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CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY, 

HAVE BEEN AWARDED THE 

x)ii=lo:m:e D'HioisrisrETJxe/, 

FOR THEIR EXHIBIT OF 

Also the GOLD MEDAL for Specimens of Wheat and the 

GENERAL AGRICULTURAL EXHIBIT, 

At the ANTWERP EXHIBITION in 1885. 




IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT. 

Under the Land Regulations now in force (see next page) payments for land are 

SPRBAD OYHR XBN YEARS 

instead of five as heretofore, zviikout conditions requiring cultivation. 

Interest Payable at the End of EACH 7EAE, and not in ADVANCE as F0BMEBL7. 

Under these Regulations, and considering that each settler, or son of a set'ler, can obtain 

i6o ACRHS FREK 

from the Government, it is believed that no country in the world oflfers such 
favorable inducements to those desirous of taking up lands for settlement. 



Eegulatlons for the Sale of hut 



♦ «> o I • 



The lands u-itbin the Railway belt, extending 24 miles from each side of the main line, will be 
disposed of at prices ranging from 

$2.50 PER ACRE 

upwards, according to location and quality, without any conditions requiring cultivation. 
These Regulations are substituted for and cancel those hitherto in force. 

If paid for in full at time of purchase, a Deed of Conveyance of the land will be given; but the 
purchaser may pay Olie-teiltll ill casll^ and the balance in 

with interest at six per cent . per annum, payable at the end of each year. Payments may be made in 
Land Grant Bonds, which will be accepted at ten per cent, premium on their par value and accrued 
interest, lliese bonds can be obtamed on application at the Bank of Montreal, Montreal, or at any of its 
agencies in Canada or the United btate?. 

o-S3Stei^.^ilj ooi^iDiTionsrs. 

All sales are subject to the following general conditions : 

1. All improvements placed upon land purchased to be maintained thereon until final payment 
has been made. 

2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or improvments to be paid by the 
purchaser. 

3. The Company i-escrves from sale, under these regulations, all mineral and coal lands ; and 
lands containing timber in quantities, stone, slate and marble quarries, lands with water power thereon, 
and tracts for town sites and railway purposes. 

4. Mineral, c >al and timber lands and quarries, and lands controlling water power, will be disposed 
of on very moderate terms to persons giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability to uiili/,e 
the same. 

5. The Company reserves the riglit to take without remuneration (except for the value of buildings 
and improvements on the required i)ortion of the land) a strip or strips of land 200 feet witie, to be used 
for right of way, or other railway purposes, wherever the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, or any 
branch thereof, is or shall be located. 

Liberal rates for settlers and their effects will be gr.inted by the Company over its Railway. 

For further particulars, apply to the Company's Land Commissioner, 
JOHN H. McTAVISH, Winnipeg. 

Montreal, January, 18S6. 

• ^ 

NOTE.— vSOUXHEItlS MANITOBA. 

The Manitoba and South Western Railway (leased by the Canadian Pacific) has now been extended 
from Manitou to the neighbourhood of Whit'-water Lake (see map), and applications for lands along 
this line will now be received. These are among the choicest lands in the Province, and will be sold on 
very reasonable terms to actual settlers. Apply to Mr. McTAVI H for prices and conditions. 



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CDNNECTIDNS 



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Eagtilati 



The lands witliin th< 
disposed of at prices ranj 

m 

upwards, according to lo 
These Regulations a 



If paid for in full at 
purchaser may pay oil 

with interest at six per 
Land Grant Bonds, wh 
interest, lliese bonds > 
agencies in Canada or t' 

All sales are subjet 

1. All improvem 
has been made. 

2. All taxes ar 
purchaser. 

3. The Compar 
lands containing timbe 
and tracts for town site 

4. Mineral, c"<al 
of on very moderate te 
the same. 

5. The Company 
and improvements on 
for right of way, or otl 
branch thereof, is or si 

Liberal rates for 

For further 
JOHN H. McT 

Montreal, Janua; 

The Manitoba ar 
from Manitou to the 
this line will now be 
▼ery reasonable term; ^ 




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CONTENTS. 



<»» m M m m 



. Pages. 

Capital at CommencemoTit and Value at Present: 3 to 6 

Names and Addresses of Settlers Giving Testimony 6 to 7 

Information for Guidance of Intending Settlers 8 to o 

How to Obtain Government Lands 

Liability of Canadian La'^d Regulations 

The Climate 

The Farming Seasons 

Summer Frosts 

AVinter and Summer Storms 

The Soil 

Fuel and Water 

Grain Crops 

Roots and Vegetables 

The Use of Manure 



Success of Settlers 

Class of Settlers Now in the North-West. 

Farm Labour 

Churches 



Schools 

Municipal Government. 
Last Words of Settlers . 



9 to 10 

10 

10 to 14 

14 to 15 

15 to 18 
19 to 20 

21 to 23 

24 to 26 
27 to 29 

29 to :^3 



2;^ 

Stock Raising and Hay Supply ^ ^^ 

Sheep Raising 

Horses, Pigs and Poultry 

Raising of Bees 

Fruits 

Hops 

Flax and Hemp 

Sport in the North-West 

Markets 



37 
37 to 39 

39 
40 

40 

40 to 41 

41 to 44 

44 

45 to 49 

49 
49 
49 

SO 
50 

50 to 53 









What Settlers say of the Canadian North-West. 

A Plain Stateineat of tie liwmi of Fariers Resiftii ii tie Coitrj. 



EMBODIED in the following pages are plain facts from farmers in the Canadian North-West 
on many points of interest to intending settlers. It should be stated that circular letters 
asking for information were sent out to all farmers in the country whose addresses could be 
procured. The replies received were so numerous as to make it quite impossible to embody 
them all in one pamphlet. Those given in the following pages relate chiefly to the main ques- 
tions present, in the first instance, to the mind of an intending settler. 

The full address of each settler is given in the first instance only. It is, of course, 
competent for any reader, by writing to the address given in each case, to verify the accuracy 
of the answers now published. Questions were asked as follows : — 

When did you first settle in the North- Wtst? 

How mu<^ capital did you commence with ? 

What do you consider the present value of your farm ? 

These questions elicited the following answers from actual settlers'! : — 



Name. 



Postal Address. 



When 
iSeUled 



Proctor, Henry. . . 
Young, John M.L. 
Currie, William.. Chater, Man 



Woodlands, Manitoba. 
Moosomin, P. O. Asa,.| 



Cameron, G. A . . . 
Dickson, J. W..., 

Wagner, W. (M. 

Mercer, James. . .. 



Bole, J 

Little, James . 



Indian Head, N.W.T. 
Arnaud, P.O., Man... 



Ossowa, Man. 



Black Ox Farm, Gren- 
fell, >I.W.T. 

Regina, N.W.T 

Manitoba 



!«•••• 



Field, Edward. . . . 
Leitch, Angus .... 

Walker, J. C 

Vandervoort, G.. . 

Smart, George. . . 
Kenny, David W. 

Morton, Thos. L . . 
Rawson, James . . . 



Shell River, Man . . . 

Griswold, Man 

Glendale P.O., Man. 
Alexandria 



• • • • • > 



Holland, P.O 

Woll Ci ok, Sec 31, T 

15, R. 10, Asa 

Gladstone, Man 

Mountain CUy, Sec. 16, 

T 2. R. 6, W. Man. 



1873 
1881 
1880 



1882 
1882 

1871 

1872 

1883 
1879 



1867 
1881 
1877 
1876 

1879 
1883 

187^ 
1877 



Capital at Commencement. 



Nothing 

I was in debt $lo 

Had no money to begin with, but made 
about i5;2.ooo the first two years with 
warehouse on river 

Carpenter's trade was all the capital I had 

None, but what it cost to build, and all 
of that I made by working out 

None 

None ; I had to be an agricultural laborer 
at first 

Not any 

I had a team of horses, waggon, plough 
and harrow 



Value of Farm. 



$ 

$12,000 

$1,600 

About $10,000 to 

$12,000. 

$2,000 to $2,500 
$2,500 

I was oflrered$2oper 
acre and refused . . 



None 

None 

None whatever 

No capital at all. Upon entering on my 
homestead I had not one dollar left . , 

Nothing 

What paid the passage for my family 

I and freight 

Nil 

Not any 



j $900 

I $2,000 

I have 320 acre«<, 
which is worth 
$7,000 : Jtown 
property $Iooo. 
$2,000 
$3,000 
$2,000 
$3,000 

$2,000 
$1,000 

$3,500 
Say about $i,',ooo. 



PLAIN TACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



i s 



Name. 



Postal Address. 




Chambers, S iVVattsview, P.O., Man. 



Agnew, James.. . .'Brandon, Man 1S82 

Bruce, George. . . . jGIadstone P.O., Man. . 1S79 

'> i 

Perley, W. D AVolseley, N.W.T '. 18S3 ^^ot much 



1879 'No cash capital. Had one year's provi- 
I sions, one yoke of oxen, cow and some 

implements 

I was a poor man, and had but little 

capital 

Not 5 cents 



Value of Farm. 



McGill, George. . . Carrolton P.O., Man. . I 1882 Very little after landing in this country, 



Harward, Fred . . , 
Rorison, W. D... , 
Davis, John B . . . . 
Troyer, Christian. 



Pollock, John . , , 



L.iitlle, !!•••• .••< 

"Wilson, James . , 
McGregor, D.., 
Riddell, Robert. 

Hall, P , 

Bolton, Ferris . . , 
Carter, Thomas . 



!••••• 



I88I 

1877 



Littleton, Man 

Oberon P.O., Man.., 

McLean, Assa, N.W.T. 1882 

Sec. 22, T. -„ R. 2,\V.j 1882 
2, Alameda, N.W.T. I 
In Southern Man. I 

1879 ' 

Wolf Creek, Assa., I April, 
N.W.T \ i 1884 



Neepawa, Man. 



1869 



Warren, R. J. 



McCorquodale.. . . 
Taylor, William . 

'McDonald,Duncan 
Burgess, J. W.. , 
Garratt,(R. S.(J.P) 
Lawrie, J. M. . . . 



Kines, ^William . . . 



Stodderville, Man 1877 

Griswold, Man 1882 

Salisbury, P.O., Man..' 1871 

South Antles, N.W.T.- 1S82 

Calf Mountain, Man... 1877 

Woodlands, Man 1 1879 



Oliver, Man. 



Morden, Man 
Manitoba .... 



1878 



1882 
1874 



I had $2.50 when I landed at Emerson. 

§5 

$15 

I borrowed .f 40 to come here with 



§100. 



i^ioo cash, I yoke of oxen, two cows and 
a good stock of clothing 

$150 

$240 

$300 

$300 

S380 

$400, with $1420 to follow in 11 
months. The collector absconded, 
and the 1420 never came to hand. . . . 

About $400 



Bale St. Paul, Man. . . , 1872 

Fleming, N.W.T 1882 

Kenlis, N.W.T ' 1878 

Birtle, Man 1881 



Big Plains, Osprey,Man 



1882 



About $400 
About $400. 



$400 , 

$400 , 

$400 , 

$475, with a wife and three children. 



$500, 



$8,000 



$1,000 

I cannot say. I have 
only 80 acres. 

Situate within two 
miles of Wolseley 
it ought to be 

worth $3.25 an acre 

As farm property 
does not change 
hands, can make 
mp estimate .... 
• 32,500 
$11,000 
$5,000 

My wife says 
$10,000 



About $1,500; if I 
were selling it 
would be $2,000 
$8,000 

$6,000 
$2,500 
$5,000 
$2,500 
$4,000 
Have refused$40C)0 
will not take less 
than $5,000 
About $1,000. I 
have 1,000 in 
implements, and 
$2,000 stock. 
$3,500 
1,088 acres, valued 

at 25 per acre 
At least $5 an acre 
$2,000 
10 per acre. 
Sold my homestead 
and pre-emption 
last Spring for 
$4,150 
$2,000 



Df Farm. 



,000 



,000 

say. I have 
lo acres, 
vithin two 
fWolseley 
ht to be 
.25 an acre 
I property 
lot change 
, can make 
imate .... 
,500 
[,000 
,000 
ife says 

3, 000 



1,500; ifl 
selling it 
[be $2,000 
,000 

,000 

500 

,000 

500 

,000 

i£ed$4ooo 
t take less 
5,000 
1,000. I 
[ ,000 in 
:ients, and 

stock. 
500 

es, valued 
per acre 

5 an acre 
000 
• acre, 
omestead 
;-emption 
iring for 

000 



PLAIN TACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST, 



Name. 



Cowlord, C. (J.P.) 

Hall, W. B 

Chester, A 

Tate, James 

^Connorson, James . 
McCormack, David 

Kempt, John 

Connell, T. K . . . . 
Beesley, John G.. 
McKitrick, Wm.. 



Rogers, Thomas. . 

Sheppard, Jos. ... 

Farmer, W. A . . . 

•Ogletree, Francis. 

Bonesteel, C. H. . 



Anderson, George. 
McCaughey, J. S.. 

Hea.slip, J. J 

Day, Samuel 

Stevenson, G. B . . 
Doyle, W. A.(J.P) 

Wat, James 

Haney, A. W . . . . 
Hind, Brothers. . . 
,Reid, Alex. ...... 



■Reid, E. J 

Drew, Wm. D. .. 
Lambert, W. M . . 
iHeaney, Jonathan. 

Knight, W.G(J.P) 



Postal Address. 



Ossowa, Man 

Headiiigley, Man. . . . 
Harriui^hurst. Man. . , 



When I 
Settled! 



Capital at Commencement. 



Sec. 30, T. 2, R. 2 W. 
Alameda P.O., Assa. 

Minnewashta, Man .... 

Sec. 22, T. II, R. 30, 
Fleming P.O., Man. 

Austin, Man 

Osprey 1'. O ., Man ... . 

Moose Jaw, Assiniboia. 

Rose Bank Farm, Crys- 
tal City P.O., Man.. 



Railway View Farm 
Moose Jaw, Assa. . . 

Indian Head, N.W.T.. 

Headingley, Man 

Portage la Prairie, Man. 

Pheasant Plain, Kenlis 
P.O., Assa, N.W.T. 



Grenfell, Assa. N.W.T. 

Alameda P.O., N.W.T. 

Alameda P.O , N.W.T. 

Sec. 34, T. 13, R. 30, 
Fleming, N.W.T... 

Brandon, Man 

Beulah, Man. 

Brierwood, P.O., Man. 

Wolseley, N.W.T.... 

Pense, Assa., N.W.T. 

Of Messrs. Callender 
and Reid, farmers 
and general store- 
keepers, Millford, 
Man 

Plum Creek, Man.... 

Brandon, Man 

Regina, N.W.T 

Meadow Lea P.O ,Man. 

Oak Lake, Man 



1869 
1858 
1882 



$500. 



About !S5oo. 
.*500 



1882 |!ii?5oo. 



1878 18500 

1882 |§6oo , 

18S2 '$700 

1878 IS700 

1883 i.>$;8oo 

1880 I brought $800 in cash with me, but a 
young man will make a fair start in 
life with $400, that is, if he can get a 
wife easily 

1883 :$ 1,000 ; increased it by another $1,000. 



1883 !!?!i,ooo , 

1869 '$1,000 ^ 

1869 About $1,000. 



188' 



Under $1,000. 



1882 Under $1,000. 

1882 $1,000 

1882 $1,000...... . 

1882 i$I,000 



1879 
1879 

1883 

1883 



Value of Farm. 



I About $1,200 

$1,250 

$1,500 

1$ 1 . 500 to use in starting 

1883 I About $2,000 

1880 JMy partner and myself had $2,000 
between us 



1883 
1882 
1882 
1880 

1879 



$2,000 

About $2,000. 

$2,000 

$2,000 



$2,000. 



$4,000 
About $15,006 
T2,ooo; but 1 would 
not sell It for twice 
that amount. 

$2,000 

$10,000 
$7 per acre 
(320 acres). 
$3,000 
$9,oo« 

$2,0OC 

I consider my larm 
worth $4,000 to 
me. 

$3,800 

$3,360'' 
$16,000 
$14,000 
$7 per acre; I would 
not like to sell it 
for that, but I 
suppose I could 
not get more 
than that just 
now. 
$4,000 to $5,000 
$10 per acre 
$3,000 
$6,000 

About $10,000 

$10,000 

$5,500 

About $4,000 

About $3,500 

$6,000, what it is 

assessed for. 



$4,000 
About $5,000 
600/. to $4,000 

I would not care to 
take $4,000 

Assessed at $4,000 
and stock $3,000 
=$7,000 



6 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-^^^i:ST. 



Name. 



Postal Address. 



Wnen I 
Settled 



Capital at Commencement. 



Value of Farm. 



Chambers, W.... Sec. i8, T. 21, R. 26 
I W., Birke, Man 



Lawrence, Joseph. Clearwater, P.O., Man. 



Miller, Sclomon. . 
Hayter, W. H.... 

Robertson, P 

Gilbert, Josiah.. . . 

McEwen, Donald. 

Malhiot, Zephrin.. 
McKmglit,K.(J.P) 
Grigg, Samuel. . . 

Harris, James .... 
ArmstrongjGeorge 
Elliott, Joshua ... 

Bobier, Thomas . . 

Mclntyre, John. . . 

Harrison, D. H., 



Wright, Thomasdr' 
Sons 



Alameda, P. O., Assa.. 
Alameda, Assa.N.VV.T.! 

Rapid Cily, Man i 

Durham I'ark Farm,: 
ReginaP.O.,N.W.T.i 

Brandon, P. 0.,Man. 

VVolseley, N. W. T .. 
Carman P. O., Man... 
Sec. 7, T. II, R. 18, 
W. Brandon, Man 
Moosomin, N. W. T. . 
Dalton, Brandon Co 
Sourisburg, Man.. . . 



Moosomin, Assiniboia, 
N. W. T 

Milton Farm, near 

Regina, N. W. T... 

Newdale P. O., Man.. 



Thistle and Wright 
Farms, Qu'Appelle, 
Assa, N. W. T 



18S2 

1879 

1882 
1882 
18S2 
1883 

May, 
1884 
1882 

1879 
April, 
1884 
i8b2 
1880 
1880 

1882 

1883 

1881 

1882 



§2,500 ;B5,ooo; more when 

we get M. N. 
WesternRailway 

About $3,000 All my lands are 

1 \vorth$i2,oooor 
I $15,000. 

!$3,ooo I $6,000. 

:?3,ooo. I have a large family Do not want to sell. ■ 

:$4,ooo $6,000 to $7,000. 

'About $4,000 |It should be worth 

I !i<5,ooo. 

I I would not sell 
under $15 peracre- 

$32,000. 

$10,000. 

i$8,ooo for the oner 

I live on. 
$12,000 for the sec. 

$15,000. 
From $12,000 to 

$15,000. 
$1,200, that is my 
half section. 
$50,000. 



$4.000 

$5,000 

$S.ooo 

$5,000 

$S.ooo 

$S.20O 

About $6,000 

My two sons and self fetched $7,000 in 

cash, stock and implements 

$10,000 



$30,000 Have s e V e r al ; 

worth from $lo 
to $12 per acre. 

$30,000 invested up to ist September, $12 improved and. 

1884 $7 unimproved 

per acre. 



Following are the names and addresses of other settlers whose testimony recurs through- 
out the Pamphlet : — 



Name. 



Anderson, George. 
Bailey, Zachary . . . 
Bartley, Noah . . . . 

Barnes, F. A 

Battell, H. C 



Address. 



Bedford, Jacob , 
Bell, C.J. 



Manitoba. 
Lolhair P.O., Man. 
Wattsview P.O., Man. 
Morris, Man. 
Moose Jaw, Sec 2, T. 

R. 27, W.2. 
Calf Mountain, Man. 
Postmaster, Belleview. 



17; 




Black, G. R Wellwood, Norfolk, Man. 



Davis, W. H 

Day, John F 

Deyell, John 

Dick, David 

Dickin, George 

Dickson, Philip 

Downie, John 

Elliott, T.D. 



Address. 



Sec. 27, Tp. I, R. 12, 
Crystal City P.O., Man. 
Fleming, S. 4, T. 13, R, 30. 
Souris P.O., Plum Creek.. 
Moline P.O., Man. 
Manitoba. 
Chater, Man. 
Oak River P.O., Man. 
Alexandria P.O., Man.. 






PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



Address. 



.. 12, 

Man. 



I 



T>lackwell, James. 

Blythe, R 

Boldrick, Robert. 

Boulding, G 

Bowers, John.... 



Brown, W. J 

Cafterata and Jefferd. 



Cameron, \Vm. C. 

Campion, Brothers , 
Campbell, Roljert. 
Carroll, A. H. • . . 
Champion, W. M. 
Connell, Robert . . . 
Coay, Thomas.... 
Cox, William .... 

Cox, John T 

Daniel, Joseph. . . . 



« • ' ■ * • 



Elliott, Robert W. 

Elson, John f 

Fannery, W. J. • . 
Fargay, John H. . 
Finlay, James . . . . 
Fisher, Henry . . . 
Fraser, John S. . . 
Fraser, John 



Fraser, D. D 

Garratt and Ferguson. 
Gibson, William 



Gilmoiir, II. C. . 
Gordon, J^eslie.. 
Graham, Mark.. 

Grang, J 

Grimraett, 1). W. 



11 addow, James 

Hall, David 

Hannah, S. (Reeve of 

Whitehead) 

Harris, A. 13 

Hartney, James II...... 

Hoard, Charles 

Hope, George 

Hornor, T. R 

.Howey, Wm 



Virden, Man. 

Blytliewood, Wapella. 

Balgonie, Assa., N.W.T. 

Regina, N.W.T. 

Sec. 25, T, 9, R. 26, Vir- 
den, P.O., Man. 

Pomeroy, Man 

Sec. 24, T. 18, R. 24, 
Pense P.O., N.W.T. 

Edgeley Farm, Qu'Ap- 
pelle. 

Manitoba. 

Bridge Creek P.O., Man. 

Carrolton P.O., Man. 

Reaburn P.O., Man. 

Osprey P.O., Man. 

Manitoba. 

'Millford, Man. 

Box 44, Rapid City, Man. 

Postmaster and Farmer, 

I Moosomin, N.W.T. 

'McLean, N.W.T. 

S.34,T. i,R. ii,W.Man. 

McLean, N.W.T. 

Manitou, Man- 

Shoal Lake, Man. 

Regina, N.W.T. 

Beulah P.O., Man. 

Sec. 13, Tp. 12, R. 19, 
Brandon, Man. 

Oak River, Man. 

Kenlis P.O., N.W.T. 

Longstone Farm, Wol- 
selcy, N.W.T. 

Moose Jaw, N.W.T. 

Ou'Appellc. N.W.T. 

Portage la Prairie, Man. 

Cart Wright, Man. 

Sec. 26, Tp. 8, R. 28,W. 

I Elm Valley P.O., Man. 

Manitoba. 

Austin P.O., Man. 



GriswoM, Man. 
Beulah P.O., Man. 
Souris, Man. 
Lake Francis, Man. 
Cai'berry, Man. 
Pendennia, Man. 
Warlcigh P.O., Man. 




Address. 



Hutchinson, A 

Hume, Alex 

Ingram, W. A 

JeUrey, William (Junr.) 

Johnston, James 

Jones, James 

Kennedy, Thomas 

King, M 

Kinnear, J. II .... v ... . 

Lang, Robert 

I Leepavt, R. N 

Lothian, James 

McAskie, James 

Mclipan, Angus 

McDiarmid, Colin 

McDonald, W. W. 



Mc Doug all, Adam G. 
(P.eeve of Wallace). . . 

McGee, Thomas 

McGhee, James 

Mcintosh, Archbald.. . . 

Obee, F 

Oliver, Thomas 

Orr, James D 

Osborne, Daniel 

I Parr, James E 

iParslow and Healey . . . . 



Patterson, Abr . 

Paul, James M . 
Paynter, W. D. 
Paynter, J. E. . 

IMulhps, S 

Pierce, Stephen . 



Plunckit, Robert 

Pollard, Alfred .... , . . . 

Pollard, E. Sep 

Pollard, II 

Powers, Charles F 

Prat, John 

Reid, William 



Rutherford, Johnston 
(P. M. and J. P.).. 

Screech, John 

Shipley, Martin 

Shirk, J. M 



Craven P.O., near Regina 
jChater P.O., Man. 
iMillford, Man. 
I Rapid City, Man. 
j Brandon, Man. 
i Portage la Prairie, Man. 
jStoddartville, Man. 
Belle Plain, N.W.T. 
I Plum Creek, Man. 
jOak Lake, Man. 
Balgonie, Assa., N.W.T. 
Pipe Stone P.O., Man. 
Beaver Creek P.O., Man. 
Brookdale P.O., Man. 
Gladstone P.O., Man. 
Fleming, N.W.T. 

Virden P.O., Man. 
Burnside, Man. 
I Blake, Man. 

I Broad view,Assa., N.W.T. 
Glenboro' P.O., Man. 
i Burnside, Man. 
iCartwright P.O., Man. 
jFleming, Man. 
Crystal City, M.an. 
Sec. 20, T. 19, R. 20, W., 
1 Regina, N.W.T. 
i Alexandria P.O., T. 2, R. 
! 6, W., Man. 
Sec. 15, T. 15, R. 12, W. 
B.ulah, P.O., Man. 
Beulah, Man. 
Rapid City, Man. 
Sec. 28, Tp. 12, R. 30, 
! Fleming Station, Man. 
Manitoba. 
Sidney, Man. 
Manitoba. 
Sidney, Man. 
l>ramlon, Man. 
Rounthwaite, Man. 
;Sec. 16, Tp. 13, R. 20, 
j Rapid City, Man. 

Silver Creek, Man. 
Rounthwaite, Man, 
Wavy Bank, Man. 
Tp. 8, R. 18, W. of 1st 
Mer., Rounthwaite P.O. 



I 



8 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



I 



Name. 


Address. 


Name. 


Address. 


McKellar T)iincan ...... 


Rapid City, Man. 

Arrow River P.O., Man. 

Burnside, Man. 

Chairman Municipal Ccl. 
S. Qu'Appelle, N.W.T. 

Gladstone, Man. 

Asessippi P.O., Man. 

Sec. 1 8, T. 3, R. 2, Ala- 
meda P.O., N.W.T. 

Minnedosa, Man. 

Minnedosa, Man. 

Minnedosa, Man. 

Balgonie, Assa., N.W.T. 

Hanlan P.O., Man., Sec. 
i8, T. 13, R. I, W. 1 

Postmaster, Brookdale, 
Man. [ 

Littleton, Man. ] 

Sec. 4, T. 17, R. 1,2 W.' 

Sec. 20, Tp. 7, R. i6,i 
Milford, P.O., Man. 

Carberry P.O., Man. 

Birtle, Man. 

Ossowa, Man. 

Lucas, Man. 

Moosomin, N.W.T. 

Emerson, Man. 


Sifton. A. L 


Brandon. Man. 


McKenyie. Donald.... 


Sirett. Wm. F 


Cilendale P O.. Man. 


McKenzie, Kenneth 

McLane. A. M 


Slater, Charles B 

^ Smith, William 

Smith, W. P 

iStevenson, F. W 

Stirton, James 


E. y, S. 34, T. 14, R. 23, 

W. i,Wapella, Assa. 
Beaver Creek, Man. 
Souris, Manitoba. 
Griswold, Man. 
Calf Mountain. Man. 


Mclean, John A 

McLennan, Thomas 

McMurtry, Thomas 

McRae, Roderick 

McTellan, John 

Malcolm, Andrew 

Middleton, Alex 

Miller, Robert S 


Stewards, R. C 

Speers, A. R 

Taylor, John 

Taylor, William 

Thompson, Stephen. . . . 
Todd, P. R 


Maryville, Arrow River 

P.O., Man. 
Griswold, Man. 
S. 32, T.7,R.25,Belleview 
Beulah P.O., Man. 
P.M., Beaver Creek, Man 
Griswold. Man. 


Mitchell, John 

Mitchell, J 


jTulloch, Andrew 

Upjohn, Frank 

Urton, W. S 

Warnock, Wm 

Webster. A 


Broadview, N.W.T. 
Lake Francis, Man. 
Moosejaw, N.W.T. 
Neepawa, Man. 
Sec. 34, T. 17, R. 14, 2 W., 

Qu'Appelle Station. 
Balgonie, Assa., N.W.T. 
Douglas P.O., Man. 
Birtle, Man. 
Beaconsfield, Man. 
P.O. Oak Point, Man. 


Moore, George 

Moonev. Tohn .......... 


Muirhead, Thomas 

Nelson. Robert 


Whitney, Charles 

Wilmott, H.E 

Wood, James H 

Wright, Charles 

Yardley, Henry 


Newman, Charles 

Nickell, William 

Niff.J.R 

Nugent, Arnold J 



Information for the Gnidance of Intending Settlers. 

On arriving at Winnipeg or any other of the principal stations along the line of 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, the first step should be to visit the Land Offices 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, where the field notes and maps descriptive of 
the lands may be inspected, and the most minute details obtained as to the soil 
and general character of each locality. This will enable the intending settler to 
choose a locality in which to seek his farm. The land grant of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway along the main line has been divided into agencies as far west as the Rocky 
Mountains, within the limits of which lands belonging to the Company can be p irchased 
from the Agents of the Company at the stations hereinafter indicated. 



BRANDON. — Lands in main belt, ranges 1 1 to 23 (inclusive) west of First Meridian. 
VIRDEN. — Lands in main line belt, ranges 24 to 28 (inclusive), excepting townships 14, 15,, 
west of First Meridian. 



I' ^ I 






i hi ' 

i ) 



( 1 



i I 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



MOOSOMIN. — Lands in main line belt, ranges 28 (part of) to 33 (inclusive) west of First 

Meridian. 
BROADVIEW. — I^ands in main line belt, ranges i to 7 (inclusive) west of Second 

Meridian. 
WOLSELEY. — Lands in main line belt, ranges 8 to 13 (inclusive) west of Second Meridian. 
REGINA. — Lands in main line belt, ranges 14 to 23 (inclusive) west of Second Meridian. 
MOOSEJAW. — Lands in main line belt, range 24 west of Second Meridian to range 10 west of 

Third Meridian. 
SWIFT CURRENT.— Lands in main line belt, ranges 1 1 to 20 west of Third Meridian to Fourth 

Meridian. 
MAPLE CREEK. — Lands in main line belt, range 20 west of Third Meridian to Fourth 

Meridian. 
MEDICINE HAT. — Lands in main line belt, from Fourth Meridian to range 10 west of 

Fourth Meridian. 
CROWFOOT. — Lands in main line belt, ranges il to 20 west of Fourth Meridian. 
CALGARY. — Lands in main line belt, range 50 west of Fourth Meridian to summit of Rocky 

Mountains. 

The business of the Swift Current and Medicine Hat Agencies is for the present 
Ijeing attended to by the agent at Maple Creek, and that of Crowfoot Agency by 
the Agent at Calgary. 

""". The Agents at the Land Offices have, for free distribution, maps showing the 
lands open for sale, and those already disposed of, plans of the town plots, and 
pamphlets giving descriptive notes of the lands within their agencies. 

The Government have established Intelligence Offices at various points along 
the line, in charge of officers, who will give the fullest information regarding home- 
stead lands. Attached to these offices are Land Guides, whose services are always 
available gratuitously for locating those in search of homesteads. 

Settlers arriving in Winnipeg should, before going west, call at the Land 
Department of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the office of which is located in the 
station. There they can ascertain what lands are open for homesteads, and the situation 
•of the Government Intelligence Offices. 

How to OTDtain Government Lands. 



The Dominion Government makes a free grant of 160 acres of agricultural land 
to every British subject over the age of 18 years, and also affords settlers the right 
to pre-empt another 160 acres; that is, the settler may take up the additional 160 
acres, making a payment of from 2 to 2^ dollars (8 to 10 shillings) per acre at the 
end of three years of settlement. Settlers taking up Government free homesteads are 
required to reside on their farms for at least six months of the year during the first 
three years. 

In the case of taking free homesteads, pre-empting or purchasing from the 
^Government, the business will have to be transacted at the nearest of the following 
.Dominion Land Offices : — 



I!i 



1 



1 1 



i ! ' 



''i , 



10 



PLAIN FACTS AS I (J THE CANADIAN NORTII-Wl.ST. 



Agency. 



Post Office. 



Agent. 



Winnipeg lViniiiJ>cg A. II. Wiht( hek. 

Dufferin Nclscn W. H. IIiam. 

Little Saskatchewan Miintcdosa ,\V. M. IIim.iart). 

Birtle Jurtle iW. l). rKXii.AMJ. 

Souris Brandon E. C. SMirii. 

Turtle Mountain l^Dcloraine J. A. Hays. 

Coteau \Colcau J. J. McIIugh. 

Regina I\c^niia : \V. 11. Stevenson. 



Touchwood Hills. 

Calgary 

Ekimonton 



TQiuhioood Hills J. McTa(;gart. 

Calgary J. McD. Gordon. 

Edvionton P. V. Gauvoreau. 



Prince Albert \rrincc Albert . 



Geo. Duck. 



Lilerality of Canadian Land Regulations. 

The land regulations of the Canadian Government, combined with the advantages 
offered by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, are the most liberal of any on the 
North American Continent. The fee for taking up a homestead in the Canadian 
North-West is only $io, whereas it is $26, and in some cases $34 in the United States ; 
and the taking of a homestead does not in Canada prevent the pre-emption of other- 
government lands, or the purchase of Canadian Pacific Railway or Government lands. 



The Climate. 



The 



Following are the opinions of actual residents in regard to the climate. 

questions asked were : — 

About what time does winter regularly set in, and when does it end ? Have you suffered 
any serious hardship or loss from the climate in winter ? Is the climate healthy?' 
For postal address of each settler, see pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. 



Name. 



Dickin, George. 

HindBrothars. . 
Urton, V/. S... 

Yardley, Henry 



Answer. 



1st week in November, and 1st week in April. No loss 01 hardship. I 

travelled 20 miles with ox train in the worst blizzard last winter. Climate very 

healthy. 
Latter end of November, till middle of March. Climate can't be better. 
Begins end of November. It is always very pleasant in the daytime. No loss or 

hardship ; you need endure none if you are careful. It is most certainly the- 

healthiest climate I have seen. 
About loth November to about 20th April. Crimate very healthy indeed. . 



i 



^M 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



11 



antages 
on the 
inadian 
States j 
3f other- 
f lands. 



The 

uffered 
■althyr' 



ip. I 
xte very 



loss or 
nly the- 



Name. 



Hutchison, A. 



Answer. 



Proctor, Henry 

Knight, W. G 



Smith, \V. P 

Blythe, R. 



Field, Edward . . . . 
Lawrence, Joseph 
Screech, John .... 
Cameron, Wm. C. 
Lothian. James .. 



■Gibson, Wm 

Bruce, George 

Middle! on, Alex 



Warnock, Wm 



Eraser, John. 
Perley, W. D 



McGill, Georga. . 
Grimmett, D. W, 
Purdy, Thos. F.. 



2n(l week in November to last of March or first of April. No liardship 

whatever. Climate very healthy in.leed, probably one of the healtliiest m the 

world. 
About isth November to about 1st April. Our family (Father, Mother and 14 

children) hive been very healthy. 
5th November to sth A])ril. Three years ago I was living in a small tent 

until the end of November, my house not being built. The thei'momoter 

registered Ci-nsiderably below z.ero at times. The climate is undoubtedly 

healtliy, the exceeding dryness of the air in winter being very favorable to 

the hcallhy and vigorous action of tlie huigs. 
Begins mi>ldle of N')vembor. Climate very healtliy. 

About 15th iVovembor *o biginuing of April. Had several slight frost bites. 
I Climate decidedly heaUhy. 

About 15th November ; veiv often later and sometimes earlier. No hardship 
I or loss. Climate very healthy. 

About 20th November to abouL March 20th. I never lost a dollar from the 
I climate in winter. Climate as healthy as any under the sun. 
Middle of November to 20th April. No hardships or loss ; with care there is no 

danger. Climate very healthy 
2n(l week in November to end of March. No hardship or loss whatever. 

Climate very healthy. 
About 2nd week in November to end of March. I have ploughed for three 

seasons up to the "jtU November. No serious hardship or loss. I believe the 

climate to be very healthy. 
Last year nth November to middle of Marcli. N'o hardship or loss as yet. 

I can say the climate is very healthy, as two of my children hrid had bad 

health in Scotland, and we have all had the b^vst of health since we came here. 
The snow generally goes away about the second week of April. I like the winter 

well, goo:i steady weather, no slush and mud here. Climate healthy. 
Frost set in 2nd week November, 1883 ; first heavy snow about middle of 

Decemlier; had fine weather after 22nd February ; winter ended first week in 

April. Climate very healthy. 
For farming operations from middle of November till last of March. No hard- 
ship or loss. The climate is cold, but steady and healthy, and stock do well. 
There is very seldom any really cold weather in November. I have always 

been better here than I was in Scotland in winter. Climate very healthy 

indeed. 
About 15th November, ends in March. Have been very comfortable. Climate 

very healthy ; no better in the world. 
Not much dependence on open weather after 1st November. Sone people 

sowed in March this past season. I like the climate much j it is dry and 

immensely healthy. 
1st November to middle of April. No hardship or loss ; persons soon learn to 

avoid them both. Climate undoubtedly healthy ; never hear a pertoi cougii 

in church. 
6th November to middle of April. No hardships Or losi. Have chopped ia 

woods in January with hat and mittens o'f. The climate is the beit I have seen 

as yet. 
Last year frost came on the 7th of November, but no snow till the end. No 

material loss or hardship, no worse than from Belleville to Montreal and in 

Western Ontario. Climate very healtiiy ; those that come here will find that 

out when they come to feed themselves. 



' / 



Ij 



12 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTll-WKST. 



Rogers, Thos 

Downie, John 

Anderson, George 

Young, Jno. M. L 

Doyle, W. A 

Oliver, Thomas 

Sheppard, Joseph 

Stevenson, T. W 

Blackwell, James 

McGregor, D 

Powers, G. F 

Rutherford, J ........ . 

Carter, Thomas 

Bobier, Thomas 

McKitrick, Wm 

Cameron, G. A 

Bailey, Z 

Black, G. R 

McLennan, Thos 

Farmer, W. A. . . . « • . 



Last year, lotli November to 15th March. No loss or liardship whatever. 
[ Climate very Iiealiliy indeed ; can go tluee good square menls every time. 
iPloughing stops 5lh lo 71I1 Novcm'oor. Winter doesn't iRgiii till, say, from 1st 

to loth December. No hardsiiip compared with the settlers of Ontario. 

Climate perfectly liealthy ; clear, dry atmosphere. 
About 15th November to generally the 1st of April. No hardship or loss. My 

wife and family suffered in Ontario, Init not here. Climate heakliy. 
lean hardly say that winter always begins as early as November, lait it generally 

ends between March 15th and April ist. No hardship or loss. I drove a 

yoke of oxen 140 miles in six successive days, starting l''ebruary Ist, alxnit 

the coldest time we had, and did not sulfer. I consider the climate very 

healthy, far ahead of Ontario. 
About 20th to 30th November to about last of March. No hardship or loss 

whatever, 1 have frequently in travelling slept in the snow rolled up in 

a buffalo robe and have never been frost-bitten. The climate is certainly 

healthy except for consumptives in late stages; for them the winter is too 

severe. 
About the middle of November. I like the winter, as it is always dry and a 

good deal of fine weather. Climate very healthy. 
Last year loth November, and opened for seeding on the 25th March if I was 

ready. This is a good climate to live in. It is healthy because the air is pure 

and the nights cold. 
Last year 9th November. No serious hardship or loss, but frost-bites now and 

then. Climate extremely healthy. 
Latter end of November till generally the end of March. No loss or hardship. 

Climate very healthy, 
loth November till April 1st. A little loss both years. Climate healthy. 
About the middle of November to about 1st of March. No hardship or loss at all. 

All stock winter well. Climate very healthy. My wife came here weighiug 

130 lbs and sickly, now she weighs 184 lbs. and has good health. 
About 1st November till 1st week in April. No hardship or loss. Stock do 

well if half cared for. Climate the most healthy in the world. 
About 2oth November till about 15th March. No hardship whatever. My 

fowls also do well in winter. I have a few black Spanish fowls, and my 

Brahmas also do well. I know the climate to be very healthy. 
About 1st November to end of March. The snow being dry a person never has 

wet or damp feet during winter. The climate is most decidedly healthy, that 

is one of the reasons I am in this country. 
15th November to 1st April. I can say from experience this is a healthy 

climate, 
loth or 20th November. No hardsiiip or loss. Climate is healthy ; I never 

heard any one deny it. 
Middle of November till April. No hardship or loss. We hate all been very 

healthy ; consider climate very healthy. 
Middle of November and breaks up in the beginning of April. No hardship or 

loss whatever, and I have roughed is as much as any of the settlers. 

Climate very healthy. 
About 15th November to 1st April. A little hardship; had to sleep out 
15 or 16 nights, but no loss whatever. Climate healthy, could not be 

more so. 
5th Nov. to I Sth March. No hai-dship or loss. Climate very healthy. 



I 




* 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORl U-WKSl'. 



13 



ip whatever, 
■y time, 
y, from 1st 
of Ontario. 

ir loss. My 

it generally 

I drove a 

1st, about 

climate very 

lip or loss 
rolled up in 

is certainly 
winter is too 

ys dry and a 

:h if I was 

le air is pure 

es now and 

or hardship, . 

althy. 

or loss at all. 

!re weighing 

Stock do 

itever. My 
wis, and my 

on never has 
lealthy, that 

s IS a healthy 

ly ; I never 

U been very 

hardship or 
the settlers. 

to sleep out . 
ould not be 

liy. 



I 



I 



Name. 



Drew, D. W About the middle of November 



Answer. 



that. Winter ends aho.it end of March, but sonxn yrain was sown in 



Ogletree, F, 



Thompson, S 

Bonestcel, C. II 

Anderson, Geo 

McDougall, A. G 



Hume, Alex 

Stevenson, G. B , 



Wagner, Wm. 



Nelson, Robert. 



Mcintosh, A. 
Bolton, F . . . . 



Morton, Thos. L. 



Wilson, James . . 
Slater, Chas. B. 



Connerson, James . 



McKenzie, K . . 
Kennedy, Thos. 



Harris, A. B . . 
Burtley, Noah. 

Chambers, W , 



Carroll, A. H . 



we are apt to have some good weather after 

March 
this year. No liardship or loss. Climate lieallhy, myself and family all having 
good health here. 
Three years since I came, we ploiii^hcd until the middle of Noveml)er,''but 
oftener the grouml i-i closed the latter ]y,\\t of October. Never suffered 
any hardsliip ; am svell pleased with the winter. 1 contidcr the climate 
very healthy . 
1st week In November till about Ajiril. No hardship or loss. I have been 

out a good deal with team in winter ; never been frozen yet. 
About the last of NovtMul)er, and ends in April sure. I suffered no loss from 
the clima'e last winter. I consider it a very fine winter, much more so 
than I ever expected to see here. Climate very healthy. 
loth to isth Noveml)er and ends in March. No hardship or loss, and don't know 

of any one in this section having suffered anything serious. 
About 15th to 20th November, ends about 1st April. No hardship or loss» 
I Climate the healthiest in the world. 

It freezes up about the 1st Nov, No hardship or loss. Climate healthy. 
Have ploughed three years till 5th November. No hardship or loss. Climate 
j healthy. 

'ist to iSth November till 1st April. No hardship, but by the neglect of my 
stableman I have lost two calves through l)eing frozen ; cow calved during 
night. Very healthy climate. I left Toronto with a fever, ague and rheumatism,, 
and to-day, 65 years old, I am strong and healthy. 
About the 5th November till 1st April. Can't say I have suftered any hard- 
ship or loss, but have found it cold, and I lost some poultry. Climate 
healthy upon the whole. Climate, as far as I can judge, is favorable to suc- 
cessful settlement. 
Have not suffered any serious losses. Climate extremely healthy. 
About 20th November till 20th March. No hardship or loss. Winters are cold 
but dry, and therefore I prefer it to softer climate. Climate particularly 
healthy. 
Averages from 15th November to 15th April. No hardship or loss whatever* 

Climate very healthy. 
Ploughing stopped about loth Nov. No hardship or loss. Climate healthy. 
In 1883, November 15th, ended 25th March, 1884. No hardship or loss in 

the slightest. Extn^iely healthy. 
About 15th November to 17th March. No hardship or loss. Climate by all 
means healthy. All the family in perfect health; was twenty-eight years in 
Holland, but never so well and haf)py as here. 
Ploughing stops about 7th Novemlier, but generally fine weather after. Ends 

about latter end of March. No hardship or loss. Climate healthy. 
About 5th November till the loth to 20th April. No hardship or loss. Neither 

myself nor family have had any sickness since coming here. 
1st November to 1st April. No hardship or loss. Climate very healthy. 
1st November to loth April. No hardship or loss in any respect. Climate 

considered very healthy by almost everybody. 
About 1st November to middle of April. I have found the winters most enjoy- 
able. I have been in various countries, and can say that this is the most 
healthy of any I have evt-r lived in. 
About the last of November till the latter end of March. No hardship or loss j 
enjoyed the winters exceedingly. Climate very healthy. 



H 



/ 



(.1 ' ( 



14 



TLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



Answer. 



Garratt >- Ferguson. . . About last week in November. We have only lost one ox, and that was 
B-.1P T ,. tl"»"yl' "^■J^l'-ct ,n tlie (ast winter in the country. Climate \erv healtlv 

^"^''J i^etueen the 15th and k.t of Ko^en>ber, ends about the 20th ?M r 1. { man 

^'^"■^"'^^' ^ ^™'" /^^t",/5ili November, ends from March 15th to April ist T «n„ 

emphatically i have su.lercd no haulship or loi CiZe hlS'thy/^.::]; 

McLean, J. A About 151!' Xovcnnber, sonutinK's later. No hardship or loss whatever Climate 

Bedford T . " "^^ ^' ^'"''^ '-• ' ^ ''" •' '^ '^"' ^"^' ^" ^° ^ ^^""^^ "'^"y "^ore. ^^ 

^'^' J Commences at d.ilerent tunes in November, breaks up in April. No hard- 

^"^'"'J"'''"" '^'''^' l^^""f'' '^ .^-"^ndly Slopped by frost Ist to isth November. We have 

^^'^^' ^- ^^ ^'r''\ ^''"T ^^'"v--^"=.l;er 7ih, not murh snow in November. Cattle beean 

u gra.e about Aprd ist ; some snow till 18th April. No bar Ishin ^ or 
loss. Climate healtiiy. ^ "aiusnip 01 

Connell, Robert Beoinning of November, sometimes in October. Not very manv ho,-^cr 

Cox ^^•dliam V '""T ""'T'' Y'':'^ •'"' ^^''-^"'^ 1>^-^V of clothes in wfnt" ' '"'^^"P' ^"^ 



The Farming Seasons. 

The following are the seasons : 

refreshing! Harvesting con.Lnc^s'n, Auj^rand'e,! ifs^tL^ber.'^"" ^°°' ^"^ 
Autumn.— Part of Septemljcr and October and part of Nov^^mh^r r. 1 

an.:,'o^/.r;;lrl^^ P'-. -'^ the au„osp,Je^.L^X- 

VVi.NTER._Part of November, Deceml,er, January, February and March. 



and that was 

healtliy. 
.pril. A man 
lo in Oi.tario. 

1st. I say 
heaUliy, very 

ever. Climate 

1. No hard- 
too severe for 

r. We have 
ve lost n Lich, 

Cattle began 
hardship or 

imate healthy, 

> or hardship. 

y hardsliips or 

dthier cli».'^l<} 



d dries up 
finislies in 



and clear, 
cool and 



perhaps 
J pleasant, 
has rather 




Hi 



fl'l 



I ! 



i 


I 


i,: 






I 




1 










M 


\ 



I 
I 



I 1 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE' CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



16 



In the early part of November the Indian summer generally commences, and then 
follows the loveliest portion of the season, which usually lasts about a fortnight. The 
weather is warm, the atmosphere hazy and calm, and every object appears to wear a 
tranquil and drowsy aspect. Then comes winter, genenilly ushered in by a soft, fleecy 
fall of snow, succeeded by days of extreme clearness, with a cleai* blue sky and 
invigorating atmosphere. In December the winter regularly sets in, and, until the end 
of March, the weather continues steady, with ])erhjps one thaw in January, and 
occasional snow-storms. The days are clear and bright, and the cold much softened by 
the brilliancy of the sun. 

Summer Frosts. 



In considering rriswers to the question " Are summer frosts prevalent or exceptional V 
it should be remembered that last year a most exceptional frost appeared on one night in 
September throughout the whole northern part of the United States, and in some parts 
of British North America. The damage done to crops in the Canadian North- West was 
proved by Government statistics to be much less than that generally ex))erienced on the 
continent of North America j and the facts that the following replies were given immediately 
after a frost, even though it was most exceptional, adds largely to the value of the 
testimony. 

It should further be remembered, as wall be seen from the testimony of many settlers, 
that ill-effects from summer frosts may be, in almost every case, avoided by a system of 



early ploughing ; so that each settler has his remedy in his own hands. 
104 formers answered^ " Exceptional.'' P'oUowing are replie; 



to4 / 

postal addresses may be found on pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8. 



ies of others, whose 




Answer. 



Dicken, G. . . 

Urton,W. S. 
Hutchison, A 
Smith, W. P. 

Blythe, R . . . 
Field, E 

Lawrence, J. . 
Screech, John 
Lothian, J . . . 
McGhee,^ J. . . 
Bruce, G.... 
■Warnock, W. 



Exceptional, doing little or no damage if wheat land is autumn ploughed. Have 

seen frost by chance in July, in England. 
Exceptional ; most certainly not the rule. 
Have never experienced any. 
I believe exceptional. This year up to date (September 13th) no^frost to nurt 

the greenest grain. 
We have had two slight frosts, but not to do much harm. 
I should say exceptional ; but after first week in September we generally get 

frost. 
I never lost a dollar by summer frost. 
There has been none here to do any harm. 

Very rare. I have only seen it once, and that nothing to speak of. 
No summer frosts here. 

We have never suffered from frost during summer. 
A:e the ex.ception, the frost of 1883 being the only one I have seen in six years 

to do any harm. 



jjl \\ . :f 



16 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO T^E CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



' |(. 



' V.I 



Name. 



Reid, Alex 

Grang, J 

Perley, W. D 

Grimmett, D. W . . . 
Purdy,T. F 

Leepart, R.N 

Ingram, W. A. ... 

Anderson, G 

Young, J. M. L. .. 
Doyle, W. A 

Newman, C F . . . . 

Lang,R 

Sheppard. J 

Stevenson, F. W . . 

Finlay, J 

Walker, J. C 

Honor, T. R 

Wat, J 

Malcolm, A ...... . 

Pollock, Jno 

Reid, E.J 

Rutherford, J 

Robier, T 

Little, James 

McKitrick, W 

McFellan,J 

Troyer, C 

Vandervoort, G... 
Wood, J. H.... - . 

Brown, W. J 

•Chambers, S. W . . . 

Patterson, A 

Little, J 

Black, G. R 

Wright &* Sons . . . 
Whitney, C....... 



Answer. 



The exception from all I can learn from men who have been ten years in the 

country. Very seldom coming before the 25th September. 
Once in four or five years, there is frost about 7th September. 
We do have slijjht frost, but not to do any general or serious damage. As the 

country becomes cultivated I feel sure they will disappear, as all new countries 

in British America have had that experience. 
Very rare in growing season. 
I think they are exceptional. Cultivation will improve that as the turf gets 

worked off the land. 
No frost this summer. 
Exceptional in our locality— Souris district. 
Last year was the first that I have seen to injure. 
Summer frosts that are injurious are very exceptional. 
I have not lost $io (2/.) per year by fiosts. Late-sown grain is never safe from 

September frosts. 
Not hurt anything, except last year. 

I can answer for Oak Lake only by experience. None whatever. 
They are exceptional ; this is my second year, and they have done no harm. I 

have peas, the second crop in blossom to-day (September 12th). 
Prevalent, but seldom do harm. Vegetables not injured this year till 7th 

September. 
Summer frosts do no harm here. 

Last year was the only frost tliat did any damage since I came here in 1877. 
I have grown four crops, and had one damaged by frost. 
Cannot tell yet, but I hear they are exceptional. 
We have occasional summer frosts, but not often to do much damage. Grain 

that was a little late has been damaged twice during my seven years residence 

here* 

They are prevalent here to a certain extent. 
They are no worse than in Ontario. 
We have, but seldom to do much harm. 
Last year was considered the worst in ten years, and I raised 1,400 bushels of 

grain and did not have 30 injured by frost as it all was sold for seed. 
There was frost on 1st July, 1883, ^"^ ^'^ not do much damage. 
Light frosts are prevalent in my district, but heavy frosts are exceptional. 
Never suffered but once in nine years. 

have never had anything frozen. They are the exception, late sowing the 

cause. 

We generally have a light one in this part about the first of June. 
I have not suffered from summer frosts. 
They are never looked for. 

No. not to any serious extent ; still they are not exceptional in this part. 
They are more exceptional than where I came from (Ontario). 
I have farmed for 15 years and have never had frozen grain with the exception 

of once. 
Exceptional. 

Have seen no serious summer frosts. 
There was not the slightest frost this season from the first week in May until the 

seventh September. 



I 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



17 



en years in the 



mage. As the 
.11 new countries 



as the turf gets 



I 



never safe from 



r. 



jne no harm. I 

th). 

his year till 7*^ 



lere in 1877. 



1 damage. Grain 
m years residence 



1,400 bushels of 
3r seed. 

»^- . , 
exceptional. 

, late sowing the 

le. 

n this part. 

with the exception 

k in May until the 



Name. 



•McLennan, T. 

Gilbert, J 

Grigg, S 

Fraser, D. D, 
Gilmour, H. C 
Drew, W. D. 



Ogletree, F , 



Harris, Jas 

Smart, G 

Elson, John.... 
Elliott, T. D... 

McArkie,J 

Osborne, D . . . . 
Harrison, D. H. 
Thompson, S . . . 



Chester, A. . 
Bonesteel, C. 



H. 



Nugent, A. J . . . . 
McCormack, D. . , 
Lambert, W. M.. 

Bowes, J 

Champion, W. M. 



Mclntyre, J 

Tate, James 

McMurtry, T.... 
McCaughey, J. S . 
Stevenson, G. B., 



Shipley, M . . . . 
Wagner, W. (M 
Heaslip, J. J , . . 

Nelson, R 

Stirton, J 

Bolton, F 

Morton, T. L 



Answer. 



P.P.). 



• • • • • • ■ 



Campbell, R. 
Sifton, A. L. , 
McDonell, D. 

Hall, P 

McGee, T.... 
McEwen, D.. 



Day, Jno. F. 



Exceptional, I think. Never did me any harm, and I have had three crops. 

We have had nc frosts this summer. 

Hoar frosts are exceptional. 

Not common. Cut my first frozen wheat last season. 

Here we have had none. 

Summer frosts have done no harm here since I came, excepting September, 

1883. 
They are not prevalent in this part of the country. In my experience of sixteen 
years the frost last year was the first that ever injured wheat, except patches 
sown late. 
None to hurt this year, nor last either. 

Exceptional, such as last year, but often have slight frosts, not iujurious. 
Not prevalent in Southern Manitoba. 

We were hurt with the frost last year f none any other year. 
Never saw any before the 7th of September, and that last year Mly. 
None this year to hurt. 

Exceptional ; not more frequent than in Ontario. 
Last year we had early frost. The cucumbers are not hurt yet (September 

19th). 
They are the exception, not the rule. 
I have not been here long enough to be certain, but I think they are exceptional. 

Last summer we had frost, this summer none. 
The exception till this season. 
None. 
We have had no frost to do any damage. 

Ncme in June, July and August this year. 

The exception since I have been here, as the frost of September 7th, 1S83, is the 
only one I have seen. 

No summer frost this year. 

Summer frosts have done no damage in this part. 

We are not troubled with summer frost. 

In some localities prevalent, in others exceptional. 

Have not seen any. Had an early frost last fall. I lost nothing by it, and only 
late grain was hurt. 

I have only seen one in eleven years do any harm worth mentioning. 

Not prevalent ; last year was the first one which did damage to my knowledge. 

Exceptional ; none since I came here. 

My experience is that there is some danger from it. 

Have had no summer frosts to hurt even the tenderest vegetables. 

Exceptional. 1883 is the only year frost did any harm since I came here. 

Exceptional ; only one year since 1873, ^ think 1875. Barley and oats were 
cut on loth June, but no damage. 

Summer frosts are not prevalent in this part. 

None in this part. 

Very exceptional in this part ; one this summer in the latter end of August. 

None where I am. 

Exceptional. More seasons without than with frost. 

We have had slight frosts this season from the 5th September, but so farfno 
damage to growing crops. 

Never seen any. 



18 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO TIIK CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



i^.: 



i i 



' I 



I I 



'V. 



Name. 

Fargey, J. II... 
Connerson, J . . . 



Answer. 



Rorison, W. D 

McKenzie, Kenneth. .. 

Daniel, J 

Nickell, Wm 

Harris, A. B 



Bartley, N . . . , 
Chambers, W, 



Paynter, W. D, 
Hayter, W. H.. 
Wilmott, H. E. 
Wright, C 



Johnston J 

Garratt, R. S.(J.P.).. 

Day, S. and A 

McDonald, W. W.... 

McLean, J. A 

Eeaford, J 

Elliott, J 

Todd, P. R 

Boldrick, R 

Dickson, P 

Cafferata dr' Jefferd . . . . 

Connell, R. . . . 

Fisher, II 

(settled in 1884) 
Miller, S 



They are exceptional. We have only had one frost in seven summers - 

September 7th. 1883. 
About the loth of June and loth of Septembsr we had very slight frost, |_but| 

harm done. 
Prevalent from yth September in this part. 

They are not prevalent, only exceptional ; more exceptional than in Ontario. 
Not prevalent. Seldom seen. 
Prevalent in some districts about here. 
When grain is sown in April, or up to the 15th May, there is no danger of f 

after thnt time it has to run chances. For five years we have had fros 
I tween the 25th August and 6th September. 

I should say exceptional. Some light frosts sometimes cut tender plants. 
jMy first year's experience was in 1882; first severe frost that killed my toms 
I took place on the night of September 26th. I think them exceptional. 
Generally free from frost from the middle of June to end of August. 
No worse than Ontario. 
They are preva^ent in this district. 
We have always slight frosts in this part in June and early September, but 

seldom do harm. 
Exceptional and not generally injurious. 

Prevalent in certain localities. They are exceptional generally. 
Haven't seen any yet. 
They are exceptional ; never seen any. 
We were visited with summer frost twice since I came here 
Exceptional, generally once, the latest the first week in June. 
Not in middle of summer, but it comes too soon for grain sown late. 
Have ripe tomatoes grow in open air. 
Summer frosts that do any serious harm are exceptional. 
Have had frost in June, but never suffered from it. 
No frost here from first week in April till September 7th. 
Very prevalent this summer, but not done any damage. 
~ fear to some extent prevalent, but with good cultivation and activity im si 

a farmer can escape ill effects. 
We have had no frost to hurt any vegetable in the summer since I came t\ 
country (May, 1 882). 



t.v' 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



19 



II 
t in seven summers— viz. j i| 

i very slight frost, 'but'Jittle '^* 
3tional than in Ontario. 



there is no danger of frost 
ears we have had frost be- 
es cut tender plants, 
vest that killed my tomatoes 
k them exceptional, 
md of August. 



Winter and Summer Storms. 

In many parts of America, anxiety is felt by farmers on account of winter and 
sm-nmer storms. Manitoba and the Canadian North-west are happily, for the most part, 
outside of what is sometimes called the '• storm belt," and it is but rarely that the country 
is visited in this way. This may be seen by the following testimony, and it is note- 
worthy how great an umber have experienced no loss whatever; as many as 150 thinking 
the damage of so little real importance as to simply answer it by the word?"' No '' or 
" None." Storms do, it will be seen, occasionally visit some fevv parts of :he country 
but it is undoubted that they are exceptional. ' 

The question asked was : — '■ Have you suffered any serious loss from storms during 
either winter or summer .^"— 7/^ reply 112 farjuers sivply answered ''No," and 42 
answered'' None: ' Following are the replies of the remainder. 'I'heir full names and 



d early September, but they , PO^^al addresses are given on pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 



I generally. 



le here 

: in June. 

■ grain sown late. 

jnal. 

: 7th. 
ige 




vation and activity im spring 
summer since I came to the 



• ••* •••• 



Urton, W. S 

Hutchison, A 

Prector, H 

Warnock, Wm 

Fraser, Jno 

Perley, VV. D 

Miller, Solomon 

Purdy, D. F 

Davis, W.H 

^Rogers, T 

Kines, Wm 

■Doyle, W. A. (J. P...) 

HcRae, R 

Walker, J.C 

Honor, T, R 

Graham, M 

Malcolm, A ' 



•Rutherford, J 

(Little, James 

JMcKitrick, W . . . . 
•Cameron, G. A . . . 

Warren, R. J , 

•Chambers, S. W . . , 

>Howey, Wm 

'Mercer, J , 



No ; they are rare. 

No loss whatever. 

Very little. 

No ; not worth mentioning. 

No ; weather very pleasant. 

This country has not suffered from storm. 

Not to the value of 10 cents. 

Nothing uncommon to Ontario. 

Partial loss two seasons with hail. 

None whatever, so far. 

Not much. 

None ; nor has any portion of this community. 

Never. 

jl had my house roof blown off" in June, 1884, but no other damage, 
il have never suffered from storm. 

Never until this year. 

'Three years ago my grain was all cut down with a hailstorm, but it grew up 
! again and I had a good crop . 
I We never have had any storms or blizzards here yet, and suffered no loss. 

No ; not yet. 

Nothing serious from storms. 
A little last year from hail. 

; No ; we have had no bad storms here as we had in Ontario. 
No loss of any kind. 

iNq, never. Never saw a bad storm here. 

I Not in winter. I have lost a great deal of hay through the heavy rains in 
summer. 



.ft 
4 



'h, 




I ft[ 



20 



PLAIN FACIS A3 TO TIIK CANADIAN NORTIl-WKST. 



Name. 



■ill 



1 1 



lii ! 



I 






Lawrence, J 

McLennan, T 

Gilmour, H. C 

Ogletree, F . . ., 

McAskie, J 

Harrison, C. 11 

Thompson, S 

Chester, A 

Bonesteel, C. II 

Anderson, G 

McCormack, D 

McDougall, A. G 

Dickson, 1. W 

Lambert, W. M 

Hume, A 

Tate, James 

McGill, G 

Stevenson, G. B 

Shipley, M 

Wagner, W. (M.P.P.) 

Nelson, R 

Orr, J.D 

Upjohn, F , 

Bolton, F 

Morton, T. L , 

McDonnell, D , 

Heahey, J 

McBean, A 

Connerson, J 

McDiarmid, C 

Rawson, J 

Bartley, N 

Chambers W 

Bole,J 

Garratt, R. S 

McDonald, W. W . . . 

Mitchell, John 

Jones, James 

McLean, J. A 



Answer. 



I lost part of my crop this year by hail storms, but it is tlie first I lost since I 

came liere 5 years ago. 
No, never saw a bad cue in this part. 
Have never suH'ered any loss from storms of any kind, either winter or 

sumnitM-. 
I never suffered. 

Yes, this harvest from hail storm, 
No, we are not in the storm belt. 
Fiave had the top blown off stacks, not hurt much. 
I have never suffered any loss from storms. 
I never have, and think that last winter was a very fine one. 
No loss whatever. 

From hail this summer, but crop has come along well again. 
Yes, one hail storm last summer. 
None yet of any kind. 
None whatever. 
I have not. 

Have not suffered in any way from storms. 
Lost none by shelling first year ; lost some last year and this year ; none from.. 

winter. 

A little three years ago, by hail. 
Nothing worth mentioning. 

Never. We had this year an hour's hail, but did no damage to any amount. 
No, nothing to speak of. 
Yes, all my crop in 1883. 
Never until this harvest . 
Not in the least. 

None in winter. In 1876 hail destroyed half crop. 
The storms never injured the stock or house and stables, &^c. 
There was a little hail this summer which did a little damage. 
Yes ; lost all crop by hail in 1883, and badly damaged by rain 1884. 
No ; had no damage whatever in six years. 
Only from hail. 
Yes, twice in summer from local hail storms and frost on 7th September. 1883 

though quite exceptional. 
Not any, except by thunder and lightning, which destroyed outbuildings, Btocjc 

and implements. 
Never have seen a storm other than thunder since I came. 
This part is not subject to storms in summer. 
A hail storm destroyed my crop in 1883. 
I have never suffered or seen any bad storms. 
Last year I lost all the grain I had, about the middle of August. 
Not so far. 
I suffered some one year by hail storm during growing season. 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTII-WKST. 



21 



t I lost since I 



ther winter or 



year ; none from.- 



any amount. 



1884. 



September. 1883 
outbuildings, Btocjt 



dst. 



The Soil. 

The high average yield of crops in Manitoba and the Canadian Norlli-West,— more 
tlian double that of the United Siates — is in itself a jjractical ])roof of the rich ([uaUtv of 
the land, and of its adaptability to agricultural purposes. .Still, it is interer.ting to study 
the chemical properties of this extraordinary agricultural tract excelled by none and 
equalled only by the alluvial delta of the Nile. 

Dr. Stevenson Macadam, of Edinburgh University, an undoubted authority, says 
the soil is "very rich in organic matter, and contains the full amount of the saline 
fertilizing matters found in all soils of a good bearing quality." The soil is in general a 
deep black argillaceous mould or loam resting on a deep tenaceous clay subsoil, and 
so rich that it does not require the addition of manure for years after the fir.st breaking 
of the prairie, and in particular places where the loam is very deep it is practically 
inexhaustible. 

The question asked on this point was : " Please state the nature of soil on your farm, 
and depth of black loam?" The description of one farm in each district only is 
given to economise space. Where, however, the description of lands in the same 
district differ, the answer of each settler is given. (For postal address of each 
settler, see pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 




an( 



District. 



Pense , 
Pense . 



Moose Jaw, 



Hind Brothers.. 
Cafferata 

Jefferd 

Urton 

Rogers ! Moose Jaw , 

Beesley JMoose Jaw. 

Phillips ! Rapid City . 

Hutchinson ! Craven 

Proctor . . 
Mercer . . 



Answer. 



Pollard... 
Lawrence. 

Orr 

Screech . . . 
Hoard... 



Woodlands. 
Grenfell... 



Sidney 

Clearwater . . 
Cartwright. . . 
Rounthwaite.. 
Lake Francis. 



Upjohn . • 
Harward . 
Cameron . 
Lothian . . 
McGhee. 
Gibson . . 
Bruce . . . 



Lake Francis. 

Littleton 

Qu' Appelle . . . 
Pipestone .... 

Blake 

Wolseley. . .. 
Gladstone.... 



Rich black loam, average depth 18 in. 
Sandy loam : about 9 in. of black loam. 

Soil various, all good ; loam 6 to 12 in. deep where tested.. 

Deep rich clay on clay subsoil. 

Alluvial soil, 4 ft. of loam. 

2 ft. black loam on clay subsoil. 

Sandy loam on gravelly clay subsoil, loam from 9 in. to 2 fF. 

Black loam, with clay under, 2 ft. deep. 

Depth of black loam 18 in. Under black loam is gravel andi 

sand. 

Sandy loam, with clay subsoil. 
Black loam, 18 in. to 2 ft., with clay subsoil. 
Soil is good, with foot of black loam and clay subsoil. 
Soil heavy, black loam 15 in. 
Soil is good but somewhat stony and bushy j black loam 6 in. to 

I ft., with clay subsoil. 
Depth of black loam 8 in. to a foot. 

Soil is varied, clay, sand, gravel and shale from 6 to 24 in. 
Black loam, clay subsoil ; loam 8 to 12 in. deep. 
Clay loam, from 16 in. to 2}^ ft. black soil. 
Sandy soil, from 18 in. to 2 ft. deep. 
Black loam 2 ft. deep, on a clay subsoil. 
There is a small creek through my place, which also divides. 

the soil, the one half is sandy loam and the other black loam,. 



I' ' 



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h^ 



\^l \ 



i\ 



( '^ 



& 



22 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO Till': CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



District. 



Answer. 



Mel )iarmiu 

Mc Lean 

Bell 

Mitchell 

Warnock 

Reid 

.Fraser 

Stevenson 

Carroll 

Agnew 

Stowards 

.Kinnear 

Hayter.. 

McGill 

Purdy .... 

lambert 

Kines 

Young 

McGee 

McKenzie 

Sheppard 

Armstrong 

Findlay 

Walker 

Blackvvell 

Hall 

Hornor 

Graham 

Hope 

Malcolm . . . ^ . . . . 

Davis 

Rutherford 

Little 

Fraser 

McKitrick 

Warren 

McKnight 

Brown 

Bailey 

Black 

.■^IcCorquodale .... 



l6o acres of sandy 



8ome scrub, 



clay bottom. 
On level prairie 2 103 ft., 



Gladstone Sandy loam, with 2 ft. of black loam. 

Glailstotie I'.lack sanily Inani,4 ft. 

I'elleview 520 acres of clay Iciam, with black loam 30 in. 

loam 24 in. deep. 

IJrookdale From 12 to 18 in. of black loam, then yellow clay mixed lightly 

with sand. 

Neepawa Black h)a!n, l^i to 2J4 ft. in depth ; clay subsoil. 

Millfonl [Sandy loam of 4)4 ft., with clay subsoil. 

Hrandiin Black ioam. top (lej)lh 2 ft. ; clay bottom. 

IJrandon Some of it clear prairie ; depth of soil 15 to 20 in. 

I with 3 ft. loam. 

Brandon Considerable alkali, 2 ft. loam. 

Brandon Loam 3 ft. in de) ih. 

Arrow River Hlack loam, 20 in. 

Plum Creek (iood ricli soil ; 2 to 3 ft. black loam ; 

Alameda Rich loam, depth I ft. ; clay bottom. 

Souris Rich blnck loam, average 15 in. deep. 

I I ricii alluvial soil on river sl(>pe. 

Regina Black clay loam, all alike as far as you may go down j now and 

I then you stiike gravel 25 or 30 ft. down. 

Regina Heavy clay, loam depth, 20 to 30 in. 

Osprey Black loam, depth from : to 2 ft. 

Moosomin Black loum ranges from 8 in. to 22 in. deep, with sand on clay 

i subsoil. 

Burnside Glay soil ; black loam 6 in. There is also a gravel ridge running 

! throuj^n the farm. 

Burnside Black loam about 2 ft., and generally clay subsoil. 

Indian Head CI ly, rdwut 3 ft. of black loam. 

Dalton ji black loam, or vegetable soil. Black loam from 18 to 36 in. 

Shoal Lake 8 in. black loam, then clay below. 

CJlendale 2 ft. of loam ; clay subsoil. 

Virden 'Top soil black loam, about 20 in, subsoil clay. 

Headingley Clay loam, about 12 in. 

Pendennia 8 to 12 in. of black loam, with clay subsoil. 

Portage la Prairie. Heavy black loam, varying from i)^ ft. to 2}4 ft., with clay sub- 
! soil 6 ft. 

:Carberry Black loam and clay, 15 in. black loam, clay subsoil. 

Minnedosa lilack sandy loam, from about I to 2 ft. deep. 

McLean Clay and part sandy loam, black loam lo in. 

Silver Creek Black loam, slightly mixed with sand, depth of soil I^ to 3 ft. 

,Oak River \2}4 ft. very black rich loam, very heavy clay under. 

jOak River Black loam and clay subsoil, I to 3 ft. 

ICrystai City The black loam is about r8 in in depth, and 2 ft. of white marly 

I clay ; below that, clay and gravel. 

I Olive Sandy loam black, depth about 2 ft. 

Carman [Clay loam, from I to 3 feet. 

IPomeroy iSandy loam, from 2 to 3 ft. deep. 

Lothair Sandy loam, varying f )m 6 in. to 2 ft. on black loam. 

iWellwood JGlay subsoil, with 12 lo 18 in. of black loam. 

jMinnewashta jSandy loam, with clay subsoil, black loam about 18 in. 



1 6o acres of sandy 
ay mixed lightly 
al. 

in. ; .some scrub, 

torn. 

;1 prairie 2 (03 ft., 
down ; now and 

vith sand on clay 

avel ridge running 

;oil. 

:om 18 to 36 in. 






PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



2a 



% 



ft., with clay sub- 
ibsoil. 



■ soil l}i to 3 ft. 
nder. 

ft. of white marly 



k loam, 
lit 18 in. 



Name. 



District. 



Answer. 



Connerson Minnewashta 

Wliitiu-y Halgonie. . . . 

r.oldrick Hal},'f)nie. . . . 

Mc ; .eiinan Asessippi . . . . 

Smart Holland 

Kint; Belle Plain.. 

Elliott Alexandria. . . 



Harrison . . . . 
Thompson. . 

Chester. 

Nugent .... 

Kenny 

McCormack 
McDonald . . 
Dickson .... 

F' nes 

Speers 

Champion. . 

Hume 

Shiplev .... 
Wagner .... 



Mcintosh . 



Newdale 

Iteaver Creek.... 

Marringhurst 

I'^merson 

Wolf Creek 

Fleming 

Fleming 

Arnaud 

Morris < 

Griswold 

Reaburn ■ 

Chater 

Wavy Bank 

Ossowo 



Broadview . 



Stirton : Calf Mountain .... 



Westboume . 



Coay 

Campbell Bridge Creek. 

Hall ! South Antles. 

Wilson [ Stoddartville . . 

Kemp I Austin 

Heaney 'Meadow Lea. . 

Slater jWapella 

Rorison lOberon 



Nickell. 
Harris . . 
Paynter . 
Bartley . 



Chambers Birtle 



Lawrie , 



Lucas. . 
Beulah . 
Beulah . 
Birtle . 



Birtle 



Wilmott Douglas 



• « • • • 



Wright 
Dick 
Garratt . . < 
Elliott . . . 
Sutherland 
Hanna . . . . 
Speers. . .. 



Beaconsfield , 

Moline 

Kenlis ...... 

Sourisbourg . 
St. Andrews. 
Griswold . . . 
Griswold . . , , 



First-class, can't be beat ; loam 4 ft. 

Subsoil of grey clay, vvitli al)out 3 in. of black loam. 

Clay loam ; 6 in. black loam. 

Black loam from 1 8 to 24 in. 

Sandy loam, 4 ft. 

Heavy clay loam, 3 ft. deep. 

The soil is first-class, black rich soil I ft, then a rich brown clan 

for 6 ft. 
18 in. black loam on a clay subsoil. 
Sandy loam, black loam from 1 2 to 18 in. 
Cliiy subsoil, with from il to 12 ft. black loam. 
Black rich loam, depth 4 to 5 feet. 
Black loam, from 6 in. to 2 ft. 
Black loam, 12 to 15 in., with clay subsoil. 
Clay loam, 18 in. 
Ail clay, and about i ft. of black. 
Black loam and heavy clay. 
Dark clay loam, depth about 4 ft. 

Heavy black loam 14 in. Clay subsoil, more or less limestone _ 
Heavy clay, loam about 12 in. 
Part sand loam, and part clay about I ft. 
Black loam from 510 12 in., with limestone, gravel or scrub, under 

which is heavy clay. 
Black loam on top from 10 to 16 in., with clay and loam subsoiL ' 
Black sandy loam ; clay subsoil from 16 in. to 2 ft. 
About 3 ft. on clay subsoil. 
Black loam, on clay subsoil, 12 to 15 in. deep. 
'Clay bottom, 10 in. black loam. 
White clay subsoil, black loam from 2 to 6 ft. 
Black sandy loam from 2 to 3 feet deep. 
Clay loam, about a foot on average. 
' I ft- to 2j4 ft. of black loam. 
Black loam, 2 ft. deep. 

Black loam, clay subsoil, 10 to 12 in. of loam. 
jBlack loam, 12 to 36 in. clay and gravel subsoil. 
! Sandy loam, with gravel ridges. 18 in. 
'A rich sandy loam, 12 to 18 in. 

The part of my farmer under cultivation is grand gravelly loam, 
j warm early soil ; the black soil is from I ft. to 18 in. 
Black loam from 8 to 24 in. deep, clay snb.soil. 
A black clay loam with clay subsoil the black loam from 8 to 15^. 

in. deep. 
Sandy clay loam, i to 2 ft. 
Clay loam, 2 ft. 

Clay loam, from I to 3 ft. of black loam. 
Black loam from i to 2 ft., with clay subsoil. 
Black loam from 6 to ic "nches. 
Black loam 2 ft., yellow clay subsoil. 
Dark clay loam, depth about 4 ft. 



'i 



14 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Fuel and Water. 

Recent investigations show that in addition to the chimps of wood to be found 
dotted here and there on the prairie, and the timber with whicli the rivers and creeks are 
lined, tliere is in these new regions an ample supply of coal. The coal-beds in the Bow 
and IJelly river districts, tributary to Medicine h A on the main line of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, are the first to be worked, and settlers now obtain this coal at moderate 
prices. Other mines have been discovered immediately on the line of the railway, between 
Medicine Hat and the summit ot the Rocky Mountains, and some of these will be in 
operation during the present season. Valuable and extensive coal-beds also exist in the 
Souris district in Southern Manitoba and the south-eastern and western part of the 
North-West, and these wll shortly be opened up by the projected Manitoba South- 
western and other railways. 

As regards the water supply, the North-West has not only numerous rivers and creeks, 
but also a very large number of lakes and lakelets in almost every part of the country, 
and it has been ascertained definitely that good water can be obtained almost anywhere 
throughout the territory by means of wells ; in addition to which there are numerous 
clear, running, never-failing springs to be found throughout the land. An ample supply 
of water of different qualities may always be found on the prairie by sinking wells which 
generally range in depth from eight to twenty feet. Rain generally falls freely during the 
spring while the summer and autumn are generally dry, 

On these two points the farmers were asked : " What sort of fuel do you use, and 
is it difiicult to obtain ? " " Have you plenty of water on your farm, and how obtained ? 
If from a well, please state depth of same." The full name and postal address of each 
settler may be found on pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 



Name. 



Answer. 



Dickin, George iWood getting scarce ; will be able to get coal. Plenty of water, springs rising 

I to surface, usual depth 7 ft. to 20 ft. 

Hind Brothers Wood within four miles. Plenty of water from wells 15 to 20 ft. deep. 

Uiton, W. S.. s jWood, close at hand, is rather scarce, but there is plenty within 15 miles. Coal 

I is cheap here, Plenty of water from two wells 22 ft. each ; one in house, one 

I in stable with pumps. 
Yardley, Henry , Poplar, about three miles distant Plenty of water for general use in summer ; 

I well, 4 ft. 6 in. I get water for cattle in winter at a swamp up to the middle 

I of February. 
'Hutchison, A Wood is easily obtainable at present. I have Long Lake on one side of farm ; 

i alsc a spring of good vvattr, and a well 30 ft. deep. 

Proctor, Henry ;Plenty of poplar wood in lliis settlement. Five wells of the best water, depths 

20, 25, 26. 30 and 36 ft. 
Mercer, James Poplar; no difficulty, lots of it here. Plenty of water, the Qu'Appelle River 

i runs through my farm, 

Knight, W. G > Wood, and there is plenty in this district. Plenty of water from small lake for 

cattle, and a well for house 7 ft. 
Jeffrey, Wm. , .Wood. I have never been short of fuel. Plenty of water from a spring, the 

I water rising to the surface. 
Fisher, Henry Wood, chiefly, but it is costly. Water from Wascana Creek. 






t/) 
> 
t/; 

r, 

> 



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z 

73 



7: 






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IV: 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH- WEGT. 



25. 



Name. 



Smith, W. P. 
Blythe, R... 



Field, Edward., 
Pollard, Alfred. 
Orr, James D . . 



Screech, John. 



Robertson, P. 
Har'vard, F . . 



Hall, D 

Lothian, James. 



Bruce, Geo. 



Bell, C. J 

"Wamock, Wm. 



Haddow, Jas. . 
Reid, Alex . . . , 
Perley, W. D. 



Prat, Jno 

Miller, Solomon. 

Grimmett, D. W . 



"Lep.yATt, R.N 

McBean, Angus .... 



Young, Jno. M. I. 
Doyle, W. A 



Answer. 



Newman, C. F , 

Sheppard, Jos 

Armstrong, George. 



Piercj, S 

Graham, Mark 

I Malcolm, A. . 
McGregor, D. , 



Wood, bard to get. Plenty of water, not very good. All neighbours have good 

water at 15 ft. 
Poplar ; easily obtainable from the bluffs. Plenty of water from wells and 

sloughs ; deepest well at present 16 ft. 
Poplar ; no difficulty. Plenty of excellent water from well 22 ft. deep. 
Dry wood (poplar) in abundance. Splendid water by digging 12 ft. 
Dry poplar and oak, which are not difficult to procure. Not too much water ; 

two wells, one 23 ft. and the other 10 ft. 
Poplar poles, but rather scarce. Surface water for the cattle ; well for house 

6 ft. 
Wood, getting difficult to obtain. Plenty of water ; v/ells 10 to 2c ft. 
Poplar wood. I have plenty on my own place. Plenty of water, a lake 6 ft. 

deep and a stream running in summer. 
Poplar wood ; no difficulty to obtain. Water from running creek. 
Wood, poplar ; about nine miles to haul. Good water for home use in well :6' 

ft. deep. 
Poplar and hardwood ; I have a good deal on my place. I use river water in 

winter and well water in summer. 3 ft. deep. The finest waier in the province. 
Coal and wood ; both are now difficult to get here. 
Wood, poplar and white birch, easily got. Plenty of water ; spring creek and 

well 20 ft. deep. 
Wood ; it is difficult to obtain, ai?d so is water, on my farm. 
Wood, no difficulty in getting it. Plenty of water. Oak creek inns through it. 
Wood, and plenty in this district, al $3.00 per cord at your house. A good' 

lake, and could get water by digging a short distance. 
Wood, quite close to the house. Plenty of water from a well about 4 ft. deep. 
Coal and wood ; wood three miles to draw, coal abo:t 25. Plenty of water ; 

water from well 25 ft. deep 
Elm and maple ; enough on my fa'm to last twenty years. One elm measured 

1 1 ft. 5 in. in circumference. Pipestone Creek runs through corner of my farm j 

depth of well 3 feet. 
Poplar ; ten miles to get it. Water from v 1 16 ft. deep. 
Wood very difficult to obtain. Plenty of water, boggy creek ; wells 13 to 14 ft. 

deep. 
Poplar, very handy. I have always had plenty of water from a well 6 ft. deep. 
Wood, dry poplar ; an ample supply here. Water from two spring creeks and 

several good springs. 
Poplar or ash, plenty of it. Plenty of water from a well 15 ft. deep and out of 

my little lake. 
Poplar wood, costs, six miles from my house, $1.50 per cord. Water is rather 

hard to get in some places, but easy in -others. 
Wood, to be had for the drawing and a he of 50 cents for enough for a year's 

use, for house, stable and some fencing. Water for cattle from a deep pond. 

and for domestic use from v/ells. Have one well at 17 ft. never failing, and 

another at 28 feet. 
Wood in bluffs on homestead. Plenty of water. 
Wood, poplar and oak. Not very difficult to obtain. Plenty of water by digging. 

about 12 ft. 
Wood ; is plentiful here. Plenty of water from a living spring. 
Elm. Plenty of water from Assiniboine River 



I ! 



i m 



I!- 



N 



i M 









P 



26 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



Bobier, Thos. 



Answer. 



Wavren, R.J. 



Niff, J. R 

Chambers, S. W . 



Bailey, 



Black, G.R.... 
Champion Bros . 



McKenzie, D , 
Fraser, D . . . . 



Farmer, W. A. 
King, M 



Thompson, S 

Anderson, George 



McDoiiga'l, A. G. 
Tate, ^ nes ..... 



McMurtry, Thos 

McCaugliey, J. S 

Ilcaslip, J. J 



Bolton, F 

Campbe!\ Robert. 



Paynter, J. E , 

McEwen, D , 



Connerson, J... . 
Kennedy, Thos. 
Johnston, Jas. . . 



Mcl/san, J. A. 



Wood ; have to draw it six miles, but intend using coal, as I hear we are going 

to 1. ve it at $6.50 per ton. Good water from wells 8 ft. deep; all of my 

neighbours get plenty of good water by digging from 8 to 20 ft. 
Wood ; have got plenty on my farm. Plenty of water from wells and springs ; 

depth of well 14 ft. 
Poplar ; difficult to obtnin, but will use coaL Plenty of water from well 18 ft. deep. 
:Wood, any iimount of it in this district. Plenty of water ; a sp-ing for home 
I use, and a spring creek for cattle. 

I Wood, rather scarce, but coal, which is superior, is easily got at Railroad Station. 
j Plenty of spring and river water, wells 10 ft. 

'Poplar; any quantity three miles off. Plenty of water and good well 38 fl. deep. 
Dry oak and poi)lar; not difficult to obtain. Generally plenty of water, one 
I well 5 fl. and another 16 ft. 

Poplar fuel. We have plenty yet, handy by. The Arrow River runs through 
I my farm. I have a spiing at my house. 

Wood getting scarce ; expect to use coal soon. Plenty of water. Ponds and 
I wells 14 ft. and 30 ft. Any amount in latter, could not be bailed dry. 
|Wood and coal. River water. 

Wood from Qu'Appelle, and coal at $9.00 per ton on Canadian Pacific Railway. 
j Water is very scarce, and draw it five miles. Have no well yet. 
Wood ; fiom three to five miles otT. Plenty of water. Beaver C».*ek runs 
I through, the farm. Wells are from 8 to 12 ft. round here. 

iWood, r.bundance in this distiict ; the Weed Hills, Woolf Hills r ' '' jpelle 
j being very adjacent and well timbered. Price to townspeople !.;s.per cord. 
j \\c depend on slough water in summer for stock. Wells range from 6 to 35 
I ft. iu depth. 

:Wood. Coal this year $6.50 per ton. Plenty of water from well 14 ft. deep. 
Coal in winter, wi-od in summer, both of which are easily obtainable. Get w?<^er 
, from a never-failing spring. 

We use roal, it is quite handy. We ';et water from a well about I2 ft, deep. 
Coal and wood, easy to obtr ... Water from well 25 to 40 ft. deep. 
Coal from Soinis, 18 miles from here; not difficult to obtain. Plenty of water 
I from a well 15 ft. deep. 

Poplar and o.ak wood in ainmdance ; haul three miles. Wells 28 ft. dce\\ 
! Ponds for cuttle in summer. 

We get our fire wood, fencing and building timber from the Riding Mountain, 
j four miles to draw. We LTot our water from Stoney Creek, a spring creel. 

rising in the mountain and running all the year round. 
Wood, difficult to obtain. Plenty of water from a well 7 ft. 
Wood at ]uesent, but intend using coai for winter. Expect to get it at Brana^, : 

about $7 (28s.) per ton. Plenty of water, well and sloughs. Wells, oni, -u^ 

ft. another 35 ft. 
AH oak wood ; in abundance. Water in abundance all the year round from 
j "Dead Horse Creek." 

Wood, not difficult to obtain in my case, but some have to buy. It costs 
' about 82.50 per cord. Plenty of water, llave a good spring creek. 
Wood and coal. Have had no difficulty so far to obtain supply. I have a nice 
j creek crossing farm, but supply buildings by wells from 10 to 15 ft. First- 
j class water. 

Poplar, oak and ash ; very easy to obtain. I have to dig for water, the depth 
i is from 8 to 12 ft. 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



27 



hear we are going 
. deep ; all of my 

Dft. 

wells and springs ; 

omwell 1 8 ft. deep, 
a sp'ing for home 

It Railroad Station. 

od well 38 ft. deep. 
[enty of water, one 

liver runs through 

water. Ponds and 
bailed dry. 

ian Pacific Railway. 

1 yet. 

Beaver Ciek runs 

ills r ••■■ ' ■ ■ jpelle 
ople ; .:s . per cord, 
range from 6 to 35 

well 14 ft. deep, 
ainable. Get wp^er 

lout 12 ft. deep. 

. deep. 

^. Plenty of water 

Wells 28 ft. deep. 

; Riding Mountain, 
eek, a .spring creels 



get it at Brandt, 
5I1S. Wells, om. ;.• 

he year round from 

e to buy. It costs 

ring creek. 

ppiy. I have a nice 

1 ID to 15 ft. First- 

6r water, the depth 



Gram Crops. 

The following tables, taken from official sources, will show at a glance the average 
yield in bushels per acre of the crops of Manitoba duving the last six years : — 



X 


1876 


1877 

26U 
S9H 

32 

30 

304 


18-78 


1879 


1880 


1881 


1882 

32 
51 

37 

278 


1883 
1884 


General 

Average. 


Wheat 

Oats 

Barky 

Peas 

Rve 


32 
51 
41 
32 

229 


26K 

63 
34 

3° 
308 


9.6U 

37?^ 
32X 
40 
302 


29^ 

41 

38>^ 
40 
318 


30 
59 
40 

38 

35 
320 


27 
56 
35 
30 

259 

583 
400 

28 


29 
66 
42 
34 
35 


j\yc .... ..... 

Potatoes ...... 

Turnips 

Carrots 

yiax 


287 

683 

400 

28 







The following are the chief averages of the chief wheat-growing countries of the 
World, as officially given for a series of years : — 



Manitoba, average yield per acre in bushels. . . 

Great Britain and Ireland 

Minnesota (the Empire Wheat State of the Union) 

United States 

, Ontario 

•■ South Australia 

■' v'isconsin 

^T^ 

'J* "ao 

iK*-uina 

Illinois 



Wheat. 


Barley. 


29 


42 


28-8 


34-2 


11 4 


325 


13 




.3-e 


2467 


II-3 
6-6 


24-5 

20-8 


I3"3 
IO-8 


i6'4 
26 


8-2 


15-5 



Oats. 



66 

43"2 
35*6 

39 

286 
26 2 

277 

23 
33'4 



Asked as to the probable jield per acre of their wheat, barley, and oat crops 
Farmers replied as follows : — 



■tIM 



I I 



I !■ 



I' 



-28 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTII-WEST. 



Name. 



Yield of Wheat per acre 
in bushels. 



Barley. 



Sheppard, Joseph . . . . . 

Stevenson, T. W 

Little, James 

Morton, Thomas L. . . . 

McLean, John A 

Paul, James M 

Rutherford, Jonathan . . 

Wat, James 

Boulding, G. T 

Stewards, R. C 

Day, John F , 

Leitch, Angus 

Daniels. Joseph . . . . . . 

Reid, E. J 

Robier, Thos 

McKenzie, Kenneth. , . 

Todd, P. R 

McBean, Angus 

Harris, James 

Osborne, Daniel 

Slater, Charles B 

Wright, Charles 

Proctor, Henry 

Smith, W. P 

Robeitson, P 

Lothian, James 

Bruce, George 

Webster, A . . 

Downie, John 

Sirett, W. F 

Young, John 

McRae, Roderick 

Armstrong, George . . . 

Fmlay, James 

Deyell, John 

Bailey, Zachary 

Patterson, Abr 

Howey, Wm 

Grigg, S 

Elliott, T. D 



About 40 

40 

Average 40 

40 at least, I had 45 last 
year 

'40. 



Oats. 



40. 



About 35 . , 
35 

35 

Expect 35, 

35 



■,40 

About 30. 

■|25 

;50 



35- 
35' 



SO- 



About 35 . 



32, very good. 
32 



40. 



<^ * * t t ■-••• 

About 3t.' '■ 
From 30 v 
Between 35 , 

3010 35 

between 30 and 35 
Average about 30 . . 

A certain 30 

30 



130 

About 40 or 50 

'40 to 50 



• •••■• 



35 

! Black barley average 25 
40 last year 

35 



About 50. 
Partly 70 and partly 40. 
Average 70. 
50. 

Some 60 and some 80. 

About 50. 

46. 

65- 
Expect 70. 

60. 
60. 



30- 
30. 

I 

30. 
30- 



40 50. 

'40 50 to 60. 

About 45. 

l'5o. 

About 80. 

50 to 80. 

Aibout 60. 

40 to 50. 

60. 

Average 50, good crop. 

70 at least. 

35- 
60. 

Over 40, I should think, Badly wasted by hail storm. 

j not thrashed yet. ... I 

30 on this season's 40 on this season's breaking. 



breaking . 



I • » « • • • 



,50, the best I ever saw 
40 



1 30. 



30- 

30 last year, and my crop 
j is better this year .... 

30 

30 

!30 

30 

i3o 

30 

lOn account of a dry 
spring it will not go 
over 30 « 



I have none ; but my 
neighbors' will yield 
about 45 



30 

50 

40 

35 

40 

50 

About 40 , 



60 to 70. 

40. They did not do well this 

year ; too dry in 

the spring. 

^o to 60. 



60. 
70. 

40. 

About 60. 

60. 

50- 
60. 

50. 

A [dry spring makes a small 

yield, say 35. 



$ 



PLAIN FACTS AS To TUT, CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



29 



Oats. 



tout 50. 

and partly 40. 

erage 70. 

50- 

and some 80. 
out 50. 
46. 

65- 
cpect 70. 

60. 
60. 



50- 
o to 60. 

bout 45. 

l'5o. 
bout 80. 
o to 80. 
bout 60. 
o to 50. 

60. 
50, good crop. 
» at least. 

35- 
60. 

ed by hail storm. 

season's breaking. 

3 to 70. 

lid not do well this 

too dry in 
le spring. 
o to 60. 



60. 

70. 

40. 
.bout 60. 
60. 

50- 
60. 

so- 
ng makes a small 

W. say 35 . 



Name. 



Yield of wheat per acre 
in bushels. 



Barley. 



Chester, A . > 

Obee, F 

Muirhead, Thos 

Mcintosh, Archd , . . . . 
tiniik 1. •••••••«••«••■ 

Speers, A. R 

Mitch' 11, Jno 



Certainly expect 30 ... . 40 

30 : 35 

Average will be 30.. . . Average 30. . . 

30 Good maturity , 

30 



Miller, Solomon, 

Hope, Geo 

McLane, A. M. , 



J40 

500^55. 



■Gibson, John. 
Thompson, S . 
Haney, A. W. 



30 

Expect average 

probably 28 or 30 . . 

About 28 40 . 

28 30 

I About 28 35 on Spring backsett- 

i i ing 

;I expect it will yield 26 

j as it is a good crop . . i 
20 40 



Hall, W. B 

McKellar 

Harrison, D. H. 
Taylor, Wm.. .. 
Stevenson, G. B , 



Heaslip, J. J. . .. 
Coay, Thomas.. , 
Pollard, Alfd. . . . 
McGhee, James. . 
Austin, A., senr. 
Purdy, Thos .... 



26 on land broken last 

year, not backset ... 
25 to 30 About 30 . 

40 

25 to 30 About 30 . 

25 to 30 Fully 50 . 

25, and likely 30 ; 



Smith, Wm, 
Lang, Robt . 



25 to 30 About 25 

25 to 30 ; 

Averaging 25 Averaging 60 

25 35 

About 25 

Estimated at 25 25 ; land not well tilled 



About 25 40 . 

25-'-- i35- 



Oats. 



50 to 60 

50 
Average 50 

50 
60 

70 

Probably 40 

Between 50 and 60 
50 

25, on Spring backsetting 
50 

About 45 

75, on land broken last year, 

and not backset. 

About 40 

40 
50 to 60 
About 40 
Only about 40 ; last year 
I had 65 
From 50 to 70 
About 50 or 60 on average 
Averagi"g 50 
40 
About 40 
40, badly tilled ; on ac- 
count of dry weather, 
last year did not rot. 
40 

45 



Roots and Vegetables. 



All root crops yield well, turnips standing next to potatoes in area of cultivation. 
They are in no reported instance jnfested by flies or otlier insects. Mangold-wurzels 
and carrots are not "cultivated as field crops to any great extent. 

All garden vegetables produce prolific crops, and the Province sustains an extraor- 
dinary reputation for their production. During recent years a very large and general 
increase has taken place in the acreage devoted to the cultivation of garden products. 
In the earlier years of the Province's history new settlers had but liitle time to devote to 
gardening, but once having got their farms into good working order, they are 
devoting more attention to it, with most satisfactory results. 



80 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST, 



The following are instances taken from farmers' reports of success in the growth 
of vegetables, and in conjunction with these reports it must be remembered that very 
few, if any, of these farmers used special means to produce these results. The question 
asked was : *' What yield of vegetables have you had, and what is your experince in 
raising them ?" For postal address of each settler, see pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 



Name. 



Answer, in bushels per acre. 




Dicken, George. 



Yardley, Henry , 
Proctor, Henry . . 



Knight, W. G. 



Jeffrey, William, 
Blythe, R 



Field, Edward. 



Pollard, Alfred. 



Orr, James D . . , 
Lothian, James. 



McGhee, j .s 

Gibson, Wm 



Bruce, George . 

Mitchell, John.. 

Middleton, Alex 



'Have had carrots 12 inches round, and grown cucumbers successfully in the open. 
I ]>eans and potatoes very good, better than I ever raised in England with 20 
I years' experience. Turnips very good, anl mangolds good. 
'Potatoes, 300. I have grown in the gardi u beans, peas, carrots, parsnips, beets, 

cabbage, (several kinds), onions. Witli attention all do well. 
(Potatoes, 300, well manured ; turnips, 600, well manured; Carrots and peas, 

beans and flax, have also done well in small lots. I have grown almost all 

kinds of vegetables with the best results. 
Potatoes, about 160. All kinds of garden produce grow luxuriously ; that is, 

all and every kind that can be grown in England, and do not require manure 

for some years. 
I have grown almost all kinds, and the quality is splendid. 
Potatoes, 150, on the breaking ; my beans were frozen. The first year it is 

not well to sow vegetables on the breaking, except for home use, other- 
wise, after the ground has been properly worked, nearly all vegetables thriv j 

well. 
Potatoes, 300 ; turnips, from 500 to 700. Carrots, peas and beans, I have only 

grown on a small scale ; the yield is good. Vegetables are a great success in 

this country, and come on very rapidly. I have grown potatoes, onions, 

carrots, beets, corn, cucumbers, parsnips, radishes, lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, 

cauliflower, melon ; in fact same as we grow in England. 
Potatoes, 300. An abundant crop of turnips, carrots, peas and beans. My 

vegetables have this year generally been a failure. I have grown almost every 

description of vegetables with great success. 
Potatoes, 300 ; turnips, 400. I have only grown vegetables in the garden, but 

they all do extremely well. 
Potatoes, 300. Have raised ca^^bages, carrots, onions and beet, all of which did 

well. With a little experience of the climate, I believe gardening can be made 

a success in all sorts of vegetables. 
Potatoes, 100. This country is second to none for vegetables. 
Potatoes, 200. Cabbage, Scotch kail, rhubarb, onions, carrots, turnips, parsley, 

peas, pumpkins and sage, all do well with climate and soil. We have used 

potatoes two months after planting them. 
Potatoes, 400. I have grown almost every kind of cabbage and garden stuff you 

can mention. I have lifted cabbage this fall 20 lbs. in weight. 
Potatoes, 180. Turnips, carrots, onions, beets, parsnips, parsley, lettuce, and 

radishes all grow well. I have not made such headway with cabbage. 

Rhubarb grows splendidly. 
I find no difficulty in growing any of the vegetables I was acquainted with in. 

Scotland. They all require to be sown early in the season. 



I .MUXOU^ t^ ^ ■■•--■'» jiJU.fc 



PLAIN FACTS 



10 THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



SI 



1 ; 




Parley, W. D 



Prat, J no , 



Miller, Solomon , 
McGill, George . 



Smith, William. 
Ingrain, W. A.. 
Lawrie, J. M. . . 
Doyle, W. A... 



Sheppard, Jos . . . 
Stevenson, T. W . 



Potatoes grow splendidly, and of fine quality, without manure. Carrots will 

grow fine, but have not had much experience. Peas grow splendidly. I be- 
lieve manure would help and produce a large crop, but for quality, the present 

can't be excelled. 
Have some parsnips grown on land which had a crop of peas and potatoes on it 

last, and no manure put on it, and took one or two potatoes, a week ago, 

which were 2^ inches in diameter, and long in proportion. 
Potatoes, 400 ; turnips, 750. 
Potatoes average 250 bushels (of 60 lbs.) per acre. Never saw a better crop of 

potatoes, in any country, than I have this year. Turnips, carrots, peas, beans, 

and flax, are good. 
Potatoes, 300; turnips, 800. Have also grown carrots, parsnips, onions, cabbage, 

cauliflowers, pumpkins, melons, citrons, cucumbers, lettuce, squash, tomatoes 

and raddish. 
Potatoes, 300 to 500 ; turnips, carrots and beans do well ; peas 30, and flax 20. 

Everything in the way of vegetables does immensely, except Indian corn and 

tomatoes, whicli I do not find as yet a success. 
Potatoes, 250. Only rais-ed turnips and carrots in garden, but they would do 

well here. My experience is that vegetables cannot be raised more successfully 

in any other country. 
Potatoes, about 250; peas, about 25. Have never seen vegetables equal to those 

of Manitoba. We cannot raise squash, melons or pumpkins to maturity, 

however. Carrots, beets, maize, onions, salsify, celery, chicory, radishes and 

cucumViers all do unusualy well with us. 
Potatoes, 200; peas, 60 lbs. per acre. Vegetables very good; you can raise every 

kind to perfection. 

Turnips not attended to would have produced 400 or 500 
acre. I never saw as fine vegetables anywhere else, except 



;co. 



• • • • • • • 



Depell, John . 
Walker, J. C, 



Mooney, Jno. 



Horner, T. R. , . . . . , 



Potatoes, 

bushels 

turnips. 
Potatoes, 359; turnips, 800. 



per 



Peas do well. Vegetables do very well. 



Davis, Jno. B. 



• • t • • • 



"Powers, C. F 

Rutherford, J . . . # 



Potatoes, 300; turnips, 600; carrots, 300; peas, 30 and beans, 40. Have grown 

with t;()(id results; potatoes, turnips, mangold-wurtzels, beets, carrots, parsnips, 

onions, radishes, cabbages, cauliflowers and many others. 
Potatoes, from 300 to 400. Turnips 600, and peas 30. All vegetables do well. 

Have also grown carrots, beets, cabbage, tomatoes, squash, citron, onions, 

rhubarl) and pumpkins. 
I never saw vegetables grown to liettcr success than here ; in fact, they are the 

surest crops we can grovw 1 have grown potatoes, turnips, carrots and beets 

with perfect satisfaction. 
Potatoes 300, turnips 600, carrots 600, peas 30, beans 25, and flax 30. Have 

also grown cabbage, beets, tomatoes, radishes, onions, salsify, pie plant, 

lettuce, ]nnnpkins, grai)es, artichokes, pepper and parsnips. 
Potatoes 200, turnips 500, carrots 400, peas 30. Peans do well. All vegetables 

can be grown with great success. 
Potatoes 350, turnips 600 to Soo, carrots 400 to 500, and peas 40 to 50. I have 

grown successfully : — Cabbage, carrots, parsnips, beets, onions, lettuce, 

radishes, beans, iS-c. 



:fl 

I ; I 
r { ■ 
i ■ ' 



'S 



li 



82 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



Bobier, Thos . 



Patterson, Abr.. 

Fraser, D. D... 

Osborne, Daniel 

Harrison, D. H. 
Thompson, S... 



Rawson, James. 



Answer, in bushels per acre. 



Stevenson, G. B . . 

Stirton, James.. ., 

Slater, C.B , 

Burgess, J. W . . , , 
Connerson, James 



Potatoes, about 300. Turnips generally have not done well this year, the weather 
being very dry when they were sown in the spring. I never grew any except 
in the garden ; these are excellent. Have grown peas two years ; they do 
first-class here. Beans can be grown here in abundance. I have grown the 
finest potatoes that I ever grew in my life, both in quantity and quality. 
Carrots, cabbage, cauliflowers and other garden stuff grown in this country, 
are of the very best quality. 
Potatoes, from 250 to 300, and turnips, 500. Carrots average 450. All kinds- 
of vegetables grow well. I have also grown beet, onions, radishes, cabbage, 
cauliflower, melon, citron and cucumbers. 
Potatoes, turnips, carrots, peas, beans and flax do very well, without any care 
and trouble. If the seed is only sown early, with care and cultivation, the 
yield is enormous. 
Potatoes, 200 bushels from half acre. The yield of turnips and carrots was poor» 
owing to the drought in the spring. Flax was good. Vegetables did fairly. 
All cullender vegetables do well here. 
Potatoes, 300; really magnificent. Also turnips, carrots and mangolds; the 

latter yield well. Cabbages and cauliflowers do well. 
Potatoes, about 350. I had nine waggon loads (about 30 bushels each) of 
turnips off half an acre last year. Carrots, 500; peas, 50 bushels off two 
acres one year ; beans, 40 to 60 ; flax 15. All kinds do well here ; cabbages, 
cauliflowers, beets, melons, cucumbers, &'c. Onions do splendidly. Tomatoes 
are not a success ; we have lots of them, but they are green yet (Sep- 
tember. ) 
My potatoes are the best I ever saw in this country. Turnip, very heavy yield, 
also carrots ; peas, 3c. This equals any country for the growth of vegetation. 
Have grown beets, onions, melons, citrons, cucumbers, pumpkins, tomatoes, 
radishes, celery and lettuces. 
Potatoes, 400, and peas 40. All garden vegetables usually grown on a farm, 
grow first class. Onions and cabbages grow extra large and are of fine 
quality. 

I had a fair crop of potatoes this year. My turnips were poor on breaking. The 
yield of carrots was good, but frost killed my beans. Carrots, cabbages, onions,, 
parsnips, potatoes and beets are all doing well. 
Potatoes 500, turnips 1,000. Have also grown beets. 

Potatoes 200, turnips about 250, and peas and beans from 14 to 15. I think 
I could raise about 300 bushels of carrots per acre. Vegetables grow 
first-class. Sweet corn, cabbages, carrots and long and turnip beets 
grow to perfection; tomatoes splendidly; onions in abundance. Have also 
grown celery, musk and water melons, dfc. Took $15 prize money two- 
years ago. .^ZT". 

Yield of potatoes and turnips heavy ; carrots are simply immense ; peas are not. 
good here, the land is too heavy ; beans do well, and flax yields from 20- 
to 30. This is a splendid country for vegetables. I have also grown 
mangold-wurtzels, onions, beets, parsnips, tomatoes, cucumbers, melons, 
citrons, squash, celery, cabbage, cauliflower, radishes, kail, brussels sprouts, 
lettuce, salsify and mushrooms. I have the Provincial Diploma for the best, 
collection of garden vegetables. 



Chamb« 



ill 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



38 




Chambers, W. 



Bole, J 

Day, S. D. A 

McDonald, jW. M . . . . 
McLean, J. A 

Speers, A. R 



Potatoes 300, turnips 1,000, ^nd white Belgian carrots 500. Drought affected 
my peas this year, but they will yield 25 ; beans do well here. A little 
capital invested in flax seed culture and the manufacture of twim.' or .ord for 
our self- binding machines, would result in great wealth. Onions, table cairots, 
parsnips, beets, turnips, radishes, lettuces, melons, tomatoes, peas, parsley, 
and all sorts of garden and field vegetables can be grown heie to [>f.rU ction ; 
at least, that is my usual experience. 

Potatoes 300. All kinds of vegetables do well in the North-West when the 
ground is properly prepared. 

Potatoes about 400 ; turnips 600, and peas 20. Have very fine cabbage, rarrots, 
turnips, beans, parsnips, beets, onions, lettuce, spinach, rhubarb, radishes and 
cucumbers. Have raised tomatoes and Indian corn, but not with success. 

Potatoes 500; turnips 1,000, and peas 30. 

Potatoes 409, sometimes more ; turnips from 400 to 600. Peas and beans do 
well. Any and every kind of vegetable does wonderfully well in this couniry. 
I believe there is no better country in the known world that can come up to the 
country for vegetables. 

Potatoes 400, turnips 1,000, peas 30, flax 40. Carrots remarkably good crop ; 
beans yield splendid. 



i! 



The Use of Manure. 



Fertilizers are not used in the North-West, for they are not needed, and common 
manure is used but sparingly. The land is, indeed, in most cases, so rich that the using 
of it during the first years of cultivation would be apt to encourage the growth of straw, 
and make the crops too rank. After the second year manure in limited quantities may 
be used with advantage to prevent any exhaustion of the land. 

This is the general experience of settlers to be found related with their opinions on 
many other useful subjects in an additional pamphlet, to be had free on application to 
Mr. Begg, Canadian Pacific Offices, 88. Cannon Street, London: — '' When you have it, 
put it on your light land, don't waste it ; but it is not necessary for years." One settler, 
Mr. William Gibson, of Loganstone Farm, Wolseley, says : " I have used manure to a few 
potatoes to try the effect it had along with others planted without manure, and they did 
no better with it." 

Stock Raising and the Hay Supply, 

The general healthiness of the climate and the favorable conditions for feeding 
horses, cattle, and sheep, make stock-raising a most profitable industry. The boundless 
prairies, covered with luxuriant grasses, giving an unusually large yield, and the cool 
nights for which Manitoba is famous, are most beneficial features in regard to stock ; and 
the remarkable dryness and healthiness of the winter tend to make cattle fat and well- 
ondi^ioned The easy access to good water -s another advantage in stock-raising. The 



I, 



li 



84 



PtATN PACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WKST. 



abundance of hay almost everywhere makes it an easy matter for farmers to winter their 
stock ; and in addition to this there is, and always will be, a ready home market for 
beef. 

Owinp; to the abundance and excellence of prairie hay, little has hitherto been done 
in the cultivation of p^rasses, though what small quantity is cultivated is largely of the 
Timothy and HungaiioU classes. The average yield of hay per acre is 2^ to 3 tons; 
sometimes 4 tons are gathered, and in wet seasons as many as five tons. The crop of 
1882 was an abundant one, and was generally saved in good condition, while, in 1883 
almost a double vield was gathered. 

On these points the experience of settlers is especially valuable. Their statements 
answer the questiojis : " How many horses and cattle have you ? Have you plenty 
of hay, nnd do cattle thrive on the wild prairie grasses ? How do your animals 
thrive in winter, rnd where do you stock them ?" For postal address of each settler, 
seepages 3. 4, 5,, 6, 7 or 8. 



Name. 



Dickin, George. 



Tlind, 'Brothers.. 
Urton, W. S..., 



Yardiy, Henry. 



Philips, S,... 
Hutchison, A. 



Mercer, Jas . . . 
Kni-rht, W. G, 



Field, Edward.. . , 




[7 cattle. Cnn rut 20 tons, and can get other on government land. Cattle 
do equnlly as well ar, they did in pastures in England ; they thrive well in 
winter with liie same shelter they get there, pole and hay stable. 

I hoi se and ten head of cattle. Yes. Cattle do well ; wintered first-class. 

5 horses and i co^v. Yes. CnUlo do splendidly, better than on English hay. 
They n\v. stnliled in winter during very bad days, but are turned out most 
days. 

I hnve 3 oxen and two yearling steers. I have sufficient hay for 20 head of cattle; 
liey th.iive first-class. Last winter I took 12 head of cattle from a neighbour. 
Ihev came out in the spring equal to when I was in England. I kept them in 
open sheds with yards last winter. My neighbour has his in stables, and they 
do not do as well as mine. 

30 hordes and :?o head of cattle. Plenty of hay ; cattle get fat in summer on the 
]Maine grp-.se--. I house them in a log stable during winter. 

:?o head oi" cattle, 3 horses, 19 sheep and 2 pigs. Yes; cattle get very fat on 
the prairie grass in .summer ; they do well in the stable in winter. I fed 
tl.em on liay alone last winter; this wir.ler I intend using grain and roots in 
small qunnlities. 

Lead of cattle at the present time. Plenty of hay. Cattle thrive well on wild 
graspo?. 1 have wintered over twice the above numlx;r of cattle. I stable 
ynung c.ttle. large cattle run loose in ojien sheds. 

Xo iiorses, 45 luiad of cattle Plenty of hay. My thoroughbred short-horns 
have nothing but the wild grasses of the country, and they are in splendid 
conditon, in fict quite fat. I sliould t;ike a prize for Christmas beef in Eng- 
land ; the b(t f cannot be beaten. Cattle thrive well in winter, on hay only. 
Some are in stables and some out. 

Plcrty of hay. Cattle undoubtedly thrive well in winter, and get very fat 
in summer. Ilotli horses and cattle do well in the winter in the stable at 
nij^ht. Heifers, steers, cSr-x., in open sheds. Native horses and half-bred 
horses thrive well out on the prairie all winter, if you have no work for 
them. 



-•K 



heir 
for 



§ 



> 

§ 

O 

> 

Si 

n 

► 

i 



I 



>1 




PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



86 




Pollard, Alfred .... 
Robertson, P 

Cowlord, C 

Gibson, Wm 

Bruce, George 

MidiUeton, Alex 

Wamock, Wm 

Reid, Alex. , 

Fraser, John 

Perley, W. D 

Malhoit, Z 

McGill, Geo 

Grimmett, D. W 

Purdy, Thos. F 

Downie, Jno 

McBean, A 



I house them in 



do well 
oul every 



on 

(liiy, 



it. 
if 



1 let them 
can wish. I winter thi^ni in log 



A scarcity of hay in this part. Cattle thrive wonderfully. 

winter, and feed them on straw, hay, and roots. 
3 horses and 12 cattle. Plenty of prairie hay, and cattle 

They get on well in stable in winter. 

possible. 
67 cattle and 3 horses. Cattle do all that I 

stables. 
3 horses, 2 colts, I pair of oxen, 2 cows, r tjull and 2 slieep. T have hay in 

abundance ; cut it this summer 66 inche? lonjj ; and cattle get fat nn it without 

any other seed in winter. I winter cattle in log stables, and they get nothing 

but hay. Horses have hay, with a little nnts. 
18 head of cattle. They do well on prairii- hay, and do well all winicr. 

2 work oxen and cow and 2 calves. Il.iy has been difficult to put up owing to 
lij^^Iit crop. Cattle thrive on wild grass. When well housed ; they thrive well 
in winter on hay and water, witli a liltle salt. 

3 horses and 15 cattle. I have enout;!! hay for prei^ent stock ; they do lietter on 
wild hay. 1 winter my horses and milk cows in stable; steers and young 
stock in shed open to the south, and they thrive well. 

Plenty of hay. Cattle do splemlidly on the wild grasses, better than on some 

hay. They thrive well in winter ; I stahlu them at night and let them oul 

during the day. 
7 head of cattle and team of horses, T'lenty of hay, and cattle come out 

fat on with nothing but prairie hay in spring ; they do well in stable in 

winter. 

1 have only a small stock, but they do fine in winter. I have not much hay, 
but the prairie grass all over the N. W. far exceeds thebe.'it quality of cultivated 
hay in the East. I never saw so line and fat animals as this prairie grass will 
make. 

18 horses. Plenty of hay; and cattle are doing very well. I winter them in a 
frame stable, and tliey do first-class. 

2 horses, 3 cows, and some young stock. Cattle winter better on prairie hay in 
this climate than they do in Ontario. A better name for it would be '* lawn 
hay," a quality well understood in Europe, 1 keep the cattle in vouvili v.eailier 
in winter, and they winter easily, 

1 yoke oxen and 2 ponies. Plenty of very nutritious hay. Cattle fatten on it 
in winter. I can put it up at 200 dols, per ton, and make money. 1 winter 
my stock in sod and strew stable, and they thrive well, that is, when I fatten 
them. 

6 horses, 4 o.xen, 2 cows, and 2 yearlings. Play plenty in certain localities. Cattle 
do splendidly ; never saw them get so fat on grass. I have a barn 16 by 45 
dug in bank; it will house 16 head, horses and cattle. Loft on top ; will 
hold 10 tons of hay. 'Ihe cattle do well in winter. 

2 horses and 12 cattle. Plenty of hay ; cattle fed on the hay here are fit for the 
butcher in spring. I keep them in winter most generally in stables ; they are 
rolling fat in the spring on hay and water. 

15 horses and 50 cattle. Cattle thrive well on wild grasses ; I winter them all 
inside and they thrive very well, where feed can be obtained. 



li 



36 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTl- WEST. 




Sinett, Wm. F. 



Doyle, W. A. 



Lang, Robt 

Riddle, Robt 

Pollock, John.. .. 
Powers, C. F 



Rutherford, J... 
Bobier, Thomas. 



Little, James 

Mc Knight, R. . ... < 



Vandervoort, Geo . 



Black, G. R 

Howey, Wm ..... 
Gilmour, H. C, ., 



4 horses and seven head of cattle. Plenty of hay ; cattle do better here than on 
the cultivated grasses or in the woods of Ontario. 1 stable Ihem at night 
in the winter and keep them in a yard in the daytime; they tlnive well. I 
milked my co'-'s nearly all winter, bull and young stock lived at the straw 
stack all winter. 

2 hol•se^ and 47 head of cattle and hogs. PLnty of ha> ; my cattle do not 
net seem to want anything but the wild hay if well cured, and they 
winter well without buildings it in tinchel out of wind. Tlie working 
bullocks, milk cows and calves fire stabled in winter, the balance have 
siieds as windbrakes severely, and a belt of tinchei to shelter from winds 
also. 

I /> horses and 35 horned grades which do well. Plenty of hay. Never saw 
cattle ('o better ; my stoc'' does well in log stal)les during winter. 

2 horses and head of ratth;. I hnvc an abundance of hay. Cattle do well. I 
winter my stock in the open-air she Is, and they thrive well. 

1 have I yoke of cattle. iMenty of hay, and cattle do very well on it without 
grain. They do spbndidly in winter in a st::.l)le of .sods or logs. 

10 horse?,, 10 cattle and 20 sheep. 1 have 20 acres of Timothy, plenty of 
wild hay. Cattle all do v/ell. I winter my stock in stables made from 
logs, and covered with straw. Cattle and slieep do better than in 
Ontario. 

2 horses, i yoke of oxen, 3 cows, 2 two year olds, I one year old, and 5 
calves. I winter my slock in the house when very cold, ( tlierwise let 
them have their liberty, as stock tb'ive best to get their liberty to move 
about. 

I cut 100 tons of liay (iiandless). Thousands of cattle in Ontario, and had 
j 600 acres under i->asture there, but never had cattle do so well in Ontario. 
I Ca'tle and horses do very well in winter, and the gnat reason is that there are 

no rain or sleet storms here during winter. I winter my stock in a stable built 

of i>oplar posts sunk in grtmnd, sided with luml)cr and sodded, covered with 

pole.s and straw. 
All kinds of sti ck do well here. There is all tlie hay that I require. I winter 

•Tij >tock in stables, and some out of doors wlierv.- there is shelter. 
4 liorses and 29 cattle. Any amount of hay. Cattle do well on prairie grass. 

In winter 1 stable my stock at niglits, and run out during dayc ; they are no 

trouble to keep faf. 
J lorses and 2 cows. There is a poodly supply of hay, and cattle thrive better 

on wild hay tlian they do on cultivated. In winter I stable horses and milch 

cows, but Itt the young run in an open shod around the straw stack. They 

tlirive splendidly, only 1 think horses nvpure a little more grain than they do 

in Ontario. 
9 horses and c.ittle. No hay, bnt entile do exceedingly well on the wild 

grasses. I stable my stock in ',sint<.r with straw and a little grain. I have 

no trouble. 
4 horses, 'ind 8 head of cattle 

winter. 1 winter my cows 

well. 
We have a team of horses, and 28 head of cattle. We have plenty of hay, and 

cattle do :^ccedingly well on it. Tliey winter well in u log stable on the open 

p.iairie. 



, lots of hay ; cattle keep fat on it all the 
in stables, young stock outside, and they do 



Hart 
Sma 
EUic 



and 
fibr 
She 
occ 



giv< 
5,^ 



Did 
Urt 
Yar 
Hut 

Pro 

Mei 
Lav 

Pol 
Rol 




PLAIN FACTS AS TO THK CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



37 



Name. 



Answer. 



Hartney, J. H. 



Smar;, George. 
Elliott, T.D... 



! 1 1 hor.es, 2 mules and 4 hra<l cattle. Plenty of hay, and homed cattle thrive 
exceedingly well on prairie liay. Up to this time I have wintered my stock 
in log stable, covered with poles and straw, and they tlirive well. 

2 horses and $ cattle. Plenty of hay, and cattle thrive well on wild grass. In 
winter I feed my stock on prairie hay, and let them run at straw stack. 
They are as fat in the spring as in Ontario in the fall. 

13 horse kind and 10 of cattle. Plenty of hay, and cattle do well. They all do 
well in winter in sheds made of straw. ^ 



Sheep Raising. 

Sheep-growing is now becoming an important industry in the Can.xdian North- West, 
and the cHmatic conditions are such as to render the yield of wool much finer and the 
fibre considerably shorter than that from the same class or breed of sheei* elsewhere. 
Sheep have been entirely free from disease in the North West, and foot-roi has never 
occurred so far as can be ascertained. 

" Do sheep thrive in the Canadian North- West, and is sheep-raising profitable ?" 



i 



In answer m^ this question 57 settlers replie d " Yes,'' The re])lies of the others are 
given below. The full name and post^liddress of each settler are given on pages 3, 4, 
5, 6, 7 or 8. 



Name. 



Dickens, G 

Urton, W. S 

Yardley, H 

Hutchinson, A,. 

Proctor, H 

Mercer, J 

Lawrence, J 

Pollard, A 

Robertson, P 



Answer. 



Yes, only cannot get them here to suit the settlers in small lots. 
They thrive well and are very profitable. 
In my opinion sheep will do well ; very profitable. 

Am testing the above now, and believe they will both thrive and be profit- 
able. 
Very profitable and do well. 

Yes, sheep thrive well and are profitable. 

Yes. I don't think there is anything that will pay better. They do much better 

than in England or Ontario. 
Should like to go in for this branch largely, if means were forthcoming. 
Sheep require a great deal of attention in this country. No doubt they could 

be raised to pay well here. 






^ 



38 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THK CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 







Upjohn, F. , 
Harward, F. 



McGhco, J 

Bruce, G ..... . 

Warnock, Wm. 
Fraser, John. . . 

Giang, J 

I'urdy, T. F... 
Davis, W. 11... 



•••••• 



Rogers, T. 
Downie, J . 



Anderson, George. 
Young, J . M. L . . 



noyle, W. A.... 
Armstrong, Geo. 
Walker,]. C... 

Riddle, R . 

Wat, J 

Powers, C. F , . . 
Rutherford, J . . . , 

Carter, T 

Robier, T 



Warren, R. T... 

Mcknight, R 

Chambers, S. W, 
Patterson, A . . . 
Little, J........ 

McLennan, T . . . 



McKenzie, D . . 
Gilmour, H. C. 



Ogletree, F . . . . , 

Harris, J 

Smart, G 

Elliott, T. D..., 

Shiik, J. M 

Chesler, A , 

Lambert, W. M. 
Boulding, G. W, 
Mcintyre, J. . ... 
Wagner, W . . . . 



In this location they do well. No stock pays so well, and they are neither 

trouble or cost. 
Sheep are scarce, but do well. I find them unu .ofitable for want of miUs in my 

neighborhood. 
They do very well. Sheep raising is very profitable. 
Sheep thrive well hv. .t and are very profitable. 
Yes ; have found them do splendidly, with fair profit. 
Yes, sheep do well ; very profitable . 
Yes, for those who have capital to put into it. 
Sheep do well ; very profitable at present. 
Sheep thrive well, but would not pay in this part yet, as there are no woollen 

manufactories in this part- 
Sheep, I feel sure, will do well, and be profitable. 
The best sheep I ever saw were raised in Manitoba. I saw mutton with three 

inches of fat un the rib. , Sheep raising is profitable. 
I have some sheep ; they thrive well, and would be profitable. 
Sheep do well in some parts, but the spear grass in some places gets into their 

wool, and is severe on them. 
Yes ; will be profitable when market for wool is obtained. 
Yes, particularly well, being profitable for mutton. 
Sheep do well and pay well. 
They thrive well and are profitable. 
Yes, if we had a market for wool. 
I tliiuk the most profitable of any stock. 
Thrive well and are profitable to those who have them. 
Where there is no spear grass they do well and pay well. 
They do well, and will pay the man that raises them, as the wool and meat are 

needed in the country. 
Thrive well. 

Sheep do well, they are a paying stock. 

Sheep thrive well. Nothing I know of would be more profitable. 
Sheep thrive wt-11, and [ think would be profitable if there were more. 
Sheep thrive well and are very profitable. 
Yes, sheep thrive, and sheep .aising is profitable. It would be more so if 

there were wool factories in this neighborhood. Good inducements for 

some enterprising man. 
Sheep do well ; they are profitable. 
I have a small flock of sheep, and they do exceedingly well. I think it very 

profitable. 
They thrive well, but I do not consider them very profitable at present. 
Sheep have been tried in this country and do very well, and are profitable. 
Yes; no demand for wool, as yet, in this part, else it would pay better. 
This is a first-class sheep country, 
i'es, it is considered profitable. 

There are not many sheep here. What there are do well. 
Sheep do well and are profitable. 
Do well, with profit. 
Sheep thrive well and are profitable. 
Yes, and pay well. Farmers get from 12 to 14 cents per pound in carcase 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO TKE CANADIAN NORIH-Wl-ST. 



39 



■* I 



Name. 


Answer. 


Nelson, R... 


Yes, they do well and will pay. 

Sheep do splendidly, and pay Ijctter to raise than any other stock. 

Sheep thrive well in different parts of the country. 

Sheep raising is very profitable, if on a liigh scale. 

They thrive well. 

Do veay well and pay well. 

It is a first-class country for sheep raising. 

Yes, very well and profitable by keeping them Iry in winter. 

No, unless on cultivated land. 

They thrive well and will be profitable. 

Yes. I believe it would be iirodtable if nronei'l'/ nttended to. 


Stirton, T 




McDonell, D 

Wilson,J 


Heanev. T • 


Fareey. T. H 


Connerson. T. ........ 


Rorison, W. D 

McKenzie, K 

Kennedy. T 


Harris. A. B 


They thrive well, but get too fat to bieod to aJ. iiitage. No fair trial has yet 

been made in this vicinity. 
Sheep are considered very profitable and thrive woll. 
All the sheep I have seen are doing well and will be profitable. 
Yes, they thrive well and it will be profitable to keep them. 
Our sheep do exceedingly well ; tliey run the jiiairie in summer, nad are under 

ahed in winter. 
Sheep thrive well and are profitable. 
They do splendidly. 
Yes, very profitable. 
Sheep thrive very well and are found to be very profitable. 


Bartlev. N 


Chambers, W 

Garratt and Ferguson . 
Todd. P. R 


Sutherland, W. R 

Hoard. C 


Soeers. A. R... ....•» 


Cox, W 





Horses, Pigs and Poultry. 



The raising of horses has not as yet assumed any considcnihle proportions, tliough 
what has been done in this direction has met with success. There are few countries 
where the horses ha^'e such immunity from the diseases of stuck as they have in the 
North-West. 

As to pigs, the Berkshire breed seems b' t suited to the country, as the pigs of this 
class mature rapidly and fatten easily, living w,. he grass and making good nork in six 
or seven months with proper feeding. The breeding and fattening of ,)i^ increased 
considerably in 1882 and subsequent yei;rs, and no dii^< ,se was reported amcnig them. 

Poultry do exceedingly well in the North- West, especially turke^^s, owinij to the dry- 
ness of the climate. Manitoba is itself the home of the wild duck, goose and chicken, and 
those who devote care and attention to the raising of poultry are sure of i ,U' •od return. 

It is important to add that no disease of a contagious or infectious char icter exists 
among the cattle and sheep of the Nortli-West, and that evey care is taken by the 
Provincial Government to promote the interest of breeders. Among the more recent 
measures adopted is the appointment of veterinary surgeons in eac!i countv.to look after 
the interests of stock raisers, and to carry out the stringent reguluiio , now in force to 
prevent the introduction of disease among cattle and horses. 



J : 



40 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



11 



Eaising of Bees. 



Apiculture is successfully carried on in .he North-West, as bees require a clear, dry 
atmosphere and a rich harvest of flowers ; if the air is damp, or the weather cloudy, they 
wii] not work so well. Another reason why they work less in a warm climate is that 
the honey gathered remains fluid for sealing a longer time, and if gathered faster than it 
thickens, it sours and spoils. The clear bright skies, dry air and rich flora are therefore 
well adapted to bee culture. 

Fruits. 

Wild fruits, attaining to great perfection, abound in Manitoba and the North-West. 
Wild plums, grapes, raspberries, gooseberries, strawberries, cherries, cranberries, and 
other berries of various kii. ds abound and are of luscious quality. Little attention has 
hitherto been paid to fruit growing, owing to the time of settlers being too much occu- 
pied with the important work ot erecting buildings, and getting their lands fairly under 
cultivation, but as the general improvement of the farms progresses, fruit culture will 
doubtless receive its due share of attencion. Following are but a few representative 
statements from farmers on the subject ; a remarkable array of testimony on the subject 
may be found in the pamphlet to be had free on application to Mr. Begg, Canadian 
Pacific Railway Oflftces, 88 Cannon Street, London, E.C. 

*♦ Strawberries, currants, gooseberries, raspberries, and in fact all small fruits, bear in the greatest 
abundance and give every promise of being very profitable. 

"W. A. Farmer, Headingly." 
•\Planted^twenty apple trees_two'ycars ago, which Jare growing very well. 

" Arthur J. Moore, Nelsonville." 
*• I have over l,ooo apple trees doing very well, and also excellent bleck currants. 

"James Armson, High Bluff" 
«• Strawberry, raspberry, brambleberry, gooseberry, blackcurrant, cherry, cranberry, saskatoonberry, 
and others. Mrs. Gibson has made over too lbs. of jelly this summer from wild fruit. 

" William Gibson, Loganstone Farm, Wolseley." 
" I planted this spring currants, gooseberries, and mull berries, and so far they are doing well. 

"John Prat, Rounthwaite." 
••Currants, gooseberries, strawberries, plums, cherries, raspberries, huckleberries, in profusion. 
Only commencing with apple trees and cultivated fruits ; going in for a nursery. 

•' Thomas Rogers, Railway View Farm, Moose Jaw." 

•• Plums, black, white, and red currants, strawberries, raspberries, and saskatoons. Rhubarb does 
remarkably well. 

«« W. F. Sirett, Glendale P. O." 



Hops. 



Wild hops, pronounced by brewers to be of excellent quality for brewing purposes, 
attain to a luxuriant growth in nearly every portion of Manitoba, the soil and climate 
being apparently thoroughly suited to them. Hops from these parts have for some time 
past commanded good prices, and the cultivation of the hop plant is believed to be most 
profitable to the grower. A resident settler, writing on this subject, says : — 



I 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



41 



" Hops will do well cultivated. I have planted wild hops out of the bush ii.'r td-j garden along the 
fence and trained on poles, bearing as full and fine and as large as any I ever saw at Yalding and Staple- 
nurst, la Kent, England. 

"Louis Dunesing (Emerson)." 



Flax and Hemp. 



These important crops were cultivated to a considerable ex^^'^nt by old settlers many 
years ago, the product being of excellent quality ; but the universal complaint at that 
time was the want of a market, or of a machinery to work up uie raw material, and this led 
them to discontinue this important branch of husbandry. Its cultivation has been 
renewed extensively by the Russian Mennonite settlers, on whose reserves in the 
southern portion of Manitoba a consideiable quantity is produced. At West Lynne alone 
over 6,000 bushels were brought in durir.g the first week in December, alone, in one 
year, averaging 3oc. ^3S. 4d.) per bushel. Flax is peculiarly suited to the Province, and 
so much is tiiis felt that an English capitalist has started in Winnipeg an extensive 
linseed-oil mill. This fact and the demand for flax seed that must necessarily arise, will 
still further increase the area of its cultivation. It can only be raised successfully in a 
cool region, the warm climates of the south causing the bark to become brittle and hard, 
and the rapidity with which it there matures preventing the lint from obtaining consistency 
or tenacity. On account of their extremely favourable climate for this cereal, Manitoba 
and the North- West territories are likely to prove formidable rivals to northern Europe 
in its cultivation. 



Sport in the North- West. 



The autumn months afford a good opportunity for hunting and sport among settlers 
and visitors to the Canadian North- West. Useful hints are given on this question in the 
general pamphlet, " Manitoba and the Canadian North- West." From these it will have 
been seen that for the English sportsman there is no lack of opportunity for excellent 
hunting, and it will therefore be of general interest to supplement the particulars already 
published by the following notes on the game and fish of the country, from the pen of 
the President of the Manitoba Gun Club : — 

DUCKS. — Manitoba and the North- West Territories are the nursery for nearly all 
kinds of the duck species, and breeding-grounds for almost all the migratory birds of 
North America. Instinctively taught, they begin to arrive as soon as the snow disappears 
and remain until the ice coats the lakes and rivers. Led by nature, they come in full 
plumage, build their nests, hatch their young, and draw numerous sportsmen from the 
Eastern Canadian Provinces and England to the otherwise deserted districts. The differ- 



I I 



42 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



ent varieties are as follows : — Mallard, canvas-back, red-head or pochard, grey duck, 
black duck, teal, widgeon, pin-tail, shoveller, buffet-head, wood duck, blue-bill, shell 
drake and many other well-known species. These are our regular visitors. 

Within twenty miles of VVinnijjeg they can be found in myriads. Headingly Marsh, 
English Lake, Long Lake, Lake Manitoba, Selkirk and Oak Point are all rendezvous of 
our ardent sportsman ; while the numerous lakes and coulees around Indian Head, down 
the Qu'Appelle valley, and across that part of the country, would seem to be their home. 
Even on the regular track from Prince Albert to the Mission the traveller does not turn 
out of his way to find them, and unconsciously exclaims, *' Where do they all come 
from ?" Our native game birds are not so numerous, but are rapidly increasing under 
the protection extended to them during the breeding season by our Game Laws. They 
include the i)in-tail or sharp-tailed grouse, pinnated grouse or prairie chicken, ruffle grouse 
or partridge, spruce partridge and ptarmigan. In llavor the llesh of the pin-tail surpasses 
that of all the grouse family. 

WILD GEESE; — These are not native birds of Manitoba and the North-West Terri- 
tories. Churchill and James I3ay (lat. 50 deg. 30 min. N.) seem to be their favorite breeding 
haunts, though in their migratory flight they remain several weeks feeding upon the stubble 
and afford excellent sport for the lover of the gun. The Snow Goose, or Wyvis, is a pass- 
ing visitor, stopping only to feed or to take in ballast in its flights to and from the North- 
ern Lakes ; when feeding among the stubble they root up the vegetation and plough the 
ground as if a herd of hogs had been at work. The Canada Grey Goose, the premier 
goose of the world, is by far the most numerous — for nearly two monchs they pass in 
immense flocks, grazing in the stubble fields, and affording great amusement to the ardent 
sportsman. 

SMALL GAME. — The smaller game birds are plentiful, and include Wilson's Eng- 
lish Snipe, Curlew, Golden Plover and Fallow Rape. They may be designated native 
birds, being found from April to October. 

RABBITS. — Jack Rabbits are very numerous, and met with in every part of Mani. 
toba and North-West Territories, notwithstanding the great havoc made among them by 
the unerring aim of the Indians, Half-breeds and other sportsmen. Hares are also 
numerous. 

THE DEER TRIBE. -These Provinces are abundantly supplied with Moose, Elk, 
Cariboo, Black-t^.i, ci- Jumping Deer Antelope; and in the Rocky Mountains, Wild 
Sheep and Goat. 

THE BUFFALO, once so numerous, is almost extinct, though a few are found near 
W^ood Mountain, North-West Territories. 






PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



43 



THE MUSK OX inhabits the district lying on the Peace and Mackcnzio Kivers. 

BEARS — The Common Black Bear is very common indeed, while its relation, the 
Grizzly Bear, is sometimes met with in the Rocky Mountains. 

FISH — Few countries in the world afford greater sport to the disciple of Isaac 
Walton than this part of Canada. The various lakes and river^ teem with an endless 
variety of the finny tribe, but their capture seems to be left alone to the Indians and Half- 
breeds, the white settlers preferring the gun to the rod. 

Lakes Manitoba, Winnipeg, and, in fact, all our large sheets of water abound with 
White P'ish, Salmon, Trout, Pike, Maskilonge, Perch, Sturgv'^on, Bass, and many other 
kinds of the fish species, while the rivers are stocked with Goid Eye, Bass, Suckers, Cat- 
fish and Pickerel. 

The writer of this has traversed the greater number of the Canadian Provinces and 
many of the Northern States in pursuit of game, but Manitoba and the North- West Ter 
ritories excel them all for quantity of game and ready excess to hunting grounds. 

The following extracts from private letters of some English and American gentlemen, 
who last year engaged in sport in the Canadian North-West, may be of interest to those 
who contemplate following their example. Writing on November 23rd, 1S85, two Eng- 
lish gentlemen say : — 

" We could not have hit upon a better part of Manitoba for large game or small. 
We were, of course, very fortunate in seeing so many Moose ; but, then, the Moose 
were there, and anyone can do the same with ordinary perseverance. There is no doubt 
whatever about Lake Manitoba being a grand shooting-ground, with its swarm of ducks 
and geese. We were immensely struck with the climate. It is curious that in spite of 
the low temperature during tlie end of our stay, though the lake was frozen a mile out and 
more, we never felt the cold at all, and yet in England it would be quite impossible to 
stay out like that under canvas at the end of November," 

Another gentleman, Mr. J. Maughan, of Toronto, writes on January 12th, 1886 : — 

"Messrs. Ward, Warin, Small and myself left Toronto on the 19th of September, by 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, for Winnipeg, where we arrived on the 22nd, after a very 
pleasant passage, and receiving every attention from the employes of that railway and the 
captain and officers of the steamboat Athabaska.' On the 23rd our party left for West 
bourne Station on the Manitoba and Northwestern Railway, and from there drove out to 
our camp on the southern shore of Manitoba Lake, near the mouth of White Mud River 
(filled with fish, such as maskilonge, pickerel and pike, some of immense size), where 
we found everything ready for our stay. The weather was too warm for keeping game, 
so that for some time we amused ourselves fishing «nd going through the marshes to ge 



J» 



at the lay of the place for shooting when cold weather should begin. For several weeks 
'.he change'in the temperature did not take place, but the section abounds with game, 
and we made up for lost time in getting to work. Thirty days' shooting produced a bag 
of 2,826 ducks (all nearly mallards, grey ducks and gadwells), i6 geese and a quantity of 
large plover, partridge, rabbits, &c., and even then the residents on the adjoining 
farms to the marshes informed us that the season was a poor one for game on account of 
the water being unusually low. A more beautiful section of country could not be found 
than the belt of land extending south of the lake, in extent about 30 miles long by 16 
wide, cultivated by good farmers who have lived from fourteen to twenty-three years there 
and grown rich." 

A more delightful or healthy climate cannot exist in any part of the world if one may 
udge by this last fall's weather. In two months there was only one rainstorm, lasting 
for part of a day and night, the rest clear sunshine. 

Two other English gentLmen writing from London on December ist, 1885, speak 
of their sporting trip in the Canadian North-Wesl as follows : — 

" Our sport was of the highest order. We found wild geese, swans, ducks and plover in 
unlimited quantities ; of moose and elk we saw many and got seven. None of us ever 
before saw a moose alive. Four of the specimens shot were extremely large. We were 
very much impressed with the climate, so clear and bright, with almost continual sun- 
shine. We slept out up to the loth October under a canvas tent and not one of us had 
a cold. If we had done this in England many unhappy results would have occurred. 
We have left all our outfit at Lake Manitoba and intend returning with a large number 
of our friends next season, and would like also to go to the Mountains, where we have 

heard much of the sport." 

Markets. 



Small centres of trade are continually springing into existence wherever settlements 
take place, and these contain generally one or more stores where farmers can find a 
ready market for their produce. The stations along the line of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway are not more than eight or ten miles apart, and the liberal course adopted by 
the railway company in dealing with persons willing to undertake the erection of elevators 
for the storage of wheat and other grains has led to the establishment of a large number 
of these warehouses along the line of the railway in Manitoba alone. These have a total 
capacity of over 1,500,000, and enable farmers to dispose of their grain at good prices 
almost at iheir doors. A glanct at the map demonstrates that Manitoba 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



' 



4ft 



via the Canadian Pacific Railway, will have closer connection with the seaboard than 
Minnesota, Dakota, or any of the more Western Slates now have with New York ; so 
that the export of grain from the Canadian North-West at remunerative prices is 
assured. The very large influx of people, and the prosecution of railways and public 
works will, however, cause a great home demand for some years, and for a time limit the 
quantity for export. 



Name. 



Answer. 



Urton, W. S iVery well satisfied. 

Yardley, H Yes, I am quite satisfied. If I had more capital, could make a fortune in a few 

yeai s. 
.... I'erfectly satisfied. 



Hutchison, A. 



Success of Settlers. 



" Are you satisfied with the country, the climate, and the prospects ahead of you ? " 
This is, after all, the most crucial question. For what are enormous yields and sub- 
stantial profits, if the country cannot be made a home — a resting place of comfort, of 
independence and of freedom? There are, of course, drawbacks in the Canadian North- 
West, and in these ])nges the settlers spealc their own minds fully on these points. But 
what country under the sun has not some drawbacks ? If so, it were indeed an earthly 
paradise. How will old England or bonnie Scotland stand in the matter of drawbacks ? 
The point is this : — Are the drawbacks of tlie Canadian North-West anything approach- 
ing in importance those under which I am now living? Is the North-West a desirable 
place for settlement in my own peculiar circumstances ? Can I hope to live thtre with 
greater comfort and less anxiety for the future of myself and my children than in the old 
country ? No impartial reader will have ditllculty in answering for himself by the aid of 
these pages. 

In regard to the replies to this particular question, it should be borne in mind that the 
Canadian North-West is an immense country. Its perfect development is naturally a 
work of some time. Railways have been during the past year or two built there at a 
rate perhaps unknown in human history, and the work still proceeds. But there must 
yet be districts without immediate contact with the iron horse, though another year may 
see these very districts the centre of a system as has been the experience in the past. It 
is of course natural that each farmer should want the railway running through his farm and 
even close to his own door. But such a thing is imjiossible even in long established 
Britain; how can it be expected in newly-settled Canada? It rests with each intending 
settler to choose his own land ; there is still am])le to be had with good railway facilities. 

In answering the question, Are you satisfied with the country, the climate, and the 
prospects ahead of you ? 84 farmers replied simply '* Yes.'' Following are the 

answers given by others. Their postal addresses are given on pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 



' I 
'1 I 



ii \ 



46 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THX CANADIAN NORTH-WKST. 






Name- 



Fisher, H. 



Answeri 



Field, E 

Lawrence, J . . . . 

Screech, J 

Upjohn, F 

Harward, F.... 
Cameron, W. C. 

Lothian, J 

McGhee, J 

Bruce, G 

Bell, C. J 

Middleton, A.. 
Warnock, W... 



Raid, A. 



Fraser, John.. 

Grang, J 

Perley, W. D. 



Kinnear, J. H... 
Miller, Solomou. 



Webster, A. 
McGill, G. . 



Grimmett, D. W. 

Purdy,T. F 

Davis, W. H.... 

Rogers, T 

Smith, Wm 

Downie, J 



Kines, Wm 

Ingram, W. A. . .,• 



Anderson, J 

Young, J. M. . . . 

McRae, R 

Oliver, T 

Lang, R 

Sheppard, J 

Stevenson, F. W. 
Armstrong, Geo. 

Deyell, J 

Walker, J. C... 
Robertson, P. , .. 



Settled in June, 1884; more residence is necessary to answer this question, but I 

think with capital a man will do well. 
Very. 

I am well satisfied with the country and climate. 
Perfectly satisfied. 
Yes, very. 
Yes, fairly so. 
Yes, by all means. 

Perfectly satisfied with the country, and prospects are fair. 
Very. Prospects good. , 

Satisfied. 
Yes, very well. 

1 am quite satisfied with the country, climate and future prospects. 
Yes. Except to go on a visit, I have no desire to go back to the Old 

Country. 
Yes, I am perfectly satisfied, if only a little more railway facility in this district 

(Milford). 
Yes, perfectly contented and good prospects ahead. 
Yes, if we had railway communication to this placr (Cartwright). 
Remarkably well. It is a most wonderful country, and with energy and per- 
severance skilfully directed a fortune can be made soon. 
Well satisfied. 
I am well pleased with the country and climate, and if we had a railroad here 

(Alameda) I would be well pleased with my prospects. 
Yes, fully. 

Yes. So far as climate, it is more desirable than Great Britain or Ireland on the 
whole. Winter is clear, dry and healthy ; no need of umbrella, mud-boots or 
top-coat round home. 
Well satisfied. 

Very much indeed. I think this will be a great country. 

We require railway facilities in this place (Crystal City). 
I Perfectly satisfied. 

I am satisfied. 

! Perfectly satisfied, and would not go back to Ontario to farm if paid for it. 

I There is not half the hard work here that there is in Ontario. 

! Satisfied with country and climate. 

I am. In this locality (Milford) we want a railroad, or a market where we can 
I go there and back in one day. 

Certaiuly satisfied. All we want is railway facilities to this place. 

I am perfectly well satisfied. 

Yes, you bet I am. 

Yes, 1 am, if we had railways through the county (Burnside). 

Perfectly. 

I am. Although 62 years of age I am determined to make this my home for 
' the future, as it is a farming country. 

Perfectly with all Lovely weather is the rule here. 

Ves, fully. 

I am, if we had a branch railway here (Plum Creek, Souris). 

Perfectly. 

I like the climate, the only drawback is the rather long winter. 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



it 



Name. 



Blackwell, J. 
Honor, T. R. 



Answer. 



Hope, G . . . 

Malcolm, A. 



I'ollock, Jno 

I eed, E.J 

McGregory, D 

Powers, C.F 

Rutherford, J. (J. P.). 

Carter, T 

Bobier, E 



Little, Jas . . . . 
McKitrick, W. 



Taylor, W 

Warren, R.J 

McKnight, R 

Troyer, C 

Vandervoort, G 

Wood, J. H 

Chambers, S. W 

Baily, Z 

Little, J 

Black, G. R • . 

McCroquodale, C.T.C. 

Wright &" Sons 

Whitney, C 

M';Lennan, T 



McKenzie, D. . . 
Eraser, D. D. . . 
Gilmour, H. C. 
Drew, W. D... 
McKellar, D... 
Hartney, J. H.. 
Ogletree, F . . . . 



* Harris, Jas. 
Smart, G . 



Shirk, J. M. 



McAskie, Jas. 



Osborne, D . . . . 
Harrison, D. H . 
Chester, A 



Am satisfied with the country and climate, but the country wants more railroads 

to make it prosperous 
I am satisfied with the climate and natural resources of the country and my own 

prospects ahead. 
Weil satisfied. 
I have no reason to be dissatisfied. There are drawbacks here as well as in 

other countries, but I know of no place where I can go to better myself. 
I am very well satisfied in every respect. 
Well pleased. 
No. 

Ihree sons and myself all well satisfied with the country. 
I am, and have great confidence in the future of the country. 
Kifilit well. 
I consider it ahead of On*ario for farming and health. I am well pleased with 

the country, or I would not be here if I was not. 
Yes ; I find this country ahead of Ontario and better for crops and stock. 
riio country and climate are better than I expected ; the scarcity of timber and 

railroad facilities are drawbacks to this part (Crystal City). 
Satisfied. 

Yes, as I was worth 80/. when I came, and now I am worth 1,400/. 
Perfetlly satisfied and prospects are good. 

I am, with one exception, railway facilities to this place (Alameda). 
I am well satisfied with everything, even to the C. P. R. 
Perfectly. 

Yes, more than satisfied. 
Perfectly satisfied. 
Perfectly satisfied. 

The country and climate can't be beaten : the prospects are fair. 
Entirely so. 
Well satisfied. 
I am well satisfied. 
Yes, very well satisfied w'th the country, climate and prospects, ii vv only get 

the railway to this place (Asessippi). 
I am well satisfied. 
Certainly. 

I am very well satisfied with the country. 

I am well satisfied, and have unbounded faith in the future of the country. 
Satisfied. 

Perfectly, if we had a branch railway to this place ('Souris). 
I am well satisfied with the country, the climate and prospects ahead. I would 

not change under any consideration. 
Yes, very much. 

Yes, if we had a market and railroad here (Holland). 
Personally, not exactly, as I have been rather unfortunate in losing animals, &'c., 

but think the general prospects are good. 
Very well ; the winter is pretty cold ; the spring, summer and fall are de- 
lightful. 
Very well satisfied. 
Very much, would not leave. 
I am well pleased with the country, the climate is good, and I am sure this must 

be a grand country yet. 



48 



PLAIN FACTS AS To THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



Bonesteel, C. H 

Nugent, A. J 

And-arson, George 

Kenny, D.W 

McDougall, A. G 

Muirhead, T 

Barnes, F /» 

Lambert, W.M 

E /wes, J 

Champion, W. M 

Bouldin^r, G. W 

Tate, J 

McMmty,T. 

McCaughey, J. S 

Ta/lor, Wm 

Stevenson, G. B 

Wagner, W. (M.P.P.) 

Heaslip, J.J 

Nelson, R 

Mcintosh, A 

Stirton, J , . 

Bolton, F. . . . , 

Morton, T. L. . , 

Campbell, R , 

Cox, J. T 

Sifton, A. L 

McDonell,D 

Wilson, Jas 

Kemp, J 

Paynter, J, E; 

McGee, T 

Heaney, J 

McEwan, D 

Slater, C. B 

Fvazer, J. S 

Connerson, J 

Rawson, 

Nickell, W 

Harris, A. li 

Bartley, N 

Chamlwrs, W 

Paynter, W. 1) 

llayter, W. 11 



Answer. 



Very well satisfied as yet. 

All right, if change in Government policy, still I am a good Conservative. 

I am well satisfied. 

I am thoroughly satisfied with the corntry and climate, an-i my prospects are 

good. 
Perfectly satisfied at p« sent. 

With the country decidf dly, but want a little more capital in my business. 
I am quite satisfied. 
Yes, and prospects are good ahead. 
Yes, they are all that :an be desired. 
Most decidedly. 

This country has done well for me. 
Very much. 

Am satisfied with country and climate. 
I am satisfied with the country. 

Yes, I am ; all v/e want is a railroad to this part (Alameda). 
Well satisfied. 
Yes, well satisfied. 
Yes, very much. 

Yes, perfectly, if we had a railroad here (.Alameda) ; otlierwise no. 
As to country and climate, y<;s ; As io my own present prospects, no. 
I have no reason to complain. 
Quite satisfied with the country and climate, but wani free trade in lumber and 

machinery, and the Hudson Bay Railway. 
Yes, winters pre a little too long ; but think this country equal to any. 
Most decidedly so. 
Yes, if the Government would see fit to remove the duty off implements. I 

think it would be all right. 
Yes, well satisfied. 
Perfectly satisfied with country and climate. The only drawbacks are want of 

additional shipping facilities, ana high tariff on implements. 
Yes, ver) satisfied. 
Wit^ the country and climare, yes. 
Yes, the country and climate are first class. 
Not entirely. 
I am. I came to the country without uii/ experience, and am well satisfied 

with it. 
I am very weli satisfied. 
Y^es, perfectly. 
Yes, perfectly. 

Yes, if we had a railroad here (Ceulah). 
Yes, 1 feel happy, and all rjy family, six sons, four daughters, and twenty 

grandchildren. All in Manitoba ; all well and happy. 
With the country and climate, yes. 
Fairly well Eu.-sfied with ihe country. 
I am, if we get railway accommodation here (I'eulah). 
Yes, providing we can get market and railroad facilities here (Wattsview). 
If 1 wer:. not satisfied I wouM have left long ago. 
Yes, if we get railway ?vt:omn;odation here (Heulah). 
Yes quite satisfied. 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



49 



Name. 



Parr, J. E 

Wright, C 

Garratt and Ferguson.. 
McLane, A. M 



Answer. 



Yes, very well. 

The country is all right, but we want more railways in this part (Beaconsfield). 

Quite satisfied, if we can get our grain sold at satisfactory prices. 

,1 have faith in the whole country. 

McLean, J. A jl am satisfied with all of them. 

Bedford, J il should like it better if December, January and February were warmer. 

Todd, P. R jWell satisfied. Only objection is a little too hard frost; storms are nothing 

like what I expected. 

I do not know where I could better myself. 

Perfectly satisfied. 

Yes, perfectly. 

Certainly. 

Connell, R ISatisfied with the country and climate. 

Cox, W. T 'Yes. Our only drawback is the lack of local railway facilities (Milford). 



I 



Boldrick, R.. 
Tullock, A . . 
Speers, A. Pv. 
Cafferrata and Jetferd , 



Tlie ClaNS of Settlers now in the North-lYest.— The great 

number of settlers come from the Eastern Provinces of the Dominion, Ontario contributing 
by far the lar^^est portion, composed principally of the very flower of her agricultural 
population. The arrivals from Euroj^e are principally English, Scotch, and Irish, 
including tenant farmers, laborers, servants and others, most of whom readily adapt 
themselves lo their new life. There are also a good number of Germans and 
Scandinavians hard-working, law-abiding citizens, whose co-patriots have proved them- 
selves to be among the most valuable settlors in the United States. Some settlers are 
contributed by the American Union, a small portion beinp: repatriated French-Canadians, 
principally Ire m the State of Massachusetts, and the balance, farmers and farmers' sons, 
almost entirely from the Western States, while there is also a large settlement of Russians, 
Mennonites. and Icelandics, who are now comfortably settled, contentt-d and prosperous, 
the last named having formed an Icelandic settlement at l^ig Island, Lake Winnipeg. 
The French-Canadians settled along the Red River, who emigrated from Boston and 
other cities in the New England States of America, are reported to be in good circum- 
stances, and, their crops having yielded largely, their ])rosi cts are excellent. Speaking 
generally, the people of the North-west are highly respectable, orderly, and law 
abiding. 

Karni L,at>OUr. — It is difficult to give definite information on this point. 
There is no doubt it has been high, especially during harvest time, when there is a great 
demand for men to take in the crops, but the very large number of people going into the 
country during the past few seasons has tended materially to reduce the scale of wages. 
One point should be remembered — that the farmer in Manitoba, with his immense yield 
and fair prices, can afford to pay a comparatively high rate of wages, and still find his 
farming very profitable. 

CUurclieS* — The utmost religious liberty prevails everywhere in Canada, 
Churches of nearly all denominations exist and are in a flourishing condition, and where 



50 



HLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEbl. 



a settlement is not large enough to support a regular church, there are always visiting 
clergymen to do the duty. 

ScllOOlS* — Means of education, from the highest to the lowest, everywhere 
abound in the Dominion. The poor and middle classes can send their children to free 
schools, where excellent education is given j and the road to the colleges and higher 
education is open and easy for all. In no country in the world is good education more 
generally diffused than in Canada. It is on the separate school system, and receives not 
only a very considerable grant from the local government, but there are also two sections 
in each township set apart by the Dominion Government, the proceeds of which, when 
sold are applied to the support of schools. There is a superintendent to each section, 
and teachers are required to pass a rigid examination before they are appointed. A high 
class of education is therefore administered. 

municipal Government. — There is a very perfect system of municipal 
government throughout the Dominion. The North-West country is divided into munici- 
palities as fast as settlement progresses sufficiently to warrant it. These municipal 
organisations take charge of roads and road repairs — there being no toll charges — and 
regulate the local taxation of roads, for schools, and other purposes, so that every man 
directly votes for the taxes he pays ; and all matters of a local nature are administered 
by the reeve and council, who are each year elected by the people of the district. This 
system of responsibility, from the municipal representative up to the General Govern- 
ment, causes everywhere a feeling of contentment and satisfaction, the people with truth 
believing that no system of government could give them greater freedom. 



Last Words of Settlers. 

The last request made of settlers in the course of the enquiries dealt with in this pam- 
phlet was that they would supply such information as they might " deem desirable to 
place the Canadian North- West before the world in its true position as an agricultural 
country and a land suitable for successful settlement." Space will allow of the publication 
of but a very few here. 

C. H. BoNESTEEL, of Pheasant Plain, Kenlis, P. O., Assiniboia, N.W.T., says : — " I 
consider this country a grand field for emigration for all that are homeless and farmless, 
not only in the old country, but in Ontario. Why, I know of hundreds where I come 
from that are working for daily and monthly wages, who, if they only knew or could be 
persuaded what this country is, or the chances that there are here for them to get a home 
of their own, they would come at once. Even if they only took a homestead, i6o acres, 
which they get for lo dollars (;^2), it would make them a good farm and home, which 
they can never hope to get where they are. This is my honest belief" 

Messrs. Campior Brothers, per R. E. Campior, who omit to forward their 
Manitoba address, says : — " This country is surer and safer for a man with either small or 
large capital, being less liable to flood and drought than any part of the Western States 
of America, speaking from experience. Intending settlers on landing should first know 
how to work and drive a team and stick to it, and they are bound to succeed." 



^r 



f 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



51 



William Wagner, M.P.P., of Woodlands, Ossowa, Manitoba, writes :— " Very few 
inhabitants have visited Manitoba and North West as myself. I have seen the settler in 
his first year, and again after three and tour years, and what a difference. The first year 
much misery, then again comfort. 1 have seen a good many English settlers in the first 
year ; they are a great deal disappointed ; but after they have been accustomed to our 
ways, they are happy and contented. We have in Woodlands about thirty English 
families, who had but little, and they belong to-day to our best of farmers, and with us we 
have never heard of any discontent." 

James Connerson, of Minnewashta, Manitoba, writes thus : — " Keep back from 
whisky, contract no debts, sign no notes, stick hard at work for two years, and be up and 
at it. If one has no means, work out with a farmer for a time ; pay as you go along. 
That is my humble advice to all intending settlers. I know hundreds of very decent 
people in Glasgow (Scotland), also in Holland, who would be thankful to come out here 
and get a homestead free." 

James Little, Postmaster, of Oak River, Manitoba, says: — "This is the best 
country in the world for settlers to come to ; for instance, they can get their land for 
nearly nothing, and in three years be worth between 4,000 and 5,000 dollars (;i^8oo 
to ;^i,ooo) just in the rise of the price of the land ; besides, he can raise all the stock he 
requires, perhaps the same amount or more. There is not much work to do, it can be 
done with machinery, and a man that is fond of sport can shoot all the fowl he wants, 
I can kill hundreds of all sorts of wild fowl here, geese, ducks, prairie chickens, snipe 
and wild turkeys in abundance. 

Thomas Carter, of Woodlands, Manitoba, says:— "The Canadian North- West 
needs no vindication. It will soon be as well known to the world as is the Rock of 
Gibraltar. As for the cold, I have been more miserably cold on the heights of Shorn- 
cliffe, Kent (England), than I ever have been in the North- West. Of course a man may 
allow himself to freeze to death if he chooses, or if he is standing near a fire he may 
allow himself to burn if he chooses — it's all a matter of taste." 

G. A. Cameron, of Indian Head, N.W.T., writes— "As good a place as a man can 
find if he has plenty of money and brains, or if he has no money, but muscle and pluck. 
Send as many here as you can and they will bless vou for it." 

William Taylor, of Beulah, P.O., Man., says':—" Settlers should be used to labour 
with their hands without kid gloves, unless provided with ample means. The grumblers 
here are composed of men raised idle at home, who have not means to carry it out here. 
Labouring men and hired girls coming out with those that hire them do not want to be 
bound for any lenghth of time, as wages rule much higher here than in the old countries." 

Christian Trover, of Sec. 22, T 2, R 2, W 2, Alameda, Assiniboia, N.W.T., says : 
— " 1 should advise intending settlers to encumber themselves as little as possible with 
■extras, with the exception of clothing, and be cautious on their arrival to husband their 
resources. As I claim to be a successful north-wester I would be pleased and most 
happy to give advice and information to intending settlers free." 

J. R. NiFF, of Moosonim, N.W. T., states :— " The fact that I settled shows that I had 
confidence in the country, and after two seasons' experience I am more than satisfied. 
As a grain growing country I believe, with proper cultivation and energy, it cannot be 
exceeded." 



52 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



ri 



George Vandervoort, of Alexandria, Man., says : — '* I consider Manitoba or the 
North-West is the proper place for a man to go to get a home with ease." 

George H. Wood, of Birtle, Man., writes : — " Speaking from what I know as one 
of the leaders of one hundred and fifty in this locality, I don't know a single instance of 
a sober, industrious person who has not benefited b)i coming here, and I do know of 
many who always lived " from hand to mouth " in Ontario, who are getting rich. All we 
require is a railway to get on well, and all get rich. Farming pays here, the Farmers* 
Union grumblers to the contrary notwithstanding." 

S. W. Chambers, of Wattsview P.O., Man., writes thus : — " After more than five 
years' experience in this country, I am satisfied that no other country in the world can 
approach the Canadian North-West as a field for agricultural productions. And to the 
man who is willing to rough it first and to roll up his sleeves and work for two or three 
years, it oflFers a comfortable independence in a very few years, with very little capital 
expenditure." 

G. R. Black, of Wellwood, County Norfolk, Manitoba, says : — " This country is 
the best place for a man with a small capital to make a home that I have seen, and I 
have been through eight states of the United States, and I have seen nothing to compare 
to tiiis Canadian North-West. I would advise settlers coming from Europe to bring 
nothing but clothes and bedding and light materials. I would say in explanation that I 
have raised as high as 40 bushels of wheat and 75 of oats, but that is not the rule." 

Mr. A. R. Speers, of Griswold, Manitoba, writes : — " I consider this the greatest 
grain producing country in the world without any exception, and as I have handled 
considerable stock here I know that to pay well. Last spring I sold one stable of cattle 
for ICO dollars (;^2o) per head for butchering. My sheep have paid well. Milch cows 
do very well, and also poultry, and in fact everything I have tried. No man need fear 
this country for producing anything except tropical fruit." 

Mr. P. R. Todd, of (iriswold, Manitoba, writes : — "I believe that any man who is 
willing to work, no matter how small his means, can improve his circumstances financially 
in this country, and there is a good chance for a man of means or large capital to run 
business on a large scale profitably." 

Mr. W. H. Havter, of Alameda, Assiniboia, N. W. T., writes: — "A single man 
can come here and farm on a small capital, say 500 dollars (;^ioo). I have a family of 
six boys to start. We are well satisfied with the prospects ahead." 

Mr. James Rawson, of Mountain City, Sec. 16, Township 2, R. 6, W., Manitoba, 
writes : — " Persons coming to this Province should have 500 dollars (;^roo) in cash to 
start with j not but what a person can get along with less, as I have done, but it is 
difiicult. Magnificent country for persons who have plenty of money. Climate healthy, 
water good, plenty of game." 

Mr. TnoMAS McGee, of Burnside, Manitoba, writes : — '• I think that the Canadian 
North-West is well for industrious hard working people, either laborers, farmers or 
mechanics. I was a mechanic before I came here, and am satisfied that the country is a 
good one for people that want to make hotnes for themselves." 

Mr. John Kemp, of Austin, Manitoba, writes : — "The soil is immensely rich, and 
will raise large crops for a long time without manure. I am a Canadian by birth, and 
have travelled over a good part of the States and Canada, and, all things considered, I 
have seen no part of America to equal this country for agricultural purposes." 



i 



1 



\ 



t 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH- WEST. 



63 



Mr. Thomas L. Morton, of Gladstone, Manitoba, writes : — " My land is all brush, 
which I consider the best in the end, but more labor. I have twenty acres dark loam, 
sown with Timothy, red top and clover; 25 head of stock, and 50 acres of crop, which 
pays far better than 100 acres of crop. Pigs pay well. Native hops grow well." 

Mr. Robert Campbell, Bridge Creek, P. O., Manitoba, writes : — '* My opinion is 
that any man with, say, from 500 to 1,000 dollars Tj^ioo to ;^20o) and energy to go to 
work, will have no difficulty in making a comfortable home for himself and family." 

Mr. John T. Cox, 13ox 44, Rapid City, Manitoba, writes : — '* As an agricultural 
country it is a splendid one — that is the crops must be put in early, and then they will do 
all right." 

Mr. Duncan McDonell, Baie St. Paul, Manitoba, writes : — " The Canadian North- 
West, if once settled, will be and is the best agricultural country of all I have travelled 
through " 

Mr. Joshua Elliott, of Sourisburg, Man., says : — " I consider this country the best in 
the world for all classes of farmers. For the capitalist, plenty of room and safe returns ; 
and the man of limited capital, to secure a good home and be independent. I have 
given you a true statement of my own experience. You have my address above, and 
persons wantmg information by sending a stamped envelope I will answer it, and give 
them the benefit of all my experience." 

Mr. Samuel Day, Sec. 34, T. 13, R. 30, Fleming, N.W.T. — "I should like to see 
the emigration agents go more into the farming districts of England, and induce more 
farm laborers to come to this country. I would suggest Devonshire, as labor is plentiful 
there and wages low. I am afraid some of those city people will not make good settlers, 
and hence have a bad effect by writing home bad accounts. I am satisfied this is one of 
the best countries for an industrious man with energy." 

Bolton, Ferris, of Calf Mountain, Manitoba, says : — " I firmly believe that this 
country has advantages over all others for growing grain and raising stock, and would 
advise all young men who have not made a start, and all tenant farmers with limited 
capital to come here." 



Testimony such as is contained in the foregoing pages could be pro- 
duced indefinitely. The bountiful resources of our Great North- West as 
herein to a small extent shown, cannot fail to impress the reader with the 
knowledge that we have indeed a country whose resources and attractions 
are boundless. 



I 



Montreal Herald Print. 



62 



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WUTHMH MAIilTOBA-THl OARO.H O. THE 






Manitoba and the Northwest Territories of Canada 

SHOWINaTHC LINES AND LAND QRANT OF THE 

Canadian Pacific Railway. 

THE COMPANY'* LAND* IN MRT CONSiaT OF THC ODO-NUMBCRCD SECTIONS IN THC BELT COLORED ONBRN, 
THE NEMAININa SECTIONS BEINO QOVBRNMCNT HOMESTEAD LANDS. 




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and touthwettern Railway, leased by the Canadian Pacific, and oomprleed within the uncolored belt in Southern Manitoba are now open ti 



lorthwest Territories of Canada 

Igthc lines and land grant or the 

ian Pacific Railway. 

|i«isT or THC ooD-NUMacncD accTiONa in the mclt colorco onccN, 

ICCTIONS BtlNa QOVCRMMENT HOMCmTCAD LANDS. 



|y the Canadian Pacific, and comprlted within the uncolored belt in Southern Manitoba are now open for 




oba are now open for eale. Apply to John H. MoTavish, Land Commreaioner, Winnipeg.