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eaa & Sons^ 




in 2 B 


' Oonstantly on hand a large stock of Doable and Single Guns, comprising EVSRT 

VAKIETT and make, ma':Ble*loading and breech- k>ading, and ALL articlei pertaining to 


"Bcotf •," " Werttoy Biohard's." " WeWey's," " OrMnsr's." " Moore's," " W. Fieh- 

ard's, of Liverpoo!," " Ellis's," and all others. Also the " Roper," 

sad other American makea 

W«i mnifee a gpeeiaUyofW. Jt C. Scott Jt Son'g ** fine Breeeh-X/oad- 
inff Double Guns, which for fine, tltgant finish^ and close and stronf shooting powers 
mre unsurpasned. Scott's New Book on JBreeeh- Loaders, elegantly bound tit 
Morocco^ xent on receipt of 2S cts, 




Bored to Shoot Close and Strong. 

Persons ordering from a distance, by stating SIZE, BORE, WEIGHT, &e., will be 
served as ireli as if present. Fine Breech-Loading or Muzzle-Loading Guns imported to 
Older of any make or sice. 




One-poundsrs, mounted on Blahogany Carriages, complete. Also, 


A Substitute for live Birds in Shooting-Matches* 




*«Ballard^ Breech-Loading Rifles at $18.00 — all new and of latest 

model — regular price, $38,001 



v'^ trnmaim 

rtaioJog to 


If powers 
bound in 

will be 
oned (o 



Br REV. WIIXIAM H. H. Mmu,. V 

i "XIili boA I. . _^. .. .. . ^^ "^••«- 


ON iHE wnre- 



I , 


**^'' food of —■««»</»«< 

//\^f / 









With Six Mapfi and Uneven Plana. 


L\TK TiCKNOR & Fields, and Fields, Osgood, & Co. 


Entered acconllns to Act of Cong«„, |„ the ye„r IS73, 

ta the omce of the LiU«rian of Co„g,es., at wl.hi„gto„. 





University Press: Welch, B.celow, & Co.. 

■ !l 




The chief object of the Handbook for New Eii<^lan(l is to 
supply the phice of a j,niicle in a hmd where profiissional f^uides 
cannot be found, and to assist the traveller in _u[ainin|Lf tlu; grcatt'st 
possible aniDunt of pleasure and information while j)assii!^j 
lhrou<^di the most anci(!nt and interesting district of An;j:lo- 
Saxon America. New England has hitherto Ijeen but casually 
treated in l)ooks which cover wider sections of country ; special 
localities within its borders have been described with more or 
less fidelity in local guide-books ; but the present volume is the 
first which has been devoted to its treatment according to the 
most approved principles of the European works of similar 
])ur[)ose and character. The Han(ll)ook is designed to enable 
travellers to visit all or any of the notabi:; places in New 
England, with economy of mon(\y, time, and temper, by giving 
lists of the hotels with their prices, descriptions of the various 
routes by land and water, and maps and plans of the principal 
cities. The letter-press contains epitcmies of the histories of the 
cdd coast and border towns, statements of the principal scenic 
attractions, descriptions of the art and an hitecture of the cities, 
biographical sketches in connection with the birthplaces of 
eminent men, and statistics of the chief industi'ies of the includti I 
States. The half-forfjotten but worthy and heroic records of the 
early colonial era and the French and Indian wars have received 
special attention in connection with the localities rendered classic 
in those remote days, while numerous Indian legends will be 
found in various places. The operations of the Wars of the 
Revolution and of 1812 (so far as they affected this section of 
the Republic) have been carefully studied and localized, and the 
ri^e of the great modern manufacturing cities has been traced 

I Ov^o^ 



and recorded. The I'uinous >summer-rcsorts — among the in<nin- 
taiiiH and by the sea — with whiili N(!\v England abounds, and 
uhicli are thronged ])y visitors from all parts of the country, 
havt! JM'cn described at length in these page.s. 

Tlu! ])lan and structure of the book, it^i system c»f treatment 
and forms of abbreviation, have been derived from tlu; Kuroiiean 
Handbooks of Karl Baedeker. The typograjdiy, binding, and 
system of city ])Ians also resemble those of Baedeker, and hence 
the grand desiderata of comi)actnesa and iiortability, ^vhil•h 
have made his works the most popular in Kurojie, have also been 
attained in the ])resent volume. Nearly all the facts concerning 
the routes, hotels, and scenic attractions have l)een framed or 
veiified from the Editor's personal experience, after fifteen 
months of almost incessant trav(!lling for tliis express pur[)ose. 
But ijifallibility is impossible in a vork of this nature, especially 
amid the rapid changes which are ever going on in America, and 
hence the Editor would Le grateful for any bond fide coriec- 
tions or suggestions with which either travellers or residents may 
favor him. He would also thankfidly acknowledge his indebted- 
ness to the gentlemen who have revised the book in advance of 

The maps and plans of cities have been prepared with the 
greatest care, and Avill doubtless prove of material service to all 
who may trust to their directions. Th.^y are based on the system 
of lettered and numbered s(piares, with figures corresponding to 
similar ligures attached to lists of the chief public buildings, 
hotels, churches, and notable objects. The most trustw(n'thy 
time-tables are found in " Snow's Pathfinder Railway Guide," 
with map, published weekly at Boston (price 15 c). The hotels 
indicated by asterisks are those which are believed by the Editor 
to be the most comfortable and elegant. 





I. Lanouaoe 1 


III. Railways and STEAMBOATa. TitE Check System .... 1 

-IV. Excursions on Foot 2 

V.' Hotels 3 

VI. RorND-Tiin" Exci'usions 4 

VII. Climate and Dress 4 

VIII. Miscellaneous Notes 4 





Environs of Boston .... 

1. Boston Harbor. Tlic Route to Nahant 

2. Nahant 

3. 1\w Route to Hull, Ilinghain, &c. , 

4. Hull 

5. Ilinghani. Charlo.stown , 

6. Clielsca. Rcvcro Beach 

7. Lexington an<l Concord . 

8. Cambridge. Harvard University 

9. Mount Auburn ..... 

10. Brookline 

11. Roxbury 

Boston to New York by Newport 

1. Newport 

2. The Approach to New York 
Boston to S. Duxbury ... 
Boston to Plymouth 
Boston to Cape Cod 

1. Fairhaven Branch 

2. Marshpce 

7. Boston to Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket 

1. Gayhead 

8. Boston to New York by Providence . 

1. Providence 

2. Providence to Newport. Narragansett Bay 

3. Providence to Warren and Bristol . 






4. Niirraf;;nis<>tt Pier 

5. Hill I'oint 

0. Htniiiiixtim to New York. Block IhIiitkI .... 

7. Nf'W Haven 

' 9. Boston to Nkw BrDKonn 

1. Now Ht dCorrl to Martha's Vincyanl. The Elizalicth Islands 



12. Nk'v London to Vi-umont 

1. H. Vcrrmii to Keen*! 

13. Norwich to Nashiu 

14. HAYitiiooK to Haiitkoiid 

If). Ni;w IIavkn to Noutiiamiton 

10. Huit)(ii;rouT to Winstko 


18. S. NollWAI.K TO Damii'iiy 

19. Boston to Nr.w Vokk (by Norwicli) 

1. Boston to Woonsocket 


21. Boston to Ni;w Vf)RK (by Hi>rinKll»'ld) 

1. S. Fnuiiiiigliaiii to Lowell mid to Mansfield 

2. S. Franiin^'hani to Fitcl:'.iurg 

3. Worcester 

4. Wprinj^'field 

5. Hurt ford . 

22. Boston to Ai-nANV, Saratooa, and the West .... 

23. Tiir; Beuksiiirr 

1. Pittsticld and its Environs 

2. Stockbridge 

3. N. Adams 

21. New York to QiTKnEC. The Connecticut Valley towns . 

1. Mount llolyoko 

2. Lake Memiihromugog 

25. Boston to the Hoosac Tunnel 

20. Boston T(^ BrRMNOT;>N (and Montreal) 

1. Fitclibm;^' to Pi'terbo?-o' 

27. Rutland to Bennington 

28. RtTTLAND to Albany 

1. Rutland and Waslnngton liinc 

29. Boston to Lowell, Concord, and Montreal .... 

1. Lowell 

• 2. Nashua to Wilton 

8. Concord to Clareniont 

4. St. Albnns to Richford 

5. St. Albans to Rouse's Point 

30. Boston to the Franconia Mountains 

31. Boston to the White Mountains 

1. Rochester to Portland ........ 

. 68 

, 70 
. 71 

. 77 

. 00 


. 03 

. 01 
. OT) 

, 102 

, 111 

, 115 

, 120 

, 124 

, 200 





. 08 


. 71 

. 00 

. 93 

. m 










82. Lake WiNNKrEsAt'KF.R and the Sandwich MorNTA.:NH . 

1. Oiitrr" Harlxir to (-'oiiway 

2. ( Ixii'orii.'i and OHsipeo 

83. The Wiiitf; M.xntains and Nohth Conway 

1. Ndftli Conway 

2. Noitli Conwny to the Glen Iloune and Gorham 

8. Gorlmiii 

4. Gorham to tho Notch 

6. North Omway to the Notch 

6. The Crawfonl IIduho to the Profile Houso 

7. Mount WasliinKtoii 

84. The Fuanconia Moi'ntainh ani> thij pKMHiEWAHSET Valley 

1. Tli(! I'rolllc IIdiiso to Plymouth 

2. Watervillt! and Caniptcm 

86. Thk Pkhc y Pkaks, Dixville Notch, and Lake Umbaooo . 

1. Colcbrook to Umhagog and Rangeley .... 

2. Connecticut Lake 

30. Boston to Catk Ann 

87. Boston to Portland and St. John 

1. Pcahody, Lowell, and Lawrence Branches . . 

2. Marlileheatl Branch 

.S, Essex Branch 

4. Anicsbury Branch 

5. The Isles of Shoals 

6. Portsmouth to Concord 

7. Portland and its Environs 

8. Casco Bay 

38. Boston to Portland . 

1. Wakefield to Newburypi/.l 

2. Lawrence to Lowell or Manchester .... 

3. Dover to Lake Winnepesaukee ...... 

39. Portland to the White Mountains , . . . " . 

1. Lake Sebago ... . . 

40. Portland to Quebec and ZIonxkeal 

1. Mechanic F.alls to Canton ....... 

2. Bethel to Lake Umbagog . . 

41. Portland to Farmington and the Western Maine Forest 

1. Farmington to tlie Rangeley Lakes 

42. Portland to the Upper Kennebec 

43. Boston or Portland to Moosehead Lake 

44. Portland to Rockland 

1. Wiscasset to Boothbay 

2. Daniariscott4i to Bristol and Pemaquid .... 

45. Portland to Mount Desert . 

1. Castine 

2. Bar Harbor 

3. Southwest Harbor 

4. Mount Desert to Machiasport ..... 







46. Portland '■o Lkwjston and Banoor .... 

47. Pohtland to AiKiUsTA AND Banuor 

48. Boston to Banuor. The rENonscoT Riveh . 

49. BAXr.oR ro St. John 

1. Fredcrii'ton, N. B. 

1. St. John Bi%'(-r 

50. The Ni; v Brunswick Border, Eastport to Madawaska 



, 31.8 




51. New York City 32.'> 

1. Ci;nt.-al Park '.'.m 

2. Brooklyn . . . , 3.1') 

62. New York t ) Aluany. Thk Hud-son River 310 

1. The Il't'hlands 343 

2. Tlie Catskill Monntain.s .".'7 

3. Albany 348 

6.\, Albany to Montreal 3.">0 

1. Saratoga • . 3.">0 

2. Fort Edward to Whitehall or Caldwell 3f)5 

3. Lake George 3.'J7 

4. Lake Chani])lain 3ul 

64. Montreal and its Environs 308 

1. Lachine Rapids .......... 372 

2. Victoria Bridge 373 

55. Montreal to Quebec. The St. Lawrence River . . . 37;* 

56. Quebec . . - 375 

; 1. Ste. Anne and ChAtcau Richer ....... 384 

2. The Saguenay River 885 


1. Gcnf^ral Map of New England . in porket. 

2. Map of the Environs of Boston : in pocket. 

3. Mai> of Nahant. 

4. Mail of Lake W^innepesaukee. 

5. 5f ap of the White and Francouia Mountains. 

6. Map of the Hudson River. 


Boston, Hartford, Montreal, New Haven, New York, Newport, Portland, 
Providence, Quebec, Central Park, Mount Au'iurn Cemetery. 


M. = mile ; hr. = hour ; min. — minute ; ft. — foot or feet ; r. = righL ; 1. = left ; 
N. = north ; S. = south ; E. = east ; W. = west. 

denote object'; deserving of special attention. 




^» •<()»«*» 



. 318 





3' 7 








" Nobis etomum rdiqucnint monnmentum, 
Novanglorum inwiuu." 

" Nova Anglia" : n Latin poem by Morrdl, 1625. 

New England is tho northeastern portion of the United States, and 
comprises the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, r.^fl Rhode Island. It is ]»ounded on the S. by tlie Atlantic 
Ocean and Long Lsland Sound, OJi the W. by tlie State of New York, on the 
N. by the Province of Quebec, and on the E. l)y the province of New Bruns- 
wick and the Atlantic Ocean. It lies l)etween the latitudes 41° and 48" 
N. and the longitudes 67" and 74° W. from Greenwich, and has an area 
of 65,000 square M., with a population of 3,487,924 (census of 1870). 
The principal religious sect is the Congregational, which has 190,473 
members; the Episcopal Church has 38,093; and the Methodists have 
70,000. The Catholics and the Baptists (114,000) are also strong in 
numbers, while Unitarianism has here its chief power. A high standard 
of education prevails among the people, and is supported by an extensive 
school-system an'i '<everal renowned colleges. The New-Englanders have 
always been di.sii.iguishe<l for a marked individuality of thought, by 
reason of which the most advanced and radical schools of philosophy, 
politics, and religion liave arisen or have been dv;veloped here. The 
nature of the climate and of the soil has rendered agriculture less 
profitable tlian at the West, and the strength of the section has been 
foxmd in the establishment and maintenance of vast ma!iufaoturing indus- 
tries. The coast ertcnds in a direct line for over 700 M., with many 
spacious harbors ; and tlie maritime cities are celebrated for their skilful 
seamen and for their large fleets of merchant-ships. This district was 
granted by James L to t>e Plymouth Company (in 1606) under the name 
of North Virgiina; but Capt. John Smith, having surveyed and mapped 
the • oast iu 1614, gave it the name of New England. 


is bounded ru the S. by the Atlantic, on the W. by N. II., on the N. by 
Canada, and on the E. by New Brunswick. It is the most northeastern of 
the United States, and the largest of the States of New England. It has 
an area of 31,766 square M., with a population of 626,915, and a valuation 
of $ 223,254,860. It is divided into 16 counties, and has 13 small citie;;, 

— --^'^vw** 


tlic cliief of which is Portlaiirl, while the capital is Augusta, at the heacl 
of ship-navigation on the Kennebec River. The coast of " hunrlred-har- 
borccl Maine" is reinarkaMy picturesque, with deep fiords running up 
between bold peninsulas, and with archipelagos of beautiful islands resting 
in quiet and extensive bays. The direct line of the coast from Kittery 
Point to Quoddy Head is 278 M., but the deep curves of the bays and 
estuaries give an actual shore-line of nearly 2,500 M, Mt. Desert (60,000 
acres) is the largest of the many islands which front the ocean, and Mon- 
hegan is the most distant from the mainland. The great rivers Penoh- 
.scot, Kennebec, and St. Croix empty into the sea on this coast, and 
furnish wide and convenient harbors. Nearly J of the area of Maine i.s 
•still covered with primeval forests, and the lumber-trade is the chief 
industry of the State. The trees are felled and hauled to the wat*"-- 
courses during the winter, and in the spring they are united in vast rafts 
and floated down to the river cities. In the S. and E. of the great forest 
is a broken range of mountains, the loftiest of which is Mt. Katahdin 
(5,385 ft. high), -jiy of Maine is covered with water, the i)riiicipal lakes 
being Moosehead, Chesuncook, and the Rangeley, Madawaska, and 
Schoodic groups. 

The Maine coast was first visited by Gosnold in 160L; and in 1607 the 
short-lived Sagadahoc colony settled at the mouth of the Kennebec 
River. The French colonies at the St. Croix River and Mt. Desert were 
but ephemeral, and several other attempts proved equally unsuccessful, 
partly owing to the hostility between the claimants of the territory (the 
French and English), and the distrust of the Indians for both of them. 
The island of Monhegan was settled in 1622, and Saco was founded in 
1623. When the Plymouth Company broke up, in 1635, Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges received by royal charter the pro^unce of Maine (then first so 
called). In 1642 his son founded the city of Gorgeana (York), but in 
1651 Mass. absorbed Maine, being sustained by the exigencies of the 
times and by the Puritan Parliament of England. After some resistance 
on the part of the Maine proprietors, Mnss. bought out their interest, and 
thenceforward ruled the riortheni province fo^- nearl^v 170 years with a 
linn and beneficial sway. From 1675 until 176') a disastrous succession 
of Indian wars ensued, in Avhich every twentieth settler >vas killed or 
cajitured and many towns were destroyed. The bombardment of Port- 
land (1775) and the naval battle at Castine (1779) were the chief events 
during the Revolution, but the coast was badly harried during the "War 
of 1812. In 1820 Maine was admitted into the Union as the twenty- 
third State. 

New Hampshire 

is bounded on the S. h Mass., on the W. by Vt., on the N, by the 
proviiice of Quebec, and i the E. by Maine and the Atlantic. It has an 








area cf 9,280 square M., with a population of 318,300, and a valuation of 
$ 162,987,177. It is (Jividert into 10 counties, with 234 towns and 5 cities, 
and the capital is Concord, on the Merrimac River. There is an ocean- 
front of 18 M., which is boruered by level plains stretching inland, whilo 
just off the coast are the remarkable Isles of Shoals, formerly famed for 
their fisheries and now a favorite summer-resort. Beyond the sea-shore 
plains the country assumes a more rugged and broken appearance, with 
numerous isolated summits and hill-ranges which culminate in the Wliitc 
Mts., covering over 40 square M. of a picturesque district which is called 
*'the Switzerland of America." The lakes of N. H. cover 110,000 acres, 
and the most beautiful of their number is Winnepesaukec, which has 69 
square M. of extent, and contains 300 islands. The soil of the State is 
not fertile, but it has much mineral wealth ; and the climate, though 
severe, is' very healthful. There are extensive primeval forests in the N. 
(CoiJs County), in whose recesses wolves and bears still are found ; and the 
remote lakes and streams afford fine fishing. The Connecticut, Saco, and 
Merrimac Rivers have their sources in N. H., and on the water-power 
afforded by the latter large manufacturing cities are located. There are 
42 national banks, with a capital of $ 5,13.5^000 ; and 54 savings-banks, 
with deposits amounting to $ 25,303,235. The manufactures of cotton and 
woollen goods, iron and leather, are the cliief mechanical industries, and 
centre at the cities of Manchester and Nashua. The press cf the State 
consists of 8 daily papers, 36 weeklies, and 6 monthlies. 

Tiie N. H. coast was first visited by the Europeans in 1614, and settle- 
ments were founded at Dover and Portsmouth about 1323. Tlie district 
was for many years under the government of Mass., and was afterwards 
ceded to N. Y., while the incessant inroads of the Indians devastated the 
frontiers for nearly 80 years. The chief incidents of these wars were the 
destruction of Dover (1689), and the battle of Pequawket. In 1741 N. H. 
became a royal province, and in 1776 it led the secession from the British 
Empire, giving freely of its men and money to the cause of independence. 

I the 




is bounded on the S. by Mass., on the W. by N. Y. and Lake Champlain, 
on the N. by Canada, and on the N. H. It lias an area of 9,056 M., 
with a population of 330,551, and a valuation of S 142,612,356. It is 
divided into 14 counties, and has but 2 small cities, the great majority of 
the people being engaged in farming. The centre of the State is trav- 
ersed from N. to S. by the Green Mts., whose smootli and rounded smu- 
mits form a marked contrast with tlie sharp ])eaks of the White Mts. 
The chief of the Groeii Mts. are Mt. Mansfield (4,359 ft.), Camel's Hump 
(4,188 ft.), Killington and Pico Peaks, and Mt. Ascutney. The E. slope 
is watered by several stieams which flow into the Connecticut River, 



while the W. slope sinks into the broad and fertile i^lains which border 
Lake Chaniplain and are traversed by Otter Creek and the Winooski, 
Lamoille, and Missisquoi Rivers. The Lakes Memphremagog, Willoughby, 
Dunniore, Boniaseen, and St. Catharine are pleasant sununer-resorts, and 
the great Lake Chaniplain affords an avenue for an extensive international 
commerce, whose chief centre is tlie port of Burlington. The evergreen 
forests on the mountains alternate with broad pasture-plains, and the 
deciduous groves on the lowlands are interspersed witli tillage-fields of rich 
loamy soil, so that Vt. has become the most agricultural o*' the Northern 
States, and exceeds all others (proportionally to iier popiUation) in the 
proiluction of wool, live stock, maple sugar, butter and cheese, hay, hops, 
and potatoes. In 1871 there were made here 8,000 tons of butter, 2,400 
tons of cheese, and 4,500 tons of maple-sugar. Extensive quarries of fine 
statuary and variegated marble and serpentine have been opened in the S. 
counties, end vast quantities of slate have been exported from the same 

The first European who saw Vt. was Jacques Cartier, who, in 1535, 
looked upon its high ridges from Mount Royal (Montreal). Its coast was 
explored by Chaniplain and others in 1609, and prosperous French settle- 
ments were made (in Addison) later in the 17th century. In 1724 Mass. 
built Fort Dunmier (near the present town of Brattleboro); but the num- 
bers and ferocity of the Indians prevented colonization until after the 
conquest of Canada (1760). The territory was then partly occupied under 
grants from N. H., until it was ceded to N. Y. ; and thereafter ensued a 
controversy in which the settlers successfully resisted the authorities of 
N. Y. imtil the outbreak of the Revolution, when they proclaimed Ver- 
mont ( Verts Monts, or Green Mts. ) an independent State. Congress twice 
refused to acknowledge the new State, although its soldiers ("the Green 
Mountain Boys ") captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and annihilated 
the flower of Burgoyne's German auxiliaries at tlie battle of Bennington. 
In 1791, after paying New York $30,000 in liquidation of all claims, Vt. 
was admitted into the Union (the 14th State), and since that time has 
prospered and steadily increased in v.'ealth and population. .-,>.. . 

is bou..ded on the S. by Conn, and R. I., on the W. by N. Y., on the N. 
by Vt. and N. H., and on the E. by the Atlantic. It has an area of 7,800 
square M., witn 1,457,351 inhabitants, and a valuation of $2,132,148,741. 
The soil is not fertile, but considerable crops are gained by careful 
cultivation ; and the best land is found in the valleys of the Connecticut 
and Housatonic Rivers. There is but little level land in the State, and in 
the W. counties the Taconic and Hoosac Ranges of mountains afford great 
diversity of scenery. The Connecticut River flows through a garden-lil^e 







IS, Vt. 
le has 



he N. 








nd in 





valley, with several prosperous towns ; and the Merriniac (in the N. E. ) 
affords a *'ast water-power to Lowell and Lawrence, and ])asses into the 
sea at Newburyport. The climate is severe in the hill-countries, and is 
very variable on the coast, — the mean temperature being between 44 ° 
and 51 °. As far back as 1C55 the annual farm products amounted to over 
.9 21 ,000,000, and at that time the State had 2,250,000 apple-trees. Profit- 
able beds of iron ore and glass sand have been developed, and the e.\porta- 
tion of marble (from Berkshire County) and granite (from Quincy and Cape 
Ann) has become a lucrative business. The State has been celebrated for 
the nund)er and excellence of its ships, and for the skill and enterprise of 
its seamen. Granite, ice, and fish are among the chief articles of export ; 
the latter being brought in by the large fishing-fleets of Cape Cod and 
Gloucester. The manufacturing interests of the State are of immense 
extent and wide variety, and their products for the year 1870 were valued 
at $550,000,000, Boots and shoes, cotton goods, woollens, iron, and paper, 
are the chief manufactures (named in the order of their importance). 
There are 160 savings-banks, with deposits amounting to $163,535,943. 
In 1871 the State debt was $ 29,630,364, of which $12,000,000 was for 
railroad loans, and $ 16,500,000 represented the unpaid balance of the war 

The prevailing religious sect is the Congregational, the Baptist, Meth- 
odist, and Unitarian churches being also strong, while the Roman Catholics 
are rapidly attaining gi'eat power and influence. The educational insti- 
tutions of the State are admirably airanged and have a high reputation, 
their efficiency being assured by the maintenance of four normal schools, 
five colleges, and Harvanl University. The militia is kept in a state of 
high efficiency and discipline, and is mostly composed of veterans of 
the War of 1861 -5. ^' ••::.• ..^ ,.. 

The coast of Mass. was first visited by the Norwegian mariners Leif and 
Thorwald, about the year 1000. After several attempts at colonization, 
which were frustrated by the powerful native tribes, the Norsemen aban- 
iloncd tlie country (which, from its fniitfulness, they had named Vinland), 
In 1497 John and Sebastian Cabot cruised along the coast, and were fol- 
lowed by Cortereal, Verrazzani, and Gomez. In 1602 Gosnold explored 
the S. E. islands, and planted an ephemeral colony on Cuttyhunk, near 
New Bedford. Pring, Chamjjlain, and Weymouth soon after passed along 
the coast, while Capt. John Smith, following them in 1614, made a map 
of the coast and islands. Dec. 21, 1620, the ship "Mayliower" an-ived 
at Plymouth with 102 Pilgrims, who had been driven from England by 
religious persecution, and who founded here the first permanent colony in 
Mass. Salem was settled in 1628, and Boston in 1630, by Puritan exiles, 
and the Atlantic coast and the Connecticut valley were soon dotted with 
villages of bold and hardy immigrants. 



The Peqnot War (1637) and King Philip's War (1075-6) c.insed a fear- 
ful loss of lif(! and proi^'rty, and several of the valley towns were utterly 
destroyed before the colonial forces could crush the insurgent tribes. In 
1689 the jtrovince revolted against the royal authorities, and the country- 
})eo|»!e took IJoston and its fortifications and guard -frigat(% and imprisoned 
tiie governor (Sir l*>lniund Andros). In 1692 I'lynioiith was united to 
Rlassachusc^tts, and thereafter, until the (ron(iuest of Canada in 17(50, the 
])nn'ince was foremost in the wars with the French colonies in the N. 
Many of her towns were destroyed by Indian raids, and the W. frontier 
was nearly depo])ulated; but tiie general prosperity was unchecked, and 
■when the British Parliament commenced its unjust ojjpressions, the prov- 
ince had 250,000 inhabitants, many of whom were trained veterans of the 
Canadian Wars. In face of the royal army which had been moved into 
lU)ston, the men of Massachusetts opened corresi)ondences which brought 
about a colonial \inion for mutual defence, and enrolled themselves as 
minute-men, ready to march against the British troops at a minute's 
notice. The battles of Concord and Lexington were followcid by a general 
a])pcal to arms; and the siege of Boston, the Battle of Bimker Hill, and 
the American occupation of the city came in rapid succession. After 
these events the scene of war was transferred to New York an<l the South, 
where the Massachus(!tts regiments won high honor, especially in the 
victorious campaign against Burgoyne's invading army. In 1780 the State 
Constitution was framed, and in 1786 a serious revolt occurred in the W. 
counties, caused by the pressure of enormous taxes. This rising (which 
■was headed by Daniel Shays) was put down after a few skirmishes. In 
tlie War of 1812 the State theoretically confined her exertions to the de- 
fence of her own coast, though thousands of her seamen entered the 
national navy. Extensive manufacturing interests now rose rapidly into 
view, and a network of railroads was stretched across the State. During 
tiie War for the Union (1861-5) Massachusetts put forth her utmost 
strength, and gave 158,380 men to the armies of the Republic, besides 
incurring a war-debt of over 1 50,000,000. 


is bounded on the S. by Long Island Sound, on the W. by New York, on 
the N. by Mass., and on the E. by R. I. It has an area of 4,730 square 
M., with 537,454 inhabitants, and a valuation of $ 532,951,061. There are 
8 counties, 160 towns, and 7 cities. The soil is usually rugged and com- 
paratively unpro<luctive, although the river- valleys afford some rich lands, 
and considerable crops are raised by laborious cultivation. The tobacco- 
crop of 1870 amounted to 8,328,798 pounds, and in the same year were 
made 6,716,007 pounds of butter and 563,328 tons of hay. "The manu- 
factures of the State are more general, multifaiious, and productive tlmn 





those of any otlicr people of similar means," — clocks ami carriages, fire- 
ariiis, tin and brittania ware, sewinj^-nuicliiiies, iron and rubber poo<ls 
being the chief articles of }»roduction. Thtro are GG savings-banks, ^vith 
deposits amounting to S 55,2!)7,705, and many wealthy and pov rful 
insurance companies. New Haven has a lucrative West India trade, 
while New London has a considerable number of vessels engaged in sealing 
and whaiing. The Conn. River is famous for its valuable (isheries, which 
have been revived by stocking the stream (18G7-70) with 151,000,000 

young shad. 

The chief religious sect is the Congregational, antl the Episcopal Church 
has more strength here than in any other State (proportionidly to the 
])Opulation). There are three colleges, Yale (Cong.), Trinity (Epis. ), and 
Wesleyan (Melh.), with 4 schools of theology. The educational interests 
of the State are well and elliciently carried on, under the supjuM't of the 
great funds derived from the sale of the Western Reserve lands. The 
charitable and correctional institutions of the State are remarkable for 
their inlluence and efficiency. The ingenuity, enterprise, and individuality 
of the men of Conn, have given them an advanced jdace in the mercantile 
and political activities of Republic; and "probably no country of 
similar extent has sent abroad .so vast a horde of emigrants in projiortiou 
to its population." 

The coast and rivers of Conn, were first explored by Adrian Block 
and other Dutch mariners (1614-33); the district was in the English 
Plymouth Patent of 1G20, and was chartered in 1631. About that tinie 
the river Indians were subjugated by the Pequots, and Seguin, their chief, 
sent to New York, Plymouth, and Boston for help. In 1633 a small 
Dutch colony landed at Hartford; and in the same year a Plymouth vessel 
passed up to Windsor, where a settlement was planted. These were 
merely trading-posts, but Wethersfield was occupied in 1634, and in 1636 
three nomadic churches were led by their pastors tlnough the wiMerness 
from Boston to the Coini. River, where they settled at Hartford, Windsor, 
and Wethersfield. Say brook was founded and fortitied in 163.5, and in 
1637 the first legislature declared war against the Pequot Indians, wlio 
were defeated and speedily crushed by the colonial train -bands, aided by 
the friendly tribes. In April, 1638, New Haven was settled, and soon 
after the other coast-towns were founded. In 1639 a remarkable consti- 
tution (which aclaiowledged no higher human power than the people of 
Conn.) was adopted, and in 1662 a royal charter was ol)tained. After the 
union of the independent colonies of Conn. (Hartfonl) and New Haven, in 
1665, the two towns were made send-cai)itals of the province (and State), 
and so remained luitil 1873, when Hartford was made the sole capital. 
The State stood honorably among the foremost during the Revolution, 
although the towns along the coast were pillaged and destroyed by raids 
from the Hessian and Tory garrison at New York. 



Rhode Island 

is boiiiidc'd oil the S. ]ty tl»e Atlantic, on tlu! W, by Conn,, and on the N. 
and E. by Mass, It is the sninUcst State in the Union, an<l lias an area 
of 1,046 s(iuare M., with 217,'5r):5 inhabitants, and a valuation of .$ 2U6,9(35,- 
G4G, There are 5 counties, with 32 towns, and 2 cities. The soil is un- 
jinxluctive, and but little fanning is done save on the fertile ])lains of the 
Island of Aijuidiieck. The State is nearly cut in two by Narragansett 
Bay, wliich runs inland for 30 M. (with a width of 3-12 M.), and contains 
several islands, the chief of which is Aijuidiieck (or Rhode Island) on 
whose S. end is the famous suninier-resort, Newport. 11 M. S. E. of 
Point Judith is Block Island, which pertains to this State. The climate 
is mild and ecjuable, from its vicinity to the sea and exposure to the S. ; 
and the greater part of the State is a region of low hills or sea-shore plains. 
The lU'incipal mechanical industries are at Providence, Pawtucket, Woon- 
socket, and Westerly ; and as far back as 1S(J0 the State reported 1,200 
manufacturing establishments, with an aggregate capital of $24,380,000, 
using annually $24,410,000 worth of raw material, and producing over 
S 50,000,000 worth of goods. The 33 savings-banks of the State hold in 
dei)osit $30,289,703. 1'he charitable and correctional institutions are 
mostly about Providence, where is also the seat of Brown University, a 
nourishing school under the care of the Baptist Church, "which is the 
l)revailing sect in the State. 

Rhode Island was probably colonized by the Norsemen in the 10th and 
11th centuries, but was afterwards abandoned for centuries, until the 
coining of Verrazzani in 1524. He remained at Aquidneck (which was then 
thickly I'opulated by Indians) for two weeks. In 163G Roger Williams, 
having been banished from Mass., came down the Seekonk River with 5 
eumpanions, and founded a .settlement which he named Providence, in 
acknowledgment of " God's merciful providence to him in his distress." 
Ill 1638 Wm. Coddiiigton and another party of exiles founded Newport ; 
in 1642 a third banished company settled at Warwick ; and in 1643 and 
1663 these colonies united under a royal charter. The powerful Narra- 
gansett Indians dwelt in Rhode Island, and when King Philip's War 
broke out they ravaged all the outlying settlements and killed many of 
the colonists. The New England colonies, ignoring the existence of heret- 
ical Rhode Island, and rejecting its advice, matched an army across to 
tho Narragansett country, and, after a terrific assault, stormed the Indian 
stronghold and crushed the tribe. The little province gave freely of her 
men and money in the French wars, and sent some of the best troops to 
the American siege of Boston. In Dec, 1776, Newport was taken by the 
British, who held it for 3 years, but were prevented by the New England 
militia from passing farther into '.;he country. In 1861 the men of Rhode 
Island were among the first to reach the imperilled national capital. 


I. Language. 

The people of New England claim that they speak the English lan- 
guage more correctly than it is spoken elsewhere in the world. Be this 
as it may, it is certain that this one language is universally used through- 
out the six States, and the traveller is delivered from the trouble caused 
in Great Britain by its four languages and numerous dialects, or in France 
by its three languages and provincial ^j«^n"s. The European tongues are 
taught in tlie higli-schools ail over thi country, but the instruction is 
purely theoretical, and the number who can talk French, German, or Ital- 
ian is very small. Tourists, who wish to travel among the remoter dis- 
tricts of New England, should be well acquainted with the language, 
which is "the English of Elizabeth," with a few local idioms. 

II. Money and Travelling Expenses. 

Since the war for the Union (1861 - 65) gold and silver coin has disap- 
peared from circulation, and been rei)laced by U. S. Treasury notes and 
National Bank bills for values upwards of one dollar, and by fractional 
currency issued by the Treasury, of the values of 10, 15, 25, and 50 cts. 
Nickel and mixed coins of 1, 2, 3, and 5 cts. value, abound. This paper 
currency is at a discount for gold of from 10 to 15 per ct. The cur- 
rency of Canada is either coin or paper at a coin value. 

It is more expensive to travel in New England than in any part of 
Western Europe. The usual charge per day at the best hotels is $ 4 to 
$ 4.50, with considerable reductions when a prolonged stay is made at one 
place. Tourists who travel slowly through the country and stop at the 
less pretentious hotels (which are usually comfortable, and always sale) 
may easily limit their expenses to $ 25 or $ 30 per week. Those who fre- 
quent hotels of the highest class, and indulge much in carriage-riding, 
will find $ 45 to $ 50 per week none too much. At most of the sea-beaches 
board can be secured at $ 10 or ^15 per week ; while in the quieter and 
less fashionable villages about the mountains, substantial fare may be 
found in broad old farm-houses, for $6 to $10 per week. 

III. Bailways and Steamboats. 

Railway travelling in America is much more comfortable, yet more ex- 
pensive and dangerous, than in the Old World. There is but one class of 


tickets, tlie average faros Leiiig al)out three cts. a mile. On each train is 
a smoking-car, easily acceiisible from the other cars, uud fitted with tables 
for car<i-i)laying. It is prudent to decline playing with strangers, as 
gamblers sometimes practice their arts here, in spite of the watchfulness 
of the ollicers of the train. To nearly every through train on the grand 
rontes is attached one or more Pullman cars, which are richly carpeted 
and curtained, and ])rofusely furnished with sofas, easy-cluurs, tables, 
mirrors, and frojited with broad plate glass windows. These cars being 
w(!ll balanced and runiang on twelve wheels, glide over the rails with 
great ease. By night they are ingeniously changed into sleeping-rooms, 
with comfortable beds. The extra fares on the i)alace cars are coUecteil 
hymen attached to them; the price of a night's lodging (in which time 
one can go from lioston to New York) is §2. The fares by steamboat are 
somewhat lower than by rail, and (in case of a niglit passage) include a 
sleeping-berth in the lower saloon, but generally tlo not include meals. 
A state-room in the up])er cabin costs extra, hut insures better air and 
greater comfort and privacy. State-rooms (in the sunnner season) should 
be secured in ailvance at the company's olhce in New York, Boston, or 
Portland. Great lines of stages still run among the mountains and in the 
remote rural districts. Persons travelUng by this way, in pleasant weather, 
should try to get a seat on the outside. 

The (Jhcck System. — The traveller, having bought a ticket for his des- 
tination, shows his heavy baggage (trunks, &c.) to the baggage-master, 
who attaches a small numbered brass plate to each i)iece with a leather 
thong, and gives to the traveller a check for each piece of baggage, simi- 
lar in form and number to that appended to such piece. The railroad 
now becomes responsible (within certain limits of weight and value) for 
the baggage, which is to be given up only on the presentation of the du- 
plicate check which is in tlie traveller's possession. Trunks may be thus 
despatched from Boston to Montreal, Boston to Chicago, &c., without 
trouble, and if their owner is delayed on the route, they are stored safely 
at their destined station until he calls. On presentation of the check at 
tlie baggage-room of the station to which the baggage has been sent, it is 
given up to the owner, or his hotel porter. The large liotels have coaches 
at the railroad stations, on the arrival of through trains, and their porters 
will take the duplicate checks, get the trunks and carry them to the hotel. 



IV. Excursions on Foot. 

It is remarkable that pedestrianism has never been popular in this 
country. The case and perfect freedom of this mode of travelling, its 
highly beneficial physical effects, the leisure thus afforded in which to 
study the beautiful scenery in otherwise remote and inaccessible dis- 
tricts, all mark this as one of the most profitable and pleasant modes of 





summer recreation. To walk two hundred iiiiK-s in a fortnight is an easy 
thiiit,', and it 'h intinitely more refri'shing tor a man of sedentary habits 
tiian the , tuie length of time sjtciit in lying <»n tlu- sands of some luiach, 
or iilling in a farm-house among the hills. " For a tour of two or three 
weeks, a coui)le of flannel shirts, a pair of worsted stockings, slippers, 
and the articles of the toilet, carried in a pouch slung over the shoulder, 
will generally be found a suflicitnt ecpiipment, to which a light overcoat 
and a stout umbrella may bo adiUsd, Strong and well-tried boots an? 
essential to comfort. Heavy and complicated knapsacks should be 
avoided; a light ])ouch, or game-bag, is far less irksome, and its position 
may bo shifted at pleasure." — Baeukkku, One or two books might be 
added to this list, and a reserve of clothing may be sent on in a light valise, 
at a trifling cost, to the town which is the ])edestrian's objective point. 

It would bo well fur inexperienced walkers to begin at eight to ten 
miles a <lay, and gradually increase to sixteen to eighteen miles, or six 
hours' walking. During the heats of summer the travelling .shouhl bo 
done at early morning and late afternoon, thus spending the hottest part 
of the day in coolness and rest. The best time for a i)edestrian tour is 
between late September and late October, when the sky is clear and the 
air bracing, — the season of the reai)ing of harvests, the rijjening of fruits, 
and the splendor of the reddening forests. 

Among the most interesting districts in New England for the pedes- 
trian, the following may be mentioned: The picturesque valleys, lakes, 
and mountains of Berkshire County, Mass.; the valley of the Connecticut 
from Springfield to Oreenllold ; the ocean-surrounded arm of sand. Cape 
Cod, with its (piaint and salty old villages (Thoreau's " Cape Cod " is the 
best guide there) ; the lake region of New Hampshire ; the White and 
Franconia Mountains (frequently explored by walking parties from the 
colleges during the summer vacation); and in Maine, the romantic Islanci 
of Mount Desert. The east bank of the Hudson River, from New York 
to Albany, affords a walk of rare interest, anil the west shore of Lake 
George presents a short walk through peerless scenery. But the most in- 
teresting ramble is from Quebec through the C6t6 de Montmorenci to 
Cape Tormente, there crossing tiie St. Lawrence, vnd passing down the 
south shore through the quaint old Norman Catholic villages of Mout- 
magny, L'Lslet, and Kamouraska. This route can be traversed only by 
an experienced traveller who is well posted in French. There are but 
very few hotels in this ancient and primitive district. 

V. Hotels. 

The hotels of the United States will certainly bear comparison with 
those of any other country. The European plan has been adopted in many 
of them (as Parker's, at Boston ; the St. Julian, at Portland), while in 
many others it is used in combination with the American plan, — $4 to 

'"•■■•^ '•**H ^ 


84.60 per day at tlif iiion; fushioimble liouseN, $2.M lo $4 per day at tlio 
coiiifortahle liotils of the siiialler citie.s, and ."? l.r»0 to ^2.50 per day in 
the smaller houses in the rural distri(;tH, are the ehar^'es whieh eover all 
ordinary re(|uirenients. No costly array of sundries and extras is at- 
tached to the bill, and the practice of feein},' the servants has never 
obtained to any extent, nor has it been found necessary. 

VI. Bound -Trip Excursions. 
Duriii}? the sununer and early fall the railroads i)repare series of ex- 
cursion tickets at greatly reduced rates. Infornuition and lists of these 
routes may be obtained from the central ollices in IJoston. The otlice 
of the Iloosac Tunnel Uoute (to Saratoga, &,e.) is at G9 Washington St., 
Boston ; the Connecticut and Passumpsic lliver Railroad is at 87 Wash- 
ington St.; the Boston, Concord, and Mon*^^real is at 5 State St.; the 
Grand Trunk Railroad is at l.'}4 Washington St.; where is also the pas- 
senger oliice of Ihe Eastern Railroad (to Portland, the Eastern Provinces, 
and the White Mountains) conducted by Geo. F. Field, Escj. The Ver- 
mont Central Ptailroad (office G5 Washington St.) publishes a twenty-four 
page book of round excursions (with tlieir prices) to every part of New 
Hampshire, Vermont, the Province of Quebec, Eastern New York, and 
also to Niagara Falls, Chicago, St. Paul, and Dulutli. 

VII. Climate and Dress. 

The climate of New England is subject to the most sudden and severe 
changes, from heat to cold or from cold to heat. The summers are 
usually much hotter and the wintei-s much colder than in England, and 
during the latter season great falls of snow are frequent. The summer 
Bun is often fatal in its power, and long exposure to its vertical rays should 
be avoided. At the same time wanu clothing shoiilil be kept at hand, 
and woollen, or at least heavy cotton, underclothing should be worn, in 
order to guard against the sudden changes which are so frequent. 

<.■»• ■•^•* 

VIII. Miscellaneous Notes. 

Passports are of no use in the United States in time of peace. 

The examination of luggage at the Canadian frontier and at the ocean- 
ports is usiially very lenient, and conducted in a courteous manner. 

Traffic is made easy from the fact that fixed charges exist in the shops, 
and the tiresome processes of chaffing and beating down are unnecessary. 

There are no professional guides in New England, but the people are 
prompt and willing to answer all civilly put questions. Gentlemen from 
abroad will remember that there is here, especially in the country, no class 
oi self-recoynized peasantry, and that a haughty question or order will 
often provoke a reply couched in all " the native rudeness of the Saxou 



1. Boston. 

Hotels. Tlioso In tlie lionrt «if the city arc iiKwt rnnvrniVntly HUnntrd. Trf- 
mrint lldiisc (PI. 18), on Treiuoiit Ht., conuir of ncacoii, and tlio * UiH'crc Hoiimh 
(IM. H), on Howdoin Hq., aic lai';,'(', ('(inmiodious hotels, i.viir tlic Htato House, and 
carried on liy the .same eoinpiiny. Tlie ^ Arneriean IFoiise(l'l. I'>), on Hanover Ht.., 
is ft lar},'e and eU'j^ant Urownstoiie structure, with :J(K) rooms. l{<iard at ■':<4t«) 
!?4.5()|)er day. *The Parker House (I'l. l'.»), i. nobh? niarltle l»uildinK on Hehoid 
^St., opjiosite Kin;;'s Chapel and the (Mty Hall, is kept on the Knro|>e,in plan, and 
is a famous resort of the young men of New Kngland. Youiir's Hotel (I'l. 'JO), 
Court Ave, is on the Europt-an plan, and is mueli resorted to by city merchants. 

The following hotels are less expensive : Adams House (IM. 'JH), ;i71 Wasliingtoii 
St., «3; Marllw^ro' Hotel (IM. 2((). 2--'7 and 22'.) Washington Htreet ; Sherman 
House; Temple House, liowdoiu Mq. ; Milliken's (^IM. 22), Washington Ht. 
Near tlie great Northern railroad stations are the Arlington Hou-se (Kuiopean 
l)lan) and National opiumite the Alljany Railroad HtJition is the exten- 
sive United States Hotel (IM. 3;i). In Brattle Ht. arc the City Hotel and the Quiney 

At the Snvth End. — "* St. .lames Hotel, on Franklin Sq., n. viust ami elegant 
struoture, 400 guests, .'J 4 a day, )? 15 to ?( 25 a week. * Commonwealth Hotel, a 
new marble building on Washi.igton St., stretching from Worcester to Hjmng- 
field Ht, 200 to 2.50 guests, !J4 a day. Also on Washington St., the Krskin«\ 
liftneaster, Everett, Warwick, ami St. Denis Houses ; and on Tremont St., the 
Clarendon and the Ht. Cloud, —smaller and expensive houses. 

The French system of Iloteh (Uirnis in its various forms is very popular in 
Boston. The prin(;ij>al hotels of this class (with family suites) are the Evan.s 
House, 175 Tremont, and the Hotel Pelham, corner Tremont and Bovlston Streets, 
both fnmting on the Common. Ojiposite this, the superb Hotel Boylston, one of 
the noblest buihlings in the city. The Hotels Berkeley and Kempton, and tlio 
Hotel Hamilton (on Commonwealth Ave.), at the West End, and the Hotels Flor- 
ence, Bradford, &e., at the South End, are of this class. The Norfolk House (iu 
Roxbury)and the Maverick House (in East Boston) are large, quiet, and inexpen- 
sive suburban hotels. 

RegtaurantSt — * Parker House (with ladies' dining-room attached), famous 
for its excellent dinners. (Charles Dickens called Parker's the best liotel iu 
America.) * Young's, near Old Stiite House, with an elegant dining-hall, much 
patronized for society and festal dinners. * Charles Copeland's, 4 Tremont Row, — 
a dainty saloon, frescoed and fountained, much visited by ladies. The Copeland 
restaurants at 208 W^ashington St., and 128 Tremont St., opposite Park St., 
are frequented by ladies. Higgins's, 120 Court St., is famous for fine oystei-s. 
Wilson's Lane, Spring Lane, Brattle St., and the vicinity, abound in gootl eating- 
houses, liager Beer may ]»e had at many German saloons throughout the 
city. Ice-creams and confections at Copeland's, Fera's (343 Washington 
St.), Southmayd's, Webers, &c. 

Billiard- Rooms. — The finest hall of the kind in New England is on Wasli- 
ington St., near the Boylston Market. The Revere billiard-rooms, near Bow- 
doin Sq., are large and brilliant. Artemus Ward's quaint saying ia well known, 
— that Harvard College is located in the billiard-room of the Parker House. Other 
comfortable, though smaller rooms are scattered through the city. 

Baths. — Turkish, sulplmr-fumc, and electro-chemical, rear of the Marlboro' 





Hotel, 231 Washington St. Turkish baths, 1427 Washington St., 17 Beacon St. 
Bath-rooms in the hotels. 

Readlns-Koomg (open evenings also). In the Public Library are the prin- 
cipal European iieriodicals, and a large number of American papers, &c. —The 
Young Men's Christian Union (300 Washington St.) and the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association (comer Tremont and Eliot Sts.) have large and well-supplied 
reading-rooms, free t 'i all. An introduction from a member is necessary for 
entrance to the Athena-um reading-rooms. Most of the hotels devote a room to 
numerous lilcs of the newspapcre of the day. 

Theatres. - The Boston Theatre (PI. 27), on Washington St., near, is 
the largest in New England. The princii)al tragedians of (or visiting) America 
have jtlaycd here, ind the liuilding is often engaged for Italian and Gennan 
Operas. 'J'lie elegant Globe Theatre, " the Parlor cf Comedy," was destroyed in the 
greivt Aloi'KM'i.d l);iy lire (May 30, 1873), Imt it is to be rebuilt iiii mediately. Tl)e 
Mvscum Tlierifre (I'l. 1;'>), on Tremont, near School St., is conducted by a stock 
company, and is (•ailed the " Urtliodox " or " Ministers' Theatre," since no si)ec- 
tacular or questionable plays are allowed there William Warren, the gieat 
comedian, i.s a member of the Museum comi»any, with which he has played for 26 
years, winning a wide and cnvi.ihle reputation. On Howard St., near Court, is 
the Howard Athenaium (PI. li;, devoted to varieties, and eutertainments by negro 

Classic music in Music Hall by the Handel and Haydn Society, the Tnomas 
Orchestra, an'^ the Apollo Club. Also semi-weekly organ concerts. 

Coligulai«)t). — Austrian, 80 State St. ; Belgian, Central Whf. ; BrlHsh, 127 
State St. ; French, Italian, 17 Broad ; German, 80 State ; Russian, 49 India Whf. ; 
Swedish, 6 Central Wht. 

Horse-cars traverse the city in all dire tions. Tremont St., between Temple 
Place, and the Treuiont House, i owdoin Sq., and Scollay Sq. (corner Court 
and Tremont Sts.), are the jtrincipjil centres of hor^e-car traffic. Cars leave the 
Tremont House every few minutes for the Northern Depots, Chelsea Ferry, Mt. 
Pleasant (in Dorchester), Warren St. (Roxbury), Grovy Hall, Dorchester, Norfolk 
jJouse (Roxbury), Egieston Square, Forest Hills, Lenox St., Jamaica Plain. Brook- 
line, Beacon St., and E. Boston. Also from Temple Place to Dudley St. (Rox- 
bury), and Grove Hall, via Shawmut Ave. From Scollay Hq. cars run to So. 
Boston, City Point, Bay View, Charlesi wn Neck, Bunker Hill, Maiden, Winter 
Hill, Medford, ^Tuion Square (Somerville), Chelsea, Revere Beacii {in siimmer), 
Lynn, Swanipscott. Prom foot of Summer St., cars to Dorchester and Milton. 
From Bowdoin Sq., cars on 20 routes to the western suburbs, Cambridgeport, 
I'iverside Press, Brighton, Newton Comer, Harvard Sq. (University), Mount 
Auburn, Watertown, Arlington, Somerville (via Craigie's Bridge). 

CmnibuKSS* — From Salem St., Charlestov^^l, via Warren Bridge and Wash- 
i?'gton St. , to Concord St. 

Carriages. — 50 cts. 
from south of Dover St. 
each carriage. 

Steamers leave Boston as follows (in tlie season of navigation) : — For 
Augustii and Bath, Me., semi-weekly, from Union Whf. ; for Baltimore, from 
India Whf. ; for Bangor, semi-weekly, from Foster's Whf. ; for Calais, Me., Sat- 
urdays, from Commercial Whf. ; for Djver, from Battery Whf. ; for Eastpor^. 
and St. John, N. B., tri-wcekly, from Commercial Whf. ; for Gloucester, daily, 
from 234 Broad St. ; for Halifax, N. S., Pictou, and Prince Edward's Island, 
every Saturday, from T Whf. ; for Hull, Hingham, and Nantasket, semi-daily in 
summer, froni Livcrjtool Whf. and 234 Pioad St. ; for Long Island, Quincy 
Point, and North Weymouth, daily in summer, from Rov.^e's Whf. ; for Nahant, 
daily in sunnner, from India Whf. ; for Pliiladeli)hia, semi-weekly, from Long 
Whf. ; for Portland, daily, froui India Whf. ; for Provincetown, from Central 
Whf. ; for Savannah, every ten days, from T Whf. ; for Liverpool (Cunard 
Line), every Tuesday, from Cunard Whf., East Boston (cabin, 8 80 and ^100 in 
gold ; Btoeiage, )$ 30 in currency). Sailing packet-lines connect Boston with 
nearly every port of New England, » 

Churches. — There are in the city 18 Baptist churches, 22 Congregationalist, 
27 Unitarian, 1.0 Episcopal, 22 MchodLst, 7 Presbyterian, 17 Roman Catholic, 6 
Uuiver- list, and 14 other religious societies. There is a German Lutheran church, 
comer oi Shawmut Ave. and Waltham St. ; a Gennan Reformed church, 8 Shaw- 

each passenger for a course within the city proper ; 
to the North End, SI. A tarilf of fares is hung in 




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mut St. ; a Gpnnan Methodist olinrch, 511 Shnwmtit Ave., and a Sjniagogiie 
of Cicnnin Jens, on Pleasant St. 

Newspapers. - 8 daily i)ai»erH are published in the city ; also 3 semi-week- 
lip.i ; 72 weeklies ; 8 bi-naonthlies ; 70 nionthliea (mostly magazines) ; and 14 

lioHton (Bhawmnt, or " Sircct Waters "), the Purltiin City, was first settled 
by a recluae Angliran clergj'man, Wiliani Hlackstnne, about the year 1G2;5. The 
adventurous coloni.sts who landciPat .Salem, in IG;U), soon moved a large party to 
Cliaiiestown ; but, linding no ".vater tliere, they evosscd to the peninsula of yhawmut, 
imdrr the leadershii* of Isaae Johusdu, laudirg on the pre.sent site of Boston, 
SeptemVier 7(0. S.), 1G.'J0. The name Hostou was given to the plaee by <n-der of 
the Court, in lionor of that English city from which came Johnson and John 
Cotton, two of the early church fatliers of the new settlement.* 

In 10:U Blaekstone, declaring " I came I'rom Engltind because I did not like 
the lord bishops, but I can't .join with you, because I wouhl not be under tha 
lords brethren," sold tlio peninsula to the colonists for i^'M), and went into the 
wihlerness. CJovernor Winthrop had jireviously constituted Boston the capital 
of the colony, and a strong title of immigration set in. In 1031 the banpie 
" Blessing of the iJay" was launched ; in 1032 the first church was built ; and ia 
l()l{6-38 Harvard College was f(mnded. In 1(><>3 Josselyn writes : " The buildings 
ar^ handfjome, joining one to the other as in London, with mai.y large streets, 
most of them i)avcil with pebble-stones. In the high street towanls the Com- 
mon there are fairc houses, souk; of stone," &c., — a great change since 1630, when 
one declared it to be " a hideous wilderness, possessed by barbarous Indians, 
very coM, sicklv, rocky, barren, unlit for culture, and like to keep the i)eopIe 
miserable." In the Peciuot War of 1G37, and King Ph-'lip's War (1675 - 70), Boston 
bore u large share, and Imndreds of jirisoners were guarded therj. " Philadelphia 
was a forest, and New York was an insigniticant village, long after its rival (Bos- 
ton) liad become a great commercial town." 

The town gave men and money freely in defence of the frontiers against the 
Franco-Indian attacks, and fleet after fleet left its harbor to do battle on the 
eastern coasts. In 1704 the firstT American newspaper (the " Boston News-Let- 
ter ") appeared here ; in 1710 a massive wall of brick and stone foundation, with 
cannon on its parapets, and «vith two strong gates, was built across the isthmus, 
or neck, on the south, near the present ijover St. This, with the wa'is on 
on the water-front, 2,200 feet long, 15 feet high, and 20 feet thick, and the f.)rt3 on 
Castle Island and Fort Hill, etfectually guarded against attacks by the Dutch or 
French. In 1711, 5,000 of Marlborough's veterans, and a large Provincial force, 
encamped at East Boston, and thence sailed on Admiral Walker's disastrous ex- 
pedition against Quebec. In 1739 sailed the fteet destine<l to attack Cuba, and 
of 500 men sent from the Massachusetts colony but 50 ever returned. Meantime 
JFrance had erected a powerful fortress at Louisbourg, far in the north, and 4,100 

Udiers, in 13 vessels, mounting 204 guns, sailed from Boston in 1745. They 

*ere joined at Canseau by 10 royal frigates ; the " Ma.s3achusetts," 24, 'japtureil 
tJie French frigate " Vigilant," 64 ; and alter firing 9,600 cannon-shoi into Loui.s- 
.»ourg it surrendered, with 2,000 men and 76 heavy guns. Restored to France by 
London treaty-makers, the work had to be done over again, and in 1758 Andierst 
and Boscawen gathered a royal and provnicial army and fleet at Boston, attacked 
Louisbourg with 7,000 men and 57 sail, lost 400 men, and took the fortress, with 
5,600 soldiers, 39 heavy guns, G line-of-battle ships, and several frigates. In 
1745 the Duke d'Anville, with 16 shii)s of the line, 95 frigates, and a large army, 
was sent to retake Louisbourg and demolisli Boston. A frightful storm shattered 
this armada, but he laud "d a strong force at Halifax, which annihilated a Massachu- 
setts army in a battle at Grand Pre, and filled Boston with mourners. The feel- 
ing of discontent which had been growing since the f<irfeiture of the colonial 
charters in 1G38, and which had been increased by arbitrary acts of royal gov- 
ernors and of the London cabinet, arose rai)idly in 1762-65, on the passage 
of the "Writs of Assistance" and the Stamp Act. In 17G8 two royal regi- 

• Bo8ton,.in Lincolnshire, Eni?., wns founded in G.50 by St. Botolph (boot-help), a pioug 
Saxon and the patron-saint of Lnglish sailors. It is on the WItham River, 20 miles south- 
east of Lincoln, and has l."),0()0 inhabitants. The Church of St. Botolph is its pride. It was 
founded in l.'V)7, is 245 by IW feet, and can accommodr.te 5,000 people. It has noble stained 
windows, and a famous tower 2>IU feet high (modelled after one at Antwerp), which is visible 
for leagues at sea. 


Iloutc 1. 


TTjeiits from Halifax moved into the town, and riots and outrages began to be 
fiffjucnt. Reinforcements were sent again and again to the garrison, and Lieu- 
t«Mmnt-Gener:il Gage, the commander of the British forces, was appointed (1774) 
(Jovenior of Massacluisetts. Then ensued the gathering of the i)atriot annies at 
Cambridge, the blockade of the city, and conseinient distress among its people, 
and the bombardments from the American lines. When Lord Howe was forced 
to evacuate the city, March 17, 1770, 15,000 loyalists chose to go with him, and on 
tlic same day the Americans took possession of battered and hungry and depopu- 
lated Boston. 

Wince the close of the Revolution the city has been engaged in great internal 
improvements, the construction of a network of railroads to all parts of New 
F.ngland, and the i)reservation and cxtensi< » of its commerce. Great manufac- 
turing interests centred here, and the city boundaries were again and again en- 
larged. In June, 1S72, the Universal Teace Jubilee was held here (as projected 
ancl managed by P. S. Gilmore) \\\ an immense wooden building on the Back Bay. 
This editi(!e (called the Coliseum) w;ts 550 feet long, H.'jO feet wide, and 115 feet 
high, thus having an area greater than that of the Milan and Cologi.c Catlie- 
drals united, or of St. Paul's (London) and St. Sophia (Constantinoi>le) united. 
The Roman Coliseum held 87,000 spectators, but tlie Boston Coliseum could 
accommodate only 40,000 to 50,000. Great galleries ran around the hall, i)arlors,&c., 
were plentiflil, and a forest of flags and national symbols was draped within and 
floated outside. Strong forces of ])olice, firemen, and artillerists were (constantly 
on duty at the Coliseum. Some of the music was em])hasized by the booming of 
cannon near the building and the ringing of the city bells, while a large compjiny 
of uniformed firemen accompanied the oft-repeated Anvil Chorus with ringing 
blows on anvils. Strauss, the Austrian composer of waltzes, and violinist, Mes- 
damcs Peschka-Leutner, Rudersdorft", and Goddard were there ; also the bands of 
the English Grenadier Guards, tDC French Garde R^publicaine, and the Pnissiau 
Kaiser Franz Grenadier Regiment. These were aided by a grand orchestra of 2,000 
musicians, and a chorus of 105 well-drilled societies, comprising 20,000 voices. 
The Jubilee lasted for .3 weeks (without accident or mischance), and was varied 
by a great Presidential Ball. Early in the next year the Coliseum was taken 

The rapid extension of commerce, and the concentration of great manufacturing 
agencies in the city, jiroduced a corn^spoiKling flow of wealth and growth of 
stately architecture. The streets between the Common and the Harbor, between 
Summer and State Sts., were lined with lofty and ornate conunercial houses, 
unsuri>assed eLsewhere in the world, and crowded with valuable goods. There 
were tiers of streets lined with massive grjinite stnictures, which seemed as un- 
inflammable as ravines in the solid rock. About 7 o'clock on the warm, moonlit 
evening of November 9, 1872, a lire broke out in a building on the comer of Kings- 
ton and Summer Sts. It speedily crept up from the lower story and turned 
the Mansard roof into a sea of flame. The fire started thence in three direc- 
tions, and, fanned by the gale which it had formed, it swept up and down 
Summer St., and through the lateral avenues into Franklin St. and Winthrop 
Sq. The flremen, although heroically active, were driven before it, until early 
Sunday morning, when several buildings were blown up. About this time 
the Are was checked in its southward progi-ess, and the whol-? Fire Depart- 
ment (reinforced from many towns within 100 miles) faced the destroyer on 
the north. From 2 to 3 o'clock Sunday moniing the flremen fought the flames on 
Washington St., and after incredible efforts kept it on the lower side of the 
street, and saved the Old South Church, which was scorched and strewn with 
sparks. During the day the force at hand was directed on two points, the new 
U. S. Post Office on Devonshire Street, and the Merchant's Exchange, and in 
the narrow streets betweer. Broad and Kilby Sts. Repulsed from the first two 
points, and after a time checked in its advance toward Kilby St., the fire sank 
rapidly imder the cataracts of water which were being poured upon it from the 
steam-engines massed along State St. By mid-afternoon the danger was over, 
and many of the out-of-town engines were sent home. In less than 24 hours the 
richest quarter of Boston, covering about 50 acres, had been swept away, and 
nothing remained of those massive piles of granite and brick save a few ragged 
and tottering fragments of wall. The loss was not far from §70,000,000. To 
keep out the swarms of thieves, and to prevent the citizens and the scores of 
thousands of visitors from imperilling themselves, three regiments of State trooiis 







Route 1. 




were called out, who formed a line of guards around the bunit district, which was 
thus picketed and held under martial law for many days. Less tlian thirty lives 
were lost during the tire. The rapid and resistless sjiread of the conflagration 
(which would have l)een impossihle in a European city) has been attrihuteil to 
tht narrow streets, the thin jtartition walls, and the universal use of lofty Man- 
sard roofs built of light timlwr and jjlanking, and too higli from the street to bo 
reached by the water from the engines. " Tlie best treasure of Boston cannot l)e 
burnt up. Her grand capital of culture and character, scieiu-e and skill, humanity 
and ndigion, is beyond tlie reach of flanu;. Sweej) away every store and house, 
every school and church, and let the ])eoplc, with their history and habits, re- 
main, anil they still have one of the richest and strongest cities on earth." 

Boston, tlie capital of the State of Massachusett.s, and the metropolis 
of New England, is one of the most ancient and famous of the Aniericjin 
cities. Its colonial and Revolutionary epochs were filled with incidents 
of rare heroi-sm and surpassing interest, while the later and more peace- 
ful years have been rich in the triumphs of commerce and industry. Al- 
though it has lost its former commercial supremacy, it still ranks as tlie 
second American city in this reganl, and is carrying tlirough vast railroad 
projects in order to keep its position. It is built on a dee?> iulet at the 
head of Massachusetts Bay, and favorably situated either for foreign traf- 
fic or for its vast trade with the manufacturing towns of New England. 
So the city has grown rapidly, its population of 30,049 in the year 1800, 
and 70,713 in 1830, having increased by 1870 to 250,526, with a valuation 
of ? 584,000,000. The cramped limits of the peninsula being too narrow, 
laifej tracts of land have been added by filling up the tide-water flats and 
coves, and by the annexation and settlement of neighboring towns. In 
spite of its frequent fires and rapid changes, Boston has more of a Euro- 
pean appearance than any other American city, and it has also a calm, 
cold, and reserved aristocracy of old families. The intellectual and musi- 
cal culture of its citizens is renowned, and the most radical and advanced 
schools of politics, philosophy, and religion find their home here. As for 
the numerous charitable houses of the city, they have generally won the 
highest praise, even the censoriotis Dickens saying : " I sincerely believe 
that the public institvtions and charities of this capital of Massachusetts 
are as nearly perfect as the most considerate wisdom, humanity, and 
benevolence can make them." The district lying between State, Court, 
and Cambridge Sts., and the waters of Charles River and tlie Harbor, 
was, in the olden time, the most important part of the city, although it is 
now given to the purposes of trade and the dwellings of the lower classes. 
Commercial St. , forming 3 sides of a square, bounds a great part of it, 
and opens on a continuous line of Avharves. The great Northern depots 
of the Lowell Railroad (for Vermont and Montreal), the Eastern Rail- 
road, the Fitchburg, and the Boston aiul Maine Railroad, are situated near 
each other, on and near Causeway St. ; 

Copp*S Hill, in the northeast part, was the site of a fort, which 
took an active part in the Bunker Hill battle, in 1775, and burned 

10 linidc J. 



C'liarlestowii with a sliowcr of hot sliot. Tlio ancient burying-ground 
first xised iu ICtJO occujties the brow of the hill, and has been sacredly 
preserved. Hero are l)nricd three fathers of tlie Puritan Churcli, Drs., Cotton, and Samuel Mather. The cemetery is open to the 

Near Copp's Hill, on Salem St., is Christ Church (Episcopal), the 
oldest church ediiice in the- city (consecrated in 1723). Aline chime of 
bells is iu the tower, and its music is almost coeval with the church. 
Near the West Boston Bridge is the largo granite building of the Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital (PI. 4), a noble charitable institution with 
rich endowments. Near it is the Medical College of Harvard University. 
*Faneuil Hall (PI. 1(5), "The Cradle of American Liberty," was built 
and given to the city in 1742, by Peter Faneuil, a I/uf/uenot merchant. 
It was burnt in 1701, and rebuilt iu time to serve the British 14th 
Regiment for barracks (1768). During the later popular excitements 
nuvny stirring orations were made here, until, during the siege of 1775 - 70, 
the royal ollicers turned it into a theatre. The Hall, 76 feet square 
and 28 feet high, has no seats, and will accommodate a great audience. 
In lime of great military or political emergencies, 'the men of Boston 
flock to Faneuil Hall by thousands. On the walls arc some good por- 
traits : Peter Faneuil, Sargent; George Washington, *S^«ar<; Commo- 
dore Preble, General Warren, John Q. Adams, * Webster replying to 
Hayne, Ilealy ; Edward Everett, Abraham Lincoln, John A. Andrew, 
* Samuel Adams, Coplr.y (Ids nuisterpiece) ; and others. Fronting Fan- 
euil Hall is the (580 ft.) long granite building of the Quincy Market, 
where all kinds of meat, fish, fruit, and vegetables are exposed in 
tempting profusion. Not far from the Market is the *U. S. Custom 
House (PI. 24), perhaps the most massive and imposing building in Bos- 
ton. It was built. 1837 - 49, at a cost of nearly $ 1,100,000, and its walls, 
roof, and dome" are of granite. The building is in the form of a Greek 
cross, and is surrounded by 32 immense columns, 5 ft. thick and 32 
ft. high. The great granite warehouses (Eta*"^ St. Block, &c.) in tlie 
vicinity are wortliy of attention ; also the ever-busy wharves near State 
St. The old Post Office (PI. 21), or Merchants' Exchange, with 6 long 
gi-anite colunnis in front, is famous as the point where the flames advancing 
on State Street were checked, in the Great Fire of 1872, by a platoon of 
husky, dingy, and quivering steam fire-enghies drawn up before it. The 
Wall Street of Boston, the haunt of its bankers and brokers, is the part 
of State St. between the old Post Office and the Old State House. 
This ancient edifice was built in 1748, and long used by the legislature of 
the colony. On March 5, 1770, a collision occurred between the towns- 
people and the British main-guard stationed here, and a volley was fired, 
killing four and wounding many of the crowd. This affair was called the 




IloiUe 1. 1 1 


I 32 






** Boston Massacre," and tlie soldiers were tried before tlie Colonial Court 
on the charge of murder, an<l exonerated. Opj^osite the Old State House 
is a nia.^nilicent marble buildiii}^ in Venetian Gothic architecture, with a 
149 ft. front on Court St. and 55 ft. on Washington St., which cost about 

$750,000, and is used for bank, railroa<l, and insurance offices. Just 
above, on Court Scj., is the heavy front of the Suffolk County Court 
House, back of whieli, and fronting on School St., is the * City Hall, built 
in 18G2-()5. $1«)0,000 were approi)riated to build it, and it cost really 
more than §500,000. It is of white Concord granite, in the Italian 
Renaissance architecture, with 138 ft. front and 95 ft. height, the Louvre 
dome which is the headquarters of the fire-alarm being 109 ft. high. The 
Council Cliarnbers are very fine, as is the whole interior arrangement. 
In front of the City Hall is a bronze statue of Dcnjiumn Franklin, 8 
ft. high, on a base of verde antique and granite, with historic bronze me- 
dallions on the sides. The artist was 11. S. Greenough, and the means 
of its erection ($20,000) were raised by the peo2»le. 

Cciijaniin Pranklin was born in Boston in 1708. Ho was ai)i)rentice(l to his 
brotlior, a itrinter, but ran away to I'hiladelpliia in 172;{. Tliore he rose steadily 
until in 17(34 he was sent to Englaml as colonial agent, when, in 17(50, he si)uke 
before the House of Commons, and tho Htamp A(;t was repealed. Elected to 
Congress, he was on tlie eonimittco on the Declaration of Intlependenee, and 
signed that document. From 177Gto 1785 he was Minister to France, with wliieh 
he procured the treaty of alliance of 1773 which saved the Republic. His later 
works were of diplomacy and philanthropy, and he founded the Abolition So- 
ciety. He invented the harmonica, and the Franklin stove ; and in 17r>2 found 
the identity of lightning and the electric fluid by means of a kite. His scientillc 
] ibors won him high honor in Europe. 

Opposite the City Hall is the Parker House (PI. 19), and to the right is 
King's Chapel. 

On Washington St., near the foot of School St., is the Old South 
Churoh, the shrine of Boston. It was built in 1729, on the site of a 
cedar-wood church which had been built in 1669. The exciting meetings 
of the people in the late colonial days were held here, and thence marched 
the disguised men to the attack on the tea ships (Dec. 13th, 1773.) In 
1775 the pews were removed, and a riding-school for the British cavalry 
was here formed, the interior being well packed with gravel, and a liciuor 
saloon being placed in one of the galleries. The diurch was restored in 
1782, and contained (imtil 1873) two galleries, many scjuare "pues on ye 
lower flore," and a pulpit overarched by a sounding-board. Externally it 
is plain, with a high spire, and a clock. " More eyes are upturned to 
its clock daily than to any other timekeeper in New England. " Franklin 
was baptized here (in the older church) ; Whitefield has preached here ; 
for one hundred and sixty years the election sermons (before the legisla- 
ture, council, and governor) have been delivered here ; it was saved, by 
deathless heroism, from the Great Fire ; and yet before 1875 this ancient 
shrine will probably be torn down and replaced by a line of shops with 

12 llmtc 1. 


a Maiisanl roof. It was leased to tlie Government for a Post Office in 
December, 1872. 

Near the Old South, on Milk and Dovonsliire Sts., is the Ktructuro 
to be occupied by the TJ. 8. Post Office and Suli-Troasury ^Pl. 44). It is 
l)iiilt of granite, in the prevalent FnMich style of architecture, with an 
immense roof, and groups of statuary on the front. Its ^'reat size, and 
the fineness of Us materials, render it an inijxjsing building. The mas- 
sive granite front on Milk St. was so much cracked and injured in 
the Great Fire (by intense heat from across the street) that much of it 
had to be rebuilt. The build ini,' fronts "200 ft. on Devonshire St., and 
will cost from !?, 2,000,000 to -S ;{,()00,()00. From this building (which was 
hcM desperately ami successfully against the fire) the burnt district lies 
on the south, east, and west. From the Old South Church, Washington 
St., the main retail thoroughfare of the city, nms southwest, and is 
always filled with a busy throng. On the corner of School St. is the 
Old Corner Bookstore, in a building dating from 1712. Farther along 
are the two principal theatres, and soma ^-irge bookstores. The comer 
of Washington and Winter Sts. is the liveliest pohit in the city, and 
Winter St. is full of ladies' shops. 

From Boylston Market Boylston St. runs out past the Common. 
At the corner of Tremont St., and facing the Common, is the Masonic 
Temple (PI. 45), built 1864 -G7. The first Masonic Lodge in America met 
in Boston in 1733, since when the order has steadily grown, save during 
the days of the Anti-Masonic party. The Temple is a lofty edifice of 
granite, built in such fonns of medieval architecture as " to suggest the 
most eflfective poetical and historical associations connected with the Ma- 
.sonic institution." The interior contains Corinthian, Egyptian, and Gothic 
Halls, besides banqueting-rooms, &c. Opposite the Temple is the large 
and elegant Hotel Boylston (suites of rooms for permanent dwellers), in 
the Italian-Gothic style. The lofty brownstone building of the Hotel 
Pelham is on the opposite comer, next door to which is the * Boston Pub- 
lic Library, in a so-called fire-proof building of brick and sandstone. 
This Library contains 193,000 volumes, and 100,000 pamphlets, and is the 
largest in America, except the Library of Congress. The Lower Hall is 
devoted to popular books and a reading-room, while the noble Bates Hall, 
above, is reserved for more substantial works. All these rooms are open 
to the public, and any one can take books and read there, though only resi- 
dents of the city can take books from the building. The walls of the rooms 
are covered with pictures, which form part of the collection of engravings 
formerly owned by Cardinal Tosti, of Rome. This collection, embracing 
from 6,000 to 7,000 pictures (many being fine old works of Marc Antonio 
and Albert Diirer), was presented to the Library by Mr. T. G. Appleton, 
and fills many volumes. 









Ro\Uel. 13 

Tho U. S. Court House, corner Tremont St. and Tenii»k' IM., was 
built and long'd as a Masonic Teni])le. It has a churclily look, and 
the main walls are built of triangular blocks of granite. Next to the 
Court House is St. Paul's Episcoital Church, of gray granite, with G 
columns of rotoinac sandstone upholding a classii; lu'dinient. Near this, 
at the corner of I'ark St. (formerly called Brimstone Corner), is Park 
Street Church, an ohl i'uritan nieetingdiouse, where the able and Ijril- 
liant Murray is now settled. Adjoining the Church is the Old Gninnry 
Burying O'roiind, where are buried Governor Bellingham (died 1672), and 
8 other colonial and state governors, 2 signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, famous divines, Peter Faneuil, who gave the Hall to 
Boston, Paul llevere, the Revolutionary hero, Chief Justice Samuel Sew- 
all, John Hancock (see Quincy), and Samuel Adams. 

Samuel Adams, born at Boston in 1722, was one of the leade*^ of the people in 
tilt! at,'it,iitii)iis of n(H-7i>, ami was prost rilied by the royal KovtTiinieut. In 17(W 
he advocated the iii(l(']i('iidt'iic(! of America, and during' tht^ Hcvolntion directed 
tlie measiue-t of Congress in the Nortliern war. " Thoiij^h jioor, >Samiu-l Adams 
j)orisessi!dalnffyand incorniiitilile spirit, was piu-eiii morals, and grave and austere 
m manner, though warm in his feelings. As a sjieaker, lu; was i»ure, concise, 
logical, and impressive ; and the energy of his diction was not inferior to the 
.stnjngth of his uiind." The Htate is to ))laee his statue in the Capitol at Wash- 
ington. A granite pyramid is over the remains of Franklin's jiarents. From 
the sidewalk before the cemetery rises a row of tall elms, which were tmnsplanteU 
IVuia England, and placed here in 17U2. 

Op]) tlie Cliurch is the extensive publi.shing house of James R. Os- 
good k Co., and beyond it, down Hamilton PL, is seen the plain wall 
of Music Hall (PI. 25). Entrance from Central PL, 15 Winter St., or 
at IIG Tremont St. This is one of the most elegant and well-arranged 
halls in America, and is of rare acoustic properties. Witidn this hall 
is the largest organ in the New World, containing 5474 pipes, and 84 com- 
plete registers, and encased in an elegant frame, with a colossal statue 
of Beethoven in the foreground. The organ was built by Herr Walcker, 
of Ludwigsburg, 1857 - 03, at a cost of $ 60,000 dollars, and is often played 
l)y competent professionals. Farther along Tremont St., on the right, is 
the elegant white granite building of the Horticultural Hall, with a many- 
columned front, — Doric in the first story, Ionic in the second, and Corin- 
thian in the third. The rich cornice is surmounted by a colossal Ceres, a 
copy from the ancient statue in the Vatican ; while on piers, at the cor- 
ners of the second story, are statues of Flora and Pomona. Fairs, floral 
sliows, and lectures are held iu the spacious halls above. Alongside the 
Hall is the Studio Building, the home of many local artists. 

Tremont Temple comes next, with a plain Palladiau front, and a great 
hall, which is used on Sunday by a Baptist church, and during the week 
for lectures, readings, etc. On the same side of the street is King's 
Chapel, built in 1754, by the Episcopalians, on the site of the lii-st church 
of that sect in Boston (built 1689). King's Chapel was deserted by its 

14 Route 1. 


people wlu'ti (}age and tlie Loyalists left the tov/n, and was oocupietl by 
the Old South Society. At a later day, iuHueiiced l)y their rector, Rev. 
Jumea Freeman, the few remaining churchmen revised their liturgy, strik- 
ing out nil Triniturianism, and formed themselves into the first Unitarian 
churi'li in Hoston. Ni'xt to tliis Church is tho Imrying-ground used hy 
the Puritans from 1630 onward. Isaac Johnson, " The Father of Bos- 
ton," was buried liere ere the first year of thu settlement was ended. 
About him his people were buried for many years. In one tomb is Gov- 
ernor John Winthrop, and his two sons, who were governors of Co)mecticut. 

John Witithrnp, a jiious lawyer of HudWlk, 1»'<I a colony to Halnm In 1(530. Tie 
moved his |i<'oplf to Mo.sloii un<l built up tiiat i>l,i('(i, where he rule<l as (Jovernor 
ol' Massacliiisetts. l(i;{t»-:{4, 1<1.{7-1(), l(i4iI-44, l()4(t-4!>. He was an ainiahh; n«n- 
thMuan, a tlrin ruler, anil a believer in niiHi<>rat(f aristocratic principles, sUiting in 
liis letter to the people of (Jonneetieut, that "the best nurt of a community is 
always the least, and of that i»art the wiser are still less. ^ 

Other noted Puritans are buried here, and in the church are monuments 
to the families of Apthorpe, Shirley, and Vassall. 

Beyond the cemetery is a granite building, partly occupied by the 
Massachusetts Historioal Sooiety, which has a library of 1(3,000 books, 
and 800 volumes of MSS. Many ancient portraits (Increase Mather, 
Sebastian Cabot, &c.) adorn the walls, while relics of Washington and 
the Puritan governors, and of King Phili]>, the chair of Winslow, the 
swords of Church and of Governor Carver, are carefully preserved here. 
The New England Historic-Genealogical Society (18 Somerset St.) has a 
fine library, and a small collection of curiosities. 

At 40 Winter St. are the rooms of the Anmrican and Foreign Chris- 
tian Union, the Sunday School Union, the Peace Society, and the Congre- 
gational Association. Churchmen of the various sects will find their 
respeetive headquarters as follows : Baptist Mission Society, 12 Bedford 
St. ; Congregational Club, corner Somerset and Beacon Sts. ; Publishing 
Society, 13 Cornhill ; Episcopal Church Association, corner West and 
Tremont ; Methodist Educational and Historical Societies, 38 Bromfield ; 
New Church Union, 2 Hamilt-n Place (library and reading-room) ; 
Universalist Publishing House, -l ' Cornhill ; American Unitarian Asso- 
ciation, 42 Chauncy St. ; Clui-'ian Unity, 375 Harrison Ave. ; Parker 
Fraternity, 554 Washington St. The General Theological Library (22 
West St. ) and the Mercantile Library are much used, and the reading- 
rooms of the Young Men's Christian Association (corner Tremont and 
Eliot) and the Young Men's Christian Union (300 Washington St.) 
are pleasant, and freely open. The British, Irish, Scotch, Germans, and 
Italians have benevolent societies. In Boston there are 27 lodges, 8 
chapters, and 6 commanderies of Masons, 18 lodges and 5 encampments 
of Odd Fellows, 22 divisions of Sons of Temperance, 13 Temples of 
Honor, 7 lodges of Good Templars, 9 posts of the Grand Army of the 



Route 1. 15 

st and 
field ; 
'oom) ; 
ry (22 
it and 
es of 
)f the 




Republic, 15 loilges of the Knights of I'ythi is, and 4 lodges of the Haru- 
gari (Geniians). 

On Treniont, near School St., is the Boston Museum (entmnce fee, 
30 eta.) whiTo, in a lofty hall, a great number of rare tilings are 
sh ■ "n, embracing curiosities from all parts of tlie world, cvsts, wax-fig- 
ures, scores of portraits of eminent Americans (by West, Copley, Stuart, 
etc.), and Sully's great picture of Washington crossing the Delaware. 

DoHton Common* ^VIl•'^ tht> ])oii insula of Hhuwiiuit (now no^ton) wns 
boll ;ht troiii llliu-kstoiii' for Eiit), in tlii' year WM, this tra<t was rcsurvinl by tlio 
coloni.sus for II tniiniiijVK'roiiiMl (piinKlc) uinl pasture. Kvcry attempt hIuco niiulo 
to occMipy portions of it lias Iktu rfpulseil, excojit in the early (lays, wlion tlio 
jjroiuiil botwrun I'ark, Ufaion, ami 'lii'moiit Sts. was takt-ii. hpt'cial care was 
tJikfii, in IS2:,, wlu'ii tlic clLy was t'onm'd, to withhold iVoiii the niunit'ipal f,'i>v- 
ernmcnt the power of alicnatiiiK any |>art of tho Common. Ik'tweoii KS.'id ami 
ItXJi) several persons were execntetl here on tlio cliarKo of witc'.i.raft, ami for ono 
liiuidred and lll'ty years after executions took jilace on tiie ' 'onimoii. DuriuK tho 
Hunnner of l(i7(J many scores of Indians ( ;iu.','lit red-lnuided weio l>ut to death 
here, union;,' whom was the insurgent rliicf Matoouus. Tiiirty were exeiuited in 
ono il.iy, and their heads were fastened on stakes and left in public places. About 
tills time (I07r)) the travtdler Josselyn Hjieaks of it as " a small bnt jileasant Coni- 
ninii, wliere tlie Gall.ints, u little before sunset, walk with their Maniiiilet- 
Madams, till the bell at It o'chxdv rin^s them home. Iii 1728 oc(;nrred a fatal 
duel, under the Old FOIni, whereiiitfiu a law was imssed, that ]iorHoiis killed in 
ilucls should lie denied Cliristian burial, and shoidd be buried translixed with a 
stake. If the duel was not fatal, both parties should stand on tlie gallows ono 
hour with a rope about their necks, ami t'-.en be inijirisoned for om; year. Ho the 
80-called coile of honor passed from tho social system »f Massachusetts. In 1740 
George Whiteliehl preached to 20,000 persons in one body on the Common. 
Durin:,' the American sie,\'o of Boston a British fort was built on tlie hilt near 
the Ehn Tree, which drew some of Washington'M heavy shot. Ilaees, parades, 
and milit.iry executions were meanwhile held here. The garrison of the town in 
1812 encainjied here, and so late as 19,'M) it was a eow-])asture enclosed by a two- 
railud fence. In 1830 the present iron-fence (IJt M. long) was built, and cattle 
were excluded. In the days of the Rebellion tho assembling troops paraded here, 
and in the (Jreat l'"iro of 1872 vast mounds of saved goods were i»iled along tho 
malls and on tae luwns. 

l*oston Common contains about 48 acres, and is rich in la\vns and 
noble trees. No carriages are allowed to enter, and the walks are filled 
with people on pleasant summer evenings and Sundays, Under the 
stately elms of the Beacon and Trcmont St. Malls are favorite prome- 
nades. Near Park St. is the Brewer fountain, made in Paris, and em- 
Itellished with bronze statues of Neptune and Amphitrite, Acis and Gal- 
atea, Copies of this fountain have been made for the cities of Lyon.s, 
Bordeaux, and Alexandria (Egypt), The Frog Pond has a large foun- 
tain, supplied from Cochituate Lake, and near it is the Old Elm, — a great 
and ancient tree which is peculiarly revered by the Bostonians, and has 
been bolted and bandaged with iron and canvas, and fenced in, and so 
preserves its hale and verdant strength. On Flagstaff Hill, near the Old 
Elm, a soldiers* monument is to be built, to be 90 ft. high, with historical 
reliefs, &c. ; at the four corners heroii; statues of Peace, History, the Army, 
and the Navy. Above will be allegoiical figures, — the North, South, East, 




1 G Pcoule 1. 


♦ ■ 

» ' 

and West, — and above all a colossal America, resting on a hemisphere, 
guarded by four eagles, with the flag in her left hand, and wreaths and a 
sheathed sword in her right. In the south part, near the old cemetery, 
is a deer-park. The west part of the Common is smooth and bar<', and is 
reserved for a parade-ground and a ball-ground for the boys. 

Tlie Public Gardens lie west of the Common, and contain 22 acres. 
In 1794, 6 rojjewalks were built here, on tide-water flats, and most of 
the improvements have been made during the past 15 years. In its 
centre is a beautiful artificial serpentine pond of 4 acres, crossed by a fine 
briJge. Near Beacon St. is a bronze statue of Everett, by Story, mod- 
elled in Rome and cast in Munich. The monument to the discovery of 
anaesthetics (1868) 's a rich and beautiful composition. *Veniis rising 
fi'ovi tJie Sea is a lovely work, from above which, when the waters play, 
a fine spray falls about the figure, whicli is sometimes called "the Maid 
of the Mist." But the finest work of the kind in New England is the 
colossal equestrian * Statue of Washington, by Ball, which fronts on 
Commonwealth Ave. The statue is 22 ft. high, ou ; pedestal 16 ft. 
high. The bronze work was done at Chicopee, in this State. 

Commonwealth Ave. — which is to be 1^ miles long and is 240 ft. 
wide, with a park in the middle — runs W. from the Public Gardens, and 
is lined with fine mansions. A statue of Alexander Hamilton is in the 
park. Nearly all the land north of Tremont and west of Arlington St. 
has been reclaimed from the water, and is now the finest part. o( the city. 
The new streets are alphabetically named, yet they avoid the weak sound 
of the upper New York and Washington city streets, having sonorous old 
English titles, — Arlington, Berkeley, Clarendon, Dartmouth, Exeter, Fair- 
field , Gloucester, &c. At the comer of Marlborough and Berkeley Streets 
is the * rich and elegant building (with English glass, n German organ, 
and an exquisite little cloister) of the First Church in Boston (Unita- 
rian). This society dates from 1630. Near by, on the comer of Berke- 
ley and Newbury Sts., v the miniature cathedral of the Central Congre- 
gational Society. It is of Roxbury stone, in cruciform siiape, has a stone 
spire 240 ft, high, and is rich in lofty, pointed windows, pinnacles, flying 
buttresses, &c. It cost $ 325,000. In this vicinity is the Emanuel Church 
(Episcopal) on Newbury St., and the fine brownstone Arlington St 
Chui'ch (Unitarian) with its melodious chime of bells. Alongside the Cen- 
tral Church is the fine building of the Society of Natural History, where 
courses of lectures are given. The extensive collections embrace birds, 
shells, re})tiles, fishes, insects, fossils, with sections devoted to ethnology, 
geology, i)alneo;)tology, mineralogy, and microscopy. The finest collection 
of mounted skeletons in America is kept here. The classic building of 
the Institute of Technology is close to tlie Museuni. This is a richly- 
endowed popular school of high order, whose object is to teach the appli- 




Route 1. 17 

in the 
;on St. 
le city, 
ms old 
n St 
ig of 



cation of science to tlie useful arts, for which purpose it is provided with 
fine cabinets and apparatus. 

The * State House (PI. 13) is on the summit of Beacon Hill, fronting 
the Common. Its corner-stone was drawn to the place July 4, 1795, 
by fifteen white horses, amid great ceremoJiies. The most prominent ob- 
jects on tjie exterior are tlie fine Corinthian colonnade and the high round 
dome. When the Legishiture (or General Court) is in session, national 
flags are displayed from ihe buikUng. The * Doric Hall, at the entrance, 
is a neat, marble-paved room, supported by colunnis, und surrounded by 
high niches, fronted with plate-glass, in which are gathered the banners 
of the Massachusetts regiments borne in the War for the Union. On the 
right are busts of Char-les Sunnier and Samuel Adams, rnd on the left a 
bust of Abraham Lincoln and a statue of Gov. John A. Andrew, by Ball. 
In a marble-paved and Ijanner-hung rotunda, opening on the Doric Hall, 
is Chantrey's * Statue of Washington, in front of which are copies of the 
monuments of the old Washington family, at Brington^ in Northampton- 
sliire. The House of Representatives (up stairs to the left from the Doric 
Hall) is a plain and somewhat crowded hall, witli a codfish hanging from 
the roof, as emlle\natie of a prolific source of the wealtli o*" the State. 
Tlie Senate Chamber is on the other side, and is adorned l)y some ohl por- 
traits and trophies. The extensive State Library is in the west wing. 
From the dome of tiie State House (open when the Legislature is not in 
session) is obtained a fine * view. Boston Harbor, with its islands, and 
peninsulas, and the distant blue ocean, fill the east ; in the north are 
Charlestown, its Navy Yard and Monument, with Lynn, Chelsea, Maiden, 
and Medford ; to the west, Charles River and Back Bay, Cambridge, Brigh- 
ton, Brooldine, iJid Newton ; and in the south, Roxbury and Dorchester, 
with the blue lulls of Milton far away. On the terraces in front of the 
building are bronze statues of Daniel Webster and Horace Mann, the 
great educationist. The house opi)osite (corner Park and Beacon Sts.) 
was for 40 years the home of George Ticknor, author of the " History 
of Spanish Literature," in 3 volumes (translated into German and Span- 
ish), who bequeathed 4,000-5,000 Sp;aiish books to the Public Library. 
The Union Club (600 members), a patriotic organization formed in 1863, 
occupies the iie.xt house below (on Park St.). On Beacon St., near the 
State House, is the * Boston Atheneeum, a neat, brownstone building, 
in the Palladian style. On the lower Hoor is the library of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, aid a large reading-room adorned with 
statuary. In the vestibule are casts of Houdon's Washington and of 
Sophocles, also a marble statue — The First Inspiration of Columbus — 
by Montaverde, auu a bronze group — the Boy and the Eagle — by Green- 
ouijh. Among the statuary in the reading-room is Ori)h'^"<? in Hades, 
Crawford ; Hebe and Ganymede, (Jraioford ; Children, Greenoi^gh ; and 




18 Umite 1. 


fine casts of Tliorwaldsen's Venus, Angelo's Night and Morning, the 
Laocoon, Apollo Belvedere, Minerva, Menander, Barberini Fann, &c. On 
the second floor is a noble library of nearly 100,000 volumes, including 
the library of Washington, and 400-500 volumes of engravings. Th'; 
building and its contents being owned by the Athenaeum, an introduction 
fi-om one of its members will give strangers tlie benefits of the library. 
Tlie stairways are lined witli large paintings, and on the third floor is 
the Picture Gallery (fee, 25cts.). 300-350 pictures are on exhibition 
liere, mostly copies from the old masters. 

Tlie original works (nuiribers often changed) are, * Sortie from Gibraltar, Tniin- 
huU {his mantcrit'nifo) ; Arch of Oetavius, iiicrstaJt; I3elshazzar's Feast, Allstoii 
("The Aniorlcau Titian"); Mount Washington, Gay; * Isaac of York, Allston ; 
Indian Captive, Weir ; Angels appearing to yhei)hurds, C'^'e ; Priam and dead 
lletttor, Trumbull; y)()rtr;iits of * Washington and his Wife, Stuart; Benjamin 
West, Alhton ; Daniol WeUster, Chief Justice Marshall, Harding ; William Tudor, 
Sully ; the Rajah Kamniohun lloy, i2. Pculc ; William Wirt, Invmn ; * Count of 
Wurtemberg mourning over his Dead Son, Ary ScJuieffer ; Storm at Sea, //«e. 
Garden of Love, Wattean ; two fruit-pieces, Peter Jioel ; LandavaiMi, Ruysdael ; 
Dante and Beatrice, Schaeffer ; The ^'laying of Marsyas, and the Golden Age, 
Luca Giordano. There are a great number of cojjies (in oil) of famous European 
l)ietures, and in one room 50 of the chromo-lithograijhs of the Arundel S'oci( ■ 
(London), being copies of famous religious i)aintings in the noontide of i it < 
these rooms are casts of the antique works, — the Quoit-Players, Piping Faun, .si- 
lenus and Bacchus, Boy with a thorn in his foot, the Venus de Milo, and the 
Dying Gladiator, with busts of Julius Ca;sar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula. Clau- 
dius, Nei'o, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan. Ha- 
drian, tlie Antonines, &e. A beautiful marble copy of the Venus de Medici is in 
one room, also (in marble) Greek Girl, by Wolf; * Maid of Carthage, G>ee«ou[//t ; 
Will o' tlie Wisp, Harriet Hosmer ; * Venus V^ictrix, Greenough. 

One room is occujiied by a large collection of Egyptian antiquities, Piu bracing 
hundreds of figures of the gods Osiris, Amun, Ilorus, Isis, &c., in bronze, marble, 
wood, porcelain, and terra-cotta ; also a large number ot scaraba'i, amulets, vases, 
and curious jewels. There are also seven human munnnies, with a great number 
of funereal trappings, and munnnies of monkeys, lambs, ibises, cats, liawks, mice, 
crocodiles, tortoises, snakes, &c. There are 1,100 pieces in this collection (cata- 
logue, at the door, 25 cts.). 

In the next room are several hundred lamps, amphora;, cups, statuettes, heads, 
weapons, &c., from IdaUum, on the Island of Cyprus, of j-ieat intei'est to the 
student of early Phoenician and Greek history. The Appleton collection is on the 
same floor, containing many Gri\>eo-Italian lictile i)ainted vases from Etruscan 
and Campanian toLibs. Some elaboiate old (uibinets contiiin fine Venetian glass- 
ware, and a large number of rich majolica i)lates are exhibited. A large piece of 
Gobelins tapestry (France crowned by Victory and attended by Minerva) occupies 
one end of the I'oom ; at the other end is a groui) of plaster casts from famous Italian 
bas-reliefs, near which is a Madonna and Cliild, by Luca delta Itohhia, and the 
Virgin adoring the infant Jesus, by Andyea delta RolMa. Two large pictures by 
Boucher, two by Allston, a large collection of ancient coins (a gold Alexanuer), and 
the rich oaken panels, carved and g'Kled, from the Chateau Montmorency, are 
worthy of n.^i.e. The positions of the pictures and curiosities are so often changed 
that a n^ore careful list would be of no permanent use. 

Near the Athensum is Pemberton Square, the site of an old Indian ne- 
cropolis, where 300 skulls were dug up in Cotton Mather's time. Gover- 
nor Endicott and Sir Henry Vane lived near this spot, and in later days 
it was an aristocratic centre. Now its houses are occupied by offices, and 
in the Mission Rooms (number 35) is kept a small museum of curiosities 
from " lands of heatlienesse." Louishury Square is a stately and silent place 






Route 1. 19 


on the fartlier slope of Beacon Hill, embellislieJ with statues of AristiJes 
£',nd Cohunl)us. Near the State House is a vast atul massive granite 
structure, 200 feet square and Q'o f » "t high, on Derne St., which is 
called the Beacon Hill Reservoir, and holds, at this high level, about 
2,700,000 gallons of water. 

The Perkins Institution for the Blind was founded in 1831, by Dr. S. 
G. Howe. It was favored by liberal popular contributions, and now oc- 
cupies large buildings on Mt. Washington, S. Boston. Charles Dickens 
visited and highly praised this institution, as also the charitable and cor- 
rective establishments in a secluded position near Independence Scpiare, 
S. Boston (In ane Hospital and House of Correction). 

"Such are the institutions at South Boston. In all of them the unfortunate or 
ileyenerate citizens of the State arc carefully instruut('<l in their duties both to 
(j()(l ;uid man ; -re surrounded by all reasonable means of comfort or happiness 
that their ccmdition will admit of ; and are ruled by the stronj^ Heart, and not by 
tlie strong (tliouj^h immeasurably weaker) Hand." — Dickkns. 

The extensive Carney Hospital (managed by Sisters of (Jharity) is near by on 
tlie hill, and above it is a reservoir and small park near the site of the old foi-t. 
On the bri;^ht, moonlit night of Marcli :{, 177'j, General Thomas and 2,000 Ameri- 
eans advanced fpiietly to this i)oint (Don hester Heii^lits), and, when morning 
tl.iwiicil, two strong forts were compU'ted within point-blank range of Boston, 
iiord Percy and 2,400 royal trooi)s were ordered to attack them, ami Washington 
himself, with 4,000 men, awaited the ciiset. But a storm, "propitious to the 
real interests of the British arniy," prevented Percy from crossing tlie harbor. A 
few days later the city was heavily bombarded, and a nev, fort having been built 
still nearer, the royal forces were forced to evacuate Boston. Marcli IS, sailing 
away in 150 transports, and carrying with them 3,000 New-Englandei-s who re- 
mained loyal to King George. From +his little park a fine view is obtained of 
Bohton and its harbor, and of Dorchester and the southern suburbs. 

The South End. 

The district south of Boylston and Essex Sts. is mainly occupied by 
dwelling-houses, and Washington St., with its retail stores and hotels, 
runs through its centre. The greater part of this district has been re- 
claimed fiom the water. Near the line of Dover St. a wall garnished 
with cannon formerly crossed the Neck and defended the town. Union 
Park and Worcester and Chester Squares are embellished with trees and 
fountains and surrounded with fine residences. Columbus Ave., on the 
north, is abroad thoroughfare of aristocratic pretensions and forming an 
admirable drive-way. On Tremont St. is the imposing white granite 
edifice of Odd Fellows' Hall (built 1871-73), and beyond it some fine 
churches, the best of which is the quaint and rambling Methodist Church. 
On Harrison Ave., near Concord St., is tlie City Hospital (PI. 10.) with 
a fine building (surmounted by a dome) in the centre, joined to the 
spacious wings by curving colonnades. Near the Hospital is the Roman 
Catholic Home for Orphans, and the Jesuit Church of the Immaculate 
Conception (with a fine interior, and famed for its music), connected with 
which is Boston College. 



20 Iloute S. 


The Roman Catholic * Cathedral of the Holy Cross is on the corner of 
"Wasliington and Maiden Sis. This stately structure was commenced in 
1867, and is yet far from completion. The mediaeval Gothic architec- 
ture? has been closely adhered to in its construction, tliough in its phase of 
severest simplicity. Its external length (including the Chapel of the Holy 
Cross) is 305 ft, ; the nave is 320 ft. long and 120 ft. high. The Cathedral 
is 188 ft, wide at the transepts, and in the nave and aisles its width is 90 
ft. The external length is greater than that of the Cathedrals at Vienna, 
Ratisbon, Munich, Orvieto, Messina, Monrealc, Pisa, Venice, Freibourg, 
Treves, or St. Denis. It is higher (in the nave) than the Cathedrals ut 
Vienna, Munich, Paris, Spires, Strasburg, Freibourg, Rheims, Chartres, 
Antwerp, or St. Ouen at Rouen. The main spire is to reach a height of 
320 ft., and to be provided with a fine chime of bells. St. Patrick's Ca- 
thedral, at New York, and the Montreal Cathedral (just commenced) are 
the only rivals in America of the Cathedral of the Holy Cross. ^ , , „ . 

2. Environs of Boston. 


" It is not only in the Harvard lu'ecincts tliat the oldness o,' New England is to 
1)6 remarked. Altliough lier people are everywhere in the vunguard of all pro- 
giess, their country has a look of gable-ends and steeple-hats, while their laws 
seem fresh from the hands of Alfred. In all England there is no city which has 
suburbs so gray and venerable as the elm-shaded towns around Boston, — Dorches- 
ter, Clielsea, Nahant, and Salem ; the peoi)le speak the English of Elizabeth, and 
joke about us — ' he speaks good English for an Englishman.' " — Sin Charles 

Boston Harbor. 

The Soute to Nahant. Soon after leaving India Wharf, with East 
Boston on the left, Governor's Island is passed on the r, Tliis island 
was granted to Governor Winthrop in 1G32, and was long called Gover- 
nor's Garden, and here, according to Josselyn, in 1638, were the only 
apple and pear trees in New England, A powerful fortress of the United 
States, called Fort Winthrop, now occupies the island. Soon after pass- 
ing the Fort ti:t steamer enters a narrow strait, between Point Shirley 
on the 1, and Deer Island on +be r. The point was named in honor 
of William Shirley, Governor of Massachusetts 1741 to 1756, sometime 
commander of the British armies in America, and Governor of the Ba- 
hama Islands, It now forms the S, end of the town of Winthrop, and 
is occupied by Taft's Hotel, widely renowned for its excellent fish and 
game dinners. Opposite Point Shirley is Deer Island (4^ M. from 
Boston), " so-called because of the deare, who often swim thither from 
the maine when they are chased by the wolves " (17th century). During 
the war of King Philip (1675 - 76) this place presented a piciful sight, 
for hundreds of Indian prisoners were landed and guarded here, and 
scares of them died of hunger and from exposure to the winter frosts. At 
present the island is occupied by the iumiense buildings (In the form of a 




RoiitoS. 21 

Latin Cross) of the Boston i Imshouse, and of the House of Industry an<l 
the House of Reformation, 

In May, 1776, the Boston privateere *' Franklin" and "Lady Wash- 
ington " grounded on Point Shirley, and were attacked by thirteen British 
man-of-war boats. The action lasted for several hours, until the tide 
rose, when the privateers escaped. In the war of 1812 the frigate ''Con- 
stitution " was once blockaded in Boston Harbor, and got away by creep- 
ing through Shirley Gate by night. Beyond Point Shirley the lofty blutts 
of Vvinthrop are passed on the 1., succeeded by Chelsea Beach with its 
hotels, and the City and Harbor of Lyiui, in full view of which the wharf 

at Nahant is gained. 


By steamer direct from India Wharf, Boston, or by Eastern Railroad to Lynn, 
and thence by omnibus 6 times <laily. 

Hotels. — The immense liotcl at Erist Point, built 1824, and long the pride of 
the coast, was Imnied in 1801 ; there remain but small hotels, — Whitney's Vil- 
lage Hotel, Bay View Cottage, Hood Cottage. 

Nahant is a peninsula composed of ocean-swept rocks, with pleasant 
beaches interspersed, and villas scattered over its heights, where many of 
the cultured and literary people of Boston and Cambridge spend their 
summers. It is 12 M. from Boston by water and 4 M. from Lynn by 
land. Crossing the long and narrow sandy isthmus called Lynn Beach, 
with the roar of surf continuous on the ocean-front, the rocky ridge 
of Little Nahant is passed, and Nahant Bef'.ch extends to the peninsula 
proper. Mr. Tudor, who for years supplied Massachusetts ice to the 
four qiiarters of the world, and hence is called the '' Ice-King," has fitted 
up a pleasant resort for visitors on the north side of Nahant. About 20 
acres of picturesqv.c grounds along the sea, adorned with fountains and 
shell-work, and commanding a fine view of Lynn and Swampscott, com- 
pose this Garden of Maolis (Siloam). Entrance fee, 25 cts. A good 
fish or clam dinner may l)e luid in the Maolis pavilions. Among the 
jagged and savage-browed cliffs of Nahant are numberless curious forma- 
tions of tlie rock, named asfoUows : John's Peril, 24 deep chasm in the 
cliffs, on the north, and near Nahant Beach ; the Spouting Horn, where 
the surf dashes through a long, rocky tunnel into a cavern, and there is 
spouted forth with great force ; Castle Rock, a massive and regular pile 
of rock, faintly resembling some ancient castle-keep ; Caldron Clitf and 
Roaring Cavern are grandly resonant in time of storms ; Natural Bridge, 
ftU arch of rock spanning a narrow, tide-swept fissure ; Pulpit Rock ; and 
Sappho's Rock. The three last-named are on East Point, the site of the 
vast hotel, of which a relic remains, in the shape of a pretty little classic 
building on the outermost promontory, which looks like an ancient Greek 
shrine on some cliff of the yEgean, and which really was a billiaul- 


22 Route 2. 


On the S. shore is Swallows' Cave, a cavern 72 ft. deep, increasing 
fronj 10 ft. wide and 5 ft. high to 14 ft. wide and 20 ft. high. Near the 
tall rock arch called Irene's Grotto is the steamboat landing. N. E. 
of the peninsula, and well out in Nahant Bay, Egg Rock rises sharply 
from the sea to the height of 8G ft., and is crowned by a lighthouse. 
Many old traditions cluster around Nahant, which is said to mean " Lov- 
ers' Walk." 

" The temperature of Nahant, heing moderate J by sea breezes, so as to be cooler 
in summer and milder in winter than the mainland, is regarded as being highly 
condueive to healtli. It is (U^lightlul in summer to ramble round this romantio 
peninsula, and tf) examine at leisure its interesting curiosities ; to hear the waves 
rippling the culored pebbles of the beaches, and sec them gliding over the ])ro- 
jecting ledges in lanciful cascades ; to behold the ]ilovers and sandpipers running 
along the lieaciies, the seal slumbering upon the outer rocks, the white gulls 
soaring overhead, the porpoises ]mrsuing their rude gambols along the shore, and 
the curlew, the loon, the black duck, and the coot, the brant, with his dapple(l 
neck, and the oldwile, with her strange, wild, vocal melody, swimming gracefully 
in the coves and rising and sinking with the swell of the tide. The moonlight even- 
ings here are exceedingly lovely ; and the phosphoric radiance of the billows, on 
favorable nights (making the waters look like a sea of lire) exhibits a scene of 
wonderful beauty." — Lewis. 

The xvoute to Hull, Hingham, et.c. So many are the routes by water 
to the South Shore that the islands in that part of the harbor will be 
spoken of without regard to any special course. 

S. Boston is first passed on the right, and then Fort Winthrop, near 
which, due E. of S. Boston, is Castle Island. Fortifications were built 
here in 1G34, " to make many shots at such ships as shall offer to enter 
the harbor without their good leave and liking ; it is of very good use 
to awe any insolent persons, that, putting confidence in their ships and 
sails, shall offer any injury to the people, or contemn their government; 
and they have certain signals of alarms (cannon and lights on Beacon Hill) 
which suddenly spread through the whole country." At the coronation 
of King William, the battery was called Castle William, and was much 
strengthened by the British, until at the evacuation of Boston they de- 
stroyed it. It was repaired by the Americans in time to fire a 13-gun 
salute for the surrender of Burgoyne (1777). In 1798, President John 
Adams being present, it was named Fort Independence, and ceded to the 
United States. The present fort was but lately completed. 

In 240 years the little mud fort, passing through the gradations of a 
wooden i)alisade' and a brick "castle," has developed into a granite fort- 
ress of great power and destructive force. S. E. of Castle Island is Spec- 
tacle Island, where are carried the dead horses from Boston, and farther 
S. is Thompson's Island, which bears the State Farm School, — a noblo 
institution, where the neglected street arabs and poor orphans of theStato 
are cared for. Well-fed and clothed, they are employed in farming in tho 
warmer months, and schooling in the winter, and at the age of twenty- 
one receive a suit of clothes and one hundred dollars. Eastward of 




noiite 2. 23 



Thompson's is Long Island (wlioro the steamer stops), the site of a large 
hotel once very popular. On the high bluffs of this island is an iron 
lighthouse whicli can be seen from 15 M. off at sea. A powerful bat- 
tery is being built by the General Government at the head of Long Island. 
E. of the battery is the reef of Nix's Mate, with a massive pyramid of 
stone and iron 32 ft. high, warning seamen of a dangerous shoal. In 1636 
** Nixes ilande " covered 12 acres, and it long served as a place to execute 
pirates and murderers. The legend reports that Captain Nix was killed 
by his mate, and that the latter was executed on this spot, declaring his 
innocence, and prophesying that the island would wash away in proof of 
it. The fact that but one acre of shoal, and a low, narrow ledge of rocks 
remain, is thought to help the legend very much. 

S. E. of Long Island, and 7 M. from Boston, is Rainsford's Island, 
where a hospital was locrted in 1 "38, which is still in operation. Gal- 
loup's Island, to the N. , is one of the Quarantine Stations. Still farther 
E., on George's Island, stands Fort Warren, a powerful fortress of the 
first class, called the key of Boston Harbor. It was built between 1833 
and 1850, of hammered Quincy granite with powerful water-batteries. Dur- 
ing the Rebellion many Confederate chiefs were imprisoned in its case- 
mates, the most noted of whom were Mason and Slidell, taken from the 
British mail-steamer " Trent," Nov. 8, 1861, by Capt. Wilkes, of the 
U. S. frigate " San Jacinto." The British government made a peremptory 
demand, and President Lincoln finally surrendered these rebel commis- 
sioners, who went to Europe in January, 1862. 2 miles E. of Fort War- 
ren, on a small islet at the entrance of the harbor, stands the massive 
stone shaft of Boston Light. This structure occupies the site of the 
lighthouse established in 1715, and is furnished with a powerful revolving 
light nearly 100 ft. above the sea. To the N. is a cluster of rocky 
islets, and to the E. is the Bug Light, over Harding's Ledge, where 6 well- 
braced, slender iron pillars uphold a small house, over which is a fixed 
red light. * 

Hull {several good hotels), 
a small village under the lee of a high hill, crowned by a marine observa- 
tory, is much visited dui'ing the summer. The to^vn of Hull occupies the 
great natural breakwater which nins N. and W. fram the South Shore, 
and guards the harbor. Its population is small, and its alertness in 
political campaigns, joined with its practical insignificance therein, do 
not *"ail to draw forth much good-humored jesting from the Bostonians. 
The load to the outer beach leads near Point Allerton (from Isaac Aller- 
ton, an adventurous Pilgrim, who cruised the coast of Maine in the barque 
" Wliite Angel" for several years, early in the 17th century). The road 
now leads out on Nantasket Beach, a line of hard and surf-beaten wliite 
sand, 4 M. long. The bathing here is very fine, and driving is easy and 

24 Rmte 2. 


pleasant at low tide. At the south end of the beach are several hotels. 
(* Rockland House, — $ 4.50 per day, $25.00 per week, — a palatial edi- 
fice, ^ M. from the landing; Atlantic House, 50 to 60 guests, — $3.00 
a day, $15.00 to $18.00 a week, — finely situated on a bluff near the 
water. ) 

This part of the beach is distant ;^ M. from the steamboat landing (12 
to 13 M, from Boston), and 2 M. from the South Shore Railroad (18 M. 
from Boston). Fine views are obtained from the bluffs ; the harbor islands 
in the W., a broad cxjianso of ocean to the E., and at night 11 coast- 
lights may be seen, extending from Minot's Ledge to Cape Ann. Parts 
of Boston, Lynn, Nahant, and Quincy may be seen on a clear day. 

Steamers for Hull, Nantasjket, and Ilingliam leave Liverpool Wharf, 
Boston, twice daily in summer. 

Hingham is a curious old village, near Nant sket, and S. of the har- 
bor, which was settled in 1635, and was often ravaged during the In- 
dian wars. Its first pastor came from Hingham, in England, and gave 
its name to the stniggling colony. Situated amid tine coast-scenery, but 
12 M. (by water) from Boston, this "Marine Old Hadley" drew many 
visitors, and its large hotel, the Old Colony House (burned in Octo- 
ber, 1872) was well patronized. A quaint edifice on the main st. near 
the Railroad Station, built nearly square, with the roof sloping steeply 
up OTi 4 sides to a balustraded platform, surmounted by a narrow- pointed 
belfry, is " the oldest church in Yankeedom." It was built in 1681, 
for the Congregational Society of Hingham, who still use it. 

Be'iiind the church is the * old graveyard, covcrnif? a finely terrac^ed hill, and 
contiiiuing hundreds of ancient stones. In tlift southern part is a plain and grace- 
ful obeAisk of granite, on which are inscribed tlie names of 76 soldiers of Hing- 
ham who died in the war for the Union. On tlie highest hill, on a mound 
surrounded by a circular earthwork, is a tall obelisk of granite "To the early 
settlers of Hingham." Elsewhere rests, in an unmarked grave, John Albion An- 
drew, the great war-governor of Massachusetts, wlio, during the battle-years 
1861 - 05, did more than any other man to raise, equip, and forward to t!i.c field 
the immense levies of troops from tliis State. He was distinguished for fervid 
eloquence, great executive ability, and tender provision for the disabled soldiers. 
He died in 18G7. Near the entrance to the cemetery is the tomb of Beiyamin 
Lincoln, a major-general in the Continental Army, second in connnand of the 
Army of the North which captured Burgoyne. commander of the Army of the 
South, 1778-80, repulsed from Savannah and Stono Ferry. After enduring a 
siege of 6 weeks at Charleston (spring of 1780), he was forced to surrender to 
Sir Henry Clinton. Having been exchanged, he commanded the centre at York- 
town, and was Secretary of War, 1781-8'!. He died at Hingham, his birthplace 
(1733), in 1810. 

Ebenezer Gay, pastor of Hingham, 1718-87, delivered the famous sermon 
called the "Old Alan's Calendar" on his eighty-lifth bii-thday. W. A. Gay, the 
artist, born at Hingham in 1821, was long a (liscij)le of Troyon, of Paris, and is 
now celebrated for liis tine paintings of coast-scenery and marine life. 

Charlestowu {Prescott House) is a city of Middlesex County, N. of 
Boston, and united with it by 2 bridges over the Charles River. Its pop- 
ulation is 28,330. Soon after crossing the river a small .^square is reached, 





Route 2. 




where extensive domed iMiildings on the Uift were fornu'ily occupied as 
the Waverley Hotel. Near this is the City Hall, in which is a fine lilnary 
and reading-room. Main St., to the right, leads to the United States 
,vy Yard, covering over 100 acres, and separated from the city by a 
het>'y stone-wall, 16 ft. high. A sea-wall extends along the water-front, 
broken only by a few wharves rmd a great dry-dock, built of hammered 
granite, 341 ft. long and 80 ft. wide, and costing nearly S 700,000. 
V\arious construction-depots, magazines of naval stores, barracks, and 
work-shops are in the yard; also 4 large ship-houses, and a granito- 
bnilt rope- walk, \ M. long. In one of the ship-houses is the old line-of- 
battle-ship " Virginia" (designed for 120 guns), which has been on the 
itocks for nearly half a century, 

Charlestown has a handsome soldiers' monument, — on a tall pedestal, a 
figure of America crowning r(!j)resentatives of the Army and Navy, who 
stand below her. In the house near Bunker Hill Monument is a tine 
statue of Gen. Josei)h Warren, who was killed on tiie Hill. 

On Prison Point are the extensive buildings of tlie Massachusetts State 
T'rison, of solid granite and iron, finely ventilated and warmed, and sup- 
plied with chapels, school-rooms, hosi)itals, &c., in such manner as to 
make it a model prison. The convicts are kept busily envployed in mak- 
ing furniture, upholstery, shoes, whips, stone and iron work, and are 
under perfect discipline. 

Not far from the prison is an ancient cemetery, where a simple and mas- 
sive granite shaft has been erected by Harvard alumni^ to the mi.raory of 
John Harvard, the early benefactor of th« University. 

The principal attraction of Charlestown is * Bunker Hill Mom. nent, 
a lofty obelisk on the site of the battle of Breed's Hill (1775). It is built 
of 90 courses of Quiucy gi-anite, is 221 ft. in lieiglit, and i^O ft, square 
at the base. A spiral flight of 295 steits, ranged around a hollow cone, 
leads to a chamljcr 11 ft. in diameter, witli windows on each side. 
Above is the apex-stone, Aveighing 2^ tons. (A small fee, 20 cts., is charged 
for admission. Books about the monument, &c., sold in the porter's lodge). 

The *view from the top is glorious. From the S. E. window the 
Navy Yai'd is seen, with all its manifold activities, — its sliip-houses, 
dry-dock, rope-walk, and frigates. Beyond this is the confluence of the 
Charles and Mystic Rivers, and East Boston ; above which is Fort War- 
ren at George's Island at the mouth of the liarbor. Forts Winthrop 
and Independence, and the archipelago of variously utilized islands whicJi 
dot the liarbor, all are visible from tliis point. From the S. W, 
window is seen the city of Boston, with Coj)p's Hill nearest on the 1. 
and the spires and domes of its church and state buildings rising on all 
sides. The great network of the northern railroads and higliways crosses 
Charles River below, while, beyond the city, the southern and western 

26 Jioute 2. 


roads pinor^'o. Farther still, on tlie r., is S. Boston, and over it, 
Qnincy, Dorchcsttn-, and the l)lue hills of Milton. Over Boston are Ilox- 
bury and Brool<!ine, and directly hclow are the houses of Charlestown. 
From the N. W. window, the State Prison, f'jiinbridf:^e, and Brighton, 
the McLean Asylum, the Harvard 0])servatory, the city of Somerville, 
Arlington, and MiMlford. It is said that, in very clear weather, with a 
strong glass, may bo seen Mt. Wachusett (over Cambridge), and succes- 
sively to the r., Mt. Monadnock, Kearsarge, and the White Mts. in 
New Hami»shire. From the N. E., Everett, and Revere with its beach, 
the city of Chelsea, with tho U. S. Marine Hospital, and, over it, tho 
city of Lynn. Nahant runs into tho sea to the r. 

The corner-stone of this stiitoly iiionnnicnt was laid in 1825 hy Genpral La 
Fayette, on tho flftiotli nniiiversary of tlio l)attlc. It was (completed in 1842, ami 
d«Mlicate«l on i\\v, sixty-eiKlith anniversary of the l)attle, in tlie prescMce of I'nsi- 
(li-iit Tyler and his (cabinet, and witli an oration liy Daniel Wol)ster. In the upj»er 
clianiber are two cannon, nanie<l "Hancock" an<l "Adams," eaeh inscribed, 
" This is one of four cannons which constitutcul tlie whole train of tleld-artillery 
nosst'Hsod 1 7 tlie Britisii colonies of North America at the conimenceinent of the 
war, tm the 10th of April, 1775. This cannon and its fellow, belonging to a num- 
ber of citizens of Boston, were used in many engagements during the war. The 
other two, the property of the Government of Massachusetts, were taken by the 

Battle of Bunker HilL 

" In their raffsrcd regimentals 
Stood tl\e old Continentals, 

Yieldinij not. 
When the grenadiers were lunging, 
And like hail fell the plunging 
Cannon-shot ; 
Wlicre the flies 
Of the isles 
From the smoky night-encampment bore the banner of the rampant unicorn, 
And grunnner.grummcr, gruninier, rolled the roll of the drummer through the morn." 

After an impressive prayer by President Langdon, of Harvard College, on a 
starry night of June, 1775, Colonel Prescott led a thousand men to Bunker Hill. 
His hu'ce was compo.sed of troojjs from Essex, Middlesex, and Connecticut, with 
Gridley's artillery. His orders were to fortify the hill, but a (!ouncil of officers of 
the detachment changed the jtlan, and they occnipied Breed's Hill, as much nearer 
IJoston and more surely commanding the roads to the north. The work was 
eonnncnced at midnight, under the supervision of General Gridlcy, an old veteran 
of the ijouisboi'.g and Canadian wars, and by dawn they had comjjleted a rcdoul)t 
132 It. s(iuare and G ft. high. The frigates in Charles River first saw it, and 
opened a tremendous lire, which awoke all Boston. The batteries on Copp's Hill 
then opened tire, and at noon 2,000 pictked men from the British garrison crossed 
tlie river. Tlie New England flag (blue, with St. George's Cross on the pine-tree 
emblem) was hoisted over the redoubt, and the 1st and 2d New Hampshire rein- 
forcetl tlie weary provincials. At 2 o'clock 2,000 more soldiers crossed from B(.s- 
ton, and s<ion after, after a furious cann<made from Copp's Hill and the fleet, the 
British column advanced. Gen. Putnam ordered the Americans to hold their 
lire until they could s«'e the. whites of the assailants' eyes ; f.iid 1500 silent and 
determined men waited till that appointed time, and then llred. " Whole platoons 
of the British regulars were laid upon the earth, like grass by the mower's scythe. 
Other deadly volleys followed, and the enemy, disconcerted, broke, and fled 
toward the water." While they rallied, the Copp's Hill guns showered hot shot 
and carcasses on Charlestown. 200 houses soon were burning, and under cover of 
dense masses of smoke the royai forces advanced again. The volley at short 
range, the carnage, and the 1 'ght of the British, was repeated. The American 
ammunition was now exhausted, the presence of floating batteries raking Charles- 



Rnvle 2. 27 




town Neck prcvptitcd ritlirr rcinforf emonts or fresh st»i)]ilic.^from rciuliiiif,' tliciu ; 
ami t\w Uritisli, lin.ivily rtMiilbrced, and niiulcleni'il by their Ioshch, udvaiicfil a 
third tinio. Tii«' outworks, swept by the nhot from the fleet, wore nimndoned, nncl 
wlien the f';renadiprs rose upon the i)ariipet of the redoubt, they were reeeiveil 
by ft Hhower of stones, and eonfronted by men with rhibbed muskets. Hoom Put- 
nam ordered a retreat, whicli was covered admirably l>y the troops of New Hami)- 
Bhire and Connecticut. Hut tlie reserves on Hunker Hill, the rear-^'uard, and tlm 
shattered garrison from Hreed's Hill, w(ue unequal to further efl'ort, and thero 
ensued aneuoral (Ichnnihulu the cannon-swept ('harlestown Neck. The day 
was ended ; and although Howe soon moved the bulk of his army on these hills, 
which he stron^dy fortilled, no further combats were seen here. In the battle of 
the 17th of June, the Americans lost 115 killeil, H05 wounded, and 30 prisoners ; 
the Hritish lost 2'2() killed, 8.JS wounded (Game's rei)ort). 40i) houses were burnt 
in Cliarlestown, and 5 cannon were taken on JJunker Hill. During' the 
from the redoubt, Putnam swore frightfully at his men, and after the war, sin- 
cerely confessin;^ it to the chundi of which ho was a nu'iuber, he added, " It wa.s 
almost cnou;;h to make an an;,'el swear, to see the cowards refuse to secure a vic- 
tory so nearly won." AmouH the last to leave the hill was Warren, and ere he. 
had gone far he was killed by a siiot in the heail. Josepli Warren, born Koxbury, 
174t», was the head of the medical profession in Boston, and a wise and patriotic; 
leader of the people. He was the President of tlie ProviiKual Congress, a mn,jor- 
general of the army, and (Irand Master of the Ma.sonic Order in America. " lln 
fell with a luimerous baml of kindred sjiirits -the gray-haired veteran, the strip- 
ling in the flower of yoiitli — will) had stood side by side on that dreadful (lay, 
and fell together, like the beauty of Israel in their high places." — Everett. 

Chelsea (Winnisimmet), {Citj/ Hotel), a city of 18,547 inhabitants, is 
connected witli Boston by a steam fen'y (IjJ M.), and with Charlestowu 
by a long l)ridge over the Mystic River. The Naval Hospital and the U. 
S. Marine Hosi)ital, tlie latter a large and stately Ijuilaing, are here. Near 
the Railroad Station is a Soldiers' Monument, — a shat>, of granite with a 
statue of a soMier standing at ease upon its summit. Woodlawn Ceme- 
tery is about 2 M. from the city, and is approached by a graceful ave- 
nue, leading through a lofty Gotliic gateway. The Rock Tower, to tlie 
right, is a rude pile of boulders, 78 ft. in diameter and 30 ft. high, 
from which a pretty view is obtained. Netherwood and Wooilside Aves. 
form beautiful vistas, with the quiet grace of American cemeteries on 
every hand. Netherwood Pond, the views from Chapel and Elm Hills, 
and the curious Ginko trees, are worthy of attention. 

Chelsea (Revere) Beach. 

Horse-cars from Boston hourly in summer. The Eastern Railroad runs near 
th5 shore, with stations at Revere {\% M. off) and Oak Grove (J M.). Hotels. 
Atlantic House and several .smaller, near the horse-car station ; Revere House, 
f M. north ; Ocean House, on Pine Point, '2 M. north of hoi-se-car station. 

Revere Beach is about 5 M. from Boston, and is much visited by 
the citizens on Sundays and holidays. It is a wide, snK>oth, hard, san<iy 
bhore, 3 M. long, well adapted for driving or walking. Being shel- 
tered by Nahant, Avhich lies about 5 I\I. olf shore, and by Winthrop 
Bluffs on the south, it has but a moderate surf. Pitie Point, its northern 
extremity, faces the city of Lynn and the openings of Saugus River into 
Lynn Harbor. 


28 Route 2. 



• t 


Lexington and Concord. 

Thfl ff)rmrr villaxf is renchofl by trains on tho FjCxiriKti'ii riranrli Railroad, from 
the Hosfoii a!i(l l/nvcU Dcjm)!, in'40 Id M niiiiutps. IJy tlio fall of 187.'< tin- rail- 
road will iirnhahlv lit; cxti-ndcd fo ('<•;, lurd. At prcscut, Concord is reached lijr 
the trains oft. i^ FiUdibiirg Railroad in 1 hr. 

Lexington (Mnnvment J/ouse)^ a (luiet and pretty village 12 to 1.5 
M. N. W. of Boston, is built on one long street, terminating on the 
west in a broad green, on which is a plain niouunient, more solid than 
graceful, in memory of 8 men killed here during the battle. 

Concord (Middlesex llotd), near the tran(iuil Concord River, and 
the junction of the Assabet and Sudbury Rivers (so-called), is a liand- 
somo village of about 2,500 inhabitants, and about 20 M, from Boston. 
In 1G35 I'eter Bulkley, of St. .Folin's (Jollege, Cambridge, and 21 years 
rector of Odell, was silenced by Archbishop Laud, and Ihid to America. 
In 163G he purchased of the Indians a tract of land at Musketafjuid, and 
founded the town and church of Concord, .so-named from the peacefiil 
manner of its ac(]uisition. Bulkley wrote some Latin poems and Puritan 
theological theses, and "was as remarkable for benevolence and kind deal- 
ing as for strict virtue." 

But it is during the inesent rentnry that the lives of three of the foremost 
literary men of Anuirica liavo made Concord famous. Ilcnry D. Thoreau (H. 
U., 1H'J7), an eccentric yet i)rof(nnid scholar and naturalist, in 1845 built 
himself a hut on the shores of the st<«incstered Waldcn Pond (I M. H. E. of 
the village), where he led a retduse lite, raising a few vc,i;ct;ilih'S, and oceasi •<- 
ally siu'vcying or cariientcrinj,' to get money for his slij.'lit expenses. He r 
voted, never entered a church, never i)aitl a tax. rnd'onndly skilled in c) 
and Oriental literature, and an anient naturalist, his (diicf delight was to i 
long i)edestrian excursions to the forests and lakes and ocean-shores of New 
England. Of himself he said, " I am as unlit for any practical as gossa- 
mer is for ship-timber." " Thoreau dedicated his genius, with such entire love, to 
the fields, hiil.-». and waters of his native town, that he made them known and in- 
teresting to all. He grew to be revered and admired by his townsmen, who had 
at llrst known him only as an oddity."— Emkuson. He died in 1800, leaving bin 
great work unlinished, and his only remains are several quaint and charming 
books of travel. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson (H, U., 1821), "the sage of Concord," or, as Fredrika 
13remer calls him, " the Sphinx in Concord," is the head of the .school of 
transcentlental philosophy in America and in the world. Descended from 
seven generations of ministers, and himself sometime a minister, in early life 
he joined, and since has led, the advanced and rcftned school of modern 
transcendental philosophy. His writings are " distinguished for a singular union 
of poetic imagination with practical acuteness," and also by a remarkable pungency 
and compressed Ion e. During his visits to Europe much honor has been sTiown 
him, ami many of the greatest mimls of the century have visited "the pretty little 
idyllian city of Concord " (Bukmkii) to hold interviews with him. Thoreau, G. W. 
Curtis, in his residence at Concord in 1844 - 45, and Hawthorne have been his 
Iriends at home. (The old Emerson homestead was burnt, July 24, 1872, shortly 
after which the philosopher went to Europe for a long absence.) 

Nathaniel Hawthorne (Bowdoiu College, 1825), whose excpiisite prose composi- 
tion is world-renowned, lived at Concord in 1843 - 4U, and here wrote the " Mosses 
from an Old Manse." (See Salem, Mass.) 

The Battle of Concord and Lexington. 

At midnight, April 18, 1775, General Gage sent 800 grenadiers and light infantry 


T K 


JluuU C. 


to iloHtroy tlio iiiilitiiry Htoros rolloctc*! hy the Ainorli'ans ftt Coiuoril. " At first 

(Ik* w1i<i|( iDimtry n|i|it'!UL'<l lmiit'<l in a Ki-ncnil slofp till tlio tle«!|» tones 

ol'ii (listaut (hiircli-lH'll came swt't'pinK ilown tli*- valley in wlii<'': kiK^ luarclied, 

riiiL^in;^' jtcal on jM-al, in tlu; (inii'k, s|>irlt-HtiiTiii|^' sniinds of an alarm ]l«>ll 

Ix'^aii to answer bell in every tlireetion Ilre-i l)laz(Ml alun^' the lieiu'lit-s, the 

lie||n\vin({ of tilt! eoiichs ami horns min;^'leil with the rattling' of the muskets and 
tlie various toiiosof the hells " (Cooi'ku), ami when the troops deployed on Lexing- 
ton (Jreen, at dawn, 1<K) militiamen eontnuited them. " Dispei-se, ye rebeU, 
tlirow down your arms, and dispei-se ! " eried the Hritisli eommaiuler, I'iteairn. A 
volley fi'om the li;,dit iufantiy broke the line wliieh refused to obey l'it<'airn's or- 
der, and under the smoke of the llrst shots of tiie War of Independenee eijj;ht 
Americans lay dead on the K^'eii. Now ]»y a raj)iil march the invaders oceu]iied 
Concord, <1 M. distant, and dtsstroyed such of the military stores as hatl not 
bicn removed. Meanwhile, loo minute-men hail ^'atherecl near the north bridj^e, 
1 M. from the Common, and soon they attacked and drove away :< companies 
r light infantry detailed to ^mir^' 't. "pon which tin; retreat to Hoston WM 
ordered. All military order anion;,' the provincials was at an end ; minute-men 
were collecting froni all jioints ; from every house, barn, and stone-wall gnnn 
were tired with sure aim ; and the red nniforms of dead and woumled regulars 
strewed tin; long ^ M. E. of Lexington church, tlio remnant of the de- 
tachment was reinl'orc(^d by Lord Percy, with :i reginu^nts, 2 divisions of marines, 
ami a battery. Tho jtitile.s.s i>rovincials worried them until they reaehe<l Prospect 
Ildl, ill Cambridge, where 7<H) men of Essex, with the militia of Dorchester and 
lloxbury, stoippcd, and held the tlower of the Hritisli army until Percy's artil- 
lery drove them from the tleld, and the noble Northumbrian led his shattered 
rolumns on Jiunker Hill, under protection of the fleet. On this nienioruble day, 
tiu! royal forces lost 0.'< killed, ISO wtmnded, and 28 prisoners ; while the Americans 
lust j'J killed, 'M wounded, and 5 missing. 


W. of Boston ( from Bo^\'loi^l Stj.) is the ancient academic 
city of Caniliridge, on tlie Chailes Iliver. About 3.^ M. from Boston are 
tJie spacious grounds and buildings of Harvard University. 

Cambridge was settled shortly after Boston, imder the name of Newtown. In 
KWO, the legislature of Mas.sachusett.s (then, and occasionally now, called the 
(ieneral Coui-t) voted £400 for the establishment of a school liere. In KWS John 
Harvard, the young pastor of Charlestown (from Emanuel College, in Old Cam- 
liridge,), died, leaving to the young school his library and about £800 in money. 
Then the General Court advanced the school into a college, and named it Harvard, 
changing also the name Newtown into Cambridge, in memory of the old univer- 
Hity town where, and especially at Emanuel College, so many of the founders of 
the new State had studied. In 1G40 Charlestown Ferry was made an appanage 
t)f the College ; in 1G42 its llrst class graduated ; and in l<i50 the " President and 
Fellows of Harvard College " were incoi-jiorated. Endowments and gifts now 
flowed in from the province and its citizens, and the young college becune the 
jiride of New England. In KiOO, of 121 clergj'uien in the eleven counties nearest 
to Cambridge, 104 were graduates of Hai-vard. Many of the political leaders of 
the War of Independence were educated here, — Samuel Adams (class of 1740), 
James Otis (1743), Artenias Ward, first commander of the army (1748), John Han- 
cock (1754), Joseph Warren (1759). In May, 170i>, on the occupation of Boston 
bv royal troops, the legislature refused to sit " with British cannon pointing at 
tfieir doors," so they adjourned to the college buildings. In 1775 the students 
were sent home, and the classic halls were turned into barracks for the Continen- 
tal soldiers. The library and apparatus were sent to Andover and Concord. The 
headquarters of the American army of investment was near the College, and the 
army numbered 16,000 men in June, 1775. Of these, 11,500 were fVoni Alassachu- 
setts, 2,300 from C',':vuC"ticut, 1,200 froni New Hampshire, and 1,000 from Rhode 
Island. The left wing, under Ward, consisting of 15 Massachusetts regiments and 
Gridley's artillery, lay at Cambridge. Later, Knox brought 55 cannon from the 
Lake Forts, and the New York volunteers and Morgan's Virginia riflemen joined 

30 Route 2. 






J '' 

the camp. The 10,000 royal troops in Boston were environed by 20 miles of can- 
toiiments, stretfhiiig from the Mystic River to Roxbury. Tlionias. with 4,000 
Massacliusetts troojis, and 4 companies of artillery, held the Roxbury lines ; the 
Rhode Island men were at Janiai(;a Pliin with Sjiencer's Connecticut rej-'iment. 
Tlie New IJiiinpshini brigade was at Mcidford, and Putnam, with a Connecticut 
brigadi!, held Charlestown Nccl\ and }>icivetto(i Bunlier Hill. The siege was 
hardly over, and the College in order once mori;, when tin grer.t capt've army oJ 
iJui'goyne was led to Cambridge (Nov. 10, 1777). The government ordered the 
college to l)e vaciated, for the accommodation of the British and Hessian oliicei-s. 
Hut tlie ■'vllcgiate authorities, feeling that enough had already been sacrificed by 
llic'i'i in the i;ause of freedom, sent in such a spirited protest that the order was 
reconsid'3Vcd, and the i)risoner!; encamjied on Winter and Vrospect Hills until 
1779, when they were sent to Charlottesville, Virginia. 

In 1639 the first Nov/ England printing-press was set up here, and for its 
first works printed tlie "Freeman's Oath," "The New England Alma- 
nac," and +,he "Bay Psalm Book." At presei^t the vast University and 
Riverside Presses turn out hundreds of thousands of volumes yeai'ly. 

Margaret Fuller, Countess D'Ossoli, was l)om at Can bridge, 1810. A fine 
linguist and conversationalist, she became an enthusiastic tianscendentalist, and, 
after writing several oooks, and sjjending some time in Europe, she married Count 
d'Ossoii, but was wrecked and h)st on tlio New Jersey coast, returning, in 1850. 

Oliver Wendell Hobius was born at Cambridge, ISOI). A skilful jthysician, lec- 
turer, and mi(;rosc(>pist, he has been Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in 
Harvard University sinci; 1847, and has foimd time to write many pleasant essays 
and humorous i)oems, besides two or three novels and numerous metlical lectures 
and dissertation.5. 

James Russell Lowell was born at Cambriv'.ge, in 1S19. After ^v'riting several 
volumes of poetry, and spending some years in Europe, he returned, and succeeded 
Mr. Loi ,, fellow as Professor of Modern Languages, &c., in Harv.ird University. 
He has published "The Biglow Pai)ers " (two series), — a jujlitical satire in the 
New England vernacular ; " The Cathetlnil," and " Under the Willows," his later 
poems ; and several volumes of prose. 

F. H. Hedge, the Unitarian theologian. Alfred Lee, Bishop of Delaware, and 
Rear-Admiral Charles H. Poor, were born in Cambridge. 

" Harvard College was founded at Cambridge only ninety years later than the 
greatest and wealtluest college of our Cambridge in Old England. Puritan Har- 
vard is the sister rather than the daughter of our own Puritiin Emanuel. Harvard 
himself, and Dunster, the first President of Harvard, were among the earliest of 
the scholars of Emanuel. . . . Our English universities have not about them the 
classic repose, the air of study, which belongs to Cambridge, Massachusetts ; our 
Cambridge comes nearest to her daughter town, but even the English Cambridge 
has a breathing street or two, and a weekly market-day, while Cambridge in New 
England is one great academic grove, buried in a philosophic calm, which our 
universities cannot rival as long as men lesort to them for other pul-poses than 
work." — Sir Charles Dilke. 

Among the most distinguished of the New-England-born alumni of Harvard 
may be named. Increase Mather (class of 1656), Cotton Mather (1C78), John Adams, 
second President of the United States (1755), John Quincy Adams, his son, sixth 
Piesident of the United States (1787), Fisher Ames (1774), W. E. Channing (1798), 
Edward Everett (1811), W. H. Prescott(1811), Jared Sparks and J. G. Palfrey (1815), 
Caleb Cushing and George Bancroft (1817), Ralph Waldo Emerson (1821), C. F. 
Adams (1825), O. W. Ib)lmes (1829), Charles Sunnier (1830), Wendell Phillips and 
J. L. Motley (1831), H. W. Bellows (1832), R. H. Dana, Jr., and H. D. Thoreau 
(1837), J. R. Lowell (1838), E. E. Hale (1839). 

The buildings of the University are named generally in honor ot its 
benefactors. The small brick building on the corner near the horse-car 
station contains the Law Library (13,000 volumes) embracing the stand- 
ard works on this subject by American, English, French, and German 



Route 2. 31 


writors. The law-hall and the professorship were founded by Nathan 
Dani3, an eminent Essex County jurist. Tlio 'arge and ornate eilifice next 
to Dane Hall is known as Matthews Hall. Doyond this, and at right 
ang^ics with it, is Massachusetts Hall, an ancient building wliicli has been 
changed into two large loonis, the lower of which is occupied as a read- 
ing-room, and is surrounded by 60 to 70 portiaits of notable New Eng- 
landers of the last century, among whicli are Samuel Dexter, Frothinq- 
ham ; John Quiney Adams, Fisher Ames, Stuart ; Michael Boylston, 
Thomas Boylston, President Holyoke, and John Adams, Copley. 

John Singleton Copley, the best of American portrait-pr.inters, was bom at 
Boston, 17;J7, studieil at Roino, resided at Loudciii 177">-lSi;5. His historical 
paintings, of which "The Death of tlie Earl of Chatham" was the most famous, 
maile him a Royal Academician in 17S3. His sou was made Lord Lyndhurst. 

It is singidar that none of Washington Allston's pictures are here. This artist, 
ivho was called "the American Titian," and was famous for richly colored pictures 
on religious subjects, after sjiendin;^ 15 years in Europe, established his studio 
in Cambridge in 1S25, and here remained until his death in lS-13. He was a South 

Beyond Massachusetts Hall is Harvard Hall, with its sober ornaments 
and belfry, and then Hollis and Stoughton Halls, between which, and 
nearer the street is the quaint little edifice (said to have been built by 
Lady Holden's boimty) which was long used as a chapel, and was built 
early in the 18th century. Across the upper end of the quadrangle 
stretches the plain old Holworthy Hall, back of which is the Lawrence 
Scientific School. Turning now on the otlier side, the first building is 
the new, lofty, and ornate Thayer Hall, behind which is the romanesciuo 
Appleton Chapel, Beyond Thayer is the simple and substantial Uni- 
versity Hall, built of granite, and next comes the modern and Mansard- 
roofed Weld Hall. University Hall is the seat of the Univeisity gov- 
eniment, which consists of the President aud six Fellows, with a second 
branch (Board of Overseers) elected by the alumni. Tlie system of 
elective studies and of special scries of lectures is superseding the old 
rigid course and text-book plan, and Harvard is accepting the style, as 
well as gaining tlie power, of the German universities. Tliere are about 
1,200 men in the various departments of study, with 45 professors and 
many tutors, &c. Four years' study procures the degree of B. A. ; three 
years covers the courses in the Divinity and Medical Schools, and two 
years in the Law School. Beyond Weld Hall the fourth side of the quad- 
rangle is occupied by the noble Boylston Hall (of granite, with several 
collections inside), and the modern Gray Hall. Opposite the wooden 
Wadsworth Hall is the Holyoke House (pertaining to the college) and 
nearly opposite Massachusetts Hall is the First Churcli, with its venerable 
graveyard. Gore Hall, beyond the quadrangle, contains the Unisersity 
Library. It is a neat building of Quiney granite, in the form of a Latin 
Cross, and in the 14th-century Gothic style, said also to be a sober copy 
of King's College Chapel, at Old Cambridge. 

32 lioute 2. 



I . 

■ > 

,k • 



Inside there are 10 ooluiuns on each side of a navo 112 ft. hnv^, with a <,n-oinod 
roof ;iy ft. hi^di. Alxnit l.'JO.OOO volumes are kept in this hall, besides which the 
I liivcrsity has about 70,00.) vohinies in 8 other lil)raries. In glass cases, tlirough- 
oiit the hall, are kept many literary curiositiiis : a MS. Ovid of the 14th century ; 
letters of Washington ; Aristot' •, in black-hdter Latin MS. ; ancient Greek MSS. 
of nipi)ocrates, (Jregoiy Na/ izcn, &c., with Pivangelisterios, Psalters, &c. ; old 
Hebrew MS. of Kstiicr (in r< ) ; the Gospels in Latin, 8th century (oldest MS. in 
America) ; illuminated Latin missals ; MS. Koran ; Sanscrit and Siamese books 
in leaves ; y bcantiful Persian MSS. on silk paper ; book printed in Mexico City, 
ITjOO ; Rale's Dictionary of the Al)enaki language, in Iris own writing ; Eliot's 
Indian IJible ; Bay Psalm-Book (1640), lirst book i)rinted in America, north of 
Mexico ; medals, relics, autographs, &c. Busts of distinguished lueu surround 
the hall. 

Nearly in line with Gore Hall is Appleton Chapel, recently injured by 
fire. The most con.spicuous object about the stjuare is the immense tower 
of the * Memorial Hall, a stately edifice now building, whose simple 
and massive architecture contrasts strongly with the Renaissance style 
of the other new buildings. A beautiful little cloister, at one end of the 
Memorial Hall, seems like a token from Old Cambridge. AVithin this 
noble building are to be held the Coniniencement exei'cises and alumni 
dinners. The Hall is being ervscted by the alumni as a memorial to those 
of their number who fell in the War for the Union. Near by, on a 
so-called Delta, is the gynniasium, an octagonal structure, while the 
i^awrence Scientific School is opi)osite Hohvorthy Hall. Beyond Memo- 
lial Hall are the buildings occupied by the Zoological and other museums, 
in the vicinity of Divinity Hall, the seat of the Unitarian Theological 
Siihool and Library. The E]nscopal Divinity Scliool is near tlie beautiful 
little church of St. John. The Observatory and Botanical Gardens are 
out on Garden St., beyond the State Arsenal. In front of the colleges, 
on the Green, is a monument, erected by the City, in memory of 339 
officers and men of Cambridge wlio died in the War for the Union. Far- 
tlter on is tlie new and elegant Shepard Memorial Church, erected by the 
Congregational ists in honor of Thomas Shepard, an Emanuel College di- 
vine, who Wi's pastor at Cambridge from 1035 to 1649, and was one of the 
founders and patrons of the college. " Its location at Cambridge was 
due to him." In front of the church is the Washington Elm, probably 
300 years old. Near it the old Indian councils took place, and, at a later 
day, the town-meetings, and under its foliage, July 3, 1775, Washington 
assumed command of the armies of America. , . » 

A large, old-style house, back from the street, and nearly opposite Gore Hall, is 
called the "Bishop's Palace." It was built in 1761-05 by East Apthorp, an 
Anglican Bostonian, educated at Old Cambridge, who was sent here as a mission- 
ary, and hoped to be appointed Bishop of New England. But the hostility of the 
Puritan divines and people was so marked, that he returned to Ejigbiia, and was 
given a stall in St. Paul's. In 1777, Burgoyne occupied the house as headquarters 
of the captive Anglo-Hessian army. Near Brattle St. is the house where 
Baron Riedesel, commander of the division of Brunswiekers, was quartered. The 
Baroness, with a diamond, cut her autograph here on a wind(nv-pane, which is 
still preserved. Near Brattle St., ou the right, is a stately old colonial mansion. 



See page 20. 






1. Entrance. 

2. Chapel. 

3. Spruce Avenue. 

4. Public Lot. 

5. Laurel Hill. 

6. Walnut Avenue. 

7. Mountain Avenue. 

8. Mount Auburn Tower. 

9. Dell Path. 

10. Pine Hill. 

11. Central Square. ' 

12. Cedar Hill. 

13. Harvard Hill. 

14. Juniper Hill. 

15. Temple Hill. 

16. Rosemary Path. 

17. Jasmine Path. 

18. Chestnut Avenue. 

19. Poplar Avenue. 

20. Auburn Lake. 

21. Lime Avenue. 

22. Larch Avenue. 

23. Halcyon Lake. 

24. Forest Pond. 

25. Central Avenue. 

26. Road to Fresh Poud. 


Jloute 2. 







above two ten-aces, surrounded by broad lawns and tine elms. Built about the 
middle of the last ceutuiy, the house was deserted by its Loyalist owner at the 
outbreak of 1775, and then occupied by Washington as headquartera. Here, 
through the long winter of the siege, Lady Washincfton often held receptions. 
This noble estate is now owned by the jtoet Longfellow. 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, born in Portland, 1807 (Bowdoin College, 1825), 
spent four years (1826 - 30) in Europe, ond then was Professor of Modem Languages 
at Harvard University (1835-54). iJesides several prose romances and many 
short poems of great power, he has publisheil " Evangeline " (1847.) " The Golden 
Legend" (1851), " Hiawatha" (185.5), a translation of Dante's " DivinaCommedia," 
3 vols. (18G7-70), "The Divine Tragedy" (1871), and "Tales of a Wayside Inn," 
lii'st (1863) and second series. Mr. Longfellow is i)erhaps the most popular of 
American poets, and is distinguished as a faithful translator, an original and j)ro- 
fouiully perceptive poet, and au admirer of the picturesque features in medi&'val 
Eurojiean history. 

Mount Auburn. 

(Horse-cars from Harvard Square in ^ M.. 4 M, distant from Boston.) 
A large tract of forest-covered and romantic hills on the banks of the 
Charles had long formed a favorite ramble for the students of Harvard, 
until, in 1831, it was purcliased by tlie Horticultural Society, and a portion 
of it consecrated for a cemetery, with imposing ceremonies. This was 
the pioneer of the large rural cemeteries of America, and is but a few years 
younger than Pere la Chaise, at Paris. The whole tract of land was soon 
bought in from tlie Horticultural Society, and large additions have since 
been made, until now it covers 125 acres. The name "Sweet Auburn," 
which the Harvard men had bestowed upon it, was changed to Mount 
Auburn. " This tract is beautifully undulating in its surface, containing 
a number of bold eminences, steep acclivities, and deep, shadowy valleys," 
and is laid out with broad, curving avenues intersected by foot-paths. 
The emblematic iron fence which bounds the front is provided with a mas- 
sive granite entrance-gate of Egyptian arcliitecture, (50 ft, long and 25 ft. 
high, on whose outside is carved, " Then shall the dust return to the earth 
as it was, and the spirit shall return to God who gave it." From the 
gate Central Ave. runs to Pine Hill, which overhangs Consecration Dell. 
The chapel, not far from the gate, on a hill to the r., is a handsome 
Gothic edifice, abounding in pinnacles, and furnished with stained glass 
windows from Edinburgh. Inside the chapel are four noble * statues : 
Judge Story, by W. W. Story ; John Winthrop, the first colonial gover- 
nor, by R S. Greenowfh ; James Otis, the leader of the first aggressions 
against British misrule, by Crawford; and John Adams, representing 
tlie revolutionary and subsequent constitutional era, by Randolph Rogers. 
On Central Ave. is a fine statue of Hosea Ballou, an eminent Univer- 
salist divine, of Boston, not far from the statue (in a sitting posture) of 
Dr. Bowditch, the mathematician and nautical writer. Fronting the 
chapel is a majestic * memorial work (by Milnwre) representing a colos- 
sal lion couchant with a calm and heroic female head. The design is 
taken from a work executed in the highest perfection of Egyptian art, 
2* c 

34 Route 2. 


and is a fine personification of tl»e ancient idea of the myotic " one who 
outlooks stars and dreanus o'er graves." Hannali Adams, Uie historian of 
the Jews, was tlie first person buried in the cemetery, and her humble 
monument is still pointed out. Near the end of Central Ave. is the 
monument to John Murray, the founder of Universalism in America. 
Spurzheim is buried near the Bowditch monument. Near the Ballou 
statue on Central Ave. is the monument erected to W. F. Harnden, 
founder of the express business, by tiie express-companies of the United 
States. Under a canojty of granite is a large stone safe with bas-reliefs, 
supported on bronze claws, alongside of which a marble watch-dog lies. 
On Mount Auburn, the highest i)oint of the cemetery, stands a massive 
and graceful granite tower, fron? whose top an extensive * view is enjoyed. 
Tlie rich valley of the Cliarles is in full sight, from the villa-covered heights 
of Watertown to the widenings whicli are lined by the palaces on the 
Back Bay at Boston. The rural roads of Brookline are in the S., and 
over and beyond them rise the high hills of Milton. In tlie E. is Cam- 
bridge and the ancient walls of Harvard University, while a , succession 
of bright villages stud t'le country to the N. and W. 

For the rest, the tranquil and shaded walks of the cemetery are lined 
with thousands of monuments, of every form and style, from simple tab- 
lets to costly and beautiful statues. Pretty lakelets diversify the surface 
of the dells, and platoons of obelisks rise along the hills. The gateway, 
the chapel, sphinx, and tower, are the ivrincipal objects to be seen. 
Hours may be spent in pleasant rambling through the other avenixes, 
passing the graves of scores of local celebrities and magnates of Massa- 
chusetts. If the visitor wishes to know how to do Moiint Auburn minute- 
ly, " Dearborn's Guide "may be bought at the gate. 

N. of Mount Auburn about f M., is Fresh Pond, a pretty sheet of blue 
water, winding under the shadow of wooded hills, with villages on its 
banks. The Fresh Pond Hotel is favorably situated on its shore. 2 to 
3 M. N. is Spy Pond (pleasant hotel), the ice from whose clear am spark- 
ling waters is much used in Boston during the summer heats. S. W. 
of Mount Auburn, on the banks of the Charles, is the United States Arse- 
nal, covering 40 acres, where great amounts of munitions of war are stored. 
About 1 M. beyond, also on the river, is the village of Watertown, 8 M. 
from Boston, on the Fitchburg Railroad. Early in the 17th century a 
nomadic church from this place founded Wethersfield, Conn. In 1643 
Massachusetts sent four Puritan missionaries to convert Anglican Vir- 
ginia. The Cavaliers drove them oft", and Knowles, the Watertown pas- 
tor, went to England, and ])reached in Bristol Cathedral several years. 
John Sherman, pastor here 1(347-85, bears on his tombstone, 

" In Sherman's lowlj' grove ore lain 
The heart of Paul, and Euclid's bruin. 


Haute 2. 



Harriet G. Hosmer, tl'c foremost of female sciili)t()r8, waa hnvn at Watertown 
in 1830. After long anatomical studies, she went t* Rome in I8a'J, and has since 
lived there. Most of her works are retained in Italy and En^dand. Ifer most re- 
markable i)ie('es are " ZenoViia in Chains," "The Sleeiting Faun," "i'uek," ami 
" Beatrice Cenci." 

S. of Watertown is the town of Newton, with several villages, in- 
habited mostly by men doing busines.s in Boston. Brighton (Cattle-Fair 
Hotel, Bnr/hton Hotel, Riverside, kc), E, of Newton, ha.s the largest 
cattle-market in New England, The day of market is Wednesday, when 
Brighton presents a lively sight. 

S. E. of Brighton is tlie town of Brookline, famous for the suburban 
residences of Boston merchants. Near the station of the New York and 
New England Railroad is the principal village, with the ornate and attrac- 
tive stone town-house, near which is a neat public-library building. Within 
this town is Brookline Reservoir, witli a capacity of 120,000,000 gallons of 
water. Here terminates tlie long and sinuous brick culvert, running from 
Lake Cochituate, in Natick, wliich is here supplemented by iron mains, 
which carry the water into Boston. 1 M. distant is the great Chest- 
nut Hill Reservoir (5 M, from Boston City Hall), with a capacity of 
800,000,000 gallons. The most popular drive about Boston is that to 
and around Chestnut Hill Reservoir. Jamaica Pond, near the village 
of Jamaica Plain, and K of Brookline, gave the first water-supply to 
Boston. From 1795 to 1840 it was carried through the city in hollow 
pine logs. In 1851 this was stopped, and now villas and immense ice- 
houses line the shores. Tn Jamaica Plain (where encamped the Rhode 
Island forces, the best equipped and disciplined in the army, in 1775 -70), 
is a fine monument to the soldiers of West Roxbury who were killed in 
the War for the Union. § M. from this village is the large cemetery 
of Forest Hills. (Horse-cars to and from Boston, also Providence 
Railroad.) It is entered by a large and elegant turreted Gothic gate- 
way of stone, bearing the inscriptions, " I am the Resurrection and the 
Life," and, " He that keepeth thee will not slumber." Near the gateway 
to the 1. is the fmest receiving-tomb in New England, with a Gothic 
})ortico of granite, of imposing size and form. On Mount Warren Gen. 
.Joseph Warren is buried ; on Mount Dearborn, Gen. U, A. S. Dearborn, 
This cemetery is larger and plainer than Mount Auburn, and is mainly 
notable for its air of rustic naturalness. Consecration Hill commands a 
fine view of the hills of Milton and the fair Lake Hibiscus. In the S, 
part is a monument " Erected by the City of Roxbury in honor of her 
soldiers who died for their country in the Rebellion of 1861 to '65." A 
bronze soldier, of heroic size, stands at ease on a granite pedestal, and on the 
inner granite tablets of the wall, about the lot, are the names of many sol- 
diers in letters of gold, 1 M. from Forest Hills, and a like distance 
from IMattapan, on the New York & New England Railroad, is the cemetery 

3G Jioute 3. 


of Mount Hope. This is in Dorchester, an ancient town wliich was united 
Willi Boston in 1870. Over its extensive area (wliicli is bounded on one 
side by tlie Bay) are scattere<l several villages and hundreds of country 
residences. The natural scenery is picturesque, and is diversified by hills 
and forests. A^ Moeting-IIouso Hill is the old chiuch, with u .".oldier's 
monument on the green before it. At Grove Hall (horse-cars from the Tre- 
mont House or Temple PL), amid ami)le grounds, are the handsome 
buildings of the Consumi)tives' Home, an institution founded by Dr. 
Cullis in 1862, to receive and relieve iiersons afilicted with the scourge of 
New England. It is sui)i)orted (like the Bristol Or]>hanage), by imso- 
licited donations in answer to prayer to the Divine Guardian, and the 
invalids are "freely received in the name of the Lord." 

Bozbury {Norfolk House, a large and comfortable old hotel, on Eliot 
Square). Horse-cars from Park-St. Church to Eliot S(i., &c. 

Roxbury, an ancient city, almost coeval with Boston, was united with 
that city in 1868. In 1775 the Rhode Island forces built here that i)ower- 
ful fort which Washington pronounced the best in the siege-lines, and 
which seriously galled the Royalists in Boston. Upon the hill occujtied 
by this fort is now the stand-pipe of the water-works, where the Cochi- 
tuate water is forced up through a boiler-iron tube to a height of 240 ft. 
above tide-marsh level, and hence supplies the highest floors in the city. 
The tower is a lofty and very graceful structure, with a fine view from the 
summit, wliich, however, is usually closed. Eliot St^. is the central point 
in Roxbury, and here is the building of the first (Unitarian) church, the 
society to which Eliot preached in the Puritan era. For the rest, the 
hilly streets of Roxbury are made beautiful by the villas of the city 
merchants and by several i)retty churches, of which the venerable St. 
James' Church, with its massive Saxon tower, is most attractive, r -, , 

Besides General Warren, who died on Bunker Hill, there were also born at Rox- 
bury Mujor-General Heath, of the Continental Army, and Joseph Dudley, gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, 1702-15, while Thomas Dudley, long time governor, and 
inajor-general between 1G30-53, had his estates and mansion here. 

John Eliot, "the Ai)ostle to the Indians," was pastor of the church in " Rocks- 
bury" from 1G32 to lO'JO. Firmly believing that the Indians were descended Ironi 
the ten lost tribes of Israel, he made every effort for their conversion. Acquiring 
their language, he translated into it the Bible (1663), catechism, Baxter's Call, &c., 
and preached frequently to those villages of "praying Indians which he estab- 
lished and protected through the war of 1675-76. Utterly improvident in his 
charities, he would sometimes give away his whole salary on the day of its re- 
ceipt, and it was only by Mrs. Eliot's care and economy that his four sons were 
educated at Harvard, and were ranl<ed afterwards ' with the best preachers of their 
generation.' " When the old hero had become helpless, the church continued his 
salary several years, until his death. 



. " - 3. Boston to New York. 

Via Old Colony Railroad and Fall River steamers in 10 to 12 hrs., leaving Bos- 
ton at 4.. 30 or 6.30 P. M. Fare, $5. The railroad station is on the comer of 
Kneeland and South Sts. (PI. 36). 


Routed. 37 


The train soon crosses Fort Point Channel, and runs through S. Bos- 
ton and Dorchester. 

Until Neponset (6 M. out) is passed, the road runs through the south- 
ern villages of the Dorchester district of Boston. The Neponset River is 
crossed, and then comes {Ixiinoj {Hancock House, $2), a large agricultural 
town, much of whose land is in the estates of the illustrious families of 
Adams and Quincy. In the Adams Temjjle, a j)lain granite church oppo- 
site the fine town-hall, are monuments to the Adamses, while beneath tho 
church the two Presidents of that name aro buried. A handsome granito 
shaft, with appropri-ite symbols, was raised in 1868 in memory of 113 
soldiers of Quincy who died in the War for the Union. About \ M. from 
the Hancock Iloufee is the plain old mansion of the Adams family, tho 
Quincy House being 1 M. beyond. Squantum Point (Old Sipiantum House), 
between Quincy and Dorchester Bays, was the home of Chickatabut, 
Sachem of Massachusetts, and of S<iuantum, the firm Iriend of the Pil- 
grims, who, when dying, desired Governor Bradford to pray for him " that 
he might goto the Englishman's God in heaven." Squantum Point is con- 
nected with Boston by steamers (in summer), and is famous for its chow- 
ders, reviving the memory of the olden time when, for scores of years, the 
Bostonians met here annually for a "Pilgrim Feast." Hough's Neck 
{Great Hill House), not far from Quincy, projects into Boston Harbor, bo- 
t\/eeri Quincy and Weymouth Bays. W. of the village are the high hills 
ol' Qunicy and Milton, whence is obtained that excellent sienitic granite 
which is used for permanent works in nearly every American city. This 
range is several miles long and, in places, 600 ft. high, and is nearly a 
solid mass of pure granite. The first American railway was operated here 
in 1 826, when horses drew the stone on cars over wide wooden tram- ways, 
from the quarry to the river (3 M.). Each horse drew 20 tons of granito 
besides the car. •• , . 

In 1844, 100,000 tons were quarried here by 800 men, under 20 com- 
panies. At present the works are carried on on a much larger scale. 

John Adams, born Quincy, 1756, was a Ann opponent of the Stamp Act, do- 
fender of Captiiin Preston and his soldiers in the so-called " Boston Massacre " 
trial, and Congressman, 1774-77. In 1776, as leader of the committee on tho 
Declaration of Independence, he fought the Declaration through Congress in a 
three days' debate. In 1778, 1779, and 1782, he visited Paris on a special mis- 
sion, and in 1782 was chosen ambassador to Holland. In 1785-88 ho was minister 
to England. He was the first Vice-President, and in 1796 was elected President 
by the Federalists, defeating Jefferson, the Republican candidate, and succeeding 
Washington. From 1801 to 1826 he lived on Ids estate in Quincy, and died on 
the same day as Jefferson, — July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversaiy of the Declaration 
of Independence. 

John Quincy Adams, son of John Adams, born Quincy, 1767. He remained 
in Europe most of the time between 1778 and 1785, then graduated at Har- 
vard, and became a lawyer and publicist. He was successively minister to Hol- 
land, England, and Prussia, 1794 - 1801. A United States senator 1803 - 8 ; in 1809 
he became minister to Russia, and later was appointed minister to England. Secre- 
tary of State, 1817-25, in the latter year he was elected President of the United States 

38 Route 3. 


(th« Cth). From 1831 to 1848 he was in Cojifjrcss, and «liefl st>dtl»mly in the 
Capitol ^1848), his la«t words beinj^. "This is tiie last of earth ; I am contrnt." 
Under his inliuence (as Secretary of State or President) great national worlds were 
carried on ; Florida was added to the Union ; and the Soutli American repulilics 
were recognized. An opponent of the extension of slav(!ry, anil a powerful advo- 
cate of tlie rigiit of petition, his powers eontinued until the last, und won for him 
tlie title of " tlic Old Man Elorpient." 

Charles Francis Adams, his son, was born in Boston in 1807, and long lived in 
Europe. lie was one of tlie founders of the present Uepublican party, was some- 
time a Con^jrcssman, and in 1801 received the hereditary office of minister to 
England, lie held tiiis i)osition until 1.H08, — an arduous duty, since, during this 
time, the (nnollicial but elllcient) English sympathy with the Rebel Stiites re- 
cpured sleepless vigilance on his part. In 1872 he was one of the (uunmissioners 
to Geneva (for tlie settlement of the " Alabama" trouble), and conducted his i)art 
of the work with great sliill. 

John Hancock, born Quincy, 17'57, be(!ame a wealthy Boston merchant, and 
early opposed the aggressions of Parliament, st) that he and Samuel Adams alone 
were excepted from the general pardon which General CJage offered to the 
Americans. Sometime i*i'esidcnt of the Provincial Congress, in 1775 he was 
Presiilent of the Continental Congress, and was the first to sign the Declaration 
of Independence. Later he be< ime an otllcer in the uiilitia, and was governor of 
Massachusetts 1780-85, and 17S7-93. 

This district was firs^^ settled by Weston's company (1622), and Wollaston's 
(1G25), at a jdace called Merry Mount) where their conduct was so opposed to 
the principles of the Pilgrims that Miles Standish marched from Plymouth against 
these jovial Episcopalians, and sent tlieii- iliicfs captive to England. In 1630 
the Plymouth forces made another daniagi::'.; .ittack on Merry Mount. Thomas 
Morton, of this colony, who was twue bani ined to England, and once imprisoned 
for one year by tlie Plymouth govcniment, wrote the " New English Canaan," iii 
which he gives the following account of the aborigines: "The Indians maybe 
rather accompted as living richly, wanting notiiing that is needful ; and to be 
comnicnded for leading a contented life, the younger being ruled by the elder, and 
the elder ruled by the Powahs, and the Powahs are ruled by the Devill, and then 
you may imagine what good rule is like to be amongst them." This curiously 
agrees with Cotton Mather's theoi-y that "the Indians are under the special pro- 
tection of the Devill." 

Tlic next station is Braintree (village not near railroad), an ancient 
farming town. This is the junction of the South Shore Railroad (see 
Route 4). At S. Braintree, 2 M. farther on, the Plymouth Branch Rail- 
road diverges to the E. 

Stations, Randolph, Stoughton, Poiikapaug (Briggs' Hotel), shoe-man- 
ufacturing towns. Stations, N. Easton, Boston, Raynham, where the 
Leonard brotliers set up tlie first forgo in America, in 1652. 

TaxLnton {Citi/ Hotel, $3 a day, on the Green) was founded by Miss 
Elizabeth Pool, a pious Puritan lady, of Taunton, in Somersetshire. The 
§,ettlement was on the territory of Coliannet, and King Philip was friendly 
to the Tauntonians until midsummer of 1676, when he attacked the place, 
and was driven off and followed sharply until he was killed. In 1810 
there were but 50 houses hei'e, but the water-power of the river soon 
induced the location of factories, until at the present time it is a large 
manufacturing city, with 18,6.30 inhabitants. Mason's Locomotive Works 
cover 10 acres and employ 800 men, and the works of the Taunton Car Co. 
are also extensive. The Tack Companies make 700 varieties, from a heavy 
boat-nail down to microscopic tacks weighing 4,000 to the ounce. In 



Route S. 39 

1871, 18,000,000 Itvicks wen; nia<le hero. The Taunton Copper Co. covers 
If) acres witli their l)iii]<lings, and works up M, 000,000 or 4,000,0(K) pounds 
of copper yearly. There arc also 11 foundries, and manufactories of 
screws, stove-linings, and lead-works, larj?e i Titon-mills, and a famous 
manufactory of Britannia ware. With all thvi, the city is clean and or- 
derly, ami clusters around the central square called Taunton Green. 
There are 11) churches, of which St. Mary's (Catholic) on Broadway, St. 
Thomas (Episcopal), and the First Unitarian, on Church Green, are 
tine stone structures. The latter is a large, raml)ling, Saxon-towered 
chuii'h, which looks like some secluded parish-church of Merrie England 
which was built before the Comjuest. The City Hall fronts on Church 
Green, and the Public Library is next to thi* rude stone churcli (Congrega- 
tional) on Broadway. The extensive buildings of the State Lunatic Asy- 
lum are near Taunton Green, surrounded l>y pleasant grounds. The 
Green is about l.\ M. from the Old Colony Station. 

Stations, Weir Jam t ion, Weir, N. iJightnn, Dighton. Near the latter 
place, on the opposite shore, is the famous Digliton Rock, — a long 
mass of granite with rude sculptures and inscriptions upon it (copied and 
published in the Aritiquitates Americance, Copenhagen), which some schol- 
ars refer to the Norsciueu in the 11th century, while President Stiles 
speaks of " the Pluonicians, who charged the Dighton Rock, and other 
rocks in Narragansett Bay, with Punic inscriptions which remain to this 
day." It is said that uear this place a skeleton was found (in 1834) with 
a brazen belt and breastplate, which is probably the same which inspired 
Longfellow's fine poem, "The Skeleton in Armor." Station S<tinerset, then 

Fall River {City Hotel, Mount Hope Hotel, Union House), an ener- 
getic and glowing city, which enjoys a rare combination of great water- 
power on the marghi of navigable waters . The river rises in the Watuppa 
Ponds on the highlands 2 M. E. of the city, and falls 130 ft. in less 
than half a mile. Along this incline immense factories are drawn up like 
platoons in a marching regiment, built across the stream and resting on 
the granitic banks on either side. Over ^ 10,000,000 are invested in these 
works, and 10,000 persons are employed in them. The great article of 
luanufacture is cotton cloth, and more spindles are here engaged upon 
that work than in any other city in America. Most of the mills are now 
run l^y steam-power. Large quarries of granite are worked in the vicin- 
ity of the city, and many of its edifices, including come of the factories, 
two or three churches, and the City Hall, are built of that material. 
The city is compactly built, and fronts on Mount Hope Bay, across which 
Mount Hope looms into view. On South and North Main Sts. are the 
principal churches, the City Hall, Post Office, and hotels, and from the 
City Hall a group of parallel factories stretches westward and downward 
to the Bay. Fall River was formerly divided by the Rhode Island line, 

40 Route 3. 



but a change of boundary, ceding to that State hiwh a))out I'awtucket, 
&c., secured to MassachuHetts all of Fall Uiver, which in utill called the 
" Border City." Uh j)o|)ulation in 1870 wa.s 2(?,768. 

The eastern and western divisions of the Old Colony Railroad unitvi 
near Fall River, run down through the town of Tiverton, and cross a 
narrow strait at Bristol Ferry to Rhode Island. The track runs down the 
western shore, and v.ndu at Newport, in ID M. from Fall River, ^'he 
Fall River, Warren, and Providence Railroad runs N. W. from Fall River 
tf» I'rovidenco. 

The palatial steamers, leaving Fall River in the early evening, make 
their first stop at 


Hotels. — Oocnn TTonso, Atlnntic IIoiiso, Pnrry House, Aqnidneok House, 
8;<..'iO a day; ^'M a week; lIiiiUMl Ht«t(!H, I'nrU, Touro. Tlu" CUM" House and 
CVitt'iKcs are near tlic F'irst Hcacli ; tlie foicijL;ii ministers and sonic European 
visitors <hv('ll in seclusion at Perrici's. Uoanling-liouscsutKl cottages are nunmr- 
U8, and frequently offer far more (juiet and restl'ulness than the hotels, together 
with less expense. 

KeaditiK-rooms. — At the Redwood Library ; at the Free Library, on 
Thames Street ; also at the Club-House (private), corner Bellevue Avenue 
and Church Street. 

Churches. — Baptist, on Spring', Farewell, and Clark Streets ; Catholic, St. 
Mary's, Spring St. ; CoUKreKatioiialist, SpriuK St. ; Methodist Episcopal, Marl- 
boro St., Thames St. ; Hpiscopal, Trinity, Church St. ; Zion, Emmanuel, All 
Saints (Dr. Potter), Beach St. ; Unitarian, Mill St. 

Carriages an<l .saddle-horstis may be obtained at the Atlantic House stables. 
Downing St. L. I). Davis, No. 13 Cluireh St., attends to the rtiutal of the Cliff 
Cottages and otliei"s. 

Bathing, on First Beach. During the hours wiieii the white flag floats bath- 
ing m costunu! is obligatory. Wlule the red flag is displayed, the beach is re- 
served for gentlemen. 

Stages run to First Beach and other points at regular liours. 

Steamboats run to Rocky Point and Providence four times daily (in summer), 
excursion tickets, 75c. ; to Wickford (connecting with Shore Line R. R. for New 
York), 3 times daily; to Narragan.sett P'er, 3 times daily. The magnificent 
steamers of the Fall River I-ine to New Yc touch at Newport every evening on 
their way to New York (fare §4). 

Railroads. — The Old Coh)ny, to Boston, 67 nules, fare, §2. Via Wickford 
(by steam-ferry) and Shore Line to New York, ISO miles. 

'rhe harbor of Newport was first visite«l (during the historic epoch) by Verraz- 
zain, a noble Florentine, who was sent with the frigate Daujjhin, by King Francis 
I. of France, to explore the American coast. IK- remained two weeks here, re- 
titting his ship, resting his men, and preijaring reports for his royal master. The 
Dutch and English explorers visited the place occasionally, until in 1639 the settle- 
ment was made by exiled dissenters from the State church of Puritan land. These 
embraced Baptists, Aidinomiaus, and many Quakers, and Rhode Island had such 
a consequent air of heterodoxy and irregularity about it that it was excluded from 
the league of the United Colonies, although it had received a royal charter in 
1665. So late as the beginning of the present century, J^resident Dwight attrib- 
uted the laxity of morals in Stonington to "its nearr.ess tO Rhode Island." So 
the little colony di'ew in its outlying settlements, fortified Providence, and main- 
tained armed vessels cniising about Rhode Island throughout King Plulip's War, 
80 that no hostile Indian landed on the shores of the "Isle of Peace." 

Anawan, the chief captain of King Philip, and 60 of his bravest warriors, sur- 
rendered to Captain Church after the death of Philip, being promised amnesty. 
The broken-hearted chief delivered up his sovereign's rude regalia, and all accom- 
panied Church to Newport, where, shortly after, in Church's absence, he was pcr- 




^*- i 

II , 

4, I 

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ii i 



t'<). /',/•/ Aiiants 












'■'■''-«,. :.{; , 

. 1 



Route 3. 


fldiously beheaded. The chief Tispaquin and liis men also surrendered to Church 
under solemn pledges of pardon and aiimesty, but the murder of this patriotic 
leader was reserved for the people of Plymouth. 

In 1629-31 Dean Berkeley gave a high literary tone to the colony, and organized 
a philosophic society and scientiiic discussions. The harbor of Newport was 
fortified in 1733. The royal census of 1730 reported 4,640 inhabitants in the town. 
In 1769-70 Ne>vport stood second only to Boston in the extent of its commerce, 
being far ahead of New Yorlv. Its population in 1774 was l'2,o00, and in 1870 it 
was 12,518. In Dec, 1776, the town was captured by a British exi)edition from 
New York, and was held until Nov., 1779. Lord Pen^y commanded here until 
he was summoned to England to assume the Dukedom of Northumberland. 
Tlie Hessian Waldeck regiment (1,500 men) formed part of the garrison, and 
Admiral Howe's fleet wintered here, 1777-78, and returned here after its battle 
with D'Estaing's fleet off Point Judith. Later in the year D'Estaing made a 
daring demonstration, which caused the British to burn six frigates before the 
town. Sullivan and Green advanced down the island in Aug., 1778, but were 
forced to retire, after an indecisive action. In Nov.. 1779, the Anglo-Hessian 
army evacuated the place, having destroyed the wharves, fortifications, &c. 
In 1779 D'Estiiing worsted Admiral Arbuthnot in a jvetty action off Gardiner's 
Island, and then returned to Newport. In July, 1780, a large fleet, commanded 
by the Chevalier de Ternay, " Kniglit of St. John of Jerusalem, (iovernor of the 
Islands of France and Bourbon," Sc, appeared in the harbor, bringing 
the Count de Rocliaml)eau and 6,000 French soldiers (the regiments Bour- 
bonnais, Agenois, Royal Auvergne, de Saintouge, Royal Deux-Ponts, Touraine, 
Soissonais, &c.). Among his officers were Aubert Dubayet, who afterwards was 
gen. commanding Mayence and in La Vendee, and in 1796 was Minister of War ; 
Count d'Autichamp, afterwards an emvjre who served in all Conde's cam- 
paigns ; Viscount Beauharnais, afterwards President ol the Frencli Assembly and 
Minister of War, who was guillotined in 1794. His son Eugene became Viceroy 
of Italy, and his widow, Josephine, became Empress of Franco ; Berthier, af- 
terwards Marshal of France and I'rince of Neufchatel and Wagram, created by 
Louis XVIII. a Peer of France, and assassinated at liamberg in 1815; Viscount 
de Bethisy, afterwards lieut.-gen. in the army of Conde ; Christian, Count 
of Forbach, and William, his successor, fought in the Royal Deux Pouts regi- 
ment ; Count Axel Fersen, later Grand Marshal of Sweden ; Viscount de Fleury, 
later Marshal of France ; tlie Duke de Lauzun, who cdmmr nded the Army of the 
Rhine and of La Rochelle, defeated the royalist La Vendee, and was guillotined 
in 1794 ; Viscount de Noailles ; Marquis de Cliastellux ; Viscount Laval, and his 
son, afterwards the Duke .1". Laval ; Viscoimt de Mirabeau, colonel of the regi- 
ment La Touraine, brother of the great Mirabeau ; Count du Muy ; Chevalier de 
Mauduit-Plessis ; Marquis de Vlomenil ; Viscount de Fleury ; Count de Dumas ; 
Chevalier Dupertail ; Duke de Damas ; Viscount Desandrouins ; Ar^liur Count de 
Dillon, who defeat d the Prussiaus at Argonne and Verdun, and was guillotined in 
1794 ; Marquis deDubouchet ; Baron Turreau ; Baron Viomenil ; Victor de Broglie ; 
Count de Custine, a veteran of e Great Frederick's Seven Year's War, afterwards 
governor of Toulon, commandei of the Army of tlni North, and of the Lower 
Rhine, and guliotined in 1793. 

In 1781 the Cli' valier de Tilly broke uj) Arnf)ld's rai ling fleet in the Chesapeake, 
and brought the Ronuilus," 44, and six other priziis into Newport. Through- 
out the war, New^ rt was rudely handled and gradually demolished, until Brissot 
de Warville, visitin tlie place in 1788, sa'd that it resembled Liege after tlie great 
siege. "Tlie reign solitude is only iiitLn-ruptod by groujis of idle men standing 
witli folded arms at tlie (corners of tie streets ; houses falling to ruin ; miserable 
shops wliich present nothing but a few coarse stuff's, or baskets of apples, and 
other things of little value ; grass growing in the public .scpiare in front of the 
court of justice ; rags sti'H'ed in the windows, or hung upon hideous women and 
lean, unquiet children." At the close of ^le Revolt tion, the French government 
made strenuous ettbrts to have Rhode Island ceded to the domain of France. 
President Adams made a naval stJition here, fortified Avith six batteries. Dr. 
Samuel Hopkins, the founder of the Ilopkinsian scliool of theology ("System of 
Theology "), and hero of Mrs. Stowe's novel, "The Jtlinister's Wooing," preached 
at Newport, 1770 - 1803. Dr. Stiles, afterwards President of Y'ale College, preached 
here for many years. The population, which in 17S2 was reduced to ujySO, ros<; 
slowly until the war of 1812 stop] led its growth, and since ti>eu the progress of 

42 Route 3. 



Newport, has been slow and uneven. But this unprogressive and tranquil spirit 
<'onstitutes one of the charms of Newport, and makes of this quiet little marine 
city the Ostcnd, the Nice of America. 

William EUery Channiu},' was born at Newport in 1780 (died 1842). "The in- 
fluences of ilie climate and scenery of tlie island where his l)oyhood was passed, 
had no slight influence ujwn the social and moral attributes of his mind." He 
won the highest honors at Harvard University, and afterwards was i)astor of u 
Unitiirian Cliurch in Boston lor 37 years. He was an abolitionist, an anti- 
annexationist, and an advocate of peace, and his principles were sustained 
with fearless independence, ])lain-spoken fidelity, and a solenm and impressive 
manner. As the; leader of tlie liberal i)arty in the Unitarian controversy, his 
power was derived as much from the symmetrical beauty of his life as from the 
remarkable strength of liis writings. " He has the love of wisdom, and the wis- 
dom of love." — Coleridge, of Channiug. v,.i'i. 

Newport, "the Queen of American watering-places," and a semi-capi- 
tal of the State of Rhode I.sland, is on the S. W. sliore of the island 
from wliich tlie State is named, and fronts, across its liarbor, on Narra- 
gansett liay. Its older portion, lying near the wharves, has many narrow 
streets, bordered with the houses of the year-round residents, many of 
whicli are mansions of the old time. New Newport almost surrounds 
the old town, and stretches aAvay to the S. with a great number of 
handsome villas and cottages. The bathing and boating at Newport are 
fine, the drives over the " Isle of Peace" are varied and pleasant, but the 
cliief charm of the place is its balmy and equable climate, due, according 
to most opinions, to a divergence in this direction of the waters of the 
Gulf Stream. Dean 'Berkeley likened the atmosphere of Newport to that 
of Italy, while another writer speaks of the damp sea-air and equable 
climate as resembling those of England. Fogs are of frequent occurrence, 
but of short duration. There are many summer visitors from the South 
and the West Indies, while the array of literary talent wliich gatliers here 
yearly is quite attractive. Several of the ambassadors from Europe, with 
the nobles connected with the embassies, spend their summers here. The 
feature of private cottages is largely developed here, and hotel life is quite 
subordinate to it. Wealthy New York and Boston merchants move into 
their palatial villas early in the summer, and have tlieir horses and car- 
riages sent on, so that by Aug. 1 the broad, firm avenues, and the hard 
and level beaches are filled with cheerful life. 

Tlie central point in Old Newport is Washington Square, with its mall 
and fountain. Tlie State House fronts on this Square, — a plain but solid 
old building erected in 1742, wliich served as a hospital from 1776 to 1781. 
From its steps the Declaration of Independence was read, July 20, 1776, 
and in its Senate Chamber is a fine portrait of George Washington, by 
Stuart. Tlie City Hall, the Perry Hotel, and the mansion taken by 
Com. Perry after his victory at Lake Erie, all front on this Square. Gen. 
Washington passed through this Square on his way to Rochambeau's 
headquarters in his first visit to Newport. In the evening the town 
was illuminated, and Washington, Rocliambeau, and the French nobles 


Route 3. 43 

5 mall 




11, by 

u by 







paraded through the streets. Trinity Church (on Church St.) was 
hnilt in the early part of the last century, and was often preached in by 
Dean Berkeley (1729 to 1731). He presented an organ (vstill in use) to 
this church, and left a dearer token, one of his children, in the old church- 
yard. On Farewell St, is an ancient cemetery, where are buried many 
of the earliest colonists and their governors. The Jewish cemetery on 
Touro St. is a beautiful garden-spot kept in perfect order. Near it is 
the Synagogue, the first in the Union (built in 1762), and not now used, 
though kept in order by permanent endowments. The * Bedwood 
Library is south of the cemetery, in a handsome Doric building, dating 
from 1750. An elegant though small library is kept here, and some good 
paintings, together with some fine p'eces of statuary. The King of Eng- 
land gave 84 volumes to this library, and Dean Berkeley gave also a large 
number ; but when the evacuating British anny carried even the church- 
bells with them, they spared not the Redwood Library. Touro Park is a 
favorite resort, and was the gift of Judah Touro, born at Newport in 1775, 
the son of Isaac Touro, the pastor of the Jewish Synagogue. From 1802 
to 1854 he lived in New Orleans, wliere he amassed a large fortune which 
he left to various charities, mostly those of the Christian Church, though 
he himself was a Jew. "He gave $10,000 towards the Bunker Hill 
Monument." On this Park, surrounded by an iron fence, stands the 
* Round Tower, otherwise called the Old Stone Mill, an ivy-clad, circular 
stone tower supported on roimd arches. More battles of the antiqua- 
rians have been fought over this ancient tower than could well be num- 
bered, the radical theories of its origin being, on the one side, that it was 
built by the Norsemen in the 11th century, and on the other that a 
colonial governor (over perhaps 500 people), built it for a windmill in the 
17th century. Verrazzani spent 15 days in the harbor and exploring the 
land (1524), but makes no mention of this tower ; while, on the other hand, 
it is certain that the early colonists never built in such architecture or 
materials as are here seen. The only thing in favor of the mill theory is 
the fact that Gov. Benedict Arnold (died in 1678) bequeathes it in his 
will as "my stone-built windmill." The opening scenes of Cooper's 
"Spy "are laid in this vicinity ; and Longfellow's poem, "The Skeleton 
in Armor," has told its story. But " its history has already, in Young 
America, passed into the region of myth." Near the round tower stands 
the statue of Commodore M. C. Perry, who opened Japan to the world 

The Vernon House (corner Mary and Clarke Sts. ) w'<,s Rochambeau's 
headquarters in 1780. Also on Clarke St. is the Central Baptist Church, 
built in 1733, and next to it is the armory of the Newport Artillery Com- 
pany, an elite corps, formed in 1741. The first Methodist steeple in the 
world is on the church on Marlboro St. The Penrose House, on Churcli 

44 Route 3. 



>: \ ! 

St., a famous old colonial mansion, where Gen. Washington was once 
a guest, is now a tenement house, and the Channing Mansion (built 1720) 
is near Thames St. The First Baptist Church, on Spring St., dates from 
1638. In the office of the Mercury , a weekly paper started in 1758, is 
Ben. Franklin's printing-press, imported in 1720. The News is a bright 
daily newspaper. 

12 M. N. E. of Newport is the Stone Bridge which unites Rhode 
Island with the mainland at Tiverton. About 7 M. out is the Olen, a 
romantic spot, tree-shaded and (piiet, where an old mill stands near a 
small pond. This is a favorite drive for the Newpoi-t visitors, forming an 
easy afternoon's ride. A small hotel is situated 1-2 M. from the Glen, 
and a church in the vicinity was frequently preached in by Dr. Channing, 
**the Apostle of Unitarianism." 

6-7 M. from NcAvport, on a road running to the W. of the Stone 
Bridge highway, is Lawton's Valley, a beautiful rural resort, rich in 
verdure and in trees which are kept green by a bright stream llowing 
seaward. The Pond and Old Mill are the principal objects in the scenery. 
Over the valley is Butt's Hill, where Sir Robert Pigott attacked the Amer- 
icans under Sullivan and Green on their retreat from the siege. Pigott 
impulsively attacked the halting army, and was beaten back by them 
until nightfall, when the Americans Continued their retreat to the main- 
land, saving both their artillery and their stores. The British loss was 
260, while the New England militia lost 206 men. 3| M. from New- 
port, on this road, is the pretty little church of the Holy Cross, 
and near it is the farmhouse used by the British Gen. Prescott as 
heaqduarters. On the night of July 10, 1777, Lieut. -Col. Barton and 
a small party crossed Narraganset Bay in a boat, and took Prescott 
from his bed, carrying him into captivity. He was exchanged for 
Gen. Lee. 

The grand drive is on * Sellevue Ave., a clean, broad road, lined 
with villas, and running two miles to the S. Here, at the fashionable 
hour, passes a procession of elegant equipages only equalled in Central 
Park, Hyde Park, or the Bois de Boulogne. Many of the homes along 
this avenue are of palatial splendor, and they form a handsome panorama 
of architecture. Bailey's Beach is at the end of Bellevue Ave. ; and 
among the rocky cliffs on the shore near by is the Spouting Cave, a deep 
cavern running back from the sea, into which great Avaves crowd after a 
storm from the S. E. Unable to go farther, they break with a heavy 
boom, and dash upward through an opening in the roof, sometimes to a 
height of 40-50 ft. From the cliffs in the vicinity (near the Boat- 
House Landing) a noble sea-view is gained, stretching as far as Block 
Island, 30 miles S. W. The picturesque Gooseberry Island is nearer, 
in the foregroimd. "A finer sea-view — lit up, as it is, moreover, 

• ^ 


Route 3. 45 


Oram a 

: and 

'ter a 

to a 

by tlie ever truly fairy-like spectacle of ships gliding under sail over 
the waters — the eye can rarely witness." Narragansett Ave. runs at 
right angles with Belle vue Ave., and terminates on the E. at the Forty 
Steps (leading dowu tlie rocks). It is lined with fine houses. 

The * First Baach (about ^ M. from the Ocean House) is a strip of 
white sand, hard and smooth, extendiag for 1 M, in length and lined 
with batli-liouses. The slope of the shore is very gradual, . id the surf 
is light rather than lieavy, so that this is one of the safest beaches 
on the coast. It is a lively and brilliant scene liere during the hours 
of the white flag in warm days, and the beach is fringed with carriages. 
The Cliff Cottages are in this vicinity. 1 M. E. is the Second, or 
Sachuest Beach, whose "lianl black beach is the most perfect race- 
course, and the heaving of the sea sympathizes with the rider, and in- 
s[)ires him." The hours of low tide are the favoriiv- times to ride here. 
* Purgatory is at the W. end of Sachuest Beach. It is a wonderful 
chasm, 100 ft. long, 40 - 50 ft. deci), and 8-14 ft. wide at the top, torn 
out by upheaval or eaten by the waves, iu the graywacke rock. Several 
feet of water remain in the chasm at low tide, and in stormy high tides 
heavy masses of water boom through it. The familiar story of the 
Lover's Leap of course attaches to this place, but is antedated by the 
legend that the Devil once threw into it a sinful Indian sqxiaw, and his 
lioof-marks can be seen by all unbelievers. Other stories, of later date, 
attach to the Purgatory, but the origin of its name does not transpire. 
Paradise is a verdant valley adorned with cottages, opening off Sachuest 
Beach, and near it is a mass of rocks and upheaved boulders called Para- 
dise Lost. The Tiiird Beach is a long, quiet, and sequestered line of sand, 
above which are tlxe Hanging Books, where, in a sheltered natural alcove. 
Dean Berkeley loved to siL, and look out over the wide sea, and write dowu 
his meditations. 

Here he composed "Alciphron ; or the Minute Philosopher," a series of Platonic 
dialogues defending the Christian system. Here probably he wrote the noble 
lyric oudiug with tlio prophcy : — 

" Westward the course of empire takes its way, 
The four first acts already past, 
A fifth shall end the drama with the day. 
Time's noblest offspriug is the last." 

George Berkeley, Dean of Derry, a famous philosopher and idealist, conceived 
a plan for converting the Amcrictan Indians by a university, and came to New- 
port, under royal charter, in 1729. He built the mansion " Whitehall" (now 
a fiirmhouse), 3 M. from the town, but soon found that hi^ scheme was iin- 
jnacticable, and returned to England in 1731, giving his Newport estate and a fine 
library to Yale and Harvard Colleges. From 1733 until his death (in 1753) he was 
Uishop of Cloyue. 

AVashington Allston was fond of roaming on these beaches, and Dr. Channing 
once remarked (of First Beach), "No spot on earth has helped to form me so 
much as that beach." 

Saclmest Point is on the S. E. of the island, and is much visited by 

46 Jioute 3. 



To Miantonomi Hill, \\ M. from tho city, with its old British eartJi- 
works and noble view of Newport niiJ its environs, is a pleasant ex- 
cursion for a clear day. Honeynmn's Hill, near Miantonomi, is another 
far-viewing point. The old Malbone Estate (see "Malbone; a Romance 
of Oldport," by T. W. Higginson) was at the foot of Miantonomi Hill. 

The Pirates' Cave and Batenian's Point are often visited, being about 
4^ M. from the city, and a favorite drive is around the Neck, past 
Fort Adams, and along Ocean and Bellevue Aves. to the city again, the 
distance being little more than 10 M. 

Fort Adams, distant 34:-4 M. from the city (by Thames St. and WeU 
lington Ave.). This is the strongest (save two, Fortress Monroe and 
Fort Richmond) of the coast defences of the U. S., and mounts 408 can- 
non, requiring a garrison of 3,000 men. Its systems of covered ways, 
casemates, and otlier protective works, is comi)lete. The *' fort days," 
(twice weekly), when the garrison band plays its best music, attract 
great numbers of visitors, and many carriages pass the imposing granite 
walls, and wait on the parade. 

This fortress is on Brenton's Point, named for the noble family of that name. 
Wiiliuni Brenton was governor of the colony lGGO-69 ; his son, Jahleel, was a cus- 
toms officer under William III. ; his grandson, Jahleel, resided on the great family 
estates in the island ; his great-grandson, Jahleel, refused very tempting offers 
from the Americans, left his estates, which were afterwards contiscated, and com- 
manded the British frigate, the "Queen" ; his great-great-grandson, Jahleel, an 
English knight and rear-admiral of the Blue, died at Loudon in 1844. 

Opposite Fort Adams, on Conanicut Island, is an old stone fort, cir- 
cular in form, called the Dumplings. A flue marine view is enjoyed 
from this loftily i)laced ruin. 

Goat Island, opjiosite the city-wharves, is the headquarters of the 
torpedo division of the U. S. Naval Service. Here is the school in which 
the young officers of the navy are instructed in the torpedo service. Lime 
Rock is beyond Goat Island, and is famed for being the home of Ida 
Lewis, the American Grace Darling, who has saved many lives in this 
harbor. Hose Island is farther out in tlie Bay, and has the remains of an 
old fort upon it. Fort Green was built in 1798, near the Blue Rocks and 
the line of Washington St. On Coasiefs Harbor Island is a fine 
Asylum for the poor, on land left by Wm. Coddington, the founder of 
R. I., and for nine years its governor. 

Rhode Island was bought from the Indians in 1638. Its name was Aquid- 
necli, "The 1^'e of Pecice." The earliest discoverers named it Claudia, and a later 
exploring expedition from Holland, coming upon it in the autumn, when its forests 
Avere in bright colors, called it Rood Eylandt, the Red Island. Roger Williams 
tried to fasten the name " Patmos" upon it, but Rhode Island prevailed, derived, 
uecording to some, from its similarity to the Isle of Rhodes, a Moslem fortress in 
the E. Mediterranean. In that early day Neale called it "the garden of New 
England," and even now the Rhode Island farms are the most valuable in the six 
States. Olf its shores are cauglit 112 kinds of fish, ranging from whales to 
smelts. The island is 1;') M. long by 8-4 M. wide, and is "pleasantly laid 


! ;. 


Routes. 47 

lof the 



lot' Ida 

u this 

of an 

Iks and 

a fine 

der of 

] a later 
Iress in 
\i New 
Ithe six 
lales to 
lly laid 

out in hllla and valea and ri.Hing grdunds, with plenty of excellent springs* 
uud line liviilctd, and many deli^^litt'ul land.icapes uf tork, and proinuntui-ies, and 
adjacent lands." 

Malbone, the celebrated portrait-painter, was lM)rn at Newport in 1777, and Capt. 
Decatur, of the navy, was horn here in 17JI, whoso son was Stcithen Decatur, 
"the Bayard of the seas." 

After leaving Fall River, and touching at Newport., the steamer moves 
on steadily through the night, passing Point Judith, Block Island, and 
Fisher's Island, after wliich she enters the tranquil waters of Long Island 
Sound. At a very early hour the narrowing W. end of the Sound is 
entered, and the shores of Westchester County are passed on the N. 
Throgg's Point, on the r., bears Fort Scliuyler (318 guns), out on the 
Sound, which is mated hy a strong fortress on Willet's Point (opposite). 
After passing several villages, J"'lushing Bay opens to the 1., with the 
beautiful village of Flushing at its head! Richly cultivated islands and 
shores follow, up to Randall's Island, with the House of Refuge, and 
Ward's Island, with tlie Emigrant-Refuge and Hospital, and the Potter's 
Field, where 3,000 of the poor of New York are buried yearly. The 
steamer now enters Hell Gate, a wild and turbulent succession of strong 
currents and whirlpools, caused by the action of immense bodies of water, 
in the changes of the tide, t)cing poured through this narrow and sinuous 
strait, which abounds in rocky islets and sunken ledges. The passage .of 
this point was fonnerly ditlicult and dangerous, and two or three British 
frigates were wrecked here during our wars. But immense ledges have 
l)een removed by submarine blasting, and now but little danger remains. 
Astoria and Ravensv/ood are beautiful villages soon passed on the Long- 
Island shore, after -which Blackwell's Island comes into view, with its 
long lines of charitable and correctional establishments. The N. point 
of this island is occupied by a neat little model of a fort, with a fonnid- 
able array of wooden cannon, called Fort Maxey or the Crazy-Man's Fort. 
It was built by an Irish lunatic named Ma.xey, who has lived many years 
here, and claims a great sum from the government for his defense of New 
York. The octagonal building, with two long wings, is the Lunatic 
Asylum. One wing is reserved for each sex, while the more noisy 
maniacs are kept in a separate building on the E. The Work-Houses 
come next, wliere willing hands which can find no work, and vagrants, 
wlio will not do honest labor, are furnished with appropriate work. The 
extensive Alnis-Houses, with the handsome house of the Superintendent, 
come next, being divided into male and female departments. Then the 
extensive Penitentiary and Charity-Hospital are passed, and, on the lower 
end of the island, the ornate building of the Small-Pox Hospital. These 
structures are all of granite, quarried here bj'- tlie convicts, and probably 
there is no cluster of such institutions, in the same space, in the world, 
wliich combine so much of safety, comfort, and practical influence for 
correction and restraint. Deep ship-channels run on each side of the 

4 <l 



48 Jtuule 4. 


island, and on the Manlmttan sliore, opposite its centre, is the great 
German Festival-CJardcn, called Jones' Wood. Hunter's Point and 
Groonpoint are now passed on the left, antl a long line, on both sides of 
the East River, of foundries and factories. Then comes Williamsburg 
with its shipyards. On the 1., and beyond it, fronting on Wallabout 
Bay, is the Brooklyn Navy- Yard, the principal naval-station of the 
Union, wliere several U. S. frigates may usually be seen. Crowded 
wharves now stretch into the stream on each side, with forests of 
masts, while fleet and powerful tug-ltoats dart to and fro in the river, and 
the crowded and ever busy ferry-boats cross and recross it. The works 
of the great East-River Bridge are seen near Fulton Ferry in Brooklyn. 
Wiiere Brooklyn bends olf to the S. W., the steamer turns to the 
W., and passes Governor's Island on the 1. This island l)elongs to 
the government, and its centre is occupied by Fort Columbus, a low-lying 
but powerful star- fort, mounting 120 guns. A water-battery on the 
S. W. commands the channel toward Brooklj'n, and a tall, semi-cir- 
cular fort with tliree tiers of gnus, cjilled Castle William, looks toward 
the Battery. The steamer now rounds tlic Battery, the tree-shaded 
lower extremity of Manhattan Island. This was once a favorite park, 
but is now neglected. The curious ro' ' building at the water's edge 
was built in 1807 by the government, a.^ a fortress, under the name of 
Castle Clinton. At a later day great fairs and concerts were held here, 
and it is now used as an emigrant depot. On the 1., Ellis, Bedloes, an^ 
Staten Islands are seen, and Jersey City and Bergen. Passing up the 
North River the boat soon enters its dock at the foot of Chambers Hi, 
(see New York). 

4. Boston to S. Duxbury. 

Via Old Colony and South Shore Railroads. Distance, 39 M. Time, 

Boston to Braintree, see Route 3. Stations, E. B -'n'ntree, Weymouth, 
WeBsasoBset (Weymouth Hotel), 12 M. from Boston, a town of 9,000 in- 
habitants, was settled at an early date by 60 Episcopalians. Here, in 
1623, occurred the terrible attack of Miles Standish on the assembled In- 
dian chiefs, whose justifiableness has not yet been proven clearly. The 
scene is well described in the 7tli part of " The Courtship of Miles Stand- 
ish," by Longfellow. After this affair, the Episcopalian colonists left, 
and in 1624 a company moved in from Weymouth, in Dorsetshire, Eng. 
who gave its name to tlie town. 

Stations jV. Weymouth, E. Weyyiiovth, W. IlingJiam, HingJuim (see 
Route 2), Nantasket, and Cohasset. The latter is a small town with 
a quaint old church on its green. Tlie rocky shores and resounding 
inlets along the ocean front are very picturesque, and are adorned 
with fine villas. 

r : 


liQut,^ 4. 4U 


No district In America yields sudi quant, -s of Iiisli moss as do thn short>9 of 
C'nliasHot and Meiluute. On tliesc s.iii.e " hard ait- nitic rofk.s, which tlio waves 
li.ivo laid bare but liave not bi'eii ;ible to ciinrdile," in Oct., 184'.t, the emigrant 
vessel "St. Juiin " was wrecki'd, and niany scores of itasscngrrs were lost. "The 
si'a-luthin.;.? at C<'t llocks was [»erlV<'t. Tim water was piirt^rand more trans- 
l)areut tliaa any I liad (n-er st't-n. 'V\n\ smootli and fiiutastically worn rtx'lts, and 
tlm iM'rfectiy clean and tress like rock-weeds falliiiK over you, and attached so 
firndy to tlie ro'ks tliat you enuld imll yoinsclf up liy them, greatly erdiauced the 
luxury of the bath." — Thoreati. Capt. Jnlju Smitli, wiien passing' liy one of rocky prDmontories, in Kill, was attack''! by tlie Indians with arrows, 
whereupon lie .says, " We !• 'iind tiie people in tliost puts verie ki ide ; Ijut in tlieir 
furie no le.sse valiant." 

At N. Cohiv.sset are tlio Black Rock and Rockville Houses, while 

the Pleasant Beach House is south of these, and on a point near Minut'.s 

Ledge is the extensive Glades House. Minot's Ledge is a dangerous 

reef far out from the shore. In 1849. a on iron piles was 
built here, but this was swejit away in the great storm of April, 1851, 
and its keepers were lost. The ])resent lighthouse (8 M. from Boston 
Light) is 88 ft. high, of wliicli the lower 10 ft. are of solid masonry. 
Stations N. Scltuatt , Eiji/pt, Scituate (South Shore House), a <piiet 
old marine village looking out on the ocean through a wide harbor-mouth 
scarce a mile away. Cliff St. leads up on an eminence whence a lino 
view is gained of the sea, and the singular and desolate bluffs in the S. 
Near by is Peggotty Beach, with good batliiug, but no hotel. 

Station, South Scituate (far-viewing hotel on the bhdl's near the R. R.), 
JC. Mdi's/ijirhl, LUtlettnra, Marshjiiid Centre. 

Marsh field station is about 4 M. from the seaside resort of Brant 
Rock (several small hotels). Carriages are usually in waiting at the sta- 
tion to carry travellers to Brant Rock, or to the Webster Estate (2 M.). 
The Webster Mansion is a large, autKjue, and pleasant house, approached 
from the road l)y a long, curving avenue lined with trees. By the courtesy 
(jf the present possessors of tlie estate, travellers are permitted to go 
through the !u)use (gratuity to servants, 50 cts. ). The various apart- 
ments of the house, low, broad, and wainscotted, are filled with old paint- 
ings and relics. The library, a higli and graceful room on the N. wing, 
contains the books and wiixwy interesting mementos of the statesman, 
together with au interpolated bust of Pope Pius IX. ^ M. S. of the 
Webster Mansion (passing, on the 1., a French-roofed house, where lives 
Adelaide Phillips, the celebrated contralto), at the end of the road, is 
the old Winslow House, built and inhabited by the Pilgrim Gov. Winslow 
in tlie 17th century. 

A road turning to the 1. from the main road just N. of the Webster farm, and 
running toward the sea, leads in a few minutes to an ancient burying-ground 
on au ocean-viewing hill. The flrst graves reached are those of the Webster family: 
Daniel, and his sons, ^ Major Edward, died in the Mexican War, and Col. Fletcher 
Webster (li2th Mass. Infantry), killed at the battle of Bull Run, 18G2. 

Daniel Webster, born at Salisbury, N. H., Jan. 18, 187-', was in the class of 
1801 at Dartmouth College, and afterwards became a lawyer. His matchless elo- 
quence and vast ability carried him rapidly forward, and he l>ecame a Cougress- 

3 D 


» ,; 

; •* 




00 lioute 4. BOSTON TO b. DUXBUUY. 

man (1813 -17, and 182:$ -27), a Senator (1827-^9, anU 1845 -r.O). and Secretary 
of State (1840 -4H, and 1800-52.) " Tlie famous Uartu>outh CoUegu uuse. t-Hrrifd 
by ajUM^ttl to Wa«liin}^ton in 1817, pluoed liini in tlu- front rank of tliu American 
Imr. Among tlm groat t-asis argued l»y liiiu l^i-lino tin- U. S, Supreme Court 
were those of (iildioiiH and Ogdni (steamltoat monoixily case), that of Ogden 
and Saunders (StJtto ins(dvi'rd laws), Uw. Oharies Kiver Hndg«^ case, llio Alabama 

liunk ease, the (jirard Will '-ase, and tiie lihode Island Ciiarter case I)ec. 

22, 1.S20, he (hdivend Ids cleiirated discourse at I'lymouth on tlie anniversary 
of the landing of tius I'ilgiims. Others of tlds class of ellbrts were that on the 
laying of tiu; <'orner-stoMc of the Hunker Hill Moniimeui (.June 17, 1825), and 
at its completion (.June J7, isi,}), ami tlie eulogy on Adams and Jellersfm, July 4, 
1826. He again entered (Joiigress in Dec., IH-'.'t ; mad^ his famous sjjeeidi on 
th(! (ireek Revolution ; and, as chairman of the judiciary > umuuttee, reported and 
carried through tiie House .1 couiplete rcvisiitii c'" tiic criminal code of the U. 
B. In the lyth Congress he made a masterly siieecli on the jiroposed diplo- 
matic Ccmgiess at ranania His great si)eech in reply to Huyne, delivered 

In the Senate Jan. 20 and 27, 18;iU, on Kootc'.s resolution, has been decured, 
next to the (Jonstitution itself, tlie most correct and coiiij)lcte exposition of tiie 
true powers and I'unctions of the Federal (ioverniiient." As Secretary of State 
under Tyler and Filiiiiorc, he settled tlu; Northeaslcni IJoumlary (piestion (Ash- 
burton Treaty). " Mr. Wel)ster'3 person was imposing, of commanding height, 
and well-proportioned, tlie head of great 8i/.(^ the eye <leep-seated, large, and lus- 
trous, his voice deei) and sonorous, bis action ajipropiiatc and imi>ressive." His elo- 
quence on gr(!at occasions has bcien called "the llglitniiigof passion running along 
tne iron links of argument." He was very fond of rural life, of farming, and of 
fishing and hunting. On the 21th of Oct., LSrj2, at his home in Marshlield, died 
Daniel VVeb.ster, the foremost man in New England's history 

Near the Webster MonuiiK^nt is an iron-railed bjt, containing the tombs of 
"The Ibmblo. Josiah Winslow, CJov. of New riyniouth. Dyed December ye 18, 
1080, atatis, G2." " i'eiielope, ye widdow of Cov. Winslow," and others. 

Edward Winslow came in the " Maytlower," and was governor of I'lymouth in 
1633, '36, and '41. He was a warm friend of tlie Sacliem Massasoit. In 1G35, 
while Plymouth's agent. Archbishop Jjaud imi)risoiied him 17 weeks in the Fleet 
Prison for heretical acts. He died in 1665, wliihs in partial sujierintendence of a 
fleet sent by Cromwell against the Spaniards. From Edwanl's biotiier was de- 
scended John A. Winslow, rear-admiral U. S. navy, who fought in the Mex- 
ican War, and in the Western river S(iuadrons, 1S61-G3. June lit, 1804, com- 
manding the " Kearsaye," he was attacked off Cherbourg by the Confederate war 
steamer, the "Alabama." The vessels were of aliout tlie same strength, but so 
skilfully was the " Kearsage " protected and nianujuvred that her opponent was 
sunk within sight of the crow(li;d French coast. 

Josiah Winslow, son of Edward, was born at Marshlield in 1020, commanded the 
colonial armies tlirough King Piiiliji's War, and was the lirst native-born governor 
(1673-1080). His grandson, John Winslow, binn at Marshlield, 1702, a brave and 
able officer, " was tlie principal actor in the tragedy of tlie expulsion of the hap- 
less Aeadians from Nova Scotia in 17")5 ; and it is a singular fact that, 20 years 
after, nearly every person of Winslow 's lineage was, for political reasons, by the 
force of events, transplantetl to the very soil from which the Acadiaus were ex- 

After Mar.slifieUl are the stations Webster Place, Daxhury (Hollis 
House), and S. Duxbury. 

Duxbury was allotted to John Alden (youngest of the Pilgrims, whose great 
grandson commanded the 7th Mass. Continental Regt., and was killed in battle at 
Cherry Valley), and to Miles Standish. The Bradfords also settled here, and Alden 
Bradford, theauthor, and Gamaliel Bradford, colonel of the 14tli Mass. Regt. through 
the war for independence, were born here. Duxbury was so named from its be- 
ing the home of the military chief (dux) of the colony. Standish lived on Cap- 
tain's Hill, in S. Duxbury, u far-viewing eminence 180 ft. high, and sur- 
rounded on 3 sides by the waters of the Bay. In Oct., 1872, imposing cere- 
monies were held on this hill, and a costly monument (to be finished late in 
1878) was dedicated to the Pilgrim soldier. ' A line view of Plymouth and the 

!, cRnicil 
lie Court 

. . D.m;. 
ut oil the 
825). iiiid 
I, July 4. 
|ii;eih oh 
of tlio U. 
ii'd diplo- 
on of the 
' of State 
ion (Ash- 
ig heiK'ht, 
. and his- 
" Ilia elo- 
ihiK ah)iig 
ig, and of 
held, died 

tombs of 

her ye 18, 


^iiiouth ill 

In 1035. 

the Fleet 

denee of a 
r was de- 
tlie Mex- 
804, c'oni- 
rate war 
li, but so 
|>nent was 

auded the 

Ibrave and 
the hap- 
W years 

[s, by the 
were ex- 


lose great 
battle at 
Ind Alden 
:n its be- 
on Cap- 
ind sui- 
ig cere- 
late in 
and the 


lioute 5. 


ocoan ((ilid of Cape Cod in rlear weather) 's oHJoyed fmin Captain's Hill. Miles 
Standish, u veteran of tlie Flanders canipaiKiiH, fame over witli the l'il;,'rims. and 
was made tlie hf>ad of tiieir armirs (consisting of 12 men), altlioiigli he did not 
iii'long t(t their - liur h. lie was a short man, very lirave, but impetuous and 
eholeric. and Ills name sunn itcrame a terror to all hostile Imlians. Ili> is tlie 
hero of a Imautiliil poem in niiii! parts, liy Longfellow, callid " Tlie Courtship of 
Alili-s Stanilish." 

Ralph I'artridgtf, tli'' fhst pastor of Duxbiiry, "had the innoeenceuf u dovcnnd 
the loftiness of au eagle. His epitaph is ' Avoluvit.' " — Math kii. 

The Stamlish Ho\ise is on the harbor some distance from the S. 
Dii.Khury Station. Its still-water bathing is good. From Duxbury Tost 
Oliice to Plymouth, by the main road, is U M. At Duxbury is the 
Anierieau end of the French Atlantic Telegraph. 

5. Boston to Plymouth. 

Via Old Colony Railroad, ;}7.^ M., in 1^ hrs. 

Boston to S. Braintree, see Route 3. Stations, S. Weymouth^ N. 
Abiaijton (('ulver House), AhingUm, S. Abhujbm (Wheeler House), 
the last three stations being in a town of about 10,0(10 inhabitants, 
who are mostly engaged in the manufacture of shoes. The line now 
ai>i)roaches the great lake-strewn forest of the Old Colony, passing 
the stations of X. Jlansoii, Hanson, Halifax, P/i/inpton, and Kings- 
ton (Patuxet House, with daily stage to N. Carver). The train now 
passes along the W. shore of Plymouth Harbor, with Cai)tain*s Hill 
(Duxbury) prominent on the 1. across the water. 

Plymouth, Umpame, or Patuxet. (Sanioset House, a largo and comfortable 
liotel, near the II. II. Rtation. 31.50 to I? 2 a day). 

Elizabeth, Queen of England, in I.'i58-G2, i)ut into operation the Acts of Su- 
jircmatiy and Uniformity, and the Articles of Keligion, sternly forbidding all forms 
of religious worship within her realm, save those jirescribed by the Chimdi of 
Kiiglnnd, of which she was the head. Ahiiost simultaneously a sect sprang up, 
(hiiming that the Anglican Church still retained many of the errors of U(»man 
Cutlmlicism ; while, in opposition to the Queen's primacy and ecclesiastical laws, 
tliey mainUiined that the church was spiritual, governed by the laws of Christ 
given in the New Testament, and separate from tem]ioial affairs and independent 
of earthly sovereigns. Hence they were called Separatists (sometimes Brown- 
ists). They were imprisoned and martyred by the government, and in 1598 many 
tied to Hollaml. Churches existed at Southwark and elsewhere, but the true 
birthplace of the Pilgrim Church (if nut at Jerusalem) was at the deserted "Manor 
of the Bishops " (of Ytjrk) at Hcrooby. Bancfoft, the new primate, redoubled tho 
persecutions, in 1002, and in 1G08 tho church at Scrooby ran the blockade of the 
English coast, and went to Amsterdam. In lOOG tho Pilgrims moved to Leyden, 
and in 1G20 sailed from Delfthaven, via iS(nithampton, for America. On Sept. 
0, the "Mayflower," previously driven back by adverse circumstances, left Ply- 
mouth in England, intending to reach land and settle near the Hudson River. By 
treacliery or otherwise they struck tlie continent far north of this ])oint, and on 
the 21st Dec, 1020, the Pilgrims hmded at New Plymouth. Capt. 8mith was 
severely attacked here by the Indians in 1014, and atandish's ruile forays ou 
Cape Cod had enraged the aborigines, but the Wampanoag tribe, which in 1610 
numbered 30,000 souls, had been reduced by a great war, followed by a pestilence, 
to a remnant of 300. 13y the latter part of March, 44 Pilgrims had died, and then 
the Sachem Massasoit made an alliance with the dwindling colony. In 1622 a 
massive structure was erected for a church, with a battlemented i-oof and ord- 
nance, which made it the castle of the village. In 1621 and 1623 other eompauiea 

62 liotile 5. 








of Pilji^.ijTns rrossed tlie sea, nftcrwliicli the colony tlirovo and occupied theneigli- 
boiin;^ lands. In March, 10l!l, Saiuoset an(l Tisquantiun came in and told thoin 
ul" tlic land (the latter having hucii stolen by Hunt, in :iG14, from the coast, and 
soM at Malaga as a slave). In KL'!, the lirst cattle ever in New f]n}.'land were 
landeil hen^ and 'u Mie same year Plymouth was found to consist of \v>. houses, 
surrounded hy a h.>i,di i)alisade with fortihed gates. ('an:iiiieus, chief of the Narra- 
gausetts, sent a sheaf of arr')ws bound witli a rattlesnake's skin, to t!(»v. 
IJr.Mlfonl, as a token of hostility. The skin was filled witli iK)wder and shot, and 
sent hack to Canonicus, wiio understood tiiis grim answer, and as loTig as he lived 
restrained his trilie from attack' ; the colony. As one of the United Colonies, 
1'1\ mouth bore her i)art in the Indian wars, until it finally joined the colony of 
M.issachusetts Bay, in lt)9'2. 

" Methinks I see itnow, that one, solitary, adventurous vessel, the 'Mayflower,' 
of a forlorn hope, fniighted with the ])ros])e(!ts of a future state, and bound 
tii(> uid<nown sea. I 'tehoM it | .rsuing, with a thousand misgivings, the uncer- 
tain, the tedious v.iyage. Sutis rise a;id set, and weiks and months j^ass, and 
winter surin'ises them on 'he dee]!, but brings them not the sight of the wi.shed- 
for shore. 1 see them now scantily sui)i)lied with provisions, cr'twded almost to 
siiiroeati(m in their iil-storc.l prison, delayed by calms, jnirsuinga circuitous route ; 
and now driven in fury befcu'e the raging tempest on the high and giduy waves. 
.... Tlie awful voice. of the storm howls through tlie rigging. TIk; laboring 
hi.ists seem straining from their base ; the dismal .sound of the pumps is heard ; 
tiie ship leai)s, as it wci;;, madly, from billow to billow ; the ocean breaks and 
.settles with engulting Hoods over the floating deck, and beats with deadening, 
sliiv(n-ing weight against the staggered vessel. I see them, escaped from these 
]>erils, ]iursuing their all but desjierate undertaking, and lauded at List, after a five 
months' pao.sage, on the ice-clad rocks of I'lymouth, weak ai;d weary from the 
^■>y''i{^*'i pooi'ly armed, . , . without shelter, without means, surrounded by hos- 
tile tribes Tell me, man of military science, in how many months were 

tliey all swejit away by the 'M savage tribes of New England ? Tell me, politician, 
liow long did this Lihachvw of a colony, on which yc.ur conventions and treaties hail 
not r.miled, on the distant co.ast? .... Is it possible, that, from a Vje- 
ginning so feeble, so frail, so worthy not so much of idmiration as of pity, there 
has gone forth a progress so steady, a growth so wonderful, an expansion so 
ani])le, a reality so importaVit, a promise, yet to be fulfilled, so glorious?" — Ed- 
warp JtiVERKTT. 

See also Mrs. Uemans' inimitable hymn, bcginninjr, 

" The brcnking wnvos dnshed hij.'h 
On a stern und mck-bouiid t'oust. 

When a band of exiles moored their bark 
Hy the wild New lliiglund sliore." 

On Court St. is tlie classic * Pilgrim Hall, in front of which i.s a rock 
ol gray sienitic granite, surrounded by an iron fence. This is "the cor- 
ner-stone of the Repuhlic," a portion of the rock on "vvhich the Pilgrims 
first stepped from their boats, and which was dra^wii from the water- 
side in 1775. 

The Pilgrim Ilall (opin dailr) contains ''The Lauding of the Pilgrims, " 
a largo painting of much interest (13 x IG ft.), and nine i)ortraits ; busts 
of Daniel Webster and John Adams ; Governor Carver's chair ; sword, 
kc, of Miles Standish ; the gun-barrel with which King Philip was 
lulled, and a letter from King Philip ; embroidery by Lorea Standish ; 
and a great number of rulios of tlie early colonists, with an elegant model 
of the monument which is to be, 

Th(i principal ledge of * Forefathers' Pvjck is on Water St., and is 
covered by a singular edifice (canopy) of granite, in whose iittie has been 
2)l:iced the boi\es of several men who died in the winter ot" 1620-1. 


'^m SHt f SW^ y Hg i J ftwfyg^ ■ 


lioute 5. 53 



Town Green is at tlie end of Alain Street. On tno site of the present 
Gothic Unitarian Clmrch older churches were built in the tirst days. 
The remarkably homely Church of the Pilgrimage (Cong.) stands near 
by. Opposite this church is the Town Hall, built in 1749. To the 
r. of the Uiiitarian Church is the path to the * Burying Hill, where 
many of the Pilgrims were interred. Ancient and moss-covered tomb- 
stones cover the green slopes, with here and there more pretentious mon- 
n'iaents, as those to Gov. Bradford, Elder Cushman, and others. In 
1622, the embattled church was built on this hill, with six cr.imon on its 
sheltered flat roof. Every man brought his gun and anmiunition to 
church, and sentinels, on a tower, watched incessantly. Tht * view from 
Burying Hill is fine, embraciiig the harbors of Plymouth and Duxbury, 
Captain's Hill, Cape Cod, Manomet Hills, &c. Leyden St., the first 
street in New England, runs E. from Town Square to the water. Near 
the foot of Middle St. and W". of the canopy-covered rock, is a small 
green space called Cole's Hill, where re buried 50 of the Mayflower 
company (including Gov. Carver), 1620-21. Near the Pilgrim 
Hall are the ha!;Jsome County buuuings ; and on Training Green, 
near the High School, is a monument to the town's soldiers who died in 
the War for the Union. Behind the High Scho(d is Watson's HHl, where 
Massasoit appeared in Maich, 1621, with 60 warriors, and concluded a 
league with the handful of Pilgrims which was sacredly kept for 50 years. 
Billington Sea, one of the two hundred ponds which are in the vast 
Ply inouth Forest ("the Adirondacks of Massachusetts"), is about 2 M. 
from the vill.lgo, and is ih M. around. About 3 M. S. of Plymouth is 
the Clifford House, a favorite summer resort. S. W. ( " Plymouth i.s 
the lofty promontory of Manomet, near which is tlie viUag (hotel) of 
Manomet Ponds. A strip of sand 3 M. long forms a natural breakwater 
before the town, on which, in Dec, 1779, the war-ship "Gen. Aniold" 
was wrecked, and 70 men <'rozon to death on her decks. In the N. part 
of the harbor is Clark's Island, where the Pilgrims remained Dec. 9th 
and 10th, 1620. Beyond are the prominent points of Sacpiish and the 
G-^rnet, on the latter of which is a lighthouse. 

On a liigh hill near the Samoset House 9 acres of laud have been 'nought, and 
1,500 tons of granite laid as foumhition for a National Monument to the Fore- 
fathers. On an oetagonal pcilestal of granite 40 ft. higli, will st-iind a .statue of 
Faith, also 40 ft. high (the "Havaria^' at Miuiich is 42 ft. high). Her right hand 
is uplifted, and her left hohls a Bible. On pedeslals about the base will be, four 
sitting statues repre.senting the cardinal principles of the Pilgrim coiiniioiuvealth, 
— Morality, Law, Education, and Freedom. Euch of these is to be 20 ft. high, 
with 8 statues in niched panels by their thrones, each of which will be 9 ft. high. 
Historical records and bas-reliefs will adorn the sides of the i)edestal, and an in- 
ternal stairway will lead to the feet of Faith. Statues, pedestal, aud^all, are t(j bu 
of granite. 

64 Route 6. 


6. Boston to Cape God. 


Via Old Colony R. R., Boston to Wellfleot, 106 miles, in 4^-5 hours. Fare, 
.$3.05. Two trains daily. Boston to S. IJraintree, see Route 3. 

Station, llolh^ook^ with a pretty little Victoria Gothic Town Hall. 
Station, /'■. Stoufjhion, after which the line through a district 
which illustrates the poverty oi' the American mind in the matter of 
I'.aming towns. Four towns, each containing many square miles, are 
named respectively, N. Bridffewo.ter, W. IJridi/ewatf)', E. Jiridfjeu'citer, 
and Bridgcwater. Stations, iV. Brklgeioater ( House), Campcllo, 
Keith's, E. and W. Bridfjcioater. 

Bridgewater, Sawtucket (Hyland House), was bought of the Indians 
by Miles in ItJiS. In 1710, Hugh Orr, a Scotchman, erected a 
trip-hammer here, and in 1748 made 500 muskets for the Province 
of Massachusetts, the same being tije made in this country. Duruig 
the Revolution, he made great numbers of iron and brass cannon, and 
cannon-ball.'H for the ontinental army. 

A branch railroad, 7 miles long, runs from Bridgewater to S. Ahinritan, 
on the Plymouth Branch li. R. Stations, Titicut anf! Middleboro (No- 
masket House), a prosperous town (of about ,5,000 inhabitants), where 
several railways unite. 

Between S. Braintrce and Fall River the Old Colony R. R. has two divisions, 
eastern and v;e.sterr;, several mil s ajiart. On the we; t'> u division (the shorter 
of the two) the st 'tmboat trains run, while tin ea.stem ui^. i.sion, running E. of S. 
from Boston to jliddleboro, hero turns sharply to the 8. W. to Fail River and 
Newport. From Middleboro to Fall River by tin main (eastern) line is 14 M., 
passing stations Tjikerilh', Miirick's, and Assur.d. At Myriok's, the New Bedford 
an<l Taunton R. R. crosses tiie Old Colony R. R. (Myric'k's to New Bedford in ^ 
hr.). A railroad runs from Middleltoro to T :n:;ton direct, a distance of 10| 
M. (fare 40 c), i)assing the stations Lir\eviUc, C.'iace's, E. Tnnvton, and Weir. 3-4 
M. S. of Mid(lki)oro is a chister of great ponds, abounding in fish. Asowamsett 
Pond (Lakeville H.tuse) is the largest Si:ci;t of fresh water in the State, and con- 
tains (5-8 square miles. On its shores Capt. Dermer was received by the WaM- 
l)anoag saclunns in IGIO, and here the anti-English chief, Corbitant, revolted 
against Massasoit, in 1G'21, and seized the Plymouth envoys. Standish promptly 
marchetl forth, fell upon Corbitant's cam]t b^' niglit, and achieved success in the 
lirst warlike o.xi'cdition n-ade from Plymouth. 

The Cape C' ■'■ Division of the 0. 0. R. R. begins at Middleboro. 
Stations, A'ocA*, .S. Middleboro, and TrcTiont, or W.Warclmm. 

From Trcmont thj Fairhavcn Branch runs to New Bedford (16 M.), passing the 
stations Marion, Maltapoi!<ctt, and Fairhavcn. 3 M. S. of Marion station (Old 
Landing), passing Sippican village, is White House Beach, fronting on Sippican 
Harbor. 3-4 M. fron> Marion station is t high ]iromontory, surrounded on three 
Bides by Buzzards Bay and Wing's Cove, on which is a favorite summer hotel, the 
Gieat iiill House. Mattapoiselt (Mattapoisett House) is a .5mall village near 
Buzzards Bay, with fine water-views and large inland forests. The fishing in the 
inlets IS fine. 

After passing Tremont station, on the Cape Cod R. R., the line 
passes through the town of Wareham, the nortliern inlets of Buzzards 
Bay being often seen on the r. Stations, S. Wareham, Wareham (Ken- 


i- »' 

!^ ^ 



Route 6. 55 




driok's Hotel), E. Wareham, and Cnhasset Narrovs, where is the junction 
of the R. R. for Falmoutli, Martha's Vineyard, &c. (See Route 7.) 
Soon after, the Straits between Buzzards and Buttermilk Bays are crossed, 
and then follow the stations, Monnment, N. S'duhnch, W. Sandicich, 
and Sandwich. " The Cape extends E. from Sandwich 35 M., and thence 
N. and N. W. 30 more, in all Qd, and has an average breadth of 6 M." 
It is nearly all sand, with boulders dropped on it here and there. Hitch- 
cock thinks that the ocean has eaten out Boston Harbor, and other bays, 
and bxiilt Cape Cod of tlie minute fragments. A thin layer of soil 
reaches as far as Truro; 'n)ut there are many holes and rents in this 
weather-beaten garment not likely to be stitched in time which reveal 
the naked flesh of the Cape, and its extremity is completely bare." 

It is believed that the shores of Cape Cod are the Furdustrandas (Wonder- 
Strands) discovered by Thi>rliall, tlie Norsfinan, in the year 1007. ("When they 
were ready, and their sail hoisted, Thorhall san^' : Let us return where our peoj)le 
are. Let us make a bird (vessel), alvilftil to lly through the heaven of sand, to ex- 
l)lore the broad traelv of ships ; wliile warriors who impel to the tempest of 
swords, who praise tiie laud, iniiabit V»'ouder-Strauds, and cook whales.") In 
]ri24, Verrazzani, in the frigate " Dauphin," coasted about Cape Cod, which is 
inobably his " Cape Arenas," and in 15ii5, the Portuguese mariner Gomez, explored 
and mapped much of southern New England. The first Anglo-Saxon in New 
England war, Capt. Gosnold, who coasted and named Cape Cod in the year 1002, 
having caught many codlish thereabouts, and landed at dilferent points. 

In 1G04, Champlaiu visited this locality, and named it Cap Blanc (White Cape), 
because the sand contrasted so with the darl; rociis of the northern coasts. A 
harbor on the S. E. he named Mallebane, which name still clings to the S. E. 
Cape. In IGOi), Hendrick Hudson, with a vessel of the Dutch E. I. Company, 
rediscovered Cape Cod, naming it Ne\v Holland, and found a mermaid near by, 
concerning which (or whom) he gives a curious account. In 1614, Capt. John 
Smith visited the Cape, and describes it as "a headland of high hills of sand, 
overgrown Avith shrubby pines, hurts, and such trash, but an excellent harbor for 
all weather." Prince Charles, his patron, named it Cape James, but the name 
did not take. About this time tlu; infamous Capt. Hunt kidnapped a ship-load 
of Indians from the coast, so when Harlow landed at the Ca]ie late in 1G14, he 
was attacked, and only escapiid (witii loss) by cannonading the attacking flotilla 
of canoes. In 1016, a French ship grounded or anchored near the Cape, was car- 
ried by boarding, and the Indians killed all on board savt; four, whom they sent 
far and wide through the country as curious trophies. The horrible i)estilence 
which immediately after passed over Massachusetts, was attributed by the Indian 
doctors to tliis fact. In 1020, the vanguard of the Pilgrims appeared in one of 
the Capo harbors, and erelong many villages si)rang uji here. In 1623, the blame- 
less chiefs, Cawnacome, Sachem of Manomet (Sandwich), Aspinet of Nauset 
(Chatham), and lyanough of Cummaquid (Barnstable), w.-re witli the council at 
Weymouth when Standish made his attack. They escajied and hiil in the swamps 
of the Cape, where they soon died of sorrow and privation, au<l too late it was 
proven that they were perfectly iunoceut. Notwithstanding their unfavorable 
experiences of Christian civilization, the Cape Indians passed under its influence, 
and soon 6 Indian churches and IS assemblies, with 24 native pastors, were num- 
bered there. Conseciuently, at the outbreak of the war of 1675, they repudiated 
their ancient allegiance to King Fliilip, and remained faithful to the colouists. 

Sandwich (Central House) is a village near the S. edge of the Pljmouth 
Forest, and distant 12 M. from Plymouth. The extensive glass-works 
are near the station. 

From W. jBa/vis^aWe station stages run to Cotuit Port, "the home of 
gonial .sportsmen," 6-7 M. distant, on the S. shore of the Cape. The 

56 Route 6. 







highlands about the little harbor on wliicli the village is situated are 

partly clothed with pine woods and inter8i)ersed with many fresli ponds. 

The Santiiit House, near the beaches on the S, shore, is much visited in 

summer. Barnstable is a quiet village with the county buildings. 

On Great Neok, in Marshpee (Massapee), a few M. W. of Cotuit Port, was the 
chief village of tlie Cape Indians who dwelt on this reservation. lu l(j58, Rieh- 
aril Bourne went there us a niissif»iiarv, and fnimed a clmrch of whieh he was 
I)a.stor until his death in 1(585. Before KiuK Philip's War there were 10,000 
Christian Indians in New England. Many of these, including scores of tlic Mas- 
sapees, were killed tlghting for their white ])rethren, or else, remaining neutral, 
were treated pitihiswly by the coluiu.sts. Nearly eveiy man of the Massapees 
.ioined the 1st Mass. Reg. in 1775, and but few returned. fJideon llawley (Yale 
College, 1740) preached hen; 1758-1807. In ISO;^, the last pure-blooded Indian 
died, 8o many of the nuiu died in the War for Iiidept udence, that negroes .joined 
the tribe, an<l it is now a eolleftion of Ind')-.\fri( an half-breeds. In 18;i4, in 
response to tlieir " Bill of Complaints " .signed by 287 jiersons, the State granted 
them limited powers of autonomy. In 1850, about 200 persons were left on the 

Yarmouth is coeval with Barnstable, Near it is a favorite Methodist 
camp-ground. A branch R. R, runs from Yarmouth to Hyannis (lya- 
nongh Mouse), the point of departure for the st?amcrs to Nantucket (80 
miles). Extensive beaches bordered by bluffs covered with groves are 
near Hyannis. 

Stations, S. Yarmouth, S. Dennis, not far from Scargo Hill, the highest 
land on the Cape, froni which a noble ocean view is afforded. Stations, 
JV, Ilarv-ich, Jlanoich (Central House, Atlantic), tb nciont home of 
the Satuck<.'t Indinns. 

Bre ivsteii ^CK tcn House, Union House), was named in honor of Eider 
Brewster, of the Mayflower Pilgrims. Large and singular boulders are 
found here. Many sailors and captains belong in this town, and Grleavs 
(Higgins House) and Enstham, which was settled by the Pilgrims in 1644, 
\inder the Icid of Tlioma.s Prince, who was for sixteen years govern- 
or of Plymouth. A fortified church, twenty ft. square, was built, an;i 
a part of every stranded whale was by law reserved for the ministry. 

At Millennium Grove in this town were long held extensive camp-meet- 
ings. The line now passes, on the E., the broad, sandy plains of Nauset. 
Stations, N. Efisthxrm (Nauset House), S. WeUjt.eet, Wcllfieei (Holbrook's 
Hotel). Wellfl«^et Bay opens on Cape Co(i Bay (tlie Baye Blanche of 
Champlain), and is distant from Boston l(>t5 M. by R. R. and 70 M. by 
water. This village lias 100 vessels and nearly i,000 men in the mackerel 
fishery. The railroad ends at Welllieet, and stages connect with it for 
Provincetown, although it is said that late in 1873 a through track will 
be laid. North of Wellfieei is Truro, ;i large, desolate district, on 
one of whose beaches the Britisli friga!' " Sunierset '' was wrecked in 
1778, and 480 men made prisoners. Neat Welltleet, in 171S, the " Wh.i- 
dah," a pirate-ship mounting 23 guns, was wrecked, and 130 buccaneers 
were drowned. Truro war, .settled in HCX under the name of j^arij; r- 




Route 0. 57 



field, as it has perhaps the most fatal coast in New England. Scores of 
vessels have been dashed in pieces on its shore, and hundreds of lives 
have been lost. There is scarcely a family in Truro, or indeed on the 
whole Cape E. of Barnstable, but has lost some member by the disasters 
of the sea. Truro lost 57 men and 7 vessels, and Dennis lost 28 men in 
one day of 1811. The lofty Fresnel burners of the famous Highland 
Light (at Clay Pounds on the outer shore of Truro) shed a vivid radiance 
over leagues of rude coast and deep sea. 

Thorpjiu walked from Orloiiiis to Provincetown (soveral days) on the ocean side 
of til is "sand-bar in the midst of the sea," and says : — • 

"The nearost beach to us on the cast was on the coast of Galicia, in Spain, 
whose capital is Santiago, thotigh by old poets' rcckoniiif,' it should have been 
Atlantis or the ITesperides ; but heaven is found to bo farther west now. At first 
we wore abreast of that jiart of Portiiijtal eutro Poiiro e iMino, and then Galicia 
and the jiort of Pontevedro opeiu-d to us as wc walked along : but wo did not en- 
ter, the breakers ran so higli. Tliebold headland of (.'ape Flnisterre, a little north 
of cast, jutted toward us next, with its vain brag, for we flung l>ack, — ' Here is 
Cape Cod, Cape fjand's beginning.' A little indentation towanl the north — for 
the land loomed to our imaginations like a conuuon mirage— we knew was the 
Bay of Biscay, and we sang : 

* There wo Uiv fill next day, 

In tlie liay of Biscay, O ! '" 

"A little south of oast was Palos, where Columbus weighed anchor, and farther 
yet the ]iillars which Hercules sot up." 

Truro is "a village where its able-bodied men are all ploughing the ocean 
together as a common field. In X. Truro the women and girls may sit at their 
doors and see where their husbamls and brothers are Imrvesting their mackerel 
15-20 M. off, on the sea, with hundreds of white han-est- wagons." 

The 2nd Mass. Ctnitinental Reg. marched from this E. end of the Cape, and 
fought through the Revolution. 

In Nov., 1020, Standish au'l 16 men, "with nuisket, sword, and corslet," 
landed at l^ong Point, Provincetown, chased the iiurcsisting Indians into Truro, 
pillaged many graves, and carried off everything jiort," ile. They were attacked in 
Kastham, by Indians, but the arrows fell harnile.ssly from their corsleti, while 
the nuisket-shot told on the half-dad red men. 

Provincetown (Allstntm House, Central House) is a curious ma- 
rine village, distant from Boston 118 M. by land and 55 M. by water 
(steamer leaves t!entral Whaif, Boston, Wednesday and Saturday morn- 
ings, returning on Monday and Thursday mornings. Fare 61-50). 

Tlie Harbor is a noble one, broad and clear, and is the favorite refuge 
of the fishing fleets. The energies of the townsmen are devoted to the 
fisheries — of mackerel, cod, and sperm-whales, in wliose pursuit they 
search the wildest and nmst distant banks and bays of the N. Atlantic. 
The village lies along the l)each between tlio sea and the desert, — an in- 
habited beach, where fishernien cure and store their tish, without any 
back country. 

This is the last town in that strange region where the peojde "are said to be 
more purely the descendants of the Pinitans than the inhabitants of any other 
part of the State." From these .shores come the most daring and skilful cf 
Anierica?\ seamen. " Wherfi\er over the vorld you see the stars an<l strijies lloat- 
ing, yon may have good hope that l-encath iliera some one will be found who vmn 
tell you the ■Jomidings of Barnstable, or Wellt>pt, or Chathara Harbor." " Caj e 

1 ', 


• -I 


>. 1 


Cod ia tlip l)arc and 1)pik1p(1 nrin of Mass.ipTinsetts ; the shonldf-r is at Buzzards 
Bay ; the flhovv, or crazy-lMHn;, at Cajits Mak-bane ; the wrist Truro, and the 
sandy fist at Pr'>vin'etown, beiiind wliich the iState stands on e.r guard, with 
I'cr i>ark to thr ( Jroen Mts., and linr feet jdanted on the floor (< Mie (Jcean, lil<e 
an atlilete, --jirotectin;,^ lier Bay, boxing; with N. K. storms, and, . m r and anon, 
heaving uji iier Atlantic adversary fiom tlie lap of earth, ready to thrust lur- 
ward her other fist, whieh keeps guard the while upon her breast at Cai)e Ann." 

The era of constitutional government dawned upon the world, when, on Nov. 
11, 1C20, the storm-tossed Mayflower anchored in Provineetown Harbor. Here, 
"on the bleak shores of a barren wilderness, in the midst of desolation, with 
the blast of winter bowling around them, and surrounded with dangei-s in 
their most awful and ai>iialling forms, the I'ilgrims of Leydeu laid the foundations 
f>f American liberty." While the Mayflower lay in this harbor, that eelebratrd 
C'oini»act was drawn up and signed, whicli long governed i'lymouth and her de- 
pendencies, and of which J. Q. Adams says : "This is, perhaps, the only instance 
in liuman history of that positive original social compact which si>eculative 
philosoi)hers have imagined as the only legitimate source of government." This 
solenni compact (given below) was signed by 41 men (of whom 21 died in the next 
foiu' months), 17 of whom had their wives with them, the remaining 43 persons 
being young ])eo))le and (diildren. 

" In the name of God, Anu'u. We, whose names are underwritten, the loyal 
subjects of our dread sovereign lord. King James, by the grace, of God, of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, King, defender of the faith, &c., having undertaken, 
for the glory ol God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and lionor of our 
king and country, a voyage to i>lant the first colony in the northern parts of Vir- 
ginia, do, by these juesents, solemnly and mutually, in the i)reseiu-e of God and 
of one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic, 
for our better ordering and presei"'ation, and furtheraTice of the ends aforesaid ; 
and by virtue hereof to eiact, cci -ititute, and frame .-luch just and equal laws, 
ordinances, acts, constitutions, and oilices, from time to time, as shall be thought 
most meet and expedient for the general good of the colony; unto which we 
promise all due sulimission and obedience. In '-vitn.iss whereof we iiave hereun- 
der inscribed our names, at Cape Cod, the 11th of Novend)er, in the year of the 
reign of our soverign lord, King James, of England, France, and Ireland, the 
ISth, and of fScotland tlie 54th, Anno Uomini, 1G20." 



»• '! 

I i 

7. Boston to Martha's Vineyard and Nantacket. 

Via Old Colony R. R. and Steamers. To Martha's Vineyard 80 M., in 3J-4 

New Yorlc to Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. To Fall River by steam- 
boat (Route li), thence to Myrick's (not by the steamboat train, but lafcr)^ Thence 
to New Bedford, and Irom there bv steamboat to Martha's Vineyard (in all, 225 

Boston to Cohasse.t Narrows see Ronte 6. After Cohasset NaiTOivs, the 
line runs due S. for IS M., on the E. shore of Buzzards Bay, passing sta- 
tions, N. Falmniith (near which is Pocasset, abounding in shell-fish, with 
the Red-Brook House and Bay View Cottage, ) W. Falmouth, and Fal- 
mouth, a quiet old port, which had " kept on the back side of the Cape, 
and let the centuries go by " until 1872, when the railroad aroused it. 
Near the village on the S. E. are Falnioutli Heights, where a conijiany of 
Worcester men, in 1870, bought 120 acres of land (with two small lakes, 
several groves, and a mile of beach), to be cut up into lots for a summer 
village. Tower's Hotel, 100 ft. long (opened 1871), fronts on Vineyard 
Sound, with a view of Martha's Vineyard from its lofty position. Still- 
water bathing on the beach. A R. R. Station will probably be made near 



*?*"'»' ">'^J)9!»5<i(Sl-ES-T«S3' 


lioulc 7. 59 


s, the 
d it. 
iiy of 


the Heights, Tlie last station is Wood's Hole, whence the steamer car- 
ries passengers across the Sound (7 M.) to Martha's Vineyard. 

Martha's Vineyard. 

* Sea-Foam House, a new and sninptuoua hotel, gas-lighted, steam-heated, with 
elevator, biliiard-roon), &c., acconiniodatos 250 guests. >i\.bO per day. * Iligh- 
land House. On Circuit Avenue, in Oak Blufl's Village, are several good hotels, 
on the Euro])ean i)lan ; Baxter House, Pawnee House, Central, Island, &o. 

RcHtaurants at tlie Baxter and Pawnee Houses, &c. 

Pleasure- Boats at the yea-Foam Hotel. 

8ea-batlis at the bathing-houses, on Circuit Avenue beyond Ocean Park 
(30 c.). 

In May, 1G02, Capt. Gosnold coa.stcd the island on the H., and landed on a bar- 
ren islet (No Man's Land) to the S. W. which he named Martha's Vineyard. He 
then landed on this i.sland (then callcil Nope), an<l foiuid, in S. Iv Chilmark, deer 
and all kind of game, .springs and a lake of pure fresh water, four kinds of ber- 
ries in profusion, and trees loaded with fruitful vines. Probably then, or dur- 
ing his .stay at Cuttyhunk (over three weeks) tlie name was transf(;rred from No 
Man's Land to its jiresent posse.s.sor. The name is thought to have l>een given in 
honor of some friend of the Captain's, or else for the lady of some one of his 
l)atrons. (A newsiiajier (lorrcspondent states that the ohlest inhabitant, who 
owned these isles, gave them to his daughters ere he died. Rhoda took Rhode 
I.sland, Elizjibeth took the ishin'l since uamed for her, Mavthn took and named 
Martha's Vineyard, and as for the remaining island, Nan-took-it. The legend is 
interesting, but cannot Ix' traced back fartlu'r than the year 1870.) Fnun this 
island and the neighboring main, Gosnold antl Pring (l()0;i) got laixe cargoes of 
sassafras, then esteemed a sovereign specific in Europe. In 1614, Capt. Hunt 
stole 27 Indians at Eastham. on Cape Cod, aiul sold them as slaves at Malaga, for 
•S 100 each. One of them, Epeiiow, was carried to r.ngland, wliere the sly fel- 
low told of vast gokl-mines on this island. A .ship was sent over, at great ex- 
pense, with Epenow to show the place, but as soon as he saw the sho7>-, he leaped 
over, swam to land, and was not s«?eu *i):.<un until Cai't. Dernier landed here in 
1()19. In M dashing attack couducticd Ny Epenow, the Cai>tain and many of his 
men were killed and wounded. In lii-^", Thwuat> Ma.} In'w, Governor of the Islands 
by grant from the Earl of Stirlji^;, settle*! at Edgartown. The lordship of the 
isles remained in the Mayhew -tnnly from M>41 to 1710, dnxing which time the 
kindness of these men won tV ■^carts of tlie inatiAcs. The Mnyliews were all 
missionaries, and, learning the lii«iian language, i«reachc<l Avith sik li su<'cess that 
Christian ^illages arose all over the islanil. During King Pliiliji's War, the con- 
verts remained trtie, ami guarded the shores. Altout KiGO, some Qii kei-s landwl 
here calling the Purit.iu pastors "i)nests of Baal," bui tlie Indians so<.ii drove 
tiiein off. Gookin visited the i.sland in 1674, and found six towns of Christian 
Indians, " a very fruitful Vineyard unto the Lord (if Hosts." For a century the 
Indians slowly dwindled, and the coasting vessels began to frerpient Holmes' Hole 
in yearly increasing -lumbers. In 1778, i.ord Gray (who defeated Wayne at Paoli) 
with a British force, destroyed a large immlier of vessels in the Hole. In 1S3.'>, '.> 
tents were pitihed at the present Camp-Grounds, and the first camp-meeting on 
the island was held. 

The Wesleyaii Grove, or Camp-Meeting Ground, is near the Sea View 
House and is laid out "in gracefully curved streets, grass-paved and crowded 
Avitk small but vigorous trees. Near Trinity Park, a wide lawn, is the 
great tabern.ic.le tent 160 by 120 ft. wiiich can .shelter 5,000 persons. 
This is the centre of intense excitement during the meetings in late 
Augiist, Avhen from 20,000 to 2.'i,000 ])eople are gathered here, and emi- 
nent Methodist preachers address them. Lake Anthony borders the N. 
and W. of the ground, and beyond it, on the high bluffs toward East 
Chop Light, the "Highlands" have been laid out under the influence of 

' >.' 

i ." 



the Methodists. On the E. and S. of tlie Camp-Ground is the village of 
Oak Bluffs, laid t in 18(58, on hhiffs 30 ft. high fronting Vineyard Sound. 

Among the oiuv groves here are hundreds of Swiss and Gothic cottages, 
resembling large bird-houses, bright and clean and cheerful. On a hill 
near the centre is a curious, many-sided Muscovite chapel, which is used 
often but floats no denominational flag. It is said that some come to Oak 
Bluffs ''wlio know and care nothing for Jerusalem or its former inhabi- 
tants," wherefore strict police rules aie here enforced. 

The steamer runs to Edgartown daily, and a fine road, 6 - 8 M. long, 
leads there. The village of Edgartown (Ocean House, Vineyard House) 
was founded in 1G47 by Gov. Mayhew, and is at present the cai)ital of 
Dukes County. It has a fin(! harbor, sheltered by Chai»paquiddick Island, 
and possesses a small maiine museum. 

10 M. from Oak BIufl« is South Beach, where tlie Atlantic rolls in 
grandly after a storm. 

By walking to the East Chop Light, a view is gained of Holmes' Hole, 

or Vineyard Haven, one of the most famous harbors on the coast, where, 

in seasons of stonn, hundreds of vessels take shelter under the lofly bluffs. 

Through Vineyard Somid passes the vast and unceasing ])rocession of 

commerce fjonj New York and Southern New England to Boston and 

the East. 

20-25 M. S. W. of Oiik BliifTs is Oaylieacl, noar whicli is tlie Devil's Den, a 
Willi H|Mil wlicn^ tlic (lid Iiuliiiii IriHlllfiiiiH Hiiy tli.'it the gidiit M();,lini» lived, wlio" 
nillgiit wliiilrs fiiiil roiistcfl tlicm on troos whicli lie lore up by llif' rmita. He 
nielanioritliosnl IiIh cliiitlrcn iiilu llsli, aiid, on Ills wife's Iniiu-nUng, lie tluvw licr 
ii) MccoiincI, wliirt! hIii' dwelt iiiid l<'vicd (■(iiihllHiliinri on nil who passed tho 
rocks, until kIic lit'irti'lr licciiiin a rocli. 'I'licii Miislnili di,'i(i|i|ic ircd (Voiii hinnan 
sight and laidwli'dge. (lay Ib'iid is " (ho must rcnmikalih iiiitnial ruiiosity in 
Now Kii»lfUul." Tim s(Nl view iiimi the iifditlwHiHH Ih ur/ind. "Never since I 
Htood on Tablo Uiu'U hiWc 1 seen a sigh! sn gland mh thlH." (hHFHAU Twioom, 
AboTit this i)V(>iiiontoiy several score of halrlireed Indians live a straMgc wuHfUU'tt 
life. The rcniaiKable clills by the sliore havi been closely stndicd by f'rof //it'h- 
cock and Sir Charles Lyell, the latter describing thoni as "the lofty cliffs of Gav- 
hoad, more than 2W II hit;ii, where the highly inclined tertiary strata are g.iyly 
colored, sonic consisting oi light red clays, others of white, yellow, and gr*en, 
and Houm n|' black lignite." 


is iJS - no M. from Martha's Vineyard, and connected with it by a daily 
steamer. After leaving the Vineyard astern, the islands of Miiske^^ and 
Tnckemuck are seen in the S., and near them the low shores of W. Nan- 
tucket. Tlie town of Nantucket presents a fine apy/carance from the 
water, being built on hills. Hotels — Ocean House, $2.50-3.00 (occu- 
pying the old mansion of one of the marine aristocracy), a comfortable 
hotel, famous for its chowders ; and the Adams House. 

The Indian tradition is that the Great Spirit was once smoking, when he partly 
filled his pipe with sand. When tlie mixed remains were emptied from the pipe 
into the sea, they formed the Island of Nantucket. Its name is said to be an 



5.iJS'J?^'W' ■'"■l:- ^JSrtSift'lV^^SSflfec'Jf^ 

a daily 

■^ and 

. Nan- 

■Dm the 



the pipe 
to be an 


Route?. 61 


Iiiilian iiKxlifuation of Nautikoii, a name left by the Nnrsomon who vialted it in 
tliu lltli century- The best iiuthority i)ronounce.s it ;i (Mirriiiition of an Imliau 
v/oi'il iiieanin.; " lar away." It is called Natocko on tlie map of IO.'U). It wa^ 
Yi..iti'(l liy Gusnold in 1(102, at wliieli time about l.TioO Indians were here, and the 
iriland was covered witli oaks. In IGOl, Chainplain and i'outrincourt landed hero 
.".nd remained several <lays, for the relief of those men of their command who 
liad Ijeen wounded in a battle with the Indians at Chatham. Weary and dis- 
cpirited, they eea.sed their e.\j)lorations here, and returned to Port Royul, naming 
llii'sr sad sliores "Isle Dontcnsc." In 1041, Mayhcw was made Governor of 
the Islands, his sway extending here. In lO.')!*, he deeded j}, of tlu! island to ten 
men for .i::iO and two beaver hats, and one family moved tliere, there being then 
7i'() friendly Indians on Nantucket. 

In l(iGr> King Philip visited his iteoplo here, and in l(i71 the town was ineor- 
jtorated (at Maddecpiet, 5-() .M. W. from the prestnit town), and in 1G72 moved to 
its present i»laee. In 1072 the llrst whale was taken. In 1G7:{ the town was called 
'herburne by the New York CJovernor, in whose domain it was until 16i)H (the 
name was retained till 17!)j). The 701) English had no i hurch or ]>astor, though 
the Indians had four churches. A white church was l\>rmeil in 1711. In 17o5 -0 
1» whaling-sloojis were sunk or captured, and l)ut few men of their crews ever re- 
turned. In 1704, there were '},'2i!0 whites on the island ; and a pliigne, the same 
year, swci)t off j} of the Indians, leaving but 1.'50. 1,000 Nantucket men died in 
the Continental Army. In 1784 the iiopnlation was larger than it is now. In 
1S21, 7S sliii)s and 81 smaller vessels were owned here, ami most . engaged in 
whaling. Tin; last Indian died in 1S22. Notwith.standin,!j devastating lires in the 
town, Nantucket in 1840 had 9,712 inhabitants. 

The town (100 huUdings) wa.s l)urnc'd down in 1846, and tlie .same year 
the whaling Inusiness began to decline, until now there is Init one small 
vessel engaged in it, and in the to\,-n which has houses for 10,000 people 
there are but about 4,200. The houses are of a quaint old style, with 
platforms on the roofs (whence to watch the ships conung in). Tlie North 
C!hurch was the first on the island, and was built in 1711. It is still used 
by the same society as a vestry, and its oaken timbers are hard as iron. 
\ M. from the Ocean House, on Centre St., is a small house which was 
built in 1GS2. The hospitality of the old families of Nantucket is famous, 
and its churches and schools are numerous. Many houses have been 
taken down and shipped away, Imt of late real estate is rising, as city 
men are securing summer homes here. Maiii St., at the head of which 
is thfc old I'aci/ic Bank, has the shops of the town (shells and marine 
i'^mo%\i'n» may be bought here), and is a wide, deserted, grassy street lead- 
ing to thfe ii^i^ads of silent and decaying wharves. The low, sanily beach 
which ^pjteltew the liarl>or stretches N. W. 8-9 M. to Oreat Point, leav- 
ing a wide and (jui"t lagooii between it and the islaml. At the Athenaeum 
i» a public hi>r»ry aed a jiiU>/eum of marine curiosities and relics of the 
<Ad«r days of N m i li t ^ lftet/ The Squantum is a peculiar institution of the 
ialand, l*;ing an irrfvrwial j/icnic on the beach-sands, where the dinner is 
made of fimh or otJier »pfAh of tlie sea. Excursions to the fishing grounds 
are managed by veteran skippers, who let tliemselves and their boats 
cheaply. There are riiks to the ancient districts on the W. shore, to the 
beaches on the S. shoie, and to Siascon.set. Siasoonset (Atlantic House) 
is 8 M, S. of E. from tlie town, and (ionsists of a cluster of cottages on a 
high bank flouting tlie ocean. Surf-ljatiilng here is safe only when the 

G2 nouleS. 



, i. 

> t 

'■' I 

■: I 
{ ' 

batliers use ropeH, as tlie shore desceiuls rapidly. 1 M. N. of Siasconset 
is Siiiikoty Ili'ud, where a powerful Frt'siul light is elevated on a far-view- 
ing IjlutriH) tt. high. 1 M. N. of Siinkoty Heu.i is the I'eantiful Sesacacha 
Pond, of pure, sweet water and ahounding in fish (small inn on the shore). 
In 1()7(> a village was built on this jjond and remained for 140 years ; but 
its last house was torn down in 1820. Most of the island, over which 
rambles may bo made, consists of high, breezy, sea-viewing plains, where 
but few fences or luMises are seen, and which "the traveller will call 
downs, prairies, or i)ampas, as he happens to come from England,, the 
West, or Buenos Ayres." 

8. Boston to New York. 

Via Boston an<1 Piovidence II. K., and Shore Linn to New York (in 8 hrs.), or 
Ijy steamer troui I'rovi'l^nce, or by steamer from Stouington (in 12- 13 Ins.) 

The train leaves the .station in Boston (PI. 29), (on Pleasant St., at Iho 
foot of the Comn)on), and passes the suburban stations, Ruxhnry, Jamaica 
Plain, and Hyde Park, by licadcille (wheie during the war for the 
Union the State had a vast camj)), to Canton, (Massaj)oag House, 
Poukapuug House), a large manufacturing town. Canton was the seat 
of a large Indian village, wliere the Ajjostle Eliot was wont to preach, 
and in 1845 several imre-blooded Indians remained. From Blue Hill 
(635 ft. high), E. of the village, is gained a line * view of Boston and its 
harbor, the ocean, and many busy villages. 

Commodore Downes, who eonnnanded tlio Essex, Jr., wlien Porter swept the 
Pacific, was enKUf^ed in tlie Tripolitan War, and in 1815 caiitured tlie Algerian 
frigate " Nashouda," was Imihi at Canton. His son connnanded the gunboat 
" He' Ml " and the monitor " Xahant," in the War for the Union. 

Near a massive granite viaduct ((500 ft. long, 03 ft. liigh), in this town, the 
Htoughton Branch 11. U. leaves the main line, running 4 M. to 8:oughton, on the 
Old Colon}- U. R. 

/S/iarow(t'obb's Tavern) is in a hilly and picturesque manufacturing town. 
E. Foxhoro', Mansfield (Eagle Hotel), whence a railroad runs thi'ough 
Nvrton and Taunton to New Bedford (Route 9). W. Mansfield, Attle- 
bvrouyh, a considerable manufacturing town (jewelry, &c.), Bodyeville, 
Jlebronrille, and Paivtucket, where the line enters the State of Ehode 

Fawtucket (Pawtucket Hotel, Park House) was the scene of a bloody 
action in 1G76. Capt. Pierce, with 70 men, was driven back to the rivei= 
by the Indians, and his party was fairly showered with arrows. When 
help came, not one nuin was living. At present, Pawtucket is the princi- 
pal thread manufactory in America, and steam fire-engines, rope, braid, 
&c., are made here. The Bunnell Manufacturhig Co. has 3(j buildings, 
and prints 22,500,000 yards of calico yearly. The Pawtucket Tack Co. 
makes 360,000,000 tacks yearly, and 35,000,000 spools are made here 
every year. 

^ » 



liuHte 6". 


I short! ). 
rs ; but 
:r which 
=,, where 
vill call 
ind^ the 

lirs.). or 

,, at Iho 


for the 

the seat 

lue Hill 
I and its 

wept the 

Dwii, tlie 
11, on the 

ig to^vn. 
:, Attle- 


|ic rivei' 





k Co. 

ide here 



Providence (Hty Hotel, ^4-4.50 a day, Aldrich Housf: Central 

HottJ, G-lO Cuiiul St., European plan), is the sect^nd city, ui wealth 

and popul.ilion, of New Eui^iand, and a .scuii-capital of Rhode Island. 

It is beautifully situated on hills at the head of Narra^Musett Bay, 

a cove of wliich lies far in the city and is surroundetl hy promenades. 

The view of the city IVoni the Bay, or from the heights E. of the river, isi 

very i»lefi.sing. The Cliina trade was once largtdy enjoyed l)y Providence, 

but since its loss the energies of the citizen, li.vt'. turned to manul'actures, 

and now large jewelry, iron, stove, and loiomutivc works are kept going. 

The Corliess engint-s, the Peabody ritlcs, the Gorham silver-ware, Perry 

Davis's Pain-lviller, and millions of cigars are made here. 44 banks take 

care of the money. 

Provi(U;ncfi was founded and named by Roper Williams, who w is banished f^'oni 
M;iM viclmsi'tts in lO:!'!, for his advaiiccil idt-as rebilivi' lo Ciiurch and iStatf. Ho 
was horn in Wales, l,')'.i',t, cducattMl ,it Pfnihroisi! Colk'Lit', Caiiibri(l;,'t', and pp ached 
for some time at Salem, Mass. .\fter his o.xile he .settled at Seelconii, whnice he 
was .soon warned away l)y the Gnvcrnor of I'lymouth. In a eanoo, with five 
companions, he droppe<l down the river, until, in itassini^ a eove (near tlie present 
India St. Bridge), he was liaileil l»y .some Indians with the words, " What eheer, 
Netopy " (friend). He landed in tliis fuvn on tin' eelebraled What Clie^r Iloek, 
and then eoisted around to the mouth of Providciiec River, where he lamleil a I 
remained. Tliis was in. June, lUW. Soon after he visited theHaehem L'anr)nifus(on 
Canonieut Island) and received a grant of tlie land liereal»outs. In 10.'>'.> Williams 
became a Baptist, ami in ltt4M - t went to Kiigland, and got a charter I'nr the new 
colony. In king Philip's War, every lionse l)etween Stonington and iwidgewater 
(save Providenet) was destroyed, and the little eolony was onee liereely atttieked, 
and lost .'50 housi In the royal census of 17.'50, Provide!, 'C had :'>,'.»l(i inhabitants. 
De Warville visitnl it in 1788, and reported it " deeaytd, and in the silence of 
death." In ISOO, it liad 7,014 inhabitants, and in 1670, (>.s,'.>04. 

The R. R. station, fronting on E.xchange Placi-, is a large, liandsome 
budding, near which is a costly * monument, erectetl by the -tate in 
honor of her dead soldiers. The base of this work is of l»lue Westerly 
granite, bearhig the arms of the U. S., and of R. I. Surrounding this 
are four 7-ft. bronze statues repr'isenting the Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, 
and the Navy ; above winch is a statue of militant America (10 ft. high), 
bearing a sword and laurel wreath in one hand, and a wreath of imnuir- 
telles in the other. The names of 1,680 R. I. soldiers who died in the War 
for the Union are inscribed on the monument, which was designed by 
Randolph Rogers, of Rome. Near Exchange Place, and parallel to it, is 
Westminster St., the main thoroughfare of the city. From this street to 
Weybosset St. runs the Arcade, a fine granite building (built 1828), on 
the plan of the European "galleries," containing a great number of bliops 
rar' < d along a glass-roofed jiromenade. In the vicinity is the massive 
granile building of the Custom House and Post Otlice. The most notable 
chuvi'ies are St. Joseph and St. Mary (Roman Catholic), the Union 
Congregational, the Roger Williams Baptist, the ancient First Baptist 
(.society founded 1G39), Grace Churcli, and St. Stephen's (Ei)iscopal), a 










|iO "■^~ 




1-25 1.4 I.O 

.« (,» 

■ — ► 






■V. ■>'*^^ 




^ # 










WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 









t f: 

04 Jioute 8. 




It . I 




massive edi{ic<; of rugged brown stone, with a deeply recessed cliancel, an 
ornate roof, and riclily stained windows. Tliere are 69 cliurches in tlie 
city. In tht: S. part, and fronting on the harbor, is the stately building 
of tlie *R. I. Hospital, surrounded by pleasant grounds. Some distance 
S. of this, the city is i)re]>aring a i)ark on ihe bold shores of the Narra- 
gunsett Bay. 

On the E. side of Providence River are two long business streets and a 
line of h('i;j;hts covered with residences. On N. Main St., near Presi- 
dent, is the quaint old chuich of the First Bai)tist Society, and beyond it, 
on the corner of S. Court St., is the small brick building used for the 
State House. Fine views ;>f the "seven hills of Providence" are gained 
fiom Benefit St. above the State House. On the comer of Collega and 
Benefit Sis. is the * AtheneDum, a .sturdy little granite building, con- 
taining a lilti-ary of 32,000 volumes. Several busts are preserved here, and 
some fine paintings, among which are a copy of Stuari's Washington, 
by Allston ; portrait of (.'banning, AUston ; Churles II., long thought to 
be by Van Dyk, now held to be by Cas2)ar ; portraits of Gen. (ireene, J. 
(}. Percival, and Phillips Brocks; -portrait of a young lady, (his niece ?) 
reading, by Sir Joshua Iteynolc one of his finest works. But the gem 
of this collection is Malbone's masterpiece, * " The Hours," painted in 
Avatcr-colors on a sheet of ivory 6 inches Ity 7, and i)resented to the 
Athenanim in 1S53, by 130 subscribers. The picture represents Eunomia, 
Dice, and Irene, the Past, Present, and Future. The President of the 
lloyal Academy said of it to Monroe, " I have seen a picture, painted by 
n young man by the name of Malbone, which no man in England could 
excel." On the heights near the Athenaium is the line of buildings 
(Iv. I. College, Hope, Manning, and University Halls, &c.), pertaining to 
Brown University. There is here a fine library of about 40,000 volumes, 
a museum of Natural History containing 10,000 specimens; and in the 
portrait gallery 3S portraits, some of which are of value. 

Rhode Island CoUef^e was foun.led at Warren in 1764, and removed to Provi- 
dtMi'.'e ill 1770. Its lmililiii;,'.s served iis a liospital for the Franco-Auierican army 
durin^c K'rcat part of the Itcvohition. Nieliolas Brown, and others of that dis- 
tinguished R. I. family, iiaviii;^ greatly aided the college, in 1804 Hs name was 
elianged to Rrown University. Tw(. thirds of tlie Boards of Fellows and Trustees 
are rc(iuired by the charter to be Bu,i)tists. 

The iiall of the R. I. Historical Society is near the University, and 
contains many relics of the Indians and early settlers, together with 6,000 
books, 30,000 pamphlets, and 7,000 MSS. On Hope St., N. W, of the 
University, are the extensive buildings, surrounded by fine grounds, of the 
Dexter Asylum (for the poor), near which are the ornate buildings of the 
Fiiends' Boarding School, The Butler Hospital for the Insane has large 
and stately edifices, surrounded by 115 acres of ornamental grounds, on 
the heights which look down on the widenings of the Seekouk River 
























1 , 


i»ho\ii)i:n(]e . 

1. Stair ft Pit se. 
7t. ( 'us lot n Ihtusc. 
4 . Slftli' l*rif<on . 





(I. H.I.Uosritol. K.r» 

7. /{rcrttif . fj.O. 

U. Alhfnat'uni . ■'.•> 

•). Hroir/t I'/iifrnsili;. 
10. Ili'xft'f .tfulufir 

1 1. /mv/* //» ' School. ^i- 

12. M?//// Cheer Hc-k: Hi 
15. Hoslvn firN.y. SUithn . K5. 

w.itrisU " . h:) 

15. ///w/ Baplifit. F..1 

1ft. lini/'i' ( fjpiA'ri/iMi ). E** 

II. .VA Stephen* " . (J> 

K.'r 18. ^.S.IUiro,t,n\ml. D4 

ii2 lU. fienefhrnt iC^Hif) Ei 



Ot Route 

massive edilic 
ornate roof, c 
city. Tn the 
of tlic. *E. I 
S. of tliis, til 
gansett Bay. 
On tlie E. I 
line of licigi 
(lent, is the ( 
on the Lorne 
State House, 
from Benefit 
Benefit Sts.. 
tuining a lib 
some tine \n 
liy Allston ; 
lie by Van I 
(r. Percival, 
reading, i)y 
of this eoll( 
Athenanun j 
Dice, and I 
Koyal Acad 
a young ma 
excel." 0: 
(U. I. Colle 
Brown Un; 
a nmseuni 
portrait gal 

Rhode Isli 
(It'iice in 177 
ibu'in.i; groa' 
tingiiislied J 
cliaiiged to ] 
are reciuired 

The hall 
contains ni 
books, 30,1 
Dexter As 
Friends' E 
and statel 
the heigh 


Rcnite S. G5 

(which is tlie boundary of Massacliusetts). N. of the Butler Hospital 
is Swan Point Cemetery, a beautiful rural necropolis on undulating 
ground near the river. The Reform School and the Home for Aged 
Women are in the S. E. part of the city. Near tlie E. end of Power St., 
on the banks of the river, is the What Cheer Rock, on which Roger 
Williams first landed. N. of the Cove (»ear the R. R. Station), is the 
Rhode Island State Prison. 

Environs of Providence. 

On the N. (4| M.) is the great manufacturing town of Pawtucket. 
Cranston (4 M. to the W. ) is a busy working place, which has the Narra- 
gansett Trotting Park, famous in R. I. raues. The mile elliptical track is 
entered through a fine towered gateway, and the grand stand contains 
5,000 seats. Himt's Mill, 'l M. distant, is a favorite drive. Steamers 
leave Provi<lence almost hourly in summer for the popular resorts on 
the Bay, and four times daily for Newport. Sassafras Point, Robin Hill, 
with its old fort, and Field's Point, are passed soon after leaving the city, 
and then Ocean Cottage (hotel) is reached, on the E. sliore. The sturdy 
liglithouse, in the Bay beyonrl, i.s on Pondiam Rock, named after a brave 
sachem of the Narragansetts who was killed in battle with the English, in 
Jnly, 1676, The steamer now stojjs at Vue d(! I'Eau, a large hotel on the 
E. shore, commanding a fine view of the Bay. Smitli's Palace is on tiie W., 
after which comes tlie favorite Silver Spring House (on the E.). Pawtuxet 
village (5 M. from Providence, on the W. shore) has sandy shores which 
afford good bathing. After rounding Sabin's Point on the E., the Cedar 
Grove House (30 rooms, 4 bowling .alleys), with its cottage village, is seen 
on a high bluff. At Gaspee Point, below Pawtuxet. the British sloop-of- 
wi r "Gaspee" grounded while chasing, a small American vessel. On the 
following night (June 17, 1772,) a band of Providence men surprised the 
" Gaspee," captured and landed her crew, and then burnt the vessel. Bul- 
lock's Point (on the E.) and Mark Rock (on the W.), *' the Natchez of 
Rhode Island," the sandy Canimicut Point with its lighthouse, and 
Nayatt Point, on the opposite shore, are rapidly passed, and then the steamer 
passes out into the Bay proper. Bocky Point (Rocky Point Hotel, on 
the European plan, accommodating 700 guests) is soon reached. This 
Point is midway between Providence and Newport, and is one of the most 
joyous and attractive resorts in New England. A lofty tower near the 
hotel aftbrds a noble * view, including Providence and Newport, Fall 
River, Bristol, and Warren, and many other towns, with the whole sweep 
of the Bay. The wild and cavernous rock-formations, the free menagerie, 
and the elevated railway, are some of the attractions. 250 persons are 
employed here through the summer ; from the hotel telegrams may be 
sent all over the Union. But the chief excellency of " the crown of 





66 Jioute S. 


Narragausett Bay " is the diuiug-rooni (seating 1,500 persons), where fish 
and cJams are served up in every sliape. The clani-bakes of Rocky Point 
are unrivalled in tlie world. Soon after, the steamer j)asses Warwick 
and its lighthouse, and along Prudence Island (G M. long), near which 
are tlic islets of Patience, Hope, and Desjjair. S. of Prudence Island is 
the widest part of the Bay, and Warwick village is visible on the W. 
shore. The course now lies between Rhode and (^anonicut Islands, pass- 
ing several smaller islets, and running under the frowning walls' of Fort 
Adams into the Harbor of Newport. 

The Providence, Warren, and Bristol R. R. leaves its station at Fox 
Point, crosses the Seekonk River, and j)ass('.s the i>opular resorts on the E, 
shore. Stations, India Point, Boston Switch, \'ue de I'Eau, Drownville, 
Nayatt, Barrington and Warren. The latter town (Cole's Hotel, estab- 
lished in 17G2) is a busy manufacturing place on the E. sliore of Narra- 
gansett Bay. It is a nursery of sailors, and has a well-protected harbor. 
The Sachem Massasoit had his favorite dwelling here on his territory of 
Sowamset, near a spring which is still called after his name. The Warren 
Veteran Artillery has two cannon whicli were made at Strasbourg in 17G0, 
taken from the French at Montreal, surrendereil with Burgoyne at Sara- 
toga, and used in the Porr Rebellion (1842). A railroad runs from 
Warren to Fall River. 

Tlie next station, 4 M. S. of Warren, is Bristol (a small hotel). This 
town is a pleasant summer-resort, and is built on a higli peninsula sloping 
to a deep, safe harbor. Three wide, grassy streets run down the penin- 
sula, — Water St., near the harbor ; Main St., with St. Michael's (Epis.) 
Church, and two or three old colonial mansions; and High St., with the 
common, the poor county buildings, and a fine Cong, church, in rambling 
mediaeval architecture. From this broad and quiet street may be seen 
Mount Hope, where was "King Philip's seat" (Arnold), or "Philip's 
sty at Mount Hope " (Palfrey). 

King Philip, or Metacoiiiet, was the son of srass.isoit, and chief of the Wam- 
panoags. After enduring various aggressions from his white neighbors, in 1671, 
thp Plyniouth people deniandorl that all the Indians should give up their arms, 
and Philij) demurred at this. Tlion, travelling throughout New England, he 
formed a powerful anti-English loague, and attacked the colonies in 1675. After a 
long war conducted with unexam]iled ferocity by both combatants, his power 
was broken by the Narraj;:uis('tt Fort Fight, and the repulse tVom Taunton. 
Having decimated the eoloiiisis and destroyed many of their fairest towns, 
he was hunted down and shot near the foot of Mount Hope, in midsummer, 
1676. During the war 600 colonists were killed, and 12 towns were destroyed. 

In 16S0 the i>eninsula was bought from the Goveniment by a company of Bos- 
ton capitalists, who divided it into lots, and sold the land to actual settlers. In 
Oct., 177"), three British frigates bombarded Bristol, and in 1778 a raiding party 
of British soldiers plundered this town and Warren. 

Fine yaclits are made at Bristol, also cotton goods and refined sugars, while 
an immense rubber manufactoiy does a business of § 2,000,000 a year. 

The Providence and Worcester R. R. runs from Providence to Worcester (Route 
10) ; and the Hartford, Providence, and Fishkill R. R. I'uns W. to Hart onl and 





It^nik 8. 



'Waterbiu7 (Route 11). A daily line of BteaiTier.s runs between Providenco and 
Nt'W York, cunyiny i>a.ssengers and freiylit. 

Alter leaving Providence, the Shore Line route to New York (Route 8, 
coulimicd) run.s S., passing the stations Ehnville, II ill's Grove, Apponaug, 
and Greenwich (Updikt House, Greenwich Hotel). Greenwich i.s a neat 
village on Cowesit Bay, and is the seat of a large Methodist Seminary. 
In 1G41, a trading-post and inn were erected here on the great Southern 
road, or " Pequot Path." Its site is now occui)ied by the Updike Houa^', 
into which many of its timhers are built. At this post the Mass. and 
Plymouth forces met before the Narragansett Fort Fight (1675), and 
liither they retreated with their wounded. 

Old War-wick is a U\\\ miles distant, across Cowesit I3ay. Sanuiel Oorton 
a layinau wlio intrudod into tiie arena of theological polemics, was banished 
from Plymouth in 1G37, liom N'e\vi>ort in lUll, from ProviJ.enee in lOl'J, from 
Cranston later in the same year, and then settled on Shawomet. la 1(14.'}, 40 
.soldiers from Boston came here, and took Gorton and 10 colonists to IJoston, 
where they were tried and s'liteneed as "danniable heretics," and banished 
from America. The Earl of Warwick sent him back to Hhawomet (which ho 
named Warwick), and under tliat nobliiuian's i)rotection he spent the remaiudei* 
of his life in launching anathematic trt^atises at Massachusetts and R. I., among 
which were "Simplicitie's Defence against .Seven-Headed Policy," "Antidote 
against Pharasaic Teachers," &c. In 1052, the clerk of this unfortunate settle- 
ment was disfranchised on seven charges : first, for calling the oUicers of the 
town rogues and thieves; second, for calling all the town rogues and thieves; 
third, for threatening to kill all the mares in town. In 1070, the jdace was at- 
tacked and burnt. 

Nathaniel Creene was born at Warwick, in 1742. He It I the R. I. brigade to 
Cambridge in 177ii, connnanded the left wing, and toi>k the guns ai, Ti-cntou, 
saved the army at the Battle of tiie Brandywine, and led a brigade at (Jennan- 
town, Monmouth, and Xewiiort. In 17^0, he connnanded tlio sliattercd Army of 
the South in its celebrated retreat across South ai^d Nnrth Carolina into Virginia, 
and fought the drawn battle at Guilford C. II. In April, 1781, he was badly de- 
feated by Lord Rawdon, at llobkirk's Ilill, and was repulsed from Fort i)(i', but 
in September he won the sanguinary and decisive battle of P^utaw Springs, which 
ruined the British hoi)es in the South. Congress jjresented him with a medal, a 
British standard, and two captured cannon, and the Stiite of Georgia gave hiuj a 
line i)lantation near Savannah, where he resided until his death. 

George S. Greene, born at Warwick in ISOl, commanded a division at Antietam, 
Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg ; and in N. and S. Carolina during the rest of 
the war. 

Silas Casey, born at E. Greenwich in 1807, commanded a division of the Army 
of the Potomac, and was greatly distinguished in the sanguinary battle of Fair 
Oaks, May 31, 1802. 

The celebrated summer resort .at Rocky Point is not far from Old Warwick. 

Station "Wickford. The village (Washinffion Hotel), a quaint and quiet 
old place, is on a broad bay, and is reached by a branch railroad in 2.^ Zkl. 
(connecting with a steamer to Newport daily). In the edge of the village 
is a curious square Episcopal church, which was built in 1700, and has 
been long deserte'l. 

Station Kingston. The village (Kingston House) is on the heights, 2 
M. E. of the station, and contains the county buildings of Wasliington 
Co. 9 M. from the station (carriages in waiting) is the fa.shionable sea- 
side resort at Narragansett Pier. 

08 Route 8. 



r' ' 

lintels. *T(»\vor Hill IIouho, a noble building on Nurra^'ansttt Il(;i>;hts, wliidi 
ovcrlonk i\w. wliolc Hay, is ;i M. from the sIkuc ('ur») , Ucliivan iloiisif ; 
Contineiitil House ; Miixsoii, Ha/aid, Onai , .Mctatoxct, Hca-View, Kliiiwoml, 
Narraj,'ans('tt, Mattliewson, Allaiitii', Atwuod, Rtvere, Mount Hope, and .itiicrs. 
Most oi' tlii'Si! Iiotels accoiuniodate UO- SO guests, mid ehargf- § 1*2- Jjl 18.00 ii week. 
Th»! Towur Hill, Atwood, and two or three others, are larger and more ox- 

Music, Lectures, &c., In Cnnnnehet Hall. A liandaome Episoopal church, 
of sloiie, has receutiy been built. Narragaiisett I'ier 1*. O. receives two maild 
daily. SteatnerH leave daily for New]>ort and I'rovidence. 

In 1856, a fainily from Pliihidolpliia came licre, and boarded at a farm- 
liouso near tlic beach. The next year tliey returned witli some friends, 
and tlie farm was calh'd tlie Narra<i;an,sett lioardhig- House. Summer 
visitors increased, until in 18(57, tlie Atlantic (80 guests), the Atwood (175 
guests), and the Revere (50 guests) J louses were built. Other hotels 
were rapidly buMt, and in 1871, the Continental, Maxson, Mt. Hope, 
and Tower Hill Houses were fini.shed. 

Tlic Beach affords fine riding and bathing (light sn.rf), and many 
are caught from the rocks, Narragansett is sai<l to be more (juiet and un- 
assuming than Newport, and its usual routine is bathing in the morning 
(wlien 3-400 persons may be seen in the surf), and cro([uet in the after- 
noon. Below the Pier is a mass of rock.s, beyond which stretches the 
long line of Wolcott's Beach, Tlie noble aiid richly decorated mansion of 
the Sprague family is near the cluster of hotels. Every visitor shouhl go 
to Narragansett Heights (3 M,), where the palatial Tower Ilill Hotel 
stands on its 800-ac,re i)lateau, near Silver Lake, 400 ft. above the Ray. 
The* view is fine, extending over Newi)ort and 10-12 villages, and cov- 
ering a horizon-line of 100 M. The Ocean, the Bay, Point Judith, and 
the lakes of S. Kingstown, are all visible. 4-6 M. W. of the Pier is 
Peacedale, with a fine stone church, and a large manufactory of woollen 

The road running S. W. from Peacedale, through Wakefield, passes the remains 
of tlie old Potter Palace, and the birth i)laco of Commodore Perry. 

John Potter was a magnate of the middle of the ISth century, who built here 
in Narragansett a line mansion, richly frescoed throughout, surrounded by gai- 
ilens, and kept by 100 slaves, where he used to receive company in baronial 

At and before this time large Quaker settlements were scattered through the 
district, and three of their deserttnl (duirclies still remain in this town. 

Oliver Hazanl Perry was born in 1785, of an old aristocratic family of Narra- 
gansett. He served as a midshipman in the Trii)olitan War, and was put in com- 
mand of the squadron on Lake Erie, at whose head, iSejit. 10, 1813, he won a bril- 
liant victory, and cajitured the entire British fleet. He died of yellow fever, at 
Trinidad, in 1810. His l)n)ther. Commodore M. C. Perry, born at Newport, 17!.4, 
was an active naval ollicer, chiefly distinguished for leading the Japan expedition 
in 1852-4, when he concluded an important treaty w ith that empire. 

(Jommodorc Perry's cousin, .Stephen C'hamplin, Commodore in the U. S. Navy, 
was born here in 1789. He tired the first mid last shots at the battle of Lake 
Erie, where he commanded the "ycorpion," in Perry's squadron. His services in 
the War of 1812 were imi>ortant. 

G. C. Stuart, the celebrated portrait-painter, was bom in this town in 1754. 
Most of the time from 1772 to 1793 he s])ent in London and Paris, an<l kept his 
studio at Boston, 180C-28. His portraits of Washington and other founder.s of 


, liere 

« arra- 



M-, at 


es m 

; his 
rs of 




Pinntr S. 


the Rr'i»n1)Ii(! aro the best in existence, and show skill of the higlicst onlor in por- 

li M. fioiii tiio Perry fann Is the Potter Place, K. of wlilch is the Inn^', islaiiil- 
8tiiilile<i la^^'odii known as Point .luilitii Poii>(, aiioiuulin;^ in llsli. Fulitt JudltU 
is tlie site of an inii)ortant li^lithouse. 

Tiie Icj^eml inns, that far liack in the eolonial days, a storm-tossed vessel was 
driven in t<nvards the Narrnicaiisett shore. The captain, an ancient mariner, wa«j 
at the wheel, watclifid aniiil tlie jierils of an nnkn-iwri coast, when his l/ri^ht- 
eyed dan^'liter, .Jnditii, <'allcd out to him, " Land, father! I see the land ! " His 
dim eyes could not discern tlu! distant shore, and he shouted, "Where away? 
Point, Jndith, point!" She did jtoint, and lie elian^'ed his course, and left the 
surf-whitened cap(! far away under Ice; antl when lie ri;ailicd jiort, tlie story nf 
the fearless i^\v\ iiointiii.L; out tlie dan;,'cr from the storm-swcpt deck was told often 
and afiain amonj^ the sailors, so that the old sea-captains, wiu'n they jiasscd this 
cape thereafter, rejx'ated the story, and ^ave her name to th(! place. 

I)urin},' nnnh of the year ITTf*. tlic Count Dilstainp^'s fleet of Kl vessels, with 
0X\ cannon, was stretched across the Hay from Point .Fmlith, and maintained an 
eflleient Mockade of the British forrcs at Newport. Admiral Lord Howe attacked 
D'Est'iin;^ with alar^e sipiadron, and after an indecisive battle anil a severe storm, 
both fleets were foreeil to leave the Hay and relit. 

Tliis town of 8. Kingstown is tlic largest in the State, covering over 7*5 
square M. N. W. of Kingston, near the Exeter line, on a higli, rocl<y 
hill, are the ruins of the Indian "Queen's Fort." Part of the stone-wall 
remains, also a rock-chamber called the Queen's Bedroom, v.i"Te many 
arrows have been found. 

On a hill in the great pine and cedar swamp near Worden's Pond (S. 
W. of Kingston) are the scanty remains of the Narragansett Fort 
(guide necessary, who can sometimes be obtained at the farm-houses oa 
the edge of the swamp). 

At the time of the landing of the Pilgrims, the Narragansett Indians, nnwastctd 
by i)estilenee, ruled the K. Tliere were ;i(),00fl .souls in this nation (Hriidey), or 
according to Roger Williams,"!? towns within 20 M., with o, 000 warriors." 
Gookin (1674) calls them an "active, laborious, and ingenious people," and they 
were extensively engaged in tra<le and manufacture, supplying nearly all the New 
Englant' tribes with Jiipes, pots, and wami)um .jewelry and coin. Their territory 
stretched from Wickford nearly to Westerly, witli its largest villages in the vicin- 
ity (favorable for fishing or agricnlture) of the great i>ouds in S. Kingstown. In 
their simple theology they looked forward to some mystii' realms in tlie far 8. W., 
where the gods and pure s])irits dwelt, while the souls of innrderers, thieves, ami 
liai's are doomed to wander abroad. Tiiey fought freiiuently with the Mohegans 
and Peipiots, but lived more peaceably with the Massachusetts, which was the 
name they (living in a flat country) applied to the dwellers at Neponset, Milt"n, 
and Canton. It is from Massa (many) and Waschoe (mountains), and means the 
people of the many mountains (the high blue hills of Milton). Canonicus and 
Miautonomoh ruleil from about lOOO to 1(543 ; the former being "a wise anil i>ea( c- 
able prince" (Roger Williams), and the latter a "brave and magnanimous chief," 
who gave lands freely to the R. I. colonists. Rut the unvarying friendship b;'- 
tween the settlers and this great tribe was ended in 107'>, when the fiery eloquence 
and crafty subtlety of King Philip of the Wampanoags induced them to enter 
the anti-English confederation of the New Englaml tribes. The United Colonies 
took prompt action, and assembled 1,000 men under (Jen. W^inslow, on the verge 
of the tribal territory. Many of the Indians were r>ampaigning witli King Philip ; 
many fled to the N. W. ; and the rest abandoned their villages and took refuge in 
the ancient fortress of the tribe in the swamp near Worden's Pond. After a long 
march through the snow in Dec, 1(J7.^, the colonial troops came in sight of the 
hill, covered with a system of embankments, palisades, and abatis, and defended 
by the flower of the Narragan setts. The Massachusetts men, in the van, dashed 
into the Fort through an enfiladed entrance, and after a furious struggle, being 

70 JioiUc s. 





unHUpported, tlioy worr clHvcn out, with luvivy Io.^b. Hio wliolc fnrrc imw Imving 
nnivfu, a iloublc uttack wan iiiailc ; tlic troojis of Coiiiiccticut HtoriiHfl the nnU\ 
ami, wliifo tin; atteiiti(tii of tin; wliolf^ Iiniiaii Ki*i''i«'»'» wih ct'iitrffl nii tliiii point, 
tlic riyinuulh (Miiii|iaiiic>s Itroke UhoukIi tiir uhatis and iialimuleH on tlu; other 
siile, and attacked ttieni in the rear, A J)ittcr coinliat ensued, tlic IndianH retir- 
ing to their wi^waniH and reiiulsiiig every attac-k of the colonials, who now held 
tlie walls. Fire \v,ih now ajiplied to thfl wiKwaniH, and Hpread ra|iidly, aniid a 
Hcenfi of nnntterahle contUNiou and carna^'e. A hand of chosen warriors dashed 
forth and cleared a way and covered t\\c retreat of fidl iJ.oOO peojih-, alter whii'li 
iho. colonials were left in full possession, liavin;^ lost so men killed and l.^') 
wt)unded. ;i()0 Wiirriors were killed, and (H»() prisoners taken, of whom most of 
the lightiuK men were either shot on JiOrtton Conmion, ilied on Deer Islaml, or 
wereH(dd into slavery. The tribe was annihilated. Nearly all the colonial captains 
were shot, and a considerahle i)ropoition of the wounded, borne through a road- 
less ';uuutry in midwinter, scoics of miles tu tliu settlements, diud un tho way 

"The bitter cold, the tarled swami>, the tediojis march, tho stronR fort, tho 
iinm<;ruus and stubborn enemy they contended with lor their God, KiiiK, and 
country, be their trophies over death. "— Comi. Legislaturu on " dead in 
tho Fort Fight in Narrugansctt. 

In 10-12 lain, aftci' leaving Kingston Station, the train passes tlirough 
the swamp wliero the battle took place. The next station is Carolina, 
with large woollen niilhi, 3-4 M. S. of which is a reservation, with church 
and school-house, where lives the sc.:hty renuiant of the Nan-agansett 
tribe. Stations, liichvuind Smitch, Charkstown, Westerly (Dixon 
House, $3.00 a day). In ]<'G5, a division of the Newport church 
moved to Westerly, and, in 1671, embraced the tenets of the Seventh 
Day Baptists^ so if the traveller chances to be here on Saturday, he will 
find but little business going on, and the church bells ringing. Westerly 
is noted for its extensive manufactures, and, among other tilings, turns 
out every year 442 miles of llannel and 1031 miles of cotton and woollen 
cloths. Many summer visitors stop at the elegant Dixon House, and 
avail themselves of the steamer which runs semi-daily down the Pawcatuck 
River to * 

Watch Hill Point. 

ITotelS' — * Ocean Ilcuse, on a far-viewing liill ; Watch Hill House, 30-40 
years olil, the lirst hotel here ; Larkin, near the lighthouse ; Atlantic 
House, Dickens, Bay View, and Plimpton Houses. There is but little ditfercnee 
in these liotels, and the ]>rices arc somewliat less than tluse at Narragansett Pier. 

Steamers in sunnner run from Westerly to Watch Hill twii'e daily ; from 
P.tonington 4-5 times daily ; from New Loudon, daily ; and from Norwich, touch- 
ing at New London and Mystic, daily. 

Watch Hill Point, the S. W. extremity of R. I., is a high, bold promon- 
tory, from which the sandy Narragansett Beach runs E., while to the W. 
Napatree Beach, a narrow strip of sand, runs out to Sandy Point. From 
the top of the hill a good sea view is obtained, with Block Island to the 
S. E., Fisher's Island to the S. W., and the town of Stoningtou close at 
hand in the W. From its fine views, excellent bathing beaches, and quiet 
and unpretentious hotels, this has become a favorite summer resort. 

In August, 1872, the passenger steamer ** Metis," bound from New 




KoutcS. 71 

le W. 
o tlie 
)se at 



York to Piovi'lciice, was run into by ai)other vcHsel of!" this point. She 
sank in <lccp water, in the storm nnd ni).;ht, and lii ormoroof Ihm- passen- 
gers were lost. Most of the corpHoa, together with the deck of the vessel, 
were thrown upon Watfli Ilill Roarh. 

MU'V Westerly comes Stonlngton (tlio * Wadawaniick House is a large 
summer hotel, eommaiidin^' a lino water- view. It aecommodatcs 140 
guests, and charges $4.50 a day; large retluetion for board by the 
HC'Won. There are one or two smaller houses here), 

Tliis district (Pawcatiir-k) was claiiiH-il by Mans, ns liors in risht of "Joint con- 
f|>i!'st," .iftcr tlic (ji'ftMt of the I'cciiiods, l)iit was sctticil in liijii from ('<)iuip<'tlcnt. 
Ill iSDl it Ix'c.iii;'' a boroiii^li nlmiit wliicli time I'l-csidctit Mwi;^'lit wrote that " Htoii- 
iii;;tnii juid all it,-, vicinity siitlcri in rc!i;,ioii froiii tlic no.iriit'ss of K. I." Aiij;. 0, 
isi 1, tln' l)on)ii;,di was attackc(| l)y the Idntiilirs, 71 : the I'm'tolns, '.\H ; ami 
."cveral other Hiitish vessels, which lioiiiharded if for three days, throwm;<(lO tons 
of iron into it. Knur attempts to land were repnlse.l with „ia|iesh<)t, with heavy 
loss, and the Dispntrh, '22, was seriously injured ami driven off by a 3-Kun battel^ 
on the point. The town was deserted by its people, and 00 soldiers were scattered 
tliroii^di it to put out the llres. 

Stonington is built on a narrow, rocky point, with quiet streets, cnibel- 
lislied liero and there by iron relies of 1814. 

StcrtiiierH from Stonin;:ton to Watch Hill (5 times daily in summer (2.'!)c.). 

The StuiiiiiKtoii lAno of steamers (to New Yori<) has fine boats which leave 
tliis port nil the of the steanilioat train from Hoston ('.>-l'» P. M.), and 
arrive at New Yorl< early in the nioriiinj^. Thi.s is one of the lour great routes to 
New York, tlu; others beiii;^ the [-'all lliver Steamboat Line, the Shore Line K. U., 
Hiid the U.K. route via S;)riii;j;fleld and Hartford. Anew line, via WlUlniantie 
and New Haven, is nearly ready for travel. 

A line of i)aekets has heretofore run from Stonington to Block Island, and a 
dailv steamer is iiromised for tlie s'l'iniier of 1S7.'?. 

Itlock iHland (.Mitiliell IIor;\ ■ S)»rin^' House) v/as named for Adrian Block, 
Ihe Dutch diseoven-r, and was called l>y the Indians Maiiisecs (the isle of the 
little god). The natives made most of the wanqjum (money) for the interior 
tribes. In Ki-'Ui, they captured a Hoston vesscd near tlie island, and killed the 
crew, shortly after which a t.'onii. coaster ran down on her, rakiii;,' the <lo(;ks with 
musketry. 11 Indians jumped overboard and were drowned, but the rest took 
refu^,'e in the hold. The coaster then i^wed her many leafrucs to sea, and, havinj^ 
removed her .sails, hit her go, in il'.niful storm. To avenge the murder of thu 
Boston sailors, Gov. Endicott (who hud out out the cross from the Hritish Hag 
with his rapier as "savoring of Popery") campaigned on Block Island under the 
jTossless flag and destroyed 'J large villages. The island sent CO ft. of wampuni 
to Boston for tribute, in KioS, mid in 1(M>1 an English settlenuiUt was maile here, 
which wat; ini-orporated in 1072 as New Shoreham, and nearly destroyed by a 
raid from French vessels in 1090. 

Block Island is 8 I\r. long by from 2 - 4 M. wide, and is nearly cut in 
two by a great salt-water pond, S. of which is the thin village of New 
Shoreham, witli 2 Baptist churches. There are many abrupt and un- 
covered hills, used for grazing. The men are mostly employed in fishing, 
and are of a simple, sturdy, and primitive race. The island belongs 
to R. I., and has about 1300 inhabitants, whose number is slowly decreas- 

After Stonington comes the busy, ship-building village of Mystic (Hoxie 

72 Route 8. 





■ i. 


Near Mystic, on tlic N., is Peqtiot Ilill, wliidi was attacked May 2Gtli, 1637 hy 
Mason, who had aiarchci from Nan-agansett willi 90 Englisliii.eii, and 400 Mohe- 
gans and Narragans«tts, under the yac)ienis Uncus and Miantononioh. On 
arriving before tlie Fort, tlic Indi'in allies were afraid to attiick, ancl drew oil', 
whereupon tlic colonial soldiers i>;eitared to do the work alone, and knelt down 
in prayer, ('he Sachem V/equash, the guide of the forces, was aninzed at liiis 
si^ht, and when he understood it, he l)fcanie iini)rcpsed and conveited, an(l 
preached throu^dio'it New Kngland until iic scaled his faith by a j^h rioiis mar- 
tyrdom.) The English now inovcil steadily to the assault, and, favored by the 
darkness, succeeded in getting inside the palisades, but they were soon over- 
wh(;lnied by vastly sinieri'-!' numbers, and fell back, after setting lire to th(! wig- 
wams. " The greatness and violence of the lire, the flashing and roari'.ig of the 
arniH, the shrieks and yells ol men, women, and children within the Fort, and the 
shoutings of Indians without, just at the dawning of tlu; morning, exliii>itcd a 
grand and awful s< cue. The Narragansetts, Mohegans, and colo.iials surrounded 
the hill and hhot down t!ie fugitives. (JdO re(niots were shot or burnt on this 
<lreadful morning, which v,as a death-Mow to the tribe. " It was a fearful sight 
to sec them frying in tlie lire, and the streams of blood (luenching the same, and 
liorriblc was the stink and scent thcieof; but the victory seenuid a sweet sacri- 
iice, and they gave the praise thereof to Uod." Cotton Mather. 

4 M. from Pecjuot Hill (half-way to New London) is Fort Hill, where 
Sassacus, sachem of the I'eqnots, had his royal fortress. On hearing of 
the attack of Mason, the chief sent 300 of his best warriors, who «^;aused 
the Indo-colonial forces great loss in their retreat. But meanwhile those 
who had remained in the fort revolted, and Sassacus, with his court and 
chiefs, was forced to flee to the Hudson River, whence they never 
returned, and the tribal organization was blotted out by the colonies, who 
gave for slaves to t'lc friendly tribes those remaining of the dreaded 
Pequots or " De.stroy ers, " * There is a noble view from Fort Hill (4 M. 
E. of New London) which endiraces jiarts of 15 towns, 4 counties, 3 
States, 20 islands, 7 lighthouses, with New liondon, Stonington, Fort 
Griswold, and Fisher's Island Sound. 

Groton is a very hilly township, and has but liitle good soil (in the 
river valley). In 1832, 40 Pequots were living here on a reservation, and 
still heartily hating the Narragansetts. Silas Deane,^n early American 
diplomatist, who died in poverty and sorrow in a strange land, after hav- 
ing made successfid negotiations with France, &c., was a native of Gro- 
ton. Between 1812 and 1819, 500,000 yards of cotton cloth were woven 
ut home by women witli hand-looms. 

Mystic Island, a (juiet sumnter resort, is off the mouth of the river. 

After passing the station of Gruto.t, the cars are ferried across the 
Thames River to New Loudon (Metropolitan House, §2.50. A new and 
elegant hotel is to be opened here in the summer of 1873). 

New London is a city of 9,570 inhabitants, on a granite strewn declivity 
facing S. E., on a vi le harbor, 3 M. long and 30 ft. deep. 

This was fonnerly known as Pe(]u<)t Harbor, ami was raided successively by 
Mason, Fndicott, and Undeihiil, and was settled by John Winthro}), Jr., in 1645. 
In 1658 the Connecticut Assembly resolved, "Whereas, this court considering 




' One authority says that Pequots meant. " Gray Foxes." 


Ilmdc S. 








tlmt there hath yet no ]ilaoe in nny of the colonics l)cen named in honor of tlic 
city of London, there being a new i>hice, within tliis jurisdi(;tion of Connecticut 
settled ujion that fair river Moiic^^un in the Peijnot country, bein;; an excellent 
harlx)r, and a tit and convenitnt i)lacefor future trade, it being also the only place 
in tliese parts which the English jiossessed by conquest, and tiiat upon a very 
,Vist war, npon that gr;j.t and w.irlilte people, the IVpiots, we, theroforc, that we 
might thereby leave to j>i.sterity that wo memory of that renowned city of Lon- 
don, from whence we had our transportation, have thought lit. in hoi;or to that 
famous city, to call ine said jilantition. New London." In 1()'.)8, the i)iratc Capt. 
Kidd cruised along these shores, and imried on (lardiner's Island lb ounces of 
gold, (J.'W ounces of silver, and a large lot of precious stones, which were recov- 
ered by the Earl oT licUomont, governor at Hoston, in 1(V.>'.». Duriiig the Uevolu- 
tion, the navy of Conn., consisting of 2(5 vessels, made New Lon<lon its chief 
port ; and here, in 1770, wi re landed the governor, oflicei-s, and i)lunder from New 
Providence (of the Ualiamas), which had been captured by an Anu'rican fleet. 
Sept. 5, 1781, 'le renegade raider Benedict Arnold a]ii)e.'irc(i off tlie town with a 
fleet and a large force of British troops, and having ukvn Fort Trundjull he 
l>lundered and l)umt New Tjondon. At the sanu; time a strong detachment made 
an attiick on Fort Griswold (across the river), wiiich w,is defended by Ool. Led- 
yard with 150 militia-n\en. The siiarp fire of tlie Americans repulsed the first at- 
tiick, but a bayiiiet-charge ensued, which carried the enemy into the fort. The 
British commander was killed on the rampart, and the Tory Cijit. IJloomfleld 
(from New Jersey) took his place. As he shouted, " Who commands this Fort?" 
Ool. Ledyard gave him his sword, saying, "1 did command, sir ; Ijut you do 
now." The intamous renegade ran Ledyanl through witli his own sword, where- 
upon a general massacre ensued, and 70 Americans were killeil and 30 wounded 
after the surrender. In storming tlie Fort the British lost 11)1 men. 

An excursion .should Le made to Croton hoig ts, where are the remains 
of old Fort Griswold, near which is a l) 20-gun battery, in ad- 
nurable order, which protects the channel. Witiiin .stone's-thrc)W of the 
fading rampai ... oi the old Fort is a Monument to the massacred militia, 
— a noble granite .shaft. 127 ft. high, and 2G ft. square at the base, on 
V'hich is inscribed, " Zebulon and Naphthali were s. iieojile that jeoparded 
their lives till death in the high places of the Lord." A marble tablet at 
the base contains the names of the slain, which will be seen to run in 
families ; out of 84 names, 9 are Aver\s, 6 Perkinses, 4 Allyns, 4 Lester*, 
&c. The a.scent of the inside of the monument .sliould be made (key, 10 
c. at small close to the monument). From the top a *view Is 
gained which is "charming for the student of nature and yet more charm- 
ing for the student of the romance of American history." — LossiNO. To 
the W. is New London, with its spires and terraccu streets, its shipping, 
Fort Trumbull's massive walls, and up the river the wideiiings of the 
Thames where the U. ^. is preparing a Navy Yard. On the E. are the 
stony hills of Groton, with Fort Hill 4 M. away ; and on the S. the mouth 
of the Thames with its lighthouses, hotels, and .summer-cottages. Th<' 
long, in-egular line of Fisher's Island (t) M. long), belonging to New York 
and occupied by three farms, is in the S. E. over which the ocean is seen, 
and, if the day is clear. Block Island may lie made out with a strong 
glass. Many leagues to the S. E. over the W. end of Fi.sher's Island; 
may be seen the white cliffs of Montauk Point. 

A steam-ferry (4 c.) leaves the foot of State St. every 15 min. for Gro- 

74: Itvutc S. 



■* ;;.' 

1? '■ i 

ton. ^ M. E. of tlie old Fort, Col. Ledyard is buried under a monument 
erected by the State. 

New London if> Iniilt on a declivity, which is ascended by State St. from 
the II. R. Station to tlie County Court House, passing on the r. the brown- 
stone City Hall and Post Ollice, and a fine Cong. Church of granite with 
a spire of the same material. Near tlie Court House is St. James' Epis- 
copal Church, a large brown-stono c'difice in whose chancel is buried 
Samuel Seabury, the first Anglican bishop in the Republic. The English 
bishops (in 1784) would not consecrate him, })ut the ollice was performed 
by 3 bishops' of the Scottish Episcopal Church, after which he preached 
at New Loiidon for 12 years. On Federal St. in a lofty situation is a 
massive and extensive Cong. Church, near which is an ancient cemetery 
^vhich overlooks the harbor. The lofty towered new stliool-house on the 
hill, and the sp, ?iou' (but unli'n.shcd) Catholic Church on Huntington 
St. are fine buildings. 1 M. N. is Cedar Grove Cemetery, Bank St. is 
the main business avenue of the city. Fort Trumbull is a massive and 
powerful granite fortress with a heavy armament, but built too near the 
city to keep it unscathed. 

" New London is a stagnant old town, where nothing moves except the fish 
and tlie boats in the harbor. Tlie natives, who loiter around oovfier groceries and 
fisli-stalls, live ho suinuolently that, when nnything happens, they pinch them- 
selves to (letermine if they are awake. Catching fish and eating them compre- 
hend the whole of existence, ; and sitting in the shadf .md smoking, the highest 
'uxuries they long for." Such is Junius lirowue's slightly exaggerated descrip- 

Cod and whale fishing is extensively carried on from this port, and in 
the summer of 1872, 6 vessels sailed thence to hunt seals about the S. 
Shetland Isles. 

The Harbor road leads by Fort Trumbull, and through a line of cot- 
tages, in 3 - 4 M. to the mouth of the Thames, near which is the * Pequot 
House, a costly and exclusive aristocratic resort, wliich accommodates 
al-viut 500 guests, at $5 a day each. A village cf pretty cottages has 
grown up in this vicinity. On the opposite side of the Thames is the 
Ocean House (quieter and much less expensive) and Thon\pson's Hotel. 

Steamers rnn twice daily (in summer) to Watch Hill Point. A line runs also to 
Siig Harbor, Long Island. Two steamers leave daily for New York (distance 126 
JI.) by the Norwielt Line. 

The New London Northern Division of the Vermont Central R. R. runs N. W. 
from this city to Pahner, Amherst, and the State of Vermont. 

After leaving New London the Shore Line R. R. passes Waterford 
(Niantic Hotel,) and E. Lyme, Avhere at the village of Niantic (Howard 
House), on the bay o the same name, are found fishing and boating ad- 
vantages. This ten ory, from the Thames to the Connecticut, was 
formerly held by the Niantic Indians, a clan of the Narragansetts, who 
under their sachem, Ninigret (brother of Canonicus, and uncle of Mian- 




Ik ' . 


Route S. 


and in 
the S. 

ing ad- 
it, was 
;s, who 



tonomoh) conquered the Long Island Indians. Tlie colonies declared 
war against Ninigret twice, on absurd pretexts, hut )ie escaped without 
fighting, though his territories were ravaged, and in King Philip's War 
he kept his people from attacking the English. His great-grandson was 
sachem of the clan in 1746, and, selling the reservation in Lyme, moved 
his people to the Oneida country in New York. Lyme was settled in 
1664, and long disputed about its boundaries with New London, until 
two champions were chosen by each plantation, wlio met on the debata- 
ttle ground, and in a pugilistic contest, in which the Lyme men were 
victorious, their town secured the boundary which it claimed. Sliortly 
after passing the venerable hamlet of Old Lyme (on the r.) the railroad 
crosses the Connecticut River on a long bridge, and stops at Saybrook, 
whence trains on the Conn. Valley R. R. run S. to Saybrook Point and 
the shore. 

On Saybrook Point a fort was built by Plynioutli in 1G35, and wcli armed, 
several of the cannon reinainiri;,' here in ISOO. In 1G;!(J Col. T'cnwick came here to 
rule llie plantation, which ii.inied in honor of Lord Kay and Selc, and Lord 
Brook. In 1037 the Peqnots nmhushed and destroyed a delachment near tho 
fort, and atttinpted to carry tlie ^vorki^ by as.sault, but were received with such 
di.schar;j;cs of grapcshot that they f^ave it \\\>, and, capturing .several vessels 
above the Point, pat their crews to death with horrible tortures. Lady Fenwiek 
• lied in 1648, and her husband sold the territory to Conn., retunujd to England, 
and was one of the re,'jicide.iud;;cs. Tho iort effectually iirevente''. Dutch vessels 
from ascending to reinforce Ilartforc'., and in 1G7j forced Andros's fleet to lie out- 
siue of the river, ypringfielil vessels refused to pay the toll demanded at tho 
Fort, and appealed to Mass., which put a toll on all Conn, vessels cnterng Boston 
Harbor, and socm enforced a coloniiil rei-iprocity. In 170L Yale College was 
chartered and locoted at Saybrook, and remained tliere 1707- li , where it held its 
fuot 15 coinnien(!emeats. It then occuitied a one-story building 80 ft. long on the 
]icninsula near the Fort. The celebrated Saybrook Platform was drawn up hero 
in 1708, because "the churches nuist have a public profession of faith agreeable 
to which the instruction of t!.e college shall be conducted." On Good Friday, 
1811, 400 ]]ritish sailors, in the boats of the " La Ilogue," 74, took the Fort and 
ascended the river iiO M. destroying ■J7 vessels. The commander of this raid was 
Hir AVilliam E. Parry, afterwards lamous for his Arctic, voyages. "The .steep, 
solitary hill near the river, ' on which still stood the remains of the Fort, was cut 
away by the railroad in 1S71-2, to make embankments with. It is fortu:iatc that 
the Acropolis .and the temples of Baalbcc are not in America. 

In the cemetery at Saybrook Point is the transplanted monument of 
Lady Fenwiek, and H - 2 LI. beyond is the quiet, elm-shaded, and wealthy 
village of Old Saybrook. 

The railroad now runs across a wide cove, and stops close to * Fenwiek 
Hall, an elegant new hotel, accommodating 300 guests. 

A stony strand leads to Lynde's Point on the E. at the mouth of the 
river, with its lighthouse. On the W., near Cornfield Point, is a small 
Ijathing-beach. Several fine -ottages are near Fenwiek Hall, from which 
the Long Lsland shore is seen. In seasons of long adverse winds, a fleet 
of 150-200 sail sometimes collects in the mouth of the river. 

Steamers running between Hartford and the river villages and New York, New 
London, and Sag Harbor touch at Saybrook Point. 
The Connecticut Valley R. R. runs from Saybrook Point to Hartford (Route 14). 

70 Route 8. 




After Saybrook, the Shore Line R. R. passes Westbrook (Westbrook 
Hotel) and Clinton (Clinton House, Bacon House), near which, on tlie 
N., is the pretty and sechided village of Killingworth {RedfieliTs 11 aid) 
where Asahel Nettleton, the evangelist, was born in 1783. The Indian 
name of this place was Hammonasset, but the settlers changed it to Kenil- 
worth, which was registered, by accident, Killingworth. Tlie pastor of 
this parish was chosen first President of Yale College, but as he refused 
to go to Saybrook, the students were obliged to come to him, and so the 
college was practically here, 1701 -7, though holding its commencements 
at Saybrook. Longfellow's poem, "The Birds of Killingworth," will l)e 
remembered here. Stations, lifaditmi (Hammonasset House), 7']. River, 
and Guilford. Guilford (Guilford House) was settled by 4 immigrants 
from Kent and Surrey in 1639, on the Indian tract billed Menuncatuck, 
Tliey were led by their pastor, Henry Whitcfield/'a man of marvellous 
majesty and sanctity." The regicides were hidden here for some time, 
and in 1781 3 frigates landed a force near the village, but the rapidly 
gathering militia drove them off. During the extermination of the 
Pequots, in 1637, the Mohegan Sachem Uncas pursued a Pequot chief to 
this point, and having shot him on the shore, put his head in the fork of 
an oak-tree, Avliere it stayed many years, and the point is still called 
Sachem's Head. 

Fitz Green Il.illook, the versatile poet, was born at Guilford in 17^0, and in his 
later years retired here and li\-('d on a handsome pension allowed him by the As- 
tors, of New York. lie died in 1S07. 

"\V. II. II. Murray, the i)oi)ular i)ulpit orator, and pastor of Park St. Church, 
Boston, since 18G8, was born at Guilford in 1840. 

The village is a very pretty one, built around an extensive tree-studded 
and enclosed green, on which 5 chiirches front. 

Near the village on the S. is Guilford Point (Pavilion, Guilford Point 
House, &c. ), and across the harbor is the bold and picturesque promontory 
of Sachem's Head, where formerly stood a large hotel. 

Station, Stony Creek (Stony Creek, Brainerd, Thimble Island, and In- 
dian Point Houses, all small and inexpensive), famed for its large and 
delicif^us oysters. The romantic group of the Thimble Islands lies off 
shore here, and may be reached by boat from the Indian Point Hotel 
(25- 50.C. ). Oil Money and Pot Islands ai'e small and primitive hotels, with 
cabins and cottages, while around and between these rocky and wooded 
islets rowing and sailing is full of pleasant surprises. Money Island was 
one of the rover Capt. Kidd's resorts, and it has been dug all over by 

Station, Branford, (Branford House , on land sold by the Sachem 
of Quinnipiac to the English in 1638, he being glad to get an ally against 
the dreaded Mohawks. It was named from Brentford, where Edmund 
Ironside fought the Danes. The shore hereabouts is lined with sum- 






;^. t 


h, on the 
'I's Hotel) 
lie Indian 
to Kcnil- 
pastor of 
e refused 
111 so tlie 
" will 1,0 
E. River, 
ne time, 
s rapidly 
: of the 
chief to 
fork of 
11 calle<l 

id in his 
y the As- 



cl Point 

md In- 

'ge and 
lies olf 
i Hotel 
:s, with 
nd was 
•ver by 








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ii* m m Will t-M^CtiOmflftt*^ 

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X Jti Gatterr . C^l 1 1. / % /iW/ . T .'. 




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at Ha 

rem a 

and ( 




and i 



this r 

an oa 


later y 

W. 1 

and ei 

of Sac 


dian I 



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islets I 

one of 



of Qui 

the dn 


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Jioule 8. 77 

mcr hotels, — tlie Montana, Sea View, Totoeket, Pino Ordianl, &p. On 
Indian Neck are the Indian Neck and Montowese (200 guests) Houses, 
hoth about 2 M. from Hranfnrd station. At the head of " the rocky- 
shored and ishmd-sprinkh'd bay of Branford " is the hirgo • IJraiifonl 
Point House (1(JO-200 guests), distant 8 iM. from New Haven, and near 
by is the favorite Doubh' Beach House (100 guests, §3-3.50 a day). 

In lGOr», tlie colonies of Hartford and New Haven were united by royal 
order and Ihe coninion ronsent. The i>eoj)le of Branford had steadily 
opposfd this union, and wlien it was consuinniated, tliey moved in a solid 
bo<ly, headed by their pastor, and bearing uU their household goods, to 
Newark, N. J., and the site of Branford wa.s silent and deserted for 

Stati(m, K. llavev, an ancient resort of r (. Indians (for oysters, &c. ), 
and the seat of iron-works in IO'jj, now has large eopper-snu'lting works. 
The train now j)asse.s Saltonstall Lake, crosses the Quinuipiac Iliver, runs 
through Fairhavcn, and enters 

New Haven. 

Hotels. * New Haven Ilnuso. comor CdlU'Re and Cliapol Sta., opposite the 
College, ^4-4. r)() a day; ''Tontiin Ildtd, conuT C'uirch and Court Sts., a quiet 
old liouso fronting the Green, 1^3 a day ; Treniont House; Turk; Madisun 
House, &c. 

Kcstaurants. Lockwofxl's Dining- Rooms near tlie Park ; the Florence House, 
I.'niou .St., and tor a lunch, lloudlcy's, Hear the cojlc;,'!' and a famous resort of the 
students. The best oysters may lie hail in Fairhavcn. 

Carriages. The regular taritf is uO c. for one jiassenger for one eourse in the 
city, or for two passen;;ers li.'i c. each. 

if orHe-Cars (head-(iuarters at the foot of the Oreen) run to Fairhaveu ami 
i;. Haven, to W. Chapel St., to Westville and W. Rock, to Centreville, to E. 
Hock, and in summer to \V. Haven and .Savin Rock. 

Telegraph Offices. Western Union, ou ("hapel St.. near R. R. Station ; 
I'lanklin Co., on State, near Chapel St. Post « flliee on (Jhurch St. near Chapel St. 

Keadiiig-Ilooing. In the hotels, and at the Voun;^' Men's Institute, I'hcenix 
liiiildin;^', Chapel St. Also at the Youiii,' .Men's Christian Assocdation rooms, over 
the City Rank, corner of Chai)el ami Orani^e Sts. 

/•.musenients. Po])ular lectures, theatrical entei-fainments, concerts, &e. 
are fretpiently held in Music Hall (aceonuuodating 2,.0uO jtersons) ou Crown St. 
between Temple and Church Sts. 

Ivitllroatls. At this jioint converge the New Haven, New London, aad Ston- 
in^ton R. R. (see preceding' p.aues) ; the New Haven, Midilletown, and Williman- 
tc (AirLme route, Bost<tn to New York) ; the New Haven, Hartford, and Spriny- 
licM R. R. (grand route from Boston to New York, via Spriiiglield) ; the New Haven 
and Northampton (Canal) R. R. ; the New Haven and Derby R. R. ; and the 
New York and New Haven R. R, which is tlie last division of all three of the 
1 ind routes from Boston (see succeeding pages). 

Steamboats. Steamers leave for New York twice daily (moming and even- 
ing) m.iUing the voyage in ■> hours. Fare 8L <linner and state-rooms extra. The 
Citizens' Line runs boats to New York every morning. Steamers run (in summer, 
4 times daily) to the beaches at the mouth of the harl)or. 

Stages run from New Haven to Hartford via Durham, to North Branford and 
Deejj River, &c. 

John Davenport (of Magdalen College), a powerful jiarish pastor of T^ondon, 
joined the Puritan wing of the Anglican Chundi, and in MYM was forced to leave 
Lnglaud, with many of his peojiie. After nearly a year's sojourn at Boston, he 
set sail with his people, ami landed at Quinniiiiac.'the pre.sent site of New liuven. 






78 Route S. 


in April, ](]:\H. His wah " Mie iiir st, opiilt-iit c«»l(Hiy whicih oanio into New Knj^- 
Ifind," un<l tlicy laid out a city witli '.• Hiiuarcs fm- IniililiiiK's ('ncloaln^; a large cen- 
tral .s<iuart' (the (ireen), lh<>u;,'li tliuir lioiiscs only oc* iiiiit'tl tarn a small apace on 
tiie present (leor^P Mt., between Cluircli iiinl ('ol!ej,'e tSts. The? colony was K«v- 
erned for many yoara by its 7 most prominent chnrcli-meniliers, niter a cnrions 
and impressive sermon by Davenport troin the text, '* Wisdom hatli builded her 
house ; she hath hewn out lier 7 iiillars." One of tlie diiff of these was the 
pure and learned Davenport, who was revered by the Indians as " so big study 
man," and for whom Cotton Mather composed 

"Epitaphiutn .lohnaniicN DuvcnpnrtuR, in Portiitn dclatuf. 

VivuH, Nov-Anjiliip oc KcclfHitt! Orniiiiicnt'ini, 

Murtuus, utriusquu trJHtc Ui-Hldvriuiii." 

In 10.'}8 the 7 pillars bought of the Indians l:tO scpiare M. of laml for 13 eoatii, 
and in 1UM!» the trucident Nepaupiick was tried for munler and l)ehea(led on the 
(jreen, where his heail was long exposed. Tiie tratiing-itosts ol New Haven on 
the Delaware River were broken up by the Swedes, and other losses combined 
to discourage the settlers, who resolved to go to Jamaica, and tiien c(»nipleted 
negotiations to buy Galloway, in Ireland. The shiii whicli bore their "commer- 
cial esUites," sailed under Capt. Lanil>ert(tn for (Jalloway, in .Jan., 1647, but never 
was heard from aftcirwards, save when, as the legend says, the spectre of the shij) 
sailed into the harbor in the teeth of a head-wind, ami wlicn in full view of the 
anxious ite(ti)Ie, it slowly melted into thin air, and vanished. The colonists 
remained at New Haven, and in lG(i5 thl.. plantation was united with that of Con- 
necticut (Hartford) on comlition that each town should retain the dignity of cap- 
ital ; so to this day the State lias two semi-capitals. In 1755, the "Conn. Gazette " 
was established here, and became the pioneer of the 8 weekly and semiweekly, 
and the :i daily i)apers of New Haven. In Jan., 1701, 7 companies of militia and 
the council convened, and proclaimed George III. King, drinking to him, the 
royal family, and the King of Prussia. In 1775, Ilenedict Arnold (afterwards so 
fanujus and infamous) led to Canjbridge the Governor's Guards, the best company 
in the army. At sunrise, July 5th, 177i>, 1,500-2,000 Hessians and Tories were 
landed at W. Haven Point, from 48 Uritish vessels. They took tin; fort and 
town, which they plundered and jtartially burnt. They were much galled by the 
militia who hovered on their flanks ami fought them in the streets. Rev. Dr. 
Napthali Daggett, President of Vale College, was caiitured by them with fowling- 
piece ill hand, and forced to guide their columns. When wellnigh dead from 
mortllii!ation, and sore from rejteated bayonet-wounds, he was asked, "Will you 
Ijgiit again ? " The militant divine answered, "I rather believe I shall, if I have 
an opportunity." He or another pa.stor of the town was forced to ] tray for the 
King, which he did as follows: "(> Lord, ))less thy servant King George, and 
grant him wisdom, for thou knowest, O Lord, he needs it." Yale College was 
transferred to New Haven in 1717. In 1820 the town had 8,:i20 inhabitants ; in 
1870 50,840. 

New Haven, "The City of Elms," a, .semi-capital of Conn., is built on 
a flat, alluvial plain, at the head of a bay which sets in from Long Island 
Sound. It is a handsome city, of modem appearance, rich in stately elm- 
trees, and surrounded by picturesque hills. The city has a large West 
India trade, and has about §10,000,000 invested in manufactures, which 
in 3869 turned out 6,000 hay-cutters, 50,000 scales, 200,000 corsets, 1,200 
Eureka organs, 600 Colibri pianos, and about 20 carriages daily. Fish- 
lines, saws, Baumgarten church-organs, and cars are also made in great 
numbers, while Sargent & Co. employ SOO men in vast hardware works. 
Chapel, State, and Church are the principal streets, the two former in- 
tersecting near the cavernous railroad station. There are several hand- 
some chtirches here, and a very interesting old cemetery (on Grove St., 
at the head of High). 




A' ./'/■<• S. 70 

Aiii(»nK tliost' ImritMl lien* ait* Jt'liiuli Aslnniiii, a.'ctit, fDrlilhT, ami <leftMi<I('r of 








Jro.s.swt'U, U. U., (ItiHliiug 
ixilitioal editor, '80'J-'U, an.i ivitur of Triuilv Cliinvh. Now Hiivrii, 1H15-08 ; N. 
W. Taylor, D. . ., n <lisci|iii' of KilwanlH ami prolcHHor of didartic tlii'olo^ify in 
Yale, IS^a-M; Lj-Tiiaii Ueeclier, D. I)., "the most widely known nnd intliieiitiiil 
preacher in the eountry, between 181 ') and 1851 " ; Tiniotiiy l)wi;,'ht, I>. I)., nran<l- 
Hon of Jonathan Edwards, a <iistiti^'iiish» d theolo','iaii and i>oet, and I'n'Hident of 
Yale, 1705-1817, who rode horseltael< through New Knj;laiid and N. Y. and inilv 
lished an aecnimt of it in 4 vnliiines, also a system of llieolo;,'y in T) volmnes ; I)en- 
ison Olmsted, LL. I)., jirofessor of natnral philosnidiy and astronomy at Yali», 
18'J>-59, and h ji'-olonnd astronomer; C. A. (ioodrieh, l>. !>., theohvian ami 
lexieo'^'rajdier, ])r()tessor of rlntoric at Yale, 1817 -li.*; Noali Welister, LL. I)., 
anthor and pnlilieist, whose " Kleuieiitary Spellinj^'-Rook " had a sale of r<0,()no,0(tO 
copies, and who iirepared (1>S(»7 -"JS) and jmblished a Hictionary of tiie Km^lish 
lan^^na^'e whieii has since been tiie standard ; Henjamin Sillinian, jirofessor of 
eliemistry nt Yale, 1802 -.'>.'■), one of the ioremost scientists of his time ; .leiiodiali 
Morse, I). D., " the father of American Kcography"; S. F. H. Morse (Ixtrn 17itl, 
died 1872), who, in 18U, put in operation tlie tlrst electrii^ tele;,'raph in the U. S., 
who was covered with honors by Kiiroi>ean sovereij^ns and societies, and in 18.')7, 
was jtresented with 4t)«),0iH) fran<'s liy a continental assembly at I'aris ; ElbridKO 
Gerry, Vice-l'residcnt of tlie U. «., 181J- 10 ; U. S. Skinner, (Jov. of Conn., 1H44- 
6, and U. H. Senator, 1847-51 ; David Da^CKctt. sometime ('iiief .Instice, nnd II. .S. 
Senator, 18in-l!> ; S. W. S. Dutton, I). 1)., and (iov. Henry Dutton ; I'rnf. Mur- 
doek and Sidney K. Morse ; .James llillhouse, U. S. Senator, 17i»4 -ISK), antl James 
A., tlie ]io(!t of Sachem's Wood ; Andrew H. Foote, Kear admiral U. S. 
Navy, lH)rn in New Haven, 18()(i, died 18(5;{. He foiij^lit tht; West India nnd 
Sumatra jiirattis, ami in 1856 attacked tlie 4 IJarrier-Forts at Canton, China, with 
the " Portsnionth 'i and " Ijevant." After a bomb:irdnient, at the head of 280 
men, ho landed and stormed the forts in aucecHsion, thoii;,'li they were lieavy 
granite works, monntiny 170 cannon, and defended by 5,000 men. In 1802 (Fel^ - 
April) in u shttrt, sharp campaign at the head of the iron-cla<l s(piadron on tlio 
Tennessee and Missi.ssipjti Rivers, he a.ssiste,d in the niduetion of Forts Henry, 
Donelson, and Island No. 10. He was a very religious man, and was accustomed 
to prea(!h to his sailors every Sunday. 

Jonathan Knight, professor of surgery at Yale, 18:58-04 ; James L. Kingsley, 
proiessor of Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, at Yale, 1805-51; David Humphreys, 
the aid-de-camp and friend of Washington, and minister to Portugal and Spain, 
1790-1802; Theophilus Eaton, Gov. (if the New Haven colony, 1038-57 ; Roger 
Sherman, from 1774 to 1703 a member of the Continental Congress, and a signer 
of the Declaration of Independence, who "never said a loolish thing in his life" 
(JetTerson) ; Theodore Winthrop, the knightly soldier (author of " Cecil Dreeme," 
" Canoe and Saddle," &c.), who was killed at the battle of (ireat Jlethel, June. 10, 
1801 ; Ezra Stiles, long Presiilent of Yale ; and Eli Whitney, the inventor of the 

Among the broad streets lined with noble elms which extend on the N. 
£ind W. of the Green, the most beautiful is Hillhouse Ave., a broad, 
park-like drive, flanked by line mansions, at the head of which is the man- 
sion and domain, " Sachem's Wood," belonging tc the Hillhouses. In 
the W. part of the city is the Orphan Asylum, Alnu' House, and County 
Prison. But the chief of New Haven centr(!s in and about the 
Public Green. Here, on Church St. is the City Hall, one of the most 
elegant municipal buildings in New England, and the Third Cong. Church. 
On Chapel St. is the lofty and pretentious new mercantile building of 
Hoadley. The Public Green itself is a great lawn, studded with fine 
trees, and often used for parades. The North, Centre, and Trinity 
churches stand in line near the middle of the Green (the first two are 
Cong., and the last is Ei>iscopal), and preserve a curiously ancient appear- 



- 1 


1' ■ I 


/.'.'*//.■ .V. 


ance. Bmk of the CViitn- Chun li is tin- mominit'iit to the ro;?irith', .Tolui 
Dixwcll, a iiuinltcr of a iiroiniiiciit Kentish fiimily, a coloiul in tlu! Par 
li.iiiu'iitiirv army, an<l a nit'Tii'KT of tlic llritish State Cotuicil, who flcil to 
Nfw Hiivon nt the Host oration. Near him is htirioM a fellow jiulj^'f, 
Ivlwunl Whallty. On tlu' I'uldir firron, near Teniplo St., is the? State 
House, a Imildin^' in tho sinip'c ami imposinj^ Crrcrian Doric nn-hiteeturt-, 
hut const ructod of brick an<l stmco, and jircscnting a very dingy a[)iu'ar- 
anco. Th(5 h'gishitnre moots hero on thoevon-numliorod years (1S72, ISJ!, 
fee.) and the alternate years tin; sessions aro lield at Hartford. Teni])h) 
St., with a glt)rious •(Jotliic aroli of elm-treos, separates tlie (ireon frf)ni 
the groiintls of 

Yale College. 

In tlio year 17<'0 ten eler;;ynien jilanned to erect a collejjo in tlio colony of 
Conn., and to fiirtlier tliat end, contntnited as ninny txioks as tliey (( Rjwire, 
1'or its liliiary. In 17ni, it was ciiarteieii, mid its eiasses riM'ited at Kiilinnwoitli 
nntii 1707, wiieii it reiiiov«'<l to Sayiirook Point, and in 1717 a tliial remove (it iM 
liopcd) w;is made to New Haven, At an early date tiie eoilene named in 
honor of lililiii Yale (born at New Haven in l«iiS), (iov. of Madras, and afterwards 
(iov. of tlie Kast. India I'oiiipaiiv, wlio pive £A()0 towards its snpjiort. Tlio 

Presidents of Yale : 'I'i thy Dwi-lit. Mzra .stiles, Tlieodore P. Woolsey (isid- 71), 

iiml others, will eoiiipare f.ivoiaMy with the eurrespoiidin;; otileers of Harvard. 
Alter the se(iilarizatfi>n of llarvanl liiiveisity, the Orthoijox ehnrelinien rallied 
on Yale. This eiille-;e has done a iioMe work of education, and especially in 
KJuipiiiK and slreii;,'tlieniii;; thos" niintis of L'onn. which have been so bnsy and 
lionorcd throii^dioiit the Hepiililic. 

.Said De Toc(|iieville in a Poiiith of .Tnly dinner at Paris : " Von day I vas in tho 
f^allery t r the of ives. I held in my hand a nuip of the Con- 
federation. Dere vas one Icctle yellow spot called Conneet-de-eoot. 1 fonnd 
by do Constitution he was entitled to six of his boys to rejjre.scnt him on dat 
tluor. lUit when I make the acquaintance ]iersonelle with the member, I find 
•lat more than tiity (:i(>) of the Keprcsentative on dat tloor born in Connect- 
tle-coot. .\iid dell ven I vas in tie gallery of the Honse of the .Senate, I llnd de 
Constitution permit dis .State to send two of his boys to represent liim in dat 
le^dslatnre. Hnt once more, ven I make de aetpiaintance jiersonelle of the 
Senator, I lind nine of the .Senator was born in Conneet-de-Coot. 

".\nd now for my j.'iand sentiment -- Conne<'t-de-Coot, the leetlo yellow spot 
dat niakc de cloek-iledler, the schooliiiast<'r, and the Senator ; de tirst give yon 
time, tho second till you what to do with him, and de third make ycmr law and 

The line of ancient Imildings fronting on Temple St. S. 
College (bnilt 1793), Athenanini (built for a chapel, 17t)l), S. Middle 
College (175(1), Lyceum and N. Middle College (1803), Chapel (1824), 
N. College (1822), and Division College (1835). These a'-e used for 
dormitories ami recitation rooms, as i.s also Durfee Hall (1871,) and 
Farnum Hall (1872), two handsome new buildings on the N. end. Three 
line buildings are aligned on lligli St., on the N. the Alumni Hall, a 
a neat red-.sandstone building with v large hall in which are hupg portraits 
of many distinguished graduates. In this Hall are conducted tl»e ex- 
aminations of new men, the Commencement, and the meetings 
of the alumni. The liinonian S(jciety and the Brothers in l^^nity have 
halls iu this building. Next S. i.s the ornate turreted building of the 






lioutf S. 





College Lilirnry, with mirnerouH ivy-vincH (|»lante«l with ureut <*frt'mony 
by fitch gmtluiitiiiK 'liiMH) cliinbiiiK up its Miiiulstotit; wuIIh. Thu liilimry 
I'oiituiiis S>0,(MH) voIuiniit'H. Nt'Xt 8. is tho Ohl C'oiuiuoiih' Hall, now um«'«1 
for li'cturt'-rooius, and for the disjilay of tho great gt'ologinil caltiiiets, 
fn'., prcparol hy Silliman, in which is the (Jihits collection of 2;'), (KM) 
.specimens, indmling several Eiiroitean collections. Next conies the costly 
modern b.iilding ol the Art (Jallery (see below). Among the smalltr 
houses on the S((uare are the old Trumluill (iallery, and the little labora- 
tory formerly used by the elder Silliman, and preserved as a relic of that 
eminent scientist. Tlu! (Jymnasium (said to lie the best in the U.S.) is 
on Library St., and the boat-liouse of the Yale Navy i-t m^ar 'I'ondinson's 
Ihidge. Curious l)uildings near the square are occupied by the college 
8o<'ieiies : the Psi Upsilon, on High, near College St. ; the Delta Kajipa 
Kpsilon, on York, near Library St. ; tlu^ Scndl an<l Keys, corner Wall and 
('(jllege Sts., &c. Yale is jjroperly a University, having, besides its large 
academic dei)artment, the Slu'llield Siiciitilic S''hool, in a line building on 
CJrove St., with llO- 1^0 students ; the Law School, on Church St., near 
the City Hall ; the Medictal College, on York, near Chai>el St. ; the School 
of the Fine Arts, and the Theological Sehool in a large new buililing, 
eoriu-r of Elm and College Sts., with the neat Manpiand Chapel attached. 
Jn 1871 there were 044 men in the academic department, with G8 instruc- 
tors ; and liir» in the professional schools, with 20-25 instructor.s. The 
Annual (Jommencement ( Thursday in July) is a great day in New 
Haven, the exercises being (onducted iu the Centre Church and tho 
Alumni Hall. 

A large reading-room is in S. Middle College. George Pcabody left 
§150,000 to Yale, which is to be used in building a tine Museum on 
Chapel St., and a Memorial Chajicl is also in projection. 

The lower part of the Art Building is occupied by stud'-^s, &c., and 
the second floor contains some valuable pictures. The works of art in the 
first room, to a large extent, belong to gentlemen of New Haven, and are 
often withdrawn and new ones are added. 

Anions tliose on exhibition licre iu 1872, worn Vi*w in tlic Catskills, Giffnrd; 
Portniit iif (ii'or^;t! Pealxniy, Iliintiifjton ; ' Iiiterinr of Wcstniinster Abbey, and 

* Interior (if St. Marlv's, Vi'iiice, Dor'ul Krnl ; lur^'c copies of the Madonnudi Foligno, 
tlie Transllyuratioii, ami tiio Last Coniiiiunion of Ht. Jerome ; * Autumnal Scene, 
GiJi'oiil ; AuHuoaoosuc Valley, ll'iir; Takinj,' the Veil, Weir; ami a large number 
of portraits, sketches, &c. by (.'ol. TriDnhnll. In the sccoiid room are many easts 
from antique sculptures ; 130, east of Jupiter, afler I'hld'uts; l.'il, Ilioneus, after 
Praxitcki: V,Vl,\\\\i\\, Lnnihardi ; \'.V,\, Jephthali, yli((/wr; 135, Edwin Booth ; 136, 
Col. Trumbull, Ball HunhcK; 137-8, busts by Powers; l.'U), statuette of Apollo; 
1, head of Apollo ; 2, i-Esculapius ; 3, *he River-God of the Cephi-Sdus ; 4, Theseus, 
after P kid ins ; ij, Y'u'Aory, after Phidias; (J, Kanephora ; 7 - -'H, Pauathenaic pro- 
cession, from the outer frieze of the oella of the Parthenon : 2'.) -33 Con»bat of the 
Greeks and Anjazous, from the frieze of the Mausoleum at Curia. In the corridor 
are works of the same ehuss : 1, east from Eleusis ; 3, 4, 11, Metopes of the 
Theseum : 12, 13, Combat with Centaurs. In tin: third room is the famous 

* Jarvid collection of early Italian pictures (line catalotjue and "Manual of the 

4* 9 

X I 


82 Bouff 8. 


study of early CliriHliaii Ail," for walo bv (In- Juiiiloi), TI.c iiichin'M from I to l( 
an' 13yzai\tin<' llaliaii, ol tlw cloviMitli ami twclKli ceiitinitH : I. an altar jiiccc, tlu 
rnii'itivion, lU'iiosition. and IsiitomltiiiiMit : 'J, tlic Nativity ; :t, a triptyrli, Ma 

(liiiiiKi •iiiilf*1ki1.l 41111I V'liiiltj • ,1 IttuiiKilt iiii>4iii-itu 1*1-. till <ilifk Iiiu4>ii<«t 111' I'liiMul 111 I 


• ■ ' • ■ • 1 ■ •■■" " ■ ■ ■ 1 .■ - • — 

donna and Vliild and .Saints ; 4, I'.'siiiall |iirtnn>s from ilic history of Clirist, in n 
Iriptycli ; '>, " a lar^,(' alt^ir |ii(<t('. rhrist and the Madonna, wiMi An^cln ; (I HI. 
^icorgo UiUiiiji tin' IMaj^on ; 7. an alt,u' pit'i'i- in .'1 scclitniH, Christ in llaih-s, iS:(' ; 
y-, The Annnnciation : ".', Mirarnlons Aitpcaran^'c ol S.S. Mcrcnrius and Calhi'iino 
(KUhcontnry) ; 10, Madonna and Child : 1 1, Crncillxion, 'r'/an/d i/o I' ; IJ, allar 

.^j.y... ... >- '.,.»: If ...I ].. I ... . 10 M...I ..I > 'I.M.I /'.' I 



^l<>lll«llllill,> ; , II', iiltliii'iiii'i iMi'i \ iiii'i , I I, \ iiii iii.\ii'ii, 'rtiirfiif iiM I r.Mr , ij, fiiiiii- 

Itii'i'o in 7 S('iii<ms, Mininn itouc iln An:zo; III, Mailonna and Child. Ci/ad/o/f ,* 
14, Cni('i(!\ion. ind Madoima and Child, /" rccoi iln Sirnn ; 17. ' I'lnti'inhini'iit, 
(Hollo; IS, Crinilixion, iliotlo; \\\, Aimnmiation, Coniliin ; 20, Vision of S. Idnni- 
nii\ attvihii cd to loihiro i:>iihli ; 'Jl, ^SS. .lames, .lulian, .'iiid the Archangel 
Michael ; '22. the Madonna and Child, &c. ; 2'.\, H.S, Au^nstine and laieia, O/fff/ixj ; 
24, .ss. Uominicand .Vk'"'"*. "reo;/)!." ; 'J."», S. .lohii tlh Haptisl, (hnujun ; 2(1, " H. 
Teter, OrciT(;)iii ,• 27. Tlie 'rnnity and Adoring Saints, ('iipnnii ; 2S. St. KraneiH 

u......,;..:>..-4i. .h^'i.:_.....4.. a .r./* .31:. iiiv 'IM... i. „.....:.. ii.. ji.. .. 1 . tti\ 1 .1 

/iiMKi ; 2K. St. rraneiH 

ny in the Oarden ; :tO, Legend 


reeeivinjj; the Stiumata, Aijiiolo (,'i,ilili ; 2'.i, The A;,iiii,v m nic ^i.-uuvn , .n>, i,i-j;i uu 
of S. tiiovanni Cnalheno Vnscnliuo ; 'M, M;idoniia;inii Child, vte., (liottiiio ; :;j, 'fho 
\dor;ition of tlw Shepherds, (iiottiiio; '.V.\, Cincitixion, Antiiio; ;U, Vision of 
Con.^tnnti'ie, and Kail of Satan, Ari'li)io: 'M'l, The Assnm]>tioii ol' tin- Virgin ; lUl, 
!SS. Co.'^mo and naniiaii, Jiirci ; 'M, the l)"positioii Irnni the Cioss, IVjirc/iia.i ,• 'AH, 
The * Tri imph of l,ove{on wood). (U'litilr tin luthrinno ; :('.t, iMadonna anil I'hiM, 
i}^nt;l^ .:., <.'.i.ii,-.'.i<... • III Ms; '/,.i...iii.> l.'i-..i.,ii., ..I' A....:..! \.. 11. ...... ..r i>,.,i.,.. l\... 

> iiiiv (I in.ii liiiii^ viii'iii, iri'Mrc .iti/r(, 11^. w\itiiiii>"iia, \^(iiiii I'l villlit, I 'Uitt 

kino; 116, * Madonna holding the Crown of Thorns, itukiioifn ; IKi, Spai 
S'oblo, I'thiAiuez; 117, Head of the Dead (."hrist. Altnrl Dilnr; US, I'ortrait of 
2inyeior Charles V., Holbein; 119, The ri-ooession to Calvary, Breiujhcl. 


Environs of New Haven. 

Besides the beaches at Braufonl and Guilford (before spoken of), there 
is a tine drive down the E. side of the liarbor, by tlie old Forts, Hale and 
Wooster. The Urove (ateanier from Ne\v Haven 4 limes daily) and the 
Love Houses are near the lighthouse, 5 M. from the city, the latter 
($10 -$15.00 a week) being on a long, smooth, curving beach of white 


Dili 1 to 10 

|ii»'('('. tlu» 
ityili, Ma 
lirist, ill n 

i'ls ; (i. HI. 

laili'M, \o ; 
; IJ, allar- 

, Cimaliiir ; 


>tS. hoiiii- 

I, (»;("((/»l(I ; 

a ; 2(1.' ' H. 

<t. Fnnu'iH 

:10. I.t'^cnd 

iiii; :;j, riic 
Vision of 

Vii>,'iii : 'M\, 

i^iiiHii ; .SS. 
iitnl Chilli, 
'ail nil, hi a 

iiiriilc ; 42, 
ill, ]>aiiitt'(l 

till .'i;i<l tliu 

iptiition uf 
lilt' Virgin, 


!» : &a. Ht. 

■>, Nativity, 

fi (/(( Siviiii ; 

III-: (i;<. Aii- 
w Princess 
)f a liailv, 

llrllini ; 77, 
(fiiirjiinie ; 

ml Actn'on, 

() ili Cnili ; 

ioinia sup- 

lonna, Ao 

<M. Christ 

donna and 

I'oitrait, of 

, ('olonna, 

ortrait of 

Christ, in 

', Afioxtiiio 

incrva. and 

a, Domeni- 

«i, Spanish 

trail of the 


rfn„fr S. 83 

of), there 

Hale and 

) and tlie 

the latter 

of white 


hand. (Tlu" Huhiiri* «>f FairJiavfir, f»n tlih mIiIi', U fuirions for itMlarf^f and 
jlelicioiis oystcrH.) Fort Wooster, l.Jj M. rmni thf city, w.-is l»uilt in 
isl J, iind is now in niins , a noli|(< view is ^'aincd from tin- liill on which 
it stands. Ahotit 200 yanls N. of this F'ort was the rcitKdcry of the 
Qninniptacr Indians. l.\-2 M. frotn this ])oint Is Tort flah-. wliich was 
(li*'any strcni^llicncil during,' the war of IHOI -('».', Imt is now dismantled. 

The Kast and West Kocks are hold and 'ofty masses of trap-rock, on 
the plain near the city, which ^'c olo^isls tliink wen. driven np throni^di 
other strata hy Home great throe of the ceidra! forces. They h)rni the 
soiilhern limit of the grent system of monntains which extends from 
Hereford, in Canada, forming the valley of tlie (!onneetient lliver, which 
many helieve once flowed hctwiien the.s(! elilfs to th(! Sound. East Rook 
(carriage roMil to the lop, horse-cars to tln! I»ase from the (Jreen) is 
l.J^-2 M. from the c(!ntre of the city, hy way of State St. A small stono 
hotel is on its summit. An extensive * vi(!W is alford'-d Ikmhu-, cmhracing 
the hroad valleys and hright waters of Mill and Quimiipi'ic RiverM, iVc. rural 
districts of North Haven and llamden, the high hills toward Mount Car- 
nu'I, lh(! frowning elilfs of West llock, the '"ity of New Haven, its har- 
bor, and a long sw(!ep of Long Island Sound. 

•West Rook ( from Chupcd St.) is 2-2.\ M. N. W. of the 
(Jreen, and rises sharply from the jdain to an elevation of nearly 400 ft. 
The ftH'.'-ent (ilillieult for ladies) is over a rugge(l and rocky j)ath beyond 
the <ptarries. The view from the summit is ncsarly the same as that from 
the Kast llock, exeept that a gr(%'it portion of the Quimiipiai; valley h 
hidden, the northern mountains anMlilfiTently gronixrd, and the western 
towns are unfolded to the vi(!W. A hard walk of 15-20 min. to the N. 
over the rugg'd plateau hiads to the Jin/f/r's Cart\ a small eh^ft in a 
group of bouhh^rs, where the regicides Oolfe an<l Whalley were hidden 
for some time in 1(5(51. A <iti/.(!n who lived about 1 M. off brought them 
food, until one night a catamount looked in on them .md " bla/ed his eyes 
in Hueh a frightful numner as greatly to terrify tln-m," Winteryrcen 
Fall is near the upper base of the rock, and al)ov(! it is a dam of rook 
and earth I', 500 ft. long, whieh forms a lake of 7;'* acres for the water sup- 
idy of the city. Near West Ro(;k is Malihij Park, covering 800 acres, 
with 3 M. of driveways, and the (uty water-^/orks. At the foot of the 
rock is Westville, near which is " I-^lgewood," tin; rural honn; of DonaM 
G. Mitchell (Ik Marvel), the author of " Dream Life," " Reveries of a 
Bachelor," and otlier charming books. 

Savin Rook, 4 M. S. W. of New Haven (horse-cars from the Green 
half-hourly) is the favorite resort of the citizens. The road passes 
through West Haven, a quiet old village, Avith a tall church on an elm- 
shaded green. Savin Rock is a bluff promontory j)ushing a roc-ky front 
against the waves, and stands at the end of a long, sandy beach which has 


84 Route 8. 


a very light surf. A pretty view of the Sound is gained from the top of 
the hluff, near wliicli once stood a fine liotel, wliicli was recently bunted 
down. Tlic Sea- View House can now acconunodate Tf)- 100 guests. 

Several busy manufacturing villages are in the vicinity of New Haven. 
Newhallvillc, where the Winchester riHes are made ; Centreville, the 
lioine of large car, carriage, and saw factories ; Wliitneyville ; Westvillc, 
wliere 360,000 gross of match-splints and §50,000 worth of berry -baskets 
are ma<'.e yearly, occ. 

On leaving the dark and crowded, but centrally located, station at New 

Haven, the Shore Line train passes on to the rails of the New York and 

New Haven R. R,, on which the cars of the Si^ringfield route run, and 

wliich will also be used by the Air Line route. The first station is West 

llacin, i M. from Savin Rock, Next conies Milford, (Milford Hotel, 

$2.00), a pretty village, with wide streets lined with arching elms, t A 

with an enclosed green J M. long. 

Tlie aborigines of Wapowage having been crowded off, this district was settled 
and named, in 1C30, by a oonipany fn ni Milford, in England. The occupation 
Boeins to have been in accordance with a series cf resolutions at an early meeting 
of the Milford church. "Voted, That the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness 
tlierecjf. Voted, That the earth is given to tlie saints. Voted, That we are the 
saints." The settlement being menaced in* the Indo-Duteh War of 16-18-6, it 
was surrounded by a wall and palisade 1 M. around ; and the dreaded Moliawks 
having been repulsed by Connecticut indians near Milford, the saints ]>ossessed 
ilic earth in peace. O.i New Year's Day, 1777, 20f> American soldiers, ca])tivea 
from the prison-shii)s at New York, were cast aHho>"e here from British cartel- 
ships, and despite the truly saintly ministrations of the Milfordites, 4(; of them 
died in one n\onth. They were buried in the old cenn^tcry (near the stjitlon), and 
a monument ;J0 It. high raised over them, which states tlie facts, and the aames 
of the victims, and asks, "Who shallsay that Reimblics are ungrateful?" 

St. Peter's (Episcopal) Church is a venerable and ivy-clad stone edifice 
on the green and terraced banks of the tranquil Posquag. Two large 
white churches (of wood) stand on the hill beyond. A large amount of 
straw-goods is made in the village. Charles Island (small hotel) is in 
the Sound near Milford, and is much visited in sur.imer. 

Soon after leaving Milford, the line crosses the broad Housatonic River, 
ar.d stops at Stratford^ a quiet village with neither hotel nor factory, and 
ricli in two or three elm-lined, tranquil streets, where one can stroll on 
dreamy autumn afternoons and feel as if in a second era of the Truce of 
God. Such streets are found iidy in these old towns on Long Island 
Sound. Stratford was settled by Massachusetts men, in 1639, and its 
pastor was Adam Blackman, whom Cotton Mather (who is fond of play- 
ing upon words) calls "aNazarite purer than snow, and whiter than 
milk." The society which he organized now meets in a new Swiss Gothic 
church near the station. Dr. Samuel Johnson, first President of King's 
(Columbia) College, and " Father of Episcopalianisni in Connecticut," is 
buried near the venerable Clirist Church (founded 1723). 

The ne.xt station is Bridgeport. ^ 

I \ 


Route S. 85 

he top of 

ly bun)ed 


w Haven. 

ville, the 



m at New 
York and 
run, and 
n is West 
td Hotel, 
;lms, 4 A 

,vas settled 
ly meeting 
he fulness 
ive are the 
1648-6, it 
I Mohawks 
s, ca])tiveH 
ish caitel- 
(i of them 
itlnn), and 
the aanies 

ne edifice 
fwo large 
monnt of 
itel) is in 

nic River, 
;tory, and 
stroll on 
Truce of 
iig Island 
3, and its 
1 of play- 
liter than 
ss Gothic 
of King's 
ticut," is 

('SterlinK House. Main St.; Atlantic Hotisc, opposite station, each $.S.OO a 
day; City Hotel, &c.) Oirriafifs, 50t;. a course witliin the city for each pci-son, 
or ?1.00 for ;{ jicrsons. Po.s/ Office on State, near Main St. Opern Umise on State, 
near Main. Library, corner A!ain and Beaver, with 9,000 volumes; magazines 
and j>apcrs in tlie reading-room. 

Tliis district was owned by the PauRUsset Indians, and was occupied soon after 
Mason's victory in Ui^7, when lie pursued the Pequots in this direction. The in- 
nocent Pauf,'ussets (with tlieir hundred, wigwams) were .soon crowded on to a res- 
ervation of 80 acres at Oohlen Hill (.so named f';nu its glittering mica), and the 
l)oor half-dozen who remained in 176.5 sold out and left. From the ctmtiguous 
towns of Strafford and Fairliehl a new i)arish was foi ined, called Stnitfi'dd, and from 
this Bridgcjiort was afterwards organized. Charles Chauncey, tlu; famous Puritan 
Father, was pastor here for '20 years, an<l while lie lool^ed after the a«iults the 
church "Voted tliat Nathaniel Waekle should be tlie man to look after y« boyes a 
Sabbath dayes in time O; exercise tiiat they i>lay not." In 1715, Pastor Cooke of 
New Haven acceiited a call here on a salary of " 200 ^ a year, or i)roviaions at the 
following ra'es, viz : Indian at 2.s-., ry at 2,'!. 8^/., wheat at 4.s. per bush., porck at 
20.S. peri'Wt.,and firewood for tlit! yous of the family." People were seated in 
the church "by dignity, Adge, and a .state.'" In 1707, an Ki)iscoj)alian mission- 
ary Wfus sent here iroiu Englaiid, who, by 174S, had organized a church (the i)re3- 
ent St. John's Society). In 1771, during Sunday morning service at the Congre- 
gational Church, a storm arose, tlie darkness was broken by a broad sheet of 
lightning, accompanied by a terrilie crash, antl wlieii it had i)assed the two chief 
men were fouiul dead in tlieir ]tews, and many in the congre^^.itioii were stunned, 
bruised, ami wr)un(led. In I8;j(), l{ridgei»ort was incorporated tis a city, and since 
then has grown hirger and richer yearly. 

The principal manufactories of the city are the great Sewing-Machine 
works of Wheeler and Wilson (employing 800 hands), and of Elias Howe, 
Jr. (the latter made 30,000 machines in 18G9), the Pacific and the New 
Haven Arms Co., the Uiiion Metallic Cartridge Co., the American and 
the Simpson Water-Proof Co., the Bridgeport Brass Co., &c., &c. 
Immense quantities of steel-pointed cannon-shot were made here in 

Mountain Grove Cemetery is gained by Fairfield Ave. (horse-cars), 
and is in a picturesque situation. The Harral family has a fme Gothic 
monument on one of the hills. Iranistan, Bamum's large mansion, stood 
on Faiifiehl Ave. St. Augustine's Church (Catholic) 's a large granite 
edifice on Golden Hill, opposite which is the Cluny-like Wheeler mansion 
in its exLer.sive grounds. Beyond this the aristocratic .streets of Golden 
Hill extend. North Ave. was the centre of the ancien't settlement, of 
which some gray houses remain. It was then callcil the King's Highway. 
Broad St., parallel to Main, has a line of neat churches. Wa.«'-iington 
Park is a plain, grassy lawn in E. Bridgeport, on which is the pr -tty 
Church of St. Paul, and beyond it is Pembroke Lake. On the S. of tho 
city (horse-cars on Main St.) is * Sea-Side Park, a fine resort looking out 
on the harbor and the Sound. The beach is backed by a long sea-wall, 
beyonu which is a broad esplanade, with carriage-road and foot-path, in 
full view of the water, and of Long Island. Beyond the Park is Black 
Rock Village, where was born Capt. Chauncey, of the U. S. Navy, a dis- 
tinguished officer of the War of 1812. During much of the Revolution- 
ary era, the 4th Conn, encamped at the Park. The stately mansion 

r r 



m '^ 

88 Jloute S. 


■which overlooks the Park was built by P. T. Barnuni, the great show- 

BaniUTti was bom in Conn.. 1810, anrl began his great career as showman in 
1835 (with Joice Heth). In 1840, he paid Jenny Lind 8150,000 for singing 150 
nights in Anicricii. In 1865, liis great nuisemn at New Yorl< was destroyed. 
Charles H. Straltop, or Gen. Tom Tiinnib, was born at Bridgeport in i.S32. His 
size and growth were as usual until his seventh month, wtieu he ceased to grow. 
In 1844 Barnum took him to Kuroi)e ; and since that time his travels have liecn 
incessant and his revenues In 186:^ he married Miss Lavinia Warren, of 
Middhiboro', Mass., a young lady of ubout the same stature as himself, — to wit, 
28 inches. 

Steatnern leave Bridgr]tort for New York twice dailv, also for Port Jefferson, 
L. I., twice daily (fare •>? 1.00). St:iges for Black Rock, Kaston, kc 

Railroads. The Naugatuck II. It., from Bridgeport to Winsted (62 M.), runs 
N. in the valleys of the Housatonii' and N.-aigatuck Rivv-rs. (Route 16.) The Hous- 
atonic It. It. runs from Bridgeport to I'ittslield, Mass., 110 M. (Ro' te 17.) 

The next station is Fairfield (Fairfield House, or Marine Pavilion, 
$10- $12.00 a week; open in summer only). Fairfield is an ancient 
village, with a beautiful street lined with villas and careful landscape 
gardening. On the Green arc the Episcopal and Congregational Churches, 
and the Court House, •'Built A. D. 1720, destroyed by the Britisli 
A. D. 1779, rebuilt A. D. 1794, remodelled 1870." 

July 7, 1770, Tryon with his Hessian Yagers, returning from the pillage of New 
Haven, landed here, sacked the village, and burned 200 houses. The scene in- 
spired Col. Humphrey's Elegy begiiniing, — 

" Yc smoking riiing, mnrks of hostile ire, 

Ye ashes warm wliieh drink the tears that flow, 

Ye desolated plains, my voice inspire, 
And (rive sott music to my song of woe. 

How pleasant, Fairfield, on th' enrepturcd sight, 
Itosc thy tail spires, and upe'd thy social halls." 

Another poet of that day was more jwinted in his remarks : — 

*' Tryon achieved the deeds malign, And snuled to sec destruction spread ; 

Trvon, the name for every sin. "While Satan, blushing deep, looked on. 

Hell s blackest fiends the ilanic surveyed And Infamy diisowned her son." 

10 mill, walk S. of the Green leads to the beach, the best on the Sound, 
protected by a bar from S. winds, with a gradually-sloping, sandy shore, 
and no surf. To the S. is the lighthouse on Penfield Reef, and Black 
Rock light is to the E., in which direction is a high, grassy bluft' on which 
it is conteni])lated to build a mammoth hotel. 15 miii. walk N. of the 
Green is Round Hill, commanding a wide view of Bridgeport and the 
Sound. Some miles .'. are Samp Morfar Rock (a precipice 70 ft. high, 
on whose top is a deep hole where the Indians pounded corn), and Green- 
field Hill, where President Dwight was once settled, and where he wrote 
the poem (popular 70 ycar.s ago) of "Greenfield Hill." From this point 
a fine view is gained, embracing, according to the poet, 

" Norwalk'g white asceniling spires, 8k.v-eneircled Easton's churchei, 
Stratford's turrets, Fairfield giving lustre to the day. 

Prince of the waves, and ocean s favorite child, 
There Longa's Sound all gloriously expands. " 

Southiyort station and village is 2 M. from Fairfield. N. of the railroad 



Route 8. 87 

real show- 

thnwman in 
singing 150 


i.s;52. His 
ied to grow. 
s have been 

Warre!!, of 
f, — to wit, 

rt Jcffprr.on, 

^02 M.), inns 
) The Hous- 
e 17.) 


an ancient 



he Briti.sli 

lage of New 
le scene in- 

>n spread ; 
;p, looked on. 


the Sound, 
andy shore, 
, and Black 
ift' on which 
k N. of the 
)rt and the 
70 ft. high, 

and Green- 
re he wrote 
n this point 


the railroad 



and near the station is a cultivated field, which occupies the site of the 
Sasco Swamp, where, in 1G37, the Unquowa (Fairfield) Indians anda strong 
liand of Pequots took refuge. Mason, with troops of Mass. and Conn, 
surrounded the swamp, and after a parley the Uiupiowas were allov/ed 
to come out (being blameless). The Peijuots refused all terms, and, after 
an obstinate attack, 70 of them broke the English line and escaped. 180 
were made prisoners and sold to the West Indies as slaves. Soon after 
these "fair fields "were occupied by a company from Concord, Mass. 
Tlie next station is Westport. The village is 1^-2 M. N. of the rail- 
road, on the widenings of the Saugatuck, and is a lively little place. 
The Memorial Church of the Holy Trinity is a fine Gothic edifice of 
sandstone, alongside of which, and in strong contrast, is a heavy Egyptian 

Station, S. Norwalk (Lacas Hotel, Allin House), near which is the 
village of No^'walk (horse-cars to station). The legend says that this 
land, in the purchase (1640) from the Indians, was to extend one day's 
"north walk " from the Sound, In 1653, the town was incorporated, 
having then 20 families. July 11, 1779, Tryon's Hessians plundered and 
burnt the village, meeting with such resistance from 50 Continental 
sokuers and the militia that they lost 148 men. S. Norwalk is now an 
incorporated city, and Norwalk {Conn. Hotel) is a pretty village on the 
heights. Midway between them is the i)alace of Le Grand Lockwood 
(costing about $ 1,000,000). The fine picture-gallery was moved to New 
York soon after Mr. Lockwood's death, in 1872. The Norwalk Lock Co. 
makes 900,000 locks yearly, in 300 forms; the Union Knob Works turn 
out 1,500,000 knobs (of New Jersey clay) yearly. Hats and shoes are 
largely manufactured here. The oyster business is extensively engaged 
in by Norwalk men. At the draw-l)ridge, near Norwalk (on the E. ), a 
frightful accident once took place, wlien an express train dashed into the 
open draw and was precipitated into the channel. 

Stations, Darien (village h M. S. of the station), Noroton. Noroton is 
1-lJ M. from Darien, and is the seat of Fitch's Home for Soldiers, a 
beneficent institution foimded by Benjamin Fitch, Esq., a wealthy gentle- 
man of Darien. Many of the children of the fallen soldiers are educated 
and cared for here, and i)repared for lives of industry and honor. 

A fine gallery of paintings (mostly modem French) is attached to the Home, 
and i.s open to visitors. 

I, Portrait of Beiyamin Fitcli ; 2, The Wandering Jew, Delia Monica ; 3, The 
Cliaritable Priest, .JurUlo (?) ; 4, Aral)s, Adolplie Azc; 5, Gaming, Cnsmna; 0, 
Young Cinist ; 10, Fruit, Matthkii, ; 11, * Greek Girls nivoking Eros, Mansfeld- 
Bccitmont ; 12, The Old Lover, Zamacois; I'd, iSfene on the Canipagna, Fay; 
20, The Coming Storm, Verheyden ; 22, Europa and the Bull, Cortone ; 23, Am- 
sterdam, lloflaucr; 24, The Judgniei't of Solomon, Zurharan ; 25, Scene at a 
tii.os(\\\Q, Adolphc Azc ; 27, lloXy VumWy, School of Murillo ; 28, Lanipliglit Study, 
Rosiarzc ; 2'.>, Arclies near Mareeilles, Amk^wh ; 32, Adoration f the Magi, Fm/ir/- ; 
47, " Algerian Princess at the \i-di\\. Ad (ilphe Azc; 3(5, Marine, Hojfbaver ; 38, 
Landscape, Van Huysum ; 40, Genre, /an Ostade; 42, * Tambourine Girl, lio- 

88 liouie S. 





(JHgvfz ; 44, 46, Swiss Scones, Hnvzer ; 48, Motlier and Child, Coseman ; 50, Tlio 
Foot-liridgo, i.'i/?o?< ; 52, Tlio Madonna adoring tlic Infant Clirist, GVtro/(t/o ; W.\, 
As8umi»tion, Prtulhon ; 54, The Marriage, (Ircuze ; 55, Roman nower-Girl, Ouriet ; 
50, Portrait by Uiheira (?) ; 57, Tlie Iletum of Cohimbus, Dcveria ; 58, Knil'tv 
Orinrler, Teniers (?) ; 59, Holy Family, Rubens (very doubtfid) : 60, Game-rie( c. 
A. Aze; 61, Wonnded on the Baltle-Field, //. Vernei; 62, Jonah and the Whale, 
Eckhout ; 65-9, (lenre pictures, by Schopin ; 66, Aurora, after Guido ; 67, Al- 
pine Landscape, Hnfbnuer ; 71, Roman (Jirl, Riedd ; 72, The Toilet, Delechaur ; 
77, Lady pouring Tea, Senecourt ; 78, Cavalier, I'atroU ; 83, Last Supper, Tinto- 
retto {'i); 84, Milking, lierrihem ; 86, Fruit-Girl, Toiirny; 88, Alpine Landsca]>e, 
Hnfhuuei ; 8i>, Lady at Window, L'osti ; !tl, Fruit, De liccm ; !»3, 100, Dogs, 
Jila n chard ; 04, Hhcej), Vcrhncckhovcii ; !».'>, Alclicniist, I'ichut ; 1)7, Soldier, Caii- 
ture ; 98, Female Head, Aita ; 99, Farm- Yard Scene, vl. A:r ; 102, Dead Deer, 
Gerard; 10a, liashful Suitor, Tabnou ■he ; 106, The First Snow; 109, Eli^jah fed 
by the Ravens, Jknicher ; 111, Holy imily, with SS. John and Catharine; 112, 
Cattle, llofuinjier ; 113, Rajdiael and I^a Fornarina, Jlarnn ; 115, Massacre of tie 
Inuoi'initH, ( hi ido Reni ; 110, Maiden reading, ^r'ro,s,so< ; 117, The Throne of France 
in 1793, Cube; 121, *Cin(;innatus and the Roman Senators, Zink ; 123, Shecj) 
and Country Lan<!, Mcmird; 124, 128, (rV/ne pieces, JSoiiraoin ; 129, Musicians, 
Srvre ; 132, Sjmnish Scene, UodrUjvrz ; 133, *Slict']), JVr?/oi'rW(0)"e/i (of wonderful 
finish) ; 135, Portrait, Panneyinno ; 136, * Attack on Castle (of Cologne?), Rolmer ; 
lo8, Blowing Soap-Cubbies, Chaplin ; 139, Roman Girls, Horhvi ; 141, Head, U'a- 
(jrez ; 161, Holy Family and Saints, Ikmifacio; 144, Landscape, Poelemburtj ; 
154, Girl and Parrot; 155, Tourists in the Alps, (liranlet ; 158, Dog's Head, 
Gcrome ; 153, I3Hnd Man and his Dog, Mnvligiwn ; 151, ^Eastern Princess, Ac- 
cnnite ; 149, * Female Head, Pto^ ; 162, Fruit and Game ; 177, Rattle Scene ; 174, 
The Dead Christ (Pietii), T/^m?i (?) ; 175, Diana, Raphael Mcngx ; 171, Portrait of 
Rai)lviel ; 173, Lady's Portrait, Tvapie ; 169, Marine View, Waldorp ; 167, Tamo 
Bear and Villagers, Rochu ; 168, St. Mark's and the Ducal Palace (Venice) ; 166*, 
IVu, Soldiers, Jrouvernian:; ; 188, Cattle, Jirascassat ; 189, 190, Scenes from Abra- 
ham's Life; 205, Martha Washington; 184. Roman Girl, Nanteuil ; 182, Re- 
ligious Scene, Jlassano (?) ; 17, Samson and Delilah ; lo3, Judith and Holofemes ; 
181, Naval Battle by Night, Fovlcs ; 180, Moses and the Hebrew Host at Sinai, 
Barharelli ; 179, Diana after the Ch.jse, /Jrci/r/ftcZ. Lower Room. 198-9, Swiss 
Views; 197, Rebecca and Eleazar, CartafiUnno ; 221, Bearing off the Wounded, 
Le Dieux ; 225, * Queen Elizabeth, F«7? /)j/A:; 201, Achilles spinning, 7)tcpen&ecA- ; 
203, Naples; 204, Peace and Plenty, Gardner; 209, Landscape, Allegrain ; 210, 
Domestic Scene, Cano. The picture numbered 150 (in the upjier hall) is by Bon- 
gnereau, and was long known as "the gem of Paris." Some call this the best 
]>icture in the gallery, while others ])refer Verboeckh oven's Sheep (133), a small 
work, yet of microscopic finish. The works of Adolphc Aze are said to be " ex- 
empt from criticism," as he has gained everj' medal and honor where his paintings 
have appt;ared. In the lower room is a choice and well-used library, including 
800 volunu's of Bohn's works presented by English friends. This room also con- 
tains several large pictures. In the room on the r. is a fine piece of statuary 
emblematic o the purpose of the institution. The view from the observatory 
above the building is very i)retty. 



3 M. beyond Noroton, the train stops at Stamford, (Stamford 
House, Union House), whicli was founded in 1641, and thereafter 
sometimes harried by tlie Dutch from New York, In 1838 it was a dull 
liamlet of 700 inliabitants ; but soon after the Empire City looked with 
favor upon it, and during the last 25 years its hills have been occupied by 
the villas and parks of New York gentlemen. Hence fine churches have 
been liuilt, broad avenues are laid out, and a cluster of admirable schools 
has arisen. 8t. Andrew's (Epis.) Church is a little gem of Gothic archi- 
tecture, guarding a wide sweep of graves. The Univ. Church, near by, is 
a handsome stone building, while the Catholics are raising a large church, 


lioute S. 89 

; 50, Tlio 
'ofiiln ; t>:\, 
irl, Oufiet ; 
58, Knif*!- 
;he Whalo, 
9; 67, Al- 
DelecJiavr ; 
per, Ti7Uu- 
100, Dogs, 
Idior, Con- 
tend Deer, 
Elijah tV'<l 
irine ; 112, 
icre of tic 
; of France 
123, Sheep 
?), Rolmr.i- ; 
Head, Wn- 
oelemhurtj ; 
)j,''s Head, 
rincess, Ix- 
leene ; 174, 
Portrait of 
167, Tame 
ice); 16G*, 
from Abra- 
; 182, Rc- 
lolofemes ; 
Lt at Sinai, 
^-9, Swiss 
Jiepenheck ; 
train; 210, 
is by Bon ■ 
is the best 
53), a small 
to be " ex- 
s paintings 
, ineluding 
11 also con- 
)f statuary 

as a dull 
)ked with 
cupied by 
ches have 
le schools 
hie arehi- 
ear by, is 
;e church, 


on the road from the station. A fine new Town Ilall, of brick and Ohio 
stone, 150 ft. front and with a tower 100 ft. high, rises in the centre of 
the village (.^ M. from the station). Near it is a small, triangular park 
with a fountain. A pleasant drive is that on the New Haven road, i)assing 
many fine villas, among whicli is Quintard's stone chateau. 1000-1500 
New-Yorkers come here during the summer, many of whom stop at Sliip- 
pan Point (lJ-2 M. from the station), where is the large Ocean House, 
from whose beach a pretty still-water view is alforded. Pound Rock is a 
ledge numing into the Sound not far from the Point. 

Col. Abraham Davenport, "a man of sU'rn intej^jrity and penerons benevo- 
lence," was born at Stamford in 1715, and was for 25 years in the State lej^^isla- 
ture. On the memorable l)arl< Day, May I'.ttli, 1780. great fear fell on tlie legisla- 
tnrc, then in session ; and in anticipation of the ajiproacdi of tin; Dav of universal 
Jiid>;ment, an a<Uournmeiit wa,s moved. Tiie brave old man arose, and tiius spoke, 
calming tlie fears of tlie legislators, and continuing tlie session: "lam iigainst 
an The Day of Judgment is either approaching, or it is not. If it 
is not, there is no cause for an adjournment. If it is, I to Im; found doinj^ 
my duty. I wisli, therefore, that I'aniUes may be brouglit." This scene has been 
made the theme of a line poem iiy Wliittier. Col. Davenport's sons, .James and 
John, were olllciiis in the llevt)lution, and afterwards members of Congress 
(17!H5-9 ; 1799-1817). 

Steamers leave Stamford for New York daily. A Ruilrodd runs from this point 
to New Canaan, a (juiet country town 8 M. to the N. 

Stations, Cos Cob (village N. of the railroad, on the Miantus River), 
and GrcemHch (City Hotel, open in summer). Greenwich was settled in 
1640, and in 1650 was appointed by the Anglo-Dutch frontier commission 
in session at Hartford as the W. limit of Conn. Somewhere in this early 
' je, a desperate battle lasting all day was fought on Strickland's Plain, 
between the Dutch and Indians. The village stands on rolling hills, 
h M. N. of the station. 15 min. walk to the E. is a stately Cong. 
Cluirch, built of gray rubble, with deep transepts, a wide and i)ietures(pie- 
ly irregular front, a high pointetl roof, and a fine stone spire in open- 
work. This fine edifice is on a high hill, and may be seen for leagues 
along the Sound, resembling some pilgrimage church on the Seine 
or Danube. Near this is the e.xipiisite Christ Church (Epis. )in a shel- 
tered grove on the ridge, built of gray stone trimmed with Caen stone. 
It has a handsome stone spire, and its interior is said to be very ele- 

A few rods beyond (to the E.), on the r. of the road, is an old cemetery, whero 
stood the church in 177!>, near which Gen. Putnam, with GO militia-men, fouglib 
an advancing force of dragoons until the last iu;jmeut possible. Tiien, since to 
go down by tlie curving road (the present road is modern and more direct) woul I 
exi)()se him to a close hre from many of the enemy, he galloped ids hoi-se ih)\va 
the steps built in tlio steep hillside for the churcli-gocrs. Tlie British cavalry 
.sunt a volley after him (one shot iiiercing his iiat), but dared not follow, althoug i 
two or three dragoons of Lafayette's escort to the place (in 1S24) i)erfonncd tlio 
feat safely. Putnam lost 2 cannon here, but his men mostly escaped to tiie aiOa- 
cent swamps, and the next day Old Put attaclicd Tryon's rear-guard with a fon o 
from Stamford, and captured 88 men. 

S. E. of the Greenwich station is Indiar Harbor, on a point near whicli 

90 Route D. 



are Uio j^reat buildings and parks prepared hy the wcaltiiy AmericusClub, 
of New York. 

Soon after leaving Greenwich, the train crosses the Byram River, and 
leaves Yankee-land, wliic^h is said to stretch "from Qnoddy Head" (in 
Maine) "to Byram lliver." Stations, Port Chester, in Westchester 
County, New York (Do Soto House), a busy village with 5 churches, Jtyc 
(with a fine beach 2 M. S. Pi. of the station), Mavmroneck, "the place 
of rolling stones," where Smallwood's Maryland battalion defeated 
Rogers's Tory Rangers in 1776, and New Sochelle. This village was set 
tied by Huguenot refugees in 1G91, after the full of La Rochelle, and the 
French language was long used here. Tlie State of New York granted a 
tract of land here to Thomas Paine. 

Tlionias Paino, was horn in England, 17.37, and came to America in 1774. Early in 
1770 li(i pul>lished a tract, "Comnion-Hense," advocating republican indepen- 
dence, and in Dec. " Tlie Crisis "was published, beginning with the words, "These 
are the times that try men's souls." This was read at the head oi every Conti- 
nental regiment, and aroused the drooj)iiig spirits of the army and people. Af- 
ter filling several offices in the U. .S., he went to France in 1701, and was elected 
to the National Convention. After a stormy life in Europe, during which he 
attacked IJnrkc in the " Rights f)f' .Man," and advocated atheism in the "Age of 
Reason " (17i'o), he came to New Rochelle in 1802, and settled on an estate given 
him by New York, where he died in 1809. In 1811) Wm. Cobbett removed his re- 
mains to England, and in 18;]9 the State erected a monument to Paine on his old 

After Neio Rochelle, the train passes Pelhamville, and at Mount Ver- 
non turns to the S. W., and runs on the rails of the Harlem R. R., 
through several suburban villages without stopping, then crosses the 
Harlem River, and stops at the station, 42d Street, corner of 4th 

New York, see Route 51. , 

9. Boston to New Bedford. 

Via Boston and Providence R. R., &c., in 2 hours. 

Boston to Mansfield, see Route 8. Stations, Norton (Mansion House), 
Crane's, Attleborough Junction (wher'' a branch line diverges to Attle- 
borough), Whittenton, Tannton (see Ro^ te 3.) At Weir Junction, the 
line connects with the Old Colony R. R. (western division), at Middle- 
horo' Junction with the Middleboro' and Taunton R. R., and at Myrick's 
with the Old Colony R. R, (eastern division). The track now crosses the 
toAvns of Freetown and New Bedford, and stops at the latter city. 

New Bedford (Parker House, Mansion House), the Acushnet of the 
Indians, was settled in 1704, by Quakers, on lands owned by one Russell. 
This being the family name of the Dukes of Bedford, the settlement was 
named hi compliment to them. In the Revolution the place became a 
perfect of privateers, until a British force under Earl Grey attacked 
it (in the autumn of 1778), and destroyed its shipping, wharves, and 


ItouteO. 91 


River, and 
Head" (in 
iirches, li'/c 
"the plaro 
n defeated 
ige was set. 
lie, and the 
k granted a 

74. Early in 

■an indepfn- 

ords, "Tlicse 

every Conti- 

I)eople. Af- 

was elected 

ng which he 

the "Age of 

estate ^iven 

moved his re- 

ne on his old 

Mount Ver- 
lem R. R., 
crosses the 
ner of 4th 

ion House), 
is to Attle- 
mction, the 
at Middle- 
at Myrick's 
crosses the 


met of the 
>ne Russell, 
lement was 
became a 
ey attacked 
larves, and 


stores. About the time of the settlement (1764), a few vessels were sent 
out in the pursuit of wliales ; and this business soon became so great as t«» 
give New Bedford the name of the Whaling City. The Revolutionary 
War briefly interrupted this career of prosperity, but between 171K) and 
1850 the whalers from this port penetrated every 8ea. The business 
began to decline after the C'alifoniian gold-fever ; scores of the old ships 
were filled with stone, carried to the Soiith, and sunk in the channels be- 
fore the rebellious cities on the coast ; and in the last hours of the Secession 
War the Confederate cniiser " Shenandoah " destroyed a large part of 
the Pacific whaling fleet. Although this business has greatly waned, the 
attention of the people has so been turned to manufacturing industry that 
the city still maintains its prosperity. The Wanisutta Mills have four 
large buildings of stone, containing 90,000 spindles, operated by 1,600 
workmen, and consuming 10,000 bales of cotton yearly. 300 men arc 
engaged in carriage manufactories ; 200 in glass-works ; 100 in theGosnold 
Iron Works, $ 2,500,000 worth of oil a year is turned out by large oil- 
works ; 2,000,000 lbs. of copper sheathing are made yearly ; and other 
industries are in full tide of progress. The city has lately laid out 
$ 700,000 for an extensive system of water-works. Tlie population in 
1870 was 21,375. 

New Bedford fronts on the widenings of the Acushnet River, near its 
mouth, and is built on the side of a ri<lge sloping to the water's edge. It 
" lias a cosmopolitan air always blowing over its strata," from the number 
of foreign mariners who are found here, and one of its quarters is called 
Fayal, from the large population of Portuguese there residing. The upper 
part of ^he city is pleasant, and County St. is lined with stately old 
residences of the marine aristocracy, whence Lady Emma Stuart Wortley 
called this "a city of palaces." Tliese " palaces " are all on the model of 
the "architectural boulders" so common in the decadent fishing-ports 
along the coast. The City Hall is a fine granite building, and the 
Custom House is built of the same material. Several of the churches an; 
notable for their neatness and grace, especially the spacious UnitariaTi 
Church. The City Library is a large and rapidly increasing collection of 
books, kept in finely arranged rooms, and free to the public. The wealthy 
old families of the aristocracy of New Bedford are famous for their hospi- 
tality and culture, and but few of the citizens go abroad to seek summer 
recreation. The favorite drive is around Clark's Point, which extends into 
Buzzard's Bay, and is bordered by a broad, smooth road, constructed at 
great expense by the city to give its people the benefits of the sea-breezes 
in summer. This avenue (5 M. around) aflbrds a brilliant scene in sultry 
summer afternoons. 

Opposite the city, and joined to it by a bridge and steam-ferry, is Fairliuven (so 
named from its pretty location), a village formerly devoted to the wlnle trade. 
In 1778, while New Bedford was burning, a large British force crossed to Fair- 






havftn, ipfpnt on its iloHtnirtion. Hilt Miijor Fmring of the militia, fearing iint, 
nttacked an<l repulsed them aii<l saved the village. 

W. of New HeiU'nrd are tlie large but thinly settled towns of Dartnioutli and 
VVestpoii, on long inlets from the sea, and remote from railmads. These towns 
(the A)r(inig!iMset and Acoal^set of the Indians) are nurseries <it sailors, and ha»ti 
hut an inferior soil, which produces fair crops when manured hy nu-niuulen lish. 
In nnv year (1H|;}) six seines otf Dartmouth show and helow I'adun-Arnni, caught 
18,1011 barrels of these fish, whiidi sold for .'!()c. n barrel. 

Railroad from Fairhaven to Tremont, on tln^ Cape ('oil II. H., see Route 6. 

Steamers leave daily during llu; summer, for Martha's Vineyard. Upon leaving 
the wlinrf, a line view is oidained of F.iiiliaven on tlie Iv, and of the long wharves 
and ]topulous slopes of New Hcdford on tlu^ \V. Palmer's Island with its light- 
hous(! and Fort I'lionix, is soon jtassed, and then the Ion;:, projecting Clark's 
I'oint, with a strong Hirtress now in ]»roeess of construction. Tlie steamer 
now jiasses straight to tlu' H. K. across Rnz/jirds Ray, a n(d)h( j'stuary ;{() M. long 
by 10 M. wide, with thinly pojiulated shores. The Norsemen (lith century) 
eallccl this Ray, Stranm Fiord ; tlie origin <>'' its jircsent name is not apparent. 
Far to the !S. are seen the Rouml Hills, on tlie Dartmouth coast, and Cuttyhunk, 
the outermost of the F,lizalK\th Islands. Cuttyhunk was colonizerl by Capt. 
(lo.snold, in May, l(;i»2, with a company sent out by the Karl of Southamjiton. 
He named tlu^ Island " Fllizabcth," in honor, probably, cd' the maidcji (^ueeii. The 
island is 'If^ M. long, and at that time abounded in game, (iosncdd and his 
people erected a fort and cabins on an islet in a near the centre of (Jutty- 
Iiunk, and here inaugurated the lirst settlement of New F.nghmd. Rut the 
Indians were hostile and numerous, and tlu; colonist.s' sujiplies soon gave out ; so 
within a few weeks the plan was aban<loned, and the people returned to England. 
The island is now occupied by a nu-rry elul) of New-Vorkers, who spend their 
summers in boating and fishing. On Penequcese Island (covering about 100 acres) 
is the villa long occupied t)y ,John Anderson, of New York, who (in Ajiril, 1873) 
gave the island and !j.'iO,000 in cash to Prof. Agassiz for thci location of a summer 
school of zoology and sewnce connected with Harvard Univei-sity. Nashawena 
(.'} M. long) is E. of Cuttyhunk, and beyond that is Pa.sciue Island. This is owned 
by a New York club, who have built a, farms, and stibles, and i)repare(l 
fruit and flower gardens, and jire.serves of small fish (or bait. The surrounding 
waters abound in bass, blue-fish, squeteague, sword-flsh, &e. Next tn Pasque is 
Naushon, 8 M. long, which was for many years the favtnite residence of James 
Rowdoin, an early American diplomatist, whose mansifm was adonied by a large 
library, jthilosophieal apparatus, and a fine picture-gallery, which he harl collected 
in Eur()j)e. At his death he left all these things, together with the reversion of 
Naushon, to Rowdoin College. Lady Wortley, who visited the island early in 
this century, says, " Naushon is a little pocket America, a Lilliputian Western 
world, a compressed Columbia." 

Naushon was long inhabited by a Roston gentleman, and is said to be " stocked 
with all the varieties of English and Scotch game-birds, and most of their game 
inumals, including also several hundred American deer, prairie fowl," &c. Kettlo 
and Tari)aulin Coves are well-known harbors, respectively on the N. and S. shores 
of Naushon. Near the N. E. end of the island are the islets of Wepecket, Onka- 
tomka, Nannamesset, and the Rjim Islands. Retween Naushon and the Falmouth 
shore is the strait called Wood's Hole, a difficult and intricate passage between 
Ruzzard's Ray and the Vineyard Sound. " The steamer stops at the village of 
Wood's Hole, where there are several summer ]>oarding-houses. (See Route 7.) 
After leaving this ]>oint, and passing N<d)sque Light on the 1., the steamer crosses 
Vineyard Sound, and stops at the wharf at Martha's Vineyard (Route 7). Says 
an " What scenes can l)e more refreshing and exalting than an 
exi)ansive view of the miglity waves, dotted here an<l there with such beautiful 
islands as those in the Vineyard Sound"? While aquatic birds skim the waves, 
and the gulls are screaming, dipping, and darting over a shoal of blue-fish, or 
menhaden, vessels outward and homeward bound are always passing, for it in- 
cludes in its range of view the packets and sailing-craft between New York and 
Roston. We have here the foreground and perspective worthy of the pencil 
of Claude Lorraine, while the background is formed of the granite shores of 



, fearing not, 

rtiiiniitli and 
Tlu'so towns 

us, llinl IlilKl 

•nJiailcii lisli. 
\iani, cnuglit 

Itoutft 6. 
Upon loavinK 
loiij; \vliaiv»\s 
itli its linht- 
I'tinj,' Clark's 
Till! stranicr 
ly :!() M. Ion;,' 
itli ccnturv) 
ot 'ipjiarcnt. 
I Cnttyliunk, 
vi\ Ity Cajit. 
(iucrn. Th« 
iiiold and liis 
tn- of (Jiiity- 
iid. lint till) 
Kavc out ; so 
I to England. 
I spend their 
Hit 100 acres) 
1 April, 1H7:0 
of a Huninier 
riiis is owned 
and prepared 
surround in;:; 
tf) Pasque is 
ice of James 
d by a large 
Imfl collected 
reversion of 
and early in 
tian Western 

be " stocked 
f their game 
■ &c. Kettlo 
ind S. shores 
ecket, Onka- 
he Falmouth 
age between 
e village of 
Jee Route 7.) 
anier crosses 
itt( 7). Says 
ing than an 
•h beautiful 
n the waves, 
blue-lish, or 
ig, for it in- 
w York and 
I the pencil 
te shores of 

10. Providence to Worcester. 

Via Prov. and Worcester U. U., 4:{ M., Fare $1.10. 

The railroad follows the line of the Boston and Providence R. R. as far 
us rawtuckct, and then turns up the valley of the lilackstone River. Sta- 
tions, Pawtucket, Valley Falls, and Lon.sdale. At the latter i)lace the track through a deep cut in Study Hill, to which William iJlack.stone, 
tilt) tirst settler of Boston, retired after the Puritan immigration. \\.*i 
lived here in the wihlerness from MV-W until his death, in 1<)75, surrounded 
by his l)ooks, and deeply respected by the Indians. Tin; Inisy little river 
i/iiich Hows by the hill was nanuid in his honor. After i)assing the 
stations of Ashton, Albion, Manvillo, and Ilandet, the train stops at 
Woonsooket {Central, Wnuntidcket Hotel), a. tliriving manufactur- 
iii;,' town. Within a radius of 3 M. from tlie centre of the town are 
2.'>,()U() iidiabitants. In tlie town itself, 4,*2()() ])ersons are engaged in 
cotton-factories 2,400 in woollen-factories, and 700 in other manufactories, 
in lJ>(Jy, the production of tiieso busy hands was reported as 43,000,000 
yards of cotton cloth, ,'},3()(),000 yards of woollens and cassimeres, 100,000 
grain-bags, 30 tons cotton-war}), 1,000 tons of soap. The celebrated 
Harris cloths are made here. Jhe Social Mills have 43,000 sjiindlcs and 
500 hands. The town has erected a neat monument '* in memory of her 
brave .sons wlio, during the great llebellion, gave their lives that the 
llepublic might live." Tiie Harris Institute is a i)0pular institution given 
by Mr. Harris to the people, containing a large hall, and a library of 
G,000 volumes. Woonsocket Hill, the highest land in the State, com- 
mands a line view of the populous and busy valley. 

Railroaflfl. — A branch road runs from Woonsocket to Milford, Mass. The 
Wuoiisockci Division of tliv. New York and New England 11. It. terminates here, 
wliile the main line of that road crosses the Worcester route at Waterford, or 
Mill III ver Junction. 

After passing Woonsocket, the train enters the State of Massachusetts. 
Stations, Waterford, and Blackstone {Lincoln House), a busy manufac- 
turing village of about 5,000 inhalntants. Millville is in the town of 
Blackstone. Station, Uxbridge ( Wacantuck House), near which Major 
Talcott, with his famous Hying army, attacked the Queen of Narragansett, 
who had made a stand liere in a fortified position. After a battle of three 
hours, the Queen and 34 of her warriors were killed, and 90 warriors 
surrendered, only to be butchered in cold blood. Considerable manufac- 
turing is done in the valley of the Blackstone, but the hills are occupied 
by a population of wealthy farmers. Stations Whitins, Northbridge, 
Farnum's, Saxmdersville, Sutton (with several ponds), and Millbury 
{Millhury Hotel), a prosperous manufacturing town. A branch road from 
this point runs N. to the Boston and Albany R. R. Shortly after leaving 




I ii 

; t 

Millbury, the truin i)asHUH, by the Grand Juuctioii, into the fitatiuu at 
Worcester (see Koutc 21). 

IL Providence to Hartford and Waterbory. 

Viii TTartfor.l. ridvid.-iico. and Fishkill U. K. To Hurtfotd, UO M., furo !? 3.30. 
To Watfibiiry, VIl^ M., lair, ^ \.\b. 

After leiiving Providence the train passes the stations, Cranston, Oak 
Lawn, Natick, lliverpoint, Quidnick, Anthony, VVashint,'t()n, Nipinuck, 
Summit, and Greene. These are mostly manul'ueturinj^' villages in the 
extensive town of Greene, and several of them are oeeu])ied by the large 
factories of A. & W. Spragne. Shortly after leaving Greene the train 
enters tlie State of Connecticut, and pa.sses the stations, Oneco, Sterlijig, 
IMoosup, and IMainOeld. The latter station is in the Indian district of 
Quiunibaug, which was bought liy Gov. Winthroj) in 1G51), and settled 
by Massachusetts people. From the great (juantities of corn which it 
produced, it was called in theeoloinal era the " Egypt of E. Connccti;,'ut." 
At Plainfield the Norwich and Worcester U. II. crosses the line. After 
l)assing the stations, Canterbury, Jewett City, Lovetts, Baltic, WaUlo's, 
and S. Windham, tlie line crosses the New London Northern Division of 
the Vermont Central R. R. at Willimantic (liraiiierd's Hotel). This is 
a large manufacturing village, on the river of the same name, which falls 
100 ft, in 1 M. E.vtensive threa<l, silk, and cotton mills are located on 
the \vatei>-power thus afl'ordeil, occupying large factories built of stone 
found in this vicinity. The Air Line R. R. between Boston and New 
York passes through Willinuintic, which is beconnng a great railroad 
centre. The only legend connected with Windham (in which town Wil- 
limantic is situated) is of a long ])attle between two hordes of immigrat- 
ing frogs, in which several hundred of the combatants were killed. This 
event has been duly attested and described by a local poet in a Batrachy- 
omachian ei)ic of 30 stanzas. The train now passes Andover, Bolton (near 
which is Bolton Notch, a romantic pass into the valley of the Connecti- 
cut), and Vernon. At Vernon a branch track (5 M.) runs to Rockville, a 
})rospcrous manufacturing village on the water-power afforded by the 
Ilockannon River. Beyond V^non is Manchester, which makes yearly 
2,000,000 yards of gingham, PO'/.O pairs of socks, 450 tons of book-paper, 
besides government and ban 5: note paper for several nations. From 
thence a branch railroad (2^ M.) runs to S. Manchester, the seat of the 
silk-works of the Cheney Brothers. After Manchester comes Burnside, 
where paper-making was a brisk business in 1776, and where there are 
now 3 paper-mills, whose yearly production is 300 tons of writing- 
paper, 400 tons of manilla paper, and 600 tons of book-paper. The 
next station is E. Hartford, with a wide, level street lined with elms, 
2 M. long. This district was the liome of the Podunk Indians, whose 

station at 


, furo S 3.30. 

nston, Oftk 


.gcs in tlio 

y the lui>,'e 

) the train 

I), Ster)inp, 

district of 

hikI Hctlh'tl 

II which it 


iue. Alter 

i, Wuklo's, 

)ivi.sion of 

). Tliis is 

wliich falls 

located on 

It of stono 

aiid New 

; railroad 

own Wil- 


ed. This 


)ltoii (near 


ockville, a 

I by the 

CCS yearly 

)ok -paper. 


at of the 


there are 


Der. The 

itli elms, 

ns, whose 




liouic u. 05 


chief, Tutauimo, coidd hriiig 200 Iwwiiieii into the field. The tnihi now 
croHses the ('oiiuecti<rut Uivcr and enters the city of llaidord (see 
Koute'Jl). Connettions are made lu-rc with tiu; New llavcn, llartfonl, 
and SprinKll«lil II. fl. (llonto "21 , for New York or Boston) ; also wtth the 
Conn. Western (Kouto *2<)) and the Conn. Valley (Uoute 11) Railroads. 
rri»ni Hartford the line runs liy Newinj^ton to New Britain (Sini'luiiui 
i .tsc, Iliiiii/ihri'!/ House), a wealthy and w:)rking town. Th > water-snpply 
is from a large reservoir some 2U() ft, above the villa;4e. In the centre of 
the town is a spacious srjuare, adorned with trees and fountains, and near 
its end is the elegant and imposing S. Cong. Church. In the same vicinity 
is the State Normal School. The products of the industry of New 
Britain are varietl and ex^ensi''". The Russel and Krwin (-o. employs 500 
mi!!! in 5 acres of works, and sends out millions of dollars' worth of locks, 
which are used in all parts of the world. Hardware, lice, hose, merino 
goofls, gold jewelry, and knives are made here in large (^viantities. 

Klihu Ilunitt, tlio " lea hum 1 hlacksiiiith," was lM)m at New Itritain In ISll. At 
tilt' a;^t! of lU, lie was aiiiireiiticcil to ;i li'.acksiiiitli, and followeil that trade for 
in:iiiy yeirs. Dc-iirin.,' to n-ad tlic^ Mihie in its (iii;,'iiial,.cii;i;^'es, lie inusterecl tlio 
Greek and Hebrew by oveainj^ stmlies, and aeijuired such a i)liili)l();^'iral taste, 
tliat lio aflerwardd tiecaiiie I'aniiliar witli all the ithiieipal aiteieiit and niouern 
taiiKuaj^es. He l)e('anie an einiest advocate i/f universal peace, teinperaiice, and 
the abolition o;" slavery, ami published a paper and several txioks in tlei'etico of 
these niovenieiits. Afttsr in ikin.; several visits to Europe, ho became U. SJ. Con- 
sul at HinnMi^diaiii, where ho has since remained. 

At Plainville, the next station, the New Haven and Northampton R. R. 
(Uoute If)) crosses this route. Many carriages are made in this village. 
At Forestville, Bristol, and Terryville stations are many large clockf<»o- 
tories, where every variety of clocks are made. After passing several 
flag stations, the train stops at Waterhury {Adams House, Scon'H's). 
This is a small city (of 10,S2G inhabitants), on a narrow jilateau at 
the Junction of the Mad ami Naugatuck Rivers. The jirincipal streets 
diverge from Centre Stpiare, a small ]>ut well-kept Green, on which front 
two Cong, churches, the new and elegant building of the City Hall, and 
St. John's Episcopal Church. The latter is called the iinest church in 
the State, and is built of granite and Ohio stone in the pointed Gothic 
style. The sharply jiointed ceiling is highly ornamented, and the spire 
(200 ft. high) uplifts a massive stone cross. The Silas Bronson Library, 
the gift of a New York gentlemen, contains 13,000 volumes aud is free to 
the citizens. On the hill near the St^uare is a large boarding-school for 
young ladies. 

The manufacturing interests of the city employ a capital of nearly 
$ 8,000,000. I 2,000,000 are invested in the brass- works, besides which 
there are 5 button-factories, 2 clock-factories, and works which turn out 
great quantities of wire, steel traps, hooks and eyes, hoo]»-skirts, and 
kerosene fixtures. The American Pin Co., the American Suspender Co., 


m \ 

96 noute 12. NEW LONDON TO VERMONT. 

and the American Flask and Cap Co., liavc their works here. Silver- 
j»lated ware is made in large quantities, also the best cjuality of steel 

There is a pleasant drive, iniK^li fif tlio way on ihe quiet and einliowered river- 
road, ti) tlie Kiverside (Jcnietory (l.V M.), a small but ])i(tiires(]ue rural ground 
iiiiiiiiij,' the. fonist-eovercd liills M. o. tlie Naii^'atiick River. 

Al, Wntcrbiny the Nauj,'atuck K. H. coiiiici-ts with the Hartfi I, Provideuee, 
and Fislikill line. The latter mad liiids lis teriuinns here, but work is ]iro{;^ess- 
iii;4 on seet'ons passiii.i,' throu^li IIa\vlcy\ ill;'. Daiibury, and Bn-wster (N. Y.), to 
Fish!ull, on tlie Hudson River. The river will probably be bridged, and a eon- 
neetion made with the Erie Railroad, thus opening a new route between Boston 
and tlie West. 

12. New London to Vermont. 

Via the New London Xf>rtherii Division of the Vermont Central Railroad, New 
London to Br- *tleboro', 120 iJ. 

The train leaves the Shore Line Station at New London. Beautiful 
views of the broad and expansive Thantes on the E., so a seat sliould be 
secured on the r. side of tiie car. Near Mohegan is the old Mohegan 
reservation, where 824 In<lians of that tribe were numbered in 1774. 
After passing Waterford, Montville, Massai)eag, ^^ohegan, and Thames- 
ville, the train crosses the Yantic River, and enters Norwioh (* Waureyan 
Jlonse, .S 2. 50 -,$3. 00, corner Main and Union Sts. ; Uncus Hotel, small, 
near station; American House). Norwich is a city of 16,G53 inhab. 
Avith its streets terraced on a steep accdivity facing to the S, over the 
lake like Tliaine.s, of which a local writer claims that "not Riclmiond 
Hill itself, or Greenwich observatory, looks on a Thames more fair." 
The situation of the. city is indeed beautiful, being on high ground be- 
tween the Yantic and Shetucket Rivers, which here unite to form the 
Thames. The business ])art of Norndch is in a semicircle of which Main 
St., from Franklin Scpiare to Central Wharf Bridge, is the ciiord, and 
beyond this j,he residence-streets rise in terraced lines. Tlie banks, stores, 
and hotels are mostly in the district between Main St. and the rivers. 
The city and county buildings are neat and substantial, and there are 
two or three fin 3 churches. 

Washington St. and Broadway are noble avenues lined witli large 
and secluded old mansions. The former street runs near the Yantic, 
]>assing the ivy-cdad Christ Church (Epis.), and ends at Williams Park, or 
the Parade, near wliich is the mansion of the Revolutionary General Wil- 
liams, and the imposing building of tl'.e Free Academy. The latter is a 
iiiixed school, of high grade and of a wide reputation. Turning to the 1. 
from the Parade, Sachem St. (opposite the Academy) leads to a pretty 
rural cemetery on the hills over the river. In this vicinity were the 
Yantic Falls, whose praises have been sounded by Mrs. Sigoumey and 
othei's, both in i)rose and verse. A deep cutting in the hard rock, and 
curiously piled and water-worn boulders, are all that remain of "the 




ks here. Silver- 
\. (juality of steel 

1 emliowered river- 
;s(]ue niral ground 

rtl' 1, Providenop, 
t work is vroKross- 
trcwster (N. Y.), to 
•ridged, and a ctm- 
tc between Boston 

tr?\l Railroad, New 

3ndon. Beautiful 
a seat should be 
the oltl Mohegan 
unheved in 1774. 
::^an, and Thames- 
ivioli(* Waureyan 
ncas Hotel, small, 
of 1G,G63 inhab. 
to the S. over the 
t "not llichniond 
lames more fair." 
high ground be- 
unite to form the 
■cle of which Main 
is the chord, and 
Tlie banks, stores, 
•ii. and the rivers, 
tial, and there are 

lined with large 
near the Yautic, 
Williams Park, or 

mary General Wil- 
The latter is a 
Turning to the 1. 
k-ads to a pretty 
vicinity were the 

Irs. Sigoumey and 
he hard rock, and 

it remain of "the 


beetling cliffs, the compressed channel, the confused nia-ss of granite, and 
the roaring, foaming river," by which a former generation's "lone enthu- 
siasts wandered and dreamed." The river ha.s l)een dammed and diverted 
into an artificial channel, through which it a^ords a heavy water-power 
to a large cluster of factories below. Fine wood-carving ;nachinery, rub- 
ber goods, corks, iron pii)es, files, blankets anil carpets, Hax and twine, 
paper, envelopes, and cotton goods are manufactured in Norwich and its 
tributary villages. On Sachem St., near the site of the Falls, is a little 
cemetery in a cluster of i)ine-trees. This si)ot was chosen centuries ago 
as a sepulchral ground for the " blood royal of Mohegan," and ha« been 
carefully reserved Vjy the' tribe ever since. Many of the Grand Sachems 
are buried here, from those earlier chiefs of whom earthly history has no 
record down to Mazeen, the last of the line, who was buried in 1826 in 
the presence of 25-30 of the feeble remnant of the tribe. In the centre 
of the ancient monuments stands a massive obelisk erected to the memory 
of Uiicas. (Its foundation-stone was laid by President Jackson.) 

Uneas was a chi* f of ilie Pccjuot tribe, who revolted in 16.'{4 against the Sachem 
Sassacns, and joined the Moliegans. He was chosen Sacliei.i of the latter tribe, 
and by sagai'ious alliances with tlie English cohtnists, he steadily increased the 
] lower of his jteoj^e, who had jireviously held a subordinate position among the 
aboriginal clans. He led his warriors l)y the side of th(! colonial train-bands in 
the campaign of KW?, wliich annihilated Ids most dreadeil foe, the Pecpiot tribe ; 
and in 1(34:{, Ic fought tip; jjowerful Narragansetts until the Atigh)-Mohegau 
forces, under his direetion, luul defeated and humbled trib :. He repelled an 
invasion of the Western In<lians, aided l»y a strong Mohawk contingent, in ItMS, 
and kept up an incessant war upon his Indian neiglibors until he became "tlie 
most powerful and jirosi)erous j)rince in New England." In 1G40 he ceded to tlie 
colony of Conn, all his land except a tract on the W. shore of the Thames eni- 
liraeing three or four townships, and sold (for £70) tlie i)re.sent site of Norwi(di, 
which was occupied in IHCiO by a nomadic church fmn; Saybrook. He frecinently 
visited the colonial caititals, Boston and Hartford, and ever remained friendly to 
the settlers, holding his people to iieac(;;'ul Wi vs while every other tril)e of New (e-xcei)t the Christian Indians) joined King Philip's league against tlio 
colonies. xVfter reigning as Sachiim of J.he Mohagans for nearly ;'<0 years, he died 
in 108;<, a c(»ns'stent Pagan to the last. He was crafty, cruel, and rapacious in 
his policy ; but as the head of a savage people, he was sagacious ami far-sighted, 
and as a military leader he was skilful and fearless. It is diHleult to tell what 
would have been the course of New England history, or wliat linal and over- 
whelming disasters might have blotted out those feeble colonies along the coast, 
had not the tw.i gi-eat southern tril»es been ruined by the attacks (sometimes 
aided by a few dozen English musketeers) of the Mohegans uniler tlu'ir Sachem, 
Uncas. Beyond the viHage of (ireenville is Sachem^s Plain (IJ-vJ M. from 
Norwich. Horse-cars most of the way). Here was fought a battle between Ali- 
antonomoh and UOO Narragansetts, and Uncas with &00 Moliegans. 

Miantonomoh was the ncpliev- of Canonicus, and in Ui'M sui-ceeded to the gov- 
ernment of the Narragansetts. He was ever a lirm friend to tlje colonists, grant- 
ing them a large portion of the present 8tate of Khode Island, an<l leaving his 
quarrels with Uncas to their arbitration, in 1()42 he went to Boston to meet 
certain men who had accused him of planning hostilities against the eolonie*. 
He awaited his accusers in the presence of the Governor and council of Massa- 
chusetts, but no charges were preferre<l against him, and he left Boston after re- 
ceiving higl' honors from Gov. SVintliro]», who admired his character. In the 
following year, stung to madness by insults oll'ereil by Uncas, iie led itOO Narra- 
gansett warriors in an attack on Mohegan. Uncas and ."JO!) men met him on 
Hachem'a Plain, and in accordance with a plan preconcerted by the Mohegan 

5 a 


1 ) 

r \ 

chiefs, invited him to a parley. Whilo this parley was going on, and the Narra- 
gansetts were oil" their guard, the Moho^uiis made a llerce and sudden att'ick and 
scattered them in all directions. Tin; ])ursuit was couLiniied for many miles, and 
hundreds of the invader.-; fell, bat Miant<momoli was eaptiwed and led prii;oner to 
Hartford. Alter remaining here in close oonllnement, he was surrendered to Un- 
ca.s, by whom, "by the advice and con.sent of the English magistrates and elders," 
ho was executed. The royal Narragausett was carried by Uncas and his warriors 
from Hartford to Norwicli, and was put to death on the battle-lield of 'Sachem's 
Plain, at a jdace now marlied by a stone monument inscribed " Miar tonojnoh, 
104:5." He was a brave, magnanimous, and humane Sachem, incapable of dissim- 
ulation or treachery, and tlieretnre he i)ecame their victim. 

For numy years his people came hither iu the sea.sou of flowera and adorned his 
grave, each of them leaving a stone ui>on it. The lofty cairn thus formed re- 
mained till a farmer (of the English " Hodge" type) carried away the stones to 
make a foundation for a new barn. In ISll, the present granite monument was 

Nanunteno, the son of Miantonomoh, p.nd his successor in the government, 
ever cherished a hatred of the colonists, and joincil King I'hilip's league with 
eidhnsiasm. Flaving been made prisoner, in 1(J7(5, he was oll'ered pardon in case 
he would treat with the English. On dcidining t'> make terms, he was threatened 
with instant deatli, whereui)on he answered, " I like it well ; I sliall die before my 
heart is soft, or I have spoken anything unworthy of my.sclf" ; "acting herein," 
says Cotton Mather, "as if, by a Pythagorean metempsychosis, some old Roman 
ghost had possessed the body of this Western Pagan, like Attilius Ileg'.".us." He 
was instantly shot. 

About 5 M.S. of Norwich is the old fortress of Uncas, on the highest liill in 
Mohegan, and in the vicinity live the few hair-l)rceds wlio are all that remain of 
the tribe of Uncas. President Dwight's remark alxmt tlie I'etinots /^ Groton will 
apply ecpially well to the Mohegaiis or to the Narragansetts in ' bti s ' wn, R. I., 
" the former proud, heroic spirit of the Pequot is siirunk into ihe ^ uacness and 
torjior of reasoning brutism." 

Steamers leave Norwich every morning, in summer,for New London and Watch 
Hill. The Norwich and Worcester R. R. diverges to the N. E., above the city. 

After leaving Norwicli the line passes the stations Norwich Town, Yan- 
tic, Franklin, and Lebanon. Tl'.e village of Lebanon, ';'tuated iu a ricli 
farming district, was very lively during the War for independence. Jon- 
athan Trumbull, Governor of Conn. 1709-83, resided here, and here was 
tlie War Office of the State, which furnished more men and money in the 
Revolutionary War than any other State save Massachusetts. Gov. 
Trumbull was Washington's right-hand man during the northern cam- 
paigns, and when any perplexing question or pressing demand arose, the 
iiobl; Virghiian would often say, **Let us see what Brother Jon.itlian 
says." The name "Brother Jonathan" has passed into imiversal ^t jw 
a humorous designation of the U. S., corresponding to the "John 
which is applied to England. At the gubernatorial mansion in Lcb;.i! t7 
Trumbull received Washington, Lafayette, Rochambeau, Jeffcrsoa, 
Franklin, and otlier distinguished men. Five French icgiments were can- 
toned in the town and reviewed by the conmiander-in-chief, while De 
Lauzion's Legion (500 horsemen) wintered here. The Trumbull man.sion | 
and W^ar Ollice are still standing, and in the little cemetery E. of the vil- 
lage is the family vault. 

The most i>rominent of the Tmmbulls are Jonathan, Clov. of Conn. 17G0-S3 ; 
Jcmathan, his son, M, C. in 1789-95, U. S. Senator in 1795-0, and Governor inl 
1798 -ISUO : Josepii, another son, commissary -general of the Continciital Army J 

NEW LONDOy TO VERMONT. Route 12. 99 

and the Narra- 
niacu attack an«l 
luiiny niil03, and 
id led prisoner to 
iiTcndercd to Un- 
rates and elders, 
; and his warnors 
-held of "^aeholn•a 

I " Miar tononioh, 
capaVde of dissim- 

i-s and adorned his 
ti thus formed re- 
way the stones to 
tp monument was 

II the government, 
•hilip's leagiie with 
.re.l pardon in case 

he was threatened 
'shall die before my 
'• "acting herein, 
is, some old Roman 
ilius lleg'Aus.' lie 

n the highest hill in 
e all that remain ot 
;-nots AUrotoiiwiU 
a . bnv s 'wn,K. 1-. 
,0 i-Lie. . Jii^ness and 

.w London and Watch 
E., above the city. 

ovwicli Town, Yan- 
, nHuated in a rich 
ulepenelence. Jon- 
heve, and here was 
u and money in the 
.ssachusetts. Gov. 
the northern cam- 
y demand arose, the 
\ Brother Jonathan 
iito universal -; iw 
to the "John "^ •" 
uar.siou in Leb..i> f' 
ambeau, Jefferson, 
logiments were can- 
ler-in-chief, while De 
.e TrmnhuU mansion 
"nietery E. of the vil- 

r.ov of Conn. 17G0-S3: 
;;;r-:G. ai.d Governor m 
the Coi'.tiuv.-iita). Arm) . 

J(»3eph, gramlson of " Brother. Tonathan," 5 year^ M. C, and 2 years Gov. of Conn. ; 
Lyman Truiiibull (born near Lebanon in 181:0. tin- r.nlnent jurist and U. S. Sena- 
tor from Illinois, lS.jr>-7'J ; and Col. .John Trumbull (some time of the 1st Conn., 
and afterwards aide to W.ishin;;ton), who studieil i)aintin'? un<lcr West, in Lon- 
don, and executeil many lar.^'e historical pictures, depii'ting scones of the Ucvoli:- 
tion'ary era. Four of his works arc in tlie rotunda of the N'ational Capitol, and a 
^'ood collectiim of his paintings is in th > Athenanuu at Hartford. The Art Gal- 
lery of Yale College has a large number of his minor works, 57 in all. 

The line nov leaves tlie Yantic Valley, runs along the border of the 
Shetucket, and, passing S. Windham, stops at Willimantic (see Route 11 ). 
At this point the Hartford, Providence, and Fishliill, and the New York 
and New England tracks cross the New London Northern Railroad. 

Running N. from Willimantic, the line follows the Willimantic River, 
through the county of Tolland. Stations, S. Coventry, Eagleville (with 
large sheet'ug manufactories), and MansfieM, with four companies engaged 
in making sewing-silk, a profitable industry wliich was inaugurated here 
in the last century. Stations, Merrow, S. Willingtoii, anil Tolland, about 
i M. W. Oj" which is a scrpie.stered village containing the modest county 
buildmgs. Stafford is oi'le>)nitcd for its mineral springs, the principal 
one being among the best of chalybeate springs. It contains coiisiderablo 
iron in solution, with carbonic acid and natron, and is a pleasant water to 
the taste. It is held to be very efficacious in all cutaneous aiTections. 
The other spring, which is charge. I with hydrogen gas and sulphur, has 
become choked up, and has long been disused. The Indians were in tho 
habit of using these w-aters with beneficial effect, and the wliites began to 
visit the springs about 110 years ago. 

The Stafford Springs House is a large and inexpensive hotel near tlie 
chalybeate spring, on the 1. of the track. > , , 

The train now runs N. for 10 M, across the sparsely populated town of 
Stafford, and at State Line it enters the State of Massachusetts. The 
town of Monson is ne.xt crossed (11 M.). Much manufacturing is done 
here along a branch of the Chicopee River, and a fine granite cpiarry is to 
be seen near the central station, from which great quantities of stone have 
been sent to Albany for the new State House. The e.xtensive buildings 
of the State Almshouse are in tliis town. 

Station, Palmer, where this loute crosses the great trunk line of tho 
Boston and Albany R. R. (Route 21). 

The Ware River R. R., which is to run via Barre to Peterboro, N. IF., is com- 
pleted from Palmer to Gilbcrtville .ind Ware. 

Tlic soil of Ware is singular, even in New England, for its hardness and ster- 
ility. It was granted to a comiwMy of the veterans of King l'hili])'s War, but 
after due examination they sold it for 2 cents an acre. Presi<lciit l>wi]Ldit rode 
tlirough Ware, and said of its soil, " It is like self-righteousness, the more a man 
has of it the poorer he is." The poetic account of the genesis uf Ware asserts 

" Dame Nature once, while makinp land, 
\, • Ilad refuse left of stone and Miind ! , 

:' She viewed it well. tl. on throw it down \ » •_ '■ 

■: Between Cov's Hill aii.l BolehertDwn, 

li And Buiil, ' You paltry stutf. lie there. 

And iii:\k(' a town niifl imU it W:ire.'" 

100 Jimtte 12. NKW LONDON TO VERMONT. 

•■ ^' T 

Stations, Three Rivers (near wliicli the Cliicopee Rive- is crossed), Bar- 
rets, and Rclcliertowu {Belcher Hmise), a (jniet hill-town of llampsliire 
Connty, who3e present name is scarcely an improvement on its original 
appellation (in the colonial era) of Cold Spring. 

From Tlirce Rivers the AtlKil and EtificM R. R. runs thrmi^^li the sparsely 
poimlafed towns of Knfield, Greeiiwirli, Dana, and New Halein (all tlie villages hy 
the railroa<l have small inns) to Athol {,Vo M. I'runi rainier) on the Vt. and Mass. 
II. R. (see Route 25). 

After running across Belchertown (13 M.) the train passes S. Amherst 
and stops at 

Amherst {Amherst Hotel, $2.50 a day, A M. from the station), a 
pretty village situated in a romantic district, and distinguished for 
its college. Its society is of that ciiltiired and reiined order which is 
usually found in American acadei ac towns, and its lesthetic taste is seen 
in the line anihitecturc of its churches (notahly Grace Church and the 
1st Congregational), The buildings of Amherst College (founded in 
1821) are located on a hill on the edge of the village to the S. On the 
street W. of the buildings are the President's House, the Library, and 
College Hall. The curious octagonal structure with a bright blue dome, 
which stands in advance of the line of college lialls, is devoted to the dis- 
play of rare collections. Part of it is occupied by the Lawrence Observ- 
atory, and on the npper story are the great * cabinets of minerals and 
meteorites prepared and collected by Prof. C. U. Shepard, a disciple of 
Silliman, who has been for the last 45 years one of the leading physicists 
of America. These collections " are only surpa.ssed by those of the Brit- Museum and the Imperial Cabinet at Vienna. " They represent an 
immense value, some single pieces having cost thousands of dollars. The 
largest ruby in the world is .shown here, being 2 ft. high by 1 ft. in diam- 
eter. It was foiuid in N. Carolina. A sapphire, in the cabinet, weighs 
30 lbs., and many other rare and costly specimens are here preserved. 
On the lower floor is Wood's Cabinet of geology and palaeontology, em- 
bracing over 20,000 specimens. The Nineveh Gallery opens out of Wood's 
Cal)inet, and contains many Oriental and Indian relics, together with a 
collection of rare c^his and medals. Along the walls of this room ary 
arranged a succession of large * Assyrian sculptures from the palace of 
Sardanapalus, at Nineveh. E. of this building is the line of the older col- 
lege-halls, N. College, the old Chapel, and S. College. These are in the 
early Novanglian architecture, and closely resemble the older halls of 
Harvard. At the S. end of this line is the Aiii)leton Cabinet, whose up- 
per story, surrounded by barbarous frescos, contains several collections! 
embracing 5,900 species of animals and 8,000 species of shelis, preparet 
by Prof. Adams, of Amherst, the conchologist An Herbarium (in thtj 
same hall) contains 4-5,000 kinds of plants, while .seeds, lichens, &o.J 
are arranged in other cabinets. 


s crossed), "Par- 

i of Hampsliive 

on its origiiuil 

Mi^h the sparsely 

(all tlie villages 1.y 

the Vt. aud Mass. 

asses S. Amherst 

1 the station), a 
aistiuguisiied for 
(1 order wliich is 
hetic taste is seen 
:e Church an<l tlie 
Liege (founded iu 
;o the S. On the 
, the Library, and 
bright i)lue dome, 
devoted to the dis- 
e Lawrence Observ- 
ts of minerals aud 
yard, a disciple of 
li leading physieists 
,y tiiose of the Brit- 

They represent an 
uds of dollars. The 
gh by 1 ft. i" ^^i^^"'- 
°the cubhiet, weighs 

are here preserved. 

d palifiontology, em- 

- opens out of Wood's 

lies, together vith a 
.lis of this room are. 
from the palace oC 
J line of the older col- 
j.. These are in the 
e the older halls of 
n Cabinet, whose up- 
iis several colleetions 
es of shells, prepared 
u Herbarium (iu the 
le seeda, lichens, kc, 

On the lower floor is a hall 110 ft. long by 45 ft. wide, whevein are kept 

9,000 specimens of ancient tracks in stone. This wonderfid *colliM-tii)U 

is by far the largest in the world, and well illustrates the science of iili- 

nology which first arose at Amherst. The tracks of birds, beasts, and 

reptiles, which have been dead perhaps a myriad of years, and the marks 

of the pattering of rain-storms which fell through the silent air of pns- 

historic ages, are here preserved on the sandstone of the Connecticut 


Edward Ilitchcock, T>. D., the founder of ichnolorjieal scionee, was bom at 
Deertield, Mass., in 170.'5. He was eonnected with Amherst CoUejje, either as 
professor or i)resident, from 18iJj to 18'j4, and pliniitid and executed the geological 
s'liTey of Mass., "the lirst survey of an entin; Stati' under tlie authority of gov- 
cmmcnt in the world." Ife puhlisherl 20-2.J volumes, mostly on geological snh- 
jects, of which the " Klenientiirj' Geology" and the "Ueligiou of Geology" 
pa.ssed through many editions in Aiiierica and England. "Tlie Ichnology ^^x 
New England," iiubiished by the HUitc in ISOS, illustrated aud exi-lained tin) 
branch of science which he founded. 

E. of a line of old dormitoricg is a verdant lawn covered with trees, at 
the farther end of whicli is E. C ullege, which is soon to be taken down on 
accoimt of its insecurity. Tliis building completely hides the new and 
elegant * Memorial Chapel, whose exterior is a beautiful model of Gotliic 
architecture. It is cruciform in shape with finely finished rose-windows 
in the transept, and colonettes of polished Scotch granite at various point.-j 
on the outside. Tlie graceful spire is built (as well as the Chapel walls) 
of stone, and within the tower is a marble tablet, containing the nanu's 
of the alumni and past students of Amherst who fell in the War for tlio 
Union. From the E. side of the chapel is obtained a pleasing view of the 
rich valley E. of Amherst. The Bivret G/mnasiuiu is near the E. Coller", 
and the N. side of the prospective quadrangle is occupied by two fine 
stone buihb'ngs; the Walker Hall, a tasteful and ornate structure sur- 
mounted by a 3pired observat^yry, and fronted by an elegant portico, 
formed by five Gothic arches supported on coupled columns ; and the 
"Williston Hall, a substantial stone building. Before leaving the College 
Hill, the College Tower should be ascended for the sake of tl)e * viev/, 
•which is one of the beautiful in New England, extending over \k\y\a 
of the rich Conn, valley and over the rugged and picturesciue towns of 
eastern Hampshire. (Stereoscopic views taken from the tower in nini 
directions, as well as of the college buildings, are sold at a store in the 
village.) On the opposite side of Amherst, and about 1 ]\I. from the Green, 
is the Massachusetts Agricultural College. Its handsome buildings are 
on the edge of a rich plain, from which fine views are obtained of the 
mountains on the W. and S. On the experimental farm of 400 acres is 
the Durfee Plant-House, where many rare and valuable plants are 
preserved. The " Aggies " (as the students here are called by the other 
New England collegians) are drilled to a high state of discipline (infantry 





. ;i 



' 1 

M 1 

f ,, 

' ;t 

' I 

102 /2o«<c 12. NEW LONDON TO VERMONT. 

and light artillery) by luilitury instructors; and of sucli a naturo is the 
liekl-work, that, sincy its ostablisliniunt in 186G, this has beconio tho 
best agricultural school in America. 

Excursions from Anihorst to Norwottuck Hill (4 M,), Northampton 
(7 M.), Mounts Holyoke, Tom, and Sugar-Loaf, aro easily madf. 2 M. E. 
of the R. li. station is th(^ Orient Springs IJealth Institute, a large, ([uiet 
hotel on a far-viewing and seipiestered hill. Salubrious mineral springs 
aro in the vicinity. 

Beyond Amlierst are the stations N. Andierst and Leverett. The latter 
is situated in the midst of very picturcscpie scenery. On the W. is Mount 
Mettawampe (or Toby), the highest peak in the lower Connecticut valley. 
The line now passes through Montague, with the Hunting Hills on the E. 
Stations, S. Montague and Miller's Falls, where the Vt. and Mass. R. R. 
(Route 25) crosses the y>]\ .cut route. Stations, Northfield Farms and 
Northfield {yortltjidd Ilottl), a charming village with broad, ipiiet streets, 
built on a plateau above the broad alluvial intervales along the Conn. 
River This peaceful agricultural town was settled in 1673, on the Indian 
lands called Sipiawkeague. During Iving Philip's War frequent and 
'^orce attacks were made upoi; it byl!ie Indians, and troops conveying 
supplies were ambushed and cv.t to pieces. When Major Treat, with his 
" Hying army " of Conn, soldiers reached the place, its people evacuated 
it, an(^ passed, under his escort, to a place of safety. It was reoccupied 
in loSo, but Indian attacks soon compelled the decimated settlers to leave, 
and it lay desolate until 1712, wlien the erection of Fort Dumnier afforded 
sure defence. The station-house at S. Vernon {Mcrrirs llolel) is on 
the boundary-line between Vermont and Massachusetts. The broad 
intervales and the (juiet stream of the Connecticut River are crossed be- 
tween Northlield and Vernon. 

At S. Vernon a coniieetion is made with the Ashuelot Railroad, wliieli passes 
the staticiii-;, Hinsdale, Ashuelot, Winchester, Westfonl, and SSwanzey (^all in New 
Hanii)shire), and at Keeue (■onne<'ts with the Cheshire Railroad. Hinsdale was 
settled by Mass iienple in l()S;i, and was the site of Hinsdale's and Rridgnian'a 
Forts. Throng. .out the early border-wai-s it was the scene of mnnerons attacks 
•and skirmishes, t)ut was boldly lieM as the outpost of colonial civilization. Hin.s- 
dale is now a prosperous town, thnm^ih which the Ashuelot River flows to the 
Connecticut. From M hie Mt., a few years a.qo, volcanic sii,'ns were seen, and a 
hiva-like sub.staiice was thrown out. An ancient Indian fort is situated on a lull 
near the river, and isolated from the jilateau Ity adecj>, broad treneh. VVinidiester 
was grantini by, aiul settled from, IVlass. in 17:i:}, under tlie name of Arlington, and 
was totiUly destroyed by an Indian attack in 1745. bwanzey is a large and thinly 
populated town, settled under the .^ame circumstances, and destroyed ul the same 
time as Winchester. 

At IS. Vernon the Conn. River Railroad from Springlield ttirminates. 

From S. Vernon the New London Northern track runs N. about 9 M. 
through the town of Vernon (seats on the r. side of the car command a 
view of the fertile intervales of the Connecticut, and of the river itself). 
Tliis is one of the oldest towns of Vermont, and scores of its early set- 

N':*Y LONDON TO VERMONT. fioute 12. 103 

naturo is the 
IS becoiuo tho 

, Northampton 
luiuh". 2 M. E. 
, a huge, ([MU'X 
luincrul »\n'uv^^ 

■ett. The hatt(!r 
he W. is Mount 
mecticut valley. 
; ilills on the M 
in<l Mass. R. R. 
it'kl Farms and 
ul, (Hiiet streets, 
ilong the Conn. 
f3, on the Indian 
ir frefiuent and 
roops conveying 
I- Treat, with his 
people evacuated 
, was reoccnpied 
settlers to leave, 
Dunnner afforded 
'irs Hotel) is on 
t'lS. The broad 
are crossed be- 

■oad, which passes 
[\v:in/.t'v uill in New 
l:i(\. Hinsdale was 
's and Ih-idgmau's 
nuiuevous attac'ks 
•ivilization. Hins- 
lUver lluws to the 
were seen, and a 
situateil on a hill 
k'neh. Winithester 
of Arlington, and 
a large and thinly 
;troyed at the same 


Is N. about 9 M. 
car command a 
the river itself), 
of its early set- 

Thcnext station is Brattleboro*, 

Hers were killed by the liostile Indians. 
rj'» M. from New Lon<lon. 

Hotels. - /Jroo),.'} Ihiise, tlie best in Vennnnt, nceotninodatinjr 175 - 200 gnpsts, 
$3-:t.5(> a day; lUoftlchnro' Ilntise (near the station), S'2-'2.M a day; Revere 
Jloiisf ; tlie I'urk llmisi; (near tlif Paik '. and tli" U'<:--isi'lh()i\ft llmise (loundod in 
ISl') hy a (Jennan water-eiire piiysician) are iar^e hotels lor sinniner visitors. 

In 17-1 the i.eijislatiu.-. of Ma-.s. had a rmt. hiult near the river ami about 1 M. 
H. of lln' ju'eseiit village. This I'mt, eallrd l-urt DuninnT, \v;is garrisnncd by 
troops of the eolniiy and frienilly Indians, and served as a shield fur the river- 
towns. Though often attacki'd, it wa-^ iii'vcr Inst. 'I'he lirst settlement in tin* 
State was located here under the ]ir(itection of the fort, and but two or three 
small villages were established in the tS. part until the eonipiest of Canatln, after 
whieh, from ITOit io 17GS, i:),S townships were granted in Vermont. In \7M, the 
vdlage near Kort Duinmer was named Hrattleborough, in honor of Col. lirattle, a 
«lisiinguishe(l Bostonian, who was one of iis proprietors. 

Brattleboro' is a large village well and compactly built, at the junction 
of Whetstone Brook (whicli alTords a considerable water-power) with tho 
Connecticut. The location of the village is beautiful, being on an uneven 
plateau above the great ^-iver, am' surrounded by lofty hills. Main St., 
the princii»al thoroughfare, is near ami parallel to the river, and 100 ft, 
above it. The Rrook, with its numerous factories, is near the station, in 
the S. of the village. A beautifid view of Brattleboro' and its moimtain- 
ampitlicatro is enjoyed from Cemetery Hill, an eminence S. of the 
town. The opposite side of the river is filled by tho dark and fro\vuing of Mine and Wantastiquet Mts. At the N. end of the village is a 
pretty park, on the edge of the jdateau, whence a channing view of tho 
mountains is gahied, while the placid river is seen gliding between its 
broad an<l fertile intervales. Below the park, in the valley, is the Ver- 
mont Asylum for the Insane, a well-conducted institution, connected with 
which is a farm of GOO acres, which is carried on by the inmates of the 
Asylum. From various points (back of St. Michael's Church, kc.) on the 
riverward side of the plateau, pretty views of the river and Wantastiquet 
Mt. are obtained. 

Daniel Webster was a fre(iuent visitor to Brattleboro', and at jiresent it is the 
home of Holbrook, the War-Liovernor of Vermont, and (Jen. J. W. Phelps, a vet- 
eran of the Mexican and 8eee.ssion Wars, who first enlisted and disciplined ne- 
groes in the armies of the Union. Among born here were Wilbur Fisk. 
the Methodist divine, who twice refused a bishopric, and was I'ri-sident of Mid- 
dletown University, 18;i0-:v.); R. M. Hunt, the architect; W. M. Hunt, the 
painter of <jvnrc pictures ; and Larkin G. Mead, the sculptor, who, while yet a 
Uiere lad, worked one long winter night on a snow-liguro at the head of Main St. ; 
and on the next morning (New Year's) the citizens were startled to see there a 
statue of the "Recording Angel" ni Hlellod in i) smnv. From that time hia 
success has Ixjen of rapid growth, and now for several years he has lived and 
worked in Itidy. 

In W. BrattlelM)ro' ((Jlen House, Vermont House) is the Glenwood Seminary, in 
V ivnantii' site (stages three times daily). 

A oridge crosses tlie river here, and a road runs into hilly Hinsdale, N. of which 
is the picturesque town of Chesterfield (N. H.), from whose level uplands much 
corn aiid hay is obtained by unwearied labor. Si)ofrord'3 Lake, in Chesterfield 
(10-12 M. from Brattleboro'), is a beautiful sheet of water 8 M. anmnd, said by 
Ilowells to i)ossess natural charms equal to those of the Italian lakes. On an 
island in its waters are the remains of an ancient Indian settlement. 










') ' 

104 RmiUlS. 


Brattleboro' is tho centre of a great net-work of staKc-Iines. Daily stages nin 
tnOuilfonl (7-10 M.); to Xowfaiie (12 M.), the county-se^it ; to Town.sheiKl (17 
M.). Tri-weckly lines run to l)over(17 M.)autlWar(IslH»ro'('Jt M.)- More(xt«'ii(lf(l 
routes are those to iShelbiime FuUs (Mass.) via Halifax (cascades on North Uivcr, 
and Dnn's Den, 2') ft. long, f) ft. wide and high, in solid rock) in 27 M. ; to Shel- 
bum Falls (45 M.) via Whitingham, in which arc the Hadawga Springs, with a 
hotel, near Kadawga Lake, in whose vicinity, in a i)oor log-luit, the hcresiarch 
Jlrighani Yonng was born in I.SOI. .Since 1S14 he has been prophet and president 
of the Monnons, who moved (1846-7), un<ler his guidance, from Nanvoo into tiie 
■Western wildeniess, anJ founded the Hourisldng colony of Deserct on the shores 
of the tireat Salt Lake of Ukib ; to (irccnheld {'.Vl M.) via Halifax ; to N. Adams 
via Whitingham (45 M.) ; to 15enningt<m via Wilmington, (4<i M.), jiassing tlirough 
the thinly settled mountain towns of Marlboro,' Wilmingtoii, Searsburg, and Wooil- 
ford ; to Bennington via Somerset (50 M.) : to Arlington via Stnitton (page 185) 
in 46 M. ; to Manchester via Jamaica in 45 M. Direct connections (in time) are 
not made on all these lines. 

From Brattleboro' the Vermont Central Railroad runs N. to Montreal, Quebec, 
and upper Vermont (Route 20). 

13. Nor<vich to Nashna. 

Via Norwich and Worcester, and Worcester and Nashua Railroads. Distance, 
106 M., fare, $3.55. 

Norwich to Putnam, see Route 19. Station, Tlioinpson (good liotol), a 
pretty village 1 M. from the station, mucli resorted to in .summer, and 
abounding in neat villas. Stations, Grosvenordale, N. Grosvenordale, 
Wilsondale, after ■which the train crosses to Webster, in Masp. {Joslin 
House, Sheldon flotose). In this vicinity is a great, islund-studded pond, 
which enjoys two names, — Cliabonakongkomon and Cliargoggagoggniun- 
choggagogg. About this lake were the Elysian Fields of the Nipmuck 
Indians and the reputed home of the Great Spirit. A small community 
of the Nipmucks still remains here, supported by the bounty of the State. 
Both at Webster and N. Webster are large manufactories. Station, Ox- 
ford, a pretty village, on the Indian lands called Mancliarge. 2 M. S. E. 
of the station is Fort Hill, bearing the remains of a bastioned fort built 
by a community of French Huguenots who settled here in 1683. 13 
years later, an Indian irruption so alarmed them that they abandoned 
the place, and lived in Boston for many years. Oxford Centre has large 
shoe manufactories, and several cotton and woollen mills are in the town. 
Station, Auburn, then Worcester Junction, and Worcester, where the 
passenger for Nashua changes cars. 

Connections are also made at this point with the Worcester and Fitchburg R. 
R., and with trains for Boston and Lowell. Passengers for Springfield and Al- 
bany, or Providence, should change cars at Worcester Junction. 

The line runs N. 

Stations, W. Boylston, Oakdale (Oukdale House), 

"Rich and rural Worcester, where throueh the calm repose 

Of cultured vales and fringing woods the gentle Nashua flowa." 

From sterling Jtmction the Worcester and Fitchburg track runs oflf to 

Daily stngefl nin 

n Tiiwnsht'iid (17 
). McmMXtfiKlcil 
* on North Uivcr, 
II 27 M. ; tr) Shrl- 
X Hi>rinx«, with a 
it, the hcrcsiurrh 
ln't and iiit'sitlt'iit 
I Niuivoo into tlio 
ret on tho shores 
lax ; to N. Atl.iins 
I, jtassing tlirouj^'h 
isl)urg, and Wood- 
nitton (l>aj,'(' 1X5) 
ons (in time) are 

Montreal, Quebec, 

roads. Distance, 

ti (good hotel), a 
in suminer, and 

in Masr, {Joslin 
d-studdcd pond, 
Df the Nipniuck 
mall coninuuiity 
iy of the State. 
Station, Ox- 

ge. 2 M. S. E. 

ioned fort built 

re in 1683. 13 
hey abandoned 

Centre has large 

are in the town. 

ster, where the 

nd Fitchburg R. 
)ringfield and Al- 

e line runs N. 

J - - - 

ack runs off to 



Jioiitc 11. 105 

After passing the Waushaccuni Ponds on the 1. an<l the Tlinton Ponds 
on each side of the track, the busy manufacturing town of Clinton (Clin- 
ton House) is reached, where the line is crossed by the Boston, Clinton, 
and Fitchburg R. R. Stations, S. Lancaster, and Lancaster (Lancaster 
House), an old and pleasant village, near whicli is the State Industrial 
School for Girls. The village was attacked in 1076, by 5 bodies of In- 
dians. 42 of the people took shelter in Rev. Mr. Rowlandson's house, 
wliich was set on fire after a two houra' siege, and 22 of its defenders 
were killed, the other 20 being nia<lo prisoners. Stations, Still River, and 
Harvard {Ilan'ard Hotel), a picturescpie highland village, near a lake 
which is 3 M. around, and N. of which are the deep and se<iuestered Hell 
Pond and Robbhis Pond. A considerable Shaker community is settled 
ia the N. E. part of the town. Harvard Centre is 2 M. E. from the sta- 
tion (stages run freriuently). 

Groton Junction (see Route 2.')). Tlie next statloii is Groton Centre, 
a pretty village in a country of hills and lakes. It was attacked hi 1676, 
by the Sachem Monoco at the head of 400 Indians, and 40 houses and the 
church wero burnt, though the people repulsed all attacks from their ref- 
uge in 4 garrison-houses. This same sachem boasted to the V-esieged that 
he was marching on Concord and Boston, to destroy those to)vns. With- 
in a year he was indeed in Boston, but as a captive, led through the 
streets with a rope around his neck, and afterwards hung on the Com- 
mon. Hon. G. S. Boutwell, Gov. of Mass., 1851-3, and Sei^retary of 
the U. S. Treasury, 1869-73, Avas for many years a mercliaut in this 
town. Groton is the seat of Lawrence Academy. 

Stati>^n, Pejiperell {Prescott House ; the village is across the N'a.shua 
River, W. of the station), a town named after Sir Wm. Peppen il, tho 
first New England baronet, by its first pastor, who was a chaplain in his 
Louisburg expedition. S. W. of the village is the curious hill called 
" The Throne," while to the N. are the picturesque Hills of Missitisset. 
This is a quiet village with an old cliurch, wliose bell, according x.o an old 
New England custom, tolls out the number of the letters in the name, 
and of years in the age, of each villager when he or she dies. 

In the graveyard near by is a pretty marble monument from Itily. Otherwise 
tlie cemetery illustrates Boocher's words concernin'^ the New England theory, 
" The dead are utterly pone. God has tliem in anotlic world. Their state is lixed 
and unalterable. iSo tliinking, it seems of but little worth to garnish their sleep- 
ing-places." Tlie old Prescott mansion is on a broail domain 2.^ M. from the vil- 
lage. This was founded by Col. Wm. Prescott, who led the Middlesex minute- 
men to Cambridge, and commanded the Americans at the battle (jf Bunker Hill, 
where the Pei)percll Co. lost IG men. He left the redoubt within push of bay- 
onet of the British, warding ofl' their thrusts by his flashing sword. His son. 
Judge Wm., succeeded to the estate, and from him it was inherited by his sou, 
Wm. Hickling Prescott, who here wrote a greivt part of his noble historical works. 
His son now owns the estate. 

Soon after leaving Pepperell the line enters the State of New Hamp- 

106 lloutc l/f. SAYBROOK TO HAKTFOIID. 

shire. Station, TloUis, 3 M. S. E. of the village of that name (stages 
to all trains) wjiicli gave 250 num to the Continental Armies. Soon after 
the train enters the city of Nashua (see Route 20). 


14. Saybrook to Hartford. 

Via Connrctirut Vallpy H. K in U M. Fare, $1.50. This route follows the 
W. bank ol' tlic Conn. HiviT, ami a scat on tlio r. side of the car aHonls iik'.i.sinj; 
vi('w.s of tlu! river an<l tiie villages on its .shores. 

For Sayhrook Point see Route 8. After leaving Saybrook ami cro.ssing 
the Shore Line R. R. (Route 8), at the Junction, the lino nins N. W. 
through the old limits of Saybrook, with the river at hand. The 
•soil of this town is enriched by piling thereon great ({uantities of whito- 
lish, which are caught off its shores, and sold for a trilling sum per thou- Stations, Essc.v, Deej) River, S. Chester, Chester (ricli farming 
country, with an Episcoi)al academy dating from 17'.<2), Gooilspeed's (vil- 
lage across the river), Arnold's (near Avhich the village of E. Iladdam is 
seen on the E. baidc), and JIaddam. Near Arnold's, the mouth of Sal- 
mon River is seen on the E. baidi, and 30 Mile, or Lord's Island divides 
the Connecticut some distance above. The ancient territory of the 
"fierce and warlike " Woiigung Indians em'oraced Iladdam and E. Had- 
<lam. They parted with tlieir birthright for 30 coats, and the land wa.s 
settled by people from Hartford. Quarries of some importance have been 
worked here, and the annual catch of shad is considerable. Stations, 
Walkley Hill, Higganiim (a thriving river-landing and ferry), Maromas, 
and Middletown. 

Middletowii C McDonouyh Uouse, 1.50 guests), " the Forest City," is a 
beautiful acadendc city, l»uilt on ground gently rising from the river at 
the bottom of a great bend. Its maritime interests are along the wharves 
which run out from Water St. ; the scat of trade and of the hotels is on 
Main St. ; while High St. is above all, and is lined with fine houses and 
carefully kept gardens. The Custom House and Court House (of Middh'- 
sex Co. ) are i)lain stone buildings, and there are several handsome churches 
in the city. The manufactures include pumps, webl ling, and tape {% 600,0(»f I 
a year), rules and chisels, sewing-machines, and several companies ma]:e 
britannia and silver-plated ware. The safe and convenient harbor (10 it. 
of water at the wharves) renders this the last port on the river for heavy 

The campus of Wesleyan University fronts on High St. (which, with 
its double lines of stately trees, Charles Dickens called the finest rural 
street he had ever seen). The University appertains to the Methodist 
sect, and sustains a high reputation. In the work of the intellectual up- 
lifting of the Methodist clergy it has borne a prominent part. Besides 
the old buildings in the usual Novanglian style, there are three fine new 


name (stagos 
, Soon alter 

onto. foUoWR the 
all'ords i>l(as>nK 

ok and crossing 
110 runs N. W. 
eat hand. The 
itities of whito- 
^ sum per thovi- 
r (rich fiirming 
C.Jootlspeed's (vil- 
>f E. Haddum is 
e mouth of Sal- 
lVs Island divides 

territory of the 
lam and E. Ha<l- 
au.l the land was 
inrtance have been 
erable. Stations, 

ferry), M aromas, 

Forest ('ity," is a 

; from the river at 

along the wharves 

,f the hotels is on 

h fine houses and 

House (of Middl.'- 

Iiandsome churches 

and tape ($600,(H>ii 

.1 companies mahe 

lient harbor (10 ft. 

he river for heavy 

,gh St. (^^hich, with 
fed the finest rural 
[s to the Methodist 
Ithe intellectual up- 
Jient part. Besides 
are three fine new 

edifices of Portland Handslone. Rich Hall contains tlio library of ultout 
20,00(1 vohinics. Jutl'l Hall (tlie <.^ift of Oraii^j^c .Tiidd, the a,','ri(uliuralist ) 
is a lincly finished liuildinfj:, containing admirable natural-history collec- 
tions. Some of these cabinets are unexcelled in America, having been 
c< Uected a; id arra?.ged by scientists who have spent years in special 
8tudics. Casts of skeletons and parts of colossal animals whoso species 
have long been extinct are arranp'd here. Tho Memorial ("hapel is a 
fine work f)f ardiiteetur.'. Its lower room is u;;e(l for daily collegts 
Iirayers, while al)ovc is the churcli proper, with memorial windows which 
cost $ 700 each. 

That on tlic left is in honor of tlio past, stinlcnts wlio dictl as soMiors of tho 
ITiii'iii, ami hears tlie iiiscriiitidiis, " Tlio lieauty of Isra«l is Klaiii ui>i>ii lier lii;;h 

Iilaccs " ; "It is sweet and liltini,' to dio for one's fatlierliiid," in llie liiitin of 
Inraee ; " Thci earth is a grave of lieroes," in tin- (ireek of Homer. Under the 
Hvuiholic llicnrt) of a ludiean are tiie names of tli(! slain. Tiie Wesh-yan (Inard 
((>i. <i., '1th L'onn. Uej;.) went fnmi the University, On the r. opj)osite is a win- 
dow bearing; jtortraits of lour presith-nts of tht; University: Will)nr Fisl<, I). D. 
(18.10-^9); Htephen olin, D. D., author of "Travels in thi- Kast."&e. (IHl^-.M); 
Nathan l)an;,'s, I). 1)., an itinerant minister, l.S()l-20, aj^'ent and editor of tiio 
Hook (,'onecrn, 18'J0-n(i, an<l afterwards President of the Uidversity ; and .\. W. 
8niith, UIj. 1)., a jiromiiient mathematician. In is71, the Uidversity had 10 in- 
htnietors and l.'^:! students. 

Tlic * view from the tower of the ohl chapel is delightful, embracing 
the bay-like river and its rii)arian hills, the city l)elow, and the busy (piar- 
rics at Portland, the long and imposing buildings of t'le Insane Asylum 
en a hill in tlie S., tlie Industrial SeliO(d, and the rolliig lulls to the W. 
On this hill was the far-viewing fortress of Mattabesick, the aboriginal 
chief bowheag, and around its base the Massachusetts immigrants settled 
in 1G53. Prissot de Warville, a French tourist (in 178S), asserted that 
" from the hill over Middletown is one of the finest and richest prospect.s 
in America." Thu villas and gardens of Iligli St. extend on each side of 
the campu.s, and not far from it is the Indian Hill Cemetery, with a hand- 
some sepidchral chapel at the entrance, and fine views from its hills over 
leagues of farm-studded valleys. Here is buried Gen. J. K. F. Mans- 
field, Avho stormed Monterey, was higldy distinguished at Buena Vista, 
fortified Wa.shington City (18GI ), and w^as mortally wounded while leading 
Jus corps at Antietam. In this vicinity is the Industrial School for Girls, 
a Uiudel institution with fine buiklings surrounded by broad lands, wher;i 
the inmates arc given three hours daily for study, and do their own work. 

On a high hill \\ Isl. S. E. of the city are the vast and imposing build- 
fogs of the State General Hospital for the Insane. The nuiin building 
1^ of Portland stone, and has a length of 7GS ft. with acconmiodations for 
4o0 patients. It stands on spacious grounds which cover 230 acres of the 
bill, and commands a fine view of the city and the widenings of the river. 

, Farther down the river are points often visited by geologists. Fehlspar is 
frund lierc in sueli quantities as to make it an item of trade, as it is used in niak- 
fr.g porcelain. The lead mines so actively worked during the Revolution have 
Ion'' been abandoiicd. 


On Main St. ncor thn McDonongli Honso is the Berkeley Divinity 
Sohool, iin Episcopfil institution under tln^ prcsidcMicy of I5ishn|» WilliaiiiM. 
It was founded in lS;"i7, lias graduatj^d 122 nuui, and had, in lh71, 12 jno- 
fesriors and 24 studi'iits. The cliaiicl (of St. Luke) is a small but bcauti- 
fid Gothic structure, built of stone and having? very rich stained windows. 
The students attenil Ntrvice in robes, and their singing is fine. Near by 
and on Main St. is the elegant church of the Holy Cross (Kj)ificoi)al) b\iilt 
of Portland stone, with a graceful tinibi-r roof. The N. and S. (Congrega- 
tional churches are fine buildings, and Main St. has three banks, huilt iu 
the style of bank-architecture jjcculiar to New England, — with one high, 
solid story, of stone or brick. The quaint little I'arthenon which is usimI 
for a Court House is on the same street. 

Near the N. end of Main St. (with its larKc Roman Catholic church) is tliP pier of 
the I'ortlaml ferry. Tlie (luanies of red sainlstmii' at I'lutlaiiil are of continental 
fame, and are situated m .ir tiie jiicr at tlie (itlier cmi of tlie ferry, wiienet! also in 
gained a line view of Middlctown and the ^nicefid Air Line IJailmad Ijrid^e. Tho 
llrst quarry approachidjs the deepest, and from tlie sharp eij^i! of the liill one can 
look down into a cliasin from whicli lias licen taken the material for hnn- 
dreds of fine l)uildinf,'s, and forfroids of lon^ Mocks in nearly every Atlantic ( ity. 
The second (piarry is the largest and oldest; and beyond this is a third. Th'so 
works emjiloy KOO men, great nnnd»ers of draught-animals, and 40 vessels. Tho 
stone is easy to work, of a durable < haracter, and <if a rich shade of brown. 

The New U;iveu, -Middletown, and Willimantii' 11. U., runs from the former 
city t<» Middletown, and here < rosses the Connecticut River on a tine iron briili;e 

When the link between Middletown and Willimaidic is complete(|, the Air Lino 
from Roston to New York wil 
Mid<lletown, i.':5i M., fare, S.'Jc, 

from Roston to New York will nui on the rails of this line. From New Haven to 

at Berlin, and 

I , 

A l)ran(di track leaves the New Haven and Springfield Railr< 
runs 10 M. S. K. to Middletown. 

The steamers between Hartford and New York stop at this ijenerally Into 

in the afternoon, and then proceed down tho river, from whuoc mouth Middle- 
town i.s .'51 M. distant. 

After leaving Middletown the Conn. Valley Railroad runs N. about 15 
M. passing through the towns of Cromwell, Rocky Hill, aud Wetliersfield, 
and enters the city of Hartford. 


!lM t 

> t 

15. New Haven to Northampton. 

Via N. H. and N. R. R., in 84 M. 

This line is often called the Canal R. R., since it follows the lino of the old 
Farmingt{»n Canal for a considerable distance. It runs through a quiet agricul- 
tural country, an<l terminates near the W. ceJitre of Massachusetts, on the line 
of the (projected) Mass. Central R. R. Shortly after its completion in 1841) it was 
leased by the New York and New Haven R. R. for 20 years, and on the expiration 
of that time it reverted to the original proprietors. 

The line passes West Rock soon after leaving New Haven, and enters 
the valley of Mill River, which it follows for nearly 20 M. Tlie town of 
Haniden, which is soon entered, is in a valley between the W. Rock Mts. 
and the E. Rock Mts., two ranges which run N. nearly i)arallel until they 
unite in Southington, and then advance into Massachusetts. Mt. Camiel 
(near the station of the same name) is a lofty spur from the E. Rock 



keley Divinity 

Jishop Williams, 
in lh71, 12iMo- 
inall but lu'imti- 
stainctl windows. 
I fine. Ni-ar by 
(FijUficnpal) built 
jiiul S. (/ongren.v 
bfxuka, built in 
— with onehigli, 
ion which is uswl 

inrrli) is th«" i>i«'r of 
I iirc of coiitini'titiil 
iiy, whence, also i^* 
iil'i(.a<l bridge. Tim 
t' of tilt! liill one v.m 
3 iimtt^iiiil for Iniii- 
pvery Atlantic i ity. 
^ is II tliiiil. Tlvsti 
1(1 40 vessels. Tlirt 
iule of 1)in\vn. 
IS from the former 
m a tine iron l)ri<ip'. 
ph'ted. the Air Lino 
From New Haven to 

In ' at Berlin, and 

r;enorally Into 
u.oi; mouth Middle- 
runs N. about 15 
and WetliersfielJ, 


. the lino of the old 
mgh a quiet agricul- 
husetts, on the Une 
pletionin 1849 it was 
lud on the expiration 

Haven, and enters 
I\I. Tlie town of 

1 the W. Kock Mts. 
parallel until they 

isetts. Mt. Carmel 
from the E. Hock 

NEW HAVKN TO NOllTllAMl'TON. lloutc 15. lOD 

Il:inj;i*, mid iH composed of j^Teejistont'. llaindcu is aquift country towtj, 
on fertile lands. The stations, Cheshire and Hitchcock's, arc in the town 
»»f ('hcsldre, a picturcstpu' fainiing district, in one of wliose villaj^es is 
.situatcil tilt! Ei)iscoj)al Academy of Conn, (military), %*nich dates from 
l.'IOl. I'lantsvillc! and Sonthington are in a town by the latter name, 
formerly noted for t'.\tensivt) tin-ware manufactories, but'now depeiidiuj* 
on iron-works. Station, I'lainville, with the Farmington Canal on the 
r. and the Mine Hills on tlie I. At this point the llartford. Providence, 
and Kishkill Uailroatl crosses the jn-esent route. Station, Farmington. 
The village is seen about \ M. away in a beautiful situation near the 
broad, rich mea<low» of the Farmington River. A broad and shaded 
street 2 M. long composes the village. This fair and fertile valley wiu* 
the Tunxis of th(! Indians, who dwelt here in great numberM. Many of 
their cemeteries and tisliing-phuH'S luive been found. The land wjis 
bought from tluon by immigrants from lioston and Koxbury, who settled 
here in 10 K». It was the pastor of this village who i)reached to the troops 
marching to Boston in 1775, from the te.xt, "Play the man for your 
country, and for the cities of your God ; and the Lord do that which 
si'cmeth him good." 

From Farmington a branch track runs to New llartford (14 M.), hy thn stations 
I'nioMville, Uuiliiii^ton, Collinsville, and I'inc Meadow. At Col'lnsville (I'alley 
IIdii^c, good) tlwi Faniiin},'ti'ii Uiv<!r Is ilannned, and affords a great power which 
is iiseil \)y extensive works for the n\aimf;i' ue of axes and edged tools. Tho 
liMsincss was founded liy Mr. Collins, ami low employs 0-7')0 men, who, with 
their families, make uji a jxipulous villa.;i . l.'i,0()0 stetd ph)Ughs are sent out 
> early to all i>arts of the W(irld, and 20(),00(» Brazilian hoes have been made here 
ill I'lie year. Vast numbers of Mexican nia(!hetes uru turned out, ami more axes 
tli:ni at any other factory in Amcriea. Here, also, were made the pikes for John 
Brown's raid on Viri,'inia. 

At Collinsville the Conn. Western R. U. forms a junction with the branch. 

Beyond Farmington is Avon, a pretty village, where Silliman found 
" renmants of primeval New England customs." On the E., Talcott Mt. 
is plainly seen, with a lofty tower on its top. (See Environs of Hartford.) 

Stations, Weatogue and Simsbury, in the town of Simsbury, which was 
settled in 1G70 on tho Indian lands of Massacoe. During King lM»ilii)'s 
War the colonists buried their goods and fled, but the town was destroyed 
l)y the Indians and left so long neglected that the wilderness reclaimed it, 
^nd the returning settlers never found their buried treasures. On a hill 
W. of the track is the principal village, ambushed in trees. Just before 
reacliing Granby, the next station, the Farmington River, which has 
followed the track for 15 M., turns sharply to the S. E. through a ]>ass 
in the mountain, and flows down into the C!onnecticut. Station, Granby 
(three small hotels in the town), in a rugged farming town. Here was 
•located Newgate Prison (State of Conn. ), — a grim i)ile on tlie top of Co])per 
Hill, wliere the prisoners were confined in the cavernous shafts and pas- 
•ngijs of a copper-niine, — abandoned in 1700. Some of the convicts lived 





111.', i 


I i 

60 ft. bolow the eartli's surface, amid unceasing darkness. Tlie moiith cf 
the niaiti shaft was covered by a massive stone building, and the prisoners 
Avnre guarded bj- 20 soldiers. This subterranean laT>yrinth served for a 
State Prison iVoni 1775 to 1827. The State says that the average mor- 
tality during that period was less than that in tiie other American prisons, 
but harsh stories went abroad about the gloomy cavenis of Newgate. 

Soon after leaving Granby the line enters Massachusetts, and runs along 
the pond of Congamuck, stopi)ing at Southwick (Union Hotel). Then 
the train descends on to the jilains of Westfield, and, i)assing through the 
village (see Route 22), crosses Westfield River, and stops at the station at 
the junction of the Boston and Albany Railroad (Route 22). Soon after 
leaving Westfield the train passes iiito the valley of the Manham River, 
and stops at Southampton, under the shadow of high hills. After leaving 
the latter place, the long ridge of Mt. Tom looms upon the r., while 
Pomeroy's Mt. is farther away on the 1. Easthampton is now reaciied 
(EyrU', House, Mansion House). This is the seat of Williston Seminary, 
a high graded institution attended by 180-200 students. This seminary 
has been endowed with $ 250,000 by Hon. Sam.uel Williston, who has also 
given 3 1^5,000 to Amherst College, large sums to Mt. Holyoke Seminary, 
and has 3 times rebuilt the Payson Church in Easthampton. He began 
business by making buttons at home with his wife's aid, after which he 
perfected machinery, and erected a factory. His income in 1864 was 
$ 200,000. 

Vulcanized rubber and rul)ber thread, cotton yarn, susjienders, buttons 
(1200 gross per day), and other goods are made here. 

From Easthampton, Mt. Holyoke is full in sight to the E. After pass- 
ing near the great bend of the Connecticut River, the train enters North- 
ampton (Route 24). 

Station, Florence, wliere are the extensive manufactories of the Flor- 
ence Sewing-Machine Comjiany. The works surround a quadrangle, and 
20-22,000 machines are turned out every year. Stations, Leeds (witli 
large sewing-silk factories), Haydeuville (brass-works), and Williamsburg 
{Havipshire House), a pretty village among the hills, and at present the 
terminus of the line. 

Cumminf]tton is a lofty mountain-town, 12-14 M. W. of Williamsburg. Here 
was bcni, in ISIO, II. Jj. Dawes, who was for some tiiue a lawyer and journalist, 
ami who lius been one of the most usi'ful members of Congress sinee his election 
ill IS')". 

William Culleii Bryant, born at Cununington in 1704, is one of the lead- 
ing intets of America, llih verses were iiubnshe<l before he was tun years old, 
and the grandly solemn i)oem of "'rhauatopsis " was written while he Avas in his 
18th year. For most of tlie time from 1815 to 1825 'le was a lawyer in W. Ma^s. ; 
but in 1820 lie eoiiiieeted himself with tlie "New Vo'k Evening Post," with which 
lie still remains. lie has mad(! several toius in Ihirojie, and since 1845 has lived 
in an ohl mansion at Roslyn. \j. I. li«'sides several volume.^ of i)rose and ])oetry 
of great sweetness and grandeur, he has jiublislied the best traiislitioii extant of 
the Iliad and the Oi'.y.'. ey of iltimcr. 

M \ 


16. Bridgeport to Winsted. 

Via Naugatuck R. R. iu 62 M. Fare, $ l.So. 

4 M. from Bridgepoii the train crosses the l)roa(l Housatonic River. 
At Naugatuck Junr'tion tlio rails of the Shore Line Raihoad are left, and 
the line tunis to the N. E. and foll<>ws the Housatonic as far as Derby. 
The village of Birmingham (Basset House) is picturesquely located on a 
high headland at the junction of the Housatonic and Naugatuck Rivers, 
Commerce was formerly carried on on a large scale from this point, its 
vessels rumiing to the West Indies, but manufactures have now taken 
possession of Derby, Great numbers of pins, tacks, l)rads, corsets, crin- 
oline, stockings, and melodeons (Sterling's) are made lu-re. The great 
Housatonic Dam is aljout ^ jM, from the village and affonls an immense 
water-i)ower. It cost 3^00,000, and was three years in building, being 
constructed of solid masonry in the form of an arch, with the convex sur- 
face turned toward the pi'essure of the stream. The dam is GOO ft. long, 
and has 23 ft. fall, and the heavy roaring of the plunging waters can be 
heard miles away at night. 

Gen. Duviil Iluniphreys was born at Derby iu 17'i2. lie was Waslilngton's aide, 
and long resided at Mount Vernon, after which he was minister to Purtuyal and 
iSpaiii, au<l eoniinander of the Conn, militia. 

Isaac Hull was born here in 1775. He entered the navy, and in 1800 captured 
Port Platte, in Hayti. He distinguished himself in the TripolitJUi War, and iu 
18) J, commanding the "Constitution," he escaped froiU a British scpiadrou in h(jt 
pursuit, by wari)iii;^' his ship aliead during a calm. A month later hu met the 
British frigate "Guorriere," and eaptur-jil her after a short, Hharj) ai'tiou. (Jen. 
Will. Hull, born hero, 1753, was condoumed to dcaiii in isi'i, for smrendering the 
Army of tlie Northwest, at Detroit, but President Matli.son pardoned him. 

An omnibus runs fnjm ilirmingham to its sister-village of Ansonia, i)assiug 
along breezy heights which alford line views of the Naugatuck Valley and the 
nival homes of Derby scattered on the Trans-Naugatu(;k hills. In the N. i-tid of 
Biriiiingliam a small Green is passed, with ; Saxon-tow«'red ^]pi.scopal Church, 
and ni>ar it are churches of tlie Methodists, Congri'gationalists, and Catholics. 

A Railroad runs from .iVnsonia to New Haven direct. 

A)i.sonia (Ansonia House), the next station beyond Derby, is a thriving 
borough near the falls in the Naugatuck. It was foundcil in 1838, and 
has become the seat of numerous rolling-mills and foundries, a large 
hoop-skirt factory, and manufactories of clocks, lightning-rods, and brass 
wares. Some fine mansions are linilt on the heights over the liver, and 
from near the tall stone churcli is gained a neat valley-view, embracing a 
great part of the old Indian domain of Paugussett. 

At Seymour, the next station, is a small village founded by Gen. 
Humphrey in ISIO, for the manufacture of cotton, pa])er, and woollen 
goods. For the latter purpose he had imported large Hocks of Spanish 
I merino sheep. 

I tSeucou i'alls has a water-power which is used by factories making a 
I LTeat numbor of woollen sliawls. Station, Naugatuck, whicli is the 

*;♦_ ; 




., 1 » 

• t 

%\ ^■'' 



lif fi 

seat of the Goodyear Glove (and UubLer) Co., a Pin Co., and of Tuttle's 
Works, which turn out 400,000 rakes and hoes each year. Naugatuck is 
derived from the Indian plirase, Nau-ko-tunk, meaning "one large tree," 
from a lofty and prominent tree which once stood on the Rock Rimmon, 
near the Falls Static i. Union City, and Waterbury (see Roiite 11). 

Junction is formei. iiere with the Hartford, Providence, and Fishkill Railroad, 
and also with the Watfrtown Branch. Watertown {Worrcn House), ahout M. 
distant, is a quiet village in a thinly settled and hilly farming town. 

Stations, Waterville (where pen-knives are manufactured), Pl^Tnouth, 
(near which are fine quarries of white granite), Camp's Mills, and Litch- 
field. The l)eautiful village of Litchfield {Mansion House, U. S. House) 
is about 4 M. from the station (stages connect with trains). This is the 
county seat of Litchfield County, and once claimed jurisdiction to the 
Mississippi River. 

The, Royal Charter of Conncc^ticut in 1C04 defined that eolony as "all that part 
of His Majesty's dominions, in New England, in America, Ixmnded the E. by 
Narragansett Bay, ... on the N. by the line of the Massachusetts Plantiitiou, 
and (in the S. by the sea. And in longitude . . . from said Narragansett Bay on 
E. to th(! South Sea on tlui W. part, with the islands thereunto belonging." Sub- 
secjuently royal grants" detached from this vast belt parts of New York and 
Pennsylvania, altliough nnuh of the tract in the latter State (including tlie Valley 
of Wyoming), was settled from Ooini. At the close of the Revolution the State 
ceded this, her western domain, to the Union, reserving a tract on the S. of Lake 
Erie, as wide as Conn, and 120 ^I. long, and (•oini)rising 4,000,000 acres. Of thig 
land 500,000 acres (the "Eire Lands") were granted to the towns which had been 
destroyed diu'ing tlicwar (New London, Fairlield, &e.), and the remainder of the 
Western Iteserve was sold to a real-estate company for !? 1,200,000, which sum 
was carefully invested as the school and church lUnd of Connecticut. 

The village of Litchfield is situated on a broad plateau, 1,100 ft. above 
the sea, and consists mainly of two broad and embowered streets, which 
cross each other at right angles. The hotels and county buildings are 
near the intersection of these avenues, and front on a pretty Green, which 
is adorned by a soldiers' monumerit. Beneath the words " Pro Patria " 
is a list of nearly CO men of Litchfield, who died in the armies of the 
Union. 2-3 M, from the village, on the S. W., is Bantam Lake, con- 
taining 900 acres, the largest lake in the State, the haunt of many fish, 
and scarcely yet invaded l)y the factories, which have ruined the charm 
of so many of the New England lakes. Near North St. (to the 1.) is 
Prospect Hill, from which a fascinating * view is offered, embracing the 
wikh^rness of high hills v.'hich surround the plateau and stretch away in 
the W. Bantam Lake i.s seen, silver-shining between its sinuous shores, 
about a mile distant, and the great elms and old mansions of Litchfield 
are on the plain above it. Near the corner of North St., with the road 
diverging to the hill, was the Beccher nnmsion, which has been moved 
(1872) to S]uing Hill (near the end of N. St.), wh- ie it forms a part of 
T>r. Buel's (private) asylum for the insane. On South St. is the old Wol- 
cott Mansion, built about 1700, by Gov. Wolcott (see Windsor), pnd 


a of Tuttle's 

saugatuck is 

e large tree," 

ick Rinnnon, 


likill Railroatl, 
x), about M. 


\), Pl>Tnouth, 

Is, and Litch- 

U. S. House) 

This is the 

iiction to the 

IS "alUhatpart 
nded the E. by 
;ctts riantJitioii, 
•agansett Bay on 
elongiiit,'." Sub- 
New York and 
uding the Valley 
ilution the State 
m the S. of Lake 
) acres. Of thig 
; whieh had been 
-emainder of the 
),000, which sum 

1,100 ft. above 
_ streets, which 
|y buildings are 
;y Green, which 
" Pro Patria " 
armies of the 
;am Lake, con- 
It of many fish, 
med the charm 
|t. (to thel.) is 
embracing the 
Istretch away in 
sinuous shores, 
IS of Litchfield 
with the road 
las been moved 
irms a part of 
is the old Wol- 
Windsor), f"^ 

where was bom Oliver Wolcott, an officer of the Continental Army, Secre- 
tary of the U. S. Treasury (1795-1800), Gov. of Conn. (1818-27), and 
founder of the flourishing village of Wolcottville. The leaden statue of 
George III., wliidi stood on tlie Bowling Green in New York City, was 
brought to this house, and melted into bullets by the Governor's daughters. 
Many otlier solemn old colonial mansions are along the roads, and French 
roofs have not yet invaded this dignified seclusion. This air of antiquity, 
together with the balmy, cool, and salubrious breezes which dwell among 
tliese hills, have given Litchfield a high place among the restful and un- 
fashionable of the summer-resorts. 

Considerable quantities of copper and nickel have been found in the town ; but 
the latter mineral is so tirinly united with otlicr elements that it will not pay for 
cxtractioi). In this town of 3,100 inhabitants, there are 10 churches, of which 
several belong to the Eplscoi)al sect. 

Among the pleasant drives in the vicinity is that to Bantam Lake, with its 
umbrageous groves (2 -a M.) ; to Mount Tom, aii<l to the village of Morris, with 
a (plaint old country inn, tincha.iged since the colonial days (5-U M.). From Mt. 
Tom, on a dear day, the Catskill Mts. may be seen, anil on the E. the hills beyond 
tlie Conn. River. 

Litchfield was bought of the coliny of Conn, in 1718, for about £300, and was 
settled in 1720. The village was surrounded by a palisade, lest tiie Indians 
siiould return in force to their ancient and favorite hunting-grounds of Bantam. 
In 17S4, Judge Tai)i)ing Reeve (who married Aaron Burr's sister) established a 
Law School here, and in 17'.>8, James Gould, Judge of the Supreme Couitof Conn., 
joined him, and remained 40 years. This was then the most renowned law 
siliool in America, and 474 lawytiis were educated here. The first Young Ladies' 
Seminary in the Union was established at Litchfield. The town lias ]»roduced 
many able men, cliief among whom are Beecher and Bushnell. Lj'nian Beecher, 
I). I)., " the father of more l>rains than any otlier man in America," was pastor 

II here ISIO -2G. Of his many illustrious children, the most famous is 
J Henry Ward Beeclier, born at Litchfield in 181.*i. He was educated 
at l.ane Seminary (CiiKiinnali), of which his father was president. From 1837 to 
]S47 he was settied in Indiana, and in the latter j'car he became pastor of the 
I'lyinouth Church, iii I'ooklyn. This i)osition he has now held for 26 years, 
dining which time he has won a world-wide fame for his oratorical powers, be- 
sides building ni» a powerful church with active auxiliary branches. Ilis vigo- 
rous and i)icturesque style is very effective ad convincing ; and it may safely be 
said that, during the past 20 years, he has lieen the foremost oF the clergy of 
Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stnwe, <laughti»r of layman Beecher, was born at Litch- 
. field in 1812, and mariied Rev. Calvin E. Stowe in 1832, In 1852 she imblislied 
" Cnele Tom's Cabin," an antislaveiy novel, which sent a thrill throughout tliB 
re|iul»lic and the world. She has sinee itublished " Dnd," " Agnes of Korreiito," 
" 'i'he Pearl of Orr's Island," and many charming stories of New England life. 

After leaving Litchfield the train stops at Wolcottville (founded by 
Gov. Wolcott in 18U2), tlie seat of large woollen-mills, brass-works, and 
uuimifactories of plated goods. In this town, John Brown, of Ossawa- 
tomie, the invader of Virginia, was bom in 1800. Station, Buirville, 
after which the train reaches 
1 Winsted (Clarke House, $2; Beardsley House), a long, narrow vil- 
^lage between steep hills on the line of Mad River. Iron and steel works 
aliound here; pins, scythes, hoes,' tlocks, and other articles are also 
made. Some dlBtauce above the village, on a high plateau, is Long Lake, 


t I 



Avhich contains 1,500 acres, and is nearly 4 M. long. The waters rush 
turbulently tlirougli a narrow channel at its end, and form tlie impetu- 
ous Mad River, wliich descends 200 ft. in 2 M. 

At Winstcd the Nau<,'atuck R. II. forms a junction with tlie Conn. Western R. 
R. running from Hartford to Millortou on tlic lliulem R. R. (Route 20). 


i '^ 

17. Bridgeport to the Berkshire Hills. 

Via the Uousatonic R. R. in 110 M. (to Pittsfield). Fare, $3.30. 

Shortly after leaving Bridgeport (on Route 8) the line enters the valley 
of the Pequanock, which it follows for 15 I\I. through a thinly settled 
country abounding in low hills. Stations, Stepney, Botsford, and New- 
town, the latter being a village about ^ M. from the R. R., situated on a 
high hill in the midst of Newtown, the Patatuck of the aborigines. It 
is here, according to Beecher, that "the hills lirst begin to show moim- 
tainous symptoms." At llaxdcyville the Shepaug Valley R. R. comes in 
from Litchtield (see Route 16), and at Brookjidd Junction a short rail- 
road runs S, W. to Danbury (see Route 18). Station, Brookfield, beyond 
which the track approaches and crosses the Housatonic River, and stops 
at Nexo Milfonl (New Milford House). This is a line village near the 
junction of the Housatonic and Aspetuck Rivers, with a wide, verdant 
common, and well-shaded streets. A silver-mine was worked here in 
1790, and much marble and slate has been cpiarried in the liills. At pres- 
ent, factories for making buttons, boots, hats, and twine sustain the 
place, which is furthermore one of the centres of the tobacco trade in the 
valley. Stations, Merwinsville, and Kent (restaurant in the station ; 
Kent Plains Hotel). This sweet valley was the home of the Scaghticoke 
Indians, and here the Moravians founded a mission. The cause which 
more than any other forced the Christian tribes of New England to lose 
their identity by miscegenation operated in full strength here. 100 men 
of this tribe joined the Continental Army, and but few of them ever re- 
turned. So several negroes and a few poor whites joined the community ; 
and from the combination arose the present representatives of the tribe, 
who plough and plant, wear pants and go to chiirch, and otherwise are 
such Indians as Massasoit never dreamed of. President Woolsey, of 
Yale College, has spent much time with this fragment of the Scaghti- 
cokes. On a lofty plain W. of Kent (ascended by a long and arduous 
road) are the Spectade Ponds, — two lakes surrounded by forests and 
connected by a short strait. From the round hill above the N. Pond the 
fittingness of the name is clear. It is said that a noble view opens to 
the W. from this summit, including, the Mts. of Sharon and Cornwall, 
the Hudson Highlands, and the Catskills, 60 M. away. (When the editor 
made this ascent, in May, 1872, tlie remoter mts. were veiled l)y blue 




.-atera rush 
lie imptitu- 

Westcrn B- 

's the valley 
hiiily settled 
i, aiul New- 
lituated on a 
(origines. It 
I show moiui- 
. R. comes in 
I a short rail- 
diekl, beyond 
'er, and stops 
llage near the 
wide, verdant 
orked here in 
lills. At pres- 
sustain the 
l;o trade in the 
. the station ; 
,e Scaghticoke 
e cause which 
iigland to lose 
^.re. 100 men 
them ever re- 
le community ; 
■s of the tribe, 
otherwise are 
, Woolsey, of 
jf the Scaghti- 
g and arduous 
by forests and 
e N. Pond the 
\q view opens to 
and Cornwall, 
hen the editor 
veiled by blue 


lieat-mist. ) Tlie next two stations are in Cornwall, wliicli town was sold 
ill 1738 for $ 1,500 (46 stiuare M.), and settled in the same year. It is in 
u double sense the rougliost township in the county. S. Cornwall is sit- 
uated in a deep valley, and here a Foreign Mission School was founded in 
1810. In 1S'20 there were 19 indiaiis and (5 racifie-LslainU'i-.s studying at 
the scliool, and here, in 181S, dii'd Obookiah, the giftid Hawaiian. 

Daily staf,'os run from Comwall IJrid^re to Litphlielil and Hliaroii, and from W. 
(>)rii\Viill to Cioslit'ii and tlic villairi's of (,'orii\vall. 

(ioshcn is a lofty town, in whicii are 5 i)onds. and Ivy Mt. (tho lii^^liest in the 
State). It is distiii^inished tor the ricii Kii;.disli dairy ciii't'se (a stapltrof Litch- 
licld County) wliich it jtrodnccH. llfic, in l.SOO, was born Daniel S. Dickinson, an 
fiaiiu'iit jurist, and senator from New York. 

The train now nins along the narrow valley of the Ilousatonic with tho 
ridge of Sharon on the W. Just beyoiul that ridge, and extending thence 
to the N. Y. line, is a rich and fertile valley. 

Station, Falls VilUifjc (Dudley House ; and a snug country inn in tlie 
glen over the river). The Urcat Falls of the. Ilvusntunic are near the 
village, and form a fine sight, the river plunging over rocky ledges for 60 
ft., with a tremendous roaring. A near scrutiny of tlie Falls is unad- 
visable, as its vicinity is crowded with squalid Irish shanties, while tlie 
R. R. repair-shops are situated above them on the .site of the Ames 
foundries, wliieh produced some of the heaviest iron fortress-cannon dur- 
ing the War of ISGl -65. When President Dwight wrote so etithusiasti- 
cally of these Falls (about ISOO) they were surrounded by the fitting 
adjuncts of a great j)rimeval forest. 2-3 M. N. W. of the village is 
Mt. Prospect, whose cleared sunnnit is gained by a rude wood-roa<l, and 
all'ords a view of the broad valley of the Housatonic. At the foot of 
Prospect is a remarkable group of rocks, the darkest, deepest nook of 
which is called the Wolf's Den. W. of the vilhige is the far-viewing 
Gallows Hill, where, according to tlie tradition, the corpse of a negnj waa 
once found hanging from a tree, and no one ever knew how he came tliere, 
or who he was. 

Daily stages to Salisbury and Lime Rock. Station, Canaan (two 
country hotels), a small village situated on the upper edge of the valley 
of the Blackberry River, witli tlie great, ridgy mass of Canaan Mt. on 
the S. . 

Tlie Co.m. Western R. R. crosses the present route at Canaan, and runs W. 
through the rare scenery of Salisbury (see Route 20). At the next station 
(Ashley Falls), the line enters the County of Herkshire and iState of Massachu- 
setts. For the remaining 35 M. of this railroad line see the " Berkshire Hilla" 
(Route 23). 

18. S. Norwalk to Danbury. 

Via Danbury and Norwalk R. R. in 24 M. Fare, 90c. Stations, Xor- 
walk, Winnepauk, Kent, Wilton, Cannon's, Georgetown, liidgejield. 


__j.-i. , vim 

4 ii- 


Tlic latter village is 3 M. from tlie station, on a branch track, and is 
situated on a lofty ridge, called by the Indians Caudato'.va. 

During Tryon's raid into tho State (May, 1777), the niiliti.i witlistood the ITos- 
Kiiiiis liohiml a barricade in Rid;;cli"ld. It cost Tryon 170 n.en to take the frail 
dctVnf'c, but CJeu. Wooster, tlio American leader, was mortally wounded. 8. 0. 
Coodricli was born here in 17!':{. He wrote 170 books, most of which were under 
tlie name of "Peter Parley." His works attained the enormous sale of over 
7,n()(),nno volumes. His brother. Rev. C. A. Goodrich, and his son, F. B. Good- 
rich (" Dick Tinto"), have also won fame as authors. 

Station, Rcadinri, where Putnam's rude eloquence quelled the revolt of 
the Conn, line (177^). Joel Barlow, born here in 1755, some time minister 
to France, was author of a fine, but forgotten epic, the "Columbiad." 
In 17^3 - 86, he was one of the authors of the " Anarchiad," in connec- 
tion with David Humphreys, Jonatlian Trumbull, and Timothy Dwight, 
concerning whicli transatlantic critics wrote the pasquinade beginning, 

" Dnvid nnd Jonathan. Joel nnd Timothy, 
Over the ocean set up the hjiuu of the — " 

Crossing Bethel (junction of the Shepaug Valley R. R.), the train en- 
ters Danbury (Wooster House, Turner House). 

Danbury was "ank^c-deep in pork-fat" in May, 1777, when Tryon's Hessians 
had destroyed the anny Ruii))lies collected here. It is said that, as the raiders 
wert advailcinj^ up a hill near by, a reckless farmer rode to its crest and shouted, 
" Halt, the whole universe, break off by kingdoms ! " Alarmed at such a formi- 
dable force, the Hessians halted, threw out artillery to the front, and deployed a 
line of skirmishers. In 1704 Robert Sandeman came a^ Danbury (where he died 
in 1771), and founded a sect on the dogma that "faith is a bare belief in a bare 
truth." In 1870 there were 20 members of this church in the U. S.,und they were 
divided into 2 sects. 

Tlie first American hat-factory was started here in 1780, when Zadoc 
Benedict, with 3 men, made 3 hats a day. Now there are 10 companies 
in the business, witli $ 500,000 capital, 4 of which make 216,000 liats a 
year. The Danbury Shirt Co. turns out 230,000 shirts each year, and 
many Bartram and Fenton sewing-machines are made here. The borough 
has about 10,000 inhabitants, 9 churches, 4 banks, a public library, the 
county buildings, and a great school, of which Danbury is ju ly proud. 
Main St. is 1^ M. long, and from Deer Hill a neat view of the town is 
gained. Lake Kenosha (2 M. ) is a favorite resort, and is a pretty lake, 
with good boating and fishing. Powerful water-works supply tho 

Near Danljury is a pretty cemetery of 100 acres, containing a monu- 
ment 40 ft. high, erected by the Alasons of Coim. to Gen. Wooster. He 
founded the first lodge in tlie State (Hiram, of New Haven), and was shot 
at the Ridgefield fight. A monument is raised to 67 soldiers (in the Se- 
cession War) of Danbury, who are buried elsewhere. 


" They sleep their lost sleep, 
Tlicy have fought their last battle, 

No Aound shall awake them 
To glory again." 

if' ,'; 


BOSTON TO NEW YORK. Route 10. 117 

ick, and is 

-)od the Ilos- 
ike the frail 
idcd. H. G. 
1 were, undor 
sale of over 
F. B. Good- 

ie revolt of 
lie minister 
in connec- 
liy Dwiglit, 

le train en- 

•n's Hessians 
8 the raiders 
and shouted, 
iuch a foriui- 
[id deployed a 
vhere he died 
lief in a bare 
uid they were 

when Zadoc 

) companies 

),000 hats a 

h year, and 

The borough 

library, the 

Li ly proud. 

he town is 

pretty lake, 

supply the 

iig a monu- 
ooster. He 
,nd was shot 
i (in the Se- 


19. Boston to New York. 

New York and New Encland Railroad to Norwich, connecting at New London 
wilij Mie Norwich line of steamers. 

The train leaves the terminal station at tlie foot of Summer St. (PI, 39), 
running across the llat.s on tlie W. of Boston Harbor, then through S. 
Boston and over the S. Bay. It then passes through the rural district of 
Dorchester, so lately annexed to Boston, and crosses the Nepouset River 
several times near the suburban stations of Mattapan and Hyde Park. 
Near Readville it crosses the Bostoji and Providence line, and then stops 
at Dedham station, N. of whicli is the large and i)rosperoiis village which 
contains the handsome Court House of Norfolk County. Near Dedham 
are several factories on the water-power afforded by Mother Brook, which 
is the oldest of American canals. It was made in 16-10, in order to in- 
crease the navigable facilities of the Neponset River by turnhig part of 
Charles River uito it. The canal is 3 M. long, and has a fall of 00 ft. 

Fisher Ames was horn at Dedham in Mh'A. He was an eminent lawyer and 
orator, and was the leader in Coii;,Tess dining the era of the t'unfedt ration. His 
"liiUtns" letters, jinblislied in the Hoston papers, were political writings whicli 
caused a great sensatinn. 

A branch railroad runs in 2 M. to the main line of the Roston and Providence 
Railroail. This forms the nearest route from Boston to Dedham. 

The .stations, Ellis's, Norwood, Everett's, Winslow's, Tilton's, Walpole, 
Cam])beirs, Norfolk, City Mills, and Franklin, are then passed. The lat- 
ter town was named after Benjamin Franklin, and a hint was conveyed to 
hiin (then at Paris) that a good church-bell would be an acceptable pres- 
ent in return for the honor conferred on him. The philosopher sent the 
town a collection of valuable books, ol)serving that the people were prob- 
ably " more fond of sense than sound." 

Nathaniel Emmons, D. D., one of the leaders of the Ilopkinsian 
school of theology, was pastor here for 5-4 years. At Walpole the line 
from Framingham to New Bedford crosses the track. Shortly after leav- 
ing Franklin, tlie line crosses the Woonsocket Division of the N. Y. k N. 
E. R. R. at Mill River Junction, and 2\ M. farther on it crosses the 
Providence and Worcester R. R. (Route 10) at Blackstone. Stations, 
]\Iillville, Ironstone, E. Douglas, Douglas, soon after passing which the 
line enters Connecticut and stops at E. Thompson, whence a brancli 
railroad runs 18 M. to the N. W., through the Massachusetts towns of 
Webster, Dudley, and Southbridge. After crossing diagonally the large 
town of Thompson (much visited in summer), the train passes on the rails 
of the Nonvich and Worcester Division, at Putnam (a village contaiiung 
several cotton and woollen factories). 

A daily siige runs from Putnam to Woodstock, starting generally late in 
the afternoon. Elmwood Hall, at Woodstock, is a, tine summer hotel (openin;^ 
June 15), surrounded by pleasant lawns. From this mountain village are obtained 
noble views. " It is a miniature Mount Holyoke ; and its prospect, the Connec- 

■ [ 

118 Route JO. 












tinit. Valley in iiiiniiiinrp." (Bkei her.) Woodstock Lako, 1 M. from tlio villace, 
is II hoiuitiiul find seriuesUired sheet of water, abounding in fish and encircled by 

iS. W. of Wofid.stoek (pa.ssinR Cr>-stal Tiake on the way) is Aftliford, a secluded 
rural town. Mere was lioni Tiion)as Knowllon, who fought in tlie six campaiyus 
ending; in the coiKpu'St of Canada, and tlu.n in the Havana expedition. He led 
th(! Ashford niinute-nien to the lines at Cambridge, and fougiit with them at 
Hunker Hill. While counnanding a light infantry reg he was kille<l at its head iu 
the battle of Harlem Heights (1770). 

His grand-nephew was the knightly Lyon. Nathaniel Lyon was born at Ash- 
ford iu IHlit. He was engaged in the Flori<ia War, the Mexican Wnr(woundeil at 
the Helen (Jate of .Mexico City), and the Kansas l•'ree-^Stat(^ War. In May, iWil. 
while coinmauding at St. Louis Arsenal, with a i:audrnl of Uegul.irs and several 
regiments of loyal Missourians, lu^ cajitured a large; rebel c,inii» and army near the 
city, liy rapid movements and hare' lilows, he .saved .Mis.souri to the Un^ni, but 
■was at last confronted at Wilson's Creek liy a force 4 times as large as his own, 
comjiosed of disloyal .Missourians, Arkansiaus, ami Texans. Disdaininj^ to flee, 
he led his littlt; army again and again to the attack, until he was shot dead while, 
heading thi! foicmost liles of a charging regiment. He lelt his fortune (.>:; 30, ooo) 
to the govenuiient, to aid in putting down the rebellion, an<l after a solemn 
triumphal transit across tlie country his body was laid to rest iu the villii^e 
churchyanl at East onl. 

The ]ieoi>le of Ashl'ord were ultra-orthodox in the old days. One day while 
they were whipping a nonchurch-goer on the luiblic Creen, a stranger rode up 
and cried, "Men of Ashford, you .serve God as if the Devil was in you. Do you 
think you can whiji the grare of God into a man? Christ will have none but 
volunteer'-." Then he spurred away, leaving the little Inquisition of Ashford 
astounded, oon!'used, and ashamed. 

In 177:5, Kli]ihalet Nott, D. 1)., the distingukshed educator, cind President of 
L'nion College (1801 -(iO) for G2 years, was born at A.sliford. Galusha A. Grow 
was born at Ashford in 1823. 

ions, Day.sville and Daiiielsonville, busy villages engaged largely in 
the cotton manufacture (the former turning out 240 miles of fancy cassi- 
niere.s and 540,000 yai'ds of cotton cloth yearly). These stations are in 
the largo town ot Killingly, which occupies part of the Indian districts of 
Attawangan and Miinietixit. 

This region is rich in Indian Traditions, the most curious of which is attarhed 
to Mashapaug Lake, ^ M. N. of Daysville. Far back in the ante-colonial days, the 
Indiiins were accustomed to hold revels on a hill on the site of this lake. IJut 
once, after a merry-making four days hmg, the Great Spirit becanu' oftcnded at 
their riotous orgies, and, as he struck out the foundations of the hill, it sank in 
deep waters, carrying down all the assemblage of the feasters. Of all the tribe 
one woman alone was saved (m an island which still stands in the lake. (Jn 
Ktill, clear days, a great submerged forest may be seen under the deepest waters. 
A village of the Narragansetts once gave the Nii)nuicks (who inhabited this dis- 
trict) a grand soa-slioic least of clams and tish. The next year they were invited 
into this hill-country to eat vcnLsou in the wigwams of the Niiunucks. But a 
quarrel arose during tlie feast, and the guests from the sea-shore were massacred. 
The Narragansett tribe took action on the matter, and marched a strong force 
into the Nipmuck country, only to receive a severe defeat at the fords of the 

5 M. W. of Daysville is Pomfrct, which was settled by Roxburj' (Mass ) 
people on the rich lands of .Masli;inio(|uet, in the year 1087. In Pomfret is the 
Wolf Den, where the intrei)i(l Putnam descended in the darkness, ahme, and killed 
a great wolf which had been the terror of the town. 

S. of Ponifrt't anil 4. M. W. of Danielsonville is the y)retty village of Brook> 
lyn (Putnam House). This is the county-seat of Windham Co., and has a re- 
fineil and cultivated society, while its broad streets are lined with stately trees 
and line mansions. The Unitarian Chtu-ch, on the Green, is the oi.iy church of 
that sect in the State, and the buildiug is more than a century old. Celia Bur- 
leigh is the pastor of thi.s society. 



Route 10. Ill) 

flip village, 
iiicirt'lcd by 

, a sechuletl 
; cniiipai^jns 
)ii. lie lod 
ith them at 
b its hciul ill 

orn at Ash- 
wdundcd at 
1 May, lH(il, 
aii<l s<'V(ial 
my lu-ar tho 
Uii.oii, Imt 
as his own, 
linj'' to Hfc, 
:. dead wliil« 
er a sohiim 
1 the villa^^o 

ic day Avhilo, 
iger rode up 
111. Do you 
le none but 
of Asliford 

President of 
3ha A. Grow 

1 largely in 
fancy cassi- 
ions are in 
districts of 

is attached 
lial days, tho 
s lake. But 

ollcnded at 
11, it sank in 
ill the tribe 
lake. (Jn 
pest waters. 
,ed this dis- 
were inviteil 
(•ks. But a 
strong force 

fords of the 


mry (Mas.s ) 
iit'ret is tlie 
e, and killed 

of Broctk> 

nd has a le- 
stately trees 
y church of 
Celia Bur- 

Tsinel Putnam, bom nt Salem, Mass., in 171S, settled within the present limits 
«>r Brooklyn in \'i'M^. From 17.'>'> to I7<!'i, lie foti^jht in the I'Yencli wars, and was 
nt the cajiture of Crown Point, .Montreal, and Havana. He then returned to 
Brooklyn anil remainrd there iiiitii om<' flay, when he was ploii^'hiiiK on his farm, 
the news of the battle of Lexington came <lown tlie country. The plon^li was 
left in the furrow as the old veter.m sprant,' on liis fleetest horse and rode toward 
the scene of battle. He rai.sed a re^'iment in Wiiidliam L'nunty ; was nii'N' u 
ma.t.-f?en. in the Continental Army ; and was one of the leaders at the f1i;lit on 
Breed's Hill. He conimandcd at New York, at Princeton, and in the Huds >u 
Highlands, until he was forced to retire frr>m active service on account of his a,i;e. 
II is old farmhouse still stands, and his remains aro obscurely buried in a cenio- 
tery S. of the village. 

Danielsonville i.s tlie seat of extensive factories on the water-power 
furnished by the Quinebaug River. Cotton cloth and shoc-makuig are 
the principal indu.strie.s. 

Stages run thnce daily to Brooklyn, and other lines run to WillLmantic, S. 
Killingly, and ProviLlence (the latter route crosses tlie State of li. I.). 

Stations, Wauregan (village W. of the station), Quinebaug Pond (3 M. 
long) is a pretty lake, where the " Narragansetts' fisliing-light " rises in 
the form of a pillar of fire, at midnight, once in every seven years. Such 
is the old legend, and dwellers in the country-side claim to have seen this 
fiery column blazing over the centre of the pond. The large Wauregan 
Mills (cotton sheethigs) are situated in this village. 

Stations, Central Village (with several factories), Plainfield Junction 
(wi, ere the line the Hartford, Providence, and Fishkill R. R. ), 
Je\/'.tt City, and Greeneville. ' At the two latter places are large factories. 
The Quinebaug River is crossed at Jcwett City, and soon after the train 
passes through a rock-tunnel 300 ft. long. At Norwich the cars run on 
the New London Northern Line, and reach the steamboat wharf at New 
London late in the evening. 

After going on board the steamboat, passengers usually retire, and sleep 
while she moves through the quiet waters of Long Lsland Sound. Arising 
early in the morning, a fine view is obtained of the eastern environs and 
the city of New York. The boats land at Pier 40, North River, and 
from the next pier runs the ferry to Jersey City, Avhich enters there 
the terminal station of the railroads to Philadelphia and Washington, 
the South and West. , 

When the section of the track between \Villiinantic a'ld Middletown is completed, 
the "Sew York and Boston Air L.ine will go into operation. From 
Boston to Putnam this line is the same as Route 10, and from New Haven to New 
York it is the .same as Route 8. It is much shorter than the other routes, but 
passes tiirough a less interesting country. 

Itl I 


' Boston to Wnonsocket. 

Trains leave the Boston and AUmny Station. DiHtanco to Woonsockc*.. 37i M. 
Fare, $1.10. 

The line soon divorRCS from the Albany track, and pasHes the ntations, Bro<»!<- 
llne, Kcservoir, and Chestnut Hill (see Iloute 2). Newton is then entered, a 
Ian?e and iiieturesnut! town, alM)nndiiiK in aul)urban villaKcs. In KMO the Apostle 
Eliot rame to tlie iiidinn viliani' of Nonaiitiini, in this vicinity, and after a formal 
reception by the a;,'cd chief and the m<^diciiie-iiicn, he unfolded to them tlie tenets 
of Christianity. A lar^*; i>art of the tribe accj'jitcd his teachings. forme<l a church, 
and adopted the laws and customs of the cohuiists. Near Newton Centre, on 
a far-viewiuK hill, are the buildiuKs jiertainiuK to a Thcolo^'ical Institution of the 
Baptist denomination. This school is in hiKJi rci)utation, ami has grown rapidly 
Bin(!e its foundation in IS-Jf). Tiie course of stu<ly covers three years. 

Stations, Newton Ilighlanfis, Upper Falls, Iligldai'dville. 'U]tper Falls is a 
manufacturing village where the track crosses tlie Charles River. At Charles 
River Station the river is again crossed. Tlie line now ]ia,sses through the towns 
of Dover, Metllicid, Medway, and Uclliiigham, twice cro.ssing tiie sinuous valley 
of the Charles. MedHeld retains the memory of a fierce attack by a swarm of 
Indians led liy King riiilii>, wlio " rode an cicgnut horse." f>i) houses were Inirnt, 
20 of the villagera killed and many made jtrisoners, but finally the pco])le got an 
old cannon into position and drove off the invaders. John Wilson, .Ir.,agrafiuatc 
of the first Harvard class, was pastor, ]ihysician, and sciioolmaster of the village 
front 1G51 to 10!)1. The stations beyond Ciiarles lliver, are Dover, Medfield, E. 
Medway. Medway, W. Medway, Cary's, N. Bcllingham, Heiiingham, E. Blackstone, 
and Woonsocket (see Route lO). At Woonsocket a counectiou is made with tho 
l*rovidence and Worcester Railroad. 

20. Hartford to Salisbury and Mlllerton. 

Via the Connecticut Western R. II. Distance, 02 M. to Salisbury ; 60 M. to 

After leaving the Union Station at Hartford the line nins N. W. towards 
the high hills which bound the valley of the Conn. Stations, Blue Hills, 
Bloomfield, Scotland, TarifTville (large carpet factories), and Simsbury 
(see Route 15). At this point a connection is made with the New Haven 
and Northampton R. R. (Route 15). Stations, Stratton Brook, and New 
Hartford. The latter town was formerly of much importance, being a halt- 
ing-place on the great western wagon road, from Hartford and S. E. New 
England to Albany and W. New Yc k. At present it is engaged in the 
manufacture of cotton and steel goods. Stations, Winsted (see Route 16), 
W. Winsted, Norfolk. This is a pretty village ( Norfolk House, $ 10 - 1 2 
a week) with mountains on every side. Before tlie church is a Green, with 
a monument *' to the memory of soldiers of this town who died for their 
country in the War of the Rebellion." The soil of Norfolk is cold, rugged, 
and stony, and it in written that, of the 50 proprietors who boiaght 
the town in 1742, after inspection of the tract, 49 forfeited their 
claims and the moneys paid on them. Tlie dairy biisiness at one time 
flourished here, but the town has been failing slowly for years : in the 
month of April, 1872, 75 persons moved away from it. The hotel is a 
large, quiet summer-house in the valley, and from the hills over it are 
obtained views of the Sheffield Mt.'=;. through long lowland vistas. The 


J{'>ii(e20. 121 

:ct: 37J M. 

nil, Broo!<- 
pnterod, a 
he Apnstl** 
i;r a 
I the tenets 
Uentre, on 
Mm of thn 
ivn rapifUy 

Falls Ih a 
\t Charles 

the towDH 
ions valley 

Hwarm oi 
i^ere burnt, 
jtle got ail 
, agrafhiate 

the villagn 
l.'dliehl, K. 
ie with tUo 


; 60 M. to 

lie Hills, 
w Haven 
and New 
ng a lialt- 
E. New 
in the 
onto 16), 
en, with 
for their 
, nigged, 
d their 
ne time 
in the 
tel is a 
it are 
s. The 

most iiroininont elevation in the vicinity is the massive llnyatack Mt. 
(footputii to the suinniit)^ from which a very extensive prospect is enjoyed, 
stretching from Mt. Everett in Mass. to the Mts. of New York. About 
5 M. from the village are Cainel's Falls, wl'i'h are attrac^tive after heavy 
rains. The line now follows the valley of ne lilai'khon'y River to its 
junction with the Housatonic, crossing at Canaan Station the llousatonic 
Railroad (Route 17) and River. After jiassing the stations, Twin Lakes, 
Chapinville, Salisbury, Lakeville, Ore Hill, and State Line, all in the town 
of Salisbury, the line enters the State of New York, and at Millerton 
connects with the Harlem, the Dutchess and Columbia, and the Pough- 
keepsie and Eastern Railroads. 


" O, this silenro in the air, tliis sileneo on the nioiuitains, this silenre on the 

lakes On either side, to the K. and to the W., ever-vaiyiiiK niountain- 

forni.s frame tlie hdiiznn. There is a eonstant succfssiofi (iC iiills swelling into 
ni(iuntairis, and (»f mountains llowiii;,' down int ■ liiils. J'lie hues of grt'iui in 
trees, in grasses, and in various harvests are endlessly eontrasti'd. At Salisbury 
you come und»;r tlie shadow of the Taeonie Han^'*-. Here you may well spend a 
week, for the sake of the rides and the objects of euriosity. 4 Jf to the E. are 
the Falls of the Housatonic, called Canaan Falls, very lieaufllV.l, .ind worthy of 
much longer study than they usually get. I'rospect liill, not far tVoni I'.dls Vil- 
lage, alfords altogether tlie must beautifid \ iew of any of the many peaks witli 
whi(di this neighborhood abounds." (This, and the other (piotatious under Salis- 
bury, are from B<'eclier's Star Papers). 

Ilotels, Harnard HoiLse, ;?2.00 per day ; Miller's Hotel, at ri.ikeville ; ami a large 
summer boarding-house next to St. .John's Cliureh (IJjiis.) in Salisbury village. 

The road to Falls Village leads for 2 M, down a naiTow valley rich in 
grain, and then to the E. over bold spurs of Wolonanchu Mt. with Pros- 
pect Mt. on tlie 1., and rapiilly changing views of the Housatonic Valley. 
Or, without crossing Wolonanchu, the road down the valley may be fol- 
lowed to the hamlet of Lime Rock and the borders of the Mts. of Sharon. 

A favorite excursion is to tlie Bald Peak on Mt. Big'a. From S.ilislmry 
to the Mountain Pond on Riga it is 4 M. of easy .iscent, most of the way 
along the edge of a ravine filled with resounding, but invisible, ca.scade-s. 
A road leads along the i)lateau to the base of Bald Peak, whence the as- 
cent must be made by a rude path. The view from the sunmiit is very 
exten.sive, emliracing on the W. the Oblong, Buck, and Catskill Mts. in 
N. Y., on the S. the wilderness of high hills which form Sliaron, on the 
E. Canaan Mt., Rarack M;i!itT, and the lakes of Salisbury, and on the N. 
Race, Alander, and Everett Mts. in Mass. From (he little cluster of 
houses near the pond on Mt. Riga, one c.n return to Salisbury, via Lake- 
ville, by a road over the brow of the hill, or by a slightly longer road 
(8 M.) leading down the side of a water-C(nirse with pretty views of tin; 
lakes, to Ore llill (4 M.), the centre of tlie iron-mining industries of the 
town. There are 5 iron-mines in Salisbury, employing 240 men, and sup- 
laying motal to the forges, anchor-work:-, and foundries which abound on 


122 Rn,itc20. 




.4' ' 


- I. i 

\i '..' ( 

the etrcftms of N. W. C'omi. In April, ^801, tlie iiiimTs of Salislnny 
Bent loo tons of iron to the gov(>rnin«*nt, to Im; niiMlu into cannon-balls. 
From ()r(! Hill (wlii<;l; is within l.l M. of the New York lino) tin- road lies 
near tlu' railway track, and jiass((s to Iiak('vill(',2i M. from the nunos. 
A'' the road passes the lakes \V(piionka)K)k and Wonoiisrapamue, pleasant 
views are oljtained, ^nd the nits, on the S. rise rlearly above their <iniot 
waters. Between the road and the latter lak«^ is seen the .stately old iian- 
aion of the Jlolley family, bnilt by the Governor of that name, and the 
liirthplace of Horace liolley, the Unitarian divine, long President of 
Transylvania Tniversity, and of O. L. Holley, the N. Y. lawyer and 
Joiinialist. On the shores of the same lake are seen the larpe white 
buildings of the State Hospital for the hnliecile, where, by skilful treat- 
ment, the thought-germs in stricken minds are <leveloped into action, use- 
ful instruction is iin])arted, and many heretofore useless i)ersons are 
elevated, and sent forth as self-sustaining members of society. The Hos- 
pital aiconnnodates almut 50 patients, and is situated on a hill which 
commands line views of the lake and of Indian Mt. After leaving these 
charndng lakes, a ri<le of 1^ M. brings one to Salislmry. Mr. Beecher 
Huggests that aff&r leaving Bald Peak, the road may be taken to Brace 
Mt. and the Dome, "thence to that grand ravine and its wild water,, — a ride, in all, of about 18 M., and wholly along tlni moun- 

*Ba8h-Bish Falls are about 12 M. from Salisbury village, and near 
C*opako station on the Harlem R. U. This is a beautiful little waterfall, 
which has been well i)ainted by Kensett, and was much visited before the 
destruction of tlie hotel by fire. 

4 M. N. of Salisbury is * *' Sage's Bavine, ■whicli is tlio antithesis of 
Bash-Bish. Sage's Ravine, not without grandeur, has its principal at- 
tractions in its beauty ; Bash-Bish, far from destitute of beauty, is yet 
most ren)arkal)le foi- grandeur. Y \\ are solitary, rugged, full of rocks, 
cascades, grand waterfalls, and a savage rudeness tempered to beauty ami 
softness l)y various and abundant mosses, lichens, flowers, and vines. I 
>vould willingly make the journey once a month from New York to see 
either of them. Just beyond Sage's Ravine, very beautiful falls may be 
seen utter heavy rains, which have been named Norton's Falls." The 
way to the ravine leads along the under-mountain road (4 M.). Just 
before reaching a blacksnuth's shop at the bridge over a rill from the hills, 
there is a small hut on the 1., and the field-road turns in alongside, by tak- 
ing down bars. It is best to leave horses outside, and, entering tlie fjcM, 
take the first path to the r. and follow the strciim up the ravine. The 
principal falls are know as the Lower, Twin, and Upper Falls (well re])- 
resented in a series of 12 stereographs). A vague path follows up the 
1. side of the water (r. bank), "which, if you love solitude, wihlness, and 





Unutr JO. 123 

I road lies 
le nnnP8. 
, ploasant 
ifir iiuict 

old iian- 
!, aim tlui 
sidt'iit of 
wycr and 
rcrt' 'vvliito, 
Iful trcai- 
:tion, iise- 
ifsons art' 

The n OS- 
hill which 
ving thfso 
r. Beechcr 
I to Brace 
'\V\ water, 
tlic monn- 

, and near 
before tlio 

thesis of 
icipal at- 
ty, is yt, 
of rocks, 
L'auty and 
vines. I 
rk to see 
s may be 
Is." The 
.). Just 
the hills, 
!, by tak- 
he fifld, 
ine. The 
well rei>- 
up the 

Iness, am 


beauty, will bo worth all the pains you may take to ili'ub throij^h it. 
One retjuires a goo«l foot, a strong hand, and a (dear head, and then thero 
is but little danger," though the path is soon lost in a perfect chaos of 
rocks. Heavy gloves and boots are necessary, and the ascent is not rec- 
ommended for bulies, although several have accomplished it. An obscure 
mo'iMtain road leads to the vicinity of the upper tul of the ravine, hut 
the descent is harder than the ascent. 

From Salisbury, by Sage's Ravine, N, into Massachusetts, runs tho 
unth^r-niouiitain road, along the foot of theTaconic Range, toShcllicld a;i<l 
the Herksldre Hills. Frf)m the ravine to Salisbury, visitors .sometimes 
return by way of the Twin Lakes, a longer but pleasanter rout(^ 

The * Twin Lakes are gained from Salisbury by a road i)asHing alon^ 
the low spurs of Rarack Mat ill" Mt., with the isolated mass of Lion's Head 
on the W. The beautiful lakes of Washining and Washinee are soon 
re.ached, and tin; high hills in the vicinity (Tom's Mt., Roar Mt.) are seiMi 
mirrored in tln-ni. Near the S. shore of Washinee a road diverges to the 
1. through the thick pines, to a remarkabh* cave. This was but lately 
discovered by a hunting dog chasing a small animal into it, and tho 
hunters, uneasy at his long absence, tore away the di'hi'ia from the hole 
and entered. At a hut near the cave, where the keys are kept, visitors 
can get appropriate <;lothing, lights, and refreshments. The main cavern 
has been explored for about 700 ft., and its course trends steadily down- 
ward. The curious forms assumed by stalagnutes are well shown here. 
In one place a stone lady is .seen, facing the wall ; in another, vast num- 
bers of stalactitic candles depend from the roof ; and nunu'rous other 
marvels are found by imaginative visitors. The village and station of 
Chapinsville is situated near the lakes. Mr. Reecher speaks of the lake 
rides as " extremely beautiful. But they should always be afternoon 
rides ; for these discreet lakes do not choose to give out. their full channs 
except at about an hour before sunset." 

Rides are taken from Salisbury through the romantic hills of Cornwall 
and Sharon, and even as far as Great Barrington (N.), and Litchfield 
(S. E.). 

S.ilislMiry was first sottleil by tlie Dutch in 1720, who lived in iie;i(>e with the 
lufliiiii triltc wlio lield the valley iiml of w'loiii no reli(^ reiiiJiiiis save the quaint 
niuiies which tliey Kiive to hil^cs and Mts. This was tiie I'artliest ailvaiice of \\w 
timid Hollanders on that Aloiiie land (the ])ri'sent Mass., Coini., and Vt.), which 
was |)ortriye,d on theinn i]is by a blank wliite spac(!(!ts (Jreenland is on our niajis^ 
hiscribfd with the cool word " Winterbei;;." The word " llousatonic " has given 
rise to more controversy ainou^' anticiuarians and jdiilologists than almost any otlier 
Indian word, and one j,'ood ant hority removes it from an abori'^dnul derivation, 
and diinis that it is a enplionit! ehaui^e of "Westenhok" (Western corner or 
nook), the name given to the Dutch settlement here as beint; in a western nook of 
the riiLfged hills which stretch away E. toward the Coim. River. But in 1740 tlie 
restless .\n.s:h)-American wave of advance reached this point. There are no Dutcii 
or Indians there now. 


124 Route 21. BOSTON TO NEW YORK. 




21. Boston to New York. 

The preat Express route, via Sprin^rtloM and Hartford. There are three through 
express trains (lail.v in 8-0 hours. Uistamc, 2136 M. ; fare, S6.00. This is the 
most popular and ]>leasant of the railway routes to Nevi' York, i)as3ing through 
the large eities of Worr-est^r, SprinKfloM, and Hartford, and following the rich 
valley of the Connecticut for a great (lislance. Elegant parlor and sleeping cars 
are attached to all through trains. ]5y leaving Boston at in the morning, one 
ran pass over this route by daylight ; while by leaving at 9 o'clock, P. M., one 
sleeps all night (.S 2.00 lor a berth in the sleeping-car) and reaches New York at 
6.30 o'clock in the morning. 

Tlie train leaves the tenninal de])ot in Boston (comer of Beech and 
Lincoln Sts. , PI. 35, ), and passes out over the Back Baj- lands. Charles 
River is approached on the r., and a fine view is given of the compact and 
more ancient parts of Boston, crowned by the Stal e House dome. Beyond 
the city, and apparently at the end of the lake-like widenings of the river, 
the populous heights of Charlestown are seen, while Cambridge lifts her 
spires on tlie nearer western shores. Tlie line crosses the town of Brook- 
line, studded with pretty suburban villages, and stops at Brighton (Cattle 
Fair Hotel), celebrated for its great cattle-market. The stock-trains on 
this r-'ilroad bring immense numbers of cattle, sheep, and swine from 
the Wesfc, which are here made into beef, mutton, and pork, for the daily 
needs of Boston. The sheds, yards, and pens cover many acres, and the 
business has been increasing for scores of years. As far back as 1837, the 
yearly sales were 82,500,000, N. of the station is seen the tower on Mt. 
Auburn, and the U. S. Arsenal at Watertown, on the other bank of the 
Charles, Newton is next entered, a wealthy suburban town (valuation, 
$18,000,000), with a population of "13,000, Newton Corner is near the 
ancient Nonantum Hill, Avhere the Apostle Eliot first preached to the 
Indians (probably the present Mt, Ida, from which a pleasant view :s 
obtained). This village has a jjublic library in an elegant and costly stone 
building, and three or four churches. From tl) is point to Walthara it is 
3-4 M,, to the W;dcrtown Arsenal and Mt. Auburn, 2-3 M., and to the 
Baptist Theological Seminary at Newton Centre, 2-3 M. S. Tlie line 
now passes Newtonville (H M. N. of Grove Hill Cemetery), W. Newton 
(2 M. S, of the Watch Factory at Waltham), and Auburndale (the seat of 
the Laselle Female Sen)inary), Tliese villages are all in the town of 
Newton. From Riverside Station, a branch track runs S. to the manu- 
factories at Newton Upper Falls. Stations, Grantville (a factory and 
residence village), and Wellesley. a picturesque suburban village, near the 
art-embellished shores of Lake Wauban. 2 M. beyond Wellesley the 
train reaches 

Natick (Summer St. House), " the place of hiils." a large town near 
the river Charles, engaged in the manufacture of shoes. A large hat-fac- 
tory is located here, also a base-ball manufactory, where many women 
are emrlnvcd. 


Route 21. 125 

three through 
This is the 
sing tlirough 
nug the rich 
sleeping cars 
morning, one 
k, P. M., one 
New York at 

Beech and 

Is. Charles 

jonipact and 

ne. Beyond 

of the river, 

[ge lifts her 

7\\ of Brook- 

ihton (Cattle 

ick-trains on 

swine from 

for the daily 

res, and the 

as 1837, the 

)wer on Mt. 

jank of the 


is near the 

:hed to the 

ant view :.s 

costly stone 

iltham it is 

and to the 

The line 

W. Newton 

(the seat of 

le town of 

the mami- 

"actory and 

ffc, near the 

;llesley the 

town near 
rgc hat-fac- 
iny women 

In IC'il the Cliristian tribe of Xonantnni, whicli had oiiibracoil the faith after 
the preaching of Hliot, removed to Natick, wiiere they formed a government 
based on tiie ISth eiiapter (if Kxodiis, with rulers of Inindreds, df lifties. and of 
tens. Tlieir villag'» consisted of tliree streets lined witli gardens and huts, a 
building for a elmreh and sehool, a large, cireular fort, and a bridge over the river. 
Tlie Bible was translited into theii language by Kliot, and i>ublished at Cani- 
bridL,'e in 1(>()3 (second edition in IGSO). whose title-page read as follows : 
"Mamusse Wunneetnpanatamwe T.'i> Bidlum God Naneeswe Nukkone Testament 
i;a!i Work Wusku lestanient." But despite the tender care of the colony, the 
Indian church and tribe sutl'ered the usual fate of inferior races in the presence of 
Aiiglo-Amuricans, and died out from the operation of internal causes. In trans- 
1 iting the passage, " And the mother of Sisera looke<l out at the window, and trried 
t ' rough the lattice," in searching for an Indian etpiivaleut for the word " lattice," 
,'ifter much labor Eliot found a b.irbaric jdirase which was printed for it in his 
Bible. Many years after, he found that his word for "lattice" meant "eel-pot," 
it:id th'j ludicrous change in the text excited much merriment in Cambridge. 

Just N. of Natick, across the track, and visible from the train soon 
after leaving the station, is Cochiluate Lake, from which the water supply 
of Jioston is carried to tha*; city by a long and sinuous aqueduct. 

Station, S. Framiugham (restaurant in the station), near wldch is 
Harmony Grove, and the camp-ground of the 52 Methodist churches of 
thy Boston circuit. 

S. Franiingham is the centre of a system of divergent railroads, 

A braiicli of the Bosto'i anil Albany track runs 8. 12 M. through the farming 
town, Holliston, to Milfonl, a town of io.ODO inhabitants. Ktiiges run from Milford 
to Mendon (celebrated for its apples), Uxi>ridge, and Upton. 

The Boston, Clinton, and I-'itchburg R. R. brings its various divisions to a 
centre at this point. The MaiisticM ami Franiingham Division runs hence IS M. 
fc>. E., jtassiug the stations, ^^lleri)orn, Medfield .1 unction ((connecting with Woon- 
socket Division of the B., IT., and Erie R. 11.), IMedtield, Walpole (connecting 
with the N. Y. and N. E. R. li ), S. Walpole, Foxboro', and Mansfield. At the 
litter station connections are made with the Boston and Providence Railnmd, and 
witli the Taunton Bi'anch Railroad. 

The Lowell Division runs from S. Franiingham to Lowell, 2S M. N. Stations, 
Framingliam and Sudbur;, . Sudbury was settled in KiliS, and in 1(170 was 
till! sciuie of a bloody contest, wiieii 70 men, marcliing to relieve Marlboro', 
were ambushed here by Indians. 2(5 of the colonists were killed on the field, 
and the remainder were lairtunjd. and mmy of tliem were put to deatii by ter- 
rible torlures. A monument to their memory was erected on the field, by President 
Vi'adswortli, of Harvard College, whos(; father was captain of the defeated jiarty. 

In Sudbury was a famous old tavern in tlit; colonial days, which, during the 
niarcli of tlu; western counties' militia on Boston, was a busy jdace. This is the 
" Wayside Inn " of Longfellow's poems, the purer, fairer Caiiterboi-y Tales of 
American hterature:-- 

" As ancient is this hostrlry 
As any in the lnnd insiy be. 
Built in the (ilU Ci.linml diiy, 
Wien men lived in ii grander way, 
With ampler hospitality. 

A region of repose it seems, 

A place of slumber and ot dreams, 

Remote among the wooded hilla." 

The cliaracters represented among the story-tellers "around the fireside at 
tlieir etise " were as follows : The Landlord, "grave in his aspect and attire," was 
Squire Lyman Howe, of Sudbury. The 

" Student of old h(X>k« and ways, 
Witli tales of Florei and Blunchetleur 
Sir Feruaibrus, Sir Eglumour, " 

was young Uenry Wales. The young Sicilian, 


120 Route 21. 


t ■-■t 

• : I 

" In sight of Etna bred and born," 

was Luigi Monti, American ronsnl at Palcnno. The " Theolo;^ian, from tlie 
sihool of C;uiibri(l},'(; on tlit- Charles," was I'rof. Trea<lwt'll, of Harvard. Tlie 
I'oet was T. W. I'arsons, of Boston, translator of Dante's "Inferno," and author 
of many short jxieins. The "blue-eyed Norseman," who bore the Stradivi;rius 
violin, " a miracle of the lutist's art," and sang the Saga of King Olaf, was Ole 

B(>yond Sudbury is W. Coneord, where the FitehT)urg Railrf)ad crosses the 
jiresent route. Station, Aeton (Monunu-nt House), whence marched a eomjiany 
(if minute-men, who wc re among tin; lirst engugeil at the battle of Coneord. Their 
captain was killed at thti ti.,'ht by the bridge. The line crosses the towns of Car- 
lisle ami Chelmsford, and stojis at Lowell. 

Another division of tliis railroad runs from S. P'ramingham to Fitrhburg. Sta- 
tion, Framingham Centre, built around a lev<d (Jreen, in a large farming town. 
The great tide of travel between Boston and the West formerly passed through 
this village, which then had a famous inn. The town hall, old church, and 
Academy (foundeil IT'.i-) front on the Green. The line now ])asses across the 
farming town of Southboro', and enters fair and fertile Marlboro'. This was the 
site of the Christian Indian village of Okomniakamesitt, and was colonized bj' 
Sudbury jteople in 1G.")5. Its lirst pastor (IWO- 17t>l) " uniforndy refused baptism 
to children Itorn on the Sabbath." At Marllioro' the pres<'nt route connects with 
a branch of the Fitchlnirg Radroad. Northboro' is the next town, and is devoted 
to farming and cattle-raising. The village churchyard contains tlie grave of the 
Rabbi Ju<lah Monis, who renounced .ludaism in favor of Christianity in 1722, and 
became teacher of Hebrew at Harvard College, where he remained till his death 
in 17(>1. The train crosses the Assabet River E. of the station, and then passes 
on through the town of Berlin to Clinton (Clinton House), a busy village at the 
junction of the Worcester and Nashua Railroad. At Pratt's Junction the Fitch- 
burg and Worcester Railroad is crosstnl, and the train runs across Leominster, 
with occasional views of Waehusett Mountain on the W. The central village of 
Leonunster is finely situated. Soon altjr 

leaving this station the train reaehea 

From S. Fr.iininfjhaiii the main line follows the Sudbury River, which 
it often approaches and once or twice crosses. Stations, Ashland (Cen- 
tral House), Cordaville, Southville, and Westboro' (Westboro' Hotel). 
This is the seat of the State Reform School and a large water-cure estab- 
lishment. 3.^ M. S. E. of the station are llie H«2)kinton Springs (small 
hotel) near the large and handsome Whitehall Pond, aboundijig in fish. 
There are three springs, all ditterent, and carlionate of lime and iron are 
the chief ingredients. This was formerly a fashionable resort, and is on 
the old Indian domain of Maguncook. 

Station, iirafton (the Indian Hassanamesit), Avith 3 small hotels, on a 
resei'vation of 4 M. scjuare, givi.n by the colony to a tribe of Christian 
Indians. Shrewsbury is a toAvn N. of the track, where was born 
Artemas Wafd, major of tlie 8th Mass. Reg. at the siege of Louisbourg 
(1758), and commander of the army besieging Boston until the arrival of 
Washington. Levi Pease was born here, who started the finst line of 
mail stages between Boston and New York (1784), previous to which a 
fortnightly mail was borne between the two places, and contained in 
a pair of saddle-bags. 

Station, Millbury (near New England Village), whence a short branch 
track runs (3 M.) to Millbury village. The line now ttinis to the N. and 
runs above and near Quinsigamond Pond, a pretty lake, 4 M. long, nat- 


n, from the 
rvard. Tlie 
iuitl .'nitlmr 
laf, was Ule 

crosses I lie 

a ooiDjiany 

icord. Thoir 

wns of Car- 

iT)tirg. Sta- 
iiiiiij,' town. 
(fid t!iron;.di 
■hurrli, and 

I across tlie 
his was tlie 
:)Iiinizod by 
^(xl baptism 
iinects witli 
^1 is devoted 
xrave of the 
in 17'22, and 

II his death 
Lhen ])assc3 
Uage at the 
1 the Fitch- 
. village of 
aiii reaches 

ver, whicli 
and (Cen- 
o' Hotel), 
lire estab- 
nr/s (small 
ig in fish, 
iron are 
siiul is on 

tels, on a 
was horn 
rrival of 
t line of 
which a 
ained in 

|t branch 

le N. and 

)ng, uar- 


HmUe21. 127 

row and deep, with 12 islands in it. Tlie college boat-races have often 
taken place on this pond. Shrewsbury's spires are seen afar, over its 


Hotels. * Bay-State House, §3.50, corner Mainan<l Exehange : Waldo House, 
§'J..")ii, Waldo St., near the station ; Kuropean ; Ivxi'hange Hotel. 

KeailiiiK-Ilooins* At the Free Library, 121m St., nea." Alain : Y. M. C, As- 
siteiation, I'earl St. 

Horse>Car8on Main St., from Webster Park to Harrington Avenue. 

Stages to Quinsigamond. S. Wonester, Oakham, Shrewslmry, and Marlboro', 
Leii'ester and Spencer, Webster and Oxford, Faxton, Coldbi-xik antl Harre. 

Railroads, to Frovideiue (Route 10), Norwich, Nashua (Route 13), Albany 
(Route '2.'!), IJarre and Gardiner, Fitchburg, and Boston. 

Worcester, tlie second city in wealth and population in the Common- 
wealth, and the capital of Worcester County, is situated among a group 
of hills on the Blackstone River. Its manufacturing interests liave risen 
rapidly to a commanding position, being favored by the central location 
of the city, and the large railroad system converging there. The popula- 
tion is over 50,000. There are 29 churches, 9 temperance societies, 11 
bodies of Masons, 3 of Odd Fellows, and 3 societies of Irish, 3 of Ger- 
mans, and 1 of Scotchmen. 

Worcester claims the name of an academic city, in virtue of its numer- 
ous fine schools. Its Classical and English Hi if School employs 4 mas- 
ters and 5 assistants, and has a noble buildiiii-, which is surmounted by a 
graceful tower terminating in a spire. T'lis tower is a copy of one of 
the l)est European campaniles, but is uiKortunately too slender in com- 
paiison with the heavy mass of the bui'.ling. Necr Main St. oji the S. 
is the celebratctl Oread >S^illinary for young ladies, in pictuies(pie stone 
buildings located on a hill and sui'ounded by ti'ees. The castltlike 
structure, with embaitled towers, ( n a commanding hill S. E. of the city 
was built for a Medical School, but is now used as an academy under the 
care of the 1' iptist Cliureh. The Roman Catholic Collcje of the Holy 
Cross occupies an extensive range of imposing buildings on Packachoag 
Hill, 2 M. S. of the city, . d is well attended by the youth of that church 
from all i>;irts of New England. A State Niyrmal School occui)ics a hill 
E. of Lincoli Scpiure, and across the valley to the W. are tlie buildings 
of the Free ntustrial School (90 students), with lectures, laboratories, 
macliiue-shops. md all appliances for learning young men to be practical 
architects, carj iitei'S, engineers, chemists, civil engineers, &c. " The 
ultunate end of this iiLstitution is the elevation of the mechanic by giv- 
•ing him thorough and complete scientific knowleilge on which he may 
base his future work." Tiie school is richly endowed, and is free to 
young men of this county (others pay $ 100 a jear). Boynton Hall (named 
in honor of the founder of the school) is a graceful and ornate stone build- 
ing. 1^ M. N. of Worcester is the Hijhhind Military School, widely 
known for the stringent thoroughness of its discipline. 

128 Route 21. BOSTON TO NEW YOilK, 

i' I 


■ *i; 


|! i 

ii ( 

I ! 

'ri. » 

V5 * ■ 
n ' V,; 

• i 


A Slate Lunatic Anylum (on the family plan) is located near the city. 
It acconimodate.s 350-400 patients, and is ahoiit to move to a pleasanc 
estate near Lake Qiunsiganiond. It now occupies several buildings form- 
ing a quadrangle, on a hill E. of the city. 

Hope Cemetery in New Worcester, and Rural Cemetery on Grove St., 
are attractive burying-grounds. 2 M. p]. is Quhisiuamand Lake, a long, 
deej), narrow sheet of water, on which the college boat-races often take 

Main St. is about 2 M. long, and contains the principal business houses 
and hotels. It is a wide, pleasant street, well lined with trees, and 
adorned with some fine commercial buildings. Near its lower end is the 
Oread Seminary, and the Jesuit College is seen across a broad valley. 
C'entral Park (the Common) is E. of Main St. and contains the Old South 
Church and the Bigelow Monument, while four other churches are seen 
on its sides. Passing N. on Main St. many fine business blocks are seen, 
with St. Pa id's Catholic Church, Trinity M. E. Church, the towers of 
the High School, and numerous tall spires on the hills to the 1, On the 
r. is Mechanics' Hall, a fine audience-chamber seating 2,500, with a 
brown-stone front in rich Corinthian architecture. On side-streets diverg- 
ing to tlie 1, in this vicinity are the Post Olllce and the reading-room of 
t!ie Y. M. C. A. (Pearl St.), and tlie Free Library (Elm St.). The latter 
contains 32,000 volumes, being especially rich in mechanics and medical 
works, while its reading-room (oi)en from 9 A. M. mitil 9 P. M.) has 170 
different magazines and jtapers, in 4 languages. On Foster St. are the 
rijoins of the N.^tural History Society with valuable cabinets (open 
Wednesday aftei'uoons). On Main St. beyond Mechanics' Hall and the 
Bay State House, is the old Exchange Hotel, a famous iim of the colonial 
days, wliere Washington and Lafayette have stopped. Just beyond is 
Lincoln Square, where, on a high terrace, are seen the Congregational 
Church, the granite Court House with its classic front, and the neat 
building (in the Italian architecture) of the * American Antiquarian 

In the latter structure is i)rcsen'ed a valuable library of 50,000 volumes, with 
ancient portraits of Sunuu'l, Increase, and Cott<in Matlier and other Puritan 
divines ; Governors V/intln-op, Endicott, and other founders of the State. Many 
busts adorn the walls, and tliere are lar^'e casts of Michael Angelo's Moses, and 
Clirist (bouglit in Rome l)y Hon. .Stephen Salisbury). In glass cases about the 
hall are several literary curiosities, ancient black-letter MS8 on vellum (15th 
century) ; an elegant I'crsian MS. richly ilhiininated (ilate, l4So) ; 3 Britisli tax- 
stamps of 1703 : MS. 8<>rnions of microscopic fineness written by old Piu-itan 
pastors; Latin books printed at K(jnie and Venice in 1475-6; Cranmer's Bible 
(loIiS) ; Ptolemy's Geography ; missals on vellum ; and a superb * Koran in Arabic, 
lirilliantly illuminated. Two cases of Indian relics are near the entrance to the 
hall. This collection is open, 9-12, and 2-5 o'clock daily, except Saturday and 
Sunday. From the hill bcliind the building, the Free industrial School and the 
Nonnal School may be seen. 

On t}ie Common, near the Old South Church, is a pretty English Gotliic 


Route Jl 129 

he city, 
gs form- 
rove St., 
, a long, 
ften take 

ss houses 
[•ees, and 
ul is the 
rl valley. 
Hil South 
are seen 
are seen, 
owers of 
On the 
3, with a 
5-rooni of 
'lie latter 
tl medical 
) has 170 
are the 
and the 
eyond is 
the neat 

nes, with 
r Puritan 
e. Many 
OSes, and 
iibout the 
~um (15th 
tish tax- 
ir's Bible 
In Arabic, 
e to the 
rday and 
and the 



monument, built of granite and Tuscan marble, over the remains of 
Timothy Bigelow, Colonel of the 15th Mass. Continental Keg. Near this 
will be raised (late in 1S73) tlie * Soldiers' Monuniout, whose bronzes are 
now cast in Munich. Colossal figures in the uniform of the American 
infantry, cavalry, artillery, and marine services will surround a tall Co- 
rinthian column, surmounted by a statue of Victory, standing on a globe, 
with a drawn sword in her uplifted hand. "The expression of her 
beautiful face is full of exultancy and pride. In spite of her colossal size, 
slie hardly seems to rest on the ball. Bnt with sucli powerful wings, and 
such an innate consciousness of strength, the air itself would be a suf- 
ficieut supi)ort." 

Tlie Boston and Albany Railroad are at work htre on an elegant new station (on 
Wasliin;<ton Snuare), to ho, 514 ft. long ami 250 ft. wide, with an IfaUiau dock- 
tower 201) ft. hJKh, all la heavy granite masonry. 

In IGUy a legislative coujniittee located a .settlement for 30 families at Worces- 
ter (Saxon, Wajcra, Ccastar, War-Castle), a.s a half-way halting-jilace between the 
valley-towns and the coast. The eitailel of this evdoiiy wis near tlie i)resent 
corner of Main and Columbia Streets. The Indians soon forc<id the evacuation 
of the settlement, and it lay desolate from 1702 to 171:5, whtui it was reoccupied, 
and stern defensive laws were i)as.sed. A fortress-like church was built (on tln^ 
Common), and each man was ordered to carry to Sunday services his musket and 
G rounds of ammunition. In 1720 scune Scotch Prcsbyttu'ian immigrants built a 
church of their own, wliieh was assaulted and torn down by the Puritan colonists 
us a cradle of heresy. In 1755 numerous exiled Acadians were sent here, and soon 
after the " Massachusetts Spy " newsiiajjer (still i»ul)lished there) began to fan the 
flames of revolution. April !'.>, 1775, a breathless njessenger bore into town, 
the news of the battle of Lexingtoji. His white horse, flecked with Idood anil 
loam, fell dead on Main St., but he rode westward imi another, while the minute- 
men moved on Boston by thousands. In July, 177t), tlie of Freedom had a 
grand feast, and among their toasts were, " May the freedom and independence 
of America endure till the sun grows dim witii age, and this earth returns to 
chaos." "Perpetual itching without the benefit of scratching, to the enemies of 
America." The town sent 27 olHiers and 40'.t men to the army. In 17S6, Worcester 
was taken, and its courts closed by 800 of Shays' insurgents, wearing the emble- 
matic |>ine-brauch. Father Fifton, on a missi<uiary tour in IS:!!, found foi'.r 
Catholic families in Worcester : that denomination now lias four churches in the, 
city, including NitttR Dame, (les Cdiudlicii^. Tiie poi»ulation in 18:50 was 4, 0S2. In 
18(51, at the very hour when tlie Gth Mass. was lighting in the streets of Baltimore, 
the Bigelow Monument was dedicated hero. Said .Judge Thomas at the dedica- 
tion, " The cry to-day in the streets (»f tiiis beautiful city is that which 80 years 

ago startled the quiet village, 'To arms !' So be it, to arms ! It will 

us a long, severe, and bitter struggle, but this rebellion must be crushed out. 
There is for us no hope of freedom, of peace, f)f safety even, till this work is fully 
done. Seven years of war were spent in the jmrchase of our freedom ; seven more 
of toil in giving it organic life. If seven years of toil and lilood are spent in 
securing it, in our national redemption, they will be wi.sely, divinely spent, 
with the blessing of God and all coming generations of men." Within live months 
5,000 men marched from the Park to tlie Potomac. The 15th (Worcester Co.) 
Reg. paraded here before leaving, and received their colors from the ladies. "I 
am deputed by the ladies of Worcester to present to you this banner. Eighty- 
four years ago to-day there was mustering in these streets the lirst regiment evi!r 
raised in Worcester Co. for actual warfare, the 15th Reg. of the Line. What 
hard-fimght fields at Jlonmouth and Trenton, Miiat aullerings at Valley F'orge, 
what glory and victory at Saratoga and Yorktown, have made that name famous ! 
. . . What they won for us, it is yours to luesorvo for us." — Judge Hoak. 

Stations, Rochdale (Union Hotol), 4 M. S, of the village of Leicesti r, 
U 1 

130 Route ^1. 




^i ! 

r 'I 

on Strawberry Hill, the Indian Towtaid ; Charlton, and Spencer, 2 M. S. 
of the village (Sjiencer Hotel), which is on a plateau 9o0 ft. above the sea. 
It has a venerable look now, though De Warville (178S) spoke of it as " a 
new village in the midst of woods." 

Elias Howe, Jr., was bom at Spencer in ISIS. After workiiiK in a Lowell cot- 
ton-factory and ri JJoston niacliino-.sliop. he wroUKlitout his great idea of a sewing- 
machine, (patentcfl 184G). The idea did not hccdine ]iopidar, and he was forced to 
support himself as a raihoad engijeer vintil penury and harsh labor broke his 
liealth. After a time, capitalists toolv up his invention, and by their help, after 
lon;^ litigation, ho jirovcd his jtrior ri^iht to the patent a^'ainst 'sevend comjietiton* 
(ISJ4). Between 18o4 and his death in 1807, he realized $2,000,000 from his sew- 

The line now enters the valley of the Chicopee, passes E. Brookfielfl 
(Wesbakira), and stops at Brookfield (Bronkfield Hotel). 

This town was settle<l on the Indian lands of Quaboag, by Ijiswich men, in 
1060. In KiT.'J a larj^e force of Nipmucks advanced (»n the i)lace. Envoys were 
sent out to treat with the Indians, but six of them were killed, and the village 
(the present W. HmoklicM) was attacked. Tlie iidiabitants had gathered in a 
garrison-house, wliicli, after the rest of the village had been i)lundered and burnt, 
v/as attacked by the enemy. Fin- throe long days the house was defended with 
desperate bravery, thongli shot and flaming arrows were showered against it. 
Then a cart fall of blazing flax and straw was jiushed against it, and the defence 
woidd have been ended, but for a sudden shower wliich extinguished' the rising 
Jiames. After this shower, which they held to be nnraculous, a brave partisan 
oflicer with a trooj> of light horse galloped in from Lancaster, after a forced 
march of 30 M., and scattcicd the besiegera. In 1070, the evacuation of the 
town was ordered, as a ndlitary necessity, by the Legislature, and it remained 
desolate for 12 years. The Quaboag Pond is a large ]»ond S. of the village, whose 
waters flow by the iSashaway River through the Podunk Meadows, to tlie Chico- 

Station, W. Brookfield, near the village of heroic memory (Wickaboag 
House). These various hamlets of Brookfield are now chiefly noted for 
their extensive shoe-manufactures. 

Stations, Warren (Warren Hotel), a prettily placed village, near which 
is the L)ld Qual>oag Senunary; W. Warren, Brimfield. 

In the Brimfield churchyard (.5-6 M. to the S. E.) is buried Gen. "William 
Eaton, s(une time an olliccr in the U. H. Army, find then Consul to Tunis. In 
180 j he planned the restoration of Hanud, tlie rightful Bashaw of Tripoli, and 
marched from Cairo, Egyi)t, with 4<J0 Moslems and 100 Christians, across the 
desert. With reckless bravery he stormed the ramivarts of the Tripolitan city of 
I)erue, garrisoned by a force larger thiin his own. The United States having con- 
cludeil a ]ieacc with the reigning Bashaw, Eaton was forced to nbamlon his 
eonquest, and he returned to America, where he died (at Brimlield) in 1811. 



Station, Palmer (American House, Nassawanno House), in a flourish- 
ing manufacturing town. The State Almshouse in Monson may be seen 
to the S. across the Chicopee River. 

From this point diverge the Athol and Enfield and the Ware River 
Railroads, while the New London Northern Lijie crosses the track here. 

Stations, Wilbraham (with the flourishing Wesleyan Academy 3 M. S.) 
and Indian Orchard (horse-cars to the village). 

, 2 M. S. 

; the sea. 
it as " a 

owell cot- 
' a sewinR- 

S t"010»''f1 to 

broke li« 
help, after 
n his sew- 


ch men, in 
ivoys were 

the viUuge 
thcred in a 

and bnrnt, 
ended with 

Hgiiiust it. 
the defence 
I'the rising 
er a forced 
lii)n of the 
it remained 
Uage, wliose 
tlie Chico- 

noted for 

near w 


icn. William 
Tunis. In 

IXvipoli, and 
across the 

litan city of 
having con- 

Ibanilon his 

i isu. 

a flouviah- 
[ay be seen 

Ivare River 
tick here, 
iiy 3 M. S.) 




BOSTON TO NEW YORK. Route 21. 131 


Hotels. * Ma.s.sasoit House (said to set tlie best table in New En;cland). di- 
rt'ctly alony'^ide of the stitinn, .S 4 a rhiy ; * Ilaynes's Hotel, a lar^,'c liist-cl.iss 
lioiise on M.iiii, nt' ir i'yni-hon St. ; Cooley's Hotel, on Main St., near and N. of 
til" Stat inn : I'viiclian House. 

Readins-rooins, at the City Library on State St., and the Y. M. C. Associ- 
ation, iin Main St. 

Horse-cars run on Main St. and to the Armorv and Water Shops. 

Railroads leave the central stati m for New York (135 M.), Boston (OS M.). 
Albiny (101 M.), and the North. 

Si»ringlield was settled by a comi)any under William Pync won, in 16.38, whose 
coiuiiact be^an a> follows : "Artiilc I.' Wee intcml, by (Jod's grace, as soon as 
wee can, witli all convcnifut siicedi', to procure some godly and faithfull minister, 
with whonic wee jiropose to Joyue in cliunli covenant to \v;dk in all the ways of 
Christ. ArfcicLi II. Wee intcml tliatour town shall be composed of Iburty family's, 
or if wcc think inccte after to change our ; yet not to excee(l the number 
of fifty family's, rich and poore." 'i'lie town wouhl liave been abandoned at one 
time but for tlie onlers of the Legisl iture, forbidding the evacuation of Mass. 
settlements, whereupon the iieojih' crcctiMl a strong palisade. Grea*^ sutVerin^ 
was exj>erienc(vl during the first winter, for the freezing of the river prevented 
vessels ascending with supplies. Seveial persons .-tartcd for iJoston, ami weiij 
frozen on tlie way. Pynclioii, the magistrate of Spriiiglicld, wroti^ an anti-Calvin- 
istic theological book in Ki.'jO, which was condemned by tlu^ Legislature and burnt 
oil JJoston Common. lb; was d('i)oscd from his otli.e, was forced, amid a storiu 
of clerical wrath, to retract, and soon returned to ICuglaud to escajie persecution. 
In l(>7o, wliile the train-bands of SpringfieM wtu-e guaiding IbuUey, the Indians 
l.tid a ph)t to destroy the phice. Their plan was exposed by a friendly Indian 
at Win<lsor, whence a ri<ler was despatched, who reacliml Sjiringfield at dead of 
night, and aroused tlie iieople. .Inst as they had gained the shelter of three gar- 
rison-houses, 6)0 Indians cntereil tliestreets and burnt every otluT house in town. 
They successfully disjiuted the passige of tlie river against Major Treat's com- 
mand, ami only retired at tlie approach of M:i.jiu' Pynehon and *J00 men from Had- 
ley, leaving behind them a sad scene of ruin and d(!structi'in. During tiie Hevo- 
lutiou works for repairing muskets were c-;tablished here, and also a caiintui- 
foundry, at whicli were cast tlie guns of several of the lotteries which were en- 
gaged in the battles near Saratoga. Jan. 2'), 1787, t,2ii0 of Shays* rebels attacked 
tlie Arsenal, which was defended by 1,100 militiamen. A few cannon-shot dis- 
])ersed the assailants. During the present century Springfield has grown r.ipidly, 
by reason of the establishment here of the U. S. Armory and iiiiiiierous other 
manufactures, and by the convergence, at this point, of important railway systems. 

Springfield is a handsome city of ahout 28,000 iiihahitaiits, situated on 
the E. bank of the Connecticut River. Its ])rincipal thoroughfare is Main 
St., a wide and level street, 3 M. long, adorned Avith many fine con^mer- 
cial buildings. The principal object of interest in tlie city is the 
* United States Armory, which is established on a pai k of 72 acres on 
Arsenal Hill (E. of the station, and best reached by way of State St.). 
The buildings surround a great quadrangle called Union Square, and have 
T) -700 men constantly engaged. 1,000 each of the Sharp, Remington, and 
Springfield breech-loading rifles have lately been issued to the army lor 
test, while the manufacture and alteration of rifles and carbines is con- 
stantly going on. During the War of the Rebellion the works were run 
night and day for four years, and at one time over 3,000 men were em- 
ployed. Nearly 800,000 guns were made during that time, at an expense 
of S 12,000,000. The Arsenal is a large building on the W. of the quad- 
rangle, in whicli 175,000 stand of arms are stored, rivalling in their sym- 
metri.;;tl avr.unrenient th.3 similar colb'ction in th" Tower of London. 

-. lit :► 

V , ■ 

^ ' ■ . 

132 Route 21. 


■■> < 

" This iH tlio Arsenal. From floor to poiling, 
Like 11 liiiKc oriran, rise tlw l)uriiiNlicii arms ; 
But troiii their Kilont pipes no iiiitlicni pealing 
Startles the villases wMh straiige aiaring. 


Ah! whnt n sound will rise — how wild and flreary — 
Wlien the (leatli-nnirel toneiiei those switl keys I 

■What loud lirnent nnd disninl Mi^'erere 
Will mingle with their uwCiil svmplionics I" 


From the tower of tlie Arsenal is gained a fine view of the eity and its 
environs. Passes for a survey of tl»e shops, &c,, may be obtained at the 
Armory ofTice. The eight-liour system is in foree in these works, althougli 
mucli of the work is i)aid for by the piece. 1 M. S. E. of the Armory are 
the Water-Slio])s, where tlie heavier Labor is done, and where the gun- 
barrels are made and tested. 

Near the Armory, on the S. E., is the large and beautiful Springfield 
Cemetery, covering about 40 acres. Near this, on the S., is Crescent 
Hill, with two elegant villas and an extensive and ])leasing view. 

On State St., between Main St. and the Armory grounds, are several fine 
buildings. The * Church of the Unity (on the r.) is one of the noblest 
ecclesiastical structures in the State, an<l, with its cloistered })ortico, broad 
windows, and lofty detached tower and sjiirc, it forms a strikingly beau- 
tiful ol)ject. It architecture is Gothic, and its matciial is brown stone. 
Just above the church is the unicjue and graceful building of the High 
School, and oi>posite the cliurch is the * City Free Library, with its 
handsome building. A library of 32,000 volumes is contained in a richly 
ornamented and well-arranged hall, while on the floor below is a Museum 
(open Wednesday and Saturday, 2 - ."> P. lil. ) containing 900 stuffed birds, 
120 stuffed qua<lrupeds, and several thousand specimens of fossils, fish, 
reptiles, and minerals. There are also cabinets of Indian antiquities, and 
several captured Confederate flags. Just al)0ve the Library is the Roman 
Catholic Cathedral of St. Michael. Court Stpiare is near the centre of 
the city, and has on one side the City Hall, contahiing a hall which can 
contain 8,000 persons. S. of Court Square is the * Court House of 
Hampden County, a massive new structure of granite, costing .$200,000. 
It has a tall tcwer, balconies, and other features drawn from Italian 
municipal palaces. The 1st Congregational Church (society founded 1637) 
fronts on this sipiare. In 1 M. from the City Hall, passing N. W. on the 
busy and attractive Main St., one reaches Round Hill and the Memorial 
Church, built of granite in Gothic architecture. Hampden Park, near 
by, on the banks of the river, has fine race-tracks, and is used for cattle- 
shows. - 

There are several fine churches in the city besides those mentioned (20 
churches in all). There are 9 Masonic l)odies, 4 of 0<ld Fellows, 7 banks 
of deposit, and 3 savings l)aidcs. The valuation of the city in 1872 was 
% 30,000,000, and during the sanie year its merchants had $ 20,000,000 



ty and its 
led at the 
?, althongli 
irnioi y iiro 
! the gun- 

s Crescent 


jeveral fine 
he noblest 
tico, broad 
iiigly buau- 
own stone. 
r the Iligli 
y, with its 
in a richly 
a ^luseuni 
iffed birds, 
issils, lish, 
uitii's, and 
he llonian 
centre of 
which can 
House of 
.$ 20(1,000. 
)m Italian 
nded 1G37) 
W. on the 
Park, near 
for cattle- 

tioned (20 

rs, 7 banks 

1872 was 



lioulrJI. 133 


worth of wholesale trade, mostly from the valley towns which draw their 

supplies from this point. 

In 1870 SpriiiKliehl liad .'$00 maiinfarturiiiK companios. eniployiiiK J. 000 men aii«l 
1,000 woiiiiMi. Amoii^' (ln> ]irincipal works arc those of Smith ami Wrssoii, wlii-rn 
(jOO iiKMi are oiiiployt'cl in iiiakiii;,' i>istols. I'liis foiiipaiiy rcci'ivcil in lsv;> onliTS 
from the Russian Kovcrnmcnt I'or 40,oiK) revolvers. At IJri„'h \vr>(»il(N'. of th« 
city) is tlM! Wa-ioii Car Manula 'tory, wiiose hiiildiiiKs rcijuircil •J.OiKt.diui 1. ricks in 
their constrnetioM. 'I'hese works employ too men, an<l turi; ont 1(H) passeii;:r,r 
ami 900 - 1,00 » frci;,'ht cars yearly, besides many thonsainl car-wheels. They liavti 
ni:idc most of the I'ars for the I'acillc and the New .lersey Central, an I 
also a superb ear for the Kj^yptian Khedive. N'early sou nu-n wore enj^'a^t'd in 
this city, durin,:jj tin) Secession War, in the mannfaetr,;-!' of saihlles an<l lieavy 
hftrnes.s for the army. They delivered to the government i:^ 'J.-'iOOOOO worth of 
those articles. .\t jjresent abont lioo men are employed in makiny; trunks and 

Station, Longmcadow (the Indian Ma.ssacsic), settled in 1(514 on tlu 
long meadows by the Connecticut. It is a jiretty village on a geiitlo 
swell near the intervales, and its people are devoted to farnnng. 

The State of Conn, is now entered, and the train stops at Thoinpso;i- 
ville (Globe Hotel), the seat of the largest carpet-works in the countuy. 
Since 1828 this industry has been growing, until now it uses up 9(X) tons 
of imported wool each year, and turns out 1,800,000 yards of ingrain and 
Venetian carpets, from 141 looms. 3-4 .M. M of this village is the large 
community of the Kiifield Shakers. The village of Enfield (settled by 
Salem men, in 1G81) is a .short di.stance S. of Thompsonville. 

Station, Warehouse Point, where the line crosses the Conn. River by 
the * Iron Truss Bridge, a noble piece of engineering, built in Manchester, 
England, and set u]) here in 18(5(5. The road-ljcd of 18 ft. wide is sus- 
tained 47 it. above the water by wrought-iron tru.sscs, held up by 17 
granite piers. The bridge is 1,525 ft. long and cost ,$ 2(55,0(^0. 

At Ila/ardville, a few miles X. K.. are the jxiwder-works of Col. Ilazanl. Tlieso 
are the largest in Kn,L;lanil or .Vmeiica, and the former cotuitry boni^ht 8 l,2.')0,()iJ') 
worth of Hazards powder dnrin;,' the Crimean War, while vast amounts were 
made for the United States during the Secession War. 

Station, Windsor Locks (Charter Oak, with iron and paper 
mills on the water-power afforded by a canal ])uilt before the era of rail- 
roads to enable vessels to the Enfield Falls and gain the Upper Conn. 
Tourists were formerly carried from Springfield to New Haven in small 
steamboats by this route. Tlie line crosses tl:.. Farmington River by a 
fine seven-arched bridge of red sandstone, 450 ft. long. 

Station, Windsor (Alford House), settled in l»);]3-6 by men of Dor- 
chester, on the rich intervales of Mattaneag. 

In addition to harassments from the ten Indian tribes with their 2,000 lx)Wineii 
who lived about Mattaneag, the little colony was early attacked by 70 IIolla:id 
troops, sent by Gov. Van Twiller. The Dutch expedition retired before the 
firm and fearless Puritans, and the Indians soon soUl out. Rev. John Warham, 
the i)astor-chicf, who led this nomadic? Dorcostrian (.'hun;!! in its 14 days' march 
through the wilderness, was the flrstnf the New England clergy who used notes iu 
jireaehing. In 1644 a road was built to Northampton, freight by sea to or from 







134 Route 21. HUSTON TU NKVV YOUK. 

Boston fostiriK at tliis tiiiK; .'J:J prr coiif wl valorem. Mattliow fJmiit <(inic from 
Kii;;laiiil to Don hcstcr in H\M, ami thciu-i! went to Winilsor. Tlic t;iiiiily livnl 
lit'ic for ovtT a ri'utmy, until Noah (iraiit killcil in tlic battl*^ <>f Lukv »jin»rK«< 
(IT'^ti). 'I'liis olliccr waH tiii^ grcat-KranWfatlitir of rrcrtidcnt tirant. llogcr Wul- 
f'ott and his son Oliver, governors of Conn. 17.M -4, an<l IT'.Mi - 7, wcro born hen-. 
Oliver miswortli. I'. H. Senator, ITH'.i -<•'), ami afterwards Chief Justice of tlifl 
U. iS., was horn in-ro in 1745, Another native (if Windsor was (len. I'lielps. who, 
with his associates, lioiighl >>( Mass. and Cnnn. !')jM),(Wn iieres of the Western 
wilderness, at a jirice. These tracts were laid olf in townshijts uml 
ran;,'es, .iinl sold to settlers. 'I'liey nnw eonii'rise the counties of Ontario and 
Siteuhe:! (New Vi>rl\), and the West' rn lleserve of Ohio. 

There is a long, lii'oad (Ireeii near the station, near which are the Wol- 
cottantl Moore mansions, and the new Epi.sciopal ('hurch. and over tlio 
river, is the ohl Cong. Church and the Green which was the cradle of 
Windsor, and is still called the Talisado. This town grows inucli tobacco, 
of which 5,830,000 pomid.s were raised in the county in 1870. 



Hotelfl. — ' Allyn House, a fliu* brownstone building near the station, nc- 

eonoiiodating :iO() guests. !^-\.()i) a day ; * City Jlotel, on Main 8t., ^;:.00a day ; 
the I'nited Stat«'S and the American Hote's. nn tlie old Slate House S([uare. 

KiUlruads. — The ])resent route to Springlield and Hoston (i'24 M.), New 
Haven and Niw Y<u'k (JO;) M.) ; tl ■• Hart!'' d, I'rovidence, and Fishkill, to I'mvl- 
dence on the E. (".tO M.) and Waterluiry on the W. (: J M.) ; tin; Conn. Vallc\ U. Jl. 
to Saylirook I'oint (44 M.) ; the; Cn.ui. Western, to Salisbury and .Millertfin (Git .M.). 

Steainei'8. — Daily to tlie river-l.imlingsand Sag Harbor (Long Island) in the, 
monuM-r : daily, in the afternoon, IVu' the lower huulings ; daily for the river- 
landing and New York City. 

Start's to Fariuington, Ihoad ihoolv M.), Wetherslield, Ro<-ky Hill, Cuiiii- 
well, Mailiioro ('JO M.); to IMoondield ami ,-5unsburv, N. Canton, and W. Harllaiid 
{■M M.). 

lIorM'-Cars nni along Main St. from Sjiring CJrove Cemetery to Wetliersfleld 
(7 iM.), aisii finm the New York steanil)oat pier, at the foot of State St., througii 
State and Asylum Sts. :J M., passing the li. li. Station and the Deaf and Duml) 

Carriages cost ."jne. a in the city, 7.")e. for 'J jiersons, and .$1.00 for .'{ 
l)ersons. Oi.ubh! fares 1/etweeu 12 and Oat night. By tlie hour, ."^'i.OO. 

Ai»»us«un'ut» and lectures tVeiiuently at Roberts' (»|iera House (an elegant 
auditnrium), :; '» .Main St., or at Allvn Hall, on Asylum St. near the .Viiyn House. 

Post Office at *252 Main St. Masouie Hall at ;U>a Main St. 

*Tlie I'ark (4.') acres) is a iileasaiit resort in the afternoon. It is reached by 
several st(uu' brid-cs over I'ark River, and has cost tin city s27(»,(iOO. 

Connecticut was tirst explored by the Dutch, one -if whose sturdy mariners, 
Adrian lUack, ascended the Conn. River as far as the tinlield Tails in the lO-tou 
yaeht, "Onrest" (1(114). In Ki:;:! tlie Dutch built a 2-gun fort, called the " 
of tJood Hope," (m the present site of Hartford, and lived jieaceably, tilling the 

f?round and trailing with the Indians, until June, 1030, when Thomas Hooker led 
lis church from Ni'wlown tiuniigli the wilderness, and settkid here. The Park 
River a Horded a water-power for a grist-mill, which was speedily utilized, and 
Windsor and Wetherslield, lueviously more imixutant, brought their grain here 
to be gi'ound. Ihe colony was nameil I'or an olil Saxon town 21 M. N. of London, 
derived from "the Ford of Harts." Three watch-towers were built, and the men 
of the colony enrolled in train-bands, two thirds of whom had matchlocks, 
bandoleers, and rests, while the other third were armed with jiikes 10ft. h>ng. and 
guarded the stundaRl. These train-bauds stormed the broach in the Narragan.sett 
Fort light. Wuluiuimacut, sachem < it the river tribes, deeded the lands to the 
settlers, and gave them a tribute of lie.tver-skins and corn, in return for their jiro- 
teetion against I'ekoath, king of the Perpints, and the dreaded Moha\vk«. Under 
the influence oi her stern I'uritan pastoi-s, Hartford enacted tlie " Rlue Laws," by 

iiiuc fmm 
iiiily livod 

ogfl' \V<»1- 

<•«' of tli6 
■Ips, wlio, 
(■ WcHlcni 
Hhi]i.s uml 
iturio aiul 

the Wol- 
. over tlio 
rmllt' of 
I tobacco, 

uition, fic- 

.00 a (liiy '. 

M.), New 
, to Provl- 
illr\ K. R. 
»ii (G'.t M.). 
11(1) ill llin 
the river- 

lill, Ciuiu- 

., throiiK'i 
nil Duiiib 

1.00 for :{ 

111 ole^aiit. 


iuclii'd by 


ii; lO-tou 

" llirse 

lUing the 

ker kd 

If Park 

d, and 

lain liere 


1 the men 


Ion;;, and 


Is to the 

tiu'ir jiro- 


aws," by 



Hrwh^2t. 135 


wlii.'i the i»ennlty of diith wns visit«d for tho criiiifH of Idolatry, imchastity, 
wih'liiTift, bl;uit!n'iiiy, in irdiT, iin:i stcilin,', rclicHlon, iiiitiiii,' imn-tit-t, iVc, 
with ...iv»j,'e iaw.1 a;,' Sibbith-bitakiii;; and tim uhh of tolciccn. In 1705, a 
st'iinp I'j'oii'y w,n rdil»!ishrd Imri', '' t it was siu'cdiiy broken np by an irniptloii 
of JO ) aitin>il ridfivi from Winilli mi ( -. inty. In 17''» tho, town iKscamo nn 
inntortant point on tht!;,'rt'at Ati.intio sfa-rnroad, and 10 lims of sta:,'c«« criitnvl 
liciv. I>e Warsiiln wmtti iicri', " fn Con'.i. Nature and Art havi-disjilayi'd jill their 
trennr.'s ; it '\^ redly the I'aridise of the V. K. " ; aii'l innni;,' other jm idiirts of 
thiUnte, he Hpeaks enthnsiastii illy of "tin fair Con-i. KJrls." In Deeenibr-r, 
IH!), the infanriiH II utt'-id ('onvt'nti')n, eoiiipose I of "JH delegates from (ho 
Hta!:'-* <if New i;;i,'.,'liiid, im t here, t" ddi'ieivite about erjpplinn tlie ;;eneral (Cte, ■ 
prnmeiit in the war with lui^'laml, !> wliieli war many of tlii- people in tiis 
sei'tion were o|)posed. In IT'.'.' Ilirtfoirl had a valuation of ?<7.'(l,r>:i:{, and ii 
ISl \ it-i population was ((,.jOO. at whieh tiin a writer pn Uets "that it will ( mi- 
(iine to extend its si/e, its interests, and it-^ ii inseipieiiee. ' 

llartfonl, " Tlio ^{neeii City <d New Euf^'liunl," is a semi-capital of tli", 
State of Coim., and is (iiiely sitnatetl on low liills at tlio junction of tli< 
Park and Conn. Uivcrs. It is noted for its bcnevok'nt and educational 
institutes, its extensive manufactures, and its po^verful insurance com- 
I'anies. The iiopulation is 38,000. 

Trinity College is a wealthy Episcopalian instltuMon, founded in 
IS'J:?, and in 1^71 havint; 1.') instructors and '.'2 studouls. This was first 
known as Washington (loljege, and in 1872 it had 3 long, hrownstone 
liuildings (Seabury, Jarvis, ami IJrownell Halls) on the site soM for the 
present new State Hou^e, These hulls stood on a beautiful summit over 
the Park, on which the State House is to be erected. This will be a 
nobk' building, in the architecture known as the Secular Gothic (whose 
best forms are seen in the lintels dc Villf of l^dgium), after plans by 
Upjohn, of New York. On this hill is a colossal * statue of Bishop 
Browned (founder of the College, and Bishop of Conn., 1819 -(5.5) in his 
episcopal robes. The statue (11 ft. high) is of bronzi;, and was made at 
Munich. The Episcoj)al church is stronger (proportionally) in Comi. 
than in any other Stat'-. 

The Congregational Theological Institute (founded 1834, and has 
graduated 21)0 men) is back of the Wadsworth Athcnjcum. 

Of the 30 churches of the city, several are adorned with ivy of great 
luxuriance. The 1st Presbyterian is a neat Romanescpie building of Conn, 
granite and Ohio stone, anl the following an; built of i ed-stone, in Gothiu 
forms: Christ, St. John's, Trinity, Incarnation, the 1st M. E., the South 
Baptist (with a tine portico sui)j)orted by Caen stone columns), the Pearl 
St. Cong, (with a spire 212 ft. high). The three Cong, churches on Main 
St., the 1st Church (organized in 1033), the South Churcii (organized in 
1G69), and the 4th Church have line buildings. The *Park Cotig. Church 
is of sandstone, in the early English Cotliic style, with stone columns along 
the aisles, and a timber roof. The Catholics have 2 large stone churches 
(St. Peter's and the Cathedral of St. Patrick), and are about to l)uild an 
elegant new Cathedral. The * Church of the Good Shepherd (Episco- 

■ ■ / ■.' 

136 Route 21. BOSTON TO NEW YORK. 

pal), built Ity Mrs. Cult as a uienioriul of her husbaml and chililren, is a 
g<;in of Gothic archit«!ct\ire, built of Portland stone triuinicd with Ohio 
white stono, with a spiro IM ft. high, containing a «weet chime of bells. 
Tlio W. front has a grand memorial window, in the centre St. Joseph 
ran\ving the cliild Jesus, above wliieh is an angtd witli 15 children; on the 
1, the angel of tlie resniiection, on tlic r. a singing angel. The clerestory 
windows are low and brilliant, while the ehaneel windows represent (lirist 
and the 12 Apostles. The chancel is 8e})arated from the organ (<m the 
r. ) and the baptistery (on the 1.) by columns ff Seotcli graidte. The 
* ba])tisni;d font is sustaiucil by a group (»f niarb). cherubs. 

The High School is near tlie Parle in a nonlc * Imiiding of Norman and 
French architecture, finished in 18t)D, at a cost of $ lt;0,(H)(). Near it, and 
on Asylum St. (also near the R. R. station, with its Italian campaniles) 
is the mansion long occupied by Mrs. Sigoumey, the poetess. The city is 
about to erect on the Park a statue of Dr. Horace Wells, one of the dis- 
coverers of surgical aiiivstliesia. 

Back of the Cong. Church, opposite the Athemeum, is the ancient 
graveyard (entrance to the r. of the church). Here are many graves of 
the 17th and 18th century, with a massive sandstoic monument to the 
memory of the first settlers. Two taldes (on the r. ) cover the remains of 
Thomas Hooker, "tho renowned minister of Hartford and pillar of Conn., 
the Light of the Westeni Churches " (Mathku) ; and of Samuel Stone, a 
divine who died here in 1()33, and whose ejiitaph bej^dns, 

" Now Enplnrnl'R glory nnd her rndiant crowne 
WnH lie. who now on sof'fi'st bed ofdowiie, 
Till glorious rcsiirrt'ctioii morn nppfiirc, 
Uoth sufc-Iy, sweetly sleepe in Jesus here." 

The Deaf and Dumb Institute was founded by Dr. Gallaudet in 1817, 
and is the oldest in America. The building (130 by 50 ft.) was erected 
in 1820, and .stands on an embowered hill near the R. R. station, on 
Asylum St. It has 200 - 250 inmates. The Retreat for the Insane (es- 
tablished 1824) is a stately building of sandstone covered with gi-ay 
cement, in the S. W. part of the city. From its great elevation, its 
vicinity commands fine valley-views. It has received over 4,000 patients, 
and has discharged 2,000 as cured. The Citif Ilosjiital is near the Retreat, 
and is a large, plain, and commodious building of sandstone. In the 
opposite section of the city (Upper Main St.) is the State Arsenal, the 
Widows' Home, and the extensive North Cemetery, 

The old State House Square is in the heart of the city. Here stands 
the State IIo>(se, a homely old structure of brick, which dates from 1794. 
In its Senate chamber the Hartford Convention assembled in 1815. The 
Secretary's office contains the original royal charter, framed in wootl of 
the Charter Oak. In the Senate Chamber, also, besides Stuart's picture 
of Washington, and portraits of the governors of Conn, from 1635 to 1870, 
is a large chair made of the same wood. 



IMren, is a 
with Ohio 
e of V)ell8. 
St. Joseph 
['11 ; on tho 
sent (lirist 
in (on tho 
iiite. Tho 

orniaii and 
ear it, and 
rh(! city is 
af tho dis- 

10 ancient 
graves of 
snt to the 
eniains of 
of Conn., 
j1 Stone, a 

t in 1817, 
IS erected 
tation, on 
isa7ie (es- 
ivith gray 
'ation, its 
> patients, 
e Retreat, 
. In the 
senal, tho 

sre stands 
•om 1794. 
^5. The 
wood of 
's picture 
5 to 1870, 

f: } 

^ * 1 ■ *- - 

' ' ' 'O,^ 



tal of marble, with the toliowing weii-(ini. „„. . : 2, the Toinpt-ition ; 8, the Fall ; 4. Ilidins' from Go.l ; 5. the Kxpulsiou 

from FAm ; fi. Lim'^Mtitioii ; 7, Tillini thf Oi-ouii.l : S, the First-Boru. 


I SlfiU Housr \Wy^ S/.fW-firs \i\ 

\\ C'UvHoll KAViVark ' t/l 

4 (hnn Jnsunirt((I.i^f^f !).-T 
"SCharlrrOnh 1)5. 
() W'fiil^wmr/// (ft/ifnotv'if i). 

7 Siad^ OrsunaJy . («.') 

8 IhviWJjnmudsyhm/ C 

SS Hn/kSrlu>n! K.'.? 

10 h'.U.S/r/u'n K'l 

W lu Irt ftl foj tlichiMUif \ '.» 
lU Ch/fs Ormrry li.( 

( "Imrchcs. 

v^au^n .. ' K..; 

20 CUy - \)\ 

'IVanibJ SUifi's \\\ 

i ■ 

It- (nu^fi ShfpltmL lUl.*^? Uiicura 

^S^ HAR-^fORO 


1. t] 




on - 
is ti 







tal i 

cei I 






thf I iiaiie — 

of Wasliingtori, and portraits of the governors of Conn, from 1635 to 1870, 
is a large chair made of the same wood. 



liontc n. 




In Oct. 1687, Sir Edmund Aridros, the govenior of New England, enton'd 
Hartford with his troopa, and demanded the royal charter, the only sjifeguard of 
the liberties f>f Coim. During a stormy eveiiing-meetiiig the lights were suddenly 
extinpcuished, and a hold colonial gentleman seized the charter and fled forth, 
lie hid it in a hollow in an oak-tree, and there it stayed until Andros had left the 
How)i in great anger. The charter vas ever after [Meserved, and tiic tree was held 

^n increasing veneration until isr)(), when it was blown down in a storm. Its 

Splace is now markeil with a marble slab. 

Mark Twain asserts that in a late visit to Ilartfonl he .saw arti( les as follows 
made from this tree : "a walking-stick, dog-collar, neeiUe-case, three-legged stool, 
boot-jack, dinner-tible, ten-jiin alley, tooth-iuck, and enough Charter Oak to 
build a plank-road fron-. Hartford to Great JSalt Lake City." 

Near the State Hoiuse Square, on the N. facmg Market St., is the City 
Hall, in the Grecian architecture, but clingy in appearance. 

The old State House is to be removed to anotlier part of the Square, 
and an extensive government building will be erected on its })res('nt .site. 
5 Opposite State House Stjuare is the superb granite * building of the 
1 Conn. Mutual Insurance Company, recently conq)kled at a cost of 
$7-800,000. A short ilistance below this building i.s the line granite 
block belonging to the Hartford Fire In.s. Co. On Main St., alongside of 
I the Athenaeum, is the lofty * granite palace of the Charter Oak Insurance 
Co., which cost above .$700,000, The beautiful halls and oUices within 
should be visited, and by a.sconding in tlie elevator to the ob.servatory on the 
roof (a courtesy granted l)y the company ; small fee to the cotiductor of 
the elovator), a tine view is obtained of the city and its environs. Tlie 
elegantly linished sandstone office of the Etna Ins. Co. is nestled alongside 
of the Charter Oak building. There are 21 insurance companies in the 
city (9 Life, and 12 Fire), having an aggregate capital amounting to scores 
of millions. 

Wadsworth Athenaeum. 

While Amold was plotting at West Point (1780), Washington and Rochambeau 
were making plans and enjoying hospitable cheer at the mvusion (in IIartf<jrd) of 
Col. Wadsworth, Cominissary-Ocnoral of the .\rmy. Wad ^worth's son gave tho 
land, after removing the mansion, for a pubiif- library, and the i>resent building 
(of Glastenbury gneiss, in I'astellatcil architecture) was l)'iilt froi,i the proceeds 
of a popular subscription of .$52,01)0. Gn the lower floor of the Atheneeitm is 
the Statuary Hall (fee 2' c.), containing ca.sts of Ganymede, Wasliington, Pan, the 
Shepherd LJoy, the Truant, Genevieve, Calvpso, and an allegorical ligure of Cnm- 
merce, all by Bartholomew (who died at N'aples. ISJ.S). Casts, by the same do- 
signer, of Ruth and Naomi, llagar and Islit lael, thi; Mnniing Star, Helisarius at 
the Pincian Gate. There ai' ■ also cast; of SciiwanHialcr's " l^ivaria," and small 
busts (German) of Schon. MuriUo. Correggio, Velasipiez, Domenichino, Raphael, 
Angelo. Leonardo da Vinci, Gliirl.uidaj i, Fiesojc, Mozart, (Joethe, Andrea del 
Sarto, Bellini, Van Dyk, Rul>ens, I'rancia, Masaccic, Terugino, Claude Lorraine, 
Poussin, Van Kyk, Ilemling, Diinir, HoU«'in, and Titian. 17 of Rogers's statuettes 
occupy one long slielf. 

Busts (in marble) of President Fiilmore, and * Diana, by Bartholomew ; Wads- 
worth, Horace Busiinell, and C. H. Olnistea<l, by Ives. 

Statues, Stella, and * Sappho, Bartliolomew, and an elaborate work, 'Eve 
Repentant, his masterpiece. She is sitting w th liead bowed and hands <dasi)ed 
in contrition, while her long, luxuriant liair h ings down her baik, and a serpent 
is seen curling about her on the ground. The statue is upon an octagonal pedes- 
tal of marble, with the following well-designed bas-reliefs : 1st Panel, Creation of 
Woman ; 2, the Temptation ; ;?, the Fill ; t. Hiding from Go I ; r>, the Expulsi''U 
from F/ieri ; «. LTiii'-if ition ; 7. j'lllinx the Grouu^i ; s, tlic Fir;t (ioni. 

138 Rvutc21. 



On the upiier flo^r is the Picture Gallery. JWit U'ldl. 93, Qucljcf, by Chvrr.h ; 
!M, View <,n the Susqucliaiuia, Church; :J8, Kcce Ildiiio ; ]!'.», f»'t. .lep^nip ; 2, 
V<.'iii<e ; 21, (ioor;^'c W;i.siiiiixt'>n, ••••liy from .Stiiuit, hy ElUworth; 58, Fcust at 
Levi's JlmiMc, (tjicr Vnul rcivnese; I'M, J-andsoain-, Lanmun; 120, yt. Josejih and 
Jcsiis, I ijtr.r Raphael ; ',V2, Marie Aiitoinftt^-. 

Soiilh Wall. 92, llarllord ruritaii.s in tlic Wildernrss, C7i?(rc/i ,• Biimin;,' Ship 
at [Soa, .lewftt ; 4, liattJc (17tii contiiry) ; .'Sanison in Honda; 1, ' Death ol Warren 
.at Bnnker Hill, TriDnhull (llie eehdn-atod Jiistorieal ]iieinn!,s Ity this artist liavo 
ex)>lanatMiy eharts ajtpended) ; [>, Mrs. Signurney, Tntmhull; (12, llnnihnldt; 
121, W(lliii;,'t(H) : so, Oliver Woleott, Stnart; 2, Uattle (d" Trenton, Trumhull ; S7, 
V. Ellery Channing ; IIH, Ihiitus ; !'l, Ciirist in the 'IVnijile, I'crry ; 40, .Soa View 
in Fo;,' ; .W, Ni;^'ht-seene at Najtles (the last twn are liri^ilit " restore<l " jiietun's, 
said to iHi by Veriiet) ; 10, Hattk of Primeton. Tnnnlndt; 11, M)eath of Mont- 

S;oniery at QuelM-e, Trdinhiill ; I'A), Elevation of the Cross, r///£r Rvhens; 12, Holy 
^'aniily, TramhuU ; ,s(i, .Joel llawcs, 1). 1>. ; W, lloraee JJushnell, D. I). 

Kant Willi. Destnn-tion of .lernsaleni, a largo i)ieture, 22x14 ft., in poor light, 
Init Cull of stndy (plans on the tallies near), hy li'hirhelo; 27, Ruth and liony.: 05, 
Landscape, I.shnm ; l:!, Death nf Jane MeCrea, I'cnnk'rlipi. 

North Wall. 12S. John in llic Wilderness, Cole; 127, White Mountains, Cole; 
)2:{, Marine View, Coim-; 12'.>, Cascade hi th(! Catskills, (air; 124, Tim Lady of 
tlie Lake, 'rnnnbull ; llio. Lake Winnepesankee, Cole ; i.'Jl, View on Talcott .Mt., 
Cole; 34, 'View of Sft. Ktna, at smirise, from Taoriiiina, Coir ; 15, Anieritus Vo.s- 
pnecius ; IG, Columhns ; ■ Benjamin West, .Sn- 77;oh)('.s htvf'nce ; ;iO, Declaration 
of lixh'pendeiice (small artist's copy), TrinnhuU; 80, Landscape near New Haven ; 
100, Milton's Descent of (Satan ; portraits of various celebrities of the tState of 

In the N. wing of the Athenajiim is the Vvinio }fcii's Inslitutr, with a circulat- 
ing library of 2't,000 volumes, and a re;idiiig-rooin (r.n intmduetion by a member 
of the Iiistitnte entitles one to four weeks' use). 

The Cotui. liistorical Society has its rooms in the S. Wing (open daily ; 
no fees). IJesides a large library, many curiosities are kept here, among which 
are, King Piiilijt's club ; Putnam's battle-sword; bows, arrows, pikes, swoi-ds, 
&('., of six wars ; old German missals ; dresssuitsat iM'tiicli Court of Commissary 

Wadsworth and Commodore ]\Icl)<>nougli 

Turkish scimeter with coral and 

ivory lii!tan<l silver scabbard, and iiiscri])tions in Arabic and Persian ; gold yicn 
*' worn out in the service of Washinu'ton Irving" ; a lin''. f'i ft. long) of the chain 
stretciied ai i-o'^s the Hudson in 177<>; a fuoi-.stov: 40; Llder J3re\vster's 

cliest ; Htandish ,> dinuer-pot ; Put's tavern-sign ; ...mish shells thrown into 
iStoningtnn ; a moitar captured in Mexico; relics of Kailian Hale and Col. Led- 
yard ; Itobbins J5ible (147S); Farmington ehiindi drum; mail bag (A. D. 1775) 
used betweeJi Hart.oid and New Haven, (i x inches : the telegraphic mes- 
sage sent i'l America (from Washington to Baltimore), "What wonders hath God 
wrought " ; l.'J Russian medals ; Continental money ; a pi.sto] from Colt ; Confed- 
erate iiioni'v ; a number of the " Boston News L<tter" for Ai>ril 17, 1704 (the lirst 
number of the lirst news])aper in America: it lasted 72 year.^) ; numerous )ii>r- 
trails, M.S.S., and pieces of Charter Oak ; AniC'ld's watcii ; the chair in which 
Lee signed the c;i]iitnlation of A]i)iomaltox , several battle-ilags well used ; the 
.swords of I'ulnam ; of McDonough (\ictor in the baitle of the lleets on Lalve 
Chami)lain); of Capt. Ward, of the L'. iS. Navy (born Hartford, I80d, killed in the 
attack on Matthias Point, Va , June 27, l^'d); of Commander Kogers (Vcilled in 
Die nuvaJ a.-5sault on Fori .Sumt<'r) , of Col. Kussell (of the 10th Cunn.. killed at 
Rounwke, i/^i'I): oflien. Sedgu ick (killed ai Hjioltsylvania, .Alay '.', 1804); and of 
Gen. Nath:<ni<>i J>yon (conunander of the C, S. A.rmy in Missouri, killed at the 
battle of Wilson's v.'reek, Aug. lo, i^Wil). Adjoining this roon; is the liall contain- 
ing a large reh'ience libijiry, emlowed witli ir' by David Watkiuson, who 
<lie<l in 1>^.'»7. 

The i»riii( ipal iiKiiiufac loijes of Hitrlford are the Colt Rifle and Pistol Pactoiy, 
which has ft! I,0<)t»,00() cai)itiii, and emjdoys HOO hauiis. yince Col Colt's death it 
haw been run by a eompany, of which Gen. Franklin is President. Its immen^;o 
Imildings are ir. the S. K. part of the city, near the river, from whose uiundations 
they are guaixled by a dike (.On (t. i.road at tlie {op, and 8,700 ft. long), which cost 
.^8(),;(00. T!ic Church of the (iuod hhejdierd is near by, and (dose to the faciory 
is a colony of .Swiss, who make ni. will- -w-warc from material grown here. In the 
W. part o( the city is the (Sharp kifle Maind'aetory, employing i)-7oo men, wliich 




i*f ,% 


Roufr 21. 1 30 





h;>« mvtl;; 100,00 ") rifles for the U. S., besides Hlling largo orders fur FiiRlaml, (ior- 
inany, Spain, riiin i, .Tapati, Mexiro, rem, and Chili. Tiit' Win. Ro.^nTs Cn. tnnis 
out j<S ) >,(M) ) Worth of plated spoons and forks ye.irly ; tlie .Vslnncid (iold-Bfut- 
ing (Jo. nsft nji ll,«>l'i ounces of gold yeirly ; tlic Weeil .Sewing- .Macliines arc made 
to the ninnl) -r of JO.oim) ; the Colt Willow-Ware Co. have T') acres of willow, and 
turn out 100 tons of ware each year ; the Colmrn Soap Co. jirodnees i>t)0 tons, in 
40 v.irieties ; anil the great ]tnhlisliing houses (subscription books) |>rint many 
fieore thousand volumes yearly. Hartford is an important market for wool 
and tobacco. 

The city lias 17 hanks, 7 M.nsonic lodges, 4 lodges of Odd Fi'llows, 3 cf 
Knights of Pythi.'is, 2 Grand Army Posts, G teinperaiice societii's, and 7 
o/(7'' military coniiianics, ono of which, tho Putnam I'hahuix, i.s widely 
famed. Its members dross in anticjue unifomis, and the corps (12o men) 
is said to represent .$11,000,000. The city has more wealth in propor- 
tion to its j)opulation than any other American city, and its society is of 
a liigh and cultivated orrler. 

liy following Main St. to tlie S. beyond St. Peter's Church, Annsmrar 
is soon reaclnnl (on the 1.). This is the residence of the Colt family, with 
spacious grounds adorned with groves, lakes, marble statuary, green- 
Ijousos, and a deer-park. Near the mansion is a beautiful * copy (in 
bronze) of the Amazon and Tiger, at the Museum in Berlin. About 3 M. 
beyond is ancient Wethersfield, settled by men of Wafcrtown, Mass., in 
l^o'). At 163(3, the first Conn, legislature conveneil hero declared war 
against the Pcipiots. The oM Webb mansion, near the Cong. Church, 
Y.'as Washington's head-ipiarters, and here frecpient and protracted councils 
of the French and American ofiicers prepared the plans which ended at 
York town. The town lias long been noted for its great crops of onions. 
Siuc>3 1823, the State Prison has been <'stablished licre. 

About 3 M. S. W. of file city i.s Cedar Grove Cemetery, on a bare and 
lofty hill commanding vii^ws of the Queen City and the volley of the 
Conn. Tiie * Beach Memorial is a beautiful work of Itali^'n art. A Ingh 
base, surrounded by elegant bas-reliefs, supp nis a vase, which is sheltered 
by a tabernacle in red, yellow, and white marbles, supported by column.s 
of Scotch granite. The Clark Monument is surmounted by a colossal 
bronze Angel of the Rcsurrecliou (cast in Munich). The Russel Monu- 
ment is crowned by a life-size and life-like seated statue, Tlie monument 
to Col. Samuel Colt (who invented tlie revolving pistol) consists of a lofty 
Egj'ptian column of Scotch granite, surmounted by a bronze angel, while 
on tho j'edestal is tlie family coat-of-arms {a colt rampant, with a broken 
.spear in his mouth). 

Talcott Mt. is about M. W. The estate "Monte Vi<l.-o " of the old family 
of Wadswortli is on its summit, and the pretty Gothic villa is near a "deep, cold, 
erystalliue lake." on the brow of the mt. From a neighboring tower, "you liave 
a glorious * view of the surrounding country, and into the ad.joi:iing SL'ites of 
Mass. and X. V. ; the whole surrounded by an impurjiled outline of ints. The 
Conn, is seen sweeping or.wanl like a king, through its fair domain, amid the 
spircj of /lunierous towns and villages, while, by tlie aid of a gl.iss, the sails of 

1 U) Roaic ::l 







the vessels in the port of Hartford, ami tlie movements iii the btreets, are dis- 
tinctly visible. ' (Mrs. Sicournev.) "The i)eruliantie-» of tlie licaiitiful and 
f'rand Hf(!nery of Slonte Vidm niai<e it (piitc without a itarallil in America, and 
I)rol)ably witli few in the world." (Prof. Hu.mman.) 

AVAi, //i" (7 M. S.) presents a reniarlvalile .junction of trap-rock and sandstone 
From this imiiit is on,joyc(l a ri< li view over tlie river vail . embracinj,' Wctlicrs- 
llcid and its intervales, (Jlastcntmry and the Lyine.Mts., N irtl'ord, and, 10 M. to 
tlie N., til" Alt'-, of Tom and Hn]yoi:e. Tlie ride to Hoc ky 'ill, liy the rivcr-ruiid, 
is a favorite one with the Hartford citizens. 

Other excursions iire t<i Tiniililc-l)own Urook (S M. W.), to K. and W. Hartford, 
to (ilastenlMiry, and o\<!r Newin^^ton Mt. .S'. Wimhrtr {{) },\. N.) a dejiot for 
I)risoners durin}{ the Hevoliition, and its numerous lines oi elms were jdanted by 
British and Hessian captives, under the directinii of Lafayette. Here was born 
John Fitch, inventor and builder of the steanibitat in America. He ran a 
steamer-line on the Delaware Iliver from ITSfi to 17'."), the boat making 8 aM. an 
hour. Fulton's steamers, the " Clermont " and the " Car of Neptune," were j'lit 
on the Hudsitn in 1807. 30 years ayo more gin was made in E. Windsor than in 
any other town in America. 

After leaving 

Hivrtfonl, tlie line runs S., leaving the river, past Newing- 
ton to Berlin, whence branch tracks diverge to IMiddletnwn, 10 M. on the 
S. E., and New Britain, 2.^ M. on the N. (see Route 11). Berlin village 
(S. E. of the station) was for scores of years the home of the jieripatetic 
tin-pedlers who traversed the country between Mobile and Quebec. 1'lie 
manufacture of tin- ware originated here about 1775, and is still carried 
on. The heroic INIajor Hart was born here, who, at Gen. St. Clair's defeat 
on the Miami River (1791), led a battalion of the 2tl U. S. Infantry (the 
rear-guard) on a fearful charge, in which he and nine tenths of his men 
were killed. At Tv Berl' ' are the .vorks cf the American Conugated 
Iron Co. Percival, the poet, .vas born here in 1795. 

Station, Meriden (Meriden House), a bnsy little city midway between 
Hartford and New Haven. Near the City Hall (E. of the track) are sev- 
eral churches, and some neat villas crown the heights beyond. Tlie 
spacious and imposing biiilding of the State Roform School is ]iassed liy 
the train just before reaching the station. The highway to the N. passes 
Mt. Lamentation, and then runs through a narrow pass in the Blue I\Its. 
cfilled the Cat Hole, 1 M. long. Ice is found near this deej) glen through- 
out the year. West Peak, 3 M. from the city, coinmamls a view extend- 
ing from Hartford to New Haven, and over Long Island Soimd. 

The Meriden Britannia Co. has 6 large buildings, one of which is 527x40 ft. 
1,000 hands are employed, 420 tons of nickel, white metal, and silver are iisid 
yearly, and $2,500,000 worth of wares are sent out every year to all ])arts of ihe 
World. Ives, Rutty, & Co. make 4,000 tons of tin-waVe yearly ; the Meriden 
Cutlery Co. (the in America) eniiiloy4(i0 hands; Wilcox & Co. employ oCO 
hands in making halmorals, hoo]is, and corsets ; and the Malleable Iron Co' and 
the Parker yiiot-Gun Co. hav(! works here. 

On the great lan<l route from Boston to New Haven, Behdier built a fortified 
tavern here in ICCO. Levi S. Ives. Episeoi>al Bishop of Xortli Carolina (1831-52), 
who was received into the Roman Catholic Church at the city of Rome in 1852, 
was a native of Meriden. 

After Yalesville is Wallingford Station (Beach House, an elegant sum- 
mer-house, formerly the home of ^I. Y. Beach, proprietor of the '' N. Y. 




HUSTON To Al.iiANY, kc. Route Hi*. Ul 



Fun"; tlie ancient Washington House was bunied in May, 187"2). Duven- 
]ort preaclied a seiinon at tlie fouiuling of this town (in likYj) IVoni tin; 
text, '• My beloved hath a vineyard in a very fruitful hill." On that 
fruitful liill the village is built, with a neat town hall, a costly Episcopal 
churcli, and a fine niodern school-house, besides several neat villas. 
Manufactures of German-silver ware, Albata plate, &c., are carried on on 
the plain. The Hanging Hills fonn a lofty and picturesque scene to the 
W. of the village. . W, of the station (j M.) is a branch of the Oneida 
Coniiiiunity, containing about .W persons, on an estate of 2 - 300 acres. 
They believe in the jjower of the New Testament doctrines to render men 
morally perfect, and all tlu'ir property is held in common. The object of 
this ndssion colony (whidi receives subsidies from Oneida) is to pro])agate 
the Onoida tenets in New England. 

The line follows the Quimiijiiac Valley to N. Haven. Tliere is here a 
Gothic church (Episcopal) facing the Green, near which is the house where 
Dr. Trumbull tlie historian lived for HO years, and wrote 4,000 sermons 
and several books. North Haven makes several million bricks yearly. 
The train soon passes East Rock (on the r. ), crosses Mill River, and enters 
New Haven. 

New Haven to New York, see Route 8. 

22. Boston to Albany, Saratoga, and the West. 

\'ia llie BDston lui'i Alliany Railroad, Rens»elaer and Saratoga il. 11., and New 
York Central 11. H. Huston to Allumv, 202 M. Fare, $5.80. Boston to Saratoga, 
240 M. 

This is the favorite route nuiniug H'. from Boston, and will livng hold tliis jtoal 
tion, since tlie principal iiilimd i-Qh-s of Mas&iclmsetts an' on its lino. Wliell ItH 
coMstrui'tion was tirst talked, of, ihr " Bos-t^m CouritT " derided the scheme, saving 
that it could 1k' built onlj- sitt an " expense luiilc less than the market value of the 
whole territory of Mas.s.t knjsetts, and which, it i)ractic:ihle, every person of coni- 
inon-sense knows wouW >>«■ as useless as n militiad from Bost<ni to the moon." 
Yet the W(uk went on, th<' road was comftleted to Worcester in ISS,'), to S{)nng- 
liel>l in 18:iL>, and to All«ny in 1^42. The admimWle aj)pointmonts and organizii- 
tion of this route, and its i.-uinunity frf>m accidents, have given it a wide reputa- 
tion and an extensive patrouge. 

The Station in Boston is on tb»e comer of Beach and Lincoln Sts. (PI. 

After emerging from the city, the line crosses the Providence Railroaul 
(Route 8) on the Back Bay lands, and passes the junction of the Woon- 
.socket Railroad (2 M. out). A fine panoramic view is gained by a back- 
wani glance from the windows on the r. of the car, embracing the ancient 
aca.iemic city of Cambridge, with the liuights of Somerville and Charles- 
town, while much of Boston is visible to the rear. 

For the itinerary between Boston and Sj>ringfield, see Route 21. 

The line crosses the Connecticut River on a long bridge just after leav- 
ing Springfield, and tVdlows the valley of the Agawam River past W. 



Sprinpffifilcl Station (a niannfacturiiig village; Agawam Hole!) to West- 
field (Willniaith lloiihc, Wcstlicjil Houst-). TIii' Imliaii ilomaiu of Woio- 
noco was settled })y the Engjisli in lt»«50, and called Streaiulield, from 
the a>)iindanee of its waters, liut later, the Legislature named it Westfield, 
as the most ' -terly of the settlements. Late in King Pliilii)'s W.'.r, the 
colonial council ordered that this, and all the other valley towns, r.hould 
be evacinited, and that their inhal)itants sliould concentrate at Springfield 
and ILadley. An angry refusid was returne(l, and the towns negotiated 
for union with Conn, until the ol)noxious edict was repealed. Westlield 
built a fort and stood her ground. At j)resent it is a busy village, where 
32 iirms make 2,rj00,0(l() whii)s a year, and 8-12,000,000 cigars are an- 
nually made. The Htute Xormnl School located here has 100- 200 stu- 
dents, and is of high reputation. Several churches front on the Green, 
Avhich is adorned by a monument by which " Westlield honors the 
memory of her sons who have fallen in defence of Liberty, Union, ami 
Independence, 18(Jl to ISGo." The }>edestal bears the arms of the State 
and of the Union, and a list of the slain, and is surmounted by a bronze 
soldier, of heroic size. The village is situated in a beautiful valley by the 
Westlield Uiver, A I\I. S. of the station. The New Haven and North- 
amiiton Kailioad crosses the line at this point. 

The line now runs up the valley of the Westfield lliver, passing 
Pochassic Hill and Mt. Tekoa on the r., and stoj»s at Russell (Russell 
House), in a mountainous town. Station, Huntington and Chester, after 
which the line jiasses into Berkshire County (see Route 'I'A). Beyond the 
borders of iJi rksliire and of IMaHsacJinselts the line enters New York State, 
and cnnnects at Chat hum with the Hudson and Boston \\. it. and the 
Harlem R. 11. From Chatham, It riniN N. W,, through Kinderhook and 
Behodack, In (IruenbuHli, and thence crossing the JIudHon on anoble briilge, 
enters the city of Albany. 

Connei'tiouH aiv here made with the NeW Vtul< Cellthd l(. tt. fo/ the West, mA 
Willi other vtmtes for >ii \v Yi>rU, SmatoHU Siirings, ic. Also witli llic ilmlisoji 
River boats. Fioni Albjuiv to I'tica, '.tu M. ; to Rome, lOit M. : to Hvrttciise, J47 
M. ; to RocliesLcr, 25:) M. ; 'to Rullhio, 2(i7 M. ; to Niagara Falls, 80'. M. ; to De- 
troit, bM M. ; to Chjt iiu'>. fei^D !^b These distances are calcidated on the N. Y. 
Central R. R., ami tlii' l.aUo Shore and Mirliigaii fSoiitlicrn I{. R. (via Toledo and 
t'l( Vfliiud^ wliicli il iiicetH at Hiillalo. Ry llic same route and tlu shortest lines 
beyond, the whole distance from lioston to Niagara Falls is ."<(>7 M. : to (."Inciao, 
1,022 M. ; to at. Louis, 1,:}02 M. ; to Umaha, i.Olu M. ; to (San Franejiico, 3,42'^ M. 



23. Tlie Berkshire Hills. 

Tills district will he considered in connection with its railway system, wliose 
various lines will be treated of independently C)f their eonneetiuns b*'youd ttte 
county limits. 

Tlie Rerkshire ilills form a l»eautif'iil and i)i('turesqiie district of mountains and 
laUes, ahuundiiig in (diarms lor tlie lover of nature. Thousands (»f city jieople 
lloek hither eveiy summer, and rest and relax amid sei^nes so peaeefid and attrac- 
tive. The best time for a visit here is in Oetolicr, " when the holiday h'U!* hft 


B-utcSd. \\?> 


tlielr wivatlieJ ami crowned Iii'uIh in th** i'BH|)lc'Hlt>nt days of nutunin." S;iy!4 
IJcfi'lier of tliis season in Hiiksiiiic, " ILivc llic evi-nin.; tlninls, snlliisc'l \vilh 
8un.-<ft, (lioppi'd down and iM-conif fixed into hoHiI rornis? Ilavi- tli'- lainhows 
tiiat followed antninn htonns tade<l upon lliends., and ieCt fiieir luantltM tlien-? 
What a nii:-,'lity diorns of colors do the trees roll down llii' \alley.s, n^i tlie hill- 
sides, and over tlie nits. 

" From S.disl>ni7 to Williani.stown and then to Rcnnin^fton in Vormnnt, thero 
Btretelu'8 a rounty of valleys, lake.s. and nits., that is y(>t to lie as celebrated as 
the lake-district o|' Kn;,djinif. or tlie hill-conntry of I'desiine." 

Another writer .say.s ; " IJerkshire in a rej^'ion of hill and valley, nit. and lakp, 
boantifnl rivers and laiiKliin'..; tii1>oks. -the very riednioiitof America." Godfrey 
CJreylock naively writes, "Somel.ody c.illed Berkshire the I'iediiiont of Anier- 
ici. I do not know liow just the a]ipeIlation may l»e, but 1 <lo know that if 
riediiioiit can rightly l)e called the lU-rkshire of Kurope, it must In; a very de- 
li^rhtful re'.,'ion." 

The njute from Hostoii to Central Herksliire is by the IJoston and Albany U. R. 
Distance to I'ittslidd, l.".l M. ; f.iiv, '^l. :?.'.. 

The route from New York to Herksliire is by tin' Ifonsati>nic 11. U. Distance 
to i'itlslield l(j<3 M. I'lttslield is r.ii M. fioni Sp'rini^licld and 'A .M. from Albany. 

"That section of the Western R. R. wliich traverses the wild liills of 
Berkshire is a work of ininiense labor, and a wotitlerful achievement of 
art. After leaviu}.^ the wide nieadow.s of tin; Conn., baskinj^' in their rich 
inheritance of alluvial soil and iininipc<led .snnsliine, you wind through 
the narrow valleys of the Westlield River, with masses of mt.s. before 
you, and woodland heights crowdini? in upon you, so that at every piitT 
of the engine the passage visibly contracts. The Alpine character of the 
rivej' strikes yon. At Chester you begin your ascent of 80 ft. in a mile 
for 13 M. The stream between you and the jirecipitous hillside, cramped 
into its rocky bed, is the Pontoosne, which leaps down jirccipices, nms 
forth laughing in the <limpling sunsliine, and then, shy as a mountain 
nymph, it dodges behind a knotty copse of evergreen. In approaching 
the summitdevel you travel bridges built a hundred feet above other 
mountain streams, tearing along tlieir deep-worn beds ; and at the 'deep 
cut' your passage is hewn through .solid rocks, mighty walls frown 
over you." 

" We liave entered Ikrkshire by a road far .superior to the Appian Way. 
On every side are rich valleys and smiling hillsides, and deep set in their 
liollows lovely lakes sparkle iik(.' gems." (Miss Skdowick.) 

While staging through this part of Berkshire, early in this century, 
Caj/tain Marryatt, the English novelist, derided the madness of "certain 
cru// »jiirits who have conceived the idea of constructing a railroad 
i^r(j>\\'^\ this savage region." 

Ff'/rii Tekoa Mt. to Wasliingtoji Summit the track rises 1,211 ft., or 82 
i"t. in A fffih: in sjontie Krtig stretches. The first station is Ikchet, in the N. 
of a large «<y«irn ai^oumling in lakes, from one of which flows Farmington 
Biver, which «iakt!»glad so niuch of Northern CVjuii. 10 M. S. of Becket 
l#t«tk*n is Otis (two inns), with the island-studded Great Lake. Station, 
Washinrftr.n^ mwmft the hills whic^h the Indiana called Tukonick. The 
village ii S. of the station in a pretty valley. Station, Jlinsdale, in a 

141 JinUlctS, 

Till: liKKKSIllltK HILLS. 

lar^'f town (so nainetl in lu)!jor of its first inistor) wliidi is " more ploasing 
to tlie lover <>!' fine inoiiiitaiii scenery, exhilaialiii^ Nreezes, and crystal 
fountains, than to the fanner in quest of fortune." The nits, here recede 
from the lin(! of the (r.-^k, and the tall hills of Peru are seen on the E. 
(r. ). Station, Ikilton (I'llagh' Hotel), originally named Dale-town, which 
has large ]>rip('r-factori('s. From D;ilton a highway leads to Windsor 
(rievcIaiKl House) 7 M. X. K., the Indian " OuMliiukaniaug," a loftily 
situated village in a town ricrh in Saxony and Meiino sheep, and "noted 
for the longevity of its inhahitants." Ahout 3 M. from Dalton, on the 
Windsor road, an; the Wahconah Falls, where a n»t. stream falls in 3 leaj»H 
over an 80-ft. clilf of gray nnirble. (» M. beyond Halton the train ])asse.s 
Silver Lake, and stops at the costly and handsome station in Fittsfield. 

Ilotoltt* .NnuTicaii House, on tlie Main St., 120 K'lests, at ;?lo-ly,0() h 
w<'ek ; liiirlciiiU floiise, opjinsite tlie >^itioii, ;;«!'- K'.(K) a Week, (iuod restau- 
rant in llie station. 

i'itttilield is a Iteiiutiful city of 11,113 inlial)itants, and is the centre and 
tajiital of v?(!rkshire County. Tt was settled al)()ut the middle of the last 
fcutury (1752) on the Indian domain of I'ontoosuc, and in 1761 it re- 
ceived its present ?iame, in honor of William Pitt, the English statesman 
and friend of America. 


In 1814 the Berksliire .Iiiliilee wn;^ In M liere. enlliu^; in tliniisnnds of tlie sons of 
the loiuity lidiii all iiiiitsoi' tin I'nion ; and on Sept. lil, 1K7:,', tlie largest nnilti- 
liKJi' ever seen in Berkshire ;i;ilhereil heic at the dedieation ol' the Soldiers' 
Monument. At sunrise the eln.icli hells ran^, and '.'-7 j.'uns were fireW, ami the 
])i-oeesHion included 8 hands ol' music, detaeliuienl.. Imni !• veteran regiments, the 
•Jd Mass. Militia reg., and '2 C'oiiiiiiainleries ot kiii^dit.i Teiiiidar. U. W. Curtis 
was the orator of the day. "The scldieis' niomiuants of the late war, hai>iiily 
arising in ev< ry town and in every village, with the heantiliil rites of Decoration 
Day, hallowiii.n the iiienmry of lieitu-;, are like the sining of liherty, flowing 
everywhere in the land." The nu'miiiiciit enusisls of ;i massive jiedestal on whieli 
is a bron/e statue of a lithe young soldier in latigue uniform, .standing at rest, 
with liis left hand holding a llag-statf, Jind the ligjil liaiid high up in the fohln of 
t'le flag. This "Color-!;, .iirr " was designed l>y I.aiint Thompson, and cast from 
tiie metal <if fj cannon given by Congress for the inn-pose. The pedestal contains 
the names of 5 oflleers and ixi'iueu who died in the held, out uf 1,'J.jU who enlisted 
at Pittstield. 

" A voice from hps wlioroon the ronl fmm Frecildin'R shriiii' luith been, 
'riirillcd, us l)iit yesterdny, tlic hearts iti Hrrkshiro's Miiuntniii men ; 
Tlu- crher.s of tluit Knlciun voice iirc; sielly liiicniiig still 
111 hII our sunny vnllej-s, on every wind-HWept liill. 

And 8nn<ly narnstnl)lo rose up, wet with the salt sea sprny ; 

And Mii.stol .sent lier unsweriiiL' shout down XiiiTopiinsott Daj' ; 

Aloin,' till' lirond Connectient old Ilninph-n felt the tlirill. 

And tlie eluei- of liainpshire .s woodmen swept down from Holyok© HiU. 

AVj .ifttrr-hiint in mir hnrdrrs — iiu pinili mi our utriiiul ! 
Nofi-tter» in l/ic Bin/ Sluti: — nit flave ii/hdi our hind .'" 


The nionument stands in the Park, a groon in the midst of the city, 
which is called the heart of Berkshire. 

Here, in the centre of an elliptical line of trees, stood the Old Elm, 
with its \M ft. of smooth shaft, and concentric ring.s representing 340 years 
of growth. After being twice thunder-smitten, the Old Elm became un- 

i fc- 




safe, and was taktii downj in lSt54, aniil the mourning of tli< county. On 
one side of the Park is the C'origregiu iojial Cliunh (of Hto!ie), w)u<re !)»•, 
John Todd (rt powerful and prolific writer) preached, ]hl2-70. Next to 
it is St. Stcplicn's llpi.soi j ' T'lmn h. At the end of tin- Tark is the 
elf'cjant wliitf niarlilo ♦Court House, whifh, tofjcther with tin- Jail (in 
(\;iotlier street), cost $40(>,*K)(). Nfar the Court, Hnusi-, uud fronting the 
Park, is the building of the Berkshire A thenaMiin, containing u tine library 
and collections of Iwal ouriositie.s. On the comer of North and West Sts. , 
near the Park, is the nol)!.- building of tlu!'i'j Life Insurance Co. 
On the main street are .some W\w biisiues.s buildings, and beyond tho 
American House is tip,' small but handsome marble Catheilral of St. 
Josi^ph. The French residents have, also, a (^atludic Church for their 
hundred families, and there is also n Oerin.m Lutheran Chureh. Beyond 
St, Joseph's is the Maplewood Institute (for young ladies), '* whose gracf'- 
ful chap<l, g\/i)nasium, and half ivy-covered tlwiUings gleam while 
through groves and avenues of fanu'd attractiveness." The Si cingside 
S(.'hool (lur boys) is on the borders of Pittsliild, in pleasant grounds. At 
one end of tlie main street is ths buihiing of the BerkJiire Me<lical Justi- 
tute, established in 1821 as an appanage of Williams College, but long 
ago discontinued. The Irinisfallen Greenhoiiso (5(X) ft. long) has a high 
reputation, and in tin- W. suburb is the Pittstiekl Pleasure I'a'k, with a 
race-course, games &c. The city is situated on a plateau 1.000-1,200 
ft. above the sea, and surroimded by loflv hills, the Taconics on the W. 
and the Hoosacs on the E. Beaiitiful villas .abound in the suburban 
streets, and extensive manufactures of cotton ami woollen cloths, lire- 
arms, and cars furnish emi>loynn'nt for the foreign population. The 
eity is su] ''litd with watir from Lake Ashley, a little n.m.antic loch 
which lies upon the summit of Washington Ml. (l.SOO ft. high), 7 M. to 
the S. E. Near this lake is West Pond, from which Roaring iJrook flow* 
down through Tories' Gorge to the Housatonii , 

Lake Onota (»;x'{ acres) is a1)out J M. W. of Pittsfield. From the hill 
where Ashley's Fort stood, a line view is enjoyed, but Ihe best i)rospect in 
from a long j>oini running from the N. shore, to which locality belongs the 
legend of " The White Deer of Onota." 

Pontoosuc Lake, " the haunt of the winter deer "(.575 .acres), is 3-4 M. 
X. of Pittsfield, on the road to Williamstown (20 M.). 

Berry Pond is to tlie N. W. in Ilanciock. "Berry Pond dues not derive iU 
iiauie Iroiii the ^ir.iwberries, bLieivbcrrie-i, uu't raspberriea, wliieli by tlieir ubun- 
dane.j in the vicinity wutihl .justify the appellation, but from an obscure, stout- 
hearted man who once >1 welt ui)()n its bonier, and wrunj,' subsistence for a large 
family of ^'irla out of the niar^jin of its rooliy chalice. Nothing can exceed the 
beauty ot this pond. Its margin is goinetimes a beach of silvery sand, strewn 
with tjlocks of snowy (luariz and delicate, tilirous mica ; aj^ain grassy and green to 
the water's edge; and yet again friiigeil with li>ng eyelashes of birch and hazel- 
trees, that dreamily gaze at their nUction in the mirror." (Taconic.) 

South Mountaiii is 2-3 M. S. of Pittsflel'l, From ita S. summit Greylock 

7 J 



I.C !::»- IM 

^ 1^ ill 2.2 


nr ti& 



\[±5 11 1.4 i 1.6 
















(716) 872-4503 








I I 


J : 

is seen in the N., "Mount Oceola and Porrj-'s Poalc in the W., tlie Lnnox Mt. in the 
K., and llie Mts. of Wushinyton in tlie E. The lity is close at liand in tlie N. with 
Lake «)ii()ta at its side. Xean-r is Mflvillc liatcc, or Lilly Bowl, near Lilly 
Oiic, so named from an old Mey Menilies of a herniitess named Lilly, who onre 
livcil in the valley. 

In the mts. N. W. of rittsficld, and distant several miles, are fome ronianlii^ 
pfiiiits. Below Mt. IIomwcc is the I'ldiniscd Land, a name !L,'iven with ^;rini New 
Ln.uland liumor to a tract of lan<l lor which ^'raiits were lonj; itromiscd and 
lonL:erdcli-.yed. On its W. summit is a jiretty lakelet whence J^uln (."jie (or valley) 
m;iy he dcscemhid to Lula tJascath', " a I'oam-w'hite c(jlnmn which finds its base in a 
cin-ular jiool of i)lack and ^dossy surface, overhung,' l»y a gray old huulder, and by 
masses of tangled foliiige." >S. (»f the i'romisetl Land is the Ujie of Promise, the 
7iear(-st (thoiiKh arduous) jiath to Berry Bond. 'I'hen conies Arhnxus Hill and 
Oiie, which are covered with arbutus in May, and beyond them is Old Tower Hill, 
with a tower whiidi commands a 1)n)ad view. 

S. of the J.,ehanon load (which runs throujrh Lilly Ope) is Doll Mt., wliere the 
Sliakers formerly worshiiiped, and wliieli tliey called Mt. Zion. .Silver Lake is in 
the K. environs, and Sylvan Lake is 2-3 M. L. of the city. The laij^er lakes here- 
abouts arc itrolific! in ]iickercl, but the trout Ikivc been nearly exterminated. 

O. Wendell Holmes lonj,' resided at a villa 2 M. N. of the <ity, on a small fami 
remaining from 'J4,(i0l) acres purchased 'uy hit; gnuidlather 'n 17"."i. Near him 
lived Herman Melville, the rover, and author of Kea-novels. " White Jacket," 
"Moby Uiek," and other works were written here, where he resided l.soO-GO. 

William Allen, 1). U., the pastoi, poet, an<l biofirajiher (1^20 -.'J9 Pres. of Bowdoin 
College), was born at PittslieM in 17S4. William Jlillcrwas boni here in 1781. In 
1S33 he begrn to harangue tin; pe(*ple in dillerent cities, ]'roiihesying the coming 
of the millennium in 18i;$. He built up a large sect, which fell to pieces when the 
appointed day passed and was .^een to lie like other days. 

Nef.r the station of itichmoiid are the remarkable geological phenomena of 
B'<'hinond Valley, consisting of seven jiarallel lines of boulders, stretching across 
til. valley from Perry's IVak lo Lenox Mt, in a S. E. direction. Thii; feature was 
carefully studied by Sir Charles LytP (in two visits), and is mai)pedand desciibefi 
ill. his " Antiquity of Man." I'erry's Peak is famed for its superb over-vi<!W. 

To New Lebanon Springs is a favorite excursion from Pittsfield. By 
tlie highway the distance is 12-15 M. ; the r.ailroad route is circuitoi:s, 
being by the Albany luie to Chatham, and thence up the Harlem Ex 
tension R. R. 

Hotel.— Columbia Hull, a fashion.ible and elegant summer-house. 

The thermal springs at New Lebanon liave won an excellent reputation 

for their efficacy in diseases of the skin and liver. The flow of the waters 

is very large, and its temperature is about 73\ There are many line 

<lrives and walks in this vicinity, the favorite of which is to the Shaker 

village, about 2 M. tlistant. 

The Shakers originated from a French sect wliich came to England in 1706, and 
Ann Lee, of Manchester, the daughter of a blacksmith and the wife of a black- 
tinith, joined them in 1758. In 1770, after emerging from a madhouse where she 
was "ontlned for reviling matrimony, she annoiuieed, " I am Ann, the Word," and 
soon after came to America, and was made the "Spiritual Head " of the sect. In 
1780 she produced a revival at New Lebanon, and converted many to Shakerism, 
Bt>oii after which the sect established its head-quaiteis there, and in 1?95 accepted 
the commonwealth covenant. She claimed the jiower of working miracles, and 
held thai 'Jhrist's coming was not the fulfilment or "the desire of all nations, but 
that the seccmd Divine advent must naturally be manifested in that particular 
ol-jeet, to wit, woman, whicli is eminently tlie desire of all nations." Motlier 
Anil made New Lebanon "the capital of the Shaker world, the rural Vatican 
vhich claims a more desjiotic sway ov<'r the mind of man than ever the Roman 
Pontifl' assumed. " On her death a peculiai hierardiy assumed the government. 
The First Elder, tlio successor of Mother Ann, aiipoiuts the second elder, and the 

» % 


Mt. in tlie 

:\\ii N. tvith 

near Lilly 

who once 

{'. loiiijinlii' 
grim Now 
iiuiscil iind 
• (or valley) 
its base in a 
kr, and by, the 
IS Hill and 
rower Hill, 

wliere the 
r Lake is in 

lakes herc- 
lated . 
sni.ill farm 
Near him 
ite Jacket," 
of Rowdoin 
in 1781. In 
the coming 
us when the 

n omen a of 
hini,' across 
feature was 
d descriliefi 

fieia. By 
irlem Ex 


the waters 
many fine 
le Shaker 

n 1706, and 
of a black- 
■ where she 
•Vord," and 
le sect. In 
9;> accepted 
iracles, and 
lations, but 
: particular 
' Mother 
iral Vatican 
the Roman 
ler, and the 


THE REllKSIIIRE HILLS. Rtmte 23. 117 

first and second elilress. Tliese four, called the "Holy Lead," romnln ser-luded 
in the church at Lebanon, and appoint sabordii?atc clerj^-. ini'ludini,' oiit> elder ia 
eai'li family. Thfir Scriptures arc. contained in the " Holy f/iws " and Order 
15 lok, which are claimed as works of iiisjiir itinn, and as jiartiy di.tatcd by the 
J{»'cordin,%' .Vn;.;el, .dthoiejn they rnav be .lincnded or lescinded by tlie Holy Lead. 
U-'like otlier .sects, the Siialieis claim that men may .join tlicir clnir.-li afterdcath, 
and amoiiK other illustrious posthumou-i mcndiers, they count Washin<.jt(»n, 
Lafayette, Napoleon, Tamerlane, and l'oc,ahonta.s. ■ l}y fr i^ality and imlustry 
tiu-y give us many useful thing's, but they<lo not prodinx the Uepnblic most 
tiecds, — men and women." * 

The .seet has been declining,' since the death of its great hearl and her disciplo<», 
bci-anse it has nn jiDwcr; of internal ih;vclopment. Tliere are matiy Hhaker vil- 
lages in the N. .\tlantic .SUxtcs, but the community at New Lebanon has dwindled 
to 2 I- ;! 1 members. 

:'. .M. S. W. of rittslield (by R H.) is a Shaker village, near Riihmond Pond, 
and a little way to the X. of it is a mountain (in Ham-ock) wliere the d(!votoes or 
this faith formerly held tiieir weird meetiui^. Tlieir tradition stito-4 that Iktc on 
J! I. Sinai, tlie Sh.akers hunted Satan throughout a long snmm-r night, and finally 
klili'd ami buried him. Over his grave, to this day, Wasiiington anl Lafayetle 
keep guard, ninunted on white horses, ami are sci-'ti on summer nights by tho 
faitluui who chance to pass their ancient shrine. 

From Pitt.sfiekl the Ilousatouic R. P.. runs tlirough Southern Berkshire. 
*' Of all the railroads near New York none can compare, for l)eauLy of 
Bcencry, with the Ilousatonic from Xewtowu to Pittstielil, but especially 
from New Milford to Lenox." (Bi:echi:r.) Fredrika Bremer spoak.s of 
'■" the wonderfully picturesque and sometimes .splendidly gloomy scenery " 
along the line of this railroad. By this route it is S M. to Lenox Station 
(nas.siug Soutli Mt. on the r. ), from wliich stages ascend to the village in 
2 ^L By a fine carriage road it is G M. S. of Pittsiield. 

Hotels. Curtis's Hotel accommodates 80 -100 gi.ests at s^-LOOadny. with con- 
siderable reductions for a long stay. There arc sevei-al large sumnier boarding- 
liouses liere (Mrs Flint's, Mre. Clark's, &c.), more quiet and inc^cpensive than tho 
liotel, and some of them better situated. 

" Lienox, known for the singular purity and exhilarating effects of its air, and 
for the beauty of its mountain scenery. If one sjicnds July or October in Lenov, 
he will liardly seek annther home for tiie smnuijr. The. ciuirch .stands upon the 
liighest point in the village, an<l if, in summer, one st.amls in the door and gazes 
upon the vast panorama, he might, without half the I'salmi;;t's devotion, i)refop 
to stiuid in the door of the Lord's house to a dwelling in tent, tabernacle, or man- 
sion." So says lieecher, wlioso "Star Papers" were written during liis'sunnner 
visits to Lenox, in a wdii(dj stood near the site now occu[tied by Gen. llath- 
V one's mansion. 

Fredrika Bremer wrote, "The country .around Lenox is romantically lovely, 
uisjiircd with wood-covered hills and the ]irettiest little lake.i." 

Tliis "gem among the mountains " ( was settled in 1750, and 
received tlie family name of the Duke of Taehmond. It is situated on a 
high hill, and contains the old Court (which nov, luis a library and 
reading room) and numerous villas pertaining to gentlemen of Eos'.on and 
New Vo.k. Fanny Kemble (Butler) long resided here, and wished to ba 
buried in the graveyard on the hill, saying, " I will not rise to trouble 
any one if they will let mo sleep here. I will only ask to bo permitted, 
once in a while, to raise my head and look out upon this glorious scene " j 

» Much of the forcpolnp account hr..s horn condensed from Ilwlfrhts Travels. The editor 
doe", uot know whether tlie govcmmtnt rcmuins now ia the same form. 



> * 

I : 

f I 


and Beecher adds, " May slie l)ehold one so much fairer that this scenic 
beauty si) all fade to a shadow." Lenox is the healthiest town in Berk- 
Kliire, and is 1,300 ft. abo\e tlie seadevcl. 600 summer visitors remained 
licre through tlie summer of 1S72. 

Jiald Head is 2-3 M. from the village (carriago-road to tlie top). From 
thi'; point is seen the rich Stockbridge Valley, the Bowl (Lake Mahkeenac), 
and the wide Housatonic valley on the S., with Laurel Lake and Rattle- 
f^nake Mt. on the S. E. On the N. and W. are Lenox and Oceola Mts., 
on the N. is South Mt., and on the E. are the tumultuous hills of Wash- 
ington, '-a view wide, rich, and joyous." 

The Stockbridge Bowl and Laurel Lake are S. W. and S. E. of Lenox, 
— each being 3-4 M. distant (see Stockbridge and Lee). A pretty view 
of Laurel Lake is gained from the first hill B. of the village, with Leuox 
Furnace near it on the 1. 

Perry's Peak is 6-7 M. distant, passing Lenox Mt. and Richmond 
Valley, This lone summit, which stands on the frontier of New York, is 
2,100 ft. high, and overlooks the Hudson, the Catskills, and the Green 
^Its. New Lebanon, " the Shaker capital, and Gretna Green of Mass.," is 
Lut 7-8 M. beyond the Peak. 

At Lenox Furnace, 2 M. S. E. of the village, on the R. R., are extensive glass- 
works, where, nmoni; otlicr varieties, the bust quality of plate-glass is made, from 
jtuie granulated quartz. 

Other exouisioiis arc to the Ledge, the Pinnacle, and Richmond Hill. J'he sun- 
set view from Cliunli Hill (nt the N. end of the village) is one of great hsauty, 
embracing even the distant Ureylouk. 

lee is 4^ M, S. E. of Lctiox, hy the highway, and 5 M, by f:>tage and R. 
R. Hotels, Morgan House ; Strickland House (in E. Lee). 

Lee was settled in 1760, and was named for one of the Virginian Lees, 
Avho were so distinguished in the Continental Army. Paper-making was 
early commenced here, and now the business has assumed vast propor- 
tions. But the town is most widely known for its excellent white marble, 
ofv.'hicTi $1,000,000 worth was used in building the U. S. Capitol at 
V/ashington. The (iuarri(is are close to the village on the S., and lie be- 
tween the R. K. and the river. The State fronts the sea with a line of 
granite and greenstone, while it fronts to the W. with hills of gneiss, slate, 
mid marble. The Lee and Hudson, and Lee and New Haven Railroads are 
projected routes, which, if finished, will increase the importance of the 
town and diminish the romance of the Berkshire Hills. 

Laurel Jjike is a pretty sheet of water 2 RL N. of Lee, that should be 
visited in the late afternoon to catch " the delicate evening lights that 
glance from its trautpiil suiface.'' 

The Yokuni Ponds are among the hills a few miles S. E, of the village, 
Rud near the romantic Monterey road. The numerous summer visitors at 
Lee make excursions to Stockbridge (4 M.), Lake Mahkeenac (4-5 M.,) 
Tyringham and Monterey, (11 M.V and (4i M.). 


THE 13EHKSIIIKE HILLS. lloutc 23. 149 


ill Berk- 

). From 
I Kattle- 
.la Mta., 
af Wash- 

' Lenox, 
tty view 
li Leuox 


York, is 

le Green 

lass.," is 

jive glass- 
lade, from 

•The sun- 
lit beauty. 

^e and R. 

ian Lees, 

iking was 

: propor- 

e marble, 

*apitol at 

id lie be- 

a line of 


ias, slate, 

1 roads are 


ce of the 

■ 'i^- 

should be 


ghts that 


le village, 

visitors at 


4-5 M.,) 



(Stockbridge House, 70-80 guests, open only in summer. S 3.00 a day, 
812-18.00 a week) is 6 M. from Lee by R. R., and 4 M. by the highway. 
Stockbridge is one of the fairest of what Gov. Andrew called "the deli- 
cious sui^jrises of Berksh're." It is " famed for its meadow-elms, for tho 
picturesque beauty adjacent, for the ({uiet beauty of a village whicli 
.sleeps along a level plain just under the rim of the hills." (Bkkchkii. ) 
The hotel fronts on the wide, main street; to its 1. is a beautiful littlu 
marble fountain from Italy; and before it is the quaint and jiicturesque 
Episcopal Church, of ivy-grown and weatlier-staincd wood, with its sweet 
and deep-toned bell. On a verdant lawn near the church is a brown- 
fitone shaft with sculptured trophies, inscribed, " To her sons, beloved 
and honored, wlio died i'or tlieir country in the great war of the Rebellion, 
Stockbridge, in grateful remembrance, has raised this monument." On 
the same side of the street, to the W., the fourth house is the ancient 
house where I']dwards wrote his famous treatise on " The Freedom of tlie 
Will." Some distance beyond is the Congregational Ch\irch, with a large 
cemeteiy in front of it. On tlie Green near by is a fine m..raorial monu- 
ment to Edwards, built of jiolished Scotch granite. 

On the main st., E. of the hotel, is the Jackson Library, a neat little 
stone building containing 4 -.0,000 volunies, a cabinet of minerals, certain 
relics of Edwards, and a marble tablet, on which are inscribed the names 
of 134 officers and men who went from Stockbridge to the Secession War. 
On the street diverging from the Library is a small Catholic Cliurch of 
marble. Beyoml the Library is the old Academy with a long semicirclo 
of elms in front, a copy, in living trees, of the stone porticos before St;. 
Peter's Church in Rome. Back of the Academy is Laurel Hill, with a 
turf rostrum m a glen surrounded by trees and I'ocks. Here in late 
August of each year meets the Laurel Hill Association, devoted to pre- 
serving, protecting, and increasing the beauty of tlio village ami its en- 
virons. On the heiglits above the village are the mansions of David Dud- 
ley Field (for 40 years a prominent N. Y. lawyer and jurist), II, M. 
Field, D. D. (author, and for many years editor of the " Evangelist " ), Ivi- 
son (the publisher), Prof. Joy (of Columbia College), and the old Mission 
House, built by "the Great and General Court of His Majesty's Provinc3 
of Massachusetts Bay " early in the last century. The view from thejo 
heights, especially about sunset, is one of the most beautiful in nature 
(it was pronounced by Dr. McCosh equal to any in Scotland), embracing 
the rich valley of the Housatonic to the E. and W., with the valley of 
Konkapot River stretching away in the S. to Monument Mt., Bear Mt. 
iising close on the 1. and the tufted Evergreen Hill divi<ling the valley. 

A great people crossed drop waterr. from a far-distant continent in the N. V\'. 
anil m-nrlied by many pilgnmaiics to the scr.-ihoro and the valley of the Hudson. 



150 Rnulc23. TJIl-: liEUKSIIIRE HILLS. 




1 ; 

1 i 


1 t 

,1 1 


Ilcro tln-y built rilios and livpfl, until a pc-it famine srattf-rod them find vrry 
many of tlifin died. Wandcrinj; for years in ((iiest of a iirecarious living, " tiiey 
losl tiieir arts and manners," and a jtart of them settled by the Housatonic. River. 
Hneh were traditions of the Muldiekanew Indians t(dd to I'resident l)\vi;.'lit. In 
1734 the rolony established a mission, and sent John Hprgeant to teaeii the Mnh- 
hekanews (" jieojile of the great moving waters ") at tiieir village of lloiissatonnuc. 
wliich was named Stoetcbridge. 'I'iiis tribe was ever frii-ndly to tlie Englisli, anu 
gladly receivetl the (iosjiel, lirst from the teaehings of Sergeant, who labored liere 
1734- 4!», and translated the New Testament, and jiart of the Old, into tiieir 
language. In \.> years he baptized 12!) Indians. He was succeeded by Jonathan 
Edwards (preacliing by interpreters, 17r)l-7\ who in tnrn was sneeeeded by 
Stephen \V(!st. .Many ol tlie Indians enlisted in the C'ontiminUd Army, and a 
company of them won liigli distinction at the battle of Wliite I'laiiis. In 17rjl 
there were 15(t Imlian families here, and bnt (i Kn^lish families ; bnt by 1783 tliR 
balance had cliaiigc<l, and Jolin .Sergeant's son, tlien their jiastor, led the tribe to 
New Stfjckliridge, on land givt n by the Oneiila tribe, in Western New York. 
Abont 400 people were nnmbered in this emigratioii. They remainetl there ;!4 
years, and tlieii moved to Wisconsin, where they stayed 17 years more, and aiiout 
the year 1S40 moved to the; vicinity of Leavenworth, in Kansas. Where they have 
been crowded to since, this record cannot tell. 

In KiGO the great Hachem Checkatiil>nt, head of the Massachusetts Indians, 
with 700 warriors, marchcil from the sea to the Hudson on a cam])aign against 
the .Mohawks. TIk; latter, concentrating their IVirccs at the great tribal fortress, 
repelled all assanlts and made tierce sorties, until the men of Massaehu.setts, llrid- 
ing their ])rovisi()ns failing, and tlie whole country rising about their ears, beat a 
retrezit. Their march was jn-obably directed on fStnckViriilge, as being the seat of 
a rich, peaceful, and friendly trii)e, where they could hope to get food and aid. 
13ut a powerful force i>f Moliawks, by a forced march, got ahead of them and laid 
an ambush among the dense foi-ests and rugged ravines of Lhe Taconics (Tagh- 
kanak, " tlie Avood place," or " Forest Hills"). The retreating warriors tell into 
the snare, an<l in the long and desiicrate conllict which ensued, ('iieckatiibut and 
58 of his sagamores were killed, together with a great portion of the men. Only 
a handful succeeded in reaching the coast again. 

At the close of King Philii)'s War, the remnants of the insurgent confederation 
took refuge in the S. Berkshire Hills. But Talcott's " Flying Army," from the 
K., and the Mohawks, from the W. made such devastating inroads upon them 
that they sjieedily maiie their submission. 

Among the natives of Htockbridge are H. M. Field. D. D., the editor; Cyni.<j 
W. Field, the jM-ojector and organizer of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable ; E. Bacon, 
the jurist ; J. H. llart, the author; and Caroline M. Sedgwick, the popular au- 
tlHUcss of "Redwood," "Hope Leslie," &c. 

Jonathan Edwards, the greatest of American metaphysicians, was bom in 
Conn., 1703, and a ter 30 years of preaching he settled at Stockbridge. Here ho 
wrote the remarkable treatise on " The Freedom of the AVill," in whose close and 
subtle argument }ie maintained "that philosophic necessity was comjnitible with 
freedom of the will, rightly delined, and with human responsibility. Tall and 
.slender in jicrson, lit; had a high, broad, bold fortihead, piercing and. luminous 
eyes, and a countenance indicative of sincerity and benevolence." The great re- 
ligious awakening which convulsed the frozen churches of New England before 
the middle of the last century was largely caused by his marvellous sermons, un- 
evadable in their directness, incontrovertible in their logic, and terrific in their 
luritl earnestness. Probably no preacher since Chrysostom has had such power 
of striking convulsive terror into an audience ; and this he did simply by his 
words ami by his intense earnestness, and without any of the graces or artifices 
of oratory. 

While President of New Jersey College, Edwards died (1758), leaving "The 
Freedom of the Will," "Tht; Re'ligious Affections," and "The History of Ue- 
dciinption," as his great moimments. These, and his other writings, includuijj 
many sermons, lill 10 octavo volumes. 

"These thn;e, Augustine, Calvin, and Jonathan Edwards." 
*Lake Mahkeenac (Stockbridge V,o\\\) is 3-1 M. N. of the village by 
admirable roads. This is a bcatitifui, calm lake, surrounded by hills, and 







■with the village find Kpiro of Curtisvillc jieering above the trees on the S. 
The best way is to go up by t..o road on the heights, leaving Mahlioenuc 
on the 1. and passing around its N. end, return on a road W. of the Lake 
through Curtisvillc. 5 niin. walk from the latter village is a beauliful 
little tani called Lake Averick, or Mountain Mirror. Hawthorne lived 
in a little rod farndiouso near ^lahkeonac for a year and a half (18.">0-51), 
but remembered the many-sounding sea on whose shores he was bom and 
had lived, and says but littlo ai)out this mountain-water. But he found 
rare i)lcasure in watching the mountains themselves. " In its autumn 
lines, Monument Mt, looks like a headless sphinx wrapped in a rich Per- 
sian shawl" ; ''this valley in which I dwell seems like a vast basin filled 
with sunshine as with wuie; and the changes of the seasons on Monu- 
ment and Bald Mts., and the black-purple dome of Taconic, with the 
winter sunset which has a softness and delicacy Avhich impart themselves 
to a white marble world." 

* Monument Mt. is 3-4 M. from Stockbridge. The Great Barrington 
road is followed to tlie top of the ndge, then a wood-road diverges to tlio 
r. Wi)eiw2 M. from the N. summit a i>alh is taken which conducts to 
Pulpit Rock, the Profile (beyond the N. summit), kc. On the E. side is 
a white quartz cliff of vast depth, detached from which is the Pulpit. 
From the summit a noble * view is gained, embracing the Ilousatonic Valley 
for many leagues, with its fair villages and mountain-walls, while the 
Green Mt. and Greylock tower in the N. and the Catskills may be seen 
in the \V., if the day is clear. 

" To the north a pnth 
Conducts yon Tip the narrow l):ittleinent«. 
Strep is the wostcrn side, shopgy nnd wild, 
With many trees nni\ jiinnucles of flint. 
And manv a linnphty ernjr. But to the cast 
Sheer to the vale so down the hiire old elifTs, 
Huge pilliirs that in middle Heaven iinrear 
Their weather-bentcn capitals — here dark 
With the thick moss of centuries, and there 
Of chalky whiteness, where the thunderbolt 
Hath smitten them." — Bryant. 

The Mt. derives its name from a eaim whirii was, made of stones, to •which 
each passing Indian added a stone. The legend states that it was raised over a 
bijautiful maiden who passionately loved her cousin, and being forbidden by tlio 
Indian laws to marry him, she threw herself from a lofty clitf and was dashed in 

Icy Glen is about U M. from Stockbridge, by the road crossing the R. R. just 
to tlie 1. of the station, — and leaving the road near some houses at the mt. foot, 
go Tip into a romantic glen, with seats arranged about it. From this point a wil(l 
chaos of rocks, caverns, and trees extends through a long ravine, where ice is 
found in July. This i.s t!ie N. end of Bear Mt., on top an ob.sen'atorj- has 
been i-aiscd, commanding a neat view. It is gained ])y crossing the river on a 
wire foot-bridge near the Main St., and takiiig a pleasant forest-path up the slope. 

Ex(!ursions are made from Stockbridge to Leo, Lenox, Great Barrington, and 
Mt. Everett, also to the romantic and desolate town of Monterey (11 M. S. E.). 

"If you wish to be tilled and satisfied with the serenest delight, ri<le to the 
summit of this encircling hill-ridge " (above Stockbridge) in a summer's afternoon, 
while the sun is but an hour high. The Hou.satouic winds, in great circuits, all 
through the valley, earrj'ing willows and alders with it wherever it goes. The 


' , 


horizon on every side is pilod and terraced witli mountains. Abrupt and isolated 
mountains bolt up here and there over the whole stretch of plain, covered with 
evergreens." (Bef.chkr.) 

Oreat Barrington is S. of Stockbridge, 8 M. by R. R,, 6^ M. by high- 

Hotels: Berkshire Hotel, a roomy old stone building, $10-14.00 a 
week; Miller's Hotel. This "is one of those places which one never en- 
ters without wishing never to leave. It rests beneatli the branches of 
great numbers of the stateliest elms." (Bkixher.) Fine macadamized 
roads are built around the place, on which excursions are made to Monu- 
ment Mt. (-4 M.), Monterey (8 M.), and Sheffield (6-7 M.). In the vi- 
cinity is a curious rock formation called Purgatory, while a path leads to 
the top of E. Mt. in 2 M. The Berkshire Soda iSprinr/s (small hotel) aic; 
about 3 M. to the S. E., amid wild scenery. S(;veral fine villas are in the 
outskirts of the village, and the Cong, and Epis. churches, on the main 
street, are fine buildings. 

A daily stage nms to New Marlboro' (Centre House), which has a large cave 
with .stalactites, a rocking stone of 30 tons, and Hermit PtMid, near which a lone 
hermit lived from 1770 till his death, in 1817. He was a woman-hater, and epito- 
mized the female character thus, : — 

" They sny they will, and they won't ; 
What they promise to do, they don't." 

W. of New Marlboro' is Sandisfield, with Seymour and Hanging Mts. and Spec- 
tacle Ponds. Here was born Col. John JJrown (1744), a lirave partisan officer in 
the Revolutionary War, whose fearless and fanatical Puritan grandson. John 
Brown, invaded the powerful State of Virginia at the head of 20 men (Oct. 16, 
1850), intending to become the liberator of the slaves of the South. The Virginian 
militia gathered quickly, attacked him at Harper's Ferry, killed most of his men 
(including his two sons), and ca'ptured the wounded leader. He was hung, ac- 
cord hig to the sentence of the law, in November, "and met death with serene 

A daily stage runs from Great Barrington to N. and S. Egremont, 4-5 M. S. E. 
The Mt. Everett, in S. Egremont, is a small and secluded summer-hotel, 
situated about 5 M. from the lofty Mt. Everett, and in a thinly settled town 
abounding with lakes. The a.scent of Mt. Everett is "along a vast, luiculti- 
vated slope, to the height of nearly 2,000 ft., when you reach the broad valley 
where the few inhabitants reside, in tlie centre of a vast pile of mts." The 
town has but 256 inhabitants. Dr. Hitchcock thus describes tlie * view from Mt. 
Everett : " You feel yourself to be standing above everything around you, and 
possess the proud consciousness of literally looking down ui)on all terrestrial 
scenes. Before you on the E. the valley through which the Housatonic meanders 
stretches far N. in Mass., and S. into Conn. ; s}>rinklcd over with copse and glebe, 
with small sheets of water and beautiful villages. To the S. E. a large sheet of 
water appears, of surpassing beauty. In the S. \V. the gigantic Alander, Riga, 
and other mts. more remote, seem to bear the blue heavens on their heads in 
(^alm majesty ; while stretching across the far distant W. the Catskills hang like 
the curtains of the sky. O what a glorious display of mts. all around you ! This 
is certainly the gi-andest prospect in Mass., though others are more beautiful." 

Mt. 'Washington town was an apjtauage of tlie great Livingston Manor, of New 
York, and was first settled by the Dutch, as were Egremont, Great Barrington, 
Sheffield, and Salisbuiy. The tourist may wonder at the apparent lack of origi- 
nality displayed iii the name of the town, but without reason, since this is tlie 
first of the many American towns named in honor of the great Virginian, its name 
having been given by the State Legislature in 1776, as being a fitting title for the 
loftiest town in Mas.sachusei,ts. 



THE BERKSHIRE HILLS. lioxitc 2.i. 153 

In Egreinont occurred the last engagement in Shays' reliellion. when the insur- 
pents, after plundering Stockbriflge, were attucketl here by the Great liiirrington 
militia, and 40-fiO were killed and wounded. 

Bash-Blsh Falls (see Halisbury, Conn.) are about 10 M. from the Mt. Everett 
House, by a road runiiinK down through Mt. Wasliin;.rton, and around Cedar Mt. 
The view.s of Mt. Everett, Elk, Alaiider, and Cedar Mts. are line. 

6 M. S. of Great Barriiigton is Sheffield (Miller's Hotel, small), ** full 

of rural simplicity and lieauty, richly decorated with lovely valley and 

majestic mountain scenery." It is a ([uiet village, with a broad, shady 

street, in a ricli intervale of the Housatouic, and is chiefly noted for it« 

marble, of which Girard College (Philadelphia), with its huge columns, 

was built. Pictures(iue roads run S. into Salisbury, and N. W. into 


Bishop .Tane.s, of the Methodist Chureh : D. D. Bamanl, 8 years M. C. and 
Minister to Prussia, iHl'J-5:{; V. A. i'. Bamanl, President of Columbia College 
since 18G4 ; H. D. and T. Hcd^'wick, lawyei-s. the latter of whom wad derided tor. 
introducing' a bill in tlie Iie-,'islatnre, i)ro,ieetin!t,' a railroad from Boston to Albany 
(1827) ; Chester Dewey, D. 1)., ch-n^yman and l>ot;niist ; Orvdlo Dewey, D. D., the 
Unitiuian divine ; and Judge Daniel Dewey, — were natives of Shcflleld. 

Northern Berkshire 

is approached from Pittsfield by the Pitlsfiold and N. Adams Branch R. 
R. There is also a romantic road leading through the western valleys and 
remote from the R. R., passing Pontoosuo Lake, and then through the 
glens between the Saddle- Back Range and that line of mts, which stretch 
from Old Tower Hill to the tall peak of Berlin xMt. Tliis road passes 
through the villages of Lanesboro, New Ashford, and S. Williamstown. 
The R. R. first crosses part of Lanesboro (station, Berkshire, 2 small 
hotels), a town which has beds of snow-white granular quartz, used here 
in the manufacture of superior cylinder glass. Variegated marble al.'so 
abounds here. In 1(576 King Philip attacked Lanesboro with 1,500 men, 
and effected its destruction. H. W. Sliaw was bom in this tnwi in 1818, 
and has since 18(53 attained a higli reputation as a humorist, under tho 
name of "Josh Billings." The line here enters the valley of tho Hoosac 
River, which it follows to N. Adams. Cheshire is the next town, in a 
fertile alluvial valley surrounded by lofty hills. Tliis town is famous for 
its dairies, and in 1802 its people sent as a New Year's gift to President 
Jefferson a mammoth cheese weighing 1,4;jO pounds. Before reaching 
Cheshire Harbor tlie great Saddle- Back Range begins, on the W., about 2 
M. from the track. A road leadcs from Cheshire Harbor E. into Savoy, 
a wild mt. town, with one small village called Savoy Hollow (Green Mt. 

S. Adams (the birthplace of Susan B. Anthony) is next reached. From 
S. Adams is the shortest and easiest of the routes to the top of the ma- 
jestic Greylock Mt. which towers over the valley. This is the highest mt, 
in Mnss. .and commands a *view "immense, and of amazing grandeur." 

7 * 






154 Route S3. THE RERKSIllRE HILLS. 

Till! road runs W. uinl then N., crossing a spur of the mt., from which 
l»rctty \iews of the vulh-y of the Iloosac and its villages are gained. De- 
ficending now <A'er a very rough road, the Notch (sometimes called tho 
iJcllowH I'ipt", from Ihc gusts whicli draw through it) is entered. Tho 
mt. just crossed is called Mt. Hawks. At Waldeu's house the Notch 
road is left, and Mt. Williams is rounded on its N. side, then the clcaririg 
hetwccn Mts. Williams Prospect is j)asscd ; the long W. slope of a 
ridge is ascended, and alttr a southerly walk the summit is attained. A 
straightor and simi)U'r, though less pictures(pie, way is right up the S. 
slope from S. Adams. 

The simniii) of (Jrcylock is iiartially rlp.irrd, and ovp.-lnoks tho valley of tlio 
Iloosac oil tlie N. with its villa^'cs, and the peaks of tlie (Jnieii Mts. beyond. N. 
olio, anil .S. of K., nearly GO Al. away, are Mts. Monndnock and VVaehusett ; (hio 
S. E., nearly 40 M. distant, are Jrlts. Tom and Holyoke. .Southward are the many 

{leaks of the Berkshire Ilills, bounded by Mt. Everett, with Pittslield and its 
akes, and other villages and towns. S. W. are the Calskills, and it is thought tiint 
the Mts. in the N. AV. are those which environ Lake (ieorge. Saddle Mt. and 
Saddle Ball are close to (jreyloek, and resjjectively N. ami S. The jintlis to tho 
Hununit of (Jreylock are diliicult and easily lost, and the excursion will require a 
long day. 

N. Adams (* Wilson House, expensive and first-class, with 100 rooms, 
Imilt by Wilson, the sewing-machine inventor ; Berkshire House) is a 
prosperous manufacturing village, on the Iloosac River. It has 20 cotton 
and woollen milis, and various other industri'js, employing 3,600 hands, 
and turning out § 7 - 8,000,000 worth of goods a year. Some neat villas 
and a tine high-school house have been built, and tho town expects great 
benefit when the Hoosac Tunnel is done, by the junction of railroads here. 
The population in 1870 was 12,092. 

About 1 M. from the villape (to the E.) i.s the Natural Bridrje, on ITiulson's 
Brook, when; the waters have woni a passage tlirougli tlie solid rock 30 rods long 
and l^ ft. wide, leaving an arch of stained marble above it at a height of 30-60 
ft. This cavernous jiassage was a favorite resort of Hawthorne, who spent the 
sununcr of l.«;;?8 at N. Adams, and often bathed in the waters of the brook. " The 
cave makes a fresli im]ire.ssion upon me every time I visit it, — .so deep, so in "gular, 
80 gloomy, so stern ; part of its walls the pure white of the marble, others covered 
witii a gray decomjHJsition and with spots of nio.'^s, ami with brake growing where 
there is a handful of earth. I stand and look into its depths at various points, 
and liear the roar of the stream re-echoing up. It is like a heart tliat lias been 
rent asunder by a torrent of passion, Avhich has laged and foamed, and left its 
ineffaceable traces ; though now there is but a little rill of feeling at the bottom." 

The Ciutcmlc in Notch Brook is about 1^ M.from the hotel, and has a fall of 30 ft. 
It is situated in a pretty glen. 

From the hill E. of the village are " various excellent views of mt. 
scenery, far and near," with " Greylock, appearing, with its two summits 
and a long ridge between, like a huge monster crouching down slumber- 
ing, with its head slightly elevated." Other fine prospects are gained 
from +he various hills which surround the village. 

2 M. S. is the W. end of the * Hoosac Tunnel. This stupendous piece 
of engineering is designed to furnish a shorter route by 9 M. than now 

, f 


Roule S3. 


im wliich 
cd. I)e- 
illed tho 
ed. TIio 

10 Notch 
i clcarin{» 
ope of :i 
ined. A 
ip the S. 

loy of iho. 
yoiul. N. 
isett ; due 
! the iiiuny 
(1 and its 
ju^lit lliut 
e Mt. and 
Ilia to tho 
require a 

10 rooms, 
)use) is a 
20 cotton 
30 hands, 
leat villas 
cts great 
)ads here. 

) rods U)ng 

of m - 60 

spent the 
lii. "The 
) in "gular, 
rs covered 
viny where 
us points, 

lias been 
lid left its 
e bottom." 
ill of 30 ft. 

vs of mt. 
> summits 
re gained 

lous piece 
than now 

exists from Boston to tho Hudson, with easy grailes. By opening a new 
line to the West, it is hoj>ed to re»luce l»y competition the jircsent hi^'h 
tarilTs on through freight. The tunnel is to be 4'^ M. long, cut through 
the IIoosaL Mt., whose vast bulk running N. and S. closed the way. Tho 
Nertlie Tunnel in B. Frrucc, and the Woodhead Tunnel in F^ngland, an) 
each nearly '6 M. long ; so the Iloo.sac Tunnel will bo second oidy to that 
at Mt. Cenis, which is 7^ M. long. Tho work is nf)w undertaken liy tho 
State, and has been a fearful drain on the treasury, having already cost, 
since 1855, §5-6,000,000, and half as much more will bo needed In 
finish it. Less than 2,000 ft. of excavation now remains to be done, and 
it is tliouglit that the E. and W. cuttings will meet by Nov., 1S73. From 
a valley between the peaks of the Iloosac Mt. a great shaft has been sunk 
to the grade level, and the boring operations have been conducted in each 
way from this point toward the excavations at the E. and W. ends. Tn 
1872, the cntting which was being ma<le from the shaft westward met tho 
tuimel from tho W. end in the heart of the mountain. 

Tlie mountain consists of solid niiiua slate, except at tlu! \V. end, whcro 
great trouble was given by a soft, treacherous " porridge stone," through 
which a tube of brick 900 ft. long was built. Tlie cuttings through tlie 
biate-rock are done by power drills propelled by conii)ressed air (pressure 
of 6 atmospheres) and are afterwards exploded by nitro-glycerinc. 
I Six-horse stages leave North Adams daily for the passage of Iloosac 
I Mt. to tlio E. end of the tunnel (8 M.). After a long, slow ascent by zig- 
zag gradients, the W. crest of Hoosac is gained, with a view of Greyloclc 
in the S. W. and the broa<l sweep of the Taconic Hills from the parent 
range in Vermont to the blue and cloudlike soutlicm peaks. S. Adams 
is plainly visible, and the valley of the Hoosac stretcliing W., and tho 
broad, central valley of Berkshire running S. Descending the slope to tho 
plateau, the buildings over the Central Shaft are seen. The lofty and 
winter-worn plateau is soon crossed and the E. summit is climbed. 

A noble view is obtained from this point, above tho romantic i;c)rKe of tho 
Doerfield River to Wachusevt Mt., "and beyond it the blue and indistinctive 
scone extended to the E. and N. for at least (>() M. Beyond the hills it lool-ed 
I almost as if tlie blue ocean might be seen. Monadnock was visible, like a saji- 
jiliire cloud against the sky. The scenery on the E. side of the (Jrecn Mts. is in- 
eoin])aral)ly mere striking than on tlie W. where the long swells and ridges havt a 
flatness of eif'ect. But on the eastern part, jieaks 1-2,000 ft. higli up "ii 
eitlier bank of the river in ranges, thrusting out their shoulders side by side. 
Sometimes tho preeii)ice rises with abrui>tness from the imiuediate side of tite 
river; sometimes tliero is a vaUcy on either side; cultivated long and with all 
the smoothness and antiiiue runility of a farm near cities, this ge itle ]iiclmc is 
strongly set off by the wild nit. frame around it. I have never Iriven tlinngh 
such rumantic scenery, when; there was such variety and boldness of mt. sliapcs 
as tliis ; ami though" it was a sunny day, the mts. diversified the view with sun- 
shiuo and shadow, and glory and gloom." (Hawthokxe.) 

1 At Hoosao Tunnel station, at tlie E. foot of the nit., one meets the 

U\\h\i^ of the Vt. an<l :\IaHs. 11. K. 

15G Route i3. THE nKRKSHIUi: HfLLS. 



About 1 M. W. of N. AtlmnH, ami beyond the small factorj- vilhigo of 
Braytonvillo, tlio road to WilliainNtown itoshos tlic railroad aiul tlie Iloo.sar 
River. Nuar thi.i .Tossing a small olm is seen in a mradow about 20 rods 
from the track. This eliii stamls on the site of old I'ltrt Massachusetts, 
" the Thtrmoi>yl{r of New Eni^dand." (Evkkktt.) 

This was built in 1744 ns onf of n ronlnn of fort« to proti-rt the front iem. Fort 
Diuiinicr K'lanifd tlif N. nmlr ddwii tin- ( onii. vality, and this fort was to bloclv 
\\\) till! W. roulf tliinii-Ii tie IIiiiis(fii, llfiosac, ami T)('i'i(lfl(l v;illcys. In IT-l'i 
Col. Willinjiis ami many ni< ii iminli»Ml lioncc to Allinny to join tlic nrniy for in- 
vadin.'^ Canada, l>ut inciiiiw liilc tlic •■iicmy iiiaiic a ll;inl< nianli, and tiie Chev- 
alier dc Vaiidrt'iijl atl.'uKfd ijir fmt lit tin- licid of !ioo rrctich and Indians. Scr- 
Roant IlawUs and '22 men held llic jilacc for 4H hours apiinst this ovcrwholniini,' 
force, and only surn-ndcrcd wlii-n cm ly i^iniu of iiowdcr was exhausted. The 
Franoo-Imlian force lost 47 men l»c(ore the furt. 

From Fort Massadinsctts the highway, railroad, and river run through 
the narrow valley lo Williamstown (Mansion Ibmse, 125 guests). This 
is a beautiful village situated in a fertile valley which is grandly moun- 
taiii-walled. From its air of aeadenne (luiet it will be preferred as a 
summer-home to its neighbor, N. Adams, wliieh is too j.rosperous to 1x5 
still. The reason of Williamstov/n's being is Williams College, a nour- 
ishing institution (founded in 1793), with 11 instruetors and 101 students. 
W. Co]lege and Kellogg Hall a?'e opi)Osite President Hopkins's house on 
the main street, and beyond them, to the E., is a cluster of buildings 
embracing the Chapel, Alunnd Hall, the octaf-oiud Lawrence Hall (con- 
taining a library of 12, '^00 volumes, many portraits of graduates, and 
some bas-reliefs from Nineveh), the E. and S. Colleges, the fine stone 
stnicture called Goodrich Hall, and GrifTm Hall, Opposite the latter is a 
brownstone shaft sustaining the bronze statue of a soldier. It was erected 
in memory of the students of the college who died in the Secession War. 

Col. Ephraim Williams, the founder of Williams Collc-ro, was born at Newton, 
Mass., in 1715. He was lieut. -colonel of the 8th Ma.ssacdiusetts IU% at the siej/e 
of Louisbourg, in 174.5, and commanded the trans-Connecticut forts from 1718 In 
1755. In 1755, with his regiment, lie joined Gen. Johnson's army, and whih' dI 
Albany he made a will leaving his estate for tlie erection of a school in a town io 
be located W. of Fort Mass. to be called Williamstown. Shortly after, wliile, 
marching with 1,200 men to engage near Lake George, his command 
was ambushed and overpowered, and Col. Williams was killed. The school 
established in 17!iO, in a brick linilding (the present W. College), and was char- 
tered as Williams College in 170.'i. Its presidents have been F)r. E. Fitcli (17{';5- 
1S1.5), Dr. Z. H. Moore (1S15- 21), Dr. E. D. Griltin (1821-30), and Mark Hoplun.s, 
D. D., LL. D., an able and active writer and scholar. 

. Near W. College is ^f^lls Park, with a marble .shaft surmounted by a 
globe, which indicates the place Avhere Samuel J. Mills, " the Father of 
Foreign Missions in America," and his comjianious, consecrated themselves 
to the mission-cause (1807). Mills originated the A. B. C. F. M., and the 
American Bilde Society, and died at sea (after exploring Liberia for a site 
for a colony of freedmen) at the early age of 35. 
About 2 M. N. of the village is the famou.s Sand Sjmng, with e.vten- 


■ village of 
the TlooHac 
lit 20 rnd^ 

it lent. Fort, 
viiH to Mod; 
ys. In 17in 
niniy for iii- 
1(1 tlic Clitv- 
Kliaiis. Sor- 


uiskd. Tin; 

mi tliroupli 
l^sts). This 
iitlly niouii- 
ifeiTcd an ii 
[;ron8 to bo 
ge, a llonr- 
Dl stiKlunts. 
i's house on 
oi LuiUliiigs 
e Hall (coii- 
(luates, and 
e line stone 
le latter is a 
; was erected 
lession War. 

•n at Newton, 
, nt tlie sii'frn 
s from 17 IS In 
lUi'l while ill 
in a town to 
' after, wliilc, 
his command 
he school was 
nd was char- 
Fitch (17t>:{- 
ark Hoi)ldn.s, 

ountcd by a 
e Father of 
i themselves 
M.,aud the 
da for a site 

with exten- 

Hive bathing-housi's. Tlie abiunhmt waters maiiitaln a teinperatiuv of 
about 7<>', Rixl an; benilhial in nitaii^'ouH dist aNts. * (jreyloik ilall is a 
lav^e new hotel recently (»])eiu'd at this, coninianding jileawaiit val- 
ley views. A siiort walk to the iV. lett<ls into the riiggetl town of I'ownul, 
ill tlie State of Vtrniout. 

About 18 M. N. W. (by U. U.) isth'.' Bennington battle-field, near iloo- 
Kw. Junction, in the State of New York. 

Mt. Hopkins, 8. of WilliainHtown, is often ascended (2,800 ft.) for the 
f ake of its views of Greylock, the Ctreen and Taconic Mts. the valleys of 
tin- Hoosac ind Green Rivers, and the far-iUstaiit Hudson. 

The Hopper is a gulf surrounded by a vast amphitheatre of mts., gained 
by ;i road running S. from the colleges, which is left about 4 M. out, and 
a wood-road is followed uii the glen in which flows Money Urook. The 
three walls of the Hopper are Hald Mt. (S.), Prospect Mt. (N.), and 
(Jicylock on the E. Far up in this stupendous gulf are the finest<le.s 
in lU-rkshire, rarely visited and difhcult of access. A noble view down 
tiie Hopper is obtained from liald Mt. which is crossed in the ascent of 
(Jieylock, sometimes ascended on this side. 

S. Williamstown (small inn) is a village about midway {2h M.) between 
the Greylock grouj) on the E. and the New York Mt. of Berlin on the N. 
W. The Snow Glen (wliere snow remains always) and Flora's Glcu 
(wlicre William CuUen Bryant composed " Thanatojisis " while a student 
at Williams College, and but 18 years old; it was first jiublished 5 years 
alter, in 1817, in the "North American Review " ) are favorite resorts near 

The Troy and Hostoii R. R. runs to Troy, in New Yc" , 44 M. from "beautiful 
Williunistown on her cla.s»ic heiyhts." 

24. New York to Quebec. 

Also New Haven, nurtfonl, and Sitrin^iliild to Montreal, Ouebec, and the 
FiaiK'onia Mts. Distances, New York to Queliec, 5'JO M. • to Ljuxc Memjihreina- 
go^', a<J5 M. ; New Haven to Quebec, 45.'i M. ; Hartford to Quebec, 417 M. ; 
bprinylield .o Quebec, 31»1 M ; Sprinyfield to Lake Menii>lireniagoy, li^D M. 

The line between New York and Springfield is described in Route 21. 
In the station at Springfield the traveller leaves the New York and Bos- 
ton train, and gets into the cars of the Conn. River R. R. Time is usually 
allowed for refreshments (small restaurant in the station; if time allows, 
the best dinner in New England may be obtained in the Massasoit House, 
alongside the station). 

The first station N. of Springfield is Chioopee {Cabot House). The 
Dwight Go's, Cotton Mills, at this place, employ 2,000 hands, with 70,000 
spindles, and make ^ 20,000,000 worth of goods yearly. The Ames 
Manufacturing Co. employ 4-500 men in makhig machinery, brass can- 
non, fine swords, and bronze statuary. The equestrian statue of Wash- 





158 RcmU^l 


inf^on, at Boston, many soldie.'s' monuments, and the superb bronzo 
floors of the Senate at Wasliington were cast here. The doors of the 
House pf Keprcstintatives were cast at Munich, and those of the Senate 
were to have been made there, but the over-prudent Bavarians demanded 
prepayment from th.; U. S. Government (it was the darlccst year of the 
Secession War). With a i)roper spirit this was refused, and the work 
was givn to the Cliicopee Foundry, thougli but little was IcMied from it. 
To tlie surprise of all, the doors wore finished admirably, and challenge 
comparison with the best of Munich work. During the Rebellion, this 
foundry was woi'ked night and day, and suppl;i.d the Republic with vast 
amounts of shot and shell, and ovor ],00C cannon. 

At Cliicopee Falls, 2 M. H, are cotton-mills employing 1,000 hands, 
besides large factories which make farmers' tools. 

Station, Willimansett, about 2 M. N. of which is S. lladley (S. Iladle, 
Falls Hotel), a pretty village on a hill near the river. This is the seat of 
the famous Mt. Ilolyohe Female Seminary, " designed to give a solid, 
extensive, and well-b.ilanced English education," while tlie pupils are re- 
quired to do the general housework of the institution, for the sake of a 
thorough knowledge of that useful art. After leaving Willimansett, the 
line crosses the Coimecticut and stops at Holyoke Station {Ilolyohe 
House ; Samoset House). This is a rapidly growing manufacturing place 
of 11 -12,000 inhabitants, and is located at the South lladley Falls, 
which furnish the greatest water-power in New England. Timothy Dwight 
speaks of " the fantastic beauty, excessive force, and sublime majesty of 
these Falls Until I visited this spot, I kncAv not that it was possible for 
water to become so beautiful an object." Within 1^ M. the river falls 6C 
ft., and opposite the town a dam has been built 30 ft. high and over 1,000 
It. long, throwing the water into a canal system 3 M. in aggregate length- 
which can furnish pr ./er enough to drive 1,000,000 spindles. The origi- 
nal dam of 1 847 Avas burst away before the water had fdled it, and the 
jircsent one (1849) contains 4,000,000 ft. of lumber, spiked to the ledges 
on the botton of the river, and plated with boiler-iron. Tlie leading 
staple of Holyoke is paper of all sort?, of which about 5,000 tons are 
made annually by 800 v/orkmen. 750 men are engaged in the thread 
mills; 450 in making woollen cloths (beavers, doeskins, and cassimeres); 
and about 2,000 operaiives make 5-0,000,000 yards of cotton cloths, 
prints. &c., yearly. 

Holyoke has about 11,000 inhabitants, and is surrounded on three sides 
by the river. It is now building a new Town House, at an expense of 
$ 170,000, and otherAnse adorning its streets, which run along the E. side 
of a hill. 

At IihjlesiJe, 2^ M. from Holyoke, is a favorite sumuier-resort upon the high- 
lands which overlook the valley. 


)erb l)ronzo 
oors of tho 
the Senalo 
s demaiuuHl 
year of the 
cl the work 
ted from it, 
bellion, tliis 
c with vast 

,000 hands, 

' (S. Iladlo, 

the seat of 

ive a solid, 

ipils are re- 

e sake of a 

nansett, tlie 

in ( Uolyoke 

turing jdace 

idley Falls, 

jthy Dwight 

majesty of 

possible for 

•iver falls 6C 

d over 1,000 

gate length- 

The origi- 

It, and the 

the ledges 

Tlie leading 

)00 tons are 

the thread 

eassimeres) ; 

tton cloths, 

1 three sides 

expense of 

the E. side 

pon the high- 

The railroad passes ont in full view of the great dam, whose fine water- 
« fall has been removed by the necessity of 1 uildiiig out an ineline'd j)lane, 
to prevent tlic eating out of tlie ledges by the heavy peipendicular fall. 

After leaving Ilolyoke the line nnis N, between the river and tho long 

rimgo of Mt. Turn (on the 1,), while J//, lh>hjr.1:c is seen ahead on tlia r. 

Tlie train now jiasses through the gap between these two nits,, and xVm- 

lierst and Mt, Warner are visible on tho r, front, leagues away over tho 

rich vrdley, while Easthampton and Pomeroy's Mt, are scon on the 1. 

The line crosses the river to Ox Bow Island, which was a peninsula until 

1S40, when a rush of the swollen river cut through its isthmus. After 

crossing the rich intervales bordering on the river, the train enters 


Noiiotuck was bonj^ht of its Indian owners, in 1G53, for 100 fathoms of wampum, 
10 coats, &(•,, jinil was iianu'(l Nortlinni])ton, since many of its settlei-s camo t'roni 
tliat En><lisli town. .Solomon iStodilanl was for ;J0 years pastor here, ami was a 
man of j^'ravo and majestic appe iranee. He rode once throu;,'li an aml>usli in tho 
forest, ami when the French soldiers were ahont to shoot iiim, the awe-strucl; In- 
dians stoojied them, savin,!,', "That is the Enf^ishmen's God," The villaije wan 
svuTonndcd hy a palisade and wall, which, however, was stormed in three jdaeea 
liy Kint? Philip's Indians (1070). Tl'ree veteran eonipanies were del'-ndin.:^ tluj 
})iaee, and after a desperate eonllict in the streets the assailants were driven out. 
The church was built in lUoo, at a cost of ii 14, and was "20 ft, by 18. The present 
old church is the fourth on that site. The Christians were called to meeting; by 
the blasts of a trumpet : 

" Each innn eniiipp'"! on Sunday mom, And looked in form- ns nil prant. 

With psuliuuucik, shut, and powder-huiii, Like th ancieut truu church militant." 


In the old er meterv'are 1 ried 4 Senators nf the United Stjdes, — Ashmun, Mills, 
Bates, and rttroiiR, the latter of whom was for 11 years (lov. of Mass., and. opj)os- 
ing the War of 1S12, limited the exertions of tho iState to her own defence. Hero 
also is l)uried David Hrainerd, a heroic and jinwerful missionary to the Indians, 
author of " Mirabilia Dei apud Indi(50s," and son-in-law of .lonathan Edwards. 
Edwards was pisbtr here, 1727 -Til), and "was dismissed fcjr insisting on a higher 
and purer standard of ailiuission to the eojumunion tabic" The Dwiirhts. Aliens, 
and Ti'ppans were Northampton families jirolitic in altln men, and W. D. Whit- 
ney, the leading American iiKiluloyiat (ono ot the tincsL yanscrit Bchoiara iu the 
world) was bom liere in 1827. 

Northampton (* Fitch's Hotel ; Mansion House ; Warner House) " is 
the frontispiece of the book of beauty which Nature opens wide in the 
valley of the Conn," An tourist (Stuart, in 1833) calls it "the 
most beautiful village in America." Its broatl and shaded streets and 
handsome villas are placed in a rich tract of broad intervale and about 1 
M. from the river. Tliere are a number of stores and public buildings on 
the broad street near Fitcli's Hotel (anew and extensive housa), and in 
this vicinity is the brownstone building occupied by the Trustees of the 
Hnxilh Chanties. 

Oliver «mith, of Hmfield, died in 1845, leaving $370,000 for charitable objects. 
The youths and maidens and widows of the eight adjacent towns receive, under 
certain conditions, loans, dowries, and small pensifni.. from this fund. By skill- 
ful management on the part of the Trustees (who are chosen by elec^tors from the 
eight towns), the funds had increased by 1800 to §854,000, and by tlie terms of 

I " 


»'■ i 


Mr. Smith's will, the whole amount (whatever it may be at that time) is to be do- 
voted to the estalilishmt'iit of an aj/ri cultural school in this town in the year 1906. 

The Fariniu^'ton Canal w.i.s conipleted in 1831, at a cost of $GOO,000. It was 78 
M. lonjr, running from Xorthamiit'iu to New Haven, and has been disused since 
the railroads were built. 

The New Haven and Northampton Railroad (Route lo) runs hence to New 
Haven (70 M.) in 3-3^ houis. Also to Williamsburg, M. N. W. 

On a beautiful liill W. cf the village, and surrounded by groves of 
forest trees, is the large and imposing * Jlmind Hill Water-Cure and 
Hotel (open all the year), with Tiu-kish and chemical baths, billiards, 
bowling, a band of music, and accommodations for 200 guests. This site 
was once occupied by a famous classical school, the Massachusetts Eton, 
founded in 1823 by George Bancroft, the historian, and J. G. Coggswell, 
the author. The views thence are very extensive and jjleasing. On the 
same hill is the 67fl>7je 7/?6Y<7«^iV;i /<//• Mutes (endowed with $300,000), 
which teaches the system of articulation in place of the sign alphabet. It 
accommodates 80-90 persons. In the same vicinity (1 M. W. of the 
village) is the * State Lunatic Asijluvi, with imposing buildings which 
pccommodate 350 patients. Tliese buildings are 512 ft. long, and have 4 
acres of floors, and are under, the superintendence of Dr. Pliny Earle. 

Florence is 2\ M. W. of the village, and is the seat of several factories, the 
f'Lief of Wiiich is that o! the Florence Sewing-Macliine Co. In their great quad- 
rnigle of works this comi)any makes 12-l.!),(tu0 sewinp-machines yearly. 

Mt. Tom (more properly called Nonotuck) is directly S. of Northampton 
(4-5 M. by road). It is 200 ft. higher than Mt. Holyoke, and commands a wider 
view, but is seldom visited, on account of the difficulty of its ascent. 

*Mt. Holyoke, "the gem of Mass. Mts.," is 3 M. S. E. from North- 
ampton. A carriage-road winds upward to the summit, but the usual 
route is by horse-cars from the ferry to the mountain railway, up which 
passengers are drawn in small cars by a stationary engine. Upon the 
summit a small hotel was built in 1821, whose site is now occupied by 
the Prospect House. 18-20,000 persons ascend the mt. every season. 
The carriage road is ^ M. long, and the railway, in its COO ft. of incline, 
vises 365 ft. perpendicular. Betwe",n the building of tlie railway in 1854 
and its remodelling in 186(3, 125,000 persons ascended on it. The summit 
is 1,120 ft. above the sea, and 830 ft. above the river, and is part of a 
greenstone vidge tunning from West Rock at New Haven to Belchertown. 
The invincible trap-rock of the mount resisted the glaciers during their 
long grinding attacks, but the great lake which, according to Indian tra- 
dition, filled the basin to the N,, at last broke away between Nonotuck 
and Hoi yoke,, and became a river. Western Mass. is underlaid with 
gneiss, but the Conn. Valley has r. belt of coarse, new red sandatoue 
10 - 16 M. wide, of the Permian and Triassic systems. 

From this peak is " the richest * * view in New England, if not in the 
U. S." It has often been called, by distinguished visitors, the finest view 
in America. . . 


') is to be (lo- 
;he year 1906. 
0. It was 78 
lisused since 

ence to New 

groves of 
'.r-(Jure and 
IS, billiards, 
This site 
isetts Eton, 
, Coggowell, 
ig. On the 

phabet. It 

W. of the 
lings which 

and have 4 
y Earle. 

factories, the 
r Ki'eat quad- 

lands a wider 

from North- 
it the usual 
ly, up which 
Upon the 
occupied by 
very season. 
t. of incline, 
way in 1854 
The summit 
is part of a 
Bel chert own. 
during their 
Indian tra- 
in Nonotuck 
derlaid witlr 
!d sandstone 

f not in the 
le finest view 

On the S. are seen numerous villages in the valley, Spria^jfieid, the gracoful 
sinuosities of the broad river, the distant spires of Hartford (40 M.). the Blue and 
tiie Lyme Mts., and East and West Rocks at New Haven (70 M.). ti- W., beyond 
Mt. Tom, are glimpses of the valley of WestflcKl lliver. and on the W. i'om- 
eroy's Mt. and the high hills of Hampshire and Central Berkshire are seen. N. 
W are 8,000 acres of ganleu-like n:eadow3, witl* Nortiiampton directly over them, 
and above the village, 4'J M. away, is Greyiock. " in ilim and misty grandeur." 
Fa.thcr to the r. the hills of Franklin County arc st^cn, ('.(Muinated by Mts. Toby 
and Sugar Loaf, while in the far N. the blue jieaks of the Green Mts. overlook all. 
The great lacustrine basiu of the Conn., 20 M. by 15, is nearer, in the N., with fair 
Hadley on its " plaided meadows," in a bend of the river, and Hattield just across 
the river and intervales, under the shadow of Mt. Warner (to the r.). .M. N. K. 
is Amherst with its colleges, and beyond, "far in the N. E., rises in insulated 
grandeur the cloud-capped Monadnock " (uO M). In the E. Mt. Wachusett (35 M. 
away) rises above the crowd of hills which till the E. and S. E. 38 towns are 
seen from this lofty peak, with parti of 4 States. 

There are good views from other i)eaks of the Ilolyoke Range (whicli is 9 M. 
long), and at its W. end are lofty clitts of columnar basalt which have been named 
the Titan's Piers. 

In 104-2 Capt. Holyoke. on the 1. bank, and Rowland Thomas on the r. bank, led 
exploring parties up the Conn, valley. Tiiey arc s-iul to have met near this 
mount, and lo have talked across the river at Rock Ferry, when Holyoke gave his 
name to the mount near him, and Thomas gave his name to the one on his side of 
the river. The people have not assented to the self-asserting spirit shown in this 
•tradition, for Mt. Holyoke is usually associated with the learned classical scholar 
of that name who was President »>f Harvard College, 1737 -U'.', while the other 
name has been cliitped into -Mt. Tom, and its ancient Indian name, " Nonotuck," 
is now gaining ground in tlie countryside. 

Old Hadley is 3 M, N. E. of Northampton, over the river, and lies on 
the E. of a ricli and level intervale, containing 2 - 3,000 acres, which is an- 
nually overflowed by the river. The Connecticut here makes a curve of 
7 M. to accomplish 1 M. of direct course, and the neck of the peninsula is 
crossed by the street of Hadley . West Street was laid out before the 
settlement as 1 M. long and 20 rods wide, but by the encroachments of 
the river and the inhabitants, it has been reduced to a length of 300 rods 
and a width of about IG rods. This wide, park-iike * street is adorned 
with about 900 ancient elm-trees, 4 lines of v/liich stretch from river to 
river, and is called " the handsomest street by nature in New England." 
Middle and Sts. are also wide and shaded avenues, rui'.ning N, 
and S. On the meadows near this charming rural village great quantities 
of broom-corn are raised, which, with much of the same material im- 
ported from the West, is made into broom.s and brushes. This industry 
was commenced in 1790, and now amounts to over $200,000 a year. 

In 1650, fierce theological discussions were carried on at Hartford, and many of 
its wealthier families left the place in search of peace and good-will, and settled 
on the Indian domain of Norwottock, whi(!h they named in honor of Hadleigh, in 
Sutfolk, England. In 1(504 (Joffe and Whalley, two generals of the Army of 
Parliament, and judges of the cour^ which put King Charles I. to death, came here 
and lived for 15 years concealed in the pastor's house. They had been forced to 
fly for their lives after the Restoration, and after 3J years of hiding about New 
Haven they came to Hadley. Their pres'^nce here was only known of by three 
citizens. On Sept. 1, 1075, while the people were assembled in the church, in 
fasting and prayer, the town was attacked by swarms of Indians. After a sharp 
light, the English gave way, when Gen. Goffe, "an ancient man with hoary locks, 
of a most venerable and dignified aspect," appeared suddenly, commanded and 


1G2 liouu 

■-} / 





led a fresh attack by the people, ami scattered the disjiiayed Indians in all direc- 
tions. He then disappeared to his hiiliny-place, and the astonished vilhigers, for 
nianj years, attributed their dcliveran<>(' 1o the visit of a militant angel. Gen. 
Wlialley diofl iicre, and was buried, in \(u'.\ and Cioffe died a few years later. 

In 1076 700 Indians attacked the town just after the Falls Fight, but after a 
lon>j;and bilter struggle they were repelled with sievcre losses. 

F. U. Huntington. Kitiscojiai Bisho]) of Contrn' Now York, was a native of this 
village. Joseph Hooker, " Fighting . Too," was born at Hadley in 1815. He was 
distinguished at the battles of Monterey and Chapultepec, in the Mexican War, 
and bore high commands during the Seee.s.sion "War. At Antietani, he commanded 
the r. of the army, and afterwards, at the head of the Army of the Potomac, he 
was defeated in a h)ng and terrible battle at Ciianrfdlorsvillc, Va., losing 16,000 
men. In 1863-4 he did brilliant service in the battles resultant on the reoccu- 
jiation of Georgia and Alabama by the National armies. 

Hatfield (Ilaljield Ifousc) is al)out 5 M. from Northampton. It is a 
small and beautiful village 1^ M. N. of Old Hadloy, and i.s noted for its 
early battles. In 1675 it was attacked liy 800 Indian.s, but the veteran 
companies of Moseley and Pike fouglit desperately amid the burning 
houses, and held the town till succor came, sutfering heavy losses. In 
May, 1676, 600 Indiaii 5 attacked the place, and destroyed many houses, 
nnd in 1677 it was taken by a flotilla, wliose men carried the riverward 
palisades, and killed and captured 24 persons. 

Easthampton (see Route 15) is 4 M. S. W. of Northampton. Amherst (see 
Route 12) is 7 M. N. E., on the road which crosses the river on a bridge 1,080 ft. 
long, and passes through Old Hadley. 

After leaving Northampton, the Conn. River Railroad passes near the 
Great Bend of the Conn, in siglit of Old Hadley (to the r. ), then diverges 
from the river, ■'/hich is not seen again for 30 M. Station, Hatfield, be- 
yond which the track runs near the base-line of the State Trigonometrical 
Survey (39,009.73 ft. long), which is laid along the plains of Hatfield and 
Whately (on the r.). Stations, X. Hatfield and Whatcbj (^Vhately 
House), whose village is seen in the W. Beyond the village is the far- 
viewing Mt. Estlier, and tlie picturesque Whately Glen, witli its cascades. 

The train passes Sugar Loaf Mt. and stops at S. Deerfield (small hotel). 
A road leads from the village to the Mountain House, on the summit of 
the conical S. peak of Sugar Loaf Mt., which rise3 sheer from the 
meadows and near the river. From this point is visible the broad, rich 
valley, with its villages of Amherst, Hadley, Hatfield, Northampton, and 
several others, with Holyoke seen beyond the Titanic gateway between 
Nonotuck and Mt. Holyoke. Close at hand on the E. is Sunderland, 
under the shadow of Mt. Toby. 

The rich and peaceful valley seen from Sugar Loaf was the scene of the bloodiest 
tragedies of King Philip's ami the liter Indian wars. King Philip directed the 
movements of tlic western Indians fromliis head-quarters on this peak, — so runs 
traditio.i. Table Rock is a beetling clitt'on the E. side, beneath wluch is a seat 
cut in the rock, called King Philip's Chair (see Bristol, R. I.). A sharp skirmish 
took place just S. of the Mt., in August, 1675, when 26 Indians and 10 colonists 
were killed. 

In the Is. part of S. Deerfield village is a monument on the Blooihi Brook hattle- 
fidd. tiept. 18, 167^, Capt. Lathrop and 84 men were convoying a train of grain- 

i ill all direc- 
villfigera, for 
angel. Gen. 

IS later. 

, but after a 

native of thi.s 
815. He was 
Mexican War, 
e comnianrled 
Potomac, he 
losing 16,000 
1 the reot'cu- 

on. It is a 
oted for its 

the veteran 
the burning 

losses. In 
any houses, 
le riverward 

Amherst (see 
idge 1,080 ft. 

5es near the 
lien diverges 
Hatfield, be- 
Hatfield and 
y (AVliately 
e is the far- 
its cascades, 
small hotel), 
summit of 
er from the 
! broad, rich 
ampton, and 
vay ])etween 

the bloodiest 

directed the 

a,k, — so runs 

ich is a seat 

larp skiiinisli 

10 colonists 

/ Brook huttk- 
rain of graiu- 

NEW YORK TO QUEBE'". Route 24. 1G3 

w.igons from ruhied Dcerfleld to Hadley, and as they passed over n small Irrook, 
tliey stopped to rest and pick the wild grapes win, h hung in clusters over its 
watt'ii. While thus disbanded, they were suddenly attacked by 7<I0 Indian 
warriors. Lathrop ordered his men to take refuge behind the trees and fire from 
their slielter, but they were speedily enveloped by the enemy, and but 7 men es- 
cajied the general massacre, whicli includetl the teamsters and reajjcrs and 70 
soldiers. Oapt. Moseley, "an old Jamaica buccaneer," manlied rapidly to the 
Sf ind of the volleys, and charged and recliarged in .solid rompany front through 
the lieathen swarms. Major Treat and 100 Moheganaiid Peipiot Indians (allies of 
tlie Ihiglish) also marched up from iladley, and 9(3 of the hostile warriors were 
kilk'd on the field. 

A rude monument was soon erected here, and in lS3r) the people of 5 towns as- 
sembled and (ledicated a fine marble monument, with an address by Edward 

" In the country, districts that nestle in the dells .seem to have been there for 
ten centuries at least ; and it gives one a shock to light on such a i>lace as Bloody 
Brook, and to be told that only 100 years ago Capt. Lathrop was slain here by 
Bed Indians, with 80 youth, 'the flower of Essex County,' as the old Puritan 
histories say." (.Sir Charles Dilke.) 

About 5 M. N. passing (on the r. ) the monument, and tlien the long 
ridge of Deertield Mt., the line approaches the Deerfield River, and stops 
at Old Deerileld (Pocomtnck hDuse, good). Tliis place was settled by 
men of Dedliam in 1670, on tlie Indian doniain of Pocomtuck, and was 
named from the abundance of deer found in its forests. 

Sept. 1, 1675, the village was attacked and burnt, and then abandoned. It was 
a'ter harvesting its deserted fields that sucli di.siuster befell at Bloody Brook, " n 
choice company of young men, tlie very flower of Essex County, none of whome 
were ashameil to speak with the enemy in the gate." In 1G1»7 a fresh attack was 
made, but it was rei)ulsed by tlie peojjle, headed by their i)astor. Rev. John Wil- 
liams. Feb. 29, 1704, while the watch was sleeping, and the snow had drifted 
over the jialisades, 2 liours lu^t'ore iliylight, the place was attiicked by Major de 
Rouville, with 'MO French and Indians. Tlie walls were easily jiassed, and a ter- 
rible scene of slaugliter, jiiliage, and conflagration ensued, which lasted for three 
hours. But one house escaped, and it-' lonpholes were guarded by 7 bold colo- 
nists, whose wives were casting Vmllets for their guns. 47 English were killed, 
and 180 taken prisonera. A few escai)ed, and alarmed the lower towns, and Hat- 
field .sent a force in pursuit, which overtook and was defeated by De Rouville on 
the same day. Mrs. Williams was murdered in the Leydcii tJoi-ge, and i>ther 
weakly captives soon shared her late. On the first Sunday of their march north. 
Rev. John Williams preached from the text, "My virgins and my young men 
are gone into captivity." Arrived in Canada, the juisoners were forced to attend 
Roman Catholic services, and Mr. Williams was ollVred his freedom, a pension, 
and his children, if he would join that church. He sternly refused, but 2S of hi.s 
peoj)]e chose to remain in Canada, and joined the Roman Church, " whence kindre<l 
blood now rattles bad Fremdi in Ca;iaila or sputters Indian in tlie N. and N. W." 
The captives were kindly treated by the Fi^-nch, and 60 of them were redeemed 
in 1706. The i)astor's little daughter, Eunice (7 years old), who was kept by the 
Indians, afterwards marrie.l an Indian and became a Catholic, and often in after 
ye;;rs made visits to DccrlicM with her tribe. Not one iota of regard for the cus- 
toms of civilized life, or for the tenets of the Puritan Church, remained in her 
heart. Rev. Eleazer Williams, the jiretended Dauphin of France, and Bourbon 
Prince Royal, a'oout whom (a <iuiet missionary among the Indian.s) tho newspapers 
made such a great sfiiisation, was Eunice's grandson. 

Tliis laid on Deertield was a crusade, for the Mass. Puritans had captured a ship 
which was bearing a bell to the Catholic Church at St. Regis. The bell was hung 
in the Puritan meeting-house at Deertield, and was taken thence by the invaders, 
under the cai'e of their chaplain. It was can-ied to the St. Regis Church (near 
Potsdam, iI^N. New York), where it has sounded matins and vespers for nearly 
170 yeare. The same De Rouville attacked Deerfield again in 1710, but was hand- 
somely repulsed. 





1 ; 

'. \ 

w • 


Among the natives of this town were Richard Hildreth, the gifted liistorian of 
the U. H. ; Edward Hit(;heofk, the geologist, and President of Amherst College ; 
John Williams, D. U,, i)resent Episcopal Bishop of Conn.; and Gen. Rufus 
Suxton. beyond Deerfield, the railroad reaches the Deerfidd River, which 
it crosses on a bridge 750 ft. long, and 90 ft. above the water. This 
bridge was burnt during the draft riots (in Greenfield) in 1864, and was 
rebuilt in six weeks. 

Station, Greenfield (see Route 25). From this place the line runs N. 
E. to Bcrnordston, a small village under the shadow of West Mt. This 
cold and lofty town was granted in 1736 to the veterans of the Falls 
Fight. A few min. after passing Bernardston the train comes in sight of 
the Conn. River, and reaches the station-house at S. Vernon, the terminus 
of the Conn. River Line, 

The train now passes on the rails of tlie Vermont Central R. R. Sta- 
tions, S. Vernun, Vernon, and Brattleboro, see Route 12. Beyond 
Brattleboro are the stations, Dummerston, Putney, E. Putney, and West- 
miyister, which pertain to small hill-villages. In Putney are long strata 
of roofing-slate ; and the rare mineral called fluor spar (of a rich emerald 
green) is found in tlie E. of the town. In 1755 a strong timber fort was 
built on the Great Meadows in Putney, which protected the settlement 
until the conquest of Canada rendered it unnecessary. All the inhabitants 
lived in the fort in small houses. 

At Westminster occurred a sharp skirmish in the course of " the contest be- 
tween Puritan and Patroon " (as the struggle of Vermont against the royal edict 
which gave her to New York has been termed). The royal New York judges were 
to hold court here, but the citizens cajitured the Conrt-House, March 13, 1775, 
and were only dislodged by an attack at midnight. Several Vermonters were 
wounded, two of them mortally, and one of these l..'s inscribed on his tomb- 
stone : — 

•• nere William French his body lies. 
For Murder his blood for vcriBeancc cries, 
King Gcorpe the Third his Tory crew 
Tha with u bawl his head shot threw." 

The oldest church in Vermont is in this village (1 M. S. of the station). It was 
built in 1770, and has been secularized. Across the river from Westminster is the 
old frontier town of Walpule (see Route 26). 

Station, Bellows Falls (* Island House). Tliis was a favorite Indian 
resort because of the great numbers of salmon and shad near the rapids. 
8 rods S. of the old bridge, on the W, bank, Schoolcraft found Indian 
hieroglyphs on the rocks, which he thinks are the records of some ancient 
battle. The village was named for Col. Bellows, the founder of Walpole, 
and great-grandfather of Dr. H. W. Bellows. The river falls 42 ft. 
within ^ M. near the village, and forms white and impetuous rapids, 
dashing between and among the rocks which strew the river-bed. In 
low water the current is compressed into a channel of 16 ft. in width, 
between two large rocks. A canal J M. long has been built around the 

NEW YOKK TO QUEBEC. Route 24. 105 

1 1 liisturiiin of 
herst College ; 
1 Gen. Rufus 

River, which 
water. This 
864, and was 

line runs N. 

St Mt. This 

of the Falls 

es in sight of 

the terminus 

R. R. Sta- 
12. Beyond 
ey, and West- 
e long strata 
rich emerald 
iber fort was 
lie settlement 
le inhabitants 

the contest be- 
the royal edict 
)rk judges were 
tfarch 13, 1775. 
srmoiiters were 
1 on his tonib- 

^tion). It was 
stminster is the 

ivorite Indian 
,r the rapids, 
found Indian 

some ancient 
r of Walpole, 
■ falls 42 ft. 
tuous rapids, 
*iver-l)ed. In 

ft. in width, 
ilt around the 

falls, aud on the water-power thus afforded, several factories arc located. 
Opposite the falls is Mt. Kilbnrn, a wooded eminence which gives a pretty 
view of the river and village. The old name of this hill was Fall Idt., 
but President Hitchcock and a large delegation of students from Amherst 
and Middlcbury Colleges met here in 185(5, and named it Mt, Kilbuni, in 
honor of a brave frontiersi.ian. The Fall Mt. House is situated at tho 
foot of this eminence. 

Pleasant cxnirsions are made by the summer visitors here, to Warren's Podd, 
in Alstead, N. II. ; to tlie Ahcna/iuis Mineral Spring.'^ ; and to IVrMiiiinder. 

From Bellows Falls tiie Cheshire P. R. runs S. E. to FitdilmrK' and Boston (114 
M.), and the Rutland and Burlinytou R. R. goes to Burlington (143 M. bco 
Route JC). 

Tlie train crosses the Conn. River into the State of N<nv Hampshire, 

and runs through tlie long river-town of Charlestowti, with 3 pleasant 

villages aud 3 inns. 

This town was settled under the authority and by the people of Massaehuseits. 
in 1740, and was nanieil Number Four. A garrisoned fort was located here, and 
between 174(> and 1760 the enemy eommitted many depredations in the vicinity. 
The fort was foniially besieged ill August, 1740, and after a suecessful defence, tlio 
garrison and eolnnisfs abandnned the place. In 1747, Capt. Stevens reoceupied it 
with :30 men, under orders from the Mass. government. He was soon attacked by 
Debeline, a skilful ])artisan, with 400 Freneh and Indians, wlio besieged tlie Fort for 
three days, e.xliaustiiig every ai)i)lianee of craft and tactics. Debeline threatened 
■o nia.ssaere the garrison unless they surrendered, but they sent back a deliant 
answer, and a long and desperate attack followed. Tlie lieroic handful of i>rt)- 
vinoiala nuiltiplied themselves and rejjelled the attacks on every side, luitil tho 
enemy withdrew and retreated to Canada. Capt. Stevens was highly honored by 
the people, and Conunodore Sir Charles Knowlcs, whose ship then lay at Boston, 
sent him an elegant sword. Wlien the tract was resettled, it was called Ciiarles- 
town, in honor of Sir Charles. During the later French wars this was the prin- 
cipal statioTi on the militaiy road betwe(Mi the New England coast and Tieouderoga 
and Montreal. Tlie remains of the Fort were plainly i)erceptible iu ISIO. 

Charlestown village is situated between two broad, rich meadows, and 
has some neat buildmgs, on a long, wide, well-shaded .street. " Its se- 
cluded loveliness is calculated to awaken the adnuration of the traveller." 
Across the river is the town of Springfield (iSjjrinff field House), v,-iih 
some romantic scenery on the Black River, whicli falls 110 ft. in GOO It., 
with one sheer fall of 50 ft. The deep, narrow ravines and cafions cut by 
this river in the slate rocks are very picturesque. 

Station, Clareinont Junction, soon after leaving winch the line crosses 
Sugar River by a bridge 600 ft. long and 105 ft. above the water. Tlio 
rich intervales of the Conn, are now crossed, with Ascutney Mt. on the 
1., and the train passes over the river on a bridge whose predecessor was 
carried away by ice in 1866. Station, irmcifsor (Windsor House), a pretty 
village on liighlaTids over the river and near the foot of Ascutney. It is 
a flourishing town, with some manufactures and a large country trade. 
It lias 4 churches, a bank, 2 weekly papers, a fine Government building 
used for U. S. Courts and Post Office, and the Vermont State Prison 
(which usually has 70 - 90 prisoners). At Windsor, during a fearful 






106 Route 24. NEW YORK TO QUEBEC. 

thuiider-stonn, and with the appalling news of the fall of Fort Ticondc- 
roga ringing in their ears, the dei)uti(!s of the Vermont towns adoi)ted tlio 
constitution of the State, July 2, 1777. 

Aflcutney Mt. lies 8. E. of tlio village. A road has been eonstrurted to tlie 
suinniit (o M.), and a small house has Iteeii built there for a shelter. Horses and 
guide.s from tin' Windsor IIoiis(>. A lino view is obtained from this isolated 
neak, whicli is .';,;i20 It. above tlie .sea. In the W. and N. \V. are Shrewsbury nn<l 
Killington l'eal<s, n(;ar Rutland, while the Green Mt. chain runs off to the N. in 
a lon;^ line of roinided summits. Tlu! hill towns of Wiudhani Co. are seen in the 
N., and the (Jdmh. River and valley close at hand in tiie K. stret(di away to the 
N. and S. tln-ou^di a farmin_^' country. Croydon, Snnajjeo, and Kearsarge, 
Mts. arc seen in the E., the latter bein.i,' dindy outlined on the horizon. The In- 
dian name Asciitney means "Three Ihothers," and is siipitoscd to refer to three 
8inguh:r valleys which run down the W. slope of the Mt. There are marks of 
volcanic action here, and the early settlers ol'ten saw a lurid light hanging over 
the siunmit on winter ni;^dits. Daily stages rim to Cornish and I'hiinfield, N. H. ; 
also to W. Windsor, Reading (I'J M.), jnul I'roctorsville (2-' M.). 

Salmon 1'. Chase was born ,d, Cornish in 18"8. His father was a prominent 
Portland lawyia- ; his uncle, I' lley Chase, was I'. H. .Senator, 181:5-17, aiid 1825- 
31 ; and his un<le, Philande; i, was Prot.-Epis. Bishop of Olno, 1819-;n, 
and of Illinois in I8;j,'j-.'J2. (These three, togetlier with their brothers, Barucli 
and Ileber, were born at Cornish, and graduate<l from Dartmouth Colle;:'e.) 
He settled in Ohio about 18;!0 in the jiractiee of law, became a leader in the anti- 
slavery movement, and was U. H. .Senator, 1 S!40 - .').5, and Governor of Ohio, 1855 - 59. 
In 18G1 ho became .Secretary of the U. S. 1 'e.isury, antl rendered great service to 
the Union by his skilful linancial jtolicy ci ring the Rebellion. He resigned in 
18G4, and late in the same year was made <. tiiei Juslice of the United States. On 
May 7, 1873, Mr. Cliase died in Nc v.- York City. 

Stations beyond Windsor, JIartland, N. Ilartland, and White River 
function (sec Route 29). 

Just after leaving the Junction, the train cro.sses Wliite River, and 
passes to Xorwich, where a large military school called the Norwich 
University was establislied from lS3i to 18GG, when its buildings were 
burnt and the school was removed to Northfield. The village {Union 
House) is about 1 M. W. of the station. Stages from Norwich station 
run to Hanover, about j M. S. E., across the Connecticut River. Han- 
over (Dartmouth House) is the seat of Dartmouth College, which ranks 
among the first of American educational institutions. 

This eollege was founded here in 1770 by Rev. Eleazer Wheeloek, as a school 
for missionaries to the Indians, and for Christian Indians, and had at Hvst 24 
students, donuciled in huts built of green logs, situated in the midst of a vast 
wilderness. 44,000 acres of land were granted to it by the State, which also raised 
a building l.")0 by 50 ft. for its use, while money was sent to its aiil by 
patrons. Tlie project of educating tlie Indians was rendered subordinate after a 
careful trial, seA-i'ral Ma;)lers of Arts having retui'ned to savage life. The College 
(named for the Earl of Dartmouth, I'resident of its board of trustees) liad 150 
students in the year 1700. In 1871 it had 27 instructors and .S82 students. Between 
1771 and 18G7 it graduated ;3, 550 men. .'i of whom have been U. S. Cabinet Ministers ; 
15 have been U. S. Senators, and 01 Representatives ; ;51 Judges of the U. S. and 
State .Supreme Couils ; 15 Governors ; 4 Ambassatlors ; 25 I'resideuts of Colleges ; 
104 I'rofessors ; and 800 Clergymen. The degree of LL. I), has been conferred on 
24 alumni, and that of D. D. on lUG. "Not to enlarge, with few excei)tions, her 
(Dartmouth's) iulluence in religion has been emphatically eon!;;ervative, and her 
sympathies in a national ])oint of view eminently jjatriotick. She has been the 
nursery of sound divines, devoted missionaries, itrofound jurists, skilful pliy.sician8, 
brilliant statesmen, accomplished scholars, classical and learned v.ritcrs. Such 
are the worthies she has given to the Union, and m\ thcrsc rest her (;laims to a 
nation's gratitude." (Chapman.) 

■^ort Ticonde- 
adopted the 

trwrted to tlie 
*. Horses and 
n tliis isolated 
luTwsbury and 
fr to the N. in 
ire seen in tlie 
ell away to the 
nn<l Kearsargf! 
izon. Tlic In- 
I) refer to three 
are marks of 
; hanging over 
.infield, N. H. ; 

3 a prominent 
-17, and 1825- 
Ohio, 18i9-;n, 
others, liariich 
iioulh Ct)lle;:'e.) 
er in tiie anti- 
Ohio, 1855-59. 
reat serviee to 
rle resigned in 
ed States. On 

White Mirer 

e River, and 
tlie Norwich 
lildings were 
llage ( Union 
•wich station 
liver. Han- 
wliich ranks 

, as a school 

ad at Hi'st 24 

1st of a vast 

ich also raised 

id by Lnglish 

linate after a 

The College 
(■es) had liJO 
its. Between 
et Ministers ; 
the U. S. and 
of Colleges ; 
conferred on 
:eei)tions, her 
tive, and her 
has been the 
liters. Hnch 

elaiius t.' u 

NEW YORK TO Ql'EBEC. IluUe ^l 1(17 

Among the most distinguished ahmini of Partmonth were Jdhn Wheeloek, Its 
second President. 177'.> - isij ; Asa Uiirton ; rresid«Mit Torter, of Andover Senii- 
nuy , Ileinan .\lli;n ; Gen. Kii'li y. tlic hero of .N'lagani and (.'hiiipewa ; Alvan 
Ilv Ic, 1). F>., 1. 1.. (>. ; ,\mn,s Kciidall ; .Senator Levi Woodbury; Daniel Poor, the 
(,'nylon missionary ; .Judge .Joel l'.\rkrr ; J. H. Felt, the annali~;t ; Jl. Gieenleaf, the 
antiunetician ; T. C. Lphani, D. 1)., the metaphysician; .\lphens Crosby, the 
lihild V,'ist ; Nathm I/>rd, 1). D.. the (ith President; and Asa I>. Smith, I). 1).,' 
the 7th and present President ot Dartnioiitii ; ,1. H. Noyes, the fomiiicr of the 
Oneida Coiiinmnily ; ('. K. Potter, flie author ; .lolin l,ord, tiie historical essayist ; 
\\. !). Kimball, the anthor ; Oeii. Slie[iley ; (i. P. Maisli, llic philologist and diplo- 
miitist; IJishops Chase and Oorr : (ieorge Tickiior, (he historian of .Sitaiiish 
Iilcr.itiire ; Senator liiilns Ciioale, the lawyer and orator; Salmon I*. Chase, the 
statesman and .jurist ; and Danitd Web.^ter. 

'Die f.imons Dartmouth College case was oiu'ned early in the i>resent eentnry by 
the State of N. IJ. attempting to infringe on the vested rights of the College. 
After much litigation, the case was decided by the .Stati" Sui)renie ('oiut against 
the College. It was then carried by to tiie Snineme Court of the United 
States, where, after long arguments by the leailing lawyers of Amerii-a, -— Danitd 
Webster flctVndiii:'; Dartmouth, -the St.ate .juil;,'iiieiit was reversed, and the College 
was restored to its ancient privileges and independence. 

The college fronts on a fine canipns, in the centre of TIanovor village, 
and on an upland plain near the Conn. River. Dartmonth Hall i.s the 
long central 1)1 iding (in which is tho chapel), while in line with it are 
Weutworth and Thornton Halls. In front of the line is Reed Hall, con- 
taining the college library of abont 40,000 volnmes (diflicnlt of access). 
These btiildings are old and idain, contrasting with Culver Hall, a hand- 
some new structure E. of the line, in which there arc fine lectnrc-roora.s, a 
.small natural history collection, and the State mu.seum of minerals. 
Bissel Hall is a new gymnasium, fronting on the campus. N. of the 
college is the Chandler Scientific School, while the Medical (College and 
the observatory are in the vicinity. An Alumni Hall is to be erected. 
The scenery about this (iniet academic village is fine, embracing tall hills 
to the E. and S., and upland plains along the Conn. River. 

After leaving Norwich, the train crcs-ses the Ompompanoosuc River, and 
stops at Pomjumonsuc, whence largo quantities of copperas are shipi)ed 
away, to be made into sulphuric acid. The mines are at Copperas Hill, 
10 M. N. \V., and the copperas is separated from other clenr-^ts by a 
long and difficult process, and prcciintated in green crystals, nearly 400 
tons a year are converted into vitriol in chemical works near Boston, 
while a great quantity of the copperas is used as a mordant in dye- 

Distant views of Moosilanke and Bald Mts. are obtained as the train 

approaches Thetford (two small inns). Thetford village is 1 M. W. of 

tlie station, and on the E. is the large farming towni of Lyme, N. H., to 

which stages run 4 times daily (Perkins House). 

Daily stages run X. W. to W. Fairlci (9 M.) and Vershire (15 M.) with its ex- 
tensive copper-mines, also to Chehea, the shire-town. Vershire had 1,054 inhabi- 
tants in 18G0, ol whom 113 men joined the Union army. Nearly 11 jier cent of 
her population was at the front, 

Station N. Thetford, whence much copper ore from Corinth is sent to 

i • ; 

1 ■; 

.; ■' 

. '.1 

? 1 

[J f: 


168 Route 24. NEW YOIIK TO QIEIJFX'. 

Baltimore ("by water from Portsmouth) and smelted. Station, FairUe 
and Orfordy the foniur being a hilly town abounding in lakes, one of 
which is nearly .3 M. long. Tickerel are found in these waters. Just 
across the river from Fnirleo is the N. Tl. town of ij-rfiml (stage to Orford 
Hotel), with a l)eautifnlly located village which has become a favorite 
Hummer-home for lovers of tnunniillity aiid rural life. (Juht Mt. and Mt. 
Sandaji are near the centre of the town, an<l there are several large ponds. 
Cube Mt., in tlu; W., is 2,273 ft. high, and lias a chain of 5 lakes on its W, 
side. Cxi he Falls ii\\([ the i)eri)endicular cliffs of gray gi'anite on Saw- 
yer's Mt. are worthy of notice. 

Station, Bradford (Trotter House), a i)rosperous manufacturing village 
on Wait's River. In the N, W. is Wright's iMt., where one Wright, who 
claimed to be a |>roj)]iet, had a hermitage in a dismal rocky cleft, now 
called the Devil's Den. The town has a scientific association, an academy, 
a weekly newspaper, and a savings-bank. 

Stages nni to Coriiifh, Tnjisluim (13 M. N. W.), Orange (17 M.), and Montpelier 
(30 M.) ; also to Wiisliiiigton nnd B.irre, and to the N. H. farming town of Pier- 
mont, ueyond the Conn, liiver. 

Stations, S. Newhui-y and Newbury (the Spring Hotel, closed in 1869-72, 
will probably be reopened in 1873; iVewbury Jlou^e). This beautiful 
village stands on a terrace above tlie rich Ox Bow intervales, where a great 
bend of the river nearly insulates a tract of fertile alluvial meadow-land. 
Mt. PvlasJci is near Newbury, and commands a nol)le view, embracing 
thefruitfid and carpet-like Ox Bow meadows, the village of Haverldll, and 
the winding river, with Moosilauke in the S. E,, .and the Peinigewasset 
and Franconia Mts. in the E. J M. from tlie Hotel are the Newbury 
Sulphur Springs (bath-houses, &c. ), in a little glen near the verge of the 
intervale, and a charming twilight walk is that along the borders of these 
level meadows, with the sombre mountains beyond. 

This town was founded about 1764 by Cien. Bailey, of Newbury, Mass. During 
the Revolution a detacilinient of British soldiers came here to t^ike Bailey, but a 
friend went over to the tield whero he was ploughing and dropped in the furrow a 
note saying, "The Philistines be upon thee, Samson !" On returning down the 
long furrow Bailey saw the note, took the hint, and fled to securer regions. The 
meadow." of Coos about Newbury were the home of a large tribe of Indians, who 
tilled the adjacent lands, caught salnu)n and trout in the rivt'i-s, and chased wild 
game through the lut.'untains. These pleasant lands were abandoned iu terror 
after Lovewell's battle in Petiuawket. 

The beautiful scenery along the Passumpsic line changes to grandeur a.s 

the train runs N. Station, Wells River {Coosuck House), where the 

Boston, Concord, and Montreal and White Mts. R. R, touches this line on 

its W. angle (20 M. to Littleton. See Poute 80). 

The Montpelier and Wells River R. R. will probably be completed from this 
point to the capital of the State (about 25 M. N. of W.) in the summer of 1873. 
Stages now run to Ryegate, 5 M. N. W. (Blue Mountain House), a Presbj-terian 
town settled in 1774 by a colony of farmers from the Scottish shires of Renfrew 
and Lanark. Blue Mt. is a high granite ridge in the N. W. The stage-road fol- 


NEW YOKK TO QUEBEC. JiouU 24. 169 

n, Fairlee 
es, one of 
l-ers. Just 
! to Orford 
a favoiite\(\ Mt. 
irgc ])on»ls. 
s on its W. 
e on 8aw- 

•inj,' villug«5 
right, who 
cleft, now 
1 academy, 

wn of Picr- 

n 1869-72, 
I beautiful 
ere a great 
end (racing 
verhill, and 
J Newbury 
3rge of the 
irs of these 

iss. During 
lailey, but a 
the turrow a 
g down the 
igions. The 
miians, who 
chased wild 
3d iu terror 

grandeur as 
where the 
;lds line on 

[I from this 
ler of 187a. 
of Renfrew 
ge-road fol- 


h)Wfl up Wells River to droton (^'iiiuU iun). In the N. W. j)art of On)t<^>n Ih Long 
Poti'l, 4 M. long and 1 M. wiUe, wiili n liotcl (thtf I-ikt House) ou its 8. shore, 
which affords good facilities for bontiuK and fiHhing. 'llii.s pond is 1,1U0 ft. above 
the sea, and near it is the pretty Little Pond, 1 M. by ^ M. 

Beyond Wells Iliver, the train stops at Mclndoc's Falls, with largo 
lundter-mills, and Bnniet, a Scotch Presbyterian town, settled in 1775. 
Stages nm to Pcacham. Soon after leaving Barnet, the line passes near 
the mouth of the l^assumpaic Rlri'r, where Rogers' Rangers, returning 
from their raid on the St. Francis Indians, failed to find an exi)ecte(l depot 
of provisions. Many of the famishing men died there, while others made 
a ranidbal feast on the flesh of a slain Indian. In his dis{\strous retreat 
from St. Francis to C'harlestown, Rogers lost nearly half of his command, 
and it is said that 30 of his men died in 18 hours here on the Pa.ssumi)sic 

Just beyond Baniet (famed for its butter) begin th-i 15-Mile Falls on 
the Conn, River. Stations, McLerans and J'ussuinpsic, witli falls on the 
Passumpsic River, wldch here rolls between black, rocky banks. Station, 
8t. Johnsbnry (•SV. John.fhitry Ifoitue, on the hill ; Avenue House, near 
the station), a busy town of nearly 5,000 inhabitants, with many neat 
villas and large manufactories. It was settled in 178t>, and named in 
honor of St. John de t'rcvecceur, French f'onsid at New York, and a bene- 
factor of Vennnnt. The Court House of Caledonia County is a fine 
building, on the hill, directly in front of which is a * Soldiers' Monument, 
consisting of a statue of America (by Mead), on a pedestal inscribed with 
the names of 6 officers and 74 men from this town, who died in the Seces- 
sion War. Near tlu; monument is the Af/wmruui, with 1>,U()0 volumes in 
a good library building. There is also a reading-room with papers and 
magazines, and an art-gallery is i)rojected. The St. Johnsbnry Academy 
is a large and well-attended school, and the other schools of the village 
occupy neat buildings. There are several churches here, the best of which 
is the Catholic Church of Our Lady of Victories. The village has also 2 
banks and 2 weekly newspapers. 

There are manufactures of mowing and threshing machines and other things, 
but the reason of being for St. .Johnslmry is tlie extensive scale factory of E. & T. 
Fairbanl<s & Co. The works of tliis coiiipany are in a glen on Sleeper's River, 
and occui)y 10 acres of ground. .O-WO men are employed and 300 varieties of 
scales are made, from tlie most delicate letter-scales to huge machines which 
weigh loaded cars and ciiiial boats (jOO tuns capacity). In 18:U), during the excite- 
ment about hemp culture, tiie Fairbanks brothers established a hemp-dressing 
factory, and Thaddeus invented the iilationii scale. It was patented in America 
and England, and up to 18G1 the company sold 9(),O,08 portable scales, 8,H72 liay 
and track scales, and ".•4,712 <<>iinter ami even balances. Since 1801 the sales have 
been nnich greater, proportio.ially, and in 18G'.» the yearly sales were stated as 
50,000 small scales, and several Imiidred liay and platform scales. 12'; men are 
engaged in the Fairbanks' service in otlier towns and cities ; wliile the works con- 
sume 18 tons of iron daily, in three cupola furnaces. The scales which have been 
made in large quantities for Oriental States are curious, being marked with 
Chinese and Turkish numerals, according to their petudiar systems of weights. 
The works use yearly 3,000 tons of American iron, 1,000 tons of Scotch iron, and 
3,000,000 ft. of lumber. 


170 /iuule2l NKW YOIIK TO Ql EUEC. 



After leaving St. JoliiiKbury tlie line passes tliroiigli the town of Lyndon, 

which has thrt'(? villages, an<l witliin wliosi! Itordcrs are tht; Great Falls of 

the I'a.HHumpsic. The soil of the town is rich and valnahle. At Ly}\th)v- 

ville. (Walker's Hotel) are the ofliecs and repair-shops of tho Pawsnnipsie 

R. 11. 

Stnp'H run to ShrlJIrM, 7 M. N. W., and to fVliediKk, M. W. Tho Cal«'.Inni,i 
Hprinys (small hotel) are at the latter place. 

Station, W. liiirh'., before reacldn;,' whieh a fine view is afforded of the 
hold Hurke Mt. Carria^'es may be taken from Trull's Hotel (inferior) 
near the station, for * Willoughby Lake. <> M. N. Tlie road ailbrds a 
continual view of the two singular mountains between whieh the lake is 
situated. The Willoughby Lake House was closed in 1872, but it is 
thought that it will open in tlie summer of 1^73. This lake is one of the 
most remarkable on tlie continent, being situated between two immense 
mountains, whose basiis meet far l)elow its waters. Tluilakeis (5 M. long, 
ami in places 2 M. wide, while its depth is very great, and not yet known, 
a line of 100 fathoms having run out without finding bottom. 

A carriage road along the E. shore, or a boat on the quiet waters, gives 
opportunity to see tho beauties of the lake and the grandeur of its sur- 
rounding walls. The mountain on the W. shore is called jMt. Hor, and 
is somewhat more than 1,500 ft. above the water. The E. shore mountain 
is called Mt. Willoughby, IMsgah, or Annananee, in dilferent books and 
niap.s. As Mr. Eastman remarks, Annananee seems more api)ropriate, 
since that was the name of a brave chief of the St. Francis Indians wlio 
once lived here. A vast precipice of granite, 2 M. long and GOO ft. sheer 
down, runs along tlie side of Mount Auiuiiuince, while the long sloj»e 
below is ro(!ky and steep. The peak is 2,038 ft. above the lake, and 
3,800 ft. above the sea. From the hotel to the summit of Annananee 
it is a ideasant forest walk of about 2 M. A vast * view over the Conn, 
valley is obtained from this point, extending to the Franconia and 
White Mts. on the S. E., and it is said that the hotels on Mt. Washing- 
ton may be seen with a strong glass. On the N. W. are Owl's Head (in 
Canada) and Jay Peak, from which the stately line of the Green Mts. run;; 
S., with the peaks of ISIanstield, Camel's Hump, and Killingtou (near Hut- 
land) all visible. From the verge of the clitts on the W. Mt. Hor is seen 
close at hand, and the observer can look down on and far into the lake, 
so transparent are its waters. Geologists think that the chasm between 
these mountains was caused by the rush of a northern current during the 
drift period, which eat away the decomposed limestone between the two 
granite peaks. Very rare plants and flowers are found on Mt. Anna- 
nance, especially at the " Flower Garden," at the foot of the cliffs, 600 
ft. above the Devil's Den, on +he lakeside road. The Silver Cascade 
and the Point of Rocks are found farther out on the same road. Trout 

I • 

NKW Yoiiiv TO Qri:nEc 




n of Lyndon, 

rent Falls of 

At Li/nrfoit- 

I Passunijisic 

riio Cnlfflnnlii 

onled of tlic 
itt'l (inft'i-ini) 
)a(l affonls u 
I the lakp is 
72, but it is 
is one of the 
wo ininionse 
is () M. htng, 
t yet known, 

waters, gives 
r of its snr- 
Mt. Hor, and 
Dre mountain 
it books and 
Indians wlio 

00 ft. sheer 
long sh)i)C 

le lakd, and 
\r the Conn, 
mconia and 
I's Head (in 
pn Mts. run:; 
(near Kut- 
\JIor is seen 
:o the Like, 
Ini between 

1 during the 
jen the two 
|Mt. Anna- 

clifTs, 600 


id. Trout 

and muscalonge abound in tlie cool crystal waters of the lako. Kxfursion.s 
are made from the hotel to Burh' Aft. (10 M. S.), Jiarfi>n (11 .M. W.), 
Plunki't Fitlh (12 M.),and Sevntrk )i\ M. S. E.), famed for its pro<luctiou 
of sugar from vast forests of sugar-maples. 

Near the flag station at >'. Ilarton the suniniit is passed, and the water- 
shed of tlie Si. liawn'UiH" is entered. Jay Peak is seen in the X. W. Sta 
tion, llirtiiii (Crystal Lake llousi), a manufacturing village in a town 
nanicd for its first proprietor, fJen. Barton. Cri/sfal Lrtfa (by which 
the track passes) is a jiretty sheet of water containing about 2 scpiare 
miles. About 1.^ M. distant on the E. is the Flume, where a brook Hows 
through a natiiral passage in the granite rock, 110 ft. long, 10 ft. wide, 
and 20-30 ft. ilecp. Tlie granite walls are smooth and perpemlicular. 

In ISIO, th« ppopir (U'tortninml to di-cpcn IlartdM Ilivrr 1>y turning liOn;r r<>n<l 
(tlif soiini- <if tlic i.aniiiilli') into it. Tln-y l».iicly ci'iniiltjlcil a cliaDiii'l frnru 
lA->n:^ Pond f<> tlic iMiiid reservoir nf tlif Uutmi Hivcr, wlnii its waters burst 
throii;;]! with trt'nicndons foii-n, and .s\v(>i>t dowii to Laki- Mf>iii|>lir»'"MK<';,', wreck- 
ing cvrrytliinK in their pMth, an . raiisint; iiiMuense dainai^o. Tho hed of Long 
Pond is now dry, and is i ailed Htui iway I'ond. 

Stages run from Harton to Mnutju'lirr, 'M M. S. W. tliroii,-li the towns of f //over, 
Greennboio', Ilurdwick, A'uudbury, and Valain. Also to Crdftnlnirn and Alhany. 

Station, Barton /^rtMr//?j(7(Valley House), which was much resorted to by 
smugglers in 1812-1'). Stages run 4 M. W. to Ini.shunjh (Irasburgh 
House, large and good), a beautiful rural village, and the shire-town of 
Orleans County. 

Stations, Coventry and Xev^port (*^remphremagog House, $ 4.00 a day, 
300 guests, a large, first-class hotel on the lake sliore ; Newport ; 
Lake House). 

Lake Memphremagog. 

The villa,i,'o of Newport is at tho npjter (S.) end «>f this lake, and is 305 M. from 
New Y(»rk, L'.'lO M. from JJoston, and 104 M. from Quebec. It is built \i]nn\ 
PiekiTol Point, ;ind from the edp.' of the village rises Prospc( t Ilill, whence 
. line lake views are (;nined, and the Mts. Owl's Head, f^lephantis, Urford, 
Jay Pcalx, and Annananoo are seen. Other excursions from Nowoort are to 
Clyd.> River Falls (2 M.), Mt. Morrill ("2 M.;, Bear Mt. (7 M.), and Hoi, on Hi)rin;;s 
(in Canada, 14 M.). .Steaniei-s leavf> every moiTiing from the (iuay near the great 
hotel, for Mago;, n turnin.t,' in the cveninj^. 

The ori^^innl Indian name of this lake was Memidiremapt).!,'. or Memi)lo\vbow(|ue 
(nanie;i possibly us'jd by dilforent tribes), which is said to mean IJeantiful v/ater. 
Some yee in it a resemblance to Loch I.omuml, othi r.s to Lake Oeor;,'e, while still 
others call it the Geneva of Canada. The lake is ^0 M. lont,' and '_'- I M. wide, 
and two-thirds of it lies in Canada. The watei-s are cold and clear, aboundinj< in 
trout and mus(alon;,'e, the sliores are romantically uneven and rock-bound, and 
tall, wooded momit.'iins Hse on either hand. The voyaue to Mav'o.i,', at the N. end 
of the lake, usinilly takes .S- 4 hours, nearly .'iO M. being traversed. By leavin;j; 
Magog on the aftenioun boat (about 4.30 P. M.), a tine sunset ou the raountiiins 
may be seen. 

The steamer passes out by Indian Point, on the E. , and a distant view 
of Stanstead village is soon obtained, between the evergreen-covered 
islets known as tlie Twin Sisters (on the E.). Soon after Province Island 


172 IioiUe24. NEW YORK TO QUEBEC. 

is passed, and the steamer crosses into Coiiuda. The boundary is inark(Ml 
by clearings in the forests on either side. Next, on the E., is ihe anuili, 
cedar-covered Tea Table Island, and beyond it the Canadian village of 
Ct'darrille. Bear ML. loons np <n\ the W. shore, and the scattered farms 
of the tov/n of Potion, while Fit(^]»'s Bay stretches fur in shore to the N. 
E. The round summit of Owl's Head is mow approached on the VV. 
Magoon's Point (on the E.) is near a lurge cavern, where the treasures of 
a cathedral are said to have been hidden. The legend is probably de- 
ri\ed from the fact that Rogers' Rangers nvtreatcil down the E. shore of 
Lake Me'iphremagog, after sacking and destroying the church and village 
of the St. Francis Indians. Besides the rich i)late of the church, they 
secured two golden candlesticks, and a silver image weighing 10 pounds. 
The candlesticks were hidden near the lake (no mention is made of the. 
disposal of the other articles), and Were found in 1810, The stennjcr 
stops at the ^f<>ln}!Jill. I/oitsr, 12 M. from Newport, in a sequestered posi- 
tion at the foot of Owl's Head, and near the best fislung-grounds on the 

The mountain is ascended by a foot-patlj (in 2 hours) wliidi passes tlirnnf;li 
forests and I'l-lds, and by nunienus curious rock-forniations. The suniniit is 
2,743 ft. abovn tlie lalvc, and commands a Inoad view, including the greater jtart. 
of the lake aiul its ialands. On the H. is Newport villa;4e and part of the Cljde 
valley, with tiie nearer summits of Bear Mt. and Hawk Mt., !ils(» Jay Teak and 
part of the Missis(iuoi valley. In the W. are tlie tail fodt-hills of the, (ireen Mts., 
whilt! Urome Lak«? is seen in the N. W., and far Ijeyond it tiie city of Montreal is 
visible on a clear day. Nearer, in the same direction, are the Hog's Back and 
Elephantis '*lts. Orford Mt. looms at the head of the laki; on the N., and in tlx; 
N. W. are the ju-etty lakes of Littl? Magog and Massawippi. In the E. are several 
villages in Stanstead and Derby. Mt. .\nnanan<'e is seen in the H. E. over Wil- 
longhby Lake, and, far iKvontl, ihe dim blue jieaks of the While Mts. rise on the 
hurizon-lino. The contrast between the rugged country towards Lake Chaniiilain 
and the vast plains to tlie N. , traversed by the glittering rivers St. liawrence nml 
St. Francis, is ver>' great, anil an element of rare b«!auty is added by the exten- 
sive view over the lalce below. Amid these sublime scenes, in a glen near tlu'. 
summit, the Golden Rule Lodge of Mason;-', from Stanstead, celebrate the mys- 
teries of their order en the 2 Ith of June of each year. 

^ M. from the Mountain House is Round Island, which resembles 
Dome Island, on Lake George, or Fallen's Isle, on Loch Katrine. Farther 
E. is Minnow Island, near which troiit abound. Skinner's Island is also 
E. of the hotel, and has on its N. W. side a cavern in the rock, 30 ft. 
long, 10 ft. wide (at the entrance), and 12-14 ft. high. The legend is 
that a celebrated smuggler named Skinner (in 1812) always eluded the 
closest pursuit of the customs ofTicers, by disappearing near this point, 
One night, after a long chase, the officers found his boat on this island, 
and turned it adrift on the lake. Some years afterward a fisherman, 
lying under the lee of the island to escape a squall, discovered tlie cave, 
hidden under heavy foliage. 

♦• And what do you think the fisherman found? 
Neither a irold'en nom Bib'er pi-ize, 
But a skull with sockets where once were eyes ; 

iry is marked 

is tlie sinuU, 

m village of 

altered farniH 

ire to the N. 

I on the \V. 

treasures of 

proliahly de- 

! E. shore of 

;li and village 

ehnroh, they 

g 10 pounds. 

made of tln^ 

Tlic steanscf 

aestercd posi- 

ounds on the 

passes tliroiinh 

riie summit is 

ic greater jiarf. 

t of the Clyde 

Jay Teak anil 

l.e Green Mts., 

of Montreal is 

ofj's I3ael< and 

N., and in IIk; 

E. are several 

5. E. over Wil 

ts. rise on tl:e 

ake (Jliamplain 

liawience and 

by the exten- 

glen near the 

u'ate the mys- 

ch resembles 

iue. Farther 

Island is also 

! rock, 30 ft. 

lie legend is 

s eluded the 

r this point. 

[1 this island, 

a fisherman, 

red tlie cave, 

NFAV VOKlv TO QUEBEC. Jiuute SI 173' 

Alio iiom«> h<)iip« of armi mul thijih*. 
And II vurtobrul ('(111111111 olBinnt titv : 
How tlicy K"t <li<'f»'. hf ctiiild n't doviBe, 
Fur 111' 'd only lict'ii ..•ii'd to roiniiion^ilare nrvret, 
, And knew niuiplif nf •• orRHiiir ri'iiiniiiH" in cavci ; 

On niiittrr.i like lh<inp liisi wits wi'ro dull, 
So lie dmiipid tin' (iiilgn t cih will as Uic skull. 
' r in iiot'dioRS to Hiiy 
111 tliU \,iWt day, 
'T wns fh<« (imiijjRU'r » Iioih-h in the rave that lay : 
All I vc 10 iidd in — the liones in agruvc 
Were placed, and the cavern wa« called * Skinner n Cave." " 

N. of this ]>oint is Limy Island, with i)alisades on its N. W. side, and 
ivn immense rockmg-stone called Balance Hock on the S. shore. Ou Mol- 
.■ion's Island, still further N., is the mansion of a >veulthy Montreal gentle- 
man. On the W. shore, 1 M. above the hotel, are eliffs 700 ft. high, and 
as the steamer goes N. the sharper outlines of Owl's Head become prom- 
inent. Mt. Khj>luintis, or Sugar Loaf, is above Owl's Head ou the W. 
shore, and is thought to resemble an elei)hant's head ..nd back. Far up 
on the VV. slope of Ele})lKintis is a beautiful motuituin tarn, 2 M. long by 
^ M, wide, ami aboumling in trout. The steamer touches at Oeoryeville 
(Camperdown House), u pretty village on the E. shore, where many 
Canadians jiass the sunnner. Tiie lake is now crossed (3 M.) to Knowl- 
ton's LanduKj (1(5 M. from Newport), at the mouth of Sergeant's Bay. 
This crossing has long been the main route to Montreal from the Eastern 
Townships (Stanstead County), as stages nm from Knowlton's to the rail- 
road station at Waterloo (20 J\I. ). The steamer crosses the month of the 
Bay, passes the rocky (Jibraltar Point on the 1., and leaves the more 
mountainous part of the lake, heading towards Orford Mt., which is seen 
ill the N. A comparatively narrow strait is paused, and then the lake 
widens into a broad expanse, at the end of which is the village of Magog 
(Parks House), a small Canadiar. settlement, with fine trout-fishiug in the 
rapids of Magog River. The latter stream flows through Little Magog 
Lake, and empties the Mem})hremagog waters into the St. Francis River, 
a noble tributary of the St. Lawrciuec. 5 M. from Magog (carriage-roail 
to the summit) is Or/ord Mi., the highest peak in the Eastern Township.s. 
Its view cnibracc'S Memi>lireniagog and its mts. on the S., Shefford Mt, 
on the W., much of the valley of the St. Francis on the N. E., and tlie 
waters of )8 lakes. A vast pine forest covers mucii of the country to the 
N. and W., and Orford Lake, at the base of tlie mt., has a weirdly dark 
und solitary appearance. 

Daily .itages run from Magog to Sherbrooke (IG M. N. E.), an important 
station m the Grand Trmik Railway, 101 M. from Montreal and 196 M. 
from Portland. 

Newport to Quebec. 

Distance, ICl M. The time has usually been 10-12 hours, as trains on the 
Cirand Trunk Uailway do not nial<e close coimeetions with the Massawippi line at 
lSht'rljruul;e and Hichaiund. 

174 Route 24. NEW YOKK TO QUEliEC. 

I J 

Tlie train crosses an arm of the lake alter leaving Newport, an 1 enters 
the rich farming town of Derby, Station, iV. Derby (Derby Line Hotel), 
soon after passing wliich tlie Anglo-Canadian frontier is crossed, ^lie 
line now enters the Eastern Townships, of which the riverward parts 
were early settled by the French, while the forest-towns were occupied by 
pioneers from New England between 1790 and 1800. 

The Canadian Hand-I3ook calls this " as beautiful a tract of country as perhaps 
any on the continent, both with reg.ircl to mountain and lake scenery, beautilul 
rivers, and fertile valleys. The mountains, wooded generally from base to sum- 
mit, repose in majesty ; and as the mists, with which their summits are not un- 
frequenlly crowned, withdraw themselves in folds along tiieir sides, they reveal still 
more of the beautiful and sublime. Charms, ravines, and jirecipices are there, 
and among their solitudes sublimity reigns. Beautifvd lakes lie roattered over 
the surface of the (rountry, bordered here by gentle slojjes, there l)y jirecipitous 
clilfs ; cultivated fields and wide-spread pastures, with woods interspersed ; val- 
leys and plains adorned with farmhouses, single or in groups, and beautiful vil- 
lages." ,^^^ .,^^ 

The first Canadian station is Siansteo Junction, whence a short branch 
line runs to Stanstead Plain (4 trains daily), a large and thriving village 
situated on fertile lowlands. 10 M. E. is Pinnacle Lake and Mountain, 
the l?ittcr being a remarkable precipitous peak which rises sheer from the 
lake. After passing some minor stations, the train reaches Massawippi, a 
village in Hatley town, near which is the beautiful Lake Massawippi. This 
lake is 9 M. long by 1 - 1^ M. wide, and swarms with many kinds of fish, 
among which are maskinonge, trout, pike, pickerel, bass, and mullet. 
Blackberry Mt. on the E. shore, abounds in blackberries during their 
season. The train now follows the Massawippi River for 16 M. to its 
confluence with the St. Francis, at /tenncxrille (two inns). This is the 
seat of Bishops' College, an institute of high reputation, under the care 
of the Episcopal Church, with ])reparatory schools attached, and a staff of 
able professors. This college lias been called " the Eton and the Oxford 
of Young Canada." Productive copper and lead mine., are worked in the 
vicinity of Lennoxville. 

Station, Sherbrooke {SherbrooJce House; Magog House), a manufactur- 
ing village prettily situated at the confluence of tlie ?lagog and St. ^"ran- 
cis Rivers. There are long rapids in tiie St. Francis near the village, and 
other fine scenery in the vicinity. Sherbrooke is the metropolis of the 
Eastern Townships, and is the most important station between Montreal 
a id Portland. It contains the Stanstead County buildings, which are 
well situated on a comniauding site. > , ^ .■<' - '•-; 

Stages run daily to Magog, 16 M. S. W. on Lake Mempliremr.gog, passing Little 
Magog Lake. 

At Sherbr./oke the traveller changes cars, and proceeds by the Grand Trunk 
Railway to Quebec (12i M.), or to Montreal (101 M.). See Route 40. 

i ' 


;, anl enters 
Line Hotel), 
I'ossed. ^'he 
erward parts 
occupied by 

try as perhaps 
lery, beautiful 
base to sum- 
3 are not un- 
[ley reveal still 
ces are there, 
•'.•attered over 
hy jirec'ipitous 
rspersed ; val- 
l beautiful vil- 

short l>rauch 
riving village 
d Mountain, 
ear from the 
[assawippi, a 
wippi. This 
duds of fish, 

and mullet, 
during their 
16 M. to its 

This is the 

der the care 

md a staff of 

the Oxford 

oiked in the 

id St. ^"ran- 
village, and 
ipolis of the 
en Montreal 
which are 

massing Little 
Grand Trunk 

tf f/i^ 

IS. rW 

* - 25. Boston to the Hoosac Tunnel. 

Via Fitchburg R. R. and Vt. and Mass. R. R., in 130 M. Stages cross tlie 
Hoosac Mt. to N. Adams, whence a railroa<l line runs to Troy and Albany. 
Saratoga is sometimes visited by tliis route, but several chanpes are necessary. 
The favorit.' route to Saratf)ga is by way of FitclibuTj^', Bellows Falls, Rutland, 
And Whitehall (express trains in 0-11 Ins., witliout change of cars). 

The train leaves the fine castellated granite station of the Fitchburg 
Railroad (PI. 1) on Causeway St., near the Warren Bridge to Charles- 
town, and soon crosses inc tracks of the Bo.ston and Maine, Eastern, and 
Boston and Lowell Railroads, on their long trestles over Charles River. 
Cliarlestown Heights on the r. and the long hills of populous Boston on 
tlie I. are in sight for a few minutes, then the train runs past the stations, 
Prospect St., Sumerville, Cambridge, Belmont, and WaveHey. Near the 
latter station is the finest grove of oaks \\\ New England (see Flagg's 
** Woods and By-vays "). - • :; 

Waltham {Ventral Ihnise ; Prospect House) comes next, and is an active 
town of about 9,000 inhabitants. Here, in 1814, was erected the first large 
cotton-mill in America, and extensive mills are still in operation here. 
The Waltham Watch Company's works are the largest in the world en- 
gaged in making watches ; upwards of 700,000 of these timekeepers have 
been sold in America, their reputation being very high. Every part of. 
these popular and justly-celebrated watches is made by machine-work, 
while the works of Swiss watches are formed by hand. The extensive 
buildings of this company are on the banks of the Charles River. 

At Waltha.ii, the traclc of the Watertown Branch rejoins the main line, after 
pa.ssing several petty stations bet\Neen Waltham aud its divorf^ent point at liriek- 
yard ./"uctlon. Watcrtovn is tlie most important of these points, while Mount 
Au'ouru and Fresh Pond are also frequently visited by this route. 

N. i'. Baiil<s was born at Waltham in 1810. llis jjarents were factory-hands, 
and he hir.iself was for .some time a " bobbin boy." Apjilyiug hiuiself to study, 
journalism, law, and politics, rapi<ily, aud was Member of (.'ongress in 
185:! - 7-' and lS(>.J-7, (loveiiior of Mass. IS.'iS-Ol. During llie Secession War he 
was a .MaJ. (ien., and was<lefi'atcd by rttonewall .laclvsou in tlie Sheunudoali Valley, 
after whiih his jirmy was only saved by its superior fleetness. While command- 
ing in Louisiana he took Opelousas and Alexandri;., iuHicting severe losses on the 
enemy, aud then, after a Ion,.; sie;,'e. llie Mlssi.ssiitpi River fortress of Port Hudson 
was siUTendered to his army. In 1864 lie advanced far nj) the Red River, but 
after several sharp, sudden attacks by the. Confederate (Jeueral Dick Taylor, he 
was forced to make a rapid an<l disastrous retreat witii his unwieldy expeditionary 
force. In tlie Presidential contest of 1872, he joiri 1 the Liberal party, and conse- 
quently failed to secure a re-election to Congress in that year. 

After leaving Waltham, Prospect Hill is seen on the r., sum- 
mit (480 ft. high) a fine view is obtained of Boston and its western subuibs. 
The line soon passes into tlie valley of Stony Brook, aud beyond the 
station of that name, stops at Weston, 1 AL N. from the bright upland 
village of Weston. Lincoln is 1.^ M. S. W. of the village in the centre of 
the town of Lincoln, near which are two large ponds well stockeil with 




fish. The train soon gains tlie W. border of the Ibrost-surrounJed Walikn 
Pf/nd, on wliose huulis lived Tlioreau (sec page 28). 

At Concord Junction tlie Framinghani and Lo\yo11 Railroad is crossed, 
and then the train pass;^.s the stations, S. A don, IF. Acton, and Litth'tnn 
(the Indian Naslioba). From S. Acton a branch road runs to Marlhoni" 
(13 M. ), crossing tlie Pompaseitticutt district of the Indians, and stopping 
at Mciynnrd, Rockhottom, and Hudson. 

Beyond Littleton is Ayer Junction (formerly Groton Junction), a 

flourishing village and railroad centre. 

'i\ :'■.'.'•- 

The Stony Brook Railroad runs to Lowell (13 M.) down the valley of the Stony 
Brook, passing through the towns of Groton, Westford, and Chelmsford. Wesifoiil 
lias a quiet village situated on far-viewing heights. 

The Peterboro and Shirley Braneli runs to GreeHvilh or Mason Village (N. H.), 
passing through the towns of Groton, Townsend, and Mason. Townsend Harbor 
IS a village on the Squanicook River, and Centre & W. Townsend are small villages 
of no importanee. Mason Villa„e was set off under the name of Greenville in 
July, 1872, amid general jubilations an<l a salute of 40 guns. It Is a nianufaotur- 
ing place, situated on the Souhegan River, which has here a fall of 80 ft. in a 
distance of 80 rods. 

The Worcester and Nashua Railroad crosses the present route at Ayer 

After leaving Ayer Junction, the Fitchburg Railroad crosses the towns 
of Shirley, Lunenburg, and Leominster, with occasional views of Wachusett 
to the 1. as the train approaches Fitchburg. Fitchburg {American Hotel; 
Central House) is a small city (incorporated 1872) of about 12,000 inhabi- 
tants. It was known in the colonial days as Turkey Hills, from the great 
number of wild turkeys found here. It is a busy, plain, wide-awake place, 
■which has quadrupled its poi)ulatiou within 28 years by its encourage- 
ment of manufactures and by its being a centre of railroads. The city is 
built along the banks of a stream which affords a fine water-power. Many 
small factories are ranged along this stream, which is the life of Fitchburg. 
1 ,000 men are engaged in the manufacture of machinery and agricultural 
tools; 500 men are in the chair-making business ; 10 paper-mills, with 200 
liands, turnout $1,000,000 worth of goods yearly; while two or three 
cotton-mills ax'e well worked and busy. 

Tlie views from Rollstone Hill (the seat of large quarries) and Pearl Hill 
are of interest. In memory of her soldiers who fell in the Secession War, 
the city has erected a fine monument from designs by Milmore. It repre- 
sents the Goddess of Liberty, a soldier, and a sailor, all of heroic size, and 
cast in bronze at Chicopee, in this State. These statues stand on a high, 
inscribed pedestal. 

In 1793, Fitchburg maintained a semi-weekly stage to Boston. At present it 
has 7 trains a day running over 50 M. of track to Boston, by the Fitchburg Rail- 
road, and 4 trains daily to Boston by way of S. Framinghani (58 M.). The Cheshire 
R. R. runs hence N. W. to Keene and Bellows Falls (see Route 26) ; the Vt. and 
Mass. runs W. to Iloosac Tunnel ; and the Worcester and Fitchburg R, R. runs S. 
to Worcester. 



ouiiJeJ Waldcn 

'oad is crossed, 
^, and Littletun 
lis to Marlboro'' 
s, and stoppiii;' 

n Junction), a 

lley of the Stony 
isford. Wesifonl 

1 Village (N. H.), 
ownsend Harbor 
are small villages 
of Greenville in 
is a manufaotiu- 
'all of 80 ft. in a 

route at Ayer 

)sses the towns 
vsof Wachusdi 
merican Hotel; 

12,000 inhabi- 

from the great 
le-awake place, 

its encourage- 
|s. The city is 
power. Many 
3 of Fitchburg. 
id agricultural 
mills, with 200 

two or three 

md Pearl Hill 
Jecession War, 
ore. It repre- 
eroic size, and 
.nd on a high, 

.\t present it 
^itohlturg Rail- 
The Cheshire 
5) : the Vt. and 
' R. R. runs S. 


After leaving Fitchburg, the Vt. and Mass. track is entered upon. 
Stations, W. Fitckhnrj and Wachusett, from which a line of stages runs 
from the trains S. to Princeton and Wacliusett Mountain {Prospect 
House, Worhusdt House, Mountain House). The mountain is easily as- 
cended from the lofty village, and presents a remarkable view from the 
ocean to the fiulhest lloo.suc Mts., and from Monad iiock in the N. over 
the extensive lines of the lower Green Mts. Princeton is a favorite 
summer-resort on acc^ount of its high location, its pure, cool air, and 
its quiet ruralness. 

Station, Westuiinstrr (Westminster Hotel), a town granted to the 
veterans of the Narragansett War, and settled as Narragansett No. 2. 
The village is 3 M. from the station on the highlands which form the 
watershed between the ( 'onneeticut and Merrimack Rivers. Station, Ash- 
burnham, which in the eoloiual time was called Dorchester Canada, liav- 
ing been granted to men of the former i)lacc (in 1090) for campaigning 
against the latter. This is al^o a hill town on the watershed highlands. 
Station, Gardner (named for an oflicer who fell at Bunker Hill), near a 
village which is extensively engaged in chair-making. The line now 
enters Miller's River valley, and stops at Tcnipleton (Grove Hotel) in a 
town granted to the old veterans as Narraganr.ett No. 6. The soil of 
Templeton is fertile, and it abounds in manufactories. Occasional fine 
views are gained from tlie elevated line of the track, especially of Monad- 
nock and other mountains in the N. The road passes through the quiet 
hill-towns oi Roi/alsfnn, Athol, Oranrje, Wendell, and ErHng, to Grout's 
Corner, where it is crossed by the New London Northern Railroad (Route 
12). At Grout's Comer the line leaves the valley of Miller's River and 
or jsses the town of Montague to the Connecticut. This broad and beau- 
tiful river is crossed on an open bridge (a rare thing on the New England 
railroads), from which fine views are afforddd on both sides. After pass- 
ing over a narrow intervale, the road cro.ises the Deerfield River not far 
from its junction with the Connecticut, and follows its valley up to 

Greenfield (Mansion House, American House) is a beautiful village 
situated on broad intervales near Green River, and not far from the union 
of the Deerfieid and Connecticut Rlvcrs. It bears a ijleusing air of rural 
simplicity, and is a favorite summer-resort on account of its attractive 
environs, /routing the public Square is a handsome sandstone church, 
the Town Hall, Post Office, and Court House. The soldiers' monument 
occupies the centre of the Square. 

The Russell Manufadxiring Co. has its works near this village. Here 5 - 600 
men are enii)loyed in tlie manufacture of table-cutlerj', which is superior to that 
of Sheffield. The works turn out annually about 300,000 dozen table-knives, and 
100.000 dozen of miscellaneous cutlery, using up 500 tons of steel ; 150 tons of 
cocoa and granadilla wood ; 30 tons of rosewood ; 50 tuna of ebony (from Mada- 

S» L 



1 ! 

• ■, 

■ \ 

■ i 




t ( 


: i 

■ } 

5 *■ 


' ( 





> I 


Route 25. 


gascar) ; 20 tons of oleiiliant's tusks ; 25 tons of emery (from Sniyriid) ; 200 tons 
of grindstones (Nova Scotiu) ; 1.0 tons of bniss wire: 2,000 tons of et)ul ; 25,000 
busliels of eliarcoal : and IJ tons of wux. The admirabli.' and ingenious ineehun- 
ism used in tlieso works is worthy of note. There are also manufactures of 
woollen goods, carpenters' tools, &e., in tlie town. 

The Bear's Den i.s a dark ravine with a small cave, a .short distance S. 
E. of the village, and at the S. cud of Uocky Mt. The PoeVs Scat is on 
Kocky Mt., and coinniauds a plea.sing view, embracing the villages of 
(Treenfield and Deerlield, the fair intervales of the two river.s, and a great 
circle of hills surrounding all. Arthur's Sent is a lofty hill S. W. of the 
village, commanding a view of thy villuijes and rich intervales of Deerlield 
and Greenfield. 

Decrjleld (see Route 24 i.s about 5 M. S. of Greenfield. The Caleraine 
ax i Shclbarne Gorijes are much visited, an<l in Leydcn there is a re- 
markable water- worn cut in the slate-rock, 10 -15 ft. wide, and oO-50 
ft. deep, known as the Leydcn Gorge. Pretty cascades are found near 
this place, and fornudable hills tower over it. The Coleraine (Jorcje is a 
deep and romantic defile cut by the waters of the North River. The 
Stillwater Road, to the S. W., over the level meadows of the Deerfield 
River, and through the ancient village of Deerfield, is a popular and 
pleasant drive, 

4-5 M. N. E. of Grcenlield arc Turner's Falls. At daybreak, on a May morning 
of 1G76, Capt. Tui-iier and ISO colonial soldiers, alter a long forced march by 
night, attacked a jiowerful force of King Philip's insurgent Indians, who were 
fncaniping here and rioting on the sjioils of <he captured English towns. Turner 
surprised the enemy sleeping in their wigw^ams, and in the ensuing panic 140 of 
them sprang into tiieir canoes, and were carried over the Falls and lost. 100 
were shot or cut to pieces on the shore, and then Turner, having lost but one 
man, marched off. But the disi)ersed Indians rallied in swan s .ind hung on the 
line of retreat, and a rumor spread through the ranks of the olonials that King 
Philip and 1,000 men had reinforced the enemy. The connnand now broke up in 
panic, and Capt. Turner and 38 men were killed, besides many Avounded and 
stragglers who were cut oil'. The Rev. Ilojie Atherton, who was j)resent in full 
canonicals, was made i)ri.soncr, but the Indians were struck with such awe at his 
presence that they s])eedily let him go. Capt. Holyokc led the remnant of the 
force back to Hatfield. Alter this blow, says the old historian, " the enemy went 
down the wind apace." Manv years later the town of Bernardston was granted 
to tlie veterans of the " Falls Fight." 

In 1702, a dam and canal (3M. long) were built here, to aid in the navigation of 
the river. In 1860. the Turner's Falls Co. bought 700 acres near the Falls, laid 
out d city, and built a curved dam 1,000 ft. long. The fall is 30 ft., and a water- 
power equal to 10,000 horse-power has been developed by two canals. Several 
manufactories have already been started here, and prophecies are heard of a sec- 
ond Lowell. " During high water the roar of Turner's Falls is heard from six to 
ten miles." Dr. Hitchcock calls this Fall a miniature Niagara. "They are by 
far the most interesting waterfalls in this State, and I think I may safely say in 
New England." 

After leaving Greenfield the railroad closely follows the Deerfield River, 
running far S. to flank Arthur's Seat, which looms up on the r. The Deer- 
field Oorge is soon entered. "As to the defile through which Deerfield 
River runs between Shelburne and Conway, it is so narrow that it is difficult 
even on foot, to find a passage, though full of rouuuitic and sublime objects 




iiynm) ; 200 tons 
s of ctwl : 25,000 
igoiiiidis Jueclum- 
uiauufactures of 

ort distance S. 
oeVs Scat is on 
the villages of 
rs, and a great 
11 S. W. of llie 
les of Deei-(i('l(l 

The Ciileraine 
there is a re- 
de, and 30 - 50 
are found near 
ine iSorfje is a 
h River. The 
' the Deerfiekl 
a popular and 

1 a May morning 
orced march by 
dians, who were 
I towns. Turner 
iig imnlc 140 of 
s and lost. 100 
iig lost but one 
and hung on the 
nials that King 
low broke up in 
iv wounded and 
I present in full 
such awe at his 
renniant of the 
the enemy went 
ton was granted 

le navigation of 
■ the Falls, laid 
t., and a water- 
I'anals. Several 
heard of a sec- 
iird from six to 
" They are by 
»ay safely say in 

eerfield River, 
r. The Deer- 
liich Deertield 
it it is difBcult 
iblime objects 

BOSTON TO BURLINGTON. nuute 20. 179 

to the man who has the strength and courage to pass through it." (Dr. 
Hitchcock). The track lies through this defile, and reveals its beauties. 
Station, Shelhurne FuUs (Woodward's Hotel). " Here the river, in a 
Mistance of a few hundred yards, nn-vkes a descent of about l.oO ft. over a 
Wodigious bed of rock. The river roars through a channel which it has 
Vorn in the stone, leaping in two or tlnve distinct falls, and rush*'s down- 
ward, as from flight to flight of a broken and irregular staircase ; Iho 
jocks seem to have been hewn away, as when mortals make a road." 
f^IlAWTHOUNP:). A large cutlery manufactory is located here, and the fa- 
^nous Yale locks are made here. There are limestone caverns in the town. 
L'.aving Bald Mt. on the r., the line soon crosses the river. Station, 
BueJdand, in the town which gave birth (171)7) to Mary Lyon, the edu- 
cationist, and founder of Mt. ilolyoke Sennnary. Tiie train now passes 
out fiom the defde, and runs across the long town of f'harlemont (14 M.). 
Centre Charlemont (Dalrymple's Tavern) is under the shadow of Bald Mt. 
(not the same one as at Shelburne Falls ; there are many scores of Bald 
Mts., so called, in New England). Cliarlenn)nt was a strongly fortified 
frontier-town during tlie first half of the 18th century. The line now 
passes Mt. Peak on the 1., crosses the river four times, and stops at ^oar, 
N. of which is the town of Howe, witli the ruins of old Fort Pelham 
(1744). After passing through some romantic glens, the line stops, at 
present, at Hoosac Tunnel. Large stages are in -waiting, which carry 
passengers over the Hoosac Mt. to N. Adams. 

N. Adams to Troy, see Route 23. Troy to Saratoga, by Rensselaer and 
Saratoga R. R., see Route 53. 

26. Boston to Burlington and Montreal. 

The train leaves the Fitchburg R. R. terminal station, on Causeway 
Street, Boston, (PI. 1). Boston to Fitchburg, see Route 25. The train 
passes on to the rails of the Cheshire R. R. at Fitchburg, and then runs 
by the stations of W. Fitchbury, Westminater, S. and X. Ashbiimham, 
and Winchendmi. The latter is a manufacturing tt>vvn on Miller's River 
(American House). 

Fitchburg to Peterboro, 

From Winchendon the Monadnock R. R, runs N. 17 M. to Peterboro, 
N. H., passing across the lake-studded town of Rindge, the birthplace 
of Edward Payson, D. D., and Marshall P. Wilder. Station, Jaffrey, in 
the town of the same name, which has an ancient church (now secular- 
ized) whose frame was raised on the day of the battle of Bunker Hill 
(1775). The workmen claimed to have heard the cannonading. In the 
N. W. part of Jaffrey is Monadnock Mountain, with its smooth, round 
top rising 3, 150 ft. above the sea. An extensive view is enjoyed from the 





\ i ii 


Buniniit, embracing tiiany famous mts. on llie N. and W., and tlie luke- 
strewn towns of Clicsliiio and Ilillsltorougli Counties. No less tlian 30 
lakes are visible, tof,'etlier witli numerous villages, and it is said tliat 
Bunker Hill Monument may be seen on a clear day. A good sinnnier 
hotel has been erected on the slope of the nit., and is much frequented by 
lovers of picturescjue scenery. On the pretty Contooconk Lake a smsdl 
steamer has been jilaced, and makes jdcasant trips in summer. The lake 
is l.[ M. long, and has one island of 10 acres. About 1^ M. S. E. from 
Moiiadnock is a mineral spring containing carbonate of iron and sulpliate 
of soda. 

Station, Peterlnrro (two inns), a i)retty village ■with some few manufac- 
tures. Stages run from this point to Dublin, Keeue, Wilton, Mason, and 

The train on the main line, after leaving Wliichendon, passes State 
Line, and enters New Hampshire, stopping at Fitzwilliam (Monadnock 
Mt. House; Cheshire House; and others), a picturesque hill-town with 
many pon<ls. This town was named in 1773 for the Earl of Fitzwilliam, 
and its present industry is mainly centred on quarrying granite. St itions 
Troy (Monadnock House), a thinly settled upland town, with a stage-line 
in summer to Monadnock Mt. ; MarUxyro (Marlboro House), a rugged 
and unproductive town ; and Keene {Cheshire lluuse ; American House ; 
Eayle House). Keene, the shire-town of Cheshire Co., is a beautiful vil- 
lage on a meadow near the Ashuelot River. It has broad and pleasant 
streets abounding in trees, and has numerous stores on Central Square, 
its large trade with the surroiuiding country being a constant source of 
wealth. There are here 3 banks, 7 churches, a high school, some man- 
ufactures, and the county buildings of Cheshire. 

The town has 6,000 iidiabitants. Near S. Keene the R. R. passes over 
a fine granite viaduct 75 ft. wide pnd 45 ft. high. The Beaver Brook 
Falls are about 2 M. N. of the village, and are much visited. The brook 
falls over a stair-like succession of ledges 40 ft. into a deep basin which is 
a haunt of large trout. 

"Keene is a prmul little spot," which was settled under the name of Upper 
Ashuelot ("collection of many waters"), about 1735. In 174G its fort was at- 
tacked by a large ludijui force, and tlie villagers wlio were outside were cut ofl" by 
the enenij. \ reinforcement from Swanzey drove off the assailants. In 1753 the 
town was named in lionor of Sir Benjamin Keene, a friend of Governor Went- 
worth, and at that time IJritish minister to Spain. It was among the first to re- 
sist the British aggressions on the liberties of New England. 

Stages run to Chesterfield, which has a lovely lake 8 M. in eireumferenee ; to 
Surri) and Gilsvni; to Sullivan and Marlovj ; to htoddard, Itoxbury, and Nelson. 

The Ashuelot R. R. runs S. W. to S. Venion. (See Route 12.) 

Beyond Keene the main line passes the stations JiJ. Weatinoreland, West- 
onoi clandy and Walpole (Wentworth House). 

Walpole was settled in 1749-52 by John Kilbum and Col. Bellows. A strong 
fort was erected near Cold River, and in 1755 the garrison of Kilburu was attacked 



, and the lake- 
No less tliau 30 
it is said that 
> good sumnior 

I frecjueuted hy 
Lake a sniidl 

mer. The lake 
M. S. E. from 

II and suli)liate 

.' few nianufac- 
on, Mason, and 

passes State 
7)1 (Monadiiock 
liill-town with 
)f Fitzwilliani, 
lite. Stations 
th a stage-line 
ise), a rugged 
erican House ; 
I beautiful s'il- 
and pleasant 
Jentral Square, 
tant source of 
ol, some nian- 

R. passes over 
Beaver Brook 
1. The brook 
basin -which is 

name of Upper 
ts fort was at- 
were cut off by 
ts. In 1753 the 
joveriior Went- 
the first to re- 

niinference ; to 
, and Nelson. 

reland, West- 

'iws. A strong 
n was attacked 

'by 400 ririii'hmcn and Indians. From noon till Hiinset the battle wa.s carried on, 
the little li.Mnlful of henw.s within keeping up an iniH'ssant lire. The women 
loaded the i^'uns, and nm tlie bullets, and when amniunitirin bepan to fail, picked 
np the Indian shot which had cntere<l the house and melted them over for tlieir 
husbaiid.s" guns. Several attacks on tlie heavy outer doors were met by deadly 
volleys, and the enemy finally f^rew discoiirapd ami retired to the N. It i.s 
thouidit that the valley towns were saved by this brave defence. 

Henry W. Bellows, I). I)., the «reat-Krandson of Col. Hellows, was born at 
Walpoltj in 1814. lie has been pastor of All Souls* ("liurch (Ncv York) for 3'> 
years, and is one of the foremost divines of the Unitarian Church. He is an 
elfMiucnt and powerful onitor, and is a leader in social reforms and philanthropic, 

Walpole i.s a plca.sant village near the foot of Mt. KillMirn, and on the 
verge of broatl intervales. It has wida streets lined with trees, a neat 
Common, and several boardingdiouses for summer guests, with whom this 
is a favorite resort. Ranm Falls, lilanchnrd Falls, and the Abenaquis 
Spriu;i are near the village, while Deny Hill commands an extensive 
view, including the Green xMts., A.scutney, Greylock, Monadnock, and the 
valley of the Connecticut. 

The line now crosses the river, and .stops at Bellows Falls (see page 164), 
where Route 2!> crosses the present route. (Restaurant in the station. ) 
Beyond Hellows Falls the line runs along Williams River valley, and soon 
begins the ascent of the E. slope of the Green Mts. Station.s, Rocking- 
ham, BartonsHlle, Chester (Chester House). From the latter station 
stages run to Windham, 10 M. S. W. ; Londonderry (Green Mt. House), 
15 M. S. W. ; Weston, VI M. W. ; and Andover, G M. W. 

Station, '^/rts.s-c^te, from which stages run to Baltimore (3 M. )and to 
Springfield (7 M.), a village at Black River Falls. Station.s, Cavendish^ 
and Pmctorsville (Eagle Hotel), a neat village with two churches and a 
bank. There are tine cascades on Black River, in this vicinity, and 1 M. 
N. of the village is a valuable quarry of serpentine niurble which is equal 
to the best African stone, and is largely used for decorotive puri)0S63 
in Boston and New Yoik. 

Station, Ludlow (Lnllow House), where the line passes over the Hog- 
back, which is thought to have been an i.sland in some primeval lake, long 
since drained by the break-down of the ear.teni serpentine ridge. Daily 
stage to Plymouth. The train now ascends heavy grades by Healdville 
to Summit, the highest i)oint on the line, beyond which the train starts on 
a down grade which includes 1,000 ft. of descent in 18 M. Stations, Mt. 
Holly, E. Wallinrjford, and Cutlingsvillc (small inn), which is near 
Shrewsbury Peak, a commanding mt. 4,086 ft. high. Stations, Claren- 
don, N. Clarendon, and Rutland (* Bates, $2.50-3.00 ; Bardwell 
House ; Stevens House). Rutland is a well-situated and prosperous town 
of 10,000 inhabitants, having a large country trade and being widely 
known for its marble-works. There are some fine commercial buildings, 
othere pertaining to the town, and several notable churches. St. Peter's 




182 Route 2U, 


Catholic C'hurcli is a fine new building of stone, in the English Oothir 
Ktyl(!, whilt! the Fipiscopai Church is a solid and n?assivc stone stnicttirr. 
Near the twin spires which are seen on the hill is the handsome Ciwri 
House of Rutland County, opposite which is a neat Government build- 
ing. The town has a daily and 2 weekly papers, 7 cluirehes, 3 banks, 
and numerous nianufactorics, prominent among which are the marble 
works. The i»rini'ii»al quarries and sawing-niills arc at W. liutlntvl, 
whence immense <|uanlitics of white marble are sliii)ped to all parts fif 
America and Kuroi»e. It sells at the <piarries for a higher price thandoo 
Italian marble delivered in New York. Large gangs of saws (without 
teeth, and cutting by means of sand poured in from above) are constantly 
running, to sei»arate the marble into slabs. ,,.... 

Rutland was sottk'il about 1770, and fortified in 177') as a station on the grc;:! 
nortlicrn inibtary road. In 1777, Ht. Clair's routed army retreated through tln' 

Numerous i)leasant excursions may be made from Rutland. Claren- 
don Springs are about 6 M. distant (stages connec^t with trains at V\ . 
Rutland station). These springs are of great ellicacy, "containing in one 
gallon, or 235 inches, 46 cubic inches of carbonic acid gas, 9.63 culijr 
inches of nitrogen gas, 3 grains of carbonate of lime, and traces of other 
alkalies." In a sequestered location near the springs is a large hotel, which 
has been a favorite resort for many years (250 guests; $2.50 a day. 
$10-15.00 a week). The drives in this vicinity are very pleasant, and 
Clarendon Cave is often visited from the hotel. 

Killinijton Peak is 7 M. E. of Rutland (9 M. to the summit). Tlie 
road to its foot passes over the high, cold, and sterile town of Mendoii, 
with the lofty and symmetrical peak towering in advance. The ascent of 
Killington is very arduous, but not dangerous, and a ]>road and noble view- 
is revealed from its summit, which is 3,924 ft. above the sea. Pico and 
Shreiosburi/ are otlier ])rominent peaks in this vicinity, whose tops are 
rarely visited. Excursions are also made to Sutherland Falls, 6 M. N., 
one of the i)rettiest waterfalls in Vermont. Near the Falls are large 
marbla-quarries from one of which a statuary marble is obtained which is 
said to be as fine as that of Paros or Carrara. There is a railroad station 
close to the Falls. 

After leaving Rutland, the main line runs N. by Sutherland Falls to 
Pittsford. The village (Otter Creek House) is prettily situated, J M. E. 
of the station, near fertile intervales on Otter Creek. Tliere are marbl.' 
quarries in the vicinity. Station, Brandon {Brandon House, DougUm 
House), a prosperous manufacturing village on the Neshobe River, Avitli 
3,571 inhabitants, 5 churclies, and 2 banks. In this and the village of 
Forestdale are 4 mineral paint companies, producing large (luantities of 
paint from kaolin, which is mined in the vicinity. There are also marble 



Route m. I8;i 

le English Gothic 
) stftne stnieturc. 
handsome Court 
ovcrnnicnt biiihl- 
luircht's, 3 banks, 
are the marble- 
at W. Mutlawl 
I to all parts (,\ 
er price than iWs 
of saws (without 
re) are constantly 

ation on the grciit 
witeil through 11 ic 

utland. Claren- 
ith trains at \\ . 
containing in one 
gas, 9.63 cnbic 
d traces of otlier 
arge hotel, which 
s; $2.50 a day. 
ry pleasant, and 

■ summit). The 

•wn of Mendoii, 

The ascent of 

1 and noble view 

sea. Pico and 

whose tops are 

Falls, 6 M. i\., 

Falls are large 

btained which is 

railroad station 

lerland Falls to 
ituated, f M. E. 
lere are marli!' 
-louse, Douglcis 
)be River, witli 
[ the village of 
3 quantities of 
are also marble 

quarries, producing common and tine statuary niarblo and lime. 
quantities of bog iron ore are found, which is easily melted, and yithls 45 
per cent of soft gray iron, adapted for cannon, car-wlicels, and other cast- 
ings requiring gre;it strength. 200 tons of nianganesf! arc sent hence to 
market, i)rinripally to Europe. In view of this mineral wealth, and also 
of the riclrcrops on the intervales and the abundant timber on the hills, 
Sir Charles Lyell said of lirandon, " I have yet to see, either in Europe 
or America, a spot containing such a variety of unique and valuable sub- 
stances placed by nature in ju.xtaposition." At Hrandon the Howe scale i 
are made. Two curious caves are in the limestone ledges 1^ M. E. of the 

Htophen A. was horn at nramlon, A]iril 23, 1813. Ho heennie a lawyer 
in the Stiiti' of niindis, and aroso nipidly to lii^h honors. Uc was ii Congressman, 
184:1-7, «ii<l Iroin 1S47 until his dtMili in 1801 lie was a U. S. Hcnntor. Ho was 
eaiidiilato of the Pciiiocratic party i'or the Presidency in 1800, and was defeated, 
tlinu^'li rf'ifivin;^ a liv^c jxipnlar volt!. H(> was the aiUlior of the " I'opular 
Sov»!n'i«nty " dortrini- (that the people of the Tcrritnrics should decide, as to tlic. 
admission of ncj^ro slavery, without tlie interference of (.'on;;ress). Ho favored 
the peaceable annexation of Te.xas and Cuba, was actively conservative in tin- 
slavery (piestion, and supporteil the (lovertunent against the rebellion of the 
'Southern States. 

yt.i;,'es nni from Brindon to SiuUmrft, 8 M. W., and to Laic Dunmore, M. N. 

From Lcice^itcrJuncddii a '.ranch railroad runs W. across the farming towns o!' 
Whitiivj, Shoirhdin, ami Orurll to TlconderoKa (17 M), Crown Point, and 
Port Henrv (set* Route .O;}). This road cro.saes Lake Chaniplaiu on a long bridgn 
near Fort Ticondero;,'a. 

Station, Salifihur;/, 3-4 M. W. of which is the beautiful Lake Dun- 
more, which is about 5 M. long and is environed by hills. Its clear waters 
are 60 ft. deep, and abound in fish. Moosalainoo Peak towers on its 
shore to a height of nearly 2,000 ft. and overlooks the lake and the sur- 
rounding country, while there are rich lake-views from Itattlesnake Point. 
Warnefs Cave (on Moosalanioo) and the Lana Cascade, E. of the lake, 
are often visited. Lord Dunmove visited this lake (about the year 1770) 
and, wading into its crystal waters, poured a libation of wine into it, saying, 
" Ever after, this body of water shall be called Lake Dunmore, in honor 
of the Earl of Dunmore." The .scenes of the romance, "The Green 
Mountain Boys," are laid in this vicinity. On the W. shore is the * Lako 
Dunmore House, which, with its cottages, can accommodate 200 guests. 

Middlebury {Addison House, 80 guests, .$10.00-12.00 a week) is a 
handsome village, situated near a considerable fall in Otter Creek. It 
has some manufactures, bnt its pi'incipal product is marble, of fine (piality. 
The Portland (Me.) Post Office is built of this mar1)le. Besides 4 church(^s 
and a bank, the village contains the Addison County Court House, and is 
the seat of Middlebury College. This institution was incorporated in 
1800, and had, in 1871, 7 instructors, 05 students, and a library of 11,000 
volumes. It has three large stone buildings on an ennnence near the 
village, and is under the care of the Congregational Church. The favorite 


, ,j ' 



■ If 


drives from Middliibut-y arc to Bi'ldo.n'a Falls (2 M.), Lake Dunvmrr 
(8M.), find Klijin Spnntfs (sulphur), IG M. 

8tnRP« nm to Com wall (I M). Bridport (8 M.), and WpybridRp (4 M ) ; ftlno tf) 
Riptoii (lircad I/mt' Inn), 8^ M. K., which is under the Green MIh., «nil h&« a ft!W 
HUinnier visitofH. 

Stations, Bronkville and New Ilaren (New Havon Hotel), near New 
Haven River and lar},;o marble (juarries. Stapes run to IJristol (KOO<l inn), 
5 M. E., a pretty little hamlet on a hi^di ])lateau, from which tho Adiron- 
dacks ami Green Mts. are seen. Stages also to Lincoln, ...iiong the mts. 

Station, Vergennes {Stevens House ; FrankUn House) the smallest rity 
in tho Union (1,570 inhabitiints). The site was chosen by Ethan Allen, 
and is on a hill at the head of navigation on Otter Creek, 8 M. from lh»; 
lake. It received its city charter in 1788, am', was named in honor of the 
Count do Vergennes, French minister of foreign alTairs, 177-1-83. Otter 
Creek has deep water, and is navigable for 300 ton vtissels to the Fulls at 
Vergennes, which have a descent of 37 ft., and are improved for wat(M- 
power. llic country in the vicinity is rich and productive, and comman«ls 
views of the great mountain-(;hains on the H and W., " a .scene of grand- 
eur and sublimity rarely paralleled on this side of the Atlantic." The 
Champlaiii A rsenal is located here, and covers 28 acres of ground. It is 
well stored with ordnance and munitions of war belonging to the United 
States, as well as the military supplies of tho State of Vennont. Com- 
modore MacDonough's fleet, which won the naval victory off Plattsburg, 
was fitted out at Vergennes in 1814. 

Stages nm to AfUlisnn, 6 M. 3., a famous old border-town, in whose 8. W. 
comer is Chimney Point, opposite Crown Toint (sec Route 53). It is now nii 
aKricultural town, widely known for its fine horses. The road to Addison passes 
through Bridport, a broad, quiet farming town. About .'} 51. S. of Ver.ennes are 
fine (cascades in Otter Crotk, near which is the Elgin Spring (.small hotel), con- 
taining sulphate - of magnesia, iron, and .loda, and carbonates of .soda and lime. 
A few miles W. of Vergennes, on the lake shore, is the Fort Vassln House. 

Beyond Vergennes the line passes through Ferrisburgh, Charlotte, and 
Shelbume, to Burlington. These are quiet farming towns with frequent 
glimpses of Lake Cliamplain and the Adirondacks on the \V., and the 
Green Mts. on the E. Stages run from N. Ferrisburgh to Monkton, which 
has two pretty lakes. 

Burlington, see Route 53. 

Jii ^ 27. Rutland to Bennington. ^ 

Via the Western Vermont or Harlem Extension R. R. in 55 M. 

Three trains daily leave the union stixticm at Rutland, but that which leaves at 
about 9 A. M. is recommended, as the others are slow and carry freight-cars, 
occupying over 5 hours in going 55 M. ■. ..<.r ., , - .•;;,. -' 

Station, Clarendon, which is separated from the Clarendon Springs val- 
ley by a mountain. The li)ie then crosses the tovni of Wallivrfford (2 



Lake Dumnnre 

1 (4 M.) ; alno to 
H., and liRn a frw 

•tel), near New 
stol(f?oo<l inn), 
icli tlio Adiron- 
iiong tlie nits, 
le snialleHt rity 
y Ethan Allen. 
8 M. from the 
in honor of the 
71-83. Ott.T 
o the Falls at 
ived for watcM- 
and commands 
icene of grand- 
tlantic." Tlie 
groimd. It is 
to the United 
nnont. Coni- 
pir Plattsburg, 

n whose S. W. 
It is now {111 
i\ddison passes 
f V'cr/ennes are 
lall hotel), con- 
soda find lime. 

CJmrlntte, and 
witli frequent 
3 W., and the 
onkton, which 

hich leaves at 
ry freight-cars, 

1 Springs val- 

I ntntions) near the lofty ridge calle«l the White U<i(ks. Station, Mt. Ta- 
in *r and Danhj/, between two ruggeil hill-towns, so-named, the former of 
I which has le«« than 3()0 inhaliitantH on 23,376 acres of land, much of 
whieh is on the summits of the Green Mts. 

Stations, .V. / (Ciirtis House) and /i. Dnrsrf (E. Dorset House). 
The lino nms through a valley between the (Ireen Mts. on the K. and the 
marble hills of the Taconie system on the W. Mt. ^-Eolus, the highest 
peak of the latter chain, has large marble (juarries on its E. slope. 

Marble was llrst quarrifd here in 178;'). and now there an; (I'J K'nngs of saws nm- 
nin;: liere and in Manrliesfer, .sawing' 7r»<»,onn ft. ye.iiiy. Over '.wn (iiijiri->-nien are 
employed, and the Dorset marble is sent to every part of llie I'. >^. and Canada. 
One (piarry prudmes tlie It^ili/ui marble, .so cilied from its rf.seml)lanee to that of 
Camira. Tlie siijiply is inexhaustible, and tlie stone is foiniil in p -dlel strata 
1-6 ft. thick, separated iiy thin seams of other rocU. Sometimes •_'<» of these 
•trataare ( above the other. Onthe.S. of Mt. yKobis (formerly called Dor- 
let Mt ) is a remarkable cave containing .'< chambers and several loiii,' passa^'es in 
the rock. Its innermost room is 50 ft. high, and has many stiilactites. 

The line now ftdlows the \alley of the Battenkill to Man-'lio.i.'-er 
{* Equinox, open Juik; vo Dec., a large and ( hotel ; julin 
House; V<iH(ferli]> Iloii.sf), This is a (piiet and beaut ifnl village at the, of Mount Equino.v, and is much visited in sununer on account of its 
pure air, picturescpie environs, and fine fi.sldng. The village sidewalk.s 
are of marble from the inexhaustible (jnarries on the mt.s., and the prin- 
cipal buildings are Burr Seminary and the Henningtou County Court Aft. yEolus is 5 M. N. and Sfmftnn Mt. lies to the S. E., near 
which is Strattnn Gop, a romantic pass which has been reproduced in one 
of Durand's best paintings. A road has been constructed to the on 
the sumndt of Mt. Equinox, which is 3,70(5 ft. above the .sea. From this 
peak a fine *view i.s gained, which inclndes Greylock, chief of the Berk- 
shire Hills, on the S., and the remote Cat.skills on the S. W. On the S. 
W. is Saratoc^a, with parts fif the Hudson Valley running N. to I^iukes 
George and Champlain, long reaches of which are visible. Mt, ./Eolus, 
Killington and Shrewsbury Peaks loom up in the N. ; A.scutney is in 
the N. W., and far beyond Strattim Mt. (S. of E.) is the dim blue 
cone of Monacbiock. Skinner Hollow is a deep amphitheatrical gulf ou 
the S. of Equino.x Mt., which has a cave so profound that snow remain.s 
there all the year. There are also marble quaiTics in the Hollow. 

The first meeting of th" Vermont Council of Safety took jilaeo at Manchester, 
July 15, 1777, and ordered the assembly of tlie militia to meet Bur^oyne, who was 
marcliinK oi. .\lbany. 1,400 men gathered here under Stark and Warner, and 
encamped until tlic; Hessians a<lvanced on Ii<'nniiii;toii, wlien they marched down 
and beat them. (^Vmong the best New Enj,dand historical romances arc "The 
Green Monntjiin Boys " and "The Rangers," by Hon. D. P. Thompson. Their 
scenes are laid in this part of the SUite during tlie Revolutionary era.) 

Stages nm I], to the mountain-towns of Peru and Winhull. 

Station, Arlington (two inns), a diversified town in which arc West and 
Red ]^rtr,., several small caves, and a blowing spring. The State seal of 





1 »' 

,t 1 


'< i 




Vermont had its origin here. A young English lieutenant was court in;- 
an Arlington girl, and one day, while there, he engraved on one of Gov. 
Cliittenden's honi-cups a picture of a cow and pine-tree and harvested 
grain, being a view from the W. window of tlie Governor's house. Jrr. 
Allen saw this engraving, and adopted the device for the seal of tin 

7 M. N. of Arlington is Sdnth/atr Xotch, a roniarkable papsage through the soli.i 
rock, 30 ft. hiKli, 800 ft. Ion.!?, an<l les.s than 12 ft. Avide. Tliis pass is used by, 
highway. Staj^es run frnni Arlini: >ii to Sandgate. 

Stations, Shnftsbury, S. Sliaftsbury (stages to Glastonbury), N. Ben- 
ninrjtMi, and BenningtOn (* Mount Anthony House, accommodating 2ti0 
guests ; Stiuk House ; Putnam House). Bennington is a pretty villa^'i' 
situated 800 ft. above the sea and overlooking tlie surrounding country, 
It has 4 churches, a seminary, a bank, and two weekly papers, while the 
population of the town is nearly G,000. 1 M. from this village is Old 
Bennington Centre, of Revolutionary fame ; a quiet hamlet with tlif 
county buildings on its main street. Here stands the old Catamount 
Tavern, whose sign was a stuffed wild-cat on a pole, grinning fiercely to- 
wards New York. The State Council of Safety used to meet here, and 
make plans to defend the State against the claims of New York and tlio 
armies of the king. Ethan Allen's house is also preserved, and stands 
next to the Tavern. ' 

Mount Anthony is 2 M. by foot-path from Bennington {i\ M. byroad). 
From the tower on its siunmit p beautiful view is afforded, including most 
of S. W. Vermont, Mt. Eipiinox, Mt. iEolus, the broad valley of t!ie 
Walloomsack, Greylock in Berkshire, and peaks of the Catskills. Pros- 
pect Mt. and the pickerel ponds of Woodford, in the E., are much visited. 

Stages run on the great southern liigliway across the State to Brattleboro. 

Bennington was settled in 1701 by Mass. people, and was named in honor of 
Benuing Wentworth, Govenu)r of N. H For GO years it was the most populous 
]ila((! in Verniont, of wliicli it nf)W is the fourth town. Soon aft-T its settleniei.t 
the territory now oecupied by Vermont was transferred, by royal edict, from the 
jurisdiction of New Hampshire to tliat of New York. Tlie titles of the settlers 
to tlicir lands were rendered null and void, and it bccime evident that the;' must 
either repurcliase, abandon, or defend them against New York and the king. Tin' 
sturdy pioneers determine<l on liie latter course, and their well-organized resist- 
ance left the territory in a state of anarchy luitil the outbreak of tiie Revolutidii. 
The headciuarters of the auti-New-York party was at Beniungton, and here, in 
1777, was established ,• d«pot of military snjiplies. Foil Ticonderoga was t.ikeii 
by an expedition from this jdaoe (1775), and when Burgoyne's royal army was 
marching w\ Albany, ht; sent Col. Baunie with the Brunswick Dragoons and ii 
motley swarm of Canadians, Tories, and India'-, to capture Henniugton. This 
force (about 000 men) met Lieut. -Col. Gregg auu 200 Verindnters, and <lrove tlieiii 
back until Gen. Stark's brigade moved up from Bennington (5 M. distant). Baunio 
now haltv-' and threw up euirenvdinients on a commanding hill, and Stark en- 
camped near by. After two days' skirmishing. Star!: was .joined by a regiment 
from Berkshire, which, with the .'! N. 11. re.giments and llerriek's Hangers, gave 
liim a force of 1,800 men. On the uay before the battle, Parson Allen, of Berk- 
shire, said to St'trk, "General, the people have been tuo often called out to \w 
purpose. If you don't give them a chance to fight now, they '11 never turn out 
again." "You would n't turnout now while jt's dark and rainy, would you? ' 


Route ZS. 


it was courtiiK' 
on one of Gov. 
and harvestfd 
r's house. Jrr. 
he seal of tlie 

hrough the soli.' 
lass is used bv ;; 

bury), N. Ben- 

mmodating 200 

I pretty villau'i 

indiug country. 

pers, while tln' 

village is OhI 

milet with tln' 

old Catamount 

ling fiercely to- 

meet here, and 

York and tlie 

red, and stands 

4^ M. byroad), 
including most 
L valley of tlie 
atskills. Prcs- 
e much visited. 

imetl in honor of 

most i)0|(ul()iis 
r its sottlcnu-i.t 

edict, from tlio 
i of the settlers 
: tliat tiic^' must 
(1 the kin^. Tlic 
-or^ianized resisl- 

tlio Revohiticiii. 
on, and hero, in 
eroga was IhiUcii 

royal army Avas 
Dragoons and ;i 
■nnington. This 
and drove tliPin 
listant). Bauiiio 
1, and Stark en- 
;d by a regiment 
's Hangers, gave 

I Allen, of Beik- 
dled ont to no 

II never turn out 
ly, would you .' ' 

said Stark. " Well, no, not just now," answered the Pardon. " Well." answered 
Stark "if the Lord slioidd once more give us sunshine, if I don't give you fight- 
ing cnongh, I '11 never ask y<iu to tnrn out again." On the morning of Aug. 10, 
1777 the American militia were dr.iwn out, and three detichments were sent to 
attack the Hessian right, and ri-,'htand K-ft reir "See there, men ! there arc 
the redcoats. Hefore night they are nnr.s, or Mnlly Stark will be a widow," 
cried Stark, as he led his men to the attack. The Indians tieil l)etween the con- 
verging columns, and the Tories soon gave way, but the German soldiers fought 
witTi their swords wlui' their amnumition hail giwn out, and only surrendered 
when enveloped by superior numbers. The action lasted lor two hours, " like one 
continued clap of "thunder," and scar-ely had the victors begun to rest when Col. 
Iheyman came near tlie Held with a large rei.iforcement for Ilauine. Fortunately 
Warner's Vermont regiment ha<l just arrived on tlie tidd, and the valiant Waiiicr 
(who had Wen aniniig the foreiiiost in the battle) led them aijainst the enemy. 
The other cor^KS were soon hurrieil to their support, and Hreyman retreated al, 
sunset. -I'M of the enemy were killed and wounded, 700 were made prisoner:, 
and 4 cannon were taken. ' The Americans lost about 200 (or, according to Stark's 
report, 7o killed and wounded). The KJth of August has been observed as a holi- 
day at Hennington ever since the battle. 

From Hennington to Xew York, the trains run in 9 -12 hours, by Lebanon 
Sprin,trs (see Route 2:?), Ciiatham Four Comers, Croton Falls, and White Plains. 
Trains to Albany in 4^ -G hours. 

28. Rutland to Albany. 

Via the Rensselaer and Saratoga R. R. in 101 M. Fare, §3.(55. 

Stations, Centre Rutland (near which the river is crossed at Gookin'.s 
Falls), and W. Ruthuul, with its grcr^t marble-works. Stages run hence 
to Clarendon Springs (see page 182) in 4 M. ; fare, 75 c. Station, Castleton 
{Sanford House), a pretty village on a plain near Castleton River, which 
has a State Normal School and five churches. There are marble and slate 
quarries in this vicinity, also works for preparing marbleized slate, an ex- 
cellent iniitatiou of marbh'. 100 men are engaged here in making white 
soapstone slate-pencils, J500,000,000 of whicli are n.ade yearly. At W. 
CVstleton, 1,000 billiard beds and 2,000 mantels of slate are made yearly. 

Excursions may be made from Castleton to Lnk^, Bnirmseen^ 4 M. N. 
W. This Lake is 8 M. long and 1-2.^ M. wide, and is lined on its W. 
shore with marble-mills and slate-cpiarries. 

7 M. N. of Castlebui is IluJtluirdtnn, where, near the Baptist tdnirch, is an obe- 
lisk near a llagstaff, whiidi marks the battle-liehl of July 7, 1777. As soon as th" 
Britisli knew Miat St. Clair had evacuateil Ticoii<leroga, (Jen. Frazer was sent in 
pursuit of him witli a small force of light infantry. Tin; American rear-guard 
was composed of '. thin re.giments, one of which retreated as soon as the action 
commenced. Frazer attacked the regiments of Warner and Fiaiic'swith 700 men. 
The numbers were ubout ecpial, and tlie liglit was lont' and desperate. At List 
the Baron Iliedesel arrived on the held witli liis Hi ..uswickers, and the .AnuM-ican 
lines were bi-oken. They l(,;it .">:.'4 men, including Col. Francis, who fdl at the 
head o;' his re'.^inient. while \\\v. British loss was lS;t. The bones of the sliiii 
Ideaclied on the battle-liil.l in (lie lU'Scrlcd town for 7 years, when they were 
buried near the site of the monumeiit. 

Eutland and Washington Line. 

Poultney {VonUney Ilonse ; Bcaman's) is 7 M. S. of Castleton, on the 
r iitland and Washington Railroad, The line passes through a region 

i, '/ ; i i 



p I i 

■I i 

. ,1 

^ i 







■i '' 


1 i 


1 1' 


< 4 

188 Route 29. 


abounding in slate-quarries, the chief of wliich are the Eagle, Copeland, 
and Snowdon. Poultney is a handsome village, where Horace Grteley 
learned the printer's trade, 1826-30, and Jared Sparks mastered the car- 
penter's trade. At one end of tlie village is tlie large building formerly 
occupied as the Ripley Female College, 7'his fine old building is situateil 
in pleasant grounds, and is now used as a summer boarding-house (25i) 
guests, $10-12.00 a week). Among the principal points frequented by 
visitors are the Goi-ge, the Bowl, Charter'? Falls, Lake Bomaseen, on the 
N., and Lake St. Catharine (or Austin) on the S. The latter is about fi 
M. from Poultney, and is over 5 M. long. Near the foot of the lake is a 
promontory on which stantls St. Catharine's Hotel, with the quiet waters 
nearly surrounding it, and the Haystack, Moosehom, and St. Catharine 
Mts. near by. 

Middletown Springs are 8 M. E. of Poultney (stages daily, 75 c). 
These si)rings are mainly impregnated with iron, and have become a very 
popular resort. The Montvert Hotel accommodates 300 gitests; $3. JO a 
day, $ 15.00 a week. The Valley House is a smaller hotel in the vicinity. 

Beyond Poultney the Rutland and Washington Division runs along tlie boraovto 
Eagle Bridge and Troy, 68 M. from Poultney, S;,o]>ping at tlie Vermont stations of 
Pawlet and Rupert. 

Beyond Castleton the next main line station is at Hydeville (Lake 
House), at the foot of Lake Bor!\i'.see. • Station, Fdirhaven (Vermont 
House), with a neat oval park, fv la ,..jh the streets radiate. Vast 
amounts of slate for roofing and other purposes are quarried in this town. 

Daily stages run N. to the farming towns of Westhaven and Benson (10 
M. ), on the shore of Lake Cham plain. Beyond Fairhaven the line reaches 
Whitehall (N. Y.), whence the Cham plain steamers start for Ticonderoga, 
Burlington, .and Rouse's Point. For a description of the Lake, and of the 
railroad from Albany to Whitehall, see Route 53. 

29. Boston to Lowell, Concord, and Montreal. 


Via the Boston and Lowell, Northern, and Vermont Central Railroads. Dis- 
tance, to Lowell, 2G M. ; to Concord, 75 M. ; to Montreal, 334 M. 

(The other routes to Montreal are (1) by way of Fitchburgand Rutland, 344 M. ; 
and (2) by way of Portland and the Grand Trunk Rail''' t^ > 405 M.) 

By the Lowell route, Pullman and passenger oat .in through to Montreal, 
without change, in 14-16 hours. Through express ^ ; .. usually leave the Bos- 
ton and Lowell depot, in Boston, at 8 o'clock, A. I''., .- a.' *$ P. M., arriving in 
Montreal, respectively, at about 10 o'clock in the evaniw- . 1 10 in tlie moniing. 
The line passes through the ]>opulous cities of T;Owell, i. . I'ua, Maschester, and 
Concord, and tlien runs N. W. through the pleasing rural scenery of New Hamp- 
shire and Vermont. 

The train leaves the superb terminal depot of the Boston and Lowell 
R. R., in Boston, and crosses Charles River, with the city of CharlestoAvn 
resting on hills to the r. After passing seven suburban stations, the train 
reaches West Med/ord (2 hotels), on the Mystic River, the seat of Tufts 


jle, Copeland, 
orace Grteley 
itered the car- 
ding formerly 
ing is situateil 
ig-house (25t) 
requeiited by 
aseen, on the 
er is about 
' tlie lake is a 
! quiet waters 
St, Catharine 

daily, 75 c). 
)ecome a very 
ests; $3. JO a 
1 the vicinity. 

unt stations of 

ieville (Lake 
en (Vermont 
idiate. Vast 
in this town, 
id Benson (10 
e line reaches 
ce, and of the 


lih'oads. Dis- 

tland, 344 M. ; 

I to Montreal, 
leave the Bos- 
I., arriving in 
I the nioniing. 
iBchester, and 
f New Hainp- 

and Lowell 
)ns, the train 
)at of Tufts 



Route '^9. 189 

College. The handsome buildings of the College are on Walnut Hill, 
isonie distance S, , and near the College Hill station. Tufts College is a 
well-conducted institution, founded in 1852, and having (in 1871) 15 
instructors and 62 students, with 10,000 volumes in the library. It is 
nii'ler the care of the Universalist Church, and its president is Dr. A. A. 
.Afiiior, a leader in that sect. " Meadford " was settled about 1633, on the 
Indian lands called Missituck, and soon won a fame for its shipbuilding 
■wiiich it still ^.reserves, 

■(ohii Brooks, who was born here in 1752, fought througli the Revolution, com- 
iiKiiidiiig in succession the I'.'th, 8th, and 7th Muss, regiments of the Contiueutal 
;ii:.iy. lie was Governor of Mass. 18lG-2;i 

Maria G. Brooks, born here in 1795. was called by Robert Southey "the most 
iiii passioned and most imaginative of all poetesses." 

The line passes along Mystic Pond and stops at Winchester. On a hill 
near this pond, lived Nanepasheniet, "the Moon-God," an early sachem 
ot the Mass, Indians, He was killed in battle about 1619, and buried in 
his fortress here. Station, Winchester, whence a branch track runs to 
Wobuni (2 M.), a large village engaged in manufacturing (pianos, tan- 
neries, &c,). The pretty lakelet called Horn Pond is close lo the village. 
Station, E. Wohxirn, whence a branch track runs to Stoneham, a busy 
shoemaking town, near which on the S. is the romantic Spot Fond, sur- 
rounded by hills, and 143 ft, above the sea, studded with islands, and 
covering 283 acres. It was found and named by Gov. Winthrop, in 1632, 
and has become a favorite resort for Bosionians. 

Stations, X. Woburn, Wilmington, Billerica. The latter station is in 
au extensive farming town, Tewlcsbury, 2 M, N. of the station, is the 
beat of a large institution for the State's paupers. Shortly after leaving 
N, Billerica the line crosses the Concord River and enters Lowell. 

loweU. ' t' • 

Hotels. —There is need of a good hotel in this city. The American, City, and 
Lovejoys are the principal houses now in the city, 

Pawtucket Falls was a favorite fishing-place of the Indians until their 
extinction, and was often visited by Eliot and Gookin, In 1826 a town 
was set otf here, and named Lowell, in honor of a Newburyport gentle- 
man, who introduced the cotton-manufacture into the United States. 
The Pav 'tucket Canal extends from the head of the Falls to the Concord 
River below the city, and furnishes an innnense water-power, hnving a 
fall of 33 ft. To obviate the trouble caused by an occasional decrease of 
water iu the Merriinac River, a large canal has been built from the outlet 
of Lake Winuepesaukee (commenced in 1846), The Pawtucket Canal 
was cut late in the last century, for purposes of navigation, but did not 
pay, and was bought in 1821 by Boatonians, who establish( i a factory 
here. There were then 12 houses here, and in 1828 the population had 

I] 1 1 

til .■ 


.< 3 

I) ' 



* i 

■ t 


'* f 

;.- f 

190 Iiuutf29. 


risen to 3,532. The Merriraac Mills were started in 1823, aiul at present 
their enormous works turn out 12,000 miles of cotton cloth yearly. 

Beginning rp-stream, the first line of factories belongs to the Lawrence 
Mills Co., wliilo on tlie c:in:il, parallel with Suffolk St., are the; Tremout 
and Sullblk Mills. Below the Lawrence Mills are the ininiense Merrimao 
Mills and Piint Works (foot of Prince St.), which are suoceeeded along 
the river-front by the Boot and the Massachu.sotts Mills. The Middlesex, 
Prescott, Aintleton, llandlton, and Lowell Carpet Mills are on the canal, 
S. of !\ferriniac St., and are best seen from the bridge on Gorham St. 

In 1871, there were at Lowell Gl) nulls, witli a capital of .<; 11,000,000, 
employing y,404 women and 5,413 men, and running 570,oSG si)indh;.s 
and 13,460 looms. 41,036 tons of coal, 18,200 bushels of charcoal, and 
1,855 cords of wood were used yearly for the engines (of 5,."20 horse- 
power), and 105,776 gallons of oil, 1,000 tons of starch, 2,662 tons of 
wool, and 16,740 tons of cotton were consumed yearly. The chief annual 
products w( :e 2,530,000 yards of woollen stuffs ; 1.921,000 yards of carpet- 
ing; 130,000 shawls ; 9,000,000 pairs of hose; 51,691,200 yards of cloth, 
dyed and pi'inted ; and 122,096,000 yards of cotton fabrics. In addition to 
the steam horse-power (5,320), there is about 10,000 horse-power derived 
from the canals. Besides the long line of factories on the canal, another 
great line is built along the Concord River, which here joins the Merrimac. 

When the factory system was first inaugurated, the operatives were 
mostly Americans, but now the mills are worked almost entirely by 
Irish, Nova Scotians, and French Canadians. So, with the 15,000 opera- 
tives, mostly foreign, Lowell possesses but little of the aspect of a New 
England city. The French have a large and handsome church (Catholic), 
Dear which is the great hospital of St. John, conducted by the Sisters of 
Charity. The city has 42,000 inhabitants, with 26 churches, 62 schools, 
about 6,000 dwelling-houses, 10 lodges of Masons, and 4 of 0<hl Fellows. 

Lierrimac St. is the main thoroughfare of the city, and contains long 
lines of shops. On this street is the Post Ofiice, City Hall, and a vener- 
able-looking Episcopal Church and rectory. On S. Common is St. John's 
Church, also the buildings of Middlesex County (which was organized in 
1643, together with Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk Counties). On Merrimac 
St. is a large public library, and the Y. M. Christian Association has 
pleasant reading-rooms near the corner of Merrimac and Gorham St.s. 

Lowell has been visited 1>y many of the distinguished foreigners who have trav- 
elled in America. SirClmrles Lyell eamo here, also Liuiiles Dickens, who devoted 
a chapter (IV., Auierieau Notes) to it, and Fredrilca Bremer, who speaks of the 
" glorious vie"" irom Drewcroft's Hill on a cold winter evening, of the manulac- 
tories of Lowell lying below in a half-eircle, glittering with a thousand lights, like 
a magic castle on the suow-eovered earth." 

By going to the upper end of Merrimac St., and turning to the 1., one 
comes to the bridge over the Merrimac, from whicji a view of Pawtucket 



liouteSO. 191 

.1 at present 
:early. '-'^ 
:ho Lawronce 
tho Tremoiit 
>e Merrimao 
eecded along 
le Middlesex, 
)ii the canal, 
!iam St. 
o8G sj)imllo.H 
charcoal, and 
5,020 horse- 
G(i2 tons of 
chief annual 
■ds of carpet- 
ds of cloth, 
n addition to 
)wer derived 
inal, another 
10 Merrimac. 
^ratives were 

entirely by 
E>,000 opera- 
ct of a New 
h (Catholic), 
e Sisters of 

62 schools, 
idd Fellows. 
3ntains long 
and a vener- 
is St. John's 
organized in 
)n Merrimac 
jciatiou has 
am Sts. 

ho have trav- 
, who devoted 
poalvs of tho 
tho niauul'ac- 
id lights, like 

3 the 1., one 
P Pawtucket 

Falls and the canal entrance may be gained. On a little enrailed green 

[on Merrimac St. the city has erected a luonnment to two of her young 
iiien, Ladd and Whitney, who belonged to tho 6th Mass. Militia ileg., 
and were killed during the murderous attack on that corps l*y the roughs 
of Udtimore, April 1!', 1S61. Near this niominipiit is a * bronze statue 
of Victory, by the celebrated German sculptor, Kauch, which has been 

I ( rectetl as a memorial to the men of Lowell who fell in lighting against 

I the Rebellion. " j= \ 

After leaving Lowell, the line follows the Merrinuic River to Concord. 

> A seat on the r. is preferable. Stations, ^fiddlcscx, and X. Chrhiisford. 
Middlesex is at the N. end of the old Middlesex Canal, running from this 
point to Boston, 27 M. It was completed in 180S, at a cost of S r)2S,000, 
and had 20 locks in a fall of 136 ft., but since the era of railroads began, 
it has been neglected, and is not used. At N. Chclmafard the Stony 
Brook Railroad comes in from Groton (Ayer) Junction. The line soon 
regains the banks of the Merrimac near Wicassic Falls, and stops at 
Tyiuisbi'Ti)', soon after which it crosses the State line and enters New 

r-'.- v-^ >, -1,-,. iwi - ,•; - Nashua. ■•.:■'>' -^'^ ■ ^y '. .. :r,n m^ 

Hotels, * Indian Head, conier Main and Pearl Sts. ; Treniont ; MerrUnac, oppo- 
site Iho station, i^i" : 1 ■ - I ■ i- / ;,^- ' '-..'■ 1' .c.i. )' >ii. 

The town of Dunstable (in which Nashua was included) was settled 
before King Philip's War, and was bravely defended through that and 
the succeeding conllicts. So late as 1803, the present site of the city was 
a sandy plain covered with j)ine-trees. The Nashua Manufacturing Co. 
Was chartered in 1823, and factories were erected along the canals, •while 
the new village grew in importance, until in 1853 it became a city. 

Nashua is u city (10,511 inhabitants), "'uatcil on hilly grouml 
at the conlluence of the Merrimac and Nashua Rivers. It has 11 churches, 
6 bodies of Masons, 3 of Otld Fellows, and 1 daily and 2 weekly news- 
papers. The streets are 1 road and well-lighted, and lined with trees, 
while some of the churches and private residences arc of pleasing ajipear- 
ance. " By the womlrous alchemy of skill and enterprise, out of the 
waters of the Nashua and the sands of this pine plain, from some half 
a dozen dwellings have been raised up these thronged and beautiful 

The water-power is taken from Mine Falls on the Nashua River, from 
which a canal has been cut 3 M. long, 60 ft. Avide, and 8 fi. deep, with a 
head and fall of 36 ft. The Nashua Manufacturing Co. and other cotton 
mills have over 2,000 operatives. 110 men are engaged in making cards 
and gla;5ed paper ; 150 men make locks; 75 make fans; 40 make hoop- 
skirts ; 70 are engaged on soapstone work; and 160 make shuttles and 
bobbins. The Underbill Rlge Tool Co. uses 100 tons of iron and steel 

111 i rr 

> ' 



■e , 

.. ^ 

yl' ' 





192 noutc29. 


annually; the Vale Mills consume 500 bales of cotton; ami the immense 
Nasliua Iron Works cons:unie 3,000 tons of iron, bOO tons of steel, and 
4,000 tons of coal each j'ca.. Besides the goods already mentioned, 
Na.shua i^roduces yearly 30,000 yards of ingrain carpets, and 16,000 bed- 
steads, - 

The station of the through line is 1 M. E. of the cciure of Nashua. Tho Wor- 
cester and Nashua station is on tlie niuin street, and the Boston station is i M. 
N. of it, in the centre of the city. 

KfUiliua to Wilton. 

From the latter station the Wilton Bnin<'h R. R. runs 10 M. N. W. to Wilton. 
This line i isses througli a i)leasant and retired liill-eountry, uiueh fretiuented Ijy 
city people in sunmier. 

Stations, S. Merrimac and Auihcmt. Tlie main village ol" Amherst town is some 
distance N. of the stiition, and tlie jiojiuhir Amherst Spring (good hotel) is about 
y M. from the station (stages to the village and sjirings). The village is on a higli 
plain, ^ M. square, and abounds in shade-trees. 

This' town was granted to Essex Co. veterans of the Narragansett War, and named in \H'A), in honor of Gen. Amherst, the commander in the Conquest 
of Canada. It sent 120 men to the Continental Army, although its population in 
1775 was larger than in 1S70. In a small fanuhouse, 5 M. from Amherst village, 
Horace Greeley was boi'n, Feb. Ij, ISll. He learned the printer's trade in Poult- 
ruy, Vt., between his 1011) and li>th year, and soon after went to New York, where 
lie started several ]japers (tlie Monti mj J'v^t, Nen'-Yurkcr, Jcffersonian, Log-Cabin). 
In ISU he founded the A\w Yorl: Tribune, which became one of the nicst 
jirwcrful and spirited of the New York newsjiajieis, and advocated the abolition 
of slavery, the elevation of the laboring ( la.sses, and the protection (by tarid) 
of American manufactures. Mr. Greeley generally sujqtorted the measures of 
tiie Republican party from its origin until 1S72 altlioiigh lavoring a more 
extended amnesty for the Southern States. In 1872 he .joined the Liberal party, 
Avhich seceded from the Republicans on account of dissatisfaction with Presideiii 
G'rant's administration, lie was nominated as candidate for the Presidency by 
the Liberal Convention at Cincinnati, and by the Democratic Convention at Bal- 
timore. After a long and bitter campaign. Grant was re-elected, and soon after, 
W()rn out by toil, Mr. Greeley <lied near New York. He was eccentric in many of his 
M'ays, and loved a quiet, rural life, while his powerful andiamgent editorials made 
him the leading journalist in America. 

Station, Milford (Union House ; Milford Springs House), a manufacturing vil- 
lage on the broad meadows of the Souhegan River. Stages run daily to Moure 
y-r un} with its " beautiful ])rospect of towns and villages in the Merrimac aiii 
Souhegan valleys. Sunrise in summer brings to view a vast expanse, including 
the beautiful villages of Massachusetts ; while from the spire of the church car 
be seen the snow-white sails upcn the distant ocean. The name is a fit embki. 
of the spot; for, clustering around this eminence, are numerous farms, intheiiiik 
seasons clad in tlie richest verdure." The large summer-hotel was partiull 
burned in 1S72, but is in process of reionstruction. 

A daily stage runs from Milford to Francestown (small inn), the birthplace of 
Senator Ijcvi Woodbury. The town has one mountain and two lakes, alsoaquan) 
of line gray freestone. 

Station, n'(7^o?i (Whiting House), a manufacturing village in a glen on th- 
Souhegan River. 2,000 gallons of milk, besides other dairy products, are sent t 
Boston daily from tliis town. This is a popular summer resort (2^ hours fioi. 
Boston), l>eing rich in hill-scenery and falling waters. Barnes' Cascade, Pai'i 
Monadnock Mt, and Lyndeborough are often visited. A daily stage runs frot 
Wilton to Li/adcboroui/A (Mountain House). - . 

Nashua to Concord. 35 M. 

Stations (on the main line), TlwrntorCs Ferry, Merriiruic, Reed's Fern 
Goff's Falls, and Manchester. 

.%■ \ 


Route 29. 1 93 

the immense 

of steel, and 

y mentioned, 

(I 16,000 bed- 

liua. The Wor- 
II sUition is \ M. 

W. t«) Wilton. 

h lietiuontt'il In 

Tst town is some 
I lioti'l) is about 
llage is on a hi^'li 

lausett War, and 

in the Conquest 

its vopulatiou in 

Anilierst village, 

s trade in Poult- 

Ki'W York, where 

mlan, Log-Cabin). 

one of the most 

vted the abolition 

itection (by taritt) 

the measures of 

fnvoring a nioii; 

the L'beral party, 

i(in with President 

the Presidency by 

Convention at Bal 

d, and soon after, 

ntrie in many of his 

;ent editorials made 

manufacturin}; vil 
run daily to 3/oi(i.; 
the Merrimac an-: 
expanse, ineludin, 
i of the church c;i: 
me is a fit enil)ki. 
us farms, in the mil 
tiotel was partiall 

) the birthplace of 
o lakes, also a ipwn; 

'e in a glen on tli- 
Iroducts, are sent i 
^sort (2^ hours Iro;. 
rnes' Cascade, l';i^- 
ally stage runs frut 

:irMC, Reed's Fern 


Hotela. Mancheste; House, Elm St. ; City Hotel ; Ht'janis House ; AnioaUeag 

This city was settled early in the last century by conflicting colonies of Scotch 
Presbyterians and Massachusetts Puritans. For 75 years from its settlement. 
Derryheld (^s it was tlicn 'ailed) ha»l neitlier a mini.stor nor a lawyer, nor did it 
tjond'anyof its youth to college. The large fisheries at the Falls'nttractcd the 
settlers here. 

" Frotii the eels thev formed their food in chief. 
, And eels were failed the ' Derryflrld Ijcef I 

And the marks of eels wcr<' m> plain to triiee. 
That the cliildren loolced like evU in the thee." 

Manchester (23,009 iiiliabitaiits) is the populou.s city in New 
Hampshire, and is built on a broad ])Iain near the Merrimac River, Elm 
Street is its principal thoronglilare, and is 100 ft. wide and over a mile 
long. Public sciuares, with ponds enclosed in their limits, have been laid 
out in difl'ereiit parts of the city, and among tlie cliurches may bo noticed 
the Unitarian, on Beech St., the Catliolio and the Einseo])al on Lowell 
St., and the Convent and Church of St. Ann, on Merriniac St. The City 
Library contains about 1G,000 volumes, and there are 2 daily and 2 weekly 
newspaper.-.. The compact lines of, near the factories, 
were built for the operatives, and are both commodiotis and substantial. 
The growth of tliis city has been very rapid, and its river-front is now 
lined with great brick factories, a striking view of which is obtained from 
the W. bank of the river (in Golfstown). 

The water-power of Manchester is funiished by the Blodget Canal, 
built in 1816 aroimd the Amoskeag Falls on the Merrimac River. These 
Falls have a descent of 47 feet, with rapids above, and in high water they 
fttford, even now, a grand siglit. The Amoskeag, Stark, and Langdoii 
Mills, and tlie Manchester Print Works are located along tlie canal. Thj 
Amoskeag Co. has 6 mills, with 105,000 spindles, employing 3,000 hands; 
and 38-40,000 bales of cotton are consumed yearly in the factories of 
Ihe city. The Print Works have a cai)ital of .$1,800,000, and employ 
8,200 hands and 16 printing-machines, with 3,000 horse-power, printing 
20,000,000 yards of cloth yearly. The Manchester Locomotive Worka 
•mploy 325 men, and make 50 locomotives yearly, besides much other 
heavy work, while the Amoskeag Manufacturing Co. turns out many 
•team fire-engines. There are also made here yearly 150,000 axes ; 3,750 
Kovelty sewing-machines ; 22,000 barrels of ale; many thousand dozen 
4les ; and several hundred tons of paper. 

Lake Massabesio (* Massabcsic ILmse, 100 guests, $ 2.50 a day, $ 10.00 
a week) is 4 M. E. from the city, on the Candia road. The Portsmouth 
Railroad has a station near the hotel. The Lake is 4 M. long, and is 
▼wry irregular in outline, having 31 M. of shore, with some beaches of 
white sand, while nximerous picturesque islets dot its surface. The Fairy 
Grotto luid a curious sulphur cave (Devil's Den) are often visited. 
9 M 






if I 

." > 


■ ,' i 
n\ « 




"J' if 



) ■ ■«. 

» :» •>■ 













:1 ^ 







4 '*'■ 

194 Route 29. BOSTON TO MONTREAL. 

The Miuicliesljr and N. Weare U. R. runs X. W. 19 M., jmssiiig the stations, 
Bedford, Gotl'stown, Tark* r's, Oil Mills, Hayinond, and E. Weare, to N. Weare, 
In a busy inaniilactiirinK tnwn. 'I'lif ('oncoid and i'ortsnioutli 11. R. runs from 
Mjinrhcster to Toi-tsmouth in IS M. ; and a railroad runs S. E. to l-awrence in 
20 M. 

After k'ivving Manchester, on the main line, the train passes Martin's 
Ferry, and stops at Hc/kset {-^ycr House; Stearns Ilnnse). Just be- 
fore reaching the station, the Merriinac is crossed by a bridge TtiJO ft. long. 
This village is the seat of cotlon factories and extensive brickyards (Inak- 
ing 4,000,000 bricks a year), and derives considerable water-power from 
IG ft. falls in the river. In the W. of the town is a lofty and ragged 
pile of rgcks called Pinnacle Mt., from whose summit a good view of 
the valley is gained. At its base is a deep, clear pond which has no 
visible outlet. This town is on the reservation given by Massachusetts to 
Passaconoway, the great Sachem of the Pennacooks. His son and suc- 
cessor, Woi'.iiolancet, was converted by the a])ostle Eliot, and when King 
Philip's ardent eloquence had iiersuaded the Pennacooks to enter the 
nnti-Engiish Cor ederation, he resigned the sachemdom, and went to 
Canada with his family. 

A branch road (over which some throu^di trains pass) crosses the river at 
Ilookset Falls, and runs throuj^di Suncook and rcnibroke to (Joncord. i^uncnok 
(Suncook House) has a water-power from the falls in the Suncook River, near its 
confluence with the Meniniac. 

The Suncook Valley R. R. runs from Ilookset N. E. to Pittaftdd (20 M.), passing 
the stations, Suncook, Allenstown, Short Falli, Chichester, and Webster's Mills. 

The main line passes through the town of Bow, and tlie W. bank of 
the river, and enters 


Hotels. * Eagle Hotel ; Phenix House. 

The territory now covered by Concord was granted by Massachusetts l.i 1725, 
and occupied soon after, the I'ennacook Indians giving way. It was named Rum- 
ford in 1733, and 8 years later was confirmcil as a part of New Hanipshire, to tha 
great regret of the settlers, who i>etitioiu'd the king to give the territory back to 
Mass. At the breaking out of war with Trance, seven timber forts were Vjuilt, 
in which the OG men of the town, with their faniili(>s, lived in state of siege. 
Several of the townsmen were killed or captured. For many years a litigation 
was carried on between the proprietors of the town of Bow ami the Rumfordites, 
the former claiming that the grant from Mass. under whiih Rundnrd was settled 
was illegal and void. The N. U. courts decided that the Mass. gr/mt was value- 
less, and then the vexed colonists sent two commissioners with an appeal to the 
king. He decided in favor of the Rumlord people, and by an older in council 
confirmed them in their rights. As late as 1772, negroes were bought and sold 
here, and bears and wolves were very trouV)lesonie to the iarniers. The name 
Concord was adopted in 17(35, and in 180j the town was made the State capital. 

Concord, the capital of the State of New Hampshire, is a handsome 
city of 12,241 inhabitants, situated on the W. side of the Merriniac lliver, 
equally distant from the ocean and from the Connecticut River. Main 
and State Streets nxn parallel with the river, and are broad and pleasant 
avenues. The abundance of .shade-trees on these and the cross-streets 


ll>t((.' 2'J. 195 

ig the Htatiuns, 

, to N. Weare, 

R. runs from 

to I^fiwrence in 

isses Martin's 

<'). Just be- 

e TtjO ft. long. 

kyanls (Inak- 

r- power from 

,y and ragged 

good view of 

whicli has no 

ssachnsetts to 

son and suc- 

nd when King 

to enter the 

and went to 

les tlie river at 

icdrd. i^uncnok 

River, near its 

(20 M.), passing 
cbster's Mills. 

e W, bank of 

usetts '..\ 1725, 
IS nunied Rmn- 
npshire, to the 
ritory back to 
ns were built, 
slate of siege, 
rs a litigation 
nl \va.s settled 
u;t was valuc- 
ajipeal to tlio 
del' in council 
iiglit and sold 
IS. The n.'inie 
Late capital. 

a liandsonie 
riniae River, 
.liver. Main 
and pleasant 


gives the city a pleasant, embowered appearanc ;j. The State Capitol is a 

tine structure, fronting a small park on Main St. It is built of 
Concord granite, and the projecting portico is sustained by eight pairs of 
coupled columns. The State Library is in a hall opening off the first 
lob>)y, which is richly decorated with the colors of the N. II. regiments in 
the Secession War. The lialls of the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives are neat and commodious, Tlie building is surmounted by a lofty 
and graceful dome, from which a j)leasant view is obtained. 

The City Hall and Court JIousc is on Main St., N. of the Capitol, and 
is a neat brick building, surmounteil by a round dome. 

The State Prison is on State St., and covers 2 acres of ground. It was 
established here in 1812, and on May 1, 1S71, Inul 91 convicts. It is 
carried on with profit to the State, as the convicts are kept busily at 
work, 80 that in the year from May, 1870, -May, 1871, its cost was 
§17,328, and its earnings amounted to .S 22,9r>4. 

The State A fii/l ion for the Insane has fine buildings in the W. part of 
the city. It was founded in 1842, since which it has treated over 3,0i)0 
l)atients. Its present capacity is nearly 400 patients, and many are dis- 
charged yearly as perfectly cured, 

Benj.iniin Tlionii).siin, Count Fluniford, t)orn at Wobuni, Mass., 17"»3, was long a 
resident of Concord (tlien calli'd Riiniiord). At the lime of the Revolution 
(hein^' then a .s(h()ol-U"a(dier at Riunfon ), he was unjustly suspected of disloyalty 
to the American cause, and was annoyed until he toolc refu};e in the i'.ritish lines. 
He became an under secretary in ({trtuain<''s cabinet at I.omlon, and after- 
wartls raised the " Kin/s American Dragoons" in New York, with which ho 
surjirised .-iiid di->i>erse(l Marion's men (ITSii). Fie was kniudited by Kim,' rieor),'e, 
and in 17Sl bccami' chandtcrlain and aid-de-i'aini) to tlie llle tor ot Havaria. 
Here he rcor;4anizeil the army, suppressed bej,'^,'ary, made the I'arU at Munich, 
and kept the Klectorate neutral durinj^ thr Franco- Austrian War. He was made 
State councillor, lieut-{;en., minister of wa.', count (takin;.; tlie title from his (dd 
home), and head of the re:^'cni'y. He foun<hd the Royal Institution at London, 
married the widow of Lavoisier, and becai '• one of the leailiu^' scientists of 
Euro]>e. He diseoveri'd that heat is only a ,.iode of motion, and wrote exten- 
sively on liu'ht, heat, and other scientific subjects. He endowed a prot"essorshii> 
in Harvard l.'niversity, and ]>asse<l the last 10 years <d" his life in .scientitie ex- 
l>eriments. His dan.^hter, the Countess of Rumford. lived in Conccjrd luitil her 
<leath, in 1S.')L'. .V line l)roii/,e statue of the Coiuit has been erected in one of the 
principal iiromenades of Miuiiidi (near the Hotel des Quatre ISaisons). 

Abbot, l>owninf:, k Co.'s coa(di and^on works at Concord are the 
largest in tlie world, and their wagons are sent to Ja]>an, Ausrr.alia. and California, 
besides beiu'.; in hij,'h repute throufrhont the Atlantic States. Hill's harnesses 
(7'j men in the works) are also sent to all jiarts of the world. The Preseott Melo- 
deons have been made here since 1H;',7, and a furniture comiiany uses .-? l,(")0!),00 ) 
worth of lumber yearly. 7'), 000 mackerel kits and 22,0ii0 lasts are made here 
yearly. At Fisherville are lart^e furnitiu-e factories, making,' 12-1'), 000 chamlter- 
sets yearly, much of which is sent ti> California. Near the city are inexhaustible 
quarries of fine granite, which is sent to the P^astern cities and used in some of 
the finest of their i)uV)li(' buildings. 

The Blrchdalc .^priinis (small hotel) are near the city, and should be visited for 
the sake of the pleasant drive. Most of the roads about Concord are level and 
smooth, and afford very interestin<,' rides. 

A beautiful ante-colonial tradition of this locality is iireserved by Whittier in 
" I'he Hridalof Pennaeook," one of his longest poems. Ityivesaehanning pii-ture 
of the Merriiuac valley centuries ago, when 


lUG Route 29. 




' 'I 

■ \ 

i : 

t r. 

i < 


1 f • 


** In their Hlultcred reposu, liKjklnff out from tJu' wood 
The l)iirk-hiiil(lrd wl((WHin» nt' IN-nmiciok sfcofj, 
There Kliih'd the corn-ilutici', !• enuntil-flre f hone, 
And RguhiNt the red war-poxt tin' hatchet wii» thrown. 

There the ohl i«mnked In dilcnee their pipen, and the young 
I'd the pike iind the vihite pi reh tlieir hiiited lincN fliing ; 
There the Ifoy Hiuipcd liiN iiriow, niid there the 8liy iiiiiid 
Wove her niuny-hued ImskctH uitd liri^'iil wumpu'm hraid." 

t'oncard to t'laremnit. .OO.j, J/. 

Concord and narnnnnt, and SuKar River Railroads. 

Soon after leaving t'onciird the lino jiasscs \V. t'oncoril and stops atContoooook, 
Avlifnce a binncli mad riniH nj) tlic vnllcv of the Cuntimconk Uivcr to Hillshoroiicjh 
JlrUhje. (15 M. H. K.). In tiiis villag«( is the. mansion of (Jov. rierec, wliere 
rranldin I'irrcc was liorn in 1804. He jiraelised law in Concord for some years, 
■Xvas U. H. 8eiiat<)r, 18.'}7-42, and hrii^'.-jicn. in Hie Mexican War. At the Dciuo- 
ci at ic Convention of 18.''v2 he was nominated (on the 40tli liailot)fortlie l*residen(!.v, 
Jind defeated Oen. Scott, tlie Wliiy candidate, l>y 2>-i electoral votes out of 2'.KJ. 
During liis adniinistralion, Arizona was annexed, ami Nebraslsa were 
opened to slavery, and the Osteiid Manifesto (to Spain) was issued. Mr. Tieii-e 
favored the pro-slavery Jiarty, anti synii)atUized with the Secessionists in the war 

of i.s«i-r>. 

From Hillsborough Bridge, stagc-t run to tlie thinly -pojjulated towns to the 
S. and W. 

Beyond Contoocook the main line follows Warner River through the 
town of Warner, in which there are four stations. 

Station, Bradford (Bradford House, Breshy House, good), a pleasant 
village near Bradford Bond, which is '[\ M. long, and contains several 
islands. Many summer visitors stay here in the pleasant hotels, and ex- 
plore the mountainous district in the vicinity. Lovewell's Mt. and 
Sunapee Mt. are near Bradford, and Mt. Kearsarge is but 10 M. distant 
(N. E.). 5 M. from tlie village are the ])oi)ular Bradford Springs (good 
hotel), near the lake-studded town of Washington. Stages run daily 
from Bradford to Ilillshorovgh Bridge (10 M. S.) Between Bradford and 
Sunapee, the railroad passes through a cutting (at Newbury Summit) 
through 400 ft. of intensely hard, slag-like rock. Thi."- cutting was one 
of the most difficult and costly in tlie United States. It shoidd be seen 
from the roar of the train. 

The line now passes along the S. shore of Sunapee Lake for nearly 2 M., 
with Sunapee Mt. on the 1. Station, Sunapee, N. of which is the village 
of Sunapee Harbor (Young's Lake House). Lake Sunapee is a beautiful 
sheet of water 9 M. long, and averaging 2^ M. wide. It abounds in fish, 
and is surrounded 1)y romantic scenery. Tire adjacent towns have many 
sequestered lakelets, and from Suna])ee Mt. is gained a pretty view of the 
lake and liill-country, with Mt. Kearsarge to the E. 

Station, Neuport (Newport; Phenix House), the shire-town of 
Sullivan Co., a pleasant village enwalled by hills, and situated on the 
Sugar River. Several small mountains are situated in this town, and there 
are romantic glens along the Sugar River and its branches. Gunapec 
Lake is 6 M. distant, and Croydon Mt., the highest summit in the count}-, 


Route 20, 197 


five, w}iere 
soiiio years, 

tlie Dciiio- 
out of 2'.t"(>. 
wiskii were 

Mr. Tit rce 
^ ill the war 

tt'tjs to tlie 

rough tlio 

a pleasant 
lis several 
•s, and ex- 

Mt. and 
M. (liotant 
nr/s (good 
run daily 
dlbrd and 

; was one 
1 be seen 

he village 
s in fish, 
ve many 
w of the 

town of 
I on the 
nd there 

count V, 

is 9 - 10 M. N. in the blenk and granito-strewn highland town of Croydon. 
Beyond Newport the line follows the impetuous Sugar Kiver through its 
glens and gorges to Claremont (r/r/zt^);;^ Ifnnsr ,■ SulUvdn IIouki). This 
town was settled in 17(57 by Connectirut men, and was named for Lord 
Clive'a summer mansion. There is much rich alluvial lantl in the town, 
and the valley is bounded by a great range of hills, ('larenu)nt village \% 
at the rapids on Sugar Iliver, where a fall of I'lO ft. in less than a milo 
gives a great wat<'r-jiower. The Monadnoek Mills, the Sugar River Papi-r 
Mills, the Clarenjont Manufacturing Co., the C'laremont Linen Co., and 
other corporations have their works here. Imnunse (piantities of ragH are 
consumed in the manufacture of paper, 500 tons of which are turned out 
yearly. Over 3,500,000 yards of cotton cloths, 70,000 yards of doeskins, 
70,000 yards of tlannels, are made here yearly. Clareniont village has .> 
churches and a tine high schocd, which was cn<lowed by raran Stevens, 
the American hot<l-king. Flat Hi)ck, Twist Rack, and Bible Hill are 
visited by who summer here, whib.' from Green Mt. a tine view of 
the Conn, valley is enjoyeil. Ascutney is 10 M. N. 

2 M. from Claremont the railroad connects with the Vermont Central, 
66^ M. from Concord (.see Route 24). 

The Boston, Concord, and Montreal and Wliite Mountains R. R. nms N. from 
Concord (see Route .10). A raihoad is iK-inK tiuilt to Rochester, 40 M. E. of Con- 
cord. From Concord to Porta inoutli, see Route 37. 

The train on the Montrea' line now passes on the rails of the Northern 
(N. H.) R. R. , and runs N. .V)m Concord on the r. baidi of the Merrimac. 
Just after passing the manufacturing village of FitihervUle, at the con- 
fluence of the Merrimac and Contoocook Rivers, the train cros.se3 a bndge 
to Duston's Island, and thence by another bridge to the shore. On this 
island Mrs, Duston, of Haverhill, killed her Indian captors and escaped. 
The line now runs along the broad intervales of Ilosca^ocn (two stations). 

In this town were born C. G. Greene, wlio founded the " Boston Post " in 18:;i ; 
W. P. Fessenden, the eminent and powerful U. S. Senator from Maine (1851 -<;;>) : 
and John A. Dix, an ofllcer in the army, 1812-28, U. H. Kenator from New York. 
1845-1), Major-Gen. in the army which crushed the R»l)ellion of 18G1-5, and 
Minister to France, lsi)7-<). He was nominated as candidate for Gov. of New 
York by the Free Soil Democrats in 1848, but was defeated, and in 1872 he wad 
elected Governor, which otlice he now occupies. 

Stations, Webster Place and Franklin (Webster House ; Franklin 
House). 2 M. S. \V. of Franklin village Daniel Webster w^as born, in 
1782. The family moved to a new home near Webster Place, ami 
he afterwards bought this latter estate, and used to retire there to rest. 
Franklin village is near the confluence of the Winnepesaidcee and Pemi- 
gewasset Rivers, which fonu the Merrimac. It is a thriving mechani- 
cal village, situated in the valley below the railroad, and makes yearly 
150,000 pairs of socks, 120,000 yards of flannel, and 600 tons of paper. 



198 itoiUf^o. 


I V 


, ! 

J, ■ 


• i 




A branch road runs from tliis point \ii> tlio Feniigewn.s.set vuUey 18 M. 
to Bristol. Nciir the station at Hill Village (Seriat*' 'louse) Teriwig 
Mt. is seen on the 1. liristol (Bristol House) is .. ,,.Ltty village snr- 
rounded by Idlls, at thcoonllncnceof the Newfound and the IVinigewasset 
Rivers. In tlio last 80 rods of its course the Newfound River falls 100 ft., 
alTording a good water-power. About 2 M. N. of Bristol is the beautiful 
Newfound Luke, 7 M. long and 2-3 M. wide. Sugar Loaf Mt. is on the 
\V. shore, and (!rosl)y Mt. is on the E. A daily stage runs from Bristol, 
on a road which gives frecpient glimpses of the lake, to Uefrron (Union 
House), near its N. end. 

After leaving Franklin, the main lino passes Webster Pond and tha 
blealc and precijjitous range of Ragged Mt. on the r., and stops at the 
quiet little village of /i'. Andot'cr (Lake House), near its long, l)rightlake. 
The next station is Putter 1*1 'ce (Kearsarge House), named for the magician 
Potter. Stages run from this station to Mount Kearsarge (1 M. S.), an 
isolated peak, with a rocky summit 2,401 It. above the sea. It affords a 
noble * view in a clear day, including, on the \V., Sunapee and Lovewell's 
Mt., and the blue Sunapeo Lake, and Croydon and Ascutney, with the 
vast range of the Green Mts. clising tin; horizon behind them. In the N. 
is Cardigan Mt., with the Pemi'^ewasset Mts. in the distance, and swing- 
ing around to the r. are the Franconia and the White Mts., with Lake 
Winncpesankco in the N. E. In the nearer E. is the thronged and pros- 
perous valley of the Merrimac, while countless villages dot the landscape 
on every side. Far up on the sloping side of the Mt. is the Winslow 
House, a far-viewing sunnner-hotel. 

The Aniorican fri;;iitc " Kears.irye." wliic) k the rebel cruiser " Alabama " 

off Cherbourg in Ibi'A, was built on the N. . it, ami named fur tliis muuiitain. 

Her captiiin was John A. Winslow, in whose nonor the hotel is nuuied. 

Stations, W. Andover, tS. Ikmhvnj, and Grafton (Pleasant Valhiy 
House). Grafton is S. of Cardigan Mt., and at Glass Hill great quanti- 
ties of mica are mined. The Pinnacle, on this hill, has a sharp precipice 
150 ft. high on its N. side. Beyond (Jrafton Centre the line jiasses Lsing- 
glass Mt. and Tewksbury Pond on the 1., and stops at Canaan (two small 
inns in the town). In the 43 M. between Concord and Grafton the rail- 
way has ascended over 800 ft. It now takes a slight down grade, follow- 
ing the valley of the Mascomy' to the Conn. River. The pretty village of 
Canaan Street lies on the shore of Heart Pond, a lakelet wliich is sur- 
rounded by a naturally formed dike of earth. Fi-om Canaan a much- 
travelled highway runs N. across Dorchester to W. Rumney ou the B. C. 
k M. R. R. 

' The line now enters Enfield, and skirts Mascomy Lake (or Enfield 
Pond), a beautiful sheet of water 4 M. long, on whose S. W. shore is a 
community of Shakers. These industrious people furnish much fine wool 


IlovtfiO. 190 

ey 18 M. 
lago sur- 
s 100 ft., 
is on till) 
I Bristol, 
in (Union 

1 and thj 
ps at the 
ight lake. 

kl. S.), an 

afTords a 

with the 
In the N. 
nd swing- 
,ith Luke 
and pros- 


Alabama " 

it Valley 
it quanti- 

ses Lsing- 
two small 

the ruil- 
e, I'oUow- 
I'illage of 
ill is sur- 

a much- 
the B. C. 

hore is a 
fine wool 

to the market, also wooden-war" and garden senis. In this town arc the 
Granite State and Monnt Culm Hotels, with some qnict and romantic 
Bcencry oromid Crystal Lake ami Mount Calm. 

Stations, /.'. Lrhnnmi ami Lrh,!ti»i (llamiltf)n House), a manufftctur'nf» 
vill.iu"' on an ehv.itnl plain iit-ar tlie Falls on the .Mascomy (Nov-Anglivi' 
for the Indian M:isc<ima). F' ..,.ie riponp'. .scythes, Hour, and ma<!hine'» 
are made here. Station, M'. Lrhannn (small hotel), the seat of Tilden 
LailieV Seminary, whose fhie buildings are seen on a commanding hill to 
the 1. Tlie line now crosses tin; Connecticut Hiccr v^ an t>\>vn bridge, 
all'i'niiiig gi!;)il views u]» and down stnaiii, and stojis at White Eiver 
Junction {Junction House, good). This is an important point in tlio 
northern railway systems, the roails wla^h converge here being the 
Northern (N. 11.) II. U., the southern and central divisions of the Ver- 
mont Central U. R., and the Connecticut and rassumi)sicand Massawippi 
Vallev U. H. By the nearest routes this Junction is distant from iJoston 
14*2 M.; from New York, 2'iO M. ; from Concord, (l!* M. ; from Spring- 
field. T24 M.; from Burlington, Vt., 104 M. ; from Mcmtreal, 184 M.; 
from Quebec, 20t) M. (These figures are from the Oflicial Guide, pub- 
lished at I'hiladdphia. Of the .seven other books which allude to the 
■subject no two agree. ) 

Tliere is a good restaurant in the station, and trains usually stop long 
enough for a dinner to bo obtained. The train jtasses now on to the rails 
of the Vermont Central R. R., which runs through a pleasant rural dis- 
trict, and achieves the passage of the Green Mts. by some fine engineer- 
ing works. . lie i)ictures(pie White River is followed for 25 M. Stations, 
Wldte liirrr Villfitje (on the r.) and WoodatocL; whence a daily stage 
runs to Bridgewater, 15 iM. S. K., the road passing up the valley of the 
Otla Qucchce River. Woodstock village (Eagle Hotel), the shire town of 
Windsor Co., is on this road, 10 M. from the railway, and is a beautiful 
rural hamlet with an elm-adorned park in the valley of the Otta Quecheo. 
From Mt. Tom (near the village) a pleasing view is obtained down the 
long valley of the river. The village has two weekly journals, a bank, 
and a large country trade, besides some manufactures. 

Geor;,'p P. Marsh. U. 8. Minister to Turkey, 13J0-53, ami to Italy, 1861-73, 
was liorn here iii lilOl. lie is distinj^uisheil as a i)hilolugist, in coniiection with 
the lan^^uagf. Ilirain Puwers was honi lieie in 18Uf>. lie was a fanner's 
son, iind after many vicissitudes lie learnct' the art of inndelling in plaster, and 
opened a studio in Flori'iioc about 18;17. Suici! tinni lie has executed some of tlie 
finest sculptures of modern times. His " f]ve " was hi,i,'lily commeudeil by 
Thorwaldsen, and the "Greek Slave" was a iiob'.e work, of which copies have 
been multiplied. "II Penseroso," "California," "Americia," "Proserpine," 
and numerous other reiiuwued works, including portrait-statues, have given him 
the highest rank among sculptui's. 

Beyond Woodstock station the line crosses the crystal-clear river, and 
passes through the pretty scenery about W. Hartford to Sharon station. 

The village is si.'en high up on the opposite shore. 



<■ > ■ . 

II ■ i o 


i , 

■ ■ , 

f '' 

I. .* •* 

1 ^ .■ 

: 1 s . 

■1 ,1 

' » *' 

1 ■ 



y ' 

200 Rmite20. 


In 1805, Joseph Smith, the founder of Monnonism, was born at Sharon. In 
1830 he published (at Palmj-ra, N. Y.) the Book of Mormon, which he claimed to 
have translated from metallii- plate-s found by him while under the guidance of 
angels. Ho went West with his converts, and founded Nativoo, in Illinois, where 
he exercised despotic nuthority until 1S44, when the wrath of the "Gentiles" in 
the neighboring towns was amused by his un.just acts. He was imprisoned at 
i'arthage, and soon after the jail was stormed by a nioh, au<i lie was killcil. IJrig- 
ham Young succeeded liim as " L*rcsi(i( nt of the Churcli," and still maintains the 
litlc. (Rev. Holomon Hj^.tldiug, of Conn., wrote a romance, "The Maiinsrript 
Found " (in ISO',)). He allowed Si<incy Rigdon and others to rcail his MS., wliich 
was soon after stolen from his widow, anci tliose who had read the romance after- 
ward declared tiiai tiie Mormon Bible was but a corrupt vei-sion of it. Rigdon 
became a prominent Mormon). 

Station, S. Roijalton (S. Royaltoii House, good), with the station on 

one side of its main square, on which front the hotel, cliurch, and stores. 

The river is now crossed by a bridge GOO ft. long, and the train stops at 

Royalton, wheie occurred, in October, 1780, tlie Last Indian attack on 

New England. The attack was maiie hy 210 Indians, who i)lnndered and 

burnt the village (and also Sharon), killing and capturing 27 of its 


Dnilystages N. to r/ie^.s-m (Orange Co. House), the shire-town of Orange CVmnty, 
passing through Tnnbridge (13 M.). Also N. W, through V.. Bethel and E. Ran- 
dolph, to E. Brookticld (1 i M.). 

Station, Bethel (Bethel House), a busy inainifacturing village, in a glen 
among liigh hills. Daily stages to Barnard (Silver Lake House), 8 M. 
distant, and to Wooddock. Also to Stnckbridge (10 M.), Pittsfield (13 
M.), Rochester (17 M.), and Hancock, four thinly populated towns (with 
small inns), under the shadow of the Green Mts. 

Station, Randolph (Cott.^ge House ; Chad wick House), a busy village 
on the third branch of White River, which the railroad follows from 
Bethel to Roxbury. Stages run to Chelsea, Bronkjicld, and Randoljjh 
Centre (3 M. N. E.). The country now groAvs wilder and more thinly 
inhabited. Station, Braintree, a rude village surrounded by rugged hills. 
To the W. is Granville, with a road crossing the mountain-pass, 2,340 ft. 
above the sea. At Roxbury station (Summit House), the train reaches 
the summit of the pass, 1,000 ft. above the sea. Near the village are 
inexhaustible quarries of the best verd-antique marble. Crossing a 
bridge 400 ft. long and 70 ft. high, the train passes on to Northjield 
(Northfield House), in a populous town which has several quarries of 
dark blue slate. Tlie so-called Norwich University (Vt. Military Insti- 
tute) is situat'id here, in large buildings on a hill to the r. of the track. 

10 M. from Northfield is Muntpelier Jiniction, whence a short branch 
road diverges to Montpelier (Pavilion Hotel, opposite the station, a good 
house and moderai;e charges ; Bishop's Hotel). Montpelier, the capital 
of the State of Vermont, is a beautiful village of about 3,000 inhabi- 
tants. K is situated on a plain near the Winooski River, and is sur 
rounded })y a highly cultivated hill-country. 10 M. to the S. W. is the 







Route 20. 201 

Sharon. In 
B claimed to 
guidance of 
inois, where 
.if utiles" in 
ij)risonpd at 
illcil. 15rig- 
aiiitains tlie 
.MS. wliich 
nance after- 
it. Iligdon 

station on 
ind stores. 
Xn stops at 

attack on 
iidered and 

27 of its 

nge County, 
md E. Ran- 

), in a glen 

)use), 8 M. 

tsfield (13 

)wns (with 

usy village 
lows from 
ore thinly 
gged hills. 
, 2,340 It. 
in reaches 
illage are 
'rossing a 
Harries of 
;ary Insti- 
e track, 
rt branch 
)n, a good 
le capital 
)0 inhabi- 
id is snr 
W. is the 



geographical centre of the State. The village is compactly bnilt, and 

has 2 banks, 3 insurance cos. (the Vt. Mutual has § 37,O00,0tiU of 

risks), 4 weekly newspapers, and 7 churches, one of wliicli is a noble 

piece of archite'^turc. There are several flour-mills, lumber-mills, and 

tanneries, besides which the village has an extensive country trade. 

The * State HoURe is a noble edifice of light-colored granite, on the 

site of the old State House, which was burnt in IS/i/. It stands on a 

slight eminence approached from a verdant Common by granite steps in 

torraci!S. The portico is supported V)y six massive fluted Doric columns, 

and under it stands a fine statue in Vermont marble of Vermont's hero, 

Ethan Allen. It was executed by Larkin G. Mead, of Brattleboro' (now 

living iii Italy). 

Ethan Allen was bom at Litchtield, Conn., in 1737. He moved to Vermont 
in 1 700, and was outlawed liy New Vori< for his bold and ai'tioii in the 
?X)rder fend-;. In 177') he took Fort Tieonderoga from the IJritish. Later in the 
year he attacked Montreal with 110 men, and was captured, with his whole com- 
mand. He was confined in Pendennis Castle, in Kngland, ftn- a shor* time, but 
was exchange<l in 177S, and took eonnnand of the Vermont militia. A royal de 
cree of 17(34 had constituted the Connecticut River the E. lioumhiry of New 
York (N. of Mass.), and Mass. and N. H. also claimed i)arts of its territory. But a 
convention at Westminster, in 1777, declared Vermont a free State. The Conti- 
nental Congress would not ratify this voice of the people, and all its troops were 
withdrawn from the territory. Vermont, tlius left ah)nc, was unable to resist at- 
tacks from the British in the N., and Aden skilfully conducted feignecJ negotia- 
tions with the royal generals, looking towards annexation to Canada, and secur- 
ing neutrality for his State. It was only in 1701, after 20 years of controversy, 
that Vermont was adnutted into the Union, — to otlset Kentucky. Afti^r ajt 
eventful life, Ethan Allen died at Burlington in 1789. 

Under the portico of the State House are kept two cannon taken from 
Breyman's Hessians at the battle of Bennington (1777), after a desperate 
struggle, 'llie British got them back when (}cn. Hull surrenilered the 
Army of the N. W. at Detroit (August, 1812), and tiiey were again taken 
by the Americans during the Canada campaign. They were sent to 
Washington, and afterwards Avere presented by Congress to the State of 
Vermont. The main building of the State is 72 ft. long, and each 
of the wings is ,o^ ft., nuiking a total length of 176 ft. The dom.e is 
124 ft. high, and is surmounted by a gr-icel'ul statue of Cores, the goddess 
of agriculture. The marble-paved lower floor is devoted to committee- 
rooms, and a small collection of historical and mineral curiosities. In 
large niches at the ends of the neat lobby on the second floor are pre- 
served the battle-flags and pennons of the Vermont regiments in the 
Secession War. Wliat with storm, forest-marcli, and many battles, these 
veteran standards have lost their pristine brightness and wholeness, and 
with the names of the battles in which tlicy were boriie written on them 
in golden letters, they are carefully kept behind plate-glass. Tlie gallery 
of the Senate is entered from the third floor. The halls of the Senate and 
House are well worth visiting, being graceful in fonn and well ornamented. 
A substantial stone bridge crosses the Winooski River at Montpelier, and 

202 Ji(^iiic 29. 






1 : 

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it '' 

f! ' 





the country about the village aftbrds many pleasant objective points for 
a summer day's ride or ramble. . , , / , . . 

Daily stages to Worrester, 7 M. N. (Worcester House), aii<l tri-weekly to Elmore, 

M. is^ Daily sta;,'(;.s to llardv:u:k, 20 M. N. E., on tiii' rortland and Ugdensbutg 

IV. H., passiii,^ tliiDU^'li Ciilnis (12 M. ; Moscow It(iiisc) and Woodhur}!, tliiiily 

Eoi>ulat('d towns witli scores of small lakes ahonndin^' in trout and other lisii. 
»aily stages to Marshlicld, 15 M. N. JO., on the Great Falls of Uie Winooski, where 
that stream falls 500 ft. in ;iO rods. Also to I'ldivjii'ld, M. E. (Plainflcld Honse), 
with a inedicdnal .spring (Spring Hoiise) of some repute ; to Has/iijif/^on (Washing- 
ton ilonse, Lake House), lo M. S. E. ; to Uraiuje, 13 M. 8. E. ; to ll'Uliainstuwn, 
and to JJarre (liarre House), M. .S. E. 

Beyond Montpelier' Junction the main line passes on to Middlesex 
(Washington House), near wliicli (on llie 1.) the Winooski River pusses 
through the Middlesex Narrows, a cutting in the rock, J50 ft. deei),,GO It. 
wide, and 1,3()U It. long, which has been worn by the action of the water. 
Stages run S. to Mvretown (7 M. ), Waitsficld (12 M. ), and Warren. Beyond 
Middlesex the train reaches Waterbury (* Waterbury House), a highland 
town abounding in pleasant rambles and rides, wilh Ireiiuent glimpses of 
Camel's Hump (in the S. W.). Camel's II amp Mi. is 8 M. distant, and 
Ihjlton Falls are but 3 M. to the N. W., and both are approached by 
good roads. N. E. of Waterbury, 10 M. (semi-daily stage in summer) is 
the rich farming town of Stow (* Mansfield House, opened in 18G.1, 
•iccommodates 3 - 400 guests, at .$ 3.50 a day ; considerable reductions for 
a long stay. 100 horses are kept in the stables). Stow, " the Saratoga 
of Vei-mont," is charmingly situated in a fpdet valley in full sight of lofty 
mountains, and when filled with summer guests it presents a lively ap- 
pearance. '* Stow is unrivalled in the beauty, picturesrpieness, and luxu- 
riant magnificence of its mountain scenery." From Sunset Hill, near the 
hotel, a line view of the village is obtained, and .ahso of Mt. Mansfield 
and Camel's Hump. 3-4 M. N. E. of Stow, on the slope of Worcester Mt ., 
are the Mo.'is Ulcn Falls, in a narrow, rock-walled ravine which contains 
three picture.sque basins. This bit of Tyrolese scenery has been greatly 
danuvg(!d by the erection of a saw-mill, for whose benefit the falls aio 
dammed above. The Smugglers' Notch is a romantic i»ass between the Nose 
Peak of Mt. Mansfield and Sterling Mt. (3,500 ft. higli). It is 9 M. irom 
Stow, and a good road leads to a small hotel tii the Notch, near tlie great 
spring which is the source of the Waterbury River. A horse-path beyond 
the hotel leads in ^^ M. to Jjerton's Rock, a boulder weighing about 111) 
tons, which fell from the abrupt clifls that tower on each side to t!ie 
height of 1,000 ft. A little way beyond, the path begins to descend to 
the plains of Cambridge. This pass was used during the War of 1812 for 
smuggling goods l)etween Central Vermont and Canada. A few miles N. 
is Daniel's Notch^ between Sterling Mt. and the lofty White Face. Bing- 
ham's Falls, 5 M. from Stow, Morrisville Falls, 8 M., West Hill, 2 II., 
and GoM Brook, 3 M., are often visited. 


Route 20. 203 

points for 

ly to Elmore, 

I Ugdenshutx 
'hitri/, tliinly 
d oilier lisli. 
looski, wlicrc 
field House), 
on (WasliiiiK- 

I Middlesex 
liver passi's 

f tlic water. 
en. Beyond 
, a higlJaiul 
?;limpses of 
distant, r.nd 
proached by 
summer) is 
3d in ]SG.>, 
luctions for 
le Saratoga 
ight of loft y 
a lively ap- 
s, and hixu- 
ill, near the 
t. Man.sfield 
ch contains 
leen greally 
lie falls aro 
ien the Nosw 
) 9 M. iroiii 
ir the great 
jath beyond 
: al)0ut r. 
side to t!ie 
descend to 
of 1812 for 
!vv miles N. 
'ace. Biiig- 
Ilill, 2 M., 


Mount Mansfield. 

This is the loftiest of the Green Mts., and its highest peak is 4,348 ft. 
ftbove the sea. As seen from above Stow it presents the appearance of 
the profile of a human face, the S. peak l)eing the forehead, the middle 
peak the nose, and the N. peak the chin. 

After leaving Stow, the highway is followed for 5 M., and then a 
mountain road turns to the 1., ascen<liiig through the forest, 2.\ M., to tlie 
Half- Way House, from wliich a pretty valley view is gained. Hero 
begins the long and arduous ascent to tlie Summit House. The forest 
dwindles away until tlie path reaches the Nose, whence a view is given 
into the profound depths of the Smugglers' Notch. The Summit House 
is a commodious hotel (for 100 guests ; -S 3.50 a day) situated at the base 
of the Nose.! which is climbed l)y a steep path on its W. slope (2 -.300 ft. 
high). On the E. side of this peak is the rock-prolile called the "Old 
Man of the Mt." About 2 M. of steady, though not fatiguing ascent 
leads from the house to the Chin, passing over ledges marked by long 
scratches once received from rocks fixed in drifting icebergs, which passed 
over tiie silent waves of some shoreless primeval sea. The Chin is 13 10 ft. 
higher than the Nose, and is 3,800 ft. above Stow, and 4,348 ft. above 
the sea. This peak offers a more extensive nortliern view than that from 
tha Nose (with an impressive view down the Notch), and is easily visited, 
although parties who go out to it usually stop over night at the Summit 
House, thereby gaining the superb effects of sunset and sunrise. 

The * * view from tlr; Nose is very similar to that from the Chin, aii<l is, perhaps, 
the noblest (thoii<,'li not the most extensive) in New I•'ll^land. i)n the S. are seen 
Camera Hum]) (lo M.) and ivillin;,'ton Teak ((iO M.), with a ^reat nuuil)er of name- 
less i)eaks and ridges of tin; Cireen Mts. The j;reat Luke Cliamplain tills the 
horizon from 8. W. to N. W., l)einf? visible tiirough the {greater ])art of its extent, 
with the ancient blue Adirondacks liftfng their clond-like summits beyond. 'J'lie 
apparently Jevel lowhunls of the Chanijtlaiii valley are spread out like a map 
below, dotti'il with numerous white villages (beyond which is l^urlington), and 
crossed by many streams. The great grazing district of the Lamoille valley 
stretehes away to the X. W. and glimi»ses of tlie sjiarkling rivers, the Lamoille 
and the Winooski, are canglit through the forests and foot-liills of the Green Mis. 
Far in the N. is lie St. Lawrence! River, with its valley dotted with Norman 
villages, and on the N. W., with a i)owerful glass and on a clear day, it is said lint 
visitf)rs have .seen .Mount Royal and the shining tin roofs of Montreal. E. of N., 
Jay Peak and Owl's Head Mts. are seen, the hitter risuig from Lake Mern- 
phrema.jog, while still fartlier to the L. are Hor and Ainianancu, the mountains 
about Willonghliy Lake. Farther to the r. are the Percy I'eaks, and a little S. of 
E. the Francouia and White Mts. are seen low-lying on the horizon, (JO M. 
distant. , ' 

M. beyond Waterbury, on the raain line, is Ridlei/s Station (Green 
Mt. House) whence carriages run to Camel's Hump, M. S. The road 
has been built 3 M. up the mountain, and the remainder of the ascent is 
made on foot or horseback. A small house for shelter and refreshment.s 
is kept open all summer, 1 M. from the sum nut. TJje mountain is 4,083 
ft. high, and from its isolated position commands an extensive view, whose 

. " f 

: ! k. 

I • 4* 

; f 

' 1 



1 . 


1 ■ , 



-' » 

: * : 

204 Route 20. 


general features are much like tl ose of he prospect from Mt. Mansliel.l. 
The name Camel s IIui.ip is derived from a supposed resemblance of the 
outline of the mountain to that of the back of a camel. 

Near Ridley's, and seen from the track (to the N.), are the JioUnn Falls, 
amid some wild rock-sccncry in a deep ravine nearly 4,000 ft. below llie 
l^eak of Mt. Mansfield. The line now follows the picturcsfjue valley of 
the Winoc^ski to Jiniesrille, whence stages run to Hineslmrg, Starksboio, 
and the rugged towns of Huntington (under Camel's Huni]^) and Under- 
hill (under Mt. Mansfield). Station, Jlichmond (Richmond House), a 
bright village in the widenings of the Winooski valley, with an extensive 
trade in butter and cheese. The mountain-ravines open out here on the 
Champlain valley, and the country becomes more thickly settled. A 
bridge, 000 ft. long, over the Winooski, is now passed, and the train 
enters the farming town of WilUston. For several miles, running N. W. 
from this station, fine views are afforded from the train, — the Green Mts. 
with their two loftiest peaks looming up })oldly on tlie r., while the distant 
Adirondacks are seen on the 1. Essex Junction is soon reached, whence 
trains rim to Burlington (see Route 26) in 8 M., passing the remarkable 
gorges on the Winooski River. 

5 M. N. of Essex is Colchester, to the W. of which is a tall-spired 
village (Mallet's Bay Hotel), and still farther W. is Mallet's Bay, which is 
nearly land-locked, has numerous islets, and affords good bass and pilco 
fishing. Frequent views of Lake Champlain, the Adirondacks, and the 
Green Mts. are obtained from the cars as they i)ass N. to Milton (three 
iiu;s in the town). This village is near the Great Falls of the Lamoille, 
7 M. from the river's mouth. The river descends here 150 ft. in 800 ft., 
and affords a water-power for the Milton lumber-mills. The train crosses 
the Lamoille River on a high bridge 450 ft. long, and utops at the station, 
Georgia arid Fairfax. Georgia village (Franklin House), is 3^ M. from 
the station, and Fairfax (Fairfax House) is 4 M. E. cf the station, to 
which it has a tri-daily stage. A small Baptist Theological School is 
located at Fairfax. ' . 

St. Albans (* \Veldon House, first-class; American House; Tremmit 
House) is a pretty village of about G,000 inhabitants, situated on an ele- 
vated plain 3 M. from Lake Champlain. Maiti Street is the princij'al 
thoroughfare, and has several good commercial buildings. There is a 
neat park of 4 acres in the centre of the village, on whose sides are the 
hotels, the Fraidvlin County buildings, the High School, and seveial 
churches, the best of which is a Norman-towered Episcopal Church Iniilt 
of red sandstone. Back of this is the large Catholic Church and the 
Convent of Notre Dame. The offices of the Vermont Central R. R. 
occupy the spacious and in^.posing building at the station. In tliis 
vicinity are the immense repair aaid car-shops of the Vermont Centml. 





Route 29. 205 

Clmrcli Iniilt 

occii])} iiig over half a mile of buildings, aiul employing several hiuulrtvl 
skillul workuieii. These works are tlie largest of the kind in New 
llnghuid, ami have turned out many locomotives and cars. The village 
luis 3 banks, 2 weeklies and a daily newspaper (besides a weekly 
Frencli paper), and 5 churches. Tuesday is its market day, when the 
farmers from Franklin Co. congregate in the streets, and great quantities 
of dairy products are sold. The quotations of butter and cheese at St. 
Albans atfrct the market throughout the Eastcni States, and vast quanti- 
ties of these products are shipped in ice-cars to the N. Atlantic cities 
(mostly to Boston). Between 1850 and lSt)5 St. Albans sent away 
33,003,044 pounds of butter, and lt),G28,0S)7 pounds of cheese, having a 
value of nearly .$12,000,000. N. of St. Albans are (piarries of calico- 
stone and variegated marble, while a good sulphur-spring (appertaining 
to the Weldon House) is in the environs, 

"St. Albans is a place in the midst of greater variety of scenic beauty 
than any other that I remember in America." (Beechkr.) Bellevuc Hill, 
2 M. S. W. from the station, and Aldis Hill, 1 M. N. E. of the village, 
lire easy of ascent, and command lovely views. * Bellevue is 1,300 ft. 
al>ove the lake, and about 900 ft, above the village. It overlooks the vil- 
lage and the rich plains of Franklin Co., strewn with villages, while a 
broad expanse of Lake Champlain is spread out in the W., the view ex- 
tending over Grand Isle to the New York shore. In the S. W. the 
Alirondacks rise, "not in chains or single peaks, bui, in vast broods, a 
promiscuous multitude of forest-clothed mountains. In the N. is scooped 
out, in mighty lines, the valbiy of St. Lawrence ; and in clear days, tJie 
eye may spy the faint glimmer of Montreal." (H. W Beecheu.) The 
Missisquoi valley is near, in the N., and Jay Peak lies to the E., from 
w!uch the great line of the Green Mts. stretches away to the S., and 
Mount Mansfield is plainly visible. To the S. is the fertile Lamoille 
valley, running through Fairfax and Milton. Aldis Hill is only 500 ft. 
liigh, and is easily ascended. Its view, though less extensive than that 
.from Bellevue, is of rare beauty. ,,,,,, 

:{ M. W. of the village is St. AVwns Bay (Lake View House), a small shore 
liiimlet, from wliicli steaniorR run across the Lake to Plnttsburg, starting early in 
the morning, 4 times weekly. (Fare, § 1.00.) 

Stages run E. to Fairjhld (7 M.) and Ualerafield (10 M.). 

St. Albans was the scene of great excitement duriui,' tl)e Canadian rebellion in 
1S;57, and several raiding parties (of refugees) crossed tiie border from tills vicinity. 
la October, 1804, several strangers boarded at the hoti'ls for a few days, and 
learned the habits of tlie iieople. When the bells rang at :? o'clock, on the lV)th 
of Oct., these men entered the banks in parties, and rolibed them of their fund.>*, 
while others of the band arrested every citizen on the street. The robbers were 
22 in number, dressed in plain clothing and armed with revolvers, and, having 
setHired what money they could, they stole a number of horses and tied, closely 
pursued by the citizens. During the tiring which took i)la(.'e in the streets, one 
citizen was kilh il and several wounded. The plundering party (which was com- 
posed of escaped rclx'l prisoners) reached Canada with .'ij 208,000 in money, !< 80,000 
of whicli was returned to the banks by the British govennnent. In June, 1S(KJ, 



i i i' 


i i ,.. 



i ,' 
' i 
: .» 

11 f < 


I v( 

'( , 


200 A'<'*/<t; ^.'A 


1,200 Fenians from the cities of the coast niniohed from this place into Canada, 
and iiliindercd a villa^'o. The provisions of this jiarty sooii {jave out, and they 
returned to St. Alhans, when; tiicy were disarmed Ity 1,000 U. S. troops, wiio 
were encamped on the village Parir. for 2 weeks. , j, 

St. Albans to Eichford. 

The East Division of the Vermont Centra' R. R. runs N. E. to Jiich- 
ford in 1^ - 2 hours. Near .he station Sheldon Springs (about 10 M. 
out) aie several mineral springs. The famous Missisqiwi Sprinr/ {* Mis- 
Risquoi Hotel) is alkaline in character, and has no distinctive taste, but 
has proved very efficacious in cutaneous diseases. Within the space of 
an acre, near the palatial hotel, are 13 mineral sjtrings, of varying prop- 
erties, arising through -a vein of fine fuller's earth. One of these springs 
is cathartic, and is used in cases of dysjjcpsia and liver complaints, in 
the year 1868, 354,000 (piart bottles of Missisriuoi water were sent away, 
and in 4 months of the same year 40,000 bottles were sent from the Ver- 
mont Spring. Dunton's Hill is a favorite resort, 2 M. from the Missi.squni 
House, the Sheldon Spring is 1 M. S, \V., and the Central Spring (in 
Sheldon village) is 2 - 3 M. to the E. 

Tlie Vermont Sprimj waters are mostly bottled and sent away, for the 
cure of diseases of the skin, cancer, &c. It is aboiit 2 M. from the Mis- 
sisquoi, and there are numerous other mineral springs, differing hi their 
properties, about the village. The Continental, Central, and Excelsior 
are among the most noted, while Sheldon Spring, near the Missisquoi 
Falls, has long been visited. The * Congress Hall Hotel, located near 
the latter spring, is a large and first-class house. The water flows at the 
rate of 14,000 gallons a day, and contains a large amount of carbonate of 
soda with potash. " It is a very unusual alkaline, saline water, con- 
taining more silicic acid in solution than any on record. The presence of 
so much crenic acid is also remarkable, and, with the iron and magnesia, 
adds to the valuable constituents." (Du. Hayks.) The hot and cold 
baths (in convenient bath-houses) work wonderful cures in cases of rlu-u- 
matism, erysipelas and skin diseases, cancers and chroiuc ailments. From 
Dunton's Hill (1 M. from Congress Hall) a vast panoramic view of tlie 
Green Mts. is obtained, while the silver waters of Lake Champlain, in the 
\V., are overlooked by the blue A(l''onacks. Considerable tracts of 
Lower Canada are included in this vit r, which is terminated on the N. 
by the spires of Montreal. The Missisquoi River fulls 119 ft. near Shel- 
don Spring. At Sheldon village (Central House), 2 ]\I. E., there are 
many hotels and boarding-houses. Here is the Central Spring, wliich, 
besides carbonates of lime, magnesia, iron, soda, and potassa, and sulphate 
of lime, contains the valuable element of phosphoric acid. It cures 
cutaneous and pulmonary affections, dyspepsia, rlieumatism, &c. 

The Portland and Ogdensburg R. R. will cross the Missisquoi Valley 
R. R. at Sheldon. 


nosrox to Montreal. 

Route 2U. 207 

into Canada, 
)ut, and they 
, troops, who 

E. to Rich- 
^hout 10 M. 
ring (* Mis- 
'e taste, but 
he space of 
vrying prop- 
hesf spriiif^s 
iplaints. In 
} sent away, 
om the Ver- 
le Missisquni 
l1 Spring (in 

xway, for the 
oni the Mis- 
ring hi their 
md Excelsior 
e Missisquoi 
located near 
flows at the 
carbonate of 
water, con- 
presence of 
id magnesia, 
lot and cold 
vses of rheu- 
lents. From 
view of llie 
iplain, in the 
le tracts of 
I on tlie N. 
near Shel- 
E., there are 
ring, wluch, 
and sulphate 
It cures 
;quoi Valley 

Tlie line follows the ridi valley through several funning and dairy 
towns, passing the stations, hi. Frdu/vlin, Enoshurg Falls, Fn^shurg, nud 
E. Berkshire, io Bichford (American IJouse), a thinly populated town, 
on whose S. E. corner Jay Peak rises to an altitude of over 4,000 ft. 

A railroad is to be bnilt from Richford N. W. through St. Amiand. Dunham, 
and Notre Dame des An.cies, to W. Farnhani, in the Province of Queber*, and on 
the N. Division of the Vermont Central U. R. 

Soon after leaving St. Albans, the main line passes Swunton Junction, 
where a railroad diverges to Rouse's Point and Ogdensburg. 

This line passes through Swanton (Central House), a pretty village with a 
Soldiers' MonunK'ut on its Green, consisting of a statue (in Vermont maiblt') , f 
the (loddcss of Libei-ty on a poilestal of gray Isle La Mutte marble. Swantou 
wa:5 settled by the Freneh in IT^'O, but they were crowded out within a half-ien- 
tury. Much marble, black, white, and red variegated, is ([uarried in this town. 
After crossing Missisquoi Bay on a trestle-bridge, the train stops at Alburgli 
Hitriues (* Alhn I (jh .Sj)ring!i House), whose mineral waters are much used lor 
cutaneous complaints. The drives on the lalce sliore are very jileasant, and fish- 
ing and boating are favorite summer anuisements. The i>eniusula of AHuu'gii was 
granted by the King of France, as a feudal seigniory, io Councillor FoiicaulL, un- 
der whose onlers it was settled in 17:51. It was occupit'd liy loyalist refugeijs late 
in the Revolutionary Era, and in ISiST was one of the Irontier towns from which 
tiie insurgents in the " Patriot War" made their raids into Canada. 

Passing the stations, Alburgh ami W. Alburgh, the line crosses Lake Champlain 
at its N. end on a long tn stle-bridge. Fort Mdiitijomcvy is seen on the r., com- 
manding the Richelieu River. After the works on tliis fort had gone on for some 
time, it was discovered to be in British territory, but a generous change of boun- 
dary gave the land to the United States, ami the work was completed. On the 1. 
hh La Mottv. may be seen far down the lake. 

Rouse's Point (New York) is now reached. From this point the Hue runs 
W. through the Chateaugay Woods, passing Malone and Potsdam, to Ogdensburg, 
400 M. from Boston and 141 M. from St. Albans. Another railroad runs N. on 
the 1. bank of the Richelieu River, to St. Jolui's (2.3 M.). The gr.'at Lake Cham- 
plain steamers leave Rouse's Point twice daily (in summer) lor Whitehall. 

After passing Swanton Junction and E. Swanton, the train on the main 
line stopa at Highgate Springs (* Franklin House). The liotcl is on one 
side of the track, and the s})ring-honse on the other. The spring is alka- 
line, containing chloride of sodium, carbonate of soda, and sulphate of 
soda. E. of the Springs is the broad and beautiful Missisquoi Bay (Missi 
Kisco— much water-fowl), Avhich is nearly land-locked, and abounds in 
fish. The Franklin House accommodates IGO guests, at $3.00 a day. 
2-3 M. S. E. is a considerable village at Highgate Falls, on the Missis- 
quoi Paver. Tlie alkaline Cliamplain Spring is located here (Chanqilain 
House, Green Mt. House, both fronting on the village park), and is con- 
sidered a specific for dyspepsia, cutaneous eruptions, cancer, and con- 
.suniption. Alburgh Springs on the W. and Missis(iuoi Springs on the S. 
E., are within easy distance of Highgate. Highgate was the birthplace 

208 nimk Jif. 


I ■' 

I : 

} • . 

I) ^ 

Ir -■ 

1 1 

) ',■ 


{■' K 




of Jolin G. Saxo, wliose i»ot'in.s of hiuiior uiid itatlioM are widtly known 
and read. 

About 3 M. l)oyon<l Iliglij^atc, tlio train leaves tlie United States, and 
enters Mi.ssis(|uoi f'otmty, in tlib Anglo-Canadian Province of Quebec. 
Stations, St. Armnnd, Moore's, and Stniihridt/r, on the jilains of tlie Rich- 
elieu River. Stanbridge is a neat village, from which stages run to E. 
Shmbridgo (3 M.) and Bradford. As the line ])asscs farther out on tlic 
jilains, the great, isolated mountains of Itoin/rmon . and llchvil are seen on 
the r. On Behvil the liishop of Nancy had an immense cross erected in 
1843, whicli was visible for many leagues. It was demolished Ijy a storm 
in 1847. Stations, Dos Jtiriercs, St. Alexandre, beyond which the train 
passes the junction of the Stanstead, Slielford, and Chanddy Railroad, 
running from St. Johns E. to Waterloo 43 M. Stages from Waterloo to 
Lake -d('m])lir('magog in 20 M. The line imw crosses the Richelieu River 
to St. Johns, a quaint, old-fashioned, Norman-French village near the 
head of the Cii-inibly Rnpids. '^I'hc town is situated on a level plain, and 
is connected with the suburb of St. yl^//a;i«.sc by i. fine bridge over the 
Richelieu. There is good fishing by boat near St. Johns, and the few visi- 
tors who stop at this (juiet old town usually ride to Chambly, a pleasant 
village near the confhience of the Rivhelieu and Montreal Rivers. It is 
12 M. N. of St. Johns by tlie river-ioad, and is on a lake-like ex})ansion 
of the river, calleil ('!lianil)ly Basin. The Richelieu Hows toward the N, 
E. almost parallel with the St. Lawrence which it joins at Lake St. Peter, 
70 M. distant. 

Clianibly Wiis foitiliml In' the Frencli in 1711. and in '[lilt it had a stntng stono 
fort built l>y tlic liritisli, witii massive towers at its angles. I^arge suit;i;.e3 were 
stored hero ; hut the eoiiiiiianile.' was so careless that the fort was easily taken by 
the Aiiioricans in Octobej-, 177'>. It was abandoned on the advance of liiirgoyne, 
having first been stripiJed of its stores, and ha.« since served (initil the English 
military evacuation of Canada) as an exercising-ground for the Montreal garrison. 
In the cryjtt of the Catholic ("huich is buried I)e Salaberry, Seigneur of Chambly. 
who eonnnandetl tin; Canadians in the battle of Chateangay (War of 1S12), when 
a large invading force of Auicricans was resisted with such valor and success that 
Dfc Salaberrv ever after bore the title of "the Canadian Leonidas." 12 M. noni 
Chambly is 'iMn-il Mf. 

Other excursions from St. Jo'..ns are to Scotch Mf. (6 M. over a good road), which 
commands a fine view of the Green Mts. and the border Townships ; and to the 
Chambly Rapidft on the Richelieu. 

The Manjuis of Montcalm built a fort at St. Johns, which was .strengthened by 
Gov. Carletim. Benedict AriioM's American fleet was repulsed in an attack in 
1775, but tlie fort was besieged by (ien. Montgomery in Septenil)er of the same 
year, and, after six weeks of blockades and caimonade, it surrendered, with (100 
British regulars and 4S heavy launon. The American garrison evacuated the post 
on the advance of Cien. Burgoyne. 

At St. Johns the train moves on to the rails of the Grand Trunk Rail- 
way (Montreal and Rouse's Point Division), and i^asses through the fair 
and fertile i)lains of the Parish of La Prairie to St. Lambert, opposite 
Montreal. The St. Lawrence River is crossed by the wonderful * Victoria 
Bridge, and the train stops at Montreal (see Route 54). 




Jioute 30. 209 

fly known 

tates, nnd 
f Qufbcr. 
■ the Rirli- 
run to E. 
ut on tilt' 
irc seen on 
erectt'd in 
ty a storm 
the train 
atorloo to 
lien River 
! near the 
plain, and 
i over the 
16 few visi- 
a pleasant 
el's. It is 
ird the N. 
' St. Teter, 

•(iiig stontj 
) were 
iy taken by 



e Enylisu 
il garrison. 

812), when 
ucess that 

I M. Ironi 

lad), which 
iiul to tlie 

thenecl by 
attack in 
the same 
with COO 

Id the post 

link Rail- 
the fair 


30. Boston to the Franconia Mts. 

By the Boston ami l.owdl ;iiitl Boston, L'oncnnI, aud Uailruadii. 
Parlor cars run from Bnston without chanp' tit I'lyniontli. Hosloii to I'lyniouth 
(r_';j il.) in 6 hrs. ; to the Twin Ml. (-Jo.j M.)in .iboiit s lirs. The branch 
roid whieli runs Imni Win;,' station lo BoLhlelieui will l»o completed to the 
Twin Mt. House by July 1, l.S7;{. 

The train leaves the Boston and Lowell station (I'l. 3) at 8, or S.30 A. 
M., and passes to Concord by Ronte 21), through Lowell, Nashua, and 
Manchester. (Trains leaving the Boston and Maine station, at 7.30, or 8, 
make a connection with this route by way of Manchester.) 

After leaving Concord, the line crosses the Merriin;'.',;, and i) the 
statio'.is, E. Concord, X. Concord, CunUrburi/ (with a large Shaker village 
4 M. from the station), Xnrthjicld, and Tiltoa (Dexter House). Tilton 
wa.s formerly called Sanborntoii Bridge, ami is the seat of the N. IL 
Seminary and Female College, which has good buildings near the railroad. 

Stages run from Tilton to Gilinaaton Centre and to A'cw Hampton (VVaukeneto 
House), 12 M. X., the seat of a Free Will Baptist Thcolo^'ical School. At- the 
head of Little Buy, near Tilton, was tht; largest Indian fortress in New Kngland, 
consisting of several lines of intrent'hments laced with stone, and evidently once 
palisaded. Some renniants of these works remain. 

The line now pa.sses along the shores of Winnepe.saukee River, Little 
Bay, and Great Bay. Stations, Union Villayc and Laconia (Willard 
Hotel), whose factories tuni out yearly 1,500,000 yards of fancy cloths, 
275,000 dozen hose, an<l 3-4tH) railroad cars. From this point an inter- 
esting excursion may be made to the summit of Mt. Belknap ( U .M. dis- 
tant), on the shore of the lake. From this commanding peak the lake 
may be seen throughout nearly its entire extent, and views of the mts. 
beyond and of the pretty village of Wolfboro are obtained. Laconia is 
on the shore of Lake Winnesijuan- (Great Bay), a jiicturesque sheet of 
water on the 1. of the line. Afti'r leaving L.acoida, the line jia.sses along 
Sanbornton Bay to Art^c VUlajc (Lake House), which lia.s several large 
lumber-mills. A small steamer runs daily (in summer) to Alton Bay. 
The quiet waters of Long Bay are now skirte<l, on the r. bank, with the 
peaks of Belknap Mt. beyond. Station, Weirs, with a fine view out over 
Lake Winuepesaukce. Steamers leave tliis point for the villages on the 
lake (see Route 32), and N. Conway may l)e reached by crossing to Wolf- 
boro, and taking the cars on Route 31. Near Weirs, on the N. shore of 
the outlet, is the Endicott Rock, which is about 20 ft. around, and is 
carved with the initials of the chiefs of the colonial survey of 1632, and 
with the word.s, "John Endicut, Gov." The train passes N., with the 
lake on the r., to Meredith {E\m House). Stages run daily from Mere- 
dith to Sandwich, and a railroad route has been surveyed, anil is to be 
constructed to Conway. 

The train now passes Waukawan Lake, on the r., which is 4 M. long 


i! I 

! 1 


;*, .■ 

•! ■■ 


210 Route so. 


and 1-2 M. broad. Waukawati is a name given to this lake by the 
Indians, and now uscil by suninier vihitors, though the nistics who 
live in the vicinity call it Measley Pond. Long Pond is now passed, 
and the train stops at Ashland (.S(|uan\ Lake House), a .small factory- 
village near the confluence of the Hcpiam and Peniigewa.sset Rivers, and 3 
M. from the lovely Squani Lake (see Route a'l). This is in the ancient 
]']piscopal town of llolderncss, and the road along Scpumi Lake exhibits 
home of the richest scenery in the country. The Peniigewasset is now 
crossed near Bridgewater station, and its valley is followed to Plymouth 
(* Peinigewa.sset House, 150 rooms, a lirst-class summer hotel, where the 
midday trains stop 30 minutes for j)assengers to dine ; Plymouth House). 
Plymoulli, the shire-town of (irafton County, is u beautiful village in the 
midst of attractive scenery, near the conlluence of the Pemigew..sset and 
Baker's Rivers. It has a large country trade, and is noted for its manufac- 
ture of line buckskin gloves. Walker's Hill overlooks the village and valley, 
while Mt. Prospect (4 M. N. E. ; carriage-road to the sumnut) commands 
an extensive prospect. On the S. is tlie valley of the Peniigewasset 
(" Place of crooked pines "), with its broad, rich intervales, while nun»er- 
ous ■well-known peaks extend between Alonadnock in the S. W. and 
Moosilauke in the N. W. The N. is filled with the lofty summits of the 
Franconia and the "White Mts., prominent among which is Mt. Lafayette. 
Osceola and White Face are in the N. E. , and just below the Stpiam 
Hange in the E. is the beautiful, island-dotted*H(iuam Lake. To the S. 
E. are the bright waters of Winnepesaukee, with Mt. Belknap looking 
over them. Mt. Prospect is 2,UC3 ft. above the sea, and possesses several 
other objects of interest, — the Miser's Cave, the Avalanche, and the Cold 
and Boiling St)rings. 

The drive around Plymouth Mt. is a favorite excursion, and the view 
from its summit is pleasant, embracing many of tlic features of the view 
from Mt. Prospect, with the addition of Newfound Lake. 2 M. N. of 
Plymouth are the romantic Livervi(yre Falls, bearing traces of volcanic 
agencies. From Plymouth to Squam Lake it is 6 M. ; to Newfound Lake, 
9 M. ; to Centre Harbor, 12 M. 

Capt. Baker, o{ Newbury, with a company of Rangei-s, attacked an Indian 
village near the eonllueuee of the river wliieli now bears his name willi the 
Peniigewasset River. After killing many of tlie villagers, the Rangers plundered 
the place, and then retreated, being vaii'ily attacked afterwards oi\ the plains of 
Bridgewater. Plymouth was settled in 17GI. Tlie house still stands here (now a 
carriage-shop near the hotel) in which Daniel Webster made his lirst plea before a 
jury. Nathaniel Hawthorne died in this village Slay li), 18G4. A remarkable 
balloon voyage was eonniiciieed at I'lymouth in Sejjtember, 187-, by an aeronaut 
and a journalist, who aseeniled into mid-air, passed over the White Mts. at the 
rate of 50 M. an hour, and landed at tSayabec, on the Gulf of St. ijawrence, having 
travelled over 500 M. in 13 hrs. 

The finest avenue of approach to the Franconia Mts. is by stage ft'om Plymouth 
to the Profile House {1.) M. ; fare §4.00). The road runs up the Peniigewasset 
valley, and eonnnands line views as tlio mts. are n?>prr);u:hed. C'lrmptiii and 
Thornton lie on this stage-road (see Route :i4, adjincul). 



Route 31). 211 

/ilh the 
laiiis of 

(now a 

jtlore a 

at the 

1 having 


va and 



After leaving Plyiiioutli, the ruilroail follows the valloy of Baker's 
River for 20 M. Station, Hinaur)/ (Stinsoii House), S. of Stinsonhi.It. 
and Pond, wldclj were named in memory of a hunter who was killed here 
by the Indians. \he village is nearly 1 M. from the .station. Sawmills, 
tanneries, and eha coal-works abound in the town. St,, ions, W. Hum- 
7jry and UV///»v»/7A (I'nion Hotel), a vilhi;,'e on fair intervah-s, and sur- 
romided by hi;,di hills. Carr's .Mt. is on the R, and Ciilia -Mt. on the W. 
Station, Warren (Moosilauke House, $ "J -2. 50 a day, .$ 10- l').(M)a week). 
Moosilaxike Mt. is r» M. Irom this village (D M. to the summit by a goo<l 
earriage-roa<l), and on its top is the Summit House (.*!4.0() a day). 

During the summer, when carriages run fre<|uently IVorn the village 
hotel to the Summit House, the fare for each pasM-ngcr (iMcluding tolls) is 
§ 4.50. From its isolated i>osilion and great height (4,000 ft.), tiiis jieak 
commands a grand and uniciue * view. In the S. are the hill towns of 
Grafton County, with numerous prominent and well-known peaks rising 
over them. Beyond Owl's Head, on the W., considerable ]iortions of the 
Green Mts. may be seen on a clear day. In the N. W. is part of the 
Connecticut valley, and ono or two Canadian peaks are seen in the 
remote N., while nearer at hand are the Pcmigewasset Mts. A noble 
panorama of nits, e.xtends from Sugar Loaf (W. of N.) to the white peak 
of Chocorua (S. of E.), embracing the chief summits of the White and 
Franconia llanges. On the S. E. is the shining surface of Lake Winne- 
jicsaukee, and in the same direction some purlion of the State of Maine i.s 

From Peaked Hill, near the village hotel, a good view of MoosiK ike is 
obtained. Carr's Mt., Webster's Slide, and Owl's Head are also in War- 
ren, while on Hurricane Brook arc numerous j)icturesque cascades, known 
as Fairy, Rocky, Oak, Wolf Head, Watenome, and Hurricane P'alla. 
Diana's Wash-Bowl is a setjuestered basin on the same creek. 

Station, E. Ilairrhill, beyond which the line traveises the glen of the 
Oliverian Brook, with Webster's Slide Mt. on the 1. and the precipitous sides 
of Owl's Head on the r. Station, Ilarerhill (Exchange Housed a j^retty 
village on a hill near the track, with the Grafton County buildings. Just 
across the river is the village of Newbury (see Route 24), which may be 
seen from the 1. as tlie train skirts the rich intervalo, and passes to N. 
Haverhill, a small village near the Ox Bow Bend of the river. Stations, 
Woodsville, and Wells River (Coosuck House), where the train crosses 
the Connecticdt, and makes a connection with the Cjim. and Psissumpsic 
Railroad (Route 24). The river is rcerossed on tlie Aumn Ijridge, ami the 
line now runs by Woodsville up the valley of the Ammonoosuc River. 
Stations, Bath, a small village on the Connecticut, E. of which the Wild 
Ammonoosuc joins the Ammonoosuc ; Lisbon (small inn) ; .V. Lisbon, 
and Littleton (Thayer's Hotel; Union House; and several boarding- 




LM2 Ituiifr .iO. 



I*' t 


houses, tlie best v.'' which is tlie * Oak liill House, on tlie higli liill ovlt 
the villaj^'o, n<ioninio«hitinK 70 guosts, nt !?10-ir*.00 u wouk). Littleton 
was chartered in 17t)4, under the* name of Ciiiswick, and 1ms 15 M. of 
ti-rritory on the Connceticiit liiver. It iius 2,400 inhabitants, 2 banks, 3 
chun;li<s, scver;il niamifaetorics, and a wekly i)aj)er eallcl " Tiic White 
Mountain Ile|>nl)lic." From the hills ii. the vicinity, tine panoramic 
views of the Whiter and Franeonia Mts. ni; y be obtained. Stages leave 
hcniidnily for the Prohle House (see lioute 34), 11 M. distant, r:. ,< 

Stations, Wing Road, when! trains ronneet on a braneh railroad to 
llcthlehem and the Twin Mt. House (12 M. distant) ; Whili^tiild (White- 
liild House), a hnnber-workiiif^ town ; and lialton (Sumner House), a 
pleasant village near the ("onneetieut. Stations, S. Lancaster, and Lan- 
caster (* Lancaster House, 120- K'.0 guests, at $U -3.50 aday ; American 
House), a beautiful village on a broad plain near the river. It has about 
2,200 iidiabitants, 2 weekly pai)ers, and 5 cliurclus. This is a favorite 
summer-resoi't, " and in the coml)ined charm, lor walks or rides, of 
meadow and river, — the churni, not of wildness, but of cheerful brigiit- 
ness and beneficence, — Lancaster is unrivalled." (Stauu Kino.) »S7c6- 
bius' Hill, near the village, commands an extensive view ; while the drive 
around Mt. Prasyjcc/ (2-3 hrs.) is much esteemed. The rapids on the 
Connecticut are reached by a line road over the intervales (t) M.). The 
riverward road.< are level ami smooth, revealing hue distant views, the 
best of which is obtained from the Lunenburg Hills, beyond the river in 
Vermont. To the E. and N. E. of Lancaster are the dark and unexplored 
Pilot Mts., wliosc main peak is sometimes ascended by a path leading 
from the handet of Lost Nation, yielding a broad view over the upper 
Coos country and the mountain-walls to the S. and S. E. Israel's Rivej- 
imites with the Coimecticut near the village, after tlowing down a pictur- 
escjuo valley from its source near Mt. Madison. Sir Chailes Dilke says 
that " tl worhi can show few scenes more winning than Israel's liiver 
vallej'-, in die White Mts. of N. H., or N. Conway, in the S. slopes of the 
same chain." The stream is named for an old hunter who was one of the 
pioneers of the C!oos country, but the melodious Indian name is preferable, 
— Singrawaclc, "the foanung stream of the white rock." ** Grand combi- 
nations of the river anil its meadows with the Franeonia Range and the vast 
White Mt. wall are to be had in short drives beyond the river, upon the 
Lunenburg Hills." Stages run from Lancaster twice daily (7 M.) to tlie 
Waumbek Iloiise, on Jefferson Hill, famed for its panoramic view of the 
White, Franeonia, and Green Mts. (see Roupj i)3). 

Beyond Lancaster the railroad follows the Connecticut River for 10 M,, 
and connects with tlie Grand Trunk Railway (Route 4o) at Northmaber- 
land. — -^ '• • !■ '■ ■■.''■• ■ ■ "'■■/■ ■ - n<. 

* M 




Jioule 31. 2 1 3 


31. Boston to the White Mountains. 

nv Mie F.astorn Uiilroiul to N. Cnnwny (ir?7 M.) in 5 hm.. faro. S6.00 ; to tbo 
rr.iwfor.|^ (l()2 M.) in I'J hr«.. fniv. $s.:>(» ; to tlic fJij-n Hoiiso (l')7 M.) in 
11 Ins , faiv 87.00. This i;: lln- quicki'st nnd nearest route to tlm Wiiito Mts., ninl 
mns two l*tilln)an cximiss trains daily in Huninior. 

Tlie train loavi's the Eastern station in IJoston (on Causeway, at tin- foot 
of Frientl St. ), and pa.ssea out ovi'V the Cliarlrs Kiver. Uoston to Vnnway 
Junction, see lloiite \M (the inincipiil stations are Chelsea, Lynn, Sahnn, 
Ipswich, Newbitryport, ]lanii)ton, and I'ortsniouth). Heyond Conway 
.Function the tiain piisses the stations, S. Jii'nrick, Sa/inon Falls, und 
Oreat Falls. At the hitter viUagu are extensive cotton-factories, employ- 
ing 3,000 hands, and eonsnniiiig 7,700 lialcs of cotton yearly. Station, 
Rochester (hndt/r.'.s JIuH ,• Munsiim I/ause), a village on Norway rinins, 
with several factories near the falls on the Cucheco lliver. The town has 
3 banks, 7 churches, and over 4,(ilM> inhaliitants. Over 2,0O0,OO(» yards 
of flannel are made here yt-arly, with lOOjOOO j)airs of shoes, 100,000 pairs 
of blankets, and 2,000,000 bricks. Ilochester was settled in 1728, anil its 
people kept constant vigil for nearly half a century, being often attacked 
by the Indians. John 1'. Hale, a i)rominent leader in the antislavery 
movement, and U. S. Senator for IG years, was born liere in IbOG. 

The Pnrthind nvd nnrhc.ifi'r Hailrortif runs from this village across the centre of 
York Coimty to Portland (')2 M. ; faro, .'«! 1.. '),')). Stations, /:'. l{(iclicster, K. Leba- 
non, and Siiriiiijnile, a vi!lai,'(! in Sanfonl, wliich was ltiMi;j;lit of tlic ISaganioro 
Flucllcii in 1U()1. Stages run from Hi)rin;.,'vale to yiiaplei,;!;!!, and to Nowfitld, 
where the Jit. Ka^Io Tripoli is made, and lar^^o carriaf^'ts-factories nre located. 
Htalion, Altretl {Cot I ml Ilousr ; County lldUi^r), a pheasant villaj,'e on a level 
jilain, contaiiiiii;^' tlie Yuri; County Imildinj^'s, and namcci in honor oC King Alfred 
of England. The line next crosses the towns of W.iterborou!.;!! and Uollis, and 
the Saco River. Station, llnxton (IJerry's Hotel), tlie old Narra;,'ansett, No. I. 
which was nameil in enniplinient to Paul (Jotlin, its pastor for 40 years, whoso 
ancestors came from iJuxtnn in Kngland. This town was one of the 7 granted by to the victorious siildiers of Kin;^ I'liilip's War, and ',» more were granted 
to th» veterans of tii(! Canada War of IG'.''>. Tlie soldiers were tlius eomj>en.sated 
for their labors, and at the same time the distres.sed and war-swept settlements 
on the Maine eoast were shielded by a double tier of towns inlial)itcd by hardy 
and fearless veterans. Bn.xton has 4 vil'iges, witli extensive lumber-mills. Stages 
rim to Cornish and Limington. Station, Gnrhi ni {VAomcwt House), the 7th town 
granted to the veterans of 1075, and named for Capt. (lorham, whose company 
lost 30 killed and 41 woundeilat the Narragansett Fort Fight. Station, Sacnrnpp'', 
a manufacturing village which for '>0 years sent vast amounts of lumber to Port- 
land and Havana. The Cumberland Mills turn out .Sl.oOo.OnQ worth of paper 
annually. After running across the jKipulous town of Westbrook, the train ap- 
proaches Bramhall Hill, and pus.-ies into the terminal station at Portland. 

After leaving Rochester, the White Mt, train passes the stations, Haye ;' 
Crossing and S. Milton, and stops at Milton (FrankMn House), a quiet 
farming town ntar the Salmon Falls lliver. Mt. TenerifTe is seen on the 
1. Station, Union (Union House), beyond which Copple Crown Mt. is 
seen in the W. 

21 i Route 31. 



.. .» 


H ■ 

fi I 


FroTii Wolfboro Junction a branch niilinail runs (in 12 M.) to Wolrtmro, on 
l«'ike V.iiiiio])esaiik('c (st t; Koutc ;iJ), in tlio latter part of its courso skirting 
Smith's I'oml, and stopping near the wluirl" of the Lake ateaniera. 

Stations, Wakejlchl, E. Wnkcjxcld, and X. Wakejidd, to the E. of 
which is Lake Newichawaimock (East Pond), ".vliich is 3 M. long and 1 
M. wide. Stations. (Is.'n'pce and Ossipce Ventre (two inn.s), the shire- 
town of Carroll County. A ,trlini])se of Ossijiee Lake is gained on the r., 
boyond this station, with (Jreen Mt. on its farther shore. Running N. 
withOssijire Mt. on the 1., the train reaches W, Ossipee (* Banks' Hotel), 
from which fine e.xer;sions may he made to Ossi])ee Lake, Sandwich 
Notcli, and Mt. Chocorua (see page 220). Madison Planis are next 
traversed, with the broad sheet of Six Mile Pond glittering among the 
forests on tlie r. and Legion Mt. far beyond. On the 1. is the weird peak 
of Chocorua, to which Starr King has a})plied the adjectives, "gallant, 
haughty, rugged, torn, proud-peaked, desolate, proud and lonely, tired." 

Stations, Madison and Conway (* Conway House; Pequawket House; 
Grove House). This village is situated on rich lovel land, and has many 
charming rural scenes along the winding Saco. From its air of tran- 
quillity and pastoral seclusion, this hamlet of Chatauqac is preferred to 
N. Conway by those who seek (piiet and rest, and arc regardless of bril- 
liant society. Excursions are made from this point to * Choconia Lake, 
8-9 M. distant, under the mt. of the same name; to Conway Centre and 
Fryeburg (see Route 39), in the N. E. ; to Chatham, by the long, strag- 
gling village of (!onway Street, between the Green Hills and the Maine 
border; to Champney's Falls, ascending the Swift River valley to the W. ; 
and to the Cathedral, Echo Lake, and Diana's Bath. The last-named 
places are as near to Chatau(pxe as to N. Conway, and the fording of the 
river is avoided. There are fine views of the White Mts. from this vil- 
lage, with the Mote Mts. looming in the N, W. Beyond Conway the 
train runs N. for 5 M., much of the way being over embankments and 
trestles on the Saco intervales. The Mote Mts. are approached on the 1., 
and Kiarsarge ai)pears on the r. Soon after crossing the Saco, awhito 
village is seen on the hillside, the tower of the Kiarsarge House is ap- 
proached on tlie r., and the train stops at the new and elegant station 
building at N. Conway (see Route 33). 


Route 32. — Lakk Winnepesaukki; and the Sandwich Mountains. 
33. — The White Mountains and North Conway. 
84. - • The Franconia Mountains and the Pemigewasskt 

35. — The Percy Peaks, Dixville, and Lake Umbagoo. 


Route S2. 215 

, Ktrasc- 

is ap- 



32 Lake Winnepesankee and the Sandwich ^Tcuntains. 

From Unstnn to tlip I,;iko : (a) By Hoiit^'s 20 and 30, tlirou;,'h Lowoll nnd Con- 
ronl to Weir.;, Miifiicc tlic stoaiucr " Lady of tlu- Lake" runs to Centre Harbor 
and Woin)oro. Boston to Weirs, Ji)'> M. 

(b) By Ron*^(' 158, tlirongh LawrtMice and Dover to Alton Bay, wlienee the 
steamer " Jit. Washington " runs to Wolfboro, Centre Ilarlior, and Meredith. 
Boston to Alton Bay, iu; M. 

(e) By Routes 'M and ;57, thron;,di Salem and Portsmouth to Wolflwro, where 
both the steamers touch, and trnm wiiicli all the laktvvilla;,'es may be visited. Bon- 
ton to Wolfboro, 10(i M. (in l.J hrs. by the Pullman express train in the morning). 

Lake Winneiiesaukee i.s in the counties of Carroll and Belkna]i, in ihn 
State of N. IL, and is 25 M. long by 1-7 M. ■svitlo ••■' 'aining Gi) square 
miles. It is 472 ft. above the sea, and its waters i talline purity re- 

flect the shadows of several bold mountains, ai,.i sunound nearly 300 
islands, great and small. 8 towns rest around it, having (in 1870) an 
aggregate population of 14,000 on about 200 sipuire milt s of territory; 
and but few and small are the villages along the cui! nisly indented sliorcs. 
The waters of the lake are discharge<l by the Winnepesankee Kiver, 
which unites with the Pemigewa.sset to form the Merriniac, and passes 
into the ocean at Newburyport. Winnepesankee is an ancient Indiiiu 
word which is popularly su])posed to mean " The Sndlc of the Great 
Spirit," although some interpret it as " Pleasant Water in a High Place." 

"There maybe lakes in Tyrol and Switzerland which, in partienlar respects, 
eveoiid the charms of any in the Western world. But in that wedding of the 
land with the water, in which one is perpetually approaehin;,' and retreating from 
the other, and each transforms itself into a thousand figures for an endles.s dance, 
or grace and beauty, till a countless nndtitude of shapes are arranged into perfec;t 
case and freedom, of ahnost musical motion, nothing can lie held to surpass, if to 
matcli, our Winnepesankee." (BARTor..) 

"J have been something fif a traveller in on • own country, - lough far les.s 
than I cmild wish, — and in Kurojie have seen all that is most attractive, from 
the Highlands of Scotland to the (Jolden Horn of Constantinople, from the sum- 
mit of the Hartz Mountaiii-s t(» tin; Fountain of \'au(duse ; but my eye hiis yet t;> 
rest 'Ml a lovelier scene tlian that which smiles around you us you sail fn-m Weir^ 
Landing to Centre Harbor." (KowAun F']vkuk.t.) 

"Luokhig up to the broken sides of the Ossipee Mts. that are rooted in tin; 
lake, over wliich huge shadows loiter ; or back to the twin li(dknap hills, whii Ii 
u]i]ieal to softer sensibilities with their venlnred synnnetry ; or larfiuT down, 
ujton the charming succession of mounds that hem the shores near Wnls'boro ; or 
northward, where distant Chocorua lifts his bleached head, so tenderly touched 
now with gray and gold, to defy the hottest sunlight, as he has defied for age.-? 
the lightning and tlie storm, — does it not seem as though the jiassage of the 
P.salnis is fulfilled bel'ore nur eyes, - ' Out of the perfection of beauty Cod hath 
sliined'?" (Thomas Staku Ki.vo). 

'i'he poetry of Percival and of Whittier has often been inspired by Wiunepe 
saukee. (.See Whitlier's poems, "The Lake-side," "bummer by the Lake," and 

The steamer runs E. from Woirs, with Meredith Bay opening to the N. 
Mount lielknap is seen to the S., and Ossipee Mt. looms \\\i ncross the 
lake in front. After passing GovernorN Ldanl on the S., the boat turns 
to the N. through a strait between Bear Island (3 M. from Weirs) and the 

• S'S 


216 Route ,32. 


^ ( 



U' .'I 

I • 

HI ' 


y \ 

mainland. Just after passing this island, and when within 3 M. nf 
Centre Harbor, the finest * view on the lake is oVjtained. The whole line 
of the Sandwich Mts. is seen in the N., between Ossipee on the r. and 
Red Hill on the 1., with Whiteface looming foremost, and "the haughty 
Chocorua " leagues away to the N. E. 

Centre Harbor is 10 M. from Weirs. It has tlie*Senter House, 8^.00 a 
day; tlio Moiilton House, 8 10 -14.00 a weetc ; and nuiiieroiis pleasant boarding- 
houses, aiiiouj; whieli are of R. L. Coe, A. M. Graves, the Wentworths, and 
Rev. Aliiion Renson. 'I'lie priees at these houses range Ironi S7.00 to !? 14.00 a 
week. Kelsea's i.s on tin- far-viewing Centre Harbor Hill, over a mile from the 
village, while under Red Hill and near tiquani Laiie is Sturtevant's '({veeommodat- 
ing about :U)). 

Steamers (time-table of 1S7"2) leave Centre Harbor 4 times daily. The " Ladv 
of tlic Lake " l<!aves at 7.:}0 A. iM., and at 1 V. M. Far.' to Wolfbo'ro, 75 c. 

Stagem leave daily (in suunuer) for Moultonboro, Sandwich, Tanuvorth, Madi- 
son, and W. Ossipee. 

Centre Harbor is a small handet at the liead of one of the 3 northern 
bays of the lake. It was settled by Col. Senter in 1757, and was named 
in his honor, but the improvement of the town has been slow, and in 
1870 it had only 44G inhabitants. There are pleasant di'ves from this 
village to Moultonboro, to Sandwich, and * "ai'ound the ring," the latter 
being by a series of roads 4 M. long, passing by Red Hill and witljin siglit 
of Squam Lake, and returning to the village. Centre Harbor Jlill, 1 ]\I. 
from the hotels, affords a fine lake prospect, recommended for its sunset 
views. But the main attraction of the i»lace is the * ascent of Red Hill 
(2,000 ft. high). By the highway it is 4 M. to the foot of the hill, from ' 
which a bridle-path nearly 2 M. long reaches the summit. A road 2 M. 
shorter is available to the pedestrian, bypassing out on the Sandwich 
road, taking the first farm-lane to the r. beyond the cemetery and cross- 
roads, and crossing straight to Red Hill by means of quiet, rural field- 
roads. T)u! mountain-path soon turns to the r. from the highway (which 
is followed to tlie 1. after it is gained). The hill is a.scended to the first 
cottage, around whose upper corner the ]>ath bears sharply to tlie 1. The 
reddish sienite ledges of the summit are gained by a long climb tlirough 
the forest, and here is seen the luxuriant nva tirso', whose flan)e-red 
autumnal tints probably gave name to the mountain. The * * view from 
the summit vies in beauty with that from Mount Holyoke, though of far 
different character and devoid of historic charni. Lake Winnepesaukee is 
outstretched in the S. with leagues of l)right waters and hundreds of 
islets, while the twin summits of Mt. Belknap are seen over Centre 
Harbor, abont 15 M. away. In the S. W. is Mt. Kearsarge, full 30 ^l. 
distant, while it is claimed that Monadnock (70 M. S. \V. ) may be seen in a 
clear day. In the W. is the lovely Squam Lake, winding like Winder- 
mere, among the hills, with numerous i.slands and white, sandy beaches, 
while beyond are the Squam Mts. and "Sit. Prospect, near Plymouth. 

"The Mt. Washington r.mge is not visible, being b.-rrcd from sight by the dark 


( I 



md ill 
[1 this 
1 sight 
, 1 M. 
2 M. 
f far 
ee is 
in a 





,,.;•■■/ ' -r:: 

U n*-,'f 


WHITE FAf^^.. ^ " 


S Q,Wi^ M l«5>^ 









'x^ \-.Hurn Jh>r<f .. 
5. (\>iy „ 

7. (lover nor 'S „ 
'd.hhrfi/ Jsloncfjf 
9 Jhorhlofid 

11 Tiiftorf hnro „ 
ir> MoultonhorrK, 
\iy Meredith „ 

if! f 



M. I 

I: V 


of the^ 
Red Hi 


day ; tJM 


Rov. Air 
wcclc. I 
yill.-i^'e. 1 
in.t,' aliou 

of tlic \a 


HOIl, Jllld 


bays of 1 

in his li 

1870 it 1 

village t( 

being by 

of Sqnan 

from the 

views. ] 

(2,000 ft. 

which a 1 

shorter is 

road, tak; 

roads, am 

roads. T 

is followei 

cottage, a 

reddish sii 

the forest 


the sunimj 

different o! 


islets, whi 

Harbor, al 

distant, wl 

clear day. 

mere, amo] 

while beyo 

" The Mt. 

•a' . . :' 

• ; < '- 

) ". 

i-ty I 


lioiUf JJ. 2 1 7 

Sandwich Range, which in the afternoon, untouched by the light, wears a s.ivage 
frown that contrasts most effectively with the placid bc.itity of tlie lake hdnw. 
Here is the place to Htiidy its borders, toailinire the tleet (»f islands tliat ride at an- 
choron its bosom, - from little shallops tn ^'rand three-deckers, — and to enjoy the 
exf^uisite lines by which its bays are infolded, in wliicli its coves retreat, and with 
'vhich its low caites cut tlie azure water, and hany over it an emerald friuije." 
^Starr Kino.) 

, " For to the nonth 

Thv slninl)orin>r wiitors fl'iiitcd. one lonp «heet 
s Of hurni.slicil ^'iiid, — Ix'twifn lliv nciirer shorci 

9 SofHv cmlirrx't'd. im<l iiK'ltiiifr ilistiintly 

* Into a yollow liii/c, t'ml>i>'<i)iiH'il iuw 

'Mid s)'iiidii\V3" liil's ul iiiist\ iiKiinitniiis, nil 

Covcri'il witli Hliowcry liKlit.'uii with a veil 

Of'uiry gauze. " — rtucivAt. 

In the N. E. the weird peak of Chocorua is seen, and nearer at hand in the E. 
Is the heavy, dark mass of Ossipee. The central peak of the Handwioli Ilange is 
White Face, while Black IVak holds tlie left, and the right extends from Passa- 
conaway to Chocorua. Tbe white villai^e in the jdain below is S.indwieh, while 
the Bear Camp and Red Hill Pouds are seen in its vieinity. " Whoever misses 
the view from Red Hill loses the most fasciii'.ting and tlioroughly enj(jyable view, 
from a moderate mountain-height, that can be gained trom any eminence thatliea 
near the tourist's path." The afternoon is the best time for the excursion. 

* Squam Lake is 3-4 M. from feiitre Harbor, un»l should be visited 
for the sake of its .seipu'stered loveliness, its romantic. isK.ts, and its white 
strand. The waters of .S(iuam are of rare i)urity, and abound in llsh. 

Plymouth i.s 12 M. N. W. of Centre IIarl>or, and is approached by a 
smooth but hilly road, passing through the romantically beautiful district 
formerly inhabite<l by the Squamscott Indians. This road skirts the 
shores of Squam and Little Squam Lakes, and at al)out 5 M. from Centre 
Harbor, has a superb* view of Chocorua, 15 ^L away, over the broadest 
part of Squam Lake. The road passes across the broad, rich intervales 
of Holderne-js and Plymoutli, with the Sciuaui Mts. and Mt. Prospect on 
the r. 

On leaving Centre Harbor for Wolf bora, Vai steamer keep.s a S. E. 
course, with Ossipee Mt. on the E. over the low shores of Moidtonboro 
Neck. A great archipelago of islands is j)a.sscd, -~- islands which shall 
here be nameless, they being worse than nameless in the poverty of tln-ir 
homely Saxon titles. About midway of the lake "the unmistakable 
majesty of Washington is revealed. There he rises, 40 M. av/ay, tower- 
ing from a plateau built for his throne, dim green in the distance, except 
the dome that is crowned with winter, and tlie strange ligurcs that are 
scrawled around his waist in snow." Fredrika Breiuer speaks of "the 
Olympian majesty of Mt. Washington "' from this point. " Farther on, 
the summit of Chocorua is seen moving swiftly over lower ranges, and 
soon the whole mountain sweeps into view, startling you with its ghost- 
like pallor and haggard orest." On Long Island, nearly half-way down 
the lake, is a small hotel, while the Island Hotel on Diamond Island is 
W. of tlie course, and is a favorite resort for excuision parties. Tlri 
mountains in the N. change their relative positions with kalci lo icop' ; 


\t i 

218 n»ut<'32. 


I ; 

I \ 




I T 

I ■;! 

r;ii)i(lit.y, and the imposiiij,' peaks of Mt, Belknaj) (whonce is obtained tlio 
finest lake-view) loom up aliead. After jiassiiig these peaks tlie steamer 
rounds into Wolfl)oro Hay, witli Topple Crown Mt. on the r. 20 M. fron\ 
Centre Ilavhor is the villaj,'e of Wolf boro. 

Hotels. * Pavilion, tlie best hotel on tlio Iftke ; BcUevue House, S8-12.0;* a 
week ; L.ike House. There arc also many jileasant and retired hoarding-houses 
in and iHnr tlie villaj^e. 

Steniners have tV)r Alton Bay, Centre Harbor, and Weirs, two or three timc.i 

Stages run daily to Tvftnnhnro, a stock-raising \o\vn 7 M. N. W., and to Movl- 
tcmboro, over a pleasant road on t!ie E. shore of the lake. 

Wolflioro was settled in 1770, and was tlie site of the fine mansion of 
Gov. Sir Jolm Wentworth. It i.s now a jilisasant vil]af,'e in a thriving; 
town of abo\it 2,000 inhabitants, with 3 banks and 3 churches. Its situ- 
ation on two long hills near the lake is very beautiful, and fine views ore. 
enjoyed of the Belknap Mts. a.:ross the water. Good lake-views may be 
had from the hills about the village, and also from Tumble-Down Dick, a 
high eminenee near the large Snuth's Pond, E. of \yolfl)()ro. But tho 
best excursion is to Crqqde C'rnvm Mt.^ about 5 M. S. E., by a road passing 
to S. Wolf boro. The carriage-road runs nearly to the summit (fare, S 2.00 
from the hotel for each person of a i)arty). Copple Crown is 2,100 ft. 
high, and furnishes from its summit a view of neaily the whole length of 
the lake, with Mt. Belknaj) near at hand in the N. W., and the heavy 
range of Sandwich looming above the head of the lake. Chocorua and 
Ossipee are close together, a little W. of N., and on a clear day Mt. 
Washington may be seen beyond all, while the ocean is visible in the 
opposite direction. 30 lakes and ponds are seen from Copple Crown, of 
which Ossipee, in the N., is one of the finest. 

The Wolfboro Branch of the Eastern Railroad runs to the N. Conway main lino 
in 12 M. Two express trains leave for Boston daily, making the di.staneo (lOG 
W.) in 4-5 hre. 

After leaving Wolfboro the steamer follows a southerly course to Fort 
Point, where it tunis by Little Mark Island into Alton Bay. This is a 
narrow estuary, 4-0 M. long, and bordered by high wooded hills of 
Trosach-like Ijoldness. The steamer follows the sinuosities of this curi- 
ous inlet, and sometimes seems to be walled in, as neither way of ingress 
nor egress is seen. Mt. Major is passed on the W. shore, and after many 
turns and bendings the last bluff is passed, and the hotel and station at 
the S. extremity of the lake are reached. Here is situated the Bay Vieio 
House (.$10-14.00 a week), a tpiiet summer-hotel with pleasant drives 
and good fishing in the vicinity. 

Alton Bay was formerly called Merry-Meeting Bay, since it was a famous gath- 
ering-place for the Indians. Several Indian raids on the N. H. coast passed down 
this bay, and in 1722 the province built a military road to it, and commenced I'or- 
tiiications. Tlie cost was found to be too heavy lor the little colony, and the 
position was given up. Atkinson's regiment, which was covering the frontiers 
during the French war, built a fort and encamped here through the winter of 


liis is a 
liills of 
lis curi- 

[• many 
It ion at 
Y<j View 

IS gath- 
kl down 
:/ed lor- 
iiul the 
roil tiers 
Inter of 


The hotel is about 30 M. from Centre Harbor. Mt. Major and Pros- 
pect Hill are near the hotel, and command beautiful lake-vicwf, while the 
ocean may be seen (in clear weather) from the top of Prospect. Sharp'.* 
Hill also ^ives a neat lake-view. 

Among the longer excursions is that to Lougee Pond, near a cltir,ter of 
lakelets from which flows the Suncook River. Gilmantou Iron Works 
village is a little way S. of these ponds, which are about M. from Al- 
ton Ray. 6-8 M. to the eastward lies Merrymeetiiig L dec, an irregular, 
picturesque, and sequestered ))ond 10 .M. in circumferencn, N. of whirli 
is Copple-Crown Mt. The favorite excursion from .Mton Pay is to Mt. 
Belknap, 10 M. N. W. on the shores of, and overlooking, Lake Winn;^- 
pesaukee. Seats in the carriage which runs to the mt. whenever a parly 
is formed cost §1.50 each, and the noble view of lakes and mts. morn 
than repays for the time ami trouble of the journey. 

Three trains daily (iluring the season) leave Alton Bay for Boston. 
Distance, 96 M. ; time about \ hrs. (see Route 3S.) 

Centre Harbor to Conway. 

A railroad liiu^ lias been surveyed from Meredith through Centre Har- 
bor to W. Ossipee. Daily stages now pass over the road between thesa 
points. After leaving the Harbor, lied Hill is approached and passed, 
and a village of Moultonboro is reached in 5 M. from thi; Scnter House. 
Moultonboro has a small inn and two or three boarding-liouses, an I 
abotmds in pleasant scenery which is rarely visited. Red Hill is here, 
and Ossipee Mt., also the long and sequestered Moultonboro Bay with its 
great archipelago of picturesque islets, and with plenty of fish in its 

The Ossipee Indians had their home near this hay, and many relies of them 
have l)e<'n found, chief among wliieh is a great numuniental nimnid at the nioutli 
of Melvin River. 

" Where the Great I.nko'ssiinny smiles 
Dimple round its hundred islJ's, 
And the mountuin's f^ranitc ledge 
Cleaves the water like a wedge, 
Rineed about witli smootli, pray stoncft, 
Rest the giant's mighty bones. 

Close beside, in shnde and gleam, 
Ln\i3h» and ripples Melvin streiim, 
Melvin .viiter, iiioinifsiin-liorn. 
All fair flowers its hanks adorn ; 
All the woodlands voices meet. 
Mingling with its murmurs sweet. 

Over lowlands forrst-crrown 
Over waters isIand--trown, 
Over silver-snnded beacli, 
I>eaf'-loeked liay ami misty rencli, 
Melvin stream and burial-heap. 
Watch and ward the mountains keep. 

T^ ho that Titin cromlecli fills ? 

Forest-kaiser, lord o' the hills ? 
Kniglit whi) on the Idrelien tree 
Carved his stivage licraMry ? 
Priest () the pine wood temples dim, 
IVophet, sii;,'e, or wizard f-'rim 'i " 

See Whittier's poem, " The (Irave by the J.ake." 

On the S. side of r)ssi|i(M' Mt. is a sj)riu_', about 1 M. from wliii-h is a 
noble fountniii, Ki ft. amund, wliose waters gush forth witli gn-at font; lunl 
copiousness. Followiii,' the stream which is liorn here, a line waler-lUU, 70 fu 
deep, is foinid in the forest, on tlic 1. of wliieh is a cavern. 

Tho stage-road, after some pleasant views of S<pinm Lake, enter ^ Ih'! 
pretty village of Sandwich (/'ed Hill House ; boarding-houses of B^'eih', 

220 llouic .L\ 



I* 1 


f ! 

Wigijin, and others), wliich is in a narrow valley nearly surrounded by 
mountains. The scenery is noble, embracing Ossipce on the S. E., lied 
Hill, Die Hqunin Mts. on the W., and the dark and storm-worn Samlwlch 
Ranpe on the N. Squam Lake is on the S. W. border of the town, and a 
charming road leads from Iho village to rhjniitullt, jiassing for sevtral 
miles along the N. an<l W. shores of the lake, with the Htjuam Mts. on 
the r. Another road (somewhat arduous) leads across a high mountain- 
pass to Tlidrntdi), in the I'emigcwassct Valley, Avhile a bridle-path leads 
through Oreeli'v's (Jap to Widrrvitle. Beyond 8an<hvirh the stage passes 
near Bearcam}» Pond, and follows the licarcami) lliver down through 
Sandwich Notch to the lowlands of Tamwovth and Ossipee towns. 
W'hitticr's poem, "Among tlie Hills," hai. Ita scene laid in this vicinity where 

" Throtitrh Sandwich notch the west-wind sung 
(IfKid morrow to the cotter : 
And onro npiiin dioconm's Imrn 
Of shadow pierced tlie water. 

Ah<i\ e his lirond lake Odsipoe 
Once more tlie Riin«l\iiie wcarlnif, 

Stoopf(l. trucinff oil thiit Nilver iliield 
His grim arniuriul bearing." 

And many arc the weary ones who stjU come here 

" To drink thf wine of moiintnin air 
BeKide the Uearcainp Water." 

Whitefacc (4,100 ft. high) is the most imposing of the Sandwich Mts., 
and is sometimes ascended from Sandwiuli, although the excursion is 
arduous and fatiguing. The view is said to he magnificent, embracing 
Winnepesaukee on the S. with the loftier peaks of the White Mts. on the 
N. On the '. E. is Passaconaway, a noble peak, 4,200 ft. high, which 
was named alter the great sagamore of Peniiacook, the most ])ow('rful 
Indian prince in northern New I'jigland, early in the 17lh ccTitury. lie 
governed a large confederacy of tribes from his seat at Pennacook (Con- 
cord), and although he strove to annihilate the English by necromantic 
arts, he never put his warriors in anus against them (see page 222). 

Chocorna and Ossipee. 

The road through Sandwi<;h Notch passes out by Banks' Hotels near 
W. Ossipee station, on the Eastern R. R. (Route 31). This is a pleasant 
old country hotel, with good accommodations at a moderate price, and 
stands in a line position either for viewing or visiting the surrounding 
scenery. Banks' is 18 M. from Centre Harbor, by way of Sandwich. 
Pleasant excursions are made along Bear River and into the Sandwich 
Notch. Ossipee Mt. is close to the hotel, and the highest peak is but 2-3 
M. distant. A grand view of Lake Winnepesaukee is obtained from this 
point, while Chocorna looms up in the N. and Ossipee Lake is in the 
S. W. 

Ossipee Lake is about 4 M. S. E. of the hotel. The road follows down 
the Bear Camp valley to the vicinity of the lake. In the field near Daniel 
Smith's farm-house (1. of the road) is an Indian mound, nearly 50 ft. in 
diameter, from which several skeletons and other relics have been taken. 



|, and 









It. ill 



MOUNT (•iio(\);:rA. 

n„lltr .it. 221 


In the same field and nearer ;liu lake art- tlie roiiuiins of LoviwiU's tort, 
built i'l the spriii}? of 1725, uiid uliaiidoiit-d after the h;ittl»' ut Peqiiawket 
(Fryebiir,'). Just beyond tliis point are tlio shore.s of Ossipee Lake, a 
scfpu'stcrt. 1 sheet of water embracing about 10 square nules, with Greea 
Mt. rising bdl'lly on the further sliorc. 

* Mt. Chocorua is be,-.i visited from this point. It is 8 M. to the foot 
of the mt. ami little more than half-way the l»eautiful Chocorua Lake 
(Aa/ifi Hniifie, finely situated) i-s passed. From this i)oint the summit '^ of 
the mountain are seen, of which "■ one is a rocky, desol.ite, craggy -peaked 
substance, cruii<;hlng in shape not unlike a monstrous w.drus (tliough the 
summit suggests more the 1. ..: turned head ancV Ix-ak of an eagle on the 
w:itcli against some danger) ; the other is the wraith of the proud and 
lonely shape above." The ascent requires 5 M. from the foot of the 
mountain, and is very ar luous, — no path having yet been made. 

" IIow rich unci Honorous that word Chocorua is ! Does not its rhythm suggest 
tlie wildncs.-i and loneliness of the j^reat liills? To our e;irs it always lirinj,'s with 
it the si,L,di of tlit! winds thioii^^li nK'nntaiii-iiines. It is investeil witli traditional 
iMid jieetic interest. In funn it is massive and synnuetrieal. The forests of its 
lower sloi)us are ( lowned with rock tiiat is seulptured into a peak with lines I ill 
ol" liaiiglity eiier.;y, in whose gorges hu;,'e shadows are entrapped, ami wliose ditrs 
blaze with morning' K'dd. On one side of its .ja;;j^ed i)eak a charming lowlinil 
]iri)si)cet stretehes li and S. of the Kandwi- h llan.ue, indented by tiie emerald 
sliores of Wiunepesaukee, ^\hiell lies in (pit'eidy beauty ujmmi tlie soft, far-strefeh- 
in^ landscapes. I'ass around a Imu'e rock to tiie other side of the steep iiyramid, 
and yon have turned to another eliai>ter in the hook of nature. Notliinj,' l)ut 
mountains runniu;,' in long jiarallels, or Itendini,', ridge behind riilge, an; visible, 
hen; brilliant in sunli^jlit, tlnre gloomy with shadow, and all related to the tower- 
ing mass of the imperial Washington There is no sunniiit from which th. 

]ireeipices are so sheer, and sweeji down with such evcdoidal (!urves. It i.s so 
related to the i»lains on one side and the mountain-gorges on the other, tint no 
grander wat,eh-tower, e.\eei)t Mt. Washington, can be sealed to study and enjoy 
clouil scenery." (ST.\nu KiN(;.) 

Chocorua, the blameless prophet-chief of the Sokokis Indians, was pursued to this 
lofty peak l)y a M'hite hunter, who was determined to kill him for the saUo of tho 
s<'ali)-nioney (the colonies gave large bounties for Imliin scalps). The chief 
ideaded lor (|uarter. speaking of his quiet life in which he had never luirmed 
the colonists ; but when his pursuer refusetl to, iin<l dn w near to put him to 
death, the noble Chocorua one long, lingering look over the fair lands of hi.s 
hunted peoide, and lifting up his arms invoked a solenm and terrible < upon 
the country in which the English were swarming He then leapeil Imldlyover 
the tremendous pi'ecipice, and was dashed in pieei-s on the roeks below. Malig- 
nant and fatal diseases ann^ng the cattle, and other fell signs long troubled tho 
towns about the mountain, while ,-trange legends arose, and the baleful elfeuts 
were lor Uiaay years attributed to the merited curse of Chocorua. 

33. The White Mountains and North Conway. 

New York to the White .\fts. (a.) ByR<Jute 2t, through New Haven, Springfield, 
and Wells River, to Littleton (whence stau^es run to the Prolile House, 341 M. 
from N. Y.), and tlie Twin Mt. House (a;W M. by R. R. from N. Y.). Stages Irom 
the Twin Mt. House to the Crawford House (9 M.) 

(h.) By steamer to New London, theme by Route 12 to Andierst, Brattleboro, 
and Wells River, — thence to the Mts. as in (n). 

(c.) By New London, Noi-wich, Worcester, and Nashua (Route 13), to Concord, 
and thence by Route 30. Or by the preceding way as far as Weirs, whence Lake 

\i \ 


222 J{nitf»-.ll THK WniTK MOrXTAINS ANT) N. CONWAY. 

WiimeiK'saiikcc (Route 92) in rrnsseil to WolflMim'. nml Iloutf 31 is followed to 
N. Conway. Many tnuristn ]>n-ft'i' to take the iiiKlit train or l>oat to Uostoii, ami 
make tiicir way tliciiic to iht; Wliilc Mt.-i. l)y a iiioniinn train. 

limton In the U'hiti Mt^. (il.) Hy roriti- .'il. 11ii<iii;,'li Lynn. S;il«-rn, Nt-wlitiryport, 
ftn<l I'ortsinoutli, to N. Conway. Hy this roiite tlie <iiMtan<i' liom Hoston to N. 
Conway is |:;7 M. ; totlie ( rawlonl, Hi'J .M. ; to the (ilrn lloii.-,f, 1.0" .M. 

(( .) Hy HomIi's •_'!• and Itn. flirou;,'li l.owcll, Nasliua, Mandic.stcf, ami Coiuonl, 
to Wt'irs. riyinoiitti, and tlif I'win Mt. llousf. Or l)y crossing,' hakf NViiine- 
jifsankrc from Writs to Woifboro, n-ucli N. Conway l»y Uoute Ul (or by the staye- 
loMtc troni < iiilrt' Marltor). 

(/) Hy Konfc ;il to \\ olfl'iMd, tlnMicf iroHsin;,' LnUv WinncpcHaukrc to WtMr^, 
and lollowinK Hontc ;i<) to I'lynmulli, Lilth'toii, and the Francunia Mta., or to tlio 
Twin .Mt.and Crawtoid 

i;/.) Hy Uoiite 'M to Altci Hay, an<l thfiicc liy stcamtT to Wolflioro and I{"iit« 
HI to N. Conway ; or to Centre Harbor, and lloiitc ;12 {ad Jinciit); or to Weirs, and 
tiif'ticc by Itoiitc :to, , in (.^ 

I'luthniil itini till' East ti> ■kn n'hitr Mis. (//.) Hy Route 39 to N. ConwayfOO M.), 
and tiiiiici' liy sta;^e to tlic t'lawlord ami (din llonscs. 

(/.) Hy Koi'itf 40, fo tin; village of tiorham (!•) M.):and thcnoe by stage to the 
(jlcti llonsi! and Crawford House. 

Moitlriiil mill Qiiihic (n tlir White Mta. (j.) By Route 40 (Grand Trunk Railway 
to Corhani, 'J()(J M. from .Montreal, and 2-'(J .M. from Qiieliec. 

Albuiiji imil Sanittiiia to the U'liitv Ml^. (/,-.) Hy Routes ^3 anrl 28 to Rutland, 
thenco by Route 20 to Hellows Falls, and tlieiiee by White River Jum lion and 
Weils I{i\ir to Litlletoii and the Twin Mt. House. 

redetttriaiilsni has never olitained niiKh favor in AnuTiea, but when the 
l)resent pust liclluiti era of lU'odigality and lueteuee has passed away, we may liope 
to see these mountain jieaks ancl ^orj^es enliveui<l by jiarties of siinimer ramblers 
who will i^^aiti healtli and stn ;.;,dli from insjiirin;,' walks in tlie jmre, sweet air. 
Tliegeidry of Old Kn^laml, witli tlieir ladies, ari' fond of passinj^' thus 1hrouj,di tlio 
Swiss Alps or tlu' Scottish Hi^'hlands, and wiien the people here shall adojit this 
mode of sunnner travel, the physical cidture of New England will reach a higher 
standard. Many adinirai)le jpedestrian routes may be made throu^jh the White 
Mts., but the tourist should havejileidy of time, and be well ami lightly eipiipped 
(sec introduction, IV.) A good lield-glass will be found of essential service. 



I ! 




The White Mts. wero called Agioeliook ("Mts. of the Snowy Forehead and 
Home of the Great Spirit") by some of the Indian tribes, and Kan Ran Vu^carty 
("the continued likeness of a gull") by others. The Algoniiuins called them 
SVaumbek (White Rock) or Wainnbeket-Methna, and the natives had the utmost 
reverence for these mts., believing them to be the home and throne of the Great 
Spirit. Hut rarely did the Hulians ascend the higher peaks, since it was reported 
aiaong the tribes that no intruder upon these sacred heights was ever known to 
leturn to his jieople. There was a legend thalthe (ireat Spirit once bore a blame- 
less chief and his wife in a mighty whirlwind to the summit of Agioeliook, while 
tlie wor!<l l»elow was overspread by a flood which destroyed all the peoi>le. A 
wilder and more recent tradition is to the elleet that the great Passaconaway, the 
wizard-king of the wide-spread I'eimacook eonfetleration (who ruled from altout 
1(J20 to lUUO). was wont to commune with celestial messengers on the sumnnt of 
Agiocho(tk, whence lie was linally borne to heaven in a flaming chariot. Some 
authorities claim that a ]iarty of Knglishmen visited tliese nds. in KJiJl -2, buttlio 
latest historians credit their discovery to Darby Field, who came up from the 
coast in 1G42. The Indian villagers at l'e(inawket(Fryeburg) earnestly endeavored 
to dissuade him from the ascent, telling him that he would never return alive. 
But he pressed on Avith his two sea-shore Indians, jiassing through cloud-lwidcs 
and storms until he reached the last peak, whence lie saw "the sea by Saco, the 
gulf i>f Canada, and the great kike Canada River came out of." He found many 
crystals here, which he thought were diamonds, and from which the chain long 
bore the name of " the Chrystall Hills." Tradition says that in 17Go a party of 
of Rogei-s' Rangers, retreating from St. Francis, were led up Israel's River into 
these deflles by a treacherous Indian guide, and all of them died excci.t one, who 
reached the settlements with his knapsack lilled with human flesh. It was said 


NoKl'U coNWAV 

Ji'.nl, .L 



f I 

that this pui-ty liore tlie greiit silver iiiia^'c talccii from the rhurch nt St. FriiK-i^, 
nn«l Hcvontl of thn (Miiv nutilfrs nuulf cariHwt <|iii'st iil'ti-r thin sfxniil ri-lic. A 
slioi't Ic^fii'laiy • ra IiHuwimI, .ukI tlii'ii tlif pinnicr ruldiii^ts l>e,'iiii l<' iiii>\(> <.jt,i 
the oiitlvin;,' -'itiis. In 1771 tlii' Nntdi wis ilisc ivnc I ; in 17:»-' Alirl Crawfniil 
lived nil tli'> (iianl'H Oravf ; in ISn:! a sin ill t iv-i ii \v h Imilt tUfTc : ainl in .liily. 
18J0, a party •••" scvfii pMillnnrii .sii-pt <i:i lln' siiimiiif nl' Mf \Vasliin;;tiin, ami 
piv«' tiic iiaiiics wliirli tin; iniin'ip-il jicaks still lnvir. In Isp.i ihcliist l)ri<llc-pafli 
to tilt' ^niiiinit was cut, ami ii small stone hut was erected near that point. Tiie 
Siiniinit House was Imilt in IS.VJ, and the Tip-Toii llmse was completed shortly 
itller. In Sci>tciiilier, is,'),",, a siii,dl party starte.l one at'ternoon fo walk to tlin 
Kiniiinit, and lieiii'.,' wiihotit a uuide ltei',iine hewildered and lost, and one yoini'4 
lady died at niidninlit iroin cold and weariness. In the next Aii;.,'nst, u Del iwar« 
^' st.artcd fi'iim tlie (ileii without a iiuidc, in the afternoon, .ind di(>d near 
the suininit from exiiosiire to a cold uii,'ht stm'm. L.itc in OcIoIht, ls")|,;i youir,; 
I'in),dish jreiitleman asccnilcd al >ne from (hawford's to the summit, and fell fioin a precipice into the Amnionoosuc Valley, where Ws maicdcd corpse was found. 
For .soiiio years the sumniit has been occupied diiriii:.,' the winter as a station of 
the nieteorolo;,'ieal dcpartiiient of the U. .S. Army, and the men on duty have vx- 
lierieiiced the mo-t intense cold and wat<died terrific storms. The thermometer 
(Fahrenheit) has disceinled to o'.i bi'luw zero, ami the winds have attiiineil a ve- 
locity of 100 M. an hour. 

" The ;;eol<iyical t'catnres of Mt. Washin^'ton possess Imt little Interest. Tho 
rocks in place consist of a coarst; varii'ty of mic.i slate, passing into i,'nei->s, wliii-h 
contains a few crystals of bl.ick tourmaline and quart/." Thei'one is covered with 
blocks of mica slate The lloia of the upper region is with tliat 
of L'lbrador and Laplaml. "The period when the White Mts. ceased to bo ajjroup 
of islands, or when, by the emer^^eme of the snrroiindiiijj h)vv land, they lirst, be- 
came eonnecteil with the continent, is of very modern date, Ke'do;^'ically spcakin.i^." 
(Sir Ciiaiu.ks Lvki.i,. ) Helow the broken iind distorted stratum of mica slato, the 
vast musa of the luountaius is of granite. 

North Conway. 

Hotels. * Kiar.sar^'e House, .S.'jO-4ou ^'iicsts, Si. 00 a day, -a fiiio Ktriicturo, 
with extensive jiarlors and tliniii,'-room, ,'iiid a !>'• )ad view from towtsr ; 
*Sunset i'avilion, opposite the Hpiscoi>al cluircii ; Me.Milhin House, S, of the vil- 
lage; Washington House; Kastmiu House; N. Conway House, in the village: 
Intervale House, about •_' .M. N'., ii" ir Ml. Kiarsar:.,'e. There ,ire over 'JO lar;,'e sum- 
mer boanliiiu'-liouses in and around N. Conway, most of which are comfortable 
and ([iiiet. f heir prici;s raii;,'e tVoni s 7.00 to .>( IJ.oo a week. 

Kuilroadii. Tlu; Ivistern lliilroad (sec Iloute ;!1) runs two cypress trains each 
way daily (tliron'j;h tlic summer) between Boston and X. Conway, in •'> hours. 
Distance, 1^7 M. ; faro, •'7O.O •. The trains leave Hostoii (timetable <tf 1S7-') at 
8.10 A. M. and J .4 ) I'. M..aiid are provided with Pullm an ii.iilorcai.;. The l'.>rt- 
laiul and O^densiiuii: Uiilroad runs three trains dailv each way (throich theiram- 
mer) between I' N. Conway. Distance (lo .M., time li^ -:'. hoiir.i(se(> Houte 
■$'.»), This line connects at I'ortland withstcaniiTs for B i.-itoii, and trains run W. from 
N. Conway for IJ M., to Sawyer's it .ck, on the road to the White Mt. X .(cli. 

Stages leave X. Conway I'orthi; Crawford House ami the Glen House (coune-t- 
ing for Fi\uie(jnia and ( .it S A. .M. ami J 1'. M. Totlie (lieu Hons ■, iiO M., 
ui 5 hours ; fare, §3.00 ; to tin; Crawford House, 2'> M., in G-7 horns ; fare. {•:'.. 5'). 
Daily sta},'es leave W. Ossipee for Centre Harbor, on Luke Winnepesaukee. 
Fare. $3..'j0. 

Post Office and telci;ra)ih facilities are found in the vi]laL,'e ; earriagc-.j may bo 
obtained at various livery-stables ; there are several stores wheie most necessary 
articles may be obtained ; and there are three churches, liapt., Cong., and Epis. 

North Conway is a pretty village, largely coiriiiu:ieil of hotels aii'l sum- 
mer boarding-houses, situated on a natural terrace .30 ft. above the inler- 
vales of the Saco River, which is about h M. distant. " On the W., the 
long and noble Mote Mt. guards it; on the E., the rough, less lolly, ami 
bending Rattlesnake Ridge helps to wall it in, - unattractive enouj^h in tlie 

>' 1 

'2'2\ Jiout>'Jj. 


N'. ; 



p 1 ,' = 

rH S 

ordinary dayliglit, but a great favorite of the setting sun, whicli i.U'liglil>. to 
glorify it with Tyrian drajjeiy. On the S. W., Cliocorua manages to get 
a pee}) of its lovely nicrjlows. Almost the whole line of the White Mts. 
l)roper, crowned in the centre hy the (hmic of Mt. Washington, closes the 

only 12 or !.'> M. distant liy the air. Mt. 

view on the N. W. and N. 
"Washington does not seem so much to .stand up, as to lie oat at ease aloiig 
the North. The leonine grandi-ur is ihere, but it is the lion not erect, but 
couchant, a little sl-epy, .stretching out his paws and enjoying tlu^ sun. 

"The distinction of N. Cniiway is, that it is a large natural ].oem in 
landscape, —a quotatif>n from Arcadia, or a suburl) of Paradise. And 
then the sunsets of N. C'miway ! Ci h-ridge asked Mont Blanc if he 
liad ' a charm to stay the niuiiiing star in Ids stee]> course.' It is time for 
oo;ue poet to i)ut the (pu'stion to those Ijewitching, elm-sj)rinkled acres 

that border the Saco, bv what sorcery th 

Mico, ity wiiat sorcery tliey evoke, evening alter evening, 
upon the heavens that watch tliem, such lavish and Italian bloom. Xay, 
it is not Italian, for the basis of its beauty is ])ure blue, and the .skies of 
Italy are not nearly so blue as those of New England. One sees more 
clear sky in eight summer weeks in Conway, probably, tluiu in the com 
pass of an Italian yi-ar." (Staku King.) 

Mount Kiarsarge, or Pninawkct, is 3 M. from the village, and attains 
a heiglit of o,'5G7 ft. above the sea. A bridle-path (horses .^ 2.00 and guides 
.S2.()0 each) has been made to the summit, on which there is a small hotel. 
The view frjm this jxnnt end)races the village and the valley of the 
S.ico, with the great range of the Mote Mts. beyond, " its wooded wall 
ui»rcare(l as if for the walk of some angel sentinel." In the N. and W. 
is a vast throng of mountains, grouped " in relation to (he two great 
centres, — the notched summit of Lafayette and the noble dome of Wash- 
ington." Lafayette is N. of W., 28 - 30 M. distant, and is the loftiest of 
the Francoina Mts. The view of Mt. Washington from Kiarsarge is one 
of the best attainable, while in the opposite direction, 100 ]\1. S. W. it is 
claimed that "the lilmy outline of Monadnock gleams like a sail just 
fading out upon a vast sea." Sebago Lake, Pleasant Mt., Fryeburg vil- 
lage, and Lovewell's Pond are seen in the S. E. ami E., together A'ith a 
va't area of eastern Elaine. It is worth while to remain over night at the 
hotel (§4.00 a day), to enjoy the gorgeous sunrise and sunset. 

The Ledges are 3 M. from the village, beyond tin- Saco, where Mote Mt. 
terminates in clilTs ranging from 100 to 9G0 ft. in height, and extending 
nearly 5 il. The river is shallow and must be forded, as the fierce spring 
Hoods render bridges imi)ossible. A curious formation of white rock 
(looking like a horse dashing up) which was once visible on the clilfs (parts 
of it are still seen from N. Conway), has caused the name of White Horse 
Li'thje to be ajiplied to a part of these clilfs. The Cathedral is a 
singular cavity in the rock (100 ft. above the river and easily reached) 20 





'{ • .. 




/idVAM /firs, },^ 


iC»Lt Of ^f U (5 

■i 't 



22 i 

a ])( 





it i 




a III 



is ; 









si I 



Route 33. 225 

ft. wide, 40 ft. long, and 60 ft. liigh, uljeve the ledgo liends owv in an 
arch above, and several tall trees form the outer wall. " And truly the 
waters, frosts, and storms tliat scooped .'uid grooved its rurvcs au<l niches, 
seem to have combined in froli<' mimicry of Ootliic art. The whole front 
of the recess is shaded Ity trees, which kindly stand apart just enough to 
frame off Kiarsarge in lovely sjnnmctry, —so that a more ronumtic rest- 
ing-place for an hour or two in a warm aftenioon <'an hardly be imagined." 
Below the Cathedral is * Echo Lake, a beautifid little loch under the 
shadow of the clifl's, which tlirow l)ack an echo over its tran((uil waters. 
A little way N. of tlio Cathedral is a line d(nd>le fall, abo\o and below 
which are several deej) basins in the solid rock, filled with sparkling 
water, one of which is known as JHancCs Bath. 

The Artists' Falls are in the forest 1^ M. E. of the village, and, though 
insiginticant in themselves, are in combination witli beautiful group- 
ings of rock and woodland scenery. The Artists' Lrdyr is some distance 
S. of N. Conway, and cnnimands noble * views of the village and valley 
with Mt. Washington looming fa'- above and l)eyond them. Chocorua is 
seen in the S. E. across tlie level and luxuriant valley in which glimpses 
are gained of the Swift and the Saco Rivers. 

Excui-sions are made from N. Conway to Thoni Hill, 8 M. ; Dundee, 
10 M. ; Sligo, 13 M. ; Joi'key Cap Mt. and Lovewell's I'on*l, in Fryelnirg, 
11-13 M. ; Mount Cliocorua, 18 M. ; Goodrich and Jackson Falls, 0-9 
H. ; " around the square," a favorite drive lu-ar Mt. Kiarsarge, f) M. ; and 
up the naiTOW western valley to Swift River Falls, 18 M., with Chocorua 
on the 1., Mote and Bear Mts. on the r., and Passaconaway in front. 
Chninpni'i/s Falls are \ isited by this road, and are very beautiful in high 

K. Conway to the Glen House and Gorham. 

Soon after leaving the village, the Cathedral Woods and Mr. Bigelow's 
elegant cottage are passed on the r. and line views are afforded of tlie 
upper intervales undistigured by railway trestles and eniljankments. Mt. 
Kiarsarge, on the r., appears in constantly changing forms, as the Inter- 
vale and Pequawket Houses are passed, and ojsposite the Kenison House 
is a foot-jiath by which this " charming ])yra]iiid " is sometinas ascendtnl. 
After the road crosses the East Branch of the Saco it bends to the W. 
and affords a comprehensive view of the Conway valley. Shortly after 
passing Stilphen's (under Cedar Mt.) a fine retrospective view of Kiar- 
sarge is afforded. TJuirn Mt. is now seen on the r. and Iran Mt. on the 
1. (in advance), and the road passes over Goodrich Falls, which may 1)0 
viewed from the rocks on tlie r. bank, or, better still, fiom the shore 
below (short but steep })ath). These falls are on the Ellis River, and are 
the heaviest i:\ the mts. As the stage now passes along the Ellis River 
lre(iuent glimpse.-; of the mts. appear, and Jaclcson City is soon reacheil. 



■ I 

226 Route 33. 

(!LEN liOUrfH. 

i ! \ 

Tliis "city "has two hotels, T ■ Jackson Ilinise ami Thoiii Mt. House 
(!$ 10.00 a Aveck), witli iour or 1 ■ (hvcllings and a li.iptist church. 

The Jackson jieoplo Vwcainc discontfiitrd diirinf,' the .Secession War, on account 
of crushing taxes, and after some acts of violence on tlieir part, it was found 
necessary to occupy the place with U. S. troops, who were (piartered in the chiireh. 
Tiie town was settled in 1778, and in 17i'0 eaiiie L'apt. i'lidsham and live families 
on snow-shoes and sledges. fSliortly alter, Daniel i'inkhani built a ru<le mad 
throiij^h the notch which still licius his name, and the little settlement was called 
New Madltury. In Is(m) this mtme was (handed to Adams, and iu lS-211, when 
Adams and Jackson were candidates tor the I'residiiicy, and the latter received 
every vote (except one) in the town, it took the name of Jackson. 

Many rare minerals arc found hero, and tin-iuines have been worked or 
one of tlie hills. This central plaza in thecilyof hills is much freijuented 
in summer by artists, trout-fishers, and lovers of (juiet ami sequestered 
scenery. Tlie Jackson Falls are close to the villaj,fe (seen from the bridge 
over Wildcat Brook on the r.), and are very beautifid in high water. Iron 
Mt. is 2,900 ft. high and looms up on the 1., while Tin Mt. is on the r. 
Eaghj Mt. on the N. is rounded on the r. after leaving the village. Tlie 
road now ascends through the thickening forest Avith the Ellis lliver on 
the I., while occasional glimi)ses of tin; Carter Mt. are obtained on the r. 
No lOuses arc seen in this desolate pass, and 7 ]M. beyond Jackson the 
path to the Glen Ellis Fall is seen on the r. 4-5 JT. beyond ^wiih occa- 
sional glimpses of Tu(;kernian's Ravine and tlie slopes of Mt. Washing- 
ton), the spacious * Glen House is i-cachcd. This hotel accommodates 
500 guests (.^ 4.50 aday), keei)s a band of music througli the summer, and 
has a parlor and dining-room, each of which is 100 by 45 ft. in dimensions. 
" The Glen House is at the veiy base of the monarch, and Adams, Jeffer- 
son, Clay, and Madison bend around towards the E. with no lower hills 
to obstruct the impressiou of their height." The Glen is 1,(532 ft. above 
the sea, and S30 ft. above Gorhani and is watered by Peabody River and 
surrounded by lofty peaks. On the E. is the l(»Mg daik ridge of the 
forest-'^overed Carter Mt., and on the W. is the noble brotherhood of the 
five chief peaks of New England. Mt. Madison {5,:3t)l ft.) is 4 M. N. W. 
in an air-line, and next in the majestic group comes the sharp and sym- 
metrical ])yramid of Mt. Adams (5,800 ft.). The massive crest of Mt. 
Jefferson (5,700 ft.) comes next, then Mt. Clay (5,400 ft.), and S. E. of 
the hotel the summit of Mt. Washington (»>,2S5 ft.) is seen peering over 
lofty spurs and secondary peaks. " MAJ. Clay Washington " is .a for- 
mula whicli fixes in the ndnd the order of these mountains. A V)etter view 
is obtained by ascending for a few hundred frt't the mt. behind the hotel, 

Thompson's Falls are about 2 M. S. W. of the Glen House, and a 
guide-board on the 1. shows the ])oint where the N. Conway road is 
(juitted, and a forest-path is entered. The falls are \ M. from the road, 
and the brook may be followed up for a considerable distance, the walk 
affording grand retrospective views of Mt. Washington and Tr.i '- :«:.:'.i'it 







Route 33. 227 

llaviiie. Not far from these falls is the quii^t and scfludi'd 1>asiii oalli'il 
the Eiiierahl Ponl. 

Tlie * Crystal Cascade is gained hy a patli leadinj^ from the road into 
the forest to the 1., about 1 M. beyond Tlioinpson's Falls, Tlicre is abont 
^ hour of continuous ascent to the fall, whicli is near the mouth of Tuck- 
cnnan's Ravine, and is best seen from a high and moss-covered k'(lgo 

"Down it cniiu's, leaping, slidin;;;, trii)pinj,', widening,' its jmrc tido, and then 
pitlicriii}^ its thin sheet to ynsh tlwoujili a ]iani>\viii!,' pass in tiio n)ci<s, — all th(» 
way tliiis, fri»in under the sheer walls of Tiirlveriiiau's liaviiie, some miles above, 
till it reaelies the curve opj)osite the jioiiit on which we stand, .'inil winding; 
around it, sweei)S down the hendin;^ stairway, shatterin;,' its substanee into ex- 
(jnisite crystal, but sending,' oft' enouu'h water to t!ie ri.v'ht side of its patli to slip 
ami trickle over the lovely, dark-j^Tcen mossi-s that clin;,' to the ^Tay and piiriili" 
rocks. We never look at the Crystal Cascade without reverinj; and n'JoicinLt over 
tlie ])()etry with which nature invests the birth of so common a thin,^' as water," 

Along and difficult ascent along tiie brook-bank leads into Tuckerman's Havine. 
The Cascade falls about 80 ft. 

The *61en Ellis Fall is about 4 M. from the Glen llnu^it, and is 
piined by a plaidc-walk turnin:'' to the 1. from the N. Conway road iii'i 
the forest. Tliis is the finest fall in the mts., ami tlie lOllis Itivcr hero 
l)lunges down 60 ft. in one thick white mass, half svnik in a dcej) chauntd 
■svhich it has cut in the cliff. The steep fall of (?0 ft, U ittrfiiced b)' a 
descent of '20 ft. at a sharp angle. From the top id' the clill" one soo:4 
"the slide .and foam of the narrow and concentrateil cataracl In whci'e It 
spUssh«~v into the dark green pool. 1()0 ft. below." A belter \|ew of this 
*' l>t>art of mt. wil<(lncss " is gained by (lescending ii long series of rudo 
S4re|»i5 to the edgt' of the jhv.I below thi^ fall. " It is feminine and maid- 
««ly grace that is iUustrate*! V»y the Crystal Casca<le ; it is masculino 
youth, the spirit of heroic adventure, that is suggested by this stream." 

The Garwpt Podls are 1 M. N, of tlie Glen House, ne.-ir the Gorliam 
road, and show some curious rock-* arving in the l)ed of the PculMidy 
River. Ak)Ut l.V M. beyoml, by crossing the bridsre to the 1., Ilin point 
is reache<.l (near a farmhouse) where tlie singula.- appearance of a dis- 
torted human face is seen on a peak of Imp Mt. t^rham is 8 M. N. 10, 
of the Glen House, with which it is connected by semi-ilaily stages (fare, 
$1.50) running down the valley of the Peabody River, with Imp Mt. and 
Mts. Moriah and Surprise on the r. 




;«:,:!i It 

Hotclg. Ciorham House ; Eaglo House ; the great -Mpine House was burned, 
in (t. tuber, lS7-_>. 

Stages to the Glen House semi-daily, ^lountain wa'jons run Ir,' pmnllv, but 
irre-ulirly, l>y tlie Cherry Mt. road to the Ciawford and .Mt. \V,isliin4toii House;. 

Kailroail. The (fraud Tr\nd< Railway runs to Portland ('.U .M.) in ll -.') hoius. 
Hv taking the train to Noilhnmljerland (HI .M. N. W.), a connection is made with 
the B. C. & M, and White Mts. U. U., rmuung to Lancaster and Mttleton (ll.jiilu 


228 Route 33. 


i ,1 

I. I i 

V ■ 


l' t 

Gorliaiii in a lliri\iiig village at the eoiifluence of the Peahody and An- 
flrosc( )<,'<,'! n Kivers, on the N. side of the Wliite Mts. and 8fMj ft. al)()ve 
the sea. It has been almost eiifiivly created Ity the Grand Trunk Kail- 
way, which has its i\'])air-shoi)s licre. " For livcr .scenery c<»nil)iiied witli 
impressive ml. forms, IIk; imni('(liate vicinity of (Joiham Kurjiasscs all the 
other districts from whi(;h the higliest peaks !ire visible," 

* Mt. Hayes is just N. E. of Gorhani, and attains a height of 2,500 ft. 

Tlie Androscoggin is crossed near the hotels by a suspension foot-bridge, 

225 ft. long, remarkabh; as the vork of one man (a hard-working villager), 

who conceived the work ii'id executed it alone. He has also madt; a piilh 

to the summit of the mt. (the ascent reipiire.s 2 hours). The view is tinis 

described : — 

" Tlio rich upland of RaiKlolpli, over wliidi tlie rid^jcs of Madison and Adams 
lieavc t()\var<lH tlic S., liist. liolils the eye. Next tlie Kiii^'uiar curve in tlie lihiu 
Andrt)sc(i^:^,'in around the Lary farm, aniiini; lil\e a h.)\v diawn taut. Dnwn tins 
valii'y Shellmnie, (iilead, W. liethel, and IJetiwl, were laid into the landsca)ie with 
rich mosaics of ^rove and ;,'rass and lijienin^' s-^iain, - uee<iin;.; ,i ln'ush dip|M'd in 
molten ojial to jiaint tlieir wavy, tremulous lieauty. Directly opiiosite, secniin;;ly 
only an airow-sliot's distaine, were the russet ravines of Moriali and the shadow- 
CooIihI stairways of Carter." Mt. Wa.shin^don is .seen to best advanta;;e fii>m tins 
point, — " Mt. Hayes is the chair .set by the Creator at tlie jiroper distance and 
angle to appreciate and enjoy Jii.s kiii.uly prominence." 

* Mt. Surprise is a peak of Morian about 1,200 ft. above Gorham, 
lying H, I'], of the village, with a bi idle-path leading through a fine foreit 
to its sunnnit (2/, M. frf)m the IioIcIh.) Horses are easily obtained, but 
good walkeis c/ui niik(; the ascenl on foot in S'O ndnutes. This jicak 
nusfains the sanu* relation lo Ihe j'iidvham Motch as Mt. Willard does to 
tho {JriVWfnrd Notch. Looking dp the i)ass, Mt. Carter is seen on the 1., 
and the live prcHJdenllal pefjks on the r., with Madison, ''the Apollo of 
the higldiinds," boldly advanced. O/i the H,, In Ktro/igest contrast, are 
the sweet and fertile lowlands of the Androscoggin, with their jieaceful 
fai'nis and pastoral beauty. An almost obliterated old Inidle-path leads 
from this crest to the summit of Mt. Moriah, 4,700 ft. afK>v« the sea. 
This peak is rarely visited, but is sai<l to command a nobl* view. 

Jhoiiftifj/h Hill is 5 M. W. of the village, and it« «umniit i>- x»J'**^ l>y a 
road that rises f>0(i ft. on the way. From the roa^ and the WH-to|> are 
gained the noblest *pros](ects of tlic northern slopes, lines, and peak« of 
the presidential group, e.xpecially of Ma^lisou awl A/lam«, 

Hileail is 10-12 M. from Gorham, and the <lrive Ihither is verf 
pleasant, being alongside the river, with ever-changing hilW-enery on 
either hand. The Leml-Mine Jirldi/c is i M. E. of Gorham, near a® 
abandoned mine, aud is celebrated for its afternoon and sunset views. 
This point should be visited between f) and 7 P. M. Madison, Adams, 
and Washington at that hour become "volcano-pictures," while the n<'arer 
summits of Moriah, Hayes, and Baldcap form their heavily outlined 


Piouic .11. 229 

1(1 An- 

L Hail- 
ed with 

all the 

,500 ft. 

J a I'ii'ili 
! is thus 

(1 Adiiius 

the Miio 

)o\vn thi! 

(lUijicd ill 
(. sliinluw- 
fioiii tliis 
tiuae and 

ine loll' 't 
liiK'd, liut 
his lU'ak 
I (hu's to 
u the 1., 
,\ polio of 
litrast, are 
■ jicareful 
lalh U'.kIs 
the sta. 

,111,- 't hy a 

M V.H of 

is very 

iicvy on 
111, near ii« 
list't view.s. 
iMi, Adiinis, 

*^ Berlin Falls arc •') M. N. of Gorham hy a jdcasaiit rivor-road (or hy 
the railway). The Androscoggin Ilivcr licre pours tlie wati-rs of tho 
distant Unibagog and Kangeh'y Lakes in "a rlcaii an<l powt-Hul lilc 
througli a narrow granite i)ass, dcsrcnding nearly '2nO ft. in llu! courst^ of ji 
mile. We do not think that in New F.ngland there is any passage of river 
pas.sion that will conipare with the Berlin Falls, How madly it hurls 
tliedeep transparent amlier down the i)as.s and over the boulders^ — Hying 
ami roaring like a drove of young lions, crowding each other in furious 
rush after prey in sight." The best view is from the rooks near the stre:i;u 
below the falls, Avhih! the cataract is seen in niiil-careei- from a bridge ov.u' 
the gorge. Near this jxiint is the Jjerliu ludU J/m/se. 

From Gorham to the Notch, 
by way of the Waundtek House, is 32-34 M., and the ronrl is viclicr .;i 
scenery than any other in the mts. No stages run on this routi-, bit 
wagons and drivers can be obtained at Gorham. The vast and tmcdii- 
cealed ranges of the live gre.'it mts. are seen for mile after ndle in their 
most imposing forms. " First Madison and Adams come into view, a'l I 
we drive directly by their base ami under their summits in i)assing over 
Randolph Hill." Beyond the deep ravine in the side of Adams the eastt 1- 
lated peak of JefTerson is seen, and soon after Mts. Pleasant, Fi'anklhi, 
and Monroe come into view. From Martin's, 13 M. from Gorham, Mt. 
Clay is visible, and just beyond is the majestic head of Wasinngton. 
Near a little red school-house in this vicinity, George L. Brown painte I 
his masterpiece, "The Crown of New Fingland,' now owned by th;; 
Prince of Wales. 16 - 18 M. from Gorham is Jeffrrsini hill, " the tdtuit t 
thvlc of grandeur in an artist's pilgrimage among the N. 11. Mts., for at 
no other point can be seen the WIdte Mts. in such airay and force." Tlie, 
* WdHinbck House is situated here, and commands su])erb views of t!ie 
great peaks in the S. E. " For grandeur .ind for opportunities of study- 
ing the wildness and Tiiajesty of the sovereign range, the Cherry Mountain 
route is without a rival in New Hami)shire," said Thomas Starr King, Ihi 
gifted Unitarian divine, who wrote the adndrable book called "The 
Hills." Mr. King died at San Francisco in 18G4, and his noblest (visibl;) 
monument is Mt. Starr King, E. of Jefferson. From the hotel or villagj 
the bold and majestic White Mts. loom up in tlie S. E. , and a lield-glas.j 
shows the trains moving up Mt. Washington, ami the hotels on ils sum- 
mit. Cherry Mt. DIls the S., while in the S. W. is the Fi'anconia Lliing!*, 
■with Lafayette proudly pre-eminent. In the W. are the pleasant meadows 
which border the Connecticut Kiver, and beyond them some of the 
Vermont liills are seen. Jefferson Hill is 7 M. from Lancaster, lo M. 
frf)|n Whiti^lield ; 15 M. from Dalton ; and 33 M. from the I'rofile House, 
lie road to the Notch (16 M, distant) runs S. from the Wanmlielc 



K . 

• I. 

230 Jionfy.U. 


House, Hiul "for 5 M. fioin this point o\>-v the .lefTcison nuwlows, in 
travcllin;; towanls tlic Notch, wc riflu in lull view of every suniniit of thu 
•;haiii, sfcinj^ \V;i>hiiij,'tiin in tli • conire (hMuinant over all." Tlic jiassa-^^e 
of Cherry Mt. is cll'ccte.l hy n vow^h nii'l te<li()iis road, aii<l the \\'/i{f<' Mt. 
House is niachetl, after which I hi- new Fnhnun Htnuse is passed, tlio 
AniinonooHUC lliver is crossed, and tiie (carriage reaches the t'rair/onl 

There is a shorter rn id tliaii this, between Gorliani and the Notch, and 
travellers who wisli to go l>y .Ictferson Hill shonld havt; the fact under- 
stood. This loiih! can he taken from the (Jlen House, without going to 
CJorhanj, by turning to the 1. from the (Jorham road about 2^ M. N. of 
the (Hen House, passing around the base of Madison, and entering the 
Cherry Mt. road near Kandolph Hill, 



1 1 

N. Conway to the Notch. 

The route is the same as that to the Glen House as far as Bartlett 
Corner, where the Notch road diverges to the W., and crosses in succes- 
sion the Ellis River, the Rocky Rraiu'i, and the Saco River. The latter 
stream is followed u]) to its bi.lhplao", hiding, at first, through a glen 
between the Mote Mts. on the 1. and Stanton Mt. on the r. After crosf> 
ing the Rocky Branch, the Wliite Ledge is rounded on the r. at the E. 
end of Stanton Mt. Mt. Carrigain looms up far ahead with its tri])lc peaks 
(the highest of which rises 4,800 ft,), and the road ]nisses over narrow 
intervales, with a fine retrospect of Kiarsarge. The Chapel of the Hills 
(a neat b'ttlo church (h'dicated in 18.54) is passed on the 1., and then the 
U2>2)cr Jlarth'tt Jlmi.'^e, where passengers l)y the moniing stages take 
dinner. This rude glen was .st '.tied in 1777, and in 17!'t> was named in 
honor of Josiah fUirtlett, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and 
at that time ['resident of N. II. The Portland and Ogdensburg Railroad 
is now being built through the Notch, and will, at no distant day, meet 
the section of track which is b^'ing laid from St. Johnsl)ury (V'ermont) 
towards the mts. Trains will run in the summer of 1873, from Portland 
and N. Conway to Upper Bartlett. Its tei'.ii»orary terminus is near the 
great ledge running out to the road (v>u the 1.), known as Hawifer's Ruck. 

A solitary hunter iiaiiii'd Nasli, wliile chasing a moose on Clierry Mt., saw the 
Notcli niii'iiiiij;- tlnniiiili tlic mts., and > ntcrcil and expldred it. llr cniiccivcd tl it 
a road could lie uiadc tlndui^li this to couiH'ct tiie uinnT C'oo.s country with 
the eoust, with wliich its ('oiinuunii atioii was llicn nuidi' iiy a lou;,' littour around 
the mts. He iciuntcd his discovery to Gov. Wcutwiuth (in 177."0. ^^1'" told him 
that if he would ;j;t't a liorsc tl':'iu^di the jiass, he wouM jiive hiiu a ' "j,'e grant of 
land. Nash then secured the ai(l of anotlier luniter named Sawyer, and they 
hauleil a Imrsc through, lowcriu,:; hiui over elills and diiviug hiui 'uough tlie 
rivei', until they enu'T-ied here 'I'lieii .Sawyer drained tiie rnui fr<jh. his Imttle, 
and Indke it against the ledge, \vhi(di he named .Sawyer's Kock. .\ road was 
Imilt "with the neat jMoceeils ol' a eonliseated estate," and the lirsL a.rtiide of 
('(xis produce sei!t flown through the Notch was a bariel of tobacco, v.liiie the 
Urst inerehandise sent up liom the coast was a barrel of nun. 





H>mle33. 231 

vs, in 
.»■ the 

,• ML 
\, tl:0 

h, nn<l 

)U)g to 
, N. of 
inp the 



10 laliev 
I a K^t'n 
;er crosr;- 
t tlu". K. 

■ narrow 

;he uniK 

then the 

.rrcS take 

lained in 
Ifucc, and 
ay, meet 
near the 
rb Rock. 

_ ^ saw the 
i-i'ivcdtl it 
luutry Willi 
li(ir aroinid 
tdl'l I'i") 
I;,' grant of 
, aiul tla'y 
Ji rough the 
|Uis bottle, 
road was 
iutiilo of 
I whiU' tlie 

Rounding Ifarf^n Lfihfe ilic road new turns tn tlic N. and or<>ss«s 
Sawyer's lliver, which Iion its sDurce in Ih'uiis I'ond, \-U ^^. disi iiit, a 
locality famous for trout. Sf»on aftur, Xcurj/'.n Jironk is cro.vsed l>y n 
hrid-'" tlirowu over a rciiiarkahio ravine 2<>0 ft. Innj;, -*' ft. wide, and 35 
ft. docp. This prctly Iti-uolc rises in a h)iicly nii»uiitain tarn uhout "J.^ M. 
from the road, and is named for a hu-klt-ss maiden who walked one « old 
afternoon or nij^'ht from liancastcrtothis point in pursuit of a fait hlc^sshtvcr. 
Wet, chilh'd, and (h-athly woary, sljo .sat (h>wn by a tree nc.jr tliis hrook, 
and was tliere found frozen to (h'atli. Just Ix'yond this jihice, on Ww. I., 
is seen the t^ravc of Abel Crawford, " Uiv ])atiiarch of the motnitains," a 
jiioneer and itioiuitain-truidi! of many years a^'o. After passing:; the Aft. 
C'rair/ord House, Mts. Crawford and Uesolution and the Giant's Stairs 
are seen on the r., the latter toweriii}^ in broken masses to tlie hei;;ht of, 
r>,ijOO ft. The forest now closes lu on tlie roa.'., whidi crosses the Saco 
near the foot of the (iiant's Stairs, and rei rosses it aluuit a ndle l)eyond, 
with a line view up the h)n;.:, (h'ej) gorj/e to tlu< r. Turning now io tlio 
N. W. the road enters the Notch, with the vast mass of Mt. Webster on 
the r., towering to a lieiglit of 1,000 ft., and Will.y Mt. on the I. Passinf? 
over the tree-grown fragments of the mt. which have fallen in long-past 
avalanches, the WilL-y House is reached. 

The great amount of travel fhnni;,di tlie Notch in winter, caused by the Coos 
rnaners carryinj^ tlii'ir produee, to tiie eastern towns, renilere(l a lioted liere very 
rlesiralilo. So this JKaise was Ijuilt al)out l.^JO (Siiauldiiij,' says in 17',i;!), and was 
octaijiied in is^T) by .Mr. Willi'V. in Angu.^t, IS-JO, altera lonj^ drou;,'lit the mts. wer •■ 
as.sailed l)y a furious .storm, .vliiclj caused the rivor to rise rajiidly, and durini^ tliw 
nijihtan enonnon.s mass (if earth, rocks, and trocs slid froiu .Mt. Willey into tiitj 
valley. Tliis avalanelio w.i- piit by a siiii'.p ledge bark uf the, and (lowed 
on both sides without hail, ig it. lUit the family had left the lioust; (prolialily 
fearing the swelling ti>rrentof the .Saeo), and. tK'in,c soniewliere In the trat i; of the 
slide, every persou wa.s killed. Mr. and M'v. Willey and their ."> ■ liildren, witli 2 
hired nit>n, ilied on that fatal ni;^ht, and (J ol the bodies were fouml, ^adlN nuiti- 
lated, J'lie house has been oeeupied sin(^o 18"J7, and is shown to V'sitors for a 
small fee. During storms roeUs are sometimes seen plunging ilowu from the 
oi)i)osite elitl's of Att. Webster. In 174^!, when a i>arty of llant;ers were marching 
throu,u;li a valley near the more southerly of the White Jits, they were alarmed liy 
sounds like volleys of musketry among the detiles. Skirnnshin;.,' jiarties of scouts 
were sent in, who discovered that the was caused i)y fal ing rocks. 

After leaving the Willey House, the road a-scends slowly for 3 V,., 
passes through the narrow Gate of tlie Notch, and stops ut the * Crawford 
House. This is a and eh;gant .summer hotel, with accommodations 
for 250 guests, at $ 4.f>0 a day. It is situated on a platc^au 2,000 ft. above 
the sea, and faces the Notch. Near the house arc two .spi'ings within 
.stone's-throw of each other, the waters of one; of which pass to the sea by 
the Connecticut River, while the other empties into the Sa(;o, and reaches 
the ocean on the coast of Maine. There is a pretty lakelet near the Gate 
of the Notch, whence Hows the young Saco River. 

Mt. Willard is easily ascended from this point by a carriage-road 'J .M. 
long, and tho walk upward through this forest avenue is full of pli:as\ire. 



' ' V. 










If 1^ i^ 












WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(71b) 872-4S03 


y ,. mj- 


232 Route 33. 



» ;»' 

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M ' 
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The •* view down the Notch is wonderful, embracing two Titanic nit. 
walls, beginning with Webster on the 1. and Willey on the r., and running 
S. for leagues, with haughty Chocorua, 18-20 M. away, closing the vista. 
The highway down this wild pass is marked by a slender line througli the 
forest, and the Willey House is a mere dot on its ruin-swei)t lowlands. 
Bayard Taylor says of this view, "As a simple iiicture of a mountain- 
pas!), seen from above, it cannot be surj)assed in all Switzerland." Look- 
ing off to the N. E., the great peaks of the Mt. Washington group are 
seen, with Clinton first and nearest, and Jackson on the iijjper end ol" Jit. 
Webster. *' And let us again advise visitors to ascend Mt. Willard, if 
possible, late in the afternoon. They will then see one long wall of the 
Notch in shadow, and can watch it move slowly up the curves of the 
opposite .side, displacing the yellow splendor, while the dim green dome 
of Washington is gilded by the .sinkuig sun ' with heavenly alchemy.' " 
(Starr King.) 

The Flunie r ■ ' the Silver Cascade are visited by passing through the 
narrow and ragged-walled Gate of the Notch, and a))Out ^ M, from the 
hotel turning into the forest to the 1. by a little brook. A series of long 
cascade;: lies along the slope above, and near the road is a deep and nar- 
row cleft in the rock, through which the waters tlov/. A long scramble 
over rocky ledgt^s and up the course of the laughing water leads to the 
base of the * Silver Cascade, the finest fall on the ^^^ of the mts. The 
brook falls 80t) ft. within a mile, and after a heavy rain exhibits a mag- 
nificent effect. Near the bridge it flows through a narrow flume, and soon 
enters the Saco. 

The * Sylvan Clade Cataract is 6 - 7 M. from the hotel, and is gained 
by following np Avalanche Brook (the second which the road crosses S. 
of the Willey, About 2 M. from the rcnid, in a granite -walled 
ravine, the brook fails 25-30 ft. in 4 leaps, and then forms a cascade 150 
ft. long, slipping over inclintd ledges of granite into a deep pool ])elow. 
About 1 M. higher is the SjjarkUng Cascade. These falls were discovered 
in 1858. 

Gibbs's Falls are near the hotel, and are found by following up the 
aquetluct from the stables, and t'aen the brook to which it leads. 10-15 
minutes' walk up stream brings one to a pretty fall of about 30 ft,, with 
pleasing forest accessories, 

Beecher's Falls are on the slope of Mt. Lincoln, to the r, of the hotel, 
and are gained by a good forest-path, Tlie Falls extend for a long dis- 
tance up the brook, aiid from the uppermost of them a fine view of Mt, 
Washington is disclosed, Tlie DeviVs Den is a dark cjivern seen from thu 
Notch road, near the summit of Mt, Willard, Pulpit Rock is on the r, 
of the road, near the Gate of the Notch, and several rock-profiles have 
been seen on the adjacent cliffs. 


IS i 


I !, 

' A 


Iloutc 33. 233 

nic mt. 
je vista. 
lUgh the 
[•onp arc 
(I or Mt. 
lllavd, if 
U of the 
■s of the 
sen dome 

ongh the 
from the 
b of long 
) and nar- 
ids to the 
nts. The 
ts a niag- 
, and soon 

is gained 
crosses S. 
iscade 150 
?ol helow. 

ng xip the 
ft., with 

the liotel, 
long dis- 

ew of IMt. 

xi from tha 
on the r. 

otiles have 

Stages from the >.'rawford House to Bethlehem, $2.50; to N. Conw.iy, 83.50; 
to the moontain-railway, !!^2.50 ; and to the Gh'ii House, $5.00. Tlie h.tter n^iitt* 
runs to Barthtt on the road to N. Conway, and at tliat jiuiiit enters the roatl Iroui 
N. Conway to tlie Ghni House. Fare to Boston, by stage to N. Conway and rail- 
road to Boston, §8.50. 

The Crawford House to the Profile House. 

Daily stages in 26^ M. Fare, .§ 4.00. After leaving the hotel, tlie road 
entei-s a dense forest, where it is " Uiore pleasantly bordered with foliage 
than any other among the hills." On leaving this forest, a broad upland 
]>hiin is entered, and the stage ai)proaclies the great new hotel on the 
GianVs Grave. 

The new * Fabyan Hcise is 5 M. N. of the Notch, and ac(> 
dates 500 guests. It was built in 1872, and is 4 stories high, with a 
frontage of 330 ft. This imi)osing structure is built on tlie Giant's Grave, 
a tall mound near the Ammonoosuc River. According to tradition, an 
Indian once stood here at night, and swinging a torch lit from a lightning- 
struck tree, cried, " No i)ale-face shall take deep root here ; this the 
Great Spint whispered in my ear." A tavern was opened here about 
1803, and in 1819 it was l)urnt, while the same fat'3 befell another erected 
on its site, and Fabyan's large hotel, at the foot of the mound, was also 
burnt. Tlie new hotel is larger, stronger, and better ])rotected than its 
predecessors, and will probably remain, Ethan Allen Crawford, " Ethan 
of the Hills," a gigantic hunter and guide, lived on the Giant's Grave 
many years ago, and waged war on the wolves, wild-cats, bears, sables, 
and otters that dwelt among the surrounding 1 ills ami brooks. 

The view from tliit^ point is very line, and embraces all the presi<lential 
peaks save one, the summit of Mt. Washington being 7.^ M. distant in an 
air-line. The other summits stretch toward th.e hotel in a long and rugged 
chain. From this point the ascent of Mt. Washington by rail is easily 
made. The Upper Ammonoosuc Falls are 3 - 4 M. from the hotel, by the 
road to Marshfield, and exhibit a beautiful scene, where white waters 
dash down between gray granite walls, and the vast nits, tower beyond. 
The Lower Ammonoosuc Falls are somewh-?t more than 1 M. distant, on 
the Bethlehem road. The river descends here \\. full stream over 30 ft. 
of step-like ledges, but the natural beauty of the scene has been marred 
by the intrusion of a large lumocr-mill. 

The White Mt. Ilinise (.$2.50 a day) is an olil and well-famed hotel at 
the junction of the Cherry Mt. and Bethlehem roads, less than 1 M. N. 
W. of the great Fabyan House. Tlie vicinity abounds in pleasant walks, 
especially those along the Ammonoosuc, while the sunset views from the 
hills are of famed attractiveness. 

Tlie * Twin Mt. House is 5 M. westward from the Fabyan House, and 
is a favorite new ho^el, under the care of the Messrs. BaiTon, proprietors 
of the White Ri\er Jiuiction and Crawford Houses. It is pleasantly 


! M 



I > 


I ! 

: i lit 

^ Ml 
» . 1, 

i t 


234 Rouie33. 


situated on the lieiglits al.'ovc the Ammonoos.ic River, and looks across 
tlic valU'y to the bold peaks of Twin Mt. The l)ran('h railroad which 
leaves the B., C, & M. K. R, \Route 30) at Wing Road, has its present 
terminus at this hotel (it is to be extended, eventually, to the Animonoo- 
suc station of the Mt. Washington Railway). The Twin Mt. House is 9 
M. from the C'rawford House ; 10 M, from the mt. railway; 11 M. from 
the Waumbck House ; and 17 M. from the Prolile House. Stages run to 
all these points, except die Waumbek House. 

Beyond the Twin Mt. House the road follows the Ammonoosuc River, 
and in about 5 M. ascends the rolling ridges of Bethlehem, from which 
fine prospects of the loltier mts. are given. Between Bethlehem station 
(on the l)ranch track) and the village, the stage passes the neat little 
Maplcwood Hotel (§ 3.00 a day, $ 14.00 a week). Bethlehem (* Sinclair 
House, and several large boarding-houses) is a pretty higldand village, 
which connnands, down the Ammonoosuc valley, one of the finest distant 
views of the White Mts. Tliis toM-n was settled in 1790, and the first 
comers suffered great hardships, being obliged for months to subsist on 
herbs and roots from the forests and fields. Bethlehem is 5 M. from 
Littleton ; 17 M. from the White Mt. Notch ; 10 M. from the Profile 
House ; and 22}? M. from Mt. Washington. 

Beyond Bethleliem, the road (a very bad one) ascends a long hill, afford- 
ing fine retrospects, and when its summit is gained the great *Franconia 
Range is seen in front. A deep valley is now crossed, the new Lofayetfc 
House is passed (about 5 M. from Bethlehem), and after a long ascent the 
stage reaches the Ptofde House (see Route 34). 

Mount Washington. 

Travellers who design to asccinl this mt. should be careful to carry sufTicicnt 
warm clothing (shawls, ovorcoals, «&f.), for Mie air on the summit is often ex- 
tremely cold, even in August. Daniel Webster said here. "Mt. Washington, I 
have conic a long distance, have toiled hard to arrive at your summit, and now 
you seem to give me a cold reception." There are many who will echo these 
words. If the ascent from the Crawford House or from Randolph Hill is under- 
taken, a reliable guide must bo secured, ami an early start sliould be niade. The 
view IVom the summit cannot be conlidcntly counted U])on, sinrc the mt. is often 
enveloped in suddenly rising fogs, and the days when the remote points of view 
are visible are very few. A powerful field-glass will be iound of material assist- 

The older hotels (the Summit and thoTip-Toj) Houses) still remain on the narrow 
crest, and the railway t-ompany has ivcently ereeted a new hotel of considerable 
capacity and with good acconnnoilations. 

The ascent bji rdihraii. The terminal station on the plain is at Ammonoosuc 
station (small liotel), to whirh morning an<l afternoon stages run from the Craw- 
lord House (10 M. ; fare, 8*2.50, there and back, ^4.00) ; from the Twin Mt. House 
(U M. ; Ian', !? "2.50, there and baek, .S4.00); and from the new Fabyan House 
(6-0 M-). From the opening of the seas(m until July 2oth, trains leave Anuno- 
noosue at l(t.:<0 a. 5i., returning at 2 p. m. From July 20th, until the elose of 
the season, an additional train is put on, leaving at 5.H(t P. M.. and returning at 8 
the following morning (time-talile of 1872). The fare is §3.00 for the ascent or 
descent, and s4.00 for both. 'J'riuiks must bo paid for as freight. 



Route ;ii. 235 

. wliich 
ise is 9 
VI. from 
i run to 

[) River, 
n ^vllich 
L station 
;at little 

t distant 
the first 
\l)sist on 

M. from 
le Profile 

11, aflford- 

scent the 

(ilten ex- 
tliingtoii, I 
I, and nov/ 
icho tliesn 
is under- 
liado. Tl,e 
]t. is oftt'ti 

Its <>f Vk'NV 

•iid ussist- 


Itlie Craw- 
iMt. House 
j-an House 
jve Animo- 

liniiiij; at S 
ascent or 

This railway was built in 1866-9, on tlu' plans of Sylvester Mnrsh, 
w)io has since constructed a similar load up Mount Rhij^'i, l)y the Lake of 
Lucerne. Animonoosuc Station is 2,668 ft. above tlie .sea, and the track 
ascends 3,625 ft. in 3 M., witli an average grade of 1 ft. in 4.^„ and a 
maximum gra<le of 1 ft. in 2% or 1 *>80 ft. to the M. Tlie cliief peculiarity 
of the track is a heavy notched iron centre-rail, into which i)hiys a centre 
cog-wheel on the; locomotive. The steam-power is not used during the 
descent, hut tlie powerful atmosi)lieric l)rakes regulate the spee<l of tli(! 
train. The cars are very comfortable, and the ascent is made in 00 
minutes, during which time it is pleasant to think tliat, though these 
trains have been running for 5 years, not a single i>assenger has been 
injured. As the train slowly ascends over the trestles, pushed by the 
grotesque little engine, the retrospect becomes more and more beautiful, 
and a profound and gloomy chasm is passed on the r. The ridge between 
Clay and Washington is now attained, and an immense mt. amphitheatre 
is pa.s.sed on the 1., soon after which the trahi crawls up Jacob's Ladder, 
and stops at the new station and hotel on the sununit of Mt. Washington. 

The. aacenf from the Ghn House. Mountain carria^ios leave the Olcn IIouso 
morning and afteninon fortlio suiniuit, wliich is S M. tlistaut. The fare (inchidiiig 
tiills) is ■'i^S.OO, and thi tinii^ of asc(<iit ."5 lirs., while the desci'ut is made in U lirs. 
Tlie road (built ]8;>5- >\l) is a noble piece of en^'incering, winding on galleries and 
long curves, with an average grade of 12 ft. in 100. 

Most of the route to the Ledge (4 M. uj)) is enclosed by forests, but 
beyond this point the road passes along the verge of the profound hollow 
called the Great Gulf. From this })oint the * view is superb, embracing 
the Peabody Glen, with the hotel lying like a snow-Hake at the base of 
the heavy, green mass of Carter Mt. " Yet the glory of the Wew is, after 
all, the four highest comi)anion mts. of the range. Clay, Jefferson, Adams 
and Madison, that show themselves in a bending line beyond the tremeii 
dous gorge, and are visible from their roots to their summits." With one 
exception " there is no such view to be had, cast of tlie Mississipjii, of 
mountain architecture and sublimity." The road now passes along the 
verge of the Great Gulf, with the lofty gray peaks on the r., winds and 
twists over dreary slopes covered with the skeletons of dead trees and 
the flora of Labrador, surmounts shoulder after shoulder of the storm- 
eaten mt., clind)s the sharp, steep, supreme cone, and then the panting 
horses stop " on the main-top of New England.' 

The ascent from the Cairford House. The old bridle-path (9 M. long) 
offers peculiar attractions, as passing over several noble summits, and horses 
may be procured at the hotel. The ascent should never be made without 
a guide, since sudden storms or the descending of fog-banks miglit cause the 
traveller to lose his way and become fatally confused among the ravines. 

Upon leaving the hotel the ascent of Mt. Clinton is commenceil, and 
after passing over a rude forest-path for nearly 3 M, the mossy summit is 


23(5 Route 33. 

I I 


> ;i 

I ! 



reached (4,200 ft. above the sea). A great expanse of blue peaks Is seen 
from tliis point, with briglit lakes on the S. E., and Kiarsarge, "the 
queenly mt.," lifting its pyramidal rone in the same direction. The i)ath 
now descends into a dense forest, crosses two or three bridged ravines, and 
passes around the S. side of the dome-like peak of Mt. Pleasant. A 
path diverges to the summit (4,800 ft. high), whence the old and disused 
Fabyan trail leads down to the An)monoosuc valley. The round and 
grassy sunmiit of Pleasant overlooks the whole extent of the valley. The 
tracks of formi<lable slides are seen as the path descends to another 
plateau, and, passing Red Pond, claml)ers up Mt. Franklin. The summit 
(4,900 ft. high) is near the path, and commands a vast prosj)ect terminated 
by Ghocorua, almost due S. and 20 M. distant. Between Franklin and 
Monroe the path passes over a narrow ridge which is the water-shed of 
the Connecticut and Saco Rivers. There are one or two dangerous ])la(;es 
on this thin and lofty escarpment, and on the r. is the deep and tei-rilde 
chasm of Oakes' Gulf, while the Ammonoosuc valley stretches away on 
the other hand. This is one of the most remarkable points of vicAv in the 
mts. Monroe is now roimded on the S. side, and the rough scramble to its 
E. peak (r>,300 ft. high) is rewarded by another vast prospect. Mt. 
Washington now looms ahead as the path descends to the plateau on 
which are the Lake of the Clouds and Star Lake, two deep and crystalline 
tarns where the Ammonoosuc is l)orn. 1^ M. from the lakes is i\w blealc 
crest of Washington, and from tlie E. verge of the jilateau is afforded a 
remarkable view down Tnckerman's Ravine. There remains a sharp 
ascent among the rocks on the S. W. side of the peak, with a rise ecpial to 
1,200 ft. perpendiciilar, and then the summit is gained. 

The ascent from Randolph Hill is only jiracticable for strong and 
practised pedestrians, accomi)anied by reliable guides. A few such parties 
have accomplished this feat with very satisfactory results. Guides may 
be heard of at the Gorham hotels, — Calha:ne is one of the best, — and 
arrangements should be made to encamp over night on the ridge, although 
the ascent may be crowded into a single day. Riding to Randolph Hill 
at early moriiing, Mt. Madison is ascended in 4-5 hrs. by the old Gor- 
don path, leading along a brook which flows into Moose River. The 
ravine tlu'ough which this brook flows is full of gloomy grandeur, and is 
surrounded by stupendous walls of rock. The path leads out on the 
ridge between Adams and Madison. The latter is rarely visited on this 
excursion, since it lies off" the route, but the noble pyramid of Adams is 
crossed, opening a striking * view. On the N. the mts. of Kilkenny, 
Randolph, and Gorham, with the long valley of the Androscoggin, and in 
the remote distance the lakes of Undxagog and Rangeley, The Glen and 
the green wall of Carter Mt. are on the E., while the vast dome of Wash- 
ington is uplifted in the S. Crossing now the bending ridge to Mt. Jeffer- 




Route 33. 237 

IS seen 
L', 'Mlie 
'lie patli 
lies, ami 
ant. A 
I disused 
uiid and 
^y. Tho 

an nth or • 
! summit 
klin and 
•-shed of 
us i»hiees 
I terrible 

away on 
iew in tho 
iibleto its 
3Ct. Mt. 
lateau on 
tlic. bleak 
ad'orded a 
a sharp 

e ecpial to 

[trong and 
icli parties 
aides may 
st, — and 
L although 
(lolph Hill 
old Gor- 
iver. The 
^ur, and is 
)ut on the 
;d on this 
Adams is 
I Kilkenny, 
:in, and in 
Glen and 
of Wash- 
Vlt. Jeffer- 

son, a continual front view of Washington is afforded, and after passing 
over Jefferson the Great Gulf is seen bending around on the 1. Mt. C^lay 
is now aseended, and, after a short descent, the long slope of Washington 
is elimbcd to the summit. 

The Fabyan path from the Giant's Grave to the top of Mt. Pleasant, 
and thence over Franklin and Monroe to Mt. Washington, is now dis- 
used ; while the old bridle-i)ath from the W, slope, and the Davis path 
from the Mt. Crawford House, are but rarely traversed. The railway 
and carriage routes are the favorites, the first being easier and cheaper, 
and the last being richer in scenery. 

The * * view from Mt.Washington is the most grand and extensive in 
New England. In the S. is the Giant Stairs Mt. and the round top of 
Mt. Crawford, with Chocorua farther away, and Ossijjce near the gleam 
of Lake Winnepesaukee, .35 M. distant, S. of W. is Mt. Carrigain, and 
tlie noble peaks of the Sandwich Range are beyond, while 100 M. away 
is Monadnock, '^ a filmy angle in the base of the sky." To the S. W. the 
l)eaks of Monroe, Franklin, Pleasant, and Clinton stretch off in a straight 
line, while the dark crests of Franconia fdl the W., overlo(<ked by the 
bald cone of Lafayette. Across the Connecticut are remote blue sum- 
mits of the Green Mts., with Mt. Mansfield and the Camel's Hump, 70 
M. away. Stretching toward the N. W., only a few miles distant, are 
Cherry Mt., Mt. Starr King, and the hills of Kilkenny, over which tlie 
graceful Percy Peaks (Stiatford) are s^en, " as near alike in size and 
shape as two Dromios." Clay, Jf ff<;:on, Adams, and Madison loom 
across the Great Gulf in the N. and N. W. Glimi)ses of the Androscoggin 
are next obtained, and 35-50 M. W. of N. Lake Umbagog and the 
Kangeley Lakes are seen, with the dim Canadian highlands far to the N. 
A vast area of the State of Maine is outspread in the E., and it is claimed 
that Mt. Katahdin may be seen " looming out of the central wilderness 
of Maine, cutting the yellowish horizon with the hue of Damascus steel." 
But Katahdin is 150 M. distant. Mts. Hayes, Moriah, and Carter are 
seen more surely in the N. E. The lofty hills over Chatham fdl the 
nearer E., and the eye follows down Pinkham Notch to N. Conway on its 
fair meadows, with Kiarsarge impending above. Beyond are seen Love- 
well's Pond, by Fryebnrg, and the bright Sebago Lake, while the ocean is 
sometimes visible in the remote S. E., merging with the weary horizon. 

* Tnokerman's Ravine is usually visited from the summit, and is 1^ 
M. distant by a difficult path (guide necessary). It is also visited from 
the Glen House (5 M. away), and by a path which leaves ihe mt. road 2 
M. from the Glen, and runs for 2i M, through the forest to Hermit Lake, 
This is in the vast Mountain Coliseum (so called), whose lofty curving 
Itrecipice-walls reach an altitude of 1,000 ft. or more. Immense masses 
of s'.iow are piled \\\^ here, and usually remain until August. The Crystal 













Stream flows down under tliis incipient ^'lacier and cuts a lonj:,' arcli under 
llie liiirdencfl snow, tlirou},di wliicli one can walk for hundreds of feet. 
The cliffs back of the ravine are striped, after rains, with falling waters, 
called the *' Fall of a Thousand Streams." After exploring this wonder- 
ful abyss, parties sometimes pass to the Olen House by following the 
Crystal Stream, with its many cascades, to the N. Conway road. 

34. The Franccnia Mountains and Femigewasset Valley. 

I'rom Xfw York to Fninamui )»y If.irUord, SjiriuKlifM, Wells Uiver, ami Little- 
ton ; l»y Albiiiiy, iiiitland, IJolldWS I'alls, and LitiUtoii ; liy .Siniiij^litlil, Na^lllla, 
and (.'oncnrd ; or by boat to New London, and tlieiitu to Hrattlcboro, Wills Ilivcr, 
and JJtth'ton. The connections are I'reiiuently <lianj,'ed, and the tourist should 
get a late tinui-tijble and railway-guide before choosing his route. 

From IloaUm to Franconia by Route :{;! (stages through the nits.) uiid Route 31 
to N. Conway ; Route 30 to Plymouth (123 M.), and thence by stage ('il) M.) 
to the rroflle House ; by Route 30 to Littleton (18;J M.), and thence by stag*' (II 
M.)ti) the Profile By either of tlie latter routes, tourists may leave Ros- 
ton at 8 A. M. and arrive at tin; rrolile Hous«! early in the evening. By Route 31 
to Wolfboro, or by Route 38 to Alton Ray, and thence traversing Lake Winnepe- 
saukce by steamer, the tourist can take Route 30 (to Plyn:outh or Littleton) at 

iJaiiii xtayes leave for the Prolile House, from Littleton (11 M. N. ; fare, §2.00) ; 
from th.i Orawlbrd House (26^ M. E. ; fare, $4.00) ; and from Plymouth (20 M. S. ; 
fare, §4.00). 

The * Profile House (1,974 ft. above the sea) accommodates 4-500 
guests, and is one of the best of the mt. hotels. Its corridors are crowded 
during the summer with visitors from the coast-cities, and its dining-hall 
is said to be the finest in New England. This hotel is open from June 1st 
until the middle of October; its terms are §4.50 a day, with reductions 
for a long sojourn. 

The * Franconia Notch is about 5 M. long, and less than ^ M. wide, 
and is on the western verge of the Franconia Range jiroper. "The 
narrow district thus enclosed contains more objects of interest to the 
mass of travellers than any other region of equal extent within the com- 
pass of the usual White Mt. tour. In the way of rock-sculpture and 
waterfalls it is a huge museum of curiosities." (Stakr King.) "Tlie 
scenery of Franconia is more fantastic and beautiful than Dalecarlia or 
Norsland." (Fri;drika Brkmer.) 

*Echo Lake is a short distance N. of the hotel, on the r. of the Little- 
ton road, and is a calm, deep, and lovely sheet of transparent water, 
encircled by rare scenery. During the day it reflects vividly the sur- 
rounding objects, but the later hours of the afternoon are the pleasantest, 
wlien the visitor can be transported over the quiet waters and see the 
forest-shores and mts. in the flush of evening. Remarkable echoes are 
awakened here by the bugle, voice, or pistol-shots. " Franconia is more 
fortunate in its little tani that is rimmed by the undisturbed wilderness, 
and watched l)v the grizzled 



Face from which it has gained so much celebritv, 


Route J.;. 


1 under 
of feet, 
iiig the 


(I IJttlO- 

lis Hiv.r. 
it sliuukl 

Route 31 
;e(2y M.) 

'iive Hos- 

Uoiite ;u 
tleton) at 

^20 M. S. ; 

s 4-500 


June 1st 


M. wide, 

,t to the 
he com- 
ure and 
1) ''Tlie 
arlia or 

Ic Little- 
|t water, 
J the sur- 
see the 
dices are 
is more 
\\\ Stono 

Bald Mt. is ascended by a neglected caniage-road, which diverges to 
tlie r. from the road about 1 M. N. of the liotd. The view from the 
summit is pleasing, especially just before sunset, when, besides the noble 
hills to the N. and the huge, conical Haystack Mt. to the R, a fine south- 
erly prospect is given, embracing the narrow notch, witli Lafayette tower- 
ing on the 1. and Mt. Profile on the r. Echo Lake is seen in the nearer 

Profile Mt., or Mt. Cannon, is ascended by a steep foot-path S. of the 
hotel, in 2-3 hrs. The * view is of groat beauty, including the Bethle- 
hem heights on the N., with Haystack, Lafayette, and the Mt. Washing- 
ton group on the E. and N. E. On the S., between Mts. Pemigewasset 
find Liberty, stretclies far into the distanoe the fair and fruitful valley of 
the Pemigewasset lUver. On the summit is a rock which is supposed to 
resemble a cannon, and visitors often descend thence to the vicinity of 
the ledges which form the Profde. On the slope of this mt. <and leaehed 
by following the aqueduct into the woods back of the old Lafayette 
House) is a lively brook wliich e.xhibits some fine cascades after heavy 
rains. Good views of Echo Lake and Eagle Cliff, with the highland val- 
leys to the N., may be obtained from the brookside. 

* *The Profile is best seen from a jioint by the roadside (marked by a 
guide-board) a few rods S. of the hotel. 1,5(I0 ft. above the road, three 
enormous masses of rock project from the side of the mt., in the exact 
resemblance of the profde of an old man's face, with firndy drawn chin, 
lips slightly parted, and a well proportioned noss surmounted by a mas- 
sive brow. It is " a mountain which breaks into liuman expression, a 
piece of sculpture older than the Sphinx, an intimation of the liuman 
countenance, which is the crown of all beauty, that was pushed out from 
the coarse strata of New England thousands of years before Adam. 
The legend of "The Great Stone Face," as told by Hawthorne, belongs 
to this place. Directly below the Profile (which is GO ft. long) and near 
the road, is the crystal tarn called Profile Lake, or the Old Man's Wash- 
bowl, a secpiestered and beautiful sheet of v.'ater, from whoso l)osom is 
obtained a pleasing sunset view of the majestic Eafjle ClijJ. This is the 
best point from which to see that lofty and remarkable cliff (1,.'>00 ft. 
high) which projects from the mt. opposite the Profde House. Near 
Profde Lake is the Trout-house, containing many tame lu-ecding-trout. 

Mt. Lafayette, " the Duke of Western Coos," is 5,200 ft. high, and is 
ascended by a bridle-path diverging to the 1. from the road, midway be- 
tween the Profile and Flume Houses (2,^ M. from eacli)- The ] a'Ji is 
.steep and arduous, but the ascent may easily be accomplished in 3-4 lirs., 
with horses and guides from the Profile House. After a long ascent 
through the dense forest which covers tha lower slopes, the path emerges 
(near the bright Lake of the Storm King) upon a bare and rugged tract 


1 •■ 

11 :; 


which jvfTords an extensive ofT-look. The ♦view from the sunnnit in 
bioiul ami ]»eautil'ul, wKli the I'eiiii^ewasset valley as its most pleasing 
feature, stretching S. to IMymouth (20 M. distant). The clustering 
rciuigewasset Mts. are seen in the 8. W. ; "hut the lowlands are the 
glory of the sjieotaclo which Lafayette shove's his guests. The valleys of 
the Connecticut and Merrimac are spread W. and S. W. and S. With 
what pomp of color are theii' growing harvests inlaid upon the floor of 
New England!" Mts, Monadnock (JH)M.) and Kearsarge (over 50 M.) 
are W. of S., while certain i)eaks of the Green Mts. of Vermont are in 
the distant W. In the N. W. and N, are the bright villages of Littleton 
and Lancaster, with the rural districts of upjier Coiis, while the ProHle 
a id Echo Lakes are close below in the glen over which I'rofde Mt. towers. 
Tlie Percy Peaks are nearly due N. beyond the Lunenbui-g Hills, and 
Haystack Mt. lifts its huge mass close at hand in the N. E. E. and N. 
E., 15-20 M. distant, is the great piesidential group, with Mt. Wash- 
ington nobly overlooking the rest. 

The * Flume House is a small, but new and well-conducted hotel, 5 M. 
S. of (and pertaining to) the P'otile House. Mt. Liberty is opposite the 
liouse, and Mt. Pemigewasset is behind it, while the rich southern valley 
is seen for leagues from this position. The last-named mt. is often as- 
cended for a few hundred ft., toward the sunset hour, when "the spurs 
and hollows of Lafayette and his associates are lighted up by the si)lendor 
that pours into them from the west." About 2 M. N. of the Flume 
House a succession of pretty cascades may be found by ascending the 
course of a brook which crosses the road. 1 M. N. of the house, by the 
roadside, is the Basin, a granite bowl GO ft. in circumference and 10 ft. 
deej), tilled Avith clear water. " The best way to enjoy the beauty of the 
Basin is to ascend to the liighest of the cascades that slide along a mile 
of the mountain at the W. Then follow down by their pathways, as 
they make the rocks now wliite with foam, now glassy with thin, smooth, 
transparent sheets, till they mingle their water with the Pemigewasset at 
the foot, and, pouring their common treasury around the groove worn in 
the rocky roof, fall with musical splash into the shadowed reservoir be- 

The Pool is gained in 20 minutes by a path leading into the forest op- 
posite the house. It is a basin cut in the solid reck, 150 ft. wide and 
over 100 ft. below the level of the path, with 40 ft. depth of dark, cold 
water. Visitors can descend to the level of the water, wliere an eccentric 
hermit dwells in a rude boat. A rougli jiath leads thence to the Flume; 
but if there are ladies in the party, it is best to return to the road. 

* The Flume is reached by a road diverging to the 1. a short distance 
S. of the hotel, which runs to the foot of the lower cascade. From that 
point a path ascends by the smooth ledges over which the cascades glide 


I ' 


mil ifl 

ire the 
leys of 
loor of 
50 M.) 

are iu 
! Prot'ile 

ills, iuul 
, aii<l N. 
t. Wash- 

)tel, 5 M. 
osite the 
!rn valley 
often as- 
the si)urs 
3 splendor 
je Flume 
tiding the 
SB, by the 
md 10 ft. 
Lity of the 
|ig a mile 
nvays, as 
, smooth, 
iwasset at 
e worn in 
lervoir be- 

I forest op- 
wide and 
Idavk, cold 
]\ eccentric 
lie Flume; 



I'rom that 

fades gU'le 

musically to the entrance of the Flr'uo. Al'tor passing tlu^ mis»>rahh' hut 
which stands at the mouth of this won<lorful raviin', the full power of 
the scene is felt. A substantial plank-walk has heen built along the 
course of the stream, which it often crosses. The ravine is abmit ♦JOG ft. 
long, and its iM-ecipitous rock-walls arc (<0-7() ft. high. The walls are 
about 20 ft. ai)art foi' most of the distance, but approach each other more 
closely near the upper end, where the gorge is narrowed to 1(» ft. in 
width, and holds suspended a huge granite houMer. This massive rock 
seems to be held between the clitls by a most frail tcinire, and is "as un- 
pleasant to look at, if the nerves ar(^ irresolute, as the sword of Danioclos, 
and yet held by a gras[) out of which it will not slip for centuries." By 
claiubering along the musical cascade to the upper end of tlie ra\ ine, one 
can reach the edge of the dill's above aTid look down into the Flume. 

(ji'orgeanna (or llnrranl) Falls are S. W. of the hotel, and are reached 
by a forest-path that leaves the Plymouth road 2 M. S. of the hotel (guide 
at the farndio;;se). After a long ascent which follows the stream tlirough 
the forest, the falls are secui, " making two l('a[)s of 80 ft. each, (jiio im- 
mediately after the other, whiiih, as we climb towards them, gleam as one 
splendid line of light through the trees and shrubbery that fringe the 
lofty cleft." From the ledge above these falls is gained "the stalwartest 
prospect in all Franconia." 

The Profile Hoiise to Pb/mouth. 

(Stages leave early in the morning. Distance, 29 M. ; fare, $ 4.00). 
The road leads through the narrow glen for 5 M., passes the Flume House 
between Mts. Pemigewasset and Liberty, and tlien descends to a more 
-^pen country. The front view is line, " so soft and delicate are the gen- 
eral features of the outlook over the wiilening Pemigewasset valley, so 
rich the gradation of the lights over the miles of gently slo])ing forest that 
sweep down towards Campton!" 4 M. beyond the Flume House the 
rugged town of Lincoln is left, with its 32,4.o6 acres of land barely sup- 
porting a resident population of 71 persons. Woodstock is now traversed, 
with Black, Blue, and Cushman's Mts. on the W., and Wa.iosha on the 
E., beyond which are glimpses of the peaks toward the White Mt. Notch. 
This town has 8 or 10 boarding-houses, whose prices range from $ 7.00 to 
§10.00 a week. 

Beyond Woodstock a fine * retrospect is afforded, where "the arrange- 
ment of the principal Franconia Mts. in half-se.x'agon — so that v/e get a 
strong impression of their mass, and yet see their separate steely edges, 
gleaming with dilTerent lights, running down to the valley — is one of 
the rare pictures in N. H. What a noble combination, —those keen 
contours of the Haystack pyramids, and the knotted muscles of Mt. 
Lafayette beyond ! " 

11 P 



242 Route S4. 



[I \ 

• i . 



As Tfitirnfon (two inns and several l)n.inliii;/-Ii<>iiHe.s) is entered, tlie 
river exliiliits hnculer iiitcrvalfs, which hccoiiie l;t'!iutiriil in Campton. 
Tlie latter vilhij^'e lias two inns and many suininer boanling-htuiscs, uml is 
a favorite resor* lor artists, on aiaiount oi' its ricli ijiea<lows, its forests 
and hills, and the distant nit. views. It is still an nnsettled '[uestion 
whether (^'anijiton or N. Conway is the most Ixfautiful of tlie nit. vilhiges. 
Welch Mt. is a prominent oltject in the landscape; the Sandwich Mts. 
an; seen on the K. ; and Mt. I'rospect and Livernioie Falls arc in the 
vicinity (S. E. and S. ) The Devil's Den is a deep cave at Canii)ton Hol- 
low ; the Campton Fall is near the villa^'e ; and the views of the Fran- 
conia llange from Dnrgin's Hill, and of the broad valley from the School 
House Hill, are nnich admired. Following now the Pemigewas.Ket 
River, with Mt. rros]»ect on the E., the stage reaches Plymouth, (3 M. S. 
of Campton. 

Waterville {('rcclci/s Mmtntain Iltmsr) is 12 M. N. E. of Canii)ton, 
and 18 M. from I'lymouth, by a roa<l leading up the Mad River valley. 
There is good trout-tishing in this rugged town (which has but 33 inhabi- 
tants), and some very romantic soenery. Portions of the Sandw»ol^ Range 
lie in Watervilh^, forming 1»old and picturcs(pie mt. groups, while the 
lofty peak of Osceola (Ij'idO tt. high) is in the N. E. There is a path to 
tlu^ summit of Osceola, and the view thence is said to be grand. 

On the S. arc tin; jirinciiml ix'aks of the Sandwich Ran^e, Black Mt., White 
Face, and IJalil Knob, witli distant views of Italics .S<niaiii and Wiiint'iicsaukee, 
the former being alxiiit !S. W. l.ooUinj: across Uic I'('niip'\va.ssct valley the west- 
en\ hills and the distant Gre(!n Mts. are seen. In the N. W. are the Fianconia 
Mts., with Lafayette's conical jx-ak most eonsiticuous. Tlie heavy mass of Mt. 
Carrigain is dose at hand, and nearly N., while f;irtlier are the ]K'Mks around tlie 
Notcli, witli Mt. Wiisliiiigtoii ami the ]iresidi'ntial group far bcyc.nd. N. of E. 
arc Hear and Double Head Mts., over J'inkham Notch, with Mote Mt. hiding N. 
Conway, and Kiarsarge towering beyond, while the eye follows tlu^ Swift River 
valley for 18 M. to Conway. Below Conway, and nearly 40 iM. distant, is Sebago 
Lake, and 25 M. beyond the ocean may be seen on clear days. 

The Flume, on a brook l.].-2 M, from the hotel, with Ilorton's Cave 
an<l tlie falls on Cascade Brook, are frequently visited. Adventurous 
parties have penetrated the forests to the N. E. to the White ]\It. Notch 
i'oad, while a pass known as Greeley's Gap leads by a rude bridle-jiath to 
Sandwich (on the S.). The trail to tlie Notch (a guide .should be taken) 
leads first to Greeley's Pond, under Mt. Osceola (5 M. from the hotel), and 
then, leaving Mt. Carrigain on the 1., ]iasses through the forest to the upper 
part of Sawyer's River. The course of this stream is followed until it 
reaches the Notch road, at a i^oint about midway between the Upper 
Bartlett and Mt. Crawford Houses (3 M. from each), and about 15 M. from 

n\, the 

, iiiiil in 

ih Mts. 
ill the 
.11 llol- 
v; Fran- 
! School 
G M. H. 

!• viilley. 
I inhabi- 
V Kaiige 
hile the 
, ijath to 

t., White 

[tllO VVt'St- 

ss (if Mt. 

und the 

N. of E. 

iiliiiK N. 

11 Iliver 
is Sehago 

US Cave 


j.ath to 
e taken) 
ltd), and 

le upper 

until ).t 
e Upper 

M. from 



Route 35. 243 

35. The Percy Peaks, Dixville Notch, and Lake Umbagog. 

'I'Mi; slivtion ami villa^,'t' of Xiu-fliiiiuhnimii/ {W'Vry PeiiU.s Hotel; 
Mrlchcr House) is 10 M. N. of r/incasf.-r. and Ml M. N. of Cnrhani. It 
is near the tonlliU'iMU' of t'lu; I'ppcr Aiiinioiioosui' and Coiuiectii'iit Rivers, 
and is connoeted with tJuildhall, the shire-town of Kssex C<junty, Ver- 
mont, by i bridge near the falls in the latter river. Tlie town was settled 
ill 17<)7, and foitilied during the llevolution. Moose, Hellainy, and Cai»e 
Horn Mts. ant in the vicinity, and from this jtoint the ascent of the I'ercy 
(or Stratford) Teaks is usually undertaken. Passengers lor Dixville ami 
the Noj'th go from Northunibeiland by the (iriiid 'I'runk Railway. 

The line passes N. along the Conn, valley with the Pen\v Peaks on the 
r., stops at Stratford llolltrw, and then at X. Stratford (Wilhiid House; 
Anu'riean; Percy), whence the stage usually leaves in the evening for 
Colebrook, 13 M. N. E. The voa<l follows the Conn. Puver closely, cross- 
ing the thinly jiopulated forest-town of Columbia, and then, Hanking the 
vast mass of Monadnock Mt., enters the pretty village of Cofrhrook 
(Parsons House, accommodating 100 guests, at § 7 -IO.(H) a week; Monad- 
nock House). 

This town was named in linnnr of Sir C!c(irj,'e Coh'brook, an English kni^lit, to 
wlioiii it was oriK'niiUy Kniiitcil. It is tlie iKirtheni sliire-towii of Cnii- I'oimty, 
wliicli has (in 'irca of l,<,»6e sciiian^ miles, will: a |M)puiatioii of I'j.oSO, and a valiia- 
tiitii of i!JI4,<.t4(J,'.tIO. Although New Kngland is the stnumhold of the Uc|)ul)lican 
jtarty, it is a ciirious fuv • that Coos and ;lie other three iiiomitain counties, 
Ui'lkiiap, Carroll, and CraiLon, usually k<> .'•euiocrati*' by fair ma,jo!iti(!s. Cole- 
brook has 4 eliurches an<l i,:'.7".i inhabitants. It is said that i of the potato starch 
in Americd is made in this town (by 8 factories). 

Excellent trout-fishing is found on the sequestered streams in this 
vicinity. Mt. MoiiadnocK. is near the village, and may be ascended by a 
})ath leading in 4-5 M. to its summit. The Beaver Brook Falls are 
about 4 M. distant, and are well worthy of a visit. 

Dixville Notch 

is 10 M. S. E. of Colebrook, and is reached by a road leading np the valley 
of the Mohawk River, a pretty stream which affords good trout-fishing. 
"The Dixville Notch is, briefly, picturesciue, — a fine gorge between a 
cnimbling conical crag and a scarped precipice, — a place easily defensible, 
except at the season when raspberries would distract sentinels." (Theo- 
dore WiNTHROP.) This pass is in the town of Dixville, which has 31,000 
acres of land and 8 inhabitants, with a valuation of .'§20,000. The Notch 
is not a mountain-pass, but a wonderful ravine among high iulls, whose 
inipending cliffs are worn and broken into strange forms of ruin and deso- 
lition. "At Dixville, all is decay, wreck ; the hopeless submission of 
matter in the coil of its hungry foes." The first view of the Notch is 

I> ' 

t I I 






214 PiOiUc 35. 


<lisap]ioiiitin;4, since it is entered ut a liii,'!: level hy tin road whidi lia3 

been a.seendinj,' ;dl the way IVoni ('o'lel'rook. No inonnlainouh) line is seen 

in front, and it is only after leaving the great forest and making a sliarj) 

turn to the r. and a sliort, steep ascent, that the high, eoluinnar sides am 

seen frowning at each other across rlie naiiow chasm. These cliffs of 

decaying ndca slaie present a scene of rnin, transitoriness, and sluittered 

strengtli, that is inournl'nl and almost repnlsive. 

* Table Bock is on the r. of the road, and is reac!io.d l)y a rude stuirway 

of stone Idoclvs called Jaoolt's Ladder, whose divergence from the road is 

maiked by a guide-board near the top of tlie first steej) rise. Tiie Rock is 

!j()\ ft. above the road and 2,ir>0 ft, al)ovc the sea, and is a narrow ])iti- 

naole only about 8 ft. wide at the top, with sharj*, precipitous sitles. 

TIio view is very txtniHivc from this pdhit. MunatJiioek looms bohilv in tlie 
W. wi'h other ami luoic distant sinmiiits ii! Vermont ; tlie Canadian ilerefortl Mt. 
is in the N. W. ; while Coinieeticnt l.aU(!aml tlie Maj^'alloway Mis. are in the N. 
Tti till) K. are the broad idains of Krrol and the nii]ier Androsc()^';,'in vallev. IJut 
the r.iost imiiressi\(! si.Ljlit is the dreary ]iass helow with its hrokt-n jialisades seem- 
in;4 re;idy to fall at any moment. Tlu' roek-s|.ires oii]iosite, which are seen IVoni 
the road as clearly onilined av^ainst the sky. Iron: this jioint lone their shar'iness 
of form against the dark backgrouml of a lofty hill which towers over theiti. 

Above Table Rock a .sbort path leads to the Ice Care, a profound chasm 
where snow and ice may be found througliout the summer. The Profile 
js seen from a guide-board on the r. of the road, high up on the cliffs, 
Avhile the Pulpit is pointed out on the 1. Farther on, a board on the r. 
directs attention to the refreshing waters of Clear Spring, and another 
board on the 1, points <mt Washington's Monument and the Rimiacle, 
remarkable rock-formations which have rc'^ently been (levelo[)ed by clear- 
ing away the forests, A sign on the V shows the path leading to the 
Flume, where a brook runs through a gorge ir. the rock which is spanned 
by a rustic bridge. Tiie Hume is 20 ft. deeji and 10 ft. wide, and has been 
formed by the erosion of a trap-dike. At the foot of the Notch (which 
is 1^ M. long), a boartl directs to the r. to the Cascades, before which 
is the grove where e.xcursion-parties usually dine. Beyond the grove 
is a neat rustii' i)ridge and seat, before a small cascade, and by following 
a rugg.'d i>ath up stream on th" 1. (15 minutes) a diflf-side seat is reached, 
from which a noble series of falls are seen, descending sheer from the 
precipice above. 

The Clear Stream Meadows are below the E. side of the Notch and 
present a scene of pastoral beauty that stiongly contrasts with the deso- 
late region behind. 

Froiii this point the return is usually commenced, tho;igh parties of 
gentlemen ]n-epared lor a forest e.\i)edition sometimes go on to Erral Dam 
(Errol ; Akers House) i:^ M. distant, A steamer leaves the Dam 
KfUM-weekly for tiie Ui.per Magalloway River, and also for the Lake 
Jlonsc, in Upton, at the fo;)t of Lake Umbagog. Winthrop tells (" Life 



nmie 3G. 245 

lich lias 
e is sc'i'U 
a sli;iri> 
litU's ar<i 
cliiTs of 

load is 

I Hock is 

row \iu\- 


Ilv in the 
(■ Mt. 

II llH" N. 

lev. ]Jut 
idfs sci'iii- 
;t I'll ti(i:ii 


1(1 chasm 
e Pritjih 
he cliffs, 
pn the r. 
y clear- 
to the 
as heon 
■e which 
le grove 
oni the 

tch and 
le deso- 

'ties of 
V(}1 Dam 
lie Dam 
ie Luke 
(" Life 

in the OjH'n Air ") of his vnya^'o in a sinall l>oat to the Tlanp-ley Lakes, 
passing tlirongh Unibagog, then over a .'} }<\. jiortage, and tlu-nee travers- 
ing tlie Lakes Wehickseliacook, Alleguiulabagog, Mollychunkanmg, and 
Moosetocmagantic to Rangt'ley (see Route 11). From tlie Lake House at 
the S. end of Unibagog, semi-weekly stages run to Bethel (see Houte 40). 
Conneoticut Lake {Conn. Lake Ilonsr) is 25 M. N. E. of Colehrook. 
it is r).\ M. long by 2^ M. wiilc, and ahonnds in fish. A small steamer 
jtlics ov(r its waters. 4 M. N. E. through tlie forest is Second Lake, 2.\ 
M. long hy 2 M. wide, while still farther N, is Third L:ike, covering 200 
acre", and on the border of Canada is Fourth Lake, the source of the Con- 
iieetieat River. The latter lake covers .'? acres, and is 2,500 ft, above the 
sea. S. E. of Connect ieut Lake the Magalloway Mts. are seen, while 
from its lower end the Connectieut River ("' Quonektaeut," meaning Long 
River, or River of IMiies) Hows down a long "ascade. These lakes are in 
Pittsburg, a town of 200,000 acres, with but 400 inhabitants. UantO 
abounds in the forests, and tish in the streams. 

36. Boston to Cape Ann. 

Trains on the Eastern Ilaih-oail fioni tiie station on Causfway St., Boston 
(PI. 2). 

From Boston to Beverly, see Route 37. At Beveily a branch railroad 
diverge, to the N. E. and runs (in 18 M.) to Rockport, at the end of Cape 
•Ann, and 86 M. from Boston. Between Beverly and Manchester the line 
lies near the sea, and allords fixMiueiit glimpses of the beach-cottages and 
tents whi(;h front on the outer harlior of Salem. Near Beverly Farms the 
Mingo Beach stretches around a broad cove. Manclu'ster (Manchester is a ipiaint little village on the 1. of the line, lying at the head of 
a narrow harbor, and noted for having produced more sea-captains and 
sailors than any other town of eciual jiopulation in America. Between 
Manchester and Gloucester the line runs through a dreary succession of 
rocky hills. 


Hotels. — Atlantic House ; Webster Ilmise ; Pavilion (on the beach ; open only 
ill suninier). 

Oloucester is an interesting city of 15,397 inhabitants, situated on a fiiui 
harbor opening to the S. W., at about the middle of the cape. It has 13 
churches, 2 lodges of Masons and 2 of Odd Fellows, 8 temperance societies, 
and 4 banks. It has a curious nautical air, from the fact that most of its 
men are engaged in tl;e d(fep-sea fisheries, and when the great fleets are in 
port the streets and harbor i»resent a li/ely appearance. Extensive fires 
have devastated the plaee, and its flc.'ets have often been overtaken with 
disasters, but s'ib Gloucester has increased, and has recently attained the 
distinction of a city. There are some VL'ry neat ch rcli and school build- 

* if 

1 ! 

24G RmdcSG. 



iiiga, and the City Hall is a new and elegant structi'rc of brick, in the 
modern French style of architecture. Tlie inner harbor is guarded by 
Ten Pound Island, and i)resents a rare scene of bustle and activity, being 
the very home of schooncn's. The outer harbor is protected from tlie sea 
by Eastern Point, with its lightliouse auvl fort, while on the W. sliore is 
the Stage Fort (erected during the Secession War) from which is obtained 
a pretty view of the liarbor and town. Directly across the harbor from 
the city is E. Gloucester, from whose rugged hills the compact streets, 
with the church-spires and the Collins School and lofty City Hall, make 
a pretty scene (the best near views arc from Rocky Neck). Several large 
summer boarding-houses are scattered over th.e E. Gloucester peninsula, 
which has wild and rugged scenery on the seaward side. On Little Good 
Haibor is a beach, p.t the S. end of which are the Bass Rocks, where the 
surf rolls in grandly after an easterly gale. The City Hall Tower owr- 
looks the pretty suburbs of Brookbank and Stecpbank, and views tlio 
open sea beyond E. Gloucestei*. Within 5 minutes' walk of the Cily Hall 
is Fort Poiiit, a small, rocky promontoiy covered with fish-Hakes, with 
the remains of an old fort on its highest pouit. Near by (and 3 minutes' 
walk from the Atlantic Hoiise) is Crescent Beach, facing the surf from 
the inner harbor and jiartly occupied by tlie Pavilion IIovsc, of whi(;h 
Lady E. S. Wortley said, "It is very much like being afloat in a line-of- 
battle ship, we are so close to tlie grand old Atlantic." 

Beacon Pole Hill, close to tlie city on the Annisquam road, commands 
an extensive and interesting pros^iect of Gloucester, the bare, bleak hills 
of the cape, and the wateis and shores to the N. and S. Beyond the hill 
is the hamlet of Rircrdale, Avhich has a church of the 17th century. 

John Murray, the " Apostle of Universalism," i)lanted that sect in America in 
177"i, and prerched fur several years in this churcli. A centennial celel)ration 
took place here, Hejtt. '20-24, 1870, during wliich many thousand Universalists 
enca!n])ed ahout tlie town. In the okl Murray Meeting-house is a curious organ, 
which was captured during the Revolutit-a by a pii\ateer. It is 4 ft. high, and is 
l)layed by turning a crank, its c;i )acity being 30 tunes. 

The pleasantest excursion about Glouc*. ster is to Xorman's Woe and 
Rafc's Chasm. About 2 M. from the city, a small road turns off to the 
1. from the Manchester road, and soon, losing all evidences of carriage- 
travel, runs into a sequestei'ed path in the borders of the forest and by 
the edge of the sea. The dark and frowning mass of rocks soon seen, 
surrounded by tlie sea, is Normairs Woe, the scene of Longfellow's poem, 
*' The Wreck of the Hesperus." 

*' It wns the schooner lU'spcrus 
Tliiit saili'il till' wintry sea. 


" -And fitst thront'h tlic micli'if.'Iit (hivk nnd drear, 
Tliroioih tl.i' \N liiNt ii:fr sliit and snow, 
J.iki' ii .'iHc'id f.l'(>-t till' vessel swept 
'Jow Ills the infill iSiiriiiiin'B Woe." 


- S. 


Route 36. 247 

, in tlio 
r(le«l by 
y, being 
the sea 
sliore is 
lor from 
,11, make 
-al large 
tie Hood 
here llie 
Arer ovur- 
iews the 
:'ity Hall 
Ices, ^vith 
;urf irom 
of vhicli 
a line-of- 

leak hills 
the hill 

uiierica in 
ms organ, 
igh, and is 

Voe and 
T to the 
and by 
oon seen, 
,v's poem, 


Following the precipitous, rocky shore about 1 M. S. W, of the reef, 
one comes to * Rafe's Chasm, a remarkable fissure in the great cliff which 
fronts the sea. It is 6 ft. wide, 40 - r»0 ft. deep, and 100 ft. long, and the 
roar of the waves is appalling when they sweep through it after a storm. 
Some distance beyond, on the same shore, is another curious cleft in the 
trap-rock. The ramble may be extended to Goldsmith's Point and 
its summer villas, witli Kettle Island and Great Egg Rock off shore, and 
a Icrge new hotel near the l>each. A little to the N. (and near the Mag- 
nolia flag-station on the railroad) is a swamp containing the rare and 
beautiful magnolia-trees, whose flowers are out in tJuly. 

" Around the Cape " is a favorite excursion frcm Gloucester, and the 
distance is 12-14 M. From Gloucester to Rockport by highway or rail- 
road, is ai)out 4 M. By diverging to the r. from the main road a shore- 
road (inferior) is gained, which leads to Rockport by Whale and Loblolly 
Coves, passing near Thacher's and Straitsmouth Islands, with their tall 
lighthouses. Tliachcr's Island has two powerful Fresnel lights, in 
granite towers, 112 ft. high and ^ M. apart. There is a tradition that a 
rebel cruiser hit one of tliese lanterns with a cannon-shot during a dark 
night of the Secession War. 

Bookport {Sherida,i J^'uuse) is a well-named town of about 4,000 
iidiabitants, with 5 churches and 2 banks. From costly artificial harbors 
along this rock-bound coast, great quantities of granite are shipped to all 
parts of the Union. 2 M. N. of this village is the summer-resort at 
Pifjeon Cove (stages from Rockport station), with the Pigeon Cove, Ocean 
View, and Glen Acre Hotels, and several boarding-houses. This was 
formerly a favorite resort of the great divines of the liberal sects, — Chapin, 
Starr King, Bartol, and others, — and has grown rapidly in popularity. The 
rocky shores furnish an endless variety of scenery, and the surf, after 
stormy weather, is grand in its powei'. Phillips Avenue and other streets 
have been graded on the heights by Pigeon Cove, and a large village of 
summer residences (called Ocean View) is to be built liere. 

From Ocean View, the load runs to Folly Cove, and near Folly Point, 
the N. limit of the cape, to LanesviUe, looking across the nortliern waters 
to the shores of Essex North, New Hampshire, and lower Maine. Tliere 
are sunmier boarding-houyes Jiere and at Annisqxam, at the mouth of the 
S(iuam River. This tidal lagune is now followetl to liai/ Vieiii, with its 
large wharves, and a steam railroad running back into quarries which yield 
granite (of which the Boston Post OfTice is being built) of a lighter color 
than that of Quincy, On a sightly hill ovi-r Bay View is tlie elegant sea- 
sitle cottage (of red and gray granite), which was presented by friends to 
the Hon. B. F. Eutler, Congressman from Essex County. From Annis- 
quum to Gloucester it is aboiit 4 M., mostly by the side of Squam River, 
and passing Riverd'Uc and Beacon Pole Hill. 

248 R(mte36. 




Cape Ann was formerly inhalutod hj- a small Iribo of Indians, who cal'ed it Wiii- 
gaersheek. It was roundcfl by Cai>t. Smith in KiU, who nanu>d it C ape Tra^'a- 
bigzanda in memory of a Tiirlvisli i)rin(ess who had befriended him while he was 
wounded and a prisoner in Constantinople (IGOl). Prinee Charles of England 
overruled Smith, and named tlie eape in honor of his royal mother. In 1(125 llic 
forest-covered promontory was settled by a colony under Roger Conant, who 
founded here the first Puritan church. Abandoned by Conant in favor ol Salem, 
it was soon re-peopled by another swarm from the English hive, and incorporated 
in 1642 under the name of Gloucester, since most of its settlers came from the 
English town of that name. The colonists soon exterminated the"lyons" and 
drove off the Indians. 10'.i2 was "a year memorable in the annals of mystery," 
and hundreds of French and Indian ghosts were thought to haunt the cape, and 
were often shot at but never hurt. So great was the panic that two regiments 
from the mainland oecupied the cape. With the decline of the witchcraft delusion 
in Salem the superstitious mariners of (Jloucester lost sight of their mysterious 
enemies, and the guards were withdrawn. In 1710 the first terrible marine dis- 
aster occurred, wlien ."> large lishing-vessels frcT>i this port were lost off the 13anl\s 
with all on board. In 1774 Edmund IhnUe, sjieaking of the Massachusetts fislnr- 
men, said, " No sea but what is vexed by their lisheries, no climate that is i.ot 
witness of their toils ; neither tiie perseverance of Holland, nor the activity of 
France, uor the dexterous and firm sagacity of English entcriirise, ever cnnit d 
their most jterilous mode of hardy industry to the extent to whieh it has bicn 
pursued by this recent pe,oj<le, - a people who aie yet in the gristle, and not yet 
hardened into manhood." In 1775 Cape Ann sent 800 men to the American army 
besieging Boston, and in August of that year Gloucester was bombarded for 4 
hours by the Uritish sloop-of-war " Falcon." The minute-men held the town, and 
captured 4 boats, a tender, and a inize schooner with 40 men from the " Falcon." 
The ruined town was soon re]taired,and with the dose of the war, the cessation 
of privateering, and the reduction of the lational navy, the fishing-fleets were once 
more manned and sent out. (Jloucester lad includecl the wliole eape until bS-lo, 
when Rockport became an indeiicndent town. The canal IVom the harbor to 
Squam River (first cut in 1(54:5) was long ago abandoned as useless. In 1873 
Gloucester received a city charter. 

William Winter, the poet, E. P. Whipple, the essayist, and Samuel Gilnian, the 
Unitarian divine, were horn here ; also, Capt. Haraden, who, with the "Pieker- 
ing," swept the Bay of Biscay and the North Atlantic, and took 1,000 eannon from 
the British on the .sea, between 1775 and 178M. E]H'S Sargent, the author ; Henry 
Sargent, the painter ; and other notables of the same faniily, came from Glouces- 

The fisheries around Newfoundland have caused trouble ever since 1585, when 
Queen Elizabeth sent a fleet whicih swooped down on a swarm of Norman fishing- 
vessels on the Banks, and caj>tured half of them. But the deep-sea and George's 
Bank fisheines are the noble pursuits of this maritime p<'ople, who man their fleets 
with 5,000 men, and lose on an average, 10 vessels and 100 men each year. In 
the winter of 1802, 13 vessels and 130 men from this poi-t were lost in one night 
on George's Bank. 

" Wild ai-c the waves which Insh the reefs nlonj? St. Gcorpe's Bank, 
Cold on the shore of Lnbrnrtor the foe lies white nnd dnnk ; 
Through stonn and wave and blindine mist, stout are the liearts which man 
The flshing-sniueks of Marl)lehea(l, the sea-boats of Cape Ann. 

" The cold Xorth liuht and wintry sun plare on their iey forms 
BentRrimly o'er tin Ir straininu lines, or wrestlinp with the storms ; 
Free as the winds they drive before, ronph as tlie waves thev roam, 
They laugh to scorn the slaver s threat against their rocky home " 

(John G. Whittieb.) 


37. Boston to Portland and St John. 

This is the most interesting and eisy of tlie rouics fti .Maine and the Maritime 
Provinces. No change of cars is necf^snry between I'oston and Bantjor, since 
the Eastern Railroad cars i»;is,s(,n (o tlic rails of tlic .Maine ("entral Railwav at 
Portland and are carried tl,nn;-li l> Ban-«-r. At the latter citv the traveller gets 


), •when 

\h- fleets 

cir. In 





h-ay at. 

Ir gets 



Itoute ST. 240 

on the train of the Enroi>oan ami Nortli American Railway, wliich i)assen thrmi^'li 
to St. John. Doson to Sah-ni, 1(J .M. ; t<> N'ewl)iirvi«>rl, ;i(! M. : to I'ortsindiitli, 
5e M. ; to Portland, 108 M. ; to Augusta, 171 M. ; to Bangor, 240 M. ; to St. John, 
440 M. ; to Halifax, 0.30 M. 

The rich and elegant ears of the Pnllinan Company are attached to every 
through train. Thi.s company has over .'»()0 cars(costiMv >= IS -'Jl'.ooo each) running 
on 00 railro.ids. They are used throuudioiit tlie UnitiMJ .States, also iK'tween l?om- 
bay and Cahutta (l.SOO .M.), and are ationt to lie introduced on tlie through ronto 
from Paris to Vienna. The cliief advantage i)oss('ssed by this line is tiiat it riuia 
through the large sea-cities of .Massachii: etts, witii frequent views of the ocean 
and tiie northern bays. Nnmerou.s i»opu!ar seaside re.sorts are near its track, 
while 9 connecting lines run landward from it. Fares, to Portland, ^3.00 ; to 
Bangor, ^SO.OO ; to St. John, ijs 10.00 ; to Halifax, .'? 14.00. 

The lino nearly coincides with the rout" of the "Portsmouth Flying Caieh 
Co.," established in 170'J, to make wetdsiy trips by way of the Ncwbnryport road. 
The fare wa.s- lli.s-. 0'/. to Portsmoutli ami O.s-. to Newbury. President Dwiglit 
(of Yale) rode over this route in IT'.UJ, and wrote, "No part of the United States 
t'Hrni.she.s a tour e<iually i)leasing. Nowh(;re is there in the same compass such n. 
number of towns etpially interesting, large, wealthy, and beautiful, or equally 
inhalntcd by intelligent, polished, and resjiectable peojile." 

Two through exi)ress trains run daily each way between Boston and Bangor, 
240 M., in 11 hours. 

The train leave.s the terminal .station on Cau.seway St., at the foot of 
Friend St. (PI. 2), and runs out over Charle.s River on a long tre.stlo. On 
the 1. is the track of tlie Boston and Lowell R. R., and on the r. are the 
Fiteldiurg and the Roston and Maine tracks. The heights of Charlestown, 
crowned hy Bunker Hill Monument, rise on the r., and the manufactories 
of E, Cambridge are seen on the 1. OIV Prison Point (Charlestown) the 
Fitehburg R. R. is crossed, with the State Prison close at hand, and the 
McLean Asi/lian for the Insane on the 1. Tliis Asylum was opened in 
1818, and has extensive buildings which cost over $200,000, surrounded 
by pleasant grounds. It was named for a philanthropic Boston merchant, 
who gave ,$150,000 for this object and to Harvard University. Al'ter 
rubiiing for nearly a mile over the Avaters of Cliarles River and Miller's 
Creek, the line gains the Somerville meadows, and cpo.sses the Boston and 
Maine track just before reaching Somerrillc station. Soon after leaving 
this station, Mt. Benedict and the niiiis of the Ursuline Convent (de- 
stroyed by a mol) in 1S34) are passed on tlie 1. and the train crosses the 
My.stic River, — with Charlestown and E. ]'nst<jn on the r. 

Station, Everett^ whence the Saugus Branch diverges to the N., and 
passes through the suburban villages of Maiden, Maplewood, Linden, 
Cliftondale, Saugus, E. Saugus, and Lynn Common. Near the latter vil- 
lage it rejoins the main line. The town of p]verett Avas incorporated in 
1870, with a population of 2,222 and a valuation of $2,000,000. From 
this point the track runs S. of E. to Clvlsea station. From Boston to 
Chelsea the road describes a semicircle with the centre of tlie curve in- 
clined to the N. W. The road formerly terminated at E. Boston, but a 
depot was built in the city, and a circuitous course was neces.sury in order 
to avoid the deep outer channels of the Charles and Mystic Rivens. 

Chelsea and Rever? Rc.ich are de.sciibed in Route 2. The line .soon^ 
11 * 


> ■ 

1 1 


[I .' 


250 r.ouie 37. 


Cliclsi'.a Creek and S;uip;ii.s riivor, witli the liotels on Chelsea (or Revevc) 
Beacli, on the r., .skirts Lynn llarlior, passes W. Lynn, and stops at 


Rag-imoro Ilonso 

Ljnin Hotel. Horse-cars to Bos- 


Central House 
ton, Iiuir-Ji()url}\ 

Lynn is a busy city of 28,201 inhabitants, situated near the N. end of 
Mass. Bay, on a harbor formed by the jjcninsula of Nahant. The greater 
part of the city is on a plain near the sea, while a chain of porphyritic 
hills on the N. is adorned "with many neat villas. Market St. is the main 
thorough i'are, and is lined with large commercial buildings, mostly of 
Itrick, although l)y far the greater part of the city is constructed of wood. 
Skilled American labor is employed here to a larger extent than in thi'- 
otlier manrfacturing cities of New England (where foreign workmen ar^; 
numerous), and its interests arc protected and sometimes over-asserted by 
a powerful organization called the Knights of St. Crispin. 

The, city was foundcfl in 1G20, and named for Lynn Rej^is, in England, the linnn^ 
of its lirst pastor (lG."G-7!»)- In 1810, it was th(! 7th town of Essex County ; in 
1820, tlie Gtli ; in 1830, tiie 4th ; in 1840, tiie 2d, wliicli rank it still maintains 
(Lawrence Vieing the largest city in tlie county). About 1750, the manufacture of 
ladies' .shoes was conuuenced here by a Weh^hman named Dagyr, and it has sincn 

f^rown to vast ])roi)ortions, Lynn now being the lirst city in the world in this 
>ranch of industry. 

The shoe-manufacture is now the chief business of Massa(!husetts. Of 
8555,000,000, the aggregate value of the manufactures in the State in the year 
1870, iSS8,.S90,58.'), was the value of the boots and shoes made; 833,(585,055, of 
the leather ; .8 5!), 200,423, of cotton goods and threads ; !? 48, 177,135, of the wool- 
lens and worsteds ; and )$ 20,707,485, of the iron-manufactures. 

In 1707, Lvnn made 80,000 ])airs of shoes ; in 1810, 1,000,000 pairs; in ISCa, 
5,300,000 pairs; in 1808, over 10,000,000 pairs, valued at $18,000,000. In 
1805, there were employeil 0,084 men uiid 4,984 women, in this branch of in- 

The * City Hall is one of the finest municipal buildings in New Eng- 
land. It is some distance W. of the .station, and is substantially and 
gracefully built of brick and brownstone, Avith a fine tower above it. It 
fronts on a long and narrow Common which extends nearly to the Lynn 
Common station. Ili'jh Rock is N. of the City Hall, and commands a 
wide view of the city and the surrounding waters. Here was the homo 
of Moll Pitcher, a reputed sorceress, and here also, in later years, have 
resided the Hutchinson family of singers. Pine Grove Cemetery is a 
beautiful rural burying-ground on the hills toward the " Lakes of Lpm." 

Dmvjeon Rock is 3-4 M. from the city. Here, on one of the highest 
of a series of picturesque, forest-covered hills, it is said that certain pirates 
liad their den and treasure-house, until an cartlicpiake swallowed them 
lip (in the 17th century). In 18.'!>2 a person came to this hill and began to 
dig for treasures under the inspiration of spiritualism and the guidance 
of clairvoyants. He Avorked here until his death in 1808, meanwhilo 
cutting a passage into the iron-like porphyry rock, 13j ft. long, 7 ft. wide, 


R,»(te37. 251 

Iv Eng- 

ly ami 



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aii'l 7 ft. high. Near this peine is the Faiigus River, wliere a forge and 
snielting-works for working iron were erected in 1643. 

The pleasantest part of Lynn is the vicinity of Nahant St. and Saga- 
more Hill, whore there are many fine villas belonging to Boston mer- 
chants. Tlie bank bnilding and the new Universr.list Church are in this 
quarter, and are worthy of notice. Lynn Beach and Nahant (sec page 21) 
are gained by way of Nahar.t St., while by following the shore toward 
the N. (a foot-path only) a line of elegant seaside villas is passed, and 
Swampscott is reached. 

Soon after leaving Lynn, the train reaches Swampscott (Great Anawau 
House; Little Anawan House ; Ocean House ; Lincoln House), a fashion- 
able watering-place, which, like Nahant, is much affected by the aristocracy 
of Boston, Their elegant carriages and trim ya(;hts are easily l)roughL 
here (13 M. from Boston), and make land and water lively through tlin 
summer months. Numerous boarding-houses, small hotels, and cottages 
receive their quf tas of the guests. The beaches are short and limite<l, 
but afford safe bathing, while the greater part of the shore consists of 
higli bluffs and ragged ledges. Phillips' Beach, about 3 M. E. of tho 
station, faces the open sea, and is nearly insulated by Phillips' Pond. A 
large cluster of cottages is built on the prominent point over Dread 
Ledge, from which the shore trends W., and pretty views of Nahant Bay, 
the peninsula of Nahant, and the islanded Egg Rock, may be gainetl. 
The yachts and village fishing-smacks are usually anchored off Fisher- 
man's Village and along tlie S. shore. Beyond Swampscott the train 


Hotels. Essex Hous»^, on Essex St., S3.00 a day ; Derby House. 
Horse-cars to Peabody and Beverly (on Essex St.). Steamers (in summer) 
to Lev. ell Island. 

Salem, the mother-city of the Massachusetts colony, and a shire-town 
of Essex County, is favorably situated on a long peninsula between two 
inlets of the sea. It has 24,119 inhabitants, and while slowly gaining in 
wealth, it is losing its place among the cities of the State and County, by 
their more rapid increase. The marine aristocracy of the ohl East India 
merchants and captains still holds lines of stately old-time mansions, and 
the stillness and grave propriety of tlie city is generally noticed by the 
visitor. The wharves are now occu]ued by tlie few coasting-vessels whicli 
have taken the place of the great East Iiidiamen which formerly entered 
here. Boston has taken this trade away, aii<l the city is now sup})or(,ed 
by its lately develo})ed steam-mills and factories, Tlioro is a safe and 
commodious harbor before tlie city, wliicli is defended by Fort Pickering', 
and good boating is found there. The State Normal Scliool in Siilcin is 
situated on High St,, and has 160 girls in atten<laiice. Instruction of a 

! ) 

252 Route 37. 


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I! > 

luf,-li order is given licrc without cost, on condition that cacli student shall 
t(!acli (tor a spt'cilied time) in the schools of the ('oninionwealth. Tho 
churches of the city are not remarkable for their architecture, although 3 
of them arc of stone. There are 3 Unitarian churches. 

The East India Marine IlnU is on Essex St., near tho Essex House. 
Here are the scientific collections of tlie Essex Institute and the * ethno- 
logical collections of the E. I. Marine Society (organized in 1799 by tho 
chief ofTicers of Salem Indiamen). This liall was built in 1825, and in 
18G7 George Peabody gave .$ 140,000 for the j^romotion of knowledge in 
Essex County, with part of which the hall was purchased. The collec- 
tions remain on i)erniunent deposit (open daily, except Sunday and Mon- 
day, 9-12 A. M., and 1-5 P. M. ). 

Nearly every branch of uatiiral science is represented in the extensive and well- 
nrr!iii;,'('(l caltiiiets of tlie Essex Institute!. Tlu; Marine [Society's collectinn em- 
braces a (,'reat nunilier of curiosities l)r()n;,'!it from remote lands. Tliere arc musi- 
cal instruments of every form used by tlie Oriental nations, and a curious uiray 
of tlieir weapons of war. Clothiuf?, utensils, and other aiPiiointments of Hindoo 
daily life are seen, and also a large and well-conceived tableau of court-life. In ono 
l>artof the hall is ii eomj'lete a.ssortment of go»ls, Hii.doo, Chinese, and l*oly- 
nesian. The models of naval architecture are very nnniemiis, and mark the pro- 
gress from the rude Esquimati canoe to the nioilel of the stately and heavily- 
armed ^SaIem East Indiaman, the "(Jrand Turk." There are also cabinets tilled 
with aboriginal American and Peruvian ant.i(iuities, mostly stone implements and 
jiottery. The gem of the collections is a * piece of wood-carving attributed to an 
Italian monk of the 14th century. In the concavities of two hemispheres of l»ox- 
wood, each 1 " inches in diameter, he has carved 110 full-hiugth figures, s<une of 
which are full of expr«!ssiou. One hemispheic represents Ileavcu, and the other 

Flummer Hall is a fine building on Essex St., which was erected with 
funds left to the Salem Athenrouni by Miss Plumnier. In the second 
story is one of the most elegant halls in the State, with white Corinthian 
columns at the sides, and some old portraits, the cliief of which is a large, 
full-length painting of Sir "William Pepperell in his favorite red costume. 
Oliver Cromwell, Secretary Pickering, Governors Leverett, Bradstreet, 
aiul Endicott, several early divines and ladies of tlie colonial era, are rep- 
resented in these old portraits. There are three libraries (Athenaeum, 
Essex Institute, and S. Essex Medical Society) in the building, with an 
aggregate of 43,000 volumes, the larger part of which are in the hall. 
The original charter of Ma.isachusetts Bay, given by King Charles I, in 
1628, is preserved here, together with sundry other quaint old documents 
of State. Over the main stairway is a graphic painting representing a 
scene in the v.itchcraft days. Behind Plummer Hall, and reached by pass- 
ing around tlie building, is the oldest church edifice in the Northern 
States. It was built in 1634 for the First Church, of which Roger Wil- 
liams was pastor, and was used for 38 years. In 1672 a new church was 
built, and this edifice was abandoned. It is about half as large as an 
ordinary parlor, and has a gallery, a high-pointed roof, diamond-paned 
windows, and a few relics of the people who were contemporary with it. 


JlmiteST. 253 




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The Old Witch House is on tlie ooruerof Essex and North Sts. (a one- 
elory shop lias been l)uilt in front of it). It dates from 1042, and certain 
of the suspected witches were tried in it. GaUows Hill is VV. of the city, 
and commands a broad view over the harbor and surroundinj:; country. 
Here Vj j)ersons were i)ut to death during' the witchcraft delusion. In 
llni'iiumi/ Urove t'ciiictcrij, W. of Salem, (Jcorge I'eabody is buried, while 
in the village of Feabody ("2 Al. distant ; horse-cars from Salem) is shown 
the house where he was bom. The library and collections of the Pcahody 
luditute arc worthy of a visit (open Wednesday and Saturday). The 
most notable object in this collection is the * i)ortrait of Queen Victoria, 
given by her to George Peabody It is 14 by 10 inches in size, painted 
on enamel, framed with blue and gold, and adorned with rich jewels. It 
is. said to have cost § 30,000. 

Derby Wharf is a long and well-constructed wharf on the S. of tlie city, 
near the great Naumkeag Cotton Mills. It was formerly the focal point 
of the E. Inilia trade, and at its head stands the old Custom House 
Avhere Hawthorne was emi)loyed (his birthplace was at No. 21 Union 
St.). The Court Il"use and the CUij Hall are granite buildings near the 
tunnel, and Chestnut St. is an elm -lined, aristocratic street, which is called 
the finest in the city. In the E. is the broad Common known as Wash- 
ington S(iuare, with the brownstone East Church (Unitarian) fronting on 
it. In this vicinity is St. Peter's Episcojial Church, an old and massive 
stone building. 

Sdlrm Nirk is a peninsula projerting from the city toward the sea, nearly imin- 
habitnl, ami the seat of Fort Pickering and the Salem Abiishouso. Tlie old 
ruined batteries on the Neck were favorite haunts of Nathaniel Hawthorne (see 
" Aniericau Note-Books "). 

Tiiere are in Salem extensive works for the manufacture of railwiiy cars ; also 
for making guimy-bags ; while the Naumkeag Cotton Mills employ a large num- 
Imt of workmen. Immense quantities of coal are liandleil here, being landed on 
I'hillips' Wharf, and thence (tarried by rail into the interior. The city is abun- 
dantly supplied with wuter by an acpieducit Icailiiig tVoui Wcnl'.am I'ond. 

In 1626 Roger Conant left the fishing colony on C.i]»e Ann, and built the first 
house on the Indian domain of Naumkeag.* In 1027 the I'ly mouth Company 
ttranted to eerbiin " knights and gentlemen of Dorchester, and tli<!ir heirs, assigns, 
and associates forever, all that i)art of New England wliich lies between a great 
river called Merrimac, and a certain other river called Charles." John Endicott 
was sent over in 1628, and foundeil at Naumkeag the capital of this district. The 
colony was " called Satem from the i)eace which they had and hoped in it." In 
1028 the First Church was formed, and in 10.'U Philip llatclille was scourged, had 
his ears cut oif, and sutfered banishment and confiscation of his property, "for 
blasphemy against the church of Salem, themother-c'iurchof allthis Holy Land." 
The militant disposition of the colonists was shown by the fact that during the 
first few years they imported £ 18,()0i) worth of furniture, binlding materials, &c., 
while £ 22,000 wortli of arms and artillery was brought in during the same time. 
In 162!> there were 10 houses here, besides the governor's house, wiiich was gar- 
ni.shed with great ordnance, "and tlnis wee doubt not tiiat Cod will be with us, 
and if God be with us, who can be against us." In mid.summer, 10;ii», Gov. John 

•Naiimkeajr i« snid to be an Indian word meaning " Eel liind," but Cotton Mather (who 
Is notliiiiKifnot Oriental) holds to its derivation the Hebrew words, Kahiira (eomfort) 
and Keick vhuveu). 


Rmdc 57. 



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\Vinthioi> arrivifl iit K.ilctn witli 10 ships and a lar^" miniltcr of polonisfs. Tlio 
lovely |,a<l.v AralMll.i .lolmsnii, tin- iiaiit,'htt'r of tli<! fvirl of Liindlii. ami tlin wile 
of Isaac .liiliiisiiii, tlif \vi alt liit'st of tlii' citloiiists, was tlu; pride (if tin- sttllciiieiit, 

ami tlic llaK-sliip nf tlif lltrl was iiai 1 for lier. licfdic le-aviii^' Kn'^laiid slio iii- 

sislcd rm !icc(iin|iaii.viii;^' licr liiisiiaiid, " WliitlicrsDcvcr yotir fatall (IimUiic sliall 
dryve y<»ii, cyllK r liy tiic fiiriniis waves of tlit^ meat (leeiiii, or l»y the iiiaiiy-foldo 
and honilile tlaiiKers of tin- lamle, I wyl surely not leave your eonipany. There 
can IK) jieryll cliiiunce to ine so terriltle, nor any kinde of death so eruell, that 
shall not he much easier for me to ahyde tlian to live so farre separate from you," 
W'itldn .! months .ifter the landin;,', this brave piitrician hidy died at Salem (uiid 
was liiiricd near |}ri<lt,'e St.). llir hnsliaiid survived her liut a month. 

Winthrop and .lolmson moved S. to Charlestown, and thenia* to Boston, which 
Boon herame tlie chief town and capital of thi' eoUmy (see page 7). Kndicott, I'ea- 
liody, jind otlurs remained at Salem, and built mansions near North Uiver, and 
the former leil the Isf .Mass. Uej^'inuMit (or;^'ani/ed in Ksse.K County, in KliiO) in a 
bloodless an<l successful campaign a;^ainsttlie turbulent An;;Iieanc(doiiy at .Merry 
Mount iMraintrce). In KWil the (^ualieis were persecuted at Salem, aiid in 1()7/ 
the; Indians on the coast of Maint; seized 'JO vessels, mostly fn'iu this town, while 
4 \ess(!ls escaped by battlt; and returned to the port, bearing;- I'.twoundeil men and 
sevt-ral dead. The witchcraft delusion arose in lO'.iJ in tiie fami