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Full text of "A New, authentic, and complete collection of voyages round the world, undertaken and performed by royal authority [microform] : containing an authentic, entertaining, full, and complete history of Captain Cook's first, second, third and last voyages, undertaken by order of his present Majesty, for making discoveries in geography, navigation, astronomy, &c. in the southern and northern hemispheres & c. &c. &c. ... the whole comprehending a full account, from the earliest period to the present time ..."

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rjU)XTLSI>Il':Ci:A>AMfa-ibiisLMttaaFOUt)EinTiON«'/i^^A^^^ f/ CM'T". COOK'S\'OY.\GEg aV. CgMPLETE 


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Voyages Round the World, 

Undertaken and Performed by ROYAL AUTHORITY. 

Containing an Authentic, Entertaining, Full, and Complete HISTORY of "" ' 

Captain C O O K 's 

Fim, Second, Third and Laft 

IV o Y A G E s. 

Undertaken by Order of his PRESENT MAJESTY, 

F O R M A K I N G 


in the Southern and Northern Hemispherks, &c. &c. &c. 


In fhfv Years 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771—1772, 1773, 1771, 1775— i??^' ^777> ^77^' ^779> 1780* 

The FirR Voyage — being piofefledly undertaken in his MajeflyTShip the Endeavour, for making Difcoveries in the 
Sonthcin Heniilphere, and round the World. 

rhe Second — in the Refolution and Adventure, for making Difcoveries towards the South Pole, and round the World. 

The Third and Lail — in the Refolution and Difcovery, to the Pacific Ocean, for making Diftrovevies in the Northsril 
Hemifphcre, and to determine the Pofition and Extent of the Wcfl Side of North America; its Diftanre ffom Afia ; and 
the Pradicability of a Northern Pallagc to Europe. Comprehending, among the greatefl Variety of the mod intereding 
Tranlatlions, a faithful Account of all the Particulars relative to the unfortunate Death of Capt. Cook, with his Life, &c. 
&c. Including likcwifc all the curiou.s Remark.s communicated to this Country bv Capt. Cook's principal AfliRants in per- 
forming and conducting thefc celebrated Voyages, viz. Sir [ofcph Banks, Dr. Soiandcr, Dr. King, Dr. Hawkcfv/orth, Dr. 
Forder, Mr. Forfter, Capt. Clerkc, Capt. Gore, Mr. Ellis,"&c. &c. together with Capt. Furneaux's Narrative of his Pro- 
ceedings in the Adventure during the Separation of the Ships in the Second Voyage. 

T O W H I C H W I L L B F. A D D E D, " 

Genuine Narraiivcs of other Voyages ol Difcovery Roiitid llie W orld, &c. undertaken, performed, and written by Englidi Circum-Navigators, 
Ice. underilieSanflionof Govcriiinoni, viz. tliofe of Lord Hyron, Capt., Caj)t. Cartkrf.t, Lord Mul<;rave, Lord Anson, Mr. 
Parkinson, CaM.Lf rvviOGK, Mi'd". Ivt.s, Middlkton, Smith, Mooke,&i:, &i'. itr. Likewilc a faithful Relation ol tlie Siih:taiicc of all 
llile moll remarkable and important I'lavfls and Journeys, which liavc been iiiiilcrtaken at various Times to the ditfercnt Quarters ol the World ; i 

particularly ibore of Han WAY, Hamilton, Hkrhkkt, Drum mono, Pocock,Siia\v, Stu art, Kalm,Cakvkr,Dai.rympi.f, Burnet 
Addison, BarrettIiKeysi.ek, Tiiickn kss, '1'\viss,Bryuonf.,, Joiinson,Smoi.i.kt, Moore, Wra.\ai i., &c. 

The Whole comprehcndinjr a full ACCOUNT, from the EARLIKST PERIOD to the PRESENT TIME, 
Of whatever is curious, eutcrtaiuiii<T, and urdul, both by S».'a and Land, in the various Countries of the known World, faithfully cxtrafted from 

the oriijinal Journals of the rcfpcf tivc Vovaeers, &c. Ike. So:. 
Being the mod accurate, elegant, and perteH Editiort,of the Whole of Capt. Cook's VeWAC.KS and Discoveries, &c. ever puhlifhed, and 
Written in a more pleafmg and elegant Stile than any other Work of the Kind. 

Illuflraled with (befidejlhecuriousand interelling Cuts for Capt. COOK's First and Secon i> Voy ac; ls, &c. S:c. S;c.) all the elegant, fpleildid, 
and fine Lakre Foi.Io CoppuR-Pi.ATbs, belonjring to his Third and Last Voyack, being Views ot Places, Toitiaits of Perfons, 
and hilioricHl Reprefematicns of remarkable Intidcntj during this celebrated Navi« atoh's Vov ace to the Pacific Ockan ; together 
with the necciraty Maps, Charts, Plans, Draughts, S;c. fliewing the Tracks ol' the Ships, and relative to Countries now (ir:t difcovered, or 
Mrtiertobut iinperl'eftty known ; the Wliole (amounting tu upwards ofONE Hundrkd and Fifty Coi'PF.r-Pi. axes, containini^ about Two 
HUNORKD and TwtNTV moil tlegant and Siipeib Enc«.\») (iitely eiigraved and accurately copied from the Originals by the mod 
cniinent Malters. 

h il proper lo obfcivt, thit fom« otlier Eiluitn^of lli-ff Woikj (uimecctfirily citenileJ to many Volumfs, by lorfp Priiiitilg, Itlanli Pjpcr, antottier ArlifiCfl praftifci by mrrceiury Perfons) 
wouU colt t Purcliulcr the ciiorniuul Sunt ot tipwjrdb ot TwMit/ (.uii.rjsi fn tha. m^ny Thoutiiiil^ ol Pt'il'on^ who m'-ilj \«ith to pciiil't: ttic DilVo^crir) tliu^ parlijlly tommun.caird to the 
tV«rl4, and view llie aitoniftting line Copper- PIjim, havr hiit.eno liccii ciclujrj from gratilsing Oicir eaprr Cuiioiiiy ( l>«( tlie F.uition, by bciut: publitheil in only Eniii r v 
Six-rftNNV Nw«. Its, inukiiillf *lien cdm^lclrd, cither Onc or Two vtry Large fijttitbme Volumis in Volinl enablet every Perlbn, whatever miy be liis L'iriumltances, to become 
l«mtU«iy Keuiietcd with ihofe eitraoidinirr aud important Voyagec and l)iK-ovctie>., in the Pcrformanie and Proferxitimi of whiili I'ucli valt Siiins ot the Public Money h.tve bern ex- 
pended. Therefore ailhc Price of run VVn» k i« rendered fo tnotrratc and cafy, the Wtioi. i. of Capt. COtlK's VOVACiTS, &c. will be more univvrl'ally read, and the obvious Intcit* 
iion ol ih.' King and Gov ea nm t k r, llic Improvementt and Dil'rovericf in liicfe celebrated Vuvaees mi- lit be comnninicaled to the whole W(t .', v»ill i>! C\iui.Vbe more fully anfwered. 


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■ ■ill I I t I. I 
'ihe Whole ol thclc V oyaoesoI Capi. 

Ct-»OK, !•'. k. S. &c. Now I'u'jlilh ng under the immediate Uireiitiun of 


Aniltcd by a Principal O f m c f r who failed in the RESOLUTION SLOOP, 

And liy other (it1ul1im.11 of the moll dillinp;iiilV.od Naval .Miilitits. 




, L U M U O N: 

Primed for ihti Proitiftoks, and Piil)!iflicd by ALEX. HOGG, at the Kiwc'sa-ARMs, No. 16, PattfiKfter-tittv.; aiii^ 
fold hjf all BooklHleri and Ncws-Carricn in GV«w/ Britain, IwltmJt »?»'• i7*4- 

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The P If"E"/r..':i^'"'C."-E. 


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He grczt Utility and very intereding Nature of the important FinsT, Second, and Tuird VOY- 
AGES and DISCOVERIES of the late Capt, Cook, are acknowledged by all Ranks of People; con- ' 
fequently it might be deemed impertinent here to atteimpt any Encomiums on the arduous but exatt. Rcfearches 
of this eminent and valuable Navigator, in which Difcoveries. have been made far greater than thofo of all the 
othe'- Navigators in the World, from the Expedition of Columbu.^ to the prefent Tinip. Capt. Cook is un- 
qucuionably allowed to have been the abled and mod Yci^pwned Circumnavigator this or any other Country 
has produced, and every enlightened Nation mud deplore his being unfortunately killed by the Savages uf 
the Ifland Owhyhee on the 14th of February 1779, when profqputjng ^is Third Vovagk round the Globe. 

This great Man poifefled, in an eminent Degree, all the Qualifications rcquifue for his Profefhon and great 
UndertaKings. He was co6l and deliberate in judging ; fagacious in determining ; a£liv.c in executing ; (lead/ 
and pcrfevcring in Enterprizes; vigilant, with unremitting Caution ; unrubdiied by. Labour, Difrictitties, 
and Difapnointments ; fertile in Expedients > never wanting Prefcnce of Mind; ajways pgifcirmg himfcif of 
the full Ufe of a found Underllanding ; mild, juft, but cxaft in Difcipline. His Knowledge, his Experiencp, 
his Sagacity, rendered him fo intirely Mailer of his Subject, that the greateft Obftacles were f'urrnounted, and 
the mod dangerous Navigations became eafy^ and almod fafe, under his Dirc61ion. He explored "the Southern , 
Hcmifpherc, &c. to a much higher Latitude than had ever, been reached, and with fewer Accidents than fre- 
quently befall thofe who navigate the Goads of Great Britain. By his Attention to the Velfiirc of his Ships 
Company, he difcovered and introduced a Sydem for the Preservation of the Health of Seamen in long 
Voyages, which has proved wondeifully efficacious: for in his Skcond Voyage, round the World, which 
continued upwards of Three years, he lod only one Man by Diltcmper, of One Hundred and Eighteen Perfons, 
of whom his Company confided. 

The Death of this valuable Man was a Lofs to Mankind in general ; and particularly to be deplored by 
every Nation that refpefls ufeful Accomplilhments, and honours Science. It is dill more to be dyplored by 
this Country, which may judly *^oad of having produced a Man hitherto unequalled for nautical Talents ; and 
that Sorrow is farther aggrava* . w the Reflc£iion, that his Country was dcprivxd of this Ornament by the 
Enmity of a People, from w. ,m, .adeed, it might have been dieaded, but from whom it was not deferved: 
for, Capt. Cook frequently interpofed, at the Hazard of his Life,; to protect thefc very People from the fuddeu 
Refentmcntof his own injured Ship's Crcv,r, Let us contemplate, admire, revere, and emulate, this great Na- 
vigator; whofe Skill and, Labours have enlarged natural Philofophy ; have extended nautical Science; and h;rv« 
diCclofed the long concealed and admirable Arrangements of the Almighty in the ToriTiation of this Gluhe, and, 
at the fame Time the Arrogance of Mortals, in prefuming to account, by their Speculations, for the Laws by 
which he was plcafed to create it. It is now difcovered, beyond all doubt, that the fame Great Being who 
created the Univerfc by his Fiat, by the fame ordained our Earth to keep a jull Poil'e, witirorit a corrcf, onding 
Southern Continent. The arduous and accurate Refcarches of this extraordinary Man havcdifcoveieJ Seas un- 
navigated and unknown before. They have made us acquainted with Iflands, People, and ProduQions. of 
which we had no Conception : and he will be revered, while there remains an authentic Account of .his Three. 
rcfpeQive Voyages, and as long as Mariners and Geographers (hall trace the various Courfcsand Difcoveiics ha 
lias made. 

Among other Advantages which mud refult from the Undertakings of this unoaralleled Commander, it is pro- 
bable that thefe Voyages may be the Means of fpreading, in Time, the Bleflings of Civilization amongd the 
numerous Tribes of the Seu/h Pacific Ocean, of abolifiiing their horrid Rcpads, and their equally horrid Rites ; 
and of laying a Foundation for future and more eifetflual Plans, to prepare them for holding an honour.iblc 
Station amongd the Nations of the Earth. Other Difcoveries of new Countries have,, in general, been Wars, or 
ratl^er Maflacrcs. Nations have no fooner been found out, than they have been extirpated; and the liurrid 
Cruelties "of the Conquerors of Mexico nnd Peru, can never be remembered without blufhing for Religion, and 
human Nature. But when the Recedes of tife Globe are invcdigated, not to enlarge private Donrinioii. but to 

J)romote general Knowledge ; when we vifit new Tribes of our Fellow Creatures as l''iiends, and wifli only to 
earn that they cxid, in order to bring them within the Pale of the Offices of Humanity, and to relieve the 
Wants of their imperfefl State of Soicicty, ty communicating to them our fupcrior Att.ii'.imcius ; Voyages of 
fuch Dilcovery, planned with fuch benevolent Views by Georcf. the Third, and executed by Cook, have 
hot, we trud, totally failed in this Refpcd. The Natives of the South Pacific Ocean comparing thcinfclves 
with their Vilitors, cannot but be druck with the deeped Conviftion of their own Inferiority, and be impelled 
by the dronged Motives, to drive to emerge from it, Vnd rife nearer to a Level with ihofc Biiiciis, who 
-deigned to look up«n them, and left behind fo many ^pbcimens of tbeirgcnerous and humane Attcnt on. 1 lie 
very Introduction of our ufeful Animals and Vegetables, by adding frelh Means of Subfidence, will have ad^ed 
to their Comforts and Enjoyments of Life. , . 

The Public CurioGty being excited to the highed Degree refpeftingCapt. CooK'sVoyages,(partirulai1yhis7i&/yrf 
and Lafl Expedition to the Pacif icOcf;.\N) it is neceTliify to caution the Public againdthelnipolitio'iofnll muti- 
lated, imperlrct. and Spurious Editions, Abridgements, and Compendinms of theie Wftrks; fuch Publications not 
being calculated to ronvey to the Reader tliatSali&faflton fonaturallyexpefted. The Worknow refpetlfuil) offered 
to the Public, will contain the Whole of Capt. Cook's Voyages Complete, with all the fine fplendid Folio Cop- 
per-plates, 't is unncteffiiry to point out the obvious Imperfeflions of all Publications which include only a 
ji»g,lc Voyage o(' tire very celebrated Capt. Cook ; his Ti&r*"^ different Voyages are fo immediately connetted toge- 
ther, that owing to frequent References from one to another, no Perfon can form a fatisfa£lory Idea of his valu.ibic 
Difcoveries, who docs not read his Firji, Second, and Third Voyages in the order in which they were performed 
aTid written t In the prcfent vexy complete, /m^rsTfiy aftdf(?»«w<' £<///«« (for which numerous Reada-s hav.cTbeen 
waiting with Impatience) wc therefore confider it as our indtl^enfible Duty to begin with a full Acrount of his 
Firfl layagc round tin: VVorld ; after which we diall record an authentic Hidory of his Snoud I lyiigc ; aud;then 
immediately proceed to a faithful and accunite Relation of his much admired Third and lad I'oyaf^e round the 
Globe, being that principally undertaken for new Difcoveries in the Pacific Ocean, &c. &c. and in the Prolc- 
cution of which he unfortunately lod hi$ Life. 

This Work will be illudrated with (befides the curious and intercding Cuts for his FIRST and SECOND 
VOYAGES, &c.) all the c'egant, fplendid, and fine LARGE FOLIO COPPER-PLATES, belonging to 
his THIRD and LAST VOYAGE, being Views of Places, Portraits of Perfons, and hidorical Reprelcuta- 
tionsof remarkable Incidents during this celebrated Navigator's VOYAGE to the PACIFIC OCEAN ; toge- 
ther with the nccclfary Maps, Charts, Plans, Draughts, &c. diewing the Tracks of the Ships, and relating to 
Countries now fird difcovered, or hitherto but impcrft6tly known ; the Whole (amounting to upwards of TWO 
HUNDRED and TWENTY mod Et.KO,iijNT »u4.Supirb ENGRAVINGS) finely engraved and accurately 
'copied from thb Originals by the biod «jnit«:ik Mallcrv Seine otiief Editions of tnefc Works, unnocedarily 
o 4.,t2^> f *■ extended 





I f • fiilllfli 




extended tonAny VoliiM'ee by loofe Printing, tec. and publiflicd by ntercchary Perfon.i; (though ill executed 
in the Letter-Prefi particukirly) would cod <t Purchaler the enorntpui Sum of upwards of Ttwnty Guineas ; 
fo that many THoufands of Perfons who would' wi(h to pemfc the DifCovCrics thus partially Communicated to 
the World, and view the aftoniQiing fine Copper- Plates, have hitherto bt-en excluded from gratifying their eager 
Curiofity ; but the prejettt Edition is publiflMd in only Eighty Numbers at 6cl. eacH, , making when comptetedi 
either One or Twci Large Handfome Volumes in Folio : to eSe£l which very defiriblo' End; Recourfe will b« 
had to large ne# Types, conftru£led on Ptarpofe to comprife much Matter in a little Compafs i fo that by this 
Means, and by our adhering to a clofe tho' elegant Mode of Printing, we ihall be enabled to prefeet to the 
Public at an eafy Rate, and in a fmall but fuflveient Compalk, more than what ttthert have (to ehrich private 
Individuals) extended and (pun out by loofe Printing, blank Paper, and other finiUerAhi(ice>, to the Bulk of 
many Volumes, originally fixed at a VKty high Rate, and by the felfilh Manoeuvres of Monopolizers now ad> 
vanced to a moll extravagant Price ; whereby the original Intention of Government^ that the Improvements 
and Uifcoveries in thcfe celebrated Voyages might be communicated to the Public, (at. whbfe E.ypertce they were 
not oHly performed, b(<t alfo printed and publilhed) has been hitherto in a great Meafure defeated: However, 
by the Publication of this Genuine and COMPLETE COLLECTION of the Whole of Captain COOKTs 
VOYAGES, &c. in LARGE FOLIO, all Ranks of Perfons whatever may be accommodated, and the Public 
Curiofity, fo naturally c:tctted by the Report pf fucb extraordinary VoYACKsand DiscuvERies, will be 
immediately and cheaply gratified.— The Poor as well as the Rich will thus become familiarly acquainted with 
thefe extraordinaiy and important Voyages and Difcoveries, in the Petformance and Profecution of which (uch 
vaft Sums of the PubUc Money have been expended. So that ai the Price of thui Work is rendered fo very 
moderate and eafy, the Whole of Captain Cook's Voyages will be more univeifally read, and the obvious In- 
tention of the King add Government that the Improvements and Difcoveries in thefe celebrated Voyages might 
be communicated to the whole World, will of courfc be more fully anfwercd. 

Tothe Whttle Difcoveries aad Voyages of Captain Cook, we mean to add at the End genuine Narratives 
of other Voyages of Difcovery round the World, &c. undertaken, performed, and written by Englilh Circum- 
Navigators, &c. uiider the Sanflion of Government ; vi*. thofe of Lord IJyron, Capt. Wallis, Capt. Carteret, 
Lord Mulgravc, Lord Anfon, Mr. Parkinfon, Cnpt. Lutwidge, Mcfl. Ives, Middlctoa, Smith, Moore, <&c. &c. &Ci 
Likewifc, a faithful Relation of the Sobllance of all the moft remarkable and important TraveU and Journeys, 
which have been undertaken at various Times to the diiferent Quarters of the World, particularly thofe of 
Hanway, Hamilton, Herbert, Drummond, Porocfc, Shaw. Stuart, Kalm, Carver, Dalrymple, Burnet, Addifon, 
Barretti, Kevfler, Thicknefit, I'wifs, Brydone, Chandler, Johnfon, Smollet, Moure, Wraxall, &c. It ha.s of late 
became a \lode too common to uflier periodical Publications, into the World with a good Appearance at firit ; 
and, in the Courfe of their Execution, to fall olF from their original Perfe£lian t fo that, when concluded, 
they cannot, properly fpeaking, for want of Uniformity, be deemed finifiied. That fuch I>efe£b will not be 
the Cafe in Titis Work, the Publiftier affures the Public, that the latter Numbers will be equal in Goodnels 
with the former ; and that the Whole (ball be finilhed in fo regular, complete., uniform, and elegant a Manner, 
as to anfwer the Wiflics both of the Publiiher and Readers, by doing Credit to the one, ahd giving Satisfadion 
to the other. 

To the KING, 

To the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 

To the Captains and Officers of the Royal Navy, 

' AND 

To the P ir B L I c at Large, 

'Kic foflowing (SENUINE *«d COMPLETE HISTORY of 

The Whole of Capt. COOK'S VOYAGES, &c. 

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T O 



Capt. Cook s Voyages, 

Undertaken and Performed by ROYAL AUTHORITY. 

Iking the mftft Accurate, Ei.koant, and Perfect EDITION of tlie WHOLE 
WORKS and DISCOVERIES of that Celebrated Circumnavigator. 

The wliolc Written an a more plcafing and elegant Stile than any other Work of the Kind. 




1 V 

If. /--J 



Capt. C O O K's 


U N D E R T A K E N and P E R F O R M E D 

By Order of his Prefent MAJESTY, 

In His Majcfty s Ship the ENDEAVOUR, 

Priiicipnlly foil making Difcovcrics in the Southern Hemisphere, &c. &c. 

Bri;un the l.ittcr^F.nd of Aiigufl 176R, and concliulcd the istl^of June 1771; containing » 
i'eiiod ofiuail/^rnREE Years, in which was conipliaiedthe Circumnavigation of .lit: Globe. 

I N T 

k Ojjt) 

VOV'\(Jl'"S l)fin»T conruk-rcd as rhc gr^d rc- 
jioiitory of uM\i\ aiul intcrcllini';'dgf, 
Irivc liilU) cn,;n}^i'd the attention ol' mankind 
in all wiyH. In this aiin)lc field the attention of turi- 
oliiv is "VMtiiied hv a vaft variety of intciellins.!; llents ; 
and worl.s of this kind arc of national toniei]iKntc, 
vhih'i at th<- lame time, they aflbrd a rich iiind of 
j)kafiMe to all ihofc mHo delight to fpcnd each Icifure 
hour in rational aniufcmcnt. With rcfpec't to Captain 
llim'..-; tir/l* i'oyasi^,- round the world, wliieh was in 
♦!ie llvDF.AVowK, it has fo much attraOled the mititcof 
th^- \< "rill, thut if I annot be too particularly relatnl, nor 
too n\ely examined ; and a principal advanta^^i aceni- 
in^"; from the ti>llowing narrative is, that the iaiwc llo- 
rics let in ditVercnt lights as they llrikc the oWVrvcr, 
cannot fail of beinn a fouicc of frclh intellineiue ; of 
Iheu inp; former actoiints through a new medium, and of 
pl:K I'll' them in a more (Iriking point of accuracy, by 
judicious corrections, and aitilitional improvements. 
The voyage which Is the fubjed of our prefent narra- 

U C T I O N. 

tive, was undertaken by order of his prefent majeftjr, 
for makini^ difcovcrics in the fouthern hcmifphcre, &c. 
C//>.'.;;/( Conk was appointed commander ot the En- 
lieavoiir; and with him embarked Mr. (now Sir ^o- 
ftpb) Z>.;;;y(j and Dr. So!,, whok | rincipal objcdts 
in this expedition were, to obfervc the tranlit of" Ve- 
nus, and to attempt afterwards farther difcovcrics. Mr. 
Jofcph Banks and Dr. Solandcr were men of dif^in- 
guiflied abilities. The of thefc gentlemen was 
pollelFed of confidcrablc landed property in Lincoln- 
Ihiie; and, upon his leaving the Univcrfity of Ox- 
fbid, A. D. 176J, he made a voyage to the coafts of 
Newfoundland and Labradore. Notwithitanding the 
dangers and difliculties that attended his tirft expedi- 
tion, Mr. IJanks returned undifcouragcd ; and when 
the Endeavour was equipping for a voyage to the South 
Seas, he determined to embark with the adventurers, 
from the laudable motive of enriching his native coun- 
try with the knowledge of unknown productions, and 
new difcovcrics. 

It Is unnci eirary lo point out the obvious impcrlVHioiis of all puhlieations which include only a /"(/j/f voyage of the very ce 

Ie'irat<'<l Capt. Cook ; his //;r. . difl'erent iwiv/i/f an- lo immediately conneHeil togclhcr, thai owing to frequent references Irom 

'on cm form a falisfattoiy idea of liis vahialile difcoverifs, who does iioi read \m JirJI, /cond, and ihtrd 

;o another, no perfo 

ill the order in which they were perfoimcd and uriileii : in the pielent very 

\[)Ul<; impnwitd and genuine Edition 
(fi.r which nuineions readers have been waiting with impatience we therefore confider it as our iiidilpentible duty lo ' egin with a 
Inij .ici cHitit othis /■'// i'oyiiiih, iiftcr which we Ihall record an authentic hiltory of his Si-cond I'lnoj^e; and then immediately p^o- 
c«td 10 a faithful and accurate relation of his much adniiivd l/iiid imiX lail I'oyagf niund (he world, being that principally under*;' 
ittkcii l"r new (JiJuoveritji in the Pacific ocean, ikt. i>;c. ami in the profecuiion of which he unfortunately loll bis lite, 

Nti. t. . B Pr. 

V?/> t. 


Dr. Solandcr, whom Mr. Banks cngngcd to accoin- 
p.iny him, had been apiwinted to a place in tlic Iki- 
tifh Mufeuni, then juft eftabliflied, which he lillcd 
with credit to himfeli, and in whicli he gave univcrfal 
fatisfadion. The Dodor was a native of Swedtn, and 
a man of great learning, bciiW an adc'pt in natural phi- 
lofophy, and who had ftudictl under the famous Lin- 
naeus. Mr. Banks, befides the important and valua 
ble acquifition of this gentleman, took with him two 
draughtfmen, the one oeing intended to paint fub- 
jccls of natural hiftory, and the other to delineate 
"figures and landfcapes. He had likewifc four fervant% 
two of whom were negroes, and a fccrctary in his re- 
tinue. Both Capt. Cook and Mr. Banks kept acfi>- 
rate and circumltantial journals of this vo\age. TIic 
papers of Captain Cook contained a minute account 
of all nautical incidents, and a Very particular dc- 
fcription of the figure and extent of the countries he 
had vilitedj and in thofe of Mr. Batiks were found a 
great variety of incidents which had not come uixler 
the infpedion of Capt. Cook ; beltdcs, foii-.e ofiicers, 
and the more intelligent of the fliip's creu, have com- 
tnunicated to their friends, innumerable natural and 
artificial curiofities, with defcriptions of the people, 
and countries, their producT;ions, iikuiikis, ciilloms, re- 
ligion, policy, and language. Materials lb intcrelHng 

and copious, will be thought quite fufficicnt to furnifh 
the public with the following New and Cc/nplcte 
Edition of the whole of Capt. Cook's Voyages ; in 
which will be contained many curious remarks made by 
feveral gentlemen engaged in thcfe celebrated expedi- 
tions ; and it is our intention to place every impor- 
tafit incident in various points of view, that our rea- 
ders may be complete judges of the valuable natuj-e 
of the new difcoveries, and of the preference which 
is due to this large, elegant, though Cheap lulition. 

The preparations for this important work have been 
fiiitable to its ineftimabic value, and our earn'.'lt con- 
cern for its credit; while wealth and fciencc have 
united their powers for the purpofes of public benefit. 
Many of the firft literary charaders of the age have ^ 
favoured us with their alliflance; not only the great 
outlines of nature, but the variety of fliadcs withi.T 
have been ciirtfully attended to, and not a linulc 
material has been neglected which might cmbillifh 
the nanati\es, and give life and beauty to ail the 
Tl'irr >r/prr/iiY I'oyi/s^rs of this unparalleled N.ivigator. 
We thcefore fubmit this undertaking to the judgment 
of the public, founding our claims to their favour on 
MI xiT Ai.ONi:, knowing, it is only on this fblid foun- 
dation we can hope and cxped their encouragement 
aiiLl piotediort. 




€ ,11 A P. 


Tl'r di'pM-lMY of the I'.n.^rr.vour from PSmotilh — llr piqj.i^f lo the ijhn.l cf M.iilc-ini — .4 Ji/crifilimi of iis iMlm\i! ai- 
nrMiia iinj tr.ui, — .7 pjrltnihir lurnwit of l-'iiiubuf, the r.ip!.\!/ of Miidcnv.—Tht' p'',ll'igf JVom M.idtira lo Rio de 
yannyr — .In accmnt cf this cnpit,7l r.f tbi Porlus^urft- domii!io>:< in South Amnicti, and cf the circHiiijiUent co1oitr\-^ 

the h.irhiiy ci Rio de 7.itieiio. 

Luidenli hnppeiifd zihtie the E'tdeinour !ii\ in the i 

TH !•". l-'.ndeavdur, a bark of three 
hundred and twenty tons, which 
had been originally built for the 
Coal-trade, was appointed to tlie llrvicc of Capt. 
Cook's firll wvage round the world, havin;!; on hoard 
ten c.iiTi.tgc and t\\el\e fwivd f;uns. On Augull the 
■:6th we theitfore got under fiil, and tonk our dcpar- 
fiiri from Plwnoudi. On the 31ft, we faw feveral of 
thole birds, called by feanien Mother Carey's Chickens, 
and wliich they think pro<:;nol1icatc a florm. On the 
;d ()f Si-ptcmbcrwe faw land between Cape I'inilUrrc, 
and Cipe Ortcgal, on the coall of (iallicia in Spain. 
In this courfc feme marine animals weie dillovered, 
hitherto unnoticed b) natuialifls. One of thefe, de- 
fcribfd aK a new fpecies, is of an angular form, near 
thrte in.hes in length, and one thick. It has a hollow 
pallage tjuite through it, and a brown fpot at one end. 
JFour of thefe animals ajipearcd to adhere together by 
their lidcs ; but when pi:r into water, they feparated, 
and Iwam about, lliining with a briRhtnefs relemblinj; 
the vivid colour of a gem. We alio difcovercd ano- 
tlicr animal, exceeding in variety ami brightnefs any 
thing we had feen; e\in in colour and fplendor equal 
to tliofe of an opal. At the diftance of iibout ten 
leagues lioni Cape Fiiiillerre, wc caught among the 
rigging of the Ihip feveral birds not defcribed by 
Liiinaus. On the iirh v.c difcovercd Puerto Santo 
and Madeir.i, and on the d.ay fiillowing, m,.ored with 
the llream anchor in the road of hunch i.-'.le. In heav- 
ing up the anchor, Mii \\'eir, the mailer's mate, was 
iinJortuiiately carried oNLiboaul and diuwiied. 

L'j''on ap]iioa( liiiig the illand of.Madeiia from the 
fei, it appears exceeding Ixaiilihil, the fides ot' the 
hill-) being (.ovcred wuh | lantacions olvircs, which are 
green when all kuids of luibage, e'cejit here and 
lliere, arc burnt itp, which was the cafet.: this time. 

On the ijth in the forenoon the boat came from 
the ollicers of health, ii > one being fullired fi land 
from on board a lliip with )!ir their pcr'.r'llir';i. Wlieii 
this \i as granted, we landed at I'uiKhi.ile, ilie chief 

■ y.itiei 

town in the idand, and proceeded diredly to the houfe 
of Mr. t heap, a confiderable merchant, and at that 
time the I'.nglifli ronliil there, who received us with 
a brotherly kindnefs, and treated us with a princely 
liberality. We coi)tinued on the illand onlv five days, 
during which time the feafon was the worfl in the year 
tor fearching after natural curiofities; however, the 
two gentlemen. Dr. Solander and Mr. Banks, puflicil 
their exciirfions about three miles from the town, 
and collecicd a few plants in flower, by the obliging 
aitenrion of Dr. 1 lebcrden, the c hief ])hylician of the 
illand, and brother to Dr. Hebeiden of London. Mr. 
Bulks enquired after and ti)und the tree called Laur.i 
IikIicus, the wood of which he fuppofes to be what i» 
called the M.adeira mahogany, as there is no real ma- 
hogany upon the ifland. 

The inhabitants of Madeira have no other article of 
tr.ule than wine, which is made by prelling the juice 
out in a Iquarc ■.>cMHleii vellel. The fi/.e of this is 
proportioned tothe ipia .tifv of wine j and the lerwmis, 
having taken off their li;>( kings and jackets, get into 
it, and with their elbows and feet prefs out as nuiili o{ 
the juice as they can. In like manner liif llalks, be- 
ing tied together, are prelleil u.;der a fquare piece 
oTwoikI, by a lever with a Hone faiicnid to '.he end 
of it. 

During our fhiy upon thiii ifland wc f.uv no wlieel- 
carriages of anv fort, nor ha\c the ])eople anv tiling 
di It relembh s them, except a hollow board, or liedgc, 
upon whiih thofe wine vcflels are drawn tl;at are too 
big to be carried by hand. I'h'ey have all'o liorfii 
and mules vtTy proper tor their roads, but i! ,.ir wine 
1^, notw ithllanding, broiigju to town from the viiie- 
y.irds v. here it is made, in velTels of goat-Ikill';, wljicll 
arc carried by men on their heads. 

N.irure has been very liberal in her gifts to M.ideira. 
The iiih.ibitants arc not without ingenuity, but liicy 
want iiidiiflry. The foil is fb very rich, and tlure 13 
I'ui h a variety in the climate, that there is fcarccly any 
article cklicf of the nccclliirics or luxuries of' life, 


COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE— for making Difcovcrks in the South S:as & Ron i i t!ie ''/,rU. 7 

which cannot probably be cultivated hcie. On tlic hills 
walnuts, chcfnuts, and apples flourilh, aliiioll without 
culture. Pine-apples, mangoes, {ruanai, and bananas, 
grow almoft fpontaneoufly in the town. They have 
corn which is large grained and line, and it n>in;ht be 
produced in plenty ; but for want of being attended 
to, all they confume is imported from other coun- 
tries. Beef, mutton, and pork arc remarkably good, 
and the captain took fome of the former on board for 
his own ufe. 

Fnnchinle (which took its name from Foinho, figni- 
fying fennel in the Portugucfc lanf<\iage) is fituatc at 
the bottom of a bay, and though it is extenfive in pro- 
portion to the red of the illand, it is but poorly built, 
and the ilreets are narrow and badly paved. The 
churches arc full of ornam nts, with piclures and 
images of faints j the I'lrlV are, for the mod part, 
wretchedly executed, and the latter aredrefTed in laced 
cloaths. The talle of the convents, efpecially of the 
Francifcans, is better ; neatnefs and iiinplicity being 
united in moll of the dcfigns of the latter. The infir- 
mary alfo is a piece of good architechiro, and one of 
the niofl: conliderable in this place. In this convent is 
a fmall chipel, the whole lining of which, both iides 
and ceiling, is compofed of human fculls anil thigh 
bones : the thigh bones are laid acrofs each other, and 
a fcull is placed in each of the four angles. When we 
vilited the g<K)d fathers, jurt before fupper-time, thev 
received us with great civility. " We will not alk mi," 
faid they, " to fupper with us, becaufe we are not pre- 
pa-ed, but if you will come to-morrow, though it is a 
fall-day, we w ill have a turkey roarted for you." This 
polite invitation it was not in our power to aicept. 
There are many high hills in this illand ; Pico Ruivo in 
particular is near 5100 feet high. To a certain height 
thefe hills are covered with vines, above which are num- 
bers of chcfnuts and pine trees ; and above thefe again 
whole forells of various forts of trees. The Mirmu- 
lano and Paobranco which are found among them, are 
unknown in hairope. The latter of thefe is very beau- 
tiful, and woukl be a great ornament to our gardens. 
The number of inhabit mt ; in Madeira are computed 
to amount to about eighty thoufand; and the cullom- 
boufe duties jiroducc to the king of Portugal a revenue 
of ^o.oool. a year, clear of all expem es. But the 
balance of trade is againlt the people ; for all their mo- 
ney going ti) I.ilbon, tl'.e currency of the illand i< in 
Spaniih. This com ci)nlilleth of pillereens, woith 
about a ihilliiig; bitts about lixpcnce, and half bitts 
worth about three-pence. 

On the 1 9th of Siptember the luKkavoiir failed fiom 
Madeira, and on the 2 ill we law the illanils calletl the 
Salvages, northward of the Canaries. 'I'he prmcipal 
of thefe was about live leagues to the fouth half well. 
On the 2 {d the Peak of Tencrilfc bore well bv fouth 
half fouth. lis appearance at fun fet was very (Iriking; 
for when moll part of the illand appeared of a deep 
black, the mountain Hill retlected rays, and glowed 
with a warmth of colour which no painting can ex- 
prcfs. There is no eruption of vilible fire, but a heat 
iffues from the chinks near the top, too lliong to be 
borne by the hand when held near them. The height 
of this mountain is i$,.{i/i feet, which is but one 
hundred and fortv-eight yaril-; lelV than three miles. 

On the joth we law IJona V ilia, one of the Cape de 
Vcrd idands, in latitude i() ^^c^^,. north, and longitude 
21 deg. 51 min. well. In our courfe to TeneriHe, we 
obferved numbers of living lilh, which apjjcared very 
beautiful, their fides refembling burnilhcd lilver. 

On the 7th o*" (Xiol)cr Mr. Bank-s went out in a 
boat, and caught ..liat our Iailor> call a Pottuguefe 
man of war; together with llveral Ihell lilhes, or tef- 
taceous anim.iU, which are alwa)s found floating upon 
t)ic water i and on the 2 ah this gentlenian Ihot a black- 
tocd gull, not defiTilul bv l-innaais, and whole dung 
i* of a red colour. We had now variable w inds, with 
feme (bowers of rain, and tlic air was lb damp as to 
damage our utenlils conliJ.erably. 

On the 25th we cro'lld the line with the ufual cere 
monies ; and on the iSth when the Ihip was in the la- 

titude of Ferdinand Noronha, longitude -^2 deg. 5 
min. well, we began to look out for the illand, and 
for the Ihoals which are laid down as lyiiiL; between it 
and the main ; bur neither the illand nor InoaU could be 
difcovered. On the 29th we perceived that luminous 
ajipearance of the lea mentioned by navigators, v l-.ich 
emitted rays like thol' of lightning. As Mr. Bnnks 
and Dr. Solander were not ihoroughly fatislied with any 
of the caufes hitherto adigned for this pliaMi(>me'T)ii, 
and fuppoling it wasoccilioneil by fome luminous ani- 
mals, they threw out a cafling net, in order to try by 
experiment whether thp\' were riglit in their cor ec- 
tures. A fpecies of tlic Medufa was taken, \.,iieh 
bore fome refemblance to metallitc fubllance greatly 
heated, and emitted a whitilh light; they caught alfo 
fome crabs which glittered very much ; animals v hich 
had not before been taken notice of by the curious rc- 
fearchers into the feciets of nature. 

As provilions by this time began to grow fliorr, we 
refolved to put into the harbour of Rio de Janeiro; 
and on the 8th of November we faw the coafl of 
Bralil. Upon fpeaking with the crew of a Portu- 
guefe fifhing boat, we were informed by them, that the 
land which we fawwastothe fouth of Santo Kfpirito. 
Mr. Bank*, having bought of thefe jieople fome lilli, 
was furprized, that they required l'!nglilh fliillings: 
he gave them two which he happened to have about 
him; for he imagined Spaniih lilver to have been the 
only currency, and it was not without fome difpute 
that thev took the rell of the money in pillereens. 
'I'he frelli hlh which was bought for about nineteen 
IhiJlings, ferved the whole fliiji's company. We Hood 
otf and on :ilong lliore till the 12th, having in view. 
fuccelFively Cape Thomas and an illand jull without . 
Cape I'rio, and then made fail for Rio de Janeiro 
on the i^jth in the morning. Capt. Cook fent his 
firfl lieutenant in the pinnace before to the city, to 
inform the governor, that we had put into that {lort 
in order to procure refrelliments, and a pilot to bring 
us into proper anchoring ground. The pinnace re- 
turned, but the lieutenant had been detained by the 
viceroy, till the captain Ihoiildcome on Ihore; When 
the ihi[) had co'iie to an aniihor, a ;en-oared boat lilled 
with foldiers approached, and rowed round her, but 
no converfation tiwk place. Afterwards another boat 
appeared, which had I'evera! of the vieeroys oflicers 
on boaiil. They emjuired from whence the Endea- 
vourcame? what was her cargo? what number of men 
and guns flie carried? and to what port llie was 
bound ? which queilions having been punctually and 
triilly anfwered, the Portugiiefe olliccra apologized for 
having detained the lieutenant, and pleaded the cuf- 
tom of the place in excufe for their behaviour. 

On the 14th Captain Cook went on Ihore, and ob- 
tained leave to furnilh the Ihip with provilions ; but 
this permillion was clogged with the conditions of em- 
ploying an inhabitant as a factor, and of fending a 
foldier in the Fndeavour's boat every time llie came 
from Ihore to the velill. 'i'o thefe uncivil terms the 
Ca[)tain made ir.any obiections; but the viceroy was 
determined to inlill on them, neither would hepernuc 
Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander to remain on Ihore, nor 
fuller the liirmer to go up the country to collect 
plants Ca])tain Cook conceiving from thefe and other 
marks of jealoufy, that the viceroy thought they were 
come to trade, ufed all his endeavours to convince him 
of the contrary ; and acquainted him, that they were 
bound to the South Seas, to obfervc the tranlit of Venus 
over the dilk of the fun, an objetl of great confe- 
qiience to the improvement of navigatioji ; but the vice- 
roy by his anfwer fecmed to be entirely ignorant of 
this plucnomenon. An orticer was now appointed to 
attend the captain, which order he was delired to un- 
derftand as an intended compliment : however, when 
he would have declined fuch a ceremony, the viceroy 
very politely forced it upon him. 

Dr. Solander and Mr. Banks were not a little cha- 
grined on hearing that they would not be permitted to 
rdide on fliore, and Hill more fo when they underllood, 
that they were not even allow eJ to quit the Uiip: for 







the viceroy had ordered, that tlic captain only, with 
fuih iailors as vcre required by their duty, fliould 
come on Ihore. Whether this arofe from his iealoufy 
in regard to trade, or from the apprcheiifions he en- 
tertained of the extraordinary abilities of the two gen- 
tlemen in fearch ot'new difcovcries, it is certain that 
they vere highly difagreeable to Mr. Banks and the 
Doctor, vho were refolvcd, if podiblc, to evade the 
order. Witli this view they attempted to go on 
(luire, but w ere flopped by the guard-boat -, yet fe- 
veral of the crew, without the knou ledge of the ccn- 
timi, let thcmfelves down bv a rope from the cabbin 
vindowinto the b-^at about midniglit, and drove away 
uith the tide, till they were out of hearing. They 
.ifcerv.ards landed on an unfrequented part of the 
countr\', and were treated by the inhabitants witii 
great civ.liry. 

Capt. Cxiok, uneafy under the reftriiflions of the 
V'Ctroy, remonll.Mted with him, but the latter would 
return no other anfwer, than that the king his mafler's 
orders mull be obeyed. The captain, thus repulfed, 
and much difpleafed, refolud to go no more on 
fhore, rather than, whenever he did to, to be treated 
as a pnfo;'.er in h:i own boai ; for the odiccr w ho was 
fo polite as to accompany him, coiifiantly attended 
h'.rn, hiitli to and fiom the fliore. T\\o memorials 
nerc now ilrawn up a:id prefented to the viceroy, 
Cir.e vrltten by the cant tin, and the other by Mr.> ; bat the anfue.-s r.ti'.riied wxrc by no means 
fatisfai:toiy. S^wral papers palled between them arid 
th" viceio.- to no good purpofe, the prohibition Hill 
rer.iam'i'g as beloie ; tVo:p. whence the captain thought 
j: neceii-iry in order to vindicate his ()'.\n compliance, 
to ur,-e tiie '.iceioy to an a..'t of foice in the execu- 
tion of his oruf-is. Tor thio puvpole he lent lieute- 
nint Hirk'; with a packet, givuig him his order not 
to admit of a gu.trd in hi.-, boat. As this gentleman 
V as nf Ivcd to obey his capi.iin's coiiinvandn, the 
o fc<r of the guard boat did not oppofe hun by foice, 
bur arqu.ii.nied the \iceiov wiih \\ h.ul happtntil, 
b:"i v.h;:h tti'. licu'enant fen: a\\ay with the packet 
urn; en. d. When icturned, he found a guard of fol- 
diei! p'ared in the hoar, and inlilhd on tiieir quitting 
it. AMu'reiipo.'i the o'.licer fcizid the boat's crew, and 
con'lu-l-d them under an rl'co;t to prifon, and the 
he'Ueiimt wa. fi.nt bick to tin ihip guai\lvJ. When 
the laptain wa> informed of th s tranfa.tion, he wroe 
to th<.'\ifcrcy todena'ui his boat and her crew, inclof- 
iijg the memorial wh'ch Mr. llicks his lieutenant had 
brought hick. Thtfo p.iiH'r, hefcut by a pelt\ otlicer, 
to avoid continuing the (iu'putc concerning the giiaid, 
Mhich mull ha\e hcvH kept up by a commllioned 
oTccr. An ;nfv ir was no« [ironnlcd by the viceroy ; 
but liefoit this could arrive, the long boat. \>hich hail 
fjur pi| es of rum on hoard, was driven to \n;Kl«ard, 
(the rope bnaking that was thrown from tlu (hip,) 
together wisii a fmall Ikift that \^a^ tallened to the 
boat. Imnuiiiatc or.lers weregiven tor manning the 
vawl, whuli being dil] atched aciordingly with |>io- 
,icr,, and brought the people on 


D.ird the MM moiiting; Irom whom Capt. Cook 
leain.d, that the long-boat having lilleil with water, 
they haJ brought her to a grapling and ([iiitted her, 
ami filling in with a reel" of rock.s on their return, 
they were forced to < iit the falkning of Mr. Banks's 
little hoir, and feiiJ her adrift. The captain now 
(hfpatched another litter to his excellency, wherein he 
inlbinied him of the a( cident, delircd he would allill 
him with a Uiat toncovei his own, and, at the fame 
time, renewed his demand of the delivery of the pin- 
n.ace anklhcrcrcu. The viceroy granted the retpiell, 
but in hisanfuei to the captain's reinonllrance, fug- 
grlled liime douln.s that he eiiterlai'ied, whether the 
Kndeavour was re.illy a king's Ihip, and alio accufed 
the crjw of fmuggling. CajU. Cook, in his reply, 
laid, that he wa.; willing to Ihew his conunilfion, ad- 
liing, if an;,' attempt liiould be made to carry on a 
rontrahand trade, he roqiielled his excellen(y would 
onler the otfender to bi- taken into cullody. 'I'he dif- 
putc being iluis ttrniinated, Mr. Bank.^ attempted to 

elude the vigilance of the guard, which he found 
means to do, and got fafe on (hore on the 26th in 
the inorning. He took care to avoid the town, and 
paired the clay in the fields, where he could bcft grati- 
fy his curiolity. Mr. Banks found the country people 
inclined to treat him with civility, and was invited to 
their habitations. But it was afterwards heard, that 
fearch had bqcn making for this gentleman when ab- 
fent. Me and Dr. Solander therefore refolvcd to run 
no more rifqucs in going on fliore, while they remained 
at this place. 

On the I ft of December, having taken in water and 
provifions, we got, with leave from the -viceroy, a 
pilot on board ; but the wind prevented us from put- 
ting to fea. A Spanifh packet from Buenos Ayres, 
bound for Spain, arriving the next day, the captain of 
her w ith great politencfs offered to take our letters to 
Europe. The favour was accejncd, and Captain Cook 
delivered into his hanils a packit t<>r the feirelary of 
the .Admiralty, containing copi^^;. of all the papers that 
had paind'bctv.een him and tlie viceroy, leaving the 
duplicates w ith his excellency. On the 5th we weighed 
anchor, and towed down the bay, but were Hopped at 
.Santa Cru/, the priticiixil f >nilicarion, the order from 
the vicero;-, to let us p.ifs, by an iin.iccoiintable negli- 
genie, nor having been lent ; f) that it was not till 
the 7ih that we got under fail. W'lie 1 \(e palled 
the fort the gu.;rd-bnat left us, and our [>ilot was dif- 
charged. It was obfirved, during our (lay in this 
harhiuir, that the air was filled witli butteillics, chiefly 
of one kind, anil the gre.itell part abo'C our mall head. 
Of the town a!i.l ivighbouring country wc Ihall give 
the follow ing dtii ription. 

Rio (!e Janeiro was prob.ably fo called becaufe difco- 
vend on tlic lellivalof St. Januarius, from wlienccwc 
i-,!iy fujipofe tlie river Januarius took its name, and 
alfo the town, which is the capital of the Portuguefc 
in Ameri( a. 'I'his town i> lituated on the well lide of 
the river, from which it is cxtemled about three quar- 
ters of a mile. The ground whereon it (lands is a level 
plain. It is defendcil on t!)e north (ide by a hill, that 
extenil; I'rom the river, having a fmall plain, which 
c(>n!ain^ the fubuibs and king's dock. On the foiith is 
anorhu- hill running towards the mountains which arc 
behind the town. I'his is n.itlier ill deligned nor ill 
built; the lioufcs in general are of llone, and two llo- 
rie- h'gh ; every houfe having, after the maiuier of 
the I'oitugiicle, a' ("mall liaKiiny before its window.s, 
and a latti' c of woixl before the balcony j its circuit M 
about three miles ; and it appears to be eiiual in lizeto 
the largell country towns in I'.ngland. 'I'hc (Ireets ate 
(liaight, and ol' a convenient breadth, interlectingeach 
other at rght angles ; the great.-r part, however, lie in 
a line with the citadel, called St. Seballian, which 
ftands on the top of a hill tlut coimnands the town. 
The priiu ijial rtrict is near 100 (iet iti width, and ex- 
tends from St. Helled'.ct to the foot of Callle-hill. '1 he 
other (Ireets are lonuiionlv twenty or thirty (eet wide. 
'Ihe houfes adjoinin ■ to the principal (lieet are three 
(lories high, but in oilur places they are very, 
though built after the lame manner x: at l.idwii. Wa- 
ter is conveyed to a fountain in the great (qu.ate, from 
an aqueduct, raife.i ii]ion two (lories of aix hes. 'l"he 
water at this fountain, however, is fo bad, that we 
could not drink it with pleafuie. The churches arc 
richly oinamentiil, and there is more religious paiadc 
in this place than in any of the popilh countries in bu- 
ropc. Not a day palles without a procellion of lijiiic 
parid), with various inligiua, (p'endid i\v..\ eollly in 
the higheft degree. But the inhabitants may pay their 
devotions at the (lirine of any faint, without waiting 
(or a procedion ; (or a (iiiall clipboard, having a glals 
window, and in whiih is one of thele tutelary gods, it 
placed before almod every houfe, and a lamp is kept 
condantly burning, lell the okl proverb Ihould 
riliid, "Out of light, out of mind." Beli^irc thefc 
faints the people pray and (ing with fuch vehemence, 
that in the night they were diftincll) heard by our 
failors on lv)ard the Ihip. 

In this town are four convcnti, the full is that of the 


cook's first VOYAGE— for making Difcoveries in the South Seai & Round the Ji'orld. <) 

to run 

-Benedictines, fuuatcd near its northern extremity: 
the ftrudure affords an agreeable profpcd, and con- 
tains an elegant chapel, ornamented with feveral va- 
luable paintings. The fccond is that of the Carme- 
lites, which forms the centre angle of the royal fquare, 
and fronts the harbour ; its church was rebuilding in a 
very elegant manner, with finefiee (lone brought thi- 
ther from Liilx)n. The third is that of St. Anthony, 
fituated on the top of a hill, on the fouth iidc of the 
town; before this convent (lands a large bafon of 
brown granite, in the form of a parallelogram, which 
is employed in wafhing. The fourth is fituated at the 
eaftern extremity of the town, and was formerly the 
jcfuit's convent, but is now converted into a military 

In the right angle of the royal fquare (lands rhe vice- 
roy's palace ; this with the mint, ftablcs,' goal, &:c. 
compofe one large building, which has two (lories, and 
is 90 feet from the water. In pafling through the pa- 
lace, the firft entrance is to a large hall or guard-room, 
to which there is anafcent of three or four (leps. In 
the guard-room are (lationed the viceroy's body-guards, 
who are relieved every morning between eight and 
nine ; and adjoining to the hall are the (tables, the 
prifon being in the back part of the building. Within 
the guard-room is a flight of (lairs for afcending to the 
upper (lorv, which divides at a landing-place about 
half way, and forms two branches, one leading to the 
tight, and the other to the left. ■ The former leads to 
a faloon, where there are two officers in conftant at- 
tendance ; the viceroy's aid-de-camp at the fame time 
waiting in the anti-chamber to receive melTages and de- 
liver orders. 

The left wing of the royal fquare is an irregular 
building, which conlids chiefly of (hops occupied by 
trading people. In the centre of this fquare is the 
fountain, ot which we have made mention, as being 
fupplied with vater from a fpring at the dillance of 
three miles, from which it is brought by an aquedtiel. 
The place is continually crowded with negroes of both 
fexes w^aiting to lill theirjars. At the corner of every 
ftreci is an ahar. The market place extends from the 
north-eaft end of the fquare along the Ihore, and this 
lituaiion is very convenient for the (ilhiug-boats, and 
thofe who bring vegetables from the other lidc of the 
river to market. Negroes are almoft the only people who 
fell the diflerent commodities cxpofed in the market, 
and they employ tlieir leifure time in fpinning cotton. 
The ttirm ot government is in its conditiition mixed, 
but in fact very defpotit: ; the viceroy and civil magif- 
irate ot the to\Mi trequently conunitting pcrfons to 
prilbn, or tranlporting them to Lilbon, at their own 
pleafure. In order to prevent the pec ilc from m.iking 
<'Xeurlions into the country, in fearch alter gold and 
<liamond.s, certain bounds arc prefcribed them, Ibme- 
times at a few, and foinetimes at many miles dill.mce 
from the town ; and if a man is taken up by the guard 
without the bounds, where they conllantly patrole, he 
is immtdiatfly ("ent to prifon. 

'Ihe inhabitants ot Uio de J.meiro are exceeding 
numerous, andconlillot Poituj;uefe, Negroes, and In- 
dians, which la'.l were the oiigiiul natives of the coun- 
try. The townlliip of Rio i-, but a iiuall part of the 
Capitanea, orjnovlnee; yet is laid to contain (7,000 
white people, aai.i (>;(j,og,} bl;u ks, many ot whom are 
i'ree, making together (id^.ooo, in the proportion of 
17 to I. 

The military is coinpored of twelve regiments of 
regular troops, lix being I'ortuguefe, and lix Creoles, 
and twelve rej.Mment.i ot provineiul nulitia. The in- 
habitants arc I'ervilely fubiiiillise to the regulars, and it 
has been ("aid, that it' any of them Ihoiild omit the 
compliment of taking olV his liat, when he meets an 
oniccr, he would be immediately knocked down. But 
the fubordi nation of the ollieeis to the viceroy is 
equally mortifying, tor they arc obliged to >Nait three 
times every day to know, or receive his commands: 
theanfwer ticquriuly is, " there i.s nothing new." 

In Rio de Janeiro the gentr)- keep their t iiaifes, which 
are drawn bv mules ; the ladies liov\ ever ull a fedan 
No. I. 

chair, boarded before and behind, with curtains oti 
each (ide, which is carried by two negroes on a poli; 
connciSed with the top of the chair by two rods, coming 
from under its bottom, one on each (ide, and retting 
to the top. The apothecaries (Lops commonly ferve 
the purpofcs of coliee-hoiifes, as the people meet in 
them to drink capillaire, and play at back-gammon. 
When the gentry are feeii abroad, they are well dreHed, 
though at home but loofely covered. The fiu)p-kec[cis 
have generally (hort hair, and w car linnen jackets w ith 
fleeves. The women in geiuial, as in moll of the Por- 
tuguefeand Spanilh fettlemeiits in South America, ard 
more ready to grant amorous tiivours than thofe of any ' 
other civilized parts of the world. As ("oon as the even- 
ing began, females appeared at the windows on every 
fide, who dilHnguilhed fuch of the men as bed pleafca 
their fancies by throwing down nofegays j and Dr. .Sn- 
lander and two other gentlemen received fo many of 
thcfc love-tokens, that they threw them away by hat- 

Without the Jefuits College on the (horCi is a village 
called Neufira Seignora del (Jloria, which is joined tr» 
the town by a very few intervening houies. Three or 
(bur hundred yards, 'within the Jcfuit's-collcge, (lands 
a very high caftle, but it is falling to decay.' The bi- 
(hop's palace is about three hundred yards behind the 
Benedictine convent, and contiguous to it is a magazine 
of arms, furroundcd by a rampart. • 

The inhabitants of Riode Janeiro mnintain a whale- 
fifliery, which fupplies them with lamp oil. They 
import brandy from the Azores, and their (laves and 
Ea(l India goods (iom their fettlcmrnts in Africa, 
their wine from Madeira, ami their European goods 
from Lilbon. The current coin is Port'.ig.iele, which 
is (Iruck here; the (ilver pieces ai-c called pctacks, oi' 
different value ; and rhe copju'r are five and ten red 
pieces. This place is veiy uleful for (liips that are in 
want of refrelhment. 'i'hey Avater, as we have before 
obfervcd, at the (buntaiii in tiic great fquare, but the 
water is not good. .We landed our cafl<3 on a fmooth 
fandy beach, which is not more than a hundred vards 
diftant from the fountain, and upon application to the 
viceroy a centinel is appointed to look utter theml 
The harbour is fafe and commodious, and diftirigu idl- 
ed by a remarkable hill, in the tiiape of a cone, at the 
wed point of the bay. The entrance is not wide, 
but it is cafy, from the lea brer/.e which prevails 
from noon to fun-fcr, for any diip to enter bctbre 
the wind. The entrance of the narrow part is de- 
fended by two forts. La Cruz,, and Lozia ; they are 
about three quarters of a mile from each other. 
The bottom being rocky, renders it dangerous to an- 
chor there, but to avoid it (hips nuill keep in the 
mid-channel. Ihe coall abounds with a variety 
of lilh, among which are dolphins and mackarcL 
Provifions, except wheaten bread and lloiir, are eafily 
procured. Yams arKl cafiada are in plenty. Beef 
both (iefli and jerked may be bought at two-pence 
farthing a pound, but it is very lean. The people 
jerk their beef by taking out the bones, and cutting it 
into large but thin dices. They then cure it with 
fait, and dry it in the fliade. It eats very vvell, and, if 
kept dry, will remain good a long lime at lea. Mut- 
ton is fcarcely to be procured. Hogs and ixniltry are 
dear. Garden llutVand fruit are in abundance, but 
the pumkin only can be prcferved at lea. Tobacco 
alio is cheap, though not good. Rum, fugar, and mo- 
lafles are all excellent,- and to be had at reafjnable 

The climate of Rio de Janeiro is healthy, and (rtc 
from modof thofe incnnveiuencies incident to tropical 
countries. The air is fcldoin immoderately hot, a? 
the fea breeze is generally fucceeded by a land wind. 
The fcafons arc divided into dry and rainy, though 
their commencement of late has been irregular and 
uncertain, for the latter had filled for near four 
years preceding our arrival ; but at this time the rain 
had jud began, and fell in heavy (howers during our 
day : formerly the fircets have been overHowed by 
the rain, and rendered impalTable with canoes. 

C The 




The adjacent counti>y is niountairiotis, and chiefly 
covered with wood, a frrtall part of it only being cul- 
tivated. Near the town the foil is loofe and fandy, but 
farther from the river it ts a fine black mould. It 
produces all the tropical fruits in great plenty, and 
witbout much cultivation, a cirumftahce exceeding 
agreeable to the inhabitants, who are very indolent. 
The mines, which lie far up in the country, dre very 
fich. Their fituation is carefully concealed, and no 
one can view theiri, except thofc concerned in working 
and guarding them. About twelve months before our 

arrival, the government had detciftcd fevcral jewcncr» 
in carrying on an illicit trade for diamonds, with 
(laves in tnc mines; and immediately afterwards a 
la<v paflcd, making it felony to work at the trade, or 
to have any tools fit for it in poffeflion, the civil of- 
ficers having iiidifcriminately feized on all that could 
be found. Near 40,000 negroes are annually imported 
to dig in the mines, fo pernicious to the human frame 
arc thofc works. Tn 1776, 20,000 more were draught- 
ed froin the town to fuppty the deficiency of the 
former number. 



C II A p. II. . 

f.'.Y dep,irtHre of the tjiJcaioiir flrom Rio de JiViriv) — ITtr p^'fif^r lo tbf eiilraiicr of Ibe Slrei^bt of Tie Mahr — The 
iiibabtt,7iils of Terra del Fuego defcrihrd — Mr. Diviks aid Dr. So!iinder afeend a mouii/ain fii feurcb of 
pfaiits — An acc-oiwt of Kbat hiippened lo ibnii in tbis cxcinfion — Ti>e Endeavour pqlJes tlirougb the Sireigbt f.e M.iire 
— .4n lucount of her paffiige, and a fmtbrr defiription rf the inhii/'i/anls of Terra del I'uego, and its prodiiiJiom — 
Remarks refpeHinz, the foitlh cajl part of Terra del Fiiego, and llje Ihrigbt of Le Maire — DiretJions for the paf- 
fas^e ■zi-c/hvard round tbis p.irt of America, into the Soitib Si as — 7 he pa/fa}^e of tbe Kndeavoiir from Cape Hortt 
to the mrvly difovered iJlands—^Ait account of their fyiire a-id appearance— >tOr inkabitants defribedi with 
«r narrative of the various incidents during //.v co-.trfcy and on the ILndeamur s atrival among tbem. 

01 N the 8th of December, having proaircd all nc- 
' cefliiry fupplies, we took our departure frniii Rio 
de Janeiro ; and on the 9th an amazing nuinbtr of 
atoms w ere taken out of the fca. Thtfe wore of a ycF- 
lo« ilh colour, and few of them were more than tlie 5th 
ym o\' an inch lo.ig ; nor could the btfl microfcopc 
on hoaTd the t'.ndcavour difcove r whether they belonged 
to the v.~g>:table or animal creation. The fca vas tinged 
in fuch a manner nitli thcfe equivocal fubftances, as to 
exhibit bioad llreaks of a fimilar colour, for near the 
fpace of a mile in length, and for fcveral hundred 
yards in breadth. Whence the\ came, or for what dc- 
figncd, neither Mr. Ihnks nor Dr. Solander could An- 
tcrmine. Pcrhtips they might le lliu fpawn of ibnie 1 
marine aniniil, unknown to citlicr anticnt or moderii j 

On the 1 1 th we hoolced a flurk. It proved to be a 
female. When opmcd we took fix young ones out of 
it, five of \*hifh were alive, and f>\ain brilkly in a 
tub of vatcr, but the fixth appeared to have been dead 
fonie time. From this time we met with no material 
occurrence till the 22d, whence difcovered numerous 
birds of the profiUaria kind, in latitude 39 deg. 37 
min. fouth, and longitude 49 deg. 16 iiiin. weft; vie 
alio difcovered great numbers of porpoifesof a lingular 
fpeciis, about 15 feet inkngih, and of an afli colour. 
On the :3d we oblervtd an edipfc of the moon ; and 
about fcvcn o'cloc k in the morning, a I'lnall white cloud 
appeared in tb^ wel\, from a train of fire iffucd, 
extending itielf wclleiiy : about tuo minutes after, we 
heard t>».) diflin^fl louii cxploltons, inuiiediatcly fuc- 
ceedir.g each otliLT, like thou- nf »annon, after which 
the cloud difapprarcil. On tiie 24th «e caught a large 
loi^^i-rhiad tortoife, wiijjhing one bundled and fifty 
pounds. V\\- likcwifc Ihot kvrral biidi, one an albc- 
fofs, which meafurcd hetHccn the tips of in wings 
nine feit and an imii, and from its beak to the tail 
two feet one in.h andan half. Onthe30th\\e ran up- 
w?rds of fifty leagues, through vail numbers of land 
infect';, foine in the air, and others upon the water; 
thty apfiearcd to itfeniblc exactly the Hie? that are fcen 
i:v l/.ngland, thoiipli they wuro thirty leagues from land, 
and fome of thefc infcoN arc knoun not to quit it bc.- 
\i)iHi thiee yard-'. At t'lis time t,c jiulgril ourfclves to 
Iir nearly opjiolite to the bay < ailed Sans I'ond (without 
fcotioni) where it i Tuppofed by fume writers, that the 
Continent of Aiiici!. a is divided iiy a palfage ; but it 
vvas tiie opinion of our cirruninaNigaiois, that there 
nughl Ik- a iaige river, whleh probably had (KCafioned 
an inundation. On the \\i\ «e had much thunder, 
lit'iitning and rain. This day and the three follouing, 
■wt la»v Jevcral whales; likewife a miinber of birifs 


about the fizc of a pigeon, with while bellies and 
grey beaks. 

On the 3d of January we faw the appearance of 
land, in latitude 47 dcg. 17 min. fouth, a rv , g 
and longitude 61 deg. 29 min. 45 fee. ' '7°9' 
weH, which we miftook for Pepy's illand. In appear- 
ance it fo much refembled land, that we bore away for 
it ; and it was near two hours and an half before we 
were convinced, tlaat it was one of thofe deceptions 
which failors call a Fog-bank. At this time our feamen 
beginning to coinplain of cold, they were furnilhcd 
with a pair of trowfers, and a Magellanic jacket, made 
of a thick woollen ftufT called I'earnought. On the 
I ith, after having pafTed Falkland's Ifland, we faw the 
coa'.l of Terra del Fuego, at the diftance of about four 
le.Tgiies from the wcfl to fouth-cart by fouth. As we 
ranged along the fiiore to the fouth-eaft, fmoke wat 
perceived, made, probably, by the natives as a fignal, 
lor i"- was not to be fcen after we had pafled by. 

On the 1 4th we entered the ftreight of Le Maire, 
but were afterwards driven out again with fuch violence, 
(the tide being againft us) that the fhip's bow -fprit wa* 
frequently under water. At length, houcvcr, we gm 
an<hoMge in a fmall cove, on the cart of Cape St. 
Vincent, the entrance to which our captain named St. 
Vincent's Bay. The weeds which grow here upor» 
rocky ground are very remarkable, they appear above 
the furfacc in eight and nine fathoms water. I'he 
leavci arc four feet in length, and many of the ftalks, 
though not more than an inch and a I all in ciivum- 
ference, above one hundred. 

Dr. Solander and Mr. Banks went on fliore, where 
having continued four htxjrs, they returned about '■•->c 
in the evening, with upwards of an hundred dii. eum 
jilants and Howers, ot which none of the Furopfan 
botanills had taken any notice near this bay. The 
country in general was flat, and the bottom, in par- 
ticular, was a graffy plain. Here was picntv of wood, 
water, and fowl, and winter bark was found in great 
plenty. The trees appeared to be a fpccies of the 
birch, but neither large nor lofty. Tiic wood was 
white, and they bore a Imall leaf White and red cran- 
berries were found in thcfc parts. 

On the 1 8th we came to an anchor in twelve fathom 
water, upon coral rocks, before a fmall cove, at the di(- 
tanc eof aboutainile from the fhorc. Atthistimc twoof 
the natives came down upon the beach, as if they ex- 
pected that the Urangers would land ; but as there was 
no llielrer here, the Ihip was got under fail again, and 
the Indians retired difapjiointed. 1 he fame aftermxin 
about two o'clock, we came into the bay of G<x)d .Suc- 
cefs, and the vcflel coming to an anchor, the captain 









"^ n ■ 






roil I 




van I 



a wo 



to tit 




cits i 




in ho 





tire, s 







fell in 


cook's first VOYAGE— for making Dijioveries in the Saulb Seas & Round the World. 1 1 

went on (horc, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. 
Solandcr, in order to fcarch for a watcrinf^ place, and 
difcourfc with the Indians. Thcfc gentlemen had not 
proceeded above one hundred yards before the captain, 
.T,nd two of the Indians that had featcd themfelves, rofe 
up, and threw away the fmall fticks which they held 
in their hands, as a token of amity. They afterwards 
returned to their comjwnions, who iiad remained at 
(omc diftancc behind them and made figns to their 
truclU to advance. whon\ they received in a friendly 
though uncouth mariner. In return for their civility, 
fome ribbands and beads were diflributed among them. 
Thus a fort of mutual confidence was cftablilhed, and 
the reft of the Knglifli joined the party, the Indians 
converliii^ with them in their an amicable man- 
ner. Capt. Cook and his friends took tiircc of them 
to the (liip, drtlTed them in jackets, and gave them 
bread and other provi(ions^ part of which they carried 
on fliore with them; but thev refufed to di-ink rum or 
brandy, making ligns that it burned their throats, as 
their proper drink was water. One of thefe people 
made feveral long and loud fpecches, but no part ol 
them was intelliglbie to any Of us; Another dole the 
covering of a globe, which he concealed under his 
garmenr that was made of Ikin. After having re- 
mained on board about two hours, they returned on 
ilinre, Mr. lianks accompanying them. He conduded 
them to iluircomp.mlons, who feeined no way curious 
to kno.v what their friends hat! feen, and the latter 
were as little difpottd to relate as the former were to 
fiiquirc. None of thefe people exceeded five feet ten 
incl'.es in height, but their bodies appeared large and 
robuft, though their limbs were fmall. They had broad 
Hat faces, \\\y,\\ cheeks, nofcs inclining to Hatnefs, wide 
nolhils, fmall black evf.i, large mouths, fmall. but m- 
diflirent tcnh, and ftraight black hair, falling down 
over their ears and foreheads, the latter being generally 
lincarcd with brown and red paints, r.nd like all the 
original natives of Amcrira, they w ere heardlefs. 1 heir 
garments were the fkins of feai> and guanicoesj which 
tiicy wruppcd round their fl.oulders. The likc- 
wifc wore on their heads, a bunch of yarn which tell 
over their foreheads, and w-as tied behind with the 
lincws or tendons of fome animals. Many of both 
texcs were painted on different parts of their bodies 
with red, white, and brown colours, and had alio three 
or four pcrpenilicuLir lines pricked acrofs their cheeks, 
.md nofes. The women had a fmall llring tied round 
i^th ancle, and each wore a flap of Ikin lalUned 
round the middle. I'hey carried their children upon 
their backs, and were generally employed m domcllic 
laboiir and drudgery. 

Mr. Banks and Dr. Solandcr, attended by their fer- 
vanis, fet out from the fliip on the i6th, with a dcligii 
ot' going into the country as far as they could that 
day, and returning in the Having entered 
a wood, they afccnded a hill through a paihlels wilder- 
ncfs till the afternoon. After they had reached what 
they took for a plain, they were greatly diiappointed 
to find it a fwamp. covered with birch, the bulhes in- 
rerwoveii and (i) inflexible tha; ;;-,(y coi.iti not be di- 
vided: however, as they wen' not above tiiree feet 
high, they lleppcil over them, but were up to the an- 
cles in boggy ground. The ri-'niing had been very 
line, but now the weather became cold and dilagrec- 
able; the blafts of wind were very piercing, and the 
fnow fell thick ; nevcrthclcfs thev nurfued their loute 
in hope of finding a better road. Before they had got 
over this fuainp, an accident happened that greatly 
difconccrtcd them: Mr. Buchan, oncof the draughtf- 
men, whom Mr. Banks had taken with him, tell into a 
lit. It was ablolurelv nereiiaiv to Hop .md kindle a 
fire, and fuch as were moil tatip;ued remained to affift 
him; but Mr. Bankv, Dr. S<>lander, and Mr. Monk- 
houfe proceeded, ai\d atiained the f'pot they had in 
\icw, where they loimd a great \ai iety ol plants that 
gratified their curl<ifity and r; paid their toil. ()n a- 
lurningto the comi^any aniidll the Ihow which now 
fell in great abundaiue, rluy lomul Mr. Buchan nimh 
recovered. They p;vviouil\ Cent Mr. Monkhoi'fe 

and Mr. Green back to him and thofe that remained 
with him, in order to bring them to a hill which was 
conjedured to lie in a better track for returning to 
the wood, and which was accordingly fixed on as a 
place of rendezvous. They refolved from this hill to 
pafs through the fwamp. which this way did not appear 
to be more than half a mile in extent, into the covert 
of the wood, in which they propofed building a hut, 
and kindling a fire, to defend themfelves from the 
fevcrity of the weather. Accordingly, the w hole party 
met at the place appointed, about eight in the evening, 
whilfl it was ftill day-light^ and proceeded towards the 
next valley. 

Dr. Solandcr, having often palTed over mountains in 
cold countries, was fcnfible, that extreme cold when 
joined with fatigue, occafions a drow'fincfs that is not 
eafily refilled) he therefore Intreated his friends to 
keep in motion, however difagrecablc it might be to 
them. His words were — Whoever fits down will fleep, 
atul whoever fleep$ will wake no more. — Every one 
feemed accordingly artned with refolution ; but, on a 
fuddcn, the cold became fo very intenfe as to threaten 
the moil c'readful effccis. It was now very remarkable, 
that the Dodor himfclf, who had fo forcibly admo- 
nirticd and alarmed his party, was the firft that infifted 
to be fiilfcred to repofe. In fpitc of the inoft camcft 
intreaties of his iriends, he lay down amidft the fnow, 
a'ld ir was with diHiculty that they kcj-'t him awake. 
O.icof the black fcrvants alfo became weak and faint, 
and was on the point of following this example. 
Mr. Buchan was therefore detached with a party to 
make a lire at the firft commodious fpot they could 
find. Mr. Banks and four more remained with the 
doctor and Richmond the black, who with the utnioft 
dittieulty were perfuaded to come on ; and when they 
had traverfed the greateft part of the f^wamj), they ex- 
prefled their inabUity of going any farther. When 
the black was told that if he remained there he would 
foon be frozen to dcdth, his reply was. That he was fo 
much cxhaufted with fatigue, that death would be a 
relief to him. Doctor Solandcr faid he was not un- 
willing to go, but that he muft firft take fome fleep. 
fiill pcrfifting in afling contrary to the opinion which 
he himfclf had delivered to the company. Thus re- 
folved. they both fat down, fupported bv fiime bufhes. 
and in a lliorttime lell alleep. Intelligence now came 
from the advanced party, that a fire was kindled about 
a quarter of a mile farther on the w ay. Mr. Banks 
then awakened the doctor who had already almoll loft 
the ufe of his limbs, though it was but a few minutes 
iincc he fat down; neverthelefs, he confented to go 
on, but every n\eafurc taken to relieve the black proved 
ineffectual. He remained motionlcfs, and they were 
obliged to leave him to the care of a failor, and the 
other black fervant. who appeared to be the Icaft hurt 
by the cold, and they were to be relieved as loon a^ 
two others were futhciently warmed, to fill their places. 
The doctor, with much dilliculty, was got to the fire; 
and as to thofe who were fent to relieve the companions 
of Richmond, they returned without having been able 
to find them. What rendered the mortification ftill 
greater was, that a bottle of rum (the w hole ftock of 
the party) could not be found, and was judged to have 
been left w ith one of the three that were miffing. 

A fall of fnow continuing for near two hours, there 
now remained no hopes of feeing the three abfent per- 
Ibns again. At tw clvc o'clock, how ever, a great fhout- 
ing was heard at a diftancc, which gave inexprcfliblc 
fatisfattion to every one prcfent. Mr. Banks and four 
others went forward and met the failor, who had juft 
ftrength enough left to walk. He was immediately fent 
to the fire, and they proceeded to feek for the other 
two. They found Richmond upon his legs, but in- 
capable of moving them ; the other black was lying 
fenfelcfs upon tlic ground. All endeavours to bring 
them to the fire were fruitlefs ; nor was it pofilblc to 
kindle one upon the fpot. on account of the fnow that 
had fallen, and was falling ; fo that there remained no 
alternative, and they were compelled to leave the two 
unfortunate negroes to their fate, afj^r they had made 




them a bed of the boughs of foiiie trees, anil covered 
them over thick with the fame. As all hands had been 
employed in endeavouring to move thefe poor blacks 
to the fire, and had been expofed to the cold for near 
an hour and an half in the attempt, fome of them began 
to be afflicted in the fame manner as thofe whom they 
were to relieve. Brifcoe, another fervant of Mr. Banks, 
in particular, began to lofe his fenfibility. At lail they 
reached the fire, and pafTcd the night in a very dif- 
agreeable manner. 

The party that fet out from the fliip had confiOcd of 
twelve ; two of thefe were already judged to be de-ad, 
it was doubtful whether the third would be able to re- 
turn on board, and Mr. Buchan, a fourth, feenied to 
be threatened with a return of his fits. The fliip they 
reckoned to be at the dirtancc of a long ilay's journey, 
.through an unfrequented woo(', in which they might 
probably be bewildered till night, and having been 
equipped only for a journey of a few hours, they had not 
a fufficitncy of provifions left to afford the company a 
lingle meal. 

At day-break on the 17th nothing prcfcnted itfelfto 
the view all around but fnow, which covered alike vhc 
trees and the ground ; and the blafts of wind were fo 
frequent and violent, that their journey feemed to be , 
rendered impraOlicable, and they had reafon to dread 
peritliing with cold and famine. However, about lix 
m the morning, they were flattered with a dawn of 
hope of being delivered, by difcovering the fun through 
the clouds, which gradually diminiflicd. Before their 
felling out, iiK-nengers were difpatched to the un- 
happy ncf^Toes; but thefe returned with the melan- 
choly news of their death. Though the fl\y had flat- 
tered the ho|Ks of the furvivors, the fnow continued 
falling very tall, a citcumflancc which impeded their 
journey, but a breeze fpringingup aboit eight o'clock, 
added 10 the influence of the fun, began to clear the 
air, and the fnow falling in large flakes from the trees, 
gave tokens of a ihaw. Hunger prevailing over evcrv 
other conrklcration, induced our travellers to divide the 
fniail itm.iinJer of their pmvifions, and to lit forwanl 
on their journey about ten in the morning. To their 
!;rcat aHoiiilhnicnt anil iiuisfaction, in about three 
hours thcv found tlKuililvcs on the fliorc, ami much 
nearer to the lhi|>.ihan their moll fanguine expectations i 
could ha\c fiiggelUd. When they looked back upon 
their foritur route from the fea, they found that inllead 
of afetnduig the hill in a direct luie, they had" nude a 
cin.le alnioli round the country. On their return, thefe 
uandeiirs ret eived fueh congratulations from thofe 
on bo.ird as can more ealily Lk- imagined than cx- 

Mr. Bank^ aiul Dr. Solandcr went on fliore again on 
the 20th of thi:, mouth, landing in the bottom of the 
fxiy, where they coliccfeil a nimiber of Ihells and plants, 
hitiieito unknown, .\fter having returned to tlip.ner, 
they went ;o vilit an Indian town, about two miles up 
the country, the accels to which, on account of the 
inud, was ditlicult. W hen they approached the town, 
two of the natives came out to meet them, who began 
to tliout in their ufual manner. They aftenvards «on- 
duclcd Mr. Banks and the Doctor to their town. It 
was fituatc on a finall hill, over-lhadcd with wood, and 
conlilled of about a do/en huts, conflrucfed without art 
or regularity. Ihey were compofed rtf a few polos I 
inclining to each other in the Inapc of a fugar-loaf, 
which were covered on the weather fide with grafs and 
boughs, and on the other fide a fpace was kft open, 
w hich fers ed at once for a fire-place and a door. They 
w ere of the fainc nature of the huts that had been fecn t 
at St. Vincents Bay. A little grafs ferved for beds | 
and chairs, and their iitcnfils were a balket Ibrthe hand, 
a fatchcl to hang upon the back, and a bladder lor 
water, out of v hich iliey drank through a hole near the 
top. This town was inhabited by a tribe of about fifty 
men, women, and children. Their bows and arrow,; 
were conilruclcd with neatncfs and ingenuity, being . 
made of wood highly poliflicd, and the point which 
was cither glafs or Hint, very fkilfully fitted.. Thefe 
latter fubftances were obfervcd among tliein unwrought, 

as alfo cloth, ring.i, biitKins, A:c. from whence it was 
concluded that they fcimctimcs travelled to the north- 
ward, as no fliip, for years pad, hud touched at iliis 
part of Terra del Fuego. The n;itive» here did not 
fliew anyiurprife at the fight of lire arim, bur .(piK.jnd 
to be well acquainted with their ule. It is like!, that 
the fJHit on wliieh the Doctor and Mi-. Banks nut them, 
wMs not a fixed habitation, :u their houfes ilid not feein 
as if they wi'iv i reded to Hand for any long time, and 
they had no boats or canoes among them. 'Ihc^ did not 
appi-ar to have any form ofgovcrnnifnt or any ideas of 
fubordination. They fecincd to be the very oui-call.s of 
men; and a people that palfed their live."! in wandering in 
a forlorn mann^Toverdreary w.illes j their dwelling being 
a thatcheil hovel, and their cioathin.'; frarcely fiiUicicnt 
to keep then> fiom perithing with cold, even in thefe cli- 
mates. Theironly fiwd w^s fheli-lilh, vi hich on any one 
fpot mufV foon beexhairtTedi nor had they the riidcft 
implement ofarr, not e\en li) miuh as \?.as neceflar;,- to 
drefs their fo(Kl, yet amidll all this, we are told, that 
they appeared to enjoy that content which i.s fcldoiii 
f()iuid in gix'at and populou.s cities j a fpicies of con- 
tent, which if they really enjoyed it, niufl have arifen 
from ilupidity, a fatisfartion the offspring of the 
grratefl ignorance. Such i.i the flate of lUK uiriv.itcd 
nature ; fiich the rude form whichuncivilifed inanpurs 
on. The wants of thefe pcoi)le feen.rd to ho lew j but 
fomc w ants all mankind mult have, and even tlie inofl 
iimple of them, thefe poor lavages ajipearcd fcarcelv 
in a condition to gratify. Tiie calls of hunger and 
thidl mull beol>eyed, or man mul^pcrilh, yet the peo- 
ple in qucftion fcenjed to depend on chance for the 
means of anfweiingthcm. Thofe who can be happy 
in fuch a fituation, can only be fo, bccaufe they have 
fjot a due feeling of their mifery. We know thai there 
have been admirers of fimple nature amongll the phi- 
lofophers of all ages and nations ; and certainly fimple 
nature has her bea^itie-;. In regard to the vegetative 
and brute creation, fhe operates with rolilllefs energy; 
h^r power is prevalent as her pencil is inimitable j birt 
when we al'cend in the fcafe of beings, and come to ex.i- 
mine the human race, whatfhail we find ihrm, with- 
out cultivation ? It is here that inllinct ends and reafon 
begins, and without entering into the quellion, Whe- 
ther a flate of nature is a Itate of war } when wc ob- 
ferve the innumerable inconveniences to which thofe 
are fubject on whom the light of Icienee never dawned, 
wc may ealily determine in the favour of thofe arts 
which have civilized mankimi, fbrmeil them into (o- 
cicties, refiived their manners, and taught the nations 
where they have prevailed, to protect thofe right.; v. hich 
the untutored fav.ages have ever been oblij',fd to yield 
to the fnperior abilities of their bdtcr inllructed in- 
vaders, and have thus tiilkn a pity 10 European ty- 

Wc obfervcd in this place feals, fci-lions, and dog.i, 
and no other quadrupeds; ne\eithcttl\ it i» probable 
there are other kinds of ai.r.n.ils in the country; for 
Mr. Banks remarked, fwma hill, an imprcllion of the 
f(K)t-llcps of a large animal on the furt.ue of a bog, 
but of what kind it washec(iuld not determine. Not 
any land-birds were feen larger than an I'inglifh black- 
bird, hawks and vultures excepted. Ducks andother 
watcr-lJL'W Is wc faw inabiindauvc ; ;ill"oll.ell lilh, clams, 
and limpets. The country though undcared had nei- 
ther gnat, mufquito, nor any noxious or trou- 
blefomc aniinals. .\ great varictj- of plants were found 
by the Dodfor and Mr. Banks. 1 he wild celery and 
fcurvy grafs arc fuppofed to contain antilcorbutic qua- 
lities, which will ihcreibrc be of fervice to the crewj; 
of fuch fhips as hereafter may touch at this place, alter 
a long voyage. The latter is found in abimdaiKc near 
fprings and in damp places, particularly at the water- 
ing piace in the bay of Good bucccfs, and it refemble.; 
thc-iinglifli cuckow flower, or lady .^-fmock. 1 ht 
wild celery is like what grows in our gdrdcn* in Eng- 
land; but the lea\ es arc of a deeper green. This plant 
may be found in plenty near the beach, and upon the 
land above the fpring tides. In taftc it is between that 
of celery and parllcy. Thcgrateiul fc?man, l«ng con- 





we 11 v:ts 
tho nrrtli- 
H'd at this 
ic tJiil iioi 
t apjKirt J 

nut tllClll, 

i\ not lltin 

tiiiK', ami 
K-y ilid not 
ny idtas of" 
indciint; in 
ly fu'iVicicnt 
in tlitfcf li- 
on any or.t 
■ the nuUft 
ncceflary to 

told, that 
h is (Lldriii 
ciesuf <on- 
havc aiidn 
ing of thu- 
in( ultiv.itcd 
L'd man puts 
be few ; but 
tn tlic molt 
ircd fcarccty 
hunger and 
, yei the pco- 
nce for the 
»n be happy 
fc they h.t%'c 
j\v that there 
gll the phi- 
:ainly fimpte 
c vegetative 
Hefs cncrpy; 
nitablci but 
come to cxa- 

ihi-iii, with- 
s and reafun 

ft ion, Whc- 
shi'n wc ol'u 

uhich thofc 

vcr dawned, 

of thofc arts 

\cm into fo- 

thc natioiii 

fd to yield 

lihuctcd in- 

.ui'opean ty- 

ns, and dogs, 
i* probable 
roimtry ; for 
rellion of the 
e of a bojif, 
rniinc. Not 
n^lilh black- 
:ks and other 
1 lilh, tlanis, 
ired had net- 
iovis or iroii- 
s were found 
celery and 
orbiitit qua- 
to the ctew-'i 
is place, after 
iindance near 
at the water- 
it refcmble.i 
Tniock. Ihfc 
dcn« in Eng- 
This plaj\t 
ind upon the 
between that 
,n, l«ng con- 


h- ^» 





.t .|2.<*;^l4(|: 





'.'s-if ■ -t^ v'.i'i^'^^'- 


COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE— for making Difcoveries iit the South Sctis k. Round tlic irorU. 1 3 

fined to f;ilt provifions, enjoy tliii hcalinj; vegetable 
diet, as a fpccial blclUnij; of an all j^iacioiis I'rovi- 
dcncc, panitularly viliblc in providing in iliilircnt cli- 
mates dilKcrcnt food and nourillinicnt, fuitablc to his 
nature, wants and necclTitits. 

On Sunday, Jan. 22, having got in our wood and 
water, we failed out of the bay, and continued our 
courfe through the Streiglit ; and in pnlliug this, not- 
M'ithrtanding ilie defcription which foine voyagers have 
given of Terra ilel Fucgo, we did not find that it liad, 
agreeable to their reprefcntations, fuch a forbidding 
alpcct. On the contrary, we found the fea coalts and 
the fides of tlie hills cloathcd with verdure. Indeed 
the fummits of the hills were barren, but the valleys 
appeared rich, and a brook was generally found at the 
foot of alnioft every hill ; and though the water had a 
rcddidi tinge, yet it was far from being ill tailed. Upon 
the whole, it was the bell we took on board during our 
voyage. Nine miles weflward of cajic St. Diego, the 
low point that forms the north entrance of the Streight 
of Le Maire, are three hills, calleti the Three IJro- 
thcrs i and on Terra del Fucgo is another hill, in the 
form of a fugar-loaf, which Hands on the wed lidc not 
far from the fea. We had not that ditlkiilty mentioned 
in the hillory of I.ord Anfon's voyagp, in finding where 
the (Ircight of Lc Maire lies. No lliip can well iiiifs 
the llrcigiit that keens Terra del Iniegoin light, for it 
will then beealily dilcovered ; and Statcn illanil which 
lies on the call fide will bf Hill more plainly, 
for thea- is no land on Terra del I'ucgo like it. And 
let it be further particularly ohfervcd, that the entrime 
of the flreight thould be atiempted only with a f.iir 
wind, when the weather too is niodcr.itc, aiul likcwife, 
upon the beginning of the title of HoolI, wi\iclj heie 
falls out upon the full and change of the moon, alio it 
one or two o'clock ; let it al(i) be renie:nl.\ ivil, to keep 
as near the lliore of Terra del I'ucgo as the winds will 

The ftrcight of Lc Maire is bn'.indcil on the well by 
Terra del lucgo, and on the call by the well end of 
Statcn ilVmd, and is nearly li\e leagues in length, nor 
lefs in br^aikh. The bay of (lood Sucrels is fcitcd" 
about the middle of it, on the fide of Ten.i del I iKgo, 
which prcfeiUs iifelf at the eiur.mre o(' tlie llieigiit 
from the northwanl 1 and the foiith end of it may be 
dillinguilhcd by a land mark, relembliii;.; a road from 
the fea to the country. It alVords g.xi I in iiorage, and 
plenty of wood and water. St.iteii land did not a]5- 
pcar to Captain Cook in the f.ime manner as it did to 
Commodore Anion. That horror and wil.lnefs, men- 
tioned by the Commodore, were not ohferved by our 
gentlemen; on the contrary the land appeared to be 
neither dcllitute of wood nor \erdurc. imr was it co- 
vered w ith fnow ; and on tlie north fide we law the aj)- 
pcaranccs of bays and harbourj. It i.i pioI)ahle, that 
the feafon of the )ear ami other ciicumllances might 
concnr to occafion fuch ditlcrent rcprefeiuation.^ of a 
land, which all our circumnavig.itoi.s own to be 
unfriendly and tiifagrceably lituaud. On the well tide 
of the I ape of CJood Succcf^, whereby is foniicd the 
fouth well entrance of the llicight. we faw the mouth 
of Valentine's liay ; from whence the land lies in a di- 
redion well foulh-well for more than twenty leagues, 
appearing high and mountainous, w iih llvcral inlets 
and bays. Fourteen leagues from the bay of Good 
Succefs, fouth-well half-well, and nearly three leagues 
from the fliore, is New IHand ; terminating to the 
north-call in a remarkable hillock; and feven leagues 
from hence, fouth-w eft, lies F'vout's ille ; a little to the 
weft of the fouth of w hich are two fmall low iftands, 
near to each other, called Harnevelt's, Thcfu are partly 
furroundcd with rocks, which rife todilVerent heights 
above the water, and twenty-four leagues from the 
(Ircight of Le Maire. Three leagues fouth well by 
fouth, from Barncvclt's iflaiuls, is the fouth-eaft point 
of Hermit's iftands, which lie fouth-caft and north- 
weft. They appeared to us, in dillercnt points of 
view, fometimcs as one iftand, and at others .is part 
of the main, From the fouth-caft point of thcfe illands 
to Cape Horn, the courfe is foiith-weft by fouth, diftant 
Mo. 2. 

three leagues. Hermit, who commanded the IXitcli 
fquadron in 1624, certainly put into fonie of them, 
and Chapenham, vice atlmiral of this fquailron, firft 
difcovered that Cane t 'orn was fc>rmcd by a clufter of 
iftands. Hetwecn the ftreight Le Maire and Cape Horn 
wc t()iiiul, when near the lliorc, the luirent fetting ge- 
nerally llrong to the north-call ; but wc loll it at the 
ilillanccof liftcai^or twenty leagues from land. 

January the 26th we took our departure I'rom Cape 
Horn, anil the farthcll fouthern latitude we made was 
60 deg. 10 iiiin. and our longitiule was then 74 deg. 
•}0 min. weft. Cape Horn is iituated in 55 (leg. 5J 
min. I<)uth latitude, and f)H deg. \ \ min. weft longi- 
tude. 'J'he weather being very calm Mr. Hank.'-' failed 
in a fmall boat to llioot birds, when he killed fomc 
ftieer-waters, and albatrolles. 'i'he latter were larger 
than thole which hail In-en taken to the n. rthwanl of 
the llreight, and ]iioved to be very good food. At 
this time we found ourfcKesto be 12 deg. to the well- 
ward, and three and a half to the northward of the 
ftreight of Magellan, having, from the call entrance 
of the llreight, been three and thirty days in lading 
round Cape I lorn. Notwitliftanding the doubling of 
Cape Horn is reprefented as a \ery dangerous courfe, 
and that it is generally thought palling through the 
ftreight of Magellan is kf-i (-.crilous, )ct the Lndca- 
\our doubled it with as little dinger as llie would the 
north I'mland on the Kentilh ( uaft ; the heavens were 
ffienely fair, the wind temperate, the weather plea- 
lUnt, and, being near lliore, wc had a very dillincl 
view of the coaft. The Dolphin, in her laft voyage, 
which was jicrformcd at the iiime feafon with ours, was 
not Ids th.m thi\e months in i)alTing through tho 
ftreight- of Magclhin, not including the time that (he 
\-AV in I'ort lamine ; and it was the opinion of Captain 
Cook, that if we had come through the ftreight, wc 
Ihoul.l not at this time have been in thefe feas ; 
and ftiould have fullered many inconveniences which 
we have not experienced. It is a queftion. Whe- 
ther it IS hitter to go through the ftreight of Le Maire, 
or to ftand to the eaftward, and go round Staten land ? 
'I'his cin only be determined according to particular 
cir- iimftan;c !, which may make one or the other more 
eligible. The ftreigiit may be palled with fafety by at- 
t-iiding to the directions already given ; but if the 
land i^ f.illen in with to the eaftward of the ftreight, 
and the wind ihould prove teiiipeftuous, it would lie 
bell, in our opinion, to go round Statcn land. In any 
cafe, however, we cannot approve of running into the 
l.iti tide of 61 or 6:, befoic any attempt is made to 
ftand to the weft ward. 

March the ift we found ourfelves, both by obferva- 
lion and the log, in latitude jS deg, 44 min. fouth, 
and 1 10 deg. ){ min. well longitude, a concurrence 
very lingular in a mn of 660 leagues; and which 
proved, that no curient had aft'ecied tlie ftiip in licr 
courfe, and it was likcwife concluded, that we had 
not come near land of any conliderable extent ; for 
currents are alvvavs found at no great diftancc from the 
lliore. Mr. Danks killed above lixty birds in one 
day ; alfo two forell flies, fuch as had never yet been 
defcribed ; he alio found a cuttle-ftfti of a fpecics dif- 
ferent from thofe generally known in Europe. This 
filh had a double row of talons, refembling thofe of a 
cat, which it could put forth or withdraw at plea- 
furc. When drelFed it made excellent foup. On 
the 24th our latitude was 22 deg. 11 min. fouth, and 
1 27 deg. 55 min. weft longitude. On the 25th a young 
marine about twenty threw himfelf overboard, on ac- 
count of a quarrel about a piece of feal Ikin, which he 
took by way of frolic ; but being charged with it as a 
theft, he took the accufation fo much to heart, that in 
the dutk of the evening he threw himfelf into the fea 
and was drowned. 

On the 4th of April about 10 o'clock, A. M. Peter 
Brifcoe, fervant to Mr. Banks, difcovered land to the 
fouth, at the diftancc of abcut three or four leagues. 
Capt. Cook itnniediately gave orders to haul for it, 
when we found an illand of an oval form, having a 
lagoon or lake in the center, tliat cxtaided over the 
D greater 


Cipt. C O O K s V () Y A c; E S C O M P L K T F, 



greater part of it. The furnmniiing bonier of lanil 
was !()« ami nariow in many places, el'peiiallj' towarJii 
the foiith, wluiT the beuLh conlilkil of a reel of rocks. 
Three places on the north fule had the fame appearance, 
fo that on the whole the land feenieil to refemble fiveral 
woolly illamls. To the well waa a large clump of trees, 
and in the (enter two cocoa-nut trees. When within 
a mile of the north fide, though we cafl out a line, no 
bottom could be tbund at ijo fathom, nor any good 
anchorage. This ifland was covered with trees but 
we could difcern no other fpccies than the palm and 
the cocoa-nut. Several of the natives wercdifcovcrcd 
t)n lliore. they appeared to be tall, w ith heads remark- 
able large, wiiiih probably fome bantlage might have 
increaled. Their complexion was of the copper colour, 
and tluir hair was black. .Some of thele people were 
lien abieaU of the lliip, holding pules or pike, of twice 
their own height. I'hey ap|)e,ired alio naked, but 
v\hen they retiied, on the 11 ip's palling by the illands, 
they pill on a light-coloured covering. Some clumps 
of palm-trees III veil them liir habitations, which at a 
dillancc appeared like hilly ground, and the view- of 
the groves was a very agreeable one. (Jur captain 
(ailed this place I«i>^oon Illand, It lay in i 8 degrees 
font h latitude, ami i jij well longitude. In the atier- 
noon we again faw land to the north-well, by fun-fet 
we real hcd ii, when it appeared to be a lou illand of a 
circular form, and about a mile in eircumfeieni e. '1 he 
land was covered wiih verdure of various kinds, but no 
inhabitants were vilible nor anvcocoa-nui I'his 
illand is from that of lagoon aliout kwn 
leagues mirth, and (>: well, which our gentlemen on 
board named IhumbCap. 

On the uh we continued our coiirfe with a fivruir- 
ahle wind, and about three o'clock difcovered land to 
thewellward. li was low, in form rifembling a bow, 
and i:i cinumterencc lecmed to be ten or twelve 
leajruc-. It> length is about three or four leagues, and its 
i^idih about two humlieil yards. The beach was tlat, 
and ItMiUil to have no oilier herbage upon it than fea- 
weeds. The refiiiihlance of a bow was preferved in 
the arch and cor I forming the land, while the inter- 
ir.ediatc fpace was taken up by water. The arch, in 
general, was covered with trees of v.irious veidurn and 
ditlereiu heigl.t^. Tlrs illand, from the finokj that 
was difcovered. .ippeaied to be inhabited, and we gave 
It the name of How Illand. 

On the (ith ab"Ut noon, weapiinfiw land to the weft, 
and at three o'l '.o, k we came up with it. 'I'his land 
(icnied to beili\idi.d into two parti, or rather a collei- 
non of illands, (to whuh we gave the name of the 
( rioup--) to the extent of about nine leagues. The two 
largelt were divided from the others by a ftreight, the 

breadth of which wai about Haifa mile. .Snne of 
thefe illand* were ten 'iiilcs or more in length, but ap- 
peared like long narrow ftrings of land, not above a 
iiuarterof a mile in breadth ; but they produced trees, 
however, of dilVerent kinds, which wai the 
cocoa-nut tree. Several of thi inhabitants came out in 
their canoes, and two of them lliewed an intention of 
coming on board ; but thefe, like the reft, (lopped at 
the reef. From the ohfervatioiis made, thefe people 
appeared to be about our (i/e, and well made. 'I'heir 
complexion was brown, and they were iked. In ge- 
neral, they had two weapons, one was a long |K)Ic, 
ipear-pointcd, and the other refembled a [i.-uldle. Se- 
veral of their canoes were conllriii'tcd in fuch a manner 
as not to carry more than three perfons j others wi re 
fitted up for fix orfeven ; and one of thefe bo.iis hoilled 
a fail, which was converted into an awning when a 
lliower of rain fell. Capt. Cook would not (lay for 
any of them, neither could we determine, whether the 
lignals made were meant for defiance, or for i.ivitaiion t 
one party waving their hats, and mother anfwering by 
Iboiiting. In this refpciil it was not Judged prudent to 
try the experiment, in order to be convimed, as the 
illand appeared of no importance, and the crew nor 
being in want of any thing it ccwld produce. Tlii< 
ciiriolity was therefore laid addc, in expedation of loon 
diliovering the idaml, where we bcrn directed tu 
m.ike our aftronomit al obfervations, the natives of 
which, it was reafonable to conicvUire, would make no 
ri lilhim e, having already experienced the danger ofop- 
pmingan b.uroj".'an force. 

On the ';th x^e difcovered another ifland, judp'd to 
I'c in compals about five miles, being veiy low, and 
bavin;; a j)iece of water in the centc. It a||)caied to 
abound m wcxdl, and to be (overeil with viriliire, but 
we law no inhabit iriis upon it. It was named Hird 
Illand, from t'lc mimber of birds that were fecn tlving 
about. in latitude 17 deg. 48 niin. fouth, 
and 14J deg. ^5 min. weft longitude; dillant ten 
leagues, in the diicvilion well, half north from the weft 
eiici of the Ciroups. 

On the 8th in the afternoon we faw land to the north- 
ward, and ctime abreaft of it in the evening, at about 
five miles dillancc. This land feeined to DC a chain 
of low illands, of an oval figure, and confiftcd of coral 
and faiul, with a few clumps of fmall trees, and iia 
the middle of it was a lagoon. On accoiint of its ap- 
pearame, it was called Chain Iftand. 

On the loth, after a tempcftuous night we came in 
light of Ofnaburgh illand, called by the natives 
Maitea. This illand is circular, al)Oiit tour miles in 
cinumfercnce, partly rocky, and partly covered with 


C H A P. 



Tbf EiidcAVMf mr.vfs nl Olabeile, or George the Third's Ijlaiid — Riih^ rflah^ijhed ly C:pl. Cmk for (mduFling a trade 
vcitb ibr iiMivr.: — ./'; amiiKt of ffvn\il iiutdruii duriir^ bis Jl.iv ni ibi- ijlrid — /l<i ol/irivlory and fort nrUfd — I'x- 
curJioKs iiitt ibr '^voods — Fijils from ft-iri\d 'f the cbirfs — Ibr inufc of tbr iialiii'>, and ib'-ir vh:nmr nf lutynij^ thrir 
dfdd, dfltrtl/t'd — Oihr cxmrjions and nindi'nls, li',tb 011 board iintl 011 Jhirr — inji intnviezv ~Ji'itb Ukren, tbv fuppofcd 
!i^ii'rii 'f Ihr tjlaitd — The fort di-fril td — Ibe (jiiadrant JloUii, and ibr oit'rfieiurs — .1 vijit to Tootabaii, an Indian (hie/ 
— // -ir''J}Uiig.match drfcribed — European frrds are fnvn — The Indians i^rve our people names. 

ON the iitli we made Otahcite, or as captain 
Wallis hail named it, king CJeorge the Third's 
Illand. '1 he calms iireveiited our apjiro.ti hing it till 
the morning of the i;ih, when a bive/.e I'liniiig up, 
and feveral lanois wire l\-<.n making towards the lliip. 
i-ew of them, however, would come near, and thole 
who did could not be perluaded to come on board. 
They had brought with them young jjlantain.s and 
bram hes of trees, which were handed up the Ihip'.. 
fide, and, by their delire, were ftuck in conl"iiiruous 
parts of the rigging as tokens of peace and frundihip. 
We then purchafed their commodities, conliflingof 
cocoa-nuts, bananas, bread-fruit, apples and figi, which 

were very ni ccptablc to the crew. On the evening of 
the fame day we opined the north-weft point of the 
ille, to w hieh the Dolphin'.i people had given the name 
of 'i'ork Illand. We lay olf and on all night, and in 
the morning of the i;}th we entered Port Royal Har- 
bour in the illand of Otahcite, and anchored within 
half a mile of the Iliorc. Many of the natives caine off 
immediately in their canoe.s, and brought with them 
bread-fruit, rocoa-nuts, apples, and fomc hogs, which 
they bartered for beads and other trinl'.'ts with the' 
fhi[)'s company. The tree which bears the bread-fruit 
is about the li/.e of a hor.'e-cliefnut: its !'',aves .ire near 
a foot and a half in length, in ihape obloiig, and ver/ 
■ I raucti 

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L>mJ^n Ititfif^ti.t hvttkvVHt^'i •!( ffi* h'Wt.h-n/.t . ^ *<¥lUkitus»hi If,>w . 

M^BANKS irr^/f'ny,ryis\.\/rr„f//,r I^ng-./toUKE ofYORK'sISLA^D . 


cook's first '''' OY AGE— for making Difcoveries in tlie Sout/.y Seat Sc Round the It'orU. i ^ 





much rcfcmblc thofc of the ng-trec. The fruit is not 
unlike the cantaloupe melon : it is iiiclofcd in a thin 
Ikin, and its core is as large as a man's thumb. The 
fubftance of this fruit is fomcwhat like that of new 
bread, and as white as the blanched almond. It mull 
be roaftcd, and when eaten it has the taftc of a (light 

Among thofc who came on board the Endeavour, 
was an elderly man, named Owhaw, known to Mr. 
Gore and others who had vifited this idand with cap- 
tain Wallis. Owhaw being conlidered by our gentle- 
men as a very ufeful man, they ftudied to plcafe him, 
and to gratify all his w ifhes. As our continuance in 
George's Ifland was not likely to be very Ihort, certain 
rules were drawn up to be obfervcd by every pcrfon on 
board his majefty's bark the Kndeavour, for the better 
cftablifhing a regular trade with the natives. The fub- 
llancc of tnefe rules were, " That in order to prevent 
quarrels and confuiion, every one of the (hip's crew 
ihouUi endeavour to treat the inhabitants of Otaheite 
with humanity, and by all fair means to cultivate a 
friendlhip with them. That no officer, feaman, or 
other perfon, belongmg to the (hip, excepting fuch 
only who were appointed to barter with the natives, 
{hould trade, or offer to trade, for any kinds of provi- 
fion, fruit, or other produce of the ifland, without hav- 
ing exprcfs leave fo to do. That no pcrfon (hould em- 
bezzle, trade, or offer to trade with any part of the 
(hips flores: and, that no fort of iron, or any thing 
made of iron, nor any fort of cloth, or other ufeful ar- 
ticles in the (liip, fliould be given in exchange for any 
thing but provifion." Thefe neceffary rules were fign- 
ed by Capt. Cook, and, being his orders, to the non- 
obfervancc of them \vcre annexed certain penalties, 
befidcs the punilhment according to the ufual cuflom 
of the navy. 

When the bark was properly fecurcd, Capt. Cook, 
Mr. Batiks, and Dr. Solander, went on (I'.ore, with a 
party under arms, and their friend the old Indian. 
I'hcy were received by fome hundreds of the nativci 
with awe and reverence, w ho exchanged the tokens of 
peace, and offered to conduiit them to a fjwt of ground, 
which would be more convenient for them to occupy, 
than that where they had landed. On their way, the 
Knglilh made the Indians fome prefents, whicli the 
latter very thankfully received. They now took a cir- 
cuit of ab<5ut four miles through groves of the bread- 
fruit and cocoa-trees. Intermingled with thefe were 
the dwellings of the natives, which confifted of huts 
without walls. In the courfe of their journey they 
found but few fowls or hogs, and underlViK)tl, thai none 
of their conduiflors, nor any of the people they had 
hitherto feen, were jierfons of rank in the illand. 
Thofc of our crew, who had before been at Otaheite in 
the Dolphin, were likewife of opinion, that the queen's 
rel'.dence had been removed, as no traces of it were now 
to be difcovered. 

Next day, in the morning, before they could leave 
the lliip, feveral canoes came about her filled with peo- 
ple, wnofc drefs denoted them to be of the fuperior 
clafs. Two of thefe came on board, and each of^them 
tixcd upon a friend: one of them chofe Mr. Banks, 
and the otherCaptain Cook. The ceremonials confilted 
of taking olT their doaths in great part, and putting 
them upon their adopted friends. This compliment 
was returned by our gentlemen piefenting them with 
Ibme trinkets. They then made iigns for their new 
friends to go with them to the place of their abode ; and 
the latter being defirous of being acquainted with the 
people, and finding out a more convenient harbour, 
accepted the invitation, and went with them, accom- 
panied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, Captain Cook, 
and others. We all landed in two boats at the dillance 
of about three miles, among a great number of the na- 
tives, who conducted us to a large habitation, where 
we were introduced to a middle-aged man, named 
Toot;ihah. When we were fcated, he prefented to 
Mr. Banks a i ock, a hen, and a piece of perfumed 
cloth, which compliment was letuined by a prcfent 

from Mr. Banks. We \ieie then condm-ied to 
other large dwelliii<;!;, wherein we walked about with 
great freedom. The ladiis fo far fiom Ihunning, 
mvited, and even pied'ed us to be ItMted. By Ire- 
qucntly pointing to the mats up(jn the ground, and 
fometimes drawing us down U|)on them, we had no 
doubt of their being lefs jealous of obfervation than 
we were ; but the huts that are ail o|)en, except a roof, 
afforded no place of requKite retiiemcnr. Walking; 
afterwards along the Ihore, we met, a ((Miipaniid by 
a great number of natives, another chief named 'I'u- 
bourai Tamaidc, with wiiom wc fettled a treaty of 
peace, in the manner before defcribed. 'i'his chief 
gave us to undcrfhind, that he had provifions at our 
icrvicc, if wc chofe to cat, which he produceil, and 
we dined heartily upon bread-fruit, plantains, and 
fifh. During this vifu, Tomio, the chiefs wife, placed 
herfclf upon the fame mat with Mr. Banks dole by 
him ; but as (he was not young, nor a[)peared ever 
to have poiFeffed many charms, this gentleman paid 
little attention to herj and Tomio received an addi- 
tional mortification, when Mr. Banks beckoned to a 
pretty girl, who, with fome rcludancc, caine and 
placed herfelf by him. The princefs was fomcwhat 
chagrined at this preference given to her rival; never- 
thelefs (he continued her alTiiiuitics to her guefl. This 
whinifical fccne was interrupied by an event of a more 
ferious nature; Dr. Solander having milled his opera 
glafs, a complaint was made to the chi/l) uliith inter- 
rupted the convivial party. The complaint was inforced 
by Mr. Banks's llarting up and (biking the butt-end of 
his mufquet againft thcgiouiul, whi ;h (Iruck the In- 
dians with fuch a panic thp.c all of them ran jnc-ipi- 
tately out of the houfe, except the chief and a (lw 
others of the fuperior cla!";. That no tlifadvaiu.'gcous 
notions might be entertained of them on account of 
this circumftance, the chief obferved, with an air of 
great probity. That the place which the Doctor had 
mentioned on this occafion, was not w ithin his dillridi", 
but that he would fend to the chief of it, and endea- 
vour to recover it, adding, that if this could not be 
done, he would make the Dodtor compcnfat;on, by 
giving him as much new cloth, (of which he ; roduccd 
large quantities) as (hould bethought equal to tiu- va- 
lue. I'he cafe however was brought in a little time, 
and the glafs itfelf foon after, which deprived us of 
the merit wc (hould othcrwife have had in refulin<'- 
the cloth which had been oH'ercd us. But it afforded 
an opportunity of convincing the natives of our gene- 
rolity, by lavilhing rewards upon them for an action, 
to which iVh-intereft had been the motive, rather than 
any fentiment of probity ; to which, from numerous 
tranfaclions, they appeared to ' e abfolutcly llranj^ers. 
After this adventure was amicably terminated, we re- 
turned to the (hip about lix o'clock in the evening. On 
S.aturday the 15th, in the morning, feveral oi the 
chiefs, one of whom was very cor[)ulent, came on 
board from the other point, bringing with them iiogs, 
bread-fruit, and other refrefliments, in exchange (or 
which they received linen, beads, and other trinkets; 
but fome of them took the liberty of dealing die 
lightening chain. This day the captain, attended by 
Mr. Banks, and fome of the other gentlemen, went on 
diore to (ix on a proper fpot to erect: a fort for their de- 
fence, during their (lay on the idand, and the ground 
was accordingly marked out for that puipofe ; a great 
number of the natives looking on all the while, and be- 
having in themofl: peaceable and friendly manner. 

Mr. Banks and his friends having feen few hog^ and 
poultrj' in their walks, they fufpcfted that they had 
been driven up the country; for which reafon they 
determined to penetrate into the woods, the tent be- 
ing guarded by a petty officer and a party of marines. 
On this cxcurlion feveral of the natives accompanied 
the Englilh. While the party v.cic on their march 
they were alarmed by the difchi.rge of two pieces firod 
by the guard of the tent. Owhaw having now called 
together the captain's party, difptrfed dl the Indians, 
except three, who in token of their hdelity broke 




Ciipt. C O O K s V () Y A (] K S C O M 1' L K T E. 

•I I 








* i 

.' ' 

hr.uuluvs of ti\cs, ac oiling to thiir (iiiUim, an i 
whom it was th(>:i|.',lu proiii-r lo iciaiii. W'lun tlu\v r. - 
tiirncil to the tent, thi'v limiul that an Iiniian ha\m;; 
Ihatihcil awa)' one of the ecntincl's iiuifqucts, a )()'in_n 
iiiiillhipman, who conini.uulcil tlic party, was lo iin- 
prudcnt as to ^wc tiu- marines oiilcrs to fire, wiiifh 
were oheveil, aiui many of the natives were woiiniieii ; 
but this iliil not littisty tliem, as the olllnilcr hail not 
t'allen, thev therefore piirfiiei,! him and rev. 'j^eii the 
theft by hisile.rh. This action, wlueh «as eiiually in- 
contilU-nt uith jxiliey ami iium.inicy, eoulil not but be 
verv dilploiliii;^ to Mr. H.iiiks ; but as what had ^tailed 
could not lie recalled, nothin;^ remained Lmt to endea- 
vour to aci'ommodate matters with the Indians. ;\e- 
cordingU' he emlled the river where he met an old 
man, throuj;h whole mediation litveral of the natives 
were prevailed to com.' over to them, and to pive the token-; of friend Ihip. 'l"he next morning, how- 
fv r, tliey law Init few of the natives on the banks, 
nnd none eanie on board, t'rom wluive it wa* eon- 
eluded that the treatment the;, had received the former 
da; wa< not y^l liiifD'ten. and the Ivij^lilli weieio.i- 
(irmed in tlfis oj)inion by Ouhau's; lell them. 
In eonfeiiuen e of thele cireimillanets, the eapMin 
broiij'.ht the lh:p n.irer to the lh(>re, an<l moored her 
in fii' Il \ manner as to make her bear on the 
fpot whuh tiiey m.iii.ed oiit li>r ere- .tin;; their l.ttle 
tortifi. ation. But in the tvaiingtlie captain an, i fonu 
of the gentkni.n ;;oing on lliore, the ln.lii:is lame then', aiul tralfukcd wiili them as ufiial. 

Mr. 11 inks on the 17th, iiad tlie mislortuiie to loie 
Mr. li.K'han. 'I'he fame dav they received a vifit t'rom 
I'lil-ourai 'I'uivaida, and I'tKH.ihah. Ih'v brouglii with 
them foine plai'.tain bran':hc^, an. I till thcfe were le- 
reived, they would not venture 01 board. The b.vr- 
tercvl fome bread-fiiiit an.l a hog which was re.ii'.y 
drilled, for n.rls, w ith the luiglilli. 

I'h.- fort begin to be tre. le.l on the 1 Srh. And now 
fome of the rompaiiv viere employed in thiO\ving up 
intreiKhmeiirs, whilU others v\eie bulled in cuctirg 
tai im.s and pn kets, invshicli woik the Indians a'iilid 
ihem I'hey fortilied three (ides 61 t!ic plave, wilh in- 
trenehments and pallifado s, and upon tiiC(Kher wh.i h 
was tlanked bv a river, where a biva'l-work was |i)rmril 
by the watt !-• alks. I'he natives bro.ight do.mfuih 
• {iiantiiKs of brea.i fru;t aa.l . 0,0a nuts iliis ih:, 
It u.i.i necell'ir,' to refute them, and t() let them k;i()w 
that none would be wanting (iir two da.s. Mr. Hmki 
fle[it I >r the liril time on ihore thu niglit. None of the 
Indians attempted to approarh his tent, he had how - 
f'.er taken the precaution of |>Ia' ing centinels aixiut it, 
Jiir it-, duence, in cafe any att !■ k Ihoiild be meditated. 

ru')oiirai Tiimaida vilited Mr. Ikmks at his tent on 
\\'ednefda\ the loth, and brought with him his wile 
and family with the materials tor erecting a houfe in- 
tending to build it near the lint. I le afterwards alkcd 
that grill leiiian to aeiompany him to the wchkIs. On 
their arrival at a place where he fomitrnes relided, he 
pieleattd his gucils with two gariii'Mits, one of which 
wai of led (lo:h, ajid the other was made of line mat- 
ting ; h.iving thus tlothrd Mr. Hanks, he conducted 
hiM to the lliip, and llaiii to dinner with his vvite and 
foil. Tlit-y had a liilh ferved up that day, vvliieh was 
prei)ared by the atten.lants of I'libouiai 'I'uniaida, which 
(eeiued like wheat Hour, and being mixed with cocoa- 
nut liqii'or, it was ftirred till it becime a jellv . 
It^ tlavour vias fomrthing like blanc mange. ;\ fort of 
rnir^tt was now eihibliflieil without the lines ofihe fort, 
*hi( h was toler.ibly well fupplied, and riibamai I'u- 
maida was a fre.iuent guelt to Mr. H.iiiks, and the 
other I'.nglilli gentlemen. He was the only native thai 
attempted to life a knife aud fiirk, being linul of.ulopt- 
mg i'.uroinan manners. Mr. Monkhoufe the lurgeon 
being abroad on his evening walk, repoited that lie 
had feeii the body of a man v*ho had been lliot from 

the tent, of which he giuc the following account. 

" 'I'hc corpfo was depoiitcd in a ilitd, clofe to the 
hiKife where the lieieafed had relided when he was 
alive, aiiii others wen' within f. 11 vaids of it. It was 
about fifteen lect in length, and eleven in breaJtli, and 

ilie lui}',ht wa. proportionable. I'he fides and one end 
were iiiilofed with a fort of wicker work j the other 
end was intirely o[ien. The body lay on a bier, the 
frame of v hich was of wooii, fupported by pnOs about 
live feet Iiigh, and was covered with a mat, over which 
l:jy a white cloth : by the fule of it lay a wooden mace, 
and towards the luiivl two cocoa lliells ; towards the 
feet was a bunch of grein leaves, and fmall dried 
bough.s tied together, and lltu'k in the ground, near 
which was a Hone about the li/e of a cocoa-nut ; lure 
were alio placed a young plantain tree, atid a Hoilc 
axe. A great many jialm nuts were hung in thing.? at 
the open end of the llxd -, and the (1< in of a jwlm- 
tree wa> liiuk up on theoutlide of it, upon which was 
pkued a tocoa-llieli lilled with water. .\t the tide of 
one of the polls there hung a little bag vvitii fomc 
roalled pieces of bread-fruit." The natives were nnc 
pleafed at his approaching the '.Kx!y, their jcaloiify ap- 
piaiing [iLiinK in their coiinteiianc es and gclUires. 

On the i;d we were entertained by loiiieof the mti- 
llcians of the country, who performed on an indru-' 
iiKiit fomewhat refembling a german thite, but the 
perloriner blew through his nollril inllead of his 
mouth, and other- arcompanied this inllniment, iing- 
ingonlv oi\^ tune. .Soir.c ot' the Indians broiiglit their 
.IMS to griml and repair, moll of which the> had ob- 
tained iViim C'npt.nn W'allis .mA his people in the Dol- 
phin ; but a Ireiv h 0".c o.calioned a lii;le fpeculation, 
and at length upon enquirv, ir ap[H:jed to have been 
lelt here bv M. de Docgainv ille. 

On the :4th Mr. lianksnnd Dr. Solandcr made an 
lAcurtion into the country, and found ir level and fer- 
t ie along the iLore, for alioiit two miles to the ealt- 
i.irl; alter whiih ti.e hills reathed quite to the wa- 
ter's edge ; and ftrther on they ran out into the fea. 
1 I ivii.g p.illed thcfe h;lN, vvluch lontinucd about three 
mile-, we lanietoan exteiilive pl.un, ahounding with 
gvul h.'.bitations, and the people teemed to eniny a 
(.onli.lerible lliare <if |iro[K'rty. The plate was render- 
ed llill more .igrceahlc by a wide river ilfuing froui a 
a valley, and which watered it. We crollt-d this river, 
when perceiving the country to be barren, wc rcfolvcil 
:i leturn. jull as we were .ibout fo to do, we were of- 
Iried lim.e refrelhinent by a man, which fome writers 
hive evprcin d to be a mixture of many nations, but 
dillennt tiom all, his Ikin being of a dead white, 
liiough fome parts oi' his bodv were not lii white as 
o'.luis; an. I his hair, eye-bnfvs and beaixl were as 
while as his Ikm. His eves appeared like thofe that 
an' bliio.l ll;ot, and he teemed as if he was near- 
tighted. Upon our return, tlie excellive joy of 'I'u- 
hourai 'I'am.iide and his women is not to be ex- 

Oil the :<th, -in the evening, fevcral of the gentle- 
mens kiiivc» being milling, Mr. Ikinks, who lolV 
his among i!ie lell, aceiifed 'liibourai l.tmaide ol hav- 
ing taken it, whiih a-> he w.i-, iiiikk e;it, occalioned him 
a great deal of unmerited anxierv . 1 le mad.- ligns, 
w lide the llarted from his eves, that it he hjd 
ever bein guilty ot fuch a theft as \ias iir.ptited to I'.im, 
he would lUlUrhis to be cut. But tliouj^h he- 
was innocent, it plain troni many inllaiiccs, that 
the natives of this illmd w.-> \ry much adtli.ted U) 
thieving: tho'.igh .Mr. B .ivs's fervan: had millaid the 
VnA^: in qiiellion, vet tJie lell were produced in a rag, 
b) one of the natives. 

W hen the guns on the ;'ith, which were fix fwivel.s, 
had mounted onihcliiri, the Indians i"e.:in;d. tii 
be in great trouble, and fcveial of the lilhennen re- 
moved, tliring, notwithll.mdirg all the marks of fnend- 
lliip that had been iV.evui to them by our peojile, they 
tl.ould, within a few davs, be lireil at Irom the lori : 
vctthene\t day, being the iTth, 'I'libourai 
( amc with three women, atid a friend of his, wlio was a 
remarkable glutt(jn, into the fort to dine with u', and 
after dinner reiurne.! no his own houfe in the wuod. 
In a Ihort time after he came back to complain to Mr. 
Banks, ol a butcher, who had thrc.iLcned to cut his 
wiles throat, btcaufe llie v.o'.ild not barter a iToiic 
ha'teliet tor a nail, k appcanng clearly th:*t the ollen- 


(uiis and one cmi 
work ; the- olhcr 
y on a bier, the 
:c{.\ by pods about 
I mat, over which 
Y a Wdoiicn mace, 
lis ; towards the 

and finall ilricd 

the };round, ilcaf 

cotoa-mit ; jjcrc 

tree, and a floilc 

hung in Ihinjr? at 

(Uni of a paim- 
, uj-on which was 
'. At the (ide of 
c ba|; witii fomc 

nati>cs were nop 
thiir jcaloiify ap- 
and Rtlhires. 
,■ loineof the nul- 
led on an inRru-« 
lan tlute, but the 

I inlkad of his 
inllnnnent, finj^- 

iaii.-i l)n)iiglit their 
lich they had ob- 

II ople in the Dol- 
hitle f[ierulation, 

ired to have been 

■inlander inadc an 

:ral of the gentle- 
ks, wiio had loiV 
i '1 aniiiide ol ha\ - 
it, oetalioiad him 
i le ni.i.lj iij^ns', 
., that it he lud 
i imputed to I'.iin, 
Hut llionii;!! lie 
ly inllaiu:e.s, that 
niii'h a.ldi ;(ed to 
It had iiuilaid tiic 
roducid in a rag. 

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cook's first voyage— for making Di/co'Ocriej in the South Seas 6c Round the fTor/J. 1 7 

dcr had infringed one of the nilci fnjoincd by the 
Captain for tradinj? with the natives, he was flogijcd 
on board in their fight. When the firft ftrokc nad 
been given they were nuinano enough to intcrfeie, and 
{ntrcatcd carneftly that the culprit might be untied t 
but when this favour was denied them, they flicwed 
ftrong (igni of concern, and burft into tears. 

On the 28th, Tcrajx), one of Tabourai Tamaidc's 
female attendants, came down to the fort in the greateft 
alflidlion, the tears gu filing from her eyes. Mr. Hanks 
feeing her full of lamentation and f<»rrow, intifted upon 
knowing the caufc, but inAead of anfwcring, flic ftruck 
herfcif feveral times with a fliaik's tooth upon her 
head, till an elfufion of blood followed, while her 
dilUefs was difrcgardcd by feveral other Inilians, who 
continued laughmg and talking with the utmoft un- 
concern. .'Vfter this, (he gathereil up foiiie pieces of 
cloth, which fhc had thrown down to catch the blood, 
and threw them into the fca, as if flic wiflicd to pre- 
vent the leaft trace and mark of her abfurd behaviour. 
She then bathed in the river, and with remarkable 
chearfulnefs returned to the tent, as if nothing extraor- 
dinary had happened. During the forenoon of this 
day the Indian canoes were continually coining in, and 
people of both fcxes filled the tents of the fort. Mr. 
Molincux, mailer of the Endeavour, feeing a woman 
>hofe name wjs Ohcica, he declared (lie was the lame 
perfon, whom he juilped to be the (]uetn of the illand 
when he was there with Captain Wallis. 'I'he eyes of 
every one weie now fixed on her, of w horn fo much 
hadlicen faid by the crew of the Dolphin, and in the 
account given of her by the captain. With regard to 
her perfon, flie was tall and rather large made : (he was 
about forty years of age, her (kin white, and her eyes 
had great txprelTion in them : flie hail been haiidfome, 
but her beauty was now upon the decline. It wis not 
long before an Offer was made to conduift her on board 
the (hip, ■ which fhe accepted. Many prefents were 
nude her, particularly a child's doll, which flie viewed 
very attentively. Captain Cook accompanied her on 
(liore, and when wc landed, (he prefented him with 
a hog and fome plantains, in return for his prefents, 
which were carried to the fort in proccfTion, Obereaand 
the Captam bringing up the rear. In the way they met 
T(K)t.ihah, who, though not king, feeineil to be at this 
time iiivelled with fovereign authority. F.nvy is found 
among thole who are fuppofed to be the children of 
fimple nature. Her influence was plainly vifiblt in a 
matter which to us was rather a lubject of laughter 
th.inof ferious confidcration. Tootahah lU) foonerfaw 
the doll, than he difcovered (\rong fmiptoms of jea- 
Idufv, nor could any method be found of conciliating 
his fritii.llliip, but that of complimenting him with a 
baby alfo, A iloll was now preferable to a hatchet; 
but a very flioi t time taught the Indians the fuperior 
value of iron, which, oiiaccoimtof its ufefulnefs, pre- 
vailed ovcrtveiy other confideratioii. 'I'o llich of the 
men who i anie (Vorn time to time on l^oard, the (hip's 
piovilions leemed to be very acceptable, but the women 
did -not chull- to ta(lc them j and though they were 
ciMirud to dine with our gentlemen, yet, for reafons 
known only to thcmfelves, they preferred the eating of 
plantains with the fervants. 

On the :>jth, near nixin, Mr. Banks paid a vidt to 
OIh ita, but was informed that fhc was allcep under 
the awning of her canoe ; and, going to call her up, 
was ("urprized at finding her in bed with a young fellow 
"yi about v.i-ntv-five \cars of age, a difcovery which 
caiifedhim to rcty. rather difconccrtcd ; but he foon 
imJerrtood chat a Vrmnerce of this kind was by no 
means conlidcred a^Jandalous, the ladies frequently 
courting the men to Y^r^n^ dalliance, of w hich they 
made no fccict ; »"^'\ to \oting Obadcc, found in 
bed with the queen, Was well known by every one 
to be the obicctwt' heiVcivious hours. The queen 
foon got up, and drellV heriblf -to wait upon Mr. 
Uanks, and, after having ^ ^^^^^^ ^f ^er particu- 
lar regard, put on hnn * \ of fine cloth, they pro- 
ceeded together to ^"C t(\ j„ ^^^ evening Mr. 
Banks vifitcdTubourai U\f^ h^. ^^.^^ allonilhed 
No. :. 

to find this chief and his family in tears, and not bcinj] 
able todifcoverthecaufe, he foon took leave of them. 
Upon his return the officers told him, thai Owhaw had 
foretold, that the guns would be fired witViin four 
days, and as this was the eve of the third day, they 
were alarmed at the fituation they judged tlicmrelves 
to be in. As wc were apprchenfive of ill confcuuenccs 
from this prcpofTcffion, tnc centincls were doubleil at 
the fort, and we thought it necellary to keej) under 
arms; but Mr. Banks walking round the point, at two 
in the morning, and finding nothing that might tend 
to encourage his fufpicions, he dropi>cd theni, and 
rcfted fecure in the fort. This our little fortification now complete. A bank of earth four feet and an 
half high on the infide, and a ditch without ten tlet 
broad and fix deep, formed the north and fourh fides. 
On the weft, oppofitc the bay, was another bank 
(with pallifadocs upon it) four flet high ; but a ditch 
was unnecelliiry, the works being at high-watermark. 
UjMin the river's bank, on the call fide, was a range of 
water cafhs, filled w ith water. This being thought 
the weakert fide, we planted two four pounders, and 
mounted fix fwivcl guns, which commanded the only 
two avenues from the woods. We had about forty- 
five men in this fort, including the officers, and other 
gentlemen who relided on (horc. 

On the 30th Tomio came in great hade to our tents, 
and taking Mr. Banks by the arm, told him that Tu- 
bourai Tamaidc was dying, owing to fomcwhat that 
had been given him by our people, and intrcated him 
inllantly to go to him. Accordingly Mr. Banks went, 
and found the Indian very lick. Me had been vomit- 
ing, and had thrown up a kvf whi<:h they faid con- 
tained fome of the poifon. Mr. Hanks liavino- exa- 
mined the leaf, found it was nothing but tobacco, 
which the Indian had begged of fome oi' the fliip's 

I'he matter, however, appearetl in a Very ferious 
light to Tubourai Tamaide, who really concluded from 
the violent ficknefs he fiitlcred, that he had fwallowed 
Ibme deadly drug, the terror of which no doubt con- 
tributed to make him yet more fick. While Mr. Banks 
was examining the leaf, he looked up to him, as if he been jull on the point of death. Hut when the na- 
ture of this dreadful poifon was found out, he only or- 
dered him to drink of cocoa-nut milk, which foon rc- 
flored him to health, and he was as chearful as before 
the accident happened. Thefe people feemed in jiar- 
ticular inllances to be fometimes flrangely atHidtd 
fmm flight caufes. 

On the I ft of May, Captain Cook having produced 
an iron adze, w hich was made in imitation of the ftone 
ones ufed by the natives, (hewed it to Tcwtahah, as a 
curiofity. The latter fnatched it up and infidcd on 
having it ; and though he was ofl'ered the choice of 
any of the articles in the chcfts which were opened 
before him, yet he would not accept of any thing in 
its ftead. .\ chief dined with us that day! who had 
been on board fome time before, accompanied by fome 
of his women that ufed to feed him. He now came 
alone ; and when all things were fet ready for dinner, 
the captain helped him to fome victuals, fuppofing 
that he would have difpenfed with theceremony Of be- 
ing fed ! but he Was deceived ; for the chief never at- 
tempted to eat, and would have gone without his din- 
ner, if one of the fervants had not fed him. The 
next morning, May 2, we took the aftronoinical qua- 
drant and fome of the inrtruments on (hore that after- 
noon ; and to our great (iirprife when we wanted to 
make ufe of the quadrant, the next day, it was not to 
be found ; a matter which was looked upon as the more 
extraordinary, as a centinel had been placed for the 
whole night within a few yards of the place where it 
was depofited. Our own people, at firft, were fufped- 
ed of being concerned in this theft, and, as the in- 
ftrumcnt had never been uken out df the cafe, it wa« 
fufpeded that fome perfon might have carried it oiF, 
under the fuppofition that its contents were articles 
ufed in traffic. A ftrid fearch was made in and abouc 
the fort, and a confiderable reward offered in oider to 
^ obtain 




I I 








Capt. C O O K'l V'O Y A G E S C O M 1' L K T I-. 

hbtain it tgtM. But tU tht* jprtrviitg fruitlrf*. Mr. 
linnki, acrompanird by Mr. Green anj foiiie other 
t*rntlemen, fct out tor thr wo(k)«, where they thou(;ht 
they iniffht probabty pet foinc tilling* o» %*hat wah 
ftolen. In their way, they met with Tiiboiirai I a- 
tiitide and (nmt of the lutlvci. 'l'h\n chief v^us iii.kU- 
lo undnrrtand by fisna, that tli<7 had li>l> the quadrant, 
tnd that as f»mc of hit rountryntrii ntull have taken 
if, they infilled upon being (lieuii the plaic where it 
MaA coiicealrd. Having proceeded a few nuies tn- 
prtiier, after fome enquiry, Tubourai laniaide was in- 
formed who the thief uaii and it wa» found that he wa 
then at a place about fourmilei diftant. Ah they h:ul 
iioarnnhut abraceofpiftols, nottaringto trull them- 
felNTs (o fur from the Ibrt, a mellaj^e wat ilifpatiheil 
to Capt. C'lKik, requeltin;; hiu) to lend out a paitv to 
I'upport them. 'I he captain .Kiordinnlv fet out w ith a 
party iiropnly armid, after having; laid an embar|j;o 
UjKin all the canoes in the bar. 

In tlie iiiran time, Mr. Bank* and Mr. (ireen pro- 
( veiled on their «ay, and at tlic pi. ice which hail '.>cen 
liientiiincd, were met hv out- of TulxMir.ii 'I'amaideN 
nw i\ people, brinpinp with him part of the quadrant; 
the tale and the other pans ol the inlliumcnt 
were recovered foon afterwards, when it was tound thai 
it had received fto real Jiijury, thou^h it had been taken 
to piecei. 

\\nifn thty returned in the evening, thc\ wtre much 
furprifed to lind 'I'ootahah under lonliiiement in the 
fort, while a iroW.l itl the natives furnmnded the gate, 
difccserinj; mark.sof the nrea"ell anxiet\ Icir the f iie ol 
their chief. The o.ralion ol hit drtent ion originated 
liom the londu.'t of the lndian<: alarmeil at Capr. 
( odk's luMiig gone up lilt uiuntrv with an arnud 
purtv, mnit of ilH-niii\i. ktt the liirr that evcninj^, and 
one of the ca!l(K■^ a[toiii[>ted to tjuit the li.i\ . 1 he 
lit iiten lilt who 1.01IIIII uukd on lio.ird the lliip, having 
it in charge not to fuller any lanoc to depart, fun a 
l)Oat ti>dtijin her, but Ihc no (ooncr a[>proached, than 
tile Indian', jiimpi H into the lea. I'lKtt ihah being of 
the nuinbir, wa> taken up, and lent bv the licMtenant 
to the otlirer that i omm indeil at the fort, who louclud- 
edhe llioulil do r ght to Uitain hiii) prifimcr, while the 
poor chiel thought ol nothing hut Ix-ing pul to death, 
III! Capt. Oiok lauliil hiiii to he returned, to the grt u 
|o\ ol hiscountrumn. Hut the natives wcie llill in- 
(hiKil to hear this .ilKiii m their minds, and as a pnH)f 
ol it, they lUgleLtcJ lo luppK the market with proM- 
roiis. Mr. (tank- \>alkin;» into the wixhIs, hiard miiriniiiing.> con. irniii;-, the treatment of Icxita- 
hih, viho, a.> they liii.^, had Ixin ill ufeii and lieatiii. 
though Mr, Hanks dei l.ired he was iimte ignorant ol 
lus having received liich treiiment. 

The ihief now fiiit fiir fuch hog.s to be rclb)red as 
he had left behind him, at lirll intending them as a 
pielcnt, which by thii time, prrl. ■;.)s, he did not think 
the luiglilh merited ; but the fcfuled to fend them 
unlefs he would Come himli. It' thinking by an interview 
to (iromote a rccoiuiliation ; a-v,i this they were riie 
more ilelirousof, as they vveicto!d it would Ix- at<)rt- 
night before he would pay them a ^ ifit. 

On the )d pmviiions were exrreiufflv fcarcc, as the 

markets ((mtinucd to he ill fupplied on the aceount 

alreavi) mentioned! and it was ni* without Ibiiu- dif- 

ticiilty, that Mr. Hank.< got a tew balkits of bread-fruit 

from I'uljourai Tamaide. lootahahtm the 4th lent 

tiir an axe ami a Ihirt in returti tor the hogs, which 

vfl re at oidiiiLcly proirvifeij to be brought him the 

iK\t da\. Me feiii .ig.iincaily in the morning of the 

ah, ,in.l Mr. Ilaiik> iind the i)(K'tor fet out in the pin- 

11.^ us taking with them one of Tixitahah's people ami 

loon rcichul I'parre, where he rclided, which was a 

liw niiico totlu- wtllvvard. When they arrived there, 

they tound a great nyinber of the nativcH waiting tor 

.thctnon the llwre, and were conducted directly to the 

jChicf, the peyjjje notwuhllanding the oftcncc they had 

ii£ttJut*l) taken, ftjouting out in their language, "'I'oo- 

J^'ahahJs >our friend," i Ic was fitting under a tree, 

-atyJ I011K.0IJ men were Itanding about him. Having 

jjtnadc litjns lur tjiiiu to be fcatcd, he Blkad far the axq. 

whiih was then given him by t'apt. Cook, a" alfo the 
lliirt ttvit he hivl demanded, aiul a bn)ail-(loth pirliient, 
which latter lit' put on, and wis well pleafed with the 
prefent. They ate a mouthful together in tiie lioat, 
and were aftelrwards coiu)ueled to a iar^e court-yatJ 
on one tide of tht chief's houl'e, where they were to be 
entertained with wrellling after the nianner of the 
country. Me hiinfelf fat it the upper end of the irea, 
having feveral of his principal miii on each lideofhim, 
who appeared as judges of the fpurt, which l>'as a.s 
follow : 

" Tenor twelve comKitatit'? entered tlic area, and 
after many lim[)le ceremonies of challenging, they 
engaged, and each eiuleavcured to throw his antiii^omll 
by mere llrength : thus thev feizcd each other by the 
hand, or other parts of the body, gra|)pling, without 
the halt art, till one, by having a givatir hoKI, or 
llionger muli iilar tiircc, threw liis aiitai'onill on Ij^-j 
bick. The (iiiu|iKlt was apiilaiidtd bv the old men 
with a kw wonls repeated in a k nd of tuiir, and with 
three hu//.as. After one engagement another liu - 
leedeil; l)ut if the i ombatants could not throve eai b 
other in the fiKue of a minute, they paited, enher bv 
conJiut, or tile inteivvnt ion ol till ir frieiiiU. .Several 
women of rank in the coiiniiv were prefent, but it was 
thought they onK atteiultd this amiifemetu iiieompli ■ 
mint to th ■ JMighlh gentlemen. A man with a link, 
who made uay liir us when we landtd, olliiiated as 
mailer of the ceremonies, keeping order among the* 
people, and thole of them who j)reHid forward he 
llruck with his llii k very fmaiilv. P-uring tlicli: athle- 
tic Iports, another piitv of men })rrf()rmed a dan< c, 
till ilif fpace of a muiiite, but neitlur of thcfe parties 
look the Itall notiii ol' eai h oilier, their attnitioii 
being wholly tixed on their own endeavour* to plcalc 
and ion.|iier. At the coiululioaut thit cntcitainnieiii, 
not unlike the wrelUmg-iiiatihes ol remote aniiquiif, 
we vtere told, that Ibme liogi. and a large quaritity ot 
birid fruit wire preparing for our dinner, very agne- 
able intilligeiice to thofe whole ajipetitts wi re lliaij>i'(i- 
cd bv their iourucy ; but ourhoU, inllead ol letting hi> 
two iiogs betiire us, ordered one «if them 10 be tairied 
into our boat. Here wc thoufrbt to have iniovrdour 
giKid cheer, and vet we neither dined on kliore, vior 111 
tiuTxiat, but at thi iklire of liibour.ii laniaide, pro. 
ceeded as far a^ the lliip ; no fiiiall m.ntu'icatiyn ilii», 
as wc had to row four llil!t^, while our tlinner 
via. giowmgcold: however, we vuTi.' at l.ilt giatilied 
with our piomifcd rcpall, of which our < luef mu\ ha 
Iriinds had a I'.iaie. I hi. ffkudl) rvop.^iiia- 
tion between them aiKl us, operated on the iKitivv."s 
like a charm : for it was no fooiier known that riibou- 
rai lamaiile was on board, th.m pi'ovirioii> of all kiiidi 
wen- brought to the lort in gteat plenty. 

On the Sih, early in the jiioiniii;;, .Vb-. Molincua, 
the Mailer, and Mr. (iree 1 fet out in the pinnace to 
theeallward, in oriltrto proeuie I'ome jxnilttv, or hogs. 
I'hev law many ol the latter, and one turtle, yet coiiUI 
not pure hale cither, beiaufe they belonged to 'I'ootahah, 
and without his iK-rmillioii, the people could iHit he 
prevailed upon to fell them. 1 Kni e we'iim hided that 
TiHitahah was indeed a prince; and wc alterwards 
learnt, that, in this pirt ot'the illand, he .icteda:! regent 
for a minor, whom we never law all the time of our 
rtay here. However, li>me time alterwards, having 
produced fome nails to barter lor provilions, we ob- 
taineil near twenty cocoa-nuts, and Ibme bread fruit, 
forone of thelinailell lize, fo that we ^'-m uIki 'piu,^'" 
of thefe articles, though no hog' 'n this exeuriion 
Mr. (ireen imagined he had d'o^ered a tree lixty 
vards in circumference; but, or"'"' return, lie was in- 
formed bv our two gentleme' '"••' 't «as a fpixjes 
of the lig,' whole branches lr'^''"K.down to the earth 
take freJh root, and thus lor ^ '"*'•* "'" tiiinks, vi hich 
being all united bv a com'"} ^''•^«f*tion, iiiiglu catily 
be miilaken tor one t^^n^^"' "^> • 

On the 9th in the fbr"""' )JtHTca. paid us a vilit 
accompanied bv her f^""^*-; <-'™dee. pielenting uJ 
with a hog and ioni''^'^-'Y''"\^- 'J')!'! the firfl 
vilitvvclud rcc«\c'*"" ^'^•'* '-'J.^. '«ce the Jols of 



(;()Ols.'s FJR-^T VOYAfiF"!— formakinR Di/iov,rrt in the Sou fb .S'tv/ifc Roiiml the /A*//./, ly 

, an alfo thi 
oth pirtucnt, 
fed w ith lilt 
in tlic Iwat, 
(c court-) arJ 
.•y were to br 
inner «t the 
it of the iriM, 
h rnKolhin\, 
*hi<h was as 

tlic area, and 
L'ii}^in(^, they 
lui aiiT.inonill 
other In- the 
.)ling, \wthoui 
Mtcr hold, or 
a;Mlllill on l-j^-* 
IV the o'ul men 
tuuf, aiiil uiili 
: another liii-* 
uit throw e;i< h 
ted, eiiUcr by 
iiuU. Several 
lent, hut it «as 
lent in eoinpli • 
an with a Ili< k. 
.1, olVu iattd at 
dtr anionji; the 
liil liirward he 
rinj', iherenthli'- 
iriued a il.iixe, 
ol thde pariieK 
llu'ir »tti lit loll 
iviHir* to plcalc 
( enteitainnicni, 
»rgc 4uar»tity ol 
ner, vi'iy a^nc- 
c v*ire IhaijKn- 
ad ol lettiiii; hi> 
rni to be carried 
lavc inioycd our 
on ihore, uor lu 
I lamaidf, P"'- 
.iitiiif«tlon ihi». 
our thniitr 
M Kill );raliru:il 
11' I hiet aiul liiS 
ndl\ rv.ouniia- 
on the n.iti\>.". 
mil that Tuhou- 
lion> ol'all kinti^ 

Ml. Mi)liiJcuii, 
I lie piniuuc to 
i.iltiv, or hoj^K. 
iiiiile, yet could 
;ed to i'<K>tai)ah, 
lie could JK)t Le 
,;,)1U hided that 
wc atterwardN 
acted a;i rej:;cnr 
the time ol our 
:ei\\ard>, Imin;:; 
ovilions, wc ob- 
line bread t'liiit, 
toil ii'aii 'puiu;'" 
1 this excurlion 
cd a tree lixty 
urn, lie was in- 
was a fpccies 
u\ to the earth 
trunks, which 
>n, might ealily 

paid us a vidr, 
prelenting us 
i« was the firJl 
nee the lols of 

our quadraiii. «nd the continement of I ootahah. Mv 
thin fimf our forpc wan fct up and at work, w hich 
afforded a ruAv fubjcdt of odnunition to the Indian;, 
and to Cant. Gnik an adWitionai opportunitv of con- 
fcrrin^; oblijr.ifions on tliein, by perniitiinjt the fmith, 
in h'n Icifurc hoirri, ro ronvort the old iron, «hi< h they 
Herefuppofrdto have pto<ured from thr Oolphin, into 
dilfcrert kiiuiii of t«io!i. Obcri-a pnuhu cd as niui h old 
iron M wwiUl hasr nuuie for her another axe; this (he 
rciiueftid to have done, however the lady could not be 
gratiHcd in thii particular, upon which Ihc brought 
a broki n axe, delirinff if mi;^ht be mcmlcd. The axt 
wai iiKiided, and to all anpearanre Oie wxs content. 
On their return home, the Iiulianu to«)k with thcni the 
canoe which had laiu I'omc time at the point. 

On the (Oth we fowrd, in ground properly prepared, 
feed."! of melon* and orhcr plant.', nut none of fhcjin 
rame up, ixccpt itiullard. Mr. Hanki tliounht the 
feeds were fpoiled by J total cxdulion of frctli air, they 

having; all hem put into liiiill Uitiles, and tc.iKd up 
with lodn. W'e learnt thin il,i\ , that the IndiaiiH lalkd 
the illand Ot.iheitc, the name by whiih we have dif- 
tingiiilhed it; but we were not li) fortunate in our en> 
deavoiiri to teaih them our names i and, alter repeated 
arteniptt to pronounce them, whuh proved fruitiel'ii, 
they had rccourfc to new one', the productions ol'tlnir 
own invention. Capf. Cook thev nanicd 'loote-, Mr. 
iticki. llctc. The iiulter they i ailed lioba, from hi4 
chrillian name Kobni -, Mr. Ci'Dre, luarfoj I3r. Sol.ui- 
dir, TOrano; Mr. Hanki, I'apanei Mr. (ireen, I'teice i 
Mr. Parkinfun, ''ataiii; Mr. ?porin;?, Polini ; and fo on 
for thegrcitell part, ot the Ihip'iLrtw. Ihele perha[w, 
were fipnifiiant words in tlieir own lan.^iiaije ; and wc 
are inclined to thii opinion, beiaulc Mr. Monkhoulif, 
whoioininandeJ the party, tlut ihot the man tor lleal- 
ine; u inulkct, they named Maite, which was not merely 
an arbiuary loujiJ, but In their language it lignllied 

. ";' • ' ■ C H A p. IV. 

Aiinii-ao)\ii'i.»y iifit—f>ivinf fifru/" ,ifti'iidiil h tbr Viilivi.< o/Otnheiif — In uiicoumioii Jiii^lt — Tn/wnr.ii T.iw.iU,' foiinJ 

vuillviif liuj) y vijit f<uiJ 10 •Tmlakth — laiwit tidirn/iiri:< ,ti timf. aiijdii i:\/i;!;i\/tih,iv ,tmiil: iiinit of tlv huiuim 

. / ,;laltoH(>fu>h«t ktr/M-iirJ at t/y/nrt, whilr pr,- fixations line makiiif lu nl,l\rv<- tlv Tt.iiijit of r,iiii< — Tlv ol'fii iutlinns 

m.uli- ~i<ilh gTi-.U fiiCdii — A pxriuulit accwnt I'ini dr/'inplioii of an Induin fimiri'l — .In umifiutl ihitiiu'liv awoiij^ lb,- 
liutians — A rohtriy tit the tort— .^pietmrn of ludum (oohty-— > nMr,;liit- of vmioiis nuidiiils — A ciiiiimiiui ii^iilmn ^/' 
fiv ijlmd, and orcurrmrff durinj^ ihi.i txpfdilion — A hityvin^phui'. and .; Mttiii, oi p',i,f oj i.orjhip dlhyi/'cd — Amu- 
Lind txf^ditiot »f Sfr. BuHk.'-^t'fiparalions hy the arw o/ /hf lludiinviir to touf llitijlaihi 'J Oldlhilc — .It 
aci»nt oflbf dcpurlutv of ihi: li,ndtuiOHr, undtif k-kni'mr a/ the ituta%:<, piti Uadtit ly tf Tuptd,oH ttuoiaij/ou. 

— -r-jt-3- 

ON' the I ;tb of this month (May) an unconinion 
ctrcuioiiy was performed by fome of the natives. 
As Mr. Hanks was litting in his boat, trading with 
them a* ufiml, fotnc ladies, who were ftranger,-;, ad- 
vanced in ptocf lTu>n lowaril* hinl. 'I he reft of the 
Indians on cich fine gave way and formed a lane for 
the vifitors to pafs, who coming up to Mr. banks, pr»- 
fentcJ him with feme parrots leathers, and varloiu 
kinds of pianti. Tupid, whoftrxidby Mr. Uaiiks, a^;tt^^ 
u his tnaflcr of the ceremonies, and receiving the 
branchci-, which were brought at fix dill'ercnr times, 
laid them d.)wii m the boar. After this fome large 
bundlcii of cluih wrr; 'irought, conlilhng of nine 
piefes, whith l-cing il.i'.ed into three parcels, one of 
the women, called Oorattooa, who appeared to be the 
principal, ll. ppiiig upon one of them, pulled up her 
cloath-s as high as Iier wailt, and then, with an air of 
tiiiarteittcd fimplicitN , tur.ied round three time.. Ibis 
ceremony the reptated, with limilar circuiulKuucs, on 
the other two panels of cloth; and the whole being 
then prelVnted to Mr. Hanks, the ladies went and 
falutcdhini; in return far which extraordinary favours, 
he m.idc them fiich prcfcntsas he thought wmild Ix'U, 
plcafc them. In the evening the gentlemen of the 
fort were viliied by Olxa-ca, and Otheorea, her l^- 
\ait\ti: fenvale attendant, who a very agreeable 
gttl, and whom we were the more pleafcd to fee, be- 
caufc it had iKcn repotted that (be was either lick or 
dead . 

On th.c 1 {th 'rubouraiTamaide olVended Mr. Ikinks, 
bv fnatching his gun out of his hand, anil tiring it in 
the air; an action which alf(»much furpri/.ed that gen- 
tleman, as he imagined hini totallv ignorant of the iii'c 
of it. And as the ignoiaiu e of the people of thofc 
countries in regard to thii particular, mult always caufe 
to tear tluir lti'cIVs, Mr. Banks therefore made 


aferion-' inatrer of what, probablv, the (Hher meant 
only as a |oke, and, not without threats, gave him to 
iiiuleilbmd, ili ir for him but t-o touch the piece wa.i A- 
high infult. 'I he olVender made no reply, but let out 
immediateb , w ith lii.s family, lor I'.parrc. f.irear incon- 
vtjnien e being .ipprcheniled from thi.s man, and as 

iniui\ mllan. c,^ he had been particular!', ufeful, Mr. 
Hanks detcniuncd to tijltowhim. He fct out the fame 
ompanied b\ Mr. .Molinciix, 

c\eiiinii tniiu 


', fort, ace( 

aiui fouiiil l.u.i in tlic middle of » large circle of people. 


thcpiiliirc ofcxtrcim' grief, which was alfo vilible iji 
the countenances of hin attendants. One of tlir w onion 
expreired her trouble in the fame manner at I'erajio 
had done, upon mother occalion. Mr. Banks loll no 
time in endeavouring to put an end tu all animolity. 
The chief was foothed into confidence, and, a double 
canoe being got ready, they all returned together to 
the fort betiire fupper : and as a pledge of lincere re- 
conciliation, both he atid his wile palled the night in 
the tent of Mr. Hanks. That very night, notw ith'tland- 
ing their pufencc, one of the natives attempted to Icale 
the barracadoc! of the liirt ; but, beingdilcovered bv one 
of our centinels, he ran .iway laui h taller tlian anv of 
our peo()lc could tiillow him. TJie teliiptalion which 
■ aulid h.ui to attempt what might have toll him hn 
lifi-, was, douhtlrls the iron and iii>n tools ,\hich were 
in life at tlie armourer's forge : iik itcments to theft 
whith none of the Indians could refill. 

On Sunday the 14th, in the morning di\inc fervicc 
Wis ()erformed at the tiirt. We ho])ed 10 have the' 
prefciif e ol (oiue ol the luilians, but betiiic the time 
lixed oil for beginning the ("irvlir, moll of them were 
gone home. Tuboiuai 'lamaide and his wife were 
prefeiit, bin though rlic')' behaved with much decency, 
they m.ule no eni]uiries with rcfpect to ihectremonies, 
and their biethien were a-, little inquilitive upon their 
return. The da) thus begun with acts of devotion, 
was concluded with thofe of lewdnefs exhibited among 
the natives by way ofKntertainitient. .Among the rella 
young fellow lay publickly with a girl about twelve vears 
of age, in the prefence of many of our people, anda great 
number of the Indians, without the leall fcnlc-otimpio- 
pricly or indecency. Oberea, and liime women of the 
lirll rank in the lountrv were fpectator.s, who even gave 
inllriKtions to the gitl how to perform her part, which, 
young a.s llie vva.s, icemed unnccellary. 

On Monl.i. the 15th, Tubourai Taiivvide was de- 
tected in having committed a theft. Mr. Hanks had 
a good opiniiMi of this chief, but, when his honelly w .< 
put to the tell, a balket of nails, left in the corner of 
the tent proved irt'elillible. He confelled the fact 
of having Itolcn four nails, but when rellitution 
was demanded, Tamaide laid the nails were at F.parre. 
High words palled on the <Kcalion, and, in the ciivl, 
the Indian produced one of the nails, and was to be tor- 
given on reltori/njthe retl ; but his virtue wai not cijiial 

: m 





to the tan<, and he withdrew himfelf, as ufiial, when 
he had committed any olVence. At this time our long- 
boat was fo much eaten with worms, that it was found 
neccll"uy to j];ivc her a new bottom. On examinin}.', 
the pinnace, thinking Ihc might be in the fame (late, 
we Iiad tlie fatistliction to perceive, that not a worm 
had touched her. This ditVerence in the condition of 
tiie twoiioats we attributed to the diU'ercnt ingredients 
with which tlicir bottoms were paid; the long-boat 
had been paid witli varnilh of pine, ;Mid the pinnace 
painted with white lead and oil ; which lall coaling 
we think to be the mort eligible for the bottoms of all 
boats intended for this part of the world. 

On the :4th, Mr. Hicks was lent to Tootahah, who 
bad removed from Fparrc to a place cr.llcd 'I'ettahah. 
The chief ha\ ing fein fe\enl times to requell a vilit 
frt)m the captain, promifing, at the fame time, that he 
vould acknowledge the favour by a prefcnt of fome 
hogs the bufineis of Mr. Hicks was, to i)btain, if 
p()llible, ilie hogs, upon e.uier tcmis than the reiiuired 
\ifit. He was received in a friendlv manner bv 'I'oo- 
t.i'iiah, who, upon his arrival, produced one hog only, 
but promifed three more that were at a didame the 
nt \t morning. Mi. 1 lick., waited patiently till the ap- 
pointed tiirie ; but when tlie morning came, he was 
obliged to depart v ith the lingle hog that had been p'c- 
fent d to hiin. 

On the ;i;th, Mr. Banks feeing Tubourai Tailiaide 
and hi<!wife I'oniio at the tent for t'le f:rll time fincc 
the former had been detectrd in Healing the nails, he 
endeavoured to perfuade him to rellore them, but in 
\ain. .-Xs our pcntlemcn treated him with a refervc 
and coolnef. which he could not but perceive, his (lay 
V.15 iliort, and he departed in a vcr\ abrupt manner ; 
nor could our fufgeon the next inorniilg wrhiadc to ef- 
fcff a r<?cofiriliarionby bringing down tnc nails. 

On the 27th^ Mr. Banks, Dr. Solahder, Captain 
Cook, and fomv others, fet out in the pinnace to vilk 
Tootal.ah, who tiad .Tg.r'in rcmo' ed to a place called 
.Atahourou, fix miles trom his lalV abode ; and not Iie- 
ing able to go half way thither in a boat, it was aimed 
«\en:ng before we anivcd. Wc found the chief, as 
ufual, fitting uinicr a trre with a great crowd about 
him. Having made out" prefents indue tbrm, con- 
fi'Jing ot a yellow tbiff petticoat, and ot'ier trifling ar- 
Tu les, we were invitetl tofupper, and to pals the night 
there. Our party conlirted ot lix onK ; but the |)la( e 
wa.^ crmu'.i'd with a greater nuiiibcr than the houfesaml 
c.moes coulii coniain. .Among other guells wereObcrea 
with her fam of attendants. Mr. Banks ha\ ing ac- 
< cp'cd of a liidgiiv.; in Oberea's canoe, left hi^ comjia- 
iiKiiv in onUi to retire to rclli Obcrca had the charge 
(if his cloath i ; but notw ithllanding her care, they were 
Ihilcn, a^ were alfo his pilhils, his powder horn, and 
fcveral o'her things out of his waillcoat pockets. .An 
alarm wa^ given to Tootahah, in the next canoe, who 
went with Obeiea in feardi of the thief, leaving Mr. 
Banks vMth only his breeches and wailkoat on, and 
l-is ir.ulkct untharged. They foon returned, but with- 
■iit liii cef>'. .Mr. Banks thought proper to put up with 
!h>- lofs at prclint, and retired a fecond time to icH ; 
]\i{\ as he bad compofed himfelf to fleep, he was 
roii/ed bv fonie ii;u(ic, and obferved lights at a little 
ililbuice from the lliore. He then rofe to go anil find 
111, companion^-. .As foon as he approached the lights, 
lie founti the hut where Captain C!ook and three others 
'.: ihe gentlemen lay, when he began to relate his mif- 
..(henture to them ; they told him in return, that thty 
bad loll iheir 1I0' kinf^s and jackets. In effect Dr. So- 
laiulci, who joined ihrm the nevt morning, vasthc 
ouh one that ef aped being robbcil, and he had flept 
.1! a hmili.' that u a^ a mile didant. 'I'his accident, how - 
<\(r, did not prevent (.■a[)!ain Cook, Mr. Banks, and 
the re!l that were at the Ivt, from atteniiing to the 
mufic uhi' h was a fort of cinceft r;illed I ieiva, and 
. (inlilledof dniius, lliitcs, and feveral voices. They 
retired again to their rcpofc, after thin entertainincnt 
v\ a^ over. 

Their cloath-, .tikI the other things Mhidi had been 
Ihilen, were never heard of alier\\aids, but Mr, Banks 

got fome cloaths from Obcrca, in which he made a 
w'himlical appcariincc. 

On the 28th, wc fet out for the boat, having ob- 
tained only one hog which had been intended for our 
fuppcr the [receding night ; fo that ail things coii- 
fidered, we 'had little rcafbn to be fatisficd with our cx- 
curlion. On our return to the boat, we had a fpcci- 
men of the agility of the Indian fwiinmers, fome of 
whom, merely for diverfion, fwam in a furf where no 
b'uropean boar could have lived, and where our bcfl 
fwiiumers imift have pcrillied, had they accidentally 
fallen in with it. 

At this time the preparations were made for viewing 
the tranfit of Venus, and two partie."! were Cent out 
to make obfervations from ditterent fpots, that in cafe 
of failing on one place they might fucceed in another. 
They employed thetiifclves for fome time in prejjaring 
their indruments, and inllruding thofe gentlemen who 
were to go out, in the ufeoftlicni; and on Thurf- 
day the full of June, they fent the long-boat with Mr. 
Core, Mr. Monkhoufe (the two oblcrvers) and Mr. 
.Sporing, the latter of whom wa.s a friend of Mr. 
Banks, with proper infhuments to Eniayo. Others 
were fent to find out a fpot that might anfwtr the pur- 
[wfe, at a conven;-.'ni dillarice from their principal 

The party that went fwards Emayo, after rovcing 
the greater part of the night, having hailed a canoe, 
were informed of a place by the Indians on board, 
which was judged proper for their obfervatory, where 
they accordingly fixed their tents. Ir was a rock 
that rofe out of the wattT about 14O yards from 
theflore. ' '■ 

Saturday the 3d (the day of the tranfit) Mr. Banks, 
as loon as it was light, left them, in order to go ami 
get frefli nrovifions on the ifland. This gentleman '.ad 
the farisfat'tion to fee the fun-nfe without a cloud. 
The king, whole name was- Tarrao, came to rtiiy hiir a 
vilit, as he was trading with the natives, aiiti brought 
with him Nuna his lifter. M it was cudpinary ior 
the people in thefc parts to be feated at their confer- 
ences, Nir. Banks Ipread his turban of Indian cloth, 
which he wore as a hat, uijon the ground, on which 
they all fet dow n. Then a nog and a dog, fonic' cocea- 
iiuts and brcad-frllit w'erc brought, being the king's 
preli nt, and Mr. Banks fent for an ad/e, a Ihirt, and 
ibmc Inads, which were preferued to his luajellv, who 
received them with apparent fatisfiiction. Tubourai 
Tamaide, and Tomio, who had gone with Mr. Banks, 
came from the obfervatory, when Tomio, whowasfaid 
to be rilatcd to Tarrno, gave him a long nail, and left 
a Hiiit as a jMcfent for Nuna. .Afterwards the king, 
his filler, and three beautiful young women their at- 
tendants, returned w ith Mr. Banks to the obfervatorv , 
\vhcre he (hewed them the tranfit of Venus, when thai 
planet was upon the fiin, and acquainted them, that to 
view it in that fuuati(*n wa,>thecaule of his under- 
taking a voyage t.) thofe remoter parts. A< lording to 
this gentleman's account, the produce of thi.i iflanii 
is nearlv the fame with that of Otaheite ; the people 
alio icfembleil thofe of that ifland : he had lien many 
of' thi-m upon it who were acquainted >\ith the nature 
ot trading a!ti( les. The parties that were li n; out to 
make their obfervations on the fanlit, had good fiii'- 
(cl-. in the undertaking : though they difftiv.l raihei 
more than might have been expected iii their account 
of the contact. 

Mr. Circcn's aeciniht was as follows: 

Hours. Min. .See 

The firft external contact - 9 
The firll internal contact, or 

total emerlion 

The fecond internal contaifl, 
or beginning at" the emer- 
lion - - - 

The fecond exteinal contai-'t, 
or total emerlion 


32 iqI 




cook's first voyage — for making Difaveries in the South Seas &r Round the fFar/d. 21 

:h he made a 

It, having ob- 
cnilcd for our 
II things con- 
id uithourcx- 
e had a Tpcci- 
iniers, fonic of 
furf where ni) 
where our bell 
,ey accidentally 

adc for viewing 
were lent out 
ots, that in cafe 
:ced in another, 
me in preparinjr 
: gentlemen who 
anJ on Thurf- 
g-boat: wiih Mr. 
;rver3) and Mr. 
I friend of Mr. 
Linayo. Others 
; anfwer the pur- 
i their principal 

lyo, after rowing 
; hailed a canoe, 
ndiatls on board, 
bfervatory, where 
Ir was a rock 
14b yards from 

mfit) Mr. Banks, 
1 order to go ami 
his gentlcnian'.ad 
without a cloud, 
r-imc toftiiyhim a 
ivcs, aiiii brought 
/Hi curtoinary f«r 
d at their confer- 
1 of Indian doth, 
■round, on which 
adog, fonii'cocea- 
, being the king's 
id/e, a ihirt, and 
1 his inajclh', who 
action. Tubourai 
ii- w ith Mr. Banks, 
iniio, who was faid 
long nail, and lett 
<r«ard.s the king, 
g women their at- 
t() the obfervators , 

Venus, when thai 
inted thcni, that to 
aufc of hi^ undev- 
rts. Ai I'ording to 
ulc of thi.i ifland 
aheite ; the peoiMe 

ht hail lien many 
tfd w ith the nature 
-at were ft i'; our to 
ilit, had goiid ^\u- 
hcy ditft-'.^.l vaihir 
cd ill their arcouiu 

Hows : 

3urs. Min. 


9 25 


9 44 


t 1 ' 

3 '4 

3 32 




Latitude of the obfcrvatory 17 dog. 29 min. 15 fee. 
fouth ;— longitude, 149 deg..;: min. JO fee. wefl 
from Greenwich. 

While the gentlemen and officers were buru'd in 
viewing the tranlit, fome of the (hip's company hav- 
ing broke into the rtore-ioom, took tiie lihcrt) of fteal- 
in" a quantity of fpike-iiails. AficM- a (Irici fearch the 
tiiVef was found out ; he had, however, but few of the 
nails in his polFeirion; but he v as ordered to receive 
two dozen of lalhes, by way of example. 

On the 4th, the two parties fcht out to obftrve the 
tranfit were abfent ; on which account ••\- deferred 
keeping his majeOy's b:ith-day to the ,iext dav. the 
5tli, when we celebrated the l";!!'v.-, f^^vcral of the Indian 
chiels partook of our entertainment, and in turn drank 
his majelly's health by the name of Kihiargo, the 
nt-arefl^ im'itaiion they could proiluce of king George. 
About this time an old female of l()me difliu:! ion dy- 
ing, give the !''.nglilh an opportunity of obllrvingthe 
ceremonies ufed by thefe illanders in difpoling of the 
dead boJus of their people; which, as we have ob- 
fervcd, th.-y do not direcHy bury. The reader lias al- 
ready i'ccw the ilefeription ^)i' liie bier, the placing the 
bread-fruii, 6ic. which, according to Tuboinai Ta- 
riaide's account, was a kind of olfering to their gods. 
Iji the front of the fquare fpacc, a fort of fUle was 
place' where the tela: ions oi thedeceafed ibuxl to give 
token of their grid", 'i'liere were uiuler t!ie awning 
fume pieces of cloth, were the tear.-. ai\d blood 
of the mourners, who ufed to wound themfelves with 
a IliarkV tooih upon thefe oecalion<. I'oiir temporary 
hoiifes were erected at a finall dillance, in one of 
which remained I'ome of the relatieas of the deeeal'-d ; 
the chief mourner refilled in another; and was drelled 
in a particular manner, in order toperloima certain 
ccremonv. \\'hen the C()r|)fe is rotten, the bones are 
buried near the f|iot, and tluTe pl.icco were found to 
anlVerthe piirpoles of religious worlhip, though Cap- 
tain W'alli-s could not perceive tlie traces of any fiich 
worlliip among them. Con 'crning the ceremony we 
are about to I'peak of, the following is the account we 
have of it, which ma\ not be luientertaining to the cu- 
rious reader. It was pertiirined on the iGth, and Mr. 
IJ.inks was li) defirous of being prefeiit, tliu he a;';reed 
to take a part in it, w hen he w as ii\fonned, that heeould 
not be a fpeifator on any other condition. He went 
aceorilingl) in the even' g, to the place uliere the body 
wasdepofited, where he was met b) the relations of the 
deceafed, and was altenvards joined by feveral other 
perfons. Tuhourai Tamaivle wasthe principal mourner, 
whofedrefi. uhimfical, though not altogether im- 
gr.u efid. Mr. Banks was obliged to quit his l''.uropean 
diel"-., and had no other covering than a fmall piei e of 
cloth liiat was tied roiuid hi.5 middle ; hi-, body was 
bl.iv'ked o\er witii charcoal and water, as were the bo- 
dies of feveral others, and among th.m fiime females, 
w!io were no more tovercd himfe'f The procef- 
iion then began, and the chief moinner "ttered fome 
vords which were judged to be a pr yer, when he 
ap|>ioached the bodi, and he repcatid thefe words a.s 
became up to his own hmife. They afterwards went 
oil, by permillion, toward; the fort. It is iifiial for the 
rell of the Indians lo Ihun thefe procellions as much as 
pofPible ; they accordingly ran into the wnods in great 
liafle, as fbon as this came in view. I'rom the tort 
the mourners proceeded along the fhore, croffed the 
river, then entired the woods palling feveral hoMf'es, 
which became immediately uninhabited, and liuring 
the rell of the piocellion, which continued for half an 
hour, no: an liuiian was \ iiibie. Mr. Banks filled an 
oHice that they called Ninivch, and there were two 
others in the fiune character. When none of the 
other natives were to be feen, th.-y aporoached the chief, faying Imatata ; then tliofe who had aflifled 
a. the ceremony liathed i.i the river, and relumed their 
former drels. Such was •'lis uncommon ceremony, in 
wlucit Mr. B.uiks perti)ri ed a principal [lart, and re- 
ceived aiiplaiife from Ti io\nai Tamaide, the chief 
mourner. \Miai 1 an hav« ijUroduced among thefe In- 

No. .{. 

dians foflrangea cuflom as that of expoling their deacT 
above ground, till the flefli is confunicd by putrefac- 
tion, and then burying the bones, it is perhaps imjiof- 
lible to guefs ; nor is it lets diflicult to determine, why 
the rcpofitories of their dead fliould be alfi) places of 

On the 1 2th, the Indian.? having lofl fome of their 
bows and arrows, and firings of plaiteil hair, a com- 
plaint was made to the capt.iin. '['he affair was en- 
quired into, and the liiet being well attefled, the of- 
fenders received each two dozen of laflie.!. 'Fhe fame 
day Tubourai Tamaide brought his bow and arrows, in 
order to decide achallcngeof fhooting lietwcen him and 
Mr. Gore ; but it appeared they had iniflakcn each 
other, Mr. Gore intentling to difijharge his arrow at a 
mark, while the Indian meant only to try who could 
fhoot fiirtheff. The challenge was dropped in coni'e- 
quence of the millake being difcovercd; but Tubou- 
rai Tamaide, in order to difplay his fkill, kneeling ' 
down, (hot an arrow, unfealhered (as they all arc) 
near the fi.xth part of a mile, dropping the bow the 
inlhmt the arrow was difcharged. Mr. Hanks having 
this morning met feveral of the natives, and being in- 
f<>rmed, that a mufical entertaiiunent was expected in 
the evening, he, and the refl of the Eiiglifh gentle- 
men refoKed to be prcfent at the lame. They went 
accordingly, and heard a performance on <lrums and 
tliites by a kind of itinerant nuificians. 'I'he ilriim- 
mer.< fiing to the mufic, aiul the b'nglifh were much 
furj'Tized when they f()und, that they were the fulijett: 
of their lays. The fongs they therefi)rc concluded to 
be extemporary etliilions, the rewards whereof were 
fiich neceilliries as they required. 

On the i.|.th, in the night, an iron coal rake for the 
oven was fiole ; and man\ other things having at dif- 
ferent times been conveyed away. Captain Cook judged 
it of fome conl'equence, to put an end, if poflible, to 
fuch practices, by making it their couunon inteiefl to. 
prevent it. He had already given Ibiot orders, that 
the centinels fhould not tire upon the Indians, even if 
they were detected in the fut ; but many repeated de- 
predations determineil him to make rejirizals. .■\bout 
twent -feven of thei'- double canoes with fiils were 
jull arrived, containing cargoes of filh ; thefe the cap-" 
tain fc i/ed, and then gave notice, that iinlefs the rake, 
and all the other things that had been flolen, were rc- 
tiiriu'il, the vrfTels ll.ould h'- burnt, 'the menace pro- 
duced no other effect than the rellitution of the rake, 
all the other things remaining in their poll'eflion. 
'I'he captain, however, thought fit to give up the car- 
goes as the innocent natives were in great diflrefs for 
want of them, and in order to prevent the confufion 
arifing from difputes concerning the propcitv of the 
different lots of goods which they had on board. 
About this time another incident had nearlv, notwith- 
dandmg all our caution, embroiled us with the In- 
dians. The captain ha\ ing fent a boat on fhore to get 
ballaff, the officer not meeting immediiiicly with what 
he wanted, began lo pull down one of the fepulchral 
manfionsof the dead ; which facrilegious act of vio- 
lence was immediately oppofed by the enraged iflanders. 
Intelligence of this difpiite being received by Mr. 
Banks, he went to the place, and a reconciliation 
loon effected, which jiut an end to the difputc, by 
feiuling the boats crew to the river's fide, where a (uf- 
ficient (piantry of fioncs were to be hail without a pof- 
fibility of giving olfence. This was the onlv inflancc 
in which they ofl'ered to oppofe us ; anil, (except the 
affair of the fort, which has been related) the only in- 
fult oH'cred to an individual, was, when Mr. Monk- 
houic, the furgeon, took a Hower from a tree which 
grew in one of their fepulchral indofures. Upon this 
occafion, an Indian came fuddcnly behind him and 
Itruck him ; Mr. Monkhoufe laid hold of the alfailan*:, 
but two of his countrymen refcucd hin,, and then they 
all ran off as faft as they could. 

On the 19th in the evening, while the canoes were 

ftill detained, Obcrea and kveral of her attendants 

paid us a viJit. She came from Tootahah's palace, in 

a double canoe, and brought with her a hog, b.^-ead- 

F . fiuit, 


Capt. C O O K 's VOYAGES C C) M P L E T F.. 



I; if 




fruit, and other prefc-ius, among which was a dog ; 
but not a iingle article of the things that had been 
Rolen : thefe ihe faid had been taken away by her fa- 
vourite Obadee, whom Ihe had beaten and difiniircd. 
She feemcd however confcious that her ftory did not 
defcrve credit, and appeared at firft much terrified ; 
though (he furmounted her fears with great fortitude, 
and was defirous of deeping wich her atcendants in 
Mr. Banks's tent ; but this being refufed, llie was 
obliged to pafs the night in her canoe. A whole tribe 
of Indians would have flept in the bull tent, but were 
not permitted. The next morning Oberea returned, 
putting herfclf wholly in our power, when we accepted 
of her prcfents, which (lie doubtlef-s thought, and jiiltly 
too. the moft cftedual means to bring about a recon- 
ciliation. Two of her attaidants were very alTid\iou.s 
in getting themfclves hufbands, in which they fucceed- 
fd, by means o1" the furgeon and one of the lieutenants: 
they Teemed very agreeable till bed-time, and dtter- 
muied to lie in Mr. Banks's tent, \Uiiehthey axord- 
ingly did, till the furgeon having fome words witli oi'.e 
of tlicni Mr. lianks thruft her out, a -.d llie was lollou- 
ed by the reft, except Otea-Tca, who cried fome time, 
and then he turned her out alfo. 'I'liis had like to 
have become a ferious alfair, a duel being talked ot 
between Mr. Banks a;vj Mr. Moiikhoufe, but it was 
hippily avoided. W'-. had been intiirnud that in this 
illand dogs were oftecuied more deluate food than 
pork, as thofe brcvi by the natives to be eaten, fed cn- 
fi.'ely upon vefjctablcs. The experiment was trieii. 
Tupia undertook to kill and drtfs the dog, which he 
did, by making a hole in the ground. anJ baking it. 
\W all agreed it was a verv good dilli. 

On the :ilt we were villted by n;a;iy of the n.ttivcs, 
who brought with them various prcfents. .Among the 
T^n was a chief, named Oamo, whom we had not yet 
fern. He had a boy aiul a >()ung wonim with lum. 
The former was carried on a man's back, which we 
conlidercd as a piece ofl^ate, tor he was well able to 
walk. Obcrea and fome of the Indians went from 
the fort to meet them, being bareheaded, and un- 
covered as low as the wa-ft; circumftancis we noticed before, and judged them marks of refpeot, 
which was uluilly (hewn to perfoiis of high rank. 
When Oamo entered the tent, the young woman, 
though fecmin^ly verv curious, i.ouUI not lie [-.rev ailed 
upon to accomp;wiy him. The jouth was intioiiiMcd 
by Dr. .Solandir, Iniias (bon as the Indians v, iihin faw 
him, they took care to have him very liHin fent our. 
Our curiofity being railed hv thefe circumlhm :es, we 
made eiimiiry concerning tlic (1 rangers, and were in- 
formed, that O.imo wa.s the hulbaiul ol Oberea, but 
til iL by mutual conleiit they had been liir a ccin- 
fid'.rablc time fcparated, and the li()\ and i;irl w . le their 
children. The tornier was called I'erridiri : he was 
heir apparent to the fovereignty of the illands, and 
when he had atta.ned the pr()|)er age, was to marry 
his filler. The preleni fovereign Oiitou, was a minor, 
and the fon of a prim e, (ailed Wliappai. Whappai, 
Oamo, ati.l Tootahah, were all brothers; Whappai was 
the elded, and Oamo the fecond ; wherefore Whappai 
having no child but Outou, Tcrridiri was heir to tiie 
fovereignty. To us it appeared lingular, that a boy 
Ihould reign during the life of his father ; but in the 
idand of Otaheite, a iKiy (iiccceds to his tatlui's ai.dio- 
rity and title as fnon as he is born j but a regent being 
necelfiiry, that otlicc, though elective, generally falls 
upon the father, who holds the reins of government till 
the child is of age. The reafbn that the election had 
fallen upon Tootahah was on account of his warlike 
cxpkiis among his brethren. Oamo was ver> inciuili- 
tive, alkinga number of qucftions concerning the In- 
glilh, by which he appeared to be a man of iinder- 
lianding and penetration. At this time, a woman 
named Teetee, who came from the weft of the ifland, 
prefentfd to the captain an elegant garment. The 
ground was a bright yellow, it was bordered w ith red, 
and there were fcvcral crolFcs in the middle of it, 
which they had probably learned from the French. 

On the J3d in the morning, one of our hands be- 

ing milling, we crquircd li.r him the natives, 
and were told he was at Eparre, Tootahah's rclidencc in 
the wood, and one of the Indians olfered to fetch him 
back, which he did that evening. On his return he 
informed us, that he had be. n taken fiom the fort, and 
carried to the top of the bay by three men, who forced 
him into a canoe, after having ftrippcd him, and con- 
duced him to Mparre, where he received (bme cloathi 
from Tootahah, who endeavoured to prevail on hiin 
to continue there. We had reafon to conclude this 
account true, for the natives were no footier acquainted 
with his return, than they left the fort w ith precipitation. 

On June the :6th, early in the morning, Capt. Cook 
fettingout in the pinia:c with Mr. Banks, liiiled lO 
the eaftwaid w ith a delign of circum-navigating the 
idaiid. 'I'hey went on (liore in the Ibrenoon, in a dif- 
tru'l in th- Kovcrnment of Ahio, a young chief) who 
ai i!;- ten:< had freijuently been their vilitant. And 
iicfr alio they (iiw llveral other natives whom they 
■ i.ew. .\fterw ards the) proceeded to the harlxjiir where 
VI. Hougaimille's veflel lay, when he came to Otaheite, 
iiul were (hewn tin.' watering place, and the fpot 
uheie he jjiti hed his tent. 

Coming to a large bay, when the Englifli gentlemen 
mcr.ti >ned their delign ol'j^oing to the other fule, their 
Intl. in guide whofe name \\as fitubaola. faid he would 
no: accompany them, ami alio cmleavoured to dilfuadc 
tiie t.iptain and lui peo])le from ;;')ing; obferving, 
' I'liat country was inhabited by people who were not 
r.biect to Tooialiah, and who would deflroy them 
all." NotvMtlilt.indingthe) refoKed to put their de- 
lign in exccutimi, loading their pieces with ball ; and 
.It la!l Tiiuhaoia \( .ituKd to j'o « ith them. Having 
ro\ud till it vas iliik. ■.Iu\ reached a narrow illhmu.s 
which (Ivered the illaiiii '•• two parts, and thefe (brmej 
ditbnct go\er;riieii» . ; ■.■vri, as they had not yet 
got the ho!li!c • • ouiitry, it was thought 

proper to go on Ihoie i,i fjjcnd the night whereOoratoya, 
the lady wlio hail paid her compliments in fo extraor- 
dinary a maimer at the fort, provided them with a fup- 
pcr. .md thry procecdt-d iur the other government in 
the morning. '1 luy afterwards landed in the diftriiit 
of a chief I ailed Mar.Titafa — _* his father was called 
Pahaucde. The (briiie of thefe names fignifics the 
/km-.';;' p:\i(r if imn, and ihc other ihc jhit'.ft nf huiUs. 
'Ihefe people gave t!u- captain a very gixid reception, 
f iKl theui a tu)_.; for a h.iti liet, and fuinillied them \\ ith 
pio\ ition.'i. .\ '.rowil ol the natives came round the Kn- 
glilli gmtlemeii, amongft whom however they met only 
two with whom tluy were acquainted; but they faw 
fe\er.d h-uropean commodities, yet they perceived none 
that eanie out ot the l.'iidea\our. Mere they faw two 
twelve pound lliof, one of which had tl; king's broad 
arrow iqxin it, yet the nati\ es laid the, \\.\<S ihem trom 
M. BoiigainMlle. They afterward- .,', .-xcd til! they 
reached that diftricl which was ui . ;■ - i; ,vernment 
of Waheatua, who hada Ion: it was '■■ ixviinwhofc 
hands the fo\ereign power was itep., '' ."rethey 

found a fpacious plain with a river wle ii ihty were 
obliged ti pafs o\er in a canoe, though thv. in.I ns that 
lollowed them fv\am over without any difhculty. They 
proceeded on their journey tor a confiderable way along 
the (liore, till at laft they were met by the chief, who 
had with him an agreeable woman, of alwut twenty-two 
viais of age. wlio was called I'oudidde. Her name was 
not unknown to the Englifh, who had often heard of it; 
and llie was fuppofed to bear the fame rank here aj 
Oberea bore in the othe ■ part of the ifland. The parts 
through which they now nailed appeared to be better 
cultivated than .my of then:., nd the burial places 
were more in number. The) re neat, andornamcnt- 
ed with carvings; and in one \ i .1- w:\s 'kw, which 
was painted with the various vuiours of the bird. 
Though tlie country was apparently fertile, very little 
bread-fruit was to be found here, a nut called Ahcc, 
furnillung the principal fubiillancc of the inhabi- 

Bc'iig f'tig>;ed tvith their journey they went on Ixwrd 
their boat, and landed in the evening on an jdand which 
was called Otof<areite, to feck for r;frcftiment. Mr. 


cook's riRS'i' VOYAGE — for making Difcovc-iies in the Scnr/i Seas &c Round tlie JVorld. 23 

jr the natives, 
I'srclidencc in 
j to fetch him 

his return he 
n the fort, and 
en, who forced 
him, and con- 
d fome cloathi 
prevail on him 

conciutlc this 
iiR-r acquainted 
1 precipitation, 
ig, Cupt. Cook 
lanks, failed lO 
-navigating the 
.•noon, in a dil- 
jng chief, \\ho 
viiitant. And 
es whom they 
■ hartxjiir where 
me to Otahetti:, 
, and the fpot 

glifli gentlemen 
)tlier fule, their 
a. laid he would 
ured todilluadc 
ing ; ohfcrving, 
le u ho were not 
\ dertroy them 
.> put their de- 
. w iih ball ; and 
them. Having 
narrow illhnnis 
md thcfc formed 
licy had not yet 
, it was thouglit 
ts in lb extraor- 
:hem with a lup- 
r government in 
d in the diftridt 
ather was called 
ih;J ligniliei the 
jlii'.rr nf Imils. 
g<Kid reception, 
iill,i-d them with 
ne round the Fji- 
er they met only 
but ihcy faw 
pcrceivcil none 
•re they faw two 
tl; kuig's broad 
IvAil ihem lron» 
iwncrd til! they 
• (j.ivernmcnl 
ivv>n >n whofc 
■' rrc nhcy 
h iht; were 
ihv. ill.', ni that 
dilViculty. They 


lerable way along 


the chief, who 
alvjut twenty-two 
Her name was 
often heard of it; 
lie rank here as 
land. The parts 
ared to be better 
the burial places 
w s fi 11, which 
rs of the bird, 
fertile, very little 
nut called Ahec, 
of the inhabi- 

»cy w cnt on board 
n an iiland w hich 


Hanks going into the woods tiir this purpofe, when it 
^^as dark c^uld difcover only one houl'e, wherein he 
found fome of the nuts before iiientiotied, and a little 
bread-fruit. 'I'hcre was a good hurlioiirin the fouthein 
part of this idand, and the funounding country ap- 
peared to be extremely fruitful. Landing at about 
three miles dilTance they found fome of the natives 
whom they well knew, yet it was not without ditRculty 
that thev. obtained a few coioa-nuts befiirc they de- 
parted. VVhen they came a litte farther to the ealU 
>vard, they landed .igain, and here they v^ere met by 
Mathiabo, the chief w itii whom they were not at all 
aciiii.iinted. He fupplicd thcni with bread-fruit and 
cocoa-nuts, and they purchafcl a hog of him for a glafs 
bottle, which lie chofe in preference to all the other 
articles prcllnted before hmi. A turkey-cock and a 
goofe were feen here, which were much admired by the 
natives, and were fuppolid to have been left there by 
Capt. Wallis's people. 'I'hey obferved in a houfe near 
the fame place feveral human jaw-bones, which fecm- 
rd frefli, and had not lolV any of the teeth, and were 
faftcncd to a board, of a femicircular figure j but they 
could not get any infornution of thecaufe of this ex- 
traordinary ajipearancc. 

VVhen thev kit the place, the chief piloted them 
over the (l.oals. In the evening they opened the bay 
on the north-wcOlide of the illand, which anfwered 
to that on the fouth-eaft in fuch a manner as to inter- 
fect it at the illhmus. Several canoes came off here, 
and fome beautiful women giNing tokens that they 
fliould be glad to lee them on lliore, they readily ac- 
ce|)ted the invitation. — They met with a very friendly 
reception from the chief uhofe name was Wiverou, 
V ho gave directions to fonic of hi.'^ people to alllll them 
in drefling their provilioii.;, which were now very plen- 
tiful, and they flipped at Wiv.rou's houfe in company 
with Mathiabo. I'art of the hotifc was allotted for 
them to flecp in, and foon alter fupjier they retired to 
xclh Mathiabo having borrowed a cloak of Mr. Banks, 
under the notion of tiling it as a coverlet when he lay 
down, made olf with it without being perceived cither 
by that gentleman or his companions. \ lowever, iil'w.s 
of the robbery being prellntly brought them by one of 
the natives, they fct out in purlliit of Mathiabo, but 
had proceeded only a very little way before they were 
met bv a pcrlon bringing baik the ilo.ik which this 
chief had gi\en up rather through fear than from any 
principle of honelVy. On their return they found the 
houfe entirely defcrtc.l ; and, abjut fnir in the morn- 
ing, the ccntinel gave the alarm that the was 
nulling. Cajitain Cook and Mr. Bulks were greatly 
alhmilhfd at this account, and U) the watcr-lide j 
buttliough it was a clear llar-liglit morning, no but 
w.w to be feen. TIumi lituation w.i; now extr'-'inely dif- 
agreeable. The party conlifted of no more than four, 
having with them only one mufquet and tuo pocket 
piflols, without a fpare ball or a charge of powder. 
After having remained fome time in a llateof aiixiet), 
ariling from thefe< ircumllanies, of which they feared 
the Indians might take advant:ige, the boat which had 
liccn driven a«ay by the tide, returned ; and Mr. Banks 
and his companions had no fooner breakfalled than 
tliey deputed. This place is lituated on the north 
lide of I'larribou, the foutli ealt peninfula of the 
illand, about live miles call from the illhmus, witli a 
harbour equal to any in thofe parts. It was fertile and 
populous, and the inhabitants every where behaved 
with greir civility. 

'I'iie lall dilhii'l' in Tiarrabou, in which they land- 
ed, was governed by a chief named Omoe. He was 
then building a houfe, and was very earneft to pur- 
chafe a hatcher, but the gentlemen had not one left. 
I Ic would not trade for nails, and they embarked, the 
chief, however, following them in his canoe with his 
\v\(c. They were afterwards taken on board, but when 
they had failed about a league, dclired to be put on 
Ihore. Their requeft was complied with, when the 
captaih nut with fome of Onioc's people, who brought 
with thiui a very large hog. The chief agreed to ex- 
change the hog for an axe and a nail, and to bring the 

luaft to the fort. As the hog was a very fine one, Mr. 
Banks ace epted the oHer. They liiw at this place one 
of the Indian f'.atuas, a fort of im.age, made of wicker- 
work, which refemblcd a man in Hgure ; it was near 
feven feet in height, and was covered w ith black and 
w'hite leathers ; on the head were four protuberances, 
called by the natives Tata etc, that is, little men. 
Having taken their leave of Omoe, the gentlemen fet 
out on their return. They n ent on Ihore again, after 
they had rowed a few miles, but law nothing, except a 
fepiilchral building, which was ornamerrted inanex- 
trajrdiniry min.ier. 'I'lie piveinent, on which wa< 
ereilted a pyramid, was very neat ; at a fmall dillance 
there was a Hone image, very uncouthly carved, but 
which the natives feemed to hold in high cllimation. 
They palfed through tli/-}iarbour which was the only 
one tit for Ihipping, WtTic fouth of Opoureonou, iituatc 
about live miles to the wellwaid of the illhmus, be- 
tween two fmall iflands, net far from the iliore, and 
within a mile of each other. They were now near the 
dillrict called Faparra, which was that where Gamo and 
Obeiea governed, and where the travellers intended to 
fpend the night. But when Vlr. Banks and his com- 
pany landed, about an hour before it was dark, it ap- 
peared they Were both ftt out to ji.iy them a vili: at the 
foit. However, they llept at Olierta's houfe, which 
was neat, though not large, and of which there was no 
inhabitant but her father, who Ihewed them much ci- 

'1 hey took this opportunity of walking out upon a 
point u]-.on which they had obferved at a dillance fome 
trees called Ktoa, which ufually grow ujion the burial 
places of tliefe illandcrs. I'hey call thofe burying 
grounds Moral. .And here Mr. B-.nks faw a vaft build- 
ing, which he found to be tlie Moral of Oair.o and 
Oberea, which was the moll conliderablc piece of ar- 
chiteCiurc in the illand. It coiilifled of an enormocs 
pile of Hone wck, raifed in the form <^f a pyramid, 
with a flight of lleps on each lide. It was near 270 
feet long, about one third as w ide, and between 40 and 
.',0 feet high. The foundation conlilleil of rock Hones j 
the lleps were of coral, and the ujiper part wa^ i;f 
round pebbles, all of the fame lliape and lize. I'kc 
rock and coral-llones were fquared with the utmoft 
neatnefs and regularity, and the whole building ap- 
pearetl as compact and linn as if it had been erected by 
the bell workmen in Europe. What rendered this lull 
circi;r.illance the more exiraordiniry was the coalide- 
lation that when this pile was railld, the Indians mull 
hue been totally dcllituteof iron tools either to 
their Hones or lor any other ntcelEiry purpofe. nor 
they mortar to cement them wlien miiJc lit for ufe ; fo 
tliat a llructure of fi.h heiivht and mignitiido \:v.-'X 
liave bieiiawoik of iii'inite k'V'Our .t.v.1 I'.it'gue. In 
the (ciitre of the fummi: was the reprelentatioii of a 
bird carved in wood ; doW- to this wa;. the f.^.uie of a 
lilh ill Itoiie. The p} raiuid conllitiitej part of one liJc 
of a court or fqiiare, the liJcs of which were nearly 
equal ; and the whole was walled in, and pavc.l with ti. t 
llones, noiwithllanding which pavement, plan- 
tains, and trees which the natives call F.toa, grew w .th- 
in the iiiv loliire. .\t a fmall dillance to the wefluiud 
of this edilice was jnoiher pivcd fjuarc that^ d 
feveral fmall llages, called Fwatt is by tlie n.itivcs ; 
which appeared to be altirs, whereon they [il.iccd the 
iitfcrmgs to Mr. 15anks afterwards obferved 
whole hogs placed u; on thcfe llages or altars. 

On I''nda\ the ;^Oth, they airi\ ed at Otahorou, where 
they foand their old acquaintance Tootahah, who re- 
ceived thei'i with great cixility, and proviiled them a 
good fupprr and convenient lodging; and though they 
had been lii Ihauiefully pluiiJered the fill time they 
flcpt with this chief, they fpeiit the night in thegreatcft; 
fccurity, none of their i loatlis nor any other article be- 
ing niiuing the next morning. They returned to the 
fort at Fort Royal Harbour on the lirll of July, havin^^ 
difcovcrcd the illand, including both pcninfulas, to be 
about too miles in circiimtl'iencc. 

.M'ter their return from thi.s tour, they wee very 
much in want of brcad-fiuit, none of which they liaCi 



Capt. C O O K's VOYAGES C O M P L E T E. 




been able to provide tliciiilclvcs with, as tlicy had llrn 
but little in the coiirfe of theii- journey; but their In- 
dian t'riends coining round them, foon lupplied tlieir 
vant of provifions. 

On the ^d, Mr. IJunks made an cxcurfion, in order 
to trace the river up the valley to its lource, and to re- 
mark how far the country was inhabited along the 
banks of if. lie t(H)k fonie I.idian guides with him, 
and after having feen houfes l()r about fix miles, ihcy 
came to one which was faid to be the lad that could be 
nieC with. The m;iller prellnted them with cocoa- 
nuts and other fruits, and thev proceeded on their 
Walk, after a lliort flay. They ol'ten pafTed ' nrough 
"■aults formed by rocky tVagmeiitsin thecoiirfe oft'ieir 
(ourney, in which, as ihcy were told, benighted tra- 
vellers fometimes "^ook llielter. I'urfuing the courfe of 
the river about li\ miles f.irther, they found it banked 
on both fides by rocks ahnoll lOO feet in height, arul 
ncaily perpendicular; a Ma\, houever, might betraccd 
up thefe precipices, along which their Inilian guidts 
\eould h.tve conducted them, but the\' declineil the of- 
fer, as there did not appear to be any thing at the 
fiimmit which could repny them for the toil an,l ilan- 
gcrs of afcending it. Mr. ii.uiks fought in vairtjfyl ' 
jiiincrals among the rocks, which were naked almoft 
on all (ides, but no mineral fublhm.cs were touiui. 
"f'he llones every where exhibitvd ligns of having been 
burnt, wiiich was the cafe ot' all the nones that were 
found while tlicy llaid at Otilieite, and botli there and 
in the neighbouring illa:i,li tlie of fiie were evi- 
dent in i' ■ ' 1.1) upon the hilN. On the 4th, a great 
quantity '• 'i' ds of w,iter-m,'lf)'i<, or.mge-i, Imies 
and other ,> ' 'ought from Kin de Janeiro were 

planted on e,i of the tort, b\Mr. I'miks, who 

a'fo iikntifully 1.. plied the Indian.^ with them, and 
planted man\ of them in the Some melons, 
the \lx.\i of whii h had been fown on the full arrival 
ftf the Englilh at the iflaiiJ, grew up and Hourilhed 
before they left it. 

U\ this time they Iwgan t" think of making prejxi- 
rations to depart; but Oamo, Oiieiea, .uui their fon 
an.i daugl-.ter ■. iliud tliembetiire the\ wereread\' to fiil. 
As to the young wom.m (uhofe name uas TouiKUa) 
flic w.n cunou., to (ee the li)rt, but ().imo would nor 
pcnmr her to enter. The Um of Waheatua, chief of 
ih'. foiith-ealt- peninfuh, was alfohere at the fame time; 
and they were favoured with thei ompanxot'the Indian 
who h.v\ been fo dextrous as to IKmI the ijuadrant, as 
above related. The carpenters being ordered to take 
down the gates and pilifadocs of the fort, to be con- 
verted into firewood t()r tlie I'Juleavoiir, one of the na- 
tives flolethe Il41)!e antl hook of the gile; he uas jiiir- 
Ilicd in vain, but the property was afterx^ard-, recover- 
ed, aiivl returiie.l to the owners by I'ubouiai 1 a- 

IJjfjie their de|vu"ture, two circiimllances happeneil 
which gave L'apt. took fome unealinefs. The tiril 
was, thu tuo fore; vi fiilors having been abroad, one 
of them was robbe,! of his knife, which as he was eli- 
de iv(niring to recover, he was dangeroully hurt \uth a 
Hone h;, the natives, and his companion alfo received 
a llight wound in liie head. The ollcnders efiaped, 
and the i.iptain vva> no; anxious to havi' them taken, 
.lb he did not want t<j have any ilifputes vv ith the In- 

Between the S!;h and (>th, tuo young marines one 
n-ght wiihdrew ilieinfelvcs from the ti>rt, and in the 
morning were not to be met with. Notice having been 
given the next ilay that the lliip would fail that or the 
enfuing day ; as th.y did not return, Capt. Cook began 
to be apprehenfive that they defigncd to remain on 
Ihorc; but as he was apprifed in fmh a cafe no 
C*fc:tual means could be taken to recover them without 
running a rifque of deltro. ing the harmony fubfilling 
between the I-aiglilli and the natives, he lefolved to wait 
a day, in hopes of their returning of their own accord. 
Hut as they uere Hill milling on the tenth in the morn- 
ing, an eiKiuiry was made afier ihem, when the Indians 
declared, that they did not |iropofe to return, having 
taken refuge among the mountains, where it was im- 

polliblc for them to be difcovcrcd ; and added, that 
each of them had taken a wife. In confcc^iience of 
this, it was intimated to fevcral of the chiefs that were 
in the fort w ith the women, among whom were Tu- 
boiirai Tamaide, Tomio, and Obcrca, that they would 
not be fullered to quit it till the dcferters were pro- 
duced. They ilid not lliew any (igns of fear or difcon- 
tent, but airurcd the captain that the marines llinuld 
be fent back. In the mean time Mr. I licks was dif- 
paiched in the pinnace to bring Tootahah on board 
the fliip, and he executed his cominillion without 
giving any alarm. Night com'ng on, Capt. Cook 
thougln it not prudent to let the people, w horn he had 
detained as hoUagcs, remain at the fort ; he thcrelore 
gave orders to remove them on board, which greatly 
alarmed them all, effx.-cially the female;, who tellilieJ 
the moll gloomy appreheniions by Hoods of tears. 
Capt. Cook efcorted Oberea and others to the H.ip ; 
but Mr. Hanks remained on Ihorc w ith fome Indian.*, 
whom he thought it of lefs iii\portance to detain. In 
the evening one of the marine i was brcxight back by 
fome of the natives, who rep irtcd, that the other and 
two of our men who went to recover them, would be 
detained while Tootahah was confined. Upon this 
,\lr. Hicks was immediately fent olF in the long bc«t, 
with a Hrong body of men to refcue the prifoners ; at 
the fame time the captain told Ttxitahah, that it wa.s 
in iimbent on him to aHill them with fome of his peo- 
ple, aid to give orders in his name, that the men lliould 
be fet at liberty ; for that he would be e.Npeited tu 
anfwer for the event, 'i'ootahah immediately com- 
plied, and this party releafed the men without anv op- 

On the I Ith, about Ccww in the morning, they re- 
turned, but without the arms that had been taken from 
them when thev were made prifoners; thefe, however, 
being reHored foon after, the chiefs on board were al- 
lowed to return, and thole who had been detained on 
Hiore were alfo fet at libertv. On examining the dc- 
ferters it appeared, that the Indians had told the truth, 
ihev having chofen two girls, with whom the) would 
have remained in the illaiid. .\i this time the power 
ot Oiierea was not fo great as it was when the Dolphin 
fuH clifiovered the illand. Tupia, whofe name has 
been olien mentioned in this voyage, had been her 
prime miniHer. He was alfo the chief pricH, confe- 
quently, well acquainted with the religion of the coun- 
try, lie liad a know ledge of iiavigation, and was tho- 
roughly accjuainted with the number, litu.ition, and 
inhabitants of the adjacent illands. 'I'his chief had 
ouen expreH'ed a defire to go with us when we conti- 
nued our vo\ age. 

On the I :th in the morning he came o\\ board, with 
a b;n about tvvelve ve.irs of age, his fervant. named 
Taivo'..!, and recjuelled the gentlemen on board, to let 
him go with him. .\s we thought he would be ufeful 
to us in ()articulars, we unaniinoiifly agreed to 
(ompi) viith hi;. rcc]uell. Tupia then went on iliorc 
torthiCkiH time to bid farewell to his friends, to whom 
he gave llveral b.uibles as parting tokens of remem- 

Mr. Bank'., after dinner, Ix'ing willing to obtain a 
drawing of the Moral, which Tootahah had in his 
poHlllion at Ivparre, Capt. Cook accomp.mied hiiu 
thither in the pinnace, together with Dr. Solander, 
The. immediately Upon l.mding repaired toTootahah's 
hoiifi", where they were met by Oberc.i and I'everal 
others. A general good imderlhinding prevailed. 
Tupia came back w ith them, and they pioiuilcd to vifit 
the gentlemen early the next dav, as the;, were told the 
(hip uoiikl then fail. 

On the i;{th thefe fricndlv peojile cime vcrv early 
on board, and the lliip was furrounded with a vail 
niuiiber ot'ianoes, filled with Indians ol'ihc lower fort. 
Between eleven and twelve we weighed anchor; and 
notuithHancling all the little miHinderHandiiigs be- 
tween the I'.nglilh and the natives, the latter, who 
poMined a great fund of good n.iture and mu, h (eii- 
(ibility, took their leave, weeping in an all'eCtionatc 
manner. .\s to Tujiia I.e fupjjorted iiimfclf iliiougli 

ml added, that 
confcqucncc of 
;hicf3 that were 
.horn were Tu- 
hat they would 
rtcrs were pro- 
f tear or difcon- 
niarines lliould 
Micks was dif- 
aliah on board 
nilfiou without 
II, Capt. Cook 
', whom he had 
rt ; he therefore 
, which grcatl/ 
C5, who tcilifieJ 
floods of tears. 
;rs to the ilnp ; 
,h foiiie Indians, 
.' to detain. In 
rcxiglu back by 
C the other and 
them, woukl be 
L'd. Upon this 

the loiijr boat, 
;he prifoncrs ; at 
hah, that it was 
fome of his pco- 
t the men (liould 

be expected tu 
iiucdiatety com- 
wiihout an\ op- 

orning, they re-" 
been taken from 
tliefc, however, 
I bjard were al- 
)een itetained on 
uiiinin;; the de- 
d told the truth, 
, hom the) would 
i time the power 
hen the Dolphin 
rthofe name lias 
;e, had been her 
ef priert, confe- 
i;ion of the coun- 
on, and was tho- 
T, fituation, and 
'I'his chief' had 
when we conti- 

10 on hoard, with 
fervant. named 
n on Ixwnl, to let 
e would be ufeful 
niouHN agreed to 
n went on lliorc 
frienils, to whom 
jkens (if reniem- 

illing to obt-'.in n 
lahah iuui in his 
Lcomp.mied him 
th Dr. Solander. 
ired toTootahah's 
lerea and feseral 
uidmg prevailed. 
,■ proiiii fed to viflt 
tlie-. were t(jld the 


■ came vcrv early 
ndcd with a vail 
s of the lower fort. 
,hed anchor; and 
iiderftanilini^s be- 
, the latter, who 
ire and inu^h fen- 
in an alfeCtionatc 
:d hiiiifill tliroiigh 

.-kiMti^ ■ 

- f^i ittii ■ , 




^ J" 


^ J 

. w . V . V .Jii 

cook's first VOYAGE— for making Difcoveries in the South Seas & Round the IVorld. -5 

this fccile with a becoming fortitude. Tears flowed 
from his eyes, it is true, but the clVort that he made to 
conceal them did him an additional htJnouf. He went 

with Mr. Bank? to the mafl-hcad, and wavin^^hiihand 
took a lafV farewell of his country. 'I'hus wc d'.'pancd 
from Otahcitc, after a liay of jult three months. 


r x - " -! ^. I) 



All I'i/hriuil ami lie/mplkr trcmiif of OlahciU—Of the ijland and its ptodiuJioiis — 0/ ibc id'ahitaiits^their di,fi-^ 

Divrlliiigs Mivmcrnf liv/ii^—DiviTjmi—Mmu/aJ7iin-i-—Arh'^i\tcHCcs-~Langu.ige^Dt/tv/^^^ cmmo- 

Hies — 1 ind grrjiynmeiil . 

PORT Royal bay, iil tlie Kland of Otaheite, as 
fettled by captain Wallis, we found to be within 
half a degree of its real fituation ; and point Venus, the 
northern extremity of this illand, and the ealkrn part 
of the bav, lies in 149 deg. 30 min. longitude. A 
reef of coral rock furrounds the illand, forming fe- 
\eral excellent bays, among which, and equal to the 
heft of them, is Port Ro\at. This bay, called by the 
natives Matavai, may eafily be difcovered by a renfark- 
ablc high mountain in the center of the illand, bearing 
due fomh from Point Venus. To fail into it, either 
keep the weft point of the reef r.hat lies before Point 
Venus, clofe nn board, or give it a birth of near half 
a mile, in order to .avoid a fmall flioal of coral rockd, 
vhercon there is but two fathom and an half of wa- 
ter. The moft proper ground for anchoring is on the 
•alhrn fide ol the bay. The fliore is a fine fandy beach, 
behind which runs a river of frefli water, very conve- 
nient for a fleet of lliip>. The only wood for bring 
upon the whole illand is that of fruit: trees, which niiift 
bcpurcliafed of the natives, or it is iiiipollible to lise 
on friendly terms with them. 'I'he face of the coun- 
try is very uneven. It rifis in ridges that nm up into 
the middle of the ifland, where they form mountains 
which may he k^:n at the diftance of fixty miles. Be- 
tween thefi- riiigcs and the fea is a border of low land 
of ditlereiit breadths inititferent parts, but not exceed- 
ing any where a mile and a half. 'I'he foil being wa- 
tered by a number of excellent rivulets, is exticmtly 
fertile, and covered with various kinds t)f fruit trees, 
which form aimoft one continued wood. Even the 
tops of the ridges arc not without their produce in 
fiiine parts. 'I'he only parts of the iftand that are in- 
haliii' tl, are the low lands, lying between the ((wt of 
the 1 ul;',cs and the fea. The houfes do not form vil- 
lagis, but are rangeil along the whole l)(>rder, at about 
\'\\\\ \ ards iliftant from each other. Before them are 
little groups of the plantain trees, which furnilh them 
with cloth. According to Tupia's account, this illand 
could furnilh above lix thouland fighting men. The 
proiluce is brcad-fiuit, cocoa-nuts, bananas, fweet po- 
tatoes, yams, jambu, a delicious fruit, fugar-cane, the 
paper mulberrv, fevf ral forts of tigs, with manv other 
plants and trees, all which .iic earth produces Iponta- 
neouftN, or with little culture. Hut here are no I'.u- 
ropean fruit, garden-ftulf, pulfe, nor grain of any kind. 
'I'he tame animals arc hogs, dogs, and poultry ; the 
wild, ducks, pigeons, parroi^ucts, and a few other birds. 
The only quadrupeds are rats, and not a ferpent is to 
be found. In the fea is a great variety of excellent lilli, 
which conrtitutes their chief luxurv, and to catch it 
their chief employment. 

The people in general are of a larger make than the 
Europeans, 'i'he males are mollly tall, robuft, and 
and lincly Ihaped; the women of the higher clafs above 
the li/.e of our linglilli ladies, but thofe of inferior 

rank arc below our ftandard, and fdnle df them Very 
Ihort. Their natural complexion is a fine clear olive; 
or what wc call a brunette, their Ikin delicately fmooth, 
and agreeably foft. Their faces in general are hand- 
fome, and their eyes full of fenfibility; Their teeth 
are remarkably white and regular, their hair for the 
moft part black, and their breath is entirely free from 
any difagreeablc fmclfi The men, unlike: thedriginal 
inhabitants of America, have long, which they 
wear in various Ihapes; Circumcilion is generally prac- 
lifed among thcin from a motive of cleanlinds, and 
they have a term of reproach with which they upbraid 
thofe who do not .ndopt this cuftom. Both fcxes al- 
ways eradicate the hair from their arm-jiits, and they 
reproached our gentlemen with want of clcanlinefs: 
their motions are cafy and graceful, and their beha- 
viour, w hen unprovoked, alfablc and courteous. Con- 
trary to the culiom of moft other nations, the women 
of this country cur their hair fliort, whereas the men 
wear it long, (ometimts hanging loofe upon their 
lliouldcrs, at other times tied in a knot on the crown 
of the head, in which they ftick the feathers of birds 
of various colours. A piece of cloth, of the nianu- 
facliireof the country, is frequently tied round the head 
of both fexes in the manner of a turban, and the wo- 
men plait very curioully human h;;ir into long ftringsj 
which being tolded into branch^ ., arc tied on their 
tbreheads by way of ornament. 1 ii .y have a cullotn 
practifed in many hot countries, ./f anointing their 
hair with cocoa-nut oil, the fmell of which is not \cry 
.igrecable. Having, among their various inventions 
no forts of combs, they were infefted with vermin, 
which they quickly got rid of when furnilhed with 
thofe convenient inihumcnti. 

'J'hey ftain their bodies by indenting or pricking the 
tlelh with a fmall inftrument made of bone, cut into 
Ihort teeth, which indentures they lill with a dark blue 
or blackilli mixture, prepared from the fmoke of an 
oily nut (burnt by them inftcad of candles) and wa- 
ter. This operation, called by the natives Tattauw ing, 
is exceedinii;ly painful, and leaves an indelible mark on 
the Ikin. It ii> ufually performed when they arc abou' 
ten or twelve years of age, and on ditl'erent parts of the 
body; but thofe which fuft'er moft feverely are the 
breech and the loins, which arc marked with arches, 
carried one above another a conliderahlc w ay up the 
back. Mr. Banks was prefent at an operation of tat- 
taowing, performeii u]ion the pofteriorsof a girl about 
twelve ye.irs old. It was executed with an inftrument 
that had twenty teeth, and at each ftroke, which was 
repeated every moment, ferum mixed with blood ilFued. 
She bore the pain with great refolution for feveral mi- 
nutes J but at length it became fo intolerable, that ihc 
murmured and burft into moft violent lamentations; 
but her operator was inexorable, whiirt fomc females 
prefent both chid and beat her. Mr. Banks was a 

• Wo here bi'{> leave to remark to onrvery NCMKROt'S stmscRinF.RS, tliat this much admired n\ii is niit only fur prfffijH- 
to any other imblicatiim nl' the kind whiUcNer, on account of its /■'Irgtinif, large Size, (.t'eiipiii-j's, Aulhetit'uilw and its including nil 
Ctpt. Ciok's ( niige> i:ompkle, written in an admirahly plcsling and elegant Ityle, but aifo becaufc every yi/nf/cS'/.'iv/ ut'i;«/Z.r/?</-/);v/J! 
ciiinprclicnds ai Icall us much Miiltcr^s is given in thnf Sheds belonging to olhcr Iflrks of the kind, which, to ctitch the I'einiy, by 
Jjiinniiij; ml llu- J'libjee't to an u>iriece//iiry length, is otVcrcd to the public at an ixlrm>agant Price. The common reduced Magazine Size, 
in \\\m\\ J'eparate Paris ol' iheje ll'irks have been .ittempted to be miblilhed, we lind is .ilfo nnivcrfallyobietled to by the public : fo 

kLL Capt. COOK'S VO'\' AGES, ic. CoMFLKTh.thcpublic at large 

that by the pubti.ation of tlii.s lakue Folio Edition of ai 

will be (igrecahly iiccomnndalcil, not only by being poll'elfed at nn tajy Riile of (iich a vaft .^i^u/inlity tf Matter included by onr ctosh 
Mclho/i if Printing, but likewile by acqnifiiig at the fame 'I'iine all the si'llnuio lAK(ifc Touo Co, 

iuttd Scale, but) in the OKiCjlNAL olZL, in Numbers at only bixi'tNcE each 
No. 3. O 

ofi'LK-iaATEii (not onari« 

Capt. C O O K's V O Y A C; E 3 C O M P L E T K. 


fpciftator for near an hour, during which time one (idc 
only was lattaMvcd, the otiicr havin}; undergone the ir- 
ri'inony foinc time before, and the arches upon tne 
hiins, which are the nioO painful, but which they hioll 
value, were )ci to be made. 

They cloath thrnifclves in cloth and matting of va- 
rious kinds: the firft they wear in fine, tiie latler in 
wet weather, Thefe are in dilferent forms, no Ihape 
being prefervcd in the pieces, nor are they fewed to- 
gether. The women of a fupcrior clafj wear three 
or four pieces. One, which is of conliderable length, 
tliey >' rap ll'veral tums round their waill, atid it talis 
down to the middle of the kg. Two or tiirec other 
il.orr pieces, with a hole t ut in the middle of each, are 
jilaud on oneanother, and their heads ronung through 
t!ie holes, the long ends hang before and behind, 
both fides luingopen, by which means they have the 
free ufe of tlicir arms. 

The mens drels is very fimilar, difl'ering only in this 
inllance, that one part of the garment inllead of falling 
below the knees is brought between the legs. This 
drefs is worn hv all ranks of people, the only dilbnclion 
being quantity in the fuperior elafs. At noon both 
fexes appear aliiioll nakcil, \vcaring only a piece ol 
cloth that is tied round the wailh Their faces are 
fhaded from the fun with fmall bonnets, made ofcocoa- 
n'.it leaves ( r matting, which are conllrucfed in a lew 
minutes. The men fomctimcs wear a fort of wig ol 
human or dog's hair, or of cocoa-nut (bings, woven on 
a lingle thread, fallened under the hair, and hanging 
cl<>wn behind. l$oth men and women wore ear-rings on 
one iKi/, conlifling of ihells, lionet, berries, or fmall 

E carls ; but they foon gave the preference to the beads 
rougl;i L,- the l''.ndea\(nir's ccmpnn). The 1k\vs and 
girls ^'O ijuite naked ; tiie lirlt till they are C{:\a\ or 
eight years old; the latter till they ate about live. 

The natives of Otaheite feldom ufc their houfes but 
to deep in, or to avoid the rain, as they eat in the open 
air, under the Ihaileofa tree. In tliofe there are no 
(livili ins or apartments. Their cloaths fcrve them for 
covering in th;' night. Themarterand hi^ wife repofe 
in the middle; then the married pe()|)le ; next the un- 
married females; then the unmarried men; and in lair 
weathef the fcrvants llecp in the open air. The hauks 
ef the chid's, however, ditler in lome particukns. 
There are thole that arc verv fmall, and fo conlbuctcd 
as to be carried in canoes : all tides of them are im lolVd 
with the leaves of the cocoa-nut; the air neverth.kl.; 
penetrates. In rhcfe the chief and his wife <>nly lleep. 
V\'e likewife favv houles that are general receptacles lor 
the inhabitants of a dillrict, man\ of tlieiii being more 
than -200 feet in length, 4.0 in breath, and -> or 8o 
Irct Ingli. Tin v are i onlhucteil at tlic common ex- 
jience, and have an area on one fide, turniuiukd 
w idi l(.vv palifadoes ; but like the others w iihout walls. 

Their cooker}' coniitls chietly in baking, the manner 
«)1 doing which has been li( liire noticed. V\ hen a c.hitt 
kills a hog, which is but feldom, he divides it equally 
aMKHig his v.iflhls. Dopp. and k)vvls are more common 
fiod. When the bread-fruit is not in fc4k)n, Cocoa- 
hiits, bananas, pfantains, Ccr. are lublliiuted in it.? Head. 
Tlify bake ih 'ir br ad-fniit in a manner which renders 
i: lomcvvhat like a iiicl/ pmatof, Ot this three 
diilifs art made, by bciuing ihem up with bananas, 
pkintains, or fmupafle, which is called b) thcuiMahie. 
Sour pade Is made by taking biead-imit not 
ihorougbly ripe, ancl laying ir in neap^ covered with 
leavi.i, by which means it terinents. Ihe core is then 
taken out, and the fruit put into a hole lined with grafs; 
it i-, then .again covered with leaves, uiv)n which large 
Itoncsare placed'; thia produces a fCcond fcrm'.-ntatioh; 
alter which it grows four, without any other change kir 
» long time. 'Ihcy lake it from this hole ».•> they have 
oceafion for it, and make it iruo balls. It is then rolleil 
up in plantain leaves and baked. As it will keep for 
foine weeks, they cat it both hot and cold. Such is 
the k)od of this people, their lauce to which is only fait 
water. As to tneir drink it in generally confuicd to 
AVtttcr, or the milk of the cocoa-nut, though fomc of 
tiiem would driifk fo freely of our Khglilh liquors as to 
Iwowme quite mtaxicated, iuchinllancc*, however, were 

occalioiicd more by ignorance than delign, a.n they were 
never know n to practice a debaiK h of this kind a feconi 
time. We were told, it is true, that their chicfii fomc- 
timcs became inebriated by drinking the juice of a 
plant called Ava, but of this wc faw not a finglc in- 
Ihmce during the time we remained on the ifland. 

The chief eats generally alone, unlefs when vifited 
by ;i Itranger, who is permitted fometimcs to be his 
mefs-mate. Not having known thcufe of a tabic, they 
lit on the grouml, and leave.? of trees fpread before 
them fcrve as a tabte-doth. Their attendants, who arc 
numerous, having j)laced a balket by the chiefs, con- 
taining their provilions, and cocoa-nut fliclls offredi 
and liilt water, fet themfelves down around thcni. 
They then begin their meals with the ceremony of 
walliing their mouths and hands ; after which they eat 
a handful of bread-fruit and lilh, dipt in fait water 
alternately, till the whole is confumcd, taking a tip of 
fait water between almoft every morfel. The bread- 
fruit and lilh isfuccceded by a fecond courfe, conlilling 
of either plantains or apples, which they never eat. 
without being pared. During this time a foft lluid 
of pallc is [irejiarcd from the bread-fruit, which they 
daink out of cocoa-nut Ihells : this concludes th.e meal ; 
and their hands and moutli.s are ,-igain waflied as at the 
beginning. TIilIc people eat an adOnilhing quantity 
of tixxl at a meal. Mr. banks and otheis l;uv one of 
them devour three lilh of the li/.e of a fmall carp, 
tour bread-t'ruits, as l.ugeas a ci)mnu)n melon, thirieen 
tir fourteen jilantains le\ en inches long, and above half 
.i.~ big round J to all which wps added a quart of tin? 
pade by way of drink, to liigef^ the whole. 

The inhabitaiifi of this illind, though apparently 
loud ol the plealiire.s of lixietv, have yet an avcrlion 
to holding any inter. ourfe with ea;h other at their 
meals; and the) are fo rigid in the obfi'rvation ofthi.i 
cuttom, that even brothers and (ilUr.s have their feparate 
ball<tts ol provilions, and generally lit at the dill.ince 
of k)mc yards wlitn they cat, with their back.s to 
each oihei, and not ex<. hanging a \\>nd during the 
whole time of their repalh The middle aged of lu- 
perior rank go uluallv to lleep after dinner ; but, wlii<U 
is fomewhat remarkable, older people are not fo in- 

.Mulic, dancing, wrcfUing, and fliooting with the 
bow, conihtute the grcatell jiart of their diverlions. 
1 lutes and drums are the only iiuilical inltrununts 
among them. 'I'luir ilrums are fiirmcil of a circular 
piece of vvood, hollow at one enii only. Thefe are co- 
veicd with the Ikin of a lliark, and be;Uen with the 
hand iiidcad of a Hick. Their fongs are extemp-ore. 
aiul fuqiieiuly in Hume, but they contill only ot two 
lines; thefe louplets ai'e often fiiiig liy way of evening 
amuleiiunis, between fun-fet and bed-time ; durinj^ 
which interv.d they burn candles made of an oily nut, 
fixing them one above imother u[)on a fmall iHck ihas 
is run through the middle : fome of thefe candks will 
burn a long time, and allbrd a pretty good light. 
,\mong other amufements, they have a dance called 
I'iinoiodee, whi( h is generally performed liy ten or a 
do/en young females, who put themfelves into the 
niolV vvanton attitudes, keeping time during the per- 
fonnance with the preatelt nicety and cxactnefs, 
Pregnant w> men are excluded from thefe danres. 

Oneofthe worll culbmis of the people of Otaheite, 
is that which feveral ol the principal people of the ifland 
have adoptetl of uniting in an aifociation, wherein no 
woman confines herfelf to any jiarticular man, by 
which means they obtain a perpetual fociety. Ihefc 
forietics are called Arreoy. 'Ihe members have meet- 
ings V here the men amiife themfelves with wicA ling, 
and ilic viomen dance the Timorodec in fuch a man- 
ner as is moll likely to excite the delires of the other 
tcx, and which were frequently gratified in the ailcm- 
blv. A much worle practice is the confequence of 
this. If any of the women prove witii child, the in- 
fant is dedroyed, unlefii the mother'.s natural alfeclion 
ih<iuld prevail with Ivr to prefervc its life, which, 
ho A ever, is fork-ited unlefs ll.c tan procure a nian 
to adopt it. And where flie fuccecd.'i in this, fix 
is i-. idled from the Ibciety, being callcii Whaii- 



fill J 

C'lOK's Kllt->T VOVAGK — Un n.wWiu^ D'/t^AU'rirs irt th- South Si-uj & Roiim! ;ne l'/'.<r!J. ty 

K-y were 
i ll-cond 
fs fomc- 
ice of a 
ingic in- 

n vifited 
D be his 
blc, they 
id before 
, who arc 
cfs, con- 
i offrclli 
ul them. 
;inony of 
I they ear 
fait water 
r ii lip ot 
"he brcaci- 
never eil 
fott llulJ 
ihich iliey 
llie meal ; 
.1 as at the 
ir quantity 
i'a* one of 
tiiali earp, 
in, thirl cell 
above half 
iiart of tliP 


an avcrlion 

icr at their 

tion of this 

lir feparaie 

he (liU.vnec 

r b.n k:. to 

iluiiiij; the 

\gcA i)t lii- 
biit, whi' h 
not fu iu- 

with the 
It a circular 
licfe are co- 
in \\iih the 
(inly of tuo 
y of evening* 
'iK-; ilurin^ 
an oily nut, 
\11 Hick that 
candles will 
^rood litJ;ltt. 
laivc called 
by ten or a 
e* into the 
ing the per- 
of Otaheitc, 
of the ifland 
wherein nd 
lar man, by 
iety. I'hcfc 
.s have meet- 
iih wreflling, 
fuch a man- 
of the other 
in ihc alVeni- 
infequence of 
child, the in- 
tural alFfdion 
ifc, which, 
ocure a man 
in this, llx 
al!.;d Whan- 


rownow, which li^;nilics a bearer of children, by way 
«f rcpioiii h. 

Pcrf nil cleanlinefs is much ellecmcd among thefe 
Indians. Both fexes are particular in wafliing three 
timesa day, viz. when they rife in the morning, at noon, 
and before they go to re(V. 'I'hey arc alfo very cle mly 
in their cloaths, fo that no difagreeable clHuvia are 
found to arife in the largcH; communities. 

Cloth is the chief inanufacbire of Otaheitc, and of 
this there are three forts, all which arc made out of the 
bark of dill'crcnt trees, namely, the mulberry, the bread- 
fruit, and a tree which bears fome refemblancc to the 
VVclV-lndian wild lig-rrcc. Tlic iirft of thefe produces 
the (inert cloth, which is fcldoin worn but by thofe 
of the lirll rank. 'I'he next fort is made of the bread- 
fruit tree, and the lall of that which rcfembles the wild 
fig-trce. Hut this lall fort, though the coarfell, is 
fcarcer than the other two. which are tnanufacUircd 
only in fniall iiuantitics, as the fame manner is iiled in 
rnaiuifu'turingall thefe cloths. The following dclcrip- 
ticn will fulfu e for the reader's information. 

'I'liebark of the tree being llripped olf, is foaked in 
water for two or three days ; they then take it out, and 
feparate the inner bark from the external coat, by 
fcraping it with a Ihell, after which it is fpread out 
en plantain leaves, placing twi) or three layers over 
one another, » are being taken to make it ot ah equal 
thickMef;, in e\eiy part, in this Oate it continues till 
it is almort dry, when it adheres lb lirmly that it may 
be taken from the groinul wi:lunit breaking. After 
this procefs, it is laid on a fmooth board, and beaten 
with an inllrimient made for the purpofe, of the com- 
pact hea'.y wood called Ktoa. 'I'he inUrument is 
i\l)out li)urteen inches long, and about ("even in cir- 
i\. inference i is of a qtiadrangular fliape, and each of 
the four lidcs is marked with longitudinal grooves or 
furrows, dilfering in this inllanc e, that there is a regular 
gradation in the width and depth of the grooves on 
each of the fi.fs ; the coarfer fule not containing more 
than ten of thtfe fmrows, while the lineH is liunilhed 
With above liliv. It is with that fide of the mall.t 
where the grooves are decpell and widell that they lie- 
gin to beat their tloth, and proceeding regularly, iinilh 
V ith that which has the gixatcrt niniiber. By this beat- 
ing, the cloth is extended ill a manner iimilar to the 
gold that is formed into leaves by the hammer ; and it 
i.'. alfo marked with iiiiall channels refembling thofe 
whicharevilible on pa|)er, but rather deeper; it is in 
gcncial beat very thin; when they want it thicker than 
commort, they take two or three pieces and palic them 
together w ith a kind of glue prepared from a root calleil 
I'ea. 'f hisc loth becomes exceedingly w hite by bleach- 
ing, and is dyed of a ird, yellow , brown, or black co- 
lour ; the lirll is exceeding hcautiiul, and equal, il not 
fuperior to any in lunope. They make the red colour 
from a mixture of the juices of two vegetables, neither 
of which ufed li-parately has this elfect : malting of 
various kinds is another confidcrahlc manufacture in 
which they excel, in many refpeiits, the faiiopeans. 
They makcufe of the coarfer fort to Hecp on, and in 
wet weather they wear the liner. They excel in the 
balket and wicker-work ; both men and w , men em- 
ploy thenifelves at it, and can make a great number 
of dillcrent patterns. They make ropes and lines of 
allfi/es of the bark of the Foeron, and their nets for 
fiihingare madeof ihefe lines; the fibi\s of the cocoa- 
tiut they nnke thread of, fuch as they ije to fallen to- 
gether the fevcral parts of their canoes ; the forms 
of which arc various, according to the ule to which they 
arc applied. TWeir filhing lines are clleemed the bell 
in the world, made of the bark of the Krowa, a kind of 
nettle which grows on the mountains ; they are llrong 
-enough to- hold the heavielt aiul \\\\)\\ vigorous lith, 
fuch as bonettos and albicorcs ; in Ihort, they are ex- 
tremely ingenious in every expedient for taking all kinds 

The tools which thcfc jicople make ufcof for build- 
ing houfe,';, conftruCting canoes, hewing ilones, and for 
felling, cleaving, carving, and polillting timber, con- 
fuU uf nothiiig more than an adze of llonc, and a chif- 

fel of hone, moll commonly that of a man's arm; and 
for a file or poll llier, they make ufe of a raf|)of coral 
and coral fand. The blulcs of their adzes are ex- 
tremely tougli, but not very hard, they make them of 
various lizes, tholij for felling w(X)d weigh fix or fcvcii 
pounds, anil others ^vhich are ufed for carving, only a 
lew ounces; they are obliged every minute to rtiarpen 
them on a (lone, which is always kept near them lc)r 
that piirpod'. The mod dillicult talk they meet w ith in 
the life of thefe tools, is the felling of a tree, which em- 
plo) s a great number of han<ls for lij\ eral days together. 
The tree which is in general \.\(i: is called Aoie, the 
(teiii of which is rtraight and lall. Some of their 
lin.ilier boats are made oi' the bread-fruit tree, which 
is wrought without much dilliculty, being of a light 
fpongy nature. Indead of planes they ufe their ail/.es 
with giea: ('exterity. Their canoes are all lliaped with 
the hand, the Indians not being acquainted with the 
method of warping a plank. 

Of thefe they have two kinds, one they call Ivahahs, 
the other Pahies ; the (iirmer is ufed for Ihort vo) ages 
at fei, and the latter (iir long ones. Thefe boats do 
not dilfer either in fhape or ii/e, but they arc in no 
degree pniportionate, being from (ixty to feventy feet 
m length, and not more than the thirtieth part in 
breadth. Some are employed in going from one ifland 
to anothi ", and others ufed for (ilhing. There is alfo 
the Ivahah, which ferves for war; thefe are by far the 
lop.gell, and the head and (lerii are conlid-rably above 
the body. 'I he("e Ivahahs are lallened together, fide 
Iv (ide, when they goto (c'a, atthc dillanreof a few leer, 
by liroiu; wooden jioles, which are laid at rofs them 
and i(jiji( d to each lide. A (lagc or platibrm is railed 
on the ("ore part, about ten or twelve feet long, upon 
which Hand the fighting men, whofe milFile weapons 
arening-> and (pears. Heneath thefe fhiges the rowers 
tit, who fupply the place of thofe who arc wounded, 
'i'he lulling Iv.ihahs are from thirty or fort) to ten feet 
in length, and thole for tiavellincr have a fmall houlii 
fixed on board, which is fallcned ujion the fore-parr, 
tiirihe better accommodation of pcifons of rank, who 
oi cups them both day and night. The Pahies dilfer 
alii) in li/.e. Icing (rom (ixty to feventy feet long, they 
are alfo very narrow, and are fometimes ufed for fight- 
ing, but eluetly t()r long voyages. In going from one 
illand lo another, they are out fometimes a month, and 
otten at fea a ti)rtnightor twenty days, and if they had 
convenience to llow more provilions, they could Hay 
out much longer. Thefe vell'els are very u('elul in land- 
ing, and [nitting olf liom the Ihore in a f irf, for by 
their j.aeat length and high (lern they landed dry, 
when the luideavour's boats could fcarcely land at 

Thev arc verv curious in the conflruclion of thefe 
boats, the chief parts or pieces whereof arc Ibrmed fe- 
parately without cither law, plane, chilfel, or any other 
iron tool, which renders their fabrication more (urprif- 
iilg and worthy obfervation. 'Ihefe parts being pre- 
pared, the keel is fixed upon 1- )cks, and the planks 
arc fupportcd with projis, till they arc fewedor joined 
together with (Irong plaited thongs, which are pidlc;d 
fevcral times through holes bored with a cb-idcl of bene 
fuch as they conmionly make ule of, and when linilhed, 
they are futliciently tight w ithout caulking. They keep 
thefe boats with great care in a kind ol llied, built on 
piir|K)le to contain them. 

.Vlr. Banks and Dr. Solander were at a lofs to find 
out their method of dividing time, they always made ufe 
of the tertii Malama, which lignities the moon ; when- 
ever they fpokc of time, cither pall or to come, they 
reckon thirteen of thcle moons, beginning again when 
they are expired. This proves that they have fome idea 
of the folar year J but thcfc gentlemen could not. dif- 
cover how they computed their months, to make thir- 
teen equal to the year, as they laid thefe months conlilt- 
ed of twenty-nihc days, one day in which the moon 
was invilible being included. They, however, knew 
the prevailing weather that was to be expeded, as well 
as the fruits which would be in feafon. As to the day, 
ihey divide it into twclv« equal parts,, fix of whicli be- 



Cnpt. C O () K 's VOYAGES 

C O M 1' L E T E. 


'. ! 


U i Pi 


1 ^. 

long to tlie day, and the other lix to the night. Wlun 
they niMiicratc, they reckon from one to ten, making 
\\l\- of thiir lingers, and changing hands, till they come 
to the number which they intended to exprels ; and 
joining exprcllive figiis to their vords, in the coiirfe 
of their ronverfuion. But they are not lo expert in 
niealuring diftances, for when they attempt (ieforiliing 
the fpace between one place ami another, they are ob- 
liged to cxprefj it by the time t''at would betaken in 
palling it. 

With regard to tlieir language, it is foft, as it a- 
lioiinds with vowels, and cafy to be pronouiu id i but 
\ers' few of their nouns or verbs being decliiuahle, it 
iinill confequently be rather mipcrfect. However, we 
tinind means to be UiUtualiy uniierllood without much 
dilliculty. 'I he Ibllow ing ipecimen will poilibly enable 
the reader to fonu fome notion of the language of thofe 

Aheine, /1 '.iom.m 

Aihoo, ,1 j^.iniiiii: 

Ainao, /.;<(>• dirt: 

Arec, .; il<i,;f 

Aouna, /o J.iy 

Ao)', ii.\iiir 

I'lahoo, il.v mfi 

Eawow, t':/i<)U 

I-'.ei, 10 mt 

{■'.c\ o, lo'ii you 

I'.moto, /o /'v 

I'.panoii, .» Jiutit 

I'pcenei, i7ii echo 

I'pthe, .; /'/wi; 

I'.iow roo, iht ht'itJ 

I luahiine, ,t :i;,V 

ItDjia, /i' f.iH 

Kipoo a nieeuihec, lJi■^'J"^- 

Mahana, if ./,jv 
NFai loowhai, Jiy 
Matau, /I'l-ryi-.i 
Matte roali, // J.c 
Masneence, I'ltidle 

Midee, a child 
Mutee, It kifi 
M>ty, ^'^■od 
Xeeheeo, i^ooA ui-^ht 
Oboboa, ti) vioyyo'c 
Oowhau, //),' //'/!;/>.( 
Ore' deliaiva, it /.iri'i- ii.iil 
Ore' ccteca, a ii'hill luiil 
Otaowa, \,-/hii!:iv 
Pa hie, ,1 /i,ip 
I'arawei, j j/jirt 
I'oa, <; iiiyh/ 
Toe, I'd)- riiij't 
Tmw, ,1 hujl'iiiid 
'rattatehommaniie maitai, 

n -'.'J >!,!i!iri\t p, lilt 
Teai .\ ''//,• 
Teine, ii /lo/l.'iy 
rix)ahiini', ,; /(ilr 
TocanalKH', mi ,iiij I 
loonoah, ,/ iii'ili III livjiin 
■J'umatau, ,i houuct 
W.ihoa, ]Wc 
W'.iow, /. 

Me\(H)00, //'(■ 'unh 

The nati\e> of this rountrv are fcKiom afllickd with 
an\ ilircal'ei except IbmetinKS anaccidtniai lit ol the 
cholic ; Init they are fubject to the eiilvpe!a>, .itteiukd 
with (Utancr)iis eruptions relrmbhn;' the le- 
profv ; and if they have it to am (imliiierabie degree, 
thcv are excliuieii trom f<H:iety and li\e alone, in a 
fiiiall hdufe in lome unfrequented pait of the illand. 
The management of the fu k belongs tu the priells, 
whole methoil of cure (.oiililVs gener.ill\ of pia\tr> and 
ceremonies, which are repeateil till they recover or 
die. ll the former happens, it is attributed to thiir 
mode of proieedingi it the patient dies, then they 
urge that the difeafe was incurable. 

■Jhe religion of thele illanders ajip<-ars to be very 
nulterious ; and as the language .adapted to it, was dit- 
1( rent from that which was fjKjken on other oc callous, 
we were not able to gain iMUch knowledge of it. Tu- 
pia, who g;i\e us all the inlormation that \»e got in re- 
gard to this particular, informed us, that his cotmtry- 
men imagined every thing in the creatmn to proceed 
fron) the coniiinction of two pcrfoni. One of thele 
two lurt (being the fupreme deity) they called Taroa- 
laihetoomo, and the other Tapapa ; and the sear 
which they called Tettowmatatavo, thev fujjjiofe to be 
the daughter of thcfe two. Thev alii) im.iginean in- 
terior fort of deities, know n by the name of I'^iluas, two 
ot whom, they fay, formerly inhiibited the earth, and 
they fujipofe the lirll man and woman deli ended 
tioiu them. Ihe Supreme Being they Ihlc " 'Ihe 
caufer of earthquakes;" but more frequently addrefs 
their prayers to Tane, whom they conceive to be a fon 
of the firll progenitors of nature. 'I'hey believe in the 
fxillcnccof the foul in a feparatc (late, and fupfwfe 
that there are twolituations diHlring in the degrees of 
happinefa, which they confidcr as receptailes fo^dil- 



Their notion is, that the chiefs and principal peoi)lr. 
will have the preference to thofe of lower ranks, roi 
as to their aiihons they cannot conceive them to inllii- 
encc their future (l.itc, as they believe the deity takes 
no cognizance of them. The oHice of pricO is here- 
ditary ; there arc feveral of them of all ranks : the 
chief is refjiedlcd next to their kings ; and they are in 
general fuperior to the natives, not only in jioint of di- 
vini- knowledge, but aifo in that of allronomy and na- 
vigation. Tliey arc not at all c tmci rned with the cere- 
mony of mariiage, which is only a limple.agiecment be- 
tween the man and the woman, and when they chufe to 
feparatc, the matter is accomplill cd with as little cerc- 
II ony as was thought net diary to bring them together. 
I'hefe people do not appear to worlliip image s of any 
kind; but they enter their Moia s with great awe and 
humility, their bodies hi ig uncovered to the waill 
w hen they bring their olKring to their altar. 

As to their lomi of government, there is a fort of fiib- 
onTination among them wl.i.h relemblc* the eail) llatc 
cf all the nations of Kiirope when iihder the feudal A- 
tcm, which rel'erved authoiit)' to a fmall number, put- 
ting the rell intircly in their power. The ranks of the 
people of this illand weretlicfe, I'.arec Kahie, lignifving 
a king or fupreme governor ; Kaiee, anlwering to the 
title of baron; Mannahoonics, to that of v.illal; and 
I'oiitou, under which name wasitKludcd the lowed 
orders of the people, fueh .n.s are called villains accord- 
ing to the old law term. The I'.arce Uahie, of v hi( h 
iheie are two here, one belonging to c.n h jieninfuia, 
had great rclpeCt Ihewn them In all rinks. The 
l-'.aiees are lords of one or more of the dillricts, into 
which (hefe goviinmeiits arc diviikd j and tluy iepa-- 
rate their territories into lots, whii h are given amoiij^; 
the MannalKKinics, whorefpectivdy lultivate the lluic 
that they hold under the baron. Hut they are only 
nominal cultivators j this, as well as all other lalxjiioiii 
work, being done by the 'I'oiitou, or lower clafs of the 
pK)]ile. 'Ihe fovereign, or I'iane Rahie, and the baron, 
or I'jiee, are fucceeded in titles anil honours by their 
1 liildien, as fiK)n as they are born ; but their eltates re- 
main in their poUeirioii, and fubject to the management 
of their parents. I-.ven diltrict under the command 
ot an |-'«irie tiirni'flus a proportionate numlK-r of light- 
ing men, t()r the detence of the conunon caule, in cali: 
ot a general attack; and thev are all fubjcCt to the 
command ol the l-'aree Kahie. Their w capons conlift of 
llmgs, in the ufe of which they are very dextrous, and 
ot long ( lubs remarkably hard, with which they tight 
obllinately and < ruelly, giving no ijuarter to ihcir 
enemies in time ot battle. 

While we Haul atOtaheitc, there was a good under- 
Ifanding betwein the Rirees of the iwo peninfulas, 
though it feems that the I'.;ireeof Tearrebau called hiiii- 
lilf kingof the whole ifland ; this was a mere nominal 
claim, and was conlidered as liich by the inhabitants. 
'I'here is not any thing among them fubltituted tiir 
money, or a general medium by whu h every iltlirabic 
object may be i>urehafed or proi iireil ; neither tan nny 
|)ermanent gcKKl be oiMained by li>rce or traud. The 
gene lid commerce with women fets alide almolWvery 
excitement to commit adultery. In a word, in a go- 
vernment fo little |x)lillic-d, though dilhilniti\e nil- 
tice cannot be regularly adminiltered ; as, at the fame 
time, there can be but few crimes wherion to exercile 
it, the want of this jiillice is not fo feverel) felt as m 
more civilized focietits. 

S<x)n after our arrival at this ifl.and, we wcreap- 
prifed of the natives having the I'reiich'e among 
them. The illanders called it by a name expielliNe ot 
its ttlecls, obferving that the hair and nails of thofe 
who were firll inlecled by it, fell olf, and the lli tli 
rotted from the bones, while their countrymen, and 
even nearcfl relations, who were unaflected, were li» 
much terrified at its fymptoms, that the unhappy fuf- 
ferer was often lorlaken by them, and kit to pcrifli in 
thcinort ho^rlble conditions. 

Thus have we given an accurate, full, and coinjilete 
dcfcrij)Uon of the illand in its prefent Itatc ; wc lliall 
only add a few rciuarks, whidi wc apprehend may be 


f i|i;il ptimlf. 
nuik^. f'oi 
tin to iiiHu- 
• ik-ity takes 
-icll is hcre- 
1 laiikH : the 
I they arc in 
1 point of di- 
loniy and na- 
.ith thi- ccic- 
i^icciutnt bc- 
thcy Lhiill-to 
;is little ccic- 
tiu together, 
napes lit' any 
;rfat avc and 
to the wuill 

i a fort of fub- 
:hc carl) llatc 
the feudal fy- 
nuinber, put- 
ranks of the 
lie, fijj;nifyinn 
wcnng to the 
if \allal ; and 
:d the l()v\ell^ 
Mains actord- 
lio, of V hii :h 
ih peninfula, 
rinks. 'Ihe 
dillncts, into 
nd they lepa- 
giscn ainonj; 
kutc the lliavc 
they are only 
iihir laliorioui 
er clafs ot the 
iiid the baron, 
lours by their 
heir ellatcs re- 
e nianapcinent 
the connnand 
nnlKT of hght- 
caulc, in eali: 
fubjeCt to the 
iponsconfiH of 
liextroiis, and 
hieh they fight 
jrcer to their 

a good under- 
go peninfulas, 
lau (ailed hiin- 
inere nominal 
he inhabitants. 
IbbHituted lor 
every dtlirahlc 
leitlur ean any 
r traud. 'I'hc 
lIc alniolV every 
Morii, in a go- 
liltribiitive |u)- 
as, at the fame 
reon to exereile 
verd) felt as in 

d, «e ucre ap- 
1 dileafe among 
ne expitirivc ot 
i nails of tliofc 
Y, and the Ih Ih 
Hintrynicn, and 
fleeted, were li> 
he vinhappy fuf- 
klt to pcrifli in 

11, and complete 
: llatc; wc Ihall 
prthcnd may be 

COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE— for making Difcoveriet in the Souf/j St'tts & Round the IVor!,l. ag 

of 'ife to fiich gentlomrn in the navy, who niay hcrc- 
attcr have it in their orders to touch at the faino. As 
this i Hand can be life ful only by liip|)lying llii[is with 
refrclhinents in their pall'ige through thefe fcas, it 
might be made to anf«er fully this important t'nil ; I-'.u- 
ropein cattle, plants, garden ftulf, and the molt 
ulet'al vegetables, would iloiibtlefi tlourilh in fo rich 
a foil. I'hc eliniate is remarkably fine, the heat is 
not troableloinc, nor do the winds blo'.v conllantly from 
the call. We had frequt ntly a frelh gale from the 
i». VV. fomctimes, though very feklnm, from the N. W. 
We Ivarni from 'I'upii, that foiith wellerly winds pre- 
vmX in October, Novembei' and iJicember, and we hav 

noiloiibr but ilrs is true. A: the time the \\inils irc 
v.uiah'c, they arc ;\Uvay.s aeeompanieil In a fuell from 
the S. W. or W. S. W. The liinic iVell nap|icns on ;t 
calm, and when the atinili>liere is loaded wiih < loudj, 
which Ihews the wind-, arc variable, or\>eilerly 
out ar fca, for with a trade wind the wether is clear. 
In thcfc parts the trade w ind does not extrnd thither t(i 
the fouth than twenty degrees, beyond which we f.'cnc- 
rally found a (;;\le from the wellAard. The tldci Ivrc 
are perhaps ;'.s iiiconfiilciableasin any part of the ..orld. 
A fouth or fiiithby well moon makes high water in the 
harbour of M.uavai, and its perpendicular height fcl- 
dom exceeds ten or twelve iiichci. 


-t ii '•; -!- J..-..!-- JU ?^a- 



me mcimiy.: cf iWlih- a':J t>i<llii- f,rvi(i:< nfC.apl. Jtimrs C'iok,hnr intvciliici'd tU ibr vrqtuj} cfii j^ycat rtvnl'irofouririy 
/iiiimrjiis );\tJm — TIjc i.nJfavwr omtiimrs hryvm^^r — A-'////; ihr :jl,iiiih In ihr itnjiblmyhroJc.f OUihntt'—A» lUcouiit 
of / tiiiitlnilf, nml rf-Mrhnt f.iytinilitrs yrldtnr In lie iiilijlihiii/s — Thrpiiftiiff "/' the EnJniv'iy 'yomOltyjiib to 
Nrrv '/.i\tLvh'. — Eiviit.fii r,n'!)^ nibfiyr, ivi.l iiii-iilcil! r.:hily the Jhtp :i.\i.f in Pnvcyly Hii\ — This aiul ibr adjnrrul auiiiyy 
ili;fiyi/i\l — liscnyjhms I) Qipr i'lnii.iiiJ^.iii', iiii.l yrltnii to To'di^a — Tbr inbcthilants diftyihcil, and a in: r.iiiir op ■ii.hat 
hiif'fnitd iibili- :;■(■ .vvji- m tbnl p,7yl «/' lb- roii/i — 7'/v'^c fhm Tofdi^n to iXbyany bay — Inadents tbitl happnird oit 
lo.!>\i Ibr i',:id'\Kwy ,ind iilboy — .7 dtjh-iplioii of tbe ciuiiiyy and its foytifird lilL^'t's — '^'br bii/s frim Mifinyy L'lty to 
Ibr lliv r>f fjlvids — ,7 drfinpti"'! nfthr liiduins ontbr hduks vf'ibr KivryTbamrs-^.lnd of tbr limkr /kit t;ro;w tbryr — 
lnlcyvirivs'<vid Jkiymij/.:-! ziitbtbr luitiws on anijl.iiid, and on d.ftynit ji.irts rf tbe ro.ijl — Rmr^r Jimi tbe B.iyof IjLvtds 
round Xoytb (,\ipr. 

We beg the public will pardon the follow ing iligrellion, 
ns wc give in this part of our work the Uillowing 
memoirs of C:ipt. Cook's liie and public fcrvices, at 
the i)arti( ular rei|ue(l of a great number of our nu- 
merous Siil>fcnbers, who\ii;li to be giatifii'd im- 
iiu'diiteU- with a'nhcnrir inlbrmation rclpeeling this 
mod celebrated Navigator. 

NOtwithflanding the ignorant anirrioiv. follered on 
the public by editors ofother piilili( utions ot the 
kind, wc have authority to fiy (the Rev. Mr. (irei'.liJc's 
telldicatcbcing intheiioirellionof (nirpub!'lhcr}that the 
Iitc Japt. James L'iH)k wa> born at Marton, in I lie North 

Killing of Viiiklliire, on l^ 

'j, I7:S. I lis father. 

who was a day labourer (a eireunillarue by nomean'- 
to thedifgrace I'Ui I'linourof our unparalli-led voyager) 
in that village, put his fon at an early age apprentice to 
a Ihop-kerper in a neighbouring ti)wn. 

I lis natural mclin.iiion not having been confultcil on 
this occallon, he loon quitted the i r.iiucr from dilguil, 
and bounvl himlelt (or nine \ears, to the mailer of a 
vcllel in the Cioal-tradc. At the breaking out of the 
war in 175;, being impiefled, he entered into the king's 
fcrvire, on board the I'lagle, at that rime commanded 
by Capt. I lame.-, and altcrwanl by Sir Hugh I'aliifrr, 
w ho foon difcovcr d his merit, and introduced him on 
the (.luartcr-tletk 

In the year 1758, we find him mafter of the Nor- 
thumberland, the llag Ihipol Lord L'olvillc, who had 
then the command of the fjuadron Uationcd on the 
coail of America. It was here, as he has often been 
heard fay, that, during a hard winter, hc lirll read 
Euclid, and applied himfclt' to the lUidy of mathe- 
matics and aOrononiy, without any other aflitlanee, 
than what a few books, and his own indtilhy alfordal 
him. At the fiime time, that he thus found means to 
cultivate a.nd improve his luind, and to fuppK the de- 
ficiencies of an early education, he w.;«engaged in moll 
nfthcbufy and active fccne.s of the war in America. 
At the liege of Qiiebcc, Sir Charles Saunilers commit, 
ted to his charge the execution of fcrvices, of the lirll 
iiiipoitance in the naval departnunt. He piloted the 
boats to the attack of Montmorency ; conducted the 
embarkation to the {Iciglits of Abraham, examined the 
palTagc, and laid buoys for the lecurity of the larue 
Ihips in proceeding up the river. The courage and 
addrcfs with which lie acquitted himfelf in thefe 
Ic'rviccs, gained hmi the warm fricndtliip ofSir Charles 
iaundcrs and Lord Colvijie. w ho contmued to patronize 

him during the rcfl of their I've.s, with tlic greatell 
Zeal and atl'ection. At the conelulioii ot' the war, he 
was apj)ointcd, through the recommeniiation of L(jrd 
Colville, and Sir Hugh Pallifer, to furvcy the Ciull'of 
St. Lawrence, and the coads of Newliiundland. In 
this employment he continued till the year I7C)7. when 
he was fixed on by Sir Kduard llawkc, tocommand art 
ex[)evlition (being his firlUoy.-igewh.iehweare nowabout 
relating) to the South Seas ; ti)r the purpofe ot Obferv- 
mg the tiantir of \'enus, and prolecuting dUcovcries in 
that part (;f the globe. 

1 rom this perioil, as his fervicos incrcafcd in ufefi.U 
net's to the public, lb his reputation propornonably ad- 
vanced to a height too great to be affeetcd by our j-'a- 
neguic. liukcil, he ajipcars to have been mofl emi- 
nently anil peculiarly qualified for this fpecies of cntcr- 
[)ri/t'. 1 lie carlied habits of his life, the rour.'e of 
his lervi' es, and the conllant appliiation ui his nn'nd, 
till conlj)iivd to lit him lor it, and gave him a d-'grec 
ol proieiliunal knowledge, which tails to the lot of 
very feve. 

'I he C'lntlittition of his body was robufl. inured to 
labour, :vid ( apable of undeigoing the fcveiell hard- 
ihips. His lloniaeh bore, without dithculiy, the 
coarfcfl and moll unL.';iatetul food, indeed, temperance 
in him wa?. fcaicily a virtue; fo great was the indif- 
ference V. irh vdiicli he fubmiited to every kind offelt- 
denial. I he quahric; of hi-, mind were of the I'ame 
hardy, vigorous kind with thole of his Hi 5 
underllan.ling was Urong and perfpicacious. His 
judgemeiK, in whatever relalcvl to the fervici-,-, lu' was 
engaged m, quick and furci His dcfigns were bold 
and manlv ; and both in the concc(Hion, and in the 
mode of execution, bore evident marks of a great ori- 
ginal genius. His cour.'.ge was cool and determined, 
and aceompaniid w ith an admirable inelence of mind 
in th'.' moment of danger. I iis manners were plain 
and unitt'ected. His temjier might perhaps havx'bccn 
julUy binned, ai fuhjtvt to halliiiefs and pallion, had 
not thefe been difarmed by a difpolition bcnevcleni: 
and humane. 

Such were the outlines of Capt. Cook's chancier j 
bi't Its moll ditlingtiilhi.ig feature was, that unremit- 
ting perfeveranec in the purfuit of his object, which 
wafe not only I'uperior to the oppotition of dangers,' 
and the pl-cHure of hardlhiiis, but even eJicnipt from 
the H ant of ordinary relaxation: During the three long 
and tedious voy;igcs in which he was engaged, hiscager- 
nefs and activity were never in the Icalt abated. No 
incidental temptation could detain him for a moment, 
even thofc intervals of recreation, which fontctirnes un- 
H avoidably 


Capt. C O O K s V () Y A CJ E S C O M P L K T E. 


i, 1'! 


avoiilabljr Dccurrtd, anil were Iwikcil lor by us with a 
longinf;, that juTlbiin «ho havi* cxpciiinii'ii the t'a- 
ti^V'i"> "f fiTvice, will icailily (.xcud', wtrt fiihiuittcil 
to hv him with a cirtnii^ inip;itii.-ncc, wluncvcr tlu'y 
roiilil nut ho rinpl(i\al in iniikiiij; further provilion li)r 
the more pnilci iition ol his iKli^;n'*. 

It is not 11 ccllarN , Ikiv, to enumerate the purfirii- 
lar inllaiu es in whii h thcfe <)\i.t!ities weie ilil'pliviil, 
tliiring the j^reat and imjiirtant emer|)ri/A . in wliirh 
he was enf^ageil. We lliall contetu oiirlVlves wiih 
llatinjT ihe refiilt of thole I'erviies, iiiuler ihe two prinii- 
pal heails to wliich they may he relerreil, tliol'e ot Veo- 
jjraphv aiul navij'alioi), platinj; each in a liparate anil 
dillinct point of .ieu. 

Ferhajw no Ic lem e ever receivtil pjieater ntlditions 
frnii\ tile lahoiii'. of a rnii.'le man, than neo^rapliy has 
done t'loiii thnl'i' of Captain Cook. In his lirll voav;^e 
to the Smith Seas, he tlil'eo\iiul the Society lllaiuls ; 
deteimliuil tin- iiifulariiy of New /i.alaiul; difroscriil 
the llraits which feparate tic tuo illaiuls and are 
callnl alter hi'- name, and mado a i onipKir fm u\ of 
both. I le altti wards explored the ealtern eoall of New 
Holland, hitherto unknown, an extent of tuenty-leven 
»lij;rxes of latitude, or upwards of two thoiiiiind miles. 

In his feeond expedition round the world, he re- 
folved the tjieai proliUin ot'a fuiiihern continent j hav- 
iiii; traverled that luniilpluie lietv.ien the latituiles of 
40 and 70 decrees, in Inch a maniur, as not to leave a 
pollihilitc ol it- exillei.i e, unlif-- luar thepde, and out 
of the reach of na\ ij;ation. Diirin;; this \.) .ij^e, he 
difeovcrtd New Calidonui, the lart;ill illand in the 
Southern I'acilie, (x^cpt N'e^^ /i iland ; the ill uid ol 
Creorj^ia, and an unknow n 1 oall, w hu h he naiiu d Sand- 
wich Land, the ihiile of ihe fi utlxrn hcmifpl ere 1 and 
lia\iiK; twice vilitcd the tiopical leas, he llttled the 
ntuation* of the old, and maiie feveral new ilifcoveries, 
which Ihall likewife all he partic ularivcd in the follow- 
in;:; llierts. 

I)cii till, third voMjjc- (a full account of which wc 
fliall alio i^ivi- in this work) is dillinj;uillu d In the ex- 
t(i\i and importance of its dil' o\ cries, lie lide; le\eral 
fmaller illaiicK in the Southern I'ai die, he difcovered to 
the north of the cciuincviial line, the ^roupc- called the 
Sandwi'h illands-, whuli, from thctr lituations and 
productions, hid lairc-r for Ix-coiuiii;; an oh;ei.t of cc^n- 
fcciuence, in tlu lylU-m of hairopean na\i^ .tiion, than 
any other difcovcic in the South .Sea. 1 Ic afterward* 
ex|)lorcd what had hitherto remained unknown of the 
wclleni coall of .Ameiica, from the latitude of .\ ^ 
to -o dig. rvorth, containiii;; an extent of ilirce thou- 
fand five hundred milci; afiertained the proximity of 
the two great c ontjjunt-. of Alia and America ; palled 
the lliri|;hts between them, and fiir\e\ed the c oall on 
each lide, to loch a hei;;ht of northern latitiule, as to 
deiiionllrate the impracti< ahility ol a palla^^e in that 
hemilphere, from the Atl.intic into the I'acilic Ocean, 
Cither by an callern or a wellcrn c o rfe. In Ihort, il we 
•xcept the lea of Amur, and the Japancfe .\ichipe- 
lago, which Hill remain but im])\ known ro lai- 
ropcans, he has toniplcted the hydrography of the ha- 
biiable globe. 

In the profecution of his third \oyaf!;c this I'rcat man 
met with his unfortunate death, the |)artKi:lars pre- 
ceding which we think it necellary here to relate. 

On Friday, leb. 12, 1779, rcturnint^ to Knrakakooa 
Bay, and comin^^ to anchor, we were liirpri/.ed to find 
our reception very dillerent from what it had been on 
our firl^ arrival; no fliouts, no biilUe. no (onfulion, 
but a folitary bay, with only here and there a canoe 
dealing clofe along the lliore. The impiilfe of ciiri- 
ofity, which had before operated to fo great a degree, 
might now indeed be fiippofed to have ceafed ; but the 
hofpitable treatment we had invariably met with, and 
the friendly footing on which we parted gave us fome 
reafon to exfKjtfi that they would again have liocked 
about us with great joy on our return. 

VVc were forming variou.s conjectures, upon the oc- 
cafion of this extraordinary a|)pcarance, when our 

anxiety was at length relieveil by the return of a l»oiu» 
which had been fcnt on lliore, and hrou/i;ht us wonl. 
that Terreeoboo was abfciu, and hud Icli the bay under 
the taboo. 'I'hough this account appear" 1 verv fati»- 
llic'lory to moll of us, yet others wc )pinion, or 

rather, perhaps, ha\e Leen led by fu .t events ro 

iniajriiu', that there was (omtrhing at this lime very 
liilpic ious in the behaviour of the natives; and that 
the interdiction ol all inteicoiirfe with us on prei'mc 
of the king's abltnce, was only to give him time in 
confult with his chiefs, in what manner it iiii'dit lie 
proper to treat us. Whether tlufe fufpicions wtrc 
well-ti)imded, or the actitiint given by the nativix wa« 
the tiiith, we were neverahle to ale ertain. lor thi'iigh 
it is not iinprobahlc that our Hidden return, fin \ihkh 
thev could Ice no .ipparcnt caiile, and the iMclf.iy of 
which (the Kcf.ilutioii being damaged in a gale j wc 
alitivtards found it very diihciih to make (he ni coin, 
pre hend, ini;iht 01 ■ aliem fome alami j yet the unluf- 
pic :ous conduct of rtrfceobco, who on hi^ fuppofid 
arrival, the next iiioniiiig, came iniu'cdiate ly to vdit 
Captain Cook, and the eonfecjuent reliiin of the na- 
tives to their :oinier friendly interceiurle v. iih us, 
are llrong proof;, that they nc'ither meant, ruir apprt- 
lundccl any change of coiiekui. 

In fupport of this opinion, we may add the account 
of anotiier accident piccilVly of the fame kind, which 
happened to us on our lirlr vilit, the day before the 
arrival of the king. .\ native had fold a hog on board 
the Refolution, and taken the price agreed on, when 
I'.trce;i pallin-; by, advifed the man not to part wirh 
the ho ;, witheuit an advanced piii e. I or tln^, he was 
ll.arpiv fpoken to, and pulliccl away ; and the taboo 
being foon alter laid on the bay, we h;>d at lirll no 
doubt, but that it was in idnleeitience e)f the olfencc 
given to the chief, liotli thefe accidents lerve to Ihevv, 
how very diiliiult it is to draw any cert aiii eeuululion 
liom the actions tif peoplewith whole well 
a ; langu.ige, we are fo imperfectiv ac iiiiainte d; at the 
f.uiie time, leime idea iinv be loinicil lioiu tlxin of 
the diiticiiltic';, at tl 'iril view, perhaps, not verv ap- 
parent, which tho' to eiueiunter, wh.o in all tlieir 
tranlactici'i'i with 'i.mgers, have to lUcr their 
eoiirle.- amidll fo . .. cinceitainrv, where a triHing 
error m ly be attended with eve 11 the meill fatal eoiifc- 
ejueni cs. I linviver true or taHethtle cc)niectuie< tuajr 
lie, things went on in their ufiial ciuitl coiirfc till Sa- 
turday afternoon he! .uary 1 [, 1771^. 

Toward the evening of that day, the olTicer who 
couuiianded the watering party of the Difcoverv, can)e 
to inform us, that feveral chiefs hail alleiiiblixl M the 
well mar the beach chiving away the natives, whom lie 
had hireil to allill the failors in rolling elown the i alkj 
to the lliore. I le toKI us, at the lame time, that he 
thought their behaviour extremely fufpicions. and th.U 
they meant to give' him (iime farther dillurbance. At 
his rec]Uill thcielcpre a marine was lent along with hitn, 
but was ruH'ered only to take- his lide arms. In a lliori 
time the olliccr rctuined, and on his faying that the 
illanders had armed theii'lelves with llones, and were 
grown very tumiikuoiis, Mr. King went to the f|>oc 
attended by a marine with his muliiuet. Seeing them 
approach, thc-y threw away thc-ir Hones, aiid, on their 
fpeaking to fome of the chiefs, the mob were driven 
away, and thole who chofe it, were fullered to aflill in 
lilhng the calks. 1 laving left things ciuiet heir, Mr. 
King went to meet Cain. CiK>k. who was coming on 
Ihore in the jiinnace. Mr. King relaicil to him what had 
jull iriU'ed, and he ordered .Mr. King, in cafe of their 
beginning to throw Hones, or behave infolcntly, imme- 
eliatcK to lire a ball at the olienders. Mr. King ac- 
cordingly gave orders to the corporal to have the piercs 
oltheexntinels loaded with ball, inllrad of fmall Ihor. 

Soon after our return to the tents, we were alarmed by 
a continued lire of mulijuets from the Difcoverv', which 
wc oblcrved to be directed at a canoe, that we law padd- 
ling toward the lliore in great halle, purlued by one of 
our fmall boats. We immediately concluded, that the 
liring was in confequence of fome theft, and Captain 
Cook ordered Mr. King to fc)llovv him w ich a ma- 

COOK'S FIRST VOYACIi — for inakiiiR Difcovcric; in the Sou f/j St;n fc Round the ff^orU. m 

C (IS >kul'(li 

J Imy iiiidir 

very I'.ttis- 

>pini(in, or 

.t (.Afiits ro 

time MTV 

I ; unii 

)ii picii'm c 

lini tiuu' (i> 

t iiii;i,lit lie 

lions were 

n;Ui\(S \\:\t 

lor iliiiij'h 

, (ill i\ hkh 

iMtlHiy «){■ 

;i !.';;ili') wc 

thi n\ tiiin- 

thc imlur- 

li.s I'lippolld 

Illy to \A\t 

I ot' tin- na- 

V V. ill* us, 

nor iH^iirt- 

tlic aril Hint 
kiiiit, whiih 
y iK'liiM' ihc 
n'^ (in hiianJ 
li (in, wlu-ti 

|);irt wi:h 
tins, he was 

1 tliL- t;iboo 
.1 at lirll no 
■ tlif olVfncc 
■r\t to IhfW, 
n ('(Uu tiilioi) 

IPMW, as Hill 

\iii<; at ihc 

iini ilvin of 

.not \irv ap- 

in all ilu-ir 

(U-ir their 

a trilling 

I'atal i-onfc- 

iiiic^ may 

iirll' till Si«- 

olTicrr w1k> 

iviTv, ( an)C 

hlni .•« the 

J, whom he 

n the lalks 

nio, that he 

UPS, and that 

hamr. At 

ig with him. 

In a llioft 

n;^ that the 

>, anil were 

to the l"|>oC 

Sccin;; thi-ni 

1, on thi-ir 
were ilrivcn 
1 toa'lid ill 
t litre, Mr. 

loniing on 
111 what hail 
I all.: of tliirir 
ntly, ininiiv 
r. Kin;;; ai^- 
vc the pitcct 
fmall Ihot. 
ovcry, which 

f law pailii- 
i\l by one of 
led, that the 
and Captaia 
Mirij a ma- 
rl no 

rinc ariiKil, and to inilia\(uir to lii/c [lie pi'oplc .i. 
they lamc on lliorc. Artindinjrly tlu-y ran toward the 
place where wc liippolid the canoe would land, luit 
were too late, the people having iiuiitid it, and made 
ihtir e(l.a|)e into the country hctine their arrival. 

Capt. Cook and Mr. King were at this time 
ignorant that the' goods had heen already relhued, and 
as they thought it probable, Iroiii the circiimllances 
they had at lirlt ohlerved, that they mij'.lit be oC im- 
portance, were unwilling to reliiniuilli their lio|)es of 
recovering them, liavnig therelore iiiiiuired ot the 
niitives which w.i\ the people had tied, they li)llo\ii\l 
them till it was near darlv, when judging thenilelves 
to be about three miles liom the tcllt^, and furpeelin;', 
that the nati\es, who litiiiiiiuly enimuaged them in 
the purfiiit, wereamiiling them with I'alle informalion, 
they thought it in vain lo continue their fearth any 
longer, and returned to the be iih. 

During their abfence, a ■.lillerence of a more ferious 
and unpleafant nature had ha|)penedi the ollicer who 
luul been lent in the liuall boat, and wai returning on 
hoard with the goods which had been lellored, obferv- 
ing Capt. Cook and Mr. King uigaged in the 
purl'uit ol theolVenders, thought it his duty to fei'/.e the 
i:anoe, which was left drawn up on the lliore. Un- 
fortunately this canoe belonged to I'aicea, who arriv- 
ing at the fame moiiieir froiii on board the Difc()\ery, 
claimed Ins pro|Hrty with tiianr pKitellaiions cf his 
innocemei the ollicer refuliiig to giu' it u[), and bjing 
joined by the crew ot i!ie pinnaie, wiiii h was waiting 
fir Capt. Cook, a fi ullle eiifued, in \'. hich I'arcea was 
knocked down by a violent blow on the head with an 
«ar: the natives who were collected about the fpot, and 
liad hitherto been peaceable (pivl.itors, immediately 
;ittacked our people with fu'.h a lliower of llones, as 
forced them to leireat with great precipit iii< n and 
fwiiiioll to a rock at foine dillance from the Ihore. 
The pinnai cw.i^ iniinediatelyiaiifacked by the illandeis, 
and, but for the timely intir|o:i[i<>n ol I'arcea, who 
feenied to have recosered fio' 'ic blm^, and liuMit it 
at the fame inllant, wouM fmiii have been entirely de- 
niolitlied. Having driN.'n away the croud, he made 
ligns to our people, that they might come and take 
polUHion ot the pinnace, and that he would endeavour 
to get b.iv k the things which had been taken out 
of it. .Alter their depariure he lollowed them in his 
ranoe, with a midllii|)". cip and Umie other trif- 
ling aiiicks of tin pluiuler, and, wiih much apparent 
eoiuernal what happened, as hcalked if the Onmo 
would kill him, and whether he would permit him to 
come on board the next dx.^ On bi :ng alliircd that he 
Ihould be well rei eived, he |oincd noles(as their cultoin 
is) with the ollicers in lokeii of liiendllup, and paddled 
over to the vilkigi of Kow io.\,i. 

When Capt. Cinik inlormed of what had palled 
heexprelled nun h unealinels at it, and in returning on 
hoard, laid, '• 1 am afraid that tliife pcoj.le will oblige 
nietoufe fome violent nieafuies, for they mull not be 
left to imagine that thi y have gained an advantage over 
US;" however, as it was too late to t.ike any lU-ps thi.i 
evening, he contented himfelf with giving iiiders, that 
every man and woman of the illand on lioard lliould 
be immediately turned out of the lliip. As foon .is this 
order was executed, Mr. King returned on lliote, and 
our former confidence in the natives being now much 
abated by the events ot' the day, he polled a double 
guard on the Moral, with orders to c.ill him if they 
law any men lurking about the beach. At about 
eleven o'clock, five illanders were obferved cree|)ing 
round the bottom of the Moral ; they feenied very cau- 
tious in appro.-iching us, and, at lall linding thenilelves 
difcovcred, retired out of light. Al)out midnight, one 
of them venturing dole uj) to theobfervatory, the cen- 
tinal fired over him, on which the men tied, and we 
palled the remainder of the night without farther dif- 

Sunday morning, Feb. 14, 177.). at day break Mr. 
King went on board the Rifoliition for the 'lime- 
Keeper, and in his way was hailed by the Difcovery, 
and informed, that their cutter had been llolen during 
the night, from the buoy where it was niooied. 

W hill he airiMd on board, he liiiiiiil the in.uines 
arming, and Capt. Cook loading his double barrelle I 
gun. Whiltl he was nlaiing to him what had liaj)- 
pened in the night, he interrupted Mr. King with 
lome eagernefs, and aciiuainted him with the lof* 
of the Difcovery's ( utter, and with the preparatiom 
he was making for itv recovery. It had been his iil'ial 
praOiice, whenever any thing of (■onle>]uence was loll, 
at any of the illands in this ocean, to get the king or 
li)me of the pi im ipal I'.ivei on boaiil, and lokrentluni 
as hollagcs till it was iclJond. This method, which 
had been always attended with fuiceH, he meant tu 
pill file on the prefeiit occalion ; and at the fame time, 
had given orilers to Hop all the canoei that tlioulil 
atiiiiipt to leave the bay, with an intention of fiizing 
and dellroying them if he could nor recover the cutter 
by peaceable means. Acconlin}.ily the boats of both 
lliipi, well manned and armed, were Ihitioned acrof* 
the bay; and, before Mr. King left the (liip, fome 
great guns had been fired at two large canoes that were 
attempting to make their efcajie. 

It was between feveit and eight o'cloi k when Capr. 
Cook and Vlr. King quitted the Iliip toi'cther, 
Capt. Cook in the pinnace, having Mr. Phill'ps and 
nine marines with him, and Mr. King in the 
fmall I oat. 'llie liiH oniiis Mr. King received 
from him were, to quiet the minds of the natives on 
his lide of the ba\, by allliiiiig them thry lliould not 
be hurt ; to keep his people tojai'ier, and to be on 
his guard. They then parted, the captain wen: ro- 
\',ards Kowrowa, where the king rclided, ard Mr. 
King pioceeded to the hiaih. Mr. King's M\ 
care on g"ing alliore, was to give llrict order* to the 
marines to remain within the tent, to load their pieces 
with ball, and not to quit tl.eir arms. .Mterwards he 
took a walk to the hiiis of old Kaoo and the priel's, 
.ind t \[ laiiud to them as well as he could, the obieot 
ot the holHle preparations wliich had exceedin ;ly 
alarnud ilieiii. 

1 le tiitind that they ha. I aln'.^dy heard of the cut- 
ter's being llolen. and alHire.i them, that though Capt. 
Cook was relobed to recover it and to piinilli the au- 
thors of the theft, \ei that they and the people of the 
village on our lide, need not be under the fiiiallell ap- 
prehenlion of fuliiring any evil from us. He delired 
the prietls to cvplain tills to the [leople and to tell them 
not to be alarmed, but to continue peaceable and quiet. 
Kaoo alkedliim w ith great earncll nefs, it' ferret iiboowa.s 
to be hurt.' 1 le aliinid him he was not, and both heand 
the rell of his bnthrcn feeincd much fatislied with 
this aHiir.mce. 

In the mean time Capt. Cook, having called off the 
launch which was ttationed at the north point of the 
Iwy, and taken it along' w ith him proceeded lo Kow- 
rowa, and landed witli the lieutenant and nine marines. 
I le immediately marched into the village, where he 
was received with the ufual marks of rel"|iect, the peo- 
ple prollraiiiig themfelves betiue him, and bringing 
iheirac'ulloiiied oU'erings of fmall hogs. I'inding that 
there was no fufpicion ot his delign, his next llcpwas 
to inquire tiir I'lrreeoboo and the two boys his fons, 
who had been his conlhmt guells on board the Refolu- 
tion. In a lliort time the ooys returned, along with 
the natives who had been lent in fcarch of them, and 
immediately led Capt. Cook to the houfe where the 
king had llept. Thc\ found the old man jult awake 
from tlcep, and,at"tera Ihort ccnvcrfation about the lofs 
of the cutter, from which Capt Cook was convinced 
that he was in no wife privy to it, he invited l-.'in to 
return in the boat and fpend the day on board the 
Kcfolution. To this propofal the king readily con- 
fented,and immediately got up to accompany him. 

'ihings were in this profperous train, the twoboysbe- 
ing already in the pinnace, and the reft of theparty having 
advanced near the water-lidc, when an elderly woman 
called Kance-kabarcea, the mother of the boys, and one 
of the king's favourite wives came after him, and with 
many tears and entreaties, bcfought him not to go on 
board. At the fame time two chiefs who came along 
with her laid hold of him, and infifting that he fhoul? 
vgo no farther, forced hiiu to lit down. The natives. 



Capt. C O O K's 


■:■ ,%,:! 


y li 

who were collecting in prodigious numbers along the 
fliorc, and had probablv hxw ilarmcd by the firing of 
the great guns, and the appearances of hoftility i \ the 
bay, began to throng round Captain Cook and their 
king. In this fuuation, the lieutenant of nianius, ob- 
fcrving that his men wen' huddled Clofe together in the 
crowd, and thus incapable ofuling their arms, if any 
occafionlhould reei'iiire it, propofed to the captain, to 
draw thtni up along th< ;k», dofe to the ^^ater'.^ 
edge; and the crowd rea.i..^ making way for them to 
pafi, thev weredrawn \.\(< in a line, at the ilillance of 
about thirty yards from the place Mhere the king was 

All this time the old king remained on tlie ground, 
\u:h the ftrongell marks of terror and dejection in his 
countenance ; Captain L:i(ik, not willing to abandon 
ti\c objecl: for which he had come on Ihore, continuing 
to urge him. in the niofl' prclTing manner, to ]iroceeii; 
'vhiirt, on tlie other hand, whenever t!u' king appeared 
inclined to follow him, the ihiet.v who Itood round 
him, imcrpofcd. at full with jirayers aiul entrjaiies, 
but afterwari.1. having rccciufc to toice and violence, 
inlifled on his wluie he was. Caiuiin Cook 
therefore fimiing, tliat the al.irm had fpicaj lo'i gene- 
lallv. ard tliat it w i^ in vain to think any long r ot 
getting him olf, without bloodllicd, at laH gave up 
the point ; obferving to Mi-. Phillips, that it would be 
impoffiblc ti) compel him to go on hoard, with.out the 
rilk of killing a jMcat number ot' the inhabitants. 

Though the enicrpri/e, which had carried Capt. 
Cook on ih.cro had no^v faileil, and was abandoneil, \ct 
his perfon did not appear to have been in i he kill 
vlanger, till an acciiient happened, which ga\ealatal 
turn to the affair. The bout;, which had been (Ki- 
t;t)ncd aci'ofi the b,a_\ , having lired at fome c anocs, that 
were attempting to get out, unfortunately iiad killed a 
chief of tl'.e firll rank. I'lie news of iiis death ar- 
rived at the village vihere Captain Cook was, jull as 
he iiail left the king, and wa-. walking llowly toward 
the ihoro. The ferment it occafioncil was verv confpi- 
cumu ; the women and diildren were immediately feiu 
oil, and the men put on their war-mats, and armed 
themlelves with I'pc.irs and Hones. One of l!ie natives, 
hiving in Ir.i .i llone, anil a long iron Ipike 
(wiiich the C'.ll a la'iooa) c.ime im to thi' ( apt.iin, 
•'ourilliing h- , wiapon by way of difirv e, and threa- 
tening to throw the (lone. I'he < ipt.iin detireti him 
to ilelill, but tiic m.Tii p^rfiflii::; in his infolence, he 
vms at length provoked to lire a loail ol fmall-ll ot. 
■['he mm having his mat on, which the Ihot were net 
aide to pennr.ite, this had no odit r etfect th.ui to irii- 
tate anil e.irouragc them. Several Ibincs were thrown 
a? the HKirine.s ; and one of t'le h.reei attempted to llab 
Mr. I'hillip.s with his pah.oon, Imr failed in the attempt, 
and received from him a blow with the butt end of his 
tuufquet. ( aptain Cook now lired his fecond band, 
loadcil with ball, and killed oni ol the foiemoll of the 
natives, h gi ncral attack i\ith Hones immediately 
follo'.ud, wiiuh was a.ifwered In a ihlihargc cf muf- 
(juetry \\v,\\\ the marines, and thi' people in the boats. 
'Ihc ifl.iiidtrs, cor.ti.u', f-i the expectations of e^ery 
one, flood the fire Witli great tirninefs ; and before the 
in.iriiK's huvl time to reload, they brol e in upon tlicm 
with driadfiii iT'.out-i a!id )ells. W hit folloued was a 
fieneof the utmoll h(;rror and lonfulion. 

I ourof the n.arinei were lut olf aiii'i;igf|V the ro.ks 
in their retreat, and f 11 a lacrilice to the fury of the 
t nemv i it'fje more were dangcroull}' voundid ; and 
the liC'tcnant, who had received a iVab bc^sicen the 
Ihoulders with a jiahooa, fortinntef. referved 
hiifire, lliot the man wiui i;ad wounded him jiill .is he 
\*^s going to rej-eat \\\n blow. Capt. C/mk, the kill 
time he sva-, fccn dilliiKtly, was (Landing .at the waiter's 
edge, and c.dling out to the boats to ceali- firing, and 
to pull in. If it be true, ai fome of thofe who were 
pieicnt have i:iiagined, tliat the marines and boat-men 
but fired without hi.i ore!; ;i, and that he was dehrous 
of previiiting any liirthcr bloodllicd, it is impio 
Irible, tlvn his humanity, on this occalion, proved 
fatal to him. I'or it was remarked, fhat whilll l.r faced 

the natives, none of them had offered him any vio- 
lence, but that having turned about to give his orders 
to the boats, he was Itabbcd in the back, and fell with 
his face into the water. On feeing him fall, the iflandcr? 
fet up a great lliout, and his body was immediately 
dragged on (horc, and furrounded by the ei.cmy, who 
fnatching the dagger Out of each other's hand; , .'hewed 
a lavage eagernel!^ to have a fnare in his de(lru:iion. 

Thus fell this great and excellent commande;- ! After 
a lile of fo mucli didingiiilhed and fuccefsfu! enter- 
pri/.e, his death, as far as regards himfelf, cannot bt: 
reckoned prem;iiure ; iince he lived to iinifli the great 
work fir which he fecms to have been deligned -, and 
vias rather removed from the eiiioymenr, than cut olf 
from the acquifition, of gloi'y. ' How lincerely hi^ 
lofs was felt and Iimenled, by thofe who had fo ioiig 
found theirgcneral fecuritv in his (Vill ant' ondiKi, and 
every confolatio.., iiiuler their hardlh.ips in his tendcr- 
iiefs ami hunianity, it is neither nciedary nor pollibL- 
tiir us to defcribe j much lefs Ihall we .utempt to paint 
tile hoiiiir uitli which, the crews were llruck, and the deletion and ilifmay, which followed fodread- 
lul and unexpected a i .damity. 

VVe lliall hue however fubjoin a few particulars which 
hapj liwzA I'uhlequeiit to his death, and whicil may 
be nat'.iralh- expeted to belong to thii account. 

ri' has been already related, that four of the ma- 
rines, who attended Captain Cook, were killed b/ 
the illandcr; on the fpyt. The red, with Mr. Miil- 
lips, their lieutenant, lluesv theinfelve-. inio the water, 
and ef aped under cow r of a fnuit lire from the* 
boat.;. (Jn this orcali(>n, a remarkable inftance of 
galLiiir behaviour, and of a!l<\:iion fi;r his men, wa> 
llirv, n Ir, that ollicer. lor he had f -arcely got into the 
boat, whin, feeing one of the marine;, who wai a 
lia 1 l\iimmcr. Hiuggling in the water, and in danger 
of being takj , b,- the enemy, he imnu diately jiimixil 
into the lea to his allillaiu.e, though mui h wouiidcil 
himfelf; atid. afier receiving a blow on the head from 
a done, which had nearly lent him to the bottom, he 
caught th.e nian by the hair, and broui'lit him fafe otf. 
(^ui people cominued tor liime time to keep ii]i a con- 
Ihiiit lire fiom the boats (whiih during the wf.ole tran- 
lacluei, were not u'.oie llian twenty jards from the 
l.iiui), in order to allbnl their imioriunate companion:,, 
if any of them ll-ould dill ren.nin alive, an o[iporn!- 
nil\ ol ifcajiing. 'I'liefe eltorts, feconded iiy a few 
giir.s, that were lired at the fame time from the Kcfo- 
huion, iiaving fontd the natives at lad to retire, a 
fmall boat, iiriiined by five of our young midlhip- 
mcn, pulled towards the lliore, vi here they faW the bo- 
dies, without anv ligns of life lying on the ground j 
but judging it liangeroiis to altempt to bring them od* 
v\iih fo fir.all a tone, and their ammunition being 
ne.irlv I vpi nd< il, thev ntiirnid to the Ihips, leaving 
tluMiin I'olieilicn ol the illanders, together with ten 
ll.ind^ of arm--. 

.■\.s luon as the general condernati. n, which the newt 
of tliisi alamity <K calioned throughout both crews had 
a little fiiblided, their attention wascalleii to our party 
at the Moral, whiTf the mall and fails were on Ihore, 
wiih a i.yiard of only lix marines. It is impollible to 
defcribe the emotions of Mr. King's mind, during tlm 
tiir.e tide Iranni'lions had been carrying on, at the 
other lide(jf the bay. lieing at the dillancc only of a 
Ihoir mile from the villigc of Kowiowa, we could fe(* 
dillin'tl;. an iuimenfe ciowd collecled on the fiior 
where C.iptain Cook had jurt belbre landed. v\V 
he.ud the firing of the mufquetry, and could perceive 
fouie exrr.aordinary bullle and agitaii in in the multi- 
tude. We afierwards law the natives Hying, the boats 
retire from tlv Ihore, and j)ainng and rci)a!ling, in 
great dillnefs, between the Ihips, Where a life fo dear 
and valuable wai i onceined. it was impollibic not to be 
.darmrd, by appeal aiice.^ both new and threatening. 
JJut, befides this, we knew , that a long and uninter- 
iu|Med couile of fiiccofs, in his t.anfai'tions with the 
iv.uivc . K>'( ihefe fcas, had yiven tiie captain a degree <»i" 


■ f I'll 

d him any vio- 
) give his orders 
k, and fell with 
foil, the iflandcrs 
,as immediately 
the ci.cniy, who 
's hand: , Ihewed 
iiinandc)- ! After 
fucccfsfu! entcr- 
inifL-lf, cannot be 
;o linirtuhc great 
n defiyned ; and 
.•nr, than cut ot> 
ow fincercly hi^s 
who hail fit ioMK 
am' onduci.ana 
ips m his tender- 
^d'try nor pollibl-; 
• attempt to paint 
V Uriick, and the 
followed fo dread - 

particulars \\hi<li 
I, and which may 
thii account. 

four cf the tr.a- 
;, were killed by 
I. with Mr. M'.il- 
ve-. into the water, 
urt iiie tiom the 
ikjble inftance of 
1 fi)r his men, wai 
arvcly ;;ot into the 
srinci, whi) wai a 
Iter, and in daivar 
iinudiatel) jiuiip(<l 
ij^li nuu h wounded 
[ on the heail iiotii 
to the bottom, he 
It him fate olf. 
) kiep up a con- 
; tlie wl-,ole tran- 
jards from liie 
laie rompauion;,, 
ve, an opporti:- 
ondeil iiy a few 
e from the Relo- 
lall to ivtiiv, a 
\nung midlliip- 
e tliey faW the bo- 
on tlie ('/omul ; 
to bring iliem oiV 
■iiniunition being 
le Ihips,^; 
K)ji;(tlKr with ten 

cook's first voyage — for making Difcovctics in the South Seas & Round th? IT'ir. 



n, which tlie new ^ 

lOut both crews hail 

railed to our party 

fails were on Ihon-, 

It is iinpollible to 

mind, during tlio 
carrying on, at the 

dillancc only of ;i 

row a, we could lee 
eoted on the fijor 
L'lbre landed. VVc 
and could perceive 
ati in in the multi- 

s Hying, the boats 

and rejiailing, in 

Vhcre a life fo dear 

nipoliibie not to be 
and threatening. 
l(jng and uninter- 

anlV.tions with the 

captain a degree (xf 

confidcncc, that we were fearful mif^ht, at feme un- 
lucky moment, put him too much off his guard ; and 
wc now faw all the dangers to which that .confidence 
might lead, without receiving much confolation from 
confidcring the experience that had given rife to it. 

Our lirlt care, on hearing the mufqiicts fired, was, to 
aniire the people, who were affembled in confiderable 
numbers, round the wall of our confecrated field, and 
feemed equally at a lofs with oinfelvcs how to account 
for what they had feen and heard, that they Ihould not 
be molefted ; and that, at all events, we we'-e defirous 
of continuing on peaceable terms w ith them. We re- 
mained in this polhire, till the boats had returneti on 
board, when Captain Clerke, obferving, through his te- 
Icfcope, that we weie furrouiided by the natives, and 
apprehending they meant to attack iis, nrdeied two 
four-pounders to "le fired at them. T'oiTunatcly tliefe 
guns, though well aimed, did no inifchicf, and yet 
gave the natives a convincing proof of their power. 
One of the balls broke a cocoa-nut tree in the middle, 
under which a party of them were fitting ; and the 
other Ihivered a rock, that flood in an exact line with 
them. As we had, juft before, given them the firongclt 
afliirancesof their fafety, we were .exceedingly morti- 
fied at this a^t of liollility ; and, to prevent a r( peti- 
tion i)f ir, iii;media'ely difpatched a boat to acr,uaint 
Captain Clerke,, nt prefent, we wife on the mofl 
friendly ttriiis with the iKUives ; and that, if occalion 
ll'iould hereafter arife for altering our conduct towani 
then;, we would hoill a jack, a;; a fignal for him to ai- 
lord us all the riilillam e in his power. 

VN'e expected the return of the boat with the utnioft 
impatience ; and aftrr remaining a quarter of an hour, 
under the mofl torturing anxiety and fufpenfe, our fears 
were at length c( iilirmed, by the arrival of Mr. HIigh, 
w ith orders to (Irike the tents as quickly as polliMc, and 
to fend the fails, that were repairing, on board. Juft 
nt the fame moment, our friend Kaireekeea huving alfo 
received intelligence of the death of Cajuain Cook, 
from a native, »ho had arri\eil from the other fide of 
the bay, came to is. u ith great forrow and dejection 
in his countenance, to inquire, if it was true? 

Our lituation was, at this time, extremely critical 
and important. Not only our own lives, but the event 
of the expedititiii, and the return of at leafi one of the 
fhips, being involved in the fime common danger. 
We had the m:ilt of the Refolution, and the greatelt 
part of our liiils, on lliore, under the protection of 
only fix marines : their lofs would have been irivpara- 
ble; and though the natives had not as yet ihewn the 
fuialleft difpolition to molelt in, vet it was iinpollible 
toanfvwr lor the alteration, whieh the news of the 
tianfaction at Kowro\\;i might produce. We there- 
fore thought it ]nudeni t.' (hlfemble our belief of the 
death of Ca|Haiii Cook, ,uul to (klire Kaireekeea to 
difcounigc the rcivirt ; lelt either the fear of our re- 
fentment. or the fiKcelkHil example of their country- 
men, miglit lead iluiii to fei/e the favourable ojipor- 
runity, whu h .u ih;-; rime ollercil itfelf, of giving ir, a 
fecond blow. .\t the liime time, we adsifed him to 
bring old kaoo, and the relt of the priells, into a large 
hnuie that was elofe to the Mor.i ; partly out of re- 
gard to their fafety, in cafe it flioidd ha\e been found 
necellary to piiKeed to extremities j and partly to have 
hnn near us, in order to m.i'.e ufe of his .uithority 
-vith the people, if it could be infinimental in preferv- 
ing pea( e. 

1 l.v\ ing placed the marines on the top of the Moral, 
"liich tornied a Ihoiig and advanmgeous polt, and left 
the command with Mr. Bligh, giving him the moltpo- 
fiiive ilire.iions to act entirely on the defenfive, we 
went on board the Difcoverv , in order to reprefent to 
Captain Clerke the dangerous lituation of our alliiirs. 
As foon as we quitted the Ipot, the natives began to an- 
noy our pe^le \\\\\\ Hones ; and we had fcarcely 
n-ached tlie^ii]), before we heard the firing of the 
marines. Wc- ihorefore returned inltaiitly on lliore, 
and foiiiul things grow ing every moment more alarm- 
ing. 1 he nati\ es were arming, and putting on their 
mats ; and tliwinuimbcrs incrcafed very fait, Wc co\ild 
No. 4. 

alfo perceive fcvcral large bodies marching toward us, 
along till, 'iff which feparates the village of Kakooa 
from the north fide of the bay, where the village of 
Kowrowa is fituated. 

They began, at firft, to attack us w it!, ftoncs, from 
behind the wails of their inelofiires, and finding '10 re- 
iiltance c 1 our part, they foon grew more daring. A 
few rcfolutc fellows, havingcrept along the beach, ui\- 
der cover of the rocks,. fiuldenly made their appear- 
ance at the foot of the Moral, w ith a delign, as it 
feemed, of ilorming it on the fide next the fea, w hich 
was its only acceltible part; and were not dillodged, 
till after they had Itood a conliderable number of ll.ot, 
and ^CQW one of their parc\' fail. 

The bravery of one of thefe afliiilants well defervcs 
to be pnrticularly mentior.^u. For having returned to 
carry ofl' his companion, amiilft the fire of our whole 
party, a wound, which he received, made him c]uit the 
body and retire ; but, in a few minuies, he again aj)- 
pcared, and being again wounded, he was obliged a 
fecond time to retreat. At this moment we arrived at 
the Moral, antl faw him return the third time, bleed- 
ing and faint ; and being informed of what had hap- 
peneil, we forbad the fijidiers to fire, and he was fut- 
feied to carry olf his friend; which he was juft able 
to perform, and then fell down himfelf and expired. 

About this time, a Itrong reinforcement from both 
lliips having landed, the natives retreattd behind their 
wails; which giving us accefs to our friendly pricfts, 
we fcnr one of endeavour to bring their coun- 
tr\ men to foiiie terms, and to jiropofe to tliem, that if 
ihey wouki defift from throwing (loncs, we would not 
permit our men to fire. 'I'his truce was agreeil to, and 
we were fullered to launch the malt, and carry cff the 
fails, and our altronoinical apparatus, uninolelled. .\s 
foon as we had quitted the Moral, they took polfelfion 
of it, and fomc of them threw a tew Hones ; but w ith- 
out doing us any mifchicf. 

It was half an hour pail cK'.ii o'clock, v\lienwe 
got onboard the Difcovci}-, white wc found no de- 
cilive plan had been adopted for our future proceedings. 
The rellitution of the boat, and the recovery of the 
boily of Captain Cook were the objects, which, on all 
hands, we agreed to infill on ; and it was our opinion, 
thar fome vigorous Heps fi.ould be taken, in cafe the 
demand of them was not iir.iiiediatelv complied with. 
'I'hoiij'Ji our feelings, on thi. death of a beloved anil 
honoured commander may be fiifpecied to have had 
fome Ihare in this opinion, yet there were certainly 
other leafons, and thiile of the moll feriouskind, that 
had conlideiable weight, i'lie conlidencc which their 
fuccefs in killing our chief, and forcing us to quit the 
ib.ore, mull naturally have infp'.red ; and tlie advan- 
tage, however triHing, which they had obtained over 
us the preceding da\, would, we had no doubt, encou- 
rage them to make fomc further dangeiou,; attempts ; 
and the more efpecialle, as ihev had little realiin, from 
what they had hitherto i<:c\\, to dread theelfects of our 
fire-arms Indeeil, contrary to the e\ptctation.s oi 
everyone, this fort of weapon had piodiieed no ligns 
of terror in them. On our tide, liich was the condi- 
tion of the Ihips, and the fate of difcipline amongll 
us, that had a vigorous attack been made on us, in the 
night, it would have been iinpollible to a I'wcr for the 

In thefe apprehcnfions. we were fupported by the 
n|iinion of moll of the otliceison board ; and nothing 
feemed fo likely to encourage the natives to make the 
attempt, as the appearance of our lieing inclined to 
an accommodation, which they could only attribute to 
weaknefs, or fear. 

In favour of more (om iliatory mcafures, it was 
juflly urged, that the mifchief was done, and irrepa- 
rable; that the natives had a Itrong claim to our re- 
gard, on account of their former friendlhip and kind- 
nefs ; and the more efpecially, as the late melancholy 
accident did not appear to have arifen from any pre- 
meditated delign: that, on the part of Teneeobco, 
his ignorance of the theft, his reaiiinefs to accompany 
Captain Cook on board, and his having aduallv lent 
I his 



f 3;, 

two fons into the boat, muft free him from the fmalleft 
degree o{ fufpicion : that the condudt of his women, 
and the Erees, might cafily be accounted for, from 
the apprehenfions occalioned by the armed force w ith 
which Captain Cook came on (horc, and the hoftilc 
preparations in the bay ; apf)earances fodifterent from 
the terms of friendlhip and confidence, in w hich both 
parties had hitherto lived, that the arming of the na- 
tives was evidently with a delign to refill the attempt, 
which they had fome reafon to imagine would be 
made, to carry off their king by force, and was na- 
turally to be cxpeded from a people full of alfcdion 
and ait.irhiiK'nt to their chiefs. 

To thefe motives of humanity, others of a pruden- 
tial nature were added ; that we were in want of wa- 
ter, and other ri-frclhments : that our foremall would 
require fix or ei^ht days work, before it could be 
lleppetl : that the fpiing was advancing apace; and 
that the fpiedv ptolec ution of our next northern expe- 
dition ought iiou to be iiur fole ob|eci : that therefore 
to innate in a \ ini.ii;'.i\e contell with the inhabitants, 
mipht not on!) \^\ us under the imputation of unne- 
ccHar\ crueltv, Init «<nild occafion an unavoidable dt- 
1.1V in the ci|uipnient of the fhips. 

In this laucr npinion Captain Clerkc concurred; 
and tliouph wt- weie conNUiced, that an early difpla) of 
vigorous rifcrtiiKiit uould more effectually have an- 
f\U'rtd ever) oliie-.t both of prudence and humanity, 
were not forrv, that the f[)ir;ted meafurcs recomuicnd- 
cd were reject ui. lor though the cont.;mptuous be- 
haviour ot' the natiMs, and their fubfequent opjiolition 
to our neciir.\r\ oper.uions on fliore, arifmg from a 
nii(i.<)iiflru(ti(ui of our knitv, conipclled us at lafl to 
have ncourfi to Mnlciicc in our own defence; yet the 
rir<.uml)ane< s of iheeilL- would, in the opinion of ti.e 
vorld, h.ue jullifieil the ufe of force, on our part, in 
the tirll inllance. Cautionar)- rigour is at all times in- 
Mtliou.^, and has this .additional objection to it, that the 
fc\eritv of a prtvintivr courl'e, when it bell fucctcds, 
leaves iti exptditnt) the leall ajiparent. 

During the time wi- were thus tnjjaged, in concert- 
ing fome plan lor oui- future conduct, a prodigious 
concourfe of native-^ (hll kept pofi'elllon of the Ihorc ; 
and fome of them came off in canoes, and had the 
boldnefs to approach within pillol-lliot of the Ihips, 
and to infuli us by various marks ol' contempt .mil de- 
fiance. It was with great ilithculty wc could rellrain 
the I'ailors tVom the ule of thei.- arms, on thefe ocea- 
fions ; but as pacific meafuies had been reloKed on, 
the canoisweie futllrcl to return unmi)UlUil. 

In jiuriuan^e of this plan, it was determined, that 
Mr. King ll.ouUi proceed toward the lliore, with the 
lioat-. ot both Ihip^, well manned and armed, with a 
\:ew the natives toajiailey, and, ifpoliible, to 
oh'.ain .1 loiifereiv-c with loiiu- of the ehiefs. 

ll' this .itlempt luieeeded, he \ias to demanii the 
i!>ad bodie.-, and partii uhuly that ot" Captain (00k ; 
lo threaten ihein wah our \engeanee in lafe of a le- 
fiifal ; but, by no means, to liiv unlefs attai ked ; and 
not to land on any ajrount whatever. Ihefe orders 
V(ie delivered lKl()re the whole party, and in the moll 
politive maiuur. 

I le leti die Ihips about fouro'clock in the afternoon ; 
and, ai wc ajiproai led the Ihore, perceived every 
indication of a hollile reevrption. The w'lole ( rowd of 
natives wa'. in mo;ioii; the women ani cliildic'; "e- 
liring; the men putting on their war 'luts, aiul arm- 
ing lhelllfeIve^ w uh K)ng fpears and daggers. We alii) 
oblerved, that, lince the morning, tiny had thrown up 
Ihine breart-works along the beach where Captain 
Cook had landed ; probably in expcdation of an al- 
tai k at that [)lace ; and, as foon a> we were widiin 
rea'.h, the) began to tlirow Itones at us with Ihngs, but 
without doing any mir liiel. (on'.luding, theiefiuv, 
that all attinipts to bring them to? paries would be in 
vain, unlel'-, we (ird gi\.r them loiiie ground for mu- 
tual confuknee ; Mr. J<iiig orderxl tlie armed boats 
to (h)p, and went on in the fmall boat alone, with a 
white flag in his hand, wliich, by a general ery olVn>y 
from the native;, he had the faiistaclion 10 find was 

inrtantly undcrftowi. The women immediately re- 
turned from the fide of the hill, whither they had re- 
tired ; the men threw off their mats ; and all fat dow n 
together by i ic water-fide, extending their arms, 
and inviting us to come on fhore. 

Though this behaviour was very expreffivc of n 
friendly difpolition, yet we could not hel)) entertaining 
fome fufpicions of its finceritv. Hut when we law 
Koah, with a boldnefs and alliirance 
lountable fwimming off toward the boat, with a white 
flag in his hand, we thought it neceilary to return diis 
mark of confidence, and therefore received him into 
the boat, though armed; a eircumdanee whieh did 
not tend to leflin our fufpicions. We had long har- 
boured an unfavouial-.le opinion of this man. The 
prielhs had always tokl us, that he was of a nuilieio'js 
difpofition, and no liiend of our.,; and llie repe-led 
detections of his fraiiil and treaehc ry, had convmeed 
us of the truth of their repivfemations. Add to all, the fhocking tranfaeiioii el the morning, in which 
1- • was feeii ;Kting a princical pait, maite'us feel tl'.e 
utmoll horror at tiiuluig h;in !o near ; and ;is he eamc 
up to .Mr. Kingwiih rei;.rieii tear.'., and eiiihiaeed him, 
Mr.King was fodiltrullfuhif hl^inten•ions, thaiheeould 
n )t heljj taking hold ol the point of the palnxiah, which 
he held in his hand, and turned it iVom him. Mr. Kini^ 
told him, that he lud come to ilemand the boit) of 
Captain Cook ; and to declare war againll them, un- 
1 is it was inltantly rellored. He alli;red hmi ihii 
lliouki be done a.s loun a> |,olIlble ; and that he would 
ijo himfelf for that purjxM'c' ; and, atier heg;;ing of 
,\lr. King a piece of iron, widi alkiran- e, as if 
nothing extraordinary had happened, lie lea; i el into the 
fea, and fwam alliore, calling oi.t to lui counir)min, 
that v\c were all friei.ds ;'.;;.>.in. 

We waited near an I'.our, with great an.viity for hij 
return; during which time, the lell ol' the boats had 
appio.iclied lo nei'.r the Ih.orc, as to enter inio con- 
verlation with a party of the natives, at fome dillancc 
from i.s ; by wl.ointhey Weiv j Lsinly given t4> under- 
llanii, that the bod;, h:'.d been cut :a[;ic' es and carried 
u]> the country ; but of dii^ circ umdan, c we were not 
intoimed, till our leturn to the ll ips. 

We now loexp.rtf, fome impatience at Koah s 
delay ; upon which thee hiefs p. etfed. Mr. Kingexceedi ugly 
to come ein Ihore ; a'!', ri.'ig him, tint if he would go 
h m lif ti> Terreeolxx), the bo, y would ceitainly be re- 
Hored to h m. W hen they found they could not pre- 
vail on him to land, they attempted, under a pretence 
of w idling toconvcrfe witli m(>re eide, to decoy our boat 
among lome rocks, where they would havt had it 111 
their power n> cut us oil trom the red. It wa; no dif- 
liiult matter to fee thi<n:jji iliefc artiliies; ami we 
were tl erelore llroiigiy iwlir.ed to bicak oil all tur- 
tl'.er comiiiuni' ation \, ith tl .-m, wlieii aihief eameto 
u^, who was the mend of Captain Clerke, 
a:id of the ollicers ot tl.e Pil' ove y, on lx)ard which 
Ihip he had failed, when we fill iel't tiie Uay, intending 
to take his paliige to Mowee. He t»)ld us, he came 
from TcrreeoUjo to ac.)i.air.! ui, that t!ie b«idy wa.s 
carried up the coun'.i)' ; l)ui that it ll.ould be brought 
to i;s tlx' next morning. Tliere appeared a great deal 
of lincerit) in his manner; and beiii.i, aiked, if he told 
a talfehood, he hook>il lus two fore lingers together, 
which is underdood aiiin'i;',!! tlwie illanders as the fign 
of truth; in the ufe of which they are very fciu- 

As we were now at a lo's in manner to piocee-d, 
Mr. \'aniouver was lent to accpiaint Cap. an Cderkc 
with all that had palled; that cur opiiUDii was, they 
meant not to keep their word with us, and were li) far 
from being fbrry at what had happened, that, on ihe 
contrarv, they were lull offpints and confidence on ac- 
count of their late fucccis, .md fought only to gain 
lime, till they eoulj contrive Ibmc fclieme tor getting 
us into their power. Mr. V.uKouver cal^ back with 
oideis for us to return on l>oard ; having firlt given 
the nativcj to unjerlland,, il" the body was not 
brought the next morning, the town llioulJ be dc 
llrov eJ, 



cook's first VOYAGE— for making Difcoveries in the South Seas & Round the florid. 3 5 

iliatfly re- 
cy had rc- 

II f;it down 
;hcir arms, 

L'flivc of r\ 

fii \\c- law 
:tl'.cr iinai- 
itii a uiiitc 
return tliis 
il him into 
which tliii 
1 long liar- 
iiiaii. The 
a nuiliiio'js 
lit npiatcil 
1 voiivini'cd 
Add to all 
ig, in wliich 
"us led tt'.c 
;i3 he lanic 
iractil him, 
ixi.di, whitli 
1. Mr. Kin;^ 
the bod) 1)1' 
ihciii, un- 
d h;iii V.v.i 
lat ht would 
hi-j<;;in}» of c, as if 
ij.ul into the 

Niity for hij 
le Iniats had 
r inio ron- 

III ti) uiidfr- 
and larrial 

N\c wtTc no!: 

ICC at Koah's 
he would j^o 
tainly be re- 
)iild not pre- 
er a jirctence 

o) oiii hoat 
isi' had it II) 

wa. no dil- 
I.S; and wc 
^ oil iill Uir- 
hief I anie to 

;.iwi Clcrkir, 
Uiaid which 
\\ in tend Ml); 
us, lie laiuc 
ic Inidy was 
J be brought 
I a i^reat deal 
•d, U he told 

ers toj.'Cther, 
rs as the lign 
set) fciu- 

When they fiiw that we were going oft", they endea- 
voured to provoke us by the molt infulting and con- 
temptuous gefturcs. Some of our people faid, they 
could diftinguilh feveral of the natives parading about 
in the clothes ofour unfortunate comrades; and, among 
them, a chief brandilhing Captain Cook's hanger, and 
a woman holding the fcabbard. Indeed, there can be 
no doubt, but that our behaviour had given them a 
mean opinion of our courage ; for they could have 
but little notion of the motives of humanity that di- 
rciiled ir. 

Inconfeiiuenceofthe report made to Capt. Gierke, 
of what we conceived to be the prcfent temper and dif- 
pofition of the illanders, the moll eftectual meafurcs 
were taken to guard againft any attack they might 
make in the night. The boats were moored with top- 
chains; additional centine!s were jKilled on both lliips ; 
and guard-boats were Ihitioned to row round them, in 
order to prevent the natives from cutting the cables. 
During the night wc ohlirved a prodigious number of 
lights on the hills, which made ibme of us imagine, 
they were removing their e'lects back into the country, 
in confequence of our threats. JJut we rather believe 
them to have been the lacrilices that were ( erform- 
ing on account of the war, in which they imagined 
themfelves about to be engiged ; and molt probably the 
bodies of our flain countrymen were, at that time, burn- 
ing. Wc afterwards faw lires of the fame kind, as we 
paired the illand of Morotoi; and which, we were told 
by foinc natives then on board, -.vere made on account 
of the war they had declared againft a neighbouring 
ifland. And this agrees with what we learned amonKfl: 
the Priendly and Society Illcs, that, previous to any 
expedition ngainft an enem.y, the chiefs always en- 
deavoured to aiiiniate and inflame the courage of the 
people by fealhs and rejoicings in the night. 

We remained the whole night undiihirbed, except 
by the bowlings and lamentations which were heard 
on Ihore: and earlv the next morning, Koah came 
along-lide the Refolution, with a prcfent of cloth, and 
a fmall pig, which he ilefircd leave to prcfent Mr. 
King, who was fuppolVd b; the n.'ti'.es, to be the fon of 
Capt. C(X)k ; and a< lie, in his hfe-time, had always 
fiitl'ercd them to believ ■ it, Mr. Kii'g was probabK con- 
lidered as the chief, after his death. \ le was quellioned 
about the body. an,l, on lis returning nothing but eva- 
livc anfwcr.-i, his pi-'len's were rcfulld, and we were 
going to difiiiifs him, with fome e\ pre h" vis of anger 
and refentment, had not Capr. Clerke, judging it boll, 
at all events, to Ivcip up ttv Mi|)(irince of fnendili'p, 
thought it iiioiv proper, th 'l.nuld be treated with 

the ufual rclpct. 

This ticacl'iero'is fellow cann lu.]!:, ;itly tons, during 
fhccourle of the forenoon, with foiiie prefe'it 
or other; and as we always ohfervcd liiiu ^,>emg ev^ry 
part of the Ihip with great attention, we took i.e he 
Ihould fee wc were well prepared for ourdefenc-. 

He uas cy-ccdiiigly urgent, both with Cape. Clerkc 
and Mr. King, to go on (lioie, laying ail the blame 
rf the ileteiition ol the bodies on the other chiefs ; and 
athiriiig us, that e\ei\ thing might be fettled to our 
i'atisfa..tion, by a perfonal interview with Tcrreeolxio. 
However, his conduct was too fufpicious to make it 
prialeiit to comply w ith this rcijucll ; and indeed a 
liiot came atterward to our knowledge, which (iroved 
the entire talfehooil of his pretentions, l-'or we were 
told,, immediately after the action in which Cap 
tain Cook was killed, the olil king had retired to a cave 
in the rteep part of the mountain, that hangs over the 
bay, which was accelFible only by the help of ropes, 
and where he remained for many days, having his 
victuals let down to him by cords. 

Whin koah returned from the Ihips, we could per- 
ceive that his countrymen, who had been collected, by 
break of ilay, in vail: crowds on the lliore, throngeil 
about him with great cagcrncfs ; as if to learn the in- 
telligence he haoi acquired, and what \vas to be done in 
confequence of it. It is very probable, that they ex- 
pected we Ihould attempt to put our threats in execu- 
tion 1 and they feciiKd fully refolved to iland their 

ground. During the whole morning, we heard conch* 
blowing in difterent parts of the coaft ; large parties 
were feen marching over the hills ; and, in lliort, ap- 
pearances were fo alarming, that we carried out a 
ftream anchor, to enable us to haul the fliip abruift of 
the town, in cafe of an attack j and ftationed boats oil' 
the nonh point of the bay, to prevent a furprife from 
that quarter. 

The br :h of their engagement to reftorc the bo- 
dies of the flain, and the warlike potture, in which 
they, at this time, appeared, occafioned frcfh debates 
amongfl- us concerning the meafures next to be pur- 
fued. It was, at lafl, determined, that nothing fliould 
be fuffered to interfere with the repair of the malt, and 
the preparations for our departure ; but that we Ihould, 
neverthelcfs, continue our ncgociations for the recovery 
of the bodies. 

The grcatelt part of the day was taken up in get- 
ting the fore-malt into a proper fituation on deck, fof 
the carpenters to work upon it ; and in making the ne- 
celfary alterations in the cominiilions of the officers. 
The command of the expedition having devolved oil 
Captain Clerkc, he removed on board the Refolution, 
appointed Lieutenant Gore to be C aptain of the Difco- 
vcry, and promoted Mr. Harvey, a midfliipman, who 
had been with Captain Cook in his two laft vojagcs, to 
the v.acant Lieutcnincy. During the whole day, wo 
met w ith no interruption from the native^ ; and, at 
night, the launch was ajjain moored with a top-chain; 
and guard-boats ftatioiied round both fliips as before. 

About eight o'clock, it being very ilark, a canoe wa.s 
heard paddling toward the Ihip; and as foon as it was 
feen, both the centinels on deck Hied into it. There 
were two perfons in the canoe, and they imni.'diately 
roared out " Tinnee," (which was the way in which 
they pronounced Mr. King's name), and faid they 
were friends, and had fomething for him belonging to 
'' aptain 1 ook. When they came on board, they threw 
themfelves at our feet, and appeared cxceedini;ly 
frightened. Luckily neither of them was hurt, n*. - 
withflanding the balls of both pieces had gone thiougf 
the caroe. One of them was the perfon, called the 
Talx)o man, who conftantly attended (.aptain Cook 
with the circumltaiiLCs of ceremony we have already 
defcribed ; and who, though a man of rank in ilc 
illand, could I'carcely be hindered from performing lor 
him the lowelt offices of a menial fervant. After la- 
menting, with abundance of tears, the lofs of the 
Orono, he told us, that he had brought us a part of 
his body. I le then prefented to us a fmall bundle 
w rapped up in cloth, which he brought under his arm ; 
and it is iirpnl^Me to defcribe the horror which W J 
us, on liivl ig 1 it, a piece of human 11 'h, about ii.iie 
or ten pounds weight. This, he faid, \'. as all that re- 
mained of the body ; that the rcit wa.s cut to pieces, 
an.i 'lurnt ; but that the head and all the bones, except 
what belonged to the trunk, were in the pollellion of 
Terricobi>o. and the other Lrees; that what wc faw 
had been ...lotted to Kaoo, the chief of the prielts, to 
he made ufe ot in fome religious ceremony ; and that 
he hail lent it as a proof of his innocence and attach- 
ment to us. 

This alforded an opportunity of informing ourfelves, 
whether they were cannibal ; and we did not ncgledl 
II. V^ tirft tried, by many indirect queltions, put to 
. ihem apart, to learn in what manner the rell of 
loditj had been difpoled of; and finding them 
\ery conltant in oneltor\, that, alter the tklh had been 
cut olf, it was all burnt; wcat lall put the direCliiucf- 
tion, Whether they hail not lat fome of it ? They im- 
mediately lliewed as much horror at the idea, as ar ■ 
Luropean would have done; and alked, very natu 
rally, if that was the cullim amongit us? 'i'hey af- 
terward afked us, with great caniellnefs and appa- 
rent apprehenlion, " When the Orono would come 
again ? and w hat he would do to them on his return ?" 
The fame inquiry was frequently made afterward by 
others; and this idea agrees with the general tenour of 
their I ondudt toward him, which fliewcd, that they 
conlidercd bim as a being of a fuperior nature. 





, •■' !li 


\Vc pixirid our two friendly N iluors to remain on! till morning ; Init in vain. They tolii us, that, 
if this tranfaction tlioulil conic to the knowledge of 
the kina, or chiefs, it might be attentled \v ith the moll 
fatal confciiuences to their whole fociety ; in order lo 
prevent which, the\ had been obliged to come oil' to 
ii-^ in the dark; and that the fame precaution would be 
ncceniuy in returning on (liore. They informed us 
iariher, that the chief's were eager to revenge the deatii 
ol" their couiuiynien ; and particularly, cautioned us 
againll trulliiig Koah, who, they faid, was our mortal 
and imjihtcable cnem\ ; anil delircd nothing more 
ardently, than an opportunity of fighting us ; to 
Avliicii the blowing of the conths, we had heard in 
the morning, was meant as a challenge. 

^^'e learned from thcfe men, that I'evenieen of their 
counirwnen were killed in the full action at Kowrowa, 
of whom li\e were chiels; and that Kaneena and hi^ 
brother, our very particular frietuls, were iint'ortunately 
of that number. I'.ight, they faul, were killed at 
the olil'cr\aioiy ; three of whom weie alio of the full 

About eleven o'cloik, our two friends left us, anil 
took the precaution to .-leiire, that our guard-boat 
might attend them, till they Had palled the Difco- 
vcry, leall they (liould aqain be fired upon, which 
niigl't alarm their countrymen on (t-.ore, and ex- 
poic them to the danger of being dif<o\cred. Thi^ 
rcviuill was complied with; and we had the fati.- 
faition to find, that they got fafe and uiidilco ired 

During the remainder of this night, we heard tlie 
f.iiiie loud howling and l.uiKiitaiioiis, as in thi pre- 
ceding one. K:n\\ en Tuell'a\ morning, we receivid 
anmlier \lflt from ko.ih. It mull heconfelled wewere 
a little piqued to find, that, notw ithllandmg the moll 
evident marks of trea^ hery in his coiiduet, and the 
polni\e lellimony of our friends the priells, he ihouLl 
ftill be permitted to carry on the fame farce, and to 
make us at hall ajipear to be the dupes of his In - 
po. lily. Indeed our lituation was become extremeb 
awkv.ird and unproimling ; none of the purpofi-^ tor 
ivhici; this |i;-.ulic lourfe of ]iroi eedin :; hid been 
adoptctl, ha\jng hiterto been in the Ic.ill forwarded 
by it. Nol.itislactory aiil'«er whate\cr h.ul beeiij'iven 
lo our demands; we did not feem to be a! all adi.uv ed 
towards a reconciliation with the illandirs ; they Hill 
kcjit in force on the Iborc, as if determined to refill am 
attempts we might make to land ; and \i t the atiem[U 
vas become abfolutely neccflary, as the fompleiing 
our fupply of water would not admit of am loiigcj- 

I lowcver it mud he obfer\ed, in jullii c to the con- 
diii^t of Capt. Cleike, that it was very probable, from 
the great numbers of the natives, and Irom the refo- 
lution with which they feemid toexpeet us an attack 
tduld not ha\e been made without i'ome d.inger ; and 
that the lols of a very few men miglit luue been fe^erelv 
felt b) us, during the remaining courfe of our \o',age. 
\Vherias the delaying tlu execuii.n of our threat^, 
though, on the one iiand. n lell'enid their opinion ot 
our p^owef^, had the cllevi of cauliiig iheni to liif- 
perfe, on the other. I'or, this day, about noon, liniiing 
us perlill in our iiLKtivity, great bodies of them, after 
blowing their (onchs, and uling cvcrv mode of de- 
fi.'.nce, marched olV, over the hills, and never appiand 
alicrward. Thole, howe\er, who remaiiKd, wen iv • 
the Icfo daring and infolcnt. One man had the audai. u \ 
to come within muliiuet-lhot, a-hcad ul the lliip; and, 
;ilicr Hinging feviral Ibmes at us, he wa\eil (.'.ipt. 
Cook's hat ()\er his head, whilll his coiuurvnien on 
fluire Were exulting and encouraging' his iioldn. 
Our people were all in a Hame at this mfult, and k. , - 
ing in ;i body on the iiuarter-dec k, begged ili. \ 
might no longer be obliged to put up with ihefc n - 
pcated pro\ocaiions ; and requelled Mr. King lo oln.un 
permillion for them, from t'ajjt. Clerke, toavail ihem- 
lelves of the full lairoecafion of revenging the di.ith"ol 
their comnumihr. On liis aci[iiaiiuing him with wh.ii 
v.,1, palling, he i^avc orders tiir fume great gun> to be 

fired at the natives on fliore; and promifed the crew, 
that if they (bould meet with any molellation at ilic 
watering-place, the next day, they lliould then be lefi 
at liberty to chart ife them. 

It is fomewhat remarkable, that, before we could 
bring our guns to bear, the illaiiders had fufpe^led our 
intentions, fnim the flir they fau in the ri.i[), and liad 
retired behind their houl'es and walls. We were tltere- 
fore obliged to lire, in fome meafure, at random; nor- 
withrtanding which, our lliot proiluced all ilic ellecis 
that could ha\e been delircd. i'or, foon after, we law 
Koah paddling towards tis, with evtieme halle, and, 
on his arrival, we learned, that fome people had been 
killed, and amongll the rell, Maiha-maiha, a principal 
chiet, and a near rel.ition of the king. 

Soon alter the arrival of Koah, two boy.'S fwam oil" 
from the Morai towards th.e Ihips, having each a long 
l'|iiar in hishaiu!; and afterthey had approac tied pretty 
near, they began to chant a long, in a very liil.'mii 
manner; the l'ub;ect of which, I'lom their ol'reii nion- 
tionin<T the word Oiono, and pointing to the \illagc 
where Cajit. Cook was killnl, we concluded to be the 
late calamitous difaller. i laving fuiig inaplaiirivellraiii 
lor about twelve or lifteen minutes, during the whole 
olwhich time they remained in the water, they went 
on board the Difcosery, and delivered their I'pears; ai\d, 
after making a lliori fiay, returned on Ih.ore. W ho 
lent them, or what was the obicct of this ceicniony, 
we were never able to learn. 

At night, the uiiial piecauticns were taken for tl"* 
I'll iirityof the If.ips; aiiil as foon as it wasd.iik, c'u two 
friends, \ lilted us the night belore, came olf 
again, 'rhevalllrcd us,; hat though the eil'cc! 
guns this aftirnoon, had terrilicil the chiels evceedmg- 
Iv, they I'.ad In no miins laid alide their hollilt in- 
tentions, and advifed Us ro be 'in our guard. 

On Wednefd.iy morning, tic boats of both Oiijis 
were lent alhore liir water; und. the I)ilco\ery was 
warped dole to the bea.h, in order to cover that fer- 
vice. We foon found, that the iiuelligcnie which the 
priells had lent us, was not without loiindaiion ; and 
that the natives wire refobeil to take every opiiottiinity 
of annosing us, when i: could be ilone witliout much 

Throiigliout all this group of illands, the villagif, 
for the moll part, aie lilu.ilcd the lea; and the 
ad|,uint ground i-. inclofed wuh lto!)e \iall-, about three 
feel high. 'I hefe, we al full in.agined, were iiitendeil 
liir the divilion of |iropertv ; but we now ililcovered, 
that they fervcd, and probabU were princi()ally de- 
ligned, i'or a defetue againll invalion. l hey i onlill ot 
loofe Ibmcs, and the inhabitants are ver\ dexterous in 
lliifting them, with great quii knel's l<i Inch lituations, 
as the direction <'f the k m.n re.iuire, lt\ the tides 
of the inountaiii, vihich hangM)\er the bay, thev have 
alio little holes, or caves, of confulerable depth, the 
eiiliMnce of which is fecured by a t'eiu e of the fame 
kind. I rom behind both ihite defrnces the natives 
kept perjietiialK haialling our waterersuith llones ; 
nor could the fniall force we on fliore, vitli 
the advantage of mufi]uet?, com[iel them to retreat. 

In this expoled lituation, our people were lb taken 
up in attending to thefr own I'aletv, that the) eiiiploy- 
ed the whole forcniK)n in filling onl) one ton of water. 
As it was therilore impollible to perform this fervice, 
till tlu ir aliail.ints wiie driven to a greater dilhmce, 
the Difcoveiv was ordered to dillodge them, w ith her 
great gun-, ; which being ell'ecied by a lew dif har);i-s 
the men landed without moKllation. I lowevir, the 
natives )')on alter made their ap]U'aiance again, in their 
iiliial mode oi atlac k ; and it was now touiid abfolutely 
necellarv to burn ilown Ibme llraggling lioufis, near 
thewall, behind whiih they taken tlicker. In tv- 
eeuting thcfe orders, we arc lorry to add, that our peo- 
ple were hurried into acts of unneiell'ary cruelty and 
devalhition. Something ought certainly m be allowed 
to their refentment ol the repeated infuks, an.l con- 
temptuous 111 haviour, of the illaiultrs, and to the na- 
tural delirc of revenging the lof> of their comman- 
der. Hut, at the lame time, their conduct fervcd 






|! COOK'S FIRST VOYAGB-^fbl- making Difcoverits in the South Seas & Roun J the !!''or!,l. 3 7 

oiiiifiil tlic crew, 
lok-lhition at ilic 
»uld tlicn be Kli 

before \vc coiilil 

luil ful'|R\.U'(i (Hir 

a" ('!.i[), a!ul 

We were iheri'- 

at raiiiloiu ; not- 
cil :ill the elletis 
ion ail'ier, \vc iiiw 
;r(.iiic liulle, amJ, 

jKople IkuI been 
ii.iilia, a principal 

) hoys fs\ain olV 
villi; each a lonjj 
pproai lied pretty 
u a veiy liil/mii 
tlieir often nicn- 
ws, I" the \illa;Te 
leiikleii to be the 
iiinng the whole 
water, they went 
their I'pear.s; anJ, 
on ll.ore. \\ hu 
jf tliii ceremony, 

re taken for ih»" 
u as link, (>';i two 

belore, came olF 
ihiels e\ceeit;n};- 

their hollilc iii- 


[s of lH)th fliips 
Dil'covery was 
o cover that fer- 

genic wliicli the 

loiindation ; and 
.■ver\- op|-)orti)nity 
lie withuut niueli 

luls, the \ illap'^, 
h.e lea ; and the 
ualU, about three 
•il, uere intended 
■ lion difcoNcred, 

principaily tie- 
'1 hcv ( oiilid ot 
crv dexteroii'- in 
I) fucii litiiation-i, 
ire. In the tides 
le bay, the\ have 
■lable depth, tlie 
luc ot the fame 
iiccs the nativei 
rers w ith Hones ; 
on :hore, v itii 
;hem to retreat, 
jle Were fo taken 
lat tlie) e!>.i|)l()v- 
ine ton ot water, 
iirm this fervice, 
j;reater dilhiiuc, 
e them, \( ah her 
a lew dil' harj^i's 
1 low ever, the 
ce ai; liti, in tlieir 
found abl(>hicc!y 
nj; l;oLi(i.!i, near 

Iheker. In cv- 

.id, that our peo- 

lary cruelty and 

ily m be allowed 

nfiil's, and con- 

, and to the na- 

their comnian- 

conduct fervcj 



ftronr^ly to evince, that the iitmoft precaution is nc- 
ccirary in truOing. though but for a nionicnt, the 
tlifcrctionary w^v of arms, in the hands of private fca- 
nicn. or foldicrs, on fuch orrafions. 'I'he rigour of 
difcipline, and the habits of obedience, by whicn their 
force is kept direck'd to its proper objects, lead them 
naturally enough to conceive, that whatever they have 
the power, they have alfo the right to do. Actual dif- 
o'ledience being almoll the only crime for which they 
are accullomed to cx()cct iMiiiiihmenr, they learn to 
confider it as the only meafure of right and vMong ; 
and hence are ajit to toiiclude, that what they can do 
with impunity, they mav do w ith |ii(lice and honour. 
So that the feelings of luim;uiity, wliich are infepara- 
blc from us all, ami that geiierolity towards an \\n- 
reliliing enemy, which, at other times, is the dillin- 
guifliiiig mark of brave men, become but weak rellraiins 
to theexercife of violent e, when oi>[x)fed to the deliie 
they naturally have of llicwing their own iiidepeiidciice 
and [lower. 

We have already mentioned, that ordc'^ had been 
given to burn only a few draggling huts, which alfoid- 
td (helter to the iv.ui' ( s. We wire therefore a good 
deal fuiiiri/.ed to fee the whole village on (irC; and he- 
fore a boat, that was lent to Hop the prognls of the 
iiiili hief, could reach the Ihore, the houfcs of our old 
and conllant fr:ends, the priells, were all in Hames. 
We cannot enough l.mient the illnels, that confined 
Mr. King on board this day. The (iricfts had ahva\ s 
been under his protection-, and, imUickily, the ollicers 
who were then on dute, having been feldoin on ll.ore 
at the .Moral, were not much acijuainted with the 
circumllames of the [ilace. Had he been prellnt 
hiinfe-lf, he might pr.jbably have been the means of 
faviiig their little fociety from deliriK-tion. 

Several of the natives were ihot, in making their 
cfcape from thetlaiiies; and our people cut otf the 
heads i)f two of them, and brought them on board. 
The fate of one poor illander was much lamented bv 
us all. .K.', he coming to the well for war r, he 
vas (hot at by one of the marines. '1 he ball (hiick his 
raliballi, which he imiiu'diately threw from him and 
fled, newaspurfued into one of the caves, and no 
lion ( ould have tlttin led his den with greater courage 
and lierceiicfs; till at fill, after having kept two of our 
people at bay tor a < onliderable time, he expired. 
coscrui with wounds. It was this accident, that 
fird brought us arijuainted with the ufe ot thefe 

.\t this time, an elderly man was taken prifoner, 
hound, and Tent on boird' in the fame boat with the 
heads of hi.' two countrymen. We never law hi>rror fo 
Iho.-.gly iiietiired, as in the face of this man, nor fo 
violent a tranlition to e\tiavagaiit jov, as when he was 
untied, and tc'ld he might go aw.iy in fafetv. He 
Ihewed us he did not want gratitude,' as he Irciiuentlv 
alterwarda returned with prcfciits of provilioas ; and 
alio did Us other ("er'. it es. 

Soon alter the vill.ige was delhovivl, we fiw, coming 
down the hill, a man, af.ended liv lit'teen or twenty 
bo\s, holding pieces of white cloth, green boughs, 
plantains, cVc. 111 their hands. We knew not how it 
happened, that this peaceful cmballv , as foon as they 
were within reai h, received t!ie lire ot' a party of our 
tiien. This, however, did not Hop them, liiey con- 
tinued their procelTion, and the on duty came 
up. 111 time, to (ireveiit a feet nd difcharge. As they 
aiiproached neanr, it was lijiind to bo Our mucli'- 
elleemedtriend kaireekeea, who had fled on our tirll 
fi tting hre to the vill.tge, and had now returned, and 
deliicd to be lent on biurd the Refolution. 

Whenheatrived. we toiind him exceedingh "rave 
and thoughtliil. We endeavoured to make hiiuunder- 
ll.inil the necelhtv we were under of letting lire to the 
Milage, by which his houli;, and thotl' of his brethren 
were unintentionally confumed. He expolhilated i 
luilc with us on our want of friendlhip, and on our 
ingratitude. And. indeed, it was ivn till now, 
welcaint I 111 whole extent of the iniui\ we had done 
thaii. He lold us, that, relying on die piomilbwe 

liad made them, and on the afTuranccs they had aftcr-j 
ward received froin the men, who had brought us the* 
remains of CajMain Cook, they had not rcmi-ved I'.rif 
effects back into the country, with the relV of tlie 
inhabitants, but had put every thing wa.s va- 
luable of their own, as well as what they huvl col- 
leoti^d from us, into a houle clofe to the iVlorai, where 
the;, had the mortilication to fee it all fet on fire by 

On coming onboard, he had feen the heads of his 
counrrymen lying on the deck, at which he wa.i ex- 
ceedingly Ihocked, and lielired, with great earnennefs, 
that thev might be thrown over-board. Thi,? re- 
quell C.'apt. L'lerke inllaiitly ordered to be ijiiiplicd 

In the evening, the watering party returned on board, 
having met with no farther interruption. We jialfed 
a j.doomy night ; the cries and' lamentations we heard 
on ihore being far more dreadful than ever. Our 
o:ilv confolation was, the hope that we fliould have 
no occahon, in future, for a repetition of fuch feverities. 
It is very extraordinary, that amidll all thefe dif- 
turbances, the women of the illand, who were on 
board, never otfered to leave us, nor difcovcred the 
fmallell apprehenlions either for themfelvc^ or their 
trieiids alhorc. bo entirely unconcerned did they ap- 
pear, that ibme of them, who were on deck when 
the town was in Hames, teemed to atlmire the light, 
and freiiuently cried out, that it was iiuitai. or very 

On Thurfday morning, Koah came oft" as ufua! ro 
the Ihips. As there exifted no longer any neceflity 
for keejiing terms with him. Mr. King was allowed 
to have his own way. When he approached towariis 
the lideofthe (hip, (inging his foiig, and oll'ering a 
hog, and fome plantains, we ordered him to keep off, 
lautioning him never to appear again without Capt. 
Cook's bones, left his life il'.ould pay thj forfeit ot' his 
frequent breach of promife. He diii not appear much 
mortified with this reception, bur went immediately 
on Ihore. and joined a party of his countrMi.m, who 
were pelting the watererswith flones. 1 he body of 
the young man, who had been killed rl.c day befiire, 
was found this morning, lying at the entrance of the 
cave; and tome of our people went, and threw a mat 
<n er it. .Soon after which they law liune men carrvintj 
him otf on their tlioulders. and could hear them ting- 
ing, as they marihed, a mournful long. 

I'he natives, being at lall convinced, that it wai; 
not the want of abilitv to punith them, which had hi- 
therto made us toler.ite their provocations, delificd 
from giving us anv f.irther molellatioii ; and, in the 
evening, a chief tailed llappo, who had fildt);ii villted 
us, but whom we knew to be a man of the very full 
i-O' lequence, came with prefuits from 'I'erreioboo to 
I'u^ tor peace. lliefe piefents were rci eived, and he 
was difmilied with the fame anfwer which had before 
been given, that, until the remains of Capt. Cook 
lliould ht rctlored, no pe.ace would be granted. We 
learned from this perfon, that the tlclli ot all the bodies 
of our peo|)le, together with the bones of the trunks, 
had been burnt; that the limb bones ol the marines 
had been tlivided amonglt the inferior chiefs ; and that 
thole of Capt. Cook had becndifpofed of in the follow- 
ing manner : the head, to a chiet". callt d Kahoo- 
opeon; the hair to Mai;-.-maia ; and the legs, thighs, 
and arms to Terreeohoo. After it was dark, many of 
the inhabitants came oil' with roots and other vet^eta- 
bles; ami we alii) received two large prefents of the 
fanie articles from Kaireekeea. 

Friday the lytli of I'ebniary, was chieHy taken up 
in fending and receiving the mell'ages which palled 
between Ca|)t. Clerke ami Terreeoboo. luippo was 
very preiring, that one of our othcers flioul.'- go on 
llu re J and, in the mean time, otfered to remain as an 
holhige on board. 'I'liis requeft, however, it was not 
thought proper to comply with ; and he left us with a 
prtjiiiife ot bringing the bcncs the next tlay. At the 
iieach, the waterers did not meet with the lealt op. 
potition from ihe natives ; who, notwithllanding our 




Capt. C O O K s VOYAGES C O M P L K T E. 

i^:r^ I 

camions behaviour, cunic anionglt us again, without 
the finallcft appearance of diffidence or apprehen- 

Betwi'cn ten and eleven o'clock of the 20th, wc faw 
a great njiubcr of" people defcending the hill, which 
is over the beach, in a kind of proceiTion, each nwn 
carrying a fiigar-cane or two on his ihoulders, and 
brcad-truit, taro, and plantains in his hand. 'I'hcy 
Mcie preceded by two drununersj who, when they 
came to the water-fidc, fat down by a white flag, and 
began to beat their drums, while thofe who had fol- 
lowed them, advanced, one by one ; and, having dc- 
polited the prefents they had brought, retired in the 
fame order. Soon after, Eappo came in tight, in his 
long feathered cloak, bearing I'omcthing w ith great fo- 
lemnity in his hands; and having placed himfelf on a 
rock, he made figns for a boat to be fent him. 

Captain l.lerke, conjciituriiig that he had brought 
the bones of Captain Cook, which proved to be the 
fa:t, went iiimfelf in the pinnace to receive them; and 
•rdcrcd me to attend him in the cutter. When we ar- 
rived at tlic beach, I'-ippo came into the pinnace, and 
di--livcred to the captain the bones wrapped up in a 
large quantity of fine new cloth, and covered with a 
fpotted cloak of black and white feathers. He after- 
vaid atieniled us to the Kefolution ; but could not be 
picN.iilcd upon to go on Iward ; prolwbly not chooling, 
from a fjiife of decency, to be prefent at the opening of 
the bun lie. We found in it both the hands of C ap- 
taiii Ccuk entire, whicii were well known from a re- 
markable fi .ir on one of ihem, tliat diviikd the thunil) 
from the fore linger, the whole length of the 
carpal b>)iie ; the Ikull, but w ith the fcalp IVpaiatcd 
from it. and the bones that form the fice wanting ; the 
llaip, with the hair upon it cut iliort, and the tars :id- 
licring to it ; the Ijoncs of botii arms, with the (kin of 
the lore-arms hanging to thLiii; the thigh and leg- 
bones joined togetht.r, but without the feet. '1 he li- 
gaments of the joints were entire; and the whole bore 
cviilent marks of having been in the lire, excei)t the 
iiands, which had the H'.lh left upon them, and were 
cut in fc\eral places, and crammed with fait, appa- 
rently with an intention of preferving them. 'Ihe 
fcalp hael a cut in tlic back p;irt of it, but the Ikull was 
free iVom any fraelurc. The lower jaw and fett, which 
were wanting, Iv.ippo told us, had been (ei/.ed by dif- 
ferent chitts, and that I'etreeoboo was uling every 
iiit-ans to recover them. 

'I'lie next morning, leh. 21, b'.appo, ami the king's 
fon, eame on board, and brmight w ith thtiu the re- 
maining bones of Captain Cook; the b.irrel$ of his 
gun, his Ihocs, ami lome other trilles that bclongeii to 
him. b',ippo took great pain., to convince us. that Ter- 
reeohoo, Maiha-maiha, and himfelf were moll heartilv 
detiioub o! peace ; that liuy hail given us the moll 
I onvim ing proof of it in their povuT; and that they been prevented liom giving it former by the other 
ihiels, many (it whom were Itill our eiuiuies. Me 
lament' (I, with the greutell forrow, the death of lix 
I'liici's «e kad killed, Ionic ot whom, he laid, wxrc 
amongit our bell Irienils. The cutter, he told us, was 
taken away by I'arcea's people; very probal)lv in re- 
venge lor the blow that had been given him; and that it 
had been broken up the next day. The ;ums ol the 
inaniK-, whi' h v.i' had .illoelemanded,heainiivdiis, had 
been < allied oil by the eomiaon people, and were ir- 
recover.ihle ; the bones of the chief alone having been 
prele rveil, as belonging to Terreeoboo and the hrees. 

Noihin;' now remained, but to pertbrin the lall of- 
fico to our great and iinlbrtunate commaneler. l*l;»ppo 
was difmin'cd with orders to talxio all the bay; and, in 
the afternoon, the bones having been put into a cotiiii, 
and thefervice read over them, they were committed 
to the .'.eep w th the ufual military honours. What 
our feelings w tc on this occalion, we mull leave the 
world to con« ive ; thofe who were prefent know, that 
it is not in e r power to exprels them. 

During t' J torenoon of Feb. 22, not a canoe was 
fcen paeleir ig in the bay ; the taboo, w hich Eappo had 
laid on ii .he day bclbrc, at uur rcquuH, not being yet 

t.ikenolf. At length Eappo came olf to us. We af- 
ftireel him, that we were now entirely fatislied ; and 
that, as the Orono was buried, all rcmembrante of 
what had palled was buried with him. VS'e afterward 
delired him to take olf the taboo, and to make it 
known, that the people might bring their provilion.< as 
ufual. The lliips were foon furrounded with canoe.s, 
and many of the chiefs came on board, exprelling great 
fcrrow at what had happened, and their fatisllu-tion 
at our reconciliation. Several of our friends, who ilid 
not vilit us, fent prefents of large hogs, and other 
provilions. Amongll the rell came the old treache- 
rous Koah, but who was refilled admittance. 

.\s we hael ni.,v every thing ready for fea. Captain 
Clerke imagining, that, if the news of our procceil- 
ings llioulel reach the illanels to leeward before us, it 
might have a bad elfect. gave orders to unmoor. 
.About eight in the evening wc difmill'ed all the na- 
tives; and Eappo, ami the friendly Kaireekeca, took 
an alleetionate leave of us. We immediately weijdied, 
and llood out of the bay. 'I'he natives were coUecled 
on the Ihore in great numbers; and, as we palfed 
along, recei\cel our lalt farewels with every maikof 
alfectiejii iind good will. 

As a navigator, Capt. Cook's feniices were perhaps 
not lefi fpleiidid than important and meritorious. The 
method which he ililcovereil, and fo fuccefsfidly |nir- 
lued, of preferving the health of fcamcn, forms a new 
rt'ia in the ei.'conom)' of navigation, ami will tnmfmit 
his nnnic to future ages, amongll the frienels and be- 
nefactors of mankinel. 

Tho!'e who are (onverfani in naval hillory, nceel not 
be toKI, at how dear a rate the advantages, which ha\e 
been fought, through the mciliiimof long \o\ages .it 
lea, ha\e .il«a\s bee n pure haled. '1 hut dreadlul dil- 
order which is pieiiliar te) this fervicc, and whole ra- 
vages h:ive marked tiic tr.icks of dl!'< i>\erers with cir- 
cumllanees almoll too llux king to relate, mull, wah- 
oiit exet! iling an unwarrantable urannv over the lives 
ol our feamcn, have pioveei an mfuperable- i.bllacle to 
the profecutiim eil" fiicli enterpri/.es. It was rel'erv' el lor 
Captain Co k to lliew the vmhUI, by rcj-.eattei trials, 
that voy.iges mi^ht be protraetel to the tmukia! length 
of three or even lour years, in unknown regions, and 
under every change and rigour of elimite, not only 
without articling the health, but even without dmii- 
niiliing the prolxibility of life, in the fmallell degree. 
'i'he methoJ he purfueel has been fully explaineel by 
himfelf, in a j-..iper which w.i.s befem- the Uoval 
Sixiety, in the ) ear I 776, by .Sir d'lKlfrey Caplc\ , who 
had a gold medal aiiji.dgcd to him on that occalion ; 
anei whatever impro\ements the experience of his third 
voyage lia^ fugg.elKei, will be iiientieiiu el m this work 
in their jjroper pl.i es. 

With refpect to his prole IfMiLiI abilities, we Hiall 
now leave them to the iiulgemeiu of thofe who 
are Ih'II ace|iiainteel with the nature eif th.e ferviees 
in which he cng.igeei. The;,- \eill reaiiily ac- 
knowledge, that to have eonehicted three expeditions 
offo much danger anei eiitiieulty. of Inunufual alenj:;th, 
and in liu h a varieLv of (iruation, with unilorm ami 
in\ariable fiiccels, mull have re\j\iireil not only a tho- 
rough and ae curate knowleeige of his liuliiiel's, liut ;i 
powerful ami eomprelientive genius, fruitlul in re- 
ieiurces, and eeiually reael\ in the application of what- 
ever the higher and inlerie)r calls ol the fervii e reijuire'd. 

We cannot here liirbear noticing a lueelal, whiih 
has been exeeuted hy Mr. Pim;o, t()r the, So- 
cirrv, to perpetuate the memory of a man, whole 
merit is far fuperior to panegyric, but which medal, 
we are lorry to lay, dots not convey a tlriking likeiicf. 
of Capt. Cook, thixigh in fonie refpcCls elegantly dc- 

On one fide of this medal is given a relief of Cap- 
tain Cook, with this infcription, Jac. Cook, 
INVBSTICATOR ACERRIMLS: immediately under the 
head is cxpreHed in Inmll'r characters, AV;;. Sue'. LonJ. 
Socio /no. On the reverfc appears an creelt figure of 
Britannia Handing upon a jilain: the left arm reds 
upon an hierilglyphic pillar : her right arm is projccltd 


cook's first VOYAGE— for making Difcovciics in the Sciii/6 S,:jj !k Round tlic //;./</. -<) 

oil" to US. N\'c af- 
iicly fatislicil ; and 
II rcnicinbraiue of 
im. \S'c attorward 
(), and to make it 
^ tlicir proviiioii.i m 
lundcd « itli canoes, 
ird, expalling great 
»d tlu'ir fatistaction 
ur friends, uiio ilid 
;c hoj^s, and other 
ne the old trtache- 

dy for fca, Captain 
ivs of our proLceil- 
:e\\ard before us, it 
orders to ininioor, 
lifniilled all die na- 
ly Kaireckeca, took 
tives were lollci-ied 

and, as we palFcd 
.\ith every luaik of 

rviccH were perhaps 
d meritorious. Iht 
fo fuccetsfcliy pur- 
amcn, forms a new 
and will tranfmit 
the friends and bc- 

al liiHor)-, need not 
antages, wliieh have 
of long voNages at 

I'hat dreadful dif- 
vice, and whofe ra- 
.iifi osertrs \\ ith lir- 

relati', \\\u\}, v\ lll- 
r.iniiv over the hves 
"''li- lihllai le to 
It v\as n fcrv'-il tor 
, iiy repeated trials, 
> the i:nu!ual length 
•.nown regions, anil 
r 1 1 invite, not only 

even without dmii- 

thi iiiuiUeii degree. 

fully explaineei by 

d before the Uoyal 

kifrey Caplcy, who 

1 on that oiealion ; 

ierieii('<-of his third 
itiuiud m this work 

I abilitii-s, «c Hiall 
eiK of thole w lu> 
ure of the fervi' e"i 
ev uill readily ae- 
eii three expeditions 
f lniiiuifualaleii|i;th, 

with unilonn and 
ired not only a tho- 

his liufiiiefs, l)ut ;» 
uus, Iruitlul in re- 
>li' ation ot what- 
tiie fervice iviiuired. 
ng a meilal, whirh 

t()r the H.ovAi, .So- 
V of a man, whole 
,, but wliieh medal, 
■y a llriking likenel'. 
.ipcOls elegantly dc- 

vcn a relief of Cap- 
)ac. Cook, Oci.'ivt 
■diately under the 
ters, AV^'. Soc'. LmiJ. 
i an crcd figure of 
n; the loft arm rcfts 
ght arm is projeclcd 



over a globe, and contains a fymbol, cxprcffive of the 
celebrated circumnavigator's cntcrpriling genius. The 
infeription round the reverfc is, Ni/, intentati'm 
NosTki LiQui;iu;; and under the figure of Britannia, /////^ 
piciis (u-orgii ill. 

A few «ere (Irtick off in gold, which arc faid to be 
difp ■" ' of as follows : 

One to his Britannic majefty, under whofc aufpiccs 
Captain Cook proceeded on his difcovcrics. 

One to the king of France, for his great courtcfy in 
giving a fpecilic charge to his naval commanders to 
Jbrbear an hoflilc condud to cither of the fliips under 
Captain Cook's command, and to aftbrd every afliftancc 
in their power in cafe they fell in with them. 

One to the I'jriprefs of Rullia, for her great hofpit.i- 
lity to Captain Oiok, v\hen he touched at Kamlkatcha. 

f)ncto Mrs. Cook, the captain's relid. 

One to be dcpolited in the liritilli Mufcum, and one 
to remain in the college of the Royal .Society. 

There were alio feveral (ilver ones dillributed amongit 
the Lords of the Admiralty, and other diftinguilhed 

The principal objedsof thcfe voyages will be befl: ex- 
plained by inferting the following cxtrads from Cap- 
tain Cook's inrtrucUons, for undertaking and. per- 
forming his lall voyage, dated Ailmiralt^ Ollice, 
July 6, 1 776, and iigned by Lord Sandwich, and 
two other coiumillioners. 

•• YOU arc hereby required and direiled.his majcfly 
having a good opinion of your abilities, to take the 
command of the Refolution and Difcovery, and p.oceed 
iipcni a voyage of linding out a noithern paflagc by lea, 
from the Pacific to the .Atlintic Oiean. 

" On your arrival at the Cape of (Jood Hope, you arc 
to refrelh the Hoops companies. 

" \'ou are, ifpolliblc,to leave theCapeofGood Hope 
by the end of October, or the beginning of Nov-nnber 
next, and proceed to the fouthMard in fearch of fome 
illands faid to have been lately feen by the French, in 
the latitude of 48 cleg, fouth. and about the meridiin 
of Mauritius. In cafe you find thofe illands, you are 
to examine them thoroughly for a good harbour ; and 
upon difcovering one, make the neccffary obfervations 
to facilitate the linding it again; as a good port, in 
that lituation, may hereafter prove very ufeful. You 
are then to prcK: ed to Otaheite, or the Society Illes 
(touching at New /ealand in your way thither, if vou 
Ihould judge it neceflary and convenient) and taking 
tare to arrive there time enough toadmit of you giving 
the flcKips comp.imes the relreihnient they may (land in 
need of. 

" Upon your arrival at Otaheite, or the Society Ifles, 
you are to land Oi.iiah at lueh of them as he may 
thoofe, and to leave him there. 

You are todilhibute among the chiefs of thofe iflands 
fiieh part of the prefents with which you have been 
fupplied, as you lliall jiidg'" proper, rcl'erving the re- 
mainder to dillribute among tlie natives of the coun- 
tries you may diluiver in the northern hemifphere. 
You are to leave thofe iOanils in the beginning of I'e- 
bruary, or foonor if you ll.all judge it' neceflary, and 
then proceed in as dire, t a eourle as you can to the 
coall of New Albion, cndti\ouring to fall in with it 
in the latitude ol 4, deg. north. 

" Upon your arrival on thecoallof New Albion, you 
are to put into the lirll eonvc^nient port to recruit vour 
wood and water, and proi ure refielhments, and then 
to proceed northward along the coal, as far as the la- 
titude of 65 deg. or farther, where we could wilh you 
to arrive in the month of June next. When you get 
that length, you are very caiefully to fearch fcr,' and to 
explore, fuch rivers or inlets a.s inay apj ear to be of a 
toiiliderable extent, and po nting towards Hudfon's or 
Balhn's IJavs ; and if, from your own obfrivations, or 
from any intiirmatioii you ma,- receive from the na- 
tives (who, thcreisreafon tobcliev, are .he fame race 
of people, andfj)eak the fame la: -uage, of which you 
arc furnillied witli a vocabulary, as' the Efiiuiniaux) 

there fliall appear 10 be a cert linty, or even a [iiiilvi- 
bility, of a water paHage into the alore-mention.-d bay-;, 
or cither of them, you are, in fu'li c-xl'c, to iile \.)ur 
utmoU endeavours to pafs through v* ith one or both of 
the (looj)*, iinh f you Ihall be ofopini( n thu the pall'.ige 
may be elleeled with mure certainty, or with great.r 
probability, by fmsller vclills ; in v.hicii cafe >ou arc 
to fet up the fr.imes of 'one or both ilie fmall vellHs 
with which you are provided, and, when thcv ire put 
t\ge:lier, and are properly fitted, llored.and viohia'led, 
you are to difpati h one or both of them, under the 
care of pro[)er oHicers, men, and boats, in order to ai- 
tenipt the f.iid pallage. Hut, neverthelefs, if vou lliall 
find it more eligible to purfue other nieafiires than thofe 
above pointed out, in order to make a dil'covery of the 
befi)re-mentioned palliigc, (if any fuch there ix-) you 
aa- at liberty, and we leave it to yourdifcretion, to pur- 
fue fuch meafure.s accordingly. 

" In cafe yoii lliall be fatislied that there is no paffagc 
through to tivj above-mentioned ba}s, fufVuient l<)r the 
pur(-c)lts of navigation, you arc, at the projier fealiin 
of the year, to repair to the port of .St. Peter and St. 
Paul in Kair.tfehatka, or wherever elfe you lliall judge 
more proper, in order to lelVelli ^oi r people aiut pais 
the Winter; and, in th.e Spring of tl.e enfuing year 
1778, to proceed from thence to the !i(irtli\\;irci, as tiir 
as, in yoiM' prtiJen e, jou ma. think proper, inlurthcr 
feirrh of a north ea'!, or north well palfivc, from the 
Pai iiif" O can into th'e Atlantic (^-ean, or the North 
Sea: and if, from vour own ohfervation, or inlorma- 
tion, there !l .".11 ap;)e;ir to be n jjiobability of fuch |",al'- 
f.v,^!.', you uc to I'ro.eed ,is above directed : and, hav- 
ing diicovered fuch palliigc, or failed in the attempt, 
make tliC bell of your way back to Fngland, by lueh 
roitie as you may think bell tor the improvement of 
geogra[)li\' and navigation. 

" At whate\er places you may touch in the courfe of 
your voyage, where accurate olilervations have not ai- 
re \dy been made, you are, as far as your time will 
allow, very carefully to obfeive the true lituation of 
liich places, both in latitude and longitude; the vari- 
ation of the needle; bearings of head-lands; height, 
direction, and com fe of the tides and curre.its ; d 'pth.* 
and foun.lings of the lea ; IhoaN, rocks, &c. and alio 
to furvey, nuke charts, and take views of luch ba\s, 
harbours, and ditfer nt parts of the coafl, and to 
m.',ke fuch notations th.crcon, as may be ufeful cither to 
navigation or commerce. You are alio carefully to ob- 
ferve the nature of the foil, and the produce thereof. 
'I'ou are likewife to obferve the genius, teni|)ei, di^po- 
lition, and number of liie inhahitai.ts, where you find 
any; and to endeavour to cultivate a frie;'.d:h'i) with 

" Youarealfo, with theconfent ofthe natives, to take 
poUeHioii, in the name of the king of Ijreat I'ritain, 
of convenient iituations in fuch coimrrics as \ou uniy 
difcovcr, that ha\e not already been dil" overed or vi- 
fited by anv other I uropean po\uT ; and to diliiibutc 
among the inhabitants fuch things as will remain as 
traces and tellimoiiies of your having been there ; but: 
if you find the countries lo difco\ered arcut: r.luibited, 
you are to take pollelliijn of tl em lor hi-, majeUy, by 
letting U() [)roper marks and inlcripti.ins. 

" Youare,b> all oi)portiinities,to fend to ouiYecretary 
accounts of your proceedings ; and u^.on your arrival 
in lingland, you are immediately t*:? tc t air tc^ this of- 
fice, in order to lay before us a full account o'tlie whole; 
courfe of your voyage; takuig care, bc'o;e \ri! leave 
the floop, to demanii from tl'.e oPxerj and pett^ of- 
ficers, the log-books and-jo rnals tliey may have k, t, 
and to feal them up for our in!pe.:t:on ; and cijoimng 
them, and the whole crew, not to where they 
have been, until they (hall have nciir.iifion fo uo J : 
and you are to airevli Caplain Gierke to do the fa.:.', 
w ith refpecl to the officers, petty officers, and crew of 
the Difcoverv." 

Having here given the moft faithful account wc 
have been able to coUcifl:, both from our own obfer- 
vations, and the rclationn of others, of the life, death, 








jnihlic fiTviccs, aiul ilKiiaCttT of this excellent coin- 
nuiuk-r, we Ihall now leave his memory to the griiti- 
tikle aiul acimiratioii of porterity. 

Thus havinp; trefpafll-il on the public intUilgcncc by ili- 
prelliiig to relate particulars of a very interclHng 
nature, ami which will, notwithflaiulinp;, be hi|^hly 
acceptable to all our numerous rcailers, we llmll re- 
fume the narrative of the full voyage, which svill he 
followed with the fecond and third voyages in their 
regular order. 

ON the I jth of July, I769,after leaving the idand of 
Otaheitc, we continued our courfe, with i lear \uather 
and .1 gentle breeze; and were informed by 'I'upi.i, that 
iowr illands which he callcil lluaheinc. Ulietea, Otaha, 
and I'olabola. were at the dillance of about one or two 
divs fail ; and that hogs, fowls, and other refrellunents, 
very fcarcc on board, were to be got there in great 
abundance. Me alfomcntionrd an illand to the north- 
ward, which he called Tethuroa. It i- filiated north 
half weft eight leagues dillant iVom the n.trtliern ex- 
tremity of Otaheite. It was a ("mall low iilan.i, but as 
Tiipia faid, without any fcttleil inhabit:.'.nts. On the 
15th we made but httle wav, on account ot'the calms 
which fuci cided tlie light breezes. "I'upia olten pra\ed 
to his god Tane for a wind, auil boalK'd ot'his hicc efs. 
which iiidceil he t-iok care to infure, by m \ 'r applying 
10 T.-'nc, till he (aw a breeze fo near, that he knew it 
m\\\\ naJi the (liip before his pr.nerwas concluded. 

On the if>th we f)u:v.kd near the nonh-well part of 
the illand of I luneine, but Ibiuui no Imttom at 70 ta- 
ihoiHS. Several Cannes put oil'; butti.e ladlaii^ ("eem- 
ed learful ol coming near the till the light of I'upia 
rv:m,)ved their apprehenllcns. They then came along 
fide, and the king of the illand, with his queen, came 0:1 
bo.ud. Till V feemed fiirpri/.ed at whatever was tliewn 
them, but made no enquires alter an\' thing but whu 
was olfered to their notice. After fome li.iie they 
became more familiar; and the king, wliofe name 
WAsOrcc, as a token of amity, pro|)ofed exchanging 
names with Capt. Cook, which was leavlilv accepted. 
We tound the ]ieo]i!e here nearly (imil ir to thole ol 
Otalicile in almoll e\ery particular; but il"!"upia mi;>ht 
be credited, the\' are not like them ad, luted to thie\ m;^. 
Having anchoied in a (iii.cll but loinenient harbour, 
on the well lide of the illind, (called bv t'le n.itnes 
Owparre) we went on ("lore with Mr. Hanks, and fome 
oiher gentlemen, ace ompanied b\- the kiiu; and Tujua. 
'I'he moment we landed lupia un overed himlVlf as 
low as the waill, and delired Mr. Monkh(Mife to lollow 
liis example. Ik-ing featcd he now began a ("peech. or 
prayer, which lalled .about twenty miiuites; the king, 
who (lood oppofite to him, anfwering in what (cemed 
let replies. During this harangue, 'I'upia ilili\(red, 
;it dillerent times, a handkerchief, a black lilk IK i k( lolh, 
l\y:W^- [il mtains, and be.ids, as prefents to their Ivitua, 
ordciti ; ami in return lor our Ivitua, we recei\eit a 
hog, (ome young plantains, and two bunches of fea- 
thers, all which were carried on board. Iheleiere- 
m:inics wlureconlulered as a kind of ruificalion of a 
treaty between us ami the king (,l 1 Iiiaheine. 

Oil the 17th we went again on llioie, and made an 
cxcurlion into the country, the produclioni of which 
greaily refembled thole of Otaheitc ; the rocks and 
day feemed, indeed, mtirc burnt : the boat houfes were 
(iirious and remarkable large. The level part of the 
country alfords the moll beautiful landfcapes that the 
imagination can polllbly form an iilea of. The foil is 
cxceeilinglyfertile.and thedioreis lined with fruit trees 
of did'ereiit kinds, particularly the lo.oa-niit; how- 
ever, in fome pl.aces there were fait f»am]is and la- 
goons, which produced neither trees nor plains. 

On the 1 Kth we went .again on (hore.and i'upia be- 
ing engaged with his friends, we took with us laivota, 
hs boy. Mr. 15anks propofed taking a more perfect 
view of a kind ofchell, or ark, which lie h*d before ob- 
fervcd. The lid of this ark neatly fewed on, and 

thatched in a peculiar manner with palm-nut leaves. 
It was placed on two poles, and fiipported by fmall 
carved arches of wood. Thefc poles (erved to remoNc 
it from one place to another, in the manner of our 
fedan-chairs. We remarked, that this chert was of a 
form refembling the ark of the Lord among the Jews; 
but it is rtill more remarkable, that enquiring of 
Tupiu's fcrvant what it was called, he told us Ewhnrre 
no l'",atua, the Houfeof (Jod ; though he could give no 
account of its meaning or ufe. Our trade with the 
iLitives went on flow!/ 1 we got however eleven pigs, 
and were not without hopes of obtaining more the next 

On the 19th we offered them fome hatchets, for 
which we jirocured three very large hogs. As we iii- 
teniled to fail in the afternoon, king Oree, and other* 
of the natives came on board to take their leave. Cap- 
tain Cook prefented to Oree a fmall pewter plate, 
(lamped with this infcription, " His Britannic Ma- 
jelly's (hip Lndeavour, Captain (^ook, commander, 16 
July, 1761). We gave him alfo fome medals, or coun- 
ters, refembling our Lnglifli coin, and oil>er trilles, 
which he promifed to keep in order to remember us. 
'I'hc ifland of Hiiaheine lies in 16 deg. 43 min. fouth 
latitude, aiul 150 deg. 5 2 min. well longitude; about 
;<o leagues dillant from Otaheitc, and is twenty miles 
in circiimt'erence. Its produdions arc a month for- 
wanler than thofe of the lad mentioned ifland, as we 
found bv feveral of the t'ruits &c. Mr. Danks col- 
Itvled only a few new plants, but found alpecics of the 
fcor|iion which he had not before feen. The inhabi- 
taius are very Ley, but are (loutcrand larger made than 
thofe of Ot iheiie ; the women very t'air,and wi: thought 
them handl'ome. Ijoth fexes feemed to be lefs timid, 
and lefs curious. Thev made no enquiries when on 
Iviard the (liiji, and, when we fired a gun, though ap- 
parently frighted, yet thev did not f.ill down, as our 
friends at Otaheitc condantlvdid when we came amon_<T 
them; but it is to be conlidered, that the former had 
never experienced its power of ilifpenling death. \N'c 
now made (ail for the illand of Ulietea, dillant fcvca 
or eii'.ht leagues from Hiiaheine. 

On the 10th, by the dirtvtion of Tupia, we an- 
( hored in a bav, formed by a reef, on the north fide of 
the ill Hid. Two catws foon cam.- off from the lliore, 
a, id the na'ives brought with them two fmall hogs, 
whic h thev ( xihangcil tc>r fome nails ami beads. The 
( aptain, Mr. Hanks, and other gentlemen now went on 
'liore, accompanied by 'I'upia, who introduced them 
with the f.ime kind of ceremonies that had taken place 
on their landing at Huaheine; after which Captain 
Cook took poU'elHon of this and the three neighbour- 
ing illands, I luaheine, Otaha, and Holabola, in the 
name of his Britannic majelly. We then walked 'oa 
large Moiai. tailed by the natives Tabo<leboatea, 
whii h we found dilferent from the fepulchral monu- 
ments of (>taheite. being tompofed of ("our walls, a- 
boiit t iglu or nine I'eet high, aiiil built of large coral 
Hones, furroiinding a courr of about jO feet Iquarc. 
At a fm.ill didance we (ound an altar, or ewhatta, 
whcreu|ion l.iy the lall oblation, or facrilicc, a hog 
al>oiit eightv pountis weight, which had been offered 
whole, ami van' nicely roalled. We alio faw four or 
five Lwharrc-no-eatua, or houfesof (jod, towhich car- 
riage poles w ere fitted. Vnim hence we proceeded to a 
long hoiife, where among rolls of cloth, we faw the 
model of a cancH', about three feet long, to which were 
fillened eight human jaw -liones: we concluded they 
were trophies of war; but Tupia alTirmed they were 
the jaw bones of the natives of this illand. Night now 
advanced with quick paces, but Mr. Banks and the 
Doelor ( ontinued their walk along the fliore, and faw 
another l'".w harre-no-eatua, al(i) a tree of the fig 
kind, the trunk of which, (the n.ature whereof has 
been already defcribed) was forty-tw o paces inctrcum- 
11 rencc. 

On the 2ift the mailer was fent to infpc(fl the foii- 
thcrn part of the ifland, and a lieutenant was difp^itched 
in the yawl to found the harbour where the Endeavour 
lay. While the Captain went in the pii\nacc to take a 


ilni-nut leaves, 
lorted by fmall 
rvcd to rcmo\c 
Tianncr of our 

chci> was of a 
long the Jews; 

cmiuiring of 
old us Ewharre 
c could {^ivc no 
trade with the 
er eleven pigs, 
• more the next 

c hatchets, for 
igs. As we iii- 
rce, and other* 
icir leave. Cup- 
pewter plate, 

Britannic Ms- 
commander, 1 6 
icdals, orcoun- 
id oil>er trilics, 
remember us. 
. 4'? min. fouth 
jngitude -, about 

is twenty miles 
c a month for- 
d idand, as wc 
Vlr. Hanks col- 

a fperies of tlic 
I. The inhabi- 
;irger made than 
, and we thought 
o be Icfs timid, 
[uirics when on 
i^un, though ap- 
11 doun, as our 

HC came amonf» 

the former had 
iling dcnth. Wc 
~a, dillant fevcn 

Tupia, we an- 
the north fide of 
t" from the (liorc, 
t«o fmall hdgs, 
mi beads. The 
len now w rnf on 
ntioduccd them 
had taken place 
which Captain 
hrce neighbour- 
$<)labola, in the 
hen walked ro a 
pukhral niomi- 
f four walls, a- 
It of large coral 
(O feet fijuarp. 
tar, or ewhatta, 
fac ritice, a hog 
,1(1 been otfered 
I faw four or 
,1, to which car- 
proceeded to > 
ith, we faw the 
;, to which were 
concluded they 
wed they were 
nd. Night now 
Banks and the 
fliore, anil faw 
ree of the fig 
ire wliereof has 
paces incLrcum- 

infpcft the fou- 
e the Endeavour 

innacc to take a 



t / 

:^.A X 








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COOK';. 1" IRST VOYAGF'.— for ninkiiii^ DZ/.w./v' j in the Stuth .iV./f 5c Ilniiinl t!i« //'.//,/. 


view of part of the iflin;! wliu h lay lo the north- 
waril. Mr. H.iiiks an-l thr- >v-'i»ilL'nu'ii wrrr a;^ain on 
Ihon-, triilinn with th.' n:itivci, and icinliingaftt-r the 
proihielions ami ciirio(itii's o^ the country. Thi'Viiif- 
rovcrcd, however, not one particular Worthy of no- 

The ha/.y VM-ntlirr aniibrifk funk's prcvcnicd us lioni 
gcttinj^ undtr, till the z\x\\, wWn wc nut to li;i, 
• ami Ih'crtil norrhwani wirliin the ri'if, towardsanofun- 
ing, atthcdillantc ol about liveor fix le.iji;iics, in ctfii't- 
ingul'iih vc wiTf in grrat danj^jer of llrikinjj on a 
rock, rlic man who ItMindcd, cryin;^ out on a i'lKldi-n 
•• 'I'uo fatlioms," \vhiili(()iilil net hut alaiin iis}^;uaily i 
but cither tlic mailer u:\. millaken, or the (luii «cnt 
along the ediie of a (Oial roi k, many oi \\hi<h in the 
rcij^mliourhooil of tlufe illaiuls air as iUcp as a wall. 

The bay where the F.ndeavour lay at anchor, calKd 
Oopoa, is lanac ions enough to hold a |.;ieat numlierol 
fliipping, and fe> irctl from the iia by a reef of ro( ks. 
Iti lituation i.i oil the (alk-rnniod part of illand. 
Thcprovili nseontill of cocoa-nuts, yams, plantains, 
and a few hogs and fowh. The country round about 
the place where «e landed was not fo plentiful as at 
Otaheite or I luahcin ■ The fouthernioll opening in 
the reef, or channel into the harbour, by whiih we 
entered, is little more than a cable's kngih wide ; it 
liesolV thecallerniort jjoint of the illnd. and ma) In 
found by a I'lnall woody illand, wliMilies tothefouth- 
cart of it, called Oatara; north-wert from which are 
two other illet* called (Ipurinu and IV.mou. Iktv.ecn 
thcfe is the channel throujdi which we went out of the 
harliour, and it is a full quarter of a mile wide. 

On the ijlh we were within a league or two of the 
idand oi'OtoIia; but could not get near enough to 
land, the v uul having [)iovcd contrary. In the morn- 
ing, Mr. Hanks anil Dr. Si.landcr went in the long-boat 
with the marter, in order to found a harbour on the 
cart lide of the illand, which they found fafe and con- 
venient. We then weni on lliore and purchafeda large 
quantity of plantain"!, and fume hogs and fowh. The 
prodilceof this illand nas much the fame with that of 
Ulietea, but it fccmed to be more barren. We re- 
ceived the fame comjilimcnt from the Intiians here, as 
was ufual for them to pay their own kings, whiih was 
by uncovering their llioulders, and wrapping their 
cloaths round their bodies. We made fail to the north- 
ward, iuul at eight o'cloik on the :i)th, wc were under 
the high peaks ot IJolaliola. We found the illand inac- 
celfible in this pait, and likewlle that it was impollible 
to weather the fouth end of it till late at night. On 
the ;)Oth, we dili overed an illand which Tupia calKd 
Maurua, but la'.vl it was fmall, funouiuled by a n. f, 
and without am comniodious harbour, but inhabittd, 
and yielded nearly 'he Lv.w^: produce as the ailiateiu 
iflands. In the middle is a high round hill which may 
be feen at eleven or tweUe leagues dillance. In the af- 
ternoon, finding ourlelves to windward of fome harbour 
tliat lay on the well lide of Ulietea, we intended to put 
into one of them, ui ord.r lo Uop a leak which hail 
fprung in the powclcr-rof)m, and to take in fome adili- 
lional ballall. The win.l being light againrt us, we 
plied on and oil" till the aft 'rniKni of the fidl of AiigulV, 
when we came io .in anchor in the entrance ot the 
channel, which k\l into one of the harbours. 

Oa Wedncfday the lA, in the morning, when the 
tide turned, we came into a proper place lor mooring 
in 28 fathom. Many of the natives came oil", and 
brought hogs, fowls, and plantains, which were ()ur- 
chafed upon very miKleraie terms. Mr. Banks and Dr. 
Solandcr went on Iliorc, and I'pcnt the day very Rgree- 
ably ; the natives lliewing them great rcfpecl : being 
conducted to the houfes of the chief people, they found 
thofc who had ran iu.!^ily before them, flanding on ^ach 
fide of a long mat (preadupon the ground, and the fa- 
mily fittirig at the farther end of it. In one houfc they 
obferved lome very )oung girls drcfled in the neatelt 
manner, who kept their places waiting for the ftrangers 
to accoll them ; thcfe girls were the inoft beautiful the 
gentlemen had ever i<:c\\. One of them, about fcvcn 
OK eight years old, was (Jrcfl'cd itli a red gown, and her 
5<o. 5. 

held decoratid with a gn il ijUrtillii. vl i>l ii;v^l 
h.iii'i ihii oinimeiu is lallcil raiiiou, aiul is iuld ia 
great elliination among tlieiii. SUc wa.s liri,ijn;ai tht; 
upper end of one of their long m.Uj*,i0H ninth iiinie of 
tli<- pcojileprefiiU prdiiined to lit ii foo. 1 .mi|i.,r luail 
w.i^ re' lined on the arm of a iUxen', lookiojif «\.oiii.ui, 
who a;)]>.ared to lie her nml'i ; wiv.n Mi-. lianks and 
Dr. .Soianikr ajiproai lied her, (he ItreicliCvl 0,11. her 
hand to receive fome bcails, which they prd' 
her, with an air of liii-ji dignity and gi'ajL.ciitl(ufs, a.i 
would have done h.)nuur to the full pnnccU in llu- 

In one of the houfei kc were cntcrt.iined with a 
dance, ilillerent from any we hid feen bel'on;. The 
perliirmer put u; on his hea<l a lirge |jiece of wicker- 
work, about tiiur teil lo.ig, of a lijrm, 10- 
vered with liMthers, anti edged round w-ib liiarl.'s 
teeth. Withtlus hea<i-ilrefH, which js called a \N I'.uu, 
he begin to dance with a llow iMnriou; lVei]ii nil) mov- 
ing his heail, fo as to deCcribe a i irde v. ith the lop of 
his wicker laj), and fomeiimrs throwing :t fo tlic 
faces of the by-llanilers as to make them jump back : 
this they lonlidered as an excellent niece of In luour, 
anil it akva)s produced a heart ■ la'.i{',h, wl'icn | ra.iilid 
upon an\ ol' ilie I'.nglilli g^ntl men. 

On 'rhurfday the ;(d. as Mr. Hanks and the dg •- 
tor were going along the (I.(Me 10 the northuinl, with 
a delign to piircliali- Hock, tliey met w ith a ( cnii;- .'.ny of 
dancers, who let uded the [iroiTifs of their exiuilioll. 
Theiompany w.'s t ompiiled of lix men and two wo- 
imn d inci'is, with tliree drums. 1 hey weii' informed 
that thcfe dan crv weie fome of the principal j-eople of 
the illanl, aii.i though tl'ey were an iiinir.'.nc troop, 
they dill nit, liKe the liioliing parties of Otal-,cite, re- 
ceive any ). rituity from the b)-llandeis. 'I'he women 
wore a coniiderable quantit) of tamou, orpl.iiicd hair, 
ornainented with lloweisof the cape-jclliniiine, which 
werefUick in with talle, and mr le in clcant hiad- 
drefs. The womens necki brialls and arms, were 
naked; tlie othei parts of their bodies were covered 
with blai k cloth, which was fallened clufe round them, 
and by f!>e lide of each brcail, ne.\t ilie arms was a 
fmall plcme ot i l.ick feathers, worn like a nofegaj . 
'I hus apparelled, they advanced tideways, keeping time 
with great exactnels to the drums, whuh beat quick 
and loud J foon after they begin to Ihake themfelves 
in a very whimlical manner, and put tlieir bodies into 
a variety of llrange pollures, kniietimes fitting (loan, 
and at others falling with their faces to thegr uiiid, and 
relling on their knees anil elbows, moving tlieir lingers 
at the fame time v.ith a quickiiiis Icarcely to be cre- 
dited. 1 he chili ilexteritv, however, of tlie dances, 
as villi a-i the anuifement of the fpectaiois, coiiiiltul in 
the lafcivioiifnefs ol their attitudes and geduris. Ijc- 
tween ihj dances of the women a kind ot di.imatlc in- 
terlude was |scrl()inuil bv the men, loiuiiling of dia- 
logue as well as dancing; but tiir want of a fulliciehc 
knov ledge of the, r l.inguage, we could not learn the 
fubjeit of this interlude. 

Mr. Hanks, Dr. Solanderand fome other gentlemen, 
were prefeiit at a more regular dramatic eiuert linmenc 
the next day. 'I'he performers, who were all men, 
were ilivided into two parties, one dn lli-d in brown, 
and the other in white, hv wav of dillinition. Tupia 
being prefent, inlormed them that the party in brown, 
acted the parts of a malUr and his ferv.uUs, antl thi; 
party in white, a gang of thieves; the mailer having 
produced a balket of meat, which he gave in charge to 
his fervants ; which party, exhibited a \ ariety of ex- 
pedients, in endeavouring to Ileal this baiket, and the 
brown as many in preventing the accomplillimeiu of 
their delign. .After fome time had been fpeiu in this 
manner, thofe to whom the balket was intrulUd, l.iying 
themfelvcs down on the ground round it, pretended to 
fallallccp; the other party availing themfelvcs of this 
opportunitv, Hole g.nlly upon them, and carried olf 
their booty; the fervants awaking foon after, difcover- 
ed their lofs, but thev made no fearch alter the balket, 
and began to dance with as much alacrity as before. 

On Saturday the 5 th, fome hogs and fowls, and fe- 
L veral 








( .lit, V, d 

veral Urge pitces of cloth, many of them being fifty 
6x fixty yards in length, together with a quantity o'' 
jpiantnins and cocoa-nuts, wcrefcntto Captain Cook, 
as a prcfent from the Earce Rahic of the ifland of I3o- 
J^bola, accompanied ^Vith a melTage, importing that 
he was then on the ifland, and intended waiting on the 

On the 6ih, the king of Bolabola did not vifit us 
agreeable to his promife, his abfencc, however, was 
not in the leaft regretted, as he fent three young women 
to demand fomething in reOarn for his prcfent. After 
dinner, we fct out to pay the king a vifu on ihore, fince 
he did not think proper to come on board. As this 
man w as the Earee Kaliic of the Bolabola man, who had 
conquered this, and were the dread of all the neigh- 
bouring iflands, we were greatly difappointed inilcad 
i)f finding avigorous enterprifing young chief, to fee a 
poor feeble old dotard, half blind, and linking under 
the weight of age and infirmities. He received uswith- 
out cither that ftate or ceremony which \\c had hi- 
therto met with among the '^'hcr chiefs. 

On Wednefday the 9th, having ftoppcd a leak, and 
taken on board a frcfli ilock of provihons, we failed 
out of the harbour. Though 'vc were fcveral leagues 
di(\ant from the ifland of Bolalv'a, Tupia earncllly 
intrcatcd Captain Cook, that a Ihot might be fired to- 
wards it ; which, to gratify him, the captain complied 
with. This was fiippofed to have been intended by 
Tupia as a mark of his refentment againfl the inhabi- 
tants ot that place, as they had formerly taken from 
him large poifcflions which he held in the illaiui of 
Ulietea, of which ifland Tupia was a native, and ;> fub- 
ordinate chief, but was driven out by thefc \sarriori. 
We had great plenty of provifioii'-, as well of hogs, as 
of vegetables, during the time we continued in the 
neighbourhood of thefc iflands, fo that wc were not 
obliged to ufe any confiderablc quantity of the Ihips 
provif^ons, and we had flattered ourfelvcs, that the 
f'lwls and hogs would have fupplicd us with fiefli pro- 
vifions during the courfc of our voyage to the fouth- 
ward, but in this wt were unhappily difappointed, for 
as the hogs could not be brought to eat any European 
grain, or any provender whatever, that the iliip af- 
forded, we were reduced to the difagreeablc nccclTity 
of killing thcni immediately on leaving thofe iflands; 
Hiid the fowls all died of a difeafe in their hrflds, with 
wl'ch they were feized loon after they had been <'ar- 
riedon b<Mrd. Being detained lo.iger at Ulietea in re- 
pairing the fliip than we cxfieolcd, we did not go on 
Ihore at I3olabola ; but after giving the general name 
of the Society lilaiuls, to the illands of Huahcinc, L'lie- 
tca, Holaiiol.i, Otaha, and Maurua, which lie between 
the latituui if 16 dcg. 10 min. and 18 dcg. 55 min. 
fouth, we purfucd our courfe, ftanding fouchwardly for 
an ifland, to which we were directed by Tupia, at 
above 1 00 le.n;;uf » diflant. This we difcovcred on Sun- 
day the ^■\i\^, and vere informed by him, that it was 
called Obiterca. 

Or the 14th we flood in for land, and fa'.r ic'.era! 
•of the inhabitants coininc along the fliorc One of 
the lieutenants wsi difpatcncd in the pinnace to found 
'fcr anchorage, and to obtain w hat intelligence rould 
V)e got from the natives concerning any lanil, that might 
be farther to the fouth. Mr. Banks, Ur. Solandtr, and 
Tupia, went with the lieutenant in the boat. VVhen 
they approai ht.l the lliore, they obferved, that the In- 
dians were armtil with long lances. A number of 
them were foon drawn together on the beach, and two 

I'lMiipc' into the water, endeavouring to guin the boat j 
)ut Ihc fcM)n left then* and fome others that had maiic 
the lame atteiiipt, far enough behind her. Having 
vloubltd tlie [wiiit where they intended to laud, they 
Vj^encd a j.irgc bay, and favv aru)ther party of the na- 
tivcii,<.i;.iiJing at the end of it, anned like thofc whom 
they had ftcii before. Preparations were thjn made for 
l;inding, on which a canoe full of Indians came off to- 
wards thciii. ObfervinK this, Tupia received orders 
to iicqiiaini them that the Englilh did not intend ta 
otti.r ihem violence, but meant to traflic with them 
fkH- a:\\U, wlucit were produced. 'i'liii« infurmad they 

came along-fidc the boat, and took Tome nails that 
were given them, being ! cmingly well picafed with the 
prefent. Yet a few mmutes alter, fevcral of thcfe pco- 
i le boarded the boat, dcligning to drag her on fliorc; 
but fomc mufqucts being difchargcd over their heads 
they leaped into the fca, and having reached the canoe, 
put back with all pofTible expedition, joining their 
countrymen who ftead ready to receive them. The 
boat immediately purfued the fugitives, but the crew 
finding the furf extremely violent, did not venture to 
land there, but coalf ed aftJng fliore to try if they could 
not find a more convenient place. Soon after the canoe- 
got on ihore, a man oppolite the boat floiiriflicd his 
weapon, calling out at the fame time with a Ihrill 
voice, which was a mark of defiance, as Tupia ex- 
plained it to the Engliih. — Not being able to find a 
proper landing-place they returned, with un intention 
to attempt it where the canoe went on ihore ; where- 
upon another warrior repeated the defiance : his ap- 
pearance was more formidable than that of the other; 
he had a high cap on made of the tail feathers of a 
bird, and his b<xly was painted with various colours. 
When he thought fit to retire, a grave man came for- 
ward, who aiked Tupia fcveral qucflions, relating to 
the place from whence the veifel came, as. Who were 
the pcrfons m\ board ? Whither they were bound ? &c. 
After this it was propfifcd that the people in the boat 
lliould go on Ihore and trade with them if they would 
lay afide their weapons ; but the latter would not agree 
to this, unlefs the Ljigliih would do the like. As this 
propofal was by no means an equal one, when it was 
conlidered that the hazard muf\ lor many reafons b« 
greatci io the boat's crew than the Indians, and as per- 
fidy was dreaded, it was not complied with. Belides, 
lime neither the bay which the Endeavour entered, nor 
any other part of the ifland furniihcd good harbour or 
anchorage, it wa's refolvcd not to atrcmpt landing anj) 
more, but to fail from hence to the fouthward. 

The natives are very tall, well proportioned, anil 
have long hair, which, like the inhabitants of the othe^; 
iflands, they tie in a bunch on the top of their heads, 
they arc likewife tataowed in diflcrcnt parts of their bo, 
dies, but not on their pofleriors. The ifle docs not 
IliiKJt up into high peaks like the others tha; they vi- 
iited, but is more level and uniform, and divided into 
finull hill(Kks, ffune of which are covered witJi groves 
of tiec.<. However, none of thof^ bearing the bread 
fruit were feen, and not many cocoa-trees, but a great 
number of thofc called Etoa, were feen on the fea coaft 
of this ifland. Both the nature of their cloth, andtheic 
manner of wearing it differed in many rcfpeds from 
what had beenoblerved in the progrefc of our voyage. 
All the garments that thefc people wore, were dyed 
)eIlow, and painted with a variety of colours on the 
outiide. One piece formed their whole habit, having 
a hole in it through whiih they put their heads. This 
reached as tiir as rl^cir knees, and was tied clofe round 
their bodies with a kind of ycllowilh fafh. Some of 
them alio wore caps of the fame kind, as wc have al- 
ready mentioned, and others bound round their heads ai 
piece of cloth which refembled a turban. 

On the ijih we failed from this ifland with a fine, 
bret/e ; but on the \ 6th it was hazy, and we bore away 
tor what refembled fevenil high peaks of land. Tho 
weather clearing up, we were convinced of our miftakc, 
and refumed our courfe accordingly. Wc faw a comet 
on the 30tli, about four o'clock, which was then about 
60 dcg. above the horizon. Land was difcovered at 
wcl^ by north on Thurfday the 7th of October, and in 
ihe morning of the 8tli, wc cimc to an anchor oppo- 
lite the mouth of a fmall river, not above half a league 
Iroin the coafr. 

Captain Cook, Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and fbme 
other gentlemen, having left the pinnace at the mouth 
of the river, [irocecdcd a little farther up, when we 
landed, leaving the yawl to the care of fbme of our 
boys, and went up to a few fmall houfes in the neigh- 
bourhood. Some of the natives that had concealed 
themfelves in the neighbourhood took advantage of our 
abfencc from tl;c boat, and ruflicd uu^ advancing and 


^ _ •.,■■ . ■ ■ -:. .,.4- . 


cook's first voyage — for makinj; Di/coveries in tlie Souf/j Seas & Round the IFor/J. 4 : 

nc nails that 
leafed with the 
1 of thcfc pco- 
hcr on fliorc; 
cr their headt 
hcd the canoe, 
joining their 
them. The 
, but the crew 
lot venture to 
if they could 
fter the canocr 
floiiriflied his 
with a Ihrill 
as Tupia cx- 
able to find a 
an intcntioti 
(horc; where- 
ance : his ap- 
of the other; 
fcathcis of a 
rious colours, 
nan came fbr- 
s, relating to 
as. Who were 
: bound ? &c. 
lie in the boat 
they would 
)uld not agree 
ike. As this 
when it was 
ny reafons b« 
s, and as per- 
ith. Bciidcs, 
r entered, nor 
>d harbour or 
t landing anj; 

>rtioncd, anij 
s of the othe^^ 
f their heads, 
:.i of their bo, 
ifle docs not 
tlia: they vi- 
1 divided into 
d witli proves 
ig the brcaj 
;, but a great 
I the fea coaft 
oth, andthei(r 
refpeCts from 
four voyage. 
:, were d>cd 
ilours on the 
abit, having 
leads. Thi» 
1 clofc round 
h. Some of 
wc have al.. 
iieir heads » 

brandiihing their long wooden lances. On this our 
boys dropped down the Ihcam. The cockfwain of 
the pinnace then fired a mufquetoon over their heads, 
but It did not prevent theiii from following the boat, 
in confequencc of which he levelled his piece, and (hot 
one of them dead on the fpot. Struck with aftonilh- 
mcnt at the death of their companion, the others re- 
mained motionlefs for fome time, but as foon as they 
recovered their fright, retreated to the woods with the 
utnioft precipitation. The report of the gun brought 
the advanced party back to the bo:its, and both the 
pinnace and yawl returned immediately tothelliip. 

On the 9tli, a t"-ear number of the niitives were feen 
near the place v ,iere the gentlemen in the yawl had 
landed the preceding evening, and the grcatcft part of 
them appeared to be unarmed. The losig boat, pin- 
nace, and yawl, being manned with marines and failors, 
Capt. Cook, with the reft of the gentlemen, and Tupia, 
went on iliore, and landed on the oppoiite fide of the 
river, overagainft a fpot where fevcral Indians were fit- 
ting on the ground. Thefe immediately fiarted up, 
and began to handle their weapons, each producing 
either a long pike, or a kind of truncheon made of ilone 
with a firing through the handle of it, which they twifted 
round their wrifls. Tupia was dircrted to fpeak to 
them in his language; and we were agreeably furprized 
to find that he was well underfiood, the natives fpcak- 
ing in his language, though in a dilferent dialect. 
Their intentiv^ns at firll appeared to be very hoftilc, 
brandifhing their weajxins iiithe ufual threatening man- 
lier; upon which a mufquct was fired at fomc diftancc 
from them : the ball happened to fall into the water, at 
which they appeared rather terrified, and dclilled Ironi 
their menaces. Having now drawn up the marines, 
wc advanced nearer to the lide of the river. Tupia, 
again fpcaking, informed them of our defirc to tralfic 
with them for ptovifions : to this they confentcd, pro- 
vided wc would go over to them to the other liiie of the 
river. The propofal was agreed to, upon condition 
that the natives would quit their weapons ; but the 
#iioft folemn affurances of friendfliip could not prevail 
with them to make fiich a concefiion. Not thinking it 
prudent therefore tocrofs the river, we, in our turn, in- 
treated the Indi.ins to come over to us, and after fome 
time prevailed on one of them (o to do. He w^.s pre- 
fentiy followed by fevcral others. They did not appear 
to value the beads and iron which wc offered in the way 
of barter, but proixifcd to exchange their weapons for 
ours i which being objedcd to, they endeavoured fe- 
vcral times to fnatch our arms from us, but being on 
our guard, from the inform.ition given us by Tupia 
that they were flill our enemies, their attempts were 
t'pcatedly fnifirated; and Tupia, by our direction 
gave them to underlland, that any further otfers of 
violence would be punilhed w ith inltajU death. One 
of them, ncvenhelef., had the aud.icity to fn.itch Mr. 
Grcen'.i dacger w hen his back was turnai to them, and 
r.tiring a few paces, flourifiied it over his head ; but 
hif temerity colt him his life ; for Mr. Monkhoufe 
fired a mufciuct loaded with ball, and he inltantly 
dropped. .Soon after, though not Ixfoie we had dil- 
charged our pieces loaded with fiiiall Diot only, they 
retreated fiowly up the country, and we returned to 
diir boats. 

1 he behaviour of the Indians, added tonnr wantof 
frefii water, induced Capt. Cook to continue his vo\age 
round the bay, with a iiopc of gettii'.g foiuc of tlie na- 
tives aboard, that by civil iif.\ge he nii<:lu convey 
through thcni a fa ourable iilea ot' us to tluir country- 
men, and thereby fettle a i;;o<)d corrcfpor.dcncc with 
them. An event occurred which, though attended 
«ith difagieeable circuiiif^.uii.c.i, pmrnifcd to ficilitate 
this dclign. Two canoes appeared, making towards 
land, an.i Capt. Cook propoltd intercepting cIktii with 
our boats. t)ne«.f them got char oil", but the Indians 
in the other, finding it imjiolhblc to efcape, began io 
attack our people in the boats wiih their paddles. This 
compelled the l"!ndeavour's pe>)|>le to (ire upon them, 
when four of the Iniiians were killed, and the other 
three, wlio wci.e young men, jumped into the water, 

and endeavoured to fvvim to ttiorc ; they were, however, 
taken up, and conveyed on boai-d. At (ir(t they dif- 
covered all the figns of fear und tertor, thinking they 
fiiould be killed j but Tupii, by repeated aliurances 
of friendfliip, removed their appichenlions and thcv 
afterwards eat heartily of the fhip's provifiortJi. Hav- 
ing retireti to relt in the evening, they fiept very 
quietly for fome hours, but about midnight, their fears 
returning, they appeared in great agitation, frequently 
making loud and difinal groans. Again the kind ca- 
reffes and friendly promifes of Tupia operated fo tf- 
fedually, that they became calm, and fung a fong, 
which at the deSd of night had a plcafingelfect. The 
next morning, aft.r they were drclled according to the 
mode of their own country, and were ornamented with 
necklaces and bracelets, prepara'ions were made for 
fending them to their countryn;cn, at whi.h they ex- 
prelTed great fatisfadion ; hut finding the boat ap- 
proaching Capt. Cook's firft landing place, they inti- 
mated that the inhabitants were (bes, and that after 
killing their enemies, they alw ays eat them. The cap* 
tain, ncverthelefs, judged it expedient to land near the 
lame fpot, w hich he accordingly did with Mr. Banks, 
l)odor Solander, and Tupia, refolving at the fame time 
to protcd the youths from any injury that might be of- 
fered them. Thefe had fcafcely departed on their re- 
turn to their friends, w hen two large parties of Indians 
advanced haftily towards them, upon which they r.gain 
Hew to us for protection. When the Indians drew near, 
one of the boys difcovered his uncle among them, and 
a converfation enfued .icrofs the river, in which the boy 
gave a jufl account of our hofpitality, and took great 
pains to difplay his finery. A fhort time after this 
'onverfation, the uncle fwam acrofs the river, bring- 
ing with him a grtcn bough, a token of fricndlhip, 
which we received as fuch, and fevertl prcfents were 
made him. Notwithltanding the prefence of this re- 
lation, all three of the boys, by their ow n dciire, re- 
turned to the (hip, but as the Captain intended to fail 
the next morning, he fent them afliorc in the evening, 
though much againit their inclination. The inmes of 
thefe boys were Toahowrange, Koikerangc, and Ma- 
ragovetc. They informed us of a particular kind of 
deer upon the ifland, and tliat there were likcu ifc tars, 
c.ipcrs, romara, yams^ a kind of long pepper, bald 
coote, and black birds. 

On the nth at fix o'clock in the n-.orning, wc wcigii- 
ed, and fet fail, in hopes of finding a bcrter anchoring 
place, Capt. Cook having given the bay (calletl by the 
natives Toaneora) the name of I'ovcrtv Bay j and the 
Ibuth-weft [X)int he called young Nick's Head, on ac- 
count of its firrt having been perceived by a lad on 
board, named Nicholas Young. In the afternoon we 
were becalmed; and feveral canoes full of Indinn'i came 
oil" from the Ihore, who j-eccived manv prcfents, and 
afterwards bartered even their claltlii, and Ionic of 
their paddles, fo eager were they to be pofrclled of Eu- 
ropean commodities. \ fingle tree fijnned the bottom 
of their canoes and the upper part confilted of two 
planks fewed together j thefe were painted red, re- 
prefenting many uncommon figur<;s, and very curi- 
oully wrought. The Indians were armed with blud- 
geons, made of wood, and of the bone of a large ani- 
mal : they called them Pat<;o-l'atoo ; and they were 
well contrived forclofe fighting. 

Having finifhcd their tra;hc, they fet off in fuch a 
hurry, that they forgot three of their companions, who 
remained onboard all night. Thefe teftified their fears 
and apprchcnlions, notw ithftanding Tupia took great 
■pains to convince them they were in no danger; and 
about fcvcn o'clock the next morning a canoe came off, 
with four Indians on hoard. It w as at firft w ith dif- 
ficulty the Indians in the lliip could prevail on thofe in 
the canoe to come tioar them, and not till after the 
former had alTured them, that the Englilh did not eat 
men. The chief came on board, whofe face was ta- 
taowcd, with a retnarkable patoo in his hand, and in 
dm canoe the three Indians left the fhip. Capt. Cook 
gave the name of Cape 'labk-to a pomt of land about 
feven le.igun to the fouth of Poverty Bay ; its figure 







I ■ - 


greatly rcfcnibling a tabic, and the ifiand, called by the 
natives Teahowry, he named Portland Illand, it beinj]; 
very limilar to that of the fame name in the Britilli 
Channel. It is joined to the main by a chain of rocks 
near a mile in length, partly above water. There are 
feveral flioals, calkd llumhles, about three miles to the 
north-caft of Portland, one of which the lindeavour 
narrowly cfcaped j there is, however, a pallage between 
them with twenty fathom water. Some parts of Port- 
land Kland, as well as the main, were cultivated ; and 
pumice ftone in great quantities lying along the Ihore, 
within the bay, indicated that there was a volcano in the 
illand. High palings upon the ridges of hills were alfo 
vilible in two places, which were judged to be defigncd 
for religious purpofes. 

On the iith feveral Indians came off in a canoe; 
ihey were disfiguretl in a Ihange manner, danced and 
fang, and at times appeared to be peaceably inclined, 
but at others to menace holliiities. Notuithllanding 
Tupia Ihongly invited them to come on board, none 
of them would quit the canoe, ^\'hilf^ tlie Kndeavoiir 
uas getting cloar of the lliamblcs, five canoes full of 
Indians came oil", anil feeined to threaten the peo- 
ple on board, by their lances, and other 
hollile gelhires. A four-pounder, loaded w ith grape- 
Ihot, was therefore oiilcred to be iircd, but not pointed 
at th'.ni. TWii had the dclired ellect, and made them 
drop a-llern. Two more canoes came oft' w hill! the 
Endeavour lay at anciior, but the Indians on board 
behaved very peaceably and quiet, and received feveral 
prelents, but would not come on board. 

On I'riday the i ^ih in the morning, we made for an 
inlet, but lindiiig it not Iheltered, (It. od out again; and 
were chaced by a a canoe lilledwith Inilians, but the 
Endeavoiu' out-failcil theni. She purllied lur coinfe 
roinid the hay, bur ilid not lind an opening. 'I'he next 
morning we haii a view ol" the inland country. It was 
jiimmtainous, and covered with fnow in the interior 
parts, but the land towarils th.e fea was Hat and uncul- 
tivated, and in m: ny [ilaces there were groves of high 
trees. Nine canoes full of Indians came from the 
fliore, and live ol them, alter having confultcd together, 
purfued the Endeavour, appa.eiuly with a hollile de- 
lign. Tupia was delirtd to ai\|uaint them that im- 
mediate delhuction v\ould enfue if they (crfevcred in 
their attempts ; but worils had no inHuence, and afour- 
pouiuier, w;th grape-lliot was lind, to give them fome 
notion of the arms of their opponeiit.i. They were 
rcrril'jed at this kind of reafomng, and paddled away 
fader than they came, 'i'upia than hailed the fugitives 
and arquainted them that if they came in a peaceable 
inantitr. and left their arms behind, no annoyance 
would be oli'ercd them; one of the canoes fubmitting to 
the terms, came along-lide the lliip, and received many 
(irellnts; but the othercanocs returning, and pcrlilling 
lU the fair.e menacing beliavioin-, interrupted this 
friendly inteivourle. 

(Jn the 15th we were vilited by fome lilhing-boats, 
ftie peojjle in which, conducted themfelves in an amica- 
blemanaer. Thoughthc lilh wl'.ichtheyhadon board had 
b'.en caught fo long that they were not eatable, Capt. 
< (x)k purehafed them merely for the lake of promoting 
a iraliic with the natives. In the afternoon a canoe 
villi a number of armed Indians came up, and one of 
tl.em, who was reir.arkably i loatheii, with a black Ikin, 
found means to defraud the captain of a piece of red 
baize, under preleiKc of bartering the Ikin he had on 
for it. As linjn as he had got the bai/e into his pof- 
felP.on, inllcad of giving the Ikin in return, agreeable 
to his l.virgain, he rolled them up together, and order- 
ed the cant e to put olV bom the Ihip, turning a deaf 
^ar to the repeated remonihance of the captain againlV 
his unjull behaviour. After a Ihort time this canoe, 
together with the iilhing boats whit h had putolVat the 
faille time. e;.iiie liaJ; to the lliip, ajid trade was sgain 
tiegun. During this fecond traliic with the Indians, 
one of them unexpectedly fci/.ed Tupia's little boy 
Taiyota, and pulling him int . his canw, inlhmtly put 
ort', and |)addled away with the utmoll fpeed ; feveral 
niul"tiuet» wac iuuuediately difchargcdat the p«iopk in ' 

the catioe, ami one of them receiving a wound, they 
all let go the boy, w ho before was held down in the bot- 
tom of the canoe. Taiyota taking the advantage of 
their confternation, immediately jumped into the fca, 
and fwam back towards the Endeavour; he was takeii 
on board without receiving any harm; but his flrengtli 
was fo much exhaufled with the weight of his cloaths, 
that it was with great dilliculty he reached the ihip. 
In confequence of this attempt to carry oil' Taiyota, 
Capt. Cook called the capeolVwhich it happened, Cape 
Kidnajipers, lying in latitude 59 deg. 4;^ min. fcuth, 
and longitude 1 82 deg. 24 luin. weft, anil is very dif- 
tinguilhable by the high dills and white rocks that fur- 
roumied it. 'J'he dillance of this cape from Portland 
Illand is about 13 leagues, and it forms the fouth point 
of a bay which was denoininated Hawke's Bay, in ho- 
nour of Admiral Hawke. 

'i'aiyoto, having recovered from his fright, produced 
a lilh an 1 informed Tiijiia that he intended to oiler it 
to his Iv.tua or God, in gratitude fi>r his happy efca])e ; 
this being approved ol by the other Indian, the lill» 
was call into the fea. Capt. Cook now pailcd by a 
fmall illand which was fuppofed ro be inhabited only 
by lill;ermen, as it feeined to be barren, and Hare Illand 
was the name given to it, and to a head-land in latitude 
40 deg. ;j4 min. fouth, and longitude 182 deg. 55 min. 
well, betaiile the Endeavour turned, he gave the name 
(4' Cape Turnagain. It was never certainly known 
wlutlierNew Zealand was an illand before this vcllel 
touclietl there: on this account, the lords of the admi- 
ralty had mllruCted Capt Cook to fail aloni; the coalls 
a . far as 40 degrees Ibiith, and if t!ie land extended 
firther, to return to the northward again. It was l<)r 
this realtm that the captain altered his courfe, when he 
arrived at thccajie above-mentioned: the wind having 
likewife veered about to the fouth, he returned, failing 
along th.c caill nearly in his former track. Iktweeii 
this and Cape Kidnappers Hay, the land is unequal, and 
fomewhat refemi)les our downs and fmall villages, and 
mans inhabitants were obferved. The lliip came 
abreafl of a peninlula, in Portland Illand, named Ter.i- 
kako, on W'ednefday the 19th. At this time a canoi; 
with live Imlians came up to the vell'el. There were 
two chiefs among them, who came on board, and (laid 
all night. One of thefe was a very comely perfon, and 
had an open and agreeable countiiunce. They were 
extremely grateful liirthe prelents which they received 
and difpla\ ed no fmall degree of curiolity. They would 
not eat or drink, but the fervants devoured the victuals 
fet before them with a moll voracious appetite. 

We gave the name of (iable I'.nd I'oreland tt> a re- 
markable he;iil-land, whith we palfeil on the 19th. 
Three canoes appeared here, and one Indian came oil 
boartl to whom we gave fmall prefents before he willi- 

Many of thefe Indians wore pieces of grccn-flonc 
round their necks which were traiifpaient, and rclcm- 
bled an emerald. 'I'hefe being examined, appeared to 
be a fpecies of the nephritic llone. Several pieces of it 
were procured by Mr. Hanks, and it appeared that this 
furnilhed the illanders with tlieir principal ornaments. 
The form of fome of their faces was agreeable; their 
nofes were rather prominent than Hat. Their dialect 
was not fo jruttural as that of others, and their language 
nearly rcfembled that of Otaheite. 

On I'riday the 20th we anchored in a bay two league* 
to the northof the I'oreland. To this bay we were in-, 
vited by the natives in canois, who behaved very ami- 
cably, and pointed to a place w here they (iiid we lliould 
lind plenty of Irelli water. \\c determineil here to get 
fome know ledge of the country, though the hai hour was 
not fo g(M)d a Ihelter from the weather as we expeCtetl. 
Two chiefs, wliom we law in the canoes, came on board, 
they weredreired in jackets, the one ornamented witlj 
tufts of red feathers, the other with dogs-lkin. Wo 
prefented to them linen and fome (jjike nails, but they 
did not -viilue the lall fo much as the inhabitants of the 
other illands. The tell of the Indians traded with us 
without the lead impoliiion, and wc direcled Tupia to 
aciiuaiiic thcin of our views in coining thither ; an 1 
; promile, 

a wound, they 
>\vn in the hot- 
; aLlvantai^e of 
i into the fca, 
; he was taken 
lit ills rtrcngth 
of his cloaths, 
:hcd the ihip. 
■y olfTaiyota, 
appcncd. Cape 
\.;\ niin. fcuth, 
h1 is very dif- 
rocks that fur- 
froin J'ortland 
he fi)uch point 
's Ba)', in Ijo- 

ght, produced 
ded to ort'er it 
happ)- cfcajjc ; 
idian, the lilh 
iv palled hy a 
inhaliited onlv 
nd Ibre lllanil 
mi! in latitude 
dip. 55 niin. 
ijaxe liie name 
rlainly known 
ore this vcllll 
i of the adnii- 
ottif the toalls 
ind extended 
1. It for 
piirfe, when he 
e wind having 
limed, failing 
ek. Between 
I unequal, and 
1 villages, and 
le Ihip came 
named Tera- 
tinie a canoe 

There were 
lard, and Uaid 
ly perfon, and 

'I hey «cre 
they received 

They Vioiild 
d the victuals 

land to a re- 
in the 19th. 
.iian came on 
:forc lie wiih- 

T grecn-rtonc 
r, and rcfem- 
, appeared to 
il pieces of it 
ared that this 
al ornaments, 
•ecahle ; their 
Their dialect 
heir language 

y two leagues 
y we were in-. 
ed very ami- 
lid we llioiild 
'd here to get 
-• harbour was 
we expected. 
iPie on hoard, 
miented witli 
;s.lkin. We 
lils, but they 
bitants of the 
•aded with us 
led 'liipia to 
thither ; and 






■ ■■' fv^/ 

/v*r' ■■-■■■ 

J;.»i;. ■->.■ ■„ . .v^^ji^ 

;• . ,'W ',->• .: . 

'■■. ..■ . -',.■ • f- ■ 




* •' - .■■■.. 

cook's first voyage — for making Difcoverics in tht $out6 Seas k Round the fTorM. 

■■ • ■ ■ ■ ■■ 


promife, that they (hould receive no injury, if they 
offered none to us. In the afternoon the chiefs return- 
ed; and towards the evening we wentonihore, accom- 
panied by the Capuin, Dr. Solander, and Mr. Banks. 
We w^re coufteoufly received by the inhabitants, who 
did not appear in numerous bodies, and in other in- 
ftances were fcrupuloufly attentive not to give oiFencc. 
We made them feveral fmall prcfents, and in this 
agreeable tour round the bay, we had the pleafure of 
:finding two ftreams of frcfli water. Wc remained on 
ihore all night, and the next day Mr. Banics and Dr. 
Colander dilcovered feveral birds, among which were 
quails and large pigeons. Many (lages ror drying Rfli 
were obferved||iear where we landed, and fome houfes 
with fences, v^e faw doss with pointed ears, and very 
ugly. Sweet potatoes, like thofe which grow in Ame- 
rica were found. The cloth plant grew fpontancous. 
In the neighbouring valleys the lancM were laid out in 
regular plantations ; and in the bay we caught plenty 
ofcrabs, cray-filh, and horfe-mackarel, laiger than 
thofe upon the Englilh coa(\s. The low lands were 
planted with cocoes i the hollows with gourds; but as 
to the woods they were almofl impalTable, on account 
of the number of fupple-jacks which grew there. We 
went into feveral of the houfes belonging to the natives, 
and met with a very civil reception ; and, without thN 
Icaft refcrvc, they Ihewed us whatever we defircd to 
fee. At times we found them at their meals, which 
our prefencc never interrupted. At this fcaisn ii(h 
connituted their chief food ; with which they eat, in- 
Acad of bread, roots of a kind of fern; thefe when 
roalled upon a tire are fweet and clammy; in tafte not 
difagrceabic, though rather unpleaiant from the num- 
ber of their fibres. They have doubt lefMn other fea- 
fons of the year an abundance of excellent ve^- 

The women of this place paint their faces with a mix- 
ture of red ocre and oil, which, as they are very plain, 
renders them in appearance more homely. This kind 
of daubing being generally wet upon their cheeks and 
foreheads, was calily transferred to thofe who faluted 
them, as was frequently vifiblc upon the nofes of our 
people. The young ones, who were complete coquets, 
wore a petticoat, under which was a girdle, made of 
the blades of grafs ftrongly perfumed, to which was 
pendant a finall bunch of the leaves of fome fragrant 
plant. The faces of the men were not in general 
painted j but they were daubed with dry red ocre from 
head to foot, their apparel not excepted. Though in 
pcrfonal clcanlincfs they were not equal to our friends 
at Otaheite, yet in fome particulars they furpafled them ; 
for their dwellings were furniilicd with privies, and 
they had dunghills upon which their offals and filth 
were depofited. Among the females chaflity was light- 
ly eftcenicd. They refortcd frequently to the watering 
place, where they freely bcltowed every favour that 
was requefted. An officer meeting with an elderly 
woman, he accompanied her to her houfe, and having 
prefcnted her with fome cloth and beads, a young girl 
was (ingled out, w irh whom he was given to undertland 
he might retire. Soon after an elderly man, with two 
women came in as vilitors, who with much formality 
faluted the whole company, after the cuflom of the 
place, which is by gently joining the tips of their nofes 
together. On his return, which was on Saturday the 
9 1 ft, he was fiirnilhcd with a guide, who whenever they 
came to a brook or rivulet took him On his back to 
prevent his being wet. Many of the natives were cu- 
rioudy tataowed, an old man in particular, was marked 
on the brcaft with curious figures. One of them had 
an axe made of the green ftt)nc, which we could not 
purchafe, though fundry things were offered in exchange, 
f hcfe Indians at night dance in a very uncouth manner, 
with antic gelturcs, lolling out their tongues and making 
lirangc grimaces. In their dances old nien as well as 
the young ones are capital performers. 

In the evening, Mr. Banks, being apprchenfive that 

wc might be left on fhorc after it was dark, applied to 

the Indians for one of their canoes to convey us on 

board the fliip, This they granted with an obliging 

No J. 

manner. We were eight in number, and not Ltiiig 
ufed to a velTcl that required a nice balance, wc ovcrfct 
her in the furf. No one however was drowned, but it 
was concluded, to prevent a limilar accident, that half 
our number fhould go at one time. Mr. Banks, Dr. 
Solander, Tupia, and Tai;^ota, were the firft party who 
embarked again, and arrived fafe at the fhip, as did 
the remainder of our company, all not a little plcafcd 
with the good nature of our Indian friends, who chear- 
fully contributed their alTiftance, upon our fccond trip. 
During our (lay on fhore, feveral of them went out m 
their canoes and trafficked with the fliips company. 
At firft they preferred the cloth of Otaheite to that of 
Europe, but in the courfc of a day it decreafcd in its 
value five hundred per cent. Thcfc people cxprelTed 
ftrong marks of ailoniflimcnt when fliewn the bark and 
her apparatus. This bay, which wc now determined 
to quit, the natives call Tegadoo, and it is lituatcd in 
38 deg. to min. fouth latitude. 

On the aid in the evening, being Sunday, wc weigh- 
ed anchor and put to fea, but the wind being contnuy 
we ftood for another bay a little to the ftnich, called 
by the natives Tolaga, in order to complete our wood 
and water, and to extend our corrcfpondcnce with thu 
natives. In this bay we came to an anchor, in about 
eleven fathom water, with a good fandy bottom, the 
north point of the bay bearing north by cart, and the 
fouth point fouth eaft. We tbunJ a watering-place in 
a fmall cove a little within the fouth-point of the bay, 
which bore fouth by eaft, diftant .ibout a mile. Se- 
veral canoes with Indians on board, trafficked with us 
very fairly for glafs bottles. 

On Monday the 23d in the afternoon, wc went on 
(hore accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and 
the captain. Wc examined and found the water ex- 
tremely good; alfo plenty of wood ; and the natives 
(hewed us as inuqli civility as thofe from whom we hnd 
lately departed. At this watering-place wc let up an 
agronomical quadrant, and took (cveral folar and lu- 
nary obfervations. In the morning of the 24th, Mr. 
Gore and the mariner were fent on fliorc to guard 
the people employed in cutting wood and filling the 
calks with water. Capt. Cook, Mr. Banks, and the 
doiftor alfo went on fliore: the latter were employed in 
colleding plants. In our walks through the vales we 
faw many houfes uninhabited, the natives rcliding 
chiefly in flieds, on the ridges of the hills, which arc 
very lleep. In a valley between two very high hills, 
we faw a-curious rock that formed a large arch, oppolite 
the fea. This cavern was in length abjut fc\ cmy feet, 
in breadth thirty, and near fifty in heighth, command- 
ing a view of the bay and hills on the other iide, which 
had a very pleafing etfech Indeed the whole country 
about the bay is agreeable beyond defcription, and, if 
properly cultivated, would be a moft fertile fpot. The 
hills are cloathed with beautiful fiowcring Ihrubs, in- 
termixed w ith a number of tall, ft.itely palms, vliich 
perfume the air, making it per/c tly odontt'uus. Mr. 
Banks and the doctor, among other trees that yielded a 
fine tranfparent gum, difcovered the cabbage tree, the 
produce whereof when boiled, was very good. Wc 
met with various kinds of edible herbage in great 
abundance, and many trees that produced fruit (it to 
eat. The plant from which the cloth is made, is a 
kind of Hemerocallis ; its leaves aftbrd a ftrong glofly 
flax, equally adapted to cloathing, and making of ropes. 
Sweet potatoes and planuins are cultivated near the 

On our return we met an old man w ho entertained us 
with the militarv excrcifes of the lutives, which are 
performed with the Kitoo-Patoo and the lance. The 
former has been akeady mei>tioncd>^ and is ufed as 
a battle axe: the lattw is eighteen or twenty feet in 
length, made of extreme hard wood, and Iharpencd at 
each end. A flake was fubftituted for a fupjwfed ene- 
my. The old warrior firft attacked him with his 
lance, advancing with a moft furious afpeiih Having 
pierced him, r)\e patoo-patoo was ufed to dcmolifli his 
head, at which he ftruck with a force which would at 
one bk>w have fplit any man's Ikull: from whence we 
M condudssJ 




Capt. C O O K's VOYAGES C () M P L E T E. 'ynfVJ 

. t-- \k, 

'■i^ .''■ 

c<i;\(:Iiidi.'i.i no quaitLT was given by tliefc people to their 
foes ill time of adtion, 

1 he natives in this part are not very numerous. They 
arc tolerably well lliaprd, but lean and tall. Their 
faces refcmble thofe of tlie l'"uropcans- Their nofes 
are aquiline, their eyes dark coloured, theirhair black, 
vhich is tied upon ihe top of their heads, and the mens 
beards are of a moderate length. Their tataowing is 
done very curioufly, in vmious figures, which makes 
their Ikin refemblc carving ; it is confined to the prin- 
cipal nun, the females and fervants ufing only red 
p:iiiir, with which they daub their faces, that otherwife 
Would not bedifaprteable. Their cloth is white, k'"'1)'» 
and \ery even ; it is worn principally by the men, 
tlioup,h it is wrought by the women, who, iivlevd, art 
condemned to all drudgery anti labour. 

On the 2 jth, \\c fct up the anncnirers- forge on iliore 
for neredary ufcs, and got our wood and water with- 
out the lead moleftation from the natives, with whom 
we ex> liangcd phfs bottles and beads l()r ditlerent forts 
of filli. Mr. 15anks and Or. Solander went again in 
feaich of plints, Tupia, who was with them, engaged 
in a cuiiverlation with one of the prierts, and ihcy 
feenied to agree in their opinions upon the fiibiect of 
religion. Tupia, in the (Ourfc of this confereiKC, ei>- 
quired whetlier tlic report of their eating men was 
lounded in truth, to which tiie priell anfwercd, it was, 
but that they eat none but declared foes, after they 
were killcil in war. I'his idea fo fav.ige and barba- 
foils, proved, however, th;vt they carried their refent- 
tient even beyond death. 

On the y;ih, Capt. Cook and Dr. Solander went to 
infpect the bav, when the do:lor was not a little fur- 
prifed to iiiid the mitives in the iioHelTion of a boy's 
top, which th )■ knew how to fpin by whipping it, and 
he purchafcd ic out of cuiiofity. Mr. Uanko was du- 
ring this time employed in attaining tlie fummit of a 
tUephill, thai previoully eng.aged their attention, 
nnd near it he fouiui m^ny inhabited houl'e.i. Theie 
were two rows ot' poles about fourteen or fifteen feel 
high, covered over with ilicks, which maile an avenue 
tit' about live feet in width, extending near a hundred 
x.ird-- ikiwn tlie hill, in an irregular line; tlie intent of 
ihis ere-iioa wa- nor difi overed. When thcgenilemeii 
met ai the «:tering place, the Iiulians fang their war 
fong, which va.ia Ihuige medley of lliouting, lighing, 
j!A.i grinu c, ar whii li tlie women allilled. The ne\t 
day ( apt. (.'onk niid o;her gentlemen went upon the 
inund at I he eniranvc 01 the bay, and mil wiiii a canoe 
'Iia; vas»i7 Icet in len;',tli, 1i\ in breadth, aiul four in 
i!< ;.,lit •. In r botrnni, wliith was Iharp, (onlirted of 
iliivc trunk- <:|" tjccs, and the lides and head were cu- 
r!i>::ll\ ( :ir\cd. 

We alfii cam- to ,i l.irgc unfmillicd hfnife. The 
polVs which fupponcd it weie ornimented with car\- 
mg.s that did not appear to be done upon the fpot, and 
a., r'lie inhabitant'- Iceni to fet great value upon works 
(if thii kind, future navigaror.> might lind their advan- 
in<fc 111 earning fuch ail icles to trade with, 'i'hough 
the pofis of till.' Iiuule were judged to be brought here, 
the people fceiiied to have a talle for carving, a.s their 
boats p.ii.'.dlis, and tops of walking lUckJs evince. 
Their favourite figure is a volute or fpiral, which i|i 
i;)metimi'ilingre, double, .and triple, and is done wit h 
}/rc3teAa-lnel.,, thoupli the only inlhumeiits we f.iw 
uete an a>.e m.ule of Hone, ami a chiliel. Iheir talle, 
however, i> extremely whimlical and extravagant, 
Icarcely ever iiriiiating nature. Their huts arc built un- 
d<'r tree;, their form is an oblong fqiiare : the door 
low on the iide, and the windows are at the ends i 
reeds coveicil with rhacch compofc the walls ; the beams 
of the eaves, vkhich come to the ground, arc covered 
Hilhthutch; moll of the houfcs had been dcferted, 
through fear of the luiglifh, upon their landing. There 
are inanv beautitul p.urots, and great numbers of birds 
of dilferent kinds, ()articularly one whofe notp rsfctn- 
bles the luirojiean black-bird ; but here is no ground 
fowl or poultry, nor any quad.upcdes, except rats and 
dogs, and thele were noc numerous. The dogs are 
ctinlidcred as dwhtatc lood, and their ikins fervc for 

ornaments to their apparel. 'I'hcrc is a great varifcty ql' 
filli in the bay, lliell and Cray Hlh are Very pientifu^, 
foine ot the latter weigh near 1 2 pounds. 

Sund.ay, Oiitulrer rhe 29th, we fet fail from this bay. 
li; is lituate ih latitude -^8 dcg. ii niin. fouth, four 
ItMgue.* t<) the north of Gable End I'orclantl; thcifc are 
two high rocks at the entrance of the bay, ■which form 
i( co\ e \ ery good for procuring wood and water. There 
u a high rocky illantl off the north point of the b*v, 
which alfords good anchorage, having a fine fandy 
bottom, and fid?n feven to thirteen fathom water, and 
is likewifc ilieltercd from all but the north-caft wind. 
We obtained nothing here in trade but fome fwcct pota- 
toes, and a little (ilh. This is a ve% hilly country, 
though it prefcnts the eye with an agreeable verdure, 
various woods and many fjuall plantations. Mr. Banks 
fouixl agitnt inmiberof trees in the woods, quite un- 
known to Europeans, the fire Wlwd refembled the ma- 
ple-tree, and produced a gum of whitilh colour; other 
trees yielded a gum of a deep u'llow green. 'I'hconly 
roots were \ams anil fweet potatoes, though the foil ap- 
pear* very proper tor producing every fpccics of vcge-^ 

On Monttay the ,<oth, failing to the northward, we 
fell in. with a fmall liland about a niilediflant from the 
north-eall point of the main, and this being the moft 
eallern |)ait of it, the captain named it VM Cape, and 
the illand I'ialV liland, it was but fmall, and appeared 
barren, '1 he cape is in latitude, ^1 dcg. 42 niin. 30 
fee. (but h. There are m«nv finaJl bays from Tolag* 
Ikiy to j'.afl Cape. Having doubled the cajjc, many 
village* piifcnted thenifelves to view, and the adja- 
cent l.iiid aiipeared cultivated. In the evening of the 
joth, l.ieuu iiaiit 1 licks difcovered a bay to which his 
naiiu- was gi\en. Next morning, about nine, feveral 
canoes came oil' from iT.ore with a number of armed 
men, who appcareil to havehoflilc intentions. Before 
thefe had reached the lhi[), anoth.r canoe, larger tha* 
any that had yet been feen, full of armed Indians, came 
oil', and made towards the lindeavour with great ex- 
pedition. The captain now judging it expedient to 
jirevent, if polfible, their .ittacking him, ordered a 
gun to be fired over their heads, 'I'his not prodiicint; 
the delired elfect, another gun was tired with ball, 
ubiih threw them into fuch conllernation that they 
immediately reiiiincd mui h fatler than they came. 
Thi« pireipitate retreat, indiiceil the captain to give 
the cape, off whi( h it hap[)cned, the name of Cape 
Runaway ; it lies in latituile _<7 deg. ;j2 min. fctuh,anii 
longitmie i S 1 dcg. 4S min. well. 

On the {ill, we fouiui that the land, which durinjj 
th't- d.u'.< run appeaieil like an illaiui, was one, and we 
named the fame White liland. 

On the ift of November, at day-break, not lefs than 
between 40 and 50 canoes were feen, feveral of which 
came oil as before, threatening to attack the Knglifli. 
One of their chiefs Hourilhed his pike, and made fe- 
veral hariuigue.s, I'ceming to bid defiance to thofe oil 
board the \efrel. At kill, after repeated invitation.^, 
they lame clofe along-lide; but inlle-ad of lliewing a 
difpolition to trade, the haranguing chief uttccd a 
lintence, and nxik up a (lone which he threw againft 
the lliip, ami ii>uuediately alter they feized their arms. 
They were informed by Tupia, of the dreadful confe- 
(juencci of commencing hollilities ; but this admoni- 
iion they feemcd little to regard. A piece of cloth, 
howe\er, happening to attract iheir eyes, they began 
to be iiMKe mild and realbnable. A quantity of cray 
filh, mufcles, and conger eel.t was now purchafed. No 
fraud was attempted by this company of Indians, but 
fome others that came after them, took goods from the 
velfel without making proper returns. As one of therrv 
that had rendered himfclf remark.ible for thefe prac- 
tices, and feenied proud of his (kill in them, was put- 
ling oil' with his canoe, a mufqiiet wa4 fired over his 
head, which circumllance produced good order for the 
prefent. 'Vet when thefe lavages began to trathc with 
the fitilors, they renewed their frauds j and one of them 
was bold enough to feize fome hnen that was hung to 
dry, and run away with it. In ortlcr to induct him to 

,, rcturi^ 

COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE— for making Dijiovcrics in ihc Sout/j Sets &c Roiitulth'.' IVor/,f. 4.7 


return, a mufquct was firrt fiad over his head, but 
this not anfwcring the end, he was (hot in the back 
with fmail Ihot, yet he Hill pcrfcvcred in his dcfif^n. 
This being perceived by his countrymen^thcy dropped 
a-ftcrn, ana fct up the fong of defiance. In conft- 
qucnce of their behaviour, though they m''de no pre- 
parations to attacic the vcflcl, the captain j^avc orders 
to (ire a four pounder, whicli paflld over them; but 
its clfed on the water terrilicd tncni fo nmth, that they 
retreated with precipitation to the Ihorc. 

In the afternoon, alwut two o'clock, we difcovered 
a pretty high idand to the welhvard. Sonic time after 
perceiving other rocks and iflnnds in the fame quarter, 
but not being able 10 weather them before night came 
on, we bore up littwecn them anil the main land. In 
the evening a double canoe, built after the fame liifliion 
as thofe ot Otaheite, came up, wlun Tupia entered 
into a friendly convcri'ation with lue Indians, and was 
told that the illand, dufc to whicii v. e lay, wai calkd 
M<)«tv.',.ora. It was but a lew miKs from the main 
land, iiretty high, but of no great extent. Wo ima- 
gined the difpolition oi the Indians, from their talk 
with 'iupia, to be in our favour, but, when it was 
dark they began their iifuiil liiluto, by pouring a volley 
of Hones into the fhipand then reireaied. South-well 
by well of this illand, upon the main laad, ant! in 
the center of a large plain, is a high circular mountain, 
to which we gave the na:i\^i)f Mount f'.dgecombe. It 
is very confpicuous, and is Itated in latitude 37 dcg. 
59niin. longituile 19 j dig. 7 iinn. 

The next morning, beni;; the ind, a nimiber of ca- 
noes appeared, and one, which proved to be the lame 
that had i)elicd us the iiighi Ulorc, came up. After 
convcrling with Tupia, and beliav ing peaceably about 
an hour, they complmicnted us with another volley of 
ftones. We returned the falute by firing a mulket, 
which made them inlhantly take to their paddles. Be- 
tween ten and eleven we fulid between a low Hat iHand 
and the mam land. The laH appeared to lie of a mo- 
dente height, but level, full ol pl.iiitationi and vil- 
lages. The vill.iges were upon the high land next 
thefea, more extvnlive than an, we had leen, and fur- 
rounded by a ditch, and a bank with rails on the to() 
of it. There were fome inclofures that rcftmbled forts, 
and the w hole had the appearam. e of places calculated 
for defence. 

On the jd, wc palfed the night near a fmall ifiand, 
which Capt. Cook named the Mayor j and at (cwn in 
the- morning, diHant t'rom hi in e about fix leagues, we 
dili;o\ered a cluHer of fmall illmds, which we called 
the Court of Aldermen. 'I hcfe were twelve miles from 
the main, between which were other fmall illands, 
tuollly barren, but very high. The afptvt of the main 
land was now much changed, the iiiil appearing to be 
barren, and the ioumi\ \iry thinly inhabited. The 
chief who governed ihc ililhict from Cape Turnagain 
to this coaH \>as nimed Teratu. In the afternoon 
three canofs, built dillciently liom thofe already men- 
tioned, came along-lide the iMidc.ivour. '1 hey were 
formed of the trunks of whole trees, rendered hollow- 
by burning; bur they were not carved, nor in any man- 
ner ornamented. We now failed towards an inlet that 
had been diliov end, and li.ning anchored in feven la- 
thopi water, the I hip wa-, foon furrounded bv a num- 
ber of canoi s, ami tin- people on board them did not 
iccm difpoled for liime tiiiu to commit an) acts of hof- 
tihty. A bird being ll.ot i)voiieof ourcrew, fome In- 
dians, without Hiewing r.iiy furprife brought it on 
board; and for their ci\ilit\ the captain gave them a 
piece of cloth. IJut this taw>ur oper.ated upon them 
ma ditferent manner than wa.> oipectcd ; for when it 
was dark, rhcy begun a long of defiance, and endea- 
voured to c;Mry otf the buoy of the anchor ; and not- 
withftanding ibmc niufquets were fued at them, they 
feciHcd rather to be irritatedjiian frightened. They 
even threatened lo return the next luorning ; but on 
Sunday night eleven of them were to be feea, and thefc 
retired when they found the fliip's crew were upon 
their guard. 

On the 4th at day break no Icfs than twelve canoes 

I made their appearan ■, containing near two hundred 
men, armed with fpea , lance.i, and lloiies, who fecmed • 
determined to attack the Ihip, and would have board-' 
cd her, had they known on what quarter they could 
bell have m.ade tiieir attack. While they were padd- 
ling round her, which kept the crew ujion the watch 
in the rain, Tupia, at the requeH of the-captain, ufed 
a number of dilhiafive arguments, to prevent their 
carrying their apparent deligns into execution ; but we 
could only pacily them by the lire of our mulketss 
they then laid alide their hoflile intentions, and began 
to trade ; yet they could not from their fraudu- 
lent prai'lices ; tiir alter they had fairly bartered two of 
their weapons, they would not deliver up a third, for 
which they had received cloth, and only laughed at 
thofe who demanded an equivalent. Theolfender was 
wounded with fmall Hiot j but his countrymen took 
not the leall notice of him, and continued to trade 
without any dilcomi)orure. When another canoe was 
Hruck for their mal-practices, the natives behaved in 
the fame manner; but if a round waslired over or n'.'ar 
them, they all paddled away. Thus we Ibund, 
theft and chicane, were as prevalent among the inha- 
bitants of New Zealand, as tl-.ofe of Otaliiite. In 
fearihing tiir an anchoring place, the captain f.wv 
a fortified village upon a high point, and having lixcii 
upon a proper fpot, he returned; ' pon which we 
weighed, run in nearer to the ll ore, and call anchor 
upon a Tandy bottom, in tinir tiuhom and a half water, 
file louth point ol the bay bore due call, dillant one 
mile, and a river w hich the boats can enter at low wa- 
ter li)Uth fouth-eafl, diHant a mile and an half 

On the 5th, in the morning, the Indi.ins came oH" 
to the Hiip again, who bef.aved much better than they 
had done the preceding day. Anoldman m particular 
named fojava, teltitied his prudence and honcHv, to 
whom and a friend with him, the captain prefcnted 
fome nails, and two pieces of luigliHi clotlL Tojava 
informed us, that they were often vilitcdby tiic-'iooti 11 
from the north, who Hrip;)ea them of all i1k\ i uuld \^f 
their hands on, and at times made capiivis ot tlieir 
wives and children; and that being ignorant whci the 
Mnglilli were upon their lirll arrival, the ivativLS had 
been much alarmed, but were i;o\v fatislied of their 
gomi intentions. I le added, that- tor their feturity a- 
gainft thofe plunderers, their houfes were built conti- 
guous to the tops of the rocks, v. here they could bet- 
ter defend themfelvis. Probably their poverty and mi- 
fery may be afcribed to the ravages of tliofi. who fre- 
(pienth Hript thini ot'every necellary of life. Miving 
difpatched the long-boat and pinnace into the bay to 
haul and dredge for lilh, but with little fuccefs, the In- 
dian.s on the banks tellificd their tiiendflup by every 
|ioHlble me. Ills. They brouglit us gnat quant tic,i of 
tilh drelfed and dried, which though indifl'erent, wc 
purchafed, .hat trade might not be diJlouraged. They 
alio fiipplied us with wood and good water. While 
we were out w ith our guns, the people who Haid by the 
boats law two of the natives fight. The battle wa.i 
begun with their lances; bur fome old men taking 
thefe awav, they were obliged to decide the quarrel, 
like KngliHimen, with their lills. I'or fome time they 
iHj.vcd with great vigour and perfeveiance, but at lengtli 
they all retiVed behind a little hill, fo that our peojile 
were prevented from feeing the ilfue of the combat. 
At this time the Endeavour being very foul, Hie was 
heeled, and her bottom fcrubbed in the bay. 

On the 8th, we were vlHted b) fcveral canoes, im 
one of which was Tojava, who, defcrying twocanots, 
haftened back again to the Ihorc, apprehending they 
were freebooters ; but finding his millake, he foon re- 
turned; and the Indians I'upplied us with as much ex- 
cellent fith as ferved the whole Hiip's company. Thia 
day a variety of plants were collected by Mr. Banks and 
IJoiflor Solandcr, who had never obferved any of the 
kind before. They Haid on Ihore till near dark, when 
they obferved how the natives difpoled of themfelves 
during the night. They had no ihclter but a few 
flirubs. The men lay ncarelt the fea in a femicircular 

,form ; and the wpnien and children moft dillant from 



Capt. CO OK 8 VOYAGES COMPLETE. » *i ' ') 


it. They had no king whofc fovercignty they acknoM- 
U'dgcd. a ciiciiinnaiKe not to be paralleled on any 
other parts of the coaft. 

Early in the morning of the 9th the Indians brought 
in their cannes a prodigioiix quantity of mackrel, of 
which one fort were exadly the fame with thofecauijht 
in England. They fold tnem at a low rate, and thev 
«erc not lefs welcome to u> on that account. Thele 
canoes were fucceedcd by others equally loaded with 
the fame fort ot' lilh ; aiid the cargoes piirchafcd were 
lb great, thai every one ol the fliips company who 
could get fth, cured aa many as would ferve luin for a 
nwirth's provifion. 'ITic Indians requently rcfort to 
rhe Ijoy in parties ro gather flicll-filh, of which it af- 
lords an increvUbie plentv. Indi-cd wherever we went, 
whether on the hills, or through :he valcN, inthe woods 
or on the plains, we hw many waraon loads of Ihells 
in hc-aps, fonic of which appearea frelli, others very 

This Ixing a vcr\- clear day, Mr. dccn. the aftro- 
Twimtr, landed with other gentlemen to obfcrve the 
rmifit of Mercury. 'I'lic obfcrvation of the iiigrcfs 
was made by Mr. Green alone, and Capt. Cook took 
the fun's altitude to afcertain the time. VNTiile theob- 
fei-vation was making, a cir»oc, with various commi- 
ditics on board, came along-(ide tfic Ihip ; and Mr. 
(idle, the olVicer w ho had then the command, Ix-ing 
delirous of encouraging thci»i to trafiic. pioduced a 
piece of Otaheitcan cloth, «jf more value than any they 
had yet fecn, which was immeiliately feized by one of 
the Indians-, who obfliiiately r.fufed either to return it, 
01 give any thing in excluinj^v? : he paiil dearly however 
for his trfinrity, being iliot dead on the f|>ot. I'he 
death of this \oung Indian alarmed all the rcfl ; they 
Hcd with grcit jirciipit;mcy, and.forthe prcfent, could 
not be induced to renew their tratlick with theEnglifli. 
But w hen the Indians on lliorc had heard the particulars 
related by Toj.iva, who greatly cowdeinn«d iht- conduct 
of thcdecc.ifcd, they fecintd to think th? iid me- 

rited his fate. Jli.iiiaurc was Otirreconooe. i^ tranf- 
aclion happened, as has been n^itfioncd, whilU the 
rhfcrvation was making; 'if the rraulit of Merc un', when 
the weather was fo ta\ouialiIe, that the whole tranfit 
wa^ viewed, without a cloud intervening. Thttranlit 
ciinuncnccd ("even hours, :o min. 5S I've. By Mr. 
fircen's obfcrvation the internal contact was at i i hours, 
tight min. 57 Ice. the external at tt hours nine min. 
(J5 fee. the latitude ,jo ileg. 48 mil* five fee. In con- 
fluence of t hi ^ oblirvat ion having bceit mr.dc here, 
this bay was called Men urv Hav. 

On the iQth, Mr. Bank>,br..Solander,andthec:»{«ain 
vent in boats to inlpc t a large river that runs into the 
Kn-. They (omul it broader foine miles within than at 
the mouth, and intetlccted into a number of dreams, 
bv fcveral fmall illand.s which were cotered with trees. 
tin the call Ikic of the river, the gentHermtra lliot fome 
lliags, which proved very good eatirig. 'I'he fliore 
idiounded with irili ol" various kinds, iuch m cotkles, 
clamji, and ojlK-rs ; aii»l here were alfo ducks, Ihags, 
arul curlieus, \»ith other wild liiwl in great plenty. .At 
the mouth of the river there w;wif»oodancht*agcin five 
fathom watiT. Thtf gentlemen were received with 
great hoCpitulity by the inliabitarus of a little village on 
the call lide of the river. Thetc arc there the remains of 
a fort called Eppah, on a peninfuh that projedts into the 
river, and it was calculated for defending a fmall num- 
ber againd a greater fi)rte. Fmin the reuiains, it never- 
thelels feemed to have been taken and partly dcftroycd. 
The Indians fup Ixt'ore fun-fet, when they cat fifli and 
birds baked or rcifled ; thev roalt them upon x ftick, 
Ihick in the ground near the lire, and bake them in 
the maiuwr the dog was baked^ which the gentlemen 
eat ai (ieorge'K llland. A femak mourner was prcfent 
at one of their fuppers ; (he wa» featcd upon the ground, 
and wept inccflantly, at the fi»me time repeating fume 
fentcnccs in a doleful manner, but which Tupia could 
not explain ; at the terminatioa of each period Ihc cut 
herfelf with a iliell upon her b*cart, her hands^ or her 
face; notwithllanding this bloody fpcdtacic greatly af- 
tcclcd the gentlemen prcfent, yet all the Indiana who 

.»! , 

fat by her, except one, were quite unnmved. The gcn- 
tlenien faw fome, who from the depth of their learn 
mud, upon thefe occalioiu, have wouiulcd thcmfclves 
more violently. 

(Jrcat plenty of oyfters were prtKured from a bed 
which had bcert difeovcred, and they proved exceed- 
ingly good. Next day the ftiip was vitited by twtt 
canoes, with unknown Indian*; after fome inriration 
they came on board, and they all trallicked without 
any fraud. Two fortified villages being dcfcrted, fher 
Captain, with Mr. Hanks, and Dr. .Solandcr, went to 
examine them. The fmallen wa» romantically fituated 
upon a HK-k, which was art hed ; this village did not 
coniirt of above five or fix houfes, fenced round. There 
was but one path, which was very narrow, that con- 
dudled to it. The gentlemen were invited by the in- 
habitants to juy them a vilit, but not having time to 
fpare, took another route, after having made prefents to 
the fimales. A body of men, women, and chiklrcn now 
approached the gentlemen i thefe proved to he rhe in. 
habitants ofanotner town, which they ])ro|)oi«:d viliting. 
They gave nuiny tellimones of their friendly dilpofi' 
tionsi am«ig others ihry uttered the word Heromai, 
which according to Tupia's interpretation, implied 
peace, and appeared nun h fatisficd, when informed 
the gentlemen inu-nded viliting their habitations. 
Their town was named Whanetoiiwa. It is featcd on 
a point of land over the fea, on the north lide of the 
bay, and was pailed round, and tlclendcd by a double 
diti h. Within the ditch a rtage is erected for defrnd-> 
ing the place in cafe of an attack; iwar this llage, 
quantities of darts and Hones are drpofited that thcf 
may always be in readincfs to repel the alliiilants. 
There is another Ilagcto command the path that lead* 
to the town; and there were fume out-works. The 
place feemed 1 ^Jculated to hold out a confide table time 
agaio'f* »n enemy armed with no other weapons than 
thofe of the Indians. It ;ippcaied IioweN%*r deficient it> 
water for holding our a fiege. Inllead of bread, they 
hail t"ern nxrt, which was here in great plenty, withi 
dried fifh. Very little of the \mv\ was cwkivated, and 
fwcet potatoes and y|ms were the only vegetables to 
be found. There are two r(>cks near the lorr of thi» 
fortilicartvon, both feparated from the main land ; they 
are very fmall, iK'vertheld's they are rK* without dwel- 
ling-houfes and little fortifications. In their engage- 
ments, thefe Indiana throw flones with their hands, 
iKing deftitute of a flinjr, and thole antt lances vtK their 
only milTible weajHins j they have, belides the jxitoo- 
patoo, already dcfcritKd, a Ralfalxiut five t'eit in length 
and aiuuher fhorter. \Vr failed from this bay, after 
having taken polliriruin of it in the name of" tl>c king of 
Great Britain, on the 1 5th of November. Tojava, who 
vifited u» in hi» canoe Jufl before our departure, faid, he 
fhoidd prepare to retire to his fort as f(x>n a» the Eng- 
lifh were gone, as the relations of Oirreonooe had 
threatened to take his life, a.s a forfeit tt)r that of the 
dcceafed, Tojava being judged partial in this affair to 
the Englilli. 

Towards the north-weft, a tKimlier of iflands of dif^ 
ferent fizes appeared, which were named Mercury 
Iflands; Mercury Bay lies in latitude 36 deg. 47 min. 
fouth ; longitude i H4 deg. 4 niin. well, ami has a fmall 
entrance at its mouth. On account of the number of 
oyfters found inthe river, the captain gave it the name 
of Oyfter Rivet : Mangrove River (w hich the captain 
fo called from the great number of thofe trees that grcwr 
ittar it) is the mof^ fecvire place lor iliipping, being at 
the head of the bay. The north-weft fide of this bay 
and river appeared muehniore fertile thr.n the eaf\ (ide. 
The inhabitants, though numerous, ha%c no plantations. 
Their canoes are very indittcrcntty conltruviled, and are 
not ornamented at all. Thty lie under contirwal ap- 
prchcnfionsofTerratu,bcingconfidcredbyhim as rebels. 
Shore iron faivd is to bejpund in plenty on thi^ coaft, 
which proves that there arc mines w metal up thfi 
country, it being brought down from thence by a H« 

On the 1 8th ia the morning, w c (leered betw cen the 
main, and an iiland which feemed very fertile, and as 


cook's first VOYAGE— for miking Difavcri,'! in the S-jUth Sen St Hound the ff'oj /,/. 49 

cxtcnlivL- as UliLtca. , Several 1 annci (illcil with In- 
dians, laiiic along-(idc hi tc, ami the Iniliani fiinj; thcii' 
warloiif^, hut the h'.ndcaviUir's people paying thein no 
attention, they threw a vollcv of lionet, arul then j)ail- 
dleilawayj hovveverllicy prelintly returneil their inliijrs. 
'I'upia fpokc to them, inakin;^ iiCeot'hi.i olil .irj^unienrs, 
that incvitahle deftruction would enfue if the)' perlideili 
they aiifweri'l hy braiiililliinj^ their ueapons, iniinia- 
tinj^ that il ilic l.nj.;hih ilurit (onie on Ihorc, they 
woulil (lellroy them all. 'rii|M i (till continued ui ex- 
polUilatinf; with them, hut to no purpofe ; and tluy 
Coon |i;ave another vollev of Hones ; l)ut upon a niui'- 
quet hein|.; lired at one of tii^ir iioats, they niatle a pre- 
ti,pitate retreat. We (all ani hor in 2;j liithom water 
in the evening, and earl) the next niorninj; lailed up an 
inlet. Soon after two canoes ranie oil, and fonie of the 
Indian!! came on hoanl : ih() knew ro|ava ver\ well, 
and c.illcd Tupia by liisn.uue. Ha\ ing received from 
us liime picfenti, they retired peacealjlv, and ajiparently 
highly gratilicd. 

On iVIonday the 20tli, after having run live leagues 
frc a the place where \ie anchored the night be- 
fore, we came to an anchor in a b.iv ca'led b)' the 
natives Ooahaourafjce. ("apt. Cook, Mr. Hanks, I3r. 
.Solander, and otheri fet olf in the pinnace to examine 
the bottom of the bav, and found the inlet end of a 
ruer, about nine mile> alio j ihe (liii). VVe entered 
into the lame wiih the full ol ilu llood, and before we 
had proce .lid ihree mile s, the water was perfectly frelh. 
llircwcfiw an Indian tov.n, I nili upon a finall dr\ 
laiul-bank, and entirely fiuiouided by a deep mud; 
tlv- udnbita-its of wiiich with much cordiality iiuited 
Ui to land, and gaveusanu)!! I'lundly reception. We 
were niw fmitteen miles up the river, and linding little 
alteration in ih'.' face of the country, \*e landed on the 
wed lide to e\.;niinc the lofty trees which adc.rned its 
bmk.;, and \veieof a kind that we had not ft( n before. 
At the tiitr.nnce of a v.ood we met with one ninety- 
eight fc(.thij',h fremiti tlu-gTOiintI, quite (Trait, and nine- 
teen feet in circ iinit(.rin x; and as «e advanced we 
fuiind (it!-crs Hill Idigir. 'J he wrod of tlicfe trees is 
\cry he.v.'.', not fit fi r mafls but wniild makecxceeding 
fine plank.<. Our carpv nier, who was w ith us, obfir\> 
cd, that tlie timber rei'cmliled that of the pitch |)ine 
vluch is lightciKil by tappijig. 'I'luie were alio trees 
ot other kind>, jil unknoun tons, Ipeiimen. of which 
ve brought aw. >)-. We leimbai kcd about ihi o'clock 
«ith the full ot the ebb. and (.'apt. Cook to the 
tiurtli.' r..inic ot'ibe 'Ibami -i, it havinga rvfemblancc 
to the n^er of that name in Ingland. It is not lo deep, 
tur it i^ as ai the lliaiiu i is at (Jieenwii li. .uul 
the tide ol llocd is a-i ll.'^ong. (Jn the evening ol the 
tlU we reached the lliip, allcMiemely tired, but happy 
a: being or> board. 

On the 2:d, early in tne morning, we made f.iil, 
and kept plving till the Hcod i.bliged us once more to 
come to an jii.hor. The ( ajitain and Dr. .^'olaiule; 
vent on Ibore to thewcO, hut made no obferv.itici, 
wurth relating. After thefe gr iirlemcn departed, the 
Blip was iiuToundcd with canoes, which kept Mr. 
Banks on hoard, that he might trade with the lndi.iii>, 
who bartered their arms and cloatli, tiir [lajier, taking 
no unfair advantages. Hat thougdi they were in ge- 
neral honell in their dc.ilings, one ol' them rook a 
fancy to i half niinuie ;j;l.d"s and being detected m fe- 
creting the fame, 11 wa> re li)lved ro gi\e him a fmatch 
ot the c;u-t>'nine-t.iils. 'I iie Indians interfered to Itop 
I'lC ciirn'nr of jiillue; but I'cing op[>ofed they g. t 
their arms from their canoe;, and lome of the people 
h them .KUinprcd to r,et on board. Mr. Banks and 
Tiipia now coming upon deck, the Indians app'ied to 
Ti:i>i-», who informeci them of tiie nature ot' tiie of- 
fender's intended punitluiuiu, and that he had no in- 
fluence over Mr. I li. ks, thcconiiuaaditigofncer. They 
appcar.-.l pai ilied, and the criminal rei eived not only 
a ilo/.cn, but afti'iwards a good diuhbing from an old 
man, who was thought to be his father. The canoes 
immediately went olf, the Indians faying, they fhould 
be 'afraid to rriurn .ig.»in on hoard. 'I'upi.a, however, 
brought them back, but t;liey feeined to have loH that 
No. 6. 

conddencc win. h they before rcpofed in lis. 'I heir 
lla) was tlioit, and alter their de|)ariuic we faw thein 
not .again, though they had pronciifcd to return v\:th 
fome lilli. 

On the 2^(1, the weather flill continuing unfavour- 
able, and the wind contrarv, we kept plying down ti,c 
nvcr, anchoring between ttic tides i and at the north- 
wcil cvtrcmity of the 'ihamc, we nailed .1 point of 
land \(hich the captain called Point Rodney ; and ano- 
ther, at the noiili eaff exticmity, when we entircd the 
lav, he mined Cape Colville, in honour of Lord Col- 
vijlc. Not l)eing able to approach land, we had but a 
diflant view o|i the main for a rouife of near thirty 
milei. Under the n.imeoi' the ii\cr Thaiiu s, the cap- 
tain (omprehendcd the whole l>ay. Cape Colville is to 
be dillinguilhcd by a high roc k, and lies in jf) dig. 26 
mill, ot ft)iith latitude, and 194 deg. 27 min. well lon- 
gitude. The Thames runs fouth by calf from the fou- 
thern point of the cape. In fome parts it in three 
leagues over, for ah:)iit finirteen leagues, afier vhicli 
it beioiiKi narrower. In fome parts of' the bay the 
water is 26 fithoms deep; the dejith diiiiinifh s gra- 
dually, and in general the anchorage i-,co,)d. Toloirc 
ifluuis that llielter it from the fea Captain Cook gave 
the name of Hariirr lllaiids; they flretch nonh-welV 
anil l()utli-eaft ten leagues. The country feemed to be 
thinly inhabited ; tlic natives are well maile, llrong, and 
active; their Imdies are painted with rcvl orre, ar.d 
their canoes, which are well conflructed, were orna- 
ir.i ired u ill) c, lived work, 

l»n the 2.('h, v.e continued fleering along the fliore 
bet ,cen ilie ilhiii Is anil the main; M\d in the evening 
anchdieil in an open bay, in about Iciiiitcen fath.oin 
water. 1 lere we caught a large number oi' filh of the 
fi iennc, cir bream kind, enough to fupply thcv.holc 
Ihip'. e. iiipany with piovifi.m for two d.iys. Tr.'m 
our fu I ce(i. Capr. Cook named this place Bream Hay, 
and the extreme points at the north end of the bay be 
called III earn Head. Seveial pointed rocks Hand in a 
range upon the top of it, and fome fmall illanJs which 
liebelore it were called the Hen -and Chickens. Iris 
fituatetl in latitude 35 deg. 46 min. fevciucen league's 
norih-wilf of Ca|e (..olville, There is an extent of 
land, of about thirty miles, bervvcen Point Kodn ■} a:id 
Hream Held, woody and lo-.v. N'o inhabitants were vi- 
fiblc; but from the fires perceived at night, we coa- 
ilud d it il a- inhabited. 

On the 2. til, early in the morning, we left the Iiay, 
and continued our con fe t^.owly to the noith'.vard, at 
noon 0111 l.ititudc was ^fideg. .;f) min. fouth, and wefavv 
Ionic illands which we named the Poor Knights, at 
north-call by north, dillaiit three league . ; the northev- 
moll land in light boie N. N. W. we .cere mnv at the 
dilfance ol tun miles from the lliore.and had i aenty-fix 
tathom water. lj[i.)n the illands were a few towns that 
,i|ipeared fortified, and the land round them feemed 
well inh.ibited. 

On the idth, tcnvards night, kven large canoes came 
oil' to us, with about f •> hundred men. .Some of the 
Indi.ins came on board, and let us know, that they had 
an account of our arrival. Thefe were fullovvcil by 
two larger canoes, adorned with carving. 'J'he In- 
dians, .ittcr ha\ ing held a conference, came a-long fide 
of the vefi'el. They were armed with various weajions, 
and feemed to be of the higher order. Their patoo-jia- 
too, were made of flone .md whale-bone, ornamcntcil 
with dog's hair, and were held in high cllimation. 
l heir com|>lexion was darker than that of thofeto the 
fouth, and their faces wci ■ Ihiineel with amoco. They 
weie given to [lilfering, of which one of ihcin g.nv 
an inllance pretending to barter a piece of talc, wrought 
into the fhapeof an axe, lor a piece of cloth ; nor was 
he difpofed to fullil his agreement, till wc compelled 
him to do it, by firing a mufeiuet over his head, which 
biciight him back to the fliip, and he returned the 
cloth. At three in the afternoon we pafFed a remark- 
able high point of land, bearing weft, and it was called 
Cape Hrett, in honour of Sir Picrcy Bivtc. At the 
point of this cape is a round high hillock, and north- 
call by north, dillant about a mile, is a curious arched 
N rock. 


CafJt. C O O K •« VOYAGES C O M F L li T K. 

like that which huhccn alrf.itly ik-firilKil. Thiuc.ipiv 
or at Itaft |>art of it, is called hy the natives Motiino- 
go, ami lici in 35 dcp. 10 niin. 30 fee. fouth latimilc, 
ind in 1 85 dip. 23 nun. wcrt lonjjitude. To the loutli- 
wefk by weft is a bav, in vhich is many fiuall illands, 
inH the point at the north-wcrt entrance the i aj)tain 
named Point Poiorke. Thrrc arc many villa|;t"t on 
thr main an veil as on the i(l;<nd.i, which appi.trcd 
well inhabited, and fe\eral caiiocs filled with Iii.lian> 
made to the fhip, and in the courfc of Kirttriiif, Ihcwcil 
fhe fimc inflination to defraud ai their neir;hl)(iiir>.. 
Ihefe Indians wercllronpand well nionoitioiuJ j their 
hair black, and tied up in a hunch lliuk vith feathers; 
their chiefs had garments made of fine tloiii, die orated 
with dopj's (kini and they were tutaowcd like ihofc who 
had lilt appeared. 

On the :7th, at ei|rht in the morning, we foiiiui our- 
frbvs within a mile of manv fmall illaiuls, laying dole 
under the main, at the dilbii' c of t\venr\-iuo miles 
from Cipe Brrtt. Here we lay about two hours, dii 
ring which time feveral ciiiofs came (ill fioin the 
iflandj, which we c ailed ('ivallrs, the naiut ot' foim 
ftdi which we pindiafed of the Induinr,. TlKt'e peo- 
ple were very in(i)lciit, idip^; main trantic {'clhirts, and 
pelting; us with (tones. Nor did they f;i\e o\er ilieir 
infults, till funic fiii.ill (liot hit one who a llone in 
his hand. .\ f; tciror wa> now Iprcad ainoiij. 
rhim, and tlir) all nnile a very pre( ijiilale retreat. I'oi 
feviral day-, the wind was in very iinla\ Durable, iha. 
theviffd lather loH than f;;>ined Riound. 

On the 29th, hivinjMceatlured ( .ipo IJutt, wc bon 
away to leeward, and jj^t into a larpcbav, w li< re wc an- 
chored on the loiilh-wel> tide ot' 11 vend ill.mdi and 
fuddetilv Came into four f.ithoin.s and a half water. 
Upon foundiiii;, we tiiuiui we had got upon a bank, 
and accordingly weij;hed and dropped out n, anii 
anchored again in ten fithoius and a half, ufterwhich 
wc '.lerc furroun.lcd by thiuv-thiec lai(;e » anocs, i on- 
taiiinp near three hundred Indi.iiu all aiihCil. .Some 
of them were admitrid on board, and Captain Gwk 
pnvc a piece of broad cloth to one ol the ( hiels, and 
fome fmall prefent-. ro tl»f oiIkt. 'I'hey tiuicd piaec- 
ably f)r fome tmif, bein{\ ten ilied at the lire-nniis, with 
the ef]>cts ol whit h tlr.\ were not imacqiiainteii ; but 
whilll ti;e captain w.t^ at dinner, on a li;>iid j.^ivcn by 
one bf the chiefs, all the Indians i]uitted the Ihip, and 
attempted to low away the buo)' j a miill]iiet was now 
fired ovtr them, but it piodu( ed noilfect; fmall lint 
was then thiin, but it diii not leaJi them. .\ 
mufjucr loaded with ball, was tliercroie ordered to be 
lired, and ( Hef'ii(iw<;<ici « (Ion ot one ot ^he(hiet^' was 
wouruhd in iheihi^h by it, which indiaed them iinme 
fli.itc Iv to throw the buoy oveiboard. I o i omplete their 
rc;nfulion, a round lb(>t wa^ tired, whii h run luil the 
flior'', and a.d'on .is thev l.iiuleel, they r.ui in leanhol 
ir. II flufe Indians had lucii under a:iy kind of mi- 
li'ar\ difi ipline, tilt; nii]:;ht have proved a iiuichmoie 
formidable enemy; but actinj; thus, without anyfl.m 
or rtnulatioii, they only expofed themfelves to tiie an- 
no', aiKc of the fire-anua, whilH they could not pol- 
fibly fii' < ecei in any of their drli|^i)s. 'I'hc C.ipi lin, 
Mr. Han!^^, and Dr. Solander, landed upon the itiand, 
and the Indians in the canoes foon after came on Ihore. 
'f"hc pntlci.ien were in a fm^ll cove, and were prelentlv 
furroaiidcd by near 400 aimed Indians; Imt the cap- 
tain not fulpcctin;;any hollile d(lit;n on the part of the 
natives, remained peaceably difpofed. '1 he (gentle- 
men, man hing towards them, drew a line, intimatipj^ 
that they were not topafs it : the) did not intVini^c upon 
this boundary tiir fome time; but at length, they lan;^ 
the fong ot defiance, and began to dance, whiUl a 
jiarty attempted to draw the Lndeavour'.s boat on 
ibore, thefe lignals for an ifttack being immediately 
followed by the Indians breaking in upon the line ; the 
gentlemen jutlged il time to defend themfelves, and ac- 
cordingly the cajitain bred his niufquet, loaded with 
fmall thor, v hich was fecondcd by Mr. }5anks's dif- 
charginghis piece, and two of the men fiillowed his ex- 
ample. This threw the Indians into confulion, and they 
retreated, but were rallied again by one of rhc chiefs, 

who fliouted and waved his patf¥)-patoo. The IXxtor 
now pointed his muf^iiet at rhu hero, and hit him : 
tils Hopped his taieer, atid he took to Hight with the 
other Indiani. 'I'hcy retired to an eminence in a coJ- 
lecled body, and feeined dubious whether they Ibould 
return to the charge. They were now at too great a 
diHanci ttir a ball to reach them, but thele operation 
lieing oblerved from the Ibip, (he brought her broad- 
tide to bear, and by tiring over tlitm, (iion difperfed 
them. The Indians had in their (kirmdh two ot their 
peo]'lo wounded, but none killed: piace bring thus re- 
itoied, the gentlemen began to g.ither Gi-lery and(«lier 
herbs, but fiifpeoliiig that fome of the nitives were 
lurking about with evil ililigns, they rei)aired to a cave, 
whihwasat a (iiiall dillaiue. Mere they (ouiui the 

hiet, that day receivi-d a prefent from the* 
'..'.ilitain ; he cime tbrth w ith his uite and brother, and 
i)liciied their (leniency. It ajipeared, that one ()f the 
wounded Indians was a broilur of this ( hief, who was 
■ nder great an\iety led the wiiund thouKI prove mortal, 
'lut his grid was in a great ilegreeallev i.ited, when ho 
Aas ma.le a'\|iinntid with the diil'erent etfects ot Imall 
.1 o: and b.ill ; he was at the fame time adiired, that 
iponany taiiher ho(lilitie> being i ommittcii, ball .vould 
't ulcd. 'I'h.s iiv.iview termin.iteii verv i ordiallv , a(- 
•ri li.ii.e triil'iig pie(ents were made to the chic( anj 

i> companions. Ihe priiileiuc of the gentlemen can- 

lot be much commended: tor had thele 400 Indians 
oldly lulheil in upon them ;it once with their weapons-, 
■;u- muKiiietry c. iild hav(' done very little execution ; 

Kit fuppoting twenty or thirty of the Indians had been 
vvoiimled, as it iloc, not apjiear their pieces were loaded 
iviih b.ill, but only liiiall tl.ot, there would have re- 
mained a fullicient number to have mairtcred them, as 
It a])pe,iis they ilo not (MVc any t|uaiter, and nonciould 
h.W'.- Iieen exjiected upon this oe( atioii. It is (rue, when 
ilie ihip bi()Uf.\ht her bioaillide to bear, (lie might have 
made i^reat haviM'k aiiiongd the Indiaiu ; but this 
noiild hive been tiN) late to lave tlii' jiarty on Ihorc.— 
being in their boats, the l-'.nglilli rowed to another i>art 
of the lame itiand, ulie;i landing ami gaining an emi- 
nence, thev a very agreeable and romantic view of 
a g.reat number of fmall illands, well inhabited and cul- 
tivated. The inhabitants Of an adjacent town ap- 
pro.ached unarmed, and tellilied gieat humility and 
fiibir.itlion. Some ol the paitytm llioio who had been 
very \ioUn: t'lr having ihr Indiuis [lun'thed lor their 
tiaidulcnt eonduct, weienow guijty ot trefpalles cjually 
rciirehemille, h:iving ti)rced into foim: ol' the planta- 
tions, and dug up potatoe.. The 1 aptain, iipon thw 
o ealion tliewrd Itrict julllce in piinilliing each of the 
otleiuli rs Willi twelve ladies: one of ihein being \ti/ 
rdraviory upon tliio location, and complaining of tin: 
hardlhij), thinking an Kngliflimm had a right to 
piiindi r an In, ban with impunity, received lix addi- 
iliiiial I lilies tor his rcwatvl. 

On the ;(o:h, it being a dead calm, two boats were 
lent to t'oiind the harbour j when many canoes came up 
and traded with great piohity ; the gentlemen went 
ag.iin on llioieand met 'vith a very civil reception from 
the natives ; anil t'.!i.. triendly intercourfe continued all 
the time they remained in tl;e bay, which was fcvcral 
day.s. Heiiig upon a vilit to the olil chief, he Ihewed 
them the iiiltruments iiie;l in t.itaowiiig, which were 
very like tholi; employcil at Otaheite iij)on the like 01:- 
(•ation. They tiiw the man who been woundcil by 
the ball, when the attem])t was maile to carry off the 
ihip's buoy ; and though it had gone through the Hclliy 
(lart of Ins arm, it did not fcciu to give him th« leatt 
painor unealinefs. 

On lucfday the 5th of December in the morning, 
we weighed anchor, but were fcMin becalmed, and a 
tlrong lurient letting towards the lliorc, wc ^crc 
driven in with fuch rapidity, that we cxpcded every 
moment to be run U|>on the breakers, which appeared 
above water not more than a cable's length dillancc, 
and we were fo near the land, that 'i'upia, who was to- 
tally ignorant of the danger, held a convcrfation w ith 
the Indians, who were Handing on the bcaijji. V¥c 
were happily relieved however, from this alarming litua- 


cook's first V0YA(;K — for inakiiiR DiJiov,rL-t in the South S<-tir 6c Round the //W<y. ji 

tion hy a frclh bm/c (iulili iily fpringiii}? iip from the 
lliore. 'Ihi' bay which wc had Itfi was called the Hiy ot 
illands, (III accoiuit of the niimcToiis iflandi it contains i 
»c caught but few filh vhilc wt; lay there, but pro- 
curcil great plenty from the naiivcs, who were ex- 
tremely expert in lilliing, and difpiayid inpfnuity 
in the foriiiof their net«, which were of a Kind ot 
i^rafu i they were two or three liiindrcil fathoms in 
leni^th, and remarkably ftronj^, and they have them in 
fui h |)lenty that it is Icarcely polRble to go a hundred 
vards wiiliout mertiiiR with nuiiihcrs lyinj^ in lieajis. 
'rhefe people did not appear to br iimler tlic gaverii 
nitnt of any particular chief or foveicipn, and they 
feenu\t to live in a pcrllvt: ftatc of friendlliip, notuith- 
flandinj; their vilWpcs were fortified. Aeiording to 
their obfervatioiH upon the tides, rln.* Hoo;! comes troin 
the fouth, and there is a curirnt fmin the well. 

On the 7th at' Decrinljer, beiii^ 'rhiirfil.iy, fevcial 
obfervations of tiie lim and moon M'Mc made, wIiltc- 
by wr fouml our l.ititude to he 1 S5 deg. ^fi niin. will. 
In the al'ternoon wr were clnfe un;lor tlit; C'av.illes. S, 
vcral ranots put olF and followeil the I'.miiMvmir, but .1 
light breeze (printing up.wcdiil not w.iit f-ir chetn. I he 
next mornini', being the 8th, at ten o'clock we tacked 
and Hood in tor the lliore, from which we were dilhiu 
nearly fix leagues. 11/ day lif^ht on the qth we were 
in with the land, about fcveii leagues to the weftwanl 
of the Cavailes; and foon afier came to a deep liay, 
which was named Doubtlef. H.iy. The entrance tiioreio 
Is formed by two points, diOant from r.ich other live 
miles, and w liich lie well north-wel> and e^^\ fmith-calT. 
The wind prevenrin;^ ur. puttiiif; in here, wo (leered 
for the weHermolt land in lif;lit and betore wc ;;ot tlie 
length of it, we wew b-calmcd. IXnitigthc calm we 
werevilited by fcvcial canoes j but the Indians havnig 
heard of our guns, were afraid to comeonbo,ird j Ikhv- 
ever wc bouglu fomc of their fiili, and learned fioin 
them, by the allillance of 'l'u[)ia, that we were about 
two days fiil from a place called Moore \\hennu:t, 
where the land '.-hanged its fliape, and turning to the 
fouth extended no more wvftward. This place 
concluded to be the land difuncred by Tafnian, which 
he called (,'apc Maria Van Dieinen. T hey alio inform- 
ed us, that to the north-north-welV there wa? an ex- 
tcnfive countiv difcovered by their anceilors, which 
they named Uliiuaroa, where the inhabitants lived iijion 
hogs, called in their lanp.u.ige l$(ni.ih, tiie \ery name 
pivcn them, by thofc who iiihahucd the South-fea 

On Sunday the loth, a brce/e fpvintrini; tip, we flood 
olf to the noitli, and Ibund by oblersation our latitu.le 
to be ^4 deg. 44 min. (outh. On tlie 1 1 th, early in the 
morning the land, with which wc llood in, appeared 
low and barren, bi;t not deditute of inliabitanti. It 

(rirms a peninftila, whi(h the (■.ii)taiii lalUd Imiih klc 
Point, and the bay that lien (oniiguous thereto he 
named Sandy Hiy. In the middle of thin is a high 
moiintan, which wc caileil Mount Camel, on atcouiiC 
olin n I'emblanie to that animal. We (aw one village 
on the well lide of thu mount, ami another on the iaf> 
lide. S'veral (annes p;it oil' but could not reaihthc 
lliip, whi( h tacked, ami Ibxidto th-- noitluVard, till the 
al'ternoon of the 1 jth, whi'ii ihc Hood to the noith-calt. 
Towards ni);ht wc were brought under double reefed 
topl'iiU 1 and in the morning it was lb tempelluousas 
to l"|>lit the main topfail ami the tore mi/,en-top fails. 
I'.miy in the morniiu; ot the 14th we law laml to tht* 
I'dUthsvard, at thedilt mce ot Ciflir or nine leagues j and 
on the 1 sth we tackctl and lb»od to the uellward. 
0,1 rhc i()th we dil'ioveied laml from the mafb head, 
bearine fouth-foiitli-wert. On Sunday the 17th wc 
lat'ki-rlin thirty live fathom, aiul fnind we had not 
giirud one inch to windward the lall twenty-four 
liouis. We faw a point of laiul, the northern extremity 
of New' Zealand, whi'li Capt. Cook ninu'il Nurtli 
Cape. It lies in latitudi; (4 (leg zx min. Ibu.h, and 
in 1X5 deg. 55 min. well longitude 1 we continued 
Handing oif and on till the .; < d when alioiit feverv 
o'cloi k we difrovered land heariiiL' (bmh half call. 

()n th ■ .'4th wc fi'.v tlu lame land fo;itli-e:irt by Rnitli 
four leagues ilillaiu, which we ludjred to be the llland^ 
of tlir Three Kings. 'Ihc chief ofthell- is in latitude 
■^4 deg. 12 min. fouth, and 187 dtg. 48 min. welt 
iongituile, and d;!lant aliout 14 and 15 Kagues iVotn 
North Cape. Mr. 15 inks went out in the lo!i;^-boar 
and flint fomc birtU tha' nearlv refeinbled gtefe, ami 
thev were very go. id eating. On CI rillrias-day, De-» 
( cmberthc 2 jth, we tackevi, and Itno.i to tlie foutiiward. 
On 'he if'tU wc no land in fight, and were twenty 
leagues to the wellward ot Nurlli t ape. At mid -night 
we tacked and Hood to the ntirthwajil. On the 27th 
it bljw a florm from the call, .accompanied v.ithhcivy 
fiiowers of rain, vihich compell.d us 10 bri'if.^thc Ihip 
to, under her mainfail. Tf.e gale continued till Thurl- 
diy the :iith, when it fell about two o'clock, in the 
morning; but at eight increafed to a hurricane, with 
a proiligioiis fca. At noon the gale fomevvhat abated, 
but we had (lill heavv fqualls. C);i the 29th in thi^ 
evening, we wore ami llood to tlie nortliwefl. On 
Siturday the .{oth, we faw land bearing north-caft, 
which we concluded to be Maria van Diuiieni and it 
torrefponded with the ac'.iiiiiit we had le.eived of it 
from the Indi.ins. We wore at, and flood 
to the I'outheall. On the 31 II we tackidat fcvcn in 
the evenin^r, and flood to the wcfil.vard. We were 
now t'rom the nearell land about three leajvucs, 
and had fajnevvhut more than f)Hy fat hum water. 

--i t--S?"W 

C H A P. 


The Eiidfavaiif nnimie! /vc w.i.i;'', J.'fii.iry the \/l :tjo, found NuvihCupc to S^iiCiViChir'ol/r's Sound — That part of 
III- ccafl dij'irilid — Tyai'fac'lmii in ll.r /"iind — ^l.v Jh/i's /■ftZiWii l:vo ithvtds, ,v:d yrlurns lo Cifr 'Turiin«ain~A 
Jfjofknif; ('.(Horn rf thr iiilKihitants — .-/ ■:•///> to <: llippd', .ind clbcr rnniirLilde pdrtuuleri — Ihf ciram-mrn^jlim 
of this c'MHtry comp/nrd — llv cent and /limi)\illy B<iy drfcrih'd — The drpjriinr of the- Endniiouy fnni Ac:c Ze.iiand, 
and other'li' piirUfHU'.n — A dtftfiptrJe aaonn't of Niiv ZeaLvid—lls fnj} dif curry ly ■Tnfnicin—SituatioH 
and pfodii.'/ion.i — .In diioitnt of tbf inhditants — Thi'ir drrfs, orr.iUrents, and m.iwk-r of life- — 'Their dinars, nnvif^a- 
tion, iillii^e, ■va.ipm', mnfic , grccnmcnt , rtii^ion, a,:d langiuige — The arguments in favour of a Southern Continent eon- 

A. D. 


\nuaiy the ill, on Monday at fix in 
^ the morning, being New Year's Day, 
wc tacked, and llood to the eaftwanl. .^c noon wc 
ftood to the wellward ; found our latitude to be 34 deg. 
37 min. fouth; ourdillancc from the Three Kings ten 
or eleven leagues ; and from Cape Maria van Diemen 
about four leagues and an half, in fiftv-fotir fathom 
water. On the 3d wc faw land ; it was hioh and Hat, 
trending away to the fouth.eall, beyond the reach of 
the naked eye. It is remark.ible, that at niidliimmcr 
wc met with a violent gale of wind, in htitudc 350 

fouth ; and that wc were three weeks in getting ten 
leagues to the wellwartl, and five weeks in getting fifty 
leagues, for at this time it was fo long iincc we palFcd 
Cape Brett. 

On the morning of the 4th wc flood along fliore. 
The coall appeared fandy, barren, dreary, and inhof- 
pitablc. Steering northward on the 6th wc faw land 
again, which we fuppofcd to be Cape Maria. On the 
7th we had light breezes, and were at times be- 
calmed, when we faw a fun-fifli, fliort and thick, with 
two large fin?, but fcarcely any tail, rcfcmbling a Ihark 



Capt. C O O K s VOYAGES C O 31 P L E T E. 

( .: 

^ .f'w 

in colour and iv/.c. We continued ftrcringcaft till the 
«jth, when \vc were oil" a point of land, which Capt. 
Cook named Woody Head. From the i'outh-wcrt we 
alio liiw a fuiall illand, and called it Gannet Ifland. 
Another point, renmrkahly hi>;h to the ead-north-call, 
the captain named Allietrofs I'oint ; on the north tide 
whereof a hay is l()rmcd, proniifing good anchorage. 
At about two or three leagues diftance from AUxtrofs 
I'oint, to the north call we difcovcred a remarkable 
high mountain, the peak of which is equal in height 
to that of Tenerille. Its fuiiunit vas covered with 
fnow, and we gave it the nanic of mount Kgmont, in 
honour of the earl of that name. It lies in liititude ,59 
ileg. i6min. fouih, and 1S5 deg. 15 min. well longi- 
tude. The country round it is exceeding pleafint, 
having an agreeable verdure intcilcvkd with w.iods, 
and the coalt fomis an cxtenfi\e caje which Capt. 
Cook naiiieil Cape Mgiuont. To the north ol' this arc 
two fmall illinds, in the t()rm ot" a fiigar-loaf 1 his 
day being the 1 ,'th we had h.caw Ihowers of rain, ac- 
companied with thunder and lightening. We con- 
tinued to lleer along the llioie at the diltanie of Iie- 
twetntwoand three leagues, and Ixtuecn i\:\cn and 
eight had a traiifient \ ieu of Mouiu F.dgcomhe, which 
bote p.oith-wcll ililfant about ten leagues. 

On the 14th when failing fouth-eall bv Ibuth, the 
coall lan more linitherly, and foon after li\e in the 
morning v.c f.;u 1 iiul, t()r which we hauled up. At 
i\oon thi' i\(irth-wed ixtremity bore foutli f> j well; and 
lliine high l.uid, in appearance an illand, bon- (iiuth 
li)uch-eal}, dill.uit li\e leagues. We were now in a luv, 
ar.d by ohfersation in latitude 40 deg. 27 min. fiitli. 
longitude i !<4 deg. ^ij min. will. In the evening, at 
tight o'clock, the land that'.H'te foudi f>{wcl1:, now bore 
north sgwell. dillan: k\t:n leagues, auc' aitpeared like an 
itland. Between this land and Cape Ivgiiiont lies the 
bay. on the well-llde of which we were at this time. 
The land here is high and beautifully variegated w it li 
hilK and vales. .\t this jiLitc CajU. Cook propofed to 
careen the lluji, and to take in a trelh fujipiy of wood 
and water. Accordingly, 

On the I ah at day-break, we necred for .m inht, 
when, it being almoft a laliu, the Ihip «as carried by a 
current, or tiie tide, w ithin a cable's length of the li;ore j 
but bv the ,uli11an( e ol the boats ll.c got clear. While 
cllecting this, we law a fea-lio:i, anluiiing the difi lip- 
tion _4ivcn of a male one in Commodore .\nlbi\\ \in- 
agrs. .\bout one o'clock in the alterncM)n we Ivuiitd 
round the louth-well point of the illand, and ti.i in- 
habitants of a village were immediately upon leeiiig 
us up inarir.s. At twowe anchored in a very f.ile 1 use 
onthc north-wclnide of the ba\, and moored inelewn 
Jathoiii v.ater, with a loft ground. In p.iliing the poiiit 
of the bay we had obferved an armed ccntinel on dut\ , 
who was twice relic\ed ; and nou tiiurcinoes came oil, 
for purpofe, a; we imagined, ofrei'onaoitring j liirnone 
of the Indians would venture on boai\l, except an old 
man who feemed ol elevated rank. His 
exiiolhil.ited w ith him, l.iid hold of him, and took great 
pain-i to prevent his coming aboard, but the\ could not 
divert hmi from his purpofe. We received hiin with 
the utmoti civility and h.olpitahty. Tu|iia and the old 
man jointd nofes, according to the c ulloin of the coun- 
trv, and having received leveial preleius, he retired to 
hi) alliieiates, wiio began to dance and laugh, and then 
retired to their fortified viil.ige. Whether their tx|>rer- 
fions of joy were tokens of enmity or fricndlhii) we 
could not determine, having feen them daiue when 
inclined both to war and jieaee. Ca[)t. Cook andodier 
geiulciiicn now went on Ihore, at the bottom of the 
co%c, where they met with plenty of wood, and a line 
flream of excellent water, and on hauling the feme were 
very fucccfsfu', having caught three hundred weight of 
fill; in a lliort time, which was eiiually dillribuied among 
the llii|)v company. 

On the 1 6th, at day-break we were employed in 
careening the bark, when three canoes came oil' with : 
great number oflixiians, who brought fevenl of then 
women with them, which c;ircumrtancc was tlii)iij;ht to 
Lc a favourable prcfage of their peaceable cJifpoiition 



butthcy foon convinced m of our millake, by attempt- 
ing to flop the long boat; upon which Captain Cook 
had rccourfc to the old expedient of iiring Ihot over 
their heads, w hich intimidated them for the prefent ; 
they foon gave frclh proofs of treacherous defigns ; 
for one of them fnatchcd at fomc paper from our mar- 
ket-man, and mining it, put himlclf in a threatening 
attitude; whereupon fome fliot was lired, which 
woui.dcd him in the knec; but Tupia (till con- 
tinued converfing w ith his companions, making en- 
cjuiries concerning their traditions refpecting the anti- 
cjuities of their country. He alfo alVcd them, if ihey 
had ever before feen a fhip as large ;._ die l-Jideavour ? 
to which they replied, that they had not, norever heard, 
that Inch a Ncllel had been on their coall, though Taf- 
man certainly tcuiehed here, it being only four miles 
fouth of Murderer's Bay. In all the coves of this bay 
we found plenty of cuttle filh, breams, baranK)tas, 
gurnard, niaekarel, dog-lilli, folcs, dabs, niullctt?, 
drum;, feorpenas, or rock-filh, cole-lifli, lliags, chi- 
meias, ivc. The inhabitants catch their iilh in the 
follcwing manner. Their net is cylindrical, extended 
by ieveial hoops at the bottom, and contracled aJ: the 
top. The Ijlh going in to feed u[ion the bait arc caught 
in great abundance. In this illand are birds of various 
kindi, and in great numbenc, particularly parrots, wood- 
pigec ns, water hens, hawks, and many dilfereni linginpj 
birds. .An herb, a fpecies of Plulacielii>""; was uled 
here inlltad of tea, and a plant called " ,1 -nc, rc- 
fcnililing rug-cloaks, ftrved the tut •' j. -, hH.,ts. 
I he environs of tlie cove where th a aw, lay is 
covered entirely v. ith wood, and the ■ ^le-j.-.c ks arc 
lb numerous, that it is with dilHculty mat pallenj^ers 
can [iirfuc their way; here is a numerous fanj-tly, 
that is very difagieeable. 1 he tops of many hill . were 
coveted with fcrii. The air of the country is very 
11 oill, and has fomc tiualitics that promote putrefac- 
iion, as birds that hid bci-n lliot but a few hours were 
ii'Uiul with m.iggoi i in them. 'Ihe women who ac- 
coinpinied the men in their canoes, wore a lieadH.hefs, 
whuh we had no where met with bcliiic; it wa;;com- 
polcdof black feathir., tied ;n a bun..h on the top of 
the held, which greatly iiujieafed its height. ilic 
manner of their difpoling of their dead is v:-iy dil- 
tereiu to what i; praciiled in their foutlu rn oianc's, 
'hey lie a Inge Hone to the' bod), an 1 throw u into llu! 
:\.\. We law the 1 ;.dy of a won, .in who had been di'- 
pofcd of this way, but which, by fome accident had 
dileiigaged itfelf from the Hone, and w;is floating U) on 
the water. 1 he ("nptain, Mr. ihnks, and the docltor 
vilited another cove, about two nules t'roni the lliip. 
I'herewasa lamil) of Indians who weregna'ty .il.iimej 
,u the apj.ioac h of thtfe gentlemen, all runimig away 
ex< ept one J but upon Tujiia's coinerling with lum, the 
others returned. They found, bv tl;e piovuic ns of 
this taiiulv, that they were caniuliiis, here being fevi lal 
human iic-nes hiid been l.itcl;, dieired and picked, 
and it appeared ihat a Ihort 1 •• beiore, fix of their 
enemies having l.illeii into their hanch, the;, had killed 
f iiir ,uid eaten them, and thcorher two were drown- 
ed ill endeavouring to make their elcapc. They made 
no fee ret of this aixjiuiniibie ciillom, but anfwered Tu- 
pia, who was defued to aliertain the tael, with great 
compoliire, that his conjectiiivs were iull, that they 
were die bones of a man, and tcUified by ligns, that 
they thought human lleili ilelii ions lo.'d. Up.on Lemg 
alkcd, Why ihey had no; eaten the liody of the womi'.n 
tint had been llciating upju tlic' water.'' the, anfwered. 
She died of .i dil'order, and tint mi)rc:ovc'r I'.'e re- 
lated to them, and they never aie any but their enemies, 
b'ljoii ,Mr. Banks Itill teltifvinglomedoiibti concerning 
the, one of the 'iidians drew the bone of' a iiuin'» 
arm through hi.? mouth, and this gcniieman had the 
i.urioliiy to bring it away w iih iiini. 'ihcre was a wo- 
man in this family whofe arms and legs were cut in a 
llioi king manner, iind it appeared Jlie liad thus wound- 
ed herlelt becaufc her hulbaiid had lattlv been killed 
and eaten by the enemy. Some of the Indians brought 
four Ikiills one day to fell, which thev rated at a very 
high price. The brains had been UKcnou(, atid pro- 

c, Inattoiiipt- 
<-'ap'taiii Conk 
iriiijr iliot over 
)r the prcfcnt ; 

roiis ddif^iis; 
from our iiiar- 

a tlircatcninj.; 

iircd, vhull 
|)ia ftill con- 
niaking cn- 
ting the anti- 

tlHIll, if ihcy 

c 1-jidtavour ? 
lortvtT heard, 
, though Tar- 
nly four inilcs 
I'sof this hay 
IS, baraccHitas, 
abs, niulltrt?, 
1, fliags, chi- 
•ir filli in the 
cal, txrciideil 
traded aj; the 
ait arc caught 
Js of various 
)arr()t.s, wood- 
Icrtni linginp; 
""=. was uit-d 
,."■. -ne, rc- 
■>• "■ u\.,is. 

av;. lay is 
^Ic-j.-.tJ.i ai'c 
lat palli'iij^cri 
ous fiind-'tly, 
my hill:, w-rc 
Jiiiry is very 
te putrtfac- 
\^ hours were 
iicn who ac- 
u htad.-<.ircfs, 

It \va.-: coin- 
tn the top of 

.,ht. ihc 
1 is \:iy dii:. 
)" u inu) I in: 
lad bdii dif- 

Klidlllt hsvl 

liiatiii); ujoil 
id the (linJlor 

nil tl'.C ill p. 

adv al.ui;'.tj 
miiiiig auay 
liih liiiii, the 
r<i>iil( ns of 
Hiiii,- ll'vi lal 
and jiiikid, 

lix of tlair 
•;. had killed 
\M re ili()v\ri- 

Tlicy made 
ifwercd 'I'u- 
, with great 
\, that thoy 

ligii-S tliat 
L'p.oii Leill;^ 

tho VMiir.;'.;i 
•\ anfwcrcd, 

IIh; ua-i re- 
;ir cnciiuei. 
ol' a'.t 
in had the 
V wai a wo- 
;rc cut in a 
liiis wound- 
been killed 
.Alls brought 
1 at a very 
'„ and pro- 


,-'i'fA'-^-_ ' .**i'-.'_-^i«.f"' ■,^'', 

' nt§ 




.■-*^'. . ■ r 







■ ■'! 






'//" ,yvf/ff//</ i/uf/ //'/fiw ///■///■/ /.t//Mf-////'f/.t///liXV!Syi'VA\i. 



















ii'ij lit j'i)i 


*,! IE' j 



■■■■» t 


■II n I rfc^f i 

cook's first voyage — for making Difcovcrics in ilic .Vw//) Av/j fc Ri;uiid th.- //-?///,/. 5:; 

bably taten, but the Ikull and hair remained. Tiiey 
feemed to have been dried by fire, in order to prcferve 
them from putrefadion. The gentlemen likcwifc faw 
the bail of a canoe, which was made of a human (kull. 
On the whole their ideas were fo horrid and brutifli, 
that they feemed to pride thcmfcfvcs upon tlicir cruelty 
;\nd baroarity, and took a particular pleafurc in flicw- 
ing the manner in which they killed their enemies, it 
being confidercd as very meritorious to be expert attliis 
dfftruftion. The method ufcd was to knock them 
down with their patoo-patoos, and then rip up their 

Great numbers of birds ufually begun their melody 
about two o'clock in the morning, and ferenadcd us till 
the time of their- rifin^. This harmony was very a- 
grceable, as the ftiip lay at a convenient diflance from 
the fliore to hear it. 'I'hcfe feathered chorifters, like 
the Rnglifh nightingHles never iing in the day-time. 

On the 1 7th, the Iliip was vifited by a canoe from the 
liippah, or villaj^c j it contained, among others, the 
aged Indian, of fiipc-ior diftiridion, whohadfirll vi- 
liccd the Knglilh upon their arrival. In a conference 
which Tupia had v.iih him, he ttllified his apprchcn- 
lions, that their enemies would \ery foon vilit them, 
and repay the compliment, for killing and eating the 
four men. On the t Sth, we received no vilit from the 
Ir.dians; tuit going out in the pinn.-ice to infpei;]: the 
bay, wc law ;i iincle man in a canoe (illiing, in the 
manner already defcriiied. It was remarkal)le, that 
this man did not pay the leall attention to the people 
in tlic pinnate, Inst coiwimied to puihie his eniplo;.-- 
ment even when «e along-lide of him, with.oui 
cnce looking at i!.i. Some of the Endeavour's piople 
being on fliore, f(>und thnc human hip bones, elofo to 
an oven ; thcfc were brought on board, as well a.; liic 
liair of a man's Kead, which wa:, limiid in a tree. Tlie 
next day a forge was fct up to repair the iron-work ; 
atid fome Indians vifited the Iliip w ith plenty of lilh 
vhiththey bartered very fairly tor nails. 

On the -lOth, in the morning, Mr. Banks purehafed 
of the old Indiana man's hf.ul, which he feemed mtv 
unwilling to part with; the I'^ull had been fiaauieJ by 
a blow, and tlie brains were e.xti.adted, and like the 
others, it was preferved from ptitrelai'tion. From the 
care w ith which they kept thife tkulls, ami the reluvC- 
ancc with which they bartered any, it was imaf^ined 
they were confu'ered as trojihies of war, and tellimo- 
nials of their valour. In this i\i/i excurfion, we did 
roc meet w ith a tingle n.itive ; the ground on every lide 
wa:; ijuite unciikivated ; but we dif.overed a very good 
harlx)ur. The fucccediiig day the iiiip's company 
jj ere allowed to go on flioie t()r their ;niufement, and 
the genileiiK-n eniployed ihemftKe- in filliing, in which 
they were very fueiefsful. Some of the company' in 
their e.vturiion met wi'h fortiticaiions that had not the 
advantage of an elevated fituation, but were furround- 
ed by two or three wide ditches, with a draw-bridge, 
fiiih as, though (imple in its llrudhire, was capable of 
anfwering every purpofe .againfl: the arms of the na- 
tives. Within thefe ditches is a fence, made with 
liakes, fixed in the earth. A decifive conquell or vic- 
tory over the befiegcd, otcalic ns an entire depopula- 
tion, ol that diihidt, as the vanquillied, not only thofe 
who arc killed, buttlicprifoners likewife are devoured 
by the viiitors. 

The iid was employed by Mr. Banks and Dr. So- 
lander, in colkaing of plants, whilrt Capt. Cook 
made fome obfervations on the main land on the fouth- 
ca(V fide of the inlet, which fonliftetl of a chain ol' 
high hills, and fiirmed part of the fouth-well lide of 
the ftreight j the oppofite fide extended far to the ead. 
He atfodilVovcred a village, and nianv houfos that had 
been deferied, and another village that appeared to he 
inh.nhited. There were many (mail idands round the 
coaft. that feemed intirely barren, and what few inha- 
Dii nts were upon them lived prineipall) upon filh. 
On rh.e 24th, we vifited a hippah, which was liLiiated 
on a very high rock, hollow underneath, fdrniing a 
fine natural arch, one fide of which joined to the laud, 
and the other role out of the fea. 'I'hi- inhabitants re- 
ftcived us with great civility, and very rgadilf Ihcwed 

No. 6. 

u.scvery thing that was curiotis. 'I'his lupjiah w.;s partly 
furrounded with palifadoes, and it had :\ Hghtiii^.^ lUigc, 
like that already dclerihed. Here we met with a crcif* 
refembling a crucifi.\', which was credied as a monu- 
ment fo,- a deceafed perlbn; but could nor learn how 
his body was difpofed of. From a conveifation that 
Tupia had with thefe people, a difcovery was made 
that an oflicer being in a boat near this village, and 
fome canoes coming off, made him imagine they had 
holUle deligns, and he fired upon them with ball, 
which nuule them retire with much precipitation, but 
they could not elfert their retreat, bcf ire one of them , 
was wounded. What made thi.-; rafh adion the more 
to be lamented was, that die Indians gave afterwards 
every pofiihle afliirancp that tl;eir intentions upon this 
occalion w. re entirely friendly. 

On the 25th the Captain, Mr. Hanks, and Dr. So- 
lander, went on (bore to iliixjt, when they met v. irh a 
numerous taiuily.who were among the creeks 
lilh: theybehased \cyy civilly, and received fome tri- 
fling prefenrs from the gentlemen, who were Ija^'el by 
way of return with the klf^s and emhr.iccs of both 
fexe."!, young and old. The next day being the 26th, 
they made another cxcurlion in the boat, in order to 
take a view of the (height, that pi'.fl'cs between the 
eallern and wellcrn Teas. To this end they attidned 
the fumniit of a hill, but it being hazy in the horizon, 
they could lee but to a f.iiall dill.uice to tl'.c eail ; how- 
ever, it wns relolved to explore ciie iiaiiage in the fliip 
v.hen thev Ihould put to fea. Bet'ore their depjrtuic 
from this hill, they erected a pyramid with fio.ic.';. a.nd 
left foKie balls, fmall Ihot and bead-;, that were 
likely to lland the teft of tmie, and wouid be nn mo- 
rials, that this |ilace had been \ilited by Europeans. 
On (lur return, having defccnded the hill, we made a 
hearty meal of the lliaggs and tilli, prociuxd by cur 
guiio and lines ; and which were drelUd b) the bo-u's 
crev.' in the place we had apj unieJ. Hire we were re- 
fpeOifully received by another Indian family, uho 
added to their civilities Oionf; exprclTion.s of kiiidncfi 
and plealure. They flieued us where to gel \.attr, 
with every other oilice as was in their pov. er. I'lonj 
hence we \i!ited another hippah. li'.itcd on a rock al- 
iiiolt inacccliible : it coniilted of about one hundrij 
lioufes and a fighting Ibige. We made the fiicnJIy in- 
habitants (owe fniall prefents of pr.j'er. b.'adiS, and 
nails, and they in retuiii us with dried lilh. 
On the £7th and 2Sth our company were engaged in 
making necelFaiy repairs, catching lilh, and getting the 
bjideax our ready to continue her voyage. 

On Monday the 29th, we were vifited by our oki 
friend 'I'opoa in company with otlier Indians, from 
whom we heard, that the man who had received a 
wound near the hippah, was dead ; but diis report 
proved atierv..irils i^roundK'I'sj and we found that To-* 
poa's difeourfes were not always to be taken literally. 
During the time the bark Has prepaniig for fea, Mr. 
Banks and Dr. Solander olun went on iliore ; but their 
walks were circumllribcd by tl;e luxuriant climberi 
which filled up the fpare between the trees, : iid ren- 
dered the won. Is impatfable. Capt. Cook alio imdc 
feveral obfervatior.s on the coall to the no;di-'\ ell, and 
perceiveil matiy iilauds, forming bays, in wluch there 
appeared to be good aiK hora;;e for ll'ipping. I le allb 
creeled another pyramitl of llones, in which he pv.i 
fome bullets, i\c. as bei'ore, v.irh the addition of a 
piece (U our fiuer coin, and placed pare of an oM 
1 ciulant on the top, to diilin.wuini it. Returnmi;- to 
the Ihip he met wiih 'lumy of the native.^, of whou. he 
purehaK'd a fuiall quantity of li'.li. 

On Tuefday, the .joiii, foiue of our people, v. ho 
were feiu out early in the morning to gather celery, 
met with about twenty Indians, among whom were five 
or fix women, whole hul!;.uid.i had lately b'.cn male 
cajjiives. They fat dtiwn uf).)iuhe grounil ti)gcLl-.e!-,.m'l 
cut many parts of their bodies in a moil fhuei;ingm.i:i- 
ner, pieies (,f talcor jalper, ia tefti- 
monv of their excellive griel". But what madetti- horr'd 
fpeclacle more terrible, was, the male India/is v,!,o 
were with them, paid not the lead atieivion to it, but 
wiihthegreateflunconccni imaginable-, eniploytd thcM- 

O IcUes 


•'■ \& 

^ • 



C'apt. C O O K s V () Y A G V. S COMPLEX E 

fclvc.i in repairing their huts. This day the carpenter 
having prepared two polls, they were let up as memo- 
rials, being infcribed with the date of the year, the 
month, and the ihip's name. One of them we erci^ted 
at the watering place, with the union-Hag hoilh'd 
upon tlie top; and the other in the iiland that hts 
nearertthc fea, called by the natives Motuara; anti the 
inhabitants bcinq; informed, that thofe polls were lit 
up to acquaint other adventmrrs that the I'lndcavour 
had touched at this place, they promifed never to ilef- 
troy thciii. Capt. Cook then gave Ibmething to every 
one prefinr, and to Topoaourold friend, he prefented 
a filver three-pence, dated I7,i6, and fome fpike nails 
which had the king's broad arrow cut deep upon them. 
After which he honoured this inlet with the name of 
Queen Charlotte's Sound ; and at the fame time took 
polFeirion of it in the name and for the ule of his pre- 
ient majcfly. The whole of this day's bulinels con- 
cluded with drinking a bottle of wine to the ijuecn's 
health. The bottle was given to the old man, who 
received the prefent with flrong ligns of joy. We 
mull not omit hereto obferve, that Topoa being quef- 
tioned concerning a paflage into the eartcrn-fea, an- 
fwered, that there was certainly fuch a palfage. I le 
alfo faid, that the land to the fouth wefb of the fheigln, 
where we then were, conlirtcd of two whennuas or 
iflands, named Tovy Poenamoo, which fignilies 
" the water of green talc ;" which might probably be 
the name of a place where the Indians got their 
preen talc, or fVone, of which they make their orna- 
ments anil cutting tools. I le alio told us, there « as 
a third W'liennua, ealVward of the (freight, called l'»i- 
heinomauwee. of conliderable extent ; the circumnavi- 
gation of «hi(h would take up many moons: he added, 
that the land on the borders of the (height, contin;uoui 
to this inlet, called Tiera VVitte. 1 laving luocured 
this intelligence, and concluded the ceremonies at fixing 
lip the monumental memorial, we returned to the (hip. 
'I he old man attended us in his canoe, and returned 
home alier dinner. 

^\'ednefdny the 3 id, having taken in our wood and 
w.atcr, wc difpatched one party to make brooms, and 
another to catch fi(h. Toward the clofe of the evening- 
we had a (Irong gale from the north-weft, with fuch 
hea\y llioucrs, that our fwcct little warblers on ftiore 
fuf|)c:ided their wild notes, with which till now they conllantly fcrenaded us during the night, atfording 
Us a pieifure not to be cxprelfed, and the lofs of which 
wc could not at this time refrain from regretting. 

On the ift of February the gale increafcd to a (lorm, 
w ith heavy gufts from the inain land, which obliged us 
to let c^o another anchor. Towards night they became 
more moderate, but the rain poured down with im- 
pituofity, that the brook at our watering place over- 
\W\<.\\ itf banks, and carried away to our lots ten calks 
hill of water. 

O:'! S;itualay the {d,.wc went over to the Ilippah 
on the eaft-lidc of Charlotte's .Sound, and procured 
a >.on(idcral)le quantity of filh. The people here con- 
lirmed all that Topoa had told us refpe>:ting the Onighr 
and the unknown country. At noon when we took 
leave of them, fome (howed figns of forrow, others of 
joy that we were going. When returning to the (hip 
f.ime of our company made an excurdon along the 
(bore northw aui, to traffic for a further fupjily of (i(h, 
but without fucccfs. Sunday the 4th, Mr. Ifanks anil 
Dr. Sol.inihr were engaged in collecting (hells, and dif- 
lerent kinds of feeds. 

On the 5th we got under fail, but the wind foon fall- 
mg, we came again to anchor a little above Motuara. 
Topoa here paid us a vilit to bid us farewell. Ueing 
qucftioned whether he had ever heard, that fuch a vef- 
fel as ours had ever vifited the country, he replied in the 
negative ; but (liid, there was a tradition of a fmall 
vcftcl having come from Ulimora, a diftant country 
in the north, in which were only four men, who on 
their landing, were all put to dc.-uh. The people of 
the Bay of Mands and Tupia had fome confufed tra- 
ditionary notions about Ulimora, but from their ac- 
counts wc could draw no certain conclufion. 'I'his day 

Mr. Banks rtnd Dr. .Solander went again on lliore in 
fcarch of natural curiohtics, and by accident met with 
a very amiable Indiail family, among whom was a 
w idow, and a pretty youth about ten years of age. The 
woman mourned for her hulband, according to the 
cuftom of the country, with tears of blood ; and the 
child, by the death of his (iither, was the |)roprietor of 
the land where we had cut our wood. The mother 
and Con were fitting u|ion matts, the reft of the family 
of both fexcs, about feventeen in number, fat roinul 
them, 'nuy behaved with the utmolt hofpitality and 
courtefy, anil endeavoured to prevail with ii> to Hay alf 
night ; but cxpeiiting the (hip to f.iil, we could not 
accept of their prelllng invitation. This family feein- 
cil the moft intelligent of any Indians we had hitherto' 
convcrfed with, which made us regret our late ac- 
quaintance with them; (iir had wc (iillen into their 
company before, we (hould probably have gained more 
information from them in one day, than wc had been 
able to acquire during our whole (lay upon the coaft. 

Monday the 6th in the morning, the I'aideavour 
failed o\it of the bay, which, from the favage cullom of 
eating human lle(h, we called Cannibal Ha)'. Wc bent 
our courfe to an opcnin;; in the eaft ; and when in the 
mouth of the ftreight were becalmed in latitude 410 
fouth and i 84 deg. 45 min. weft longitude. The two 
points that form the entrance we called Cape Koamaro, 
anil point Jackfiin. The land forming the harbour or 
cove m which we lay is called by the Indians Totarranuc; 
the hrrbour itfelf, inir.ed by the captain .Ship Cove, 
is very convenient and fate. It is fituated on the weft- 
lide ()(' the cove, and i^ the fouthermoft of the three 
coves within the itland of Mvituara, between which 
and the iiland of 1 lamotc, or between Motuara or 
weliern-fliorc is the entrance. In the laft ot theic 
inlets are two ledges o( rocks, three tathom under water, 
which may ealily be known by the fea weed that grows 
upon them. Attention mull alio be paid to the tides, 
which, when thee i;. little wind. How alxiut nine or ten 
o'clock at the lull and changeof the moon, and rife anil 
fall about (even feet and a half, palling througli the 
(height fromthe fouth-e ill. 'I'he land about this linind, 
which we fawat the dillance of twenty leagues, conlills 
entirely of high hills, and deep vallies, well llored with 
a variety of excellent timber, tit f<)r all purpofes except 
malls, lor which it is two hard and heavy. On the (liorc- 
we (bund plenty of Ihags, and a few other fpccics of 
wild fowl, that are very acceptable f od to thofe who 
luve lived long iipctn lalt proxilions. 'i'he number of 
inhabitan's is not greater than (our hundred, who arc 
f( attered along the coall, and upon any appearance of 
tlanger retire to their Hippahs or forts, in which (itua- 
tion we (bund them. '1 hey are poor, and their canoe>; 
w ithout ornaments. The trallic we had w ith them wa> 
wholly tor tith j but they had Ibme knowledge of iron, 
which the natives of other parts had not. On our ar- 
lival they were much pleafedwith our paper; but when 
they knew it would befpoiled by the wet, they would not 
have it. Englilli broad-cloth, and red Kerfey they 
highly erteemed. 

Leaving the (bund wc flood over to the eaftward, 
and were carried by the rajvidity of the current very 
clofe to one of the two illands that lie otrC.ipcKoamaroo, 
at the entrance of Queen Charlotte's Sojiid. At this 
time we were every moment m danger of being dallied 
to jiic; i againll the rocks, but alter having veered out 
1 50 fathoms of cable, the (hip was brought up, when 
the rocks were not more than two cables Lng.h from 
uf. Thus w J remained, bciiig obli.ged to wait for the 
tide's ebbing, which did not take place till after mid- 

On the 7th, at eight o'clock in the mnrning wo 
weighed anchor, and a frefti breeze with a tide of ebb 
hurried us through the ftreight with great fwiftnefs. 
The narroweft part of this ftraight lies between Cape 
Ticrrawittc and Cape Koamaroo, the diftanrc between 
which wc judged to be five leagues. I'he length of the 
llraight wc could not determine. In pafling it, wc 
think it fafcfl to keep to the north-cafl lliorc, for on this 
liUc wc iv,f nothing to fear. Cape Ticrrawitte lies in 

41 <ifg- 



1 on (Lore in 
dent PKt with 
whom inas :i 
lofajrc. The 
)rdin{^ to the 
)c)d ; and the 
pioprittor of 
The iiiother 
of the fjinily 
)cr, fat ioun({ 
ofjjitality antt 
111 to ll'ay all 
we could not 
s fatnily fccin- 
lud hitliert<r 
iiiir late ac- 
cn into their 
c gained nioiv 
n wc had liecu 
the rnal>. 
le I'jideavour 
aj!;e lullom of 
VVc bent 
1 when in the 
ititude 410 
e. I'he two 
,'apc Koaniaro, 
the harbour or 
lin Ship Cove, 
d on the wefl- 
l of the tlirec 
)etw(en ivhicli 

I Moruara or 
lall ol thclc 

II iiruiir water, 
eed that grows 
id to tlie tides, 
out nineor teit 
>n, and rife and 
:; throui;h the 
)out this Icjund, 
caiques, eonlilU 
veil llortd witll 
lurpofes except 
. On tlie (liore 
lur Ipecics of 
d to tiiole ivhf> 
I'he number of 
drtd, who are 

appearance of 
n wliich fitua- 
id their canoe.'i 
with them wa> 
* ledge of iron, 
. On our ar- 
iper; but when 
they would not 
:J Kerfey they 

the caflward, 

current very 
Kind. At this 
f being dallied 

ing Veered out 
gilt uj>, when 
es kng.h from 

to wait for the 
till after mid- 

; morning wc 
a tide of ebb 
reat fwiftnefs. 
between Cape 
lanrc beCween 
e length of the 
paffiniT it, wc 
ore, for on thij 
rrawitte lica in 
41 deg. 


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cook's first VOYAGE"!— for making Difcoveries in the South Seas & Round the IVarld. 55 

41 Jc-^. 44 min. of fouth latitude, dnd 1 83 deg. 45 min. 
of well longitude. And Cape Koamaroo is 41 deg. 
•^4 min fouth, and in 1 13 deg. 30 min. weft longitude. 
About nine leagues from the former cape, and under the 
fame flioie north, is a high ifland, which .the captain 
called Entry Ifle. We were now facing a deep bay 
which we called Cloudy Bay. Some of our gentlertien 
doubting whether Eahicnomauwee was an ifland, we 
fteered Ibuth-eaft, in order to . lear up this doubt; but 
the wind ihifting we flood eaftward, and fleered north- 
caft by eafb all night. The next morning they were off 
Gape Pallifer, and found that the land ftretchcd away 
to the north-eaOward of Cape Turnagain. In the 
afternoon, three canoes came off, having feveral Indians 
on board. Thcfe made a good appearance, and were 
ornamented like thofe on the northern coaft. There 
was no difficulty in perfuading them to come on board, 
where they demeaned themfelvcs very civilly, and a 
mutual exchange of prcfents took place. As they afked 
for nails it was concluiied that they heard of the Kng- 
lilh, bv means of the inhabitants of fome of the other 
places at which wc had touched. Their drcfs re- 
fcmbled that of the natives of Hudfon's Bay. One old 
man was tataowcd in a very particular manner, he had 
likcwife a red Ibcak acrofs his nofe ; and his hair and 
beard were remarkable for their whitenefs. The upper 
garment that he wore was made of flax, and had a 
wrought border : under this was a fort of petticoat of a 
cloth called Aooree Waow. Teeth and green floncs 
decorated his cars : he fpoke 'n a foft and low kcv, and 
it Mas concluded, from his deportment, that he was 
a pcrfoii of diflinguilhed rank among his countrymen, 
and thefc people withdrew greatly fatislled with the 
prcfents that they hid received. 

On the <)th in the morning, we difcovered that 
Ea'.ii'nomauwce was really an ifland. About fivtv 
Indians in four double canoes came within a ftonj's 
throw o'"the Ihip, on the 14th of February. As they 
furvcved her with furprize, Tupia endeavoured to per- 
fuade them to come nearer, but this they could not be 
prevailed on to do. On this account the ifland was de 
nominated the I (land of l.ookers-on. Five leagues 
dillant from the coaft ofTovy Poenamoo, we faw an 
itland which was called after Mr. Banks's name; a 
few Indians appeared on it, and in one place they dif- 
covered a fmoke, fo it was plain the place was in- 
habited. Mr. Banks going out in his boat for the pur- 
pofeof Ihooting, killed fome of the Port l-'giiiont hens, 
which were like thofe found on the ille of I'arc, and 
the firft that they had fccn upon this co:i(K A point 
of land was obferved on Sunday the :5th in latitude 
45 deg. 35 nun. foutii, to which Capt. Cook gave the 
Jiame ofCa[K' Saunders, in honour of Admiral Saun- 
ters. We kept oil' from the (liorc, which appeared to 
be interfperfed w ith trees, and covered w iih green hills, 
but no inhabitants were difcovered. 

On the 4th of March, feveral whales and feals were 
fccn; and on the 9th we faw a ledge of rocks, and foon 
after another ledge nr three leagues diflance from the 
lliore, which we palled in the night to the northward, 
and at day-break nbferved the others under our bows, 
which W.IS a liirtunaie tl'cape; and in confuleration of 
their having been fo n.arly caught among thcfe, tluy 
were denominaied the Trnjis. We called thefouthcrn- 
molf point of land, the South Cape, and found it to 
be the foutl'.ern extremity of the wliole coaft. Pro- 
ceeding nortliwaid, the next day we fell in with a bar- 
ren rock about liftecn miles from the main lanil, 
which wn^ very higli, and appeared to be about a mile 
in circuu'.fercme ; and this was. named Solander's 

Oj! ilie I (t'l. wc difcovered a bay containing feveral 
iOands, w here we ccMicluded if there was depth of water, 
(lupi>it>g might find flicker from all winds. Dulky 
Bay was the appellation given to it by the captain, and 
fn ehigh peaked rocks, for w hich it was remarkable, 
ciufed ilie ^wint to be called live i'ingcrs. The wef- 
fcnnoft pomt of land I'pon the whole coaft, to the 
fouthward of Dulky Hay, we called Weft Cape. The 
;icxt day we paifed a fmali narrow opening, where 

there feemed to be a good harbour formed by an ifland) 
the land behind which exhibited a profpcd of mouii* 
tains covered with fnow. 

On the 1 6th, we palled a point which confifted of 
high red cliffs, and received the nameof Cafcade Point, 
on account of feveral fmali ftrcams which fell down it. 
In the morning of the i8th the valleys were obferxccl- 
covered with fnow as well as the mountains, which 
feemed to have fallen the night before, when we had 
rain at fea. Thus we paffed the w hole north-weft coall ' 
of Tovcy Poenamoo, which had nothing worth our ob- 
fervation but a ridge of naked and barren rocks covered 
with fnow, fome of w hich we conjectured might pro- 
bably have remained there ever fince the creation. As 
far as the eye could reach, the profpCits were in general 
wild, craggy, and defolatc ; fcarcely any thing but rocks 
to Lie fciin, the moft of which Dr. Hawkefvvorth def- 
cribcs as having nothing but a kind of hollows, and 
dreadful filllires inftead of valleys between them. From 
this uncomtbrtablc country we determined to depart,, 
having failed round the whole country by the 27th of 
this month. Ca]n. Cook therefore went or, fliore in 
the long-boat, and having found a place pre per for 
mooring the Ihip, and a good watering place, the crew 
began to fill their calks, while the carpenter was cm- 
ployed in cutting wood. The captain, Mr. Banks, and 
Dr. Solander, went in the pinnace to examine the bay, 
and the neighbouring country. Landing there they 
found feveral plants of a f[)cci"; which was before un- 
known to them; no inhabitants appeared ; but they 
faw feveral huts which feemed to have been deferted a 
long lime before : all the wood and water being taken 
on board, tlie veffel was ready to fail by the time that 
they rcturneil in tlie evenuig, and it was now refolvcd 
at a council of war 10 lieer for the coaft of NewHol- 
1 md, in the courfe ot their return by the way of the 

On the 31ft, we took our departure from an eaftern 
point of land, to which we gave the name of Cape 
Farewel, callmg the bay out ol whuh we failed. Admi- 
ralty Bay; and two capes, Cape Stephens, and Cape 
Jackli/n, (the names ot the two fccretaries of the .Vdmi- 
ralty board.) We called a baj' between the iftand and 
Cape Farewell, Blind Bay, which was fuppofed to have 
been the fame that was called Murderers Bay, by Taf- 
niaii, the firft difcovercrof New Zcalind, but though he 
named it Staten Ifland, wiftiing to take polTeflion of it 
tor the States General, yet being attacked here by the 
Indians he never went on fhore to effect his purpofe. 
This coaft, now ivore accurately examiuetl, is difcovered 
to conlift of two illands, which were belbre thought to 
be a part of the fouthern continent io much fought 

They arc fituate between the 34th and 48th deg. of 
fouth latitude, and between 181 deg. and 194 deg. weft 
longitude. The northern illand is called F^aliienomau- 
wec, and the fouthern is named Tow Poenamoo by the 
natives. The former, though mountiinous in ibmc 
places, is ftored with wood, and in every valley there 
is a rivulet. The foil in thofe valleys is light, but fer- 
tile and well adapted for the plentiful production of all 
the fruits, plants and corn of F^irope. The I'ummcr, 
though not hotter, is in general of a more enual tem- 
perature than in England; and fioin the xegetabli's 
that were found here it was concluded, that the winters 
were not fo fevere. The only ijuadrupetls that were 
difcovered were dogs and rats, and of the latter very 
lew, but the former the inhabitants (like thofe of 
Otaheite) breed for food. There are feals and whales 
on thecoafts, and we once faw a fea-lion. 'i'lie birds 
are hawks, owls, quails, and fomenu-lodiousfong birds. 
There are ducks, and ftiags of feveral Ibrts, like thofe 
of Europe, and the gannet, which is of the fame lort. 
.Mbetrolfcs, fticerwaters, penguins, and pintados, all(> 
\ ilit the coaft. The infects found here arc, butteiilics, 
Hefti-rties, beetles, fand-flies, and mulliuitos. 

Tovy Poenamoo is barren and mountainous, and 
appeared to be almoft deftitute of inhabitants. 

The fea that waflics thefe iflands abounds w ith delicate 
and wholelbmc fifti. Whenever the vcilU came to an 




Capt. C O O K'8 VOYAGES COM P I, E T E. 

. ..'♦"J 


anchor, enough were caught with hook and line only, 
to fupply the whole Ihips company;- and when wc 
finifliecl with nets, every mcfs in the (hip, where the 
people were induftrious, faked as much as fupplicd 
them for feveral weeks. There were many forts of filh 
fierc which we had never before feen, and which the 
failors named according to their fanties. They weic 
fold on moderate terms to the crew : among the rclV, 
fifti like the (katc, eel:;, congers, oyfters, flat-fiih refcm- 
bling foios and flounders, cockles and various forts of 
ni.ickarcl were found in abundance upon the cial\. 

Merc are fbrells abounding with trees, producing 
largi', limit and clean timber. One tree about the 
fr/.c of our oak, was diflinguifhed by a fcarlet flower, 
compofcd of feveral fibres, and another which grows in 
fwampy ground, very ftrait and tall, bearing fiunU bun- 
cIks of berries, and a leaf refcmbling that of the yew- 
tree. About 400 fpecics of plants were found, all of 
which are unknown in England, except garden nii;iK- 
Ihade, fow thiftle, two or three kinds of fern, and one 
or two forts of grafs. We found wild celery, and a kind 
of crcffe.*, in great abundance, on the fca-fhorc ; and of 
eatable plants raifed by cultivation, only cocoas, yams, 
and fwcot potatoes. There arc phmations of many 
acres of thtfe yams and potatoes. The inh-ibitants 
likewife cukivaie the gourd ; and the Chincfc paper 
nnilbcrry-trce is to be found, but in no abundance. 

In New Zealand is only one flirub or tree, which pro- 
duces fruit, which is a kind ofbcrry almoft ta'.lclefs ; 
but they have a plant « hich answers all the ufcs of 
hempandHax. TKc-re .■.;o i.vo kindsof th s pliiit, the 
leaves of one of which arc yellow, and the other a 
deep red, and both of them refcinblc the leaves o!' t\ •Jj'i. 
Of thcle leaves they make lip.e^and '-or.ia'^e :'.:id ni'i-h 
Wronger than any thing of the knui in luiropc. Thcle 
leaves thev likewife fpiit into bieadtiis, and rving the 
flips togtihcr, form their filhing nets. Their coM'inon 
aj'parcl, by a finiple proctfs, is made from the kaves, 
and their liner, by another preparation, is made fi \\\ 
the fibres. This plant is found both in high anJ low 
pvound, in dry mould and in deep bogs ; but as it 
grows largtfl in the latter, that feems to be its proper 

TI1C natises arc as Iirgc as the largeft Europeans. 
Their complexion ib brown, but little m. refothan that 
of a Spaniard. They are full of tlelh, but not lazy 
and luxurious ; and are lloiit and well fliaped. The 
women poU'elbn^tthnt delicacy, which dillinguithcs the 
European l.ulies ; but tlicir voice chiefly diUinguilhes 
them from t'.e men. The men arc active in a hiizh 
drgrce ; their lt;iir is bi.iek, and their teeth are white 
nn.l t\en. The fe.iturescf both fexes are regular; they 
ti\]o\ p< rfei't hie.ihh, and live to an;ui\ance.l age. They 
appealed to he of a gentle dilpoliiion, and treat each 
other viith the uunoll kindneis ; but they are per- 
petually at war, every little diflrict being at enmity 
\\hh all I he reft. This is ouing, molt probably, to 
the \\ant of t"i<i;d in fufficient quantities at certain times. 
As they have neither black cattle, ilieep, ho;';s, nor 
goils ; fo their chief food was /illi, which being not 
alv.ii\ s to be liad, they arc in danger of dyinj; through 
hunger, 'i'h.ey have a few dogs; and when no lilh is 
t) be !.'ot!e:i, they have only vegctablci, fueh as yams 
i.".J J otatees, to iird on ; and if by any ac( ident thefe 
f.iil thini, ti'.eir fituaiion itiufl be dejilorable. Not- 
%«;rhl!a;:iii:';i; the curtom of eating their enemies, the 
r.rcinnd.uv es and temper of ihcfe people is in fa- 
v«iurof iliofe who might fettle aniong them as a co- 

■J he inVnbirants of New Zealand are as modert and 
refcrvcd in rlieir behaviour and converfation as the 
jnol'r polite nations of Europe. The women, intlecd. 
were n>.it (lead to the foftcr imprelTtons ; but their mode 
of confent was in their idea as harmiefs as the content 
to marri.ige with us, and equally bindmg for the llipu- 
l,!;cd titrve. If any of the iMiglilh aildrelfed one ot their 
vKimen, he was informctl, that the confent of her friends 
irijfi be obtained, whiih ufually followed, on his ma- 
king a pielent. This done he was obliged to treat his 
tt iiipoiary wile as delicately as hc do in England, A 

geniteman who liiiled in the Endeavour, having ad- 
dfcifed a family of foine rank, received an anfwer, of 
which the following is an exact tranflation. " Any of 
" thefe young ladies will think themfelvcs honoured by 
" your addrefies, but you mull firft make mc a prffent, 
" and you mult then come and fleep with us on fliorc, 
" for day-light mull by no means be a witnefs of what 
" pafles between you." 

Thefe Indians anoint their hair with oil melted from 
the fat of filh or birds. The poorer people ufe that 
which is rancid, fo that they fmell very tiifagrecablc ; 
but thofc of fupcrior rank make ufe of that which is 
frelh. I'hcy wearcoinbs both of bone and wixid, which 
is cont'ulered as an ornaiiuiu when lluck upright in 
the hair. The mcii tie their hair in a ounch on the 
crown of the hcail, and adorn it with feathers of birds^ 
which they likewise fomctimes pl.icc on each lide 
of the temples. They commonly wear ihort beards. 
The hair of the women fomctimes flows over their 
Ihoulders, and fometimes iscutlliort. Both fexcs, hut 
tlic men moreth?n the women, mark their bodies with 
black llain^, called Amoco. In general the womi'n 
ilain only the lijjs but fometiires mark other parts with 
black patches: the men on inc contrary ptit on addi- 
tional marks froio year to year, fo that thofc w ho arc 
very ar.cient are alinolt covered. Excliifive of the 
amoco, they maik themlelvcs with furrows. Thofc 
furrows m.T-le a ludeous appearance, the eilpes being 
iiui'r.rixl, and tl^c wliole quite black. The ornimeius 
of the !a-eiiie drivn in ifie fj)iral firm with equal clc- 
gm. e and conccli;e!'s, both cheeks beinrr marked ex- 
a^dy alike; while j:ai!itino3 on their Iwdies rcfcn.bic 
f.!! igiee work, and the f ^liaj^^c in old ciiafed orn:imcnis ; 
li It no two l.tces or boJic'i aiC(.)aintcd exactly alter the 
fame model. The people of New Zealand, frequently 
lelL tl'.e breech .neefrom thefe marks, which the inha- 
bitanti of Otiheirc adorned beyond any other. Thefe 
Indians likewile paint their bodies by rubbing them 
with r«l ocre, either dry or mixed with oil. 

Their diefs is formed of the leaves of the fplit 
in;o flips, which are interwoven and made into a kind 
of matting, the ends, which are feven or eight inches 
in length.hanging out on the upper fide. One piece 
of this matting being tied over the fliouldcrs, reaches 
to the knees : the other (liei.e being wrapped round the 
wailT fills almo" to the ground. 'Ihcfe two pieces arc 
faftcned to a firing, which by means of abodkm ofbone 
is palled through, and tacks them together. The 
men wenr the louer "rirment only at particular times. 

Th;-\ have two kinds of cloth befidcs the coarfc 
matting or ihag ahuvc-mentioned ; one of which is as 
coarfe, but be\ond all proportion llronger than the 
l'',n"^IHlic>m\.is; the other which is formed of the fibre* 
of a, ilrawn into threads which ciofs and bind 
each other, refe:nbles the matting on which wc place 
our (lillies at table. 

They make borders of different colours to both thefe 
forts of cloth, refcmbling girls famplcrs and finiflicd 
w ith great nea'dcfs and elegance. What they conlider a* 
ll'.e mod ornamental part of their cirefs is the fur of 
dogs, which they cut into llripes, and few on difle- 
rent parts of their appa.Tl. As dogs are not plenty, 
they difpofe their (Iripcs with ovi.iVjmy. They have 
a lew drelfe-. (iin.ancnred with leathers ; and one man 
w;'.s f'.:a\ covered v, h<:lly with tb.ofe of the red parrot. 

'I'he n.-ver tie their hair on the top of their 
head, noradmn it with leaihiii; and arc kfs anxiouj 
about drcfs than the men. 'fhcir lower g.armcnt is 
bound tight round them, cxt ept when they go out 
fi'Ving, and then they are careful that the men lliallnoc 
fee them. It once hapiicued that liuue of ihc fliip's 
crew fiirprifed them in this fituation, w hen fome of them 
hid themfehes among the rocks. and the rell kept their 
bOvlies under witer till they had' formed a girdle and 
apron of weeds; and tliclr whole beluvour manifeflt-d 
the mofl refined ideas of female modelly. 

The ears of both fexcs were bored, and the holes 
ftrctched lb as to admit a man's linger. The orna- 
ments of dicir ear; arc feathers, cloth, l)ones, and Ibme- 
times bits of wjoJ ; a great many of them made ufe 



ur, having ad- 
i an anfwer, of 
ion. " Any of 
^'cs honoured by 
ce nic a prflent, 
ith us on fliorc, 
kvitnefs of whac 

lil melted from 
jeopie life that 
ry difagreeablc; 
1' that which is 
id wood.Hhitli 
jck upriglit in 
a ounch on the 
cathcis of birds* 
on each lidc 
r ll.ort beards, 
ows over their 
Doih fcxcs, but 
icir bodies vith 
ral the uomt'n 
atlicr parts uith 
y p«t on addi- 
th;)("c who arc 
xdufive of the 
Jrrows. Thofe 
ic edpcs being 
The onvimnus 
with equal clc- 
np: marked cx- 
v)dies refcn.bic 
fed ornnineiiis; 
xactiy after tiic 
land, frequently 
hich the inha- 
othcr. Thefe 
rubbing them 

f the flag fplie 

ide into a kind 

jr eight inche* 

Ic. One piece 

ulders, reaches 

pped round the 

two pieces arc 

bodkin of bone 

ogethcr. The 

ticular tiniei. 

des the coarfc 

of which is as 

nger than the 

cd of the fibre* 

lofs and bind 

hich we place 

•s to both thefe 
s and finiilied 
hey conlidcr as 
"s is the fur of 

few on dift'e- 
are not plenty, 

. Ihey have 

;ind one man 
• retl j)arr()t. 
le top of their 
re lei's anxiouj 
'cr garment is 
n they go out 
.' men Ihall not 
L- of the lliip's 
:ifomeof thcni 

rell kept their 
i a girdle and 
lur nianifclkd 






I - 

and the holes 
r. The orna- 
nes, and Come- 
\ein made ufe 






':it-'f ' 




--■■''■■■ :.-i- my 








,,,( J- 

, '.tMTm 

' JwB ' 


'"■ Wi 




COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE— for making Difiovaivs in the Souih Seas & Round the World. 57 

of the naiU which were given them by the Engiilli, 
for this purjwre, and the women foinetimcs adorned 
their cars with white down of the albctrofs, which 
they fprcad before and behind the whole in a large 
bunch. They likewifc hiinj^ to their ears by firings, 
chilTels, bodkins, the teeth of dop, and the teeth and 
nails of their deccafcd fiitnds. The arms and antk-s 
of the won. are adorn -d with Hit-ils and bones, or any 
thing elfe tliroiigh which they can pais a (Iring. The 
men wear a piece of green talc or whalebone, with the 
rcfemblancc of a man carved on it, han^.ing to a llring 
round the neck. Wc faw one man who had the griftle 
of his nofc perforated, and a feather palled through it, 
projcdinf^ over each cheek. 

Thcfc people flicw Icfs ingenuity in the ftrudurc cf 
their houfcs, than in any thing elfe belongmg to them j 
they arc from lixtccn to twenty-four feet long, ten or 
twelve w ide, and fix or eight in height. The frame is 
of flight fticks of wood, and the walls and roof arc 
made of dry grafs pretty firmly compacted. Some of 
them are lined with bark of trees, and the ridge of the 
houfe is formed by a pole which runs from one end to 
the other. 'I'hc dm»r is only high enough to admit a 
perfon crawling on hands and knees, and the roof is^ 
Hoping. There is a fquarc hole near the door, ferving 
both for window and chimney, near vhith is the (in 
place. A plank is placed over the door, adorned with 
a fort of carving, .- id this they conlidcr as an orna- 
menral piece of furniture. The fide-walls and r< o 
pnjccting two or three feet beyond the walls at each n 1 
form a fort of portico where benches aie to lit 
on. The fire is made in the middle of a hollow fquare 
in the ttcor, which is inclofed with wiiod or fionr. 
They deep near the walls, where the gro;:nd iscosercd 
with ftraw for their beds. Some «ho can atibrd it, 
whofe families arc large, have three or four houfes, in- 
clofed in their court-yard. Their clothes, arms, fea- 
thers, fome ill m^de tools, and a chell, in which .dl 
thefe arc depofited, form all the furniture of the inlidc 
of the houfc. Their hammers to beat fern-root, gourds 
to hold water, and balkets to contain provifions, arc 
placed without the houfc. One houfe was found near 
40 feet long, 20 wide, and 14 high. Its fides were 
adorned with carved planks of workman'hip fuperior 
to the reft; but the building aj.peared to nave been 
left uniinilhcd. Though the people deep warm enough 
at home, they feciii to defpile the inclemency of the 
weather, when they go in Icarch of lilh or fern-roots. 
Soinetimcs, indeed, incy pl.ue a fiuall defence to wind- 
ward, but frciiuently deep undreffed with their arms 
placed round them, w ithout the leaft flKltcr whatever. 

Bcfides the fern-rout, wiiich fervcs them for bread, 
they feed on allx'troiles, penguins, and fome other birds. 
Whatever they is either roalkd or baked, as they 
have no veifd in which water can be boiled. We faw 
no plantations of cocoas, potatoes, and yams, to the 
fouihvard, thou|;h there were many in the northern 
parts. The natives drmk no other liquor than water, 
and enjoy pcrfci't and uninterrupted health. When 
wounded in bairle, the wound heals ina very fltort time 
without the application of medicine; and the very old 
people carry no other maks of decay about them than the 
lofs of their hair, and teeth, and a failure of their 
mulcular ftrcngth : but enjoy an equal fliarc of health 
and ehe.nrfuhiels w ith the youngcft. 

The canotsof this country are not unlike the whale- 
boats of New I'.ni^land, being long and narrow. The 
larger fort fetm to be built for war, and will hold from 
30 to too men. One of thefe at Tolaga nicafured near 
70 feet in length, fix in width, and four in depth. It 
was fliarp at the bottom, and confilled of three lengths, 
about two or three inches thick, and tied firmly toge- 
ther with ftrong plaiting; each fide was found of one 
entire plank, about twtTve inches broad, and about an 
inch and a half thick, which was fitted to the bottom 
part with equal Ihcpgth and ingenuity. Several 
thwarts were laid from one fide to the other, to which 
they were fecurcly faftcned, in order to ftrcngdicn the 
canoes. Some few of their canoes at Mercury Bay and 
Opooragc,. are all made entirely of one trunk of wood, 

. •^'o. 7- 

which is tii.ade hollow by lire; but by fir the greater 
part arc built after the plan abnvi ikfciihed. 'l"he 
finaller boats which arc ulcd chietly in tilling, are 
adorned at head and ftern with the figure ofa man, the 
eyes of which are compol'ed of white Ihells : a tonj.^uo 
of enormous (izc, is thruft out of the mouth, and the 
whole face a pidlure of the nioll abfolute deformity. 
The grander catioci, whu h arc intended fur war, are 
ornamented with open work, and eoxeied with frinj.',es 
(if black feathers, whii'i gives the whciean airof per- 
fed elegance; the fidc-boarils which are cnr\ed in a 
rude manner, are cmbellilhed v.ith tui'ts of white fea- 
thers. Thefe vcdlls arc rowed with a kind of paddies, 
between five and fix feet in length, th.e blade of which 
is a long oval, gradually decrealing till it reaches the 
handle; and the velocity with which they row with 
thefe paddles is very furprifing. Their fails are com- 
pofed of a kiu'iof mat or netting, which is extended 
between two upright poles, one of which is fixed on 
each fide. Two ropes, fadened to the top of each 
pole, ferve inrtead of fiicets. '1 he vefl'els arc dccred 
by two men having fuch a paddle, and fitting in the 
dern; but they can only fail before the wind, in which 
diredion they move with confidcrable fwiltnefs. 

Thefe Indians ufe axes, adzes, and chilfel'!, with 
which lad they likewifc bote holes. The chiirds are 
made of jafper, or of the bone of a man's arm ; their 
ixe:; and adzes of a hard black done. They ufe their 
iinall jafper tools till they arc blunted, and then throw 
them away, having no inUrument to Iharpcn them w ith. 
The Indians at Tolaga having been prefcnted with a 
piece of glafs, drilled a hole through it, and hung it 
round the neck. A fiiiall bit of jalper was thought to 
have been the tool they ufed in drilling it. 

Their tillage is excellent, owing to th^ ncccdlty they 
are under of cultivating or running the rifque of ftarv- 
ing. At Tegadoo their crops were jull put into the 
ground, and the furface of the tield was as fmooth as a 
garden, the roots wtre ranged in regular lines, and to 
every root there remained a hillock. A long narrow 
Itake, Iharpened to an edge at bottom, with a piecu 
fixed acrofs a little above it, for the convenience of 
driving it into the ground with the foot, fiipplies the 
place both of plough and Ipade. The foil being light, 
their work is not very laborious, and with this infirii- 
mcnt alone they w ill turn up ground of fix or fcvcii 
acres in extent. 

The feine, the large net which has been already no- 
ticed, is produced by the united labour, and is proba- 
bly the joint projierty of a whole town. Their fifli- 
hooks are of Ihcll or bone; ane! they have bafkets of 
wicker-work to hold the lilh. Their warlike weapons 
are fpears, darts, battle-axes, and the patoo-patoo. 
The fpcar, which is pointed at each end, is about fix- 
tecn feet in length, and they hold it in the middle, ^a 
that it is dilhcult to parry a pulh from it. Whether 
they fight in boats or on ihore the battle is hand to hand, 
^o that they muft make bloody work of it. They 
trull chicHy in the patoo-patoo, which is faftcned to 
their wrifts, by means of a ftrong ftrap, that it may 
not be w refted out of their hands. Thefe are worn in 
the girdles of people ofa fuperior rank, as a military 
ornament. They have a kind of ftatt' of diftindioii, 
which is'carried by the principal warriors. It is formed 
of a whale's rib, is quite white, and adorned with 
carving, feathers, and the hair of their dogs. Some- 
times they had a ftick fix feet long, inlaid w ith fliells", 
and otherw ifc ornamented like a military ftatf. This 
honourable mark of diftindion was commonly in the 
hands of the aged, who were alfo more daubed with 
the amoco. 

When they came to att.ick us, one or more of thefe 
old men thus diftinguiflicd, were ufually in each canoe. 
It is their cuftom to ftop about 50 or 60 yards from a 
(hip, when the chiefs rifing from their feat, put en a 
dog's fkin garment, and, holding out their decorated 
ftart", dircd them how to proceed. When they were 
too far from the (hip to reach it with their mifTile wea- 
pons, then the defiance was given, and the words 
ufually were Karomai, haromai, harre uta a patoo-pa- 
JP too. 




too. " Come on (liore, come on (hore, and wc will 
kill you all with our patoo patoos." While they thus 
threatened u«, they approached gradually the bark, till 
clofe along-fide ; yet talking at intervals in a peaceabK- 
manner, and anfwcring whatever quefliens \vc utkcd 
them. Then again their menaces were renewed, till 
encouraged bv our fuppofed timidity, they began the 
war-fong ana dance, the fure prelude of an attack, 
M hich always followed, and fometimes continued imtil 
the firing of fmall fliot rcpulfed them i but atothci., 
they vented their paiTion, by throwing a few Hones at 
the (hip, in the way of infulting us. 

The contortions of thefe favage Indians arc nume- 
rous ; their limbs are dilWted, and their faces are 
agitated with ftrangc convulfive motions. Their 
tongue hangs out of their mouths to an ama/.ing 
length, and their eye-lids arc drawn fo as to form ;'. 
circle round the eye. At the fame time they Ihake 
their darts, brandiih their fpears.and wave their patoo- 
pacoos to and fro in the air. There is an admirable 
vigour and adivity in their dancing ; and in their fong 
they keep time with fuch exartnefs, that 6o or loo 
paddles when (\ruck againll the fides of their boats at 
once, make only a fingle report. In times of peace 
they fometimes ling in a H#iner rcfembling the war- 
Jong, but the dance is omitted. The women, whofe 
voices are exceeding melodious and foft, ling likewife 
in a mufical, but mournful manner. One of their in 
ftruments of mufic is a Ihell, from which they produce 
a found not unlike that made with a coiiuuon horn ; 
the other is a fmall wcKxlcn pipe, rcfembling a child's 
nine-pin, not lupcrior in found to a child's whifllc 
We never heard them attcii pt to fing to ihcm, oi t" 
produce any incafured noti-s like what we call a tune. 

As to the horrid cuftom of" eating human Helh, pre- 
valent among them, to what li.i^ been already faid on 
this head, we ihall only add, that in moll of the coves, 
upon landing, we found near rhe plat v-^ wheri." fires had 
been made, fledi bones of m< n ; and among the hc;u) 
that were brought on board, fome of them had a k,,.d 
of falfe eyes, and ornaments in their ears, as if al,»e 
The head purchafed by Mr. Hanks, and fold wiih great 
rcliidance, was th.U of a young perfon, and, I), thi 
tontulions on one fide, appeared to have received inan\ 
violent bloMs. There had been lately a ikirmilli, .inii 
we fuppofcd the young man had been killed with the 

The hippahs or villages of thefe people, of which 
there are fevcral between the bay of Plenty and Queen 
Charlotte's found, are all fortified. In thefe they con 
(lafitiy rtlide; but near Tolaga, Hawk's Hay, and Po- 
verty Hay, only fmgle houfcs are to be fccn, at a coii- 
fidcnlile dilhiire from each other. On the fides of the 
hills were erected lon;^ Hages, fupplied with darts and 
llonci, thought by u.s to be retreats in time of ,, iion; 
as it api)e:iieii that from fuch places they coukl combat 
with their entinies to great advantage. A inagizilie 
ol provitioiis, confilling of dried fi(h, and fern roots, 
wasalfo difcovered in thefe fortifications. 

The inhabitants of this part of the country were all 
lubjectb of Teratu, w ho relided near the bay of Plenty ; 
and to their being thus united under one chief, they 
owed a fecurity unknown to thofe of other parts. Se- 
veral inferior governors are in the dominions of Teratu, 
to whom the moll implicit obedience is paid. One of 
the inhabitants having robbed a failor belonging to the 
liideavour, complaint was made toa chief, who chaf- 
lized the thief by kicking and ftriking him, which 
corrcdlion he bore with unrelifting humility. The in- 
habit.-mts of the fouthern parts formed little focieties, 
who had all things in common, particularly filhingnets 
and line apparel. The latter, probably obtained in 
w jr, were kept in a little hut, deuined for that ufe, in 
th« center of the town, and the feveral parts of the 
nets, beiiiy made by different families, were after- 
wards joined together lor public ufe. Lefs account, in 
the opinion of 'I'upia, is made of the women here than 
in the South Sea iflands. Both fexes eat together; but 
how they divide their labour, we cannot determine with 
certainty, though wc arc inclined to believe that the 

men cultivate the ground, make nets, catch birds, and 
go out in their canoes to filli i while the women are em- 
(iloye<l in weaving cloth, colleiiting fliell-fi(h, and in 
drefTing food. 

As to the religion of thefe people, they acknowledge 
one Supreme Heing, and feveral fubordinate deities. 
Their mode of worlhip we could not learn, nor was 
any place jiroper for that purpofe feen. There was in- 
deeil a fmall iijuare area, encompaffed with (tones, in 
the middle of which hung a balket of fern-roots on 
one of their fpades. This they faid was an ottering to 
their gods, to obtain from them a plentiful crop of pro- 
V ilions. They gave the fame account of the origin of 
he world, and the production of mankind, as our 
friends in Otaheitc. 'i'upia, however, feemed to have 
much more deep and extenfive knowledge of thefe fub- 
iet'ts than any ot the people of this iflniid, and w hen he 

fometimes delivered a long difcouii'e, he was fure of a 
numerous audience, w 
verence and attention. 

ng G 

numerous audience, who neard with remarkable re- 

With regard to the manner of difpoling of their 
dead, we could (brm no certain opinion. The (buthern 
diltrict faid, they difpofed df their dead by throwing 
t.iem into the fea i but thoft of the north buried them 
in the ground. We faw, however, not the leall (ign ot 
any grave or monument ; but the body of many among 
the living, liore the mrj-ks of wounds, in token of 
grief tor the lofs of their friends and relations. .Some 
of their fears were newly made, a proof that their 
friends had died while we were there; yet no one (iiw 
any thing like a funeral cereiin.;iyorproceflion,therca- 
fon is, becaufc they affected to conceal every thing re- 
fpectmg the dead w ith the utmoll fecrecy. 

We obferved a great (imilitude between the drefs, 
furniture, Iwats, and nets of the New Zealanders, and 
•he natives of the South Sea iflands, which evidently 
lemonflrates that the common anceflois of both were 
•lb origin,' natives of the fame country. Indeed the. in- 
h ibitint.i of thefe different places have a tradition, that 
;heir ancelhirs fprang fro.m another country many years 
ince, and they both agree that this country was called 
Ileawige. This is alfo certain, that Tupia when he 
iccofted the people here in the language of his own 
V ountry, was perfeiitly underftood ; But perhaps a yec 
Wronger proof that their origin the fame, will arife 
tioiii a Ipecimen of their language, whicK we (liall 
evir. -r by a lifl of words in both languages, according 
to tlie dialect of the noithern and louthem iflands of 
which New Zealand conlifli; whence it will appear, 
that the langu.ige of Otaheit. does not differ more 
from that of New 7.ealand, ihan the language of the 
two illands from each other. 

The language of 

Nf,W ZE,MANn. 








A ehief. 




A man. 




A Zfoman. 


I leao« poho 


7be bead. 








Tbe ear. 





Ma la 

I lemata 


The eyes. 




tbe cheeki. 




Tbe no/e. 




Tl.v moitlb. 



TIm ehin. 



Tbe arm. 
Tbe finger. 







Tbe ntroel. 




Come bilher. 







A lohfler. 


















COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE— for making Difcovefies In the South Seas & Round the H^cyld. 59 

atch birds, and 
Aon\en arc tn\- 
fll-lilh, and in 

cy acknowledge 
irdinatc deities, 
learn, nor was 
There was in- 
with Hones, in 
)»' fern-roots on 
as an ottering to 
:il'ul crop of pro- 
of the origin of 
lankind, as our 
feemed to have 
dpc of thefe fub- 
lul, and when he 
he was fure of a 
remarkable re- 

ifpofing of their 
ti. The fouthern 
lead by throwing 
orth buried them 
)t the leall fi}.^^ "' 
y of many anion^ 
nds, in ioken of 
I relations. Some 
proof that their 
re J yet no one faw 
proceflion, the rca- 
ral every thing re- 

between the drcfs, 
cw Zcalanders, and 
Is, which evidently 
,Hors of both were 
y. Indeed the. in- 
»ve a tradition, that 
:oimtry many years 
icountry was called 
liat Tupia when he 
iguage of his own 
'lut perhaps a yet 
he fame, will arifc 
which we fliall 
iguaces, according 
fouthern idands of 
encc it will appear, 
..•s not differ more 
he language of the 

;E OF 

lEiTE. English. 

A chief. 
A man. 
A ifomait. 
the bead. 
The hair. 
The ear. 
ne eyes. 
the cbeeki. 

The mfe. 

TLv mouth. 

tiM chin. 

The arm. 

The fiit?,er. 


The ncruel. 

Come hither. 


A lobfier. 















New Zealand. 
Norlberih Stulhent. 




















Owy Term 






OTAHittc< Enolisii< 

Our* Not 

Tahai Om. 

Rua Two. 

Torou Three. 

Hea Four. 

Rema Five, 

Ono Six. 

Hctu Seven, 

WaiDU Eight. 

Hcva Nine. 

Ahourou TfH. 

Nihio Th' la-th. 

Mattai The zvind, 

Teto A thief. 

Mataitai To examine, 

Heiva Tofng. 

Eno Bad. 

EraoU Trees. 

Toubouna Grandfather. 

you call 
this or that. 

Hence it appears evidently that the language of New 
Zealand and Otaheite, is radically one and the fame. 
The dialed indeed is different as in England, where the 
<vord is pronounced gate in Middlefex. and geate in 
Yorkfliire ; and as the northern and fouthern words 
were taken down by two different perfons, (sViit might 
poflibly ufe more words than the other to exprefs the 
fame found. Belidcs, in the fouthern parts they put 
the articles he or ko before a noun, as we do tboie of 
the or a : it is alfo common to add the word oeiu after 
another word, as we fay certainly, or yes indeed ,• and by 
not attending fuHicicntly to this, our gentlemen fome- 
times, judging by the ear only, formed words of art 
enormous length : for example, one of them alking a 
native the name of the ifland. called Matuaro, he re- 
plied, with the particle ke prefixed Ke-maluaro; and 
upon the quedion being repeate.l, the Indian added 
oeia, which made the word AV-wji(/«.iro-9?/'/j; and upon 
infpeding the log-book, Capt. Cook found Matuaro 

transformed into Citmettiiuarrmvcit' Now a limilar or- 
thographical difference might hippen, or a like mif- 
takc might be made by i foreigner in writing an Englilh 
word. Suppofe a N' w Zcalander to enquire, when 
ncartoaflt, lybatLiagcisthisf The anfwer might bc« 
// is Hackney indeed. The Indian then for the informa- 
tion of his countrymen, hid he the ufe of letters, might 
record, that he had palled through, or beert at a place 
called by the Enelifli Iitjhackncyindeed. We were 
ouilclvesat tirft led into many ridiculous miffakcs, 
fiom not knowing that the article ufed in the South- 
Sea Iflands, is to or /,/, iiiftead of ke or ko. 

We have fuppofed, that the original inhabitants of 
thefe iflands, and thole in the South-Seas, came from 
the fame country; but what country that is, or where 
fituatcd, remains ftill a fubjeCt of enquiry. In this we 
all agreed, that the original natives were not of America, 
which lies to the calhvard ; and unlefi there fhould be 
a continent to the fouthward, in a temperate latitude, 
we cannot but conclude that they emigrated from the 

Before wc dole this account of New Zealand, we beg 
U»ave fiirther to obfervc, that hitherto our navigation 
has been very unfavourable to the fuppofition of a 
Southern Continent. The navigators who have fup- 
ported the politions upon which this is founded, are 
Tafman, Juan Fcrnandes, Hermite, Quiros, and Rog- 
gcwein ; but the track of the Endeavour has totally fub- 
vcrtcd all their thfcorctical arguments. Upon a view 
of the chart it will appear, that a large fpace extends 
quite to the tropics, which has not been explored by 
us nor any other navigators ; yet wc believe there is no 
tape of any Southern Continent, and no Southern Con- 
tinent to the northward of 40 dcg. fouth. Of what 
may lie farther to the fouthward of 40 deg. we can give 
no opinion; yet are far from difcouraging any future 
attempts after new difcoverics: for a voyage like this 
may be of public utility. Should nocontinent be found, 
new iflands within the tropics may be difcovered. Tupia 
in a rough chart of his own drawing laid down no kfs 
than fevcnty-four ; and he gave us an account of above 
one hundred and thirty, which no European vclILl lias 
ever yet vifited. 




Paffage from Wcw Znilitnd to Botany Bay, in Ni-M Holland — farious incidents related — A defripticn of the country and 
its inhai'itants — T/v Endeavour fails from Botany Bay to Trinity Bay — ICilb a further account of the country — Her dan- 
gerous fitualion in her pajjagefrom Trinity Bay to Endeavour River, 




ON Saturday the 31ft of March, 1770. wc failed 
from Cape Farewell, having line weather and a 
fair wind. This cape lies in latitude 40 deg. 33 min. 
S. and in i S6 dcg. W. longitude. The fame clay we 
fleered wcflwanl, with a frelh gale till the and of 
April, when by obfervation wc found our latitude to be 
40 dcg. and our longitude from Cape Farewell, a dcg. 
31 min. W. On the ninth in the morning, when in 
latitude 38 deg. 29 min. S. we faw a tropic bird, a light 
very unuliul in fo high a lititude. On the 1 5th we faw 
an egg bird, and a gannet. As thefe birds never go 
far from land, we founded all night, but had no ground 
at 130 fathom water. The day following a fmall land 
bird perched on the rigging, but we had no ground at 
»70 fathom. Tuefday the 17th, wc had frelh gales 
with fqualls and dark wcither in the morning ; and in 
the afternoon a hard gale and a great fca from the 
fouthward, which obliged us to run under our fore-fail 
and mizen all night. On the 1 8th in the morning, 
we were vilitcd by a pintado bird, and fome Port- 
Egmont hens, an infallible (ign that land was near, 
which wc difcovered at fix o'clock in the morning of the 
rj^h, four or five leagues diftant. To the fouthermoft 
point in fight, wc pxve the name of Point Hicks, the 
name of our firft lieutenant who difcovered it. At 
noon, in latitude 37 deg. 5 min. and 210 deg. 39 min. 
W. longitude, anothcf remarkable point of the fame 

land bore N. ao E. diftant about four leagues. This 
point rifing in a round hillock, extremely like thc-Raiu 
Head at the entrance of Plymouth Sound, Capt. Cook 
therefore gave it the fame name. What we had )et 
feen of the land was Imv ami level ; the Ihore white and 
fandy; and the inland parts covered with wood and 
Verdure. At this time we faw throe watcr-fjxjuts at 
once; two between us and the ihore, and the third at 
fome diftancc upon our larboard quarter. In the 
evening, at lix o'clock, the northermofl: point of land 
was ditiant about two leagues, whiuh we named Cajje 
Howe. On the following day wc had a dillant view of 
the country, which was in general covered w ith wood, 
and interfpcrfcd with i'cveral fmall lawns. It appeared 
to be inhabited, as fmoke was feen in feveral places. 
At four o'clock the next morning, we faw a high moun- 
tain, which from lU Ihape, was called Mount Drome- 
dary, under which there is a point which received the 
name of Point Dromedary. In the evening we were 
oppofitc a point of land which rofe perpendicular, and 
was called Point Upright. On Sunday the 22d, wc 
were fo near the fliore, as to fee feveral of the inhabi- 
tants on thecoart, who were of a very dark complexion, 
if not perfc(ft negroes. At noon wc faw a remarkable 
pecked hill, to which the captain gave the name of the 
Pigeon Houfe, from its rcfcmblance of fuch a building. 
The trees oh this ifland were both tall and large, 





fj '' 

fl *ij 

£ f ' 


SI [ 

but wc faw no place f.t to give flicltcr evert to a 

The captain gave the name of Cape George to a 
point of land ciifcovcrcd on St. C»corcc's-day, two 
kagiiei to the north of which the fca tornicd a bay, 
which, froni its ihapc, was called Long Nofc i eight 
leagues from w hich lies Red I'oint, fo called from the 
colour of the foil in its neighbourlnxKl. On the 27th, 
wr faw fcvcral inhabitants walking along the Ihore, 
four of them carrying a canoe on their iliouldcrs, but 
as they did not attempt to come olF to the fliip, the 
captain took Melfrs. Banks and Solandcr, and Tupia in 
the yawl, and employed four men to row them to that 
part of the lliore where they f;iw the natives, near which 
four fmall canoes laid dole in land. The Indians fat 
on the rocks till the yawl was a quarter of a mile from 
the (hore, and then they ran away into the woods. The 
furf beating violently on the beach, prevented the boat 
from l.inding i the gentlemen were therefore obliged to 
make what obfcrvations they could at a dittance. The 
canoes rcfcmblcd generally the fmaller fort of thofe of 
New Zealand. I'hiy faw a great nmnber of cabbage 
trees on fliorc ; the other trscs were of the palm kinil, 
and there was no undcrwootl among them. At five in 
the evening they returned to the lliip, and a light breeze 
fpringing up, w c failed to the northw ard, where we dif- 
covercd fevcral people on (hore, who, on our approach, 
retired loan eminence, foon after which twocamx-s ar- 
rived on the fliorc, and four men, who came in them, 
ioined the others. The pinnace having been fent a- 
"hcad to found, arrived near the fpot where the Indians 
had llationed thcmfclves, on which one of them hid 
himfclf among the rocks near the landing place, and 
the others retreated farther up the hill. The pinnace 
keeping along Ihorc, the Indians walked near in a line 
with her; they were armed with long pikes, and a 
wca^ion r(/tmbling a fcymitar, and, by various figns 
and woril.s'invitcd the Iwat's crew to land; thofe who 
did not follow the boat, having obfervcd the approach 
of the (liip.brandillied their weapons, and threw thcm- 
fclves into threatening attitude:;. The bodies, thighs, 
and legs of two of thcfe, were painted with v.hite 
(Ircaks, and their faces were almofl: covered with a 
white po\*dcr. Thc> talked together with great emo- 
tion, and each of thcni held one of the above mcntion- 
rd weaiMins. The lliip having come to an anchor, we 
i)bfi.r\cd a feu huts, in which were fome of the natives; 
.md faw fonif canoes, in each of which was a man em- 
plo\til ill (Iriking (ilh with a kind of fpcar. We had 
a iH hori d oppolite a village of about eight houfcs, and 
obfcived an old woman and three children come out of 
a wood, laden with fuel for a fire ; they were met by 
ihice linallcr children, all of whom, as well as the wo- 
iiun, were quite naked. The old woman frequently 
l(H)ked at the Ihip w ith the utmoft indifference, and, as 
foon as (lie had made a tire, the fifhcrmcn brought 
their (unoes on fliore, and they fet about d re fling their 
diniurwithas much compofure, as if a fliip hadbecn 
no ixtiaoidinary light. Having formed a dcfign of 
landing, wc niannecT the boats, and took Tupia with 
u>, and we had no fooner come near the (hore, than two 
menadv.wKcd, as if to difpule our fctting foot on land. 
They were each of them armed with different kinds of 
weapons. They called out aloud in a harfh tone, warm 
w-aria wai ! the meaning of which Tupia did not under- 
ffand. The captain threw them beads, nails, and other 
tritks, which they took up, and fcemed very well pleafed 
with. lie then made lignals that he wanted water, 
and ufid every poffible means to convince them that no 
injury was intended. They made figns to the boat's 
cicw to land, on which we put the boat in, but we had 
no foonci done fo, than the two Indians came again to 
Qj^pofe us. A mufquet was now fired between them, 
on tlie report of which, one of them dropped a bundle 
of lances, which he immediately fnatchcd up again in 
great halfe. One of them then threw a ffone at the 
boat, on which the captain ordered a mufquet loaded 
with fmall fliot to be fired, which wounding the eldcft 
of them on the legs, he retired haftily to one of the 
houlls, that Hood at fomc httlc diA^/icc. The people ir 

the boats how landed, imagining that the wound which 
this man had received would put an end to the conteff. 
In this, however, we were mi (hi ken, for he imijicdiately 
returned with a kind of thield, of an oval figure, painted 
white in the miildle, with two holes in it to fee through. 
Thiy now advanced with great intreiiitliiy, and both 
difcliarged their lances at the boat's crew, but did not 
wound .my of them. Another mufquet was fired at 
them, on which they threw another laiue, and then 
took to their heels. We now went up to the huts, in 
one of which we found the children, who had fecret^ J 
thcmfclves behind fome bark^ We lookcil at i .cm, 
but left them without its being known wc had fccn 
them, and h.iving thrown fcveral pieces of cloth, rib- 
bands, beads, and other things into the hut, wc took 
fcvcnilof their lances, and then rcimbarked in the boat. 
'I'he canoes on this coaft were about 13 fcrt in length, 
each made of the bark of a fingic tree, tied up at the 
ends, and kept open in the middle by the means of 
(Inks placed acrofs them ; their paddles were very 
fmall, and two were ufcd at a time. 

We now failed to the north point of the bay, and 
found plenty of frclb water. On taking a view of the 
hut where we had (ein the children, we had the morti- 
fication to find that every Indian was (led, and that 
they had left all the prefents behind them. The cap- 
tain now went in the pinnace to infpccl the bay, and 
law fcveral of the natives, who all fled as he appioached 
them. Some of the men having been fent to get wood 
and water, they no f<x)ner went on board to dinner, 
than the natives came down to the place, and examinee! 
the calks with great attention, but did not oiler to re- 
move them, when the people were on fliore in the 
afternoon, about 20 of the natives, all armed, ad- 
"anced within a trifling diflancc of them, and then 
flopped, while two of their number appraiclicd ftill 
nearer. Mr. Hicks, the commanding olfiecr on fliore, 
went towards them, with prefe'its In his hands, and 
endeavoured, by every polliblc means to allure them of 
his friendly intentions, but to no pur}X>fe, for they re- 
tired bel<)re he lame up to them. In the cening, 
MefiVs. Banks and Solandcr, went with the captain tc» 
a cove north of the bay, where they caught between 
three and four hundred weight of fifli, at four hauls. 

On Monday the 30th, the natives came down to the 
huts before it was light, and were repeatedly heard to 
flunit very loud, and foon after day-brcak they were 
fccn on the beach, but quickly retired about a mile, 
and kindled fcveral fires in the woods. This day fome 
of the fliip's crew being employed in cutting grafs at 
a diO.ance from the main body, while the natives pur- 
fuedthem, but flopping within fifiy or (ixty yards of 
them, they fliouted fcveral times, and retreated to the 
woods. In the evening they behaved exactly in the 
fanu; manner, when the captain followed thim alone 
and unarmed for fome time, but they flill retired as he 

On Tuefday, May the firft, the fouth point of the 
bay was named Sutherland Point, one of the feamcn 
of the name of Sutherland, having died that day, was 
buried on fliore ; and more prelcnts were left in the 
huts, fuchas looking-glafles, combs, &;c. but the for- 
mer ones had not been taken away. Making an cx- 
curfion about the country, wc found it agreeably varie- 
gated with wood and lawn, the trees being fliait and 
tall, and without underwood. The country might be 
cultivated without cutting down one of them. The 
grafs grows in large tufts, almofl clofe to each othcc, 
and there is a great plenty of it. In this excurlion, 
we met with nuny jnaces where the inhabitants had 
ne[)t without flielter, and one man, who ran away the 
moment he beheld us. More prefents were left in 
their huts, and at their fleeping-places, in hopes of 
producing a friendly intercourfc. Wc faw the dung of 
an animal which fed on grafs, and traced the foot'-fleps 
of another, which hadcuws like a dog, and wasalKXit 
t' zc of a wolf: alfo the track of a fmall animil, 
,.;-',• foot was like that of a pole-cat; cnil faw one 
11 • r i| alive, about the fr/e of a rabbit. Wc found 
li.,:\. vood that had been fcUcd, and the bark flript ofl" 

COOK'g FIRST VOYAGE — for making Difcovcrics in the South Seat & Round the World, (n 

wounil which 
to the lontcft. 
c inimciliatcly 
i(2;>irc, paintcil 
[ollc ihroiigh. 
ity, iind both 
I',' but (lid not 
: \\as fircU at 
ncc, and then 
to thi- huts, in 
>o had fccretv J 
oktd at I.. cm, 
) wc had fccn 
of cloth, rib- 
c hut, wc took 
kcd in thiboat. 
7 fcrt in length, 
', tied up at the 
)y ihc means of 
dies were very 

of the hay, and 
ip a view of the 
c had the niorti- 
is (led, and that 
lem. The cap- 
ccl the bay, and 
IS JK-appioadicd 
Cent to get wood 
boaixl lo diiyicr, 
•e, and examined 
id not oiler to rc- 
on lliorc in the 
all armed, ad- 
thein, and then 
• ;ippraichrd ftill 
T olheer on Ihore, 
n his hands, and 
, to allure them of 
jx>fe, for they re- 
in the evening, 
ith tlic captain to 
y caught betw ccn 
1, at four hauls, 
aine down to the 
pcatcdly heard to 
break tliey were 
about a mile. 
This day foine 
in cuitini? grafs at 
the natives pur- 
, or lixty yardu of 
id retreated to the 
ed exactly in the 
1 lowed thtm alone 
Hill retired as he 

Jnuth point of the 
IK- of the feamen 
.lied that day, was 
ts were left in the 
&:c. hut the for- 
Making an ex- 
it agreeably \aric- 
■s being Ihait and 
country might be 
le of them. The 
lofe to each other. 
In this excurllon, 
,jc inhabitants had 
who ran away the 
fents were left in 
>laces, in hopes of 
Se. faw the dung of 
•accd the foot-fteps 
log. and was alwut 
of a fmall animil, 
;-cat ; tnd faw one 
■abbit. Wc found 
the bark ftript otj" 
• \-- by 

by the natives, and feveral growing trees, in which 
llcps had been cut, for the convenience of afccnding 
them. The woods abound with a vaft variety of beautiful 
birds, among which were cockatooes, and parroqucts, 
which flew in large Hocks. The fccond lieutenant, Mr. 
Gore, having been with a boat in orlcr to drudge for 
oyftcrs, faw fome Indians, who made figni for him 
to come on fliorc, whirh he declined: having finiflied 
his bufincfs, he fent the boat away, and went by land 
with a midfliipman, to join the partv that was getting 
water. In their way they met with more than lo of 
the natives, who followed them fo clofc as to come 
within a few yards of them; Mr, Gore ftopped and faced 
them, on which the Indians ftoppcd alfo, and when he 
proceeded aj,',a n, they followed hnu i but they did not 
attack him though they had each man a lance. The 
Indians coming m fight of the water-calks, ftood at 
the dilhnce of a quarter of a mile, while Mr. (jore 
and his companions reached their (hip- mates in fafcty. 
Two or three of the waterers now advanced towards the 
Indians, but obferving they did not retire, they very 
imprudently turned about, and retreated haftily : this 
apparent fign of cowardice infpired the favages, who 
dilchargcd four of their lances at the fugitives, which 
flying beyond them, they efcapcd unhurt. They now 
ftopped to pick up the lances •, on which the Indians 
retired in their turn. At this inflant the captain came 
up with MclTrs. Banks and Solander, and Tupia ad- 
vancing made figns of friendlhipi but the poor na- 
tives would not ftay thi < coming up to them. On the 
following day they wenr .■ ain on fliore, where many 
plants were collerted by IJr. Solander, and Mr. Banks. 
They faw feveral paries of the Indians, who all ran 
away on their approach. Tupia having learnt to ftioot, 
frequently ftaycd alone to (hoot parrots, and the Indi- 
JU1S condanrly fled away from him with as much pre- 
cipiution as from the Engliih. On the 3d of May, 
fourteen or fifteen Indians, in the fame nun\bcr of ca- 
noes, were engaged in ftriking filli w ithin half a mile of 
the watering-place. At this time a party of the fliip's 
crew were Ihooting near the fifhermen, one of whom 
Mr. Banks obfcrvcd to haul up his canoe on the beach, 
and approach the people who were (hooting. He 
watched their motions unobferved by them, for more 
than a quarter of an hour, then put otf his boat and re. 
turned to his filhing. At this time the captain, with 
Dr. Solander and another gentleman, went to the head 
of the bay to try to form fome connexion with the In- 
dians. On their firll landing they found feveral of 
the Indians on fliorc, who immediately retreated to 
their canoes, and rowed oflf. They went up the coun- 
try, where they found the foil to be a deep black mould, 
which appeared to be calculated for the production of 
any kind of grain. They faw fome of the fineft meu 
dows that were ever beheld, and met with a few rocky 
places, the flonc of which is fandy, and fecmed to be 
admirably adapted for building. In the woods they 
found a tree bearing cherries, it fhapc and colour may 
intitle them to that name, the juice of which was a- 

?jrecably tart. They now returned to their boat, and 
ireing a fire at a diltancc, rowed towards it ; but the 
Indians fled at their coming near them. Near the 
beach they found fevcn canoes, and as many fires, 
from which they judged that each fifherman had 
drcfled his own dinner. There were oyflcrs lying on 
the fpot, and fome mufclcs roufling on the fire. They 
ate of thefe fi(h, aiul left them fome beads and other 
trifles in return. They now returned to the fliip, and 
in the evening Mr. Banks went out with his gun, and 
faw a great number of quails, fome of which he fliot.and 
they proved to be the fame kind as thofe of England. 
On the following day a midlhipman having flayed from 
his companioni,came fuddenly to an old nian and wo- 
man, and fome children, who wjcre fitting naked under 
a tree together : they feemcd afraid of him, but did not 
run away. The man wore a long beard, and both he 
b.".d the wonten were grey-headed ; but the woman's 
hair was cut Ihort. This day likewife, two of another 
party met with fix Indians on the border of a wood, 
one of whom calling out very loud, a lance was thrown 
No. 7. 

from u wood, whieh narrowly mifledthim. The In- 
dians now ran otf, and, in looking rouiul they law a • 
youth defcend from a tree, who had doubilcfs been 
placed there fi)r the purpofe of throwing the lanre at 
them. This day the captain went up the country orl 
the north fide of the bay, which he lound to refcmhle 
the moory grounds of England ; but the land was 
thinly covered with plants alxiut 16 inches high. The 
hills rife gradually behind each other, for a conliderahle 
diftance, and between rhcm is marfliy ground. 'I'hofe 
w ho had been fent out to filh this day, met with great 
fuccels, and the fecond lieutenant llruck a lilli called 
the Stingray, which weighed near two hundicd and 
fifty pounds. The next moming a filh of the fame 
kind was taken, which weighciT three hundred uiul 
fifty pounds. The name of Botany Hay was gistu to 
this place from the large number of plants collected 
by Meflrs. B»nks and Solander. This country pro- 
duces two kinds of wood which mav he deemed lim- 
ber, one of which is tall and flrait like the pine, and 
the other it hard, heavy, and dark-coloured, like lig- 
num vitx i it yields .1 red gum, like dragon's blood, 
and bears fome refemblance '-I the Etigliflioak. There 
are mangroves in abundanc , icveral kinds of palm, and 
a few Ihrubs. Among other kinds of birds, crows 
wcp; found here, exaiitly like thofe of England. Thev;; 
is great plenty of water-fowls, among the flats of fand 
ancl mua ; one of which is fliaped like a pelican, is 
larger than a fwan, and has black and white feathers. 
Thefe banks of mud abtnind with cockles, irulllcs, 
oyllers, and other rtiell-filh, which greatly contribute 
towards the fupport of the natives, w ho fometimes drc fs 
them on fliore, and at other times in their canoes. 
They likewife taught many other kinds of filh with 
hooks and line. 

While the captain remained in the harbour, the En- 
gliih colours were difplaycd on (liore, daily, and the 
name of the fliip, with the date of the year, was carved 
on a tree near the place where we took in our 

On Sunday the 6th of May, at noon, we failed from 
Botany Bay, and at noon, were otf a harbour, which 
was called Port Jackfon, and in the evening, near a 
bay, to which we gave the namf of Broken Bay. The 
next day at noon, the northernmoft land in light pro- 
jcdled u) as to julhfy ine calling it Cape Three Points. 
On Wcdnefday the 9th. we faw two exceeding beauti- 
ful rainbows, the colours of which were flrong and 
lively, and thofe of the inner one fo bright, as to reflect 
its Ihadow on the w ater. They forniccTa complete fe- 
micirclc, and the fpace between them was much 
darker than the rdl of the Iky. On Thurfday we 
pafled a rocky point, which was named Point Stc- 
. phens. Next day faw fmoke in Icveral places on fliore, 
and in the evening difcovered three remarkable high 
hills near each other, which the captain named the 
Three Brothers. They lie in latitude 3 1 deg. 40. min. 
and may be Icen thirteen or fourteen leagues from the 

Sunday, the 13th, wc faw the fmoke of fires, on a 
a point of land, which was therefore called Cape 
Smokey. As wc proceeded from Botany Bay, north- 
ward, the land appeared high and well covered with 
wood. In the afternoon, wc difcovered fome rocky 
iflands between us and the land, the fouthcrmoft of 
which is in latitude 30 deg. 10 min. and the northcr- 
moft in 29 deg. 58 min. On Tuefday morning, by 
theafllflancc of our glafli;s, wedifcemedaboui aTcorc 
of Indians, each loaded with a bundle, which we ima- 
gined to be palm leaves for covering their houfes. We 
traced them for more than an hour, during which time 
they took not the leaft notice of the fhip ; at length 
they left the beach, and were loft behind a hill, which 
they gained by a gentle afcent. At noon, <n latitude 
38 deg. 37 min. 30 fee. fouth, and in 206 dc^. 30 min. 
weft longitude, the Capuin difcovered a high point of 
land, and named it Qip 1 Byron. We continue* to 
ftccr along the fliorc with a frelh gale, and in the even- 
ing wc difcovered breakers at a confiderablc diftance 
from the Ihore, fo that wc were obliged to tack, and 


Capt. C O O K s O Y A G E S COMPLETE. 

tl Til 


get into deeper water; which having done, wc lay 
with the head of the vcflel to the land till the next 
morning, when we were furprizcd to find oiirfdvcs far- 
ther to the foiithward than we had been the preceding 
evening, notwithrtanding we had a foutherly wind all 
night. The breakers lie in latitude 28 dcg. 22 niin. 
fouth. In the morning wc pafPed the breakers, near a 
peaked mountain, which we named Mount Waminir, 
lituatcd in 28 deg. 22 min. fouth latitude. The point 
ort" which thefe ihoals lie, Capt. Cook named Point 
Danger. Wc purfued our courfe, and the next day 
faw more breakers, near a point, which we di^in- 
guiflird by the name of Point l.ook-out ; to the north 
of which the (liore forms a wide open bay, which wc 
called Moreton's Hay, and the north point thereof Cape 
Moreton. Near this are three hills, whi' h we called 
the Glafs Houfcs, from the very ftrong rcfcntblunce 
they bore to fuch buildings. 

On Friday, the 1 8th, at two in the morning, wc dc- 
fcricd a point Co unequal, that it looks like two fmall 
iflands under the land, and it was thcrctbre called 
Double Illand Point. At noon, by the help of glalfcs, 
we difcovercd fomc faiids, which lay in patches of fe- 
vcral acres. We obfervcd they were moveable, and 
that they had not been long in their prefent fituation ; 
for wc faw trees half buried and the tops of others 
ftill green. At this time two beautiful uater-fiiakcs 
fwam by the Ihip, in every refpeiil refeiubiing land 
fnakcs, except that their tails were fiat and broad, 
probably to lerve them inftead of tins in fwimming. 

Saturday, the 19th at noon, we fail'.-d about four 
leagues from the land, and at one o'clotk law a point, 
whereon a number of Indians were allbinblcd, from 
whence it was called Indian Head. Soon aftcrwardi 
we faw many more of the natives; alfo fmoke in the 
day time, and (ires by night. The next day wc faw a 
point, which was named Sandy Point, from two large 
trads of white fand that were on it. Soon after wc 
l)aflcd a llioal, which we called Break Sea Spit, bc- 
caufc wc had now fino<jth water, af'ccr having long en- 
countered a high fea. l"or fonsc days pall wc had fccn 
the fca birds, called boobies, none of which wc had 
met with hctbrc ; and which, from half an hour after, 
were continually palling the lliip in large flights: 
from which it conjectured, that there was an inlet 
or river of il. allow water to the fouthward, where they 
Went to feed in the day time, returning in the evening 
to (iimc iOjiuis to the northward. In iionour of Capt. 
Ucrvcy wc named this bay, Ilervcy's Bay. 

On lueld.iy, the lan.i, at fix in the morning, by 
tlic hclj) ot Our glalfcs, when a-brcaft of the fouth point 
(It a lari;c bay, u\ whi( h the Cai)tain intended to an- 
rhor, wc dil(()>ered, that the land w;w covered with 
j\ilm-iuit-trccs, none of which we had fcvn (ince wc 
had quitted the iflands within the vropic. On the 
ijj i.irlyinthe .norning, Cai)t. Cook attended by 
ftveral gentlemen, and 'lupia, went on lliorc to ex;t- 
iiiinc the countr\. The wind blew fo frelli, and wt 
loimd it fo cold, that being at fome didanec from the 
H'.ore, we tix)k with us our cloaks. We landed a lit- 
tle within the point of a bay, which led into a large 
lagoon, by the lidcH of which grows the true mangrove, 
fich as is found in the Well-Indies, as it docs alfo on 
jbme bogs, and fwamps of fait water whiih we difm- 
\cred. in thefe mangroves were many nefts of ant.' of 
a lingular kind, brinjr as green as grafs. When the 
bi-anches were moved, they came fonh in great num- 
bers, and bit the diflurbcr moft feverely. Thefe trees 
likcwifc atfordcd flielter for immcnfe numbers of green 
caterpillars, wh«ife ImxIIcs were covered with hairs, 
which, on the touch, occafioncd a pain fmiilartothe 
lling ol a nettle, but much more acute. Thefe infects 
were ranged fide by lidc on the leaves, thirty or forty 
together, in a regular manner. Among the fand-banks 
wc faw birds larger than fwan.s, which we imagined 
were pelicans; and iliot a kind of buftard, which 
weighed fc\eiitcen pounds. This bird proved very de- 
licate food, on which account wc named this bay Buf- 
" lard B.iy. We liktwife (hot a duck of a moll beautiful 
plumage, w ith a \v lute beak. W« found an abundance 

of oydcrs, of various forts, and among the red fome ham- 
mer oyflers of a curious kind. The country here is 
much worfc thin that about Botany Bay, the foil being 
dry and flm Jy, but the fides of the hills arc covered with 
trees, which grow feparatcly without tinderwood. Wc 
faw the tree that yicld.s a gum like thcfiiigiiis (friuxii/f, 
but the leaves arc longer than the fame kind of trees in 
other parts, and hang down like thofe of a weeping 
willow. While wc were in the woods, feveral of the 
natives took a furvey of the fliip ai)d then departed. 
Wc faw on lliorc fires in many places, and repairing tc) 
on.' of thtm, found a do/en burning near them. The 
people were gone, but had left foinc Ihclls and bones of 
filli they had jufl eaten. Wc perceived likewife feve- 
ral pieces of foft bark about t! c length and breadth of?i 
man, which wc judged had been ufed as beds. The 
whole was in a thicket of clofe trees, which alibrded 
good llicltcr from the wind. This kind of encamp- 
ment wns in a thicket well defended from the wind. 
The place fcemcd to be much trodden, and as there 
was no appearance of a lioufe, it was imagined that 
they (pent their nights, as well .is their days in the 
open air: oven Tupia fliook his head, and exclaimed, 
Taata Fno^ ! " Poor V\ retches !" 

On 'l"hurfd:iy,the i.jth, we made fail ont of the bay, 
and on the day fjllowing were a-breail of a point, 
which being immediately under the tropic, the captain 
named Cape Capricorn on the well fide whereof wc 
faw an ama/ing nainber 01 large bird.; refembling the 
pelican, fonu; of uliich were near five feet high. We 
now anchond in twelve fathom water, having the 
iTiiiin land ar.d barren illanJs in a m.inner all round us. 

Sunilay, the ^'/tli, wc 11(mJ between the range of 
.ilniod barren ill.iiids, ami the main land, which .ip- 
pcarcd mountainous. We hnd here very (hallow wa- 
ter, and anchored in (ixtccn feet, which was not more 
than the (l.ip drew. Mr. Bank-s tried to filh from the 
cabin windows, but the water was too (hallow. The 
ground indeed was covered with crabs, which greedily 
fci/.rd the bait, and held it till they were aljovc water. 
Thifc crabs were of two One of a very fine blue, 
w ith a w hite belly ; and the orhcr niTkcd with blue on 
the joints, and having three brown (pots on the back. 

On MonJay, the 2Xth, in the morning, we failed 
to the northward, and to the northermoft point of land 
wc gave the name of Cape Manifold, from the num- 
ber of hij;h hills appearing above it. Between this 
cape and the (hore is a bay which we called Keppel's, 
and to feveral illands, wc gave the name of the fame 
admiral. Thi"; ilay being deiermined to keep the main 
land dole aboard, \»hich tonrinucd to trend away to the 
V. etl, we got among another tliilterof illands. Here 
we weie greatly aintmcd, havin;;on afuddcn but three 
fathom water, in a ripling tide; wc iinniediatelv pur 
the lliip about, and holKed out the boat in fearch of 
deeper water ; after which wc lUmd to the well with 
,.:■ eafy fail, and in the evening came to the entrance 
ni a bay. In the allcrnoon, having foundetl round the 
(hip, and found that there wxs water llillicicnt to carry 
her ovci the flioal, wewcij'hfd, and llood to the wcll- 
ward, havi.'';i; (iyit a boat a-head to found, and at (ix 
in the evening w .-,r>ehorcd in ten faihom, with a f,-ndy 
bottom, at about two mdes dillant (11 ni the main. 

On 'i'uc!d;;y the 19th, we had thoughts of laying 
ihe (hip alhore, and cleani.ig-her bottom, and rhcrelijie 
Luulcd with the niadcr in fearch of a »:onvenient place 
for that purpofe. In this excurlioii Dr. Solander and 
Mr. Banks accompanied us; we lound walking ex- 
tremely incommodious^ the ground being covered 
with giafs, (he (ccds of which were Ih.'irpami bearded, 
fo that they were continually llickiiig in our duatlis, 
w hence they worked forwards to the llelb by means of 
the beard. Wc were al; perpetually tormented with 
the (lings of mufqiietos. Several places were IbiMid 
convenient to lay down the Diip alhore, but to our 
great dif.ipiMiintnicnt, we could meet with no frclh 
water. We proceeded, however, up the country, and 
in the interior part;, wc (bund gum-treei, on the 
branches whereof were white ants nc(l« formed of clay, 
as big ai a budicl. On another (ree w« faw black ants, 

.•; which 

COOK's FIRST VOYAGE — for making Dtjcoveries in the South Seas & Round tlie World. 63 

d\ fonic ham- 
luntry here is 
the foil IxinjT 
: covered with 
■rwood. VVc 
mollis dir.coiiift 
nd of trees in 
of a weeping 
feveral of the 
then departed. 
id repairing to 
11- them. 'I'tic^ 
!s and bones of 
1 likewife fevc- 
nd breadth ofti 
as beds. '1 he 
\hich allbrded 
nd of cncanip- 
from the wind. 
1, and as there 
iniagined that 
cir days in the 
and exclaimed, 

ont of the bay, 
eall: of a point, 
ipic, the captain 
lide whereof wc 
i reli;mbiing ihe 
fccthiph. We 
xer, having the 
merall round us. 
•en tiie range of 
land, which ap- 
vcry llialiow wa- 
icli was not nwre 
d to lilh from the 
10 Ihailow. 'Ihc 
IS, which greedily 
vere atjovc water, 
f a very fine blue, 
rkid with blue on 
pots on the back, 
miing, we tailed 
moll point of land 
from the num- 
it. Between this 
e called Keppcl's, 
lame of the fame- 
to keep the main 
trend away totlic 
of illands.' Here 
fudden but three 
immediately put 
boat in fearch ok 
.1 to the wert with 
le to the entrance 
founded round 'die 
rmlicient to carry 
llood to the well - 
I.H.'nd, and at lix 
l.oin, 'vnh a Undy 
.nil) the main, 
thoughts of laying 
ttom.and thertlore 
II »:onvenient place 
Dr. Soiander and 
yund walking e\- 
nd being covered 
Iharp and bearded, 
Lilt'; in otir dontlis, 
e llerti by means of 
illv tornicnted with 
place* were foiHid 
alhore, but to out 
ncct with no frelh 
up the country, and 
gum-trec», on the 
;ftg formed of clay, 
w'« faw black «nt3. 
... uhich 

which perforated all the twigs, and after they had 
eaten out the pith, formed their lodging in the hol- 
lows which containc.l it ; vet the trees were in a flou- 
ridiing coitdition. Wc alio faw in the air many thou- 
fands of butterflies, which ever way we looked; and 
every bough was covered with incredible numbers. 
On the drv ground we difcovered, fuppofcd to have 
been left by the tide, a filh about the iiic of a min- 
now, having two ftrong breafl: fins, w i:h which it leaped 
away as nimbly as a frog : it did not appear to h6 
weakcnccl by being out of the water, nor even to f re 
fer tliat clement to the land, for when fccn in the water 
it leaped on fliorc, and purfued its way. It was likt- 
wife remarked, that where tlicre were fmall Hones pro- 
jecting above the water, it chofe r.irher to le:tp from 
one (lone to another, than to jvafs through the water. 

On Wedncfday the 30th Capt. Cook, and other gen- 
tlemen, went alhore, and having gained the fummit of 
a hill, took a furvcy of the coalf, and the adiacciir 
illand;!, which being done, the Captain proceeded with 
Dr. Soiander up an inlet, tliat had been difcovered 
the preceding day; but the weather proving unf.i- 
vourable, and from a fear of being bewildered among 
the flioals in the night, they returned to the ihip, hav- 
ing fcen the whole chiy, only two Indians, who followed 
the boat a coniidcrable way along (liorei but the tide 
running llrong, the Captain thought it not prudent to 
wait for them. While thefe gentlemen were tracing 
the inlet, Mr. Hanks, with a party, endeavoiired to 
penetrate into the country, and having met with a 
piece of fwamjjy ground, we refolvcd to pafs it; but 
bellirc we got: half way, we tbiind the mud alinoft knee 
deep. 'i"he bortom was covered with branches of trees, 
interwoven on the furlace of the fwamp, on w hich we 
fomctimes kept our footing; fometiiiie;! our feet llipt 
through ; and foinetimes we were lb entangled among 
them, as not to be able to free ourfelves but by groping 
in the mud and flime w ith our hands. However, we 
crolTed it in about an hour, and judged it might be 
alwut a i]uarter of a mile over. Having pertormed 
this dilagreeable talk, wc came to a fpot, where had 
been tour iiiiall lires, near which were foine bones ot 
filli that had been roafted ; alfo grafs laid in heaps, 
whereon four or live perlbns probably had flept. Our 
fecond lieutenant, Mr. (jore, at another place, law the 
trat k of a large animal, near a gully c(f water ; he 
alfo heard theloundsof human voices, hut did not fee 
the people. At this place two turtles, fonie wa';cr fowl, 
and a few fmall birds, were feen. As n;> water was to 
be f )und in our ditVereiit excurlioiis, tor feveral of our 
rrcw were alfo rambling about, the Captain called the 
inlet where the (hip lay, 'I'hirlly Sound. It lies in la- 
titude 21 deg. 10 mill, foutli, and in 210 deg. 18 mill, 
weft longitude, and may be known by agroupof iflands 
that lie right before it, between three and tour leagues 
out at fea. We had not a tingle inducement to llay 
lon;;er in a place, where we could not be lupplied with 
frcih water, nor with proviiionof any kind. We caught 
neulicr lilli nor wild tb\vl ; nor could we get a iliut at 
thcliune kind of water-lbwl, which we had iii{:n in Ho- 
t.uiy l!iy. 'I'hcrclore on the 31ft at lix o'clock, A. M. 
wt weighed an :hor, and put to lea. We kept wit!,out 
the illands that lie in Ihore, and to the N. W. of Thirfty 
Sound, as there appeared to be no late paffage between 
them and the main, at the fame time we had a number 
of illands without us, extending as tar as we could fee. 
Pier head, the N. W. point of Thirlly Sound, bore 
S. li. dil>MU fix leagues, being half way between the. 
inrtn''.ji which arc oil the call point of the wethrn in- 
let, and three fmall illands that lie dircillly without 
thenu Maving failed round thefe laft, we came to an an- 
chor in tlt'tcen fathom water, and the weather being 
dark, h;)zy, and rainy, wc remained under the lee of 
them till levcn o'clock of the next morning. 

On the ift of June, wc got under fail, and our lati- 
tude by obfervation was 21 deg. ai; min. fouth. We 
had now quite open the wcrtern inlet, which we have 
dillinguiflicd by the name of Bload Sound. A point of 
land which (brms its N. W. entrance, wc named Cape 
Palmcrilon, lying in ai deg. joinin. S. latitude, and 

in 2 1 o deg. 54 min.'W. longitude. Betwccti this cape 
and Cape TownOiend is the bay, which we have called 
the Bay of Inlets. At eight in the evening, we an- 
chored in eleven fathom, hith a fandy bottom, about 
two leagues from the main land. 

Saturday the 2nd, we got under fail, and at noon, 
in latitude r.odeg. 56 min. we law a high promontory, 
which \,e nained Cape Hilfborough. It bore W. half 
N. dillant feven miles. Th^r land appeared to abound 
in wood and herbage, and is (''.vcrnfied with hills, 
plains, and vallies. A chain of iflands large andfmall 
are lituated at a diftancc from the coaft and under the 
land, from (bme of which we faw fmoke afccnding in 
different places. 

On Sunday, the 3d, wc difcovered a point of land, 
w hich we called Cape I onway, and between that and 
Cape Hiltborough, a bay to w hich we gave the name of 
Repulfe Bay. 'I'he land about Cape Conway forms a 
mod bcautitul landfcape, being diverfified with hills, 
dales, woods, and verdant lawns. By the help of our 
glafl'es we difcovered two men and a woman on one of 
the iflands, and a canoe with an outrigger like thofe of 
Otaheite. This day wc named the iflands Cumberland 
Iflands, in honour of the duke ; and a paffage which . 
we had difcovered, was calledWhitfunday pallagc, from 
the day on which it was fcen. At day-break, on Mon- 
day the 4th, wc were ate:aft of a point, which we 
called Cape Glouceller. Names were alfo given this 
day to rhrec other places, namely, Holborne Ille, Kdg- 
cumbc Bay, and Cape Upftart, which laft was fo called 
bccaufe it rifes abruptly from the low lands that fur- 
round it. Inland arc tome hills or mountains, which, 
like the'capf altbrd but a barren profpoit. 

On Tucfday the 5th, we were about four league* 
from land, and our latitude by obfervation was 1 9 deg. 
I 2 min. S. We f;iw very large columns of fmokc ri>. 
ling from the low^ lands. Wc continued to ftccr 
W. N. W, as the land lay, till noon on the 6th, when cur 
latitude by obfervation was 19 deg. i min. S. at which 
time we had the mouth of a bay all open, diftant two 
leagues. This we named Cleveland Hay ; and the eaft 
pwint Cape Cleveland. The weft, which had the ap- 
pearance of an illand, wc called Magnetical illand, bc- 
caufe the compafs did not travcric well when we were 
near it: they are both high, as is the main land be- 
tween thtm, the whole forming a furface the mofl 
rugged, rocky, and barren of any we had fecn upon 
the coaft : yet it was not without inhabitants, for we 
faw fmoke in feveral paitsot' the bottom of the bay. 

Thurfday the 7th, at clay-break we were a-breall of 
the caftcrn part of this land, and in the afternoon faw 
feveral large columns of fmoke u]ion the main ; alfo 
cancH's, and fome trees, which we thought were thote 
of thj cocoa-nut : in fearcli of which, as they would 
have been at this time very acceptable, Mr. Banks and 
Dr. Soiander went alhore w ith lieutenant I licks ; but in 
the evening they returned with only a few plants, ga- 
thered from the cabb.ige-palm, and which had been 
mitlakcn for the cocoa tree. 

On l-'riday, the 8th we Hood away for the northcr- 
moit point in light, to which wc g:ive the name of Point 
Hillock. Between this and Magnetical ille the tliore 
forms Halilax Bay, which aftords flieltcr from all 
winds. At lix in the evening we were a.breatl of a 
point of land, which we named Cape Sandwich. I'roin 
hence the land trends W. and afterwards N. forming a 
fine large bay, which was named Rockingham Bay. 
Wc now ranged northv. ard along the lliorc, towards a 
clufter of iflands, on one of which about forty or fifty 
men, women, and chiMreii were ftanding together, all 
(tark naked, and Icxikmg at the (hip with a curiolity 
never obferved among thefe people betbic. At iicn)n 
our latitude, by obfervation, was 17 deg. 59 min. and 
wc were a-breali of the i.orth point of Rockingham 
IJay, which bore from us W. dillant about two miles. 
'1 his houndar)' of the bay is formed by an illand of con- 
iidcrable height, which we diftinguillied bv the ni'inc 
..f Dunk Ifle. 

On Saturday, the 9th, in the morning, wc were 
a-brcaft of (omc fmall illands, which were nan ed 




Frankland's Ifle*. At noon we were in the middlie of A throu'noivciboaiid.iaordcr to get at the heavier articles; 

the channel, and by obfcrvatioa ia latitude li dcg, 57 
n)in. S. and in longitude 214 dcg. 6 noint W. with 
twenty fathom water. The point on the moiaof which 
v«rM-ere now abroad Capt. Cook named Cape Grafton. 
Haiving hauled round this, wc found a^ bay three miles 
tathc wtrflward, in which we anchored; and called the 
iflandGFCKn Ifland. Here Mr. Bank»and Dr. Solan- 
dcr went afliore with the captain, with ai view of pro- 
curing water, which oat being to be had ealily, they 
foon returned aboavdl, and the next day we arrived near 
Trinity Buy, fo callcdl bccaufc difcoveicd on Trinity 

Sunday the loth was remaikabk fbr the dangerous 
fituation of the Endeavour, as wa&Tucfday the 12th ; 
for her prefcrvatiera aind deliverance, as chriltians, or 
only moral philoToithersv wc ought to add, agreeable 
to the will ofan. overruling providence, who (hut up the 
fca with d(H)rs, who appointed for it a decreed place, 
and faid, Thus £ir thou Hiall come, and here Hull thy 
proud waves be flayed. As no accident remarkably 
unfortunate had bcfaRca us, during a navigation 
of more tharv thirteen hundred miles, upon a coalV 
every where aliounding with the moft dangerous rocks 
and Ihoals, no ivaxK oiifdirtrefs had hitherto been given 
to any cape or point of land wluch. we had feen. 
But wc now gave the name of Cape Tribulation, to a 
point we had jult feen fortheft to the northward, be- 
caiifehcrewc became acquainted with misfortune. The 
cape lies m latitude 16 deg. 6 min. S. and 214 deg. 39 
min. W. longitude. 

This day, Sund.iv the loth, at fix in the evening we 
fhortcncd fail, and hauled off ftiore clofe upon a wind, 
to avoid the dan^jcr of fomc rocks, which were feen 
ahead, and to obicrvc w hcther any iHands lay in the 
ofRng, as we were near the latitude of thofe iflands, faid 
to have been difcovcral by Quitos^ We kept ilaixling 
oil from fix o'clock till near nine, with a fine breeze and 
bright moon. Wc had got into twenty-one fathom 
water, whcnfuddenly we fell into twelve, ten, and eight 
ttthom, in a tew minutes. Every nui> was inftantly 
ordered to his llation, and we were on the point of 
anchoring, when, on a fialdeii, wc had again deep water, 
fo that we thought all danger at an end, concluding wc 
had failed over the tail of fonic Ihoals, which we had 
feen in the evening. \\"e had twenty fathoms atwi up- 
wards before ten o'clock, and this depth continuing 
fomc tinic, thcgentlciiKn, who had hitherto been upon 
duty, retired to ie!l; but in kfs than an hour the water 
ihallmved at once from twenty to Icventeen fathoms, and 
before fintndings could be taken the Ihip firuck u|X)n » 
rovk. and reiiuviiKxl iimnovciblc. EvcTy one was in- 
rtamly oti dak, ^\ ith countenances fully cxprcHivc of 
the horrors of otir lituation. Knowing wc were not 
near the Ihore, wc coiuluded'that we wxtc upon a rock 
of coral, the points of which are fiiarp, and the furface 
fo rough, as to grind away wluite\cr it rubbed againft, 
e\cn with the j.;iiuK'll motion. .Ml the fails being in>- 
mcdiately taken in. and our boats hoificd out, we limnd, 
that the (liip had b(in lifted over a ledge of the rock, 
and lay in a hollow within it. Finding the water was 
deepelt .vlUrp, we larricd out the anchor from the 
llarboard quarter, ai^l applied our whole force to the 
capllan, in hopes togctthc vcffelort', but in vain. She 
now beat lb violently againfi the rock, that the crew 
could fcarcely keep or» their legs. The moon (hone 
brig^ht, by the light of which we cwrld fee the flie-ath- 
ing-board.s Hoat iVoui the bottom of the vdM, till at 
kngth the talfe keel t'olloMed, fo that wc cxpcClcd in- 
Ihuu dell ruction. Our bcft chance of cfcaping fcemed 
now 10 be by lightening her-, but having ftruck at high 
water, we IhiKild have heeninourprefcnt fituation after 
the vcflel Uiould draw as much Icfs water as the water 
had funk; our anxiety abated a little, on finding that 
the fliip fettled on the riKrks as the tide ebbed, and we 
rtattcred ourfelves, iliar, if the fiiip (Lould keep to- 
gether till next tide, we might have fome cIuikc of 
Hoating her. Wc therefore inftantly ilartcd the water 
in the hold, and pumped it up. The decayed ftores, 
oil-jars, calks, ballad, fix guns, and other things, wire 

and in this bufinefs we were employed till day-break, 
during all which time not an oath was fworn, fo much 
were the raiiidsof the failors imprclFcd with a fenfc of 
their danger. 

On Monday the nth, at day-light wc faw land at 
eight leagues diftancc, but not a fmgle ifland between 
us and the main, on which part of the crew might 
have been landed, while the boat went on Ihore with 
the reft : fo that the dcftrurtion of the greater part of 
us would have been inevitable had the fiiip gone to 
pieces. It happened that the wind died away to a dcail 
i calm before noon. As we cxpcdcd high-water about 
eleven o'clock, every thing was prepared to make ano- 
ther clfort to free the lliip, but the tide fell f<> much 
fliort of that in the night, that fiie did not fioat by 
18 inches, though we had thrown over-board near lifty 
tons weight; we therefore renewed our toil, and threw 
over-board every thing rh;U could pollibly be fparcd : 
as the tide fell, the water poured in fo rapidly, that we 
could fcarce keep her free by the conftant working of 
two pumps. Our only hope now depended on the mid- 
night tide, and preparations were accordingly made for 
another elTort to get the ihip off. The tide began to 
rife at five o'clock, when the leak likowife increafed 
to fuch a decree, that two pimijis more were manned, 
but only one of them would work j thire, therefore, w erer 
kept going till nine o'clock, at which time the Ihip 
righted ; but fo much water had been admitted by the 
leak, that we expected flie would fink as I'oon as the wa- 
ter fhould bear hcrotl'the ro( k. Our fituation was now 
deplorable, beyond defcription, ainioll all hope being at 
an end. We knew that when the fatal moment lliould 
arrive, all authority would be at an end. The Ijoats. 
were incapable of conveying all on fiiore, and wc 
dreaded a contcll for the preference, as more fliocking 
than the fiiipwreck icfelf: jet it was coiifidcrcd, that 
thofe who might be left on board, would eventually 
meet with a milder fate than thofe who, by gaining the 
fliore, would have no chance but to linger out the re- 
mains of life among the ruilefl lavages in the univerfe, 
and in a country, where (ire-arms would barely enable 
them to fupport thcmfelves in a moft wretched fitua- 
tion. At twenty minutes after ten the (hip floated, and 
was heaved into deep water, when we were happy to 
find that (he did nut admit more water than (he had 
done before: yet as the leak had for a confiderabic time 
e.iined on the piunps, there was now three feet ninc 
iiichcs water in the hold. By this time tht' men werr 
fj worn by ("atigueof mind and body, that none of them 
could pun>p more than five or lix minutes at a time, 
aid then threw thcmfelves, ijuite f{;ent, on the deck, 
amidft a (Iream of water which came from the pumps. 
The ("ucceeding man being fatigued in his turn, threw 
himfell' dowa iu the fmne manner, while the former 
juiuped up and renewed his labour, thus nuitually 
ft niggling for lifr, till the following accident had like 
to have gixenthem up a prey toabl'olute defpair, an.l 
thereby inlured «Kir deftruetion. Iktwccn the inlid.: 
lining of the fiiip's bottom, which is called the cielin;;;, 
and the outfidc planking, there i.< a fpace of aboot 
feventccn or eighteen inches. The man who hid 
hitherto taken the depth o( water at the well, had taken 
it no farther than the cieling, but being now relie\id 
by another perfon, who took the depth of the outfuic 
plank, it appeared by this millake, that the leak ha;l 
fuddenly gained u[Ktn the puinps, the whole ditferfnie 
between the two planks. 1 his circumfiance deprivtvl 
us of all hopes, and fcarce any one thought it wortli 
while to labour, lor the longer prefcrvation of a lite- 
which nuift (o foon have a ptriod : but thc-miftakc 
was foon difcovercd ; and thcjoy arilingfrom fuch un- 
expected good news infpired the men with fo nunli 
vigour, that before ei"ht o'clock in the morning, thty 
had pumped out conlidcrably more w .iter than they haJ 
fliippcd. We now talked of nothing but getting the 
(hip into fome harbour, and lit heartily to work to get 
in the anchors ; one ot which, and the cable of another, 
wc loft; but thcfe were rww conlidercd as triflei. Hav- 
ing a good breeze j'rom fca, we got under fail at eleven 



jrv-'ii! J 

iicavicr articles; 
till day-break, 
fworn, fomuch 
with a fcnfe of 

we faw land at 
: iflanJ bctwceit 
he crew might 
c on Ihore vitW^ 
i; greater part of 
ic ihip gone to 
lI away to a dead 
ligh-watcr about 
;d to make ano- 
lIc fell Co nuich 
did not Hoat by 
-board near fiftv 
irtoil, and threw 
illibly be fjiared ; 
» rapidly, that w t- 
iftant working of 
nded on the mid- 
irdingty made for 
he tide began to 
ikowifc increafed 
)re were manned, 
fc, therefore, w ere 
eh time the ihip 
1 admitted by the 
as i(x»n as the wa- 
tituation was now 
I all hope being at 
af moment lhoi:ld 
end. The Iwats- 
n Ihore, and wc 
as more fliockint; 
IS confidcrcd, thac 
wDulJ eventually 
ho, by gaining tlv 
» linger out the re- 
ts in the univcrfc, 
Nould barely enable 
loft wretclKd fitua- 
he Ihip floated, and 
we were happy to 
atcr than the had 
a conliderabfe time 
ow three feet nine 
time the men wcrc 
y, that none of lhen» 
minutes at a time, 
pent, on the deck, 
ne from the pimipn. 
d in his turn, threw 
r, while the former 
nir, thus mutually 
ig accident had like 
>rolute defpair, an.l 
Iktween the in1id^ 
is called the cielin;.^ 
is a fpace of abo<ii 
Ihe man who h;ul 
,t the well, had taken 
; being now relies id 
de]i\h of the outfuU- 
,e, that the leak havl 
the whole dilfcrcna? 
rcmndatKc deprivnl 
\c thought it wortli 
irefcrvation of a hk 
od : but thc-millakc 
ariiing from fuch un- 
; men with fo nuttli 
in the morning, thtv 
e w ater than they hail 
thing but getting the 
eartily to work to get 
, the cable of another, 
lered as trifkt. Hav- 
X under fail at clevtii 

.. ; ,*j,.v,, «!«,• ,1^ 

'*» '■■- ■ ■ 



-. ij 





* v^ 






f n 
1 m 


. r 

u : 

« X 






o ■ 





*•'■■ '• .-'f- 

i-^: ■ ,, 




, .>■,. V >,'.L* 

COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE— for making Difcoveries in the South Seas & Round the irorlJ. 65 

o'clock, and ftecrcd for land. As \vc could not dif- 
cover the cxadfituation of the leak, we had no profped 
of flopping it within fide of the vcflel, but on lucfday 
the 1 2th, the following expedient, which one of the 
midlhipmen had formerly fcen tried with fuccefs, was 
adopted. We took an old ftudding fail, and having 
mixed a large quantity of ^akham and wool, chopped 
finall, it was ftitched down in handfiiis an the fail, as" 
lightly as pofliblc, the dung of fticcp and other filth 
being fpread over it. Thus prepared, the fail was 
hauled under the (hip, by ropes, which kept it extended 
till it came under the leak, when the fudion carried in 
the oakham and wool from the furfaceofthc fail. This 
experiment fucccedcd fo well, that inftead of three 
pumps, the water was eafily kept under with one. 

\Ve had hitherto no farther view than to run the (liip 
into fomc harbour, and build a vcflcl from her mate- 
rials, in which \vt might r<;ach the EaU-Indiesj but 
we now began to think of finding a proper place to re- 
pair her damage, and then to purfuc her voyage on its 
original plan. At fik in the evening wc anchored 
feven leagues from the Ihorc ; and found that the {hip 
made 1 5 inches water an hour during the night ; but as 
the pumps could clear this quantity, we w ere hot unesfy. 
At nine in the morning \\x palfcd two idands, which 
were called Hope Idands, bccaufe the reaching of them 
had been the objed of our willies, at the time of the 
Ihipwrcck. In the afternoon, the maftcr was font out 
with two boats to found and fearch for a harbour where 
the fliip might be repaired^ and weanchored at fun-fct. 

in four fathoms water, two miles from the (liorc. One 
of the mates being fcntdut in the pinnace, returned at 
nine o'clock, reporting, that he had found fuch a har- 
bour as was wanted, at the ciiftance of two leagues. 

Wednefday the 13th, at lix o'clock wc failed, hiving 
previoufly fent two boats a-head, to point out the Ihoals 
that wc faw in oirw'ay. We foon anchored about a 
irtilc from the fliorc, when the captain went out, and 
found the channel very narrow, but the harbour was 
better adapted to our pref nt purpofc, than any place 
we had feen in the whole couife of the voyage. As it 
ble-y very frcfh this day and the following night, we 
could not venture to run into the harbour, but re- 
mained at anchor during the two fucceeding days, in 
the courfc qf which we obfervcd four Indi^'K on the 
hills, who ftojjped and made two fires. 

Our men, by this time, began to be alTlided with the 
fcurvey; and oVir Indian friend Tupia wasfo ill with it, 
that he had livid fpots on both his legs. Mr. Green 
the artronomer was likewife ill of the lame diforder ; 
fo that our being detained from landing was every way 
difagreeablc. The wind continued freih till the 1 7th, 
and then we refolved to pufli in for the harbour, and 
twice ran the (hip a-^round ; the fecond time flie ftuck 
fall, on which wc took down the booms, fore-yard, and 
fore-top marts, and made a raft on the fide of the jhip ; 
and, as the tiile happened to be riling, flic floated at one 
o'clock. We foon got her into the harbour, where ihc 
was moored along the fide of a beach, and the anchors^ 
cables, &c. immediately taken out of her. 



C II A p. 


U'bejf.iip ts refitfrJ in EnJcavwr River — Tumfac^ioits daring that time — ne country, its inkibiiaiits aiiJ proJu^ions 
dejcribed — // defcrifitiontf the karf-mr, the trijacent cmintry, andfeveral ijlands near the coaft — The range frrm Endeavour 
River to (he nnYthern extremity of the country — And the dangers of tijtU ninigatim — The Endeazoicr departs from South 
It' ales — Thai country, its produH and people dejcribed, ivith afpciimcn of iht. language. 

ON Mond.iy the 1 8th in the morning, wc eredetl 
a tent lor the fick, who were brought tin fl'.ore as 
foon it was ready lor their rccqition. We likewife built 
a ilagc fron» the fliip to the (liorc, and fet up a tent to 
hold the provilions and fiorcs, that were landed the 
limieday. fhe boat was now difpacched in fcarth of 
filh for the rcfivlhmcnt of the (ick, hut Ihc returned 
without getting any; but Tupia employed himfelf 
in angling, aiui living entirely upon what he caught, 
recovered his health very fall. In an excuriion Mr. 
Ikinks made u[) the country, he faw the frames of fcve- 
ral huts, and Capt. Cook having afccndcl one of the 
highefl hills, ohfervcd the land to be Honey and 
barren, and the low land near the river over-run \vith 
mangroves, among which the fak-watcr tlowed every 

Tuefday the 19th, the fmith's forge was fet up, and 
the armourer prepared the necelfary iron-work for the 
repair of the vellcl. 'i'he olheers llores, ballafi, water, 
&e. were likewife ordered out, in order to lighten the 
Ihip. This day Mr. Hanks crolled the river to view 
the coiintr\, which he obfervcd to be little elfe than 
fand hills. lie faw vail flocks of pigeons, moll 
beautiful bird.., of which he fiiot llveral. On Wed- 
nefday the :o'ui, as we were removing the coals, the 
water rulhcd in, near the fori mail, alxnit three feet from 
the keel; fo that it was nfolvcil to clear the hold 
entirely; which being done on l-'riday the 22nd, 
we warped the fliip higlu r up the harbour, to a Ihi- 
tion more proper for laying her a-fiiore, in order to flop 
the leak. I'jrly in the morning, the tide having left 
iier, wc proceeiled toexaiirtne the leak, when it appear- 
ed that the nx ks had cut through four planks into the 
timberr., and that three other planks were damaged. 
In thefe breaches not a fpliiuer was to be feen, the 
whole being finooth as if cut away by an inftrument : 
lut it was the will of an omnipotent being, that the 
velTel fliould be preferved by a very lingular circum- 
ftmce: for though one of the holes was large enough | 

No. i. ' 

to have funk her, even with eight pumps ronftantly at 
work, yet this inlet to our deftruction was partly flopped 
up, by a fragment of the rock being left flicking 
therein. We likewife found feme pieces of the oak- 
ham, wool, &:c. which had got between the timbers, 
and flopped thofe parts of the leak that the ftone had 
left open. Exclulive of the leak great damage was done 
to vat'ous parts of the fliip's bottom. While the finitha 
were employed in making nails and bolts, the car- 
penters began to work on the veflel; and fome of the 
people were fent on the other lliie of the river to flioot 
pigeons for the fick. They found a flream of frefli 
water, feveral inhabitants of the Indian;, and faw a 
moufe-coloured animal, exceeding fwift, and about the 
lize of a greyhound. 

On .Saturday the :3d, a boat was difpatchcd to haul 
the feinc, and returned at noon with only three fifli, and 
yet we faw them in plenty leaping about the harbour, 
'i'his day many of the crew ^mv the animal above- 
mentioned ; and one of the feamen declared he had feen 
the devil, which John thus defcribed, "' He was, (iiyj 
he, as large as a one gallon keg, and very like it : he 
had horns and wings, yet he crept fo ilowly through 
the grafs, that if 1 had not been afeard, I might have 
touched him." This formidable apparition we after- 
wards difcovered to have been a batt, which we mult 
acknowledge has a frightful appearance, it being bl.ack, 
and full as large as a partrid;;c ; but the man's own ap- 
prehentions had furnillied his devil with horns. 

Sunday, Mr. Core and a party of men fent out with 
him, i-rocured a bunch or two of wild plantains, and a 
few jialm cabbages, for tiir refrelhmentof the lick: and 
this day the Captain and Mr. Banks faw the animal 
already mentioned. It h:ul a long tail that it carried 
like a greyhound, leaped like a deer,. and the point of 
its foot relembled that of a goat. "The repairs of the 
Ihip on the flarboard fide having been linillied the pre- 
ceding day, the carpenters noiv beg;m to work under 
her Ijjrboard bor ; and beinaevamined abaU it aputar* 
R e4 



C O O Ks 


■ 'HI 

cd (lie had received very little injury in that quarter. 
Mr. Bani<s having removed his whole collcdion of 
plants into the bread room, they were this day under 
water, by which foiiic of them were totally deflroyed ; 
however by great care nioft of them were rellored to 
a ftatc of prefervation. A plant was foum' this day, 
the 25th, the leaves of which were almoft as good as 

(pinnagc j alfo a fruit of a deep purple colour, and the 

fize of a golden p 

a few days tafltd like a daiufon. On 'I'uefday, the 

jf a golden pippin, which after Iwving been kept 

26th, the ^:arpentcr was engaged in caulking the Ihip, 
and the men in other necellary buiinefs ; and on the 
^7th the armourer continued to work at the forge, and 
the carpenter on the (hip ; while the Captain made fc- 
veral hauls with the large net, but caught only between 
twenty and thirty lilh, which were dillributed among 
the lick, and thofe who were not yet quite recovered. 
Wc began this day to move fomc of the weight from 
the after-part of the (hip forward, to cafe her. On the 
oSth, Mr. Banks with fome feamen went up into the 
country, to whom he ihewcd a plant which fcrved them 
for greens, and which the inhabitants of the Weft-In- 
dies call Indian Kale. Here we faw a tree notched for 
climbing; alfo nells of white ants from a few inches to 
five feet in height; prints of mens feet, and the tracks 
of three or four animals were likewife difcovcred. 

On Friday the :9th, at two o'clock in the morning, 
Capt. Cook w ith Mr. Cireen, obferved an emerfion of 
Jupiter's firft fatcllite : the time here was 2 hours 18 
min. 53 fee. which makes the longitude of this place 
214 dcg. 42 min. 30 fee. VV. and the latitude 15 dcg. 
a6 min. S. At dawn of day the boat was lint out to 
haul for fifli, and took what made an allowance of one 
pound and a h.ilf toe.ich man. One of ourmidlliip- 
men, this day with his jTun, reported, that he 
had fcen a wolf, refembling exadly the lame fpecies in 
America, at which he Ihot, but could not kill it. The 
next morning, being the 30th, the captain afcended a 
hill to take a view of the fea, when he obferved innu- 
merable land banks and Ihoals, in every diredion ; but 
to the northward there was an appearance of a pailage, 
which feemtil the only way to fleer clear of the fur- 
rounding danj;crs, cfpccially as the wind blows con- 
ftantly from tiie S. 1*^. Mr. Gore law this day two ftraw 
coloured animals of the (ize of a hare, but fliaped 
like a dog. In the afternoon the people returned with 
fuch a quantity of filh, that two jjounds and a half 
were difinbutcd to each inan j and jilenty of greens 
had been gathered, which when boiled with [hms made 
an excellent inefs, and we all thought this day's fare an 
unlbcakable refreflimcnt. 

On Sunday the i ft of July all the crew had pcrmif- 
lion to go on ihore, except one from each mefs, part 
of wiiom were again fent out with the feinc, antl were 
again equally fuccefsful. Some of our people who 
went up in the country, gave an account of their hav- 
ing fcen feveral animals, and a fire about a mile up the 
river. On Tuefday the 3d, the maftcr, who had been 
fent in the pinnace, returned, and reported, that he had 
tbujul a pair.ige out to fea, between ftioals which con- 
lifted of lor.d rocks, many whereof were dry at low 
fnrcr. i le lound fome cockles fo large, that one 
of them was more than fuflicient for two men; like- 
wife plenty of other ftiell-filh, of which he brought a 
fupply to the ihip, in his return to which he had landed 
in a bay where (omc Indians were at fuppcr; but they 
iiilhmtly retired, leaving fome fea eggs by a fire for 
drelling them. 'I'his day we made another attempt to 
Boat the lhii>, and happily fuccccded at high water; 
whcii we toiiiid, that by the polition ftie had lain in, 
one of her planks was fprung, fo that it was again ne- 
ciiUu ) to lay jier afliore. An alligator Iwam by her fe- 
vcK^l Limes at high water. 

Weilnelil.iy the 4th was employed in trimming her 
upon an even ketl, warping her over, and laying her 
tlouii on a fniul-bank, on the fouth (ide of the river ; 
«nd on the next day, the 5th, flie was again Heated, 
luui moored oH" the beach, in order to receive the 
ftorcK on board. This day w c crolfed the harbour, and 
found on a fandy beach a great number of fruits, not 

difcovcred before; among others a cocoa-nut, which 
Tupia faid had lH.en opened by ajrab, and was judged 
to be what the Dutch call Ueurs Krabbe. 'Ihe vege- 
table fubftanccs which Mr. Hanks picked up were en- 
crufted with marine productions, and Covered with 
barnacles, a proof of their having been tranfplanted, 
probably from 'lerra del Mfperito Santo. This gentle- 
man with a party having failed up the river on thc6ili, 
to make an exciirlion up the country, returned on the 
Sth. Having followed the coiirfe of the river, they 
found it at length contracted into a narrow channil, 
Ixjumled by fteep banks, adorned with trees of a molt 
iK-autiful appearance, among which was the bark tree. 
The land was low and covered w ith grafs, and fcemrd 
capable of being cultivated to great advantage. The 
night, though we had made a tire on the banks of th.: 
river, was rendered extremely diliigreeablc by the 
ftings of the mufiiuitos, thatcaufc an almod intolera- 
ble torment. Going in purfuit of game, wc faw four 
animals, two of which were chafed by Mr. Banks's 
greyhound, but they greatly oiitftripped him in fpeed, 
by leaping over the long thick grafs, which ini oni- 
moded the dog in running. It was obferved of the 
animals, that they bounded forward on two legs iiiftead 
of running on four. Having returned to the boat wcpro- 
cecded up the river, till it contracted toa brook of Ircdi 
water, but in which the tide rofe conliderably. Having 
ftoppcd to pal's the night, with hope of fome reft, we 
faw a fmoke at a diftancc, on which three of us ap- 
proached it, but the Indians were gone. We law the 
impreftions of feet on the land, below high-water 
mark, and found a fire (till burning in the hollow of 
an old tree. At a fmall iliftance were feveral huts, and 
we obferved ovens dug in the ground: the remains of a 
recent meal were likewife apparent. We now retired 
to our refting-place, and ilept on plantain leaves, with 
a bunch of grafs for our pillows, on the fide of a fand- 
bank, under the ftieltcr of a bu(h. The tide favo\ir- 
ing our return in the morning, we loft no time in get- 
ting back to the fliip. The mafter, who had been fevcn 
leagues at fea, returned foon after Mr. Banks, bringing 
w ith him three turtles, which he took with a boat- 
hook, ajid which together weighed near eight hundred 
pounds. He was fent out next morning, and Mr. Banks 
accompanied him with proper inftrumcnts for caichinn; 
turtle: but not being fuccefsful, he would ndt go back 
that night, fo that Mr. Banks, after collecting fome 
ftiells anil marine productions, returned in his own 
fmall lK)at. In the morning the feconil licuten.Tin was 
fent to bring the niafter back, foon after which tour In- 
dians, in a fmall canoe, were within fight. The cap- 
tain now <letermined to take no notice of thefe people 
as the moft likely way to be noticed by them. This 
project anfwered ; two of them came within mufquet 
(hot of the vefRI, where they converfed ver) loud ; in 
return, the pcop''.- on board fliouted, and made lif^ns 
of invitation. The Imlians grailually appioac hcil, with 
their lances held up; not in a menacing manner, but 
as if they meant to intimate that they were capable of 
defending tlicmfelvcs. T'hey came almoft along-lide, 
w hen the captain threw them cloth, nails, paper, &c. 
which did not feem to attract their notice, at length one 
of the failors threw a ftnall filh, which fopleafed them, 
that they hinted their deligns of bringing their com- 
panions, and immediately mwed for the Ihore. In the 
mterim, Tupia and fome of the crew- landed on the op- 
polite fliorc. The tour Indians now came quite along- 
liile the Ihip, and having received farther prefents-, 
landed where Tupia and the failors had gone. They 
had each two lances, and a Hick with which they threw 
them. Advancing towards the Englilh, Tupia pcr- 
fuaded them to lay down their arms, and fit by him, 
which they readily did. (Others of the crew now goinij 
on Ihore, the Indians fecmed jealous, left they lliouid 
get between them and their arms, but care was takento 
convince them that no fuch thing was intended, and 
more triHes were prefiL'nted to them. The crew ftaid 
With them till dinner-time, and then made figns of in- 
vitation for them to go to the Ihip and eat ; but this 
they declined, and retired in their canoe. Ihtfe men 


I ....... „■ , . 

cook's first voyage — foi' making Difctveries in the South Seas & Round tfic If^orld. 67 

were of the coinnwn (laturc, with very fmall limbs i 
their complexion was of a deep chocolate j their hair 
black, cither Unk or curled, but not of the woolly kind ; 
the brcafts and upper lip of o.ieof them were painted 
with ftreaks of white, which he called carbanda, and 
fomc part of their bodies hiui been p«inted red. Their 
teeth were white and even, the. • eyes bright, and their 
features rather plcaling 1 their vciccs niuUcal, and they 
repeated feveral Enj^hih words with great readinefs. 

The next morning, the vilit of tnrce of thcfe In- 
dians was renewed, and they brought with them a 
fourth, whom they called Yaparico, who appeared to 
be a perfon of foiiieconfequcnce. The bone of a bird, 
about fix inches long, was thruft through the grilUe of 
his nofc i and indeed all the inhabitants of this place 
had their nofcs bored, for the reception of fuch an or- 
nament. Thcfe people being all naked, the captain 
gave of them an old ftiirt, Avhich he bound round 
his head like a turban, inftead of ufing it to cover any 
part of his body. They brought a fifti to the (liip, 
which was fuppofed to be in payment for that given 
them the day before: after Haying fome time witn ap- 
parent fatiifadion, they fuddenly leaped into their ca- 
noe, and rowed oft', from a jealouly of fome of the 
gentlemen who were examining it. 

On the 1 2th of July, three Indians vifited Tupia's 
tent, .md after remaining fonu' lime, went for two 
others, whom they introduced by name. Some filh 
was olVcrcJ them, but they fecmcd not much to regard 
it; after eatiivT a little, ihey >:'ave the remainder to 
Ml. I!;inks's tioj;. Some rihbaiuls which had been 
given them, to which medals were fufpcnded round 
their necks, were fo changed by fmokc, that it was 
difficult to judge what colour they had been, and the 
fmokc had made their ikins look darker than their na- 
tural colour, from whence it was thought that they had 
flept clofe to their fires, as a preventative againll the 
fting of the mufquitos. Both the ftrangcrs had bones 
through their nofes, and a piece of bark tied over their 
foreheads ; and one of them had an ornament of ftrings 
round his arm ; and an elegant necklace made of fhclls. 
Their canoe was about ten feet long, and calculated to 
hold fi)ur pcribns, and when it was in Ihallow water 
they moved it by the help of poles. Their lances had 
only a linglc point, and fome of them were barbed 
with fifli-boncs. On the 14th Mr. Gore fliot one of the 
moufe-coloured animals above-mentioned. It chanced 
to be a young one, weighing morQ than iH pounds; 
but when they are full grown, they are as large as a 
Ihecp. The Ikin of this beall which is called Kanga- 
ro.i, is covered with ihort fur, and is of a dark inoufe 
colour ; the head and ears are fomewhat like thofe of a 
harej this animal was dretlcd lor dinner, and proveil 
fine eating. The (hip's crew fed on turtle almolt every 
day, which wen- liner than thofe eaten in England, 
owing to their being killed before their natural fat was 
wafted, and their juices changed. 

On the 17th, Mr. B;inks and Dr. Solander wcntwith 
the captain into ihc woods, and faw four Indians in a 
canoe, who went on (lioiv, and walked up without (ign 
of fear. Tiiey ari.cpted fomc beads, and departed, 
intimating that ihty did not chufe to be followed. 
The nati\cs being now become familiar with the ihip's 
crew, one ot thorn was delired to throw his lance, which 
he did u ith fuch dexterity and torcc, that though it was 
not above (inir feci from the ground at the higheft, it 
penetrated deeply into a tree at the dilbnce of fifty 
yards. The natives now . ame on board the fliip, and 
were well plealed wuh their entertainment. 

On the 19th, we faw leveral of the women, who, as 
well a^ the men, w eiv quire inked. We were this day 
vifiied In ten likliaiis, wiio leenied refolvcd to have 
one of the turths that was on lx)aid, which they re- 
peatedly made figns for, and being as repeatedly re- 
fufed, theyexpreiled the utnioll rage and relentment, 
one of them in partit ular, having received a denial 
from Mr. Banks, he llamped, and pulhed him away in 
a inoll, violent m,inner. At k-ngih they laid hands on 
tuo of the turtles, and drew- them to the (ide of the 
Piij) where the canoe Ixy, but the failors took them 

away. They made feveral limilar attempts, hiitb(ing 
ecjually unfucccfsful, they leaped fuddenly into then 
canoe, and rowed oil". At this inllant the captain, 
with Mr. Banks, and five or lix of the feamcn, went 
on fliorc, where they arrived before the Indians, and 
where many of the crew were already emph-yed. A< 
foon as the Indians landed, one of them fiiatihed a 
fire brand from under a pitch-kettle, au'l running 10 
the windward of what eHects were left on fliore, fet (iic 
to the dry grafs, which burned rapidly, f.ortluil a pig 
to death, burned part of the fmith's forge, and wouki 
have dertroyed a tent of Mr. Banks, but that Ionic jieo- 
ple came from the fliip jiill in it out of the 
way of the flames. In the mean while the Indiaii'l 
went to a place where the lilhing-nets lay, and a (]uan- 
tityof linen was laid«)utto dry, anti there again lit fin- 
to the grafs, in fpite of all perfuaiion, and even of 
threats. A mufquet loaded with linall Ihot was fired, 
and one of them being wounded, they ran away, aiul 
this lecond fire w as extinguillied ; but the other burned 
far into the woods. 

The Indians Hill continuing in fight, a mufqner 
charged with ball was fired, the report only (jf which 
fentthem out of fight ; but their voices being heard in 
the woods, the Captain with a tew peojilcwenc to meet 
them. Both parties lh)pped when in fight of each 
other ; at which time an old Indian advanceil befoif the 
reft a little wav, but foon halted, and alter having 
fpoke fome words, which we could not underlland, he 
retreated to his companions, and (hey all retired llowly 
in a Iwdy. Having found means to fei/e fome of their 
dart' we continueil following them about a mile, and 
then fat down u]wn fome rocks, the Indians fitting 
down alfo alx)ut an hundred ) ards from us. The old 
man again came forward, having a lance without a 
point in his hand ; he flopped feveral times at dif- 
ferent diftances, and fpoke, whereupon the captain 
made ligns of friendlhip, which they anfwered. 'I'hc 
old man now turned, and fpoke aloud to his compa- 
nions, who placed their lances againft a tree, and came 
forward in a friendly manner. When they came up to 
us, we returned the darts we had taken, and we per- 
ceived with great fatisfaiition, that this rendered the re- 
conciliation complete. In this party were four pcrfbns 
whom we had not feen before, who, as ufual, were in- 
troduced ^p us by name, but the man w ho had been 
wounded in the attempt to burn our nets, was not a- 
mong them. Having received from us fome trinkets, 
they walked amicably toward the coaft, intimating by 
figns, that they would not fire the grafs again. When 
we came oppofite the fhip they fat down, but we could 
not prevail with them to go on board. '1 he\ accepted 
a few mufquet balls, the ufe and efl'eOl of which the 
Captain endeavoured to explain. We then left them, 
and when arrived atthelhip, we faw the woods burning 
at the dillance of two miles. We had no conception 
of the fiiry with which grafs would burn in this hot cli- 
mate, nor of the difficulty of extinguilhing it; but wc 
determined, that if it fhould ever again be necellary 
for us to pitch our tents in fuch a lituation, cur firll 
work lliould be to clear the ground round us. 

Friday the 20th, our fiiip being ready for fea, the 
mafter was lent in fearch of a pallage to the north- 
ward, but could not find any; while the Captain found- 
ed and buoyed the bar. This day we faw not any In- 
dians; but the hills for many miles were on fire, which 
at night made an appearance truly fublimc. On tWI^ 
22nd, we killed a turtle, through both flioulders of' 
which ftuck a wooden harj50on, near fifteen inches long, 
l)earded at the end, and about the thicknefs of a man's 
finger, refembling fuch as we had feen among the na- 
tives. The turtle appeared to have been ftruck a con- 
liderable time, for the wound was perfetUy healed. 
On the a4th, one of the failors, who with others had 
been fent to gather kale, having ftrayed from the refl, 
fell in with four Indians at dinner. He was at firlt 
much alarmed, but had prudence enough to conceal 
his apprehenfions ; and fitting down by them gave them 
his knife, which having examined, they returned. He 
would then have left them ; but they fccnicd dilpofcd 




Capt. C O O K s 



to detain him, till, by feeling his hands and face, they 
Here lonvineed he was made of flefti and blood like 
thcrnfclvcs. They treated him with great civility, and 
having kept him about half an hour, they made tlgns 
that he inight depart. When he left them, not taking 
the dirctit way to the (hip, they came from the tire and 
Ihcwed him the nearcft way ; from whence we conclud- 
ed, that they well knew from whence he came. We 
may here oi)rerve, that the language of thefc people 
fcemcd to us more harlh than that of the iflanders in the 
Souih-Se.i. They were continually repeating the word 
chcrcau, a term as wc imagined of admiration. They 
alfo cried out, when they faw any thing new, chcr, tut, 
tut, tut, tut! which probably was a limilar cxprefTlon. 
Mr. lianks having gone on fliorc in fearch ol plants, 
found the cloth which had been didributed among the 
natives, lying in a heap, as ufclcfs lumber. Indeed they 
fecmcd to fet very little value upon any thing we had 
except our turtle, a commodity wc were Icall inclined 
and able to fnarc 

Tuefday the :4th, Mr. B:inks and Dr. Solander re- 
turning from the woodi!, through a deep valley, foimd 
lying on the ground feveral marking nuts, the Anacar- 
dium orientale ; but they fought in vain for the tree 
that Iwrc them. On the 26th, as Mr. Ranks was again 
fearching the country- to enrich his natural hillory, he 
took an animal of the Opoflum kind, with two young 
ones. On the 27th, Mr. Gore fliot a Kanguroo, which 
weighed cighty-ibur pounds, though not at its full 
gn)wth. When drcHhl on the 2Sth, wc found it had 
a much worfc flavour than that wc had eaten be- 

Sunday the 29th. wcgot the anchor up, and made 
all ready 10 put to fca. A boat was fent out to afccrtain 
what water was upon the bar; when returned, the olhccr 
reported, that there was only thirteen feet, which was 
(ix inches Icfs than the fliip drew. Wc therefore this 
day gave up all hopes of failing. Monday the -?nth, we 
had frelh gales with hazy weather and rain, till luefday 
the {ill, at two in the morning, when the weather be- 
came more nuxicraic. During all this time the pin- 
nace and yawl continued to ply the net and hocjk with 
tolerable good fucccfs, bringing in at ditl'crent times 
a turtle, and from two to three hundad weight of 

On Wednefday the ifl of Augull, the pumps were 
examined by the carpenter, who found them all in a 
llate of decay, and fome ijuitc rotten, owing, as he laid, 
to the lap having been kit in the wood : but as the lliip 
admitted only an inch of water in an hour, wc hoped 
ihc was (lout enough, and tnilled to her loundntls. 

On Siiturilay the 4th, at fevcn o'clock in the mornini:, 
wc once more got under fail, and put to fea. We (tood 
olfl'",. by N. with the pinnace a-head to keep founding. 
About nfx)n we came to an anchor, when the harbour 
fmm whence wc had failed l>orc S. 70 W. diftant al>oui 
five leagues. 'I'he captain here mined the nortliermoll 
point ot" land in light Cape Ikdford, and the harbour 
wi' hud quitted Kmieavour River. Our latitude bv ob- 
fervation was now 1 5 deg. ^l iiiin. S. lindeavour Ri- 
ver is only a fiiiall bar harbour, or creek, which runs 
in a winding channel three or four leagues The 
depth of water for Ihipping is not jnore than a mile 
within the bar, and only on the north-lide. At the new 
and fiiUol' the moon, it is liigh water between nine and 
ten o'clo; k. It mull alio l>e remembered, that this part 
flUfthc coall is fo barricaded with Ihoals, as to make 
the harbour very dill'icult of acccfs : the fafcft approach 
is from the fouthward, keeping the main land clofc 
upon the board all the way. Over the fouth point is 
fome high land, but the north point is formed by a low 
fandy l)each. The provilions wc procured in this har- 
bour confided of turtle, oyftcrs ofdiffcrent forts, cavalhc 
or fcombcr, flat filli, Ikatc or ray filh, purdain, wild 
beans, and cabbagc-palnu. Of quadrupcdcs, there arc 
goats, wolves, pole-cats, a fpottcd animal of the viverra 
kind, and feveral kinds of Icrpcnts, fonic of which only 
are venomous, Dog« arc the only tamcanimals. The 
land fowls are kites, crows, hawks, loriqucts, cockatoos, 
parrots, pigeons, and fmaii birds of various forts, the 

nainci of which wc could not learn. The w.ater fowls 
arc wild gcefc, curlieus, hens, whirling ducks that 
perch on trees, and fome few othcrt. 'Incfoil of the 
hilh, though ftoncy, produces coal-fc gmfs befidei wooti, 
that of the valleys is in general well cloathcd, and ha« 
the appearance of fertility. The tree* here are of va. 
rious torts, of which the gum trees are the moll com- 
mon. On each fide of the river are mangroves, whieli 
in fome parts extend a mile within the coaft. The 
country is well watered, and ant-hills arc every where in 
great numbers. 

On Saturday the 4rh, Capt. Cook went up to the 
maft-hcad to look at ibmc dangerous flioaki fcvcial oi" 
w hich he faw above the water. This day fuch a quan- 
tity of lilh was caught, as allowed a dividend of tuo 
pounds to each man. During the lix following days we 
attempted to fail between the flioals and breakers, b', 
which wc were every way furrounded. On the roth 
we were iKtwecn a head land and three illands, which 
had been difcovercd the preceding day. We luw 
entertained hopes of being out hf dangcri but this not 
proving to be the cafe, wc calleil the head-land Cape 
I'lattcry. Some land was now difcovercd, and was ge- 
nerally taken for the main \ but in the captain's opinion 
a duller of illands, Uixjii thisdivcrtity offentiittcnt? 
it was refolved to bring tht lliip to an anchor, Thii 
done, the captain landed, and from a high point took a 
furvey of the iia-coaft, by w hich he conlirmed 111 hii 
conieehire. On the point where he Hood were livn 
the prints of human teet, in white fand of an cxquilin 
lincnefs; and the pl.iccwas named Point Lookout. I 
the northwuid of tlii.s the coafl appeared to be fl'm'. 
and Hat, for a confiderouic dillance, which did not cii. 
courage our hope, that the channel we had hithcnj 
lound in with the land would continue. 

On Saturd.ny the nth, early in the morning, .Mr. 
Banks and Capt. Cook went to vilit the largell of rii- 
three illands, and having gained the fummit of tlK- 
highell hill, they beheld a reef o.*" rocks, whereon the 
fea broke in a frightful manner ; but the ha'/.y weather 
preventing a jK-rfect view, they lodged under a bulh 
during the night, and next day feeing what had the 
appearance of a chanuel between the reefs, one of the 
mates on the 12th, was fent out in the pinnace to ex- 
amine it i and at noon returned, having found between 
fifteen and twenty-eight fathom of water : but it blew 
fo hard, that the mate did not dare to venture into one 
of the channels, which he ("aid appeared to Ik- very nar- 
row ; but the cajHain judged he had feen them to a dil- 
ad\;uit.ige. While bufv in his furvey. Mi. Banks was 
attentive to Ins favourite purfuit, and collei.Hcd manv 
plants he had not before i't-cn. This ifland, vilible at 
twelve leagues dillance, and in general barren, wc found 
to be alKMit eight leagues in cinumfereiu e. There 
are Ibiiie fandy ba\s and low-land on the N. W. liile, 
whirh is covercil with long grafs, aiul trees of the fame 
kind w ith thofe on the main ; li/ards of a very large li/e 
alii) aU)uniIed,foine of which we t<x>k. We Ibuiulalli 
iVelh water in t.vo places; one running flreani, clofe to 
the Ua, was a little brackifli ; the other was a ll.indiii|', 
|KH)I perfectly fweet. We were liirpri/.cd tofce, thar, 
notwithllanding the ilillanic of this illanJ from the 
in.iin, it was lometiiiies vilited by the Indiana from 
thcD'C i as was j)lain tiom fcven or eight frames o: 
their huts which we found. All thefc were built on 
miincncies, ami fioiii their lituation, we judged, thai 
the weather Ijerc, at certain fea(i.)n.s, is invariably caliii 
and mild. On our return to the (hip, the eaptain lu 
mcd this place the L.i/.ard llland, on arcounr of 01 r 
havii^ fcen no other animals but li/.ards, Whai re- 
turning, we landed on a low fandy illand, upon whivh 
were birds f)f various kinds, \\'c took a nell of young 
eagles, and therefore called the place Ivjigle llland, \\ c 
t()und alio a nell of fome other bird, of a molt enor- 
mous li/c : itwas made w ith Hicks upon the grouiid, and 
was not Icfs than fix and twenty feet in circumference, 
and two feet eight inches high. Wc perceived that this 
place alfo ha.l been viijteU by the Indians, During our 
abfcnce from the fliip, the mailer had landed on fcvcr.»l 
low ilhnds where he had fccn great heaps of turtle 



cook's first VOY AG li — for making Difcovcrics in 0\c Souti Seas tc Round tlu )Yo>/J. /S) 

fliells, and found the fini ot them, which the Iiidiani 
had left hanging on the trees, fo Irelh, tiiat they were 
drcffcd and eaten by the boat's crew. 

On Sunday the 12th, the ollitcrs held a confultation, 
and wc were uiunininiis in opinion, that it would be 
bed to quit the coaft altogether, till we tould approach 
it with Icfs danger; in confequcnce of which concur- 
rent opinion, wc failed on Moiulay the i.<tli, and got 
through one of the channeln in the reef, happy at find- 
ing ourfelvci once more in the open fea, after having 
been furroiindcd by dreadful flioals and rocks for near 
three months. Wc had now failed above 1000 miles, 
during which run wc had been obliged to keep 
founding, without the interniiiTlon of a lingle minute i 
a circumftance which, it u fuppofcil, never happened 
to any fliip but the Endiasour. I'he palTagc through 
which wc pallid into the open fea beyond the reef, is 
in latitude 14 dcg. .{2 min. S. and may always be 
known by the three high iflands within it, which Capt. 
Cook called the Klands of Diredion, becaufe by thefc 
a ftrangcr may fuid a fate channel through the reef quite 
to the main. The channel lies fron» Lizard Illand 
N. E. half N. didant three leagues, and is about one 
third of a mile broad, and much the fame in length. 
The iflinds abound in turtle and other filh, and on the 
beach wc found bamboos, cocoa-nuts, pumice-ftone, and 
the feeds of plants, fup|wfed to be wafted thither by the 
trade w inds, as the plants themfelvts arc not natives of 
the country. 

On Tuefday the 1 4th, wc anchored, and by obfcrva- 
tion, our latitude was 1 { dcg. 46 min. S. and at this 
time wc had no land in light. On the 1 5th wc ftecrcd 
a wcfterly courfc, in order to get fight of land, that we 
might not ovcrflioot the pallajjc, if a palfage there was 
between this land and New Gumea. Early in the after- 
noon wc hail fight of land, which had the appearance 
' of hilly ifiandi, but it was judged to be part of the main, 
f and we fa w breakers between the vcllcl and the land, 
in which there was an opening; to get dear, wc fct all 
our fails, and ITood to the northward till midnight, and 
then went on a fouthward tack for about two miles, 
when the breeze died away to a dead calm. When 
day-light came on wc faw a dreadful furf break at a vafi 
height, within a mile of the fiiip, towards which the 
rolling waves carried her with great rapidity. Thus 
dirtrcflcd, the boats were fcnt a-head to tow, and the 
head of the veflel was brought about, but not till Ihe 
was within a huiulrcd yards of the rock, between which 
j and her there was nothing left but the chafm, and which 
had lifcn and broke to a wonderful height on the rock ; 
but in the nioimnt we expe(i^cd infiant dcfiruclion, a 
breeze, hardly difccrnablc, aided the boats in getting 
j the vclTel in an oblique direction from the rock. The 
hopes, however, alfordeil by this providential circum- 
ftance, were delh(»> cd by a |)crfect calm, which fuccecd- 
[cd in a few minutes; \et the breeze once more return- 
1 cd, before we had lofl ilie little ground which had been 
I gained. At thi^ tmu a fmall opening was fcen in the 
reef, and a young oW.ccv being fent to examine it, 
found that its breadth ilid not much exceed, the length 
of the fliip, but that there was fmooth water on the 
I other fide of the loi ks. Animated by the defiie of 
; prcferving life, we now attempted to pals the opening; 
j but this was impodible; for it having become high- 
1 water in the interim, the ebb tide r 11 flied through it 
with amazing inipetuofity, carrying the fliip about a 
I qiiaitcr of a mile from the reefj and Ihe foon reached 
the dilhiice of near two milcji, by the help of the boats. 
When the ebb tide was fpcnt, the tide of flood again 
drove the yclTel very near the nx-ks, fo that our prolpecl 
I of delhudion was renewed, when we difcovered another 
I opening, and a light breeze fpringing up, wc entered 
it, and were driven thr ugh it, with a rapidity that pre- 
vented the fliip from llriking againft cither lidc of the 
cliannel. 'I'hc lliip uosv; came to an anchor, and our 
crew were grateful for h,\\inyr regained a ftation, w hich 
they had been very lately moll anxious to quit. The 
name of Providence Channel was given to the opening 
through which the fliip had thus efcapcd the moft im- 
minent dangers. A high promontory on the main land 
No. 8. • J - 

in light, was dennininated Cape Weymmitli, aiut a Imv 
near it Weymouth Hay. This day the boats went ditt 
to li(h, and met with great liicetfs, partuuiarly in 
catching cockles, fomc of which were of (iiih an ama- 
zing lizc, as to require the llrenglhof twomcn to move 
them. Mr. Hanks likcwife fueceeded in his fearth for 
rare fhclls, and different kinds of coral. 

On the I Xth, we difcovered feveral fiuall iflands, i\ liieli 
were callcil Forbcs's Iflands, ami h.iil a fight ol a hij^li 
point of land on the main, which was named the Hcilr 
hlead. On the 19th, we difcovered feveial other linall 
iflands, the land of which was low, barren, and lluuly. 
A point was fcen, and called Cape (I'renvilie, anil a bay 
w hich took the name of Temple IJay . In the alterndon 
many other iflands were fcen, which were denoniinated 
Bird Illcs, from their being frequented by niimeroiis 
flocks of birds. On the 20th many more (iiiail illaiiils 
were fcen, on one of which were a tew trees, and 
feveral Indian huts, fuppofed to have been erected by 
the natives of the main land, as temporary habitations 
iluringtheirvilit to thefc iflands. On the 21 II v,e failed 
through a channel, in which was a number ol I!, onlsj 
and gave the name of York Cape to a point of the 
main land which forms thclidcot thechaniul. A iart^c 
bay is formed to the fouth of the cape, wJMih i.a:? 
called Newcaflle Bay, and in which are IcvenI litilo 
iflands; on the north-liiie of the cape the land is ratlier 
mountainous, but the low parrs of the country abound 
with trccsj the illands difcovered in the morning of this 
elay, were called York Illes, In the afternoon ue an- 
chored between fonw illamls, and obferved, that the 
channel now began to grow wider ; we peiveived two 
diflaiit points, between w hich no land could he lien, fo 
that the hope of having at length cx])l()red a pallaj^o 
into the Indian Sea, began to animate every brcafl j but, 
to bring the matter to a certainty, the captain took a 
uarty, and being accompanied by lyicUVs. Solander and 
Banks, they landed on an ifland, on which they had 
fcen a number of Indians, ten of wlioin were on a hill, 
one of them carry'ing a bow and a bundle of arrows, 
the reft armed w ith lances ; and round the necks of two 
of them hung ftrings of mother of pearl, 'i'hrec of 
thefc Indians Itood on fliore, as if tooppofe the landing, but they retired before it reached the beach. 
The captain and higconipany now afccnded a hill, from 
whence they had a view of near forty miles, in which 
fpacc there was nothing that threatened to oppofe their 
pafllige, fo that the certainty of a i haniiel llen^cd to bi: 
almolt indubitable. Previous to their leaving the illand, 
Capt. Cook difplayed the b'.nglilh colours, and took pof- 
felnon of all the eallern coal! of the country, from the 
{8th dcg. of S. latitude to the prefent fpor, bv the name 
of New South Wales, for his fovereign the King of 
Great Britain ; and three volleys of fmall arms being 
fired, and anfwercd by an. equal number from the Mn- 
deavmir, the place received the name of Poflellion 
Ifland. The next morning we faw three naked women 
collecting fliell-lilhon the beach ; and weighinganchor, 
gave the name of Cape Cornwall to theextieme point 
of the largeft ifland on the north-wefl fide of the paf- 
fagc : fomc low iflands near the middle of the channel 
receiving the name of Wallis's Iflc ; foon after which 
the fliip came to an anchor, and the long-boat was fcnc 
out to (bund. Towards evening wc failed again, and 
the captain landed with Mr. Banks, on a fmall iflaiui 
which was frequented by immcnfc numbers of birds, 
the majority of which being boobies, the place received 
the name of Booby Illand. Wc were now advanced to 
the northern extremity of New Holhuid, and had the 
fatisfaclion of viewing the open fea to the wclhvard. 
The N. E'.. entrance ot the palfage is formed by the main 
land of New Holland, and by a nuinberof iflands, which 
took the name of the Prince of Walcs'j Iflands, and 
which Capt, Cook imagines may reach to New Guinea ; 
thefc iflands abound with trees and grafs, and were 
known to be inhabited, from the finokc that was Iceii 
afccnding in many places. 

To the paflagc wc had failed through, Capt. Cook 

gave the name of Endeavour Streights. New South 

Wales is a much larger country than any hitherto 

S - known-, 






known, and not dccmcil a continent, being lar^^rr than 
all Kuropc, which is proved by the Hndestvour's having 
courted more than aooo miles, even if her tradt were re- 
duced to a Orait line. Northward of the latitude of J3 
dcg. the country is hiljy, yet not mountainous ■ but to 
the fotithward of thiit latitude, it is moHly low and even 
ground. The hill* in general arc diverlificd by lawn* 
and woods, and many of the valley* abound with her- 
bage, though, on the whole, it cannot be deemed a 
fertile country. To the northward the grafs is not fo 
rich, nor the trees fo high as in the fouthcrn jwrts, and 
almoft every where, even the largeft trees grow at a 
diftance (»f not Ufs than thirteen yard* afundcr. In all 
thcfc places where the land forms a bay, the fliorc i« 
covered with mangroves, that grow about a mile in land, 
in a fwampy ground, which the fpring tides always 
overllow, in (omc parts there are nogs, covered with 
thick grafs, and plenty of under-wood in the valleys ; 
the foil in general feeins unfit for cultivation, though 
there are many fpots where the arts of tillage might be 
attended with fuccefs. There are feveral fait creeks, 
running in many diredions through the country, where 
there are alfo brooks of freth water, but there are no ri- 
vers of any conliderable extent; yet it fecmed to be well 
watered, as the time when the Ihip was on the coart, 
was reckoned the drieft feafon of the year. The gum- 
tree which yields a rcfin like the dragons blood. Here 
arc three kinds of palm-trees, two of which are found 
only in the northern dillrid. Nuts fomcwhat refcmb- 
ling ( hifnuts are produced by one of thefe, which were 
fiippoied to be i-aiable, yet fome of thcfeamen having 
made free with them were taken very ill ; two of whom 
died within a week, and it was not without dirticulty 
that the third was recovered. The fecond fort of palm 
is much like the Weft Indian cabbage-tree, which 
yields a c.ibKi<;e of an agreeable tafte. The third fort 
abounds in the louthern j)art, and produces a fmall cab- 
bage of .1 \vr\ af^reeable Havour, with many nuts, which 
fiirnidi food for hogs. There is likewife a tree on 
w hich grow s a purple apple tiiat taftes like a damofcene, 
as we have bet()ie obferve.l. lielides thefe there is a 
fig-trec, producing ligs, but not of the fineft fort, and 
they have another w hich bears a fort of plumb that is 
Hat on the fkks like a cheefe. A plant was found here, 
the leave.'- of \\hi(h were like thole of thtf bulnifli; it 
yields a bright ytllow relin, that refembles gumboiige, 
but ddis not llain — it had a very agreeable mull. VN'e 
fiuinil two forts of yams, the one round and covered with 
lliin!:;y filnes, the other in lliape like a radilh; both of 
w hit hi are ol a pleafant tafte. A fruit of a difagreeable 
flavour was tiimiil, in ftiape refembling a pine-apple; 
and another that was much like a cherry, but had a fott 
kernel. The country produces purftain and w ild jjarfty. 
We f.\w here, belides the beaft already mentioned, one 
that was calletl a tiuall, the belly ol' this animal was 
•♦^uitc white, its back was brown with white fpots ; and 
it was like a pole-cat. Vaft nunibers of beautiful pi- 
geons w lie obli.r\ cvl, and the feanien ftiot many of them, 
.Tlloea;;les, hawks, cranes, herons, buftards, crows, par- 
rots, p.iniwiuct-, cockatoos, and fome other birds of line 
pluniaf;e, belides quails and doves. 

In tiiis I (nintr\' there arc but few infeds, and the ants 
•niid niiifi]iiitos arc the chief anv 'g them. There are 
f()iir kinds of the tiirmer which dewrvc particular notice. 
Tlic iiril oi'thife arc entirely green, and live on trees, 
where they build their ncfts in a \cry curious manner, 
bending down the leaves, and gluingthem together with 
an animal June, fuppofed to proceed from their own 
boilic. While fenral of thefe animals were bulled in 
thi.-< employ, thoiifands were joined to keep the leaf in 
its proper lituation, w hich, when they were difturbed in 
their work. Hew bai k with a force that any one would 
have miagined to be fuperior to their united ftrength ; 
at the fame lime they avenged themfelves by feverely 
■flinging their difturbcrs. The fecond fpccies of ants 
here are black, and live in the infidc of the branches, 
after they have w orked out the pith. The third fort 
lodged themfelves in the root of a plant that twines 
round the trunks of other trees. This they made hol- 
low', and cut into a great number of pafliiges that ran 

acrofs each other, yet there was no ap|)«irance of the 
plants having been injured. They arc not above half 
the li/e of the reil ants of this country. A* to the fourth 
fort they are like the I<'.aft-Indian white ants, and liail 
one fort of neft* a* big as a half-peck lo.if which hunj^ 
from the Iwughsof trees, and weiecompofed of feveral 
minute parts of vegetables, which a|5peared to In: (link 
together by the glutinous juice before mentioned. 
There was a communication between the cells, and 
pallages to other nefts upon the fame tree ; they h.ul 
alio a hollow covered palFagc to another neft on the 
ground, at the root of a dillcrent tree. The height of 
the ground-nell . was found' to be about lix feet, ati<l 
the breadth nearly the fame : and theoutlide was plail- 
tered with clay almoft two inches thick. Thefe hail a liih- 
tcrraneous pafliige leading to the roots of the trees near 
which they were conftructed, from whence thefe cna- 
tures afcended the trunk and branches by coven-d wavs, 
calculated for the piir|X)fe. It was concludixl, that the 
ants reforted to thefe ground-nells during the wet fe.i- 
fon, as they were water proof. 

Variety of lifti is fupplied by the feas in thefe part<, 
among which arc mullets, cray-lifh and crabs. U[)i -i 
the ftioals are found the rock, pearl, and <«her oyftei ,, 
as well as the jiioft delicate green turtle, bcfules thofc 
enormous c<Kklcs which have been alreaily mentioned. 
Alligators are found in the rivers and fait ireek i. 'ihe 
country does not appear to lie inh.ibiti-d by nuitibers any 
way proportioned to its great extent j not above thirty 
lK'in|; ever fcen tO)»ether but once, which was when 
thole of l)oth fexes and all ages got together on a iHKk 
olf IJotany Ikiy, to view the lliip. None of their vil- 
lages conlilled of more huts than would aftbal Ihcller 
for fourteen or fifteen men, and thefe were the largeft 
numbers that were aflemblcd with a view to attack us. 
No part of the country appeared to be cultivated, 
whence there muft nccellarily be fewer inhabitants on 
the inland parts than on thefea-coaft. The men are 
well made, of the middle fize, and adive, in a high 
degree; but their voices are loft, even to effeminacy. 
Their cokiur isihocolate; but they were fo covered 
with dirt, as to look almoft as black as negroes. Their 
hair is naturally long and black, but they commonly 
cropjKd it (hort; in fome few inftances it is llightly 
curled, but in common quite ftrait; it is always matted 
with dirt, yet w holly tree from lice ; their lieards are 
thick and bulhy, but kept Ihort by lingcing. The wd- 
men were fcen only at a iliftaiice, as the men con- 
ft.intly left them behind when they croHed the river. 
The chief ornament of thefe people is the bone that is 
thruft through the m>fe, which the failors whimlically 
called their fprit-lail yard ; but belides this they wore 
necklaces formed of Ihells, a fmdl cord tied twice or 
thrice round the arm between the elbow and ftioulder, 
and a firing of plaited human hair round the waill. 
.Some few of them had an ornament of Ihells hangin;; 
acrofs the breaft. Belides thefe ornaments they painted 
their bodies and limbs white and red, in ftripes of dif- 
ferent dimenlions ; and they hail a ciri le of white 
round each eye, and fjx)ts of it on the face. Then- 
ears were bored, but they did not wear ear-rings. Thev 
accepted whatever was given them, but feemed to 
have no idea of making an adequate return ; and they 
would not part with their ornaments for any thing that 
was oftered in exchange; Their U)dies were marked 
with fears, which they lignified were in remembrance 
of the deceafed. Their huts were built with fmall rods, 
the two ends of which \vere fixed into the ground, lb as 
to form the figure of tin oven j they arc covered with 
pieces of bark and palm-leaves. The door of this 
building, which is only high enough to lit upright in, 
is opj)olite to the lire-pla':es. 'i'hey fleep with their 
heels turned up towarils their heads; and even in this 
ixifturc the hut will not lu'd more than four people. 
In the northern parts, where th.t; weather was warmer, 
one fide of the houfes was left open, and the other op- 
pofed to vthatevei- wind might blow at the time there ; 
huts were only built lor temporary ufe, and left behind 
when they removed to other parts of the countrv ; but 
if their ftay Was only for a night or two, they fiad no 




COOK'i FIRST VOYAOE— for inakinp Difcovtrift in ilic South Seas & Round the H'o>U. 7 1 

II I -- — — . -^- — —.— .—^^^.t^ .^.^-^^ ^ — 

other protcvUon Iroin the wiathcr thiin the grafii 
ami biilhc.1 nllordcd. While the hut« on the main land 
were turned from the wind, thofe on the illandu were 
towanh it : a kind of proof that they vilit the ifliind» 
in line weather, and enjoy the relirlhing bree/c while 
they flept, Thcfc huts are fiirnilhcd with a kind of 
biiekct for fetching watt r, made of an oblong pieie of 
bark tieil up at each end with the twig of a tree ; and 
this is the only furniture of the houlr. On their backs 
they have a kind of bag, of the li'.e and form of a 
cabbage-net, in which tnry carry rheir lilh-hooks and 
lines, of the Ihells of w hii h they ;inkc thefe hooks 1 
the ornaments which they wear eontift oi' lome |ioints 
of darts, and two or three bits of paint; and in this 
narrow coinpafs lie all their richis. They feed on the 
kangiir(x», anil feveral kinds of birds when they can 
catch them ; they likewife eat yams, and various kinds 
of fruit J but the principal article of their exiftence is 
lilli. 'I'hey were frequently obferved with the leaves 
of a tree in their mouths, but whether it had the qua- 
lities of either tobacco or beetle could not be known ; 
but it was obferved not to dilcolour the teeth or lips. 

From the notches that were fecn in a great number 
of trees, for the purpofe of climbing them, it was 
imagined that their meth d of taking the kangiiroo, 
(vns by (hiking it M'ith clieir lances as it palfed under the 
tree. In tiiefe likewile, it is probable, that they took 
birds, while they were roofting, as they fecmed too 
(liy to be othcrw ife catched. I'heir method of pro- 
ducing lire, and extending the flames of it, is very fin- 
gular : having wrought one end of a (lick into an ob- 
tiife point, they place this point upon a piece of dry 
wood, and turning the upright (lick very faft back- 
ward anil (orward between their hands, (ire is foon pro- 
duced, nor is it cncreafed with Icfs celerity. One of 
the natives was frei)uently obferved to run along the 
fea coall, leaving (ire in various places. The method 
taken to do this was as ti>llow's : before he fet off, he 
wrapped up a little (park of (ire in dry grafs, and the 
quicknefs of his motion foon fanning it into a (lame, 
he then placed it on the ground, and jMitting a fparkof 
it in another bit of grafs ran on again, and incrcafed 
the number of his (ires at picafure. 'Ihefc (ires were 
fupi'ofi'd to be intended for the taking of the kangu- 
roo, as that animal was fo very lliy oJ (ire, that when 
purfued by the dogs, it would not ciols places which 
had been newly burnt, even when the (ire was extin- 

The natives of New South Wales make ufe of fpcars 
or lances, but thcfe are ver,- di(fcrently conflructed : 
thofe that were fecn in the fouthern parts of the coun- 
try had (our i)rongs, jHnnted with Iwne, and barbed, 
and the points were rubbed with a kind of wax, the 
fiivwthnefs of w liich made an ealier paflage into what 
was ftruck by them. On the contrary, the lances in 
the northern parts have only one point; the lliafts of 
them are of dilftrent lengths, from eight to fourteen 
feet, arc made of the ftalk of a plant not unlike a bul- 
rufli, and coniKh of feveral joints let into each other, 
and tied together. The points of thefe lances are fome- 
times made of (i(li-l>one, and fometimes of a hard 
heavy wood ; they are barbed with other pieces of wood 
or (lone, li) that w hen they have entered any depth iii 
the body, they cannot be draw n out w ithout tearing the 
flefli in a (hocking manner, or leaving fplinters behind 
them. When the natives intend to wound at a confi- 
dcrablc dilhncc, they difchargc this inlVrument w ith a 
throwing (lick, but if the objed be near them, it is 
thrown from the hand only. The throwinp-ftick is a 
peace of fmooth, hard, red wooil, half an inch thick, 
two inches broad, and .ibout three feet in length, hav- 
ing a crofs piece near four inches long at one end, and 
a fmall knob at the other. A fmall hollow isinade in 
the (liaft of the lanre, near the jioint, and in this hol- 
l6w the knob is received, but, on being forced forward, 
it will ealily flip from it. The lance being placed on 
this thtxjwing-rtick, the Indian holds it over his 
fhoulder, fliakcs it, and then throws both lance and 
ftick with f>is utmoft power ; but as the. crofs-piccc 
ftrikc* the Ihouldcr the fuddcn jerk ftops the ftick. 

while the lame is driven (<)rwaiil witli .ima/ing rapi- 
dity, and i( generally fo well aimed, that a mark ut 
the didancc of (ifty yards is moic certainly (Iruck with 
it than by a bullet from a gun. 'I'helc people niakL,- 
ufe of Ihields madeof the bark of trees, ol nlmut eigh- 
teen inches brirnd, and three tret long. Many trcei 
were feen from whence the bark had been taken, and 
others on which the IliiehU weiv cut out but not taken 
away. In the northern parts of this (, the r.i- 
noesare formed by hollowing the trunk 01 a rice, ani 
it was conieClured, that this opinition mull have been 
per(f)rmcd by (ire, as the natives did not to have 
any inflruments proper for the purpofe. I'lie canoe* 
are in length about fourteen feet, and fo narrow, that 
they wolild be frequently ovcrfet, but that ihcy arepro^ 
vidcd w ith an out-rigger. The natives row tnem with 
paddles, uling both hands in that enipivninent. The 
canoes in the (ijiithern |)arts are (iirmed only of a piece 
of bark (iuir yards long, (iillenid together at each end, 
and the middle kept open by piects of wool, palFing 
from lide to lide. In deep water thefe arc rowed by 
paddles, of about a f<K)t and a half in length, the 
rower having one in each hand, but in (hallow water 
they are pullied forward by means of a long (lick. As 
thefe velllls are extremely light, and draw very little 
water, the Indians nin them on the mud banks in fearch 
of lliell-(ilh. Come of which, it is probable, they broil 
and eat as foon as they are taken, as it was remarked 
that in the centre of thcfc vellels there was ufu.illy a 
fire burning on a quant it) of fea-weed. 'I'hc natives 
have no tools but a wooden mallet, a kind of wedge, 
and an ad/.-", madeof (lone, with (bme pieces ot' coral 
and (liclls, which may pollibly he applied to the pur- 
pofcs of cutting. 'I'hey polifli the points of their 
lances, and their throw ing-(licks, with the leaves of a 
tree that appears to be the w ild fig, which bites w ith a 
fliarpncfs, almod equal to that of a rafp. Four peo- 
ple are the greated number that a conoe will contain : 
and when more than this number were to pafs a river, 
three were landed out of the lirll freight, and one man 
went back for the re(l. 

The following may ferve as a fpecimcn of their lan- 


Kya & ba, 
Nakil, ' 

t I 

the anils. 
To \im<ii. 
A man. 
The mfi: 
I0 eat. 
To drink. 
A dog. 
Tbr brenfl. 
The neck. 
A father. 
The tbuml/S, 

The craivn of the bead. 
1 bat or this. 
the rye-lrmvs. 
The Itlly. 
Ihe Jky. 
The nails. 

To go. I 

The twids. 
The eyes. 

The ears. v . . 

To dance. • , ■ ' 

The back. 
The throat. 
The hair of the bead, 
A "woman. 
The teeth. 
The little Jinger. . 
The legs. 
The forehead. 




m ■^' 

New Holland. 





Thf knees. 




A turtle, 


The chin. 

A, or the. 

7he bole mnde in the mjlrihfir 

the bone ormvnent. 
Sit Jou'H. 
A fun. 
The tongue. 

New England. 
Walloo, - 


the head. 
' The temples. 
The beard, 
A butterfly. 
The clouds. 
The lips. 

Though it appcircd evident, that the natives ot 
thcfc iflands waged war with each other, by the wca- 
jMjns they pofll-Hcd, yet not a wound received from 
their enemies appeared on any part of their bodies. 



fhe Endeavour continues her i-osage from Sotiih Wales lo Nnv Cuwra — ihi account of incidents upon landing there — T/,/ 
proceeds frain Xiiv Guinea to the ifland of Savu — Tranfiu'/inns at this ijle — Its produce and inhabitmi/s, ivilb ajpccimcn n; 
their language — Run from Savu lo Batavia — Tranfaltions while the Endeavour ivas refitting at this place. 

ON the 23d of Auguft, 1770, in the afternoon, after 
leaving Booby land, we had light airs till live 
o'clock, when it fell calm, and we came to an anchor 
in eight fathom water, withafoft fandy hottrtiu. On 
Friday, the 24th, foon after the anchor was weighed, 
we got under fail, llecring N. W. and in a few hours 
one of the Iwats a-head made the fignal for Ihoal-wa- 
tcr. We inllanrly brought the (hip to, with all her 
fails (landing, and a furvcy being taken of the fca 
around her, it was found that flie had met with ano- 
ther narrow cfcapc, as flie was almoftcncompalled with 
Ihoals, and was likewife fo fituatcd between them, that 
Ihc mud have Uruck before the boat's crew had made 
the iignal, if (he had betn half the length of a cable 
cm cither fide. In the afternoon we nude fail xvith the 
rbbiide, and got out of danger before fun-fet, when 
we brought to tor the night. 

On Sunday, (he 2fith, it was the Captain'.; intcn- 
liontoftcir N. \V. but having with thofc llioals, 
vo altcicd our courl'c, and loon got into deep water. 
On the 27th wc purfued our \o\age, (horteninu; fail at 
night, ami tacking till day-briak of the 2Stli, when 
wc IK-Licd iluc N. in fcarch of New Guinea. At this 
time our iatituiic by obfeivation was X ileg. 52 inin. 
S. We here obfcrNcd manv parts of the fea co- 
^ercd with a kind of brown fcitin, to which our tai- 
lors gave the name of fpaun. It is formed of an in- 
crciiiblc number of minute particles, each of which, 
\\ hen teen through the microfcope, was found to con- 
lill. oi' a conliderabic number of tubes, and thefe tubes 
Were fuL-.JiviJi-d into little cells. The fcum being 
burnt, and vickling no limii like what is produced by 
animal (iiblhwiccs, wc concluded it was of the vege- 
table kind. This has often been lien on the coalt of 
Hra/.il, and generally makes its ap|K-arance near the 
lind. A bird called the Nodily was found this even- 
ing among the rigging of the (liip. l.-»nd having been 
this day dit'covered tiom the mall head, we Hood oil' 
and on all night, and at day-break we failed towards it 
with a brilk gale. Between lix and fevcn in the morn- 
ings c had light ofa fmall low illand, at about a league 
from the main, in latitudes deg. i} min, S. and 
in longitude 221 deg. 25 min. W. and it has already 
liccn ilillinguillicd by the names of Bartholomew and 
Whcrnio.l'cn. It ai>pearcd a ver\- level illand, clothed 
wuh trees, an\ong which is the cocoa-nut; and we 
judged it to bi.- inhabited by the fmoke of the lires 
which were teen in ditlerent ()arts of it. The boats 
wcie now fcnt out to Ibimd, as the water was Iballow ; 
but as the (liip, in failing two leagues, had found no 
incrcafe in its d^pih, lignais were made for the boats 
to- return on boanl. We then (lood out to fea till mid- 
night, tacked, and Ho hI in for land till the morning. 

Oil Thurfday, the jotli, when alwut four leagues 

dillant, we had tight of it, and its appearance was 

I ,• . ■ . . 

t^ill flat and woody. Abundance of the brown (cum 
was IHII f\:cn on the furfiice of the fea, and the failoi ., 
convinced that it was not ("pawn, gave it the whimtirn' 
name of fea-faw-dull:. \Vc now held a northward 
courfe, fcarcely within light of land, anil as the wa- 
ter was but iuft deep enough to navigate the velli', 
many unfurcefsful attempts were maile to bring her 
near enough to get on Ihorc ; it was therefore deter- 
mined to land in one of the boats, while the (liip kept 
plying oHand on. In confcqiicnce of this refoliition. 

On Momlay, Sept. the {d, Capt. took, Mr. Banks, 
and Dr. Solander, attended by the boat's crew, and Mr. 
Banks's I'crvant, fer olf from the thip in the pinnace, 
being in all twelve peifons well armed. We rowed di- 
recth to the Ihore, but when come within two hundred 
yards of it, wc found the water fo (liallow, that wc 
were obliged to leave the boat, in the care of two of the 
failors, and wade to land. We hail no fooner reached 
the thore, than we faw fcveral prints of human feeC 
on the (and, below higii water mark, from whence it 
was evident, that the natives had been there. Wc 
concluded they could be at no great dillancc, and as a 
thick wtxjil came ilown within a hundred yards of the 
water, we proceeded with caution, that our retreat to 
the lx)at might not be cut oil". We walked by the fide 
of the wixxl, and came to a grove of coco.i-nut trees, 
not far from which was a llietl, or hut, which had 
been covered with leaves, and near it lay a number of 
frefh ihellsof the fruit. At a fmail dillancc from this 
place we found plantains; and having now ;;:tvancrd 
abiHit a quarter of a mile fioin the boat, three Indians 
milled out ol' the wool \' jth a liivleous thout, .it about 
the dirtance of a hundred yards ; and as ihey ran to- 
wards us, the tiircmoll throw fomcthiiig riut ot hi.: 
hand, which Hew on one tide ol him, and burnt ex- 
actly like gun- powder, but made i.o report; and thi^ 
other two threw their lances at us. No time was to be 
loll ; wc difchargcd our pieies, loaded w itl\ fiiiail thor 
oniv ; which we imagine they did not feel ; for, with- 
out retreating, they call a third dart . we tlicrelbro now 
loaded with ball, and (ireil a fecon.l tinu-. It is pro- 
babie fome ol' them were wounded, as thcs- all look to 
their heels with great agilitv. U'e improved this in- 
terval, in which the detlriiCtion of the natives was ii.> 
longer nccellliry to our own delence, and with all ex- 
pedition returned to our boat, in the way we per- 
ceived Iignal > on board, that more Indiajis were coming 
down in a body ; and bctoie we got into the water, wc 
perceived fe\eial of them coming round a point at the 
didance of alxxit live hiuidicd yards. When they faw \n 
the)- halted, and fceiucd to wait till their main bixly 
lliould join them. They continued in this llation, with- 
out giving Us any interuiption, while wecnirrcd the wa- 
ter, and waded tou.ird tlic boat. Wc now took a view 
of thciii .tt uiukil'uie. Thc\- ir.adc much the fame ap? 
,1 , .-. pearancc 

cook's first voyage — for making Difcoveries in the South Seas & Round the World, 73 

lat the natives ot 
other, by the wca- 
md received from 
of their bodies. 

liiiiMii^ it.h'rr — .T/.r 
f, -.vilb iijpccimoi /,• 

>f the brown fctitn 
b, and the iailoi .. 
e it the Avhini(ir;il 
licld a northwaiil 
, anil as the \\:i- 
avipatc the velK!, 
laiie to brinj^ her 
as therefore (letcr- 
ihile the (liip kept 
jfthis refohition. 
Conk, Mr. Bank.s's crew, and Mr. 
ip in the pinnai'e, 
\. We rowed di- 
ithin two hundred 
flialIo«, that wc 
carcof twoof the 
no fooner reached 
Its of human feeC 
k, from whenre it 
been tliere. We 
dilhancc, and as a 
dred jards of the 
that our retreat to 
talked by the fide 
f cocoa-nut trees, 
r hut, which hail 
t lay a number ol 
ihlh-iMCc from this 
nj^ MOW ;;:Uancrd 
iiat, thri-c Indians 
IS fluHit, .It about 
id as vliey ran to- 
■thing out of hi: 
11, and burnt ex.- 
report ; and th." 
io time was to \\f 
d with fn;all Ihoi 
; feel ; for, with- 
\ve thcrefiiro now 
time. It is pro~ 
s ihes' all took to 
niproved this m- 
le nati'.es was im 
and witli all ex- 
the way we per- 
iaiis were coming 
Uo the water, we 
nd a point at the 
>Vhen tluy iaw us 
their main body 
his Ihition, with- 
eenrcicd thcwa- 
now took a view 
uth the famcapr 

pcarance as the New Hollanders, being nearly of the 
fame ftature, and having their hair fliort cropped. 
They were alfo like them ftark naked. During this 
time they were fliouting at a.diftancc, and letting off 
their fires, which fecmed to be difcharged by a fliort 
piece of ftick, probably a hollow cane, t'lis being fwung 
fideways, produced fire and fmoke like that occafioned 
by a niufquet. The crew on board the fliip faw this 
flrange appearance, and thought the natives had fire 
arms. Thofc w ho went out in the boat, and had rowed 
a bread of them, fired fome mufquets above their 
heads, the balls of which being heard by the natives 
rattling among the trees, they retired very deliberately, 
and our people in the boat returned to the fliip. Upon 
examining the lances that had been thrown at us, we 
found they were made of a reed, or bamboo cane, the 
points of which were of hard wood, and barbed i.. 
many places. They were light, ill made, and about 
four feet long. Such was the force with which they 
were difcharged, that they went beyond us," though we 
were at fixty yards diftance, but in what manner they 
were difcharged we could not determine ; probably they 
might be thrown with a ftick, in the manner practiced 
by the New Hollanders. This place is in latitude 6 
dcg. 1 5 min. S. The whole coaft of this country is 
low land, but covered with a luxuriance of wood and 
herbage beyond dcfcription beautiful. The cocoa-nut, 
bread-fruit, and plantain tree, all fiouriflied here in the 
highell perfecHon, belides molt of the trees, (lirubs, 
and plants, that are common to the South Sea iflands. 
This day, Monday, Sept. the 3d, we made fail to the 
weftward, being rcfolved to fpend no more time upon 
this cojil ; but before we got under fail, fome of the 
officers rtiongly urged the Captain to fend a party of 
men on lliorc, to cut down the cocoa-nut trees, for 
the fake of the fruit. This Capt. Cook, with equal 
wifdom and humanity, peremptorily rcfufed, as unjuft 
and cruel ; fenfible that the poor Indians, who could 
not brook even the landing of a fmall party on their 
coaft, would have made a vigorous eftbrt to defend 
their property had it been invaded; confequently many 
mull have fallen a facrificc on their fide, and perhaps 
fome our own people. " I ftiould, (fays Capt. Cook) 
have regretted the necelTity of fuch a meafure, if I 
had been in want of the necellaries of life; and cer- 
tainly it would have been highly criminal when nothing 
vas to be obtained but two or three hundred green 
ccKoa-nuts ; which would at moll have procured us a 
mere tranlient f.natification. I might indeed have pro- 
cctdeii farther alon^ the coaft to the northward, or 
weftward, in fearch of a place where the fliip might 
have lain fo near the ftiore, as to cover the [leople w ith 
iier guns when they landed; but this would have ob- 
viated only part of the mifchief, and though it might 
have fecured us, it would probably in the very ad have 
been fatal to the natives. Befides, we had reafon to 
think that before fuch a place could have been found, 
we Ihould have bci n carried fo far to the weftw.ud as 
to have been obliged to go to Baiavia, on the north 
iide of Java, through the ftreights of Sunday : the 
iiiip alio was lb \ery leaky that 1 doubted whether it 
would not be necellary to heave her down at Ijatavia, 
which wa^ another reaibii for making the bell of our 
way to that place, efpecially as no difcoveries could be 
expected in (eas which had already been navigated, and 
where every coaft had been laid down by the Dutch 

On Saturday the 8th, we palTed too fmall iflands, on 
one of which Capt. Cook would have landed, but hav- 
ing only ten fathom water, the ground being alfo rockv, 
and the wind blow ing frelh, we might have endangered 
the fafety of the fliip. We now lailed at a moderate 
rate till next morning at three o'clock ; after which we 
had no ground w ith 1 20 fathoms. Before noon we 
Jiad fight of land, which was conjedured to be either 
the Arrou Iflands, or Timor Laoet. We were now in 
lititude 9 d'.g. 37 min. S. and in longitude 233 deg. 
54 min. W, We flood oft' and on during the night, 
and on Wedncfday the \ 2tli, wc law a ntuiiber of Hits 
and fmoke in feveial places, from wIkhlc ii was con- 
No. 5. 

jedlurcd that the place was well peopled. The land 
near the fhore was covered with high trees, not unlike 
pines; farther back were cocoa-trees and mangroves s. 
there were many falt-watcr creeks, and fcveral fpots of. 
ground which appeared to have been cleared by art j . 
and the whole country rofc, by gradual flopes, into hilU 
of a very confiderable height. The land and fea 
breezes being now very flight, wc continued in light of 
the ifland for two days," when it was obferved that the 
hills reached in many places quite to the fea-coaft, and 
where that was not the cafe, there were large and noble 
groves of the cocoa-nut tree, which ran about a mile 
up the country, at which diftance great numbers of 
houfes and plantations were feen ; the plantations were 
furroundcd with fences, and extended nearly to the 
fuminits of the moft lofty hills, yet neither the natives 
nor cattle were feen on any of them, which was 
thought a very extraordinary circumftance. Fine groves 
of the fan palm fliadcd the houfes from the rays of the 

On the 1 6th, wc had fight of the little ifland called 
Rottc ; and the fame day faw the ifland Semau, at a 
diftance to the fouthward of Timor. The ifland of 
Rotte is chiefly covered with bufliy wood without leaves ; 
but there are s number of fan palm trees on it, grow- 
ing near the landy beaches ; and the whole confifts of 
alternate hills and valleys. " c ifland of Semau is not 
fo hilly as Timor, but refeinbles it greatly in other re- 
fpects. At ten o'clock this night a dull reddifli light 
was feen in the air, many parts of which emitted rays 
of a brighter colour, which fixin vaniflied and were 
fucceeded by others of the fame kind. This phccno- 
menon, which reached about ten degrees above the 
horizon, bore a confiderable refemblance to the Aurora 
Borealis, only that the rays of light which it emitted 
had no tremulous motion: it was furveyed for two 
hours, during which time its brightnefs continued un- 
diminiflied. As the iiiip was now clear of all the 
iflands which had been laid down in fuch maps as 
were on board, we made fail during the night, and 
were furprifed the next morning at the fight of an 
illand to the W. S. W. which wc flattered ourfelvcs 
was a new difcovery. Before noon wc had light of 
houfes, groves of cocoa-nut trees, and large flocks of 
llicep. This was a welcome fight to people whofc 
health was declining for want of rcfrefliment, and it 
was inftantly refolved to attempt the purchafe of what 
weftood fo much in need of. The fecond licutenanc 
was immediately difpatched in the pinnace, in fearch 
of a landing-place ; and he took with him fuch things 

as it was thought might be acceptable to the natives 

During Mr. Gore's abfence, the people on board faw 
two men on horfeback upon the hills, who frequently 
ftopped to take a view of the veffel. The lieutenant 
fooii returned with an account that he had entered a 
little cove, near which ftood a few houfes ; that fcveral 
men advanced and invited him to land; and that they 
converfed together fo well as they could by ligns. He 
reported that thefe people were very like the Malays, 
both in perfon and drefs ; and faid they had no other 
arms but a knife which each of them wore in his girdle. 

The lieutenant not being able to find any place in 
wliich the Ihip might come to anchor, he was difpatch- 
ed again with money and goods to buy fuch neceffa- 
ries as were immediately wanted for the (ick. Dr. 
Sola.ider attended the lieutenant, and during their ab- 
feiice, the fliip ftood on and otf the fliore. Soon after 
the boat had put otf, two other horfemen were 'i<:<M. 
from the fliip, one of whom had a laced hat on, and 
was drefled in a coat and waiflcoat, of the fafliion of 
Kurope. Thefc men rode about on fhorc taking little 
notice of the boat, but regarding the fliip with the ut- 
inoft attention. As Ibon as the boat reached the fliore, 
fome other perfons on horfeback, and many on foot 
hallened to the fpot, and it was obferved that fome co- 
coa-nuts were put into the boat, from whence it was 
concluded, that a tratTick had commenced with the na- 
tives. A lignal being made from the boat that the 
fliip might anchor in a bay at fome diftance, flic im- 
mediately bore away for it. When the lieutenant came 
T oa 





■vi, '% 

Onboard, he reported, that he could not purchafc any 
cocoa-nuts, as the o\\ ner of them was abfcnt, and that 
what he had brought were given him, in return for 
^hich he had preflld the natives with fome linen. The 
method by which he learned that there was a harbour 
ih the neighbourhood, was by the natives drawing a 
kind of rude map on the fand, in which the harbour, 
and a town near it, was rcprcfented; it was likcwife 
hinted to hii.;, that fruit, fowis,'hogs, and fhcep might 
be there obtained in great abundance. He faw fcvcral 
of the principal inhabitants of the ifland, who had 
chains of gold about their necks, and wore fine linen. 
The word Portugucfc being frequently repeated by the 
Indians, it was conjechired that fome natives of Portu- 
gal were in the ifland, and one of the boat's crew being 
of that kingdom, he fpokc to the idandcrs in his own 
language, but foon found that they had only learned a 
few words, of which they did not know the meaning. 
While the natives were endeavouring to reprcfent the 
fituation of the town near the harbour, one of them, in 
order to be more particular in diredions, infomicd the 
Englilh that they would fee fomething which he endea- 
voured to dcfcribe by placing his fingers acrofs each 
other ; and the Portuguefe failor took it for granted, 
that he could mean nothing but a crofs. When the 
boat's crew were on the point of returning to the fliip, 
the giiuleman who had been feen on horfeback in the 
drcis of Europe, came down to the be;',ch ; but '.he 
lieutenant did not think it proper to hold a coufcrfnce 
with him, becaufc he had left his commidionon board 
the fliip. 

When the fliip had entered the bay, in the evening, 
according to thi- diredions received, an Indian town 
was feen at a difbnce; upon which a jack was hoillcd 
on the fore-top-m i(t head, prefently afterwards three 
guns were fired, and Dutch colours were hoilted in 
the town ; the (hiji, however, held on her way, and 
came to an anchor at fcvcn in the evening. The co- 
lours being feen hoiftc.i on the beach the next morning, 
the captain concluded, that the Dutch had a fettlement 
ontheifi.and, he thcrefoic difpatched the fecond lieu- 
tenant to acquaint the governor, or other principal re- 
fident, who they were, and that the ftup had put in for 
neceflary rcfrelhments. The lieutenant having landed, 
he was received by a kind of guard of fomething more 
than twenty Indians, armed with mufijuets, who after 
tlicy had taken down their colours from the beach, pro- 
ceeded without the leaft militar)- order ; and thus ef- 
cortcd him to the town, where the colours had been 
hoillcd the preceding evening. The lieutenant was 
ROW conducted tc the Raja, or king of the idand, to 
whom, by means of a Portuguefe interpreter, he made 
known his bufinefs. The Raja faid, he was ready to 
fupply the fliip with the ncceflary refreftiments, but that 
hi: ( (ii;ld not trade with any other people than the 
Duti.h, with whom he was in alliance, without having 
fiili obtained their confent ; he atlded, however, that 
he would make application to the I3utch agent, who 
was the only white man among them. To this agent, 
whofe name was Lange, and who proved to be the per- 
lon that was feen from the fliip in the European tirefs, 
a letter was difpatchcd, and in a few hours he came to 
the town, behaved politely to the lieutenant, and told 
him he might buy what bethought projier of the inha- 
bitants of the illand. This oft'er being freely made, and 
readily accepted, the R.aja and Mr. Lange intimateil 
iheir wiflies to go on board the fliip, and that two 
of the boat's crew might be left as hollages for their 
fife return. The lieutenant gratilicil them in both 
thefe reuuefls, and took them on board jull bet<)rc din- 
ner was ferved. It was thought that they would have 
fat down without ceremony ; but now the R:i)a in- 
timated his doubts, whether being a bla^K, th'^y would 
permit him to fit down with them. The politenefsof 
the oflicers foon removed his fcruples, and the grcatefl 
good humour and feflivity prevailed among them. As 
Dr. Solander and another gentleman on lioard, were to- 
lerable proficients in Dutch, they aded as interpreters 
between Mr. I^ange and the olticem, while fome of the 
Uiloji, who uiidcrllooJ Portuguefe, tonverfed with 

I fuch of the Raja's attendants as fpoke that language. 
Our dinner confiftcd chiefly of mutton, which when the 
Raja had tafted, he requeftcd of us an Englifli fliecp, 
and the only one we had left was prcfented to him. 
Our complaifancc in this particular, encouraged the 
king to alk for an Englifli dog, and Mr. Banks politely 
gave him his greyhound. A fpying glafs was alfo put 
into his hand, Mr. Johan Chriftopher Lange having in- 
timated, that fuch a prefent would be very acceptable. 
Our vifitors now informed us, that the ifland abound- 
ed with bufl^aloes, flieep, hogs, and fowls, plenty of 
which fliould be tlrivcn down to the fliore the next day. 
This put us all in high fpirits, and the liquor circu- 
lated r.ather fafl:er than either the Indians or the Saxon 
could bear; but they had, however, the rcfolution to 
exprefs a defire lo depart, before they were quite in- 
toxicated. When they came upon deck, they were re- 
ceived in the fame manner as when they came aboard, 
by the marines under arms ; and the Raja exprclTing a 
delire to fee them excrcife, his curiofity was giatilicd. 
They lircd three rounds. The king ohllrved them 
with great attention, and appeared imich furpri/cd at 
the regularity and expedition of their mand^uvrcs. 
When they cocked ti.jir firelocks he flriick the Mc 
of the fliip with his flick, exclaiming at the fame time 
violently, " that ail the locks made but one click." 
They were difmifled with many prcfeiits, and on their 
departure were falutcd w ith nine guns. Mr. Hanks witli 
Dr. Solander accomjianied them, and when they put 
off returned our compliments with three chcer-i. Our 
gentlemen on their arrival at the town, tailed their 
palm-wine, which was the fri.lh juice of the tree-;, iin- 
fcrmcntcd. It had a fwcct, but not dilii|!;recable talk, 
and hopes were entertained, that it might contribute- 
to recovir our Tick from the fcurvy. The hoi'.!i-s of th? 
natives confilled of only a thatched roof, fuppoited o\tr 
a Iniariled floor, by pillars about four feet high. 

Wcdnefday the lyth, in the morning, Capt. Cook, 
attended by i'everal gentlemen, went on tl.ore to return 
the Raja's vifit; but their principal intention was to pur- 
chafe the cattle and fowls, which they had been aflhred 
the preceding day fltould be driven down to the 
Ix'ach. We were greatly chagrined at finding no Heps 
had been taken to fulfil this promile : however, we pro- 
cevded to the houfe of alFembly, which, w ith a few 
other houfes. built by the Dutch Iv.ifl-Inilia Company, 
are diflinguiflied from the reft, by having two pieces of 
wood, refemblin:^ a pair of cows horns, fixed at each 
ciul of the roof; and thefe we concluded to be what the 
Portuguefe failor conllrued into croflc-s, from the Indian 
having crofled his fingers when he was defcribing the 
town. .At the houfe of aflembl. we faw .Mr. Ijngr 
and the Raja, whofe naiv.e was A Madoiho Lomi Dj;ira, 
fiirrounded by many of the principal people; Capt. Cook 
having intiirmed them, that he had loailed his boat with 
goods, whi( h he willied to exchange tor neccflary R-- 
treflinients, permiflion was given him to land them. 
We now endeavoured to make an agreement for the 
hogs, (liecp, ami buthiloes, v'hi<h were to be paid tiir 
in calh ; but this bulinefs was no lixiner hinted than 
Mr. l.ange tcM;k his leave, having lirll told the i aptain, 
that he had receiveil a letter from the governor ot Con- 
tordia, in Timor, the contents of which flirmlil be dif- 
clofed at his return. ,\s the morning w;is now far ad- 
vanced, and we had no frefli provifions on board, wi- 
reijuelled the Raja's permiflion to buy a fiiiall ho" and 
Ibme rice, and to order liis people to drefs the dinner 
for us. 1 le very obligingly replied, that if we( oiild ca 
vidiials dreflcd by his fiibjeds, which he couUl fiarccly 
iiippofe, he would do himfcH'the honour of enterrain- 
ing us. A dinner being thus picKurcd, the capt.iin fen'. 
oil" his boat to bring liquors from the flap. It wa^ 
"■:..'., about five o'clock, and alter ve were feated on 
mats, which were fprcad on the floor, it was ferved iiv 
fix and thinv bafkeis. We were then conduded bv 
turns to a hole in the floor, near wliich flood a man 
with water in a viflll, made of the leaves of the 
fan-palm, v»ho alTifled us in walhing our hands. Thi. 
done i\e returned to our places and expedcd the king. 
Having waited fome time, we enijuiicd the reafon of hi.> 


COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE — for making Difcoveries in the South Seas & Round the World. 75 

)oke that language. 

on, which when the 

an Englifli fliccp, 

prcfcnted to him. 

ar, encouraged the 

Mr. Banks politely 

; glafs was alfo put 

^r Langc having in- 

3e very acceptable. 

the idand abound- 

i fowls, plenty of 

fliore the next day. 

d the liquor circii- 

dians or the Saxon 

■, the refolution to 

icy were quite in- 

kck, they were re- 

thcy came aboard, 

^ Haja cxj^rclling a 

jfity was ^ratilicd. 

ng oblhved tl'cni 

iiuich fiirprizLd at 

their niaiuruvrcs. 

he nri:ck the lide 

g at the lame time 

ie but one rliek." 

ielits, and on their 

IS. Mr. Hanks wii!i 

nd wlien they put 

hrce cheers. Our 

toun, tailed their 

e of the trees, mi. 

dira|;;recable talle, 

; might contribute 

The hoiifis of ihs 

)of, fuppot ted over 

• feet high. 

ling, Capt. Ox)k, 
on if.ore to return 
ention was to pur- 
V had been allured 
ven down to the 
at finding no (Icps 
however, we pro- 
ihich, with a few 
l-India C'ompanv, 
ving two pieces of 
orns, lixed at each 
•led to be wJiat the 
L-'s, from the Indian 
was defcribing the 
c law .VI r. 1-ingr 
loiho I.onii l)jarn, 
)Coplc;CaMf. Cook 
aded his boat with 

• tiir necelFary re- 
in to them, 
igrecment for the 
fie to be paid lor 
xiiier hinted than 
\ tolil the captain, 
governor of (!on- 
iich Ihoiild be dif- 
; was now far ad- 
ins on board, we 
\' a fmall ho?^ and 
) drefs the dinner 
hat if we( oiild e.a 
1 he coulil fiarccly 
nour of enteirain- 
d, the captain fent 
the lhi]i. it wa^ 
e were featcd on 

, it «as fervcd in 
icn conduced bv 
hich Hood a man 
he leaves of the 
our hands. Tlii, 
.vpcc'icd the king. 
d the reafon of liis 

abfenct, and were informed that the perfon who gave 
the cntertainnaent never partook of it with his guefts ; 
but that the Raja was ready to come and tafte of what 
was provided, if we entertained a thought thatthe vic- 
tuals' were poifoned. Wc declared that we did not 
harbour any fuch fufpicion, and dcHred thatthe cuftom 
of the country might not be violated on our account. 
When dinner was ended, the wine paffed brdkly, and 
wc invited the Raja to drink with cs, thinking if he 
would not cat with us, he might at leaft ihare in the 
jollity of the bottle; but he again excufcd himfelf, fay- 
in<T. the man who entertained his guefts fliould never 
get drunk with them, and that the fureft way to avoid 
this was to refrain from tafting the liquor. The prime 
minifter and Mr, Langc were of our party, and we 
made a moft luxurious meal. Ihe pork and rice were 
excellent, and the broth not to be defpifed; but the 
fpOons, made of leaves, were fo fmall, that few of us had 
patience to ufe them. We did not drink our wine at 
the place where we had dined; and the remains of the 
dinner we left to the feamen and fervants, who im- 
mediately took our places. They could not difpatch 
;ill wc had left; but the Raja's female fervants, who 
came to take away the uteniils, obliged them to carry 
away \\liat they had not eaten. When we thought the 
wine had fo far operated as to open the heart, we took 
an opportunity to enquire after the buftaloes and ihecp, 
of which we had not in all this time heard a fyllable, 
though they were to have been at the beach early in the 
moining. Mr. l.ange, the Saxon Dutchman, now b.- 
gaii to communicate to us the contents of the letter, 
which he pretended to have received from the gover- 
nor of Concordia, and wherein he faid, inlVruCtions were 
given, that if the Ihip Ihould touch at this illand, and 
be in want of provilions, flic fliould be fupplied ; but he 
was not to permit her to remain longer than was nccef- 
fary ; nor were any large prefents to be made to the na- 
tives of low rank, nor to be even left with their fuprri- 
ors to be divided among them after the Ihip had lailed; 
but he added, anytriHing civilities received from the In- 
dians might be acknowledged by a piefent of beads, 
or (rther articles of very fmall value. It is probable 
lliat the whole of this llory was a fiction; and that 
by precluding our liberality to the natives, the Saxon 
r>itchman hoped more cafily to draw all the prefents 
ol any value into his own pocket. In the evening we 
were informed, that only a few ilicep had been brought 
to tlie beat h, which had been driven away before our 
people Kiuld procure money from the lliip to pay for 
them. Some toA Is however were Iwiight, and a large 
quantity of a kiiul of ("yriip made of the juice of the 
palm-tre;'. 'Miis, though infinitely fuperior to molall'es 
<ir treacle, iMd at a v; r\- N)w jirice. Vexed at being 
fluis iiifapiv)iiued in ]iu!chaling the chief articles molt 
w.i'ited, wc reiH'inih-ated with Mr. l.ange, who now another liibtcrfuge. I Ie faid, had we gone dow n 
I.) the beach ourfelves, wc might have purchafcd what 
we pl^jfed ; but that the natives were afraid of being 
inipofed o!i bv our feamen with counterfeit money. 
We could not but feel li'iue indignation againll a man 
wiio had concealed this, being "rue; or alledged it, 
Iieing falle; and Capt. C\«ik repaired imniciiiately to 
the b'.ach, but no cattle were to be ken, nor were any 
at hand to be bought. During his abfence, Langc 
told Mr. Banks, that the Iiulians were olfended at our not 
having offered them gold for wc had to fell, and 
without whicli I. othing could be bought, Mr. Banki 
did not think it worth his while to hold farther conver- 
f.iiinn with a man who had been guiliy of fuch repeat- 
ed filfities; but rofe up fiiddenly, and we all returned 
en board much diffatisfied with our fruitlcfs negotia- 
tions. Tlie Kaja had indeed given a more plaulible 
realon for our difappointmcnt : he faid, the buftaloes 
being fir up in the country, there had not been time to 
bring rhcni down to the beach. 

(.);i 'Ihurfday the 20th, Dr. Solander went again 
afliore with Capt. C<x)k, and while the former went up 
to tile town to fpcak to Langc, the captain remaincci on 
the beach with a view of ptirchaling provifions. Here 
he met with the old Indian, who, as he appeared to 

have fome authc.ity, we had among ourfelves dillin- 
gudhed by the name of the Prime Minifter. In order 
to engage this man in our intercll, the captain prelentcd 
him with a fpying-glafs ; but only a fmall bulValo was 
offered to be fold. The i)ricc was five guineas, nearly 
twice its real value. Three, however, were t)lfered, 
which the dealer thought a good price ; but faid, he mull 
acquaint the king with what hatl been bid before he 
could Ibike the bargain. A mellengerwas inimediatc- 
ly difpatchcd to the Kaja, and on his return brought 
word, that not lefs than five guineas would be taken for 
the butlalo.' The captain abfolurely retiifed to give the 
fum demanded, which occaiioned the fending away a 
fccond mcH'enger, and during his abfence. Dr. S(>landcr 
was fcen coming from the town, followed by above a 
hundred inen, fome of whom were armed with muf- 
quets, and others w ith lances. Uixin enquiring into 
the meaning of this hollile appearance, the doctor in- 
formed us, the purport of a niellagc from the king was, 
according to Mr. Langc's interpretation, that the peo- 
ple would not trade with us bccaufe we had re fu fed to 
give them more than half the value for their commo- 
dities; and that we were not to exi)cc'l pcrmillion to 
trade upon any terms longer than this day. 

A native of Timor, whofc parent-, >verc Portuguefe, 
came down with this party, and delivered to the cap- 
tain what was pretended to be tl.c order of the Raja, 
and which was ui fubilancc the fame that I^uigc had 
told Dr. Solande'-; but it was afteruaids dillovcred 
that this man was a confident of Lang '^ in the fchcme 
of extortion. '1 he Englilh gcntlemtp had at the fiiinc 
time no doubt, but that the fuppolld order of the Raja 
was a contrivance of thefe men, and while tiiey were 
debiting how to act in this critical coiijun:turc, aiuious 
to bring the all'air to a fpecdy iliiic, the lV>itu;:uefe be- 
gan to drive auay flich of the nati\cs as had brought 
paliii-l)rup and tow Is to fell, and others who were now 
bringing llieep and bulfaloes to the market. At this 
luncturc Capt. Cook ha|ipening to look at the old man 
who had been dillinguilhed by the name of prime mi- 
nifter, imagined that he faw in his features a diliippro- 
bation of the prefent proceedings ; and, willing to im- 
prove tlie advantage, he grafped the Indian's hand, and 
gave him an old broad-lVord. This well-timed prefent 
proihiccd all the good elfeiils that could he willied ; the 
pur.:i ininillcr was enraptured at (0 honouiable a mark 
ofdiilinctiun, and brandilhing his I'word over the head 
of the impertinent I'ortuguefe, he made both him and 
a man who commanded the party, lit down behind him 
on the ground. I he whole bufincfs was now accom- 
plifhed ; the natives, eager to fiipply whatever was 
wanted, brought their cattle in tor fale, and the market 
was foon ftocked. For the firll two buffaloes, Capt. 
Cook gave ten guine-.s ; but he afterwauls purchafcd 
them by way of exch-ngc, giving a mulquet for each, 
and at this lale he might have bought any number he 
thought proper. There remained no doubt but that 
Langc had a profit out of the two that were fold; and 
that his reafon for having faid the natives would take 
nothing but gold f()r their cattle, was, that he might the 
more eafily thaie in the protiuce. Ca()t. Cook pur- 
chafcd of the natives of this illand fome hundred gal- 
lons of palm-l>rup, a fmall quantity of garlick, a large 
number of eggs, fome limes and cocoa-nuts, thirty 
do/.en of fowls, three hogs, fix Iheep, and nine butlalo,. 
We having obtained thefe nccclKiry articles, now pre- 
pared for filling from this place. 

'I'hc illand ol Savu is lituated in lodeg. ^; min. .'^. 
latitude, :.nil zj,'] deg. \o iiiin. \V. longitude. Its 
length is between tweiuy and thirty miles. But its 
breadth Capt. C(xik could not afcertain, as he only faw 
the north tide of it. The harbour in which the fhip 
lay, was called Scba, from a dillrict of the countrs l(> 
denominated : and there are two other bays on iiitl'erc:.f 
|>arts of the iiland. .Xt the time the Lndcavour lav 
there it was near the end of the dry feafon, when it had 
not rained Itiralmod fevcn months, nor wai there a run- 
ning Ilrcam of frclh water tv) be feen, and the natives 
were fupplied onlv !iy iiiiall fprings, tituatcd at a dif- 
tancc u[> the cuciitrv, yet c sen in this dry f. afon the 






appearance of the ifliiui was licautitiil. Near the coaft 
the land lies level, and well cloathcd with palm, called 
Arci;ao, and cocoa-nut trees. Farther off, the ground 
rifes in the nioft gradual afccnt, and is covered with 
fair palm-trees even to the tops of the hills, fo as to 
prefcnt a regular grove to the view. The rains in this 
country ccafc in March or April, and f;\ll again in Odo- 
ber or November, and thcfe rains produce abundance 
oFindtro, millett, and maize, which grow beneath the 
linelt trees in the country. Bclidcs thcfe articles, the 
ifiand produces tobacco, cotton, betel, tamarinds, limes, 
oranges, mangoes, guinea corn, rice, callevances, and 
water-melons. A fmall quantity of cinnamon was feen, 
and fomc European herbs, fuch asgarlick, fennel, celery, 
and marjoram, befides which, there arc fruits of various 
kinds, and particularly the blimbi, which has a iharp 
tafte. and is a fine pickle, but it is not eaten raw; its 
length is from 3 to 4 inches; it is nearly as thick as a 
man's thumb, of an oval form., covered witii a very thin 
fkin, of a very light green, and contains a number of 
feeds ranged in the fliape of a ftar. Several buffaloes 
were feen on this ifiand which were almoff as l.irgc as 
an OX; and from a pair of enormous horns of this ani- 
m.-»l, wIulIi Mr. Banks faw, it was fiippofed that fomc 
of them were much larger; yet they did not weigh more 
than half as much as an ox of the fame fize ; having 
loff the greater part of their fleih through the lite 
dry weather : the meat however was juicy, and of a 
delicate flavour. The horns of thelc animals btiid 
backwards; they ha i no dew-laps, and fcarrc any hair 
on the''' (kins, and their ears were remarkably large. 
The other tame animals on the illand arc dojjs, cats, 
pigeons, fowls, hogs, goats, (lieep, affes, and horfes. 
Few of the horfes are above twelve hands high, yet they 
arc full of mettle, and pace naturally in an cxpciliti- 
ous manner: the natives ride them with a halter only. 
The hox-i of thii countp,' arc fed on the hulks of rice 
and palm-fvrup mixed with water, and are remarkably 
fine and fat. The llieep is not unlike a goat, anvl are 
therefore called Cabaritos ; their ears, which are long, 
hang down under their horns; their nofes arc arched, 
and their bodies covered with hair. The t<)\\ls are of 
the game kind, and though they are rather large, the 
hen lavs a very fm;ill egg. The fea-coaft fiirniihts 
the inhabitants with turtle, but not in any great 

T he people of this idand arc rather below the mid- 
dle l>anire ; their hair is bla* k and llrair, and perfons 
of all ranks, as well thofe that are expofed to the wea- 
ther, as ihofe that are not, have one general complexion, 
whuh IS the dark brown. The men are well t'ormed 
an.l fprightly, and their features ditler much trom each 
other; the women, on the contrary, have all one let of 
features, are very fliort, and broad built. 'Ihe men 
hive (ilver pincers hiuiging by firings round their 
necks, with which they pluck out the hair ol' their 
beards; and both men and woman root out the luir 
that grows under their arms; the hair of the womens 
heads is tied in a club behind, while ehc men wear a 
kind of turlunon their heads, formed of mullin, cotton, 
or e\tii with lilk hanilkerihiefs,but the heads ot the wo- 
men h.ise no cdvering. Thedrefsof the men c(>nlills of 
two pieces of (otton cloth, one ot which ik bound round 
the midiilc, and the lowcreilge of it being drawn pretty 
tight between the legs, the upper edge is left loofe, fo 
as to (()rm a kind of pocket, in which they carry knives 
and other tilings; the other piece being pa'.T under the 
former on the back of the wearer, the ends of it aic 
(.irried over the llioulders, and tut kcd inio the poi ket 
before. The women drew the upper edge of the |)iece 
roiin Ithe waifl tight, while rhe lower edge dropping to 
the k;ieis, make a kind of petticoat : the other piece ol 
f loth is falUiied a-c:rofs the bread, and under the arms. 
This (loth, which is manufaciured by the natives, is 
dyed blue while in the yarn ; and as it is of various 
lliadc;, its look, when it comes to be worn, is very 

Their ornaments are very numerous, and confift of 
ling--, luads worn round the neck and 6n the wriffs, 
and i.h;i!nf of plaited gold wire, arc likewifc worn by 

both fcxcs; but the women had likewifc girdles of 
beads round their waifls, which ferved to keep up tUeir 
petticoats. Both fexcs had their cars bored without a 
fnigle exception, that we faw, but we never obfervcil 
an ornament in any of them. Nor did we perceive 
cither man or woman in any thing but what appeared 
to be their ordinary drefs, except the king and his mi- 
nillcr, who in general wore a kind of night-gow n of 
coarfe chintz, and the latter once received us in a black 
robe, which appeared to be made of prince's Itulf. 
One perfon, in the way of finery, had a filver-hcadcd 
cane, marked with a kind of cypher, conlifting of the 
Roman letters V. O. C. which might have been a prcfent 
from the Dutch Eaff-India Company, whofe mark it U. 
Wc alfo faw boys about twelve or fourteen years oKi, 
having fpiral circles of thick brafs wire paffed three or 
four times round their arms, above the elbow ; and upon 
the fame part of the arm, fome of the men had ringj 
of ivory, two inches broad, and about one in thicknels ; 
thefc we were informed were the fons of the Raja's or 
chiefs, whofe high births were diftinguiflicd by thcfe 
cumbrous ornaments. Mofl of the men had then 
names marked on their arms, and the women had i 
lliuarc ornament of flouriflied lines imprinted juff uniler 
the bend of the elbow. On enquiry it was found tint 
this practice had been common among the Indians long 
betbrc they were vilited by any Europeans ; and in the 
neighbouring iilands, it was faid, ihe inhabitants were 
marked w ith circles upon their necks and breads. W'c 
were (Iruck with the iimilitucie between thcfe marks, 
and thofe matle by tattaowing i.i the South Sea iflands; 
and M. Boffu's account of fome Indians who dwell on 
the banks of Akan/.a, a river in North America, which 
tails into the MillilTippi, will ail'ord a probable con- 
jecture how the operation is performed. " The .M- 
kanzas, fays he, have adopted me, and as a mark of my 
privilege, have imprinted the figure of a roe-buck upon 
my thigh, which was done in this manner : an Indian 
having burnt fome Hraw, diluted the aihes with wa- 
ter, and with this mixture, drew the figure upon my 
Ikin ; he then retraced it, l)y pricking the lines with 
needles, fb as at every puncture jufl to draw the blood, 
and the blood mixing v. ith the allies of the Itraw, 
tbrms a figure which can never be etfaced." 

'I'he hollies of Savu are all built upon the fame plan, 
but dilfer in fize, according to the rank aiul wealth ol 
the proprietors, lieing from twenty feet to four huii- 
ihed, and they are fixed on polls of' about fiiur or live 
feet iVoiu the ground. One end of' thefe is driv^-i 
into the ground, and upon the other is laid a floor ot 
wood, whiih makes a \ai ant fpace of four feet between 
the floor of the houfe and the ground. On thi.'; IVuir 
arc raifed other pillars that fupptirt a roof of floping 
fides, which ineet in a riilgc at the top, like thofe ot 
our barns ; the caves of this roof', which is thatche^l 
with palm leaves, reach w ithin two f<;et of the tlooi, 
anil over-hang it a.-, much. The fpace within is gene- 
rally divided lengilivi ife into three equal parts ; the miil- 
lile part, or center, ii iiu lofcd by a partition (jf tour 
tides, rcai hi ng about fix feet alxive the floor, and on- 
or two fiuall rooms are alio fometiiiies taken off tioiii 
the (ide^ ; the refi of the fpace uiuler the roof is open, 
fe) as freely to admit the air and the light. The parti- 
( ular iiles of thele apartments we coukl not, iluring our 
tliort flay, learn, i xcept that the clofe room in the ceii' 
ler was apptopriateil to the women. 

As to the fooil of thefe people, they all the tame 
animals to be found in the illand ; but they prefer the 
hoj', to all others ; next to this they admire horie-tlefli ; 
to which fucceeds the buffalo, then poultry ; and the. 
prefer cats and dogs to goats and (liee[i. I'llh, wc be- 
lieve, is not eaten but by the poor, noi b); them, except 
when their liuty or bufinefs requires them to be upon 
the beach, and then each man has a light catling net, 
which is girt round his body, and witli this he takes 
any fmall fifli which may come in his way. 

The moil remarkable aiul ufefiil tree that grows on 

the ifland is the fan palm. Its ufes are fo various, that 

it requires particular rwticc. At ceitain times it is j 

fucccdancum for all other food Iwili to man and bcall. 

( A kind 

cook's first VOYAGE-^for making Difcoverics in the South Seiis &: Round the JForld. 77 

i A kind of wine, called toddy, is extradcd from this 
tree by cutting the buds, and tying under them Jmall 
bafl^cts. made Sf the leaves. The juicc which trickles 
into thefc viJlTels is coUedted morning and evening, and 
is the common drink of ill the inhabitants. '1 he na- 
tives call this liquor dua or duac. and both the fyrup 
i and fugar, gula. The iyrup is not unlike treacle, but 
i is fomcwhat thicker, and has a more agreeable tafte. 
The fugar is of a redifli brown, probably the fanie with 
' the jugata fugata fugar upon the cotitincnt of India, 
i and X.oo\.\\ tifte it w as more agreeable than any cane fu- 
gar, unrefined. We at firft apprehended that the fy- 
rup', of which fonie of our people cat great quantities, 
would have occafioned fluxes, but what eftect it pro- 
duced was rather falutaiy than hurtful. This fyrup is 
ufcd to fatten hogs, dogs, and fowls; and the inhabi- 
tants thcmfclves have fublillcd upon this alone tor Ic- 
vcral months, when other crops have failed, and ani- 
mal food has been fcarcc. With the leaves of this 
tree the natives thatch their houfes. and make ba(l<.cts. 
cups, umbiellas and tobacco-pipes. They make lead: 
account of the fruit, and as the buds are wounded for 
the tuac or toddv, there is very little produced. It is 
nearly of the lize of a full grown turnip 5 and the 
kernels mull be eaten bclbre it is ripe, othenvife they 
are fo hard, that the teeth will not penetrate them. 

As liie-uooil is very fcarce, the natives, by the fol- 
luuing method, make a very little anfwer the ends of 
rookcn- and dill illation. A hollow is dug underground, 
like a rahbii buirow, \r a horizontal direction about 
two yard, lon'j;, with a hole at e.ich end, one of which 
is large, and the other fmall. 'I'he fire is put in at tiie 
large hole, and the finall one ferv-es for a draught. Cir- 
cular holes are made through the earth w hich covers th s 
cavitv, on which arc let eiirthcn pots, l-.irge in the 
nVieldle, and fmaller towards the bottom, lo that the 
fire acts upon a large part of the liirfi'.e. They con- 
tain generally about eight or ten gallon,, each, and it is 
furpriling to fee with what a inuill (|uannty (jf fuel they 
are kept boiling. In this manner tiny boil all their 
victuals, and make all their f^uiii) and fugar. The Fe- 
ru\ian Indims have a eontrivante oT tlie llime kind ; 
and nerluips by the poor in other countri'-i it might I.e 
adopteel with advantage. 

In this illand both fexes are enllavid 
vious eiilUim of chewing beetle and aie 

the [HTiii-- 
(■sen while ihev are children. With tliel'e they mix a 
liirtol' white li;He, compofed of coral Hones and (liclls, 
10 which is added frcijuently a fmall liuantity of to- 
bacco, whereby tb.eir mouths aie rendered difguHlul 
tioLh to the light and the fniell ; lor the tobaceo in- 
r.\ts their breath, and the beetle and lime make the 
tuth botli blaek atid rotten. We liiw many of both 
fcxc:; wluile tore teeth were eonlunitil, irregulatly, al- 
inoll ilov, nto the gums, and corrodeii like iron by mil. 
ri.i., lol'j ol tcedi has generally been attributed to the 
iiiiii'ii iliingy coat of i!ie areea nut; but our gentlemen 
imputed it wholly to the lime; for tin: teeth are not 
liiolened or broken, as might he the (afe by chewing of 
hard and rough fubllances, but they are gradually 
walUd, as even metalsare l>y jiowerful acids; and they 
• I'.iy not be midaken who fu[ipofe that fugar has a bad 
clfect upon the teeth of lairopeans, leeing retincd fu- contains a confiderahle quantity of hme, anei it is 
will known, that lime will ilellmy bone of any kind. 
Wheti the natives are at any time not ehexving bicile 
,i;id aiv a, they then are linoking. The manner of 
doing this is bv rolling up a fmall quantity of tobacco, 
,i!Kl putting it into one end of a tube, about fix inches 
lung, as thiek as a goofe quill, and made of a pahn- 
Uaf. The women in particular were oblcrved to Iwal- 
low thefmoke. 

'I'he illand is divieied into live didrids or nigrecs, 
each of which is governed by a Raja. Thele are called 
l.aii, Seba, Regeeua, Timo, and Malfara. We went 
alhore at Seba. and found a Raja that governed with 
abfolute authority. He was about five and thirty, and 
the moll corpulent man wc had feen upon the whole 
ul.ind. But though he governed with an unlimited 
authority, he took very little regal pomj) upon him. 
No. 9. 

He was directed almofl implicitly by Mannu Djarme. 
the old man, his prime minifler. already men- 
tioned ; yet notwithllaiuling the power with which he 
was inveilcd. he was univerfally beloved, a fure proot 
that he did not abufe it. Mr. Lange informed Capt. 
Cook, that the chiefs w ho had fuccellively prefided over 
the live principalities of this ifland, had lived for time 
immemorial in the moll cordial friendihip with each 
other; yet. he faid, the people were of a warlike dil- 
polition, and had always courageoufly defended thcm- 
felves agiiinfl foreign invaders. We w ere told alio, that: 
the inhabitants of the illand could raife. on a fliort no- 
tice. 7.300 lighting men armed with mufquets ; of 
which number Laai was fiid to furnifh 2,600, Seba 
zooo, Regeeua i,$oo, Timo 800, and Mailaia 400. 
Bclides the arms already mentioned, each man is fur- 
niihcd with a large mafly pole-ax, which, in the hands 
of people who have courage, mull be a formidable 
weapon. In the ufe of their lances tlvefe people arc 
fiiid to be fo expert, that they can pierce a man through 
the heart at lixty or feventy yards dillancc : yet the 
Raja had always lived at peace with his neighbours. 
This account of the maitial prow efs of the inhabi- 
tants of Savu mav be true ; but during our flay we law 
no appearance of it. ^k-fore the tow n houfe indeed, we 
fiw .about one Ivjndred fpeais and targets, whichferved 
to arm thole who were lent down to intimidate us at 
the trailing place, but they feemed to be the refufe of 
old armories, no two being of the fame make or length, 
tiir Ibmc were fix. otb.ers iixtten feet long. Not one 
fir.ce was among them, and though the mufquets were 
clean on the outlide, within thev were eaten b\- the rull 
into holes ; and the people themllKes appeared to be 
f) litile acquainted w ith niil;iar\ difciphne. thai they 
c.mie dow n l;l;e a dilbrderly rah'iie, every one having 
acock, liime toha'co, or other ir.ercliandife, and tew 
or none of their cartouch boxes were liirniflied with 
either ]io'.vi'.er or ball, but a |>iecc of paper was thrull 
into tlie holes to liive appearances. We likewife law 
betoie the houfe of allcmbly a grsat gun, tome fw ivels, 
and paiararoes: but the great gun lay with the touch- 
hole to the (ground, and the fw ivels and patararoes were 
not in their carria^Tos. 

The inhabit Hits of Savu arc divided into live ranks, 
namely, the R;ijas, the land owners, the numufacturers, 
tiie ler\ants, an.l the Haves. The Raias are chief ; the 
land ouiu'isai'c refpected in nro;)ortion to their ellates, 
and the nMi'iiberof their Haves, which lull arc bought 
and l()ld with their eJhites ; but a fat hcg is the price 
of one It' puivhafed feparately. Notwithllanding a 
man may thus fell his f;;»ve, or convev him with his 
lands, yet his (>owir does not extend fartlier, as he may 
not even llrike hini witho'.t the Raja's permiHion. I'he 
ellates ot' thele I are of vei v ililfc-^nt ex- 
tent : Ibmc of them not poffelling above (v e Haves, 
whilll others have 500. When a man of ruik goes 
;ibiiiad, one ol his llaves follows him with a lilver 
hiked fword or hanger, ornamented with horfe hair 
talfeU. and another carries :i little bag containing to- 
bacco, betle, areca, and lime. This is all the Hate 
that even the R^ijas themfelves take upon them. 

Thcfc people have a great veneration tor antiquity. 
Their principal boall is of a long line of venerable an- 
ceHors. Thol'e houfes that have been well tenanted for 
fuccelhve generations, are held in the highell cHeeni; 
even the llones wli h are worn lliiooth by havin!>; 
been fat upon tor ages, ilerive a certain value lin!:i 
that circumHance. He whole progenitors have be- 
queathed him any i-^'i thete Hones, or whole wealth has 
enabled him to purchat'e them, catifes them to be ranged 
round his habitation, for his lervants and Haves to fit 
upon. The Raja caufes a large Hone to be fet up in 
the chief town of each diHrict as a monument of his 
reign. In the province of Seba, thirteen li'ch Hones 
were feen as well as th.e remains of fevcral others which 
were much worn. Thefe lloncs were all ]ilaccd on 
the top of a hill, and (bme of them were of' fuch an 
enormous live that it was ama/iiig by what means they 
could have been brought thiiher ; nor could any infor- 
mation on this head be obumed froi^j the natives : 
U thcfc 




' ■' I 

thcfc moiuiincnts, however, indicated that for a feries 
orgcncrations, the ifland had been regularly governed. — 
When a Raja dies, proclamation is made that all thofe 
who have been his lubjedu ihall hold a foiemn fcftival. 
On this they proceed to the hill where thefe ftones arc 
erected, and fealt for fevcral weeks, killing all the ani- 
mals that fuit their purpofe, wherever they can be 
found, in order to furnilh the treat, which is daily 
fervcd up on the monumental ftones. When they 
have thus exhauded their whole (lock, they arc coni- 
pclled to keep a faft ; and when the feart happens to 
end in the dry feafon, when they cannot get vegetables 
to eat, they have no other fubliftance than the palm 
f)rup and water, till the few animals which have efcaped 
the general mailacrc have bred a fufhcient number for 
a frelh fupply, except the adjacent diftrict happens to 
be in a condition to relieve them. 

The natives of Savu have an inftrument with which 
they clear the cotton of its feeds ; it is about feven 
inches in height and fourteen in length. They have 
alio a iiiachine witii which they fpin by hand, as was 
the cullom before the invention of fpinning wheels in 

The inhabitants of this ifland were in general robull 
and healthy, and had every mark of longevity. The 
fmall [jox, however, is a dillcmper with which they 
.ire acquainted, and which they dread as much as a 
pelHIencc. When any perfon is attacked by it, he is 
carried to a fpot at a dillance from the houfes, w here 
his fotxl is conveyed to hin\ by means of a long (lick, 
as no one dares to venture near him. Abandoned by 
all his friends, he is there left to live or die .is it may 
happen, w itiiout being admitted to any comforts of the 

The Portugnefc very early vifitcd this ifland, on 
which tiiey ellabiilhed a fettlemcnt, but foon after 
they were fiicceeded by the Dutch, who without for- 
mally taking polfelTion of the place, fent a number of 
trading velfels in order to cllabliili a commerce with 
the natives. Moll of the Dutch purchafes, it is fup- 
pofed, are coiifmed to a fupply of provifions for the 
.Spiie-Ili.inils, the inhabitants of which breed but a 
fmall niinil)i.i of cattle. The Dutch Hall India Com- 
pany made an agreement with the feveral Rajas of the 
illands, that a quantity of rice, maize, and cailavances 
Ihould be annually furniflied to their people, who, in 
return, were to I'uppl) the Rajas with (ilk, linen, cut- 
lery wares, ami arrack. Certain fmall vellels, each 
having (in board ten Indians, are fent from Timor to 
bring away the 111,1 ize and cailavances, and a ihipthat 
brings the articles tiirnilhed by the Dutch, rccei\esthe 
ill e on board oni e a year ; and as there are thrtr bays 
nn this mall, this villcl anchors in each of them in 
rum. The Diiti h articles of commerce are accepted 
bv the Rjjas as a prclent; and tliey and their chief at- 
tendants drink oi the arrack without intermillion till 
it is exhaulled. 

It rtas in the agreement above-mentioned that the 
Rajas (lipulatcd, that a Dutch rcfident (liould be con- 
(lantly on the illand. Accordingly this Lange, whom 
weha\c nKinioncd, was Cent thither in that capacity, 
and a liirt ot allilhmt with him, whole father was a 
I'lirtugucle, and his mother a native of Timor, with 
one Iredeiu: l.'raig, whole father was a Dutchman,and 
his mother an Iiuiiaii. Mr. l^ngc vilits the Ra)a in 
llatc, attended by lifty flavcs on horfe-bark, and il the 
crops are ripe, orders velfel to convey them immedi- 
ately to Timor, fo that they arc not even houfed upon 
the ifland. It is likewife fiart of his bufinefs toperfuade 
the landholders to plant, if he perceives that thoy arc 
backward in that particular. 'I'his relident had been 
ten years on tht.- illand, when the Endeavour touched 
there, during all which time he had not feen any white 
perfons, except thofe who came annually in the Dutch 
velfel, to carry olf the nee, as aliove-mentioned. He 
was married to a native of Timor, and lived in the 
fame manner as the natives of Savu, whofe language 
he fpokc better than any other. He fat on the ground 
like the Indians, and (.hewed betlc, and fecmed inevery 
tiling to refi iiible them, except in his complexion and 

the drefs of his country. As to Mr. Craig, his af- 
fillant, he was employed in teaching the native ^0 
write and read, and inilruding thcin in the princi ' •% 
of Chriftianity. Though there was neither clcrgyui in 
nor church to be feen upon the illand, yet this Mr. 
Craig averred, that in the townfliip of .Seba only, there 
were 600 ChriQians: as to the religion of thofe who 
have not embraced Chrillianity, it is a peculiar fpcciis 
of Paganifm, every one having a god of his own, fonic. 
what after the manner of the Cemics heretofore men- 
tioned. Their morality, however, is much purer than 
could be expected from fuch a people. Robberies arc 
fcarcely ever cominitted. Murder is unknown amoiip; 
them ; and though no man is allowed more than oik- 
wife, they are (Irangcrs to adultery, and almoll fo to the 
crime of limple fornication. When any difputes arill' 
between the natives, the determination of the Raja m 
decilive and fatisfaClory. Some obfervations were made 
upon the language of the natives, by the gentlemen, 
while the velfel lay here; and a kind of vocabuLii) 
formed, a Iketch of which we have here inferted ; 


A limn. 


A ivomiVt. 


1'h,- hfiul. 

Row catoo. 

The hiin: 


The ryes. 

Rowna matta. 

I'he eye-LiJhes. 


The iiofe. 


The eheeks. 


The c.jr.f. 


The Iniif^iu: 


7/.V iierk. 


Ihe /ire.i/ls. 

CalHK) fcKifoo 

Ihr nipples. 


TIm- helly. 


The iiaiel. 


The Ihi^^hs. 


The hiees. 


The leys. 


The feet. 

Kilfovei )illa. 

The loes. 


The iiims. 


The hitiid. 


A iiiffd). 


A horfe. 

\ avee. 

A %. 




A $0iU. 


A Jo^. 


A cat. 


A fax!. 


'J if uii.: 


The hmk. 




A turtle. 


A eoeoti-wit. 


I'un palm. 






I. line. 




Tiloii, or mari 




The moon. 


7 he feu. 

A ilea. 





To Me. 



Tatee too. 

To rije. 




















COOK'- FIRST VOYAGE — for making DifcoverUi in the South Seas & Round the World. 79 


Mr. Craig, his af- 

hing the iiativt .0 
ein in the princi ' j 
IS neither derg) ni m 

ifland, yet this Mr. 
> of Scba only, there 

igion of thofe wIk, 

is a peculiar fpccic, 
Ki of hisoun.foiiic- 
nics heretofore nicn- 

is much purer thai) 
iplc. RoiDbcries an 
r is unknown anionf. 
)wcd more than oik 

and ahnoll fo to the 
en any difputes arifr 
at ion of the Raja i, 
l-r vat ions were niadi- 
, by the gcntlcniun, 

kind of vocabiiUn 
:: iicrc inferred ; 








' marks on ihfjli-.. 











1 00,000. 
1 ,000,000. 

Ii IS here necclTliry to obfcrve, that this illand has 
not been laid down in any of the charts hitherto pub- 
liilicd, and as to our account of it, let it be renicm- 
beied, that except the fafts in which we were par- 
tics, and the account of the objeds which we had an 
opportunity to examine, the whole is founded merely 
upon the report of Mr. Lange. upon whole authority 
it mull thcrefoie reft. 

Of the iflands in the neighbourhood ot Savu, the 
principal is 'Hmor, which is annually vilited by the 
Putth relidents on the other illands, in order to make 
up their accounts. Some of the towns on the north 
fide of Timor are in the hands of the Portiiguefe ; but 
the Dutch polllfs a far greatci- proportion ot the illand, 
on which thev have built a foit, and erected levcral 
lloie-houfts. 'There are three fiuall iflands, called the 
Solars, which produce great abundance ol the various 
nec^lfaries of life, tliat arc carried ni fmall vellels to 
the Dutch fcttlements on the iflanil of 'limor. Thele 
iflands are low and flat, and one of them has a commo- 
dious harbovir. 'I'o the welluard ::f the Solars lies the 
Ii-'Ie ifland of En 'c, in the polFellion of thv Portuguele, 
who have Iniilt a confiderable tow n on the N. 1''.. point 
of it; and clofetothc town is an harbour where Ihips 
may ride in fafetv. The ifland of Rottc has a Dutch 
reli'dcnt, whofe bufinefs is limilar to that of Mr. Lange 
on the ifland of Savu. Roite produces, belidcs fuch 
things as arc common to other illands, a confiderable 
quantity of fugar, which is made to a great degree ol 
perfection. There is likewife a fniall illand lying to 
the well of Savu, the chief produce ot which is the 
arcca nut, of which the Dutch receive in exchange for 
liuropean commodities, as large a quantity every year 
as load two vellels. 

About two years before the Fndcavour was in thcfe 
feas, a I'Vcnch ftiip was w recked on the coaft of Timor : 
(lie had been lodged on the rocks fcveial days, when 
the wind tore her to pieces in an inllant, and the Cap 
tain, with the greater part of the fcamen were drown- 
ed; but the lieutenant and about eighty men, having 
reached the (hore, travelled acrofs the country of Con- 
corilia, where their immediate wants were relieved, 
and they afterwards returned to the wreck, in company 
with fomc Dutchmen and Indians, who allideil them 
in recoseriug all their chells of bullion, and other ef- 
fciils. This done they returned to Concordia, where 
they remained feveral weeks ; but in this inters al death 
made fuch havock among them, that not above hall 
their numlur remained to return to their native coun- 
try, whu h they did as fuon as a velfel could be iitted 
out for them. 

On I'Viday, t lie at ft of September, in the morning, 
we got under fail, and beni our courfc wertward, along 
the jiorth fule of the ifland of Savu, and of another 
lying to the «ell\vard ol \\, which at noon boreS. S. E. 
(iiftant two leagues. At l()ur in the afternoon, in la- 
titude lodeg. ^X min. S. and longituile ?.j8 deg. 28 
min. VV. we difcovered a fmall low ifland.' In the 
evening of the 2;{ti, \v<: got clear of the iflands, and 
on the 26th, our latitude by obfer\ation was 10 deg. 
51 min. S. and om longitude 252 deg. 11 min. W. 
On the 28th, we fleered all day N. VV. with a view 
of making the land of Ja\a, and on the 30th, Capt. 
Cook took into his pollLliion the log-book and journals, 
at leaft all he could find of theofiicers, petty officers, 
and feamen, whom he llridly enjoined fecrecy with 
refped to where ihey had been. At feven in the even- 
ing we had thunder and lijjhtning, and about twelve by 
the light of the flaflies we law the weft end of Java. 

On Monday, October the ill, at fi.\ o'clock in the 

morning, Java Head bore S, I'', by K. didant live 
leagues. Soon after we law Prince's Ifland, and at 
ten Cracatoa, a remarkable high peaked ifland. At 
noon it bore N. 40 E. diftant i't:\cn leagues. On 
the 2nd, we were clofc in with the coaft of Java, in 
fifteen fathom water, along which we ftood. In the 
forenoon a boat was fent afliore, in order to procure 
fome fruit for Tupia, who was at this time extremely 
ill. Our people returned with four cocoa-nuts, and a 
fmall bunch of plantains, for which they had paid a 
fliilling; but fome herbage for the cattle the Indians 
gave our feamen, and affiftedthcm tocutit. The coun- 
try had a delightful appearance, being every where co- 
vered with trees, which looked like one continued 
wood. About eleven o'clock we faw two Dutch Eall 
Indiamen, from whom we heard w ith great pleafure, 
that the Swallow had reached the Englifli channel in 
fafety, having been at Batavia about two years before. 
We alfo learnt, that there was rtationcd here a fly boat 
or packet, to carry letters, aswasfaid, from the Dutch 
Ihips, that came hither from Batavia, but the Captain 
thought it was appointed to examine all fliips, that 
fliould have pafled the ftreight. We had now been 
fome hours at anchor, but in the evening a light breeze 
fpringing up, we got under fail, yet having little wind, 
and a ftrong current againft us, wcreached no further by 
eight in the morning, of the 3d, than Bantam Point. • 
We now perceived the Dutch packet ftanding after us, 
but the wind fliifting to the N. E. flie bore away. We 
were now obliged to anchor; which we did in twenty- 
two fathom water, at about i,vo miles from the fliore. 
At lix o'clock in the evening, the country boats came 
along fide of us, on board one of which was the inaf- 
terof the packet. They brought in them fowls, ducks, 
parrots, turtle, rice, birds, monkeys, and other arti- 
cles, with an intention to fell them, but having fixed 
very high prices on their commodities, and our Savu 
ftock being not yet expended, very few articles were 
purchafed. The Captain indeed gave two dollaivj for 
twenty-live fowls, and a Spaiiifli dollar for a turtle, 
which weighed about iix and thirty pounds. VVc 
might alio for a dollar have bought two monkeys, or 
a whole cage of rice-birds. The mafter of the packet 
brought with him two books, in one of which he de- 
lircd ofourollicers, that one of them would writedown 
the name of our fliip and commander; the place from 
whence \(c came; to what port bound ; witii fuch other 
particulars relating to ourfelves, as we might think 
proper, for the information of any of our countrymen 
who might come at'ter us. In the other book the maf- 
ter himlelf entered the names of our fliip and its Clap- 
tain, in order to tranfmit them to the go\ernorand 
council of the Indies. We perceived, that in the lirlV 
book many Ihips, particularly I'ortiiguefe, had made 
ent'.-ries of the fame kind with that tor which it was 
prefented to us. Mr. Hicks, our lieutenant, however, 
having written the name of the lliip, only added " from 
Europe," The mailer of the packet took notice of 
this, but faid, that he was faiislicd w ith any thing we 
thought fit to w rite, it being intended folely for the in- 
formation of our friends. 

Friday the fifth, we made feveral attempts to fliil with 
a wind that would not ftcm the current, and as often 
came to an anchor. In the morning a proa, with a 
Dutch officer, came along-lideof us, and fent to Cap- 
tain Cook a printed paper in exceeding bad Enelilh, 
duplicates of w hich he had in other languages, all re- 
gularly ligned, in the name of the governor and council 
of the Indies, by thtir fecretary ; the contents whereof 
were the following enquiries, contained in nine quef- 

1. The (liip's name, and to what nation flic be- 

2. If flie came from Europe, or any other place ? 

3. From what place flie had laft departed? 

4. Whereunto defigned to go? 

5. What and how many ihips of the Dutch com- 
pany by departure from the lalt Ihorc there layed, and 
their names ? 

6. If 



Ih ' ; ) 

■•. \ ' i 


1. iS 


6. If one or more of thcfc (hips, in company with 
the Endeavour, is departed for this or any other 
place ? 

7. If during the voyage any particutaritics is hap- 
pened, or fecn ? 

8. If not any fliips in fca, or the ftreightsofSunda, 
havcfccn, or hailed in, am! wiiich? 

9. If any other news worth of attention, at the place 
from whence the fhip iaitiy departed, or during the 
voyage, is happened? 

H A TAViA in the Caftfc. 
I5y ordrrof the (lovernor General, and the 
C'ounfeilors of India, 

J. Ukandfr Bl'ngl. Sec. 

The ofTicerohrerving, that the Captain did not thiifc 
to anfwcr any of the above quelUons, except rhe full 
and fourth, he faid that the rcll were not in.iriTiil, 
though it was remarked that jufl afterw ards he altiniied 
he muft difpatth the paper to Batavia, at which plat e 
it would arrive by the next day. This exammuiioii was 
rather extraonlinary, and the more fo, as it liocs not 
feeni to have been of any long llandiiit',. 

As foon as the Dutch othccr departed, tlic anchor 
was weighed, l)Ut in lour hours the Ihip was forced to 
come to an anchor ag.iin, till a brcc/c Ipiangnp j lie 
then held on her ctnulb till the next morning, when on 
account of the ra|iidiiy of the ( lurent, the anchor was 
dropped again. At lall we weighed on the t>th. and 
llood clear of a l.irj'c Icilgeof rocks, whit h \\v lud at- 
niolt ran upon the preceding day. liut in the fore- 
noon we were once more obliged to anchor near a htrle 
ifland that was not laid ilown in any chart on lioaid. 
It was foimd to he one of thofc called the Miiles Illcs. 
Mr. Hanks am! Dr. Solandrr having landcil upon ir, 
collected a lew plants, iuid Ihot a bat which was a yard 
long, l)iing nicafurcil from the extreme points of the 
wings ; they alio killed a few plovers on this illand, the 
breadth of whit h does not exceed one hundred vards, 
and the length live hundred ; they found a houfe and a 
liitlc fpot of culti\ated ground, anil on it grew the 
P.ilina Clirilli, from which the \\'c-ll Indians nuke 
their laOoroif. 

In a little time after the grntrcnncn returned to the 
rtiip, fome Mala\s came ah)ng-lide in a boat, bring- 
ing with them jtompions, ilrieii filh, aiul turtle, tor 
fiile ; (•lie of the turtles, whit h weighed near one hiin- 
drt d and fift\ pounds, thev fold for a dollar, and feemrd 
to tXjK'Ct the lame piece of money for their Iriiir ; but 
i: being hinted to them that a dollar was too nuich, they 
lit tired that one might be cut, and a piece of it given 
to ih(',;i, but this not being comi)lied with, they at 
> :ig!h fold twenty-lix pompions for a Portuguefe pe- 
ta' ka. When they lieparteti, they intimated their 
wi;lict, that this traiilaction might not be mentioned at 

We now made but little way tifl night, when the 
l.and-brcv.zc fpringing up, we failed to the 1'^. S. K. 
and on the lollowing day, by the alliftance of the 
lea-brteze, came to an anchor in the road of Batavia. 
At tins place we found a lumiber of large Dutch vellel^, 
flu- \ larcourt I'^IV-lniliaman Imin Englamf, whii h hail 
lotl her pallage to China, and two lliifw iK'longing to 
the private trade of our India company. 'J'he LMidea- 
\our had no fooner anchored, than a Ihip was o!)ferved, 
with a broad pendant flying, from which a b«Kit was 
dilpatchrd to demand the name of the vcHel, with 
that of the commander, &c. To ihefe enquiries Cap- 
tain Cook gave fuch anfwers as he thought pro{)er, and 
the ollicer who commanded the boat de|)arted. 'I'his 
gentleman, ami the crew that attended him, were (o 
viorn out with the unhealthinefs of the climate, that it 
was ai)paiem many deaths would follow : yet at prefcnt 
'here was not one iii\alid on board of our ihip, except 
rile Intlian Tupu. ihe Captain now difpatched an of- 
ficer to the governor of thetoi*u, to aixjlogi/.c lor the 
Eaideavour's nor fainting : U)r he had but three guns 
proper tor tlic pur|)o(e, except fwivcls, and he was 
apprchenlive that they would not be heard. The fliip 
^a.i 1<) leaky, that l!ic made about nine inches water in 

an hour, on the average; part of the falfe keel w.^ 
gone; one of her pumps was totally ufelcfs, and ihf. 
reft fo tiiuch decayed, that they could not laft Ion-. 
The officer:- and feamen concurring in opinion that I'U; 
(hip could not Hifely put to fca again in thisconiliiitm, 
the Captain refolvcd to folicit permillion to heave lur 
down ; but as he had learned that this mull be iloiie in 
writing, he drew up a petition, and had it tranllattj 
into Dutch. 

On Wednefday, October the loth, the Captain an| 
the rcll of the gentlemen went on ll.oie, and a]i|i|ii,J 
totheonly Engfilh reiident at Batavia; thisgcnilciiKiii, 
whofe name was Leith, received his countrymen in the 
polireft manner, and enicrtained them at dinner >\\i]\ 
great holpitality. Mr. Leith infoimed us, that a pii!i- 
lic hotel was kept in town, by order ol" the Dutch j'l)- ' 
\ernor, at which place men hants and fiiher lliaivcu 
were ohligctl to lodge, and that the landlord of i!k- 
hotel was bi i.:id to find them waiehoufcs lor tluir 
goods, (in the condition of receiving ten lliilliii;;-: on 
evtr\ luindiivl pounds of thi-ir value Irit as the l'',iid -i- 
voiii was a king's ihip, her ollicel^, and the other ;',c",- 
tlemen, might ulide where they thought proper, or!\ 
alking, leave of the governor, wlmre permillion \\<\.'n\ 
be inllantly obtain-. il. Mr. l.eith added, that t:-( , 
might live cheaper in this way than at the IkjIcI, if 
they had any perfon who Ipoke the B.uavi:>n i('r".uc, 
uliom they could rely on to puiihafe their provii';ons, 
but as there was no fuch perfon a'liung the \\ ■■>'■{.• ::> ,1' 
crew, the gentlemen immediatcK bclpo^t.• br^\- r. •■ ,• 
hotel. In the afternoon Captain Cook attenc.^: i.'.-f ,. 
\ernor-geneiat, who received him politely, ano i.)M 
him to wait on the council the next morning when 
hi^ petition lliculd be laid before them, and everv thiii;^ 
that he loliciteil fhould be granted. I i:e in the even- 
ing of this day, there hainxncl a moll terrible llorni 
ol thunder and lightning, at companied with mt) heavy 
rain. In this llorm the i.' \in-mall of a Duti h Eall was fptit and carrietl away by the deck ; anj 
the main-top-maft and main-topgallant-maft were 
tiirii to pieces ; it is fuppolcil, that the lightning w.u 
attra^tid by an iron fpindle at the main-top-galiam- 
ni.ift-lu kI. ihe I'.iuieavour, whith was at a fmall 
ilillance liiim the Dutch Ihip, el'caped w irhmit damage, 
owing, moft (}rolv)i>ly, to the electrical chain whith 
oinciiH ictl tl'.e lightning over the vcllel. — A centiiul 
1 11 boai.l tlie Iviiteavoiir, who was charging his miil- 
HiKt at the time of the llorm, hail it Ihakeii out of his 
hand, ami the ram- riRl broken to piet es ; the elet - 
rrital chain liwkeil like a ftream of lire, and the lhi[> 
fiillaincti a very violent Hick k. 

On Thurldav the iith, Capt. Cook waited on the 
gentlemen of the council, who informctl liim that all 
his requclls llanilii be complietl with. In the interim 
ll;c other gentlemen maile a ctMitract with the mafh; 
of the hotel, to turnilh them anti their frieiuls with 
as ihuch tea, t tiffee, pundi ami tobacco, as thcymigh; 
have cKtaliiin tiir, antl to k<rp them a feparate table, 
fi)V nine (hiirings a day I'.nglilh money : but on th- 
condition that every per!t)n wlit) flioiild \ilit tlieiu, 
flioulit pay at the rtte of l(>iir ftiillings and fix pence 
ft»r his dinner, and the fame (um lt)r his fu[)per atnl 
bcil, if he chofe to llee|) at the hotel; they were like- 
'vile to [uy ' <'ver\ fervant that attendcil thein liftetii 
)5ence a /. It was (ix)!! ililcovercti, that they had 
Ixen iiuich impoleii on ; lor thele charges were iwicea^. 
iiuic h as ct)ulil have been demandeti at a private houlc 
They appeared to live elegantly, but at the fame tmu 
were but ill lup|ilied. Their limncr confilledof lificeii 
ilifhes, all ferved up at once ; anil their ftipper of thir- 
teen, but of thele, nine or ten were of the moft ordi- 
nary, becaufe the cheajxft, (poultry) that could be pur- 
chafed, and even Ibme of thele dilhes were obferved to 
be ferved up lt)ur times fuccelftvely: a duck, which u.i; 
hot at dinner, was brought told in the evening, the 
next day lerved up as a fricallee, and was converted 
into forced meat at night. We, however, only fared 
as others had done before us: it was the conlI:uit ciif- 
toni of the confcientious mailer of the hotel, to treat 
all liis giiefts in the fame iiiaiuicr : if wc took no aotice 



T E. 

of the falft kcd «:,, 
nally iifelds, aiul ih- 
' could not laft Ion-, 
ig in opinion th:it tii. 
Li;ain in this comlit ion, 
•rniillion to heave ii,r 
t this mull be tloin- n, 
and had it tranllatcj 

3th, the Captain nn| 
n ll.orc, and apph, j 
avia ; this}^cntli-iii.i;i, 
lis coiintn men in tin.' 
thcni at diMiUT ,n'h 
'imi-d us, that a pnh- 
■litrol' the Uiirch j',|- 
< and (iilicr llian"iij 
t the landlord oliht 
Nuri-houll's lor ilim- 
ivini; ten ^llillin;;^• ,,ii 
lie. but as the luul;:;- 
S and the otlierja-!, - 
llioiij'Ju proper, oi 'v 
ole iicrniillion wo ,Kt 
iih avlded, ih.ii r.'. , 
than at the lii,rel, if 

til.- IJlLUKMl lol".i,,.^ 

hale tluir prox ri'ton-, 
lon;^ tl'.e w •)!e :.', •.'' 

biljlOM: bo«l> ;fi. •■ . 

ook atten^'v^; ?'v ,- 
II politely, atui lola 
lext tnoiiiing what 
hem, and every thin- 
. l.ite in the even- 
a mod terrible 1)01 :;i 
mied uith MTV lieiw 
■\\\ of a Hut. h b.alr 
\\ by the tleek ; anj 
p-CtaJlaiit-inafl weit 
It the lightnin-; w.i', 
le niain-top-gallanu 
iieh uas at a l"mn;i 
[leil withf«it dania>;i, 
-Irieal chain \\W\\ 
vell'el. — A eentiiv I 
ihar^'ing his nun. 
it Ihakeii out ol'h; 
> pie< es ; the elei ~ 
Dl' (ire, and the lliip 

00k waited on th; 
ti)rni(ii liiin that ail 
ih. In the inteiii; 
ad with tile iiialti : 

their t'riend.t wii! 
faceo, as theymi^^l ■ 
ni a ieparate table, 
iiioiley : but on th- 

llioiild \ilit tliem, 
ings and (ix peiK.- 

lor lii.s ru(>per ami 
:el ; they »verc like- 
:tendeil them lil'teen 
ercd, that they hail 
larges were twirea^ 
1 at a |)rivate hoiile. 
Hit at the fame tiiin- 
■ conlilU'dol'litteen 
heir flipper of tliir- 
e of the 11 Hill ordi- 
) that could bepur- 
es were obfcrved to 

a duck, which M.ii 
1 the evening, the 
and was converted 
lowcvcr, only fared 
i the conllant cuf- 
thc hotel, to treat 

wc look noBotiie 


^ — • 

FIRST VOYAGE for making Difcovcries in i\\c South Seas URownA. the JForld. 81 

of it all was well, for the landlord hail the better cuf- 
tome'rs of Us : if wc rcmonnrated againft fuch treat- 
ment, the table was better fiipplicd from time to time, 
till in the end wc had no reafon to complain. 
However, after a few days, Mr. Banks hired for 
himfelf and party, a fmall houfc, next door to the hotel, 
for which he paid forty-five (liillings per month; but 
they were farlrom having the convcniencies and privacy 
they cxpec'led : for no nerfon was permitted to deep in 
it as an oceafional gucft, under a penalty ; and Dutch- 
men were continually running in without the lead cere- 
mony, to alk what was to be fold, it being a cuHom for 
moll (irivate perfons in Uatavia to be furnillied with 
fomc articles of traffic. Kvery one here hires a car- 
riage, and Mr. Banks engaged two. Thefe larriages 
are open chaifes j they hold two perfons, and are driven 
bv a man fitting on a kind of coach-box : for each of 
tlicfe Mr. Banks paid tivo rix-dollars a dav. 

Our Indian friend Tupia had hitherto continued on 
board on account of his diforder, which was ot the 
bilious kind, vet he peiiilk-d in rcfufing every medicine 
that was olVered him. Mr. Banks fent for him to his 
houfe, in hopes that he hiight recover his health. While 
inthelliip, and even in the boat, he was exceedingly 
liftlei's and low fpirited, hut heno fooner entered the 
town than he feemed as if reanimated. The houfes, 
the carriages, llreets, people, and a hiultiplicity of other 
objeds, wholly new to him, produced an ert'ect like the 
fuppofc'l power of f;>fcinatfon. Hut if Tupia was afto- 
niihed at the fcene, his Iviy Tayeto wa.^ perfee'Uy enrap- 
tured. He exprcded his wonder and delight with lefs 
rtlhaint. He danced along the ftreet in a kind of ex- 
tacv, and examined every object with a rclllefs curiofity 
«hich was each moment excited and gratified. Tupia 
remarked particularly the variety of drclfes worn by 
the palling multitude, concerning which he made many 
cniiuirie<. Being informed, that here were people ot 
ditl'erent nations, each of whom wore the habit of his 
refpei'hve country, he defiled that he might conform 
to the cullom, and appear in that of Otaheite 1 and 
fome .Souih-fea cloth being fent for from the iliip, he 
dreded himfelf with great expedition and dexterity. 
The pe<iple of Batavia, who had feen an Indian brought 
thittur in M. Bougainville's flii[), named Otouroii, 
luillook Tupia for that perfon, and frequently alked if 
he was not the fame. About this time wc had procured 
an order to the fiiperintendant of the ifland of Ouruft, 
where the lliip was to be repaired, to receive her there, 
and by one ot the fhi()s that failed for Holland, an ac- 
count was lent to Mr. Stephens, fecretary to the ad- 
miralty, of our arrival at this plare. Here the captain 
found nn unexpected difficulty in procuring money for 
the cxpences tliat would be incurred by refitting the 
l-'.ndeavour; private perfons had neither the ability nor 
inclination to advance the fum required; he therefore 
fent a w rittcn application to the governor himfelf, who 
ordered the Shebander to fupply the captain with 
what money he might want out of the company's trca- 

Thuifday the iSth, early in the morning, after a 
delay of fome dajs, we ran dow n to Ouruft, and laid 
flu- Ihip along-fide of the wharf, on Cooper's Ifland, in 
Older to take out her ilores. After little more than 
nine days, wc began to experience the fatal ctVeds of 
the climate and fiiuation. Tupia funk on a fudden, 
and grew every day worfe and worfe. Tayeto, his boy, 
was fci/.ed with an inHammation on his lungs. Mr. 
Banks and Dr. Solander were attacked by fevers, and 
the two ft-rvants of the former became very ill ; in fhort, 
almoft every perfon Iwth on board and afhore fell fick 
in a few days, owing, as we im.-igined, to the low 
fwfliupy fituation of tlic place, and the numbcrlefs 
dirty canals, that interfed the town in all diredions. 

On the 26th, when few of the crew were able to do 
duty, we ercded a tent for their reception. Tupia, of 
whofe life wc began to defpair, defired to be removed 
.10 the Ihip, in hopes of breathing a freer air ; however 
tliis could not be done, as flic was unrigged, and pre- 
paring to be laid Aa\\n at the careening-place ; but on 
the 28th, Mr Banks conveyed him to Cooper's Ifland, 

Noi, 10, 

or as it is called here, Kuypor,and,as he feemcil pleafed 
with the fpot near which the Ihip lay, a tent was pitched 
for him. When the fea and land brec/.cs blew over 
him, he exprellcd great fatisfaction at his iituation. 
On the;joth Mr. B.lnks returned to town, having, from 
humanity alone, becrt two days with Tupia, whole fits 
of an intermitting fever, now bicame a regular tertian, 
and were fo violent as to deprive him of his knlcs while 
they lalleil, and left him fo weak, that he couKl fcarcely 
crawl from his bed. At the fame time Dr. Solander'.i 
fever incrcafed, and Mr. Monkhoufe, the fuigeon, was 
eonfinei) to his bed. 

On Monday the 5th of November, after many un- 
avoidable delays, the lliip was laid down, and the fame 
<lay Mr. Monkhoufe, our furgeon, fell a facriiice to this 
!;.uii country; whofe lofs was iiore feverely felt, by his 
being a fenfible, Ikilfiil man, and dying at a time when 
his;ibilities were moft wanted. Dr. bolander was jult 
itbleto attend his funeral, but Mr. Banks, in his turn, 
was confined to his bed. Great, inexpiciribly great w as 
our difirefs at this time ; the profpcct before us in the 
highfll degree difcouraging; our danger fiich as wc 
could not furmount by any elforts of our own, tor 
courage, diligence, and (kill, were ail equally inelVec- 
tual ; and death was every day making advances towards 
us, when we could neither refift nor tly. 1 ne power of 
difeafe, from the peftiferous air of ti' country, daily 
gaining flrength, feveral Malay ferva us were hired to 
attend the lick, but they had fo little lenfe either of duty 
or humanit), that the patient was obliged frequently to 
get out ot bed to feck them. 

Friday the 9th, our Indian boy Tayeto paid the debt 
of nature, and poor Tupia was fo atl'eded at the lols, 
that it was doubted whether he would fiirvive it till the 
next day. In the mean time the fiiip's bof^om having 
been caitfully examined, it was found to be in a .vorfc 
condition than we apprehentlcil. The i'alle keel was 
confiderahly gone to within twenty feet of the llern 
port; the main keel was injured in many plaees ; iiuieh 
of the rtieaihing wv.s torn olf ; and feveral planks were 
greatly damaged: two of them, and half of a third, 
particularly, tor the length of fix feet, were fo worn, 
that they were not above an eighth part of an inch tliick, 
and the worms had made their way quite into the Lim- 
bers: yet, in this condition, the Kndeavour had f.iilcd 
many hundred leagues, where navigation is as danger- 
ous a"; in any part of the globe. How much milery did 
we efcape, by being ignorant that fo confiderahle a part 
of the bottom of the vellel was thinner than the foie of 
a llioe, and that every life on board depended on fo 
lliglit a barrier between us and the unfathomable 
ocean ! 

Dr. Solander and Mr. Banks were now fo worn dow n 
by their difordcrs, that the phyfician declared they had 
no chance for reco\ery but by removing into the 
country. In confcquence of this advice a houfe was 
hired for them, at the dirtance of about tw<i miles from 
the town, which belonged to the mafler of the hotel, 
who engaged to fupply them witl provifioiis, and the 
life of Haves. As they had already experienced the 
unfeeling inattention of thefe fellows to the lick, they 
bought each of them a Malay woman, w ho, from the 
tenderncfs of their fex made th"m good nurfes. While . 
thefe gentlemen were taking meafures for the re- 
covery of their health, we received an account of 
the death of our faithful Tupia, who funk at once 
after the lofs of his boy, Tayeto, whom he loved with 
the tenderncfs of a parent. When Tayeto was firit 
feized with the fatal diforder, he feemed fenlible of his 
approaching end, and frequently faid to thofe that were 
about him Tyau mate fee, " My friends 1 am dying;" 
he was very trachible, and took any medicines that were 
offered him : they were both buried in the ifland of 

On the 1 4th, the bottom of the fliip was thoroughly 
repaired, and much to Capt. Cook's fatistaction, who 
beftowcd great encomiums on the officers and th(.- work- 
men at the Marine-yard ; in his opinion there is not 
one in the world, where a fliip can be laid down with 
more couvcniciu fpccd and fafety, nor repaired with 
X jnorc 





c.> ,[ 

more diligcnc c nnil Ikill. At this pl.icc they heave down 
with two iiulKs, a method we do not now pradifei it is, 
however, unquedionably more fafe and expeditious to 
heave down with two mafh than one, and the man 
iniill want common fcnle, or be ftrangcly attached to 
old ciiftoms, who «ili not allow this, after feeing with 
what facility the Dutch heave down and relit their 
largelV vedcls at Ourull. At thi.s time Capt. Cook was 
taken ill. Mr. Sporing alfo, and a Tailor who attended 
Mr. Banks, were fci/ed with the deadly inteinnittents, 
and only ten of the (hip's company were capable of 
doing duty. As to Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, they 
recovered llowly at their country-houfe, whi( h was open 
to the fca-bree/.c, and (ituated upon a running Itream j 
circumlhmces that lontributed not a little to a free 
circulation of air. Yet notwithftanding thefe perplex- 
ing olilHcles, though harralled by a contagious dileafe, 
and alarmed by frequent deaths, we proceeded in rig- 
ging the iliip, and getting water and ncccllary (lores 
aboard : the (lores wcreealily obtained anil llii|iped, but 
the water we were obliged to procure from Batavia, .it 
the rate of (ix fliillings and eight-pence a leager, or one 
hundred and (ifty gallons. 

On the ;5th, in the night there fell fuch a (liowcr of 
rain, lor the (pace of four hours, as even all of us 
had caufe e\ er to remember. The water poured through 
every part of Mr. Banks's hotife, and the lower ajiart- 
inents admittcil a (Iream fufticient to turn a mill. As 
thisgcntleman was now greatly redored in health, he went 
to Batavia the (ollow ing ilav, and was furpri/ed to fee that 
the inhabit.uit> had hung their bedding todrv. About 
the :r)th of this month the wederly nionloon fet in ; 
it blows in the day-time from the N. or N. W. and 
Irom the S. W. during the n!;;hl . previous to this, thea- 
had been \ iolcnt (liowers of rain for feveral nights. 
'I'he mulquitos and gnats, whole company' had been 
futliciently diliigreeable in dry weather, now begun to 
fjarm in immenfe numbers, riling froni the puddles of 
water like bees from a hive; they were extremely trou- 
Melome during the night, but the pain ariling from the 
lling, though \cry fevere, feltlom laded more than half 
an hour, and in the ilay-time they feldom made their 
attack. The frogs kept a pcri)etual croaking in the 
liitches, a ceitain (ign that the wet feafon was com- 
menced, and thill dndy rain might be expected. 

'I'he tliip b<ing ie|-)aired, the (ick people received on 
lid.inl her, and the gicatir ]\irt of her water and (lores 
t.ikcn in, die (ailed liom Oiinid on the 8th of DecemtxT, 
and .un'hored in the road of Batavia ; twclved:i\ s w ereem- 
ployed in receiving the rein.iinder of her provi(ions, wa- 
ic r, and other necellarics, thougli the buliiuls would have 
been done in mui h his time, lull that fome ot the crew 
died, and the main; in of' the furvivors were lb ill, as to 
he unable to give their alTillanee. 

On the :4th, Capt. C<K)k took leave of the governor, 
and fonie other gentlemen, who didmguilhed 
themfelvei by tlie civilities they (hewed him; but at 
this juiwture an incideijt occurred, that might have 
produ> ej coiilequences by no means delirable. A 1 

failor belonging to one of the Dutch (hips in the muldt 
Batavia, delertcd from the vcdel, and entered himli li m 
Iward the Endeavour. The captain of the Dutch (l,ir) 
having niaik application to the go -rnor, claiming the 
deliiuiucnt as afiibjeiit of the .States (Jeneral, the g()\iT. 
nor idiied his order for the redoration of tlir in.m; 
when this order was delivered to him, he (aid, that |Ik' 
man (liould be given up, if heappeaied to be a Dnt^ li. 
man. -As the captain was at this time on diore, .iml 
did not intend going on board till the following d iv, 
he gave the Dutch odiccra note to the lieutenant, ulid 
commanded on board the I'juleavour, to dclivir ilu- 
deferter on the condition alK)ve-mentioned. On tin 
following day the Dutchman waited on Capt. Cook, m 
Ibrming him, that the lieutenant had alilolutely refulal 
to give up the feaman. (hying he was an Iridiman, and 
of courfe a fubjecf of his Britannic Majelly ; Cajit. 
Cook applauded the conduct of his odicer, and added, 
that it could not be expected that he diould deliver ii|) 
an Englilh fubjeCt. The Dutch odicer then faiil, h,; 
was authorifed, by the governor, to demand the fugiii\i-. 
as a Danidi fubjeCt, adding that his name was entered 
in the (hip's b(H)ks as having been borne at Kllineui ; 
to this Capt. Cook very properly rcplieil, that the gover- 
nor mull: h.ive been inillaken, when he gave this oidi r 
for delivering the dcfener, who had his option wIkiIki 
he woiikl ferve the Dutch or the Knglidi j but in com- 
pliment to the governor, the man (liould be given up, 
as a (iivour, if he appeared to be a Dane, but that in tlus 
cafe, he (liould by no means be demanded as a riglu, 
an.l that he would certainly keep him, if he appiaied 
to be a fubjeot of the crown of d'reat Britain. The 
Dutihman now took his leave, and he had not bem 
long gt)ne before the captain received a letter from tlu: 
commamling odicer on Iward, (ontaiiung full puK.i, 
that the man was an Knglilli fubject. 'i'his letter tl.i- 
captain carried to the Ihetlander, dedring him to lay il 
belore the governor, and to inti)rm him, that the man 
IhouKl iw)t be delivered u|)onany terms whatever. Thi. 
fnirited conduct on the part o( Capt. Cook, had tliL- 
ae(ired ed'eCt ; and thus the matter ended. 

This day the captain, attenilcd by Mr. Banks and 
the other gentlemen who had hitherto lived in the town, 
repaired on board the (hip, which ^'ot under (iul the 
next morning. The Endeavour was (ahitid by the (on. 
and by the fllgin lad Indiaman. which then lay in thr 
road ; but Coon alter thefc compliments were retuiiud, 
the lea-bree/e Jetting in, they were obliged to come id 
anchor. .Since the arrival of the (hip in Batavia Road 
every perlon belonging to her had Ix-en ill, exce|)t tlu- 
lail-maker, who was more than feventy years old, yci. 
thi> man get drunk everyday while we remained there. 
The Endea\our buried fe\en of her jKople at Batavia 
viz. Tupia aiui his boy, three of the litilors, the fervaiu 
of Mr. ( irecn the allronomer and the furgeon ; and at the 
time of the veird's failing, (orty of the ircw were lick, 
and the red lb enlecbled by then, late iUnefs, as to be 
fcarctly a'lle to do their duty. 


c n A p. 



.j Jt/tfipii-i;- jiCOivit 0/ the t'lii'nof Ddlavui, and the circumjacent cnuulrv — //j i\i;ic'is p)iklii//io>if parlicu/<inzi'J — 7/..' 
m.tnmn, inlloms, and •j.av of Irjtn^ of the iiduil'tlauts f'liily dcfcril't\i—''l he Emittnour fii/j /lom Biitiiviu to the dipe 
of (icrid Ihpf — /ill ih\-'Miit of the inbabUaiits of Prince's Ijlund, vilh a comparalive view of iheir laii^iu^e, ,■; tlh that of 
the MuLiw and 'fiiMie/'e — The arrival 0/' the Endeavour .it the Cape (fi'iood Hope — Olferiutioiis on the run fucm Java 
I lead to p.'.t(Y — The (Jape and St. llelena defcribed — Remarks on the IktItiUols — 7/a' LndanMr returns to EngUnd, 
and anchor! in the D^xn^ onU'ediielday,'June 12, 1771. 

BAtavla, fituated in 6 deg. lomin. S. latitudc,and 
iG'j deg. 50 iiiin. \i. longitude trom tlie meridian 
oJ'Cireenwich, is built on the bank of a large bay, ("oiue- 
thing more than twcntv miles from the Streight of 
Sunda, on the north lide of the illand of Java, on a low 
boggygrouml. Several (inall rivers, which rife Ibrty 
miles up the countrv, in the mountains of Blaeuwen 
Berg, difcharge thcinfelvcs into the fca at tliw place, 

having firft interfeCU'd the town in diflerent dircClioni. 
There arc w ide canals of nearly Oa^'naied water in almolt 
every llreet, ;vnd as the banks of the canals arc planted 
with trees, they appear at (irlt very agreeable; but thele 
trees and canals combine to render the air pedilcntial. 
Some of the rivers art navigable, more than thiit) 
miles up the country; and, indeed, the Dutch appear 
CO have tholen tliis Ipot to build the town on, Ibr the 


h (hips in tlie Kiuldf 
:iiii of thf Dutch Ihip 

-rnor, clainiin)r the 
's General, the j^'ovcr- 
uraticm of thi'; 
him, he (aid, that Oi: 
)eaiei.i to he a l)(i[^ 1,. 
i time on (hole, .iint 
II the fbll<jv\ing il i 

I) the lieiiteiiaiit, u|;,, 
ivour, to iJchvir ilir 
mentioned. Un i:,. 
■d on C'apt. Cook, m 
lad ahloluteiy leliilal 
\as an liidiman, and 
nit MajelJy; {;a|,i. 
is officer, and atlded, 
he ihoiiiil deliver ui 
()(hcerthcn faid, 1,- 
demand the CiigitiN,- 
lis name was emend 

1 borne at F.lhnein ; 
phed, that the gove:- 
en heg:ivc this ordn 
i his option will ill, 1 
Inplilli ; but in lom. 

Iliould bc|riven ii|i, 
Jane, but that in tli:s 
emanded as a riniii, 
him, if he appeand 
^■'reat Uritain. I'lic 
id he had not Ixt i 
veil a letter fiom tl;,: 
niaming full pt<>v\, 
eet. '1 his letter the 
:(iring jiim to lay n 

him, that the man 
•rms whatever. '1 hi* 
ipt. Cook, had the 
• ended. 

by Mr. Banks and 
rui lived in the town, 
I ^(ot under fail the 
,s(ahit<d by the fort, 
hith then lay in tlir. 
lents were retunud, 
obliged to come to 
ip in Iktavia Road 
been ill, ex( ept the 
enty years old, vet. 
ive remained then . 
r jKople at Hutavi.i 
eiailors,the fervant 
fur^eon ; and at tin: 
the trew were lick, 
ate illnefs. as to be 



COOK'S FIRST VOYAfJE — for making Di/coveria in the Sont/j fc Round the frur/J. 83 


Jake of water-carriage, in which convenience Batavia 
[exceeds every plate in the world, except the towns of 
molland. A writer who publillied an account oi this 
(place near 50 years ago, makes the number of houfes 
fat that time 4760, viz. 1 242 Dutch houfes, and 1 200 
Ichinefe houfes, within the walls; and 1066 Dutch 
Ihoufes, and 1240 Chincfe houfes, without the walls, 
Kvith 1 2 houfes for the vending of arratk. The ftrcets 
(of llatavia beinc wide, and the houfes large, it ftands 
[on more ground than any ulacc that has only an equal 
number of houfes. In ury weather a mod horrid 
lleneh arifes from the canals, and taints the air to a 
great degree ; and when the rains have lb fwellcd their 
Uanals that they overflow their banks, the ground-floors 
of the houfes, in the lower part of the town, are filled 
! with (linking water, that leaves behind it dirt and flimc 
in amazing quantities. The running ffrcams are fome- 
times as olienlivc as the flagnant canals, for the bodies 
of dead animals arc frequently lodged on the fhallow 
parts, where they are left to putrify and corrupt the 
air, except a flood happens to carry them away ; this 
was the cafe ol a dcid buflalo, while the crew of the 
J'lndeavour were there, which lay rtinking on the flioal 
of a river, in one of the chief (freets for feveral days. 
They fomctimes clean the canals ; but this bulinefs is 
performed in fuih a manner, as fcaicely to make them 
Icfs a nuifantc than before, for the bottom being cleared 
of its black mud, it is left on the lide of the canal till 
it is hard enough to be taken away in boats, and as there 
are no houfes tisr nccclfary retirement in the whole 
jj town, the filth is thrown into the canals regularly once a 
.|i day; fo that this mud is a compound of every thing that 
/'I tan be iinagined difagreeable and ufUniive. 

'I'he new church in Batavia, is a line jmccc of build- 
ing, and the dome of it may be feen far olf at fea. 
This churt h is illuminated by chandeliers of the molt 
fuiierb workmanlhip, and has a fine organ : moft of 
the other public buildings are ancient, coiillniflcd in 
an ill talle, and gave a very compleat idea of D.itch 
chimlinefs. Their method of Iniilding their houfes 
feems to have been taught them by the climate. On 
the ground-floor there is no rtnim but a large hall, a 
corner t)f which is parteil olf for the tranfacHon of 
Inilinefs; the hall ha* two doors, which are commonly 
left open, and are oppolite each other, fo that the air 
paflts (reely through the room, in the middle of which 
there is a court, which at once increafcs the draft of 
air, and afli)rds light to the hall j the flairs, which are 
at one corner, lead to large and lofty apartments 
abo\e. 'Ihe female flaves arc not permitted to fit in 
any place but the alcove formed by the court, and this 
is the ufual dining place of the faiiiilv. 

liitavia is eiuompafled by a river of fliallow water, 
the flream of which is very rapid ; within this river, 
which is of dilferent widths in various places, is an 
olil flone wall, muc h decayed in many places,and with- 
in the wall is a canal wider in fome places than in 
other-, (o that there is no entering the gates of the town 
but by croliiiig two draw-bridges ; there are but few on 
the ramparts and no perfons arc permitted to walk 
there, i here is a kind ol citadel, or lallle, in the 
N. K. corner of the town, the walls of which are both 
broader and higher than they arc in other parts ; it is 
furnifhed with a number of large guns, which command 
the landing-place. 

Aliartments are provided in this caflle for the go- 
vernoi-gencral and all the council j and in cnfc of a 
fiege they have orders ro retire thither. In the calllc 
are likewife a numbt r ol Ifore-houfcs, in which the 
eflects belonging to the company are dcpolited. The 
company have in their polieilion large quantities of 
pun-powder, which is kept indiiferent places, that the 
li'^^htning may not delhoy the w hole flock at once ; a number of cannon arc likewife laid up within 
the calllc. There aiv a great many forts built in ditle- 
rcnt parts of the country, feveral niiles diftant from Ba- 
tavia, mofl probably erci^ted to kce|i the natives infub- 
niidion : and betides thefe there are a number of forti- 
fied houfes, each mounting eight guns, which arc fo 
lUlioncd as to cotiimaad the canals and the roajs on 

the borders. There are houfes of thii kind in many 
part,* of the ifland of Java, and the other illands m 
Its neighbourhood, of w liich the Dutt h have ohtaineil 
jiofrcdion. The Chincfe having nhelled againll them 
in the year 174O, all their princijial houl'cs were demo- 
liflitd by the cannon of one of thefe fortifieil houfes, 
which is in the town of Batavia, where, likewife, there 
are a fvw more of them. 

The roads of this country arc only banks between 
the ditrhos and canals, and the fortitied houfes being 
erec'ted among the morafles near thefe roails, nothing 
is eafier than to deftroy them, and conleiiuenily to 
prevent an enemy from bringing any heavy artillery 
near the tow n : if, indeed, an enemy be only hindered 
a fliort time in his approach, he is eflectually ruined, 
for the climate will preclude the necelfity of the ufe of 
weapons for his delVrucUon. Before the Mndeavour 
had been a svcck at Batavia, her crew began to feel the 
ill efl'eiffs of the climate j half of them were rendered 
incapable of doing their duty belorc the expiration of 
a month. They were infiirmed, that it was a very un- 
common thing for 50 foldiers out of 100 brought from 
Europe, to be alive at the exjiiration of the lirfl year, 
and that of the fifty who might hajipcn to be living, 
not ten of thole would be in found health, and, pro- 
bably, not lefs than half of them in the hofpital. 

In I5atavia all the white inhabitantsare foldiers, and, at 
theexpiration of fivcyears fervice, thcyarc boundto hoUl 
thcmfelves in re.-idinefs to go to war, if they fliould be 
wanted, and the younger inhabitants are frequently 
muftercd ; but as they are neither trained nor exercifed 
after theexpiration of the five years before-mentioiied, 
the little they have learned is foo.n tbrgotten. The In- 
dians, of whatever nation, who relide here, and ha\e 
either been made free, or w ere born fo, are called Mar- 
dykers; but neither thefe northc Chincfe are acquainted 
with fir -arms, yet as thefe people are faid to poflefs 
great perfonal braver)', much might be expected from 
their expert life of their daggers, fwords and lances. 
It would be a laborious tafk to attack Batavia by land, 
and it is not poflible to make any attack at all by fea, 
for the fliallownefs of the water would hinderany veflels 
from advancing within cannon fliot of the walls ; in- 
deed there is barely depth of water for a fliip's long- 
boat, except a narrow channel, called the river, which 
extends half a mile into the harbour, and is flrongly 
bounded on each fide with {liers, the other end of it 
being directly under the fire of the caflle, while its 
communication w ith the canals of the town is prevent- 
ed by a boom of wood, which is every night fhut prc- 
cifely at fix o'clock, and never opened till the follow- 
ing day. 

in the harbour of Batavia, any numlier of fliips 
may anchor, the ground is fb excellent that the anchor 
will never quit its hold. This harbour is fomctimes 
dangerous (()r boats, when the fea-breezcs blow frcfh ; 
but, upon the whole, it is deemed the bell and moli 
commodious in all India. There is a conliderablc num- 
bvr of iflands, which arc fituated round the outfidc of 
the harbour, and all thefe arc in the pofleflion of the 
Dutch, wlio deflinc them to different purpofes. On 
one of them, which is called I'urmercnt, an hofpital 
is creeled, on account of the air bein<:; purer than it is 
at Batavia. In a fecond, the name of which is Kuyper, 
are eredled numbers of warehoufes, wherein arc lodged 
the rice and fbmc other commoilitics, which belong to 
the Dutch Fltll-India Company; at this ifland thole 
fliips belonging to different nations, which arc to be 
repaired at Ourufl, unload their cargoes : and it was 
here that the flores of the Falmouth man of war were 
laid up, when fhe was condemned on her return from 
Manilla ; her warrant ofliccn;, of whom mention has 
been made in the account of Captain Wallis's voyage, 
were fent to Europe in Dutch ihips about half a year 
before the Endeavour anchored in the road of Batavia. 
A third of thefe iflands, the name of which is Edam, 
is appropriated to the reception of certain ofIi?nders, 
whofc crimes are not deemed worthy of death, and 
thither they are tianfported from Holland, and detain- 
ed from five to forty years, in proportion to the hcinouf- 




P ^ 





Capt. C C) O K s VOYAGES C « M P L E P IC. 

ni-ri of the oHinic thty have cuiniuittcil: making of 
ropes ii the prim ip»l piu t of the cniployiiirnt of tncfc 


The enviroin of Batavla have a very ptcafing ap- 
pcaranic, and would in ahnoO any other i ountry, be 
an i'n\iahlc lltiiacion. (rardcn* ami houfcs occupy the 
toiintry tor feveral miles, but the former are fo covered 
«ith trees, that the ailvantage of the land having been 
cleared of the «ooit that originally covered it, is aliiwll 
wholly loll; while thele garileas and the fuld-t ad- 
jaceiu tt) them arc iurroiinded by ditches which yield a 
dil'agreeable I'iikII; and the bogs and moralles in the 
adjacent fields are Itill more otlenlive. I'or the fpace 
of more than thirty miles beyond thctowrv, the land is 
totally flat, except in t\«) places, on one of which the 
povernor's country-feat is Injilt, and on the other they 
hold a large market ; but neither of thefe places is 
higher than ten yards liom the level of the [jlain. At 
near t'ortv miles from the town the land rifes into hills, 
and the air is purilicd inagreat degree ; to thi> tlidance 
the mvalids are fent by their phylicians when every 
r)ther profpecl of their recovery has failed, and the ex- 
periment iiicteeds in ahnoH every inllance, tiirthe lick 
arc redtired to health i but they no f(H)ner return to the 
town, than their former diforders rcvilit them. On 
thefe hills the moll opulent of the inhabitants have 
country feats, to which they pay anannual vilit. Thr'- 
who rclide conrtantly on the hills, enjoy an almoll per- 
petual How of health; and moft of the vegetables ot' 
V'.iiropc grow - ; freely there as in their native ground : 
thellravviierr,' in particular llourilhes greatly, which is 
a fullicieiit proof of the coolnefsof the air. 

In this lountn- rice is very plentiful, ami, in order to 
be brought to perfcilion, ihould lie under watir more 
than half the time it is growing : but they have a fort 
which grows on the fides of the hills, which is unknown 
in the Well-India illands ; this fort is planted wlicn 
the wet feaibn conuricnrcs, and the crop is gathered in, 
foon after the rains are ovci. The mai/.e, which giovvs 
near lUtavia, is gathered while young, and roallcd in 
the ear. The land likewife produces carrots, c elery, 
parlley, afparagus, onions, radilhes, cabbages, let- 
tuces, cucimbers, lentiles, kidney-beans, hyll'op, fage, 
rue, Chinefe white radilhes, which when boiled, are not 
unlike a iiarfnip, common potatoes, fw cct potatoes, wet 
and drv yams, millet, and the egg plant, the fruit of 
which, when broiled andeatcn with fait and pe[)per, is 
niofi exquilitc fix>d. Amazing crops of liigar are pro- 
duced here, and, while the quantity is beyond compa- 
iill)n greater, the ( aa- of cultivation is inconcei\ably 
l( C than in the Wcfl-lndia iflands. White fugar is 
ntaiiiil at two-jicnce half-penny the pound; and arrack 
is made (rf the molalles, with a fmall addition of rice, 
anil the w ine of the cocoa-nut. The inhabitants likew ife 
laife a little indigo for their own ufe, but do not export it. 

The fruits of thi:: country are near forty in number, 
and of fome of ihele there are of feveral kinds. Pinc-ap- 
ples grow ill (ut.h al'umlance, th;it they may be pur- 
c haled at the iiril hand, for the value of an F.nglilli 
liirthiiiL; ; and we l>ought foiue very large ones t<)r a 
halt-penny a piece at the fruit-Hiops, and their talle is 
very excellent. They grow lb luxuriantly, that feven 
or eight fuckers have been fcen adhering to one ftcm. 
The fweet oranges of Batavia arc good of their kind, 
but very dear at particular tidies. The fliaddocks of 
the Well-Indies, called here Pamplemoofcs, have an 
agreeable flavour. Ixinons were very fcarte when the 
Kndeavour lay in theharlxwr, but limes were altogether 
as plentiful, and fold at little more than two-pence the 
fcore. There are many kinds of oranges and lemons, 
but none of them excellent. Of mangoes there are 
plenty, but their taflc is far inferior to the melting 

iieach of England, to w hich they have been compared. 
t is faid that the heat, and extreme dainpnefs of the 
climate docs not agree with them, yet there are many 
different kinds of them. Of bananas, there are an 
amazing variety of forts, fomc of which being boiled, 
arc eaten as bread, w hile others are fried in batter, and 
arc a nourilhing food: but of the numerous forts of 
Sruit, three only are fit to be eaten : one indeed it re- 



markahle, becaufe it is filled with feeds, which are imt 
common to the rell. Grapes are fold from one Ihillnijr 
to eighteen pence a pound, though tlu > are fai lunii 
being good. The tamarinds are ( heap and plentitm , 
but as the method ol' preferving them, Mliiih i> m 
fait, renders them a mere black lum[), they are t>.iii.iliv 
naufeating to the fight and to the palate. The waii i 
melons arc excellent of their kind, aiul arc piodui.i 
in great abundance. The [lompions are boiled a> ti 1 . 
nips, and eaten with fait and pe[)per. 1 his truit is :ul. 
mirably adapted to the ufe of voyageri, as it will keep 
many mouths without care, and makes an excellmt 
pye, when mixed with the juice o( lemons and fiij^ar, 
The papansof this country are fupevior U) turnips, if 
the cores arc extr;»cted, after paring them when tiny 
arc green. The guava has a lliong fmell, and a talK: 
not lefs difagreeable : it is probaWc, that the guav.i nt' 
the Well-Inilies, which many writers h.ive dillinguithid 
by their praifcs, has a verv ditlirent flavour. 'I lie 
fweet fop IS a fruit that has tnit little flavour: itabouiuU 
in large kernels, from which the pulp is lin ked. 'I he 
talle of the cullard-apple very much rcRuibles thedilli 
from which its name is taken. 'I he calheu npple pm. 
duces a nut which is pot unknown in England, but the 
fruit has (iich an allringent i]ualit\, that the li tavl.ins 
feldom cat of it : the nut grows on the top of the ap- 
ple. The cocoa-nut is pU ntilul m this country, and 
there are feveral kinds ol' this liuit, the bill ol whii h 
is very red between the llu II and the Ikin. I'he jaiiuH") 
is a fruit that has but little t.illi-, but is of a cooling na- 
ture : It is conlidiTably lef> than a cnmmon-li/ed ap[ilr, 
and thofe that have grown to their lull li/e, arc alw,i\4 
the bcfl ; its (hape is o\al, and it. 1.0'our a deep rid 
Of the Jambu-eyer, there .ire two kiiuis, tlie wli,:.- 
and the red : they are Ihapcd Ike a bell, and are finiie- 
thing bigger than a cherry : they have no kind of talk- 
but that ot a watry arid. I'ho Jambu-e\ei ir.auw.ii, 
fmells like a role, and its taile is not unlike thai i<: 
confcrve of roles. The maiu;oflan i» ol a diik rfd i " 
lour, and not larger than a Imall apple : to the bo!U]m 
of this fruit adhere little leaves of the blolioip., 
while on its tops are a number ot tiiangln combiiKd 
in a circle, it contains IcNcial kerne U iaiij';ed in 
a lircular form, within which ii ilie pulp, ,\ fruit of 
moll exijuilite talle ; it is ei|u.ill\ nutritious and .agree- 
able, and is conllantly given to perloiii who are trou- 
bled with inflammatory or putrid fevirs. 'llu- fiviet 
orange of this country is likewife given in the fame dil- 
ordcrs. The jwmcgranate of theic parts ditler-, in no- 
thing from that generally known in Englaml. 'I'he d«- 
rion takes its name from the word Dure, which, in the 
language of that country, means prickles, and the name 
is well adapted to the truit, the flicll of whit h is co- 
vered with lliarp points, lliaped like a liigar-loaf : its 
contents are nuts notmuch fmaller than iheihuts, which 
are furrounded with a kind ot juice k I'cmbling i ream ; 
and of this the inhabitants eat with great avidity : the 
fmell of this fruit is more like that ot onions, than any 
other European vcget.ible, anil it« talle is like that of 
onions, fugar, and cream iiuerinixed : the inlide of 
the durion, when ripe, is pa'-ted, lengthways, into le- 
vcral divilions. The nanca is a fruit that fmells like 
garlick and apples mixed together: its lize in the gar- 
dens of Batavia, is not bigger thar. that of a middling 
fized pompion, and its f.iapc is nearly the fame : it is 
covered with prickles of an angular lorm. W'e were 
informed that, at a place called Madura, it has been 
known to grow to fuch an enormous lize as to require 
the llrength of two men to cany it. The champ.ida is 
in all rcfpecfls like the nauca, only that it is not lb large. 
The rambutan contains a fruit within which i^ a (tone, 
that is perhaps the fincfl acid in the world : this Iriiii is 
not unlike achcfnut with its hulk on; and it is covered 
with fmall prickles of a dark red colour, and fo foft a; 
to yield to the flightcfl imprellion. The gambolan re. 
fembles a damafccn both m colour and ILic, and is of a 
very allringent nature, *I he boa bidarra taflcs like an 
apple, ancT is likewife extremely allringent: its fizc i) 
that of a goofeberry, its form round, and its colour 
yellow. The nam nam makes an excellent fritter, if 


cook's first VOYACjE — for making Difcoverits in the South Sluu &. Round tlu- U'orU. 8 ; 

fried in Iwttci , but ii not cUwiiicil wlici\ rn» : the rind 
of It is rough, its Irngth i» alxmt thn-c inches, ami it* 
lliapc- not unlike th«t of a icidncy. The tatappa and 
the lanarc arc two fpccic« ol' nut«, the Iterncli ot «huh 
arc lilic thofc of an alinoml. but fo hard, that it is al- 
nuili iinpoflibic to brcaic thwii. 1 he madja contaiiw a 
pulp of a iharp talk-, which is eaten with liigar: this 
(ruit is covered u iih a hard (hell. Ihc liimal ib a fruit 
fcari cly tit to Ik eaten, l)einn at once alirinj^cnt, acid, 
and ot a moll unpleaiant talie, yet it is pubhcly loid in 
the tirccts of iJatavia; it tontniiw a nunilxrol kernels, 
which are iiu lofcd in a thii k Ikin. The lalack is ncai ly 
of the li/f of a fniall golden pippin, and contains a 
few kernels of a yellow colour, liie lalK: of which is 
not unlike th..t of a Orawbcrry j but the covering ol 
this fruit is 'cry remarkable, an it conlills iit a number 
of fcales, rel'embling thofe of a tilh. The 
and the blimbing. are two four fruits, exceedingly well 
adapted to make fourfauce, and pickles. '1 he blimb- 
ing belle is another fruit of the fame kind, but con- 
lidcrablv l«eetcr. . 

Of the fruits not in feal'on when ("aptain Cook was 
at Hatavia, are ihe lioaatap. and the kinlliip, which he 
faw pielerved in liigar : and theic are fcvcral other 
forts which the Hatavians are fond of, but they are ne- 
ver eaten hv l\ran).',crs : among thofe are the nioringa, 
the guiliiuiina, ihe killer, ami the loccum ; this hill 
has the appearance ofthe bread-fruit which is produced 
in the illamis of the South Seas, but it is not nra • lo 
good, though the tree on which it grows is almoll I'X- 
aCtly like the brcad-lniit tree. At Hatavia vail (luan- 
tities of fruit are eaten. There arc two markets held 
weekly, atdilhmi places for the better accommodation 
of thofe who leliile in dilleient j>arts of the country. 
Here the fruit-lVllers meet the gardeners, and (luri hale 
the goods at low rates. We are told it is not uncom- 
mon to fee liftv or lixty loads of pine-apjiles carelelly 
thrown together at tlioie markets. I'lowcrs are Ihewn 
by the inhabitants ot liaiavia and Java, abmil their 
houfes, and they are conllantly burning aromatic womls 
and gums, which is luppolld to he done by way of pii- 
rifyim^thcair from the llench that arifes from the ca- 
nals and ditches alwut the town. 

In this country fweet-fcented flowers are plentiful, 
many fpecies of which being entirely unknown, are 
worth remarking. 'Ihe combanj^ tonquin, and com- 
liang caren.il1i, arc particularly iragrant Howcrs, which 
bear fcarti.r. any rcfcinblance to any of thole Howcrs 
with which we arc acquainted. They are very fm.ill, 
and feem to be of the dog's-banc Ipei ics. Ihe ca- 
liiunga which is moie like a Iniiu h ot leaves than a 
flower, is of a lin;.'ular Imell. but \er\ grateful. 'Ihc 
bon tanjong is ol \ pale )cllow call, and has a viry 
a<'iceable fiiitll ; it is .ibour an incfand a hallin cir- 
cumference, and conlitls of poiiiled leaves, which give 
it the appearance of a iLu'. "Th? i hampacka fmclls 
foniewhat like a jonquii, hut is railier ol a deeper yel- 
low. .X large tree upon ihe illand produces this flower. 
There is alfo an exiiaordinary kind of flower called 
fumlal malam, which lignilics the intriguer of the 
night. This flower h.u no fnicU in the day-time, but 
as night comes on, it hai a verv fiagraiu fcenv, and is 
very much like the I'.nglilh tuherol'e. Thefe flowers 
bcini' made into noleg.ivs of ditlercnt lliapcs, or Ihung 
upon thread, are carried through the llrect for fale on 
an evening. The gardens of the gentlemen produce 
fcvcral other forts ol flowers bcfules thefe which we 
have mentioned, but they arc not olVcred to fale, bc- 
caiifc there is not a fuliicicnt pk my of them. A plant, 
called the pandang, is produced here, the leaves of 
which being Hired linall, and mixed wnii other flower , 
the natives of both fcxcs fill their i loatlis and hair with 
this mixture, which they likewile fprinklc on their beds, 
and flecp under this heap of fweets, a thin piece cf 
chintz being their only covering. 

Formerly the only fpice that grew on the illand of 
Java was pepper. A eonliderable quantity is brought 
from thence by the Dutch, but \eiy little of it is made 
ufe of in the country. The inhabitants preti-T cayan 
pepper, and arc fond of cloves and nutmeg, but thefe 
No. to. 

firll are too dear to he commonly ull'd. Near the ifland 
of Amboyna are fome little illc», on wlii( h the i love* 
grow, and the Dutch were noteal'y tilt they all bec.imc 
their property. .S arrdy any other nutmegs ari' fnuiul 
but on tne illanil of liand.i, which however furnillus 
enough for all the nations that have a di inand for that 
tommoditv. There are but few nutmeg-trccson ihc 
coal! of New (tiiincj. 'I'hc illand of Jav.i, of which 
HC haNc already fpokcn, preKliues horfc:,, biiHaloes, 
lliecp, goats, and hogs. The fort of horfes faiil to 
have been met with here when the (oiintiy was lirli' 
ilifcovcrcd, a|)pearetl to be nimble animals tluiugh 
fmall, being generally fcKloni abovi; thiriccn hands 
high. The horned cattle of this country are ilifl'crciit 
I rom thofe of I' II rope. Th> y arc quite lean, but of a 
very linegi.iin. 'Ihe Chinel'c and the natives of Java 
eat the buH'alocs flelh, whiih the Dut( li conllaiifly re- 
fufe, being impreircd with a II range idea that it islescr- 
ilh. Thell.ccj) are hairy like goats, and have long ear;: 
they arc mollly found to be tough and ill-tafled. There 
happening to be a lew from the Cape of (iood 1 lope 
at iJatavJa, fome of them were pun hafed at the rate of 
on« Ihilling a poiiml. The hogs, cfpeciallv thofc of 
the Chincle Itock, are \ery line lixid, but fo fat as that 
the lean is fcparately fold the biitchcrs, who are C hi- 
nefci the far, they melt and fell to their countrymen to 
be eaten with ihcir ri'C. Yet though thefe ho.'s arc fo 
line, the Dutch prefer their own brerd, and the conle- 
qiicnce is that thefe- laitcr are fold ai cxtrav:i;,nuu rates. 
As the I'ortugueic llioot the wild hoj-.s anddcrr, they 
are fold at a moderate prite, and arc gcod caring. As 
to the goats of this countrv they are as indilicri nt as the 
llieej). Dog-i and cats are found here in abundance, 
and there are nuiiibers of wild horfes at a conlid<-r.ihle 
ihflancc from Hata\ia, on the mountains. 'I'hcrc arc 
a few monkeys fecn near the town ; but ihcre are 
on the mountains and dcfart-placrs, where there are allrt 
tygers, and a few rhinocerofes. 

Of lilli an aflonilhing quantity is taken here, atid all 
are line food, except a few that are \\ aire ; yet the in- 
habitants will not eat thufc that are t()und in abundance, 
but |iurchafo thole which are worfe and fcarccr, a cii- 
cumlhincc that contributes to keep up the price of the; 
latter. A prejudice likew ile prevails anion;:; the Dutch 
which prevents ihcm from eating any of the tuvtli; 
caught in thefe parts, which arc verv good food, though 
not equal to thofe that arc fouml in the \\efl-Indics. 
Very large lizards are common at Hatavia ; fome of 
them are laid to be as thick as a's thigh; anil Mr. 
Hanks lliot one live feet long.w ' cli being drell, proved 
verv agreeable to the tallc. V\'e found fnipes of two 
diltcrent forts; and thrulhcs might h ive been purchafcil 
of the I'ortuguefc, who were the only dealers in this 
fort of birds, and venders of wild !".)w I in the country. 
In the illaiuiare palm-wine, and arrac k. Of thetbimer 
are three forts, the iirlt of which is drank in a fc 
hours alter it is drawn from the tree, anil is moderately 
fwcet J thcfccond and thinl forts are made by fermen- 
tation, and by putting fcvcral forts of herbs and roots 
into the liiiuor. 

In Java, the religion of Mahon'ct is profeircd, I'or 
which rcafon the natives do not make ufe of w inc pub- 
licly; but in private few of them will refute it. 'I'liev 
alfo chew opium, whofe intoxicating qualities prove its 
r«:ommcndation to the natives of India. 

If we exclude the Chinefe, and the Indians of ilit- 
fcrent nations, who inhabit Hatavia and its cn\ irotis, 
the inhabitants only amount to a fiiiall number, not a 
fifth part of whom are laid to be Dutchmen, even by 
defcc'it. The Portiigucfc out-mimbcr all the i-.uropean 
!":' tiers on the illanil. The troops in the ferviceof'the 
iiatcs of Molland, are compofcd of the natives of al- 
moll all the nations of Europe ; but the greater part 
of them arc Germans, any pcrfon goes to re- 
lidc at Hatavia, he is obliged to enter tirft as a foldicr, 
to fcrvc their company lor live years. Afterwards he 
.ipplics for a leave of abfcnce to the council, which be- 
ing granted as a thing of courfe, he engages in any Ini- 
lincls that he thinks proper to chufe. 'There is however 
a fort of policy in this matter, fince the Dutch have thus 
V al\va)S 




«' ;i.: 



always a force ready to arm and join, their troops in 
this country upon any emergency ; all places of power 
and profit arc held by the Dutch, and no foreigner has 
any iharcin the management of public affairs. 

Notwithilanding all the men (>f oihcr countries are 
bound to obferve the rules above-mentioned, yet wo- 
men from all parts may remain here unmolellcd. It ap- 
peared that the whole place could not furnilh fifty fe- 
males who were natives of Kuropc ; yet the town 
abounded with white women, who were deilended from 
Kuropeans, that had fettled there at different times, all 
ihc men having paid the debt of nature ; for fo it is, 
that the climate of Batavia deftroys the men much 
taller than the women. Thefe women follow the deli- 
cate cuflom of chewing betle, after the example of the 
native Javanefe, whole drefs they imitate, and whofe 
manners they copy, in all refpcots. Mercantile buti- 
nets is conducted at liatavia with the llighteil trouble 
imaginable, ^^'hcn a merchant receives an order for 
goods of .\ny kind, he camr.^unicates the contents of it 
to the Chincfe, who are the univcrliil manufaiTturers. 
The Chincfe agent dchvcrs the effects on board the ihip 
for which they are lx;fpoke, and taking a receipt for 
ihcm from the n\alfer of the velFel, he delivers it ro 
the merchant, who pays the Chincfe for the goods, and 
refcrves a confiderable profit, without the lealt trotibfe, 
rifquc, or anxiety. Hut when a merchant imports goods 
of ai\v kind, he receives them iiiinftlt, and lodges 
them in his own warehoufes. It ma;, he wondered 
that the Chincfe do iu)t Ihip the goods-oniiitir account, 
bur Iroju tliis they arc reftricted, and coniptlled to fell 
thcmroihc merchants only. 'I'lic inhabitants of Java 
diflinguift. liie Pom:giief '.' by the name of (Jranferanc, 
that is, N.\/.:uvnc-iuen ; but thefe ufe the general term 
of Caper, or C.ilir. refpecting all who do iu)t profefs 
the religion of Maliomer, and in this they irhkulc the 
Portitgii'.lf. Ikit the I'l I LU)',ucfe of IJatavia are l"o only 
in name ; tor they iiave ;Kitlie» any coiyiefction w ith, or 
kru)wletlge of the kin.jdonwif I'ortiigal, and they have 
changed the rtligi'iu ot'the church of Rotiie, for that 
of l/.ither; with uic manners of the iratives, the\ are 
wholl)- t'aiiiiliarifed, and they couiaioiily fpcak their 
Lingiuge, iliiiii^h tiiey arc able toconvcife in a cor- 
iupi kind lU Fortcgiiefe. 'I'i'.cy drefs i!\thc liabit of 
the country, with a difference ciily in the manner of' 
wearing their hair; their nofes are more peaked and 
their fkin of a deeper call than that of tlie nativrs. 
Jiome ot them are mechanics and artificers, others fub- 
M by walhing of linen, and the retl pr.icure a mainte- 
n.m( eby hunting. 

'file iadians of IJatavia, and the country in its rK-igh- 
bouiho'jd, are not native Javanefe, but are either born 
oil ; lie fcveial iflands from whence the Dutch bring 
their flavcs, or the offspring of fuch as have Ixrn liorn 
on th ife iflands ; and thefe having l)ecn made free either 
jatheii own pcrfiHis or in the perfons of their anccflors, 
cnjov all the privileges of freemen. They receive the 
general appellation of believers of the true faith. The 
varimis other Indian inhabitants ot this coiinti,, attach 
themfelves each to the original cufl^omsofthac in which 
themfches or their ancellors were born; keeping theni- 
f»|ve:. apart from thofc of other nations, and practifing 
both the virtues and vices peculiar to their own coun- 
tries. The cultivatioit of gardens, and the confc- 
quent fale of flowers aind fruit afford fubiilh'iice to great 
numbers of them: thefe are the people who raifc the Le- 
tlc and areca, whuh being mixed with lime, and a 
ful'llance that is called Gamiiir, the produce of the 
Indian continent, is chewed by perfons of all ranks, 
woiricn a.s well as men : indeed fbme of the politer la- 
dies make an addition of cardamom^ ;iind other aromiv- 
tics to take off die difagrccablc fmell with which the 
breath would be otherw ife tainted. Some of the Indi- 
ans are very rich, keep a great number of Haves, and 
hvc, in all refpcCts, according to the cuftoiu of their 
refpectivc countries, while others arc einplcyed tocarey 
g(Mj<lK by uatci ; and othc* again liibfilt by fal]iing. 
,1 he (Jranllani-s, or believers of the faith, feed principally 
•n IioIIcaI ri( e, mixed with a fmaU qiiantity of dried 
fliiiin^ispfid ottutrfifli, whit hare imported from China, 

and a little of the Hcni of buflaloes and chickens ; they 
are fond of frait, of which they eat iai^c quantities, 
and with the flour of the rice they make ftveral forts of" 
paftry. They fomctimes make very fupcrb ejitcrtain- 
mcnts, after the fafhidn of their refpciJtive countries; 
but, in general, they arc a very temperate people ; of 
wine they drink very little, if any, as the religion of 
Mahomet, which they profefs, forbids the ufc of it. 
When a marriage is to be Iblcmnizcd among them, all 
the gold and filvcr ornaments that can be procured, are 
borrow td to deck out the young couple, w ho, on thefe 
occafioas, never fail to make the inoft fplendid appear- 
ance ; fumptuous entertainments are given by thofc 
whocan afford them, which continue twelve or fourteen 
days, and frequently more, dirring all which time thn 
women take care that the bridegroom fhall .^ot vitit his 
wife privately, though the wedding tnkes place previ- 
ous to the feliival. All thefe Indians, though they como 
from dilferciit countries, fpcak the Malay fuiLiuage it 
it delervcs that name. (Jn the illand of Java there 
are two or tliicc dillereiit dialects, and thcic is a lan- 
guage peculiar to every fmall illaiul ; it is conjedurcd 
that the Malay tongue is a corruption of the language 
of Malacca. The hair of thefe people, which is black 
without a tingle exception, grows in great ahuiidaiiee ; 
yc: the women make ufe of oils, and other ingredi- 
ents, to increafe the quantity of it: they fallen it to 
the crow n of the head w ith a bodkin, having firll tw fil- 
ed it in:o a circle, round which thev place an elegant 
wreath of flowers, fo tli;it the whole head -drefs has a 
iiioft beautiful appcaraiu e. It is the univerl'al ciilloni 
both with the men aiul women, to bathe in a river once 
every day, and liimetimes of'tciier, which iU)t only pro- 
motes health, but prevents that contracfion of filth, 
that would be otherwifc unavoidable in fohot aclimate. 
The teeth of the Oranflams have fomc p.irticulars irt 
them well worthy of luKiee. With a kindof whetfloiic 
they rub the ends ol them till they are qu'itc fbt ami 
even ; they then irakt a deep giYx,ve in the teeth of the 
upper jaw, in the centre betwce:i the bottom of each 
t(>oth aiKl the gum, and hori/ontally with the latter ; 
this groove is equal in depth to a quarter of the thick- 
lu fs of the teeth ; yet none of thefe people Ivive a rot- 
ten tooth, though according to the dcnriffs of Kngland 
and IrK'.ee, fuch a thing mull be unavoidable, as the 
tooth is placed mui h deeper than what we call the 
enamel. The teeth of thcic people iKcame very black 
bv the I hewing of betle, yet a flight wafliing will take 
off this blacknefs, and they will then become perfectly 
white ; bur they are very fcldom wafhed as the depth 
of the colour is very far from being thought difagrer- 
able. Mull of our readers niufl have heard of the Mo- 
hawksjand thefe are thepeojile who are fo denominated, 
from a corruption of tlv," word amock, which will be 
explained by the following ftory and obfcrvations. To 
run amock is to get drllfik with opium, and then feizing 
ibmcoflenlivc wea(X)n, to (ally forth from the houfe, 
kill the perfon or pcrtbns fuppofed to have injured the 
Aii.ock, and any other perfon that attempts to impede 
his paffagc, till he hinifelf is taken iitifoner or kiUeii 
on the fpot. While Captain Cook was at Batavia, a 
perfon, whofe circumllances in life were independent, 
being jealous of his brother, intoxicated himfelf with 
opiun:, and then murdcrcii his hroiher, and two other 
men who endeavoured to fei/e him. This man, con- 
trary to tl e ufual cullom, did not leave his own houfe. 
but made liis reliftance from w iihin it ; yet he had ta- 
ken fuch a quantity of the opium, that he was dclirioirv 
which appeared from his attempting to tire three mul- 
quetv, iicither of which had been loaded, nor even 
primed. Jraloufy of the women is rh<' ufual reafon <»t 
thefe poor creatures running amock i ■ r a-iuuck] and 
the fird objet'l of their vengeance is the perfons whom 
they tiippoft to h.ave injured them. The othccr, wliol'e 
bufinels it is to apprehend thefe unhappy wretches, i ; 
furnifhcd with a long pair of tongs, in order to tako 
hold of them without coming within the reaeh of the 
point of their weapon. Thofc w4io may be taken alive, 
which i» not often the cafe, are generally wotinded ; 
but they arcalwayj broken upon the whcelj and if the 



cook's first VdYAGE-^for making Difcoveries inl the Sout,'} Seas & RoOnd the IForld. Sj 

and chickens -, they 
cat large quantities, 
maicc ftvcral forts of 
;ry fupcrb cntertain- 
■cfpcdtive countries; 
mperate people ; of 
, as the religion of 
rbids the ufe of it. 
jcd among thcni, all 
can be procured, are 
auple, who, on thcl'e 
>olt fplcndid appear- 
arc given by thole 
le twelve or fourteen 
r ail uiiich time the 
jni (hall not vifit hu 
ig tnke.< place previ- 
is, though they conic 
le Malay lani;;uage if 
illand of Java then; 
, and thcie is a lan- 
id ; it is conjcduicd 
tion of the langtKi;;c 
:oplc, Mhich is blatk 
in gn-Jt al)'.iild;uiee ; 
, and other ingrcdi • 
it ; they fallen it to 
in, having rtrlf twill- 
lev place an elegant, 
loic liead-drcfs has ,i 
the univcrl'al cullotu 
bathe in a river once 
which iu)t only pro- 
contraction of tilth, 
le in fohot aclimate. 

tonic particulars m 
h a kindof whctHonc 
ly are i^uite ilat and 
,vc in the teeth of tin- 
the bottom of each 
tally with the latter ; 
quarter of the thick- 
le people h;ive a rot- 
• dcnrifls of Kngland 
unavoidable, as the 
in what we call the 

l)crame very black 
;ht walhing will take 
en become pcrtcctly 
walhed as the deptli 
ng thought difagrce- 
ve heard of the Mo- 
)are f<i ilcnoniinated, 
nock, which will be 
d obfervations. 'Vo 
um, and then fei/.in;., 
rth from the houfe. 
to have iTijurcd the 

attempts to impciir 
en ti'ilbner or killed 
< was at Uatavia, a 
e were independent, 
(icated hiinfelf with 
)thcr, and two other 
1. 'Ihii man, cnn- 
leavc his own houfe, 
n it ; yet he had ta- 
chat he was deliriois, 
ig to tire three mul- 
n loaded, nor even 
IS rh'" ufual reafon ot 
.k I > r a-vBuck] an.i 
is the perfons whom 
The othcer, wliofe 
mhappy wretches, i i 
gs, in order to take 
lin the reach of the 
Q may be taken alive, 
generally wounded ; 
le whecli and if the 

phyfician, who is appointed tb examine their wounds, 
thinks them likely to be -ortal, the punifliment is in- 
flicted immediately, and ilie place of execution is gene- 
rally the fpot where the firft murder was committed. 
A number of abfurd cuftoms prevailed among thefe 
people, and opinions no lefs ridiculous. They believe 
that the devil, whom they call Satan, is the author of 
fickncfs andadverfity; therefore, whenfick, or in didrefs 
they offer meat, money, and otiier things, as propitia- 
tory facrifices. Should one among them be relHefs. or 
(lioutd he dream for tAO or three nights fucccthvely, he 
inia<^incs the Devil has laid his commands upon him, 
when, upon reglci'l: to fulfil, h. (-oncludes hispunilh- 
ment will certai.-Jy be fickncfs or death, though fuch 
commands may not be revealed with fulhcient pcr- 
|» fpicuity. To interpret his dream therefore, he drains 
' /|8 his wits to theuttermort, and if, by taking' it literally, 
or figuratively dirccllv, or by contraries, he can put no 
txplanation that fatisRcs him, he applies to the Cawin 
orpricit, who unravels the mylteriousfuggeftions of the 
night, by a conuncnt, in w hich it generally appears, 
mat Satan wants viduals or money. Thefe are placed 
on a little plate* of cocoa-nut leaves, and hung upon the 
I ranch of a titc near the river, fo that it feems not to 
lie the opinion of thefe people, that in prowling the 
c;nth the devil "walketh through dry places." Mr. 
I'anks once alVcd, whether they thought Satan fpent 
the money, or eat the victuals; they faid, that as to the 
ninncv it was coniidered rather as a mulct upon an of- 
fender-, than a girt to him who had enjoined it; and that 
therefore if it v^■a3 devoted by the dreamer, it did not 
lignify into whofeliands it came, and they fuppifed it 
was generally the pHxe of Ibme ftrangcr who wandereil 
that way ; but refpcdting the meat, they were clearly of 
opinion, that, although the Devil did not cat tlic grofi 
parts, yet by bringing his mouth near it, he fui ked out 
all its favour without changing its pofition, fo that 
atterwards it was as intipid as water. 

Another fuperflitious notion of this people is dill 
more unaccountable. They imagine that women, 
when delivered of children, arc at the fame time de- 
livered of a young crocodile; and that thole animals 
being received carefully by the midwifes, are immedi- 
ately carried down to the river, and put into the water. 
The family in which fuch a birth is fupi>ofed to have 
happened, conllantly puts victuals into the river for 
their amphib'ous relation, efpccially the twin, who as 
lung as he I'vcj. goes down to the river at Ibited times, 
to fulfil his fraternal duty; for an oinitlion of which, 
according to the general opinion, he will be vitited with 
fickncfs or death. We are at a lofs to account for an 
opinion fo extravagant and abfurd, efpccially as it feems 
fn be iinronncded with any religious inyftery, and how 
it fliould be pretended t.^ happen by thofe w ho cannot 
be deceived into a belief of it by appearances, nor have 
any apparent interelt in the fraud, is a problem rtill 
more ditlieult to folvc. The llrange belief of this ab- 
furdity, however, is certain, for which we had the con- 
current tellimony of every Indian who wasqueflioned 
about ii; and itv to its origin, it feems to have taken its 
rife in the illands of Celebes and Boutou, at which 
pl.i es, (if the inhabitants keep crocodiles in their 
lamilies ; but however that be, this ojiinion has fpread 
over all the eallern illands, even to 'i'imor and Cream, 
and welhvard as far as Java and ^lumalia. The cro- 
codile twins arc called Sudaras, and we Ihall here re- 
late one of the innumerable and incredible ftories, in 
pr(X)f of their cxillence, as was confidtiitly alhrmed, 
{io'n ocular depionft rations ; yet for the credibility of 
this relation we will not vouch. 

At Hencoolcn was born and bred among the lingliih 
a \oung temale Have, who had learnt a little of the lan- 
guage. This girl toll Mr. lianks that her father, when 
on his death bed, intiiirmcd her that he had a crocodile 
for his Sudani, and in a folemn manner charged her to 
give him meat when he ftiould be dead, telling her 
in what part of the river he was to be found, and by 
what name he was to be called up. That in confe- 
iiuencc of her father's injiinv^tions, (he repaired to that 
part of the river he had ddcribcd, and lianding upon 

the bank, called out Radja Pouti, " white king;" where- 
upon the crocodile came to her out of the w ater, and 
eat from her hand the provilionsihe had bro'.ight him. 
Being defired to defcribc this paternal uncle, Ihc tiiid, 
that lie was not like other crocodiles, but much hand- 
Ibmcr, that his body was fjiotted and his nofe red ; 
that he had bracelets of gold upon hi.? feet, and ear- 
rings of the fame metal in his cars. This ridiculous 
tale was heard by Mr. Banks patiently to the end, and 
he then difmifTed the girl, without reminding her, that 
a crocodile with rars was as ftrange a monfter as a dog 
with a cloven foot. Not long after this a fcrvant whom 
Mr. Banks had hired at Batavia, a fon of a Dutchman 
by a Javanefc women, told his marter, that he had 
feen a crocodile of the fame kind, and it had been fecn 
by fcvcral others both Dutchmen and Malays. T!iis 
crocodile the fcrvant faid was very young, two feet 
long, and i^s feet were ornamented with bracelets of 
gold. I cannot credit thefe idle llories, faid Mr. Banks. 
The other day a pcrfon allerted that crocodiles had ear- 
rings, and you know that cannot be true, becaufe cro- 
codiles have not cars. Ah, Sir, replied the man, thele 
SudaraOran arc unlike other crocodiles; for they have 
live toes upon each foot, a large tongue that fills their 
mouth, and ears likewife, though indeed they are very 
fmall. Who can fct bounds to the ignorance of cre- 
dulity and folly ! However, in the girl's relation were 
foine things in which the could not be decei\ e J ; and 
therefore murt be guilty of wilful falfchood. Her fa- 
ther might coinmand her to teed a crocodile, in con- 
fequence of his believing it to be his Sudara ; but its 
coming out of the river at her call, and eating the li>od 
from her hand, mult have been a f.ible of her own in- 
vention, and being fuch, it was impoffible that the could 
believe it to be true. However, the girl's llory, and 
tliat of the man's, evinces, that they both believed the 
exill'.nce of crocodiles that were Sundaras to men ; and 
the fiction invented by the girl may be ealily accouiued 
for, if we do but confidcr, how carnertly every one de- 
fires to make others believe what he believes himfell". 
'l"hc Bougis, Macaflars, and Boctons, are fo firmly pcr- 
fuaded that they have relations of the crocodile fpccies, 
that they perform r, periodital ceiemony in remem- 
branrc of them. Large parties go out in a boat, fur- 
nilhed with great plenty of provilions, and all kinds of 
irulic. They then row backwards and forwards, in 
pUuCs of the rivet where crocodiles and allet:;;\tors are 
moll common, fingingand wcc|)ing by turns each in- 
vokinj; his kindrcii, tilt a crocodile appears, when the 
mulieinllantly (lops, and provilions, bctle, aiul tobacco, 
arc thrown into the water. This civility is intended 
to rcconmiend themfcU'cs to their relatior;s at home; 
not without hopes, perhaps, that it will be accepted 
inllead of more expenfivc olVerings which may not be 
in their power to pay. 

The Chincfe Hand in the next rank to the Indians, 
and arc very numjrous but polfcfs very little property. 
Many of them live within the walls, and are tliop. 
keepers. W'e have already mentioned the fruit-fellers 
of Faffar Pilfang ; but others have a rich fiock of Eu- 
ropean and Chinele gcwds. However, the far greati.r 
part of thefe people live without the walls, in a quarter 
by thcmfelves, which is called Campang China. Mull 
part of them are carpenters, joiners, Imitlis, taylors, 
llipper-makers.dyers of cotton, and embroiderers. The/ 
ma. main the characler of induftry, univcrliilly bellowed 
upon them ; and many arc fcattercd about the country, 
where they cultivate gardens, fow rice and fugar, or keep 
cattle and buffaloes, whofe milk they bring everyday 
to town. Yet notwithllanding their commendable 
fpirit of indulby, we muil obferve, there is nothing 
honcrt or dif.-.Dnetl, provided there is no danger of a 
halter, that the Chinele will not readily do tor nioncvj 
and though they work with much airgence, nor 
arc fparing of their labour, yer no fooner have they 
laid down their tools, than they begin to g;unc cither ac 
cards or dice, or at other diverfions altogether unknown 
among Kuropeans. To thefe they apply with fuch 
cagcrncfs, as fcarcely to allow time for nccefCiry re- 
frclhincnts of food and flccp. In n-iinrcrs they are al. 




'::.: o 



»«. ■'.» 

'% ii 

vays rather obfcquious j and in drcfs they arc remark- 
ably neat and clean, in whatever rank of life they arc- 
placed. A dcfcription of their perfens or drefs is un- 
neccllary, feeing the better kind of China paper com- 
mon in England, exhibits .in cxaft reprefentation of 
both, though perha[)s with fomc (light exaggerations. 
With refped to their eating, they arc caiily latisftcd ; 
but the few that arc rich have many favory diihes. 
The food of the poor is rice, with a fmall proportion 
of flelh or filb ; and they have the advantage of the 
Mahomcdan Indian*, on account of their religion; t()r 
the Chinefe, being under no reftraint, eat, bcfidcs pork, 
dogs, cats, frogs, lizards, ferpents, and a great variety 
of fca animals, which the other iiiliabitants do not con- 
lidcr as food. They alfo cat many vegetables, which 
an European, except he was perilhing with hunger, 
would not tafl^c. They have a lingular cullom refpecU 
ing the burying their dead ; for they cannot be prevailed 
upon to open the ground a fccond time, where the body 
lias been dcpolited. On this account, in the neighbour- 
hood of liatavia, their burying-grounds contain many 
hundred acres; and the Dutch, pretending this to be 
a v\alle of land, will not fell any tor this purpofe, un- 
lefs at an exorbitant price. 'I'he Chincie, howiver, 
contrive to raifc the purchafe money, and afford another 
inllance of the folly and «eakncfs of human nature, in 
transl'.rring a regaril for the living to the deail, anil 
making that an object of folicitudcand expence, wluih 
cannot receive the leal! benefit from cither. Under 
the iiiHuince of this univeil'al prejudice, they take :in 
iiiKommon method to prelerve the body entire, anil to 
prevent the remains ot it (iom mixing with the earth 
that fuirnunds it. To tliis end tluy cnclofe it in a lai|;e 
thick u(X)dcn colVin, hollowed out of folid timber like 
a canoe. This \vhen covered and let down into the 
gr.tve, is furroiimled with a coat of mortar, called 
t.'hinam. about eight or ten inches thick, which in a 
fhort time cements, and beconus as hard as (bine. The 
relative.-, ot the ilccealtd attend the tiineral ceremony, 
with a contiderahle number ot lemale mourners, hired 
toueep. In iJatavia, the law requires, that every man 
iliocld be interred according to his rank, which is in 
no I ale to be dilpenlid with; to that if the deceafed 
has not left liiirK ient to pay his debts, an ollicer takes 
an inventory oi what was in his [wlletrion when he 
tiicd, and out of the produce buries him in the man- 
ner prefcribed, lea\ingoiily the overplus to his creditors. 
rheloAcIl clafs ol' ixuple in this country are the 
lla\cs, by whom the I)utih, I'ortuguefc, and Indians, 
whatever their rank or lituaiion, ;ire lonllantiv attended. 
'I'hey are bought in Sumatra, Malacca, and almoil all 
the l".alKiii lllands: but tlie natives of Java, very lew 
ot whom live in\ia, are exempted trom llavcrv, 
un.krlhe laiKtlon ol very fevere penal laws, felilom we 
believe vitilaied. Thele (laves are fold from ten to 
twenty pouiuls (Urling each ; but girls, if handl<)me, 
will I'eicli lometimes a hundred. Being ot an indolent 
liil'polition, they will not do much woik, and are there- 
fore content with a little victuals, liihlilling altogether 
Ujion boiled ri( e, :ind a Imall iiiiantity ot the cheapell 
lilh. 'I lu \ are natives otditKient countries, on which 
account the) ditlcr trom ea< h other extremely lK)fh in 
perfonaml temper. The I'.ipua, as they are here called, 
or the .\lnian negroes are the woiil, mod of them 
thieves and all ini.orrii,;iblc ; contiquently they may be 
pun lialcil tor the leall money, 'llie next cla(s to thefe 
are the Ikiugis and Macatliirs, both irom the idand of 
Cclelns; who, in the highell degree are la/.y, though 
not fo much addicted to thelt as the negroes; yet ihey 
are ot a c ruel and vindictive tpirit, whereby they are 
rendered exc ceiling dangerous, efpecially as to gratity 
their refeiitmiiu, they make no Ic ruple of any mean-, 
nor ot' I'ai rilicmg life itlelt'. Helides thefe there are 
Makns and llaves ot other denominations; but the bell, 
and ot courle the deareO, are thole brought trom the 
ill.ind of llali; and the moll Ixrautiful women Irom, 
a liiiall illand on the: coat! of Sumatra ; but being <>'■' 
a tender and dilicite conlhtution, they c|uickly fall . 
facrilice to the uiiwhuli lome air of Hatavia. All thefe 
(Javcs are wholly in the power of their mailers, who may 

intlid upon them any punitbmcnt that does not take 
away life; and Ihould one die in contequenceof punilli- 
ment, though his death may be proved not to have 
been intended, yet the mailer is called to a fevcre ac- 
count, and generally li^r.tcnccd to fuller capitally. I or 
this reafon a mailer feldom corrects a flave with his own 
hands, but by an ollicer called li Marineu, one of wlumi 
is flationed in every dithid.' The duty of this ollicer 
is to quell riots, and take offenders into cullody ; hut 
moa- particularly to apprehend runaway (l-<ves, and 
punilh them tbrfuch crimes as the mailer has fiip()ort- 
ed by proper evidence; the punilbment, however, is luit 
inflicted by thelVIarineu in penon, but by tlaves wl-.oaie 
appointed to the bulincfs. The punifl ment is flripis, 
the number being proportioned to the nature of theol- 
fencc; and the inllrumcnts are rods made of rattans, 
which are fplit into tender twigs l()r the purpol'e, and 
every llroke draws blcxxl. A common punilhment colis 
the niafler a rixdollar, and a levere one a ducaioon, 
about fix thillings and eight-pence. The mailer is ,illo 
obliged to allow a flave, as an encoiiragement, thiee 
dubl)clc he\s, equal to about I'even-jH'nic half"-penn\ a 
week ; this is alfc) done to prevent his indulging hi:, 
flrimg temptations to Ileal. 

Rdpeciing the government of this place we can fay 
but little. We obferved a remarkable fiibordinatiim 
anion;', the people. l''.\er) houfe-keejier has a certain 
fpecilii rank, according to the lengtli of time he h.i.-. 
Icrved the company. I'he dillcient ranks thus acquired 
are dillin;.',uiflKd b) the ornamelils of the coai:hes, ;iik1 
the ilriliisof the coachmen ; Icmie ride in plain coaches, 
tome are allowed to paint them with ilitieicnt devices, 
and ibme togiLlthem. 1 he coachnu ii alioaic obliged 
to apiR in cioihe% iiuiic- plain, iiiornaiiuiued in \.i- 
liotis m..n'u > and degrees. 

'' e c. olhi e r in this plac i: ha< the title of go- 
veri •; ol' the Indies, to whom the Dutch go- 

verm i- ot .III other Icttlements are fiibordinate J and 
they are obliged to repair to Baf.ivia in order to have 
their accounts palled b\ him. Should they aijpear to 
have been eriminal. or even negligent, he detains them 
during pleafiire ; fometimes three years; for they can- 
not without t-'^ ;'crmillion quit the [ilaee. The mem- 
bers of tl e council, called by tlie natives ildele Heeren, 
and In th luiglitli, Idoleers, are next in rank to the 
governor-general. Thefe alliime fo much fhue, that 
whoever meets them iti a carnage, are expected to rife 
up and bow, and alter this compliment, tluy drive to 
one fide of the and flop, till the members of the 
council are pall : their wives and c hileirin expect allc> 
the fame homage, and it is coirniionlv (laid tliem In the 
inhabitants. Some En;;lilli Captains have thoi'glu 
this a llavilb mark of refpcil, derogatory to their dig- 
nity as I'ervants ol his H-itaanic majelly, and lor this 
'" i' ; neverthelels, when in a 
* ,1 ii enacc of immediate death 
i I'l 'Vom honouring the Dutch 
r.t th ■■ mortification. 
With rcfpect to the di;' ib.Kd' i ot lullice, it is ad- 
miniffered in Hatavia by ti c •;!'■ ers, v ho have pec uluir 
ra: k cit ililliiKtion among theinfelves. Iheirdcci- 
lions in c iiminal cate» teem to be levere with relpect to 
the natives, but lenient in a partial degree to tln-ir own 
people. A c hriflian In always indulged with an op- 
portunity of" I te .ipng bite)re he is l)roiij;ht to trial, 
whatever may be hlsollence, and when com icted, lie 
is feldijii punilhed with ileaih. On the contrary, the 
poor Iiui.iiis are hanged, broken upon the wheel, and 
even impaled alive, As to the Malays and Chiiufi- 
they have judi. . ^"Ilicers ot theirown, named captaiin 
and lieutLiiai,: i- no deirrmine in civil cafes, fubicvt 
to an appeal i" I Duv.h ;iihunal. The taxes laid 
upon thefe |)eo( li ''v (lie < are vet) conddcrable, 
among which, that exacted for liberty to wear their 
hair '.-, not the leafl. 1 he time of paymctu is monthb, 
and fci lave the charge and trouble ot collecting them, 
notice is given o. ihi.i by hoilliu;'. a llag upon the top 
of a hoiife in the ;'iiddleof thetoeen, and the Chinclr that it is their intccell to rep.iit thither when apay- 
i.ieiu iiiduc without d.-Iay. 


reafon have reUifed ' 
hired ciiach, noth; 
could prevent the co 
grandee, at the eXiV 

COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE— for making Difcoveriei in the South Seas & Round the World. 8 9 

At Batavia the current money confifts of ducats, va- 
lued ,• one hundred and thirtv-two (livers; ducatoons 
tighty ftivcrs: imperial rix-dollars.fixty; rupees, thirty; 
fchellincs, fix ; double cheys, two ftivers and a half; 
[»nd doits one fourth of a ftiver. During our ftay here 
jSpanifli dollars were at five and five-pence ; and we were 
Itold they were never lower than five (hillings and four- 
pence, even at the Company's warehoufc. ForEnglifh 
guineas the exchange upon an average was nineteen 
Diiliings ; for though the Chinefe would give twenty 
ifliiUings for feme of the brightclV. thofe that were 
■nuich worn were valued at only feventeen (hilimgS. 
■TiKre are two forts of coin current here of the fame 
■denomination ; thcfe are milled and unmillcd ; the 
Iformcr of which is of mod value. A milled ducatoon is 
Ivalucd at eighty ftivers ; and an unmillcd one at no more 
I than fcventy-two. A rix-dollar is equal to forty -eight 
Iflivcrs, about four (hillings and fix-pence Enpiiflicur- 
Irency. All accounts are kept in rix dollars and ftivers, 
nhichhcrc. at lead, are nominal, like our pound ftcr- 

Jing. , . , 

On Thurfday, the 27th of December, early in the 
morning, we weighed, left the harbour of Batavia, and 
ftood out to fea. On the 20th, after much delay by 
contrary winds, we weathered Pulo Pare, and ftood 
tor the main. On the fame day pafTed a fmall ifland 
between Batavia and Bantam, called Maneater's ifland. 
On Sunday the joth^we weathered Wapping and Pulo 
Bahi illands. and the next day, being the 3 1 ft, we ftood 
over to the Sumatra fliore. 

On ilic morning of C'::- n-w year's day, being Tuef- 
day, January the ift, we fteercd for the 
" '• Jav.i (lion-, and continued our couifc, as 

A. D. 1771. 

the wind permitted u«, till three o'clock in the after 
noon of the ctli, when we caft anchor on the fouih- 
eaft fide of Prince's Illand, in eighteen fathom wa- 
ter, in order to recruit our ftores, and procure refrelh- 
nicnts for the lick, many of whom were much worfe 
than they were at our departure from Batavia. Mr. 
ikinks and Dr. Solandcr, accompanied by the Captain 
and other gentlemen, w ont afhore. We met upon the 
beach (bme Indians, by whom we were conducled to 
one, who, they faid, was their king. Having ex- 
changed a few compliments with this perfon, we entered 
upon bufincfs ; but in fettling the price of turtle could 
not agree. Upon this we took leave, the Indians dil- 
pcrfed; and we proceeded along fliore in fearch of a 
watering place. We happily fucceeded in finding a 
very convenient one. and had reafon to believe, with 
care in filling, it would prove agreeable to our wiflies. 
On our return, fome Indians, who rcnuincd with a 
canoe upon the beach, fold us three turtle, but we were 
obliged to promifc, that we would not tell the king. 
On Sunday the 6th, we renewed with better fuccefsour 
tralhc for turtle. About noon the Indians lowered 
their demands floiliy, infomuch, that before the even- 
ing they accepted our ftipulated price, and we had tur- 
tle in plenty. In the mean time, the three we had pur- 
chafed were ferved to the (hip's company, who, till 
icfterday, had not fed on (alt provifions from the time 
of our arrival at Savu, which was now near three 
months. Mr. Banks, in the evening, paid a vifit to the 
king, bv whom he was received very gracioufty at his 
(> ilnce, in the middle of a rice field, notwithrtanding 
liij inajefty was bufily employed in drcffing his own 
fuppii. The day following, Monday the 7th, the In- 
dians refoited 10 the trading place with fowls, filh, 
monkeys, fmall deer, and fome vegetables ; but no tur- 
tle appeared till next day, Tuefday the 8th, after which 
)biiu' w ere brought to market every day, while we ftaid, 
but t!ie whole quantity together was not equal to that 
we bought the day after our arrival. 

Vriday the i ith, Mr. Banks having received intelli- 
grncc from a fervant he had hired at Batavia, that the 
Indians of this ifland had a tow n fituated near the fliore, 
to the weftward, he determined to go in fearch of the 
fame. With this views he Cct out in the morning, ac- 
companied by the fecond lieutjnain ; and apprehend- 
ing his vifit might not be agreeable to the natives, he 
told liK h of them as he met, that he was in Icarch of 
No. 10. 

plants, which was indeed alfo true. Having come to 
a place where there were three or four houfcs, they met 
with an old man, of whom they ventured to make a 
few enquiries concerning the town. He would have 
perfuaded them, that it was at a gteat diftance ; but 
perceiving they proceeded forw ard, he joined company, 
and went on with them. The old man attempted fc- 
veral times to lead them out of the way, though with-' 
out fucqefs ; but when at length they came within fight 
of the houics, he entered cordially into their party, and 
conduced them into the tow n, the name of which is 
Samadang. It conlifts of about four hundred houfes, 
and is divided by a brackifti river into two parts, one 
called the old, and the other the n:w town. When 
they had entered the former, they were accofted by fc- 
ven-il Indians whom they had feen at the trading place, 
and one of them undertook to carry them over to the 
new town, at two-pence per head. The bargain be- 
ing made, they embarked in two fmall canoes, placed 
along-fidc of each other, and lalhed together, to pre- 
vent their over-fetting. They landed fafely, tliough 
not without fome difticulty ; and when they came to 
the new town, the people (hewed them every mark of 
a cordial friendfliip, (hewing them the houfes of their 
king and principal people. Few of the houfes were 
open at this time, the inhabitants having taken up 
their rcfidcnce in the rice-grounds, to defend their 
crops againft the birds and monkeys, who without this 
neccflary pri caution would dcltroy them. When their 
ciiriofity was fatislied, they hired a large failing boat 
(or two rupees, value (bur (hillings, which conveyed 
them to the bark time enough to dine upon one of the 
finall deer, weighing only lorty pounds, which proved 
to be exceeding gord and favory food. In the evening 
we again went on lliore, to fee how our people went on, 
who were eniplo/ed in v.ooding and watering, when we 
were told, that an axe had been ftolen. Application 
was immediately made to the king, who, after fome 
altcrcati)n, proinifcd, that the axe ftiould be reftored 
in the morning ; and it was accordingly brought to us 
by a man, who pretended, that the thief, afraid of a 
difcovery, had left it at his houfe in the night. 

On Sunday, the i;jth, having nearly compleated our 
wood and water, Mr. Banks took leave of his majefty, 
to whom he had made feveral trifling prefents, and at 
parting g?.e him two quires of paper, which he gra- 
cioufly accepted. During their converfation, the king 
enquired, why the linglifh did not touch at (he ifland 
as they had ufed to do. Mr. Banks replied, that the 
reafon was, he fuppofed.becaufc they found a deficiency 
of turtle, of which there not being enough to fupply 
one fliip, many could not be expected; and to fupply 
this deleift, Mr. Banks advifed his majcfty to breed cat- 
tle, buffaloes, and flieep ; but he did not feem difpofcd 
to adopt this prudent mcafure. 

On Monday, the 1 4th, we had got on board a good 
ftock of frefh provifions, confiding of turtle, fowl, 
(ilh, two fpcciesof deer, one about the (ize of a (heep, 
the other not bigger than a rabbit; alfo cocoa-nuts, 
plantains, limes, and other vegetables. The deer, 
however, ferved only for prefent ufe, for we could fel- 
dom keep one of them alive more than twenty-four 

Ihe trade on our parts, was carried on chiefly with 
Spanifli dollars, the natives fecming not to fet value 
upon any thing elfc; fothat our people who had a ge- 
neral permiifion to trade, parted with old (hirts and 
other articles, which they were obliged to fubftitutefor 
money to great difadvantage. On Tuefday, the 1 5th, 
in the morning, we weighed, with a light breeze at 
N li, and ftood out to (ea. Wc took our departure 
frjm Java I lead, which is in latitude 6 deg. 49 min. 
S. and in longitude 2 53 deg. 12 min. Weft. 

Prince's Ifland, where we were ftationcd about ten 
days, in the Malay language, called Pulo Selan, and in 
that of the inhabitants, Pulo Paneitan, is a fmall 
ifland, fituated in the weftern mouth of the ftreight of 
Sunda. It is woody, a very finall part of it having 
been cleared. We could perceive no remarkable hiH 
upon it ; but a fmall cmiijcncc, juft gver the landing 
Z place, 




J, Ji 


"5 ; 

s i-i' I 

place, has been named, by the Englirti, the Pike. 
T'ornierly this place «as much frequented by India lliips 
belonging to various nations, cfpecially from England ; 
but of late they have tbrfakcn it, becaufe the water is 
bad, and touch either at North Ifland, or at New Bay, 
a few leagues dillani from Prince's Ifland, at neither of 
which places any conliderable quantity of other pro- 
vifions can be procured j and, upon the whole, we 
mull give it as our opinion, that Prince's Illand is 
more eligible than cither of them ; for though, as we 
have already obferved, the water is brackiih, if filled at 
the lower part of the brook, yet higher up we found it 

The firft, fccond, and perhaps the third (hip, that 
arrives here in the ie.ifon, may be well fupplied with 
turtle; but fuch as come afterwards mull be content 
with fmall ones. What ve purchafcd were of the 
green kind, and coft us, at an average, about three far- 
things a pound. They were neither fat nor well Ha- 
vourcd, which circumllance we imputed to their being 
long kept in pens of brackiih water, without food. 
The fowls are large, and we bought a dozen of them 
for a Spanifli dollar, which is about five pence a piece. 
'Ihc fmall deer coil us tivcvpencc a piece, and the 
larger, two only of which were brought to market, a 
rupee. The natives fell many kinds of fiih by hand, 
and wc found them tolerably cheap. Cocoa nuts, if 
they were picked, we bought at the rate of a hundred 
for a dollar; and if taken promifcuoufly, one hundred 
and thirty. Plantains we found in abundance ; alio 
pine apples, water-melons, jaccas, and pompions, be- 
fidcs rice, yams, and fevcral other vegetables, all which 
wc purchafcd at rcafonahle rates. 

In this ifland the inhabitants are Javancfe, .ind their 
, '.ija is fubjeCt to the Sultan of Bantam. In their man- 
ors and cullomsthcy refcinble the Indians about Bata- 
\ia ; but they are more jealous of their women, for all 
the time we were there, we faw not any of them, except 
one by chance in the woods, as flic was running away 
ti> hide hcrfclf. They prolefs the Mahomedan religion ; 
but not a mofque did wc difcovcr in the whole ifland. 
While we were among them, they kept the fall called 
by the Turks Ramadan, with extreme rigour, not one 
f)f them touching a rnorfel of victuals, nor would they 
cluw tluit bctie till fun-fct. Their food is likewife the 
fame with that of the Batavian Indians, except the ad- 
dition of the nuts of the palm, by eating of which, 
upon the roall of New Molland, fomc of our people 
Mere made 1i< k, and fome of our hogs (xiifoncd. We 
cn<)uirid In whit means thefc nuts were dreprived of 
their noxious deleterious quality, and were informed, tlu y full cut them into thin lliccs, and dried them 
jn the fut\. then llceped them in frelh water for three 
nicnih-, and at'terwards, prclllng out the water, dried 
them a Iccond time in the fun ; but after all, we found 
thev are eaten onK' in times of fcarcity, when they mix 
tluiii \* ith their rice to make it go farther. 

The hiHifcs of thefc people are built ujion piles, or 
pillarv, ,\ni\ elevated ubout fuur or five teet above the 
ground. Ujion thefc is laiil a floor of bamlxx) canes, at 

Prince's Island. 
C hole, 
Kamo L,angaii, 

yi 1)1,111. 
A zvomnn, 
A cbtU. 
The head. 
The noji. 
The eyes, 
The ears. 
The If, -lb. 
The belly. 
Tfje hackfide. 
The tbigh. 
The knee. 
The le^. 
A nail. 
A hand. 
A jinger. 

fuch a diftance from each other, as to leave a free pnf- 
fagc for the air from Ix-low. The walls alfo arc of bam- 
boo, interwoven hurdlewife, with fmall (licks, ami f.l- 
tened perpendicularly to the beams which fbrni tlit 
frame of the building; it has a (loping roof, Co well 
thatched with palm-leaves, that neither the fun, nor 
rain can find entrance. The ground -plot, upon which 
the buihling is credited, is an oblong fquarc. On one 
(ide is the door, and in the fpacc between that and the 
other end of the houfe, in the center, towtirds the k;t 
hand, is a window. A partition runs out from each 
end of the houfe, which continues lb far'as to leave an 
opening oppofite the door. P'ach end of the houfe 
thetLfore, to the right and left of the door, is dividal 
into two apartments, all open towards the padage from 
the door to the wall on the oppofite fide. In that on the 
left hand, next to the door, the children flcep ; that 
oppofite to it is forthcufeof ftrangers ; in the iniirr 
room, on the left hand, the mailer and his wite fleep; 
and that oppofite to it is the kitchen. The dhly dific- 
rcnce between the poor and the rich, with refpect to 
thefe houfes, coTifil^s in their fi/c : but wc muft excc|)t 
the royal palace, and the houfe of one Gundang, the 
next man m riches and influence to the king ; for thofc 
inflead of being wrfttlc'd with fticks and bamboos, arc 
enclofed with boards. Thefe people have occafioiwl 
houfes in the rice fields, at the fcalbn t\hen they are in- 
fcfled with the birds and monkeys. They ditfer omK- 
from their town houfes, by being raifcd ten feet infteail 
of four from the ground. 

The inhal>itants of this ifland are of a good ilifpo. 
(ition ; and dealt with us very honetlly ; only like other 
Indians, and the retailers of filh in London, iheywouKI 
afk twice, and fonxctimes thrice as much for their c<mi:- 
moditics as they would take. As what they brought 
to market belonged, in different proportions, toacon- 
fiderable number of the natives, they put all that was 
bought of one kind, as cocoas or plantains together, 
and when we had purchafcd a lot, they divided the mo- 
ney that was paid for it among the proprietors, in a 
proportion corrcfponding with their contributions. 
Sometimes, indeed, they would change our money, 
giving us 240 doits, ati\ounting to five (hillings, for a 
Spaniih dollar, arul nincty-lix, amounting to two (liil- 
lings, for a Bengal rupee. 

The natives of Pnncc's Ifland have a language of 
their own, yet they all fpeak the Malay language. 
Their own tongue they call CattaCJunung, the langua;^e 
of the mountains. They fay, that their trilic originally 
migrated from the mountains of Java to New Bay, and 
then to their prcfcnt llation, being driven from thc;i- 
tirfl fcttlcmcnt by tygcrs, which they found too nume- 
rous to fubdue. Several languages arc fpoken by the 
native Javancfe, in difl'erent parts of their ifland ; but 
the language of thefe people is ditVerent from that 
fpoken at .Samarang, though difl^ifu only one d.iy's 
journey from the rdidtncc of the Emperor of Java. 
The (ijllowing li(l contains ftvcral corrcfponding "words 
in the languages of Prince's Ifland, Jav.i, and Ma 
lacca. . . ... 

.t '■ 

jAV.WrSE. "^ 

.i..-,. ir 


Oong I^nang, ' 


Oran Lacki Laki 

Oong Wadong, 


Parainj uan. 









Edung. ' ' 





































IS to Jeavca free p:,|, 
vails alfo arc of'hai.. 
fmallfticks, aiKiC.i 
ms which fbrni tl 
oping roof, ib vr'i 
leither the fun, i,,,, 
id-plot, upon Hhi, h 
ng fquarc. On or, 
'ctwccn that and tl., 
ter, tOH-nrds the K :• 

runs out from cacli 
lo fiir'as to leave an 

end of the hoin,. 

he door, is divid, j 

•dsthcpalTagc fro,,, 

lide. In that on the 

:hildrcn flecp ; that 

igcts ; in the innr, 

and his \uf(: fli-c,, . 

n. Thcdhlydii: 

ich, with relpeot t.i 

but we niuft cxccp; 

one Gundang, the 

the king J for rhof^ 

i and bamboos, are 

>le have occafioi,;,! 

n When they are in- 

'I'hey diffbr onU- 
fed ten feet infKaii 

■ "*" » K"<id ilifpo. 

')' : only like other 
'Ondon, thcywouKi 
luih for their coii:- 
"hat they brought 
portions.' to a con. 
■y put all that wa'i 
>Iantains together, 
cy divided the mo- 

proprictors, in ,i 
eir contributions, 
iange our monc)-, 
ivclhillings, for 'a 

>ve a language of 

Malay language, 
ung, the language 

to New Hav, and 
Irivcn from thcr 

found too nunie- 
re fjx)kcn by the 

their illand ; bur 
[erent from that 
: only one day's 
^nipcror of Java, 
■cfponding words 

Java, and Ma 

AV. ■• 



COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE — for making Difcoveries in the S-tuf /j Seas fc Round the World. 91 

I, In this fpecimcn the different parts of the body arc 
fchofcn, becaufe they arceafily obtained from thofe whofe 
language is unknown; and it is worthy of obfcrvation, 
that the Malay, the Javancfc, and the language in 

Prince's Ifland, have words, which if not exadly funilar 
to thofe ufed in the South-Sea Illands, are manitclliy 
derived from the fame fource, as will appear from the 
following lift. 


















Gnumbe • 

Matte - 











Udian - 


Udan - 






Soufou - 










Tapao - 






Udang - 


Urang - 

Eufwhe - 





Etannou - 





Enaminou - 











• ' 



Prince's Island. 



yh< eye. 
The ear. 
To drink. 
To kill. 
A loufe. 

Bamboo cane. 
A hcaft. 
A bird. 
A fijh. 
The foot. 
A lo'hjler. 
To bury. 
A mufchito. 

But the finiilitude in thcfc languages is more remark- 
able in words exprelFing number, which feems to 
prove that they have one common root. Mr. Hanks, 
with theaflTiftance of a negro flavc, born at Madagafcar, 
and who was on board an Englifh iliip at Batavia, drew 
up the following comparative table, from whence it 
will appear, that the names of numbers, in particular. 

South-Sea Islands. Malav. 



• Satou 




- Dua 




- Tiga 


Tullu - 


- Ampat - 




. Lima 


Li mo 

Whcncy - 

. Annam - 




- Tudju 




. Dclapau - 


Wolo - 


- Scmbilan 




_ Sapoulou 




From thd fimilitudc between the Eaflern Tongue and 
that of the South Sea, many conjcdurcs may be formed 
concerning the peopling of thofe countries, which 
cannot tafily be referred to Madagafcar. The people 
of Java and Madagafcar appear to be a dilferent race;, 
the Javanefe has long hair, and his complexion is of 
an olive cart ; w htreas a native of Madagafcar is black, 
and his hair woolly; yet this will not conclude againft 
the opinion of theirhaving had commo.i ancellors : and, 
poflibly, the learning of antient EfTypt might run in two 
rourfcs, one through Africa, and the other through 
Alia, dilFeininating the (iime words in each, efpecially 
terms of number, which might thus become part of the 
linguagc r)f people who never had any communications 
with c.ii.h oilier. 

la the month of February we held on our ccftirfc, 
and made the bell of our way for the Cape of Good 
Hope; but now the fiiiui! feeds of difeafc, our people had 
yubibed ai Batavia, began to appear, with the moft 
alarniing fyunuoms, in dyfenteries and flow fevers. 
Our iituation \n a lliort lime was truly deplorable, and 
the iliip «as little bcttei than an hofpital, in which 
thofe who did duty, wen: two few to attend thofe who 
were eonlined 10 tiieir hamiiioeks. Many of thcfe were 
inthclaH Ihigc ot'the tleflrik'tive diforder; and almoft 
every night we committed a body to the fca. Mr. 
Banks was among the number of the lick, and for fome 
time we defpaired of his life. In the courfe offix weeks 
we buried Mr. Sporing, a gentleman of Mr. Banks's 
retinue, Mr. I^arkiiilbn, his natural hillory painter, Mr. 
(rieen the alhonoiiier, the boatfwain, the carpenter, and 
his mate, Mr. Monkhoufe the midlhipman, our jolly 
fail-maker, and his alUllant, the cook, the corporal of 
the marines, two of the carpenters crew, a midlhipmap. 
and nine failors ; in all three and twenty perfons. bclides 

are in a manner common to all thefe countries : but we 
niuft obferve, that in the ifland of Madagafcar, the 
names of numbers, in fome inftances, arc fimilar to all 
thefe, which is a duiiculty not eafy to be folvcd ; yet 
the fael will appear unqueftionable from the following 
lift of words, drawn up, as we have obferved, by Mr- 

Prince's Isle. 




life - 

- One. 

Dua - 

Rua - 

- Tzvo. 

ToUu - 

Tellou - 

- Three. 

Opat - 

Eftats - 

- Four. 



- File. 

Gunnap - 


- Six. 

Tudju - 

Titou - 

- Seven. 

Delapan - 

Walon - 

- Eight. 



- Nine. 

Sapoulou - 


- Ten. 

the fevcnthat we had buried at Batavia. Such was the 
havock difeafc made among our ftiip's company, 
though we omitted no means, which we conceived 
might be a remedy; and to prevent the infection from 
fpreading, we purilicd the water taken in at Prince'.s 
Ifland with lime, and wallied all parts of the bark be- 
tween decks with vinegar. 

Friday the 15th of March, about ten o'clock P. M. 
we brought the lliip to an anchor oft" the Cape of 
Good Hope. Capt. Cook repaired immediately to the 
governor, who chearfuUy promifed him every rcfrelh- 
ment the country affbrdea; on which a houfe was 
hired for the lick, and it was agreed they fliould be 
lodged and boarded for two (hillings each man per day. 
Our run from Java Head to the Cape alVorded few 
obfervations that can be of ufc to future navigators, 
but fome occurrences we muft not pafs over in lilencc. 
We had left Java Head eleven days before we got the 
general S. E. tradc-w ind, during w hich time, we did not 
advance above 5 deg. to the fouthward, and 3 dcg. to 
the W. having an unwholefome air, occafioned probably 
by the load of vapours, which the eaftern wind, and 
wefterly inonfoons, bring into thefe latitudes, both of 
which bl"w in thefe feas, at the time we happened to be 
thciC. Our difeafes were certainly aggravated by thofe 
poifonous vapours, and unwholefome air, particularly 
the flux, which was not in the leaft degree checked by 
any medicine ; fo that whoever was feized with it, con- 
fidered himfelfasa dead man; but we no fooner got 
into the trade wind, than we felt its fajutary etfeCls. 
It is true, we buried feveral of our crew afterwards, but 
they were fuch as had been taken on board in a ftate fo 
low and feeble, that there was fcarcely a poflibility of 
their recovery. We fufpeded at firft, that this drcadfuj^ 
diforder might have beco generated by the wamn that 



ff i 


1 1 ■■ J 


wc took on board at Prince's Ifland, or by the turtle wc 
purchafcd there j but this fufpicion we found to be 
groundltTs ; bccaufc all the (hips that came from Data-, 
via at the fame feafort, fufTered in like manner, and 
fftnie even more fevcrely, though none of them touched 
at Prince's llland in their way. 

Not many days after our departure from Java we 
were attended by the boobies wr fcvcral nights fuc- 
ccflivcly, and as thcfe birds are known to roofl every 
night on lliore, wc concluded land was not far diftant ; 
perhaps it might be the ifland of SeJam, which in 
different charts, is very differently laid down both in 
name and iituation. After thefc birds had left us, we 
were vifited by no more, till we got nearly a-brea(l of 
Madagafcar, where in latitude 27 deg. three quar- 
ters S. we law an albatrofs, the number of uhich in- 
crcafcd every day, with others of different kinds, par- 
ticularly one about the fize of a duck, of a very dark 
brown colour, with a ycllowiih bill; and they be- 
came more numerous as wc approached the Ihore. 
When we got into foundings, we were vilitcd by gan- 
ncts, which we continued to fee as long as wc were 
u|)on the bank that ftretches off Anguillas to the dif- 
tance of forty leagues, and extends along fhore to the 
caftward, from Cape Falfe, according to fome charts, 
one hundred and fixty leagues. The real extent of this 
bank is not cxadtly known ; it is however ufeful as a di- 
rection to fhipping when to haul in, in order to make 
the land. 

At the time the Kndeavour lay at the Cape of Good 
Hope, the Houghton Indiaman failed for England. 
She had buried near forty of her crew, and when ihc 
left the Cape, had many of her hands in a hclplefs con- 
dition, occalioned by the fcurvy. Other (bips likewife 
experienced a projwrtionable lofs by ficknefs ; fo that 
our fuffcrings m ere comparatively light,conlidering that 
we had been abfcnt near three times as long. Wc con- 
tinued at the cape till the 13th of April, in order to 
recover the lick, procure flores, and to do fonic neccC- 
r.iry work up<in the lliip and rigging. When this was 
iinilhcil we got all the lick on board, feveral of whom 
V ere llill in a dangerous (late ; and on Sunday the 1 4th, 
having taken leave of the governor, wc unmoored, and 
got ready to fail. 

The hirtory of Caffraria is well known in Europe, 
and a defcription of the Cape of Good Hope has been 
given by moll of our circumnavigators ; yet wc think 
a particular account of this country uill be acceptable 
to our numerous fubfcribers 5 and they w ill meet with 
thmc particulars which fell under our obfervation, that either been wholly omitted or mifrcprefented in 
oihcr narratives. 

Caffraria, or Caffreria is well fitu? td for navigation 
and commerce, both which advantages are almoft 
wliollv ntgleded. The interior part of the country is 
fertile, but wants the benefit of cultivation. The in- 
habitants are naturally fagacious, but their faculties 
are abforbed in indolence ; thus both the lands and 
minds of the people require improvement; but Icll 
culiivation in the firft (hould introduce luxur)-, andin- 
f()niiation in the lall produce difobedieace, neither of 
thcfe are encouraged by the politic Dutch, whopoffefs 
a great part of the fea coau. This country extends 
about fcven hundred and eighty miles from N. to S. 
that is, from Cape Negro to the Cape of Good Hope, 
from hence turning N. E. to the mouth of the river 
Spiritu Santo, it runs abo\it fix hundred and fixty miles ; 
and proceeding up the country almoft to the cquinoxial 
line, it is about one thoufand feven hundred and forty 
miles farther. In fome places it is nine hundred, and 
in others not above fix hundred broad. Caffraria is fo 
named from ;he Caftrcs, its inhabitants ; though fome 
authors affirm, that this name is a term of reproach 
friven by the Arabs to all who have but confufed notions 
of the deity, and which the Portugucfc have by miftake 
;ipplied to thcfe people. 

The Cape of Good Hope, which is the moft fou- 
thcrn part of Africa, was firft difcovercd, A. D. 1 493, 
by Bartholomew Diaz, admiral of » Portuguefe fleet, 
%»lifloo account of jhc boiftcfous weather he met with 

when near it, diftinguiftied it by the name of Cabod(,s 
totos Tormentos» or the Cape of all plagues ; iiiuc 
which, no place in the univcrfc has been more fnoi<cn 
of, though little of the country, except the coalt, h;ii 
been penetrated or known. The rcafon why it has lb 
much aitrafted the attention of mariners of all nations, 
is, their being under a ncceflity of frequently callin|^ 
there for water or other refredinicnts, and atfo of dou- 
bling it, in their voyages to the E;ift-Indies. But John 
king of Portugal, notliking the name which his ad- 
miral had bcfto*edupon this large promontory, changtj 
it to that of Cabodc Boria Efperanca, the " Cape di 
Goad Hope," which appellation it hath ever fiace re. 

Neither Diaz, norhis fucccnbr VafcodcGama, though 
they faw the Cape, thought proper to land : but in i ^ gS 
the Portugueze admiral, Rio del Infanta, was the iiill 
who ventured afhorc; and from his report, Emanuel, 
king of Portugal, on accoiuu of the eligibility of the 
fituution, determined to eilubiilh a colony there ; Imt 
the Portuguefe, who arc naturally pulTUaniinous, havinj^ 
taken it into their heads, that tnc inhabitants ofthc 
Cape were cannibals, were too much afi-.iid of being 
devoured, to obey their fover^ign in making the fcttle- 
mcnt he intended : however, fome time after, another 
body of thofe timid adventurers made good their land- 
ing, under the conduct of Francis d'Almcyda, a vice- 
roy of Brafil, when the Portugiicze were fliamefuliy de- 
feated by the fcarce armed, and unwarlike natives. 
The viceroy and fifty of his men being killed in the en- 
gagement, the renminder retired with precipitation to 
their Ihips. The Portuguefe were much difap])ointed 
and chagrined at the idea of fiich martial fuperiority in 
a people by them deemed at once lavage and defpica- 
ble. They determined to be revenged ; but not haviiij^ 
magnanimity enough to fticw a becoming rerentmeni, 
they contrived a moft inhuman .nnd cowardly expedi- 
ent. About two years after, touching at the cape, 
they larded with all the appearance of amay, ;K;.oni- 
panicd with ftrong pmfeflions of fricndlhip, and uiuir 
this mafl< brought with them a large cannon u.pdoi'. 
with grape fl-ot. The unfuljpciflin;': natives, oveijovtJ 
by the gift of fo great a treafure, began to drag it aw.iy 
by the means of two long ropes, which had been pre- 
vioully faftencd to the muzzle. Great numbers laid 
hold of the ropes, and many others went before by w ay 
of triumph, when the treacherous Portuf^uczc firing 
off the cannon, a prodigious fl.-iughter enfucd, as iiiotl 
of the people ftood within the range of the Ihot. Many 
were killed, feveral wounded ; and the few who efcaped, 
abandoned with the utmoll precipitation the fatal prc- 

About the year 1600, the Dutch began to touch at 
the Cape, in their way to and from the F^ift-Indic^; 
and becoming annually more fcnfiblcof the importance 
of the place, they effcded a fettlement in 1 650, w hich 
fince that time hath rifen to great power and opulence, 
and been of cffential fervice to that nation. M. Van 
Ricbeeck, a furgeon, in his return from Indi.a, obferv- 
ing the convenicncy of the place for a fettlement, and 
laying before the Dutch Eaft- India Company a plan of 
its advantages, the fchcme was approved, and the pro- 
jedlor appointed governor. This Adventurer failing 
with four Ihips to the cape, cntercil into a negotiation 
with the people, who, in roniidcration of fifty thou- 
fand guilders, or four thoufand three hundred and fe- 
venty-ftve pounds ftcrling, agreed to yield up to the 
Dutch a confidcrable twiit of country round the Ca()e. 
Van Ricl)ceck, in order to fccure his ncwpurchafe, im- 
mediately eredled a ftrong fquare fort ; laid out a large 
garden, and planted it w ith a great variety of the pro- 
dudlions from Europe, that he might render the place 
as commodious and agreeable as polfiblc. Having tjius 
fuccefsfully founded a fettlement, the Dutch Company 
propofed, in order the more eftcdually to cftablilh ir, 
that every man, who would fettle three years at the 
Cape, ftiould have an inheritance of fixty acres of land, 

Srovided that during that fpacc he would fo improve 
is cftatc, as to render it lufticient to maintain himfcif, 
and contribute fomewhst towards the maintenance ol 
• ■*. ' • the 

cook's Fit; ~^T' VOYAGE — for iiuikini^ Difcovcrifs in the South Seas & Round the World, gj 

thf giirrifon ; and at the expiration of the timi-, he 
might either keep poirellion ot it, or fell it, and rc- 
imn home. Induced by thefe propofals, many went 
to fcek their fortunes at the Cape, and were furniflied 
on credit with cattle, prain, plants, utenfiis, &c. The 
phintcrs, however, at length grew weary of their ha- 
bitations for want of conjugal fociety ; therefore the 
governors of the company, to prevent their leaving the 
place, provided them with wives from the Orphan- 
houfts, and other charitable foundations. In procefs 
ol time they greatly incrcafed, and fpread themfelvcs 
taithcr up the country, and along the coaft, till iliey 
occupied all the lands from Saldanna Bay, round the 
fi)utlu-.n point of Africa, to Noli'cl Bay, on the !'-• 
and ailerwards puixhafed Terra de Natal, in order to 
extend tiieir limits Hill farther. 

It appears, hov.ever, that on the firft fettlemcnt of 
the Dutch at the Cape, all the Hottentot tribes did not 
ac.|uicfcc in the llile of the country to foreigners; for 
till' Gunyemains dillcnted from the agreement of the 
others, and, in 1659, difputcd the pofllllion of the 
purchafcd territories with the Dutch. They always 
made their attack in boillcrous weather, as thinking 
the lirc-arms then of lefs ufe and eflicacy j and upon 
thele occafions they would murder indifcriminately all 
tlie Europeans they could meet, burn down their houfes, 
and drive away their cattle. At length a Hottentot, 
called by the Dutch Donian, who had refilled fome tiir.e 
at I'atavia, and afterwards lived at Cape Town, retirc<l 
to his countrymen, and perfuadedthtm, that it was the 
inteni. of the liuropeans to cnllave them, and llirred 
them up to war. Accordingly they took up anus, and, 
being lieaded by Donian, attended by another < hitf 
named Ciarabing;i, they committed great dLiMcdations. 
But tlic Hottentots tiieniillves at length giowing tired 
of the war, one hundred of them, belonging to one 
nation, came unarmed to the Dutch fort, withaprefent 
of thirteen head ot line excellent cactle, in order lo fue 
for jHacc. This, it may be imagined, was readily 
giaiued by the Dutch, who were heartily fitkofacon- 
tcrt, in which themfelvcs were fuch great lufeis, without 
reaping any advantages from it. 

Noiwithrtanding all that has been faid to the con- 
trary, no country we faw during the voyage, makes a 
more loilorn appearance, or is in reality a more I'.erile 
defart. The laiul over the Cape, which conllitutes the 
pninfula formed by Table Bay on the N. and Falfe 
Bay on the S. conlil's of high mountains, altogether 
n.iked and ilefotaie ; tlie land behind thefe to the E. 
which may be (onfidcred as the Ifthmus, is a plain of 
\all exten.", conlilHng nlniofl wholly of a light kind 
of fea fand, which prixiuccs nothing but heath, a;id 
is utterly incapable of cultivation. All the fpots that 
willadiiiit of improvement, which together bear about 
the lame proportion to the whole as one to one 
thouf.ind, are .aid out in vineyards, orchards, and 
kitchen grounds ; and molt of thefe little fpots lie at a 
coiiliderahle dilhuice from each other. There is alfo 
the greatell realon to klievc, that in the interinr parts 
of the countr)-, that which is capable of cultivation, ef- 
pecially what is lituated at no great diftance from the 
coall, docs not bear a greater proportion to that which 
is bari< n ; for the Dutch told us, that they had fettle- 
nicius eight and twenty days up the country, a dilbnce 
rijual at l.all to nine hundred miles, from which they 
bring provifions to the Cape by land ; fo that it feems 
rcafonable to conclude, that provifions are not to be 
had within a lefscompals. While we were at the Cape, 
a farmer came thither from the country, at the cfif- 
tance of fifteen days journey, and brought his children 
with him. Wc were furpnfed at this, and alked him, 
if It would not have been better to have left them with 
his next neighbtjur. Neighbour! faid the man, I l\ave 
no neighbour within lefs than five days jo'uriuy of me. 
Surely the country mufl l-te deplorably barren in which 
tliofe w ho fettle only to raife provifions for a market, are 
difperfed at fuch dilVances from each other, 'i'hat the 
country is every where det\itute of wikkI is a certain 
fait; for timber and planks arc importeii from IJiuavia, 
and fuel is alinoll as dear as food. Wc faw not a tree. 
No, II, 

except in plantations near the town, that was fix tbor 
high ; and the Ikins, that were not thicker than a man's 
thumb, had roots as thick as an arm or leg, fuch is the 
influence of the winds hereto the difadvantage of vege- 
tation, without confidering the llcrility of the foil. 

Cape Town is the only one the Dutch have built here, 
and it confilts of about a thoui'and houfes neatly built 
of brick, whited in general on the outlide. They arc 
covered only with thatch, for the violence of the S. K. 
winds would render any other roof inconvenient and 
dangerous. The flrcets are broad and commodious, 
crofling each other at right angles. In ihe main one is 
a canal, on each fide of which is planted a row of oaks, 
that have grown tolerably well, and yield an agreeable 
fliade. In another part of the town is alio a canal, but 
the Hope of the ground in the courfe of both is fo great, 
that they are furnifhed with locks at intervals of little 
more than fifty yards. The houfes in general have 
pleafant gardens behind, and neat court yards before 
them. Building, as well as tillage, is greatly encou- 
raged lu're, and land given for either purpofe to thofu 
who chule to accept of it ; but then the government 
claims an annual tenth of the value of the former, and 
Iiioducc of the latter, and a tithe of all purchafe mo- 
ney when efhates are fold. The town extends from the 
fea fliore to the Company's garden, fprcading along 
Table Bay. The fort is in a valley at a fmall diftance, 
its form pentagonal, it commands the landing-place, 
and is garrifoned by two hundred foldiers. The gover- 
nor's llorehoufes are w ithin it, other officers befides 
himfelf have apartments here, as well as fix hundred 
fervants : the iiime number of flavcs are lodged in ;i 
commodious building in the town, which is divided 
into two wards, the one for the men, the other for the 
women ; and there is a lioiife of correction for the re- 
ception of iliflblute perlbns of cither fex. Tho hof- 
pital for tick feaiiun is of eflcntial ufe to the Dutcb 
fleets in going to or returning from India, 1 he church 
is a large etiifice, clcg-.ntly plain ; but the roof and 
fleeple are thatched, ti.r Hie reafon already mentioned. 
Thatching indeed, from the nature of the hurricanes, 
feems abfblutely necefliuy; but from the method in 
which it was formerly done, it appears that it was fre- 
quently attended with danger, and we were informed, 
there ufed to be flielving pent houfes credcd on both 
fides the flreets, to flielter pafl'cngers in rainy weather ; 
but thefe brought the inhabitants under fuch dangers 
and inconveniences, that ttiey were all pulled dow n by 
order of government. Sailors and Hottentots were 
continually allembling, and fmoaking their pipes under 
them, and fomctimes, through carelcfsnefs fet them 0,1 
fire. The government laid hold of that occation to rid 
the flreets of thofe fellows that were continually pefler- 
ing them, by publifhing an order, which is flill in 
force, and from time to time republilhed, that no Hot- 
tentot, or common failor, fliall fmoke in the flreet, 
and that upon prefuming fo to do they Ihould be tied 
to the whipping poll and be feverely lallied. This has 
kept the ftreets clear of all who have no bufinefs there ; 
for it is with great difliculty that either the feamen or 
Hottentots can forbear fmoaking while they are awake, 
if they have tobacco, which they are fcldom without. 
What is moft to be admired at the Cape is the Com- 
pany's garden, where they have introduced almoft all 
the fruits and flowers that are found in the other three 
quarters of the globe; mofl of which are improved, and 
flouriih more than they did in their refpcdtive climates 
and countries from w hence they were brought ; and the 
garden is watered with fprings tbuJt fall down from Ta- 
ble mountain juft above them. Apples and pears arc 
planted here, with the grapes of Alia, as well as thofc 
of Europe, all of a delicious flavour. Here are alfo 
excellent lemons, oranges, citrons, figs, Japan apples, 
and a great variety of other fruits. In this place a much 
greater proportion of the inhabitants arc Dutch than in 
Batavia j and as the town is fupported principally by 
entertaining ftrangers, and fupplying them with nccef- 
faries, every man to a certain degree, imitates the man- 
ners and cufloms of the nations with which he is chiefly 
concerned. The ladies, however, are fo faithful to the 
2 A mode 








mode of thi-ir country, that not onr of them will lUr 
without a chaudpicil, or chauftct, which is carried by 
a fervant. that it may be rcaily to place under her feet, 
whenever flic fits down: though few of thefc chautlcts 
have fire in them, which iitdccil the climate renders un- 

Notwiihftanding the natunil (krility of the climate, 
induftry has fupplied this place with all the nccefPa- 
tics, and even luxuries of Tfe in the greatell profulion. 
The beef and mutton arc excellent, though the oxen 
and fhcep are natives of the country : the cattle arc 
Ii;;hter than ours, more neatly made, and have horns 
that fprcad to a much wider extent. The flieep arc 
clothed w ith a fubllancc between wool and hair, and 
have tails of an enoniious (i/e : wc faw fome that 
weighed twelve jxiunds, and wc heard there were many 
much larger. CJood butter is made from the milk of 
row:!, but the checfe is very much inferior to our own. 
Here arc hogs and a variety of poultry j alfo goats, but 
thcfo lart arc never eaten. Hares arc to be found cx- 
ai-'Hy like thofc in luiropc; likcwifc many kinds of an- 
telopes ; t]uails of two forts, and bul^ards, all well Ha- 
voured, but not juicy. The fields produce European 
wheat and barley ; the gardens European vegetables ; 
fruit of ail kinds; bclides plantains, guavas, j;mibu, 
and other Indian fruits, but thele arc not in perfection; 
fhe plantains, in, are very bad, and the 
puav;is no larger than goofcbe.'rie.s. The vineyards 
alfo produce wines of various forts, but not equal to 
thofc of l-'iirope, except the Conflantia, which is made 
genuine only at one vineyard, about ten miles diflant 
from the town. There is another vineyard near it, 
where wine IS made, and called by the fame name, but 
it isgre.iily inferior. 

With rrfpcct to the animals of this country, the wild 
differ in nothing from thole found in other parts. There 
are great numbers of domelhc animals in the various 
colonies and feulenients at the Cape, and the woods 
and mountains ab(Mind with wilil beads. The horfes, 
which were brought originally from Perfia. arc of a 
bay or chtlnut colour, and rather fmall. The dogs 
hive a very unfightly appearance, and arc of little uie. 
Among the wild beads, the elephant claims the (irU 
place. 'I'he rhinoceros is of a dark alh colour, and 
hns a fiiout like a hog. A horn projects about two feet 
fioin the nofe, rclcmbling in fliaix: a plough (hare, and 
of a ;;rey dingy colour. With this he tears up the 
groiiiul, pulls up trees by their roots, throws large Itones 
over his head, and rips up the elephant, to whom he is 
a mortal enemy. Another horn of about fix inches 
long, turns up from his forehead. His legs are Ihort, 
his ears fmall, and his fenfe f fmelling furprizingly 
acute. When he fcents any thing he purfues in a 
right line, and teare up every thing in his ways but his 
eyes being exceeding irnall and fixed, he can only fee 
ihait forwanl, fo that it is eafy to avoid him by hep- 
ping allde, as he is a long time in turning himfclfabout, 
and longer Hill in getting light apain of the objed. He 
w ill not att.ick a man without being provoked, orunlefs 
he is drclled in fcarlct. When he has killed any crea- 
ture, he licks the flefh from its bones with his rough 
tongue, which is like a rafp. He feeds much on herbs, 
thiltlcs, and a plant rcfcmbling juniper, and which, 
from its fondnefs of it, is called rhmoceros-bufh. The 
bl(5od, fkin, and horn of this animal, are medicinally 
ulcd, and faiii to be very efficacious in many diforders. 
Wine, po»ired into cups made of the horn, bubbles up 
in a ftrangc kind of fermentation, appearing as if boil- 
ing. Should a fmall portion of poifon be put into the 
wine, the cup fplits ; but if fwifon only is pnurcd into 
the cup, it Hies into a thouland pieces i hence cups 
made of this horn are decnied excellent fafeguards, and, 
on that account, independent of their falubrious qua- 
lities, are highly valued. At the Cape, wolves arc of 
two kinds ; the one rcfembles a fliccp-dog, and is 
fpotted like a tygcr; the other is like an European 
uolf: they both prowl about, and do great mifchief in 
the nighl-timc, but lie coiKcakd in the day. Lions, 
lygcrs, leopards, iLC. alfo abound here, and arc fo 
troublcfome, that the pcrfou who kilb one of cither 

fort, i* rewarded with twenty-five florins, or fifty Jliij- 
lings. 1 he flcfli of the lion is cncemed equal to vcni.i 
fon, and the fat is much valued, Here arc inuch larger 
buffaloes than in Europe. They arc of a brown co. 
lour : the horns are (hort, and cm ve towards the neck, 
where they incline to each other. Iletwccn them k a 
tuft of hair upon ilu: forehead, w hich adds to the fieivt^ 
nefs of the look. The fl<in is exceeding hard, and tlic 
flcfli rather tough. He is a ftrong fierce creature, and 
is enraged at any thinp red, like many other animals. 
We faw here elks five feet high, with horns a loot lonjr. 
This is a very handfome creature, having a beautiful 
head and neck, flender legs, and foft fmooth hair of an 
alh colour. Iheir upper jaw is larger than the imder, 
the tail about a foot in length, and the Helh by the Cape 
Kpi( ures is faid to exceed the licll beef. They run 
fwift, and climb the rocks w ith great agility, thouj-Ii 
they ufually weigh alwut four hundred pounds eac h. 
Another lingular animal is thai called llinkbox, from 
its otl'enfivc fmell both living anil dead ; it is about tl^e 
li/cof a lommon hoiife dog, and made much like a 
ferret. The goats are of various fpccies. One, called 
the blue goat, is of a fine a/ure colour. The I'l^ntod 
goat is larger, and beautifully marked with brtuui, 
white, and red fpois. Ihe horns are a foot long. '1 he 
Hefh fine eating. The rock-goat is no lander than a 
kid, but very mifchicvous in the plantations. The di- 
ving-goat is much like the tame one, and receives its 
name from its method of fquatting down i:i the gial* 
to hide itfclf. We faw another animal called a go:\t, 
without any additional apiiellation, it is of the fi/.e ofa 
hart, and extremely beautiful. The hair of the tides 
and back is grey, llreakcd with red, and that on the 
belly white. A white flreak paffes from his forehead to 
the ridge of his tail, and three others liirround his b<xly 
in circles. The female hath no horns; but thofc of 
the male are three feet in length, ami the Hefh is ex- 
ceedingly delicate. The horns of the hart do not 
branch like thofc of l-Airopc; but the roihuck is iii 
every icfpect like ours. Wild cats are of feveral forts. 
The firll the l>utch call the civit cat, not that it i» 
really the animal of name, but becaufc of the 
fine fcent of the lltin. The next is called the tyger- 
cat, from its being very large, and fpotted like atyger. 
The third fort is the mountain cit, which, as well a .s 
the tame cat, rcfembles thofe of Europe. The fourth 
fpccics is denominated the blue cat, from its colour, 
having a fine blue tinge, with a beautiful red litl 
down its back. There is a fpccics of mice peculiar to 
this country, called the rattlc-moufe, which is about 
the lizc of a fquirrel, and makes a rattling noifc with 
its tail. It is very nimble, lives upon nuts and acorns, 
and purs like a cat. Among the hogs with which thii 
country abounds, is the wild hog, or rather wild boar, 
which is very fierce, and harbours in woods ; and the 
earth hog, w hich is of a red colour, and without teeth : 
this lodges like a badger in holes, and fccils upon 
ants ; thefc he procures by forcing his long rough 
tonguennto their hills, from whence he ilraws it w ith a 
great numlx-r glued thereto. Many jack»lls, fome er- 
mines, baboons, monkeys, Sec. arc found alwut the 
ca|K; and frequently do great mifchief in the gardens, 
orchards, and vineyards. The porcupine is very com- 
mon, antl its Helli cftecmcd delicious. There arc two 
forts of w ild alles in this country, one of which is a 
beautiful creature, called the zebra, and bears a greater 
aftinity in make and Ihapc to the horfe than the a(s. 
Indeed the cars arc fomewhat like thofe of the latter 
animal, but in all other rcfpccls it has a much more 
noble appearance. It is admirably well made, exceed- 
ing lively, and fo extremely fwift, that it throws al- 
mofl cvcrv purfuer at a diflance. Its legs are fine ; ir 
has a twitted tail, round flcfhy haunches, and a fmooth 
(kin. 'ihe females are white and black, and the males 
white and brown. Thefc colours are placed alternately 
in the mort beautiful ftripes, and arc parallel, diftim.'!, 
and narrow. The whole animal is ftrcakcd in this ad- 
mirable manner, fo as to appear to a diflant beholder as 
if covered with ribbons. Moll naturaliHs affirm, that 
the zebra never ^aij be tamed, '1 hat which was prew 



r E. 

florins, or fifty fliil- 
ceincd equal to vcni^ 
Here arc inuch larger 

are of a brown (o- 
ive towards the neck, 
Between them is ,i 
reding hard, and the 
; fierce creature, and 
many other animals, 
ith horns a foot lopir. 
, having a beautillil 
oft finooth hair of an 
irgcr than the undi r, 

the Helh by the CapJ 
icll beef. They nm 
;reat agility, thouj-h 
indred pounds eai h. 
lilcd llink box, fi()!ii 
Jead ; it is about &<: 

made much hkc ,i 
rpccie-i. Onc.talka 
olour. The ffvittLil 
narked with broun, 
arc a foot long. 'I lie 

is no lanaT than :i 
ilantation?.. The di- 
onc, and receives it. 
J, down ill the gral'* 
niinal calUd a goat, 

it is of the lize ol .» 
he hair of the fidci 
•d, and that on the 

from his forehead to 
rs furround his Inxly 

horns ! but thofc of 

and the Helh is eT- 
if the hart do not 
I the roebuck is ui 

are of feveral forts', 
t cat, not that it i> 

but becaufc of the 

is called the tygei- 

fpottcd likeatyger. 
t, which, as well a.< 
urojic. The fourth 
at, from its colour, 
a beautiful red lift 

of mice peculiar to 
ufe, which is about 

rattling noifc with 
ion luits and acorns, 
ogs with which thu 
or rather wild boar, 
in wootls J and the 

and without teeth : 
s, and feeds upon 
»g his long rough 
:e he ilraws it with a 
yjackalls, fome rr- 
'C found about the 
hief in the gardens, 
•cupinc is very com- 
js. There arc two 
, one of which is a 

and bears a greater 

horfe than tnc af^. 

thofe of the latter 
t has a much more 
well made, cxcecd- 
, that it throws al- 
Its legs are fine ; ir 
iches, and a fmooth 
lack, and the males 
re placed alternately 
re parallel, diftind, 

ftrcaked in this ad- 

diftant beholder as 

uralifls affirm, that 

at which was pr<k, 


. ■ I ii„, ■ ■■- ■" * — *- I f 

cook's first voyage — for making Difcoveriei in tlie Sotilh Seas & Roinul tlic jyorlJ. g^ 

jfented to herprefcnt majefty qticcn Charlotte, and kept 
fivcral years at the ftablcs near Buckingham-gate, con- 
Irinued vicious till its death, though it was brought over 
j young, and every polTiblc means ufed to render it trac- 
f table: it fed upon hay, and the noifo it made rather 
= refcmblcd the barking of a martifi" dog, than the bray- 
I iivr of an afs. The camclopardalis, we were informed, 
ha" been found in the countries round the Cape. Cap- 
ita in Carteret, having, by order of his prefent majefty, 
icrformed a voyage round the world in the Swallow 
! iloop of war, mentions this animal in a letter to the 
' late Dr. Matty, fecretary to the Royal Society. " From 
the fcarcity of this creature (fays he) as I believe none 
] have been found in Europe, iince Julius Cxfar's time 
I (when I think there were two of them at Rome) I iiiia- 
gliv- a more certain knowledge of its reality w ill not be 
dilagreeable to vou, as the cxiftencc of this fine animal 
has been doubted by many. 'I'he prefent governor of 
the Cape of (iood I lope has fcnt out parties of men on 
inland difcovcries, fome of which have been abfent 
from eighteen months to two years, in which travcrfe 
tlicy have difcovercd many curiofities. One of thefe 
mrtics ciollcd many mountains and plains, in one ol 
vtiich they foiuid twoof thofe creatures, but they only 
caught the young one. This they endeavoured to bring 
alive to Cape Town, but unfortunately it died. They 
took olV his (kin, and it has, as a confirmation of this 
truth, been fent to Holland." The Ikin here alluded 
to is now in the cabinet of natural hiftory at Leyden* 
Linntrus ranks this aninial among the deer kmd. Its 
head is like that of a ftag; the horns are blunt, about 
fix inches long, covered with hair, but not branched. 
The neck refembles a camel's, only longer, being near 
J'cvcn feet. It has a mane like that of a horfe ; feet, 
cars, and a tongue like thofe of a cow; (lender legs, 
the fore ones being confiderably longer than the hinder; 
the body is but fmall, covered with white hair, and 
(potted with red ; the tail is long, and biilhy at the 
( lul ; the upper jaw contains no foic teeth ; he moves 
both the fore feet together when he runs, and not one 
after the other like other animals ; he is eighteen feet 
long from the tail to the top of the head, ami is lixteen 
feet from the ground when he holds up his head. 

A great variety of birds and fowls are found at the 
Cape, both wild and tame. Here arc three forts of 
eagles, namely, i. The bone breaker, who feed:; on 
tortoil'cs ; to obtain the flelh of which it ufes this lin- 
gular method. Having carried the tortoifc aloft in the 
air, it drops it upon fome hard rcKk, by which means 
the rtiell is broken, and the eagle can eafily come at its 
prey. a. The dung-eagle, which tears out the entrails 
of animals to fublid ort, and, though no bigger than a 
common goofe, is exceeding (trong and voracious. 
•;. The duck-eagle, fo called becaufc it feeds princi- 
pally on ducks. Here are alio w ild geefcof three forts. 
I. The water goofe, which refembles ours. 2. The 
mountain goofe, which is the largell of all, having a 
green head, and green wings. 3. The crop goofe, fo 
named frotn its remarkable large craw, of which bags, 
pockets, and tobacco-pouches are made. All thefe 
kinds of gcefe arc fuch good eating, fo plentiful, and 
fo ealily taken, that the people of the Cape do not 
think the tame goofe worth the trouble of breeding. 
But of all the numerous birds that are to be found here, 
the flamingo is one ov the moft fingular. It has a long 
neck, and is larger than a fwan : the legs are remark- 
ably long, and of an orange taw ny, ana the feet are 
like thole of a goofe: the bill contains blue teeth with 
black points; the head and neck are intirely white ; 
the upper part of the wings are of a bright Hame co- 
lour, and the lower black. 

Reptiles are very numerous at the Cape, particularly 
the following ferpents, i. The tree ferpcnt, fo called 
from refembling the branch of a tree, and from being 
tbnd of winding itfelf about trees. 2. The adi co- 
loured afp, fpcckled with white and red, which is fe- 
veral yards long. 3. The (hoot ferpcnt, fo named from 
the aisazing velocity with which it darts irfelf at an 
enemy. Some call it the eye ferpcnt, on account of the 
numerous white fjiots refeinbling eyes, w ith which its 


fliin is marked. 4. The blind flow-worm, a black 
fcaly ferpcnt, fpotted with brown, white, and red. 
5. The tnirft ferpent, or inllnmcr, a moft vcnemous 
and dangerous ferpcnt, about three t^uartcrs of a yard 
long; it has a broail neck, black back, and ' .cry 
active. 6. The hair ferpcnt, which is about three feeC 
in length, as thick as a man's thumb, and received its 
name from its yellow hair. Its poifon is fo malignant, 
that nothing but the ferpcnt ftone can prevent its being 
mortal. This ftonc is laid to be an artificial compo- 
fition, prepared by thcBiamins in India, who keep the 
fecrct to themfclves. It is ftiapcd like a bean, in the 
middle whitiih, the reft of a fky-bluc. Whenever 
this is applied, it fticks clofe without bandage or fiip- 
port, and imbibes the poifon till it can receive no more, 
and then drops olf. Being laid in milk, it purges itfelf 
' f the venom, turning the milk yellow, and fo is ap- 
plied again, till by its not fticking, it proves that the 
poifon IS exhaufted. 

The neighbouring fea affords a plentiful Aipply of 
fi(h to the inhabitants of the Cape. The meat of the 
fea cows is much admired. The flying fifli, which has 
wings like a bat, is reckoned a great delicacy. The 
brown lilli is as big as an ox, and is deemed good food 
either frcfli or falted. The bennet is near three feet 
long, and weighs about fcven pounds : the eyes and 
tails arc red; the lins yellow, and the fcalcs purple, 
with gold llrcaks. The nicac is of a crimlon colour, 
and fo remains after it is drcffed ; iievcrthelefs it is de- 
licious eating. The gold iilh has a ftreak from lead to 
tail, circles round his eyes of a gold colour, it is 'igh- 
teen inches long, weighs about a jiound, and its ilelb r/i 
an cxquifitctatU-. The bralleni is found only about the 
Cape. Of this lilli there are two foils ; the one has a 
black back, and purple head; the oilier is of a dark 
blue colour, and the tormer is rounder than the latr-jr. 
They are both cheap and wholtfonie food. The Tronc 
bralVcin is good either frcfli or falted, refembles a carp 
in make, but is more delicious in ta(le. One fpicics of 
this fifli is called flat-nofc, from the Ihape of the head, 
and is much more valued than the other forr. The red 
ftonc fifli is exceeding beautiful to the eye, and cxqui- 
lite to the tafte : the bact% tarlet fpotted w ith blue, 
and befpangled with gold ; the eyes are of a bright red, 
aiul furrounded with a (ilvcr circle, and the belly is of 
a pale [liiik colour, has a fliining lilvcr tail, refembles 
aiarpboth in fliapc and tafte, and weighs about a 
pound. Of iliell-lilb, which arc innumerable, there is 
a fingular fpccies called Klin-koufen, which has an up- 
per and under fticll, thick, rough, twifted, and incrufted. 
In vinegar the cruft will drop oft", and the lliell exhi- 
bits an admirable pearl colour. Sca-(uns and fea-ftars, 
arc fmall round Ihcll-lilh, and receive their denomina- 
tions from the great variety of prickles, which (hoot 
from them like rays of light. The filh called pagger 
has a prickly (hell, and is much dreaded by the people 
of the Cape, as a wound from one of its protuberances 
turns to a mortilicat'in, unlefs great care is taken to 
prevent it. The fea-fpout refembles a piece of niofs 
fticking fart to the rocks. It is of a green colour, 
emits water, and within is like a tough piece of flcfti. 
The torpedo, or cramp-ray is a very curious filh. The 
body is circular, the (kin ("oft, finooth and yellow", 
marked w ith large annular fpots ; the eyes fmall, and 
the tail tapering. It is of dirt"ercnt lizes, and weighs ("ron> 
five to fifteen pounds. The narcotic or benumbing 
quality of this fifh was known to the ancients, and hath 
furnilhcd matter of fpcculation to the philofophers of 
all ages. If a perfon touches it when alive, it inftantly 
deprives him of the ufe of his arm, and has the fame 
ctt'ciil if he touches itwithaftick. Even if one creads 
upon it with a ftioe on, it art"eOls not only the leg, but 
the thigh upwards. They who touch it with the feet 
are feized with a ftronger palpitation than even thofo 
who touch it with tiie hand : this numbncfs bears no 
refcmblance to that which we feci when a nerve is a 
long time prelTed, and the foot is faid to be aflccp : it 
rather appears to be like a fudd:n vapour, which palling 
through the pores in an inftant, penetrates to the very 
fpringsof lite, from whence it dift'ufes itfelf all over the 



Capt. C O O K's VOYAGES C O M P L E T h\ 




boii)-, siulf^ivi's-rOal pain. 'I'hc nerves arc fo afVccU'ci, 
that the pcrfon llriitk iniaj^incs all the bones of his 
body, ami particularly thofe ot the Innb th»t received 
the blow, arc driven out ot" joint. All this is ateoni- 
panied with a univerfal tremor, a litkncl's of the Qo- 
luach, a general convuHion, and a total fiifpcnlion of 
the faculties of the mind. In lliort, fuch is the pain, 
that all the l()rce of our proiiiiles and authority could 
not prevail upon a feaman to underp) the lliock a fe- 
(ond time. It hax been obferved, that the pov\ers of. 
this (ilh decline with its Itrenpth, and intircly ccafes 
when it expires. This bcnumbinj^ faculty is of double 
ufe to the torpedo : firll it enables it to get its prcv w ith 
great facility ; and fecondly it is an admirable defence 
againll its enemies, as by numhinjj; a lilli of fupcrior 
force with its touch, it can ealily cicape. The narcotic 
power of the torpedo is greater in the female than the 
male. ,\ccording to Appian, it will benumb the filher- 
nian through the whole extent of hook, line and rod. 
'I'he Hcfli of this remarkable lilh having, however, no 
pernicious quality, is eaten by the people of the Cape 
ui ci)m\ni)n with others. 

'I'hc air at the Cape of Good Hope is falutary in a 
high liegree ; fo that thofe who bring difeafes from 
iMuope generally recover health in a (hort time; but 
the difeafes tint are brought hither from India are not 
fo certainly cured. The weather at the cape may be 
divided into two feafons, namely, the wet monloon, 
and the dry moiifoon; the former begins in March, and 
the latter in September ; fo that fummer commences 
at the Cape about the tune that it concludes with us. 
'I'he inconveniences of the climate areexcelTive heat in 
the dry feal'on, and heavy rains, thick fogs, and N. W. 
winds in the wet feal'on. Thunder and lightning arc 
never known here but in March and September. VVa- 
tfr feldom freezes, and when it does, the ice is but 
thin, and diflblves ujion the leafi appearance of the 
fun. In the hot weather, the people are happy when 
tlie wind blows from the .S. li. becaufe it keep,> olf the 
fea-wccils which uthenvife would tloat to the Ihorc, and 
corrupt there, 'i'he appearance of two remarkable 
clouds, which freijuently hang over the fummits of 
the two mountains of Table-hill and Devil. hill, com- 
monly enable the inhabitants of this country to prog- 
nollicate what weather will happen. The clouds are at 
iirrt fmall, but gradually increafmg, they at length 
unite into one douil, which invelops both mountams, 
when a terrible hurricane foon enfues. A gentleman, 
who relided many years a', the Cape, fays, " 'I'he ll<iris 
t)f this cloud are white, but feem much compacter than 
the matter of common clouds. The upper parts arc 
o!' a lead colour, owing to the refracted rays of light. 
No i.iin t'.iils from it, but at times it difcovers great 
hunudity, when it is of a darker hue; and the wind 
illliuig from It is broken, raging by gulls of iliort 
((>ntuui;iiKe. In its ufual (late, the wind keeps up its 
lull fury, unabated, for one, two, three, or eight days, 
and fonieiimes a whole month. The cloud leems all 
the time undiininilhcd, though little ticeces are feen 
torn from the Ikirts from time to time, and hurried 
dou n the lidcs of the hills, vanilliing when they reach 
the bottom ; fo that during the iloriu the cloud feems 
to be fupplied with new water. When the cloud be- 
gins to brighten u|>, thofc-fupplies fail, and the wind 
proportionably abates. At length the cloud growing 
tranfparcnt, the wind ceafes." During the continu- 
ance of the S. K. winds, the Table-valley is torn by 
furious whirlwinds. If they blow w arm, they are ge- 
nerally of Iliort duration, and in this cafe the cloud 
foon difappears ; but when the wind blows cold, it is a 
fure lign it w ill lall long.cxcept an hour or two at noon, 
or midnight when it I'cenjs to recover ricw rtrcngth,and 
afterwards renew .>; its boidcrous rage. 

Near the Cape the water of the ocean is of a green 
colour, owing principally to the coral Ihrubs, and the 
weed called troiuba. The firrt, while in the water, 
are green and foft ; but when cxpofed to the air, they 
grow hard, and diangc their colour to white, black, or 
red. The latter are ten or twelve feet in length, hollow 
within, and when dry, become linn and llrong. They 

arc otlen framed into trimipets, and the found they pro. 
duce is very agreeable to the ear. 

The fourccH of the rivers in this fountry are in tlir 
mountains : they glide over a gravelly bottom, arc 
clear, pleafant, and falubrious ; but other (lre;uns ,irc 
dark, muddy, and unwholfomc. Mere are a liw 
brackifh fprings, whofe waters medicinally ufcd, grciul, 
purify the blood ; and feveral hot baths arc very ellita- 
cious in various diforders. Upon the whole, the ivpn- 
tation of the Cape waters isfo great, that every Daniili 
iliip returning from India, is obliged to fill a large c:ill 
with the clear fweet water that abounds here for the ili. 
of his Danifli majerty. 

'i'hc foil in general about the Cape confifls of adavcv 
earth, and is fo fat, that it requires but little manuriii;;, 
VV'hitc arid red chalk are found in abimdancc; thi; 
former is iifed by the Dutch, to whitewalli their houl'es, 
and the latter by the Hottentot women to paint thin 
faces. Various bituininous fubllanccs of feveral colours 
arc found in Drakenlloin colony, particularly a kind ot 
oil which trickles from the rocks, and has a very rank 
fmell. With refpe(!t to minerals, lilvcr ore has baTi 
found in fome of the mountains, ami alio feveral iron 
mines. 'I'he Namaijua Hottentots, who are lituatcii 
above three hundred miles from the cape, bring copper 
to trade with the Dutch. 

When we fpeak of agriculture, it is to be ohfervcd, 
that the I'luropeans of the Cape, and their lamls, aro 
implied ; l()r the I lottcntots in general dcteft the very 
idea of cultivation, and would looner llarve than till 
the ground, fo greatly are they adiiictcd to lloth and in- 
ilolciK e. The working i>f the plough heio is fo lalwin- 
ous from the llilliiefs tif the foil, that it fiequiiuly ri- 
quires near twetity oxen to one plough, 'i'he li)win,; 
leafon is in July, and the harvell about C'hrilhnas. The 
corn is not thrathed with a Hail, but trotl out by horfci 
or oxen, on an artificial Hoor inade of cow -dung, llraw, 
and water, which when mixed together cements, and 
fcH)n becomes perfecUy hard. It is laid in an o\al 
form. The cattle are cimfined by halters which rmi 
from one to the other, and the driver ftands in the 
middle, where he cxercifes a long Hick to keep them 
continually to a quick pace. Uy this method hall 
a dozen horfes will do more in one day, than a 
dozen men can in a week. A tythe of the corn IkIoii);; 
to the Dutch Company, and the reft they purchal.- 
at a price llipulatcd between them and the hul- 

We have already obferved of the inhabitants of the 
Cape, that their nun-ber bears a greater proportion to 
the natives and (Irange ,, than thofe in uatavia; aiul 
have only to add, that the women in general are veiv 
handfomc: they have fine clear fkins, and a bloom u\ 
colour th.1t indicates a purity of conftitution, and high 
health. I'hey make the licft wives in the world, both 
as miftrefl'es of a fannly and mothers, and there i; 
fcarcely a houfe that does not fwarm with children. 
I'he common method in which ftrangers live here, i'l 
to kxlge and board with fomc of the inhabitants, manv 
of whofe houfes are always open for their reception ; 
the rates arc from live Ihillings, to two a day, for whiih 
all neceiraries arc found. Coaches may be hired at 
twenty-four Ihillings a day, and horfes at fix ; but the 
country aftbrds very little temptation to ufe them. 
There arc no public entertainments, and to thofe that 
arc private, all ftrangers of the rank of gentlemen an; 
always admitted. 

We conie now to fpcak of the CafTres or natives of 
this country, none of whole h;tbitations, w here they ic 
tain their original cufloms, are within Icfs than four 
days journey from Cape Tow n ; thofe that we faw at tlii> 
Cape were all fervants to Dutch farmers, whofe cattle 
they take care of, and arc employed in other drudgery 
of the meaneft kind. There are fixtcen Hottentot 
nations, which inhabit this fouthern promontory ; ii 
leaft, there arc fo many that hold a correfj)ondence with 
the Dutch, though it is prefumcd, there arc many more 
to the northwanl. 

The ftaturc of the Hottentot men is from five to (ix 
feet in height. Their bodies are proportionable, and 

, well 


COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE — for making Dilcovcrics in t\w S':itf/> ii,jj ic Round tlic ll'cr/J. 97 

111 ilic round they pre, 

lis f oiintry are in thf 
gravelly bottom, arc 
Jut other (1 reams arc 
Merc are a Inv 
ilicihSlly iifcil, grcailv 
baths arc very eHua- 
ihc whole, the re|ni- 
•at, that every Daiiiili 
;eil to lill a large call; 
oijiids here for the ill; 

pcconfifls of aclavcv 
s hut little manuriii;!. 
tl in abundance; riVc 
hitcwalh their houlcs, 
omen to paint thiir 
nces olCevcral coloui.! 
particularly a kind nt 
, and has a very rank 
(ilvcr ore has been 
, and allbfcvcral iron 
Its, who arc lituatcd 
10 cape, bring copper 

it is to be ohfervcd, 
and their lands, ari; 
eneral dctcrt the virv 
oner lliirve than till 
lit ted to (loth and m- 
ugh luie is lb laboi 1. 
that it fre.]tu:iul>' rt- 
)bugh. 'ihe fottin,; 
out Chrirtnias. '1 lie 
lut trotl out by horfci 
-• of cow-dung, nra.i, 
gether cements, and 
It is laid in an oval 
yy halters which run 
driver ftands in tlic 
ig nick to keep them 
iy this method hall 
n one day, than a 
ic of thecornlieionji;! 
le reft they purchal; 
:hcin and the hul- 

ic inhabitants of the 
greater nroportion to 
lofc in Uatavia; and 
I in general are veiv 
kins, and u bloom oi 
onllitution. and high 
s in the world, Iwtli 
others, and there 1; 
warm with children, 
rangers live here, i< 
he inhabitants, manv 
I (or their reception ; 
two a day, for which 
:s may be hired at 
rfcs at lix; but the 
tation to ufc them. 
Its, and to thofe that 
ik of gentlemen aiv 

raffres or natives of 
tions, V, here they re- 
ithin lefs than four 
>fc that we faw at tiio 
irmcrs, whofc cattle 
d in other drudgeiy 
c fix teen Hottentot 
;rn promontory; ,u 
corrcfpondence with 
here arc many more 

1 is from five to fix 
proportionable, and 


well made : fhey are feldom either too fat or lean, .iivl 
fcarce ever any crooked or deformed pcrfon^amongll 
them, any farther than they disligurc their children 
thcmfelves by flatting and breaking the grifllcs of their 
nofes, i(X)king on a flat nofe as a beauty. Their heads 
as well as their eyes, are rather of the largcft : their lips 
are naturally thick; their hair black and llioit like the 
negroes, and they have exceeding white teeth : and after 
they have taken a great deal of pains with greafe and 
foot to darken their natural tawny complexions, re- 
femble the negroes pretty much in coloiu'. The wiimPn 
are much lefs than the men; and what is moll remark- 
able in them, is a callous Hap or (kin that : .lis over the 
pudenda, and in a manner conceals it. The report of 
which ufuall' excites the curiofity of the European 
faiiors, to vifit the Hottentot villages near the cape, 
where a great many of thofe ladies, on feeing a Granger, 
will offer to fatisfy his curiofity tor a half-penny, before 
a crowd of people, which pertedly fpoils the character 
that Mr. Kolbcr, has given of their modefly. 

The head of the men are covered with greafe and foot 
mixed together; and going without any thing elfc on 
their he.uls in the Itimmer-time, the dull lUcks to it, 
and makes them a very filthy cap, which they (ay cools 
them, ami prelerves their heails from the fcorching 
heat of the fun ; and in the winter, they wear Hat caps 
of cat-(kin or lamb-(kin, h.ilf itricd, which they tic with 
a thong of the fame leather under their chins. The 
nien alfo «e»r a krolfe or mantle, made of lhcep-fl<in-i 
orothir Ikiiis, over their (lioulders. which reaches to 
the mid-IJc; and, being (aliened with a thong about 
their neck, is open before. In winter they turn the 
woolly or hairy (ides next their backs, and in fummcr 
the other : this ferves the man for his bed at night ; and 
this is all thewinding-flicetor coOln he has when he dies. 
If he be a captain of a village, or chief of his nation, 
inOead of a (lieep-(kin, his mantle is made of tyger- 
fkins, wild cat-(kins, or fonic other (kins they fet a 
value upon: but though thcfe inantlcs reach no lower, 
generally, than their wadts, yet there arc Come nations 
who wear them as low as their legs, and others that 
have them touch the ground. 

A llottentot alfo hangs about his neck a greafy pouch. 
In which he keeps his knife, his pipe and tobacco, and 
fome dahka (which intoxicates like tobacco) and a 
iittle piece of wood, burnt at both ends, as a charm 
againfl witchcraft. He wears alfo three large ivory 
rings on his left arm, to which he faftens abagof pro- 
vitions when he travels. He carries in his right hand 
two (licks, the (Irft called his kirri, which is about three 
feet long, and an inch t'lick, but blunt at both ends ; 
the other, calleil his rackinu-llick, about a foot long, 
and ot'the fame thicknrfs, but has a (liarp point, and 7s 
iiled as a dart, to throw At. an enemy or \Mld beaH ; 
which he feliiom millls, if he be within dillancc. In 
his hit hand he has another Hick, about a foot long, to 
which '■•• faHeiud a tail of a fox or wild cat; and this 
l'erv< mm as a handkerchief to wipe olf the fweat. 
'I hey vtear a kind of fandals, alfo made of the raw 
hide of an ox or elephant, when they are obliged to 
travel through Honey countries; and l()mctimts have 
biilkins, to preferve their legs from bullies and briars; 
but 01 il manly their legs and thighs have no covering. 

The women wear caps, the crowns whereof are a little 
railed ; and thefe are made of half dried l\ins, and tied 
under their chins. They fcarce ever nut them oH' night 
«)r ilav , w inter or Cummer. They ufually wear two krolles 
or maiitles.oncupon another, and. as thefeare only (aHen- 
ed with a thong, about their necks, they appear naked 
down to the middle : but they have an apron, larger than 
that ot .;,.< men to cover them before, and another of Hill 
larger duiK-nlions that covei their hind parts. Aliout 
their lejrs they wrap thongs of half dried (kins, to the 
thickncis of a jack-boot, which are fucha load to them, 
that they lift up their legs with difliculty, and walk very 
much like a trooper in jackboots: this ferves both (or 
a diHiniltion of their fcx, and for ornament. Hut this 
is not all their finery : if they are people of any figure. 
inHead of a (hcep (kin, thcv wear a tyger (km, or a 
m.uu!c of wild cat (k;n. 'They have alio a pouch 
Ko, II. 

hanging about tlu ir necks, in which they carry fome- 
rliing to car v< herher they are at home or abroad, 
with their dahka, tob.icco, and pipe. Hut the principal 
ornaments Iwth .of men ami women are brals orglals 
beads, with little tliiii |)hites of glittering Inaf and 
mother of pearl, which they we.irin their hair, or ahoiit 
theirears. Of thefe glafsor brafUx-ads Hrung, iluv Mi 
make neckhi( es, bracelets for the amis, and fjrdLs, 
wearing fcvcral Hrinp of them about tlieir necks, uaill, 
and arms, chuling the fiiiallcH beads (()r thcr necks : 
thofe are (incH that have moH Hrings of them, and their 
arms arc fometimes covered with bracelets fiom the 
wrifl to the elbow, 'I'hc largeH beads are on the Hrings 
about the middle : in thefe they all'ect a variety of 
colours, all of which the Dutch furuilli tluiu with, 
and take their cattle in return. 'I'liere is another Liiul 
of ornament peculiar to the men, and that is, the 
der of any wild heart they have killed, which is blown 
up, and tiiHeiied to the hair as a trophy of their valour. 
Hoth (exes powder thcmfelves with a dull the) lall 
bachu; and the wrmien f()ot their fices with a reti earih 
or Hone (as ours do with black patches) which is ilioi:ghc 
to add to their beauty, by the natives; but, in the eves 
of Europeans, renders them more frightful ami tliocking 
than they are naturally. Hut as part of their diefs, wc 
ought tB have mentioned, in the fi;H jilace, the cuHoiii 
of daubing their bodies, and the inlide of their cajs ;ind 
inantles, with ;'Teafe and lixit. .Soon after their cluKlicii 
are born, thev lay tluiii in the lim, or bv the lire, and 
rub them ovei- with fit or buLtcr. mixed withfxjt, to 
render them of a dieper Ma( k, it is (aid; for they arc 
naturally taw 11) : and this ihev continue to do a!::io(l 
every day ol their lives, after the) arc grov n up, luit 
only toiiicrcife their licautv, but to rem^er rlieu limits 
(iipple and pliable. As fomt ;iati(Mis |iour oil upon their 
heads and bodies, lb theli- people make ufe o( melted 
(at; you cannot make them a nujre acceptable prillni: 
than the fat or (cum of the pot that meat is boiled in, to 
anoint ihemfelves. 

Nor arc the Hottentots more cleanly in tlu ir diet 
than in their drels; fbrthe) choofe the guts and entrails 
of cattle and of (bme wild beaHs (with very little cleanl- 
ing), rather than the rell of the Helli, ami eat their meat 
half boiled or broiled; but their principal (bovl coii- 
HHs of roots, herbs, fruits or milk : they feldom kill any 
of thofe cattle, tinlefs at a felUval; they only tied oil 
("ucli as die of themfelvcs, either of difeafes or old age, 
or on what they take inhuming; and, wlun thev arc 
hard put to it, they will cat the raw leather that ii 
wound about the w omens legs, and even fbles of fhoes ; 
and, as their mantles arc alwa) s well Hockeil with lice 
of an unuflial fizc, they are not afhamed to lit down in 
the public Hrcets at the cape, pull olf the lice, a;id cat 
thein. And we ought to have remembereri, that the) 
boil their meat in the blood of bealls when tluy have- 
any of it. They rather devour their meat than eat it, 
pulling it to pieces with their teeth and hands, diflover- 
ing a canine ajipetite and fierceiiefs: they aliHain. how- 
ever, from fwines-flcHi, and (bme other kinds of meat, 
and from tiih that have no fcales, as religioully as ever 
the J?\vs did. And here it m.iy not be in'pr(<|ier to fay 
fomething of the management of their milk and Inittcr: 
they never drain their milk, but drink it with all the 
hairs and iiaHinels w ith w hn. h it is mixed in the milking 
by the Hottentot women. When the)' make butter of 
it, they put it into (bme Ikin made in the Ibrin of a 
foldier's knaplack, the hair) tide inwards; ami then two 
of them taking hold o( ir, one at each end, they whirl 
and turn it round till it is c(>nv cited into Iruttrr, which 
they put up for anointing theiidclves, dieir ca]is and 
mantles with, for they eat no butter; and the relt ihc)' 
(ell to the Dutch, without clearing it fiom the hull- and 
dirt it contracts in the knaplack. The Htilliuiders, 
when they have it indeed, endeavour to ie[)aratc the 
nartinefs from it, and fell it to the'lliipping, that arrives 
there, frequently for butter of their own malcing; and 
fbuic they cat theinl'elves (hut fun'ly none but v. Dutch- 
man could eat Hottentot butter) and the d;ej:s and 
dirt that is left they give to their Haves'; whicli having 
been found to create difeafcs, the governor of the cape 
2 U (binctimes 



C.ipt. C () () K's V () V A (; K S C O M 1» L K T K 

riHiictiincs prohibits tlii'ir^i\ ing their Haves this llutl' hy 
piibhi c'llict ; which is not, however, iiiuth rcj^anial. 
I'hc Imttcr-iiiilk, witlimit any nianiicr of dcaninj^ or 
Itniinirij;, the I lolicntots ilrink thenifelves ; p;iviM^ 
wliai they ha\e tn fpaie to their laiiih.H ami calvta. 
Their ul'iial ihiiik is tow's milk or water, ami the wo- 
men roinetimes ilrink cue's milk; hut this the men 
never toiith: anil it is oblerveil, tiiat the women are 
never liillereil to oat with the men, or tome near them, 
ilinin}^ the time ot their nienles. 

Since the arrival of the Dutth amonp; them, it ap- 
pears that the I lottcntots are very lonilofwine, hramly, 
ami other I'piritiious iiipiors: thefe, anil the haiiMes 
already mentioneil, the 1 lollamlers triitk for their tat- 
tle ; ami though a Hottentot w ill turn fpit for a Dutth- 
inan half a tiay (or a ilraught or two of four wine, yi t 
ilo they never attempt to |)lant vinesanls (as they lee 
theUutch often ilo) nr think of makingw ine themfelves. 
We (hall proceed, in the next place, to giv can accoinit 
of their towns uulhoufes, or rather, their camjis ami tents. 
Like thi; Tartars and Arabs, they remove theirdwel- 
lings frciiuently for the convcniency of water and fre(h 
padurc : they encamp in a circle formed by twenty or 
thirty tents, and fometimes tw ice the number, contigu- 
ous to each other; within the area whereof they keci) 
their led'cr cattle in the night, and the larger on the 
outlide of their c.imp: their tenis, or, as foiuc call 
them, houfes, are made uith llentler poles, bent like 
an arch, and cmereil with mats or (kins, and fome- 
times both : they arc of an o\al iigure, the middle of 
the tent being about the height of a man, and de- 
treadng gradually (the poles being Ihorter) towards 
each end, the lowelt arch, whiih is the door or en- 
trance, beuig about three feet high, as is the ojipolite 
arch at the other end; the longed diameter of tiie tent 
lieing about twelve or fourteen feet, and the fhorted 
ten; and in the middle of the tent is a lliallow hole 
about a \ard diameter, in vhii h they make their (ire, 
and round whiih the whole family, conliding of nine 
or ten ]ieo|)le of all ages and fexcs, (it or lie lught and 
day in fuch a ("moak (when it is cold, or they aredref- 
ling of vichials) that it is impollible for an l''.iiro[)ean 
to bear it, there being ufually no vent tor the fmoak 
but the door, though Ionic have feen a hole in the top 
of fomc of their huts, to let out the fmoak, and give 
them light. Such a circle of tents or huts as has been 
d( (i ribed, is called by the I lottcntots a kraal, and (bme- 
times by the Europeans a town or village; but fcems 
to be more properly a camj) : for a town conlids of 
more fubllaiuial buildings, and is feldom cajiable of 
being iiinoveil from one place to anotlur; whereas 
thel'e dwellings con(i(^ of nothing nioie than ("mall 
tent~po!cs, covered with (kins or mats, w hiih are move- 
able, and carried away upon their baggage oxen when- 
cM-r thc) remove with their herds to a didant padure. 
As to the lurniturc of their tents ; they conlid of little 
more than their mantles which they lie on, fomc other 
(kins of wild beads they have killed or purchalld, an 
earthen pot they boil their meat in, their arms, and 
peihajis (ome other trivial utendls. 'I'he only domcdick 
animals they keep, arc dogs, a; ugly in their kind as 
their madcrs, but exceeding iifeful to them in driving 
and defending their cattle. 

The llottentots are agreed by all to he thc la/icflge- 
neiaiion under the fun: they will lathc darve, or eat 
dried (kins, or (hoe folcs at home, than hunt lor their 
food ; and vet, when they ap|)ly themfelves to thc 
chacc, or any other cxcrcife, no people are more ai'tive 
and dexterous than the Hottentots ; and they fervc thc 
l''uropeans often with thc grcated fidelity and applica- 
tion, when they contract to fervc them (or wages: 
they arc alfo exceeding generous and hofpitable ; they 
will fcarcc cat a ]iieccof venifon, or a dilh of lilli they 
have catihcd, or drink their beloved drams alone, but 
call in their neighbours to partake with them as far as it 
will go. 

Concerning their government, people agree, that 
every nation has its king orchid, called koni|uer, whole 
authority devolves upon him by hereditary fuccedion; 
and that they do not pretend to elect their rcfpedivc 

foVercigns. That this thief has thc povver of mikui,; 
peace and war, and prdide.s in all their council , ,uu| 
courts of judicc : but then his authority is (aid to In 
limited; and that h 'ii deiirmine nothing w iilidui 
the confent of th ns ot the fcveral kra.ds, ulu, 

fcem to be the [ loi <i fenate. 'I'he captain ol evuy 

kraal, whole odice is hereditary alio, is theii leader m 
time of war, and chief magillrate of his kraal in tiiiic 
of peace I and, with the head of every famib', diiir- 
nunes all civil and trimuial caufes within the ; 
only fuch did'ereuces as happen l)etween one kr.ial .iiu| 
another, and matters o( date, arc determined by the 
king and fenate. The Dutch, (ince their arrival m 
the tape, have prefcnteil thc king, or chief of evcrv 
nation of thc I lottcntots in allianc c w ith them, with ',\ 
brals crown; and thc captains ol eat h kiaal with .i 
brals-headed tane, whitharenovv the badges of tin u 
refpedivc odites ; formerlv they were ilillinguidied only 
by liner (kins, and a greater variety of beds and glit. 
tering tiilles. In their councils their king (its on lii< 
heels in the center, and the taptains of the kraals lit 
in like manner round about him. At his accellion, n 
is (aid, he promifes to obferve their national cudom, ; 
and gives thi'iii an i ntertainiiuiit, killing an ox, aiui 
two or three (heep. upon the octalion i on whiih lu- 
teads his captains, but their wives arc oiiK entertuinni 
with the broth: but thci. 'he next day, we are told, lui 
I lottcntot iiKiiedv treats the ladies, and their hulbaikls 
are |)ut oti in like iiianiur with thc (oup. 

'I'he captain of each kraal alfo, at his acccflion, en- 
gages to oblerve the cudonvs of his kraal, and iiiak,, 
an entertainment tor thc men, as his lady does the next 
day liir the women; and, though thefe people lliiw 
their chiels relpcct, they allow neither their kin;^ 
or i'^'erior magilli.ites any revenue; Miey fublill, a; 
other t'amilies do, upon their dock ot' tattle, and what 
thev take in hunting. 

I laving no notion of w riting or letters, they can have; 
no written laws ; but there arc fomc antient tud.jns, 
(lo'n which they fcarcc ever deviate. Murder, adul- 
fi ind robbery, thev tondantly punilli with death ; 
• a perfon is fulpeded of any of thefe triiiK s, 
le kraal join in leizing and feturing him ; bar 
the guilty [KTlbn fometimes makes his efta|)e to the 
mountains, where robbers and criminal like himdil, 
fecure themfelves from julUce, and frequently plunder 
the neighbouring country ; lor no other kraal or nation 
of Hottentots will entertain a (hanger, iintefs he is 
known to them, and can give a good reafon (or leaviii;; 
his own kiaal. 1( the ollcnder is a[j(irehended, the cap- 
tain aliembles the people of his kraal in a day (wo; 
who, making a ring, and lilting iTown upon tluii- 
heels, the criminal is placeii 111 the center of them: tic 
witnedes on both lides are heard, andtl.e partv fullerej 
to make his det'enee: ader which, the cafe being ton- 
lidered, the captain collects the fudrages of the judges; 
and, it a majority condemn him, thc prilimcr is cm- 
cuied on the fpot. The captain lird (hikes him w iili a 
truni heon he carries in his hand, and then the red ol 
thc judges fall ujion him and drub him to death : tluii 
wrapiiingup thc torple in his krode or mantle, it ii 
carried to fomc place didant (rom the kraal, where they 
bury It. In civil cafes alfo, thccaufc is determineil bv 
a majority of voices, and fatisfaCtion immcdiatelv oi- 
dered to the in|ured ]ierfon, out of thc goods of tlu 
perliin that appears to be in thc wrong. There is no 
appeal to anv other court : the king and his council, 
conlirtingof thc captains of the kraals, never interpofe 
unlefs in matters that concern the public, or where thc 
kraals arc at variance. To which wc may add, thai 
thc Hottentot's cattle and perfonal cftatc defcend to 
his cidcd Ion : he cannot dilinhcrit him, or give his 
cd'ects to his other children ; but, as for property in 
lands, or any certain real elhite, no man has any ; the 
whole country is but one common, where they lieJ 
their cattle promifcuoudy, moving from place to place, 
to (ind water or frdh pallureas necedity reiiuires. I'.vcii 
the (everal nations have no dated bounds; but ufe Cm h 
trails of land as their ancc(\ors did before thcni : it is 
true, their rdpedivc limits ronictinics create great dit'- 

tcitn- es 


he power i)t iiiikiiij; 
ill their coiiiK il, aiul 
uitliority is r.tiil Id \h- 
nine iKitliiiig wiiluiiii 
ic kr.i.iis, win, 
Ihc I a|)tain ot i.'\i ly 
ilfd, is their liaJir m 
L ut his it) tunc 
' i^ery t'amilv, lUin. 
iVs within the j 
ctwcrii one ,iiui 
■(• iletennineil l)v the 
lin( e their arri\.il ,ii 
11).', or cliiit' ol' c\u. 
e with tlieni. witli ii 
)i e,u h will) ,1 
V the haJfre.i ol th( u 
tMi'ilillltiy;inlheil onlv 
t\- <)l he.vls aiui (;hi, 
heir kin^; lits on Iih 
aiiis ot the kraal.s lit 
At his accellion, it 
ir national ciilloin, ; 
, killing an ox, aiui 
alioit; on whith Ic 
s arc oiiK eiitertanuii 
cl.i\, \\e are toKI, hu 
i, ami their hulbaikli 
t (oiip. 

at iii-> aceedion, ni- 
ls kraal, aiul inak. . 
lis iaily iloes the next 
I thele people llinv 
)\v neither their kmu 
me; Miey liihlill, ,i, 
k of cattle, and whu 

lettcM, they can h,i\.- 
me antient ciilt.jiv,, 
iate. Miinler, aihii- 
y piinilli with lieaih ; 
any of thefe crime , 
\ fectirinj; him ; hi; 
es his elea|/e to the 
riminal. like himleli, 
il treqiiently plunder 
other kraal or nation 
ranger, iiniefs he is 
kI realim tiir leaviii;; 
prehenileil, the eap- 
aal in a liay two; 
i^ ifown upon then- 
center ol them ; the 
mi tl'.e party fullerevl 

the cafe lieing con- 
IVages of the judges; 

the prilbncr is cm- 
rll Ihikes him wiili a 
and then the rel^ o! 
) him to death : tiuii 
olle or mantle, it i; 
:he kraal, where they 
lie is determined l\v 
ion immciiiately or- 
)f the gdoils of the 
long. There is no 
ig and his council, 
aals, never inteipofe 
[Uiblic, or where the 

wc may add, thai 
lal tftate defcend to 
rit him, or give hi< 

as for property in 
J man has any; the 
>n, where they tied 
from place lo place, 
L'lHty requires. l'.\eii 
ounds; but uCi: fiu h 
i before them : it is 
ncs create great d:i- 
teren. e-. 

cook's first voyage — for making Di/iovrria in the A'^wZ/i Scaj fc Round the WunV. yy 

Ifereiices between the leveral nations, and on ilion 
|bl'H>dy warsj which brings us now to treat of their 
liirms, and the arts and llratagems thev ufe in war. 

1 he arms of a Hottentot are, i. I lis lame, which 
Irefeiiibles a half-pike, fometimes thrown, ami ulid as a 
ImilliNe weapon i ami at olhens, i'erves to pulli within 
jcldl'e tight, the head or fpear whereof is poiloned. 
la. His bow and arrows, the arrows lieardeil and poi- 
Ifiined likewife, when they engage an enemy or wild 
IbealV they ilo not intend li)r food. Their bows are made 
lol iron, or olive-wood; the ftring, of the liiiews or 
lEiilsof lome animal; the (luiver is a long narrow cafe, 
|iii.ide of the (kin of an elenhant, elk, or ox, and (lung 
[at their backs, as foldieis lling their knapliicks. ,|. A 
|«t.irt of a Hint long, which they throw exceeding true, 
Ircarce ever milling the mark they aim at, though it is 
(not above the breadth o< half a crown; thefe alio are 
[poiliineil, when they engage an enemv or a wild be.ill 
[that is not to be eaten : ami lalHy, when they ha\e 
|r|ii.nt the rell ol' their millive weapons, they have re- 
liourle to Hones, I'eldom making a dilcharge in vain ; 
[and, what is moll remarkable in their lliooting or 
[throwing arrows, il.irts, or Hones, they never Ihiml Hill, 
(but are all the while (kipping and jumping from one 
[fiile to the other, jiollibly to avoid the (loncs and darts 
l»)f the enemy. I'hey are all f(H)t, and neser engage on 
jhorleback j but have dilciplined bulls oroxeii taught to 
[run upon the enemy, and to tofs and difordcr them ; 
[Mhich thefe creature,, will do with the utmoH fury on 
Ithe word of command, not regaiiling the weapon . tliat 
[are thrown at them : (i)r though the I lottentots have 
tiiumluisot large elephants in their country, they have 
jnot )et learned the art of taming them, or training 
them upiowar, as the military men in the I'.all Indies 
ulo. I'Acry able boilieil man is a foldier, and potrcllid 
ot a let of fuch arms a-, has been ilefcribeil; and on 
the fummonsof his prince, appears :'.t tlie rendezvous 
with all imaginable .ilicnty and contempt of danger, 
and every man mail- mis himfelf while the expedition 
Iills. As their olli is, civil and military, have no pay, 
fo mitlier do the pi i\.ite men expeel any ; a fenl'e of ho- 
nour, and the pul'lic good, are the (iile moti\es I'or ha- 
zarding their lives in their country's fervicc. 

'Ihe Hottentots, in war, have very little conception 
of difcipline, nor indeed is it poilible thev (liould ; lor 
the only method of railing an army, is, liir the kraal 
captains to order the jieople to t()llow them ; the only 
method of maintaining one, is by hunting as thev 
march : and the only way of decidinga ilifpute betweeii 
two nations, is, by fighting one battle; the fuccefs of 
which determines the whole alt'air. In an engagement, 
they attack with an hideous yell, light in great conlii- 
lion, and put more lonliilence in theii war oxen than 
their own (kill : liir, as we have hinted above, thefe 
aiiinials, when trained to the bulinefs, are better difci- 
|)limd and iiuich more formiilable, than the Hotten- 
tots themlelves. The principal inducements to their 
filtering into a wai- at any time, is the prelervationof 
tlieir territories. As they have no land marks or w rit- 
ten treaties to adjiiH the exact bounds of eveiv nation, 
they lieqiiently liifagree about the limits of their re- 
I'pective countries ; and, when any neighbouring nation 
grazes their cattle upona Ipot of ground another claims, 
latisfaction is immediately demanded; ami, if it be not 
given, they make reprifais. and have recourfe to arms. 
IJiit this is not the only occalion of wars amonglt the 
1 lottentots : they are not always that challe and vir- 
tuous people Mr. Kolben has reprefenteil them ; fonie 
tempting 1 lelen (for Hottentots jioliiblv may appear 
amiable in one another's eves, with all the grcalc and 
carrion they arc doathed with) has fmitten a neigh- 
hniiring chief, perhaps, who prevails on his people to 
iilhll him 111 the rajie of the delired leiiiale ; and this 
tiequently lets their tribes together bv the ears. The 
(tealing each others cattle is' another caule of deadly 
(hile ; for though e;ich kraal punillies theft among 
themlelvej with death, yet it is looked upon as an he- 
roic act to rob thofe of another nation; at leall the 
hnily ot the people are fobackwanl in giving up the 
olK-nder, that they frequently come to blows upon it. 

When ihc) marc h into the field, evciy man follow l 
his partii lajitain, the i hief ol hi. kraal • they 
obferve little order I neither do they take the precau- 
tion of throwing uj) treilihe.i to detend themlebci ; 
and what is Hill more fiirpriling, have no lliields to 
defend themlelves againH millivc weapons, though 
foiiie fay they will ward oil' a lance or dart, and even i 
Hone, with a little iiuncheon about a loot long, which 
they carry in their haiul. The feveral com])anics ail- 
vance to the charge, at the command of their chief i 
and, when thole in the front have lliot one flight 
of arrows, they retreat and make room llir thofe in the 
rear; and, when thev have dilihargeil, the toriner ad- 
vance again, and thus alternately they loiitinue till fhey 
have I'pent all their millive weapons, anil tlicn they 
have recoiirf. to lli>ius, iiiilef'. they are full broken and 
dil'peifeil by a troop of bulls ; liir the w ife chicis and ge- 
nerals of eaih fide, accoriiing to the luiropean niactice, 
remaining on an eminence in the rear, to oblerve the 
forfiine of the day, when they obferve their people are 
hard prelled, give the wonl of lomman I to their lurps 
lie referve of bulls, who'break into tlie bod\ of the 
enemy, and generally bring all into confulioii ; and 
that lide that preferves their order bell, on this furious 
attack of thele bulls of Hafan, are line to be vi'to- 
rious. I'he Ikill of the general feems to be chielly in 
managing his bulls ; who never charge each odier, but 
I'liend their whole rage upon the men, who have, it 
feems, no dogs of I'Jiglilli breevl to play againll them, 
or this Hratagini would be of little fervice : but we 
lliould have oliferved, that as the battle always begins 
with horrid i ries andnoil'e, which perhaps liij)plies the 
plaic of drums and trumpets ; fo the vuiors infidt with 
no Id's nolle over the coiu|uereil enemv, killing all that 
f.ill into their hands: but iliey feldom lij,'ht more than 
one battle, lijme neighbouring jiower ufually incerpoling 
to make up the qiuricl ; ami of late the Dim h per- 
li)rm this good otlice, between fuch nations as lie near 
their fettlcments. I'roiu their wars with c.uh other, we 
natiiially proieed to ihiir wars with w ild bcalls, with 
which their country abounds more than any other; thele 
people, it feems, cHeem it a much greater honour to 
have killed t)ne of thefe foes to mankind, than an 
enemy of their own fpecies. 

InHances are not wanting of a Hottentot's engaging 
lingly with the HerccH wild beads, and killing them ; 
but ufuallv the whole kraal or village aHiiulile, when a 
wild beall is difcovired in their neighbourhood, and, 
dividing themlelves in fmall parties, endeaviiu;- to fur- 
round him. Having found their enemy, thev ufually 
let up a great cr\, at which the frighted animal endea- 
vours to break through and efcape them: if it prove 
to be a 'iiinoceros, an elk, or elephant, they throw their 
lances at him, darts and arrows being too w eak to pierce 
through their thick hides: if the beall be not killed at 
the lirH difcharge, they repeat the attack, and load him 
with their fpcars ; and, as he runs with all his r.ige at 
the perli)ns who wimnd him, thofe in his icir follow 
him dole, and ply him with their lpeai>, on whom he 
turns again, but is overpowered by his enemies, who 
conHantly return to the charge, when his back is to- 
wards them, and fcarce ever (ail ol' bringing the crea- 
ture down, before he has taken his revenge on any ot' 
them. How hazardous foever fuch an engagement 
may appear to an I', thefe people make it their 
fport ; and have this advantage, that they are exceed- 
ing fwift of foot, .<nd fcarce ever mifs the mark ihey 
aim at with their fpcrs : if one of them is hard i)re(red 
bv the brute, he is fm- to be relieved by his compa- 
nions, who niverquit the lield till the beall is killed, 
or makes his efcape : though they fometimes dexte- 
roully avoiti the adverdiry, thev immediately return to 
the charw, fubduing the fierccH either by llratageni or 
force. \Vhen attacking a lion, a leopard, or a tvgcr, 
their darts and arrows are of fervice to them; and 
therefore they begin the engagement at a greater dif- 
tance, than when they charge an elephant or i Iiino- 
ceros ; and the creature has a wood of darts and ar- 
rows u|ion his back, before he can approach his ene- 
mies, which make him fret and rage and liy at them 
... - ' M ith 

I 90 

Capt. C O O K's VOYAGES C O M P L E T 1'^ 



1 1 ti 

with the grcatcft fur)- ; but thofc he attacks, niinbly 
avoid his paws, while others purfuc him, and linilh 
the conqucft with their fpears. Sometimes a lion 
takes to his Iieels, with abundance of poifoned darts 
and arrows in his flefli : but, the poifon beginning to 
operate, he foon falls, and becomes a prey to thofe he 
vould have pre«,-ed upon. The elephant, the rhino- 
ceros, and the elk, are frequently taken in traps and 
pitfalls, without any manner of hazard. The ele- 
phants are obferved to go in great companies to water, 
following a file one after another, and ufually take the 
fame road till they are difturbcd: the Hottentots there- 
fore dig pits in their paths, about eight feet deep, and 
four and five over; in which they fix Iharp ftakcs 
pointed with iron, and then cover the pit with fmall 
flicks and turf, (6 as it is notdifccrnable: and as thcfe 
animals ufually keep in one track, frequently one or 
other of them falls in with his fore feet into thepit,and 
the flake pierces his body; the more he ftruggies, the 
deeper the weight of his monftroiis body fixes him on 
ihc flake. When the rert of the herd obferve the mis- 
fcrtuiieof tlieir companion, and find he cannot difen- 
g:ige himfelf, they immediately abandon him: whcrc- 
ujion the Hottentots, who lie concealed, in cxpcdtation 
of the fuccefs of their firatagem, approach the wound- 
ed beafl, flab him with their fpears, and cut his largefl 
veins, fo that he foon expires; whereupon they cut him 
to pieces, and, earn ing the Hefli home, fealt ujxjn it 
as long as it lalls. His teeth they make into rings for 
their arms, and, when they have any ivory to (pare, 
dilpofe of it to the Europeans. The rhinoceros and 
elk are frequently taken in pitfalls, .?s the elephants are. 
'I'he ilottentot, who kills any of thefe, or a lion, leo- 
pard, or tygcr, lingly, has the highefi honour conferred 
upon him, and fevera! privileges, which belong only to 
llich intrepid heroes. At his return from this hazard- 
inii and importint fersice, the men of the kraal depute 
one of the llniois to congratulate him on his victory, 
and delire that he will honour them w ith his prefence ; 
wh.'-.-.ijion he follows the old deputy to the all'embh-, 
v.honi Ik- finds, according to tufiom. fitting upon their 
Inels in a tiivle ; and, a mat of dilliiK'lion being laid 
tor liiiu in the center, he feti himfclf down upon it : 
a lief whu ii the old tieputy urines plentiliilly upon him, 
w hich the hero rubs in w ith great eagernefs, ha\ ing firll 
fcraithcd the gre.ife olV his fkin with his nails; the de- 
puty ail this while pronouncing fome words iinmtelii- 
^^bie to any but themlcKcs. After this, they light a 
|iipe ol tobacco, w hiih they fmoke and hand one lo 
.inoihi r liil there riiuain nothi;ig but allies in the pi[.H', 
and thefe the old deputy Ihews over the gallant man, 
v. ho rubs theni in as they fall upon him, not fullVnng 
the leall dull to be loO. After which tlie neighljours 
h.\\ ing Ila erally coiigratuiared him on his adv:iru cment 
to the h'gh honour, they difperfe, and go to their re- 
l"pev.ti\e tents. The conqueror, afterwards, fallens 
the bladder of the furious bead he has killed to his 
hair, which he ever after wears as a badge of his knight- 
hood ; and is fiom that time cficcmed by every one a 
l)r-'\e 111.111, and a benefactor to his country. When 
retired to his tent, his neighbours feeiii to \ie which of 
them ll;,ill oblige him moll, and arc, for the next three 
^\:^•■^, coiui.iiully fending him one delicious morfel or 
othi r ; nor do they call ujion him to perform duty du- 
ring that time, but fiilkr him to indulge his eafe: but, 
whar is fiillmore unaccountable, his wife, or wives, (lor 
he ma\ have more than one) are not allowed to come 
near liiiii for three days after this honour is lonlerred 
on him ; but they are forced to ramble about the fields, 
and to keep to a fpare diet, Icll they Ihoiild, as Mr. 
Kolbeii furmifcs, tempt the hulbands to their embraces; 
but on the third day in the evening, weare told the wo- 
men return to ti.e tent, are received with the utmoU 
jo', and tL-nderncfs ; iinitual congi aflat ions pais be- 
tween tliiiu ; a fat llicep is killed, and their neighbours 
in\ ;tcd to the Tall, where the prowcfs of the heiO, and 
the honour he has obtained, arc the chief fubjcct of their 

There is fc arcc any wild beafi, but the flefli is goed 
eating, if it be not killed with podoiious weapons; but 

the tyger is the moft delicious morfel ; and as the whdle 
kraal partake of the feaft, the perfon who kills him 
meets with a double ihare of praife, as he both riils 
the country of an enemy, and pleafes their palate:^, 
But to return to the field fports of the Hottentots; 
when they hunt a deer, ■x wild goat, or a hare, they 
go lingly, or but two or three in c(>mpany, armed only 
with a dart or two, and fc'd'MH mils the game tlicy 
throw at: yet, as has been ci.jerved already, fo loiiir 
as they have any manner of food left, if it be but the 
raw hides of cattle, or flioe ibles, they will hardly \ic 
perfuaded to ftir to get more ; though it is true, when 
they apprehend their cattle in danger from wild bealiq, 
no people are more active, or puriue the chafe of them 
with greater alacrity and bravery. From hunting, vo 
proceed to treat of their fifliing; at which they are vtry 
expert; taking fifij with angles, nets, andfpears; and 
they get a cenain filh, c:>"ed rock-lilli, particularly hv 
groping the holes of the .ocks near the (bore, when tlio 
tide is out: thefe arc mightily admired by the Eiiin. 
peans; but having no fcales, the Hottentots will imt 
eat them. 

'I'he manner of the Hottentot's fw imming, is as par- 
ticular as of his filhing ; for he llanils upright in the 
fea, and rather walks and treads the water, t'.an fwins 
U[ioii ic, his head, neck, and Ihoulders Ix'ing <niiti- 
alxne the waves, as well as his arms, and yet they nui\c 
taller in the water than an; European can ; even in a 
llorm, when the waves run high they will venture iirj 
the fea, riling and falling withthe wa\e.s likea cor!;. 

Tli : next thing we Ihall notice, is the marri.iee^ (f 
the Hottentots: and it feuus, every young tillow lin 
fuch regard to the advice of his father, (or rather liic 
laws and culloms of the country require it) that he \l- 
wa\s confiilts the old man before he enters into a ire.ity 
with his millrefs, and if he approves the matvh, i:'c 
t'atlier and fon, in the firll plat e, pay a vilit to the 1; - 
therol the damfel, with whom having fiiioaked, anj 
talked of iiidii'lerent ihinj^s t<)r fome time, the tatlur 
of the lover opens them:'tter to the virj-'.n's fuller, wl-.o 
having confulted his wife, returns an anfwcr imniciii- 
ately to t!ie propofal : if it be rejected, the lover aiul 
his lather retire without more words ; but if the otiit 
be approved by the old tolks, the damfel is called, aiij 
acquainted, that they have provided a hulband tbrliei ; 
as ib.e mull fubniit to their determination, unlels lie 
can hold her lover at arms end, after a night's llri:g- 
^ling; for we are told, that when the })arentsare agrecil, 
the two young people are put tog>j',.er, and if the vir- 
gin lofes her maidenhiad, Ihe mull havetlu- young !>l- 
low, though llie be never fo averfe to the umth : 1 ut 
then the is pcrmitteil to pinch and lirratch, and deleiul 
hcrfelf as well as (he can; ami if the h.oKls out ill 
morning, the lover returns without his millrefs, aiij 
makes no further attempts ; but il he fuluUies her, ihc 
is his wife to all intents and piirpofes, without further 
ceremony ; and the next day the nwn kills a tat ox, oi 
more, according to his tircumllanc.s, f()r the wediimg 
dinner, and the entertaininent of their friends, who 
refort to them upon the occalion, bringing abundan c 
of g<x)d wiflies lor the happinefsof the m.uricd couple, 
as is ufiial among politer peoj>le. '1 he >:\ is no fo4)r.i r 
kille<l, but the coiii|)any get each fome ol the fjt, and 
grcafe themfelvcs with it trom head to l()ot, [lowderi: ii; 
tliemfelves afterwards withbucliu, and the women, to 
add to theii ih,oins, make red Ipots withoker, or rcil 
chalk, on their black laces. The entert-iiiMrient beiiij; 
ready, the men form a circle in the ;'iva of the kr.i:il 
(lor a large company cannot lit w ithin d(X)rs) and the 
women form another ; the bridegroom fitting in the 
middle of the men's circle, and the bride in the (enter 
of her own fex. Then the priefi enters the men's ci;. 
cle, and urines upon the bridegroom, which the yoi'ii;; 
man rubs in very jo) fully. He then goes to tiu; laditi 
circle, where he does the bride the lame f ivoiir. f hen 
the old man goes from the bride to the bridegroom, till 
he has exhaullcd all his llorc. 'I'he pried then pio. 
flounces his benediction in lliefe words: "'lliat they 
may live long and happily togetl-'.-r; t'lat they ni;iy 
have a fon betore the end oi the ,u.'.r; and that l.c ma/ 



)rfel; and as tluMvln.; 
pcrfon who kill> In:, 
irail'f, as he boih n,', 
plcafcs their palaii>. 
s of ihc Hottciitnis: 
goat, or a hare, tl-( v 
company, anncii (ml, 
11 mils tlie pimc lU, 
rved already, fo Ion- 
d left, if it be but tlj 
s, they wilj hardly Ic 
loiigh it is true, mIiii 
n^er from wiiiibcal , 
rlue the chafe of then 
. From hunting, v^ 
at whioh they are \ try 
nets, and fpears; and 
k-lilh, particiihirlv hv 
ir the fliorc, when the 
Jmired by the Kii;,i. 
Hottentot;; will iii.t 

i fwimming, is as pai - 
(hmils upright in the 
the water, t'.an fwuns 
houlders being (Hiiii- 
IIS, and yet they niuve 
ipean can j even ia i 
they will venture \r.-ji 
e \va\es likea cotk. 
:•, is tile marri.ige.s of 
very young fillow li:is 
iitlier, (or rather I'lo 
rci]',iire it) he li- 
he ent( rs into a 
roves the matih, i:',c 
, pay a vilit to the la- 
having fnioaked, anj 
fome time, the tatlur 
he virj.'ln's father, wl-.o 
IS an anfwer immci'i- 
ijeCted, the lover aii.l 
rds ; but if the otic 
tlamfel is calleil, ar.J 
eil a hulband tor lui; 
•nnination, unlet* ile 
aftei a night's llnin- 
iic parents are agrecvl, 
>;'..vr, and if the mi- 
havc t!ie young Id- 
fe to the match : hiii 
llirratch, and delejij 
if the l-.oKIs out till 
ut his milhefs, anj 
f he fulxlues her, (lie 
^ofes, without furtlur 
iiwii kills a tat ox, in 
.s, fiir the wcdiiuif; 
if their I'riciuls, wl.d 
bringing ainindan c 
t ihe married coupk-, 
The ex is no foo!'.i r 
fome of the fat, aiul 
.1 to toot, jKiuiler:: i; 
, and the women, ut 
)ts with oker, or rid 
entert:iii'.ir,(:iu Lciij; 
the ai-^a of the kr.i:ii 
ithin dixirs) and the 
giooni litting in tl.c 
le bride in the (enter 
enters the men's ( i:- 
)m, which the vlm'ii;; 
len goes to the ladit; 
lame favour. 'I'lien 
J the brid(*,aiooiii,till 
'1 he priefl then pio. 
words : " '1 hat they 
l-.r; that they :u.\y 
..'.r; and that I'.c n\a/ 

COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE — for making Difcoveries in the South Seas & Round, the World. i o i 


prove a brave man, and an expert huntfman, and the 
like." After which, the meat is fcrvcd up in earthen 
pots glazed with greafej and fome of them having 
knives fince the Europeans came amongft thcin, they 
divide their meat pretty decently; but more of them 
make ufc of their teeth and claws, pulling it to pieces, 
nnd eating it as voracioufly as fo many dogs, having 
no other plates or r.-pkins than the flinking corners of 
the napkins they wear; and fca fliells without handles 
ufually ferve them for fpoons. When they have dined, 
a pipe is filled with tobacco, which they fmoke all 
round, every one taking two or three whiffs, and then 
handing it to the next. It is fingular, that though the 
Hottentots arc immoderately fond of fpirituous li- 
ijuors, niufic and dancing, yet they do not drink the 
firft, nc • pra(ftifc thclatter at v eddings. 

The Hottentots allow of polygamy; but feldomhave 
tnorc than three wives at a time ; and it feems it is death 
to marry or lie with a lirft or fecond coufin, or any near 
relation. A father feldom gives his fon more than two 
or three cows, and as many Iheep, upon his marriage, 
and with thefe he mufl: make his way in the world ; 
and we do not find they give more with their daughters 
than a cow, or a couple of flieep ; but the latter are to 
be returned to the father, if the brid, dies without 
having had any children ; on the contrary, if flie ever 
bore any children to her hufband, the portion becomes 
his, even though the children are defun(fl. They do 
not leave their daughters, or younger fons, any thing 
when they die ; but all the children dcjjend upon the 
eldcfl brother, and are his fervants, or rather flavcs, 
when the father is dead, unlefs the elder brother infran- 
chife them ; nor has the mother any thing to fubfift on, 
but wh?.t the eldcll fon allows her. There being no 
reat fortunes among them, they match purely for 
; an agreeable companion is all their greatell men 
'aim at: their chiefs intermarry fr'^quently with the 
pooreft man's daughter ; and a brave fellov, w ho has 
jno fortune, does not defpair of matching with the 
daughter jf a prince. A w idow, who marries a fecond 
time, is obliged to cut off a joint of one of her fingers ; 
and fo for every hufband flic marries after the firfl. Ei- 
, thcr man or woman may be divorced, on fhewing fuf- 
ficicnt caufc before the captain and the refl of the kiaal ; 
the woman, however, mufl not marry again, though 
the inan is allowed to murry, and have as many wives 
I as he pleafcs at the fame time. A young Hottentot 
never is mafkr of a hut or tent till he marries, unlefs 
hi.s father dies and leaves him one : therefore the firft 
bufinefs the bride and bridegroom apply themfelves to, 
after their marriage fcafl, is to erctft a tent or hut of all 
new materials, in which work the woman has asgrctt a 
Iharc as the man ; and this taking them up about a 
1 week's time, the .lew »narried couple are entertained in 
I the mean time in the tents of fome of their relations. 
i When thi7 rcfort totheir new apartment, and come to 
kecphoufc together, the wife feems to have much the 
grcatcft fliare of the trouble of it : the fodders the cat- 
tle, milks them, cuts out the firing, fearches every 
morning for roots for their footl, brings them home, 
land boils or broils them, while the drone of a hufband 
hies indolently at liome, a.,d will fcarce give himfelf the 
jtrouble of getting up r Jeat when the food is provided 
Jforhimby the drudge his wife. The more wives he 
jhas, j\\\\ the more indolent life he leads, the care of 
jmaking provilion for the family being thrown upon 
Ithciii. It is faid he will, in his turn, attend his tattle 
tin the field ; but expcds everv one of his wives fliould 
jdo, at lead, as much towaicis taking care of them as 
[he does. He will alfo, fomctimes, but very rarely go 
a hunting with the men of his kraal, and bring home a 
piece of ycnifon, or a difh of fiOi; but this is not of- 
I ten; and if he is of any handicraft trade, he may work at 
I it two or three hours in a week, and inftrua his chil- 
dren in the art. 1 Fe alfi) takes upon him to fell his 
cattle, and purchafe tobacco, and ttrong luiuois of the 
Dutch, with mcefTary tools, beads and other orna- 
ments, fo-- which the Hottentots barter a.vay their cat- 
tie : their wives are not pei inutcd ro iiuei nuddli- in the 
bulincfs of buying and lllliiig, this bung the fole prc- 

Mo. 12. < 

,: -?rogative of the man. When a woman brings a liv- ' 
ing fon into the world, there is great rejoicing ; but the 
firft thing they do with the child, is to daub it all over 
with cow-dung ; then they lay it before the fire, or in 
the fun, till the dung is dried ; after which they rub it 
. ff, and wafh the child with the juice of certain herbs, 
laying it in the fun, or before the fire again, till the li- 
quor IS dried in, after which they anoint the child from 
he?d to foot with butter, or flieeps fat melted, which 
is dried in as thejuice was : and this cuftoni of anoint- 
ing their bodies with fat, they retain afterwards as long 
as they live. After the child has been thus finearcd 
and greafed, the mother gives it what name flic thinks 
proper, which is ufually the name of fome wild heait, 
or domeftic animal. When the woman is well again, 
and able to leave her hut, flic rubs herfelf all over with 
cow-dung ; and this filthy daubing is by thefe delicate 
people termed a purification. Being thus delightfully 
perfumed, and elegantly decorated with flieep's guts, 
the is permitted to go abroad, or to fee company at 

If the woman has fvins, and they are girls, the man 
propofes it to the kraal, that he may expofe one of 
them, either upon pretence of poverty, or that his w ifc 
has not milk for them both ; and this they ufually in- 
dulge one another in ; they do the fame when they have 
a boy or girl ; but always preferve the boys, though 
they happen to have two at a birth. The expofed 
child is carried to a diftancc from the kraal ; and if 
they can find a cave or hole in the earth, that fome 
wild beaft has made, they put the child alive into it ; 
and then having flopped up the mouth of the den with 
flones or earth, leave it there to flarve : if they cannot 
meet fuch a cavity, they tie the infant to the lower 
bough of a tree, or leave it in fome thicket of buflics, 
where it is frequently deftroyed by w ild beafls. They 
do not deal thus, however, as has been obferved, by 
i.heir male children: on the birth of a boy, they kil'i 
a bullock ; and if they have twins, two bullocks ; and 
make an entertainment for all the neighbourhood, v ho 
congratulate the parents on their good fortune ; and, as 
with us, the greateft rejoicings are on the birth of the 
firlV fon. 

The males, at about ten years of age, are always 
deprived of their left teflicle ; the operation is per ■ 
formed with a dexterity that would furprize an Euro- 
pean furgcon, and bad confcqucnces are leldom or ne- 
ver known to cnfue. A ftieep is killed, and great re- 
joicings are made upon theoccalion ; but it is to be ob- 
ferved, that the men devour all the meat, and allow 
the women nothing but the broth. The reafon of this 
abfurd cuftom of mutilating their male youth is un- 
known : fome of the Hottentots fay, it is to make them 
run fwift ; but the greateft part of thefe people give 
their general reafon, which they ufe Uixin all occafions, 
when they are unable to account for any of their abfurd 
practices ; namely. That it is the i-lottentot cuftom ; 
a J has been practifed by their anccflors time imme- 
morial. At the age of eighteen, the male Hottentots, 
being deemed men, are admitted into male focicty : the 
men of the village (if it may be fo called) fquat down, 
and form a circle, as is ufiial upon moft public occa- 
fions, the youth fquats down w ithout the circle, at fome 
diftance. The oldeft man of t\.s kraal then rifes from 
the circle, and, having obtained the general confent for 
the admifTion of a new member, he goes to the youth, 
acquaints him with the determination of the men of 
the kraal, and concludes his harangue with fome vcrfcs, 
which admonifh him to behave like a man for the fu- 
ture. The youth being then daubed w ith foot and fat, 
and well fprinkled with urine, is congratulated by the 
company in general in a kind of chorus, which contains 
the following willies : that good fortune may attend 
him, that he may live long, and thrive daily; that he 
may fiion have a beard, and many children; till it is 
univcrl;illy allowed he is a ufeful man to the nation. A 
feart concludes the ceremony ; but the youth himfelf is 
not permitted to participate of any part thereof till all 
the reft are ferved. 1 laving been thus admitted into 
male fociety, it is expected th«t he Ihould behave ill to 
2 C , women 







U 'JA 


women in general, and to his mother in particular, in 
order to evince his contempt of every thing feminine. 
Indeed it is ufual for a youth as foon as admitted, to go 
to his mother's hut, and cudgel her heartily, for which 
he is highly applauded by the whole kraal j and even 
the ful^ring parent hcrfelf admires him for his fpirit, 
and protclls that the blows do not give her fo much 
pain, as the thoughts of having brought fuch a mcttle- 
ibme fon into the world afford her plcafurc. The more 
ill treatment he gives his mother, the more eftccm he 
obtains ; and every time he ftrikes her flic is in the 
highcft raptures, and thanks providence for having 
blcifed her w ith fuch a fpirited child. So cgregioudy 
will cuftom counterad the very dictates of nature, and 
impofe upon the underftanding of the ignorant. 

It r.iay be proper nowto fay fomer.hingof thofc ofliccrs 
aniongft them, which the Europeans generally deno- 
minate their pricfts. Thcfe perfons are called furri 
or maftcr, and are elected by every kraal : they are 
the men who perform the ceremony of making water 
at their weddings, and other feftivals ; the furri a!fo is 
the pcrfon who extrads the left tefticlc from the youQg 
males at eight years of age; for all which he has no 
ftatcd revenue, but a prefent now and then of a calf or 
a lamb, and makes one at all their entertainments. 
Every kraal alfo has its phydcian, as well as its jirieft, 
who are perfons that have fome fkill in ph\lic and fur- 
gery, and particularly in the virtues of falutary herbs : 
theic alfo arc chofen by a majority of voices, and make 
it their bulinefs to look after the people's health : but 
have no other reward neither for their pains, than 
■voluntary prefents. And fuch is the opinion of the 
Hottentots of thcfe phyficians, that, if they cannotciTed 
a cure, they conclude they are certainly bewitched ; as 
the doctor hinifelf alfo never fails to give out: where- 
upon application is made to fome pretended conjurer 
for relief; and if the patient happens to recover, it gives 
the cunning man, as we call him, a mighty reputation. 
The phylii ian and furgeon, as has been hinted, is the 
fame pcrfon; and though thcfe gentlemen fcarce evtr 
faw a body diflccted, it is faid, they have pretty good 
notions of anatomy : they cup, bleed, make amputa- 
tions, and retlore dillocatcd limbs, with great dexteri- 
tv : cholicks and pains in the floniach ttiey relieve by 
cupping. Their cup is an horn of an ox, the edges cut 
very fmooth : the doctor, having fucked the part where 
the pain lies, claps on the cup ; and, after it has re- 
mained fome time, till he thinks the part is infenlible, 
he pulls olf the horn-cup, and makes two or three in- 
cifions, half an inch in length, with a common knife, 
ha\ ing no other inrtrument: after which, he applies the 
cup again, whicri fails off when it is full of blood, but 
the patient, it is faid, fullers great pain in the operation. 
If the pain removes to another part, they rub it with 
hot fat ; and, if that does not cafe the pain, tliey life the 
cup again on the part laft afl(;Cted; and, if the fecond 
cupping does not relieve the p.itient, they give him in- 
w.ud iiK-dicines, being infufions or powders of certain 
dried roots and herbs. They let blood in plethories 
and mdifpolitions of that kind, having no other inflru- 
nientthana common knife ; and, if bleeding will not 
ctfecl the cure, they give the patiert phyfic. Tor hcad- 
achs, which they are pu tty much fubject to in calm 
weather, they fliave thei heads in furrows, as they do 
when they are in mour.iing ; but a brilk gale of wind 
uliially carries off the head-ach, without any other ap- 
plication; and this they do not often want at the cape. 
They feldoiii make ar y other amputations, than of the 
lingers of fuch women as marry .1 fecond time, or 
oitner: and, in this c .fe, they bind the joint below that 
which is to be cut off very tight, with a dried fincw, 
and then cut olf th'. joint at once with a knife, (lop- 
ping the blood with the juice of myrrh-leaves ; after 
which, they wrap i p the linger in fome healing herbs, 
and never any pan of the finger receives any hurt be- 
yond the amputation. They have little or no Ikill in 
fctting fiacUired limbs ; but are pretty dexterous at re- 

'Ihe I lottentot phyfician, in cafe he meets with a foul 
flomach, gives the juice of aloe leaves; and, if oncdofc 

will not do, repeats it two or three days ; and, for any 
inward ail, they give chiefly the powders, or infulions ot 
wild fage, wild figs and fig leaves, buchu, garlic ot 
fennel : but, whatever the difeafe be, it fceras the pa- 
tient never fails to facrificc a bullock, or a (hecp, upon 
his recovery. 

The Hottentots arc exceedingly fupcrf^itious, and 
fond of divination. In order to know the fate of a lick 
perfon, they flay a fheep alive ; after having its fkin in- 
tirely taken off, if the poor animal is able to get up and 
run away, it is deemed a propitious omen ; but, on the 
contrary, if the excruciating pain kills it, they imagine 
that the patient will certainly die, and accordingly gi\c 
him up intirely to nature, without taking any further 
care of him. 

Whatever they believe of departed fouls, they havi- 
no notion either of heaven or hell, or of a Itate of re- 
wards or punifhments ; this is evident from the lu-- 
hayiourof^a dying Hottentot, and thofe about hiiii; 
neither he nor his friends offer up any prayers to iluir 
gods for the falvation of his foul ; or even mention i!;c 
ftatc of departed fouls, or their apprehenlions of h.~. 
being happy or mifemble after death: however, thi., 
fet up terrible bowlings and fliriekings, when the (i. k 
I man is in his laft .ngonics ; and yet thcfe very prop!,' 
are frequently guilty of murdering their .intient paruus 
as well as their innocent children ; for when the fatlurn! 
a family, is become pcrfedly ufclcfs and fuperannuatcd 
he is obliged to alTign over his flock of c.ittlc, and every 
thing elfe he has in the world, to his ddell fon ; and iii 
default offons, to his next heir male: after which, the 
heir ereOls a tent or hut in fome unfrequented place, a 
good diflance from the kr.ial or camp he belongs to; 
and, haying affembled the men of the kraal, acquaints 
them with the condition of his fuperannuatcd relation, 
and defires their confcnt to expofe him in the dilhiiit 
hue ; to which the kraal fcarce ever refufe their confcnt. 
Whcreu[)on a day being appointed to carry the old 
to the folitary tent, the ntir kills an ox, and two or thnc 
flicep, and invites the whole vilKige to fealt and Ic 
merry with him; and at the end of the entertainnun;, 
all the neighbourhood come and take a fomial leave ot 
the old wretch, thus condemned to be (tarvcd or de- 
voured by wild beaOs: then the unfortunate creature i, 
laid upon one of their carriage oxen, and carried to \\.< 
lall home, attended to the place, w here he is to be 
alive bv molt of his neighbours. The old man bcm:; 
taken down, and fet in the middle of the hut provid( J 
for him, the company return to their kraal, and 1\ 
never fees the fiicc of a human creature afterwards ; ih( y 
never fo much as enquire whether he was (tarvcd m 
death, or devoured by wild beads: heisnomore thoiij;h: 
of, than if he had never been. In the fame manner 
they deal with a fuperannuatcd mother; only as flic h.i 
nothing flie can call her own, (lie has not the trouble o: 
affigning her effedts to her fon. Whenever the Hotte:',- 
tots are upbraided with this unparallelled piece of li:ir- 
barity, they reply, it would be a much greater ciiu!;. 
to fuffer an old creature to languilli out a mifcrable hk, 
and to be many years a dying, than to make this ^\u[ I 
difpatch with them ; and that it is out of their cxtren\ 
tendernefs they put an end to the lives of thcfe iLi 
wretches; all the arguments in the world againit th 
inhumanity of the cuftom, can make no impiciii(:: 
on them : and, indeed, as long as the Dutch have ic- 
fided at the cajie, they have not been able to break thf .n 
of one fingle cuftom, or prevail with them to alter an, 
part of their conduiit, how barbarous or abfurd l'oc\ei 
and, itfeems, the captain of a kraal is not exempt^ 
from feeing his funeral folcmniled in this manner, while 
he is alive, if he happens to become ufilefs. And ihi- 
leads us to treat of fiich funerals as arc Iblemnized alter 
theperlbn is really dead. 

The fick man, having reflgncd his breath, is im- 
mediately bundled up, neck anil heels together, in hi^ 
flieep-fkm mantle, exceeding clofe, fo that no part 01 
the corpfc appears : then the captain of the kraal wit'i 
fome of the leniors, fearch the neighbouring conntr, 
for fome cavity in a rock, or the den of a wild biiilf, 
to bury it in, never digging a grave, if they can finJ 


T E. 

cook's first VOYAGE— for making Difcoveries in the South Seas & Round the World. 103 

e days ; and, for any 
wdcrs, or infulions of 
es, buchu, gariic ot 
be, it fccms the pa- 
3ck, or a fticcp, upon 

1y funerftitious, and 
now tnc fate of a lick 
cr having its (kin in- 
I is able to get up and 
js omen ; but, on the 
{ills it, they imagine 
and accordingly give 
ut taking any further 

rtcd fouls, they hav\' 
, or of a ftate of rc- 
:vidcnt from the be- 
nd thofe about him ; 

any prayers to their 

or even mention i!;.- 

apprelicnlions of hib 
loath : however, the. , 
ckings, when the li. k 
yet thefe very people 
; their antic-nt pareius, 
, for v\ hen the father ol 
cfs and fuperannuateJ 
ek of cattle, and every 
his ddert fon ; and in 
nale: after v^hich, tic 

unfrequented plaee, ,1 
r camp he heloiigs; t .; 
Df the kraal, acquai-.; 
iipcrannuatcd rclaticn, 
lofe him in the dill.i;.: 
er refufe their confe;;:, 
;d to carry the old iii 1 
an ox, and two or thi 
illage to feall and ' 

of the cntertainnun , 
take a formal leave i , 
1 to be ftarvcd or de- 
unfortunate creaturt ^ 
•xen, and carried to h < 

here he i» to be bur ui 
The old tnan he)"; 
le of the hut provided 
to their kraal, ami !\ 
caturc afterwards; thu 
thcr he was ftarved m 
hois no more thonuh: 

In the fame maniuT 
iiothcr; only as (lie h.i 
e has not the troidiK n 
Whenever the Ilotti:',- 
larallellcd piece of b:\r- 

I nuu h greater < riii 1;. 
fli out a mifcrablelii , 

han to make this qui • 
is out of their cxtren\ 
the lives of thcfe ivt 

the world againlV th 

II make no impreiiir- 
as the Dutch have u- 

x-eri able to break rhc'.i 
with them to alter y^, 
irous or abfurd foesei 

kraal is not exempr. i 
din this manner, \vlii!' 
jme ufelefs. And dn- 

as arc folcmnizcd alter 

cd his breath, is im- 
d heels together, in hi: 
lofc, fo that no part 0* 
iptain of the kraal vm!i 
neighbouring countrj 
he den of a wildbtalt, 
grave, if they can finJ 


oneofthefe within a moderate diftance. After which, 
the whole kraal, men and women, prepare to attend the 
corpfc, feldom permitting it to remain above ground 
more than fix hours. When all things are ready, all 
the neighbourhood afTemble before the door of the de- 
ceafed, the men fitting down on their heels in one 
circle, and rcfting their elbows on their knees (their 
ufual pofture) as the women do in another: here they 
clap their hands, and howl, crying, Bo, bo, bo! (i. e. 
father) lamenting their lofs. The corpfe being then 
brought out on that fide the tent, where the perfon 
died, and not at the door, the bearers carry him in 
their arms to the grave, the men and women follow it 
in different parties, but without any manner of order, 
crying all the way, Bo, bo, bo 1 and wringing their 
hands, and performing a thoufand ridiculous gefturts 
and grimaces, which is frequently the fubjedt of the 
Dutchmen's mirth i it being impofiible, it is faid, to 
forbear laughing at the antic tricks they ftiew on fuch 
an occalion. Having put the corpfe into the cavity 
prepared for it, they (Top up the mouth of it with ant 
hills, (tones, and pieces of wood, believing the ants will 
feed on the corpfe, and loon confume it. The grave 
being flopped up, the men and women rendezvous 
a{;ain before the tent of the dcceafcd, where they repeat 
their howlinj';, and frequently call upon the name of 
their dcparteil friend: after which two of the oldcft 
men get up ; and one of them going into the circle 
«)f the men, and the other into the circle of the 
women, urine upon every one of the company ; and, 
v\herc the kraals are fo very large, that two cannot find 
v\ater enough for this ceremony, they double or treble 
the number. Then t!ie old men go into the tent of 
(he deccifed ; and, having taken up fomc afhes from 
the fire-place, they fprinkle them uf)on the bodies of 
the people, blclling them as they go : and, if the de- 
i cafed was a perfon of diftindion, this is acfled over 
again fcveral days. But we (hould have remembered, 
tliat the ceremony always concludes with an entcrtain- 
)iicnt. ifthedeccTfed had any cattle, afheep is killed 
on the occafion; and the caul being powdered with 
buchu, is lieu about th<; heir's neck, who is forced to 
wear it v '.uio it rots off, which is no great penance, all 
Ihnks Jcing perfumes to.? Hottentot. All the relations 
alio wear the '.auls of fiiccp about their necks; which 
it Items i& tiicir mournin >, i.nlcfs the children of the 
deccafcd are fo poor, that they rnnnot kdl a fliccp ; 
and then they fhavc their heads in fuirows of about an 
inch broad, lea lie hair on of the fame breadth 

betv^ecn every I 

It is not an eal^ , ur d. come ai a Hottentot's re- 
ligious notions; he IS fparmgofhis wont'^ and laconic 
in his anfwers upon all ociai' but v hen religious 

topics arc introduced, he generally ■ or.< eals his ft ni. 
li.etus in iilence. Some on this acci .nt havcdouial 
whether the Hottentots have any religion at all : but tlu- 
mofi intelligent among the Dutcli at the cape jwfitiveK 
alhrm. rhai :hcy believe in a Supreme Being, whom they 
Ihle (iounya Tequoa, or God of gods, and latKyth.ii 
his place of reiidence is beyond the moon, i ey allow 
that Gounya Taquoa ia a humane benevolent being, yet 
they have no motleof worfhipping hina ; for which ttiev 
give this reafon, " That he curfed their firl> parcnt> t 
having greatly otfemkd him, on which account th 
pofU-rityhave never from that time paid himadnt ,.' 
They believe that the moon is an inferior vifil'v god, 
and the reprefentative of the high and invifible : thatftie 
has the direction of the weather; and therefore they 
pray to her when it is unfeafonablc. They never fail 
to aflemble and worfliip this planet at the new and full 
moon, let the weather be" never fo bad ; and though they 
didoit their bodies, grin and put on very frightful 
looks, crying .ind howling in a terrible manner, yet they 
have fome cxpicflions that fhcw their veneration and 
dcpendance on this inferior deity ; as, • Mutfchi Atze, 
I fakitc you ; you are welcome : Cheraqua kaka chori 
Ounqua, grant us pallure for our cattle and plenty of 
milk.' 'Ihcfe and other prayers to the moon they re- 
))eat, frequently dancing and clapping their hands all 
tile while ; and, at the end of every dance, crying, Ho, 
ho, ho, ho! raifingand falling their voices, and ufing 

abundance of odd geftures, that appear ridiculous to 
European fjpedtators ; and which no doubt, made them 
at fird, before they knew any thing of their language, 
conclude, that this could not be the efledl of devotion, 
efpccially w hen the people themfelves told them, it was 
not an aft of religion, but only intended for their diver- 
fion. They continue thus fhouting. finging and dan- 
cing, with proft rations on the earth, the whole night, 
andcven part of the next day, w ith fome fhort inter- 
vals, never refting, unlefs they arc quite fpent with the 
violence of the action ; and then they fquat down upon 
their heels, holding their heads between their hands, 
and refling their elbows on their knees ; and, after a 
little time, they ftart up again, and falling to finging 
and dancing in a circle as before, with all their 

The Hottentots alfo adore a fly about i;he bigncfs of a 
hornet, called by fome the gold beetle : whenever they 
fee this infed: approach their kraal, they all afTemble 
about it, and fing and dance round it while it remains 
there, firewing over it the powder of buchu, by bota- 
nifls called fpiraeam ; which when it is dried and pul- 
verized, they always powder themfelves with it at Icfii- 
vals. They ftrew the fame powder alfo over the tops 
of their tents, and over the whole area of the kraal, as 
a teftimony of their veneration for the adored fly. 
They facrifice alfo two flieep as a thankfgiving for the 
favour fhewn their kraal, believing they fliall certainly 
profper after fuch a vifit : and, if this infedl happens 
to light upon a tent, they look upon the owner of it 
for the future as a faint, and pay him more than ufual 
refpeft. The bcft ox of the kraal alfo is immediately 
facriticed, to teff ify their gratitude to the little winged 
deity, and to honour the faint he has been pleafed thus 
to diftinguifh : to whom the entrails of the bcafl, the 
choiced morfel in their opinion, with the fat and the 
caul is prefentcd ; and the caul being twirtetl like a 
rope, the faint ever after wears it liki. i collar about 
his neck day and night, till it putrilic< ,, ' '•ots off; 
and the faint only feafis upon the entra . ot me bcaft, 
while the reft of the kraal feed upon tl joints, that 
are not in fo high efteem among them: \'. the fat of 
the facrifice alfo the faint anoints his bo ' (im time to 

hts upon a 

time, till it is all fpent ; and, if the H> 
woman flie is no lefs reverenced by the neighbourhood, 
and entitled to the like privileges. It is fcarcc poilible 
to exprefs the agonies the Hottentots are in, if any Eu- 
ropean attempts to take or kill one of thefc infcdts, as 
the Dutch will fometimcsfecin to attempt, toputthetp 
in ;i iVight : they will beg and pray, a-l fall proftrate 
in i\e ground, to procure the libcny ot 'is little crca- 
uirc, if it falls into a Dutchman's hands ; they are on 
fuch an occilion, in no lefs conftcrnation than the In- 
dians near fort St. George, v^'hen the kite, with a white 
head, which they worlhip, is in danger. If a fol- 
(lier takes one of thei'c alive, and threatens towringthc 
neck of it oft", the Indians will gather in crowds about 
him, and immediately colled the value of a fliilling or 
two, to purchafe the liberty of the captive bird they 
adore. But to return to the Hottentots : they imagine 
if this little deity fhould be killed, all the cattle would 
die of difeafes, or be deftroycd by wild beafts; and 
they themfelves ihould be the moft miferable of men, 
and look upon that kraal to be doomed to fome immi- 
nent misfortune, where this animal feldom appears. 

The Hollanders have fent fcveral reverend divines to 
the cape as miffionaries, who have fparcd no pains to 
bring the Hottentots olf from their idolatry, and induce 
them to embrace Chriftianity ; even their '■nvetoufncfs 
and ambition have been applied to, and ; , :>nl re- 
wards oftered them, on condition of their jeing in- 
ftrudcd in the principles of Chriftianity. But no mo- 
tives whatever, w hether thofe relating to this or another 
ftatc, have yet been able to make the leaft imprefiion on 
any one of them: they hold faft and hug their ancient 
fupcrftitions, and will hear of no other religion. The 
reafon that they neither imitate the Europeans in their 
building, planting or cloathing, is becaufc they ima- 
gine themfelves to be religioufiy obliged to follow the 
cuftoms of their anceftors; and that, if they fltould 
deviate from them inthc Icaftof thefc matters, it might 




■ W 




make way for a total change of their religion and man- 
ners, which they cannot think of without abhorrence. 
One of the Dutch governors at the cape bred up an 
Hottentot from his infancy, obliging him to follow the 
falhioiis and curtoms of the Europeins, to be taught 
fcveral languages, and to be fully inftrudlcd in the prin- 
ciples of the Chriftian religion, cloathing him hand- 
foniely, and treating him, in all rcfpeiits, as a perfon 
for whoin he had a high cftccm ; and let him Know, 
that he defigned him forfome beneficial and honourable 
employment. The governor afterwards fcnt him a 
voyage to Batavia, where he was employed, under the 
commilfary his friend, for fome time, till that gen- 
tleman died; and then he returned to the cape of Good 
Hope; but, having paid a vilit to the Hottentots of 
his relations and acquaintance, he threw oft" all his fine 
cloaths, bundled them up, and laid them at the gover- 
nor's feet, and delired he would give him leave to re- 
nounce hs Chriftianity, and live and die in the religion 
and cuftc ms of his ancertors ; only begged the governor 
would gis " him leave to keep the hanger and collar he 
wore for his *hke ; which while the governor was deli- 
berating with himfelf upon, fcarce believing the fellow 
to he in earneft, the young Hottentot took the oppor- 
tunity of running away, and never came near the cape 
afterwards, thinking himfelf extremely happy that he 
had exchanged his Kuropean cloaths for a (lieep fkin 
and the red of the Hottentots drjfs and ornaments : 
the I'.nglifti I''.a(l India company, w*- are informed, made 
the like experiment, bringing ove two of that nation 
hither, whom they cloathcd decently after the Euro- 
pean manner, and ufed them, in all refpe(;ts, with the 
greattrt goodn(fs and gentlencfs, hoping, by that 
means, to be better informed of the condition of their 
country, and whether it might be worth the while to 
make a fettlemcnt there : but the two Hottentots only 
learnt Hnglilh enough to bewail their misfortune inbe- 
ing brought from their country and their friends; and, 
after two years trial of iheni, being again fet on fliore 
at the cape, they inmKdiately ftripped off their Kuro- 
pc.m cloaths, and, having taken up the (lieepfkin man- 
tle again, rejoiced beyond incafure lor their happy ef- 
cape from the Knglifli. 

The p'X»r Hottentots fometimes employ t'icmfelvcs 
in making arms, viz. bows and arrows, lances and 
darts, bartering them with the rich for cattle, to begin 
tlie worlil with: others get elejihants teeth, and what 
the) ilo not ufc in making rings and ornaments for 
^liemfeUes, arc generally dif}H)fi;d of, it is thought, to 
the Portiiguel'e and other Europeans, who touch at 
Tcrr.i de Natal, and other parts of the eartcrn or wef- 
teriKd.ilh very leu teeth to the 
Diiti h ; though it is manifeU they kill abundance of 
elephants: they fupply the HDllanders hov>everwith 
lattle, and take wine, brandy or tobacco, in rctm'n ; 
and an ox mav be purchafed of' them for a pound of to- 
b.ui o, and a large llieep lor half a pound. As to coin, 
tlic reader \m1I coni 'udc they ha\e none; nor do they 
c\cr fee an' , unlefs li)iiie fmall pieces of money the 
Diitili loiiKMMies give them for their wages at the 
capo . and it mufl not be forgot, that the Hottentots 
and abund.uue of ollrieli's eg;;.', in the fand, which 
thty barter with the fta-taring men, that touch at the 
i;a|)e, f()r orandy and tobacco; every lailor alinol) be- 
mg proud of bringing home one of thefe egg Hulls to 
his friends, after he nas fried and eaten ihc yolk, which 
makes a large pancake, and is pretty good food, but ra- 
ther of the Urongell. 

Their butchers arc faid to be great artiflsin their way, 
and to handle a knife as dexterout- is an aiiatomift : 
having tied the hind and i()rc legs of .i ilieep, ihpy throw 
the creature on his back, and with dtnls, tno of them 
extend it to its lull llretch, while a ird rips it up; fo 
that all the entrails ajjpear : then, with one hand, he 
tears the guts from the carcafe.ani, with the other, llirs 
the bl(K)d, avoidnig as much as In can the breaking an. 
of the blood-\c11el„ about the heart; lo th:u the fheei) 
is a long time a dying: iirthe mean time he gives the 
f'Mts to another, who Jiill mis tlicm of t!ic tilth, an>! 
nnccs them in water, and part oi' them arc broiled and 

eaten amongll them, before the fliccp is well dead : 
having fcooped the blood out of the body of the animal 
with their hands or fea fliells, they cut the reft of the 
guts in fmall pieces, and ftew them in the blood, which 
IS the Hottentots favourite difh. An ox alio is killed 
in the fame barbarous manner ; being thrown upon 
his back, and his legs extended with cords, he is ripped 
up, and his guts taken out firft ; in which cruel opera- 
tion the beaft is half an hour a dying: they fcparate 
the parts with great cxadnefs, dividing the flefli, the 
bones, the membranes, mufclcs, veins, and arteries, and 
laying them in fcveral parcels every thing entire. The 
bones alfo are taken out of the flefh, and laid together 
in fuch order, that they might be calily formed into 
an cxacl fkeleton: thefe they boil by themfelvcs, and 
get the marrow out of them, with which they anoint 
their bodies. Of the fhccp fkin, as has been obferved 
already, they make a mantle, if it be large ; but, if 
it is fmall, they cut it into thongs, to adorn their wo- 
mtn's legs : and the hide of an ox ferves either to cover 
their tents, or to make girts and ftraps of, with which 
they bind their baggage on their carriage oxen when 
they decamp ; and, if they have no other ufc for their 
ox-hides, they lay them by, and eat thcin when they 
want other food. 

They have ai^other artificer, who is both felmonger 
andtaylor: that is, he dreffes Ikiris after their w:u, 
and then makes them into mantles : he iakes a fliecp 
(kin juft Hayed off, and, rubbmp •; well with fat, the 
(k\r> t)ecomcs tough and fmooth ; and, if it be for one 
of his countrymen, he rubs it over alfo with frclh c<m- 
dung, and lays it in the fun till it is dry: then he rubs 
it with fat and cow dung again ; which he repeats fi. 
veraJ times, til! it becomes perfe<iHy bkick, .:nd i'.mk'i 
fo, that no Eurcpeancan bear it ; and then, with a Ih- 
tle fliaping a.ic! fewing, it is a compkat mantle tor a 
Hottentot : but, ;f it be dreffed for a Dutchman, I:.- 
only rubs the fkin well with fat, which fecures the wool 
from coming otV. If he be to drefs an ox's hide, he 
rubs the hairy fide with wood afVies ; then fprinkling it 
with water, rolls it up, and l.iys it a d;iy or two in the 
fun; which expedients ctfcdually bring of}' the hair; 
this lliin is then wellgrcafed, ftretched out, and drieJ 
.igain, when it is deemed good leather. 

Their fmiths do not only falhion their iron, but melt 
it from the ore : they find plenty of iron Hones in fe\c- 
ral parts of their country ; and having got a heap ot 
thefe, they put them into a hole in the ground, heated 
and prepared for their purpofe: then they make a lire 
over the ftones, which they fupply with fue^and keep 
up till the iron melts; and then it runs into aiiothir 
hole, which they make for a receiver, a little lower than 
the firll : as foon as the iron in the receiver is cold they 
break it to pieces with ftoncs ; and, heating the pietc.i 
again in other fires, them with flones, till they 
fha[>e them into the heads of lances, darts, arrows, and 
bows, and fuch weapons as they ufc ; for they fcarce 
ever form any other utenfils, but arms of this : 
they get the hardeft fiat Hone, according to monliciir 
Vogel, and, laying the iron upon it, as upon an anvil, 
beat It with another round ftone, which ferves them 
for a hammer; then they grind it ujwn the Hat Hone, 
and polilli it as nicely as any European artificer could 
do w ith all his tools ; they have fome copjjcr ore too, 
which they melt in like manner; but they make only 
toys and ornaments for their drefs of this metal : nor, 
indeed, do they ever work in iron, but when they 
weapons. They would never labour, if their necefliiicj 
did not fometimes compel them to it: but, when they 
do, no people work harder, or more indefatigably ; 
for they never leave a piece of work, till they have 
finifhed it. 

The ivory-turner makes the ivory rings that arc worn 
ornamentally about the arms ; and conlidering that 
hi» only tool is a common clafp knife, which he pro- 
cures from the Dutch, the workmanfliip has great 

I he potter or maker of earthen vcircls is another 
;irt ; hut this, it feems, they arc all dexterous at, eve-rv 
family makmg the pots and pans they wajit. Tor tiiell' 

, 'hey 

COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE*-ffar making Difco'tierlej in the Soutf) Seas Sc Round th; fTor/J. 105 


ccp is well dead: 
3ody of the animal 
cut the reft of the 
n the blood, which 
,n ox alfo is killed 
eing thrown upon 
1 cords, he is ripped 
which cruel opcra- 
iiig: they fcparate 
ding the flcfti, the 
IS, and arteries, and 
thing entire. The 
I, and laid together 
cafily formed into 
by themfclvcs, and 
I which they anoint 
IS has been obferved 
it be large j but, if 
, to adorn their \vo- 
ferves cither to cover 
traps of, with which 
• carriage oxen w hen 
io other ufc for their 
;at them when they 

10 is both fclmonprr 
i'lS after their way, 
es : he iakcs a Iheep 
ii well with fat, tlic 
and, if it be fur oi\i- 
r alfo with frelh cou- 
is dry : then he riih^ 
which he repeats fi-- 
iHy black, .;n.l ('.HrKs 
and then, witii ai ii'- 
onipkat mantle tor ;i 
for a Dutchman, I .• 
hicli fecurcs the ^^()l)l 
rcfs an ox's hide, lie 
cs ; then fprinkling it 
It a day or two in the 
bring oft" the hair; 
tched out, and dried 

their iron, but melt 
jf iron ftones in fc\e- 
having got a heap ot' 
the ground, heated 
hen they mal^«-" a lire 
with fuev^and keep 
it runs into aiiotlier 
er, a little lower tliaii 
receiver is cold tluy 
J, heating the pieces 
with ftones, till the/ 
cs, darts, arrows, and 
life ; for they fcarcc 
arms of this mctii : 
ording to monlieur 
it, as upon an anvil, 
which ferves them 
upon the flat ftone, 
ropean artificer could 
fome cop|)cr ore too, 
but they make only 
fs of this metal : n>>r, 
but when they w .int 
our, if their ncceniiiLi 
to it: but, when tlicy 
more indelatig-ably ; 
work, till they have 

sry rings that are worn 
and conlidcring that 
knife, which he pro- 
rkmanfliip has great 

hen vcftels is another 
all dexterous at, evi-ry 
ihcy want. Tor tlidc 

they ufc only the earth of ant-hills, clearing them of 
all fand and gravel ; after which, they work it together 
with the bruiled ant eggs, that are faid to conftitute an 
extraordinary cement. When they have moulded thefc 
materials into a kind of parte, they take as much of 
them as will make one of their pots, and fafliion it by 
hand upon a flat ftone, inaking it of tl}c form of a Ro- 
man urn ; thert they fmooth it within and without very 
carefully, not leaving the leaft roughnefs upon the fui- 
tace ; and, having dried it in the fun two or three days, 
they put the pot into a hole in the ground, and burn it, 
bv making a lire over it ; and, when they take it out, 
it appears perfectly black : every family alfo make their 
Own mats, with which they cover their tents or huts; 
but this is chiefly the bulinefs of the women : they ga- 
ther the flags and rulhes by the river fide, or weave or 
plat them into mats fo clofcly, it is faid, that neither 
the weathcrorliglitcan penetrate them. 

The laft artificer we ftiall mention is the rope -maker, 
who has no better materials, thin fuch Hags and ruflies 
as the mats arc made of; and yet ihcy appear almoft as 
ftrong asthofe made of hemp : the Dutch, at the cape, 
buy and ufe them in ploughing, and in draught car- 

As to the way of travellino; hero, the natives all travel 
on foot, except the aped and infini und thefe are 
carried on their baggage oxen. As tin re aie no inns or 
places for retrefhment, the travelhu;-; Hottentot calls at 
tile kraals in his way, ^\h<re he nieeis witii a hearty 
welcome from his coiintrjiiieii, who endeavour to iliew 
their hofpiiality to ftrangers, whether of their own 
country or of Europe. Such indeed is the general ur- 
jbanity of thefe people, and their ftrid integrity when 
[any confidence is placed in them, that when the Hol- 
landers travel cither on foot or horfeback, if they can- 
not leach a European fettitmcnt, they alfo call at the 
kraals of the Hottentots, where they are complimented 
^ijwith a hut, and fuch provifion as they have, or they 
<■; may lie in the area of the kraal, in the open air, if they 
\^< p''-''*'*'" ^'id the weather be good ; and here they are 
jfeciirc, both from robbers and wild beafts ; for the 
I bulliis banditti on the mountains are dangerous, as they 
Igive no quarter ; but the Hottentot nations in general 
(hold them in abhorrence, and unanimoufly concur in and punifliing them upon all (Kcafions. 

Their language is very inarticulate and defei'live ; 
one word fignifies fcvcral things, the definitive meaning 
being determined by the manner of pronouncing; and 
the pronunciation is fo harfti and confufed, that they 
fecm to Hammer in all they fpcak. Hence, though 
t'ley are eafily taught to underftand other languages, 
:.liey can feldom be brought to fpeak them with any de- 
cree of intelligibility. 

We fliall here fubioin a fmall Hottentot vocabulary, 

[for the fatisfacUon of the curious ; khauna, fign;:" .; a 

fUnib; kgou, a goofe ; bunqvaa, trees; knomm, to 

[laar; quaqua, a pheafaiit; tkaka, a whale ; horri, 

[bcalls in general i knabou, a fowling piece ; qua-ara- 

ho, a wild ox ; ounequa, the arms ; quienkha, to fall ; 

hkh.^iirt, a dog ; konkcqiia, a captain ; quas, the neck ; 

quan, the heart ; kgoyes, a buck or doe ; tikquoa, a 

Ipd ; komma, a houfe ; khoaa, a cat, kowkiiri, iron,- 

Ikonkekerey, a hen ,- thoukou, a d.-irk night,- tkoume, 

jrice ; ghoudie, a facep ; toya, the wind ; ttk.aa, a v.d- 

jlcy ; tkaonoklau, gunpowder; kamlvainma, the earth; 

luaouw.jthunder 1 duckatcrr, a duck ; kamma, water.- 

:jiiavha, an afs^ iiaew, the eais; kirri, a ftick; 

nouibha, the beard; k,a-a, tu drink; duriefa, an ox; 

ek-kaa, an ox of burden ; ounvie, butter ; houteo, a 

dog; bikgua, the head; kamma, aftag; kouquil, 

pigeon ; anthuri, to-morrow ; koii, a tooth ; kha- 

nouna, the devil ; hakqua, a horfe ; koo, a fon ; 

Ikammo, a ft ream ; tika, grafs ; toqua, a wolf; koan- 

Iqua, the mouth ; khou, a peacock ; j^na, a boy ; gois, a 

Jpirli khoakamnu, a baboon; kerhanehou, a ftar; 

inu, an eye ; tquallbuw, a tyger. 

The Hottentots have only ten numerical terms, 

vhich they repeat twice to exprcfs the multiplication of 

the lirft term, and three times to exprefs the re multi- 

l)lication of the latter. Their terms arc : q'kui, one 1 

No. 12. 

lea I 

k'kam, two; kouna, three; kakka, four; koo, five; 
naniii, fix ; hounko, feven; khiffi, eight ; khafli, nine ; 
ghifti, ten. 

Thus have we given a circumftantial and full ac- 
count of the cape, its inhabitants, produdlions, and adja- 
cent country ; from whence the French, at Mauritius, 
are fupplicd by the Dutch with faltcd beef, bit'cuit, 
flour, and wine: the provifions for which the Erench 
contracted this year were five hundred thoufand lb, 
weight of I'alt beef, four hundred thoufand lb. of flour; 
four hundred thoufand lb. of bifcuit, and one tt'.oufand 
t\(o hundred leagers of wine. Wc have only to add 
to this account a few obfervations ci the bay, and gar- 
rifon. The former is large, fate, and exceeding con- 
venient. It is indeed open to the N. W. winds, but 
they feldom blow hard ; yet as they fometimes occa- 
fion a great fea, the fhips moor N. E. and S. W. 'I'he 
S. E. winds blow frequently with great fury, but their 
direction being right out of the bay prevents them t'rom 
being dangerous. For the convenience of landingand 
ftiipping goods, a wharf of wood is run out near the 
town, to a proper diftance. Water is conveyed in 
pipes to this wharf, and many large boats and hoys arc 
kept by the Company to carry ftorcs and provifions to 
and from the ftiipping in the harbour. This bay is co- 
vered by a fmall fort on the E. fide o'" the town, and 
clofc to the beach; and is alfo defended by fcvcral out- 
works and batteries extending along the ftiorc, as well 
on this fiilc of the town as the other ; ncv. ithelefs they 
are by their fituation cxpofed to the ftiipping, and in a 
manner delencelefs againft an enemy of any force by 
Iniid. As to the garrifon, this confifts of eight hun- 
dred regular troops, befidcs militia of the country, in 
which tall is comprehended every man able to bear 
arms. By fign.ils they can alarm the country in a 
verv (liort lime, and when thefe are made, the militia 
is to repair immediately to their place of rendezvous in 
the town. 

On Sunday, the 14th of April in the morning, we 
weighed, (lotul out of the bay, and anchored at five 
in the evening under Penguin, or Robin Ifland. Here 
we lay all night, and being prevented from failing by 
the w ind, the Captain dilpatched a boat to the illand 
tor a few trilling a. tides, which we had omitted to take 
in at tlic Cape : when our people drew near the fliore, 
they were warned by the Dutch not to land at their 
peril. .\t the fame time lix men, armed with muf- 
qtiets, paraded upon the beach. The commanding 
otiicer in the Ijoat did nor: think it prudent to rilk the 
lives of his men, on account of a few cabbages, and 
therefore returned without them to the iliip. To this 
iftand the Dutcli ai the Cape banilh fuch criminals as 
are not thought worthy of death, for a certain number 
of years, according to the nature of their crimes. They 
arc employed as flavcs in digging lime-ftone, which 
though fcarcc upon the continent is here in great abun- 
daiKc. A Daiulh Ihip touched at this ifland, having 
been rcfufed afllftance at the Cape, and fending her 
boat on lliore, overpowered the guard, and then took 
as many of the criminals as were neceflary to navigate 
her home ; tor Ihe had loft great part of her crew by 
ficknefs. To this incident we attributed ourrepulfc; 
concluding, that the Dutch to prevent a fimilarrcfcue 
of their prifoncrs, had ordered their garrifon at this 
place, not to fuffer any boat of Ibraign nations to land 
the crew, and come aftiore. 

On Thurfd.ay the 25th, wc put to fea, and about 
four o'clock in the afternoon died our matter, Mr. Ro- 
bert Mollineux, a youth of good parts, but unhap- 
pily for his own fell" prcfervation too much addicted to 
intemperance, a habit we would caution all thofe who 
undertake long voyages to avoid, it they have any re- 
gard to their perfonal fafcty. We now continued our 
voyage without any other remarkable incident ; and on 
Monday the 29th, wc croITed our lirft mer'dian, havf 
ing circumnavigated the globe fiomE. to W. and con- 
fcquently loft a day, for which upon corrcdingour rec- 
koning at Batavia, we made an allowance. On Monday 
the I II of May, we came to anchor at break of day, be- 
fore James's fort in the illandof St. Helena; and as wc 
2D propofed 



e o o K s 


C O M P L E'T K. 

to refredi here, Mr. Banks employed his time in vifiting 
the moft rcmarkabje places, and in furvcying every ob- 
jcdl worthy of notice. 

St. Helena is fituated in the Atlantic ocean, in fix 
degrees W. longitude, and fixtcen S. latitude; almoft 
in the midway between Africa and America, being 
twelve hundred miles dillant from the forme, and 
eighteen hundred from the lattcj-. It was fo rta ned by 
the Portuguefe, who difcovcred it on St. Hclcn's-day. 
This ifland is 36 miles long, 1 8 broad, and about 61 in 
circumference. It is the fummitof ah immcnfc moun- 
tain rifing out of the fca, and of a depth unfathomable 
at a fmall diftancc round it. It may be difccmtd at 
fea, at above twenty leagues diflance, and looks like a 
caftlc in the middle of the ocean, whofc natural walls 
are of that height, that there is no fcaling them. The 
fmall valley called Chapel -valley, in a bay on the cafb 
fide of it, is defended by a battery of forty or fifty great 
guns, planted even with the water ; and the waves dafli- 
mg perpetually on the fliore, make it difficult landing 
even here. There is alfo one little creek befides, where 
two or three men may land at a time ; but this is now 
defended by a battery of live or fix guns, and rendered 
inacceflible. No anchorage is to be found any where 
about the ifland, but at ChapcI-valley bay, and as the 
wind always fcts from the S. E. if a ihip ovcrilioots 
the ifland ever fo little, flic cann t recover it again. 
TIk feat of volcanoes has been found to be the higheft 
part of the countries in which they are found. Hccla 
IS thehighcfl hill in Iceland ; and the pike ofTcncriflc 
is known to be the covering of fubtcrrancous fire. 
Thefe arc ftill burning : but there arc other mountains 
which bear evident marks of fire that is now extinol : 
among thcfc is St. Helena, where the inequalities of 
the ground, and its external fiirfacc, arc evidently the 
cfteds of the finking of the earth ; and that this was 
caufed by fubtvrraneous fire, is equally manifell from 
the lloncs, for fome of them, cfpecially thofe in the 
bottom of the valleys, areburnt almofl to cinders. This 
ifland, as tiie Eadeavour approached it on the windward 
fide, appeared like a rude heap of rocks, bounded by pre- 
cipices of an ama'/.ing height, and confiding of a kind of 
ftonc, which (hows not the lead fignof vegetation : nor is it 
more promifing upon a nearer view. Sailing along Ihore, 
we came near the huge cliffs, that feemed to overhang 
the fliif). At length we opened Chapel-valley, which 
refcnible a trench, and in this vallc>' wc difcovcred the 
town. The fides of it arc as naked as the cliffs next 
the fca; but the bottom is flightly cloathcd with her- 
bage. In its prefent cultivated ftace, fuch appeared 
the ifland to us ; and the firfV hills mufl be paffcd, 
before the country difplays its verdure, or any other 
niarks of fertility. 

In Chapcl-valley, a little beyond the landing place, 
is a fort where tlie governor reiides with the garrifon ; 
and the town f^ands jufl^ by the fea-iide. The greatci 
part of the houfes arc ill built. The church, which 
was originally a mean ftrudurc, is in ruins j and the 
market-place nearly in the fame condition. The town 
conlifls of about forty or fifty buildings, conflmCfcd 
after the Englifli falliion, whiihcr the people of the 
ifland refort when any (hipping ap|Tears, as well to 
aflifl in the defence of the ifland. as to entertain the 
fcamcn if they are friends : for the governor has always 
fentinels, on the highcft part of the ifland, to the wind- 
ward, who give notice of the approach of all (hipping, 
and guns are thereupon fired, that every man may re- 
fort to his poft. It is impollible for an enemy to ap- 
proach by ica in the night time, and if difcovcred the 
day before, preparations arc fpeedil)' made for his rc- 

N'otw ithftanding the ifland appears a barren rock on 
cv .-ry fide, yet on the top it is covered with a fine layer 

earth, producing grain, fruits, and herbs of various 

1 nds ; and the country after we afccnded the rock, is 
ivcrlificd with rifing hills and plains, plant.-iiions of 

ruit trees and kitchen gardens, among which the houfes 
of the natives are interfperfed, and in the open fields 
are herds of cattle grazing, fome of which are fatttd 
to fupply the fliipping, and the reft furnilli the ilairics 


with milfc, butter, and chi:?efe. Hogs, goats, t,url;t\s, 
and all manncrof poultry alfo abound, and the Teas arc 
well ftored with fiih. But amidft all this afHuencc, tin- 
people have neither bread nor wio'e of thcirown f^rouili ; 
for though the foil is proper (or wheat, yet the 
that harbour in the rocks, and cannot be deflrou,!, 
eat up all the feed, before the grain is well out oi'ilii: 
ground ; and though their vines flourifli and prodiv c 
them grapes enouch, yet the latitude is too hot for 
making wine. This they have therefore from the 
Canaries, the Madeiras, or the Cape, as well as their 
flour and malt. Thtir very houfes arc fome of them 
brought from Europe ready framed, there being v:i, 
timber on the ifland, trees not taking deep root Inn; 
on account 6f the rock that lies fo near the furfnu': 
however, they have underwood enougli for ncccfliuy. 
ufcs. Befides grapes, they have plantains, bananas, li,,'.i, 
lemons, and fiich other fruits as hot countries ufually 
produce, 'i'hey alfo raifc kidney beans, and (in; e. 
other kinds of pulfe in their gardens; and the wan: 
of bread they fup])ly w ith potatoes and yams. 

In the year 1701, there were upon the ifland abniit 
two hundred families, molt of them Englifli, or dc- 
fccndcd from Englifli parents. Every family has a 
houfe and plantation on the higher part of the illaini, 
where diey look after their cattle, fruits, and kitcluu 
garden. They fc.irce ever come down to the town, 
unlefs it be to church, or when the (hipping arrive-;, 
when moft of the houfes in the valley are converted iiiti) 
punch-hoiifes, or lodgings for their guefls, to whom 
they fell their poultry, and oilier comnoditics ; but 
they are not fufleicd to purchafc any merchaiidi/.c lA' 
the fliijjs that touch here. Whatever tlicy want of 
foreign growth or manuliioturc, they are obliged to Iniy 
at the company's waichoufe, where twice every monili, 
they may furnifh themfclves with brandy, Eui<)p;.,;j 
or Cape wines, B.-itavia arrack, malt, beer, liigar, ta, 
colTee, china, and japan-ware, linen, calicoes, chiiit,', 
munins, ribbands, woollcn-cloth and flufls, and :.!! 
manner of doathing, for which tlicy arc allowed liv 
months credit. Among the very few native prodm- 
tions of this ifland mufl be reckoned ebony, though tl;; 
trees arc now nearly extinct. Pieces of this wood arc 
ficquentty found in the valleys of a fine !?!ack coin: ;, 
and a hardnels alinoft equal to iron ; thcfc pieces, h()\ - 
ever, are fo Ihort and ciooktd, that no ufe can Ik nn ; • 
of them. There are few infects here, but upon the ti; > 
of the higheft ridges a fpccies of fiiail is found, whui 
ha« probably been there fince the original cR-itioii o. 
their kind. It is indeed very diilicult to conceive him 
any thing not formed here, or brought hither by tli: 
diligenie of man, (ould finil its way to a pla. c lii 
fevered from the relt of the world, by leas of immciiic 

The Portuguefe, who difcovcred, this ifland in i vo:, 
florcd it with hogs, goats, and poultry, and ulld to 
touch at it for water and frefli provilions in tluir r.- 
turn from India ; but we do not find they evcrplaiitui 
a colony here; or, if they diil, having defejted it uliu;- 
wards, the Englilh Eaft India Company took pofllili'ii 
of the ifland A. D. 1600, anil held it till i<)7j, witiiout 
interruption, when the Dutch t<M)k it by i\n\m/.e. I lo,,- 
cver, the Englifli, commanded by C apt. Mundcn, k- 
covcred it aguin within the fpace of a year, and m ^'v 
three Dutch lijifl India (liips that lav in the wmiI i: 
the fame time. The Hollandeishad (rirtified the l.'.iu!- 
ing place, and planted batteries of great guns to pu'- 
vent a defcent; but tht Englilb being acquaintcil w:;!i 
a fmall creek where only 'two men could go abrci 1, 
climbed up to'th^ top of^ the rocks in the night liin'-, 
and appearing next morning at the backs of the Dutv li, 
they threw dov. n their arms, and furrcndercd the I 
without (triking afii;oke : but, as w e have befiireobfci •. i ', 
this creek has been fince fortified : i'o that there i.s iv ■ 
no place where an ciuniy can make a defcent with ,.:;> 
probability of fuccefs. 

The aflairs of the Eafl-India Company are maivigovl 
here by a governor, deputy-governor, and Iforcluui.- 
kecpcr, who have certain fettled falar'cs allowed. In- 
lides a public table, \vell furnilhed, to which all co •. - 

manJc: , 



COOK'S FIRST VOYAGE — f&r making l>ifcovcries in the South Seas & Round the JVorld. 107 

Hogs, goats, t,iirkc) s, 
iiind, ami the feas arc 
: all this alllmncc, tlif 
c of thcirovvn f!;ro'.vih ; 
r wheat, yet the 
cannot be de.lioinl, 
;rain is wtll out of'iht: 
flourifli and produ' c 
titudc is too hot tor 
: therefore from the 
!;apc, as well as their 
fcs arc fome of tliun 
mcd, there being i;.) 
taking deep root hi re 
fo near the furfai r: 
enough for ncccfliiiy. 
antains, bananas, [\><j, 
; hot countries ufnally 
ey beans, and foi; e, 
idens; and the want 
s and yams, 
pon the ifland abniit 
:hcm Englifli, or de- 
livery family has a 
her part of the illand,, 
, fruits, and kitchen 
z down to the town, 
the Ihipping arriws, 
lley arc converted into 
heir guefts, to whoni 
LT comnoditics; Init 
e any mcrchaiidiv.c of 
hate^■cr they want of 
icy arc obliged to iwy 
re twice every mont!i, 
th brandy, Kuropcn 
lalt, beer, fugar, tea, 
incn, c.alic(K:s, chintz, 
» and flutl's, and :,!! 
tliey arc allouctl liv 
y few native prodiu:- 
icd ebony, though tl,; 
cces of this wood arc 
f a fine !}lack culi>; ;, 
in i thck' pieces, hov - 
it no ufccan Ix; 111.1 ;• 
:rc, but upon the tc; , 
fnail is found, whii 1 
; original creation of 
licult to conceive iiov 
■ought hither bv til- 
ts way to a pia- c fn 
J, by leas of iinnieiiic 

dthis ifland in i co:, 
poultry, and ufcd to 
}rovilkms in their i>- 
find they cvcrplantul 
ving defcj'ted it afki.- 
mpany took pofllili'U 
d it till i<>7j, witiiout 
i. it by furprize. IId,. - 
ly C apt. Mundeii, 10- 
; of a year, ami took 
at lay in the it 
lad mrtiticd the l.iiu!- 
af great guns to piv- 
jcing acquainted \\k!i 
icn could go abrta:!, 
:ks in the night tiiu'', 
ic backs of the Diitih, 
funcndercd the iliaii.l 
e have i)eforeobfei \ 1. .', 
1 fo that there is \w\> 
,kc a dcfccnt with any 

ilompany arc inan.ii^;-'vi 

.•rnor, and Horchoul.- 

falar'es allowed, bi- 

cd, to which all ^ ■• - 

inanJi.': , 

Ihiiitders, irtalteri of Jhips, and eminent piiflcngers arc 

[welcome. The natives fometimes call the refuk ot 

[their deliberations fcvere impofitions ; unA though r&- 

Ilief might perhaps be had from the com|>any in EngJ 

(land, )'ct the unavoidable delays in r(?turning anfwers 

io addrelFes at that diftancc juits the aggrieved under 

[great hardfliips; and on the other hand, was not the 

Ifituation of this idaiid very fcrviccable to our homc- 

[ward-boum.1 tift-Indiafliips, the conftant trouble and 

Icxpence would induce the company to abandon the 

lifland ; for though it is furnillicd « ith the conveniencics 

[of life, the merchants find no other profitable coni- 

[inoditics there. The mafters of the plantations keep a 

great maijy blacks, who, upon fcvere treatment, hide 

thcmfehes for two or three inpnthS' together, keeping 

among the rocks by day, and roving at night for 

pioviiions : but they are generally difcovered and 


The children and defcendants «f white people have 
I not the lead red in their cheeks, in all other places 
'near the tropics; but the natives of .St. Helena are re- 
imarkablc for thcii ruddy complexions and robuft con- 
ftitutions. Their heslthfiilnefs may, in general, be 
; afcribod to the following caufes. They live on the top 
i of a mountain always open to the fea breezes that con- 
iflantly blow here: they are ufually employed in the 
1 moft Iiealthful exercifes of gardening and hiifbandry ; 
' the ifland is frequently refreilied with moderate cooling 
Oiowers ; and no noxious fens, nor fait marlhcs annoy 
: thcni. They arc ufcd alfo to climb the llecp hill bc- 
' twrcn the town in Chapel-valley and their plantation ; 
which hill is fo Ilcep, that, having a ladder in the 
middle of it, they call it Ladder-hill ; and this cannot 
be avoided w ithout going three or four miles about ; fo 
that they feldom want air or cxercife, the great- prc- 
.fcrvers of health. As to the genius and temper of 
thefc people, they feemed to us the moll hortcIV, the 
mod inolfenfivc, and the moll hofpitable people we 
ever met with of Ivnglilh extraifUon, havinj'; fcarceany 
tindurc of avarice or ambition. We ad^. d fome of 
them, if they had no curiofity to fee the red of the 
vorld, and how they could confine themfelves to fo 
fniall a fpot of earth, feparatcd at fuch adiHancc from 
the red of mankind ? '1 hey replied, that they enjoyed 
the ncceiraiies of life in great plenty: they were nei- 
ther parched with excellivc heat, or pinched with coUl : 
they lived in perfect fccurity ; in no danger of enemies, 
of robbers, wild beads, or rigorous feafons ; and were 
happy in the enjoyment of a continued date of health : 
that as there were no rich men among them (fcarce any 
planter being worth more than a thoufand dollars) io 
rhcie were no poor in the idand, no man being worth 
Ids than (bur hundred dollar;, and confequently not 
(ihliged to undergo more labour than was neccfliiry to 
keep him in health. 

Our thoughts were now enploycd on returning to 
our native diore ; and having fulliciently recruited our 
dorcs, on .Saturday the 4th of May, we weighed, and 
failed out of the road in comjiany w ith the I'ortland 
I'liii of war, and his convoy, confiding of twelve fail of 
l-.all Indiamcn. With this deet we continued our 
courfe for Fjigland until Friday the loth, when per- 
ceiving they out-failed us, and confequently might 
make their port belore us, Capt. Cook, for this realoit, 
made the iignal to fpeak with the Portland, upon which 
Capt. Klliot came on board the Endeavour; to whom a 
letter for the Adniiralti was delivered, w ith a box, con- 
taining the common log books of the ihip, ami the 
i journals of fome of the ollicers. We did not loofe light 
of the deet till Thurfday the 23d, when they parted 
from iis; and alwut one o'dock'in the adcrmwn, wc 
lod our lird lieutenant, Mr. Hicks, an active, fkilful, 
judicious, and ufcful oflicer. Hcilicd of a coiiiump- 
ti.m, of which lingering difordcr he difcovered fome 
fymptons when he led England ; fo that it may be tnily 

faid, that he was dying the whole voyage ; and his de- 
cline was very {.gradual till wc arrived at Hatavia, from 
whcncq to the time of his didbiution, the How con- difeafe gained drcngth daily. The whole lliip's 
company attemlcd the funeral rite.;, and in the evening 
wc committed his body to the fea with the ufiial cere- 
monies. The next day the Captaii^ appointed Mr. 
CharlesC lerk, a young man, to act in the room of 
Mr. Hicks. ' 

Wc now every day drew nearer our dcdrcd haven j 
but what mud be the condition of our once [;ood diip, 
the Endeavour, may eafily be imagined, fidin a dight 
rccollc(ftion of the hardlhips die hail fiirmounted, and 
the dangers (lie had providentiall;,' cfcapcd. At: this 
time our. rigging and lails were fo weather-beaten, 
that every (lay fomething was giving way. However, 
we held on our courfe, without any material occur- 
rence that might endanger our lafet}', till Monday the 
10th of June, when, to our great joy, Nicholas '^ oung, 
the boy who fird difcovered New Zealand, called out 
land Iroin ihe mad head, which provctl to be the Li- 
zard. The next day, being Tuclila)-, the eleventh, we 
proceeded up the channel. On Wednefday the f 2th, 
with the pleating hopes of feeing our relatives and 
friends, exciting fenliitions not to be dtf ribcd by the 
pen of the molt able writer; wc paded Ditichy Head. 
At noon, to our iiuxpicnible joy wc were a-brcad of 
Dover; and ahoin three o'clock, P. M. wc came to an 
anchor in tlie Downs. When we landcil at Deal, our 
diip's company iiidiilr;'-d frecl/ that mirth, and foeiablc 
jollity, common toad Enoliih (iiilors upon their return 
from a long vowige-, who as readily (biget hardliiips 
anel dangers, as with alacrity and bravery they en- 
counter them. 

Wc caiUKJt cliife this bcok without joining in that 
general ceiifure, whieh has been judly bcdowed on Dr. 
Hawkefworth, the late compiler of a former account of 
this vijyageof the Endeavour. An infidel may imbibe 
what deidical chimeras may be bed adapted to the 
gloomy temper of his mind ; but we canneit but think 
him highly culpable in forcing them into a wciik of 
this kinel; for though it may be faid, that, with iclpciit 
to elticient and linal caufes, the opinion of a general 
and particular Providence will form one and the lame: 
conclulion, yet wc think it is of great comfort to all 
men, partitulaily tothofc who can trace the wonders 
of an almighty hand in the deep, to be fcniibleofa 
mtrciful interpofition, concerned, and ever aiit ;itivc to 
their dipport, prefcrvation, and deliverance in times 
of danger. Uefidts, this fcntinient of a di\ine agent 
fuperintcnding, anel concCling the diforders intri)ducccl 
by natural and moral evil, is, undoubtedlv, a d ripture- 
de)eilrine; and from the deductions of the mere light 
of nature, it mult appear unrealonablc to dippofc, that 
the firft Great Caufe who planned the whole granei 
fchcmc of creation, (houlel not be alloweei to interfere 
with refpccl to particular parts, or indivieluals, as oc- 
cadon, circiimdances, or times may require. And 
whoever duly conddered the wonderful protce;tion 
of the Endeavour in cafes of danger the mod imminent, 
particularly when encircled, in the wide ocean, with 
rocks of coral, her dicathing beaten od", and her fallc- 
keel dor.ting by her dde, a hole in her bottom, and the 
men by turns lainting at the pumps, cannot but ac- 
knowledge the exidence of a Particular Providence. 
The hidory of Jofeph can only adord a more driking 
indancc of the interpodtion of a divine invifible hand. 
This our countrymen experienced ; and we have good 
authority to alFert, that our company in the Endea- 
vour do acknowledge, notwithdanding the private; 
opinion of the above mentioned compiler, that the 
hand of fuperior iiovcrwas particularly concerned in 
their protc-*.icn aoel deliverance. This oninifcient 
and omnipotent power it is the incumbent duty of 
every chriltian to believe, confide in, and adore. 





.'■ 'y \i 


Capt. COO K's 



South Pole and Round the World, 


By Order of his Prefent MAJESTY, 

In hisMajcfty's Ships theRefolution and Adventure; 

With the View principally of DifcoVcring the fuppofcd Southern Continent, &c# 
Begun the 9th of April 1772, and concluded on the 31ft of July 1775. 

Including an Account of Capt. Furne'aux's Narrative of his Proceedings in the Adventure after the 
Separation of the two Ships, during which Period fcvcral of his People wen; dertroycd by tli« 
Natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. 


Till-', king's cxpcdations were not wholly anfwcrcd 
by former diriovcries, which were fo highly blazon- 
cti botli at home and abroad, and therefore his majcrty 
jirojcctcd this Second Voyage of Capt. Cook, and 
the Navy-twiard was ordered to equip two fucli (hips 
as were moft fiiitabic to the fervice. Ac.-ordingly two 
vcflcls «( re purchafcd of Capt. William Hammond, ot 
Hull, being about fourteen or fixteen months old. 
They were both built at Whitby, by the fame pcrfon 
who bulk the Endeavour, The largcft of the two, 
named the Rel'olution, burthen four hundred and lixty- 
two tons, was fcnt to Dcptford to be fitted out ; and the 
Adventure, three hundred and thirty-fix tons, was 
cfjuipped at Woolwich. On the 3.8th of Novcml)er, 
1771, C:ipt. Cook was appointed to the command of 
the Rclolution ; and Tobias Furncaux, who had been 
fecond lieutenant with Capt, Wallis, was promoted to 
the toiniiunJ of the Adventure. The Kcfolution had 
one hiindred and twelve hands on board, officers in- 
cludcii : and the i\dvcnrure eighty-one. la the former, 
J:mus Conk was captain, Robert P. Cooper, Charles 
Clerke, and Richard Fickerlgill, were appointed lieu- 
tenants. Jofeph Gilbert was mafter; James Grey, 
boatfw.iinj Jaincs Wallis, carpenter; Rol>crt Anderfon, 
gunner; and James Patten, furgeon- John Edgcumbe 
was lieutenant of the marines, under whom were one 
ferjcant, two cor|)oraIs, one drummer and fifteen pri- 
vates. The red of the crcwconlifted of three maftcr's 
mares, fix midlhipmen, two furgcon's mates, one cap- 
tain's clerk, one mailer at arms, one corporal, one 
armourer, his mate, one fail-maker, his mate, three 
boatfwain's inatcs, carpenter's three, gunner's two, four 
carpenter's crew, one cook, his mate, fix quarter matters, 
and forty-five able feamcn. In the Adventure, Tobias 
Furncaux was captain, Jofeph Shank, and ArthurKempe, 
lieutenants ; Peter lannin was appointed mafter, Ed- 
ward Johns boatfvain, William Onerd carpenter, Andrew 
Gloag gunner, Thomas Andrews furgcon: of mallei's 
mates, midfliipmcn, &c. as above, the number was 
twenty-eight, and thirty-throe able bodied foamcn. 

James Scott was lieutenant of the marines, under whofe 
command were one ferjcant, one (.orj'H)ral,one drummer, 
and ei{;ht privates. 

'Ihe two lliips were ordered to be got in readincfi 
with the utmod expedition, and Ixrth the Navy and 
Vidluall-ng boards paid an uncommon attention to their 
equipmi nt -, even the firil lord of the Admiralty vilited 
them from time to time; in confequcnce of which 
they were not reflrained by ordinary cflabliflmu-nts, 
every extra article thought nccellary being allowed, in 
order that they might be fitted completely, and in every 
refped to the fatisfaiftion of thofe who were to embark 
in them. Indeed Capt. Cook failed with greater ad 
vantages in this expedition, than any of his prcdeccfTori 
who had gone out licforc on dilco\erics; and we may 
venture to fay, no future commander will ever have a 
commiHion of a more liberal kind, nor be furnifhed 
w ith a greater profulion of the very bcft llores and pro- 
vifions. He had the frame of a vcffel of twenty tons, 
one for each fliip, to fervc 0( ' nfionally, or u|>on any 
emergency, as tenders : he had on board filhing-nets, 
lines and hooks of every kind ; he was fupplicd with 
innumerable articles of fmall value, adapted to the 
commerce of the tropical iflands: he b;id on board 
additional cloathing for the feamcn, particularly fuiteil 
to a cold clin>ate, to all which wereail.lcv! the U-ll in- 
(IrumentA for allionomical and n.iutical obfirvation-; : 
in which were included lour tiini-pi(ces on Mr. Har- 
rifon's principles. conflruCted by Melf. Arnold and 
Kendal. And that nothing might be wanting to pro- 
cure information, and that could tend to the fuccelsof 
the voyage, a landfcape painter, Mr. William Hodges, 
was engaged for this important undertaking, accom- 
panied by Mr. (now Dr.) John Rcinhold ioller and Son, 
who were thought the moll proper perfons for the line 
of Natural Hiflory, to which they were appointed with 
parliamentary encouragement. Mr. William Wales, 
and Mr. William Haylcy, were likewifc engaged tomake 
aflronomical obfervations i the former being placed by 
the boaxd of longitude, in the Refolution, and Mr. 


cook's iECOND V O YAOE — for making Di/'covcrics in the Sou//j Seai & Round tlic fyorJd. 1 09 



r Y, 

dventure; | 


uly 1775. 

Adventure after tTie 
re dcilruyed by tli* 

) N. 

marines, under whuic 
;)rjK)raI,onc drummer, 

I be got ill readineri 
I lH)th the Navy and 
non attention to their 
the Adnuralty vilittd 
nicqucnce of which 
nary cnablillmicnts, 
ary being allowed, in 
plttcly, and in e\ cry 
who were to embark 
led with greater ad- 
ny of" his prcdccefTorj 
n cries; and we may 
nder will ever have a 
d, nor be furnitticd 
beft tlores and pro- 
vcird of twenty torn, 
Dnally, or U|>on any 
Iward fiihing-nets, 
he was fupplicd with 
ue, adapted to the 
: liu b;id on board 
, particularly fuitcd 
c ;uloc\! the l)eft in- 
utical obfi'rvations ; 
1 itics on Mr. Har- 
MelF. Arnold and 
L-c wantina; to pro- 
end to the iiicccla ot 
r. William Hodges, 
undertaking, acccjin- 
hold l-ollcr and Son, 
pcrfons for the line 
*erc appointed with 
Vir. William Wales, 
rt ifc engaged to make 
mer being placed by 
"efolution, and Mr. 

Bayley in the Adventure. Nor muft we omit to men- 
tion the number of medals ftruck by order of the luirds 
of the Admiralty, and intended to be left both as 
prcfent* and tcftiraonics in new ditovcred coun- 


The two (hips were viftuallcd and provided with all 
manner of necelTaTies for a three years voyage [ among 
I which were the following extra articles : 1 . Malt, (or 
i fttcct wort, dcfigned for thofc whofe habit of body 
I might engender the fcurvy, and as a remedy lor fuch 
who might be alHifted with that diforclcr. The quan- 
tity prefcribcd fyr each patient, from one to fix pints a 
d.iy, at the difcretion of the furpeon. 2. SourKrout, 
of which each feaman was to be allowed two pounds a 
week. This is cabbage faked down, and cloff packed 
1 in calks, after having been properly fermented. It is 
lelleemed by our navigaiors an excellent antifcorbutic. 
!-). C/ibhage cut fmall and faltcd down, to whi'h is 
[added juniper berries, and amiifeeds, which arc likc- 
I wife put to the four krout. 4. Portable foi'p, very 
t nourifliing, and of great utility both for invalids, and 
jthofe that are in good health. 5. Oranges, v<h of le- 
mons, and faloup, for the ufc of the furgeons, to be 
adminillcrcd to the fick and fcorbutic only. 6. Mar- 
in iladc of Carrots, recom nended by Biron Sionh of 
Scrlin, as a vcr/ great antifcorbutic ; but it did not 
s fuch aaiwer our cxpcdtation. Th's fyrup is cx- 
raded fronj yil'ow ca.rots, by ev;iporating the liner 
wrts, till it is IrougKt to a rciuuence j*" tica le, 
ihich it much refembles both in taf; colo^ir. 
7. Juice of wort and beer, infpiflatcd, as the forq'oing 
irticlc, and intended to fuppiy at times the place of 
beer, by mixing it with water. I'or this wc were in- 
debted to Mr. Fclhani, Secretary of the Victualling - 
Sice; the cominiflioners af which ordered thirty-one 
alf barrels of this juice to be prepared for trial ; nine- 

teen whereof were flowed in the Hefolution, and twelve 
on board the .'Vdverv.ure. Thus all the convcniencei 
ncceirary for the prefervation of health during a long 
voyage, were provided in abundance i and even fome 
alterations were made in the cuttomary articles of pro- 
vifions ; wheat being fubflituteil in the room of a 
quatitity of oatmeal, andfugar i;:<leadof oil. 

A propofed vo\ age attended with fuch extraordinary 
preparations, patronized by parliament, as well as roval 
bounty, and the execution of which being fuperintendcd 
by the firfV officers of the admiralty, the navy, and by 
Capt. Cook himftir, we do not hclitatc to pronounce 
one of tl'.L- moft important that was ever pcrtbrmcd in 
any age, or by any country ; and we may alfo with truth 
aircrt. that the able navigator made choice of by his 
Miaicfly, was equal to the talk in which he was embark- 
ed. Livery thinking perfon cannot but admire hisfkili, 
his fortitude, his care of his men, his vigilance in at- 
tending to the minjteft intimations of former naviga- 
tors, his pcillverance amidft the dangers and hardlhips 
ot rigorous fealbns, his prowefs in leading his com- 
pany jull fo fur as they were capable of pro»;ceding ; in 
lliort, his conduct throughout, which, while he kept 
every man iingly in ftrict obedience to his duty, he 
conciliated theatfeiitionsofall, and fecured their clfcem. 
The Hillory of his Second Voyage, which we are now 
ab'iut tofubinit to tlic judgement of our numerous Sub- 
JTi tiers, will, we are perfuaded, confirm the truth of 
this opinion ; and we are happy in having received their 
unaiiiiiuHis ajiprobation of the maps, charts, portraits, 
ainl views, winch have been hitherto introduced, and 
which are ;ill engraved from the originals by our moll 
einiiieiit ai tifts. We hope for a continuance of their 
good opinion, which, in tlie execution of this work, wc 
liiall endeavour by all laudable means to merit and pre- 



ie Btddnour takes berdeparlure firm Dfpiford-^Toucbes at the Tjlaiid of St. Ju^o, one of the Cape de Verdi— Purfuei 
her voyage to the C^pe of Coed Hope — Account of tt an fad ions then; and iiiciJents that happened in her paffage—Her de- 
par'^refrm the Cape— Continues her voyage infearch of a iuUhirn Contweiit—^aiuet of this fearcb, bcttceen the 
moidiM of the Cape of Good Hope and thai of New Zealand— Separalm of the t-A-o /hips, and the arrival ofiix Refotutioit 
in Dmy Bay. •^ 

J) 1772 ■' I ^^^ ftcfolution and Adventure bc- 
' ' ■ JL ing equipped in the moft complete 

i iiicr, aj already related, the former on the 9th of 
Vf ril. dropped down the river as far as Woolwich, at 
■ ' tich place (he was deuincd by ccntrary winds ; but 
-i the ;2d failcil from thence to Long Reach, where 
he was joined by her companion the Adventure, and 

oth took in their marines, guns, and ammunition. 

lay the loth we failed for Plymouth, but before we 

01 out of the river, the Rcfolution was found to be 
crank, on which account we put into Shecrnefs. 
ft' hile fome alterations were making in her uppei works. 
Lord Sandwich and Sir Hugh Palliferpaid us a vifit, in 
Inicr to fee they were executed in a proper manner. 
The Rcfolution being again ready for fea, wc departed 
Tom Shecrnefs. On tlie 2d of July we met Lord 

andwich, in the Auijufta Yacht, whom we faluted with 
hcntccn guns, and his lordlhip, accompanied with 
Hugh Pallifer, honoured us with their prcfence on 

onrd, which was the laft inftanct of that very great 
tteinion they had paid to a variety of particulars that 
[iiglit tend to pronrote the lUcccfs of our undertak- 

^bout this time Capt. Cook received from the board 
«■ Admiralty his inftruclions, dated the 25th of June, 
TO tenor and fubllanccof which were, that the Adven- 
■ure was to be under his command : that the two fliips 
No. 13. 

were to proceed to the ifland of Madeira, from thence 
to the Cape of Good Hope: that having at this place 
refrellied the Ihips companies, and fupplicd them with 
provifions and other necelTaries, they were to make the 
beftof their \» ay to the fouthwaid, in fearchofCape 
Circumciiion, which, by M. Bouvet, is faid to be in 
latitude 54 deg. S. and in ibout n deg. 20 min. ]i. 
longitude, from the Royal OLiervatory in the Park at 
Greenwich; that if they fell in with this Cape, Capt. 
Cook was to endeavour, by all means in his power, to 
difcover whether the fame was part of the fuppofed 
continent which had fo much employed the national 
attention of different European powers, or only the pro- 
montory of an ifland : that, in cither cafe, the gentle- 
men on board the two ihips were diligently to explore 
the fame, to the utmoft extent pofTible ; and to make 
fuch obfcrvations of various kinds, as might correfpond 
with the grand objeiit in \ icw, ahd be in any refpedl 
ufeful to either navigation or commerce ; not omitting 
at the fame time proper remarks on the genius and 
temper of the inhabitants, whole friendfhip and alliance 
they were dirciited to conciliate, by all probable mo- 
tives, and prudential means in their power : that they 
were to proceed on new difcoveries to the eafhvard or 
weftward, as the captains might judge moft eligible, 
endeavouring only to run into as high a latitude, and as 
near iLc fouth pole as pollible : that whatever might be 
2H t,^. 

I lO 


J with rtTpcifl to Cape I 
ntinuc their furvcys to I 
lie calUvard, cither in I 


■■' I 

the rcfiilt of their iinc(H(];ations 
Circumcifion, they were to continue 
the foiithward, and then to th< 
fcarch of the faid continent, (liould it not have been 
afcertaincii, or to make diilovcries of fuch illands as 
might be fcated in the hitherto unexplored and un- 
known parts of the foiithern latitudes; that, having 
circumnavigated the globe, they w ere to return to Spit- 
head by the way of the Cape of Ciood Ho|ie : and that 
to anfwer the intentions of government in this voyage 
as fully as polFiblc, when the feafon of the year ren- 
dered it unfafe to continue in high latitudes, they were 
to repair to Ibme known port to the northward ; and 
after having refitted, iv:c. they were to return again, at 
the proper feafon, to the fouthwanl, in profecution of 
new difcovcrics there. It may not be amifs here to ob- 
fcrve, that thefe orders were not intended in any rc- 
fpecl: to cranip Capt. Ccxik, who was allowed, in cafe 
the Rcfolution fliould be \o\\, to continue his voyage in 
the Adventure : he had to this end allillants out of num- 
ber : his Hay was not even hinted at : he was not obliged 
to return nt any limited time j in Ihort he had ample 
power, full authority, and, in all unforcfeen cafes, he 
was to proceed according to his own difcretion, and act 
entirely as he pleafed. We beg leave further to ob- 
ferve, that in the hiftory of this voyage, Cireeiuvich 
is made our firll meridian, and from hence the longi- 
tude is reckoned l'",. and VV. to I So deg. each -a ay. 
And our readers \\ ill alfo take noiic e, that whemvtr the 
initial letters, A. M. and 1*. M. of ante-meridianum, 
and ()i)ll-meridianum. areufed, the former fignifies the 
forenoon, ami the latter the afternoon of the fame ilay. 

A copy of the above inlhuctions werctranl'mitted to 
Captain Furneaux, inclofed with Capt. Cook's orders, 
in which lie appointed, fliould the two (hips be fepa- 
rated, the illand of Madeira for the i'ni\ place of ren- 
dezvous ; I'ort Praya for the fccond ; the Ca[)eofC;(M)d 
Hope for the third; and new Zealand for the fourth. 

While we remained at FI)niouth. our artronomcrs, 
Mr. Wales, and Mr. Uayley, made obfcrvations on 
Drake's Illand ; when the latitude was lound to be 50 
deg. 21 min. 30 fee. N. and the longitude 4 deg. ao 
niin. W. of Greenwich; whereby the true time for put- 
ting the tmie-pieces and watches in motion was af- 
certained. This was done on the ijth of July, and 
they were fet a-going, in the prefence of tlietwo aftro- 
nomers, Capt. I'urneaux, Capt. Cook, and the two full 
lieutenants of the (hips. Thcfe had each of them 
keys of the boxes which contained the watches, and 
were always to be prefent at the winding them u|), and 
comparing the one with the other, unlefs preventeti by 
iiiilifpolition. This day, the (hips crews, according to 
thecullomof the navy, receiveil two months wages in 
advance. As a further encouragement, and that they 
might provide necellaries for the voyage, they were 
likev. ife iinid the wages due to them to the 281I1 of the 
preceding May. 

On Sunday the 12th of July, the Rcfolution broke 
from her moorings in the .Sound, and was adrift toiTcihcr 
V ith the tranfport buoy to which (he was falVened. .Ml 
hands were on deck inllantly, the cables were cleared, 
and the fails fpread. We pa(red the Adventure, antj 
came to an anchor, after having efcaped the very ap- 
parent danger of being dafhed again(\ the . cks which 
are under the fort. This fkvourable event was l(K>ked 
upon by our feamcn as nn omen to the fuccefs of the 
voyage. It was undoubtedly an inlhnce cf the care of 
Divine Pro\ idence, exerted for our protection in fo cri- 
tical a moment. Indeed the whole of our voyage, 
equally with this circumftancc, demonOrarcs, that a 
divine power was abfolutely necellary to protrrt us in 
times of danger, and to give us a fafe return. 

On Monday the i;jth at (ix o'clock, A. M. the two 
ftiips failed from Plymouth Sound, in company, and 
palled the Kddillone, which is a lofty, well cotitrived 
tower, of the utmod advantage to navigation and com- 
merce. As we (lood off (hore, the wind increafed, and 
the billows rolled higher and higher. Moll of the fea- 
men both old ami young were alfedcd with (icknefs. 
On the 20th, we fell in with Cape Ortcgal on the coall 


of Galicia. The country appears hilly, and the to| 
of the hills are covered with wooil. The foa now gn 
perfeiJily calm, and the profpect which furroundeil i:, 
was vei y delightful. When in light of Cape I'iiiilUrn , 
bearing W. S. W. fcvcn or eight leagues, we were- m, ' 
by a (mall Trench Tartan from Marfcilles, freiglurl 
w ith Hour from Fcrroi and Corunna. We obtained fi(j!u 
them a fmall fupply of fredi water, which we nun li 
wanted, having been obliged to fublift on bread and 
our wine. On the 22d, in the afternoon, we palFcJ 
two Spanifli men of war, one of which fired a (liotat 
the Adventure to bring her to; but on hailing her, ai\| 
being tokl we were king's (liips, made a proper apo. 
logy, and very politely took leave, w idling us a gdcxl 
voyage. On Wednefday, the 29th, about nine at 
night, wc anchored in Funchialc raid, in the inandof 
Madeira. After having faluted the garrilbn with eleven 
guns, and they had returned the compliment, wc went 
on Ihorc, accompanied by the two Forllers, and were 
conducted by Mr. Sills, a gentleman from the vice-con- 
ful, to the houfc of Mr. Ixjughnans, a confiderable 
Englilh merchant, who aflided us with every accom. 
modation the ifland and his houfe aftbrded, during 
our day. Here the oflioers ajul private men furni(hcd 
themfelves w ith fuch docks of wine as they could con. 
veniently purchafe. 

The Madeira, or Madera Idands arc .only three in 
number ; namely, Madeira, projicrly fo called ; the 
illand of Puerto, or Porto Santo ; and Ida Dcferta, or 
the Dcfolate Kle. 'I'hcy arc (ituatcd to the N. of 
the .Salvages, and in the Atlantic ocean, between thirty- 
two and thirty-three deg. rtnd feventecn and eighteen 
deg. W. longitude, two hundred and fifty miles N. hy 
K. from 'renerill, three hundred and (ixty from Cape 
Cantin on the coad of Africa, and three hundred N. I 
of the idand of larro. They were thiis named tnim ] 
the principal of them, which was called by the Portu- 
gue/.e .Madeira, (ignifying a wooil or fored, from iti 
being overgrow n with trees. They were fir(\ difcovcred i 
by an Engliih gentleman, and many years after by the 
Portuguefe ; and as there is fomething extremely fin- 
gular in both thefe occurrences, but more particularly 
the (ir(l, wc diall, for the entertainment of our rea- 
ders, relate the circumdanccs attending it. 

In the reign of Edward III. king of England, 3 ] 
young gentleman, named Robert Machin, concei\cd I 
a violent pallion tor .Xnn D'Arfet, a beautiful and ai- 
complidied lady of a noble family. Machin, with re. | 
f|)ci5t to birth and fortune, was inferior to the ladi 
but his perfonal qualifications rwercamc every fcniplc j 
on that account, and die rew: rdcd his attachment «i:h 
a reciprocal adeiition. Their frieiid.i, however, behtU | 
the young gentleman in a different light; they fancial 
their blood would be contaminated by an alliance \uth| 
one of a lower rank, and therefore determined to facr- 
(ice the happinefs of the young lady, to the hercdiiar, 
pride of blood, and theirown mercenary and interclUJi 
motives. In confcqucnce of thefe ideas, a warrant I 
was priKurcd from the king, under the fandioii cit| 
which Machin was apprchcndeil, and kept in cl";'; 
confinement, till the objec'i of his artcCHons was mar- 
ried ■•, n nobleman, whofe chief merit lay in hishono-l 
rary title ai.d large podcfTions; and immediately after! 
the nuptial ceremony was over, the peer took his Ikii;- 
tiful bride with him to a drong caftlc which he had 111 1 
the neighbourhood of Bridol, and then the unforiu. 
natc lover was fet at liberty. 

After being relcafed from his cruel confinement, Ma- 
chin was acquainted that his midrcfs had been core- 
pelled to give her hand to another. This rcndiKd 1 
himalmolt frantic, and he vowed to revenge the vio-f 
lence done to the lady, and the injury which he hinildil 
had fuflained; and with this view, imparted hisdtlignj 
to fomc of his friends and companions, who engapJJ 
to accompany him to Bridol, and alfilV him in vh.ii- 
ever enierprizc he undertook. Accordingly one ofli' 
comrades contrived to get hiiiifelf hired by the noMi-^ 
man as a fervant, and by that means being introdii 
into the family, he foon found an opportunity to la t^;| 
lady know tnc fentimcnts and intentions ot herlovw j 


cook's second VOYAC;t',— for m;ikinj^ DiJlovirL-s in the Houth S.>!s IS. Roiiml tlic H'orl.l. \ \ \ 

Iv hen llie (uny entered into all his projects, and proiiiifcd 

ltd comply with whatever he ftiould pronofc. 1 o laci- 

llitate their dcfigns, the lady appeared niorc chcarlul 

Ithanufual, which lulled alleep every fulpicion that her 

lord might othcrwilc have entertained -, ilie alfo en- 

I treated pcrmi(Tion to ride out daily to take the air tor the 

Ibencfit of her health, which rcqueil her confort ealily 

Icranted, Thi* point being gained, llie did not fail to 

take advantage of it. by riding out every morning ac- 

Icompanicd by one fervant only, which was her lover s 

I companion, he having been prcvioufly pitched upon 

always to attend her by her own contrivance. 

Matters being thus prepared, (lie one day rode out as 

ufuai, when her attendant conduced her to his friciu , 

who waited at the fea fide to receive her. 'I'hey all 

three immediately entered a boat, and foon reached a 

lliip that lay at I'ome dilbnce ready to receive them on 

boiud i and Machin, having the objed of his wilhes 

onboard, immediately, with the alTiftancc ot hb allo- 

ciates, fet fail, intending to proceed to France ; but 

all on board being ignorant ot maritime atfairs, and the 

wind blowing a hard gale, they milfed their port, and 

1 the next morning, to their aftoniflimtnt, lound thcm- 

l/clves driven into the main ocean. In this miferablc 

1 condition, they abandoned themfelves to defpair, and 

committed their fates to the mercy of the waves. 

Without a pilot, almoft deftitule of provifions, and 

quite devoid of hope, they were tolfed about for the 

fpace of thirteen days. At length, when the morning 

of the fourteenth day began to dawn, they fancied they 

could dcfcry fomething very near them, that had the 

i appearance of land ; and when the fun roll-, to their 

f treat joy they could dilliniitly perceive it was fuch. 

Their pleafure, however, was in Ibme meafurc lelfened 

iby the reHection, that it was a (Irangc country ; for they 

Ifjlainly perceived it was covered with a variety of trees, 

Iwhofe nature and appearance they had not the Icalt 

' knowledge of. Soon after this, fome of thein landed 

from the Hoop, in order to make their obfervations on 

the country ; when, returning foon after to the iliip, 

they highly commended the place, but at the fame 

time believed there were no inhabitants in it. 

The lover and hismiftrefs, with fomcot his friends, 
then landed, leaving the relt to take care of the ihip. 
The country appeared beautifully divcrlified with hills 
and dales, (liadcd with various trees, and watered by 
many clear meandring (beams. The mo(t beautiful 
bird.s of diftcrent fpccies perched upon their heads, 
arms, and hands, unapprehcnfivc of danger ; and fc- 
veral kinds of wild bcalh approached, without otftr- 
ing any violence to them. After having penetrated 
through feveial woody rece(res, they entered a line 
me.idow admirably incucled with a border of laurels, 
(ineiy enamelled with various Howers, and happily wa- 
tered with a meandring cryftal rivulet. Ljjun an emi- 
nence in the midll o( rliis meadow, they faw a lofty 
fpreading tree, the beauty of which invited them to 
rcpofe under its (liadc, and partake of the Iheltcr it 
would alli'rd them from the piercing rays of the fun. 
They at length attempted to make a temporary refi- 
dence beneath this tree ; and, providing themfelves w ith 
Ivoughs from the neighbouring woods, they built feveral 
fmail huts, or arbours. They palfed their time very 
.ij^rceably in this place, from whence they made lic- 
micnt excurlions iiuo the neighbouring country, ad- 
miring its Grange productions and various beauties. 
I heir liappinefs, however, was of no very long conti- 
nuance ; lor one night a terrible ftorm arofe from the 
N. K. which tore the (liip from her anchor, and drove 
her to fea. The crew were obliged to fubmit to the 
mercy of the elements, when they were driven to the 
toall of Morocco, where the (hip being Urandcd, the 
whole crew was made captives by the Moors. 

Machin and his companions, having milfed the (hip 
the next morning, they concluded Ihe had tbunJered, 
and was. gone to the bottom. This new calamity 
plunged them into the dcepcft melancholy, and fo greatly 
affected the lady, that ihe could not fupport herfclf 
under it. She had indeed before continually fed her 
g ' fadprefagcs of the enterprise's e)idit^in fome 

fital catalliophe to ail concerned ; but the ilioi-k ol'lhc 
late dindler (Initk her dumb j fo that lie expired in 
three da^s aftirw arils, in the moll bitter agonies. The 
death of the lady alfectcd Machin to fuch aiiit^iee, that 
he (iirvived her but four days, notw ithllaiuiiiij.', the iii- 
mod endeavours of his companions lo alliird him i on- 
folation. Frcvious to his death, he begged to 
place his body in the fame grave with iiir's, which 
they had made at the footol an altar, erected under the 
beautiful lofty tree before-mentioned, liny after- 
wards placed upon it a large wooden crofs j and near 
that an infcription, drawn up by Machin himfeif, con- 
taining a fiiccinCt account of the whole adseiiture ; and 
concluded with a requell, that if any C'hiillian llioiikl 
come thitherto fettle, that they would luiikl aiul dedi- 
cate a church to Jcfus Chrill upon that fpoc. 'die re- 
maining companions of Machin, after his de.itli, dc- 
t.-rmined to attempt returning to England in the lloop, 
which had been fo well fecured near the (liore, as not to 
be in the leall damaged by the llor