calaveras Qrove {Californ'm).— 
Calaveras Countj', near Stockton 
and Sonorn, whence it is reached 
by diligences or carriages in 5 
hours. 
Jlofeh : Mammotli Grove. 
Situated IG miles from Murphy's 
Camp, and being the first dis- 
covered, most accessible, and having 
the hotel close by, this is the most 
frequently resorted to of the Groves 
in this country. It is also the most 
extensive and has the largest trees. 
It covers n space 3,200 feet long by 
7(X) feet broad and lies in a valley, 
watered b.v a brook which is dry in 
summer. There are 00 or 100 large 
t- es and a great number of small 
wues. Several have fallen, one was 
cut down, and one is without its l)ark 
to the height of UG feet. The bark 
was exhibited at the Crystal Palace, 
London ; but burnt during the fire 
there some years ago. Those two 
trees were the talle;?t, and now the 
tallest standing is called "Keystone 
State," and the largest and finest 
is the " Empire State." The largest 
in circumference, "Mother of the 
Forest," is Gl feet outside the 
bark at sis feet above the ground. 
The Grove is 4,759 feet above the 
level of the sea. The " Keystone 
State " tree attains to a height of 
325 feet, ami four others are above 
300 feet, and 93 trees are of very 
large size. Five men were occupied 
22 dp..ys in cutting the tree down, 
and after it had been dismembered, 
the five men employed three days 
in bringing it to fall. Its bark 
was 18 inches thick. This tree 
was calculated to be 1,300 j-'esirs 
old. On the stump a pavilion with 
a capacious room has been erected. 
This is the finest Grove, the Mari- 
}m»a Qrove and StamsJiui» or South 



Grove trees not reaching 3(H> feet. 
No touri.st while in the noighliour- 
hood should omit visiting it. 

Reached by Southern Pacific Rail- 
way, from Sacramento, to Stockt( ii 
aiul S(m(ni«, iiiGi hours. 

Caldwell {Xnr I'tyrA-) .— Warren 
County; i)opulati(m (InhO), .'ioo. 

Jlntrln: Lake llotisc, Fort William 
I!enry, ('ari)enter's. Nelson's, and 
i'ort (ieorge. 

A small village at the south end 
of Lake George, chietiy noted for 
its hotels, and much fre(iucnted in 
summer. The site of old Fort 
William Henry is now occupied by 
the hotel, fiom whose piazzas a 
magnificent view is obtained ; some 
of the remnants are still visible, and 
thei)ictures(iue ruins of Fgrt George 
are about ha If-a-mile south-east, and 
the view from here embraces 
French and Prospect Mountains 
and Rattlesnake Hill. Fishing and 
boating ff)rm the chief pastimes 
during the summer holidays. 
The scenery of Luki' Gcorrje is very 
charming and (piiet, and on its 
borders are seveial i)laces of his- 
toric and natural interest. 

Reached by Delaware and IIu'l- 
son Canal Railway, from Saratt)ga, 
in 2 hours. 



Calistoga ( CaViforuUi ). — Lake 
County ; population (1880), (i67. 

Hotels: Cosmopolitan, Magnolia. 

A very pretty and charmingly 
situated town, in a narrow valley, 
surrounded by mountains and hills 
covered with' forests. It has good 
drinking water, and some bath 
houses supplied by neighbouring 
springs. Large tepid swimming 
bath, 40 feet s(juare. The scenery 
is nnsurpassingly i)icturesque, the 
cultivation in the low lands con- 
trasting agrceabl.y with the wild- 
ness of the rugged mountains. 
There are numerous springs in the 
vicinity, amongst which tohite stil- 
phtir »pri)igs, JIarbiii'K, and others 
arc worth visiting. The Petrified 
Forest, one of the great natural 
wonders of California, lies five miles 
S.E., and the celebrated Geyser 
Begion is reached by diligence from 
here, leaving dail.v. There are a 
great number of hot and boiling 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



I ' I 



'»! I 



springs, coutaining mostly sul])hur, 
magnesia, aluminium, and various 
salts of iron No visitor should 
omit to visit this region. 

Reached by California Pacific 
Railway, from San Francisco, via 
Napa City, in 2 houx's. 

Calvert {Texas). — Seat of Robertson 
County; population (1880), 2,:300. 

Hoteh: Calvert, City. 

A thriving commercial and manu- 
facturing community on the Hous- 
ton and Texas Central Railway. 
There are two public Halh and 
Court and Town Hall buildings, 
but little to interest the tourist. 

Reached by Houston and Texas 
Central Railway, from Houston, via 
Hempstead, in 6 hours. 

Camden {yew Jersey).— Sea.t of 
Camden County; population (1880), 
41,650. 

Hotels : West Jersey. 

Situated on the Delaware River 
opposite Philadelphia, with which 
it is connected by five ferries. 
There are extensive shipyards, and 
manufactories of iron, glass, chemi- 
cals. A very thriving timber 
trade is also carried oia. It is 
a rapidly increasing city. There 
is an Opera House and several 
other public halls. The Court House 
and City Hall offer nothing striking. 
The largest steel pen manufactory 
of the States is here. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from New York, -li \\ hours. 

Canandai^ua {New York).— Seat 
of Ontario County; population 
(1880), 5,700. 

Hoteh : Seneca Point, Canan- 
daigua, Wilton Grovo, Woodville. 

Situated on Canandaigua Lakt , it 
is a flourishing town, remarkable 
for its elegant buildings and its 
beautiful situation. It is a very 
fashionable and much frequented 
summer resort. The lake is 16 miles 
long, the banks being covered by 
vine and orchards. Small steamers 
ply on it to Woodville and 
Seneca Point. 

Reached by New York Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
New iTork, in 10 hours. 



Canon City ( Colorado ) . — Near 
Pueblo; population (1880), 1,500. 

Hoteh : American, Barton. 

Situated at the mouth of the Grand 
Canon of the Arkansas, it has little of 
interest in itself to the tourist. It 
is chiefly occupied in mining pur- 
suits. The Grand Canon is caused 
l)y the Arkansas River cutting its 
way for almost eight miles through 
a gorge of solid rocks, the perpen- 
dicular walls being in some places 
as much as 3,C0O feet high; the 
Moyal Gorge is sublime, the rail- 
way line hanging as it were for 
2(K) feet in the air on a bridge sus- 
pended by iron girders driven in the 
rocks. The silver mines are seen 
best from Georgetown, and the 
camps of Bakerville, Empire, Silver 
Flume, and Argentine are interesting. 
The mills and furnaces of Spanish 
liar, MasonviUe, Stewart, the scenic 
picturesqueness of Twin Lake, Chi- 
cago Lnkes, Gray's Peak, Griffith's 
Mountain, and Middle Park are to 
be reached from here. 

Reached by Atchison , Topeka, and 
Santa Fd Railway, from Kansas 
Cit3% via Pueblo, in 21 hours. 

Canton {Ohio). — Seat of Stark 
County; population (1880), 20,000. 

Hoteh : American, Bamett,Ogden, 
St. Cloud. 

A beautifully-situated town, on 
Nemishillen Creeh, surrounded by 
a very fertile agricultural country. 
Its trade in wheat is very consider- 
able, and the flour mills and other 
manufactories employ a great num- 
ber of hands. Bituminous coal 
mines and limestone quarries are 
in the vicinity. There is an Opera 
House; but not much to interest 
the tourist. 

Reached by Pittsburg, Fort Wayne 
and'Chicago Railway, from Chicago, 
vid Fort Wayne, in 16 hours. 

Canton. {Mississippi). — Seat C I Madi- 
son County ; poi)ulation (1880),2,100. 

Hotels: City, European, Single- 
ton. 

A thriving to^m on the Chicago, 

St. Louis, and New Orleans Rail- 

I way, largely engaged in agricultural 

1 produce and cotton trade, also some 



CALVKRT — CAKBONDALK. 



57 



'o). — Near 
iO), 1,500. 

irton. 

of the Grand 
has little of 

tourist. It 
tnninsf pur- 
i?i is caused 

cutting its 
lies throu<?h 
the peri^en- 
iome places 
J hiph ; the 
iC, the rail- 
it were for 
bridge sus- 
iriveii in the 
OS are seen 
!, and the 
ipire, Silver 
interesting. 
i of Spa nigh 
', the scenic 
a Lake, Chi- 
le, Griffith's 
Park are to 

ropeka, and 
om Kansas 

purs. 



of Stark 
jO), 20,000. 

ett.Ogden, 

town, on 

[ounded by 

A country. 

consider- 
and other 

reat num- 
inous coal 
larries are 

an Opera 
io interest 

[ort Wayne 
Chicago, 

irs. 



itcfMadi- 
|880), 2,100. 

I, Single- 
Chicago, 
kans Rail- 
Iricultural 
lalso some 



nuiuufafturiug. The Odd Fellous' 
Hall is the largest Ijuilding. 

Reached by Illinois Central Rail- 
way, fr«m New Orleans, via Kenncr, 
in U.\ hour;^. 



Cape Arundel ( Frj ///<>). — Near 
Dover. 

Hotels : Ocean Bluff. 

A small sea-bathing place on a 
bold promontory, much visited in 
summer on account of its excel'ent. 
!)atliing, fishing, and boating. 

Reached by Boston and Mahie 
Railway, from Boston, via Lawren c 
and Dover, in '6\ hours. 

Cape Elizabeth {Maine).— y: cat 
Portland, population (1880), 5,3(K). 

Hotels: Ocean, Capo Cottage. 

Situated on the south side of Port- 
land HarlK)ur, it is considered as 
part of Portland, it being within easy 
driving distance. Very renowned 
as a summer resort, and affording 
excellent sea-bathing and tishing. 

Reached by carriage from I'ort- 
land in half an hour. 



Cape May {New Jersey). — Cape May 
County ; population (1880), 1,700. 

Hotels: Columbia, Congress Hall, 
Stockton, Arlington, Sawyer's, 
(Jhalfonte, "Windsor, West Knd, 
Arctic, Wyoming, Clarendon, Mer- 
chants, and National ; charges at 
these 3 dols, and 4 dols. per day; 
there are also boarding houses, with 
charges varying between 10 dols. 
t;nd 18 dols. por week. 

Cape May is the most southern 
point of New Jersey. It is to Phila- 
delphians what Long Branch is 
to New Yorkers, and is situated at 
the entrance to Delaware Bay The 
beach is five miles in lengtl hard 
and smooth, and of fine sand. The 
bathing is excellent, the surf gentle, 
and the water supposed to bo less 
chilling than at other i){)ints of the 
coast. The fashionable baiuing 
hours are from 11 a.m. till 1 p.m. 
A long promenade runs parallel to 
the water front, and is thronged 
by promenaders, riders and car- 
riages in the early forenoon or late 
afternoon. Society congregating 
here is mostly composed of South- 



ern and Western i)eople, more 
especially from Philadelphia. It is 
more sedate than either Long Branch 
or Saratoga, and less formal than 
New]iort. There are a great many 
tine villas, six churches, and several 
other l)uilding8 of note. The drives 
are generally from Poverty Beai'h 
to Diamond Beach (10 mifes), ai.<l 
several inland, the roads having 
been much improved. Other places 
in the vicinity are Schellitiger^s 
Zaiidi/ifj, Cold Spring and Sai 
Grove. 

Reached by West Jersey Railway 
(F°rry Market-street), from l»hila- 
delphia, in 2 hours. 

Capon Springs {l'!ri/lina).—'Ncf\r 
Winchester ; population (1«80), 300. 

Hotels : Mountain Hciu-e. 

Charmingly situated at' the foot 
of the North Mountain, it is a 
highly popular resort, on account 
of its alkali-saline waters, contain- 
ing some iodine and bromine, as 
also for its invigorating air and 
pleasant surroundings. The waters 
are serviceal)le in cases of derange- 
ment of the nervous sj-stem, chronic 
diarrhoea, gravel, intestinal troubles 
and dyspepsia. The ])athing estab- 
llshment is an extensive building, 
with colonnades and piazzas in front 
280 feet long,parlours, smoking,etc., 
rooms for the use of bathers. The 
Sea Table, Cardt/'s Castle, and other 
excursions are within easy access. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from Baltimore, via Win- 
chester, in 5^ hours. 

Carbondale {Fennslyvania). — 

Lackawanna County ; population 

(1880), 8,0(»'». 

Hotels: Amei'ican, Harrison. 

Situated near the mouth of the 
Lackawanna River, and lieing at 
the northern end of the anthracite 
coal region it is chietiy engaged in 
iron manufacture, railway shops 
and commercial pursuits, and con- 
sequently Cxfers little of attraction 
to the tOui'ist. The Gravity Hail way 
to Honesdale over the mountains is 
noteworthy. 

Reached by North Pennsylvania 
Railway, from Philadelphia, via 
Bethlehem and Scr; nton, in 7 
hours. 



!t ' 



58 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



4 



I' I 



ill 
1' I 



Carlisle {Penndi/mnia). — Seat of 
Cumberland County ; population 
7,500. 

Hoteh: Mansion, Florence, Thu- 
rtrium, American, Pennsylvania, 
Letort, Washington, Franklin, 
Gasber. 

A well-built town in the centre of 
Cumberland Valley, with agricul- 
tural and maiiiifacturing interests. 
The highly cultivated surrounding 
country is level and very fertile ; 
it has wide shaded streets, and the 
County BuiWnys and other public 
institutions are on the public 
square. In it is the Momimeut to 
the soldiers who fell in the Civil 
War. Dickinson's College, a plain 
building, founded in 1785, has a 
library of 26,000 volumes, and is 
very much frequented by students. 
The Barracks, built in 1777, can 
accommodate 2,000 men. It played 
a prominent part in the War of 
Independence, when it was for a 
time the head-quarters of Wash- 
ington. 

Reached by the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railway, from Baltimore, via 
Martinsburg,' in 6i hours. 



Carlyle (Illinois). — Near Vincenncs; 
population (1880), 2,000. 

Hotels: American, Commercial. 

A thriving to'»vn on the Kaskaskia 
River, in a fine level country. It 
has a very prosperous timber trade, 
logs being floated to this point. The 
saw mills are very important, and 
the prepared timber is sent to St. 
Louis. 

Reached by Ohio and Mississippi 
Railway, from St. Louis, via Vincen- 
ncs, in 6 hours. 



Carmel {New York).— S,eat of Put- 
nam County; population (1880), 
600. 

Hotels: Carmel. 

Much freciuented as a summer 
resort. Notwithstanding its limited 
population, it has a Court 
House, several banks, newspaper 
otfices, seminaries, etc. Lake Glen- 
eida, close by, is the chief attraction. 

Reached by New York City and 
Northern Railway, from New York, 
in 3 hours. 



Carmi (/^/j«o;,s).— Seat of White 
County; population (1880), 2,50*. 

Hotels : Damon. 

A thriving town on the Little 
Wabash River, with manufacturing 
and agricultural interests. Has 
some public buildings, and two 
halls, but little of interest to the 
tourist. 

Reached by Louisville and NiiJ^li- 
ville Railway, from St. Louis, <-•*? 
Shawnee Junction, in 7 hours. 

Carson (iVerfJi/).— Capital of Ne- 
vada; population (1880), 4,500. 
Hoteh : Nevada. 

A very thriving town in the heait 
of the mining region. It has a 
Court House, Capitol, United States 
Mint, and ChurcTies, School Build' 
ings, and some handsome private 
residences. The State Prison is 
also noteworthy, and is 2\ miles 
distant. Excursions to Lake Tahoe 
with exquisite scenery, 6,000 feet 
above the sea level ; several small 
steamers circumnavigate the lake. 
Also starting point for Virginia Citg. 
(See this.) 

Reached by Virginia nnd Truckee 
Railway, from Reno, in i hour. 

Carthage(J/!*so?/r/).— Seat of Jasper 
County; population (1880), 4,210. 

Hotels: Harrington, Karr, City. 

A thriving mantifacturing town 
on Spring River, whence it obtains 
the water power to drive its numer- 
ous flour and woollen mills, 
machine shops, manufactories of 
agricultural implements, carriages, 
etc. There is an Opera House and 
another large Hall. It is increasing 
rapidly. 

Reached by St. Louis and San 
Francisco Railway, from St. Louis, 
via Springfield and Peircc City, in 
V^\ hours. 

Casselton (D^rX-o/a//).— Near Fargo 
population (1880), 2,800. 

Hotels : Merchants, Planters, 
Casselton, 

A very thriving and rapidly 
increasing place, very busy anil 
enterijrising, important as a grain 
shipping port on the Yellowstone 
River for the surrounding agri- 



1 

I 



of Wliite 
tSO), 2,oO»). 

I the Little 
nufacturiii.y 
rests. Has 
5, and two 
srest to the 

e and Nasli- 
. Louis, en 

' hours. 

ital of No- 
>), 4,50(). 

in the heart 
It has a 
United States 
k-hool Build- 
onie private 
'e Prison is 

is 2-J miles 
D Lake Tahoe 
7, 6,000 feet 
iveral small 
ite the lake. 
Virginia Citi/. 

nnd Truckce 



inn 



- hour. 



eat of Jasper 

iSO), 4,210. 

:arr, City. 

uring town 
•e it obtains 
le its numer- 
lllen mills, 
factories of 
., carriages, 
House and 
increasing 

IS and San 

St. Louis, 

■c City, in 



^ear Fargo 

Planters, 

Id rapidly 

busy and 

is a grain 

fellowslone 

ling agri- 



CARLiSLi: — CATSKILL MOUNTAIN'S. 



50 



cultural districts. Otherwise noth- 
ing of interest for the tourist. 

Reached by Northern Pacific 
Railway, from St. Paul, cid Moor- 
head, ill 12 hours. 

Castletoii {Vcry.w.if).— Near Rut- 
land; I,. j!,!.ihiticu (1^^0),700. 

][')fi.'h : Lake B'mioscen. 

Pleasantly situated on a plain 
near the Castletou River. This 
neatly-built village has five churches 
and a Normal school, and is sur- 
rounded l)y ])leasant scenery. Near 
l)y is Lake Bomoscru, fnmed for line 
ti'shing and l)oating. Extensive 
slate quarries are carried on in the 
neighV>ourhood. 

Reached by Rensselaer and Sara- 
toga Railway, from Albany, in 2i 
hours. 

Castine (3/./ /.■'/•) .—Near Rockland; 
])Opulation (18bUj, 700. 

Hotels : Ocean House. 

A very pretty village on a penin- 
sula in Owl's Head Bay, an inlet of 
Penobscot Bay. Much frequented 
in summer for its invigorating air, 
seclusion, boating and fishing. 

Rciichcd by steamer, from Rock- 
land, iii 3 hours. 

Catasauqua (Pennsli/cania). — 

Lehigh County; population (1880), 
4,000. 

Hoteh: American, Eagle, Man- 
.•^ion, Catasauqua, Pennsylvania. 

A very busy town, with extensive 
iron works, furnaces and railway 
carriage works. There is a Town 
Hall, but little else of interest to the 
tourist. 

Reached by Lehigh Valley Riiil- 
way, from Philadelphia, via Beth- 
lehem, in '6i hours. 

C at awi S S a {Fen n sylca u ia ) . — Near 
Pottsville; population (1880), 1,.500. 

Hoteh : Catawissa. 

A thriving agricultural village, 
picturesquely situated at the con- 
fluence of the Catawissa Creek and 
Susquehanna River, only interest- 
ing for its charmintr surroundings. 

Reached by Philadelphia and 
Reading Railway, from Philadel- 
phia, (V(/ Port Clinton, in 5^ hours. 



Catskill {New York). — Near Athens, 
Greene County; population (ISSO), 
■4,500. 

Hoteh: Grand Hotel, Irving, 
Prospect Park. 

This, the best entrance to the 
Catskill Mountains, is a pleasantly 
situated village at the mouth of the 
Catskill Creek. The scenery around 
is very charming ; the place itself 
has nothing to attract. The 
hotels are mostly so situated as 
to have a view of the mountains. 

Reached by New York Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, in 3 hours. 

Catskill Mountains (A>«- York). 
— An agglomeration of mountains, 
lakes, and rivers in Greene Count}', 
and partly in Ulster County. 

Hotels: Prospect Park, in Cats- 
kill; Mountain House, one mile west 
of Catskill, at Mountain House 
Station ; Kaaterkill, near the latter ; 
Overlook Mountain House on Over- 
look Mountain ; Winchilsea House, 
and Grand View Hotel at Palen- 
ville; Roggon's Hotel, at Stony 
Clove, and several others. 

From Catskill the mountains can 
be reached either by rail (u* by dili- 
gences or carriages. The latter 
mode of conveyance is generally 
preferred, as it offers more advan- 
tages of enjoying the scenery. 

These mountains, besides tlieir 
lovely scenery, have a peculiar 
interest to the Americans, on 
account of the many legends and 
stories connected with them and the 
Hudson River. These have been 
made household stories by 
"Washington Irving as much iis 
the iegeiuls of the Rhino 
have been in Germany. They were 
named by the Dutch Kaats- 
bergs, owing to the great 
number of wild cats found 
here in the time of the early settle- 
ments. The beauty of their scenery 
is indescribable, and, being easy of 
access and soon explored, their 
popularity, C5:^)ecially with New 
Yorkers, is easily accounted for. 
They rise to an elevation of al)OHt 
4,00i) feet, and the vegetation is 
everywhere of th-o richest. 

The principal points of excursions 
arc — Mountain H)Ute, with a really 



1 V 



60 



IJDADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 






i !| 



prood view ; South Mountain and 
High Peak, the highest of the peaks, 
and offering the best view of the 
region. Catfernkill FalU and Tiro 
Lakes, the Bastion Falls; Haines 
Falls, very charming, and much 
frequented by artists, the stream 
falling in different parts to, in all, a 
depth of 470 feet. CattersklU Clove, 
Fawn Leap Falls, Plattekill Clove, 
Black Chasm Falls, Stony Clove, and 
Hunter Mountain all well repay the 
trouble of visiting them. 

In the season—June to October— 
these mountains are, so to speak, 
the playground of New Yorkers. 
The fishing is good, and accom- 
modation not too expensive. There 
is also some boating. 

Reached by New York Central and 
Hudson River Railway, from New 
York to Catskill, in 3 hours. 

Cave City {Kentuckii).—^eviv Mum- 
fordsville ; population (1880), 2,560. 

Hotels: The Cave Hotel. 

A small town, only noteworthy as 
being the nearest railway station to 
the Mammoth Caves or Gi'ofto, 
whence they are distant nine miles. 
which are traversed by; omnibus. 
It is one of the most interesting 
sights in the world, being consider- 
ably more extensive than the cele- 
brated Adelsberg Grotto in Austria. 
They are said to extend over 200 
miles in all their turns and curves. 
(For further information see Mam- 
moth Cave.) 

Reached by Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from Louisville, in 3 
hours. 

Cedar Falls (Jowa).— Black Hawk 
County; population (1880), 3,500. 

Hotels : Commercial, Davis. 

A thriving manufacturing and 
agriculturaltown on both sides of 
the Cedar River. There are two 
public halls. 

Reached by Burlington, Cedar 
Rapids and Northern Railway, from 
Burlington, in 6^ hours. 

Cedar Keys ( Florida ). — Levy 
County; population (1880), 1,800. 

Hotels: Suwannee. 
Situated on one of the group of 
islands iu the Gulf of Mciiico, form 



ing the northern Iwundary of Wac- 
cassa Baj\ It lies 15 miles south 
of the mouth of the Suwannee River, 
known as the Cedar Keys. It is the 
gulf terminus of the Florida Central 
and Western Railway, and owing t(j 
its invigorating sea air and mild 
climate is a winter station for rheu- 
matic patients anrl those suffering 
from pulmonaiy complaints. It has 
good facilities for boating and sea- 
bathing, and inexhaustible opportu- 
nities for hunting and fishing. Its 
principal occupations are com- 
merce in cedar and pine woods 
for pencil manufacture, sponges, 
turtles, and fish. Its climate re- 
sembles that of Jacksonville. 

Reached by Florida Railway, from 
Jacksonville, via Waldo, in li hours. 

Cedar Rapids (Towa). — Linn 
County ; population (1880), 15,000. 

Hotels : Grand, Pullman, Rail- 
road, North- Western. 

A rapidly growing town on Red 
Cedar River, regularly laid out and 
well built, which promises to 1)ecome 
one of the most important in Iowa. 
It has extensive trade with the sur- 
rounding country, and several pork- 
packing establishments and large 
Hour niills. The Opera House is 
worthy of notice. 

Reached by Burlington, Cedar 
Falls and Northern Railway, from 
Burlington, in i hours. 

Centralia {Illinois). — Marion 
County; population (1880), 3,700. 

Hotels : Occidental, Centralia. 

A busy little town, and a centre of 
the peach trade. The surrounding- 
country is very fertile, and the cul- 
tivation of fruit is carried on very 
extensively. There is also a coal 
mine and several manufactories. 
Important Railway Junction. Opera 
House. 

Reached by Illinois Central Rail- 
way, from Chicago, via Champaign, 
in II hours. 

Central City {Colorado). — Near 
Golden and Denver; population 
(1880), 2,700. 

Hotels : Teller. 

A flourishing mining town, beauti- 
fullj"" situated on the mountain slopes, 



I 



i 



CAVE CITY — CHAMPLAIN LAKE. 



,ry of Wac- 
Qiles south 
mee River, 
5. It is the 
Ida Central 
1(1 owinix to 

ami mild 
ill fur rlieu- 
5e suffcrinf^ 
ints. It has 
[ig and sea- 
o\q opportu- 
ishing. Its 

are com- 
aine woods 
e, sponges, 
climate re- 
iville. 

lihvay, from 
, inii hours. 

ra). — Linti 
180), 15,000. 

Imau, Rail- 

3WT1 on Red 
laid out and 

ses to become 

tant in Iowa. 

,vith the sur- 

everal pork- 

s and large 

a House is 

|gton. Cedar 
ihvay, from 



Marion 
580), 3,700. 

fentralia. 

Id a centre of 
surrounding- 
land the cul- 
fied on very 

also a coal 
Inufactories. 

jtion. Opera 

[Central Rail- 
Champaign, 



^o). — Near 
population 



Iwn, beauti- 
\tain slopes, 



and 8,300 feet above the sea level. A 
great number of Quartz Milh, United 
States Land and Assay Office. Trade 
is very active, and the principal ob- 
jects of interest arc : Jamai Peak, with 
very extensive views, the Great Sierra 
Madre Tunnel, Black Hawk, Nevada' 
cille and Itollinsmlle. 

Reached by Union Pacific Rnilwiiy, 
from Denver, via Golden, in 'i\ hours. 



Centre Moriches {New York).— 
On Long Island; population (1880), 
700. 

Hotels : Ocean, Havens, Moriches, 
Long Island, Baldwin. 

A much-frequented summer re- 
sort, with good fishing and sea- 
bathing, situated near the curious 
Lake lioukoukoma and Yaphuuk. 
Hunting is also a great pastime. 

Reached by Long Island Railway, 
from Brooklyn, via Springfield, in 
'i\ hours. 

Centre Harbour {New Hampshire). 
—Near Wolfboro ; population (1880), 
500. 
Hotel : The Senter House. 

A highly popular summer lake- 
bathing resort, but of very small 
dimensions. It commands charming '• 
views of the scenery of Lake Winiic- 
pcsaukee and surroundings. The 
sojourn is both very good and ex- 
tremely cheap. The chief objects of 
attraction are Squam Lake and Eed 
Hill, and there is good fishing and 
boating. Steamers to Weirs, Alton 
Bay, and "Wolfboro. 

Reached by Boston and Maine 
Railway, from Boston, via Wolfboro, 
in 6i hours. 

Chambersburg {Penusylvania).— 
Seat of Franklin County ; popula- 
tion (18S0), 7,500. 

Hotels: National, Washington, 
Montgomery, Indian Queen, Frank- 
lin. 

Pleasantly situated on the Cone- 
cocheague Creek, in a very popu- 
lous and highly-cultivated country, 
forming part of the great Limestone 
Valley at the foot of the Blue Moun- 
tains. The houses are mostly of 
brick and stone, the streets are well 
laid out, and there'are several manu- 



factories of cotton, wool, paper, iron, 
etc. The Wilson College (for young 
ladies) is much fre(iuented, and the 
Court House is a handsome c<lifice. 
It played a conspicuous ]iiirt 
in the wars of 18G2-Ct, and was 
cai)tured and burnt. 

Reached by Cumberland Valley 
Railway, from Harrisbiirg, in 2 
hours. 

Champaign (f///«o;»).— Cham]iaign 
County; population (1880), 5,100. 

Hotels : Moore, Dcane, Scott. 

This rapidly increasing town, an 
important railway junction, has a 
large interest in manufactures and 
agricultural pursuits. The Uniirr- 
siti/ of Illinois is situated liere. also a 
Female Academy, aPtiblic Library, 
and four newspa]>ers. An Opera 
House and a Music Jfall, 

Reached by Illinois Central Rail- 
way, from Chicago, via Kui.k;ikee, 
in 5 hours. 

Champlain {New York) .-CVmion 
County; population (1880), 1,5(X\ 

Hotels: Champlain House, Amgri- 
can. Mansion. 

A small manufacturing and com- 
mercial community on Lake Chani])- 
luin, much resorted to as summer 
([uarters, and interesting for the 
surroumling scenery and hiiftoric 
events during the War of Indepen- 
dence. 

Reached bj* Ogdonsburg and Lake 
Champlain Railway, from Ogdens- 
l)urg, via Norwood, in t hours. 

Champlain Lake {New York).— 
Between Vermont and New York 
States, and in the northern ex- 
tremity of New York. 12G miles long, 
and between one-half to 12^ miles 
broad. 

Hotels: Ticonderoga at Fort 
Ticonderoga, Weed House at West- 
port, Foucpiet House at Plattsburg, 
j and several others. 

Lake Champlain is less attractive 
in bold and beautiful scenery than 
Lake George, yet it is charming in 
its quiet repose. 'J'he Qreen Moun- 
tains are on its Vermont and the 
Adirondacks on the New York shore, 
its banks are verv irregular, and 
the surface covered with a great 



62 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



■'!|i 



h i 



uumhov of small islands. Fort 
Ticonderoga , s the soxithern point 
of the lake, and though it extends 
still further south, this part re- 
Hembles more a river than a lake. 
The steamboat accommodation on 
the lake is very numerous and good. 
Fort TiroHilerof/a, Mount Defiance, 
and Moxnt Intlependence, also Mount 
Hope, all played a part in the wars 
with England, and the views 
afforded by them is well wortli an 
ascent. ShoreJiam, Crown Point, 
Ckimnri/ Point, Port Henri/, We»t- 
port, Split Eock (a portion of a rock 
isolated by a fissure forming an 
island), Burlington, Port Kent, 
Vdlconr Island, Plattshurg, Chiiztf 
L'tke and Chateanguay Luke are all 
worthy of a visit if the tourist has 
time. 

Reached by Ogdensburg and Lake 
Champlain Railway, from Ogdens- 
burg, in 4i hours. 

Chariton {Totva). — Seat of Lucas 
County ; population (18&0), 3,000. 
Hotel: Bates. 

A manufacturing town on Chari- 
ton River, well laid out and built, 
and with a few public biiildings, 
amongst which the Opera House with 
iKK) seats. 

Reached by Chicago, Burlington, 
and Quincy Railway, from Chicago, 
via Creston, in 18 hours. 

Charleston (South Carolina). — Scat 
of Chai'lestoii County j population 
(L880), 50,000. 

Hotels : Pavilion, Charleston, 
Waverley. 

Conveyances : Tramways traverse 
the chief parts of the town (5c. 
fare) ; Omnibus at the railway 
stations and landing-stages to any 
part of the town (50c. fare, includ- 
ing luggage). 

Amusements: Academy of Music, 
Hibernian Hall, German Hall 

Seading Rooms and Library: The 
former at the hotels and at the 
library in Broad and Church streets. 

Clubs : The Charleston Club, 
Meeting-street, near Battery, and 
German Artillery Company, Went- 
■ worth-street. 

Post Office: At foot of Broad- 
street. 



Englixh Consul: U. P. Walker, 
Consul. 
Bankers : First National Bank. 
3fedical .- Dr. Murrny, Dr. Stevens. 
Dentist : Dr. C. C. Jones. 

The town of Charleston, the chief 
commercial centre of South Caro- 
lina, and one if not the principal 
port of cotton Bhip])ing, is charm- 
ingly situated at the confluence of 
the Ashley and Cooper rivers, which 
form a very safe harbour. It is 
tolerably regularly laid out, and the 
streets mostly cross at right angles 
and arc paved in the Belgian 
fashion. Most of the houses, being 
built of bricks or wood, are situated 
in gardens with trees and shrubs. 
King and Meeting streets are the 
chief thoroughfares : the former for 
retail stores, and frequented also as 
a promenade, the latter for whole- 
sale Ijusincss. Banks, brokers, in- 
surance otUces, and merchants' 
counting-houses are in Broad- 
street. 

Charleston was settled in 1679, by 
an English colony, under William 
Sayle, who was its first governor. 
It was the scene of many conflicts 
in its earlier days, and during the 
Revolutionary War it resisted three 
attacks, but was finally taken bj* 
the British forces in 1780. The har- 
bour is well protected by Castle 
Pinckney, Forts Ripley and Moul- 
trie. The ruined walls of Fort Sum- 
ter iwc the most conspicuous object, 
as having played a very important 
part in the Civil Wars 1862-61; it 
having been the opening scene of 
the greatest civil war of modem 
times. 

Its site of the city is seven miles 
from the sea, and, as with New 
York,the Buttery is the first striking 
object. It commands a fine view, and 
is surrounded by many handsome 
private residences. It is on the 
water's edge, and consequently a 
very popular promenade. The 
roads (with fine trees, sub-tropical 
shrubs and flowers) , running along- 
side the Cooper and Ashley rivers, 
afford principal and interesting 
drives. The drives on Sullivan's 
Islands and across the Iron 
Bridge on Ashley river are also 
charming, and the latter is so far 
very interesting, as it affords a 
view of the old plantations. 



^ 



CHARITON — CUAKLOTTK 



G:^> 



Walker, 

Bank. 

Stevens. 

the chief 
Lth Caro- 
principal 
s charm- 
lueuce of 
rs, which 
ir. It is 
;, and the 
hi angles 
Belgian 
es, being 
} situated 
L shrubs. 
5 are the 
ormer for 
Bd also as 
)r whole- 
)kers, in- 
erchants' 
Broad- 

Q 1679, by 

r William 

governor. 

I conflicts 

Liring the 

ted three 

taken bj' 

The har- 

j Castle 

nd Moul- 

h)'t Sum- 

s object, 

portant 

62-64; it 

scene of 

modern 

'cn miles 
lith New 

striking 
^iew, and 

mdsome 
on the 
hently a 
ie. The 

•tropical 

^g along. 

rivers, 

Ie resting 

lillivan's 

Iron 

ire also 
Is BO far 

fords a 



The buildings of Charleston, on 
the whole, are not very imposing, 
and the most im])ortant one i.s, 
perhaps, the Cify Hall, at the inter- 
section of Broad and Meeting 
streets. On the north-west 
corner the Court House; on the 
south-east the old »S7. MIcJhhTh 
Church, built in 1752, from designs 
of a pupil of Sir Christopher Wren ; 
on the south-west the Quurd lluune, 
the Police Station. The tower of St. 
Michael's is very fine, and affords a 
very extensive view. Other churches 
are St. Phillip's in Church-street, 
with an old graveyard, where most 
of South Carolina's public men are 
buried ; St. Fiuhar's in mains. Broad- 
street ; the Citadel Square Church 
in Meeting-street ; the German Lu- 
theran in Archdale-street ; the Cen- 
tral Presbyterian in Meeting-street, 
and several others, are all note- 
worthy. 

The Cmtom House, on the Cooper 
River, near Market-wharf, of white 
marble, in the Roman Corinthian 
style, is the most elaborate edifice 
in the toAvn, and cost over 
3,000,000 dols. ; the Chamber of Com- 
merce is a buildiog in Broad and 
East Bay streets ; the Academy of 
Music, corner of King and Market 
streets, one of the finest of its kind 
in the South ; the Orphan House, in 
a spacious garden between Calhoun 
and Vanderhorst streets ; the Me- 
dical College, corner of Queen and 
Franklin streets ; the Charleston 
College, end of George-street ; the 
City Hospital, County Gaol, jRoper 
Hospital, Queen and Logan streets, 
the Workhouse, in Magazine-street ; 
the Market Hall is a very fine co- 
vered market, and should be visited 
between 6 and 9 a.m. It offers a very 
characteristic sight to the tourist ; 
the Society Hall is in Meeting-street, 
with its colonnade and portico and 
fine interior. 

Washington Park and Marion 
Square are leading promenades ; 
White Point Garden on the Battery 
has fine promenades and some sta- 
tues ; Magnolia Cemetery just at the 
outskirts of the town, is very 
extensive ; St. John's Church, is quite 
isolated, and 15 miles from town, 
in the depth of the forest, built in 
1711, bears the Royal arms of 
England, which saved it from de- 
Btructipn in the War of Independ- 



ence; the Oak Avenue, near liv, is 
also celebrated, and its trees arc 
said to be over 200 years old. 

A steamer runs every hour to Xea- 
Brighton on Sullivan's Isltnid (the 
Long Branch of South Caroliria), 
and Mount Pleasant. 

Reached by Atlantic Coast I ino 
(North-Eastern Branch), from Rich- 
mond, via Wilmington, in 18 hours. 

Charlestown (.^/(^«.w<A»^■l//.v). — 
Suffolk County; population (Ikso), 
35,000. 

Hotels: Those at Boston. 

Already described under Boston, 
of which it now forms almost part. 



Charlestown {West Vi rgi >>■>,■). — 
Seat of Kanawha County; popr.la- 
tion (1880) 4,300. 

Hotels: St. Albert, Hall. 

Situated on the Great Kanawha 
River, this place is celebrate<l for 
.John Brown's execution, which 
took place on Dec. 2nd, 1859, for 
inciting the slaves to mutiny. The 
engine-house which served him as 
a fortress is still visible. It has 
some manufactures, and is sur- 
rounded by a very fertile and culti- 
vated countiy. There is an Opera 
House and a Music Hall. In the 
county are some salt springs, and 
coal is found in abundance. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, fi'om Baltimore, via Har- 
per's Ferry, in 4 hours. 



Charlotte {North Carolina). — fieatot 
Mecklenburg County; population 
(1880), 8,700. 

Hotels : Charlotte, Central. 

Pleasantly situated on Sugar 
Creek, this is a very biasy and pros- 
perous town. Its chief interests are 
centred in agriculture, and trade is 
very brisk with the surrounding 
country. It is an important rail- 
way junction. There are also some 
valuable mines in the neighbour- 
hood. An Assay Office (formerly a 
branch mint), is in the town. There 
is an Opera House and a Music Hall. 

Reached by Carolina Central Rail- 
way, from Wilmington, via Hamet, 
in 12 hours. 



64 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



I i 



-i 



■'] I 



■ ; 



Charlottesville (T'ir^/wif;).— Seat 
of Albemarle County; population 
(1880), 5,000. 

Hotels : Central, Farish. 

The seat of the University of 
Virginia, and in proximity to 
Monticello, the home and tomb of 
Thomas Jefferson. Situated on 
Rivanna River, it is attractive and 
well built, and has some agricultural 
interests. The University, founded 
in 1819, bj- Jefferson, is situated on 
elevated ground, 1^ miles west of 
the town, and forms an object of 
note in a flue country. Monticello^ 
former home and now burial place 
of Thomas Jefferson, is four miles 
out of the town, stands upon an 
eminence, and has a charming view 
of great extont. The remains lie in 
a small family cemetery by the side 
of the road leading up to the place. 

Reached by Chesapeake and Ohio 
Railway, from Richmond, via 
Gordonsville, in 4 hours. 

Chautauqua {New YorJe). — Near 
Jamestown, and on Chautauqua 
Lake ; population (1880), 1,100. 

Hotels : Mountain House. 

Charmingly situated, it is only 
famous for the camp meetings, held 
here in July and August, of the 
National Sunday School Assembly. 

Reached by Buffalo, Pittsburg and 
Western Railway, from Buffalo, via 
Salamanca, in 4^ hours. 

Chautauq.ua Lake.— The most 
western of the lakes in New York 
State, and on the frontier of Penn- 
gylvania. 

Hotels : Jamestown, Weeks, Sher- 
man, at Jamestown, Mountain at 
Chautauqua, and Chautauqua and 
Mayville Houses at Mayville. 

A very picturesque small lake in 
the Conewango "Valley; much fre- 
(juented as a summer resort. Has 
good fishing and boating. It is 
18 miles long, by 1 to 3 broad, and 
considered the highest navigable 
watersheet on the American Conti- 
nent; 1,290 feet above the sea. 
A. steamer runs twice daily round 
it. Principal places to stop at are 
Jamestown, Mfiyville, Chatitaiiqua, 
Point Chautauqua. 

Reached by Buffalo, Pittsburg and 



Western Railway, from Buffalo, vid 
Salamanca, in 4i hours. 

Chattanooga (Tennessee). — Hamil- 
ton County ; population, 23,000. 

Hotels : Hamilton, Stanton, Eeid, 
European, Stoops. 

Situated on the Tennessee River, 
near the frontier of Alabama and 
Georgia : it is a very important 
railway centre (seven companies), 
and the river is navigable to this 
point for steamers for eight 
months out of the twelve. A very 
busy town, with iron and 
cotton mills ; it is also the shipping 
point for all the rich produce of 
east and middle Tennessee. The 
Methodist University is situated here. 
The town played a very important 
part during the Civil War. Above 
the city is Lookout Mountain 
(1,400 feet high), which has become 
a favourite summer resort ; the 
Governmental Hospital buildings 
of the War are used as hotels. The 
view is delightful. Other points 
are : Lake 8eclusion,BattleJield,LHlah 
Falls, Hock City and Cemetery, 
The surrounding country is very 
rich in coal and iron mines. 

Reached by Cincinnati, New 
Orleans and Texas Railway, from 
Cincinnati, vid Waiton, in 14 hours. 

Chelsea (Massachusetts). — A suburb 
of Boston ; population (1880), 22,000. 

Hotels : Broadway, City, Soldiers' 
Home. 

Only a manufacturing commu- 
nity, with United States Marine 
Hospital, Naval Hospital, and Wood' 
lawn Cemetery. 

Reached by ferry from Boston, 
and connected by a bridge with 
Charlestown, in quarter of an hour 

Cherry Valley (New Forit).— Near 
Albany; population (1880), 900, 

Hotels : Sharon Springs. 

A pretty village on Cherry 
Valley Creek, and near Sharon 
Springs, is popular as a summer 
resort, though not as a fashionable 
one. It is noted as the scene of one 
of the greatest massacres dis- 
gracing any war. In 1778 the 
Tories and Indians killed or took 
captive nearly the entire population 



CHAUr.OTTKSVIIJJ<: — CHICAilO. 



65 



uffalo, vid 



, — Hatnil- 
23,000. 

iton, BeiJf 

see River, 
mma and 
important 
mpanies), 
lie to this 
or eight 
. A very 
on and 
! shipping 
roduce of 
see. The 
ated here, 
important 
r. Above 

Mountain 
xs ])ecome 
sort ; the 
buildings 
tels. The 
ler points 
fieldfLulah 

Cemetery. 
ry is very 

ti, New 
tvay, from 
4 hours. 



A suburb 
10), 22,000. 

Soldiers' 

commu- 
Muriue 
,nd Wood' 

Boston, 
ge with 
an hour 

•).— Near 
,900. 

Cherry 
Sharon 
summer 
hionable 
le of one 
res dis- 
1778 the 
or took 
(pulation 



- 



of unprotected settlers. There is a 
Youtiif La J leu' Acadoni/ ; Motoit Inde- 
jieiiili'iice (2,000 foot), Tekahiwam 
Fiilh, White SatjikKr Springs, and 
Suit Spriuijsville ore the principal 
points of attraction. It is famous 
for its cool, hoalthj'' summer cli- 
ni.itc. 

Heaclied by Dclawai'c and Ilud- 
sf)ii Canal Raihvay, from Montreal, 
rid Albany, in 9 hours. 

Chester {Pe)insi/lra)i!a). — Delaware 
County; population (1880), 15,000. 

Hotels : City, Columbia, Washing- 
ton, Brown's, Delaware, American, 
Bcalc. 

This the oldest town in Ponnsj'l- 
vania (by Swedes in IGW) lies in a 
populous and hii^-lily cultivated 
reurioii. It has larui- manufacturing 
interests, and its shipbuilding yards 
iire extensive. Tiie celebriited ones 
of John Roach are here. Closa by is 
Braudywine, famous for the battle 
of 1777. 

Reached by Philadelphia, Wil- 
mington and Baltimore Railwaj', 
from Philadelphia, in half-an-hour. 

Cheyenne {Wyoming). — Seat of 
Laramie County ; population (1880), 
1,500. 

Hotels : Dyer's, Interocean ; 
Station, and Dining Room. 

Settled only in 1807, it is now one 
of the largest towns on the whole 
line of the Union Pacific Railway. 
It is situated in a broad open plain 
on Crow Creek, a small stream, 
having its source in the Black Hills. 
It is principally engaged in stock 
raising, but does an extensive retail 
trade with the surrounding country. 
Its mining interests are also im- 
portant. The town is well built 
and the Town Hall, Court House, 
Prison, Opera House, and School 
Buildings are noteworthy. There is 
a military post at Fort Russell. 
Diligences run to Dearwood in the 
Black Hills in 48 hours. 

Reached by Union Pacific, from 
Omaha, vid Denver, in 15 hours. 

Chicago {Illinois).— The capital of 
the State, and seat of Cook County ; 
population (1880), 503,000, but now 
exceeding 600,000. 



Jlufch: The Palnh^r House is ono 
of the finest hotels in the States, is 
entirely fireproof, and hHS every 
conceivable modern comfort. Tho 
cuisine is reputed first-class. 

The Grand Pacific, Sherman, 
Tremont, the rates in these ranging 
from 2.Ulols. to 5 dols. per day.every- 
thing included ; the Lcland, Clifton, 
liriggs, Crawford, Commei'cial, anil 
Madison, with rates from 2 dols. to 5 
dols. ])er day, and on the European 
plan ; Brevoort's, MacCoy's, and 
Windsor. Other hotels are the Goult, 
Continental, Drexel, Atlantic, Maul- 
ton, and a great number of boarding 
houses. 

Itestaurants and Cafes: Chapin & 
Gore's, Race Bros., McCoy's, Palmer 
HouhC, Kern's, Kingsloy's, Tliom- 
s»n's, Cal. Wilson's (exclusively 
oj-sters and other shell-fish). 

Conveyances : Tramways, steam 
tramways or cable tramways tra- 
verse the town in all directions 
(fare, 5 cts.). Omnibuses arc at sta- 
tions and landing-stages (fare, 50 
cts.) ; hackney carriages at stations 
and landing-stages, also at hotels, 
and several other points in the 
town. The Course : 1 passenger 
from station to station, 50 cts. ; 1 
l»assenger, 1 mile, 50 cts. ; from 1 to 
2 miles, 1 dol. ; each additional mile 
or part, 60 cts. extra, and each 
additional passenger 50 cis. ; chil- 
dren under 14, half-fare. By the 
hour : 2 dols, per hour, and' each 
additional hour 1 dol.; from mid- 
night to 7 a.m. each diive, whatever 
distance or time, 2 dols. Apply to 
police in case of disagreement. 

Railway Stations : Chicago, Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul's Railway; 
Chicago, Alton, and St. Louis ; 
Pittsburg, Fort Mayne, and Chi- 
cago ; Burlington and Quincy ; Chi- 
cago, St. Louis, and Pittsburg; 
Erie and Chicago Railways, all 
leave the splendid Union Depot on 
corner of Canal-street ; the Wabash, 
St. Louis, and Pacific ; the Chicago 
and Illinois ; the Chicago and Atlan- 
tic, and the Chicago and Grand Trunk 
Railways in the Union Depot on 
Folk-street ; the Chicago and North 
Western Railway in the Station on 
corner of North Wells and Kinzie- 
streets ; the Kankakee ; the Michi- 
gan Central and Illinois Central 
Railways from Central Station in 

C 



66 



r.RADSHAW S UXITKD STATKS. 






li' 



1' ■[ 






•i !t 



Lake-Street ; the Baltimore and Ohio 
and Chicago, Detroit, and Niagara 
Falls Railway's in Monroe-street ; 
and the Chicago, Rock Island, and 
Pacific, the New York, Chicago and 
St. Louis, and the Lake Shore and 
Michigan Southern from the station 
on corner of Van liureu and La- 
sallo streets, the finest station in 
the country. 

Theiifi'en and Amuxempnfs : Mc'- 
Vicker'sTlieatre, in Madison-street, 
Haverley's, in Monroe-street ; Hoo- 
ley's Opera House, in Randolph- 
street ; the Academy of Music, in 
Halstead-street ; the Grand Opera 
House, in Clark-street; the Olympic, 
Standard, Chicago Museum and 
Theatre are theatres of minor im- 
portance. The National Panorama 
in Wabash-avenue, the Central Music 
Hall, Hirsche's Music Hall, Tarwell, 
and many others, have concerts and 
sundry entertainments. 

JRuces and Sports : The Chicago 
Racing Club has its meetings in 
Lake View and at Lincoln Park. 
The Shooting Club has its establish- 
ment near tlie Union Stock Yard. 

Rnading SoomH : At all the best 
hotels ; the Public Library, corner 
of Dearborn and Lake streets, with 
about 100,000 volumes, from 9 a.m. 
till 9 p.m.; the Chicago Athenceum in 
Washington-street, open from 9 a.m. 
to 10 p.m. with lectures, fine library 
and gymnasium ; the Young Men's 
Christian Association, in Madison- 
street ; Cobb's Library, in Wabash- 
avenue ; the Union Catholic Library 
in Dearborn-street, and the Academy 
of Science in Wabash-avenue. 

Museums : The Academy of Science 
in Wabash-avenue ; the Art Insti- 
tute in Michigan-avenue. 

Clubs : The Union Club, on corner 
of Chicago - avenue and State- 
street ; the Chicago Club, in Monroe- 
Street ; the Owl Club, in Madison- 
street; the Press Club, corner of 
Madison and Clark streets; the 
Standard, corner of Michigan-avenue 
and Thirteenth - street ; and the 
Calumet^ Michigan - avenue and 
Eighteenth - street; admission 
through introduction by member. 

Post and Telegraph Office : in Dear- 
born and Clark streets, open from 
8 a.m. to 7 p.m., and five branch 
offices in the outskirts. 



Bankers : Bank of Chicago. 

Medical : Dr. Hnllbroth, Dr. 
Wilkinson, Dr. Stroth. 

Ticket and E.wurnion Agents: 
Thomas Cook ik Son, 106, Dearborn- 
street. 

The site of Chicngo was first 
visited by Joliet and Marquette in 
1673, and the first permanent settle- 
ment took place in H04 by the con- 
struction of a fort, near the head of 
the present Michiyau-iivenue. This 
fort was demolished in 1850. 
Chicago was organized as a town 
in 1833, and incorporated as a town 
in 1837 ; it then liad 4.,170 inhabit- 
ants, which had increased in 1880 to 
503,304. The great conflagration 
took place in 1871, destroying 17,5()o 
houses at a loss of almost 2a»,000,(KHt 
dols. In 1874, another fire destroye* I 
about 5,000,000 dols. worth of pro- 
perty. The new city is con- 
siderably superior in buildings, and 
the business parts are unsurpassed 
by that of any other of the large 
towns on the Continent. It ranks 
next to ■ 'wYork in commercial im- 
portance, andin 1854was already the 
largest grain shipping port of the 
world, its cattle, ])ork and timber 
trade likewise stand pre-eminent 
over any similar market in the 
world. Manufacturing is also very 
largely carried on, employing above 
150,000 hands and their productions 
are very varied. The factories num- 
ber above 4,000, and turn out about 
300,000,000dols.in value. Thestorage 
capacity for grain and other produce 
is about 29,000,000 bushels. It is in 
the very marvelloiis enterprise of the 
people, the magnificence of the 
warehouses, etc., and its enormous 
commerce, that the interest of 
Chicago to the tourist consists. 

It is the greatest Railway 
centre on the Continent and situated 
on the Lake Michigan and at the 
mouth of Chicago River, and termi- 
nus of Illinois and Michigan Canal. 
Its water frontage is 38 miles, 
taking in the river and its branches 
with slips. This is not including 
the lake front, where nn outer 
harbour is nearly finished. It covers 
an area of almost 38 stiuare miles, 
clo861y built upon, while suburbs ex- 
tend trom 6 to 8 miles all round the 
town. The wharves or lake front 
are nearly 30 miles long j and here 



J 



CHICACIO. 



67 



'hicay'o. 
nllbroth, Dr. 

'xion Age lit g : 
10«, Dearboni- 

iffo was first 
Manjuetto in 
manent settle- 
(>4 by the coll- 
ar the head of 
avenue. This 
led in 1850. 
2d as a town 
atcd as a town 
•i,170 inhabit- 
ased in 1880 to 
conflagration 
stroying 17,50o 

lOSt20<),00O,(MM> 

:'firedestroye<l 
worth of i»ro- 
city is con- 
buildings, and 
3 unsurpassed 
' of the large 
ent. It ranks 
^mmercial im- 
ms already the 
ig port of the 
rk and timber 
I l^re-eminent 
arket in the 
is also very 
iloying above 
r productions 
actories num- 
urn out about 
e. The storage 
other produce 
tiels. It is in 
terprise of the 
ence of th(> 
its enormous 
interest of 
consists. 
St Railway 
t and situated 
n and at the 
iY, and termi- \, 
:higan Canal. 
5 "38 miles, 
its branches 
lot including 
re an outer 
led. It covers 
(luare miles, 
e suburbs ex - 
all round the 
lake front 
ig ; and here » 



'I 



arc the timber and coal yard?*, 
elevators, and warehouses. The 
town is regularly laid out and the 
streets, mostly 80 feet wide, cross 
at riirbf angles. The principal 
thoroughfares, Statr-gtncf, Lake, 
dark, Lasalle, Randolph, Dearborn, 
Adam.s, Madison, Washington, 
Franklin, and Water streets, run 
from north to south. The residontinl 
streets are Waba.sh, Prairie, nnd 
Washington avenues. They aro 
bordered with rows of trees and 
gardens in front of the villus. 
Calumet, South Park, Indiana, Ash- 
land, and Dearborn avenues, and 
West WasliiiiLfton-streot rank simi- 
larly. Michigar.and Wabasli avenues 
are' tlie i)vincipal drives; also 
through the parks antl boulevards, 
South Piirk on the lake shore and 
L'ike View on the north, beyond 
Lincoln Park. 

The principal Iniildings are : 
The Chamhpt' of Comtiiei'cc, corner of 
Lasalle and Washington streets ; no 
visitor should omit to attend the 
*' Board of Trade " meeting, which 
takes place here every day )>etweon 
11 a.m. and 1 p.m. It is the Exchan^'e 
of Chicago, and is often the scene of 
tremendous excitement. Close by 
is the " Call Board," where immense 
quantities of grain change hands by 
auction ; the call begins at 2.30 p.ni. 
and lasts half-an-hour. The Custom 
Home and Post and Telegniph Office 
occupying a whole block, is a very 
fine building and cost 5,000,000 dols. 

The Citif Hall and Court 
Ho'ine, on City-square, are very fine ; 
the Count)/ Prison and Criminal 
Building is a very massive building 
on corner of North Dearborn and 
Michigan streets. The Exhibition 
Buildings, similar to the Crystal 
Palace at Sydenham, front Michi- 
gan-avenue, and Industrial and Art 
Exhibitions are held here every 
autumn. The new Board of Trade 
Buildings, on Lasalle-street, arc also 
very fine. The '* Chicago Tribune " 
building on corner Dearborn and 
Madison streets, the Portland Block, 
Honore Block, First National Bank 
Buildings, and American Express Com- 
pany's Buildings are all very fine. 

The Literary and Educational 
Institutions are of a very high class, 
and their list is extensive. The 
University in. Cottage Grove-avenue, 



founded by Stephen A. Douglas, 
with the Dearborn Obs'rr,itoru ad- 
joining it, has a very hatidsonio 
building and the site is beautiful. 
The Puhl'c Library, founded in 1872 
by English authors and i)ublishers, 
contains niw near 100,000 volumes 
on corner of Dearborn and Lake 
streets ; the Academy of Science lost 
the valualile collection of 39,0()(> 
specimens in the ,i;reat fire, but is 
collecting a new museum on 
Wabash-avenue ; the Art Institute 
is on corner of Van Huren-stroet and 
Michigan-avenue; the Chicago Theo- 
logical Seminary, on Union Park ; 
the Presbyterian Theological Seminary, 
on Fullerton-avenue ; the Baptist 
ditto, on Morgan I'ark, in the 
.=uV)urbs ; the Sf. Lpiatius College, on 
West Twelfth-street ; the Rush 
Mfdicitl Cullege, the Women's Medical 
College, and the C»flrgr-nf Physicians 
and Surgeons arc all in Wood-street ; 
the Chicago Medical College, in 
Prairie-avenue ; and the Uahneman 
College, in Cottage Grove-avenue. 

The spiritual welfare of the in- 
habitants is e(iually well cared for, 
there being no less than 270 places 
of worship in the town. Only a few, 
however, merit special mention. The 
Unity Church, in Dearborn-avenue, 
and the Twelfth-street Church are 
among the best. The Roman 
Catholic Cathedral is also very fine ; 
the Immanuel Baptist, in Michi.cfan- 
avenue ; the Second Presbyterian, in 
Eighteenth-street; Grace, in Wab- 
ash-avenue ; the Union Park Con- 
gregational, in A.shland-avenue ; the 
Second Bapfixt, in Monroe-street, 
and the St. James, in Huron-street, 
are all noteworthy. 

Among the Charitable institutions 
we note, first, the Mercy Hospital, 
in Calumet-avenue ; the Cook County 
Hospital, in IlaiTison-strcet ; the 
U. S. Marine Hospital, at Lake 
View, is very extensive ; the Old 
Peofile's Home, in Indiana-avenue ; 
the Foundlings, in Wood-street, and 
the Newsboys' Home, in Quincy-street, 
are worthy of an inspection. Other 
Homes and Hospitals are the Pro- 
testant Orphanage, in Twenty-second- 
street; the St. Joseph's (male) and 
St. Mary's (female) Orphanages, 
N. State-street ; the Home for the 
Friendless, &c. 

The public parks are magnificent. 

C2 



J 



68 



BlUDSHAW S UMTKD .STATKS. 



Hi; 






! 



I 'f 






'■ I 



i .1 



They covei' in all an area of about 
8,200 acres, and beinp ten in number 
are connected bv boulevards 2(X) feet 
wide. Lincoln Park is on tbe lake 
shore, is bt^autifully laid out, and 
contains a Zualot/icul Gunlen. The 
Union Park', iu the centre of the 
West-end, and JrJfir»on Park, one 
of the most frequented, are the 
most noteworthy. Others are Lake 
Park, Dou/,,'las Turk, Garfield and 
South Parks, all being well laid out 
and very shady. 

The cemotcrios arc— as in all 
American towns— beautifully laid 
out, and Onkwocd and (Jratrlmiit 
should bo visited. Rose Hill and 
Calvary are also interCKtinp. An 
application to the chief en-finoer 
will afford an inspection of the 
fVa ferworku, near Chicnpo-avenue ; 
they are considered one of the 
wonders of the world, and from 
the tower an extensive view can 
be enjoyed. Another water supply 
is derived from the tO artesian wells 
in different parts of the town. 
There are two Tunneh running' 
underneath the river, one at 
Washington-street and the other at 
Lasalle-street. 

One of the sights not to be missed 
are the Stock-yards, of huge di- 
mensions, covering above 350 acres, 
the Grain Elevators and wharves. 

In the vicinity of Chicago is 
"Pullman," noteworthy as the site 
of the Pullman Car Company. 

Reached by New York, Chicago 
and St. Louis Railway, from Buffalo, 
vid Fort Wayne, in 20 hours. 



Chico {California).— Bntte County; 
population (1880), 6,000. 

Hotels : Butte House. 

A prosperous town, situated on 
the Chico Creek, in a very rich agri- 
cultural district. It has a good 
many manufactories, iron ore, 
carriages, planing mills, &c. Bank 
of Chieo, Bank of Butte County, 
High School, Odd Fellows Hall, &c., 
are among the principal buildings. 
General Bidwell's estate of 32,000 
acres is close by. The orchards 
are a sight to be seen. 

Reached by Southern Pacific Rail- 
way, from San Francisco.ttrf Marys- 
ville, in 2>\ hours. 



ChiCOpee {Ma»i>i!ehnsrff>'). — Ilanip- 
den County; jopuluii-iu (IbfsO). 
11,350. 

Hotels : Chicopce, Cabot. 

Situated on Ciiicopcc River and 
Connecticut River ; it is handsomely 
built, and has large niiinufacturing 
interests. The Ames Manufacturing 
Company (fire-arms and bronzes) 
have their estaMishments hero. 
There are two public halls, but littlo 
of interest to the tourist. 

Reached by Now York, New 
Haven, and Hartford and Connec- 
ticut River RMilways, from New 
York, rid Springfield, in hours. 

Chillicothe (OA/o).— Sent of Ross 
County; population (18H0), 11,000. 

Hotels: Emmitt, Warnei'. 

A beautiful town, situated on the 
Scioto River, the site being sur- 
rounded V)y hills, and settled in 1796. 
It was formerly the seat of the 
State Government, and is the centre 
of all the trade of the rich agri- 
cultural region bordering on the 
Scioto River. It is regularly laid 
out and well built. Amongst the 
many handsome buildings, we may 
mention the Court House, 15 
churches, school houses, etc. There 
are some large manufactories in the 
town, the principal being railway 
carriage works, fiour mills, paper 
mills,and sewing machine factories. 
The surrounding country is ex- 
tremely fertile, and under the high- 
est state of cultivation. The Opera 
House and Masonic Hall can each 
hold above 1,000 people. 

Reached by Cincinnati, Washing- 
ton and Baltimore Railway, from 
Cincinnati, in 4 hours, 

Chillicotho {Missouri). — Seat of 
Livingston County ; population 
(1880), 6,000. 

Hotels : Markham, Browning, 
Spencer, American. 

A very yegularly laid out and well 
built town, having some manu- 
facturing and very important agri- 
cultural interests. The Court House 
is the principal building, and there 
are also two public halls. 

Reached by Hannibal and St. 
Joseph Railway, from Kansas City, 
vid Cameron, in 4^ hours. 



CMILM — ClNriNNATI. 



.CO 



k). — Ifaii!]). 
.)!! (lhh(»), 

ot. 

Kivcr and 
mndsomcly 
infacturiiii^ 
iufacturiii<^ 
(I ))roiizcs) 
E>nts liero. 
Is, but little 

I'ork, Now 
id L'onncc- 
from New 
a hours. 

nt of R()s« 
:0), 11,000. 

ler. 

itcd on the 
being sur- 
,ledinl796. 
eat of the 
5 the centre 
rich agri- 
ng on the 
iiUirly laid 
nongst the 
^'s, we may 
House, 15 
)tc. There 
ories in the 
Iff railway 
ills, paper 
> factories. 
Ty is ex- 

the high- 
"he Opera 

can each 

Washing- 
I'ay, from 



Seat of 
[opulation 

frowning, 

i and well 
le manu- 
lant agri- 
lurt House 

md there 

and St. 
Isas City, 



ChippowaPalls(Tr//ro (^i»/).— Seat 
<»f Chippewa County; popidatioii 

(lHSO),i,0<K>. 

Jfot'ln: MercViants, Staidcy. 

Pleasantly situated on the Chip- 
l)cwa Hiver, its j»riiicipal oecupn- 
tion is the timber trade ; also some 
marmfacttirin;^ jJiirMiits. There is 
an Ofif)'ii HuKHr and a Mimic Jlulf, 
but little else to iiit(>rest the tourist. 

Heaehed l)y Wisconsin CeiitJnl 
Railway, from St. I'aul, r'<( New 
Kifhmoiid, in 11 hours. 

Cincinnati {Ohio).- The principal 

town of the State, and seat of 

Hamilton County-; i)')pul:Uioii (1880), 

Hoffh : The Ihirnet House, in 
Vine-street; the Grand, on Central- 
avenue; the (iibson, in Walnut- 
street; with charges from 2i dols. 
to t dols. per day; the St. James, 
Palace, Dennison, Crawford, Block, 
and Gait are also good, and their 
charges rang<. from 2 dols. to 2\ dols. 
per day. Kepider's, St. Nicholas, 
and St. Clair from Idol, to 3 dols. 
per day, and the Emery, which is 
l)oth on the American and European 
l)lans. 

jRegfdu rants and Ctifi's : Keppler's, 
in Race-street ; the Vietma "Bakery-, 
in Race-street; the St. Nicholas, 
also in Race-street ; P]mery, Ortiz, 
Brock's, and Hunt's arc all good. 

Conveyances: Tramways run 
through the whole town atid suburbs 
(fare 5 cts); omnibuses from stati(ms 
and landing stages to all the hotels 
(fare 50 cts.) ; carriages and cabs at 
different points in the town (course, 
one or two persons, 1 dol. ; t'lree or 
four persons, .50 cts. each ; large 
trunks extra. By time, 2 dols. per 
hour, and 1 dol. each additional or 
part of hour. It is advisable to drive 
a bargain. Several ferries cross 
the river from different parts of the 
.town. 

Rail way Stafions : The station of 
the Kentucky Central Railway is in 
Covington-street ; the Grand Cen- 
tral Station in the Central-avenue 
is the starting point of the Ohio and 
Mississippi and Cincinnati Southej-n 
Railways ; the Little Miami Rail- 
way Station is on corner of Butler 
and Front streets, and the Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton, and Dayton Rail- 



way Station is in Fifth and Hoodlcy 
htreot.s. 

Th'^iifr^H iniif AmiiKi-iiu nf^ : Th< 
ftraini Oji rt J/mtur, voruvr '^^^ Vino 
and Lom^worth-street ; Jinfinyon'M 
Oju-nt Jltiunn ill Plum-street (Ger- 
man opera and drama) ; Havclm's 
'i'heatrc on ( ■iMitral-iiviMuic, If, nA'i^ 
Aiif O/iirr JlmiMc in Vine-street isi 
very (Mt>ai'ious; S.,i>lh mid yijcon'n 
^^ll.s!o Jliiff in West Fourth-street; 
Sjir'nffrr MiiHio Hull in Ehii-street ; 
Colle:;e Hall, Melodcon Hall, Gym- 
na-ium, (ireenwood Hall "and 
SI", eial other-* are much fre(iue!ited. 
'J'lieie isa floating bath on the Ohio, 
at fo )t of Broadway. The Zo'.hu/i. 
(■Ill (iiirdtns are well laid oaf, and 
have an extensive collection of 
animals, iind are much freiueuted 
(entry 25 c.) 

The Races: At Eden and Konkin's 
Parks. 

Library and Rraditrj Ronms : 
Sevei'al \ory good libraries, the 
l)rinci])al being the Viihlir Lihran/ 
in Vine-street, has l;-l.",(Mio volumes 
and extensive reading room (open 
8 p.m.. to 10 p.m.) ; the Law Llhrarif 
in Court H(jusp, the Yaiuiq Mfr/'K 
MtvciDifih' Lihravji in (.'ollego 
Buildings in Walnut-street ; tlio 
Rhih)!<i>i>hical and Jfixforical Soclefi/, 
in the same, and the Mechanic's' 
Institute Library also in Vino- 
street. All the hotels have well- 
supplied reading rooms. 

Clubs : The P/irrnix Cinh with very 
fine (piarters in Central-avenue. 
1'he Queen City Cluh in Elm-street ; 
the Allemania in Central-avenue; 
the Eureka in Walnut-street, and 
Cuvier in Longworth-street. Intro- 
duction l)y a member. 

Po»t and Telcfjrapli : In the 
General Post Ollice, corner of 
Fourth and Vine streets, open from 
a.m. to 10 p.m., and several 
branches throughotit the town. 

Rankers: Bank of Cincinnati. 

Medical : Dr. J. G. Snger, Dr. 
C. C. Fowler. 

Dentist: Dr. Harwood. 

Tourist and Excursion Agents: 
Thomas Cook & Son, 107, Pearl- 
street. 

Cincinnati, the Metropolis of 
Ohio, is situated on the Ohio, oppo- 
site the month of the Licking River 
and the t(/wnships of Covington and 



70 



]}RAD8HAW S UNITED STATKS. 



Newport. It waH first settled in 
17HH, and in fts infancy had great 
troubles with the Indians. Incor- 
porated as a town in 1814. It is 
one of the great commercial centres 
of the West, and agriculture, manu- 
facture and live stock trade com- 
bine to make it more prosperous 
each year. There are close upon 
6,()00 manufactories in the town, 
with an approximate annual turn- 
out of 2<K),("M>0,000 dols. The town 
is surrounded by hills (450 feet), 
forming a fine panorama, and the 
views from the summits are enchant- 
ing. The streets are well laid out, 
the buildings substantial and hand- 
some, and shady trees abound in the 
principal the roxighf ares. The busi- 
ness portion is very dense, but the 
outer or residential circle has much 
space and air, and the fine houses 
are mostly surrounded by gardens. 

The finest of the business streets 
is undoubtedly Peurl-sfrpft, con- 
taining only wholesale warehouses, 
Third-street' is the Cincinnati" Wall- 
street, and Fourth-street the princi- 
pal retail trade centre, and conse- 
quenlly the fashionable promenade. 
The " East End " and " West End " 
have the finest residential man- 
sions. There are some fine drives. 

Amongst the most noteworthy 

Sublic biiildings are the Springer 
[usic Hull in Elm-street, very 
beautiful exterior, capable of seat- 
ing 5,0()() persons, and with an ex- 
tremely rich adorned interior. The 
Emeri/ Arcade, said to l)e larger and 
superior to the Oal?i'ie in Milan, 
Italy, is in Vine-street ; the Oovern- 
ment Building a, in Main and Walnut- 
street, is a huge Renaissance struc- 
ture. It harbours the Custom House, 
Post Office and United States Law 
Courts ; the County Courts are in 
Main-street; the old Government 
buildings are in Vine and Fourth 
streets, with prison at the back ; the 
Town Hall, or city buildings, are in 
Plum-street ; the Chamber of Com- 
merce in Fourth-street, occupies the 
Pike's Building, formerly an opera 
house. The Masonic Temple in 
Walnut -street, the Mu»xc Hall and 
^Exhibition Buildings in Elm-street, 
cover 3i acres,and the latter is open 
from first week in September till 
first week in October. The Odd 
Fsllows' Hall is in Home-street ; the 
Public Library, open from 8 a.m. 



to p.m., is in Vine-street, with a 
collection of 140,()0() volumes and 
16.000 pamphlets; the College of 
Music in Elm-street has, as an 
average 400 students and 26 pro- 
fessors. 

In the Music Hall on Elm-street, 
the Cincinnati Mtuseum Association 
has a collection of paintings, 
sculpture, etc., open from 10 till 
4 (admission 25 cts.). 

Among the churches, St. Peter's 
Cathedral is the finest (Plum- 
street)— notice the altar and the 
altar piece by Murillo; St. 
Xavier, in Sycamore-street (Gothic, 
with fine tower), is also fine; 
St. PattVs (Methodist), in Smith- 
r'ijceet, and St. Paul's (Episcopal) 
in Plum-street, are both note- 
worthy. In the quarter " over the 
Rhine " are some large German 
churches, with fine musical services. 
The Hebrew Synagogue in Plum- 
street, and Hebrew Temple, in 
Mound-street, have very fine in- 
teriors. 

A monument of some importance 
is the Tyler-Davidson Fountain, in 
Fifth-street, which was cast in 
Munich, Bavaria, at a cost of about 
£40,000. 

The educational establishments 
of Cincinnati are numerous and 
very efficient. First, ranks the 
University, founded and endowed by 
a citizen, in Hamilton-ropd, with 
Design and Law School in College- 
])uildings, in Walnut-street; St. 
Xavier's College, a Jesuit institution 
in Sycamore-street, is very finely 
installed and has extensive collec- 
tions ; the Seminary of Mount St. 
Mary, on Western-iiills, the Lane 
Theological Seminary, on East 
Walnut-hills; the Miami Medical 
College, in Twelfth-street ; the Cin' 
einnati Wesleyan College, in Wesley- 
avenue ; the Medical College of Ohio, 
in Sixth-street ; the Hughes- High 
School, the Chicicering Institute, and 
tne Woodtcard High School oMoccwpy 
a prominent position in the country. 
The Mecha nicn' Institute may likewise 
be mentioned.. 

The •• Hospital " in Twelfth-street 
is a model institution, and covers 
four acres. Its architectural 
features are fine ; the Long View 
Lunatic Asyl'un at Carthage, 10 
miles north of the town, has very 
fine gardens ; St. Mary's Hospital 



} 



i 



v^ 



CINCrNNATI — CLKVKLAXD. 



Jet, with a 
lumes and 
College of 
las, as an 
nd 26 pro- 

Slm-street, 
Association 
paintings, 
Dm 10 till 

St. Veter's 
5t (Plum- 
: and the 
•illo ; St. 
et (Gothic, 
also fine; 
in Smith- 
Episcopal) 
oth note- 
"over the 
e German 
al services, 
in Plum- 
Vemple, in 
y fine in- 

mportance 
•juntuin, in 
.s cast in 
st of abont 

)lishments 
erous and 
ranks the 
Qdowed by 
•opd, with 
n College- 
treet ; St. 
nstitution 
ery finely 
e collec- 
Motint St. 
the Ldup 
on East 
Medical 
the Ci ri- 
ll Wesley- 
" of Ohio, 
ghes- High 
tute, and 
ill occupy 
country, 
y likewise 

fth-street 
d covers 
litectural 
onff Vidw 
hage, 10 
has very 
Hospital 



I 



I 



in B:iyniillor-stveL't, and Saiiiarifaii 
Jlonpiftil in Locke-street arc also very 
large and excellently appointed 
establishments ; the JIoiisrofR(ji(f/r, 
in Mill Creek Valley and the Cifi/ 
H'ufkhouxe close by, are worthy an 
inspection. The Oi'jihaii Ani/lnm, at 
Mount Auburn. All the establish- 
ments named have large recreation 
grounds. 

Ktlf'H Parle, in the p]a.st-end on a 
hill, is the principal public park, 
atid the views from the top are very 
v;i lied and extensive. It covers 210 
acres. Waxhiiirfton Park, L'' iicnhi 
and Ifojikiii's Parks, and Jiiirt>et 
W'ooih arc also very fine but loss 
extensive. The Avenue to Sjtri)i(j 
(i rorr Ci'inrffri/ is KM) feet wide and 
affords a fine drive. The Cemetery-, j 
situated in Mill C'lvek Valley, ' 
covers (;oo a"rcs, is beautifully laid 
out, and h;is ni.my fine monuments ; 
the finest among too latter is the 
Dexter Mausoleum, in memory of 
the volunteers who fell in the Civil 
Wars. 

Ne.irly oue-lialf of the inhabitants 
are (Germans, or of German extrac- 
tion, and hence the (juarter north of 
the Miami Canal— called "over the 
Rhine "—where the greater part 
live, ])cars (juit e a CJerman character. 
Nothing but German is .spoken, and 
all the surroundings remind the 
tourist of Germany. The " Suspen- 
sion Bridge" is very well worth in- 
specting. It connects Cincinnati 
with Covington, Kentucky. It is 100 
feet above the water, and its entire 
lenirth is 2,252 feet. A similar 
bridge connects Covington witli 
Xewi)ort. The tramcars in Fnnit- 
stiecL traverse both bridges. The 
Wati-r Jl'orkti in East Front-street 
are also very iritcresting ; and the 
liuiliriii/ Sfock Yanh, or cattle pens, 
and the inclined planes also attract 
attention. 

Reached by Cincinnati, Rich- 
mond, and Ciiicago Railway, fn)m 
Chicago, in 13 hours. 



Circleville (O/i/o).- Seat of Pick- 
away County; population (1880), 
0,000. 

Iloteh: Pickaway House, New , 
American. 

A very prosperous agricultural 
community on the Scioto River and ' 



Ohio and Eric Canal. There is a 
small jmblic hal'. 

Reached by PittsViurLr, Cincinnati 
and St. Louis Railway, from Cin- 
cinnati, cid Morocco, in ii hours. 

Clarksville ( fl'^ or7;a) .— Habershani 
County; population (ISSO), 3(K). 

Hoi els: City, Cataract. 

A pleasant and V)ean.Lifal villntre, 
much resorted to in summer for its 
surrounding scenery. 'J he Cataract)' 
of Tallnlah, 12 niiies from Clarks- 
ville, in a deej) ravine. The Tuccoa 
FuUk, the Eastatora, and Atnicalolah 
l\(lls, Xacoochcc J'tiHti/, Mounts Cur- 
rachec, Yoiiah, Pilot Moioitai n. Track 
liock and Iliaii-aaxc Falls, are the 
v.T'incipal naMu'al attractions iu the 
V ti, irons, and are well worth a visit. 

Hjached by North-Western Rail- 
w,.y of Georgia, from _Athens, ria 
Lula, in 3 hours. 



Clarksville {Te/mrsscc). - Seat of 
Montgomery County ; population 
(18S0), 5,500. 

Hotels: Franklin, European, 
Soutliorn. 

I'leasantly sitmded on the Cum- 
borhmd River, it has its chief occu- 
])ation in the surrounding agri- 
cultural districts. Chiefly retail 
trade. There is an Oprra Ilonsr 
with SOO seats. 

Reached by Louisville and Nash- 
ville R;uhvay, froin Mcmpliis, in '.)}. 
hours. 

Clatsop Beach {Oregon). — Near 
Astoria; i)opulation (l88Uj, 5,000. 

Jlofels : Clatsop House. 

A little sea-bathing place, pro- 
mising to become the Longbvanch 
of Oregon. Receives visitors from 
Washington Territory, Oregon, and 
California. 

Reached by Diligence from San- 
Francisco, in 5 hours. 

Cleveland (O/uo).- Seat (f Cuya- 
hoga County; populatiiju (1880), 
180,000. 

Hotels: The Stillman, Kennard, 
Forest, City, Weddell, Haw ley, 
American. 

Bextaitrants: The Weddell ; a good 
dining-room at the station (Union 
Depot). 



j I 

:S 



/ 



2 



lUiADSHAW S UNITED STATIuS. 



KeinlUiff Itonmx : At the Hotels and 
tlio Public Library. 

Convn;iti)ir:^g : Tramways to all 
partH. Omnibuses at most stations 
au'l lan'linij: stnires. Hackney car- 
ria^e.s, 1 (1)1. per hour. 

T/ii^dh'es und Amnsementx : Euclid 
Avenue (^peni House, Case Hall, 
Academy of Music, the Globe, Ger- 
man aii'i IJohemian Theatre, Opera 
Comique, and several Music Halls. 

Chihs : Cleveland, Cleveland Li- 
brary' Association. 

Voxt Office: In United States 
Ijuildiiisrs on Monumental Park, 
open from 8 a.m. till 9 p.m. 

Bdvkrvs: Bank of Cleveland. 

IL'dlciil : Dr. Buss, Dr. Cust. 

Ticket tni(l Excursion Agents: 
Thomas Cook & Son, 133, Superior- 
street. 

Tin-!, the second town of Ohio, is 
situated on the south shore of Lake 
Erie, and at the mouth of the Cnya- 
hoj^a P»iver. Its growth has been 
very I'aiiid. It was settled in 1796, 
butits first 30 years of existence were 
not specially noted for ])rop:re&s, 
which actually liogaii only with the 
comi)letion of the Ohio Canal. Its 
commerce and manufactures are 
very extensive. The Petroleum 
Keftnerios stand first in the world. 
The river passintr through the city, 
affords an excellent harbour and has 
j)ccu improved by the erection of 
two i)iers running into Lake Erie, 
standing 200 fesjt apart. The new 
JUreakirnfer, west of the river, com- 
])lements these improvements by 
affording IGO ncrcs of safe harbour 
spacf\ 

The streets of Cleveland are very 
wide, well ]iavod and shady. They 
are well laid out, and the large num- 
])er of tmes they contain have 
given it ihe name of the Forest 
City. The (ti'cii^ n«(/»c'^ on Superior- 
street, connecting tlie two portions 
of the town, is justly considered a 
marvel of engineering. 

The Inisiuess porticm of the city 
centres in Superior, Water, Mer'\Adn, 
River and Ontario streets and Euclid 
Avenue on the east side, and Pearl, 
Lorain, and Detroit streets on the 
west side of the river. From Erie- 
street Euclid Avrnne is very fine, 
bordered with handsome and very 
costly reai'leutial mansions in exten- 



sive grounds. Prospect-street comes 
next. Monumental Fork in the centre 
of the city covers 10 acres, and is 
beautified by shrubs, trees, statues 
(Commodore Perry), and fountains 
and cascades. The Circle Park is a 
similar pleasure ground on the 
west side of the river. 

Amongst the principal buildings 
Case. Hall, near Monumental Park, 
Euclid Avenue Opera. House on 
Euclid-avenue, the Union Depot or 
station, in Superior-street, rank 
amongst the first. The United States 
Buildings, with Custom House, Post 
Office, wml Federal Law Courts, front- 
ing Monumental Park, the two 
Counfi/CuurtHonses on Seneca-street 
and on the Park, the Academy of 
Music, the Globe Theatre, Bohemian 
and Germ<(H Theatre, Public Halls, 
and Opera Comique are all note- 
woi'thy. The waterworks are on 
the west si<le of the river, with a 
tunnel of 0,600 feet long under the 
bed of the lake, and West Side Reser- 
voir which is a favourite promenade, 
and affords a fine view of Cleveland 
and surroundings. Two other reser- 
voirs, the H'oodliind Hills iind Fair- 
mount, supply the town with an 
aniple water supply. 

There are 127 churches, of which 
only the following merit attention : 
— St. PauVn (Episcopal), Second Pres- 
hj/terian. First Methodist, the Old 
Stone Church (Presbyterian), the 
Roman Catholic Cathedral, Trinity 
Church, First and Third Presbyterian 
Churches. Tlie Westtrn Reserve Uni- 
versity, or Ad el be rt Col I eye, in 'KwcMii- 
aveniie, owes its removal to Cleve- 
land to the munificence of a lady of 
the town, A similar institution is 
the School of Applied Science, called 
after its endower, Mr. Leonard Case. 
The Cleveland Female Seminary, in 
Woodland-avenue, the Medica) De- 
partment of thp> Jl'ester7i Reserve Uni- 
versity, and the same of the Univer- 
sity of Wooster are all extremely 
handsome edifices. The Public 
Library is supported by the revenue 
of one-tenth of the prochice of a 
mill. 

The Charity Hospital in Perry- 
Street, the U.' S. Marine Hospital on 
the lake, the Hom<vopathic Hospital 
on Huron-street, the Injirmary and 
the Workhouse are among the 
principal charitable institutions, and 
worthy a visit. 



Vi 



c r. I-: V I-: l a x i • — c o r. u :.: 1 1 1 a , 






t/ comes 
he centre 
i, and is 
, statues 
ountains 
Park is a 
on the 

)uil(lin.t?s 
&al Park, 
louse on 
Depot or 
3t, rank 
te J States 
Hite, Post 
•ts, front- 
the two 
!ca- street 
aJemi/ of 
Bohemian 
in Halls, 
all note- 
3 are on 
', with a 
ntler the 
iile Reset'' 
^menade, 
Ueveland 
tier reser- 
ind Fair- 
with an 

of which 

ttention : 

o)id Pres- 

the Old 

an), the 

Trinity 

sliyteriun 

ci're U)ii- 

1 Euchil- 

<) Cleve- 

hidy ot 

ution is 

c, called 

rd Case. 

nary, in 

ica) De- 

rce Uni- 

V nicer- 

trcmely 

Pnhl'ic 

revenue 

Ice of a 

Perry- 

pital on 

loitpital 

try and 

tug the 

pus, and 



Lake View Cemetery, thouprh only 
recently laid out, is the principal of 
the beautiful cemeteries of Cleve- 
land. It contains the remains of 
President Garttcld. The mouu- 
meut about lieing erected covers 2\ 
acres of land on the hisrhest point 
of the cemetery. Jfoodhonl and 
City Cemetery and EicersidcCemetefy 
are less extensive, but ai'o ail 
charminglj' situated and l^eautif ully 
laid out. 

The Wade Park, Lake Meir Park, 
Pdfon's Park, and Gonfnn's Park 
are, l)Osides the ^[o» u me nta I ixlreixdy 
mentioned, the favourite drives and 
pleasure ^•rounds. 

Reached by New York, Chicauo 
and St. Louis RaiUvny.from Chicago, 
fid Fort Wayne, in I'-i hours. 

Clifton Springs (Xen- I'^j-t).— On- 
tario Countj' ; ])opulation (1880), 
1,(MM). 

Jlofels: Foster House, Clifton 
Sprinj^s Sanatorium. 

A much - frermented summer 
station, with sulphui'ous spriniifs, 
good for l)iUary disorders and skin 
(lisea^cs. 

Reached by New York Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
Albany, C(d Syracuse, in S hours. 

Clinton (T'ohv/).— Sciit of CUnton 
County; population (1880), 1(»,(HH). 

Hotels: Central, Revere. 

A very thriving town on the 
^lississipjii River, ()])posite Fulton 
(111.), with which it is connected by 
a very fine Iron Jiridye, It has 
extensive saw-mills, jukI large trade 
with the surroinidiug agricultural 
district. The rei)air shops of the 
Chicago and Noith-wcsteru Rail- 
way are lieve. An Ojiera House 
and a Music Hall. 

Reached by Chicago and Xorth- 
AVestern Railway, from Chicago, in 
5 J hours. 

Clinton (Jrassachtiseffs). — "Worcester 
County ; population (lS8(t), U,0(.M_». 
Hotels: Clinton. 

A small but very active manufac- 
turing town on tlie Nashua River, 
and one of the most important 
places in the co'^ ity. The Town 



Hall and the Jiiyrlow Hall are tlie 
largest meeting {tlaces. 

Reached bj- Old Colony Railway, 
from Boston, liu .MarUx'i'o, in 2 
hours. 

Cloverdale {Cal ifumia) .—Hvnomn 
County; population (18s<»), 1,000. 

Hotels : Cloverdale, United States. 

A smnll ugiiciiltural town with 
some mining interests; very -jirettily 
situated, and well known as a sum- 
mer resort. Stages run to the 
Geysers and Lakes. 

H cached by San Francisco and 
Nortli I'aciUc! Railway, from Sati 
Francisco, in 'il hours. 

Cohoes {Xi'ir York). - Albany 
County; ])opulation (1880), 20,(HH>. ' 

Hotels : Miller, Harmony. 

Situated on the Krie Canal, 
Champiain Canal, and near the 
mouth of the Mohawk River; it is 
very >)rosperous, owing to possess- 
ing these cheap highways of locomo- 
tion. It is principally occupied in 
mauufacturing,f(n" which the canals 
afl'ord tine water power. There 
are two public halls. 

Reached 1)3' New York Central 
nnd Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, in 5 hours. 

Columbia.— Capital of South Caro- 
lina and Seat of Richlaiul County ; 
population (lv880), 10,100. 

Hntels : Columbia, Wright's, Grand 
Central, Wheeler. 

Theatres : The City Opera House, 
and I'arker Hall (lectiu'cs, Jtc.) 

Have Course .- In Fair Grounds. 

li'inker-i : Bank of Columbia. 

Medical : Dr. Pickcrsffill, Dr. 
Taylor. 

Pleasantly situated on the Con- 
go ree River, on an elevated jdateati, 
a few miles below the falls. Colum- 
bia is a beautiful town, to which the 
tire of 1S(J5 (occupation <>f (Jeiieral 
Sherman during the Civil War), 
however, did great (damage, 'ihe 
streets are wide, well shaded, and 
bordered by flower trardens, and the 
drives in and out of town are ex- 
tremely attractive and i)leasant. 

The principal buildings are— Thp 



f 



74 



iJRADrillAW S L'NITKD .STA'IKS. 



I 



^!!i 



State House, tlie State Penitentiary, 
tlic Lunatic Axtjlviii, the Fost Office, 
the Market ILtll, the United Stateg 
Court House, the Town Hall, the 
Unhvrs'fi/ of Cifrollna, with liir^re 
library ; the FreJtyterlan Theological 
Semnnu'i/, the Male ami Female Aca- 
demies, tlie Luthcrian Theological 
Seminary tlie Execittice Mansion, in 
larj^e plea,snre ijrnunds ^ives a 
tine view, also from Arsenal Jlill. 
Fair frroiniils and Sydney Park are 
well laiil out, ami are the principal 
recreation resorts of Colum])ia. 

Reached by South Carolina Rail- 
way, from Charleston, via Kini^s- 
vil'.o, ill 5 hours. 

Columbia (Mix^ouri). — Seat of 
Boon^,; County; pojmlation (1880), 
3,700. 

Hotels: Grand Central, Lindell, 
Southern, Planter's, Power's. 

A thriving, manufacturing nnd 
commercial community, noted for 
its educational facilities in that ])art 
of the State. It has two Public- 
Halls. 

Reached by Wal)ash, St. Louis 
and Pacific Railway, from Detroit, 
viti Auburn Junction, in 5^ hours. 

Columbia (Pennsylcunia). — Lancas- 
ter County; population (1880), 8,500. 

Hotels: American, Black, Frank- 
lin, Continental. 

Advantageously situated on the 
Susf[uehanna River. Columbia is a 
thriving manufacturing and com- 
mercial community. Has an opera 
house and tw.- other halls. 

Reached b;,- Peimsylvania Rail- 
way, from Pli ideli)hia, vid Lancas- 
ter, in 3 hour,'?. 

Columbia (Tennessee). — Seat of 
Maury County; population (1880), 
3,500. 

Hotels: Nelson, Bethel, Station, 
Guest. 

Pleasantly situated on the Duck 
River in a very fertile tract of 
country. Has large agricultural 
and some manufacturing interests, 
a college, an Opera House with 800 
seats, an Atheuanim and Sumner 
Hall. 

Reached by Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from Nashville, in 2i 
hours. 



Columbus (Geor^.V/).— Seat of Mus- 
cogee County; pijpulation (1880), 
12,000. 

Hotels: Central, Rankin. 

Situated on the east bank of the 
Chattahoochee River, opposite Gi- 
rard ; it is the fifth town in size 
and pr)pulation of Georgia, It is the 
principal maimfacturing centre in 
the South. The cotton manufactures 
are extensive, and the surrounding 
country has its principal market 
here, cotton csi)ecially beinj; the 
staple produce. It is well and re- 
gularlj' built, and the houses are 
surrounded Ijy well-kept gardens. 
The Temperance Hall, the Sjirinyr 
Opera House, the Ba)ik of Coluoihus, 
the Georgia Jtome Insti ranee Build- 
ing, the Court Home, Preshyteriati 
Church, and various others, are very 
noteworthy buildings. 

There is a handsome bridge across 
the river. The surrounding country 
is interesting. 

Reached by South-Western Rail- 
way of Georgia, from Savannah, cid 
Macon, in 14 hours. 

Columbus (O///0).— Ca])ital of the 
State, and seat of Franklin (!ounty ; 
population (1880), 52,000. 

Hotels: Park, Neil, American, 
United States, St. Charles, Corrodi's. 

liailicay St<(tions : The Union 
Station iii High-strcet,where all the 
railways converge. 

Conveyances : Tramways to every 
part of the town (fare, 5 cts.). 

Theatres and Amusements : Grand 
Opera House in High-street, Opera 
House, City Hall, and some Music 
Halls. 

Reading Rooms and Library: The 
former at most hotels, and also 
at the State Library (-iS.CMK) volumes) 
in the Capitol. 

Clubs: The Union, the City. 
Post and Telegraph Office .- In 
High- street. 
Bankers: First National Bank. 
Medical : Dr. Crnig, Dr. Hall. 

The town is situated upon the 
east shore of the Scioto River, sur- 
rounded by a rich and populous 
country, and is the centre of nn 
active trade. Settled first in 1812 
it became the Capital in ISKi, and i:i 
1831 had only -I.CMM) inhabitants. 



at of Mus- 



on 



1. 



mk of the 
)posite Gi- 
ni in size 
I, It is the 
centre in 
nnfacturcs 
iiTonndinff 
111 innrket 
bcinj; the 
11 iind rc- 
louses are 
, j^ardens. 
e Spr'nijif'i' 
' ColiniifjiiM, 
nvp litiihl- 
rexhi/teridii 
s, are vcry 

d<?e across 
ay; country 

item Rail- 
annah, chi 



tal of the 
n(!ounty ; 

rnerican, 
Corrodi's. 

Union 
ere all the 



to every 
ts.). 

Grand 

et, Opera 
me Music 

'iri/ : The 
and also 
volumes) 



In 



ity 

fffce 

Bank. 

Hall. 

ipon the 
iver, sur- 
populous 
re of an 
t in 1812 
lo, and in 
labitants. 



COLUMBIA — COLUMHUt?. 



"y r 



1^ 



n 



The manufactories are numerous 
and important, but its wealth and 
increase are mainly due to the con- 
centration of the State institutions. 
It is rcK'ularly laid out, t'^e streets 
Ijeing very wide. The finest is Broad- 
ttreef, 120 feet wide, with a double 
avenue of trees in the middle ; here, 
and in Totoi-ffrett, are the finest 
residences. The principal 1 usiness 
centres ai'c in High-ffrcet, which is 
asphalted, and 110 feet wide ; 
Cdjiitnl-fqKare, with majpstic elms 
and fine shrubberies and fiowers in 
the centre of the town. 

With regard to public buildings 
Coluud)us is only surpassed by 
"Washington in their number, archi- 
tectural beauty, and grandeur. The 
Cdiiitul, in Capitol-s<iuare, is a huge 
Doric building in grey limestone. 
Its dome is G-t feet in diameter and 
100 feet high. The interior is very 
a])propriately decorated, and the 
Hall of Representatives, the Senate, 
and other halls, are very highly 
ornamented. The Deaf and Dumb 
Axj^linii in Town-street, in Italian 
Renaissance, is also very large 
and handsome. Tlio State Peniten- 
tiary on the east bank of the river 
covers in all 30 atn'es, and its interior 
arrangements j.re worthy of imita- 
tion. The Lunatic AHylum, west of 
the town, stand;! in about 300 acres 
of ground on a small hill. These 
buildings are in Italian Renais- 
sance, and have a frontage of 1,200 
feet, accommodating above 600 
patients. Besides this thei-e is the 
Idiot Axylnin, in Gothic architecture. 
The Home of the Blind in the 
eastern part of the town has the 
Gothic Tudor architecture. '^IxcBar- 
rack» are extensive, and in the midst 
of beautifully wooded grounds in 
the north-east suburbs of the town. 

•inr City Hall, in State-street, 

tlie Ixi'^h School, ia Broad-street, the 

Odd Fclhux' Hall, :in High-street, 

thf^ Holh Water Workf, close to the 

).: >utl .' the Olentangy River, the 

pcra tfoKse and Union Station, in 
High-street, arc all very noteworthy. 

ihe State Library is in the Capitol ; 
the Tnirrr»ify (Lutheran), in the 
East .nd, the Ohio State Unicernity, 
the Female Seminary of St. Mary's- 
of-the-Spring$, with the Water Cure 
close by, the Starling Medical Col- 
lege, in State-street, are tlie chief 
educational establishments. 



Amongst the Churches, we men- 
tion Trinity Church, in liroad-street, 
the Second Frritbyierian, in Chapel- 
street, the St. Jomejih'x Cathedral, in 
Broad-street.and St. Fa urn (German 
Lutneran), in High-street, as being 
the most noteworthy in architcc, 
tural beauty. 

The Hare Orphan$' Home, the 
Lying-in Hog}>'t(/f, the Catholic 
Amylum and Jl innah Neil Mitsioti' 
the Hospital of the Sisters of Mercy 
and the Concent at West Columbus, 
rank among the chief charitable 
institutions and should be visited. 

Gooddte, at the north end. City, at 
the south end, are the principal 
parks, Columbus Agi'leultural Society 
Gardens, in the c.ist end, and 
Franklin Cou nfy Af/ ri c n It u ral Society 
Gardens (m3 acres), also in the east 
end, aie the finest in the State. 
Green Lawn Cemetert/ in worth a visit. 

There are several points of attrac- 
tion in the vicinity of Columbus. 

Reached l»y Chicago, St. Louis 
and Pittsburg Railway, from 
Chicago, iit 15.V hours. 

Columbus (Kentucky) .^ye-eLT Cniro ; 
population (1180), l.SO*.). 

Hotels : Columbus. 

Situated on a lull conmianding a 
view over the Mississiijpi River for 
about five miles. It was strongly 
fortified during the Civil War lh62- 
65 by the Coniederates. It was 
however evacuated after the fall of 
forts Henry and Done^son. There 
is little life in the town, and it is 
rather in a decaying condition. 

Reached by itiss mri Pacific Rail- 
way, from St. Lduis, in i)\ hours. 

Columbus (il/i^fV.-j^^/)').— Seat Jif 
Lowndes County; po])ulation (1880), 
5,500, 

Hotels: Kennon, Gilmer, Dowsing. 

Bankers ; First Naticmal Bank. 

Medical : Dr. Jno. Brownrigg, Dr. 
F. M. McCabe. 

Advantageously situated on the 
Tombigbee River, it is the centre 
of the trade with the surrounding- 
very fertile region. It likewise has 
some manufactures, and hasseveml 
fine buildings and large halls. 

Reached by M<jbile an'l Ohio Rail- 
way, from St. Louis, rid Cairo, in M 
hours. 



76 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



Illi 



^i: 



Columbus (Nehntska), — Seat of 
Platte County; population (1880), 
2,3i)0. 
Hotels: Columbus, 'Western. 

Only very recently .settled, it is 
growing rapidly as it is the market 
for a verj' fertile region. It will bo 
an important railway centre. To the 
north-west of the town lie.s the 
ff>rmer reservation grounds of the 
P«?f»'V' Indians, one of the mo.st 
savage of the native triljes. 

Keached hy Union PHcific Rail- 
way, from Omaha, eld Fremont, in 
4 hours. 



Coiumbus {Texas). — Near Houston 
and San Antonio ; population (1880), 
2,500. 
Hotels : Houston House. 

Charmingly situated on the west 
bank of the Colorado River in a 
very woody and fertile region. It 
is principally engaged in shipping 
cotton, cattle and dressed beef. 
Has a prosperous future, but as yet 
little to attract the tourist. 

Reached by Galveston, Harris- 
burg and San Antonio Railway,froiu 
Houston, in 4 hours. 



Concord {New Hampshire). — Capital 
of the State and Seat of Merrimack 
County; population (1880), 14,000. 

Hotels: Phoenix, Eagle, Elm, 
American. 

A charming town, prettily 
situated on the Merrimack River. 
It is celebrated for its carriage 
manufactories, mills, and granite 
quarries. Its streets are regularly 
laid out, with an abundance of 
shady trees. State and Main streets 
are tiie leading thoroughfares. The 
City Hall and Cuui't House, onMain- 
Bt root, the Capitol, on Capitol-square, 
t\\G Lit n'ltic Asylum in the west part, 
and the Prison in Affi in -street are 
the principal buildiiigH. The Opera 
House, the Phoenix, Eaple and City 
Halls have all above 1,000 seats. 

Reached by Roston and Lowcl' 
and Central Vermont Railways, 
from Boston, via Lowell, in ;J hours. 

Concord {Massachusetts). — Near 
Roston ; population (1880), 4,100. 
J fife's: r^itv. 



A thriving manufacturing com- 
miinity, celebrated only on account 
of the* battle in April, 1775, fought 
close by. 

Reached by Boston and Lowell 
Railway from Boston, via Lowell, 
in 3 hours. 

Coney Island (iW «• York) .— Near 
New York, and just outside the 
enirance of New York Bay. 

A favourite summer resort, with 
several fine beaches for sea-bathing. 
Noutous or Coney Island Point, 
Rockaway Beach, West Brighton, 
Brighton Beach, Mannhattan Beach, 
are the principal stations. 

Reacheil by steamer or boat from 
New York in half-hour. 

Conway {Neu- Hampshire). — In the 
White Mountains ; population (1880), 
2,100. 

Hotels: Pequawket, Conwuy, 
Grove. 

A favourite summer resort, and 
starting point for excursions into 
the AVhite Mountains, commanding 
very fine scenery. It is cpiiet and 
refined, and therefore preferred to 
North Conway, which is closer to 
the Mountains. Excursions to 
Chocorna Lake, Conway Centre, 
Chatham, Champney's Falls, Diana^s 
Bath^ Echo Lake and Cathedral and 
msiny others are noteworthy. 

Reached by Eastern Railway, 
from Boston, in 8 hours. 

Cooperstown (-ZVew York).— On 
Otsego Lake; population (1880), 
2,200. 

Hotels: Fenimore Cooper, Central. 
Bankers : First National Bank. 
Medical: Dr. Hills, Dr. W. F. 
Bassett, Dr. H. Lathrop. 

A village with charming scenery 
at the south end of the Otsego Lake 
liigh in the Hills ; a favourite sum- 
mer resort, with bracihg air. I. 
Fenimore Cooper, the novelist, lived 
and died here, and thou,:hhis house 
was destroye(l by fire in 1854, the site 
is still pointed out, and his tomb is 
near Christ Church. This whole 
region has be(-n celebrated by 
his i)en. A monument has been 
erected in Lakewood Cemetery. Ex- 
cursion to Hannah's Hill, Bum Hill, 



> 



[•ing com- 
n account 
75, fought 

Lcl Lowell 
a Lowell. 



t) . — Near 
tside the 
ay. 

sort, with 
i-bathinpr. 
ul roiiit, 
Bris'hton, 
an Beach, 

boat from 



I.— In the 

iion(lSSO), 

Conway, 

\sort, and 

iions into 

imanrlinsr 

(uiet and 

ferred to 

closer to 

ions to 

Cell f re, 

, J)i(i)ia^» 

drill and 

y. 
Railway, 



\).— On 
k (1880), 

I, Central. 
lUank. 
W. F. 

scenery 
)ffo Lake 
fite sum- 
air. I. 
tst, lived 
Vs house 
I, the site 
Itoml) is 
whole 
ited by 
been 
|ry. Ex- 
Ik w Hilf, 



COLL'MBUS — COUNCIL BLUFFS. 



7f 



Mount Vmon, Leather SfocJcingt Fall 
tn/ft C(f(v, Mnhrgun Glen, Cherry 
Vi.ilhjj, Shiiron Sprhii/s, and Richfield 
Siirui'i/s are all within easy distance 
and " equally interostinf,'. Two 
steamers ply on Otsego Lake, which 
teams with' lish, and affords excel- 
lent I»f)atiug. Its waters are clear 
and placid. 

Reached by Delaware and Hudson 
Canal and Co'operstown and Susque- 
hannnh Valioy Railway, from 
Albany, vid Junction, in three- 
fiuarters of an hour. 

Corinne (Z'fa'h).—At the north end 
of Salt Lake; population (1880), 
700. 

Hot Is: Central. 

A Mormon town of some import- 
ance, having some trade with the 
surrounding raining countries. It 
is only intorestiag as having in its 
vicinity Promontory Point, the place 
where the two Railway Companies 
joined their tracks in 1869. 

Reached by Union Pacific Rail- 
way, from Omaha, cid Ogden, in 27 
hours. 

Corinth. ( 3/; .ys/ss ?>;)/).— Seat of 
Alcorn Count v ; population (1880), 
2,500. 

Jloft'Js : Norris, Conti'al, Corinth. 

Bankers : Sokels and Rubel. 

Mrdionl : Dr. Y\'. B. Sanford, Dr. 
R. W. Young, Dr. Steel. 

A small thriving town with two 
railways running through. Has 
sonio commercial and large agricul- 
tural pursuits. Opera House with 
GOi> scats. 

Reached by East Tennessee, Vir- 
ginia and Georgia Railway, from 
Memphis, via Middleton, in 3| 
hours. 

Corning {Xev: l«r^).— Seat of Steu- 
ben County; population (1880), 
5,000. 

Jlutds: Barry, American, Dickin- 
son, St. James. 

A man lifac taring town on Chen 
ning Rivor and Canal. There is an 
Ol)era House with 1,400 seats. In 
the neighbourhood is the Glen Dis- 
trict. 

Reached by iSjlnware, Lacka- 



wanna and Western Railway, from 
Buffalo, via Dansville, in 1 hours. 



Corry (^Pennsylvania) — Y^viQ County ; 
population (1880), 5,500. 

Hotels : Kent, St. James, Phaniix 
Commercial. 

Settled in 1801, in consequence of 
the oil wells discovery it is now 
a thriving town. It has several 
churches, banks daily papers ; and 
the Downer Oil Works are worthy 
an inspection. The City Hall and 
Harmony O^iera House tiro extensive. 

Reached by Bullalo, New York 
and Philadelphia Railway, from 
Buffalo, via Dunkirk, in 4 hours. 

Corsicana {Texas).— Sca,t of Navarro 
County; popidation (1880), 3,500. 

Hotels: O'Neal, Mackay, Malloy. 

A recently settled but very 
thriving town near Austin, largely 
engaged in stock or cattle ranches 
and cotton plantations. The Court 
House iind Opera House are the prin- 
cipal buildings. 

Reached by Houston and Texas 
Central Railway, from Houston, vid 
Hempstead, in 9 hours. 

Coshocton (OA/o).— Seat of County 
of same name; population (1880), 
3,100. 

Hotels: MacDonald, Park, Price, 
Central. 

A very picturesquely built town 
on the confluence of the Walhoud- 
ing and Tuscarawas Rivers, situated 
on four natural terraces rising from 
the Ijanks. Commercial and great 
manufacturing interests, flour mills. 
There is an Opera House and a Citu 
Hall. * 

Reached by Pitts))urg, Cincinnati 
and St. Louis Railway, fmm Pitts- 
burg, via Mansfield, in 5 hours. 

Council Bluffs (foM'^).— Seat of 
Pottawattamie Couutv ; ix>pulation 
(1880), 18,5(M). 

Hotels: Pacific, Union Pacific, 
Ogden. 

A town of, very recent growth, 
situated oi high bluffs, three miles 
east of the Missouri River, whence 
it takes its names. Here centre all 



78 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



ii!l 



the railwa^rs connecting with the 
Union Pacific Railway, at Omaha 
on the opposite bank of the river. 
It is well laid out and regularly 
built of brick. The greatest attrac- 
tion is the Missouri Sridge, which is, 
with its approaches, nearly a mile 
long and has 11 arches. Fine view 
from the bridge along the lied of the 
river. The Ciiy Hall, Court House, 
High School, Institution for the Deaf 
and Dumb and 9 churches are the 
principal buildings. There is also 
SiLihrary and Young Men's Christian 
Association with reading room. The 
Opera House has 1,500 seats. 

Reached by Chicago and North- 
Western Railway, from Chicago, in 
21 hours. 



Covington {Kentucky)^— ^e&i of 
Kenton County ; population (1880), 
30,000. 

Hotels: Ashbrook, Clinton, Na- 
tional, Central. 

Covington is properly speaking a 
suburb of Cincinnati, though it is 
also the second town in population 
in Kentucky. It is very well laid 
out, beautifully built, aiid has very 
many fine residential mansions of 
business men of Cincinnati; the 
United States Post Office and Court 
Building, the City Hall and Court 
House, the public Library, the 
Hospital of St. Elizabeth and Orphan 
Asylum are all fine buildings. There 
are also several Public Halls. 

Reached by Suspension Bridge 
froiu Cincinnati in quarter-hour. 



Crawford sville {Indiana).— Seat 
of Montgomery County ; population 
(1880), 5,500. 

Hotels: Sherman, St. James, 
Nutt's. 

Beautifully situated in a fertile 
and well-wooded agricultural re- 
gion, for which it is the market. 
Also some coal mining in the vicin- 
ity. Has a prosperous future. The 
Wabash College with about 300 stu- 
dents and a library of 12,00 volumes. 
There are two public halls. 

Reached by Louisville, New Al- 
bany, and Chicago Railway, from 
Chicago, vid Monon, in 6 hours. 



Cresco (Joira).— Seat of Howard 
County; population (1880), 1,000. 



Strother, Dill- 



Ilotels : Mason, 
worth. Van Slyke. 

An agricultural town, having a 
considerable trade with surround- 
ing fertile regions. A Public Hall. 

Reached by Chicago, Milwaukee 
nnd St. Paul Railway, from St. 
Paul vid Austin, in 7 hours. 



Cresson Springs {Pennsyli-ania).~ 
Near Altoona; population (1,880), 
100. 

Hotels : Mountain House. 

A small place, consisting only of 
houses for the accommodation of 
summer guests, who come hither to 
drink the chalybeate waters, but 
more for the delightfully cool and 
invigorating air. There are seven 
springs, and the whole place can 
accommodate about 2,000 guests. 
The scenery ai'ound is magnificent, 
and offers a wide field for excur- 
sions. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way from Harrislnirg", cid Altoona, 
in 7 hours. 



Creston {Iowa). — Union County; 
population (1880) , 5,200. 

Hotels : Commercial, Summit, 
Metropolitan, Creston, Revere. 

A manufacturing town, princi- 
pally thriving on the repair shops of 
the Railway Company. A little 
commerce with the surrounding- 
country. There is an 0})era House. 

Reached by Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy Railway, from Chicago, 
vid Galesburg. in l(i hours. 

Cumberland {Maryland) .—-Sea.t of 
Alleghany County ; population 
(1880), 10,700. 

Hotels: Queen City, St. Nicholas, 
City, Washington. 

A busy manufacturing town, and 
in size and popiilation the second in 
Maryland. It is beautifully situated 
and built in the form of an amphi- 
theatre. It dominates the Potomac 
River. The Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canals pass the town. Besides its 
rolling mills andsteel manufactories 
it has little to interest the tourist ; 



;« 



'i 



C V I NGTOX — DA N V I L L E . 



79 



Howartl 
1,000. 

er, Dill- 



urround- 
lic Hall, 
ilwaukec 
from St. 



vania). — 
1 (1,880), 



? only of 
lation of 
hither to 
ters, but 
tool and 
ire seven 
i)lace can 
) guests. 
1,'nificent, 
5r excur- 

nia Rail- 
Altoona, 



County ; 

Summit, 
ere. 

princi- 
shops of 
A little 
•ounding- 
a House. 
irlington 
Chicago, 



-Seat of 
pulation 

Nicholas, 

wn, and 
econd in 
situated 
amphi- 
otomac 
nd Ohio 
jides its 
actories 
tourist ; 



there is an Academy of Music 
(Theatre) and a Hall. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
RailwH.v, from Baltimore, c'ti 
Harper's forrv^ in 5 hours. 

Dallas (Tf'rn' .■«).— Seat of Dallas 
County ; population (1880), 10,500. 

Hotels : Lamar, (irand Windsor, 
St. George, National. 

The commercial capital of North- 
ern Texas, situated on the Trinity 
River, is well built, and regidarly 
laid out. It has numerous manufac- 
tures, great agricultural interests, 
and an extensive trade. The Fenmlc 
Colleje (Methodist), the Male and 
Female College (Baptist), the Court 
House, the Catholic and Epincopal 
Churches, and the Opera House, are 
all neat buildings. Only of recent 
settlement. 

Reached by Houston and Texas 
Central Raihvay, from Houston, via 
Hempstead, in 12 hours. 

Dalles City (Ojv^ou).— Second city 
of Oregon ; population (1880), 2,700. 

Hotth : Washington, Town. 

Entrance to the grandest scenery 
of the Columbia River. It has some 
manufacturing interests and con- 
siderable trade with the surround- 
ing region. There are five public 
halls, live churches, several news- 
papers, five banks, and fine water 
works. 

Reached by Oregon Railway, 
from Portland, in 6 hours. 

Dalton (<7<?or5'(Vi).— Seat of Whitfield 
County; population (1880), 2,600. 

Hotels : Exchange, National, 
Rudd. 

Situated in a valley surrounded 
by high mountains. It played an 
Important role in the campaign of 
18^, and was strongly fortiffed by 
General Johnson. There are some 
manufactories, but it is principally 
engaged in the retail trade with the 
surrounding agricultural district. 
It is renowned for its male and fe- 
male colleges. There is a large hall 
used as a theatre. 

Reached by Western and Atlantic 
Railway, from Atlanta,rtd Kingston, 
in 4 hours. 



Danbury {Coiiuccfirnf), — Seat of 
Fairfield County; i)oi)ulation (1880), 
11,700. 

Hotels : Wooster Hou-;o, Tvirner. 

Situated on the Still River it is 
the principal centre in the United 
States, of the hat manufactory. Was 
burnt by British forces in 1777. It is 
also vi.sited as a summer station as 
the surrounding country is very 
beautiful. There are several l)anks, 
churches, and newsi)apers, but little 
to interest the tourist. Opera House, 

Reached by Housatonic Railway, 
from New York, via Brookfiekl 
Junction, in 3J hours. 

Dansville {yew York). — Livingston 
County; population (1885), 4,5(Mt. 

Hotels: The Sanatorium, The 
Hyland House. 

A quiet village, charmingly situ- 
ated among the hills at the liead of 
the Genesee Valley. Celebrated as 
a health resort for chronic invalids. 
On the hillside overlooking the town 
is " The Sanatorium" (Drs. Jackson 
and Leffingwell), the largest and 
most complete establishment of the 
kind in America. 

Reached by Delaware and Lacka- 
wanna Railroad, from New York, 
without change of cars, in 10 hours. 

Danvers {Massachusetts). — Essex 
County; population (1880), 6,500. 

Hotels: Central, Danvers. 

A boot and shoe manufacturing 
town, with several philanthropic in- 
stitutions. 

Reached by Boston and Maine 
Railway (Western Division), from 
Boston, in 1 hour. 

Danville (-T^/tHo:,).— Seat of Ver- 
million County ; population (1880), 
7,200. 

Hotels : Arlington, Tremont, 
.^tna, St. James, Sherman. 

Beautifully situated on the Big 
Vermillion River, it is a great rail- 
way centre, and has a promising 
future as a manufacturing town. 
It has extensive trade in ])roduce, 
timber, coal mining, &c., and several 
good educational establishments are 
situated here. There is an Opera 



80 



lUiADSHAW S LNiTKD STATK 



ill 



:i|M 






Jloune, and two Halls for lecturCB, 
concerts, &c. 

lleached by Chicaiu'o and Enst- 
cm Illinois Railway, t'roin Chicago, 
in a hours. 

Danville {Kentucky). — Seat of Boyle 
County; population (1880), 3, 1(X). 

Hot eh: Gilcher's, Central, Cle- 
ment's. 

A small town with some manu- 
factories, and a pood trade with the 
surrounding country. Hns the 
county buildings, Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum and Centre College. The 
James Hall has 4(X1 seats. 

Reached by Cincinnati, New 
Orleans and Texas Pacitie Railway, 
from Cincinnati, via Lexington, in 
4 hours. 



Danville {Petnmjh-ama). — Seat of 
Montour County, population (1880), 
8,400. 

Hotels: City, Danville, Montour. 

A thriving town with large manu- 
facturing interests. The Montour 
Works are very extensive, and the 
Lunatic Asylum is worth an inspec- 
tion. There is an Opera House and 
a Music Hall. 

Reached by Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna and Western, Railway from 
Northumberland, in \ hour. 

Danville {Virginia). — Pittsyl- 
vania County ; population (1880), 
7,G00. 

Hotels : Hancock, Arlington.AVind- 
sor. 

Pleasantly situated on the Dan 
River. Market of best tobacco- 
growing region in Virginia. Very 
active trade and cotton mills. Ex- 
tensive agricultural interests. 
Nothing of particular interest to 
the tourist. There is an Opera 
House, and two other halls. 

Reached by Virginia Midland 
Railway, from Washington, via 
Charlottesville, in IO5 hours. 

Davenport {Iowa). — Seat of Scott 
County; population (1880), 22,000. 

Hotels: St. James, Kimball, New- 
comb, Ackley. 

A fine town situated on the Missi- 



Bsippi River opposite Rock Island. 
It is regularly laid out 3\ miles 
along the river on gradually rising 
ground, and presents a fine view 
from the river. It is the second 
city in size and population in lowii, 
and the great grain depot of the 
upper Mississippi. A very tine 
railwa.y and passenger bridge con- 
nects the two banks of the river. 
There is an Arsenal with a fine 
annoury. Tramwaj's run iji the 
princii)al streets, and being situated 
in the heart of extensive coal fields 
it has some mining and manufac- 
turing interests. The County Buihh 
dings, Citif JLdl, Opera House, smd 
several churches and schools iiro 
fine building's. The Aaidtihy 
{Roman Catholic), Griswold College 
with library, the Academy of Natural 
Science,t\y6 Medical Societies arc the 
leading educational establishments. 
The Library Association with a 
library of afjout 5,000 volumes, and 
the Iowa Orphanage are likewise 
noteworthy. The Jiock Island in the 
Mississippi River is the site of 
the United States Arsenal and 
workshops and the sun-ounding 
grounds are worthy an inspection. 
Reached l>y Chicago, Rnck 
Island and^ Pacific Railway, from 
Chicago, via Jollict, in 8 hours. 

Dayton {Ohio). — Seat of M<jnt- 
gomerj"- County ; population (1880), 
39,000. 

Hotels: Bcckel, Phillipp's, Mer- 
chant's, Schieble. 

A beautiful and very pros])erou,s 
town, situated at the confluence of 
the Mad and Miami Rivers and on 
the Miami Canal. It is regularly 
laid out in fine, well-shaded streets, 
bordered by houses standing in nice 
gardens. The public buildings are 
unusually fine. A very consider- 
able water power makes Dayton a 
centre of great industrial activity, 
and its manufactories are very 
varied and extensive. Its being 
the centre of a large agri- 
cultural district, combined with 
easy and cheap communication by 
land or water, adds considerably to 
its commercial importance. It has 
upwards of 50 churches, and its 
educational resources are very ex- 
tensive and renowned. The Old 
County Court Hoiise is a model of the 









DAWlLliK - DKLl'lIOS. 



81 



ck Island. 

3\ miles 
iilly risiuj^ 

fine view 
he fccoiul 
n ill lown, 
[)6t of the 
very tine 
ridf^'e con- 
the river, 
n'ith a fine 
[in in the 
igsituiitcd 
coiil fields 

manufac- 
vntif Buihh 
'JuHiff, ;ind 
:?hools iiio 

Ai'iiih itii) 
)I(l Cullci/c 
of ^\i turn/ 
ties arc the 
lishmonts. 
I with a 
umes, and 
} likewise 
land in the 
le site of 
scnal and 
irroundiny 
spection. 
o, linck 

ay, from 
.oui>. 

of Mcnit- 
on (1880), 

>l)'s, Mer- 

osperou.s 
uence of 
rs and on 
regularly 
d streets, 
ng in nice 
ings are 
consider- 
Dayton a 
activity, 
ire very 
ts being 

e agri- 
ed with 
ation by 
erably to 
. It has 

and its 
very ex- 
The Old 
lei of the 



tj 






ParLheuon in white marl tie, and is a 
very massive biiildinir. The JS'tir 
Court Honrc is adjoining, but of loss 
expensive material. The munic'i])al 
othces are on the second story of 
one of the covered markets, of which 
there arc three, all eiiunlly well 
adapted for their purjjose. The 
Cooper Semintirj/ for young ladies is 
very cclebrate(l. The pul>lic Scliool 
Library has about 2(),(KM» volumes. 
The Central Nutiunal Soldhrni' J£o)ur, 
in ground extending over CK) acres, 
is about two miles from the town. 
It consists of over 40 line large 
buildings, church, hospital, etc., all 
of which arc models in their np- 
l)ointmeuts. About 4,(HK) invalids 
occupy the Home, and the grounds 
are very Ijcautifully laid out. The 
charitable institutions are : Tlie 
CoiDity Orphan Ani/liim, the Coiniti/ 
Almtthoiise, and the Lunatic Asylum, 
all of which merit an insjiection. 
There is an Opera Jlouxe and tw*) 
large music halls. Six railway lines 
converge here, occupying all the 
same station. It has a great future, 
the inhabitants being very enter- 
prising. 

Re.i'.'lied by Cincinnati Northern 
Railway, from Cincinnatti, in 3 
hours. 



Decatur (////«oj<t)— Scat of Macon 
County; population (1S80), 9,500. 

Hotels : Central, New Deming 
Palace, St. Nicholas. 

Pleasantly situated on the Sanga- 
mim River, this is a thriving little 
town, with small manufacturing and 
conmiercial pursuits. It has some 
good public buildings, and an Opera 
House, with 1,400 seats. 

Reached l)y "Wabash, St. Louis, 
and Pacific Railway, from Chicago, 
in 7-2 hours. 

Defiance (OAio).— Seat of Defiance 
County; population (18S0), 6,000. 

Hotels: Rus^ ' li, Empire, Crossby, 
American, Ceitrai. 

A small ma, ufaciuring and agri- 
cultural commi!n't\ , with a few in- 

There 



significant public buildings, 
is an Opera House and a 
Hall. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from Ciaicago, in 7 hours. 



Delaware [Ohio). - Seat of Delaware 
C(nmtyj poi)ulatiou (18S0), 7,'n>i). 

Hotels: American, Central, St. 
Charles, Powell. 

A thriving manufacturing iii ul 
commercial town on the 01ent!iiiL'"y 
River. Ruilt upon undulating 
ground, its position is jileasniit, und 
it is neatly built. The 1l'e,lii;ii:i 
I'liicer-yify, founded in IS8.'<, has a 
libniry ot i;{,(HH) voluinos, and the 
Wesleyan Female ColUi/e, built in 
1805, arc amongst the best buildiiius 
in the town. Thore is a mineral 
spring, which is used. The Optra 
House is spiicidus. 

Reached by Cleveland, Columbus, 
Cincinnati and IndianHpolis Rail- 
way, from Cincinnati, via .Sjiring- 
fieul, in 5 hours. 

Delaware Water Gap {Peuh' 
sylcania). — Ntiir Dela^^aro, New 
Jerse3\ 

Hotels: Water Gap, Kittatinny, 
Mountain, Glenwood. 

A favourite summer resort, noted 
for its very wild scenery. The most 
important point, whence the name, 
is a chasm formed 1 ly Kittatinny and 
Blue Mountains about 1 ,000 feet high 
and nearly two miles long. The rcjcks 
are so near eacu other that there 
remains scarcely room for the river 
and the railway. The mountains (m 
each side are resi)ectively called 
Minsi and Taumsany. Favourite 
excursions are to Table Rock, Caldeno 
Creek and Hunter's Sprinff, Diana 
Bath, Mosa Cataract, Lover's Lcap^ 
Prospect Bock, Mount Tammany^ 
Indian Ladder Bluff, Cold Air Cave, 
Benners Spring, and Boiut of Hocks, 
Buttermilk Falls, Bushkill and Mar- 
shall Falls, and Cherry Valley, to 
Stroudsburg and Spragueeille. 

Reached by New York, Susque- 
hanna and Western Railway, from 
New York, in 2| hours. 

Delphos (0/iio).— Allen and Van 
Wert Counties ; population (1880), 
3,000. 

Hotels: Brown's, St. Charles, 
Delphos, Hoehn's, Mansion, Phelan, 
Rose. 

Advantageously situated on the 
Miami and Erie Canal. It is the 
centre of three railway lines, and 



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liiis some manufactoricH. Thorcare 
Hoaie public buildiii^'f*, sind two 
ismall halls. 

Reached by PittHl)Uv;?, Kort Wayne 
Mild Chicaifo Railway from Cliicsij^n, 
vid Fort Wa^'iie, in h hours. 

Penison ( r^^j-rf*).— Gray son Countj' ; 
population (1*!«H0), 4,5(K». 

ll'ifeh: Cameron, rianters, 
Laiuar, White House. 

An important railway centre, but 
UH yot mostly enpa^e*! in affricul- 
turo. It was settled in \hT1. There 
aro soma tlour mills and other 
manufactories. It is surrounded 
by a. very fertile region, and has a 
promising future. Thco is an 
Op r./ Houise with 700 scaty. 

Rc:icheil In' Houston and Texas 
Central Railway, from Houston, via 
Hempstead, in 15 hours. 

Denver (Co/omrfo).— Capital of the 
State anil Seat of Arapahoe County' ; 
population (1880), 35,700. 

lldtt'L-i: Windsor, St, James, 
American, Grand Central, Charpiot, 
Tromont, Alvorck, Brunswick, 
liiudell. 

Bankfrs: Denver National Bank. 

Medical : Dr. Denison, Dr. Lemon, 
Dr. J. C. Davis. 

Ticket and Exciirf!io)i Agents: 
Thomas Cook & Son, 428, Larimer- 
Htreet. 

This, the larjfcst town in Colorado, 
:s situated at the confluence of the 
Cherry Creek and Stuith I'latte 
River and near the foot of the 
Rocky Mountains. Its situation is 
beautiful, on a series of i-lateaux 
facing the mountains, which are 
«een to great advantage. It is an 
important railway centre, with great 
commercial activity, and is very 
closely and irregularly built of red 
bricks. The United Stafcs Mint is 
situated here ; numerous handsome 
commercial buildings, fine churches, 
schools, a Orand Opera JIou$e, and 
three ether Halls, manufactories, 
private residential mansions will 
interest the tourist. Denver is 
the centre for all excursions in 
Colorado. The Smelting and 
Refining Works are worth inspec- 
tion. The bullion sent from here 



reaches above 22,000,000 dollars 
annually. 

Reached by Burlington and 
Missouri Railway, from Kansas 
City, via Atchison, in 22 J hours. 

De Pere {Witconnin). -'■ Brown 
County; population (1880), ■t,0(Nj. 

J£otel$: Commercial, Transit. 

A thriving commercial and manu- 
facturing town on both sides of 
the Upper Fox River. It is visited 
by the largest lake steamers. Kx- 
tensive blast furnaces turn out 
large quantities of pig iron. There 
are alsf) railway car manufactories. 
Three and a-half miles west is the 
Oneida Indian reservation, vrith about 
1,000 Indians. Fort Jloirard and 
Green Bay are also close by. 

Reached l)y Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul Railway from Chicago, 
vid Milwaukee, thence l)y Milwaukee 
and Northern Railway,*in 7^ hours. 

Desmoines (/o»'v/).— Capital of the 
State and Seat of Polk Countv; 
population (1880), 25,000. 

Hotels: Aborn, Kirkwood, Capital 
City, Sabin, Gault, Morgan. 

Advantageously situated at the 
conrtuence of the Desmoines with 
the Racoon River, and an important 
railway centre, with extensive 
interests in manufacturing and 
agricultural jjursuits. The town is 
laid out 8(iuare, both rivers intersect 
It, and are spanned by eight bridges. 
The business centres are near the 
rivers, and the residential quarter is 
on the higher ground. A splendid 
Capitol has been erected. The old 
capitol, erected in 1850, is now 
abandoned. Another very hand- 
some building is the Post Ojffice^ 
accommodating at same time the 
United States Courts and other 
federal offices. Drake University, 
Caiman Cbllege, two Medical Col leges, 
the State and Fublic Libraries, a 
Baptist College, and several other 
public schools are muc^. frequented, 
and some occui)y fine buildings. 
There aa*e numerous churches and 
charitable institutions. Other note- 
worthy ))uildings are the Orand 
Opera House and the City Hall, the 
Turner Academy of Music, Lewis 
Opera House, Ac. The State House 
and other public offices are on the 



DKNISON — DETROIT. 



ss 



(InlUirH 

)n and 
Kansas 
ours. 

- Brown 
, ■l,iK»J. 

msit. 
1(1 manu- 
sitles of 
is visited 
crs. Kx. 
turn out 
1. There 
factories, 
;8t is the 
'ith about 
ward and 

r. 

[ihvaukeu 

Chica>?o, 

[ilwaukee 

7^ hours. 

t,al of the 
County ; 

Id, Capital 



at the 

ines witlt 

mportant 

extensive 

ing and 

town is 

intersect 

t bridges. 

near the 

luarter is 

splendid 

The old 

is now 
•y hand- 
le Office, 
time the 
nd other 
''nifer$it]f, 

Colleqef, 
raricB, a 
pal other 
quented, 
uildings. 
ches and 
her note- 
Gran*/ 
Hall, the 
c, Lewis 
te House 
■e on the 



east, while the larjrer portion of the 
town is on the west shore of the Dos- 
jnoines River. There is a Park (40 
acres) with large fair grounds and 
Sace Courre north-west of the town. 
Another park of K) acres has just 
been laid out. Close ]>y are the 
thriving towns of Avoca and Atlan- 
tic. 

Reached by Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy Railway, from Chicago, 
via Galesburg, in 16 hours. 

Desoto (Misgonri). — Jefferson Coun- 
ty; population (1880), 2,(X)0. 

Hofeh: De Soto, Jefferson, Turley, 
European. 

Finely situated about 42 miles 
from St. Louis ; very thriving, and 
occupied chiefly in manufacturing, 
stone (luarries, and commerce. 
There are large machine and rail- 
way truck shops here. 

Reached by St. Louis, Iron Moun- 
tain and Southern Railway, from 
St. Louis, in 2 hours. 

Detroit {Minnei'ot<i).~Se(it of Becker 
County; population (1880), 2,000. 

Hotel*: American, Lakeside, Wil- 
son, Detroit, North-Wc stern. 

Beautifully situated on the banks 
of the Detroit Lake, it is (juickly 
becoming the fashionable summer 
resort of Minnesota and adjoining 
States. There are some mineral 
springs, and the lake, having a cir- 
cumferLiicc of 37 miles, affords good 
fishing, and the well-wooded shores 
capital Imnting. It is in the centre 
of the beautiful lake and park re- 
gion. Many of the wealthy inhal)i- 
tants of Minneapolis, St. Louis, St. 
Paul, etc., have their summer bouses 
here. There is an opera house, with 
800 seats. 

Reached by Northern Pacific Rail- 
waj^ from St. Paul, in 13 hours. 

Detroit (3ficA»fl«M).— Seat of "Wayne 
County; population (1880), 136,000. 

Hotels: The Russell, on Campus 
Martius ; Griswold, on Griswold- 
street ; the Kirkwood, on Munroe- 
avenue ; Michigan Exchange, Bruns- 
wick, Cass, Franklin, Rice, Tre- 
mont. 

Bettaurants, Cufen : Griswold 
House. 



Conveyances : Tramways to all the 

{)rincipal parts of the town, ferry 
)oat3 to the Canadian side and 
Windsor ; (omnibuses at stations 
and landing stages, hackney car- 
riages at different points of the 
town, but excessively dear. To bar- 
gain for. 

Theatres a)ici Amuseinentg : "Whit- 
ney's Grand Opera, Detroit Ojiera, 
Park, White's, and Grar.d Theatres, 
and various Music Halls. 

l.ihnirii and Reading Ronmn : The 
Public Library, with 45,000 volumes ; 
the Young Men's Sofiety, with 
14,0<H) volumes ; and Reading Rooms 
at iirincipal Hotels. 

Clubs: The Union. 

Post and Telegraph Offire : Adjoin- 
ing the Custom House, in Griswold- 
Btreet, ojion from 8 a.m. to p.m. 

Bankers : Bank of Detroit. 
Medical : Dr, Peak, Dr. Orth. 

Tick<'t and Excursion Aqtntt: 
Thomas Cook & Son, 07 '& 60, 
Griswold-street. 

The site of Detroit was visited by 
the French as early as 1610; settled 
only in 1701, l)y building Fort Pont- 
chartrain. lii 1796 the United 
States took possession, iind in 1824 
it was incor]>oratecl hs a town, it 
having then about 2,000 inhubitanvs. 
To-day it has near 160,(Ki(». The 
manufactories are extensive ; and 
the live and dead meat trade and 
tlsh and fruit canning give employ- 
ment to a great number of hands. 

It is the chief town of Michigan, 
though not the capital, and situate<l 
on the Detroit River, 7 miles below 
St. Clair and 18 miles above Erie 
Lake, with a frontage on the river 
above 8 miles long. For at least 
6 miles along the rivf3r the scene 
presents a most bustling activity, 
here being situated the wharfs, ship- 
yards, dry docks, mills, elevatorn, 
&c. It is laid out on a douf)le {ilan in 
one the streets and avenues radiate 
from a centre, the Grand Circut, 
ami in the other the srinare and 
streets cross at right angles. This 
may cause a slight inconvenience 
through intricacy, but affon s an 
occasion 01 embellishing the t<'Wii 
by small parks of peculiar sha, eB. 
Large, si. vdy trees abound in aii the 
streets, wnich are very wide indeedt 
The principal are : Jefferson Avtnue 



84 



BRADSIIAW S UNITED STATES. 



parallel with the river; Woodward 
Ai-pviifi crosses the former and 
cUvidcs the town into two almost 
equal ])nrts ; Monrop, "Washington, 
Grand River, and Michigan Grand 
Avenues, and Fort-street are also 
important. West Fort-street is a 
fine residential street, and Lafayette 
Avenue is very fashionable. Gris- 
wold-street is to Detroit what Wall- 
street is to New York. Cast) Arenue 
s tlie fashionable promenade and 
drive, the Grand Circ'<« the principal 
jiark. 

The Churches of Detroit are very 
fine. The Central Church (Metho- 
dist), in "Woodward Avenue, with 
finely decorated interior ; the 
Cunroif of the Sacred Heart, in 
Jefferson Avenue ; the Cathedral 
(Ciitholic), in Jefferson-Avenue ; St. 
Aiine'g (Catholic), in Larned-street 
(oldest church in the town) ; St. 
Josepk'n and >SY. FuuVd, in Shelby- 
s<trcet; the Freshi/terian, in J'ort- 
street ; and several others are 
handsome buildin,i?s and the in- 
teriors of most are very lavishly 
decorated. 

The Ilonse of Coi-rection north of 
the town is a home for petty crimi- 
nals and with the redeemed female 
home opi)osite, form two very note- 
worthy institutions. The United 
Stateit Marine Hospital, Harper, 
and St. Mari/^8 Hospitals are fine 
edifices, and are the princi])al 
charity institutions of Detroit. 
Hlmicood and Wood mere Ceme- 
teries arc very beautifully laid 
out. Favourite rides and drives are 
to Fort Waine and Grosse Point. 
Belle He, an Island in the river, 
contains 700 acres, and has been 
purchased by the town as a park. 

Campus Martins, an open space in 
the heart of the town, is crossed ])y 
the Woodward and Michigan 
Avenues, and is about half-way 
between the Grand Circus and the 
River. Facing it is the City Hall, a 
very handsome building, finished 
in is71, and 180 feet high. In front 
is the Soldiers' Monument. On the 
north side of Campus Martiusis the 
Detroit Opera House, and on the 
east the Market. AVhitney's Opera 
House in Fort-street is very fine. 
The Board of Trade Buildingi, ^'ory 
large, are in Gris wold-street. The 
freight depot, or Goods Station, and 
also Passenger Station of the 



Micliigan Central Railway are 
handsome structures. The great 
Wheat Elevators near this station 
afford a grand view of town and 
environs. ThelYoung Men's Chris- 
tian Association have a large build- 
ing in Farmer-street, and the 
Police Head-quarters are extensive 
and noteworthy. 

Tleached by Grand Trunk Railway 
of Canada, from Toronto, rid 
Hamilton, in 13 hours. 

Dixon {Illinois). — Seat of Lee 
County; population (18S0), 4,300. 

Hotels : Wnw i ley. 

A i)leasant community, as yet a 
village, situated on the Rock River, 
about 70 miles from the Mississippi. 
It is chiefly occupied in manufac- 
tures, thotigh the commerce in agri- 
cultural produce is also extensive. 
There is an Opera House, with 800 
scats. 

Reached by Chicago and Xorth- 
Westeni Railway, from Chicago, in 
■i\ hours. 

Dover (2V>«> Hampshire). — Seat of 
Strafford County ; population (1880), 
11,700. 

JToteh: American, Kimball, New 
Hampshire. 

A thriving town, the oldest in 
New Hampshire, very busy, and 
situated on the Cocheco River. It 
is extensively engaged in manufac- 
tures, especially cotton spinning 
and weaving, also boots and shoes. 
The Cocheco Mills are among the 
largest in the States. There are .a 
few public buildings, but of litf'o 
interest. The City Hall has 9(H) 
seats, and there are two smaller 
ones. 

Reached by Boston and Maine 
Railway, from Boston, via New 
Market, in 3 hours. 

Dubuque (/o/m).— Seatof Dubuque 
County; population (1880), 22,500. 

Hotels : Julien, Lorimer, Key City. 

Beautifnlly situated on the west 
shore of the Mississippi River, on 
rising ground. The lower part or 
the business quarter is regularly laid 
out and compactly built, while the 
upper part has more space, and the 
streets rise one above the other. 



DETROIT — EAST ST. LOUIS. 



85 



Tlio I'nited Sfiiies Coin't House is a 
f-l)lcTi(li<l marl )lc edifice ; the Central 
Market find several schools arc also 
noteworthy. Several of tlie churches 
svre iini)i)sin£r structures. The town 
i.- the centre of the ^rcaL lead region, 
and some mines are within the city 
limits. The manufactures, niher 
trade, &c., are like^'^ise important. 
The Operii Ilunxe has ^.(KHt seats, and 
the Clfi/ Hall G(X). Turner' X has 800. 
Reached by Chicago, Milwaukee, 
and St. Paul Railway, from Chicago, 
vhi Savanna, in 2 hours. 

Duluth {yrnnie»ota).—^cxit of St. 
Louis County; population (18nO), 
13,500. 

Hofrh: Bay View Tfouse, St. Louis, 
Windsor, Merchants. 

Situated at the head of Lake Su- 
perior, and, as the western extremity 
of the great lakes, has great commer- 
cial importance and a great future. 
It is well built, with a number of 
churches, banks, five grain elevators, 
etc. There are eight newspapers. 
Its maTiufactures arc extensive, but 
the grain shipping trade is predomi- 
nant. The Grand Opera Hotise, fit, 
Lukri's Hospital, and some school- 
buildings, are very fine edifices. 
There are also some other halls. 

Reached by Northern Pacific Rail- 
way, from Glcndivc, via Brainerd, in 
lOri hours. 

Dunkirk {Xew ForA;).— Chautauqua 
County; population (1880), 7,900. 

Hotels: Commercial, Eastern, 
Erie. 

Situated on Lake Erie, it is princi- 
pally engaged in manufactures, 
though the shipping trade is im- 
portant too. There is an Opera 
Home with 2,500 seats, and an- 
other Hall with 1,500 seats. It is 
also an important railway centi*e. 

Reached by Buffalo, New York 
and Philadelphia Railway, from 
Buffalo, rid Derby, in hours. 

Easton (Penns^leania). — Seat of 
Northampton County ; population 
(l»j80), 12,000. 

Hoteh : Uuitod States, Franklin. 

Situated on steep hills at the con- 
fluence of Lehigh and Delaware 
Rivers and Bushkill Creek, and 



junction of Delaware, Lehigh and 
Morris Canals. The town is well 
built, very wealthy, and very indus- 
trious. Staple manufactures, iron 
and steel, but also mills, distilleries, 
etc. AhU-'s Opera House is a fine 
building, so are the Counttf Priwu, 
Court Hi'uxe, several churches €an(l 
Lafayettf College, with Pardee Hall. 
Mount Jt'ffvrsnu, an abrupt rock 
in theccntreof thetown.and Durham 
Cart' immediately outside, are places 
of attraction, the former offering a 
fine view. 

Reached by Philadelphia and 
Rea<ling Railway, from New York, 
lid Jersey City, in 2 hours. 

Eastman {fleor!/ia).—iiQtlt of Dodge 
County; poi)ulation (1880), 700. 

Hotels: Upland, Railroad. 

A thriving town in the heart of the 
pine forests of Georgia. It has a 
good trade in naval stores, timl)er, 
cotton, and wool. Nothing of inte- 
rerest to the tourist. 

Reached by East Tennessee, Vir- 
ginia and Georgia Railway, from 
Macon, cid Cochran, in 2J hours. 

East Saginaw (3/(rA»>Yw).— Sagi- 
naw Coun*y; population (1880), 
29,100. 

Hotels: Bancroft, Everett, Sher- 
man, Lloyd, American, Neagley. 

Situated on the cast bank of the 
Saginaw River, 20 miles from its 
mouth, and the head of Saginaw 
Bay. It is the centre of the largest 
tim])er and salt district in the United 
States, and has a verj'' extensive 
trade. The Academy of Music is 
a very large theatre, and the Theatre 
of Varieties has 700 scats. There are 
some other public buildings, but 
little of interest to the traveller. 

Reached by Michigan Central 
Railway, from Detroit, vid Lapeer, 
in 4 hours. 

East St.IiOuis (///mot«).— St. Clair 
County; population (1880), 10,000. 

Hotels: Martell. 

A suburb of St. Louis, situated on 
the Illinois shore of the Mississippi, 
and opposite St. Louis. It has ex- 
tensive railway connections, and is 
largely engaged in manufacturing, 
and grain shipping. The live an(l 



86 



HUADSHAW S LNITKD blATKS. 



i 



Head meat trade is also an impoiiant 
>)ranch of business. The j^reat 
Sutpenuion Bridge connecting with 
St. Louis is a triumph of engineer- 
inpr skill. 

Reached by tramway from St. 
Louis. 

Sau Claire (irwcoM«»H).— Seat of 
Eau Claire County ; population 
(1880), 10,50(). 

Hoteh: Eau Claire, Galloway, 
Situated at the confluence of the 
Eau Claire River with theChippewii 
River, in the heart of a very fertile 
region. It has an extensive trade 
in timber, some large saw and flour 
mills. There are several public 
buildings of little note. The Opera 
Hnute, with 1,20() seats, and the 
Music Hall, with 800 seats, are 
worth inspecting. 

Reached by Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul Railway, from Chicago, 
in 17 hours. 

Edgartown {Mn»8achti«etf») . — On 
Martha's Vineyard Island ; nopula- 
tiou (1880), 1,300. 

Hotels: Seaside, Vineyard, At- 
lantic. 

A nice village near Oak Bluffs, 
the great Methodist Camp meeting 
ground. It has several churches, 
county buUdi»g»,a i«Ht,and toicn hull. 
The harbour is well sheltered, and 
the lighthouse is noteworthj-. The 
excursions are numerous, and the 
scenery very beautiful and grand. 
It is a favourite summer resort. 

Reached by Old Colony Railway 
from Boston, cid Woods Holl 
(steamer), in 4 hours. 

Elgin (///»woi«). — Kane County; 
poptilation (1880), 10,000. 

Hotels: Central, Nolting, Kim- 
ball, Jennings, New, Windsor, Com- 
mercial. 

Almost one of the suburbs of 
Chicago, a very busy town, and im- 
portant manufacturing centre. It is 
situated on both sides of Fox River. 
Several churches, newspapers, 
banks, and the National Watch 
Manufactory testify to the import- 
ance of the place. Its agricultural 
pursuits arc likewise extensive. 
There is an Opera House, 



Reached by Chicago, Milwaukee, 
and St. Paul's Railway, from 
Chicago, in one hour. 

Slizabeth {N<tc J^/^'y).— Seat of 
Union County; popul'atKjn (18S0), 
28,300. 

Hotels: City, Sheridan, Schwartz, 
Shreve. 

Avery well laid out and regularly 
built town with shaded streets. A 
seaport for the shipment of cosil ; 
also some manufactu: es. rriuci- 
pally residences of New York busi- 
ness men. It is the handsonu.'st 
town in New Jersey. There are 
some ttne public buildings. 

Reached by Thiladelphia and 
Reading Railway, from New York, 
via Jersey City, in three-quarters of 
an hour. 

Elizabeth Town {yew York).— 
Near l^ake Champlain ; population 
(1880), 600. 
Hotels: Mansion, Vallej'. 
Medical: Dr. S. E. Hale, Dr. K. 
T. Strong. 

A favourite summer resort with 
very fine scenery in the Adiron- 
dacks. Excursions to Hurricau 
Peak, Oiant of the Vullty, Racen and 
Cobble Hill, Split. Rock Falls, Keene 
Valley, Ausable Fond, Mount Marcy^ 
etc , are very interesting. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from New York, tut Lancaster, 
in 1\ hours. 

Elkhart (/Mrf((7)?rt)— Elkhart County; 
population (isaO), 7,000. 

Hotels: Clifton, Elkhart. 

A very thriving and busy manu- 
facturing town on the confluence of 
the St. Joseph and Elkhart Rivers. 
There are some railway machine 
and wagon repair sheds, but little 
of interest to the tourist. An Opera 
House with 800 seats. 

Reached by Cincinnati, Wabash, 
and Michigan RMilway, from An«ler- 
son, via Wabash, in 6^ hours. 

Elmira (New ForA-).— Seat of Chen- 
ning County; population (1880), 
20,600. 

Hotels: Rathbun, American, 
Frazier, Delavan. 



EAU CLAIR K — EUKKKA SIMMNCS. 



87 



Iwaukee, 
V. from 



-Seat of 
n (18S<!), 

Ichwartz, 

regularly 
reets. A 
of coal ; 
rrinci- 
ork l)u,«i- 
idsoniost 
here are 

hia and 
?w York, 
larters of 



Yurk).— 
)pulation 



0, Dr. K. 

ort with 

Adiroii- 

lltirricau 

cen and 

, Keene 

ia Rail- 
incastcr, 



County; 



manu- 
lence of 
Rivers, 
nachine 
ut little 
n Opera 

^^abash, 
Ander- 



Chen- 

(1880), 

erioan, 



A very thriving manufacturing 
town, principally engaged in steel 
and iron material for railways. 
There is al.-?o a much frequented 
h.ydrop;itbic edtaljlishment on a 
small hill east of the town. The 
Khnh\i FemtiJ^ Collci/e, the Court 
Jloimi', the Soiithmi Tier Orphuiia' 
J£u»ii\ the Stuff Rpfut'tuntory, the 
Oftrra House, \\\v\ St'inrliff Hull Hl'C 
the principal buildings. 

Reacheil by Dcltiware, Lacka- 
wanna, and Wentevu Railway, from 
New Vo'-k, viJ HcvMiUm, in lOliouis. 

El Paso (r^xt*^).— El raso County, 
and on the Mexiciiu frontier ; popu- 
lation (HS"),:{,50n. 

Hot flu : American, Central, Pacific 
Pierson. 

Buukern: State National Bank. 

A rapidly increasing town, situ- 
ated on the" R Grande River, a id 
in the north-w <t extremity cf the 
State. It i.s thij southern terminus 
of the Atchison, Topoka and Santa 
F«5 Railway, which connects here 
with the Mexican Central Railway. 
There are two Theatres ; the Coliseum 
and Germun. The town has a con- 
siderable transit business, and has 
a great future. 

Reached by Atchison, Topeka and 
Siuitn F^ Rnilwaj', from Santa Fe, 
chi Las Cruce>, in 12 hours. 

Elyria {Ohio). — Seat of Lorain 
County; popuhition (1880), 5,00(). 

Hotels : Metropolitan, Beebe, 
American, National. 

Situated on bo^h In-anches'of the 
Black River, it has a considerable 
trade and great agricultural inte- 
rests. There is an opera house, with 
1,500 seats. 

Reached by Cleveland, Lorain and 
Wheeling Railway, from Cleveland, 
in half an hour. 

Emporia (A'^/m'/j*),— Seat of Lyon 
County; population (1880), 4,900. 

Hotels : Windsor, Merchants. 

Pleasantly situated between Cot- 
tonwood ami Neosho Rivers, and has 
a considerable trade. It has a great 
future. There are two Public Halls. 

Reached by Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa Fe Railway, from Topeka, in 
.'i hours. 



Erie (PenH»yhan'Hi).-~'iici\i of Erie 
County ; population (1880), -jr.'iiH). 

Hotels: Morton, Ellsworth, Rocd, 
Union Depot, Moore, Milcox, Mass- 
assauqua I'oint. 

Situated on the Lake Erie it is a 
l)ort of entry, and lias considerable 
trade. The mantifactures are ex- 
tensive. Its situation is fine, com- 
manding an extensive view of the 
bay and lakr, and its streets are 
regularly laid out, bro.id, and cross- 
ing eat'h other at right angles. The 
new O/ieru House, Ctislom House, 
Court liuildiu(/s, the Murine Hospitul , 
St. Viuvent Hospital , Humut Hospitul 
ami Home for the Friendless are all 
very fine buildings. The I'uion Sfu- 
fioii is als;) noteworthj'. The new 
United States (ioremnunt Court and 
I'ost 0/fice are also very fine. The 
Purk a very handsome and exten- 
sive enclosure, is in the middle of 
the town, and separated in two 
eipial halves hy Stule-streit, the prin- 
cipal thoroughfare. In the Park is 
the Soldiers' Monument in memory of 
the sons of Erie who fell in the 
Civil Wars. The Cemetery in Chest- 
nut-street extends over 75 acres, 
•and is lieautifully laid out. The 
harbour is very spacious, and tho 
best on the lake. 

Reached Ijy Erie Pittsburg Rail- 
way (Pennsylvanian Comitany;, 
from Pittsburg, riu New Castle, in 
O.j hours. 

Eufaula {Alula ma). — Barbour 

County; population (1880), 3,900. 

Hotels: Central, Stubldefield, 
National Finnerty. 

A i)leasant little town situated on 
the Chattahoochee River ; has a 
large cotton trade and some general 



manufacturing. 



Has no other 



interest for tourists. 

Reached by Montgomery and 
Eufaula Railway, from Mont- 
gomery, via Union Springs, 
hours. 



in 3i 



Eureka Springs {Arkansas).— 
Carroll County; population (1880), 
5,000. 

Hotels: Southern, Perry, Hancock, 
and several others. 

A summer resort noted for the 



88 



HRADSHAW S UNITKU STA'IKS. 



.1 M 



'XI 



efficacy of its mineral waters. There 
are »ou\c pleasant excursions. 

Reached l)y St.Louis and St.Fran- 
cisco Hallway, from St. Louis, via 
Sullivan, in 4 hours. 



Sutaw {Ala bit tna) .—ficiit of Greene 
County; population (1880), 1,100. 

Hotels: Planters. 

^1 charming town near the Black 
Warrior River, is surrounded by 
rich plantations and is the centre 
for a very ])roductivc agricultural 
region. 

Reached by Alabama Great 
Southern Railway, from Chatta- 
nooga, via Birmingham, in 10.^ 
hours. 

Evanston {Tllinoiit).— Cook County ; 
population (1880), 4,800. 

Hotels: Avenue, French, Lake- 
bide. 

Pleasantly situated on Lake Michi- 
gan, 12 miles north of Chicago. It 
is a very noted town for educational 
purposes, and has a Public Hall. 
The environs are charming. A 
suburb of Chicago. 

Reached by Chicago and North- 
Western Railway, from Chicago, in 
half an hour. 



Evansville {Indiana). — Seat of 
Vanderbury County ; population 
(1880), 29,300. 

Hotels: St. George, Sherwood, 
St. Cloud, Hedderich, Farmers, 
Williams. 

Situated on the Ohio River, it is 
the principal shipping port for the 
agricultural produce of South-west 
Indiana. It is also largely inter- 
ested in manufactures, coal, &c. It 
is an important railway centre, and 
the United States Marine Hospital, 
is situated here. There are about 
35 churches, Court House, Opera 
House, City Hall, several banks, 
&c. The Evans Hall (Temperance), 
Apollo Theatre and Lieder Kranz 
Hall are the principal places of 
amusement. 

Reached by Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from St. Louis, via 
Wabash, in lOJ hours. 



Xixeter (3Vw Hmnjiskirc). — Near 
Dover; population (18b0j, 1,5(K). 

Hotels: Exeter. 

A small village, with many pri- 
vate residences. Its etlucational 
resources are renowned. The c< lunty 
buildings are neat ; important manu- 
factories. The streets are mostly 
sheltered by flne elms. I'hilipp's 
Academy and Robinson Female Col- 
lege are well known. 

Reached Ijy Boston and Maine 
Railway from Boston, via Dover, in 
JJa hours. 

Fall River (Af«8.'<f(('AH»'f//'^). -Bristol 
County ; populatiou (18»0), lO.UH). 

Hotels: Mount Hope, Narragan- 
sett, Wilbour, Lagrange, Thurston. 

This great manufacturing town is 
situated on Mount Hope Bay, at the 
mouth of the Taunton River. Cotton 
thread and cotton goods are the 
staple manufactures of Fall River ; 
there are also some iron factories. 
They are worthy an inspection. 
The town is well built, mostly of 
granite. Main-street is the chief 
thoroughfare. Several noteworthy 
public buildings, and the Academy 
of Music can accommodate 1,800 
l)eople. There is besides an Opera, 
House and several other public halls. 

Reached by Old Colony Railway, 
from Boston, via Taunton, in 2 
hours. 

Fargo {Bakotah) .— Seat of Cass 
County; population (1885), 12,700. 

Hotels : Continental, Headquar- 
ters, Sherman. 

Situated on the Red River in the 
very fertile Red River valley, it 
has had a most surprisingly rapid 
growth. Ten years ago it was 
scarcely known, and to-day it is a 
very busy commercial centre. It is 
the entrepot for the produce of the 
surrounding fertile and extensive 
agricultural region. Twelve 

churches, 28 hotels, several news- 
papers, banks, factories, grain 
elevators, etc., testify to the pro- 
sperity of the town. There is an 
Opera House, Court House, several 
Music Halls, United States Zand 
Office, and several other buildings 
worthy of note. 

Reached by Northern Pacific 
Railway, from St. Paul's, vid 
Brainerd and Moorhead, in 11 hours. 









F.UTAW — FITCHHUHtJ. 



89 



re). -- Ncjir 



I many pri- 
LHlncarioiml 
Tliccnuuty 
rtaiit inanu- 
are mostly 

Fiiiiule Cvl- 

and Maino 
a Dover, in 



*).- Uristol 
0), '19,100. 

Narragan- 

, Thurston. 

ing town is 

Bay, at the 

vcr. Cotton 

(Is are the 

Fall River ; 

n t'aetories. 

inspection. 

, mostly of 

s the chief 

noteworthy 

le Academy 

date 1,800 

s an Opera 

ublic halls. 

jy Railway, 

ton, in 2 



of Cass 
|o), 12,700. 

Head(iuar- 

liver in the 

valley, it 
n^ly rapid 
fo it was 
[daj'' it is a 
itre. It is 
lluce of the 
extensive 
Twelve 
|ral news- 
ies, grain 
the pro- 
Ihere is an 
fe, several 
itet Land 
buildings 

Pacific 
Lul's, via 
11 11 hours. 



Faribault (MimtPfota). — Seat of 
Kiev Countv ; population (I88(t), 
f),5t)<>. 

lloti'h: Arlington, Barrow, Bruns- 
wick, Commercial. 

A verj' prosperous town, with 
some manufacturing and large airri- 
cultural interests. There is an Epi*- 
copal Aradenii/, a State Aiiylut". for 
Deaf and Dnmb, several good schools, 
churches, banks, &c. There are two 
music halls. 

Reached by Chicago, Milwaukee, 
and St. Paul Railway, from St. 
Paul, in 2i hours. 

Fayetteville {Tenne»»pe).—'!ic?it of 
Lincoln County'; population (1880), 
2,000. 

Hotels : MacElroy, Petty. 

A small manufacturing town,with 
extensive agricultural interests. It 
has a small Music Hall, and some 
uninteresting county buildings. 

Reached by Nashville, Chatta- 
nooga and St. Louis Railway, from 
St. Louis, vhi Decherd, m ID hours. 

Fergus Falls {Minnesota). — Seat 
of Otter T:)il County; population 
(1880), 3,000. 

Hotels : Bell's, Occidental. 

Picturesquely situated at the great 
rapids of the Red River of the North, 
whose waters are employed advan- 
tageously in driving the numerous 
flour, timber, and other mills ; has 
also some furniture, iron, and other 
factories, and is a railroad centre 
with divisional headquarters. It is 
also a summer resort, there being 
numerous lakes, fine fishing, and 
charming scenery. There is an 
Oppi'a House and a Theatre Comique. 

Reached by St. Paul's, Minnea- 
polis, and Manitoba Railway, from 
Minneapolis, in 8i hours. 

Fernandina (Florida). — Seat of 
Nassau County; population (1880), 
2,100. 

Hotels : Mansion, Egmont, Florida 
Dell, Strathmore (Beach). 

This old town, seat of a 
Bishopric, is charmingly situated 
on the northern part of Amelia 
Island, at the mouth of the 
Amelia River. It is a very 



ft. ourite winter resort, its climate 
being eipiable and mild. The har- 
bour is very fine and capacious, 
principal tmde is in timber, but 
cotton shipping and manufactJire is 
largely carried on. It is surrounded 
—on the main land and close to the 
town— l)y orange, sugar, and cotton 
plantati(jns. Favourite excursions 
are along the beach and to Didxjc- 
ness, the estate of General (Jreene, 
given to him by the people of (ieor- 
gia, in recognition or his services in 
the War of Independence. It ex- 
tends over 10,0(K) acres, and is 
licautifully laid out. 

In the town is a Lyceum, and 
other places of amusement. 

Reached by Florida Railway, 
from Jacksonville, or by steamer 
from New York. 

Findlay {Ohio) — Seat of Hancock 
County; population (18S0), t.iKh). 

Hotels : Joy, Commercial, Sher- 
man. 

A thriving manufacturing town, 
with agricultunil pursuits. Little of 
interest to the tourist. Some county 
buildings, an Opera House, and two 
music halls. 

Reached by Cincinnati, Sandusky 
and Cleveland Railway*, from Cleve- 
land, in 3i hours. 

Fire Island (A>«- Yorl-).— in Great 
South Bay ; population (1880), 500. 

Hotels: Old Dominy, Surf. 

A charming summer resort, offer- 
ing surf and still-water baths, l)oat- 
ing and fishing ; climate delightfully 
cool, and good beach. 

Reached l)y Long Island, from 
New York, via Babylon, in 2^ hours. 

Fitchburg {Massachusetts).— Wor- 
cester Coimty; population (1880), 
12,500. 

Hotels: Fitchburg, American. 

A very busy manufacturing town 
on the Nashua River, whose water 
power is employed in the numerous 
mills. The City Hall, Crockers, and 
Board of Trade are noteworthy. 
Some hills near the town afford fine 
views. 

Reached by Fitchburg Railway, 
from Boston, vid Waltham, in 9 
hours. 



90 



HRADSHAW f< LNIiKD STATKS. 






ll^ 



11 






1 






Flint (3Iichijft}i). i^ofit of (JeiiCKCC 
County; population (IHHO), 0,1«N). 

lloteh: Dayton, IJryant, Sher- 
man, Thayer, Masort, Waverlej'. 

Vleasantly sittiated on the J'lint 
River ; thisiH a very busy nianufar- 
turin)< town. Its "tim])er tra<lo is 
extensive. The mills eniln-ace 
woollen and cotton, spinninjf and 
weaving, carriage and wagon, 
manufactories, and machine repair 
shops. There are several county 
Imildings, and an AKj/him for the 
Deaf, Dumb, ami liliii'il. The New 
Miiifio Hall is a fine l)uildintr, and 
the Fenton, Awanaga and Hefonn 
are smaller (mcs. 

Reached by Chicngo and Grand 
Trunk Railway, from Chicago, rid 
Lansing, in \o\ hours. 



Flushing (New York).— On Flushing 
Bay, near the entrance of Long 
Island Sound; population (1880), 
6,700. 

Ilofeh : City, Commercial. 

A beautiful village, with very fine 
residential mansions of New York 
business men. It is a summer re- 
sort, and the nursery gardens are 
extensive and verv »"^lebrated. It 
has very good ed nal institti- 

tions., and the phv loted for its 

wealth and culture. All the sur- 
nmnding placesare summer resorts, 
and there are m^ny pleasant drives. 

Reached by Long Island Railway, 
from Brooklyn, in half an hour. 

Fond du Lac (Wisconsin). — Capital 
of Fond du Lac County ; population 
(1880), 1.3,1 W. 

Hotels : Palmer, American. 

Situated on Lake Winnebago and 
Fox River. The scenery surround- 
ing the town is very fine. The river 
is crossed ])y several bridges, and 
navigation is limited to the Northern 
('hannel. The town has many 
churches, and is well known for the 
high position of its educational in- 
stitutions. The lake affords good 
fishing and boating, and extensive 
drives along its shores. Game is 
also abundant. It is mainly engaged 
in timber and iron manufactures. 

Reached by Chicago and North- 
Western Railway, from Chicago, it d 
Milwaukee, in 4} houre. 



Fort Dodge (/o»r//). — Seat of 
Webster County ; i»(>puliition (18bO), 
3,7»)0. 

Hotels: Dunfomlic, St. Charles, 
Paterson, F(jrt Dodge. 

An agriculttiral centre with some 
milling interest, is advaiitageously 
situated aiul has a future. Berry's 
Hall (800 seats) and Court House 
(.500 seats) are the chief places of 
meeting. 

Reached by Minneapolif^ and St. 
Louis Railway, from St. Paul, rid 
Albert Lea, in Hi Ik nrs. 



\N(H- I'orA-).— Wash- 
; iidimlatitm (1880), 

.L.ines, Kldridge, 



Fort Edward 

ington County 
:{,500. 

Hotels : St. 
Millnian. 

Pleasantly situutcd on the Hud- 
son River and Cliamplain Canal, the 
town has extensive iiajicr and 
earthenware manufuct( tries. There 
is an Opera House. Sixteen miles 
south is Saratoga. 

Reached by Delaware and Hudson 
Canal Railway, fr-m Montreal, rid 
Whitehall, in 7 hours. 



Fort Madison (/^o«(0.— Seat of Lcc 
County; poimlation (ISSO), •l.,70<). 

Hotels: Central Metropolitan, 
Kasten, Madison. 

A thriving manufacturing town 
on the Mississippi River, situated 
in the heart of a very fertile region. 
A great many agricultural imple- 
ment manufactories give the place 
a brisk appearance. It has also an 
extensive lumber trade. The State 
Penitentiary is worthy of inspection. 
There are also two large halls for 
concerts, lectures, itc. 

Reached by Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy Railway, from Burling- 
ton, in f hours. 

Fort Scott {Kansas). — ^Qui of 
Bourbon County ; po})ulation (1880) 
5,5(H). 

Hotels : Wilder, Gulf, Lockwood, 
German. 

A snjall thriving town on the 
Marmiton River, a confluent of the 
Osage. It is rapidly growing, 
owing to the abundant coal mines 



\ 



FLINT — FKKIH:i:i('KSIU'U(J. 



91 



in the environs and to the increasing 
manufactories. Its retail trade and 
ajfricultural intoref*t.i are also ex- 
tensive. There is an Opera Uouso 
with pent.H for l,2iM). 

Reached hy Missouri Pacific Ruil- 
wnv, from St. Louis, ri(i Sedalia, in 
11 hours. 

Fort Wayne (/"«i/i«M«).— Seat of 
Allen County; papulation (18wJ), 
26,00<>. 

HoteLi; Mayer, Aveline, Robin- 
sou. 

Situated at the confluence of 
the St. Joseph and St. Mary's 
River.a, which form the Matui\ce 
River. IL is also called tlie 
•• Summit City," as it forms the 
water-shed, streams runninj? frotn 
here E. and W. It takes its name from 
an old fort, built in 1794; hut in fact 
it is now one of the chief cities of 
Indiana. Its manufactures arc ex- 
tensive, chiertj' of railway engines, 
cars, etc. The town is well built, 
and amon^r its public building's 
may l)0 mentioned the Coimf'/ 
PrinDii, CoHCorditi Culleqf, Fort 
Wayne College^ the Court Jloitge, the 
Opera Home, and the Academy of 
Music. There arc four public 
Farkii, and of the five cemeteries, 
Lindoiwood is the largest, and best 
laid out. 

Reached by New York, Chicago, 
and St. Louis Railway, from 
Chicago, in six hours. 

Fort "Worth (Texai>).—Scnt of 
Tarrant County; population (1880), 
7,000. 

Hotels: El Paso, Waterman's. 

A rapidly increasing town, in the 
midst of an agricultural district, for 
the retail trade of which it is the 
centre. The public buildings are of 
little note. Stages diverge here to 
different points. 

Reached by Missouri Pacific Rail- 
way, from Denison, via Denton, in 
oj hours, 

Frankfort {Kentucky).— C&\niQ\ of 
Kentucky, and Seat of Franklin 
County; population (1880), 7,000. 

Hotels : Capital, Merriwether. 

Situated sixty miles from the 
mouth of the Kentucky River, and 



on its northern bank. It is a well 
laid out, and handsome town, and 
has some manufactories, dis- 
tilleries, etc. There are some public 
buildings, of which the 5^^^• 
Arsenal and Penitritftary are the 
most noteworthy. Major's Public 
Hall can seat *l,0oo i)crsons. A 
chain bridge ccmnects the two 
banks of the river. The sur- 
nmndings are picturesque. 

Reached by Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from Louisville, i!i 
li hours. 

Franklin {Pen iisylnmia).— Sent of 
Venango County • population (1880), 
5,5(H). 

Hotels: Exchange, United States, 
Rural, National, Grant. 

Built on the site of the old French 
fort Venango, on the confluence of 
the French Creek and AUegheniy 
River. It is a great railroad centre. 
It is situated in the Oil Region of 
Penn.sylvania, and has an extensive 
trade, and some factories. The 
Court House, and several other 
buildings, are interesting. 

Reached by Alleghany Valley 
Railway, from Pittsl)urg, vhi Rell 
Bank, in 14 hours. 



Frederick {Maryland).— Sent of 
Frederick County; population (1880), 
8,500. 

Hotels : City, Groff, Carlin. 

Pleasantly situated close to the 
M(mocacy River. It has tanning, 
milling, and sash factories, and 
also large canning establishments. 
The public buildings are not 
striking. The City Hall can seat 
1,000 persons, and the Junior, 500. 

Reached T)y Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from Baltimore, in 3 
hours. 



Fredericksburg {Virginia). — 
Spottsylvania County; population 
J880),' 5,300. 

Hotels : Central, Exchange. 

A quaint and old town on the 
southern bank of the Rappahannock 
River. Founded in 1727, it was the 
scene of a great battle on 13th Dec* 
1862, between Generals Bumside 
and Lee. There is a cemetery, 



92 



IIKAO.SHAW S UXITEl) MAJ K.S. 



I « 



■• Ji 



;i 



I 

4h 



• ■!(( 



>l 



whore tho«»c who fell in the battin 
aro l)urio<l. In tho TioitrtibourhfK)! 
is iilm> tho Imtlleflcld «»f Chtnic/l. 
iortcille. Near Spotltylrauia Caiirf 
Jlinitte Kevenil l)attl(;H were fon^^ht 
by General Clraiit on his march to 
Richmond. WaHhin^rt«m was 1)orii 
and pjiMsed his early years near 
('haucellorsville. An'cxcnrsion to 
Thf Wil<hrneH» will roi)ay tho 
traveller. Its chief industries now 
are manufactures and a^Miculture. 
Steamers ply between here and 
Ualtimorc. A new Opera Jl<iH»e has 
recently been built. 

Reached by Pennsylvariia Rail- 
way, from New York, cid Philadel- 
phia, in 11 hours. 



Fredericktown {Mhsourt).— Seat 
of Madison County; population 
(1880), 1,U0(). 

JloteU : Madison, White Allen. 

A charming town, as yet in its 
infancy, but attracting large num- 
bers of summer visitors, owing to 
tho mineral springs tliscovered 
recently. It has also some mining 
interests. 

Reached by St. Louis, Iron Moun- 
tain and Southern Railway, from 
St. Louis, iu 5 hours. 

Preehold (New Jerfey).—fieat of 
Monmouth Couijty ; population 
(1880), 3,000. 

Hotels: American, Union, Wash- 
ington, Railroad House. 

It is the centre of a rich farming 
county, and is a regularly laid out 
and well-built town ; it has an exten- 
sive trade with the surrounding 
districts. It is close to tho field of 
Monmouth battle, fought on June 
23th, 1778. There are some public 
buildings here, and three la rge halls 
for lectures, etc. 

Reached by Freehold and New 
York Railway, from New Y'ork, via 
Matawan, in l\ hours. 

Preeport (Illinois), — Seat of 
Stephenson County j population 
(1880), 10,000. 

Hotels: Brewster, Clifton, Penn- 
sylvania. 

A thriving manufacturing town 
having also extensive agricultural 



int(»rcsts. There arc Fomo i)nblic 
buildintfs of tiuto, and the Op(r>i 
Jlniisr vww seat 1,«MM> persons. 

Koiichod by (Miicago and N')rth- 
Westeni Railway, from Chiongo, in 
Ti hours. 

Fremont (O/* /»;).- -Seat of Sandusky 
County; population (Isso), k,500. 

lloteh: IJall.Tell. 

Situated on Sundusky River at tho 
liead of the Navitr.itiou. Tho ]>lace 
is well built, and regularly l;iid out. 
It has some agricultural and matiu- 
farturiu!,'' intorosts, and a fev/ public 
buildinirs of little importance. Tho 
Mammoth Hall, with its 1,(KK) seats, 
and i»vo smaller ones may bo men- 
tioned. There is nothing here to 
interest tho traveller or tourist. 

Reached ))y Lake Shore and 
Michigan Southern Railway, from 
Toledo, in 1 hour. 

Gainesville {Florida). — Fornau- 
diiM' Countv ; population (IH^O), 
f.5u, 

Jlofels : Oak Hall, Arlington, 
Oliver, Pennsylvania. 

A favourite winter statioji, much 
frequented, owing to its mild and 
equable climate, by invalids suffer- 
ing from chest complaints. Its 
situation — in the . centre of a 
peninsula, and surrounded by pino 
forests— gives it great advantages. 
The surrounding country is pic- 
turesque, and offers an endless 
variety of interesting excursions. 
There arc good hunting and 
fishing. 

Reached by Florida Southern 
Railway, from Palaika,iv(f Rochelle, 
in 2\ hours. 

Gainesville {Georgia).— yeixr At- 
lanta; population (1880), 2,500. 

Hotels : Richmond, Gower 
Springs, New Holland Springs. 

A beautiful town, and rapidly 
growing since tho completion of the 
railwaj'.' It is much resorted to on 
account of the numerous mineral 
springs in the neighbourhood. The 
scenery is fine, and excursions are 
plentiful. 

Reached by Richmond and Dan- 
ville Railway, from Atlanta, in 2 
hours. 



F \i i; 1 > K K I C K I OW X- - li KO i:« , KIT) W N . 



o;j 



iC Oi'fl'it 

l" North - 
iiMi{?o, ill 



isiudusky 

vcv sittho 
Vho iilace 
liiiil out. 
1(1 inann- 
e%v public 
ice. The 
(H»!) scats, 
' bo men- 
f here to 
irist. 

\oro aiul 
pay, from 



- Feruau- 
)n (lHh<t), 

Arlington, 

ion, much 

mihl and 

lids suiTor- 

uis. Its 

of a 

by i)ivie 

aiitaj^es. 

is pic- 

endlcss 

ciirsions. 

m^ and 



re 



Southern 
Rochelle, 



J ear At- 
i.oOO. 

Gower 
fings. 

rapidly 
on of the 
ted to on 
mineral 
>od. The 
sions are 

md Dan- 
ita, in 2 



Galena {flliiiniH). f^cnt of Daviess 
County ; population (IsnO), s,2(H). 

/[of eh: Do Soto, Mississippi, 
Kuropeau, Lawrence. 

An important and ^■rowinK tcm'Ti, 
situated on the (falcna River, antl 
noted for its lead mines. Jt has 
Home manufactories, atnl pome 
piablic buildintjs, thouirh Tinn;' of 
nnich interest to tho touri-^t. 
There are two large halls for ])ul)lic 
meetings, concerts, lectiiros, etc. 

Reached l)y Chicago and North- 
Western Railway, from Chicago, 
fid Frceix)rt, in hours. 

Galeaburgh (Z//ihoi«).— Scat of 
Knox County; population (1880), 
il,r>(K). 

Jloteln: Brown's, Union. 

Surrounded by a rich farming 
country. It pf)8sosses, apart from a 
few factories, some imi)ortanco as 
an educational resort. The Lotuhm-d 
Universiti/, Knvx Collci/e {ind Semi- 
nary attract a. gn at many students 
of both sexes. 'J hero are several 
large libraries, and an Operu llotiito 
with suits for 1,2<)0 persons. It is 
the centre of a corn district. 

Reached l)y Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy Railway, frt»m Chicago, 
cid Aurora, in Gj hours. 



Galveston (r^xas).— The commer- 
cial capital of Texas, and chief 
town of Galveston County ; pooulu- 
tion (1880), 22,250. 

Hotels: Giradin, Tremont, Wash- 
ington, Beach. 

Clubf : The Union and the 
Harmony. 

Contul : W. T. Lyall, 



Bank of Galveston. 
Dr. Smith, Dr. Bates. 



Encflish 
Consul. 
Bankers i 
Medical ; 
Dentini: 

This rapidly-growing town is 
situated on the north-east of 
Galveston Island at the mouth of the 
b.ay of the same name. The town is 
well laid out, with broad, straight 
streets, fronted mostly by flower 
gardens. The United States Court 
House, the County Court House, the 
City Hall, the Post Office, the United 
States Custom House, the Cotton 



T'Dlplr, the tVO C'll/> Jfi'KXii, tWc) 

theatres, and several churehes, nvi 
all substantial and handsome build- 
ings. The residential portioji of tV.o 
city is very fine; whilf in the bll^i. 
ness portion several very hand>oino 
buildings have )»een cn-ctod. Tlio 
fiilrrKlon ^[I'lliciil Colli if atid tho 
r'«i (V r»i7/y a re both nuu'h f rei luei 1 1 ed . 
The I'mitliuc Cmintit with liiiir» 
Jlii.h School lire worth visiting. Tho 
Mrrciinfilc Lihrury, eontjiinint: 1»,inn> 
volumes, is also deserving of noiice. 
Ohinidcr Park and Cify J'urlc aro 
both extensive and well laid i ut. 
The staple nrticlo of shipment is 
cotton; the harbour is siife and 
good. The Island is about 2S miles 
loiitf by2jmili'>* in moan l)readth; a 
hard bcaeh runs r-mnd it, and iitYords 
a fine promenade . Was almost com- 
pletely (lestro.ye<\ li.v- lire in l'<*^5,and 
since the writir r tf tho abovf. 

ReachofI by Galveston, I fa l•ri«^bul•g 
and SanAr'onio Radway, from Now 
Orleans, via Houston, iu 10 hours. 



Geneva (T</r rorA).- Ontario 
County; population (1880), '),»'>(». 

7/^r>/e/« ; Franklin, Americiin, In- 
ternational. 

Situated at the head of Seucca 
Lake, it is a smumer resort; but 
is chiefly noted for its nurseries, 
malting establishments and lumbc'r 
trade. Its situation is l)eautiful, 
and its educational institutions 
celebrated. Hob<>rt Colle[/r is well 
known. Steamers ])ly daily between 
Genevi^ and Watkins at the other 
end of the lake. Tho Linden Public 
Hall can seat 8i)0 persons. 

Reached by New York Central & 
Hudson River Railway, from New 
York, via Albany and Syracuse, in 
12^ hours. 



Georgetown {Colorado). — Clear 
Crook County, near Golden, 8,412 
feet above tho sea-level ; population 
(1880), 3,300. 

Hotels: Newton. 

The highest town in the world. It 
is enclosed by lofty hills and moun- 
tains. Its streets are broad and 
well laid out, and it is divided into 
two almost equal sections by a 
creek ininning through the centre. 



94 



BRADSHAW 8 UNITKD STATKS. 






The neifflibourhood aboiinrls in ro- 
mantic spots for excufRions, such 
as Fall Riner, Chicago Lake, Devil's 
Oaffl, Orren Lake, Middle PnrJtand 
Orai/'s Pfnk. Complete outfits and 
puifies for mountaineering trips 
can he had in Georgetown ; many 
tourists malce it their ^tarting 
point. 

Reacheil by Union Pacific Rail- 
way, from Denver, via Golden, inlj 
hours. 



Gettysburg (P««»»y?t'« «/«).— Seat 
of Adams County ; population (18H0), 
3,100. 

Hofds: Eagle, Keystone, Mac 
Clellan. 

The position of Gettysburg is 
pleasant and the surrounding hills 
offer many fine views. Its chief 
interest,however, centres in the fact 
that the great, perhaps the greatest, 
battle of the Civil War was fought 
here on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd of 
July, 1863. The National Cemetery, 
on Cemetery Hill, occupies about 17 
acres. The Soldiers' Monument 
crowns the hill and is surmounted 
by a colossal marble statue of 
Liberty. The Co%irt House and 
Public Offices^ Lutheran Seminary 
and Pennsylvania College are all 
substantial buildings. The latter 
have large libraries. Gettysburg 
Springs, with their alkali-saline 
waters, are one mile distant, and 
much frequented. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from Philadelphia, rtrf Lancas- 
ter and York, in 7 hours. 



Geyser Springs: 
page 55. 



See Calistoga, 



Glasgow {Missouri) .—lHea,Y Kansas 
City; population (1880), 2,000. 

Hotels: Palmer. 

A manufacturing town, with some 
excellent educational institutions of 
quit© recent growth. It contains 
several mills and factories and 
public buildings. The Lewis College 
is well known. 

Reached by Chicago and Alton 
Railway, from St. Louis, vid Rood- 
house, in 8 hours. 



Glendive (3fo »/«»»).— Near Bill- 
ings ; population (1880), 1,200. 

Hotels: The Glendive. 

In a charming position on the Yel- 
low Stone River. It is an outfitting 
post for hunting and excursion par- 
ties. It has some factories, several 
churches, banks and public build- 
ings. Stage coaches start from 
here, and the town is rapidly in- 
creasing in size. 

Reached b.y Northern Pacific Rail- 
way, from St. Paul, vid Brainerd, in 
32 hours. 

Glens Palls {yeir I'orA:).— Near 
Caldwell ; population (1880), 4,900. 

Hotels : Rockwell, American. 

The town is situated on the Hud- 
son River, near a Cataract 50 feet 
high. The falls are very fine, and 
are the scene of some of the 
incidents of Fenimore Cooper's 
" Last of the Mohicans." Colonnl 
Williams' Monument, in a dark glen, 
and the Bloody Pond close by, recall 
some scenes of the war with the 
French and English in 1755. The 
approach to Lake George is very 
impressive. 

Reached by New York Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, vid Saratoga, in 8| 
hours. 

Glen Eyrie. See Colorado Springs. 

Gloucester {Massachusetts).— lelfii^tix 
County ; population (1880), 19,40(». 

Hotels: Pavilion, Ocean, Atlantic, 
Webster, Belmont. 

Summer Houses : Pavilion, Bass 
Rocks, Pebbly Beach ; at East 
Oloucester : Craig Cottage, Del- 
phine ; at Magnolia : Willow 
Cottage, Hesperus, Ocean Side. 
Oak Grove ; at Annisguam : High- 
land House. 

Pleasantly situated on Cape Anne, 
a peninsula forming the northern 
limit ©f Massachusetts and the 
southern limit of Ipswich Bay. 
The town is a collection of summer 
and sea bathing resbrts, and com- 
prises : Lanesville, Bay View, 
Anniaquam, West Gloucester, on 
Ipswich Bay ; East Gloucester, 
Gloucester (Harbour), and Magnolia, 
on Massachusetts Bay. The prin. 



(IKTTVSRl'RG — GRAND HAI'IDS. 



95 



cipal industries arise from fisheries 
and granite (ii;an-ies, and the re- 
quirements of the numerous summer 
guests. The City Hall can seat 
1,700 persons. There are a few 
other interesting buildings. 

Reached by Boston and ifaine 
Railway, from Boaton, via 8iilem, in 
IJ hours. 



Gloversville {New York). — Fulton 
Coimty ; population (1880), 7,400. 
Jloteln: Mason, Alvord, Scoville. 

A thriving town, exclusively en- 
gaged in the glove and mitten manu- 
facture. There is an Opera House 
and two Halls. 

Reached by Fonda, Johnstown, 
and Gloversville Railway, from 
Fonda, in \ hour. 



Goldsboro {North Carol! nn). ■— 
Waj'ne Countj' ; population (1880), 
3,500. 

Hotels: Humphrey, Bonito. 

A properous town, near the head 
of the navigation "theNeuse River. 
It is mainly engaged in retail trade, 
and has nothing of interest for the 
tourist. 

Reached by Atlantic Coast Line, 
from Richmond, via Weldon, in 5^ 
hours. 

Golden (Co/omt/o).— Near Denver; 
population (1880), 2,800. 

Hotels : The Western. 

Situated between two picturesque 
hills, it is the centre of an extensive 
mining region. It has made rapid 
progress of late. It is the point of 
departure for Bear Creek CaFiou, 
Clear Creek Canon, Black Jlatvk, 
Idaho Springs, and several others. 

Reached by Un ion Pacific Railway 
from Denver, in } hour. 

Gorham {New Ho inpshire) . — Andros- 
coggin County; population (1880), 
1,400. 

Hotels : Alpine, Gorham, Eagle. 

A thriving village , North-East 
gateway to the White Mountains. It 
18 situated at the confluence of the 
Androscoggin and Peabody Rivers, 
and commands very picturesque 
views. iSxcursions to the various 



mountains, to liandulph Hill, IhrCn 
Falls, L-'ttd Mine Bridge, the Notch, 
Jefferson and J person Hill, to 
Crawford House, Bethlehem, Mount 
Washington, etc., are all very inter- 
esting. For detailed description see 
local guides. 

Reached by the Grand Trunk 
Railway of Canada, frum Portland, 
in 'i\ hours. 



Grand Forks (^>ac•o^r).— Seat of 
Grand Forks County; popuhitioii 



(1880), i,703. 



Hotels . 
western. 



Grigg:^, Mansard, Norih- 



Situatcd on the Red River of tlie 
North, in the richest wheat-growing 
country of the North-\\'est, It has 
a great future; is well laid out, but 
contains as yet nothing of interest 
to the traveller. 

Reachofl by St. Paul, Minneapolis 
and Manitoba Railway, from St. 
Paul, via Minneapolis, in 15 hours. 



Grand Haven {Michigan).— Heat 
of Ottawa County ; population 
(1880), 0,000. 

Hotels : Cutler, Kiiby. 

Advantageously situated on Luke 
'Michigan at the mouth of tlie Grand 
River. A i-egular line of steamers 
connects it with Milwaukee and 
Chicago. The principal occupation 
of its inhabitants is lumber and 
fruit growing. It Las two public 
halls. 

Readied byChicago and Michigan 
Lake Shore Railway, from Cliicago, 
via Holland, in 8\ hours. 



Grand B^pidS {Michigan).— iieat 
of Kent County; populati'ju (18M>), 
41,950. 

Hotels; Sweets, Moreton.Rathbui), 
Bridge-street. 

A great railway centre on the 
Grand River. Has an extensive 
trade, saw mills, manufactories, etc. 
Some of the public buildings arc 
noteworthy. There is an Optra 
House with 1,200 seats, and throe 
other public halls. 

Reached by Chicago and West 
Michigan Railway, from Chicago, 
via New Buffalo, in 8^ hours. 



96 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



Is. 



■ i i 



11 ' 




'' u 


i 




i 




' 
1 



■4 < 



> I 

A i 



■^i 



, 0. 



Great Barrington {Mama chmei tit). 
— Housatoiiic ViiUey ; population 
(1890), 2,750. 

Hotels: Collins, Berkshire, Miller. 

A very lovely place, chiefly in- 
teresting as a summer resort. It con- 
tains several handsome churches, 
especially the Congretjationnl. A 
Hif^h School and many villas in the 
outskirts adorn the town. It is a 
centre for excursions into the Berk- 
shire Hills, which commence here, 
H.ndfor*So«^/i Egremont, Stockbritlye, 
Lake Mahkemac, Lee, Lennox, Fitts- 
JieliJ, etc. 

Reached by Hausatonic Railway 
from Bridgeport, rid Hawleyville, 
in 3 hours. 

Greeley {Colorado).— 'Scox Denver; 
population ^1880), 2,400. 
Hotels : The Greeley ,"VVashington. 

A prosperous little town on the 
Cache la Poudre River, well watered 
and well built. The streets are 
regular, and as the soil is dry two 
large canals have 1)ecn made for the 
purposes of irrigation. Intoxi- 
cating liquors may not be sold on 
the territory of the community. 
There are now five churches, 
excellent schools, a bank, news- 
paper offices, etc. The town itself 
is a remarkable instance of rapid 
growth. 

Reached by Union Pacific Railway 
from Denver, via Fort Collins, in 5 
houi's. 

Green Bay (Wisconsin). — Capital of 
Brown County ; population (1880), 
7,500. 

Hotels: Cook's, American. 

A thriving manufacturing centre, 
situated on Green Bay, north of the 
Fox River. Its chief productions 
are iron and timber. It has also 
extensive agricultural ir+erests, and 
its retail trade with the surrounding 
country is important. There are 
several public buildings, including 
an Opera House and a Town Hall, 

Reached by Chicago and North 
Western Railway, from Milwaukee, 
via St. Paul, in 5^ hours. 

Greenbrier "White Sulphur 
Springs {Virginia).— "Ne&r Staun- 
ton and Lj'nchburg. 



Hotels : The Springs Hotel. 

The most famed and popular 
of all Virginia summer resorts, 
in a very beautiful and picturesque 
country. About 50 acres of ground 
are occupied by the hotel and sur- 
rounding cottages. The park is 
well shaded and carefully kept. 
The waters are sulphurous, and are 
much recommended in dyspepsia, 
liver and nervous affections, in 
herpes, rheumatism and gout. The 
country all around abounds in 
springs, and numero.is excursions 
can be made. Kate's Mountain, 
Greenbrier Hills and the Allcgha- 
nies are of the best known. The 
springs have been in use since 
1778. 

Reached by Chesapeake and Ohio 
Railway, from Richmond, f/Vf Staun- 
ton, thence by diligence, in 7h hours. 

Greenbush {New roj-Ar).— Rcnselaor 
Coimty ; population (1880), 5,100. 

Hotels: Boston, Broadway, Rens- 
selaer. 

Situated on the Hudson River 
opposite Albany, and connected with 
this town l)y three iron Railway 
bridges. Railway business is the 
only one. There are several pxiblic 
halls of little interest. 

Reached from Albany over the 
bridge by tramway in \ hour. 

Greencastle (/«</ia?Kr).— Seat of 
Putnam Countj-j population (1880), 
3,700. 

Hotels: Central, Jones. 

An educational resort, pleasantly 
situated on a plateau in a rich fann- 
ing and stock-raising country. It 
has a Prison, a Court House, 7 
schools, several churches, the Ash' 
bury University, a High school, 
several libraries, and a Presbyterian 
College (Female), all of which are 
worth noticing. There is also an 
Opera House and a Public Hall. 

Reached, by Indianapolis and St. 
Louis Railway, from Indianapolis, 
cid Danville, in \\ hours. 



Green-Cove Springs {Florida).— 
On St. John's River; population 
(1880), 410. 

Hotels : St. Clair, Clarendon. 



i 



GREAT BARUINGTON — GREENWOOD I.AKK 



97 



el. 

popular 
resorts, 
turesque 
f ground 
and sur- 
park is 
ly kept. 
, and are 
r^spppsia, 
tions, in 
)nt. The 
Linds in 
:cursions 
[ountain, 
AUegha- 
vn. The 
se since 

ind Ohio 
'd Staun- 
7h hours. 



lenselacr 
, 5,100. 

ly, Rens- 

an River 

cted with 

Railway 

s is the 

1 public 

over the 
ir. 

Seat of 
>n (1H80), 



easantly 

jh farm- 

itry. It 

louse, 7 

ho Ash- 

school, 

jyterian 

lich are 

also an 

all. 

and St. 
napolis, 



rid a). — 
mlation 

)n. 



A favourite winter and summer 
resort, possessing some sulphuroixs 
springs. The vegetation is very 
rich. The water of the springs has 
a temperature of 78 degrees Fahr., 
and is considered useful in cases of 
Bright's disease, rheumatism, gout, 
etc. Magnolia, Falatka and Tocoy 
are also winter resorts, and well 
worth the trouble of a visit. There 
are some Spanish ruins in the 
neighbourhood, and fine Onntge 
Graces at Orange Mills and Dancif's 
Wharf. 

Reached by Jacksonville, Tamiia 
and Key West Railway, from Jack- 
sonville, in 1 hour. 

Greenfield (Miissachns 'tfs). — near 
N(,rthampton; population (1880), 
3,'jOO. 

Hotels: American, Mansion. 

A beautiful little town, with shady 
streets and villas, surrounded by 
gardens. It is a very favourite 
summer resoi-t, with picturesque 
scenery. Excursions may be made 
to Turner's Falls, Coleraine, Shel- 
hurne, Bernardston and Let/den 
Gorges. 

Reached by C>)nnecticut River 
Railway, from Springfield, in If 
hours. 

Green Lake {JVisconsin). — Green 
Lake County; population (1880), 
1,407. 

Hotels : Hill's, Sherwood, Forrest, 
Oak wood. Pleasant Point. 

A favourite summer resort, with 
very charming scenery. 

Reached by Chicago and North- 
Western Railway, from Chicago, via 
Fond du Lac, in 7 hours. 

Greenport {Neto York). — On Long 
Island; population (1880), 1,800. 

Hotels: Clark, Wyandank, Booth. 

A lively summer resort, with 
excellent smooth water, bathiny, 
boating, and Ashing. Wild ducks 
are abundant and afford good sport 
in the season. The excursions to 
Orient Village, Shelter SindGardiner's 
Islands are interesting. 

Reached by Long Island Railway, 
from Brooklyn, in 4 hours. 



Greenville (SuKfh CaroUmi).- Seat 
of Greenville County; population 
(188(0, 6,200. 

Hotels: Central, Commercial, Ex- 
change, Greenville, Mansion. 

Situated on Reedy River, and at 
the foot of Saluda Mountains, its 
s^ite is very beautiful. It is a very 
l)opul,xr resort in winter, lying as 
it does at the entrance to the chief 
beauties of the mountain region of 
South Carolina. An Opera Honso 
and a Town ILall are the only places 
of amusement. 

Reached by Columbia and Green- 
ville Railway, from Columbia, in 7 
hours. 

Greensboro' {Xorth Carol! la).— 
Seat f)f Guilford County ; poimlation 
(1880), 5,1(K\ 

Hotels: Central, Benbow, McAdoo, 
Planters. 

A rapidly increasing town, situ- 
ated in a rich tobacco-])r()(lucinn' 
country', and near valuable coal, 
iron and copper deposits. There 
are some public buildings, but nono 
of sufficient interest to detain the- 
tourist. 

Reached by Richmond and Dan- 
ville Railway, from Richmond, via 
North Danville, in 9^ hours. 

Greenwich {Connecticut). — Fair- 
field County ; population (188(»), 
8,000. 

Hotels: Lennox, Cit^', Morton. 

A picturesque old town, situated 
on Long Island Sound. It is noted 
for the great number of its summer 
villas. In the neighbotirhood are 
several favourite summer resort ^,. 
affording pleasant excursions. 

Reached by New York, New 
Haven and Hartford Railwaj', from 
New York, in 1 hour. 

Greenwood Lake {Xew York).— - 
Near Paterson; population (1880), 

Hotels : Brandon, Windermere^ 
Traphagen. 

A highly po])ular summer resort. 
It is called " the miniature L:iko 
George," and being enclosed by 
mountains, offers some verV 
pictur.>s(iue scenery. The water's 

D 



98 



BRADSIIAW S UXn;:!) STATKS. 



1 II 



i( 



If: 






1 1 






% 



4 



are deep, and abound in fish. A 
sniiill stoaraer plies on it, makln,<< 
two trii)S daily. The excni-- 
sions ai'o very interestinj?, and 
include Lukes 3/McopJ«,Wawayanda, 
Sterling and Turner^ s. 

Reached l)y New York and Green- 
wood Railway, from New York, via 
Paterson, in\\ hours. 

Grenada {Mississippi). — Seat of 
Grenada County; po])ulation (1830), 
2,500. 

Hotels: Chamborlin, Walthall. 

Situated on the Yellowlnisha 
River. The chief business is 
cotton shippin.f? ; the town has also 
some manufactures. There is a 
United States Land Office here, and 
s:)veral churches. Three public 
halls. 

Reached by Mississippi and Ten- 
nessee Railwaj', from Memphis, in 
4.5 hours. 

Griffin {Georgia). — Seat of Spalding 
County; population (18S0), 4,200. 

Ilotels: Nelms,Wheeler, Goddard. 

A thrivini? town, with some unin- 
terestin?* county buildings. Has 
some tiade in cotton, and a few 
manufactures. 

Reached by Savannah, Griffin and 
North Alabama Railwaj', from 
Atalanta, in 2 hours. 

Gunnison ( Colorado) . — Gunnison 
County; population, 5,000. 

Hotels : The Rocky Mountains. 

A thriving and rapidly increasing 
town, with large mining interests. 
Tt is an important railwaj' centre ; 
possesses a Court House, several 
churches and schools, and a b:ink 
with 10 million of dollars capital. 
It is the great outfitting centre of 
this region, and its trade is very 
large. The surrounding country is 
fertile, and admirably adapted for 
cattle raising ; though at present 
ouly its mines are of interest. 

Rea^'hed by Un* 'i Pacific Railway, 
from Kansas Cii„ , via Denver, in 31 
hours. 

Ilaskensack {New Jerset/) .—Seat of 
Bersjeu County ; population (18S0), 
4,500. 



Hotels: National, Washington, 
Hackensaek, Mansion. 

A thriving and picturesque 
country, full of quaint old houses. 
The surrounding country is under 
very high cultivation. It is situated 
on 'the Ilackcnsack Riv'er, has a 
c )r.siderable trade in jcwellry, silk, 
iron, timber, etc., eight churches, 
several banks and newspapers, anil 
two public halls, each capable of 
seating 700 persons. 

Reached by New Jet sey and New 
Y'oi!: Railway, from New York, via 
New .Jersey City and Wcehawken, 
in \\ hours. 



Hagerstown {Mart/haul) .—Sent of 
Washington County ; population 
(1880), 0,050. 

Hotels: Baldwin, Franklin, City, 
Antietam. 

Situated on Whitewater Canal 
and Antietara Creek, 22 miles above 
the entrance to Potomac. Tt is 
regularly laid out and well built ; 
has handsome Court House, and a 
])roperous manufacturing and 
agricultural trade. It was the scene 
of severe conflicts during the Civil 
Wars. The College of St. James is 7 
miles distant; the Academy of Music 
and the Lyceum seat respectively 
800 and 40() ])ersonf?. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway', from Baltimore, in 4^- 
hours. >-, 

Haines Falls {New York).— In the 
Catskill Mountains. 

Hotels : Haines Houfc. 

A beautiful waterfall, and a spot 
much frequented by artists. The 
fall makes several leaps, and in less 
than \ mile decends about 475 feet. 
Close by are Catterslcill Clove, High 
Rocks and Fawn Leap Falls. 

Reached from the Mountain House 
in \ hour. 

Hamilton (O/^io).— Seat of Butler 
County; population (1880), 12,200. 

Hotels : Philips, Straub, St. 
James. 

Situated on the Miami River and 
the Miami and Erie Canal. Hamilton 
is surrounded by a rich and popu- 
lous country with a great variety of 



v.- 



GKEXADA — HARia.SBURG. 



00 



Washingtori, 

picturesque 
t old houses, 
itry is under 
It is situated 
liver, has a 
3\vellry, silk, 
ht churches, 
spapers, an(l 
1 capable of 

sey and New 
ew York, via 
Wcehawken, 



id). — Seat of 
population 

mklin, City, 

rater Canal 
1 miles above 
mac. It is 
well built ; 
louse, and a 
uring and 
vas the scene 
big the Civil 
»Y. James is 7 
emy of Music 
respectively 

*e and Ohio 
lore, in 4 \ 



rk). — In the 



and a spot 
rtists. The 
, and in less 
lit 475 feet. 
CloKe, High 
Us. 
itain House 



b of Butler 
SO), 12,200. 

raub, St. 

1 River and 
Hamilton 

land iJopu- 
variety of 



manufactures. There are a number 
of handsome churcl' :3 and schools, 
an Opera House, nnd a Music Jlalf, 
a Court Jlouse and a Public Library. 
A canal i-ni)i)lics water with a fall 
of 28 feet for the mills. 

Reached by Cincinnati, Hamiltmi 
and Dayton 'R;iil way, from Cincin- 
nati in 1 hour. 

Hammondsport (yew York-).— 
Ontiirio County ; population (188U), 
800. 
Hotels : Grove Spring House. 

A summer resort and centre of 
extensive vine-growing districts, on 
Lake Keuka. Scenery very pictur- 
esque. The Catawlia and Isabella 
claret and native chami)agne are 
])roduced in this district. The 
Urbana and PleasaTit Valley Wine 
Co. have very extensive cellars well 
worth a visit. 

Reached by Bath and Hammonds- 
]")ort (narrow gauge) Railway, from 
Canandaigua, in i|- hour. 

Hannibal {Missouri). — Seat of 
Marion County; population (1880), 
11,100. 

Hotels : Planters, Park, Conti- 
nental, Union Station. 

A very flourishing town on the 
Mississippi River, with extensive 
manufactures. It is a great railway 
and shipping centre for the sur- 
rounding agricultural districts, and 
is also the largest timber market, 
after St. Louis, west of the Missis- 
sippi. It carries on a large trade in 
toliacco, cork, and flour. There are 
some iminteresting comity build- 
ings, an Opera House, an AiaJemy of 
Mtisie nnd two Music Halls. 

RouCi.od ])y Missouri Pacific Rail- 
way, from St. Louis, in 10 hours. 



Hanover {I^ew Hampshire). 
Norwich. 



Near 



V 



Hotels : The Dartmouth. 

A small village, well known as 
the seat of Dartmouth College, 
founded in 1709. Daniel "Webster 
studied here. The buildings are 
placed around a square. The princi- 
pal are : Reed Hall (with library of 
50,000 volumes), Dartmouth Hall, 
Culver Hall, and the new Gym- 



nasium. It includes, besides tho 
literary department, a college for 
technical instruction for agriculture, 
and a medical school. 

Reached by Boston and Lowell 
Railway, from Concord, via 
Norwich, in 3^ hours. 

Harper's Ferry {West Virginia). 
— Jetferson County, near Martins- 
burg; population (1880), S(K). 

Hotels : Ferry House, Jefierson. 

A delightful village, situated at 
the continence of the Potomac and 
Shenandoah Rivers; compactly but 
irregularly built. Before tlie Civil 
War an extensive and important 
Arsenal was situated here. Scenery 
charming and very picturesque. 
Tourists should stop hete at least a 
day, and ascend Maryland and 
Bolivar Bills. The site is historical 
as the scene of the exjtloits of John 
Brown during the Civil War. liar- 
l)er's Ferry was during that time 
alternately in the hands of the 
Federals and Confederates. Charles- 
town, Elk Branch, and several other 
interesting places are in the 
vicinity. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from Baltimore, cid Wash- 
ington, in 2.1 hours. 

'H.aTTisbVLTg'Peunsi/lvania^.—Cinntiil 
of the State and seat of Dauidnn 
County; population (1880), 30,800. 

Hotels : Bolton, Jones, Lochiel, 
United States, Masonic Hall. 

It occupies a beautiful situation 
on the east bank of Susquehanna 
River, spanned here by two bridges. 
It is handsomely built and sur- 
rounded by very fine scenery. The 
town was founded by JolniHarris, in 
17H5, incori)orated in 1 701, and made 
the State Capital in 1812. The State 
Jlouse with the State Library on 
second floor, the Court House, the 
Arsenal, County Prison, Lunatic 
Asylum, several handsome churches, 
schools, and Markets are interest- 
ing. It is an important Railwaj'- 
centre, and contains extensive iron 
works and factories. There is an 
Opera House (Masonic Hall ) . Front- 
street is the principal thoroughfare 
and chief promenade, and has some 
fine private residences. Harris 

d2 



100 



HRADSHAW S UXITKD STATKS. 



^ 4 



%-.\ 



, i 



.1 •> 



I? ' 



Park, artistically laid out, and also 
the Cemetery, ]}oth occupy a com- 
manding i)osition, and afford line 
views. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from Philadelpiiia, via Lan- 
caster, in 1 hours. 



Hartford (r.jnHrc/(V»0-— Capital of 
the State and chief town of Hartford 
County J population (1880), 42,550. 

Hotels : Allyn, United States, 
City. 

Conoeyancea : Tramways to all 
parts ; carriat?es, 25 cents the course 
within the hounclaries. 

Amutsemeiitg: The Oi)era House,395, 
Main-street, Allyn llall, and several 
smaller Music Halls. 

Post Office : In City Hall-square. 

Bitnkera ; The Hartford Bank. 

Medical: Dr. Tate, Allen. 

Dentist : 

This town is situateil at the head of 
the sloop navif^ation of Connecticut 
River, 60 miles from Long Island 
Sound. It is a handsome town, and 
connected with East Hartford by a 
covered bridge, 1,0(X) feet long. 
Besides carrying on a considerable 
manufacturing business, it is one of 
the chief centres for lire and life 
insurance business. Its principal 
manufactures are hardware, though 
there are also some wcollen spinning 
and weaving mdls. It is regularly 
laid out, and covers an area of over 
10 sijuare miles, divided into two 
une<iual parts l)y Park River, which 
is si)anned by numerous bridges. 
Main-street is the principal 
thoroughfare, and Asylum and 
State streets the chief business 
(quarters. The outskirts are beauti- 
tiod with villas and gardens. 

Amongst the most interesting 
buildings are the Netp State House, 
))uilt of marble, and sulHciently 
large to accommodate both Houses 
of Legislation, several State depart- 
ments, and the Supreme Court, 
with its Library; the Old State 
House, on State House-square; the 
City Hall, in Kingsley-street ; the 
PoU Office, with the 'United State 
Supreme Court, in City Hall-square ; 
the Opera House, and Wadsirorth 
AtheiKPiim, in Main-street ; the latter 
with a library of 90 .(XH) volumes. 



There are about lO churches, 
the most interesting ])eing: Chunk 
of the Good Shepherd, Catholic 
Cathedral, Christ Church, South 
Baptist, Park and Pearl-street Con- 
f/ret/afiou'il. The Trinity Colleye on 
Rocky Hill should be visited; the 
architecture is early English, and 
was designed l)y William Jiurges.of 
London. It occupies, with gardens, 
etc., about 80 acres. 

Among the business buildings the 
most imi)ortant are : The Colt Fire 
Arms Manufactory, in Main-street ; 
the buildinir of Cheney llrothers, iu 
Main and Temjile streets ; Conn c- 
ilcut Mutual Lift Insurance Compmnj 
(State House-s(|uaro), and Charter 
Oak Lfe Insurance Cw/n/xo/j/ (Main- 
street). The Union Depot is very 
line. The High School near the 
I'ark is a very handsome building. 
The Theological Institute, the Asylum 
for the Deaf and Dumb, Lu'n .tic 
Asylum, Hartford- Hospital, Hart- 
ford Orphan Asylum are all worth 
inspecting. 

" Mark Twain " has a handsome 
residence in Farmington Avenue, 
Bnshwell Park, covering 16 acres is 
the chief recreation ground, south of 
the Union Depot ; favourite drives 
are to Tumble Down Brook, Talcott 
Mountains, Trout Brook Itesercoir, 
Prospect Hill, and Wethersfield. The 
Ancient Burying Ground in the 
Main-street, at the back of Centre 
Church, and the Cedar Hill Cemetery, 
with Colt and Beach monuments, 
giving a fine view over the town 
and country, should also be visited. 

East Hartford, across the River, 
is an ancient town, with quaint old 
houses, and streets shaded l)y elms. 

Reached by New York, New- 
Haven and Hartford Railway, from 
New York, via New Haven, in 4^ 
hours. 

Hastings {Minnesota).— ^Q^t of 
Dakota County ; population (1880), 
3,900. 

Hotels : Tremont, Foster, St. Joe. 

A thriving towMi, on the Vermilion 
River, which falls here 110 feet in a 
quarter of a mile, and consequently 
furnishes abundant water power. 
It also joins the Mississippi River. 
It has a prosperous future. It con- 
tains several flour, saw and shinglo 
mills, and is an important wheat 



IIAUTFORD — HILLSDALK. 



101 



liurche.-, 
: Chunk 
Catholic 
r, South 
t'ppt Coil- 
"oUeije on 
ited ; the 
ish, and 

{UTKCS, of 

gardens, 

ilinj?sthe 
Colt Firr 
n-stroct ; 
othrrx, iu 
; Comic- 
■ Couii'fini/ 
[\ Chart, ')• 
)iy (Miiin- 
f is very 
near the 
building. 
hcAKj/liim 
, Luu .t it- 
'll, Hart- 
all worth 

landsome 
. Avenue. 
6 acres is 
I, south of 
ito drives 
Talcott 
'Icaervoir, 
ihl. The 
in the 
Centre 
Cemetery', 
numents, 
le town 
)e visited. 
River, 
uaint ohl 
by elms, 
rk, New 
ray, from 
tren, in 4^ 



Seat of 
m (1880), 

St. Joe. 

Termilion 
> feet in a 
sequently 
r power. 
)pi River. 
, It con- 
d shing'.e 
nt wheat 



of 



le 



market. There are eight chnrohos ; 
the Central School Jfoitue, and the 
Teutonic and Straugn Music llalh 
are worth noticing. 

Reached by Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul's Railway, from St. 
Taul, in 11 hours. 



Saverhill {MaitmchuBett*). — Essex 
C:)unty ; population (1880), 18,5(H). 

Hotels : Aetna, Central, City, 
Clifton, Eagle. 

A busy manufacturing town, 
l)cautifidly situated oa the Merri- 
nnic River. Staple i)i'oducts— boots, 
.>^hi)cs and hats. It is well built, 
•and contains a Fuhlic Library, with 
20,000 volumes. The City Hall, in 
Main-street; the marble ^o/f/iVr**' 
Monuments, and several Music Halls 
are worth noticing. A favourite 
excursion is to Lake Kenosa. 

Reached l)y Boston and Maine 
Railway, fromUoston, in labours. 

Hazleton {Pennsylvania). — Luzerne 
County; population (1880), 7,550, 

Hotels: Central, Hazleton. 

A thriving, mining and manu- 
facturing town on the Lehigh Valley 
Railway. Has little of interest to 
tourists. The Huzle Hall can seat 
000 persons. 

Reached by Philadelphia & Erie 
Railway, from Harrisburg, via Sun- 
bury, iu b\ hours. 

Helena {Montana). — Capital of 
Montana; poj)ulation (1880), 3,650. 

Hotels : Cosmopolitan, Inter- 
national, Bon Ton, Merchants. 

Situated in Lewis and Clarke 
County, the commercial ami linan- 
fial centre of the Territory. All 
transportation routes converge here. 
It has important mining andmanu- 
facturing interests. The most 
important buildings are : U.S. Assay 
Office, U.S. Land Office, State House 
Ming^s Opera House, several Banks 
and public halls. Many other puldic 
and private buildings . are interest- 
ing for so young a town. Helena 
also possesses telephones, electric 
lights, a flro department and 
water works. Important gold and 
silver, copper and iron mines exist 
iu the neighbourhood. The hot 



springs four miles W. of the town 
lire much visited by jieople suffer- 
ing from rhLMimutisin, g mt, etc. 
Teini)er,vture of water lio to 11}(» 
degrees, V. 

Reached by Northorn Pacific Rail- 
way, from St. Paul, r/(f Glendivc, 
in 53 hours. 

Helena {Ark msas). — Ch'uf town of 
Pliillips C(ninty ; po )ulat'on (l^SO) 
3,0(K). 

Hotels: Shelby House. 

Advantageously .situated on tho 
Mississippi, eigl'.ty miles })l'1ow 
Memphis, It is a shipping i)laco 
for tho cotton growing ountrj-, 
which lies behind it. OveroO.OOH 
])ales of cotton are annually i)assed 
through this town on their way to 
New Orleans. It has some unim- 
portant imblic buildings, an Opera 
House and two Music Halls. 

Reached by Miss(juri Pacific 
Railway, from St. Louis, via Knobel 
iu 16^ hours. 

Hempstead {Texas) . — ^awt of 
Waller County ; ])opulation (1880), 
1,0(H). 

Hotels : City, St. Charles, Sloan, 
Texas. 

A very thriving and rapidly in- 
creasing town. Public buildings 
insignificant. liankin's ami Hani' 
nionil's 'Theatres. 

Reached by Houston & Texas 
Central Railway, from Houston, in 
2 hours. 

Henderson {Kentucky). — Seat of 
Henderson County ; population 
(1880), 6,«00. 

Hotels: Hord, Commercial, Hen- 
derson, European. 

The town is built on the Ohio, and 
is largely interested in manu- 
factures, such as woollen and 
cotton spinning, weaving, distilling, 
ice manufacturing, etc. The Cifif 
Hall is noteworthy. 

Reached by Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from Nashville, vid 
Guthrie, in i}\ hours. 

Hillsdale {Michigan). — Scat of 
Hillsdale County ; population (18S0), 
3,500. 



PRO 



./ 



' A 



L LIBRARY^ 



ViCTORJA. B, C 



102 



BKADSHAW S UMTKD STATES. 



M 



\ \ 



|i I 



1 



1 1 

* i: 

; 



(ir 



Jfofeh: Smith's, Moslicr's, Ran- 

Situated on the St. Joseph River ; 
it is chioHy a manufacturinff centre 
in connection with the surrounding 
coimtry. The lUlhdale Colle/je is 
worth mentioning. Two Opera 
Houses, capable of seating 1,2(K) and 
H(M) resi)cctively ; otherwise there is 
little of interest. 

Reacheil by Detroit and Hillsdale 
and South-Wcstern Railway, from 
Detroit, cid Jackson, in 5 hours. 



Hoboken {N^ew Jersey) .—Hudson 
County; population (1880), 31, (XK). 

Hotels : Park, Bush, Nagel, St. 
Clair. 

Pleasantly situated on the Hudson 
River, opposite New York, and a 
favourite Sunday resort for the 
working classes of New York. There 
are extensive factories here, as also 
the docks of the German Steamship 
Companies. It is inhabited chiefly 
by Germans. Odd Fellows and 
IVelber's Puhlic ILills. 

Reached by Ferry from New York 
in I hour. 



Holbrook {Arizona). — Near Albu- 

queniue; population (1880), 1,200. 

Hotels : The City, Commercial 

A small plnce, worth noticing as 
being the starting point for the 
diligences which run to the Moqnl 
India u Villa f/es, 70 miles distant 
from here. They are very interest- 
ing and well worth a visit. Built 
mostly on an eminence, with a com- 
manding view of the surrounding 
country, they are approachable 
through a narrow gorge. The houses 
are 2 or 3 storeys high, built of 
mud and stone, and ranged in 
hollow s(|uares. The entrance is 
only by ladders to the second storey, 
the ground floor being without any 
means of entrance. There are seven 
(Zuni being the chief) of these dying 
cities. The inhabitants excel in 
pottery, weaving and mural decora- 
tions, and excite the curiosity of 
archaeologists by their strange re- 
ligious rites. 

Reached by Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa Fe Railway, and Atlantic and 
Pacific Rsiilway, from Santa F^, via 
Albuquerque, in 13 hours. 



Holl^/daysburg (PfHwyy.'rtt /'<»). — 
Seii t of Blair County ; jtopulatioii 
(lH8(t), 3,200. 

Hotels: American, Logan, Dau- 
nall. 

Situated on the Juniata River and 
Pennsylvania Canal. It is interest- 
ing only for its manufactures. 
There is an Opera House with 1,200 
seats, and a Public Hall with 800. 
It is the trading centre for the sur- 
rounding agricultural country. 

Reached by the Pennsylvania 
Railway, from Harrisbu'rg, via 
Altoona, in 6 hours. 

Holly Springs {Mississippi) .Seal 
of Marshall County ; population 
(1880), 2,-400. 

Hotels: MacComb, Nuttall, Holly 
Springs. 

A pleasant town, with good educa- 
tional institutions. Much visited 
by tourists for its jilcasant scenery. 
It has a largo cotton trade, and 
waggon manufactories. 

Reached by Chicago, St. Louis 
and New Orleans Riiihvay, from 
New Orleans, via Grenada, in 14^ 
hours. 



Holyoke {Massach nsetts) . — Hamp- 
den County ; population (1880). 
21,850. 

Hotels : Windsor, Samosett, 
Holj'oke. 

A large manufacturing town, 
situate on Connecticut River, and 
possessing greater water power than 
any town in the New England 
States. The river, in 1| miles, falls 
65 feet 'over an immense dam, and 
through a system of canals three 
miles in length. Woollen and 
cotton goods, cutlery and paper are 
the chief manufactures. The town 
is well built, and contains several 
fine granite public buildings, 
amongst which the City Hall and a 
handsome Soldiers' Monument may 
be mentioned. The Opera House 
and Parson's Hall can seat respec- 
tively 1,100 and 800 persons. 
Pleasant excursions may be made 
to Mount Tom and Mount Holyoke, 
Ox Boto Island and Northampton. 

Reached by Connecticut River 
Railwaj^ fi'om Springfield, in one 
quarter hour. 



IIOBOK KX — IIOUSTOX. 



103 



ft a 



)er are 
[3 town 
everal 
dings, 

and a 
may 

House 
espec- 
rsons. 

made 
oli/oke, 

ton. 

River 
n one 



. 



H onesdale ( Pin ust/hama) .—Seat 
of Wayne County; population (1880), 
7,00<>. 

Hotels : Allen, Kipple, Wayne 
County. 

Pleasantly situated on the Dela- 
ware and Hudson Canal. The chief 
object of interest is the Qruvitij 
Railicay. Coal mining and glass 
making are the staple industries. It 
contains 8omrr])ul)lic buildings, an'l 
a Hall capable of seating (500 
liersons. 

Reached by New York, Lake Erie 
and Western Railway, from New 
York, via Port Jervis, in 5 hours. 

Hopatcong Lake {Netc Jersei/).— 
Near Drakesville. 

Hot eh : Lake Hopatcong, Lake 
View. 

Situated among the Brookland 
Mountains ; 725 feet above the sea ; 
it is a favourite summer resort. Its 
name means " Stone over the 
water," and was given to it by the 
Indians on account of a stone bridge 
connecting the islands with the 
shore, which is now submerged. 
The scenery around is very lovely, 
and the lake affords excellent fish- 
ing, — steamers ply on the lake. 
SouthariVs Peak, close by, affords 
an extensive view. limhV» Lake, in 
a picturesque country, is also close 

by. 

Reached by Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna andWestevn Railway, from 
New York, via Drakesville, in 3 
hours. 

Hopkinsville {Kentucky).— Q\\v\&- 
tian County ; population(18S0) ,4,250. 

Hotels: Phoenix, Cooper House. 

Situated on the Little River, with 
some manufacturing and agricul- 
tural interests. The Holloway Hull, 
with 1,200, and Mozart Hull with 
600 seats, are the prominent 
features of this otherwise unin- 
teresting town. 

Reached by Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from Nashville, v'd 
Guthrie, in 4^ hours. 

Hornellsville {New York). — 
Steuben County; population (1880), 
8,200. 
Hotels : Osborn, Nichols,Dellevan. 



A manufacturing town on the 
Canisteo River, in an uninteresting 
country. Nothing to attract tourists. 
There is an Opera House which can 
seat 1,500. 

Ileached by New York, Lake Erie 
and Westerr. Railway, from New 
York, citi liinghainptou.iu lojhours. 

Hot Springs (-Ir^fN'xff").— Garland 
County; population (18SI)), 3,(MX>. 

Holds: Arli!i.^ton. 

One of the most largely fre- 
fiucnted health resorts in America. 
The town issituated 1, 50* » feet above 
the sea-level, and has (if) springs, 
varj'ing in temperature between 93 
and 100 degrees Fahr. The 
mineral i)roperties are suljihurous 
and saline, ami are etlicacious in 
skin diseases, rheumatic com))laint8, 
and mercurial atTectiT)iis. The 
waters may be taken interiially, but 
are chiclly used in b.iths and 
douches. The air is not favourable 
to pulmonary complaints. The 
country round is interesting. 

Reachc'l hy Missouri Pacific Rail- 
way, from St. Louis, via Poplar 
liluif, in 21 hours. 

Houston (7'UVT.i).— Seat of Harris 
County; population (1880), 18,700. 

Hotels : Capitol, Barnes, Hutchins. 

The town is situated at the head 
of the tidal estuary on Buffalo 
Bayou. It is the third town in pop- 
ulation, and the first in manufac- 
turing importance. The Bayou, an 
arm of Galveston Bay, is spanned 
by several bridges, and the town on 
its left bank covers an area of about 
10 S(pi'ire miles. It is a groat rail- 
way centre. It has a considerable 
manufacturing and lumber trade, 
while its general business with 
the surrounding grazing and agri- 
cultural country is very con- 
siderable. Amongst several note- 
worthy buildings ma\- bo mentioned 
the Cty Hall, with Market House 
and the Masonic Tfnple, Oray'a 
Pillars and Turner's Jfxlls. The 
town is travers' dby tram v^ ays, and 
the streets planted with shady trees. 
It is also resorted t^ as a winter 
station, its air being cjnsidered very 
healthy. 

Reached by Galveston, ITarris- 
burg and San Antonio Railway, 
from New Orleans, in 14 hours. 






104 



BBADSIIAW S UNITED .STATKS. 



<l, 



^ 



^ *l 



I 



it 



Howe's Cave (iV< w York).— 30 miles 
from Albany. 

llofeh : Cave House. 

The third in extent of the ^rcat 
American underpfround prottos. It 
is said to extend over more than 12 
miles, thouj?h usually only visited 
to about 4 miles. The various por- 
tions have received more or less 
fanciful names and denominations. 
It is lighted ])y pas as far as the 
lake, and the stalactites, etc., are 
very fine. BalVa Cace and some 
other minor grottos are in the 
vicinity. (Entrance, including 
guide to Howe's Cave, U dols.) 

Reached by Delaware and Hudson 
Canal Railway, from Albany, in 
2i hours. 

Hudson (A1?K' York). — Seat of 
Columbia County; i)opulation (1880), 
■ 8,800. 

Hotels: Central, City, Waldron, 
Worth, Farmer's, St. Nicholas, 
Manor. 

Very picturcsf(uely situated on a 
l)old promontory on the Hudson, 
opposite Athens; has some manu- 
factures, but is mainly a summer 
resort. Prospect Hill affords a fine 
view, while Claverack Valley and 
Columbia Springs are favourite 
'excursions. The City Hall is ex- 
.' tensive. 

Reached by Boston and Albany 
Railway, from Albany, via Chatham, 
- in 2 hours. 

Hudson {Michigan). — Lawrence 
County; population (1380), 2,500. 
Hotels: Higgins, Comstock. 

The centre of a very fertile 
farming country, whence great 
quantities of fruit are exported. 
There is also a mineral spring, 
which is becoming known to 
visitors. 

Reached by Lake Shore and 
Michigan Southern Railway, from 
Elkha-'i. in 3 hours. 

Idaho Springs (Colorado). — Near 
Central City and Georgetown ; 
population (1880), 750. 

Hotels : Alvord, Beebe. 
A favourite summer resort, situ- 
ated in a lovely valley at abcut 7,800 



fccL above the soa level. The town 
is celebrated for its hot soda springs. 
Large swimming baths have ))eeu 
recently constructc<l. The sur- 
rounding country is extremely 
picturesjjue, and offers many inter- 
esting excursions, amtmgst which 
may l)o mentioned Fall Hirers 
Chicago Lakex, the MiHe»f Middle 
Park, and Old Chief. The air is 
pure and l)raoing. The waters con- 
tain soda, magnesia, iron and limo, 
and are ettloacious in rheumatism 
and paralysis. It is much fre- 
quented in summer and winter ; tho 
establishments are first rate in their 
balneal arrangements and accom- 
modation. 

Reached by Union PaciflcRailway, 
from Denver, in \ hour. 

Indianapolis (/»r/'aH«).— Capital of 
Indiana, and seat of Marion County ; 
population (1880), 75,100. 

Hotels : Bates, Grand, Occidental, 
Renny-Brunswick, English Opera 
House, and Sherman are the leading 
hotels ; others are the Denison, 
Spencer, Mason. At all prices 
ranging from ^2\ to $3. 

JRestanraiits at the leading hotels. 

Amusements : Opera House, with 
1,400 seats. Park Theatre, Masonic 
Hall, and several minor ones. 

Conveyances : Tramways run 
through the town in all directions ; 
Hackney Coaches can be hired in 
various places and at the railway 
stations. Bridges cross the river. 

Post and Telegraph Offices: Corner 
of Pennsylvania and Market 
Streets. 

Clubs : The Union of Indianapolis, 
the Trotting Club. 

Indianapolis, the chief and most 
populous town of the State, is 
l)leasantly situated on the White 
River, almost in the centre of the 
State. It is in a large and fertile 
plain. Its streets arc 90 feet wide, 
crossing.each other at right angles. 
From a central square, four avenues 
radiate, cutting the other streets 
diagonally. The town was founded 
in 1819, and six years later became 
the capital of the State. It is a 
great railway centre, twelve lines 
converging here. Its trade is very 
important, and its manufactures 
I are daily increasing. The irln- 



TIOWK S CAVE — ITHACA. 



105 



ho town 
■<printfs. 
ve been 
:io sur- 
tremely 
ly iiiter- 
t wliicli 

Middle 
) air is 
ers con- 
nd lirao, 
iraatism 
ich fre- 
ter ; tho 
in their 

accom- 

laihvay. 



apital of 
County ; 

lidental, 

I Opera 

leading 

Denison, 

prices 

• hotels. 

ie, with 

Masonic 

s. 

fa run 

ections ; 

lired in 

railway 

river. 

Corner 
Market 

.napolis, 

tid most 
tate, is 
; White 
e of tho 

fertile 
et wide, 
i angles, 
avenues 

streets 
founded 
became 
It is a 
ve lines 
: is very 
factures 
le jrln- 



cipal industries arc pork imcking 
and the miinufaoturc of ngricultural 
imi)lemcnts. 

Tho State House is'just completed. 
The Institute for tho Mind, the 
Court House, tho United iStates 
Arsenal, tho Lunatic Asylum, tho 
Deaf and Dumb Institute, standing 
in 105 Jtcros of grounds, and tho 
Union I'assonger Dejiotare tho chief 
buildings of note, Tho CUty Hall, 
the County and Town Prison, the 
Odd Fellows Hall, tho Masonic 
Hall, the Post OlHce are also of 
importance. The principal thorough- 
fares aire Washington, South, 
Meridian.Pcnusylvania, and Illinois 
streets. The town has a largo 
number of churches of all denomi- 
nations. Amongst tho educational 
institutions, Butler University, four 
miles east of the town, occupies the 
first i)lace. Tho State Library and 
Citv Free Library are extensive 
collections of books for so young a 
town. 

Indianapolis is amply provided 
with charitable institutions, while 
many of its large industrial estab- 
lishments merit attention. There 
arc many parks, all of which are 
well frequented and fashicmable ; 
Trotting Park, 80 acres in extent, 
with a course of one mile in length, 
is especially so on Sundays. Crown 
Hill, Catholic Cemetery, and Green 
Baum Cemetery are the principal 
burial grounds, and they are all well 
laid out and ornamented with 
shrubs and trees. 

Reached by Chicago, St. Louis, 
and PittsburgRailway.from Chicago, 
in 4 hours. 

Ionia (Michiffciu). — Seat of Ionia 
County ; population (1880), 4,700. 

Hotels : Washington, Bailey, 
Clarendon, Union, National. 

A small but thriving agricultural 
and manufacturing community, on 
the Grand River. It is crossed by 
two railways, but has little interest 
to a tourist. It contains two large 
halls. 

Reached by Detroit, Grand Haven, 
and Milwaukee Railway from Mil- 
waukee, via Grand Haven.in 3 hours. 

Iowa City. — Seat of Johnson 
County, and former Capital of State 
of Iowa ; population (1880), 6,750. 



Jfofrh: St. James, Palace. 
Amitni'Hieufti : Opera House, scats 

1,IK>0. 

Cnnrrynncps : Tmmw.iys (faro 
5 cts.) 

Pout and Tel rif I'll )>h Office : In tho 
Court House Buildings, 

Iowa City is beautifully situated 
on the BliitTs on the left bank of 
the Iowa River. It is embowered 
in groves of trees and surronnilod 
by fertile and thickly-settlecl 
l»rairies. Tho river furnishes 
water jjowor to several mills and 
factories. Like all American towns, 
it h.as wide and straight streets; it 
is the scat of the State University, 
with (iOO students. Tho old Capitol, 
County Court and other l)uildings 
of the town are interesting. It has 
a future before it. 

Reached by BurlingUm, Cedar 
Rapids & Northern Railway, from 
Burlington, via Cedar Rapids, in 6^ 
hours. 

Ironton (Ohio). — Seat of Lawrence 
County; population (1880), 0,000. 

Hotels: Irondale, Sheridan. 

An industrious manufacturing 
town, doing an annual business of 
10,(KH),(H)0 dols. in iron alone. It is 
tho centre of Southern Ohio and N, 
Kast Kentucky ; and has extensive 
rolling mills, furnaces, machine 
shojjs, etc. Tho mas(mic Opera 
House is tho principal place of 
amusement. 

Reachoil })y Dayton & Ironton 
Railway, from Dayton, in 12 hours. 

Ithaca {'S^ew I'orA-).— Seat of Tomp. 
kins County; population (1880), 
9,1 to. 

Hotels: Clinton, Ithaca, Tomp- 
kins. 

Situated on both sides of Cayuga 
Inlet, one mile from the head of the 
Cayuga Lake. It is an important 
business and railway centre, and 
its manufactures are extensive. It 
is more visited on account of its very 
beautiful scenery and as a summer 
resort than for other reasons. The 
situation is very picturesque. It is 
the seat of Cornell University, 
rapidly becoming one of the most 
favoured educational establish- 
ments in the State. The buildings 



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106 



URADSirAW s! UVITED BTATFS. 



•: 1; 






I i 



\i:\ 



on a hill IX) feet lii>;h are well 
worth a visit, the view from thciii 
hciiij; very fino. ('jiyujjfa Lake 
ulTonls pli'iity of sport with hoat- 
infr'-, Kaili!i)Lr, llshinLr, ami bathiiif^. 
In the Jici^liboiirhood areuutncrous 
waterfalls, amonj? which may be 
iiientioTicd Ithaca Falls in Ithaca 
(lorw'e, iiiid Taj^hkanic Falls. Near 
the latter is the Ta^'hkanic Hotel. 

lleiu'hed ])y Delaware, liakawauna 
and Western Railway, from New 
York, rid UinghamptouandOwego, 
iu 10 hours. 



Jackson {^[ichigan). — Seat of Jack- 
son Countv; i)opulation (IHBO), 
19,130; 4S0 feet above Lake 
Michigan. 

Jfofeln : llibbard, Hard, Union, 
Commercial. 

A busy mannfacturinfr town on 
the Grand River and a K^reat rail- 
way centre. It is rejxularlv laid 
ontand the bnildinirs are substan- 
tial. In tlie imnuMiiate vicinity of 
Jackson the Michij^'an Coal district 
begins, the mines being visible from 
the railway. The passenger Depot 
of the Michigan Central Railway 
is very fine, and the Company's 
offices and Round shops, etc., arc 
situated here. Some School build- 
ings, several of the churches, and 
the State I'enitentiary are hand- 
some and spacious l)uilding8. The 
town has some manufactures. 

Reached by Grand Trunk Railway 
of Canada, from Detroit, via 
Ridge way, in 11 hours. 



Jackson {Migxitt^ijipi). —Caintnl of 
Mississippi and Seat of Hinds 
County; population (18S0), 5,172. 

Hot el x: Edwards, European, 
Spengler, Lawrence. 

This town, situated on the Pearl 
River, is the centre for the sur- 
rounding agricultural district. It 
is regularly built, and has some 
handsome streets. It was captured 
in iy63 by General Grant, when it 
was almost totally destroyed, and 
since then its progress has been 
much retarded. The most note- 
worthy building is the State House. 
The State Penitentiary was almost 
completely destroyed during the 
Civil AVar, and is now in course of 



rei)air. The State Library has 
].'),(MK> volumes. The Kxecutivo 
Mansion, The; City Dall, The Disti- 
tution for the Deaf, Dumb, and 
Ulind, the Lunatic Asylum, Angclds 
and Robinson's Hails, are other 
buildings wortlij' of notice. 

Reivched by Illinnis Central 
Railway, from Cairo, via Grcnmla, iu 
17 hours. 



Jackson {yew jrimpKhi)-r).—Cn.m)\\ 
County; population (lNsU),30S. 

Jfofeh: Thorn Mountain House, 
Jackson Falls House. 

This place is much visited as a 
summer resort by artists, for it.s 
line scenery, and by sportsmen for 
its excellent trout fishing, which is 
the V)cst in the White Mtmntains. A 
fine view of the surrounding moun- 
tain chain, with Iron Mountain on 
the right, and Tin Mountain on the 
left, is ol)tained from the terrace of 
the P^alls Hotel. The air is bracing 
and the climate mild. The Jackson 
Falls of White Cat Bro(!k are only 
three minutes from the latter hotel. 
Glen Ellis Falls are about seven 
miles distant from Jackson; a 
little further on the Crystal Cas- 
cade comes into view. 

Reached ])y Portland and Ogdens- 
burg Railway, from Portland, ciu 
N. Conwaj', in 3\ hours. 



Jackson {Ten nesw). — Sent of 
Madison County' ; population (1880), 
6,570. 

Hotels: Lancaster, Clift, Cavness, 
Merchants, Payne's, Rolnnson. 

Bankers: Bank of ifadison. 

Medical : Dr. J. N. Fenncr, Dr. R. 
Cartmell, Dr. G. C. Savage. 

A manufacturing town and a 
considerable cotton market. It is 
charmingly situated on t;ie Forked 
Deer River, in the centre of a very 
fertile I'egion, and has an extensive 
trade. The Court House (United 
States Dist^ ict Court, and Supreme 
Court for West Tennessee) is a 
noticeable building. West Tennes- 
see College is an increasingly popu- 
lar educational establishment. The 
river has good fishing. 

Reached by Illinois Central Rail* 
way, from Cairo, in 5J hours. 



ry has 
xecMitivo 

IC IllKti- 

iil), iiml 
An^'ch IS 
•u other 

Central 
iuiwla, in 



-Carroll 
3GS. 

I HoufcO, 



ted ns a 
, for its 
>nien for 
which is 
itains. A 
i^ raouii- 
titain on 
a on the 
crrace of 
i l)raciM;? 
Jackson 
arc only 
;er hotel. 
It seven 
fcson ; a 
ital Cas- 

Opdens- 
aiul, cid 



sat of 
n(1880), 

avness, 
on. 

n. 

^ Dr. B. 

and a 
It is 
Forked 
a very 
tensive 
(United 
ipreme 
i) is a 
L'enRes- 
popu- 
[t. The 

|1 Bail- 



.TAfK^JON — janksvit.m:. 



107 



h 



Jacksonville (/'Vor/W'/).— Scat of 
Duval Cotiiit3'; population (18»(>), 

Iluffh : Carleton, Windsor, St. 
James, Kvcrett, St. Mark's, Duval. 

AiiiKitPiiiriifit : Tlio Theatre, Na- 
tional and Metropolitan Halls, 

C'))iri'i/<nices : Tramwpys (5c. faro). 
Carriaj,'es at different stands in the 
town. 

Fuxf iinl Telegraph OJice .- On Bay- 
street. 
B(nik('}'» : Bank of Jacksonville. 

Mciliciil : Dr.Daniels, Dr.Mitchell, 
Dr. Satal. 

Tickrt (Did Excui'sio)! AijrntK : 
Thomas Cook & Son, G9, West Bay- 
street. 

This is the commercial metropolis 
of Flori la, and is situated advan- 
tageously on the St. John's River, 
about 2.') miles from its mouth. It is 
mentioned here ns an increasinirly 
poi)ular winter resort. Its mean 
temperature is 09^ F., atid the mean 
lowest in .January 52 'J F. There are 
occasional frosts in January and 
February, but on the whole the cli- 
mate is eijuable. The air is i?ene- 
rally clour and dry durinj^ the 
winter season, there beins^ about 
121 bright days from November till 
May. It is considered preferable 
by winter residents to manj' of the 
other winter stations in the interior, 
on account of its easy access, 
superior accommodation and social 
idvantai,'es. 

Jacksonville is the centre of a 
very fertile fruit growini? district. 
Its exports are increasinij^ very 
rapidly. Its trade in timber is 
enormous. It is rej^ularly laid out, 
on level ground. Its principal 
thoroughfare is Baj'-street. North, 
east and west are some pictures(pio 
bluffs, offering a lino view of the 
river, and covered with handsome 
residences. It has several banks, 
nnmeroas churciies of all denomi- 
nations, good schools, and circulat- 
ing library, and a free reading- 
room, 
season 

to the tourist. E.xcursions on the 
river and drives on the shell road 
are fashionable. Moncrief springs 
are fonr miles distant. 

Beached by Florida Bailway from 
Fernandina, in \\ hours. 



The market place in the 
is a source of amusement 



! Jacksonville (////wo'i.).— Seat of 
.Morgan County ; population (Hso), 
10,027. 

Ilntclx: Dmdap, Park, Southern, 
Metropolitan. 

Jacksonville is a very pretty town, 
with wide and shaded streets jiud 
well-built houses, surrouniled with 
flower-gardens and shrul»s. It is 
sitiuited in a fertile undulating 
plain, carries on a thriving trade, 
and is a greut railway centre. Th(5 
State Ltmatic Asylum, the Deaf anil 
Dumb ami lUinii Asylums, Illinois 
College, Whii)ple Academy, Keiualo 
Academy and Female College, 
Athenaeum and Conservai. )ry of 
Music, Commercial College and 
Knglish Training School are all 
hand8om<' buildings. Strauss Opera 
House, (.'ou<(M-V!itoire ami Odeon, 
are the chief places of amusement. 
Several libraries testify to tho edu- 
cational zeal of its inhabitants. 

Beached by Chicago ami Alton 
Bailway, from Chicago, v'd iJloum- 
ington, in 12i hours. 

Jamestown (2V«?w York) . — Q\\n\\- 
tau(|ua Count3'; population (18><()), 
8,511. 

Hatch: Jamestown, Sr.erman. 

A very ]K)pular an<l charming 
summer resort on Chantaui|Ui Lake 
or outlet proper. It hns very im- 
portant furniture and alpaca works, 
and its population is well-to-do. 
Two large halls, the Opera House 
and the Institute, both caj)able of 
seating about l,5()() pooj)le, supply 
the intellectual wants of summer 
visitors. The former cost over 
2o(>,0(K) dols. The lake affords many 
pictures! jue excursions. 

Beached by Ntnv York, Pennsyl- 
vania and Ohio Railway, from New 
Y(n-k, via Binghamptoti and Sala- 
manca, in 21 hours. 

Janesville (inVcoH^i;.). — Scat of 
Bock County; populaticm (1880). 
9,911. 

Hoteh: Myers, Grand, Davis 
Edwards. 

A manufacturing and mercantile 
community of some importance, 
regularly laid out and well-built ou 
the Bock Biver. Several daily 
papers are publishe<l here. Myer's 
Opera House, with 800 seats, is a 



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108 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



remarkable buildinpr. The State 
Institution for the lilind is situated 
here, and the town is generally 
noted for its educational advantap^es. 
Reached ])y Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul Railway, from Mil- 
waukee, in 3 hours. 

Jefferson City (Jlfw«o?/ <•;).— Capital 
of Missouri and chief town of Cole 
County; popixlation (1880), 6,420. 

Iloteh: Monroe, MacCart^', Madi- 
son, Central, Tennessee. 

IteufdKi'anfs : Delmonico's, Rail- 
way Dining Hall. 

Conveyiuic's : Tramways. 

Places of Amusement: Bragg'sand 
Madison Halls. 

A well-built town, with consider- 
able manufacturing interests and 
an extensive trade. The chief in- 
dustry is ]K)rk packing, shipping 
coal, and other produce, etc., of the 
surrounding country. Its situation 
on higli 1)lufs, overlooking the 
Missouri River for many miles, is 
very beautiful. The State House, 
County Court, State Penitentiary, 
and £everal churches are worth 
visiting. The State Library has 
over 12,(XX> volumes. Twenty miles 
distant are the Sand Rock Springs, 
with a good hotel, and a watering 
place much visited in summer. 

Reached by Missouri Pacific Rail- 
way, from St. Lotiis, via Pacific 
Junction, in 5 hours. 

Jeflfersonville {India no) .—Clarke 
County; population (1880), 10,422. 

Hotels : Fall's City House, Sher- 
man, National, Falls View Houso. 

This suburb of Louisville is a 
well built town with a prosperous 
trade, exten> 've ship building 
yra'ds, and some manufactures. Its 
situation on the Ohio, and as a 
converging point of several impor- 
tant railwaj'S, ensure it a great 
futiire. The Mozart Hall is the 
Theatre. 

Reached by Ohio & Missisippi 
Railway, from Cincinnati, vici North 
Vernon, in 4 hours. 

Jersey City (New Jersey).— So it of 
Hudson County; population (1880), 
153,513. 
llotds: Taylor's. 



Convet/ances: Tramways (fare, 
5 cts.), Omnibuses and Carriages. 

Places of Amusement : Academy of 
Music, Opera. 

Situated on the Hudson River, 
This manufacturing town is prac- 
tically a suburb of New York, but 
has, with the exception of the great 
railway stations, and the docks of 
some of the largest 1'ninsatlantic 
Steamship Companies, nothing of 
interest for the traveller. Its com- 
mercial and industrial activity is 
very great. 

Reached by Ferry from Desbrosscs 
and Cordtland Streets, New York 
City, in 15 minutes. 

Johnstown {Tennsyh-a»ia) .—Cnxti' 
bria County; population (1880), 
8,380. 

Hotels : Hubbert, Merchants' Man- 
sion, Cambria Club House. 

Amnsements : Opera House, Union 
Hall. 

A thriving manufacturing town 
on the Conemaugh River. The 
Cambria ironworks are amongst the- 
most extensive in America. It is 
situated in the centre of a fertile 
farming region. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from New York, vid Harris- 
burg, in 15^ hours. 

Joliet (7///ho/»). — Seat of Will 
Countj' ; population (1880), 10,145. 

Hotels : Auburn, St. Nicholas, 
Robertson, National. 

Amusements ; Opera Hoiise, 
Robertson Hall, Werner Hall. 
Conceyunces: Tramwaj'S, 

This prosiierous town is advan- 
tageously situated on both banks of 
the des Plaines River and the Illinois 
and Michigan Canal. It is the 
lirincipal market and shipping point 
of the productive country around. 
It has extensive stone quarries, flour 
mills, a manufactory of agricultural 
implements, etc., etc. Both canal 
and river furnish good water power. 
It is well built and lighted by gas. 
The State Penitentiary is one of the 
Ijest of its kind in the States. An- 
other fine building is the City Hall. 
The town has a futni*e before it. 

Reached by Michigan Central 
Railway, from Chicago, in one hour. 



JKl'FKRSON CITY — KANSAS CITY 



109 



f town 

The 

f?8t the- 

It is 

fertile 



advan- 
inks of 
Illinois 

is the 

point 

I round. 

|s, flour 

ilturnT 
canal 
bower. 

(y ff»8. 
lof the 
An- 
Hull, 
jit. 

fentral 
! hour. 



Joplin (3/"i»«oHri).— Jasper County; 
population (1B80), 7,03H. 

Hotels: Commercial, Joplin, 
Pacific, St. James, Jasper, AlUnj^- 
ton. 

Places of Amusement : Joplin 
Opera House. 

A inanufacturinn: town with a 
considerable minuis^ industiy , which 
may interest some travellers. Tlie 
town, though well built, has nothing 
especially attractive to visitors. 
It has several railway cotmections. 
The surrounding country is very 
fertile and highly cultivated. 

Reached l)y the Missouri Pacific 
Railway, from St. Louis, via Jeffer- 
son City and Nevada, in 5 hours. 

Junction City {Kansas).— Sent of 
Davis County; populatitm (1880), 
3,555. 
Hotels: Pacific, Bartell, Pershall. 

This town is situated at the junc- 
tion of the Srooky Hill and Repub- 
lican Rivers, and does an extensive 
trade with the surrounding agricul- 
tuiMl country, which is extremely 
fertile. For this it is the shipping 
port. It is, no doubt, destined to 
become a town of considerable 
importance later on. f]xcellent 
building stone is (luarried near the 
town. The Welsh colony, called 
"Powys" is 20 miles to the north- 
east, and the English colony, called 
"Wakefield" is Hi miles distant. 
Both are in a very prcjsperous con- 
dition an<l worth a visit. Some 
buildings in the town are of inte- 
rest. The Centennial Hall can seat 
•4(X), and the City Hall J,(KK) persons. 

Reached by Atchison, Topekii, 
and Santa Fe Railway, from Kans is 
City, via Topckti and Aluui, in 3 
hours. 

Kalamazoo {M!c?i!</an).—^cn.t of 
Kalamazoo C.)unty ; population 
(1880), 13,912. 

Hutch: American, Burdick House, 
I'-'am izoo House. 

A^niixcmentx: Open House, New 
Academy of Music, Union Hall. 

The largest town in the State, 
with exception of Detroit. It is 
situated on the Kalamazoo River, 
and is an import mt railway centre. 
Its streets are broad, well shaded, 



regularly laid out, and lined with 
manj" tine business houses and 
private residences. It has large 
manufacturing interests, and also 
cjirries on an important trade with 
the surrounding agricultural dis- 
tricts. The New Ac-ademy of Music 
is one of the finest in the State. The 
Opera House is also a tine building. 
Kalamazoo College and the Michigan 
Female College occui)y handsome 
buildings, and are largely atteude<l. 
The State Limatie Asylum is an 
imi)osing structure. 

Reached by Michigan Central 
Railway, from Chicago, via, New 
Buffalo' and Niles, in 6 hours. 

Kankakee (///iHr^/.v).— Seat of Kan- 
kakee County; population (1880), 
5,051. 

Hotels : City, Kankakee, Com- 
mercial. 

An important manufacturing 
town on the river of the same name, 
with large iron-works. 'I'wenty-five 
years ago on its ])ret;ent site there 
was nothing but forest. There are 
some (lUJirries in the neiglibourhood. 
The Eastern Illinois Insane Asylum 
is situated here, and occupies a 
handsome building. 

Reached by the Illinois Central 
Railway, from Chicago, in 1^ hours. 

Kansas City (3/'/.v.w»rj).— Jackson 
County; population (1880), 55,785. 

Hoti'h : Metro])olitan, St. James, 
Coates, Pacific, Centropolis. 

Vldces of Amnsement : The Opera 
House, Long's Hall, the Merchants' 
Exchan<re, and another large Hall 
Uvi' meetings. 

Conrn/ancfs : Steam and cable 
tramway (fare 5 cents.), carriages 
at 1 dollar ])cr course. 

Post anil Tc'l<\t/ra]ih Office: In 
Missouri-street. 

Pankers: Armour Brothers. 

Medical : Dr. Hereford and Dr. 
Snell. 

The second city in Missouri in size 
and commercial importance. A 
groat railway centre, containing, 
with its suburbs, close upon 100,000 
inhabitants. It is very advantage- 
ously situated on the south bank of 
the Missouri River, at the mouth of 
the Kansas River, and near the 



h 



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110 



IJRADSIIAW'S UNITED STATE?. 



4- 



It, 

J I 



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1: ! 



I: ? 






■lii 



i:^; 



\i 



frontier of Kansas State. During 
the war it suffered an almost com- 
plete loss of trade, an<l the popula- 
tion diminished in proportion. The 
surroundini? country is very fertile 
ami r.ipidly improvin<?. It is a 
grout centre for the cattle trade, and 
a considerable amount of ca])ital is 
invested in paclcing hoof and pork. 
The grain trade is equally im- 
portant. The bridge, the first built 
over the Miss^ ^ri, is the chief object 
of interest. The Grand Opera 
House, Coates and Gilli's Opera 
Houses are also tine buildings. The 
streets are somewhat irreguhir, but 
the town is well built, and has many 
Imuflsome business and i^rivate 
residences. The Union Railway 
station is very fine. Manj' of the 
school buildings are handsome. 
The school system is excellent. 
Wyandotte and Westport are the 
towns l.ying on the opposite, or 
Ivans IS bank of the Missouri. 

Reiched l)y Chicago and Alton 
R lilway, from Chicago, via Bloom- 
ington' and Roodhouse, in 21^ 
hours. 

Keokuk {lon-a). — Seat of Leo 
County; poimlation (1880), 13,151. 

Jlofeh: La Cledo, Tatterson, 
Commercial, Clyde, Barrett, St. 
Lo;iis. 

Places of Amusement : Opera 
Hou^*c, Gibbon's Opera House, 
Baker's Hall. 

Fast Office : Main-sti'cet. 

Keokuk is a regularlj^-built town, 
on the East Bank of the Mississipjn 
River, partly on level gnmnd inid 
partly on some ])luffs 150 feet high. 
It has l)ro:id streets, and many 
handsome houses. The railway 
linos converge hero, and its trade, 
in addition to the shipping on the 
river, is conserpiently extonsive. Its 
business growth has progressed 
rajiidly. 

Reached by Chicago, Burlington 
nn I Quincy Raihvay, from Chicago, 
riu Burlington and Des Moines, in 
2H hours. 

Key-"West {Floriilu). — County Mun- 
roe. Seat of Government of the 
Florida Keys or Islands, and u})()n 
nn Island of same name ; population 
(1880), 0,890. 



Hotels : Russell. 

After Jacksonville, the largest 
town in Florida. It occupies the 
important positi(m of Key to the 
Gulf Passage. Its water supply is 
very bid ; but its climiite is healthy 
ami the air pure. It is mucii 
resorted to in winter by invalids, as 
the temperature is very equai)le. 
The thermometer rarely falls l)elow 
50^ F. and seldom rises to IX)^ F. 
The mean winter temperature is 
GO'' F., the mean in spring 75° F. 
The inhabitants are mixed, Ameri- 
cans of Spanish extraction, from 
Cuba, forming the chief portion. 
The language is i)ure Spanish or 
patois. The houses are mostly 
surrounded by some gardens, witii 
shaded trees, tropical and sul)- 
troi)ical i)lauts and shrubs. The 
streets are broad and straight. It 
has a very fine harbour, and is 
stronglj- fortified. As regards Ijuild- 
iugs, there is nothing remarkable, as 
almost all are of wood. The man- 
ners and customs of the people, and 
the quaint and old look of the houses 
are very striking. The chief occu- 
patif)n of the inhabitants, besides a 
limited production of fruits, is tlie 
catching of turtles, sponges, mullet, 
and other fish for the West Indian 
Market. To this ought to be added 
tiie salvage of wrecks, by which 
alone the Island benefits to the 
extent of over20(>,or>;) dols. annuallj'. 
The tobacco industry is also pros- 
perous. The boating and fishing is 
very superior, and there are some 
chaining drives on the island. 

Reached by New York and New 
Orleans s.s, steamer, from 3Hths 
Pier, North River, New York, in 3 
days. 

Knoxville (I'ennessce) .— Seat of 
Knox County; population (1880), 
13,028. 

Hot eh : Atkin, Schubert's, Lnmnr 
Hiittit^ 

Flaces of Amnscment : An Opera 
House, which can seat 1,200 ; Hoxie's 
Hall. 

At the head of the Steamboat 
Navigation on the Holston River. It 
is till.' seat of East Tennessee Uni- 
vorsity, the Knoxville University, 
the Doaf and Duml) Asylum, and 
several schools, all of which occui)y 
handsome buildings. The State 



K EOK U K — L ANC.\-ST EK. 



Ill 



4» 



Ajirriciiltural Collef^c is coiniocte;l 
with the University. The Opera 
House is a fine building. 

Reached by East Tonnesseo, 
Virginia and (loorgia Raihvaj', from 
Bristol, viii Morristown, in G hours. 



Xia Crosse (WhcouKi n) .Scat of Li 
Crosse County; population (1880), 
14,505. 

Hotels : International, Cameron, 
Bobbins. 

Places of Ammemen t : Opera House, 
which seats 500. rermania.Salborg's 
and Singer's Halls. 

A handsome township, on the east 
bank of the Mississii)pi, at the 
entrance of the Black and La C'rf).sse 
Rivers. It is situated on level 
ground, and ht'S manv fine buildings. 
The Court House, i'ost Othco, 17 
Churches, a fine Ojicra House, tlie 
High Schools, the Library, several 
saw mills, factories for leather 
goods, etc., are all worthy of in- 
spection. Its trade in timber is 
considerable, and its flour mills arc 
cpiite numerous. 

Reached by Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul Railway, from Chicag-), 
via Milwaukee and Portage City, in 
II hours, 

Lafayette (i">i</w))r/).— Seat of Tip- 
pecanoe Coimty ; population (1880), 
14,860. 

Hotels : Bi'amble, Gcrmania, Lohr, 
Star City, St. Nicholas. 

An industrial and railway centre, 
and one of the principal towns in 
Indiana. It is situated on the 
Wabash River, and the Waliash and 
Erie Canals, and is regularly built 
on rising ground ])acked by hills, 
whence a tine view of the town, 
valley, and river is obtained. The 
streets are paveil, lighted by gas, 
and straight. The Ojjcra House, the 
Purdue University, with its colleges 
of agriculture and arts (grounds of 
which are IHl acres in extent), the 
County Jail, Forts, Schoolhouse, St. 
Mary's Academy, Young Men's 
Christian Association (with free 
reading room and lil)rary), are all 
fine buildings. The ai-tesian well in 
the centre of the town cf)utains 
sulphurous waters. Sjiring Vale 
and Grcenbush Cemetery, and the 



Agricultural Fair Grounds nr.^ 
favourite promenades. The battle- 
field of Tip])ecanoe is sjven niiUs 
north of the town. 

Reached by Chicago, Indianapolis, 
Cincinnati, and Louisville Railway, 
from Chicago, vd St. Anne, in i 
hours. 

Lake City (F/onV^O.— Seat of 
Columbus County ; population (l-'-SO), 
2,C70. 

Hotels: Central, Thrasher House. 

A winter station ; a dryer climite 
than Jackscmville. It has not tlm 
social advantages of the latter, but 
the country round is ])rettier. Thci-e 
are three lakes within the t )\vu 
boundaries, and another only \ nnle 
distant. The balsamic odo'irs (>f 
the surnnniding forest are said t;> 
impart to the air certain bencticial 
(pialities. A sojourn here is often 
I'ocommended to consumi)tive i)ati- 
ents in the more advanced stages. 

Reached by Florida Hallway, from 
Jacksonville, via Baldwin, ' in l:^ 
houre. 

Lambertville {yeir Jersey) .-~l:{\n\. 
terdon County ; population (l5-8(», 
4,067. 

Hotels : Boanont, Lambertville, 
Union. 

Situated on the Delaware River,, 
and opposite New Hope, Pennsyl- 
vania. It is a village with large 
manufacturinir intore ^ts. It ]iosse!-ses 
plenty of water power, derived rr'>m 
a feeder of the Delaware and Raritan 
Canal. The surrcamding scenery is 
very pleasing. Beycmd some largo 
factory l)uildings, there is very little 
of interest. The Holcoiubo aul 
Lyceum are halls for moetillL^^, etc. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Raiivray 
from Philadelphia in 2 hours. 

Lancaster {Peii)iKi/haiiia).— ?^Qnt of 
Lancaster County ; population (IHSO), 
25,769. 

Hotels: Grape, Hiester, Stevens, 
Cooper, Casiicr. 

yUnuxements : The Fulton Hall, with 
scats for l,2iK). 

This large manufacturing town, at 
onetime the i>rincipiil in Pennsyl- 
vania and its capital from 171)9 to 1812, 






112 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



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is pleasantly situated near the Con- 
Cbtoga Creek. It is somewhat irregu- 
larly l)uilt, l)ut contains many fine 
private and commercial buildings. 
The surrounding country is the most 
fertile porticm of Pennsylvania. Its 
principal manufactures are railway 
material. The Court House, Frank- 
lin and Marsh:Ul Colleges, County 
I'rison and Fulton Hall are the most 
important buildinurs. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way', from Philadelphi;», in 2^ 
hours. 

Laredo {Texan).— Wehh County; 
population (1880), 3,521. 

Hotels : St. Charles, Laredo, Wil- 
son, Rockport. 

A rapidlj' increasing town, on the 
Rio Grande and Mexican frontier, in 
the centre of a great ranching and 
cattle breeding country. It does a 
largo trade in wool. Owing to the 
in luguration of several railways, it 
has acrpiircd some import'uice.* 

Reached by Missouri Pacific Rail- 
way, from Galveston, in 22 hours. 

Lawrence (£"««»«»).— Seat of Doug- 
las County: population (18S0), 
10,625. 

Hotels: Eldridge, Durffee, Luding^ 
ton, Lawrence, Commercial, Pennsyl- 
vania, Laclede. 

Places of Am linemen t : Bowei'sock's 
Opera House, Liberty and Fraser's 
Halls. 

A very fine town, in a beautiful 
position on the Kansas River, with 
a thriving trade, large flour mills 
and various manufactories. Its posi- 
tion is very advantageous. The large 
dam across the river furnishes its 
numerous industrial establishments 
with ample water power. It is the 
seat of the State University, has 
Avide and shady streets, lined with 
fine buildings. The river is spanned 
by two bridges. 

' Reached by Atchison Topeka and 
Santa Fe Railway, from Kansas 
City in one hour. 

Lawrence {Massachusetts) .—Scat of 
. Essex County; population (1880), 
38,843. 

Hotels : Central, Brmiswick, 
Franklin, Essex. 



Places of Amusement: Opera 
House, with 1,700 seats; City and 
Saunders Hall. 

One of the largest manufacturing 
"towns in the State, situated on the 
Merrimac River, whence it derives 
its excellent water power, which 
has proved the source of its indus- 
trial prosperity. The dam was 
thrown across the river in 1845, fur- 
nishing a fall of 2S feet for about a 
mile in length. Woollen and cotton 
goods, shawis, pa])er, flour and hard- 
ware are the principal manufac- 
tures. St. Mary's Roman Catholic 
Church is the most imposing of the 
churches, the Municipal and County 
Courts being also noteworthy. The 
Common in the town, and Pros])ect 
Hill a little outside, afford favourite 
walks and drives. 

Reached ))y Boston and Lowell 
Railway from Boston in | hour. 



Leadville {Colorado). — Seat of Lake 
County; population (1880), 14,820. 

Hotels : Windsor, Clarendon. 

This mushroom mining town is 
situated in the heart of the rich dis- 
trict of El Dorado, famous for its 
output of silver ore. It is the most 
celebrated mining tow n in the AVest. 
Virginia Citj'^ in its early days being 
perhaps in this resi)ect its only com- 
petitor. In 1877 it was a mere ham- 
let ; it has now three daily papers, 
three Ijanks, two theatres and several 
other important institutions, testify- 
ing to its wonderfully rapid pro- 
gress. The mines, smelting works, 
etc., canno* fail to interest the tourist 
and will an ply repay a visit. 

Reached by Union Pacific Rail- 
way, fron' Kansas City, via Denver, 
in 28 hours. 

Lincoln {Nebraska). — Capital of the 
State and seat of Lancaster Covmty ; 
population (1880), 13,003. 

Hotels : Gorham, Commercial. 

Places of Amtisemeut : Opera 
House to seat 1,6(X) ; the Academy of 
Music, and the City Halls. 

Conveyances : Tramways. 

A modern town, with a remark- 
ably unfinished appearance about it, 
owing to the large spaces reserved 
for public buildings and institutions. 
Everything has been done in grand 



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LAREDO LOCK HAVKX. 



113 



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stj-le ; tho streets arc 120 feet wide. 
Ten rescrvHtion {^rounds nre set 
aside for various creeds to build 
their places of wcjrship upon. When 
eventually finished tho town vi'ill 
cover an immense area. It has a 
prosperous future before it, as 
already ei,<,'ht railway lines converge 
towards it, while the surroundinsr 
countrj- is very fertile. Tho Capitol 
is a \evy fino building in early 
Renaissance architecture, and 
stands on an eminence overlook- 
ing the town. Tlie University is 
also a handsome and extcnsivo 
structure. It is endowned with 
146,000 acres of land. There is a 
Lunatic Asylum, and several other 
important buildings. 

Reached by the Burlington and 
Missouri River in Nebraska Rail- 
way, from Omaha, in 3 hours. 



Xiittle Rock {Arkansas). — Capital of 
the State, and Seat of Pulaski 
Cou.nty ; population (1880), 13,185. 

Hotels : Capitol, Doming, Grand 
Central, Gleason's, Atlantic, Adams. 

Places of Amusement .- Grand Opera 
House, Alexander and Concordia 
Halls. 

Conveyances : Tramways, fare 5c.; 
carriages, 1 dol. per course. 

This, the pruicipal town in every 
respect of Arkansas, is situated on 
the first eminence met in ascending 
the Arkansas River, whence it 
derives its name. Its elevation 
above the river is about 40 feet. On 
the other side, about two miles 
above the town, is the Big Rock, 
a range of clitTs from 400 to 500 feet 
high. Little Rock is regularly laid 
out with wide streets. The houses 
are Iniilt chiefly of l)rick, and in the 
residential streets are surroimded 
by gardens. There is a United 
States Arsenal here, a Land Office, 
an Asj-lum for the Deaf, Dumb and 
Blind, and a State Penitentiary. 
The State Library contains over 
13,000 volumes, and there is also a 
Mercantile Library with about 2,000 
volumes. Little Rock is a converg- 
ing point for various imi)ortant 
railway lines, and the centre of an 
extensive trade in cotton and cotton 
seed for the surrounding district. It 
has also some manufactures. The 
Arkansas River is navigable for 



steamers up to the town at all 
seasons of tho year. 

The principal ])uildings are the 
New Custom House, the Lunatic 
Asj'lum, the State House, tho 
Northern Medical College, and tho 
St. John's Military College. Several 
of the churches and school l)uildings 
arc also noteworthy. In the vicinity 
arc several summer health resorts 
and mineral springs. 

Reached l)y Memi)his and Little 
Rock Railway, from Memphis, in 
7i- ho s. 



Livingston {Montana) .~G\\]h\im 
County ; population (IBSO), 2,(J<H). 

Hot (Is : Livingston, Merchants, 
Brunswick, Metropolitan. 

Situated at tho foot of tho Bolt 
Mountains, a short distance from tho 
Yellowstone River. It is about mid- 
way butwoon tho Gi'oat Lakes and 
tho Pacific Coast. Hero tho Northern 
Pacific Railway crosses for tho last 
time the Yellowstone River. It has 
ac(iuired a certain importance fnmi 
tho large n):icliine shops o-f tho 
Northern Pacific Railway being 
situated here. A Immchline di- 
verges from hero to Cinnabar, tho 
starting ])laoe for the Yellowstone 
National I'ark, tho "Wonderland," 
as it has boon cailoil, of tho United 
States. From Cinnabar diligences 
C(mvey tourists, a distance of six 
miles, to Mammoth Hot Sjirings. 
Livingston is raj^idly increasing in 
populati(m, and is destined to be- 
come an important mining town, 
whenever the large deposits of iron, 
lime, sandstone, silver ore and ))itn- 
minuous coal, in close proximity 
to the town, are opened up. Its 
principal industry is now the lumber 
trade and lime and brick manu- 
factures. 

Reached by Northern Pacific, from 
St. Paul, in 31 hours. 

Lock Haven (Pe«w»y/tv/«m).— Seat 
of Clinton Coimty ; population (1880), 
5,»i5. 

Hotels : Fallon House, Montour, 
Irvin. 

Amusements .- Opera House and 
Great Island Hall. 

This is an extensive lumber centre, 
and also a summer resort, on account 



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114 

of the boauty 

scenery. The „„ „ 

the Su.s(juehimna River and West 
Branch Canal. The hiit,'e saw mills 
employ a lavj^c nu!nl)er of hands. 
The Uald Kaf,dc Valley is very 
pioturesfjiie. 

Reached by Pennsylvania "Railway, 
from Philadelphia, via Ifarrisbur^' 
and Williamsport, in 5^ hours. 



i'.HADSHAW S UXITKD STATES. 



American, Judson, Mac 



Lockport (i^'rw Yoi'l').— Sent of 
Niagara County : population (1880), 
13,522. 

Hotels 
Lean's. 

AmHHetn'piifs : Opera House and 
Arcade Hall. 

Situated on the Erie Canal, at the 
spot where l)y 10 huf^e locks the 
water desconcis to the level of the 
Genesee. The town has extensive 
flour mills and limestone (juarrics. 
The former arc driven by water 
power obtained from the locks. 
Lockport is a prosperous and 
pleas;tnt little place. Fruit j^rowin.t,' 
and boat building are carried on 
here successfully. Nineteen miles 
bej'ond is the Suspension Bridj?e over 
■■ the Niujui'ara River, a celebrated 
cnprineerinc: work. 

Reached by New York Central and 
Hudson River Railwaj^ from New 
York, in 12 hours. 



Loganpport {r7if/i ana). Scat of 
Cass County ; population (]880">, 
11,19S. 

Hotels : Windsor, Murdock, City, 
Barnett, Gehring. 

Places of Amusement : Opera House, 
with 1,500 seiits. 

This important railway centre is 
sitiiated on the Wabash River, at the 
mouth of the Eel River, and is 
largely interested in the poplar and 
black walnut timber trade. It also 
j)ossesses some manufactures, while 
the car works of the Cincinn.ati, 
Pitts' nrg, and St. Louis Railways 
em])!^ i 600 hands. Several of the 
chu'-' hes and other buildings are 
cony;?i . "ted of hewn stone, as is also 
the Coi lit House, an imposing edifice. 
The bridge of the Wabash Line 
ncros-"> tl^e river is worth noticins". 
The surrounding country is very 



fertile and under high cultivation, 
but is uninteresting as regards its 
scenery. 

Reached by Chicago and Pittsburg 
Railway, from Chicago, in 2 hours. 



liOng Branch (iVew J'fr<«^j/). —■Mon- 
mouth County ; i)opulation (1880), 
3,H3:J. 

Hotels : Rlberon, Ocean House, 
West End, Brighton, Mansion, How- 
land, Clarendon, Central, United 
States, Atlantic, Jauch, and several 
others. 

Places of Amusement : Opera House, 
all tlie leading hotels have concerts 
in the season ; bowling alleys, 
shooting galleries, archery, etc., also 
at the principal Hotels. 

Pace Course : The Monmouth Park, 
about 4 miles north of Long Branch. 

One of the most fashionable 
summer resorts, and perha]»s *' the " 
fashionable sea bathing place 
of the United States. It is situated 
on a bluff, overlooking the Atlantic, 
and has an extensive and safe beach, 
which affords peculiar facilities f( r 
bathing. High water is the best; 
time for bathing. Flags are hoisted 
on the bathing-houses to indicate tho 
rising of the tide. The old village 
of Longbranch is situated about one 
nrile inland, but the cottages and 
principal hotels are close to the 
l)each. The bathing hour is a time 
of great activity on the beach. Boats 
are stationed outside the surf line 
to prevent bathers from getting into 
deep water. The carriage drive run s 
alongside the beach, and is lined by 
the i)rincij)al hotels, and by hand- 
some villas. Immediately below 
these is the beach, where gentlemen 
may bathe before a.m. without 
costume. The Iron Pier is a cool re- 
treat on hot summer's evenings, and 
is also remarkable as an engineering 
work. The drives in the environs 
of Long Branch are very attractive ; 
Atlanticville, Seabright, Highlands, 
Old Long Branch, Oceanport, and 
Red Bank are in the immediate 
neighbourhood. Deal, Oceangrove, 
and Ashbury Park (Great Methodist 
Camp Meetings) are interesting. A 
favourite pic-nic resort is Shark 
River. Pleasure Bay (famous for 
its oysters), Highlands of Navesink, 
Shrewsbury River, and Red Bank 



I ^« 



LOCKPORT — LOUISVILLE. 



115 



cultivntion, 
i re;^;ir(l8 its 

ndPittsbur.f,' 
in 2 liours. 



rgpv) . — Mon- 
ition (1880), 

ean House, 

msion, Ho\v- 

tral. United 

and several 

3perft House, 
ave concerts 
ling alleys, 
!iy, etc., also 

mouth Pai'lv, 
lOnp: Branch. 

fashionable 

rha]>s "the" 

iin<^ place 

[t is situated 

the Atlantic, 

d safe beach, 

facilities f{ r 

is the besb 

s are hoisted 

) indicate tho 

c old villnfjo 

d about one 

ottages and 

ose to the 

ur is n time 

)each. Boats 

surf line 

getting into 

?e drive runs 

ia lined by 

d by hand- 

tely below 

gentlemen 

m. without 

is a coolrc- 

enings, and 

engineering 

le environs 

attrnctive ; 

Highlands, 

mport, and 

immediate 

)ceangrove, 

t Methodist 

resting. A 

is Shark 

famous for 

f Navesink, 

lied Bank 



are north of Long Branch, and 
favourite excursions. 

Reached by Central Railwiiy of 
New Jer.sc3', fr.)ui New York (Court- 
land-streot Ferry) to Jersey City, 
in 3^ hours. 



liOS Angeles (C«7//b>'M/«).— Seat 
of Los Angeles County ; population 
(1880), 11, 18.^ 

HoteU : St. Elmo, Cosmopolitiui, 
Charles, Weavers, Grand 
Natick House, United 



Pico, St 
Central, 
States. 

Tliices of Amnssmevt : Opera 
House ; the Hall of the Turnverein, 
with 2,000 seats, is used for concerts, 
lectures, etc. 

Bankers: Farmers' and Mer- 
chants' Bank. 

Los Angeles is the largest town 
in Southern California and a much- 
freciuented winter resort. It is 
situated on the west bank of the 
Los Angeles Kiver, and stretches up 
tho slopes of the Sierra Santa 
Monica. It is connected with 
"Wilmington, its jiort, on the Pacific 
by a railway. It was founded by 
Si)aniards in 17S(>, and named 
"Pueblo do los Angeles" (Village 
of the Angols) from the excellence 
of its climate and the beauty of its 
scenery. Tlie climate is not perhaps 
quite so mild as that of San Diego, 
farther south, but the town is better 
sheltered from the highwinds which 
blow all along the coast. Some 
iiivalids prefer Los Angeles on this 
account, though others, especially 
those sutfering from throat aifec- 
tions, dread its somewhat chiil.y 
nights. The old town is built of adobe 
(sun-dried bricks) and still shews 
many Spanish characteristics. In 
the newer portion large and hand- 
some buildings are springing 
up. Tho numerous tine residences 
on the outskirts of the town are 
evidence of the wealth and in- 
creasing importance of this centre 
of a great fruit growing district. 
The town is surrounded by 
orange groves, vineyards, and 
well-kept gardens. All the f^ub- 
tropical aiid very many tropical 
plants flourish here in great 
profusion. A very charming ex- 
cursion may be m.a(le to the Sierra 
Madre villa, returning by Rose's 



Ranch and San Gabriel's ^li.ssion. 
The latter has an old Cliurch dating 
from 1761, which \\as foiuulod l)y 
Mexican Friars. Excursions may 
also l)e made to San Diego anil 
Wilmington. 

Reached by Southern Pacific 
Railway, from San Francisco, iu 11 
hours, via Mojave. 

Louisville (A>«/«rA7y).— Capital of 
JelYer.son County ; population (1S80), 
123,01*). 

Iloffh: Louisville, Gait House, 
Staudiford, Fifth Avenue, Alex- 
ander, Willartl, Rufer's, Balmer's 
St. Cloud, New Southern. 

Rpxtanraufg: At the Gait House 
and Louisville Hotel. 

Amuxemcnts: Opera Ih)use on 
4th-street, Macauley's Theatre, 
in Wahiut-street ' (the mi>st 
fashionable) ; Masonic Temple, lih- 
street; Liederkranz Hall, in .Market- 
street ; Buckingham Theatre. 

Reading llooms : In the principal 
Hotels ; the Public Lil)rary, on 4th- 
avenue, has 30,000 volumes and a 
Natural History Museum. The 
Louisville Library Society meets 
on 5th-street. 

Conveifunces : Tramways to all 
parts, excellently managed (fare 5 
cts.) ; Carriages, 50 cts. each person 
from Railway Station or Steamboat 
landing to Hotel; per hour, 2 dols. 
for first, and 1 dol. for each succeed- 
ing hour or fraction of an hour. 
FexTies cross the Ohio River. 

Poiit and Telerjrdjth Offices : Comer 
of Green and Third streets, open 
from 7 a.m. to 6 ji.m. Sundays 
from 9 till 10 a.m. Lampost letter- 
boxes are sc;ittered over the town. 

This, the chief and most im- 
portant town of the State, is advan- 
tageously situated on the Ohio River 
(east bank), ne.ir the mouth of Bear- 
grass Creek and at the celebrated 
Falls. It stands on a raised plateau 
70 feet above the River. Here, just 
above the town, the hills recede, and 
do not approach the river again for 
about 20 miles further down, thus cre- 
ating an almost level plain of about 
miles broad. The town extends 
about 3 miles in length along tho 
River bank. The falls, which 
entirely disappear when the water 
is high, can be seen from the town. 



116 



IJHADSIIAVV S UNITED STATKS. 



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A ciual has been cr.t nlmost tlic 
whole way throiij^h hoVuI rock — to 
jfet rid of this obstruction to navi- 
f^iition when the River is low. The 
canal is 2<i miles lony, and cost 
nearly one million dollars. The 
streets of Louisville are wide, and 
in many cases planted with trees. 
They cross each other at rif?ht 
untrics, (ire well i):ivo(l, and lined 
witV snhstiintial business JjuildinKS 
and handsome dwellins^-houses. 
The latter, as a rule, lie some dis- 
tance back from tlic streets, and 
have open si)acos for lawns and 
shrubberies. The business portion 
of the city is very closely built. 
Here the principal 'streets are Mar- 
ket, Jefferson, Main and Fourth. 

The first settlement of Louisville 
was made in 1778. It became a town 
in 1780, and whs called Louisville in 
commemoration of Louis XVI., 
whose troops were aiding? the 
Americans against the English. Its 
trade is very considerable. For leaf 
tobacco it is one of the piincipal 
markets of the world. Provisions, 
cattle, pork packing, ham-curing 
arc also special departments of its 
trade. Its whisky distilleries aro 
the most extensive in the United 
States. Iron is largely manufac- 
tured here; as also beer, leather, 
agricultural implements, furniture, 
etc. 

The City Hall is undoubtedly the 
finest building in the town. It is of 
stone, surmounted by a scpiare clock- 
tower. The Council Room should 
also be visited. The Court House 
has cost perhai)s more and is larger, 
but has little of architectural beautv. 
The Catholic Cathedral, Post Office 
and Custom House, Masonic Temple, 
Industrial Exhibition Buildings in 
4th-street, the Board of Trade 
Buildings and Courricr Journal 
Buildings on Green-street arc im- 
I)ortant, but have no particular 
architectural beauty. Several of 
the churches arc also of imposing 
appearance. The University of 
Louisville, the Pulilic Library, the 
Hospital College of Medicine, and 
Kentucky School of Medicine, the 
two High Schools and the Coloured 
Kormal School arc all flourishing 
educational establishments. Among 
the charitable institutions the most 
important is the State School and 
American Printing House for the 



Blind. It is east of the town, on the 
Lexington turnpike, and is a massive 
and imposing structure. The interior 
arrangements and the manufac- 
ture of books, etc., for the blind ))y 
the blind will be very interesting to 
the tourist. The CAty Hospital, the 
Boys' and Girls' Refuges, the Hos- 
I)ital for skin diseases, the Orphan 
Asylum and the Alms House are all 
extensive buildings, and testify to 
the charitable character of the in- 
habitants. The great railway bridge, 
spanning the Ohio, with 25 arches on 
2i piers, and 5,219 feet long, should 
be visited. It cost over 2,0(M>,(XX)dols. 
Among the walks and drives may 
be mentioned Cave Hill Cemetery, 
with some fine monuments ; Silver 
('reek ; Harrods Creek ; Waterworks 
Grounds ; Lexington and Bard tovm. 
turnpike roads. Riverside, Smj'ser's, 
Jeffersonville and New Albany are 
all very enjoyable excursions. 
Reached l)y Louisville, New Albany 
and Chicago Railway,from Chicago, 
in 13 hours. 

LO"well (MassacJi usetfs) . — Middle- 
sex County; population (1880), 
G4,05I. 

Hotels: Washington, Merrimac, 
Dresser, American. 

The second town in Massachusetts 
and one of the chief manufacturing 
centres in the United States. It is 
advantageously situated at the con- 
fluence of the Concord with the 
Merrimac River, near the Pawtucket 
Falls. These descend from a height 
of 33 foct, and'furnish the town with 
over 10,(K)0 horse power. Lowell is 
the principal centre of the cotton 
si)inning,weaving and dyeing indus- 
try in the States. It is well built 
and regularly laid out. Belvidere, 
or East End, "is the best portion. Be- 
sides the vast mills, other buildings 
of interest are the Court House and 
City Hall, and severil of the churches. 
Many of the public scpiares are taste- 
fully ornamented. In one of them 
on Merrimac-Btreet there is a monu- 
ment to two young men of Lowell 
who fell in Baltimore during the 
Civil War. Close l)y is a statue of 
"Victory," by Ranch, to the memory 
of another citizen of Lowell, who fell 
in the same contest. 

Reached by Boston and Lowell 
Railway, from Boston, in 1 hour. 



LOWKLL — MADISOX. 



117 



Luray (T7»v/i»i"(/).--So,it of Vaso 

County: lu/pulatiou (l>s80),G23. 
Hotels : Luray Inn. 

This place is worth attention from 
the tourist only on account of the 
hnrfc su])tcrriincan caverns, situated 
about one mile from the Raihvuy 
Station. The stalactites anrl stala so- 
mites are amonu'st the larf^cst in tlie 
world. The vast chambers, some of 
them 100 feet hi^h, are li<,'hted by 
electric light. Geologists consider 
that their formation is older than 
the tertiary period. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from Washintftou, ria 
Shenandoah Junction and Charles- 
ton, in 1^ hours. 

Lynchburg ( Vlginhi). — Camp- 
l>ell Countj' ; population (1880), 
15,959. 

lEoteh: Arlington, Xorvell, Lynch 
House. 

A railway centre, with a consider- 
able tobacco and other industry. It 
is situated on the South IJank of the 
James River. In its vicinity are 
large fields of iron ore and coal. 
There is an opera house and a large 
hall ; but little to interest tli3 
tourist. 

Reached by Virginia Midland Rail- 
way, from Washington, in 3 
hours. 

Lynn {Massachusptt»). — Essex 
County; population (1880), 38,274. 
Hotels : Brunswick, Auburn, 

■ Kirtland, Sngamon, Crawford. 

A busy manufacturing town on 
Massachusetts Bay. It is chiefly 
engaged in the boot and shoe 
industry. It is also fretjuented as 
a summer resort and for sea 
bathing. The surrounding scenery- 
is pretty. There are several hiind- 
some churches and school buildings, 
with numerous fine villas and sum- 
mer residences belonging to Boston 
merch'ints. Near the City Hall is a 
fine soldiers' monument. The City 
Hall is a noteworthy building. 
High Rock, in the centre of the 
town, commands an extensive view, 
and is said to be the hiding place of 
a large treasure, concealed there by 

• pirates. A firm believer in this 
story had a tunnel dug through the 
centre of the solid rock, 135 feet 
long and 7 feet high. Close by are 



Swann)scott i !i 1 .Salem, botli 
interesting excursions. 

Reached by Kastern Railway 
from Boston in \\ hour. 

Macon (Crro/v/Zf/).— Seat of Bibl> 
County ; i)opulation (l8S0), 12,718. 
Ut.tch : Laiuer, Brown, National, 
Kilgarton, Stubblefielil. 

This, the ])rinciiial cotton market 
for Southern and Western Georgia, 
and Eastern Alabama, is 
l)icturos(|uely situated on the 
Ocmulgee River, which is s])anned 
by a bridgo. Tlie town is largely 
interested in manufactures, ])rinci- 
])ally iron foundries, machine 
shops, carriage works, cotton 
spinning, weaving, and flour 
mills. It is nuicli ornamented 
with trees and shrubberies. 
The new Court House and the 
Academy of >[usic are the hand- 
somest "buildings in the town., 
[Mercer University, the State 
Academy for the Blind, the 
Wesleya'n Female College, and Rio 
Nono College are educational estab- 
lishments which enjoy wide repute 
and occupy handsome buildings. 
Rose Hill Cemetery is one of the 
most beautifully laid out burial 
grounds in the States. Central 
City Park is also a fine specimen of 
a public recreation ground. Macon 
is also an important railway centre. 
Vineville, about a mile from the 
town, is a charming walk. 

Reached by the Central Railway 
of Georgia, from Augusta, in 4- 
hour.i. 

Madison {I»(rui)nt).—Q\\\cf town of 
Jefi'erson County ; population (1880), 
8,945. 

Hotels : Centennial, Centml, Conti- 
nental, AVestern, Broadway, 
William Tell. 

A beautifully - situated (on the 
Ohio) and well-V)uilt town, and one 
of the most important in Indiana. 
Brass and iron foundries, flour 
mills, machine shops, and pork- 
jiacking, are the chief industries. 
Its trade in provisions is con- 
siderable. There is little here to 
interest the tourist. 

Reached by Jetfersonville, Madi- 
son, and Indianapolis Railway, 
from Indianapolis, via Columbus, 
in 2 J- hours. 



118 



I5IIADSHAW S UMTKD STATK.S. 



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JMEadison (JrinconHhi). — Cajjitnl of 
tho bt:it'! ii!mI Sent of Diino County ; 
l)oi)iilati(i:i (IHSO), 12,<)03. 

Hofch: Capitol, Park, Vilas 
House. 

Ani'igements : Opera House, with 
1,01)0 Hoais ; City and Turner 
Halls. 

Con tfiyanceii : Carriages, 1 dol. per 
hour. 

This favourite summer resort — 
at tho same time the capital and 
iin important commercial centre 
— is situated on a neck of land 
hotwoen Mcnuma and !Men- 
dota Lakes. It is rosfularly laid 
out ; the State Capitol forms its 
centre. The town is about 7i) feet 
above the level of the lakes, and is 
surrounded l)y a public park, 
whence foiir main streets diverjj^e 
towards the cardinal i)oints of the 
com])as.s. It has many handsome 
public and private buildinj^s. TVie 
Court House, containing also the 
I)ost-oflice and the prison, are fnie 
structures. S^everal of the churches 
are of largo size. The University 
of Wisconsin, with its six elegant 
8ub-'i'visions, stands about a mile 
west of the town on College Hill. 
The massive building of the State 
Lunatic Asylum stands on the shore 
of Lake Mendota, about four miles 
outside the town. The villa resi- 
dences in the outskirts are very fine. 
In a Aving of the Capitol arc the 
collections of the Wisconsin Histori- 
cal Society, and a librarv containing 
over (iO.O'.M) volumes. The City and 
State libraries contain 9, (H)0 and 7,5(K) 
volumes r'js]iectivelj'. J^mall steam- 
ers ply on the lakes. The Monona 
Assembly Grounds are situated on 
the lake of the same name, and 
are a ])leasant summer resort. 

Reached by Chicago and North- 
western Railway, from Chicago, via 
Janesville, in 3 hours. 



MagnoHa {Florida) .—Q\^y Connty ; 
population (18S0), 1,143. 

lfo^e/« .- The Magnolia. 

A winter resort, much frequented 
by consumptive patients. The 
environs are covered with orange 
groves and pine trees. Aligators 
abound in the surrounding swamps. 



It is situated on tho west l>ank of 
the St. .John's River. Three miles 
from here are Green Cove sulphur- 
ous sjjrings. 

Reached by Jacksonville, St. 
Augustine and Halifax River Rail- 
way, from Jacksonville, in \ 
hour. 



{New Ifainpuhire). — ■ 
County ; i)oi)ulation 



Manchester 

Hillsboroutrh 
(1880), 32,(i30. 

Jlof/^h: City, Haselthio, National, 
Manchester, Chandler, Granite. 

Places of Amusement : The Man- 
chester Oi)era House and Smyth's 
Opera House, ouch with seats for 
1,100. The Music Hall can seat 
8(H). 

The largest town in New Hamp- 
shire and one ot the most ini))ortant 
cotton (chiefly i)rints) manufactur- 
ing centres in the Uuiied States. 
On tlic canal, around the Amorkeag 
Falls of the Merrimac, are immense 
factories. There are several fine 
churches, a library with 20,(HH) 
volumes and some handsome 



s(iuai'es. 



There is here little to 



interest the tourist, except tho 
cott(m mills. 

Reached by Concord Railway .from 
Boston, in 2^ hours. 



Mansfield (O/tJo).— Seat of Rich- 
laud Countj'j population (1880), 
9,859. 

Hotels: St. James's, Wilor, 
American, Clifton, European, 
Tremont. 

Places of Amusement : An Opera 
House with 1,500 seats, Philhar- 
monic and Miller's Halls. 

A compactly-built town, on an ele- 
vation on the Rocky Fork of the 
Mohican River, in the centre of a 
very fertile district. It has some 
manufactories, but its principal in- 
terest centres in the joblnng trade. 
It is an important railway centre, 
has some fine public buildings, 
churches and schools, and a Court 
House which cost 200,00(X) dol.s. Most 
of the dwelling-houses are surround- 
ed by gardens. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from Chicago, in 12 hours. 



V < i^i-'OT\ — .VI KM I'll IS. 



119 



(ManitdpJiiiseff''). — 
l)(»l»uliiti()U (lK8t»), 



r.oiiv, 



IJllV 



Marblehead 

KHriex County ; 
7,518. 

Hofoh: Clifton, Union, 
Biiiley's, Devcreux, Smith. 

Situated on Mnrblehciiil 
Tliis (luaintiindintere.stiiifxold town 
was one of the earliest settlcmtints 
in the New Eui^lnnd StatL^':^. It is 
liuilt on a rf)ck, juttinj; out into the 
sea and forininj^ an excellent har- 
bour. A century atfo Mnrhlehead 
was, next to Boston, the most ixtpii- 
lous town of Massachusetts. Many 
(plaint old liousosare still staiidinu', 
the most noteworthj'beint,'' the Bank 
Buildiuf?, a fine siiecimen of the 
mansions of the rich merchants of 
hist century. Its principal trade 
now centres in the l)oot and shoe 
manufacture. The Old Fort will be 
found interesting^ by tourists. Two 
miles distant \a Marblehead Neck, 
a favourite sea bathinj^- and holiday 
resort, with two pood Hotels. 
Lowell Island is e(|ually near, and 
witii its lino views and pure air 
attracts also mmy summer visitors. 

Reached by Boston k Elaine Kail- 
■way, from Boston, in \ hour. 



Marietta (OA/o).— Scat of Washim,'- 
ton County; population (I88i»), 
6,445. 

• Hot eh : St. Cloud, Bizauto, 
National, United States, Brown. 

Places of Amt(8em€)it : The Cit,>' 
Hall, with 1,2(H) seats, is used for 
lectures, concerts, etc. 

A thriving and prosperous manu- 
facturinof town, romantically situ- 
ated on the Ohio, at the junction of 
the Muskingum River. It is exten- 
sively engaged in the petroleum, 
iron, rtonr, furniture, etc., industries. 
The Marietta College, with its four 
buildings and a library of over 
26,000 volumes, is a prosperous in- 
stitution, and its fine buildings are 
suiTonnded by ornamental grounds. 

Wild Cat Glen, a romantic spot 
near by, has been purchased by a 
Masonic lodge as a summer resort. 

Parkersburg and Belpre are ex- 
cursions within easy reach. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from Columbus, in 5 
hours. 



Marquette {Michljun). .Seat of 
Mar»(Ui.'tto Countv ; p ipuhition 
(lN^O),.'>,«512. 

Jlofi'lg; Summit, Nort'.i-Wcstorn, 
Cozzens, Tremont. 

The centre of the ir ):i region 
of Lake Su|)erior, on which it is 
stualed. It is engaged priMcii)all,v 
in manufacturing and shipiting 
both iron ore and mauafacturod 
iron. It is also a summer resort 
on account of its healthy and in- 
vigorating air, beautiful scenery 
and good boating and fishing. 
Excursions are made to Pictured 
Pocks, Grand Island, Huron Bay 
and Islands, Portage Entry and Lako 
Carp, Chocolat and Dt'id Rivers, 
Ciiami)ion on Lake Michigami, and 
Granite Islands. Tlie forests in the 
environs arc very dens?, and abound 
in all varieties of game. 

lieached by Chicago aivd North- 
western Railway, from Chicago, 
ciu Fond du Lac, in 10 h(jurs. 

Memphis (Tenncssre). — Seat of 
Sh'^Uiy County; population (1S80), 
S{,5!>2. 

Jftfeh : Cochran, Gayoso, Pea- 
body, New Clarendon, Worsham. 

Ainn»emetitx : 0])era House, 
Theatre Leubries, Free Trade and 
Ilallenberg Halls. 

CoiH'ei/inicpx : Tramways through 
]n'ineipal streets (fare, 5c.) ; car- 
riages, 1 dol. ])er hour. 

Riukers: Bank of Commerce. 

The second city of Tennessee, a 
])ort of entry on the Mississippi, and 
one of the largest cotton markets in 
the States. It is very beautifully 
situated on a bluif, overlooking the 
river, and when seen from a boat 
l)resents a striking a^jpcarancc. The 
streets are wide, well i)aved (mostly 
with wood), while many of tho 
public and ]n'ivate buildings arc 
imposing and handsome. It is the 
largest town l)etween St. Louisi 
and New Orleans, on the Missis- 
sippi River, and covers an 
area of over three fiqiiare miles. 
Beautiful lawns surround many of 
the private residences. In the centre 
is a handsome Park, with a monu- 
ment. The railway and steamboat 
traffic is large. The esplanade, lined 
with great warehouses, is interest- 
ing from its commercial activity. 



/ 



120 



IIKADSHAW S UXITKD M.\ii..^. 



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if 



Tho United States Custom Houho is 
u finobiiildiiiu'. Eltnwood Ceinetory, 
M()utli-(!»f^t of the town, is tho 
prijiciptil <nw of tho six cemeteries 
which tho town contains. The 
<'hurclies, cliaritahlo institutions, 
Iheatres ami schools mostly occupy 
line l)uil(linK'H. 

Reached by Kansas City, Fort 
JScott and (^ulf Railway, from 
Kansas City, in 20^ hours. 

MiddletOWn (ConnPcficut).—'MU\- 
(llesex County ; jjopulation (IHSO), 

ii,7;n. 

lloteU : Clarendon, Kilbnrn, Mac 
Donouj^h. 

One of the most hcautiful tf)wns 
in (Connecticut, situated on the 
wo-it hank of the Connecticut River. 
Jt is equally a manufacturinj^ and 
tin a,sj:ricultural town. It is well 
iiuilt, and Main-street, the i)rinci])al 
business thorouj^hfare, and Hij?h- 
Htreet, the residential (juartev, are 
J)oth fine thorouirhfarcs. The lari;c 
l)uildinj,'s of the lunatic asylum 
wtand outside the city on a hill and 
command a flno view. Tho lierkely 
Divinity School, with its gothic 
chapel ' is (m Main-street. The 
AVeslej-an TJniversity buildings, 
which are very fine, stand also out- 
side tho town, and tho lilirary con- 
tains over 25,(>(M) volumes. P^rom 
the Indian Hill Cemetery, with its 
fmo monuments, a good view can 
1)0 obtained. Other buildings of in- 
tci'est are Mac Donough Hall and tho 
Eagle Music and Insurance Halls. 

Reached by New York, New 
Haven and Hartford Railway, from 
Now York, i-ld lierlin, in 4 hours. 

Milwaukee {Wiseomln). — Seat of 
Milwaukee County ; population 
<1880), 115,587. 

Hotels : Kirhy, Plankington, Rc- 
l)ublican, Axtill. 

Amugf-ments : The Opera House 
and the Academy of Music, each 
with 1,100 seats. 

Convenances: Tramways in every 
<liroction (fare 5 cents.). Carriages 
1 dol. per hour. 

Post and Telegraph Office : Corner 
of Milwaukee and Wisconsin streets. 

Bunkers: Bank of Milwaukee. 
' Medical: Dr. Hodgson. 



This, tho rommoroial ca])ital of 
"NVisconsiji, is at tho same time tho 
greatest iinlustrial centre of tho 
North-Wcst, next to Chicago. It is 
situated on tlie Western shore of 
Lake Michigan, at the mouth of tho 
Milwauk(>o River. It was settled 
only in isMo, and incorporated in 
Is Mi. It is chiefly inhabited by 
tiermans, whoso inlluenco is felt 
everywhere in the town. Wheat 
and Hour are the most important 
items of its trade, but its hreweries 
are also extensive and numerous. It 
manufacturos iron and agricultural 
imi)lemonts, and carries on a largo 
traile in ])rovisions. Tho town 
covers an area of about 17 sfjuaio 
miles, and is divided by tho Mil- 
waukee and Menomonee rivers into 
three almost c(|ual i)arts, knf)wn 
respectively as the Scnith, East, and 
West Ends. Its harl)our is considered 
the best on tho west or south shores 
of the lake, tho river having been 
widened and deo])encd so as to 
admit of the entry of the largest 
vessel. The southern division or 
south end is the busnu?ss centre. 
East and west ends are tho resi- 
dential (piarters. Tho town i)resents 
a peculiarly clean api)earance, 
owing chiefly to the colour of tho 
building material. Enthusiasts have 
given it the name of " Cream City 
of tho Lake." 

The town is irregularly laid out, 
but most of the streets have rows of 
flno trees. The main thoroughfares 
are Grand Avenue, East Water, and 
Wisconsin streets. They are witle, 
and lined with handscmio build- 
ings. Tho Court House, tho Opera 
House, the Ai ademy of Music, the 
United States Custom House with 
Post Ollice, the Soldiers' Asjdum, 
tho Immanuei rresbytorian Church, 
tho R<nnan Catholic Cathedral, 
Baptist Church, Lunatic Asj'lum, 
the Free Public Lilmxry, Milwaukee 
Female College, the grain elevators, 
etc., are among its most noteworthy 
])uildings. The latter are tho largest 
in North America, and have a capa- 
city of 3.i million bushels. Several 
of the flour mills are of huge dimen- 
sions, as are also tho iron works and 
mills outside tho town. 

There is little scope for excursions, 
hut the White Fish Bay road offers 
a beautiful drive of about five miles 
in length. 



out, 
s of 
[fares 
and 
ide, 
|)uild- 
)pera 
,, the 
with 
'lum, 
irch, 
pdral, 
'lum, 
lukec 
I tors, 
)rtljy 
|rgest 
;apa- 
jvcral 
Imen- 
and 

^ions, 
)fPers 
bnles 



MIDI'I.KTOWN — Mdl'.II.K. 



lL>l 



Reached by ChioaLr" and N'nrili- ! 
Western Hailway, from Chic.i.i?<>, in 
3 hourij. 



Minneapolis {Miniimnfti). — SiMt of 
IIeniiei)in County; pipulation (Isso), 
4«,HS7. 

Uott-h: Nicollet, Clark, West. St. 
Jiimes, National, Windsor, Belle Vuo. 

AmngemnttH : New Oi»era Hous^', 
Pcnco Oper;i IIout»e, Theatre Co- 
inifiue. 

Cnnvpyancps : Tramways, fare 5 
cents ; earriaj,'es rare. j 

This ])r()sper()us town, with what 
was formerly the siihurb of St. An- ' 
thony— now forniinLf one with it — is \ 
Hitua'tedon b<»th banks of the Missis- \ 
siooi. The river is s]).anned here by \ 
r :. ...aK'iificent la-idi^es. It is a very 

1)rosperous town -a rival of St. j 
^ud's— and larjrely enira<,'ed in the 
timber trade. Enormous saw and 
fl )ur mills are driven by the water 
junver derived from the Falls of 
St. Anthony, overlooked bj- the city. 
Minneai)oli"s is re;rularly laid out 
with avenues, bordered with trees, 
running east and west. Its streets 
run south and north— are very wide 
and well macadamized, ami have 
side walks 20 feet Uroad. It is re- 
markable for its many fine Inisiness 
and private buildin<,'s. The latter 
testifying amply to the prosperity' of 
its inhabitants. The most ])rominent 
buildings are the Court House, the 
Academy of Music, the Opera House, 
the City Hall, the Athena?um, and 
the University of Minnesota. Some 
of the 65 churches are elegant and 
imposing. It is also a military 
station. The number of educaticmal 
establishments is large, and they are 
good. The falls are best seen from 
the suspension In-idge ; but the 
rapids are moi*e interesting than the 
falls. The flour mills are the largest 
in America— one single establish- 
ment l)eing able to turn out 1,800 
barrels a day. A visit to one of these 
mills will interest the tourist. 

Reached by St. Paul and Duluth 
B,ailway, from St. Paul, in half an 
hour. 



Mobile (^Zaiawrt).— Seat of Mobile 
County; population (1880), 29,132. 

Hotels: Laclede, Battle, St. James. 



I' 



AmnHfment* : Tho Mobile Theatre, 
the Odd Fellows and Tenn)erance 
Halls. 

Coiirn/anri'.i : TiM uwavs to all 
)arts (.') c_'!its), and carria,'es at 
i dol. per course. 

Pnitt and T,lr,/ritj>k OjUrp: In the 
Custom House on i{oyal Strct't. 

JC)i;fligh CoiiKitl ; F. J. Cridland, 
Consul. 
li'nik-n'n : Rank of Mobile. 
M,,lir,il : Dr. Toxcy, Dr. K(!t- 
chum, Dr. Mosden. 

This town is the only seaport, 
which Alabama possesses. It is tlu^ 
largest and most imporUint town in 
the State, and is situated on the 
west shore of Mobile May, at the 
mouth of the Mobile Uivt-r. Its sitc^ 
is a sandy plain, bounded at a short 
disUmceby high hills. The streets 
are regular, well i>aved, antl 
delightfully shaded. Fort (James 
and Fort Morgan command the 
entrance to the itort, which is about 
30 miles distant from the town. The 
ruins of several other Forts are in 
the environs. It was first settled by 
Frenchmen, many of whom were 
Canadians, in 1703. It was the 
Capital of Louisiana, until the for- 
mer was transferred to New Orleans 
in 1723. In 1703 it came into the 
possession of the British, in 17f-o 
was surrendered to Si)ain, and in 
1818 was ceded to the United States. 
It was (me of the last strongholds of 
the Cimfederates during the Civil 
War, and only surrendered after the 
capitulation of General Lee. Like 
most southern towns, it is em- 
bowered in trees. The chief ])rome- 
nade. Government-street, with the 
principal residential mansions, arc* 
planted with beautiful oaks. 

The Custom House, containing 
also the Post OlHce, is the finest 
public building in the town. The 
Theatre and Market House (the 
latter really Town Hall in its 
upper part) are in Royal-street, and 
are handsome structures. Barton's 
Academy, in Goverament-street, is 
an elegant builduig surmounted by 
a dome. The Roman Catholic; 
Cathedral is also very fine. Odd 
Fellows' Hall, Temperance Hall, 
Battle House, Bank of Mobile, 
Trinity, First Presbyterian aiul 
Christ Churches are all noteworthy 
edifices and present many archi- 



' M 



■ 



122 



BRADSIIAW'S UNITl.D .STATIS. 



tectural hcauties. There is a United 
St!itC3 Marino Hospital, Providence 
Infirmary, City Hospital, and 
several br])hans' Asylums, all of 
which arc noteworthy. The Medical 
Collet^e is ])r()sperous. The College 
of St. Jo.sei)h is a little outside the 
town, six miles wcstwai'd. It is an 
extensive and handsome building'. 

Uienville Park, in the town, and 
Sl)rin'4 Hill are favourite resorts for 
l)romeiiades and drives, and the 
Gulf Shell Road runs nine miles 
ulonj? the Bay. 

Reached by New Orleans and 
Mobile Railway, from New Orleans, 
in 1 hours. 



Monterey {Californui) . — Monterej^ 
County; pop ilation (1S80), 1,30G. 

Hotels: Hctel del Monte. 

This town is charmins'ly situated 
on the southern shores of Monterey 
Bay. It is principally of note as a 
winter i*esort. Until ^817 it was the 
seat of Government, and the i)rin- 
cipal port of California, but since 
the rise of San Francisco, it has 
dwindled down to a mere Ashing 
village. Since the building of the 
Southern Pacific Railway, and since 
it has attracted the attention of in- 
valids as a summer and winter 
resort, it is again on the increase. 
The air is very dry. High winds 
are frecment. The scenery around 
is lovel.\^ 

Reached by Southern Pacific Rail- 
way, from San Francisco, via San 
Jos«5 and Santa Cruz, in 3 hours. 



Montgomery (Alahama). — Capital, 
and Seat of Montgomery County; 
population (1880), 1G,7M. 

Hotels : Windsor, Central, Ex- 
change, Railroad. 

Amusements : The Theatre and 
McD; nald's Opera House; several 
halls for concerts, lectures, etc. 

Post and Telegraph Offices: In the 
Court House. 

Situated on a high Ijluff, on the 
left b:i >k of the Alabama River, it is 
the second town in population and 
commercial importance in the State. 
It was settled in 1817, and named 
after General Montgomery, and it 
has a certain historical interest as 
having been the capital of the 



Southern confederacy. It is regu- 
larlj' built, and some of its wide 
streets are lined with rows of trrc-i. 
The principal buildings are the 
State House, City Hall, Theatre, 
United States Court House, "xncl 
several churches. From the dome 
of the Court House a fine view may 
be obtained. Steamers ply on the 
river at all seasons of the year, and 
five railways converge here. Almost 
all tourists to the south for the 
winter stoj) here for some time. 

Reached by Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from New Orleans, 
via Mobile, in 13 hours. 

Montpellier (T^rwoH/).— Capital, 
and Seat of "Washington County ; 
population (1880), 3,225. 

Hotels : American, Bishop's, Pavi- 
lion, Union. 

This town occupies a beautiful 
situation on the Winooski River, in 
a narrow valley. It is closely built, 
and has irregular and narrow 
streets. The State House or Capi- 
tol, the largest building in the town, 
has a dome surmounted bj' a statue 
of Ceres. In the portico is a marble 
statue, while the interior contains 
historical and geological collec- 
tions, and a library of 15,000 
volumes. The town is somewhat 
of a summer resort, and excursions 
may be made to Benjamin Falls and 
Mount Hunga, to which latter, 
seven miles distant, a fine carriage 
road leads. 

Reached by Central Vermont 
Railway, from Burlington on Luke 
Champiain, in 2 hours. 

Mount Pleasant (/ohv/).— Seat of 
Henry County, population (1880), 
3,837. 

Hotels: Brazleton, Harlem, 
Wiggin's. 

Amusements: Sander's Opera 
House, Red Ribbon Opera House, 
and Union Hall, each having about 
900 seats. 

A thriving towTi, built on an 
elevated prairie and almost sur- 
rounded by Big Creek. It has a large 
trade, some manufactures and con- 
siderable agricultural interests. The 
Wesleyan University and the Ger- 
man College are prosperous institu- 
tions, bemg under the control of 



MONTEREY — NATCHEZ. 



123 



an 
sur- 
large 
con- 
Tho 
Ger- 
stitu- 
■ol of 






the Methodists. Clos3 to the town 
is the Lmiatic Asyhim of tlie Stjitc. 
The scenery ai'ound Mount I'leasant, 
which as yet is only a village, is 
l)retty. 

Reached hy the Chicairo, Burling- 
ton and Quincy R^iilway, from 



Chicago, 
hours. 



rat Burlington, in 9i 



Nantucket {Mtissachunef f.f) .—Seat 
of Nantucket County, Nantucket 
island ; ])opulation (1880), 3,725. 

Hot eh : Sherburne, Bay View, 
Veranda, Nantucket, Springfield, 
Ocean. 

This, the chief town of the island 
of Nantucket, is ])icturcsiiuely situ- 
ated, and is coming into favour as 
!i summer and sea bathing resort. 
At one time it was the most impor- 
tant whaling town of America, and 
perhaps the world. It has lf)st its 
prosperity since the great tire of 
1846. Of late years the air of decay 
about it has disappeared, as the town 
is getting known to summer visitors. 
Its streets are clean, though irregu- 
lar, and are in many i)lacc.s lined 
with trees and gardens. Some of 
the houses have flat roof.-i with 
railings round them. It has nine 
churches, a town hall, a custom 
house, and several schools (among 
them the Coffin School), and the 
Athena3um, with a library of 9,000 
volumes, and a museiim. Several 
interesting excursions to other parts 
of the island may be made, the most 
interesting being along the north 
and south shores, Siasconsct (by 
rail), Sancoty Head, etc. 

Reached l)y steamer, from Mar- 
tha's vineyard, in 3 hours. 

Nasliville {Tfnnessee). — Capital and 
Seat of Davidscm County j poinda- 
tlon (1880), 43,161. 

Hot eh: Scott's, Nicholson, Max- 
well, Lmk'a, Commercial. 

Amnupments: Opera House; Odd 
Fellows' and Masonic Halls. 
. CoMyf-^aHcea: Tramways and Cabs. 

Post ami Telegraph Offices : On the 
Public Square. 

This, the largest town in the 
State, is situated on the southern 
Ijank of the Cumberland River. The 
ground it stJinds on is undulating, 



but the town :S ivguliir'.y laid out, 
with straight, thuuirli rather nar- 
row streets. The public and private 
buildings are fine, ihe principal 
object of interest l>eing undoubtedly 
the Cupitol, on Cai):toi-hill, con- 
structed of various kinds of lime- 
stone. It is three stonys high, sur- 
mounted by a tower 2W) feut. It 
wtis erectccl in I8l.">, ccst over a mil- 
lion dollars, and is considered one of 
the finest buildings in the simtheni 
states. The broad marble steps, 
forming terraces, aro i)articularly 
fine. The Market Jfrmsc on the 
I'uljlic Scjuare is next in importance. 
The Court Hohxi' on the same s'luaro 
is an elo2'aut buildinij: with some 
fine jiorticoes. Ks])L'ciilly note- 
wortliy are the educational estab- 
lishments, among which the town 
boasts of not less than three uni- 
versities. The Uiticii'xifi/ of Nuah- 
ville is a fine building, having about 
2.")0 students, una a lilirary of over 
15,(XH) volumes. The Fittk L'niierviti/, 
named after its chief ;)romoter, is 
entirely devoted to the education of 
coloured boys. Bo als>) is the 
Tetniennee Cttifnd VoUfije. Vander- 
hilt Unifersity ])uildings (founded 
by Commodore VanderWilt) should 
be noted also. The State Peniten- 
thiry, in its spacious stone build- 
ings, is si)oken of as a model insti- 
tutioia of its kind. Here is an 
Axi/liiiii for the Blind, and another 
for the I)iti i:u; both six miles out- 
side the town. 

The town commands the trade of 
an extensive region, and is a great 
railway centre, having at the same 
time imiiorLaut river navigation. 
Its manufactures are very varied, 
and it is a prosperous CL'iilro. The 
famous battle of Nashville (so 
favourable to the North) was fought 
here, in November, 1801. The Her- 
viitinje, once the residence of 
Andrew Jackson, is 12 miles east 
of Nashville. 

Keiched by the Louisville 'and 
Nashville Railway, from Memphis, 
in 12i hours. 

Natchez (.lfww(>;>().— Seat of 
Adams Count}- ; population (1890), 
7,058. 

Hotels: The Natchez House. 

Stands on the East Bank of the 
Mississippi, partly on a narrow 



M 









: 



'Iff 



,'i 



,,.1 



m 



t i 



121 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



jstrip of land and partly on a hill. 
The lower portion of the town can 
lay no claim to l)eauty, thonjjfh it 
contains several puV)lic l)uildin,c(s. 
It is connected with the upper part, 
'200 foet above the river, ])y broad 
roads, easy of ascent. The lower 
part is called " Natchez under the 
hill," and the upper part '* Natchez 
on the hill." Both have shaded and 
well laid out streets and avenues. 
It was settled first in 1700, and has 
a number of historic reminiscences. 
It is well built, carries on a ^ood 
trade with the surrounding? country, 
jind contains some fine buildings. 
Most of the dwelling-houses have 
Kood gardens. The l)luff has on its 
front a park, running along the 
whole length of the town. The 
prominent buildings are : the Roman 
Oatholic Cathedral, with a tower, 
the Court House, Masonic Temple, 
and some of the other churches. 
The National Cemetery on another 
Bluff is well laid out, and is used as 
a promenade. 

Reached by Natchez, Jackson & 
ColumVms Railway, from Jackson, 
in 5^ hours. 



Ifeenah {Wisconsin). — County of 
Winnebago; population (1880), 
4,917. 

Hotels: Russell. 

Situated on the Fox River, oppo- 
site Menasha, and near Winnebugo 
Lake. With Menasha, it really 
forms only one town. They are 
pleasure and health resorts, owing 
to the fine scenery, good air, boat- 
ing, fishing, and other facilities 
for spo'^t. It has some manufac- 
tures. 

Reached by Wisconsin Central 
Bailway, from Chicago, in 3| 
hours. 

INegaunee (Michigan) .—Marquette 
County ; population (1880), 4,005. 

Hotels : Breitung, Jackson. 
Tildeu. 

In the centre of the Iron Region 
of Lake Superior, it is surrounded on 
nil sides by mines and furnaces. 
Unless to a traveller interested in 
iron mines, etc., this is not a 
desirable place to visit. The valley 
is narrow, surrounded l)y high 
hills, and its atmosphere is alwajs I 



! shioky. It 1ms good schools, 
several important pul)lic buildings, 
churches, newspapers, etc. The 
surrounding country offers a great 
variety of excursions, and game and 
fish are abundant. Escanaba 
River, Little Lake, Cascade, Lake 
Michigami, and others are near, 
and will repay a visit. 

Reached l)y Detroit, Macquinac 
and Marquette Railway, from 
Eetroit, in 225 hours. 

Newark {yew Jersey) .—Seat of 
Essex County; population (1880), 
136,508. 

Hotels : Continental, Bristol, 
Newark, Park. 

Amusements : Newark Opera 
House, Grand Opera House, Aca- 
demy of Music, Park Theatre, 
Library Hall. 

Conveyances : Tramways (fare 
5 cents.), carriages at 1 dollar the 
course. 

Post and Telegraph Office : Corner 
of Broad and Academy streets. 

A large manufacturing town on 
the Passaic River, and indirectly a 
suburb of New York, from which it 
is nine miles distant. It offers little 
of interest to the visitor. India- 
rubber goods, flour, Ijoots and shoe."-', 
carriages, paper, jewellery aiui 
sundry other articles are manu- 
factured here. The Passaic Flour 
Mills have a capacity of 2,(K10 barrels 
daily. Newark is regularly built 
on the right bank 
River. Broad and 
are the principal 
The chief public 
buildings are, the Court House, on 
Market-street, in the Egyptian style ; 
the Custom House with the Post 
Office ; the City Hall and the build- 
ings of the Mutual Benefit Life 
Insurance Co. are all on Broad- 
street. The State Historical Society, 
Newark Academy and Lilmiry 
Association are the principal literary 
institutions. The latter has a 
lil)rary of 20,000 volumei^. 

Reached l)y Fennsylvania Rail- 
way, from Jersey Citj , in ^ hour. 

Newark (Ohio).— Seat of Licking 
County; ])oi)ulation (1880), 9,600. 

Hotels : Anicrican, Ijansin^f, Park, 
Tubbs (at railway station) . 



on a high plain, 
of the Passaic 
Market streets 
thoroughfares. 



NEENAH NEW HAVEN. 



125 



On the cniifluencc of Vaq three 
forkis of thc! Licking River and on 
the Ohif) Canal. It is a prosperous 
community, and the town is hand- 
some. It has several factories, and, 
owinar to the fertiUty of the re<?ion 
surroundiutc it, an extensive trade in 
agricultural ])roduce. The streets 
are wide and straiji^ht and lined with 
handsome residences. The Opera 
House and Music Hall can each seat 
800 ]iersons, and the City Hall nOO. 
The country around is interesting to 
intending farmers. 

Reached hy Bdltimoro aud Ohio 
Railway, from Columbus, in 1 
hour. 



New Brunswick (New Jei'sey).— 
Seat of Middlesex County ; popu- 
lation (ISSO), 18,258. 

ifoteh: City, New Brunswick, 
^.Vhite Hall, Bull's Head, Neilson 
'■ use. 

On the Raritan River, at the 
eastern terminus of Delaware and 
Raritan Canal. It is essentially a 
manufacturing town, especially of 
indiarubber goods, harness and 
hosiery, and has also some ship- 
building yards. The Opera House 
can seat "2,000 persons, and is a 
handsome building. Rutger's Col- 
lege is a rich and prosijerous educa- 
tional establishment. 

Reached ])y Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from "^ Jersey ' City, in 1 
hour. 



f New TorTc) .—Orange 
illation (1880), 18,050. 

1 '.win, Odell, Unitetl 



. 



Newbi: vi 
Count 

Ho " 

States. 

A handsoi.,^ manufacturing town 
on the Hudson. It is interesting on 
account of its historical associations 
in thp War of In(l"n(>ndence. South 
of the town is an old grey Mansion 
containing many relics. Opposite 
is Fishkill Landing, a charming 
village. There is an Opera House, 
witlV seats for 1,000 persons. 

T'^r 'hid by New York, Central 
an 1 F .ds(ni 'River Railway, from 
Ne\\ -;. I'k, in 2 hours. 

Newburyport {Magsachusetfg).— 
Essex County ; population (1880), 
13,716. 



Jloteh: American, Merrimack, 
City, Ocean. 

On the Merrimack River and a 
port of entry. Like Salem and 
Marblehead,it is one of the old coast 
towns and has lost its Maritime im- 
portance which has l)een mono])o- 
I'zcd by its neighbour, Boston. Tho 
town is well built and interesting. 
The ( -ity Hall is a fine building, and 
the Marine Museum contains many 
relics of a former ])rosperity. It 
has also a Court House and a 
Custom House. The Public Library 
endowed by George Peabody has 
about ln,0(>0 volumes. There is a 
bronze statue of Washington, many 
([uahit old houses and several 
churches of interest. This is the 
starting point for Salisbury, Hamp- 
ton, and Rye Beach, all noted 
sea bathing places, and m-uch fre- 
(piented. 

Reached by Boston & Maine 
Railway, from Boston, in 1^ hours. 

New Haven {Connecticut) -^CKt 
of New Haven County ; population 
(1880), 62,882^ 

JfofeL. : Elliot House, New Haven, 
Tremont, Tontine, Woolsey. 

Amusements : Grand Opera House, 
with 2,000, and Carl's Opera House, 
wiili 2,o(X) seats; two others with 
1,000 seats ea'-h ; the Athenasum 
has a hall for lectures, concerts, etc., 
with 600. 

Conveyances : Tramways run to 
all parts and sul)urbs (fare 5 and 10 
cts.) ; carriages 50 cts. per person 
and drive ; two persons 35 cts. each. 
Steamers to New York twice a day. 

Headinj Ronms : At tho Hotels 
and also at the Palladium and in 
Chapel-street. 

Post and Telegraph Officns ; In 
Church-street (Custom House Build- 
ing.) 

Ticket and Excursion Agents: 
Thomas Cook & Son, 87, Orange- 
street. 

Situated at the head of New 
Haven Bay, the largest town in 
Connecticut, and a port of entry. 
It is a great railway centre, was 
first settled in 1H38. and inconmrfited 
in 1781. It has a considerable homo 
and foreign commerce, principally 
with the West Indies. Its manii- 



I 



126 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATCS. 






f ■ 



if 



'\i 



: t 




factiircs are very important, more 
especially in the hardware line, 
jewellery, and india rnbber. It is 
a handsome town, with hroad and 
re,^ular streets in the new quarters, 
and crooked, narrow, and pictur- 
esque streets in tlie older portions. 
Most of the new streets are lined 
with large elms, whence the town 
has received the name of " Elm 
City." 

Chapel, Stuie and Church streets 
are the princii)al thoroughfares and 
HiUhonse • avenue is the principal 
private residential (luarter. The 
Public Green, in the centre of the 
town, contains the chief public 
edifices. The Citt/ Hall, the State 
House, Trinity, centre and north 
churches are all situated on it. The 
Court House and Custom House are 
in Church-street. The Counti/ Prison, 
Hospital, Medical CoUeije, Orphan 
Asylum and Almshouse are all note- 
worthy buildings. In Chapel-street 
the building of the American Trust 
and Life Company, and the Union 
Depot, fronting the harbour, are 
extensive and elegant. 

New Haven is especially interest- 
ing on account of its numerous 
educational institutions, which are 
amon:,' the best and oldest in the 
States. Yale College, though not 
so old as Harvard and not so 
richly endowed, enjoys a well- 
merited rejiutation. It was founded 
in 1700. It has over 1(H) professors, 
while its students number over 1,000. 
It has a School of Fine Arts, a Law 
School, a Medical, Theological, 
Scientific and Academic Department. 
Its buildings cover, including orna- 
mental grounds, over nine aci'es. 
Amonsr the most important of them 
are the Library, with over 140,(HX> 
volumes, Art building. Alumni Hall, 
Farnam Hall, Durfee Hall, Battell 
Chapel, Divinity School, Sheffield 
and North Sheffield Halls, and 
Marquand Chapel. The Observatory, 
in Prospect-street, is well known. 
The Peabody Museum contains 
various collections, and the Gym- 
nasium, which is well equipped, is in 
Li])rary-8treet. The Sloane Labora- 
tory and new Chemical Laboratory 
are also both in the same street. 
The Athletic Grounds are on the 
Derby turnpike and are the best in 
the I nited States. 
The favourite drives and walks 



are : to the harbour, to Fort Wooster, 
an old fort which dares from 1814 ; 
old l)urying ground and evergreen 
cemetery — both containing many 
interesting monuments. Sachem's 
Wood, at the top of Hillhouse-avenue, 
and Lake Whiting, are also much re- 
sorted to, the latter for boating. East 
and west rocks are laid out in parks. 
The former is 300, and the latter -lOO 
feet high. They both command 
extensive views. Wintergreen Fall, 
Maltby Park — with the waterworks 
and saving rock — a sea-bathing 
place, are also much frequented. 
They are all accessible by tram- 
way from the green. Wallingford 
is a favourite summer resort, reached 
Tjy rail. 

Reached l)y New York, New 
Haven, and Hartford Railway, from 

' York, in 2\ hours. 



New London {Connect! cut). —Seat 
of New London County ; poi)ulation 
(1880), 10,529. 

Hotels: Beldcn, Crocker, Metro- 
politan, Edgecomb, National, and 
Pequot — the last three 2 miles down 
the river ; it is much frequented in 
summer for sea-bathing. 

Amusements: Lawrence Hall, with 
1,500 seats ; and AUyn Hall, with 600. 

Conveyances : Tramways. 

Pleasantly situated on the Thames 
River, three miles from the sea. It 
has one of the finest harl)ours on the 
coast. It has an extensive shipping 
trade, and is largely engaged in 
whaling and sealing. Fisheries are 
also a considerable source of revenue. 
Silk and woollen mills, machinerj', 
and hardware are the i)rincipal in- 
dustries. It is somewhat irregularly 
laid out, l)ut has fine public and 
private residences. It is the site of 
an United States navy-yard, which 
stretches above the town on the east 
shore of the Thames. Fort Trumbull 
and Fort Griawold protect the har- 
bour l)elow the town. The City Hall, 
the Custom House, several private 
residences, and various churches are 
worthy of note. Tourists with his- 
torical tastes will find much to in- 
terest them in the Cedar Grove 
Cemetery. Groton, on the opposite 
shore, has a monument in memory 
of the Fort Griswold Massacre, in 
1781. Stonington is a favourite sum. 



NEW LONDON — NEW ORLEANS. 



127 



eel ill 

ies are 

enue. 



les are 
h his- 
to in- 
Grove 
posito 
eniory 
•re, in 
i Bum. 



mer and sea-batliing resort, 12 miles 
distant. 

Reached hy the New York, Ne\v 
Hav'en, and Hartford Rnihvay, from 
New Haven, in 1^ hom's. 

New Orleans.— Capital of Lou'si- 
ana, and seat of Orleans Countv ; 
population (ISSO), 21(»,11(). 

Hotch: Cassidy, St. Charles, City, 
Underhanks are flrst-class houses ; 
others are the St, James, Waverley 
and Hotel des Etrans^ers. Their 
charges vary between 2^dols.an(l 
4 dols, per day, hut for a pro- 
longed stay a reduction is 
made, 

Rest/iumnfs : Are among the most 
famous in the States : Victor's and 
John's, in Bourbon-street; Moreau's, 
in Canal Street ; Denechaud's, in 
Charondelet-street, and Antoine's, 
in Louis-street, Cafes abound, and 
are numerous as in any French 
town. 

Amusements and Theatres : The 
Grand Opera House, in Canal-street, 
pfives o])3ras and operettas. The 
FrcQch Opera House, in Toulouse- 
streot, and Varieties, play come- 
dies, etc, riie former has 2,(XX) 
seats. The Academy of Music, in 
Charles-street, gives all varieties of 
entertainments ; the St. Charles, in 
St, Charles-street, gives spectacular 
representations, as also does Werloin 
Hall, in Baronne-street, There 
are numerous Halls, Cafes, Concerts, 
etc, with all kinds of entertain- 
ments. City Courts, Masonic Hall, 
Exposition Hall, Odd Fellows' Hall, 
Grunewald Hall, all in Baronne- 
street, The Carnival Festivities 
are on a very large scale, and 
uro much visited by strangers 
from all parts of the United 
States. 

Jtaces and Sports : The Horse 
Races occur at Fair Grounds Race 
Course, to which three lines of 
tramways lead from the town. 
Several societies are foi-med to aid 
in the Carnival Fetes. There are 
also several boating clubs. 

Beading Rooms : At the Hotels and 
Restaurants and Cafes ; the City 
Tiibrary, and at the Young Men's 
Christian Association Building. 

Museums : The Anatoirtical 
^lusoum, in the University (Medical 
College). 



Clubs: Club life is very i>rospcrors 
in New Orleans. Tin? most i)rominent 
are : The Jucke// C/ii/», with a hand- 
some house and gardens, near the 
Fair Grounds ; the Jiosfon, the 
Fickivirk, the Louisiana, Liedertafol, 
Commercial, Chess, Wist, and Har- 
mony are all well SH])i)orted, and 
social clubs. The Shu /ci-spea re Club 
gives dramatic entertainments, 
which are fashionably attended. 
The Social Club is conducted on 
similar linos, Introducti(m is easy, 
and is obtained through a mem- 
bor. 

Convet/fDices : Trimv'n/s to all 
]).irts of the city and suburbs ; 
central station Canal-street, fares, 5 
cents in town and 10 cents licyond 
the boundaries. Carriages and' Cabs 
at various stands in the town, 2 dols. 
per hour; 5 dols. ])er half day. 
Omnibuses at trains and steamboats, 
25 cents faro to Hotel. Ferries run 
across the river to the suburbs o])- 
posite. A steam tramway connects 
the town with Lake Pontchartrain, 
(15 cents fare). 

Fost and Telegraph Office: In 

Canal-street, in the Custom House 

Buildings, open from 7 a.m. till 8 

p,m. every day. Letter boxes at 

most of the lamp-posts. 

English Consul : A. de Grenier de 
FonljlaiKiuc, Consul. 

lianl-ers : Bank of Louisiana. 

2Iedical : Dr. A. do la Rogue, Dr. 
C, W. Trench. 

Dentist: Dr. Gascoigne. 

New Orleans is the commercial 
metropolis of the south and the 
largest cotton market in the world. 
It is situated on ])oth banks of the 
Mississippi River, ))ut chicfl.y on the 
left bank, about KK) miles from its 
mouth. Its attractions to the tourist 
consist less in the architectural 
beauties, than in the foreign as])cct 
of its buildings and its peculiar 
Creole population, together with the 
air of gaiety and animation which 
pervades the town. It is now chosen 
by many inlia])itants of the Northern 
States as their winter resort. Much 
has l)oen done by the Unvn itself to 
make the winter season as attractive 
as possible. The principal attrac- 
tion are the Carnival fetes which last 
about 14 days, and are unrivalled in 
any portion of America, During the 
C.irnival excursion trains are ran 



128 



BRADSHAW b UNTTKD STATES. 



< N 



from all the principal towns in the 
North. The concourse of visitors 
(luring this time is so great that it 
is with (lifliculty that accommoda- 
tion can ho fo\ni(l for them. The 
processions and halls (hiring this 
tirr succeed each other very rapidly. 
The splendour of the costumes is 
remarkable. 

New Orleans is the central point 
of nearly 2(),()(M) miles of steamboat 
navigation. In the value of its 
entire commercial movement it 
ranks next to New York. Several 
l)orts of the United States surjiass 
It as to import, but its exports are 
very large. Not unf recpiently above 
1,(HM) steamers may be seen lying 
at its extensive wharves, or "levees," 
as they are called. In 18841-85 
the whole commercial movement 
(exports and imports) amounted to 
over 220,(MH),()()0 dols. The staple 
article is cotton, but sugar, tobacco, 
Hour, pork, rice, etc., are shi])ped in 
enorm(JU8 quantities. Ara(mg the 
imports figure principally : coffee, 
salt, hardware, dry goods, liquors, 
etc. There are also some factories, 
such as sugar refineries, rice mills, 
etc. They occupy, however, a 
secondary rank in the business of 
the city. 

New Orleans was first settled in 
1718, but was abandoned shortly 
afterward on account of its un- 
heal thincss. It was resettled in 
1723, and held possession of by the 
French until 1729. From that year 
, , 41 1801 it belonged to the 
Spaniards, and subsequently until 
1803 to the French again. After 
this date it was ceded with the then 
province of Louisiana to the United 
States. The town exhibits, in its 
buildings, etc., all the various 
characteristics of its former occu- 
piers. It was incorporated in 1804, 
aiad in 1810 had only 17,243 inhabi- 
tants. Since then its progress has 
been rapid. In 1850 it had 116,723, 
and in 1870, 191,418 inhabitants. 
Since then it has steadily increased. 
Historical events in the annals of 
the town : the rebellion in 1763 
against the cession by France to 
Spain ; the battle of 1815, where 
Andrew Jackson, commander of the 
United States troops, fought against 
the British, and its capture in 1862, 
(luring the Civil War, by Admiral 
Farajut. 



Its climate is mild and sub-troi)i- 
cal and unhealthy in summer. 
Yellow fever and other epidemics 
have repeatedly made great havoc 
ttUKmgst its iniuibitants, and have, 
to a C5ertiiin extent, retarded its 
progress. 

The older part of the city is built 
within a bend of the river, whence 
the name " Crescent Citj-." This 
part is comparatively thickly built 
upon, though its streets are fairly 
straight, considering the irregularity 
of the ground. The city is spread- 
ing chietiy up stream, and the por- 
tions (m the left bank now follow 
the figure of an S. The limits of 
the city embrace an area of almost 
150 square miles, of which only 
about 41 can Ije said to be occupied 
l)y the city proper. The ground it 
stands upon in most parts is Ijelow 
the ^uvel of the River, from which 
it is ,)rotected by the levees. These 
are embankments of earth like the 
Duvh dj'-kes. The land slopes gently 
from the River towards a marshy 
tract behind the town and Lake 
Pontchartrain. The Dyke or Levee 
18 14 feet high by 15 wide, and forms 
a delightful promenade. 

The streets running from the 
River inland are straight. Those 
running parallel with the River 
follow more or less its course, and 
cannot be called crooked or irre- 
gularly l)uilt. They ara for the 
.nost part wide, and in general 
appearance second to none in the 
United States. Many are well 
paved, but not a few are unpaved 
and impassable in wet weather. 
In dry weather the dust is in- 
8ufferaV)le. Canal-street is the 
Broadway of New Orleans, and is 
lined for about tw^o miles from the 
river with fine shojis, business 
l)uildings and private residences. 
It is almost 200 feet wide, the centre 
being a promenade 25 feet wide, 
and having grass plots bordered 
with two rows of fine trees. St. 
Charles, Claiborne, Baronne, Ram- 
part and Esplanade streets are 
similarly ornamented. Esplanade, 
Royal and Rampart streets are the 
principal promenades in the French 
quarter. 

The great sight of New Orleans is 
the French Market, on the levee, 
near Jackson-square. The bustle is 
greatest on Sunday mornings, from 



NEV,' ORF. KAN'S. 



129 



R a.m. t;) D am., an I in the week at 
6 a.m. The assoinhliiijo of whites, 
Creoles, and iietrroos, their curious 
i'().stiimes, etc., tlie difTereut patois 
they speak, all is bewihUn-iu.?. The 
various articles they offer for sale 
Avill interest and amuse the visitor. 
The Lerpe is another intercstinof 
Ni^ht. It affords a very strikinjif 
example of hustle smd activity. The 
^gesticulations, noise, etc., recall 
those of the (piays in Naples, hut 
are intensified. A «?ood point to ol)- 
tain a view of the city and environs 
is the tower of St. Patrick's Church. 

As already reniai-ked, the archi- 
tectural attractions of New Orleans 
:ire neither numerous nor strikiutj. 
The finciit public building is the Uni- 
ip(' StdfpK Cuxfnni llonxe, on Canal- 
st'oot.. containini^ also the post- 
otlice. It ranks next to the Cai)itoI 
in Washington in size. It is built 
of grinite, in the Doric style of 
architecture. It is 331 feet in 
length, on Oanal-street, and occu- 
])ies a whole block. The columns 
and pilastres arc very fine. It was 
ccmimenced in IS 18, and has only 
lately been finished. The C'ty Hull, 
in St. Charles-street, is the most 
artistic of the public buildings in 
the towu. It is built in the Ionic 
style, of white marble, and has a 
wide and high flight of granite 
steps, leading to a portico sup- 
ported by eight columns. In some 
of the rooms is the city library. Sf. 
Pafrick's Hull is an imposing 
edifice, seating 3,500 i)ersons. The 
United Stiiten linnich Mint, on 
Esplanade-street, is in the Ionic 
style, built of brick. It is 282 feet 
by 180. The CoKrt Houses are in 
Jackson-S(iuare, right and left of 
the Cathedral. They are in the 
Tusco-Doric style, and were built 
towards the close of last century. 
In Royal-street the Exchange, in 
■white marble, is the most remark- 
able. Masonic Hall, Odd Fellows 
Hall, Exposition Hall, and City 
Courts are all imposing buildings. 
The Cotton Exchange, in Carondelet- 
street, is very handsome, and cost 
over half a million of dollars. 

The Charity Hospital, in Common- 
street, is very l)eautiful, and can 
accommodate 500 patients. The 
Maiaon Dieu is also a fine structure, 
and is surrounded by a well-kept 
garden. 



The Cafhr.lral of St. L)iih, in 
Chartres-street, is the fint'st church 
in the town. It wiis }»uilt in 1702- 
\)V, and was altcrcil and iMilarired in 
ls.-)(». It has sDtne tine paintinns in- 
side. The facade is strikinu-. .SV. 
I'iitrirk's, in Camp-street, has a liue 
tower, copie I from tlu; fam')us 
minster in York, Kntrljind. The 
Chitrch of the Jiiiiiiaciihifp I'onci'j'f'oi), 
in Haronne-strcot, is a fine speci- 
men of Moorish architecture, as also 
St. John the linjifist Vhiirch, in 
Pryades-street. These are all 
Roman Catholic. St. PaiiVs, Trinity, 
Chr'mt Church, First Prcxliytcrian, 
Unitarian, Jfac Ghee, iind Temple 
Sinai (Synagogue) areall fine build- 
ings, and worth ins[)ecting. The 
Ursiiline Conrent, in Chartres-street, 
is an interesting relic of early church 
history in the town, erected in 1787. 
It is now the Bishop's palace. 

The University of Louisiam', in 
Common-street, is a largo building, 
well attended, and increasing in 
importance. Straight University is 
exclusively for coloured students. 
The JVew Orleans State Jlonse, 
formerly an hotel, is a fine building, 
and has a rotunda with some goo(l 
basreliefs. Other buildings are 
St. Anna's Widow's Asylum, I'oydras 
Female Orphan Asylum, Indigent 
Coloured Orphan Asylum, German 
Protestant Asylum, Sf. Vincent 
Orphan Asylum, and the Howard 
Association, which latter is one of 
the n 'blest charitable societies in 
the world. It is intended s])ecially 
to give relief in epidemics, such as 
yellow fever, etc. 

The town has a great many 
pleasure grounds, parks, etc., and 
all of them are well kei)t. Jackson- 
square, with the e(piestrian statue 
of General Jackson (by Mills), is 
near the river on the Old Town Plot. 
It has fine trees, beautiful shrubs 
and flowers. Lafayette-square, on 
Camp and St. Charles streets, with 
a statue of Franklin, is also very 
fine, and is lined with fine Ijuihlings. 
Annnnciat ion-square, Tivoli-circle, 
and Douglas-square are also worth a 
visit ; while City Park, covering 
about 150 acres, was the site of 
the "World's Exhibition, 188^,-5. All 
these are much frequented l)^' 
pedestrians and carriages. The 
favourite drive is along the Shell' 
road to Lake Pontchartrain, or to 



130 



HUADSIIAW S UNITED STATES. 



U '■ 



W l:'\ 



•I..., 



the 

the 
on 



I 



Carrollton. The Battlpfield of New 
OrleiiHH is 1^ miles south of Canal- 
street, and h:is a national monu- 
ment. Another monument to the 
memory of General R. E. Lee, 
stfinds in Tivoli-circle, and is 65 feet 
hi;?h. The cemeteries of New 
Orleans are noteworthy from the 
fact that they are mostly above 
j^round. Some of the mortuiiry 
chapels and monuments are very 
fine. The dead are, as a rule, in- 
terred in cells, one above the other, 
as in ancient E^yiit, and in certain 
parts of Italy. Each cell contains 
one coffin, built in with masonry as 
soon as deposited. Most tombs 
have white marl>le tablets in front. 
In all there ai*e 33 cemeteries, of 
which Cypress Grove, G reenicood \\m\ 
Melairie are the most interesting. 
The monument to the Union Dead 
at Chalmette, and another to the 
Confederate Dead will attract 
attention of the tourist. 

The TJrsuline Convent, near 
Battlefield, may be inspected 
visitinj? the latter. It is an imposing 
building 200 feet long, overlooking 
the river. Other favourite ex- 
cursions are to Lake rontchartrain, 
Carrollton, Algiers, Gretna, St. 
Bernard, Shell Beach and Convent. 

Reached by Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from Nashville, in 12 
hours. 

Newport {Rhode Inland). — One of 
the chief to-wiis of Rhode Island, 
and seat of New])()rt County; 
popvilatiou (1880), 15,(593. 

Hotels : Aquidncck, Cliff, Ocean, 
Perry, United States. There are 
private cottages and villas in great 
number. 

The " Queen of American w^aterlng 
places " is situated on Rhode Island, 
which gives its name to the State, 
on the east shore of Naragansett 
Bay. It well deserves the title, as 
besides being a most fashionable 
summer resort in America, it has 
much to interest visitors and tourists. 
The town is divided into two almost 
equal i)arts, the old and the new 
town. The old town is exceedingly 
quaint and picturesque, and nestles 
round the pier and wharves, while 
the new town lies towards the south. 
It is mainly composetl of new 
and handsome residences, which 



are inhabited chiefly during tho 
s.uniuer mouths. The new parts 
arc very fine, have broad and smooth 
streets, lined on either side l)y fiuo 
villas elegantly built, and sur- 
rounded with l)eautiful gardens. 

In the old town the ])riucipal 
business centres round Ifashitif/fon. 
Square, on which stands the Court 
House. It contains a fine p;iiuting 
of Washington. The Declaration of 
Indey>endence was read from its 
steps in 177H. Tho town is a port of 
entry, and was settled in 1037. 
Until 1700 its commerce exceeded 
that of New York. It sufTered 
greatly during the War of Indepen- 
dence, and has never conijiletely 
recovered. It is only the influx of 
summer visitors which makes the 
l)lace prosi)crous, and then chiefly as 
a centre of art, science, literature 
and fashion. 

Totiro Park, with the *' Round 
Tower" or Old Stone Mill, is said to 
have been constructed by Norsemen, 
500 years ago, when they first 
visited America, is a fine drive and 
promenade within the city limits. 
The ruins have been the sub- 
ject of much learned discussion. 
There is also hero a bronze statue 
of Commodore I'erry. The State 
House, already mentioned above, 
dates from 16i2, and is a venerable 
structure. City Hall, Perry Mansion, 
and Perrj'' House, a"o all on Wash- 
ington-square. The Jewish Cemetery 
and the Syiiagogue, testify to the 
large Jewish element among the 
population of Newport. Hedwood 
Library, in Touro-street, is a sub- 
stantial building, with a library of 
20,000 volumes, and a museum of 
paintings and statues. The People's 
Library, in Thames-street, has 16,0(X) 
volumes. Memorial Church, with 
fine stained - glass v.-indows, is in 
Pelham - street, and a handsome 
Opera House on Washington-square. 
Trinty, First Baptist, and Central 
Baptist churches, are among the 
finest in the town. The Armoury, 
in Clark-street, is worth inspecting. 
There is also a Casino upon tho plan, 
common in German watering places. 
All kinds of entertainments are given 
here during the season — generally 
on ijayment of a small fee. Intro- 
duction by a member will admit to 
the club privileges — which are very 
varied. 



NEWPORT — NEW YORK. 



l:n 



incf tho 
iv partH 
I smooth 
! hy fine 
1(1 8ur- 
Lcn.H. 

)riuciiml 
'shiiif/foit 
\Q Cniirf 
p;iiutinf? 
[•iitioii f)f 
'mm its 
n port of 
in 1637. 
3xcec(lc(l 
.siifTci'ed 
[ndcpen- 
iiil^lctely 
influx of 
akcs the 
•hietly as 
itcraturc 

*• Rounfl 
is said to 
orsemen, 
ley first 
Irive and 
y Umits. 
the suh- 
scussioii. 
se statue 
he State 
I above, 
,'cnerable 
Mansion, 
■>n Wash- 
.'emetery 
y to the 
lonpr the 
Jtedtcood 
is a suh- 
ibrary of 
a scum of 
People's 
las 16,000 
'ch, with 
s, is in 
landsome 
n-square. 
I Central 
long the 
Armouri/p 
specting. 
the plan, 
ig places, 
are given 
generally 
3. Intro- 
admit to 
are very 



The Ijcachcs arc numerous, and 
differ one from the other. The most 
popular is Firi^t lieach. When tho 
red flag is displayed, men can bathe 
there without costume— but on the 
hoisting of the white tlag they must 
(Iress. ^Qcond, or Sitchiiput Be(ich,'\^ a 
mile east of the first, and licrc there 
is a very strong and heavy surf. The 
Purgatory is between this and tho 
Third Beach. All the Ijeachcs have 
good sands. From "Hanging 
Kocks," beyond the latter beach, a 
fine view may be obtained. The Forty 
Steps lead into Narag-ansott-avenue. 

The drives and excursions are 
very varied. Ocean and Belle Vue 
avenues are the fashionable drives 
during l)athing hours, and are above 
10 miles long. Spouting Cave, the 
Pirates Cave, Miantonomi Hill, Lily 
Pond, the Glen, Fort A<latns, Bren- 
ton's Cave, Conanieut Island, Lime 
Rock, Goat Island, Rocky Point, 
Block Island, Naragansett Bay, and 
Fall River, are among the principal 
excursions. 

Reached by New York, Provi- 
dence, and Boston Railway, from 
New York, via NaraganseLt Pier, 
thence by steamer — in all 2^ hours ; 
or by steamer from New York in 
2.i- hours. 



Newport { Kentuclcy). — Seat of 
Campbell County ; poi)ulation (1880) 
20,433. I 

Hotels : Several small inns ; but ! 
visitors generally stay in Cincin- i 
nati. I 

A handsome town on the Ohio 
and Licking Rivers. Has fine 
streets — wide, and adorned wyth 
trees. It is a suburb of Cincinnati, 
whose merchants have their resi- 
dences here. It has a considerable 
capital invested in factories of steel, 
iron, lumber, watchcases, etc., and 
an extensive trade. It is connected 
with Cincinnati by a lofty pier 
bridge, and with Covington by a 
fine suspension bridge. Its schools 
are celebrated. There are some 
public buildings, but being a mere 
suburb of Cincinnati it need not 
detain the traveller. 

Reached by Pier Bridge Tram- 
ways from Cincinnati in a (pnu'ter 
of an hour. 



Newport {Vermont). — Orleans 
County ; population (18.s(»), 920. 

JLoteh: Bellevue, Memphremagog. 

Tho town is situatoil at the head 
of Lake Memphremagog, and over- 
look.s the lake. It is coming more 
and more into fashion as a summer 
and holiday resort. It is 1)oautifjilly 
sitiiatcd, with a cof)l climate and 
bracing air. The lake is W miles in 
length, lies ])tirtly in Vorniont and 
partly in Canada, and oiYers good 
lK)ating and fishing. The shores are 
surrouudc'l with forest clad hills. 
Pleasant excursions are made to 
Jay I'eak, Prosjject Hill, Clyde 
River Falls, Bolton Springs and Bear 
Mountain. 

Reached by Mont]iellier and Wells 
River and I'assuin])sic Railways 
from Montpcllier, via Weils River 
Junction, in \ hour. 



New York {Neu- York Sfiite). — 
Seat of New York ('ounty ; popula- 
tion (1880), 1,20(5,590. 

Hotels: The IFu/tfyor in 5th-a venue, 
a thoroughly first-class house, 
is ably conducted on Ijoth the 
European and American plan. 
Will be found very comfortable. 

The Brevoort House, 5th-avonuo, 
and 8th-strcet can be recommended 
as one of the ))est houses in tho 
United States. It is a family hotel 
in every resi)ect, and tho most 
homelike for English visitors of any 
New York hotel. 

The Grand Central, tho Metropoli- 
tan, Grand Union, Fifth Avenue, 
Sturtevaut, Park Avenue, Hoifman 
House, the New York, arc all either 
on the American plan, or the Ameri- 
can and European combined. 

The St. Cloud, Brunswick, Grand 
Hotel, Gilsey House, Coleuuiu House, 
Albemarle, Everett, Clarendon, 
Union Square, Astor, Morton, Man- 
hattan, are on tho European i)lan. 

Tho Glenham, Rossmore, Buck- 
ingham, Dam, Branting, and Vic- 
toria are family hotels. 

The Cosmopolitan, Rooks, Mer- 
chants, Washinton, Earles, United 
States are cheaper houses, fre- 
quented by business men. There are, 
moreover, about 100 other hotels of 
all classes, while tho Ix.arding- 
houses are innumera.ble. T he latter 
charge from 7 to 15 dols. per week. 

E 2 



182 



BBADSHAW S UNITED STA'i KS. 






I: 



Hotel life in Now York city is 
riitlier t'xi)eiisivc. En i)en8ion, or on 
the Anu'rican ])lan, flrst-clnss houses 
^enonilly clmrj?c from 3 dolti. to 5 
(lols. inclusive. The hotels on 
pjiropenn system chnrjjfe for rooms 
from 1 to '.i <lols., everything else 
extra, and meils a Id carte, and no 
extra charge is made if meals are 
not taken in the house. The cheaper 
houses char^'i) from 2 dols. to -1 dols. 
])er day all included, or 75 cents, to 
\\ dols. per room, and board extra. 

Sentaitriinfs : Delmonico'n, 5th- 
a venue anrl 2Gth-8treet, with a 
branch "<iown town." It enjoys 
a world-wide reputation for its ex- 
cellent anil elaborate cuisine. 
I'rices arc somewhat hif?her than in 
the leadinj; I'arisian restaurants. 
The St. Dfiiiv, corner of 13roa(lway 
and llth-street, and the Metro- 
jwlitdH, coiner of JJroadway and 
Prince's-street, arc very K<^)od, so 
also is the lirnuswtvk, 5th -avenue 
. and Madison -scjuare ; Parker'' », in 
Broadway, near 31th-street, and 
FurK»elV», <J10 Broadway, are 
Ladies' Reytaurants. The Vienna 
Bakery, corner Broadway and lOth- 
strcet, is celebrated for its excellent 
coffee and ])akery, and many 
national dishes. AH the leading 
hotels have cafes and rcstauranls, 
and are for the most part well kept. 
The Oihey, the St. James', the 
Hofftnan Hottgp, the Del, onieOy down 
town branch 112 and 114 Broadway, 
the Asfor Jlonne, Mouquin and 
Sie(/hortuer'f, 32, Lafayetto-place, are 
tirst-class houses icv gentlemen. 
There are excellent ^able d'hoto 
dinners at Hungarian Hotel on 
Union-square. Morello's, 28th- 
Btreet, and Jacqiies's, 51, W. llth- 
street, Pursell's, Moretti's and 
Martinelli's (the two latter with 
Italian cuisine), Farrish's, 64, John- 
street, is the best of the Grill-Room 
Restaurants kei)t upon the English 
luncheon bar system. 

Conveyances : Several lines of 
elevated railways run from east to 
west, lengthwise through the city. 
They mostly start at the Battery, 
with stations at almost every second 
or third crossing street. Trains run 
in every direction every four 
minutes, and during the busy hours 
of the day every two minutes ; fare, 
10 cents, ai d in the busiest hours — 
viz., from 4,'W till 7.30 a.m., and 



4.30 till 7.30 i).m.— only 5 cents. 
They run all night and (j'n Simdays, 
Init at longer intervals. 

Tramways run through all tho 
])rincipal streets and avenues, start- 
ing mostlv from the vicinity of tho 
Post Otlico in J^roadway. The 
principal linos traverse tho whole 
length of the town l)eyond tho 
Central Park. Th(!re are also 
immerous lines running across the 
town from river to river. The fare 
is only 5 cents. 

Omnihitsf's start from several of 
the ferries and run uj) town on 
Broadway, fare being 5 cents only. 
Busses also wait at tho landing 
stages of the steamers and at 
railway staticjns. 

Carriages are very dear ; they have 
stands in various parts of tho town, 
and attend arrivals of trains ancl 
steamboats. The drivers aro pro- 
verbially extortionate, and tho 
tariff should always be asked for 
before engaging. In cases of dis- 
pute apply to a policeman. The 
fare is, for one mile or less, 1 dol., 
with augmentation of 50 cents for 
each add'tional mile, one passenger 
or more ; by hour, 1 dol., and each 
additional order 1 dol. more. Black 
a,nd yellov cabs are at 25 cents per 
mile, and by the hour 1 dol. for 
each hour or fraction. One trunk 
or package free ; each additional 
pared 6 cents. Private carnages 
are best engaged at the hotels. 
Both public and ])rivate carriages 
are good, clean and well horsed. 

Ferries : In great number. To 
Jersey City, from Liberty-street, 
Cortlandt, • Desbrosses, Chambers 
and West 23rd- streets ; to Iloboken, 
from Barclay and Cristopher-streets; 
to Weehaicken, from W. 42nd-street ; 
to Staten Island, from Whitehall- 
street ; to Brooklyn, from Whitehall, 
Wall, Fulton, and Catherine-streets ; 
to Williamsburgh, from Roosevelt, 
Grand and East Houston-streett ; to 
Greenpoinf, from East 10th and ^rd 
streets ; to Long Island, from James 
Slip, East 7tti and 34th-streets ; to 
Astoria, East 34th and 92nd-8treet8 ; 
and by boat from East River Pier 22 ; 
to Blackwall's, Ward's, and Ran- 
dall's Islands, from B. 26th- 
street. The fare is generally 2 
cents. 

Railway Stations, or " Depots," as 
they are called here. The Grand 



ni 



Ni:\V YOIJK. 



1.S3 



the 






Centi'iil Depot, in lJ!i(l-stivot,l»et\vi',.ni 
Madison iiiul ttli iivunucs, is tho 
stiitiou for til!' NcNV York {'futnil 
Hiul Hudson Hivcr linilw.iy and 
connections, the New V()ri< and 
Harloiu and New York, New Haven 
and Hartford Hailw.iys. Tlie old 
depot is at lotli-;ivonue and .SOtli- 
Htreet. In Jersey City are the 
Stations of the l'ennsylvani!i and 
Midland Uiilwiiys, re.icli • 1 liy 
Ferries, from C'ortlandt and D.-s- 
brosses streets ; the Krie ii iilw;iy 
Station, from Chambers nnd West 
2:Jrd streets ; the Jersey Cjnir.il, 
from Jiihorty-strcet Ferry ; t'le 
Delaware, Lickaw.inna an I Westorn 
Railway, fr;)m IVircIny and Cris- 
t' )pher-street Ferri>)-* ;" the Ni'.v 
Jersey Southei'ii by Lilt^-rty-stic -t 
Ferry : the Lonu: Island and Fliisli- 
in<; Railways, from F;ist 31th-street 
or James Slip Ferry. 

Thciifri'i* iiHil Enft'ffdiiiinenfs : The 
Opera Jloiinr, hi Broadway, Itetwecn 
39th and 10th streets, is the liiryest 
and handsomest the itre in Amcrieii, 
and his an Italian (.)per:i C()m});iny ; 
the Acdfleiiii/ of Mksc in 1 Ith-street, 
on IrvinLT-placo, is tlu old home of 
Italian Opera in New York, and is 
also used for balls, lectures, meet- 
i:i{?s, et". Ji.,>o/A*.v hi.n'h-classtraLrody 
and comjdy is hindsom ; and c nii- 
fortable ; ]V(ill(ick'x Aeir Thentre, in 
Broadway and 3t)th-strejts, leiciti- 
mate comedy with {i^ood c.)mp:inies, 
and well mounted scenery, etc. ; 
Daly's Union Squire, Mmfisait 
Square ami Ffth Acenue Tiicafv'x 
are fa8hional)le, with lij^ht ccmiedy 
and melodramas; the Cant no, on 
Broadway and 30th-streot, ])lays 
both French and Ent^lish Operett is. 
The Spectacular and Opera Boulfe 
Ri-e represented by \Uh-»trcct 
Theatre, Theatre Comique, NibiiK 
Garden, li[jou Opera lloune and 
Star Theatre. Variety entertain- 
ments are given at Cosmo p<d''tjn. 
Grand Opera House, Th'rd Acenitr, 
New Park, Nev) York Coined ij and 
Morr's Theatre.^ Thalia, nc ir 
Canal-street, Bowery, nnd Gerimnii'i 
Theatres, in Broadway and L3th- 
Ktreet, are devoted to German dram i 
and classical plaj'S. Steimraj/ and 
Chickerinij Halls are the jjrincipal 
places for concerts and chamber 
music. The Eden Musec, in 2:{rd- 
etreet, has a wax work exhibition ; 
Aaaoc'.at'onllall and Ckickei'.nj Halt 



are the principal lecture rooms. 
Summer I'mmcniide Concerts tit 
a I lU'irr'f, now Maditton Sqiimr 
(i I I'lli'iis, on Madisdu-siiuarc ; 
Atlnnfir Gardens, \\\ Howeiy, ne;:r 
Canal-street; k'uxtir ^• B'a!'s Gar- 
dens, in 23rd-street, and numerous 
others in Hoboken, Weehawken, 
cie., are frcpU'iited lar^'cly liy 
lierm;ins, and have excellent beer 
and j^'iod music. The cellar con- 
certs in the liowery are both 
(lisreputi\ble ami danu'erons, nnd 
s'.ioulil l»e iivoidedby visitors, uidess 
well I'Si'urted. 

Sporfi*, Ji'aces, etc.; Horse, etc., 
Uaces at Jirome I'ark, the most 
f(ishional)!e and ai'istocratic race- 
CDinsj in America ; I'roxpect 7'«>'A-and 
I'onti/ Ixhntd courses, beyonil Ib'o )k- 
lyn (l)y Ferry and 'J'ramways fiom 
Fult )n Ferry), are Itoth well at- 
tended. Fleetwood I'ark, on tho 
Harlem Ui\ •, half-a-mile beyond 
Ma"oinbs Dam bridge, for fust, 
trotters, et.'. 

Heading liooms, L'lrarien, etc. : 
For newspai)ers, all the leailin,-^ 
hotol.-^ have well-si!i)j)lied rooms. 
For reference v»-orks the best is the 
Axtnr Jjlirartf lieadnn Jfoom, on 
Lafiiyette-place. It contains over 
25(),(HM> volumes, and is the lar^^'cst 
in the United States. Open from 
1) a.m. till 5 p.m. in Summ(>r and 
1 p.m. in Winter. • The C/V.y Lihrarj/ 
(in the City Hall) is free, s) also is 
the Cooper Institute, on Ith-avenue. 
Tlie Youni? Men's Christian Associa- 
tion has several readini^ rooms in 
different i)arts of the city ; all are 
free and oj)enfrom Ha. m. till li»]).m. 
They are well supplied with pa})ers 
and perifxlicals. The Mercant le 
Lbrarp (introduction by a mend)er) 
and iVV'K- York Free Circulatint/ Li- 
Irarji (o])en to all) are also a.mong' 
tlij l)0-t. 'J'liere are besides several 
woll-supplied reading rooms at the 
leadin.t? clubs. 

Museums: The Metrcpui i fan Art 
!\fu.<euni, .")th-a venue and H^nd-street. 
contains pictures, antiquities, statu- 
ary, manuscripts, etc., a'so the 
famous Cesnola collection of 
Cyprian Autupiitics, so mnch 
(.irijussed in artistic and niiti- 
(piariaii circle <. The Muteum 
of Natural History is oti 8th ami 
9'h avenues, between Hist and 77th 
streets. The Academy of L'esijjn, on 
■ith-avenuo and 23rd-"street, contaiusi. 



131 



hKAD.siiAvv s u.\iri:i» statks. 



ii 






!■ 



lis- 



I 

. ! 



^ti 









in');l;'r:i f);iiiitinjf.s imd s^iilptii-OM, 
iiiul has an annual oxliil)iti')ii. TIk; 
Jlintorriit Sitc'ffi/, lltli-street and 
liud-avonui!, 1i>im a ttn-; i,'alk'ry()f old 
paint Mi,rs, K^'.vptian and Assyrian 
auMi|nit;o.s, etc. The Amprimn Art 
GtiNrr,/, "JMrd-stroet, near Hroadway, 
lias \vint(!f exhihitions of modern 
])aintinLfs and statuary. The i»rivaty 
Kales (tallories oK Knoedler, Goui)iI, 
Schauss, etc The most colohrated 
l)ri vato icallerics are those of Messrs. 
A. T. Stewart, J. T. Johnson, O. 
H()l)erts, A. JJelmont, John Wolfe, 
W. H. Vanderhilt, R. L. Cutting', 
U. L. Stuart, Robert Hoo, and Jolr.i 
Iloey. Admission may be ol)tainod 
on ai)])lying by letter, enclosinj,' 
card, to the owners. 

Cluhi: The leading are: The 
I'nion, 5tli-avenui3 and 21st-strcet; 
The Kivvkerhockcr, 5th-a\'enuc and 
32nd-street; the Manhuifan, 5th- 
ttveaue and Itith-streof, ; the Union 
Li-iirjuc, 5th-a venue and 39th-strtet ; 
the Turf Club, Madison-scjuare and 
2yth-street; the Cenfnry, l()9, East 
loth-street ; the Unioer»Uy, 5th- 
avenae and .'Joth-street ; the New 
York, 5th-avenue and 25th-strcet ; 
the liacqtiet, (ith-averiue and 26th- 
Ktrect ; the Loton, liD, 5th-avenue. 
The Arciidlan, Falette, and Lamh'x 
are artistie, literary, and theatrical 
clubs. Admission l)y introduction 
from a mem])er. The Union and 
Union Loa.»'ue Clubs possess fine and 
elegantly-funiished buildings. 

Post and Telegraph Office: On 
Broadway, southern end of City 
Hall Park, and opposite the Astov 
Uouso. It is open day and night on 
week day>-, and on Sundays onlj' 
between J) and 11 a.m., 13 other sub- 
offices are distributed throughout 
the city and ai'e open on week-days 
from 6.30 a.m. till 8 p.m. and on 
Sundays from 8 till 10 p.m. Over 
7<X) lamp-post boxes are distributed 
throughout the city. 

English General Consulate : W. Ij. 
Booker, General Consul; J, P. 
p]dwards, Consul, 17, Broadway. 
German General Consulate : 177, 
Bi'oadway. 

Bankers : Bank of New York, Wall- 
street. 
Medical : Dr. James, Dr. Jones. 
Dentist : Dr. McAmes. 

Ticket and Excursion Agents .- 
Thos. Cook & Son, 261, Broadway. 



Hoforo entering n])nn the descrlp- 
ti<.:i of N(.'\v York City, the Harbour 
entnnici', the Harbour itself and 
Buy and tiu; Wharves must be men- 
ti(»ne(l, and th s because the greater 
number of tourists will undoubtely 
]tretV'r the lines of sloiimships run- 
ning,' froti) Huro])'j t ) New \ork, to 
any otliers. \n the great lines the 
service is more regular, quicker, 
Fufer, aiul more comfortable, owing 
t'» competition. In a])i)roaching 
New Yctrk from the sea. Long Island 
on the right is sighted about threo 
hours before Sandy Hook on the 
left. As s.)on as Sandy Hook is in 
sight tlio Highlands of Navesinkanil 
the New Jersey coast follow, the 
former standing out in l)old relief. 
If the course of the steamer has 
been much to the south, Longbranch 
can be seen on the left. The High- 
lands form the highest promontory 
on the coast between New York and 
Florida. Here are two lighthouses, 
the southern having the most 
])owerful light on the Atlantic 
Coast. Crossing the Bar, the 
steamer turns northwards and pass- 
ing the lower or outer Bay enters 
the narrows, leaving on tiie right 
L((ng Island and on the left Stateu 
Island. On tlie Long Island side we 
note Fort Hamliton, and low in 
the water Fort Lafaj'ette, where 
prisoners during the Civil Wars, 
were confined. Three miles further 
down, Ticar New Brighton, on the 
left is the Quarantine station,where 
the health otticei* comes off to visit 
the vessel. Here the Custom House 
officers also come on board and 
letters written during the journey 
may be i)osted. They will then 
leave by the first out-going steamei* 
or by the lirst inward train. Luggage 
is not examined here — on board — but 
each i)assenger receives a declara- 
tion to fill u]) and sign. When hand- 
ing it back he receives a number, 
which the passenger hands to the 
Superintendent. His luggage landed 
on the wharf, this official then 
appoints an officer to examine the 
boxes, etc. 

The view of the harbour of New 
York, from outside the Narrows, 
down to the wharves, is exceedingly 
fine, es])ecially on a bright and 
sunny diij-. The blue sea, with 
numerous small craft, pleasure 
steamers, etc. j the beautiful shores, 



4^ 



Ni;\V YORK. 



l.Ti 



covered with superb villas niid 
pardons; the forts; the t(»\vii with 
its towers; Brooklyn Siisppusiou 
UridKC, imd the dull, smoky iitinos- 
phero in the fur distiince the 
unimation of the whole scene is iiu 
imj)ressive sitrht. 

After the visits of the health and 
nnd Custom Mouse oliiccrs, the 
steamer continues her course for 
New York. Tho Imy immediately 
widens out into the Inner Hay or 
New Y'ork Harbour i)rop(M*. From 
this point the City of New ^'ork is 
still six miles distant. On the left- 
hand is soenthe entrance to Hudson 
River and Jersey City ; on the rif.'ht 
Brooklyn, with its lofty Itrid'^e 
spanning the East River, which 
se])arates it from New Y'ork. 
Several military and other j?overn- 
ment biiil<lin<^s occui)y tlie various 
islands dotted hei'e and there in the 
Bay. The Euylish and French 
liners land their passeii'jrer.s on the 
piers on the Hudson River, and in 
the city. Passen^rers i\i\d In^gacre 
by any of tho German steamers, are 
landed in Hol)oken or .fersey City. 

The Company's emjiloyc^s ])lace 
the luggage under cover upon the 
wharves. Here the examination 
takes place. It is often a sore trial, 
lasting sometimes for hours. Car- 
riages and coaches from the hotels 
are generally in attendance waiting 
the arrival of steamers. An 
arrangement should be made, as 
New York coachmen are always 
especially inclined to extort ; 2 dels, 
to 2^ dols. for a two-horse carriage — 
luggage included — should be ample ; 
li dols. for a one-horse carriage , and 
a hotel coach should not charge 
more than 1 dol. within, or 50c. out- 
side, in all cases, luggage included. 

Express men will meet the boat 
with the Custom House officers, and 
the cheapest and best way is to 
entrust the luggage to them. See 
chapter on luggage in preliminary. 

New York, called by Americans 
also the " Empire City," is the com- 
mercial metropolis, and the largest 
and most important city of North or 
South America. It was first founded 
by Dutchmen in 1614, who called it 
New Amsterdam. The site is said 
to have been visited in 1524 by 
Verranzani, a Florentine Mer- 
chant. But the first authenticated 
visit dates only from 1609. It was 



ni:ide by Hudson, who ascended tbe 
river as fur as the present, site of 
Albany, nntl cliiimt'd the land as an 
Mjipanago of Holland. In ll'lH it 
I contaiiuMl about 1,<hh» inli:ibii;nifs. 
In l«i«;4 it came under Hrilish rule, 
]>ass-ntr into the hands of the Duko 
' oi' Y'ork, and since then it has been 
j calh'd New York, 'I'he first uovcrn- 
! nieiit WHS established in 1<).'2. In 
I 1(!7M it was reCMptured liy tl,e Dutch, 
who ehiinged its name to New 
1 Or.mge, but next year it was given 
to the Knglish airain by treaty, who 
occuiiied it till I7n'*, when the Indc- 
])endence of the Uniteil States was 
estaldishod. Its ])opulation was 
then2:i,(MM>. In 1711, a slave market 
was established in Wall-street, anil 
in 1725 the first news|)ai)or was 
started. Within ten years after tlio 
Declaration of Independence its 
])opulati(m had doidiled. The first 
steaml)o!i( was ])uton the Hudson jn 
IH07. The main cause of the increas- 
ing pros]ierity of New Y'ork, tlio 
Krie Canal, was comi)letod in 1825; 
the s line year also saw tho city 
lighied by gas. Tho waterworks 
from the Cnfon River were com- 
pleted in IJSIJ. Jn 1H(H> its jiopula- 
tion was 60,J.,S9; in l850,HI2,8;i9;and 
in 18S0, l,2i»(;,5(K). Jersey City, 
Hobokei), Brooklyn and "sovoral 
other suburbs arc really portions of 
New York, and make together a 
po]nilatl(m nnmb;^ring over two and 
a half millions. It is asserted that 
more than half of the foroign trade 
of the States passes through New 
Y'ork, and over two-thirds of tho 
whole customs dues of the States 
are collected in the port. In 18^1-85 
the exports and imports amounted 
to nearly 900,000,0(M) dols., or 
£180,0()0,(XH\ The manufactures 
of the city are of course inferior in 
extent to its trade, but embrace 
every variety of article. Most of tho 
fa'^tories carried on in New Y''ork, 
and by its citizens, are stnatcd in 
Hoboken, Jersey City, Newark, 
Brooklyn, Elizabethtown, etc. In 
manufa"tu"ed goods Philadelphia 
aUmo surpassed it as to value of 
materials used, number of manu- 
factories and capital invested. In 
value of the manufactured goods 
produced, New York stands first in 
the Union. About 200,000 hands are 
employed in about 11,500 factories 
and workshops; the goods manu- 



13G 



i:::a:;m:a\v s united sta'JTS. 



i 






f 



m ■ 



l.i 



I; 



factiircd nnnually are closo upon 
5tM>,()(X),00() (lols. in value. 

Now York covers, with its build- 
in <j:.s, etc., the whole of Manhattan 
(uieatiint? *' a place where everv- 
onu {Tiits drunk," in the Indian 
hini;ua,<,'e) Island, Randall's Wards 
anil BlackwcU's Islands, in 
the East River ; Governor, Ellis 
and Bcdloes Islands (Governmen^^ 
l)uildinj:rs, etc.), in the Bay, and 
])art of the mainland north of Man- 
hatt.\n Island, and separated from 
it by Harlem River and Spuyten 
Duyvel Creek. In extent " (in- 
cludinf^f suburbs, impulation and 
wealth) New Yfu-k is the third town 
in the world. The extreme lent^th, 
from the Batter3' to Spuyten Duy- 
vel Creek, is \'.i\ miles ; and the 
j^rcatest width from Hudson to the 
mouth of Bronx River, is i\ ; in all, 
an area of 41 square miles. Broad- 
way runs through the wIk.Ic len<.ft;h 
of this mass of buildings t ) the 
Central Park. Below the Itth- 
street is the older portion of the 
city, and the streets are irregu- 
l:ir, and closely built, but not 
narrow. Hij^he'r up, the town is 
regularly laid out, with streets 
crossing at right angles. J'rom 
Washington-scpiare the streets are 
iium1)ered, and 5th-avenue divides 
them almost into ecpial parts, they 
being respectively desigiuxted east 
a.'i I west from that thoroughfare. 
The avenues running the whole 
length are alsr numbered, and run 
from 1st to lit avenue, with some 
small ones, desigiuited A B C D, 
below rith-street east. Broadway 
and Fifth Avenue are the chief tho- 
roughfares, the former for business, 
^.hops, etc., and the latter as the 
most fijshicmable residentinl street. 
Most of the banks, etc., are in M'all- 
xtt'ect. 

Visitors, with limited time only, 
will do best to begin their inspec- 
tiou of the city by the liaftery, a 
small park at the southern ex- 
tremity of the town, looking out on 
tiie bay ; formerly much fre- 
quented, it is now rarely visited 
by promenaders and carriages, 
owing to the residential quarters 
bjing higl ei up town. The name 
originated in the early Dutch sett- 
lers having planted a battery here, 
8urc"ouu(ied with some earthworks 
fjr defensive purixs.^s. At the 



south-west end is Cnntle Garden ; 
iMid south, the United States Barif" 
}//ic-e. The fonuer, originally cw Med 
'.'axtle Clinton, was built iu \h()7, 
uid subsoipiently converted iuto a 
])lace of amusement, where .Jenny 
Lind had her first triumphs in 
America. Then it was the Opera 
House of New York. At present it 
is u.sed as the emigrant depot. It is 
under the management of paid 
( ommissioners, and is the most 
frecjuented and best-managed in- 
stitution of the kind in the world. 
NorLh of the Battery at, the foot of 
Broadway, is "Jiuirlini/ Green," 
the ci'adle of the town. Under the 
Dutjh it was the fashionable parf. 
On the south side some houses covei" 
the site of the old Dutch and Eng- 
lish fort. In Whitehall-street is 
the n3w Produce Exchange (com, 
etc.), a very large structure. Around 
this spot, towards the bowling 
green, were some oM bu'ldings of 
historical interest, amongst which 
"A'/«^'tf Jrms Tareni," JFunhini/toii 
House, and others bave all lieeu 
lately taken down to make room 
for improvements. 

Passing up Broadway, about half 
a mile from the Battery, is Trinity 
Church, on the left side, with a tower 
28^1 feet high, from which a Hue view 
"an be obtained. It is of Gothi-^. 
architecture, and built of brown 
sandstone. In the churchyard 
many men of note in the hiitory 
of the United States are hu ^ed. 
The Astor Iteredos inside is very 
rich, nearly 20 feet high, and was 
erected in 1878. This parish is the 
old 1, St in the city. The original 
church having been built iu yJG, 
and destroyed by lire in 1776. Tho 
l)resent edifice was begun in 1839, 
and completed in 1846. It is sup- 
])osed to be the richest church iu 
America, i)ossessing endowments to 
the extent of 10,(H)(),(KH) dols. in value. 

Opposite Trinity Church com- 
mences Wall-street, the New York 
Lombard and Throgmorton streets 
combiiied, and the business 
residence of the principal banker.s 
and stockljrokers. In it, at the 
corner of Nassau-stroot, is the United 
States Sub-Treasury, formerly tho 
Custom House. It is modelled after 
the Parthenon at Athens, and is a 
veiy massive Ijuilding of white 
marble. Each end has a portico 



NEW YORK. 



137 



supported by eight doric olumns. 
The interior has a lofty rotunda, 

SUpportetl b^ 10 OorlnthiUw ooliinnw 

(admission from 10 till 3 o'clock). 
Here the Federal Hall formerly 
stood, where Washinj^tou delivered 
his first address as Pi'csideiit. 
Nearly opposite, in Broad-street, is 
the Stock Exchitnue, well worth a 
visit during business hours, from 10 
to 3 o'clock. The entrance to the 
visitors gallery is in Wall-strecL. 
Facing the Treasury are J)rr.cel 
BuiltlinijH, of white marble, occupied 
])y bankers and brokers. On the 
right hand side, a little farther 
down Wall-streot, is the United 
States Custom Jfouse, a massive 
Imilding of granite, marl)!e and 
iron. It is fireproof, and has a dome ' 
under which is the rotunda. I 
Around this are eight cf)lumus of | 
Ittilian marble, carved in Italy, and j 
])erhaps the largest in America. ] 
All along Wall-street are a number 
of very handsome buildings. MilTs 
Jiuil<lin(/s, in Broad-street, are also 
very fine, with handsome offices, 
chiefly occupied by l)n)kers. In 
Nassau-street is the building of the 
Mutual Life In^nrnucc ('ompiuiif, 
considered one of the most notable 
specimens of architecture in the 
State. 

A little bt von 1 Wall-street the 
building of tiiu Equiluhle L>fe In- 
surance Compaui/, on the right hand 
side of Broadway, will strike the 
visitor. It is in niixeil Doric and 
Renaissance style. A little higher, 
on the corner of Liberty-street is tlie 
building of the American Bank Note 
Company. Nearly opposite is the 
Westertt Union Telegraph Compmnfx 
Offices, with a clock tower 230 feet 
high. Near this spot, at the beg u- 
ning of Fulton-street, is the centre 
of New York business life, and tlie 
throng of pedestrians and vehicles 
is at times exceedingly dense. To 
the west is Washinjlon Market, the 
chief New York market. It i)rescuts 
a very animate 1 scene, and is well 
worth a visit for the variety of 
fruit, ve:^etal)les, fish, game, meat, 
etc., it cout;iins. On one ct)iner of 
Fult(m-street aro the buildings of 
the Ecen'ntj Poxt newspai)er, and in 
the next block the New York Herald 
and Park l?(/wA;olIicea, both of white 
marV)le. On the opposite corner t)f 
Fulton-street is St. Paul's {Episcopal) 



Church, an old edifice, built in 1770. 
In the graveyard are some monn- 
TTiotit< t^f ft;voiit interest. The white 
marble statue of St. Paul, and a 
memorial s' ib to (Jeneral Mont- 
gomery are in front of the church. 
Facing Broadway is an obelisk *" 
white marble, erected in honoi. .,f 
Thomas Adtlis Emmet, the Irish 
Patriot. 

The large ouildiug of gi iiiiu just 
beyond the church is the Astc j£ouse, 
almost historical as the earliest of 
the great American Hotels. Opposite 
and on each side of this l)uilding 
centre most of the New York tram- 
ways. Park-row, bordering the 
City Hall Park to the right, diverges 
obri(iuely to Frintin;/ Jlouse-square, 
with a bronze stitue of Franklin. 
Tiiis is the great newspaper print- 
ing centre. 

The south end of City Hall Park is 
occupied by the New Uniled Staiis 
Post OlJlec, an immense granite 
])uildiiig with lofty domes, and aii 
entire square frontage of 720 ft. The 
upper floors are occupied by the 
United States C'ourts. Its erection, 
etc., cost 7,0lK),(MM> dols. It is in tho 
mixed Doric and Renaissaiu'e style 
of architecture. The upi)er floors 
are reached by two lifts. The 
Cltif Hall, north of the Post Ottice 
and in the City Hall Park, was 
erected bjtween 1.S03 and IH12. It 
is Imiit of marble (white) and brown 
smdstone combined. The governor's 
r.)om, on the second floor, contains 
some fine portraits. It contains the 
chair in which Washington sat as 
first President, the desk at which he 
wrote his first messa'.'e to Congress 
ami several other liistoric relics. 
North of this building is the Neto 
Court House of Tammany Ring 
fame. It cost the town over 
1! ,(H)0,(100 dols., and is not yet quite 
comi)leted. It is in the Corinthian 
style of archit'j'Lui'e, built of white 
m u'ble and surmounted by a dome 
210 feet above the street level. 
The princi])al entrance is in 
Chambers-street, and is reached by 
a flight of 30 broad steps, flanked l/y 
massive marble columns. On Print- 
ing Ilousj-square the principal 
buildings are the New York State 
Zeituiii/, with statues of Guttenberg 
and Franklin above the enti'unce ; 
the Tribune Buildinys, with a clock- 
tower 285 feet high ; the New York 



\ 



1;]8 



BHADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



Ill 






' I 



Tiiiifi office, witli a statue of Frnnk- 
lin in front. Jf'f/7;^r'« irioii P'ranklin- 

Hquaro, il few UlOcK.-s c.^.t. in Contvo. 

Htrei't are " 2'he Tomha," or ])rincipal 
<Mty prison. Hero is C'lnthdm-ntreef, 
the Whitechai)el of No.v York, the 
continuation of which is the Bowery. 
This latter is a crowded thorouj^h- 
fare with cheap sho])s, beer saloons, 
ji^ardens, and chctip sho^vs. In 
( Uiatham-street is also the New 
York Terminus of the Brooklyn Sus- 
pemiion Briihfp, opposite City Hall 
Park. The whole length of the 
bridi^e.with approaches, is 5,98s) feet. 
It iH the largest in the v/orld. It is 
85 feet wide and includes two rail- 
way lines, two roads for vehicles, 
Jind a passengers' footpath. It is 
i:i5 feet above high water mark. 
The towers at each end are 278 feet 
above the same. The engineer who 
projected and carried out the work, 
and directed it during the first years 
v.'^as Col. John A. Roebling. His 
.S')n, Washington Roebling, com- 
])leted it in 1883. No visitor should 
tail to cross the bridge, the view 
from it being very fine. Its con- 
struction lasted 13 years, and its 
cost was over 15,(XK),()00 dols. 

On Broadway, corner of Cham- 
bers-street, a little above the City 
Hall Park, is the white marble 
building of A. T. Stewart. It used 
to be occui)ied by the tckolpxule 
department of this great provider, 
but since the liquidation of his busi- 
ness the builduig has been con- 
verted into otfites. His reta'l ^tore 
was at the l)uil(ling occupying the 
block of Broadway and 4th-avenue, 
10th and 11th streets. From Cham- 
bers-street tt) Leonard-street, Broad- 
way is flanked on either side with 
fine buildings. Rcnuirl le among 
them are the fine white maible 
offices of the New York L'fe In- 
surance Company. Canal-street, 
formci'ly a small rivulet, is now one 
of the chief thoroughfares running 
across the city. On the right-hand 
side of Broadway, above Prince's- 
street, in the Metropolitan Hotel, is 
situated Niblo's Garden Theatre. 
The Theatre Cotniqnc is on Astf)r- 
])lace, close to Broadwaj' ; on the 
same is also the Mercantile Library, 
with fine reading-room, and 18(),(K)0 
volumes. The Cooper Inntitnte, at 
end of Astor-placs, between 3rd and 
4th avenue, nud "th and 8th streets. 



is a huge brown stone edifice. 
Oj)posIteto it is the Bible Houtte, tbp 
iio^i'i <niartcr5 (;f tno American and 
Foreign IJibl) Society, and, next to 
the Brit'sh, the largest in the world. 
The Axtor Library Imilding, on 
Lafayette-square, in the lloman- 
esfiuo style, with over 2(X),(KK) 
volumes, v/as founded and endowed 
by J, J. Astf)r, an^l enlarged by his 
son, W. B. Astor. It is open tlaily, 
free of admission to everyone. 

Broadway at llth-street bends 
slightly to the west, and at this 
point the fine fasade of Grace 
Church, in white marble, projects 
almost into the roadway. The 
music during service is very fine, 
and the interior most elaborately 
decorated. Before reaching Union 
Square, The Methodist Book Pnb- 
lishiuy Company'.' building, and the 
Star Theatre * will attract atten- 
tion. The centre is occujiieil l)y 
Union Park, well laid out with 
gardens, shrubs, trees, and with a 
fountain in the middle. It is 
lighted by a ])owerful electric 
lantern of six lights, suspended from 
a high pole. Washi'.igton's statute, 
])y Browne, Lii.fayette's, by 
Bartholdi, and another of Abraham 
Lincoln, adorn the square. The 
l)uildings around the square, many 
of which are handsome, are occu- 
pied l)y fine hotels and shops, as 
also by some of the most fashionable 
gambling rooms. The south-east 
end is ()ccu])ied by the Union Sqtiarc 
Theatre. Fast lith-street has the 
buildings of .S'^r^'wKVfi/ Hall, Tammany 
Hall, !nd the Academy of Music; 
West Vlth-street, a number of hand- 
some stores and otfices, and lith- 
street Theatre (formerly Lyceum). 

Broadway from Union-sciuare to 
Madison-square has nothi g particu- 
lar of note, except that it is a prin- 
cipal shopping centre and prome- 
nade for ladies. The latter S(juare is 
another small park, lined on the 
eastern and northern sides by fine 
residential mansions. Statues of 
Admiral Farragut, Monument to 
Generals Worth and Seward adorn 
the square, which is lighted by elec- 
tricity at night in the same way as 
Union-stpiare. It has also a hand- 
some fountain which plays in sum- 
mer. On the Broadway side are 
some of the leading hotels, as also 
Delmonico's celebrated up-town 



I 



NEW YOKK. 



139 



as 



Restaurant. The EJen Miix/e, with 
an elaborately stuccoed front, is 
near 6th-avenue, in 2.ir(l-.strcet, and 
adjoining it is tho Miixonic Temple, 
a large structure of granite, 155 feet 
high. Its interior has many fine 
rooms, and its large hall can seat 
1,200 persons. On the samo street, 
between 7th and 8th-st.reet, is a 
building known as the Chehrn 
Apartment House, which merits 
attention. Ojiposite the 5th-avenue 
Hotel is the Lanje Bronze Hand of 
the colossal statue of Liberty 
Lighting the World, presented by 
the French to the people of the 
United States, and now in course 
of erection on Bedloe's Islan.I, in 
New York Bay. It has been only 
temporarily placed liere. Facing 
the Worth Monument, at the junc- 
tion of oth-avenue and Broadway, is 
the building of the New York Club. 
In 23rd-street vest, cf)rner of Hth- 
avenue is the G vind Opera House, 
one of the finest buildings in the 
c'ty. The interior is very rich. 
The performances are excellent, and 
the accessories on a lavish scale. In 
East 23rd-street, corner of 4th- 
nvenue is the National Aea-^emy of 
Design, a coi)y of a palace on the 
Rialto in Venice in grey and white 
marble and blue stone. Every 
spring and summer exhibitions of 
modern works of Araerioan artists 
are held here (25 cents., fee). Oppo- 
site this building is the Vounrf Men's 
Christian Association, with reading- 
room, library, &c. Continuing 
from Madis6n-S(iuarc, Broadway 
runs almost in a direct lino, with a 
bend only at 49th-streefc, for about 
two miles to the Central Park. In 
this part ai'e a number of Ht)tels and 
Theatres, such as Victoria, WaUacks, 
Casino and Cosmopolitan 'I'heatres ; 
the St. Cloud ami Kossmore Uotels, 
and the French-flat buildings. The 
Metropolitan Opera House, between 
39th and 40th-streets, is said to have 
the largest auditorium of any 
theatre extant. The exterior is 
without any pretension, whereas the 
interior is very tastefully decorated, 
and the stage is of great size. 
Beyond 59th-street (Central Park), 
Broadway is called T/ie Boulecard, 
it continues to lG7th-street, and 
beyond, to Carmansvillo and Man- 
hattanville. Further North, are 
Fort Waahinjton and Wash'.ngton 



Heights, commanding a very exten- 
sive and fine view. 

Fourth • avenue, Ijetween 2.'Jr(l- 
strcL't and Union - stpiaro, is a 
centre for religious buildings. 
*S7. PauVs (Methodist) is on the 
corner of 22nd-street, a white marble 
edifice ; lower down, are Calcarg 
and All Souls, while on Stuyvcsanfi- 
siiuare, East ItJth-stveet, i.'^ 
St. Georges's, in the Byzantine style, 
with two towers. The Orauierei/ 
Fark is on 20th-street-east. 

Fifth-avenue, the fashitmablc 
th(n'(Highfare and residential 
(juarter, begins at Washington 
S(|uare, and runs to Syth-strecl 
along the eastern side of Central 
Park, up to Harlem. Whether, as 
regards architectural beauty or 
size of the residential mansions, 
churches and hotels, lining it, or 
luxury and refinement in their 
interior, and taking into' account 
also the very few years of its growth, 
5th-avenue will im})ress visitor.^, 
as comparing favourably with 
London or Paris. The neighbour- 
hood of Washington and Madison- 
s(|uares are bL'ing fast invaded by 
shops. 

Tlie Unicrrsifif nf Ne't Fwrt, at the 
l)eg;nnini,' of oth-avenue, and east 
corner of Washington-scjuare, is a 
large Gothic building in white 
marble. The Chispci is fine. It was 
founded iu ls:{l, un I is nr,\v fre- 
quented by iibout (.(•() students. It 
is chiefly :he:ilogical instituticm. 
Adjoining ii is a large Methodist 
Church. . From Vv":;shnmtoji-s'|uare 
to 8th-street are mirv fine huusci^. 
the former residencet^ (f New York 
merchiint princes. The.v a re nov 
becoming altered into shoj's. Many 
old families, however, still reside 
here, and in the handsome br ick 
and marble laiildings on Wat-l ug- 
ton-square. At the corner of Uh- 
street is i\ip, Brevoort House, one « f 
the best houses in America, exten- 
sively visited by the better class 
of Euroi;ean trave.lers ; itscuiin 
is especially and deservedly famoo. 
Opi)osite is the tine marble residence 
of Mr. J. Taj'lor .Johnson, with its 
picture gallery (adraissicai only by 
cards, obtained through a personal 
friend). The Church of Ascension, 
on 10th, and First Preshyteriaii 
Church, on 11th streets, are the next 
buildings of note. Tho " Manhattan 



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140 



T3!JAl)SirA\V S I'XITf.D STATKS. 



Clith," the Democratic head-qtiarters 
is oil the corner of loth-street. A 
short (listaTice (lo\\ii this street is 
the C ilfpf/e fif St. Fraucin Xavier, the 
Jesuit hea(l-'|uarters in the States. 
Close to it is the buiUlinj? of tbe 
New York Jloajtifal. In Kast IT.a- 
strect arc tlie rooms of the Cenfi(ri/ 
Cliih, the i)rinci])al hterary and nn^ 
of the most exclusive of Auierican 
clubs. ('hicJrn'U'f Jfaff, oil the 
corner of I8th-strcet ; the I'liiou Club, 
on corner of 21st-street, an(loi)i)osite 
it the Lofo.i Chib are all noteworthy 
huildinffs, KtKPillerx Art Gallery 
is on the corner of 22n(I-strect. 
I'assinj? Maflison-sf|uare the resi- 
dential quarter be,<?ius, and ii]) to 
Central Park it may be described as 
the most aristocratic, or rather 
])lut:)cratic street in America. 
Several of the churches are worthy 
of attention. On iliO north-east cor- 
ner of 31st-street is the Knickerhokcr 
Club. At the eastern extreniitv of 
East 2Hth street is the lielh' ' Via' 
]I()>:pital, accommodatinj? l,20(t 
})atLents, and the lartifest, in the town. 
At the corner of 3ith-streot is 
Steu'tirt'x Paldcr, a larjro wliite ni:»r- 
l)le structure, S])leudidly decorated 
and furnished. The picture-jjallery, 
now in jjossessionof his widow, can 
bo seen on a|>])lyinvr by letter to 
Mrs. Stewart. On 3ith-street, cor- 
ner of 9th-avenue, is the vast edifice 
of the Neic York lK»titi(tinn for the 
lil'niil, in white marble, with turrets 
atid l)attlements. The corner of .'j.'ith- 
street and 7th-avenue is the Stnti' 
Ar»pii(ily the head-ciuarters of the 
Ordinance Department of the State. 
On 3(i-strect, corner of 9th-avenue, 
is the fjfothic edifice of the Northern 
lytxpemary. On 31th-street, 2 blocks 
east of 6tli-a venue, commences Park 
Avenue, 14()-feet wide. It lias little 
plots of shrubs and trees, lined on 
each side with beautiful residential 
houses. Several churches are here 
worthy of note. The corner of 4th- 
avenue and 82nd-street is occupied 
by the Iron Workitip Women's Home, 
now an hotel. It was erected by 
Mr. Stewart to admit shopgirls and 
other female cmjiloyes, and its 
courtyard is quite uni(iue. In 5th- 
a venue, we pass two other churches. 
At tbo corner of 39th-street is the 
handsome buildinfjof the Union Leo- 
(jiie Club. The VnirerHitif Clitb is on 
the corner of 35th-strcct. At 4<'th- 



stroet, is the Great Jtei^ervoir of the 
New York Waterworks, occupyini? 
two blocks, covcrinj; an area of four 
acres, and holdintr 23,(JOO,0()0 gallons. 
On the top is a i)romenade -whence 
nn extensive view is o])tained — and 
to this the public are admitted. On 
the other side, and facing 6th- 
avenue, is a little park. In 42nd- 
street, two squares east of 5th- 
aveiiue, is the Grand Central Depot, 
an enormous edifice of bricks, cover- 
ing three acres. It has several 
domes. The corner of 5th-avenue 
and 43rd-strcets is occupied by the 
Temjile Emimiiiui. — the chief Syna- 
gogue. It is in Mauresque stjde — 
Avith a gorgeously decorated in- 
terior— whicli conveys a good notion 
of Oriental magnificence. On the 
corner of 4(itl!-strcct is the beautiful 
H'inifsor llolit, one of the verj' best, 
but also ex])ensive, of American 
hotels. The Dutch Collegiate Church 
is on the corner of 48th-street, and 
is a very costly structure. On 
41)th-street, near Madison-avenue, 
are the buildings of Columbia 
CoUr()e, which Avas chartered as 
King's College, in 1754, by George 
II. of England, and is the oldest 
and richest in the State. The 
Church of St. Patrick, or Roman 
Catholic Cathedral — a decorated Go- 
thic building in Avhite marble — is 
the largest church in the city, and 
one of the finest on the Continent. 
It occujiies the entire block betAveen 
r>l)th and 51st streets. The Curd nal'^ 
Palace and clergyhouse — also of 
Avhite marble— are at the back of tlie 
cathedral, facing Madison-aA'enue. 
The towers of the cathedral will be 
328 feet liigh. The handscmie resi- 
dential i)a laces betAveen 51st and 
52nd streets are the Vaialerbilt 
Palaces — surpassing Stewart's in 
size, beauty, and splendour of in- 
terior decorations. Opposite these is 
the lioman Catholic Orphan Asylum, 
built under the Tammany Ring 
rcf/ime. On the upper corner of 
52nd-street is the W. K. Vanderbilt 
Avhite marble palace. At the corner 
of 53rd-street is St. Thomas Church 
(Kpisco]ml), and St. Luke's Hospital, 
one of the notcAA'orthy structures in 
tlie aA'enue is at the corner < f. 54th- 
ftreet. At 55th-street is the Ffth 
Avenue Presbyterian Church ( Dr. 
Hall's), the largest church of that 
sect in thcAvorld. At the north-west 



NEW YORK. 



141 



L 



cornor of ;"»7Mi-siroct is the fine resi- 
dence of the late Mr. Cornelius Van- 
<lerbilt. At 59th-strcct the Central 
Park l)e;rius. Facinj? the park, and 
still on Sth-avcnne—and ocon]).vinpr 
the block between 70th and "71st 
streets — is the Lennox LiJinirrf, en- 
dowed, erected, and ])resente(l to the 
city by the lute James Lennox. It 
has very valuable collections— es- 
pecially ni inuscripts, ]n"intcd l)ook8, 
etc., relrttinir to early American his- 
tory. The Prrxhi/fpflan Hot^pitnl — 
close by — w;iS als) founded by Mr. 
liCnnox. Alonj^ th's jiart of 5th- 
nvenue a number of handsome dwel- 
lin'jf-honso? hive l)ocn erected lately. 
Normdl Colifiiff — on the corner of 
4th-a venue anUtOfcli-street— isa hujre 
huildins' in Gothic architecture, with 
a hit?h tower, yiomit Morris Square, 
with its hill, coniminb^. boiutiful 
views, a.Tid is l)etW(<o:i I20th and 
121st streets. The oth-avenue ex- 
tends to Harlem, and is lined with 
handsome villas and j^ardens. 

Central Park is 2^ miles Ion;?, by 
ahout a mUe wide ,and covers an 
area of 813 acres. For drivin<^ 
about 9 miles of road are available 
in it, 4 miles of ridinijc paths and 
and perhaps 25 miles of walks. To 
avoid danger, intersecticms of linos 
of travel are made by archway, and 
in other respects every effort has 
heen made to preserve its natural 
features. Every variety of tree and 
shrub has been ])lantod, and this 
process is baina; continued each 
year. Tho ])ark may bo roiched by 
the f]levatel Rail\v:iy linos, l)y 
tramways, or by what is the host 
means of all of s?o;u; it, a private 
carria,<j:c. Tt is one oFthc birgjst and 
flnest])arks in tlie w(n'ld,])cing rec- 
tanc^uiar in shape, extondinuf from 
69th to lioth street, and from 5th to 
8th avenues ; 18 entrances load into 
it, and the four streets crossiu'^ it are 
covered over by archways. The 
Mull bej^ins near 5tli-a\^enuo. It is 
a promenade, vunninsj: north and 
south, and terminatintj at its nortli 
end by the Terrace ; it is nearly a 
quarter of a mile long, bordered on 
eitlier siflo by law'us, and a (lou])lo 
row of elnrji ; this is the principal 
promenade, carriage drive of New 
York. On Saturday afternof)ns 
the music plays in tlie Kiosk, at the 
northern end. A number of fine 
bronze statues and groups atlorn 



this esplanade, the most noteworthy 
heing " The Indian and Uis Dog,'' 
near the southern entrance. On 
fine afternoons this jiresents a sight 
not to bo seen elsewhere ii» the 
States. The Terrace is a series of 
steps, leading from the Mall to the 
border of the main lake, and is an 
imposing specimen of architecture. 
Between the terrace and the lake is 
the Fountain, with huge basins, and 
an enormous statue of the Angel of 
Bethesda. A nund)er of pleasure 
boats are kej)t on the Central Lake, 
which may be hired for a trifie. 
West of the Mall is the Green, a 
broad lawn covering 15 acres, and 
used as a i)arade ground. Near the 
hend of the Mall is the Casino, on an 
eminence, wdiero refreshtnents can 
be had. The Ramble, covering 'MS 
acres, is b.^tween the Central Lake 
and the Receiving Reservoirs, and 
has a Tuimber of shady ^vnlks. On 
the highest point stands the liehe- 
dere, with a lofty tower, whence 
there is an extensive view. To the 
North, on Vista Hill, is the old 
Croton Reservoir, covering 31 acres, 
aiul holding 15(),()lX),(K)() gallons. 
Al)ove that is the New Reservoir, 
holding 1,000,000,000 gallons and 
covering 108 acres. The curved 
shoi'es are lined with stone walls of 
immense thickness. The part higher 
u{) and behind these reservoirs is 
less artifically embellished, but has 
more natural beauties. At the end 
is ILtrlem Lake with some traces of 
fortifications on its southern shore. 
At the 5fch-aveniie entrance, opposite 
t>5th-streot, is tho Menagerie, or 
Z()olo(]i<-al Garden-i, and on the same 
side, opnosite 82nd-street, is the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art. West 
of it stands Cleopatra'' s Needle, or 
Obelisk, i^resented Ijy Ismail, 
Khedive of Egypt, to the town, and 
l)rouglit here and erected at the 
exj)onse of the late Mr. W. H. 
Vanderbilt. It is in a good state 
of preservation. On the west side 
and on Manhattan-sciuare (77th to 
81st streets) is the American Museum 
of Natural History, with a very 
extensive collection (admission free 
Mondays and Tuesdays excepted.) 
Carriages can bo had at several of 
the entrances to Central Park at 
the usual rate of 2 dols. ])er hour, 
and the circuit can be made within 
that time. The park is open daily. 



142 



HRADSHAW .S UNITED STATES. 






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in winter from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m.; in 
sprinj^ from 6 a.m. to "J p.m., in 
summer from 5 a.m. till 11 p.m., and 
in autumn 6 to 9 p.m. The fashion- 
able hour for driviiif? is from -1 to 6 
p.m. At the Place du Carousel 
open air concerts are given in sum- 
mer at 1 p.m. 

When in this part of the town the 
visitor should not fail to inspect 
High Bridge, across Harlem River. 
It is solidly built of granite, and 
the water of the Croton Aqueduct 
is carried over it. It spans in one 
single arch the Avhole width of the 
valley and river, is 1,450 feet long 
and 114 feet high. A view from 
here of the city and suri'oundings 
will amply repay. 

The public charitable and other 
institutions of New York are mostly 
situated on the island in the East 
River, and deserve si)ecial notice. 
On BlackwelV 8 Island are the Work- 
house, Penitentiary, Uliud Asylum, 
Almshouse, Female Lunatic Asylum, 
Small Pox and Typhus Fecer Hos- 
pital, Convalescent and Hospital for 
Incurables. These are all built of 
granite, quarried in the island by 
convicts. North of the island is the 
celebrated Hell Gate,\ong a terror to 
mariners, but now comparatively 
easy of passage. Ward's Island has 
the Emigrant Hospital, Drunkard's 
and Male Lunatic Asylums. The 
Idiot Asylum, House of Refuge,and 
Infant Nursery, Hospital, etc., 
mostly for destitute children and 
Ijrovided by the City Corporation. 
The Commissioners of Public 
Charities, corner of 3rd-avenue and 
llth-street, grant permission to visit 
these islands on application (best by 
letter) . 

Among the educational establish- 
ments not already mentioned are 
further: The College of the City of 
Neto York, corner of Lexington- 
avenue and 23rd-8treet; the Neto 
York College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, in West 15th-streot, between 
5th and 6th avenue ; liellevne Hos- 
pital Medical College, East 26th. 
street ; University College, in Worth- 
street, near Church-street ; Homoeo- 
pathic Medical College, 105, East 
20th-8treet ; JVew York Academy of 
Medicine, in mew York University, 
College of Pharmacy, at the same 
Medical College for Women, 102 East 
12th-street, and a great many others. 



The Lunatic Asylum, at Blooming- 
dale, between 115th and 12i)th streets 
and 10th and llth avenues ; the New 
York Orphan Asylum, on the Hudsoix 
River,73rd nnd 74th streets; the Deaf 
and Dumb Asylum, on Washington 
Heights; the iice Points House of 
Industry, in Worth-street, really a 
house of reformation arc prominent 
charitable institutions, besides a 
great number of others of minor 
importance. 

Greenwood Cemetery (see Brook- 
lyn) should certainly be visited as it 
will give the tourist an idea of the 
beauty of American burial grounds. 
They are quite unique, and unlike 
anything to be seen in Europe. 

Excursions may ])e made from 
New Y^ork to Sfateii Island, the 
scenery of which is very beautiful. 
Richmond the capital, and iVew 
Brighton, a summer sea bathing 
town, are the principal places. 
Tramways traverse the island. 
Cli/ton is another. One mile south- 
east of it is Fort Wordea-orth, which 
is a very strong fortification. Forts 
Columbus and Castle William, on 
Governor' s Island ,nenv the above.nro 
also woi'th a visit. Others to Coney 
Island, Brighton Beach, W^est 
Brighton, Manhattan Beach, Rock- 
away Beach, Long Branch, Brook- 
lyn, "Williamsburg, Hoboken, Jersey 
City, Newark, and several points on 
Long Island are described elsewhere 
separately. 

Reached by steamer, from Liver- 
pool, in 7 or 8 days. 

Niagara Falls {N'ew York).— 
Niagara bounty; population (1880), 
5,0-48. 

Hotels : The Clifton and Prospect 
House on the Caledonian side ; the 
Cataract, the International, the 
Spencer and Park Place Hotel on 
the American side. Prices from 
3 dols. to 4 dols. per day. 

Conveyances : Carriages at 2 dols. 
per hour. But the tourist is advised 
to make an agreement, which he may 
do at even a lower rate. Extor- 
tion is much practiced. But all the 
principal points are within walking 
distance and easily accessible. Tolls 
and fees are levied to repay the out- 
lay on the grounds, etc. 

Tourist and Excursion Agents : 
Thos. Cook & Son, in Clifton House. 



NIAGARA FALLS — NORFOLK. 



143 



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The river cnnnectin.!? Lake Ontario 
with Lake Erie is about 36 miles 
long, and flows in a northern direc- 
tion. The P'alLs are about 22 miles 
from Lake Erie, and 1-4 from Lake 
Ontario. The enoi'mous volume of 
water, the outflow of the four upper 
lakes, here falls perpendicularly 
from a height of over 16() feet. The 
river is at this point 4,700 feet wide, 
of which space Goat Island occupies 
about a quarter. The roar of the 
falls may at times be heard at a dis- 
tance of over 10 miles. A.t others no 
noise proclaims the close vicinity of 
the cataract. The principal volume 
of water is on the Canadian side, 
owing to a curve in the river. This 
is named the horseshoe fall, and is 
every year becoming less and less, 
owing to the wearing away of the 
rocky bed. It has now nearly the 
forni of an acute angle. The rapids 
commence about a mile above the 
falls. It has been estimated that the 
volume of water falling evei'y hour 
amounts to over 100,()00,(KH) tons. 
The declivity from the beginning of 
the rapids to the brink of the preci- 
pice is 57 feet. The enormous volume 
of water is compressed in the chasm 
to a width less than 1,0(X) feet. For 
7 miles Ijelow the falls the river bed 
continues at a varying width of 2(X) 
to 4<J0 yards. The Canadian side 
presents the best view. But Bath 
Island, if visited at sunrise, will 
afford a view which can hardly be 
surpassed. Other points of vantage 
are Goat Island, the little bridge 
across the rapids, Chapin's Island, 
Luna Island, Cave of the Winds, and 
Three Sisters, Other places of 
interest in and around the falls are 
Hermit's Bathing Place, Chippewa 
and Navy Island, Schlosser landing, 
. Grand Island, Prospect Park, the 
Suspension Bridge, Cantilever 
Bridge, and New Suspension Bridge. 
The Museum on the Canadian side 
has a large collection. Visitors 
should not fail to visit the passage 
under the Horseshoe Fall. But 
wherever the visitor goes and what- 
ever he sees, high fees are demanded. 
This spoils the enjoyment of a grand 
Bight to many. 

Termination Rock is a little beyond 
Table Rock. The spray of the 
waters is here blinding. Prince of 
Wales Towers offers a fine view, 
and two miles above are the Burn- 



ing Springs (suli)hurotted hydrogen 
gas). The Whirlpool Ra])ids, the 
Whirlpool, Lewiston.Queenston, with 
Brock's M(mument and Drummonds- 
ville, are places of interest in the 
environs of the falls. 

It is calculated that the differ- 
ent fees exacted to visit each 
and all the points of interest 
amount to almost 15 dols. This 
is really exorbitant. The blame 
attaching to the Government of the 
State for permitting this levying of 
tolls, fees, etc., is universally ex- 
pressed. 

Reached byNew YorV t'eroral and 
Hudson River Railway, ^rom New 
York, fid Albany and Rochester, in 
> 15 hours. 



Norfolk (rjr(7iM;</).— Scat of Norfolk 
County ; population (1880), 21,966. 

Hotels: Atlantic, Purcell.- 

AmuKements : Opera House, with 

1,500 seats ; Academy of Music, 

with 500 seats. 

Conceyances : Tramways. 

Pout and Telegraph Offices: On 
Main-street, in the Custom House. 

An irregularly-built town, and a 
port of entry (m Dismal Swamp 
Bay and Elizabeth River. It is 
pleasantly situated, about 32 miles 
from the ocean. It is the second 
city in Virginia in size and popula- 
tion, but in commerce suri)assesthe 
capital, Richmond. It is the third 
cotton shipping port in the Union. 
Early fruit, vegetables, oysters, 
fish, etc., etc., are shipped here in 
large Cjuantities to the noithcrn 
ports. The streets are generally 
wide, and the houses well built. 
The Cify Hall is a handsome Imild- 
ing, with a cupola. The Custom 
House is also imposing, the Ma- 
sonic Temple, Norfolk Academy, Col' 
lege for Young Ladies, Academy of 
Music, and several of the churches 
are handsome buildings. The two 
cemeteries of the town are very 
tastefully laid out. The town was 
founded in 1C82, incorporated in 
1705, and burnt by the British in 
1770. It played an im])ortant role 
during the Civil War. In the Bay 
the engagement between the Con- 
federate Virginia and the Federal 
Monitor took place. At Old Point 
Comfort, on the opposite side of the 



144 



BRADSHAW 8 UNITED STATKS. 



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Bay, is an hotel which is used as a 
winter residence. 

Reached Ijy Richmond, Frede- 
ricksburg, and Potomac Railway, 
from Wasliington, via Richmond, in 
10 hours. 

Norristown {PennKylanv<i).~'AGn.t 
of Montgomery County ; population 
(1880), 13,00*. 

ILtti'h : Farmers, Verandah 
Ramb;), Mcmtgomcry, Windsor. 

A thriving manufacturing town, 
on the Schuylkill River is hand- 
somely ])uilt. It has several fine 
buildings, the i)rincipal being the 
white mirble Court Home. The 
Music Hall can seat 1,200, and Odd 
Fellows' Hall, 600 peoi)le. Otherwise 
little of interest. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rad- 
way, from Philadelphia, in 
hours. 



-a 



Worth- Adams {Massachnitetti) .— 
Berkshire County ; population 
(1880), 12,5i0. 

Hotels : Richmond, Ballow, Com- 
mercial, Wilson. 

A busy manufacturing town, es- 
pecially in the boot and shoe line. 
Extensive cotton spinning, weaving, 
and printing mills exist in the town 
and its environs. The surrounding 
country is extremely picturesque, 
and very interesting excursions can 
be made to Natural Bridge, Profile 
Rock, the Cascade, and tbe Hoosac 
Tunel. 

Reached by Boston and Albany 
Railway, from Boston, cat Pittstield, 
in U hours. 

W orthampton (Maufxichnsettx). — 
Seat of Hampshire County j i)opu- 
lation (1880), 12,800. 

Hotels : Mansion, Hampshire, 
Nonotuck, Round Hill. 

Situated on the Connecticut River, 
this town is said to be the most 
beautiful village in America. It is 
extensively engaged in the manu- 
facture of silk, cotton, paper,cutlery, 
buttons, etc., and has an important 
commerce. It is irregularly laid out 
and the streets al)ouinl in tine shady 
trees. Even the business porticms 
have to a certain extent preserved 
their original nitural and rural 



boauty. The Public LiLntri/ is in ti 
fine building and has above 12,(X)0 
volinnes. The Meiuoriul Hall con- 
nected with the above. Institution 
for iJeaf Mutes, liounJ Hill ; th3 
Lunatic Asylum, are all of interest. 
The princij)al building is the Smith 
(Jolleijefor Women, witlia (Talleryof 
Pictures and Statues, lioth gifts of 
rich citizens. In the environs ara 
several pvnnts of grcit natural 
beauty. 

Reached by Newhavenand North- 
amj)ton Railway, from Newhiven, 
in 2J hours. 



Norwich (Co««ft7V?<0.— New Lon- 
don Cjuuty; population (1880), 
21, Ul. 

Hotels : American, Metropolitan, 
Union Scjuare, Wauregan, Uncaa 
House. 

A l)0:iutiful town on the Thamea 
River, at the junction of Yantick 
and Shetucket Rivers. It is laid out 
in wide aven\ies, bordered with trees, 
and built ui)on terraces. The build- 
ings are all substautisil and some are- 
very fine. Main-street is the leading 
business.and Washington-street and 
Broadway the principal residential 
([uarter of the town. It has a large 
amount of capital invested in manu- 
facturing, especially in worsted, 
cotton, printing ])resses, paper, hard- 
ware, tire arms, etc. The chief 
building of interest is the Park Con- 
(jregationul Church, and Christ 
Church, with its ivy clad walls is. 
also fine. The F e Academy is near 
the Parade and is .n imposing build- 
ing. In the Yuntic Cemetery are 
some monuments. In the old bury- 
ing gi'ound in Sachem-street is an 
obelisk marking the grave of Uncas, 
Near the town, at Mohe(jan,iXYQ still 
some of the descendants of Feni- 
more Cooper's heroes. The water- 
falls in the Yantic have been de- 
stroyed in order to obtain water 
power. 

Reached by New York and New 
England Railway from New York 
in io hours. 

Oakland {Califom'a). —Alameda 
County; population (18S0), 34,556. 

Hotels : Grand Central, Newland, 
Centennial, Tubbs, Galindo, Chase, 
Windsor. 



li 



NORRISTOWN — OMAHA. 



Ul 



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AtnuHetnoih : The O.ikUmd Opera 
Garden, Dietz Hull. 

Convei/iiHCPH .- Ferries t > San Fran- 
cisco ; tramways in the town. 

A beautiful and \vell-l)uilt to\v;i, 
situated on San Francisco Uiy, 
opposite San Francisco, of which it 
is really a suburb, Tho drives and 
scenery in and about the town are 
very beautiful. Many of tho Sau 
Francisco merchants liave their 
residences here. The live Oak, to 
which it owes its name, is the pre- 
dominant tree in its avenues and 
streets, which are delit?htfully 
shaded. It is lamous for its ecbic.r- 
tional establishments, foremost 
among' which is the State Unicrrsiti/. 
A pier 2^ miles long into the bay is 
at Oakland Point. There is also an 
A»ylnm for the Deaf, Dniiifj and JJlind, 
and several other noteworthy l)aild- 
ings. 

Reached hy forvy, from San 
Francisco, in ^ hour. 



Ogden {Utah).— Seat of Weber 
County; po])ulation (18S0), 5,313. 

Hotels: 0;?den, Union, Utih, 
Beardsley, Junction, Globe, City. 

It is a halting place for tourists 
going to Salt Lake City. It is situ- 
ated at the junction of the Weber 
and Ogden Rivers, and at the mouth 
of the Ogden Canyon, a. deep gorge. 
It is fairly well built, is mostly 
inhabited by Mormons, and has 
some manufacture? of farming and 
mining implements. It is rapidly 
improving. The Union Pacific and 
Centi'al Pacific have engine-houses 
and repairing shops in the town. 
The station is nearly half a mile from 
the business part of the town and 
hotels. Three railways here inter- 
sect. It has several churches, a 
Tabernacle, accommodating 2,000 
people, an Opera House, and several 
large halls. 

Reached by Atchison, Topeka and 
Sunta Fe Railway, from Kansas 
City, in 56 hours, old Puebla. 



Ogdensburg {New York). — St. 
Lawrence County; population (1880), 
10,340. 

Hotels: Seymor, Johnson, Wind- 
sor, Commercial, National. 



This handsome t iwii is situated on 
the St, Ijiwreuce Rivi'rat thi'ju >utli 
of the Oswegitchie River aud oi)pii- 
sito Prescott Canal ; has ferry con- 
necti(»n with ojipositc shore, and 
several railways convor^v here. A 
fine Opera ]linti*e, a Li/cr-Kiii, and 
several lirge halls. Tiie Gallnpe* 
Rapids and liapide dc PI it are close 
to the town. It has some manufac- 
tures and a thriving coniinerco. 

Reiched by Xew York, Sus(iue- 
hanua and Western Railwaj', front 
New Ycu'k, cid Patei'son, in 2Ji 
hours. 



Oil City (Ppinisi/h'ania). — Venango 
County; population (IMSO), O.H^U. 

Hotels ; Collins, National, 

Tayku-, 

The centre and head-(iuarters of 
the I'etroleum Oil producing 
country. Situated at the 'contlu- 
euco of Oil Creek, 
Allegheny River, and 
built. It was founded 
is only interesting to the tourist on 
account of the various pumping, 
refining, gauging, barrelling, and 
shii)ping processes of the raw petro- 
leum. Neither the eye nor nose will 
be agreeably impressed thereby. 
There is an Opera House, with 1,500 
seats, and several buildings of 
minor importance. 

Reached by Pennsylvania and 
Ohio Railway, from St Louis, cici 
Meadville, in 1(J hours. 



with the 
irregularly 
in 18U0. It 



Olympia.— Capital of Washingfon 
Territory and seat of Thurston 
County; population (1880), 2,373. 

Hotels: Carlton, St.Charles,Paciflc, 
New England, 

Attractively situated on Puget 
Sound, and connected by Railway. 
It is a sporting centre, and conse- 
quently much visited by fishermen, 
huntsmen, etc. Its surroundings, 
afford sport of the most exciting- 
kmd. Little else to interest the 
tourist. 

Reached by Olympia and Chekalis 
Valley Railway, from Tenino, in 
three-quarters of an hour. 

Omaha (Nebrashr). — Seat of 
Doufflas Comity ; population (1880), 
30,835. 



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I3RADSHAW S UNITKD STATES. 



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Hoteh: (.'ozzcus, Millard, Paxton, 
iletruijolitau. 

AmuxeHifufn: Opera House, with 
1,800 seats; Academy of Music; 
Creighton's, Masonic and Myer's 
Halls. 



Cowpt/ancej i 
dircctif)!!. 



Tramways in every 



Poxf and Ti'lr/jraph Office. Corner 
of Dodge and 15th streets. 

Situated opposite Council Bluffs, 
on the Missouri River. Largest 
town in Nel)raska and of the 
Missouri River Valley. It is rej?u. 
larly la id-out, wjII built, and lighted 
with gas and electricity. It stands 
partly on level ground along the 
river, in svliich are the business 
houses and stores, and partly on 
high bluffs, mostly occupied by 
residences. It has received its 
impetus from the construction of 
the several railway lines to the 
P.ic'itic coast, ami is, though a very 
young town, thriving fast. There 
are several churches ; and the 
High School Jiuildinj/ is one of the 
finest in tho States.' BoyiVs Opera 
JIoHgp is also line, and has an ele- 
gant interior. The most important 
edifice is the Court House, with 
post office annexed. Most of these 
buildings are situated upon hills 
over-looking the town. The Dow/hts 
County Court House is also note- 
worthy. The Union Pacific Offices 
of Direction and railway station 
are handsome and costly ; and 
the Offices of the Chicago, liur- 
lington and Qulncg Railway are 
very extensive. 

The town has an extensive com- 
merce and numerous manufactures, 
chiefly of agricultural and mining 
implements. There are large 
smelting and refining works here. 
Breweries, distilleries, etc., are also 
numerous and important. The 
workshops of the Union Pacific 
Railway cover over 30 acres below 
the town. The "Waterworks 
system is excellent. Fort Omaha 
is four miles distant. The town 
of Omaha h is a great future. 

Reached by Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul Railway, from Chicago, 
via Cedar Rapids, in 22 hours. 



Oregon (///?mo/.v).— Seat of Ogle 
County ; population, 2,000, 99 miles 



from Chicago, on the Burlington 
route. 

Hotels: Sinnissijjpi House, Amer- 
ican House. 

Bankers: Ogle County Bank. 

Medical: Dr. Chapiiel, Dr. Mix. 

The town is situated on the Rock 
River, and is becoming noted for its 
picturesque scenery, and as a quiet, 
unpretentious summer resort. 
** Gan^-mede Spring " — a medicinal 
spring of considerable therapeutic 
virtue, " Indian Mound," "Castle 
Rock," " The Three Sisters," " Her- 
mit Hollow" and "Eagle's Nest 
Bluff," are the i)rincipal points of 
interest. Ganymede Spring and 
Eagle's Nest Bluff, were both 
named by the famous authoress, 
Margaret Fuller, Countess D'Ossoli, 
and the former is the spot on which 
she wrote her spirited poem "Gany- 
niede to his Eagle." Good fishing 
may ]>e had at Oregon, Black Bass, 
l)ickerel, salmon, shail and carp be- 
ing foimd in al)undance in the 
waters of the Rock River. 

Oswego {New I'orJfc).— Seat of Os- 
wego County; popuhition (1880), 
21,117. 

Hotels : Hamilton, Lake Shore, 
Doolittle House. 

Bankers : First National Bank. 

Medical: Dr. Eddy, Dr. Dewitt, 
Dr. Dowd. 

Situated on Lake Ontario and at 
the mouth of Oswego River (divid- 
ing it in two equal parts), and 
Oswego Canal. It is a great rail- 
way centre. It is the largest and 
handsomest town on Lake Ontario, 
and has an extensive commerce. 
Here the well-known Oswego flour 
and starch are made. Foundries, 
iron works and other manufac- 
tories are numerous. Kingsford's 
Osu-ego Starch Factory is celebrated 
throughout the world, and is per- 
haps the largest in existence. The 
river is spanned by three iron 
drawbridges, and the streets are 
wide, straight, and lined with 
many fine buildings. The resi- 
dential parts are well shaded. The 
County Court House, Custom House 
and Post Office, City Hall, City 
Library and State Armoury, are 
among the most striking buildings. 



01!K(.0X — I'AIXKSVILLE. 



147 



TUo Aciidemy of Miotic, with 1,(MH) 
80. its, is a Hno editice. Sevenil 
schools, churches and jirivate hiiihl- 
ings will interest the visitor. Two 
parks, one on each side of the 
river, are favourite ijronicnades. 
They are rtrell laid-out and shided. 
There is a fort in the vicinity. 

Reached ])y Delaware, LaL-ka- 
wanna and Western Railway from 
New York, via iJiughanipton, iu \'i\ 
hours. 

Ottawa {Illinoin). — Seat of Lasalle 
Cjunty; population (18H0), lO.oOtJ. 

Hotels: Clifton, St. Ni holas, 
White, Ottawa. 

A manufacturing town situated on 
the Illinois River and Illinois and 
Michigan Uanal. Its manufactories 
are principally connectetl with the 
building ami provision trades. The 
t )\vn has gas and is well laid out. 
Thj principal buildings are -County 
C)ui't House, I'rison or Jail, and 
United States Court House. The 
Opera House is large for the size of 
the town. The Fox River Falls 
(iJ'.l feet) afford cheap water power, 
which is utilized by name ro us manu- 
factories. It is a centre of tho wheat 
tz'ade. 

Reached by Chicago, Burlington, 
and Quincy Rjiilway, from Chicago, 
via Aurora, iu 3 hours. 

Ottumwa {Iowa). — Seat of Wappello 
County; population (18S0), lo.isl. 

Hotels: Ballingall, Baker, Revere. 

Advantageously situated on tho 
Desmoines River. It is a town of 
recent growth, but is the largest 
betweou the Mississippi and Missouri 
Rivers on the line of the Chicago, 
Burlington and Quincy Railway. It 
is an important railway centre and 
has exteusive agricultural interests. 
There are also some manuf .ictories, 
driven mostly by water power. It 
has two Opera Housea, one with 
1,500 seats, and some pul)lic build- 
ings of note. The Des Moines River 
is crossed here by a handson. }. sus- 
pension bridge. The surrounding 
country consists of very fertile 
prairie land and is dotted over with 
forests of hard woods. 

Reached by the Chicago, Burling- 
ton and Quincy Railway, from 
Burlington, in 3 hours. 



OwegO (yeir I'wr^-).- Seat of Tioga 
County; poimlntion (IsNO), 6,037. 

Hotels: Uniteil St'itos, Central, 
Ahwaga II(»usj, I'ark, Cortright, 
Exchange. 

A i)opular summer res )rt, increas- 
ing in import nice, bjnutifully situ- 
ated on the Sus(pU'lian!ia River, and 
connected with Hiawatha, on Hia- 
w"atha Island, by a steamboat iu 
summer. Ecrrgrien Cemetery, Ulcn- 
mnry, and several other jjicturesquo 
l»laces are in the vicinity. It has 
also some manufactures. There 
are three large halls, of which Wil- 
scm's accomuKHlates 1,'J(K) jieuple. 

Reached l)y Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna, and Western Uailway, from 
Now York, in \i h(jurs. 



Faducah (Kentucky).— ^eat of Mac 
( 'racken Countv ; po;)ulati(m (1880), 
10,868. 

Hotels: Richmond, Maxwell, 
Southern, Planters. 

Situated on the Ohio River, at tho 
mouth of Teuuc^seo River, o'v) 
milei above C.iiro. A 8hi])ping 
point of the surn>unding country, 
in which tobacco is the principal 
article of production. It ships an 
extensive amount of tobacco, grain, 
and pork. Tliere are also some 
factories, i>rinc'i])allv t>f tobacco. 
The St. Clair Uall' can seat 501) 
j)ersons. 

Reached by Chesai;eako, Ohio, 
and South-Western Railway, from 
Ljuisville, in 11 hours. 



Painesville (O.no).— Seat of Lake 
County; population (1880), 3,850. 

Hotels: Stockwcll, Cowles. 

A beautiful town, on Lake Erie, 
at the mouth of the Grand River, it 
is somewhat of a summer resort. 
Extensive nursery gardens are near 
the town. L(tke Erie Female Semi' 
nary is in the town, and the Little 
Mountain close by is much visited. 
The railway bridge across the river 
is of stone, and very fine. The river 
valley is deep and ijicturesque. 
Child's Hall can accommodate 1,000 
persons. 

Reached by Lake Mhore and. 
Michigan Southern Railway, from 
Buffalo, t't« Ashtabula, in 7 hours. 



14S 



BUADSIIAW S UXITKI) STATKS. 



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Palatka (F/or/J//). Sent of Pntii'im 
Connty; pnjtiil itiou (iSiit), 1,(51 H. 

Jlofr/n: I'utntiin, St. John, 
Liirkiii. 

ToHrinf (tnd Kxcnrsinn Af/Piitx : 
'riir)!ii)is (.'ook & Hon, corner Jjcmon 
and Front .streets. 

A winter health resort, anl the 
lir^est town on tlie St. John's 
Hiver, alcove Jiicksonvillc. The 
Kiirronndnij^ country is noted for 
the fine orans^es it produces, Tho 
clinmte is very mihl, and the site 
above the river healthy. Sevcril 
churches, hcIk.oLs, and other build- 
ini^s add to the attraction-* of the 
jjlace. The scenorj' above Palatka, 
on tlic St. John's River, liocome-* 
very tine, and the vei?etiition is 
jilmost tropical. 

ll>^ K'hed by Flovlda So'ith'^rn 
l^iilway, from Lac.sburg, cid Ro- 
choilo, in 5 hours. 



Paterson {yrw Jprsey) .—Bant of 
Passaic County ; population (IHSD), 
SI, 031. 

Ifotch: Passaic, Franklin, Ha- 
iTiilton. 

Amunemenfx : Opera House, with 
],.')()(» sweats ; two halls, with 800 and 
300 seats respectively. 

CDHveynnres: Tramways. 

One of the most important 
manufacturing' towns in the States, 
especially of silk, woollen, and 
cotton goods. It is situated on the 
Papsaic River, immediately below 
the falls (a bout 50 feet). This water 
l)ower is abundantlj' utilized in the 
different mills. The town has some 
fine buildings, and is regularly laid 
out with wide streets. Beyond its 
factories it has very little to in- 
terest the tourist. Near the Falls 
n small plot of land is laid out as a 
garden and jiark. There is an ex- 
pensive monument to the men of 
Paterson, who fell in the Civil War. 
The sceneiy around the Falls is very 
picturesque. 

Reached by Delaware, Lackawan- 
na, and Western Railway, from 
New York, in three (piartcrs of an 
hour. 

Pawtucket (Bhode Island). — Provi- 
dence County; population (1880), 
22,82i. 



][of'h: Ik'ii'^rct, Pawtuckot. 

Situated on tlu? Pawtucket River. 
Tt is re,Milarly l)iiilt, and is the Pais- 
ley of the United States. It has a 
great uunilter of important si)inning 
mills, and esp(!cially sewing thread 
mills. The streets are wide, but to 
tho tourist and sightseer offer little 
of interest. There is a Music 
Hall, with 1,10(» seats. 

Reached l»y Hostou and Provi- 
dence Railway, from Boston, in IJ 
hours. 

Peabody (Mii»n<ichHttetf»). — Essex 
County; population (1880), 9,52.S. 

Jloffdn: lialdwyn, Symonds, D(m- 
nell, Peabody. 

The birth place of the great 
philanthropist and benefactor of tho 
London poor, (Jeorgo Pe.il)oily. The 
town has the Peithodji Itixtitufi'. It 
has a collection of works of art, 
mem(n'ials, ])ortraits, etc., and a 
hall, with 1,000 seats. The house in 
whic^> I'eaboily was born stands a 
little distant from the Institute. In 
Harmony (Jrove Cemetery is his 
grave, wliich is very simi)lo. 

Reached by trarawaj', from 
Salem, in 20 minutes. 



Peekskill (A^ir I'^rAr^— Y estches- 
ter County; populati(m (1880), 
0,990. 
Jfofeln : Eagle, Exchange. 

A favourite summer holiday re- 
sort, situated on the left bank of the 
Hudscni River, 41 miles from New- 
York and ojjposite Caldwells Land- 
ing. It is a ])retty ])hice and its 
surroundings are very pictures({ue. 
The excursions arc varied, and 
among tho most noteworthy are : 
The Thunder Mountain, the High- 
lands, Anthony's Nose, Sugar Loaf 
Mountain, Buttermilk Falls, lona 
Islands, etc. 

Reached liy New York Central and 
Hudson River Railway, from New 
York, in one hour. 

Pensacola ( Flori a^ . — Escambia 
County; population (1880), 6,8 i5. 

Hotels: City, Merchants, Euro- 
pean. 

Situated on Pensacola Bay and 
one of the United States Maritime 



1 



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TALATKA- rilILAl»i:i,l'llIA. 



140 



from 



Ports. A nnviil station. The 
approucli to tlie ImilMHir is not very 
nafe. Its coninicrce is important, 
espt'ciully its liiml)er trade. Since 
it has lioen opened n|) by rail- 
>va.yH the town is iiiiprovinjf. It has 
H Citntom Jlonxr «n(l several other 
laiildin^s - ]»rinciitally chnrehes— 
wiiieh j;re noteworthy. Ruins of 
old Spanish forts are to 1)0 seen at 
the ijtick of the town. Miltcietr, !) 
miles i^is^ant, on I'erdida Bay, has 
extensive saw mills. 

Keaeho(. hy Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, from Mobi.e, in i\ 
hours 



Peoria (////wf^'.-*).— Scat of Peoria 
County ; population (188(0, 20,;n5. 

Jlufeh: White House, Merchants, 
New Peoria, National. 

Anu.emcntu: The Academy of 
Music, with 1,5(H) seats; two Halls 
with 1,00() and UK), scats respec- 
tively. 

Situated on the Illinois River, at 
tho lower end of Feona Lake. It is 
an important railway centre (seven 
roads) and has important manufac- 
tures, distilleries, breweries, etc., 
and an extensive commerce, liitu- 
minoiir coal is worked in the 
vici'Mty and the surroundintr 
countr. ' IS very fertile. There are 
some fine public and private Imild- 
intfs, the Court JIoiixc, Nurmal Svhoul , 
at II Hal I, and Mervant'ilp Liljrari/ 
an('l the Academy of Miotic bein^ the 
most noteworthy; 28 churches, 
among which are some very fine 
ones, are in the town. 

Reached by Chicago, Burlington 
nnd Quincy Railway, from Chicago, 
via Galesburg, in 9 hours. 



Perth. Amboy (iNVw Jersey).^ 
Middlesex County; population (1880) , 
6,311. 

Hotels : Central, Eagleswood, 
Park Hotel, Packer. 

Situated at the junction of Rari- 
tm Bay, with Staten Island Sound, 
it is one of the oldest towns in New 
Jersey ; and a port of entry. It is 
a much-fre(piented summer station. 
At South Amboy, opposite, are sea 
"baths. There are artistic potteries, 
terra cotta works and other manu- 
factories in the town, and much 



coal is shipped \'r<nn hero. A sail 
up Haritan llist-r and round the 
liny will l»e found interesting. 

I'teached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from New York, riii Jer>ey 
C;ty, in IJ hours. 



{I'ityiril(i). - Dinwid- 
popidation (lM8t>), 



Jarrctt, 



Petersburg 

die Countv 

J/iifefa : Bolingbrooke, 
Newton. 

Situate'l on the A])ommattox River, 
well built, and regularly laid out. 
Its agricidtural interests ai'e exten- 
sive. It has an esix-ciMily liirgt' 
trade in cotton, tol»acco, wheat ami 
corn ; and al>o in si'.niac. Tin- 
Court J/oNsr, Ciistotii Huns,' and I'oxt 
Oj/ire, 'I'hiatrr or .Icinlnni/ of Mii'< <•, 
tiro Market J/iil/x nnd .-several if tlu 
numerous churches are tine build- 
ings. The town and surrounding 
country was tlu? scene of a* tierco 
struu'g'le during tlie Civil Wars. The 
fortilications are still traceable in 
the neighbourli' od. 

Reached by Atlantic Coast Rail- 
way, from Richmond, in (lie 
hour. 

Philadelphia (rr)i»nj!aii,ia). Pent 
of Pliiladeli)h;!i County ; jjopulation 
8l(i,{Wt. 

Jfote/x : ^Moore's Stiic'dey Hor.!-e, 
Washington, ('oloniiiKie, Ald'ne, 
Continental, Girard, St. George, 
Pluiner, Bingham, St. Cloud aio 
first-class houses on the Americtiu 
]>lan (])ension ])er day includ'iig 
everything) ; I>afayette and BelU- 
vue "are also very good, and con- 
ducted on the American and 
Euroi)ean ])lan combined. The We.- 1 
End, Guy's, St. Charles, and St. 
Elmo's arc on the f;uroi)ean ])lan. 
The rates of the hotels on American 
l)lan are 2s dols. to 5 dols. per day, 
everything included ; at those of 
the European plan from 1 dol. to 
'.i dols. i)er day for room only, every- 
thing else extra. 

Jientaurantxaiid Cafcx .- The Bel/e- 
VHP is the best, and is the Delmonico 
of Philadel])hia ; Doonerx, in 10th 
street, Fiuelli's in Chestnut-street, 
Green's in Chestnut-street, are al.so 
among the best in the town. Morse's, 
Partridge's, andCabadi's are mostly 
frequented by ladies. The hotels 



1.50 



BRADSIIAW S UNITED STATES. 



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Inve also pool restaurants attiiche^l 
to them. That on the first floor of 
the Contineut.il is much visited l^y 
merchants. 

Thcdi.'es and Amnnemenh : The 
Arwlpiny of Music on the corner of 
liroad-street and Locust-street is, 
lifter the Metropolitan Opera House 
in New York, the largest house in 
America, and can seat 3,000 people. 
It f,'ivcs operas, concerts, lectures, 
balls, etc. Arch-street Theatre, on 
Arch-street, has a ji^ood company for 
the {general drama. Others are the 
Walnut-sfreet, Chestnut-street, and 
Lyceum Theatres with varied enter- 
tainments. The Opera House, 
Eleoenth-street Opera House and 
Wood's Museum have variety enter- 
t.iinrnents, spectacular operas, and 
tios^ro minstrelsy. Other large halls 
are the Musical Fund Hall (for 2,500 
pe )ple) in Locust-street, the Opera. 
J[ luse in Chestnut-street, Association , 
St. George's, and Horticultural Halls 
j^ivG concerts and are used as music 
halls, for lectures, flower shows, 
and similar iiurposes. 

It adin;f Rooms : The leading hotels 
have weil-supi)lied reading rooms. 
The Philadelphia Library, in Locust- 
streCt, with a l)ranch on Broad- 
street, has over 100,000 vohimes, 
with wcli-suppliod reading-rooms. 
It is open from 10 o'clock till 
sunset. The Mercantile Library in 
10th street, contains loO,(X)0 volumes, 
with good reading room), open from 
9 a.m. till 10 p.m.) The Historical 
Society of Tennsylcania, in Spruce-st., 
has a* rich library (open 10 a.m. to 
5 p.m.). The Franklin lnstitiiti\ on 
7th-strect, the Athenceum, in Adelphi 
street, and the Young Men's 
Christ' an Association, in Chestnut- 
street, have all extensive collections 
and good reading rooms. 

Conveyances : Tramwaj'^s afford 
easy acess to all parts of the city 
( are 6 cents, transfers 3 cents 
each addition:il). Carriages are at 
most of the railway stations, and at 
various points in the streets. 
Prices are 1 dol. per hour ; per dis- 
t luco, one person, one mile or less, 
50 cents ; each additional i)evson, 
25 cents extra; one passenger, two 



miles or less, 7i) 
additional mile, 50 
Children, under 11, 
under ftvo years, 
(Hansoms) : Two 



cents ; each 

cents extra. 

half price ; 

free. Cabs 

persons, 65 



cents per hour. In case of dispute, 
appeal to policeman, or at the 
Mayor's office. Tne tariff! should 
bo in every carriage. The 
Pennsj'lvania Railway Company 
have at their stations Hansoms 
and coupes for the conveyance of 
passengers. Fare 25 cents one 
mile; coujx^s, 35 cents per mile, 
with a small additional charge for 
])arcels and luggage. Omnibuses 
also attend at the arrival of trains. 

Ferries: At foot of Market-street, 
for iVest Jersey ; at foot of Walnut- 
street, for Philadelphia and 
Atlantic City; at foot of Vine- 
street, for Camden and Atlantic. At 
foot of South-street, for Camden. 
Fare to Camden on all 3 cents ; 
from the latter also to Gloucester, 
10 cents. 

Railway stations: Pennsylcania 
Railway, in Broad and Market 
streets, and Camden and Amboy 
Division, from ferry, at foot of 
Market-street, the Philadelph'a and 
Reading Railway, on 13th and 
Callowhill streets; the Philadelphia, 
Wilmington and. Baltimore Rail- 
way, corner of Broad and Washing- 
ton avenues, and Broad and Markets 
sticets ; Westchester and Philadelphia 
Railways on Broad and Market 
street; German' own and Norri^tttvn 
Railway, and Bound Brook-road, 
coiner of 9th and Green streets ; 
North Pennsyleauia Railway, corner 
of American and Berks streets. 

Sports, Races, etc. : Several 
boating clubs have their boat 
houses in Fairmount Park, on the 
Schuylkill River. Races are held 
at Point Breeze Park. The trotting 
matches are at Belmont Course, 
beyond Fairmount Park. 

Museums: The Academy of Fine 
Arts (entrance 25 cents), in Broad 
and '^-icrry streets, has very 
valuable collections of jiaintings, 
statuary, etc. I'he Memorial Hall 
Museum, in Fairmount Park, is a 
flne whit3 marble building, built to 
commemorate the Centennial Exhi- 
bition in 187(j. The collections are 
in the sty^e of the South Kensing- 
ton Museum, in Lond(m. It is a 
very flne building, and the collec- 
tions arc extensive. Independence 
Hall Museum, on Chestnut-street, is 
the chief object of interest. Earle 
4* Haseltine's private sales rooms, 
both in Chestnut-street, have also 



I'HILADKLPHIA. 



151 



and 



some fine pictures, both modern 
and old, pliiced here for siile. The 
best private picture and art 
galleries are those of Messrs. 
Ciaghorn, Harrison junr., and 
Gibson and Borie ; admission 
is granted <m application, either 
personally or by letter. 

CI 'lbs : The Union Lea/jiie Club is 
the principal political club, as also 
the wealthiest, in the city. It has 
an excellent restaurant, and 
sumptuous rooms, and is situated 
cm lirodd and Sansom streets. The 
Reform Club is in Chestnut-street, 
aud is a handsome building of 
brown sandstone. Other more 
sociid clubs are the American, Com- 
inonwealth, Prnn, Phlluhlphia, and 
Social Art Clnbn, Admission may 
l)e gained to all these clu])S by 
intrv)duction thrv)ugh a member. 

I'oKt and Telegraph Office : In 
Chestnut-Street, corner of 9th-street, 
a handsomj granite Uennissiince 
building. Open from 7 a.m. till 8 
l).m., and on Sundays from 9 till 10 
a.m. There are several sub-stations 
in the city, and over 500 lamp-])ost 
boxes, which are emptied very fre- 
quently. 

Enijliah Consul : R. C. Clipperton, 
Consul. 

Bankers: Girard's Bank. 

Medical: Drs. Fox, Gross. 

Dentist : Dr. Mas(jn. 

Tourist and Excursion Agents: 
Thomas Cook & Son, 337, Wulnut- 
street. 

Philadelphia is the second city of 
the United States in C(mimerci:il 
importance aud population, and the 
first in actual area as covered 1)y 
buildings. It is situated on the west 
bank of the Delaware River, the 
Schuylkill River passing through 
portions of it. It is distant DO miles 
from the Atlantic Ocean, and covers 
an area of 1,201 8(iuare miles. It whs 
founded by William Pennin 1682, «s 
a Qiiaker Colony. In IGHt the popu- 
lation was 2,500; and in 170) it 
obtained its oluirter. It is said, hr)w- 
cer, that a colony of Swedes were 
settled here as early as 1637; traces of 
their presence may, perhaps, still be 
found in "Christina" Church, and 
in the names of various streets. The 
l)ros])erity of Philadelphia was from 
the first rapid, and during cohmial 
times and the first quarter of the 



present century it was the principal 
city in the Sttites. Before and dur- 
ing tlie Revolutionary wars it was 
the head-{iuarters of Congri\ss, the 
Declaration of Independence having 
been '-ciul hero on July 1th, 1776. 
The first President resided hori', and 
the city continuetl to be the soat of 
Government till IHOO. The J)0{»u:h- 
tion since ISOO has increased very 
rapidly. In that year it was 11,220; 
in ISaO, it had increased to 121,376; 
in 1N60, to 565,52'>; and iHwO, to 
Hlf5,l.\Sl. The commerce of the town 
is ve"y extensive, aud is increasing 
every year. The ])rincipal sources of 
wealth arc manufactures. In these 
i\. is second only to New York, as 
regards either the numl.'orof woik- 
shops, the capital invested, or the 
amount of ]) -oduce. In the nsanu- 
facture of heavy iron and steel it is 
approached oidy by Pittsljurs.'-. It 
has in addititm woollen and totton 
mills, shipbuilding yards, books, 
shoes, etc., industries. It i-anks 
fourth in conmiercial imixu'tance 
among the cities of the United 
States. 

Philadeli)hia is regularly laid out ; 
the streets being wide and well 
paved. Those running north and 
south are numbered, while those 
crossing them are named. Within its 
present limits there are over 950 mile a 
of paved streets. The numbered 
streets run from the Delaware 
towards the Bchuylkill River. S(mie 
of the older streets are irregular and 
crooked, but this oidy in the old or 
business (piarter. The houses in 
the streets and the streets them- 
selves are so well numbered that it 
is easy for a sti'angcr to find his 
way. One reason whj'' I'hiladelphia 
is 8i)read over such a large area is 
that the worknmn'^ dwellings are 
on the separate house system. As 
in London, England, each family 
has a house to itself. This is in 
contrast with many American 
towns, where the French flat system 
is chiefly in vogue. The i)rincipal 
streets are : Chesnnt, the fashionable 
jjromenade with the finest retail 
shoi)S and hoto\-». Third-street, is 
the princij)al banking and brokers' 
street, answering to the New York 
Wall-fttrect. North of Market-Street, 
Race, Vine, Walnut and Arch 
streets are very busy thoroughfares ; 
Jiroud-street is the principol real- 



ili 



152 



Bli.VDSIIAW S UNITKD STATES. 



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dcntial (jiiart^r, and contains a 
K<)')(1 number of chiirchos. Murquet- 
xfreet is the chief Ijusinoss thorough- 
fare. 

Th3 largest pile of Iniildings is 
th") Public: liu!ldi)iijf, a*: tlie c;)rnerof 
Bi-o ul and .M irket. .strejfcs. It con- 
tain-5 the muui(n]);il oitices, law 
courts, etc, and is re ily the City Hall. 
It is built of white in.'irble, is 480J by 
470 foot, is almost a s'luare, and its 
tower w!»eu coinplet^iil will oe 535 
feet high, ft cov^ers sm area of about 
■ii a-'res without including the court- 
yard in the ccnf.re of 200 feet square. 
It is in the lien liss nice stylo of 
architecture. Gintrd CoUpfjf, 'Ridge 
avenue, is a ni ignifl^'enu building of 
white mar])le, in the Corinthian 
style of architcc lire, and in imitation 
of the Parthenon jit Athens ; it was 
erected out of Stei)hen Girard's 
munificent gift of 2,000,000 dols. to 
the town, to provide gratuitous in- 
struction and supi)ort to destitute 
orphans. It is supported by the 
residue of his estate^ which is saul 
by some to amoinit to nine million 
df)ll irs, while others jdijoit at 50 
millions. Theolo/y is rigorously 
excluded from its lectures, and li) 
clergyman, priest or missionary is 
allowed to.-et foot within it, accord- 
ing to the testamentary conditions of 
the founder. Permission to visit 
the interior is readily obtained 
ffom the Directors or through the 
Secretaries of the principal Ifotels. 
From the marble roof a fine view is 
rotained. The college Imilding is 
218 feet l)y 100, and contains many 
objects of interest. The grounds are 
tastefulh' laid out and the dormi- 
tories, professor's houses, etc., are 
all buildings in marble, and close to 
the college. The number of students 
bR« annually increased, owing to 
the rise in value of the estate. The 
Commercial Ex-'Ikhiijc, in Chestnut- 
street is on the site of William Penn's 
house, which was als) the residence 
of Adams, Hancocl-:, De Kalb and 
Arnold. It is a large l)rown stone 
building. The Coal Exchanafi is on 
the corner of Walnut iiud 2nd street. 
In the hitter street is also Chrixt 
Church, commenced in 1727 but still 
incomi)le^,e. Its steeple lias the 
oldest chime of bells in America, and 
the church itself is one of the 
earlies-. ])l ices of worship in the 
city. A small brick house on the 



corner of Fron'^ and "Market streets, 
was built in 1702, and was for over 
100 years known as the London 
Coffee Jlome. xVt a small distance 
in Laetitia-SLreet is Fenn's Cottage, 
built before l^enn's arrival in the 
settlement, and its Itrst, brick 
building. Cn the corner of Walnut 
and 3rd streets is the line marble 
building of the Merchant)*' Exchange, 
with a semicircular colonnade of 
eight columns, a rotunda, and a 
fine frescoed reading room within. 
Opposite the building of the North 
American Aitfnrancc Compani/, and 
close by.is the (.iirard National Bank, 
where Girard lived until his death. 
Above the intersection of 3rd-street, 
Chestnut-street is lined with 
many tine buildings of Banks 
and Safe Deposit Companies. In a 
court arrived at l)y a narrow passage 
on the south side' of Chestnut-street 
is Carpenters' Hall, the meeting 
idace of the first Congress of the 
United Colonies. The United States 
Cnntom House, of Doric architecture, 
is between -ii/li and 5th streets. 
Several very fine buildings now 
follow, occujiied by Banks and In- 
surance Comiianios ; and then In- 
dependence Hall, Ijetween 5th and 
6th streets, comes into view. It was 
commenced in 1729, and is justly 
considered tl;-! most interesting 
building in x niladelphia. It has 
many historical associations, and 
several of the rooms have still the 
very furniture of the time w^hen 
the Declaration of Independence was 
made. In front of it stands Bailey's 
statue of Washington, and at the 
back is Independence-square, laid out 
as a small pai'k. Washington-square is 
south-west from the latter, and is in 
l)art a botanical garden. Fronting 
it is the AthencBum. Philadelphia 
Liljran/ is on 5tli street, close to 
Chestiiut-strect, and was founded in 
1731 by Benjamin Franklin and some 
friends. On the corner of Arch- 
street in 5th-strcct is Franklin's 
Grave. In the block between 6tli 
and 7th streets, on (Chestnut-street, 
are some buildings of note, occupied 
by the priucii)al newspapers of 
Philadelphia. On 7th-strcet is the 
Franklin Institute, with a librarj' of 
ovci* 80,000 volumes. In 8th-street 
is the Fennsylrania Hospital, with its 
anatomical museum; and in Spruce- 
street, close by, is the Fennsylvania 



PIIILADELrillA. 



1 •J.> 



;t Las 
and 

till the 
when 

ice was 

alley's 
at the 

aid out 
uareiB 

id is in 
onting 
elph ia 
ose to 

ided in 
d some 
Arch- 
nlcUti's 
en 6th 
street, 
!cnpied 
ers of 
is the 
rarj'' of 
street 
ith its 
ipruce- 
Ujlvitma 



Jliitorical Socitfy, with colloctions ; 
a fine buildini^. From (ith to i)tli 
streets, on Chestnut-street and ad- 
joiuini^ streets, may lie said to be 
the pulilishing and 'printing centre 
of the city. 

At the north-west corner of 9th- 
street and Chestnut-street is the 
granite biiildiuf^ of the Fosf Office, 
with a dome. An Assurance I'oni- 
pany occuincs the corner on 10th- 
sti'oot, and iu this stre :'t is the 
Mevcuntile L'thrarif. St. Stephen's 
Churcli and Jefferson Medicjil 
C;)llege are notewortliy in l(M,h- 
stree -. In Chestnut-streor, a little 
above the crosf^iuur of l:ith-street, is 
the United Sfatcs Mint, a handsome 
Ionic white marble l)uLldinfr, with a 
collection of Amcrica)i and other 
coins. In the forenoon visitors are 
admitted and the attendants are 
very civil. Passing l-4th - street, 
whence the massive pile of Public 
Buildings are seen on the right and 
a nnmi)er of large Hotels, the 
Young Men's Christian Associntion 
building is seen on the corner of ir>th- 
street. Loyu n-»qH(ire,i\.\\it\Q w\) I8th- 
street, is tastefidly laid out, and on 
its eastern side stands the principal 
ecclesiastical building of the town — 
The Roman Catholic Cathedral. It is 
in the Roman Corinthian style. It 
contains frescoes and other objects 
of interest. The Institution for the 
Blind, Wills Hospital, and the 
Academy of Natural Sciences also 
face this scpiare. On 20th-street is 
the Preston Retreat for ])oor 
children. On the left from Chest- 
nut-street, 18th-sti'eet leads into the 
most aristocratic i)art of Phila- 
delphia — the Hi ttenhoHse-i^qiiare, \\it\\ 
some very fine residential mansions. 
Near lOth-streot is the Reform Chib 
building, and in Walnut-street, cor- 
ner of IHth-street, is the fine white 
marble mansion of the Social Art 
Club. Chestnut-street passes the 
Schuylkill River at 2yrd-street on a 
massive iron bridge, and from here 
it becomes one of the chief resi- 
dential thoroughfares. 

Broad-street is the other most 
attractive thoroughfare of about 15 
miles in length, and crosses the 
whole city from North to South. At 
its southern end, in the Delaware 
'Rivcvi^ League /.y/ffw^/, witha Unit-d 
States Nai-y Yard. In the cfiannel 
called Bluck Channel, a number of 



war vessels goncrally lie nt anchor. 
The Haltinior!' Ralwai/ iStafioii, tnv 
Broad-street, corner of Wnshingtcn- 
avenue, is the first building of note. 
At the corner of Chris^tian-s'reet is 
the Ridi/way Librarj/ Buildinif, a 
granite structure be<iueathed to the 
city by Dr. Rusk. At the corner of 
Pine-street is the extensive l)uilding 
of the Ih'iif and Dumb Asylum. In 
this street is als > the Betheden 
Baptist Church, and Ix'yond it the 
Horticultural JIa'l. Next door to 
this is the Acaih my nf Mu>>ic, and 
directly opposite the Lycium Theatre. 
The Union Lfni/w Clufj is at the 
corner of Sansom-strcei. At the 
intersection of Market-street, one 
block beyond Chestnut-street, and 
on Penn-square are thj Fublr 
Buildings already described. On the 
scjuare, nortli-west corner, is the 
School of Design for Women, and 
near it the large Station of the 
Rennynlraniir Railway Company. 
At tlie corner of Philbert-street the 
Masou'c Temple, a solid granite 
structure iu the Norman style, will 
attract the attention of the visitor. 
In this portion (jf the city are 
some fine churches and on the 
corner of Cherry-street is the 
elaborate fa<;ade of the Academy 
of Fine Art^, with excellent 
galleries aiid a collection of 
l)ictures. At the coiner of Callow- 
hill-strcet is the Arsenal of the 1st. 
Regiment of Pennsylvania Militia, 
and on the other side are Baldwin's 
Locomotive Works. Sju-ing Garden- 
street, another residential street, 
crosses Broad-street, next to P'air- 
mount Park, on which, at the corner 
of 17th. street is the Girh^ Normal 
School. The corner of Green-street 
is occupied 1)3' the Central High 
School and a handsome Presby- 
terian Church. In this street 
is the Synagogue, in Mauresquo 
architecture. After Green-street, 
Broad-street becomes a leading 
residential thoroujrfare, and is 
a favourite ])r{)menade and 
drive. Through Uronninent Cemetery, 
Germantoun, the scene of a battle 
won by Lord Howe over the Ameri- 
cans under Washington, in 1777, is 
reached. The Episcopal Church, at 
the corner of Jett'erson-street, is the 
only building worthy of note in this 
part. Germantowiv is inhabited 
chiefly by business men. 



154 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



m i 






■,i 






The Uaicerslty of Pennst/lcanlahas 
83veral buiUlings on 36th and 
Locust streets, with a museum and 
a hospital. Iu3tith-stroet isBlockley 
Almshouse, in four handsome build- 
inj^s, with extensive grounds. The 
Lunuiic Asylum, or Pennxt/lvania 
Hq<p'' tal for the Insane, is situated on 
Haverford-road, in West Philadel- 
phia across the Schuylkill River. In 
Front-street North are the hand- 
some buildmi^s of the Episcopal 
Jfospihil. The Naval Axylitm, on 
Grave's Ferry-road, is a huge marble 
building with highly-cultivated 
grounds, near which is one of the 
Naoal Arsenals, the other being 
situated at Frankford. The Moya- 
mensinc) Prison, for prisoners on trial 
or suffering short sentences of 
incarceration, is on lOth-street and 
Pass3'unk-road. The Eastern Peni- 
tentiary (solitary Oonflnemeut) in 
Fairmount-avenue, is a castellated 
building and covers about 10 acres. 

The principal drives are along 
Broad-street to Germantown, and 
especially to Fairmnunt Parle. The 
latter, the largest city i)ark in the 
world, extends along the Schuylkill 
River, on both banks, for over seven 
miles, and covers an area of 2,70() 
acres. It possesses great natural 
beauties, and the gardens are well 
kept. The principal features are : 
Fairmount-hill, whence it derives 
its name, with four reservoirs of the 
Schuylkill water works, offering a 
fine view of the city, several foun- 
tains and statues near the machinery 
buildings ; a statue of Abraham 
Lincoln, by Rogers, on an open 
piazza near the above buildings ; 
Lemon-hill, with a restaurant ; the 
Solitude, Sedgeley-hill, George's- 
hill, Belmont Mansion (Restaurant), 
Belmont Glen, various bridges 
across the river, and the Zoological 
Gardens. A drive up the Wissahic- 
kon is well worth making. The 
Centennial Exhibition stood on the 
spot at the head of the Girard 
avenue, and several buildings are 
still standing here, especially 
Memorial Hall and Horticultnral 
Buildtng. The former contains per- 
manent art and industrialcollections, 
and the latter, a sort of con- 
servatory with occasional Uower 
shows. ' At its lower end is the 
Belmont course for races, especially 
for trotting matches. 



Of the Cemeteries, the Laurel 
Hill Cemetfry at the upper part of 
Fairmount Park, is the most interest- 
ing to the tourist. It is beautifully 
laid out with trees, shrubs, flowers, 
etc., and contains a great number 
of costly monuments. Woodlands, 
in West Philadelphia, is also very 
fine, and contains the Drexel Mau- 
soleum, the largest, it is said, in 
America.. Mount Vernon Cemetery, 
opposite Laurel Will, and Glenwood 
Cemetery are the other burial 
grounds of the town. 

Favourite e.vcursions are made to 
Cape May, the Phihidelphian Long- 
branch ; Shellinger's Landing, Cold 
Springs, Atlantic City (also sea 
baths) ; Bryn Mawr, and various 
others. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from New York, in 3 
hours. 



Piqua {Ohio). — Miami Conn 
population (18S0), G,036. 

Hotels : City, Leland. 

A prosperous, well-built, an 1 
regularly laid out town, with con- 
siderable manufacturing interests, 
situated on the Miami River, and 
Miwmi and Ei'ie Canal. It has good 
water power, which is advantage- 
ously used in the foundries, car 
shops, woollen mills, and other 
industrial establishments. It is also 
largely engaged in commerce with 
the surrounding rich agricultural 
countrj''. The streets are wide and 
lined with substantial buildings, 
the High School having a hall which 
can seat 1,200 people. The Opera 
House, with 1,000 seats, is also note- 
worthy. 

Reached by Cincinnati, Hamilton 
and Dayton Railway, from Cincin- 
nati, in 4 hom-s. 



Pittsburg {Pcnnsyli'ania). — Seat of 
Allegheny County ; population 
(1880), 156,389. 

Hotels : !Monongahela, Seventh 
Avenue Hotel, Central, St. Charles, 
Robinson, St. James. 

Theatres and Amusements : The 
Opera House, with opera, operettas 
and occasional concerts, has 1,800 
seats ; the Academy of Music 
(variety theatre) has 1,000. 



PIQUA — PITTSFIELD. 



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loo 



aiirel 
irt of 
}rest- 
iuUy 
wers, 
mber 
lands, 
very 
Man- 
ia, in 
'etery, 
nwood 
burial 

ade to 
Lonff- 
:, Cold 
o sea 
arious 



Ohio 
in 3 



oua 



t, anl 
th con- 
terests, 
er, and 
as good 
■antage- 
os, car 
1 other 
:t is also 
with 
cultural 
de and 
Idings, 
which 
Opera 
so note- 

umilton 
Cincin- 



Seat of 
pulation 

Seventh 
Charles, 

: The 
perettas 
as 1,800 
: >I uslc 



Conveyances: Tramways in the 
principal streets and t) the sul)urbs 
(fare, 5 cents) ; carriages, 1^ dols. 
lier hour. 

Post and Trlegraph Office : Corner 
of Smithfield-street, and Fifth 
Avenue. 

Tourist -J ml Excursion Agents: 
Thomas Cook & Son, corner of 1th- 
a/enue and Smithfield-street. 

Pittslmrg, the Sheffield of the 
United States, and the second cit.N 
in size and importance in Pennsyl- 
vania, is situated at the confluence 
of the Allegheny and Moncngahela 
Rivers, which here form the Oliio. 
Including the suburbs, it has now a 
population of about 200,(XK). Pitts- 
])urg was founded in 1765 on the 
old French Fort du Quesne, which, 
on being captured by the English, 
was changed into "Fort Pitt," 
Avhence its present name. It was 
incorporated in 1816. Since then its 
growth has been uninterrupted. 
The town is l)uilt on a beautiful 
I)lain in the form of a triangle, 
though that original form has of 
late years undergone considerable 
modifications. At its back it is 
surrounded by the Quarry, Grant's 
and Ayer's Hills. It is compactly 
built, and has many fine edifices. 
The whole town, however, i)resents 
a verj-^ dingy appearance, owing to 
the smoke of its numerous chimneys. 
The streets and avenues are all 
paved and well graded, and a 
number of bxidgos span both rivers. 
Its principal interests centre in the 
iron, steel and glass manufactories, 
in v.hich alone it gives employment 
to nearly 40,000 workmen. No 
visitor should fail to visit some of 
the large works. It has besides an 
extensive commerce, and its trade 
in coal and coke is very important. 
The principal thoroughfares are 
Wood, Market and Smithfield 
streets. Liberty and Penn streets. 
6bh-avenue, contains the principal 
retail shops. 

The town, and everything within 
it, is wrapped in smoke. There is 
perhaps no town in the States which 
has such a dingy and murky look as 
Pittsburg. The principal buildings 
are, the United States Arsenal, a 
>rroup of buildings, standing in some 
ornamental grounds in the north- 
cast part of the town. The Muni' 



the 
are 
the 



civil Hall, corner of Virgin and 
Smithfield streets, is a gigantic 
building. The Custom House, with 
Post Office, in Smithfield-street, is 
also imi)osing. The lioman Catholic 
Cathedral, Trinity Church, St. Peter's 
(Episcopal), and some others are 
amongst the best church edifices. 
Tlie Mercantile Library occupies a 
handsome building in Penn-street, 
and contains about 15,000 volumes, 
and a well-supplied reading rotmi. 
The Pittsburg Art Association has 
its galleries in the same building. 
The Court House, destroyed by fire 
some years ago, is ])eing re-built, 
and will be a very handsome edifice. 
The Young Men's Christian As80ci((- 
tion buihling, with the upi)er floors 
occupied by the School of Design Jor 
iromeii, on corner of Penn-avenue 
ancl Seventh-street, is a handsome 
edifice. The female colleges aro 
much fretiuented. Among 
charitable institutions, which- 
numerous, the principal are 
Western Pennsylcatiia J[ospital, an 
immense building situated on the 
side of a hill; the City General 
HospitalytliO Homoeopathic Hospital, 
and several others. 

The former subur]>s of Birming- 
ham, Manchester, East Liberty, are 
now all incorporated with Pittsburg. 
In Manchester are two convents auil 
the Riverside Penitentiary. 

Reached 1)y Pennsylvauian Rail- 
way, from New York, in 23 hours. 

Pittsfleld (Massachusetts). Sent of 
Berkshire County; poi)ulation (1880), 
ll,lt!6. 

Hotels : American, Berkshire, 
Burbank, MaplcAvood, Spring- 
side. 

A thriving town, in the heart of 
the Berkshire mountains, beautifully 
situated on a plateau. It has the 
Taconic mountains on the west, and 
the Hoosacs on the cast. It is well 
laid out, and possesses some fine 
public buildmgs. It is much visited 
in summer on account of the beauty 
of the surrounding scenery. The 
lioman Catholic Church is the hand- 
somest of its kind in Western 
Massachusetts ; the Methodist and 
several other churches ai'e also 
interesting. The Court House is a 
white marble building; the Muplc- 
Kood Female Seminary is in the centre 



V 



156 



IJRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



!a 



m '! 



of ornamental grounds. In the Pnrk 
stands a handgome bronze monu- 
ment to the soldiers who fell in the 
War of Secession. The Atkenceum 
is a very tine buildinc^ and contains 
a good public library, and stjme 
pictures. There are sevoriil theatres, 
halls, etc. 

The walks, drives, and excursions 
in the environs of the town are very 
fine. To Lake Onota, Waconuh 
Falls, Potter's Mountain, Roarincf 
Brook, Lulu Cascade, Balance Rock, 
Tories Gorj^o, Ashley Pond, Perry 
Pond, Williamstown, Lebanon 
Springs and several others, too 
numerous to mention, are among 
the most fretiuented. 

Reached by Boston and Albany 
Railway, from Boston, in 4 hours 



{Pennst/lcania), 
jjopulation 



-Luzerne 
(1880), 



Pittston 

County ; 
10,005. 

Hotels : Eagle, Gething, Famham, 
St. James's. 

A thriving mining and manu- 
facturing town, at tiie head of the 
Wyoming Valley, on the Susciuc- 
hanna. It is regulary laid out. 
West of the town, in tlie Lackaw- 
annock Mountains, are coal mines. 
The principal object of attraction 

. is Campbell's Ledge, which offers a 
fine view of the valley. The town 

• is also visited as a summer resort. 
There are two large halls. 

Reached by Philadel',)hia and 
Reading Railway (Central New 
Jersey Branch), from New York, 
in 12 hours. 

Plattsburg (Xew York). — Seat of 
Clinton County; population (1880), 
6,600. 

Hotels : Cumberland, Foquet, 
Witherill. 

Bankers : Merchants National 
Bank. 

Medical .- Dr. G. D. Durham, Dr. 
J. H. Laroc(iuc, Dr. D. S. 
Kellogg. 

Situated on both banks of the 
Sarannac River, at the entrance 
to Cumberland Bay. For Lake 
Champlain, at its northern point, it 
is the port of entry. It is also much 
visited, as being clos3 to the 
Adirondack Mountain Region, The 



town is well built, and has several 
factories. Dannemora, Chazy 
Lake, Bradley Pond, Lyon Mountain 
Station, Chateaugay Lake, and Lake 
Champlain are the i)rincipal points 
for excursions. 

Reached by New York, Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, via Albany, in H-hours. 

Plattsmovith {Nehrnsk(i).—S,en.t of 
Cass County; population (1880), 
5,790. 

Hotels; Perkins's, City, Stadel- 
man's. 

A busy and industrial town, on 
the Missouri River, near the mouth 
of the Platte. It is a very new 
place, but is steadily increasing. It 
is well built, and regularly laid 
out, and has important locomotive 
and railway works, and factories 
of farm implements and other 
machinery. An Opera House, with 
1,200 seats, and two other halls, 
with over 600 seats, prevent Platts- 
mouth from being dull. 

Reached by Chicago, Milwaukee, 
and St. Paul Railway, from 
Chicago, via Omaha, in 22| hours. 

Plymouth {Mnmichusett»).—^QQ.i of 
Plymouth County ; population 
(1880), 7,239. 

Hotels : Brastow, Central, Clif- 
ford. 

Situated on Plymouth Bay, it is a 
sea-bathing place, and has also a 
few manufactures. It is interest- 
ing, however, chiefly as the landing 
place of the Pilgrim Fathers, in 
1620, and as the first settlement in 
New England. Fly month Hock, in 
Water-street, is on the exact spot 
where they first landed. Pilgrim 
Hall, in Court-street, has a large 
hall, some relics, a collecticm of 
pictures, etc., and a good library. 
The County Court House and House 
of Correction, near the hall, are both 
fine buildings, points of interest 
are Leyden-streefc (the oldest in New 
England), Burying Hill, with 
many ancient tombs, Cole's Hill, 
and the National Monument to the 
Pilgrims. The surrounding scenery 
is attractive, with several small 
lakes and ponds. 

Reached by the Old Colony Rail- 
way, from Boston, in 2 hour's. 



' 



PITTSTOX — PORTLAND. 



1.57 



it is a 
also a. 
iterest- 
anclinj? 
ers, in 
nent iu 
lock, in 
ct spot 
Pilgrim 
large 
tion of 

ibrary. 

re both 
interest 
in New 
with 
s Hill, 
to the 
scenery 
L small 



Fortafi^e City (Tf'i«fo «»/«)•— Seat of 
Columbia County ; population 
(1880), 5,501. 

Iloteh : City, Emder, Coming, 
Fox, Kirby. 

On the Wisconsin River, and Fox 
and Wisconsin Canal. It has good 
water power, which is extensively 
used in the factories. It does a 
large trade with the suiTOunding 
country, which is very fertile. The 
High School building, the Court 
House, the Prison, eight churches, 
DuUaghan's Oi>era House, with 
1,000 seats, and two public halls, are 
among the noteworthy buildings. 

Reached l)y Wisconsin Central 
Railway, from St. Paul, via 
Stevens' Pt., in 11 hours. 

Port Huron (Michigan).— Seat of 
St. Clair County; population (1880), 
8,883. 

Hotels: Albion, Huron, Pacific, 
Commercial. 

A port of entry situated on the 
St. Clair River, at the mouth of 
the Black River, and one mile from 
Lake Huron. It has considerable 
manufactures, and its saw mills 
and lumber trade are important. 
Three shipyards and two dry docks. 
The two opera houses, with 500 and 
800 seats respectively, are handsome 
buildings. In the vicinity are 
numerous summer excursion 
resorts. 

Reached by Port Huron and 
North- Western Railways, from Bay 
City, via Clifford, in 3^ hours. 

Port Jervis (Neia York) . — Orange 
Coimty; population (1880), 8,677. 

Hotels : Delaware, Fowler, Union. 

Situated on the Delaware and 
Neversink Rivers, and a favourite 
centre of excursions. A large field 
for all sorts of sports. There are 
extensive railway works, and its 
trade is not unimportant. There is 
an opera house with 1 ,200 seats, and 
two halls with 800 and 600 seats 
respectively. Point Peter, with a 
fine view, and the Falls of the Saw 
Kill are especially noteworthy. Also 
Milford and Raymonds Kill. 

Reached by New York, Lake 
Erie and Western Railway, from 
New York, in 3 hours. 



Portland {Maine). — Seat of 
Cumberland County ; i)opulation 
(1880), 33,810. 

Hotels: Preble House, Falmouth, 
United States, City. 

Places of Amusement : City Hall, 
with 3,000 sciits, and P()rtland 
Theatre with about 8U0. 

Conveyances: Tramways through 
the i)rincipal streets and to the 
suburbs. 

Fost and Telegraph Office: On 
Main-street. 

This town is situated on a penin- 
sula at the south-eastern exti'emity 
of Casco Bay. It is the Commercial 
metropolis of the State, and for its 
size has remarkably fine pul)lic 
buildings. It is a very beautiful 
town, was settled in 1632 and partly 
destroyed by fire in 1866. Its wid« 
sreetsare adorned with trees. It- is a 
port of entry, and carries on a con- 
siderable foreign and home trade. 
It has also a large number of 
factories and shipyards. The Citif 
Hall is one of the largest and finest 
municipal buildings in the United 
States. It contains a large hall, 
surmounted by a dome. The Puxf 
Office, close by, is built of white 
marble in the early Renaissance 
style. Many of the churches are 
very fine and the Custom Houst\ 
in solid granite is a handsome 
building. The Marine Hospital, 
the Library and Society of 
Natural History Buildings are all 
noteworthy. 

Lincoln Park and Evergreen 
Cemetery are beautifully laid out. 
and much visited. Numerous, 
excursions and drives may be 
made in the environs of Portland,, 
as for example to Cape Eliza- 
beth, Falmouth Foreside, Deerings 
Woods, Diamond Island, Cashing 
and Peaks Island. On Mungoy 
Hill is the Observatory, near which 
is the Eastern Promenade. The 
Western Promenade (both 150 feet 
wide and lined with double rows of 
trees) leads to Bramhall's Hill.. 
The view from the top of the Ob- 
servatory is superb. 



Reached 
Railway, 
hours. 



by Boston and 
from Boston, 



Maine 



in 



158 



IJKADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



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Portland (0>-^^oh).— Seat of Mult- 
uomnh County; piniubition (1880), 
17,577. 

Hot'dtt: Occidental, Clarendon, 
St. Charles, Holtou Kwmond. 

Conveyances : Tniinwaj'S in the 
principal streets. 

AmuKemnnfn: The Theatre, with 
l.'MM) sents, Odd Follows and several 
other spacious halls. 

Voitt ami Telegraph Office : In the 
Cistom House. 

linf/iigh Consul : A. A. Annesley, 
Consul. 

Jia Ill-era ; Bank of British 
Columbia. 

Medical: Dr. V. P. Keene, Dr. 
William Jones, Dr. A. Bcvan. 

The chief town of Ore{?on, thoupfh 
not the capital. It is situated on a 
tableland on the west bank of the 
"VVillinmetto River. The town is sur- 
rounded by a riuijra of fir-covered 
lulls, with the Cas?ado Mountains 
in the distance. Its streets are regu- 
lar, wide, and well paved, and 
liglited by gas. In the residential 
quarters they are also shaded by 
trees. An ornamented jjark-like 
garden, over 300 feet wide, extends 
through the wlu la length of the town 
which also contains some fine i)ublic 
buildings. It is a port of entry. 
The Custom House, Odd Fellows and 
Masonic ILills, the covered Market, 
and the County C'o«rf buildings are 
nil very fine. The TAbrary Association 
lias n'lai'ge reading room, with a 
library of over 10,()<K) volumes. 

Excursions are very abundant and 
varied ; u]) the ColumVna River to 
the Cascades and the Dalles ; Wal- 
lula, Kalama and Puget Sound ; 
Victoria, Astoria, Clatsop Beach,and 
various others. The sportsman will 
also find heie an excellent field. 

Reached by Central Pacific Rail- 
way, from San Francisco, via Redd- 
ing, in 29 hours. 

Portsmouth {New Hampshire).— 
Seat of Rockingham County ; popu- 
lation (1880), 9,732, 

Hotels: Rockingham, American, 
Kearsage, National. 

The only seaport in New Hamp- 
shire. It is an exceedingly curious 
old town, with well-shaded streets 
and quaint old buildings on a penin- 



sula on the south side of Piscataqua 
River. It is an intermediate place 
for visitors to the Islands of Shoals, 
barren islands, with some hotels 
much frecpiented in summer for sea 
bathing. Except for a narrow strip 
connecting it with the mainland, 
Portsmouth is entirely surrounded 
by water. The harbour is deep and 
safe, and the town has a very tran- 
(luil Dutch look about it. The 
Athena.Mim, the church of St. John, 
Wentworth Mansion, and Sir Wm. 
PepiJorell's monument near the 
Naval Yard, are special objects of 
interest. On Continental Island is 
the United States Nary Yard and a 
floating dock. On New Castle 
Island is also a summer hotel. 

Reached by Boston and Maine 
Railway, from lioston, in 2 hours. 

Portsmouth ( Virginia). — Norfolk 
County; population (1880), 11,388. 

Hotels: American, Peabody, 
Crawford. 

Situated at the mouth of the 
Elizabeth River, opposite Norfolk, 
and a sea-port, regularly laid out 
and well built. Its harbour is one 
of the best on the coast, and is 
accessible to the largest vessels. 
The U. S. Nary Yard is at Gosport, 
south of the town, and has a 
splendid dry dock. 

Near by is a Naral Hospital and 
several other buildings of note. 

Reached hy Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, lid Richmond, from Balti- 
more, in 10| hours. 

Pottsville {Pennsylrania). — Seat of 
Schuylkill County ; population 
(1880), 13,253. 

Hotels : Exchange, Merchants', 
Penn's. 

Situated on the Schuylkill River, 
at the mouth of the Norwegian 
Creek, upon the edge of the great 
Schuylkill coal basin. Its coal- 
mining business is considerable, 
but it also possesses foundries, 
rolling-mills, &c. It was founded 
in 1825. The chief buildings of note 
are the Court House, Opera House, 
Jail or Prison, Town Hall and 
Union Hall. Its railway and canal 
trallic are enormous. 

Reached by Philadelphia and 
Reading Railway, from Phila- 
delphia, vid Reading, in 4J hours. 



VORTLAND— PROVIDENX'E. 



.59 



River, 
vvegian 
e great 
coal- 
erable, 
mdries, 
oundecl 
of note 
House, 
ill and 
d canal 

a and 
rhila- 
ours. 



Poughkeepsie {^cw rorfr).--Seat 
of Dutfhes.s County ; population 
(18S0), 20,207. 
Hotels: Nelson House, Grocrory. 
Situated on a hi<jh i)liitoau, 200 
feet above the Hudson River. It is 
a famous educational resort, pos- 
pessinjf no less than H coUoj^cs. 
V<i»siir Colle.ije is perhaps the lead- 
inij female college in the United 
States. It has also extensive 
manufactories of glass, iron, and 
farming implements. The CoUhiy- 
u-ooil Opera Ilnnne is a fine building, 
and can scat 2,2(iO peoj)lo. Two 
miles north of the town stands the 
Jns<n>e Ai>t/lHiii of the Slufc, over- 
looking the Hudson. From New 
Paltz Landing, on the opposite b.cuk 
of the Hudson River, stai^es run to 
L'tke Mohonk, with a good hotel. 
This is a celebrated summer resort, 
•with fine scenery. Other places of 
interest iu the vicinity are Hyde 
Tark, Kingston and IJoudont. 

Reached bv New York Central 
and Hudson "^River Riiilway, or by 
steamer from Now York, in 2^ 
hours. 

Providence {Rhode Ishnul). — 
Seat of Providence County; popu- 
lation (18S0), 117,628. 

Hotels: Aldrich, City, Narragan- 
S3tt, Dorrance, Providence, Central, 
the latter on the European system. 

Theatres and Ammements : The 
Opera House, with 1,600; and Low's 
Opera House, with 1,300 iieats ; 
Music Hall, with 2,2(K) seats ; 
Howard's, Beethoven, and Dramatic 
Halls. 

Conceynnces: Tramways to all 
]Korts and suburbs (fare 5 cents). 
Carriages, 1 dol. per hour. Steam- 
boats to New York, four times a 
day. 

Post and Telegraph Office : Nenr the 
Arcade, in Westminster-street. 

Races, Sports: The trotting races 
tike place at the Narragansett 
Trotting Park. 

Bankers : Bank of Providence. 

Medical: Dr. Harris and Dr. 
Brown. 

Providence, the second city in 
wealth and population in the 
New England States, and a 
port of entry, is picturescpiely 



situated on both sides o: the Provi- 
dence River (also cillt!.! Black- 
stone River) at the Ii'mI of Narra- 
gansett and I'rovidenc." Hays, antl 
35 miles from the sji. It was 
founded in 1636 by one Roger 
Williams, and was incorporated in 
1832. It h;is extensive manufac- 
tiires, especially of cotton and 
woollen goods, iron, jt'wollery, etc. 
In the town are ovor 60 woollen, 
and over KK) cotton mills, an(l 
some -10 banks. The ground 
being undulating, tlie town is 
irregularly laid out, and its 
business centre is very closely 
built. 

The principal buildinirs are: The 
Citi/ Half, on HxcVi!ini,''o-i)lace, and 
fronting it the 'Solilicr's Monnmefif, 
to victhns of the Civil War. The 
County Court llousp, ou corner of 
College-street and Benefit-street, is 
an imposing biiildiuLr. The Arcade 
V)etween Westminster and .Wey- 
bosset streets is the largest in the 
States, and close to it is the Custom 
House, with the Poxt Ojfice. The 
Union Depot, or Railway Station, on 
Exchange-place, is a large and 
handsome building. The State 
Home, in North Main-street, the 
New Opera House, and the Buthr 
Exchange, in Westminster-street, aro 
all large edifices. On High-street a 
cathedral is now l)uilding. Several 
of the numerous churches aro 
worth a visit. The builtlings of 
Brown Uuirersity, on Prospect- 
sti'eet, in the eastern part of the 
town, were founded in 1767, This 
Universitj' hsis fine grounds, exten- 
sive buildings, an(l a library of 
over 50,000 voluines, in fire-proof 
rooms. The Athen(eum, corner of 
College and Benefit streets, is a 
granite Ijuildiiig of fine proportions, 
and contains a library and some 
good pictures. The Rhode Island 
Historical Society has a fine 
building opposite University 
Grounds. The Friends' School 
and the Lunatic Hospital are on 
the Seekonk River, and fine views 
are obtained fi-om them. Several 
other charitable institutions are well 
endowed, and occupy handsome 
buildings. An especially interesting 
object is the State Farm, in Cran- 
ston, occupying an area of about 
500 acres, in" which are situated the 
Workhouse, House of Correction, 



T 



160 



IJILVDSIIAW S UNITED STATKS. 



I 



1 






(If 

Til 

■ n. ''hi 



A'm-ihons?, Lunatic Asylum, and 

{St ito I'risdii. 

Rofjn' Wif/iaiim Park, of about KM) 
iv'-'rcs in cxti'iit, is uojir the western 
shore of the JJay, to the south of the 
city. Sirmi Point Cemfifcri/ is north 
of the town, ()vorl;)okin<,' tlio liliick- 
«tone rivei', !in<l is very tiisfofiilly 
hiid out and ornamented. I'rosprct 
Trrracp on Con'jr(h)n-strect com- 
mands a fine view of the town and 
environs. Favourite drives are to 
y<(}')'(i</<iHK'ff Trot till I) I'tivk, in 
Cranston; Jlunf'x Mill, with its 
little cascade; I'airfuxetf, a sca- 
l):ith'ni^ villu'j^e with a fine l)cach ; 
lliclcii J'liiiif, Silrn' Spriinj, nn(l 
excursions to Sqnuntnm and New- 
2>ort. 

Reached by New York, Provi- 
<lnn"e, and Boston Railway, from 
I.'ew York, iu 7 h;)urs. 



Pueblo {Coloriido) .—Seixt of Pueblo 
County; population (iNjsO) 7,S2l. 

Hotels: Numa, Pittsl-urpfh C'om- 
mercial, Lindell, in Pueblo proper. 
Orand Central, Gloljo, and Victoria, 
in South Pueblo. 

Bankers : 1st National Bank. 

Situated on the Arkansas River, 
at the mouth of Fontaine Creek, it 
is the chief town in Southern Colo- 
rado. It is rapidly increasing in 
importance, and is becoming a 
jj^reat railway centre. Some fine 
public buildings are also springing 
up. Ther are two Opera Houses 
and a Music Hall. From here the 
(Colorado Springs, Manitou, Pike's 
Peak, Garden of the Gods, Monu- 
Tnent Park and other famous Colo- 
rado resorts may be visited. The 
celebrated Indian Pueblos are fur- 
ther south. 

Reached by Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa F^ Railway, from Kansas 
City, cid Atchison, in 29 hours. 



Q,uincy (I/^tHoi«).— Seat of Adams 
County ; population (1«80) 27,275. 

Hotels : Tremont, Windsor. 

Situated on the Mississippi, on a 
high l)luff 130 feet above the water ; 
170 miles above St. Louis. It is a 
beautiful and regularly laid-out 
town, one of the most important in 



Illinois ; it has tramways, gas, four 
]»arks, and several cemeteries. It is 
a very important railway centre, 
while its manufacturing, commer- 
cial and agricultural interests are 
also extensive. 'I'here are several tino 
buildings in th'jtown, among which 
may ))e mentioned the Opera H()U.se 
with 1)50 seats. The Susjuiislon 
Jiridi/c on which the Missis8ipi)i is 
crossed, is one of the finest struc- 
tures in the world. The Fitif 
Grouinls is a well laid-out and orna- 
mental park of ab;)Ut HO acres. 

Reached by Chicago, Ibirlington 
and Quincy Railway, from Chicago, 
via Galcsburg, in 9i hours. 



Quincy (Mass'ichngetts). — Nor- 
folk County ; population (1880), 
12, lit. 

ICoteU: Old Sipiantum, Albion, 
Atlantic, New Sipiantum. 

A bcautifid old town on Quincy 
B;iy in Boston llarl)our. It is 
especially noteworthy as the l)irth- 
l)lace and home of Adams & Quincy. 
It has several large halls, and has 
some considerable m ufactories. 
Granite is extensively |uarried in 
the neiglibourhood. There is little 
to interest the tourist. 

Reached l)y Old Colony Railway', 
from Boston, in one hour. 



Hacine {Wisiovun) .—^ent oi Racine 
County ; population (1880), 16,031. 

Hotels: Commercial, Blake, Con- 
gress, Huggins. 

An interesting town, beautifully 
situated on Lake Michigan, at the 
mouth of the Root River. It has 
several important manufactoiies, 
chiefly of agricultural machines and 
implements. Its harbour is one of 
the best on the lake, and it has an 
extensive commerce. It has wide, 
straight, and well shaded streets, of 
which Main-stveet is the chief 
thoroughfare. Racine College, foun- 
ded in 1834, is a thriving institution, 
and occupies some handsome build- 
ings. Washburn Hospital, several 
Moman Catholic churches, and con- 
vents are noteworthy. 

Reached by Chicago and North- 
western Railway, from Milwaukee, 
in one hour. 



PUEBLO — UICHMOXD. 



161 



North- 
raukee, 



Raleigh {North Curo/iM«).— CapiUil, 
of the State nnd seat of Wako 
County ; population (1880), 7,630. 

Hotel* : Central, National, Yar- 
borough House Exchange. 

Situated six miles West of the 
Neuse River, and nearly in the 
centre of the State. It is regulorly 
laid out, the centre being formed by 
Union Square, a small i)ark of ton 
acres. From here, four streets 
extend towards the extremities of 
the town, dividing it into four e'lutil 
parts, each emV)ellished b,, a small 
T)ark of four acres. The prin-^ipal 
building, the Stute House, modelled 
after the Athenian Parthenon, is in 
Unicm S(iuare. The Post Office and 
Custom House, I unatic Asylum, 
Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 
State Geological Museum, Peniten- 
tiary, several large Theatres and 
Halls, etc., are all public l)uildings 
of note. The principal produce is 
tobacco, and this forms the stajjle 
article of trade and manufacture. 
It is, to some extent, a winter 
resort, but is not much fre- 
quented. 

Reached by Richmond and Dan- 
ville Line, from Richmond in 12^ 
hours. 



Reading (Pennsylcanii). — Seat of 
Berks County; popuhition (1880), 
4:3,280. 

Hotels : American, Mansion, Key- 
stone, Grand, Central, Merchants. 

Theatre and Amusements: Grand 
Opera House and Academy of Music, 
each containing about 1,000 seats; 
Library and Maennerjhor Halls 
each 800 seats. 

Conveyances: Tramways (fare 
5 cts.) 

Post and Telegraph Offices: On 
Penn-square. 

Situated on the Schuylkill River 
and Canal, it is the third town in 
manufactures and fifth in popula- 
tion of Pennsylvania. It is sur- 
roxinded by hills, is regularly laid 
out, and its straight streets are 
lined with fine buildings. The 
centre occupies Penn-square. The 
City Hall, at the Corner of Franklin 
and 5th-street, with a public library 
is very fine, as also the Court House, 
on 6th-3treet. Other prominent 



buildings are the Grand Opera 
House, Academy of Muse, County 
Prison, and Trinity Church, of the 
31 Uuadiug has. The town is situ- 
ated in a very fertile district, and 
its agricultural interests are con- 
siderable. The manufacture of 
iron and woollen goods, hats, otc. 
arc the chief sources of wealth to 
the town. Most of the inhabitants 
are of German origin, and the 
dialect spoken here recalls that of 
the early settlers. 

Near Reading there arc several 
places of interest to the tourist. 
White Spot, on Penn Mountain, has 
a very extensive view ; the Switch- 
b.ich, on Neversink Mountain, also 
a Mineral Spring, and City Park 
Hotel are favourite points for ex- 
cursions. 

Reached by the Pennsylvania 
Railway, from Phil.idelphia, in 2.i 
luiurs, v':d Pottstown. 



Richmond (Indiana). — Wayni> 
County; population (1880), 12,743. 

Hotels : Arlington, Bryson, Gi- 
thens, Grand, Huntington' 

Situated on the White Water 
River, it is a prosperous town, and 
the centre of a rich agricultural 
district. It has abundant watar 
power, which drives numerous mills 
and factories. It is handsomely 
built, has two Opera Houses witn 
1,(K)0 seats each, a public library, 
20 churches and many other i)ublic 
and private residences. The 
Quakers form the largest jmrtion of 
the inhabitants of Uiclimond. 
Tramways traverse the principal 
streets, and it is altogether a rising 
town. The Earlham College and 
Friends' Academy, two notededuca- 
tional establishments, are owned 
by the Quakers, The town also 
has a fine Park called the Fair 
Grounds. 

Reached by Chicago, St. Louis, & 
Pittsburg Railway, via Chicago, in 
114 hours. 



Richmond (F<>ir'MVO.- Capital of 
Virginia, and seat of Henrico 
County; population (1880), 03,Ho3 

Hotels: Ballard, Exchange, on 
Franklin-street, For I's, Amoritiau, 
St. James'. 

F 



162 



BRADSflAW S UNITED STATKS. 



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Bent aur ant » and Cafc» : Pizzini'8, 
B road- street ; Zetlund's, 11th arul 
BaJik-strcet ; Antoino's on Main- 
street. 

Theatre and Amu$ement»: The 
Theatre, with 1,200 scats, Virjfinia 
Opera House, Mozart Hall, Mon- 
tieello, Theatre Comicjuc, and 
SJinjfer Halle. 

Conveyances: Tramways through 
all principal streets and to 8ubur))8 
(fare 5 cents). Omnibuses at the 
railway stations and steamboat 
landin.s^'s, and carriages at various 
points in the town. From station to 
any point in town, 50 cents ; i)er 
hour, IJ dols. and 1 dol. for each 
additional hour oi fraction. 

Post and Telegraph Office in main 
street, between 10th and 11th 
streets. 

Richmond, the most important 
town o ■ both Virginias, is situated 
on the northern bank of the James 
River. It is built, like Rome, on 
seven hills, and surrounded by 
beautiful scenery. The streets are 
wide and straight, while many of 
the residential thoroughfares are 
bordered on each side with grass 
and flower gardens. The Province 
was first discovered by Sir Walter 
Raleigh in 1554, and named in 
honour of Queen Elizabeth " Vir- 
ginia." The town was founded in 
1737, and incorporated in 1742. In 
1779, while still only a small village, 
it became the capital. In the prin- 
cipal epochs of American history, it 
has been the scene of many political 
dramas. During the Civil W ars it 
was the capital of the Southern 
States, and as such suffered greatly 
in the attempts of the Federal forces 
to capture it. The earthworks then 
thrown up as defences may still be 
traced. In 1865, just before its 
capture by the Federal forces, the 
•Confederates set fire to some tobacco 
warehouses and public stores, and a 
^eat part of the town was thus 
destroyed. It is rapidly increasing 
now, and carries on an immense 
trade in tobacco and flour. The 
manufactures comprise heavy 
machinery and ironworks, railway 
plant, sugar refining, and the 
making of cigars, cotton goods and 
flour. Richmond is in connection 
by railway with all parts of the 
States, and its shipping ia also very 
considerable. 



The i)rincipal thoroughfare is 
Main-street. The most i)rorainent 
building is the State Capitol, on 
Shockoe-hill, and in the middle of a 
j)ark. It is on tlie ))lan of the 
Maison Cun^e at Nismes, and tlie 
view from its roof is very fine. In 
the s(juare Hall in the centre of tho 
building, and surmounted by a 
dome is the statue of Wash- 
ington, by Houdon. It is of life 
size, of white marble, and repre- 
sents Washington in the uniform of 
an American (Jcneral during tho 
Revolution, ('lose by, in the wall, 
is the bust of Lafayette. Another 
conspicuous o])ject is tho Statue of 
Washington, by Cniwford, in front 
of the Governor's house and the 
west gate of Cai)itol-s(|uare. It is 
of l)ronze, the ritler and horse being 
of colossal size. The pedestal is sur- 
rounded ])y the figures of Patrick 
Henrv, Thomas Jefferson, John 
Marshall, George Mason, Thomas 
Nelson and Andrew Lewis. Tho 
whole monument is very fine. At 
other pointK of the Cajntal-square 
are a mar])le statue of Henry Clay 
and General Stonewall Jackson, by 
Foley. Oocernor's House is a plain 
building on the north-east comer of 
Capitol-s(iuare. The State Library 
in the capital contains over 40,000 
volumes. Tho Historical Society 
collections are in the buildings of 
the Westmoreland Club. The City 
Hall on Capitol-street is a handsome 
building. The Custom House, Medical 
College, Richmond College and South- 
ern Female Institute, the BrocJcen- 
brotigh House, of historical interest, 
the Almshouse8,Penitentiary, Libby 
Prison and Belle Isle are all inter- 
esting, and worth a visit. 

The Monumental church, St. 
John's, St. Paul and the old African 
church, are among the most note- 
worthy. H oily wood is the principal 
and handsomest of the several 
cemeteries of Richmond. It occupies 
a beautiful site, and is much em- 
bellished by trees, shrubs, flowers 
and handsome monuments of men of 
note in American history. 

Marshall and Monroe Park are in 
the east end of the town. Opposite 
the river is Manchester, con- 
nected with Richmond by five 
bridges across the river. The latter 
has some cotton mills, two of tho 
Lirgeit flour mills in the world, and 



7 



RICHMOND — ROCK ISLAND. 



163 



fare is 
orainent 
Uol, cm 
Idle of II 
of the 
[ind the 
3no. In 

of tho 

1 '>y a 
Wasb- 

3 of life 
rt repre- 
iform of 
•iiij? tho 
the wall, 
Another 
Statue of 
in front 
and the 
■e. It is 
rse being 
t,al issur- 
' Patrick 
m, John 

Thomas 
■is. The 
fine. At 
al-square 
nry Clay 
?kson, by 
s a plain 
comer oi. 
e Librari/ 
er 40,0(H) 
r/ Societif 
Idings of 
The City 
landsonie 
e. Medical 
nd South- 

Broeketi' 

interest, 
iry, Libby 

all inter- 
arch, St. 
d African 
lost note- 
} principal 
le several 
t occupies 
much em- 
»s, flowers 
3 of men of 

irk are in 
Opposite 
ter, con- 
hy five 
The latter 
;wo of tho 
w^orld, and 



4 



7 



the Tredepar Ironirnrkt, where the 
cannon f()r the Confederate Army 
were cast. The visitor may take a 
carriage to visit the battlefields and 
National cemeteries. 

Reached by Richmond, Fredericks- 
burg and I^oU)ni«c Railway, from 
Washington, in 4i hours. 

Boohestor (New York). —Seta of 
Monroe County; ])opulation (1880), 
89,3(>3. 

Hotels : Brackett's, Power's, 
Osborn, Loider's, Whitcomb. 
National, Congress Hall, Waverley, 

Thentren and Amusements : The 
Grand Opera House and several 
Halls. 

Conveyiinces : Tramways to all 
parts and suburbs (fare 5 cents) ; 
carriages H dol. per hour; stage 
coaches to surrounding towns. 

Post and Telegraph Offices : In the 
Arcade on Main-street. 

Advantageously ami beautifully 
situated on the Genesee River at the 
Falls, seven miles from Lake On- 
tario. Tho prodigious natural water 
power of the several Falls has been 
the great source of the prosperity of 
the town. Its factories are extensive 
and varied, and as regards its flour 
mills it is perhaps without a rival. 
The njirsery gardens are also a fea- 
ture of the town, and arc well worth 
a visit. The Erie Canal crosses the 
Genesee River at Rochester by 
means of an acqueduct constructed 
by the State. 

It was founded in 1810, and in- 
corporated in 1832. It is well and 
regularly built, and the streets are 
well paved and planted with trees. 
Main-street and State-avenue are 
the principal thoroughfares. The 
Powers block of Buildings on Main- 
street is perhaps the most striking 
in the town. It has a collection of 
paintings in the upper floors, and 
from its tower a fine view of the 
town may be obtained. The Cifg 
Hall at the back of the Court House 
in Main-street is a handsome stone 
building. The University of Roche»ter 
on University-avenue, in the east 
part of the town, has a library with 
15,(XX) volumes, together with a very 
valuable geological collection, and 
is much visited. It occupies a 
massive stone building. The Arc ule 



Athentcum (library 20,000 volumos) 
and County Court House, on .Main- 
street, are noteworthy structures, 
as are also the Rochester Savings 
Bunk^i\(\ High School. Of churches 
the finest are St. Patrick's Cathedral 
(Roman Catholic), First Baptist 
and First Presbyterian. 

Other important institutions merit- 
ing inspection are the City and St. 
Mary's Hospital, on West-avenue, 
the hitter building a huge big stone 
edifice. Tho Theological Seminary, 
with library, on University-avenue, 
the Western House of Refuge and 
Reformatory for Girls, all of which 
occujjy fine buildings. A fine drive, 
eight miles in length, is down 
the Boulovai'd to l^ako Ontario. 
Mount Hope Cemetery, the Acqueduct 
acn)ss the Genesee River, and tho 
Oenesee Falls are well worth visiting. 
The latter are best seen from the 
bridge above the mill or down the 
stairway at the bottom of the Fall. 
There are three falls, one 06 feet 
high, the second 2H feet, and tho 
third 84 feet ; l)etween them are 
some rapids. 

Reached by New York Central and 
Hudson River Railway, from New 
York, in 12 hours, from Buffalo in 'i. 
hours. 

Bockford (///inoM).— Seat of Win- 
nebago County; population (1880), 
13,136. 

Hotels : American, Edwards, 
Holland, City, Commercial. 

Bankers: Winnebago National 
Bank. 

Medical ; Dr. McDonell, Dr. Lane. 

Beaif fully situated on b )tli sides 
of the Rock River. It is remarkable 
for tho enterprising character of its 
inhabitants. It has sevei'al con- 
siderable factories, and carries on 
an extensive trade. It is regu- 
larly l)uilt, has numerous churches, 
six ])ank8, and a number of fine 
buildings. It has an Oper,i House, 
and two smaller halls seating above 
800 persons. 

Reached by Chicago and Iowa 
Railway, from Chicago, in 4 hours. 



Bock Island (///»«ot»).— Seat of 
Rock Island County ; population 
(1880), 11,660. 

F 2 



1G4 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STAirCS. 



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JloteU : Harper, Commercial.Rock 
Island. 

Situated on the Mississippi River, 
divided here by Rock Island, thi*ee 
miles lonar, whence it derives its 
name. The Rock River enters the 
Mississippi a little below the town. 
Moline, higher up the river, lies at 
uhe other end of the Island. 
From sixteen miles aliove Mo- 
line, to three miles below 
it, extend the Upper Rupids, 
which furnish, by means of a dam 
at Moline, enormous water power. 
This is employed in numerous 
factories. The County Bidldhiga, 
Theological Institute, and Auguittann 
College, Harper's Theatre are among 
the noteworthy buildings. On the 
Island, which is the property of the 
Federal Government, is an Arsenal 
. and Armoury, with very extensive 
liuildings. The island is laid out, and 
is much resorted to in summer as a 
liark, baths, etc. Several fine 
bridges connect it with all three 
towns. Daveni)ort opposite, and 
Moline above Rock Island, are worth 
a visit. 

Reached by Chicago, Burlington 
•ind Q':iiicy Railway, from St. Louis, 
in 10 hours. 

Sacramento {California.) .— Cai)ital 
of the State and Seat of Sacramento 
County; population (1880), 21,420. 

Hotels: Grand, Capitol, Orleans, 
Langiinm, Golden Eagle, Union, 
Western, State, Paciflc. 

Theatres and Amusements: The 
Metropolitan Theatre, with over 
1,000 seats; the Pavilion and Odd 
Fellows Hall, witl each 500 seats. 

Conveyances: Tramways and car- 
riages. 

Beading Rooms: In the first 
Hotels, for newspapers; in the 
Library of the Capitol, for books, 
etc. 

Post and Telegraph Offices: On 
San Francisco-streot. 

Situated on the East Bank of the 
Sacramento River, a mile below 
the mouth of the American River. 
It is the third town of the State in 
size and in p()])ulation, and is built 
on a broad i)lain. It is a very rt- 
tractive town, with wide t-traight 
streets. The dwelling-lunises are 
mostly of wood, and are surrounded 



by gardens, which owing to the mild- 
ness of the climate, are evergreen. 
The streets are lined with trees. 
The principal building in the town 
is the Capitol, which is one of the 
fine:at structures in the United 
States. In it is the State Library, 
with over ;i.>,000 volumes. The 
Sacramento is another Library, 
and contains about 8,000 volumes. 
The Agricultural Society possesses a 
fine nice-course, where matches are 
held annually, in September. Many 
fine churches, schools, and other 
])ublic institutions, will attract the 
notice of the tourist. The town is 
less remarkable for what it actually 
is at present, tha'i for what it has 
once been. It >"as suffered greatlj' 
from flres {\\m inundations, owing 
to the lowness of its site. The Ims-- 
ness porticm of the town had to be 
raised originally 8 feet, and is now 
protected by adum— "the levee." 
Sacramento carries on an extensive 
trade, and has important industries, 
such as the cantiing of salmon jukI 
^"nit. It is also an important rail- 
way centre. 

Reached Ijy Central Pacific Rail- 
way, from San Francisco, in four 
hours. 



St. Augustine [Florida) .—Scat of 
St. John County; population (1880), 
2,293. 

Hotels: Magnolia, St. Augustine, 
Florida. 

The town is situated on the Atlan- 
tic Oceai., 33 miles from Jackscm- 
ville at the mouth of the Matanzas 
River, and is an important i)ort. It 
was founded in 1565, by the Spaniard 
Menendez. Fronting it lies Anasta- 
sia Island, a natural breakwater, 
which cuts off the sea view 
entirely. St. George, Charlotte, Bay 
and Tolomato streets are the princi- 
pal thoroughfares. The streets are 
narrow and crooked. The town has 
many chaif^cteristics of Mediaeval 
Spain about it, and on that account 
is very interesting. It is a noted 
winter resort, and many wealthy 
" Northerners " possess fine villas 
here. Their number is increasing 
annually, and St. Augustine may 
possibly soon become the Nice of 
the new world. The society is very 
fashionabi'% and the luxury of life 
here is becoming proverbial. The 



SACKAMEXTO— ST. LOUIS. 



165 



(1880), 



Atlan- 

ckson- 

atiinzas 

(ort. It 

pallia rd 

Auasta- 

i water, 

view 

tte, Bay 

lirinci- 

ets are 

jwiihas 

edia?va 1 

lCC()»lllt 

noted 
.vealthy 
villas 
reasiiif? 

e may 
Nice of 

is very 

of life 
il. The 



Cuthrdritl is a very curious building 
nnd the old Spaiiinh Forf of S<in 
Marco is interestinyf. '\!\\cSen Wall, 
with the United States Barracks at 
the south end, is another object of 
interest, and is lary^ely fre(iuente(l 
on moonlij^ht nii^hts. It protects 
the town from the sea and is nearly 
« mile lonj^, Cit}/ Gate at the head 
of Geor<?e-street is another curiosity. 
Several convents and the Governors 
Palace are noteworthy. 

Pleasant excursions are made 
from St. Auf?ustine to North Beach, 
South Beach, the Oranj^e Groves in 
the environs, Matanzas, Fish's 
Island, Matanzns Inlet and Sul])hur 
Si)rinj?, 2^ miles out to sea from 
^Matanzas. 

St. Au<?ustine attracts annually 
nbout 1(),(K)0 winter visitors, anil 
ilurinj? that season it is very s^ay. 
The annual mean temperat.ire is 
70 dej^rees Fahr. and winter mean 
58 dei,'iees Fahr. The climate is 
mild and very steady. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from Washington, via 
Jacksonville, in 13 hours. 



St. Johnsbury (IV/vkohO.— Scatof 
Caledonia County ; population 
(1880), 0,806. 

Hotels : Avenue, Cottage, St. 
Johnsbuiy. 

A i)loasiiig town on the Passurap- 
sic River, with considerable manu- 
facturing interests. The Court 
House is a handsome ))uilding, while 
•several fine churches and private 
<lwellings attract the eye of the 
visitor. The Athenceum, with a 
library of 10,000 volumes is note- 
worthy. In front of the Court 
House is a handsome soldiers' irioiiu- 
ment. The Couuecticut valley ends 
here; the scenery around is very 
fine. 

Reached by Boston nnd Lowell 
Railway, from Boston, via Wells 
River, in 0^ hours. 

St. Joseph (3/iMOHrj).— Seat of 
Buchanan County ; population 
(1880), 32,481. 

Hotels: Pacific, Union Depot. 

A rapidly increasing town, advan- 
tageously situated on the Missouri 



River. It lias consideralj'.e com- 
merce, is a busy railway centre and 
has important manufactories. The 
streets are wide, straight, well 
paved and lighted with gas. Tram- 
ways run to all i)arts of the town. 
There area number of fine buildings, 
and the town has undoubtedly ii 
great future ))efore it. 

Reached by Missouri Pacific Rail- 
way, from St. Louis, in 12^ hours. 

St. Louis (Missouri).— Hcixt of St. 
Louis County- ; population (1880) 
350,.522. 

Hotels: Liinlell, Laclede, Sontheriif 
Planter's, Banium's, Closer, iwa first- 
class houses with rates from 2 dols. 
to 5 dols. per day. liarnion's is also 
on the Euroiiean system, and 
Everett suid Broad iray are smaller 
houses on the American i>lan. There 
are also a lumber of smaller hotels 
and boarding houses. 

Restaurants and Cafes: French's, 
on 5tli and IMne-streets, very good ; 
Planter's, on Ith-street is very good, 
has a room for ladies only, which is 
elegantly furnished ; Ponher's, iu 
Olive-street; Faust in Elm-street; 
Sinclair and Beer's, Garves', Lamon 
Pezotte, the Vienna Cato, Hilton's 
Milford, the Fuf/lish Kitchen, and 
Hotel Moser Restaurants. 

Theatres and Anniseniputs : Tho 
Olympic Theatre, on Walnut-Street ; 
De Par's Opera JInuse in Market- 
street; Grand Opera House and 
Pope's Theatre, on Olive-street, are 
the ])rincipal theatres. Others are 
the Standard, the Peo|)le's, Theatre 
Coini(iue and Pickwick Theatres, 
The/I;'o//o GardensmuX thoseof Uhriij 
and Schneider' t arj beer gardens, 
witli good instrumental music iu 
summer, and are frequented by 
many of the wealthiest people of St. 
Louis. 

Heading Poouis, Libraries, etc. : At 
the leading Hotels for news])a])ers, 
etc. The Mercantile Library ill 
Locust-Street (with (;o,(K)0 volumes) 
has a fine reading room and soiuo 
famous collections of i)aintings and 
statuary, etc. The Public School 
Library on the second floor of tho 
Polytechnic Buildiny, in Chestnut- 
Street, has oo.oiH* volumes. Tho 
Academy of Science, with a museura 
and library, and the Missouri His- 
torical Society with coUei'tions. 



;ili 



166 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



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Conveyances: Tramways in every 
direction (fare 5 cents) and to the 
suburbs. Carriages are at the steam- 
boat landings and stations, and at 
different stands in the town. One 
or more persons, one mile or less, 1 
dol. ; each additional mile, \ dol. 
more ; per hour, 2 dols. for the first 
and 1^ dols. for each additional hour, 
Call policemen in case of dispute. 
Ferries to East St. Louis from Carr- 
street, Market and Spruce-streets. 

Eailtrcit/ Stations: The Union 
Depot in Poplar-street, between 11 th 
and 12 streets, is the terminus for 
all roads from the east and north 
entering St. Louis over the bridge. 
The Wabash, St. Louis and Pacijic 
Mailway in Biddle-street ; the Mis- 
touri and Pacijic Mallu-ay and Atlan- 
tic and Pacijic, on the corner of 
Poplar and 7th streets ; the /row 
Mountain Mailway on the corner of 
4th-street and Cbouteau-avenue. 

Sports, Saces, etc. : In Forrest- 
park for horse racing, and in Lin- 
dell-park is the trotting course. 

Clubs: The Un'versity Club is the 
most important, on 5th-street and 
Broadway ; the Germania, on corner 
of 9th and Gratiot streets ; the St. 
Louis, comer of 16th-street and 
■VVashington-avcnue ; the Mercantile 
Club, on Locust-street ; the Lieder- 
kranz, corner of 13th-street and 
Chouteau-avenue ; all have line 
buildings, with every convenience. 
Introduction by a member secures 
all privileges. 

Poxt cud Teler/raph Office: Corner 
of 3rd and Olive-streets, open on 
week days from 7 a.m. till 6 p.m. 
On Sundays from 12 till 1 p.m. 
Several sub-stations and the usual 
letter boxes as e'.sewhere. 

Bankers : Bank of St. Louis. 

Medical : Dr. MacDonell, Dr. 
Mulhall. 

Ticket and Excnrnion Agents : 
Thomas Cook & Son, Sixtli and 
Pine streets. 

St. Louis, the commercial metro- 
polis of the Mississippi basin, and 
the largest town west of this river, 
is situated on three hills rising from 
the river bank to the height of 150 
feet. It extends aboiit 11 miles 
along the rivei*, and m its broadest 
portfon about three miles inland, 
and covers in all a space of about 



21 square miles. The business por- 
tion of the city is compactly built, 
and extends about six miles along 
the river, by one mile inland. It 
was founded in 1764, by Laclede, 
one of the partners in the Louisiana 
Fur Company, as a trading post. It 
was incorporated in 1822, and in 
1850 its poDulation was 74,439. 
Since then it has advanced with 
rapid strides, and is now the sixth 
city as regards population in the 
Union. Its commerce is immense, 
especially in live stock, provisions, 
bread-stuffs, cotton, and agricul- 
tural produce. A large trade is 
also done in lead. Its factories, 
however, constitute its main source 
of wealth. Their number in 1880 
was 2,924, with 41,825 hands, 
51,000,000 dols. invested capital, and 
114,000,000 dols. value in products. 
The lower part of the town is 
irregular, and the streets are nar- 
row and crooked. The newer and 
residential (juarters are, however, 
very regular, with straight, wide 
streets, and broad avenues planted 
with trees. The streets running 
north and south are numbered, 
with the exception of Broadway, 
Carondelet-street and Jeffersoii- 
a venue. Those rimning cast and 
west are named. The house num- 
bers 1)egin in the north and south 
streets, from Market-street, and in 
those crossing them at the Levee. 
Fourth-street is the principal tho- 
roughfare; Main, Ford, and 2nd- 
sti-eets are cliiefly composed of 
wholesale warehouses; Washim/ton 
and Grand avenues are very wide, 
and among the handsomest in the 
town. The chief residential quarter 
is in Lucas Place, Olive, Locust, 
Pine streets, Washington and 
Chouteau avenues, and around 
Lafayette-square. 

The finest building in the town is 
the Court IIoKsf, on Chestnut and 
Market-streets, with -^ high dome, 
whence a fine view can be o])tained 
of the town and environs. The 
Chamber of Co)nmercc,\y\th. Exchange 
Hall, in 3rd-street, is the commer- 
cial centro of the town, and is said 
to be the linest of its kind in the 
country. The Masonic Temple^ 
corner of Market and 7th sti'eets, is a 
very fine building, especially in its 
interior. Christ Church, in Locust- 
Street, is a very imposing church 



i 



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ST. LOUIS. 



1G7 



!83 por- 
y built, 
i alons 
nd. It 
aclede, 
uisiana 

)OSt. It 

and in 

74,439. 
id with 
le sixth 

in the 
imense, 
visions, 
ngricul- 
rade is 
ctories, 
1 source 
in 1880 

hands, 
tnl, and 
roducts. 
;owu is 
ire nar- 
iver and 
lowever, 
it, wide 
I)laiited 
running^ 
inhered, 
oadway, 
efferson- 
nist and 
so nura- 
id south 

and in 

Levee, 
pal tho- 
nd 2nd- 
losed of 
tshinf/ton 
wide, 
in the 

quarter 

Locust, 
and 

around 

town is 
tnut and 
Vi dome, 
()])tained 
IS. The 
xcbauge 
cominer- 
d is said 
d in the 

Temple, 
eets, is a 
\y in its 

Loeust- 
r church 



it 






edifice, wiJle the Cathedral 
(Roman Catholic), in Walnut-street, 
is a splendid structure. The 
City Hall is in Market-street. The 
Four Courts in Clark-avenue con- 
tain an iron prison, so constructed 
that the watchmen have all the cells 
at once under their eyes. The 
Custom House, Post Office, and Sub- 
Treasury, in Olive-street, is a huge 
building, and the most costly in 
the town. The most elaborately 
decorated is the building of the 
Columbia Life Insurance Company, 
in Locust-street. The Levee, Re- 
imblican Building, the Union 
Market, St. Louis Elevator, and 
United States Arsenal, in the 
extreme south end of the town, are 
also worthy of a visit. The Great 
Bridge across the Mississippi from 
foot of Market-street to East St. 
Louis, is regarded as one of the 
greatest triumphs of modern 
engineering. It has three spans 
resting on four piers, each span 
being over 500 feet in length. It 
was erected at a cost of over ten 
million dollars, and visitors should 
not fail to inspect it. 

Among other noteworthy churches 
the First Presbyterian, on Lucas- 
place, may be mentioned. It has a 
fine to vver, is richly decorated inside, 
and built in the Gothic style of 
architecture. Union Church, in 
Locust-street, St. Peter and Paul 
(Catholic), in Allen-avenue, St. 
Alphonso (Catholic), in Grand- 
avenue ; Baptist Church on Beau- 
mont-street ; the Synagogue, or 
Jewish Temple, corner of 17th and 
riuo-streets, are very fine. The 
Pilgrim Congregational Church, 
in Washington-avenue, is also very 
fine, and has a belfry with 
chimes. 

Washington University is a large 
building on Washington-avenue. It 
is a thriving institution, founded in 
1853. The Mercantile Lilirury, 
corner of 5th and Locust-streets, is a 
very noteworthy institution, the 
libniry and reading-room being free. 
In the hall are some ])aintings, 
statuary, and other collections. 
The aS^ Louis University (Jesuit) 9th 
and Washington-avenue, was 
founded in 1829, has a valuable 
museum, and is well attended. The 
Polytechnic, on the corner of 
Chestnut and 7th streets, is commo- 



dious, the Public School Library, on 
the 2nd floor, having over (5(),000 
volumes. Mary Institute, St. Louis 
Law School, College of Christian 
Brothers, High School, and Con- 
cordia College, are all thriving 
educational establishments, and 
occupy fine buildings. 

The charitable institutions of the 
town are remarkalile. In the first 
place there is the County Lunatic 
Asylum, on Arsenal-road, with Poor 
House and House of Industry 
beyond. The former has grounds 40 
acres in extent, and an artesian 
well, 3,843 feet deep. The City 
Hospital, on Lafayette-avenue ; the 
Deaf and Duml) Asylum, the Work- 
house, and House" of Refuge, the 
U. S. Marine Hospital, ancl the 
Convent of the Good Shepherd, are 
among the most noteworthy. The 
Exhibition Building, in Missouri 
Park, is a noble edifice, and has, 
besides a permanent industrial, etc., 
exhibition hall, an art gallery, and 
a music hall. 

The Public Parks and s(iuares of 
St. Louis are equally numerous, as 
very tastefully laid out. The 
principal are : Lafayette Park, in the 
southern portion of the town, with 
an orchestra on Thursday after- 
noon in summer. Tower Grove Park, 
in the south-west part of the town, 
is a most pleasant iiromenade. 
Shaw's Garden, adjoining it, extends 
over 109 acres. It is a botanical 
garden, owned bj^ Mr. Shaw, who 
has o])ened it to the ])ublic, and 
intends beriueathing it to the town. 
The Fair Grounds, 85 acres in extent, 
north of the town, has a fine 
Zoological Garden, and an Amjihi- 
theatre, capaV)le of seating 40,0«K) 
people. Fair Week, the first week in 
October, is the best time for the 
visitor to be in St. Louis. Other 
noted S'juares and ])arksare : Forest 
Park, covering 1,350 acres, four 
miles west from the Court House; 
Missouri Park, Hyde Park, St. 
Louis-place, Washington-scjuarc, 
Northei'n and Lindell parks. 

The City Water Works, with 
engine rooms (open to visitors) at 
Bissells ])oint, 3^ miles nyi the river, 
and north of the town, are worthy 
an inspection. Bellefounfaiue Ceme- 
tery ccmtiiins some fine muimments, 
and is tastefully adorned with trees 
and shrubberies. It is situated in 



J 



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168 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



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the north part of the town, 4^ miles 
distant from the C'ourt House. 
Calcury Cemetery adjoins it on the 
north. 

There are numerous places inte- 
resting for excusions in the en- 
virons: viz : to East St. Louis and 
suburbs, on the opposite shore, 
while a voyage up the river will 
amply repay the cost or time it may 
involve. 

St. Louis is the converging point 
for 16 important railway lines and 
nearly 15,000 miles of river naviga- 
tion. It owns over 650 vessels, of 
which 210 are steamers, valued at 
seven million dols., with a carrying 
capacity 250,(X)0 tons. 

Reached by the Missouri Pacific 
Railway, from Omaha, in 2^ hours. 

St. Paul {Minnesota). — Capital 
of Minnesota and Seat of Ramsey 
County; population (1880), 111,397. 
Hotels : Merchants, Metropolitan, 
Ryan, Windsor, Clarendon, Sher- 
man. 

Theatres and Amusements: The 
Opera House, seating 2,300 people ; 
the Market and Sherman Halls. 



Tramways 
cents) 



to all 



carriages 1 



Conveyances : 
parts (fare, 5 
dols. per hour. 

Post and Telegraph Office : In the 
Custom House, in Wabashaw-street. 

Bankers: 1st National Bank. 

Medical : Dr. O'Donnell, Dr. Ray. 

Dentist : Dr. Pink. 

Situated on both banks of the 
Mississippi River, 2,200 miles from 
its mouth, it is the most populous 
town of the State, and the commer- 
cial centre of the great North-AVest. 
It is situated (m several terraces, 
forming a fine amphitheatre, open to 
the South and following the curve 
of the River. The site was first 
visited as far back as 1680 hy 
Father Hennepin. In 1766 Jonathan 
Carver made a treaty with the 
Dakotah Indians in Carver's Cave, 
and in 1837 the first claim was 
entered by Pierre Parent. The first 
buildings were erected in 1838. The 
town was in the first instance 
merely an Indian trading statioii. 
It was incorporated only in 1854, 
but since then has steadily 
increased in importance, more 
especially since the completion of 



the Northern Pacific Railway, of 
which it is the Eastern Terminus. 

The original town was regularly 
laid out, but its newer portions are 
irregular and many of the streets 
crooked and narrow. They are all 
well graded, partially paved and 
lighted with gas. The United States 
Custom House, with Post Office, is the 
principal i)ublic building. The 
State Capitol is a plain brick edifice 
on high ground. It is of large 
dimensions. The Opera House, in 
Wabasha w-street is a very fine 
building, and possesses a large audi- 
torium. Many of its 50 churches 
are handsome. The Academy of 
Sciences has collections of nearly 
130,000 specimej. 8 in natural history. 
A great many circulating libraries 
exist in the town. The public and 
private educational esta]>lishments 
are excellent, while several female 
colleges enjoy a well-merited repu- 
tation. There are also several 
charitable institutions of note. It 
has an extensive wholesale trade 
and its manufactures are consider- 
able. Several railway companies 
have machine and car shops here. 

Objects of interest and excur- 
sions abound in the vicinity of 
St. Paul. The natural caves are 
many, the most noteworthy. 
Carver's Cave, is near the river 
in Dayton's Bluft"; Fountain Cave 
is about two miles up the river, 
a stream flowing through it, and 
it is more extensive than the 
former. Drives to White Bear 
Lake, Bald Eagle Lake, Lake 
Como, and Minnehaha Palls are very 
enjoyable. Lake Como affords good 
boating and fishing, and the City 
Park is close by. A Icmger excur- 
sion is to Minneapolis, and this 
should not be omitted by the tourist. 

Reached by Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis and Omaha Railway, 
from Milwaukee, in 16^ hours. 



Salem (Massachusetts). — Esi.ex 
County; population (1880), 28,184, 

Hotels: Derby, Essex, Farragut, 
Central, Salem. 

Situated on a strip of land on the 
sea, between the North and South 
Rivers. It is a vcneral)lc old place, 
having been the first permanent 
settlement in the old colony of 
Massachusetts. It has large manu- 



i 



ST. PAUL — SALT LAKB: CITY. 



169 



ly, of 

inus. 
?ularly 
ms are 
streets 
are all 
ed and 
i States 
e, is the 
. The 
: edifice 
f large 
[otise, in 
ry fine 
ge audi- 
tiurches 
iemy of 
nearly 
history, 
libraries 
L)lic and 
shments 
I female 
id repu- 
several 
aote. It 
,le trade 
sonsider- 
•mpanies 
)8 here. 
I excur- 
inity of 
ives are 
worthy, 
e river 
in Cave 
e river, 
it, and 
Ihan the 
Ite Bear 
, Lake 
,are very 
|rd8 good 
,he City 
|r excur- 
nd this 
tourist. 
. Paul, 
ailway, 
Irs. 



Esf.ex 
^8,184. 
irragut, 

ll on the 
]l South 
il place, 
Imanent 
nry of 
1 rnanu- 



factories. Plummer Hall, with the 
library of the Salem AthetKBum and 
Essex Institute, is a handsome build- 
ing in Essex-street. Eaxt India 
Memorial Hall contains rare and ex- 
tensive collections. It is a port of 
entry and has some ship building 
yards. Peal)ody, two miles distant 
should be visited. Gallows Hill is 
interesting in a historical sense. 
The Court House has nothing strik- 
ing about it. In it are kept some 
documents relating to the witch- 
craft trials. The streets are very 
irregular and niirvow. 

Reached by Bc)st(m and Lowell 
Railway, from Boston, in 2 hours. 

Salem {Oreffn7i).—Ci\]nta\ of the 
State and seat of Marion County; 
populati(m (18S0), 2,78(5. 
Hotels: Chenieketii, Roed. 
Situated on Willamette River, it is 
a very modern place. It has a repu- 
tation for its educational resources. 
The State House is an important 
building. The Willamette Unirersifi/, 
"Women's College, Sister's School, 
the PenHevtiary, Deaf and Dumb 
School and Institution for the Blind, 
and an Opera House, with 1,500 seats, 
are the other principal edifi'^cs ^fthe 
town. It has some manafiictorics 
and a future before it. Sjjort iu the 
vicinity is said to be excellent. 

Reached by Oregon ant, California 
Railway, from Portland, in 3 hours. 

Salt Lake City. —Capital of Utah 
Territory; population (1880), 
20,768. 

Hotels: Walker, Towsend and 
Continental are the best; White, 
Wahsatch, Clift, Overland, 

Valley. 

Theatres and Amusements: The 
Walker Opera House and Mormon 
Theatre are the leading places of 
entertainment Liberal and Shel- 
don's Halls. 

Con "i/anc's: 'iramways through 
the prirf^'iil -reets ami sub- 
urbs. 
Post i felegrapli Ojfice :ln'M.i\m- 
street, 

Bankirs: Un'on National Bank. 

Situated on ^ao Jordan River, at 
the base of the slojie of the Wah- 
satch Rivei', and 12 miles south of 



the Great Salt Lake. It is the prin- 
cipal town of Utah Territory, and is 
beautifully laid out in s(juares of 10 
acres each. The streets are straight 
and well paved, and 128 feet wide. 
All have rows of trees along them 
and water rimning in paved gutters. 
The City occupies an area of nine 
square miles. The streets are lined 
with neat and commodious resi- 
dences, surrounded by gardens. 
Each homestetid has its orchard of 
pear, api)le and other fruit trees. 

The chief business streets are 
Main, Temple and 1st and 2nd South 
streets. Here the town is somewhat 
closely built. The Tabernacle is the 
first object which attracts a visitor, 
though it is devoid of all archi- 
tectural beauty. It has an eliptic 
form, and its enormous roof is sup- 
l)orte(l by 46 huge sandstone pillars ; 
15,(X)0 persons can be seated in it, 
and its organ is the largest in 
America. Worship, lectures, de- 
bates, meetings, etc., take place in 
it. The new Temple, which is yet 
unfinished, lies a little east of the 
Tabernacle, and enclosed within the 
same high walls. Its estimated 
cost is 10 million dollars. The famous 
Endowments House is within the same 
boundary wall. Here certain 
mysteries and rites are performed, 
and only Mormons about to marry 
are allowed to enter. Briy ham's 
Block contains Tithing House, the 
Beehive House, Lion House and 
several other buildings, all likewise 
enclosed within a high wall. Oi)po- 
site this is Amelia Palace or Gendo 
House. The Theatre, the iluseum, 
the Open House, City Hall, 
Deseret University, Hammond Hall 
are prominent public buildings. 
The Ueseret, Holy Cross and St. 
Marks are noted hospitals. The 
City Prison lies at the back of these. 
The Co-operative Store, in E. Temple- 
street, and the Deseret JSational 
Bank, on South Ist-street are hand- 
some Jmsiness l)uildings. 

Camp Douglas, aViOut two miles 
east of the town, commands a fine 
view. Salt Lake will, of course, be 
visited ])y every tourist. The lake 
receives the waters of several rivers, 
but is not known to have any out- 
let. The brine is very strong, and 
it is asserted that the lake is 
evaporating and its shore gradually 
advancing. 



170 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



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Reached by Union Pacific Rail- 
way, from Council Bluffs, vid Ogden, 
in 36 hours. 

San Antonio (Texas).— Scat of 
Bexar County; population (1880), 
20,550. 

Hotels : Maverick, Herd, Menger, 
Central, Vance. 

Founded Ijy Spanish Missionaries 
in 17M ; it is an old and very inter- 
esting town. li is situated on the 
San Antonio River at the confluence 
with the San Pedro. It is the most 
important town in Western Texas, 
and has a mixed population — one- 
third being Germans and one-third 
Mexicpns. It is divided into San 
Antonio proper, which lies between 
two creeks, the Alamo on the east 
bank of the San Antonio, and 
Chihuahua on the west bank of the 
San Pedro. The American (luarter 
is the business portion of the city, 
and has undergone considerable 
improvements within the last 20 
years. The other portion is situated 
on an eminence, and is mostly in- 
habited by Germans. Chihuahua is 
Mexican as regards its buildings, 
streets, etc. On the Main Plaza and 
on the Plaza de las Armas is the 
fine Cathedral. Fort Alamo, famous 
in American history during the 
Mexican wars, is on the Alamo 
Plaza. It is a town which has 
much to interest the visitor. The 
c^.iicf places are the Missions, five 
iu number. The market and street 
scenes, especially in the Mexican 
quarter, strike a European as very 
peculiar. There is a United States 
Arsenal in the town, and many of 
the private houses are very fine. 
San Antonio has also been visited 
lately as a winter resort. 

Reached by Galveston, Harrisburg 
and San Antonio Railway, from 
Galveston, via Harrisburg, in 10 
hours. 

San Bernardino (nilifoniia).— 
Seat of San licrnardino County; 
population (1880), 1,673. 

Hotels: Starke, St. Bernardino. 

ia«ter»; Farmcrs'ExchangeBank. 

A much-frequented winter resort, 
situated in a beautiful valley at the 
foot of a mountain of same name. 
The city is surroinided on three 



sides by high mountains. The air is 
dry, the rainfall comparatively little 
and the climate siiitable to an outdoor 
life. Old San Bernardino and Biver- 
side are preferred by some to the 
town proper as winter residences. 
Several points of interest in the 
vicinity add to the attractions of 
the town as a winter residence. 

Reached by Southern Pacific 
Railway, from San Francisco, via, 
Los Angeles, in 25 hours. 

San Diego {California).— Seat of 
San Diego County; population 
(1880), 2,637. 

Hotels : Horton House. 

Bankers : Consolidated National 
Bank, 

Situated on San Diego Bay it is 
the finest harbour on the coast next 
to San Francisco. It was founded 
in 1769 by Missionaries. It is 
another of the South Californian 
health resorts. It has a mean 
temperature of 62 degrees Fahr. 
Fogs and snow are unknown. The 
Paso Bobles Hot Springs are on the 
road from San Luis Obispo. The 
town of San Diego has considerably 
increased since it has become con- 
nected with the railway system. 
The Court House is a fine building. 
It has several churches, some 
academies, four newspapers (for 
2,637 inhabitants). It is much 
visited by consumptive and asthma- 
tic patients. 

Reached by Southern Pacific 
Railway, from San Francisco, via. 
Lathrop and Mojave, in 26 hours. 

Sandusky (Ohio). — Seat of Erie 
County; population (1880), 15,838. 

Hotels : West, Sloane, Colton. 

Situated on Sandusky Bay, on 
Lake Erie ; it is a thriving town 
built on rising ground. The new 
Court House is a very fine building. 
Bent wood and all sorts of wooden 
articles form the staple ])roduce of 
the town. Its trade in freshwater 
fish is enormous. It produces also 
coTigiderable quantitities of wine. 
Liilcesid'} is a favourite summer 
resort and a rendezvous for camp 
meetings, etc. Putin Bay Islands 
HiO also much fiefjucntcd. 

l(«!iifhed by Lake Shore and 
Michigan Southern Railway, from 
Cleveland, in If hours. 






f 



SAN ANTONIO — SAN FRANSCISCO. 



171 



jniris 
y little 
iitcloor 
Bicer- 
bo the 
[ences. 
n the 
ms of 

8. 

Pacific 
CO, via 



eat of 
ulation 



ational 

ly it la 
8t next 
"oiindcfl 
It is 
[fornian 
I mean 
s Fabr. 
n. The 
e on the 
o. The 
iderably 
)me con- 
system, 
luilding. 
some 
j'rs (for 
.8 much 
asthma- 

Pacific 
;i8CO, via 
lOurs. 

of Firie 
115,838. 

Ilton. 
Jay, on 
IS? town 
I'he new 
luildinpT. 

wooden 
[•oduce of 
jshwater 
ices also 
>f wine. 

STimmer 

for camp 

Islands 

pre and 
loy, from 



San Francisco {California).— Scat 
of San Francisco County ; popula- 
tion (1880), 233,956. 

Hotel*: The Baldwin House, the 
Palace Hotel, and the Onind are the 
principal hotels on the Golden Gate ; 
all three are situated in Market- 
street. Other flrst-closs hotels are : 
the Lick House and Occidental, in 
Montgomery-street ; Russ House, in 
Bush-street. The prices at these 
hotels vary between 2^ dols. and 4^ 
dols. per day. Other good hotels 
are the International, American 
Exchange, and Brooklyn, with 
prices from 1'75 dols. to 2\ dols. ; 
there are besides numerous board- 
ing houses. 

Bestaurants and Cttfea : Martin^n. 
on Commercial-street,' is celebrated 
for its excellent cuisine. They are 
very numerous and all very good, 
and t;) name one would entail 
naming all. The grill-room system, 
here called rotisseries, are on the 
English plan, and are numerous and 
gfood. The table d'hite system is 
much in vogue, the price*^ ranging 
from 1 dol. to 50 c. including wine. 

Theatre and Amusements: The 
Grand Opera House, corner of 
Mission and 3rd streets, can seat 
3, 500 people, and compares favour- 
ably with any in Philadelphia or 
New York. It is dedicated to 
classical opera. The California 
Theatre, in Bush-street, and Hald- 
win's Academy of Music are dedi- 
cated to the drama and star per- 
formances. These three are the 
higher entertainment houses. The 
Adelphi, in California-street ; the 
Bella Union ; the Standard , Bush- 
street Theatre, and several others 
have variety entertainments, min- 
strels, ccmcerts, etc. There are also 
two Chinese theatres in Jackson- 
street, which are a special attrac- 
tion on account of the unique 
character of the performances. 
Woodward^s Oardena, in Mission- 
street, is very popular; has a 
menagerie, a collecton of plants, an 
art gallery, etc. 

Reading Hooms, Libraries, etc. : 
The leading hotels have reading- 
rooms, with all newspapers, etc. 
The Mercantile Library, on Bush- 
gtreet, has a very fine reading and 
card-room. The Free Library, in 
Pacific Hall, on Bush-street, has a 



collection of over 50,(X)0 volumes. 
The Mechanics' Institute Library, in 
Post-street, has over 35,000 volumes, 
and a good reading-room. The Law 
Library in the New City Hall and 
the Young Men's Christian Associ- 
ation have also reading- rooms. 

Museums, Art Collections, etc. : 
Woodward' s Gardens is al)OUt the 
only public one. There are several 
private collectors, but their gal- 
leries are as yet too unimijortant to 
merit attention. 

Railway Station: The only railway 
station in San Francisco is that of 
the Southern Pacific Railway. Other 
railways have their stations or ter- 
mini in one of the subm-hs, and pas- 
sengers and freight are carried 
across to Ouklands by ferries, some 
of which are of large size. 

Conveyancps: Tramway's, or rather 
"endless wire cable cars" I'un to 
every part of the town and suburbs 
(fare, 5 centi-i). There are Omnibuses 
at the landing stages and railway 
stations ; also to Cliff-house, on 
Point Lobos-road. Carriages at 
various stands in the town. Fares : 
one horse carriage for one person for 
a distance of one mile 1 dol. ; 
more *;han one person, \\ dols.; each 
additional person and each addi- 
tional mile 25 cents ; two horse car- 
riage for one person, one mile, 1^ 
dols. ; more than one person, same 
distance, 2^ dols., and each addi- 
tional mile for each passenger, 50 
cents. By the hour, one horse car- 
riage, \\ dols., and each additional 
hour 1 dol. ; two horse carriage 3 
dols., and each additional hour 2 
dols. The prices are, therefore, 
higher than in any other town of 
the United States, where, however, 
they are already prohiljitory accord- 
ing to European notions. 

Ferries: All the ferries i*un from 
the wharf close to Market-street end 
to Oakland, Saucelito, Berkeley, 
San Quentin, San Rafael, and Alk- 
meda (fare, 2 and 3 cents). 

Races, Sports, e/c f Clo.se lo Golden 
Gate Park is the principal I'ace 
course. Another is near Cli If -house. 

Clubs: The Union, Pacific and 
Olympic, arc the principal clulw in 
San Francisco. All three are 
wea'bhy institutions and occm)y 
handsome buildings. The Cal^for- 
Ilia Dramatic Association and tho 



172 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



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Bobcminn Club are the principal 
literary, artistic, and musical ones. 
The Turner Verein eucouraKCS 
Kynnnastic exercises and has its 
meeting place in Turk-street ; the 
Sun Fraticittco Verein, with a library, 
is in Sutter-street. The two latter 
are chiefly German Chibs. Intro- 
tluction })y a member secures all the 
privileges of these Clubs. 

Post and Telegraph Offlce .- On the 
comer of Washington and Battery 
streets. Open daily from 8 a.m. to 
8 p.m., and on Sundays from 9 till 
10 a.m. only. There are several 
sub-stations and numerous lamp- 
post letter boxes in the town. 

Enr/lish Consul : E. Stanley, 
Consul. 
Bunkers: Bank of California. 



Thompson, Dr. 



Medical : Dr. 
Beverley Cole. 

Dentist, ; Dr. Bently. 

Ticket and Excursion Agents: 
Thomas Cook & Son, 32, Mont- 
gomery-street. 

San Francisco is one of the most 
interesting towns in the United 
States, both on account of its rapid 
growth, its history, and its hetero- 
geneous population. It is situated 
on San Francisco Bay, and at "the 
Golden Gate," or entrance to the 
former. It is the chief town and 
commercial metropolis of the whole 
Pacific Coast. Its situation, at the 
end of a narrow peninsula, is 
unique. The harbour is one of the 
safest on the coast. The first house 
was built in 1835. The name of the 
town was then YerV)a Bueua, or 
"good herb," so called from a 
medicinal plant which grew in 
abundance in the neighbourhood. 
In 1847 this was changed for the 
name of San Francisco, and in 
1848 gold was first discovered. The 
town had at that date scarceljr l,CK)0 
inhabitants. In 1850 it was incor- 
porated as a town, and in 1856 the 
city and county were consolidated. 
In 1860 its jiopulation had increased 
to 66,802, and in 1870 to 119,473. At 
the present time it is estimated at 
over 300,(X)0. Its commerce is very 
large, the principal articles of its 
trade being the precious metals, 
agricultural produce, lumber, coal 
and colonial produce. It has 
also extensive and numerous manu- 
factories. 



The city stands on tlie iimcr slopo 
of the ])enin8ula. The ground it 
now stands on has been pushed 
forward into the sea (the hills at 
the back being steep) so that there 
are now paved streets, where, in 
1849, large ships usr<l to ride at 
anchor. The business (|uarters are 
comi)actly built, and the city, as a 
whole, covers an area of about nine 
S(iuare miles. It is built in the 
shape of an ami)hitheatro, upon 
three hills, and i)resents a striking^ 
ai)pearance when seen from the sea 
or l)ay. It is regularly laid out 
with broad streets, mostly well 
paved. The principal thoroughfare 
is Market-street. Kctti'ney and 
Montgomery streets are fashionable 
l)romenades, with handsome retail 
shops. Pine and California-streets 
are what Wall-street is to New 
York, or Broad-street and Lom- 
bard-street to London, England ; 
that is to say the chief centres for 
Bankers, Brokers, and Insurance 
Companies. The aristocratic resi- 
dential (luartor is not so closely 
built over as in New York. Cali- 
fornia-street-hill is perhaps the 
most aristocratic portum of the 
town, though plutocratic would be 
a more approja-iate name. Sacra- 
mento, Dupont, Jackson, Pacific 
and Commercial-streets, form the 
Chinese (luartors. No tourist 
should fail to visit these, however 
limited his time. 

The public buildings in San 
Francisco are not of a particularly 
striking character. The United 
States Branch Mint, corner of 5th 
and Mission-streets, is a massive 
mixed Doric and Ionic structure. 
Its machinery is unsur])assed in 
perfection. The Merchants' Exchange, 
on California-street, is a very 
handsome, mul extensive building. 
The St. Jgnatiiis (Roman Catholic) 
Church, on Van Ness-a venue, is per- 
haps the largest and finest on the 
Pacific Coast. <*7. Patrick's Cathe- 
dral, in Mission-street, has an ornate 
interior. The Synagogve, in Sutter- 
street, is a very elegant and large 
building, with two lofty towers. 
Another, on the corner of Post and 
Taylor streets, is imposing, and 
has a fine frescoed ceiling. The 
California Market, for all sorts of 
fish, game, meat, vegetables, fruit, 
etc., is an interesting sight. It is 



if 



SAN FRANCISCO — SANTA BARBARA. 



173 



San 

Lcularly 

United 

of 5th 



situated on Kearney and Montj?o- 
mery streets. 

The City Hall, in Yerba Buena 
Park and Market-street, is a very 
imposing edifice, and surpassed by 
few in the States. The Cttgtow 
Hou»e and Post Office, comer of 
Washington and Battery-streets, is 
a plain building. The United Statex 
Appraiger's Store, in Sansora-street, 
is a huge brick edifice. In Pine-street 
is the granite and white marble Stock 
Exchange. The United States Sub- 
Treasury is in Commercial-street. 
Several of the bank buildings in 
California, Montgomery and Pine- 
streets will impress the tourist. 
The Palace and Baldwin's Hotels 
are, however, the most imposing 
buildings of the town. Odd 
Fellows' Hall, in Montgomery-street, 
Mechanics'' Institute, in Post-street, 
and the Metropolitan Temple are 
worthy of notice. The Opera House 
is plain, but richly ornamented 
inside. Centre Market, corner of 
Sutter and Dupont-streets, deserves 
a passing notice. Several churches 
of various denominations will strike 
the tourist in passing through the 
town, none of them, however, need 
be specially mentioned here. 

The Un'vers'ty of California, is at 
Berkeley. Thei'e is a School of 
Design, two Medical Colleges, three 
Academies, and numerous high 
schools. The Charital)le Institutions 
are very numerous, richly endowed 
and extensive. The Golden Gate 
Park, West of the town, covers an 
area of over 1,000 acres. Only 
about half of it is laid out in walks, 
or ornamental grounds. The Con- 
servatory in it, after the model of 
Kew Gardens, England, is worth 
visiting. A Pavilion, a kiosk for 
music, and a monument to President 
Garfield stand near the main 
promenade. Endless wire cars run 
to, and traverse the park. The 
smaller parks and sf [uares are Ports- 
month-s(iuare or Plaza, Washington, 
Union and Columbia - squares. 
Anion ^ the cemeteries is the 
Liurel H'll Cemetery, with a fine 
view from Lone Mountain, em- 
bracing the surrounding country 
for a great distance. Others are 
Masonic, Odd Fellows and Calvary 
(Catholic) Cemeteries. 

No stranger should leave San 
Francisco without visiting its 



Ghetto, i.e., the Chinese quarter. A 
visit to the theatre, gambling 
houses, and opium dens, will prove 
interesting. The Chinese have 
three temples, and their number 
is about 50,(HH). 

Among the favourite drives and 
excursions is that to the Cl^ff" House 
with its famous cuisine. Seal Rock, 
Golden Gate, Farallone Island, 
Ocean House, with sea-bathing. 
Hunter's Point, Dolores Mission, 
Alameda, Benicia, Oakland, Sau- 
celito, and numerous others. 

Reached by Union Pacific Rail- 
way, from Chicago, via Omaha, in 
3 days (67 hours). 



San Jose (Ca/z/or^w).— Seat of 
Santa Clara County ; population 
(1880), 12,5(J7. 

Hotels : St. James, Aujerais. 

Situated on the Guadalupe River, 
50 miles south from San Francisco. 
Its site is on a gently rising plateau 
between the Guadalupe and Coyote 
Rivers, 1^ mile in width. Its Court 
House, a massive Corinthian struc- 
ture, is the most notable building. 
It is one of the most beautiful towns 
in California, and is embowered in 
trjes. The Alameda — a square or 
park -was planted in 1769 by 
Spanish Missionaries. It has wide 
streets and tramways, gas, etc. 
Tramways connect it with Santa 
Clara. The jail or prison, the City 
Hall, two Markets, 10 Churches, 
College of Notre Dame, Methodist 
University, several High Schools, 
an Opera House, and Music Halls, 
make San Jose one of the most 
attractive towns in California. It is 
situated in the heart of a very fertile 
district occupied in wine growing. 
From this industry the town derives 
its chief wealth. The Lick Observatory 
on Mount Hamilt(m, affords a fine 
view of town and valley. Another 
pleasant excursion is to "^nnta Clara 
and the Almaden Qu'cksilver Mines» 
The Pacific Congress Springs are 10 
miles south-west of Santa Clara. 

Reached by the Central Pacific 
Railway, from San Francisco, in 2 
hours. . 



Santa Barbara {California).— Sent 
of Santa Barbara County ; popu- 
lation (1880), 3,460. 



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174 



BRADSHAW S UNITKD STATES. 



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HoteU: Occidental, Arl in jifton. 

Sitnated on Bftrlmra Channel, 
opposite Santa Cniz Island. It is 
completely sheltered from northerly 
winds, and its climate is conse- 
nuently verj' mild in winter. It is 
the most fretiuented of Califomian 
health resorts. The society is hos- 
pitable and refined. There are also 
some Hot Suli)hur Springs at Monte- 
cito. The new portions of the town 
are handsome and are tastefully 
adorned with many varieties of 
tropical and sub-tropical trees, 
fruits, shrubs and flowers. A great 
many invalids reside here all the 
year round, or remain permanently. 

Reached by Central Pacific Rail- 
way, from San Francisco to New- 
hall, thence by carriage, in 22 hours. 



Banta P6 (iVpjr 3f?xi>o.)— Capital of 
territory, and Seat of Santa ¥6 
District; population (1880), 6,635. 

Hotels: Palace. 

Bankers : First National Bank. 

Medical : Dr. Longwcll ; Dr. Sym- 
ington. 

The oldest town in the United 
States, founded in the early part of 
the 16tli century. For over 250 years 
the Old Palace has been the seat of 
the Spanish Government, It is a 
very curious town, with many his- 
torical memories attached to it. It 
is the seat of a Roman Catholic 
Archbishop. The Court House is a 
noteworthy building. The old St. 
Ouadalnpe church is curious. The 
dress and customs of the people are 
decidedly Mexican. Across the 
creek are the Palace and Gardens of 
the Archbishop, and the old and 
new Cathedrals. The trade of Santa 
F^, especially with the mines, is in- 
creasing each year, and the town 
has a good future before it. It was 
once the capital of the Pueblo King- 
dom, and is rich in historical and 
antequarian lore. In the vicinity and 
near Lamy, there are still some 
tribes of the old race to be found. 
They believe in the return of Monte- 
zuma, who is to deliver them. 

Reached by the Atchison, To- 
peka and Santa ¥6 Railway, from 
Kansas City, via La Junta, in 21 
hours. 



Saratoga Springs {l^ew York).— 
Saratoga County; jwpulation (1880), 
10,822. 

Hotels: The Grand Union, United 
States, each accommodating nearly 
2,000 guests ; the Congress Hall on 
Broadway and adjoining Congress 
Park; the Clatendon facing Con- 
gress Park, a small but very elegant 
Hotel, frequented ))y the more 
retiring class of visitors. The 
Arlington, Kensington, Windsor, 
American, Adelphi, Everett, Colum- 
bian, Continental and sevenil others. 
The charges vaiy bet wen 2\ and 5 
dols. 

Bankers : Citizen's National. 

Medical : Dr. F. B. Reynolds, Dr. 
C. A. Grant, Dr. R. C. McKwan. 

Saratoga Springs is one of the 
most fre(juented of inland watering 
places in the States. The tourist 
will do well to visit it, as it will 
give him, perhaps the best idea of 
American life and fashion at 
watering places. The height of the 
season is the month of August, and 
though the accommodation is very 
plentiful, it freriuently happens 
at this time the Hotels are full to 
overflowing. The natural attrac- 
tions are few, the mineral s])rings 
which are very numerous, and of 
various comjjosition, and the beauti- 
ful elms which shade many of its 
streets, are, so to say, the only 
ones. 

Broadway is the principal street. 
It runs throiigh the centre of the 
town and is lined with shops and 
the larger hotels. Close to the Grand 
Union Hotel is Congress Park a 
pleasant promenade. It is well lai(l 
out and surrounds Congress and 
Columbia Springs, both saline and 
acid. Other streets are Lake-avenue, 
Franklin and Circular streets, and 
the Boulevard. The Indian Camp lies 
a little to the north of the park. It is 
occupied in summer by Indian and 
Canadian half-breeds, who sell 
wares of native manufacture. 

It is said that the springs were 
known and used by the Indians 
before 1535, the date of the arrival 
of Europeans. Saratoga became 
settled, however, only in 1784, and 
not until 1815 were any hotels 
erected. At the present time it is 
perhaps the most frequented of 
Amei'ican inland resorts. 



SANTA f£— SAVANNAH. 



175 



There fire in all 28 sprin:,'s. Some 
are ferruj?iiiouH, others ioilurtited, 
sulphurous and ni ii^nesiiin. The 
l)rincipal lire thone mentioned 
above. All uro char,','e»l hijjrhly with 
carlMjnie acid K'a'H. 'I'lio prop'erties, 
mineral constituents, and a full 
description of them are given in the 
local guide books. 

There is a Race Course on the 
Boulevard, which is one of the finest 
in the country. Excellent races are 
held here in summer (July and 
August). The principal buildings 
in the village are the fine 
Hotel Ijuildings and the Central 
Fire Department on Broadway. It 
is admirably eqiiipped -indeed, it 
ought to be, seeing that wood is 
largely used in the construction of 
the buildings of the town. Several 
very fine private residences.amongst 
which is Judge Hilt<m's with its 
noble park, will strike the eye of 
the tourist. The Hi(jh School build- 
ing, Institute for Young Men, and 
Seminary for Young Ladies are also 
handsome structures. 

Excursions and drives abound in 
the vicinity of Saratoga. Amongst 
the latter the most fashionable is 
Broadway, as far down as Saratoga 
Lake. Here Moon's Lake House, Lake 
Lovely, Snake Hill are much visited. 
Among the former Saratoga Battle 
Ground, Lake Luzerne, Waring 
Hill and Mount Mac Greg )r are the 
most frequented. The latter has an 
hotel. 

Reached by New York Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, via Albany, in 6^ hours. 



Savannah {Georgia).— '&eQ,t of Chat- 
ham County ; population (1880), 
30,681. 

Hotels: Pulaski, Sereven, Mar- 
shall, Harnett, and Pavilion are first- 
class, and charge from 2^ dols. to 
3^ dols. per day. Others are the 
European and Planters. 

Theatres ami Amusements : The 
Theatre, with 1,200 seats; Andrew's 
Armoury, Centennial, Masonic, 
Metropolitan and Mozirt V Halls, 
used for various purposes and en- 
tertainments. 

Conveyances: Tramways (i'are 5 
cents); also carriages at 1^ del. per 
hour. 



Post and Telegraph Office: Comer 
of Bull and Bay streets, in the Cus- 
tom House. 

English Consul: G. F. N. B. 
Anii'jsley, Consul. 

Bankers: Merchants National 
Bank. 

Medical: Dr. \Vm. Duncan, Dr. 
G. H. Stone. 

S tuated on the Savannah River, 
18 miles above its mouth. Savan- 
nah is the chief city and commercial 
centre of Georgia. Its business lies 
chiefl}' in the cotton trade and ship- 
l)ing. The town has the form of an 
elongated crescent, and extends, 
about three miles along the river. 
Its streets are wide, well shadejl 
and intersected Ijy small public 
squares or i)arks to the number of 
24. Savann:ih is said to be one of 
the handsomest and best laid-out 
towns in the United States. The 
town was founded in 1733, by Gen- 
eral Oglethor])e, and was cai)tured 
in 177U by the British forces, who 
held it till 1782. In 1789 it wos 
incorporated. It suffered greatly 
during the Civil War, ])ut sine j then 
it hi4 steadily increased in pros- 
perity. 

The principal streets arc Drayton 
Bull and Broad streets, and' the 
favourite promenade is down Bull- 
street to Forsyth Park. The Bag, 
an esplanade overlooking and close 
to the river, is the chief commercial 
centre. Among the public build- 
ings the following may be men- 
tioned: The Roman Catholic Cathe- 
dral, St. John, Trinity and Christ 
Churches. The Independent Pres- 
byterian Church with its tower is 
also very fine. John and Charles 
Wesley lived here and in Charles- 
ton in 1733. The granite Custom 
House, corner of Bull and Bay 
streets, with the Post Office are 
perhaps the most striking edifices. 
The Court House, the Exchange, the 
Armoury, the Prison, the various 
Barracks, Chatham Academy and 
St. Andrew's Hall, are conspicuous 
buildings. The Market is a chief 
object of interest as in all southern 
towns. It is very gay in the early 
morning. Savannah Medical Col- 
lege, Georgia Historical Society, 
and MacCarthy's Business College, 
are also worthy of notice. 




IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




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Photographic 
.Sciences 
Corporation 



23 WEl'T MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. < I >$0 

(716) 872-4503 








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176 



RRADSIIAW S UNITED STATEf^, 



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]■ I 



Fortiyth Park is the principal 
public promenade and resort in 
summer. It occupies 30 acres, and 
is situated in the southern pf)rtion 
of the town. Several mcmuments 
adorn this ])ark and also the smaller 
S(iuares. Other places of attracticm 
in the Vicinity of Savannah are 
,; Thunderbolt, Beaulieu, White Bluff, 

■f''' Isle of Hoj)e and Mfjutpomerj'. 

Bona i-ent lire Cemetery, on the War- 
saw River, is very i)eautiful and 
much freciuented as a drive. .Tasi^er 
Spring is rendered historic by a 
feat of daring during the War of 
independence. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from Baltimore, Via Richmond, 
in 22^ hours. 

Schenectady (Neic Fort).— Seat of 
Schenectady County ; population 
OH80), 13,673. 

Jloteh: Carley and Given. 

Situated on the !Mohawk River 
und Erie Canal. It is essentially a 
manufacturing town, chiefly of 
woollen goods and iron. It is one 
of the oldest towns in the States, 
and is situated on a spot famous as 
having once been the council 

|ij|j grounds of the Mohawl'- Indians. 

i A Dutch trading i)ost was estab- 

lished here in 1620. The Union 
College, established in 1789, is an 
imi)ortant seminary. The liridyi' 

ijiii across the Mohawk River and Eric 

' ' Canal is noteworthy. It is also to 

a certain extent frequented as a 
summer resort. 

Reached by New York, Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, via Albany, in 6 
hours. 

Springfield (///i«oi/»).— Capital of 
Illinois and Seat of Sangamon 
Coimty; population (1880), 19,716. 

Hotels: Leland, Revere, St. 
Nicholas. 

Situated at a distance of five 
miles from the Sangamon River, 
on a large prairie, It is the capital 
of Illinois, and has fine broad streets 
and handsome public buildings. 
The streets are adorned with trees, 
Avhile many of the houses are sur- 
rounded by flower gardens, whence 
it has been named by entlxusiasts, 
the " Flower City." The Capitol is 



one of the finest buildings of the 
kind in the United States. The 
United Stuten Build inff (Court House, 
Custom House, and Post Office), the 
State Arsenal, the County Court 
House, High School, and Opera 
House, are also very noteworthy 
buildings. Several of the churches 
and a hall for lectures, concerts, 
and meetings deserve the attention 
of the tourist. The Monument of 
President Lincoln, in Oak Jtidije 
Cemeferif, is very fine, and cost over 
2()0,(XK) (lols. The trade of the town 
is important, and its mining in- 
terests (coal) very large. Its 
manufactures are also important, 
and are chiefiy flour, steel and iron, 
woollen goods, and ))eer. 

Reached by Illinois Central Rail- 
way, from Ciiicago, vid Clinton, in 
8 hours. 

Springfield (Massachusetts) .—Sent 
of Ham])den Countj'; population 
(1880), 37,577. 

Hotels : ITayne's, Massasoit, War- 
wick, Cooley's, College. 

Situated on the Connecticut 
River, Springfield is one of 
the ])rettiest towns in the United 
States. It is well laid out, and has 
many havdsome l)uildings. The 
streets are shaded l)y trees. The 
United States Arxenal is the largest 
in the States. The City Hall, in the 
Byzantine style, is a very handsome 
V)uilding. Other edifices* of import- 
ance are the City Library, Court 
House, various churches, etc. The 
Cemetery is small, Ijut beautifuUj- 
laid out. Hampden Park is the 
principal promenade, and has a fine 
race course. It is chiefly engaged 
in the manufacture of arms, etc. 

Reached by Boston and Albany 
Railway, from Boston, in 3^ 
hours. 

Stockton {California).— Seat of 
San Joaquin County; population 
(1880), 10,287. 

Hotels: Yosemite, Centra^ Com- 
mercial, Grand, Mansicm, Eagle. 

Situate at the head of the tide 
water on San Joaquin river in San 
Joa(iuin valley, it is compactly 
built on a level plain, has wide and 
straight streets and manj' fine build- 
ings. The City Hall and Court 



, 



SC H E X P:CTADY — TOL E DO. 



177 



Wnr- 



'/LiHte, in the contrc of the town, are 
surrounded by gardens. Sevenil of 
the churches are fine and the Sfafp 
Lunatic Atiflnm occupies a very 
extensive b'uildinsf. The Nevada 
State Lunatic Asylum is also located 
here. The Theatres of Stockton are 
very lar^e and conunodious. The 
" Theatre " seats 1,5(K); the National 
Hall, 2,(H)(); the Mozart Hall, 1,<HH); 
and several others between 5tM) and 
1,00«). The town is a point of de- 
parture for the Yomemite valley by 
rail to Lathroji. The Calaveras 
Grove of Bit,' Trees and the Stanis- 
laus Grove are visited from Stock- 
ton. 

Reached by Central Pacific Rail- 
way, from San Francisco, via Port 
Costa, in 4 hours. 



Syracuse {l^ew Fort).— Seat of 
Onondau'o County; population (1880), 
51,791. 

Hotels: Globe, Vanderbilt, Con- 
gress, Empire, Bernis. 

Pleasantly situated at the south 
end of the (^nonibigo Lake and one 
of the largest of the interior towns, 
it is regularly laid out, and has 
numerous saline springs in its 
vicinity. The Erie and 08we^,'o 
Canals'join here. It is the largest 
market for salt in the United States, 
and has, besides, large steel anil 
iron works. The City Hall, County 
Court House, New Gocernment 
Buildings, Coimty Clerk's Office, 
State Asylum for Idiots, Penitentiary, 
Syracuse University, St. Vincent's 
Asylum, High School, Onf>ndago 
Savings Bank Company, and Syra- 
cuse Savings Bank Buildings arc 
all handsome structures and worthy 
of notice. The Opera House seats 
1,100 persons, and the Grand Opera 
800. It is a centre for excursions to 
the various lakes. 

Reached by New York Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, via Albany, in 9 hours. 

Terre Haute (/»rftVnjo).— Seat of 
Vigo County; population (1880), 
26,040. 

Hotels: Terre Haute, National, 
St. Claire. 

Situated on an elevated plain on 
the east bank of the Wabash River. 



The streets arc straight, broad, and 
well shaded. It has imjjortant 
manufactoriLV"*, ])rincipally of iron, 
The Rose Polytechnic School and 
Hose Orphaniiye are splendid insti- 
tutions, and wore built and endowed 
by one of the citizens. The Federal 
Jiuildiiiys and the Court House are 
also very fine. The City Hall, the 
Market House, the Opera House, 
Bowling's Hall, several clmrches, 
academies, high schools and libraries 
are noteworthy, 

Terre Hiiufe l)oasts of the lnrge>it 
distillery in the States, and has also 
some woollen mills. It is an itn- 
jjovtant railway centre. An artesian 
well sunk in the town is said to con- 
tain s:iline matter. Tlu!rc are some 
coal mines in the neighbourhood. 

Reached by Chicago and Eastern 
Illinois Railway, from Chicago, rid 
Dolton, in 8 hours. 



Toledo (Ohin). — Seat of Lucas 
County; population (IHSO), 50,1 W. 

Hotels: Bo()<ly House, Oliver, 
Merchant's, IsLiud, Madison, Bur- 
nett, American. 

Theatres and Amusements : Wheeler 
Opera House, the Adelphi, White's 
Hall. 

Conveyances : Tr.imways (fare, 5 
cents) traverse the princij)al streets ; 
carriages 1^ dols. i)or hour. 

Post and Teler/ra/ih Office: In the 
Custom House, 

Situated on the Maumee River, 
six miles from Lake Erie, It has 
grown as rajiidly as almost any 
town in the States, for it contained 
only 3,000 inhabitants in 1850. The 
grain and shipi)ing trade is very 
large, ranking third after Chicago 
and Milwaukee. Wood for furni- 
ture is also an important item. 
Cargoes are 8hip])ed from Toledo 
directly to Europe. Shipbuilding, 
fisheries, iron works, mills, ami 
breweries, etc., contribute to its pros- 
perity and ensure the future of the 
town. It is regularly laid out with 
wide and straight streets. Build- 
ing is mrried on at a very rapid 
rate, as many as 1,5(K) houses having 
been erected in a single year. Some 
of the parks are fine. The Custom 
House with Post Office and The 
Exchange are im|)ortant and elegant 
structures. The Union Railway 



178 



BRADSriAW S UNITED STATKS. 






I '!» 






station is an immense building. 
Other edifices of note ore the Public 
Library, a few of the churches, the 
Orphan Asylum, the City Hospital, 
the Home for Friendless Women, 
the House of Refuge and Correc- 
tion, etc. 

Reached by Cincinnati, Hamil- 
ton and Doyton Railway, from Cin- 
cinnati, in 8i hours. 

Topeka (A'a/wa^).— Capitol and seat 
of Shawnee County; population 
(1880), 15,452. 

Hotels: Fifth Avenue, Tefft, 
Windsor, Gordon, Copeland. 

Theatreg and AmuHementg : The 
Grand Opera House, with 2,()00 seats; 
the Crawford Opera House, with 
accommodation for 1,200 people. 

Cdnceyances : Tramways (fare, 5 

cents). 

Po»tand Telegraph Office: In the 
United States Court House. 
Bankerft: Bank of Topeka. 

Medical : Dr. Hogeboom, Dr. Stor- 
raont. 

Situated on both banks of the 
Kansns River. Topeka is a town of 
very modern growth. It possesses 
some manufactures, and machine 
and car shops. The river is spanned 
by a fine iron bridge, and the State 
House is one of the handsomest in 
the far West. There is also a State 
Asylum fur the Insane, a College 
belonging to the Sisters of Bethany, 
several fine churches and schools. 
In the neighbourhood of Topeka are 
some coal fields, and the river 
affords ample water power. 

Reached by Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa F«5 R-iilway, from Kansas 
City, in 'S\ hours. 

Trenton (New Jersey).- Q^i^^\tB^. and 
seat of Mercer County ; population 
(1880), 31,386. 

Hotels : National, Tremont, Amer- 
ican, Trenton, United States, Clin- 
ton, Street House, Revere Hpuse. 

Conveyances: Tramways (fare, 5 
cents). 

Post and Telegraph Office: In 
State-street. 

Situated at the head of the navi- 
gation on the Delaware River, it i J 
an attractive town, remarkably 



we'.l built nnd clean. Its chief 
interests ore manufactures, iron 
foundries, ond potteries. It pos- 
sesses tromwaj's. State ond Main- 
streets ore the chief thoroughfares. 
The State House is a venerable stone 
structure be:mtifully situated near 
the river. The public buildings are 
all very fine ond well worth atten- 
tion ; omong them may be men- 
tioned the Post Office, in the Renois- 
sance style ; the State Arsenal, the 
State Penitentiary, the Lunatic 
Asylum, several churches and mony 
schools. Seveml large halls ore 
used for theatrical representations, 
lectures, concerts, ttc. The battle 
fought here by Washington on De- 
cember 26th, 1776, gives the place on 
historicol interest. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from New York, via Jersey 
City, in 2 hours. 



Troy (Xew York).— Seat of Rensse- 
laer County; population (1880), 
56,717. 

Hotels: American, Mansion, 
Revere, Tremont, Troy, Union, In- 
tem'itional. Northern, Congress 
Hall, Exchange, Eagle. 

Amusements: The Opera House 
con 8oat 2,000 persons ; the Ncav 
Music Hall 2,500, and Rand's 
Hall 1,500. 

Conveymees : Tramways (5 cents 
fare) ; carriages 1 dol. per hour. 

Post and Telegraph Office: In 
River-street. 

Situated on both sides of the 
Hudson River, six miles above 
Albany, at the mouth of Poestenkill 
Creek." It extends about three miles 
along the river front, and one m'le 
from east to west. It is well built, 
with well paved-streets. It has on 
extensive commerce, ond is essen- 
tially 0. manufacturing town. It 
turns out large quantities of steel 
and iron, cotton, woollen goods, 
hosiery ond shoes. River-street is 
lined by fine business buildings. 
On Ist, 2nd and 3rd streets there are 
some handsome residences and 
churches. The Athenaeum is an 
elegant structure, and the City Hall 
would not disgroce more importont 
towns. The iSacings Bank Building 
deserves notice. The Rensselaer 
Polytechnic is one of the leading 



«<Ma 



TOPKKA — UTICA. 



179 



ts chief 
es, iron 
It pos- 
1(1 Main- 
ighfarcs. 
ble stone 
ted near 
lin^s are 
;h atten- 
t)e men- 
3 Renais- 
mal, the 
Lunatic 
nrt many 
tails are 
ntations, 
le battle 
a on De- 
place an 

lia Rail- 
i Jersey 



Rensse- 

1 (1880), 

Mansion, 
aion, In- 
Congress 

El House 

the New 

Runtl's 

(5 cents 
aour. 
fice : In 

1 of the 
above 
)estenkill 
ree miles 
one ni'le 
rell built, 
[t has an 
Is essen- 
x>wn. It 
i of steel 
a goods, 
-street is 
luildings. 
there are 
ices and 
n is an 
City Hall 
tnportant 
Building 
teiiagelaer 
leading 



schools of civil engineering. The 
Theological Seminary, east of the 
town, is also important. The Opera 
House and Halls are likewise hand- 
some buildings. The town has a 
reputation for the excellence of its 
educational establishments. In the 
westeva part of the town is the 
Arsenal, with extensive buildings, 
covering an area of about UX) acrr'- 
Reached by New York Centr... 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, via Albany, in o\ hours. 

Tucson (Arizona).— Sefit of Pima 
County; population (1880), 7,008. 

Hotels : Pacific, Tucson. 

The former capital of the territory, 
as Prescott is its ])reseut one. 
Tucson is one of the oldest towns in 
the United States, having been 
founded by Spanish Jesuits. It is 
as quaint and original in its build- 
ings and characteristics as Santa 
F«5. It is the centre of the surround- 
ing mining district, and carries on 
a business in gold dust, hides and 
wool, the latter on a large scale. 
The two Hainan Catholic Churches 
are curious and interesting. It has 
several schools, banks, etc. The 
Court Houne is noteworthy, as also 
is the I'll i ted States Depositorif. 
Near Casa Grande, a little towards 
the Pacific Coast, are the ruins of an 
ancient Pueblo town, in very good 
])reservation, and of considerable 
extent. 

Reached by the Southern Pacific 
Railway, from San Francisco, in 19 
hours. 

Tuscaloosa (Alabama).— ^c(\t of 
Tuscaloosa County ; population 
(1880), 2,418. 

Hotel: Millers. 

Situated on the Black Warrior 
River, it is the centre of a rich 
district, and carries on a consider- 
able commerce in cotton, coal, etc. 
It is well laid out, with wide shady 
streets. The University of Alabama 
buildings and grounds are one mile 
distant from the town. The town 
took its name from the Indian Chief 
" Black Warrior " Tuscaloosa, who 
was defeated Ijy de Soto, in 1540. 
It has been the capital of the State 
of Alabama during the second 
quarter of the present centurj\ In 



1846 the capital was transferred 
to Montgomery. It is also f re<iuented 
to a certain extent by winter visitors. 
The Lunatic Asylum is a vast build- 
ing one mile beyond the Univei-sity. 
Reached by the Alabumii (Jreat 
Southern Railway, from Birming- 
ham, in 2\ hours. 

Urbana (Ohio). — Seat of Champlain 
County ; population (1880), (5,257. 

Hotels : Exchange, Weaver's. 

A handsome town, and an im- 
portant railway centre. It bas some 
manufactures,' and an important 
trade with the surrounding agricul- 
tural tlistrict. The United States 
JioUing Stock Company, is one of the 
principal industrial establishments. 
Urban I University was founded in 
1851, and is much freiiuented. . It is 
the »)nly Swedenborgian University 
in the States. The town has several 
libraries, and a fine Jligh School. 
Bennett's Opera House seats 1,200 
persons. The City Hall is a tine 
building, and can seat (100. 

Reached ])y Erie and New York, 
Pennsylvania and Ohio Railways, 
from Chicago, via Mansfield, in 
8J hours. 

Utica (Netv I'or*-).— Seat of Oneida 
County ; population (1880), 33,913. 

Hotels: Baggs, Butterfield, Ameri- 
can. 

Situated on the Mohawk River, 
and PJrie and Chenango Canals. It is 
the market town of the surrounding 
rich agricultural district - but owes 
its prosperity chiefly to its large 
woollen and cotton factories. It is 
built on the site of the old Fort 
Schuyler — constructed in 1756. It 
possesses many fine business 
buildings, churches, schools, and 
private residences. The City Hall, 
on Genesce-street— the principal of 
the town— is a very handsome build- 
ing. The Lunatic Asylum is a well- 
constructed edifice, capable of ac- 
commodating KH) patients. It is 
situated near the town. The Utica 
Opera House is a large building, and 
can seat 1,900 persons. The City 
Oi)era House seats 9(X>. The town 
is the starting-point for Richfield 
Springs and Trenton Falls. 

Reached by New York, Central, 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, via Albany, in 8 hours. 



180 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



^i' ! 



! ^ 









I rtf' 



Vicksburg { Misgissippi) .—Sent of 
Warren County; pojiulation (1880), 
11,814. 

Hotch : Lamadrid, Pacific, Wash- 
insfton, Kxchanj^e. 

Bankers : First National Bank. 

Situated on the Walnut Hills, 
overlookiuj^ the Mississippi River, 
and surrounded by lino scenery. It 
has a lar^e eomuierce, ainl has 
rapidly increased of late in import- 
ance. It was the scone of a lon<? 
and memorable siej^e— and ultimate 
capture— by the Northern Army, on 
July 4, 1863. It is the largest town 
between Memi)hi8 and New Orleans, 
and presents a very striking hikI 
attractive aspect, as seen from the 
river. It was founded in 1836, by a 
jdanter. Near by the town is a larj^e 
National cemetery, called the Valley 
of Death. More than 16,«HK> soldiers 
who fell in the siej^e and battles 
round the town during the Civil War, 
lie buried here. It has several fine 
buildin<<s — a Court l[ou»e and City 
Jlull. The Opera Jloune is a plain 
l)uildinj<, seatiu}^ 600 persons. 

Reached by Cincinnati, New Or- 
leans, and Texas I'aciftc Railway, 
from Cincinnati, in 30 hours. 



Vincennes (Indiana). — Seat of 
Knox County, population (1880), 
7,683. 

Hotelg : Grant, Laplant, .1 unc- 
tion. 

Situated on the East Bank of the 
Wabash River, it is the oldest town 
in the State. French Canadians 
built a mission on its site, in 1702, 
which was enlarged later, and 
became a fort. It was incorporated 
in 1800, and was the cajiital of the 
State, until 1814. It has some 
manufactories anil coal mines in 
its neighbourhood. It is well built, 
and contains several fine churches, 
schools, and four libraries. The 
Unioernity was founded in 1807. 
The surrounding country is very 
productive. 

Reached by Ohio and Mississippi 
Railway , from Cincinnati, w/a Aurora, 
in 6 hours. 



Virginia City (iV^erarfa).— Seat of 
Storey County, population (1880), 
13,705. 



lloteh : American Exchange, In- 
ternational. 

Amusements .- Piper's Opera House, 
seating 1,2(X) ])ersons, and tho 
National Guanl Hall, with 600 seats. 

Situated at the base and en tho 
side of a steep mountain, and sur- 
rounded by mountains. It has l)een 
the scene of a great silver rush, and 
since its foundation has witnessed 
many stirring scenes connected 
with the early days of mining. In 
1875 the town was alnK)8t entirely 
destroyed l)y ftre, the buildings 
being then princii)ally of wood. 
Extensive waterworks at great cast 
have since been erected, and tho 
town is now handsomer than before. 
Its population is of a very hetero- 
geneous character. Almost every 
nation of the Globe is represented 
more or less numerously. The 
town stands directly over the cele- 
brated C )mstock Lode. Close to ifc 
are the Biff Bonanza Mines, reported 
to be the richest silver mines in tho 
world. The tourist should visit one 
of them. The milling, smelting, etc.» 
works are very extensive and etti- 
cient. Gold Hill, another mining 
town, is about two miles distant. 
Here the mines yield almost entirely 
gold. There are several churches, a 
Court House, while some of 
the Bank Buildings are fine struc- 
tures. 

Reached by Union, Pacific, and 
Virginia, and Truckee Railwaj'S, 
from San Francisco, via Truckee, 
and Reno, in 18 hours. 

Waco {Texas). — Seat of Mac Lennan 
County ; population (1880), 7,317. 

Hotels ; MacClelland, Central City, 
Taylor, European, Southern Pacific. 

Situated at the Brazos River, 
almost in the centre of the State, 
The suspension bridge spamiing the 
river is very handsome. The town 
is well laid cfut, and substantially 
built. The Waco University is a 
flourishing educational institution, 
and the Court House is a handsome 
stone building. The town has fac- 
tories of agricultural implements, 
and also oil mills. The commerce 
of the district surrounding it is 
considerable. 

Reached by Houston & Texas 
Central Railway, from Houston, in 
22 hours. 



VICKSHURU — WASHINGTON. 



181 



inge, In- 

pa House, 
iiiul tho 
BOO seats. 

tl (.n tho 

and siir- 

has been 

ush, and 

vitnessed 

fmnected 

linj?. In 

entirely 

buildings 

)f wood. 

reat cost 

and tho 

in l)ef ore. 

y hetero- 

>st every 

)re8ented 

y. The 

the cele- 

lose to it 

reported 

les in tho 

visit ono 

;ing, etc., 

and etli- 

r mining 

i distant. 

it entirely 

arches, a 

jome of 

ine struc- 

cific, and 
Railways, 
Truckee, 



c Lennan 
, 7,317. 

itral City, 
■n Paciflc. 
8 River, 
tie State, 
aning the 
The town 
stantially 
rsity is a 
istitution, 
landsome 
1 has fac- 
plements, 
iommerce 
ng it is 

& Texas 
)uscon, in 



'Washington. — Capital of the 
United States, and of tho Federal 
District of Columbia ; i)opulatiou 
(1880), 117,307. 

Jfoteh: Riirsrs, Willard's, Arling- 
ton, ?]blHtt, and Worniley's arc thu 
best Hotels on the Anierican i)lan ; 
Wormlcys is also on the European 
system, as are likewise the St. 
Marc, the St. James and the 
Imperial. The Jlumi I ton is a family 
hotel, with a very select clientele. 
Other good hotels on the American 
system are : the Metre >i)olitan, Na- 
tional, American, Washington, 
Tremont, and Continental. The 
best hotels charge 34 to i\ dols., in- 
clusive, per <hiy, the minor ones 2.^ 
to i dols. ])er (lay, American system. 
On the European system 1 dol. t(j 2 
dols. i)er day, for room alone is 
charged. 

Rextanranti* and Cafe» : Wormley's 
is the most fashi( nble, corner of 
15th and II streets: "olchor, iu I5th 
street, ILirvey'is (oy^, rs), I'ennsyl- 
vania-avenue ; and Muison Dore.>, 
near Willard's Hotel. Le Droit and 
Evans are good Luncheon Bars, with 
Grill Ro(mis, both in F-street. The 
hotels on the European i)lan are 
also freciuentetl for their Restaur- 
ants. Under each wing of the 
Capitol there is also an excellent 
restaurant. 

Theatres and Amusements : The 
National Theatre in E-street is the 
leading house. FunVs Grand Opera 
i/o«»i?, seating l,5tK) peoi)!e, in 9th- 
street, and Opera Comique, on corner 
of C and llth-street. Lincoln Hall, 
corner of 9th and D streets, is the 
finest in the city and can be hired 
for concerts, lectures, etc. Other 
halls for concerts, balls, and lectures 
are the Masonic, Odd Fellows Hall, 
and Willard's Hall. The Schutzen 
Park,beyond the HowardUniversity , 
is the favourite resort of the German 
population. 

Reading Rooms, Libraries, etc. : 
The hotel reading rooms are well 
supplied with newspapers. Tho 
Congress Library, in the Capitol is 
open every day. The Patent Office 
Library is extensive. The Young 
Men's Christian Association, with 
library and reading rooms, are open 
daily, and are free to all. 

Art Collections, Museums, etc. : The 
Corcoran Oallery, comer of Pennsyl- 



vania-avenue and 17tli .-treet, is ono 
of the liiiest in America. A fine 
l)rivate collection is that of M. J. C. 
McGuirc, 01 1, E-street. 

Conveyances .- Tramways to all 
parts of the city (fare,5cents). Car- 
riages at numerous stands in tho 
city and at the railway stations; 
rates: one or two passengers, one 
mile or under, 1 dol., and each 
additional piissenger 50 cents more ; 
l)er hour, \\ dol. Some one-horse 
carriages charge 75 cents i)er hour 
and ])er coiu'se, but in case of under 
one mile onlj' half that rate is pay- 
able. Ajjjjly to policemeu in case 
of dispute. There are ferry lM)ats. 
for Alexandria from 7th-street wharf 
every hour ; fare 15 cents, I'eturn 25 
cents. A steamb(»at leaves same 
wharf for Mount J'cruon daily at 
10 a.m. 

Railway Stations : The Baltimore 
and Ohio Railway have their vast 
station on the cornevof New Jcrsey- 
aveinie and C-street. The Baltimore 
and Potomac Railway is a very 
elaborately adorned and large build- 
ing on the corner of B and Gth 
streets. 

Clubs : The Union, Army & Navy. 

Races and Sport : Races at Ledroit 
Park and Pleasant Plains. 

Post and Telegraph Office : In 
Louisiana-avenue. Open dailj' from 
fi a.m. to 11 i).m, ; on Sundays from 
8 to 10 a.m. and G to 7 p.m. 

Entjlish Minister : The Hon. L. S. 
Sackville West. 
First Secretary .- Count Sala. 
Bankers : Bank of Washington. 

Medical ; Dr. Garruthers, Dr. 
Parks. 

Dentist: Dr. Holland. 

Ticket and Excursion Agents .- 
Thomas Cook & Son, 1,351, Penn- 
sylvania-avenue. 

Washington is situated on the 
Potomac River, an inlet of which, 
the " Eastern Branch," lx)unds the 
city on the eastern side. It is the 
political Capital of the United States, 
and is essentially a residential city. 
The site was selected by Washington, 
and the act of Ctmgress creating the 
district was passed in 1790, It is. 
distant 105 miles from Chesapeke 
Bay, and 176 fnjm the Atlantic sea- 
board. It occupies the centre point 



, 



I 



182 



IlKADSllAW S UNITKD STATES. 



'i 



i 






i 



W'i 



hi 
li'l 



of the District of Columbia, an ex- 
tcu.sivu tm>l uu(luliitiii); plain. In 
thin i)liiiii the principal public 
buildings are erected. It bau no 
cxi)f)rt.s or imports of any import- 
ance, its commerce ])eing chieHy 
retail and local. Tlie original i)lan 
of the town was uni(jue, and on a 
Hcalc which shews that a great 
metropolis was expected to grow up 
there soof-or or later. The plan 
embraces Ui siiuare miles, of which 
a very small portion f)nly is built 
over. The principal thoroughfare 
is Pennsylvania avenue, leading 
from the Capitol to the White House, 
and is 1«<) feet wifle. Seventh- 
street, Massachusetts, Vermcmt, and 
Maryland avenues, and 14th-8treet 
arc other important arteries of 
tratiic. 

The best time to see Washington 
in its most characteristic aspect is 
during the sessions of Congress. In 
the odd numbered years tiie sessions 
last till March 4th, and in the even 
numbered till June or July, and 
they always commence in December. 
The sessions begin at noon and 
should end at sunset, but are nearly 
always prolonged till far into the 
night. A Hag on the north wing of 
the Cttpitol intimates that the Senate 
is sitting, and on6 on the south wing 
that the House is sitting. During 
the night when the Houses ccmtinue 
in session the great lantern over the 
dome is lighted, and gives forth a 
brilliant light for many miles 
round. 

Beyond the natural beauties of 
Washington, of which there are 
many, the chijf attractions of the 
city to the tourist are its public 
buildings. In this respect it can 
compete with the most celebrated 
in any of the European capitals. 
Of these buildings the Capitol is the 
handsomest and largest in the town, 
and, probably, on the whole Amei'i- 
can Continent. It is situated on 
Capitol Hill, a mile from the 
Potomac River, and has a length 
over all of 750 feet, with a depth of 
120 feet ; the wings are 140 feet. 
It covers an area of 3.^ acres. The 
materials used are light yellow stone 
for the centre, and white marble for 
the extensions or wings. The 
buildings face eastwards. In front 
of them stretches a wide plaza, on 
•which reviews, or similar cere- 



monies.., take place. Deyond the 
plaza is a well laid-out park. The 
west front overlooks the city, and 
on tl") slope of the hill are some 
fine gardens. General Washington 
laid the foundation stone of the 
original building in 1793. This was 
subsequently destroyed by fire. 
The centre building was commenced 
in 1821, and the wings were added 
to it in 1H51. The corner stone of 
the structure was laid by Daniel 
Webster. It was finished, inclusive 
of the new dome, in 1866. The cost 
of this huge edifice, so far, has been 
15,000,000 dols. 

The main front is ornamented with 
three grand porticoes of Corinthian 
columns. The centre is a])proached 
by a flight of stairs, embellished by 
statues by Persico and Greenough. 
On the esplanade in front stands the 
colossal statue of Washington, by 
the last-named artist. The building 
is surmounted by a lofty iron 
dome, on which stands a 
statue of Liberty, 10^ feet high. 
Colossal marble statues are to 
the right and left of the entrance. 
Al)ove the doorway is a good bas 
relief. The portion to the rear of 
this centre is not so elaborately 
adorned ; it projects forward 83 feet 
and has a recessed portico of 10 
columns. From this front a good 
view of the principal parts of the 
city and public buildings is obtained. 
The view from the Dome is extensive. 
The buildings are roofed with 
copper. 

The Capitol is entered from the 
centre through the Bronze Doors, 
into the Rotunda. These doors 
illustrate the life of Columbus and 
the discovery of America, were 
designed by Rogers, and are good 
specimens of alto relief. The Ro- 
tunda is 96 feet wide and 108 feet in 
height. Marble bas reliefs over the 
doors and paintings on the wall 
illustrate American history. The 
Dome rises over the Rotunda. The 
frescoes inside the dome are note- 
worthy. Through the western door 
of the Rotunda, and at the end of 
that corridor is the Congress Library 
in three large halls, all thoroughly 
fireproof. They contain in all al)ove 
550,000 books, pamphlets, brochures, 
etc. Senators and Members of 
Congress are allowed to borrow 
books, and any visitor over 16 years 



WASIIIXtiTON. 



183 



of age can l)e ndmitted, The Lnw 
Library is on the flmjr Iwlow the 
alK)ve. The north <loor of the Ro- 
tunda leads into the Senate win>r. 
In the corridor is the door leading 
into the Supreme Court, the hij^hcst 
tribunal in America. It is adorned, 
with statues and busts of the Chief 
Justices and Judges sitting here, 
who are the only oflicials allowed to 
wear rol)es. The bronze cloors of 
the senate wing entrance are next 
reached. They were designed by 
Crawford, and. are considered his 
mastcri)iece8. They represent 
" Peace and War." On the portico 
of this wing there is another good 
bas relief by Crawford. At the foot 
of the stairs leading to the East 
Galleries of the Senate Chamber is 
a statue of Beniamin Franklin, by 
Power, and at the top a picture by 
Powell representing the battle of 
Lake Erie. The Chamber of f he Senate 
is 114 feet by 82 feet, and 36 feet in 
height; it has an iron roof and 
stained glass skylights, (ialleries 
surround the hall capaV)le of seating 
1,0(K) people. Retiring, reception, 
and presiding officers' rooms are all 
finished and decorated magnifi- 
cently. Among these the Marble 
room is considered the finest in the 
whole building. The south door to 
the Rotunda leads to the National 
Statuary Gallery, the old Hall of 
Representatives, in which sessions 
were held for 32 years. The statues 
of representative men of various 
States are in this room ; it is semi- 
circular in form, and its ceiling is 
supported by 24 columns ; it has 
some good frescoes. A corridor 
runs at the south of this hall to the 
House extension at the foot of the 
east staircase. The Hall of Repre- 
tientatives is patriotically considered 
the finest legislative chamber in the 
world. It is 139 feet by 93 feet, and 
36 feet in height. It has galleries 
running round it capable of seating 
1,200 persons. The glass roof is 
painted with the arms of the indi- 
vidual States. The Speaker's room 
is at the back of the hall, and sur- 
rounding it are the committee 
rooms, etc., as in the other wing. 

During the Civil Wars, the halls 
and corridors of the Capitol were 
used as barracks and hospitals. At 
the western entrance stands F. 
Simmond's Monument to the Fallen 



in the 'vil Wars; its total height is 
40 feet. On the eastern side stands 
the l>eautiful statue of Peace. 

The liotanlcal Gardens, ten acres 
in extent, are immediately on the 
west side, and contain large con- 
servatories. 

The Uuiteil States Trearury, on tho 
comer of 15th-street and Pennsyl- 
vania-avenue, is a magnificent lonio 
building, three stories high. Tho 
east front has a coloniuide, imitated 
from that of the Tenii)le of 
Minerva, at Athens. Its sides havo 
fine porticoes ; the central en- 
trance having one of eight largo 
columns. It contains above 2(K) 
rooms, of which tho Vusth and Gold 
Rooms are the most interesting to 
tourists. The former extends 
through two storeys, an*l is _lined 
with marble. The latter contains 
the coined gold. 

The Execiitice Mansion, or tho 
White House, stands west of tho 
Treasury. It is in the Ionic style, 
having several porticoes. It is 170 
feet long, and is occui)ied on tho 
ground tloor by the reception and 
representation rooms. On the upper 
floors are the oftices ami private 
apartments of the President. This 
is the official residence of the re- 
spective Presidents of the United 
States. Its foundation-stcme was 
laid in 1793, and the first President 
who actually occupied it, was 
Adams, in 1800. In 1814 it was 
burned by the English, but was 
rebuilt in 1818. The grounds, which 
are laid out in gardens, occupy 
about 75 acres, of vhich 20 are 
railed in, as the I'resident's private 
grounds. The East Room is the 
parlour of the Presi<lent, and is 
very handsomely decorated. La- 
, fayette-square, north of the White 
House, is the finest public park in 
the city. The equestrian statue in 
the centre is V)y Mills, and represents 
General Jackson. 

The building on the Avest of the 
White House, is occupied by the 
War, Navy, and State Departments. 
It is in the Roman-Doric style of 
architecture, is built of granite, and 
is supposed to be absolutely fire- 
proof. It is 5: 7 feet long, ty 342 
wide, and was commenced in 1871. 
The hall of the Secretary of State, 
the Ambassadors Hall and Library 



184 



IJHADSHAW S UNITKD RTATKS. 



1'- 






!i 



t 1 



I \ 



I I- 



iJ 



t. !" 



nro in the shuio building, nud tiro 
well wortli inspt'Ctinif. 

The Smithmuiiin IimtUntexn n very 
fttrikiiii,' buildinj?, sitimted in the 
Mall, between the UcttunicHl (Jar- 
<lens and the Department of Ayri- 
cnlture. It is l)uilt of red san<l- 
Htone, in the Norman-Gothic wtj'le, 
»t»d adorned with seven towers. It 
was founded with money be(ine:ithed 
to the United States by James 
Smithson. It contains collections 
of minerals, animals, etc., as also 
nniny curiosities. The Nafinmil 
Mu»PHm is in an annex s(mth-east 
of the institnte. The pronn<ls at- 
tached to the institution are beauti- 
fnllv lfti<i out. 

Tlie liofiniical Gardens are East 
of the Smithsonian Institution, and 
consist mainly of a series of con- 
Mervatories with rare ])lants. The 
Piffpnt Office, or Department of the 
Interior is a hupe Doric building of 
mixed material, occui)yinjir two 
blocks between F and G streets, and 
7th and 9th streets. It has several 
porticoes and contains some fine 
rooms. The Model Room occupies 
the entire ni)])er floor of the bnild- 
mt?, and has some fine frescoes on 
its ceiling. It contains lumer- 

nble collection of mode every 

<le[)artment of mechan.cai «rt. The 
south Hall has some historical relics 
and curiosities. The second and 
first floors are occupied by various 
ottices. The Post Office Department 
on P-street, is opposite the Patent 
Office. It is built of white mar])le 
in Modern Corinthian style, and 
contains the Dead Letter Otfice, and 
the Postmaster-General's office. The 
Pension Office, on Judiciary-scjuare, 
is a large building in the Renaiss- 
ance style. Terra-cotta is largely 
employed in the exterior ornamen- 
tation. The United States Naval 
Obset'oatory is situated near the 
banks of the Potomac, and occupies 
ft commanding site. Visitors are 
admitted to it. The instruments are 
very perfect, and there is a good 
library of astronomical works. The 
Department of Agriculture occupies 
a large brick and stone building on 
the Mall, at the foot of 13th-street. 
The greenhouses are very extensive. 
They contain a library, museum, and 
a very exhaustive herbarium. The 
grounds and flower garden contain 
IV great variety of plants, etc. 



The y<i>'!/ Yard is on the Eastern 
Branch of' the Potomac River and 
contains, besides officers' (|uarters, 
sho]is, foundries, ship houses, 
armoury, etc., and covers nearly 28 
acres, enclosed by a brick wall. 
The Naral Miturlnn, the Ex|>eri- 
mental Rattery, an<l the fleet aro 
interesting to visit. The Marine 
Harracks and Marine Jlonpital are 
situated two blocks to the North of 
the Navy Yard. 

The U'ash'Mi/ton Monument, on the 
Mall, neur 14th-street, is one of the 
largest in the world. It has at 
length been finished after many 
delays from want of funds. The 
Corcoran Art Qallery, in the Ren- 
aissance style, on Pennsylvania- 
avenue and 17th-street, is a fine 
l)uildiug. It was founded, endowed 
and maintained by \V. W. Corcoran, 
the banker. It ccmtains very fine 
collections of very valuable 
l)ictures, of casts, marble statuary, 
hvo\\'i.e^,hric-d-hra(', etc. The L^ntise 
Jlome, on Massachusetts-avenue, a 
handsome building, w*as erected by 
the same idiilantropist. It was 
endowed for impoverished gentle- 
women. 

The Court House on 4J-street, the 
Odd Fellows, and Masonic and Liu' 
coin Halls, the extensive Washing- 
ton Market, in Pennsylvania -a venue 
are all noteworthy edifices. The 
Army Medical Museum is onlO-street 
and contains about 17,(KW patholog- 
ical specimens. The Old United 
States Pension Office is in Pennsyl- 
vania-aveime, and the Census Office 
at the corner of 13th-street, same 
avenue. The Signal Office, or 
Weather Bureau, is on G-street, and 
the Ordnance Museum, on the comer 
of P and 17 streets. The latter has 
a collection of war trophies, flags, 
etc. The United States Arsenal, is 
situated in some pleasant grounds 
on Greenleaf's Point. 

There are .several monuments 
still unmentioned which are 
noteworthy ; the best among them 
is the Statue of Washington, by Mills, 
in Washington-circle ; the Efjues- 
trian Statue of General Scott, in the 
intersection of Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island avenues and 16-street. 
The statues of Lincoln, General 
Greene, General Rawlings, General 
Thomas, Admiral Parragut and 
General Macpherson, are all very 






WASHIXCiTON — WATEKHL'KY 



185 



't, on the 
e of the 
: has at 
many 
, The 



fine and worth the attention of the 
touriHt. 

The Jlotcanl Vnu'emHy, on 7th- 
street, in the outskirts of the town, 
was founded in IrtHl for the echica- 
tion of youth, without rej^urd to sex 
or colour. It is ahnost exchisively 
frefiuented by negroes. From its 
tower a fine view may be obtaine«l. 
The Soldier's Home or ** Invalid's 
House," occujjies an elevated 
l)lateau north of the city. The 
spacious buildings arc of white 
marble, surrounded by a park of 
f>()0 acres. North of it is the National 
Cemetery, with the graves of over 
5,(HK) soldiers who fell in the Civil 
Wars. The Columbian University, is 
near Meridian-hill and Pleasant- 
])lains. Its ])uildings, though offer- 
ing nothing striking, are large, and 
the grountls ample and well-kept. 
The United States Lunatic Asylum 
(for naval and military men) is 
situated in a park of 420 acres on 
the south bank of the Anacostia. 
Long Bridge S])ans the Potomac at 
the foot of 14-street, to Alexander's 
Island in Virginia. Its structural 
features are interesting. Congres- 
sional Cemetery, east of the town 
contains the graves of Members of 
the Congress, who died during their 
term of service, and has some good 
monuments. Olenwood is another 
Cemetery, pleasantly laid out, with 
a rural aspect, north of the Capitol. 
There are five other cemeteries. 

The favourite drives and promen- 
ades are to the Old Soldier's Home ; 
to the heights of Georgetown ; to 
Arlington ; to Alexandria, along the 
Virginia shore of the Potomac ; to 
the little and great falls of the Poto- 
mac. 

Arlington House, the old re:iidence 
of George Washington and of the 
members of his family, and other 
prominent men, is situated on an 
elevation on the opposite or Vir- 
ginian side of the Potomac, almost 
facing Georgetown. Nothing of 
interest is kept here. There is a 
register which records the names of 
air who are buried in the National 
Cemeteries around the house, in all 
some 15,000 victims of the Civil 
Wars. 

Oeorgetoicn, a pleasant suburb of 
Washington, and divided from it 
only by Rock Creek, is eld and 



picturo»'(uo. It is the seaport of 
the District f)f Columbia, and con- 
RCiiuently has some; little conmu>rce. 
GeorgetownCol lege(\i\.Mnm\C\\{.\\o\\c) f 
the A(|ueduct, and the Convent (»f 
Visitation are the ])rincij)al objects 
of interest. 0,»A- Hill Cemetery, 
north-east of the town is, though 
small, very beautiful. Some fine 
mausoleums, monununts, etc., are 
to be fouutl here. Alexandria, op- 
])()8ite Washington, is also a suburb, 
with (juaint ol(l buildings. In Christ 
Church several jiews are shewn as 
having once been occupied by 
WashingtoTi and other eminent 
men. The Court House, Mtiseum, 
Theological Seminary, and 0(hl 
Fellows Hall are the i)roniinent 
objects of interest in Alexandria. 
On the outskirts is another National 
cemetery. Vnioiitown, on the. op- 
posite shore of the Eastern Bnincli, 
IS another suburb, but f»f less in- 
terest. Mount Vernon, 15 miles 
below Washington, anil on the 
opi)osite 8i<le of the Potomac, is 
generally visited by steamer. It is 
interesting as having l)een in the 
hands of the Washington family for 
a great numl^er of years, as the 
Hunting Creek estate. The house, 
as it now stands, was built by 
Lawrence, and finished by George 
Washington. It contains . some 
relics, 'riie tomb of Washington 
stands retired, but near the mansion. 
It is now the property of the United 
States Government. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from New York, via 
Philadel])hia and Baltimore, in 8 
hours. 

Waterbury {Connecticut).— ]iiQVC 
Haven County; i)opulation (1880), 
17,806. 

Hotels: Lawlors, Myers, Earlo 
Scoville. 

An important manufacturing 
town at the junction of the Great 
Brook, Mad and Nangatuck Rivers. 
It .8 chiefly engaged in the 
small hardware industries. It 
has a handsome City Hall, a 
Public Library, and eight churches, 
of which St. Johns Episcopal is 
remarka})le for its fine tower. 
The town is regularly built, the 
centre being occupied by a neat 
park, from which the street's radiate* 



180 



IJRADSIIAW S UNITED STATES. 



I < 



. I 



i i 



li 



'ii 



'. ''i 



I ■ 



Irving Hull ran seat 1,000 pcf)plo, 
ftiid (nty Hnll l.«KM». It Iuih five 
Ixtnki), Hoveral Hchools, and some 
very flue rewiUcnciJs in the midst of 
Riirdens. It i« the f^reiit brass 
miinufticturing centre in the United 
States. 

lleaehed by New York and New 
Haven U lilway, from New York, in 
4 hours. 

Wheeling ( We»f T'lr^JH/rt) .— Ca])ital 
of the State, and seat of Ohio 
County; popuhition (IH8(>), ;n,2«6. 

Jloteln : MacLure, St. James, 
Stamm's. 

Ammtpmenfs ; The Opera House, 
the Academy of Music. 

Conreyanceit : Tramways (fare, 6 
cents) ; carriages, I dol. i)er hour. 

Po»i and Telegraph Office: In the 
Custom and Court House. 

Advantageously situated on the 
east bank of the' Ohio River, at the 
moutli of the Wheeling Creek. It is 
cotniec'tcd with the opposite 
Bellaire, in Ohio, })y a noble bridge 
of 4"! arches. It has a thriving 
commerce, and its factories arc 
numerous and important, especia liy 
the iron foundries, pai)er, loathe., 
and woollen mills. The Capitol is a 
fine building, as is also the Cuttom 
HoHne, containing Court and Post 
Office. The Odd Fellows' Hall, 
Opera House, Public Library, several 
fine school buildings and churches, 
and the Fair Ground, just outside 
the town, with Trotting Course, are 
all noteworthy. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from Baltimore, via 
Washington, in 5 hours. 



"Wilkesbarre (Pennsyloania).— Seat 
of Luzerne County; population 
(1880), 23,339. 

Hotels : Wyoming Valley, Luzerne 
Exchange, Bristol. 

Situated on the north branch of 
the Susquehanna River, opposite 
Kingston, Pennsylvania. It is well 
built, has broR,d, well-shaded streets, 
and handsome buildings. It is 
chiefly engaged in the iron and 
steel industry, and in coal mining. 
The Court House, County Prison, 
Opera House, and several fine 



churches will attract the eye of the 
tourist. Prospect Rock, two miles 
behind the town, is famous for its 
fine view over the Wyoming Valley. 
There is a bridge across the river. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from Baltimore, vid Sunbury, 
in H\ hours. 

Williamsport {Pennsylvania).— 
Seat of Lycoming County; popu- 
lation (188()), 18,03i. 

Hotels: Park, C"ty, Hepburn, 
Porter. 

Situated on the west branch of 
the Susq -ehanna River, and West 
Branch ('anal. It is surrounded by 
hills and splendid scenery. Tram- 
ways run in its streets, which are 
broad, straight, well paved, and 
lighted by gas. The numerous 
gardens in front of the houses make 
the town attractive. It carries on a 
large ti-ade in lumber, and has also 
some n' ufactures. Graceful Sus- 
pcDsiou Bridges connect the town 
with the opposite suburbs of Rock- 
town and Du))oistown. Trinitg 
Church is the finest building in 
Williamsport. The Dickinson Semi- 
nary, in Academy-street, is a noted 
educational institution ; Post Office, 
and Court House, are also note- 
worthy. The County Buildings are 
remarkable. It has also a fine 
Academy of Music. The vast saw 
mills, planing mills, etc., and 
factories connected with the timber 
trade, make the town lively and 
somewhat noisy. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from Baltimore, via Harris- 
burg, in 6i hours. 

'Wilmington (Delaware). — New 
Castle County; population (1880), 
42,499. 

Hotels : Clayton, Delaware, Euro- 
pean, United States. 

Situated on the Delaware River 
and Christiana and Brandywine 
creeks. It derives its importance 
from its extensive steamship build- 
ing-yards. It has also some im- 
portant manufactures. The town 
IS uniformly built of brick, and 
the streets are mostly paved, and 
have paved side walks. The Custom 
House and Post OJlce, the City H 



WHEELING— WOUCKSTEU. 



187 



Uie Wilminffton Institute niul Public 
liibriiry, the AlmwhouHO niul Openi 
Jloute Hrc the ]>riuci]ml public buihl- 
inK8. The Stteditk Church, erocted 
in 1K9H, is the uldcHt iimou^ iho 
many fine churches of the town. 

Retiched by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from Baltimore, in one hour. 



Wilminffton (North Carolina).— 
Seat ot New Hanover County ; 
population (1880), 6,367. 

HoieU: Commercial, Purcell. 

The principal commercial town of 
North Carolma, is situated on the 
Cape Fear River, and is a port of 
entry. Forts Caswell and Fisher 
were the scenes of memorable events 
in the late Civil wars. It was 
especially visited by blockade run- 
ners from British ports, and vessel 
after vessel succeeded in laudinj? 
cargoes. The town is (juaint as 
many of the southern towns are, 
hut has nothing particular to inter- 
est the visitor. Tlirn.- is an Opera 
House, City Hall, County Court and 
Custom Hr ISO and Post Office, 
which are worth noticing. 

Reached by Wilmington, Colum- 
T)ia and Augusta Railway, from 
Columbia, via Florence, in 114 
hours. 



"Winona {'Minneitoia) . — Sent of 
Winona County ; population (1S30), 
10,208. 

Hotels: Haff, Jewell. 

Beautifully situated on the Missis- 
sipjii River on a plain commanding 
a view of the river for many miles. 
It is considered somewhat of a 
winter resort, owing to its being 
sheltered from North and North- 
easterly winds. The town is com- 
pactly built, the streets being wide 
and well paved. The State Normal 
School is a very fine building. An- 
other School Building cost 65,000 
dols. It has a considerable com- 
merce in grain and wheat, some 
factories and an important lumber 
'.rade. The Philharmonic and Ely 
Halls can each seat 800 persons. 

Reached by Green Bay, Winona 
and St. Paul Railway, from St. Paul, 
in \\ houi s. 



Worcester (Maii»achui>cttH). — scat 
of WorceHter Countv ; ijopulatiou 
(I880),as,;<83. 

Uoteh: United Slates, Waldo, 
Bay State House, Lincoln, Waver- 
ley. 

Theatren and Amunementt : Tho 
Music Hall can scat 1,500 jtcrsons; 
MechanicH' Institute Hall 2,500, 
and several other Halls, nearly a 
1,000. 

Conveyance* • Tramways (fare, 
5 cents) ; carriages, 1 i * dols, i)er 
hour. 

Post Office : On Main* trcet, 

A thriving manufacturing town, 
and the second in wealth and popu- 
lation in the Statf. It is chiefly 
engaged in the Ijoot hii<i shoe, hp,r(l- 
ware, jewellerj', stonc\' are, carpet, 
etc., industries. Tl'^ s.'aple produce 
is iron and steol wiro. To the 
tourist it will not prove 8])ecially 
interesting. It is regularly laid out, 
has wide streets, of Avhich Main- 
street is the principal. The '* Com- 
mon," in the midst of the town has 
a beautiful Soldicrg' Monument. Tho 
two County Court JFouKexon Lincoln- 
square, the Cify Hall, High School, 
and Mechanic*' Jlall deserve atten- 
tion. The Union Railway Station 
is one of tbo largest and 
finest in the New England States. 
The American Anfiquar an Society 
has a fine fire])roof residence near 
the Court Uou.ses, with a library of 
60,000 volumes and some collections. 
The Free Fuhl'c Library, in Elm- 
street has 70,000 volumes and a read- 
ing-room open to all. The Lyceum 
and .Natural Hintory Society, on 
Foster-street, has some interesting 
collections. The State Lunatic 
Asylum is on a hill east of the town. 
The community is justly ])roud of 
its educational institutions. There 
are no less than 5 higher colleges 
and acaflemies all well endowed and 
fiourishing. It is the centre of an 
extensive system of summer resorts, 
and excursions may be made in 
many directions, the principal being 
Lake Quinsigamond and Wachuset 
Mountain. 

Reached by Boston and Albany 
Railway, from Boston, via South 
Framingham, in 1^ hours. 



9 



h:^ 



188 



IJKADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



I ' 



Xenia (OAio).— Seat of Green 
County; population (1880), 7,020. 

lloieh: St. George, Commercial, 
OhraerV. 

A pro.si)erou8 manufacturing 
town, with wide streets and open 
squares, well paved and well 
shaded. The Court Jloiise is con- 
eidered the finest in Ohio. The C'fi/ 
Hall is very handsome, and the 
Prison, or Jail, extensive, and not 
without architectural beauty. The 
town has an im])ortant trade, and 
its manufactures arc considerable. 
Its educational institutions enjoy; a 
well-deserved reputation. The i)rin- 
cii)al is ^enUi College, for both 
sexes, with fine })uildings. The 
Presbyterian Semimary was foun- 
ded in 1794, and has a small library. 
Wilberforce UnicemUy, for coloured 
youths of both sexes, is a little 
outside the town. The Orphan* 
House, with its numerous buildings 
is situated within grounds 200 acres 
m extent. The surrounding country 
is attractive and well cultivated. 

Reached by Pittsburg, Cinci- 
nnati and St. Louis Railway, from 
Columbus, via London, in 2 hours. 

Yellowstone National Park.— 

In the Wyoming and Montana Terri- 
tories, but chierty in the former. It 
is Government property. 

Hotels: The Mammoth Hot Spriyiffs 
is the largest and most comfortable. 
Several small hotels are found at 
the Lower Geyser Basin and new 
ones are in course of erection. 

This remarkable region, covering 
no less than 3,755 miles, is in-inci- 
pally situated in the north-western 
part of the Territory of Wyoming, 
and a small part in the south-west 
corner of the Montana. No por- 
tion of the Park is less than 6,000 
feet above the sea level. It is best 
visited between 15th July and 15th 
Octol)er. Yellowstone is 7,788 feet 
above the sea level. The mountain 
ranges rise to a height of from 
lO.iHM) to 12,000 feet, and are covered 
with perpetual snow. This large 
tract was, by Act of Congress, in 
March, 1872, set apart as a ])leasure 
grouml for the Ijenefit and enjoy- 
ment of the people. It is best 
visited on horseback, and every 
object of interest may then be visited 



with safety. Hunting and fishing 
can be also enjoyed. Complete outfits 
for camping out, the pleasantest 
way of visiting all points of interest 
can ])e had either at Livingston or 
Pozeman. These are also good 
starting points; the latter being the 
largest town {)n theNorthem Pacific 
Railwiiy in the vicinity of the Park, 
The latter is the branch station for 
the line leading to Mammoth Hot 
Springs. 

The wh(^le region has been the 
scene of considerable volcanic 
activity, even recently. Among 
other objects of interest, there are 
over 1,500 hot s])rings, with ab(mt 
50 geysers of the first magnitude. 
The district also abounds in water- 
falls, canyons, lakes, etc., rendering 
it V)eyond (luestiou the most in- 
teresting region of the world. The 
geysers are of enormous volume, 
and throw columns of water as 
high as 200 feet. The springs may 
be cbissed under two divisions, viz., 
alcaline and silicate. Their tem- 
perature varies between 160 and 
200 degrees Fahr. The principal 
incrustations are found in the upper 
and lower gej'ser basins of the 
Madison River, and also of the Gar- 
diner River. The Yellowstone is 
also interesting as the watershed of 
this ]>ortion of America, no fewer 
than four great river systems hav- 
ing their origin here. The sources 
of the Yellowstone River and of 
several of the tributaries of the 
Missouri are found here. The Snake 
River has its beginning here, and 
pours its waters into the Columbia, 
and by it into the Pacific Ocean. The 
Green River is also a tributary of 
the Colorado aiul enters, with 
several others, the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. 

The Yellotc-stonn Rieer is very 
picturesque for the first 22 miles of 
its course before entering the Yel- 
low-stone Lake. This latter is a 
beautiful sheet of remarkably clear 
water, abounding in salmon-trout. 
Its shores are rugged, but ex- 
tremely picturesque. A belt of hot 
springs surrounds the south-west 
arm of the lake. The Upper Falls, 
through a series of rapids, descend 
to a level 15 miles l)elow the lake. 
They fall from a height of 140 feet, 
The Lower Falls, 3(50 feet high, are 
a qvuirter of a-mile further down. 



XENIA — YONKKRS. 



189 



fishinj? 
te outfits 
asantest 

interest 
?8ton or 
so Rood 
)eing the 
11 Pacific 
le Park. 
tion for 
loth Hot 

leen the 

volcanic 

Among 

liere are 

h about 

.gnitude. 

. water- 

ndering 

most in- 

Id. The 

volume, 

ater as 

igs may 

ms, viz., 

sir tem- 

160 and 

|)rincipal 

he upper 

of the 
the Gar- 
rstone is 
jrshed of 
no fewer 
sms hav- 
3 sources 

and of 
3 of the 
he Snake 
lere, and 
)olumbia, 
3ean. The 
butary of 
rs, with 
of Call- 

is very 
miles of 
: the Yel- 
ttcr is a 
bly clear 
ion-trout, 
hut ex- 
elt of hot 
)uth-west 
)er Falls, 
, descend 
the lake. 

140 feet, 
high, are 
er down. 



and are very majestic. The Grand 
Canon is about 20 miles long, and 
stretches down from the LowerFalls. 
It has ])eri)endicular walls 1,200 to 
1,500 feet high. The scenery here is 
of indiscril)able grandeur and 
beauty. 

Another remarkable natural i)he- 
nomenon is the White Mountain 
Hot Spring!*, on the west bank of 
Gardiner's River. They extend from 
the margin of the riveV to an eleva- 
tion of about 1,000 feet high. The 
calcareous deposits of the extinct 
springs cover an area of about two 
scjuare miles. The deposits are snow 
white. The Sn'jihnr Mountain is a hill 
of sulphurous de])osits, with many 
Assures and holes whence sul])hur- 
ous vapours issue. It lies 10 miles 
west of the Yellowstone River from 
the Falls. Mud Volcano is about 
two miles above Suli)hur Mountain. 
The crater is 25 feet in diameter, 
about 30 feet dee]). It has broken 
out from the side of a well-wooded 
hill. It sends forth colums of dense 
smoke, visible for mcny miles 
round. There are also some Mud 
Springs. About two ailes south-east 
from Sulphur Mountain, on the 
bank of the river, is a group of 
remarkaV)le Mud Springs. Near the 
Mud Volcano are three large hf)t 
springs, having alternate periods of 
eruption every six hours. 

In the west i)ortion of the Park 
are the celebrated Oei/sers onthc Fire 
Hole River. They are in groups, 
and are known as the Lower ancl 
Upper Geyser Basins. The former 
comprises" an area of about 30 square 
miles. Its countless geysers and 
springs are scjiarated in seven 
groups. The second group, near the 
centre of the Basin, is the most 
interesting. The chief Geyser of 
this group is 20 feet in diameter, 
and over 60 feet high. Eight miles 
to the south is the Upp^r Basin, not 
nearly so large as the furmer, being 
only three s(iuare miles in extent. 
The geysers, on the other hand, are 
much more important. The Old 
Faithful, the most regular, throws a 
column six feet in diameter, 130 
feet high. It stands at the southern 
extremity of the valley. The Bee- 
hive has one eruption only in the 24 
hours, but it rr >ches a height of from 
100 to 220 feet, with a fliameter of 
three feet. The Giantess is another 



remarkable geyser, 25 feet in 
diameter. It rises at times to 250 
feet. At certain times the aperture 
can be ai)i)r()ached so near, that the 
water can be seen at the bottom. 
The Sail- mi 1 1 Geyser is farther down 
the river on the same side. Close to 
this is the Grand Geyser, the most 
powerful in the Basin, its orifice 
is 2^ by 4 feet. When not in action 
its waters are ([uito clear. Erup- 
tions occur at irregular intervals, 
and are preceded by a rumbling 
sound and shaking of the ground. 
The water then shoots to a height of 
175 to 200 feet, and th(^ steam to 
over 1 ,000 feet. Theerui)tions gene- 
rally last 20 minutes, receding grad- 
ually. The Tur/jan and Giant Geyser 
are close by ; their discb.arges are 
irregular and uncertain. They i.lay 
at times for over an hour, ejecting 
a column of water 8 feet in diameter 
and 150 feet high. A column has 
also been seen at a height of 2CK> 
feet, and continuing for 3^ hours at 
a time. There are al.so numerous 
other unnamed gej'sers, of every 
shape, height, colour, etc. 

Besides these natural phenomena, 
the scenic attractions of the Yellow- 
stone Park are highly pictiires(iue. 
Every variety of mountain scenery 
is found. The hills aro all well 
wooded, and replete with game. 
It is a spot to attract alike the 
tourist, the naturalist, and the 
sportsman. 

Reached by the Northern Pacific 
Railway, from St. Paul, via Bozc- 
man, to Mammoth Hot Springs, in 
47 hours. Also from Ogden, via 
Garrison and Livingston, by the 
Union Pacific Railway, in 38J 
hours. 



Yonkers {New Fort).— Westchester 
County; population (1880), 18,892. 

Hotels: Gitty, Peabody, Man- 
sion. 

A suburbrtu town, principally in- 
habited by New York merchants. 
It is beautifully situated at the 
mouth of the Saw Mill River, on 
Hudson River. The Manor House, 
long in the jmssession of the 
Phillipse family, was the residence 
of Mary Philliiise, Washington's 
first love. A naval engagement 
took ])lace here, on the river, in 
1777, between some English men-of- 



190 



BRADSHAW S UNITED STATES. 



1 -i 



war and American gun boats. It is 
an old settlement. It has some 
factories of agricultural imple- 
ments, but the hat and silk indus- 
tries are its principal ones. 

Reached by New York Cen- 
tral and Hudson River Railway, 
from New York, in half an hour. 



York {Pennsylvama). — York County ; 
population (1880), 13,940. 

Hotels: National, Centrtil, Metzel, 
Pennsylvania, Washington. 

Situated on Codorus Creek, the 
town is old, having been first 
settled in 1741, and incorporated in 
1787. It was occupied by the Con- 
federate Army for some time during 
the Civil War. The streets are wide 
and straight, and the houses sub- 
stantially built. Centre Square is 
the centre of the town— and here the 
principal streets intersect. The Court 
' House is a handsome building, and 
has a hall which can seat 1,200 
persons. Agricultural implements, 
railway cars, shoe, match, and 
paper manufactories are the chief 
sources of wealth in the district. 
The scenery in the Codorus Valley 
is very beaxitiful. 

Reached by Pennsylvania Rail- 
way, from Philadelphia, in 3| hours. 

Yosemite Valley {California).— 
In Mariposa County ; stretching 
across part of Tuolumne County. 

Hotels: Leydigs has two hotels; 
another is Black's; the best are 
perhaps, Lamon's two hotels ; Wnlsh 
and Coulter is another ; all are fairly 
clean, and the food good— consider- 
ing the distance provisions have to 
be brought. Charges— 3^ dols. to 5 
dols. per day. 

Guides : Inclusive of horses, 5 dols. 
per day. 

This superb valley is formed by the 
Merced River in Southern Mariposa 
County, and is distant about 220 
miles from San Francisco. It runs 
from east to west — is almost level, 
and about 6 miles in length by from 
half to one mile in width. It is 
nearly a mile in perpendicular depth 
below the adjoining regions. The 
valley is one vast flower-garden— 
the atmosi)here being laden with 
perfume, whilst the eye is dazzled 



by the variety and brilliancy of the 
colouring. The Yosemite region was 
discovered in 1851, by Captain Bol- 
ing. The valley and the Mariposa 
grove of big trees are the property 
of the State, and inalienable. They 
have to be kept "for ever" as 
recreation grounds. 

The most striking feature in 
Yosemite is " El Capitan." It is an 
isolated rock 3,300 feet in height, 
with perpendicular sides — smooth, 
and bare of all vegetation. The 
beautiful Bridal Veil Fall, 900 feet 
high, is another remarkable object, 
and is exactly opposite " El Capi- 
tan." It is thus named — because 
owing to the great height from 
which the water falls, it is con- 
verted into mist long l)ef ore it reaches 
the groimd. Opposite is Virgin's 
Tears Creek, a beautiful fall of 
1,000 feet. Cathedral Rock is on 
the side of the Bridal Veil Fall, and 
is so named from the fancied 
resemblance the mountain bears to 
a cathedral. The Spires, two grace- 
fvd granite columns. Three Brothers 
with superb view of the whole 
valley, and Sentinel Rock, a rock 
resembling an obelisk, are next seen. 
Across the valley, at Sentinel Rock, 
are the Falls of the Yosemite, the 
most striking object in the valley ; 
total height of fall is 2,600 feet, in 
three leaps ; the first is 1,500 feet, 
the second 626, in several cascades ; 
and the last plunge 400. The roar 
of these falling waters is at all times 
very great. Two miles above the 
Yosemite Falls, the valley termi- 
nates in Washington Column and 
Royal Arches. Here it divides into 
three distinct but much narrower 
canons. The principal features in 
these three are : Mirror Lake, Half 
Dome, North Dome, Cap of Liberty, 
Nevada Fall and Vernal Fall. 

The attractions of the valley are 
further enhanced by the almost 
permanent presence of several small 
encampments of Digger Indians, 
whose x^rimitive modes of living 
will certainly interest the tourist. 
Excursions into the surrounding 
mountains are frequently made, and 
are without danger, the guides 
being reliable. The scenery com- 
pares favourably with the most 
romantic iiarts of Switzerland, or 
the Andes of South America. The 
best known siDots are Glacier Point 



YORK — ZANESVILLE. 



191 



on the Mariposa trail to Inspira- 
tion Point. 

V The stage route most preferred is 
the one which leads from Madera, 
vid Clark's and Inspiration Point. 
This route affords the opportunity 
of visiting the celebrated Jf«rt/>o»« 
Orove of Big Trees, only 3^ miles 
from Clark's. Their average height 
is less than the Calaveras Grove 
Trees, but in circumference they 
are lirger. The Grizzly Giant, 
though reduced hy burning, is still 
04 feet in circumferance, and 31 feet 
in diameter. There are other 
I groves in the vicinity, as the Fresno 
Grove, Fresno County, and the 
Tuolumne Grove in Tuolumne 
County. But having seen one, the 
tourist may be said to have seen 
all, as the trees are all of one 
species. 

Reached by Central Pacific Rail- 
way, from San Francisco, via 
Stockton, Lathrop and Madera, 
thence by diligence, in 9 hours ; 
return, vid Coulterville, Snelling 
and Crane Flat to Merced. 



Zanesville (OAio).— Seat of Mus- 
kingum Comity ; population (188()), 
18,120. 

Hotels : Clarendon, American, 
New Zane, Kirk. 

Situated on the Muskingum River 
and on the Ohio Canal, by which it 
is connected with Cleveland and the 
lakes. The river is crossed by four 
bridges, of which one is an iron 
railway bridge. The town has its 
own waterworks, gas, tramways, 
and is regularly laid ov.t. The 
principal building is the stone Court 
Home. The Athenwum is fine, and 
has a reading room, with library of 
6,00() volumes. The surrounding 
agricultural district is fertile, and 
Zanesville is its centre. The chief 
source of the prosperity of the town 
are the coal mines, iron ore', lime- 
stone and clay, together with ample 
water power. The Opera Hoime 
can seat 1,100, and the Music Hall 
850. 

Reached by Baltimore and Ohio 
Railway, from Baltimore, vid 
Grafton, in 16 hours. 



i •! 



•1! 



'-it^ 



■'it 



i :,, 



M I* 



■;■; r 



'' 1' 




up 



DOMINION OF CANADA. 



AREA AND EXTENT 
(Geography). 

The Dominion of Canada or 
British North America, embraces 
the whole territory north of the 
United States — with the exception 
ol:* Alaska— it includes all the 
islands oif these coasts — except 
Newfoundland, which has not 
joined the Dominion yet, and the 
French islands of S*^. Pierre, Mi- 
quelon, and Langley. It extends 
from the 43rd to the 70th parallel 
north latitude, and from o3rd to 
the 14 1st west longitude. The 
superficial area is 3,805,394 square 
miles. Up to the present, of this 
the 11 provinces formed cover 
about one- third ; the remainder 
being still held as territories. This 
vast territory is bordered by the 
Atlantic Ocean, Davies Strait, and 
Batiin's Bay on the east ; the Arctic 
Ocean and Baffin's Bay on the 
north ; the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, 
and Queen Charlotte's Island on 
the west; and the United States 
on the south, ^ts superficial area 
is one fifteenth of the land surface 
of the globe, and a little more than 
that of the United States, and a 
little less than Europe. However, 
only about two- thirds are habitable. 
In this work it is intended to 
deal only with the narrow strip 
immediately bordering on the 
United States, and principally that 
near the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
and between the 43rd and 55th 
parallels of northern latitude. 



The physical features of this 
territory are very varied. The 
principal mountains are the Cobe- 
quid llange in Nova Scotia ; the 
range of a moderate elevation 
between Quebec and New Bruns- 
wick ; the terraced country between 
the St. Lawrence and the llocky 
Mountains ; the Rocky Mountains 
in the western part, with peaks of 
15,000 feet in height ; the Selkirk 
and Cascade Mountains, bet\\ecn 
the Rocky Mountains and the 
Pacific coast, rising to about 7,000 
feet. 

Canada possesses the largest lake 
and river system in the world. The 
area drained comprises over 700,000 
square miles. The principal iivers 
are the St. Lawrence, the Mac- 
kenzie, the Saskatchewan, Peace, 
Nelson, Athabasca, Assiniboine, 
Albany, Churchill, Winnipeg, the 
Columbia, Eraser, Thompson, and 
Ottawa rivers, together with a 
great number of less importance. 
The coast offers good harbours and 
the rivers easy access to the heart 
of the country. The fauna and 
flora are very varied. The climate 
is a cold one. The chief source of 
wealth is agriculture. Any mineral 
wealth of importance is only in the 
western portions. Mineral springs 
are numerous. 

HISTORY. 

The earliest visitors to the 
Canadian Atlantic coast are sup- 
posed to have been Norsemen. But 
this is very doubtful, and the first 



194 



BRADSHAW S CANADA. 



I 'I ' ! 






(' ,1 



II 



( .' 



t ii 






discovery is generally ascribed to 
the Cabots, father and son, oi 
Genoese origin, but settlers in Eng- 
land. The former navigator visited 
it in 1497 and the latter in the 
year following. Since 1504, the 
coast of Newfoundland and adjoin- 
ing islands have been visited by 
Norman, Basque and Breton fisher- 
men. The first French settlement 
under Baron de Lory and St. Just 
■was effected in 1518. In 1523, 
Fi-ance took possession of the region 
surrounding the mouth of the St. 
Lawrence. The visits and explor- 
ations of Jacques Cartierin 1534-5, 
however, may be considered to 
constitute the first period of 
Canadian history. 

By the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, 
the region became a possession of 
the British Crown. In 1G70, the 
charter of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany was granted. In 1721, the 
census showed 25,000 inhabitants 
of European origin. In 17^3, all 
French possessiojis in North 
America became British, and in 
1790, the country was divided into 
Upper and Lower Canada. In 1840, 
both colonies were united, and 
Kingston became the seat of the 
Government. In 1844, Montreal be- 
came the capital ; in 1849, Toronto ; 
and after this Quebec and Toronto, 
each for the term of 4 years. In 
1854, the old feudal system was 
done away with, and since 1858, 
Ottawa has become the capital. 

POPULA.TION. 

The entire population, according 
to the census of 3rd April, 1881, 
was 4,324,750, of which 2,188,854 
were males, and 2,135,956 females. 
2,422,285 were Protestants and 
1,791,982 Catholics, 2,393 Jews, 
4,478 heathens, and 103,072 with- 
out any professed religion. These 
very mixed elements were as fol- 
lows : Canadian French, 1,298,929 ; 
Irish, 957,403 ; English, 881,301 ; 



Scotch, 099,803 ; German, 254,319 ; 
Indians, 131,137 ; Negroes, 21,394 ; 
Chinese, 4,383, whilst every nation 
of Europe has sent a more or less 
strong contingent. The number 
of emigrants was in 1881-2 = 
59,939; in 1882-3 = 72,281. The 
most ^ populous provinces are 
Ontario and Quebec: the least 
populous British Columbia, Assini- 
boine and Athabasca. 
The principal towns are : 

Inhabitants. 



Montreal with 140,747 


Toronto ,, 


90,000 


Quebec ,, 


75,000 


Halifax ,, 


36.100 


Hamilton ,, 


35,905 


Ottawa ,, 


27,417 


St. John ,, 


20,127 


London , , 


20,000 


Winnipeg ,, 


10,000 


Kingston , , 


14,093 


Charlottetown ,, 


11,485 


Victoria , , 


8,000 


The population of »^ 


5 axon origin 


is the most law-abiding ; the 


French and half-breed 


ri being very 


restless, and frequently causing 


political disturbances. 





GOVERNMENT. 

Until 1838 the Government con- 
sisted of a legislature, whose 
members were appointed by the 
Crown, and a chamber of deputies 
elected by the inhabitants. In 
consequence of the revolution of 
Upper Canada, this constitution 
was suspended in 1838, and the 
Government entrusted to a Special 
Council. .On the Union of Upper 
and Lower Canada, in 1840, the 
new legislature consisted of an 
upper chamber of 20 members, 
appointed by the Governor in the 
name of the Queen for life, and a 
lower house with 84 members 
elecced by the inhabitants. Since 
the union of all the colonies (New- 
foundland excepted) under the title 
of the Dominion of Canada, in 



BRADSHAW S CANADA. 



195 



n, 254,319 ; 
)c 8, 21,394; 
very nation 
ore or less 
le number 
1881-2= 
,281. The 
inees are 
the least 
bia, Assini- 

re : 

bitants. 
40,747 
90,000 
75,000 
35,100 
35,905 
27,417 
26,127 
26,000 
16,000 
14,093 
11,485 
8,000 

ixon origin 

iding ; the 

being very 

ly causing 



nment con- 
re, whose 
ted by the 
of deputies 
bants. In 
volution of 
onstitution 
8, and the 
to a Special 
a of Upper 
I 1840, the 
sted of an 
' members, 
nor in the 
life, and a 
members 
its. Since 
>nies (New- 
ler the title 
Canada, in 



P™ 



1864, they form a confederation. 
The Government so constituted is 
that of a limited Monarchy, on the 
principle of the responsibilities of 
Ministers to Parliament. It i? 
vested in a Governor-General, 
appointed by the Queen of Great 
Britain and Ireland, but paid by 
the Dominion, and a Cabinet of 13 
members, who, with the Speaker 
of the Senate, form the Privy 
Council. The seat of Government 
is Ottawa. The Parliament con- 
sists of the Queen, an Upper House 
of 78 members— 39 elected by the 
Governor for life and 39 elected by 
the people— 40 of which sit for 
Canada, 12 for Nova Scotia, 12 for 
New Brunswick, three for Prince 
IMsvard's Island, three for Mani- 
toba, and three for British Colum- 
]>ia ; this chamber is called the 
Senate. The Lower House is 
ytyled the " House of Commons," 
and consists of 206 members, 
elected in the same number of 
electorial districts by the people. 
During the session the daily ex- 
penses of members are paid by the 
Government. Clergymen are not 
eligible. The mandate lasts for 
four years, but the Governor can 
dissolve Parliament and order a 
new election. A session of Parlia- 
ment must take place every year. 
The President of the Senate is 
chosen by the Crown and appointed 
for life ; the Speaker of the House 
of Commons is elected by the 
members. The Governor-General 
has a civil list of £10,000 per 
annum. The judges of Canadian 
coui'ts are appointed by the Crown 
and not elected by the people as in 
the United States. 

The present Governor of Canada 
is the Marquis of Lansdowne ; the 
Minister President is Sir John A. 
Macdonald ; Interior, Sir D. L. 
Macpherson ; Finance, Sir S. L. 
Tilley; Public Works, Sir H. 
Langevin; Railways and Canals, 
Sir C. Tupper; Agriculture, Pope; 



Justice, Sir Alex. Campbell ; Mill* 
tia, A. P. Caron ; Post and 
Telegraph, Frank Smith ; High 
Commissioner in England, Sir C. 
Tupper. 

PROVINCES. 

The Dominion of Canada is 
composed of the following Pro- 
vinces: Ontario, Quebec, Prince 
Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick, Manitoba, and British 
Columbia. 

The territories of Assiniboia, 
Saskatchewan, Alberta and Atha- 
basca. 

The North -West territories, 
Labrador and Newfoundland are 
not yet admitted in the Union. 

ARMY AND NAVY. 

All able-bodied men (British 
subjcfts) are enrolled in the Militia 
for the defence of the Dominion — 
from the ISth to the 60th year. 
The Militia is divided into an active 
and reserve fore », the former in- 
cluding the volunteer, I'egular, and 
marine militia. A'olunteers have 
to serve for three years, and regu- 

i lar and marine militia for two years. 

i The active force in 1580 was : — 



Cavalry 

Field Artillery 
Garrison Artillery 
Engineer.-', 
Infantry and Ilitles 


. 2,637 

. 1,438 

3,479 

.. 282 
37,316 


In all 

The reserve militia 
Imperial troops as 
Garrison of Halifax, 


45,152 
655,000 

2,000 



In all 702,152 

Canada is divided into twelve 
military districts. There ai'3 four 
artillery schools and a military 
college at Kingston. Every male 
inhabitant serves threo yeai*s in 
the active militia, in each of which 
he is drilled during sixteen days. 

g2 



196 



BRADSHAW S CANADA. 



I 



m 



< \^ 






/I: 



V' 



k 



I ll[ 



.'?.[ 






There are seventeen field batteries. 
The navy of the Dominion is com- 
posed of three screw steamers, two 
paddle steamers, and two river 
gunboats. 

FINANCES. 

The finances of Canada are not 
in the most desirable condition, 
the annual budgets closing mostly 
with a deficit. The expenses for 
the year 1883-4 were estimated 
at 45,504,140 dols. The budget 
of 1882-83 showed receipts 
62,286,053 dols., and the expenses 
68,040,463 dols. ^ Amongst the 
receipts in this year figure 
23,009,582 dols. customs dues and 
6,260,116 dols. excise dues, loan 
14,996,293 dols., and floating 
accounts 11,495,110 dols., thus 
showing almost half of the receipts 
as borrowed capital. 

The total public debt on Ist July, 
1883, was as follows : — 

Liahilities. 

Without interest ... $28,138,176 

4% do. ... 119,440,450 

5% do. ... 44,328,820 

6% do. ... 10,251,658 



Total liabilities 


$202,159,104 


of which payable in London, 




$130,187,403. 




Assets. 




Without interest ... 


$21,524,763 


Varying 


do. 


173,263 


3% 


do. 


15,000 


4% 


do. 


10,583,133 


4^% 


do. 


140,000 


5% 


do. 


10,487,533 


6% 


do. 


768,698 



$43,692,390 



Total Ist July, 1883 $158,466,714 
Total Ist July, 1882 $153,661,651 

Increase in 1883 $4,805,063 



PRODUCE AND MANU- 
FACTURES. 

The produce of the soil has been 
heretofore the main source of 
income and wealth in the Dominion 
of Canada. Manufactures, confined 
as they are to only the two pro- 
vinces of Nova Scotia and Ontario, 
occupy, as yet, a very secondary 
position, with the exception 
perhaps of the shipbuilding which 
is of very great importance. The 
steamers are cliiefliy constructed in 
Ontario, Quebec, and British 
Columbia ; sailing vessels in Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick. la 
1879, 39 of the former, with 3,094 
register tons capacity ; and 264 
of the latter, with 100,457 register 
tons capacity, were built. In the 
same year 400 vessels, with 99,882 
tons, of which 71 were steamers 
with 5,639, were registered. 
The manufactures and industries 
should, however, for several 
reasons be both more numerous 
and more remunerative. We shall, 
therefore, limit ourselves to the 
produce of the soil. In the first 
place may be mentioned coal, of 
which there are extensive beds in 
Nova Scotia, near Pictou ; in Mani- 
toba, British Columbia, and the 
North-West territories annually 
about 500,000 tons are exported. 
Petroleum on the peninsula 
between Lakes Erie and Huron ; 
copper on Lake Nipigon and Mac- 
kenzie River; silver, gold, iron 
and other minerals are also 
abundant. The timber and then 
the cereals, and other agricultural 
produce, come next in importance. 
The export of the former reached, 
in 1881-82, £4,386,000, and the 
latter £6,447,000. In hides and 
skins, which have fallen off con- 
siderably of late, £428,000 worth 
were exported. But the most 
important of all the branches 
of wealth to the inhabitants of 
Canada are the extensive fisheries, 



. fi 



BRADSHAW S CANADA. 



107 



MANU- 

• 

il has been 
Bource of 
a Dominion 
38, confined 
e two pro- 
id Ontario, 
secondary 
exception 
iling which 
mce. The 
structed in 
British 
?ls in Nova 
swick. Ill 
with 3,094 
; and 264 
'57 register 
t. In the 
ith 99,882 
e steamers 
registered, 
industries 
r several 
numerous 
We shall, 
ves to the 
n the first 
id coal, of 
ve beds in 
I J in Mani- 
j, and the 
annually 
exported, 
peninsula 
d Huron ; 
and Mac- 
gold, iron 
are also 
and then 
fricultural 
iportance. 
r reached, 
and the 
liides and 
L off con- 
)00 worth 
the most 
branches 
titants of 
fisheries, 



and their produce exported in 
1881-82, was of the enormous 
value of over £5,000,000. 

COMMERCE. 

The statistics of 1882-3 show 
total imports £21,879,0 0. And 
the total exports amounted to 
£21,279,000, or a tturplus of imports 
over exports of £3,(J00,0;)0. The 
principal imports were : Colonial 
produce, £1,951,000; combustibles. 
£1,000,000; metals, £1,309,000; 
dry goads, £5,394,000; other 
manufactures, £2,718,000, and 
sundries, £8,437,000. The piin- 
cipil exports : cereals, £6,447,000 ; 
animals and animal produce, 
£5,378,000; timber, £4,386,000, 
and sundries, £3,897,000. The 
movement of vessels in the 
ports consisted of 5,057,129 tons 
under the English flag, and 
2,870,433 tons under foreign flags ; 
in all, 7,936,502 tons. ^ The mer- 
cantile fleet consisted in 1881 of 
4,630 vessels, with 1,060,473 tons, 
of which 721, with 200,023 tons, 
were steamers. The coistiug and 
rlvor trade was carried on by 
16,268 vessels, boats and canal 
barges, with 2,889,510 tons carrying 
capa^jity, of which 9,722 with 
1,715,248 tons were und'^r the 
British flag. Through the Welland 
canal 998,247 tons passed in that 
year, 1,729,610 tons through the 
St. Lawrence canal, and 577,821 
tons through the Ottawa and 
Ilideau canals. 

RAILWAYS. 

At the end of 1882, 8,805 English 
miles of railways were in full 
operation and 3,190 miles in con- 
struction. The end of 1885 saw 
the completion of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway across the whole 
bi'eadth of the Dominion. The 
whole private capitol invested in 
railways was 306,956,396 dols. 
with 103,773,410 dols of State 



aid. A great bulk of the Europe in 
capital, i)rincipally English, is 
sunk in them and many lines 
are worked at a loss, as in the 
United Stat«'S. In Ontario 
private capitalists and municipa- 
lities furnish the larger amount of 
capital and build roads with 
Government assistance. In Quebec 
thecont.ary obtains, the Govern- 
ment furnishing the money, while 
the capitalists and municipalities 
assist in building the railways. 
Some of the lines are worked on 
the Americaji i)rineiple, )".('., pas- 
senger trains having only one class, 
while others prefer the European 
plan. The same applies to the 
passenger carriages. Drawing- 
room and sleei)ing cars arc ru!i on 
most express trains, the extra 
charge being small in comparison 
with the charges levied in Europe 
for the same accommodatioji. The 
same regulations as to tickets, Ac., 
obtain in Canada as in the States. 
Passengers must be careful to look 
out for their station, as all aratige- 
ments to guide them are very im- 
certain. 

POST AND TELEGRAPH. 

The postal system is, perhaps, 
even more extensive than in the 
United States, and every village 
in the Dominion has its ofHce. In 
1883, 6,395 offices were in opera- 
tion, handling 62,800,000 si tuple 
letters, 2,050,000 registered letters, 
postal cartes, 12,910,000 ; 2,00<>,000 
letters free of postage (oilicial), 
and 16,589.200 newspapers and 
samples, a total of 97,579,200 
deliveries. 307 Post Office Savings 
Bank^ with total deposits of 
435,989 dols., by 5l,4(;3 de- 
positors, were in working. 

The total length of telegraph 
wii'es is 45.000 j^nglish miles with 
2,550 office.>, mostly held by the 
three comi)anie3 char^^erjd by Act 
of Parliament: the Montreal, the 
Dominion and Western Union, 









I' 

J* i 

I 

Mi* 



4 i! 



;•<! 



:t 






f 



:j! 






198 



I'.UAD.SIIAW S CANADA. 



anl Canadian Pacific. The 
Wostera Union is an American 
compiny with domicilo in New 
York, which, however, works in 
conjunction with the Canadian 
PaciKc Over 2,00(),()f)0 niessaKes 
were delivered in 1882. The 
charge is 15 cents for 10 words 
and under for a distance not ex- 
ceeding 12 miles. Beyond, 25 
cents for equal number of words 
with one cent for each additional 
word. Half prices obtain for 
messages transmitted in the night 
and delivered next morning. 

MONEY. 

The same as in the United 
States, but English coin and notes 
are also current. 

CONVEYANCES. 
The same paragraph in the 
United States portion of this book 
applies also to Canada. 

HOTELS 
Are kept as in the United States. 

TOURIST, CIRCULA.Il AND 
EXCURSION TICKETS. 

These are issued under the same 
conditions as oblain in the 
United States. 

LUGGAGE CHECK SYSTEM. 
Also as in the States. 

CUSTOMS, PASSPORT, ETC. 

The paragraph in the United 
States section applies also to the 
Dominion. 

CLIMATE & DRESS. 

The summers and winters in 
Canada are equally marked, and 



are rather trying to people accus- 
tomed to a more equable and 
mildrr temperature. Roth sea- 
sons are more intense and 
pronounced than in England. 
However, tlie air is remarkably 
dry, bracing and healthy. On the 
whole, the climate is very varied, 
but a trifle colder in winter and 
a little hotter in summer than 
in England. The southern interior 
of Canada is milder, being 
influenced by the lake waters, 
whilst the Province of Quebec, 
British Columbia, and the North- 
West territories are considerably 
colder, resembling more Norway 
and Sweden in temperature. The 
annual mean temperature in 
Ontario is 44 degs. Fahr., as com- 
pared with that of the British 
Isles of 48 degs. Fahr. In the 
other regions, especially the 
prairies west of Ontario and east 
of British Columbia, the mean 
summer temperature is GO deg. 
Fahr. Sometimes the ther- 
mometer rises to U5 and 100 degs. 
Fahr. in the shade, and there are 
frequent and abundant showers of 
rain. In winter it not un- 
frequently falls to from 50 to 
CO^ degs. Fahr. below freezing 
point. Throughout the coast 
regions on either side the change 
is not nearly^ so rapid and exten- 
sive. Intending tourists would do 
well to choose either spring or 
autumn for their visits to Canada, ' 
as they will thus avoid the 
extremes of both summer and 
winter. As a novelty, the winter 
in Canada has many attractions, 
which the uncertain climate of 
Great Britain does not allow. 
Winter may be chosen, therefore, 
by many, but this always necessi- 
tates a considerable outlay in furs. 



I -> 



.1 s 



)lc accus- 
able uiitl 
ioth. Son- 
ne and 
En gland, 
markabl v 
On the 
•y variei], 
nter and 
laer than 
I interior 
, being 
waters, 
Quebec, 
e Nortli- 
siderably 
Norway 
re. Thii 
turo in 
, as com- 
f British 
In the 
dly the 
and east 
le mean 
GO deg. 
ther- 
100 degs. 
there are 
owers of 
lot un- 
1 50 to 
freezing 
> coast 
3 change 
i exten- 
k'ould do 
5ring or 
Canada, ' 
oid the 
ler ^ and 
3 winter 
actions, 
nate of 
allow, 
erefore, 
necessi- 
iu furs. 



THE GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY 

OF CANADA. 



i 1 



I 
I 



k 



The reproach that Canada is practically a fpt'i'u incoijmta to the majority 
of English ti'aveller.s is only too true. Notwithstanding the tide of emigra- 
tion which is constantly setting towards its .shores, and notwithstanding 
the fact th:it visitors and authors htive done ample justice to the beauty and 
boundless resf)urces of the Premier British Colony, Canada has up to the 
present not been sutliciently appreciated either l»y the tourist or the sports- 
man. From the moment ho lands at Quebec, each new departure unfoldH to 
the traveller new revelations of those magnittcent natural gifts so lavishly 
dispensed over th? dominion. The' tract of country' traversed by the Grand 
Trunk Railway is poculiarly interesting, and may bo taken as a typical 
specimen of the bast portions of Canada. 

Wearied and ill, or nervous and fretful with incessant work and worry, 
dwellers in the great cities of Europe are often forced to ask : '* Where can 
I go for health ?" A thorough change of scene is at once the safest and 
pleasantest remedy. Most men go either to the German Baths, or the 
Mountains of Switzerland, or the various cai)itnls of Europe, to the fjords of 
Norway, or to some out-of-the-way nooks. Each year, however, they return 
more dissatisfied and more depressed, it may bo, than when they started. 
Familiarity has destroyed the charm and freshness of the old ground. All who 
desire to l)eneftt by change to an appreciable extent must, therefore, look for 
it out of the beaten track, and in this present age of steam and electricity 
this is not difficult to manage. A trip across the Atlantic is a much less 
formidable undertaking nowadays than a trip to Paris used to Ije 50 years 
ago. And what more mtcresting trip could be suggested to the wandering 
Englishman, than a visit to Canada, with its associations, its beautiful 
scenery, and its rapidly increasing wealth and population. 

Even to-day the average Englishman is little accpiainted with the 
fair region fra versed by the Grand Trunk Raihvay of Canada. This great 
corijoration carries its lines of rail across the country from the Atlantic to 
the great Lakes, to Chicago and Detroit. For the lover of unefiualled 
scenery, as well as for the sportsman, this line, therefore, offers unusual and 
indeed unique attractions. From quaint and venerable Quebec to the 
youngest settlement in the North-West, the Grand Trunk system and its 
connections traverse a country blessed with a splendid climate, and with an 
ample water supply. A country fertile and of great natural beauty, and 
covered with prosperous towns and homesteads. The inhabitants are a 
prosperous, energetic and intelligent race, whom England may well be 
proud to caU her sons. 

The sea voyage, with its necessary absence of business and other 
worries, the regular meals, the bracing sea air, the voyage up the River 
St. Lawrence, will have probably effected an important change in the health 
of most invalids, even before they h ive landed. By the time they reach 
Quebec they feel braced up, and, as it were, quite different beings. The 
St. Lawrence, from its mouth to Quebec, presents an unrivalled scene of 
ever-changing beauty. The first sight of QueV)ec is very striking. The 
coup d'oeil, as the traveller steams up to the landing stage at Quebec, is one 
which neither the pencil of the artist or the pen of the writer can depict. 
The view of the town of Quebe?, with its citadel, its miles o^ wharv^es, and 
its quaint old buildings, is very impressive. The town itself looks and smells 
French ; French is spoken all around you. A few days may be spent to 
advantage in seeing Quebec town, and excursions should— if time permits — 
b3 made to the Falls of Montmorency, Lorette, Lakes Beauport and St. 
Charles, the Chaudiere Falls, the Saguenay River, etc. 

From Quebec to Montreal, the tourist has the choice of a railway on 
either side of the St. Lawrence, both lines belonging to the Canadian Grand 
Trunk Railway. The line from Point Levy to Montreal is the one more 



200 



UKADSIIAW S CANADA. 



■ II 



I 



n 



n 



'1 i 



,11! 
1: ^ I 



<P! 



II 



I m 11 






jfcnorally used. Tho country it traverses is monofonous ; l>ut just Iteforo 
the train enters Montreal the Hcenc changes, as tlic traveller piMses into 
tho tunnel of tho Victoria Bridgo acroHH the St. Lawrence River. This 
bridge is a niasrniftcent Htructure, 1),0H4 feet long. It rest.s on 21 i)icrs, 
connecting the Canadian Railway system with that of the Unite<l States. 

Montreal presents a very imimsini^ view. It is one of the hands )niest, 
best-built, Hud most busy of the larj^o towns of the American Continent. 
For a detailed description the reader is referred to the section on Montreal 
(paj^e 207). It has also preserved many traces of its ancient French settlers, 
thougli it is considerably more Eni^lish than Quebec. The best view of the 
city is from St. Helen's'island. No tourist should leave Montreal withoiit 
"shootinj^ tho Lachine Rapids" as the sensation is one not readily forgotten. 

From Montreal a trip should also bo made to Ottawa, the Capital of the 
Dominion. Tho town is by no means striking in any other respect. It is 
ujither a commercial town nor a convenient seat of government. .Jeulousy 
between Quebec, Montreal, and Toronto was the real rea.s<m for its 
selection. The Parliament Buildings are extensive and imposing. Rideau 
iiiid Chaudiore Falls are about tho most important ami interesting of tho 



sights to 1)0 seen. 



From Montreal easy trips are also made to tho Adirondacks, Lake 
{'hamplain, and L>ikc George, the great American summer jdaygrounds. 
The scenery is very tino, and, however short the tourist's available time, a 
few days em))loyed in this excursion will amply recompense him. The 
"White Mountaitis are uls') much visited. The Thousand Islands (really 
1,7*>()) in the St. Lawrence, begin near Kingston, the beginnm.? of the out- 
1 i-j of L iko Ontario, and should certainly not be omitte I am )nj: objects to 
be visite I. They present every variety of formaticm, comjmsition, shape, 
vegetation, etc. 1" or sportsmen there is hero a perfect paradise, spacious 
and well-conducted hotels are abundant among the islands. The steamers 
between Montreal and Kingston are the best means of locomotion. The 
islands are the scene of many of Fenimore Cooper's and other tales. The 
l)laces now seen will recall many pleasant hours spent in reading that 
pleasant writer's romances. 

At Brockville, which is the terminus of the Lake of the 1,000 
islands, tho train of the Grand Trunk line is once more taken. After 
a comparatively short run through a lovely country, the traveller arrives 
at— what is pi'actically, and must eventually become, the real Capital 
of Ciinada— Toronto. This by enthusiasts is also called the " Queen 
City." It has just celebrated its semi-centennial, for in 18^5 exactly 
5i) years had elapsed since its incorporation as a town. It was 
f )unded in 1794 by General Simcoe. It is a modern town, much 
i\ )ted for its fine public and private buildings. The detailed des- 
cription will be found on i^age 215. The magnificent panorama of city 
and lake may be l)est enjoyed from the tower of the Provincial University 
in Queen's Park. No visitor should leave Toronto without seeing the game 
of Lacrosse played in the elegant grounds of Rosedale— this is the " Lord's " 
or tho " Oval " of Toronto. Hanlan's Island, with Hanlan's Hotel—built by 
the Champion of many rowing matches — should also bo inspected. Around 
the town there are a great many very interesting points for excursions. 

Thence the majority of travellers would naturally direct their steps to 
a great city of mushroom growth— Chicago. The journey is long by rail, 
but the luxurious accommodation provided by the Grt»nd Trunk Railway 
and its connections reduce delay or discomfort to a minimum. Drawing- 
room, sleeping and refreshment cars, provide for all the requirements of 
tho traveller. Tho country traversed is in a high state of cultivation — and 
dotted over with prosperous towns. Forty years ago Chicago was a small 
Indian trading post, and the plain on which it now stands was a barren 
waste. To-day it contains over 500,000 inhabitants — while its palatial and 
substantial buildings can compare with those of any city in the civilized 
world. A detailed description of the town will be found on page 65. It is 
one of the largest grain markets in the world— anti its manufactures and 
>?3neral commerce are very extensive. As characteristic of its enormous 



i 



nRAI»>HAW S CANADA. 



201 






nnd extraordinary ontorpriK?, it is worth montionintr horo thnt thero is ft 
movement on foot for the foriniition of an islHTid in the hike ofT the city, to 
serve ns a jileasuro resort in summer -much as Coney Island (i(»es for 
New York. Chicapro Btands, perhnps, first in tlie worhl hh for tie mn^r- 
iiiticence of its hotels. With rcirard to amusements, few of the capitals of 
the f)Id or new world can excel it. 

Another interostinur t(»wn (m the hne of the Grand Trunk Riiilway is 
Detroit — one of the most beautiful towns on th') American ContincTit, 
whether as re^^ards natural scenery or artificial improvements. A detailed 
description of the town will bo found on ])atro H'l. The town was founded 
by the French — and they were succeeded J)y the (fermiins. It wiis theti 
larf?ely settled by Enj^hsh, Scandinavians, aiid other Kuroi)eans. Kiich of 
these nationalities carried out its own ideas as to buildiiif^s, etc., with the 
result that it may be said to be the best and most diversely-built 
town, from an architectural point of view, in the New World. The tower of 
the City Hall affords the visitor an extensive view of the town and 
environs ; the coup (V(vil will favounibly compare with the most vaunted 
sitfVits of Europe or America. The lakes F.rie, Huron and Superior are best 
visited from here, as the ste:imboat accommodation is of the very best, and 
scarcely, if at all, suri)assed by anything' of the kind in the <»ld world. To 
enumerate all the points of interest on these lakes, is impossible in thomall 
space at our disposal. 

If the traveller intends to ko further west, the connections of the Grand 
Trunk Railway (through tickets can be had at Montreal) will brin^,' him 
(|uickly and comfortably to the now rapidly (rrowinj; ])rovinces of the 
Canadian North-West, Manitoba, Assiniboina, Saskatchewan, etc., very 
dear to every sportsman. Winnipeg;, the risinj? capital of these regions, 
would naturally be taken as the centre, or as a starting' point for the Rocky 
Mountains, by the Canadian Pacific Railway, and for the Yellow Stone 
Region, by the Northern Pacific Railway, cid St. I'aul. The settlements, 
the farms, towns and villajres cannot fail to impress the tourist with the 
rapid progress this region has made, and will make in the near future. 
Winnipeg, itself, which has been describe<l move fully (m page 210, was only 
a tiny hamlet in 1870. It is ncnv a town, estimated to contain over 30,(MX> 
inhaintants, and is rapidly increasing. 

The traveller intending to return from Chicago, will do well to select 
another connection of the Canadian Grand Trunk Railway, i.e., the Balti- 
more and Ohio Wabash route, and stoj) at Rattle Creek, as worthy of a 
passiagcall. It is one of the most bustling towns in Michigan. Its situa- 
tion IS beautiful, and the place is rapidly gntwing. It is remarkable for its 
very equai)le and mild climate. At Detroit, the traveller would once more 
take the Grand Trunk Railway, and sto]) at the Niagara Falls, described on 
page 142. Those tourists desirous of returning to Europe by way of New 
York, should start from here by the Erie Railway, another connection of 
the Grand Trunk. 

From Niagara to Hamilton, in Ontario, is but a short journey. The 
town has been dubbed *' The Ambitious," though it is unlikely that it ever 
will catch up its younger rival, Toronto. Yet it is a busy and rising town, 
very prettily situated. It has more manufactories than any other town in 
the'dominion. Many other ])oints of attraction besides those referred to in 
this brief sketch will be found along the lines of the Gran:l Trunk Railway. 
The average traveller will probably not care to embrace m:)re in his Canadian 
tour ; and, moreover, want of sjiace forbids a more detailed account. Most 
tourists will leave this beautiful country with regret and with a desire to 
visit it again and again. In the tour sketched above travellers of every 
variety of taste will find special sources of attraction. The political econmist, 
the geologist, the artist, sportsman, and the student of life and character, will 
each and all find occasion to enlarge his circle of knowledge. The curious 
mixture of two languages will probably shock his pre-conceived notions of 
euphony. But above all else the invigoration of mind and body conse<pient 
on such a tour is at once its greatesli charm and the strongest argument in 
its favour. 



PRO 



• r- 



!AL LIBRART, 



VICTORIA, B. C. 



202 



BUADSHAW S CANADA. 



DESCRIPTION OF TOWNS. 



'♦' -' 



r 



i J '■ i 



Amherst.— Seat of Cumberland 
County, Novia Scotia ; popula- 
lation (1881), 4,000. 

Hotels : Dominion, Lamey's 
Terrace. 

A pleasantly situated and well 
Imilt thriving little town on an 
inlet, Chignecto Bay or Bay of 
Fundy. It lies exactly half way 
between St. John and Halifax. 
It possesses some manufactures, 
and agricultural and fishing in- 
terests. There are two Public 
Halls and a Club. The Ruins 
of Fort Cumberland and P^ort 
Lawrence are reached from 
here. 

Beached from Halifax, by 
Intercolonial Railway, in six 
hours. 

Annapolis.— Seat of Annapolis 
County, Novia Scotia ; popula- 
tion (1881), about 1,000. 

Hotel : St. i. ouis, City. 

This is the oldest town of the 
province, and its inhabitants 
still preserve much of their 
old French manners. It is 
pleasantly situated at the head 
of a basin of the same name. 
It is much visited in summer 
for its fine climate. There is 
good sea and trout fishing in the 
neighbourhood. The ruins of 
the old fortifications form the 
chief attraction for the tourist. 

Reached from Halifax by 
Windsor and Annapolis Railway, 
rid Keutville, in 10 hours. 



Basin of Minas.— Bay of 
Fundy, Novia Scotia. 

Hotels : Summer's at Parrs- 
boro'. 

This is a bay within the Bay 
of Fundy, and penetrates about 
60 miles into Nova Scotia. The 
shore scenery is very fine, and 
the bay is interesting for its 
tremendous tides, which rise 
sometimes to CO and even 70 
feet. ParrsV)oro' may be made 
the centre of many charming 
excursions. From Parrsboro' 
across the Bay is the Grand Pre, 
the scene of Longfellow's "Evan- 
geline." The picturesque Gas- 
pereaux Valley may be visited 
from here, as also from Wolf- 
ville, opposite. 

Beauharnois. — Chateauguay 
County, Province of Quebec, on 
the Beauharnois Canal. 

The favourite picnic resort 
from Montreal. It is pleasantly 
situated at the foot of the Cas- 
cades and Lake St, Louis. 

Belleville.— Seat of Hastings 
County, Province of Ontario ; 
population (1881), 10,500. 

Hotels : Thomas House, 
National, Belleville, Hinckley. 

An important and thriving 
town, and the seat of the Albert 
University (Episcopal Metho- 
dist). It is pleasantly situated 
on the Bay of Quinte, an inlet 



AMHERST—CIIAULOTTETOWN. 



203 



IS. 



. — Bay of 

s at Parrs - 

lin the Bay 
rates about 
cotia. The 
y fine, and 
ing for its 
which rise 
id even 70 
ly be made 
y charming 
Parrsboro' 
Grand Pre, 
Dw's "Evan- 
•esque Gas- 
T be visited 
from Wolf- 



'hateauguay 
Quebec, on 
lal. 

cnic resort 
is pleasantly 
of the Cas- 
jouis. 

)f Hastings 
)f Ontario ; 
),500. 

IS House, 
Hinckley. 

ad thriving 
f the Albert 
pal Metho- 
itly situated 
tti, an inlet 



vl 



of Lalce Ontario. It carries on \ 
an extensive timber and manu- ; 
facturing business, and has 
two lai'ge Halls. 

Reached by Grand Trunk 
Railway, from Peterboro, via 
Keene, in four hours. 

Brantford.— Seat of Brandt 
County ; province of Ontario ; 
population (1881), 9,000. 

Hotels : Kirby House, Ameri- 
can, Commercial. 

A small, but thriving manu- 
facturing and mercantile town, 
on the Grand River. It has two 
large Assembly Rooms, but 
otherwise has little to interest 
the tourist. 

Reached from Buffalo, by 
Grand Trunk Railway, via Port 
Colborne, in 5 hours. 

Brockville.— Leeds County ; 
province of Ontario ; population 
(1881), 8,500. 

Hotel li : Revere House. 

An important and very busy 
town on tlie St. Lawrenoo River. 
At this point is the torniination 
of the Thousand Islands Lake ; 
and the river here forms a broad 
sheet of two miles in width. 
Morristown opposite is connected 
to it by a ferry. It possesses 
several lar^e halls. 

Reached by Grand Trunk 
Railway of Canada, from 
jVIontreal, via Cornwall, in 4^ 
hours. 

CaCiO ma. — Riviere du Loup 
County ; province of Quebec ; 
population (1881), G50 inhabi- 
tants. 

Hotels : St. Lawrence Hall, 
Mansion House. 

A pleasant little watering-town 
on the St. Lawrence, opposite 
the mouth of the Saguenay 



River, and a favourite summer 
resort for Canadians. Its climate 
is bracing and cool in summer, 
while its scenery is lovely. Lake 
Temiscouata, close by, is very 
charming, and a fit place for 
those who love solitude and trout 
fishing. The village of Cacouna 
is very attractive ; in its neigh- 
bourhood will be found good 
hunting and fishing. The sea 
bathing is excellent, the waters 
of the river at this point contain- 
ing almost as much saline matter 
as the sea. Excursions to Cape 
Rosier and Cape Tourment. 

Reached by the Intercolonial 
Railway, from Quebec, in 
10 hours. 

Charlotteto'wn. — Capital of 
Prince Edwai'd's Island, and seat 
of Queen's County j population 
(1881), 11,485. 

Hotels : St. Lawrence, Revere. 

This pleasant and .regularly- 
built town is situated on the 
north side of the East River. It 
is the chief commercial centre, 
and indeed the only town in the 
island, and has a good harbour. 
The streets are broad, well 
paved, and lighted with gas ; 
while there are several spacious 
public buildings. The principal 
are — the Colonial Building, built 
of Nova Scotia freestone ; the 
Provincial Buildings, Post Otfice, 
and Custom House, Market 
House and Public Hall, several 
handsome churches, Prince of 
Wales College, Government 
House, liUnatic Asylum at 
Falcon wood, Victoria Park, 
Bishoij's Palace, St. Dunstan's 
College, etc. The principal 
commercial interests of the town 
centi'e in the fisliing and ship- 
building yards. 

Reached by Prince Edward's 
Island Railway, from Tignish, 
via Summerside, in 8^ hours. 



II 



:.if 



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ii i 






204 



BRADSHAW S CANADA. 






i! >< 






Chateau-Richer. — Montmo- ' 
rency County ; Province of 
Quebec; 1,200 inhabitants. 

Hotel ti : The Commercial. 

A small but thriving viflage, 
on the north shore of the St. 
Lawrence lUver. It is much 
visited by sportsmen, both for 
the trout fishing, and tlie duck, 
partridge and snipe shooting in 
the vicinity. Close by is St. 
Anna de Beaupre, noted for its 
line church. 

Reached from Quebec, by 
boat, in half -an-hour. 

Chatham. — Seat of Kent 
County; Province of Ontario; 
population (1881), 8,000. 

Hotels : Garner, Rankin. 

A very pleasantly-built and 
rapidly-increasing town on the 
Thames River. Has some 
manufactures, but is mostly 
interested in agriculture. It 
possesses several very large halls 
considering the size of the town. 
Some good sport may be had in 
the neighbourhood, but there is 
little to interest the tourist. 
There is an excellent opening for 
those wishing to settle as 
farmers. 

Reached from Detroit, by the 
Grand Trunk Railway, in 3 
hours. 

Chicoutimi. — Seat of Chicou- 
timi county ; Province of 
Quebec ; population (1882), 700. 
Hotels: TheChicoutimi House. 
A thriving town on the 
SiguenayRiver, much frequented 
by sportsmen. It lies at the 
head of the navigation, 20 miles 
above Ha-Ha Bay. It boasts a 
cathedral, a convent, and a large 
stone built college. Near the 
town are some rapids (50 feet 
high) on the Chicoutimi River, 



which abounds in fish. Nine 
miles above the town are the 
celebrated rapids of the Sague- 
nay River, which are little in- 
ferior to the Niagara Rapids 
and considerably longer. There 
is good sport to be had in the 
vicinity of the town. Lake St. 
John lies CO miles west of Chicou- 
timi. 

Reached from Quebec, by Lake 
St. John Railway, vid Chambord, 
thence by carriage, in three 
hours. 

Cobonrg.— Seatof Norttiumber- 
berland County ; Province of 
Ontario; population (1881), 
5,000. 

Hotels : Horton, Pauwell, 
Arlington, Windsor, Albion, 
North American. 

A i)rosperous little town 
situated in a pleasant spot on 
Lake Ontario. It is much 
engaged in manufactures and 
mercantile [pursuits and oifers 
some sport, chielly boating. The 
town, besides several large halls 
has little to interest the tourist. 

Reached by Grand Trunk 
Railway, from Montreal, in 10^ 
hours. 

Cornwall. — Stormont County ; 
Province of Ontario ; population 
(1881), 9,904. 

Hotels : St. Lawrence, Com- 
mercial, Central, Ottawa, 
American. 

A pleasantly situated and 
regularly built town on the 
north shore of the St. Lawrence, 
chiefly occupied in manufac- 
turing stoneware, cotton and 
woollen goods, &c. It lies 
exactly opposite the large Indian 
village of St. Regis. Somewhat 
lower down the river is the 
Lake St. Francis, 25 miles long 
and five miles wide, dotted with 



CHATEAU-RICHER — HALIFAX. 



205 



town 
pot on 

muoli 
3S and 

offers 

g. The 

^e halls 

tourist. 

Trunk 

in 10^ 






islets. It is also resorted to as 
a summer station. 

Reached by firand Trunk 
Railway of Canada, from Mon- 
treal, in 2;^ hours. 

Predericton. — Seat of York 
County, and Capital of Province i 
of New li runs wick ; population 
(1881), 7,000. I 

Hotels : Barker, Bayley, 
Queen, Long, Waverley and j 
Commercial. 

A charming semi-rural town, | 
situated on the St. John's River. ; 
It compares to St. John, the j 
commercial capital, much as j 
Ottawa does to Quebec. It is ; 
the seat of an English bishop, '' 
the Metropolitan of Canada. 
The new Parliament House, the 
beautiful cathedral, a fine 
library, the Town Hall, Post 
Office, Governor's Palace, Uni- 
iiersity Museum, Normal School, 
and several other buildings of 
minor importance, will interest 
the visitor. The town contains 
several large theatrical halls. It 
is 20 miles distant from St. John, 
the seaport and commercial 
centre of New Brunswick. 

Reached by New Brunswick 
Railway, from St. John, in 
3^ hours. 

Gait.— Waterloo County, Pro- 
vince of Ontario ; population 
(1881), 5,000. 
Hotels: Central, Queen's. 

A thriving and important rail- 
way centre, situated on the 
Speed River. The town has 
some manufactories, but is im- 
poi'tant iprincipally as the trading 
centre for the surrounding agri- 
cultural and timber districts. It 
offers little in the shape of 
buildings to intei'cst tourists. 

Reached by Grand Ti*unk 
Railway, from Southampton, 
rid Palmerston in five hours. 



Q-uelph. — Seat of Wellington 
Countv, Province of Ontario; 
population fl881), D,890. 

Hotels: Dominion, Queen's, 
American, Royal, Wellington, 
Western. 

This town is situated advan- 
tageously on the Speed River, 
and has extensive manufactories. 
It carries on also a very large 
business in agricultui'al products. 
It is traversed by three important 
railway lines. The town is well 
built and regularly laid out, and 
is rapidly increasing in import- 
ance. There are two largo 
halls used for meetings. 

Reached by Grand Trunk 
Railway, from Harrisburg, via 
Gait, in 1^ hours. 

Halifax. — Capital of Nova Scotia 
and Seat of Halifax County ; 
population (1881), 3G,100. 

Hotels : Halifax, Waverley, 
Carlton, International, Royal. 

Biuilicr.s : Nova Scotia Bank. 



Medical 
Parker. 



Dr. Almon, Dr. 



Ticket and Evrursioyi Aficnts : 
Thomas Cook & Son, 120, HoUis- 
streot. 

This beautiful town is situate 
about midwi?y on the south- 
eastern coast of the province, 
on the west side of a deep inlet 
of the Atlantic, Halifax Har- 
bour, and on the slopes of a hill 
some 240 feet high. The bay 
affords one of the finest har- 
bours on the Continent of 
America. The town, when 
seen from the harbour on the 
opposite shore, offers a very 
fine panorama. It is regularly 
laid out, most of the streets 
being broad, macadamized, and 
crossing each other at right 
angles. At the water's edge 
the town is lined with wharves, 
behind which are the ware- 



^w 



'ii 



A 









■i ■ \ ill i 



r 



.!ii 



2CG 



BBADSHAW S CANADA. 



houses, and then the dwelUnpf- 
houses and public build- 
ings. The whole is crowned 
by the granite bastions of the 
citadel. 

The Provincial Buildings, a 
huge stone-built block, 140 feet 
by 70 feet, and adorned with a 
colonnade of the ionic order, is a 
very striking object. It contains 
chambers for the Council and 
Legislative Assembly and gene- 
ral Government offices. Its 
third storey is occupied by a 
museum. The Parliament 
Buildings are on the west, and 
contain the free library. The 
Court House, Cathedral of St. 
Mary, and Government House, 
the residence of the Ijieutenant- 
Governor of Nova Scotia, are 
also interesting ; close by is the 
residence of the Military Com- 
mandant. Admiralty House, 
Dalhousie College, Wellington 
Barracks, the Lunatic Asylum, 
the Workhouse, the Military Hos- 
pital, Prison, Penitentiary, and 
Academy of Music, are all pro- 
minent buildings, and merit in- 
spection. The citadel, a mile in 
circumference, on the top of the 
hill, is, after that of Quebec, 
the strongest in British Noi'th 
America. The Queen's dock- 
yards, covering 14 acres, in the 
northern part of the town, are 
very fine, and inferior to none 
out of England. 

The excursions from Halifax 
are interesting, the nearest being 
the Bedford Basin, Point 
Pleasant, a favourite promenade, 
Dartmouth Lakes, the Basin of 
Minas, Grand Pre, Yarmouth, 
Tusket Lakes, Liverpool Lakes, 
Ponhood and Rossignol Lakes, 
to Cape Breton and Bras d'or 
Lakes. 

Reached by Intercc»lonial Rail- 
way, from St. John, via Truro, 
in 12 hours. 



Hamilton.— Seat of Went worth 
County, Province of Ontario ; 
population (1881), 35,965. 

Hotels: Dominion, American, 
Royal, St. Nicholas, Lee's, 
Mansion, Walker. 

Ticket and Excursion Agent.'^ : 
Thomas Cook & Son, 11, James - 
street. 

This is one of the most 
beautiful and prosperous towns 
in Canada, and, next to Toronto, 
the largest in the province. It 
is very charmingly situated at 
the head of the western ex- 
tremity of Lake Ontario. It 
has broad and well-paved streets, 
crossing each other at right 
angles, while some are 
planted with trees. Several 
important buildings will attract 
the attention of the tourist. 
The Opera House is fine, while 
there are several other large 
halls in the town. Hamilton i« 
an important railway centre, and 
is largely engaged in manufactur- 
ing. Its chief business, how- 
ever, is shipping the agricultural 
produce of the surrounding dis- 
trict. There are some pretty 
drives in the neighbourhood, as 
also extensive excursions. It is 
equi-dii tant from Niagara and 
from tVe capital, Toronto. 

Reitched by G reat Western of 
Canada Railway, from Buffalo, 
vid Cayuga and Seneca, in 1^ 
hours. 

Kingston.— Seat of F>-ontenac 
County; Province of C)ntarioj 
population (1881), 14,500. 

Hoteh : Albion, City, Windsor, 
American, Anglo-American. 

Kingston is situated at the 
eastern extremity of Lake 
Ontario. In summer, passengers 
take the steamers here for the 
Thousand Islands and Rapids of 
St. Lawrence, which commence 



i 



HAMILTON — MONTREAL. 



207 



; 



entworth 
Ontario ; 

imerioan, 
, Lee's, 

I A(|€ntt<: 
l,JsLmeS' 
he most 
us towns 

Toronto, 
'ince. It 
uated at 
tern ex- 
!;ario. It 
'd streets, 
at righ t 
me are 
Several 

II attract 
tourist. 

ne. while 
ler large 
imilton is 
'ntre, and 
nufactur- 
ss, liow- 
ricultural 
ding dis- 
le pretty 
rhood, as 
IS. It is 
gara and 
ito. 

e stern of 

Buffalo, 

ca, in li 



''•ontenac 
( )ntario ; 
0. 

Windsor, 
ican. 

at the 
f Lake 
issengers 
) for the 
lapids of 
ommence 



V 



immediately upon leaving Kings- 
ton. It is a thriving town, with 
extensive trade and some manu- 
factures. It is well built and 
regularly laid out, as all American 
modern towns ai'e. The town 
itself has little to interest. 

lieachod by New York Central 
and Hudson Kiver Railway, from 
New York, andrj'd Rome, Water- 
town and Cape Vincent, by 
Rome, Watertown and Ogdens- 
burg Railway, in IC hours. 

liOndon. — Seat of Middlesex 
County ; Province of Ontario ; 
population aSSl), 19,703. 

Hotels : Grigg, Tecumseh, 
River, City. 

Ticket and Evcursion Agents : 
Thomas Cook & Son, 3, Masonic- 
temple. 

The site of this town was a 
wilderness as recently as 1820. 
It is now the centre of a rich 
agricultural district, and carries 
on a large manufacturing in- 
dustry. The houses are hand- 
som3 and substantial, and the 
streets broad and well laid out. 
Holman's Opera House is a line 
building, and Victoria and the 
Mechanics' Halls are both 
capable of seating above 1,200 
persons. It is pleasantly situated 
on the River Thames, affording 
good fishing, and is the centre of 
five railway lines. There are 
some excursions in the environs. 

Reached by Grand Trunk of 
Canada Railway, from Detroit, 
vi(X Windsor, in 5 hours. 

MontreaL— Seat of Montreal 
County, Province of Quebec ; 
population (1881), 140,802. 

H'itels : St. Lawrence Hall, 
Windsor, Richelieu, American, 
Albion. 

Conveyances : Tramways on 
the principal thoroughfares and 



leading to most points ; fare, 
5 cents. Carriages at the most 
central points and railway 
stations and steam boat whai'ves ; 
fare, one-horse, two persons, 
25 cents, within city limits, per 
hour, 75 cents. ; four persons, 
40 cents, a course, and 1 dol. 
per hour. Two-horse carriage, 
one or two persons, 40 cents, 
courst and 75 cents, per hour ; 
three or four persons, 50 cents, 
course, and 1 dol. per hour. 
Stage coaches to the surrounding 
villages. 

Theatres oud Amvi^ements : 
Opera House, with 1,51)0 seats ; 
Theatre Royal, 1,500 seats; 
Mechanics' Hall, with' 1,000 
seats ; and Association, with 
GOO seats, and several others of 
minor importance. 

Museiuns : MacGill College, 
at the foot of Mount Royal, in 
Sherbrooke-street ; the Museum 
of the Natural History Society, 
on University-street. 

Clubs : The St. James, Metro- 
politan, and City, and several 
minor sporting clubs. 

Post and Telojraph : In St. 
James-street, near the Place 
d'armes. 

Bankers : Molson's Bank. 

Medical: Dr. W. H. Hingston, 
Dr. R. P. Howard, Dr. G. E. 
Fen wick. 

Ticket and Evoirsion Agents: 
Thomas Cook & Sou, 1 and 3, St. 
James' -street. 

Montreal is the most populous 
city, and the commercial metro- 
polis of Canada, and is one of the 
finest and best-built towns of the 
American Continent. It stands 
on the Island of Montreal, at the 
head of the St. Lawrence Navi- 
gation proper, a little below its 
confluence with the Ottawa 
River, and 540 miles from the 
Gulf. It commands an exten- 



208 



BRADSHAW S CANADA. 



!? •;! 






I 



sive and prosperous trade both 
with Europe and the interior. 
Mount Royal from which the 
town is named, rises to about 
550 feet, and forms an imposing 
background to the picture. Its 
river frontage — including the 
suburbs — extends to about four 
miles and a-half . For some dis- 
tance the town stretches inland 
for from one to two miles. The 
panorama of the town from the 
river is very bep-uciful, and as 
picturesque as any on the 
American Continent. The quays 
are built of solid limestone, and 
extend about two miles along the 
river, and Lachine Canal. The 
commercial thoroughfares are 
McGill, St. James, St. Paul, 
Notre Dame, and Commissioner 
streets. The fashionable streets 
are Great St. James, St. 
Catherine, and Notre Dame. 
Sherbrooke and Dorchester 
streets have the finest private 
residences. Montreal contains 
also many fine parks and 
squares. 

The present site was first 
visited by Jacques Cartier in 
1535, under its then name, 
*• Hochelaga." In 1G42 the first 
French settlers arrived, and the 
town was then named Ville 
Marie. It remained under 
French rule till 1700, and, 
though well fortified, was cap- 
turedby the Americans in 1775. 
It was retaken the following 
year by the British forces. At 
that time its population was 
7,000. Its trade now is very 
important, and its annual move- 
me • t amounts to above 70 million 
do:.;. Its manufactures are also 
esico'isive and varied, and include 
priiicipally all sorts of iron and 
steel, agricultural and other im- 
plements ; machinery, steam 
engines, indiarubber, paper. 



wooUp' 
&c. 



s, furniture, flour, ropes. 



The finest view of the town is 
obtained from the river at the 
foot of Victoria Bridge. This is 
one of the grandest works of 
modern times, and forms a very 
important feature in the Mon- 
treal landscape. It is tubular 
in form, resting on 24 piers, and 
is two miles in length. Its cost 
was 6,300,000 dols. 

The Cathedral of Notre Dame, 
on the Place d' Armes, is the 
next most important object of 
attraction. With the exception 
of the Cathedral of Mexico, it is 
the largest on the American 
Continent. It is 255 feet long by 
135 feet wide, and is capable of 
seating from 10,000 to 12,000 
persons. It is of Gothic archi- 
tecture, has six towers, and is 
built of hewn stone. Two of 
the towers are 220 feet high, and 
the view from it is most exten- 
sive. In one is a chime of bells. 
But this church will be sui'passed 
in dimensions by the Cathedral 
of St. Peter, now in course of 
construction on Dorchester and 
Cemetery Streets. This edifice 
is intended to be on the plan of 
St. Peter's, in Rome. It will be 
300 by 225 feet, and be sur- 
mounted by five domes. Christ 
Church Cathedral is a very per- 
fect specimen of Gothic archi- 
tecture and has a tower 225 feet 
high. The Bishops, St. Patrick's 
and Jesuit Churches are also 
noteworthy. The City Hall is 
an extensive and splendid edifice. 
The Court House, McGill Col- 
lege, Exchange, 13ank of Mon- 
treal, Pacific! Railway Buildings, 
Molson's Bank, the Merchants' 
Bank, Post Office, Albert Build- 
ings, Bonsecours Market, 
Custom House, Victoria Skating 
Rink, Mechanics' Institute, and 
several other important buildings 
will require two or three days to 
visit, and are well worth the 
time. 



MONT RE AL — OTTAWA. 



209 



the town is 
•iver at the 
ge. This is 
it works of 
orms a very 
n the Mon- 
is tubular 
54 piers, and 
;h. Its cost 

J^otre Dame, 
mes, is the 
it object of 
e exception 
VIexico, it is 
American 
feet long by 
8 capable of 
to 12,000 
othic archi- 
v^ers, and is 
e. Two of 
set high, and 
tnost exten- 
imeof bells. 
3e surpassed 
e Cathedral 
n course of 
'Chester and 
This edifice 
the plan of 
!. It will be 
nd be sur- 
les. Christ 
a very per- 
5thic archi- 
wer 225 feet 
5t. Patrick's 
es are also 
Jity Hall is 
ndid edifice. 
^cGill Col- 
nk of Mon- 
7 Buildings, 
Merchants* 
Ibert Build. 
Market, 
►ria Skating 
stitute, and 
nt buildings 
iree days to 
worth the 



The Seminary of St. Sulpice 
adjoins Notre Dame Church, and 
was founded in 1G57, it is sur- 
rounded by tine gardens and a 
court-yard. The Hotel Dieu, out- 
side the town (by Mauve- street) 
is a vast and imposing editico, 
while many otiier charitable in- 
stitutions testify to the benevo- 
lent character of the inhabitants. 
There are also several Catholic 
convents. 
* The water works, about a mile 

outside the city, are woi*th 
visiting, for their own sake, and 
also for the delightful view they 
ofPord. The old Government 
House and Nelson Monument in 
Jacques Cartier Sqnnre are also 
worth visiting. Th ; Mount 
Koyal Cemetery, two miJes 
North of the city, is well laid out 
and is a pleasant promenade. 
The drive "Around the Moun- 
tain" offers the best view 
of Montreal and environs, nine 
miles in length, passing through 
the Mount Koyal Park. The 
Lachine Road to Lachine Rapids 
is a favourite promenade and 
drive. 

Montreal may be taken with 
advantage as the central point 
whence to visit the remainder of 
Eastern British North America. 
About a month may be spent 
with advantage in visiting the 
different places of interest near 
or at a distance from the 
town. All of tbeso excursions 
are of very great interest. 

Reached by New York Central 
and Hudson River Railway, from 
New York, via Albany and 
Rouse's Point in 12 j hours. 

Ottawa. — Capital of the Domin- 
ion of Canada and seat of Carle- 
ton County ; population (1881), 
2r,417. 

Hotels : St. Lawrence, Wind- 
sor, Russell, Albion, Union. 



Amust'wenf.s : The Gowan 
Opera House. 

C onve II an CO. a : Tram wa ys 
through all principal streets and 
with towns across the river (fare, 
G cents). 

Po. t and Telegraph Offices : In 
Government Buildings on Bar- 
rack Hill. 

Cluh.^: The Union. 

Ihinlcrff : The Ottawa Bank. 

Medical: Dr. Smitli. 

This beautiful town is situated 
on the Ottawa River, at the con- 
fluence of the Rideau River. The 
Rideau Canal divides it into tho 
Upper and Lower Town. Pro- 
perly speaking, it lies between 
two waterfalls, the Rideau and 
Chaudiere falls. Several bridges 
cross the canal and others con- 
nect tbe town with the opposite 
suburban towns of Hull and New 
Edinburgh. Wide and regular 
streets are a characteristic fea- 
ture of Ottawa. The chief 
thoroughfares are Sparks, Wel- 
lington, and Rideau streets ; the 
former being the popular pro- 
menade and having the best 
shops. Originally known as By- 
town, it was founded in 1827. 
In 1854 it was first called by its 
present name, when it was incoi - 
porated as a city. It became the 
Dominion Capital in 1858. Since 
then it has advanced with rapid 
strides. It is a very active com- 
mercial centre, and its timber 
trade espf cially is very important. 
Its foundries and manufactories 
of agricultural and other machin- 
ery are also noteworthy. 

The chief and indeed most 
attractive object of the town is. 
^.he Parliament Buildings. They 
are situated on Barrack Hill, an 
eminence 150 feet above the 
river. They form three 
sides of a vast quadrangle, 
and though architecturally 



210 



HKADSHAW .S CANADA. 






i ' 



Nil 



.■i 






1 *a 

"^ in 

II' 



somewhat defective, are yet 
some of the most extensive and 
imposini? ranj^os of public build- 
ings on the American Continent. 
Their total cost was nearly four 
ijiillion dollars. The total 
fronca«ce of all the buildings is 
1,20(» feet. The south side -the 
Parliament house proper, or 
ceutro building — is 475 feet in 
length by 572 feet in depth, 80 
feet high with a central tower 180 
feet. The Eastern front block is 
■318 by 253 feet, and the western 
211 by 277 feet. These are 
called Departmental Buildings, 
and contain the various Govern- 
ment Offices, Patent Offices, 
Model Room, Post Office, etc. 
The materials used are Ohio 
stone and Potsdam sandstone. 
The pillar.^ and arches in the 
interior are of marble. The style 
is the Italian Gothic. The Senate 
House is on the right on enter- 
ing under the central tower. 
The legislative chambers are capa- 
cious, and richly furnished, and 
have fine stained glass windows. 
At one end of the Senate Hall is 
the vice-regal throne, with its 
canopy. At the other a picture 
and marble statue of Queen Vic- 
toria,and portraits of George III. 
and Queen Caroline, by Joshuah 
Reynolds. The Chamber of the 
Commons is on the left. The 
library is on the north front and 
has about 40,000 volumes. From 
it the view of the Chaudiere falls 
and whole scenery is very strik- 
ing. The Inner court or quad- 
rangle is laid out and planted 
with trees. 

Across the Rideau River, in 
New Edinburgh, is Rideau Hall, 
the official residence of the 
Governor-General, also a very 
striking building. The most 
important church is the Cathe- 
dral of Notre Dame, built of 
stone, with two towers about 
200 feet high. The interior is 



very elaborate, and contains a 
picture " The flight into Egypt," 
attributed to Murillo. There 
are several other ^ interesting 
churches and extensive convents. 
The Medical, Normal and Ladies* 
Colleges are the principal schools 
and occupy handsome buildings. 
The University, in Wilbrod- 
street, is an extensive building. 
Several large hospitals, asylums, 
etc., constitute the charitable 
institutions. Near the town 
are eight locks on the Rideau 
Canal, which are worth inspect- 
ing. The Chaudiere Falls are 
best seen from the suspension 
bridge. 

Reached by Grand Trunk and 
Canada Atlantic Railways, from 
^Montreal, rM Coteau and High 
Falls, in 3^ hours. 

Peterborough.— Seat of Peter- 
borough County ; Province of 
Ontario ; population (1881), 
0,815. 

Hotelfi : Hoffmann, Casey 
House. 

This small manufacturing 
community is advantageously 
situated in the heart of the tim- 
ber region and on the Otanabec 
River. Its principal interest 
centres in timber and agricultural 
produce, and it merits a visit on 
that account. The lakes in 
the vicinity are full of fish and 
afford excellent sport. 

Reached by Midland of Canada, 
from Toronto, vid Myrtle and 
BuUyduff, in 3 hours. 

Quebec. — Capital of Province 
of Quebec and seat of Quebec 
County ; population (1881), 
02,447. 

Hotels : Albion, Russell, St. 
Louis, Henchey, Mountain Hill, 
Blanchard's. 

Amusements : Opera House, 
with 1,500 seats. During winter 



I ^iM' 



PKTKKnOROrciI — QUEBEC. 



211 



Casey 



there are operas every mVht ; 
Victoria Hull, Qaeboc ]\tusie 
llail, Masonic Hall. 

Modes of Conveijanre : Tram- 
ways (fare, 5 cents) ; Cal('cbes, 
per hour, 75 cents. Ferries to 
the opposite shore. Ordinary 
carriages at the stands and 
hotels. 

Post and Tcleffraph Office : 
Corner of Buade and Du Fort 
streets. 

C/»6s : The Literary and 
Historical Society; the Goo- 
graphical ; several sporting clubs, 
amongst which are the 
" Toboggan " and " Snowshoe 
Clubs." 

Bankers : The Montreal Bank. 

Hfedical 
Gibson. 



Dr. Parks, Dr. 



Ticl-ef and Excursion A'lcvts: 
Thomas Cook & Son, 32, St. 
Louis-street. 

Quebec, the ancient Capital of 
Canada, is the oldest, and, after 
Montreal, the most important 
city in British North America. It 
is found by many to be lalso the 
most attractive in the Dominion. 
Though over 250 years old, it 
looks as bright and fresh as 
though just finished. It is 
situated on the north-west shore 
of the St. Lawrence River, 180 
miles below Montreal and about 
350 miles from the mouth of the 
river. The town gives the im- 
pression as though a fragment 
of the Old World were trans- 
ferred to the New, and carefully 
hidden away in this remote 
corner for safe keeping. It 
stands on the extremity of an 
elevated, narrow strip of land, 
forming the left bank of the 
river. The citadel, 330 feet 
above the town, crowns Cape 
Diamond, and with its vast 
bastions and other fortifications 
covers over forty acres of ground. 
Owing to the strength of these 



defences and the steepness of the 
hill, Quebec has been called 
the "Gibraltar of America." 
Whether seen from below, or 
when ascending the river, or 
from the railway station or 
steamer landing, the view of the 
town and citadel are equally 
novel and impressive. The 
upper and lower town appear 
altogether separate and distinct 
parts. The former crowns the 
lofty promontory of Cape Dia- 
mond, with its fashionable 
residences ; the latter has its 
wharves and bvisincss quarters, 
etc., and extends along the nar- 
row strip of land at the base of 
the cliffs. The view . from 
DufFerin and Durham terraces, 
and indeed from any of the ram- 
parts, is one to be studied with 
an artist's eye, and not forgotten. 
The new castellated gates in 
the wall surrounding the upper 
town are worthy of note. That 
portion of the town within is 
the most ancient, and is very 
quaint and mediaeval. 

The site of the town was first 
visited in 1535, by Jacques 
Cartier, and the foundation 
laid by Samuel de Champlain, in 
1008. This was on the site of 
the Indian village of " Stadi- 
oona," at the confluence of the 
St. Lawrence and St. Charles 
rivers. Its form is now triangu- 
lar. From 1G29 till 1G32, it was 
held by the English, and in 
September, 1759, it became an 
English colony. In the treaty 
of 17C3, it was definitely made 
over to England. Until 1859 it 
was the capital. The maritime 
commerce of the city is very large, 
especially its timber trade. Ships 
are built in large numbers, and 
its manufactures embrace al- 
most every article of daily neces- 
sity. 

After the citadel, terraces, 
and ramparts, the Basilica, or 



212 



IIRADSHAW S CANADA. 






I! 



n *: 



i':^ 

m 



' ;iilt 



III' 



llomin Catholic Church of the 
Immaculate Conception attracts 
the most attention. It is situ- 
ated on the eastern side of 
Market square, was built in 
V)CS, and destroyed by Wolfe's 
Irattories in 1759. It was, how- 
over, soon afterwards re-built. 
Its exterior shews nothing of ex- 
traordinary merit, being quaint 
iind irregular, but the interior 
is very elaborate. It can 
seat 4,000 people. The high 
iiltar is very richly adorned, and 
ii choir of boys from the semi- 
nary sings very beautifully. 
Several valuable paintings adorn 
the interior, by Van Dyke, Car- 
iMcci, Maratti, Halle, Vignon, 
<3tc. Champlain, the founder, 
and firjt Grovernor of the city, is 
buried here. Next to the cathe- 
dral are the large buildings of 
the seminary, in extensive 
grounds, founded by Bishop 
<le M atmorency Laval, in 1GG3. 
It is frequented by upwards of 
400 boys. Its chapel has also 
some original paintings. The 
Laval University adjoining it is 
an offshoot of the seminary, and 
was founded in 1852. The 
archaeological, zoological, and 
other collections will prove very 
interesting. The Library cou- 
tains over 80,000 volumes, and 
the Picture Gallery is the finest 
in Canada. The Jesuit College 
Buildings were on another side 
of Market Square, and Morrin 
College occupies the site of the 
old stone prison, on the corner 
of St. Anne and Stanislas 
streets. 

The Anglican Cathedral is a 
large plain building, and con- 
tains the remains of the Duke 
of Richmond, Lennox, and 
D' Aubigny (died 1819) ,Governor- 
Oeneral of Canada. Dufferin 
Terrace, opened to the public by 
the Marquis of Lome, in 18/9, 
the Esplanade, Grand Battery, 



Place d'Armes, and Citadel, are 
all favourite promenades of the 
citizens of Quebec 

The Black Nunnery, the Grey 
Nunnery, the Ursuline Convent, 
and the Hotel Dieu, are all 
richly endowed charitable insti- 
tutions. The Ursuline Convent 
is very ricli, and the chapel has 
also some original paintings. 
St. John's Koman Catholic 
church is being rebuilt in St. 
John-street. 

The Parliament and Depart- 
mental Buildings, now in course 
of erection, on Grande Allee, 
were commenced in 1878. Par- 
liament House, on Mountain- 
street, was destroyed by iire in 
1883, and part of its valuable 
library was burned. In the 
Upper Town, in St. Louis-street, 
are also the Quebec Music Hall, 
the Masonic Hall, and City 
Hall, all worthy of visiting. A 
new court-house is also being 
built. Several other churches 
will also attract the tourist, but 
none of them are of sufficient 
importance to call for special 
mention. 

The street, leading down from 
the upper into the lower town, 
called Cote de la Montague, is 
very interesting. Part of it is 
almost like steps, and is called 
"Champlain Steps." It leads 
to the Notre Dame des Yic- 
toires Church, built in 1690, on 
the site of Champlain' s resi- 
dence. Champlain market, a 
large building near the river 
bank, is worth inspection. St. 
Paul-street contains large ware- 
houses, breweries, distilleries, 
manufactories, etc. St. Peter's- 
street contains the principal 
banks, shipping houses, and 
wholesale stores. The Custom 
House, on the point formed by 
the confluence of the St. 
Charles with the St. Lawrence 
River, is a noble Doric building. 



QUI'HEC — ST. CATIIERINK S. 



213 



and the Marino Hospital is also 
an imposing stone edifico. Tho 
Marine and Emigrants' Hospital 
and the General Hospital are 
both huge buildings, and are 
close by. The Plains of Abra- 
ham are best reached by St. 
Louis-street, passing St. Louis- 
gate and the Martello Towers. 
Wolfe's monument marks the 
tpot where he fell in the battle 
of 1759. Mount Uennon Ceme- 
tery, 32 acres in extent, is about 
three miles out of the town by 
the St. Louis-road. 

The excursions from Quebec 
are very varied, and exceedingly 
picturesque and interesting. The 
Isle of Orleans is the nearest, 
and the drive round it is very 
charming. Drives to Chateau 
Bigot and Spencer Wood and 
Lorette, the ancient Huron 
Indian village, will well repay 
the time spent. The inhabit- 
ants of the latter are a quiet 
and sober people, with pre- 
dominating Indian blood, though 
not pure. The men hunt and 
iish, and the women do bead 
work, mocassins, etc., and the 
boys earn pence by archery. 

The Lorette water falls, near 
the village, are also very pretty, 
a few miles farther inland 
Beauport and St. Charles 
Lakes. The latter, four miles 
long, is famed for red trout and 
remarkable echoes. The Mont- 
morency Falls, eight miles below 
Quebec, are 250 feet high by fifty 
feet wide, " a solid and compact 
mass of water, plunging without 
break, over a precipice." Near 
the falls is the " Haldimand 
House," occupied in 1791, by 
the Duke of Kent, Queen Vic- 
toria's father. The natural steps 
are about one mile above the 
falls. The Chaudiere Falls, on 
the opposite shore, reached by 
Point Levi, are about 350 feet 
in width and fall from a height 



and 
are 



of 150 feet. They present a 
the base the appearance of boil- 
ing wattn*, whence the name, 
*' The Caldron "—French, Chau- 
diore. A trip to Sanguenay 
Biver and Lake St. John will 
also be found interesting. 

Iteached by New York Cen- 
tral and Hudson lliver llailway, 
from New York, ri'-ll, Montreal, in 
IS^i hours. 

Rimouski.— Seat of ]liniouski 
County ; Province of Quebec ; 
l)oi)ulation (1881), 1,417. 
Hotels : The llimouski. 

A small town at which the 
tourist should not fail to stop, 
"^i'lie scenery of the valley of 
the llimouski is extremely beau- 
tiful, and the trout fishing in 
the brook is unrivalled. The 
town is also interesting. The 
Government Wharf is very ex- 
tensive, and there is a Cathredal 
and some good houses. Twenty 
miles below, at IMetis, is the 
largest wharf. 

Beached by Inter-Colonial 
Bailway, from Quebec, riil 
Biviere du Loup, in 3.V hours. 

St. Catherine's. — Lincoln 
County ; Province of Ontario ; 
population (1881), 14,500. 

Hotels : Murray, Spring Bank, 
Cairns, Stephenson, Welland. 

Tourist and Excursion 
Agents: Thomas Cook & Sou, 
12 and 14, St. Paul's-street. 

This pleasant town, situated 
on the Welland Canal is prin- 
cipally noted for its mineral 
springs, which are much fre- 
quented. The scenery around 
is attractive and the commercial 
pursuits of the community em- 
brace shipbuilding, manufactur- 
ing and agriculture. The Town 
Hall is large, and the Opera 
House can seat 800 visitors. 



T 



2U 



URADSIIAW S CANADA. 






1 t 



*i f 

ml 'f 

in 



Tlioro is little of interest to the 
tourist. 

Ileiichotl by New York Cen- 
tral and Hudson River lliiilroad, 
from New York, viiX iiuffalo, in 
2G hours. 



St. John.— Seat of St. John 
County, New Brunswick ; popu- 
lation (1881), 35,128. 

Hotels : Park, Wavorley, Duf- 
ferin. New Victoria, lioyal. 
Revere, International, Globe. 

Font and Tcleriraph Ofjice ; 
Prince William-street. 

Bankers: Montreal Bank. 

Medical: Dr. Bayard, Dr. 
Inches. 

Ticket and Excursion Agents : 
Thomas Cook & Son, 97, Prince 
William-street. 

Enthusiasts have styled the 
city the "Liverpool of British 
America," and in martimo 
activity and position it well 
deserves the name. Its situation 
iipon a rocky, almost insular 
eminence, in the mouth of the 
St. John River, and its harbour 
protected by the forelying 
Partridge Island, is extremely 
picturesque. For municipal and 
electoral purposes the adjoining 
townships of Carleton and Port- 
land are embraced in St. John, 
and the whole population of all 
three exceeds 50,000. It is the 
principal city of New Bruns- 
wick, and its commercial, though 
not political, capital. The dif- 
ference between high and low 
w^ater at the mouth of the river 
is 26 feet, and at high water the 
level of the harbour is live feet 
above that of the river, while at 
low water the river is 12 feet 
above the level of the harbour. 
The river, called by the Indians 
Looshtook, or Long River, is 



navigable for a dietance of 800 
miles for steamboats ; and 
for another 1 ,000 miles for boats 
and canoes. Approached })y sea, 
the city presents a very imposing 
picture. It has repeatedly suf- 
fered from great tires, the last 
occurring in 1877, the traces of 
which may still be seen. King- 
street, the Broadway of St. 
John, extends from the river on 
the west, to Courtenay Bay on 
the east. Market slip and 
square, and the wharves nearby, 
form the commercial centre of 
the town. The smells here are 
eminently suggestive of cod fish 
and molasses, the principal 
staples of St. John's import and 
export trade. Before the lire of 
1877, there were many fine 
buildings, some of which have 
since been rebuilt. Among them 
are the Post Office, Custom 
House, and Masonic Hall. The 
trees in King-square wei'o 
planted in 1860, during a visit of 
the Prince of Wales. Other 
buildings of note are : Peniten- 
tiary, Wiggin's Orphan Asylum, 
Academy of Music. From the 
end of King-street, Courtenay 
Bay and Portland Heights may 
be seen to advantage. The 
walks and drives around St. John 
are those to the Rural Cemetery, 
110 acres in extent ; to the Falls, 
Indiantown, Point Pleasant, 
Spruce Lake, Fairville. The 
Moose Path Park, and Lawlor's 
Lake are favourite promenades. 
Lily Lake, Rothesay, Loch 
Lomond, Suspension Bridge, 
Marsh-road, and Mahogany- 
road. All the lakes near the 
town are full cf fish, and ex- 
cellent sport can be had, 
especially in Tracey's and 
Mount Theobald. 

Reached by Inter-Colonial and 
New Brunswick Railway, from 
Riviere du Loup, -ui'd Frederic- 
ton, in 7 hours. 



ST. JOHN' — TORONTO. 



215 



ice of 800 
its ; and 
I for boats 
led by sea, 
■ impoainj? 
tedly 8uf- 
, tbo last 
} traces of 
n. King- 
y of St. 
e river on 
ly Bay on 
slip and 
s nearby, 
centre of 

here aro 
f cod fish 

principal 
iport and 
;he fire of 
lany fine 
lich have 
ong them 

Custom 

all. The 

•e were 

a visit of 

I. Other 

Peniten- 
Asylum, 
I'rom the 
ourtenay 
fhts may 

. The 

St. John 
emetery, 
he Falls, 

leasant, 

e. The 

Lawlor's 

nenades. 

Loch 

Bridge, 
ihogany- 
lear the 
and ex- 
e had, 
's and 

»nial and 
ly, from 
^rederic- 



St. Thomas.— Seat of Elgin 
County; province of Ontario; 
population (1881), 8,3G7. 

Hoteln : Commercial, Queen's 
irutchison's, Lisgar, l*en warden, 
Willcox. 

A mutiements : Opera House. 

This thriving community is 
situated in the heart of a very 
fertile agricultural district. It 
is a great railway centre, has a 
good future, and is now already 
largely engaged in manufactures. 
The Town and City Halls are 
prominent buildings, Ijut other- 
wise there is littio to interest 
tourists. 

Keached by the Grand Trunk 
Railwi./, iiom Niagara Falls, rid 
Welland and Pt. Dover, in G 
hours. 

Tadousac— Seat of Saguenay 
County ; Province of Quebec ; 
population (1881), 1,800. 

Hotels : Tadousac. 

A summer sea bathing place, 
much in vogue with Canadians. 
It is pleasantly situated on the 
mouth of the Saguenay River, 143 
miles from Quebec, and is so far 
specially interesting as the spot 
on which stood the first stone 
building erected by Europeans 
on the American Continent. 
The scenery is very wild and 
romantic . Sal inon and trout are 
found in abundance, and in ex- 
cellent quality in the adjacent 
waters. The old buildings of 
the Hudson Bay Co. are still 
visible, as is also a small chapel 
ei-ected by the Jesuit Fathers in 
1746. 

Reached bv steamer from 
Quebec or Riviere du Loup, in 6 
hours from the former. 

Three Rivers.— Seat of Maurice 
County; Province of Quebec; 
population (1881), 9,000. 



Ifotels : St. James. 

The third largt»8t town in the 
eastern section of the province, 
advantageously situated iit the 
mouth of the St. Maurice River 
on the St. Lawrence. The 
principal commerce is in lumber, 
timber, and maimfactured wood. 
There are several fine buildings. 
The St. Leon Springs (the most 
famous in Canada) are at a djiy's 
distance by diligence, and the 
Falls of Shawanegan are worth 
visiting. They are said to be 
only second to Niagara, the 
waters falling 150 feet in one 
unbroken njass. 

Reached })y North Shore Rail- 
way, from Montreal or Qaol)ec, 
in 3 hours. 

Toronto.— Capital of Province 
of Oiitario ; seat of York County ; 
population (1881), 80,415, with 
suburbs above 110,000. 

Hotels : Queen's, American, 
Rossin, Walker, Mansion, Re- 
vere. 

Amuxements : Grand Opera 
House, Royal Opera House, Hor- 
ticultural Pavilion, Shaftesbury 
Hall, St. Lawrence Hall. 

Conveya^ices : Tramways (fare, 
5 cents), through all the principal 
streets ; carriages and omnibuses 
at railway station and landing- 
stages. 

Clubs : The Union, Masonic. 

Post and Telejraph Office : 
At the head of Toronto-street. 
Ba ulcers : Bank of Toronto. 

Medical : Dr. J. Brown, Dr. 
MacKenzie. 

Ticket and Excursion Argents : 
Thomas Cook & Son, 35, Yonge- 
street. 

This, the chief city of Upper 
Canada, and, next to Montreal, 
the largest in the Dominion, is 
situated on the north-west shore 
of Lake Ontario in a beautiful 



216 



BRADSHAW S CANADA. 



i 



W 



i II 






f' 



bay formed hy the Don and 
Humber rivers. The harbour 
is safe, and protected by a sand- 
bar seven miles long. The 
site is low and the ground 
rises very gradually from the 
water's edge. It was founded in 
175^4 and called York, which 
name was changed in 1833 to the 
present one. It is the commercial 
centre and capital of Ontario. 
Having been at one time the 
capital of the Dominion, it 
has many attractions for the 
pleasure seeker and tourist. Its 
streets are broad, well paved and 
laid out regularly. The principal 
public and private dwellings are 
substantiaUy built and pleasant 
villas abound in the environs. Its 
chief commerce is grain, but its 
manufactures are also very im- 
portant. 

Its leading thoroughfares are 
King, Queen and Youge-streebs. 
The most important building is 
the University, in a large park, 
approached by College Avenue, 
which is over half a mile long, 
lined by a double row of trees. 
The buildings form an admirable 
specimen of old Norman archi- 
tecture. It contains also a 
Museum of Natural History and 
a Library of over 20,000 volumos. 
Toronto has 75 churches, capable 
of seating 50,000 people. The 
best view of the town and suburbs, 
as also the environs, is obtained 
from the tower of St. James 
Cathedral, in King-street. Knox 
College (Gothic) is also in College 
Avenue. Adjoining the Uni- 
versity grounds is Queen's Park, 
covering over 50 acres, well laid 
out, and the favourite promenade 
of ^he inhabitants. Osgoode 
Hah, in Queen-street, contains 
the Liw Courts and Library,and 
is a large building in the Ionic 
style of architecture. The 
Wesl} an Methodist church is said 



to be the finest in Canada (of 
Methodist churches) in McCill- 
street. The Cathedral of St. 
Michael, in Gothic style, on 
Church-street, Trinity, St. 
George's, and St. Andrew's are 
all worth inspecting. 

The Court House is in Church- 
ttreet; the Custom Hoase in 
Front-streft, as also the City 
Hall ; St. Lawrence Market also 
in Front-street, and the Post 
Office in Toronto-street. The St. 
Lawrence Hall, Masonic Hall, 
Young Men's Cliristian A.8socia- 
tion (with largest hall in the 
town), the Grand Opera House 
and Royal Opera House are all 
buildings of imposing character. 

The chief educational establish- 
mentsjbesides the University,are: 
Trinity College, College of Tech- 
nology, Model Schools, Normal 
School and Ed ucationalMuseim, 
Upper Canadian College, all 
occupying fine buildings. The 
Naval school is a Palatial 
structure. The Crystal Palace 
exhibition building, the Pro- 
vincial Lunatic Asylum, and the 
General Hospital are the prin- 
cipal charitable institutions. 
The Loretto Abbey, in Welling- 
ton-place, is the principal con- 
vent, another being that of the 
Most Precious Blood. 

Hanlan's Island, with Han- 
lan's Hotel — built Ijy the cham- 
pion of many rowing matches — 
should be visited. It is the great 
recreation resort of the inhabit- 
ants of Toronto in summer. 

Reached by the Grand Trunk 
of Canada Railway, from Mon- 
treal, vid Kingston, Cobourg 
and Port Hope, in 12 hours. 

Winnipeg. — Capital of Mani- 
toba and Seat of Selkirk 
County; population (1881), 
7,986. : 



nada (of 

McCiU. 

il of St. 

tyle, on 

by, St. 
rew's are 

I Church- 
Lloase in 
the City 
irket also 
the Post 
, The St. 
aic Hall, 
I A.880cia- 

I in the 
ra House 
e are all 
haracter. 
Bstablish- 
!rsity,are: 
! otyiech- 
, Normal 
Museini, 
lege, all 
p. The 

Palatial 

II Palace 
he Pro- 
, and the 
:he prin- 
bitutions. 
Welling- 
ipal con- 
at of the 

th Han- 
le cham- 
latches — 
the great 
inhabit- 
ler. 

d Trunk 
301 Mon- 
Cobourg 
)urs. 

)f Mani- 
Selkirk 
(1881). 



WINXIPK(J — YARMOUTH. 



217 



Hofeh: The Pacific, the 
Queen's, Royal, American. 

Conveyances: Tramways. 

Vodal and Telegraph Office: 
In Main street. 

Cluhs : Manitoba, Selkirk, 
the Eifle Association. 
Bankein : The Union Bank. 

This most rapidly 
and prosperous town 
in 
In 



increasing 



had only 
1870 about 300 inhabitants. 
1881, according to official 
census, 7,080, and to-day — 1880 
—about 20,000. The territory 
was only transferred in 1870 by 
the Hudson Bay Company to the 
Dominion Government. It then 
had but one street, and in build- 
ings only those of the Company. 
To-day it is a well-laid-out and 
handsome town, v'th wide 
streets. Its trade is very im- 
portant and the recent com- 
pletion of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway will give it still greater 
importance. It is situated near 
Fort Garry, at the confluence of 
the Red and the Assiniboine 
Rivers. It covers about three 
square miles. Sixteen acres 
have been set aside for public 
Parks. The streets are lined 
with shady trees. It is divided 
into four wards, there being ia 
each a school. 

The chief public buildings arc • 
the Post Office, City Hall, the 
Governor's House, Court House, 
Custom House, the Ontario 
Bank Buildings, Merchants' 
Bank Buildings, Hudson's Bay 
Company's ()ffice. Dominion 
Land Office, and other extensive 
buildings, mostly built of white 
brick. It is the head-quarters 
of the (jovernment officials for 
th3 North-West Territories, and 
of the Hudson's Bay Company. 



Opposite, on the East Bank, is 
St. Boniface, the Northern 
Terminus of the Pembina 
Branch of the Canadian Pacific 
liailway. There is also a fine 
Park, w ith good driving roads. 

Reached by St. Paul, 
IMinnesota and Manitoba 
Railway, from Chicago, vi<X 
Milwaukee, St. Paul, Fargo and 
St. Vincent, in 42 hours. 

Woodstock.— Seat of Oxford 
County ; Province of Ontario ; 
population (1881), 5,373. 

HoteU : Royal, Bishop's, Com- 
mercial, Carster. 

An agricultural centre- of 
some importance, being the 
converging point of six railway 
lines. There is little to interest 
the tourist, except the farms 
in the environs, which are very 
fine. 

Reached by Great Western of 
Canada, from Detroit, in 5 hours. 

Yarmouth.— Seat of Yarmouth 
County ; Province of Nova 
Scotia ; population (1881), 0,280. 

Hotels : American, United 
States. 

A thriving seaport, on the 
South-West Coast of Nova 
Scotia. The coast is very pic- 
turesque around the town, 
which is also much resorted to 
in summer on account of sea- 
bathing. 

The Tusket Lakes and Liver- 
pool Lakes are favourite points 
of excursions. 

Reached by steamer, from St, 
John, in hours. 



t II 

1 11 



i 



J. 



MEXICAN REPUBLIC. 



AREA AND EXTENT. 
The territory of the Mexican 
Eepublic is situated between the 
15th and 32nd degrees of North 
lacitude, and the 87th and 117th 
nu. ■ ^'.ans of West longitude. It 
is 1; uaded on the north by the 
Luited States, on the south by the 
Kepublic of Guatemala, on the 
oast by the Gulf of Mexico, and on 
the '.vest by the Pacific Ocean. Its 
superficial area is, according to the 
Almanach de Gotha, 1,945,725 
square kilometers, or 743,948 
square English miles (including the 
Tres Marias Islands). Mexico is 
divided into 28 States and one 
federal district (capital). The prin- 
cipal rivers arc : The Kio Grande 
del Norte, the Grijalva, the Usu- 
masinta, *li: Yaqui, the Fuerte, 
the Bake- tl.e Mezquital, the 
Coatzacc i- " t e Sonora, the Rio 
Grande de Santiago orLerma, and 
Lojas. The di i.ace of the water- 
shed from the Pacific Ocean is re- 
markable. The country, though 
mainly consisting ( ! high table 
land, is, in its lowest portions — i.e., 
along the coast — tropical and sub- 
tropical. The temperate zone ex- 
tends t- an elevation of about 7,200 
f L^et al) \ ; the sea level. The cold re- 
gions c'vfx nercQ above that height. 
Approxiiiiateiy, one-half of the area 
of Mexico lies within the cold zone. 
The topographical features of the 



rv 



country are mainly formed by the 
Cordillera of South America, 
called in Mexico the Sierra Madre. 
This mountain-chain runs from the 
Isthmus of Tehuantepec in a north- 
westerly direction, and divides at 
about the parallel of 21 degs. north 
into three ranges. To tliis point the 
elevation is moderate, although 
single mountains may be found 
rising to 17,000 feet above the sea 
level, the r oan being about 9,000 
feet. From latitude 21 degs. N., 
one range runs eastwards along 
the coast to Saltillo and Monterey ; 
a central one through Durango and 
Chihuahua, and a western through 
Jalisco and Sinaloa. They de- 
crease in height as they pass 
towards the north. The highest 
mountains are the Popocatepetl 
and Orizaba, about 17,500 feet. 
Lakes appear on the Mexican 
plateau, chiefly as extensive and 
shallow lagoons, and the largest 
are in the vicinity of the capital ; 
and there is also one of consider- 
able size near Termiuos, on the 
Gulf of Campeche. The Flora 
and Fauna of Mexico is very varied; 
whilst the mineral resources of the 
country — known and worked in the 
times of the Aztecs — ai'e peculiarly 
rich in the precious metals. The 
absence of good harbours or navig- 
able rivers makes the coasts and 
country somewhat diflicult of access. 



f 



220 



liKADSHAW S MEXICO. 



HISTORY. 



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The early history of ]\[exico is 
still involved in much obscurity; 
and, indeed, is chielly lej^endary. 
According to the best authorities, 
the country was peopled by the 
Toltecs in the seventh century of 
o"r era ; the Chichiinecs and the 
Nahualtecs in the twelfth, and by 
the Aztecs in the thirteenth. The 
first Spanish adventurers discover- 
ed the country in 1517 (Cordova 
landing in Yucatan) . Cortes landed 
in Vera Cruz in May, 1519, and in 
November of the same year entered 
the capital. The last Aztec em- 
peror, Montezuma, died in V^\). 
and in 1535 the rule of the Span, t 
Viceroys began. In 1540 the 
country received the name of New- 
Spain. In 1810 the first revolution 
against the Spanish Government 
took place, and in 1821 General 
Iturbide rebelled and entered the 
Capital at the head of his army, 
and was declared emperor in 1822. 
There had been in all, sixty-four 
Viceroys under the Spanish rule 
during the 286 years. The first and 
only one of American birth Wc.s 
Antonio de Mendoza (Don Juan de 
Acu"a, born in Peru, between 1722 
to 1734). Juan O'Donoju, of Irish 
extraction, was the last. In 1822 
the Republic was declared at Vera 
Cruz, and in 1823 (March 2(5) Itur- 
bide was compelled to abdicate. 
The country received its first con- 
stitution as a Republic on October 
4th, 1824. In 1863, Archduke 
Maximilian accepted the crown con- 
ditionally, and in 1864 definitely, 
from the Mexican Delegation at 
Miramar, and was proclaimed Em- 
peror. He entered the Capital, 
accompanied by the Empress, on 
the 12th June, 1864, and adopted 
Augustus Iturbide as his heir in 
September same year. In June, 
1867, Maximilian was executed at 
Queretaro, and Juarez elected 
President for a third time. The 



actual President— General Porfirio 
Diaz— is the 25th President since 
the formation of the Republic. 

GOVERNMENT. 

The Government of Mexico is 
modelled on that of the United 
States. The independence was 
proclaimed on the 16th September, 
1810 ; its constitution enacted on 
the 5th February, 185". The Su- 
premo Power of the State is vested 
in throe independent bodies : (I) 
the Legislative Council (Congress); 
(2) the Presidents or executive ; 
and (3) Justice (Supreme Coui't, 
&c.) The Federal Capital is Mex- 
•'eo, forming in itself one of the 
'ederal States. The President (at 
his date, General Porfirio Diaz, 
elected 16th July, 1884) is chosen 
every four years. His term of oifice 
commences at noon on the 1st of 
December. The Congress is com- 
posed of two chambers, i.e., the 
Senate and Chamber of Deputies. 
The Senators, in number fifty-six, 
are elected for four yeirs, and each 
Federal State, as also the Capital, 
sends two Senators. The deputies, 
amounting to 227, are elected by 
the people of the various States 
for two years, and are eligible for 
re-election. Both chambers meet 
at least once a year, and each 
elects by ballot its respective 
President each month. The mem- 
bers of the Supreme Court of 
Judicature are also elected by the 
people for a period of six years. 
Tlie Church is completely separ- 
ate from the State and conse- 
quently, there are no ecclesiastical 
authorities" subordinate to the 
Government. There are three 
archiepiscopal seats : Mexico, 
Morelia, and Guadalaxara. 

POPULATION. 

The latest census, that of 1882, 
gave the entire population as 
y,787,629 (including the Islands 



BRADSHAW S MKXICO. 



221 



Tres Marias), of which 4,820,412 
were males, and 5,173,442 females. 
The races foi'ming the population 
were numerically as follows: — 
Caucasians, or Europeans, and 
their descendants, 1,882,522 ; 
American Indian, 3,765,044; and 
4,354,318 of different tribes. The 
most populous States are : the 
Federal District (capital) with 
153,394 inhabitants to the squire 
kilometre ; Guanajuato with 
38, 87, and Tlaxcala with 34, 25 per 
ditto. The least populous States 
are Lower California with 01 
per square kilometre ; Coahuila 
with O'C; Souora with 0'7, and 
Chihuahua with 0'8 per square 
kilometre. The largest and most 
populous are : — 

Mexico with 241,110 

Guadalajara „ 78,600 















>> 



75,000 
56,112 
35,000 
34,000 
33,800 
32,000 
32,000 
31,800 
30,000 



Puebia 

Guanajuato 

Zacatecas 

San Luis Potosi 

Monterey 

Merida 

Pachuca 

Aguas Calientes 

Morelia 
The foreign population consists 
chiefly of North Americans, Ger- 
mans, French, Spanish, Italians, 
and English. This element is 
locited chiefly in the towns of 
Mexico, Vera Cruz, Puebia, Chi- 
huahua, Guanajuato, Monterey and 
Guaymas. Except along the lines of 
railways, houses are not met with 
for fifteen or twenty miles at a 
stretch ; and then they are mostly 
of the type of isolated farm houses, 
known as ** Haciendas." 

FEDERAL STATES. 

Gulf States: Yucatan, Cam- 
peche, Tabasco, Vera-Cruz- 
Llave, Tamaulipas. 

Western Coast /S^afes.— Chiapas, 
Oajaca. Guerrero, Michoacan, Jal- 
isco, Colima (including Revilla, 



Gigedo Tsliinds), Siniiloa, Sonor.i, 
and territory of Lower California. 
fn'oiid Stateff. — Puobla, Tlas- 
cala, Mexico (cipital), Hidalgo, 
Queretaro, Guanajuato, Aguas- 
Calientos, Zacatoeas, San Lniss. 
Postosi, Moivlos, Nuovo Leon, 
Coahuila (including territory Siornt 
Mojada), Durungo, Chihuahu.i; 2'J 
in all. 

ARMY AND NAVY. 

The army (yearly estimated co^fc 
of maintenance of which is eight 
million dollars), consists of : 

Otticers. Men. 
Infantry (19 bat.) ... 722 10,r>(M 
Cavalry (9 regts.) ... 518 4,17<* 
Artillery (10 brigades 

of 5 batteries each) 180 1,017 
Coast Guards . 22 71 

llurales, i.e., mounted 

patrols (9 corps) .. . 150 1,092 

Invalids 19 280 

Military Colonies ... 130 1,158 

Total .1,741 18,S94 
Each State has also its militia. 
The navy consists of only foii* 
gun-boats. 

FINANCE. 

Owing to the constant revolution 
and changes in the Government, 
the finances of the Republic are 
not in a very brilliant condition. 
It is only, indeed, within the last 
few years that the budget receii)ts 
have balanced the expenses (1884- 
85) . The Government is endeavour- 
ing to make a settlement with its 
foreign creditors (English and 
Spanish debts), but up to the pre- 
sent no definite terms of arrange- 
Trent have been arrived at. The 
estimate for 1884-5 shew receipts 
30,100,000 dols., and expenses 
33,325,433 dols. The principal 
items in the receipts are the cus- 
tom house dues, amounting to 
10,000,000 dols. ; and stamp dues, 
to 6,000,000 dols. The principal 



222 



DRADSllAW .S MKXICO. 



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outlay is on the army and navy, 
which conaumtj 8,252,774 dols. 
Public works, 0,151,870 dols. : 
linaucG, 4,y03,430 dols., and Homo 
Ottice, '6,'6W:214 dols. 

The public debt amounted in 
the same year to the following : — 

Ej: terior or Fo re ig n . 

En^\\ah debt (14th 

Oct., 1850 
Convention (English, 

Dec. 4, 1851)' ... 
Convention (Spanish, 

Dec. G, 1853) 
Convention (Spanish, 

Nov. 12, 1853) ^ ... 
Convention (United 

States, July 4, 18G8) 



$89,252,300 
5,900,025 
1,231,775 
5,553,287 
1,875,123 



Total foreign debt.. .$103,812,570 
Interior do ... 40,241,215 



>> 



Grand total ...$144,053,785 
The Government does not recog- 
nize the English and Spanish Con- 
ventions. The United States 
receive annually on account of 
their loan of July 4th, 18G8, 
300,000 dols., which is regulai-ly 
paid. 

PRODUCE AND 
MANUFACTURES. 

The chief riches of Mexico 
resides in its inexhaustible mines 
of the precious metals. According 
to a table compiled by Lerdo de 
Tejada, the product during the 331 
years from its discovery to 1852. 
lias been 3,5G2,204,89G dols. Of 
this about one twenty-second part 
was gold, the remainder silver. 
Of the whole amount 3,450 millions 
were exported to Europe. Up to 
1884, it has been calculated that 
the total was 3,720,000,000 dols. 
The annual production at the pre- 
sent time varies between 25,000,000 
dols. and 30,000,000 dols., of which 
about 1,000,000 dols. is in gold, 



and the remainder in silver. The 
richest districts, according to Hum- 
boldt, are Guanajuato, Catorce, 
Zacatecas, Real del Monte, Bolanos, 
Guarisamey, Sombrerete, Tasco, 
Hatopilas, Zimapan, Fresnillo, 
Ramos and Parral. Of these the 
Veta Mad re of Guanajuato, and 
Vcfa G ramie, oi Zacatecas, are the 
richest ; they have been worked 
for more than 300 years, and still 
yield most abundantly iron, lead, 
copper, tin, and mercury. Coal 
mines have also been found, but as 
yet are but little worked. The 
agricultural produce of Mexico is 
very varied, as it embraces in 
the hot region, cotton, vanilla, 
indigo, rice, hemp, sarsaparilla, 
caoutchi>uc, cocoa, cassia, and 
other ti- opical produce. The tem- 
perate region produces coffee, 
sugar, cotton, tobacco, &c. In 
the cold region all the northern 
fruits and cereals grow well. Of 
these but little is exported in com- 
parison with what the country 
could produce. Cochineal was at 
one time a staple article of ex- 
portation, but has fallen off of late, 
owing to the increased use of 
minn-al dyes. The extension of 
railways will, it is hoped, consider- 
ably increase the producing power 
of the country. 

Manufactures in Mexico, are as 
yet, in a very backward condition. 
According to Seiior Bustos' statis- 
tics, only about 100 manufactories 
existed in the country in 1884. 
These were almost entirely cotton- 
spinning and weaving mills, with 
about 200,000 spindles, and a little 
over 9,000 looms. Cotton and 
woollen goods; leather work of 
every kind : soap, straw and felt 
hats, candles, matches, silk goods, 
glass, furniture, pottery, matting, 
baskets, paper, flour, sugar, etc., 
are the chief articles of manufac- 
ture. They are not made in suffi- 
cient quantity to supply the home 
demand.?, nor are any exported. 



BRADSIIAW S MEXICO. 



223 



.exico IS 



COMMERCE. 

In 1883-4 the exports amounted 
to in all 44,800,000 dols., the im- 
ports to 46,700,000 dols. ; of the 
exports about half is of precious 
metals (gold and silver). Tiiebulk 
of the wholesale trade of Mexico is 
in the hands of the Germans, as 
also a large part of the retail trade. 
On account of railway and steam- 
ship facilities more than half of all 
exports and imports go to the 
United States. One-half of the 
exports are shipped from A'cra 
CruZ; which is the principal poi*t, 
and is connected with the capital 
by a railway. Sugar and tobacco 
exported in 1883-4 amounted only to 
050,000 dols. The total tonnage of 
vessels entered in all ports can be 
only roughly estimated, and it is 
computed at about a million tons. 
The shipping in the ports amounts 
to about 3,500 vessels, of which 
two-thirds are Mexican. The Mexi- 
can Merchant Marine consists of 
about 500 vessels engaged in 
foreign trade, and some 900 coasting 
vessels. Extensive smuggling is 
carried on on the northern frontier, 
and the annual loss to the Govern- 
ment by this may be placed at 
about 3,000,000 dols. The chief 
items of importation are silk, linen 
and woollen goods, raw cotton, 
porcelain, glass, and hardware, 
olive oil, and cocoa, wines, liquors, 
bar iron, wrought iron, and machi- 
nery. The staple exports are gold, 
silver, copper ore, coffee, cochi- 
neal, vanilla, indigo, hides, hemp, 
mahogany and dye w^oods. 
Two-thirds of the whole trade is 
centred in Vera Cruz. The 
amount of the interior trade tran- 
sactions is valued at 400,000,000 
dols. ; but these figures are appar- 
ently exaggerated. The chief ports 
trading with the United States 
are Matamoros, Tampico, Tabasco, 
Minatitlan, Tehuantepec, La Paz, 
and Guaymas, Tuxpan, Papantla, 



and Mizantla, should be mentioned 
on account of their coasting trade, 
but they have no foreign com- 
merce. 

RAILWAYS. 

On the 1st of January, 1880, 
5,456,75 kilometres were in full 
operation, w hile 335 were in con- 
struction. The first line belonging 
to the Mexican Railway Company 
was commenced in 1837, viz., the 
line from Vera Cruz to the capital, 
and was only completed in 1873 ; 
the branch from Puey)la to Mexico 
having been opened on September 
10th, 1800, and that from Orizaba 
to Vera Cruz on Septerabe;. 5th, 
1872. In September, 1880, the 
Government granted charters to 
the Mexican Central Railway Com- 
pany and the Mexican National 
Construction Company ; in June, 
1881, to the International and 
Interoceanic Railway Company. 
These are and will be the mostim 
portant systems of Mexican Rail- 
ways. A concession was also 
obtained by General G rant in May, 
1881, for the Mexicuu Southern 
Railways. Several other charters 
were granted in 1867 to individual 
States and private companies for 
railways in the Interior, but many 
of these have been forfeited, owing 
to the works not having been com- 
pleted within the specified time. 
As there is but little Government 
land, subsidies are accorded in vary- 
ing amounts, the total up to 1885 
being 120,000,000 dols., payable 
over a number of years (99 years 
in most cases), after which the 
railways become State property. 
The most important of the com- 
pleted lines run from the frontier of 
the United States to the South 
(chiefly to the capital), but several 
lines run also across from the Gulf 
of Mexico to the Pacific coast. 
Only a few miles of these latter are 
in operation so I'ar. 



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224 



RRADSHAW S MEXICO. 



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The Mexican National and the 
Moreloa Railways are on the nar- 
row gauge principle ; the others on 
the standard gauge. The towns are 
generally at some distance from the 
line of rail. 

The accommodation for pasien- 
j?er8 is of two classes. First-class 
ciirriagcs are on iiuropcan system 
with separate compartments for 
six, eight or ten passengers respect- 
ively. Second and third class 
carriages are on the American plan. 
The conductors are the ticket C( 1- 
lectors, and speak mostly English 
smd Spanish, or French. They are 
generally Europeans, whereas the 
ticket agents, baggage masters and 
hrakemen are Mexicans. The 
Mexican Central Railway runs 
sleeping and drawing-room cars be- 
tween El Paso del Norte and Mexi- 
co, the capital. The tickets should 
he bought at the agents, as an ad- 
ditional charge is made for tickets 
bought in the train. The names 
of the stations are not called out, 
and passengers will do well to in- 
quire as to their whereabouts. 



ANTIQUITIES AND RUINS. 

These are striking and numer- 
ous enough to merit a special para- 
graph. They are especially inter- 
esting as shewing the high state 
of civilization which Mexico en- 
joyed long before its discovery and 
conquest by the Spaniards. They 
consist chiefly of ruins of temples 
and fortifications and works of de- 
fence. The oldest are colossal and 
massive, and not devoid of archi- 
tectural beauty. The early inhabi- 
tants seemed to have built huts for 
their own use, while they lavished 
their architectural skill in the 
habitations of their priests and 
princes, both offices being fre- 
quently combined in the same 
person. The buildings are mostly 
pyramidal in form, terraced and 



flat on the top. The largo temple 
of Mexico was surrounded with a 
lime walls feet thick, castellated, 
and adorned with snake-like figures. 
They are built mostly of hewn stone . 
and exhibit remarkable workman- 
ship. They all bear a strong re- 
semblance to the Egyptian pyra- 
mids, whilst the temples combine 
the solidity of the works of Egypt 
with the elegance of those of 
Greece. The oldest of these ruins are 
considered to be those of Mayapan 
and Uxmal in Yucatan, next come 
those of Palenque and Mitla. But 
there are others at Cholula, Papant- 
la, Hoxicalco, Mizantla Quemada, 
and indeed nearly every moun- 
tain range or valley possesses 
some of a more or less imposing 
character. Solis reports eight 
temples of the same size as 
the huge temple in Mexico — 
there is now no trace left of them. 
Torque mada estimates the total 
number to have been about 40,C00 
in the whole of old Mexico, and 
Clavigero gives a higher estimate. 
The Pyramids of San Juan Teoti- 
huacan, on the plain of Otumba, 
belong probably to the oldest 
monuments of the country ; there 
are two very large ones dedicated 
to the sun and the moon. The 
former is the larger — both are 
rectangular, and facing correctly 
North, East, South, and West. 
They are 180 feet .high, and the 
length of each base is G82 feet. 
The pyramid covers almost as 
wide an area as the pyramid of 
Cheops in Egypt. The platform 
on top is about 75 feet square The 
summit was. crowned originally 
with a temple. Three terraces are 
now visible on the larger mound. 
Basalt and trachyte rock are the 
materials used in construction ; 
half-a-mile to the north is the other 
pyramid dedicated to the moon, 
and a great number of smaller 
size are scattered around these 
principal ones. The most impor- 



BRADSHAW S MEXICO. 



225 



rcfo teinplo 
led with a 
astellated, 
ike figures, 
lewn stone, 
workman- 
strong re- 
tian pyra- 
8 combine 
i of Egypt 
those of 
se ruins are 
f Mayapan 
next come 
Litla. But 
la, Papant- 
Quemada, 
3ry moun- 
possesses 
1 imposing 
Qrts eight 
; size as 
Mexico — 
t of them, 
the total 
lOut 40,C00 
i3xico, and 
estimate, 
lan Teoti- 
• Otumba, 
he oldest 
ry ; there 
dedicated 
)on. The 
-both are 
correctly 
nd West. 
, and the 
682 feet, 
ilmost as 
yramid of 
platform 
luare The 
originally 
rraces are 
ir mound, 
k are the 
truction ; 
3 the other 
he moon, 
)f smaller 
lud these 
st impor- 



tant and perfect are those of Ux- 
nial, Mayapan, and Falenque. 

POST AND TELEGRAPH. 

In the period before the Spanish 
Conquest, the Aztecs had de- 
veloped a postal system, and letters 
were even carried from Vera Cruz 
to the capital by courriers, in 2t 
hours. There are now various lines 
of steamboats and railways convey- 
ing the mails along the coasts, ! 
while diligences and special cour- 
riers travel through the interior. ' 
The service is fairly regular and 
punctual. The number of Post 
Ottioes was in 1834-5, 892, of which 
53 were principal offices, 2G0 
estafetaSf and 573 ageyiciatt. The 
income derived from stamps, etc., 
was above 800,000 dols. On the ar- 
rival of the mail the names of per- 
sons to whom letters are addressed 
are posted in lists at the Post Office , 
a distinction being made between 
Mexican and foreign letters. 
These lists refer only to poste re- 
st ante letters, bu?inesg houses 
generally have private boxes, at any 
rate in the principal towns. There 
is no house to house distribution 
but all letters must be asked for 
at the office. In the capital, the 
Post Office is open from U a.m. to 
1 p.m., and from 3 to 5 p.m, ; in 
the country from 8 till 12 a.m., 
and from 3 to 9 p.m. As in Italy 
so in Mexico, public' letter writers 
frequent the plazas. In times of re- 
volution, the postal service is 
practically useless, as the rebels 
examine, and often confiscate, cor- 
respondence. The total number 
of letters, inland and foreign , pass- 
ing through the Mexican Office, was 
in 1882-3, 19,788,657- In 1884 the 
total mileage of the telegraph lines 
was 31,361 kiloms.; of these 20,500 
kil. belonged to the Government, 
1,483 to the Federal States, 3,50i, 
to private individuals, about 5,000 
to the railways, and 87o kil. to the 



Mexican Cable Company. In all 
about 12,000 English miles. At 
the same date 325 telegraphic 
offic 's were in existence, and the 
number of messages transmitted 
was about 91)0,000. The annual 
income was 450,000 dols. The tele- 
phone is scarcely known beyond 
the capital. 

CONVEYANCES. 

The chief mode of conveyence — 
the railroads— have been already 
partly described. It may be added 
hero that the trains travel generally 
at a speed of 30 miles an hour, 
though less on some lines and on 
others more. The price charged 
to passengers (first-class) is from 
three to seven cents per kilometre ; 
the second-class from two to five, 
and the third-class from one to 
three cents per kilometre. Fifteen 
kilogrammes or 33 pounds of 
luggage free of charge ai*e allowed 
to each ticket — extra weight is 
charged for exorbitantly. Through 
tickets are as yet only issued on 
the Great American Trunk lines, 
and at a proportional reduction. 
There is bad steamboat accommo- 
dation along the coast, and hardly 
any on the rivers. Accommodation 
on some coasting steamers is fair, 
but dear. Travelling in the interior 
is carried on either by diligences, 
horses, or mules. In some parts 
of the country, chairs carried by 
mules, or men (peones), are used. 
The best mode of travelling in 
order to enjoy the country is on 
muleback, as the diligences are 
neither clean nor comfortable. 
Owing to their limited accommo- 
dation, and the bad condition of 
the roads, the jolting and shaking 
is intolerable. Experienced Mexi- 
can travellers manage to fleep, it 
is said, on these journeys, but 
foreigners can rarely enjoy thi^ 
luxury. The stage i? about 80 
miles daily. The passenger rates 



I 

I 



I 



22) 



r.HADSIIAW S .MKXICO. 



i 



I 






\ ' ^ 



['4 






i . 

((, "■ 

'. i 

I, ,? 

hi •■ 

If' t-' 



11 



r k 



■if" 



I 



vary from fi to 10 cents per mile ; 
25 i)oun(ls of lu^jjra.i?e froo - any 
cxoorfH ischarj^ed for at a liigh rate. 
PoitiiiK i« rare in the country, but 
liickney carriages can bo hired for 
moierato distances. Tramways 
exist in nearly every town in the 
llf»pul)lie. Some linf s are laid to 
villages 10 or 15 miles distant — • 
■while others connect stations on 
the railway with towns 80, 40, and 
even GO miles away. Both pas- 
senger and freight cars running on 
these, and the former are divided 
into first and second-class. In the 
towns, some hackney carriages 
are seen, but the i)rices are even 
higher than in the United States. 
Pedestrian ism is almost unknown 
in the llepublie, except ])y 
foreigners, when they ascend 
mountains, &c. Wells, Fargo & 
Co. have agencies in the principal 
towns, and are the chief carriers. 

MONEY. 

The currency of Mexico is of gold 
anl silver, though the former 
is seldom seen. The standard 
coin is the peso or dollar, divided 
into 8 real.es, or 100 ?ents, and 
worth about four shillings English 
money. | peso, or four reales, is 
one torton = 50 cents ; i peso or 
two reales is one pesi i. = 25 cents 
or about a shilling, one real 
12^ cents and one medio 6\ cents. 
The above are all silver coins. 
The copper coins are one cuartillo 
= 3 cents and one thico li cents;. 
Nickel coins of five, two, and one 
cent are also in circulation. The 
standard gold coin is the onza = 16 
pesos, and there are other coins of 
10dol8.and5dols. Theonzaisworth 
ubout £3 4s. But these gold coins 
do not circulate, although the Mint 
coins them every year. The obverse 
of the Mexican dollar displays a 
royal eagle with extended wings, 
standing on a cactus growing from 
a rock. The eagle holds a serpent 
in its beak. A liberty cap and the 



r^^illg sun are on the reverse. 
Occasionally some gold and silver 
old S[)aiiish coins may be found, 
])ut they are eagerly sought after 
by the jewellers and silversmiths. 
Paper money has also been issued 
latfly by tlie Mexican National 
Bank and some of the private 
banks. The " Monte de piedad, " 
or Government Pawn Office, also 
has bank notes from one dollar 
upwards, and these are taken at 
par throughout the Republic. 
The notes of private banks are 
only accepted at a discount, imme- 
diately outside the city of Mexico. 
Tourists should remember this. The 
diligence company also issue drafts 
on to their various offices. In case 
of robbery, the company will refund 
the value of their drafts. Several 
banks cash letters of credit on 
British and American bankers, 
and some of the country branches 
of thj Mexican National Bank do 
like^vise. The most convenient 
method foi a traveller would l-e 
to deposit a certain sura with one of 
the banks of the capital and obtain 
from thorn a letter of credit on the 
town or district he proposes to 
visit. To carry English or American 
banknotes, or other money in any 
quantity is not advisable. 

CUSTOMS, PASSPORTS, Etc. 

The examination of luggage at 
the port of arrival, or at the fron- 
tier railway stations is conducted 
very strictly. The officers, though 
extremely polite, examine every- 
thing thoroughly, but they are 
enjoined by the Government to 
act with prudence and moderation. 
The examination is less severe 
at the stations on the United 
States frontier. As in the States, 
tourists should bring with them 
only such articles as are absolutely 
necessary for personal use. As 
a rule, the imposition of duties 
upon wearing apparel, jewellery, 



P.RADSHAW 8 MKXICO. 



227 



ro verso, 
and silver 
he found, 

uj?ht Ht'ter 
Iversniitbs. 
eon issued 

1 National 
he private 
e piedad, " 
[)iiice, also 

one dollar 
e taken at 

Republic, 
banks are 
unt, imme- 
of Mexico, 
jrtbis. The 
issue drafts 
's. In case 
will refund 
3. Several 

credit on 
I bankers, 
'y branches 
al Bank do 
convenient 

would be 
with one of 
and obtain 
edit on tLe 
roposes to 
r American 
)ney in any 
e. 

aTS, Etc. 

luggage at 
t the fron- 

conducted 
ers, though 
line every- 
they are 
rnment to 
loderation. 
ess severe 
le United 
;he States, 
with them 

absolutely 
J use. As 

of duties 

jewellery, 



^ 



etc., i« left entirely to the discre- 
tion of the Government otticials ; 
but the character and social posi- 
tion, etc., of the traveller operates 
very much in his favour. It is 
always best to declare beforehand 
auv dutiable article. Scarcely any 
redress can bo obtained for articles 
unduly taxed, though complaints 
may be addressed to the Ministry 
uf the Capital. A revolver with 
about 200 cartridges, a gun with 
an equal amount of charges, 100 
cigars or 40 small packages of 
cigarettes, etc., are allowed to pass 
free of duty. 

Passports are not required in 
any part of the Republic ; notwith- 
standing, it is always good to be 
provided with one for ideutitication 
at post offices, etc. 

CLIMATE AND DRESS. 

The ciimatc of Mexico is un- 
equalled by that of any country on 
the globe. The mean of the three 
zones is as follows : "In the 
tropical region (Tienu Caliente) 
77^ E. ; in the temperate from 08 
to 70^ F. ; in the cold region 02^ F. 
Sudden atmospheric changes and 
distux'bances are uncommon, except 
in the hot region, where frequently 
changes of 35° F. occur in a few 
houi's. The rainy season varies 
slightly, but always occurs in the 
summer months, and usually from 
May till October. The best season , 
therefore, to visit the country is in 
the autumn and winter months. In 
February there are often showers. 
The annual rainfall in the Capital, 
as observed by Humboldt, was 
oJJ inches. Snow falls in winter, 
but never lies long below an eleva- 
tion of 8,500 feet. The perpetual 
snow line is at an elevation of 
15,100 feet. As a rule the atmos 
pliere is exceedingly dry. The 
nights are cold all over the country, 
temperature falling as low as 45° F. 
The coldest hour is just before 
diy break. The sky is generally 



clear; but strong winds are com- 
mon on the ta))le land^!, anl the 
du^t is at times intolerable. It in 
advisable to take as little lugi^i.ge 
as possible, for, as already sjiewn^ 
little free luggage is allowed on 
either railways or diligences. The 
ch irgos on extra luggage are exor- 
bitantly high. Wraps, handbags, 
etc., are free, if taken into the 
l)assenger carriages. As to dress 
and wearing apparel, the traveller 
will do well to provide for the 
different climatic zones. For the 
lowlands thin cloth is the most 
suitable ; but for the interior thick 
woollen clothing is necessary. 
Woollen underclothing should be 
worn everywhere. An overcoat 
will also be fouii ' useful, and a 
Mexican blanket or rug (zarapi-) 
will prove useful. A dustco.it 
might also be taken. The direct 
rays of the ^'un and the night air 
should be avoided by new arrivals. 
Washing facilities are deficient, 
and tourists will do well to pi'ovide 
themselves with a good stock of 
linen, so as not to be detained. 
There are no longer any actual 
brigands, but the traveller will do 
well to go armed. Soap iind 
matches should be always carried. 

LUGGAGE CHECK SYSTEM. 

As already stated the amount of 
luggage allowed is limited. The 
railways allow only 33 lbs., and the 
diligences 25 lbs. Extra luggage is 
charged for at a high rate. The 
best plan for any traveller in the 
interior is to have two vali s or 
trunks of equal weight and size, so 
that they maybe packed on a mule. 
In remote districts peones can be 
hired to carry a valise. The price 
of a riding mule is 30 dols. ; if 
hired both riding and carrying 
mule can be had at 1 dol. per day. 

Peones or mozo, making them- 
selves generally useful can also be 
had at 1 dol. a day (food included). 

11 2 



I 



228 



HHADSHAW S MEXICO. 




it - j[i ; I 



If into'ided to make a trip ot ten 
days or l(;ujfer, the best plan is to 
buy a liorse or mule, as they can 
always be sold at a trifling? loss. A 
mule is the better of the two, being 
more sure-footed in mountainous 
districts. Tn such cases, the 
traveller should never be without 
food and drink of some sort carried 
with him. 

Passengers must purchase their 
tickets before the luggage can be 
checked either on railways or 
diligences. The system of check- 
ing luggage is the same as the 
European, the passenger receiv- 
ing a receipt with a number 
corresponding to the number on 
his luggage. There are luggage 
express companies in Puebla and 
Mexico, worked on the plan 
adopted in the States. Wells, 
Fargo & Co. also have established 
agencies in a number of towns. 
Coaches do not meet trains as in 
the States ; but the tramways pass 
nearly all hotels. Cabs are com- 
mon, and can be hired from the 
station to the hotel for about 
50c. (two shillings). Porters and 
diligence drivers do not expect 
fees. 

HOTELS. 

Hotels, as a matter of course, 
ai*e neither so numerous, nor the 
accommodation so good as in the 
United States. This is due, partly 
to the insufl&ciency of railways, 
which makes travelling difficult, 
and partly to the scantiness of the 
population. Mexicans, as a rule, 
when visiting a strange town, stay 
at the house of a friend, hos- 
pitality being a characteristic of 
all Spanish-Americans. Many 
towns of over 15,000 inhabitants 
cannot boast of even one inn. In 
the interior, many of the diligence 
companies have control over nu- 
merous inns on their routes. Mexi- 
can hotels — Pesada — are of two 
different kinds; one for travel- 



lers, the other fit only for horses 
and cattle and their drivers. — 
Mesones. Bath-rooms are seldom 
found in any hotels, with the pos- 
sible exception of a shower-bath. 
Public baths, with the exception 
of those of Puebla, Orizaba, and 
San Luis Potosi, are not first-class, 
either as regards cleanliness or 
general management. Such as 
they are, they may be found in the 
principal towns^ and often but 
two or three mmutes' walk from 
the hotels. English is rarely 
spoken, but French and Spanish 
generally. Good hotels, conducted 
by Americans on the American 
system, are gradually springing 
up, and may now be found in 
many towns along the United 
States frontier. The Mexican 
hotels are mostly two-storeyed 
houses ; the upper floor is the 
hotel proper, whilst the basement 
is used as shops, &c. Several 
convents have been converted into 
hotels, and are often named after 
ex-presidents or patriots. 

In the large towns men perform 
the various services, but in rural 
districts chamber-maids are 
employed. Gas, electric bells, 
stoves, chimneys, water-pipes, 
public parlours, etc., are, as yet, 
practically unknown. 

The charges at first-class hotels 
vary from 2 dols. to 2^ dols. a day, 
inclusive ; in the capital they are 
a little higher. Table d'h6te 
dinners can be had in good quality 
at 1 dol. — at some houses at four 
reales, or two shillings ; wines and 
spirits extra ; waiters and servants 
are feed. Fonda is the name for a 
restaurant, arid fondita for a cafe. 
Mexican, and, indeed, all Spanish- 
American cookery, is renowned for 
the quantity of grease and pepper 
employed, and is generally very 
distasteful to the visitor at first. 
Vegetable's are rarely served, and 
dessert consists chiefly of dulce, or 
jam, preserved fruits, &c. The 



lUIADSIIAW S MKXICO. 



220 



for horses 
drivers. — 
ro seldom 
h the pos- 
•wer-bath. 

exception 
zaba, and 
first-class, 
iiliness or 

Such as 
and in the 
)ften hut 
valk from 

is rarely 
i Spanish 
conducted 
American 

springing 

found in 

e United 

Mexican 

o-storeyed 

3r is tlio 

basement 
. Several 
erted into 
imed after 
s. 

in perform 
it in rural 
lids are 
ric bells, 
ater-pipes, 
e, as yet, 

lass hotels 
lols. a day, 
il they are 
)le d'hdte 
•od quality 
68 at four 
wines and 
id servants 
name for a 
for a cafe. 
11 Spanish* 
lowned for 
md pepper 
srally very 
)r at first, 
lerved, and 
)f dulce, or 
&c. The 



frosh fruit is m;ihily bananas and 
oranges, though the country has a 
j^reat variety of both tropical and 
northern fruit. Chocolate is ex- 
tensively drunk, as also coffee, 
but tea is rarely used, and cannot 
bo obtained in many districts. 
Letter boxes, telegraph offices, 
ticket offices, barber shops, etc., 
etc., are not adjuncts to Mexican 
hotels . 



TOURIST CIRCULAR AND 
EXCURSION TICKETS. 

There are none as yet, but no 
doubt the enterprise of the 
American Railway Companies will, 
before long, introduce the above 
convenient arrangements. Thomas 
Cook & Son have opened an agency 
at the capital. 



'I i 




THE MEXICAN CE iTRAL RAILWAZ. 



i 



l^. < 'i 



r i: 



i 1 



An event of vast importance to the Republic of Mexico was the 
construction of the Mexican Central Railway. A line a 
little more than twelve hundred miles long, running nearly directly 
south from Paso del Norte to the City of Mexico, complete 
in every respect, it has opened a great highway between the United 
States and her eister llepublic, making possible a profitable exchange 
of products, and placing the beautiful valley of Mexico, and all that 
leads to it, within easy reach of the tourist. 

The climate of Mexico varies with the altitude, from the tierras 
calientes, or hot lands, at an elevation of 1,000 feet, to the tien-as 
templadas, or temperate lands, at an elevation of from 3,500 to 7,000 
feet, and the products of every fruitful zone may be found within the 
limits of a single State. 

Upon the great central elevated plateau, which is traversed from 
end to end by the Mexican Central Railway, are situated many of 
the principal cities of the Republic and its most prolific farming 
lands. Every tree, fruit or plant of America or Europe will grow there. 

The silver deposits of this region are metals, not ores, and 
chemical manipulations are not necessary in their reduction. As a 
consequence, they can be more easily handled. 

Boiling and mineral springs, rivers, cascades, deep canons and 
grotesque formations of sandstone and porphyry abound. 'I he foot- 
hills of the Sieri'a Madre abound ^a beautiful ravines and valloys and 
are plentifully supplied with timber— pine, oak, cedar, larch, and the 
hard woods peculiar to Mexico. 

The clir ,^teof the valleys is that of Southern Italy; o" the 
ridges, tliai of Northern Pennsylvania. The intermediate slopes 
have that of Southern France. 

Rising above this are still the grc^t grazing regions, millions of 
acres being covered with nutritious grasses. These embrace n^ a'ly 
all Chihuahua and the Bolson de Mapimi, north-east to the Rio Grande. 

In all this counti'y cf infinite variety of soil, product and climate, 
it is a noticeable fact that the inhabitants seek the slopes, uplands 
and high elevations. Three-fourths of the people of Mexico live in 
the pure air and sunshine of almost as high as they can get, while 
only some ten per cent, of the entire population live in the tierras 
calientes, undoubtedly rich and productive as they are. 

As stated above, nearly all the large towns of the country are 
situated on the great plateau, and, singularly enough, are almost all 
upon or near the line of the Mexican Central Railway. Most of them 
have been there for a hundred and fifty years or more, have grown to 
their prr'^.v.nt size without any outside assistance, and until the rail- 
way came had no adequate communication with each other. Their 
fortuitous situation, on the natural line of a great railway, has pro- 
duced the result that more of the people, business and resources of 
the country are now reached than would otherwise have been possible. 



J 



BUADSHAW S MEXICO. 



231 



^A7. 



wag the 
A line a 
y directly 
complete 
e United 
exchange 
. all that 

18 tierras 
le tierras 
to 7,000 
within the 

•sed from 
L many of 
c farming 
•ow there, 
ores, and 
)n. As a 

nons and 

'I'lie foot- 

lUoys and 

and the 

r I 0^ the 
te slopes 

illions of 
ce nv a'ly 
o Grande, 
climate, 
uplands 
live in 
et, while 
He tierras 

untry are 
Imost all 
t of them 
grown to 
the rail- 
Their 
has pro- 
ources of 
possible. 



o 



El Paso, Texas, one of the most enterprising and prosperous 
cities of the South-West, and containing first-class hotels, is the con- 
necting point of the Mexican Central with the raihv lys of the United 
States. See detailed description, page 236. 

Paso del Norte, just across the Rio Grande, is the first Mexicau 
town reached by the traveller — a place containing 6,000 inhabitants. 
It is an ancient adobe town, embowered in tree- and vines, id ?, 
place where it is always afternoon. Lying in a beautiful valle;-. Ic 
offers the finest inducements to Ihe grower of grapes, peaches, apri- 
cots, strawberries, plums, cherries, currants, and all varieties of 
vegetables. Further details on page 266. 

Here, going south, the Central train stops for supper at the com- 
pany's station, a fine structure built of adobe around an open court, 
with ample verandas, upon which open the ottices, waiting rooms and 
restaurant. 

The Mexican Customs officer here examines the baggage. Passen- 
gers are expected to have their keys ready, and those Avho have only 
the ordinary effects of a traveller need fear no annoyance, as the rules 
are fair and liberal, and the officers gentlemen who desire only to do 
their duty with courtesy, celerity, and propriety. A day could be 
pleasantly spent here in seeing the old church with its i);vrchment 
records, antedating the settlement of the United States, and the fer- 
tile farms and vinyards along the river. 

The train passes through the country south of Paso del Norte in 
the night, along valleys walled by low mountain ranges, through the 
rich pastures of San Jose, Gallego, Encinillas and Sauz. 

It is a pastoral country on an enormous scale. Many thousands of 
cattle are passe I grazing near the track, and trails run in all directions. 

dlihualma, capital of the State of the same name, distant from 
Paso del Norte, 225 miles, is reached in season for breakfast. It is a 
well built and handsome city of 20,000 inhabitants, with American 
influence iu the ascendant. A branch of the Mexican Mint has long 
been established hei'o and considerable capital has been acquired in 
mines and mining. The building occupied by the Mint was formerly 
a church, and from its tower, where he had been confined, the i)atriot 
Hidalgo was taken to execution, July 30th, 1811, on the spot now 
marked by a simple monument of white stone. Chihuahua, for 
various reasons, deserves a brief visit. Its cathedral, so famous for 
architectural beauty, was built with the proceeds of a special tax on 
the product of the Santa Eulalia silver mine, situateil about fifteen 
miles south of the city. Further details ow page 244. 

Leaving Chihuahua, the train winds around the beautiful '* El 
Coronel " mountain and runs through the valleys of the Concha and 
San Pedro, reaching, a little before noon, SantaRosalia, famous 
for its sanitary hot springs, and pronounced by foreigners who have 
visited it to be, as to the quality of its waters, probably the finest 
health resort in America. 

Jimenez, the dinner station, is forty-five miles south of Santa 
llosalia. The great mining district of Parrel lies about fifty miles west. 

Iserdo, the supper station, is reached after a delightful ride 
through the *' Laguna country." This city, containing 10,'"^') inhabit- 



i| 



232 



BRAPSHAW S MEXICO. 



,• 






t '11! 
' 1(1 



ants, is situated in a cotton and grain district, and from it are 
shipped annually some 30,000 bales of the former. The soil and 
climate are so favourable that the plants need renewal only every 
fourth or fifth year, and with improved machinery and pressses, 
greater areas could be brought under cultivation and the production 
be largely increased. 

DurangO, the capital of the State of that name, a handsome 
city of 35,000 inhabitants, located in a great silver and iron district, 
lies 150 miles west of Lerdo, and may be reached by stage from that 
point. Further details on page 24S. 

Fresnillo, once a great mining town, containing now 20,000 
people. Its overflowed mines are awaiting the magic touch of capital 
to bring to light their hoard of untouched silver and reawaken the 
old busy life. Further details on page 248. 

Zacatecas, a city of 75,000 souls, capital of the State of Zaca- 
tecas, is reached by a sharp rise through the mouu bains and is of great 
commercial importance. AH around it lie piles of rich slag, openings 
into hills, square enclosures, tall chimneys, indicating its ancient 
and present industry, which is silver mining. The coinage of the 
mint here located is exceeded only by that of the City of Mexico. 
Zacatecas is a point of great interest t) the tourist. It is situated 
about half way between Paso del Norte and the City of Mexico, and 
is wedged so closely into its narrow valley that it has foamed over 
the edges and crept up the hillsides in terraced chisters of adobe. 
Its cathedral is a marvel of stone carving and its people are of the 
true and ancient Mexican type. The road now descends rapidly 
through the hills to the broad, cultivated valleys of the State of 
Aguas Calientes. Here great quanties of corn, wheat, barley, and 
wool are raised. Further details on page 279. 

Aguas Calientes, a city containing 40,000 inhabitants, and 
justly reputed one of the most attractive places of the Republic, 
takes its name from the hot springs in which the region abounds. 
Its luxuriant baths, clean streets and beautiful buildings combine to 
make it interesting for the tourist who spends a few days here. 
Further details on page 241. 

Among its thrivi , mdustries is the manufacture of fine woollens. 

XiagOS, a manufacturing city of 40,000 inhabitants, is the nearest 
station to Guadalajara, on the west, and San Luis Fotosi on 
the east, both of which may be reached by stage and in the near 
future will be made more accessible by branches, now under con- 
struction, of the Mexican Central. On all three further details on 
pages 252, 248 and 268. 

Ijeon, the manufacturing city of the Republic, contains 100,000 
people, and produces large quantities of cotton and woollen goods, 
saddlery, hats, cloth, boots, shoes and cutlery, and is surrounded by 
fertile valleys. Further details on page 252. 

Silao is situated in the midst of a beautiful and highly cultivated 
valley, and contains large flouring mills. This is the supper station, 
going south, and the junction point of the branch line to Quana- 
j uato. . 




i 



)m it are 
5 soil and 
nly every 
pressses, 
iroduction 

handsome 
1 district, 
from that 

ow 20,000 
1 of capital 
-waken the 

;e of Zaca- 
. is of great 
?, openings 
ts ancient 
age of the 
of Mexico, 
is situated 
lexico, and 
)amed over 
3 of adobe, 
are of the 
ids rapidly 
le State of 
parley, and 

itants, and 
Republic, 

n abounds. 

combine to 
days here. 

e woollens. 

the nearest 

Potosi on 

the near 

under con- 

details on 

ins 100,000 
•Hen goods, 
rounded by 

y cultivated 

per station, 

lo Guana- 

HI 



1 



BRADSIIAW S MEXICO. 



233 



m 



The 100,000 inhabitants of Guanajuato are largely engaged 
silver mining. Further details on pages 272 and 250. 

Irapuato and Salamanca, described on page 271 , are both 
located in a fertile farming country, where strawberries may be eaten 
every day in the year. 

Celaya, a city of 30,000 inhabitants, is noted for its large cotton 
and woollen mills. Detailed description on page 244. 

Queretaro, the next point of interest, has a population of 
40,000, and is the capital of the State of Quer'^taro. 

On a hill north of the city are three crosses, marking the spot 
where Maximilian, Miramon nnd Mejia were shot, June 19, 1867. 
It is a fine city, located in a fertile valley, and contains much of 
interest to the traveller. Further details on page 270. 

San Juan Del Rio has a population of 18,000 people, active 
and enterprising. As the train climbs the low mountains to the 
south, we have a lovely view of the valley, the distant mountains' and 
the great haciendas scattered along the plains. More details on 
page 271. 

Upward, through the broken and picturesque country, across the 
broad plain of Cazadero, and over the summit at Marquez, the train 
goes down into the Tula Valley, amid timber and foliage and 
evidences of approach to the tropics. 

The towns through whicli we now pass are full of interest to 
the student of antiquity and contain many relics of Toltec civiliza- 
tion. 

Through the celebrated Tajo de Nochistongo, the great 
Spanish drainage cut, dating back to the seventeenth century, we 
enter the Valley of Mexico, than which nothing the world can be 
more lovely, and on through fertile fields to thi tpital and largest 
city of the Republic. 

The City of Mexico is justly entitled, by reason of its popu- 
lation, intelligence, culture, beautiful location, healthful an 1 even 
climate, historical, political and commercial pre-eminence, to itn 
reputation as one of the celebrated cities of the world. It is well 
lighted, supplied with pure water, has a police force uniformly polite, 
attentive and efficient ; abundance of public carriages at reasonabh 
rates, under careful city regulations, fine hotels, conducted on the 
European plan ; restauants, cafes, gardens, baths, theatres, public 
library, museums, art galleries, fine houses and public buildings. Its 
colleges and schools are large and thoroughly organized. 

The National Palace, the City Hall, the great Cathedral and many 
of the churches are grand in proportions and architectural and artistic 
effects. Described in detail on page 254. 

The suburbs are attractive and easily reached. In about twelve 
hours one can reach the eternal snows of the summit of Popocatepetl, 
or the tropical heat and fruits of the *' tierra caliente. " 

The climate of Mexico is unsurpassed. The average temperature, 
70^, never above 85°, never lower than 60°. 



234 



BRADSHAW S MEXICO. 



i:«s 



'■ 



t? ' 



'i 



Quoted hy permission from Letters written to Mexican Central Raiiiray 

Officials. 



" So far as Mexico is concerned, it is, in my opinion, 
more interesting to tourists than any part of Europe, nearly the whole 
of which I have visited." 

S. H. H. Clark, Omaha, Neb. 



(( 



To the excursionist, the picturesque scenery, the peculiar habits 
of the people preserved in their originality, the bea; ties of the cities 
and the novelties of the trip are of sufficient interedt to warrant un- 
qualified recommendation . ' ' 

Stewart Shillito, Cincinnati, O. 



<(' 



' My experiences as a sight-seer in Mexico lead me to believe that 
nothing can be more satisfactory and pleasing to the vacation-taker 
than a trip to our sister llepublic." 

Philip D. Armour, Chicago, 111. 



' ' I can think of scarcely a country that is more favoured than Mexico 
with climate and picturesque scenery." 

Albert C. Barney, Cincinnati, O. 



" I think Mexico far more interesting than Spain. It will be the 
great resort for tourists hereafter." 

JoHX L. Thomas, ex-member Congress, Baltimore, Md. 



" I am anxious to again visit Mexico in company with friends who 
contemplate spending next winter in that genial and balmy climate, 
which, when known and properly recognized for its peaceful quiet, 
will surely become the tourists' paradise." 

School Commissioner Condon, Brooklyn, N.Y. 



** My visit to Mexico was full of pleasant experienes, and I know of 
no place more worthy of the attention of tourists. I fuual many 
things to interest me in each of the quaint old cities." 

John Plankinton, Milwaukee, Wis. 



(( 



We saw Egypt and Palestine and old Spain illustrated on our own 
Continent without crossing the ocean. I cannot imagine any tour of 
travel so interesting as the trip to Mexico, vid the Mexican Central 
Railway." 

A. W. LONGFELLOW, Portland, Me. 



>'i 



BRADSHAW S MEXICO. 



235 



BAGGAGE REGULATIONS. 

One hundred and fifty pounds of baggage will be checked free on 
each whole through ticket issued from or to points in the United 
States, and seventy-five pounds on each half through ticket. On 
local tickets between points in Mexico, thirty-three pounds of bag- 
gage will bo carried free for each passenger Baggage will be 
re-checlic'd at El Paso, Tex. 



INFORMATION. 

Pullman Drawing-room, Restaurant, Sleeping, and Smoking 
Room Palace cars are run on all express trains, the ordinary cjir- 
riages are the nonplus ultra of comfort and convenience. 

On through tickets, children under five years of age will be carried 
free of charge ; from five to twelve years of age, inclusive, at half 
rates ; and over twelve years, full rates. 

On local tickets, children under three years of age are taken free ; 
from three to seven years, at half faro. Children over seven years 
of age will pay fall rates. Only passengers holding first-class tickets 
have the right to travel in Pullman cars. 

The Mexican Customs officials inspect baggage of passengers to 
Mexico at Paso del Norte and United States Customs officers, inspect 
baggage of travellers from Mexico at El Paso, Texas. These inspec- 
tions are quickly and courteously made, and passengers should have 
their keys ready to open their baggage when requested to by the 
Customs officers. Dutiable articles included hi baggage should be 
duly declared as such upon a blank furnished by the officers of the 
Custom House. 

Stop-over privileges are allowed on first-class through tickets at any 
point on this line, not to exceed thirty days. The conductor granting 
the first stop-over will note the date on the back of the ticket. 



li' li! 



236 



BRADSHAW S MEXICO. 



CONDENSED TIME TABLE TO AND FROM 

EL PASO. 



(■ * 






I ' 'I 


t ? 


i' 




! i 


'j 


1 ' 


III 




^'k : 


i ■ 'ii 


iij 


i ■ 



12.30 

12.30 

12.10 

12.30 

8.45 

8.20 

9.10 

8.25 

8.25 

10.40 

10.20 

7.30 

3.30 

1.0 

3.15 

3.30 

3.45 

11.50 



n n. 

n'n. 

n'n. 

n'n. 

p.m. 

p.m. 

a.m. 

p.m. 

p.m. 

a.m. 

a.m. 

p.m. 

p.m. 

p.m. 

p.m. 

p.m. 

a.m. 

p.m. 



Lv. 

)> 
>> 
j> 
>j 
)> 
>j 
j> 
jj 
)) 
)> 
j> 
}) 
>> 
Ar, 



...Chicago, rtd C. & A. R. R.... 

Chicago, vid C. B. & Q. R. R. 

Chicago, via C, R. I. & P. Ry. 

. . . Chicago, rid Wabash R. R. . . . 

St. Louis, via C. & A. R. R. 
St. Louis, via Missouri Pacific Ry. 
St. Louis, rid St. L., I. M.& S. Ry. 
St. Louis, rid St. L. & S. F. Ry. 
...St. Louis, rid Wabash R. R... 
Atchison, via A. T. & S. F. R. R. 
Kansas City, via A. T. & S. F. R. R. 
New Orleans, rid G. H. & S. A. Ry. 
San Francisco, vid So. Pacific Ry. 
New Orleans, rid Missouri Pacific Ry 
El Paso, rid Missouri Pacific Ry. 
El Paso, rid A. T. & S. F. R. R. 
...El Paso, rid G. H. & S. A. Ry.... 
El Paso, rid So. Pacific Ry 



Ar. 



Lv. 



2.30 
2.15 
2.30 
2.50 
7.0 
7.0 
5.50 
7.15 
G50 
5.45 
5.25 
7.30 

10.40 
6.50 
2.20 

10.30 
2.15 
1.55 



p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
p.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
p.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 



BETWEEN 

EL PASO AND THE CITY OF MEXICO 



Express 
No. 52. 



7.30 

8.05 

8.35 

9.05 

9.40 

10.00 

10.35 

11.22 

12.08 

12.31 

1.01 

1.30 

1.65 

2.46 

3.23 

4.00 

4.25 

4.50 

5.25 

5.47 

6.15 

6.55 

7.20 



p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
ID.m, 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 



Kilo- 
met'rs 



.0 

17.6 

32.0 

48.1 

66.3 

77.1 

95.0 

119.1 

141.9 

153.2 

166.7 

179.7 

195.2 

224.1 

244.4 

264.8 

278.2 

292.1 

311.9 

323.6 

338.7 

361.6 



City of Mexico Time. 



Lv.*Paso del NorteAr 

Mesa Itr 

Tierra Blanca 
Samalayuca 
Los M^clanos 
... Candelaria.. 
. . . Rancherf a . . 
... Snn Jose .. 
. . . Carmen . . 
Ojo Caliente 
... Las Minas.. 
Montezuma 
... Chivatito .. 

Gallego 

Puerto 

... Laguna .. 

Agua Nueva 

... Encinillas .. 

Sauz 

,, ... Torreon .. 
Lv. Socramento 
A . 1 *Chihua. < Lv. 
Lv.j hua ... (.Ar. 



91 
9> 
>> 
J» 
f> 
>> 
>> 
l> 
II 
l> 
>l 
>« 
It 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 



Miles. 



.0 

10.9 

19.9 

29.9 

41.2 

47.9 

59.0 

74.0 

88.2 

95.2 

103.6 

111.8 

121.3 

139.3 

151.9 

164.5 

172.9 

181.6 

193.8 

201.1 

210.5 

224.9 



Express 
No. 51. 



7.15 

6.42 

6.14 

5.43 

5.09 

4.47 

4.13 

3.26 

2.43 

2.22 

1.55 

1.30 

1.05 

12.15 

11.35 

10.55 

10.29 

10.04 

9.25 

9.04 

8.34 

7.50 

7.20 



a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
a.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 



> 



BRADSHAW S MEXICO. 



237 



ExprcHS 
No. 51. 



Kilo 
inet'rs 



7.15 p.m 
8.30 p.m 
8.54 p.m 
9.30 p.m 
10.57 p.m 



7.52 a.m. 

8.23 a.m. 

8.53 a.m. 

9.30 a.m. 
9.40 a.m. 

10.02 a.m. 
10.24 a.m. 
10.52 a.m. 
11.20 a.m. 
11.44 a.m. 
12.12 p.m. 
12.41 p.m. 

1.10 p.m. 

1.35 p.m. 

1.57 p.m. 

2.25 p.m. 

2.57 p.m. 

3.24 p.m. 
3.45 p.m. 
4.10 p.m. 
4.34 p.m. 
5.05 p.m. 
5 33 p.m 
6.05 p.m. 

6.31 p m. 
6.55 p.m. 

7.15 p.m. 
7.45 p.m. 
8.20 p.m. 
8.50 p.m. 

9.25 p.m. 
9.53 p.m. 

10.40 p.m. 
11.18 p.m. 
12.05 a.m. 
12.50 a.m. 

1.37 a.m. 

2.17 a.m. 

2.55 a.m. 

3.30 a.m. 

4.16 a.m. 
4.55 a.m. 
6.20 a.m. 
6.01 a.m. 
6.30 a.m. 
6.57 a.m. 
7.50 a.m. 
8.15 a.m. 
9.25 a.m. 
9.53 a.m. 

10.30 a.m. 
11.45 a.m. 



3*4.7 
407.1 
424.5 
448.8 
456.1 
472.2 
487.8 
508.2 
524.2 
539.9 
559.1 
677.9 

597.0 



City or Mexico Time. 



Lv Mapiila Lv. 

. Horcusitas. 

. liachimba . 

.... Ortiz .... 

Las Delicias 
,, ... Saucillo . 

Lv Concho.... 

Ar La Cruz Lv 

Lv. Santa Rosalia Ar. 
„ ...Bustamante... ,, 

M tJiaz » 

Lv. LaReforma...Ar. 






ft 
>i 
»» 

tt 
ft 



11.46 p.m. 12.20 p.m. 

1 IK o »« ' 1-15 p.m. 
1.15a.m.| 140 p.m. 

1.55 a.m. I 2.10 pm. 



611.7 
631.2 
652.5 
670.5 
685.1 
703.6 
722.5 
745.9 
767.4 
791.4 
811.4 

829.1 

850.7 

875.9 

890 

904.6 

920.0 

94:3.9 

965.0 

989.0 

1012.2 

1034.1 

1055.5 

1075.2 

1094.2 

1120.0 

1140.7 

1154.2 

1176.3 

1191.3 

1206.5 

1234,5 

1264.1 
1274.0 
1289.3 
1325.8 

1346.3 

i 

1384.9 
1406.4 



Ar.> 
Lv. S 

It • •• 
It ■•• 
>» ••• 



II 

II 
II 
II 
II 
Lv 



♦Jimenez 

Dolores 

Corralitos 
Rallano 
Escalon 
Zavalza 

... Saez ... 

... Yermo... 
Conejos 
Peronal 
Mapimi 

Noe 



f Lv. 

(.Ar 



II 
II 
I* 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 



Miles. 



II 
II 



II 
Lv. 
Ar. 



II 
II 
II 
II 

n 
II 
II 
II 



II 
II 
II 
II 



A-}....Lera„.:(t 

.Matamoros 

. Picartlias 

.... Jalisco... 

. Jimulco 

....Penilta „ 

.... Calvo Ar. 

.La Mancha...Lv. 
Lv Symon Ar. 

..Sanlsidoro... 

.. Crt macho ... 

.. Gonzales ... 

....Guzman 

.... Pacheco 

.La Coku'ada.. 

Ceclro 

. . Canitas . . . 

.. Gutierrez ... 
Meudoza ... 
Fresnillo 



II • • ■ 
Lv.... 
Ar.... 
Ar.> 
Lv.3 



"Calera 



■ • 11 

...Ar 

..Lv. 

fLv 

(Ar. 



II 
II 
»i 
II 



Zacatecas 

Guadalupe 

Summit 

Soledad 

T„ CRinconde^ ._ 

I^^- [ Romos j ^^ 

*Aguas I Lv 

Calientes ( Ar 

Penuelas ... ,, 



Ar. C 
Lv.l 



Express 
No. 51. 



263.8 

278.9 

283.4 

293.4 

303.1 

315.8; 

325.7| 

335.5 

347.4 

359.1 j 

371.0' 



239.0 6.48 p.m.. 

253.0 6.18 p.m.j. 
5.48 p.m.L 
5.10 p.m.' 
5.(K)p.m.l. 
4.38 p.m.!. 
4.17 p.m. 
3.48 p.m. 
3.20 p.m. 
2.59 p.m. 
2.31 p.m. 
2.04 p.m. 
1.35 p.m. 
1.10 p.m. 

380.1 12.-48 p.m. I 

392.2 12.20 p.m. 
405.5 11.48 a.m.l 
416.7 11.22 a.m.l 
425.7 ll.(H) a.m. 
437.210.35 a.m.! 
4^18.910.11 a.m.! 
463.5; 9.40 a.m. 

9.12 a.m. 
8.40 a.m. 
8.15 a.m. 
7.50 a.m. 
7.30 a.m. 

7.00 a.m. 
6.22 a.m. 

6.01 a.m. 
5.'10 a.m. 
5.10 a.m. 
4.27 a.m. 
3.47 a.m. 

3.02 a.m.! 
2.20 a.m.! 
1.37 a.m.l 

655.9 12.58 a m. 
668.112.20 a.m. 
680.011.40 p.m. 
695.9 10.53 p.m. 

708.8 10.15 p.m. 

717.2 9.50 p.m.!. 

730.9 9.10 p.m.'. 

740.3 8.4^Jp.m.!. 
8.15 p.m.], 
7.25 p.m. I 
7.05 p.m.l 
5.55 p.m, 
5.27 p.m 
4.50 p.m 
3.35 p.m 



476.9 
491.8 
504.2: 

515.2| 

528,61 
544,3 i 
553.2! 
562.1 1 
571.71 
586. 6 1 
599.6! 
614.6! 
629.0; 
642.6: 



749.7: 

767.1 1 

785,5| 
791 ,6 
801.r 
823.8 

836.5 



860.5 



7,00 a.m. 
5.50 a.m. 
5,20 a.m. 
4.42 a.m. 
3.16 a.m 



3.00 p.m. 

2.05 p.m. 
1.40 p.m. 
873.0- 1.10 p.m. 



2,33 a,m. 

1.15 a.m. 
12.35 a.m. 



,»r 



'lii; 






238 



BRADSHAW S MEXICO. 






I 



Ih ' , 



<■ '^- 



Kr 






•i 



•I 



t 



I. 






?! „i ill 



jl 1 



iliilh 



'Hi 





'11 


1 


ill 



Express 
No. 52. 



2.55 n.iTi. 
3.28 H.ra. 
4.18 a.m. 
5.(X) a.m. 
5.20 a.m. 
5.42 a.m 
G.07 a.m. 

6.31 a.m. 
6.53 a.m. 
7.25 a.m. 
7.45 a.m 
8.05 a.m 

8.32 a.m 
*i.48a.m 
9.0G a.m. 
9.15 a.m 

10.15 a.m. 
I0..'j8 a.m. 
11.02 a.m. 
11.33 a.m. 
11.4-3 a.m 
12.35 p.m 

1.20 p.m. 
1.40 p.m. 

2.33 p.m. 
2.50 p.m. 

3.21 p.m. 
3.38 p.m. 
3.58 ]).m. 
4.05 p.m. 
4.17 i).m. 
5.00 p.m. 
5.30 p.m. 
0.10 p.m. 
fi.30 p.m. 
6.50 p.m. 
7.05 p.m. 
7.20 p.m. 
7.30 p.m. 
7.35 p.m. 
7.42 p.m. 
7.55 p.m. 



Kilo- 
niet'rs 



3.02 p.m. 
3.35 pm. 

4.23 p.m. I 

5.05 p.m.] 

6.24 p.m. 
5.4.3 p.m. 

6.06 p.m. 
6.27 p.m. 
6 46 p.m. 
7.12 p.m. 
7.32 p.m. 
7.55 p.m. 
8.22 p.m. 
8.38 p.m. 
8.58 p.m. 
9.35 p.m. 

10.07 p.m. 
10.30 p.m. 
10.55 p.m. 
11 25 p.m. 
11.35 p.m. 
12.26 a.m. 

1.25 a.m 

2.35 
3.00 
3.32 
3.50 
4.11 
4.18 
4.32 
5.18 
5.50 
6.33 
7.00 
7.20 
7.35 
7.45 
7.55 
8.00 
8.09 
8.25 



CiTT OP Mkxico Time. 



1432.8 Lv. 

1419.5 

1474.2 

1495.1 

1508.7 

1522.4 

1537.8 

1554.2 

1568.0 



a.m 
a.m 
a.m, 
a.m 
a.m 
a.m 
a.m, 
a.m, 
a.m, 
a.m, 
a.m, 
a.m, 
a.m, 
a.m, 
a.m, 
a.m, 
a.m, 
a.m, 



>• 
•> 
•I 



1587.4 

1600.6 
1617.2 
1626.4 
1637.5 
1&59.9 
1678.3 
1691.5 
17»X).0 
1724.5 
1729.0 
1753.9 

1779.4 



>» • 
Lv. 
Ar. 
Lv. 

>» ■ 

>» ■ 

>f ' 

i> 

»» 

»» 

>» 

i« 

>> 

»» 

Lv. 
Ar. 
Lv. 



• »» 

• »» 

• >» 

• »» 

• >» 

• »» 
Ar, 
Lv. 
Ar. 



1808.9 

1818.1 

1832.1 

1840.1 

1848.4 

1851.3 

1857.3 

1876.3 

1890.0 

1907.6 

1917.5 

1923.5 

1934.0 

1&12.3 

19i9.1 

1952.0 

19o8.3;Lv. 

1970.0Ar 



>» 
>> 
>i 
>> 
II 
j» 
II 
If 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 



Encamacion 
Santa Maria 

.. Los Salt! 8 ., 

Lagos 

Loma 

Pedrito 

.. Francisco . 

Leon 

.. Trinidad . 

j *Silao [ 

.. Villalobos . 
.. Irapuato . 

Chico .... 

.. Salamanca, 

Guajo .... 

Celaya.... 

Ai)aseo.... 

,.. Mariscala . 
... Qner6taro . 
... Hercules . 
... Ahorcado . 

f*S«n Jnnn > Lv 
I del Rio i Ar 
... Cazadero ... ,, 
... Polotitlnn ... „ 

Dafiu ,, 

Nopala ,, 

... Marfjuez . 

Lena .... 

, . . Anf^eles . 

San Antonio 

Tula 

.. El Salto . 

Nochistongo 

Huehiietoca 

Teoloyucan 
...Cuaixtitlan . 
... Lecheria . 
,.. Barrientos . 

Tlalnepantla Ar 
Mexico Lv 



MileH, 



KxpreHs 
No. 51. 



890.3 12, 
900.711 

9i6.o;io 

929.0,10 



Ar, 



II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 

n 



9.37.4 
916.0 
955.6 
9<55.7 
974.3 

986.4 

994.' 
1(H)4.9 
1010.6 

017.5 
1031.4 
1042.8 
1051.0 
10<0.1 
1071.5 
1074.3 
10S9.8 



18 pm. 11 
,41 a.m. 11 
..55 a.m. 10 
.13 a.m. 9 
55 a.m. 
36 a.m.' 
.14 a.m. I 
51 a.m. I 
.32 a.m. 



,05 a.m 



45 a.m.! 
25 a.m.! 
.02 a.m. I 
i..50 a.m.! 
.33 a.m.' 
02 a.m. I 
.35 a.m. 
.17 a.m.' 
,57 a.m. 
,30 a.m. 
.20 a.m. 
.30 a.m. 



1105.7 2.50 a.m, 



1124.o! 1 

1129.7i 1 

1138.412 

1143.412 

1148.5:12 

1150.412 

11.54.li]2 

1165.911. 

1174.410 

1185.310. 

1191.5! 9. 

1195.2: 9 

1201.7i 9. 

1206.91 8 

1211.1 

1212.9 

1216.8 

1224.1 



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01 a.m. 10, 
16 p.m. 10 
45 p.m.! 9, 
05 p.m. 
40 p.m. 
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02 p.m. 
48 p.m. 
37 p.m. 
32 p.m. 
22 p.m. 
05 p.m. 



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GUANAJUATO BRANCH. 



Train 
No. 14. 



6. 10 p.m. 

5.15 p.m. 

Street 



Tiain 
No. 12. 



Kilo- 
met'rs. 



Miles. 



Train 
No. 11. 



7.26 a.m. 
6.40 a.m. 
Cars. 



0.0;Ar *SiIao Lv.i 0.0 8.10 a.m. 

19.0' Ar Marfd Lv.| 11 .8 8.55 a.m. 

24.0 Lv GuanairatoAr.l 14.9| Street 



Train 
No. 13. 



7.20 p.m. 
8.00 p.m. 
Cars. 



♦ Trains stop for Meals. All trains run daily. 

Standard of time is City of Mexico, vrhich is 24 mlautes fast of " Moun- 
tain" time and 36 minutes slow of "Central" time, the standard time used 
by connecting roads at El Paso. 



BRADSIIAW S MKXICO. 



2o9 





Train 
No. 13. 


7.20 p.m. 
8.00 p. m. 
Cars. 



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DliADSUAW S MEXICO. 



FUIiliMAN PALACE SLEEPING CAR RATES. 



|i 



I / 



i! ^^' 



EL PASO, 


TEXAS TO 


DOl'BtE 
UEBTII. 


SECTIOW. 






$ 


$ 


Chihuahaa 




2.00 


4.00 


Santa Kosalia 




2.50 


5.00 


Lordo ... 




4.00 


8.00 


Zacatecas 




6.00 


12.00 


Aguas Caliente3 




6.50 


13.00 


Looii ... 




7.00 


14.00 


Queretaro 


••• ••• ••• ••• 


8.00 


16.00 


City of Mexico 





9.00 


18.00 



ELEVATIONS ABOVE THE SEA-LEVEL. 



METERS. 


8T.VTIOXS. 


FEEI. 


1133.06 


Paso del Norte 


3717.40 


1060.67 


Gallego 


5448.40 


1412.26 
1226.03 


Chihuahua 

Santa Rosalia 


4633.40 
4022.40 


1381.17 


Jimenez 


4531.40 ' 


1135.50 
1267.18 
2149.80 
2452.60 


Lerdo 

Jimulco 

Calera 

Zacatecas 


3725.40 
4157.40 
7051.30 
8044.50 


1884.00 


Aguas Calientes 


617y.50 


1870.30 
1787.69 


Lagos 

Leon 


6134.50 
5863.60 


1800.15 
1904.00 


Queretaro 

Sau Juan del Rio 


5904.50 
6245.10 


2232.85 
2479.49 


Cazadero 

Marquez 


7323.70 
8132.70 


2030.00 
2258.50 
2240.00 


Tula 

Huehuetoca 

Mexico 


6658.40 
7407.90 
7349-80 



[ • 7 'i 



ACAMCARO — AGUAS CALIENTES. 



241 



DESCRIPTION OF TOWNS. 



$ 

4.00 
5.00 
8.00 
12.00 
13.00 
14.00 
IG.OO 
18.00 



Acambaro.— State of Michoa- 
can de Ocampo ; 8,000 in- 
habitants; 6,100 feet above the 
sea ; a station of the Mexican 
National Railway. 

Hoteln: Nacional, near the 
Plaza. 

A small but thriving town, 
with a future as soon as the 
railways are completed. The 
surrounding country is poorly 
cultivated, though the ground is 
fertile. Lake Cuitzeo, affording 
good fishing, is a few miles south- 
west of the town, and contains 
some small islands. The town 
lies in abroad plain, is regularly 
built, but has nothing to interest 
the traveller. The journey 
hither affords, however, a good 
opportunity of studying the 
agricultural and mineral re- 
sources of this region. 

Acapulco. — State of Guerrero, 
port of entry on the Pacific. 
12,320 inhabitants. A station of 
the Morelos Railway, building. 

Hotels : Several good inns. 

This harbour is the finest in 
Mexico, and the position of the 
town on the large bay is incom- 
parable. The town lies on a 
narrow strip of land, not half -a 
mile in width, and having but 
little soil. Great expectations 
are formed from the connection 
by railway with the capital. 
Thirty years ago it was only an 
agglomeration of huts, but it is 



now a fine town. The climate 
is very hot and unhealthy. The 
fort San Carlos is interesting. 
The river Zacatula, close to 
which it stands, can be forded in 
the dry season ; but rafts are 
used in summer and during the 
heavy rains. Fruit and hide.-j 
are the chief articles of export ; 
coals the chief import. The 
artificial cutting in the moun- 
tains (Abra de San Nicolas) 
made to admit the sea-breeze to 
the town, is th':" only object of 
interest. The mercury mine of 
Huitzuco is near Acapalco. The 
scenery around is very pic- 
turesque. 

Aguas Calientes.- Capital of 
State of same name; 35,000 in- 
habitants ; 0,301 feet above the 
sea ; a station of the Mexican 
Central Railway. 

Hotels : Diligencias, de la 
Plaza, Nacional, and several 
small inns. 

Conveyances : Tramways (fare 
medio 0^ cents. 

Bath : On the Alameda or 
Park. 

Banker: G. R. Brand. 

Medical : Dr. Calera, Dr. 
Muiloz, Dr. Marin. 

Aguas Calientes is a regularly- 
built town in a barren district, 
with numerous hot mineral 
springs, ranging from 90 to 105 
degrees Fahr. These have given 



\V 



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iiiii 



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Iiii 



1 1 1 











242 



HUADSHAW S MKXICO. 



tho town it3 namo. It has eleven 
Hciuures. Tho chief industry of 
the inhii}>itants is the nianu- 
fiicture of woollen j^oods. A 
larj^e fair is held hero at Christ- 
mas. The chief objects worthy 
of notice are the Plaza de 
Armas, the cathedral, tho Ala- 
meda, and the Paseo, the latter 
one of tho finest parks in the 
country. Interesting ruins of 
Indian architecture are found at 
La Quemada. An area of ahout 
six acres is inclosed by a wall, 
forming a kind of fort. The 
buildings in«ide this wall — like 
most of tho Mexican ruins —are 
pyramidal in shape, and are 
fairly well preserved. They are 
attributed to the Aztecs. Some 
chambers inside the building are 
still intact. 

Amecameca. — State of Mexico ; 
about 10,000 inhabitants ; 8,200 
feet above tho sea ; a station of 
the Morclos Railway Company. 

Hotels : Ferrocarril at the 
station, and Diligeucias on the 
Plaza. 

This town disputes with To- 
luca the honour of being the 
highest inhabited place in the 
liepublic. The town is regularly 
built, but contains little of in- 
terest. The traveller will pro- 
bably visit it solely for the pur- 
pose of ascending the volcano 
Popocatepetl, the highest moun- 
tain in North America. The 
journey up and down requires 
two days, though it may be 
accomplished in one day and a 
balf from the capital, via Ame- 
cameca ; but if possible, this 

• should not be attempted. There 
is a ranch at Tlamacas, the pro- 

. perty of General Ochoa. Guides, 
horses, rugs, provisions, may be 
obtained at Amecameca ; but if 
the traveller is pressed for time 
it is better to pi'ocure them at 



tho capital before setting out. 
One guide to each person should 
be the rule, and a mozo to mind 
the horses while climbing the 
upper portion. The fee for each 
guide is 5 dols., and for a mozo 
8 dols. for the trip. Six hours 
are required from tho ranch at 
Tlamacas to reach the crater, 
which is about 500 yards in dia- 
meter and 150 yards in depth . The 
upper i)art of tho mountain is 
covered with ice and snow, and 
is really a glacier. The view 
from the top is very fine, and 
extends an immense distance. 
It should be reached before 10 
a.m. as after that hour tho peak 
is generally covered with clouds, 
and the view obscured. 

The Sacromonto on the western 
side of the town of Amecameca 
is also an object of attraction. 
The chapel on the summit is one 
of the most celebrated shrines in 
the Republic. The hill rises 
about 300 feet above the jjlain. 
On the paved way leading to tho 
summit are tho " fourteen 
stations' ' of the Cross. 

Amozoc. — State of Puebla; 
5,043 inhabitants. 

Hoids : A very inferior inn. 

This place is mentioned only 
as the chief seat of the steel and 
iron industry. The articles 
manufactured hero are sought 
after throughout the whole 
Republic. 

Apam. — State of Hildago, on 
the lake of same name ; 7)628 
inhabitants. 

It contains only a small inn. 

The place is a mere village, 
and is known cbiefly for its ex- 
tensive maguey plantations. 
From these the best pulque 
is exported to the Capital and 
elsewhere. Otherwise there is 
nothing of interest to the 
traveller. 



i|i 



setting out. 
jrson should 
ozo to inind 
limbing the 
fee for each 
for a mozo 

Six houvH 
be ranch at 
the crater, 
'arda in dia- 
1 depth. The 
nountain in 
I snow, and 
The view 
y fine, and 
e distance, 
d before 10 
)ur the peak 
with clouds, 
3d. 

the western 
Amecaineca 
f attraction, 
immit is one 
ed shrines in 
iG hill rises 
e the plain, 
ading to the 

"fourteen 
ss. 

►f Puebla ; 

Ferior inn. 

bioned only 
le steel and 
le articles 

I are sought 

the whole 



jildago, on 
ime ; 7,628 

Imall inn. 
*re village, 
for its ex- 
klantations. 
Ut pulque 
Capital and 
36 there is 
to the 



AMKCAMECA — CATORCE. 



24:^> 



Ario.— State of Michoaean ; 3,000 
inhabitants ; 0,350 feet above 
the sea level. 

Hotels : Fonda de la Ik'lla 
Union, Meson de Ocampo, and 
throe smaller inns. 

Thii? town is best reached on 
horseback from Patzcuaro. It 
is irregularly built, and not par- 
ticularly clean. The inhabitants 
are noted for their politenoas 
and hospitality to strangers. The 
country round is very fertile, 
and contains many superior farms 
of great extent. Fine horses and 
good cattle are bred here. A 
few hours journey brings the 
tourist into the tropical country. 
A good wagon road would make 
the country very prosperous. 
The climate is healthy. 

The town has little to interest, 
but the traveller should not miss 
visiting the Alameda just before 
sunset. Tlio view from it is 
very oxt ousive and extremely 
beautii'ul. 

Travellers intending to visit 
the surrounding country or the 
volcano of Jorullo should pro- 
cure letters of introduction to 
residents in the different villages, 
as there is no hotel accommo- 
dation. On being asked, the 
])refect of police will send an 
escort of soldiers to Jorullo, or 
any other place. The charge is 
nothing, but a gratuity may be 
given to the sergeant. Excursions 
may also be mide to Uruapan 
and Tacambaro. 



Arispe.— State of Sonora; 3,000 
inhabitants ; a station of the 
Sonora Railway. 

Hotels : Diligencias. 

Situated in a picturesque valley, 
in which are several important 
villages of the Opata Indians. 
Two crops of wheat are produced 
here annually by means of irri- 



gation. There is a Cathedral, 
and the Alameda or park is very 
fine. It was formerly the 
Capital of State of Sonora. 

Campeche, or San Francisco 
de Canii)ec'lie. — Capital ot the 
State of CamjH'che ; the old 
Kimpach ; 15,11)0 inhabitants. 

Hot els: liidalgo. 

Campeebe is the most im- 
portant seaport in this part of 
Mexico. Vessels anchor a})out 
five miles froin the shore. Pas- 
sengers, mails, and cargo are 
transferred to a tender. 'Jjie 
port, however, is not sate. The 
town and citadel are charmingly 
beautiful when seen from the sea. 
There is little of interest for the 
traveller in the town. It is built 
over subterranean vaults, said to 
have been constructed by the 
ancient Indians. Drinking- 
water is brought to the town by 
means of an atiueduct. There 
is a naval school, and vessels are 
built here. The commercial 
interests of Campeche were 
formerly of some importance. 

Catoroe, or Mineral de Catorce. — 
State of San Luis Potosi ; 17,800 
inhabitants ; 8,300 feet above the 
sea-level ; railway station of the 
Mexican National line. 

Hotels : A small inn. 

This town stands on very 
irregular ground, and was named 
after a band of 14 robbers, who 
were the terror ot the neighbour- 
hood for many years. The deep 
mountain gorges are everywhere 
bridged over. Close by are the 
celebrated mines, and behind it 
are barren mountains. Catorce 
is one of the richest silver-pro- 
ducing districts in Mexico. It 
was discovered in 1773, and since 
then the yield has annually been 
about 4 million dollars ; it lias 



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244 



BRADSIIAW S MEXICO. 



now dwindled down to about one 
million. The town is abundantly 
provided with all necessaries of 
life ; most of the mines round 
are owned by Spaniards and 
Enj?lishmen. There was a mint 
here during the French invasion. 
Latterly these mines have been 
paying somewhat better. 



Cedral. — State of San Luis 
Potosi ; 4,000 inhabitants ; a 
station on the Mexican National 
railway. 

Hotels: Diligencias and an- 
other. 

An irregularly-built place, in a 
district barren for want of irri- 
gation. Several smelting works 
are in th's place, and the ores 
coming from Catorce have to be 
roasted then crushed and amal- 
gamated, as they contain sul- 
phur. The mountain El Fraile, 
near the town, may be ascended. 
Near El Salado— 27 miles dis- 
dant — is one of largest haciendas 
in the Republic, extending into 
four states ; 8,000 horses and 
3,000 cattle roam over the pasture 
lands, while wells and tanks pro- 
vide water for irrigation. 



Celaya. — State of Guanaiuato ; 
28,336 inhabitants ; 5,500 feet 
above the sea ; station of the 
Mexican National Railway. 

Hotels : Ferrocarril, Cortazar, 
Diligencias. 

This place consists of the town 
proper, with several suburbs, 
inhabited by Otomite Indians. 
On the Plaza Mayor standy the 
great pile of buildings forming 
the Franciscan Monastery, the 
tower of which is considered the 
highest in the Republic. There 
are several important cotton and 
woollen manufactories h' re. 
Four of the other convents are 



worth visiting. The churches of 
San Francisco and El Carmen 
are also deserving of notice. 

Chiapa de los Indies.— The 

largest town in the State of 
Chiapas ; 12,459 inhabitants. 

An inn with very indifferent 
accommodation. 

The town is situated on the 
Tabasquillo, and exj5orts dye- 
woods, timber and cochineal, but 
otherwise is of no importance. 
The inhabitants are mostly 
IndJ: ns, and speak Tzendal, 
whicii is similar to the Maya 
language. 

Chihuahua. — Capital of the 
State of the same name : 17,500 
inhabitants ; 4,090 feet above the 
sea level ; a station of the Mexi- 
can Central Railway. 

Hotels : Amei'ican and Na- 
cional. 

Telegraph and Post Office : On 
the Plaza Mayor. 

Baths : On the upper alameda. 
Bankers : Mac Manus & Son. 
Medical : Dr. Echeverria, Dr. 
J. Munoz. 

This thriving town has a pros- 
perous future in store. It is 
situated in a broad plain. Many 
foreigners (chiefly citizens of the 
UniteJ- v^tates) are settled here. 
It was founded in the 17th cen- 
tur3' by some adventurers, to work 
the silver mines in the vicinity. 
After the War of Independence 
it fell somewhat into decay ; but 
since the v orking of the Mexican 
Central Railway it has received a 
new impetus, and is increasing 
rapidly in importance. 

The town is regularly laid out, 
with broad clean streets and 
many important and handsome 
buildings. The dwelling-I»ouses 
}<re well constructed and roomy. 



CEDRAL — CHOLULA. 



245 



11 and Na- 



increasmg 



The whole town is a garden — 
with roses and orange -groves 
growing, as it were, in the wil- 
derness. Fifteen miles to the 
south are two isolated mountains, 
^vith tlie celebrated Santa Eulalia 
silver mines. The superb cathe- 
dral has a dome, and two towers 
240 feet high. The smaller 
churches are also handsome 
buildings, especially those of 
Guadalupe and San Felipe, and 
also the College of the Jesuits— 
where Hidalgo and AUc nde were 
beheaded. The mint iS impor- 
tant. A fine aqu'Hluct 4 miles 
in length provides the drinking 
water. There is also a bull-ring. 
The palace, tribunal of justice, 
the Alhondija, and the two 
alaraedas are worth visiting. 

Fruit, vegetables, cereals, &c., 
grow in the districts around. 
The grazing land in the State is 
fine. The climate of the town is 
healthy, the thermometer rang- 
ing between 16 and 94degs. Fah. 
May, June, and July are the 
warmest months. The rainy 
season sets in at the end of June, 
and lasts till the middle of Octo- 
ber. 

Chilpancingo.— Capital of the 
State of Guerrero; 3 800 inhabi- 
tants ; Tt station on the Morelos 
Railway. 
Hotels : A small inn. 

The town is of little interest, 
and remarkable only as having 
been the place in which the first 
Mexican Congress of September 
13th, 1813, was held, after the 
cry ^'or Independence had been 
raised by Hidalgo. 



of Puebla ; 
; C,900 feet 



Cholula. — State 
8,973 inhabitants 
above the sea. 

Hotels : Those of Puebla. 
Conveifances : Tramways — 
Jledio real (G^ cts) ; fare to 



Puebla, 25 cts. or one shilling ; 
Carriages —50 cts. on weekdays, 
and 75 cts. ou Sundays. 

Now an insignificant place, 
only noted for the piihine pro- 
duced from its extensive maguey 
plantations. In the times of 
the Aztec empire, Cholula was a 
very important town. At the 
date of Cortez arrival there wero 
over 400 temples here, 20,000 
hooses, and above 150,000 in- 
habitants. A church built by 
Cortez contai'is some curious 
historical paini ings. The town 
also boasts a park. Cholula is 
reached by tramway from Puob'a 
in 25 minutes (faro, 1st class, 2^ 
cts.), distance 7 niiles. Someof 
the hotels contain pictures of 
battles between Spaniards and 
the natives during the conquest. 
Eastward of the town is a huge 
teocalli or pyramid, now almost 
covered by vegetation. It has 
four terraces, and on the summit 
a chrrch. It is by far the largest, 
oldest and most important teo- 
calli in Mexico. Each sido 
measures at the base 1,425 feet, 
and is 1/7 feet high ; it covers a 
space of over 45 acres. The sides 
face the cardinal points of the 
compass. The platform on tlio 
summit measures 200 foot square ; 
the ascent to it is by a staircase of 
120 steps. The Catholic church 
on the top is in thu form of a 
cross, surrounded by cypresses, 
and has two towers and a cupola. 
It was built by the Spanish 
conquerers. The view from the 
top of the pyramid is very fine. 
The interior of the church ha» 
some frescoes and jther decora- 
tions. It is supposed that its 
ancient builders were fire and 
serpent worshippers, the former 
because it is built near the smok- 
ing mountain Popocatepetl , and 
the latterfrora some hieroglyphics 
which have been discovered. 
The great temple of Cholula has 



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[mADSTIAW S MEXICO. 



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been partially destroyed by a 
cutting which has been made 
through it for the line of 
Railway. 

Oinaloa, or Sinaloa. — State of 
Sinaloa; 15,330 inhabitants. 
Hotels : Diligenoias. 

This town, romantically situ- 
ated on hills on the Kio Cinaloa, 
was formerly the busiest town of 
the State ; now its business 
is chiefly in agriculture and 
cattle raising, to which the 
fertile plain surrounding it is 
well suited. The town has little 
of interest. 

Ciudad de las Casas, or San 

Cristobal and Ciudadreal. — 
Capital of State of Chiapas ; 
8,500 inhabitants. 

It possesses a small inn. 

A town on the Chiapas Kiver of 
hardly any interest. It is taken 
by tourists as a starting 
point for the ruins of Palenque. 
(See Palenque.) 

C/Olima.— Capital of the State of 
same name ; 32,000 inhabitants ; 
1,400 feet above the sea ; a 
station of the Mexican National 
Railway to Manzanillo. 

Hotels : Diligencias, and 
several other small inns. 

The town is irregularly built, 
and has little to interest the 
traveller. The surrounding 
country is very fertile. The 
coffee produced in this region is 
among the best, and equals in 
quality that of Mocclia. Cotton, 
rice, sugar cane, and Indigo are 
also cultivated. The town is 
tutuated on the river of the same 
name. The plaza is handsomely 
ornamented with a row of colon- 
nades. Some English, German, 
and French settlers are to be 



found here. The volcano — active 
in January, 1880- is 11,000 feet 
high, and lies in dangerous 
proximity to the town . In winter 
it is snowclad. There is other- 
wise little to interest the tourist. 

Cordoba.— In the State of Vera 
Cruz Llave ; on the Mexican 
Railway lino ; 60 miles from 
Vera Cruz ; 11,302 inhabitants, 
and about 2,800 feet above the 
sea. 

Hotels : A small inn. 

Conveyances : Tramways. 

This town, formerly one of 
the wealthiest of Mexico, is now 
in complete decay. It is about a 
mile distant from the railway. 
The surrounding country is very 
fertile ; every variety of fruit 
grows abunda,ntly, and in superior 
quality, though the staple pro- 
duce is coffee. The tmveller 
should take the opportunity of 
visiting one of the plantations. 
The pine apple grows to perfection 
here. The town has four churches, 
but good drinking water is very 
scarce. There are some very fine 
specimens of the Palma real near 
the principal square, standing over 
150 feet high. Near the town 
on the river Metlac, is a bridge 
whence some very fine views are 
obtained. Some Americans are 
settled here in agricultural pur- 
suits. The railway line beyond 
the station of Cordoba passes 
through some fine scenery, and 
affords an example of very skilful 
engineering. 

Cuautla. — State of Morelos ; 
14,000 inhabitants; 7,000 feet 
above the sea j a station of the 
Morelos Railway. 

Hotels : Diligencias. 

An irregularly - built town, 
situated on some, thickly-wooded 



cano— active 
3 11,000 feet 
dangerous 
n. In winter 
ive is other- 
t the tourist. 

Itate of Vera 
be Mexican 
miles from 
inhabitants, 
it above the 

nn. 

.mways. 

3rly one of 
'xico, is no\v 
It is about a 
:hc railway, 
mtry is very 
ty of fruit 
id in superior 
staple pro- 
be ti-aveller 
jortunity of 
plantations, 
o perfection 
|ur churches, 
ater is very 
Imo very fine 
|na reol near 
anding over 
r the town 
is a bridge 
e views are 
kericans are 
iltural pur- 
[ine beyond 
)ba passes 
fenery, and 
rery skilful 



Morelos ; 
17,000 feet 
Uon of the 



lilt town, 
ily-wooded 



CIXALOA CULIACAX. 



247 



hills. The name is derived from 
(^aauhtlij i.e.," delightful hills," 
given it by its founders — the 
Tlahuicos. The Spaniards con- 
quered it in 1521. Thecathelral, 
city hall, alameda, and several 
minor churches, are interesting. 
Near the town the railway bridge 
of Ozumba is noteworthy — G18 
feet long by 41 feet high. The 
surrounding country is very fer- 
tile, and the climate healthy. 

Cuernavaca.— Capital of the 
State of Morelos ; 5,380 feet 
above the sea level ; 16,320 in- 
habitants . Station of the Morelos 
Railway. 

Hotels : Del Fenix and San 
Pedro. 

Baths : Near the San Pedro 
Hotel. 

Called by the Tlahuicos — 
Quauhuahuac, i.e., near the i 
beautiful hills. It was taken by 
the Spaniards in 1521. It is a i 
favourite winter resort. The i 
EmperorMaximilian'svilla is now \ 
a school-house, Cortex' Palace is i 
now the Court-house , having been j 
rebuilt since the Declaration of I 
Independence. Other objects of 
interest are : the Borda Gardens 
— now in ruins, but once very 
beautiful — the church of Guada- 
lupe, and the parochial church. 
The Popocatepetl and Iztac- 
cihuatl, covered in perpetual 
snow — highest mountains in 
Mexico — lie about 25 miles to 
the east of the town. The town 
is situated in a magnificent and 
fertile valley, which produces 
equally the fruits of the 
tropical and temperate zone. 
Eighteen miles from Cuernavaca 
— on a rocky mountain — lies the 
Xocliicalco, a temple or fortress, 
now in ruins. The ruins are 
about five miles in circumference; 
there are five terraces faced with 
stone; the building on the top 



is 75 by 05 feet of hewn granite 
and was used until recently 
as a sugar refinery. Near the 
village of Cacaliuamilpa, about 
40 miles to the south of Cuerna- 
vaca, is the Grotto. Thi-5 famous 
cave, with its 15 "saloon.-;," is the 
finest stalactite cavern in the 
world. There is no hotel 
accommodation, and visitors 
do well to bring with them 
blankets, provisions, etc., for 
three days. The cavern has 
never been fully explored. 
Tasco, a town 54 miles distant, 
should also be visited on account 
of its silver mines — said to have 
been worked before the Spanish 
Conquest. 

The village of Acopancingo — 
formerly the seat of the head 
cazique — about 1^ miles from 
the town of Cuernavaca, is still 
inhabited by Indians of pure 
Mexican race. They preserve 
their old Aztec language, man- 
ners, and customs — except in 
religion. They are wealthy, and 
devoted to agriculture. There 
v»as onc(" a good wagon -road, 
which is now only practicable for 
pedestrians and horsemen. 

Cuernavaca is reached by dili- 
gence, from the Capital, in i)^ 
hours, running three times a. 
week. 

Culiacan.— Capital of State of 
Sinaloa; 7,S7S inhabitants; IGO 
feet above the sea level ; station 
of the Sinaloa and Darango 
Railway. 

Hotels ; Ferrocarril and Dili- 
gencias. 

This is a regular and well- 
built town on the river of tho 
same name, founded in 1532. 
The principal square is faced oa 
one side by a half-ruined 
cathedral, and on the three 
remaining sides by ^yePortales or 
arcades. There is a large semi- 



248 



BRADSHAW S MEXICO. 



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nary, and a first-rate mint here. 
The Government Palace, Muni- 
cipal Palace, and several other 
>)uildin]trs are noteworthy. There 
is a good Alameda or Park. 

DurangO.— Capital of the State 
of same name ; 27,100 inhabi- 
tants ; 6,800 feet above the sea ; 
a station of the Mexican Central, 
International and Alta and 
Dm*ango Railways. 

Hotels : Diligencias, Nacional. 

A rising town, which acquired 
its importance principally from 
the discovery of the rich silver 
mines of Guarisamey, situated 
north-west of the town. It is 
situated in a dry, sterile plain. 
It has a cathedral, several 
churches, etc., four convents, a 
mint, an important tobacco 
manufactory, and several other 
industrial establishments. The 
Ccrro del Mercado, near the 
town, is the famous Iron Moun- 
tain mentioned by Humboldt. 
An American company has been 
formed to work these mines. 
Travellers should beware of the 
scorpions common in this town. 

Esperanza.— State of Puebla ; 
5,000 inhabitants ; 7,900 feet 
above the sea level. A station 
of the Mexican Railway. 

Hotels: The Ferrocarril (within 
the enclosure of the station), 
owned by the Railway Company, 
and managed w^ell by a French- 
man. 

This town is chiefly interesting 
as being the place to change the 
■military escort accompanying 
' each train between the Capital 
• and Vera Cruz. It has little to 
interest the tourist, unless some 
of the farms in the surrounding 
district. The nights and early 
niornings are very cool, and 
occasionally the temperature 



falls below freezing point. The 
surrounding plain produces 
wheat, barley, maize, etc., and 
is very fertile. The hacienda 
of Senor Audres Gutierrez 
is worth visiting. The Mountain 
Orizaba may be ascended from 
here, but horses are difficult to 
procure. The mountain is 17,300 
feet high. It has been ascended 
by very few persons up to the 
present. Guides, rugs and pro- 
visions for two days should be 
taken. Excursions to Oaxaca, 
Mitla, Tehuacan, etc., may also 
be made. There is a tramway to 
Tehuacan. (See this.) 

Fresnillo.— State of Zacatecas ; 
28,600 inhabitants ; 7,700 feet 
above the sea. 

Hotels : A small inn. 

Irregularly built on an exten- 
sive mountain plain at the foot 
of the Cerro de Proano, in which 
are the mines. It is only inter- 
esting on account of its large 
amalgam works. The produce 
of the mines has considerably 
diminished of late years. 

Guadalajara.— Capital of State 
of Jalisco ; 78,600 inhabitants ; 
5,052 feet above the sea ; a 
station of the Mexican Central 
Railway. 

Hotels : Hidalgo, Nacional, 
Diligencias, and Nuevo Mundo. 

This tot\'n is situated in the 
very fertile table valley of 
Atemajac, and covers a large 
area, as the houses are mostly 
one-storied. It is well built ; has 
14 squares, 12 fountains, one 
cathedral, seven churches, 11 
convents, a Government Palace, 
a university, a mint, hospitals, 
an academy of fine arts, etc., etc. 
The Bishop's and Municipal 
palaces, the Alameda, etc., are 
worth visiting. It lies on the 



,:■/ 



DUKANGO — GUADALUPE. 



249 



►oint. The 
produces 
!, etc., and 
3 hacienda 
Gutierrez 
B Mountain 
nded from 
difficult to 
in is 17,300 
m ascended 
up to the 
js and pro- 
should be 
to Oaxaca, 
., may also 
tramway to 
.) 

Zacatecas ; 
7,700 feet 

n. 

1 an exten- 
at the foot 
iio, in which 
only inter- 
f its large 
e produce 
)nsiderably 
irs, 

;al of State 
Ihabitants ; 
e sea ; a 
n Central 

Nacional, 
/o Mundo. 

bed in the 
[valley of 
a large 
ire mostly 
I built ; has 
tains, one 
frches, 11 
it Palace, 
hospitals, 
!, etc., etc. 
[Municipal 
etc., are 
on the 



west bank of the Rio de Santiago 
(the largest in Mexico). The 
streets are wide, and laid out at 
right angles, and by many 
persons the town is considered 
finer than the capital of the 
Republic . It has preserved many 
of its Mexican features, lying 
remote from the high road, and 
having been but little affected 
by foreign influence. 

The cathedral, Government 
PalEice, and Bishop's Palace are 
on the Plaza de Armas. The 
interior of the cathedral is 
very beautiful. The other sides 
of the plaza, not occupied by 
the above buildings, have fine 
colonnades. The Hospital Belem 
is an immense building. There 
are nine portales, or covered arch- 
ways, which are used as bazaars, 
and belong to the convents, 
which sub-let them. All sorts of 
European and Asiatic produce 
may be found in these bazaars. 
The acqueduct is over three 
miles in length. The gardens 
and land around the town are 
artificially irrigated. A beautiful 
bridge of 20 arches spans the 
river ; near here are several 
waterfalls. There are steam 
printing offices in the town. The 
ornamental glazed pottery made 
here is sold in the capital. Most 
of the inhabitants are artizans, 
and work more especially in gold 
and silver, in filigree, in leather, 
in wool (the rebozos and 
zarapes), and in cotton. The 
cakes, confectionery and sweet- 
meats of Guadalajai'a are cele- 
brated. Much glazed pottery is 
also made here and is sold in the 
Capital. 

The cathedral was completed 
in 1618, but in 1818 an earth- 
quake overthrew the cupolas of 
both towers. 

An excursion can be made to 
the Lake of Chapala — 40 miles 



distant. It is the largest in 
Mexico, and covers an area of 
415 square miles. Several islands 
exist in it, and on one ruins have 
been found. Its depth has never 
been ascertained. Several other 
excursions into the environs will 
be found interesting. The rail- 
way from Guadalajara to San 
Bias on the Pacific will be open 
fortraffic shortly, and will tap the 
villages of Amatitlan, Tequila, 
Ixtlan, Tetitan, Zapotlan and 
Tepic. 

Guadalupe, or Villa de Guada- 
lupe Hidalgo (originally Tequat- 
lanopeuh).— Federal district of 
Mexico, and 5 miles from tho 
capital ; 4,517 inhabitants. 

Hotels : Those of the Capital , 
whence it is reached by tramway 
in half -hour. 

Guadalupe is connected with 
the Capital by two roads running 
parallel upon dykes built in tho 
ancient lagoon. It is interesting 
for its cathedral, chapel, oolleffo 
and nunnery, and is the chief 
place of pilgrimage in thi^ 
country. The cathedral is the 
richest in Mexico, and said to 
surpass even the cathedral of the 
Capital in treasure. It is a mas- 
sive brick building, with a dome 
and four towers, and cost 800,000 
dols. for materials alone. The 
interior is richly adorned, and 
round the choir and altar is a 
solid silver railing. The famous 
picture — the object of the x)il- 
grimage — of the Virgin hangs 
on the high altar. On each side 
of the high altar is a smaller 
altar, and the choir is rich in 
wooden carvings. A great many 
exvotos hang near the main 
entrance, chiefly of wax, while 
others are oil paintings. The 
legend of how the church was 
built is sold at the door in book 
form. On the 12th of December 



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250 



BKADSHAW S MEXICO. 



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of each year a religious festival 
takes place in celebration of the 
anniversary of the appearance of 
the Virgin to the Indian, and is 
attended by persons from all 
parts of the Republic. The flag 
carried by Hidalgo in the War 
of Indei)endence is deposited 
here, and several illustrious men 
lie buried in the vaults. A very 
line view of Mexico and the 
valley is obtained from a hill 
facing the front of the chapel. 
The treaty with the United 
States of 2nd February, 1818, 
was signed here. 



Guanajuato, or Santa F6 de 
Guanajuato ; capital of state of 
same name ; 56,112 inhabitants ; 
C,830 feet above the sea; Rail- 
way station of the Mexican 
Central Railway, branching at 
Marjil Station. 

Hotels : Rayas, del Suizo, 
Diligencias. 

Bestmirants : Frances, do 
Bordeaux. 

Banliers : National Bank of 
Mexico. 

Medical : Dr. Herrera, Dr. 
Moreno. . 

The town of Guanajuato is 
irregularly built on hills, and 
was founded in 1654. It stands 
on both sides of the gorge of 
Canada de Marfil. The narrow 
streets are winding and paved 
with rough stones. It is sur- 
rounded by steep porphyry 
mountains and offers to the 
traveller a curious yet very pic- 
turesque aspect. It has tine 
. buildings : a cathedral, Jesuit 
church , eight convents, a theatre, 
a mint, barracks, colleges and 
many fine private dwellings. 
There are also several manufac- 
tories of woollen goods. It is 
the centre of more than 100 



mines ; between the years 1827 
to 1851, yO million pesos were 
coined in the mint of this town. 
The principal silver lode — the 
Veta Madre de (Guanajuato is 
one of the most remarkable in 
the world. The mine buildings, 
west of the town, are called 
*' Guanajuato Pequeno," or 
Little Guanajuato. Those of 
the mines of Mellado and Rayas 
have the appearance of a small 
village. These mines were 
opened in 1558. Of late years 
they have not paid so well, and 
are possibly becoming exhausted. 
But in two instances, by sinking 
the shafts deeper, such has been 
shewn not to be the case. There 
are some very wealthy families 
in the town, amongst whom the 
Count de Valenciana is the 
richest. The miners are indus- 
trious and well-to-do and poverty 
is a thing unknown. The 
traveller will have no better 
opportunity of visiting a mine 
than in Guanajuato. The 
Rayas and Nopal Mines are the 
best worth seeing. All the 
works are carried on in a very 
primitive fashion. 

The prison or carcel lies on an 
eminence in the centre of the 
town, and Avas formerly a castle. 
It is a two-storey buijding. A 
fine view of the town and gorge 
is obtained from the Cerro de San 
Miguel. Some French, Ger- 
mans, English, and Americans 
are established in the town. 
Electric light and telephones are 
in use, and the inhabitants are 
both an industrious and intelli- 
gent body of men. 

The traveller will be amply 
repaid by spending a week in 
this town. Excursion to Dolores 
Hidalgo — birth place of Hidalgo, 
the Mexican Liberator — may be 
made, and will be found interest- 
ing. 



'■ ,; 



G U AN A J U ATO — J A LA PA. 



251 



[1 m a very 



Guaymas, or San Joso do Guay- 
mas. — Statu of Sonora ; 2,500 
inhabitants ; end station of the 
Sonora Railway. 

Hotels : Cosmopolitan, Central 
and Ferrocarril. 

Bankers : F. A. Apfuilar. 

An extensive and well-shel- 
tered port, on the cjulf of Cali- 
fornia, and, Acapuleo excepted, 
the best on the west coast of 
^[exico. The outlyincf islands 
malce the entrance to the 
harbour narrow. There are, in 
fact, two harbours both safe, the 
inner, with a depth from two to 
four fathoms, and the outer from 
four to seven fathoms deep. It is 
surrounded by barren mountains, 
and until recently was only a 
small fishing village. It is 
mostly inhabited by Indians 
engaged in fishing. There is no 
drinking Avater. The climate is 
excessively hot. The exports 
consist chiefly of precious metals, 
flour, wheat, etc. The north 
wind is intolerable in summer 
There is little here to interest 
the traveller. 

The town is built on the shore, 
and the houses are of brick, 
adobe and stone. The climate 
is very hot in summer, but 
pleasant and dry in Avinter. An 
extensive bed of anthracite coal 
has been discovered lately about 
100 miles up the Yaqui River. 

Hermosillo, or Petic— State of 
Sonora ; 15,0(>0 inhabitants ; 
station of the Sonora Railway. 

Hotels : The Cosmopolitan. 

This is an irrregularly-built 
town, destitute of any buildings 
of note, but situated in a fertile 
plain. It has a mint, a fine 
park, and numerous well- watered 
gardens. The climate is hot, 
dry, and healthy. It is the cen- 



tre of the trade of a fertile region, 
which comraences here, and 
which is the bejt cultivated 
ill ^ the country. Large quan- 
tities of wheat are exported, and 
a superior kind of wine is pro- 
duced. The town is situated on 
the Sonora River. Some forty- 
five miles up the Matape River, 
there are rich })eds of coal. It 
is the i)rincipal depot for Guay- 
mas. 



Jalapa. — State of Vera-Cruz- 
Llave, and at one time its capital ; 
14,217 inhabitants ; 4,300 feet 
above the sea level. 

Hotels: Nacional, Vera-Cruz. ' 

This town is beautifully situ- 
ated at the foot of the Macuilte- 
pete mountains, on the border 
of the high table land of Mexico. 
It is connected by a railway with 
Vera-Cruz, the merchants and 
upper classes of which town 
have their country residences 
here. There is a tramway and 
good road between Jalapa and 
Vera-Cruz. The surrounding 
country is exceedingly fertile and 
healthy, with a good rain fall. 
Jalapa is well built, with sloping 
streets, kept very clean ; it has 
four churches, an old Franciscan 
Monastery, two hospitals, and 
several schools. The climate is 
cool and pleasant. Jalapa has 
suffered somewhat by the 
divergence of traffic through 
the Orizaba road to the 
capital. The town derives its 
name from the Jalapa root, 
cultivated extensively in the 
mountains of the interior. The 
ruins of Papantla, about 50 miles 
north, are generally visited from 
here ; diligences run as far as 
Tusintlan ; thence the journey 
is made on horseback. There 
are other ruins at Tusapan, 
Misantla and Mapilca. 



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252 



BRADSHAW S MEXICO. 






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Jarral (El).— State of Guana- 
juato ; with Valle de Santiago, 
22,890 inhabitants. 

Hotel fi : A small inn. 

This is a village noted princi- 
pally for the huge castle of the 
Marquis de Jarral, the largest 
landowner of Mexico. His 
landed estates are so extensive, 
that at one time they supported 
3 million head of cattle. 



Jzamal. — State of Yucatan ; 
5,000 inhabitants ; about IG 
miles east of Merida. 

Hotels : None ; even shelter 
for the night can only be found 
with the hospitable Indians. 

This place is situated on the 
remains of an old Indian town, 
of whose colossal teocallis the 
ruins arc still visible. They 
consist of two supei'posed, pyi'a- 
midal stone buildings. The 
lower of the two is over 800 feet 
square, and the upper about 050 
feet. The top is flat, and may 
have been used for religious rites. 
A fair is now held annually here. 
Jzamal is of comparative easy 
access from Merida. 

TjagOS. — State of Guanajuato ; 
1 0,000 inhabitants; C,153 feet 
above sea ; a station of the 
Mexican Central Railway. 

Hotels : Diligencias. 

This small but thriving town 
has probably a brilliant future. 
Its streets are regularly laid out, 
well built and paved. It will 
become a centre of traffic as soon 
as the lines to San Bias, vid 
Guadalajara, and to Tampico, 
vid Potosi, are finished. The 
inhabitants are industrious, and 
the surrounding country is rich 
in both agricultural and mineral 
wealth. The town proper has 
little to interest the tourist. 



f i 



Xjaredo. — State of Tamaulipas 
on the llio Grande and the 
United States frontier; 6,000 
inhabitants ; 438 feet above the 
sea-level ; a station of the Mexi- 
can National Railway. 

Hotels : Wilson House, 
Laredo. 

This town was formerly situ- 
ated on both banks of the Rio 
Grande River, but since Texas 
was separated from Mexico, the 
portion on the northern bank, or 
New Laredo belongs to the 
United States. It promises to 
become an important town as 
soon as the two Mexican trunk 
lines are in thorough working 
order. A wooden railway bridge 
connects the two shores (for- 
merly connected by ferries), but 
a substantial iron bridge will 
shortly be completed. There is 
nothing really of interest in 
either town for the traveller. 
The Customs examination takes 
place here. 

Xieon, or Leon de las Aldamas. — 
State of Guanajuato ; 80,074 
inhabitants; 5,862 feet above 
the sea level ; station of the 
Mexican Central Railway. 

Hotels : De la Luz, Comercio 
and Colon. 

Conveyances : Tramway (fare 
10 cents). 

Banlxers : Fisch & BischofP. 

The town, second in popu- 
lation only to the capital, is 
pretty and well built. It is 
noted for its manufactories of 
saddles and other leather goods. 
There are stone quarries near 
the town. The towers of the 
Cathedral and several domes of 
other churches are visible from 
the train. Its commerce in 
wheat is considerable. The 
population is reported to have 
been 166,000 in 1865. Its com- 



\ 



JAllUAL (kl) — MAZATLAN. 



2o3 



mercial importance as also its 
objects of interest are greatly 
inferior to Guadalajara or Pue- 
bla. The inhabitants are poor, 
but the surrounding country is 
very fertile. 

Manzanillo.— State of Colima, a 
seaporton the Pacitic coast and a 
station of the Mexican National 
Railway; 4,100 inhabitants. 

Hotels : Diligencias. 

The port is good, but the cli- 
mate very unhealthy. Perhaps 
the railway line will here, as in 
so many other Mexican towns, 
give a new impulse to business. 
Travellers are advised not to stay 
longer in the town than they can 
help, which, however, they will 
hardly be tempted to do, as it 
possesses nothing of interest. 



Maravatio. — State of Michoa- 
can ; about 9,000 inhabitants ; 
6,612 feet above the sea; a 
station of the Mexican National 
Railway. 

Hotels : Diligencias. 

A regularly-built town, situ- 
ated in a broad, grassy and fer- 
tile plain, surrounded by moun- 
tain ranges. The town itselt 
presents nothing especially note- 
worthy. The inhabitants are 
chiefly engaged in agriculture, to 
which the railway has given a 
fresh impetus. Maravatio is a 
suitable place for winter resi- 
dents from the north. 

Matamoros. — Former capital of 
the Sate of Tamdulipas ; 13,740 
inhabitants ; close to the Rio 
Grande del Norte ; a station of 
the New York, Texas and Mexi- 
can Railway. 

Hotels: Some inferior inns. 
A large hotel is building. 



Matamoros, twenty years ago 
only a small village, is now 
rapidly increasing in size. The 
port proper is Bagdad and is not 
good. The town is about thirty 
miles up the river. Smuggling 
is carried on extensively here. 
The country is healthy and 
under high cultivation. The 
climate is hot in summer, and 
there is frost occasionally in 
winter. The chief places of in- 
terest are the Government 
buildings, cathedral, theatre, 
the city walls. Plaza Mayor, the 
public garden and the zocalo 
at Santa Cruz point. Ferry- 
boats (ehallaues) are used for 
crossing the river. Opposite- 
lies Brownsville, a thriving town 
in Texas. 



Mazatlan, or Villa de los Cas- 
tillos. — State of Sinaloa and a 
seaport ; 17,395 inhabitants ; a 
station of the Mexican & Pacific 
Railway. 

Hotels : National, Diligencias. 

The most important seaport 
on the Mexican Pacific Coast. 
From whatever side seen, the 
town presents a very picturesqun 
appearance. The harbour is safe 
and has a lightliouse. The 
streets are lined with solid, large 
houses, built in the old Castillian 
style, with colonnades. The 
shops are numerous and well 
stocked. There are numerous 
industrial establishments. The 
site is less unhealthy than San 
Bias, and its trade is important, 
especially with England, the 
United States, and France. The 
principal exports are : Silver ores 
lides, dyewoods, cedar, copper, 
ead, etc. (1879) Imports 
2,732,500 dols., exports.3,369,768 
dels. The shipping i"? about 400 
vessels annually entered and 
cleared. 



254 



BRADSHAW S MEXICO. 



n ' 



i *^ 



> I, '■ '"*|i 






i , '^1 



-jii 



\r^ ■•i i 



Merida, Capital of the State of 
Yucatan ; 32,000 inhabitants ; 
25 feet above the sea. 

Hotels : Hotel Bazaar. 

This town is the ancient Maya 
Capital of Tihoo. It was named 
Merida in 1542 by Don Fran- 
cisco de Montijo. It is about 
22 miles from the sea, its port 
being Sisal, now Progroso, with 
which it is connected by railway. 
Few travellers visit Merida, 
though some of the most inte- 
resting Mexican ruins are 
situated close by. The town 
has broad and regular streets 
and a large "Plaza Mayor" 
in the middle. The cathedral 
is worth visiting, and 13 
churches, a University, and 
ruins of a Monastery of the 
Franciscans, covering about six 
acres, and suri'oundcd by walls 
40 feet high and 8 feet thick . The 
ladies are said to be some of the 
handsomest in Mexico. Excur- 
sions may be made from here to 
the lluins of .Tzamal, Chichen- 
Itza, near ValladoUid, Uxmal, 
near Halacho, and more than 
twenty other ruined giant towns 
and cities. They are covered by 
the luxuriant vegetation. Guides 
and all other necessaries should 
be taken from here. Several lines 
of railway from Merida to the in- 
terior are iu course of c onstruc- 
tion. 



Mexico, Capital of the Republic. 
— On the Western shore (for- 
merly an island) of the Lake 
Texcoco; 241,110 inhabitants; 
7,401 feet above the sea level ; 
(2,274 meters) 19' 25' 45'' north 
latitude, and 99° 5' 15" west 
longitude. 

Hotels : SanCarlos,Comonfoi't, 
del Bazar, Humboldt, Jturbide, 
Nacional, Europa and several 
others, with prices ranging from 



3 dols. to 4dols. a day (inclusive) . 
Dela Eatrella,de San Francisco, 
de San Antonio, and others are 
more moderate iu their charges. 

Restaurants and Caft^s : Cafe 
Anglais, Jturbide, Maison Doree 
de la Concordia, etc. (Fee to 
waiters, medio real — 3 half pence 
— for each person.) 

Conreyances : TraMiways run 
through all the principal streets 
and to the subur})3 not beyond 
10 miles distant. They have 
first and second class compart- 
ments and start from the Plaza 
Maijor at intervals of 10, 15, 30, 
and 60 minutes for all parts of 
the town (see itinerary in 
hotels). 

The Carriages are first, second 
and third class ; first class carry 
blue flags f 1 dol. per hour on 
weekdays, and Ih dols. per hour 
on Sundays and feastdays ; 
second class, red fa Jo cents 
and 1 dol. respectively ; third 
class, white flags, from C a.m. 
to 10 p.m. 50 cts., and from 
10 p.m. to C a.m. 1 dol. per hour, 
irrespective of day. The tariff 
is affixed in all public carriages 
in a conspicuous place, and the 
driver is obliged to hand the 
passenger a tariff with his name, 
number, and to what place he 
belongs. Quarter of an hour is 
the minimum payable, and this 
is actually the price of a course. 

Saddle Horses : 2 dols. the 
afternoon, and 5 dols. per day; 
for travelling in the country, 
horse or mule, 1 dol. a day and 
fodder. 

Baths : Close the Theatre 
Nacional. 

Diligence Office: In the rear 
of Hotel Jturbide. 

Express Office : In the Hotel 
Jturbide. 

Raihcay Stations : The Mexi- 
can Central and the Mexican 



MERIDA. — MEXICO. 



255 



the Theatre 
I In the rear 
H the Hotel 



Railway Companies station at 
liuena Vista ; the Morelos Rail- 
way Company at San L,naro, 
and the Mexican National Rail- 
way Company's at Colonia. 

Tlieatreif, A^miscments, Hull- 
fiijhts, etc. : The Nacional, in the 
Calle de Ver<iara ; Principal, in 
the Calle del Coliseo ; Arhcity in 
the Calle de San Felipe Neri ; 
the latter really a music hall. 
iiuU lights take place every 
Sunday afternoon at Huisachal 
and Cuautitlan. 

Races and Sportu : Hunting 
and fishing clubs in the calle 
Sta. Isabel, No. 9. 

Heading -rooms : At most of 
the hotels and at the clubs. 

Clubs and Societies : Mexican 
Geographical and Statistical 
Society, in Calle de San Andres 
11 ; Mexican Academy, in Calle 
de Medina G; the American 
Club, in the suburb of La 
riedad ; German Club corner of 
Independencia and del Collegio 
do los Ninos ; French Phil- 
harmonic and Dramatic Society 
2da de Plateros ; Fi-ench cercle 
in Antigua Lonja. 

Post Office : Calle de la 
Moneda. 

Telegraph Office : In the Rail- 
way Stations ; Government 
Office in the Callejon del Espi 
rita Santo 5 ; Vera Cruz Com- 
mercial line Calle del Refugio 4. 
Office hours in the week days 
from 8 a.m. till 8 p.m., and on 
Sundays and festivals from 
a.m. till 12 m. 

Neivspapers : Only one in 
English, the Two Kepuhlics ; 
single copies, a medio real (3d.); 
the Financiero, in Spanish and 
English ; Diario Official, Monitor 
Repuhlicaiio, and others in 
Spanish and French. 

Diplomatic : Germany, Italy, 
and Belgium have resident 



ministers, and the United States, 
France, Spain, Guatemala, Sal- 
vador, Honduras and Chili hav«^ 
Envoys Extraordinary, and 
Ministers Plenipotentiary. Eng- 
land is not represented, on ac- 
count of Mexico not having paid 
her debts. Negotiations to re- 
new diplomatic relations are now 
jumding. 

Consul : Only an Englisli 
consular agent. 

Banks : London. Mexico and 
South American Bank, Calle de 
Capuchinas No. 3, and several 
others. 

Medical: Dr. Alfaro, Dr. Al- 
tamirano, Dr. Cresc Colin. 

Ticket and Excursion Agents : 
Thomas Cook & Son, lo, Calle 
de San Francisco, 12. 

On arriving near the Capital 
by train, an express agent will 
offer his services for the convey- 
ance of luggage to the hotels or 
any part of the city, as in the 
United States. He will also 
take charge of keys, as lugg.ige 
must be opened and examined 
for articles subject to town duos 
before entering the city. Charge, 
25 cents per package, * 

The name of Mexico is said to 
be derived from Mexitli, who was 
the Aztec war god. In the 
ancient empire of Anahuac, its 
name was Tenochtitlan. The 
present town occupies only a 
part of the old one destroj-ed by 
Cortez. Notwithstanding, the 
space covered is enormous, and 
the town one of the finest in the 
New World. Above the town 
rise a number of cupolas and 
towers. It has broad and 
regular streets, badly paved, as 
in Berlin, and is surrounded by 
a plain, and a belt of mountains 
like Rome. Tramways commu- 
nicate with the suburbs ; the 
town is rectangular in shape, 
and the blocks of houses are of 



250 



UKADSHAW S MEXICO. 



Hi 



• i 



j-'\ 



the same dimonsicns throuifhout. 
The massive houses built of hewn 
Btone have, as a rule, three floors, 
with a court in the interior 
(patio), after tlio Spanish and 
Moorisli fashion ; to this, hugo 
doorways lead from the streets. 
The roofs of the houses are flat, 
and surrounded by iron and stone 
balustrades. The mean tempera- 
ture is 00" F. ; spring (io^ F. ; 
summer 70 F.; autumn 58° F. ; 
and winter oS^ F. About 7,(M)0 
feet above the town is the lino 
of perpetual snow. 

The old capital of the Aztecs, 
called Tenochtitlan, i.e. " Cactus 
upon a rock," standing upon the 
same site as the present town, 
was founded in A.i). 1325. An 
oracle recommended this spot as 
a favourable one on which to 
build the capital. It told them 
they would see an eagle with 
outstretched wings towards the 
east, perched on a cactus, grow- 
ing from a rock, and grasping a 
serpent in one of its claws ; and 
this device has now been adopted 
by the Republic, and is used on 
the National flag and coinage. 
At the time of its conquest by 
Cortez, the town, with its popu- 
lation, its palaces, and its 
temples is said to have been vast 
beyond conception. To use 
Cortez' s own expression " It was 
the finest thing in the world." 
Seven-eighths of this town was 
destroyed and levelled to the 
ground by Cortez and his Indian 
allies within a few weeks, and he 
built upon its ruins the new 
capital. The lakes close by used 
repeatedly to overflow and 
inundate the town, until the 
mountain of Nochistongo was 
pierced, and the river C uautitlan 
was diverted from the valley and 
the lakes. The site of Mexico 
City was formerly an island in 
the lake Texcoco. The Mexican 
Central Railway now passes 



through this cut in the mountain 
Nochistongo. This stupendous 
undertaking— by the Mexicans 
called '* Jcsa^Jte ile Hni'liuftoca" 
— was commenced in 1607, and 
employed over 15,000 Indians. 
After 11 months of continuous 
labour (many hundreds of 
Indians dying) the tunnel was 
completed. Its length was over 
four miles, its width 11^ feet, 
and its heigth 18 feet. 
This scheme, however, proved 
unsuccessful, as the rushing 
waters soon undermined the 
walls. After various schemes 
had been proposed, and alarmed 
by the continuous floods duiing 
the years 1601 — 1637, it was 
resolved to remove the roof of 
the tunnel. The work is not 
even now quite finished. This 
immense cutting is about 13 miles 
in length, and from 130 to 195 
feet in height, by about 320 feet 
wide. A glimpse of it is ob- 
tained from the carriages as the 
train passes through ; but it is 
well worth the traveller's while 
to make an excursion to the spot 
itself. The entire work has 
taken 160 years, and was com- 
pleted in its present state in 
1789. 

In the centre of the town is 
the Plaza Mayor (covering 10 
acres), formerly a drill ground, 
and now changed into a park of 
Eucalyptus trees. The northern 
boundary is occupied by the 
Cathedral (200 feet high), 
covering a space of 532 by 
400 feet. It was built between 
the years 1573 and 1667, and 
cost close upon 2,000,000 dols. It 
is the largest of its kind in North 
America, and occupies the site 
of an Aztec temple. It has two 
towers, richly adorned with 
statues. ' Inside are some 
paintings, said to be by Murillo. 
The interior is very fine, and the 
church is believed to contain 



P 






MKXICO. 



257 



be mountain 

stupendoua 

iO Mexicans 

u 1607, and 
[KM) Indians. 
:* continuous 
undreds of 
tunnel was 
^tii was over 
Ith lUfeet, 
18 feet, 
ever, proved 
the rushing 
ormined the 
ou8 schemes 
, and alarmed 
floods duting 
1G37, it was 
e the roof of 
work is not 
nished. This 
about 13 miles 
om 130 to 195 
about 320 feet 
. of it is ob- 
irriages as the 
igh ; but it is 
ivoUer's while 
ion to the spot 
ire work has 
and was corn- 
sent state in 

)f 



; 



imtncnso treasures. A huge 
block of nuirl)le 12 feet in 
ilisuiietor, and weigliing 25 tons, 
leans against one of the walls. 
It is covereil with hieroglypliies, 
it'presonting the ancient Mexi- 
can calendar. There is also a 
block of porphyry in one of the 
courts of the National Palace, 
covered with hieroglypliics, and 
said to have been used by the 
Mexican priests as a stone of 
sacrifice when offering up 
human beings to tlieir gods. 
The Sarimrio has a beavatifully 
carved frontage. The Elmperor 
Jturbido is buried in one of the 
rhapels. There is also a monu- 
ment to the memory of Enrico 
Martinez, the celebrated en- 
gineer, of the desagu^, of 
Xochistnngo. On the pedeital 
tliere is a gauge of the levi I of 
Jjake Tcxcoco. 

The Eastern front is occupied 
by the National Palace, formerly 
that of the Vice-Roys. It is 
075 feet long, with four courts 
inside, and is the largest 
building in Mexico. It is the 
residence of the President, and 
tlio scat of Government. It 
contains the Congress Hall {Sain 
Je Enihajadore.s), 310 by 30 feet, 
with a throne at the southern 
end, containing several good 
pictures of historical interest, by 
Segredo ; Maximilian's coach is 
preserved in a room on the 
ground floor ; the Mint, two 
prisons, etc., etc., are also here. 

In the south-eastern corner 
of the Plaza Mayor is the town 
hall, which serves also as the ex- 
change. Close to the Plaza are 
the University, the school of art 
and science and a large covered 
market ; 14 churches and 46 con- 
vents and monasteries, some very 
large and highly decorated, are 
in the town. The huge Fran- 
ciscan convent — a whole block 
of buildings — contains within 



itself three clinrches and seven 
ciiapels. It is very wealthy. 
The Mining Srlmol, l)egun in 
17J^3, is ojie of the finest buildings 
in the town. It is l)uilt otlii,'ht 
green porphyry. Its elegant front- 
age has three entrances flanked 
l)y doric columns. It contains 
7 courts, 11 fountains, 13 stair- 
cases, and 238 rooms. It covers a 
space of 300 ])y 2,000 feet, and 
lias (collections of rocks, minerals, 
f(jssils, etc. This l)uilding alone 
cost over one and a half million 
Pesos. The Acardada is a prison 
capable of holding 1,200 crimi- 
nals. There is an opera all the 
year round, either in French, 
Italian or Spanish. 

The town of Mexico has 
several portalcs or covered arch- 
ways with shops ; these arcailes 
])ecome fashionable lounges in 
the evenings. The drainage is 
defective and the town cannot bo 
considered healttiy. Fires in 
houses for warming purposes are 
unknown. Visitors should take 
precautions against catching a 
chill ; most of the hou;ses being 
old and draughty. There is no 
distinction of streets or 
quarters, the dwellings of the 
upper and lower classes are often 
tinder the same roof. Half of the 
population are crecles ; another 
quarter Indians, and the remain- 
der are Mestizzoes, Mulatto?, 
Sambos, negroes, and foreigners 
of all nations. There are some 
very rich families, but the people 
as a rule are poor ; the lowest 
class, the Leperos, are extremely 
lazy, dirty and dissolute. 

The most important manufac- 
tures of the capital are : tobacco, 
gold and silver laces and fringes, 
filigree and jewellery work, 
soaps and carriages. The amount 
of commerce is insignificaiit. 
The markets are well provided 
with all sorts of fruits and vege- 
tables, grcwn chiefly in the 



mmm 



258 



JiRADSIIAW S MEXICO. 



in 






i 



!i! i; 



iii 



gardens on the floating islands of 
the lake {Chinawwia). This is 
a very characteristic feature of 
Mexico. 

Two important aqueducts 
provide the town with clear and 
muddy water respectively. The 
Santa Fe aqueducl;, about 71 
English miles long, is supported 
in one half of its course by 
high arches. The other, the aque- 
duct of Chapultt'pec (turbid 
water) is about a half -hour's walk 
in length, and is supported on 
1)02 stone arches. Numerous 
tanks and fountains nre supi)lied 
by these two aqueducts. The 
water is carried from house to 
house by a licensed corps of water 
carriers — A(j xai^ores. Gas of an 
inferior quality is used in the 
public thoroughfares ; but the 
Plaza Mayor and adjacent 
streets are lighted by elec- 
tricity. In private dwell- 
ings petroleum or kerosene 
and wax candles are chiefly used. 
Some streets, however, are still 
lighted with oil. 

The Mui-^eiun contains a large 
coliectioii, chiefly of Mexican 
antiquities, pottery, etc. It is 
open to tVic public only on Sun- 
days, Tuesdays and Thursdays, 
during afternoon hours. The 
"■ Academy of Han Carlos " con- 
tains a large number of paintings 
and some plaster casts of stati\es. 
The pictures are by Zurbarran, 
Murillo, llubens, Correggio, 
Velasquez and by the Mexican 
painters Cabrera, Parra Baltha- 
zar de Chave, Jose and Luis 
Juarez and others; there is no 
catalogue. An art school is con- 
nected with the academy. The 
Mint, the oldest in Mexico, is open 
daily from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. The 
church of La Santissima has a 
finely-sculptured froutage, while 
the church of San Domingo pos- 
sesses some beautiful gilded and 
carved wood work. The Medical 



School and Custom IIcu^o are 
also on the Plaza do San Dom- 
incro. The former was used by 
the Inquisition and now has a 
library and an anatomical 
museum. In the San Fernando 
Church are the graves of Generals 
Mejia and Miramon. 

The Alameda, or pi'omenade 
and park, are in the west end 
of the town, cover about 20 
acres. The Paseo de la liefornui 
or de linear jU, or simply El 
Faseo, lead" from the Alameda to 
Chapultepec, and is planted 
throughout its whole length with 
a double row of trees. Jioth arc 
fashionable drives and walks 
between 5 and G p.m. There arc 
here statues of Charles IV. of 
Spain, Christopher Columbus, 
and President Juarez. Chapul- 
tepec is about 5 miles from the 
Capital, and is interesting 
as the residence of the 
Emperor Maximilian. The Castle 
and its grounds can only bo 
visited by cards of admission, to 
be had at the National Palace in 
the Capital. The view from the 
place is surpassingly beautiful. 
The grounds or park contain 
magnificent groves, chiefly of 
cedars, the last remnants of 
forests which once surrounded 
the Capital. There is also a 
military school and a number of 
stately villas at Tacuhaya. 

The Canal along the Paseo de 
la Viga should be visited in the 
early morning, as it then presents 
a very livoly scene. Boats can be 
hired to row to Lake Texcoco at [ 
1 dol. there and back. The scene 
is like that of ancient Venice. 
The Chinampas, or floating 
gardens, are well worth a visit. 
Alvarados Leap is marked by a 
small bridge in the Calle de los 
Hombres Jlustres, west of the 
Alameda. TheNoche Trisfe tree 
is in the village of Popotla. 
Cortez is said to have wept under 



MEXICO. — MONTEREY. 



259 



m IIcu^o aro 
do San Doni- 
was used by 
d now has a 
anatomical 
San Fernando 
ves of Generals 
)n. 

or promenade 
the west end 
>ver about 20 
de In, Ih'forma 
or simply 1^1 
the Alameda to 
1 is planted 
ole length with 
•ecs. Both arc 
js and walks 
i.m. There arc 
Charles IV. of 
lor Columbus, 
arez. Chapid- 
miles from the 
is interesting 
nee of the 
ian. The Castle 
can only be 
f admission, to 
tional Falaee in 
e view from the 
igly beautiful, 
park contain 
vQs, chiefly of 
remnants of 
ice surrounded 
lerc is also a 
d a number of 
icuhaya. 
jg the Faseo de 
G visited in the 
it then presents 
Boats can bo 
ake Texcoco at \, 
Lck. The scene 
mcient Venice, 
or floating' 
worth a visit. 
[is marked by a 
|he Calle de los 
1, -west of the 
)cho Triste trei} 
of Popotla. 
Lave wept under 



this tree on the night of the 
evacuation of the town and the 
retreat of the Spaniards. It is a 
cedar, and about 10 feet iu cir- 
cumference at the base. The 
Tivoli Gardens, the School of 
Agriculture, and the Tlaxpana 
Aqueduct are all on the Atzcapo- 
tzalco tramway line. At San 
Cosme the aqueduct terminates, 
and the water is conducted under- 
ground to the centre of the town. 
The causeway leading to Popotla 
passes through a ix)rtion of the 
former great lagoon ,no w dried up; 
many of the companions-in-arms 
of Cortez v/ere disowned here in the 
" Noche Triste " (sad night). 

It is no easy matter for the 
stranger to find his way iu 
the Capital, as almost each 
block forms a different street. 
Where several streets intersect 
blocks of buildings the dis- 
tinction is made thus : la de 
San Francisco, for the first ; 2a, 
do San Francisco, for the 2nd ; 
3a de San Francisco, for the 3rd ; 
and so forth for each block. The 
Calle de Plateros is the principal 
street and the one which contains 
the best shops. In some, English 
and French is spoken. Strangers 
will remark the vai'iety and 
originality of colouring in the 
national costumes. Many persons 
will also be met with suffering 
from excessive indulgence iu 
Pulque — the national beverage. 
It is said to be consumed in the 
Capital alone to the amount of 
30,000 gallons a day. 

Various short excursions (24 
hours and more) may be made 
from the Capital. Amongst 
such, the most interesting are, 
to Guadalupe, La Piedad (al 
Fresco the American Club), San 
Anjel, to Celaya, Maravatio and 
Toiuca, San Juan Teotihuacan, 
Pachuca, Cuernavaca, Cuautla. 
(For description of these sec 
under the various names.) 



Monterey. — Capital of State 
Nuevo Leon ; 40,000 inhabitants ; 
1,700 feet above the sea; a 
station of the Mexican National 
llailway. 

Hotels: American, Monterey, 
Jturbide. 

Con reliances : Tramways ( faro, 
a medio — Ci\ cents) ; carriages 4 
reales, or 2 shillings, per hour. 

TeJc'jraph Office : At the rail- 
way station. 

Post Office: On the Plaza 
Mayor. 

Baths : Del Refugio, in the 
Calle del Di Mier. 

Bankers: Milmo & Co. 

Medical : Dr. llocha, Dr. Mac- 
Masters. 

Monterey is the most flourish- 
ing town in northern Mexico, on 
the Santa Catarina .Kiver, It 
carries on an important trade, 
has clean and well-built streets, 
and is surrounded by beautiv'al 
gardens. For some years after 
the war with the United States 
it was in a languishing condition, 
but sincetho opL'uing up of the 
country by railways its progress 
has been remarkable. Tho 
position and aspect of the town 
reminds a European traveller of 
some of the Tyrolean towns, 
especially Salzburg. It covers 
a largo area, the houses being 
mostly of one storey, except on 
the squares. 

Objects of interest are : tho 
Bishop's palace, about four miles 
out, on a hill 150 feet higher tiiau 
tho town. During the American 
war it was used as a fortress 
and now it is a barracks, with 
a company of artillery and six 
guns ; tho cathedral ; the puento 
nuovo ; the tank or ojo de Agua ; 
tho market and the chapel of 
Guadalupe. The bridge is famous 
tor the battle fougluon it during 
tho war with tho United States, 

I 2 



260 



BRADSHAW S MEXICO. 



Ji\ " 



1 1 iiii 



4 

1 

li 


i 

"i 


1 ' . 


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■ ( 





whose forces were defeated by 
the Mexicans. 

This town is more American- 
ized than perhaps any other 
Mexican city. The hotels are 
kept on the same system, and 
merchants, lawyers, doctors,den- 
tists, etc., from the States have 
established themselves here. It 
has also become a resort for in- 
valids from the north, though 
the changes of temperature are 
rather marked. Mean tempera- 
ture during the year is 71 degrees 
Fahr., mean winter temperature 
55 degrees Fahr. 

The hill of Caido, beyond the 
chapel of Guadalupe,affords a fine 
view of the country surrounding 
Monterey. A visitto thepotrero, 
a miniature Yosemito, will also 
interest the traveller. There are 
several beautiful drives in the 
environs. The jail, the old con- 
vent of San Francisco, is a jifood 
place to purchase various articles 
of Mexican workmanship. 

Morelia, or Valladolid. — Capital 
of the State of Michoacan de 
Ocampo ; 20,400 inhabitants ; 
G,200 feet above the sea; a 
station of the Morelian Railway. 

Hotels : Diligencias and Sole- 
dad. 

Convenances : Carriages, G 
reales per hour. 

Baths : In the Soledad Hotel 
and del Kecreo. 

Morelia lies in a swampy basin, 
in the valley of Olid, which is 
watered by two rivers. The cli- 
mate is delightful, and the town 
surrounded by beautiful gardens. 
There is not much wealth now 
as it is concentrated in a few 
hands, but a large number of the 
inhabitants are well-to-do. The 
town is well built, with properly 
paved and clean streets. Several 
of the new buildings are very 



handsome. The College of 
San Jose has a line frontage. 
Most of the buildings are of one 
storey, but in the business parts 
they have two and even three ; all 
have a patio, or inner court. 

The chief objects of interest 
to the ti'aveller are : the l)eau- 
tiful and Avealthy cathedral, 
several large churches, six con- 
vents, an enormous acqueduct, 
and the Paseo and Alameda in 
the southern part of the town. 
The palace is also noteworthy. 

An entire block is occupied 
by the cathedral, built in the 
Spanish renaissance style. It is 
situated on the Plaza Mayor. 
In the interior the wood carving 
of the choir is especially re- 
markable. During the revolu- 
tions, the Liberals confiscated 
the silver railing (as at the 
church of Guadalupe, near the 
capital) which encircled the choir 
and high altar. Several of tho 
chapels have still shrines with 
massive silver doors. The fonts 
were brought from Pueljla and 
are of onyx. This church was very 
richly endowed by the mine- 
owners of the district, it is 
said to an amount exceeding 
4,00(^,000 dols., from 1758 to 
1858. The inhabitants are ex- 
ceedingly pious and higottod. 
A traveller will do well to lift 
his hat as he passes before any of 
the shrines, and to kneel when 
he sees a priest carrying the 
sacrament to some sick person. 
Tliis will avoid auy ^inpleasant- 
ness, as serious riots have taken 
place between the natives and 
strangers who would not comply 
with this usage. The whole 
estate oi Michoat^an is still a 
stronghold of the priests, while 
in other parts of tho Republic, 
more tolerant views prevail. 

The palace is the seat of tho 
State Government ; it has a 
printing office, a library with 



\ 



I 



^ 



MORKLIA — OAXACA. 



261 



College of 
10 frontage. 
s are of one 
isinesa parts 
ren three ; all 
tr court. 
, of interest 
: the })eau- 
r cathedral, 
les, six con- 
1 acqueduct, 
Alameda in 
)f the town, 
atcworthy. 

is occupied 
built in the 
} style. It is 
*laza Mayor. 
wood carving 
ispecially re- 

the revolu- 
3 confiscated 

(as at the 
ipo, near the 
clod the choir 
overal of the 

shrines with 
s. The fonts 

Piu'lAa and 
urch was very 
the mine- 
istrict, it _ is 
nt exceeding 

om 1 7i)8 to 

iints are ex- 

nd bigottod. 
well to lift 

hi'fore any of 

o kneel when 

carryhig the 
sick person. 

; nnpleasant- 

;s have taken 
natives and 

id not comply 
The whole 

Ian is stilly a 

[priests, while 
ho liepublic, 

I prevail. 

le seat of the 
it has a 

library with 



many rare and old volumes, 
customs offices, &c. There ai'e 
also reception rooms (note the 
turniture), the llall of the State 
Congress, with a statue of 
Hidalgo on the first floor, and a 
portrait of tho Liberator, 
Ocampo, from wliom the State 
has taken its name. The trees 
in tho Paseo and Alameda are 
very fine specimens of ash, cedar 
and cypress. The flowers in the 
gardens, which are well laid 
out, are also very beautiful. 
The municipal palace, the ceme- 
tery, the convents, the cotton 
factory, the collegee and schools, 
will occupy witli advantage tlie 
tow days a traveller may spend 
here. The drinking water is not 
good, and should be filtered. The 
town was founded in 15 U, and 
then named the Yall idolid ; in 
b^28 the name was chmged to 
Morelia, after a hero of tlie War 
of Independence, whose birth- 
])lace it was. 

The mining districts Chapat- 
ua':o, Ozuuiatlan and Sinda all 
r." a^tontdO mil's from the town. 
Excursions to the mines will he 
found interesting, as tho moun- 
tain scenery is very iiuo. (iold 
and silver is found here, and the 
whole State contains an iiumonso 
ainount of mineral wealth. 
Copper and iron are also 
abundant, and there can be 
littlo dou]>t that the railway will 
render them more easily worked 
and more profitable. The ancient 
town of Zintzuntzan, tho seat of 
the ancnent kings of Michoaean, 
is about 20 miles distant,. The 
population was then 4^),0(K). 
The buildings are now in 
complete ruin, and only a 
fi.'w casual dwellers people the 
empty streets. The eminences 
and hills in the environs are said to 
f'over the ruins of ancient palaces 
and buildings, and it is not im- 
probable that excavations niigat 



lead to valua})le discoveries. 
Pottery is now made here. An 
English and an American com- 
pany lire working the ]\loreliati 
mines. Excursions may be male 
to the towns of Zamorra, to L i 
Barca and La Piedad. In the 
neighbourhood is Xiquiljjan, with 
its coalfield. For Europeans 
with capital the state of Michoa- 
can offers somj excellent oppor- 
tunities for investments. 

Wombre de Dios.- State of 
JJurango ; 5,722 inhabitants ; 
5,500 feet above the sea. 
Hotels : Uiligoncias. 
A small but thriving town near 
the Rio Tunal, in whose valley 
are a great many larg(» agri- 
cultural estates. The town has 
nothijig of interest to the 
tourist. 

Oaxaca.— Capital of tlie State of 
tlie same name; 2f),228 inhabi- 
tants ; 4,984 feet above the sea- 
level. 

Hotels: Nacional, de la Paz. 

This town, formerly written 
Gaa.cacd, froin the I'znjiolec- 
Huajciiacac, and now also ealled 
" Oaxaca de Juarez," lies about 
25') niiles from tlie capital. It, 
is situated in a very fertile vaUey 
between tho Rivers Jalathuo 
and Atoyac. Tho country is n>- 
markilde for its fertility, it.s 
b 'auty, and its excellent cliniiite, 
west of the Cempoaltepcc. It is 
one of tho ])est construeted towns 
in Mexico, ])ossesses lini' stpiares, 
])u]jlic buildings, and an iupie- 
duct which conveys good drink- 
ing water. It has 12 churclies, 
I) mon isterics, and 5 largo nun- 
neries. The cathedral and many 
of the monasteries and the 
ai'chiepiscopal palace (it is tho 
seat of an archbishop) are worth 
inspecting. Magnificent gar- 



262 



BRADSHAW S MKXICO. 



I :*; i^ 



I '! I 



m: 



\i-i 



n 111 



'1 * i ; , 



dons and plantations produce 
every description of fruit and 
vegetable. The temperature is 
very equable, ranging from 
70 degrees to 75 degrees Fahr., 
and seldom rising, and that only 
in the two hottest months, to 
y5 degrees Fahr. Near Tula is 
a giant tree (Cupressusdisticha), 
possibly several thousands of 
years old. It stands 150 feet 
high, with a crown of 500 feet in 
circumferenc-^, and a girth of 
stem at 4 feet above the ground 
of 101) feet. The inhabitants 
are chietiy Indians, and are in- 
dustrious manufacturers of silk 
and cotton goods, sugar, choco- 
late, &c., &c. Each grown-up 
male inha}>itant of the State has 
to contribute three woi'king days 
in each year for the pu})lic 
works. Near the village Quio- 
tepec, on a hill above the 
contluence of the Rio Grande 
and Salado Rivers, are some 
ruins of a temple and a palace. 
The former are G5 by 55 feet, and 
are sum-ounled by stone steps 
covered thi'.'kly with sculpture. 
Oa tlie north of the hill are tlie 
remains of 02, on the south side 
of 58 smaller buildings. They 
apparently date from the time of 
the Mayas, and were already ven- 
€ra})le from age when Cortez 
came into Mexico. Some des- 
cendants of Cortez are still 
living in and near the town. 

Near the village of Tlacolula 
are the celebrated and easily- 
accessible ruins of Mitla. These 
are gradually becoming more 
aud more decayed. They con- 
sist of the remains of palaces, 
standing on terraces and rich in 
carefully wrought mosaics. 
These mosaics differ considerably 
from ordinary mosaic work, 
demanding both more intelli- 
gence in design and skill in 
execution, being in relievo. 



The stone- work is more ela- 
borate here than in any of 
the other of the Mexican ruins ; 
their beauty is comparable to 
that of the monuments of Greece 
and Rome in their best days. 
There is evidence, however, that 
at some period they were occu- 
pied by people less advanced in 
architectural knowledge than 
their builders. The distribution 
of the apartments in these build- 
ings is analogous to that found 
in the monuments of Upper 
Egypt. These ruins are perhaps 
the most artistic to be found in 
Mexico. 

Orizaba.— Capital of the State 
of Vera Cruz-Llave ; station of 
Mexican Railway Company ; 82 
miles from Vera Cruz ; 15,lfil 
inhabitants and 4,700 feet above 
the sea level. 

HntoJs : A la Rorda, Diligen- 
cias and Quatro Naciones. 

Baths: Banos de Santa Rita, 
on the main street. 

Con veya ncc^ : Tramwaysfrom 
the station to the hotels (fare 
one medio real— Gx cents) ; 
(can'insres, six reales — 75 cents — 
an hour). 

This T)usy town is situated in a 
very fertile valley, south of ihe 
volcano, whence it takes its 
name. It is irregularly built, 
has twelve churches, a college, 
a large cotton factory, and 
an extensive trade in tobacco and 
sugar. The tobacco grown in 
the district is of excellent quality, 
and is mostly exported to 
Cuba. The churches are in- 
terostin.L;, especially the Paro- 
quia^ ; El Paseo, about one half 
mile from the hotel, is one of the 
most })eautiful parks in Mexico. 
A fine view is obtained of the 
town and valley from the Cerro 



'i 



ORIZABA — PACHUCA. 



263 



more oln- 
iii any of 
ican ruins ; 
iparable to 
ts of Greece 

best days. 
)wever, that 

were occu- 
advanced in 
lodge than 
distribution 
, these build- 
) that found 

of Upper 
3 are perhaps . 
bo found in ) 



of the State 
I ; station of 
Company; 82 
;ruz ; 15,101 
DO feet above 



)rda, Diligen- 
tciones. 

Santa Eita, 



ramwaysfrom 
hotels (fare 
Gt cents) ; 
; — 75 cent3 — 

|3 situated in a 
south of I he 
it takes its 
ularly built, 
s, a college, 
factory, and 
n tobacco and 
ICO grown in 

sellent quality, 
exported to 
dies are in- 
ly the Paro- 
lout one halt' 
is one of the 
s in Mexico, 
ained of the 
lorn the Cerro 



del Borrego. Here is the field of 
battle where, on June 13, 1802, 
the French defeated the Mexi- 
cans. At Jalapilla, about a mile 
and a-half south of the town, are 
extensive sugar-cane haciendas ; 
at the sugar mill of Seuor Brin- 
gos, the traveller will have a 
good opportunity of witnessing 
the process of mjinufacture. 
The Emperor Maximilian re- 
sided here for a short time and 
held his famous council to decide 
whether he should abdicate or 
not. A waterfall— a rare object 
in Mexico, owing to the scarcity 
of rivers — may be seen at Rin- 
con Grande, about a mile east of 
Jalapilla. There are many here 
over forty feet in height. There is 
another, Barrio Nuevo, of smaller 
dimensions, on the north side of 
Orizaba. If possible the travel- 
lers should ascend the mountain 
Orizaba before sunrise. The 
view is indescribably beautiful, 
and the sight one of the 
grandest to be seen in Mexico 
There is a bull-ring a^ Orizaba 
Plaza de torros, in an old con- 
vent — generally used on Sun- 
days. A former church is now 
used as the barracks. There is 
a masonic lodge here. The 
houses are mostly of one storey 
only, with overhanging I'ed-tiled 
roofs. The dwellings of the 
poorer classes are little more 
than huts, built of all kinds of 
materials, such as old boards, 
sugar-cane stalks, barrel staves, 



old mattiui 



etc. The cli- 



mate is temperate, but humid. 
On visiting the Registrar's 
office, son-'/; ol'"" leeds on parch- 
ment- .^ cu.ious and interest - 
iug - j.n be inspected. On 
appvoiiehing Barranca del Infer- 
uillo, the most magnificent 
scenery on ihe entire journey 
is to be seen from the railway 
carriages. 



Pachuca. — Capital of the State 
of Hidalgo; at the foot of the 
mountains, " Real del Monte" ; 
8,150 feet above the sea level ; 
13,000 inhabitants. 

Hotels : San Carlos. 

Pachuca is essentially a 
mining town, and of its popula- 
tion about 5,000 are miners. It 
contains some of the oldest 
mines in the country, many of 
which were worked long before 
the Spanish conquest. The 
cold amalgamation process was 
invented here, and practiced in 
ir>57. There are still here, as 
also in I'egla, very iiaijortant 
amalgamation works. T-he 
patio process is now even in use at 
some of the mines, which here 
number about 150. Half of 
these are in Real del Monte. 
There is a Government school 
of practical mining here. 
Several English Companies and 
one American Company are also 
working mines. Modern and 
improved machinery will shortly 
be introduced, and "^vill, no 
doubt, increase the yiehl. This 
is one of the very few milling 
districts in Mexico to which 
European and Amoricau 

miners have been brought. 
Many Cornishmen are also em- 
ployed. The ore is mainly 
composed of black silver sul- 
phides. A valuable coal mine 
is also said to have been dis- 
covered in the vicinity. Com- 
pressed cakes of English coal 
are now being used, and are 
woi'tli on the ground ovei 20 dols. , 
or £4 per ton. Excursions 
to the mining towns of 
Real del Monte, El Chico, and 
Regla may be made. 

Pachuca is reached by rail to 
Irolo station ; thence by tram- 
way in about 1 hour to che 
Capital. 






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2G4 



inUDSHAWS -AILXICO. 



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III 






II 






1 1 



Palenque, or Na-clian. — 

State ot Chiapas ; y,873 in- 
habitants. 

Tt contains an hotel with very 
inferior accommodation. 

The village, formerly a large 
town, is reached either from 
Frontera, or from Ciudad de las 
Casas. The journey is a difficult 
one, but well worth making. 
From Ciudad de las Casas 
and Villa Hermosa it 
mav })e made on horse-baclc, 
or from Frontera in a small 
bo'vt, which must be hired to 
ascend the Usumacinta lliver. 
Guides, provisions, tents, rugs, 
etc., should be taken, and the 
tourist will do well to secure 
some letters of introduction to 
the local authorities, as the 
hotel accommodation is very 
inferior. Mexicans, however, 
are very hospitable, and a letter 
of introduction will work 
wonders. Beware of various 
kinds of insects, 

Palenque, the ancient Hue- 
huetlai)allan (and perhaps also 
the mythic Xibalba) the tow-n of 
the Olmecs, together with its 
important and curious ruins, is 
s.'luatcd on the Chacamas river, 
which flows into the Usumasinta. 
[t was discovered accidentally 
in 1750, but the ruins did not 
become known in Europe until 
1822. Capitan del llio was the 
first to describe them in 1787. 
He examined 14 large edifices 
admirably built of hewn stone, 
and roi>orted the ruins to be 
some Hf'ven or eight leagues 
in extent iilnng the river, and 
to stretch ab(Mit Inilf-a-Iciigue in- 
land. 'Jlioy have never V'^ been 
thoroughly examined. 'J hey con- 
sist cliiofiy of large artificial ter- 
races, or flat terrace i)yramids of 
hewn stone, surmounted by build- 
ings of curious and solid archi- 
tecture, covered over with relie\ os 
or drawings and hieroglyphics in 



stvi'jco. They were evidently 
coveredatone time with brilliant 
colours. The nuijority of these 
edifices appear to have had but 
one floor, although some had two 
and four floored towei-s. The 
largest building is called "the 
Palace," and stands on a pyramid, 
covered Avith flat hewn stones. 
The pvramid is 40 feet high, and 
810 by 200 feet at its base. The 
palace is 228 feet in length, 180 
in breadth, and 25 in hei,:.-ht, 
Avith a projecting stone cornice. 
The front faces towai'ds the east. 
There are 14 doorways, each of 
10 feet width on the longer sides 
and 11 on the shorter sides, with 
pillars of from 7 to 8 feet broad. 
The stone is covered with a 
cement composed of lime and 
sand, and the facade Avith 
painted stucco. Most of this 
stucco, hoAvever, has crumbled 
away. A corridor, nine feet 
wide and roofed by pointed 
arches, ran atone time round the 
outside of the building, and a 
similar one inride. The pillars 
were embellished by bas-reliefs 
in stucco, surrounded by hiero- 
glyphics. The proportions of the 
human body are here better out- 
lined than in any ruins on 
American soil. The building 
had four inner courts into Avhich 
opened a number of rooms, the 
largest 80 by 70 feet. The floor 
of the rooms is still covered by 
a cement not inferior to the 
best found in i-uins of Eoman 
baths. Into the principal court 
loads a staircase of steps 5 by 
8;i fev.t broad. On each side of' 
this court are flat stones, covered 
with figures in bas-reliefs. These 
urn frojn 9 to 11 feet high, and 
exhibit fantastic head-dresses and 
n^'cklets. The second court is 
equally long, but narrower and 
surrounded by a corridor, the 
pillars being adorned Avith slucco 
figures. These had six or more 



I 






PALKNQUE. 



265 



evidently 
th brilliant 
ty of these 
-e had but 
me had two 
-vers. The 
sailed "the 
la pyramid, 
wii stones. 
(t high, and 
base. The 
length, 180 
in hei.irht, 
me corn ice. 
'dsthe eatt. 
Lys, each of 
longer sides 
r sides, Avith 
feet broad, 
red with a 
)f lime and 
icade ■with 
ost of this 
IS evuinblcd 
', nine feet 
by jjointed 
lie round the 
ling, and a 
The pillars 
y bas-reliefs 
d by hiero- 
rtions of the 
better out- 
ruins on 
le building 
s into ^vhich 
• rooms, the 
The floor 
covered, by 
lor to the 
of Roman 
incipal court 
steps 5 by 
each side of 
mes, covered 
liefs. These 
't high, and 
I -dresses and 
nd court is 
arrower and 
orridor, the 
Iwith slucco 
six or more 



>l 



layers of plaster, proving that 
the building is very old, the 
coating having needed renewal 
so many times. The workman- 
ship here and in the whole 
building shews great excel- 
lence. On the north side of the 
third court is a tower, square, 
and with three floors about 
30 feet high, but appearing to 
have been at the time higher 
still. Inside is a second tower, 
which is ascended by a narrow 
stone staircase, leading mys- 
teriously to a stone roof without 
an outlet. In the eastern 
corridor are a number of 
stucco tablets with figures and 
paintings. In communication 
with the building are many 
subterranean vaults. Others 
are sunk into the pyramid, and 
in them were found vases with 
human remains, trinkets and 
art objects. In several of the 
rooms there are remains of altars 
standing against the walls. 
These were formerly covered 
with the same tablets, figures 
and hieroglyphics as in other 
parts of the building. Besides 
this huge edifice there are others 
of less dimensions, but of not 
loss interest. One crowns a 
pyramid of hewn stone which 
is so steep as to be ascended 
with difficulty. The diagonal 
ascent is above 100 feet high. 
The building on the top is 
20 by 30 feet, and has solid walls 
on all sides except the north, 
where there are five doorways 
and six pillars. The whole 
frontage is ornamented with 
stucco. On each of the corner 
pillars are 9G squares covered 
with hieroglyphics ; the other 
four pillars are embellished with 
female figure?, well executed and 
surrounded with hieroglyphics. 
Within is a corridor, seven feet 
wide, paved with broad flat stones, 
and arched in Grothic st\le. 



Behind this are three interior 
rooms, between whose entrances 
are similar tablets of stone, 
13 by 8 feet, covered with hiero- 
glyphics. On each there are 
about 240 compound figures . The 
three rooms are dark. In tho 
middle one there is a tablet with 
hieroglyphics. Another stone 
terrace has a broad top of about 
120 feet, on which appears a 
temple 150 feet high in the form 
of a pyramid. It sustains a. 
building of 50 by 35 feet, with 
three doorways opening to the 
south and similar to the others. 
Only the middle ")ne of the three 
rooms has an interior cell of 
13 by 8 feet, and on the stone 
tablet inside there again is repre- 
sented the scene of a sacrifice to 
tho gods. Tho upper part of 
this building forms two storeys 
of interlaced stucco work, re- 
sembling a trellised lattice. Tho 
human figures are not inferior to 
the old Greek models in grace 
and symmetry. In the ruins of 
other buildings are more hiero- 
glyphics and pictorial represen- 
tations, always connected with 
religious subjects. Only the 
first-mentioned palace seems to 
have been used as a dwelling. 
Remains of an acqueduct, about 
four feet high, can be traced ; 
among the ruins are monolithic 
statues of about 14 feet long, 
having headdresses in the form 
of crosses. 

A dense tangled vegetation al- 
most enitrely covers these ruins, 
and visitors will do well to take 
a guide with them. Tho inscrip- 
tions have not, as yet, been 
deciphered ; owing to their groat 
number in Palonquo, they arc 
v\'ry important from an archan)- 
logical point of view. No similar 
perfection of art remains have 
been found either in Na Chan 
{i.i\ 7 snakes in the Tzendal 
dialect) nor m Lorillard City 



.-T" 





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In; 



266 



TiKADSIIAW S MEXICO. 



(1881) ; nor in ofclior remains else- 
where in America. Na Chan is 
supposed to havo been tl)e 
Capital of a roligiou.s State, 
whoso re;?ent had been prophet, 
priest, and king. 

Papantla, State oF Vera Cruz 
Llavo ; 14,207 inhiibitants. 

Ifntels : A small inn. 

This town lies in the heart of 
a very fertile region, producing 
the best Vanilla. Misantla, 
Coliba, and Teutila produce ; 
about i of the Avhole (juantity 
exported. The town of Papantla 
is mainly interesting for the 
teooalli, .situated about six 
miles from the town in a dense 
forest. There are several in tlie 
northern part of the State of 
Vera Cruz Llave, namely at 
Misantla, Tusapan, Mapilca 
and Casones. They are attri- 
buted to the Toltec period. The 
Papantla teocalli is interesting 
so far that it is built of huge 
blocks of porphyry, well hewn 
and put together with great skill. 
It was accidentally discovered 
in 1780 )>y some hunters. The 
joints still shew traces of mortar. 
Many of the stones are covered 
with hieroglyphics, having refer- 
ence to the Mexican calendar and 
solar system. There are also 
skilfully-executed carvings of 
crocodiles and serpents. The 
pyramid has seven terraces, on 
which are li(]G recesses or i.iches, 
and in addition 12 on the stairs 
leading to the summit. The 
stones are all polished. The 
base is an exact rectangle 82 feet 
on each side and GO feet in 
height. The staircase is colossal 
and contains 57 steps. 

Parras de la Fuente- — Sta*^e of 
Coahuila, in the Laguna country; 
12,001) inhabitants; 4,I<80 feet 



above the sea. A station of the 
Mexican International Railway. 

Hotels : A small inn. 

Parras is a regularly-built 
town, devoted chiefly to agricul- 
tural pursuits. The staple 
produce is wine, its grapes being 
excellent. Fruit, cereals and 
cotton are also grown in con- 
siderable quantities. The cotton 
crop amounts to about one 
million pounds annually. The 
Yucca tree is common in the 
neighbourhood, and grows to a 
height of 30 feet. The town has 
little to interest. At Bueno 
Vi.-ta is the famous battlefield 
of 22nd February, 1847. 

Paso del Norte, or El Paso. — 
State of Chihuahua, on the 
United States frontier ; 5,000 in- 
habitants ; .'i,GOO feet above the 
sea ; a small station of the Mexi- 
can Central Hallway. 

Hotels : Windsor, Central, 
Pierson, in El Paso, or on United 
States territory. Gallardo on 
the Mexican side of the town. 

Conveijances : Tramways. 
Banl-o's : First National Bank. 

Medical : Dr. J. Muiioz, Dr. 
F. K. lloss. 

The most northerly town of 
Mexico, is situated on both banks 
of the Rio Grande del Norte, the 
northern portion belonging to the 
Sta,te of Texas. The two portions 
are connected by two bridg<?s, 
one for the railw'ay and the other 
for vehicles and passengers. The 
northern jjart, or the United 
States side, has a brilliant future 
as a great railway centre. It is 
actually now the terminus of the 
Southern Pacitic, the Missouri 
Pacific, the Atchison, Topeka 
and Santa Fe, the Mexican Cen- 
tral and Sonora Railways. 



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PA i'A NT L A — I'E KOI' E . 



207 



ion of the 
Railway. 

arly-buiit 
;o agricul- 
\\Q staple 
ipes being 
treals and 
n in con- 
rhe cotton 
bout one 
illy. The 
on in the 
rows to a 
e town has 
At Bnena 
battle Held 

i7. 



El Paso.— 
a, on the 
r ; 5,000 in- 
above the 
•f the Mexi- 



Central, 
on United 
allardo on 
le town. 

nways. 

ionalBank. 

^luiloz, Dr. 

y town of 
both banks 
1 Norte, the 
ngingtothe 
wo portions 
ro bridges, 
id the other 
ngers. The 
the United 
liant future 
itre. It is 
ninus of the 
le Missouri 
on , Topeka 
exican C en- 
ways. 



The town was founded in 1G80. 
It is an important military 
station, in a fertile, well irrigated 
and cultivated valley, where 
much maize, wheat and excellent 
wine and brandy are produced. 
There is an important Custom 
House here. Trade is still carried 
on with the surrounding districts 
in old-fashioned caravans, which 
are accompanied by armed 
guards. There is little in the 
shape of buildings in either part 
of the town to interest the 
traveller. The width of the 
river at El Paso is estimated at 
from 400 to COO feet. 

Patzcuaro. — State of Michoacan 
de (Jcanipo; about 8,000 inhabi- 
tants ; 7,100 feet above the sea ; 
a station of the Mexican National 
Railway. 

Hotels : Diligencias-'. 

This quaint old town lies in a 
valley, surrounded by densely- 
wooded glens. Its streets are 
narrow and tortuous, but the 
squares are large. The climate 
is delightful and the ancient 
Kings of iMichoacan were wont 
to resort here for health. The 
lake of same name lies a few 
miles from the town and the 
scenery around it is very beauti- 
ful. The word Patzcuaro is 
Indian in origin, and signifies the 
" place of pleasure." The popu- 
lation, especially round the lake, 
is chiefly Indian and speaks the 
Tarasc dialect. Tiie lake is 
about 30 miles in circumference 
and has live small islands 
scattered over it. The view 
from the hills near the town 
is very striking, reminding the 
traveller of the Upper Italian 
lakes. The district is thoroughly 
Mexican, and is very fertile anil 
well cultivated. Excursions may 
be made to Uruapan, distant by 



horse or mule 47 miles. Much 
coffee and sugar is produced here 
and there is a cotton factory. 
Pottery is also largely manufac- 
tured. The cast-atle is worth 
visiting. Forty miles leyond 
Uruapan is Tancitaro, interest- 
ing on account of the rich 
agricultural region through 
which the road to it passes. 
The journey can lie done 
only on horseback or mules, 
either of which can be purchased 
at from.'?2.j to S'JO. Patzcuaro is 
also the best starting place for 
trips to Jorullo, c'nX Ario, 55 
miles distant by higli road. 

La Paz.— Capital of the State tjf 
California, and a seaport on the 
Gulf of California ; 2,8'JG inhabi- 
tants. 

Hotels: A small inn. 

This town, i'ormerly called 
Bahia de Santa Cruz (Corte/, 
landed here in 15'J.")) has a very 
good harbour, sheltered by a 
number of small islands. The 
situation is extremely picturesque. 
There are extensive pearl 
lisherics,andthe exports and im- 
ports are increasing. In AV 
Valle, near Triunfo, are seven 
mines, belonging to an American 
Company, and producing monthly 
aV)OUt 5((,0il0 dols. Close by are 
gold niines. The divers occupied 
in the pi'arl fisheries are Yaqui- 
Indians. Near Multje, on the 
Es})iritu Santo Island, are rich 
cop])or mines. 

Perote.— State of Mexico; 700 
inhabitants. 

A small village, near an old 
fortress, situated on an iinx)reg- 
nable table rock. The fortress 
is now a x>rison (1870), the 
Arsenal and garrison were re- 
moved to the Presidio San 
Carlos. 



208 



BIJADSHAW S iMEXlCO. 



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Potosi, or Sun Luis Poto.s'i. — 
Capital of the State of tho same 
iiaiuM ; .*U,;j()() inliabitaiits ; (},IW 
feet above tlie sea ; a station of 
the Mexican Central llailvvay. 

Hotels : San Carlos, San 
Fernando, del I'rogreso, San 
Luis, Anierieano. 

Conreiifinrt's : Train ways (faro 
G| cents), carriages 4 reales = 

2 shillinj^s, on we(dc-da.y.s ; G 
reales=3 sliillings, on Sundays 
and festivals. 

Vo.^t Office : CiiUe de Ilayon. 

Pat}is : Very fine in tho Calle 
do Kayon (San Jose), price 

3 and 4 roales, or L^ to 2 
shillings. 

Bariker.'i : Pitman & Co., 
opposite tho Cathedral, on tho 
Plaza Mayor. 

Potosi is a roi?ularlv-l)uilt anl 
fine town, founded in 15N(). The 
streets are In'oad, crossing each 
other at right angles and are well 
paved. The town is surrounded 
by beautiful gardens, and the 
climate is delightful, the ther- 
mometer rarely failing to freez- 
ing point. Tho commerce of tho 
town is very important. It is 
339 miles distant from tho 
Capital Mexico, and situated on 
the eastern slope of the high 
plain of Anahuac. Electric 
light and telephones are in use. 
Eventually the town will be one 
of the most important railway 
centres in the Republic. There 
are many fine private buildings, 
a cathedral, five churches, three 
convents, an aqueduct, a Plaza 
Mayor, etc., of interest. 

The beautiful clock on one of 
the cathedral towers was a 
present from one of the kings of 
Spain. Tho view from tlie 
towers is very fine. The monu- 
ment on the Plaza Mayor was 
erected to the memory of the 
Ijatriot Hidalgo. The hospi- 



tality (^f tlie inha])itant3 i.s pro- 
verbial. Three times a week a 
military band plays in tho Plaza ; 
and during winter, balls are 
given, invitations to which can 
be easily obtained. Stage- 
coaches run from here in every 
direction, and tho town is ex- 
pected to b*'conie a serious rival 
to the capital as soon as the 
railway lines shall have been 
completed. The inhabitants pay 
a 3 per cent, tax on their annual 
income to defray the expenses 
of the railway to Tampico. The 
surrounding country is very 
fertile, an-.l all varieties of fruits 
and grain are grown. Tho town 
has an extensive trade in shoos, 
saddlery, groceries, leather, 
cassimeres and hats, both of 
home and foreign manufacture. 
Tho mines are little worked, 
owing to want of capital, though 
they are rich. The celebrated 
San Pedro mine is close to the 
town. Tho roof of this mine 
has now fallen in, but experts 
believe that a largo body of ore 
is stiJl existing in this, one of the 
richest Mexican mines. From 
tho enormous wealth the mines 
yielded, the district and town 
obtained their name of Potosi. 



Progreso.— State of Yucatan; 
seaport on tho Mexican Gulf; 
l,yOO inhabitants; railway to 
Morida. 

Hoteh : A small inn ; the 
American Consul will help to 
find lodgings. 

A smalltown, chiefly inhabited 
by Indians. It is well laid out, 
the streets are broad, and cross 
each other at right angles. The 
houses are mostly of one storey, 
built of mortar with thatched 
roofs. The tourist will be 
interested by the market scene 
in the mornings on the Plaza, 



rOTOSI — PUEBLA (la). 



2C9 



ts Ia pro- 
a woek a 
liL' Plaza ; 
halls are 
vhich can 
Stagc- 
} in every 
wn is ex- 
ious rival 
u as tlie 
lave been 
)itautspay 
3ir annual 

exi)enses 
pieo. The 

is very 
;s of fruits 

The town 
' in shoes, 
leather, 
, both of 
.nufacture. 
e worked, 
tal, though 
celebrated 
oso to the 

this mine 
ut experts 
ody of ore 
, one of the 
les. From 

the mines 

and town 
>f Potosi. 



Yucatan ; 
lean Gulf; 
railway to 

inn ; the 
ill help to 

y inhabited 
1 laid out, 
and cross 
gles. The 
one storey, 
thatched 
will be 
rket scene 
the Plaza. 



1 



IJaths are taken in he surf. 
Cactus and cocoa-palms prow in 
great numbers around the town. 
Much hemp, rice and maize is 
grown, and the former is ex- 
ported in large quantities to the 
States. Twenty-two miles dis- 
tant (railway) is ^[erida, the 
capital of the State, with cele- 
brated ruins. 

Puebla (La), now Puebla de 
Saragoza. Capital of the State 
of PueV»hi ; 04,588 inhabitants ; 
7,200 feet above the sea. In 
railway connection with Vera 
Cruz and the Cajiital. 

Hotels : Diligencias, Espanol, 
del Cristo, del Recreo. 

Caf6s and Restaurants on the 
Plaza Mayor. 

Batlis : Adjoining Paseo viejo 
(1 real). 

Conveyances : Tramways (fare 
one medio real {C)\ cents) ; car- 
riages, 50 cents an hour on week 
days ; Sundays and holy days, 
75 cents. 

Puebla ranks third among the 
towns of Mexico in size and 
population. It is situated in a 
healthy and fertile plain, west of 
Orizaba and Nanhcampatepetl, 
and cast of Popocatepetl and 
Iztaccihuatl, the highest moun- 
tains of the country. It was 
founded in 1531, on the plain of 
Acajete or Cuitlaxcopan. The 
streets are regularly laid out, 
broad, clean, and well paved, 
and with good, broad sidewalks. 
The houses are large and flat- 
roofed, and generally three 
storeys high; their front? orna- 
mented with coloured irlr^ed 
bricks. An aqueduct provides 
Puebla with very good (Irinling 
water, and supplies 44 fountains 
scattered over the town. Puebla 
is a very paradise of priests ; a 
priestly town which defies Rome 



as in the 16th century. Tlicre are 
here no less than (52 churches (4.'i 
of them large), nine monasterii's, 
18 convents, 2-i seminaries, and 
78 elementary, i)rivate and free 
schools. 'J'be most important 
building is the large and magni- 
ficent cathedral, finished in 1(541). 
It has two steeples ; the interior 
is richly })ut meretriciously 
adorned, but in spite of this is 
one of the grandest Imildings of 
Spanish America. The superl) 
high altar (1810) is a most im- 
liortant work. The massive 
silver altar tallies, silver railings, 
gold and silver candlesticks 
(weighing about one hundred- 
weight) ; the candelabras, jn 
massive silver, 48 feet high, the 
wood carvings of the choir, and 
the onyx work combine to make 
this church one of the richest 
and noblest in the new world. 
Among other noteworthy 
churches are those of San 
Felipe Neri, San Francisco, San 
Cristobal and I-a Compania. 
There are colonnades round the 
Plaza Mayor ; 20 public squares, 
and two parks. The other impor- 
tant buildings are : The Govern- 
ment palace, on the l^laza 
Mayor, the episcopal palace, 
three hospitals, one covered 
market (el Parian), the museum, 
theatre, etc. The institutions 
for ijublic instruction are the 
best in the country. There 
are six colleges here. As regards 
commercial industries the town 
of Puebla holds the first 
})lace among the towns of 
Mexico. Glass, earthenware 
and poi'colain, soap, swords, and 
woollen goods are manufactured 
here. The upper classes of the 
population are considered highly 
intelligent, and independent of 
clerical influence, very hospit- 
able, and very benevolent. The 
lower classes, however, have the 
reputation of being the most 



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degraded in the whole country. 
Extensive gardens surround the 
toAvn. Close to Puebla is Fort 
Guadalujje, and some hot sul- 
phurous springs with extensive 
swimming baths, and an excellent 
bathing establishment. The 
traveller should ascend one of 
the towers of the cathed