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U 11 1.6 





WIBSTIR, N.Y. 14510 

(716) •72-4503 





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■^i\ --''r fi) '" f? iT T 


yE'^>! '•i'."" -ilLA^.P 


T ' ■ ■ '^^ ■?*?«£*•- -rs? 



m ^. 










1608 TO 18G0: 





AND C O 31 P n I S I .N O 



die Important |nl)cutions, f aritfs, aui) the ^lesults of ta tlr 5etennial (Census. 









L o N n o X : 



1 ^ . 'I'' 


Eiilcred according to Act of Congress, in tlic year 1808, '>y 


In the Clerk's Ollice of the District Court of tiie United States, in and for 

tlio Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 





















In tlio two proceding volumes wo eiideavorod to tract-, from 
sucli roco-l8 as laborious research could discover, the leading facts 
iu llie histo./ of tlic growth of the inanufacturiug industry of the 
United Slates, irom the cstablislnnent of the finst Glassworks at 
Jamestown, in 10(J8, to the close of the eighth Decennial Censu.s. 
As France has a work on her "Great Manufactories," and Knuland 
on her " Woi'kshoi)s," it would seem that our task would be incom- 
plete without showing that the United States has also nKuiufactur- 
ing ; ' lishments worthy of a permanent record. In ullering this 
volume to the puljlie, it is but Just to acknowledge that it is almost 
wholly the result of the labor of other hands than those which 
prepared the previous ones. Having b,.'en drawn into the current 
of military life before the pidjlication of the second vuluine, and 
afterwanl by the force of circumstances prevented from immedi- 
ately prosecuting the work to its conclusion, its completion was 
intrusted to gentlemen whose industry, literary experience, and 
practical acquaintance with the subject gave assurance (jf judgment 
and lidclity in its execution. 15/ far the larger and better i«ortioii 
of the volume is the work of Edwin T. Freedley, of Philadelphia, 
while the statistical portion has been principally contributed by 
Mr. Edward Young, late of the Census Ollice in Washingtim city. 




It lias been the object in these pages to present, as clearly and 
grapliieally as possible, tlie results of American enterprise and 
ingenuity in organizing skilled labor, and subordinating tlic forces 
of nature and the mechanical powers to his service, in building up 
systematic estalilishmeuts and manuliieturing towns and villages; 
thus bringing into view numerous remarkable examples and pecu- 
liar phases of the many-sided, practical American character, as 
displayed in individual or associate undertakings. The United 
Stutcs, according to the last Census, contains not less than one 
hundred towns and cities, with populations of ten thousand and 
upward, engaged more or less in manufoetures. The constant ten- 
dency is toward the concentration of labor and capital in large 
towns where skilled workmen, banking privileges, transportation, 
and other facilities are most easily commanded. As these focal 
points of industry extend and increase in size, the methods of 
business are more and more assimilated to the factory systems of 
older and more densely populated countries, with their divisions 
of labor and handicraft perfection, so far as the more general use 
of machinery in this country permits. In many of these manufac- 
turing communities we see the operation of these laws and affini- 
ties of trade, which tend to concentrate certain branches of manu- 
facture in iiartieular localities. Ilen^e many of these busy hives 
of labor aie noted for special kinds of production, which are there 
fabricated to a greater extent or in greater perfection than else- 
where. The economy of several branches of American industry 
has been so modified by the genius and character of certain in- 
ventors or prominent producers as to dilYer materially from the 
methods employed in other countries. Other branches have been 
almost or entirely created by the mechanical improvements of men 

INTItuIurTIO.V. y 

wlio arc still on the stage of uctiou or have recently left it. These 
and many other interesting features of our imlustrial economy, 
with many details of particuhiv manufactures, omitted in the pre- 
ceding historical annals, will be found in this volume. While it 
contains much matter of a personal and local character, we believe 
no less I'egard has been jtaid to strict accuracy of statement than 
in the previous volumes, and the truth of history has in no case 
been knowingly sacrificed to gratify the subjects '^^ the sketches. 
Some of the descriptions have been made from sources deemed 
authentic and reliable, without the knowledge of the proprietors 
of the works noticed; though generally the accounts are derived 
from direct personal inquiry, and have received the corrections 
of the parties interested. It is believed that this volume, with 
the A]ipendix of the preceding volume, contains some account of 
nearly all the really extensive and noteworthy manufacturing 
establishments of the United Stotes, yet it could with propriety 
have been greatly extended if time had been aflbrded, and a future 
revision will enable us to remedy the oniissioua and defects of the 

^Vith these explanations the volume is committed to the indul- 
gence of the public, in the belief that it will be found of great 
])ractical value to manufacturers in showinsi; the interior manan'c- 
mcnt of large establishments, and to posterity in furnishing a land- 
mark and criterion by which they may measure tlioir progress iu 
the magnificent future now opening to the Nation's Industry. 

S T A T I S T I C S 







In ]SCO. the agents employed in faking tlio Eiglitii Census reported there were in I'liilii 
delpliiii i-ix tliousiind two hundred and ninety-clgbt manufacturing establislimonts. with 
n eiipital of $7;),."'1^)''SJ, employing sixty-eight thousand threo hundred and ni'ly rniilos, 
thirty thousand six hundred and tliirty-tlireo females, who produced a \aluo of 
$I35,97U,77r. Believing that the original returns were erroneous, Lorin lilodget, Seero- 
tary of the Board of Trade, was appointed to revise them, who reported as follows : 



Asrivultuiul inijilfini'iits 

AU'i'lut! iinil raniplu'iio 

Arlificinl limbs 

Arliliriiil tcutli 

flakois' liii'ail anil crackers... 

III.'ickinK anil ink 

liiillrianil rivets, wrought inin 

Uiino lilac.t 

Miiiikliinilihsr nnil blank bonks 

l!o"k jinbli-liin,!; 

Uodts lui'i sliiic-) 

IJrass fiinnilciH 


niitannia ware 

Ilricks. cnuiiiiiin an<l lU'i'sscil.. 

lirivks iiie 

Uri'iinis, corn 


Caps, men's nnil bov.'.' 

Caril:!, iila\SMH, ininlers', etc.. 


Carriages and coaelin 

Cars, for raihi.ail-- 

Car wheels and nxies 



Ce.fTee, roaste 1 nml gnuinil.... 
Combs, tortoi^^e-shell amlollicr 


No. of 



Cost of 
raw mato- 
. .?40.542 



Vnlne of 


f 142,910 














. 1,314..>!7.... 


.. 878 











.. 318 





. 100.150 

. 32 

192,0 CO 




,. CM..,.. 

. 694 





.. 003 

,. 241 

, 2,200,400 



. .,912.0.-|7 

.. 0.497 

. 1,937 





,. 310 

. 10 





00 000 

. 1,102.733..., 

.. 593 








.. 1,870 

. 1,212,190 




51, SCO 









,. 1,393,771.... 







.. 384.... 



.. 1,925 


,. 320 


,. 755 


2.58,1 ,J0 


. 2,91.5,018 




.. 1,038 

. l,o,51,.371 




.. 421...., 





.. 120...., 









,. 1,544.310.... 
,. 5,147,*44.... 



.. 702 

,. 0,.".09.... 

.. 35 

.. 8,078 

. 2,709,2.54 

. 9,984,497 





.. 250.... 





















i Fur 

j Gas 

j Ga» 

\ Olas 

1 Glo\ 


[ Gold 

1 Gold 

! Gun 

! Hail 


















Coopers' «"rk 

C'lil'Iier w.ii-U 

Conlai,'!'. li('ni|i iiiul ll;ix.... 
Cotton K.iiias, cliitlis, with 


Cotton t.'oo(ls, lianj looms, 
Cotton auil wooloii goods, 


Cotton and wooloii jroods, 

hand loont» 

Cotton wobbiui.', lapo, 

hraid, ^-c 

Cotton and woolou i;ia- 


Cured meats 

Cutlery.filool tools.fIIcs,&e. 

Distillers and rcctiliors 

Dyers, wool and cotton 

Kai'the aware ... 


Fire on^'ine.s 

Floar mills 



Fur manul'aelnres 

Gas works 

Glass, window, bottles, etc. 

Gloves, of bnekskin 

Glue, curled luiir, etc 

Gold leaf and foil 

Gold wateli cases k cliaina 

Guns and pintol.4 


Hats ; wool, silk, and fur. 

Hatters' trimmings 

Hosiery, woolen 

Hosiery, cotton 

Ink, printers' 

Iron castinc:s: 

Bulldini; foundrie.s 

Gas and water jiipo foundiies 

Stoves and hollow waro 

Iron railins's 

Iron rolling-mills, bar, 

sheet, and pinto 

Iron rolled tubes. Hues, &c. 
Iron wire and ornamental 


Jewelers and watchmakers 


Lead pipe, shot, and lead- 

Leather, in all forms 


Jlacliinery, general, of iroa 
Jhichiuists' tool mauufac's 
Mahogany mills 

No. of 

r.,«t of 



raw uiate- 











. f 201, :■:,-,,... 



.. l?is;i,r.t>l 


>4„-.oo ... 

77,210 .,„ 


Ms, 000 



l:il,:i:i:i.. , 





2,101, nm;)..., 

, 2,0.':!,740,,,. 

. 1,001,... 

.. 2,S02.... 

. 4,317,01,1 









. 2,021,813,,.. 

. 1,704,,. 

.. 1,0.V1.... 

. 3,,193,3'!G 




7? ., 




I,o7,^0( .... 

. 131,0115.,., 











. 3,.-do,41,-i,„, 


. 4,,17.1,Sii7 









, l,171,.-jlti.... 


. 1,490.031 










1112 .„ 














. 2,04S,01,i.... 


. 3,09b,325 



. C:i>;,02;),.., 

. 1,G13,... 

14 ,„ 

. l,So4,4.30 




SO ... 

10,1 ,., 






. 1,S37,.100 




. 1,099.... 


. 1,050,1,10 




S2,"i ,., 

. 1,069,000 


20.'; 00.... 

'o.OOO ,.. 






^ ■■ ,0)U).... 





140. 2;o 

73 ... 




741,, ".00..,. 

. l,lo-.s,-,.! 

c,-;s ... 


. l,711,^0(l 


















. 1, 104,222 



? -jO 





749,0?4, ,., 


, 1,.'JOO.... 

. 1,738,393 














74,1.10 ,„ 




I.-..-., 000,,,, 

l.'iO.OOO ,,,. 









000. 000 



. 1,306,700 










. 1,110,000 























. G2,792 


27.1.000 ... 

. 414,700 


. 63S,,100 



. 2,C01.,304 

. 1,170,... 


. 4,022,S;18 




. l,2,jj.... 

. l,4'2O,O0O 



. 737,727 

. 1,G13,... 

. t>.. 

, i,se2,ooo 










20,1 000 




Mar.tilliis iliuliori' oloiiks).. 

Shiv'jlo flitters 


Miitlii'maticiil aud optical 


Sfodi fines 

Milliii.'ry, l:ieos, straw 

'joods, etc 

Mineral water, nio:uI, etc., 

Jlii-rurs ami gilt I'lames 

Morucci) leather 

Nails cut 


Nets, llsli aud lly 

l)il«, animal 

dils, linseel aud nut 

Oils of rosin 

Oils, mineral, coal and po- 


Oil clotlis 

Ors'au linilders 

Paints aud colors 

I'aper mills 

I'aper liam;in:,'s 

rerfumery a iid fancy soaps 

i'iauos anil inelodeous 

I'liin^d liiiulier 

I'Uiinljers aud ijas litters .. 
Pocketbooks aud morocco 


Printers, Job and card 

Printers, steel and copper- 

Print works 

Provision curers iiud 

Koofs of felt aud compo- 

Hoofs, iron 

Saddles and liaruess 

Safes and liank l.i"ks 

.Sail aud uwniuf; niiiko's ... 

Sasli aud tiliud milkers 

Saws; band aud mill saws 

Sawed lumber 


Se'viug in.\cliines 

ShlpdMiildcrs, iron 

Ship-builders, wood 

Shins, collars, etc 

Shoveln, spades, etc 

fSilk-spinuinn mills 

Silk friutiOB and trimmluK" 

Silk dyers 

Silverware (s did) 

Silver-plated warn 

Siiuir >ud cut tobacco aud ' ludles 

No. of 

Cosi of 


raw niate- 



Value of 







30 . ... 





089. SSO 





, ^010,l■i5 











1 •.••)> 















. 1,080 














, 1,727,846 







94S,300, .... 




. 1,741,100 




9 ... 



103,000 .... ... 




4.)0,ooO , 

. 71.-I.40O..., 



3 ..... 






120,000 , 





200,000 ..... 












ri34,OiHI ... 


,. 1,101,724 


400,000 .... 

4s2.07.-i ... 






201.100 ... 









,. 712,.'l00 





410,:, 10 


20s, 2oO 





227,S.)0 .... 
















,. 1,430,420 


24,.'i0r ... 



,., ••• 




,. 2,S4? 300.... 

... 773..., 


.. 4,04S,88S 



. .3,.'.10,.n3.... 


.. 4,570,807 





• , ,,,, 












.,. 900,7S« 







33,:vio ... 



u .. 

... 144,000 



... 131, SOO... 

202 .. 


... 330,840 






208. 600 








. 402,700... 

... mi,240... 

. 1,120... 

.... 170 .. 

... 1,228,220 





















... B,V\787... 


... .3,180... 

... l,334,tKU 

li , 










.... 217... 







... 1,260,724 



2o,n."iO. . 





,30s, '03.. 





200, soo... 







41. .'.00... 





. 8,-A,333... 

... 1,421,123.. 

.... 3i3,. 


„. 8,070,51)0 



Value of 




















. 1,741,100 



240,1 S6 







. 1,101,724 







410,:. 10 







.. 1,43.-|,42,5 



.. 4,04S,!-5S 


.. 4,575,S07 

• •»• 




.. 9.-i!>,7!.0 

• .. 


i; .. 




, ... 

1 >3,020 

170 .. 

.. l,22'i,22i) 



• ... 


• ••• 


. 3,180... 

.. I,3:l4,!i0* 


.. 217... 



.. 1,200,724 








140,1 SO 


„. 3,070,001) 


^illices. ground 


bt'H'l UUVkl'M 

Stui'l KiniiiKs 

l^tovcsHud i-iiu:,'i'« 

SiiKiir ri-'Uuoi's 

i>art.'ii;;il iiud d.'uliU lu- 
st iiiiiioiit.s 

TiiUow rollucrs 

T uuior.s luid (.■un''"i's 

Tm luid shc't-irou 

Trunk', mid Ciiriii.t-lJiiK's.... 
Typo I'uiuidries iiud stoveo- 


t'lnli.' :i\sai;d iKtr.isoln.ic 


Vi'Uiitiiiu l)liud.s 


Wii^'.pu iniikoi-s iuid wlieol- 


Wagou-liul.M, sii.ikcs, fic... 

W'liito li';id 

Wliiii-* Hiul oauos 

Wi;i>i\v ware, codar ware, 

baskets, etc 

W,ioleus(,aU Woo!) 

Yarns, cottuii 

" woolen 

" wovoteu 

" mixed 

Totals lu llio City 
of I'liiladelplllii,— 
tucludliii,' iniKoeha- 
iieous inaiHil.ietnres, 
uot above specl- 
flod,— * 

lu llie iim.iedlato vi- 
ciuity of tlie elty ;— 
Cotton and wo.deu 


Iron, and niannl'ac- 

tiiips of Iron 


N'.i of 

Cost of 

Vale,, pf 



raw mate- 




















130,1 1,-.2 
004.1. t 







6,350, 7p10 









08,0(10 ... 


35 ... 



. 1,443,720 




















21 .... 


. 741,945... 


605 ... 

.. ],2pi7.3i.'0 
















183, .'5 J 


774, 4.W,.. 




997,1 '11 






925,01 pO... 














• •• " 


7 ... 

330,0011 .. 




... 1,002,801) 






... 849,253 

15 . 








21,775 .. 










C,314.... »73,0S7,832.... «72,333,50.^ 69,383.. 

100 5,038,040.. 

3,220,809 3,504.. 

2.-'',009., 4141,048/:58 

a, 309 0,777,34!) 

13 , 


, 1,003,003.., 
.Est, 250,1100,., 


6, 'p;? *5l,00s,.io2 ... 477,473,077 75 


32,390 . 

... .3,8';8,151 


, $l,i2,355.31S 




Tpital nuinlMTof persons piipl.iyed 

Tpp;al unnilp.'r of establislimeuls 

Averap' produeM.iu of each person _^ ^^ 

Averagu producliou to each establishment »-,i,.u, . 

. In 185.8, Edward Ypinn^r & C. published a work entitled "Vlillaplelphla a,ol it MannfactnreV' 

by v.dwin T. Fr lU'V, wbieh was the lirst con.prehensWo accpnnt that her cil./..ns ever had of llo 

l,,,p,prta,ioe of I'bilaplelpbla as a niannf,. tnrin,' cnlr,.. Th • able Sp-ere.ary of the lM.lla,lelpbla Bri.rJ 
of Trap!e,I.orlnHlod,ett,Es.,., tp. revlso lb,, olllelal slatistics l,pr the ( en«« ■ | 
ISO.. renarVslnhls Kepp,rt : "It Is also but Jns.lco to say that the puhlieatlppn o the 8tatlst,cs o, 

• ■ ' -n reiiiarkiib.y 

i:i;m.i;v i nl- 
liiaple in riiilapleliphi.i m 

nnvnnlactnres prepare,! by Mr Youn« and Mr. Freedley, in 1S58, pr.pvos to "'Vo been , 
aprnra.e in n, lov ..1 lb.. ,- ■«. m,.! ...lorMlly i.. b.' vp.ry w,01 M,..:iinp..l. n Iho,. M, n 

. . ■ . I .. i' 1 I. , ..>.! ..1. ^ t ■> 111 I'll 

lislippl an enliir..:. .1 eplillipli of bis Work, aiipl i 
ivli',, at j:225,l:.9 011. 

liniiili'l lb" *.ilue p'f llo iirtieb 




The Bridesburg Manufacturing Company. 


In the first roluiiio of this history we referred more than once to the 
important part performe.l hy tlic Hon. Joseph Jenks, Governor of 
Itliotle Ishvp.'l, in tlie early fabrication of Iron in this country. A lineal 
descendant of h's, Mr. Rarion II. Jeidvs, is now proprietor of one of 
tli^^ most complete works for ti.j manufacture of Cotton and Woolen 
Machinery, and of Fire-arms, in operation in the United States,— the 
Bride>l)nrn- Machine Works. 

The founder of this eslahli^liment, Mr. Alfred Jenks, was a pupil and 
eolal.orer for many years wiiii tiie celebrated Samuel Slater, who erected 
the lirst eotton-mili in Rawtucket, R.I. In 1810, Mr. Jenks removed 
t.. ll.dmesbnrf.-, Pa., takiiip- with him drawings of every variety of cotton 
machinery, as far as it ha<l then advanced in the line of improvemeut, 
and commenced its manufacture. The first mill started in this portion 
or the State of Rennsylvania was supplied i)y machinery constructed l)y 
him, and was situated in La;_^ran-e IMaeo, near llolmesburt-. In iSlC, 
lie built a number of looms for wcavinj? cottonades for Joseph Ripka. 
Vnder the universal imi.ctus -i .en to home manufactui-cs during the last 
war, Mr. Jenks greatly extended his i)usiness operations, mid in 181!) or 
ls:iO removed to his present desirable location in Rridesbnrg, the in- 
creased growth of wldcli is owing in no small degree to the jtersonal 
elVorls ami enterprise of 1 imself and the importance of ids cstablisiunent. 
II. re, where he possi-<e.l tlie necessary facilities for shipping to his 
m.u-o di>tnnt patrons, he conveyed his eld frame building from Holmes- 
burg on r.dlers, whicli yet stands anud tiie more substantial and e.xcel- 
leul^<truetul•es beside i!. When the demand lirst arose for woolen ma- 
chinery in Rennsylvania, Mr. Jenks answered it, ami at once cmmeiued 
it. manufacture, and furnished the lirst woolen mill started in the State, 
by Ilethuel M.jore, at ronshohucken, with all the machinery neccs.sary f-r 

this inannl'aclure. 

In 1S;J0, he invented a power-looui for weaving cheeks, and intro- 
dnced it iido the Kempton :\lill at Manayunk, where its smress produced 
su.-h excitement amon- hand-weavers and others opposed to labor-saving 
maehineiy as to cauH' a large i.umberof them to go to the mill with the 





n once to the 
(Jovuriior of 
;ry. A liiu'iil 
xn' of one of 
aiul Woolen 
StiUcs,— tlie 

IS a pupil and 
•, who ei'octed 
links removed 
I'ict y of eotloa 
n this portion 
constructed by 
urg. In islC), 
Oseph Kipka. 
.luring the last 
md in 1811) or 
.'sburi,', tlie in- 
the jiersoiial 
lippinu' to iii^ 
fnini llolmes- 
tial and excel- 
)r wooU'U ma- 
ce eommeni'ed 
(1 in tiu! State, 
y necessary for 

jks, and intro- 
ccess produced 
to labor-savin, i^ 
e mill wilii the 


avowed purpose of destroying it, from doing which they were oidy pre- 
vented liy the presence of an armed force. Tliis ami oilier improved 
machinery made by Mr. Jenks soon accpiired an extended reputation, 
and induced the erection of larger buildings ; and now llie eslabli.-iiment 
is one of th» most extensive ami important in tliis country. Since the 
decease of Mr. Alfred Jenks, and for several years previously, the busi- 
ness lias been conducted i)y his .son, Mr. Barton II. Jenks, to wiiom, if 
eulogy were admissilde, we miglit refer as the type of a model manufac- 
turer,— ferlile in invention, skilil'ul in mechanism, lii)eral, just and public 

spintod, one, indeed, who throws around the pursuit of manufacturing 

something of the lustre and glory which the mercantile profession bor- 
rowed from the genius of Giovanni de ISledlci. 

To attempt a recital of the various inventions and improvements 
which this lirni have made for the benefit of cotton and woolen manufac- 
turers, would carry us too far beyond our limits. Of Ijooms they man- 
ufacture a large number of dilferent styles, ranging from the singlo 
shultle or ordinary loom, through the more intricate forms of two- 
shutlle looms for weaving checks, tlr.ce and four shuttle looms for ,veav- 
ing "dndianis and other faljrics requiring a corresponding number of 
colors in the weft, to the more enlarged carpet loom; and all of these 
cmbracti in a greater or less degree improvements and advantages not 
possessed by looms manufactured elsewhere. The several imi)rovemenH 
in the looms are covered by seven distinct patents; and the main fea- 
tures accomplished l)y these inventions, so far as they relate to the two, 
three, and four shuttle looms, may be said to consist in the expeditious 
manner of moving the shuttle boxes to change the i)ieks of weft, and, 
byceriain new constructions, combinations, and irrangement of parts 
essential to this operation, and to others of an important character, by 
which almost as many picks of welt can be made by these two, I lire.', 
and four shuttle looms as by the .single shuttle lo>.m. As an exempliti- 
cation of this it may be stated that so perfect is the arranuenient of the 
various parts of tliCM' latter drscription of looms, and the principle upon 
which they work, that they make 1:10 picks ..f weft per minute where 
the same class of ordinary looms only make 1 U». 

The looms for weaving the more elaborate and fancy clmracter of 
goods an> also perfect iu their operati(ms, particularly the loom for 
weaving damask table-cloths, nai.kins, and articles of alike character, 
and the curiiel-loom. This latter has thiily-two shuttles, and is capable 
of laying sixteen din'erent colors in the figure, and an '.'iiual number oi' 
colors in liie ground of the carpet. 

The sell-stripping cotton and woolen carding eugines laanufactur.d 



at tliis cstablislinient, are difTercnt from the eanlin<r macliines generally 
used. Instead of delivering tlie cotton or wool to the main evlinder as 
heretofore, it is, after being fed to the maeliiiie by rollers, passed to the 
"lieker-iu" cylinder, by which it is delivered to the main evlinder, whence 
it is successively retaken with its dirt, redelivered to the main cylinder 
by additional cylinders, arranged in the same relation to the periphery 
of the main cylinder as the first-mentioned " licker-in" cylinder, and 
driven by strii)per heads at the ends of the cards, at variable speeds, so 
as to enal)le the dirt to detach itself from tiie -otton or wool during its 
increased speed with the additional card cylinders, and drop into °i re- 
ceptacle be'ow. In this manner these cylinders are made to act as self- 
acting cleaners to the cotton and main cylinder card, and this avoids the 
necessity of the usmd and constant hand-stripping to effect this olyeet, 
and the eonserpient loss of time, besides enai)ling tlie cotton or wool to 
be more regularly laid and thoroughly cleaned/ This effective method 
of cleainng the cotton and main card cylinder l)y delivering the former 
on to the latter successively at two and three different points, was origi- 
nally projected and patented by Messrs. Gambrill &, Burgy, in 1855, and 
subsequently improved and brought to its present perfect state by .Air. 
Btrton 11. Jcnks in 1857; and in consequence he became interested 
with them under a reissued patent. He also added doffing- rollers, to 
take the place of the usual comb for delivering the cotton or wool. For 
these he has also obtained a patent. By this system of delivering, an 
increased speed can lie given the card, without danger of injury to the 
staple, over that attained where the comb is employed. 

For several years Mr. Jenks has been experimenting upon and con- 
structing the necessary machinery to complete a cylinder Ootlon-fjin, which 
gives prouiise of producing one of the most extraordinary improvements 
in the process of ginning the raw material that has been devised since the 
advent of Whitney's Saw Gin. It is well known that in ginning cotton 
■vith the ordinary gin the violent action of their teeth in dragging it be- 
tween the bars tears the staple and injures it in a corresponding degree. 
The injury thus done the cotton has been variously estimated at from 
three quarters to one cent per i)ound,— a loss that swells the sum total to 
several millions of dollars on a full crop in this country. Now, the , b- 
jeet of tills new' form of Gin is to do away with the u^ual shaft uf saws, 
and suI)stituto for them a peculiarly constructed cylinder, its outer 
periphery consisting of numerous and regularly set angular steel wire 
teeth, imbedded in Babbitt metal, in positions inclined to the direction 
of the cylinier's motion, so that after the cylinder, or rather the outer 
ends of the teeth are ground down uud finished, each tooth will present 



les generally 
ti cyliiuler as 
)a.sseil to the 
nek r, whence 
lain cylinder 
he puriplicry 
ylindor, ami 
le sjjcods, so 
3l during its 
jp into 11 re- 
act as self- 
is avoids the 
^ this object, 
II or wool to 
tive method 
J the former 
3, was origi- 
n 1855, and 
itate by ^Ir. 
B interested 
J- rollers, to 
wool. For 
livering, an 
iijury to the 

m and con- 
i-yjH, which 
cd since the 
ning cotton 
rging it be- 
ing degree, 
ted at from 
iiiu total to 
ow, the , b- 
il't uf saws, 
, its outer 
steel wii'o 
e direclion 
r the outer 
fill present 

a separate, sharp, and smooth point, tangential to the periphery of the 
cylinder. These tectti are so close together that nothing but cotton can 
be secreted between tlioui. 

This leads us to notice a most ingenious and extraordinary macliine, 
made at this manufactory, for puncturing the cylinders of thick paper 
and ])i'cparing and setting therein the angidar teeth prejjaratory to 
casting around tlieir inner ends the cylinder of IJabbitt's metal, in wliicii 
they are imbedded to form tiie alloyed cylinder of the cotton-gin. Wliile 
witnessing its operation, and its parts performing functions rc<piiring 
the greatest nicety and regularity of movement, to grasp the wire and 
successively carry it througli a variety of intricate operations that woidd 
seem impossible except to the manipulation by iiand of the most skilll'ul 
person, one cannot but pay homage to the genius, skill, and patience of 
its autlior. Its complex character will prevent us, of course, from giv- 
ing a minute description of it ; but we will endeavor to state, in tlie 
regular order in wliieli tliey take i)laco, the several operations necessary 
to finally set these angular wire teeth in their alloyed base ou the 
periphery of the cylinder. 

Tlie paper cylinder in which the teeth arc first set is the same or a 
little greater lenglli than the alloyed base of the cylinder, and is designed 
to receive 1)5,000 teeth. This paper cylinder is placed on circular heads, 
througli which a main sliaft moves loosely, — one of these heads, en part 
of the periphery of which a screw is formed, so as to actually make it a 
screw nut, has a cog or tongue on it, which enters a longitudinal groove 
in tiie hollow shaft, so as to cause it to revolve with the shaft and yet 
move freely over its surface longitudinally. Tin's screw nut meshes in 
gear witli the 'licks on two i)arallel partially flattened screw shafts, ar- 
ranged on either side of the main shaft awl parallel thereto, wliieli screw 
shafts can be turned on their axis to disengage their screw nicks from 
gear witli the screw nuts, and bring blank llattened surfaces next it, so 
as to be run back quickly after it has jierformed the necessary forward 
movement, through the agency of a ratchet and gearing, with the ac- 
companying paper cylinder, to set all the teeth designed for it therein. 
Tiie wires, previously l)rought to the angular edge desired, are wound 
on two reels, hung on journals above the machine, and are passed be- 
tween movable nippers or pincers, which are caused to move back ami 
forth at intervals by a lever or cam, clam|»ing or griping the wires, in 
their movement from the front, and releasing their hold in returning. 
Tiieneo the wires eontinuo under clamps, by wliieh they are held during 
the return movement of the nippers, and from which they arc released 
during the opposite movement, to allow the free passage of the said 
wires between guides, into corresponding openings in a peculiarly formed 


oscillating arm termed a carrycr, whose oseillating movement is constant 
over the extent of a quarter of a circle, except a sligiit rest or stoppatrc 
nt the termini r.f each stroke, sufficient to receive the wires, and allow 
them to be cut off at the proper lengths by cutting snips in the <ruiiles 
immediately next it, and the punches to force the cut teeth out of it 
into tiie previously made punctures in the paper cylinder. This peculiar 
oscilliitiiig movement of tlie carrier, with its stoppages, is produced by 
means of a series of scroll cams, operating on a toothed or partially- 
cogircd wheel on tlie front end of the carrier-shaft. Simultaneous with 
the inward movement of the nippers with the wires grasped between 
them, two horizontal punches are pushed inward and entirely through 
the pai)er cylinder, on lines tangential with its periphery, in order to 
make the necessary holes or punctures for the rcccpoou of the tectii, the 
paper cylinder being clamped, during this operation, as well as during 
th6 subsecinent operation of setting the teeth therein, between the end 
of aback rest and n stationary head, to jirevent it from turning, from 
whose grasp it is released after the two objects of puncturing the cyl- 
inders and setting tlie teeth have been accomplished. As tlie carrier 
desceud.s, the crop-head containing the jmnches is raised so as to take 
the puncturing punciies out of range of the pai>er cylinders, and the 
reciprocating bar by which they arc moved, and bring tlie other punciies 
on tiie same horizontal p'a>'e they previously occupied, so as to force 
the teeth from the carrier into the punctures iireviously made for them. 
In tills manner the several parts of the uiachine are made to act in con- 
cert from a regular motion, the paper cylinder being turned and moved 
forward at proper intervals by tlie before-mentioned ratchet and suitable 
gearing, and the several operations of moving the wires into the carrier 
the proper distance to form tiie teeth, cutting them off, puncturing the 
paper cylinder with suitable holes for their receittion, carrying them 
opposite these holes, setting them therein, and the intermediate duties 
of the various parts being performed at the ])roi)cr intervals of time, and 
in the regnlar order, to enable the machine to set tlie extraoidinary 
number of two hundred and forty teeth in the cylinder per minute. 
After this paper cylinder is set or studded with 95,000 teeth, it is re- 
moved from the machine and placed concentric with a metallic cylinder, 
the inner ends of the teeth which project inward equally from the inner 
periphery of the paper cylinder, while their outer ends are flush with 
the outer one, serving to keep it in its proper relation to the metallic 
cylinder, during the pouring of the Uabbitt metal around the same and 
between it and the paper cylinder and ends of the teeth, to which it 
forms a base or bed. In pouring the metal the channel through which 
it pusses is such as to cause it to lirst descand to the bottom of the me- 





,t is constant 
or stoppiiu;c 
3s, ami n!lo\v 
n the <!;ai(le3 
eth out of it 
riiis peculiar 
produced by 
or pivrtitilly- 
taneous with 
ped between 
irely tlii'ough 
, in order to 
he teotli, the 
'cU as during 
ween the end 
turnin<?, from 
iring the evi- 
ls tlic carrier 
so as to take 
ilcrs, and the 
)thcr pnnclies 
so as to force 
ade for them, 
to act in con- 
?d and moved 
t and suitable 
to the carrier 
uncturinpr tlio 
arryins; them 
nediate duties 
Is of time, ai\d 
r per minute, 
teeth, it is re- 
allic cylinder, 
Tom the inner 
ire flush with 
) the metallic 
the same and 
th, to which it 
hrough which 
am of the me- 

tallic cylinder, and then rise outside the same throuRh and between the 
ends of the teeth, so as to allow the escape of the air before it. When 
the metal is cooled and set, the paper cylinder is wet and softened, and 
turned off, and the outer ends of the tedli are trvound to give them the 
peculiar sliarp form ami uniform length before mentioned. 

Tiierc are numbers of other new machines and improvements in this 
cstul)lishmeiit for assisting in the work intended for the madiinery they 
maimfacturo, but we must limit our notice to two of tliem. Tiie hrst of 
these is an attachment of additional tools to tlie mandrils of drills, and 
is so very simple and effective as to astonisli the beholder. The design 
of this improvement is to finish the hubs of cog-wheels, pulleys, etc., and 
the mandril is so formed as to admit of tlie attachment of a frame or 
slock containing a facing tool, a cliamfering tool, and a tool for turning 
the outside of the hub, arranged m sticii relation to each other as to en- 
able the entire operations nameil to l)e jx'rfurmed simultaneously, and^y 
one descent of tlie mandril. The I)oring ami reaming tools can also be 
added, and the drill made to perform these additional functions at the 
same time, one man being able, under tliis process, to attend to two 
drills. This is not only a decided lal)(ir-aving improvement, but is ad- 
vantageous in this respect, that the comi)ined work performed through it 
is more accurate than if the tools were set separately, and each part of 
the work done singly, as heretofore. 

Tiie other machine referred to is an automatic cutting engine for cut- 
ting either plain or ))cvel cog-wiieels and pinions. Tliis machine can be 
adjusted to cut any sized og, on any sized wlieel, l)y simply detaching 
a segment cogged jilate or cur)), which acts to turn the platen and liul) 
witirthe wheels to be cut, tlie jtroper distance to correspoinl with the 
distance apart of the intended cogs, and sulistituling anoliier of the 
requisite size,— the feature of turning the pialeii and hub and wheels to 
bo cut the required distance being effected and regulated by the cogged 
Hogment or curb. Tlie extent of the up-and-down travel of the platen 
anil hub is also adjusted to correspond with the thickness ami number of 
wheels to be cut, by means of a sliding box, to which the raising chain 
is attached, and which is secured and capable of being moved in a slot 
or groove in the oscillating arm through which the platen and hub 
receive their movement. Any number of cog-wiieols, whose combined 
thicknesses are not greater than the movement of the platen, can be 
placed and secured on the hub, and after the machine is adjusted, it can 
be started and left to automatically cut, without any attendance what- 
ever, the entire cogs of the wheels in the most accurate and beautiful 
manner. In case it is desired, the parts can be modiUed and the machine 
adjusted to the cutting of bevel cog-wheels. 



The Port Richmond Iron Works. I. P. Morris, Towne & Co., Proprietors. 

Tills is QUO of the establishments to wliich rhiladclphia is indebted for 
Inn- reputation for ability to construet lieavy machinery. Its existonue 
may bo said to cover tlie whole period of the manufacture of machinery 
by modern metliods. In 1828, when Levi :Morris & Co., the prede- 
cessors of the present firm, commenced business, many of the tools which 
are now deemed indispensable in every machine shop, even those of the 
most moderate pretensions, were scarcely known. At that time slide 
latiies and power drill i)resses were not in general use, and the only 
representative of the phming-machine in this country, it is believed, was 
to be found at flie Allaire Works, in \ew York, originally bnilt for fiuting 
rollers. It was not until 1838 that a planer was purchased and fitted 
up in the Ilichmond works. In the Foundry department, the opera- 
tions were also conducted with very imperfect and inelhcient machinery 
compared with that now in use. Anthracite coal, which was introduced 
here about 1820, was by no means exclusively used for melting iron. 
The blowing machinery was of a very primitive character, with unwieldy 
wooden bellows and open tuyeres. Tiie be it product was not more than 
two thousand to three thousand pounds of iron in an hour, and in the 
course of the heat an average much below this. With the present im- 
proved I)lowing machinery, and improved furnaces, eight tons have 
been melted in forty-six minutes, with a consumption of coal of one 
pound to eight pounds of iron melted. 

In 184G, the works were removed from Market and Schuylkill Seventh 
streets to their present location, which is on the Delaware Kiver, 
adjoining the Reading Railroad Coal Wiiarves on the south. Tlie 
buildings, which are of brick, occupy a lot having a front on the Dela- 
ware River of 145 feet, a front on Richmond street, or Point Road, of 
200 feet, and an entire depth or length, from the Richmond side to the 
eml of wharf, of 1,050 feet. 

The remarkable feature in this establishment is the extraordinary size 
of the tools in use, and the perfection of the machines employed in the 
various shops. In tlie Foundry there are three Cupola Furnaces, the 
largest of which will melt twelve tons of iron per hour. In the 
Machine tihop, there is a Rlaning Machine capable of planing castings 
eight feet wide, six feet high, and thirty-two feet long; a Lathe 
that will swing six feet clear, and turn a length of thirty-four feet ; and 
a Boring Mill, possessing also the qualities of a horizontal lathe, which 
will bore out a cylinder sixteen feet in diameter and eighteen feet long. 
This is believed to be the largest in America or Europe. In their 




ilcbted for 
he pi'ede- 
Dols whicli 
oso of tlie 
time slide 
I the only 
ieved, was 
for fluting 
and fitted 
lie opera- 
Iting iron. 
I unwieldy 
more tluiu 
and in the 
(resent im- 
tons have 
lal of one 

ill Seventh 
ire Kiver, 
uth. Tiie 
I the Dula- 
-j Road, of 
side to the 

dinary size 
jyed in the 
rnaees, the 
'. In the 
ig castings 
; a Lathe 
■ feet ; and 
ithe, which 
feet long. 
In their 

Boiler Shop they have one large Riveting Machine, and facilities for 
making boilers or plate-iron work, of every description that may bo 
desired. But a few years i^'o. Steam Boilers, made of plate-iron, were 
riveted exclusively with hand-hammers ; and when the City Water-Works 
were located at Centre Square, the st-am boilers were built of wood, 
with cast-iron furnaces. At the present time, in this, as in the best 
shops, circular boilers are riveted in a machine, by pressure produced l)y 
a cam operating upon a sliding mandril. In their Smithery, they have 
a Nasmyth Steam Hammer for heavy forgings ; a \ -t Hammer for light 
work ; and throughout the establishment, the minor tools, consisting of 
Lathes, Boring Mills, Slotting and Shaping Machines, Planing Ma- 
chines. Horizontal and Vertical Drills, etc., etc., are all of the best 
description, and combine the latest improvements. 

The monuments of this firm's engineering ability are found in all parts 
of the country. Probably the largest engines for producing iron with 
anthracite coal ever built in this country, are the product of their works. 
For the Lackawanna Iron Works, at Scranton, Pa., they built two 
Blowing Cylinders, nine feet bore, and ten feet stroke, and Steam 
Cylinders fifty-four inches In diameter and ten feet stroke. • For Seyfert 
McManus & Go's, furnace, at Reading, they built a direct high pressure 
Blowing Machine, the steam cylinder being forty inches in diameter, 
and blowing cylinder one hundred and two inches, both seven feet 
stroke of piston. For the Lehigh Crane Co., they built •. Beam Con- 
densing Engine, having a steam cylinder fifty-eight inches diameter, and 
a blowing cylinder ninety-three inches, both ten feet stroke of piston. 
The l)eam of this engine works on a column of cast-iron thirty feet high, 
and the whole is set upon a heavy cast-iron bed plate. For the Thomas 
Iron Works, they supplied two very large beam engines, the steam 
cylinders being sixty-six inches in diiiuieter, and the blowing cylinders 
one hundred and eight inches diameter, and ten feet stroke. These, it 
is believed, are the heaviest ever made for the purpose. The large 
eno-ines of the United States Mint, and the lever beam Cornish Pump. 
ing Engine at the Schnylkill Water Works, sixty inches diameter, ten 
feet stroke, were constructed at their works. 

This firm also built the Iron Light House for the ship shoal, in the 
Gulf of Mexico, which was put up on screw piles, in water fifteen feet 
deep and at a distance of twelve miles from land. The whole height 
of the structure, from the water to the top of the spire, was one hundred 
and twenty-two feet, and from the water to the focal plane, one hundred 
and seven and a half feet. The structure above the foundation to the 
deck, a height of ninety-three feet, was erected in their yard, complete 
in all its parts before shipping 



For Lousiana and the West Indies, they have manufactured every 
variety of sugar apparatus and engines for sugar mills; and Nortii 
Carolina they have supplied with a large ^urabcr of their celebrated 
Gang Saw Mills, by which a log of yellow pine can be converted into 
flooring-boards by once passing through the mill. The gangs consist of 
twelve to twenty-four saws, driven by direct connections with a steam 
engine at a speed of one hundred and twenty to one hundred and forty 
strokes per minute. They are not much known, except at the South, 
but we think they would be found highly useful in the pine forests of 
New Jersey, and the Middle and Western States. Recently this firm 
has been largely employed in building engines for government vessels— 
the gunboats Itasca, Scioto, and Tacony ; the Ericsson batteries, San- 
gamon and Lehigh, and the Iron-clad batteries, Monadnock and Ag- 

The firm of I. P. Morris, Towne & Co., is now composed of Isaac P. 
Morris, John H. Towne, John. J. Thompson, and Lewis Taws. The 
first-named gentleman was born in 1803, was one of the original 
partners in the firm of Levi Morris & Co., who commenced business in 
1828. and sioce that period has been identified with the manufacturing 
interests of Philadelphia. In his business career, he has been distin- 
guished for a discriminating intelligence, inflexible honesty, and Ji 
laudable public spirit. Mr. J. H. Towne was formerly engineering 
partner of the firm of Merrick & Towne, and is an engineer of 
unquestioned ability. Mr. Thompson, wlio has been connected with 
the establishment for many years, has under his charge the finances 
of the firm. Mr. Taws has been connected witli the concern since 
1834, and until 1861, when Mr. Towne joined the firm, had exclusive 
control of the mechanical department of the establishment. He served 
his apprenticeship with Rush & Muhlenberg, the successors of Oliver 
Evaos, and in early manhood went to New York, where he entered into 
tiie employment of the West Point Foundry Association, then under the 
superintendence of Adam Hall, a distinguished Scotch engineer. The 
present arrangement of the Port Richmond Works is the result of his 


The firm of I. P. Morris, Towne «fc Co. have a capital invested 
in their business of over $400,000, and employ about 400 hands. 
Their list of manufactures includes every description of heavy machinery 
except locomotives. 



The Southwark Foundry. Merrick & Sons, Proprietors. 

This is another of tlie remarkable machine cstablisliraent s of Pliila- 
delphia. It was st-.irted in 183C as a foundry for castings only, but was 
soon enlarged, and now the entire space occupied by buildings is 63,050 
feet, with a yard-room of 80,550, maiiing the entire space occupied by 
the establishment 144,200 square feet. In addition, it has a tract of 
land on the Delaware Iliver, about 400 feet front and 1,100 feet deep, 
aifording ample space for extensive iron boat yards ; and on this tract 
there is a line pier, fiO feet wide and 250 feet long, with a very powerful 
shears at tlie end, capable of lifting fifty tons. 

A brief description of some of the objects of interest in this establish- 
ment will show that the arrangements, tools, and appliances in use, are 
on a scale^roportionate to tlie capaciousness of the buildings. 

The foundry has two Cranes, capable of lifting fifty tons each, and 
three others of thirty tons lifting power, by which any object may be 
transferred from one extremity to the other, or to any point on the floor. 
Two fifty-inch Cupolas arc used for melting the iron, and are supplied 
by a pair of 131ast Cylinders forty inches in diameter, and three-feet 
stroke. Twenty-five tons of metal can be melted in three hours. The 
Ovens for drying the Cores are of immense size and capacity. 

In the Smith Sliop, the blast is obtained by an Alden Fan. There are 
two Nasmyth Steam Hammers, one of ten hundred- weight and one of five 
hundred-weight of ram. There are also in this shop Bolt and Ilivcl 
Macliines, for the manufacture of these articles, large numbers of which 
are annually used. The Brass Foundry has a Cupola and four Crucible 


The lower Mochine shop has a Boring Mill which will bore a cylinder 
eleven feet in diameter, and fourteen feet high ; a Planing Machine, 
believed to be the largest in the world, capable of planing eight feet 
wide, fifteen feet deep, and thirty feet long, besides other lathes and 
planers, of various dimensions and power ; two Slotters, Drill Presses, 
etc., etc. The upper Machine Shop is well stocked with Smaller Latlies. 
Planers, Shaping and Drilling Machines, Vices, etc. The Boiler Shop 
is provided with a Riveting Machine capable of riveting a boiler forty 
feet long, and of any diameter; with u Treble Punching Machine of im- 
mense strength ; with heavy and light Shears and Punches ; an Air 
Furnace, for heating large plates; Rolls, for bending; Cranes, etc. 
The largest Erecting Shed, used for putting up sugar apparatus, has a 



traveling Crane extending its whole length. The business of making 
Sugar Apparatus forms a large item in the i)rocUictions of this establish- 
ment ; and for a list of some of the extraordinary machines that have 
been constructed here, \vc must refer the reader to the work on Pliila- 
dclphia and itti MiDutfadures, to which we are jirincipally indebted for 
these facts. Ordinarily, from tliree hundred and lifty to five hundred 
hands receive constant employment at these works. 

William Sellers & Co.'s Machine Tool Works. 

In the manufacture of Machine Tools, Philadelphia has' a peculiar 
and deserved celebrity. Iron being comparatively cheap, by reason of 
proximity to the sources of its production, the Philadelphia builders 
use it freely in the beds and other important parts of their tools, which 
are consequently remarkable for solidity and freedom from injurious 
vibration when in active use. The weight of metal, however, is not so 
much their distinguisliing characteristic as the excellence of the work- 
manship. Any one who will visit the establishment of William Sellers 
& Co., cannot fail to be astonished at the extreme pains taken to insure 
accuracy in all i'rfs of the machines which they make. The wearing 
surfaces are iscioped together — a slow and laborious process, which, 
however, secures alisolute contact at every point. The bolt-holes are all 
reamed, and the bolts turned and driven home. The gearing is cut to 
a perfect form of tooth in every case. All the parts are made to 
standard guages, whereby each will fit its corresponding part in a hundred 


The firm which we have named has attained a reputation that is truly 
enviable. We know of no other that in so short a period of time has 
built up a mechanical reputation so wide-spread, resti.ig on a basis of 
unquestioned substantial excellence. In 1S48, the firm of Bancroft & 
Seller^; commei,L?d business in Philadelphia, and in a very few years 
their intluen-e was lelt in all branches of the machine manufacture. 
Tools from their shop were ordered from Russia, and supplied to 
other parts of Europe. Early in 18.")5, Mr. Bancroft died. Since his 
decease, the firm has been composed of two brothers, William and 
John Sellers, Jr., names that at this time are everywhere regarded as 
a sufficient guarantee of the excellence of whatever they manufacture. 
In w orkmanship, mathematical, not proximate accuracy, is their standard. 
A variation of a hair's breadth, if it can be overcome, is not left unremedied. 

Besides Machinists' Tools, this firm manufactures a number of special 









Articles which arc in extensive demand. The Self-adjusting Hanger, 
made by them, is of great value in the construction of shafting, inasmuch 
re it allows the sluifl complete control of the bearing, so as to insure an 
equal amount of pressure on every part. By means of this, they are 
enubl.;d to use a long bearing without danger of binding the shaft, thus 
reducing the pressure per square inch upon the bearing, and consetiuently 
requiring less oil, as the pressure does not force out the oil so as to 
bring the surfaces of iron in contact and cause them to heat and cut. 

About six years ago, the firm introduced a new p'an of coupling 
shafting together, which obviated entirely the necessity, before existing, 
of fitting each shaft to its proper coupling, and also enabled them to 
adopt a new style of hanger, of much cheaper construction than any in 
use, the whole completing a system at prcsei>t unequalod, all parts 
being interchangeable. The ability to interchange the parts in any 
system of construction is a matter that manufacturers can fully appre- 
ciate; but in shafting, it not only greatly facilitates its first introduction, 
but it enables any subsequent alterations or repairs to be readily made, 
and, what is of prime consequence, reduces its first cost whilst it ini 
proves the article. 

Tliev also manufacture a Turn-Table, for turning an engine and tender, 
of wliich the largest size is llfty-four feet in diameter, and weighs 32,000 lbs. 
It consists of a quadrangular centre-piece or box, upon which the arms for 
carrying the rails arc keyed in a very s.ibstantial manner. At the outer 
end of the arms are placed two cross-girts, carrying four truck wheels, 
which are intended to take the weight when the load is going on or off. 
The centre rests upon Parn/s Patent Ant, ■-Friction Box, and the 
power of one man is stifficicnt to turn the table and its load easily, 
without the intervention of any gearing. They arc so constructed that 
water in the pit, within eighteen inches of the top of the rail on the 
road, will not impair their elBciency or durability. Twenty-five of these 
Turn-Tablcs are now in use on the Pennsylvania Central Railroad, and 
the orders for them require the firm to complete one in every four days. 
Some three years ago, Messrs. Sellers & Co. introduced GiffarcVs Patent 
Self-acting Water Injector, for feeding boilers, of which they are now- 
sole manufacturers and licensees. This is an apparatus which is intended 
to dispense with pumps in feeding boilers and the various movements 
for working them in all classes of engines. It is an adjunct to the boiler 
and entrrcly independent of the engine, and its application is rendered 
especially easy by the fact that it can be placed in any position, vertical, 
horizontal, or otherwise, and near to, or at a distance from the boiler, 
and at any reasonable height above the line of the feed water. This 
Injector will supply itself from the hot well of a condensing engine, and 



is connected with tlie boiler by two pipes, one leading from the steam 
space, and the other conducted to the lowest convenient point of the 
water space. By using this apparatus, those having boilers save not 
only liie iirst cost of all pumps and the jiarts to connect them with the 
engine and boiier, but the power requiv.d to woi'lc them, and their wear 
and tear, which in high-pressure engin.. j is very considerable. Since tiieir 
introduction, and the improvements which they have made upon them, 
this firm have sold more than i;iree thousand, and we believe with 
entire satishiction to the purchasers. They have now forty hand.^ con- 
stantly emi)loyed in manufacturing them, and tlieir orders are at the 
present time fully up to their capacity for producing them.* 

Tiiis firm are now manufacturing the Morrison Steam Hammer in 
this country. It is largely in use in England, being nmnufactured at 
Xew-Castle-upon-Tyne, by Messrs. Robert Morriijon & Co. These ma- 

" As this work will probably bo perused 
by It largo number of manufacturers, and 
others who have boilers and steam engines, 
wc probably cannot il ' our readers ■'. greater 
piiictieal service thmi in calling their atten- 
tion to this valuable iinprovomcnt. The 
Oeiiornl Superintendent of tlio Pennsylvania 
Central Uailroad, Sir. Enoch Lewis, writes: 
" Wo have a b'rgo number of Gill'ard's Iiijee- 
ti a upon our stationary anil locomotive 
engines, and they continue to give us entire 
snlisfaction. Upon all tho now engines 
buill for us daring tho past year, and upon being tuih for us at this time, we are 
using Ihem to tho entire i elusion of pumps. 
Wherever pumps reipiiro renewal, we use 
Injectors in place of them. AVo lliid them 
loss liable to derangement than pumps, anu 
at least equally efScient." 

Robert Kennio, proprietor of the Lodi 
Print \7orks, Bergen cuunty, N. J., cerlilies : 
"The UitVnrd I'jcctor has no\y been in uso 
on one set of my boilers for nearly two 
montha. It ia a perfect success, and, al- 
though I have some of tho best known 
steam pumps on my other boilers, I intend 
to take the'.i all out, and supply their places 
with Injeitors. They are tho most perfect 
boiler fccilor over invented, and a blessing 
to any on ) that has as many boilers as I 

Isaao Hinckley, PnperintenJont of tho 
Merrimack Manufacturing Corporation at 
Lowell, writes : " Tho No. (liffarJ Injector, 

which we rece'ved in November last, baa 
never failed to perform its duty perfectly. 
It takes .eed water at about 125° Falir't, 
from a tank placed about thirty inches 
below tho •vater line of tho boilers; and 
feeds in the most satisfactory manner a 
Ijniler of sevoi feet diameter and tionty-fivo 
feet long, and carrying stoam at about 
twenty-four pounils. Tho second Injector 
of the s:ime size, lately receiveil, is also in 
successful operation, feedingancst of boilers, 
where steam is carried at forty pounds. Wo 
shall want in April three more Injectors; 
and I low see no reason to doubt that this 
Company will eventually api'ly this appa- 
ratus to their whole system of boilers, which 
is of an extent to rei|Uiro nine thousand 
tons of coal per annum." 

Oarsod & Rrother, proprietors of tho 
Wingohocking Mills, write : " Wo have used 
no Force Pump since the Injector was put 
up. Tho average pressure of our steam ia 
eighty poumls ; and wo are so well salislied 
with it that wo would not bo without it for 
double its cost." 

(i. Dawson Coleman, proprietor of tho 
Lebanon Furnaces, writes : " No ono, after 
seeing the operation of tho Injector, can 
hesitate as to wliiih to adopt when ordering 
a now engine ; and most persons would 
decide to abandon tho pumjis on an old ono. 
They arc particularly valuable at blast fur- 
naces, whero wo havo bo little time for ro- 



the steam 
lint of t'uc 
save not 
11 witli the 
tlieir wear 
<iiico tlieir 
pon them, 
lievc with 
laiut.-, eou- 
ire ut the 

aninier ia 
leturcfl at 
TIkjso ma- 

bcT last, baa 
ity perl'octlj-. 
125° Fftlir't, 
liirty inches 
boiler? ; anil 
y manner a 
(1 t\cnty-fivo 
im at about 
ond Injector 
mI, is also in 
est of boilers, 
pounds. Wo 
ro Injectors ; 
iibt that this 
y this appa- 
loilcr.", which 
ine thousand 

jtors of tho 
Wo have used 
letor was put 
our ptcain ii 
well Bnlislied 
without it for 

rietor of tho 
No one, after 
Injector, catj 
■hen ordering 
•rsons would 
•n «n old one. 
I nt blast fur- 
I timo fur to- 

chines differ principally from other Steam Hammers in having the piston- 
rod and piston forged in one solid mass, and of a size sufficient t'> give 
the required weight ; the rod or hammer bar passes througii both ends 
of the steam cylinder, which forms the only guides ; the space under- 
neath the cylinder is thus entirely clear, giving great facility for handling 
the iron. 

The celebrated Armstrong guns have all been forged under this 
hammer, and tht; English lirm are just completing an immense machiue 
of this kind. The weight of the hammer bar, which has just been com- 
pletely finished, is 40 tons, its fall l.T feet, having a piston of 18 inches 
diameter forged solid upon it, the bar itself being 20 inches in diameter, 
and 38 ftet long. This is the largest forging ever made. 

These hammers are of two kinds ; in one the valve is worked by hand, 
and may be either single or double acting, that is, the steam may be ad- 
mitted to the under side of the piston only, or l)y a slight additional 
niovoment to the same valve, can be admitted upon the upper side also ; 
in the other, the valve is under the control of the hammer itself, which 
erables the workman to obtain very rapid blows, the intensity of which 
are entirily under his control. 

The works of Wm. Sellers & Co. are located at Sixteenth and Hamil- 
ton streets, and consist of a muchine shop 320 by 83 feet, and a new 
three-story fire-jtroof building 110 by S.'j feet, for the storage of finished 
work and patterns. This latter building contains their offices, drawing 
rooms, etc. Adjoining the above, the firm have two foundries, in one 
of which the moulding floor ia 80 feet square, and is entirely devoted to 
heavy castings ; in the other, the moulding floor is 80 by lO, with a wing 
of 80 by 20, all of which are devoted to the lighter clas.s of work. 
Beside the above are the requisite l)uildings for pattern shops, smithy, 
and brass foundry. The engine and boiler for driving these works are 
located in smaller buildings, distinct from the main ones, so as to make 
the whole as nearly fire-proof as possible. 

The future of American progress in the arts and manufactures depends 
hr.-gcly upon the perfection of tho tools with which her machines stre 
made ; and it is a source of National uride and congratulation that such 
a great degree of excellence has been attained, and that the general 
standard of manufacturing is so far advanced as to maintain a demand 
for such a superior class of machiuory. 



The Pascal Iron-Works, Morris, Tasker & Co., Proprietors, 

Is the most extensive manufacturing establishment in the &.>utl)ern 
part of IMiiiadelphia, and tlie largest of its class in the country. The 
buildings cover an area of about four acres, and in the^n are employed 
1,100 men, a much larger number, we think, than is at this time em- 
ployed in any other iron-works in the city. The machinery of the 
most approved description, mucli of it original with the firm, and sur- 
passes, it is said, any that can be found in any similar establishment in 
England. This is propelled by five steam enginjs of great power, whose 
boilers are supplied with water from two artesian wells. Over twenty thou- 
sand tons of anthracite coal are annually consumed in the establislunent. 

The predecessors of the present firm were the pioneers in this country 
in the manufacture of wrought-iron Tubes and fittings for gas, steam, 
and water. The^y commenced this business in 1836, in which year they 
made 00,000 feet of tubes, and so greatly has the demand increased that 
the firm now manufacture nearly five millions of feet annually. Subse- 
quently they aaded to these the manufacture of cast-iron Giis iind 
Water Mains, Lap-welded Flues for boilers, and more recently Driving 
Pipes and Boring Tools for oil wells, of which large quantities have 
been furnished since capital his been so largely directed to the develop- 
ment of this wonderful product. 

One of the specialities of this firm's manufactures is that of apparatus 
for warming public and private buildings, l)oth by hot waior and by 
steam. Mr. Thomas T. Tasker, Sr., one of the original partners, is the 
inventor of a very popular Self-Regulating Hot Water Furnace, by 
which the temperature in a house can be maintained at any recpiired 
degree of heat for an indefinite period of time, without further attention 
than an occasional supply of coal. Mr. Tasker is also the inventor of a 
process by which the circulation of steam is kept up through heating 
pipes to any extent, the condensed steam returning back to the boiler 
by its own gravity, thus saving the heat which was formerly lost in run- 
ning off the water. Messrs. Morris, Tasker & Morris made the first 
public experiment to test the value of this discovery at the Pennsylvania 
Hospital in 184fi, and since then they have warmed many houses, 
factories, and other buildings. The original inventor neglected to 
patent his discovery, and others have made fortunes by its adoption and 
application. Mr. Tasker's list of Inventions also includes one of a cast- 
iron Hydrant with a coc'c so arranged that it can bo renewed or repaired 
without disturbing the pavetrient, an advantage that those who do not 
hn.'oit will best appreciate. 


Thf *P' 

W -rkf 

|i)(,( Mfii 


1 ;, 

1 :t,!;; t •■ i\'^ 








ifhiiv - 



Is one 

erected ii 
artielet ; 
eludes a 
is locatet 
sixty thoi 
slate rool 
used hen 
at the 1 
with the 
The es 
for the n 
so compl( 
o'' finishi 
and whic 
trate — a 
the moul( 
and the i 



Tliis house dates its origin back to tbe year 1821, when Stephen P. 
Morris couinienced the manufacture of Stoves and Grates at the corner 
of Market and Schuylkill Seventh streets. In 1828, he removed to 
Tliird and Walimt streets, whore he erected a foundry, and not long 
afterward was joined by Henry Morris and Thomas T. Tasker, establish- 
ing the firm of S. P. Morris & Co. Subsequently S. P. Morris retired 
and Wistar Morris became a member of the firm, when the name was 
p changed to Morris, Tasker & Morris, which continued until 185(!, when* 
the present style of iNlo.ris, l.isker & Co., was adopted. The partners 
in the firm at this time, are Stephen Morris, Thomas T. Tasker, Jr., 
Stephen P. M. Tasker, and Henry G. Morris — young men, but who have 
the advantage of capital, and of the experience of their predecessors. 




Stuart, Peterson & Co.'s Foundry 

Is one of the few extensive establishments that have as yet been 
erected in America, for the manufacture of the great variety of useful 
article^ ;no\vn as Hollow Ware, a term so comprehensive that it in- 
cludes a diminutive saucepan and an immense Caldron. The foundry 
is located on Noble street above Thirteenth, and occupi"fi :.n area of 
sixty thousand square feet, requiring to cover it an acre and a half of 
slate roofing. The moulding floor is iu the form of a squnrc, having a 
superficial area of 22,500 square feet. The quantity of iron iinnually 
used here is about 4,000 tons, consisting principally of that produced 
at the Thomas Iron-Work'^, at Catasauqua, which, in conil)ination 
with the Leesport iron, is found to make a superior metal for fine 
castings. About three hundred workmen are furnished employment 
throughout the year. 

The establishment, however, is not so noteworthy for its extent as 
for the new and improved processes adopted, especially in finisliing, 
enamelling, and tinning iron ware. In these particulars this firm have 
so completely surpassed their foreign competitors, that articles of their 
manufacture have a marked preference in all nmrkets. In the process 
0*' finishing, preparatory to enamelling or tinning, this firm liave a 
peculiar advantage in consequence of owning the monopoly of an in- 
geniously constructed lathe, on which they expended over $20,000, 
and which performs its work In a most satisfactory manner. To illus- 
trate — a vessel, whether it be a saucepan or a kettle, when it leaves 
the mould is necessarily rough, requiring the exterior to be improved 
and the interior to be bright and unifonuly smooth. This process in 



Eiiglaiul is performed in a hand lathe, the workman using a chisel or 
tool with his hand upon a rest ; but this has the disadvantage of not. 
securing entire uniformity of surface, and the workmen thus employed 
suffor ill liealth from inhaling minute particles of the iron. In Messrs. 
Stuart & Peterson's foundry, however, a vessel, after having been an- 
nealed is put into the lathe referred to, in which a tool is fixed that 
conforms to all the irregularities of the surface, automatically making 
•he inside bright and smooth, and when this work i^ done stops, as if 

of its own accord. 

The enamelling process is also peculiar to this establishment, and to 
describe it we will borrow the language of one who, being himself a 
foreigner, wrote, it may be presumed, without partiality, in favor of 
American manufactures : 

The interior of the hollow ware, as prepared by the steam lathe, is covered 
with a white paste, and put into the oven to be dried. After drying, it is 
tran'^ferred to an enamelling oven, where a white heat, sufficient to melt glass, 
is applied, which fuses this coating, making it soft as liquid glass. While 
in this state it is swiftly taken from the oven, rapidly covered with a white 
powder and immediately returned back to the oven, where it is again sub- 
jecte.l to a white heat, and finally taken out to be gradually cooled in the 

open air. i , j 

Tlie enamel is, in fact, a regular coating of porcelain upon the metal, and 
with ordinary care is imperishable. On the contrary, the enamelled iron ware 
made in Kngland (which has been nearly driven out of American consumption 
by Stuart & Peterson's manufacture) Anally runs into an infinitesimal number 
of minut,. cracks, which chip oft' and render the vessel quite useless. 

Hollow iron ware is tinnnl in the following manner : The best Government 
Banca tin is melted in a cast-iron vessel, with a portion of sal-ammoniac, and is 
then rubb.Ml on the inside surface with a cork, after it has left the lathe, until 
a thorough amalgamation takes place by the chemical affinity of both metals. 
The outside of each vessel is Japanned with a preparation, fixed by heat, 
which leaves no smell, while the ordinary gas tar, generally used, invariably 

"tIio variety of vessels to which the patent enamel is applied is very great , 
saurepans, boilers, stewpans, sugar moulds, evaporating dishes, kettles, glue 
pots skillets, pie plates, porringers, stove spiders, wash hand basins, soup 
and saucepan digesters, milkpans. spittoons, and so on, far too numerous to 
reckon up here. The tinned or patent metal hollow ware also includes a large 
variety of vessels. As for the plain turned hollow ware, the number of articles 
is great indeed. What is called "ton hollow ware" is made chielly for the 
Southern market, and so called because it is sold by the ton of 2,240 lbs. 
Cauldrons, sugar pans, counter scales, twine boxes, copying-presses, furnaces, 
coffee roasters, waffle-irons, sinks, lamp posts, street lamps, fire dogs, etc., 
are all made here of cast-iron ; so are corn and cob and meal mills, and lever 
;nill9, chiefly used South. 

Besides hollow ware, Messrs. Stuart & Peterson are largely engaged 

jin the manu 
jdred a weol 
j manufacture 
lore l)eds, pi 
Stoves are 

Have atta 

class of M 

I distributed 

They are 


cover near 

hill street 

[ tion of the 

of he var 

about sixt 


in length I 

and Flasl 

location is 

are delive 

entering I 


aspect, st 


carried oi 

rolls for \ 



firm of 1 


of the M 

ing at 


view, of 

In 18f 

suit of V 



ialhe manufacture of Stoves, of which they make as many as five hun- 
dred a week, or twenty-seven thousand a year. ' Th.s ,s a branch of 
nianufacturcs, ir which Philadelphia, by reason of her proxmuty to the 
ore beds, producing the iron best adapted for the purpose, has peculiar 
advantages, and it is estimated that at least fifteen thousand tons of 
[stoves are annually made in this city. 

Bement & Dougherty's Industrial Works 
Lave attained a national celebrity, by reason of the very superior 
class of Machinists' Tools, which have been produced in them and 
distributed to all parts of the United States and to foreign countries^ 
T y are located on the square, bounded by Callowhill street and 
Pennsylvania avenue, and Twentieth and Twenty-first streets and 
cover nearly the entire block. The main Shop has a fron on Callo^^ - 
hill street of three hundred and seventy-two feet and, with the excep- 
tion of the office, is two stories in height. The aggregate floor room 
of he various shops, including Smithery, Brass and Iron Foundry is 
about sixty-five thousand square feet, which, with the contemplated 
extensions, is equivalent to a one story building, eighteen hundred feet 
in length by fifty in width; with yard room for stoi-age of Coal, lion 
and Flasks sufficient for all the requirements of the business. The 
location is peculiarly advantageous for obtaining Coal and Iron, which 
are delivered by the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, from branches 

entering the premises. 

Seventeen years ago, a single stone shop of a somewhat imposing 
aspect, stood in nearly the centre of the s.iuare now occupied by these 
imposing structures. This was owned by Mr. B. D. Marshall, who 
carried on the machine business, in connection with the engraving of 
rolls for printing Calicoes and other Fabrics. In 1851, Mr. Marshall 
associated with himself Messrs. William B. Bement and Gilbert A. Colby, 
formerlv from the Lowell (Massachusetts) Machine Shop, under the 
firm of" Marshall, Bement & Colby. Under somewhat unpromising 
circumstances, the new firm started out in a comparatively new branch 
of the Machine business, the manufacture of Machinists' lools-com- 
ing at once into direct competition with older, and by no means 
unsuccessful, establlshments-with the single object prominently m 
view of turning out the best Tools that skill and genius could produce. 
In' 1853 Mr. James Dougherty became a partner, the immediate re- 
suit of which was the erection of a Foundry; his experience in this 



line, ill a numbor of first-class establishments, having peculiarly fitted 
him for taking charge of this department. In 1855 Messrs. Marsiiall 
and Colby retired from the firm, and Mr. George C. Thomas entered It, 
thougb his connection with it was of short duration, and in 1857 Mr. 
Bement, an engineer of rare mechanical .skill, and Mr. Dougherty, 
an experienced Iron Founder, bx'amo solo proprietors, and under their 
nianagement the Works have grown until now they are scarcely 
second in extent and importance to any in the Union. 

Among the remarkable Tools in these Shops is a Planer that will 
take in and piano a piece forty-five feet long, ten feet wide and eight 
feet high ; a horizontal and vertical Planer that will plane twenty-four 
feet wide and twelve feet high ; a Kadial Drill with a swinging arm 
projecting ten feet ; a Boring Mill to swing eight feet diameter ; all 
heavy and massive Tools. At convenient distances, throughout the 
shops, are powerful Cranes attached to the columns of the building, that 
move with ease and safety the heaviest pieces to any required position. 

The Foundry is fitted with two improved Cupolas, designed by Mr. 
Dougherty, capable of melting, the one twelve thou.sand and the other 
eighteen thousand pounds per hour. All the modern improvements 
are here combined to produce the heaviest work of the best character. 
A Corliss lingine of ninety hor.<o power drives all the machinery, in- 
eluding fans for Foundry and Smithery. 

The character of the work done at this establishment will compare 
favorably with that produced by any similar one at home or abroad ; not 
only in its usefulness but its general appearance. The Works are rep- 
resented by their productions, in nearly every State in the Union, as 
well as in Cuba, South America, France, Spain, Austria and Russia. 
Their growth and success, however, have not been due to any great or 
peculiarly striking invention, though invei>tive genius has not been 
sparingly applied in the production of the model Tools and appliances 
that have given the establishment its reputation. Among the most 
noticeable of Mr. Bement's improvements may be mentioned a Patent 
Cotter and Key Seat Drilling Machine now used extensively in 
Machine Shops ; a Patent Pulley Turning Machine ; a Prtent open, 
ing Die Bolt Cutter ; and the Patent Adjustable Hanger and other 
bearings with Ball and Socket Boxes, which are not excelled by any 
in use. As an illustration of the ready adjustment of these Hanger 
Boxes it may be mentioned, that a shaft that had become accidentally 
bent, was found to run without heating for some time, the box ac- 
commodating itself to the irregularities of the bearing with every revo- 

Among the specialities of this firm's manufactures may bo men- 

tioned the "^ 

Hotel, in P 

basement, i 

inches in di 


Girders to t 

are bolted 1 

with it, wh 


posed of s( 

spiral of e 

ameter of 

the thread 


half inchei 

being avo 

To this n 

guiding w 

steady the 

the car bj 

so sniootl 

seated wi 


arranged 1 

of the sui 

The e 

Main Col 

15,000 p 

106,232 1 

But tl 
good woi 
of produ 
them to 

Works c 



rly fitted 
n to red it, 
857 Mr. 
ider their 

tliat will 
uid eight 
ging arm 
leter ; all 
Ijhout the 
ding, that 
d by Mr. 
the other 
linery, in- 

•oad ; not 
s are rep- 
Union, as 
d Russia. 
J great or 

not been 

the most 

a Patent 
Qsively ia 
tent open, 
and other 
ed by any 
5e Hanger 
e box ac- 
very revo- 

tionod the Vertical Railway and Elevator now in use in the Continental 
HI in Philadelphia. Standing on « substantial foumUtion, ui th 
has n ent is a Re tangular Cast Iron Column, thirteen by seventeen 
Sr diameter and^ighty-nine in height, made >n six se^u>n^ 
accurately planed and bolted together, and connected by --siv Iron 
^•ders to the floor timbers of the building. Two iron rails, also pa ed 
are bolted to the Girders, one on either side of the column and lei 

with it whi.h serve as guides for the car in ascending and descending. 
Atta'ched to the column by appropriate bearings, is the Bcrovv^ eo- 
posed of seven sections, permanently coupled, making one ont nuou. 
spiral of eighteen inch pitch, from the basement to the roof, ihe di- 
ameter of this screw, exclusive of the thread is twelve inches, with 
the thread, seventeen inches, turned and polished the -^je 1^ ^^tl. ^f 
eighty-four feet. The thread forms a smooth inclined spi al tvvo and a 
half Lhes wide up and down, which the nut travels; ^I'-et e ntact 
being avoided by the introduction of numerous friction rolls of bras . 
T t'is nut the'car is suspended, or forms a part of the -me. with 
guiding wheels that press against the Parallel Rails on either side o 
Lady the ear and prevent oscillation. A heavy weight attached to 
the car by a wire rope passing over a pulley -unterba ances it and 
so snvooth and regular is its motion, that one hardly f-'l^ »t ^h^n 
ated within the car. The finished weight of the screw ,s fitteen 
ousand pounds, and it rests on a step of peculiar construe ion so 
arranged that no difficulty is ever experienced in the wearing or heating 

of the surfaces in contact. , i.„n^,v= . 

The entire finished weight of the different parts is as follows . 
Main Column. 17.870 pounds ; Parallel Tracks. 11 815 pounds ; Screw 
15,000 pounds; Girders and other work, 61,517 pounds; Total 
106,232 pounds, or over fifty-three tons. 

But the reputation of this firm does not rest upon specialties or 
patented improvements ; it stands on the enduring foundation of general 
ToSlrkmUship. In their Machine Tools, all the ^^f^^^^^^^ 
of producing perfect joints, such as scraping using surface pla e and 
working to gauges and making the parts of similar machines inter- 
Zngeable, are practiced, and no pains or expense is spared to secure 
absolute accuracj and perfection in the articles manufactured to adapt 

them to their required purpose. , i ;„ +v,„;- 

About three hundred and twenty-five hands are employed in their 
Works at all times, and the value of the annual product exceeds a half 
million of dollars. 

be men- 



A. Whitney & Sons' Car Wheel Manufactory 

Is, wo bolievo, tho largest establishment in the United States devoted 
exclusively to the nianufacturo of Car Wheels. The works are located 
on Callowhill street and Sixteenth, and have a capacity for niakinc | 
seventy-five thousand wheels per annum. The ? loulding room is four 
hundred feet long and sixty wide, and we know of none larger in tlic 
country. Two railways extend its entire length, on which carriage 
cranes trc propelled and used for removing tho molten iron from the 
furnaces to the moulds, and the wheels from the moulds to the cooling- 
pits. There are five largo furnaces, three of which communicate by 
tubes with an immense caldron for containing melted iron. Theie 
are thirty-six cooling-pits, having a capacity for holding at a time 
two hundred and fifty wheels. 

In 1848, Mr. Asa Whitney, as we have elsewhere stated, patented a 
process for cooling wheels, which secures results of the greatest im- 
portance. It has been described as follows : The wheels are taken 
from the moulds as soon after they are cast as they have become cool 
enough to bear moving without changing their form. In this state 
they are put into a circular furnace or chamber, which has been pre- 
viously heated to a dark red heat. As soon as they are deposited in 
this mrnace or chamber, the opening through which they have been 
passed is closed, and the temperature of the furnace and its contents is 
gradually raised about as high as that of tho hottest part of the wheel 
when taken from the mould. All the avenues to and from the inte- 
rior of the furnace are then closed, and the whole mass is left to cool 
as slowly as the heat will pass off by permeating through the exterior 
wall of the furnace, composed of brick four and a half inches thick, 
enclosed in a sheet-iron case one eighth of an inch thick. 

By this process very part of each wheel is raised to the same tem- 
peratui-e before coo!ii:g in the furnace commences, and as the heat can 
only pass off throu;:;!! the medium of the wall and case enclosing it, all 
parts of the wheel cool and contract simultaneously. The time required 
to cool wheels in this way is three days. In this manner wheels of any 
form can be made with a solid hub, free from all inherent strain, and 
without the hardness of the chill being in the least impaired. 

The furnaces used in performing this process of prolonged cooling 
are so constructed that the combustion of fuel used in heating them 
may be rendered more or less active at pleasure. 

This firm employs one hundred and seventy hands, and manufactures 
over two hundred car wheels per day. 

Arc the lai 
west side of 
May, 18(53, 
comi)lete cs' 
for building 
tails (if its ( 
The worl 
ated betwe( 
from Walni 
this extens 
stone, one i 
ing fronting 
the purpose 
feet wide, 
not merely 
on canvas, 
the second 
room eight; 
ger cars. 


lower floor 

eluding a f 

feet long b 


terial. Al 

structure i 

arranged v 

All the wc 

and each c 

when he Ic 

the gatew! 

who come 

A large 


necting th 

ing shop, 

where ma; 

them somi 

tion, such 



William C. Allison's Car Works 


Are the largest of the manufuctorios of Philadelphia located on the 
west side of the Schuylkill. They are new, having been erected since 
May, 1803, when the former works, were destroyed in a most disa^-trou? 
conflagration. As an illustration of what we believe to be the mosi , 
complete establishment that has as yet been erected in the United States 
for building cars, it will be appropriate to devote some space to the de- 
tails (if its construction. 

The works occupy an enclosure of about five acres of ground, situ- 
ated between the West Chester and Junction railroads, and extending 
from Walnut to Spruce streets, in West Philadelp'.ia. Nearly all of 
this extensive area is covered with buildings, generally of brick and 
stone, one and two stories in height. The greater portion of the build- 
ing fronting on Walnut street is devoted to painting cars, the shop for 
the purpose being two hundred and fifty-nine feet long and eighty-one 
feet wide. Many of the workmen employed in this department are 
not merely good mechanical painters, but artists, whose productions, if 
on canvas, would be entitled to a place in a gallery of Fine Arts. On 
the second fluor of this building are the varnishing rooms, and also a 
room eighty-one by forty feet used as an erecting shop for city passen- 
ger cars. 

Adjoining the building just mentioned is a fire-proof structure, the 
lower floor of which is appropriated to offices and counting-rooms, in- 
cluding a fire-proof safe, which is a small room In itself, being si.xteea 
feet long by nine feet wide, and on the upper floor are the upholstering 
department, pattern rooms, and rooms for the storage of valuable ma- 
terial. All the doors and girders in this building are of iron, and the 
structure is believed to be indestructible by fire. The inner office is 
arranged with a view of facilitating the clerk who acts as time-keeper. 
AH the workmen make their entrance and exit through one gateway, 
and each man, as he enters, receives a metallic number which he cturns 
when he leaves the yard. By means of a spring the clerk in charge of 
the gateway can close it without leaving the office, and all workmen 
who come late are known and registered. 

A large space of ground between the painting and erecting shop is 
appropriated to the transfer table, over which is an arched bridge con- 
necting the second stories of the two buildings. Beyond is the erect- 
ing shop, two hundred and forty feet in length, eighty feet wide, and 
where may be seen Cars in their various stages of progress, among 
them some of the first class, with raised roofs and facilities for ventila- 
tion, such as approach as near perfection as the art has as yet attained. 
Adjoining the erecting shops on the south, are the wood working 


Bhops, ....e for hard, another for soft lumber; and also the repair shop, 
the machine shop and engine room. The greater portion of the floor 
above these shops is appropriated to pattern and cabinet-making, for 
which it is equipped with all of the most approved tools and be^t 
machines West of these buildings, and detached, are the black mith 
shops la the bending room is a boiler in which wood is steamed 
preparatory lo being bent into the various curvclincar and irregular 
forms desired. All of the rooms arc heated in winter by means of steam 
pipes of which there are about eight miles distributed in coils through 
the diflerent apartments. The condensed water of all these p.pcs is 
brought back and collected, to be used again to supply the boilers. 

In this extensive establishment about three hundred men are em- 
plovcd though doubtless nearly double the number, if needed, could 
operate without inconvenience, and it has a capacity for tuning out 
every week three large passenger cars, ten street cars, and thirty 
freight cars, without interfering -with the General Jobbing and 


Henry Disston's Saw Manufactory, 

On Laurel street, Philadelphia, is undoubtedly the most extensive in 
the United States, and probably the largest in the world. All the ope- 
rations incidental to the manufacture of Saws of all kinds are earned 
on here, (including the Steel making,) on a scale of unsurpassed mag- 
nitude, and not only Saws, but all the minor constituent parts and 
adjuncts, from a saw Screw to a saw File. , ^^ ,, i 

The buildings on Laurel street cover two hundred and fifty housand 
square feet of g-ound, and comprise a Rolling Mill, two hundred and 
forty by seventy-live feet; a warehouse for the reception ol raw :tock, 
one'hundrcd and twenty by seventy feet ; a Machine Shop ami Main 
Saw Factory, two hundred by one hundred feet, three stones in height ; 
a Wood wm-king depar.ment seventytiyo by forty fc^'t, lour stories 
high; a Rlacksmith's, Hardening and File Shop, and Brass Jound.j, 
two hundred by one hundred feet, and sundry other bui dings of ess 
dimensions. In the Lumber Lepartment, a stock ot , .ree hundred 
thousand feet of Reecli and Apple wood for Saw handles, is at al 
linu.s in process of seasoning. On the north side of Haydock street 
there is another building fifty by two hundred and fifty eet three 
Htories high, iu whiel, Uutcher Knives and Trowels and Reaping 
Knives, etc, are nuulo. 

vir shop, 
the floor 
dng, for 
and bc^t 
aek niith 


of steam 
> through 

pipes is 

1 are em- 
ed, could 
riing out 
nd thirty 
sbing and 

itensive in 
.11 the ope- 
ire carried 
issed mag- 
parts aud 

y thousand 
indrcd and 

raw ^tock, 
[) and Main 
i in height ; 
four stories 
9 Foundry, 
ings of less 
•ee hundred 
es, \3 at all 
ploek street 

feet, three 
id Heaping 



These works are no less remarkable for the wonderful efficiency of 
their tools and machines than for their extent. To illustrate : 

To toothe five dozen Wood-Saws in an hour, is rapid work for the 
best mechanic in the world ; Mr. Disston has machinery by which one 
man can toothe thirty dozen in the same time. Ho can toothe perfectly 
a sixty inch Circular Saw in two minutes, which by the old process would 
require the labor of one man two hours. The tempering process, which 
is patented, is most complete, and saves at least one-third the labor 
ordinarily required, or in other words sixty men can do as much work 
MS one huudred formerly did. The apparatus for grinding is novel, 
inasmuch as it includes machinery that will g-ind both sides of a saw 
at on., operation, and long uk well as short saws. We believe that the 
machines in the Grinding Department are the only ones of the kmd in 
the world. Mr. Disston has also a new process for stiilening saw blades, 
or in other words, refining the grain after tempering, by repeated blows 
of a steam hammer. 

In the Rolling Mill, there are forty melting holes for making Cast 
Steel, and three sets of rolls, the largest being capable of turning out 
a saw phite sixty-four inches in diameter. This mill gives its pro- 
prietor the ability to fill an order for any saw, however extraordinary 
the size, iu a few days, that would otherwise have reqni.-e-.l months. 
The steel is made from the best brands of Swedish and Norway Iron. 

Mr. Henry Disston is a man of remarkable force and energy of 
character, aiid possesses administrative and executive abilities of 
high order. ITe commenced the business, without the advantages of a 
capital, and it is said wheu he began, he wheeled the coal he required 
from the wharf in a wheelbarrow. He was the first manufacturer who 
..(Tectnallv checked the importation of foreign saws, and competed 
successfuily with the Knglish in Hand and Hack Saws. While en-nged 
in this contest, he sold saws at a profit of only seven cents per dozen, 
over the cost of manufacture. He possesses a highly original and 
inventive mind, and has so far revolutionized the details of manufac- 
turing saws, that a Shefiield workman, however experienced m tho 
methods practiced abroad, would be lost amidst the new and labor- 
>aviiig machinery of this establishment. 

Mr. !>isstoii's name appears in the records of the Patent Onicc in 
connection with more than twenty improvements, in this branch of inanu- 
fiiduivs In isr)it, he patented a novel combination Saw, with S(inaro, 
Rule Plumb and T.evel, Scratch Awl and (Jauge attachments. He has 
made' improvements in Vhru\u Saws, with movrnhh or mxrr/ed 
Irrlh and has reeentlv devised a form of tooth, only deep enough to 
receive the .lust, which will so much iiwrcas(! the endurance and 
.llVelive power of saw.s that, by its aih.ption, it is believe.! a million of 



dollars in saw plates, may be saved to the country annually. He 
claims that the points of saw teeth should he varied aceordinf; to their 
use, whether for hard or soft wood, and that tiie old method of making 
the teeth of one uniform shape, for all kinds of wood, is enti'-ely 
erroneous. Among bis recent patents, is one for grinding Ilolls either 
flat, round or hollow, without the necessity of taking them from their 

Mr. Disston is one of the few men who combine, in their mental 
organization, creative and executive faculties. His inventive genius is 
shown in the improvements he has originated ; his practical sagacity is 
demonstrated, by the magnitude of his Works, which now prod"co 
nearly one fourth of all the saws annually rctpiired in the United 
States. He employs, in the various departments, over four hundred 
men ; consumes over three thousand tons of coal yearly, and produces 
in the same time, a value of nearly two hundred tbousauu do'. ,m- in 
Steel and three quarters of a million of dollars in Saws. 

The Harrison Boiler Works 

Have recently been greatly enlarged, and arc entitled to rank among 
the important Iron works of Philadelphia. They arc owned and 
managed by Joseph Harrison, Jr., an eminent engineer, and are em- 
ployed exclusively in making a Steam Boiler of his invention, involving 
entirely new i)rineiples of constru;'tion. it is formed of a combination 
of cast^iron hollow spheres, each eight inches in estcrn;il diameter, and 
■Jirce eighths of an inch thick, connected by curved i.oc!:s, and held 
together by wrought-iron tie bolts. No punching or riveting, which 
les-sens the strength of wronglit-iron boiler plates forty per cent., it= 
required in its construction ; and every boiler is tested by hydraulic 
pressure at three hum'red pounds to the siiiinre inch. Mr, Harrison, 
the invcnt(.r, is no le'^s distinguished for his scientific attainments than 
for his long and varied experienc.> as a manufacturer, and he has not 
hesitated to claim for this form of Holler, after practical tests for a 
series of years, aiisoi,i;te sai'kty KiioM kxi-i.osk.n. His claims are, in 
.ucl. HO bold and original, ami so important to all manufacturers using 
steam power, that it will not be amiss to set them forth nt length. He 
savs of this IJoiler: 

'" It cannot be burst under uny praetirablo steam pressure. Under 
pressure which might cause rupluro in ordinary boilers, every point ii; 

this become 
property of 
thus preven 
"It is n 
" It has ( 
nniy be use 

" It prod 
not liable t( 
" It is e 
need weigh 
largest boil 
" It is re 
it is k"pt 
out uiu'.er I 
"It requ 
parts cuu 1 
and size. 
Tlie great! 

" A Jjoil 

width, aii( 

remains tl 

one half tl 

increased i 

" As an 

ture of a \ 

whole con 

;i ed pouni 

It' timo. 

I :s, but 

Under the 

closed, the 

water, ste 




.Mr. Hi 


have ta''ei 

twenty mi 


) their 
1 their 

[lius is 
leity is 
rod "CO 
li.ii.- in 

ed and 
xre eni- 
ter, and 
nd licld 
, wliidi 
tent., is 
nl mil lie 
its than 
has not 
its for ft 
s are, in 
•a using 
til. lie 

point ii; 



this becomes a safet}' valve. No other steam generator possesses this 
property of relief under extreme pressure, without injury to itself, and 
thus preventing disaster. 

"It is not seriously alTected by corrosion, which soon destroys the 
wrought-iron bo'ler. Most explosions occur from this cause. 

" It has economy in fuel, equal to the best boilers. Any kind of fuel 
jnay be used under this boiler, from the expensive to refuse coal 

" It produces superheated steam without separate apparatus, and is 
not liable to priming or foaming. 

" It is ea.siiy transported, and rnay be taken apart so that no piece 
need weigh more than eighty pounds. In diificult places of access, the 
largest boiler may be put through an opening one foot square. 

" It is readily cleaned, inside and out. Under ordinary circumstances 
it is k'-pt free from permanent deposit by blowing the water entirely 
out under full pressure once a week. 

" It recjuires no special skill in its management or erection. Injured 
parts can be renewed with great f>iciiily, ao they are uniform in shape 
and size. When renewed, the entire boiler remains as good as new. 
Tlie greater part of the boiler will never need renewal, unless unfairly 

" A boiler may be increased to any extent l)y simply adding to its 
width, ttud l)eing the multiplication of a single form, its strength 
remains tiie same for all sizes. It has less weigiit, and takes less than 
one half the ground area of the ordinary cylinder boiler, without being 
increased in height. 

" As an evidence of its safety, in one instance, by the accidental rup- 
ture of a water pipe (not a part of the Imilerbut connected wi*h it), its 
vviioie contents were discharged, under a pressure of about one hun- 
■ I'd pounds to the square inch, a full tire^eing in active combustion at 
It' time. Means w^-re taken, as soon as practicable, to deaden the 
t ^s, but the boiler became, as a matter of course, unduly heated. 
Uuiler these circumstances, and as soon as the ruptured pipe could be 
clo.sed, the iioiler, without giving it time to cool, was relilled with cold 
water, steam was again raised, and all went on as before, the boiler 
sustaining no injury. What would have hapi;ened under tiie Kaine 
cirennistanees with an ordinary wrought-iron boiler may be easily 

Mr. Harrison's Boilers have been in use since \^M, and mnnv 
extensive manufacturers in Philadelphia, New York, ami New Kngiand 
have ta'en out their old boiler^' and ado])ted these. One hundred -md 
twenty meti are at this time employed in tiiese Wjrks, which are now 



making six tons of boilers every day, with a constantly increasing de- 
nmud It would really seem that the desideratum so long sought for 
in boiler making-safety from explosion-has been attained, and, li 
further experience establishes this as a fact, Mr. Harrison will deserve 
the rewards and honors due to all who are the World's Benefactors. 

The M'Culljugh Iron Company 

Have, in Philadelphia, the largest works in the United States, for 
manufacturing Galvanized Iron. This is a material formed from a 
combination of Iron and Zinc, and possesses the valuable property of 
being impervious to oxydation. The sheets of Iron used by this Com- 
pany, are manufactured in their own mills, in Cecil county, Maryland 
ThJy are rolled very smooth, then well trimmed to the sue required, 
and cleansed from all impurities, by a weak acid. The elVects of the 
acid are in turn removed by immersion in a tank of clear water, and 
then the sheets arc dried in an oven. The iron thus prepare! is plac.>d 
in contact with the zinc, and the two metals, being brought to the same 
temperature, combine and fuse, and form a material that will not rust, 
and requires neither paint nor any preservative agent. The proper 
regulation of the temperature of the zinc and the iron is a point of 
great nicetv, re.piiring in the manufacturer much previous experience. 
' The principal managers of this Company were the pioneers in the man- 
ufacture of tialvanized Iron in the United States, having commenced 
il in 1852, with skilled workmen, brought by them from England, ex- 
pressly for the purpose. Among the advantages they possess, in addi- 
tion to their enlarged expeneiice, is the exclusive right of Mr. E. A. 
Harvey's valuable I'atent for cleaning iron and other metals from dust, 
dirt or oxi.le, which must in time become invaluable. The black dust 
from the bituminous coal used in the jirocess of manufacturing, has 
JR.retofore ivmained on the sheet when finished, and was ahvay objec- 
tionable to the work.'rs in this article. My this pntcnt, process the 
sheet pass.'s through a cleaning machine of Mr. Harvey's invention 
(consuming but a moment) when it comes out as free from dust and 
dirt as a sheet of tlio linest paper. This is a great desideratum with 
11,0 worker, and must in time allogelher supcr-sede the old method of 

nKinutaclure. . ,. , i 

Ko, an account of the mills in which their Sheet Iron is manulaclured, 
K'»- article on the (Jiu;.vr Ikon Wouks of The Univkd States. 



Passing from the ^reat Iron Works, for which Philadelphia is 
famous, to the manufactories of Textile Fabrics, we find few that will 
compare in extent with the largest of those in New England, hut many 
convenient and well arranged establishments. Philadelphia, it is 
claimed, is the centre of a greater number of factories, for the pro- 
duction ct Textile Fabrics, than any other city in the world. There 
are within its limits, or adjacent thereto, over two hundred and fifty 
distinct establisiimcnts, where Cotton and Woolen goods are made, while 
tlie hand loom production is equal to that of seventy additional factories 
of average size. 

William Divine's Factoiies 

Are a fair representative of the establishments that have gifcn Phila- 
delphia her prominence in this branch of manufactures. They consist 
of a Cotton Factorv, a stone building of four stories, one hundred and 
tifty by two hundred feet, located on Twenty-Fifth street, between 
Spruce and Pine streets; and a Woolen Factory, at Twenty-First and 
Naudain streets, whicli is thirty-six feet by one hundred and fifty, and 
four stories high. Those faetoric. contain two hundred loom.s five 
thousand spindles, and employ three hundred and fifty hands. In ad- 
dition Mr. James Divine runs two sots of Woolen Machinery in the 
upper' rooms of William Struthers' Marble Mill, Twenty-Fourth and 
Walnut streets, for producing .loans, Flannels, etc. 

Mr. William Divine belongs to that class of self-made men, whose 
history presents an encouraging example to aspirants for fortune, by 
straightforward and legitimate enterprise. Itis father was a manufac- 
turer of linen goods, in tlic county of Tyrone, Ireland, where Mr. 
Divine was born in the first year of the present century. At an early 
age, he learned the Linen business with his father, and afterward re- 
moved to Belfast, where he paid ail apprentice foe to learn Muslin Weav- 
ing In 1822, he went to Manchester, England, where he was for 
several years engaged in the Silk manufacture. The Old World, how- 
ever, did not present suflici(>nt scope and encouragement for the exercise 
of his powers, and, in 1827, he resolved upon trying his fortune in the 
New. After a tedious passage of twenty-one weeks, he arrived in New^ 
York, where he remained but a few days, when he proceeded to Phila- 
delphia, which has since been his h.mie. He commenced work on a 
hand loom, for one dollar per day, the average wages of weavers, at 
that period. But in less than a month he was able, by his superior skill, 
to earn two dollars, besides paying his bobbin winder, double the usual 
wages. lie was next employed on a broadcloth loom, in the Peiin Fac- 



tory on T Jventy-Fifth street near Spruce, of which he is now propri- 
etor' By unremitted industry and rigid economy, he secured sufficient 
capital, after eleven years spent in others' employment, to procure one 
set of woolen machines, and, renting a room with power, ma mill on 
Pine near Twentieth street, he began the manufacture of Kentucky 
Jeans His intimate and practical acquaintance with the details ol 
manufacturing gave him advantages, his products commanded a ready 
sale in the markets, and in a few years he was in possession of sufficient 
capital to erect a mill. About 1841, he built the Kennebcck factory on 
Naudain street, .ear Twenty-First, and equipped it with four sets of 
machinerv, which have since been increased to eight sets. In 184(3 he 
purchased the " Penn Factory," in which he had been employed as a 
weaver and foreman, and began the manufacture of Cotton Goods, spin- 
ning his own yarn, and producing Checks and Printing Cloths. His 
subsequent career has been one of continuous prosperity. He has pro- 
duced a great variety of both Cotton and Woolen fabrics, adapting his 
products to the wants of the market, and notwithstanding tiie periods 
of disaster which have attended manufacturing enterprises, from want 
of uniform and protective legislation, he has always met his financial 
obligations with punctuality, and preserved a name unsullied m all 
business transactions. He is now possessor of a '''^'•t^/'^ ^"ffi^''^';^'-^ 
large to entitle him to a place among the wealthy men of I hiladelph.n. 
Mr Divine, besides being a manufacturer, is entitled to recognition as 
an improver of Mnchinery. The six treadle loom, for weaving Kentucky 
Jeans, now manufactured by the Bridesburg Manufacturing Company 
was remodeled by him, as was acknowledged by Mr. Jenks the President 
of tha. Company, at a recent meeting of the stockholders. Ihough 
not an active politician, he has been a strong advocate of protection 
to American Industry, known as the American system, and for a period 
of four years, from 1840 to 1850, was a member of the Common Council 
For several vears, he was also a Director of the Girard College, and 
during the late rebellion his patriotism was evinced by large contn- 
butions to the Union cause, and in sending five sons into the held, one of 
whom was slain, and another brought to a premature grave 

Recently an association of the manufacturers of Text.lo Fabrics, 
in the City of Philadelphia, was formed, and Mr. Divine was chosen 
its President, a position he continues to hold. For many years, he has 
l.en a prominent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, to 
which he has made large contributions. In al' these varied relations 
1,0 has maintained the character of o,n honest man, and discharged h.s 
duties with such fidelity, as to command that respect from h.s fellow 
citizens to which his well tried integrity and upright course entitle him. 

ure one- 
mill on 
tails of 
a ready 
;tory on 
r sets of 
184C he 
^ed as a 
ds, spin- 
lis. His 
has pro- 
[>ting his 
3 periods 
cm want 
ed in all 
inition as 
r a period 
n Council, 
illege, and 
ge contri- 
eld, one of 

as chosen 
ars, he has 
;?hurch, to 

1 relations 
charged his 
J his fellow 
SDtitle hint. 

- i.- c t- jvyr" , %,^ 


r-Hi L,\i'n-:i.t.mi-^ 


n !'. H 



'.^'■'■V .•--*• 



The Wingohocking Mills-R. Garsed & Brother, Proprietors, 

Are th. largest iu the manufacturing town of Frankford and amons the 
Tartest of the Cotton Mills, in the consolidated city of Ph.ladelph 
Th^y are eo.nparatively new, having been built in 1853, and as m-arl 
lire-proof, as a stone structure, with stone floors, can be n.ade^ 1 hej 
consist of several buildings, the main one being hve hundred eet k ng 
and sixty-six feet wide. It contains twenty thousand spindles, that 
turn out about four thousand pounds of yarn per day. ^^^Y^] 
chinery is of English and A.n.u-ican manufa.^ture, with he late^t 
improvements, and is propelled by an engine of three hundred horse 
power. About three hundred hands are employed in the spinning 

*^'irrnot!litr structure, owned by Mr. Richard Garsed, the weaving of 
fancy fabrics, such as pantaloonery. cottonades. etc., is earned on ex en- 
s^velv This building .s a substantial stone str^Kure, one hundred 
feet lonn-, forty feet wide and five .stories in height, and is entirely new, 
having been erected during the year ISfifi, on the site of a former mill, 
destroyed by fire. About one hundred looms and seventy operators 
are employed in' this department. 

Richard Garsed, the senior proprietor, has been connected vvith tht 
cotton manufacture since early boyhood, having commenced as an 
operator in a mill at New Hope, Bucks County, when only nine 
years of age In 1830 his father removed to Delaware county, and 
;m'barked in the manufacture of Power-Looms, employing h.s son as 
an apprentice. On attaining his majority, young Richard succeede.l to 
the business bis father had established, and also commenced the manu- 
facture of damask Table and Piano covers, by power-looms. Ihis 
was in 1842 and it is believed that, previous to that time, no articles ot 
this description had been made on power looms in Pennsylvania and 
probably not in America. In 1843 he removed to Frankford, where, 
while continuinir the manufacture of damask covers, he gradually e.x- 
tended his operations until they included cotton spinning, and other 
branches of the cotton manufacture. For several years the Wingo- 
hocking Mills were large producers of Osnaburg, and other goods 
adapted to the Southern market. 

Mr Garsed is distinguished for the active interest he has manifested 
in introducing improved machinery into cotton mills, and has labored 
in this field with a zeal, not inspired by the hope of profit merely, that 
is worthy of all eulogium. His experience and reliability havo 
Kained him the confidence of manufacturers, and he permits no inveii- 
lion or improvement in textile manulacture, either at home or abroad. 



to osrapo examination; and if suited to American wawts, rcedninieiid-* 
its immediate adoption. 

Mr. Gar.sed has also jjiven evidence of fossessing the faculty of 
ori}i;iiial invention, and has made improvements on various macliints 
tluu liave been of j^ieat value to manufacturers. From 18;n to 1840 
his improvements cnaUled manufacturers to increase the speed of their 
power looms from eighty picks per minute to one hundred aiul forty 
picks per minute. In 1841) he invented the Scroll Cam, whidi very 
much simplified the power loom, and its value was evidenced by its 
almost universal adoption on the sliding cam loom. In 1848 he in- 
vented a loom for weaving Seamless Bags, and exhibited Salt Bags 
made by this loom at the Franklin Institute exhibition in Philadelpliia. 
and at the American Institute, New York. Subsequently another i)er- 
son attained fame .ind profit for a similar adaptation, which he patented. 

Mr. Garsed has also been a zealous advocate and active promoter 
of municipal improvements. When the subject of Passenger Railways 
in the streets of Philadelphia was being agitated, he advocated their 
adoption through the columns of the daily newspapers and did not cease 
his efforts until their success and popularity had been assured. The 
Fifth and Sixth street Railway Company, which waa the pioneer of 
these corporations, elected him President, and he is thus er d to 
.the credit of having been the first President of the first I 'cr 

Railway in Philadelphia. 

Benjamin Bullock's Sous' Factory, 

At Consliohocken, is probably the most notable Woolen manufactory in 
the vicinity of Philadelphia. It is a structure two hundred and eighty- 
five feet long, and eighty-five feet wide, and contains ten Vi! sets of 
machinery, for making woolen cloths. Attached to the main building, 
are the dye-house, wool-house, fulling-room, engine room, and the build- 
ing containing the apparatus for making gas fron\ crude petroleum, 
which is supplied not only to the factory, but to the dwellings of the 
workmen in its vicinity. In addition, the firm have built around the 
mill a small town of neat and convenient dwellings, including a church, 
and having a fine macadamized road as its main avenue, and a park 
with walks and flower-beds, and a central fountain as its ornament. That 
the oi)erativea in this factory appreciate the liberality of their employers 
and the efforts made to promote their comfort and well being, was evi- 
denced in a very flattering and public manner by their presenting 



on Fobrnarv 1, 18r..'5, to Ckoroe Hut.i/.ck, tlio pviiinpi.l niannircr, a 
s.'i-vicc of liio pmvst silver, linc.l '.vitli gol.l. consisting of n pitclH-r 
twonlv-two inchfs i-i hciiiht, a siilver, goblets, and otlior articles, ilii- 
plicates of lliose vvhicli received the I'rize ftt tlio late Tntoriiatio.ial 
Exhibition held in Paris, weighing four hundred ounces, and purchased 
at a cost of one thousand dollars. 

The motive power that propels the machinery is derived mainly from 
an engine of one hundred horse-power, though additional piwer is 
obtained from the stream on which the mill is located. The descrip- 
tion of goods made hero, includes Doc-skin Heavers, Moscow Heavers, 
Chinchillas, Coalings, Cloakings, etc., of a very superior cpiality. 

The founder of the firm operating this mill, was Mr. I'.kn.iamin 
BuLUioit, who was born at Yeadon, near Bradford, in l-^ngland, in the 
year !"!)(;. Ai)prenticed to a grocer in Bradford, he discharged bis 
duties so faithfully that his employer left him a legacy of twenty 
pounds, which sum he used to pay the expenses of emigration to the 
United States. Arriving here at the age of nineteen, he commenced 
his career of industry in this country as a wool comber in the estab. 
lishment of Henry Korn, then a weaver of woolen laces and fringes, 
and a manufacturer of military goods. In 18J2, having ac.'umulated 
some capital, he a.ssociated himself with Amiiony Davis, nmler the firm 
style of Hullock & Davis, and commenced the business of wool ])ulling 
oii Front street, above Poplar. In the succeeding year he removed to 
the store 32 north Third street, where lie renuiincd for a period cf 
nearly years. The first consignment of wool ever made 
from "west of the Alleghanies was sent, it is said, to this house, and 
consisted of a lot of three hundred pounds. The entire sales, how- 
ever, during the first year of their business, did not exceed five 
thousand pounds, which, contrasted with the fact that his succes.sors, 
the present firm, have received, used and sold, during eight months of 
a single year, five millions of pounds, shows in a striking nmnner how 
vastly the traffic in wool has increased. 

Perceiving a favorable opportunity to embark in manufacturing 
woolen goods, Mr. Bullock, in 1837, commenced the business in the 
" Spruce Street Factory," now owned by Mr. William Divine, who was 
then foreman at this mill. Subsequently, he purchased the " Franklin 
Mill," on Haydock street, near Front, and at a later period bought the 
property of Bethuel Moore, near Conshohocken, which, as has l)cen pre- 
viously stated, was, it is believed, the first woolen mill started in the 
State of Pennsylvania, and probably the first supplied with woolen 
machinery from Jenks' works, then located at Ilolmesburg. His 
operations, compared with those of the present firm, were limited ; but 
he laid broad and deep the foundations of commercial integrity upon 


Zr^y^, i" which three thousand persons were employed. 

Hobert Patterson's Mills 

.. i •„ ^j" Tfivtilo Fiibrics in Philadelphia 

or Its vicmity. He is tne piop .._,., .1,,.,.,. and four millions 

which have the capacity lor ^^^^^^^^^'^^^'^^ ,„ .,,eh the 
of yards of Cottonadcs, annua 1>. ' "^ " J fort v-five feet wide, 
weavin, i. done, is one lu.ndred ands xt J- . j ,.^.^,,^, 

six stories in height, and contains s,x ';-';- ^. ^1^ /'.^^ „„a ,our 
,,., there is a l^^'P^jf ^^^J ^ ^^^ l^:!::^ spindles. The 
other buildings in -^ '/>;;.,, „, ,,, turbine wheel, which 
machinery is propelleu b> ion, oveisn n ^^ ^^.^^,_ 

have an aggregate of f^mr hundrc. -'<^^ >^ ^^^ \2.^n.^. 

.,e number of ''-'J -';;> l!^:' I^ r;^^'^ u^ iCLry. erected on 
In 18.-,7, (Jeneral I atte, .on 1 ' 'J^J ^,,^^^. f,„,,. „,,, „j,o, and 

the Urandywine. in the h ate o ^^^ '^ D.iawai'e county, where 
in 1858 removed ihe machinery to ;»; ; 'l/^;': ,^ ,,,,,,, ^^^tains 
H is now known as ^^''^^^'^y'^'^;^,, .ired and eighteen 
three thousand live hundi.d ^V^^^^^^ .l'^^^.^^, ,,.,,, Mills.- 

looms. In 18<-.2 1- pu"chn«ed >^ ^ ^ -' ,^ ,^ „,., ,,.,, .,,. an L- 
an extensive three story bnck ^-^^^^^ ,^,,, ,,„ f,,t, and ex- 
..aving a .out 0. 1 n>a s n. o^^.o ^n 1 ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ _^^^ ^^^ ^,^^ 

lending >»-''-"' ;^,^,,\; „,,,,,,„ construction, and includes 
»,achi,.ery foi spinning is nev -; » ^, .^ ,^,,„ „„ i,,nared 


Cotton Mill, three hundred and sixty '- ^ J^..^,,^ ^„ ,i,„,y. 
wide, with walls ranging "" ^^ 1!;^^, "^i^^Lnd two hundred 



1 hand- 
le time, 
[• army 

■ millions 
'hicli tlie 
root wide, 
, and fouv 
lies. The 
•ol, wliioli 
The avor- 

orectcd on 
s ago, and 
ity, where 
y contains 
d eighteen 
eet Mills/' 
n of an |., 
■ot, and ex- 
feot. The 
nd includes 
no hundred 
for weaving 

id very lino 
eventy feet 

to twenty- 
wo hundred 
11 building is 

is sot apart 
, tools Tlie 

weaving is done m the second story while the third is "-^ f^'; :;-;;;;|^ 
r innincr Trestle-work forms the .sumnirt ot the root. 1 Ix, mil 
:: tl :^ ^^ -a twenty-eight looms, and seven thn.sau 
I The machinery is impelled by a Corliss engine ot Iano huu- 

heating steam direct from the boilers Mills, about six 

In these three factories, known as the lattii^ou -lu 

Jeans, etc. ... , p, j,, the 

Coiiuly Tyrom-, Irola,.,!, J>mu,u> '-"■'-,.„.,. ,,„,„„|„ ,„ n,il»- 

-;;;;;:::\;:r:'::tr,:::,,":;ri :;.. .■«-;-- 

:lnn, 1,,,.,, U...0,., »„ „„.ce,i in u,« »--«;;;"-;' J^'. 

r:;-:':r;;^^:::"-= -:b;;-'^^-,:;,;;;: 

TT •. ,1 <,.itos Vrmv ami subsequently became a Captain. \\ iku n. 
t: ^^t t i;a;ked largely\u various commercial enterprise, ut 
^^,r^l his eonneclion with the militia forces of tl. 8,.U.^^^^^^ 

::!; :: ^ uil iti ..ivw .r «.... uoo„„ ,. ,.»m i...... 

; 1 io.> foi- ...ore ,l>,m r„r,y y.vs. At tl.o oo,„„,o,.c.- ". "' 

v,.l. J.»lw«. >' . ^^ „,.„„„| i„ ,1,, ,„,„y „( 

: ;":,,;;. r,lc; ,-™»n.. T.ylor, ..,,,.,.0,1 .,«.■:».»,.,„,, 

mandcd the expedition against Tainpico. 

r, ir (lonenil Scott his comman<l partook of the severe labo a 
v": C u., and the hard lighting at Cerro (^-rdo. It was here t .U 
ral I'aterson caused himself to be lifted on horseback Iron, as k 
bud 1.1s gallant conduct in command on that occas.o.i, ehe, ed t c 
nn ulatiois of the General-in-chief. AVIien the war ended he ro- 
Id to his counting house and engaged in manufactunng and u. com- 
Loree with the energy he httd displayed on more heroic tields. 


On tiK. cunhroak of tho Rebellion, in 1801, General Patterson tcnderca 
his Lr iees to the Government and was placed in conunand of tb 
D;: nt of Washington, wbieb included, besid.. tl. >. -t ^ 
?i.ubia, the States of Maryland, Delaware "-\1^-^^^^ :^^,:^ 
undertook the herculean task of or^aniz.ns an nm.) ^^> bout ^ »*-l<; - 
an c tablished communication with the Capital -'«/^"""l'''' ;• . ''^ 
Bcticcs o twentv-five thousand of the men whom be bad called f on, 

r ^: : ;:;r:a ^::i":u;rs:: «., i. co.i.e.d . 

.. .P .ther of this valiant and efficient body of troops. ^\ itb the .est 
ori' ;;;:;c: ;i:;:^> a^ayed by tl. ... of artmery, and^eontnu^u.ory 

^::E:r ;;: :t r! t::^:^ on U. expiration of tl. three months 
J'Sbt Division bad enlisted they were mustered out of serv^ 
dneral Patterson returned to devote himself to b.s arge pr.vat 
" n" The failure to prevent a coalition between the orces of 

«^: ,s .ohuston and neaur..,ard was attributed to h.m and severdy 
^U iscd .bil. the nati..n was smarting under the l'"-"'^; ; ^ '- 
T uU llun disaster, but though bis vindication was easy, be to 
^:^ .U . .rue history of the alVair until the eonllict bad en.,rely en c^ 
"Z. be is.ued a pan.phlet showing bat he bad ^-^'-P-;;-^-^ 
first du.v-obedience to orders-a.ul which, u, tho op.n.on of the ab s 
nil.arv..ri.ics,bas so eon.pletely exculpated bim from respons.lMlu 
? : nnsf.u.une that further animadversihn is a slander U .s now 

e .u fron. oflicial docun.ents n.ade pu.dic, that bad General l^mc.on 
been allowed to carry out bis own plans and go to Leesburg. >vheie !u 
Idle checked Johnston, and at the san.e t^me ^- '^ '^ 
supporting distance of M.^Dowcll, the iirst battle of Uull Kun vNould 
Ipwe been a glorious victory instead of a defeat. 

An. . the .Iseof the war (Jeneral I'atterson made another important 

;, 't u ion to the nation's prosperity by loaning freely to Southern 

. t on liberal credits to aid then, in developing thc.r s atter d 

roe. Now, at the advanced age of seventy-H.x, rcBpccted and 

::: he is «sing bis large accumulated capital in a way a 

;;; ;nrni:h enn>b>yment to over a thousand persons and advance tho 

manufacturing interests of the nation. 



A. CampbeU & Co.'s Factories, 
vuJk, now bcloJcd »ill.i,. U,c -'1'""' . ' °^, ,„,, Ir .,»- 

inadcquato. to tbo for H-" ral..K>, tinj 

,„,.vi» tl,>. ,aaol,in»y of oU.or ;"»"'; -['^^^l^^,,,,, „, ,,„„,,„,, ,,„,„g 

(in average width of foitj i.(t, am _ ^^^^^ 

spiudU's ami Mi looms. . on"; n''^. no^^' 

elginos-tl." fii-a. being »■"""">«■ J '"i: r „, ."vo water 


Tiw. Pnttniiadcs luadi- u-re iiicUulo all gi.KH > <>i «a... 


almost ™tmly ccasc.l). «iHl oMoii.t > lla "> ' 

I- I • , 'iM.i.v 'ivi' (Mill DiuHl, i» rDViiliMi, aim muui."^ 
on in those factoru't^. I lu\\ au • 'i"MM" »' i ,vlw.nt,.r it lie 

lor th.. hialllyeolor...! ocpo boo.I» soo..-!,! !■>«< He »' 

„„.,or .tyk.. re,,,mv,l l.v .1,,. '";"■''" /^^ ^ " , ^„„. ,.:„.,h,„.l, 

of ,„o,l,-a,„l ,™,.<.„,„.,„ly. «l.e>. Oto ' " "' , \ .s, ,■„,„ . -ll'. 


Lust n.naer\he.u of great a.-eo,un.oaat,on to -rf^;.^^-^, 
instance, .le.iving the control or exe -^ « ;;^j^^;,!^;;,;, ^he 
brand of goods, can have their orders execut d 1^^^ th s fi m ^^^^^^ 
n.onoi>oly of the brand secured to them he o^puc 

heretofore manufactured. r.,ninl)pll and 

.,»to of trade, .h»u numuf.cturcrB who are .lopcmlcal to, such 
upoQ tlio advicos of agents or commteiiiOD mcrclmnls. 

M. landenberger 4 Co.'e Factory 

1. ,™l,al,lv the host representative that couUl he selected of a elass 
U l"»''»'»y «"• I '„ ^,.,„ established, within twenty-hve years, 

I'r r io woollen .,o,,iery and Faney Knit Kven 

thiV u uit fron. Us conunencement. is Martin LANnENnKUOER. and . 
;;:,"' Tit 1---H.nt is used i.riuci,ally for the storage of wool and 



IB applied to tins loom, »nu , .,i„ri.,|„ „f combination, 

a„y dosi«n oai, bo P^'-^IJ^^; , ^ „,'; l,„,„i,„o of IW.hor 

'"%Z. arc employed in this manufaetovy, in the busy .eason, about five 
::;;: :;*c.o'l!:S a™ .aao >„ ab„utei.„t ba„d.a ai.Cciu 

is pvovulcd with '^;.'^"^^^/^' " ^^^.^^^,1 ri,,,i, i, eomparatively a 
is employed in nuikmg Sbetland ^^ "^ ^", oavantapc of having 

«' " '-\X!:tZ U^ul^rS;:; one buna,.,, aiKt ninoty. 

jr::r,,iri';;e:»:r..e.n™ ,. u„.oo., ..0. ..^.o...., 

products exceeded seven millions ol dollars. 



The Ol.™.ter Prmt-Woik. and W«.hinglon Mills. 
,„,o anO a halt mile. bol»w .1.-^ • ■ ','-,. ^|„,, „.„„,„, „,l 

Mills," consist .if t\NO 1)1 Hlv MUiti two-8torviiiekins '•'>o'» 

«,, ,et, iu wiaU., n.l ^ ;^-;^^ :;:Ul.a .na In ... l.i.h. 
.Uached to -'^''^»^^.^^;:^, r;i,;a„ws in those l.uil-lin.s, wl.icl. 
.l.Ucrc- arc =^ >->. /^\''\ 'j^ on tbc pronus-s, pn-s.nt 

, ,evy vv/.iiant and '-1--'°^, f;/ ., i^^Uvil and lif.y horse- 

^-'''' '' r.:::";; •;:::":o^^^^ i:,> ti. .......0. 

power, one of them IK in„ ci seven Imndred per- 

„,, hi,h „*u.c ro.- u» o»„o,,,y ,.> „.^; -\V,„,,„,„, „,,„„„, . 
«"« »c !"»r'»y-> ; . ™" ,,„,„„, „.,.. of »uou .,■» oo„. 

. nd dressing, and ovei tlunj 

^T^::::^^ .it. t.. ..s, tv^^e i. . ^^^--ix 

bleaclnng,andlnu.lun L ^^^^^^^^^^ j, ^^. ^^^^.^.^, ^^^^.,^,^ ,„,i 

arc attaining an > ' ^^'^ ^^^^.j^^ ,,., ,,a„eing of Prints 

fast colors. At the present '^^'^^ ^,,,,,^. ;,„„,„, pieces per 
.even tl-sand pieces per^ W - -a ^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^_ ^^^^^^,^^,^,^,^ 

week of fancy dyed good>-lHint, a ^^^ bleaching 

of the estahlishmont in pruUing ^^^^"^^^^llJ^^ ,.,,,,i,,,v of the 
..d finishing of white gojnU, ^^^^ ^^^^ of -n-ing on! twenty 
hest description, were added, it vo I ^^^^ ,,i,,.lislnneut 


of three hundred horse-power, ">;;;,,„, ^^ ,4,^ .orse-power. 

nailv use, thirteen other engines, v a g ^^^^^^^^,^ ,,.,,, the 
riu;-e are, in all. ahout ^-:'%^^^'^Z boilers tlJt generate 
main boiler house contanung f-nit 1 u u ^.,^,,,5,,,^ for 

• ii,r Huo etii'ine anu uomi n' 
fitenm very rap'-.U. ^/^"^ ' ' " „ „•,,,,. which was found to be supe- 

pumping water 

;,^\\T > ine ensi '■ """ " , 

■£,„ u'c l.da:varo rlv.r, which «, .ou.ui .•■ W »«,. 



, nliout 
of ten 
(iiis all 

Et long, 
ijjr room 
■et high. 
, which, 
, pvoHont 

is IH'O- 

V horse- 
IpmI por- 
are cou- 

rcry large 
y dyeing, 
iits, which 
styles and 
' of Prints 
pieces per 
u'ry of the 
out twenty 
ations than 

y an engine 
iscs, and in 
ipaeity, the 
iTii generate 
clusivoly for 
I to be supe- 

rior for both dyeing and bleaching, and of which a large quantity is 
used. The annual consumption of coal, of the best quality of an- 
thracite, varies from five to six tiiousuiid tons annually. This is 
delivered from canal boats, on the wharf, by the side of the main 
boiler house, and thus very little handling is required. 

Among the interesting machinery employed in the printing of cali- 
coes, is that which produces the figure, in the copper rollers, with 
matchless accuracy and delicacy. The pantograph machine, which is 
elsewhere described in detail, is extensively used, and such is the 
facilitv it atTords, that females are employed, and found in many respects 
to be the best adapted in skill for executing some of the processes. 
The greater portion of the hands employed in the printing department, 
however, are males, and include some of the most skilful workmen thau 
can be obtained for the highest remuneration. They vary in number 
from one hundred and fifty to two hundred. 

The apparatus employed for singing the goods, at the same time that 
they pass through the shearing machine, is most complete, there being 
but few establishments in the country provided with equal facilities. 
The singing is performed both by gas and copper-plate— the gas being 
manufactured on the promises, in works of sufficient magnitude to 
supply all that is required for this purpose, and also for lighting the 


The proprietors of these works are nearly all residents of 1 hiladcl- 
phia, the President of the company being DAVin S. liuowN, of Phila- 
delphia, whose brothers, Jeremiah and Moses Brown, were among the 
earliest established' drv goods commission merchants in the country, 
and the agents of Samuel Slater, of Providence. For nearly a half 
century Mr. Ikown has beeo actively engaged in the distribution of 
American goods, and aiding to advance the interests of American 
manufactures. The establishments over which he now presides, exten- 
sive as thev are, have capabilities for far greater development, if the 
policv of the government should be firmly established in favor of the 
protJction of its skill and industry. They constitute one of the great 
art sch..ols of the country, for the education of designers and chemists, 
whose genius we mav reasonably anticipate will ere long elevate the 
art products of America to a level with those of Franco and Great 



WiUiam H. Horstoann & Sons' Manufactory. 

Lture of Kibbons. Military '^^^^;;^^i^Z., «ot only of the 
It is one that adds to t .e --;» ^ ^ ^^ "^ j,, productions rival in . 
city iu which it is located, bu « ' -■ '^,;,,,, l^ Switzerland, and 


^te X^der of this house. ^^ WilH^- ^^^ d^ ^ 1" 
in the workshops of ^'^"-l-; J ^^ ^, Ip .fore an apprentice could 
production of a masterpiece of ^ «'^ "^"^^ ^ ^^,k,„,„. He was a 

Live a license to practice h. tn d a a. ma ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ 

native of Germany, but came «J^^ ^"^ ^ Jf^.^ure of trimmmgs. At 

1815 commenced in ^'^-'^'^'^'';^J^^^^^^^ 

that time there were »->* ^^^ ^^^ J^^ ^^ ^^X^ „ and Monroe. Naturally 
which were called after the l>res^e.^s-Je^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ p^,^.^^,, 

ingenious, Mr. Horstmann - ;^ ^ . ^ ^^^.^^^ .^^e than to any other 
in which he had embarked, and to u i 'f,,^ion in this conntry. 

,an. the business is indebtecUor«pr--^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^,. 

In 1824. he introduced rom ^<^^^J ^ ,„,,,ines. Gold laces 

chines, and in the succeechnge^tb^^ l^^^^^ ^^^^^^ .^ ,,, 

were made by power >« / '"^^^ l;^ ' f^r making fringes may 

attempted in E-ope and^ h^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^ j,. ,,,, we believe 
be said to have been first g«"«^^' ^ \ , wer to the general 

this firm was the first m '^"^ ^"^J ^^^f J/.^itmann. the business 
n^anufacture. Since th« .^^- « «J^/ ,, what ability they have 
hns been conducted by h>s ons and w ^_^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 
discharged the trust comm t d to U ^^^^^^ ^^^^^.^^ .^^^^^^^^„, 

in,portance of their estabUshn nt 1 >^ ^^^^ ^,^^.^ ^.^^ ^^ „,, 

inventions, as we ^-'^ ^'^^^^ ^':^, W silk, silk and worsted, 
factures en.braces a wul en ck o ^a ^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

mohair, cotton, gold ."^"V.mmtv besides every variety of military 
not made elsewhere in tins --^ y- ^^^ ^,^, J,, ornaments. Silk 

trimmings, not ^^^^^^;^ ^^'iJ':;::^ in all respects, not only u. 
vibhons are made here, which are i .^^ ^^^,,^,^^^^ ^f 

brilliancy of coloring «- J^t^^/ , C:. .ul St. Etienne. The 
manufacture to those o he loom ^^^^^^^^^ .^^ ^^^^.^ ^,^.,,„rt_on 




of the 
L'ival in 
xn\, and 
ign im- 

ded the 
ce could 
le was a 
I, and in 
igs. At 

any other 
J country, 
ding Ma- 
3old laces 
re it was 
inges may 
wc believe 
lie general 
3 business 

they have 
he present 

t of raanu- 
nd worsted, 
■ of military 
ments. Silk 
not only in 
evenness of 
Liennc. The 
ir lie port on 
as presenting 

an example of system and neatness rarely found in manufactories in 
which handicrafts so varied are carried on. 

The manufactory is situated at the corner of Fifth and Cherry 
streets formerly the burying ground of the German Lutherans, ami 
bo'glU of the congregation owning the old church (built 1743) on the 
opposite side of Cherry street. The building forms an L, a 
front of one hundred and forty feet on Fifth street, one hundred feet 
on Cherry street, and fifty feet wide, containing six Hoors i be engu.e 
house and machine shops are in a detached building m the yard. 1 hi' 
machinery m operation in the factory is new, much of it or.gmal, and 
includes one hundred and thirty Coach Lace Power Looms, one hun- 
dred Power Looms, making five hundred and fifty stripes or rows ot 
goods, three hundred and thirty-six Silk Spindles, and other complete 
silk machinery, four hundred Plaiting or Braiding Machmes, fifty Hand 
Looms using over one hundred and sixty Jacquard machines, 
from forty to eight hundred needles; besides all the auxiliary ma- 
chinerv necessary in the business. 

Adjoining the manufactory on Cherry street, the firm own an ad- 
ditional lot, bought of the Friends, having a front of seventy-five eet 
on that street. The building on this, formerly a Meeting-house, they 
ha e converted into a salesroom. 

in 18.5T Messrs. Horstmann purchased the entire stock, materials, 
looms, and patent rights of the Clinton Company, of Clinton, Mass.. 
who were the largest mauufacturers of Coach Lace m America. 1 he 
designs of the best qualities of the laces, iu which silk is freely used. 

are unsurpassed. , , . 

During the late Rebellion, the Military Depot connected with this 
manufactory was a general and most popular resort of the volunteers 
of the Federal army, especially officers, who were there able to tind 
every article necessary to equip them for active service or holiday 
display The immense manufacturing facilities of the firm enabled 
them to meet promptly a sudden and pressing demand and supply a 
national want. 

D. & C. Kelly's Factories, 
Located on the Darby Creek and West Chester Railroad, at Kelly, 
ville, near West Philadelphia, must complete the «o>»Pl^;;;«"t « ^'le 
Rcpresent^-cive Manufactories of Textile Fabrics in which Philadelphia 

abounds. , ^ » • •., 

The Kellv familv has been identified with the manufacturing in- 
terests of tlie city from tlie beginning of this ...entury. As early a. 

by a wide circle of fnendb. ^'^^J' ^^ ^^^ „f the repre- 

eLte.y no less t.aa for « J^^^^ f;:;, ,raU,fally cherished, 
seutativo men whose fame is as t a ^^^ ^ ^^^ .^^ ^^^^^^. 

Ue emigrated to this «°"»7 "\'''';/"' "jghty-one, live stories in 
facturin«,in a structure f'^^^y-f';^,^;^^^^,,!'^!, and around which 
l,eight-to which additions were Bubsequently nu , ^^^.^. 

Lmevous dwellings were .-ectedconsut^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^.^ ^^^. 

village, now kno^ n as Kdlyv d e- Ihe o.ig ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
qtroved by lire, March Uh, ISOb , out 

ll more'substantial building ^- '^---f.t a front of fifty feet, is 

The main edifice of ^»?^ P^^^^ ^;^ff;, Tories in height, and is 

two hundred and thirty-one feet ong v ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^.^ ^.. 

divided by a stone wall ^-'^^''^''l^ZllVo.o of which the carding 
vides the building into two -P-f ^^^^ ^^ j"^^^ ,,, weaving, etc. The 
and spinning are performed, ^^-^ -J^^l^ The lirst floor contains 
vooms communicate by means ot ion do -^^^^ carding room ; the 
woollen machinery ; the second ^^^^^'^ ^,, „.anufactured ; 

t,h.d floor is the ^P--f/-;;."^':^rsforr^^ 

the fourth floor contains -'^f-.^^-^J^^^^^^ ^,, the weaving side, the 

the flfth floor contains ^^^\^'^\'^''^X upper story the beaming. 
..t four floors contain tue^looms,^^^^^^^^^^^^^ spindles alto- 

::;:::?; t'flory. and Uiree ^-^^^^ ,,, ,,„dred thousand 
The space in and around the ^^^'ll'^^l^ ^^^ j, ;, performed 

-r S:fS:er^r:tr:ie n^i the Cloth is pro- 
^"st^:i^:"whoie . p-t-i;^:::^:-:::^! 

of one hundred and fifty ^^^^^^::;:^J^^ equal to two hun- 
Uundred-horse power; -^"|^^^^^;,t be hvown into every ^ iu 
dred and fifty horse-power. Ste'ini c. i be ^^^^ ,, a further 

the building, at a moment's "^y^^^' » ;;^:;J, ^ing its envire length, 
pvotection, the fifth floor ^^-/-^^J^ f ^^^^t, 'ntly kept filled with 
Iwo hundred and thirty-one foot, wl c^ a « -^ /^_^^i,, , ,,ppiy 
water by means of a force-pump attached to b 



jc war 
A-t the 
uver in 

ily aud 
> rt'pre- 
,1 nmuu- 
tories ia 
id which 
rt'cre de- 
:h larger 

Ly feet, is 
it, aud is 
This di- 
le carding 
etc. The 
r contains 
■ooni ; the 
ufactured ; 
, etc. ; and 
,g side, the 
B beaming, 
indies alto- 

;d thousand 
3 performed 
}loth is pro- 

■wheels of a 
to two hun- 
•ery room in 
as a further 
mire length, 
pt filled with 
A'ilh a supply 

of ho.o. within and without the buiUling-that is capable of throwing 
several thousand gallons of water per mmute ,^^ ,,,,,,,,, 

The consumption of cotton in these mdls ,s about f^^-t^ ^'^'^^ ; 

and of wool about twenty bale. The ^^^^^J^ZZ. 
ploved is three hundred and seventy, of whom two thjab 
^Th; aggregate production amounts to ^^^^^ ^ ^ ^^ 
annually, consisting of a large -'^ f,^^ ^^'^itKevUle Tickings." 
denims, Canton Uanncls, and the well-known Kcllj vUle g 

Lockwood's Paper Collar Manufactory. 

The discovery that paper could be used as a substitute for linen in 

the manufacture of Collars and Cuff, ^^l --'-"< -^t Te'n 
of verv modern and purely American ongm. It belongs to a eia 
h venlns that are not at all appreciated at first-fact .s, regarded 
with con -pt-and which subsequently become of such importance 
hat hey nJt only enlarge the fields of human labor, but affect 
f , iVhnd trades It is conceded that the present enormous consump- 

.r fiftv toas weekly, has contributed to enhance the price of that 

nSv an! cons quently affected the interests of book publishers 

::r U wL consuTe ne p^ers. Both the invention, and the means 

Z: wl:X.a to ov^come .pu^ ^^^ eol|^ - 

2:::;;. Ta^;;:ntf"::^^^ne th^r lcess.lin.odu. 
t on in o popular favor must be accredited to the enterprise of a citi.en 
of Phtadelphia, of whose establishment we propose to give some 

" Chistory of the invention is briefly as follows : In 185B M. Wal- 
ter Hunt a verv ingenious and prolific inventor m the city of ^ew 
Yorfwho haV been defeated in litigation concerning a sewing ma- 
lice of which he claimed to have been the original inventor. 
InnoUdt the foreman of his machine shop tbaj ^ woi d m^ke 
a stitch that would supersede the sewing "-^^"^f j'^J;;"t of 



uu>nt n.uslin, or other like material, to the paper, for the purpose o<- 
i or as .1^ it Btren^th and oh.tieity. On July 25th 1854. he reco.vecl 
Xt or shirt ctilars of this kind, as a new article ot -^^^ 
IL his clai>us to priority of invention, after h vn>g undergone the 
ordeal of litiLration. have been conUrmed and establislieU. 

Tl h s ory of the introduction of these collars as a marketable eom- 
,nX is no less interesting. Previous to the issue of letters patent 
r^ier Hunt, he disposed of one half his intercut ,n he san. ^ 
John W llidgwav. of Boston, for four thousand dollar., and subsc 
; Uy sc^d the her undivided h df-interest for three thousand do la. 

E II Valentine & Co., who eonuneneed the manufacture .n the t h rd 
s or; of a building. No. 408 Uroadway, New York. The eommumty 
b^vcn- d d not regard these new collars with favor, and the paten 
:::^:;p.ently sold,Ld resold, with diminishedvaUn.none^^e^^ 

chasers seeming pleased with their bargain. In lbo8, M . William iu 

Lolwood a yVung dry goods merchant of ^^f^^J^^ 

the interest formerly owned by Valentme, --«- ^ k's n "1111^ 

Pbil.delohia and commenced the manufacture m the keys one Mill., 

a F— t. His experience during the fust six months was by 

no mean encouraging, and he was compelled to suspend operat ons, 

ti::;:ei::ccumLL. ^r want of a market. When^eons^s 

that millions of these collars are now made and sold an m^ y , t - - 

incredible that less than eight years ago '^ -qun'od perM tent eff rt to 

overcome the prejudices of the commun.ty ^S-^ ^ ^^^^ ^ J;;';, , . 

e al used in a linen collar, only more clean and pure in , s present form 

hau err before. His accumulated stock was then soon disposed of his 

facto y opened, and n. less than two years his facilities for manutactu - 

rgwere found inadequate to supply the demand, and »- -"^ ^ ^;^ 
, .• o;;r;„n.loriq South Third street, where be lias now pro- 

C"llTr«; .^Vl; I^plo^e e.a.U*.ent or .h. .,esc.,..„ iu 

*TlltM?„rbavc . front on Third aod Levant .trect ot forty-Be^ 
,ee a op h f on« bundrod and eighty .even feet, and are vo stone, ,n 
teitltt I .different apartments there are about ninety nmchme, useu ™ 
to arious processeMo whieh power is eommanioated by moans of over 



niachincs are novel, and some of them costly. 

T rst process in making cloth-lined collars, is to k 
paper and mLlin. which is accomplished by means of a -;;;';-;- 
L est, with the various improvements necessary to "^^r ?^..c the 
«ae.^.al expansion and contraction of the two substances nea) U nty 

„„,c,; .„a after ,..t to U,c W'''"^,-*""-; "^ „ » ^ :,!.. of 

^"r^""'''\LtwUhTe' Collar manufactory, there are apartments 
In connection with tne t.oiia ^^^^.^^ 

appropriated to the manufacture of l^^nlX^;'^^, bottoms of 
thousand are made daily, or over '^ "'1 « ^ ^ J^ ^^ ^^^,^„ ,,,,ks, 
thP^o boxes are constructed largely ot thin, circular w 

? K thP firL have found to be a satisfactory and economical substi- 
which the film have louiu ^^^^ ^^^^ .^ ^^^^ ^^ 

,,te for P-^*^^-"\/" tX itheir business, that ten printing- 
the premises; and so ^^''^^'l^'^' ,^^^ j^ this department. 

.esses, -?^;-^J" ;Vrchin:s::;. Jhere all repairs to the 
There is also a f^'ge, a a a ^^^ ^^ ^.^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ 

'"t'";;;:::^r rand fif g Hs aivl women employed, none of whom 
as two bundled ana niij f, . certificates of character. 

,re t.kon without specal -<''»"-;^;; -» ";,"„„,, .ecommoOatiou. 
Dinner .ml drcsuig-rooms are P'» 'lieatioa between tite diHerent 
Klevator, arc used a, a "«"^;';;7; J^^td^y means ot dogs that 
:,;;riltrrretrhrtl^Tdrtrat"anArio:, .eideotrrou, the 


faeture of patent direction labels, commonly called "tags." The large 
amount of cuttings necessarily produced in the col ar depar men , 
being as much as three thousand pounds weekly, is all, or nearly all, 
converted into tags, made under a ^oecial patent, and which, from their 
strength, ready absorption of ink, and neatness of appearance, have 
been adopted as the standard tag by the Transportation Compames of 
the city, and are used largely by merchants of all classes^ Ihe sales 
of these alone amount to $25,000 per year, while of the collars as 
many as three hundred thousand have been sold in a single week. 

In 18G2 Mr Lockwood purchased the entire interest in the original 
patent, which was subsequently re-issued in four divisions, including 
both collars made of white paper, imitating starched linen, and collars 
composed of paper and muslin, or an equivalent fabric. 1» /«G^' 
Mr E D Loekwood became associated with his brother, establishing 
the firm of W. E. & E. D. Loekwood. llecently, the firm have du,- 
posed of their interests in the original patents to the Union Paper 
Collar Company, organized with a capital of three millions of dollars, 
but they still continue the business on a larger scale, working under a 
license from the Union Company, and paying a royalty monthly on 
their entire production. It is estimated that the annual sales of paper 
collars in the United States now amount to between three and tour 
millions of dollars. 


la the preceding pages of this work, considerable space has been 
devoted to recording the progress of America in Nava Architect uro 
and mention has been frequently made of the early sh.p-builders o 
T'hilaUelphia. The Government Navy Yard, located at this point, has 
been .markably successful in constructing fine vessels, among which 
we n.ight mention the ships of the line " Pennsylvania," 3,241 tons u.ul 
.. North Carolina," 2.635 tons ; the frigates " United States" and Kau- 
tan ;" the screw steamers " Wabash," 3,200 tons, and " Lancaster, 2,300 
tons; the side wheel steamers " Mississippi," 1,092 tons, and " busque- 
hanna" 2,450 a.ns; the "Arctic,'' memorable for her connection 'Mth 
the Kane expedition; the " Shubric," used on the Coast Survey ; the 
.. Noshamonv," and others. One of the «hip houses in this yard is two 
hundred and seventy feet long, one hundred and three feet high, ami 
tightv-four feet wide, and is said to be the largest of its kind in the 
United Slates. The Sectional Floating Dry Dock, constructed by the 



The private ship yards have also turnea o 
a. will be seen in the record of the operations of two or 
most prominent. 

William Cramp & Sons' Ship Yards, 

T«„ in number, .re .n.eng *e ..rge.t in fti, coun.ry and oquippea 
and wooden vessels. 1 he iron snip y a , , ^^.^ river, 

-r. ""■ ri; rinin^irruirwie ;":'»,.. ...., 

and has an area ot SIX nunuieu .„„ f„rtv bv three Imftdred 

f„„. of four bunared feet 7;™-7;, "''^f:'^ ^ „. nngbt 

feet, contains some tools of unusual am on fc 
iostanee the bendine roll,, we.Rlnng 7" « "^ \7'; ° „ „„„ve 
,vlll bend .beet, of iron an '« ; ^^^^ ^ "^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ""* 

comparatively cool. As an insi ^.^^ ^^^^^^ 

firm for rapidly executing work, it may be sated ^bat 

;i:'r:difrr::ri:" tr'Ab„ut?neb:nd„d and .t, 

-^Zr^:;:^^ L=7o=:;:e., near .1,0 
•.of Pcnn's TreL ground, and has a front on the river of three hun- 

also constructed ten steamers, each one hn.ndred and e,ghty-hvc Icct 


Ions for the Cuban trade, and which weiH. found to be so superior for 
the purpose for which they were designed, that they entn-ely superseded 

aide wheel vessels. , p a 

Within the last four years this firm constructed a number of fine 
vessels for the United States Government. The " Ironsides, famous 
ia the annals of the late Rebellion, was built by them at a cost of nme 
hundred thousand dollars. Her dimensions are two hundred and thirty, 
five feet in length, fifty-eight feet beam, and twenty-seven feet hold, 
and nnage 3,250 tons. The " Chattanooga," one of four of pecuhar 
ns ruction oi-dered by the Navy Departme.*, was by th.s ^ 
Ita cost of a million of dollars. Her dimensions are three hund ed 
ad twl -five feet in length, forty-six feet beam, and depth twenty- 
two f"t three inches. The light draught monitor " Yazoo" was budt 
hire in accordance with designs furnished by the Navy Department 
but vhich, when the vessel was ready to be launched ^un to 
be so defective, that it involved the necessity of rebu.ldmg. 1 he hgh 
dLug monitor ''Tunxis" was also raised twenty-two mches, and 
r bun by this firm. Besides these may be mentioned t e transports 
' Stanton " " Foote," " Welles," and " Porter," and the doub^ ender 
..Wy lusng,"and others, costing in the aggregate five mdbons of 
dollar Dm-ing this period many vessels were also constructed for 
prilat^ parties amounling in the aggregate U> about fifty vessels, of 
various sizes, with a tonnage of twenty-five thousand tons. 
Th firm i composed of William Cramp and his five sons Charles, 
W M C amp, S. H. Cramp, J. C. Cramp, Theo. Cramp. The semor 
Itne'r 1 as I'en identified with the pursuit for more than forty years 
and ^ivanced, bv regular gradations, from a journeyman sh.pwnght o 
a mas 1 mide; He constructed the first propeller tug-boat ever buUt 
in the UnUed States. This was the " Sampson," which was used as a 
gunboat, during the late Rebellion, by the South. 

John W. Lynn's Ship Yards 

Are located in the southern part of the city, below and adjacent to the 
Xvvy Yard. They cover an area of over five hundred thousand square 
feet and are provided with all the facilities necessary for the proseeu- 
on the business on the most extensive scale, as wdl be mferred 
when we state that during 180.3, Mr. Lynn built and laut.ched a vesse 
Tvery sixteen working days. The majority of these vessels w re of 
course of the ordinary class, including Transports and ugs; but 
Jong them were some fine steamers, as the " Continental,' sixteen 
hundred rs ; the " Liberty." fourteen hundred tons j and the Revenue 



Cutter " Mahoning," which, on a trial of speed, made in accordance 
with orders from the government, from Boston to Cape Ann, a distance 
of sixty miles, surpassed all her competitors. 

Mr. Lynn was, we believe, the first lo appreciate and use the 
Knowlton Oscillating Patent Saw, which is now spoken of by sbin- 
wrights as-' worth its weight in gold." It is really one of the most 
vahuil)le machines ever introduced into ship yards for sawing frames 
of any desired crook and bevel, enabling three men to do the work that 
formerly required twenty, and to do it better than it can be done with 
the adze or axe, with the additional advantage of economizing time and 
material. He is also aiding to perfect and introduce another re- 
markable invention of the same inventor, for grinding and polishing 
shot and shell bv steam power. It consists of a quadrangular series of 
arms or levers, that hold the ball in a central position over a revolving 
emery grindstone, and by its means a fifteen-inch shell can be converted 
into a perfect sphere in less than a minute. Commissioners appointed 
by the Government to examine it, have reported strongly in its favor, 
and no doubt it will soon be introduced in all foundries where shot and 
shell are manufactured. 

Mr Lynn was formerly of the firm of r>irely & Lynn, and during 
this copartnership designed and built the vessel which subsequently 
became notorious as tlie "pirate Sumter." She was originally called 
the " Ilabana," and engaged in the trade between New Orleans and 
Havana. During his career as a shipbuilder he has constructed no 
less than thirty ocean steamers— among them the "Emily B. Souder," 
fifteen hundred tons; "Star of the Union," fourteen hundred tons; 
and " Noshammock," seventeen hundred tons, which made the outside 
voya-e between New York and Philadelphia in the unusually short 
period of seventeen hours and twenty minutes. Thus, he presents 
another example illustrating that in a country unfettered by commercial 
guilds or governmental restrictions, a young man, by the force of con- 
structive genius and faithful application, may to the front rank m 
his profession. 

R. F. Loper, Philadelphia. 

It would bo impossible to do full Justice, within the limits of a few 
pages to a subject that atfords materials for a volume ; but we cannot 
dismiss it without some tribute to one, who, though not a shipwright 
by profession, has built many vessels, and contributed most efficiently to 
the advancement of the merchant murine of the country. We refer to 
Captain R F. Loper, of Philadelphia. Ho was probably the first man 
who undertook the responsibility of contracting to furnish to owners a 


• A Mr, Tn the five years between 1847 and 1852, 
"7^- '^' Vo™ in T^orTotv^Zl,^^. two hundred vessels of 
" :" Ui s nd di U b'^^^^^ among the mechanics not less than two 
''^!,o dollar Up to the present time he has constructed about 
Turh ndvedt"-ls of different descriptions, the largest being the 
S S l>wis" fifteen hundred tons, for the Boston and' L.verpoo 
' fe. b. l^twis, ..«*„vnf the Sc th" twelve hundred tons; 

S'"»'-'"P C»'".-y i;'-„2 Vi C^plny, of flv. hundred ton, 
'°^ '':::;te^. Crft„,!;'r.ho Nowfo.l.a„a Telegraph C«n,p»ny. 

" r .^ ta latetL in which the United State, have been engaged 
th "o °n,n,ent found in Mr. Loper a most efflci.n eoadjutor. At the 
.,: !w of the Mexiean «ar, he hnilt in thirty days a hundred and 
m tta ,*whieh the American troop, were l«nded at Vera 
aflyhuil lioaia ,„„,,,ipe| ,he mvernment with eight light- 

Crur.; and m 1841 be supp lea in i, constructed 

rornred ntuch vaiuabio ^^Z!^:::::^^^^'^^'^' 
rXr'^r'f tire P:,r: under' «e„era, McCeiian, to the 


to benefit the commercial mai ine, ana desi<rned and 

supremacy on American waters. 

la the upper part of the city, at the foot of Palmer street, on the 
1,'ale river. I a very extensive and notable estabUshment for 
building Steamers and Marine Engines, known as the 

Peiin Works-Neafie & Levy, Proprietors. 

,,0 f-'-' f^^'tr roprlt. rfUresoworU, have constructed 
existence as a firm, the piopi ^^^g^. 

„,er four 1>»''^-'' ™»7\X't ^n/a d » u„. of experience, 

NEAFIE &. levy's I'ENN WORKS. 


tiac" " Neshannock," "Liberty," "Electric Spark," "John I'vico," 
"Thomas Scott," " BoUo Yeruon," and others. During the hue re- 
bellion, the engines for about one hundred and twenty vessel^ of all 
classes, were built here, some of them among the largest in the service. 
The area of ground occupied by this establishment is about seven 
acres, and within these limits are the buildings, tools, and facilities 
necessary for constructing not only marine and stationary engines, 
high and low-pressure boilers, heavy and light forgings, but for build- 
ing all sizes of iron and wooden vessels. Having a front on the river 
of over four hundred feet ; docks in which twelve ships can rule abreast 
in safety; a marine railway capable of bearing a ship of a thousand 
tons; shears and tackling that will lift a hundred tons; a machine shop 
one hundred and sixty-five by sixty feet, three and a half stories high ; 
a boiler shop one hundred and eighty by sixty feet ; a blacksmiths' shop 
one hundred and thirty by forty feet; an erecting shop eighty by 
seventy feet ; a foundry one hundred and fifty by sixty feet-all 
equipped and nrovided with the best tools-their facilities arc un- 
questionable. Or, if other evidence were wanting, it is presented in 
the iron ships " Oriental," of fifteen hundred tons ; the " Havana," 
twenty-two hundred tons ; the " General Scott," eleven hundred tons ; 
the " Union " four hundred tons ; and many others built here, that 
have added to the glory and efficiency of the Americtin marine 

laouc special but important branch of naval architecture, this hrm 
have a pre-eminence amounting almost to a monopoly. Among the, 
or probably the first, to engage in building Propellers, and ownmg the 
patent for the curved propeller wheel, more of this description ol vessel 
have been built at the Penu Works than in any other in the country. 
It has been said that at least two propellers may be seen on their 
stocks at all times; and on the western lakes, probably two hundred 
are performing valuable service. win 

Besides its advantages of location and equipment, the Penn Works 
has another, in the practical skill of its proprietors, Jacob G. ^cafie 
and John P Levy. Mr. Neafie served his apprenticeship m the ma- 
chine shop of Thomas Ilolloway, the first marine engine builder m 
Philadelphia, and thus, from boyhood, has been identified with tho 
pursuit in which he is now engaged ; while Captain Levy has a 
thorough and practical knowledge of hulls, rigging, and outfit of 
Bteamers-a combination that completes the resources, both men- 
tal and material, necessary for constructing any vessel of wood or 
iron, and furnishing it with all machinery and equipments ready for 




Tn the City of Chester, fourteen miles below Philadelphia, there is 
ano^hel ve^ extensive 'establishment for building iron vessels and 
marine engines, known as • 

The Pennsylvania Iron-Works, 

Whieh were founded by one of the original owners of the Penn Works, 
Which were toun i Archbold are now proprietors. 

£;r ;t1^:.5!S-tl^- acres, meluding about twelve 

a e u stf m hLnier, and a'Nasynith clouble-acting steaui am- 
niei re entlv imported from England, at a cost of one thousand dolla 

' Ti! pL strike a blow equal to the force of forty-five hundred 
ir^OoirndsBsils these' there is the boiler «hop. one hundre 
ltd htvrt long by sixty feet wide, with wing attached eighty feet 
i 2;i itvfee?wicle-, a' foundry one hundred and sixty feet long 
•xtv Tl wide, and thirty-two feet high, in which are two cranes each 
sixtj oetw 1 - ^ ^^i^b cupolas capable of making a 

'''^:^::^^^f^m^^^^-^^^^^ *— ^^^ ^^^^^ hundred feet 
Z^VX^'^li with a wing attached of eighty in lengUi ; 
r CO' per ;hop and brass foundry, and numerous buildings on- 
neeted with the boatyards, in which are kept punches, shears, roll i 
Is and furnaces capable of doing the heaviest work required in 
ron sh n-building. To the uninitiated, the ease with which one of the 
Iict sw ghhissome twelve tons, can force a three-inch hole through 
a U>i lip ate of iron, is marvellous, and not less so is the facili y 
tith w ich the huge pair of shears near by can clip a piece of iron an 
l^ : ll in thickness. Besides the buildings that be on g to the 
manvLturing depav.u.ent, the firm erected about sixty dwe hng-hnuses 
Tt^: conimodation of their workmen, and are now '-Idnig u and 
Bome brick church which will seat seven hundred person, comfortably. 



The productions of this establishment comprise Marine and Stationary 
Engines, Locomotives, heavy and light forgings, iron and imiss cut- 
tings and a great variety of machinists' and boiler-makers' to..-ls, but 
probably the most prominent branch is the building of iron and 
wooden vessels of all sizes and kinds. During the late Rebellion they 
built and fitted out three vessels of the monitor class, the " Sangamon," 
•'Lehigh " and "Tunxis;" one gunboat, the " ;" four .i.uble- 

cnders, the " Paul Jones," " Watcrer 

)i II 

Suwanee," and " SlKiiiiokiii 

and two tugs, the " Nina" and " Pinta." During this period thry nUo 
built and launched fifty merchant vessels, in size from a tug-boat to a 
steamer of nearly fifteen hundred tons ; but by far the finest vessel which 
has yet been launched from their ways is the " Thomas Kelso," a steamer 
for the Chesapeake bay trade. A contract has b(M'n recently made 
with a gentleman of Philadelphia, to build a fast passenger ami ircight 
steamer, to run between Philadelphia and New Castle, and winch, 
when completed, it is believed, will be the most rapid on the river. 
Between eight and nine hundred men are employed in these Works, and 
about 2,500 tons of coal and 3,000 tons of iron are annually consumed. 
The firm of lleany, Son & Archbold combines, in more than an 
average degree, practical experience and scientific ability. The senior 
partner, Tliomas lleany, was the founder of the Penn Works, previously 
described, and as such, is identified with the early history and construe 
tion o£ Propellers in this 'country, while, for a period of over twenty 
years, he has been a builder of marine and stationary engines and 
boilers. Previous to this he was connected with the Philadelphia and 
Trenton railroad, and one of the principal railroads in the State of 
Georgia. Wm. B. Beany, the son, served a regular apprenticeship in 
the machine shop at the bench, and in the drawing-rooms of the estab- 
lishment formerly named, of which his father was the founder, and for 
sixteen years the senior partner. He is well known throughout the 
country as a thorough and scientific engineer and practical machinist. 
Samuel Archbold, the remaining partner, is also well known through- 
out ttc country as a practical and scientific engineer. Having served 
a regular Apprenticeship in the shop and drawing-rooms of our of the 
first establishments of tiie country, he soon attached himself to the 
engineering department of the United States Navy. Here he obtained 
such pre-eminence as a practical, efficient, and scientific engineer, that 
he was ultimately recommended to and appointed as Chief of tl.e Bureau 
of Steam Engineering in the United States Navy. This position he 
filled with efficiency and success until his resignation, which was ten- 
dered in order to enable him to enter upon the business of the lirm of 
which he is now a member. 


Howell & Brothers' Paper Hangings Manufactory. 

of this Instory. i^hiladelplna of which we have any account 

The first manufactory m '^"^^ P frenchmen, named Boulu and 

^as one established about 1700 by tjo ^^^^^,,^,„ ,„„,uUo 

Chavden. ^--^^X^'j', l^a S WilUal Poyutell embarked 
Lyons, in France^ %'^lTZm^,,^ made, however, was of common 
iu the manufacture. The k na i i ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ g^^pg. 

.uality and ungla.ed ; and it was not untd the w 
L style of- French ^^^-^^\ll\l\lXlL^.,.^ that contrib- 

were introduced '^'^-\^'»\>"7, ' '^'ro^nent, was the introduction of 
uted more than any other to ^^ ""P ovemo> ^_ .^^^ ^^^^^^ 

About the year 18 3, John iy ^ ^ ^ iTianufaciory of Paper 

to the United States in l^^^' ^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^ Philadelphia and com- 
llan^iugs in Albany. New Y^^ removed ^^^_^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

nienced the ^f-^^ »"/^'^^;Xrs one of the largest in the United 
is now that of Howell & J^'^«*^''''' !*" i„ Europe. They have 

States, and it is -^f^;^^-; f ^LteeU: and Spruce Streets, 

surfaced papers. _ , ^^^^ ^^dern processes for 

In their manufactories may be seen »» ^ ^ ,, «, at 

printing, and maehineryforcoaung an l-ng^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
least, had not yet been .«'d«pt d ^n the ^ng ^^^^,^^^ .^ ^^^.^^^ 

the more common desenpl.ions «f ^^ ' ^7 J^^ ^ J,,,, ,eing the same 
the pattern is cut upon ^ ^^^^^''^1;^^^^^^^ descriptions they 

as cylinder printing of ^"^^^l*^^^ ^^^j J, i„ ^hich the outlines of the 
continue the old style of printing by blocks i.j^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^_^^.^^^ 

various tints, havmgb- lave up^ ^^ ^^^^ .^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ , 
mounted in pme, the ^ocks are p ^^ ^^^ gu^de-marks 

applied to the paper each one foUowin ^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

left by the previous impression, ^e ^'^^ ^^^^^^ ^.^^ upon the paper 
receive the workman's hand, f ^[^ ^^'iZcei^.^ from the mill in 
by a mallet driven by the foot. f.^^^PJ^^o inches wide. The first 
rolls of about 1200 yards long and from 20 to 




ulu and 
)nsul to 
a supe- 
iction of 
d States 

, London 
of Paper 
ind com- 
1 founded 
le United 
)hey li8,ve 
3 Streets, 
enth near 
japer per 
and satin- 

ocesses for 
ars ago, at 
^or making 
3S in which 
g the same 
ptions they 
lines of the 
F pear-tree, 
)r, and then 
the back to 
n the paper 
a the mill in 
ie. The first 

process is to cover the blank paper with a preparation of chalk wludi 
forms a basis upon which the colors rest. In the English factories this 
is effected by hand ; in the best American manufactories it is accom- 
plished by steam. The polishing or glazing which succeeds is also 
effected by a single machine, composed of a succession of cylinders, 
operated by steam. The patterns arc mostly furnished by the Philadel- 
phia Female School of Design, though the best designs emanating from 
the schools of France are frequently procured. This firm employ in their 
manufactories about 200 hands, one third of whom are females. 

Messrs How»ll & Brothers have recently taken possession of one of 
the largest and what is generally regarded as the most elegant store in 
the city of Philadelphia. It is located at the southwest corner of Ninth 
and Chestnut Streets, and has a front of marble extending 33 feet on 
Chestnut Street, and a depth of 235 feet. 

Remarkable Chemical Manufactories. 

Philadelphia contains some of the most extensive manufactories of 
Chemicals in the Union. The climate of Pennsylvania is peculiarly 
favorable for the production of some of the most important articles, and 
a capital of several millions of dollars is now invested in the manufacture. 
We condense from a reliable record the follows ing account of the early 
manufactories which may now be said to be of national importance.* 

John Harrison, of Philadelphia, was the first successful manufacturer 
of Oil of Vitriol in the United States. He had spent two years in Eu- 
rope in acquainting himself, as far as he could gain access to them, with 
the processes used by the chemists, and after his return to America 
devoted himself to the manufacturing of Chemicals. How much earlier 
he succeeded we have no means of ascertaining; but in 180G he was 
fully established as a manufacturer of oil of vitriol and other chemicals, 
in Green Street, above Third. His leaden chamber was a small one, 
and capable of making about forty-five thousand pounds or three hundred 
carboys of oil of vitriol per annum. So successful were these operations 
that in 1801 he had built a leaden chamber eighteen feet high and wide, 
and fifty feet long, capable of making three thousand five hundred car- 
boys per annum. The price which the acid then brought was fifteen 

cents per pound. 

John Harrison was the founder of the present well-known concern of 
Harrison Brothers & Co., whose chemical works in Kensington occupy 

(1) Loading Pursuits, edited by Edwin T. Ercedlcy. 


, •. P H o,V father's old establishment. They manufacture exten- 

for purity anJ S«">"">""»'- ^,„„,„„tea ;„ lemlcn tossoIs beyond a cer- 

S„lplmrio ncd en ot be '^™ ="" "; ,,, „ i„d In commerco, 

tnin density, «»d for .nnging « to th '™15 ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ,,^ 

Scrtrbt'aUlJglue ;■- an. »P«.in. «•.= - B-Uy ■ucca.d 

the cost ot the ■";'*=;»;;«• p,„„j„,p|,i„ „ eelebrateO foreiBn.r, Dr. 
There hvcd at tb« time in 1 nim ' I _^|| i,,,^ 

Briek liodman, <,h. had --'"'P';^'"^^ '™ °^ ' „;f, „, s„„h Caro- 

,„cee»M attempt, in -"'^-J-J 'J^^^, gntds. Ling hi. hnprison- 

"""•; V« »°* °" b1 a «a!:'a .an ot powerful and ver- 
ment at 01 nutz. i". u" ^nlitiral economist, and a general 

.atilo -"«l.M.10-d<'™.»''-'"f'^P;^^"\3 ,* attention to the 
rf,o..r. Amons other pur. mt. be bad turne ^^_^^,^^^^^^_^^ ^^^^^^^.^^ 

«rl;inK of erudo plat.u,™ «. wh eh 'here ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

Lr;ren;ete;LT"*„r; aisco,ered by Br. Wo,,.t„u foj 

he these sheets was the ^'^^^f'^^ ^^^^ ^.^ ^ed seven 

use for about fifteen years^ cot.centration of sulphuric 

two, and only to a few. account was put up 

.,r rK^r r:: ir,'::::,- «; eoneentrated their 


,he ,a.„ufaot„re of "\l " J' 'J;™\' ' J ' : „,„„ged a, to i,e Kept 
eonecn.ratin, the .e.l m '» '" "' "f,,^„,, „„,„, „f eoneentrated 

'■";■:'">;., Irir-re't f r ::: fon"i: Js'l ..., they .ti,, eo„tin„e 
:ld" r*:::,. f™ of ^■|ebo,.. Leuui« * eo. at the new ohcaf 


,nd the 

I a cer- 
3 to tlve 

369 SUS- 


aer, Dr. 

I all but 
li Caro- 
and vef- 
i general 
a to th« 
[ brought 
iston, for 
3, he had 
and into 
to which 

rohn Har- 
hud seven 
itinucd in 

as then a 

II a year or 

was put np 
tratod their 

largely into 
ti chambers, 
I to 1)0 kept 
till continue 
; new chemi- 

cal establishment of this firm recently erected at Bridesburg, where they 
are largely engaged in this manufacture, as well as that of Soda Ash, 
Alum, Copperas, Aqua forti?, Nitric and Muriatic Acids, all the various 
preparations of Tin for the use of dyers, such as Tin Crystals, 0.xymu- 
riate of Tin, Pink Salt, etc. Besides the firms mentioned, those at 
present engaged in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, in and near Phila- 
delphia, are Messrs. Powers & Weightman, at the Falls of Schuylkill ; 
Savage & Stewart, and Moro Phillips, at Frankford ; Potts & Klett, 
at Camden. 

The war of 1P12, and the commercial restrictions which preceded it, 
caused such a scarcity and duarness of chemicals that numbers attempted 
the preparation of the more prominent articles ; and the complete estalj- 
lishment of the manufacturing bu^ir.oss in this country dates from this 
period. Many of these works were undertaken by foreigners, who had 
learned sometiring of chemical manipulations in the Gorman, French, or 
English factories, or by capitalists among our own druggists, who made 
use of foreign skill, or pretensions to skill, in getting their works into 
operation. It was in tliis way that factories for the making of Prussian 
blue, Schule's green, and other pigments and chemicals, \vere from time 
to time started. 

Many of the foreigners had been laborers in the laboratories abroad, 
who had no knowledge of chemistry as a science, and whose e.kill was 
confined to their own limited routine of work. There were others of a 
higher character, men of competent education as chemists, and of much 
intelligence. Of these, Dr. Gerard Troost was the most prominent. He 
was a Hollander, who had studied medicine and chemistry, ai>'' had 
been a favorite pupil in mineralogy of the celebrated Abbe Iliiu;'. lie 
was probably one of the best crystallographers of his day. He settled 
in Philadelphia, was one of the founders of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, and was employed in several chemical enterprises. Tie super- 
intended for a short time the laboratory of S. Wetherill & Son ; was 
then engaged in chemical works with licchleitner, the Swedish consul, 
and afterwards, about the year 1815, superintended an alum and cop- 
peras works on the Magothy River, on the eastern shore of Maryland. 
He did not possess tlie (pmlities of a jiractiinvl manufacturer, and most 
of his entori)rises were unsuccessful. lie afterwards removed to New 
Harmony, with Owen, M'Cluro and others; subsequently accepted a 
professorship in the Uidversity of NashviUo, and became geologist tu 
tlie State of Tennesse(\ Dr. Troost died in iS.'tO, 

Another of these intelligent foreigners was Abraham Kunzi. He wa^; 
a Swiss, and had been educated as an apothecary, in a country where 
all the apprentices arc taught pluvrmnccutic cheiiiislry, and pracliscd in 

L M 


„..„, .0. Of ... o«c.a, c.c«.s HO «».« ^o-"." "^^^ 
J„l,„ Hwrison "»>^, *™ "'* f ;'7;J:; E„8U*mau. »l.o bad somd 

,. ,.. K..i t.e P0^..v « 

prudence of John i^arr, uuu -pnHpved the firm eminently 

err ort L. e.c.we «----»: -:::ea - co.,. 

Tl>« co„c»ra thus toandcd by »"" ""J ;'^„"„ ji,,„,. powCTS 4 

WciBbtman, who bay ot nly o"U^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^„„„, 

„„«od itt repnlatwD .™ °™ t.|,„, have two cstablishmouts,- 

.„„ attbe '''"-ff;SlMu"a Acids, ipsou, Salt. Coppera. 
Vitriol, Aqua Fortia, ?Uiric ana m ^^^.^ ^^^^^^J_ 

Bta, Vlt-iol Aiu,„, "■• .^™ :';:' ;":, ri:::. l-Wladeipiu., ..ey 
lisbmcnt at ll.c con.ot ol ... .lb an" ra ^^^^^ 

of Morcury a..d Citm Ac.. . „|,arm..copa!ins. Tl.o 

the officinal of t..c Br.f-b »"; ^ mmca p ^^ .^^ 

,cp..tati«n of this house ,s ....s..rp»je.. °' . J ' arfings. It is not 
elLicaK and fo,- ''.«';«;-- ^^^^ ^fLd o'f a chcnicl 
SLlirlr ri:; "::: l^ -. , yoa. b.s n„lfo-™.,y sastai,.cd 

™ '■'!-''■ "'«r»':r.fWbHrLear;:a:'":.con,™o..eed b. the U...ted 
Tbomanntactueol Wb,t.i.e ^^ ^^.^ j,.^^^,,. ^^ 

States, as we ... the I «« ' f „,„ i5„„ta,i„„. Uis 

M. WChcill of ; ;'" f>;: l,t^ "I , :u;„,eo,..inao tbe .....ufac 
p.„„dso.,,, o, tbe « . »^;;- '„„,, ,ij, „, the Scb,.,lkill. 'Ley 
tare, a..d l..ivo a faUory "» " , ,„„„„„„ ,u,i|y about 

e.„„loy an on,b.e " -f'^^Z'^2:.>^^^ ,„an,.f.cturers of tbi. 

:r :r li^ :;v*^.- -— er 7r r;::^^ 
r,\.=r^r;r ;':■ r riin wit. .,.0 — et.e . 

as follows. cstftblislicd a White Lead factory on a lot 

In 18i:3. Joseph Richards ««^^» ' ^ j^j •„„, yi,,.ets, and in 

on ri-«tre.hctwe^ e yamsoonth^^ J ^^^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ 

the xvmter of 1810-20 sol. i ,uade during the first year 


pradnal, amounting in 1830 to 000 tons, and in 1840 toover 1000 ton.. 
In 1827 they commenced the manufacture of Acetic Acid for then- own 
use, in place of cider-vinegar; and in 1830, that of Linseed 0. . lu 
1349 the firm purchased from Rodman and Joseph Wharton a lot in 
Richmond, having a front of 620 feet on Duke Street and 3G0 on Hun- 
tington Street, on which there was a White Lead factory already in 
operation. The works were much enlarged, and in addition to White 
Lead Linseed Oil. and Acetic Acid, they began the manufacture of 
Red Lead, Litharge, Orange Mineral and Sugar of Lead, and at a later 
day other paints. In August, 1850,.the firm of M. & S, N Lew.s which 
had continued unchanged foi fifty years, was succeeded by that of John 1 . 
Lewis & Brothers. Their present factory, on the lot above mentioned, 
is very extensive, and they have a capital invested of about $350,000, em- 
ploy 90 hands, and produce annually of White and Red Lead, Litharge 
etc , about 4,500.000 pounds; other Paints 1,200,000 nouuds ; Linseed 
Oil 'about 60,000 gallons; and of Vinegar about 300,000 gallons. 

In IS-n) there were but three establishments in the United States 
making White Lead, and their aggregate product did not exceed 400 
tons Now, on the seaboard alone, excluding several factories in the 
AVest there are twelve which make in the aggregate annually about 
14 000 tons, or 28,000,000 of pounds. Since 1852, however, it is be- 
lieved that there has not been any considerable increase in the (,uantity 
produced, or any important additic.i to the number of factories. In 
that year the.Wndle Oxide of Zinc was introduced, which has satisfied 
the increased demand for white paints to the extent of about 6000 tons 
annually. It sells for about one-third less than White Lead, and the 
production is only limited by the demand. 

Wright Brothers & Co,, UmbreUa Manufactory. 

Philadelphia, in 1860, had more than one half tb. whole capital that 
was on.ploved in the United States in the mauui.u,ture of Umbrella, 
and Paraso-8. There were in the city about twenty of those estabhsb- 
nients, and among them one that, it is believed, was the largest m the 
world. We refer to that of Whiuht mmm:m & Co , a house that was 
founded in the vear 1820 by four bn.thers-John, Jom ph. Edmund, 
and Samuel Wright, natives of Oxfordshire. Englan.l, but who can.o to 
this country in 1816. and embarked in the business of preparing whale- 


,one for U.bvellas. to which they added, iu the year named, the manu- 
facture of the QniBhed article. ^^^,,;,^,e as manufacturers of 
DuriDg the first ten years of tl^ir ^^P^ f«^^ exceed one 

Worena. the. ^^^^^X-i::^.^^: y^^. ^vith the 
hundred per day ; bu. loi tue long v ,„anufactory in opcra^ 

exception of a ^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^:i;Z. produced from 
tion uninterruptedly, and in t it ousy j^ ^ay. 

twenty-tive hundred to three ^f "--f^^y^";^ "'^^^^ i,te Rebellion, 
The exception alluded ^^^^f "/ J^s Jbeir mannfacture had 
,v^ben finding the demand for ^'^'^ ^^^^^ principally females, in 
elniost ceased, and their five bund d e-ploy-s P ^^ J ^.^^^.^^^^^^ 

danger of suflering ^^,X^^^,::Z^.^.y of army clothing ; 

rrtttrr "He «;;^:- -rx; r^u^i 

org»nizatioii. . . locnlcd ot 332 and 

The maQuhctory and sales rooms o " » ™ ° ^ i, ,te„.elves, 
3-24 Market Suee., ma to« ..o.T ^"^ "»; ^ l/„,.eudios ta 
t„.i„B a front on ««'"»' ^.-^"^'".r ,x 1.^^. ^ ^^^^_^^ ^^^^^,^ 

doptb two hundred and '%''«' ' "f °°g,„„^ „ ,„d a great variety 

- »'■■'=" *° 'r:XS a tl Inrfactnring operations, super 
of machinery urc emp oyca m u insuring um- 

.eding.toaco.sidera lee^teu-b^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ,,, 

formityof size .nd strength m '^IJ^^ ^.^^^^.^y theusooHbo 

a., nvw "-^--^^^;^'^;^^7f2"i-ly a prominent article of consumption 
Whalebone, which was f*^"' '^ ''J^ . aupcrscJed by rattan and 

iuthis -'-^'•-^"-' V;rg \u ledby the singular failure 
Bteel,-in conse(i«ence of .IB g* -t .ub ^^ ^^^ ^^^^.^.^^ 

of the whale fishene. ^^^^ZZ^^A elasticity, this firm have 
quality, possessing ihe "^'^'^f^' ^ , ,1,,.^ the best quality, that 

e. ablished connections >» »"'»^^";»f' ^ Xcted," can bo obtained, and 
i« the Dutch East India ^--^"7^^;^,^ ^^^ ^ ufty thousand pounds 
,,,, ,,,ortations jur^un w und.d ^^ ^^J^^^^^^^^,,, 

Bunually. nearly all '^ y^'^^^^J ^hey dispone of to others, 

that, which is not smtable or teipuriio^^^^^^^ ^P^^^ ^^^^^^^,^ ^,^, 



through whom they obtain their Silks, Scotch ginghams, and various 
other materials direct from first hands, and of which, in a yearly pro- 
duction of over a half million of umbrellas and parasols, great quanti- 
ties are necessarily consumed. 

The head of this firm is Samuel Wright, the youngest and only 
surviving brother of the four who originally established it. For many 
years he has been the active manager of the establishment, and during 
a business career of a half century, has always been distinguished for 
honor and integrity in his dealings, and liberal and enlarged commer- 
cial views. Many of the mechanical improvements that give this firm 
their facilities for rapid production, are the offspring of his inventive 
genius. Though advanced in years, he continues an active supervision 
of the affairs of the firm, being aided by his three sons, who are now 
associated with him. 

Massey, Collins & Co.'s Brewery. 

The manufacture of Ale and Porter is an extensive business in Phila- 
delphia, and employs a capital of a million and a half of dollars. 
Though there are no Breweries which will compare in size with some in 
England, yet it has been said by competent judges, that Philadelphia 
Ale, for wholesome qualities and palatableness, is superior to that ordi- 
narily made in London, as no other ingredients enter into its composi- 
tion than malt, hops, and pure water. The largest Brewery at the 
present time in Philadelphia is that of Massey, Collins & Co., and 
they are regarded as leading brewers throughout the whole country, 
both by reason of the extent of their business and the superior quality 
of their manufacture. 

The Brewery now owned by this firm was originally erected by 
farmers of Chester and Delaware counties, Pennsylvania, and trans- 
ferred by them to the Brewers' Association of Philadelphia. Subse- 
quently, M. L. Dawson, whoso ancestors had been prorMuent brewers 
for a period of eighty years, purchased the establishment, which, how- 
ever, wns small compare'.* with its present size. Poultney & Massey, 
the predecessors of the present firm, greatly enlarged the buildings in 
186.5, and the present owners have made important additions to their 
brewing facilities in order to meet the demand for their popular malt 
liquors. The main Brewery, as now erected, is in the form of a hollow 
square of one hunured and fifty feet each way, six hundred feet in all, 
seven stories in height, with extensive cellars and vaults underneath 
the whole eighteen feet in depth. 



Attached to the Brewery are two malt houses, with a capacity for 
malting two hundred thousand bushels of barley per annum. The new 
malt house just erected, is one hundred and forty feet in length, fifty- 
two feet in width, eight stories in height, with five malting floors, and 
cellars and sub-cellars underneath, twenty-two feet in depth, which 
extend, also, under the yard, furnishing a storage capacity for twenty 
thousand barrels of Ale or Porter. In a wing of this buildmg, thirty. 
fiv(j by thirty, there are six drying kilns, where the barley, after it has 
sprouted, is dried rapidly and converted into malt. 

The mash tuns, in this Brewery, have a capacity for infusmg twelve 
hundred bushels of malt daily. These are largo circular tubs, with a 
double bottom, the uppermost of which is false, and pierced with nu- 
merous holes, and between the two there is a space of two or three 
inches into which the stopcocks enter for letting in the water and 
drawing off the waste. From these tuns, after the starch has been con- 
verted into sugar, it is drained into boiling coppers, which, m this 
brewery arr heated by means of steam pipes. 

The gyles or forn.^-ding tuns, winch ure large circular vats or tubs 
bound with strong iron hoop^. having in the centre pipes placed m ft 
cylindrical form called atteraperators, hivve a capacity of holding seventy- 
five thousand gallons, and the st.ovage vats, of which there are almost 
fifty are capable of containing from two hundred to four hundred bar- 
rels each But the great feature of fihis establishment is the extent and 
depth of the cellars and vaults, where, in an atmosphere refreshingly 
cool in midsummer, tweuty thousand barrels of the higher grades of 
Ale and Porter can be stored for maturity, preparatory to shipment to 
all the markets in the United States, the West Indies, and South 

America. . . - , 

The firm of Massey, Collins & Co., is composed of men of long prac- 
tical experience and more than average intelligence. Wiixtam Massey, 
the senior partner, has been familiar with the details of brewing from 
bovhood, both in England and in this country, and the position and in- 
fluence of Mr. Frederic Collins in the trade, are shown m the fact 
that he was one of three commissioners selected by the Associa- 
tlon of Brewers, to visit Europe and report upon the Excise laws ap- 
pertaining to malt li(iuors; a Report that has been declared, by the 
ITnited States Revenue Commissioners, to be one of the ablest that 
came under their notice, and from which wo learn that the estimated 
annual production of malt liquors in the Tnited States is fi^ve millions 
of barrels, in the manufacture of which twelve million bushels of 
barley and fifteen million pouuds of hops are required 




At Reading, fifty-eight miles from Philadelphia, is another exten- 
Bive and celebrated Brewery, known as 

Frederick Lauer's Brewery. 

The main building is of brick, three stories high, having a front of 
one hundred feet, and a depth of one hundred and fifty feet, with n 
garden attached that occupies the entire remaining portion of a block 
four hundred by two hundred and forty feet. The cellars underneath 
are arched, and in them are four springn of excellent water, having a re- 
markable ilow, which is forced by means of a steam pump into reser- 
voirs, and used for brewing fine Ales. An engine of thirty horse- 
power propels the machinery, elevates the barley and malt, and works 
the apparatus in the mash tuns. The Brewery is provided with all the 
necessary puncheons, refrigerators, fermenting tuns, etc., usual in such 
establishments, and has a capacity for producing forty-five thousand 
barrels of malt liquors annually. The fermenting tuns will hold about 
thirtv thousand gallons. Under the Brewery are vaults capablo of 
storing two thousand barrels; but which are used mily 1 -r nicking 
and storing the liquor that is intended for iinnwHliato consumptum. 
Attached to the Brewery is a malt house, which it i>> proposed to enlarge 

at an early day. , , • 

Besides the garden already moiitioned, which contains a fountain 
and a fish-pond that is supplied with water fn».n springs in tiie Br^-wery, 
Mr Lauer, adopting the Russian or Berlia sy^^em, 1ms a park of six 
acres of ground with a handsomely fitted up, shaded house, having a 
veranda it. entire length, and an observatory from which a line view 
of the city can be had. H.M-e are vaults quarried from solid limestone 
rock, for storing Stock Ale, Brown Stout, and Lager Beer, and having 
a capacity for storing seven thousand barrels. Here, also, is an 
artesian well, which has attained a depth of two thousand feet, and 
though unfinished, has already cost $22,000. The water obtained from 
it is said to possess superior medicinal properties ; but it is proposed 
to prosecute operations unti". a fountain of spouting water is obtained. 
This Brewery was established in 1826, by the father of the pr-sent 
proprietor, who emigrated to this country in 1823, from Gleissweiler, 
near the Fortress Landau, in the Palatine. Its entire capacity in the 
beginning was not more than seven barrels a day, and for several years 
nothing was brewed here but what is known as the ordinary strong 
beer In 1831, the brewing of ale and porter was commenced, and 
four years subsequently, the business passed into the hands of the son, 



Pr.,1.rl«k La .or a mm noted for l,i» remarkable industry and untiring 

inTat'two o'cloek,a„d liui,l,ed the browing by d.ybroak, and who 
eTen no V Uas not abandoned hiB habit of early In 1862. 
toli "vers of tUo United States formed an -»°'='» '.<>", ^'^M 
pr:teetion and the adv.ncon.cnt of ti,oir interest. : ;-,■;*;;-',;;''. 

*rC rerCr^r'tir^rnVlee^::; so-nc. 
E;„;'L&e duties ent^sted --J-^- -fX: 

rrr:r::'i%rr:d:d':re!torr;iroo. m .sc ^bcn . 

irited to se^l a eom„,«„n te --» ^ rde^^alr^e 

''ThTsC"e"rv is now th. third in the State of PonosyWania in the 
anll^f ;;: production, and among the first in the reputafon of ,i. 
products for excellence in quality. 

CorneUus & Baker's Chandelier Manufactory, 

. t V A ♦„ h^ in its sneeial lino without an equal in Europe or 

Z::,!!. r "r pCiLs .re ,„ faet condueted in two extensive 
: , c^tcd in dW„re„t part, of the .W, but they are so man. 

,• . lih in the form of a hollow nquare, and is entirely Are 



laborer to the artist and chemist, is needed in the various departments. 
lu this miniature world, too, almost every nationality on the globe is 

'^ Trdeilribe the processes necessary in the macifacture of the Lamps 
Chandeliers, and Gas fixtures, as conducted in this establishment would 
require more space than we can appropriate to the subject Briefly, 
however, we may state, that the successive processes in the formation 
of an ornamental article from brass occur in the following order : ihe 
design is first modeled in a mass of prepared wax. Lach modeler 
in the establishment mentioned has a private room, and every facility 
given him in the production of his patterns. Immense sums hove been 
expended by this firm in procuring appropriate designs ; ^^n^^'^^baWy 
no other house in the world possesses such a rare coUec ion. W hen the 
pattern, which is frequently the work of weeks, is finally eo-P eted, it 
goes into the hands of the caster, who makes a mould of it in bia.^ 
which is scijit to the "chaser," and finally finished and elaborateu m o 
the dignity of a standard pattern, from which the caster ^W n.ultiply 
an iniLty of copies. It is one of the advantages wh.cli I'l"'-^^^?'"^ 
has for the manufacture of Ornamental Brassworh, that the sand found 
ia the vicinity of the city is of so fine a character as to require no sUtmg 
for use, and the finest castings are easily made without the intervention 
of white metal. Thus, the shrinkage and variation of size between the 
white metal pattern and the brass casting, often found to exist in cast- 
ings made from the former, is avoided, and the register of the two sides 
of a branch, or other portion of a Chandelier or Gas bracket requiring 
to be fitted together, i« more perfect than it otherwise would be. llie 
brass pattern, too, takes a sharper and mure decisive chasing than white 
metal ; and all that is required to be done, after the^s cave the 
foundry, is to iile ofl^ ^ho vorv small anu.unt of superfluous mctul retained 
in the casting, and fit the p ./>« together. , , , , , , „„ 

The articles, uftor leaving the filing room, in whiel about one hun- 
dred men are employed, are sent to the di:^puu,, J^ '.nMy 
,n,.ans of acids and various chemical ordeals, i rich, pale guhl coloi i. 

iniDiirlcd to the brass. , . 

11 the dipping process, as pursued in these works, great mod.hcation 
are made in the character and strength of the acids used. It was tound 
Jlat from the variation of temperature at I'hihulc Iphia, ranging a it 
T; from below .ero in the winter, to %' and 98^ in the shade in the 
summer, nitric acid became unmanageable during the hot season as its 

fZe w H-o given oil up.dl, us to injure the health o the vvoikmeu. 

Tlvc urate scientific knowledge, however, brought to bear upon t is 
p intone, too, involving the very existence of the trade, except at a 



.i,MM de.n.tion to bealtb and life-has ^^^^^^J^^ 
cufty , adapted tl>o acids to the temperature, and ^^^ ^ Pl^'"^ ,^^.^, ^, ,,, 

:r :rC;::i.e,:^;;d:so.e ^vef e^^cts .oin. prodded, and 

a singular purity of color ^^^tucle^ are ren.ovod to the hunn.Mno 
From the dipping rooms ♦'>«'. '^'^*'f-.^'!^„^,^._„. ^^rts of the work 
room, whore a high polish is given to ^h^ J^ ^^^^^s , steel, or a 
by moans of tools (which consist -^1-0^^2^^^ ^ ^, ,„,,u 
virv hard material called ^l°«^':^tone) d pped f el m P ^^^^^ ^^ 

.eeV. After the ^-^ is burm« it s aga^^^^^ 
acHls, and f.nally ^^ashed in hot water thheaot^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

woi-k to dry -. it is then thrown - « ;J -^! J^, j/,,en ready for 

paper ^^-;^^-;^;^r^;^^^'^:Z. importance, and requires 
lacquering. lUe lacqueuut, «i,iif„llv annlied to ensure a 

the lacquer to be --tifically ma e and kilful y appl ^^^ 

rich and lasting gold -l^-^f ^.^^^^^^^J^^ ^e e "d has made consider- 
in this process the hou^e^own^^^^^^^^^ n.ade after the 

able improvements. It was touna l extremes of tempera- 

K„„.h f..„„u,.Uost '^^\;:^Z:T^^^^o"L^^ J».y .... A«.™t, 

,„rc alrc-u y note I ;;■! 'J^ ^^H, reached in PhiLdolphia, the red- 
when the de» point of the baioniac. ^^ j,^^ 

,»„,ne.ed w,„k .Iw.ys "'-J'.^^^^^'^r After . sorleB of e.porl- 

""""™^ '"Vthl^r^vc mon hMh\. r,r„, succeeded in niaUing « 
mcnts. earned tbiough several ii , j , f io,„perature. 

lacqncr which is qtiitc permanent undo, n»y > " »t I ^^^ 

I tlic work i»nsn.lly made in .""'"7'»/ '';;; °." ,i,i,,,„,e„t 
constitutes an ""P<>"-^ ''7* ",;:*;: "0," ro constantly 
Ono room is occupied entirely hy » ' 7^' "^^^^^^elic™, Pendants, 
employed in fitliiig si. h «»"-"'» ";\;„, . „„j '„ tMrf, the 

BraeUels, etc, ; ^^^::::X^^^^.^n the tahle or 
numerous class » Sol« Lamp^i dc . .__^^ ^^^ ^^^, ^^_^_„ ^„ 

r;;cCrorrs:n":r:s: -s^'cnha, .1.. America, .ho 

''lS:rc rrr^^lSi-ril'tl, processes arc conduced 

or covered with a coating of fine gold. Each ot these p 



3ses lias its 

appropriate ,l..partmcnt. There are alsoroon,s devoted to glass 
grSg, and polisbiug, u.ul roon>.-, appropriated to the workers uj 
artistic bronze ; while others are occupied by those who are en.ploje 
at damask work, in which the chief agents are lacuei and acul. I 
the prosecution of such an iuunense business there ts ^'^^^'^'^'-'l^ ^ J^^^ 
deal of turning of metals. Many hands are constantly employed uttng 
'::!.; a bran. :, in which considerable care and skill are ^^^J^ 
the screws of the different classes that are turned out th,s e^t.bhsii 
n eU L made of one size. If a branch of a el-ndelier expor ed y 
this house to China should fuul its way to Russia, it would fit ex.utlj 
into any of the chandeliers in the Kremlin. 

The 'success which has attended the ^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^Z 
doubt due in part to the natural advantages of IMuiadelphia foi tb.s 
doubt due m pa ^^^^^.^^ ^^^^ ^.^.^^^ ^^,^^,.^, . „^. 

manufacture m pan lo lue \.uyK. v- i mircha'^e 

bling them to procure the most perfect machinery, as well as pur h. 
r«erialsl the most favorable terms ; but o^l-^-'^ny -u Uw 
ascribe it to the constant attention paid by the managmg paun u. to 
: Lientifie principles of Metallurgy, Chemistry, ^^^^^^.^iry 

Mr Wallis, an accomplished Englishman, in his report on the Industry 

of fhe United States, does full justice to the scientific attainments of the 

Imbers of this firm, and observes that ''the ^y^^^';:^^^:Z 

racv which prevail throughout the establishment is full evidence ot be 

uLnce of a mind reaching as fur beyond the ordinary traditions of the 

oriiop and foundry in the scientific sense as in the P-t-l resu it 
goes beyond the mere dilettanteism of speculative science sans 

'^"o'mentlon the master pieces which have gone forth Uom Jlie estab- 
lishment of Cornelius & Baker, and are now decoratu.g ha Is and 
buXl, public and private buildings, 7-^;-;^;^;- ^f ;:;: 
unreasonable length. The apparatus whu-h light the 1 al of K 1 
scntatives at Washington was made by them, and also that of the b a 
Chamber, which contains two thousand five ^^^'^^^^^^ ^ 
.rrauged that all can be lighted instantaneously. All, 01 ueail^ all, 
th Capitols of the different States contain specin.ens their manufac 
tu e aid many of them are remarkable for their size and elegance. 
T e'el anddiers and brackets of the Capitol at Columbus, Olno, contam, 
■unong heir embellishments, statuettes of Prudence, Science, Comn.erce. 
ibe ?y America, modeled and bronzed in the highes style of art. 
T e clLdelier of 'the Hall of Representatives at ^^f^^^^^^^^ 
is fifteen feet in diameter, and "PP-P-tfy/^-^-^^'J, '^ J ^ , 
ducts of the State-corn, cotton, tobacco phvnts, etc. The Gas fix i us 
la tc^^ Acaaemies of Music in Philadelphia, Boston, and Brooklyn, 


nl«n made here The chandeliers hanging in the auditoriums of 
Te w^ rr on "ned are said to bo the largest in the world, bemg 
«^xt n ^ctm diameter, and twenty-ftve long, and have two hundred 
r J h, rner The new theatres in Philadelphia, in Chestnut Arch 
'" wlu streets are lighted by chandeliers from this establishment. 
^ThlSof C noHus & Baker i now composed of Ilobert Cornehus 
anllsale F. Baker, Wm. C. Baker, Ilobert C and John C. Cornehus. 
They usually employ about eight hundred workmen. 

Wilson, Childs & Co.'s Army Wagon Manufactories, 

Deserve a place among the remarkable Manufactories of Philadelphia, 
Ts thiy are Fobably the largest works of the kind in theUn.ted States. 

Their history is bncfly as follows : ^ ui i 

In 1829 D G Wilson, a wheelwright, and Mr. J. Ciiilbs, a black- 
smith formed a copartnership for making Farm Wagons, Carts etc. and 
op ned shops for'the purpose, at the corner of St. John and Button- 
wood streets. By fidelity in workmanship, and promp at -t.on to 
business their products soon became m demand m all parts ot he 
LuntTv e Pecfelly in the Southern States, where their plantation 
:;:: weir tie highest favor. They embarked ^^^j^^ 
structing Army Wagons for Government use, and the first Amy 
W g n made after the present improved pattern designed by General 
GEOKOE H. Crosman, now Assistant Quartermaster General at Phila- 
delphia was built by them. Every part of these wagons ,s made with 
the me exactitude of dimensions as the Gun Carnage of a park of 
A tilery and their utility was especially demonstrated m the Exp ■ 
^Jitlo'utah, where they traversed the roughest roads for t ousands 
of miles, without the breakage of any important part In 1800 Mr. 
WILSON died, much regretted by his associates, leavu.g however, a on 
wIlmam M. Wilson, who now creditably ropreseUs his interest m 

%^nZs this period, the original works were enlarged from time to 
time but it wa. soon found that the premises, though containing two 
undred and thirty feet on Buttonwood street, and ote hundred and 
thirteen feet on St. John street, were too small to accommodate he 
increasing business. In 1850, they purchased a manufactory, erected 
bv Mr Simons, and additional property, comprising in all a square on 
both skies of Second street and Lehigh Avenue, containing two hun- 
dred and sixty by five hundred feet, or over six acres. The square on 
tlie west side of Second street, is now nearly covered with buildings. 



-is// S ^ i^ 

gP^ \^ ^ /,... ^ 












.^> ^/ 





17^6) S7}-4)03 







M^ I 





Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historical 

Microreproduction. / Institut Canadian da micor.p.oductlon. hiatoriqua. 



There is a n^ain building, two hundred aad fifty feet long, a front 
of fifty feet, used mainly for Painting, Varnishing and storage purposes^ 

The wheel and body shop is one hundred by ^-'^f ^ ^^^^V ^eet^h 
high; the Blacksmith Shop is two hundred by thirty -fiv eet, the 
Saw Mill, Engine house and Machine shops, is «>f ^^ ^y forty-hve fe t 
three stodes Sigh ; the Running gear shops, one ^-dred by for^y-fi 
feet, and besides these there are numerous auxiliary bu.ldmgs. On the 
east side of Seeond street is a Saw Mill, fifty ^--"fJ^J;;^ .^^^^ 
the greater portion of the square, which is five hundred by two hun- 
dred and forty-eight feet, or nearly three acres, is oceupjcd as a 
Lumber yard. Here is kept at all times an immense stock ot 
amounting at times to two million feet of hard wood planks and 
boards, thirty thousand hubs, and five hundred thousand spokes. 
These, before being used, are thoroughly seasoned from one to five 
years, the usual allowance being one year for every inch m thickness. 
The hubs are made chiefly from black locust trees, sawed into suitable 
lengths, and before being put away to season, the bark is removed, and 
a hole bored in the centre to facilitaie the seasoning process. n the 
store-rooms the firm also keep a large stock of finished work, including 
cart and wagou bodies, and several thousands of whee.s. 

These works have the capacity of turning out one hundred and fif^ 
army wagons in a week, without interfering materially w, h tho 
eglr business, in Farm and Plantation wagons, 'l^ho firm of Wi.son 
CiiiiDS & Co,, have an established reputation for rel.abili y, and 
their aggregate trade amounts to hundreds of thousands of dollars per 

Fitter, Weaver & Co.'s Cordage Work8, 

Are the most extensive in Philadelphia, and. with probably two excep. 
tions. the largest in tho United States. They are also among the okle.t 
established rope manufactories in this country, having been founded by 
Michael Weaver in 1817. At that period, cordage spinning was carried 
on in tho primitive way. and gangs of digging wore aid by hand, tho 
nei^rhbors being called in to assist. Subsequently horse power w.s 
empu-yed for this purpose, but it was not until recently that steom 
power was applied, by means of which large Marline Ropes are now 
Lade with the same facility as twines. In fact, so great has the pro- 
.ress been, that now r. gang of rigging suited for the largest vessel in 
the Government Marine can be finished and delivered within three days 
after receipt of the order. TUe original Uupo Walk, with Us hand spin- 


iatroduced a Corliss engine of forty horse power, 

F,r..K bc»mo "••»»-'=^;7 * " " Xri r, soL made hi. inBu. 
cace felt m the nrni a uuuuo. passing 

tbrouBh rhlladoll.l.ia to tb« .New ^»'^ "J ^^^ '"^^^ „„„,d eompote 
he urged upou t'» P"'-" ' ^'Ce IrX uand 9»i*cd, but 
witbauyin tbo Umted blaM. ^ " I.Btroved by five. Auotber 
„i.bia Icu day»atler tboir «»»M> c 'on were «™>;^2r ."to, at Oc 

..d ,ar,« '7;^;-:r;:l:^^u * » °,s°w^^^^^^ '- ^-'^^ 

luantown road near ^^^f^^^^ "'"^' " , erected in accordance 

186G. Within ^7 --^^f-;:;^' iH U"^^^^^^^^^ 

with plans drawn by Mr. F'^'^^' '^^^^^ the United States. 

and mosteonveniently arranged Co d J ijtory^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ 

The main bnilding ^' ;>l^'''^'^Z^^^^'<^^ are also attached 

au engine-room, xvhich '^o"^'^^" ' , twenty-four by forty-six 

pumps, a boiler-room and a macnme ^^^ ' J ^he factory 

feet All these building, are o J^-^^ ^^^^^^'^ ,tion is taken 

i. warmed by ateam ^^^^^^^^^ ^^''^ -cUs and hose 
to guard «,f-^^ • J,'; ^fThe Hoisting Machine is a tank contaiu- 
-;;r ran?;f I. wat. ^^^ - Oi. K.e.o. 

^"^ ^ ^rTbt'b •ck';:air 1 d tt t^Sl^g apparatus is heated by 
arc ^^^^r'^^Zm.s ave all the machines of modern construe 

:-Thar :e-i.d ;4n... - p^^^^^ - -- 

The machiaery is propelled by a Corliss «ng ,^i 

""" ' E ; ing '. °gU angles from tbo factory proper, .« a rope 

:;;;;; t,!^r"s„drcd reet --«- - - srzrcrrfi: 

,„;,„b.g, "-;;^7„-: ;;::■:, ,rr a^Ler of a n,nUo„ of 
,,„icb -■"■■"- -;';;X'::,:™l.abo«leven ton, of Hope and 

— iiTe ::n=d s ;-" ; «»y --• - - --■ 



cr, have 
ther ini- 
his iaflu- 


j passing 
)rles, and 

shed, but 

e, at Gcr- 

in July, 
; the finest 
,od States, 
idvcd and 

steam fire 
r forty-six 
"he factory 
jii is taken 
s and hose 
ik contain- 

i heated by 
■n construc- 
iid cordage, 
undred and 

that would 
, a thousand 
', is a ropo- 
re numerous 
) cost of this 

1 million of 
wo factories, 
[unilla, Ilus- 
)f Rope and 

facilities for 
feet, that the 
10 world. 

Edwin n. Fitler, who is now the senior partner in the firm, and 
principal owner of the works, is a native of Philadelphia, having been 
born in the district of Kensington in 1825. He belongs to the enor 
getic and progressive order of manufacturers, of whom it is often said 
that Philadelphia has too few. He has established a i,rivate tele- 
graphic wire from the store on Water street to the Factory, which 
passes directly through his house in the city, by means of which 
not only orders and business reports, but private and domestic mes- 
sages can be transmitted by telegraph. 

The system ho has organized is so complete that the afl'airs of a vast 
and complicated busine.'-'s are managed with the minimum of trouble 
and labor. Every evening, an account of the various kinds of hemp 
on hand is taken, and the quantity of the different sizes of rope in store 
is made up, and thus every morning he has a complete and exact 
report of the state of affairs ready for his guidance during the day. 
Every morning also, the report of the night-watchmen, registered on 
their tell-tale clocks, is submitted, and their fidelity in the discharge of 
their duties examined. 

Among the minor but nevertheless novel and useful items of count- 
ing-hnuse management, is a Diary or daily journal of events. For 
nearly twenty years this firm have kept, in an appropriate book, a 
record of each day's events, including an abstract of every important 
business conversation, a copy of every telegraphic despatch sent or 
received, and of all orders and purchases; and its utility, especially 
in cases where options or refusals have been given for a limited time, 
has been frequently demonstrated. 

Messrs. Fitler, Weaver & Co., have a large warehouse at 23 Nortii 
Water street, for vhe j^le of their cordage, in connection with which is 
a store containing a full and complete stock of Naval supplies. 
Besides these, they occupy four other stores for storage purposes. 

The partners in the firm are Edwin H. Fitler, Michael Weaver, 
and Conrad F. Clothier. 




Thomas Sparks's Shot Factor, 

*k, simithwark Shot Tower, is one of the old 

' Sometimes known as th. S«^ ^^f^^^^^^ Carpenter street, iu the 

landmarks in Philadelphia. I is located P ^ ^^^^^^^ 

Second Ward, and was '^-f^^^'^^li^l,^^ ^f the present cen- 
whose Patent Shot was 'f'^'f^';'^^^^^^^ when that branch 

tary. Mr. John Cousland - ^^^ ^t ^^_^^^^^^^.^ 

of business was shared by ^u^^wo J ^^^^ .„ ^g^, g,ve the plumbing 
The introduction of the S'^^^^J*'^^" ^ „^ ^,,^ ^f the most active in 

,„.„ess 7-- j^rrmtut o?ct^ between Front and 

\t, removed, m 1801, trom 00 ^^^^^6 street. In 

Second, to Farmer's Row. '^«jj;f 1^^ ^^ ^,^,^^ another plumber; 

1803 he entered into P-^^^^'^J^Va young In of great fidelity 
and their apprentice Thoinas Spark a yo g ^^^ ^^ ^^.^ ^^^.^^ 

and diligence, -•^^j'?^ ^n^of tl fim^^^^^^ ^^ South Wharves. 

the principd establishment of the firm w ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^.^^^ 

On the 1th of July 1808, the ^rne ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

delphia Shot Tower was laid, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ . ,^ feet in height. 

forward. The structure « -^^^ ^^1;' th^^^ 

;^?tt;X::ni:f rr ^^^ .- works became in great 

"r sparks continued the manu.ctu. ^-%^^^:::Z^, 
associated with ^^^^^^^^^^ tt^lse^^f Richard Sharks, who 
however, was «°°" ^^''^ °;'' f^^/ i„ iggl ; and for many years Mr. 
fell a victim to '^\yf^^.^'^JJ,;J,^,onta^^nnev. In ^838. 

ness. , , , ... w„ ctnnrks held several offices of 

„„i„g his .e«,e "f -^'iV/ *-.Tolwoner or .he District 
public trust. He "»! '"' """y f °' , Board of Commissioners op- 
It 8oolh«rk, .od P'-»'«'° °'/^:„°;" li. to supemtend the 

'"'°"' VI Zr: relir H. wss ...o-a Bi-to. m 
eroctioo of tho basteni i«»i „ ' „i„. and for many years was 
..veral Railroad and I"""°™ ";7'" ^^j °rtho Soatl,«ark Bank. 
President of that ^^f-^y-^TZt-^ZZli^Uor. acti.e hnsincss, 
Z^ ;; m r^^dTaSthis Ufe, unWorsaUy re, as a 


the old 
, in the 
ent cen* 
t branch 

active in 
font and 
•est. In 
)lumber ; 
t fidelity 
lis period 

nt Phila- 
[y pushed 
a height, 
3 in great 

, when he 
arka, who 
years Mr. 
In ^838. 
irks, Jr., a 
Jparks, Jr., 
ctive busi- 

i\ offices of 
;he District 
sioners ap- 
rintend the 
Director in 
y years was 
wark Bank. 
ive business, 
gretted as a 


{H'Oni.A :; 




ropvosontative of the high-toned and honorable Manufacturers of 

"T:o:!r''sparUs, Jr.. hi. successo. was born in the 7-^8^-1 
at the age of sixteen was taken into the store of h,s uncle and in- 
structed in the details of the business which his father and uncle had 
established. On becoming of age he was taken into Partnership and 
in 1854 became sole proprietor by the purchase of h,s uncle smteiest. 
Since that time he has conducted the extensive operations of the busi- 
ness with success based on integrity. Steam and •«'P'-«^7\ »"\;^";r! 
have been introduced to facilitate the various processes and the Wo.k 
have the capacity of producing three thousand tons of shot, bullets, and 

bar lead r)er annum. „„ . . 

Mr. Sparks, like his uncle, has been called upon to fill prominent 
positions of public trust. K. is one of the largest stockholders in th 
Scuthwark Bank, and for many years has been its \ ice-President. He 
is President of the Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company a 
Director in the Franklin Fire Insurance Company, and in several othoi 

''MrWinslow, in his Biography of Successful Merchants to which 
we are indebted for most of the foregoing facts, says of Thomas 
Sparks: "For objects of charity and improvement, he gives not 
only hundreds, but thousands of dollars. He has never withheld 
assistance from any object which has been worthy of care and en- 
couragement. Since the outbreak of the rebellion no one has been 
more hearty and enthusiastic in support of the government. He has 
. shown this not merely by words, but by deeds. He has given n-eely 
to every plan of benevolence designed for the comfort and assistance 
of our suffering soldiers. He has been ready to aid in fitting out 
troops, and has given enough for this single purpose to assist very 
materially toward equipping a regiment. Philadelphia has many such 
patriots, but among them few can excel, in devoted loyalty, i^admess. 
and free and generous contributions, Thomas Sparks, late Jr. 




John Baird's Marble Works, 

notable of their kind in the Lnited States. ^ ^„ ^^.^ gehuyl- 

The new recently erected at LOU t^^^^^^^ > ^^^ .^ 

kill river, is, with one ^^'^''P^'^"; ^^rj' f ^ working capacity any in 
equipped to its fnll capacity would exceed m ^^^^ ^ ^^^, i,„,, 

the world. The building is ^^« ^^"^^'^;;,' ^^^^^^^^^ the original 
«eventy-five feet wide, and when ^oj^^^^^ 7 ^,,, .^ capable of 
plaa it will contain gangs of saws and "P ^^^^y;;; .^ ^ The 

Lwiug one hundred ..^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ,, ^ Tinyley 

machinery includes "^^^ ^^^ Wn7pa<en< Gang, and others original 
Patent Feed Motion, and ^^«™'''7.^"';„,^^^^ mill is the adap- 
with the proprietor. But the specia feature ottln^ ^ 

Lion of L EnglisU Steam f-"^^;^^^^;tf 'v'ssel at the wharf 
.lock of marble can ^^-7^7^';^^^^^^ the intervention of 

and placed ^'-^sTelrk ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ""'■^■ 

— :r:^igMr^=- ^^ -«;^i:r ' "^ " "^^ ^" 

Marble Mill is. we believe, o"^-^^ f,^^^^^^^^^^^ the beginning 

The erection of this M 1 » de tme ^.^^ ^^^,,,,,io,, 

of an era of which the inauence w'" ^e felt in ^^.^ ^^_^^^ 

of the Marble business, ^^■^^''^'^''''^^t'l^^^^^ in the 

the principle of subdivision ^^^ ^-^^^^^ ^operated greatly to 
Furniture and other branches « « ^ ;^^^^^^^^^^ those who have 

the advantage of consumers. It isjeU se^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

machinery and ^af jties or produ 1^^^^^ at one op ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

of any article, whether of w od iion ^^^ ^.^.^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

one fourth less cost than thos wh se^ P ^^ ^^^ .^^^^^^^^^^ .^^^ 
piece of the same size. By ^^^/^^^ . j^, ^^a the consequent 
L Works, the completeness o^^^ « ^^^ ^ 7;,, ,„,bled to supply 

economy of time ^f^^^'^^'^'''^^^, Z other stock of standard 
Marble workers with Grave— H ^^^ ^,^^ ^^^^ 

Bi.cs. nearly finished a - J " «J ^/^^^^^^^ ,^ ,be rough. Marble 
have heretofore paid for the same m ^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

direct from Leghorn can .^^/j^f J^^ du es and U-anshipment 
the saw gangs, at a saving of all J^J"'^' j^.^ the original cost 

charges, that have b-^«f-«/:^7;;'^^Te;ebose who have not 
in the block; and in providing '^^^P?^ j;/ j^, j,^,a has sup- 



upon tbe dealers in marble, but upon the consumers In it. vaviouB 

'""raddition to this mammoth mill, Mr. Baird owns and operates tho 

1 klw Works on llidge Avenue, above Spring Garden s reet, 

iTt ::; or^t: recently, interested as owner of similar works ,n 

^' M^ "lohu IMird the proprietor of these mills, though born in Ire- 

position of v.npm^ .'""i:", might iLe a srfo ro»d in which to 
It: Z;r ; 1, tuo »do,.t the modo™ n.».hod «t food- 
follow, ue wah .nuuMf, uimaolf tlip oricmator of 

i„„.,.„von,»„., that — ; ' 'J'^ trnjetcnt jndgc.. that no n,..l.le 
*i i;:r'::,d h^., pel.n,»d ,» mu., wo., a, h. 
within th, ,am, Pf """^ ';7-,^^, ,^, ^ncipal consnmer of Italian 

a^oanting to ^^'-^^-'Z^ullTo'l^ namentation of dwoii- 

Pbidean art of this couniry ^^^.^^ 

workshops. It has been h,s P--^^' ^^ /^^^'^^ J^" ,,i,„iate their 

may be seen m his Mantei vva ,„„rerooms contain upward 

1;,™! Calr. stainary. The design, in most instauces are 


„f more thoD a quartet ot a ««"'»'? ^„j „;,„„ tbe restiug 

, ... connecUon . .a, .e V^^^^ ^ ^S^^:! - 
to our notice of tbe remarkable ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ Mr. Baird'. 
x.atter of great importauce to --;^^^^"; "o^ be S.buylkill river bas 
.„terpri.einestabUsi.ugama..^^^^ I -f enterprise be made a 

given pronnuence. Be me ^^^^^7 .C...nias<^^ offered by different 
careful examination of the »^«Pe«tiJ^ decided tbat tbe banks )l' 

localities for manufacturing operation , ^^^J'^'^^^^^^ .^^ ^o tbem 

tbe Scbuylkill river, ^^^:^^^^^:;:^l^;Z^ ^ Pbiladelpbia 

an. Mr. ^---f;;;.^; 1 '\Lt U. west bank of that river. 

in 1801. remarks- ^^'^'J', .^ ,h, best site in America for 

from Cbestnut street to Gra) s 1^* "y ,,factories of all kinds. 

tbe location of ^-a Works and lai^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^.^ 

Tbore tbe proprietors «'/"f \7^' ' ' i.^^j.^s tbat result from tbe 
of tbe best workmen witbout be ^^^f^^^^^ ^^^^ ,, ided for 

.elations ^ landlord audtonan.wbe. dv.^.s i ^^^ J ^^^^ 

tho operativos. H - a'»»I" . . j^ , „f j„,,,loyi!t and 

„,„er relalioa, with tbe. »-*"?\ *" ,': 7„„,y i„ao„e„ac„tor tho 
eu,,,loyco. There, also, utmufocturers are a , „j,„,„go of 

„«ortL er tr.„»pertatie» co,„,,au e. ^^^^^^^ ^^^,^,^ ,„, 

numerous coiapetmB '"'°^-. '"'„„„ f„,t „f water, while aioaj its 
vessels not more thau twurty j|,„j „„„„„„„ 

„,„Us is the Jaoeuo,, '^"''""y' » ";"ji„ ° J ,„„ Nor.h, West, auJ 
with the tour great lines of ra.lway «»''" 8 » " , j,,,, 

S„„th. How iutpertant ^^^T;^^ ,:i;^^„^J .^o are 
ve.lize.1 in many instances ^^ ^'^l^ZZion o< their raw mate- 

:sr ;t7e ;::t::rr:iai-- mLLtones... 

.,.re are in the vielnity ef P^^^^rSrl nly^reefe:, 

raper Mills. ^^' ^:'Z:^^'^^ZXZT...«..^^> ^«^' i» "» 
:lTmt„:rl" Ta:rLn;.ooap«lv. Thohnuaingsoecnpy 




y of a 
of the 
ve, ibe 
are in 

a, to a 
iver has 
made a 
anks )l' 
to them 
at river, 
lerica for 
ill kinds, 
a supply 
from the 
)vided for 
i have no 
loyer and 
lent oC the 
autago of 
(ssiblo for 

along its 
,t connects 
West, and 


id who are 

raw niale- 

wilh other 

lent in de 


a spaco one thousand feet in length by three hundred and fifty feet u. 
,v4h, and cost, when finished, over $500,000. Logs of wood, princi- 
pally poplar, are cut into chips by large steel ) set in revolving 
circular iroa wheels, which have the capacity of cutting from thirty to 
forty cords of wood every twenty-four hours. The chips are then boded 
to a pulp in alkalies, and by a peculiar process of evaporation, about 
ol<rhty per cent, of the soda used is saved. It is estimated that by the 
erection of these mills, the daily production of printing paper has^ been 
increased thirty thousand pounds, and the daily consumption of rags 
diminished to nearly the same ext mt. 

The WissAUicKON Mills, of Charles Maoarge & Co., are cele- 
brated for making fine Book Paper. These consist of t^" "'.'"^'t'"; 
original one, formerly a merchant flour mill, and another, in 858, 
at an expense of about $80,000, both of which are provided with all the 
appliances of first-class Foudrinier Mills. The main building ot the new 
mill is seventy-eight feet six inches by fifty-four feet deep, two stories 
high and attic, with a rotary boiler house, connected as a wmg, twenty- 
six feet by fifteen feet six inches; a machine room, one hundred and 
ten feet by twenty-eight, w^'^ a wing on the rear, twenty-eight by fif- 
teen feet; an engine room, seventeen feet by forty ; a boiler 
fortv by twenty-five feet, and chimney, one hundred feet high, ten fett 
at base, and five feet at top. The Foudrinier Paper machine is sev- 
eMtv-two feet long an.l sixty-two inches wide, and supplied with three 
3o-inch diameter iron dryers, and ten 8-inch diameter copper dryer.s, 
and two sets of calender rods. Thei. are three washing and live beat- 
i„K engines of large capacity. The machinery is propelled b" a Corliss 
engine of eightv horse power, and the mill is supplied with pure sprmg 
water by means of costly reservoirs on the hills adjacen , rom wliic 
the wuter is conducted into the vats by twelve hundred feet of 8-inch 
Pino and nine hundred feet of G-inch pipe. Some of the reservoirs a^e 
lifty feet higher than the factory. The weekly consumption of rags in 
this mill is about thirty-three thousand pounds, and the production 
about twenty-four thousand pounds of paper. The expenses per week 
of these two mills for raw material and labor are about five thousand 

of very fine 
itly erected, 
rorks in the 
lings occupy 




. „ . .v,« statistics of the manufactures of Allegheny 

The following are the statistics oi i" 

county, according to the census of I860. 






Agrlcnltnral Implemonts 


Bolts, mitB, etc 

Boots Hnd slioes 

Brass founding 




Cigars ^^ 

Clothing 2 



OottoM goods 

Flour and me«l 

Fiirnituro, cabinet 

" chairs 



Uardwnrc, loclis, etc 

Hats and caps 


Insttumouts, optical 

" surgical 

Iron, bar ami sheet 

Iron, pig 

Iron founding 

" Btovc founding 

Iron forging 

Iron railing 

■'Hl ware 


heather • 

Liquors, diBtillid 

" malt 

•' reetifled 

Lumber, planed 

" sawed 

Machinery, steam engines, etc 

Millinery, etc 

Military cquipmonli 

Mineral water 


Oil, linseed 

Patent medicines 

Picture flumes 

Potter;- ware 


I'roTisions, pork, beef, etc 

Rope and cordage 


Baud, washed 

Cost of 
Capital Raw Ma- 

Invested. *«"*•• 

11.7.... $160,600 I01.995' 

1 10,000 37,858- 

3", 85,000.... 

178 185,975. .. 


2 206,000. 

28 93,900 









85,960 84.. 

179,359 614., 

64,967 I*-*. 

27,179 290. 

40,808 140- 

83,960 807. 

60,853 158 

461,450 639,345 707, 

9,500 15.0W" 

'a 970,000 669,380.. 

5" 925,000 683,613.. 

52".'.". 452,.S00 1,197,148.. 

20 162,150 50,819 273. 

4 ... 10,150 17,000 34. 

1,867,600 699,619 2,119, 

63,700 47,165 46 

421,300 179,(34. 

26,100 O,!**- 

5,000 S.*0" 

5,000 608 

10,000 1.000 *■ 

,3 3,380,000 2,116,311 2,323. 

3'" 233,IK)0 195,620 • I IW- 

742,000 313,582 644. 

6 330,000 131,245 314. 

11,000 6,800 7. 

6,000 ■»,"75 8 

54,000 23,4.52 M 

6,900 775. 

282,300 360,086. 

3,000 ft,^'*^- 

33.'.".'.'.. 354,400 29tV.":i7 

19 130,500 ItVi.S'JO 

12 185,.!00 173.756 135 

42 417,200 320,776, 

■24 496,500 460,'.'76 

„Z.. 23,075 28,891 11« 

1 831,000 17,585. 


Female Value of 
Hands. Product. 


7 75,000 

...... 193,000 

I 64 457,685 


.. ... 121,605 



!!! 1,050 1,110,831 

fi 24,375 


870 1,076,333 

I"" 1,335,741 










2 2.600, 

6 1,260,000 ' 728,275. 

a" .. 79,000 86,7r,0 





8 .... 16,500 10.600 7- 

18,000 15.3.35 17., 

18,100 6,446 41. 

848,400 \S»,m «2«. 

IM.OOO 216,262 40, 

17,600 17,616 27, 

6.1,500 23,698 M 

42,500 8,000..., 






, 23,675 







3 67,500 




....!. 494,785 



...... 627,147 





90 1,140,800 


8 23,400 


40 MH.IOS 





'iilue of 
94 050 
,. 3,761,683 
.... 6!n,14T 
.... 1,031,968 




( 6;)8,1U3 





No. of 





SafeK, iron 

Saddlery and harness 

Siuili, doors mid blinds H 

Silver iil.itod wiirK 

Soap and candli« 

Spikes, niiUoad 

Springs, railroad car 


Tin, slii'et-iron, and copper ware. 



Wagons, carts, etc 

IVIiite lead 

WiRS and liair vfork 

Wire work 

WiMiUen B.Hxls 

Wool pulling 







2 175,000 

1 15,000.... 

6 1,!'30,000.... 












Cost of 
Raw .Ma- 




RfiM) , 




317,125 622. 

71,426 140. 



























Valno of 
2', 8,177 

Total, including miscellaneous 
manufactures not above spe- 
citted Iil9l 

18,228 2,265 $26,563,379 

$20,531,440 $13,020,615 

Since the census of 1860 was taken, there has been a vast increase 
in!ri ufac uring industry of Pittsburgh, or the census takers were 
ext en y negligent in the performance of their duties, t .s estimated 
:; ctmpetenf aiithori^y that the aggregate product of wo s aples 
(issware and, is now more than the ota of t ii censu 

'^^::ZZ::Z;:^ kueghe.y in lH«0,andthat ^ev^^e o al 

le manufactures in Pittsburgh now exceeds $00,000,0 0. Of esta^^- 

iments for manufacturing Pig, Bloom, Bar, an ^l-'t- -"^;;; 

Nails there are thirty, which produce an annual value of $6,000,000^ 

Of St'e one half of all that is produced in the United States is made 

n Pi burgh there being seven extensive establishments, whose aggie- 

^e r ctin 1805 amounted to $2,200,000; and of ^^^^^^-^ 

ime ..umber of establishments produced a value of nearly ^MOOOOO. 

Xe arc also fifteen stove foundries, five establishments making b.>^^. 

nuts and washers, eleven gas pipe, tubing, and oil works, a.u thir y- 

:! steam-engine, machinery, and boiler works,>loy u o 

hundred and seventy five hands, and produce a value f^'f^f^^ 

Tul ^^..r tho manufacture of Flint, Window, and \ .al ass, 

ftnnuallv For the mivnufacturo .- . , , . .i .« 

"uiZ^h l,a. Ion, boca the cHcf .».. in *« y.n.oa_«««;. '""'« 

three works of 

slvo millions ol 

iree tanneries, 
tweuty-sevon oil refineries. The manufacture and refin..,g ... ,-— 
r"lt .„wi ntnnlovs over three thousand persons, and the trade «f 

^;:rr J;-Z: Z^s^? ;^ description, whos. annual product 
iBvaluJat twelve millions of dollars. The -e are also in the c.ty and 
un V thirty-three tanneries, five cottoa-miUs. six woollen-mi Is, and 
unty tn.iiy u.rv. ^ ^^^^^ ,^^ „„„f,...t„r« and refining of petro- 

leum, it is said, employs over 

the city iu this article now amounts to $15,000,000. 





The Fort Pitt Works-Charles Knap, Proprietor. 

that might be alluded to with propriety, !^^ ""^j^^ Ovdnance- 

a world-wide reputation for its success - -^^^^^^^ J^, ,,,,blished 
vi.. : the FouT Pitt Works. This cannon found j was 
during the war with Great Britain m t^ ye m. ^^ ^ ,,, 

who was, at that time, t'"'/;^" //.f^j^'t^ ?/of a small town. It 
ordinary iron castings needed by m^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ,,, 

was Hitaated at the corner J'^^^ ^ ^^^ g^,,,, Custom-House 
ground which is "«^- «f"P^^t /(^^Lmodore Perry with the cannon 
and Post-office. It ha ^^l^^^ZLJ^e battle on Lake 
balls aiid grape shot used by his tleei 

Erie, in September, 1813. Secretary of the Navy for 

Mr. McClurg then made a contract the ^^^^«^ ^ proceeded to 

the manufacture of cannon and carronades a d^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

erect a boring mill and "-^^''f '>\^" "^f, ^fields, outside of the town 
Fort Pitt Works, which was then mthope^nbem^, ^^^^^ ^^^ 

Umits. The boring mill was ^^^^^^Z^:^^^^ driven by 
finished ^^>'-g t e yeaM8^^4. 1 he b J^^^_^^.^^ ^^.^^^^ ,„ ,,« 
borse-power. At that periou, uu ^yj^^gj.. 

falls convenient to the ^ '"f"'^^. ^p„4_„ country, the horse mill 

then but little known or used in 0^ w ^^ -^ J' ^^ ,,,,, ,,. ,,„, 
was of necessity resorted to. It was^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ j,^, 

year., when the worn-out, blind ^orseB w , ^^^ ^^^ 

'pressure steam-engine of the P'^n inve^i d b OU ^^ 

[bo foundry and boring mill l-^^^ into t^ ;'^ f ^^^ Secretary of War 
McClurg, who soon af.r ma e a on . t w th^t^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^_ 

for the "-"»^-^";;^; ,;i,\7:„r;sn, when further contracts were 
which were completed in 181 , ana 1 , ^^^^^ j.^^ ^^^^ 

„,ade and^eted At t„d ^^^^_^^^ ^^^„^„.^, 

military service was the 24-pouiHer, ; J' ^ ^^^^ i^eer, ordnance, 
pounds. In 1«18. a Board consising of experienced mg , ^^ 

ind artillery officers, was appointed by J. C^ Calho ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

War, to determine ^!;^ -!7„,;:/,icr' That Board, in 1819. 
thereafter to be used in the ""^^^''Y ^^^J ^ 5,,^, and none of 
decided that the 24-,.under - t e Ja^ ^^l^^^^^ ^,, ,,,,,d. 
larger si.e v.ere cast ^^f ^[l^^^^^ ,,,,^\^,,^ about eighty-four 


calibre for many years. 



vnce — 
eel the 
fn. It 
on the 
lu Lake 

ifavy for 
ceded to 

by the 
r,he town 
ired and 
riven by 
ry in the 
10 water- 
wer was 
orse mill 
36 or four 
•y a high 

In 1815, 
of Joseph 
•y of War 
,nd shells, 
facts were 
idc for the 
, ordnance, 
(cretary of 
the cannon 
•d, in 1819, 
,nd none of 
19 adopted, 
} maximum 

proprietors ot the Pittsbnrg Cannon Found y. u 

IL „.a .ee„ oast -j'- J"- •:"„*; iXor Tounar/was 
office now stands ; but m that ytai cannon were 

erecK,. on grouna adjoining the '«';2™'',;^,^^''; •,,,„ ,hops 
thcrenftor cast. The Worlds were «■' 3"> 3"%„a ,„ hnilding 
for the manutaotnre ot steam engmes 7> '"f ™^^^^^ l„„,„olives 

,oco„,o,ive engines and rai iroad »- J^^''"; , f l.r.etnrcd. In 

ever made »est ot the A"«8l«"y '»»""'";"■ "'^° „,„, w. J. 

,8«. the estahiistanent «s P^"'*""' ;f^ ttl^i«^ the WorUs. 

Tolten, who had previonsly lK«» ""SaB'" „„j . tells and steani- 

They eontinued the ntannfaeturo ot e.nn . ^■-^^;^ „„, „„„„, 


of a farther enlavge„,e„toteaao„^C^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^,_^^^ 

Ordnance, had, m 1839 and 1S4U, oiu , ^en inch calibre, 

G..pounders ei^.t inch caUbre. ^^l^'^^ t experimental 
at Alger's foundry m Boston ^^'^y "^ ^ . jg^o and 1842, 

shell guns, and numerous \- -^/^ '^^J^^p r od s -lis had not been 
with both solid shot and shells. Up o ^^"^ J"""^ ^,^, These 

aved fro. long ^-^f^^J^^r ^^1^ ^-^ 

experiments proved hat ^^/Se, h^^^^^ ^^^ ^^f^,y ^^.^d from 

with ease and rapidity, and that ^^^JJ'"'' ^, ,,ud shot ; and 

long guns with equal -l-^'^^' .^J! f^;:! Xntire safety. These 
that they could be used on board .^l^'P^. ^'^^^^ ^.^, i„eh and the 
results were so satisfactory, that '" ^^ . J f ;;j;;,f ,, the military 
ten inch guns were adopted as «f ^"^^^^.^^ in 1844. the weight 
service. After a further revision of the.r models 

of the eight inch was ^^^^^l^^^^'^^^^^ tlly d;mo'nst.Jed the 
. Further experiments, ^.'''.f these large guns, another, still larger, 
safety and the ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^ a twelve inch gun, 

was proposed by Colonel uoiu , j , ^g^g it was 

or 225-pounder, was at ^^^/^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 
tried in the same year ^y ^""f^^^tabo^t one bund ^^ ^^^^ 

enormous weight of twenty ave . ; -, ^ loaded shell of one 



Rodman— who had in 1845 ana isio i ^ pj^^ 

,„„ CBUag ot a large namber of ''^ » /^.e „r Lli"S »* 
Foundry of Knap U gotten co„ce.vd.haUo^^^^^^ ^ ^^ 

,„gc n,aB«, ot Iron »»'"'"'' J, ^°* Jed to bin., that if the g«o 

::; tctLri':: rierfr™, ^^^^^^x:::::. 

the internal force. .^^^^ ,^g ^,ere cast 

To test the accnracy "f^J'^ ^^^«,;[.:; ^^,J^^,, ,, the same time, 
at the Fort Pitt Foundry n 1849^ ri ^y .^ ^,, ^^ 

from the same melting of .roa and " '^/j''^^^^" ^^^ ^^y^^^^ ,„d cooled 
as far as possible-except that one of them was cast 
from the exterior in the usual n«^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^.^^^^^_ ^^^^,y, 

and cooled from the -t^nor Af.r^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^_ ^^^^^ 
were proved at the same um y ^ere broken. The num- 

equal charges of powder and ^^^^^^^^^^ „„, ^^ f,,or of the 

,er of ^- -^-\;^-: i^H W. toral^e to the theory, was 
bollow cast gun. This esuit, ai b .^^^ 

„.t regarded as c.. elusive , and . othei sin.l.^t^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

'"" rS fie d the hollow cast gun endured fifteen hundred 
seventy-third fare , ^^^ ^^.^ial visible injury. 

fires-and ----;>;;^;«^''7; ^^ guns were cast and tried in the 
I, the same ye « ,^^a t n ^^^g^^^^_^^ ^^_ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ . ^ 

'""' ";;."rnd 185 until six pairs, in all, of heavy guns were made 
years l^^^^^Jf ],;;;:,,, J of i.res endured by the six solid cast 
"" r^U of wh^hw broken, was seven hundred and seventy-two. 
guns, all of ^*^;?.7 ^ y th, ,ix hollow cast guns, onl/ three 
The number of J ^T vas fiffy-five hundred and fifteen. The «n- 
of wnici were ^jf ^"^^^^ endured fifteen hundred fires 

broken hollow cast g'^"^' ^"^^ l^;; f„,^ ^ i,„ of much further ser- 
each, remain in apparent g^".^" Jl'/J'^^^^^^.t , over those cast 

Lent' should be cast hollow, and cooled from the interior, on the plan 

:r;t «::r: 1.^:1 dia„, ., ..-., *... ^ ^ »i«o <».. 



than the desired bore of the gun. While the liquid iron is passing 
nto the .un-mould and surrounding the core, a stream of ;«^\^^^^^^ 
conLted. by a separate pipe, down through the -nU-e of the hoi v 
core nearly to its bottom, where it is discharged from be am 
th n passes up through the annular space in the core to the top of the 
L^liXeitpassfs off in a heated state While the coo mg of 
thP interior of the gun is thus accelerated, the coohng of the exterior 
s reurd d by u rounding the gun-mould with heated air, at as h,gh 
a em Ire as the s.fety of the mould will permit, or about e.ght 
huudd degrees. The water circulates through the jntor.or o an 
eLht nch gun at the rate of about two cubic feet per mmute ; and m 
he b g nnfng, its temperature is increased while passmg through 
, rfwontv five desrees The circulation is contmued until the 
waTer ;re:':u:at t^^^^^^^^^^ temperature as that at which it entered, 

"t ^S^l^^i^^^-f Mr. Totten. Major Wade again became 
a partSn tt ort Pitt Works, and, associated with Mr. Knap, con- 
L'uedth manufacture of ordnance, steam-engines, and heavy ma- 
chTntry until March, 1858, when the whole establishment was -t - 1^ 
dest ^ved by fire. The rebuilding of the Works was immediately com- 
mS and' in three months thereafter the casting o cannon wa 

resumed. In July, 1858, Major Wade -^-f -^^^^ ■/^•^,;^.J^"; 
and N K Wade came into partnership with Mr. Knap, llty 
ToJh ten foTseveral years previously engaged in conducting the ope- 

ir^^sVaMS" experiment for the enlargement of cannon was 
..ade and in December of that year, a gun of fifteen inch bore, de- 
Xn d by Captain Rodman, was successfully cast at the Fort P tt 
Foundry Seventy-six thousand pounds of iron were melted for this 
gun 1 'three furna'ces. The liquid iron passed in separate streams 
2 each furnace into a common reservoir, where jt^^^ 
then passed to the gun-mould. The gun was cast on a hollow coit 
throu^ which the water circulated at the rate of about six cubic fee 
per minute for twenty-four hours, when the core was withdrawn, and 
fhe c culat o„ ^f water thereafter continued through the cavi y lef by 
he moval of the core for six days. The quantity of water whi h 
as ed ir ugh the interior of the gun was 3.595.300 pound s-nearly 
ilh een hundred tons-and equal to forty-eight times the weight f 
the iron cooled. The additional heat acquired by the wate^ in i s cir- 
ou a r an" carried off from the interior of the gun. was ascertained 
; s!;"ty-tSree per cent, of all the heat contained in the melted 
on w le it^ntered the mould. The cooling of the gun occupied ono 


.ecu •, ana the Un,c employed in lifUng It fro. the pit. and in tuvnin.. 
boring, and finishing it, was nearly five months. ^ ^^^^ 

" Tt ::: wh'r fiSed, was sixteen feet long and forty-nine inches 

In MaJ^'/f ^' ' r^JHred five hundred times, with charges of 
:;^; :r Z oZL ':Uer, and with Shells weighing from 

t Jh.ndred to -eo — ^^^^^^^^^ of experienced 

The Board appointed to ™ake ^^.e ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ 

engineer, ordnance, and artillery o P_^^^ ,^ ^^^^^^ ^^.^^^__^^^^ 

preciable injury which the gun naa ^ ^^^^^ decidedly 

Lpidity with which it was -nc-v ed -d ^^^^^ ^^J^^,, p,,eticable 
of opinion that the introduction of this class g 

and desirable. , ^ . , ^f .v,,, fifteen inch gun having proved 

The manufacture and trial of this ^^'^een inc fe ^ 

entirely successful. Captain Kodmanpropoaed^m Ap"U8 .^ .^^^^^^^ 
g„n of twentyinch bore twent^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^, ^„, 

weighing about one hundred thousand I o , ^^^ ^^^^ ^^_ 

thousand pounds, be -f . 7;;^;t1er ^ T^ the utmost 

TT'oftltrr ar rrror riu ;he foundries for its sup- 

:::;::o:>i::;o.tioncouidn.t^^-^^ ^ ,,,,„ 

Mr. G. V. Fox. Assistant Se-^tary o^^^ Na y.^ ^^ ^.^^ ^^^^^ .^ 

inch gun for navy -"-;., ^^ T;/;l'Unner as the fifteen inch 
June, 1862 ; and was cooled in the sam ^^ ^^.^^ 

a„„y gun. But in ord- « a^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^„, ,,i,,ed, when 

board, it was made about ^^re^ J^f ^^^,^^, ^,„„ds. It was sent 
finished, forty.two thousand and tohund^ P_^^ ^^.^^ .^ ^.^^ 

to tne Washington ^-^^y. Y"^' J J^^J^o seventy pounds of powder, 

charges ^-^-^ynf^'lfgh i^^^^^^^^^^ '^-'-^ ^"^ *'''*^ ^^ 
,^nd with shot and shells ^^'e.gmng ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

four hundred and tlj-ty pounds eadi.t endure g^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

,ixty-seven fires fifty ^^^^^^J"/ ^^^^^^^^^^ of powder and a shot 

;:S;t^:;r:::^X:^o:nnn board the earlie^^ 
nt:^g:ett rirgfof employing this larger class of guns in ser- 





, a gtin 
letc, all 

5 inches 

d in the 
irges of 
ng from 

he inap- 
ials— the 

g proved 
;l, that a 
ill of one 
s the Ke- 
le utmost 
or its sup- 

l a fifteen 
Works in 
afteen inch 
s on ship- 
hed, when 
; was sent 
ng it with 
of powder, 
id thirty to 
undred and 
er, and was 
• and a shot 
tisfactory, it 
A.nd accord- 
earliest tur- 

guns in ser- 

viee, w.a soon after deman,t™ted by the ^P'"'" "f*" ^f ' H:" 

"Tt',7 "Z'Z; Z ' .eu ce^rt which thi, c,..s of «r,c™ ' 
"■ n, IT, ta Ir,"d i„ both torw and ships, and the in,n>en» 

'" ? , rfbMr .tatm'c L powers over .11 other cannon herotoforo 
rX'k ol . n t n .;: pr.etic.lly established Captain Rod- 
In- "proposlnto Ike a twenty inch gan was considered and «p- 
m.n s Prepof'' Secretnty of War, Mr. Stanton, ordered that 

'::t ^alatl' ir. m FoLdry-where the ftrst twenty inch 

^"T::rr;.r;^;;:in::i; uiv^ve feet ion., «»= fee. 

jrh:;t.ri its largest pan. Onoh^,.d.nd^^^ 

Hamilton ^ew York wner ^^.^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ 

t:^'Ln.Xr^^ — ^nd twenty-five pounds of pow- 
der with a solid shot of one thousand and eighty pounds. It eudurcd 
these fires without any perceptible injury. 

r nj larA n twpntv inMi gun was cast for the navy, lis itn(,iu 
In May, 1864, a twentj Hu g ,^^,^, g,„, ^nd weighs 

-'U Of these twenty inch .""'^-J^SteTr "ir'S 


'tr riTorr rn1.Srr.nnon ,n the rnited St^s. 

tj-crx : been en,.r,ed 7-;;;r;t;r;8«r:^in: 1 

V 1 ^/i i„ i«iq to the one thousand pounder, cast m too* » 

lished in 1819, to tne ouu ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

of forty.five fold in a period of foity-fi e years ^^ 



To meet tl,c suddealy n.m.».od <^™»''« '" ^^ j.„„ rlU Work» 

,w,., o„ the ...u.;^ -': ;, :;t r,C: wgo tt.,»aoo., «,. 

were much enlarged, by aaaing 

Teavy machinery, at a co.t m al of ^^^^^'^Z" jetor of the cstab- 
'"i;^86a, Charles Knap again be-^^^^^^^^ ^^.^^,,,, ,,,,on 

U.hment, which is now o^Wt^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^.^ ,„,,,„ 

four iries in the United ^^-^^^ j; ^ J ,^ ,^eh enormous size, or 
having the capability of manufacturm g gu ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

oJproducinganyotherkindswahcc^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^. ^^^^,.^ ^,,, 

cannon foundry in the Urn ed State^ ha g ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^.^,^^^^ ,„ 
twenty years all ^^^ers winch ex ted w ^^^^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^^,^. 

1814. Its proprietors l^';^e-^ "^ co« ^^^^ .^.^^..^^g ^.^tever 

n^fprellU for more t- -^ ^^^^^^^^ ,, . ,, ., .round 

The Works are built - the fo m of a hoUow q^ ^^^^ ^.^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^.^^ 

four hundred by two hundred feet occupy J ^^^ ^^ ^,^^ ^,,,r 

city block, bounded on t^"- f ;\^J,f ,,,tains six reverberatory a.r 
by the Allegheny river. Ihc >o-^^ ^ ^^ch, and two 

fu'r naces. capable of melting ^--;;;^;;J^^^^^^^ if all of them were 
cupalo furnaces capable of meltng twenty t ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ 

put in operation at the same t " > th ^ ^^^ „,,.,, , ,,,ting of that 
one hundred ^^^ «.x./ tons of on ^.^^ j^ the foundry 

weight iu one smgle piece. Iheie ^^ ^y^en the guns 

floo?, in which the --^^^;;; ^^s Jp^^^^^^^^^ the bottom of the pits 
are cast Grate bars and ash V^'^J'^ communicating with 

for receiving fuel, ^'^^^^^X^^^l^^ ^^^ 
them for the purpose «f Seating he p .^ ^^^„,„g^ 

The boring mill contains th>rty one , ^^^^.^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^. 

boring, and finishing «-««". ^^f- ^...^pLhed by ordinary turning 
ing irregular curves w,.ch cannot be ^^^^^^^^^ specially for the twenty 
or planing machines. The latne and weighs ninety 

inch guns is sixty feet long ^^^ -g^^^ ,*'„^;, .evolve Vhile the gun is 

• thousand pounds. ^^1- ^^^^^of the axis 

boring, but advances m the 1 ne o t ^^^ ^^.^^^ ^^ 

is revolving. When all the ^f « ^^^^^^^^^ f,,, hundred tons. The 
iu revolving motion at the ^^^^ 'T^f ^ete eighteen heavy gnns 
,,hes have -ed, bore ^.^^^^^^^ ^tn^^f U inch, and six of eight 
per week, vi/;. . i^ u "' 




of the 
, since 
»t, anil 

8, and 

! eatab- 
size, ov 
ire than 
ishod in 
D pvevi- 

)f ground 
an entire 
the other 
ratory air 

and two 
iicni were 
)f melting 
ig of that 
le foundry 

the guns 
of the pits 
iting with 
JO. turning, 
3 for dress- 
ary turning 
the twenty 
ighs ninety 
B the gun is 
le the latter 
ight of guns 
, tons. The 

heavy guns 

six of eight 

inch ; or at the rate of nine hundred guns per annum, requiring eleven 
thousand tons of melted iron. 

The casting and boring apartments contain tweke large cranes, ." 
of which a.o worked by steam power. Four of the latter are capabl., 
of lifthig, lowering, and moving horizontally, forty-Qvo tons each, and 
all the others from tifloen to twenty tons each. 

By means of the steam power cranes and other raachmery, the hea- 
viest guns are lifted out of the pits in which they are .ast, and moved 
from place to place through successive lathes and machines until they 
are finished complete, when they are sent out of the Works and loaded 
on railroad cars for distant transportation by steam power alone. 

The importance of obtaining iron of the best quality for use ma 
cannon foundry, has led to the employment of various methods for 
ascertaining its qualities by actual mechanical tests before using it in 
.uns By comparing these tests with the endurance of guns subjected 
to an extreme proof trial by firing with powder and shot until they 
burst, the mechanical tests indicate the qualities of iron most suitable 
for making the strongest guns. The methods now practiced are, hrst 
to examine the crude pig-iron closely with the practiced eye of an expe- 
rienced founder before it is put into the furnace. Such pigs as are 
approved, are then placed in the furnace, and when melted, small quan- 
titles are taken out at frequent intervals and cast into small moulds 
and as soon as the bars are cooled, they are broken and the fractured 
surface is examined to ascertain the condition of the iron, and to guide 
its further treatment in the furnace. 

Whenever a gun is cast, a test bar from the same iron ,s cas in a 
separate mould, which cools within a few hours, and ,s tested befo.e 
he next gun is cast. When the gun head is cut off, a sample is cu 
tomtJ part of it which is nearest to the muzzle of the gun and 
tesLl This sample is the best representative of the quahty of the 
ol n the body of the gun which can be obtained But as this cannot 
be tested for several days after the gun is cast and cooled the approxi- 
Itl test of the test bar serves as a guide for preparing the iron for the 

^^Th: maXnVutd for testing the iron was invented by Major Wade, 
iu 1844, and has since been enlarged and improved by Major Rodma„ 
it s m de to exert a force of one hundred thousand pounds, which is 
anp icd or removed with great facility by the simple of a hand- 
Ink, -d it measures accurately to a single pound the resistance 
offerei by the body under trial. It is arranged for measuring the resist- 
ance of metal to tensile, transverse, torsional, crushing, and bursting 
forces; for measuring the extension, dellection, compression, and pei- 

„.MAUKAB.. ,.ANVPA«On«» Or HTT.^UO,,. 

1. ..,...-.. or .*....-a.e™...o,c.,».uo 

Major Wrf.«, wl"* '-"'""'''""'X 1^ .ivc. lo wci^M lost by 
™ ro»".l- " '» «'r'l "1;.r o «1 o . L.ul,od ». for., tl,ou. 

'„„,Uh part of .1.0 81.«.'">'«" ""'"Jfl,,,,,,, lor .isc in tl.« Wool».el. 

,,e in their public -^n-ry -U.nhd^ ^^.^^^^^^.^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^„ ^,, 
The mBtrumcnts used in vcu ying ^^^ ^^^.^^^ ^^oasureB the 

„,cvous and well ^^^'^^^-^^^^'i.b the greatest accuracy is requn-cd, 
,i„neterofthebore,thepa tmj u ht. g ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^,^ ^^^j^ 

aenotes differences so rnmutc 2XZ\..l.^u.vy , and the skiliulncss 
And such iB the perfection ^^ ^^'^ »;\/^ ^^^iations from the prescrd.od 

tr;::;i::rrZ,7::^«crt,,o„ner.vo -ro.ti, ..«.or . 

cessive operations in the ^'^'^^^'^ ^^"^^^^^^ g;n, all of which they note 

[ron for melting up to the completion of tg ^^^ ^^^^^^^,y j„. 

::: register. ^^^ ^^^Z^^^'^^y ^^ ^-^''' ^ 

.pected. weighed, and ^^^^^^ ^^,,,^ „,arkB of reception. Ihe 

inspector stamps upon tl>«™ t^V" ^^^ ^ capacity of one hun- 

os rument by which they J ^^f ;; ^^ ^, .^e manufacture of each 

dred tons. A register of all the clcta ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^.^ 

In cast, and of all the t-^ ^^^^^^^ .'^^^^vy gun in the publi. 

-ei:;:::^--— ^-^^ 

^«^ris probably no .nglee^a^^^^^ 

attracted so much of public -« ;^;'^;;.4, Many travelling stran- 
Foundry. It was ^Y;?L/tty:loy a day or two in order to visa 
gers in passing would delay ^^^^j^^^^J^,,,! officers from England, 
"he Works. Distinguished ^^'^^^ p^^.^ia, Sardinia, and Aus- 
France, Spain, Russia, S^^^^^'^^'.^^Xerve the operations of our amies 
U,a, who had come ^[-J;;:^ Jr^; rwar, and the manner of con- 
in the field, or to note ^^^'Jl^^'lJ^ ,; ^^ the special purpose of 
riSin^roWornr:i.t::...cUn.ort.o— reannon 

THE I'lTTSBtnail CUPPER-WtrnKa. 



lost by 
y thou- 
iled tV.o 
cry used 
urcd for 

a are nu- 
suros the 
' an inch 
part of au 

11 the suc- 
ction of the 
h they note 
irefully in- 
ceived, the 
ption. The 
)f one hun- 
,ure of each 
mdry books 
a the public 
I and at the 

States which 
;he Fort Pitt 
.veiling stran- 
order to visit 
rem England, 
inia, and Aus- 
9 of our amies 
iiannev of Gon- 
ial purpose of 
lonster cannon 

The Pittsburgh Copper and Brass Works, 

Owned by Dr. 0. G. Ilussey and Hon. Thomas M. Howe, is auolLor 
notable ostablishmont, and tlio first of the kind built west of the AlU- 
glu'iiy rnoiuitains. Tiie Works wore erected in the year 1850, and are 
located on the bank of the Monongabola river, in t'le immediate sub- 
urbs of the city. All descriptions of rolled and pressed copper are 
made here from ore obtained in the mines of Lake Superior, in two of 
the most prominent of which, viz.: the " CliU-" and " National," the 
proprietors of those Works are li'.rgol- interested, and of which they are 
also oflieers and managers. As was the first csta!)lishmont pv.- 
jectcd for working exchisi- ely American copper, and as the senior part- 
ner was one of tho first successful explorers and adventurers in the 
copper regions of Lake Superior, his history is that of a pioneer in the 
dovelopment of what has become an important clement of national 

wealth. , T 1 o 

The attention of Dr. C. G. TTusscy was attracted to the Lake Supe- 
rior region in the summer of 18-13, immediately following the consununa- 
tion of the Chippewa Treaty, which extinguished the possessory claims 
of the numerous tribes of Tndians known by that name, and he dis- 
patched thereto during the same season a small party to make the nccer.. 
snry examinations preliminary to the organization of a regular minmg 
tbr'-e, if their reporc should be favorable. In the summer of 18-14, he 
visited the region himself, and under his directions was commenced tiie 
first mining shaft, which was sunk in the vicinity of what is now known 
as " Copper Harbor," on a tract selected in pursuance of the Jirnt per- 
mit to locate lands issued by the United States Government. In the 
following summer, regular n.ining operation., were commenced by the 
company originated by Dr. Ilussey, and known as the "Pittsburgh and 
Boston Mining Company," of which he is now the President, on the 
second tract selected in that region, and upon which is located the eel- 
ebrated " Cliff Mine." This mine was the first to give character to the 
section as a reliable and remunerating copper producing district, and 
up to this time it has produced more than seven millions of dollars' 
worth of copper, and paid to its stockholders a sum excceduig two 

millions of dollars. . i ,i 

The Pittsburgh Copper- Works, it will thus be perceived, are the 
proper fmd legitimate outgrowth of the extensive and profitable mining 
entevprizes with which its proprietors have been long and intimately 


The ore is brought from the mines in solid masses of native coppei. 



HuBsey, WeUs & Co.'s Steel Works, 

owned in ,veat pa. Uv the P-F^^t.^ f U C^ o^ U^^^^^ 

,ieed. avo also noteworthy on -^^ J J^Vn Hod States. 

lished and extensive «tool^tm^s m the U ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

The buildings, located in he ^'^'^ -^^ ^ ^ ^ ; „i,ls, melting 

of nearly three 7-'^;^:^:£.:^^;C Id linishin. the steel 

shops, furnaees, etc ihe ^'^'"^^^'y ^ ,i,.,,Uvr saw plates, 

includes six train of rolls, one tiam f« j;'^ ;^^ S ^^^^^^^^ .^ 

and a large number of steam ^^^J:^^,,,^ „i„e boilers of 


.ith foreign varieties and as t e ,uah y ^^^^ ;^^^^^,^^,, that 
t. be equal to the best ^V^^?\u "Le as those found in iso- 
Anteriea has ores as well adaptecl to h. P po - - ^^^^ 

,,,, 1-alitios in Norwj^^n.^-^ ,,, ,,,. 

„,ost enterpr>smg and P'"^'^^^"; \ department, and -u-e now pro- 

ft-onted the pioneer "-"''fa^'t ' - '^J ^ ^ ^,,„,,,a and uniform 
dueing, of purely Amer.ean ^ ;^- ,^^^ ^J^^^^^ ,, ,,,,. .,.0 have 

,^„,Hly, ihey '^^^^^^^^^^^^^j; ';;,,, toward the eonsunnnation of com- 
co)Urilmted any miportant advance lowa 

mercial independence. 

.• v,i ' nro six oMier extensive Steel 
Be^destheWoryMU^m^U- ,^^nu,. ^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^,^^^,^ 

manufactories m P'ttsbing, mz. -^ tuilman, I. .n:-^' ^'o , Uki- 




ets, and 
: Uaiterl 

bai, and 
lock tiu, 

just no- 
rst estab- 

er an aroa 
i, melting 
^ the stoel 
aw plates, 
ole is l»vo- 
boilers of 
•esent time 

i warranted 
tratcd that 
)und in iso- 
amonfr the 
cs that con- 
re now pro- 
\nil uniform 
11! wlio have 
;iou of com- 

tcnsivc Steel 
Ci>., Pahk 
Si Co , Kri- 

The O'Hara Glassworks— Jas B. Lyon & Company, Proprietors, 

Is probably the best representative that could be selected of the many 
excellent estahlishraents of the same description for which Pittsburgh 
is famous. Established for nearly a quarter of a century, and enter- 
prising in originating novel designs, they have accumulated an immense 
stock of patterns, or metal moulds, some of which have cost two and 
others three hundred dollars each. The Glassware made here is ro- 
markable for its clearness, smoothness, and purity of color, v.aA the 
designs are excellently adapted to the material and mode of production. 
The siiex used is a sand of a beautiful quality, found in Berkshire 
county, Massachusetts, and the minium is manufactured by the firm 
from pig-lead brought from the State of Illinois. 

The Glasshouse, an extensive structure, one hundred and fifty by 
fifty feet, contains three large furnaces, each of whicti is capable of 
acconmiodating ten pots, that hold a batcb of three thousand pounds of 
metal. These pots are all made ou the premises, of a clay obtained 
from Missouri, which is found preferable to the imported. 

Contiguous to the furnaces are five annealing ovens for tempering 
the glass after being made ; and opposite are four furnaces, known 
technically as " glory holes," where the glassware is revitrified and 
polished, by which it obtains that clear, elegant, and gem-like appear- 
ance that is so desirable and pleasing to the eye. Ou the ground-ttoor 
are also tho mill room, for grinding the clay ; the pot room, where these 
huge receptacles are made ; the lead house, where the lead used in 
making the glass is converted into litharge ; a blacksmith shop, and 
other apariments of more or less importance in the operations of tho 

Ascending to the second floor, we come first to tho pattern shop, where 
the moulds are designed and prepared, first in wood, then in plaster of 
Paris, and finally in iron. Adjoining this is the turning and repairing 
room, which is a miniature nuichine shop, provided with lathes and all 
the requisite tools for repairing, turning, and polishing tho interior of 
the moulds to the smoothness and delicacy of a mirror— the importance 
of which will be readily understood wiien we state that any defect in 
the mould reappears in a blemish in the glass. The grinding and final 
polishing of tho waras are done in the tiiird story, whore there arc n 
dozen or more grindstones revolving with immense velocity, and driven 
by steam power. On the second floor are also the receiving and pack- 
ing rooms, each forty by seventy-five feet. Here the final operations 
of inspecting, assorting, and packing the warer; of tho linn are carried 

„0 ««lA,«An..^ „AS».ACTOE,«» OF PtTTSBOROH. 

o„ ™ao, U,c povona, ™p«n-i.»n of a iunior ,^n„er, preparatory .0 

Tliosc Wort', wliou '""J octupicu, ^^. 

,h„™„„a tons of coal. ""■l''°J' ;';;J°"t,: , K- TO wo„M of rar. 
rt„co about *•■>»«.<'»» "°*. It :,:r„„i„„ ,i„,al„«..i,hcd 

::::trr„ci:ta'tu .., *. .0... . .. «f 

only fourteen per cent .^ ^^^^ .. i,^^^„stry of the 

The F-Sl-\f-"";j':"t "io G 1 i^auufaetuves of thi. country 
rnited States, --f J J \^ ,, „o doubt of the present healthy 
.. arc fairly established, and ^1'';.'^^ !="' ^^ j„j„,, With superior 

position and future l-'^"^\''^.;!^^^^^^^^^^ with the development 

Utals in abundance, and skdlcd ll^'\l'''';'J^^ f,.,,^ u.e earlier pro- 
of the trade in which it ,s employed, ^-^'^^^ ,^^ ,, those 
a.etions, in which articles o e— -« wore t , ^^^^^ ^^^^^_^^^ 
rich and decorative works, which ^ ^^^^ ^; J";^^ ,,, p,,uion of the 
,.. been steady and contmuo.^^^^^ ^ d - ^^^^_^^ J ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
people, the more usefuai tides aic tl ^^^ .^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ 
divectsmostattention,thereisa aadabe 4 ^.^ ^^^^.^^^^^^ 

,„, to attend to those l^-"-'- ^f .^' j'^X„. it nmst be remem- 
,,,a excels in the artistic elements « P- J-Uon ^^ ^^^^^^, ^^,^,,,, ,, 
bored, too, that t^^e manufact ii g bl s by ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ , .^ ,^,^ 

..nation of cutting, -7/;;;!^ .t^Zccd into England in 1834." 
Americaninvention.andwa fiistiutio proprietors of the 

The tirm of Jas B. Lyon S. <;^; J^ ., ^.^ , j^^ 13. Lyon, 

..O'llara Glassworks," consists of f-;, ^^^ ^^ ^ \,,^,,. 




tory lo 

t scveu 

nd pro- 
of rav. 

fini .bed 
loss of 

fy of the 
t healthy 
i'lior pro- 
to those 
m utility, 
on of the 
h compels 
)e reniem- 
moulds in 
lass,' is an 
11 1834." 
ors of the 
1 15. Lyon, 

The Pittsburg Iron Works-J. Painter & Sous, Proprietors, 

Located in West Pittsburg, is a fair representative of the many exeel- 
len 1 oiling Mills and Iron Works of which Pittsburg ,s the centre^ 
T Were originally erected in 1836, by Frederick Loren. & James 
Ouddv and provided with ten puddling and six heating ftu-naces, tour 
tr s of rolKand about twenty-live nail machines. The prn.c.p I 
n,ildin.^ is of frame, with iron roof, two hundred and fifty by one hun- 
c f^et ; but besides this, the firm own another mill, seve,^ by one 
nndred ind forty feet, and nunu^rous out-buildings, ad m.n oi 
It oofs for rdl turning, warehouses, etc. In connection the 
W ks uul the property of the firn., are about one hundred tenemen 
hou s' occupied exclusively by their en.ployees, who number over 
;;r;mndred^men, and with their families njake a --tlemen.'^ over 
fifteen hundred persons, directly dependent upon tue V orks for the i 
„ Ins of subsistence. Many of the workmen have been cspee.a 
t ained for particular brauches. and son.e have b.en connected 
the Works fifteen and twe,.ty years, and attained by long praet.ce ex- 

tvaordinarv nroficiencv. . , , 

Th machinery in the rolling mill has been greatly .mproved and 
increased within a few years, and now i..eludes twenty-three p.^dlmg 
furnaces scveu heating furnaces, one sixteen-u.oh train of rolls one 
^r:;.:h and threcf eight-mch, one ^.eet ndl i^:^^^ 
and plates up to thirty inches in width), besides a bu.den s 
sle /.er," and all the other late i.nprovemc.ts to econo....ze abor 
and m t r,al. The firm have a patent for the saving of the " 1.x n. the 
oili..g furnaces, whereby they can save fifty per cent, over he old 
t iKl. There are in the Works seven, of the two 
argest have twenty-two Inch cylinders, with fiaoen teet sfoke ot 
l-ltcV., and seve.. boilers, each thirty feet lo..g and forty-two .nches .u 

'' Thrpvoducts of these works consist of Mercha..t Bar Iron of all 
descriptions. Sheets and Plates, Bands, Ovals, h.p.arc;s Kou.ids, a.jd 
Tub a Hi Pa I Hoops. Of these last-mentioned article. Messrs. Pa.nto 
Isons supply nearly .all the mimufacturers "^ -o en ware .n 
West and iorthwest. By long experience they are able to loll all the 
Hg Iter descriptions of bands and hoops to a more uniform .vnd exa t 
lauge and width than the imported English, and. one excep .on, 
pip superior to any made in this country. The capacity of these 
Wo ks in f..lly e,iual to the production of twelve thousand tons of 
ta ed ron per a nam, and it is clai.ned that their manu.actures ate 


superior to the best English imported iron, and equal to the best 
^' Mr' UcoB PAINTER, the senior partner in the firm, was born in the 

St.:li»g&Co.,ZuB Lindsay i Co and -W? ^ 

river region. 








-j-r "C;TT-',""" . 






Agriculttiral tniphmionts.. 

No, of Co»t of 

Establbili- Capital Hiiw Mii- 

'menta. Inv.isted. tciiiil. 

4 S24S,OUO $85,450 


Bliicksniiihiiit: 11 V2,9M.. 

BoutH ami !*lijas 240.. 

Bakoi's Hrcail anil Ciackera 68.. 

Brass Fumnlinp; 6.. 


21I,0S5 3.i5,73". 

Biclircmiiitc uf I'ntasli.. 


" Flro !■ 

Brooms 3, 

Boxos 3. 

Blocks anil I'nmps 

Burning Fluiil 3' 





37 124,HnO.. 













Clothing 119 1,218,500. 

Valno of 
















1,837,293 2,139 3,072 3,124,081 









-- 30 





68,.300 110,916 117., 

20,700 43,587.. 

10,050 6,290.. 

220,850 254,703.. 

4 12,200 17,4,50.. 

1 000,000 1,0,50,000.. 



Cigars anil Tobacco 129 

Cloaks ami Mantillas 

Copper Smelting 


Cotton Oooils 


Cordiigo * 

Drugs anil Dyo Stuffs !• 

Earthen Ware 0. 

Flour ami Meal ^ 

Fnrnitur,'. Cal.inot 38 260,400, 

Fringes, l.aocs, etc 3 35,S0O, 













72,000 548,5.50, 


1,54,720 431.. 



Fruits, Preserved., 



20,500 34,500.. 

3 12,000 3,019.. 

1 1,100,000 132,000., 












Uoop Skirts 2 2,500 2,674,, 

Hats and Caps 18 60,840 67,026.. 

Horseshoes * * 1-300 3,401.. 

Iron, Bar and Sheet 2 225,000 365,777 .315.. 

" Castings (including Stoves). 10 327,500 18i,412, 

„ pjg 2 100,000 89,000. 

Lumber, planed."."."."'."..'. 7 106,000 234,950, 

" sawed 2 70,000 i^600, 

Locomotives 1 "7,000 13,500, 


Liquors, distilled 

" malt 

" rectified 

Mathematical and Surg, Instr'nts 

Machinery, Steam-Engiuos, etc 

Morocco Dressing 3 

14 3.15,100 345,165. 

2 70,000 117,300.. 

12 86,900 108,288.. 

9 13,200 79,786., 

2 9,000 1,,500.. 

8 185,800 155,925 345.. 

14,000 50,850 49.. 









Marble and Stone Work 11 93,900 110,090.. 

Millwright!ng 1 4-000 5,00<J.. 

Mirrors and Oilt Frames 4 , 17,900 1.5,045.. 

Nails, Horseshoe 8 2,500 4,095.. 

Nut. and Bolts , » 9,800 9,460.. 

















>■■■■■. '90 

















; 13,!)flP 






N.>. of 

on, liiiiw'"' 

O.VBti'is, riiiUi''! J 

OiRK'ii' ■ ^ 

Priutinn , 

Piilicr, Vriiitiiis , 












Pork I'iiokiiip 

giwh, l)".'r8,una Wimls 


Suniir. llclineil 


iSiiilillcry iiiitl Il:ii'i"<'«» 

Shi). 1111.1 Il<«it IliiiI'l'"K 


gull Making 


gllvor Wave 

gliot "■"■■■ 

Tin, Co,.por, anil Slioet-IronWaio 




Wire Work 

Increase bIuco ISoO, per cent. '20.3 

C.Hl of 

Capital R.>" >'"- 

Inv.'Hled. tfiial. 

1 10(1,000 1715,000... 

•:^'''''. ow,4;U ^^'^■■ 














Value of 


ic, SOfi.OOO. 

5 ' 7,000 














11,200 Ofl.fiOO,... 

1,247 451 l."iW'^0 












324, 05-! 

1,W C 210.401 

442. W»fi-S--i2 



2 7.500 

1 20,000 

1 42,403 

3Y 8S,.5I».... 

4 n,,500.,.. 

r, 2,000.... 

11 12,400.... 

4 5,000.... 



S21, 083,517 

Hayward, B.rtt«tt & Co.'. Foundry .id looomotiyo Work. 

both extensive. f ,i,;<, firm occupies two squares of grcnncl 

The general Iron Foundiy of this firm occup ^^^^^^ 

at tho Irner of Pratt and ^^^^^:;^^^Z^,SU, as a Stove 
of Scott and McIIcnry streets l^^^^^^^f ^^ manifacture of Railing 
Foundry, to which a^env^r js a^ od tho^m ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ 
and other ornamental lion worK. jl ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

architectural purposes, their ^^«<^^^-"J^^^'^ ^fn Ut extensive manu- 
with such success that they are ^^^^ ^^^f J^^.ge portion of the 
facturers in the ^^;;^'^J'\^Z ^^^T^^^^^^ aVmany sections 



J'21, 083,517 


shnients in 
S'^orks, and 

3 of ground 
the corner 
, as a Stove 
of Hailing 
eral use for 
branch, and 
asive manu- 
•tion of the 
any sections 
Iso engaged 
earn and hot 
having sup- 

plied not only many of the private and public buildings of 1 alt.moro 
but the Troa'ury b-uiaing in Washington, and the Custom-house, m 
rorthuul. Me., in Buffalo, N. Y., and Now York oty. The ../.e of he 
establishuu-nt and its adaptability furnish conveniences for thep.osecu- 
tion of all these different branches without conllict, as each department 
has its foreman and distinct set of workmen, from the Pattern shop to 
tlic Japanning and Wilding rooms. 

In 18(;:! they assumed control of the extensive ^^orks widely kno^vn 
as " Wina'ns' Locomotive Works." They were established by Uoss 
Winans, Esq., who removed to the city of Baltimore in l«:iO, am 
entered the employ of the Baltimore and Ohio Hail then 
extended only to Kllicott's Mills-as Assistant Engineer. InlSoO 
he commeueed the manufacture of machinery under the pationage 
of that road, and in 1838 founded these Works. Commencing with 
the manufacture of Chilled Cast-iron Wheels, he gradually extended 
his business until it embraced th. construction of Locomotives, and, 
up to 1850, he had furnished the Roads in this section with over two 
hundred first class freight engines, known as the " Camel" 

The«. VVoiTcs adjoin the shops of the Baltimore and Ohio LailioaU 
Company, and now occupy an area of four acres of ground, moi^ 1 ban 
half of which is under one roof. The Boiler shop, in wh, h om 
sixty to seventy hands are usually employed, has capacity for buildmg 
twelve boilers at once. Adjoining this is the room for up 
wheels and placing them under frames, and immediately adjacent 
another for making Water Tanks. Then follow the Pattern Makers and 
Carpenters' shops, in which some twenty-five hands are employed^ 
Next are the Foundry and Smiths' shop, which contains orty-tbiee 
ibrges trip-hammers, and furnaces, with every other facility requi- 
site for making frames, axles, and other heavy forgings. In this one 
hundred and lifty hands are ordinarily employed. But probably the 
most attractive feature of the establishment is the Machine shop, with 
its varied machinery, all moved by two powerful engines-this is large 
enough to furnish accommodations for two hundred and hfty workmen. 
Adjoining the Machine shop is a systematically arranged Stoi-eroom 
for finished work, which connects with the Erecting shop, wla>re a 
corps of mechanics set up the work as it comes from the different 
departments, after which it is rolled forward on railway tracks to the 

Paint shop. , , 

The establishment has tools and shops sufficient to accommodate a 

thousand workmen, as many as eight hundred having been employed 

at one time. The present proprietors have changed the name to " 1 he 

Baltimore Locomotive Works." added some of the best modern ma- 


elnnery, and are «ow constructing a now serioB of different stylos of 
coal and wood burning engines, both freight and passenger. 

The gentlemen composing this enterpn^mg fnm arc J. II. Haywarr^ 
D. L. Uartlett, and II. W. llobbins. 

The Abbott Iron Company's Mills, 

Near Baltimore, arc anu>ng tl 3 largest and most celebrated Ilolling- 
Ml in 1 Uni ed States. Taey are fonr in number, another m 
iUiii.s u.u intended shall be second to none in the 

:::;:;: Lr 7 Coil:.,.. .•>,« c^ina, „.«, u^ ..• «„„» 

T, I . TlSSO tor ■ollinc I'lnte nnd Boiler Iron, conWina four heat- 

f„r irJa ,1 i4 r-"--. » i»" "' °'i"" '"'' •"*"■„"'"■ r" ° 

mg ami two liu . b ^^.^ j^,.|j ^j^^ ,^|,|,^j 

r : ;:^: U^a •: rdtry. and predictions IVe^ 
1 tZtTt would ruin its originator. Mill No. 2, completed m 1857, 

r^ru;::^;:^^;;: and t^ pudding ^ ^^y;;; -- 

hammer one pair of eight feet and one pair of ten feet roUs-the latter 
brng he longest plate rolls ever made in this eoun ry. Mdl Na 3 
3t by Mr. Abbott in 1858, for manufacturing thm plates for Gas 
Pipe. Boiler Tubes, etc., contains two heating furnaces, and a pair of 

'"ll^^l con>pleted in the summer of 1861. contains three heating 
and four double puddling furnaces, a pair of ten feet rolls, a pan- o 
'breaking down" rolls, a Nasmyth hammer, and other machmery, of 
the most approved and substantial character. 

It was at'hese Mills that the armor plates for the or gmal Mon t r 
were made, which protected that little vessel from the shot and shell 
Tf h'r enemy so effectually that not a plate was p.ereed or mjured^ 
Wltn Captain Ericsson had originated this form of iron-clad, he was 
In het^ive this country possessed no mills of sufficient capacity to 
rshX Armor Plates of the requisite thickness and dimensions, and 
supposed he would be compelled to import them from England. Be o e 
dig so however, he applied to Mr. Abbott, who at once agreed o 
undertak; their manufacture, and completed the order in a shorter time 
"an was anticipated. Had the completion of the Monitor been de- 
t" - it might have been, by the necessity of sending abroad for her 
armor plates, there would have been no obstacle to Pre-f^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
rim'' Merrimae" from destroying our wooden fleet, and blockading the 
cUy of New York. Mr. Abbott subsequently furnished t e armo 
plate for nearly all the vessels of the Monitor class built on the UEEDKtt'S MARINE ENUINE WOlllvS. 

117 coast, and also for the " Uoanoko." '^ Mu 
nock," a.ul sov.ral other goverumcut vessels; and m ISG. 1 . c 
pletJd uu order lor two hundred and liily thousand pounds .. d 
iron in forty-eight hours-which elicited from the head of the N.u) 
Department a letter highly approbatory of his lUlehty and energy 

Horace Abbott, the founder of these Works, was horn m W ot... . 
county, Massachusetts, in 180G, and renu>ved to Balt.more .n .].. 
where he purchased an interest in the Works known >us he Canton 
Forges." formerly owned and operated by Peter Cooper, Ksq., of ^e v 
York ■ lie engaged in the business of manufacturing Wrought-Iion 
Shafts, Cranks, Axles etc., for steamboat and ""Iroad purposes, and 
claims the credit of having made the lirst large steam 
forged in this country. This shaf. was made for tlie ^■. 
« Kamchatka," and was exhibite 1 at the Exchange m ^ew \ ok, u hcic 
it attracted considerable altention. Mr. Abbott continued m tins bu. - 
ness until 1850, when he built his first llolling-Mdl -which was fol- 
lowed by others, as stated above. In August, 1805, he disposed of 
his Works to an association of capitalists, who organized a stock com- 
pany known as the Abbott Iron Company of Baltimore City, who 
unanimously elected Mr. Abbott President, which ,,o..uon be now 

Charles Reeder's Marine Engine Works 

Are among the old established institutions of Baltimore, dating their 
or !in from a period nearly contemporary with our last war with Great 
ifaii They were founded by the father of the present propnetor, 
so" ued Charles lleeder, who removed from Pennsylvaiua to Balti- 
more in 1813, and built the first steamboat engine coiiBtructed ,n that 
e ty n. was distinguished for his med.anical skill and fidelity o 
workmanship, and established and maintained, during a l^"^ -;-;/ 
years a wide-spread and enviable reputation. His ^.n-tl e peser. 
pr mCt r_re eived his rudimentary instructions in the machinist s ar 
a the worKdiop of his father, and in 1837 became a member of the 
intncwoiK I , »g lio aided in the construetioa 

firm, then known as C lleeder <v aons. x _ 

of B vera! vessels that, in their day. were considered o the ^^^^^^^^ 
ammK- others the steamer " Natchez," of eight hundred tons, built to run 
between New York and Natchez, Mississippi. 

Si e 847, Mr. Charles lleeder has been sole proprietor of the.c 
Wol, and within this period has furnished machinery for a number 



or ocean and river stea.e. of '^^ J^ .^^rJ^^^^X^^ 
first, attracted attention to '"'^ "^''f^^^ ^,^"'tnsenr.loyed to carry 
was the " Isabel." a steamer of twelve bundr d ^"^ ^ «> ^^^..^^ 

the mails between Charleston and "^™;j^;;;Xrbe; eminently ■ 
he made several important "^H^rovements that ende^^^ ^^ 

Buccessful. Her superior speed and ^'^^I'l^'J^^Z.^,,,, One 
n.arked,that in Charleston ^^cwao called he Chom)™^ 
distinguishing pecnliarity of this vessel was^ t h^ vh 1 ^^^^^_ 

elevated -- ^wdve feet above ho t^^^^ ^^^^ ,„ 

ers that had previously been built, and were a 

this country, had their ^^^^^r^JZ^ ZZ:^^. and 
water. No ocean steamers on ^' "i^J'^ P^'^.'; ;;,^^„ ^,,,, the first, have 
the elevated wheel houses, of which the Isabel 

been universally ^f^P^*);;; ^^^ ..Louisiana," and a number of 

Subsequently, the "lennessce ana were furnished with 

other BUCcessful steamers for sea and -- ^ -' .^^ ^g^.^es Revenue 
..aehineiy at these Works, the latest ^^-^^^J^ commendation 

Steamer " Hugh MeCuUoch," - ; fj;- ;7^^^^^^^^^^ ,fl,r machinery, 
for the superior quality and excellent P^^^'"^^"^^ ^^ ^^^^s, and 

cuting work expeditiously. 




(«ea millions r>C dollars, caused vfle excess of production.] 

N'l. of 











Ai<rlcultural imi'lomeuts- 


Anillciiil flowers 

Bilkers' bread and crackers 

Billiard taljlea 

Bookliiuding and blauk 


Boots aud shoes 

Boxes, paiier 

Brass foiindlni,' 

Britauuia ware 


Candles, adamantlao 


Cards, playint; 


Carriages and coaches 

Cars aud oniuibusoa 




Cloftka aud inautlllas 


ColiVe aud spice griudiug.. 



Copper work 


Cured meats 

Draiu pipe, pottery, etc.... 

Drugs, medicines, etc 


Edge tools 


Engraving, plato and plato 

Eugraving, seal ftud dio 
sinking 38 

Engraving, wood 20 

■' ivelopes " 

firearms ' 

Fire engines ' 

Fishing tacklofcflsli-liooks 4 













1)30 . 

24 121,4U<i 1S2.. 

20 178,2.-19,. 





















63,000 .. 



























75,700 105., 

26,S.-iO . 









38,600 127,.. 

49,0.'iO 147... 

23.1,300 110... 

26, .'too 8S... 

43,."iO0 73,,, 

8,000 10.,, 

hr ,ids. 








Value of 


Ill 4,367,993.... 




and Wil- 




.. 1)1256,000 

.. 1,249,000 

,. 1,139,845 

471 1,0.36,218 




438.990 .. 
9.30,149 . 


29 1,114,451. 

379 618,400. 

10,624 17,011,370 

2 426,184 

117 l,208,.-i3U, 




















265,200 131,434 

190,000 1,390,190 














13,000 157,0C'0 




Flonraud meal 

Furniture, cabiuet 

Fnrd '■■ 



Gas motors 

out frames, mirrors, etc.... 


Gold ami silver refining 
and as^ayius 

Gold cliaius, jewelry, etc.. 

Golil leaf 

Gold watch cases, etc 

Orates ami fomlers 

Gutta porcha goods 


Hats: bilk, toU, ai"! straw 

llo.ip skirts 

ludia-rublier goods 

Ink, rri''l'"t< 

luk, writing 

No. of 
nicius. Capital. 

6 r.;"'.2.»oo 





i,4.-ii,'.oo 2.nw 

■2 4,(1110,1100. 

17 232,:!."!n 

1 7.1,000 

21 189,600, 

4 6,300 


,:,7 . 600 1,970,130 

..... 3,284,.'i00 

2.0 M- 





fl 229,800 

103".".".. 1,204,048 



7 8.i,000.. 

2 100,000.. 

2 82.0110.. 

44 334.900. 

ofl 287,800. 

""2 303,000. 

0,'.'..- 131,000. 

2 (5,S."pO 

1'. l.'iO.OOi^ 




90,900 127.. 




42 2,511,100... 

g 88,000 .. 

4 9.W,000... 


2 104,000,., 

23 l.')7,8.')0.. 

19 01,000.. 

7 lOS.iWO., 

7 443.000.. 

Iron forgiug ^^ 1,074,300. 

Iron founding 

Iron, ((.ilvauizod 

Iron, malleable 

Iron, I'ig 

Iron pipes 

Iron and wire railing 

Iron macbiuery, steam ou- 

lollies, etc 

lamps and lanterns 

Lead, lead pilio and shot.. - 


Leather bolting and hoso.. 



Mivhogauy sawing 


Sliivble cutting 



Jliili II1H01" 

Military e.inlpmouts 

Mllltiiry ornaments 


Milliuory jjoods 

Mini'rai water [^...... 289,000 


Musical instruments, mis^ 





Nails and spike* 

Nnls, bolts and waehers . 
Oils, coa) 


'A •■ 








1.1 ... 













31, MO.. 












172.. . 










.14.000 ll**- 

1.912,700 1,728 

.1,000 '■• 

41,000 "" 

60,000 12 

and Wil- - 
Value of Annual 
Vrodnct. Product. 

.2 612,.100 I»293.WM) 

3',789,fi34 27S,.528 









32,7.10 604,436 


C". 2,497,761 HS,700 

8 8;1,372 

3 337,690.. 


2,064,667 167,950 

03 380,000 

042 000 60,000 

g',;'.;;; 31,0.13 w^ 


;;;;.. 2,.171,4nO 2S6,870 













4,100,942 1,278.300 

22(5,360 7,270 

l,937,0iW 1"."°'^ 

197 225 131,875 



03,200 24,088 



1,200,949 471,390 


V ,116 

. <.4:i,875,... 

13' ^0.... 


.. i,l..i.635... 


■ 244,378 U«.4W 

,;■, 677,169 637,600 






2,429,867 '4,000 

40,000 :>5,ooo 


96,000 301.11'^ 



uul Wil- - 









<M*, lard 


sperm ami whale. 

Optical iustrumenU 

Paints tiud colors 

No. of 









Paper liao,s!iiigs 


PholoKiapliic iBaterials,etc. 

Plauod liiniber ... 

Plumbing' and gas flttlug. 
Pocket-books, porta mou- 

uaies, etc 

Preserved fruit and pickles 

Prlutiuif, book 

VrintlDg, job 

Printing, newspaper 

Printing presses 

Saddlery and harness 



Bashes, doors and jl.nds ... 

Satinet priutiug 

Saw;! lumber 

Scales and balances 

School apparatus 

Bowing niiicbiuos 



Shirts, collar) , etc 

Shovels and spades 

Bilk fringes aud trimmings 


Silver-plated ware 

Soap and candles 

Spiral springs 

Bpirituius liquors, rectified 

Stair building 

Stair rods 

Steam it hot water heaters 

Steel springs 

Stereotyping and eleotro- 

Stone cutting 

Stove polish 

Stoves, ranges nnd heaters 

Sugar refining 

Surgii'iil and doutal In- 

Tin and shwt-iron ware.... 

Tobacco and snntf. 

Trunks and carpot-hugH.... 

Turning, Ivory and bone.. 













14O,00C .. 

315,000 .. 





















and Wil- 

Valnoof Annual 

I'roduct. Product. 

660,000 $1,610,704 





791,000 390,000 

427,202 1,200 


626,000 l.-)6,103 

724,150 163,465 







20 ., 








161,5,30 362 

101,500 46 

3,121,000 1,4.35 

0-1.3,800 839 

2,941,200 2,.329 













406,9.30 .. 


















241 499,190 1,322 

75 464,375 

718 3,223,551 

.32 1,033,6.38 

157 6,182,946 143,167 


1 331,281 6.3,282 

467,975 320,000 

932,300 66,000 

677,844 91,150 


1,127,175 207,392 


4 13,000 

839,000 149,0011 

1,178,488 1,263,475 


133 .. 








2,704 1,84,3,3.)7 


fi22 '(.i4,u87.... 

19 1,2.30,605.... 

63 2.37,770.... 

2 1,800,305.... 




















73,,300 162.. 

400,400 9.31.. 

13,000 18.. 

280,100 269.. 

3,949,000 1,494 


1,1,32,880 471,390 


63.3,600 12,000 

19,312,600 - 3,794,000 

274,800 . 


8 147,404.. 

1 757,184.. 

3W 1,009,700.. 

8 292,868,. 


766, (WO . 

188 465,400.. 








Ho. of 

Manufacture.. "O^""' 

Pmbrellas and parasols ^^■■■■' 

Upholstery ^'"" 

VarnUh ^ ' __ 

Vinegar ^^" 


White lead and rino palnU >•••••• 

Willow ware ^""' 

■,/ire drawing u...... 

Wire work ^''"' 

Woodenwaro '" 

Total m 186P, Including 
pilacellaneous manu- 
factures not above spec- 

ined *•"'*••■ 






217,925. .. 














and Wil- 
_ 1. Vulne of Annual 
rS^ »ct. P-d"c'^ 

706 •1.660,066 »13,590 

80 .. 653,460 ^ -^"^ 

^ ; 470,000 204,300 








S »,8.'>0 





»61,171,7S7 66,470.. 


,718 ...•169.082,366 ...•34,251,320 

---r.rXK^sTJ='— ^ 

The Marine Engine Works. 

xu „if« of New York is sustained 
,, has been well remarked, that ^^^^l^^l^^^Z is becoming every 
.l^ost entirely by HB-mmerce, a d s^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^, „p the 
year more and more dependent for its PP > ^^^ .^ f„„,,, « 

^ower of the enormous «"^- « ^^^^^^^^^^^ these engines are invented, 
are now performed, t^e.^^^'^'^ ' J™ ^ l^'e destined to propel, constitute 

«ade.and fitted into b^»P«' ^^"^ tUthe spleador and fashion of he 
^eallytheheartof theme ropohs, that t^^^^^ ^^.^^.^^^^ ^^^ ^^^,,1,,, 

reposes. , , . „, .„„ „ere noticed the various attempts. 

In the first volume of this History were "i ^^^ ^^^^ 

of which any record is preserved tha^^^w r ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

tury to build steam engines in America, ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

McQueen, of New York City, was P«j>;^^y^^^ ^.,, „f the Marine 
Slug if stationary engnies a spe^^t^ ^ Jlie^^^ ^^ ^^^-^.^hTs 

Engine Works may be ««;ij;^ ^^^^ ,7 ,,,«els. as demonstrated by his 
in applying steam power to propcmng 


id vAi- 






S »,8.W 







! sustained 
ning every 
s upon tbe 
t functions 
■e invented, 
, constitute 
shion of the 
id ceaseless 
,f the atruc- 
laracter and 
vast edifice 

)U8 attempts, 
the last ccu- 
that Robert 
10 made the 
the Marine 
Robert Fulton 
stratod by his 



■.Uic All;ujj '•■ 




Steamboat Clermont, in 1807, whose speed was five m^es an hour. 
Her enlcs and boilers were imported from England, and were mann- 
al d by Bolton & Watt, of London. Very soon after the suece 
n?t2\Z effort Mr. Pulton erected a shop at what is now known as 
It C ty' w »^ he built the Car of Nrptune, and finished other 
c lines^ ingthe balance of Ms life-tbe iron castings hav,ng been 
Zished by Robert McQueen and John Youle, and the brass 
y ames R Allaire, all of New York. Early in the year 1815. upon 
he dea h of Robert Fulton, Mr. Allaire obtained a short lease o h 
i !!h tools and taking as partner Charles Stoutingcr (Mr. Fulton's 

2:"l-,l, which dev..oped a speed of .g^.t nule p 
hour with a cylinder 40 inches diameter and 4 feet stroke. Even at 
thatel yday Mr. Stoutinger predicted that the cumbrous maclunry 
t en Ised n he engine would be dispensed with, that the runnu.g 
Te of steamboats f^m New York to Albany would be about e.ght 
hoTrs and that steamships would cross the Atlantic Ocean w.tlnn 
ele cu days' time. It required almost the entire year to complete th 
gile aid boiler of the Cka.cellor U.i.,^on, about the close f 
which the copartnership of Aiiaire & Stoutinger was dissolved by tit 
I ah of the atter. As Mr. Allaire had been in busmess as a b a s 
?:: de at 466 Cherry Street, New York, since 1804. he --ferred a 1 
the machinery and tools from Jersey City to .hat locality, m 1816 
wlLr he laid the foundation of the present establishment, the oldest o 
Uie existing steam engine works in New York, no so extensively and 
favorably known as 

The Allaire Works. 

From the earliest period of Mr. Fulton's effo-ts in developing steam 
as a motive power in navigation. Mr. Allaire felt a deep interest in the 
subject ; and as all the brass castings of Fulton's engines had been fur- 
nished by him, he had had excellent opportunities of acquiring the 
requisite information to fit him to become Fulton's successor, and to 
carry out Stoutingcr's idea of simplifying the construction of the steam 
,nffine. Immediatelv, then, on the removal of his machinery and tools 
to the scene of his earliest labors in brass founding, he devoted his best 

rn Mr ZonoPeeor-s Fulton Iron Foun- Comauchic, Tn-unma, ^fanhaUo«, and Ma- 

dry, in Greene Street, Jer..oy City, marks h„v<c. A large number of workmen arc 

the locality. Mr. Secor ha, ju.t constructed cmvioycl here. who within three year., have 

and delivered to the United State, Govern- completed work that .s estimated to be worth 

ment the iron-clad Monitors Weeh^.ckc, three million, of dollars. 



u u.nt had been previously done. He now built 
efforts to iniprovo "P«" f ' ''^^, "^^ , ,f Carolina, and iio^.r^ i-W.n-, 
the engines of the Norlk ^'"-:^^ ^mX The .S«uan««/. was nuished in 
steamships, and repaired ^^^^^^ ,,,,, Uu. voyo.o to Livor- 

1817, and will bo '^•^"^'^.•"''^'l^^'^J^i.ii, that erossed the Atlantic 

,001 in 18l«. and as -;^; ^ ^ ^ ^.^iLion at the World's I'.r, 

Oeean. Ucr or.smul ^'> '"^^•'^^ j^, 5 feet stroke. 

iu New York, in 1853-diau.ete 4 u ch .ecommodations 

There was now found « ^ / ^'^^^ ,^0^/. ii...^ Fire Fl,, a"d 
on the Hudson River, and the st ambo ^^^^^^ ^^ ,,,„„ i.^ving 

C../ J...c« Marsnall .^0 W^- ^ h.^^^^ ,.^„ ,, ,,,,,ie quality 
boilers made of coppev-^s tl ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^.^ ,„^^^,i 1 ,, 

„,anufactured for the purpos not vnts 1 ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^.^ ^^^.^^^, 

the requisite tensile ^trongU t -d 1^^ ^^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

wood was universally used ^^^^^''^\^^^ steamboats at night, as they 
extending out of the ^-^^^^I'^f'^'Z, ^he wonder and awe of the 
passed up and down the r.v r tl ^J^ ^.^.^ this time anthra- 

Ignorant and superstitious ^ '« ^f^^^^. ,,,ent in Pennsylvania, and 
cite eoal was being developed to a lim e i ^^ ^^^^ .^ ^^ ^ 

k Allaire entertained ^^^^^J^^^^ L .teamboating reso- 
fuel for making steam. . ^^•^^\?' '' ^, .,,,t • but he at length prevadcd 
lately opposed his <^-^^^,^, and the Car of Nep- 
upon them to allow Inm to '"'^l^;;^; ;^\^ 1,,,,, put in her furnace 

tL was laid up to have -^^^'^^^^.l,,,,,, th.s new innovation 
for that purpose. Such was he ^jud U ^^ ^^^^^ „ ^^^^, ^^^,,,_„ 

that the firemen of the boat -^-J * ^^,^.^^ ^as obliged to take some 
declaring it an "^P^^^^.^^^'^y,' .^"'' , ' assist him, and he (being chief 
of his best workmen from hi. f ^^^^^^^^^^^ succeed in getting 

Bveman) did actually, after "^^^ '^^ f ^ this trial had 

the boat to Albany in ^^^^^I^^^^ .^.^racite coal as fuel to make 

demonstrated that it ^v^M^-'^^J ^« "« eonservative to aid in developing 
steam. Mr. Allaire's associate, me too c ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^,^^ , 

a better method of ^^^^^^2^]yj^ voyages on the Hudson 
tinned to light the »-.-«";- /^^^^ the only fuel that was deemed 
Bivcr for a longer penod-Nvoocl h 

practicable. .. u,,sincss ( v his own acc..unt until the 

Mr. Allaire continued m -^^ ^^ .^ „,,,,, ^o improve and sim- 

,oar 1842. always exerting nms to ^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^^^.^^^ ^„^ 

plify the steam engine, ^^''^^ ^''llZZ\eot imperfect castings, and 



1 -if) 

,' built 
hed in 
3 Fair, 

Vi/, and 
3tal liiid 
8 period 
e flames 
as they 
ra of the 
! authra- 
inia, and 
m it as a 
ing reso- 
r of Nep- 
er furnace 
ick stone," 
take some 
cing chief 
. in getting 
is trial had 
^el to make 
rtboats con- 
the Hudson 
was deemed 

mt until the 
3ve and sira- 
details, and 
castings, and 
unless it was 
ire associated 
porated under 

the statutes of the State of New York, with a cash capital of ^P.OO.Ono, 
and thcytlected him tlieir first President— wliich oinec lie filled ''.r 
eight years, retiring from the concern in 1850. Tlie management of 
tlie works tlien passed into the hands of T. P. Secor, formerly of llie 
Morgan Iron Works, who is general agent of tlic company, and the 
engines of tiie steamers Baltic, Pad fir, lUinoix, and P«Ha»»a, inay bo 
cited as evidence of the continued capacity of the Allaire Works to 
build marine engines. Tiie engines of tlie Imac Neidon, Bay Slair, 
and Emjrire Stale, on the Hudson lliver and Long Island Sound ; 
the Wr.-ilcrn World, Melropolii^, and Niagara, on Lake Erie ; and the 
America on liake Chami)hiin, were also built here. 

Among the more recent productions of this rstablishracnt, may bo 
named the steamsliip Vanderbilf, as liaving tlie largest beam-engine on 
a sea-going steamer— with two cylinders, each 00 inclics diameter, and 
12 feet stroke ; tlio steamers Ha Qaanrj, Po Yang, Kin Kiang, and 
other vessels for the China trade. The chief work of this establishment 
'.as been for river and ocean navigation ; but stationary engines have 
also been built here, and the company points witli pride to a Cornish 
engine at the Cleveland (Ohio) Water Works, as a specimen of theii 
skill in that direction; and also to the pumping engines of New 


A faint idea of the progressive increase of this manufacture may be 
gleaned from the fact, that while during the first year Mr. AUnire was 
Tn business as an engine builder, ho was able to complete only a single 
one, now tlie Allaire Works occupy fifty-two lots of ground, each 25 by 
lOo' feet, and employ about 1000 workmen, who turn out machinery 
annually that is estimated to be worth one million of dollars. A large 
number of men arc now employed in the construction of a propeller 
engine, with a cylinder 100 inches in diameter and 4 feet stroke, intended 
for the double-turreted iron clad called the Puritan, one of Captain 
Ericsson's vessels of the Monitor style, and ordered by the United 
States Government. 

The Novelty Iron Works. 

About thirty-five years ago Rev. Eliphalet Nott, D. D., President of 
Union College, at Schenectady, New York, who had been very success- 
ful in the use of anthracite coal for warming houses, invented a boiler, 
with its appurtenances, for applying that fuel, then not used for such a 
purpose, to the generation of steam, and decided to test its merits fully 
by building a boat and equipping it with his improved boiler and en- 



gines. In the pl-B ^•^;-'"''":^,Xltrird\"^^^^^^^^^ 
Ll.butancwb..ner ando^. n,ucc^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

York waters. His »>ou > *— 7^' ..j^^„,,,^,,." Dr. Nott, finding that 
conseciuently received the --",,^:eial arrangements, not only for 
„i« projected wou d a u.rt b ^^^^ .^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^^^^^ ^^j,^„. 

US c'reatiou. but also to enable Inm t k-p ^^^^_^ ^^ ^^^.^^^ ^., p^j^, 
decided to purchase the P- ^-;J'^,^, ,,„,, farm buildings furn.shed 
the East llivcr, where ^'^ J^J.^gi^es of the Novelty was jn a 
,U the room he reqmred. -« ^U mechanical resources. From 
great measure built here -> b Inn ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

L. to time the l-^f ^'"f ^, ,td "m'k for other parlies to be under- 
increased to an extent that «"^^1^'^^^^" ,ji,, i,ee and shop where„. they were applied to sue P« -0^ ^J ^^^^^ ,^^^,„,, ,„ „ 
this work was being done 01 he ^^c- woivKB,"-and thus originated 
ltt;:S:S;:l:^-i^sUU known throughout the engineer- 

^"-f time these new o.^Uons w^ya^.d f^ -:— 
was conducted by the ^•'"; "^''^ \ho ,ad recomn.ended the use 
euce of N. IMiss. formerly of the West ^^^_^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^,^^., 
of the hori/.ontal style ot engine toi ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^,^. 

K. Dodd. who afterward ^^'' '^''\ ,f ^^,, works, until the year 

quently Thomas ^^^'^'^^'i ' « St*"--' ^^'^'^ '^^ ^^""";' 
^S38, when John »• Ward, Ih^ «• ^^^.^^^^ „,,,,i„,ry, tods 

and C. St. John Seymour P-;^- ^^^^^^.^^ ,,0 name of Ward. Stdl- 
and fixtures, and <^^''^^'''\')l^^Zv^,,, having charge of the mechan- 
„,,„ ,t Co.-the first wo of ^^2^^^:^ ,1,,,, gave their attention 
ieal operations, while the two ^"^ "'^^'^^^^.....nent was in their hands, 
to financial affairs. During ^^-/li as greatly increased, and among 
its capacity in machinery aijd -^^J ,f ^,,,i,,, the Lion and he 

the work turned out -^^^ ^^ Z.vurn..i> and still in use un er 
Eacile, constructed for thSp^>G ^ .^^^^^ ^ ^,^ ^,, , 

different names. In IH^ ; f ^"™^^^,,i ,„d the establishment was con- 
solved by the retirement oi J^ D- W , ^_ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^,„,g 

ducted by Stillman & Co. 1" ^^ ^ ,^ , .^ed the first locomotive 
in Horatio Allen, (the Sf^^^^ business was conducted under the 
;„,i„e into this country^ ^^^^^Z. having retired. In 185..^ 
name of Stillman, Allen & Co^-Air y ^^^^ ^^ ^^ incorporated 

the stock,machinery tools pa terns^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^.rk, 

company, — V? ^J^oVoOO by which lomp-y the business has b^ea 
whose cash capital IS $300,000, oy ^^^ incorporation of tUit 

conducted up to the present time. 



a new 

in New 
nv, and 
ug that 
only for 
r rei)air, 
oint, on 
ms in a 
iiey were 
ic undcr- 
op where 
lie known 

ed tlie nse 
jeiug l^zi'a 
y. Subsc- 

1 the year 
[. Stratton, 
inery, tools 
^Vard, Still- 
the mechan- 
eir attention 
their hands, 
and among 

ion and the 
M use under 
Co. was dis- 
icnt was con- 
,ed by taking 
5t lofomotiva 
ed under the 
red. In 1855, 
1 incorporated 
f New York, 
liness has been 
)ration of tbi» 

company the term Novelty Works was n^erely a designation of the p aco 
whexh several firms carried on business; but su.ce its .ncorponU.oa 
T Novelty Iron Works is the legal designation of the body corporate 
b whom the works are carried on. At present, the pr.nopa manage- 
ment i. hr tlie hands of IIouatio Allkn, President, and W. L. Everett 

''Th!re;:trance to the works is on Tweiah, opposite I^^y-Dc^k Street^ 
where there is a large gateway, near winch is a portei s lolg .ih 
doors leading to the offices and to the drawing-room At a short d s- 
tal from the gate, and within the enclosure, there is a great crane for 
iv g or del'ering the vast masses of metal, such as shafts, cylinders 
boilers, vacuum pans, and other portions of the ponderous nnu une y 
that a continually passing to and from the yard. y;'-'"g «/''; ^f ; 
and just beyond the crane, is the iron foundry-^ building 200 feet long 
by.8 feet tide, with a wing upon one side. It contains four cnpola 
furnaces, capable of melting at one heat si.xty- ve tons ou-on which 
can be deposited into one mould, making a single casting of that ..- o - 
mous wei ht. There is an additional furnace for special uses and 
elil :;;"as occasion requires. The blast for the furnaces is brought 
under ground through a pipe having a sectional area of five square feet 
Opposite tht furmvcc are six drying ovens, each having a railway and 
two carriages, and each within a sweep of one or ™ore of six cranes, 
some of which are capable of hoisting twenty tons. Within this foundry 
and below the surface of the ground, there are moulding pits, twelve fee 
in diameter and eighteen feet deep, the siaes of which are firmly secured 
by plates of boiler iron riveted together. Six weeks are sometimes re- 
quired to prepare the moulds for loam castings, employing froin ten to 
forty men Five of the strongest men are required to carry a ladle ot 
molten iron from the furnaces to the reservoir from which it is dis- 
charged into the mould. The process of clearing the mould and hoist- 
ing out the easting requires about a week. In illustration of the 
capacity of this foundry for heavy work, it is sufficient to say that_ here 
were made the bed-plate of the steamship Atlo.nhc, which weighed 
thirty-seven tons, and that of the Arctic, which weighed sixty tons. In 
the summer of 1854 there was also cast the cylinder of the steamship 
3MropoUs, of the Fall River line, which was then the largest in the 
world-having a diameter of 105 inches, and a length of U feet, with 
12 feet stroke of piston. Twenty-two persons sat down to lunch in this 
cylinder, with room to spare, and a horse and chaise were driven through 
it, both backwards and forwards. 

In the smiths' shop, where all the wrought iron parts of the machinery 
are formed and fitted, there are thirty forges, with the requisite number 


Of men to each. Here ako are large cranes, with chains connecting 
with L^U t ucks on the top of the beams, for carrying w atever may 
ZlZL^eA fnrther outwa.i, or drawin, it in, as may be reqnued^ 
The t^^neks are moved by a wheel at the foot of the crane, and a e 
rimble carrying extraordinary weights. In one instance a s.ngle 
3 of on was forged which weighed 1 4,366 pounds. When o- gn.g 

:h e ovmous masses, they are trucked np in a f"-- « ^^J^^f' 
where they remain several hours. The masonry is then broken away 
a.d h re.l-hot iron is lifted by the crane and placed under a massive 
trin-hlnn er When the process of forging so large a mass of .ron . 
lo mT one mar. throws water upon the works to effect some purpose 
LTect ' w tV the scaling, while others busy themselves about getting 

Hnto the reauisite sh.p. a.d dimensions as the forging proceeds. 
Adj^^. g teliths' shop are the machine and finishing shops, wl... 

tho cSe' piston rods, and other parts of the maclnnery, after bcnng 
tt su iccted to a refining and polishing process These are pro - 


nl'J s to Ue them the required curvature, punching machines to n.ake 

mitis metal ic life-boat builders, instrument makers, hose and belt 

JlTl Blips c.,»ble ot occommoaatlng the largest steum^.p. 

The Delamater Iron-Works 
a™ .it«.U,d on .ho North river, at the foot of W«t Thirteenth «„d 
K,»rto.u.h .treet.. They were founded „ >''^>•7 '»^»;,'j,f ^X Iloirir «nd Cornelius Dolamiiler, who earned on buH.mss unflor 
fhc ta^sVie™? Uogg & Delamater, Thi. ar„ had a prev.ons ex,.- 



ence in 1842, at the well and favornbly known Phoenix Foundry,' irt 
West street, between Hubert and Vestry streets, which dated back to 

The Delamater Works are distinguished for their capacity to build 
very iieavy machinery, and have built larger cylinders than have 
thus far been cast and finished at any otiicr foundry in existence. 
The original air engines of the caloric ship EriofKon were constructed 
here, which had eight cylinders — four of which each measured one hun- 
dred and sixty-eight inches, or fourteen feet in diameter ; and the four 
others one hundred and twenty inches, or ten feet; the former having 
at least fifty-six inches greater diameter than that of any cylinder that 
was ever cast, finislied, and put in a ship. In 185.'), the firm was dis- 
solved, Mr. Hogg retiring, and Mr. Delamater remaining to conduct the 
business as sole proprietor. Under his administration the Works pros- 
pered, and rapidly increased in reputation for the excellent character 
of the work finished there. As occasion required, the establishment 
was enlarged, new tools were added, and every facility obtained that 
was necchsary to build light or heavy machinery, with the highest 
degree of perfection, in the shortest possible space of time. During 
the late Rebellion, the Navy Department of the United States Govern- 
ment derived very substantial aid from the skill and enterprise of this 
establishment. It was here that the machinery of the original Monitor 
was built; and the entire hull, turretn, and machinery of the iron-clad 
Dictator were also constructed here. The magnitude of the under- 
taking will be best understood, when it is stated that the Dictator's 
dimensions arc three hundred and twenty feet long, fifty feet wide, and 
twenty feet depth of hold. Her engines have two upright cylinders, 
one hundred inches each in diameter, and six return flue boilers. The 
screw propeller is twenty-one feet six inches in diameter, with a pilch 
of thirty-two feet. The steam machinery and turrets of the Knlnmazoo 
and rasmconomy, as well as the motive power of several of tho 
iron-clads known to the public as tho Monitor class, of which tho 
Pasmic may be taken as a reprcsentatire, was built here, because no- 
where else could they have been constructed within tho time re(|uircd 
by tho government. A number of iron steamers were constructed 
at these Works, among which tho Matatuas is regarded as a vessel that 
reflects great credit upon her builders. Since 1842, tho experimental 

(1) Tho Plicenix Foundry, previous to out off (team by tho rlotachmont of the 

1842. was conducted by Mr. Jnmes Cun- inlet atoain valvo, on invention of P. Ho)ff?, 

ningliniii, on engineer of unusuftl sl<ill, then nn npprcntico, in ISSB. Provioug to 

who contributed liirgoiy to the dovelopment tliiit diito. independent eutMiffc in tlio 

«f river murine ongiucs, and wns tlio flrst tu stciim pipes wore e-xclui-ivoly \m-d. 



f r-u.tain Ericsson, have all beeti 
nvachiues, air. and o^^^-^^f;; ^^'llushu^ent, superior faciUties 
coustvuctea by tl.e workmcu of tins 

beiug cjoyca h.n-0 for the purpose. ^^^^^^^,^^^ ^^^^ f,.,„ting 

tL Delauuuer Works occupy '^^'f; ^ ^^ ^^^^^ ,, ThirtecUh .treet, 
tbe Nofth river, with a front -^-\^'^l^ ,, .aditional groun-ls 
ana au c.,ual space on ^^^'^^^C. front of two hundred feet. 
on tbe south side^^:;;>^^,^, ,, f-^^^'« V' 1 -^^2 
by one hundred deep. U'c c.ia ^ nmchinery,besule« sta- 

,4uisite for building all ^^^^l^^^^^,,,. nvachinery. .aehinery 
tionary and marine ;;; ^^ ^';. , ,,, considerable expor.enco 
for water-works, ete.. the P^" l-;/" Xnical engineering. There have 
i, „,ost of tb^se ^1^1-^-^"-;;^^ ;,'^J,t'welve hundred workmen, of all 
at been from one l^^"^^"^;*^^^";.,;,,. during the past year 
classes, employed hero, the -^^ ^^^ f^^. ,„,,. .lone in twelve 
$11,000 per week,ecpial to *5'-'^'; J^,,,^^,^,,,^, such ^Yorks is taken 
L;uhs. When the whole ^^^^^J for labor alone is but 
iato aeeount. and that the -^ ^ "^^;^U,i,ful that such 
a fraction of th« ^^^'>*^' ^'^"VLecelfully eondneted under the pro- 
operations ^bould have been so Buecc^^^ y ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ .j,,,, 

nrietor.ship of a single individual. Mo ^^^^ ,,,ions or tirms 

C- works of New ^ovk -v. con u^^.r \ron-Works have 
comprising several P^'-^'!*^'^ ' 7, 'Veering under the directum of 
aehilved aisti...vd..d ^r^^^ -^^^ ^^J ,,,,,,e and «nanc,al 
a single proprietor pobscsbinb 

«r u. OPoree W. Quintard. Proprietor, 
The Morgan Iron-Works-Oeorge Vr. 

♦V n Vast river arc another of 
Looaied at the ^^^^^^^ ^'^^^^ ZX^i They date their ori^u 
the noted Marine l-;f- ^^ ^/'^harles Morgan, and WiHuun 1. 
from is:5». ^vhen T. ^•- .^^^" ' . . t^ v. Secor & Company, based 
Cvlkiu. trading under the i"'--*;^ ^ '^'^^^^ ,,,,,1 buildings >r 
^,ht lots of grouml at that ^^' ^ :,^,,,,, of all kinds. T •• 
the construction of, bo.l s a. ^„,,n,nh, and the 

Li nuu-lno b..ilt hero w f-^»-^^^^„,„,, 1841. the Works 
Lnunboat Tro,,, of the 'Iroy bno In ^^^^^ ,^^^^,,^^.^^ 

:;; partially destroyed ^;y '-• ^^ ^^ ..ecess. that in 1S.G the 



U been 

h sitveet, 
Ired feet, 
Lh every 
itlos sta- 
icre luivc 
len, of all 
past year 
in twelve 
;s is taken 
lone is but 
r the pro- 
•gc Murine 
iirt or lirnis 
k'orks have 
lirection of 
ud finaneial 


> another of 
. their origin 
William H. 
ipany, leased 
rs suitable for 
" kinds. The 
unnh, and the 
1, the Works 
Tlie business 
at in 1S46 the 
iiiodato the in- 
ith nnd Tenth 
lid tho Works 

enlarged to their present capacity. They also purchased one half of 
the block on the southerly side of Ninth street, running from Avenue U 
to the l']ast river, and erected thereon the present oflices, drawnig- 
rooms, etc. Among the first large engines built at these new Works 
were those for tho steamers New World, the Crescent CiUj, and 
Empire Cih/ ; and for the pioneer steamers of the United States Mai 
Steamship Company, tho Ohio and Geoniia. ,A highly successful 
business was prosecuted. From five to seven hundred men were em- 
ployed until February, 1850, when George W. Ciuint..rd became sole 
proprietor, and the firm of T. F. Secor & Comi>any ceased to exist. 

Under his administration, important additions have been made to the 
mechanical resources of the establishment by the purchase of large and 
improvd planers, lathes, slotting machines, and steam-hammens, one 
of which is capable of forging sixteen inch shafts. New docks, at 
which vessels of the largest class can be accommodated, have been 
built; and a floating derrick, capable of lifting, at one hoist, seventy- 
five tons, has been erected. 

The en-ines in some of tho largest of our sea-going merchant and 
war vessels were built at these Works; and those of two of the fa.stest 
boats running on the Hudson river, were designed as well as built here, 
namely, the 7'A<>ma.s Powell, forty-eight inch cylinder, and eleven feet 
stroke of piston ; and the Iteindeer, fifty-six inch cylinder, and twelve 

feet stroke of piston. _ 

Among some of the well-known Ocean steamers running from New 
York whose engines were designed and built at these Works, are the 
Oohiea A<ie and QoUlen Gale, eighty-three inch cylinders and twe ve 
feet stroke of pistons ; Oeean Queen, ninety inch cylinder and twelve 
feet stroke of piston; Empire Cih.l, eighty-three inch cylinder and 
nine feet stroke of piston ; Golden Jlule, eighty-one inch cylinder and 
twelve feet stroke of piston ; Mixxis.ippi, eighty inch cylinder and 
eleven feet stroke of piston ; California, sev.M.ty-two iiu'li cylin.ler 
ami eleven feet stroke of pi.ston ; .SV,. Franviseo, seventy-six inch 
cvlinder and twelve feel stroke of piston; United ,S7«/.-.., sixty inch 
cVliiid»>r and twelve feet stroke of piston ; Fallon, sixty-five inch cylm- 
der and ten feet stroke of piston ; Charle, Moraan, sixty inch cylinder 
an.l eleven feet stroke of piston ; Herman Li'-i»r,,lon and General 
Jiarnex, sixty inch cylinders and ten feet stroke of pistons ; De Solo and 
7^V.nv7/fi, sixtv-five inch cvlinders and eleven feet stroke of pi.slous; 
Mnnhnllan and Vera Cruz, sixty inch cylinders and eleven feet stroke 
of pistons; lirolher Jonathan, seventy-two inch cylinder and eleven 

feet stroke of piston. _ 

Of vessels for tho United States Government, may be mentioned the 



.„„Wc..„rrc,cd Monitor 0„o,.,H«. ean-yi»6 'wo «'«; ■»* '^f^P;" 
:. uvo P..™.. gun. She h„» fo„, -'^^f ^^ ;^t 1" -td 
der «n,l eiBl,l«n i„ch *«kc »' .l>'f " . ^ ' ^^2: inch B.vokc, 
by . pair of cn^inoB of '-"«-» "„';^, ; , i . entirely of i™n, 
besiilM Blower eiisines, etc. Ho It tne "'"'■ ^^ 

.„d .„e ,n.cMncry, were ''»-«""-'■;»:;'; ■^tlL L.ul, the 
a rom,U»l.le mWition to <»" ■'""■'^'"•" "'=';"„„,;' „„ „, , ,,„ir of Reared 
engine, of the Bioop-of-wnr .l„>mo»»«-, ■■"" '^° , , ,^.,, ,„-olie of 

„4,„™ of ^;^^-'^tj::::Sl'Z::^, .nei. ey„„der. 


inch evlin.ier «"^<l'"-'V-;,X,f'-M«" '»"-*''' »' '»" 
„ls„ bnilt the engtneB t,r '!'« *» f'' ^ ,,j ,„t ,„.„ke-t»in 

l,ack.«eli..)! enBine». tl"rty "leh >' '"'=' °" ' '^^i, ,,„,,»,,,, 
,,v„,eller^ of »iK l>ia<le, eaA-wlMch toge 1 a - h^^ 

U .ir.,."."l>, ««. o' --■' r nl i^ ," c/poW :,«»o, eighty-four 

„„„„ her. , ond a,.o tho» '"--^l^' ^ 7^: :: ionB.rneted .otne 

l!osid..» ntarnte <•"?'"»»• ''°.'°' ?;;„\,„.„.„a,, ,„» largest l-cing 

very i,n,.oHa„l Pnn,,,.,g '•■"« "««'»; ^^^^^ „,,„„„, „,,al,le of 


,.ll»e were for "^-«-;°,*:: J rjll "„ ^ S. foundries and 

j;: r r::::;^:::; **^^^^^ >- «-„ are c„,,ioyed .o-n 

oijht 'hundred to one thousand workmen. 

The C.ntineut.1 Work.-Thoma. F. Eowlatd, Iroprietor, 

loeated at «reen„„int, i, a ''^^'^-^i;Z:::^::ri:::l^ 
attained prontinencewithm a ew yea. ivi * "u = ^^^^^^^^ 

important eontraet. espeet.lly to '^ ««•;. f„„ vVork» of New 

rirriatronrrr,- .1 .. -..,. 

the yard where vessel, nmy bo moored proprietor 

of tbcHe Work., was one the ^^'^ "' JY ^ , ,^,,1,, «,vcn and 
in which Mr. Rowland agreed to eoniitruct a w.ought 



. hnlf fct i« Jiamctcr, a.,.! over a qu.rtcr of »» in IcnRll., »ml 
ir t c «.ue o„ the to,, of the bisl. briJgo over the ll.ri.o,,, r,v r- 

.,,0 c,.ou,„ A,.,.aoet «■";, -^';;f„:;:rrw::«v:i:vki«. 
rrT^rrrXLii .'>. ro„r , ,.„„«„- .. 

'f wrousUt.h„„ ,...te, half ..> iueh ll.ieU, »,kI four huudrej ton. or 

^ •?, iJnn Floatiu- Battery in accordance with Ericsson's plans, 
^r s^l w ^ el'l rln L continental WorUs January 30t.. 
W> and arrived at Fortress Monroe, March 0th, the same year, 
1802, and a uvc M,„.i,.,,e, establishing^ a complete revohi- 

where she fonght the rc')U _ _^ contracted to 

""^rr: U,. ce,„pletio„ of U..e iron-cl A be „,*«„„k «,e ce„.i™c- 
.• f 1. hull ami luiT«t« of iroo-clml Ijatteiy " Oiioml«g»," from Ml 
Z W a an w.,0 l>a„ eonUaCea ,v,.l. .ho ^^^'^"'"'^-^^^-ft 
1 „.i«t., • mul -ilso built the iron-clad battery Cohot.^, 

.... Till, hull of the ocean iron-daJ halteiy 1 nman, na» 
r , „„ ll a le being lanuehcd wa> lahl np in ordinary «. the 
';:;:*;; Cv«"Ui.c've.urn of having .-enaere,. her eon.. 

"'C :!«— at .be pre,c„t time 1, engaged In building Iron 
..uiTbe virion, indu».ri.l ,,nr.ui,. of the Southern ...te». 



The Etna Iron-WorkB-John Roach & Son, Proprietors. 

Those extensive and justly celebrated Works, like most of the other 
„oortirelblishn,entB in this -untry, had an hun^>le and unpre 
to, MnroH^in. The original building was erected by Mr. John Glass, 
T:^ lot of ground, twenty-fwe by -e "re -t^^^^^^^ 
RiLniod for the purpose of making small castmgs. In 18.>2, ^1'- ''o.'"^ 
Ro 2 m r Led the premises ; and though his cash eap-tal ,n the beg n- 
fin' w in ited to le insignificant sum of two hundred dollars, he 

B^ h V most remarkable success, for the Works in some respec^^^^^^ 

„ ent o'v rs a whole block, four hundred and ten feet long by one hun- 
S ^nd ninety-eight feet deop-^bounded by four streets-and ,s four 

""T:^ ^t^;ital fro. the legitimate profits of tl. business had in- 
creTs d Buffieieitly to justify the undertaking Mr. Roach roso ved to 
supply a great national want by the erection of an estab ,shm nt pio- 
X'with facilities for constructing larger Marine Engmes than any 
hm tofore built in th>s country. With this object m v,ew. he m ISfiO 
de patched a confidenlial agent to Europe with instructions o examme 
aU t^^ most extensive Works abroad, and note every tlnng tha ho saw 
new or ikely to be valuable. Having himself been an employee „. 
oTe." iL best Marine Engine Works of this -untry and havmg 
I'v nod from the report ^f his agent a knowledge of the facht, s 
en 4 by European establishments, he was enabled to avad hunself 
0? a 1 advantages iu arrangement and selection of machinery. Among 
1 m excellent tools with which these Works are equ.pped then, 
„ I a least two that in size are )t equalled by any m th.s com ry, 
U a irer't at will carry a nundred tons weight, and work four 
::;:, \ r^a teland a'athe, that Is now capable of boring a 
cvl^r of a diameter of one hundred and twelve Inches, and can bo 
eS Ilterod to swing twenty-eight feet in diameter In fact. 1 e 
"nities of the establishment are such, that, it Is conceded, more wm-k 
': executed hero in a given time, than can be '^onc el.whe^ 
oi her in this country or irt Europe. A" ^n^me. fro.n tl o tune he 
.' tg are made uniil its completion. Is pushed forward through o 
„r oiH processes with an ease and celerity truly remad<able ; and 
"v nt which, in the construction of engines, as of houses, are 
^ : nude at certain periods, according to the progress of the work. 



are reached with a rapidity wholly unprecedented in similar cstablish- 

"" Durin, the past few years there have been employed in these Works 
from nl ' hundred to fifteen hundred worknu^n of all grades 
ome tl most skilful and accomplished that the olTer o to ,, 
Xs could obtain. The whole establishment is eontro led by a 
u ^ n:..dingengineer, Mr. T. Main, directly responsible to t e pro^. - 
etor- while the foremen of the various departments are abso ut ely su- 
premet their own sphere, yet responsible to the superintendent rom 
wl! decisions there is no appeal. By this means a s.ngle eontn ng 
ntelleet is felt in the most minute details ; ana the consequences a mot 
thoroughly disciplined workshop, with a Napoleonic method of reward- 
ing fidelity and skill when found a characteristic of a workman 

To the Etna Iron-Works belong the credit of having cas and finished 
some he largest steam cylinders ever mode. The United States Gov- 
lent steam'ram Dunar,rbcrrfs two engines were built here each 
having a diameter of one hundred and twelve inches, or nine et and 
four inches, with twelve feet stroke of piston-which ai. among the very 
a gest steam-engines that were ever built. Yet the workmen ha 
little or no more difficulty iu finishing these immense casting, than if 
they had been of the usual size of ordinary marine engines. 1 h. en- 
IL of the Bristol and Providence, for the Merchants feteamsh.p 
Comnauv each having a cylinder one hundred and ten inches, were 
buTh re So, too, lere tlse of the liisin, Slar, the Warru., and 
the engines and machinery of the United States Government double- 
end gunboat Winooski, and the steam frigate Neshamimj. 

Th" Etna Iron-Works are not only creditable to the enterprise and 
skill of their proprietor, but they represent well the progressive charac- 
ter of the American people, whose patronage has «"f' »''^^\'f;.- J' 
is of course impossible to foresee the future wants of a rapidly glow- 
ing nation, but it seems probable that these Works are prepared to 
anticipate any demand for still heavier machinery that may bo mado 
upon them for the next quarter of a century. 

Besides her Marine Engine Works, New York is famous for the nuinber 
of her ship vards, and the eminence of her ship-buiiders, though to 
notice them we shall be compelled to digress from the plan Im.iting 
descriptions to establishments, and trespass upon the province ol i.iogra- 
phv The department in which the ship-builders of New York have 
' sp.>cially achieved eminence, is in the construction of steamers. In no 
othorcityof the United States have so many large steamships be..>i 
built and at this time nearly all the work is of this class, there bcng 


modelled aud built, is 

The Ship Yard of Wm. H. Webb. 

19th, 1810, of parents whose aneestiy on the ^^^^ ^ 

,.a on the -'^ Huguenot III. fatl^-^^I^^^^^^ 
member of the ship-building firm o ^ ebb & -^ '^°: \ ,^. j„ ^^ war 
was associated with Henry Eckford, an -'" ^'^i o grammar 

of 1812. Educated in the schools of the and at J 

Ilholl of Columbia College, ^^^^^ ^^^rXe age^" 
position in mathematics, young ^ebb at tie a ^^y,,^,,^ ^n 

igainst the wishes oi his P'^ents to aWd n ^^'^ ,^^ ^,^ 

--t:"^,r::: w^i ^':^, " •:;; :r;ent pnudpany m 

vi.. : that at the Boston >avy YtJlZ.^iely York and Liver- 
..aertookasub-eon^^^^t e^l^^ Line, Char.s H 

pool racivet smp Oxfoid, ot me entrusted 

Marshall, agent, though previous « '^^^ '^^^ ^^ and the direction 
with the -agement of ^rge ijumb^^-;^^^ 
of works of importance. Ho puisuta , when, his health 

as sub-contractor until he attained tl- age of U^^^ - , .^^ _^^^^^^^ 

failing, he made a voyage to ^^^^^^^^^Z. involved. Afte. 

^y^^'^'^'''::!:^T^:fZ^r^^, with M. Allen,his 
these wcM-e arranged, 1- o »^-^' jg^o which continued for three years, 
father's former partner, Api 1 . 1 «. ^ ^^^^^.^^^_^^ ^^ ^ .^ ^^^^.^, 

when Mr. Allen relinquished the th n p os ,emarkable 

uev-who has ^;--:J:-^; ^ :!i^a:::tl^ty.three vessels 
X:n:::::;r:i^ot;r:rth. that of any other individual 

builder in t'-^^^'^-^^;;^^;;-^,, ,i,Hed St. Petersburg, and received a 
In the year 1852, Ml. "to" ,-.,. tho llussian Government. 

oontract .'.n- WUU„g a ""-°'-''»";f '*;,", evo™nc„ of .1,0 

i„d„mi..l.lo ^^"ff;;,:'' : , X" it, a, i. „a. contrary l» tbe prac 
r "in":— *^ L;::o»».^ or war WU or U. Oo.. 



ro been 

■k, June 
, was a 
uy years 
the war 
, highest 
licited au 
ud for six 
cipally in 
s countvy, 
wciity, he 
md I liver- 
Charles H. 
1 entrusted 
hig vessels 
1, his health 
lily recalled 
ved. Aftel 
. Allen, his 
three years, 
to his part- 
liree vessels, 
r individual 

id received a 
■ranco of the 
latched twice 
y to the prac- 
Ic of the Gov- 

ernment Yards. The vessel, as originally contracted for, was to have 
ninety guns ; but the occurrence of war between Russia and the allies 
having interposed an obstacle to the prosecution of the work as a v.ola- 
tion of the neutrality laws, on its cessation a new plan and model, 
designed by Mr. Webb, were adopted, with a less number of guns, 
thou.^h of larger calibre. . The vessel was built in accordance with this 
plan°uotwithstanding the written protest of the Representatives of the 
Russian Government, and the fact that it was never approved by the 
officials until after trial, when they were not sparing in Lheir testi- 
monials of approval and expressions of satisfaction. Oa September 
21st 1858, this steam frigate of seventy-two guns, seven thousand tons 
displacement, named the " General Admiral," in honor of the Grand 
Duke Constantine, was launched, and has proved to be the fastest steapi 
vessel of war yet built, having made the passage between New \ork 
and Cherbourg, in France, in the unprecedented time of eleven days 
and eight hours, mostlj under steam alone. 

In 18G0 Mr. Webb received an order from Count Cavour, Trmie 
Minister of Italy, who sent for him to visit that country to conclude 
the contract to build two iron-clad steam screw frigates of thu-ty- 
six laro-e guns, six thousand tons displacement. These vessels were 
clad wiUi iron plates four and a half inches in thickness, from five 
and a half feet below water line to the upper deck, and when finished 
were found to possess extraordinary speed and sea going (tualities, 
•making the passage from New York to Naples, a distance of over five 
thousand miles, in eighteen days and twenty hours, principally with 
steam power, and in the winter season These vessels were contracted 
for iust previous to the breaking out of the late Rebellion, and con- 
structed during that time, when the demands of our own Government 
were pressing, and prices of materials had advanced largely, ).it no 
reclamation was made upon the Italian Government for an additional 
allowance on that account, and afford a convincing proof of the capa- 
bilities of the ship-building establishments of the city of New \ ork ^ 
Among the remarkable vessels now nearly completed at Mr. W ebl) .s 
ship yard, is the steam screw iron-clad Ram, the " Dundorberg," ordered 
by the United States Government. This is the largest iron-clad thnt 
has yet been built, being s.ven thousand two hundred tons displace- 
uient and affords more room for fuel, stores, provisions, and accomino- 
dations for officers, crew, and marines, than any other vessel of this 
description that has yet been built. The hull is massive, being .solid 
from stem to stern, is three hundred and seventy-eight feet long, sixty- 
eight feet wide, and thirty-two feet deep. The frame timbers, twelve 
to twentv inches thick, are caulked and planked, and over the plaiikmg 


,.ocou.esor.eavy .can. ^^^J^ '^:^Z:S^:%^ "mC 
to seven feet of solid tnnbex on I'' ^^,^, ,;,,,,,, f,,u the tnr- 

vessel.embraeinsacaBemato,.Bcnmeb ^ . ^^^,,,,,^ ,, 

ret ov .ouitor class the ^^-ng^^^Xc tbo scvow/instcad of aft as 
one of the two ^'-'^^-'^'^^f ",,,,; for a sea going iron-clad, and .s 
usual. She is constrncted expic y ^^^^^^ ^^^^, ^^^^^^.,,. 

expected to n.ake fifteen ^'^l^^^^ with a prow of very pccnliar 
tivc power is ^!"7^-;;/;;5.:r,t, 1 eo/ered with an iron poaU, 
shape, fifty feet ni Icng h, of ^^ "^ J" ' , ^^^^,^,^, wooden or iron- 
which it is helieved w.ll V^^^^^^ \^^ f.rce the Dnnderberg 
clad, that has yet been ^"^'^^^'^j^^een guns, on slide carriages, 
can give. She is also --f ^^^^^^^^ ^.^ each 460.pound shot, 
four of them being fifteen ^^^fj^^'^'^^^J^^^^^^ shot, with two 
and twelve eleven inch gun. ^''•J!"^^'^^ J ;„,, ^an be 

^rf-r:^^ ^^^^^ '- '--'''- '- ""'■ '"'^' 

mounted it requiu.u. 

sand and twenty-four ponndof^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^. ^^,^^,^,^ ^,,^ y,,, . 

Among the new vessels now be,ng ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ Boston, each 

are also two steamers for a Ime bet we ^^^ i^o feet in width, 

,3eing three hundred and ^^^'^ ^'^^'^'^^^^^^^^ 
and sixteen feet deep, -^ ^^/^f ^jCndsco and China. This is 
Steamship Line, to run ^^^J^^^^^^^ 

one of the largest steamers ^^^^ ^^^^ty^^^,,, ..ide, and thirty-one 
three hundred and --*>' -\ ^ f foTlmmodate about one thou- 
and a half feot deep, and is "^^^"J^^ ^^f^.^- ^t. As this vessel is de- 
sand passengers, and a tl-u - ^ ^J ^^ ,, , ,p,,a, elements of 

signed to combine the g^-f^^^^ .^^'^^'^^ ' J^ed by Mr. Webb have been 
stl.gth in accordance with a ijWi ong ui^t c y ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

,,,oduced in YTCZ^::^^^ that have been constructed 

To enumerate all the imponai .„,i:„„a task The list com- 

,y Mr. Webb in twenty years wou ^^^^^.^^^ ,i,ty-five 

pLes three sloops, ^'^^^^^^''^Zy^^^^^^ steamships, in all one 
ships, nine steamboats, ^nd tw^.nt ^>gh „,gregate capacity of nearly 
hundred and thirty-three vessels, wd an agg g ^^^^^ ^^ 

200.000 tons. Among the sading -^^^;;; ^/^^^ , f.^^or times, 
the famous London, Liverpool. -;^/\^ ^ J^^.e deck freighting 
. i,,iuding the " Guy ^^^^^^;^^^^J^,^ Monarch," of three 
ship ever built in tins conntry ' the J^^ ^^ ,^.^,,,, than any ship 
thousand tons, which -J-d a la ge an^un to ,^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 
huilt in any conntry, ^^^"S Joac^^d o r ^i^,,„„ 

• cotton with the ^^traordmary loxv ugh ,,^,^^^^j_ 

and a half feet of water; and the chppei ships. 



of five 
-f the 
;ie tur- 
vcl, as 
aft, as 
aiitl is 
m poak, 
or iron- 
id sliot, 
rhh two 
iri can be 
)ur thou- 

sbipyra-d • 
tou, each 
in width, 
he Tacilio 
. This is 
,try, being • 

one thou- 
issel is de- 
lements of 

have been 
le list com- 
s, sixty-five 
3, in all one 
ty of nearly 
jre many of 
irmcr times, 
k freighting 
jh," of three 
han any ship 
ind bales of 
ling eighteen 
3na," "Chah 

lonffo " '■ Comet," " Invincible," "," " Young America, an I 
" Black Hawk." Of these ship^, the "" made the passage rou, 
New York to San Francisco in ninety days, from wharf to wharf at tl.' 
respective ports, and the "Comet" made five successive passn^ro. 
between the san>e ports that averaged one hundred days, one of wluch 
from San Francisco to New York, was made in scvcnty-six days the 
shortest on record, and run, during one voyage, in three successive days, 
nine hundred and sixtv-six knots, or about one thousand and twenty- 
five statute miles ; and in one day, three hundred and thirty-two knots. 
or about three hundred and eighty-live statute miles Among the 
steamships built by Mr. Webb, are the " TTnited States," the rs lai^e 

steamer built for the New Orleans trade ; tl^V .""'^p ,t ' J' Mb 
large steamer built for the Savannah trade ; and the " California, the 
first steamer built in this country for the Tacific trade, and the first > 
Pntcr the Golden Gate in 1841). where now an immense fleet of sea and 
river steamers traverse the broad waters. Nearly all the large steamers 
eno-a-ved in the Pacific trade have been built in his yard. 

Such a record of successful enterprise, in an important and ditficu t 
department, requiring for its prosecution mental (lualities of a high 
order, is its own best eulogy. 

The Westervelt Ship Yard, 

Occupving the block bounded by Third, Goerck. Houston and tlie East 
Rive,- is another of the extensive ship yards for which New \ork 's 
noted Mr. Jacob A. Westervelt is probably the oldest ship-buildor 
now engaged in active business; and has constructed, it is behevcd. 
more vessels of a medium tonnage than any other sh.p-budder m the 
United States. His history, which has points of instruction, as well 
as of interest, is briefly as follows : 

He was born in Bergen county. New Jersey. January 20t^h, ISO , 
but removed with his father to the city of New York, m I8O0. Aftc i 
the decease of his father, which occurred in 1814, he dotermmed upon 
jroing to sea, and shipi^ed. as boy before the mast, in a vessel bound to 
Chadeston, South Carolina. Shortly after his arrival there the vessel 
was sold, and he suddenly found himself a stranger in Charleston, w, h 
„„lv fifteen dollars in his pocket. After remaining there until nearly 
everv dollar was spent, he again shipped as seaman on board a ship 
nound to Bordeaux, France. After making several voyages to iMiropo 
he concluded upon abandoning the sea, and learning the art and inystovv 
of ship-buildimr. With this intention, being then m his si.Kt*;entii yenr. 


extondoa him l.y a gon.U..n.uwcsu n^ m Ll^ .^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^_ 

Una. to undertaUc the cons^ueUon ^ j.^^^ .^ ,^,,,enticoshi, not 
Having ul.tainod the conseut oi h n p J ^^^^ ^^ ^.^^^. ^^„,^ 

baving expirea). he at ^2::^.^ ^ .Uu.on days, landed safely 
and after a stovn.y and daugeions pa. - a ^^^^ employn.g 

I Charleston. He at once ^^^^l^^::,,, vending in and 
in their constrnctiou negro nlaNts o^^' ^J* ^.^.^,^.,, i,e rctnrned 
around Charleston. Upon the ^^^[n^,^ i,,,,, • with whon. 
to New York, and at once ^^^^^ ^^"^^^^ f,„, i.u.inesB. in the 
he renmined associated nntd Mr. ^^^J" ^ears, sev.nty-one vessels, 

rcu,.mca uino "'»»"''■ •""'";'"■: '^/X; Mrcct), whore be bailt 

z;r:::^:n:cir:^:r:^^^^^^ ea .,.»«.. 

opening trade to Califomm. connection with Mr. Edward 

Mr. Westervelt o^-'S'^ji^^^^^^ton' ^ d " lIorn>ann." the pioneers of 

Mills, the steamships " '^'^^^X^"^^^^-' ^^''^ ''''''''''''" 
American Ocean Steamers. ^^^^"^ ^^^^^ ,, uiui shortly after; 

t;. first of the present "-^•^•'^/>"% ":^' J^.^r " Arago ;" now runni.>g 
ana at a more recent date ^^^^:]^^Z..a;^ "now owned by the 
in the same line ; -^^« ^^'^ f ^^^ .^f.: j ,,„ie,'' and " Moro Castle." 
United States Governmen , and the . ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^,^^^^^ 

owned by Spofford, '^^^^^^^^on & Co- A g^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

clipper ships ^-l^^^^/"':;;rb fof tssels for the American and 
" Sweepstakes." Quite a "«"^^"\.^ , ^ ^^■,,,, ^niong which may 

,o,eignVvevnments hav. ^^^ ^^^^t^ tois. built in the year- 
be named the frigate " Hope, of two '^ „ ,^, u>e Spanish 

1825, for the Greek G^'--"^'^", ''^'^...^Tast ear, for the Japanese 
Government; the "Fus.yama,' ',"«»^^^^ j^,, ?. Kankakee," and sloop 
Government; ^nd the '' ^f 7' . f g^'s Government. The last 
of war "Brooklyn," for the ^"^^^^J^^^^^^^^^^ 


an wua 


Iiil» not 
ty tons, 
d safely 

iu anil 
h whom 
i3, in the 
i) vpsspIs, 
\ titiy to 

ivhevo he 
ss, taking 

he built 
.1 ho re- 
nth street 

kept well 
y the then 

[r. Edward 

[)ioneors of 
ii-tly after ; 
low running 
vncd by the 
vo Castle," 
) celebrated 
ontest," and 
nerican and 
g which may 
t in the year 
• the Spanish 
he Japanese 
c," and sloop 
it. The last 
,0 none in our 



Farragut has repeatedly asserted that she is the most ''."j^j-^ -;:;^^; 

d V n.s f r the vessel. It may hero be stated that Mr. ^V es e e t 
Xu^. never a politieian from ehoiee or ^^f^^^^:^:^^^J^^^ 
important public positions, and after representn.g lus^^ald and suvng 
manv impo-'tant committees, he was in the year 18o2 elected to he 
Ma^luty of New York, by one of the largest majont.cs ever given to 

a candiilate for that position. , i -u k„ 

The following is the number, class, and tonnage of vessels budt by 
Mr Westcrvclt and his son, up to the present time : 

Fi ^ steamships, ninety-three ships, live barks, four bngs, fourteen 
sclfomfers one sloop, two'iloating light ships, one safety barge, eleven 
It boat , in all one hundred and eighty-one vessels, w.h an aggre- 
gate capacity amounting to one hundred and lifty thousand b,x hundred 

'1^: tt y^lSoO the active managevnent of the WesterveU Ship 
Ya'd ha be n conducted by the son, Daniel D. Westervelt a tl>ough 
a.e sen or s ill supervises most of the details connected the luukhng 
o vss s. This\^entleman is probably the only American sh.p.lHnde 
who has received an order of knighthood Irom a foreign government io; 
skill in his profession.* 

(1) Tho particulivrs of tho order of knight- 
hooa bestowed upon D. D. Westervelt are 

as follows : 

Mr. D. D- Wcstorvolt, during the year 
1861, received an invitation from tho Spanish 
Government to forward them models and 
drawings for three steam frigates of forty, 
fifty, and si.My guns, respectively ; promising 
to Mr. Westervelt, at tho same tune, the 
construction of tho ships, should the plans 
prove satisfactory to tho Department of 
Marine, before whom they were to bo sub- 
mitted. Tho examination proving highly 
satisfactory, an Admiral was delegated with 
full power to close the contract, and to 
direct the builder at once to begin the con- 
struction of the vessels. Immediately upon 
his arrival the Rebellion broke out, and Mr. 
Westervelt, being unable to procure tho live 
oak and yellow pine required to build the 
ships, was compelled to abandon the con- 
tract. The Spanish government, in order 

to testify the estimation in which the 
models and plans were held by them, 
recommended that the order of "Isabel la 
Catolica" bo conferred upon Daniel D, 
WesterveU. Tho Queen, approving this 
decision, at onco forwarded tho insignia of 
tho order, together with a complimentary 
letter, to tho Spanish minister at Washing- 
ton, from whom Mr. Westervelt received 
them. Tho emblem or order is an eight- 
pointed star, with enamelled circular cen- 
tres, having on ono side the initials of F. 
R., with the motto " Per Isabel la Catolica" 
circumscribing it ; and on tho other a rep ■ 
resontation of the Eastern and Western 
hemispheres, surmounted by tho Spanish 
crown, alongside of which stands two 
columns, around which a wreath is en- 
twined, bearing the words "Plus Ultra." 
Circumscribing it is the motto "Ala Lealtad 


Henry Steers' Ship Yard, 

some of tho largest and fin s ^tcam^\^ ^^ „,vchuntm. . yet Duilt 

been constructed there, ^"^ f^^^^\^^ r^'J ;" there at this tin.e ap- 
,, this eountry and, V^<^^^ Jhe ^-t of Green and Huron 
P--'''"S7t.;::;u'V;nr^-l-^ ,, ,,eaof one hundred and 

U, 1832; but is <^«^^^' „^^^^^^^ 

grandfather, and great-grandfat^crluum ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^,^^^^ 

fo.sion. He is the nephew of <;^^° ^o ^tcc ^ .^^^^ ^,^^^ 

.uiUler, whose untin.ely death ^^^^J^^^^^ ,,,,,1 i„ foreign 
York of a who had "^fj^^^.^ ,, ,,, native city, and 
.vaters. Young Henry was e,U^ at«Un oo ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^ . ,^^^^_ ^^ 

,.vaB examined and l^'^'''^ ^'' f^'^^ZZ^V bent of his ancestry, he 
,,0 age of sixteen. foUown.g ^^^^IJ^,, ,,ele George, who 
.looted to go into the s .p yard h. fathu . ^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^. _^^^^^^^.^,^. 

were then assocuvtcd ^'V'"f " '' ..^^tion. from a grindstone boy to a 
^i-^'''P-^-^"^^^^^:;S^::';^: tr;nl thl ordinary mathe. 
foreman, evnuMUg quick pei'^tpum ,„„ attaining 

.uvticai talent, which he -- ^"^ > ; " ,f "^^ ^he bst educated and 
his majority, he was able t. tal. a ^o^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ,,,,.,,, ,, the 
most promising shipwng .ts. i o stvt j association with 

„„a r«,toBt, pilot boat, now ... V. '" >■ " ]^ „.,„,,„ „„ ,tu, 

... i«5», >!'■ s..^».- '"7;;;;;; : , „:;„„ q:„.8." .1.0 •■ ch. 

,„„„,„c„ !« I.usmcs», «..;>. "-''^'.''V,,, rl,i..» tVitac. TlK. •• I'ol. 

Ki»„g," .....1 .1.0 " I'oi. ,'^«;.';;' ;;; ; ,,„„,,,„„, n,.ci i»,.ow u. 

K«i„" mailo tl.o,t tr.l. to 1 ..... " .^ ^^^,^ ,,„^,,,„, „„,, 

Inslort lioat l>lyi"H .'. ' '""'''° "". ' ', , . .,..,„|, nvciitvtwo fool ; ni.d 
«.v„,..yr.vo f.ct ; bro,uUl,, f..r.y-l»...- : ;,: It',,':.'; ,:„„o„o,i .,y Mr, 
n,,..clty about two ;l';:"'».;;\=f ,.„,,„; „,„ si......Wp Co„M.M.y. ;» 

::rL:;i;;:r?.-H;. -■« >•-» ^-* '- '^"•■"■""' """ """'■ 



it that 

}t 1)uilt 
me iip- 

■ed and 

i father, 
the pro- 
id yacht 
•ed New 

1 foreign 
city, and 
r ; but, at 
:estry, ho 
3rge, who 
ir -appven- 
i boy to a 
ry niathc- 

icated and 
nan in the 
ation with 

has since 

8t building 
egnnce and 
of the best 

ere ho still 
," the "Cho 
The "Foh 
is now the 
hundred and 
ivo feet ; and 
chedby Mr. 
Company, is 
llcr length 

„ throe immlml «..■! twcntySvo feet ; bvcacUh of bean, for.y.rf. foot ; 

r :: r;.'"::.,::, reel ,o... .,■..... '^^^^^■^^^-z. 

four feet deep, and of a most ''^'''''.^^tt,, , , ronebefo; 
tortbc raeillc Mail Co"'l»>"y. Y ;-;""' ■.."J^.V; ,, „„,„, ,ba„ 

doek bea„», au,Ubl,i|... tbir.y.oue fee . x me o ■ bo _^ 

have tbreo full .leek.. »».! a. orloi, '^^^ "' "^^^^ ^",■,2, to reeeive 

Her eapaeity will be forty-seven hundred ton. buidtn, 

when ready for sea, over '^ ;f!^^?; ';:^2 ^^,,,,, ^ho most of then. 
Mr Steers has constructed in all sixteen vcsbti.. 

Steers will yet bo written. 

John Englis & Son's Ship Yard, 
U the foot of Tenth street Easv river, is noteworthy, from the fact 

S'f :,;:.;* b,ek ... bu„e,re„ „„„ »l,.y feet kiu. tbe 

• 'ivo Vew York, nd after serving an apprenticeshu, of seven 


then noted ship-builders. In l^i^, k nv ,,,,,.,.^,._a,Hl, on their 


rx 1 i,na hniU in all fiftv-six Steamers, averaging fifteen 
location. Here he has built in all miy ^^^^.^j ^^^g. 

hundred tons each, making an -gg''^^^ . f ^'^ ^\ ^^je one of which, 

trade, but have not succeeded "^ ^;, "r^" "/i,,^3_ ^e also built the 

in speed those --^''-^^^Xn ' wfs^ern W^ which for a con- 

stonmers " Plymouth Rock" and >>ehitiu »» « , x., i«Al 

V, hnilt tho " UnadiUa," which was the hrst of the gunl.oai^ xtn 

line, running Ijolwoon New \«rk ""'.'" »">'"^',„„,i ,„o,-. 

An,cr,ca t„ '-■■«: J^^ ,';*,;',„„,„„„ 1, ,„arc.l pa»»neov» .nd seven 

.„„,„„,, did n... need '"'^^ ,«",;; uie.nnond," and a™ 
.:„B!i» .t Son have tan t l"'"""'"''''" ,,.„„„, „,reo hundred and 
„„„ eonstrneling .uolhor e,, .a! ' f"' " 'f ,„.„ ,v,„„„g 

.ig„ty feet in ,eng,„ nnd "'^ V; j™ tl ari L\.,o •' New„or,," 
,!,„ flne Sound .le.n,er» »■'-'"'';''"' .'' ?^„ ^e^t Lean,, and fonrteen 
,l,rc« Imndred and f.u'ly ee. .n '"'S '• ' '^ '^ ^ ' ^ ,, . ,|i„„„eo 

teet hold, wind, nn.lie, li,e tri], fro.n >e» \ <»."°/'; 1„ „ 

or on. hundred avd .ix.y f '-• ;';'^'' ^r' ° t'. wo ^ In hea., 
which is three hundred mid ton feet m kngia, louj 
and fourteen feet in depth of hold. 



J. B. A 



.1 tons, 
ghai, a 
'or this 
Liilt the 

a con- 
In 18C1, 
r twelve 
y, inicler 
L'h pleas- 
it degree 
)on have 

awn of a 
ice,'' that 
Europe to 
s burden, 
and seven 
a half feet 
ine hours, 
md heated 
nstly kind, 
er nuilcii'g, 
ivas hi.'l'orc 
»n, Messr.s. 
I," and aro 
indred and 
<. Among 
ind fourteen 
t, adiftanco 
Id Colony," 
Bt in boam, 

wo hundred 
[y have been 

J B & -^^ w. Cornell's Iron-Works. 

New York has in this establishment the largest and mos completely 

\ Worl !'in the United States for the construction of 
eqiupped Woil n he tn ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^ 

buddmgs. Ihcy date o commenced 

L one hundred, and from one to four m height. Ihe mouldmg 

worth of iron was used. Now there ait stvci 

'^ , ,, a „„,i vtliintii- M\it\ial Insurance Company , .uiu 

Savannah, and the Sun and ^^'l^^^l^f ^'l" ^^^.^ ,,,,, increase 

'■"ono of the f,r.t,mlcnt,tl,«tw«r.nacrcditc,lon U.c roco,,!. .f .h« 
P«? °t Ot« . to .1. 11. Cornell, Is for «„ lo.)""™! nmnocr o unmug 

r^Trr;.:: ";';:;.■,,:: ;...;,,. .,..00, ,„ ..c ...... . .... 


U6 - ^^^^ 

.u-face, consenaontly ^^^'^'^.^ZZ^:;'^^^^^^ -^ 
.ecuve. It wa. in th. way by tb ^^ ^^^^^^^^^ .^.^^ .,,„ ,, , 

valuable improvements, tbat tlie gv 

building material was aceompbshca. ^^^ insurance of New 

It is'bolioved tbat ^^ ^^^'^^^^...n^y complotod by tbis 

York, and tbe New York Stock Mb an go ^^.^^.^^^^^ .^ ^j^^ 

l.,'arc tbe most oonU^lete and l^x^^t ^/^,,i„. f,, ,.nings and 
United States. Tbe beams, f^^^'^'^^^ ^.er two hundred tbou- 
partitions. are all --^^-'^^^f .^J;: '.tcture. The New York Herald 
Lnd dollars' wortb was used m ea b U ^^^_^^^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^, ,.ou 

building, now being erected by the 

and fire-proof. „„„factured by tbis firm, and extensively 

Among tbe specialties ---^;;^ ^...^ra.nce witb a patent issued 
used, are burglar-Foof ^^fe - ^ -'l .^^.^ ^^ ,,,,,,ble point lu safc-s 

to Ira L. Cady in 1858 ^^^^''^^ ^, ,i,ey are formed by pouring 
generally, are dispensed ^^^^'-^^^ of wrougbt-iron perforated 
in a stream of molten ''^\^'X^nT ^Imu^ in contact witb tbe wrought, 
and counter-sunk. The mol en -^'^^^^, ,,,eral plates are thus 
i« obilled, and tbe conUnnatmn, .^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ,,,_ ,« under- 

cemented togetlier, as - ^^^^^^tults of the most ingenious and 
stand, proved impregnable to the 
determined hurglars. 

Herring & Co.'s Safe Manufactory 

• t'of tbe manufacturing establishments in 
1, one of the most \--^-^^!^''\'l^'^'^,,^. It is located at tbe juiic- 
he western part of ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ .nd extends from Tbivteentb 
tion of >Mntb avenue wit Hudsn _^^ ^^^_^^ .^ l>-fV"l 

to Fourteenth street. ^^'\^^'' ^^^^ apartments for work of a spe- 
basement. and each fioor is ;\ ;^^' ^ ; ,ted more especially for the 
cial kind -, the second iloor ^""f; J^^, ,, ,,„ ordinary fire-prools are 
onstrnction of ^-^^^'^'^^t^ ^., the locks, and vaults, and 
Principally on be ^^^^^^^ ,,at propels the machine > 
vault doors on the fittb fioo^ -;j^^j^.,„,^ ,„, a shears, operated by 
i« iu the basement, wbere "^ ^l^^Iere the bar and plate iron is stored 
Bteain. lor cutting boiler pi t - ^ cj ,^ ^^^^^^^ .^^^^ 

and the japanning is executed. Tb ^^^ ^_^.^,^^^^ ^^,,, ,, 

,.,,„,,, ,0V painting, the f^^^'^J^^ ,,,,, «tory building, separated 
,,V,inet work is executed in an u ja^e ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^,,, 

from the main ^^J-^"- f.^Jov Sicb.troet. Besides these estab- 
a distinct establishment, at 740 UK 



;afe and 
■ion ami 
ton as a 

e of New 
d by tbis 
irs in the 
liijiTS and 
Ivcd thou- 
i-k llin-ald 
be of iron 

Lent issued 
iut in safes 
by pouring 
t perforated 
ic wrouglit, 
tes are tluis 
, we under- 
i-enious and 

jlishments in 
. at the junc- 
m Thirteenth 
loight, witli a 
rork of a spe- 
ecially for the 
lire-proofs are 
11(1 vaults, and 
the nuu'liinery 
s, operated by 
iron is stored, 
. into rooms for 
,cd safes. The 
ding, separated 
uundry work in 
aes these estab- 

„,tae„.,,ttar,™ ha,» manufctoric. at PbUnaCpUa a„,. Chicago, 
a„d cu.,.l»y to aU abouUour hm.<lred person. ^^^^ 

i. ., ti,..t tUo monev was at tne seivito ui ""j 
and a notice put up that tht moi ty w , ^^^^^^^ 

eonid obtain it w.h o^^^^^J^" ^^ ^.^ri^^^lphia having dis- 
wealthy by the offer. n 1 ^0^ a hun ^^^^,^^,,^,,„re of nuneral 

covered that carbonated chalk a rcsKUun ^^^^^^_^_^^^_ 

water, was superior to any <f^^^lX P-hased the secret. 
ductorofheatandares.stan ue Mu^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^.^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

patented it, and eonunenced ^f -^"" ^ J^^ ^^r^,_ >,,„,,y f.fty 
great celebrity as Ilernng's Patent «^/^ ^^^^^^ ^^^j, „,, as they 
thousand of these safes have been "-""f^^^;^;; ,„ J.a preserved 
bave passed through -"^.^t-^^^J^^r'^iions of dollars, 
books a,ul securities n. ^'^ ";Sb' «^^t ^,^^^,,^1;,,,,^. 

the conlidence of connnercial n,en .u ^^^^^^^ ,;^^ ,,,,rity from 
But besides the construction oi sa e« ^^^^^ ^o tlie man- 

fire, this m-m have given tnuch ^^'^^r^'^^'t, this depart- 
ufacture of 13urglar-proof Safes | atdts -d ^ - ^^ ^^^^^^^ 

„.ent, it i. probable, they - -^-' ^^ ! ' ^^^^ ,,,,t be invuhier- 
nnule as they make then- In-st-class l^;"^*^ ^ ^y^^^^^,,^ ^, ,,y bur- 

able to any attacks witlnn^he ^^^^^^^^J^,, ,,,,,,,ed in their 
glar, however accomplished. ^^ "°"- ''" ' F,anklinite ore, found in 
construction, is a peculiar material '"-^^ ^ ;f /j^,,, ,,,,,aing that 
Sussex county, New Jersey, ^^f^;^-^^^^ f-ility of a dia- 
of the finest tempered steel, and naiks ^ ^"^ ^ beautifully 

,,ond. This metal, often Vr^^^^;.^lZ^Z rods that it can 
crvstallized silver, is so interwoven vitluouU ^_^^^^ ^^^ 

bJ battered until bent without ^-"g l^-^^^' ^^ such that, in .,nv at- 
combination of -^<^^^' ^' ^^^'^'^^^^^ZZ ^^erthan the hard, 
tempt to drill, the tool will pierce ^^ ^ ^^^^ ,^^ ;,, f,actured 
and! consequently, working s, eway. w -o ^^^^^^^1 ^^ ^^ ,^ ^^^^^_ 

or broken otf. A iirst-elass '^""^ ^^f .^^ , ;;,,,,,,bt.iron with angle 
consists of three casings of one fo "^ "' ; ^ ^^^, ,f ,,,, fourth 
eorners. a casing of one ^^-J^'-';;;^^;^ , ^i^^ ^ing of patent erys- 
i„eh wrought bars with ang e «^^^^ ^ -^.:^„„ ^ods cast through 't 
tallized iron two inches hnk, ^y''" ^^^ J; ,^5,,^ t\m\iu,.^ is threo 

and pn^jecting rivets on ^^ -;^ 1^^ ^ ^nly overcome any drill or 



.„ .ntogral part. These Safes « "l^" ^-';" "^ °^,„ „,„„,„,„ ,„el« i» 
„t which the hest form i, the double 'o^' '>«'"« '", ,„,„ „t whiC. 
„„e „r in o.her words, it has two Itnohs aitd two d a^ , 

X set o„ eotirely 'W-"' -''''""X:: ^ ,: ler This L 
.,„ ,oo,.ovth.whack '';«''»';;: S:t;;v:.amLd iro„ ,0 the 


nearly lifiy thousand have been sold '" ^^f J^^^^^^ j,, ^ to tweuty-live 

Joseph Nason & Co.'s Manufactory 

tensive in tbo United States Ibe bou ^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^ .^^ ^^ .^ 

by Joseph Kason and James J-,);; ^^^^ ^^,^ g,,„,, ,„a Gas I'ipcs," 
country to undertake the sa of ^^ddu^ ^^^^ , ,,, ^,, 

as a distinct and separate buMuess and w^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^,^^^j^ ^^^^,^,^ 

of beating buildings by ''''^^'J ^^^^^^^ ^ubes, three quarter inch 
wrougbt-iron tubes ''^^^^^^^Z for warming manufactories 
and one inch, now m almost ^^^^^^'"J, to the establishment of th.s 
and other large buildmgs, --' P^ ^^ ;^;ir, ,f .early all the peeu- 
firm, unknown, and they are also t c ven ^^^^^^.^^ ^^^^^_ 

Uav appliances which have ^''''tX t^e -ost important of these 
nient, and cot>sequently 1-1- ; J^JJ f,,, ,,,,titution of the " Globe 
i«,pvoveme»ts that may ^>« "-"^'^^i ,3 ,,„,ost entirely superseded for 
Yalve" for the " Stopcoek ' ^^'^\^^ 'J^'Z\\^, parent of a fanuly of 
.team uses. This "--7;;" ^^.^ recause so generally used, 
valves that are now scarcely ^PP"^^'"^ ^^,^, dissolved, the former 

In 18.3. the firm ^^ ^^ - \^f^^f 7,,,, ,,,y ,ad established in 
partner assuming control of the"^"" ^ork, where he subso- 

Boston, and Mr. Nason ^'^^ "'"J. " ^^ Mr. Dodge, and then with 
,uently v^s associated - Pf ^ .^ 1„, ,,,0 is the inventor of the 
bis present partner, Henry H. ^^ ^J"^' f ; enteusivcly engaged 

original Independent Steam ^^^ P'^;""^ '^^^l/.orks. The manufac- 
i„ Lnufacturing Pumping mach.neiy for 



s formed 
3n locks, 
locks in 
of whic'.i 
,vill open 
rUis firm 
311 in the 

and Lon- 
cn stated, 
k of about 
f for sale 

A most ex- 
id, in 1841, 
first in tins 
Gas ripcs," 
ed the plan 
■ougb small 
quarter inch 
nicnt of this 
all tlie pecu- 
•ming conve- 
tant of these 
ifthe "Globe 
uperseded for 
if a family of 
n-ally used, 
id, the former 
established in 
ere he subse- 
and then with 
nventor of the 
dvcly engaged 
The manufac- 

ture of Steam and Gas Fittings is carried on in conjunction with that of 
pip „g machinery,.in a large manufactory in Brooklyn, where nearly 
iu-eo'humlred men are employed. All the iron castmgs m 
both department, are made in the same foundry, ,s one hun- 
dred and fifty feet long, and sixty feet wide. 

Th^ fmn have the advantage of an -nmense stock of patterns, 
accumulated during a quarter of a century, and of the '-g oxpeinence 
and eminent scientific attainments of the senior par iter, who nay 
lu tly be called the founder or originator of the business, in which 
1 ovelty of form and adaptation is the rule rather than the exception 
N: other person in this country has furnished so --J' -^^ i;^^ 
buildings with apparatus for heating and ventilating as he. Ihe evi- 
de ices of his mechanical skill in this specialty may be witnessed m 
Tst of the insane Asylums of the United States. ^^^^^^^^^^ 
Utica which is the largest iu this country, and in many ot the ho pi 
U of wh hthe Emigrant Hospital, on Ward's Island s the atest 
lad probably the best example. But ^le monument which will pei^ 
p^tuaThis Lme. as an engineer, is the CapitoUt Washington, wh. h 
fs now heated and ventilated in the most perfect manner by appaiat s 
onTucted under his direction. This .. undoubtedly the largest work 
of tl kind undertaken in this and probably any other country, ad 
the results obtained are far superior to any heretofore accomplished by 
h most eminent engineers of England An -n>le supp y of f e^ 
air is provided in all the immense chambers by means of ^^-J^^^^ 
Tree of them fourteen feet in diameter, and one sixteen feet-pio- 
tl ed byfour engines, and a uniform temperature in winter is secured 
' ough the agc^icy ^f coils of pipes, of which there are ovei- n ne 
1 , i the House of Representatives alone. Many experiments were 
;:: I ilprogrL'of the work, both in boilers and in fans and 
he form of fan now adopted for ventilating purposes is one of the 
u" which those experiments established as the best. His success 
a t is g at work elicited flattering testimonials from he Ch ef 

^l of beating and ventilation in the large hospitals, espec.all> of 

''Th'rfirm of Joseph Nason & Co. are now confining their attenUon 
, It oTclusively to the manufacture of Fittings, for sale to others, 
almost c^'-l"'-'^^ y ili.iiucs and they offer special encouragement to 
who apply them in buildings, ami t ty i 

skilful mechanics to engage in the business, ihe iisi 


. ^ ^ i.,vrr<. vnriptv of Bfass and Iron Yalves, 
ufacturcd by them, mcludcs \]^'^'' ^'"'^^'^f,,,,^ special and pat- 
Cocks, Joints. Steam Trap., «""'^;^'. '^^ " 'XwatrMTcr and PevcuB- 
ented articles as for instance ortb.g ^^/^^ ,,,,,.,..,. 
siou Water Gauge, and N'.son s ^ a^''"'' „„„ heretofore made, 

These lladiators are a grer.t improvement ^'^^Z^'Lnr to far- 
.. they combine elegance and beau y o ^^^^^^^^^ ,,hich 
nished rooms of all descriptions, with a "^^* ^^^ ,^^^ ,^, 

,.ves absolute security ag^l;;a^-;^;^;^:-,^^J,,^ ^, 

They consist of a series of ^"''t^^''' l''\ ^ ^„^^ surmounted by 

circulation, screwed to a common ba.o oi pecksta a ^^ ^^^ 

a marble or metal top and entablature, l^^ch pipe is .^ 
base i.^cIepenaenUu, and may be t'g^^tened, ^c^^^^^n^^^^^^^^ ^^^^.^,^^ 

out disturljing the adjoining pipes. In '^^"f ''^l!'""'' .^ ., j.^^^r ends 
position of the pipes, and the direct ^o^-^:;^^^^^^;^^, free 
lith a receptacle of very ample ^'-^-^ source of Iny troubles, 


Stuart's Sugar Refinery. 

c a „. ic iho leadine manufacture in the city ot 

.-■'^Tl o h'e .,1 bI tch capital, or yields so lavge a 

New \ork. Jso other emp. i ^^j^.^j^ ^^,^ 

product. The omci.a i^u-n ^^^^^^ ^^^^^.^ ,^„„ ,„, ,,,f ,f 
have given m the Table, vast aB it is ^^ ^.^^ ^ork 

the value of the P--t Prod^ f;-"!^;^ ^\,,oOO,000 per annum. 

and vicinity, ^^^ j^^^ ^^J ^ ^^ , prominent pursuit, is so intimately 
The history ot the business, as a p .^^ describing 

associated with the ^-'^^-^^'^'^ ''\ZZtoZf U the others, 
their facilities and P^--^^ ;^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ Conducted on a limited 
Prior to the year 1832. bugar ivt j ^,^^ 

-'- '"" '"' ^7::.:::aniw'7atit,.'T.>r'Ho/p>.ri„« 

Sugar, a, eo„„.aroJ « >* ftat no ^^__^^^_^^^^ ,___^.^^^^^ .„ „,^„, 

that year, Messrs. K. L & '^•. »'" „f cl.anibora street, 

,vl,oro ilicy wore the lir»t to ''™™"' '..'■„„„. „cre soon,le<l 

„„a l,y .1.0 -"■»-'''"-" f 7;::: X' "Ji'lirto bee. offered to 
,„ ,,rod.,ee a better quabty ot S"K» "'»" ' ^ ^^ „,„ j..,, 

,b„ New Vorlt l»'''l'»--";»;;t;t ^o Under and .dn,ir»,io„ 

:; ixz:. '";:::,:it""':« es..b,isb.e„. ... tbe„ ...uea 

and pat- 
1 Pcvcus- 
ire made, 
m to fur- 
ion which 

ragn-.s for 
ountcd by 
?cd to the 
1 out with- 
le vertical 
lower ends 
iitirely free 
y troubles, 

the city ot 
s so large a 
0, which wo 
I one half of 
n Kew York 
) per annum. 
50 intimately 
in describing 

I on a limited 
uality of the 
rior. During 
incss, in three 
,mbers street, 
\ in refining; 
? soon enabled 
ecu offered to 
a at the Fair 
nd ndniirntion 
is then liuiited 



to about three thousand pounds per day ; but in the 1835^ tl^ oU 
wooden buildings were ren.oved, and a s.x-story bnck bin d ng was 
Zed in their stead, by means of which the ear.aeity for re nmg wa 
^ Id to twelve thousand pounds per ^'^y-bout enough t.uK.t 
the demand at that time, at profitable rates. But he nnpioycd 
aua rof Sugar, and lower prices, consumption increased 1 rum year to 
1 U to m ct the growing demand, in 1849, the Messrs. .tuar 
Sed he nine-story building on the other half of the blo..k of land 
ad ointfon Greenwich and Seed streets, by which their capacity was 
h n s much! ged as to enable them to refine annually from orty 

1 p"L ot raw being about doublo thoso of aoy prcv.o,,, year, to over three millions of dollars. 

^'";wh 10 establishment, with all the necessary -achinovy am a^- 

nalil^ whol having cellars beneath them, and v-Us t,. ent.o 
L.^th of their fronts, and extending half way across the i .t tno 
lamed treets-while they occupy nearly all the space bcnea 1. U ^ 
street, and extend under the building on tlie oppo-te sicle al.o^^^^ c^^^ 
nvintr for warehouses, two buildings on the south sue of thamhe s 
E Tld immense establishment is provided with -'ery van y 
of machinerv for saving human labor. Steam is not o^-^^-J^ 
nrocess of refining, but in lifting, hoisting, and pumpuig. and it ,e<inres 
egla'^e steam boilers, which consume eight thousand tons of an- 

ht ite coal per annum, to furnish the requisite steam for al the e 
pZ OS About two hundred thousand gallons of water per day . 

ZXm the wells beneath the buildings, and '^y thcmsan m - 
dition taken from the Croton Water ^^P-'^^ -"^'f;'"^^ ; ^v 

sons box makers, painters, etc., and rarely have occasion to call on 
0^ i'd parties foassistanc, either for repairs or construction, ly 
r t revery thing is kept in a thorough stat. of repan^ and^ wh^n 
delays do occur from accident, they are necessarily of shoit duiatioa. 



The S^^ar is received iu hogsheaO. ^-; t^^et^^ylllea ; Xl 
and l,oisted by steam to t;- -f ^^^^y '.i.^olving the Sugav iu Bteam 
the process of eleansmg '^^'"'"^"^ J ^..^^^ t^e solution by means of 
and hot water, and the color ^^^^^^ .^ ,,,ed to vacuum pans 
chemical and »-^--^^,:, ^rhl :io,uelt processes by 
heated by steam, and tluouKl 
Sugar is crystallii^ed and refined. 

WiUiam Moller & son's sugar Kefiuery 

, „ 1 805 When the business was established 
Dates its origin as early ^']^'''^^^^^^ ,^,^ , ,n,all building, stand- 
by Messrs. W- & F. Havem yei. It -J^ ^^^.^^^^ occupying a 

iug on the rear of two lots, 87 ^"^^^ ^,,, ,,„, all capital was only 
spleof about liftyf-tsqu^u-. At lat^^ ^^^ ^^, ,,,,,r processes 
required in the Reimmg of ^^^^'^ .^^^.^..^d until immense struc 
,vere developed, the ^-^^^^^^^'^^ indispensable, 
tares, and a large ^^^P'^^ ' f ^^^'^^i'lings, Lving a front of one hun- 
I, 47, the PV'^^^^^l^"; ;^, "et running through a distance of 

dred and fifty feet ^^ ^ f ^"'" !'\'there it has a front of seventy- 
to hundred feet to Charlton s^^cetwh^^^^^^^ ^^^,^^^^^ ^^^.^^,^ 

five feet, were erected, ^"^^^^ ,;°;;,,ent business. In 184',), anew 
capacious for the r.,^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ , , t^ 

firm was created by Mr^ v ^^ Havemeyers cV Mollcr. 

business being conducted u^^^^^^ and vaned ex- 

Previous to entermg ^b^^ t^">. ; . ' i,,,i,g been employed or 
perience in all ^--^^^J^.^^^^^^'bin Boston and New -York, and h>B 

several years in large llefine le. both ^^ ^^ethods in con- 

Xenclwas -^f^^^ ^^ ^e tut • ^llg the first of the im- 

ducting the operations c^ i^ bu ^^^^^^ ^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^^^^.^_ 

provements intro.iu.ed In l^;'"; ^^^ ^f ,i,, kind. He was also the 
Cerally in use in other ^-^^f 'f "f ^nd the first to use muriatic acid 
Z to adopt the upvigbt ovaU^o^-. ^vnd^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ 

to restore bone black •, and tnc 

for cleaning and washing bono back.^_^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^.^^^^^ ^ ^ 

Tbis establishment, under his in p ^^.__,i,, ,„achino for 

celebrity for the -ceU-VJ/ ^ ^, ^ \Z.r. 'tuIb Sugar is well 
making it being the ^^''^'!''lf , -, .^ferred by families because 
Low^hroughouttheconuie^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^_^^,^ ^,. ,^, la 

of its good quality, 'f /J^^X price of " broken" or " crushed' 



MUlJ.l.i;\ UKl'lNKllY — STKniENSuN's CAK \V(lUK.8. 


, floor, 
I ; svud 
I Hteam 
cans of 
m pans 
,' which 

ig, stancl- 
upyiug a 
I was only 
:n80 struc- 

f one bun- 
istanc'o of 
)f seveuty- 
84'.), anew 
BUibcr — the 
s &, MoUor. 
;1 varied ex- 
mployc'^l for 
ovk, and his 
ods in con- 
it of the im- 
,tcrs, now so 
was also the 
muriatic acid 
se a uiachiuo 

ttaincd great 
. machine for 
?ugar is well 
iiiliee because 
• its lumps, at 
or " crushed" 

Mr. Miller is now experimenting with a view of boiling Sugar by a 
new process, and forming a vacuum by a syphon, and is quite sanguine 
of success. Enthusiastic himself lor the accompiislunent of whatever 
seems calculated to Improve the product or benelii the business, he is 
also disposed- to encourage other iuveutors, who are admitted ut suita- 
ble times to his Refinery to test the practical value of theii- ideas. 

This Refinery is now conducted by William Moller & Sou, and em- 
ploys one hundred and forty men, of all grades, in the various depart- 
ments of the business. In 1847, the product of the establishment was 
seven millions of pounds of sugar ; and during the year 18G5, it was 
quite e(iual to seventeen million pounds, valued at $2,800,0t)0, with 
a demaud that seems steadily increasing, and inciting the proprietor to 
renewed efforts to meet it by new mechanical and scientific processes 
for increasing the product, The entire capacity of this Refinery is 
about twenty-four millions of pounds annually. 

Resides these, there are in New York the Refineries of the New 
York Steam Sugar Refining Co. ; Williamson, Griffiths & Co. ; John- 
son & Lazarus; John W. Broekborn ; Camp, Brunsen & Sherry; 
Harris & Dayton ; F. H. McCready & Co. ; Uanicl Pomroy ; Ock- 
erluuisen Brothers ; I'lumo & Lamont ; Mollers, Hogg & Martens ; 
Kattenborn & Tuska ; Greer, Turner & Co. ; Booth & P]dgar ; 15reek, 
Cushmau & Stanton ; Mollers, O'Dell & Dosher ; and Brunjes, Ock- 
crhausen & Co. In Williamsburg— Havemeyors & Elder, Shep- 
pard Gaudy, C. E. Bertrand & Co., and Wiutjer, Dick & Schomacber ; 
ia Brooklyn— Meyer & Gomberat, and Finken & Wbeatley; at 
Greenpoint— Brown, Furbish & Co. ; and Matthiessen & Wieschers 
at Jersey City. These Refineries are now producing about $35,000,000 
per annum, but have a capacity of production equal to five hundred 
million pounds, which, at present prices, would be worth at least 

John Stephenson's Car Manufactory, 

On Twenty-seventh street, near Fourth avenue, is one of the oldest 
and best known establishments of the kind in the United States. John 
Stephenson has been identified with the construction of Cars and Omni- 
buses from their first introduction into this country. He commenced 
business, in 1831, in Broadway, where now the Lafarge Hotel stands, 
and while there, designed and constructed for A. Brower, a leading 
stage proprietor, one of the first Omnibuses that was run on the streets 

,„„„K,«... M....FAcroa,.» « »« VO.K. 


1 n hnlf feet in width, had elevated or 
of New York. This was four and a h f eet . ^^^^ ^. ^^^^ ,^^^^ ^^,^^., 

elliptical springs, and ^-^^^J^ ^^ tth Bides, was a ,n^^ to po- 
.. o\" painted u. la.-go let^ J" .^ ^„pp,,,a u to be 

destrians, who in'onouneed^^v^^^^ -^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^.^^^^ ,^, ,,, ,,..,. 
the name of the owner. 1 ^''''^Lci.A on the plan of the fan. ly 
portation of passengers -eve -.^u e ^^ ^^^^ sociable wUh 

^ '-'''' nrr u«^at the platibr. carriage was .utro- 
rldt Paris and aaopted in^th. covnU^- ^ ^^^^^^.^^ 

D.ving the first year of h.s '^l'']'^ , f„,,, ^nd he removed to 
M^ Btophenson's -^'-'l^^; ^^^^^^r^ted what was probably the 
Elizabeth street, where, m 18^U I c c ^^^_^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ j i 

fn-st Street Car built ^-^^^''^^^Z^ BanU. and was designed o 
Mason." after the founder of ^^^ ^'^^^^ ^^^^ f^om Prince street to the 
;,„ on a branch of the Harlaen. ^^'^ in their incipieney. and 

H vlaem Tlats. At that tune -Uo ^^ v ^^^ ^^^^.^^ .^ ^ 
cars were constructed "^^^^Pf ^/^ , , patent for an improvenu-nt 
Tu Am-il, 1833, Mr. Stephenson icceivca ^^^^^^^ j^^^,.^„„_ 

: > Ise'nger Cars for -^-^^^•^;:^l';:;ln' Secretary of State, 
president of the United States, Edwaid^^^S^ ^^^^ ^^ ^.,,. 

those early enterprises. ^.^^ ^f ^is present nianu- 

In 1843, Mr. Stephenson '^e" «' ?. f,,ty.four by one hundred feet, 

to which, in 1850, an addition '^''^^ ' ^^.^^ Twenty-seventh to 

llilding two hundred ^-t long, -t^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^„,.,,,,p, ,„d liere. 
Tsventy-eighth ^^veets. Ths now co ^^^^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ee 

for several y«--- -, ''"tieet C rs^ve now turned off with alnios 
hundred a year, and l-^l'.f^-^^^^^^^^^^.^f.eturo of Omnibuses, Mr 
,,,,1 facility and -P^^l^^- J^.'lun securing the requisite sreng^^^ 
S onhenson was remarkably succe.-u ^ popularity as a 

' ith the least weight, and f "^^ ^^po'ly. But in I860 the 

under that was nearly ^""7"";;'\1 diminished, in consequence 
demandfor this class of vehicle dgie^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ,, 



rated or 
iic word 
k- to po- 
1 it to t)e 
liu traiis- 
10 family 
ble, with 
,'i\s iutvo- 

[■moved to 
3\)ably the 
the "John 
esignod to 
•cot to the 
lieiicy, and 
a England, 
iw Jackson, 
vvy of State, 
ind as vail- 
arfod, ho eu- 
plexitics and 
le history of 

resent nianu- 
hundred feet, 
of a six-story 
ity-sevcnth to 
lops, and here, 
day, or three 
ff with almost 
(mnibuses, Mr. 
ijuisite strength 
popularity as a 
ut in I860 the 
, in consequence 
he thenceforth 
purpose, apply- 
builder had de- 
he was able to 

docroaso thewei-hv of the.o Cars from six th..nsand to thirty-five hun- 
dred pounds, without in the least diminishing their strength. 

In the eonstnietion of durable carriages of all kinds, well scn.onrd 
tir.ber is an indispensable requisite. In this establishment a stork lot- 
two years' use is kept constantly on hand. Oak select,..! irom isolat.-l 
trees found in pastures is preferred to that takiMi from forests. In the 
lumber rooms there is also a large stock of the constituent parts ot 
Coaches and Cars, cut to sizes and shaped so that the body ot a Car e..n 
be i)ut together and made ready for painting in five days. In U.e 
blacksmith's shop, there are fifteen forge fires blown by a .steam-engine 
and here the iron work is so forged that the parts which in use will 
bo subjected to the greatest strain, are made of double thickness, wlulo 
the other parts have no superfluous metal. The hooks of the connect- 
in.^ rods and shackles, and the clogs of the breaker, arc thoroughly 
stren-'thened in this way. In the Painting department the workmen 
are divided into classes, as primers, rubbers, colorcrs, flatters, letterers, 
landscape painters, scrollers, varnish finishers, and thus acquire a 
facility of execution which can only be attained by a daily repetition 
of the same duty. This principle, so far as possible, is observed in all 

the departments. , . , , , . 

15ut besides the general principles of construction winch tend to cxpe- 
,lite work Mr. Stephenson has made special improvements, some of 
them patented, which tend to secure durability and diminish the cost 
of repairs Of this description is the Patent Truss-rod, and the method 
of bracing the Cars at the corners, where, in conscqu^-ce of the short 
curves in street railways, an immense strain falls, causing the body of 
the Car to swag or give way. The boxes of the journals of the axles 
which arc subjected to great friction, are made nearly double the usual 
len-th, thus affording fifty per cent, more surface for abrasion, lo 
exclude dirt or grit from the journal boxes, which has been a subject ol 
manv patents, Mr. Stephenson employs a rotating gate, composed of 
two 'segments of cast-iron, forming a collar, and which keeps the orifice 
constantly closed by the action of the journal itself. Among the minor 
improvements which may be mentioned, is the step projecting beyond 
the bodv of the car, which has a tendency to lessen the number of acci- 
dents the enlargement of the reel, and, in some instances, the adoption 
of wooden trimmings for seats in placeof cushions, which on some 
railways have become infested with vermin. 

Mr Stephenson has constructed Cars for railways in India, England. 
Mexico Valparaiso, and San Francisco. Tie now employs about three 
hundred workmen, and is producing about six Ca.s a week, or one each 
working day. 


. _ :., tl,o fitV of 

Carhart«=«— " ^ -^^ of >T' w York, 

when Jevciniah CaiUair, ^^^ ^.^^^.^^^ ^f Melodeo 

bra^^s, in>*-itR" u t ^^ jma the oracr u 

1 • 1, \,v vibvat on, ina'^cs vuc »»' ; ^ , simply a strip w 

wlncli, bN N luu , niatcruil of the reca i ^^^^ 

stUutos tlio nicloay. iiicni ,.. ^nd two or three intiu 

! about a tenth of an ^f'^'^^^ passed under a machme n- 
1 . hhn>U is eut out ^y^ ^^i; ^^ .^tion, planes tlu, two Bid.. 

. 1 uv M" Oarhart, which, m one 1 1 niachines in this 

"■" 1 ac " One of the most effective o ^ ] ,,^,,_ ,„, perform. 



,- York, 

',ry. ^-^ 
and the 
he base- 

om 1840, 
icnts, ho.A 
,1, become 
^ tbc veed, 
Icon. Tbis 
,rt devoted 
, tbc reeds 
u'd to bold 
lit invented 
ho tbickness 
jg this were 
leir work po 
in tbe trade, 
rally for tbe 

_ as tbc name 
:v,etal, usually 

one pud f''^*"' 
[le sound, con- 
iply a 3trip of 
■e inches wide. 
. a machine in- 

tho two sides 
lacbines in this 
:, and performs 
method by band. 

but two raised 
•d block by this 
1,0 reed i=^ in ^<« 
liUL'SB of Ibe rt'cd 

i. iocs at the base than at tbe free end, the tone of the reed is deter- 

the one invented bv Mr. Carbart for t!>e «ell. oi nl)c m 1 e 

?„ tL ■„.chi»o do,c,vc. .0 ra„k wi.l, the -"""" '? ' , ?^ 
^f I, 1 f,, if i. n„t oiilv cwialile or c.icc-utiiig work m blnught 

^r :: ;- cl: :::i: w;th U nicety .d rapidity tbatno^^^ 
work can approach it. Tbe cutters revolve wUh ^^'^^^^2:^^ 
thousand seven hundred times a minute-and tbe speed o the ( . mng 
b ifiust one n.ile in a minute. The groove ir> wbich the reed l,lo k 
• • 'e nd :hieb is about one tenth of an inch wide and deep >« mad 
' tt same n.achine ; and as each groove is an exact lae-s,n..k^ ot the 

her those made years ago will fit any reed block made to-duy. 

A ; ry importa,^ in.provemont allecting the shape, ™nven.ence and 
sintl city of Harmoniums, or other large reed instruments wa n>ad. 
bv t n'ention of E. I>. Needham, patented in I859,by wluch tu-o o 

1 a oTs are placed in rows, one above the other, m tl.c n;an e 
o Id ^s or successive segments, eaeb horizontal ro.' d.vuled n the 
^icWle to form two registers, and any one may bo renmved at any tune, 
rt^o^d n.r repairs'with extren.o -aoiiitv. The invent^n also n. 
elude an arrang ment for cond.iuing tl.e actions with the bellows. 

T n of Carbart & Needhan, since their removal rom Hulfa lo 

to New York in 1848, have n.ade about fifteen thousand Melodeons 
Id armoniums,and are now using fnun fifty to sixty sets of five 

ave r ds a we k. Their n.anufactures include every grade o the 
:;:;'::., .om t.. sman single-hauked Melodeon to the ..e 

1 ibrarv or Hall Organ, with its fourteen sets of reds, of re na.kaDIr 
];^ L power, its splendid pedal tones, and its rich and .uM^osmg 

r I'robably the finest instrun>ent ever constructed was one exh.b.ted 
a a"rec nt Fa r of the American Institute in New York, cons.s u.g o 
to .InkB of keys, two octaves of pedals, and fourteen ranks of reeds. 

a PncunMio .nacl.ino for cnvojing , .. k- -' .„ ,,, ,f i,„ i„. 

„lu.h ttie nir has boBt. .xbau.tod, wbich .s tmauoiion. 
pro»um.oea. by tbo.c ..uu.votuut t„ jiMso, *»'•"•". 


n.n.^y,^n-^^^^^'^'''^;r^lX^2J^n a Pipe Organ; aud a. a 
powerful tone, that -n only be ec a ^^ ^^^^^^^ .^ ^ 

rUirty-two foot v>pe ^^^"^ ^^^^^rju^l.^ ^^'^^^^ ^^-' ^"^ ^'^^ "^^"'' 
or^a;n of the sv/.c of the Ktoa u ^ ^^^^^_^^,^.^ . 

aeddcd advantage. An ennnon -^ c ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^ 

.On the ordinary Parloi Ov^^.^^ .^^ ^..^^^,^^.^.^ . ^,^t u, the 
both hands, only -^^-^ ^"^^.^Hn vibration one hnndred and b.x- 
Library Organ, the same eh u am ^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

,,,, reeds. The power of h. ^^;^ ,, ,,, .vhole instrumon 

i. thns dearly uul-eated ^^''l ^,. ^^^^ .tops was so perfect, the 

was so singularly -^-^'^; ' '^ ^ I'for offeets so large and so s«po- 
variety BO admirable, and the uvpacay .^ ^^.^^^ uuivovsal ad- 

,;or to any other instrument o. ^^^^ ^^,^, ^edal by the pubUo. 

Milbank Brothers' Brewery, 

• «no nf the time-honored 
At the eorner of Madison and O^^^;^^^;^^^. metropolis of to- 
tsUtutions of the eity. fomun. a Ik eon ue^^^^g ^^ ^^^^^ .^^^ ^^,,,, 
dav with the Now York of the V^\ J Revolutionary A\ ar, and 
f tinds wan occurled as a ^-;- ^ ^ j,. a Quaker and aph. 
one of its early proprietors -'^ -^^^^j; ..^.^ '.vhose educational works 
' uthropist, the brother of l^u^l > ^^^ j„,„ Murray. .U'.. was 
;: ,.e aJ one time the text books 1 " ^^^^.^^^ ^^^,^,,,„,,,,, ,,. the 

,,, Treasurer of what was 1- ^^^^^ ,,, p,,.,oting the Manum.- 
abolition of slavery, called Ih- S > ^^ j^,^^.^, ,,^,„, ,, n.ay bo 

.ion of Slaves, and I'-'-^'^J^'^^ ' I,, ,,u.nt. (general Washmgton 
Liberated," of -^^'^'^^^^ ^ZL ale at this Brewery, and John 
,vhou he resided in New ^ ''l^^' ""^^ , ,.,.,,, .^ u.e comn.eneement ol tho 
Haneoek was one of its patrons. ^^.^^,,, .-as shortly aiu.- 

,,.sent century was Murray ^^^l ;,,,„ ,.,ing Sanuu Md- 
vard changed to Murray .S:^ ^^'^ ' ' ;^,. , >,^,w York before the war 
lank, a brewer of I'ldh^dpl^uv. - '" ^ ;^^„,„ ,, ..anagcnu-nt, Sam- 
,, ,s,2. Af...r •">^"/"; Xt;. U until ISIU, when he was su. 
c-ecdedbyhi8 80ubunuai. ^> i 

>ni.l5.VNlv lUlOTUEUS' BUEWEUY. 


gbi, and 
rich, uiid 
and as a 

u a vip"^ 
respect, a 

taken by 
it in tbe 
I and six- 
lie former, 
perfect, the 
,d so supe- 
ivevsal ad- 

the public, 

ropolis uf to- 
iite on which 
,rtry^Vivr, iind 
vor and a phi- 
ational worUs 
riuiizod for the 
the Manumis- 
ocii or may be 
Lvl Washington, 
very, ami John 
cnccmont of tho 
,A bliortly afier- 
,g Samuel Mil- 
i before tho war 
iiancnu-nt, Sam- 
hen lie was >*'"'■ 
decoaso in 1805, 

when it passed into tho hands of his tl>ree sons the present pu,,> .to,., 
Charles E., Samuel W., and Albert J. Mdbank. 

The present building is new, having been erected " ^^ ; ^ ^ ^ 
stories In height, and has a iront on Mac son ^^^\^J^^:^^^^^ 

==r=£:r5 . 5=::; 

of metal which has a tendency to prevent sourness m the Alt, an at 

i; Ime me facilitates eleanliness. The only cooler used .s l.u de- 

•. Pitent Refrigerator, of which the principle was ongnrated, anc 

; ^ado, ed by S unucl Milbank liftccu years before it was pat- 

": r T :« g - - ngerator of this description is still preserved 
ented. lie or.gmai it „ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^j^,,,, 

1 .,"1 ".' prai.,. Tl,c B«.wery !„« a c»,,..i.J- f»r pr«a>.eH,„ abou,. 

Ale has a reputation unsurpassed by an.> . lut auiu 
1 J , ./^ o/iSV,« !-../• <'an scarcely repress his enthus.asn, m speak- 
M^.chn,. ofJS^ I _^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ liine-stanied I'.rewery 

i:^:''':^^^^ Xg ..n of that is preei^^^ 

Mit .,ri river of Lager. I am bursting will, putr.ofsm as 1 c lu.e th, 






Wm. Tildeu & Nephew's varnish Manufactory. 

V V--VVU it; ficevcdited with 
corner of Kivin.ton and No^foUc st.c^. ^ - Y^^;^ acc^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ 
bein, tbo pioneer oBtabhsbnjen u t - unt _^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^,^ ^,^^ 

Copal VavnislH-B as an article of «o» "^^^^^ ,,^^^^,^ ,,„a France ; but 

in the autnnin of that y-^'' ^/^\ "\^l,f, tinev of Varnishes in this 
,,.e, and until 183G, -^^^ ^ ^r thirty dilTercnt «,annfactorics 
country. There '^^«- "^f^l^^ ]'^ ^iJ, ^.^t the original one is n^uch tho 
of this description in the ^'-^^d Mates h ^^^ ^ ^^^.^^.^^^ ^^ ^^^,^^._,, 


Mr.Tildcnwasthehugestco u, ^^ ^^^^.^^. ^^^^ ^i,. 

Copal, direct from ^-"^^^'^ ^^'^^J^',; ^ countries, were made by exports of Varnishes^ ^^-!- ''^^^^l, ,i,,ieo. The experiment 
,i„, in the year 1836, to South ^^^ ^^.^,, ,,,,eely a country. 
,ro;ed so successful, that m -^^^^^ - ^^^ ^.,^„ ,.,,,,,,es were not 
where American commerce leachoan ^^^ importations 

shipped -, and they, in a ^^^^"^^^^^^^.t of demand in the 
ofEuropeanman.-;ur.^ T -n^^;;^^ ^^^^ ^^^^, ,,, inercasing 

foreign markets t.. ^^«^1^^'^«^' ,, „f industry to such aa 

consumption at ^-O^'^^- ^^""^''^'^V 851 established commercial rela 

„t tUo I.OU80, h. Iho *'" .•"\ 'Tout uvcnty thousand dollar, per 
„oadlly, tron, ..10= »"">°""r ''„";'„„ „ullrcd thousand dollar, 
„„„un, uatil tlK-y ..«^' "f ^ ''^; ,;"r ll.roo faCoric. to support it, 
,„„,„„,, -.'f;f :,:;,■' l."-' .i..i .^crc U ouo firm i» 

a tart »lMC-l. "ITord. i°"»'.' "' " ^i,(„| ,„ E„,„po. 

Auurioa able to con.pcto w,ll, ''-^ ^ f „,„ j,,„, „„ (!„„, Copal 
Tl,o revision of ita ■ranit, >" « j .^'^ '^ , „„„„„ „f manntaetory 

:: '^!::;:;!:^^:^^^^^ -- "• --" '■"" "" '"' 




c(l with 

L'lure of 
I, all the 
ICC -, hut 
i in this 
much the 
f tlollars. 
IS of Gum 
and the 
! made l)y 
B, country, 
3 were not 
and in the 
to such aa 
ercial rcla 
s, and em- 
,f the coun 

1th Mr. Til- 
Mie husines3 
18 increased 

dollars per 
sand dollars 
) BU))port it, 

one firm in 

n Oiini Copal 
' manufactory 
i-ade and that 

T'arnlshcB, but 
and attention 
!8 and efroota. 
lainiiip penna- 
ly to tlie sur- 

ponsideraulc tunc, lucu ii'j'"o u.. itlo— 

thirty varieties, that they have given satisfaction m all. 

The Glen Cove StarcH Works-W. Duryea, Superintendent, 

T . 1 nt filen Cove Long Island, arc one of the two large Starch 

,.nd.n- the General Manufacturing Law of the tetatc of >tu loik, 
t::^:. L, m., and hunt, at fi.t, a small fUcUn^ to .-st a ..w 
„,ocess of nmnufacturing Starch and Ma.zcna In 18.7, ^ ^^ ^' "^ ' - 
ZL Works was increased from one ton per day to hve ; and sho lly 

V , ,1 to « luo-l.r«or. Sit»au„l .lircrtly o„ tl.« I1..0 ot open 
, ,ev» w «n.y «to.n, power, to .ho .op ot .he hoihli,,,. w,„. 

";"::, " t :.! « ^ .hC co„v.,ve>u., «,™t «,,, i„ .h. b..e. 

r the hu . « wher. the 1. partially removed, aa.l .heu 
mc'itt of he >""" " S; I, I-,,,,,, „,,i,|, „ ,,„r.i.m of Ihe »i.r- 

t'iror SulXlJ.,, .elertthlv »li.l, i» pla-d upo„ .helve, tt.aao 



Of loose bricks, when more moisture escapes by absorption and evapo- 
ration. Kiln-drying finishes the process, and the Starch is obtamed in 
prismatic forms, ready to be put up in paper or boxes for the market. 

For Ln-imV">S the corn, the Glen Cove Company have several pair^ 
of burrstones, and large, heavy iron rollers. The machinery is propelled 
by a double-cylinder vertical engine of one hundred and sixty horse- 
power, and there is an additional water-power of about sixty horse 
capacity, which is obtained from a pond that covers about thirteen 
acres The vats employed in purifying the Starch have a capacity ot 
many million gallons, and the length of gutters for conveying and dis- 
tributing the starch waters amounts to many miles. 

In the manufacture of Corn Starch, considerable .skill, especially a 
critical knowledge of fermentation,, is required. Many manufacturers 
have succeeded in producing Starch very nearly white, but very few 
have succeeded in producing uniformhj an article of Starch most de- 
eivable-of clear whiteness and at the same time free from sourness. 
Clear r^id perfect whiteness, lohen free, from sourness, is an evidence 
of puritv lui.l strength. This superior quality of Starch will give to 
linen a beautifully white brilliancy, great strength, and elasticity. As 
the StarHi nuule at the Glen Cove Works has the highest reputation m 
all mariiets it may be reasonably assumed that the Messrs. Duryea, 
who condu.-i the operations, are among the few who possess the requi- 
site skill and knowledge for the manufacture. They are also probably 
aided by the excellence of the water obtained from springs on the prom- 
ises which is remarkable for its purity and softness. 

Besides Starch, this Company manufacture a novel article for pud- 
dini*;.^ custanis, ice-cieams, etc., known as Duryea's " Maizena." This 
word' " Maizena," was coined and adopted by the Messrs. Duryea as 
a trade-mark, and as such is claimed by th.m. The article bearing 
said trademark is composed of the (lour of the choicest selected white 
corn and is the most wlioh'some, nutritious, and agreeable article ot 
food' in the whole range of farinaceous substances ; it is not only a 
choice article of dessert, but in the sick room an excellent substitute 
for the best Bermuda Arrowroot, being used in the same way. In 
many cases it is regarded as superior to Arrowroot as a diet for the 
sick," especially dyspeptics and infants. 

The manufacturing operations of the Glen Cove Starch Company 
are conducted by the Superintendent, Duryea; while his 
brother, William Durtea, has charge especially of the sales, at the 
Company's warehouse iu New York. xr •. . c. f . 

It is estimated that the consumption of Starch in the United States 
now amcunts to two hundred and fifty tons per day 

\ evapo- 
ained in 
ral paira 
ly horse- 
ty horse 
pacity of 
: and dis- 

)ecially a 

very few 
most de- 

I evidence 

II give to 
icity. As 
lutation in 
s. Duryea, 
the requi- 


1 the prem- 
ie for pud- 
na." This 

Duryea as 
•le bearing 
ectcd white 
! article of 

not only a 
t substitute 
e way. In 
iiet for the 

h Company 
; while hia 
sales, at the 

nited States 



Colgate & Co.'s Manufactory 

nesB ,n a ^^^ ;;^^J.;j ,'\ ^^n^ States did not probably exceed 
made in regular faciei les in me u „,„„ufactory was .situated at 


manufacturer sixty ^-^^^s since . ^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ ^,^^,^. 

The manufacture ^^ ^^^^^ ■„„ ,, ,,, .nuUUU of lnU>lli.o..m. 
ical art, and rises in m P'°P«"'" , ,,^ ,,,,,,, ^o- 

cess Abhough h. mjs ,,,,ieation. less than titty years 

Bcation was not 1^"^^^" ""* ' \ ,^.,,^.^^i ^lio French chemist, on 

ago, of th.. able rcsearebv> o Mi. U -u I ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^_^ 

the nature ami constitution ut the hxul ^''^ ^" ^, ^^ 

fats and oils are now known to '^^-^^!^' ^^^^^' ^^^^^l ,,, aiffcrcnt 

'-'' r:f 'Zn^^-^e::;.:' ^ t;;r:u,ments dep^ds 

proportions. Lpon "'^ ^*^':\ , ordinary temperatures, 

■fat ed b g greater when made of the solid fat., as tallow 

K irbitt etc which owe their consistence to stearin and 

bone-giease, uuiier, tic, ^mv.. 


nnargavin, than when the liquid oils, as pahn, aUnond rape seed, castor 
oil Hc. arc employed, which consist principally of o e.n. 

Man; .,f the n.odern improvements in Soap mak.n,, ha 
been quite numerous since 1840, consist in the use of "-v vogetahlo 
anhnal oils as materials; in the mechanical and chem.camtod 
of purilyinjr, deodorizing, and preparing them; and espeoallv of sepa. 
radne the ein and glvcerin from the fatty acids, so as to obtaui he 
^:^ /!:;^^ric ali, ^ther for Soap or Candles in which operat^ 
hyd ulic pressure has been found to be one of the most elhc ent 
nllies 15ut perhaps the most important invention ever made m 
he n a ufacture,'has been in the employment of sU-am, wh>ch has won- 
derfully facilitated, cheapened, and improved the processes b h of ^ 
Soap and Candle making. It has effected a great saving of fuel, and 
enal' l->--^-^--- to arrest the boiling process at the 
"ome,i_which is a matter of importance. It has reduced the 
number of hands required, and in various other ways has proved to be 
an agency ahno.t indispensable to the manufacture of Soap and Can- 

flips on a large scale. . , 

In ar.^e Lap Laboratories, the steam series usually consists of 
three " Idrons-one for white, and one for yellow, and one for palm 
and line Soaps-and these are often of very large size. In 

rolg 's Manufactory, these caldrons, though not so l-'^- - -- 
othS have a capacity of thirty tons each. In this, as in oth.r well- 
gl; r;sU.blikmc;ts, the apartments are arranged with especial 
•oRMcnce to convenience, and each is devoted to its special purpose 
TO -'fan room," or "drying loH," where the Soap, after it .s 
?o med is placed to cool, is in the second story of the main build- 
7 Id c ntains over three hundred cast-iron 1 au„ . wluch are 
now vref..rred to wood, both because they can be taken a,,ar and put 
weU er HI. greater facilit v, and the metal is found to hasten the cooling 
oMh S^P. In ih" other rooms are numerous presses for stamping 
In V So" OS aiKl all the applinnces for producing a lu.iulred tons of 
Z^^. onother pi!t of the Works is a Candle Mannfaetory. 

where pessed Tallow Candlen for the West India markets are made 
L m-'n" of a patent rnndle-Moul.ling Appnratus, with extraordi- 
'ai-r p ditv. n connection with the establishmnnt is alno a Box 
M nufa ory having machines and facilities for turning ont one thou- 
Mnniitflctory, n » j^.^ptailing machine used here is a remarkn- 

r^ r::; tveiul: The .1^.,^ ...- «. h.... of about .nr 
hunired feet on the main street, and cover two thirds of an entue 

^^ This firm manufacture about a hundred dilTerent varieties of Soap, 



, castor 

■h have 
of sepa- 
•lain the 

made in 
lias woa- 

both of 
fuel, and 
e precise 
luced the 
ved to be 
and Can- 

)nsists of 
for palm 
size. In 
! as some 
itiior well- 
h espf'cial 
1 purpose 
after it is 
min buil3- 
wliicii are 
rl luul put 
tlio cooling 
i- stamping 
'cd tons of 
anu factory, 
i an' made 
tilno a Box 
it OIK! thou- 
a remarkti 
' about four 
if an entire 

es of Soap, 

includin? rare Fancy Soaps, and those for manufacturers use. The 
department of Fancy Soaps was added to the busmcss m ibaO and 
their success in this branch has materially diminished the nnportat.on 
of foreign Soaps. As an illustration of the extent of the busmcss done 
by this fu-m, we :uay state that during the year 18G5 they paid to the 
United States Government a Manufacturer's Revenue lax of ont 
hundred and thirty-three thousand dollars. 

The Howe Scale Company, 

Though their principal establishment is in Brandon, Vermont, have 
their warehouse and a branch manafactory in New York city, and as a 
correct and reliable standard for weighing commodities is a subject ot 
very great importance to manufacturers, it may not be amiss to give, 
in this place, some account of one of the two great Scale manufactories 

of the United States. ^ , , , „ 

On the 15th of January, 185G, two ingenious New England mechan- 
ics F M Strong and Thomas Ross, received a patent for an unproved 
method of making Platform Scales. This afterward became widely 
known as the " Strong and Ross Fatent." The improvement consisted 
in d^ensing with check rods, which are liable to be affected by frost 
and other circumstances ; in requiring no pit, or a very shal ow one, oi 
the foundation of the largest Scales ; the substitution ot balls under 
the end of the platform beams, by which friction from the movemen or 
working of the platform on the " kaife-edges" or bearings, is avoided, 
and general simplicity of construction without diminution of_ strength. 
Technically described, the principle of this Scale consists in extend- 
ing across each of its ends a shaft whose extremities are cmhirgcd in 
.„ch a manner as to admit the insertion of knife-edges. These rest 
upon suitable bearings ulluched to the foundation or frame, and are so 
inserted in the shaft that uiey form the axis on which it partially ro- 
tates with the least possible friction, These enlargements projec 
inwardly from the shaft, forming short cranks, and in these are inserted 
other knife-edges parallel to, and e.pmlistant from, the -7-^"^"'-^^ 
At the extreme front end of the shafts, arms are securcl ^^Uu:h oxtc. d 
to the centre of the front side of the scale, where they meet, and a 
both attached to the " beam" in the usual manner. To the under side 
of the ends of the platform timbers are secured plates or • shoos in 
V^hich are concavities ; hese rest upon balls contained in corresponding 
concavities, in suitable pl.tes, from wbi.h project downward the bear- 
l„gs that rest on the knife-edges Inserted in the cranks projecting roni 
the shafts ; consequently, any weight placed upon the platform tends to 


tuvn tho shaft. «na dcpvcs the ends of the arms sccurca to then, winch 
;:tura actuate the hea.n where the ^^^^^^, ,,,., . to 
This ruethoa of connecting the platfo.m ''^'^'l'^, withotU pro- 
.u,ve fveCy in any 'li-ction, w4.en ^^^^^^^ 
aucin, any shock or wear on the ^'^"^^ ^j;, eonseqt,ontly 
take place if the connection was rigid. Ihc kniic . 

retain their fineness -"^ -"^-f^ , attracted the attention 

tuvo. he siihniitted then, to the -7^^;;:^ , ^^'"l etition with 
principal State Fairs, where hey ^^eic tts ca ^^_ 

Outers, and the result was that in on^^ ; t ' ^ew York city 
ceived seven fust class premiums. ^mi en ^^^^^^^^,^ 

and elsewhere were induced to P^-^^-^ ^^^ ; ^ bought ne that 

1. I n,i ilto I'riiitiiiir-liress manufacture! ^ wuo mmo"" 

lloo & Co., the 1 nimiig l „xtromi-ly accurate ordered nn- 

„„„ld weigh eight tons, and ""f "/'",", ^^^^ oont laid on the 

other ef the san.e e a«s It -» '° "^f"^^ ° ^^ fourteen hundred 


-cp:^... of thi. ..e . « it -J- :—:;";: 

certify to it, aecuraey -\«f '-f »\;t'rahnshea its reliai.ility a, a 

the manufacture. 1 hey """^^S, ^^ and are now producing, 

ehanic. that the ''ig-^-^-" Xa twe. eon.trnCcd e„ the 
in largo nuu.hcrs. bcalcB of al • ^ ■ increasing their popu- 


,;: ;„ Russia, China, .T.,.an, and «»'■* .^'-"[l...^^ j,„„, York for 
The lirm of ItoWE & Bouyt.u, f "'^^;l^^^; " ^^, eity where 

Wcighnmsters' Beams, etc 


, wliich 

svs it to 
)nt pro- 


1 intelli- 
utors for 
town of 
cin at the 
ion with 
, they re- 
York city 
■3, llohevt 
one that 
rclered an- 
aid ou the 
1 hunilrod 
scale of six 

;uratoly on 
ipany pur- 
pacity, and 
otlicr end. 
' tons, they 

ial)ility as a 
reat sinipli- 
is energetic 
snsively into 
he best me- 
iv producing, 
■ucted on tlie 
their popu- 
this country, 

s"ew York for 
:e city where 
lance Scales. 




New York Belting and Packing Company, 
[JcnN II. CiiEEVEu, Treasurer.] 
The history of the manufacture of India Rubber Goods in this 
country cannot yet be written, mainly because those who possess the 
:: t .portant Lts are interested in concealing the.n T e day . ..o 
distant however, when this obstacle will be removed, and a tr th u 
t: ; of the aithorship >f the various inventions that have cont n ucd 
to utilise this wonderful ,um can be given. Suttice it to say foi he 
p'Jen that since 182^, when the Hrst Importation of the Tara rubhc 
de was made into the Boston market, inventions luwc been mud 
by which the JHlce or mi k of an Ea^t Indian tree is now ava.i hie or 
clu i 'o al kinds, ]'..o.^ and Shoes, Belting, and Steam-pnckn.g for 
macld^^^^ Carriage Tops and Car Springs, Balls and To,s lor cluldren 
C mb Wha^onl and an infinite variety of other useful art. es ; and 
thon'h i may be impossible as yet to assign to e.'h h s e.vaet slmre and 
" y (, ^y,,l,, of Boston, Steph.n 

measure ot credit, tne uamtb ui l p .,n,>ptifut 

C. Smith of rrovidence, John J. Howe ot ^^'"^''^'^;^:'''\^^^ 
Daniel and Nathaniel llayward of Easton, Massachusetts, (.h.u Its 
G d ear of New Haven, Connecticut, William Atkinson, ^r Thorn , 
jr Bogardus, Horace H. Day, and John H. Cheevel^allof ^ow ^ , 
Curies Mackintosh, Thomas Tluucoek and Charles Kean, o Lug ind 
and numerous others in both countries, will be duly honored for their 
several contributions in opening up this new field of industry. 

There are now over thirty manufactories of India Rubber goods in 

,l,e States of Massa-^husctts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, ^ew York, 

>:^vania and New Jer^. , which have a capital ivostcd o neady 

1 1 * . aiw^ r^Mornf VPS and produi^c labrics vaiueu 
4100(1000 emidov about 4,0UU opeiaiivcs, auu i'iuv.iu.v 

a i ,2 000. Connecticut alone has thirteen India Rubber 
own d P i'neipany by capitalists of New York, and whose product, laid 
,;" chief m!u Jt in that city. 'Che most noteworthy of t ese manu- 
factories, and the one producing a larger product than any other in the 
country, is that of the New York BK.xiNa and Paokino Company, 
wh--ch we select to iUustra e the modes and processes adopted foi man- 
ufacturing India Rubl)er g cods in the best establshments. 

The Faetorv is located on the Potatok River, in Newtown, Connecticut, 
a place that imture and art have combined to render attractive and is 
the one in which Yulcani.ed Rubber was first practically manulaetu e 
. Kler the direction of Charles Goodyear. The building is nearly .m 
feet long, 41 feet wide, and tive stories high ; and to propel the 
ponderous machinery that is employed in the various processes of 




grinaing and preparing Ejbber the Cojnpany hav. co^r^ed ^a 

' S Ca steZ;-en Jno of three ^^^^^^^^^^ ,, „.y .0- 
Before describing the ^^^^f ^^^fl^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ for 

mark, that as the goods made at this ^'^'^^'1°^' ^ ^^.,,„,e to 

meehanical purposes, the P-pr.etors ja „« p „ s or ^^ 
obtain rubber whieh has the strongest fib e -«^;^;^;;.^ ^^^,%,^ 
or ficuselastica, has been found '^ "^^'^'l'^^^^^^^^ about 

Calcutta. Peuang ^'^:^^^::^:rnae.^,,^o..n 

two feet long and one foot \'7^' ''"'', ^'r'.„„ • ,^si,y seen. A stoc: 
i„ wide meshes, through which the ark rubbe s cas y ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

of hundreds of tons is constantly kept m their 
which are built as -^^.^ ^ f^^^^^^^^^^^ undergoes is to cleanse 

The first process - -'^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ,„,ber as they are gathered in 

it of foreign matter, the masses 01 u ^^ 

tue East Indian forests being - -f J'^j „';^y;^r weight. The 
that in cleansing they lose ^-^ ^^ per .ont- ^^^^^^ .^ ^^_ 

rubber is first pla-d in a large ^^^^^^ ,,,U ,„a the 
mains for some tinie un il ^^^/^^'^^^^ J,,k that is woven around 
workmen are enabled to s np ^^ ^^^ ^^^7^^^^, ,^^^, ,, ean be removed 
,,e original bales, an w . ^^^^ cut into slabs of about 
only in this way. Ihe masses 01 ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

an inch in thickness, by --"-; ^ X" ^^ --^^"^^^ '^"^^ ""^"' 
and four feet in d>'^™^^^'"'^"''^,;f/^', as easily as if it were clay. 
with great speed, cutting the toug^i mass^ as ea^ y ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

The slabs of -^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ cylind'ers, invented for this 

These crackers -'^«;; f ,f ^^^ and heavily, grinding the tough 

purpose, which ^<^^f ,! " ^f ^ J,^ ,f the bark and dust. These 
rubber ^^^ween an^ i^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^,^ ^^ ,,,, 

Tet:: Ttreytif IL through, and much of the dirt and bark 

drops out and falls ^^^^^^^^^ to the "washing-machine," a 
From the crackers the '^'^^'J numerous sharp knives 

'-''' '-' T::^: :: ^t r : ^irit Undergoes a kneadin. and 
which revolve under the ^aic , preparing the pulp m 

washing P!---';;;^,:^;t ^all ^irand foreign substances are per- 
paper-making. By t n. pioci ^^^^ washing- 

•ucted a 

)tion of 

This is 

! may rc- 
:i pally for 
if-",ense to 
ndia gutn, 
that from 
sses about 
ing, woven 
A stoc; 

, to cleanse 
rathered in 
and leaves, 
ight. The 
rhere it re- 
ed and the 
iven around 
be removed 
abs of about 
tween three 
lud revolves 
t were clay. 
y are called, 
snted for this 
ng the tough 
dust. These 
: rubber are 
[irt and bark 

r-machine," a 
sharp knives 
kneadinT and 
r the pulp in 
inces are per- 
i the washing- 
es, which con- 
[ers revolve in 
from the wash- 













I- .- 



11^ 11^ 1^ 







(7)6) 872-4)03 

'^^ '<^U 






Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductlons / In.tltut Canadian de nrlcoraproductlons historiqu.8 



T.-ir""" ""^' '<^'' 



ing-macliine in small fragments loosely adhering to each ether, is pressed 
and kneaded into thick sheets or mats. At this stage the process is 
euspended for some time, in order that the rubber may be thoroughly 
dried and cured by the action of the air. For this purpose these mats 
are suspended in long drying-rooms, where they are allowed to hang for 
many mouths before they are thought fit for use. Of course, a largo 
stock of this cured rubber is kept on hand. The rubber thus cleansed 
and dried is first taken to the mixing-machines. This is the first im- 
portant process, as it is here that the rubber is combined with the metals 
and minerals to which metallic rubber owes its peculiar properties. The 
mixing-machines like most of the machines employed in the factory, are 
hollow iron cylinders, and it is necessary that they should be kept at high 
but regulated degrees of heat, as the tough masses of rubber would other- 
wise resist the action of machinery, however powerful. These cylinders are 
of great ..ize and strength, and are heated by steam, which islet into the ends. 
Two arc placed near together, which, us they revolve towards each other, 
knead tlie substances placed between them like dough. The rubber is 
placed in the machine, and as the heoted cylinders slowly revolve, the tough 
ru jber is twisted and kneaded, and torn between. This is accompanied 
by a constant succession of sharp explosions as loud as pistol-shots 
which are caused by the air being forced through the rubber. As the 
rubber is 'olded over and over, air is confined in the folds, and when 
that portion of the mass is forced between the cylinders, the air is driven 
through the tough material with an eroiosion like an air-gun. When 
the rubber is somewhat softened, the workman mixes .slowly the various 
substances which are to be incorporated with it ; these consist princi- 
pally of sulphur and of the oxides of various metals, zinc, lead, iron, etc., 
which are combined in various proportions, accoiding to the uses for 
which the rubber is destined. It is in this department tliat the greatest 
science and experience aro required, for different qualities of rubber 
require dilTerent compounds, and every difference in the compound makes a 
different treatment necessary in the 8u!)sequent stages of the manufac 
turc. When the rubber is thus prepared it is f c ady to be molded and .sliaped 
into the various forms in which it is to be finally perfected and used. 

As every distinct manufacture requires a different process and different 
manipulations, wo will only describe the process of making " raacaine- 
belling " as that is of most importance and is the article for which this 
company ai- so celebrated. The rubber, which, after it is compounded 
as above described, resembles a dark slate-colored dough, is then taken 
to another department to the "calendering-macliines." These somewhat 
resemble the other machines, but tlicy are composeil of mure cylind.i-s, 
and are of much larger size, and of a perfectly polished surface. Ui.ou 


to ylinders it is rolled out m '^^P ;^^^;;;reviously been coated 
powerful eotton or linen duck, ^ ';J\ f^^^^,,, ,y powerml maclunerr. 
abber. driven th-ugh aud through >t me b y^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

tL duck is ---•■••-\:;; C York BeLgand Pad^-^' ^J.; 
but it is woven oxpressly for the JNcw ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^p^,,_ ^nd it 

I. in a factory which is ^^^^^^r^^ ^ou^i.^'^r^.l strengch. 
r voven in a mod. which g^^es t doubl t ^^^^^ ^^ .^ ^^^^^^^^ ^ 
The "bolts" of duck covered ^ th r"b ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ,,, 

! ? 1 This part of the process is tlie mo. „nelastic 

1 „ it in anv other manner, have uttu j ^^^^^^^ ,g^ tha. 

't, company l>oU» anJ '•jlV' „ i„ .11 ki.,d» ot ma.l,.n«, 



r between 

a web of 
atcd with 

for sails, 
ring Com- 
ose, and it 
il strength. 
:ess is com- 
iken by the 
id in an in- 
to uiacbine- 
, folds upon 

then forced 
intil a belt is 

are immense 
1 be thrust in 
placed upon 
xl, and steam 
ble of all -, for 
ugh, nnelastic 
used, becomes 
led metallic or 
[ic chemists in 
change, or to 
Ihe causes, and 
3 known is, that 
ture from eight 
•tics milike any 
nd but slightly 
c than the best 
af native rtibber, 
rubber dissolved 
it becomes, as it 

lengths, from an 
,d8 of machinery, 
jelt of seven plies 
cb ft belt, if made 
■cquired the hides 
by thousands of 

copper rivets ; but here the great rubber belt was made in one opera- 
ion without joint or seam or imperfection. With regard to the 
com'parative merits of leather and rubber belting, a wnter m the 
IZiiJlc American, to whom we are principally indebted for these 
fZ says he saw the ends of a leather and rubber belt o equu 
size firmly clamped together, and when power was applied to tea 
them asunder the tough sole-leather parted with a loud explosion, but 
the rubber belt was unharmed. He also witnessed an experiment to 
test the comparative value of these belts in driving machinery and says 
that the peculiar elastic and tenacious surface of the rubber belt enabed 
it to hold much moro firmly upon the iron drums and pulleys than the 
hard leather "An accurate measurement showed that it took tully -o 
per cent more power to slip a rubber belt on a smooth pulley than it 
did to slip a leather belt on it. A large iron pulley, such as is used m 
driving machinery, was placed upon a shaft, and a piece ol rubber belt- 
ing was passed over it. Heavy weights were then placed on each end 
of the belt, in order to bring it dow.i firmly and with an even bearing 
upon the pulley. The question to settle was, whether leather or rubber 
belting would bear tho greatest weight without slipping, for this wouM 
prove which had the perfect friction-surface and would drive the 
machinery with least loss of power. To test this, weights were slowly 
added to one end alone until the belt slipped on the pulley. The same 
experiment was then tried with a leather belt of the same width and 
under precisely similar circumstances, and it was found that the rubber 
belt greatly economized the power. Repeated experiments showed tlie • 
some result in the most convincing and satisfactory manner." Certain 
it is that the demand for these rubber liclts from manufacturers and ouv 
be.t mechanics, including the larg, m.aufactrriug corporations of >ew 
England, is very great, for the Company are obliged to run their factory 
))Y night as well as by day to supply it. „ „ , • 

Another article made extensively by the Company is Steam Packing. 
Rubber it is said, is the only substance that cin counteract the expan- 
sion and contraction of metal and make a joint so tight that steam can- 
not escape through it. It is made into sheets and plates of d.ilereul and shapes, or cast into rings or hollow ellipses of all imaginable 
forms and is used to pack around the piston-rods, to place betwfntbe 
iron plates in steam pipes, and in fact wherever a joint is formed. 

\uother article manufactured to a great extent at this establishment is 
their celebrated "Crotou Hosn," and hydraulic hose of all sizes from a 
1 of an inch to 8 and 12 inches in diameter. A large force of workmen 
is employed in tliis department. The tube is formed by means of long 
metallic pipes, around which a sheet of carefully-prepared rubber is firs* 


neatly folded : but the rubber alone Las not sufficient strength to resist 
the pr sue ^f water, which would swell and iinally burst the elastic 
hose To prevent this, and give additional strength, the outer covenng 
is fomed of webs of strong cloth, saturated and coated with prepared 
rubber This is folded carefully around the hose until the requisite 
trength and thickness are obtained, and it is then finished by covenng 
tS a final sheet of pure rubber. The hose, when formed, is taken 
a steam-boiler of great length, where, while still --ining upo the 
iron pves, it is heated and cured by a process similar to that befoie de- 
Icr^^d ; after which the rubber is drawn off from the pipe, and it i8 

readv for the market. „ 

Hose designed for steam fire-engines, which this Company manu ac 
tui^s largely is tested by turning the whole force of the vast water- 
w" 1 up''on';wo large force pumps, through which tje water is forced 
into the hose and driven in jeta over the factory and high abov he 
ummit of its lofty tower. Unless the hose resists this trying test it is 
not considered fit for market. Besides these loading articles, the Com- 
pan rauufactures a large number of others for household convenience 
or mechanical purposes.-for instance, carpets for halls, and stairways, 
and billiard rooms; sinks without joint or seam; door springs that can 
be adjusted either to hold the door open or to close i,; bed spiings 
spittoons, and clothes wringers ;-of which hundreds are made daily. Of 
their minor manufactures, however, perhaps the most ingenious is the 
solid emery vulcanite. It is a novel combination ot emery and 
rubber and used for grinding and polishing wheels, and which s 
■ destined to produce a revolution in many workshops where metals 
any kind are ground and polished. The soft rubber when com- 
bined with emery makes wheels which will cut an inch file m two m 
a few minutes. The New York Belting and Packing Company own or 
are the sole licensees under no less than thirty-seven different patents, 
which secure to them not only the best means and processes and ma- 
chinery for manufacturing their goods, but also a monopoly of certain 

^'such'is one of the numerous factories that are giving profita^ 
ble employment to thousands of operatives, and funiishing contnbu 
tions of the greatest importance in manufactures and the arts. Ih.s 
age has been prolifi. in wonders, and among them few ar. more marvel- 
lous than the product of the India Rubber factories of America. Wc 
desire, however, to place upon record our settled conviction tha the 
application of vulcanized rubber in the useful arts is as ye in its in- 
fancv and that our ingenious mechanics and manufacturers will discover 
hundreds of new uses for this wonderful " elastic metal." 



h to resist 
ihe elastic 
r covering 
I prepared 
s requisite 
ly covering 
d, is taken 
5 upon the 
. before de- 
), and it is 

ly manufac- 
vast water- 
ter is forced 
I above the 
iug test it is 
i, the Corn- 
d stairways, 
ngs that can 
bed springs, 
le daily. Of 
nious is the 
emery and 
nd which is 
diere metals 
• when com- 
le in two ia 
ipany own or 
ireut patents, 
sses and ma- 
oly of certain 

ving profita- 
ling contribu- 
le arts. This 
more marvel- 
i^nierica. We 
;tion that the 
3 yet in its in- 
•s will discover 

The Piano Forte Manufactories— Steinway and Sons' Manufactory. 

New Ycrk is the principal centre in the United States of the manu- 
facture of Pianofortes. There are over fifty different manitfactories ; 
and tliough we believe there are none so extensive and complete as the 
one that we are about to describe, yet among them are many fine and 
some large establishments. 

The name of Steinway as a manufacturer of Pianofortes has long 
been a familiar one to the musical artists of Germany. Mr. Henry 
Steinway, the founder of the immense establishment which strangers 
from afar now visit as one of the wonders of New York, com- 
menced the business of making Pianos in Brunswick, Germany, 
nearly fifty years ago ; and though during the quarter of a century 
in which he prosecuted the business he probably did not make as 
many instruments as his establishment now turns out in a single year, 
yet he acquired a reputation, and his European career as a master- 
builder may be said to have been a successful one. When, however, the 
uprising of the German people for their constitutional liberties in 1848 
and 1849, in which he sympathized, proved a failure, he resolved to 
escape from the despotism that followed the subjection of the " liberal 
party," and to seek a more congenial field for the free exercise of his 
genius and enterprise. As a prudential measure he sent his son Tliarles 
to America as pioneer and explorer, to report upon the prospects of 
emigration which the country would be likely to afford to the family. 
His son arrived in June, 1840, and his report confirming the previous 
favorable impressions of the father, he followed with tlie family just one 
year a^'^or. Although possessed of some means, he deemed it advisable 
before commencing business on his own account to study the routine of 
manufacture as practiced in American workshops, and he and his sons 
commenced as journeymen in some of the best manufactories then in the 
city of New York. The advantages of this thorough training, which 
rendered them practically familiar with the American and European 
methods of manufacture, soon became manifest when the products of 
their skill and handiwork were entered in competition with those of 
others, even the best makers. 

Their first instrument, made in 1853, in a small rear building in 
Varick street, at once attracted the attention of professional musicians, 
and at the " National Fair" in Washington, was awarded, by the unani- 
mous vote of the jury, the first premium, notwithstanding there were 
some twenty competitors from the principal cities of the Union, in- 
cluding most of the names then of established reputation. A demand 



o„ri n. phantre of location to one 
forthoirinstrumentsatonces^rung.p^a^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^„ 

possessing more extensive "^J^ *"/ ^^.^^ ^^^^rded their early en- 
absolutc necessity. The P«P"^^1 ^^J^ J^f Hs proverbial ficklene.3, 
terprise bas in this instance 7";^^^f^,nne Piano a week they are now 
but has increased and widened »";;/'-^™ J^^ ^ \,, ,,,, four years we are 
called npon to -^j'''^^^^^;,; ^'^ premiums have been awarded them 
informed that over ^^«"*yf \\f ' /^^tion of industry and encourage- 
by American --^-^^^.f^.texhibition or World's Pair in London 
„,ent of talent; and at the 1'^ « «^^' ^^.^^^ „,„,ieal celebrities of 

in 18G2. a jury composed of the mos leno ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

,,e old world decreed to Stemway and So-, of ^^^^^^ 

first premium ^^^ ' P«^ ;\f :;;'! i„ grand and square Pianos." 

excellence in w«^-l^'^^"^^"P;. !\,tmph that could not have been won 
This was indeed a remarkable tmrnph t ^^^.^^^,^,^ ^^^ ,„per. 

except by the exhibition «/ f ^^^^^^^^^^^^ Lse American Pianos 
eminent excellence. In f'^^*' .^^^ ;?P "V[ed the attention of connois- 
ovcr the.r European ^'^'^l-^'^^jVe principal musical journals in 
r\ n^r Vi'r fnd t ^rZLoZ .. fact with astonish- 
London, Pat is, v leu- . . ^ . .,.„ official jurors. 
„,ent and confirmed the opinion of the o^c ^^^^^^^^^^ ^.^^. 

It is an axiom that there can be no great m ^^ .^^ 

out corresponding «•-* ^^^^-ir^t^no app eciable place in manu- 
influence in ^P^-^^^^ Vet^Tot ^ i: tTUaly.e or trace causes 
factudng operations. ^ e r^^yj^^ j^^,, j, ^eat success there 

i. results, but we -u safely ^nfe^tj^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^.^, ,,, ,,,btless 

i, also adequate cause for i . U ^^^^^ ^^^ .^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^.^ 

contributed to the success «f *;;^;7'^,^ ^ and superintends a special 
tieal Piano makers, -<i;-^j^^^2i"the advantage which they possess 
department of the manufacture Ano he ^^ ^^^.^ ^^^^ ^^_ 

is that they are musicians and -^ept^ n ^ ^,^^ ,,i,„u,ie as 

eoustics, which, combined w^th th-r pract ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

well as practical workmen. ^^^ ^o^^^^^, ,,,i,. Among their first 
out some fifteen patents for new -^^ '«"; ^^^^^^ bridge, constructed of 
or earliest improvements was ne ^^ ^^^^.^^^ ^^^^.^ pj^^^, ,,y 

metal, for improving the reble a ^ J ,^^^ , „ore ,m)w- 

which they could use much tl"c^«^« ""f ^j^^ ^^^^^j^g 

erful tone ; an ingenious --"jem >- the^ .^.^^^^^^^^^ ^^ .^^ ^, 
board nearly double as large as that n any 
• course gave much greater volume of toi^. ^^^,,,^^g the diffl- 

In 1859 Mr. Henry Stcinway J^" ^^^ ^^^„^„„„„table in the way of 
culties which had heretofore ^-"f -^;::,, ,f ,Ue strings of the 
overstringing Grand PianoB. The arrang 



on to one 
ecame an 

early en- 
>y are now 
irs we are 
rded them 
n Loudon, 
ebritica of 
States, the 

tone, with 
e Pianos." 
! been won 

and snper- 
ican Pianos 

of connois- 

jonrnals in 
ith astoaish- 

ellence with- 
r may be its 
ace in manu- 
trace causes 
tjuccess there 
las doubtless 
ers are prac- 
ends a special 
h they possess 
nusic and ae- 
m scientilic as 
d have taken 
loug their first 
jonstructed of 
leir Pianos by 
g a more pow- 
g the sounding 
forte, which of 

oming the diffi- 
le in the way of 
} strings of tho 

lower notes in a tier above others, for the purpose of using larger 
trgs 1-1 been quite commonly adopted in the co-truct.on of s^ 
Pianos and a substantially similar system of stringing had been appl ed 
fo :i;ht Pianos, but owing to the form of the -- amUrran^em n 
of the keyboard and action of Grand Pianos, it had been dee ncd im 
pale if not impossible to apply the principle in t^-ir constn,et.on^ 
But Mr Steinway has succeeded in overcoming these difficult es by an 
fm vlment whidi he has patented, and arranges tl-^-^^-^,^^^- . 
Piano in two tiers, with the same advantageous results as had bcv.n o 
S in Pianofor'tes of other forms, while the bridges - « - - 
nearer the middle of the sound-board than they are in ai^ ^^Z 
Piano. In the same year Mr. Steinway patented anothe - -bk im 
nrovement the object of which was to permit the use of ag.attt tor 
S:::S'block-bLrings of treble strings, ^d y.t to ^^^^^^ 
to be struck as close as is desirable to those bearings. T.u. was eHtc ca 
; conducting the cast-iron plate which covers or I-^y -vers t 
t'ning block with a projection on its under side, to 'ap over the edge f 
and abut against the tuning-block, and in securing the a^^^^^ ^<^™ 
f,om the upper surface of the plate into the projection. Both of these 
^n ins and improvements have been generally adopted by nian^ - 
turers abroad, which is significant evidence that they appreciate their 

''The present manufactory of Messrs. Steinway and Sons is one of tlie 
1 7nfts kind in the world. It was erected in 1859. and occupies 
"': i blocr front^^ g^^^^^ Fourth Avenue, and extends from Fifty- 
«" . lifu Th?rd street The front on Fourth Avenue has a 

Second to intty-iinra siieei. ^ «• f,>.,f„ fo,.t The 

length of two hundred and one foet with a depth of fo ty fe t Tl^ 
l^iftv Second and Fifty-Third Streets are one hundred and six y- 

rerei^lXt^^^ '^ 

Wh inc ading the basement. The architecture is of the modern Ital an 

: 1* In U,e ,a,d there are fouv .r,i„B house. -«'■«;-''; 

%rereT,:'«bo:*o':L„ eo^t^H, e.p,o,oa, who Uru out fort,. 
Square and a»e Grand and Upright Pianos every week. 


situated outsidethebuildlngmtheyard I was ™a ^^^ ^^^.^ 

Corliss Steam Engine Company, of Providtnce, and 

latest patented improvements^ .^ ^^^ ^^^^^„^„t. 

All the heavier portion of the machinery ^^ 

In this room are three large planers, «"; "^ ^ ^^^^^^^ j,,,,„,„L.ts of 
for this establishment, and is certainly or^a of t^; ^^J^ ^, ,„,,. 

its class existing, planing the largest ^''^'J^lZnl.v.a.n.he.i^^^ 
There are also four up-and-down saws and «- eral .ncu ,^^^^ ^^^ 

"Cz. above .., .^^ ^'C^!: :^Z;::'::^ 

ttos. .i„gle pan, ™aae .*», put "/ -i-'i,,, „„„, „,e,e 
„,. cases ready to 8 P^» *«;;^1^, ^, ,. t„„,„„gM, .araished. 
CTery cose remains from tlute to lo»r „„minK boxes coii- 

On each case maktag Soor there a e three large »an g 

«r«etcd of sheet ^ '"Vr^^^T .r i -fshi^g departmea. 
in them to raise the heat to 200 (iegrecs. i 

comprise, the top «»<■'■ -'«»^;"^'''^':;,,"lfle From this 
side buildings length of Pve hundred »"•'''; 'J 'fj^^^ ,,„»» in 

aoor the completely ™™''^''«*;"''/;;j* 'Jl^Jrere the seuading- 
the front bnildlng-the sounding-board floor 

'XTfl"oo°r'bSow the instrnment, are strung and the action and 

ke "botls and the top,, ^'^\^^' X: ^^^LtoftZ .^^> 
partly.anished instruments are then taken B'^t to 'he « ° ^^^^ 

L action is -^-Id'.' ;rlc tXl poi is put on the 

rdT ;^rr u «dy .» --re:r irr: X 

'\"rnrclnwl.h the "-e . the store ro™w«eontain,^ 

. •'t';f*:ur"ST;r mteir; *crr: ™st .uppiy ..«,» «. 


The front basement contains all the iron ^o'^'^' P q^ „,e las* 

i-:r£tr,T:^:^rr:tr— dollars 




le power 
d by the 
all their 

aments of 
s at once. 
iH, besides 
iinents are 
a the first 
)tlier parts 
and other 

ho take all 
: and finish 
)om, where 
boxes con- 
steam pipes 
3 front and 
From this 
er down in 
3 sounding- 
action and 
tit on. The 
below where 
liaminers and 
on the cases 
room. This 
ed on Fifty- 
,ng the build- 
contains the 
n the interior 
ply always on 

nd bars, drill 
!. Of the las* 
usand dollars 

No fire of any kind is used within the building. Every part of the 
factory is heated by means of steam pipes, 40,000 feet of which line the 
interior. The wood-heating apparatus is also warmed by steam, whicu 
also heats the liilns for japanning, etc., etc. ,,,,..„ 

In the two extremes o? the building are placed tell-tale clocks tor the 
purpose of testing the trustworthiness of tlio night-watchmpn. Wires 
are carried to each floor, and if they are not touched at certain inter- 
vals the watcher has neglected his rounds, and the tale is recorded on 

the faces of the dials. . 

There are from six to seven hundred pianos constantly in course of 
construction, and these, in connection with the hardware, ^^f^^l^J' 
engine, veneers, lumber, etc., etc., represent at least the sum of $400,000, 
exclusive of the buildings. The cost of the building and ground was 

about $150,000. ^ „ ^, , ^. 

The distance between their Sales Room, on Walker Street, and 
the up-town factory, is so great, and the need of immediate com- 
munication so frequent, that a telegraphic correspondence was found to 
be necessary. Consequently a private telegraph line has been estab- 
lished between Walker Street and Fifty-Third Street, bringing the two 
business places into instant communication. 

Messrs. Steinway have erected on East Fourteenth street, a few 
doors from Union Square, near the Academy of Music, a splendid 
niarble building, which they occupy for a Piano Waroroom-the upper 
part being fitted up for a Concert Hall. Like their manufacto.y, k 
will stand as a monument of their enterprise, while it is alno an orna- 
ment to the City of New York. 

Haines Brothers' Piano Forte Maiiufactory, 

Though less extensive and imposing in external appearance than the 
one al eady noticed, des.rves a place among the largest and most 
Tpotnt establishments of the kind in the United States^ It -s 

ocated on a corner of Twenty-second street and Second Avenue^ 
Id ncluding the space appropriated to storing lumber, covers about 
Z^i Z:L of grou'nd. The manufacturing ^V^r^^^f;^ 
in 'two buildings-one, six stories high, having a front of sixty-six teet, 
and a depth of ninety feet; and the other, sixty by one hundred feet, 
four stores in height Connected with the latter, is the Lumber Yard, 

rw h a ock of nearly a million of feet is constantly kept, under- 

„bm*»ka™,. M.«mAcroK,.s >» »bw vo»k. 

• „ Nn lumber is used by this 
going U,» proco.» °^«»7'?^':rl f it 1 b.e„„.,. « le-t 

U,„„„„wl IWt of !"">>«"•■ __ . ,,, ,„,,„, preparation, ore points of 
,1,H. ..lection of lumber, and ..^e»o P l.^, ^^ ^„^„,,,„ ,„ „„, 

„s«euii«l importaoco m "'»;'"? f^, ,„ a>o mannfacluve, «l,o 
eU„,.te-, and ""/-"X ,; than Uaine, Urothc, 

on the uonb .ide of ^^--^^^^^^Xv b wVuprigbt turning saws, etc - 
the tool.-sueh as plan.n-s. cu-cv^a^ b v«, p g ^^^^^^ _^^^^ .^ ^^^^^^^^^ 
necessary for expeditious ^^^ ^^.^^^^ ^^^.,^,^, 
by an engine of forty-horse power at ^^^^ ^^^.^^.^^^_ .^ ^^,^,u 

sufficient for the <lry-g--°7 •;;^Vrte m .ipes. and which are con- 
there arc over teu thousand f^f " fj'''^^^^/ passing to the mam 
neeted bv means of pipes undor tl>e '•^^^- ^^^,^ ^,^0 enti-e 

Tu ll.-o find the office and ^arcrooius on the ^ ^.^.^^^^ . ^^^ 

t^^:;'ceupied as varnish rooms and ^^^^^^ J ^.out three 

numerous rooms, each devoted to a l^^.^^^ .^ ^^.^ ^^^^^ .^ e a h 

hundred Pianos are m course oteo ^^^^^^^^ employment m 

dav and, consequently, the ^v«il^t»en ^^ ^,^^ ^^^,o^. 

tS i winch long experience has ^^^J^^Ze. who are eraploycd 
llating Department, for i-^a- ^ ^ ^l . ,,,on," which, though 
,u' the time in adjustmg -^^ Jf ^^^^^langed according to a rnathe- 
composed of several p.eces has be n ^.^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ .p^, ,,t 

„,at ical scale, and made by ^^^« ;\;'^'^^ ,^ establishments like th,s, 
Workmanship is ^^'^yJ^';:;:S^or, the principal workmen 
where the business is sufficiently aig 

lonstant employment iu one Une o du y ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^, ,,, 
The capital employed by ^ « '^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ procure materials in 
hundred thousand dollars wb c^i -^^^ ,^ ^,^ ...^e-room, there are 
large quantities, and on f'^voiable tern^ ^^^^^ ^^^. ^^^_ ^,^, 

as many as two hundred and hfty se s y ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^^ 

Ue stock ^;^- -^r^^^^^^^^ i. .uite equal (and some 



l\ by tins 
I at least 

at a uni- 

arc most 
c hundred 

points of 
t)le in any 
ctuve, who 
s brothers, 

[ fit for use 
,hc building 
led with all 
saws, etc. — 

is propelled 
irnish steam 
ig,\, in which 
lich are con- 
to the main 
)r, two enti'-o 
s divided into 

About three 
mfactory each 
mployment iu 
lu the Actioa- 
, are employed 
which, though 
ing to a malhe- 
parta. Perfect 
nents like this, 
Qcipal workmen 

ire, exceeds two 
ure materials in 
-room, there are 
y for use, and a 
e gteel wire used 
equal (and some 


T this firm, tave 
i-a-quarter -octave 

Piano is the most powerful and superb instrument^that has - > ^>- . 
made Amor^ the improvements made by then,, and winch a,c 
rdt'odlrJll' their Pianos, the least costly as wel as the mo 

which the visitor may sec all paits ol tne cxitus 

while comfortably seated on a Piano stool 

The firm of Ilaincs Brothers is composed of Napoleon J. and Hanc s 

W ■ i both practical workmen, who ser-^ed a long .pprenfcesh p 

^tl ; n^sent vocation. The senior partner has been cnga..d m^^^^^^ 
nanu vc ure of Pianos since 1839, and, after thirteen years' serv. o m 
r ^^Hshments. commenced business ^r his ^^^.^^^^ 

L which he was shortly afterward joined by h,s brother. Adop mg 

Er jx~=- r~:.H^. HHHE 

„,„,„o warehouses °»«'°»""'.''^,";' ;/;,„; „ j„,t tiilm.o .o 
Eurol-c » Over 1000 Pianos were ranclc by th.s Irm „, 1861. 

Christy, Oonslant & Co.'9 Paper Hangings Man«factoiy 
I, one ot the n,ost imposing, in external appearanee, of "■» ■""■"'^l^;;; 

7 t"rf r,"' r ,i-Sp:iti,:ii: taJTrr: :; pri::; 

SLMrafnroVrw::t;.t,.irLtreeM.J— ^^^^ 

fhetaro ile main structure, three hundred feet in length, m 
ar ocated the chemical works, the print cutting, the machme and car- 
pen shops, the engine and boiler rooms, and the stables. 

„«*KKABL. M.N...-VCTO.,K. ■. NBW YORK. 


on ..... .. v.t ---- jr :::^:r- "^^^^ 

•departn.nt.,tho visitor -J-^ft^Us manufacture within a few 
revolution that ^as -- «» f^^^ ^^ ,„ ,,,, on the grandest .cale, 
years. Here, Cylinder Prmtmg may - ^^^^^_ ^^^^ ^,^„^ ^, 

and in its most perfect form. J^^^f ^^..^.a, in half an hour, mto 
a. it comes from the mjll. can be eo ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ 

Printed Wall Paper, reeled and ^^^ay and now, seven 

!;::red tons of Paper ^^^^^^^ Ti^. t'ochnieally called. 

hundred and fifty miles ^' "*"S>ng ^ J ' ^,^^^ 

are converted ^nto ^uishe 1^1^. Han^.n.^^ p,„ting, is the 

The first operation m this as in ^^ ^^.^ ^.^^^ ^^^s 

preparation cf the design. Ihe pmcH ^ ^^^^^^^ .^^ ^,, ^^^^^ 

I France, which, it must be --l^^^^^^^ ,,en cut on blocks of 

relates .0 Ornamental A.rt. T c P ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^.^ AnvaMMy, 

„.aple. inlaid with bross andfoHing, ^^^^ ,,tablishment, will 

and the print blocks, VJ^r'^^^^^^ 

endure constant wear ^^^ -x m nthB. ^^ manufacturing pur- 
Entering the principal bmld "g ^^,1,5^^8, each 

po,es, >ve find, on the fivst A^^^-' ^^^^^ ;,, of paper in a day. 
'of .hich will print twenty- oiu-Uousn y ^^^^^^^ ,,,,rs may be 

By arranging a separate - '^ J'^^.f ^^,„, o,e man and two boys 
printed at one operation. ^-^^^^ ^^'j; ■„ «„« day. than the same 
Ln produce mere ' -f^^. ^^^^ the old process In six monts. 
„„uiber of hands could have prodiKc I lu^a-rubber b.lts, 

The paper, as it leaves ^^;^^^^^^^,,, which dry it ; and w en 
in folds of eight yards ea. ., 00 a P .^ ^^^^^^ .^^^ ^^,^_ , ., 

it reaches the extreme end of the - l^] ^^ ^^^^^ ^his facility pro- 
then ready to be tvan^po^t-^ ^ «- \ ^^,^ ^^.^ „,,, ,,,a better 

;:ducei for si. times tie present ...c ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^„, ,,,,ed 
Ascending to the •^^'^^^f^^^;,^^^ five to thirty hand-pressea, and 
to hand printing, in which ^^^ 7^";^^7„,„,i„p., including Gold and 
where all the higher ^^'f « "' f ^^^ w '„,achinery, are produced 
Velvet Papers, and Borders ""^y^^^^^^^i^ted with glue-sizo -, and 
'ror these Papers, the pattern r ^-^ ^ .,,.^,, ,,,ore receiving the 

then with a V^^^^^'f'^'^^.XZi^y ly. colored riock, or ground 
flock or bronze. When tb. '« Par ^ y^ .^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^.^.^ , 
wool, is sifted over the var ish P«^^^ ;»' ^,„ ^rm this service, 

effect rambling velvet P-^^ J ;;;•,' ,.ating a reveille in d.s. 
seem to co-biuo amuseme.U wUb la , ^^^^^^ ^.^^^.^^^ ^^ ,,.„,,,„g 

. tributing the fleck evcnl. ovtrtne 



its various 
th the great 
Mthiu a few 
andcsi .-icale, 
blank paper, 
in hour, into 
)ve, seventeen 
id now, seven 
nically called, 

>rinting, i'^ the 
lis firm resides 
itrc, in all that 
t on blocks of 
heir durability, 
.blishmcnt, v;ill 

jfacturing pur- 
machines each 
laper in a day. 
e colors may be 
[1 and two boys 

than the same 
ss in six months, 
idia-rubber bolts, 
dry it; and when 

into rolls, and is 
is facility of pro- 
■c now sold better 
uld not have been 

partments devoted 
hand-prcssoo, and 
icluding Gold and 
ery, arc produced, 
ith glue-aizo; and 
cforc receiving the 
1 flock, or ground 

adheres, giving an 
crform this service, 
,j^ a reveille, in dis- 

gilding or bronzing 

is introduced, the paper, after the figures have been l"''" ^T^ "P;" 
with gold-size, is passed through a Bronzing Machine, which ovs 
the paper with bronze, and, at the same time, by moans of ku i' -us 
and rubbers, removes the surplus bronze ; and when dry. it is reeled 
into rolls ready for sale. On this floor is also the Satin Pulislung 
lloon^ in which are ten polishing machines of an entirely new con- 
u'ion. which were invented and patented by Mr. Chr.sty. Iheso 
machine are used for imparting a satin or glazed surface to tho 
p-rounded papers before the figures are printed upon them. 
^ The third floor is devoted to Cyliuder Machine Inntrng, sundar to 
the first floor. Here are six machines, capable of producing eighteen 
thousand rolls, or fiflv-four thousand yards of Wall Paper per day. 

The fourth and fifth floors are Grounding Rooms. In t e^ rooms 
are ten grounding machines, u.ed for covering the sur ace of he pap«r 
with a ground color preparatory to the process of pnntu.g Ihe ..oloi 
mixin-^ departments are in the basement of the main building-, and. as 
The amount of colors or paints consumed is very large, being o ten as 
much as fifteen hundred gallons per day, the mixing .. conducted on 
an extensive scale, in largo tubs or vats, in wh .a the mixers are d iven 
by machinery. The more expensive tints are prepared by hand-labo 
entirelv -^ in this some fifteen hands find constant employment. 1 he 
colors, uu.. also the raw paper, arc hoisted to the diflerent rooms by 
an elevators at each end of the building. For the, some 
forty thousand feet of steam pipe are required. The nu-ehinery ts pro- 
pelled by a Corliss engine of sixty hor.e power, and thr- large boile a 
are required to supply steam sufficient for heatmg and drying. Iho 
engine voom is remarkable for the neatness, and even elegance, of ita 
furniture and appointments. i u,. t..„mas 

The fiin of Christy, Constant & Co. was established b> 1 uoMAS 
Christy, who came fjom Boston and commenced the manufacture ot 
Paper Hangings in ^^ew York, in 1330. His sales the first year, wei. 
thirteen thousan,' dollars; now they exceed a rnllion. Abou 1842, 
his brother-in-lavN Samuel S. Constant, became associated with h.m, 
under the firm nan e of Christy k ConstatU-which, on the adnnssion 
of other partners, was changed to its present style. The Vare ouso 
and Salesrooms are at 2.^ Murray street, extending through the block 
to V) Warren street. This part of tho business is under the immedi- 
ate* supervision of the junior partner. T. C. Shepherd, a nephew of 

^MrClu7sty is an inventor, as well as a representative manufacturer. 
Among the inventions designed and patented by him, aro the new 
polishing machines mentioned above, which can bo operated with one 

«L n <a Jft-welrv Establishment, 
Tiffany & Co.'s Jeweiry 

Tiffany « ^"' » "'" — ' .. 

• 1 . ;« n vcrv small way, 

^"mos^s. Tiffany ^ Co, ccn..enc.d bu^^ess . ^a^^^ y ^^^^ 

,,,,ng the autumnofl837. 1 ou o;;.^^ ^^^^.^,,, , a dwelhng 

way, the first story of a buildmg ^^ ^^^^ brothers-.n-lavv 

,,,'„. The Bolc partnerB a the tar ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^,^,^ f 

CharloB L. Tiffany and J«\" ^^.,^^,;"",^;„ty, Connecticut, had come to 
Loklyn and KiUingly m "^^^^ of material for success than 
New York with very Uttlo else m ^^'^ ^^ - ^^.,. ^nd the determma- 
S".g wills, keen V^^^n^^\^Xl^jri^^^^^^^ and cherish, to conquer 

ion, which New F-^^-^ -'^^^t f 1 eir opening store, Mr. Young 
fortune in a fair contest. At ^^c^^^huo ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^.^ ^,^^ 

was the only one of the patr ^ « ^^^ .^^, , moiety of expcnence. 
,,, but often so prod- - -^ ' ^^^,.,„,,y j^porUng trade 
Ho had for six months be n ngagc^l^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^,,,, 

,s a salesman. H was Mr. I >iTa^ > -^ • ^^^^ ^ „,,scellaneous se- 

The stock of TilTany a ^■^■' ""'l^l^^y ^^per and playing-cards) 
lodion of fancy wares-stat,oncry ( "^^ «'" ^ » chess-men, laciuered 
^^.y, walking "ticks, Chinese, go^.^-^^ ^ ^^^„^,,^^^ ,,, ,,,,Hs ot 
wares, fans. etc.. porcelau. Ber nyro , , ^^ ^^.^.^^^^^ ^^ ^,^ „^,^,,„, 
.,,„eh would be as «^"^-'''^ ;;;;, kvor with buyers, and Uwoud 
Chinese curiosities were tl» ^ ^™ ^ ^^ ,,,„, the private >nvest- 

Hoem that every ship brought more o ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^„^,^,. „t 

Tents of otUcers and Ba.brs. ^>" 'J ;^,,,„ ,,,essmon. the queov- 
lo wares. Belling the ^^^;^^^ ,,,eh-bowls, and w.>n- 
,.,Uing little red clay toapo ^ ^lu. n ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^,^^^^,^^ „^,„,,, a>o 
,,,n,Uy chnnsy ./-''—;,,.,,, of the firm, at starting was oo 
F,v.u-v Hoods trade now. Tb. api „,.t„erfl. From the little 

S^nd dollars, . ^^^ ^^"^i:^ ^^^k inscribed tc; the credit 
. cash-book. :,linFeserved,mxN men > 



,t the same 
firm have 

, rcpvesenta- 
ny, rivals in 
3t extent of 
of its stock, 
uiftlly world- 

y small way, 
it 250 Broad- 
as a dwelling 

townships of 
t, had come to 
)r sncccss than 
the detcrmina- 
ish, to conquer 
ore, Mr. Young 
) this very com- 

of experience, 
importing trade 
luscellancous se- 
i playing-cards),,lac<iuercd 
f/c, the details of 
!ult to enumerate, 
era, and it would 
he private invesjt- 
,\e a specialty ot 
smon, the qucov- 
h-howls, and won- 
VQ\M astonish the 
Lt starting, was one 
■s. From the little 
bribed to the credit 

of the House the above modest investment of capital, wo find the 
t wlfount of sales. Oa the .1st of September the ate o t e fir. 
ent,;-, the sales amounted to $4.98 ; on the 22d. to ^2.77 on the^^M 
(ent'ered doubtless with most jubilant penmanship), to *24..U. Oc a 
s "X during the first two or three months, the entry was peevi.hly 

zz.a it .L.y to -^-;--3^- ;: - -r t;; :::s::^ 

X w Yea 's $675 00. This excess of New Year's over Chr>stmas ,s 
nc^vo thy 'a larking the change which fashion, or possibly a more 
wo thy ocial impulse, has effected, Christmas being now the favored 
day t^ p ent-making, whereas then nearly all but the most observau 
^fi.:;ilians adopted the Pagan annual for their ^^-^;^;;^^^^:^^ 
.rifts -i ml KOod-wiU. Perhaps a more notable change, though not ot so 
'p.;:: character, would attract the attention of one ^-'ng .cccss to 
fU. ,.n^h hook Of Tiff ny & Co. now in use. From less tha. three 
Z:^alr:^io.d,^^o.. one ^-"'^-^ thousand the tigure 
f n„r Phristmas davs is a progress wonderful enough, but, after all. 
:l.rinu^;:r:of what succe'ssl withm the reach of untiring energy 

^1:;^n:'Sii::Su:n^f the firs, door of NO. 2C1 to the pren^ses " 
of 1 e fim gav the first outward demonstration of the success w ich 
had beenl fairly earned. From that time till 1847, enlargement of 
, ac wos a mosi frequent occurrence, the new stock, constantly sug- 
te d or increased by the popularity of the House, -qun-ing now 
anartment now a floor, added for its proper storage and display. W h 
a riitv then not so common as now, the partners lost no av ad able 
onXmty to aSvortise their business, the attractiveness of their ad- 
i rthe world and their discriminating detail of mv.tmg wares 
largely and conspicuously remunerating them or the outlay 

in the spring of 1841 a new partner, Mr. J. L. Lllis. tnterc. 
th. concern nd in the fall of the same year Mr. Young made a hrst 
i, to Europe. This was a most important move, and one winch was 
rii^riit. high hopes, though after very sern..s^..ns, 
That it eventuated with signal advantage, and was in fact tl. obvious 
. 1 . n 1 the present extraordinary position of Ihe establ.shmen , 
:: 1 L matJer tor surprise or argument ; but, -vertlides. i wa 
n eat undertaking for so small and fresh a beginning. M \oung 
rs Kuro n visit was the inauguration of the Jewelry department 
' ft le ole and a general extension of the department of elegancies, 
a e Mi-tu etc Henceforward the House claimed a specialty for 
Sg^ild Pa isian personal luxuries, rich Dre.s Fans, exquisite Por- 


I^-al fnXof wbici,, ftoi its rclly ., stcM telgn, quauUt.cB were 
The ttial wa, immediately proved to be a tortuoale one. «'»J> » '? 

c - -»-- — : -Id": -;;».: "-'»"-• 

establishmeat m no long tinio acquirea a v 

Revolution, diamonds bemg sold at tlmt V^^'^^^' Thenceforth the 
t If t!,„i,- nm-phase money at the present day. inenttmn" 

r,edr:;:::treXuu'e -"^«*-" >- "-' "- °" ""' "'- 

""rn^'l'Mf the prcmiBes at 269 a-d 2C0 h.vit,g become too small for 

"" t TsoO^Ttost important addition to the firm waB made in the in- 

In IHoO, a mosi ^^ previously of Lincoln, Reed & Co., 

Tb:;:: : nous^-conspiclusVo' many years in the Jewelry trade. 

ot Boston, a llouso ininaediate occasion of an arrange- 

:; "S'^bal "t^Z. ---,-».. . CO .,a,.,e,. 

t "^'t'TrVc: ri:;;:i':r rLre""ooid a. x. ,. 






is were 

ion, the 
1 stances 

ami the 
ou ns a 
iiig pur- 
msell" of 
t to the 
ably less 
'orth the 
1 distinc- 
sally ac- 

tbis side 

small for 

, spacious 

' occupied 


iu the in- 
ed & Co., 
3lry trade, 
u arrange- 
) , namely, 
aris. The 

at No. 79 
rho advan- 

uiore than 

liver Ware. 
assuming a 
it seeming 
J distinction 
rcr business 
the same 

line of production. Of sterling Silver Ware, Tiffany & Co. are, it ,s 
said, the largest manufacturers iu the country. During the hrst wo or 
three years the maximum of men employed iu the produc .on of 
Silver lor the fu-m was fifty. They now have two hundred of the most 
skilful fal>ricants to be found, and use up in the course of the year 
150 000 o.s. of metal. Their present superior facilities m the way of 
machinery, aud the admirable organization of their factory, likewise 
enable on^ man to effect the same work which was originally e.xpected 
of two, so that the force employed is to all purposes eight told that ot 
the commencement of the manufacture. This extensive production en- 
tails an extraordinary investment not only of capital, but also of taste and 
observation. Many of the productions of this department are indeed 
chefs d'o'Mvre. For years all tbe prizes of the New \ork Yacht Club 
have been made by Till.ny & Co. Nearly all the magnificent llace 
Cups that are yearly contended for throughout the country have had 
the same origin ; and specimens of the ability of the House m tins lino 
may be met with in China, the Sandwich Islands, and in fact wherever 
sporting liberality requires such splendid guerdons. The rich case 
of Silver exhibited by this firm in the Paris Exposition, designed 
rather to illustrate the sensible elegance of American domestic life 
than to challenge comparison with the enormous show-pieces of old 
world production, is a notable exponent not only of the art resources 
of the establishment, but likewise of the excellent taste of its patrons. 
la 1852 the firm, having previously to some extent imported fine 
French Chandeliers, commenced the mannfacture, for which it is now 
so well known, of Bronze Gas Fixtures. The material, which is the 
same quality of bronze used by the Parisian founders of art-p.eces, 
and the excellence of the workmanship bestowed upon their produc- 
tion, while they render the Gas Fixtures of Tiffany & Co more ex- 
pensive, at the same time produce articles of much greater artistic 
merit and durability than are the ordinary fi.xtures. As a branch of 
the firm's manufacturing, this enterprise, though reciumng an insigmfi- 
oant number of fabricants in comparison with the Silver and Jewelry 
departmonts. has a fair claim to share with them in the general result 
of improving the country aesthetically. 

Since 1858. the facilities of the establishment for the proper execn- 
tion of the elegant designs of its artists have been so much enhanced 
and have found so decisive public indorsement, that the firm at that 
date ceased importations in that line. A distinguishing merit of the 
home production is, that a design for the fixtures of a gentleman s 
dwellin.r can be patented by the Iloust, and thus, should the order so 
8pecifv,"reinain actually unique in style and finish. General experience 


auctions. Tiffniiv & Co does not however simply 

Tlie Bronze Department of liffany & ^J^' f ^.^ j^ this rich 

,. . nooVWturcs The mportationof objectsoi a'i >" ^ .. ..„, 

relate to Gas F.x u cs. l ^,^^^^ ^^ ^^.^^ j.^, , 

metal was one of the first J^^"'^'^ venture, soon made the 

encouragement to what -^ ^^j:^ to beo; e f istinet feature, and 
seasonable invoices so considerable as to l^ecome 

years the Bronze Gallery of J'^'^^yj;/^ ' .j^ ^^^ other foreign 

ihe receipt of the very choicest P™^^"f '^"^ .^^^"j;" ^ ,„y even in the 
articles, has ^^^^^^^j;::'^^^:::^:^^, as Jell as for tho 
old world ^-\\'.l''lXZteA\y one of the attractions of the 
art-emulating public, it is cleserveu y 

metropolis. , ^ exceeded the pre- 

scribed space of 211, thou.ii u ^j. ,^^^^^,0^ 

to make another move unavoidable. J' -J^^^^ ^^,J,,,, of " up- 

was so great as to ^^^^^'^^^Vt^rdyrf unique elegance, and even 
town" progress. A structure, at haUlayof^'^^^ architecture. 

„ow one the most orna^ ^^^^Z.^^, The new store was 

had been ^^'^^^^f /«;/'' '7^,,,emcnt and sub-cellar, covering an area 
five stories in height, witli basemcm perhaps the best 

comm«nt.ry on the fore .gl.t »' '' "' J ,^„'„ J,,,, „f «„* an.l tra.le 
Ch.ngc,i9 III. fact that la 1801 tho i>oc». ^hc promises 

:t,1,!d the «,n, to .ecu. the j;^-"/;' ^^e T",, »>. »'« "-" 
of Tiffany & Co. aow have » ''""'"S" *; ,^„,,j j,, «,„ world. 

,„,n,r than those of -y '-' ^f j'J * „ ation of the Ho.,™ hecan.e 
A, dealers ,n r-,o Stones, ^Uj^^^ ,,^^,„^ 

superlalivo soon afloi "> ""i™ . , „gi,|„„t partner 

,„U,ue -^vantage of a Fnnaue^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^,^^,,„^^ 

5n the person of Mr llo«l ts P ^^ ^^^^ ,^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ the establish- 
wore une(iualled. It is noi ^.^^^^..^ nssocia- 

„,ont, jewels of extraordmary s,zo -^ l^^^* ^^^ ,„,,, though it may 

,,,„ u.ids the indefinable ;^--;^ ^^^p^.;^ the instruments 

not be materially estimated. Manj^C ^^ ^^^^^^,^,.^^,^ 



wise au- 
thcy are 
iign pro- 

3V simply 
this rich 
made the 
aturc, and 
For some 
nishcfl by 
ler foreigu 
iven in the 
1 as for th<? 
ons of the 

d the pre- 
s in ujic, OS 
of location 
cs of " up- 
;e, and even 
\v store was 
ring an area 
,ps the best 
?vil from the 
k and trade 
Hie premises 
nd are much 
[ouse became 

Having the 
iidcnt partner 
base of gems 

the cstablish- 
storic associa- 
though it may 
le instruments 
to Republican 
well authenti- 
rie Antoinette. 
, collection of 

ie-vol^ of the Hungarian Trince Esterha/.y. they were likewise among 
the ar.ost buvers, their purchases approxin.ating to one hundred 
tusa,ul dollar;. The romance of Jewelry, it will t ns be seen ,s no 
to be disregarded, though, in this insta.u^e, it .s inculental to the more 
practical view of the way an American firm is enabled to cater to the 

'IT :^e:y':X date in the progress of their Jewelry trade. Tiffany 
& Co. became manufacturers. A repair shop was in fact almost au 
immediate necessity. After a while, as the IIousu gamed a reputafon 
in that line of business, designers, dian.ond-setters, etc., became requi- 
site By such advances, from so small a beginning, has grown up 
perhaps the most extensive establishment engaged in the produ^-tioa 
of what is known as standard or eighteen-carat Jewelry m the United 
States The number of workmen employed in all the Jewelry manu- 
facture of the House is rarely less than two hundred ; and during the 
holiday season is considerably larger. The difficulties incident t^ the 
collection of such a force of skilled mechanics, which comprises d.a- 
mond-settcrs, link and chain makers, cnamellers, modellers, chasers, 
engravers, polishers, etc., are very great, requiring energy and ludg- 
Lent as w 11 as capital in an unusual degree. None but articles of 
Tstandard purity of metal (eighteen-carat gold, the P-portion bes 
adapted for richness of appearance and lasting wear), are permitted o 
eave the shops of Tiffany & Co. ; and the quality of finish is equal y 
regarded, it being a positive business rule that all productions shall be 
of Guaranteed excellence. Connected with both the Jewelry and 
Silver Ware departments of the House, and -1-^"^ -^^ Z^^'^;; ; 
is the extensive Designing room. The enterprise of 1 iftany .^ ( o. has 
udiciously secured the most capable artists in their line of manufac- 
tare and with a kindred liberality of foresight organized this nnportant 
feature so perfectly, that the designer has constantly at his hand the 
published Art Treasures of the world, no co.t lieing spai^d to procure 
L freshest authorities in the way of theory or .•H-^^-'^^'; " '^^^ 
variety of uses to be subserved l)y such a feature is very giea the 
growing fastidiousness of public taste constantly requiring someting 
out of the common in the wide range from signet-rmgs to diamond 
Zrurrs, or from silver christening-cups to the stately decorative 
'ui A Monogram, deftly and cp.aintly arranged for the leaves 
of a ladv's fan ; an emblematic l?ron7.e Gateway to a Tomb in the City 
of Mexico; a sculptured Race Pri.e for the Hong Kong eouiv^e; a 
Class Ring for the West Point graduates; a silver Weddmg Memo- 
rial'- an Album Cover, to comprise an instance of every M.nera and 
Stone from New York Bay to the Golden Gate ; a !5adge for an Army 



foraJuage; and a I'^^^^J^^J^f J „, experience has shown, an 

n-suarce. of the De.igmn, ^^^^"^^^.^^ „„,i„oss houses, which, 
The characteristic -^^-V^f^^'%^^ "^^^l, ,,,,, vulture, enables them 
in seasons of connnerca ^'^^^^l^^^,,, .owel-s to new purposes, 
to sustain the vitality of trade by t>n, v 1 ^^^ ,,,„,ferring 

perhaps Ju.t -^f ^^^^^^trp^ c l-L entirely strange to the 
their accumulated capUal to temp« '^ ^ ^j^^ j^.tance of th>s firm 

country, was --l-^^^^./^^T^^'l^oresoeing the probability of a 
during the recent war for t^^J; ^'^"- ., ^he first to exhibit to 

prolonged struggle, Messrs. 'l.ffany .V C. .e ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^, 

Ibc U. S. ^i-^-^*^^-"'^^^T"fll the campaigning conveniences, the 
Furniture, comprising the ""f^"^' ^^^^^^ a considerable portion of 
ambulance, tents, etc. Not ^^^^^ ^^^^^l^.^ show-room of military 
the store at 552 Broadway ^^^^^Z^^';;,^^ ,var, the firm enjoyed 
accoutrements. During the ^^^^^^l^^,, ,f .military wares, and 
a very large P'^^^^^^-'^^/^Ji.t army^nen for the choicer reciuirements 
indeed became the d«^^P«* ^ ''^' 'Progressed, and individual prowess 
of the service. As the ^^'-f^^^P^XT^to notice, rich Presentation 
brought one or another new l-P ^ ^^l, city or State indorsed Us 
Swords became froqueut -^^ "'f ""f„'^.„,,^e complimented its General 
Lro with a diamond-hilted l^^-^J-^ ^ J^t, Colonel with Pistols of 
tith a pair of Gold Spurs-n K S^ent^^^ ^.^^^ ^ ,^,endid Field 
ivory and silver-or a Companj us ^ .^^giderable line of 

Gui escutcheoned and ^^^^^J^,^ ,J^.. of the firm g^vve 
patronage the artistic and ^---^^^^ ^^^ ,,,t, ,,,ords made to oi'der 
i, an essential superiority. The nunbe ^^^^ ^.^ ^^^^^^,^^^^ 

i ascertained, from existing -^J-J^^;;;;,; .nn'dred dollars. The 
varying in cost from '''^^^ J^ ^^.^XYrk Sanitary Fair was sug- 
eolebrated sword ballot in the g^-^^J^; ^^ ,,^,,, rmcst productions, 
gested by Tifiany & Co -»-[-;; ^^^ the directors of the charity, 
Eventually awarded to Goner l^-^-O ,^^ .^^^^^ ^^^^^,, , ,ubse- 
and thus inaugurated what has pioy ^^^.^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ,^ 

.uent philanthropies of the Uinh ^^ -^^.^.„,,,y ,„own, as if the 
.words seemed to ^^^^^^-^J^ ^-e and hand of the designer. 
Oenius of the country ^;"V"i use oon established a reputation fo 
m addition to swords, the H«»^« « ,^.,,^ ^he organisation of 

Plugs of the most expensive '^^^^'^hv^^^^rev.. Every one of the 

a small corps of ^^^'^^^^^^^ ^« ^ ^''^''' " ^"^ ''''''' 
. Union States patronized the huu m 



ft Cane 
V incon- 
own, an 
ipoii tbe 

;, which, 
ales thorn 
igo to the 

this firm 
bility of a 
exhibit to 
ich Army 
ienccs, the 
portion of 
of military 
m enjoyed 
wares, and 
lal prowess 
indorsed its 
1 its General 
Pistols of 
Icndid Field 
rable line of 
le firm gave 
ladc to order 
six hundred, 
loUars. The 
•'air was sug- 
, productions, 
r the charity, 
ure in subse- 
sevcral of the 
vn, as if the 

the designer, 
reputation for 
irganization of 
ery one of the 

or less degree, 

the Flags costing from one hundred to five ^^^'^^^^^ ^;X 

• . hnw, that three hundred and sixty-two of the most costly 

register shows that three y^^^. ^f less expen- 

Btyle were produced, while P^"^^^ -Y'\;'' , f,^^ their entire cpiota. 

''- '''': 7: ^:^^Z^^X^^^^ and corps .adges. 
During the latter halt ot the btru„„ , strikingly 

Medals of Honor, etc., came in vogue^ ^IJ-^^j^;^ ^J^,^^ ',,,, Corps 
illustrate the grandeur and "^^^^ ^^^^f "j;;; , ...aely varying 
Badge was of the same design fo. «" S'^'^^f ' J' .^j^ ,^^ commander 
ain^rence ^^ ^-^^ ^j:-^:;^^ means of 

with a jewel, and he ^"'^•^'^^ J .,,,„ted, reached the cost 

each. In one mstauce a G<^»^'-'^^^;J^;'^ '\^ f.^ enlisted men, on 

of two thousand ^-^^";^- 11 fo t^nty five cents. For a portion 
the contrary were umde^o sell^^^^^ y^^^^^^^ Badges were manu- 

of Sherman's Grand Army twenty u afterward increased 

factured; for the FA'^teenth Corps, ten^^ ^.^^^ 

Z i::;e '"X:t an instance, ord^ng^ -^;;-t X 
,,,,„ which is even fi^ej ^^^^^^^^Z. country, in the 
of execution. ^^^« ^^f/^^^^, Auction of this firm, to the order 

view of^--° -„;^ ; ;„ :; pre'ent-ation to M.yor-General Thomas. 
of the Slate of Tennessee, 1 .^ ^^^^^_ 

It is of pure gold, weighing exactly «" P«^^' ^ ,, ,^111. 

lence vies with the rarest ^V^^^J^ f^^f ?!, ^f the great 
The foregoing resume of the ^^^^'''^^^ ^ necessarily inadc- 

commorcial and manufacturing houses 1. ^^^ > ^^ '^^/^^^^Z,, „ast 

::^?::r tSl t^^-rageme^t by ^^:;--^Z:^ 
Jnement to those wbo study - pa ro^^^^^^ J^^^^^^^ ^..^; ^^^ 
.ay note one feature w^^^^^^^^^^ adhere^^^.^^ J^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ 

commencement m itb transacuou business nublic, namely, 

,ho 0.10 prito Bystcm. /I'""" °'"; °° „ ;„j ,|„s„ prices arc never 
deviated from. As a system 01 co , ^j ^f illustration. 

B„., were any -*^; *;,^^„t !"!,„,,, „a ,t,icUy otaervcd it 
ing prospenly of a nm wmc ^^ ^^ ^^^^ii^^. 

A great Fre„e,m.B «•?»■ '""JrHl ikowUe »ato to a.»»me that 
r„e,: a«,mli;ia»l rer,„c„,o,„, tbe o.spring ot c,v„.at,o. 



The White Lead Companies of New York 

the IJRooKhYN ^^ iHT^ ^'^f ;,'" , (, „ s. Howland, who 

^.,... Urahan^^> n ..a a.,^na^.^ , ,_aous entov 

a«so..utcd ^»-7^'^^^";"3,d a corporate title under the genera 
prise, and m June, » 5. s cu tc, J ^^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^^ ,i,,,,„,i 

uuvnufacturing law of the State ot ^J; ^ ^ ^„,on„. 

knowledge wa. iu it. crude and ejcpe - al ^^^ ^ ,^.,^^ 

tered nuvny of tl'--^;----f^^;Xn Inufacturers. especially in 
to the imperfect developn.ent of A'n'^"'^*" "'^ .^.^ical appli- 

those branches whe..i^^ac,u^^ts^^^^^^ elected the 

cation are essentu^l to ^"^"^^^^^ J^ ^^ ^^^ continued to hold the 

Barriugton, Massachusetts. ^roniotiu'' the business of 

Augustus Grabatn took an aet.v^ ^^^ ^^^^^^.^ 

the Company, and v.s.ted Lu ope to Becur ^_^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^_^^ ^^ 

the general ^"^'^'^^^ f ^^^'^ ,^" ' "' \„', to the manufacturing depart- 
Trustee, and devoted much of »s tune to u ^^^^ 

ment. until his death, on the 2nh of ^--^^;;;^^^; „ j^T ustee, and 
also retained an interest in the ^"«;-;'^.^^'/'^^/'"'; fnth of March, 

occurred on the -Ut oi o P ^^^^ forty-one years. 

Ithelical ::Lica. and vroauoUvc a«pan,«».s of U,c bus.uos. 

The Brooklyn White Lead Company'. Manufactory 
,, ,„..„. ,„ 0,0 second Wa,a or ^^ ^^^.ZTZ!^ 

JEWETT & SON& wniif 


ildest of 
ill all, id 
ind, who 

as iMitor- 

f encoun- 
5 incident 
lecially in 
ical appli- 
iectcd the 

hold the 
nore than 
39, and for 
t in Great 

usiness of 
d advance 
be office of 
ing depart- 
B. Graham 
'rustee, and 
of March, 
ifetinie, the 

1 with pome 
of the City 

1 retained an 
Icalh, which 
be office of 
y-one years, 
ligonce in all 
le business. 


covering the 

and Adams 

)rick, and the 

wort, have ,«Beie„t -!«''' ^^^^tadiy ,",-.«-,., U .M... 

av«r»,c ot prclnetiou tor tho «» >"" J'f„„ „ „t the >vnr ll.o 

various departments. disastrous fire late m 

Tbe Works of the ^.^^^^^JXCc wooden buildings covering 
September, 1804, origmatmg ^";; ! ^^ i,ut fortunalcly tho 

tbe corroding beds, which were ^^-fjj^l building before the ma- 
five was arrested in the ^^^ 7;^^;^'^ ^^ ,vorks were speedily 

ness manager of the company ^'^ .^ ^.^ , •„! department 

general intelligence as well ^^ ^^T J American Manufacturers of 
Ld is President of the A omt.on of A ^^^ ^,„,,f,eturers 

Wbite Lead. This association now no u ^^^^^ ^^^^^ .^^^^^_ 

of White Lead from the ^^^^^f^^'^lZ^;',,^ Jneficially to the 
oliango of views thus «-- , .r.f ,,,,,ea'n industry. 
ftdvancement of this important '"'^"^" Leavitt, President; 

"^,epresentofficersoftheconipanyare-D^^^^ ^^^^,^^^^,^ ^^,^^^ 

in the City Of New York. 

,„o ,j.o» w,„« .- H-"rriS!:-;8:"' tLTo* 

„„ locatod at ISrUlg. and f ""'.'"'ft™ Immlrcd by two Imndml and 
r;::C;ti tons or White Lead annua.,,, 

,ota Jewett & So«.' White l«d Wo*., 

„t New York. They were established in 18", 1 


u 1 .„ ainoft crrpatly enlarged and extended them, until they 
tors, who have smce g'-^^'tly en g ^^^^.^ j^^^.,^. 

now occupy about two -^ ^^^^Z^^^^; / ^Jf ,, f^^t Ion,, forty feet 
for mauufacturmg purpose -^^>;";^^^ J^^^^^ ,, ^ there 

wide, and three stones high. The ^^Jm by one hundred and 
are two are frame structures, about one bunoreci uy 
fiftv feet each and of the usual height to accommodate the beds. Ihe 

pure White Lead """"'^J'j- ^^^^^s. John Jewett & Sons 

Aew Jersey. 

The Atlantic White Lead and linseed OU Werk., 
0.eed by UoBBa. Oo.a«. * Co. - -a to ^e ^^^^^ 
„„itcd State. They were «.f;«;^;^7„f/j;^^^^^ block .'d 

^''•''•-'^'^■'-^^■'^'''''^^TZltZl^rl with an e«e„»ive 

r:L:rr:di*;-d r^...e, roHoL.« »d d.ew,.„„. 

"iSotirtlSeO eieht or theBO buHding,, with a large quantity 
er':,-::::; hloery. .1 de.royed by «r. b.t thej. bave^.^^e b- 
..ullUntbe .o« -^— \-r;.i:rb ir e',gl^ ..l.p"ea 
r^::rbol:"or ;..;oses'eo:„eo.ea with .be o,a„uf.c.ur,„, 


ntil they 
forty feet 
icb there 
iilrcd and 
>ds. The 
, and the 
' perfectly 

itt & Sons 

y referred 


adures of 

■;*«■ '"S?. 

;est in the 
of tvventy- 
e block and 
1 extensive 

•ge quantity 
e since been 
newest im- 
es, sujiplied 

I, Ked Lead, 
lucts is well 

City of New 

fijLi ' 




i( ?.'.: 




ii; r 

%if\-^ '■>; -(3 -1^ +^ 

■- /V T £• 


The Linseed Oil Mills of New York 

-;tr^::::;c;nir:.«;..vf,— ,^r- 
that of 

The Judd Linseed and Spem OU Company. 

Bucceoaed lo the ^>^-"-«;"S'"'^' ^ f^ f tiuse d Oil in this oountry 
in 1«3.-., At that time the "-""^f "^^/^.^jred, and not n,ovo than 
was in its infancy. Amev.can seed <^Z'^^ ^his tirm were 
fifty hushels a ^'^V^;;:: ^^^^^^^^^^ and their first cargo 

the first to ;-l.o.^ B ' 'The p onLr vessel in this trade, now so ex 
was obtained in fe c.lj. y;*^ P' iTercnles," Captain Mad.l.gan, 

tensive and important, was the ^ 'P "^ Odessa and Alexandria, 

owned hy this J^- J^^^^f ^^Ij ; tr Lt;c^age to Calcutta having 
and afterward to the 1''^ ^ 1"^Ik ^^^^^ ^^^_. ^^^^^^^^, ^.^^.^^.^ 

been made in 184n. In 1838, Mr ba ^^^^^^^^_ ^ .^ ^^.^^^^^_ 

previously had been largely engaged u U, p ^ ^^^. ^ ^_^^ 

Lincuished his ^^'-''^ ;; '^^'^ «: ^dJudd's Sons; ,uul in 
James F. Tenninmn, nude the «' " "' ,^,^.,^ j, j. ,^. L. K. 

Bridge was added to the l>««'"'^^ , . ,3,,„„,e the property 

firm of Samuel Judd's Sons & ^o and 8 ^^^ .^^.^^,^,,j ,, ,,,,^,, 

of the .ludd Linseed and Sperm 0>1 C on l^v Y J ^^ ^^^^ ^,^^^,^ 

year under the general -"^""^"^ ^.'d "n Cherrv and (Jrand streets. 

The Works of this ^'".npany. locate., on U^^ ..tablisiK-d. 

have been greatly enlarged s.nco 1 ey . .c ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^_^^.^ ^ ,. ^ „^^ 

They now --'- -;^'^t; Clr'l n-ot.' The nu.-hin-.ry is 
two hundred and t.fty fee. "^y «" , ^^^^ „„e of fifty horse 

propelled by three steam «"«;"^^^ ^,;tv?th;.sand bushels o, seed 
power, and has a capacity for ^'-' "t^^;^;;^^^^,! oil a day. About 
Ld producing four thousand »?f '^ ;/.^ j;;„Uepar.menls. 
onehundredhandsaroempl.>ye^. -'^^^ ^^^^^ l^^^^^^^ ^, New 
Since 1803, Mr. Jamks K I enn - p^.^^-^nan came from 

York, has been msUUmt J ^J^^J^ "^,,,,e stated, was for many 
Albany to New Y"/*' 'j/^ ^V^\,, sperm and .hale oil trade 
yearB associated '''^^.^ "^^ •^"'^' ^,, J business experience, aud 
He is a gentleman ot large capital 

aft'ablc manners. 



Thomas Rowe & Sons' Linseed OU Manufactory 

Is locUea in Brooklyn, and covers about one acre of ground, bounded 
by tbo Ea.t River, Marshall, John, and Plymouth streets In on- 
Ition therewith is a pier, extending into the river nearly three bun- 
ded feet which was built by themselves for the conven.ence of th 
work n.e machinery is propelled by an engine of one hundred and 
rwon.vlive horse power, and has a capacity for producmg about four 
thousand Rallons of Linseed Oil per day. ,,, „ i,i„,, 

M. Ta .MAS HOWE, th- founder of this firm, is probably the oldest 
manufacturer now actively engaged in the bu-ess. He com., ed 
life as a .nerchant, but embarked in iron foundmg m 1834. \\ hue us 
enaa-red he became interested in experiments as to the adaptaO.hty 
of th; sc w, lever and toggle-joint power for the pressmg of oleagi- 
no seeds and other substances, which resulted in t»^o con^tr-^^^^^^ 
of a novel Hydraulic Press for the same l-poses and its su es 
induced him to engage in the manufactui. of L'--J ^d. Pre us 
to this invention, it is believed that, with one exception, the screw 
ev and wedge were the only mechanical powers employed m th.s 
c7u t.7 or the extraction of vegetable oils. During h.s busmess 
x^ en e he has obtained three diiferent patents for valuable ,m- 
pvo ments in the machinery employed in the manufacture and .s 
Sir^dly entitled to a place an^ong those ingenious men who have 
rendered an important service to their prolession. , , ,. ^ 

Messrs. Rowe & Sons import most of the Linseed by them 
dii^ct f om the East Indies, and their Oil has maintained an unsur- 
pas^d reputation in the Au.erican market for a quarter o a century. 
' M. Rowe has recently been elected President of the Amencau 
Linseed Association, a highly respectable and -Auentml body com- 
posed of n.erchants, manufacturers and brokers interested m the Lm- 
seed trade. 

Campbell & Thayer's Linseed Oil Works 
Are prolMi,lv the largest in the United States. They are located in 
B oollyn, and cover an area of about thirty thousand square feet o 
1 nd The machinery is propelled by an engine of two hundred 
hi; power, and has a capacity for producing from five to six thousand 

gallons of Oil per day. fipnnriF 

This firm was established in 1853 by its present members, GEORaE 
W Campbell and Georoe A. Thaver. who have been associated to- 
leiher for fourteen years without change or interruption. They nnpo 
Zsi of the seed they consume direct from the East Indies, and tbe.r 



In con- 
■ee hun- 
e of the 
red and 
3ut four 

e oldest 
bile thus 
f oleagi- 
, success 
le screw, 
d ia this 
lablc ini- 
e, and is 
vho have 

by them 
an unsur- 
ody, com- 
11 the Lin- 

located in 
ire feet of 
o hundred 
K thousand 

ra, Georoe 
iociated to- 
hey import 
i, and their 

. . ^ A ,r. «.ivo navticular attention to its purity, 

upon which the quality oi vu „V,f„rtuaatelv the case that much of 
paiu.i,.«, so moch J«P«f ;,2 :tl„ t otor,,,ixod«.,U, U,.t of 
the»cd th.t "--^if *",t, , ™ grmva u, with .be tax, .nd wMel, 

r o:r;= r rr^ ;-. Vi::r rcr:; 

their rigid standard. 

• , .. -o TorN JEWETT & Sons have a Linseed Oil Manufactory 

Besides these, Joun Jewett ot o Richmond, on Staten 

ia connection with their White l.ead Works a 1 ^^^jlnd thirty feet 

Island. The main build ng .s o ^-^^;;;;; T^^^,, ,„.,,ent ca- 

long by thirty-six feet wide, and ^^j ^ ;^^ ^^^gal ons of iinseod Oil 

probably doubled. 

ROBERT COLGATE & Oo., as before stated, have a Linseed Oil Mill in 
eofncrn wiJh their White Lead Manufactory in Brook>. 

The Bushwick Chemical Werks-M. Kalbfleisch & Son., 

Situated in the Eastern ^'^^^^^ ^-t:^:;:^;::::;:;"iSi: 

YorU, are among ^^^^'^^^^^^^^^ "^^ •■'-'-- 

torie. in the Un>ted Stat «. Ih^^^^ 

buildings of various sizes, the larj^st be g .^^ ^^ .^^^^^ 

to two hundred feet in '-^^^';;^'X;;7i^.,,,oh Ire made all the 
Retorts and Bottles useu . „,.„,„nt The whole group of 

"-". '-*':;r:.:r otitS"^""» '-■ »-' '-^ « ■ 

structures, with thur extcn ^^^^^^ ^^ imposing ap- 

neys, covers an area «f over ^^T ;[;;; J ;,„,„,„,, ^ 
pcavnnce even at a ^'^tance.l he interior p ^.^ ^^^ 

Le of a character corresponding with th extcn o ^^^^^^^^^ 

of the cb-^ejs.f. manure urn^Si^P^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^,^,^^_ 

and Bovonteen foet long by Wty i«"» „„,ioe»We objects 

e„„e,a„d i. anode, ^-J^Xr '1 Tee 'll" SUU-, imported 

r rc'e^rrror irzo *o..nd ao,,.. .... 


e,„, re..oB.u.o.. a. "«""«"" '^^ "^ ". three hun.lred .ho„«.d 
pburic Arid the, Imv. » capae t.v '»' f™ ' ' t ^„„ ,,„„d„d a„d tS'y 

;„,„.., .e>..>s »t:L^r:C>::::;:e*;e ac>,.,o«., »,.;..« 

carboys wockly. 1h sides uil , j Ammonui, 'lin 

of Tin, Stron, Ck. Muv.atc T>n ^^^J ^^'>^^^|^\,^, «ff,inal chem- 
Chrystals. Nitrate .' Iron. Su p u^o of ^^" • ;;^«^ ,,,..,„,en. 

iealB. Tl>e firm employ ^""f "*''" '^^°; ' ^eUings in the vicinity of 

at the eornor of F"'^"" ^"^l ^,'f ."'y't'sons was established by the 
The House of Mart.n ^'^J;;^^;;^ ^„,.,dous and suecessful 

present senior l'-^"-;:; ^^; iTet^^^^^ importance and emi- 

„,anngement has attamed .ts p e. ^^ ^^,^^^^ ^^ ^„^ 

nonce. As his lour sons, lie <-J-^^^ ^^^^e taken into 

Franklin 11. Kalbfle.sch becau.o of » ' "* J^ thJ greater part of 
partnership, and are ^^^^^^T;^ ^^^^Z... With a long and 
[be details and hard work '-^-^ ;. ^-V^ ,,,,,, they arc engaged, 
thorough practical ^^:^^ll^^'^ ,,pability which have gained 
they unite those ^^'^^'^^'^ ^,; ,,,,,„„Uy in which they 
r"^:tr;d:7X. - home and abroad, with whom they 


Holland, and has ^^-y;-^^. ^^^ ^^^ native land. Coming 
enterprise, and love of ^'^'''\''' , ;„ ^ ^.usiness that calls for 

to this country when y-"^^ ^ ,;' J^^ ^^ Za conducted it with such 
more than ordinary mental '^fl"''^^"2;'' ' ^^j.^ uion, an eminent 
success that he has .'^^^-^ ;^;;^' ^^ J iTtiLtion. Kindly and 
name in tb. commercial world ^- ^^^^^^^^^^^ ,,, relief of suffering, 
affable in his manners, ^.^^l,, ,,eogni^ed by his neigh- 
just to his employees, his J^f ^''^^ ; ^ j^j,,, ...jtb public as well as 
iors and fellow-ci^Jzens, who '^^^l^^'^^^^Zn^ oL honors. He 
private interests -^J- ^t Z:/: irimportant to the highest 
has held many important offices, tr .^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

in the city where he resides. " ^J^^' J^^ j,,^ ^,, political 
chosen Mayor of .^f «f y"' i;^ ;iVrp/aetiee of pursuing what he 

esteems to be rigni,, aim 

purposes. ^ ^ ^^g elected, in 18G2, by an 

o.r:.::r::io" .:X:t7aUve;e *» .aU0„a, H»„.e . Hep.. 



hoso arti- 

Of Sul- 


and tf^y 
3, Muviato 
louiii, Tin 
inal chem- 
vicinity of 
■^cw York, 

led by the 
I successful 
;c and emi- 
■rt M., and 
; taken into 
ter part of 
a long and 
re engaged, 
have gained 
they reside 
I whom they 

was born in 
of industry, 
ad. Coming 
that calls for 
it with such 
I, an eminent 
Kindly and 

• of suffering, 
by his ncigh- 
blic as well as 

• honors. He 
to the highest 

1867, ho was 
1 hia political 
•suing what he 
8 purity of his 

in 18G2, by an 
[ouso of llepre- 

,. r^ =-i,mnl District As evidcHce of his pcrsoual 

rvt"ca:t;rL,cxccod„aU,c c,.,ire.»n.W. e^o to „. u,.uc. 

cessfiil competitor. nmnllvn mi is olio of tlie most 

His rosi.lo»ce is near the Works m B""'^'?";"™ „,,,.„, ,„„„ ,„,i. 

""- r ™ 1^^: : i. m: t:;:is, a„a to .o.vo tu« dc.»iis o, .,. 

;r: e i,Sl^:.U0 h,s «„risi„g «nd active i„„ior ...rtucrs. 

The New York Dye-Wood Mills, 

T TTnrwnv Ac Co of 27 Cliff Street, New York 
Of which James L. ^^^''^''\^.\^/\^'J p,i„t L. T., during 18(1(5 
City, are the proprietors, erected ^J^^I^'^^^e Works of the 
and 1867, are the most comp etc, ^^^'^ J J^^.^^^^^ , j.^^ ,, «„, ,,un- 
..^aintheU^U^d^ate^rl^r^^^ L,es high. 

dred '^-^/--.yf'JX-Btory structure one hundred and thirty- 
connected wUh h s a two Jto y ^^^^^ ^^^^^. ^^^^ ^^^. ^^^^.^^ 

six feet long and tJ^rty-MX f t n ^^^^ ^^^^.^^^^_ ^^^ 

and grinding Dye-Wood*, and *^'' ' J ; ^^^j^^.,, ,„a approved dc- 

aU the internal -3--;; ^ ^ ^Jir^^ttLnt of tJ/bui.dings. 
scriplion,andonascalccouc.ponai !^^ thousand tons of 

Their storage yard, w.h a capa. - t^_^^^^^ ^.^^^^.^^^.^^ 

^r;a;dr::l ^a- cLge of t^ir unmanufactured and 

— r^i^riHarway.CXa.^^^^^^ 

Partridge & Son, who <;-"•-'" ;'J'^;^;;7"r,;^est in the 
..entlywere the ^^^^^^^ ^:'J2:ltJ:,l career, this firm 


,,ean fabrics by providing "-^ ^J^^ ^ ^ ^ l"... t,; time, 
partner with Mr. 1 ainuit,t, .1 i All of the partners 



bu.inesg, and are proficient judgcB of the articles which they mann- 
facture and import. Me«sr«. Harway & Co. have an estabhshed 
trade of vast extent, reaching not only to all parts of th,s country 
but to Europe and the East Indies, and this fact is evidence of then 
integrity and honorable dealing, which, conjoined with the.r expenence 
and qualifications, afford the best guarantee to buyers that the, r pur- 
chases will be such as reprearnted. 

Messrs. Harwav Si Co. are now giving special attention to the 
manufacture of Extract of Logwood,_a Dye of large consumption 
both in the United States and Europe. 

The Bishop Gutta Percha Company's Works, ^ 

Located at Nos. 208, 210, and 212 East Twenty-fifth street, in the 
Citv of New York, is the only establishment in the United States for 
manufacturing pure Outta Percha (?ooJ«, especially Submarine Tele- 
graph Cables, and Telegraph and Electric Wires coated and insulated 
with Gutta Percha. The Factory is a very fine one, and supplied 
with a great variety of novel machinery. The work is chiefly done by 
machinery, nevertheless from seventy to eighty persons arc required 

and emploved. 

Gutta Percha, of which large quantities are consumed in this manu- 
factory, is the gum or sap of the Gutta Tree, which grows in forests in 
and around the Indian Archipelago, Borneo, Ceylon, etc. It was first 
discovered by Dr. Montgomery, in 1822, during his residence at Singa- 
pore in the East Indies ; and the first introduction of it into England , 
was made by him in 1842, since which time it has become a perma- 
nent article of commerce, being now imported into England and 
the United States to the extent of several thousand tons annually. 
The first importation of it into the United States was made by ^^ ilham 
S Wetmore, now deceased, in the year 1841 Mr. Wetmore was then 
cn-a-ed in the trade with the East Indies, and brought, direct fnnn 
Singapore, twenty-five thousand pounds of Gutta Percha tor Mr. 
Saniucl T. Armstrong, who had just returned from London bringing 
with him the four original patents granted in 1845, in England, for the 
working and using of Gutta Percha in all possible forms then known. 
Two of these patents were registered in the Patent Office of this 
country, and constitute the basis on which Mr. Armstrong, and his 
8ucccs;or, Samuel C Bishop, operated for many years without inter- 




y manu- 
I of their 
heir pur- 

n to the 

(ct, in the 
States for 
riue Tclc- 
y done by 
3 required 

this raanu- 
1 forests in 
[t was first 
3 at Singa- 
;o England 
a pornia- 
igland and 
! annually, 
by William 
•e was then 
direct from 
Im for Mr. 
in bringing 
and, for the 
hen known, 
ficc of this 
ng, and his 
thout inter- 

Th. oommcrclal us» of 0„t.. Porrh. "=»'-'', ^X',,' 
i„„«™,g with the progress of bvont.on. A "^ '"'„,„ ,„„ 
pr.„hic wire, or cal>lc,. to bo used on.lor -'•;;' "7,, ,„„ ,,.„ 
Lt artiolo ,h.t l,a, yet been <l'-v»rc. for " ' ; ' .^„,„.: ,„„ 
1841', Dr Werner Semens made the fiist expcnmun 
r;;,c":. wire by „,o.n, of «n o„ve,o„o «'j;;-;-;:„:; ,, 

1 ,.-,„t vonr the Truss an Government orcleiea inuucu 
Bubsetiuent year inc iiubsi.i.u ,ip,n,„ under the 

;:» Uo nmlo fro,,, d. I'ereh. Insuhucl Wire, an., .t h.» boe„ 

the two parts to adhere, and at the same t me 
the piomeiB *, -matron"- who has been mentioned as the 

r'''''"7:z:l^^>n^^o:^^^:'^'^ „,„„ „„„ ,,„,,.„„ ,„ 
rrhetar:i:iX:a""„':r:,rt:;:ea «„ „oi„torro,„e„ .». 

,, ,1,.. n.anufacture from that ti,„c to tlio prcsoi.t. M,. 
uhZ ; 1 a p i, eX "rodocing .1,0 " eigl,. hour .pt„,„" i„ the 

!"°T.> '"^rli'rlhrirau":^' o? .bo ..,.*. Uo„r S>..e,„ of 
S™ ;!; .h' 'la hi. .Wre. oa .hat oecio,. bo 

Tl!:t; ™v fri"j.. »"o »»:;\,*:s.!i;:. s^'-/sfSy- «™*r 

!r;o';J";'er'c'.'a.r»i;S'.o\':" S Z al. ba,e „.. b.. .„,.. re»»„ to 


the ,n.^or ,..vt or the ^^^:-^^^}Z^^^n£:^^^-^-y thons.n.ls_n.en 
anil cons\inuM'« '" ..•« *^i'i o' -;*V T- ,1. «.v ti.,.ii- .IimUi— men wlio arc ex- 
w»u. .!o not earn a penny fron. the.r . t ^^^^^^,^^,,,i,^ .,nly. and 
clusivoly consumers, and who ''^'^ ;^;' ' ''\' ,' t o.^^.vho UUjov xvith their 
are of no use to anyone. ;^"''*^'" ^f i,f !L ^^^^^ Ih.t they do 

brains and luoney and wlm do mue Rood m the u^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^,^^^^ ^^,,^^ 


laborin/ men-the bone and sn,cw o he na .on u^ i ^^ .^^ ^^^^ .^^^,^,^^^^^ ^ 
eountry is indebted for its life ^^^ ^ 'V^^"' ''"",,.„ 'V means to payoff 
• for tliAnaintenancc of '"^'•^'; V' ^,1^^ J h^.hod IheV be 
the hu-s-e national debt, incurred lor Nva P"'!?"^^" j \^ j.^^.or than any 
obliged U, devote twenty-live per cent mo e « ^'''^J^ "^^^° „,, ^ad its fair 

Sr ^S;nil^^^^tr 11;:;um1o^ hand!::;.:^^^ ^.y are essential to 
each other." 

Xhom.. Oti. UEoy & Co.'. Shot and Lead Works 

A,c .,„o„..U. most „o.owor.b, »' *» ™"'' '"J^^tr."" ^ ^^^ 

'^irtolToJ,;:;:: ::f Oi»ti„ct manuractoncs. locte. ia d«crcat 
structcd view of Astoria, Ravenswood, Hunter a 1 omt, wre i 




Brooklvn. Tho principal numufaeturing operations however are earru.! 
on in ti.e Imildiugs, 201 and 2(13 Water street, whi.-b are lour stones m 
height, fifty feet wide and one hundred feet deep. It .s ,n the.e I.u dm,s 
that their eele),rated Eagle Brand Shot are u.anufaetured by an e t u 
now process. Ordinary shot are .uade by dropped from he to 
of a ofty Tower, some two hundred and forty feet, but .n then- .le.cent 
they acuire such a mon>entun> that many of the pel ets ^^^-^2 
the force with which they strike the receiver. In Lelloy ^ f- - J- 
shot are dropped but a short distance, and are buoyed up m the u 
bv a enrreut of cold air which retards their fall to an --tjMU suir.c.en o 
prevent their flattening, and renders them almost perfectly spheucal 

''I'uheso buildings, also, there is a great variety of novel ^-<^^^ 
manufacturing Lead and Tin Pipe by Hydraulic pressure, and a feheo 
Lea" mng Mill that produces Sheet Lead of a quality that cannot 
he suroassed Tho pipe machines have a hydraulic capacity ot six 
hunZ tons and are'tlle only ones by which pipe cau be made from to 
first pressure and by which Tin and other hard metals can be successful y 
^XT^^Ll. pipe machines are of the Cornell patent, with the 
Zrovements, o which Iv.ossrs Lelloy & Co. are sole proprietors. 
Fomery they used along core in the end of the Hydraulic Ram but ex- 
peZce taught them that by this process, owing to -bration, tr e 
Lr were impracticable. They then abandoned ,t and adopted the 
CorreU lan, wtieh places the core in the bottom «nheCy^^iK^e. with 
the Lead around it acting as a support, and as the Lead on j s m 
Ition at the point of pressure, the balance being - ^ — ;f ' 
7u . ;.„„ T,mi\Ue cbanco for tl.8 core to wovor, bol tlie pipo li»s a 

I«,?irc n re Tnd i» of umrorm Btronglb througl.oat. Tho pipe 
perficlhj tTM cent ana .^^^^^ ^^ ^,^ ._^^l^^^ 

LLTr: e^t * tX »aw,' .P.i.» an- "".»'-- "»»"'-; 
io The vast .uperiority of the method, omplojed „, h,s n,.a«fae. 
tuve ever the old Lhioned processes has ,o stimulated the de„m„d, 
It tCgl the Ore, produced in 18C6, eight millions of pounds, thejr 
laveten compelled'to duplicate their machinery, and are now pro- 

• "Ihc^ ::rtreL'Sr;°"Thom., O.. ^^^y. in >S»5. 

^-rthAe^r:::?"?:^ cE: 

which the metals melt, the fusion is not perfect, and that the lin .ning 
Ling thin corrodes f;om the galvanic action of the two metals, and 


to the Groat Kxlnbition in Lon.lon in isr.l, wl.oro ho was olTeiod 

. ii.,.,i,„. f l.o nrncosa hv which it was nmnufactuml. 
^"■;::^rt T^rrO. .cRo, a.oeiatea .ith In. hi. J^oth. 
E.lward A. Lclloy, and tho two now compose the fum. Ihty 
ploy in their works about sixty persons. 

East River Iron Works-Samuel Secor & Co,, Proprietors. 

Belong to the class of the great Marine Kngino Works, fo-vlm^l' Ne- 
YorkLfamous, and, properly, should have been not.ced ,n that con 

"'5n"l850 Mr Samuel Secor commenced business at 96, 98 and 100 

wl h ngton^treet, confining himself principally to the construc.^^^^ 

Tli.h Pressure Boilers, Tanks, etc., and the repairmg of Steamboats 

2 St^Im h PS The Southern States, previous to the late rebelhon, 

\ We drafts upon his mechanical resources, and supplied h.m 

:;t J y B After the breaking out of tho war, he built several 

Male Boilers for some of the Iron-clads of the Monitor class. 

Wh ebranrt so be found his shops too contracted to accommo- 

^ :;::^r\ri;n;, ISOB. l. .sociated with l^u Mr. ^. 
MiLiER Jr under the firm name of Samuel Secor & Co., and they 
^medttely' commenced the erection of the new works at the foot of 
E rTwenLth street, completing them the same year. These ork 
Sfvervextensive, and are supplied with all the necessary to Is and 
rnvenienees for building Engines, Boilers, and other machmery, of the 

'IS U "ted S.av.s Navy Department, as well as the Merchant 
service has availoa itself of their increased facilities, and a number of 
a g MarL Boilers and Engines have been constructed for bc^. 
Resides these a large varietv of miscellaneous work has been oxe uted 
S t ll'st five'y .rs, b^th in these and in the ^hops ^Washing- 
ton street which are continued by them as a branch. When m full 
ouerat on the works employ from six hundred to seven hundi-ed men. 
C n^chanical part of the business is under the immediate supcn^ 
vision of Mr. Samuel Secor, who has had a practical experience of 

vcr, was 

red large 



fovtv vonr. as a Machinist and Engineer. Tl,e ^^'---ff^J^f^ 
r..,iK.;., for land use, which h.s effected n, great of f« 1, and .. 
now extensively used, was first successfully introduced by b.m. 

! brother 
'hey em- 


hich New 
that cou- 

18 and 100 
ruction of 
3 rebellion, 
iplicd him 
iiilt several 
uitor class. 
) acconimo- 
ig an cstab- 
•ine Engine 
r. Epiiraim 
1., and they 
the foot of 
^hese works 
y tools and 
inery, of the 

e Merchant 
a, number of 
id for both, 
sen executed 
an Washing- 
^VHien in full 
undred men. 
idiatc super- 
xperience of 

The Phoenix Works-John Savery's Sons, Proprietors, 

At Jersey City, are old and very celebrated works for U^ .nam^^-^ 
of Iron HoUow-ware, Stoves, etc. They were founded, m 1838, by 
Jolm and William S^very, who commenced business there under the 
firtsty oT John Savery & Son. In July. 1845, the build.ngs wore 
de roy d by fire, involving a total loss of flasks, patterns tools and 
n^cZery ; Lt the fo..dry was rebuilt with ^^J^^^^'^^^^: 
tions were resumed in October of the same year. On ' '^""J^^J l^J' 
1840 Alexander Law was admitted as a partner, and the style of 
tl e rm v" changed to John Savery & Sons. This was con mued 
until I decease of Mr. John Savery. in 1853, when the style . . 
"h ng d to John Savery's Sons; his son William, a man emment ly 
qualified by natural endowments to be successful in busmess pursu. , 
2 c m^ g tL senior member of the firm., For several years however 
he h resided on the old homestead, in Massachusetts, and the actn 
sun-vision of the business in Jersey City, and of the warehouse n, • 
Z Yo^ has devolved upon Mr. Law, who has f^lcd the pos.t.on 
w tl cred. to himself and advantage to the firn. «-"f/'-^- ! - 
also, other partners have been added, viz. : G. W. Mason, Q. V. . ^ an 
Schaack. and William E. Savery. 

John Savery, the founder and originator of th.s concern wa. 
pione r in deve oping American Manufactures. He was born )n 
cZev riymouth County, Mass., in 1789, and served an apprent.ce- 
Sp'th moulder's trade. Among his earliest labors was 
Tin the pond_at the outlet of which was the foundry he was con- 
nected with-to make cannon balls during the war of 1812 In fac . 
vasihe first man who succeeded in making, at that oundry, a per- 
fect cannon ball. He made shot which was furn.shed he L. &- 
Friga"" constitution." and which was used in her memorable engage- 

ment with the " Gucrriere." . , , i u; . 

ms m-st partnership was in the works where he had served h. 
an prenticcsh p, in his native town. This continued unt.l about 82 , 
appunuLL, 1, .,.^„^ X Y and in association with his 

when he removed to Albany, ^. i-, fi""- pni-tner- 

hrother-in-law, established a foundry there. In ''"t^J^'^^,, 
ship was dissolved, and was succeeded by Savery, tehaw ^ Co., until 

204 eema.u:a,.i.e man. factobies of nm vork. 

works in Jersey City. various departuicnts of 

Messrs. Savory's Sons now employ m ^^V ;7^^,„i,4 ,,,,nselves ..usinoss, abou^ one huu r«i -^^^^^^^ ,,,;;, personally 
of ovcTV in.provenient suggested 'f^ "^" '' ^^^f^.t^ring, and using 
inspecting and superintending the deta.l. ^^ -^^'^ ;^^ J^^ ,,,« 

J, t,o l)est brand, of An>encan -^^\^S . ^f .^' ^^.^i..^^,, contribu- 
estabiished a reputation for tlieir ^^^ ^H'i,^^, ,,a ware- 
tion to the renown of American Manufactmcs^ 
house of the firm are at 'JT Beekmau street, ^e^v \oik. 

The Architectural Iron WoYks, 

,„eatca on Ea. F„.«ee„U, '^^'^:nJ^Zi^^^ «" '« 
ei,y or N«vJ;^-A. •' 7 ;L .ork c v« an .re. (including .i.» 
kiu.l in llic United Stutci. Ho »"'.> . , fo„ 

va,.i„u,de„»«n,ent.) ot ■"»!-'»;:, I™ ,;::' fj^Ud in 1856, 

184«, «,>e„ M,. Badger ere,.ed, '» *«^^ ^ oM^J'^^.. _ ^^,, ^„„„„y 
rfr::^lt";::rpo.fod;-owe .oi/exi.enee .0 .at 

"";t:r Unown .at, ,«.. ^8.0, .on - -^ .^je '"" 
.nd other Earopean, and, to a toUc^l ex ^^^^ .^^ 


,„,„ „,■ .i.o uitinnt. tri„,n,, o n»o,. «-- j;^ „„,„, „ 

,.n,.rgy on the 1'"'°' "» 7"""",- „,„,, „„j ,b„if .«,,eriorily was 

' """ff ::;:"„:::■ '";■;;:,, ::£.:! h. nu,ner„n, ad,.,. 

r:;:: ; a. atlding .nateHa., .e „,.y -''<:' -'''y;-';! 
,av,nguf.|.a™,(»lnU ,ato»,Jo ^,^.^_^ ^^^ ornamentation 

use of Iron lu many structures,; im. b'^'"^' 



indcd the 

tuicnta of 

and using 

t'uey liave 

e contvibu- 

aud waie- 

id 0, in the 
nents of its 
icluding the 
ay from four 
ted iu 1856, 
troduced and 
1 Now York, 
ifter the year 
he first Iron 
1 this country 
tence to that 

d in England 
, even in our 
ifices ; but its 
to be or very 

of a long-con- 
.'ting intorosts, 
id indoiuilablo 
,s resisted until 
ni,)eriority was 
nucrous advan- 
; the obstinacy 
(1. IJesidos the 
t warrant for the 
r oruaiuoutation 

„.a arohiteetural beauty entitled it to the c^.d^ation of all who would 

^ati^ their own -^^f^^ZTi!^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^-"^- 
The introduction of light into tl-^ "j _ ^^^^^ ,„ t,,e 

-- whichissupj« y t e ..^^^^^^^^^^^ 2^^^,,^^ ^^„,„„ , 

interior spaoc avadablc tor "^"'^J J^ \ ' ^^^^id argument for t lie 
fluenoo of light upon the mmates_ consti^^Uej^^ a v^ fc ^^^^^^^^^ 
use of Iron as a building materia . ^^ wmdd e y ^^^.^^^^^^ ^^^ 
xnany other points, in which decided alvan_^^^^ n 
Iron over all other known budding ^^f^^f ^ ; f,,nity of 
be mentioned superiority of strength ^'^^ ^J^ ^^ ^J^^ f , ,^, i.eom- 
eroction, capability of architectural \'- 7',^^;,^";,; of materials, 
bnstibility, facility of renovation, duiabihty. intrinsic 

and protection to l'f« -^^ P^^l^^^^,, incorporated, in isno, by D. D^ 

j^r^rttsr :i --^r ?;:t-r-r 

Secretary. _ Unildintrs were destroyed by fire, but 

«•„. workmen, ... every fani.ity '" ' ■? ^J "l' ^Iri v of Oa,t 

feiiutters. , . „,„i,ino. shot and shell 

In past years, it has been largely engaged ^n ma " ^^^^ 

of all sizis, projectiles and ??--"";f '^^ ,tg,:rGun-carriages 
Government, and also for foreign powers. The latest U 
constructed were for twenty-inch B';"«^ ^,, ^,,, ,„es to which 

It would require a largo ^P"^''" ^« """^j;, " Vorks but the follow- 
iron has been applied by the A- ;tec -^^^^^^ .^aia 

,ng be mentioned, viz. : on Stor J " ^ 

,^^.rehouse.A.enaKl^.yHous^^^^^^^ Verandahs. 

Shutters. Venetian Blmds. '^^ '"'^^ .^^, Arches, Window 

,5aluslrades. Cornices, Sta^ways to umns t . ^^^^ 

Lintels and Sills, ^^^^^^^' ^^^^^^i.; ^r^.^.^ Heams. Patent 
dow Guards, Lann>s, Awning a d o^^^^^ " ; ^^.^^,^ ^^, ,, .^ ^.^„,^,„y 



Warehouse, o, .1,0 "'""' f';','-',^^, ;„;c„, ,,.„yLt rbll.del,,l.i« ; 
ana of the I'oansyl.ama 1:'"''° /^" , ;„„ comimuy «t Fullon ami 
„„. ho„ Ferry H..,.e, ... . .0 U,, ■ ^J ^^^ "m1 IlnUey BniM- 

Wl,i.e„an >'«;;7»^J ;^"; :,i ;'C -. «U-.UHUS, Hou,,».u., 
mgs, Ikooklyn; C. r> » '"'"'\f; ,-,,,„ „t New York j tlie 

BuiMinB ; »..<i a.« «";«';' *:;;'^n y la Lveral UoeUs of ftve- 
Unitoil States Aivoniil at Wateivliet, xx. x., » 

'"";• U.1 t tt vor 0, he erected, in Washington street, Boston, 
iron loundei. In tiit yeai lo'.v, prejiulioe 

the lirst iron front ever seen .n ; '^^ «;/' ;« "JJ. that, 

^■irrrr;;: ,::'r u :.'ir 's::^ tnire .,ve„.e„ ... 
.at;:: u!^.:-.. -tLr:.::r "tc; t^^-r: 

l„lro,l«eea the »liuUer« niUi his now stuiouiris. 

- " "»■•«'■'■;» "'■■-"' "^:;t;:U : a l. a.oeia.e.. wiU, Charles 

lU'cd, IvMi-, in int \nu^ T„sur'.')cv Companies, till 

'''""""'■'■"'"'"' r"::;o , ; • hehr^l buihlh,s- eree,e„ hy 


plac ,s — 

T be luer- 
liG Grain 
Jvouklyn ; 
ulton and 
sey l>uUd- 
iTovk; th« 
;ks of five- 
e iuappi'u- 

upi ...Ul, in 
liis native 
iiness as an 
jct, Boston, 
le prejudice 
rantee that, 
,'n expense. 

1 vented and 

patent, ami 

onts (kuowu 

iritb Cliarles 
,0 found tlio 
jnipiinies, «'. 
ist ohjectiocr. 
Ills purpo;o, 
of Iron as a 
I mechanical 
I'^an to sup 
d tlieir supe- 
rt erected l)y 
)ut, from the 
li(! approval ; 
with untiriiiR 
a coiupotitor. 



in America. 

The Stover Machine Company, 

Though compavatively recently ^^^^^^^^^ uniform 

.romrnence and public f--'/'^ '^^^^.Uvo been constructed in 

excellence of the Tools and ^I'^^ ^•-^; ' ^^^ Z^,, ^he general n,anu- 

its workshop. It was incorporated - «^^^;7^^„,,,„eed business at 

facturing laws of the Sta^ of ^^^^^,,^ at No. 13 I'latt 

the corner of Pearl and Elm ^''''^^' '' j^ ^^^ found that the 

street, New York. In J- fj^'j^o contracted ^ 
n^anufacturing department W.S a og ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^.^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

demand for the company ^ f!*^'" ^' jj^^^.e of Kefuge buildings at 

were sought fcr -^' '>'-'*^--\"'g^^; '' ", : nmin budding was con- 
tbe foot of KastTwenty- h.rd St ct. ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ 

verted into a Machine S»^«P' 7*^, J^i 7,,ndings were erected to 
Kooms on the water ^^^^,^^^^, in the manufacture 
facilitate operations. Here the tompu y ^j^^i,;,,;,,,- Tools, and 

of Marine and Stationary hngmes, a w ^^ ^^^^^^^ Governmoul. 

fdled many important '^'^^^'''^'\''l^^ ,^,,,„ers " Maumee" and 
among them, the Engines foi the nn ^j^,,, ^ools made 

I Tullahonm." The denuuul, ho^v.■^ •>. ^^^^^ ^,„.chased the exten- 
,,y tbi. .MMupany Increased so la^^ ■ ;^^^^^^^ Mass.iehusetts, 

slve Works of Thayer. Houghton ^ to .^^^^ ^^_^^j ^^,^^,i. 

tlieh they enlarged, and iVmnUusp.^^^^^^ 

working Machinery the ^-:^^^'^^ v.,,.^ Central. Oswego and 
wav. the New York and ;2,,.. Annuls, and the Navy Yards m 
Syracuse, and ^^^^^::^ ^ the -u^pany employed over 
the principal *'""'^' »""'"« 

seven hundred workmen rronident of the company, was 

In the meanwhde, Mr ^I'^^^J-jYork where all branches of the.r 

seeking diligently for a - ;; ^ ^^^J .„.,a it at the foot of Fifty-first 

208 remahkable manvfactortes op new york. 

street fronting? the river, but it is proposed to make large additions at 
an ear y period, and provide facilities for a thousand workmen to bo 
ZXJ in the endosure. When completed according to the p.ns 
this will be one of the largest establishments of Us kmd m the United 

"'The success of this company is due in great measure to the in^n^ve- 
ments and inventions that have been made by the Presulent IIenhy 
S STOVER, giving their Machine Tools peculiar and distmct,«. features^ 
?ts hiloryL in fact one of the marvels of American enterprise, a.d 
its rap d rise is a conclusive proof of the mechanical gomus and or- 
ganSg ability of its founder, and reflects credit upon all who have 

been associated with him. tt„„„v T> Stover 

The officers of the Stover Machine Company are, ^^"^^ D- S^ovER, 
President and Treasurer ; A. Brown, Secretary ; and Mr J. W BiCK 
keII, originally of the firm of Stover & Bicknell, Supermtendent. 

The Eagleton Manufacturing Company 

Are the largest manufacturers of Iron and Cast Steel Wire, for ull 
uses, in the State of New York. The Company have two mil s cnv 
ployed in the manufacture, the principal one, known as the T-a^le 
Wire Mills," being legated on Twenty-second Street between I-nst 
II Second' Avenfes. and the " Brooklyn Wire Mills," in South -k- 
Ivn The former covers the greater part of six city lots, con 
fifteen thousand square feet, and is i^ve stories in height In the ..,.- 
Lrons rooms there are nearly two hundred wire blocks. prn.c„K v 
emploved in drawing Steel Wire of all sizes, mcludmg about f-n > 
niachi^es for drawing very Fine Wire, some us fine as No. S. 1 o 
machinery is propelled by an engine of two hundred and fi v 
Z'r hrougl the agency' of an immense belt three feet in wuUh. In 
r biiler ro'om th.-re are six boilers of large size. The anncahng 
ovens have a capacity for annealing seventy-two thousand p-nnu of 
steel a day. This is converUd principally into Cnnolme AMre. o 
whh great quantities are made; and this is one of the few cstab- in the United States where maybe witnessed al ho opera- 
tilns incidental to converting a rough bar of steel into a finished Hoop 

^''in'closo proximity to the Wire Mills are the " Eagle Skirt Works " 
owned by L company, where about two hundred dozen SUnU arc 

Iditions at 
Lien to be 
the pli ns, 
ho Unilod 

4 \t- 

) im preve- 
nt, IIenuy 
^ foaturos. 
rprise, and 
ius and or- 
who have 

D. Stoveb, 
. W. BiCK- 

Vire, for u'l 
ro mills eni- 

the " Eajjlo 
itwccn First 
loutb l^rook- 
3, containing 

In thi' nti- 
i, principally 

about forty 
fo. 3r,. Tho 
nd fifty horso 
n width. In 
he annoaliuK 
id pounds of 
ine Wire, of 
ho few cstab- 
all tho opera- 
finished lloop 

■, J' 

V. \ 

,|,.., ^0. 


Skirt Works," 
on Skirtd aro 


t to mil' 


till- bo. 

A :-'- 

The Eagle'.ou iA,.uui.iC!.u. t;jti ..v..i;/.' 

•,.. h:, h i; I ;il M 

,v1 a!! 

«)?. ■ 





dozen J«c,,,mva Looms uroMsy h ^^ „„„„fi,rtnro 

interest »nd ammat.en. I'.aeh Ski.t n II 


1- -ir ^ i= nf hrick one hundred and eight} -six itei louj, "j u 18 of brick, one ^^g-^.j^^t capacity t. turn 

dved and ten and ho machm y ^ ^.^^^ ^^^^^^.^^^^ ^^^ 

out seven ons ^^ 3;!?;2; j^^^^^^ 

plain, is made ^'J''^; ^^»^,f^ J^ ^^^a Furniture Springs in the upper 

ine r.«.b •pirnvTON has been engaged in tne wire 

but its President, J^ J. EA0^f;2rp^ising Company employs from 
^manufacture since ^^.^^^.J^'^'J^rPTUo present officers arc, J. J. 
six hundred to seven hundred hanas. iuo y „a -n \ Vvck 

EaoxIton. President; E. G. Anoell, Treasurer; and R. A. Peck. 
General Superintendent, 

Wests, Bradley & Gary's Hoop Skirt Works, 

In the City of New York, are believed to be the most ext.msive of 
in tne business was origiiir.Hy estab- 

lldt '; W bX rinventor of an i„,po«nt in„.r„ .n,e„t 

S 'i;Lr '^^^rrsr^ro;::.::: if \,,t :.: 

^^aSEr.:::^"^^— -- 
'c^y n h *::». -.;na.n8 *ih .0 Twenty.e1.Mh,., a 

::;/or two bnnarea feet- ana .---«•--.:*:. 1: 1 
ninth street, seven stot-ies l>* «« ™'™ " f„ ,t, „„„„f„etnre of 
hundred feet square. The forn,er " "f™ '" ,„„ ,„„i„g cotton 

wilhln Mlelf an the faeilitics neeessary, and in whieh may he w,.,-..-..a 


all the nroeosses incidental to converting steel rods into finished Skirts. 
la 1 L...nent of the warehouse on Twenty-eighth street may be seen 
an stock of steel rods, a little less than a quarter of an n>eh 
a d uuetor. and which are imported in large rolls. T-e are take, 
iato the hlucksmith's shop, where the ends are pomted to ena , e them 
Ob started through the '■ wire plates." From th.s shop the rous, 
luU in rol,. are placed in a large annealing oven, w ere 1^ a heatmg 
of some ho.s.durati.m they^^^^ 

After th s they are pickled, that is, siecptu m i'" „ ^ 

aid the obielof which is to remove the scale. The rolls are next 
siulcd in the drying kilns, from which place they pass into the 
"room, where, by powerful machinery and skilful man.pu ations. 
he w re i reduc;d in size, with a corresponding increase m length 
ButT wo drawings can bo performed before the Wire becomes so hard- 
Td Lt it mu 't be again annealed, pickled and dried 1-?-^-^ ^ 
further drawing. The wire as produced here is round, and. to give it 
he n cessary ribbon shape, it is flattened by being passed through 
small but powerful steel rollers. These machines are quite expensive 
c"" ng not less than one thousand dollars each. The steel for the ro Is 
" iuiportod expressly for this purpose, from the famed wo ks f 
Krun ,e, (Jermany. This steel ribbon, of various gauges, is sti 1 quite 
foft io having had communicated to it the necessary spring temper^ 
To accomplish this, the reels containing the ribbon steel are conveyed 
to th tempering room, where the wire is passed t rough a furnace at 
a regulated .speed, from which it issues red hot, and enters a vess 1 of 
oil ;here the steel is hardened. Being now too britt e for use, it has 
^e temper drawn by means of a vessel containing a melted composii a 
t n aid lead through which it passes. These springs have yet to 
be covered, which is executed in an upper room, by machines of g at 
•genuity, that cover the flattened wire with a t^gbtly-woven -^^^^^^ 
thread Some of the wires designed for the lower hoops of the Skiit 
are run through the covering machine a second time, to guard them 
against the excessive wear of dragging over stone steps, etc. These 
Lvevod wires are now placed in troughs of starch. By me.ns of bands 
1 machinery carries the starched, braided wire backward and for- 
ward over roflers heated by steam, and between which are attached a 
series of grooves of polished steel, which act as ironers, and give a 
fin glazed or enamelled appearance to the Wire When proper y 
d ied it is again wound up into coils ; and while this is being don , an 
TnTex in the machine indicates the number of yards. Messrs. Wests. 
Bradley & Gary consume in this department over eleven hundred bar- 
rols of St ,rch annually. 

;d Skirts, 
ly bo seen 
f an inch 
are tako'i 
able tbciu 
I the roiifi, 

a beating 
I " draw." 

is arc next 
s into the 
in length. 
2S so bard- 
)aratory to 
, to give it 
id through 

'or tbe rolls 

works of 
s still quite 
ng temper, 
•e conveyed 
a, furnace at 

a vessel of 
r use, it has 
lave j'et to 
ines of great 
oven cotton 
of tbe Skirt 

guard them 

etc. These 
Q,ns of bands 
ard and for- 
e attached a 
, and give a 
len properly 
nng done, an 
essrs. Wests, 
hundred bar- 



In the soven-storied building on the north sule of Iw^nty-n th 
street is a regularly-arranged Cotton Mill, where raw cotton .s spun 

T 2-1 nn into Tape, and the Braid for covering the wires. 
::l::^^ phLr^VXent are rooms devoted to the ..bricat.. 
ff the Sar, where hundreds of young women are engaged u> th. 
lill .md 1 asant toil. Machinery is here called into play w kmh.c 
Scti able and the results of machine labor are manliest .n the regu- 
E meeision and durability of the work performed ; and .t .. 
d^d r^st interesting sight to observe t^e intel.i^nt^operaUves ^ 
their work, and note how deftly they weave the hm.p. uUh the tapes, 

and then fasten then, in position by small metal^ 

This firm have a most wonderful and elhe.ent p.eee of nuthani.^nx 

fo. e" " the eyelets into the bands of the Skirts. ^^''- -; 

t in^^idance^ it can accomplish work which formerly, by^ 

ordi arv process, required seven or eight hands to accomphsh. 1 hue 
t vmLhout the establishment a small army of inspectois, 

L: : h w : :::il^^ the work passes, and whc^e duty is to r,e^ 

tnrou„u N I _ defective Wben finished, the Skirts aie 

;:s:.r:'i:° „; : «, 'u -o». m^^ ^-.«. «i.i»i. -- '"« -"■» 
°':;;,:::;:m»„.i.,..,e or «. wor.,,,..,- -» ^-^;^;" - 

w ,1 nt thP floor surface exceeds five acres in area, and the paj -roll> 
Ttl rn contl te names of sixteen hundred employees-some 
of the ^'™ 3^^^^ have manufactured eighty-four hun- 

TTu n sS n onTday, each of which contains from forty to one 
dred Hoop ^^^'I^; " ^^f /^„,^ ^^eel, or from eighty to three luindr..d 
hundred and ^''^^ ^^ Jf/J^^^^^ total of over 150,000,0..(. yanis 

^::t:; r S?:::sS:;l;on of Tapes and Braids to the extent of 

'• Mr T'w'iaADLKT. in connection with his partners, has done more 
Ml. .1. ^v. liivA , .manufacture than anv man in America. 

. easily as a s. k or -- -^J J ^ ^ ^^ l^^, ,,,, o„y greater elas- 
wires, instead of one single ™' ^ ^ ^^.,^.,^ ^^ ^j^, ,,,„ ^ime it is 

ticity, but greater strength and duiab.Uty 

one third Ugbter than any other m^^^^^^^ ,' ^^1:^^^^^^ the United 
t^^ ::^;r^rZ:Svral ..- of Eugland and 


Tioforo olosins onr remarks on the grco. manufacturing cstablishmcnta 

of Nw York it mav be proper to notice, in this connection two com- 

L^rthat have acnuired an honorahlo and aeserved d stn,ct,on for 

ho 1 ion of KdU Tools, inasmuch as their principal warehouses 
'rd C for the sale of their goods, arc .ocatcd in that cty.^Uhongh 

ho manufacturing operations are carried on in N- Engh.^^^^^ • ^^^ 
Collins Company and the Douglass Manufacturinu Comian.. 

The Collins Company, 

For manufacturing Axes and other Tools, is one of the largest and 

"^ Tlerr:: wa^'::::^nced ahout ^rty-fivc years ago, hy the^ro- 
ther Plvid C Collins and Samuel W. Collins, in the city of Ilur ford^ 
i ; w r the first in this country to manufacture Axes ground and 
J Uh^ ready for use. Previous to that time the Northern States 
we e supplied by country blacksmiths with axes, generally made from 
rro b tered steel Ltead of cast steel, and a wood chopper was 
ompe do spend the greater part of the day in grinding one ready 
oTuse The Southern States were accustomed to use the memc.en 
^ground Axes imposed from England. In 18 G ^he brother 
Colli.^ removed their manufactory to its present Ic v on the 
Farnington River, about fifteen miles from the city of ml. In 

m V were incorporated by the Legislature of Connect.cut. under 
he ti of the Collins Company, though they still continue to use .n 
hei Tools tho original stamp of "Collins & Co., Hartford." Smce 
h .Im val to tlfeir present locality, the village of Collinsv.Ue has 
1 own UP and now contains twenty-five hundred inhabitants, who 
a cd pemU for their support upon these works. This v.l age has 
two cChes, and schools of a high order, in which several hundred 

nliildron receive instruction. , 

Te Works have recently been increased by the erection of shops for 
the manufacture of Cast Steel, of which the Company are now pro 
V • nil thPv consume The buildings extend along the bank of tne 
FZnln Kivo: ?r a distance abo^ut one-half mile, and although 
St n power is employed to some extent, the Company have recently 
eoi^eled a reservoir at the source of the river, eovermg over one 

thousand acres, to provide an ""f-^ «S ^^^^ P^^!. ^^^'^f J^, '^ 
consume annuallv about seven thousand tons of Coal, fift eu hui Ued 
ons of Iron, nine hundred tons of Cast Steel, and turn out three thou- 
sand Tools per day. About six hundred and fifty men are furnished 
constant employment in the various departments. 



two com- 
nctioa for 
•, although 
, viz. : Tho 


argcst and 

by tho bro- 
;rounil and 
lern States 
made from 
hopper was 
r one ready 
e incnicient 
he brothers 
V on tho 
n-d. In 
:ticut, under 
ae to use en 
ard." Since 
Uinsville has 
.bitants, who 
is village has 
eral hundred 

1 of shops for 
ire now pro- 
e bank of the 
and although 
have recently 
ring over one 
The works 
'teen hundred 
ut three thou- 
are furnished 

tb.„ f, n,aao by woWing m the "™»' » _;,^,, " „,: ;' , ,,,,,,„,-,„ a 

thermometers. , „^:„nmlp the most perfect uni- 

By lbi» entirely oew and -J^? J ■" jj^^,* icsuves 

fomily and accuracy are ,ttamcd. T .3 pioccs> 1 ^^^^^^ 

a „„„ pcrroct cutting "^^"'ta"™" "ve a hi^''*°''* °" ^''""^ 
mode of tcmpcrmg. llic Axe aiso '»=«"«» " inspoctod 


T„e i— f *-'7.t»: : ";: ,r; t^t dcSption arCmngbt 

''-«>"\°"7„',^,:a;tt„:; .bib Hide tho CO..L Con,panyUBe 
to an edge on grmdstoncs, oi wu „^,i:t;nn to Axes and Edge 

„,ore .i,an six hundred tons per aunun. J *" °° ';,^^^^„, ,„g^y 

Tool,, Picks and f 'f^^ :;;t I'ej: Unties, together with 
exported to Australia and other l«™"S° ^^ ^uba. 


Cl.rau'^fMi^^nrngbtr :r dr-rt, and euabl. thent to scour 

ntl-clplytl'rtployod in tbeir business a capital of 
about one million of dollars. 



The Douglass Manufacturing Company, 

„,, .„,.o,ca a wiacr ™,..c .„.n t^» Com„^C.u^a„y In Its prod,,. 

The factory cons ^U of a c ncs o, u b ^^^ ^^^^_^^ 

. to the pruduclion of the higher class °^/^""| J/,,^.^^,^. ^^,„„, o„o 

iHuulrcd mechanics arc kept f .^° >^'' * " ^^.^^y ^Vo mav remark. 

over two hundred en>ployed m ^^'^ ^^^ ^,,,,,^ ^, l,u^.. 
tlna the e,.mimnylnxve just perfected a macl me 1^).e U 

.„• eork screws, which will be a grea «- ^^'^ ! ^i;"!, ,,,^,,,h. 
.....maneo of that pa. o e wor .uh a .c. . ^^^^^^^^ 1^^^^ 

:i;!;:;;;j':r-;\heh;;i.;^^^^^^ nothing is done ma hurry, as is too 



ts pi'odnc- 
:onio quite 
Edge Tools 
3, notwith- 
r products, 
1 over llioni 
origin liters 
vny belongs 
) its prer-ent 
)ok's Patent 
have utjcd 
e kiiul tlmt 

ct factories, 
rmour, Con- 

gs ; the first 
er a1)0ut one 

the manu- 
mds engaiiod 
hundred, cx- 

lahelling the 
ictory is sup- 
, which never 
ed with much 
inner, as well 
ions are per- 
id is ingenious 

ds. In these 
. About one 
, making in all 
) may remark, 
ng the handles 
md insure the 

1 and despatch 
pervade every 
uirry, as is too 

inflexible rule of the establishment 

moi-« -^icrow can or new pattern bouow auf,t.i.-i, 

::;:;s,^:mwr!ghts- augers, boring -;;^-,3-;;::^:r .i^i " 

augur bits, patent extension b.ts, f^^^^^f^^^ This, be i, ub- 
p.n>glass's Patent Excelsior ^V^-:^^^f^lL produced, 
served, is an entirely new tool, «»\>^; ^ f ^^ e .npHeations of tl>e 
It secures f /^^ ^^^^ ;: .r l^e^re, wU it will also 
tools manufactured ^^'J^ J^^ ^,,^^, ,, ,,n hoWov. ^n^^^'^- Tn-lov 
nnswer the purpose of a full set ol . ,,„^i 

the head of Cork Screws, there are some «? -"^^ ^^^^ ,,^.,„, ,,,. 
styles, including the patent -^^^ ^^ ^^^^^f ^^^.^^ers, etc., ^1 of 
ing irons, round belt P"- ^jj ;^: /^ ^ of thl best material, and 
which are most useful m then ^^'^>' " '^ ^ ,,„ ,„,,t eriti- 

finished in a style to please the ^^^^'^l^^^'l^ ,,,,,,,.., .t the 
eal and fastidious. IV'^ln^^^S^S^Lents. which are 
Seymour manufactory Cooks l'^^^"^ "''J K ^ ^,^,, „f -eat 
exclusively made by this ^^^^^^^^J^^^ ,, ,;,, that the 


strument of the kind yet invented. gcymour factory a 

The Douglass Ma-n^tunng Ccm^. ^^-^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^,,^^^ ,„ 

machine room for nudungtl^^to^ ,;,„ handles as are required for 

use in perfect order ^l^^ ^^ ,„,,,,.,, ,,,. Irving perfected 
tiles, augers, gnnlets, cork scuvNS, ^^^^^^_^ ^,. 

„,achinery. the company .s -^ >' ;; i;;;7^,^^ , , ,;,,, tool 
any si.e, from the ^^^^::^^^::Zl 1, papor boxes. The 
chest, .piite as cheap and mucb ^"^ ., i,„,,,iware trade 

wood boxes of this company are -"^f ^J^ ^J^^^' ,„,,,,„ ,,.kage. 
or adapted for any goods rc^uu-mg ^^^^ „,^^^^, V ^,„^;,, 
All the company's regular goods arc a K ,„anufactory at 

About two hundred men •^':^' «'" >^^^^^^ Vrlin-Hon. in all a-.out 
Seymour and an 7-^;;";^- ^ ^ ll^^^Li^ the eon.pany 
four hundred hands. At ^^^^ » "' '^ .,„,hinery i« of the most ellinent 

;:lt::Cl:l^?-y oa.r Jiilar concern in the united states. 


Since the success of this company at the Paris Exposition therr 

No ,0 BrC street, wMeh » -er the charge of Tboma. Do.o- 
LASS, one o! thj principal proprietors. 





tion, their 
ionie ship- 
proof that 
V York, at 
yiAb DOUO- 


Newark, New Jersey, nine miles from New York City, on the rail- 
road connecting New York unci Philadelphia, is largely engaged in 
manufacturing, especially Clothing, Hats, Jewelry, ^^^^^^^^''^^^ 
Trunks and Carpet-bags, Leather and various fabrics of leather. It was 
here that the first manufactory of .Tapanned Leather in tins count.7 was 
established. In 18G0, according to the census returns, Essex County had 
a capital invested in mannfactures of §13,4'.»o,30.^ by 7r,9 
establishments, who employed 15,825 males. 5.01.8 females, and produced 
a value of $27,700,044. About three-fourths of this amount was pro- 
duced in Newark. The principal manufactures were : 



Boots ami shoes 

Brass fouucliiii; 

Coach laini's 

Chemicals . 

No. of 








Carriages ^^■■ 



CotToo anil spices 3- 

Drugs •■ 

Edge tools and cutlery 10 

Fire arms ^ 












$371,017 IGf) 

27ti,844 C!)0. 

4:i,l)45 31. 

2l>,9l'>0 39. 

l,3.-i,000 40. 

2S9,0JS 714 




42 1,147,000,. 

3 29,.')00 . 

1 18,000. 





India ruliljer goods 

Iron foundiu^ 



Looking glass and picture 



Malleable iron 

Ornamental glass 


Patent leather ".. 

87,000 ., 


71,202 .. 

flO.OOO . 

122,700 imi,170.. 

32,000 18,01)0,. 

f,44.SOO l)74,.'-i:l4 . 

200,000 13.'),000., 




170,.''.10 . 




13')"). . 




169 . 


400 . 


3 .. 
3. . 




R'gisters and ventilators... 

Saddlery and harness 

Sashe«, d"ors, and blinds.. 

Spokes, liolis, wheels, etc.. 


Saddlery hardware 

Soup and candles " ■ 

Stairrnds 2 . 

Straw hats 1 

Trunks and carpet bBi;s,... 13,. 

Typo metal * ■ 

Trunk rivets 2 . 

Tin, sheet iron, and copper 12. 

Varnish • 

Zinc, u«lJe of '■' 

.37 ., 
138 .. 






.3t,liM) 47,631 . 

10.5,000 2-)4,000 

403,300 142,422,., 

118,000 02,232.. 

28,000 19,215 . 

04,000 08,307.. 

912,000 1,224,073,. 


1,224,100 758,320.. 

73,200 71,530.. 

llfl„500 07,714 121 

4,5,000 .19,420 48..,, 

288,000 314,3«.-. 779.... 

0,5,000 03,7.50 20.... 

60,000 .... 47,5S5 39 

20,000 00,000 15.... 

314,500 474,8.50 60.5 ... 

80,000 80,040 0.... 

4»,ooo ao,oi« ISO- 

101,WI0 113,860 1.11.... 

15.5,2.V1 194,9,56 24 — 

1,200,000 98,000 110..., 





Value of 











190 1 •',! 

79 000 







The manufactories of Newark are generally of a medium class, many 
of ti.em owned and operated by mercantile houses in New York but 
there are a few sufficiently extensive to be called noteworthy. Of this 
description are the mills of 

The Clark Thread Company, 

Erected in 1865, nt a cost of three hundred thousand dollars. The 
main factory building is three hundred and twenty feet long, one hun- 
dred and five feet wide, and five stories in height, requiring in its con- 
struetion three and a half millions of brick. Adjacent thereto is the 
Picker and Spool Turning house, and in the immediate vicinity are the 
Dye and Bleach houses, with an ample supply of pure river and clear 
spriii" water. Tlie rear of the premises is bounded by the Passaic 
river^having a wharf five hundred feet long, at which vessels of three 
hundred tons can load and discharge. The Spinning department con- 
tains twentv-fivc thousand spindles, with all the necessary preparation 
for produ(nng the highest (piality of yarns, and is separated by a thick 
wall and double iron doors from the Thread Mill, which has room for 
fifty thousand spindles, with all the requisite winding, polishing, and 
spooling machinery. The first story of both these departments is sixteen 
feet in height and the wails three feet in thickness. The machinery 
of the newest construction, and part Oi it protected by patents held 
by the Company, is from the best shops of this country and England, 
and is propelled by two coupled condensing engines of upward of seven 
hundred horse-powcr, supplied with steam from a range of ten tubular 
boileiw The entire establishment, when fully equipped, will cost 
ST.rjO 000, and employ from one thousand to twelve hundred persons. 

Tliis splendid factory, the largest and probably the most complete of 
the kind in tlie United States, is owned by a Joint Stock Company, ot 
which the principal stockholders and officers arc Peter Kerr and (Jeorge 
A Clark wlio for many years were celebrated manufacturers of Spool 
Cotton in Paisley, Scotland, where their respective firms have carried 
on the same business for above half a century. As the mach.nery is 
of the best and newest description and the managers men of large ex- 
perienco in this specialtv, there is no reason why the Company should 
not produc.> Thread equal to the best imported, and even better adapted 
to the roquiromonts of Sewing Machines. 





ass, mtiny 
York, but 
, Of this 

lars. Tbe 
;, one liuu- 
in its con- 
fcto is tbe 
ity are tbe 

and cleai' 
be I'assaic 
lis of three 
tine lit con- 

by a thick 
IS room for 
isliing, and 
ts is sixteen 
atents held 
d England, 
ird of seven 
ten tubular 
I, will cost 
I persons, 
complete of 
ampiiny, of 
and (Jeorge 
>rs of Spool 
liavo carried 
nacbinery ia 
of large ex- 
pany should 
itter adapted 

Peter BaUrutine & Sons' Brewery, 

In Newark, is the largest in the State of New Jersey, and is enti,l.-d 
to .place among the largo Breweries of the country. It has a capa- 
c tv br producing over sixty thousand barrels of Ale per year, and ha. 
2 nXuses 'attached, that will malt over two hundred thousand 

'Xt!;::le, the thunder of this firm, is now one of the ^des. 
brewers in the United States, having been engaged m the busme.. f 
for^six yec'-s. He was born in 1791, in Ayrshire, Scotland ; came to 
h coXi" 1820, and entered into the employ of Robert Dunlop, 
vilse Brewery, in Albany, New York, though its capacity was on y 
tl^Z barrels per'annum, was then one of the largest .n he 
United States Here be obtained bis first instruction ,n brewing and 
bdo.^ observation of tbe various processes as carried on by otbei-s 
.,, uired such a mastery of tbe art that he was soon employed a 
b ov and maltster by Lding firms in Albany and the vicinuy, and 
suCquently was offered an interest as partner m the hrm of FuUck 
llvckman & Co., which partnership lasted about six years. 

In 8 Mr. Ballantine removed to Newark, New Jersey, and 
rented a Bi'ewery which none of his predecessors bad been able to ope- 
ra uccessfuiu' Beginning in a small way, he made steady progress 
although be bad not only to compete with tbe most celebrajed bran 
n he country but to contend against the reputation which the Ale. 
Iw d r^had previously acuired. At the end of the eight yea. 
h had increased his production to eleven thousand barrels, which cm- 
sid^'n.^ the size of tbe place and its limited facilities, was a large bu. - 
^e t-oe ainlv larger than bad ever been done in it before. 'I bo inul - 
ousT 01 t dwUh this Brewery being able to furnish but a small 
In the malt required for such a business Mr Ballantine, in 
mt purchased property adjacent to the Passaic river, having an eu 
ut -l'.ivements, and built a maUbouse of thirty thonsan,! 

II ui capacity. In 1849, the business having completely oiitgrouu 
r lewe y then occupied, he erected another adjoining and coniu - 
a ngwifh the malthouse built the previous year, wuh a cap ci 
"hundred barrels per diem. The sales continued o u.crease un„l 
,lr b e wing four times a week be was called upon to brew every da> , 
nd in sle instances twice in one da>. Of course additional maltin, 
r 1 Is were required to meet this demand, and another 
1 to tw ntv thousand bushel, capacity. At length, notwitb- 
::i;:gM;^sr;ompetition, an enlargement of Brewery became a 


c^Hv and a third malthouse was built, of sixty thousand bushels 
:-:;rt ir:: W tl; a.iher extensive nndthou. t^ 

E»ll.„tinc wa. .s.oci»t«a in l'"'»«'»'"V' V " tol ' Mian- 

sede manual labor, and the n ighty '^J .lenurtnmnts of industry. 

nished or dishonored. 

The Gould Machine Company, 

, • .f tl,o oldest and largest manufacturers of machinery 

In Newark, .s one of the oldest and. g ^^^^^^^^ .^^ ^^.^^ ^^^ 

in the Slate of New Jersej. |1^; JJ^ ^ ^^„^^ es-ablished in New- 
E/a-a Gould, and his machmeslopN as thej^e^^^^^^ ^^^^ .^^ 

avk. At that time the.e were but tw - ' ..d the tools in use, 

that city, where there are now ^-cral bund cc -d ^^^^^ ^^ 

compared with the ^'i;-;;^ ->;- ^^/jl^.j:;, ,,,.;.,., .uil 
tremely ^^l^" •":';7"; '" ,, ,,„, ,vho obtained from the 
1,.,, .hen he trans^rre^ ' J^ , ^^ r'charter of incorporation 
Legislature of New .1e i^ev, by si^e mi , ^,^^3,, yoo, and privi- 

as the Gould Machine Company, with a capital 01 , 



d iit this 
use, two 
ight. Jt 
and coa- 
vark, Mr. 
I'son, and 
.». Ballan- 
jt in New 

iod within 
the art of 
breweries ; 
lost super- 
■ industry, 
sound Ale 
ng can be 
,de even in 
3, as is evi- 
though his 
3V been tar- 

)f machinery 
in 1835 by 
hcd in New- 
operation in 
tools in use, 
ay, wore e.\- 
ervisiou until 
ncd from tlio 
00, and privi- 


employment of five b;;';f-^ ^tolf i^ rprosecution of the business. 
J oHuipped with all the ^^ ;'^^^;^;;^,,Led by any in the country, 
and, in this respect, are P ^^^^^^J'^" ,; ^J^UKle a great variety of Ma- 
m.c manufactures of ^'^ \^^'X' \i,,binery, Steam Engines and 
ehinists' Tools, and Woo -Wod^rngM^^^^^^.^^ ^^^^^^^ 
Boilers, Portable I'^ngmes, Sa^v M>1 ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^ 

Hose, and other Fire ApP-a^u C^ng^; ^^^^^ ^,, distinguished tor 
and Foundry Ec;unMuents. ^';^y^^^,r„,tion. The first compound 
tbeir simplicity and o^^-^^^^'^^ ,,,.,„,a and built at these 
pUvner ever made m tins ^^""f now in extensive use owe tlunr pa- 
^orks ; and many ot-r -a hm s - ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^. 

ternity to the and '^^ "U g ^^^^^.^, , 

The Steam Fire Engines "^'^""^'f " ^t^j ,U it is claimed that by 
tant inn^ovements which have be npate,Ud_^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ 

means of them, " with the ^--^I2^f;^\l one hundred per cent, more 
steam, they discharge trom ---^y;^ ;^ ,,^,ently that much more effi- 
,vater than any other '^^'^l^^^^l^l^^ ,J, greater force through any 
cient, being able to project fu^tl^and^^^ J ^^^,^ ^ ,, 

sized nozzle or length of ^o^^- ^"'^ J^ ^^._^^ ,, far from the fire, 

eicncy, no matter where f-^f^^Zo^^^e., or wbeve one or n>o.-e 
whether playing through ^^^^^ ^J ^ ^^^^^^^ ,,^ ,„oanB of the Tump, hv 
streams are used." Tlus - --" ;^f X,,!,, area of tlu= pump .s 
which the discharge of watci « ^^« ^^^ ^ ,„., u ,s 

consists of t,wo cyluulcrs of ''"'"'""V' ,.,„j„, „„a from tleiico to the 
,„o„cd fron, .1,0 1-BC to *o » "^^ ^_ ^ *'^ „„,„,, ft.t four .imc, 


1 venue, (Jroon 
bov and New 




factuving town in I^ew jersey. ' .^ jtal invested 

10Q innniifac'turinff establishments, wuii » *-"! 
returns, 123 manulaciur g ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^, 

IST^Z: :r^^^ s:p«„»i „.,..»» ... .. 

follows : 

No. of 






Bleaching aiid dyoinC 


roffeeftnd Bpices •; ^j 

C.ilion goods. 

Flux iind hemp 




Lucomotives (1) 

Madiiiieryand steam engines 

Mnsil«itc) netting 


gik— sewing, etc. (3) and Candles 


Taljlo covers, ete 

Wire drawing 

Woolen goods and yarn 





40,000 . 


200,000 . 

110,000 . 








100 . 


3 600,000 1230.. 



40,000 .. 
245,000 .. 
153,000. , 



3,000 . 


98 .. 
41 . 


Value o' 




















90,0 lO 














The Roger. locomotiT. and Maehtae Work., 

r„™,ca ,n >831 .y TU„„,a» noser, for *e purpo- „t W^l;. 0« 
t„„, woollen, and ^l"'' Mecb,ncry_ I .1- b--^ ^y ,,^ 

joined by Morri, Ketehu,n and J. pc 0,o '^_^ .^^^ ^^^^^^^^.^^^ 
6,.m ot Uopor., V"!'"'"' * ^ "sv." ' ^^^^.^^^^ 

great eeU-brity as bn, do« t I';';7' ;«»„„, ,„„ „ s.„d„,ky,.' wbieh 
The first Loeomouve bnilt by tb.s bira i,,i,„„a Company, 

„„, delivered ,0 tbe Mad «,'-;j^^.^^;'„;'; November 1. .8:«, 

rgcst man- 
the census 
I invested 
and pro- 
B were as 

lo Vnliio o' 
,. I'loduct. 










1 90,0 lO 

, 374,21« 

J S46,51H) 

[ 6;i,:!t0 


8 41,313 

7 63,600 

2 100,000 

jrthy are the 

building Cot 
year he was 
;ablishing the 
day, attained 
dusky," which 
oad Company, 
,mber 1, 1838, 
jocoraotive for 
>st ease a train 
DO one hundred 




a. 1) 



i 1. 



1 nf twcntv-six feet per milo, nt an uveraire 
and tlnrty tons, up a srade o^ ^^^ \ ^^ ,,.• onuanc. whicl., at that 

time, bad not beeu e(iualled bj an> 

England. -Ro^rcra. which continued until his 

IHn-ins the "''-'"-^f '«\°J '^ ..J^^r ...ovoments that contributed 
decca.cinl850,honuu^:uay^U '^-1^^^^^^^ a.o now , 

to the pcvfect.on oi the ^^'^'\ ^.^^ected the wire gan/.e m 

generally adopted. A. ^^^ J^ ^^^ .„ ed in the axis of the Pipe, 
the Smoke Pipe by an l"-'^'^^''\^^"' ; ,^^^ ,^, over a large por- 
.Uh its base curled -- ^ -.^X^ia- pvevent the top of the 
tion of the surlace of tla w c Uo ^^^^^^_ ^^^^^ .„,vtenally 

«l,urk-oatcher fron. bun ^J^^^^^ ^^^,^, .^ith hollow spokes 
injured. lie at that Un. ;' ^ ^'"eounterbalanced the wheels, for 
and rims, and two years previous y ^^^^ , 

which he entered a speeiticat.on n. ^}^^^^ ,,,,,trie rods in 
Ue also originated an avrangeme f f -ng ^^^^ ^_^^^^^ . ^ ^^^_ 

and out of gear by the use oi "^ ^^^^i;i^^ the reversing de- 

neetion with the veversu.g le^^ ^^:^ J^o only was rec^uired to 

pended on no ^«"^'»g"»''->.;^" ^ ^J" ^ ^^^^ i,,,,tofore been done. 
Lnage the engine more ethe.enbt^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ,^,,.,^,^0 

Messrs. Rogers, Ketehum <^ f^ 1° 7"^;j^, ^j.^ year 1840-and the 

This was in the year 1850 distinguished from those of other 

The llogers Bo.lers ^^^J f ^;^;f;;.,^,,,a number of flues, being 
..akers by their greater -J^ ^^ J*^!^ , ,„« hundred and twenty 
eight feet long for an ^^}^^^^^;^ ,,,, from eighty to ninety 
flues, while the --\!^f.f , ^^^.^ly standard, he not only obtamed 
flues. By this devua> n f on ^^^^^J ,, contact w.t^ the 

n,ore heating surface, but the 1 cat ema b ^^^^^^.^^^ ,,;,!, the 

flues, and the ^^J^^^^^^^Z. He, in fact, ^ay be said 
advantages der.v.df^^^t^^^^ that is now regarded as an 

tohaveorigmatedastvieoi u 

acknowledged standard (...ogvenor maintained a prosperous 

j::^::!^^^^ -« -- '- ^-"' '''"■ *" 



the surviving partners took measures to form a Joint Stoek Coniiiany, 
which was incorporated .Turn IGth, 1850, under the name ol " Ihe 
Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works." 

In 1859, the Southern Railroad of Chili ordered from the Rogers 
Works a freight and passenger engine, at the same time that th-y sent 
an order to England for similar engines, with a view of testmg the 
comparative merits of American and English Locomotives. The Eng- 
lish builders, anxious to secure the South American market for their 
engines, made the cvlinders of both their engines considerably arger 
than ordered, with a view of obtaining more power. The trial lasted 
through four days-one day for each Locomotive-aud resulted in 
demon.strating the very great superiority of the American Locomotives, 
as the American freight engine "San Bernardo" performed work in 
forty-one minutes which the English engine could only do in ei-hty- 
eight minutes; and the American Passenger Locomotive haul.u a 
loaded train, up a steep grade, seventeen miles in thirty-four and a 
half u.inutcs, which the English engine could not do in less than torty- 

nine minutes. . , 

In 1864, the Rogers Company received an order from the Lnited 
States Government for nineteen Locomotives, of the value of ¥-20,000 
each which they completed and delivered in three months, a fi^at ot 
rapid workmanship not paralleled we think, as ordinarily four or live 
months arc required for the execution of an order for half the number. 

The Works of this Company include two Ulacksmith shops, one two 
hundred feet long by thirty-one feet wide, the other one hundred and 
two by forty feet; a Boiler shop, thirty-three by two hundred feet ; an 
ErecMng shop of the came size, and numerous auxiliary, 
with the requisite tools and accommodatlou for a thousand workmen 
The President cf the Company is J. S. Rooers ; the Seeretniy aud 
Treasurer, 11. S. IIUOHES, of New York ; and the Superintendent 
W-hhiAM R Hudson. Thcv arc now employing over eight hundred 
and lllYv hands, and turning out an average of ten Locomotives per 
month.'besides a variety of machinery for Cotton and Woollen manu- 



oC "The 

10 Kogors 
\\\ry sent 
^stinp the 
The Engj- 
t for their 
ihly larger 
rial lasted 
•esulted in 
(1 v'ork in 
I in eijjhty- 
) haulul a 
four and a 
than forty- 

tlie United 
of $20,000 
s, a feat of 
fonr or live 
10 munhei'. 
ps, one two 
undred and 
t'tl ffot ; an 
r buildings, 
d workmen, 
cretary aud 
:hl hundred 
motives per 
oUen nianu- 

The Danforth Locomotive and Machine Works. 

,. P.erson, are among the largest ;;^ ^^ ^Xl;!:" 1 ^ P ^'^ 
States. The establishn.ent or.g.nated m ^ " ^^ ^,,. ' ,^,_^^ 

for country work for several years ; and as " ' ' " ' ^ ' "^^^ J^ ^^„^. „f 
1 \ti,..r nuiehinerv was made, nntd the close oi ua wu 

T , ri..,-l- Tr ami as power loom weaving was about bting umo 
John C luiU, .11., aiKi 'i" 1 i.^.vor T,ooms Th<^ late Tliomas 

Uogti>\\asa j> y „r ,„„n,i M,. Rogers was employed by Mr. 

vented his celebrated cap ^pinmnt, / .„„„ .i,„,„'re ovuers 

i. ...uu fhia <ivni to manufacture tiiem. ijair,>. 
a„ -rangomen V. h th- lu^ o _^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^_^_^^^^,, 

were takeu for . «-^ ^ ' ; ,^^^,^,^^^ ,„.,,,,,t the works into notice, 
S'g;:eXm:ir:::: ::; .r the new spinning machines, but lor 
other machinery. panforth went to England 

„.Md, two firm of Oo,hvl„ Hog" & ;, ;; "'^ ' 1 & «™,vcucur, 
B„i,„ out »,»1 oo,m.»t,,« '''"'"'■''/ "''rnlLour, „ho aro now 


foreman for .evcM-al years) ^<^^>^^'^^^'^^l^:r'^J^\^, „ui beci 
1 „;„.r rl.-vraetor to the locomotives made by that toinpa") 


duclea in the name of Danlorth, CooKc & ^o. unul 8^.0 

converted into a joint stoek -"'1-"^ ;;"'^^",;'; j^'^^^s L ing the prin- 
Loeomolive and Maehino ConM""')'. ^^^ ^^^ P'^^^"^'^ '"'"^ 

^'^!.:t:r:;"i: Ctpany no. cover nearly Uvo ac.s of g.und 

and ineiude a Cotton ^--^-J^^^^ S.;:^ ^^ --^^ 
dred feet in length, a large ^^•^^'^''"'^ V^ Lttern^ are .tored that 
hundred and ten by thirty-iive ^e, n. vdu ^^ -^ ^ , ^, ^,^, ,, 
• • 11,. ,.nat csi'SO 000 and u Muelune ^hop wmtn luii. 

^^vf VnAULES PANFOUTii, the President of the Company, has had 

Todd & Rafferty's Machine Works, 

Tm Pater.on is the principal establishment in the Unitod States for 
In 1 atei>on, IS I'l. 1 ' Tl.n senior partner of this Immu 

7' ""• ''"in: uv ; 1 vrit ..r 'gov,.,,,,,...,,,,., ..-.oc- 

,l„Mm..«<'; "'"''"'"'' work, ll.o concern foundcl liy Imn l..» 



:hc cotton 
Ddugbt out 
lajor John 
i had been 
m style of 
[) luid V>fit'n 
r witli Mr. 
otiv(^ Sliop 
iipaiiy. In 
isiness cou- 
vhcii it was 
10 Diintbvtli 
ig the prin- 

i of ground, 
op two liun- 
rn Shop one 
stored that 
Lirned out in 
over seventy 
Miui-ntly oni- 

my, lina had 
uid prohiibly 

with uU the 
y for the pur- 
ith whieh his 

>ipon it, and 
)iuuer extant, 
,. more yarn, 


it ad States for 
icr of this lirm 

machinery for 
nientivl protec- 
od by him has 

the principal 

I *■ «f flroat Britain, Calcutta, and 
Roperies not only of this country, but of Gioat 13n , 

Australia. . Works cover about two acres of 

The buildings -un-smg th V>rk ^ ,,,,,,,,,aate 

g,ouad,and bear 7^d«"^^,f^ ^^^ s The p incipal machine shop 
the reuuircu.ents of a growing bu ues.. [ ^^^^ ,„„^,_ ,,,,t 

and erecting room is one huud.ed ^"^ J ;^\,,,^ ,,,,,,„iai shop 
eiglay wide, and four s^ne m he^Ut ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^_ 

contains a dozen tires, and to tuis is attaU c ^^^^^ 

eially to the construction of ;:^-:^^ „ ^"mlr and the other 
lath..., one capable ol t-^'ng twen y wo Ic ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

twelve feet. The foundry is of buck, one ^^^^^^ ^^^^_ 

long and about ^rty .et wid. ; an ^^ l-^-^;;^, ,,„;,,, ,.Uer 

p,.oor i;-'^- ^^^^ j^r U is tw^ hundred leet long, sixty 
Bhoi) iu the Slate of >e\v Jtiscy. '- 

feet wide, and occupies nearly ^^'2^'^in.v Mr. Josklii C. Todp, 

AlHHit twenty-nve years ago the ^ "^«' J^^cl nes for spinning Ma- 

eommenced in Paterson the --)" ?^ ^J / .J^' X,,, -^e Uriu was 

niUa, Russia, and "^'--, ""' V" cSued u,"il 1848, when it was 

di..olved and Mi. 1/"" ' ^"' J^ ,;„,, t, time, until now, it is be- by them were improved [^"'^ '"^ ^ ^^, consisting of one 

lieved. they are without a "va m U.e ^J^ ^^„^ ,,^,,.,_ ,,,,, 
Scutching Machine, one Lapper,two. Duuv , ^^_^^^ ^^^^ 

si>i.> hundred and ^^iX^^^.f.^!^^^^^^^ -P^- ^^ 
product is more uinlorm m quality '""' ^ '^^^^^^^ j,^ ^ ^^,,,, ^f thirty by 
let of these machines may be put "l^"^ ^ f;/ ngine of ten horse- 
fortv-hve feet, and the whole can '"^;^j; ^..^s heretofore used in 

power. IM.ese machines have ^^^ --'^ ^.^^ ; '^^^^^ ,,, ^he (government 
Ihel-nited States^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Hope Works at Boston. In ^«'^ ' , ;, t,,„ ^ay of intro- 

wiU.standingU.edimcut.sando^t^ U^^ market, achieved a dc 

duein, American ^^'^^^^^^^J j^^Uiction into nearly all the 
cided triumph, »'- "^ ;; ^^^ \, '^,,„„a, Scotland, and Ireland. 

p,U.H,al ^^- ;;-- X'^ ^ r^ent^y perfected a machine ,.r con- 
aicssrs. 'lodd A, u.iulu^ ■ nreiiared im- 

, .„„,„ Tow in.. B.10 ll.,» H, "- »P- '; ;",^, , „1 I L.„i„„ 

L.O. Navy V.U-.I, »~* .y"> -^ " , : ,1,;, el,L of m.-.m...-).. .l.o 
lUe'>i States »n.l lu i'-*'""'; ,„, ,,„iMi„B Su.m. Kr,pn« 

„„ ,,„ ;-..»> «.«e..-;;.-^^ ,„,.„ „„,„„„„ „„.,, , 




tuvod bv thorn arc notable for their simplicity, strength, an.l snper.or 
worknK;u.lnp. The cylinder is cast with a ja-l-t winch preveut. the 
oondcnsatiou of steam, a.Ki the pistons are self-a.\,ust,ng^ Ihesc Ln- 
gines are supplied with the Judson or Snow Patent Governor, and 

^'^Messrs Todd & RafFertv also manufacture a new Patent Cut-off 
Eu-'ine, and a novel and very effective Portable Engine, the 
consisting iu the construction of the Bed. which is a ^oUoWox m 
which are a series of pipes extending the entn-e \^-ff.\^^^ 
Through these the water is forced by the pumps mto the boiU-i, altei 
bein- hi-hiv heated by the exhaust steam, which enters the box at the 
cvlinder eml, and escapes through a small pipe at the opposite end 
to the smoke stack. The crank is made double, and the sha t pro- 
jects on both sides of the boiler, so as to put the pul j m 
either side, or to use two. if the case requires. One end of ho 
piston-rod acts as the pun,p-pl""Sor, the pump -^tmg between the 
two connecting rods, each of which takes hold of one end of the brass 
irund the wdst of the crank, thus making the crank bearing seven 

and a half inches long. , • n „„ 

About three hundred and fifty hands are generally employed in these 

Works, and sometimes as many as five hundred. 

The Patcrson Iron Company, 

Whose Works are located within a short distance from the depot of the 
.1 UaiUvav Company, was incorporated by an Act of the L-gislatu o 
of the State; passed March 0th, 1853. and commenced o_perati..i.s by 
orcctincv a Forge, one hundred and thirty feet long by e.ghty-s.x feet 
wid a niacklnith and Welding shop, seventy-five feet long by h ty 
feet wide ; and a Tire lloUi.ig Shop, forty-three feet long, and t n^- 
six feet wide This shop is equipped with machinery, by which the 
Tir aft aving been laid on a horizontal face plate, and run between 
r;;:iv 01 running rolls and two guide rolls, is taken out so perlect. as 
to require no boring or turning to fit the w'--l;«"ti^- 

In 185r, having purchased the patent right for the State of New 
Te "^v thev put in L of Watts' one-thousand-pound SteaB. Ilannners 
'.r^^n Uu t time until 1801. thoy were almost constantly employed 
i^ inaricturing Locomotive Forgings and Tires for the Locomotive 
Bhops in Pa.erson and Jersey City, and a large amount of repair and 
renewal work for the railroads in the vicinity. 

" T :;.,«iro n,.,..,i„,.n- of ,1„. fovge »..,. tiro ™in i» rivo„ by .n ™ n 
„f.ovcnlv.fv.,l.o,.>.-l.>.wv,,ln,iKl.yW.".li"Vclou,orUrookljn. ll.c..» 




liosc Fa- 
rnor, and 

it Cut-off 
>\v box, in 
f tho box. 
oiler, after 
box at the 
posite end 
sluift pro- 
jiiilley on 
nd of the 
;t\vcon the 
f tlie l)rass 
iring seven 

'cd in these 

[lopot of tho 
leratioiis by 
rhty-J<ix foi't 
long liy lifty 
■, and tliirty- 
y which the 
run between 
perfect, as 

tate of Now 
m Ilannners, 
tly employed 
) Locomotive 
of repair and 

by an engine 
lyn. The ma- 

.Q<1 Ii»ll<Tty of ratiTsoii New ■'««'y; i,„„,„„tivc!. in no JouU 

tire from every State in the Union. ^^.^^ 

The Forge and ^I-f-^'^;^;; 3 ^ : th uunVelding .h,,> one 
long by eighty-six f^ct wale th B - ^^^^^^ ^,^^^^ ^^^ 

hundred by fifty feet, and the . ' - f ^^ '^^ J ^.^rnaces, eight of Watt's 
thirty -six feet. There ^re thute u II a mg ^^^^ ^^, ^^^^^^^^ ^^^_ 

patent Steam Hammers (^^^^^^^^^ Hammer, (one of three 

^Ce^l^oy about - .un.e^ ^. am. t u. out ^ ^ 

thousand to four ^^^^^^^ '^^ ^ ^.^^ person. 
Treasurer of the Company is I. C. BLCiuvm , 

Paterson, besides her ex^srve ^-^^^mr 7^^^ 

is the principal seat in the ^^^t^''^^^^ ,,,^0 but four SUk man- 
la 18«0, according to the censi^tmi^^,^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^.^ ^^^ 

ufactories, whose ^gg^'^^Sato "^ '.I wa^^ ^^^ ^ ,„uvll, which employ 
probablyado^enof these estaUisln^^ ^^^ ^,^^^. ,,,, 

nearly two thousand oP^^'^^*,^;^' "^ ^ 

in, the firm of 

John Ryle & Co. 

...tive of Macclesfield, Kngla..wl.i.c.h.^^^ 

William, have i>een for nuiny y^^^^^^^^, j„,„ Ryle emigrated 
plying the London '^"^\^»'^"'"^'^" ." ^^^^^^^^^^ i» 

1; A,nerica in 1839, and -f ^^^ ' . '.^ ^l the ordinary varieties 
1840. lli« productions at irst we ^^ ^,,,,,,g, ,, which 



V 1. ;« i«Pi') Tn 1800 he renewed the 
at .ho Bro.t cWbUlon '» ^-^^^^'^^.X;, .«> 1 w,nt ofcncour. 

agemont lUroulcd by tie u he succeeded in attaining a 

„» c„„«l ™ .,...Wy '» ''■» 'Xtl now a mill noar U,e Passaic Palls 

K,uv Silk.windiug a„mdlo«. .""» '^"'tft „nk «l» i ^ono l"'"-'-'! 
and ninety-two boft bilk ^ ""«' b> ^ ,. hundred and iifty- 

putting two or more ^ " "^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ,^^^, ,,,t ,f these stages is 

::;'c:u„:',ld.V '. ak, lu^Wr s,,oca, *„ spi,uUos m»k.„g more 

thin ton thousand revolutions per minute. 

The Silk having been reeled up into skeins, is taken to the ye- 

bouse Where it undergoes the coloring processes required, aftei ^^hRll 
: u:l::tr:;tched L stringed, tm. latter, it would ^-;;; -- 
hat exhaustive operation, large bundles being .lerkcd «"d ^u st d aB 

lightly as the strength of a pair of powerful arms working on a level bar 



newod the 
of eiicour- 
ofitiible to 
ittainiug a 
) regarded 

lasaic Falls 
3 in height, 
ud Hfty-six 
) Doubling 
ne hundred 
.four Clcan- 
L'd and lifty- 
capable of 
. The em- 
3 aggregate 

performed in 
, and Japan, 
up in large 

from eight 
ifacturc is to 
from twenty 
no operative 
pass over the 
ind other ex- 
but this term 

from two to 
led. To this 
,rticle is sized, 
twist to make 
leso stages is 
out on a long 
! old mules in 
making more 

m to the dye- 
h1, after which 
seem, a somo- 
and twisted as 
■ on a lever bar 

.„d, ,. tc»t, but it «o,« pvo, «»^;;»,f '„„„,,,£„ „.,.ivo. This 
„„.,„. beautiful '-'"**irf 'in tlK* Dyeing Dc,.r,.,o„., 

s.!irJrz':;e:;::t"-« or . ..=.«*« .,« o, .., «■ 

„„„„ „ new branch of 7"* " „ ,LL,e ,he'.tt,actio,«.,r,l,e 
promoting ci.ic "m'r«v-'-"'« "'f 4'° „,„k,, „,,,„„ furnisl, .l.o city 
city as a place of rcauloncc ll.c » " «'" ' , ,„„i,,W lluoogh 

witU an abundant supply o '^'^■:^J^^,. ■• Cottefc on the 
his means and exertions, and *« S » - J; „ ,„ „,„ m. 

and 'thrown open freely to the public. 

The Dale Manufacturing Company 

r, . „., *i,o HvL'est Si*lk manufactory in this 
. Have recently ereeted at P^- ^^ , ., ,^ 

country, and, it '^ f ' j^^^^^ ,,„, incorporated in 1804, the pr.nei- 
kind in Europe. Ihc Company w ^. j^^^,^, ^^ ^^^ 

pal stockholders being '^"''"^^^^ ° ,^ '^Z ^ving and other Silks in New 
Uo were formerly leadn,gnnpmt^^ of S-^^g^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^,^.,^^.,^ 

York city, and who were the in t t" ^nfe^ .,^^ ,^i ^^,„,,rs, 

Trimmings as a specialty m ->>- t^u^ - . ^^i;^,^ .^ ^ j„ ^g^i, 

bavin. l>vai.h houses m ^^^^ S^'nlnces, rendered the impor- 
the change m the laurt, a"! « '^ ^^ ,^^ j ;„ ,i^, „,,nu- 

. tatiou of Sewing Silks unpvo Ui^U^, a- - ^^^ ,,,,^, ^hey 

facture at Paterson, in a sma 1 wav , rod ^^^^ .^. ^ .^^ ^^^^^ 

bad previously imported -* ^ ^^^^'t 'l8.U, therefore, M. Dale 
soon inadequate to ^Pi;'^.^ I',; " "^'Iv-four of which were opposite 
purchased one hundred ^'^/.^^'^^^^^..a tVom his own designs pro- 
he Paterson depot of the Ene l^ad ««<!.« > ,,^,. ^,„ .„„r,. 

eeeded to erect a --^^^^1^'^^^.^^^^^ *-» '" '••"^''''' ^^'"^y- 
The principal mill is two '- ;; . ^ ^J,, , eentre pr..jection one 
eight feet -^o, and ou^-n - vn 1^ , . _^^^^.^^ ^ ^ 
hundred feet m length and a^^"'" ^ ^ .^^^, ^,,^,j,. The 

and an Kngine and 15o ler house, a la< ; -J^^';^.^.^ ^,^^^^^„, ^^^,.,^0 feet, 
aggregate lloor ->P-H-'- - ^^ ^ ' ^^^.^,;, ...ration by the action of 


. . Tlio floors are double, llic inside 
^asouryfromthebottomtothe op^ 1 ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^,^,^ ^, , 

one of thick plauk placed n '^'^^ on joi.ts fifteen by twelve 

boards laid diagonally, and the wb^U. ^t g J ^^ ^^^^^ ^^.^^^^^^ ^^ 
inches. It is scarcely necessai^^ t^ -y t^ .^ ^^^^^^^ ^,, ^,^ ,^,,. 
substantially there is no crack m the 

tioa of the machinery '^PP');';'" ; precaution possible has been 

In the construction of the build. ig eve j p ^^^^^^^ ^.^.^^_ ^^^^^^ 

taken to guard against ^^^^^"^^ J J., hose on each floor, 
being a force pump of great apacit, ..^ra stairway is pro- 

to throw water to every part o ^h« ^« ^^^, p,,.^,.oof vaults of 

vided to facilitate exit m case «f ^^/^f^^!^;^ ^^^ u,auufacturod Silks are 
large size have been built, m whi h ^^^ ^'^^ ^^^^^^,, ,^, building from 
deposited. A well has also been -^ J^^^^^,, ,,, ,,ai„ary supply 
wiich water for the boilers can ^e oUamed ^ ^^^_^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^.^^^.^^^ 

fail from any unforeseen ^«"««; J^^*^^; ^.„^,^ ,,Uch has a tendency to 
ample ventilation and an -^^"f ^^ ! ^^^ '^.Ahe employes, 
promote both the health and cb^eitulne^ o ^^ ^.^^^_^^^,^ 

The machinery is propelled b "^ ^« ^ ninety-two spindles, 

power, and includes ten ^^--^^.^^^Vpindlcs. There are also 
I, which over eight thousand a e ^^^^/^^,^, and it is pro- 
tbirty looms now in OP-''^"" ;;,^^^,;ty a large proportion being the 
posed to increase the number to _^'^' ^ J ^^j^ i.^ve the capa- 
Tacciuard loom. When fully ^^u J ' [f^^l ,,,,,, .hich, it 
city of " throwing" fifteen hundred pounds I ^^.^^ .^^ ^^^^^^^^_ 

1 elieved, is a greater -P-^ty than Uiat of -^^^^^ .^ ,, ,, 

The capital of the Co™l>-y -^ $3^) ,0^^ , ^^^^ .^ ^^^^^ ^^ ,j,^^,, 
crease it to a half nulUon o dcdla s. A ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^ 

portauce of Paterson as a mauutactur b 

The Passaic Flax Mills, 

p„. .,,0 proa.o«„„ or s„oo s«wi=. **-,^i:'; Tt»;s: 

TI,ro..l. It i» well ''"°7.'"; ;'!,,",;„: „,„,Uet !■» been for =ome 
Wa„.l ..o-l hisWy v'-* „'" ' :„Ts,.,.a«.a," ,„.nur.ctnrca ut the 

'„.„t„,ms of W""- «"''", ,t :: ',„ «s cou,mT « tbo 1.0USC of 
land. The rcprcscutatue oi 

3, tlic inside 
r of narrow 
in by twelve 
g erected so 
1 by the mo- 
Able has been 
,m five, there 
on each floor, 
irway i« P™- 
foof vaults of 
urcd Silks are 
building from 
•tlinary supply 
it the building, 
a tendency to 


xty-five horse- 
y-two spindles. 
There are also 
, and it is pro- 
vtion being the 
i have the capa- 
week, which, it 
mill in England. 
i proposed to in- 
held by Thomas 
iseph H. Brown, 
t3 N. Dale & Co. 

) increase the im- 

vll kinds of Linen 
of Thread that the 
has been for some 
iUiufactured at the 
, near Belfast, Ire- 
try is the house of 



'> '^ 


t«aic. Flax MiVi-' 


-.0 * 

■^.v' ..iiuJ:^'-' 


233 BuoTnEns. Now York city, who in 1804 . ctorn.nca t o t - 
H^ a bleb of tbe .nnnuf.ctory bero, and solctod I'atorson a. ibe 
^ ; i^ purcbasea bv,ul and titted up ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^;^Z 

,„v,.e.l out (the n,.cl,i„o,T being of sacU ,.up,-ovcd ami 

, !Lll„n ii, a tlTcc-Btory wooden building ailj.cout. Horo, 

r t":H:;*r«n-"-v.ich .?. t.o m„og™,..ic p.-iuu„g .....i-ea 

'°tS,'i::XL „avo also a largo Dyc-.,o>.o, ono hund-ed ^ 
,l,Mv feet a uow brick ludldiug one hundred by twenty u, wlnel, ll.o 
S attolted, tweutyfour tonemont houses f.r,, and 

°'TL'r'';^:t':;o loeated near the Palls, and use w.ter.l,„..r 
wUel boh g unlimited, oan he made available to any extent that . ho 

T^:l^:^o,.r front Ireland, where they had ae,nu.ed a 
tborou'gh knowledge of tho business. 

T.,i....f Prtmnnnv " whieh hnd been pro- 
Tn isr,5 tho "American \olvet t-ompany. "in-. i 


vit, machinery in.ported from Knglaud. for weav„,K "'■«"'. I'"' 
';,„:;::i.;n,.rds,Ld ,o„gees .1.0 company,lk out of 

s:irpr;i::r;:'t:'rn;-r:':de., s„p,.iy of t,,!, in„.or. 


dn'tiott-^lctiu Huallty and brilliant in dye, is likely to bo sue 





TI.e Dolphin Manufacturing Company 
I^ t.o style or a .o.pany -;;;^Zi:oXl:^^^-^^ or co...o 

^ooa.fro.n Fla*, Hcnp 01 J"^"'"'; Company, amUvas olul-h^lu'd 

^,,i„ally Uuow. as the A"-- "^^ i^was and othov articles 
,, ,s.t4 lor ll.e "umufaetuve 1 u np nt ^^^^ __^^^^^^^^^,^, .,^ ,, 

i-,,. ,vl.ich this tlbre xyas l^cluncxl to c ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ._^^^^^ ^^,^^j^ ^ 

^,,i,e of American hemp, ^^''^^ ^^^^.^^^ ,, ,,. to add Flax and Juto 
pveference for eotton duck caused ^ J^^;^ ;„, ,„,,,,ive producevB 
lo their original article. 0^ -^ j^ l^,.^^,, i..,,i„, ibr Hops and 
of Jute_or, as it is ^^f^^^^Z^^,^^ Canvas ; also of Yarns 
for Sea Inland Cotton, of >; '^'H' ^'^^ J Carpetin^'S, and of 'I wn>e9 
L fdlin.r lor Venetian and Tapestry ^^ ooltn L I ^,.,^i„g. 

t^i i*«^^^«^'^?:::;::r;:r s :io st^i onnotned 

,, that date their ^n-nn -^- ^ ^^^^.^ ^, ,l«eront colors mto 
grounds, by doubling and t^^-tng w^> ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^;,^,,^, ,,„u m 

L thvead. This at on.. ^;-;, f ::;,ries have since been bu t 
A.neriea and in Scotland, wl < '^ '^^ , r^,,,-,, Contpnny was the 

f-tl-pvoductionof tu,sarUc^^^c^_U. -^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^.^^^^^ .^^^, , , 

fn-st to intvoaace --^^ '^^^^^w was itwariably nsed; ^ 
_lV.r>uerly a mixture of flax and to n w ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ .. ^^^^^,^, t,„,,. 

(ten shdlmgs). AU vm. 

coununption is very la';gc-. , ,1^ vhc same proprietors who 

-PHi, establishmetrt .s ^^^n '^ J^" ; ^^, ,^,,, ,, j. v>. Mv-Louvm, 
built it in ISl t. The ^;:[-^"" , ^^ ,s to be the pioneer in ,,uto 

a native of Scotland. Tins gen Unn n c a ^^^^^^^^^ ^,^^. 

manulaeturiug, having spu ^^^^^^^ ,,^, ., ^ute in l>undeo 

.,, P...aic Falls, 1''^^-^-;,;^^^, ,„aer head and fall of ..enty- 
etor, drawing six S4uare f'^^'^ \ ,1 hundred and ei.hty horses. Iho 
two feet, with a power oqnul to u ^^..^^^ ^,^^^. ,,„,,• ,,„ 

.,ni building is substantia y ^^^^^^ ,.., ^,,,, two stories am 
luunlred and thirty leetlog bj . ^^^^^^ fifty looms, all o 

„r,e-, -Hlains about twelve htU^^. ^ ^^_^^^ ,^^^,,,,..,, „ „.,aad 

U ;5->r)0,t)0t). 



c nianiifac- 
•c of cr.avso 
\v\. It was 

ithcr iirlu'les 
'aiice in ''>o 
billed with a 
lax anil Jute 
vo piNidufCVS 
for Hops and 
ilso of Varna 
.nd of TwinL'S 
r was IviHinS. 
Ic of mottled 
mt folnvs into 
isiiu'f-ri both in 
ICC boon built 
iipany was the 
1 juto entirely 
(• and also that 
4 "heavy tens" 
taples, and 'the 

iropi'ietors who 
J. V>. Mr.i.i'iu M, 
. pioneer in jnto 
•otland. I lie iirst 
jute in I>nndeo 
iixty to seventy 

, raceway nr level 
1 of six iVet (Ham- 
\ i\,H of twenty- 
bty liorses. Tl>e 
Ih slate roof, two 
^ two stories and 
fil'tv lounis, all '>t 
Inindred lh<nisaad 
n\w mat-rial annu- 
i,.|ly in N.'wYork, 
lal of the Company 

G, De Witt, Brother & Co.'s Brass Wire Works. Belleville. N. J,. 

Are the most complete and extensive of the kind in the United States 
T .v were ibrnJy owned i,y William Stephens .^ «-;• -^™ ;- 
of the Iirst brass rolling-mill, established m tl- o-"^>- 
was lor many years largely engaged m -'-'^^^-^ "^^:, , ! 
undertook the mannfaeture of Brass and Copper ^^ ne . lu k t . 
ner wire used for telegraphic purposes m the l,n, ted ftt.Ue, ^'S 
^^Ui;; these works, and furnished to Amos Kendal Uor . . me e 
tween rhihulelphia and Washington. About l.slt), M. <"•'•-' '■'^. '^ 
W U Itive of Hudson. New Jersey, and ^n <•;-;"-- j"^,;-- 
.f iUo same name bc-ime the agent in ^ew\ork eitv loi 

r,—:;cuu-i»», ami .0 U.C u,.l„U.„»™e of .1,™- c,-cd,t l.y ,»-o,n,.. ,:.;- 
.,„.Ml< llu'V l.avo iU'hii'v'l -1" unvialiln success. 

ll,c I i,.,„„l,.i„icr Wires, l-'inc W .re ILipo 

;1m- \ u"l!.'«^ c-voc a» ace „f ,. u, a,,,! c„„„u.i,„ a ..Hin, 

'■ll a cas,i„8 sl.o„, a wircl.uviaB sl,o„, a wea„„B acanaK-iu, 

,„' U,r 'n.e ins,., is Iirst rell..! i..CO U.e l....'. 'l.'." ■">»-" '■;""■ 

. i^s, .,cl U.:.. wevc, i..„. raLric »0...e o,' ... ... "™;^";;; ■;; 

. ;,w.i. 'IMh- niaeh nerv i^ propelled botli oj 

.and meshes to the s,,ua . ^^^^^^^^^^^^ -,., J,,,.l ,.,,. ,,..... 

S: :: :: ::^:i.; a:c^en:^o;d m the departments to 
t ^40 UO are paid annually in wages. Among them .s one ol the 
^e'arui;^ il the country, who is employed in painting Landscapes ou 
Wire Cloth for Window Screens. 

,p,„, ,,,o,iucls of this manufactory are sold to all ,>a.t. of the nit. 

St, , : nd to Cuba and Sonth America. I'^ery .^heet of paper nnu o 
btate., ami to i u )a . ^^ ^^ .^ .^ extensively 

„u,stbe formnl on wnv cloth . ^1""' . ^i,,,.,„,_, ^,,,., anst. 

„s..d for straining tnrpenime, and in Cahlomia to, ^ '" ^ '^ 
Tins ..sta..lishin,.nt was the Iirst in this country to -;'-"-•;;■_ 
nre of Fondrinier wires, so esseniial to paper makers, and the, con- 
1 , be the leiiilin. manufactnrers of thi-^ imp-'f-t article. 
Me r a. He Witt, lirother ^ (%.. employ in their laMi.ess a eapUal 
,f ^O.l.OOO. and proiluee annually about the same amo-m, ,. hue good. 
Their Sales Waroroom is al No. '.H) John street, Now \ o, k. 





John Jewett & Sons' Floor Cloth Works, 

jonn jcwcKK »~ 

.. .i..e.. N. ... are -- ^ ^^ ^I^l^ra^i;!. — ."I'l^e 
S,>uos. >'eavly three acres ^,^^^'1^^,,^ ,„a tweuty-nve by 
i„,i,,, ones being, ^-If^'^^^' ';;",„ ^.live bv forty feet ; and the 
I .venty-nve. and one hundred -^ -^J^^^ j; ,,, „,„n.n.c.ure of 
Cvyinff-roouis arc soveuty-luo b e ^ ^^^^.j^^.^^^^_ .^ ^^^^ 

,eavyon-elothMvl--gocarUU a vs a . ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^.^^^^^^^ 

fo, several mouths elapse ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ .^ 

,,ied and prepared or ---U t 1 o ^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^,^^^ ^. ,, 

imported from Seothuul. >" /^ *- *^ ^.^ ,5,,^ si.e, and then 

l^Jg. Fron> these, p.eee. n.e eu , of^t 1^^^^^ ^^^^^,^ ^^.^,„,,,,a 

.tretehed ^U..n -^-^'-^'^''/'^^Vfj; Ladders and platforn>s are 
from the n.xt i«v a ^^^^^^^J:^, ,, every part of the clotl. 
-"vnuently arranged, ^ "-^ ^ ^,^ ,.^,„„, ,„ application of a 
AVm.u strained, and Nvell ^*-^' ' J ^^^ ^f ,1,^ canvas with a brush, 
solution of frlue s..e .s -^'^/" ^ ,^';,„„, ^Vheu this is dry, a 
and then rubbed smooth w-l ^^X^n^^ on. by means of steel 
coating of paiut, of lh>seed od ^^^^^ ^^^, ^,, ^^ jength. lu the 
trowels, which are son>ctnnes two a I a . ^ ,^, 

L.e of two week, ^f ^-->;?:,; '^^ ',:,: .oing on the face of 
luthe —'>>'«' --^'^r:: r^nt ^eL applied .ith tl,e 
the cloth, no los. '-'-"/^'^^ "^'f,, ^J, ^n with a brush, winch ts 
trowel ; and. finally, a fourth ''-^ '« J^' , ^^^, ,, ,.e afterward 
i^UMulcd to r,r>u the f^-;"7'\-' ^^ ^^^ ,,,;ths are required to 
printed. For the best cloth t. ^^J^^^^ ^„, ,,,„,„ to nearly 
Innple.e these and ^^^ ^-^^ ,f .H-cloth, twenty- 

,,,„ ,i.. s tin wcgljt oi ^> ^;^^^J^ ,„, The heavy pteceB 
four bv one hm.dre.l Jeet, will wn.u , ,i ,i,, conveyed 

'rro^eived .V,un the .atues "P-' ^-' ^^ ^ l^ ^ ,able, and drawn 
to the P^-'»t"'^''^"*''\";'''':\';^L'portions in advance, progresses. 
.,,,,, as fast as the V-^^:^;^';^^^ o^ pine wood, faced with pear- 
Tbe prh.ting U accon.phshed by b ^ 1 ^^^ ^^^ ^,^^ , 

^,,,., and engraved, each one, to P'"^ "; i-,/ ,, u,e other color, 

l,,;.,. are in one color, the V^^^^^^^^ i ^....ion, therefore, 
,,-,, .at away. As -->'.'• ",'^;,7„, .,,•,,,„ .H-i.-g nuvch the same 
a« there are colors to Ik, F- j/ ^ .v hand, or in calico print-.g. 
,s that describe! in prnXtng u 1 " - ^^,.„.,,, ,,,.„„ „xty 

J-; x:^^^"^^^ "--' """ ""' ' 

yards of I'Moov Cloth. 




ulinjrs, the 
ity-livc by 
; ; and the 
ufiicturo of 
3 recinired ; 

is canvas, 
Llred yards 
, and then 
, separated 
latfornis are 
f the cloth, 
ication of a 
.•ith ft brush, 
jis is dry, a 
cans of Btecl 
iirtli. In the 
at U a\)\)l'-'d- 
,u the face of 
ilied with the 
iish, which is 

1)0 afterward 
[•(. re(inired to 
ouut to nearly 
.(•hith, tweiity- 
:> heavy pieces 
il are conveyed 
,1,., and drawn 
ice, projrrerses. 
iiird with pear- 
„f the patterns 
tlio other ei)h)r3 
s^i(*n, tliei'eforo, 

much the same 
, calico printing. 
vka, about Hixty 
d fifty Ihoiisund 

T.o™. ..,0 c.pi.n. or u. sutc of Xo. ;'■;-.;«. '^J^;^';; ::;:* 

invested of i?2,->-lT,T.)->, "'^i i . in-inutae- 

hands, yielding products valued at ^^^^'^f^ .j^,,,,,,,,,,, st.eam 

t-es were Bar I-"; ^-'^: ^^;' " ^ .'p ^ . U.u.m^^ Hosiery. 
Engines, and Iron Castn.g., *•-> ;^.-; »» - ^ j.^,,,!,. 

enware. $100,1)00; Fire IVn^K ^^''f %^ ^^"''y,, , ,;,, Candles. 
and Spices. §110.512; .)^>- ?^^ ^^ . ^^I^', ,.1, ei;U.t;T2 ; Cars. 
,,M00; S-one ^'iP--' •^; ,:;X;i li deu.nts, ..M^O ; Anvils 

^'^' v' ' ';S^^0 (I ^la-^ -^ts. etc., §k,000 ; Collage, ^2.,.00 ; 
and \ ises, :?.58,->OU, »^>niui-,i simoon- Sash Dooi's, and 

Leather Belting, $24,000 ; Lumber, sawed. *40,0U0 , ba.U, 

Blinds, $4:), 1-20. _ .f -Rnnt^ mid Shoes, Brass Cock3, 

Trenton had also "^'^»"'^'^^^"";;\^^^°;' ^ ,s Kni i^ 


to elsewhere in tns uo,k ^ •; "^ ^ ^,. ^,,^. ^^,,,,,ican Saw 

Works, see Article John A. l;""''^^^' ',;;,,,, The Tfe.itun Iron 
Company's Works, :r:;^ ^ntc. Um . I.^Lm^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

Company have at South Aitn 01 i,,„,„,,,.„^ ;„ all and six tniins 

the iuited States, -ntainitig ttfty-g >t 1 -^ ^ ' ^^ ,^,., 

of rolls, driven by ^--.;''V;:^;: ^ ^l mlL one roof is three 
of rails and wire ^"'""'^"y- . , V'\"''^. ,,u-ire^t single building in Uio 
and a half acres, and is satd t. ^ ^ ^ ; ;,1 ,. ,,, ,.,an.s tor lire- 
United States. Here were made the \M n ,,^^ 

,..of buiidittg. ..; the ^'i;-;;^^- ^-r; : ; ;;;;;; : ,.nnd_that 

the Wire was made-a m. e ^^ ^ '"^ •^l; ,„ i^„„.i.„. More re- 

rcceived the I'fizo Medal at th ^^ I''' ^ V , uun-bartvi Iron 
eently the Company have succeed., 'j > ' '^^w fully -.PpH-l. 

...nal in ,ualily to the --^'l; "^,^ ^ j^ ^Lcripth.n of Iron is per- 
The discovery of t e l''--'" ;^;;^ ' ! ^ \,, country than any other 
Laps of greater vahte " 'j^ ;> j^" ,,„,,„.,t of the late Be- 



,„.i„P.s oxcooclB a half nullion of dollars, and that the value of the an- 
Z^U^na is nu>re than a million of dollav. Of the woollen null, 
the principal one irf 

Samuel K. Wilson's Factory, 

A nne .nr-.or, hri.. s..etn.^ 

t a inlo tiu. h^ncls of Mr. Wil.on, who nnule in.p.n.ant addu on. 

U . ui in.^., and aH.r the lire in lSfi4, whieh destroyed he en.ue -^ 

•til If Ih null. rebniU i, in a .uhstnntial manner, d .me t 

;;:;;:; conu-lete and conveniently arranged woollen ,n the 

X. n.achinery indnde. six full set. of cards, cdeven nmh. three 
of then, seh^acin, and larger than ordinary, --^™S f -^ ^ 
.1,., .„h1 ...indh- and two hundred looms. ^early all in ma 
^ 1; > ^the automatic mules, which are of Kndi.h mauu- 

;: ;; : ^.a U tm, worUs of the l^rhleshurg Manun,.Murn,g 
facluie, \\( u m.i ^ _ T'atonts. The nuiclunery 

Company, and are ot the we l-kno^^n '^ ; ' ,^ ,,„.,.„, 

U ouerated l.v a steam eniime of e.,, ; ..o.-e pou(i,au. 
^. -w eel of ahou, seventy horse power. The two n.edunns o pou i 
:: comhh>e.i upon the shafting, but cither stean. or water can be u.ed 

^^'i;^;:n-::n.;!;:.vs from two hundred and hfty to three hund.d 
pe^ns acco d-nJ .o\he den.ands of the season, and when m fu 1 o - 
?:urc:onsumc.;twenty-iive hundred pounds of wool per day, bes.des 

la,-,., onantities of warp purchased fron. other manufacturer. 

'^'C petitions of nmnnfacturin. cloth, as ce„d,n.tul,nth.mdn^ 

not dis.i nilar fron. those pursued i.. other fac.or.e.s, and need d - 
J^.a description. The wool is ,irs, cleaned or sorted, < - sou, t 

! ' ve the n-ease, wnen it is lit for the dye-vats, n, wlueh a da) ,. 

I u . " ive the re„uired color. Fron. the dye-house the wool goes 

: I ,;; and cardi..g roo... where it i. separated a,,d p..epa.-ed 

^;lhe\..,.le ' which convert it into threads or warp o - --t - 

,„.ss for the loo.ns, whi.d. lirst give it the appeara..ce of dot . W an 
:. ..,he loom it is eighty wide, a,.d lull of .evo-LUe .n e.- 

IL Another process i.rcp.ired to give it the .-cp.,. • ;bod . 

which is supplied bv the lulling machine, where, und.u- the nefon .4 . 

V. por bath the eighty i.ches are eont,-acted to myU.. >";;"- 

clo h i. now re..dy for the " nap." which is raised by a pech. . k nd 

t,„ne.l burr eaU-d '• tea-d," ahi.ugh the sa...e ' ^.^';;;;- ^ ; 

by other .meuuH. It is the, dried ou a large ey r.a- /eafd bj ntuim. 



' the nn- 
cn mills 

• five feet 
of illl ulil 

.lit'Hins to 
pntir(> (M 
it one of 
ios ill the 

lop, three 
hoiit two 

tin' ina- 
isli iiiiuni- 

fi tur'iiiie 
IS oi" i>o\ver 
an be uaed 

13 hnnih'ed 
n full upe- 
luy, Iji'f-ides 

)is mill, ni'o 
coil no de- 
i ffi'oured to 
•li a liny is 
wool goes 
111 prepared 
IVii'itiit tliio- 
)lli. Wliini 
('-like iiitor- 
. " body,"' 
uetion of ft 
neiu-f*. Tiio 
uliar kind of 
II be t'iVi'i'teil 
cd by Bteiim, 

pU,yed to remove or dust, and ^\ ' '\7^^, .,,»,a to powerful 

Mr, S.nuB-1 k. ^^ jk"", "»■ 1" „^ ,,„„„u.|.co,l tho mm«- 

Glnncoslcr comity, >"Vl">"^!. i.|,ik.l-l,.l,iii, an.l vni.ovo.l l.i 

f„,uro or woollen m ■'"• " j,.^, j,, ,,, surto »l.o ,.ovc'1o.»hI 

.„d opor».oa .oir-.cli„S ""■'?. "";,;'. .; ,„„uli»r Wmo, |»rt o„,. 
ton „„,i ,.rt«ool, ■'*'*f,„ .'*,;„,, „„,„„, ,l„. «.- 

men of New Jersey. _ nmnncrs and modest in the appro- 

Mr. Wilson, ^>-''^l^-^'-""'' ;: tiy of character and fei- 
eiaUon of his a">'Uio. - :^ o^ ^>^ ^ ^^^^ „„, ,,,,;,, ,,.,,1- 

tility of resources. -^ ^ \^^ ,,, ,,, „,,i„ess eareer. He takes 
ties, the large sucee.. - -%^,^^,^,^.„_ ^,, ,,,,,auily in which he ro- 
an active interest m all that eonu public-spirited 

»'>>.- ii';r:i:;;; ';r i:™ ™ °.."r,.:: ,..»- '.-'-". -' 

;r«eo;i:i::«;cl°.c.ed-o„ooru»ro,n„.ana.o.„r. ^ 





..AN. wHcU . tUo eapU. .otU oP .e S- ^ ^^ Jf j:;^! 
Albany County, dilVevs ^^'^^\^^''\;'^J^^^, icconlin, to tbe 
„..nufactuving of ^^^^J^^^Z^^ l-n^^-d and ninety- 
latest census returns, there were in tl « ^J^^ ^, ,i^,, of 

.. .annraeturin. .ta.U.>.e^^^ ,,,,,,. ^^ 


,,;,4.«,», ana »'»'-t-^:^^'» ,:;::„:: >:*a.> .. .». 

uvoduced a value of ipU,,.38o,u-a- factories of Watervlic 

Luou and woolen -^^'^^^^^^^ ^^jt /for the City of Alban 
and Cohoes ; and deductn.g ^^^'^^^^ ,^f ^-,_,oi,U9, employing 

33; cstaiAisl^ments, an ^^^^^ ^J, i, ^,,5.MU. ^b. 
,. i .i„c. (3 'SU'i females, and piodULiUo 

''"' . :;;t ;:fa m-«> ae.;rding to the census n^turns. wh 

are only approximately accur^ae, w 


Agricultural impU'raonts (1) ^' 

Alcohol ,„.!!!!!. 10 

Bvicks j.j 

B'"»om« '"' , ir. 

Cul-iuet war., cUair., aud ^'''^'^'"'^'^ U 

Ciiniivses '^ j- 

ClKiirs "■■■■.'■ 46 

Cliitlii'iK 2 

Coir.H- iiud Pl'lco mills 
CoUon goods 

■Dniiu Ule 

EdK'o loolH 

yiv(> ln'ick 

's.'), 000... 
127,'i00 .. 




,7 ^'•■-""■ 

^ 32«,.'>0O.. 

2 40,000.. 

o'.".... 1,400,SOO.. 











Flour and inoal ^ 





HaU . 


Irou founding 

L. lUhcr 

LiiiHOPil oil 

Machiuory aud steam eugines. 


M;il' liquors 


Pftteut medicines 


Plau.'.l lumliiT 

BadilU'ry and liarness 

Bonp aud Caudlos 

Biovo fouudiuK 

Woolen goods and hosiery ..- 















120,4,10 ... 

f 40,000... 
30.100 ... 

7 i,oi:i,<»«o .. 

IS 964,000... 




























lich however 

F«^mala ValtiP ff 
Lauds. I'l'oduft. 



855!'.!!". 7i3,nia 


940 1,D37,.'HX) 






1295 i,onn.oo5 





...... 8fi4,211 

6...... «'|404 

t 70,100 





1431...... 1,515,190 


„, ^Ve beU«v.> that, but one of th. fir...- •>-';j3f;;;TorWHttt M-'« 
p,e.ncnU in Albany iu I860, re«a.n. unohang.d, namely, 



■jvk and of 
ill boiug a 
iiig to tlie 
aiul nliiety- 

ciipiliil of 
em.iUs, niid 
I the lavgo 

y of Albany 
I, employing 
(v3U. Tl» 
ich however 

n^la Valne "t 
likIs. I'rudiKt. 



10 30;!,0.)0 


355!"!!! 7i:i,nia 

940 1,937,.W0 





2*1, '^00 

1295 1,000.00.'. 




'.'..... Ml ,000 

...... H04,21l 

6...... «'.•«'•« 

t 70,100 


20 83,"'>0 

[ 110,4S1 

' i,a'i?,Too 

14J1 1,515,190 

ng ARripuUnrBl Im- 
\Vhkbi.eii, Mblick 

The Albany Stove Foundries. 

..any and Troy have long ^^^l^^^f::^:::::^!: 7!^^ 
tnve of Stoves. The business as at -;t ^ ^^"^ i^^. 1,,,,,, „,,,evally 
puttingtogether ^^^ ^f^:;^'^:^'^:^^ The eavly castings 

::::f ';::i:^z Xi^..^^^^ ^.u those of ti. ...nt da. 


a box-stove, and then the oblong \^^^T^^ The Irst advance 
«onie extent for heating school 1--- f ^'^^ ;;, ^^ ,, ^ven ; and 
toward a Cooking Stove was «-!;-"-; "^^^^^ ,„ ,„,ng affair 

^'- ^^-^ ''■^'' ''-'-'' ""'^Zl teX e tor olwhieh was in front 
,,ving an oven rumung ^« j;-^ ^ , . .,,_,„a having also a boiler- 
and directly over the door for ^»I'l 'y "- , ■ r^-i^, ^ 

,„,e and boiler on «-^;f ^j^:^^^ reU:i:^,,u!dL, was made. 

known as the PhiladeU^nas^-^ stoves wei. made at Tlnd.on IVoiu 

Abont the year 1« - ' f ^^^^^^.^^ ,,, f,st to elevaf the are-boX 

patterns made by a ^ " ^ -^^ ^^^,^^ ^,, Seated, and was sustained 

above the bottom. Ihi. iminovemeiu ^^^^^^^^^^ 

t:!,;.:ccnd fom .1,0 top to .h« Wttou, ot tl« oven. 

1 l<ul ThoT nro the successors of A. & W. 

A Co., who have been estabU.hoa there ^ nee l. ■ • J .^ ,^^j,^ ,^^ 

Iwhceler, originally e.tubU«he,l -, ^^'^^ 7';^^ J, .'; ", „ .eJ, now .0 extensively 
fir»t .ucccsful railroad, or en.ile.s hor.e p u - j- « ^^.^^^ ,„^„t„i ;„ 

;:.„! in aHvin« .Ure.hin« «-;;;- -tr:;:;:nrU. provMea .iU. ..1. the 
1,:«-.. The nr,n at the P-^ "^ ^ ^^ ^„.„„ „,,,, ..„ not in u.e in t„.,er s.uu- 
„,„.t approved l"'^"'-'»-'"«'''^^'''"'- \ , '' '^^..'^.a hy one of the firm, Im... it i. believed, 
Ur .n..«u..etorie. A ---«;-' ^ ^^.L.etures inelude, be«i.,e« .he, 
„o ^ ^ _^ ^^^. ^^^ ,_^ ^^^^,^^.^.„ ,,„,.,„„a. 

,„Heu.t.,ral ™ach nes a n"";*^ ^ J '„ „ ,^,0 .,est agricultural .nachin.. ever .n- 
T,.,r 0.aMa.? n,-./.,- ""j^ ;"'';; ;^^i„, .„terc«t i. evidenced by .i,o fact that tt 
rented, and that it >s appreoaled by "»'""« f,^,if,,,„i.. „„,, OrcKon. 

has been ,oKl in nearly every State m th .on n u g _^ ^^^^^^_^^ ^,^^ ^^^. 

The tnanufaeturo of Tile for ' '-"'"^ '^ , "yU,^ eensu. take... The -Albao, 
ti.tie. of .hi. branch J-- <=- f' '^;^" ^.^^ j;'! .roprie.ors, U probably the largest 
Dntin-Tilc Works," of U i ^V- *' \ _^^ ^^ y,,^;,, Tile are made by tb«m. m- 

or i,., kind in the United St.a.e, All ''- ; '^^^^' ^^^^ 34 ,„ ^j i„eh«- ri.e, a,.d ,ole 
,„.,Ung round tile fron, U to ^ ^^ '-;^'^;; C:! ,„a well-conduet^d e»tabli.h.n«.t. 

tile frou 2 to 6 inches rite. Ihis u a very 1 



.ade U.0 stov. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^.^.r of a eentnry, hut n.ay yet 
alcaing cclung stove '^r m.^^-^ J^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ,,,,,,, being cheap 
,e sec, on hoanl ^'^ ^ ^^ ;;^^;n,„,:;e. James' slovo is pvobably 

a -tail stove store ^^;^^^]^ 'l^^;,, ,, Albany but throughout 
Perl.apsuouauuMsl tuU^ ,Un-e business, than that of Joel 

the eonn.ry, .n eonnecUon ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^.,^,, .n,, ,, is;',0, he 

Kathi.ouo. In l'--'--^;;;,;;' ,^'^;."r;r son. years his eastings 
opened a stove ^'--"^^ ; ' ^' ^.^.^ss with such energy that 
from New Jersey, "^^^^^^^ ,,,,,, M.,„ent in the country. The 
"' ' ^'"' '"" ;• ,: c st^^ s ^on. New Jersey, especially as a part 

cost ol ^-'-l--^ ^ ,"^t ^a New York as nni.hed stoves, being so 
wasreturnedtolh.hul pi. ^u ^.^ ^^^^_^^ ^^^^^^_^._^^ .^^ 

Ueavyan item, he at i .. '; l^™', ^,^„,„,a in making castings for 
foundries in Albany w >ch m chaH^ en^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^_^^^^^^ ^ ^, ^^_^^^^ 

„.aehinery and =^^-"'^ ^ ,^^ .j^ ',„,, Ue built in 18... is believed 
solely lur stoves. Hi. ^ ^^ " ,^, ^.^ng stove eastings, 

to have b..en the very hr.t lu the count y ji,,,,„si„.4 with 

,. 1 • ... J nn^tiiio-s were made smoother, anu oy uihi" ii:» .-, 

IJy this process r.istin<,s wcit _ ,.i,„.,,„.r and thus bceiime more 

j„„„„„„„ -■-'»;«;:>;:r j;;;r : l:!: ;:,» 71 o,. ...o,...,, „- 

(■xtensively used, ihis m.iv ic. j increased with such 

,,, Stove nusinesB as a leading l'--'^;, ^^^^ " , ,,,.ehold 

"'•""•^ '"'r : ":^s: v;:: ;^:;; cl Bi-itis,. rr^vmees. 

word ,l,ruugh.,d 1 \-^ _,,, , .,,^. ,VorUs" are among the largest 

At the present tune tlie Uauuo u 

in Albany. They are Mtuated ,n tbe upi ^ ;^J'^^, „, ,,, 
canal, the buildings being respect.vely .5 by . cct ^^^^^^ 

,,, ...a eo.r nearly t^> acres o^^ 

t:^:"^;.;: ;;e w luldi.; rooms, one bei... 170 by 1:10 feet and 

The average production of Stoves . f ^« ; f . ^^^^ 3^,, ,„ ,000 

, 1 * 411 (inn The consumption ol non is iium 
amounted to 40,000. he co< c„„,tnntly introducing new 



d of Troy, 
y continued 
Hit may yet 
)eing cheap 
is probably 
iiuell opened 

, throughout 
that of Joel 
1 in ISP.O, ho 

his castinirs 
1 energy that 
Mintry. The 
ally as a part 
)Vos, being so 
n patterns in 
«■ fuslinirs for 
;te(l a foundry 
:}S, is believed 
;tovc castings, 
spensing with 
s became more 
muMicemeut of 
sed with such 
ue a household 
ilish rrwvlnces. 
ong the largest 
c city, near the 
\nd -250 by 126 
;m are four and 

two and a half 
jy 130 feet, and 
iKire feet. Each 
lii,^ twenty toii3 
stublisliiiient ''an 
ndred stoves per 
the departments 
oyed WMh Rf"). 
oiue years it has 
oni 3500 to 1000 

introducing new 
[id in making new 

A 1 f inno of these flasks arc in constant use 


^-U a. one -..^^^^^ 


nople. and on boats far up f^t^r,,^. is Mr. Jon. F. ll.vTnBO..F.. a 
The present propru>tor of ^'^^^J' ^^^ , ,Ual and experienec, 

nephew of Joel ^^^^^^^^^^^Z the establishment. 

fullv qualified to mainta>n the rep at on ^^^^^^ ^,^^^^^^^.^^^ 

S [. Hansom k Co. are a.u.thei «' '^ ^ ^,„.,i,cd without 

nrms in Ali.any, and ^'-"i^;-;; :j:"^ tI^^: ^orks are situated <,u 
change the disasters of ^^^^^^^ ^„,,,rn portion of the city, and 
the banks of the Huason ^^^^ employment to al.-ut three hun- 
cover four entire s.prares. J lu) „ \, thousand tons, or more 

dred n>en, and have east n. ^ :^^^ ....rilnded to all parts of 
than thirty thousand stoves, -^'^ ; ;; J;;'^„ ,, to foreign euuntries. 
the United States, and not a few ave ■ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ .^^,^j ^.^. 

Tl>eir iron warehouse on T.roadway i. one oi 

^Lious edifiees that adorn that thoroug^a.^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ 
The other Stove Founders m A^.an> a ^^^^^ ^^ 

SlK-u- Packard .t Co., and Jame. D. AN a., o . 

'u tl.: foundries is about 18,(H)0 t- F^)-- ^^^,^ ,,.,„,raetories 

In addition to the Stove ^^-^'_^l^, „,,, extensive in the 

0^ noll>,w Warc^^e oi them - ^^^ ^vopnetor of this .u.ndry. 

United States. M>-. J'-l'" f ' 'Cw 'v who sueceeaed W. C. Noyes. 

U the s,u..cessor of C<.rn,ng .V G_kwc> ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^,^. 

Who .on. -.1 the business m ^'^ J^^^J^ ^,,,,, -' ^"'"^ ^^'^'^ 

^^--•" ■'•"?:■ :;rr,^^'>>n.^-' tons of iron a 

over 120 n. n are e'npl'*)-^ ' J»; > [ ^,, ,,,,, founaries of Albany 
per day. Mv, Coewey >'«n'P> - ' '\'^" ,,,„„^ „,,, i„ various parts 

l„d Troy, but foundevs ami .h., s u> o ha^ ^ _^ ,,,„H,,.ent. Uh 

-:::';i:::;;r also the inventor. ^^^^^^^^^ 

SWiteh Lock, of whleh he -'^^ ^ ^f j" .'unitei States. 
areinuseonthe,n-inc.palra 0^^^ ,, , n..llow 

Mr. Itilan t^Jm y ''^ J^^^ Ionise of attubiing a lair shaie of 
Ware foumler in Albany, and gives proi 


U,a„„, known as the " S*u,andcr and All,a„y Fire Brick Work.," 

To obtain «ni»S» that wera 500 cona » f -' » ,, j, „ .,„,„„. 
.„„„,„ ,„ ,„. ,ran,„o,tation - ''° '';,»■ ,- ^fto™ tho extent 

of Uicir business, wo mto that an. inm 1^^^ ^^j^,,,^.,, 

"■ ''"' '':;■"• '' «r'rll"rn!t"narac.,,,.cs, wc nation 
An,«ns the « '""J \:^ » ' ™„,, ,„„t ,„,„„„ for burning wet tan. 
l-'in^ lirick Urates ioi inorai>sou .„..ibling tlicm 10 use 

,,. , .oven.. . ^^^:^^::r:Z:. . U^., a,. U.s 
as fuel the tau winch ^^as l'^«^" ,^^^ ^,,. ^„,ehasing other fuel, 

save not only the expense of its remo I ^^^^yj^i,. 

,,ents in other hranc es o U^e I ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^ 

l,,,„ed uiauutaetury of tar \^ lue , .^^ ^^^ 

& Co. This establishnieut, tl-|^ - J^ ;. ; , ^ .,,i,, turns 

country, has an e.Kcellent -l-> J ; '^^ J ^^ co. ninufacture the 

out over 100 wheels »>- ^^[■^^^^^ ^ ^e D^^'h Patent Wheel, and other 
Atwood Patent Corrugated Wbeel tl c ^^^^^ ^^-^^^^^^ 

patterns which expen.>ee as j,r^ d c 1. su^^^^ ^> ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ 

nud possess strength and ^ "'*';' ^ ..^^j^^ „f ^he best American 

these works use from eight to t.eUe V'^'e ^^ ^^^^^ 

charcoal iron, and exercise gre t ca re a-^ " ^^^^^^.^,„^ (,,, 

n.ixi..g them. Every hejit is -^''."f J^ ^^^ ^;.^.^, ,, ,,,a„css. The 


plied with wheels from this establishment. 

The Albany Breweries and Distilleries. 

The manu^cture of Malt Li.uor ^-^^-g b^n a^rc^.cj.^u^ 
i„ Albany. The o^est Bi.w., now 1..^ >U. K.^ 
commenced the business in 1,9. At t lat ^.^^^,^^^^^ ^^ 

three small Breweries-one ^olongmg ^^^^^ ^^^ ,,,„ds. 
Maiden Lane, below Eroadway vl.ere Stauvux ^^„„^,,„,ed 

Another was o..ied ^y ^^■l:;;^:^. t^ tlis,lie Lloyd, who 
about the same time us Mr. Boyd, bu I .^ ^^^^ ^^^^j ^ 

was succeeded by LeBntton in 180.5 - 1^°^^^ J^^ ^.^^^,,^ ,,Uo in 

McCuUoch in 1808 ; then succeeded H. Buiull ana i.. 



rick Works," 

1 yet strong 
icen a dcside- 
m\ the extent 
lesiruil result, 
the extensive 
many dealers 

niy;Ut mention 
■uing wet tan. 
»g tiiem to use 
lieni, and thus 
;ig other fuel, 
rtant establish- 
iding one eele- 
H. Tliateher 
e others in the 
)peration turns 
manufacture the 
Mieel, and other 
east and chilled, 
} proprietors of 

best American 
u selecting and 
) deteruune (and 
hardness. The 

are chiefly sup- 

)romiacnt pursuit 
,obert Boyd, who 
ere were two or 
/oort, situated on 
lall now stands. 
. Gill commenced 
s, one Lloyd, who 
in 1806 -, Boyd & 
J. Fiddler, who in 

. ...H Mr Johu T«y.or tounCed «>o f.rm or FU1.«« i Taylor 
connection With Mr. Jonu x j 

in 1«--^-^- . , , , i„..ost Brewery in the United States is that 

At the present tunc e 1 . t B w y ^^^^^ . ^ ^^^^ ,,„,,„ounded 

of John Taylor's S.)us,o Albany, it ^^^^^^^^^,^ j.;^,,,^ „,a 

l.roadway. Ferry and ^^^^J,^ ,,i,aing being 200 by 80 
ivers about two acres of S- ^ ^. ^^ ,; „,,,„ ,„nding on the r>ver 
fee, and six stories high. A^'J^'"" - ^^^^.^ f,et square, and seven 

on. is a fu-e-proof ^^orehou. se en^^^ . ^^^^^^ ^^,,^., ,,,,.,_. u>e 
stovie. hi.h. In tins bnddu g c -.o ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ,,^.^.^^^,y 

grain fron. boats on the nver o ^ ' -; ^,^,^^,,^ iymtv Street 

at the rate of one thousand bushel, pe, oui ^^^^.^^^.^ ,„„ 

:a\he main building f-"^;'^-/ :rr^;:L;oring, cLnsing and 
by 50 feet, a large portion of ^ ^ J. ^ ^^ ,,,,, ,-as imported fi-om 
steaming casks and barrels. ^1-^^;" ^^ ^j,,,,i,e ever built. After 
Europe, and is probably one of t Ic m .1 ^^^.^^^^ eon.plctely 

^J, a row of barrels - J-^^-^f .^ te, ,,„,es after i. appU- 
llu-ough the staves ->-'' ' ^ ;" Z;,,, building is occupied by the 
cation. On the mam s ory ^''« "^ .•'\^^^ proprietors. In th. upper 
counting-house and pnvate ^^ ; f^^.^l which contains a nrost 

storv is a tire-proof apartment, '^ f* ^^ ^^^_;,,,e feature in t.usiness 
valuable library of over ten thou.a,Klv oh me ^.^^^ ^^, ^,^ 

establishments <.f this ^^-nptu m On th _^^^^^ ^^ ._.,^^, 

--^r i::r :i:"v:: ::i";:^^ contains a dock .th ,ass .a. 

:^r;:e:i::::l:or, that are m..;-^:^-:t, ,.e of the most per. 
The apparatus -d -lU.pment.M tl - Y^^^^ ^^^,^^. ^^^.^^ ,^,„,, ,, 

feet description, and it 1'- ^'^^^ ^^^ |,, erection in IS.O. the 
thousand barrels per annum. Hevi^ dnvwings of the mnst im- 

lior of this iirm visited Euro^ ami u d,a ^^^^ . ^^^^^^^^^ ,^^ 
portant improvements winch he J ^ ^,^ ^,,_ „„,i,tiug of three 

pontoon apparatus for cleansing and . ,o arranged as to 

Lndred and sixty-live ^^^^ ;;^'^^t^^: ,,,ays at the same height, 
open and shut the valves^ ^^'^!"''„^" Reiving troughs, is as yet a 
independent of the (low ot yeast ' J^^ J-^dh this establisiuuont are 
novelty in American breweries C nn- _ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^_^^^^_ 

five large Malt houses, in which tl e n ^^ ^, .^ p^^.„ 

Witlnn the year 18C3 the ^^^J^^^,, ,„ of the part- 
died, highly e^teemed and reg^t^^^^^^_^^^^___^^^^.^^ ^,^ 
ncrs, Edmund B. Taylor, of the ^^"^ ^ ,f y^w York 

,,ement to the tw. r—.. ^^;^os^li 1 ^J^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^,^ 

City, and ^^^^';''l'^;^Ci in th J business. 
a half million of ^"^'^^^^ invesieu 



.• „f iiu. Tavlor Brewery, the largest In Albany 
Previous to tl.e.c..on^ft.^^^;^J^ of ^^^ ^^'^'- '''■ V^^ '"'') 

x^-fts tluit ot U. ]Juvt .^ to. iut ^^^ ^j^^ ,^^^^^^^ of 

^vus engaged in the ^--^^ xS ^ 18=30 -hen ho and his 
,,,,,. ho was the l>ead dates Us ex^ c ^^^'^J^r^ Brewery, which 

sou (;i>arles A. Burt ^^^^^'^ "^^^^^^ Montgomery and Lumber 
oee«inesthebloeUi.oundcnt byCenU ,C -^, ^^o^^^J^^ . ^ ^^^^^ 

Streets, being a square of 3 o c by -( ^^^^^^^ ^^^.,^ ^,^,^,^^,1, 

,,l,,,. an addition was made m 851. and a ^^^^^_ ^^^^^^^^ 

of nralting 100.000 bushels of ^-^^ » ^ . ^s-but their capacity to 

over 50,000 barrols-in one year 1,800,8-0 , alio 

.nannfacnre is much greater than tins „estion whether malt 

Tlus lira, was the hrst we belmve ^ -^^^ ^J , ^.^^.^ , on 

l,,uors could be sold for cash only ^ J' /^^ ^^..^^ beyond the 
delivery, not only for the ale but t c . .^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ 

city lin.its-the money being refunded ^^^^^ j^^,,, ,^,„ier8, 

.iation is made f-;^;;;:;:^!,::;:!^ ^ :^::nth for the a.aount of 
who are drawn upon at he '^^^'" "" ' t,, elaim that by thus 

tUeir purchases during the P-^;^^^"; ' " ^.;,,,\, Le better stock and 
escaping losses fro.n ^'-^^'^^''^^^''^1 ^1, ,,ies are large notwith- 


-^ -"Tt::^!;:::'^:::"^^- ^.-d ^..u. .ded to 

crcises in its mana<,cmi.ui- ,. >,„„t ^rosnerous condition. 

,„„a .,, '•■« -'*«*7;::::':.'; ti oul™ * Co., „.-oFic.o.-s, i. 

The "Arch hlreC '■"'»«'■ 3' ,j,|,„ ,, the present ».■». ™n- 

""■"""' ;r n;/"i •>'■■,..:« r,o,:., ».,» >-» '.»» -''»■»• »» '"» 

SOrS 01 lllCU laiin-i, - _ 

. oldest brewer in Albany now living^ ,f Robert, then living on an 

In nOO, Mr. Bol)ert Boyd, ^ ^^^^^^^^^^ „e of whom was a 

i,,„.l felow Albany, ^^^f^y^'^s^'^,, in harvesting his grain. 

„rewer, the otl>er -"-^!^^«^!^jXial to establish a Brewery, hi- 

These men, who had -'-^-^-^ ^^ ^;^ "!.,,,,, at the corner of Areh 
duced Mr. 15oyd to bu, d one. ^ ' • - ^»^ ^ ^^^^^ ,,,^ ,4 ^y 

,,a Greon Streets, and commenced '^-; "|; ^ ^^ ^^^ ,,^^ g„tch,nen 
,0 feet, comprising a I'-^-T-^^^^'J;"",, equired vo instruct 
eonducted the '-^^'"f ^^ ^^J^^X^ Urn apiUl. Mr. R. Boyd 
Mr. Bobert Boyd, while his fathei ^ ^ ^ ^^^^ J ^^^^ ,,,„„,-, but re- 
pave up the business in a few y^-^'!^f'^^;i\, firm of I'.oyd & 
turned in 1808. and was the senior paitnci ol .lie 

est in Albany 
^Ir. Uvi l'>uvt, 
the lioiiso of 
u he and hia 
;rowory, whieli 
y ami Lumber 
cil ill 1S47, to 
built capable 
bvew annually 
icir capacity lo 

I wliotlier malt 
x\n payment on 
sent beyouel the 
rcturncil. No 
lolesale tlealers, 
• the amount of 
m tliat by thus 
)cttcr stock and 
; larsie notwith- 
imptiou in favor 

the business i3 
partner, who ex- 
iU that aided to 

)., proprietors, is 
present firm cora- 
;d as the succes- 
meutioned as the 

hen livin<r on an 
e of whom was a 
irestinc; his grain, 
lish a Brewery, in- 
he corner of Arch 
It was but 24 by 
le txv« Scotchmen 
quired to instruct 
tal. Mr. II. Boyd 
the country, but re- 
le firm of Boyd & 


fc A 







,50 '""H- 

















(716) •7a-4903 







Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historical 

Microreproductions / Institut Canadian da microraproduction. historiques 




McCulloch, who for many years conducted a heavy business. After 
vt^.uschn^es the Brewery W.S rented until 1850, when the present 

.gaged in the bu.iner,s. The hniidings, which had been a d.d o 
tl time^o time, and now front on four streets Uree.. Arch nu.Lha 
and rerry,the length on Arch Street being 321 leet, arc i .. and 

onvcnicSy arranged, having the malt house in t c sau>o rng^ 

winch obviates the expense of carting, and there is abundance ut loom 

for receiving and storing empty caslvs. a, t^ • w c. q^n 

The other principal Brewers in Albany arc John .1 Son 

Armsdell Brothers, Anthony McQuadc, James Quin, an.l l.ccUer & 

^ m'rarc also several firms engaged extensively in Malting, the prin- 
cipal being Jolm G. White & Son, Jol>a Twcddle, and A A. nnlop 
jilm G. White, who is also the President of the Bank ot the , 
and the olde.t i.thc business, has two malt houses, and suppncs large y 
tlie brewers in riiiladelphh-., where so mu.h malt is u.ed. beside, those 

'" Mr'Twcddlc commenced the manufacture of malt in West Chester, 
rennsylvanla, many years ago, and removed to Albany in WAS. A\ lule 
the brewers in the principal cities from Portsmouth toP.altanore, as w 
as tliose in tlie interior, obtain Malt from his extensive malt house, hia 
sales are chieily in New York City. 

Mr Dunlop is the son of Robert Dunlop, a well-known brove, fif.y 
yeur. since, and was himself a brewo-. llis extensive estab hslnnent is 
in the adjoining town of Watcrvliet, and here he supplies brewers m 
New York and other principal ^ tlantic cities. Mr.a)"«loP i« "1^« ex- 
tensively engaged in brewing at West Troy. 

Tliere arc two largo Distilleries in Albany, one of which, that of 
Edson k Co., distils from the grain; tlie other, that of John raccy 
& Co., is devoted to rectifying li.,r.ors and making alcohd. Besides 
these there arc a number of smaller rectifying estabhsnnenls. 1 h o 
valuo of the yearly product varies with the price, but the average is 
nearly two million dollars. 

The DistiMerv of l-Mson & Co., erected in 1840, consumed or a >car 
or two bat m bushels of grahi per day. In 1851 a small ••ohnnn was 
erected f..r tin; manufacture of alcohol, capable of running <i()(. .gallons 
per dav Tiiat small amount was then ample for tlie su,.i>ly ol the, 
i\uleed'it re.pured an ciVort to dispose of it. As the .Icniand 
„„„tlier column was in 1853 added to tlic works, capable of n.mnng SOO 
gallons daily. In 1855 and 1850 the Distillery was enlarge,! so as to 
consume 900 bushels of grain per day. While superlnlendmg 'he start- 



ing of the new works, Mr. Cyrus Edson, the proprietor, was killed by 
the explosion of the steam-boiler. May 15th, 1830. Since that period 
the business has been conductefl by the present proprietors, Franklin 
Edson and Daniel Orr, and the works have been further enlarged. They 
now employ 25 men, and turn out daily 4000 gallons of llighwines and 
3200 priilions of Alcohol. IJesides H.sing all the product of their own 
Distillery, they purchase largely, all of which they make into alcohol. 

Tlie use of Alcohol has increased greatly during the past few years. 
Large quantities are now consumed in making 15urning Fluid, which re- 
quires four gallons .of alcohol to one of camphene; while druggists have 
increased its use in their various preparations. 

The other firm mentioned, that of John Thacey & Co., have a very 
large Rectifying establishment, and Alcohol and Camphene Distilleries. 
Their Alcohol and Eectifying establishments are perhaps not surpassed 
by any in the country. From the former they turn out daily upward 
of six thousand gallons highest proof alcohol, and from the latter they 
are able to iurnish daily eight thousand gallons spirit and domestic 
liquors, which they sell principally in Boston and New York. 

Mr. Tracey commenced Kcctifying in a small way about 1S42 and 
gradually extended his facilities. Tlu' manufacture of Alcohol he com- 
menced in 1847, making six hundred gallons daily, which more than 
supplied the demand at that time. Xow ten thousand gallons of alcohol 
are daily made in Albany, of which Messrs. Tracey & Co. make much 
the largest proportion. 

Albany has also one of tlio largest and oldest-established manufac- 
tories of Carriages in the United States. Mr. James Goold, tlie i^enior 
propricior, commenced the business of carriage making in 1813, and 
soon after engaged in building Coaches, which for many years was a 
prominent business in Albany and Troy. More recently the firm of 
James (Juiild Sc Co. embarked in Car building, and now carry on all 
branches of the Carriage manufacture, including Railway Carriages 
The fuctory occupies nearly a square bounded by Division, Union, and 
Hamilton Streets. 

r, was killed by 
iiice that period 
rietors, Franklin 
enlarged. They 
r Ilighwines and 
ict of their own 
e into aleohol. 
3 past few years. 
Flnid, which re- 
e druggists have 

Co., have a very 
bene Distilleries. 
IS not surpassed 
ut daily upward 
n the latter they 
it and domestic 

about 1842 and 
Aleohol he com- 
vhich more than 
allons of alcohol 
Co. make much 

blished manufaC' 
Groold, the i^enior 
ig in 1813, and 
iuiy years was a 
ntly the firm of 
low carry on nil 
,ilway CaiTinges 
ision, Union, and 




..ov, si. ™nes above Albany .even ^ ^^^^^^^^ ^ 
„raetaring th^t^^ty^ ^1 ed 5 8^ males. 4.CC0 finales, 

'IX^:^!^^^^^. The irineipal manufactures were the fol- 

No. of 



ery "' 

( Albnny Iron Comiiiuy, 1^ 
3 . Burden's Works, > 
( and Kcnnselaer Works ) 






Agrlealtiiral implements.. 

Boots ami slioes 

Brass anil bell founaing 



Cabinet ware 


Clgftrs '' 


CotTco and spices 
Confectioncrv ■■ 

Cotton gooilF 

Flour anil meal. 




Albany Iron 
Iron < ■ Burden's 

and Kennselaer 



Malleable iron 



Paper boxes.. 

Printing and publishing.. 

Rectifying ll'iui" 


Sawed lumber 

Slieep skins 

Shirt collars and boaomi 


Springs ' 



Tuibiuc wheel* •• 







8 . 




39.000 ... 



86,500 ... 






130.0(X) .. 

















846,000 1220. 



30.500 .... 


49,000 ... 


12.200 ... 

tl.200 .. 




34,000 .. 





89.100 . 





















A'alne of 









. 1,950,000 

, ,t)."f.250 




The Albany Iron Works-Corning, Winslow & Co., Proprietors. 

In 1819, John Brinckcrhoff, then an enterprising iron merchunt of 
ilbnny, erected on the Hudson River, now in the sixth ward ot the 
City of Trov, a small Foundry and Rolling Mill, for converting Russia 
and Swede ii- n bars into plates. These plates were afterward cut par- 
"1 nto nails, each nail being headed by hand. This business he con- 
d l; successfully for several years, and the works, ^^u^^ ^ compared with their present extent, e to leu 
ou.^er and the f.rst then in existence in the State of New ^ orL 
;; m Bi nckerhoiAhey were transferred to Corning & Norton, and sub- 
senuently to the present proprietors, Corning, Winslow & Co. who ha.e 
Xged them until they now rank among the most extensive xn the 

""t^ .^^:^at present include three distinct rolling mills-one a lar^ 
steam mill, contling 18 puddling furnaces, with . ^on-c^ou g 
ber of heating furnaces, five steam eng.nes, ^^^^^'^'^"TJ^^s 
two drawing-out hammers, four complete trains of rollers ^\ u slow s 
r.ry u e/.er with shears, roller lathes, wrought railroad-chair ma- 
ch .cry other appurtenances; the whole within a brick building 

3 5 f e lono- by 145 feet wide, covered with an iron-trussed roof. The 
eco >d new forge and rolling mill, built in 1855 It is of u 
he orm of a cross, the greatest width and length being respectively 
13 Lc feet, anil the wings 53 feet wide. This mill has an iron- 
He ro covered with slates. There are three chimney stac s, each 
6 fe^ high, and each drawing from six puddling furnaces, n.aku.g 
fud ig urnaces under this roof The third rolling mill is worked by 
Lo w.x^r-wheels of great power, and contains three complete tiain 
of ron with appropriate furnaces, and one steel converting uirnace 
:^U: : ilk building 205 ieet long by 110 feet wide. Thereare hkc- 
wi e upon the premises, and driven by water-power, a car a. -ax 
f„ .fn,.v CO fo-t l.v 40; a spike factory, for making railroad, boat and 
S :^. . and boi^riivets; and a nail factory. BoU. ot; these atU. 
b icl OS business are carried on within a l)rick building .00 feet long 
b "e wide, and operated by a water-wheel 30 feet in J >---ter t 
wat - owev h^ fun-lnHl by the " Wynantskill." affording a fall of 
Tb u rty-five f et, divided by three dams into as many siu'cess, 
al ll the buiimngs of this fine establishment are of brick, with 





11 mevchiint of 
h ward of the 
verting llussia 
irward cut par- 
usiucss he con- 
lugh small and 
ditable to their 
} of New York, 
orton, and sub- 
i Co., who have 
xtensive in the 

lis — one a large 
aspouding num- 
ismyth hammer, 
Iters, Winslow's 
Iroad-chair ma- 
, brick building 
ssed roof. The 
t is of brick, iu 
sing respectively 
ill has an irou- 
iney stacks, each 
laces, making IS 
lill is worked by 
complete trains 
nvcrting furnace 
Tliere are likc- 
, a carriagc-axlo 
ulroad, boat, and 
til of these latter 
ling ;500 feet long 
t in diameter, the 
iffording a fall of 
1 many sncrossivo 
ire of brick, with 

metal roofs, and constructed in the most substantial manner, being «« 
TeaHy fire-proof as possible, the proprietors having been taught to 
.-a eLl fire'' by two conflagrations which consumed ail the earlier ere.^ 
tious. The number of acres attached is between forty '-I. ">- « 
which there are numerous buildir,,s, constituting a small village ui 

• lip # 

' ^The principal manager of these extensive works is John F. AVin«- 
low, Esi., whose experience, in the working of ,netals is not exec le.l by 
any one engaged in the trade, xle is also a man ot genius, and the m- 
ventor of several highly valuable improvements to facilitate the working 
of iron. His rotary scpiee/.ers is a most effective machine, as one wdl 
do all the shingling for forty puddling furnaces, with b,it a tnlle of ex- 
pense for attendance, a small consumption of power, no waste of iron 
and turning out the blooms very hot it facilitates the rollmg._ T s 
preservation of the heat, coupled with the fact that the bloom ,» u y 
thoroughly upset while undergoing its rapid squeezing, is said to sei.Mbly 
imin-ove the quality of the iron. _ 

The firm of Corning, Winslow & Co. is now extensively engaged n 
the manufacture of puddled steel, which they commenced soon aft ct the 
art of effecting it was made known in Germany about the year 185. 
Few men in this country, if any, have devoted more attention to th 
subject than Mr. Winslow. Their pud-Ued or semi-steel ,s ^^f^^ 
bciing a tensile strain ranging from .0,000 to 108,000 pounds to tl e 
square inch, and is a doubt equal in every respect to any made 
rFurope This ma'terial is now largely made into locomotive tires. 
boiler plates, and other forms where great strengtii and density are re- 
quired. It is further manufactured by cementation and put into spnng- 
steel for carriages and rail-car purposes. Corning, AA u.slow & Co 
we believe are at present the only makers of semi-steel in the United 

^^This firm give employment to about 750 persons, to whom are dis- 
bursed a^.out'si8,000 per month for wages. The annual l-;^"'; ^ ^- 
concern is about 15,000 tons, consisting of cut nads, spikes, ruts- 
bad bar, rod, and scroll iron, of all sizes-with large quanff.js o 
rai lucar axles, wagon axles, crowbars, and wrought-iron railroa.l 
chair They have a capital, invested in veal estate, buildings and ma- 
chinerv of about a half million of dollars. ,..,•„ 

WU in the vear ISC,;! a very considerable a.ldition was made to their 
wo k n iling of another mill for bar and band iron, about nine a - 
li niil puddling furnaces, machinery and buildings for m.^ing 1 or 
anTMule Shoes extensive machine shops, and several dwellings for the 
families of employees. 



The Troy Iron and Nail Factory-H. Burden & Sons, Proprietors, 

Is another very large establishment in Troy and, with the acldition« 
that have recently beea made, is now one of the largest m the United 
States. Though there was previously a small fa<;t«ry, having a .ew 
Cut Nail machines, near the site of the present mill on Wynants Ki 1, 
the works may be said to owe all theiv success and importance to the 
present proprietors, and primarily to Mr. Henry Burden, a native of 
Scotland, who came to this country in 1819, and who has been con- 
nected with the works since 1822. . . ., i 

Few men, now living, have had more experience in the work- 
ine of metals than the gentleman mentioned, and none probably 
have more faithfully discharged the duty which Lord Bacon has said 
every one owes to his profession, by contributing something for its 
benefit He is the author of several very ingenious and important m- 
ventions designed to facilitate the working of iron, among which we 
may mention a machine for making Spikes, another for mal<ing Horse 
Shoes, and the Rotary Squeezer for rolling Puddle Balls, now so 
generally used both in Europe and America. Burden's Spike Machine 
patented in 1839, will make Spikes -complete, including head and point, 
at one operation, at the rate of fifty per minute ; and thus each machine 
will do the work of fifty men. Nearly all the tracks of railway lu the 
United States are fastened with Spikes that were made by this machine, 
and that the progress of railroad-building has been thereby accelerated .8 
evident for Spikes could not have been made by hand with sufficient 
rapidity to supply the demand. His other invention mentioned for 
makin"- Uo.-se and Mule Shoes, is even still more ingenious in its 
nature"than that for making Spikes, and in its automatic action and 
practical results is entitled to rank in the scale of inventions with Big- 
elow's Carpet Loom and Blanchard's Lathe for Turning Irregular Forms. 
A rod of iron fed into this mm^hine is converted into Shoes entirely com- 
pleted with creases and countersunk holes (leaving nothing more to be 
done except to clean out the holes after being cooled), and each machine 
performs in a minute a day's labor of two men. Five of these machines 
are now in operation in Burden's Works, with five more in course of 
construction, and the number of tons of Shoes manufactured in a given 
time may be calculated by assuming the average weight of a shoe to be 
one pound, and the product of a machine, if kept supplied with hot iron, 
to be 3600 pounds per hour. Mr. Burden is now engaged in perfecting a 
machine for Rolling and Welling Bars, which, if successful, as it promises 


the additions 
n the United 
having a few 
Vynant's Kill, 
rtance to the 
1, a native of 
las been con- 

in the work- 
lone probably 
3acon has said 
lething for its 

important in- 
ong which we 
making Horse 
Balls, now so 
Spike Machine, 
lead and point, 
s each machine 

railway iu the 
y this machine, 
y accelerated is 
i with sufficient 

mentioned for 
ingenious in its 
lalic action and 
itions with Big- 
rrcgular Forms. 
les entirely com- 
hing more to be 
nd each machine 
f these machines 
ore in course of 
itured in a given 
, of a shoe to be 
ed with hot iron, 
ed in perfecting a 
"ul, as it promises 


destined, b3' its econoniy o1 ■ eA'-'^'t i 

,;.; i'll i'-' ••I.- li, ■ • ^Vy.', 

; li.nsr, I'i'* !''■■' ^vli!.'. ar..! \\. 
.111'! I'v' *l-"i' ■ 

' f.Ilii iU'- 
- In wiiii ii 


•'!!. rnri-tin' 

Clllil'U ^Sl Hi 1 !!!■■■<- ••' VK^- 
■ ::ll is SUppliO'l ' 

>■. ,.r j'f ■>!,:.:! ;i 

• ■ •cd iuuuwttiiii ut>> 

1;.; that \v- f. ■ 

ly ;;i iii',- UuiUid .. 
■ ; 1 •' <• Ijlast is con 
•' Oie nai(ib> 
, 1»Ucd b; 

.'liii.; '. uill] . 

Will ill' 


'nU'CC ■■i-i': 111 ll\''- 

iiiiiL:-; «n 

:'f;- .V, 

,,,.n . ,n,,1,,..,.,1 ', 

cHgOl <ji 

4-i ''" 

^, *>*?#: 

' , / -^ia 





to bo, is destinecl, by its economy of labor, to cllect a revolution in the 

" tI;^;^;:' J^"i« finn comprise two extensive Rollin, Mill, dis 
tini L^^tt^e Old Mill and the New or Steam Mill, tw. For^s 
^Jko Factory a Nail Factory, Fonndry, Pattern Shops, etc li.t old 
flr^ Sd u Wynant's Kill Creek, is a stone-and-hrick strn.tnre 
to e't 0^ 40 feet wide, and has 24 furnaces in all, sev.n tra.ns of 

,1 „,!"Ii these works 1ms been dlscontmucJ. The n.oUve power 

"T^'cfLfB:"ra~..sed >ana .„i„. . front o„ U,. Hudso. 

Ei'cro about a mile aad a c«artcr, extending eastwardly to the Uud»n 
River K." road and proeeedod to fdl up the low land at an expense ox- 

'2":;,:i;,dred'tl..«sanddoll„s. on .his the .inn erected a b 
forfte 400 teetlong nnd .00 feet wide, and a rolling m 11 3«» l'' ■ - '™ 
fct-works that in convenience of arrangement, abundance of bg land 

^-"\''t"r:;r i:e;:i": re"=''sr ;i:r»\t: 

tStl^birreor^a b::;;s und.r ground), and It is pro.,osed 

C L CoZ «y «' l-ro'i'o-e- The product of .bis mill Is exe nsrve I, 
m f hartba iron. Improvements are in progress which, when bmshed 
™m Ser the present 'works, extensive a. they are, the mere nucleus 

"':r::l7a:"V«0 "men have been employed by this O™ at one tin,e 
in their mills and the sales In 1863 amounted to nearly $1,800,000. 
Mr wluta P. Burden Is now the Superintendelt and active manager ot 
the works. 


The Bennselaer Iron Works 

. . • .n nianufactuvinor establishments located 
Arc another of the prominent "<>" ™ -^^l^ ^ J^ .j^uatcd on the banks 
in the sixth ward of the city of 1 o • J ^ ,3^ f^^t in length 

of the Hudson lliver, and compn ^^^.^ ,t,,, etc., adjacent. 
,y 150 in width, with nvaclnne - j'^ ^^ ^;,. , f.rmvces. which to- 
There are 14 puddling furnaces and -^ ^ « ,, ,,,,, of 

,ether consn.e about 10,000 ^^^^ ^^l, ^,, ,0.. and 14,000 
anthracite coal per annum. Aoo converted i.ito 

tons of old rails are annua ly used n ^^ ^ ^ ,,,, A 

railroad bars and merchant uon ^ ' "^ J^^^^^,, ,Kh the .ail 


in 1840. and were v-gam^^b t e pr .e ^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ 

Iron Company, in 1853. Tel' y,,M^ut of tV.o Com- 

—;orss,>CC--- ------ 

employed in the works. 

E. A. & G. R- Meneely's Bell Foundry, 

• tl,o most extensive and noteworthy manu- 
Situated in West Troy ^^^^^J^' ^, ,,, founded by Andrew 
factory of the kind in the Lnited « "t - ^ ^^^^ ^^,, .^.,^ ^.„,, 

Mencely, ihe father of t e present ' > ^ ^^^ j;,,,,,.,,. ,,,,, every State 

wciBliiiig l-i««n l""""'"- . ,. „ „f .„„„^,. „„,1 tin in monlils pro- 

pared for tlie purpose. "^ "'"'" / \ ^.....^eted in this foundry is a 
-'" of tin. Tile method of "-^; f ^m ^ .-"l'^ -'-^« "^ "^ 
very great >"'!;— ^JlJi'd^nC^f the bell to be cast. Two 
hollow space the exact form una n l ^ ^.^^ ^^ ^.^,^. 

separate holh.w iron cases shaped 1 We b . ^_^^_^^ ^ ^^^^^^^,_ 

relpond with the casting to be '"7";^;; ^ 3\,,es. One case i. 



eats located 
jn the banks 
3et in length 
c, adjiiccut. 
s, which to- 
,000 tons of 
„ and 14,000 
inverted into 
products. A 
with the lail 
ure engine of 

Mill Company 
;he llennselacr 
^ow a lleprc- 
t of tV.o C om- 
it 450 men are 

tcworthy rnanu- 
dftd by Andrew 
5ince wliich time 
into every State 
•t of the world 
3 avcrajred ('>00, 
hem were some 

n in moulds pre- 
arts of copper to 
this foundry is a 
iild consists of a 

to he cast. Two 
of a size to cor- 

to form a mould, 
lea. One case is 
r the inside— the 

ease is lined on the inside wUhoa-an^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^ , 

proper thickness and surface for the a^tn^- ^^^^ ^,^^^ ^, ,,, 

Lmber of bells are ready, t^-y -« J^'-^'^^^. ^,^„^ .^ ,,ehinery. and 
foundry, and their ^^^^^ '^^Y^J^^'^^,, The spaces between these 
guided to their exact pos.Uons ^l^^lf_^ ,„, ailVerent sizes are 

eases then form the moulds ^^l^^^^i,^,. Large veverbera- 
employed for bells, according to ' ^ _^;, ^,,,, ^ has reached 

tory furnaces are used for lusn.gthem^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ .^^ ^,^^ 

a i^opev state of fluidity it >s P-^-^f;"^'^.^^;^.^,,, ,ig,t at night, as 
usualVay. The casting ^P^^^::;::!::,;. e.s'of Uuish-gveen 
Vhe invense heat of the meta cause n ^i^j^h appear 

flame to issue from the yen ^^^^,1 Z^^y of colored lire-works, 
like domes of fire, and nval ^fl^;;",;!, J,., ery slowly, as the cast- 
The straw ropes on the cores ^^^^^ ^^^'2l,^^,,, J,, on gradually, and 
j,'g cools, and the shrinkage ot t meta t ^ ^^^.^^^ ^^. 

;^vents 'sudden and undue str^mn^ J^^ ^^^,^^^ J^ ^^^^^^ 

erience are necessary to ^^^^^^^^^''l^l \^,, of the san.e temperature 
simple. The metal must be perfecl fluid, a ^^^^^ ^^^^^.^^^_ ^,^^. 

at very part of the mould, to produce a h m t ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^,^^^^ ^^,,,, 
^erly, when cntiro loam moulds wu emp ^^ ^^^,^^^ ^„^.,, 

packed in pits beneath the -^ ^ ; , ^ J ^i. ^gerious explosions f-c- 
to resist the great pressure of ^^ ^^ ^ ™ ^^i^^.j^ these packed moulds 
,uently occurred then, by the co, A 1 a ^^^,^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

Socoming highly heated ; "-y" ^l^^ ^he iron vent casings. 

common, 'l''-^ ^'^^ "i: J" ;;: 1" J ured bright in rotary frames 
After the bells are cas , they a e ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^f ^^,, 

i, ,vl ich a sand cushion is »^ -^ '^^^^ '^^ ^, and if the least 
„,etal Each bell is ^^f^^^^^^ "'^^ inferior article is allowed 
Unpen, ction is detected it is ^«'f ""^^ -J^^^i, ^hc bells are fitted with 
toVass outside the ^^^'^^ f'^^^^ this foundry all bells 
clappers and yokes, and "-""^'^'^^^ Uted with Meneeiys IMtent 

weighing 400 pounds -f^^P;:^!:,) ^ieh obviUes the danger of 
Adjustable Yoke (patented IH. 8 and b ) ^^^_^^^ ^.^^_^^.,^,,^„^^, ,„ 

::.^:\.w suLe to the action of thee >^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^,, 

This firm have been l'»>'t-"l^ ^"- ^ ,^,^,^^„,, i,,ve been made 
chimes and peals of bells, o| -;'^' ^ ;^^;est church edifices in the 
at their foundry and placed lu som« ot the 



country. At least eight bells, representing the octave of the natural 
Bc»]c, are requisite to constitute a full chime, and, ordinarily, a ninth 
bell is added, tuned a flat seventh above the tenor (largest) b'.ll, by 
which addition a secondary chime in the key of the fourth is produced, 
and the range of tunes that may be played is largely increased Not 
unfrequently a still larger number of bells arc employed, the additional 
number being toned above the octave of the tenor, in order to obtain 
greater range In the higher notes. Peals or bells (as distinguished from 
chimes) consist of from tliree to four bells attuned with each other at 
harmonic intervals, which will not admit of a tune being played upon 
them, but, when rung, either successively or simultaneously, produce a 
fine effect. It is however usually anticipated, when peals of bells are 
procured, that they shall form pL.-t of a future chime : the intermediate 
bells to be added as may be desired. In constructing a chime, the tenor 
bell is taken as the model and unit of measurement of the whole, certain 
relative dimensions giving the different tones with theoretic exactness. 
This result does not, however, always follow in practical casting, since 
it is almost impossible to control the contingencies of the operation«Bo 
that the conditions of each casting shall be absolutely uniform—any 
variation in which tends to affect the tone. When the tone of a chime 
bell thus proves to be Incorrect, it is laid aside to be sold as a single 
bell, and the operation of casting is repeated, care being taken to vary 
the conditions as may be recpiired ; so that when the chime is com- 
pletid each bell is in its perfect condition as it comes from the model, 
the quality and force of its tone not being iinpaired os in the English 
mode of tuning by having a belt of metal clipped from the side. The 
usual mode of placing a chime in the bell tower is, to mount the tenor 
bell in the centre oi' the bell-section, it being i)rovided witli yoke, wheel 
and frame, so as to be runj,' as an ordinary church bell, as also to be 
used in the chime. The remainder of the bells are suspended stationa- 
rily about the tenor Irom frames or beams of oak, in such reliiliTc po- 
siticns as shall best conform to the capacity and construction of the bell- 
Bection and most equally distribute the weight. When chimed, the bells 
are all played upon by one person, by means of cords oUached to the 
clappers and led down to the ringer's room below, there connecting with 
levers arranged in the order of a key-board, and worked by the hands or 
the feet as may be desired. 

Messrs. Meneely have published a pamphlet for gratuitous circulation 
vhich gives a good deal of general and specific information on the 
ubject of Bells. 



f the natural 
irily, a nintli 
gest) Lv.ll, by 
1 is produced, 
reased. Not 
he additional 
del" to obtain 
iguishod from 
ach otlier at 
played upon 
y, produce a 

of bells are 
lie, the tenor 
^hole, certain 
ic exactness, 
lasting, since 
uit'orm — any 
3 of a chime 
d us a single 
iken to vary 
lime is com- 

tlie model, 
the English 
e side. The 
ut the tenor 
yoke, wheel 
i also to be 
od stationa- 
reliitiTc po- 
1 of the bell- 
ied, tiie bells 
[vched to the 
iiocting with 
the hands or 

3 circulation 
tioQ ou the 

The Schenectady Locomotive Works, 

Located between the New York Central Railroad and the Erie Canal. 
J^h; principal manulacturing establishniont iu Sdunjocta.! u d cn^ 
I'L to rank among cbo most important ot ^ ^^J^^^^ ,^^^Z 
the united States. The buildings an ^^^^^^^^1.-. 
Sbop two hundred and iifty by .seventy-five feet, two '^^^^^^^ 
Biicksmith Shop two hundred an,l fifty by hlty foct_a 1'^''^ '^ '"P 
^^ rid an] forty by fbr.y ..ot-an Iron Foundry ^^^^Z 
fiftv-a Carpenter and Pattern Shop, two stones high, o.ght> b) loi y 
S ! ^r s Foundry and Paint Shop, lifty-throo by 
^ I W Hous/eighty-.ive by hfty a ^-re -^^wo 
Buries forty l>y thirtv feet-and a three-story Oflice forty-t nve bj foUy 
f^o Thl bu; dings'arc nearly all of brick ; ar.d although tlu-y cover 
a rgeV;:::f :i..a, arc Jo connected by -i.^oad tnieks t at lo 
transTortation, on light trucks, of even the h.'avy parts, '^;---^^'"^'^ 
14 The Machine, Holler, and Erecting Shops are new, been 
ceded since June 2V.,h, ISOO, when the former shops were destroy 1 
byte, and arc provided with a complete stock of new tools ot modern 

''Throriginal Works were erected in 1848, by a company who dis- 
continued Their business in about a year. In 1851, John Kbs, R R 
Campbell, and Simon C. Groot, purchased them '^t abou one half 
their original cost, and formed a new company, ^vl-" '--«;,, 
poratod under the title of "The Schenectady LoeomoUve J k • 
During their administration, largo addiiions were made to th Inu 1 
ings and machinery, and the busmess prospered greatly. M.. i. hs. 
who was the active nmnager, prov-nl to be a gentleman of more vhan 
ordinary business capacity, and of mu.h personal worth. He was 
born in Garmouth, Scotland, Peeember llUh, n<..5, and came to the 
United States in 1814. He became a contractor of some ot the mos 
i„,portant works in the country, among them tbo McAdami/.ed roal 
bluveen Albany and Troy; the Albany and Schoneetady 1 a, hoad , 
the Utiea and Schenectady Railroad ; the Hoston and ^V orceste. la 1- 
road ; the Croton Water Works; and. in 1851, took possess on « the 
L^omotive Works. Since his decease, October 4th, 1 8«4, the or s 
have been owned by his sons and Walter McQueen, f ;>.-!'- ""^^^ 
the mechanical department under the former adnun.strat.on. Ihe prcs- 
ont management is_JoUN C., President ; Chabi-ks G 
Treasurer ; and Wa-.tku McQueen. Superintendent. About hu • 
dred hand« are employed in the Works, which arc now prc-,>ared to 
turn out from five to six Locomotives of the largest class per month. 




of the splcncm water-power affordccl by the 

llociiESTEU, by reason 

ncultuntl tlislriet, has peculiar ^'^™ ^ J" ^, \i,tor„ were alhuled 
,,,,io„. Its infant enterprises and hen c.uyuy^^^_._^^^^ ^^. 

i„ tl,o first voUune of this work. In 18,. lie J ^^ i,5,o30, 

No. of 


AgrlcuUiinil imi'leinoats 


Browiiin (1) 

Caliiuct wiire 




Clgiirs Buil tobacco 


Coffeo ami spices 


Cotton s'ooils 



Uavawaru anJ '^o^" " jj 


Iron foHPiUuB 

Iron railing 


5 $2.)S,.'i(W 























14,000 ..... 

2.'i,(X10 .... 



40,000.. . 












Valne of 




34 . 





]',.., 72,650 




73.i!..".. l.lll'.'WS 



135' 85,000 


., r il,o nro.liict of 1860 was much below 

i„„i on 000 bHrrel!<, worth ii $5 





,nuare feet. A l""Vorru. nyurau... ..,■."• ,, „ell as a preeatttio 

J,r.. ..f the bttihliuK'. tl>"-^ «"-"'"« <^'f T2n h.-vo orrcl tnoro seriously ev.n 

' )«h.nneh the --'-;•",;;;, „„,. ^...t avera«o aaily 6,00 

,„ ? ,n .rewind. There .. 24 -";';;';;'-; -;;::L..hiei,., VUnn to h^ 
barrels of Flour for l.'.O .'ay., or O'*'"'"'/ , « 1«0 000 A.hl to this the coarser Rra>ns, 

elsh't millioi^' of '1"""" n y^"- 



,r(led by the 
tre of a rich 
were alluded 
:)ntained 545 
f $4,U5,030, 
iiual value of 

Female Valno nf 
bauils. I'l'oJuct. 
j',.., 72,050 

85,500".. 1,1 •■«'.■«» 



133 85,000 

y,|.., 73,930 

...... 2,5(i3,43.'5 


.".... <0.650 


860 was much Ijelow 

9 : 

. $SOO,000 

[ , . 3s,'i,noo 

*. . 80,000 

at of Troy. It wftS 
latest imi ovcments. 
,f tho floors is 02,500 
■r, throws wiiliT to nil 
rcouulion n>;ivin!'t firp. 
1 more seriously evn 
^t average ilnily 01"** 
uiiposinB Flour to h^ 
hiB tho coursor prains, 
tcr ranges from six to 




Locomotive lamps 

Lull''"'' .' ',','^ 

Mad'ioovy aiiJ Bteam enymes (1) 




Vatinit iiii'ilii'iues 


Pictui'o fniiiiG^' 

Plnuoa liimlu'V 

p.jUiry wave 

rriiitii'i; anil i™hl>»l'i"« 

Saslios rtours ftiKUiUnJ" 



Shirts ami iMllars 

go'.ip ami oiiii'llefl 

Spokes, felloes, aud I'ubs 



Tin ami sheet-Iron ware 


Whips ami nloves .• 

Woo>l workluK, flour barrels, etc. 

No of 









3 . 














l.' •■■■ 
12,2."iO ... 
22.000 ... 

7,0 10 
10,000 .. 

9 .. 
2S ' 
132 . 







31 .. 


30 . 

8 . 



79 .. 



Value of 



213, '■■.■|0 
'. 14,47.^ 


1 Uo for the extent and cliavacter of its Fruit 
Boeliester is vemavkable fo ^^^ ^^„ ,„,;,., of the city 

N«r.evh.s. It is estimated th a ^ ^ J^^,^^.^ ^ ,i„,ie fivni have 
,,, less than 4.000 acres d<.-odto^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ,, ,, 

a nuvsory that occupies ^00 - s and ^^^^^_^^ ^,^^^_ ^^^^^ ^^ j.,.^,, 

;;:::isr::::rit;:r::inion Of dollars. 

, • . ,n nf the eonsus-taker?, Init wo arprchend 

«..■'■' '"•'"';»-'ri: 7; «;,«o. , '.«'-' c. w>«". <*■••» '^"^•'""•"" 

c,i,eeiull.v Mill OearinB, very ''^'^"'^'J^- ,,„„,Ual,le B.ean> Eugino estaWi.shmen.s 

\) .^. Woopuouv * 00. have ouo of the '"' ^ r ^^^, ^^^^^_^ ^^g,„„ ,,y 

,„ „„ Uoito'l State. In 1851 '''^«^'" ^^j: ,,,„ tert to .hir.y-f.vo power. 

"„1 lishioK' .»>'' "«-'"B '^ ''*' "' """"" T : lira of before. This they were enabled to 
p lee. utueh below any that haj -- bet. he^ rb _^^^^ ^^_^^_^^__^ ^^^.^^ 

ao\,y buibling a large '.uantt|y o ^^^^^^^ ^„„„„„, „,„„. the Kng.ish l^an, eaeh 

one nrlielo of manufacture. rhoirworK. 1 „,r„„^;l,oiit the year. The priu 

::.::an having a li",itea and ^^^^j:Zl^2 H.vor^f t-'o V"'.'- ati'l thtur Fo- 
eiple upon which. hey^u ^^^^^^^^^^ ^,^,^. „,„„,,> tluy 

; t. are so ,'opular both in '"'« ^u-te. S- - »"^ ,^^^_, , „^ „„ ,,„.„, u.e aetaana ba. 
LsiRue,! to keep a Urge stock of ""-.'"'"„„,,,, Woodbury A Co. are about ereot- 
out-tripped their facilities for tnaoufa tur n,. 
ngnei and more eototnodiouB workshops. 


., r of the New York Central Railroad, between Troy and 

E Remington & Sons' Armory, 

1 for Us oriffin The story of its 
remarkable alike for its extent. ^'"J^J"^;;^,; ^Lk, about three miles 
ongin has been told as ''''r:^ ^^ .^^^ l^, ^....r^ ,ro,n^iors. 
fvom the site of the Armo ^ dw It th athe I .^^ ^^^^^ ^^.^^^ ^^^ 

who, desirin.a rifle-barrel for ^^?^^;X^^,, , .^p contains, and 
other tools except sneh as an omuybUd^Mn 1^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

conveyed it to a gnnmaker at Ut».a o ha.e ^^^^^^.^^^,,„ ,f ^he 

The gunmaker was mnch V^^^^;^J^^ ,,timation in which his 
barrel, and Mr. ^^;'7^::J ^^^Jpl^d lll^knowledgc to a profital-le 
workmanship was held, dextcious y a^) „„„.barrels ; and not long after 
„.e, and commenced t e J^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ .uh the cheery fn-es of 

this incident, the banks of ^''f.\^'';' ^,5,^ the joyons mnsic of 

.any i.r.cs^and the -^^^ ^l^^^^ ^.^to be LI distant from 
the anvil. The old facto, y, l'«;«^^;' ' .^ ^g^O Mr. Remington 

''' '''' 1 r"':^Z^:^' ':t^:tZ.., on p^ns snpphed 
purchased a farm at Uion. upon a i business 

ly himself, the establi: lunent ,s ^^'^'J^^ '^^J ,,,,,,,d a large 
.as limit.d ty^;;^ ;^^::,^, :^:trarm^he manufacture 

bas since been very -^^^^^^^""[V'^t...^, ,hich now render the 

Many of the most ""l^'''^'^"^ "'^''7' ! :,, ,, the world, have had 

their origin with this fum. l ncy .porting guns, and wo 

fi.t to adopt steel ^ l^;^-:;^X^X^l;:^.J:^ .r...^^c. 
helieve they now employ it ^'^^^''^^'l service For thirty years they 
they are making for the ^-^'"'"Valmost every manufacturer both 
have been patiently testing the stee ^ ^l- ^ ^ Lperiments, have as- 
iu this country and abroad, and by a o g on s y,,,,,,^ of 

cortained which is the best adapted ^^^^^ ? '" f ^j.^^^^^^ been largely in- 

8,rumental in effecting a revolution " ^^'^ y^;; ., ..^ted, they are 

l,,Kl. whence nearly all the oeks in « ^J^^^J;;*;^^^ j, „,,de by ma- 

. made by hand ; but in the 1^!»^'">^^" ^ a.^ lie r ui is that not only are 




veen Troy and 

At llion, in 

Albany, is one 

;ates, known as 

'he story of its 
)Out three miles 
cnt proprietors, 
u 1810, with no 
p contains, and 
and couii>leted. 
istruction of the 
;ion in which his 
re to a profital)le 
nd not lung after 
ic cheery tires of 
joyous music of 
too distant from 
I Mr. Remington 
n plans supplied 
rears the business 
r received a large 
, the manufacture 
embarked in, and 

1 now render the 
,e world, have had 
1 having been the 
rting guns, and wc 
3ture of arms which 
thirty years they 
manufacturer both 
cperiments, have as- 
}y the application of 
has been largely in- 
lese locks. In Eng- 
^ imported, they are 
)iece is made by ma- 
t is that not only are 
as each piece is uni- 
!at saving of labor ia 

e^cted in putting them together. Not ^^:^:^:^ ^1 
Bridesbnrg. Penn., 20,000 of Ma^ua J « ^^ ^^;^ ^.,^,^ ^„, „, 
make, were fitted to old musket ^^^^^^J^' J^ ^^ ^^.^^^ ,„ economy of 
Major Hagner, the Superintendent, has ccrtiheci, 
labor that was a marked advamage. determination to pro- 

The result which usually attenfls an "" ^a v e n ^^^^^ 

duce nothing but good ^f^^;?^^^ Ifgr ss, and present 

ment and invention, is 5"-^^ ^^ !" \^" ^^^^^^^^^^^ 

extent of this establishment The ;^; ^^^ ^ ^^ .^^ .^^ ,,,.« a frontage 

and the '-ildings some of hem f o^- 

of 400 feet. Within the last two y«^^ '* °« ^ ,„ „,„,,,inery 

not only to the structure, bu ^^^^J^^^S.^ the machinery. 

Both steam and water pow^ I'^f Remises, the largest of which 

Several «toam engnies a n. d npn I ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^,^. 

is of one hundred and hfty po ^^^^^^ ^^ 

,.Kl a third of ^^-"^IXJ^^^^ '^1- -^^'•^">'"^- ^'^"' 
Overshot, breast, and several i'»^ "« ^^ ,, comprising the 

process has its -^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^J., roo^, ^^ '>arrel 
.elding and ^•-'^^'''^^'^^^,,,,„^ the polishing room, and in. 
room, the stocking room, the "'^f'"^" ' J' j. ^;„,t,„t and interesting 
specting room; and each presents a ^^'^^'^J ^^ This firm 

„.;■ of tUo various kinds, .Incl, ■" * » ° ° ;„, ^„,, „ „ „,,cf„re, 
50.000 stand of ams, «"J "J"" \.: V,^ ^ ' ^s o„ wl>icb .he Govern- 

existence and annihilate its foes. 

-— r-L^^tierz^Seriir^^i^- 
.,.i,i.i,ca .y Mr. A. > .«, .,, -•-l:":^,,,^, • , . „s. 

provements whieh ti.e lirm ,.vc ■"«'«,'",, „f „ modern 
;,„er,.i„i..« to ...e f"';;^;^,.; ^^7 ,' 1:.', |„i„..ri.„., ...d h.. 


valuable improvements which ho has designed and contributed for its 

benefit. • . , • e 

One of his inventions, which was patented in 1849, is a machine for 
balancing and finishing Burr Mill Stones. By means of this n.aclune, 
the mill Btone, after it is blpcked np, is suspended upon its centre where 
it is balanced in the course of filling up and finishing, instead ot being 
filled ni» as is usually the case, without the means of testing the accuracy 
01 its balance. The superiority of mill stones finished in this way. over 
others, must be evident at a glance. To regulate the balance or correct 
any inaccuracy which might arise from drying of the moisture, or any 
other cause, this firm provide a Shot Balance without extra charge, and 
give directions for using it. ^^ t t^ 

Another valuable invention of Mr. Munson is a new Cast Iron Eye 
and Mill Spindle, which can be put in an old stone equally as well as in 
a new one Tlie eye is formed of an outside and an inside cone, the 
two cones being connected by spiral wings. The inside cone or luib 
forms the bail or driving parts, and the driver is cast solid on the spindle. 
The advantage of this Eye is that it cannot be choked or clogged under 
any speed, carries more air under the stone, drives nearer tlie centre, 
and tlie runner cannot be thrown off the cockhead. It is peculiarly 
adapted for small mills where great speed is required. 

In ISfiO, Mr. Munson patented an improvement adapted to mills 
grinding all kinds of grain, starch, plaster, etc., by which a more perfect 
adjustment of the stones to each other is secured, and a greater con- 
venience in lubricating the joints, as well as etlectually preventing the 
escape of the oil from its bush. The arrangement by which these im- 
portant ends are secured is fully set forth in the firm's Circular. 

Another valuable machine manufactured at this establishment is 
MatlixotVs Flour Packer, wliich, it is said, will save about 33 per cent, 
of labor in packing in barrels, and about 66 per cent in packing m bags, 
when compared with the lever press and the usual process of shoveling 
ipto bags. Its novelty consists in carrying the bag or barrel fuU-lengtli 
' upon the cylinder and delivering the flour in a compact state, the barrel 
or bag receding from the packer in process of filling. They are now in 
use in many of tlie best mills in the country. 

Tlie works of Messrs. Hart & Munson include a Mill Stone Mann- 
factory, a Machine Shop, Plaster Mills, and Foundry, and are commo- 
dious and well-arranged. 

Besides the establishment we have mentioned, Utica contains several 
other important manufactories. For instance, the Washingtonville Iron 
Works, conducted by Philo S. Curtis ; the Iron Railing Manufac- 
lories of L. Dean & Co. and Chauncey Palmer; and the Portable 




itributcd for its 

1 a machine for 
if this r.iacliine, 
ts centre, where 
nstcad of being 
ng the accuracy 
1 this way, over 
lance or correct 
loisture, or any 
:tra charge, and 

r Cast Iron Eye 
illy as well as in 
inside cone, the 
lido cone or hub 
d on the spindle, 
ir clogged under 
earer tlie centre, 
It is peculiarly 

idaptcd to mills 
h a more perfect 
d a greater con- 
y iirevcnting the 

which these im- 

establishment is 
jout 33 per cent. 

packing in bags, 
cess of slroveling 

barrel fnll-lengtli 
t state, the barrel 

They are now in 

lill Stone Mann- 
, and are commo- 

a contains several 
shingtonville Iron 
Hailing Manufac- 
and the Portable 

Steam Engine and Boiler Works of Wood & Ilnrlburt. Tliis firm have 
ctVeclcd a revolution in the construction of farm engines, by showing that 
Ihey can be made light, compact, safe, cheap, and yet eflicicnt. Their 
engines range from U to 20-horse power, occupy a space from two 
by five feet to 6 by 7 feet, and cost from $175 to §1700. Kecently they 
have devoted a good share of their attention to the construction of the 
Excelsior Engines, designed expressly for the oil wells. In Utica also are 
the extensive Stove works of Wheeler k Bailey, and J. S. Si M. I'ockliam 
established in 1835. This firm are also largely engaged in the manu- 
facture of riows, Cultivators, and other agricultural implements, and 
have the exclusive right to "1 ^kham's Improved Agricultural Fur- 
nace " which is adapted for wood or coal. There are also the Utica 
Screw Company (C. Miller, Agent); tile Utica Steam Cotton Mills 
(E. Chamberlain, Treasurer); tlie Globe Woolen Company (Bobert 
IMiddleton, Agent) ; and the Oneida Brewery, established in lsl3. 

At Seneca Falls, which is 189.{ miles from Albany, there are several 
important manufactories, especially of Pumps, Hardware, and Fire 


One of the first to perceive and take advantage of the water-power 
furnished here by the fall of the Seneca Biver. and to wlu.m tiie town 
is largely indebted for its present prosperity, is Mr. Auel Downs, who is 
still a"t the head of some of its most important enterprises. He is ac- 
credited with having introduced the first steam-engine that was used for 
manufacturing purposes in the town, and .Wtli having made \\w first of 
the many thousands of Iron Pumps that have since been constructed 
there.' For several years the manufacture of pumps was a specialty 

(1) Alocal chronicler ?ays: 

"In the year 1840, Alicl Downs commcTiccd the manufacturo of Pumpfl m the wing 
of the "Old Cotton Factory," subseoucntly used as a plaster mill, and finally burned 
down in tho great conflafrration of 1803. Ilo erected a sniall furnace over the nver, cm- 
ploving five men. Only wood Pumps were manufactured. Mr. Downs oontinucd m the 
business about two years, ^nd at the close of tbo second year returned to .be m<, o 
business, being succeeded in tho Pump Factory by Wheeler A Kelley. In tl.e year IStt. 
Mr. Downs again engaged in the Pump business in company with J. AV. Wheeler and 
Smith Uri-s, under tho firm of Wheeler, Rriggs k Co., for about one year, when W heeler 
4 Downs purchased tho -old stone shop," originally creete.l by liement .t Cn. lor . ear- 
riago manufactory. Into this building their maebinery and materials were removed, an- 
a stoaM-enginc placed in it-tho first used for mannracturing purposes in this town-and 
there was made the first Iron Pump built in Seneca Falls. 

In tho year 1816, Mr. Washburn Race, who had recently invented a .d paicnted his 
rinco famous Stove Regulator, came into tho firm, and subsequently Silsby .t Tbompsou, 
who were then in tho hardware trade, obtained an interest in tho Regulator also. I ro- 
vious to tho purchase by Pilsby A Thompson, tbo firm in tho manufacture of Pumps was 
gtyled Wheolor & Downs-and in the Regulator it was Wheeler, Downs A Race. After 



etc., .ore aMca to the ■ • «"J '"" ^^ „„„,, Man«act,:,.. so C«.- 
„e,„«„„s of «r.o,;a .s - ^^ ^^__^ ^^ .^^^^ ^^, ,„j^ ,„, .„„,„y 

PANY now coiibume itu 

200 hands. ^ •„ the mannfacture of Hosiery 

A few years ago ^-^^JJ^,^,,,, for the purpose, and has 
having improved patented 1^"'">"- , thousands of dozens 

supplied the United States «--;; J^ ^/the establishment of 
ofMalf-hose. This -^/^ J^ .l^^; ^.Lh Sea.,ury S. Gonld is 
tuo SKXKCA f "J- ^^„\^'\^r::, .m now extensively engaged m 
President, and Abel Downs, ^ ^ j^ j.^.Uets. 

the manufacture of Hosiery W»' F^s '^ ^^^^ g.^eca Knitting 

Besides the Downs Manufaaurg^^^^^^^^^ ^anufaetories at 

Mill Company, there are the following 1 

Seneca Falls: i Tiro En" ine Works, established in 

C«.iaB ^ Oo,.panyB f-'M' "'^J"™ '^l ^jl, „„„,,„, „„, 

1840. TWs firm, composed of Jolm 1 ., ^.^^ ^„j j,„rce 

rtho Una was Down,, Mymlerse .1 Co. Mr. V .^^^^ ^^.^ ^^„^,„„ j „p ,« 

iui Umo muupswore "-"'^-'^^'^^ :;;:;,, of K. Mynaorse, ami then the fim 

£;-:s:- tr«S -v=^^^^^ 

,„K to two tons or -°J- ;: ;•; ;„o. .orUing up about four tons daily, and g.-g 
ill \h3i to 5"^") „r i!>n different 

-S^. .own, * CO. .auo .0 different -:;i:ia::::t77::: ^ ^^^^^^ 

.i'el They have gradually beeonie en,a|^=ln.b a ^^^^.^^^ p-,,e 13oxe», east-iron 
' ;;;.lwaro aside from ^-^-^Z^:^^! Serews, east-iron Boot .TaeUs .ron „,u 
„,„, Bled. SinoMMng I^rons, J.U^, ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ „^,.,, „,,,,. .Uoy 




other articles, 
Lcins, Sadirons, 
(J to raoet ti\e 
ay, and employ 

nre of Hosiery, 
nrpose, uml has 
isaiuls of dozens 
■stablishment of 
)ury S. Gould is 
,ivcly engaged in 


Seneca Knitting 
manufactories at 

ks, established in 
rgc, and Marshall 
ler Lift and Force 
I House Engines, 

,crl to that of W. Knee 
ump^s. SubEO- 
,f Pumps, nnd tbe titlo 
iretl from the business. 

This continuod up to 
;rsc, nml then the firm 
. >;il9by sola his interest 
,ea— being Messrs. Ahel 
melting from ono nml a 
ncreascd till in 1851 the 

tons ilftily, and giving 

ipon the cannl and river 
until tho number of men 
,„ts" consuming from ten 
nderse eame into tho firm 
.rensed to about $150,nn0 
well tho amount to over 
;,000; in 1850 to $70,000 ; 
.'.vmount annually to near 

I upwards of 130 different 
ure of many other articles 
eins, Pipe Boxes, cast-iron 
,t-iron Boot .Taclis, iron and 

useful articles. They sell 

Sadirons etc The Island Works, H, C. Silsby, Agent, make Steam 
F^ Eng neB and Rotary Pninps. Mowing Maclnnes sa.d to be v ry 

;S:d!:irwS;i;:3'.I.nery by IWI . Mii^ .d V... 
tian Blinds by H. P. Westcott, who is the mventor of the only success 
ful macliine that makes the slats for these blinds. 

At LocKPOUT. a thriving town of 12,000 inhabitants, distant 21 miles 
f..ot B^I" there is a of respectable, though no very rema U- 
manufaeiories. Tl>e town possesses peculiar ^^ van ages ^a^^^ 
branches of manufactures, by reason of tlte vast -^^^^^^^^^Z 
the flow of water from Lake Erie as it passes around ^1'^ lock ami uc 
ends from the Erie to the Genesee level. This VO^^^^^^^ 
bv the Lockport Hydraulic Company, wlio dispose of it on hbcial ttims 
and rn^h buildings and shafting at a cheap rent to -'chanies of m d^ 
e a capital The most i.nportant manufactories already establ. hed 
e a Lockport Edge Tool Company, the foundries and maclu no 
10 s of the UoUy Manufacturing Co.npany, llace, Matthews .^ Co 
llexande Pound, C. G. Hildreth, T. P. Baily & Son, the foumlnes of 
t mu^Gardner and II. Van Brocklyn, the Barrel and Stave ado u^ 
of B. & J. Carpenter, Hiram Benedict, William Norman and I nid 
Ritsou. the Shingle factories of G^D. Root & Son, -^ ^^ \ ;^^; 
Yandusen, the Saw Mills of P. A. Yanvalkenburg, H. P Cady, a, U 
R Edwards & Co., the Cabinet Ware manufactories of M. W j^van. 
Ll" 'Beck, the Woolen Factory of L. ^^^^^^^^ 
and Knitting Factory of J. L. Davison, the Flax Cotton lactones 
: W i. Daniels, President, and F. N. Nelson, the Pap-- Mdls of G- 
T Crouch, the Plaster Mills of John W. Irving and L . J. Lavallcy, 
the Flour Mills of Harman, Cope & Co., Douglas & Jackson, A^ H- 
Smith, H. Finch, J. Playter, William R. Moore & Co and George^^ H 
Elliot;, the Distillery of Fletcher .. Toag the l^-weries of J^G. Nor- 
man and J C Bowers, the Potash anufactory of L. B. Stainthoipe, 
The Shingle Machine Manufactory o W. W. Trevor & Co. the Soap 
1 Candle Factory of George Staint rpe, and the Lockport Gargling 
Oil Company (George W. Merchant, Chemist). 




■ •. in,i nf thfi eastern extremity of Lake Erie, nncl tlio 

B.FFATA f-!^^ .^^,;^7,^"' ^g been a [n-incipal couuno.cial en.- 

tcvuinus of tele ^ ^ ' j^ j ' ^,,f,,,,a\,rocligieH of labor at an 

porium of he Wes « ^^ ^ ^ ^^^ „,„,, ^han 2,000 inluvbitants. 

to render tlie «'^™"; ''J ^ . ^„j ^^ ^ later period they erected, 
termination of /^ ^^ ^^^^^^ :',;;:_\, f.eilitate the rapid discharge 
at a heavy cost, /7«7 /j^';,!;,,., ..^ now in tl>e city of Bnffalo 

rT27'::^^^^^^^-' ^^-t have m the 
twenty-one o '^'J'^^}^ ^„^,,,„ „f grain per liour, and a 

reputable to the port^ ^.^.^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ j^,,, 

productions of the West. Accorauib ^^^^ 

• „,i.,o,w.p nf their offical publication, trie touniy, 01 WI11..U 

us in advan «f «'^ ^° ^^ „,anufaeturing establishments, with a 

'" : rf* '.21871 t ! ielded a value of $10,7^,750. According 
capital of $5,524 8 1 at pe ,„,„,f,etories, that had a 

«, • 1 ;„ -Rnffnlo were t more successful dian tnose lu 

besides, business was depressed «J. *»^/;; "f^^^i,,, , us manu- 

rr ^"^^ n 7brr rrrtre^sra^ of competent 
factories. It is P^^^^"';' J ^ ^^i;, ,f .^ticles now manufactured in 

The principal manufactures of Erie County, accoramg to 
returns, were the following : 



Eric, and tlio 
iiumcrciiil cm- 
f labor at an 

nd secure the 

they erected, 
ipid discharge 
;ity of IJnffalo 
the affgregatc 
r hour, and a 
mptitude witl\ 
ve the harbor 
tlieir arrival— 
ner, and highly 

)f Buffalo have 
ing the growth 
han that which 
nse agricultural 
iturns, furnished 
)f which Buffalo 
shments, with a 
50. According 
irics, that had a 
and 380 female 
lowever, it may 
; product. The 

1 Uian those in 
5ily be proved — 

18G0, and since 
ber of its manu- 
ite of competent 
' manufactured in 
unreasonable one. 
ing to the census 










Agrlculuiml linrloments 

Brass founilliiK 


Blauk books and book binding . 

Boots and sliofs 




Cabinet I'uniiture 

Car wliecls. 

Distilli'd liquors 

Edi,'0 tools 

Flour and meal 

Glass waro 

Hats and caps 

Iron (rolled) 

Iron railiuK 

Iron forgiuK '• 

Iron fonndinn •• 


Lunibor dilaued) 

Lumber (sawed) 

Malt liquors 


Mill stones and miU furnlsliint,' 

Marblo work 

Machinery, steam engines, etc... » 

Pianos, rnolodeons, oto 3 

Scales, platform and co' ator 1 

Stove foundiu,; 

Soap and candles. *'^ 

Sash, doors and blinds 

Saddles and harness 

Saddlery hardware 

Shoemakers' tools 

Tin, copper, and sheet-ironwork 


Widen Roods 

White lead 

Wine (native) 

Wash boards 

No. of 
ineuts. Capital, 

6 »20n,400 »124,290 377 


















43.'), 025... 






02,2114 .. 

201 ,2;! I .. 







,rtT. ,291... 

















1 015,000 l.-'S.OOO 230 




























868,018 ... 





00,400 89.. 




173 , 







55,492 40 

47,720 83 

2."i,190 49 

21,800 40.... 

10,000 100.... 

78,395 98.... 

40,000 a-).... 

.36,7,50 .W.. . 

24,767 20.... 

96,000 13... 

10,000 20..., 




Value of 


On the Manufacturing Establishments of Buffalo. 

Agricultural Jm7,?emcn<s. -Buffalo contains some of the largest and 
.ot e vidly celebrated manufactories of agricultural nachines in 
The United States. To no other city in the Union are the larmers of 
thp West so largely indebted as to Buffalo. 

a1 g the Lit prominent of these establishments in that city are 
the PITTS AGRICULTURAL WoRKS, owucd, wc bclicve, by an incorporated 
company, from the fact that James Brayley, Esq.. ,s announced as 



.r This concern is indebted for its celebrity mainly to the 
Treasurer. Tins concern is from whom it derives its 

valuable inventions ^^'^ ^^^^^^ ,...^., ^^. Tr. .^., 

or Endless-Cham Horse low_i ^,^^^,^,,. ^^j Separator, 

^n " wtt^ 3'^ i -^^^ues^o be the leadin. article manu^- 
StttlSworUs. importantimp^vem^^^ 
construction of this machine .nceuw^^^^^^^^^^ 

profiled by six or eight l^-'- ^ ; '^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ ,f oats, per day, and 
bushels of wheat, and from 600 to 1000 bus ^^_ 

quinng no '''^"'ll^'^e ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ed of these machines are now made 
for the granary ^'^ ^ ' ,, ,^,„,f,eturer 1^^^^ an attach- 

and sold annually. Recently tne ra t\nc^\,^Oi and 

„,ent for measuring -^^^^^^^7"^, ^ "rmlg Mill =uto the Elevator, 

,1,0 farmers of tl,e West, cannot 1«> ""-l-^j , „,j „,„, 

B.,ae, u. ■'■'---;:::rr:;tnrniv,,M^ p^„.» 

machines are made at these woiKS. v j „trenffth, durability, and 

-;'rt:;:\:E/i:r:?^-:^:-- ---«'--- ""»■'■ 

are kept in stock. Af,p„Tvv Wouks are another exten- 

feature of this Lomouitu „ccomi)lished by an arrange- 

^" ^r' :^ Zt^i^ iZ:^^""' ts actio!, or. in other 
,,en ^y;^'''"f!,,;in following the inequalities of the grounu mde- 
words, rises and fa Us m touo ^ ^./recommended for its excced- 
pendently of the driving wheel. ^^ !« J^''^ ;*-;; .^ j^ „„t effected by 
[ng lightness of draft and ^cuig made c^ n n ^^^^ .^^^^_ 




lainly to the 
it derives its 
in 1836; also 
ad Separator, 
licle raauufac- 
eii made in the 
nd now, when 
om 300 to 500 
. per day, and 

condition, rc- 
-ntil it is rciidy 

are now made 
ited au attach- 
Is threslied and 
,0 the Elevator, 
Bag, each half 
ilue of a labor- 
lis time, and to 

iful and ])opular 
e Double Pinion 
, durability, and 
ice Hulling ma- 
icres of ground, 
Is. At times as 
ly of hard wood, 

e another exten- 
)prietors of these 
! — among otliers, 
The distinctive 
, will work as well 
d by an arrange- 
ction, or, in other 
the grounu inde- 
Jcd for its excced- 
18 not affected by 
<f have ali" in'AO- 
Covibined Mower 
I said to bo capable 
3 two horses. 

The Works are the property of a stock company with a l-|gc -ptal 

all paid in, of which George L. Squier.s President, Lvciln Hawley 

Secretary and John Valentine, Superintendent. , , ,, , 
RL H0WARO'sA0KXC..T«RAL WORKS, where Eetchum's well-known 

Mower and Reaper is made, is another celebrated estabhshment m 
Buffalo Over 20,000 of these popular implements have been manu- 
factured and distributed to all parts of the country. 

About six years ago Messrs. Miller, Bennett & Co. took posses- 
riot of th o[d "Vian Iron Works" and converted them into an 
agrieu tnral implement manufactory, more especially for the -nufacUire 
7Mhnrsrf Patent A<Jjustable Mowing and Reaping Maclnne, better 
knowti as the Buffalo Mower and Reaper. , . ,i. . . „„ 

Brass i^o«Wi.^.-The census officials evidently erred in the.r return 
of ^his branch. Lead of there being but two firms engaged m Brass . 
wo kn Buffalo, we know of three, and there are probably others-the 
"Eagle" works, P. Colligon & Co. proprietors, who manufacture also 
ZtL Steam Engines and Palmer's Hydraulic Lift and Force Pump ; 
fhe <- MUo Brass Foundry," Bro^vn & Ruhlandt proprietors, who 
m ke !team-engi«e and locomotive Brasswork ; and the " La aye t. 
Bras!, :„d Bell Foundry," of whieh Aoam Gooo has been proprietor for 

"^SLZt;::::^:' largest BistHleryin N^ York State wes. 
of Albany, is of Tiiomab Clark, in Buffalo. His consumption of 
Ihi is about G40 bushels a day-which, allowing one bushel to each 
r alio- of spirits, would make a daily product of l^^O gaUon. 
or over 60 barrels. The still in his establishment, made in New York 
City by weight, is one of the finest ever constructed. It h- ^ '^ - 
•. JLldi, ir 10 barrels. " Clark's Rye and Monongahela" Whis- 
^:^^^ bralin Western New York ami in the Western 
State n connection with the Distillery Mr. Clark l-« an ex ensivc 
Rectifying establishment, and is the largest manufacturer of Alcohol on 
UrLles. The oldest and largest Brewery in Buffalo Is that of Moffat. 

"^t" ;;;^L «.....-The ^rst I^ollnig^n ejected ^n 
Brffalo was that known as the Buffalo Iron and Nail Works, buill in 
47by C r s & Co.. and now owned by Pratt & Co. The mam mill 
sn fee long by 140 feet wide, with Nail factory attached, and has 
Ih puddling furnaces, six heating furnaces, and about fity Nail ma- 
cW s Bo ides this main building, there are blacksmith s, mil wr.ght 
and oiher shops. The works will compare favorably with the best of 
ilaJ concerns in the country, and are no. turning out large quan- 
tities 'of i-on and nails of the best qualify. 



frzxroT'ro;:::— or u,„t i.,o«a„ce » . 

mannfactmiug centre. conncctioii with the 

I» 18C2 -other ..go RouM^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Blast Furnaces erected by Palmu .v ^^ ^ ^^^^ .^le of the 

son, who. os^"«^--':;^^-^:^;r^t^ration in UutValo or in 
Union Iuon Works. Ihc iuinace. i i ^ ^^^^ 

eourse ^ erectlon^^U ^^ ^^^^ ^^C^Northern Michigan^ 
of rig Iron annually. T .c oic ^^^ .^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ 

The ''^'i^f- ^i;- V.^^^^^^ i tlly q pped for fabricating masses 
.ow owned l^i' ^KM^,^^^™ ism nt' ha's th'e capacity of turning out 
of wrought iron. Tins c^^'^o" j^ ^^^ in the course 

$200,000 worth of work annually. Another lorgo 
of er'ection in Buffalo ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^ |„g„iy 

The manuiacturc of 3lac mn.iy ^^^^^^g. 

carried on in Buffalo, much more - -; ^^^^J^^^i^on Works." for 
takers would lead o"e to ;ui>pos • Tl. SK-^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

^"^^"?t^;2;0^^ i: l.tS of the works were erected in 184T 
amount to $200 000 1 ^^^^^^ .^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^„^ ,„a a 

and consist of a buck lo m .^^ ^^^^^ ^j^. j^^,^ p. 

boiler shop adjommg '« ^^^^^ 7; ;^^,„„,;.. Buffalo," and attached 

«— '^;^Z:7lX^V^^^ the shaft just touclnng 
,. screw propeller whiei oi lo it Although a failure 

tbo water when the wheel was load d t- feet- A ^g^^ 

was confidently and genenvlly 1' -^-;' ^^^ propeller wheel es- 

Tr^f tr jCnlt^lf-raf^^ U^ i. -st .cam 
tabl.shed. loic t a ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^._^^^^ ^^^^^^ „g,^. 

engines on the Lak.s, .u I tlic i _ Michigan," "Northern 

Flouring mill>». ^ j x. Tifft & Co. 

Tl>o''«an-f'7"7/;«\;:^;7.;Xn::^Iowell,a. also ex- 

,.ssees.and the ^"|;^,^^ ^ ,^ ^n^^ ' ""a Boilers; while Mason & 

...nsivoly engaged in ', "^^ ^ "f,^.,^^. ,,,,,i, of the largest si.c. 

«;rc,c,l w«c ImiU .. .!>« »Ui,.;.ra, of U* Ann, 



y iiuc Blast 
•j is indebted 
ortance iS a 

tioii willi the 
311 & Thomp- 
10 title of the 
l^itValo or in 
y. oO.OOO tons 
ern Michigan. 
1 in 1850, and 
eating masses 
,f turning out 
r in the course 

is also largely 
of the census- 
,n Works," for 
product must 
irctted in 1847, 
it square, and a 
, Mr. John D. 
," and attached 
t just touching 
though a failure 
;nt was entirely 
)pellcr wheel es- 
very best steam 
ivgest passenger 
ran," "Northern 
. Lawrence," and 
r steamboats and 
used in S w and 

J. N. Tlfft k Co. 

veil, arc also cx- 
whilo Mason & 
the largest size. 
l>r<)pellers. Brigs 
least r)0,000 tons. 

itearaers ever con- 

of BUSH & Howard and Aaron KUMbtY .v 

,„ tho was of .aiUcr. » ... tl,o «'" " "' /j °::, „,„ „„i„aioc, 
He commcaccl the ma»ur«t„r« ,n l';'- » '' ] ^,,,,, i,,„ V,M year 
„r old milkrs againHt small stone. "'« " "" , '„„„° ,,„„„,„, „„, 
aw not oMod a Ualf Oo»u m^^s^ J , ' .»» ,s satisfac. 
imlnccd to test tho 0M>criincnt, and fouaa tn t ^^^^^^ 

->•■ »"- * f r N::-i't,;rn,:^ u;;':r ;..:o » ,;nn„,cd 

that by means of Mr. Noyes mipi of wood ; and O. 

, , „r ^^^^;^z:^^::^'L ... ..o wo..... 

ney & Co. at their laige sua experiment has now 

one ton of bitumn.ousjoaL W a wasj^ ^^^^^ ^.1^ ^,^^ ^^ 

become a fixed f'^^^' '^'^'""y*,,;,. f,,t atones) with an economy of 

^-^^"^T;^:::^:^^rt::.^veto Lrtythreo percent.; 

n::;:;" .^^^^^ ^,^^^. 

Mr. Noye is also the uweutor o - «; \« ^^. ^^, ,,^„,,,,, a 
sure Mill, a Plantation Corn Mdl, a Simit aa ^^.„ ^^^,j 

^''':r'\ a ALT FN & Co. arc another firm in Buffalo extensively e^- 

'rirma^iifg Burr Mm'toncH and furnishing Mill Much nery. Mr. 

gaged in making JJurr niillwright and a munufac- 

AUen has had a long experience both a a jn 1 fe ^^^^^^^ 


driven to the proper speed with but little gearing. Hi« CombinaHon 
ariven w uuc F i- » Jr^inn Floiir Packer a-e labor- 

Sniw< Machine and /wiproverf belJ-Actmg ^"^ ' 
aavintr machines that are also deservedly appreciated. 

KP BUTLER, the other manufacturer, is the successor of Weston, 
Cotwell & Co His Mills are peculiar in the novel method of hanging 
She'll Mr. B-tler having a patent upon the Iron work employed 

%rorSeons, ..c._lnstead of there being but three establ^. 
m.n s ngaged in the manufacture of Musical Instruments in Buff o 
Tthe 1- takers have reported, there were four Piano manufa^W- 
. i- !„ i«fiQ Art those of A. & J. Keogii, ii- uibti, 

to^:iTi::^Zl TL... ^.M.. these, there was the 
iCe Manuf ctory of Sueppar. & Cottier ; the Organ fanufactoy 
Ta House- and the Melodeon Manufactory of George A. Prince 
1 CO hat usuany employs 200 hands, and tur.s out 80 .struments 
per we'ek rang „g in price from $35 to $350. Thi» is one of the arges 
per wetii, '""fa" fe i . TTnitPfl States The manufactory is 

establishments of its class m the ^•^^^.'^,^!7'-''.^, .frontage of 
built in the form of an L, five stories in he^ht, '^"♦^ j?%Y jj^^^^. 
120 feet on two streets, and 40 feet in breadth Nearly 30^000 u. tru 
ments have been sent out from thi. manufactory to all paits 

.50 foot ta .idth and co„.»io. .«» 7*,^^™ "^ ^i*:;;;!. 

200 by 100 feet, and has one cupola. The hrm has oetu 

'^Messrs Woou, Hubbe.l & Co. are another firm extensively engaged 
inte manufaetire of Stoves. They make over a hundred different 

"'t^rf We" presume the establishment alluded to in the census re- 
turr/s mIfaeCng Native Wine is that of Turner Brothers, who 

' are labor- 

of Weston, 
i of hanging 
:k employed 

ee establish- 
I in Buffalo, 
) raanufacto- 
, H. Utley, 
there was the 


► instruments 
of the largest 
anufactory is 
ft-frontage of 
50,000 iustru- 
parts of the 

.es in Buffalo 
John Weeks, 
•rganiziug the 
Rich, a gen- 
3W established 


F manufactures 
;s of one firm, 
,0 tons of iron 
ne usually em- 
;he Eagle Iron 
motors, occupy 
et in length by 
id the other is 
stablished since 



. portion or th, y»r '« j;'^;^ ^^^ , ^,,^0 bon..wh„.>, ha, 

America. - , f„„tories in Buffalo, those 

Wkile i««''-Tl.««'"«,7.^"';''2 To Ssn™ White Lc.l 
or T>.0M.»o»*C„. on. c^.^.S43 a *e ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^ 

Co„.pany, estabhshed .u 'f ^"^^ '' " „b„„t ,200 ton, of White 

COUNK... Secreta^ , ^fSlr. .^frct, iastea,l ot bein, »63.000. 

Lead per annum, and the aggreg. 1 1 . 

a, returned by the eensus-takers, .» abont »»00,0«0. 

BnWo ha, tor ,e,er.. year, contained, ^^^^^ It 
P..«, one of the largest "^ "»' ""CTade „ thi, 
Mon, but r«ently '"P"*" /->'';" "'*r;tl,;,,n,ent. for Refining 

::iTrrCb:;r;.i"ri:t, than eicen of the» 

Oil Refinenes now in operation in Buffalo. 

nsively engaged 
indred different 

n the census re- 
Brotheks, who 

ilimttfattttrins Centres of Bel\J-Cgn5W. 


Po,n..Nn, .Inch is the principal seaport of Maine, and the capital 
.r r n 1 erlaud County, is a manufacturing city of some importance, 
t^tHZ no' very remarkable manufacturing establishments 
I^ 8 tie County of Cumberland had 334 manufactories, whose unUed 
In 18G0 the ^«« > employed 2,699 males, 592 females, 

S'Xef :;^:o'r^C.091,92l. Wo than one half of t,.. 
ma ufletories were located in Portland and the adjounng town of AV e.t- 
To !md they produced more than three-fourths of the aggregate 
pvlct! or $4,7'. ' ' 20. The principal manufactures were the tollowu.g : 

No. of ji,^,e Female VuUio of 

Establish. ^__,_^_, „„,,".;„1. hands. bauds. lunducl. 






Boots ami shoeB 32 


Boatbuilding " 

Bimling'! iin'l linings 

Cotton goods 

Cabinet furniture 


Carpets ••• 



Cotlce and si)iccs (ground) 

Distilled lUiuors 

Flour and meal 

Gun powder 

Iron railing 

Maohincry, engines, etc. . 

Musical instruments 


Mastic rooting 

Meats, cured 


Preserved fish 

Pottery ware 

Soap and candles 

Sawed lumber 




Sash, doors and blinds.... 

Sugar refining 


Woolen goods 


Wool cleaning 


rnpiliil. nititeriiil. 

$i6,«i8 $'.;o.i*> 





107,651 256., 


i:i,035 . 

4 280,000 236.515.. 

2 ... 
2 ... 


23 .. 





2 . 



2,200 .. 

16 . 





120,260 3,'J1,851 










6,800 ... 

5,900 .. 

153,611) .. 






19,910 26 

27,080 180.... 

13.100 4 •• 

15,910 4... 

105,;i-:!5 10... 


120,000 46.... 

4,400 15..-. 

298,400 377... 

5,255 18... 

17,1-8 12.. 

10.195 4.. 

52,807 14... 

174,600 59... 











39,100 10.. 

1 .... 400,000 1,216,000 200 

12 ... 90.050 169.»« >" 

2 .... 28,000 60,(X)0 25 

3 ... 40.000 29,130 39 

2 .... 130,000 126,000 28 


18 IXK) 
40.1 KK) 
. ■ ,3.")0.1H)0 

J. 11. BnowN i, Sons. 

ine, and the capital 
)f some importance, 
irlng establisliments. 
ictorics, whose united 
males, 592 females, 
in one-half of these 
oining town of West- 
hs of the aggregate 
!S were the following : 



ViiUiii of 





























. 32 


















12. . 







... 58 .. 









. 138.. 









.*•* ■• 


... 200. 

... ■, 350.000 



.. 25.. 

.... 37.. 




... 25. 



rtland nro tlio I'urllati.l Cum- 
:, and tho Sugiit Ruanury of 





Next to Povtlana. the mo.t i.uportant seat of -^^^^^^"^'^^ ^^^ 
; Tl,.> wator-DO'vuv here, which is amoiiR the best in .New 

iB Lkwiston. ilie water po a u . , ^ , „ •,r,.anklin 

u io„.i i* owned bv an association of capitali>ts ( aiieu iiit 
p" 1 ot wlh A. D. Lockwoocl i. Agent, and EdwU. Atkinson, 
':« ^itcon^any have also a Cotton MiU with ^,.H • spm- 
« ^id a Bleachery capable of bleaching six tons of good, pel lay 

meres are made by the Lcwision ra Lcwiston Bag- 

Treasnrer, and John M. Fryo, ^^^"^ :^''Z^l^ ^ Machine 

01 isuuuty a, I extensive saw mills, 

there are machine shops, and two or penobscot lliver, at the 

13ANU0H. situated on the west bank o tl e «' «^^;;^ ^ ;.^,^ ,^ 

r„lmor&. Johnson, Stotson & Oo^, »'' J' ^^^^^^^^^ p. j,„,.,-y.«an, and 

John Dole, W.tson l),or Pnu D. "»"*»• ™'^' ^'^„ , Dole 

,„o Furniture ,n.nnfaetone.o^oh„C Alhc.U^^ .^^ ^^ ^^_^_^^_ 

,t Gih».n, «»J «»"Sj,;™^»'; ■; i.B * son, au,, K. «. & U- M" 

Doyen, Farris & Webb, Amos i t,,„„.,,^ and Wh ton 

J. carriages are made ^X ^enJ-- Ada'^^^^ ^"^ ^.^l;; :,,,,, aeo. 
& Yeaton, and Harnesses by ^-^ «f ^^^^^'^^^ ' jf 1, , .manufactory of 
H. Chick, and John Williams & bon. The c is a ^^^^^ 

steel Sciuares (Darling & Seh^vartz, V^^^^^^^^^'^^ ^,,,,,,,, 
Whittier and Isaac L. Johnson, proprietors), one ot teaws l, 
;::^etor^, and of Axes (Je«erson Higg^-^ P-F;-i)j -^^^^^ 
(Job Collett, proprietor); ^'^^f -, f^'^ 'rv 1 rotors); two Brass 
Mu.^y, Frankhn & Co. and ^f^^ ^^'^^.^^a several 
fnnndries (Gco. T. AUamby and Jona. Buibank, propnti j, 
Zulirtories of Clothing, S*, Oonteetronerj, etc. 

'21 C, 



PThc following are the Censu. Statistics of the principal m;"»/"'=tv,re8 
iau'e County of Suffolk, Massachus tts, which induces and 
Chelsea, for the year ending June 1, 1 60 :] 

No. of 













Beil ipriuK-s 

BllUiivil taliliis 

BUiiik books and book -binding 

Boots iind shoes 

Boxes, iiupor 

Bread, cmckeri, etc 

Brass founding 

Brass cocks and guaijes 




Casks and barrels ° 



Cloaks and Mantillas '^"^ 


Coffee mills 


Copper smelting 

Copper smithing '" 

Cutlery ^ 

Drugs and medicines ^^^ 


Furuitura (1) 

Furniture, school * 





Horse shu 

Iron worV. > lildlng 


Iron raiiiug 

Iron, rolled 

Iron safes 

Iron shafting 

Iron steamships 

Iron work, ornamental 















,33. "HO 






119,371 311. 

S7,820 40, 

363,082 IM- 

161,125 122. 

142,848 17-. 

,186,929 22 

in,9j0 10 

32.111 11.') 

26,687 63 

Female Value of 

bauds. product. 

ijO »4H,.W0 

05 i3,.'i00 

J57 292 418,.'i00 

3S 370,932 

73 120,000 

23 513,106 



















83,100 143,944, 

300,000 463,000. 

273.100 243,2.03. 

13,500 1,«30 

98,000 127,800 S3. 

25,000 114,600 S. 

290,200 348,684 372, 

61,900 40,990 "7 

49,000 172,1550 









1324 2693 4,567,749 











258,970 232., 

94,436 296. 

61,935 ISS. 

7,185 16 

18,728 40, 

261,000 279,070 322, 

23,500 03,3,50 32 

470,000 1,0W3,600,. 

142,000 133,103 . 

20,000 69,000.. 

190,000 685,050.. 

20,000 18,000.. 



61 862,,'>00 

















(1) The manufacture of Farniture i, a very pro.ineut '^^l^^^^^'^l^^'^^ZZZ 
Boston, and we have no doubt that the A-, of D^ K.....U A Co Fo^ 

LIWUBH^JE 4 CO., HAI.ET, MOUBE A B0VDK«, F. M. il LME9 4 Co., H T- A 

C. A. GARmK-R A Co., Bucklist A Bancroft, K'-"^''^*,^^;' ^^'^^'^'^f^^ 39 „»„„- 
Lke annually considerably more than the Ccnsu. mar.hals have returued 



pipal manufactures 
luJes BostoB and 










53 ... 







S3. . 




, 2693 





16 .. 











Value of 
(4:!,. WO 
, 4,567,749 
... 1,460,000 

ind extensive business in 
Kendali- a Co., FoBstKU, 
4 Co., H. T. Abobh a Co., 
)., and WiRAND TooasAWT, 
have returned for 29 manu- 

InBlruinonts, inathomalical 

No. cif 



Instviiui.'Uts, Riii-«iciil 
laslnim.'Uts,teWrni.hlo ^- 

Jaiiiiuiied ware ^ 

Jo\v.-U7 r, 

LaslB J 

Leailicr ^ 

Loalli.'V belllni?.. • ^ 

Liciiii>r.f. "'"If — 
Locoiiiotivort. etc ^ 

Uin.lier, l>l:>n"> " _,«tm-cui:ineB,otc.2S 




Mllitiiry c;n)B 


MiniTal wiitora 

MuBioal instruments, 

Miacollaiicous il) 


Oil, linaeed 

" Inril, 

" water 

I' kerosene 

<• \tb!ile 

• ' curriers' 

Paper hangings 

Picture frames 

Vres.!ivoa Vickies and fruit, 

FtiuiiuK, book and job 

i> nowBpaiier 

Printing pi-psBes,. 

Pumi"* and blocks 


Kootiui;, coUipoBitiou 

RooUu«, slate 


i|ii;!,ooi> ... 

2.1,000 ... 


14,OjO .. 

14,905 . 




jj ... 

^ ... 
2 .., 





Saddlery and bai-uoss -^ 


Salt (Kr«iiinil) 


Saab, doors and blinds.. 

Sowing macbinos 




85.J , . . 






9 . 


103,000 3S4,235.. 

9, .500., 


34 . 

5 . 2B6.000 688,020.. 

t 25,000 :>'..50 80.. 

14,000 6-0,6oO 81,. 

6.16,100 ■1W.6"6 6aO. 

212,»11 w*' 

242,200. .. 
4,000 ... 


33 450 





I.JS.WJO 515.768.... 

tlO5.20O ... 

12i.500 .. 



108,610 . 



10 . 





6,000 ... 

14,10,0 . 









96,610 lO' ■ 









23 74,t100 10-*.:»i 

20,200 . 







2 .. 


Value of 
♦ J;4,,')00 

807, 'aw 

239, ■15« 




100 ... 


28 ... 




14. . 




5 957,500 




p :i,.500 
...... 66,000 

9 216,310 






(1) Tito 

manufacture of Musical Instrumei..^, 

♦ban the census re 

eturns indicate. 

of Pianofortes, is a more ox- 

0. . , 

ton^ive business in Bo.t.r. *ban -«;;■;=-;", organs is the largest of its kind tn the 

Mason & 1UicUN'8 mar.utactory of Cabinci J' ,, ^ live thousand a year, 

.r They have the capacity 0^^:^^^: r.,:ury 00 bands, and for the 

BAG. UooK employ in tbetr Of^''"/^'"'" „„„„,,„„ gome of them very largo. 
J'tJrle years have averaged 22 C^^rt'l^rnTe manufactory of Church _Organs on 

last t tree ji!".'" " " , oxtonsive manuiauvo^j — . ,i w 

'" W. B. D. S.««oKB A Co '^-°;l;; - f,l Directory the names of S. DA L W. 

Charles Street. Besides these, we fl"^'" "^ ' Kreemantle, Graves A Co., Charles W. 

,,,, William B-ons. Walter ;osby.^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^,, ^Vright M.^l In- 

Brothers, and Jatnes II. White, as ma 

Charles 1 

^:lI;B:;;aminr.Bicbardson, Charles SUmeKt.t«u^ 

,,,„ment Oo« Wbtte^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^.^ufacturers. 




8ewint[ miicliino neecileR 

Ship liuililiu); 

Ship siniiliiui,' 

Shirts ;\nd rurnifhing f,'""*''*"- 
Silk fringes, IriniiningK, etc... 

Silver wiiro 

pliiti'd wiire 

' Soap and caudles 


Stair lM^i!din^' 

Steam irastiiltes 

Steiiiii Ileal ..''s 

Steam and (.-as pipe maoliines. 

Stoves and rant,'''* 

Sugar re lining 

Tin and sheet-iron ware 


Tyjie and stereotype foi nding 

Uuihn' and parasols 





Wut'ous, carta, etc 


Window sliadcs 



No, of 



Total, Inclnding ni.scellano- 
ou8 mannfacliiroa not above 










h- Capital 





Value of 




. 13 




. 395 










ISO, 170 







4S,I?94 ... 









. 10 






11,10(1 .... 






.. 240 

. .30 






CO.00'1 ... 


.. no..,. 







,31, 400 

. 1,7(J3,:.00 

.30, S2") 

,. 220 






. 142 





. 103 

. 01 





. 40 




, 209 








9, .103 


, 10 





















41 ,000 





$37,081, K)« 


The South Boston Iron Company's Works. 

Boston has a due share of raanufnctnrinp estalili,shnicnts that can bo 
calluil remarkable, but none more desorvoclly celebrated or of greater 
National importance than the Works of the South Boston Lon Company, 
better known as Alger's Foundries. They were founded by Mr. Cyrus 
Alger, a native of Bridgwater, Massachusetts, in the year 1817, which 
was not long after the Dorchester Peninsula became a part of Boston. 
During the war of 1812 he supplied the Government with large numbers 
of Cannon Balls ; and about that time ho purchased a considerable tract 
of low land called the Flats, reaching to the channc'. which then was 
considered of little value, but which now is t^ovcrcd with streets, dwell- 
ings, and extensive manufactories, including the works of which ho wrs 
the founder. 

Mr. Alger was one of the best practical metallurgists of his day. Ho 
discovered a method of purifying cast-iron which gave it more than 


•2 TO 


Female Valuo of 

liivuds. Product. 

13 J.OS.SM 


...... 72,300 

333 ISD.IVO 

93 ;^'J4,30O 



10 an.'r.o 



,30 U77.IIOO 






17 278,030 

01 17,j,770 

40 81,000 

(il ,'11)0,681 


10 22,000 

1 3S,000 





4,993 937,681, fO« 

[ J50ST0N. 


lonts that can be 
ted or of gr(.'ii,tcr 
in Iion Conipany, 
led by Mr. Cvrus 
year 1817, wliich 
I part of IJoston. 
itli large numbers 
.'onsiderable tract 

which then was 
th streets, dwell- 

of whicii ho WRS 

s of his day. IIo 
,ve it more than 

triple strength over ordinary castings, and which proved to be ot im- 
mense value in the manufacture of Ordnance, in which he was for many 
years engaged. The United States (government largely relied upon him 
for this "deliartment of tlicir supplies, ami since his death that reliance 
has been continued to his successors. His cannon sustained most ex- 
traoi'dinarv tests when sulijected to extreme The mortar gun 
"Colunibiad,"the largest gun of cast-iron that had then been cast m 
America, was made un.ler ids personal supervision. It was of twelve- 
inch calibre, and had a range exceeding three miles. Ho also lirsr, 
introduced and patented the method of mal<ing cast-iron chilled rolls, 
by which the part subject to wear slioiild be hard, while the neck 
remained unchanged as to hardness and strength-this being cast 
in sand, while the body is cast in a chill or iron cylinder. Until 
his time all the reverberatory furnaces for melting iron were made 
with hearths inclining from the fire, the metal thus running from the 
heat. He changed the form so as to allow the iron to How towards the 
Bame where the heat would he tlic most ii-tense. 

In 183G Mr. Alger manufactured the first Malleable Iron Guns made 
in this country, and supplied our Government with quite a nunilier. 
Tiie first gun over Hilled in America was done at his works in 1834. 
Cylinder Stoves were first designed by iiim in 1822. 

Our Government stands indclited to him for numerous irapro> nents 
in the construction of Time Fuses for bomb-shells and grenades. The 
following are some of his inventions : 

The interposing a non-combustible material between the fuse and burst- 
ing charge in shell, so constructed that it shall be detached by the 
violent concussion it receives when the projectile is discharged from 

the gun; 

The covering of a fuse-hole on the inside of shell witli a wafer or disk 
of lead, which must be taken out previous to the firing of the shell in 
order to expose the surface of fuse and allow of its ignition when dis- 

charged from gun ; 

The angles givtn to the vent-holes in the head of fuse-cases, to .""'-. -v 
the escape of gases formed by the burning fuse, and at the same time 
prevent the e'ntrance of water and extinction of fuse when fired al sea; 

The improved method of casting Sliells, by using a metal arbor to 
support the core, and having the urbor hollow, so as to allow all the 
gases generated by moisture and organic matter in the core to escape, 
thus preventing porosity in tiic shell. 

Mr. Alger . .so manufactured tlio first perfect llronze Cannon for the 
United States Ordnance Department, and for the State of Massachusetts, 
and was, it is said, the first manufacturer to introduce the ten-hour 



. • q.nth Boston He made it a practice never to part with 
system m S«"t\^ ^^^^on ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ kept a 

good workmen if lie could possioiy re ^^^^ ^^^ 

Targe force of l-ndj on half-pay ^v^>en t u s^^^^^^^^ 

Admiral Pahlgren has -"\f ' ;- f j ^ J,;,,, „,tHbnte of the i.,lel- 

^^;::::::::::^^::^^^^ ^-^^ -- -- --^'^ ^'^ 

aiseiplined study and often m van.. ^' ^^ ^.^ ^^^^ ^^^^.^,^.„g 

After ins decease " l^^' f ^J^^ ,, I,,, passing through 
son_who has mnce died wlu^ these , g ^^ ^^^^ ,^^^^._ 

,,e press-succeeded lum ^ :^J ^„^/;„, , ,le for the pur- 
ncss a thorough training, a ^» ^ivat n ' Metallurgy. 

«uits in which he -'^^-«'^^^f ' J ^ ^l m, Alger was eminent as 

Aside from '"--"- t^rl^r 'Mi.. sP.^ m.eralo.y.^^ 

a scientific man, and as the author ot ^je ^^^^^^^^ 

ne possessed one of the finest and most ^'^ten .. t« ■ t 

I ^.nerica. comprising ^l^^^ ^:,:^ ^^^ ';: , ;^rcomhining 
lu 1S62 he obtained patents for two impio d t ^^^^^^^ ^^^ 

a time-fuse and '^ J^'^r^n-l^S; ^nliples embraced in 
rifled guns. Orc of the ™ost nove ^^^^^^ ^.^.^^ ^^.^^ 

,,,,, patent, is t^^ ui ca. tl. ^ ^ ^^ZJ,^ ,, ^use is driven 

? ^"%Tv"trc ncu ic^and then allows .ree egress of the fuse-flame 
forward by the concussi , inunediate explosion, 

to the clmrg« in the shell, ^'^^ 'jj.'" ';*;^^ ,,f , .eh to contain the 
The following year he pat nted the "^^^^^^^^ in the form 
bursting -charge to be used in shrapn ^^^^^^^ ^he process 

ness. being impervious to moisture. ^^^^^^ ^ .^, ^,^,^^ 

During the present -I'^^Yllr^^a.^ in^'" -rdl ior-proj. , .-■ .f 
• to Washington, and re-ned arg n, ^^^^ ^ _ ^^^^ 

every <'-->l>^ ^ ^r 't aC obl'l large orders f^ .-inch and 
" Schenkl projectile. lie a,.o ^,^^ 

finishing guns of very large ^'al'^'res. ^^^^.^^^ ^^^^3^ 

This now "Ordnance ^^«7 ^^ Z*^;;"' 3„ ' of a lO-ineh Army 
and the first work performed in '\;;«/^,, ^f ^^ of the 

Columbiad, according to the system of Major 



>r to part with 
iquently kept a 
ire not needed, 
lat rare quality, 
ate of tlie intel- 
jtliers sought by 

s only surviving 
passing through 
ght to the busi- 
[iste for the pnr- 
e of Metallurgy, 
[ir was emineut as 
ips' Mineralogy." 
;., ots of Minerals 

, . .rid. 

s, each combining 
pted to shells for 
eiples enibvnced in 
;t when lired from 

the fuse is driven 
8 of the fuse-ttttiue 
ate explosion, 
uch to contain the 
powder in the form 
idcring the process 
iCss dangerous than 
se powder and then 
^)Owdcr fr(>'n damp- 

:|UtMitly ''■-'-" !'"^'led 
irs for projrciiit" <>t 
shells, and '. .i 'he 
ilers for ".t-inch and 
ly and Navy. 
Ordnance, the com- 
,„ndry, li2r)feet long 
peeially designed for 

ition in March, 18G3, 
g of a 10-inch Array 
'. J. Rodman, of the 

TT -.0.1 states Army After having cast five 10-inch Guns in this way 

-- r- tt:^' t " -:-: ^i:*::^ t^cast a ... 
^'^::r^:^fi^^^^^^ ^ith ti. exec. 

ffivUons per minute. Uie object is lo toui h ntmostca-e 

,„™ ,'1 n. oo„„ncnec„,cn, of ll,c ,,r»o„t rotalli.n ;»"•"»-» 
which was furnished promptly and continuously by them, could not 

often keq.ins m«.iy on Imlf-W "l'«" ■;"■ " „„,,,|„yoos wl,o fully 

.ocurc 1 for ll.i« Con,i,»ny an nnoxcc 1»>1 "''^^ "^^ \'° '"\„ „,,i..|, ih.y 
understand the re,,uircn,.nt of every deimrtment of luWl lu y 

are employed. 



The City Point Works-Harrison Loring. Proprietor. 

f nhn-in- establishments of South Boston that 

chanics. He was bovn - ^^'^ J' ^,. ^3,,,,,, Having passed a 
apprenticeship with Mr. Jabez Conty, ^^^ „,aehinery, 

s ison in Cuba supor.ntencbn, th --t^^ ^^.^ ^^,^^„,„,ed bus. 

,e returned to Boston, and n J ;;; ^^^.^f ,^, ,, ,as tendered by 
,e.s for himself, not '^^'^ fTJZy--^^ nmrk of conftdence no 

,elatives a loan of $'20,000 wul.^ iLcntary to himself, 

less creditable to their sagacitj than c ^^ operations 

For several yc-^s after commencn|bu^^^^^^^^ 
,vere confined l>"-ipally to budding Stainar a ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

Boilers, though including S"?-' ^^ "^ ^^^^^ , ,,.U. He was 

Light Houses, and a great ^'^"^^^ « J^hich must eventually come 
among the first to foresee the g- /^ ^"^, ^'..y .^t about making the 
for iron sea-going ^tea-lnps a,^ mmedu^^^^^>^^^ ^^^ .^^ ^^^.^^^ .^ 
proper arrangements to cany on tv ^^^^^^^^^^^ increasing. 

Ution to his otl-r branches wh ad ^^^^^^ 
Accordingly, in 1857. he "'^^^''jf;;;;,occupicd,-whieh application 

chase the House o''l-^-^''yf;,^;;;rt business of Iron Ship buiUb 
stated that he would agree ^'^ 3;,, p,,y „ot less than three hundred 
for not less than five years, a"J wou d n I Y ^^^^ ^^ ^^ j^^^,,„ 

workmen. After much opposition from ^^ ^^^^^^ 

,c finally effected the 1'"-';;;/^^ '".^r.^epared it for the purpose by 



'i-i'- •• . T Building establishment which had been 

This being the fir.t Iron S^H «>" ''^^ ^^,^^^ „,„y who ex- 

pc-v.nanently estabUshe ^ ^^l^^^\, ,„,,,.,.. and even some 
pressed their distrust as to tl'^j' "^^ ,, .f this kind, seemed de- 

!,f tlio capitalists 01 "^^^^''-^.^^e closest competition with the 
terniined to place the "-v conu m ^^^^ ^^^^^^.^^^^^^ ^^^^ ,,, 

,l,,r concerns of ^^^'' ^'^lZJ:SJ M these obstacles however, 
home -tablisluucnt. Not.Mtistm ding a ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ,^^„ , 

which to some men of less ^^^ "Rth «t ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ , a 

countable. Mr. l.oring l^'^^ J'', ^ Characterised his career, l>y 
steadfastness of imrposc, w ch .,.,,.„ t,,, y,,rs 1857-8, when 




,uth Boston that 

thoHgli a young 
epavtmcnt of me- 
^, and served his 
Having passed a 
is and machinery, 
, commenced busi- 
13 was tendered V-y 
k of confidence no 

Loring's operationa 
Marine Engines and 
;lls Machinery, Iron 
nil work. He was 
lUst eventually come 
t about making the 
quite extensively, in 
;radually increasing, 
ty of Boston to pur- 
|,l_which application 
/of Iron Ship build- 
ss than three hundred 
, capitalists of Boston 
listing of seven acres 
it for the purpose by 
igs as the business re- 

ment which had been 
were many who ex- 
rprisc, and even some 
this kind, seemed dc- 
t competition with the 
he preference over the 
so obstacles however, 
would have been insur- 
[th all the energy and 
terized his career, by 
the years 1857-8, when 
.. Loring kept hi« estab- 

hshment in full operation on vessels to go to Indm. He tljo" "mde a 
CO a with the Boston and Southern Steamship Company for two Iron 
St^m i s of 1,150 tons each; and unlike the most of contracts o a 
wH these two vessels-the " South Carolina" and " >Lissaehu. 
: V-^w^re mpleted and delivered on the very day named for their 
on plet on Th y were afterwards sold to the U. S. Govennnent, and 
pZdTo be among the most successful vessels in the blockading squad- 

ron on the Southern coast. , • n . «p n,,>,Um 

Mr Loring has since built for the Union Steamship Co. of Bo ton 
two Iron Sc'e^.-Stoamships, the "Mississippi" and '•Mcrnmack/' 
2 000 tons each, which have given the greatest -tis action to Uie Con - 
nanv and arc ornaments to the merchant-marine of the countiy. He 
Ta'als do. e a large amount of work for the United Governmen . 
ncuSng maehineiT for sloops of war, side-wheel and screw gun boat. 
Tf r 1^ manifest success If the " Monitor" over the Rebel iron-clad 
M^Ji-r mac ' and the Government had decided to build more Monitors 
^rLorig's establishment was called upon to build as many as couUl 
b completed in a short time, and he immediately commenced on on, 
tl e ' N ihant " which was one of the first of her class that was com- 
p ted H'le Monitor ever built in Now England. The novelty 
o r rnstruetion attracted daily hundreds of visitors to examine ^ 
W i iting the Nahant for sea Mr. Loring laid the keel for anothci 
^^^.a the " Ca. .nicus. ' This vessel enUiodie aH tl. improve^ 
ments that suggested themselves while constructing the first, ha . -^ a 
:: h sliperiortck and a thicker s;de armor. She is a p^n. K 
and has more than double the propelhng power of the ^ '""^ d'^., 
and much superior in many other important points. Althoug t e 
' Caldcus" was delayed in her construction by additions and altera. 
ti.m n nded by the experience of these ve.sels, when under heavy e 
to resist the modern projectiles, she was the first one completed of 
Ics r >to„ and will doubtless .u.stain the reputation whicu the C.t> 
t in Wo Ls lave attained for excellent workmanship, as the govcni- 
m t offic X who were on board during her trial-trip expressed then.- 
st nguage of unqualified praise for her sailing qualities, her 
: Irful strength, and the completeness of all •-• "PPomtments^ 

The City Point Works are located at nearly .he end ot th 
poni ula o South Boston, about one mile from the city prope 
T V have a water front of six hun.lred feet, upon a e bu h 
tw • spl^ious shlp-houses. Th. nmehlno shop is the structure formerly 
u 1 b he city as the House of Industry. It is built of un l.ewn gnu - 
He s fo r sto ies high, and about three hundred feet m ength I r n, 
6 to 700 skilled artisans now ply their tools here both day and n.-ht. 



The Globe Works, 

Located on Foundry Street, are also enti led to rank amo«g »>« ;;*^- 
worthy and remarkable manufacturing establishments of South Boston. 
Probiy a greater variety of machinery has been built in these works 
mZ n any other, for it has been the practice of the Company to change 
the r iPpHances and adapt their tools to the kind that may be most in 
demand in a given timefwhether it be Sugar Mills. Locomotives, or 

^TlsirMr. John Souther, who is now President of the Company 
comme 1 i business as a Locomotive builder near the site of the present 
Tks in association with Mr. J. Lyman (^^^ ^f-^.^^^jT;^; ;« 
Toon after purchased), on the unprecedentedly small capital of $2,000 
Previously to embnrking in this enterprise Mr. Souther had spent seven 
year in the service of the Boston Locomotive Works, and had made al 
a greater part of their first models and patterns. He had also spent 
two y ars at Cuba studying the wants of the sugar planters, and in 
endeavoring to ascertain the machinery best adapted to supp y those 
wants Tb' advantages of this practical and comprehensive training soon 
became manifest in the success of the establishment he had founded and 
Jhe sTga" machinery built here for Cuba alone has amounted in value to 

'TZ7l:'l\^.e Globe Works Company was incorporated with 
Join Sher at'presiden, and D. A. I^^ekering Treasure. Tli. a - 
ter gentleman had been, previous to his connection with the e works 
GenS Superintendent of several railroads, and had acquired a large and 
farid experience that peculiarly fitted him for the position be nov, oc 
pies For several years the building of Locomotives was a proMinen 
emt their general business, from twenty to thirty having been made 
anTul lly Since ISfiO, however, when the works were destroyed by fire 
the building of Locomotives has not constituted an important branch of 

''onroftrrst novd machines built at these Works is the Steam 
ShorrJr Excavator, the construction of which has ^-- ^ « ^^ 
sivo business. These Shovels have been used on most of the railroad 
Hhis Tuntry. and on many European railroads. TheyJ.^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
yards of earth, make two dips in a minute, and will dig »'« ^'^^^^''/^J 
pan They w 11 fill a train of twenty-five cars in twenty-five minutes^ 
t" shod weighs twenty-eight tons. Its movements are wonderM n 
Lr complicated harmony, and it has been said to apP-ch nea r « 
" a thing of life" than any other large machine ever built. It has dis 
tiLt motions to draw the shovel back, force it forward into the bank, to 



)ng the note- 
outh Boston. 
1 these works 
lany to change 
[j,y be most in 
jcomotives, or 

the Company, 
of the present 
3t however he 
ital of $2,000. 
ad spent seven 
cl had made all 
had also spent 
anters, and in 

supply those 
je training soon 
id founded, and 
ited in value to 

orporated, with 
iurer. The lat- 
ih these works, 
lired a large and 
ition he nov, oc- 
«ras a pro'jinent 
fing been made 
lestroyed by fire, 
ortant branch of 

ks is the Steam 
lecome an exten- 

of the railroads 
jy hold two cubic 
; the hardest clay 
inty-five minutes. 

are wonderful in 
proach nearer to 
)uilt. It has dis- 

1 into the bank, to 


// r / / f / r " ' ' 

\'l ■■! : 


r;':!!.';.-!;!!? ^ SoH^ Vi 


:: .,]• r>; ;u: ■'::':<. 
ii workrirv 

<i UM' 

\ isvu ill' 

■ *\T 

*.> J- ■;< 





raise it up, to swing it to the rigl.t or left over a car, and to drop the 
contenlH-all execntea by stem power. Tl.e Company liavc applied 
this macliincry to a l)oat for dredging docks, rivers, and harbors, winch 
is used in many parts of the United States and the Canadas, and also 
by the Russian and Egyptian governments on the Amoor river and on 
the Nile. Tiie iron boats for this machinery were built at the Works, 
and both boats and machinery compare favorably with those for the same 
purposes built in Europe. A second order was given by the Pacha of 
Egypt to the Globe Works. 

For the last two years the Company has been largely engaged upon 
work for the United States Government. Tliey constructed the U. S. 
steamship " Uousatonic," and arc now (1863-4) building one of t!« 
Monitors, both tlie hull and machinery, and also the machinery for a 
sloop-of-war and two side-wheel war steamers. The working force of 
the Globe Works has been about 400 men ; it is now increased to 600. 

Chick ring & Sons' Piano-Forfce Manufactory 

Is one of the very largest Manufacturing Establishments that have as 
yet been erected in this country. It was completed in 1853, and is 
budt in the form of a hollow sciuarc— enclosing a spacious court— with 
a front on Tremont street of two hundred and forty-live feet, and wings 
two hundred and si.xty-two feet in length, and a uniform width of hfty 
feet It is iive stories in height from the street, and six stories from 
the centre court. Three millions of brick, two thousand perches of 
stone on- million six hundred and five thousand feet of lumber, three 
hundred casks of nails, and two thousand live hundred casks of lime 
and cement, were consumed in its construction. It has nine hundred 
windows, with eleven thousand panes of glass, and the superficial area 
of the floor room exceeds five acres. 

The interior is arranged with a special view to convenience and 
facility in workmanship, and is provided with every known mechanical 
contrivance to assist manual labor. The engine which propels the 
machinery is of one hundred and twenty horse-power, and the furnaces 
and boilers, situated below the engine room, furnish steam not only for 
the engine, but for heating the whole building, in which there are 
eleven miles of steam pipe. The steam, after traversing the buddmg, 
is returned to the boilers at one hundred and ninety degrcs, and does 
its part in heating the rest. Passing from the Engine room to the room 
between the two wings, we enter the Steam mill, where the rough ma- 
terial, taken from the lumber yard in the rear, is fashioned, on numerous 



• .,1 Rosewood iind nialioRany logs 
„,„,„,„„,, into ,ho »'">l- -<!;;- ;,JX:„,„„ i, „„ 0,e ,i,s, «o«r 
„,,, l.m- s,«vo.l into V.-1ICC1-S. 1I.c1"im ,,.;,.„„„.« 

cut and sawed to its l) 

* . * \\i\ 

U. north wing, wbeve ^ ^'^^'^^^^ ^.c, where it aciuires the 
U,n,.h, and pn-^aved for use - ^^ -; ,,;,,,,, ,, ,. Case roou. 
,,,,n of a Piano case. Th ^ .tm^ ^^^^^^ ^,_^ j..^,^^ 

where the veneerings are IH ^^^ »^ ^„, ,„,, „, to the 1.1th 

,...HveBitBHOunding-l..ard-d -^ ^^^^ ^^^^.^ building, and 

.tory, it passes through ho V n>^ o ^ ^^^^^^^^^ ,„a 

,„,ins its descent on the « _«;;^^^; .^^^^„ Kk-vators, at oaeh wmg, 

'-^^'' -^^'^ '' '' ''t Z ^ ^^' Ahe Piano to the various roo.ns, 
moved hy steam, nniUe the 1 ' ' . - ^^ expeditious, 

a distanee exceeding a mde 1-'- ^^^^ ^, ,,, ..uding, wlu.-o tbo 
Tl>e Drying room, .s at e toi ,.,„„d at a heat of 

sounding-hoanlsare ^"'^if j^)^^ ^r^'jo out of spruce, which 
„.,„ety, Fahrenhe.t. '^K^e oau . a ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^.,,^ ,^ ^,,. 

comes from Herkimer <;«7^> ' ^;;^„^^;;, ,uted into the Piano-torte. 
,atiou of several years ^^^^^Z^^or^o. of materials that enter 
A« an illustratmu o t^^, ^^ ^^^ , Jf^i^.i^g statistics of the yearly 
into the composition of a 1 "^' "' i„teres<--., vi.. : b.x huu- 

consumption in this vast ^^tabh.hmcnt aie i ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^.^^^ 

dr d thlusaud feet of pine, map e and oa j e^^h ^^^ ^^^^^ 

Tu..^ walnut; two '^-^^ ^ ^^ f -unding-boards -, three 
boxes; twenty thousand feet ^J^^^' ^ thousand fe.t cbest- 
bundred thousand rosewood -"-;»' J ,,,,,and feet 

,ut veneers •, thirty ^— ;^^ ^;;; .^^of glue -, sixty reams sand 
of oak veneers; ^'^^'^^»^*^'^" ^^'7*^' /^.Hons varnish ; twelve hundred 
paper: seventeen hundred '^"^^ '^^^J^"' ,"',.„„„. three barrels liu- 

;id; white lead; ^^^^^^^ ^:^'Z:^ZU. alcohol; three 
Iced oil; two barrels sp.nts turpentmc Wt^^^ ^^^^^^^^_^^^ ^^^„^^.,, 

,„.,red' dollars' worUi .« ;3j.n - ^ ^ - - ^^^_^ ^^^,,^^, , ,,,, 
^vorth paints; three hundred '^'^'^ll"^ ^ t,,,,,and six hundred 

t.vee hundred pounds ^-^^f ^ ;, :,"^^\vi..e ; thirty-three huu- 
,ounds iron wire; «- ^^Ifl^^^^rJ^las bar stiel ; three thousand 
dved pounds brass wire ; hve "'^ ^ ' ^ ^^,^^^ ,;,, i,i„.es ; three thou- 
,..„dswrougl.b..on; ^^-;^^ ,J thousand locks; e.gbt 
enud one hundred ami uuj b " 

The founder of this l«ri!0 ^t"""""'"' ™,. „ ,ie was born in the 
holvor, au, not Hve to i;-™^" ' ■^.^^i.^^oh, who,e he 
State of Sew "-"''t/^rle* y ^1. tbe eahinet-malter's trn.le. 



ilioRany logs 
Uie first lloor 
to its proper 
ae(iiiiri'S the 
,e Ciiso room, 
10 riftiio case 
up to tlu! liWi 
buiUliiiii', and 
[ig shape iiiul 
at each wing, 
various rooms, 


ing, where tbo 
ul at a lieat of 
' spruce, wliieh 
undergo a pro- 
B Piano-forte, 
[•rials that enter 
:s of the yearly 
, viz. : six huu- 
thousand feet 

>, for packing- 
g-boards; three 
;and fc>.t ebesl- 
vc thousand feet 
sixty reams sand 

twelve hundred 
three barrels lia- 
,1s alcohol; three 

hundred dollars' 

castings •, thirty- 
sand six hundred 

thirty-three hiin- 
el ; three thousand 
.inges -, throe thou- 
sand locks; eight 

', Chickering, who, 
[c was born in the 
Ipswich, where he 
;met-maker's trade, 
nineteen, undertook 

the reparation of a disordered Piano-tho only one n •- *--- 
whioh after much labor, he succcdcd in restoring to use ulne.. 1 
• ; nuent belonged to Samuel 15a,chclder. elsewhere idluded to. nd 
was n« doubt the first riano-forte that Mr. Chickermg ev , savv^ 
ZZ.L, ISIS, he arrived in i^.ston, and »;-l ^-^I'll^;;- 
,, ,,„i„.,.„;aking, commencing work on t^''^-^ ''f f . ^ ;X^' 
One year afterward he entered into the employment o M.-o, 
then Almost the only manulactarer of I'iano-.orU. - ^« ^^ ; - 
whom he remained tour years. On Febrm.ry ^^"•- ,^^ ^^ ! ^ ^^ 
into a copartnership with a Mr. Stewart m t e -^^^^^^^^^^^^_ 
which continued for three years, when it was dissolved ; and ^-J^^^^ 
ering prosecuted the business without a partner tor --ral >^. ^ 
then became associated with Mr. Mackay, a capitalist ot boston a.n^ 
by the rection of large buildings, and the importation of rare kind, 
l: prepared Jan extension of the business, ^^^ ^^^^^ 
lowed It i. a noticeable circumstance in his career, that all his pa 
nJ^ ip^- and all his most important undertakings, date from the 
S^l'day of Fehrnary, the anniversary of Ids arriva in Uie c y oi 
Boston In 1852, his large Manufactory on ^\ ashmgton s icc ^^as 
d<^^"ved bv i re. involvin: . loss of two hundred thousand dollars; 
ad ^inlaid the fou„ lations of the present f^^^^^^^^ 
has been described. But before its completion, in March, 18o3 he died 
t" ; t bis sons the most famous name in the annals of music 
:::h;mism, and a business which bis genius ;"^ .^;;^'^ /-^^ 
from tiftcen instruments_tbe nund)er made by bun the first jcai 

""S::: M:' C^cS"decease, the business has been conducted by 
bis t 1 sons, who have had the advantage -of a thorough training 
Ldln-xpeience, and who have made and adopted unprovemen 
t vt mler the instruments which they now manufacture ar su,,er.o 
to h b s made bv their father. They employ about five hundred 
vo men me of whom earn foriy dollars per week, and luvve been 
onn edwith the establishment for thirty years ; and t>eyturn o 
Zr two -usand Pianos a J... ^^^^^ 

:t^:tr':t^' ,it:;m::-:i:f:.n eminentper.rnn.s and 
numismaut Loi „,i,;,.i, if arranged in a volume, would make 

:X:et:r T.:;: 'S;:r:;';r/Pian0s have been repe^edly 

suS ed to the most rigid tests of comparative merit m competiti 

witf t le best instruments made in Europe and America, with results 

To sa factory, that their superior quality and excellence cannot now 

a otS^b questioned; and recently Messrs. Chickenng & Sons 



•"- -t ""'■ "z:z:::S^^^^^^- 

fore not been popular in this couiury clcffaacc of <U"Bign 

American Tiano. ^^^^ 

,„..,, .llu*.l 10, having l>oc.n fo«„«, , .f^^^^,^ Tcom,,,™- the 
a,ul .Io«,>h Na.o„, who were '■'"'""^l^'^'^'l'ZL,,, „„., di„i„ol 

..,„ of vvo>,.ea.i,ou «'™-;;ix :;;, „r.:' .».".«".' -^ 

emlmvkoil in tl.o business, dal not ixctt 

annum, now amounts to many "^'''''.^ "^[^ ;*• ,^^.,^ ^,,, fi,,, to intvo- 
ThiH firm are also accrecbtcd with liaving bom uit 

""""' '" • n h ; uL « aCb the n.,r,.ro„» »ln,e.„re», of various 
and larse puWie taddingi *" ' '1^ . ^ „„.,„v„tu» construelod by 

ri' *i ;™::,tr :;t:a tJ.ti:^.."i *« Ac.dc,„y of Mn.e 

the hrm of ^^lll\voltn X ^^'•- ' - , p-e^irtent's House 

'" ':;■"*";• '';,f,r;: ;^ ;: r a^ Jl :o:.„e.o »„,>< „„. 

i„ Wa,h,n|»on. !.. >"''"''.'(!,,,. ,,„,,,i,al, „f Itotoa. The nt-Bl-e- 
''-•''^"■'.'■y'''''';;;;;' ;;::,ave.t at are vo„,,.«.edi, nearly. 
'Z T f .T nd Jl * c 1 hv ,noan, of a Kan, that foreo« fre* 



have hci-eto- 
lently rccom- 
ice of (U'sign 
ize and form, 
Piano would 

for tho iiitro- 
ns mueb, ccr- 
Ueuce of the 

a, Gas, and 

ndoubtedly the 
il with that of 
ch has ah'oady 
33 J. Walworth 
) comnienco the 
\te and distinct 
ig buildings by 
tubes, which is 
large estnblish- 
timo when they 
)usand feet per 

le first to intro- 
r moans of Fans 
11 Custom-house, 
krluras, Ilosititals, 
icturos, of various 
as construct (m1 by 
Lcadcmy of Music 
'resident's House 
omplete work un- 
■iton. The aggre- 
itilated is nearly ft 
1, that forces fresh 
•tments— changing 
: any one time, or 
A novel method 
h air admitted to 

the wards has been adopted, consisting of a double set of hu. ., one 
carrying cold and the other warn, air, so arranged that the two cur- 
rents may be combined and mixed at the point of mgress, thus afloul- 
i„, the ufuost facility for controlling the temperature of the rooms 
without diminishing the quantity of air required tor y^'" '"^^•«;;- ^^^ 
heatin.r surface of this Hospital amounts to about eighteen thousand 
superlicial feet, and consists mainly of wrought-iron pipes, of ,nch 
int^ernal diameter, placed in large masses, n. a,r-chambers, th.ough 
which the fresh air passes on its way from the Fan to the reg.ste.s m 

''Z'wmJ: Messrs. Walworth & Co. arc always prepared to under- 
take large contracts of this kind, and probably employ a larger force 
of workmen, experienced in putting up the appliances they cons ruct 
In any other trm, their leading business is the manu acture of those 
nuuer us articles included in the general term "Fittings." Among 
th" there are several that are secured to them by patent ; ot . uch 
pro llv the most valuable is a simple and excellent arrangement or 
c nect ngthe main and radiating pipes that dispenses wdh a numOe 

idn and the consequent liability to leakage. The unprovemen 
Ssia nserting in the main pipe a branch lY. or ManUol and 

Valve in one fitting_by which at least one third of the labor and ma- 

1 l'irLstructl;>g ti.e apparatus is saved ; and as the water can 
p without obstruction, it has no place to lodge or freeze. on- 
Llerable economy in th. use of steam is effected by the adoptum of 
double valves, bv which all or only a part of the p.pes can 
b used at pleasm-e, according to the temperature of the atmosphere 
and the degree of warmth required. This Patent Man.fold .s he ,n- 
venlion of one of the Urn.-C. C. Walworth_who has also invented and 
patented a " Solid Die Plate," and a machine for cutting gas httmgs, 
Sg three taps at once, now the property of the "Malleable Iron 
Fittings Co." at Uranford, Connecticut. 

The firm of J, J. Walworth & Co. is composed of James J. \\ al- 
worth, Marshall S. Scudder, and C. C. Walworth, who have .en 
Zciatcd together since 185:5. <.r the year subse<,uent to that m which 

e Urn of Walworth .t Nason was dissolve.l. They have tw.. Manu- 
factories, one in connection with the store in Boston, another in Cam- 
bridireport, and also u house in Chicago. ... 

Mr. Walworth is also largely engaged in developing some important 
and novel improvements in machinery for the working of the Fax 
ft . . of the West. He has invested more than $100,000 capital in this 
enterprise, which promises to be of great value to the agricultural in- 
tcresta of tho Western States. 




Gartoer ChUson's Stove Works, 

,„„ ,„.H, ..s..bli.hod or more "J * ^ f„, j,.„, ,,„g,„„.,, t„r it, 

proprietor i>»B been "'""^f'^^S ° ;t,oUy, would att-.ct public "t- 

tentiou, aiul he hah not i3ttu ju , ^ ^^^^■^^. luerits. 

tion of those who, unsohcted. ^^^^^Z^^,^^^ the iuvenlors of 
Mr. Ohilsou, who deserves a Pr^'"'-" ^ ^^^ ^^,^/^^,^.,,a ^n .,l>rcu- 
thoeouatry,isanatWeorTlK^o.Co^ ^^^ ^^^^,^^^ 

ticoshipto Pattern "'^'\^'^^"'''^ " '", "i i,^,elf at Trovidence, Uhode 
attaining his n.^ority he e^a« ^^^^ . ^ ^^^^^_ ^^^, ^,^^^,^,, 
iBhuul, IVoin phv e he emovca ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

in ,lu. business with for "^^^y; Reeled to defects in the 
,een identihed. ">^ ^^^^'H::; ^^^ i ^--s and Uan.os, and 
generally adopted method, vt ^«»^^'^^^"S ^ ,.^,„,,ay for 

L applied his natural^ -t^i:: !:t:odaeed a; Air 
them. As early as \hU ho nntnicu , ,,^ ,, ,,,.,y ^.,,at 

..a ventilating ^>"-7,: ^ .Jt^; ^^^-ted, and whieh re- 
iu.p,.oven.ent upon 1 ^2r\^^ Fair held in London in ISM 
ceived the Pn.e Medal at the ^V« ''^ j^,,^^ „,t long after- 

,,, , SVoaterinventn>n hantl s was >aclc_^^y^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^,^^ 

,,ard. and P-^^ented m 18 > I co ■ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^.^,^ ^^^^^ ,. 

numevous experiments, that Ihe gieai ^^.^..^ , radiators in the 

,os.ihle waste of fuel ca., . ^--^^Z:::^.^ ^nd gases usually 
form of tapermg eone^, ah I.J tn ^^^ heating pnr- 

wasled or lost in chinmu-s. are ^-^^J^^ I ,,,,•„ ,, ,,, ,.„. 

poses with the fuel itself. He "PP"-1 ^ ' ^ » ^^.;„ ,,, ,n,«ophy 

Itruetion of Warm Air l^-— ;-;;"";; I f,,„a thlvt not only 
has den.onstratod its great prao u.U va . ^^^_ ^^^._^^^^^^ 

^,,, ,,hole produets of eon>b«stu n, ^^1 ^^^ ,^, ^^ ,,,, 

parlieles, hy being eon.ined and ^"; --^.;ttonLly and con- 
lli,., aetion of the '•••^-\;;'Vi;-,^r bearing the 
.unu.d. but the heat cont.n d^ ," c Ited and thoroughly ex- 
tapering surfaee ot ^^J^^^^^^^, Z. twenty thousand rurnaees 

hHusted Without any \va>t . •^" ^^^^^ ^ ,„ ^,,,„„iiy ,vppli- 

constructed on this principle are nou m ■ . ^^^^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^.^^.^^ 

cable to steam boilers, or wherevo it s u. . . 

:;:lount of heat fron. a given .p.ant.ty ot fuel. 



■ miles from 
B v.avoluiiise 
is probiibly 
;laiul, for its 
lew i'oniis of 
ict public at- 
ical oxiunina- 

3 iuveiitors of 
od an aitiivcu- 
Sterling. On 
donee, Uliode 
, and engaged 
•nturj' lie bus 
defi>els in the 
d llanges, and 
r a remedy for 

Air Warming 
be a very great 
and xvliifb rc- 
idon in IS;")!. 

not long iiftor- 
iiscovery, after 
1, with tlio least 
radiators in the 
lid gases usually 
for beating pnr- 
iplc in tlu- i'i<n- 
.11 as jiliilosopliy 
iml lliat not only 
moke, or niinuto 

cxjiosed to tho 
tensely and con- 
ring against tho 
d thoroughly ex- 
lousand Kuvniu-cH 

is e(|ually appH- 
obtain the largest 

"■"" " "•"■*, ""■:."''T:tt.inf CO n i ':;,,ci,u. ».,- 

n,„. i.lati«, tlirt ,l,-l..'i.»o »• tl lit c». ^^^ ^^,.,1^ 

.,.,„. „v>.„s «o .0 ,u-«.F.l that bolh ° ."""»;; ,;^.,, „,. ,,,„,,..,, ,„ 
„,„, ,„,„„ dcaled ovor .1,0 flro, the »'"'«;, J "t'.l.oso inM-r-vcl 
,„„,i,.*at. ,l,«„.ll »'«7;:2- Jn ;' t, wlnl. .1.0 orisi- 
i»..„,ro^ ire now in use, and their value will aniMi , 

,„ I8,li, l,c |.».o...o<l «n all»ol,mc,.. '»'," «7 '„„„,„, ,„p,„,c., 

s; ui.n!::;c„„o -H". ;." ««7-:;;':="^™ 'i: 

lower part of the room. It has Dun iu,,i . 
Superintendents of Railroads for warnung cars, and bv othc:. 

have used it in ollices '^"^ 'V""^'';f 7"';' ^ „^.^^. p,,,,,, stove, which 
Another valuable invention is a - ^^ ,,^^^,.^ ;,„,,„„,, 

for „.on.,„,y «n,l c,nv,.,m.,o 1 » h ^^^,^^.__ „,„, j,,, 

'-«' ' ;:; ;;::;:;l:':: o ;;:. wi.i. »..'i -- '« «■ 

result, as we leai.i ti'mi tnosi i- „,i .,iv„.i,.ncv and the excel- 

.r. i.v '«>■ "•■;-, ■■">•'■•;;; ,:':;:':;l 1 :;; "'-vny r..„oi.-«. 

lenceofitsmanulacture. liieie an siz. . i 

,„ont, whether for private families or hotels^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 

All of these Stoves are '-^"'' -';:''' \',\,„ ,,,,,, n llaiiroad 
Mansneld. which have a .Vont ^^J^ ^^^^^^^ 1, ,,„,, „et. 




b„,.„ ,.,e ,c„«rk»blc fo,- --7;; ■''■"It 'on W„. rea l,«na» a» 

eu.ployi-1 HI those VVoiks. Ai i „ .,,^. o,.i„i„;U .lesign 

<-»•-«-» ' 

The Howard Watch and Clock Company 

factuvcTS of tiao Clocks anu u . ,„5,chincry in conneftion 

wi.b a pro„=v 'f <;■;'/", ^,'°l«o. Cnis, under tbc style of Ibe 
p. l>«via, Aaron L. 11onni»on, ^, 

Roxbury, Massachusetts, xvheie th t nr Ei^.i.t-day Watches 

U was on^inally pvoposod o -^'^-^ ^ ^ „, ^ iLavd, an 
_aua the first one made is st.l in tuc p ^^^^^^^ 

accurate and serviceable f me-kecper_bn tins ^ 

poetically -^>f -^^Xl:^^^^^ e: riir.; its infancy, of 
was commenced and - >^^ ^^J; ^^^ ^„,, „ u.e want of suitable 
course, encountered ^"=^"y ^ ''^•^"^' ;; "°\,,,;„roiudices of dealers in 
tools and experienced workmen, ''''' ^ ^JJ"^^^,^ ^.^^ h. d\^nm. 
watches and the ^^^^::^:::^Z^::::;n:L..^., company 

'"'^"T':ni htlu vw"; concealing the kind of business the 
was ad..pted with tlu, VR« business had so far 

Company were ^^^^^^^^^^^^f^ ^ roductions. When the 
advanced as to be able to -1»«^^;^«;"; \ ,,,; p^t into the 

works were so i^^- . v.-a ^- ^^j;- ^ ^^ ,,., ?,:,„ Watch 
,,,,Uet, the name of the ^ n a J ^^.^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^.^^^^ ^.^^,^^ 

Company. In S. Uus C n , ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ,,,nufactory, but, by incur- 

11 the town of \N altliam, anu « i ,„„p|,i„prv irreater than their 

r„„ an o,„b>y for '»''''«"^;»' 7'^;:;,; 'Zfler busine- of 

"■■"■" rritr:: ■.: t ;^. cXdU ... ,.. par... .«ca,ue 

Howard & I'avis nan . ,.„p,„.ty passed 

o„,..e.. .,y .7''f7'':'';r'C:* C > carHe:,™ rtelLnoss 
into the hands of Applulon, Uacj iV «-< , ^v 



loor lias a 
tings made 
2 very '"Cst 
liiinds ave 
) liio manii- 
:iual (U'rtign 
Icmleneo of 


the manufac- 
J, of till! linn 
lartls, nianu- 
g determined 
in connection 
f with David 
10 style of the 
J n factory at 
es were made, 
-day Watches 
[•. Howard, an 
as not found 
hour Watches 
its infancy, of 
^nt of suitiihle 

of dealers in 
ould be diniin- 
iring Company 
f Imsiness the 
iiess had so far 
IB. When the 
ip put into the 

Hoston Watch 
3 Charles river, 
y, but, hyincur- 
>ater than tlicir 
ler business of 
parties became 
property passed 
01) the business 

,„ ,„„,c .«o years or .or., w>,c„ it w.. «„..., .oeor., .„u,cr the 
„„,c. of the Ainoricn Watch »'.""l»"y^ ,„„ .„,„. 

M,.. Ilowara rclumcl to Iho "t ginal lacto y m ^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

a„„i„K the maouracturc o, f « ^^ . ' v 1 mXs at 6.t, „«.*- 
ti,.h„- grades, a„d, thouBh '^ ' 'X;"J,„,„, „„t ooly gratifying 
v„re,l antil he ha, "^"""'^^ » ' 'J^ ' ' '„„ A„.orinta, whose sy,»,a- 

rSi.; 0? =::;s:r:,:: r::;, ro^ - wattes e^ee. 

the pre. -nt facilities for «"PPj>-'!;f ;\ ^ ,f ^ follow square, one 
His factory in lloxbury is bud ^^^J^ ,„, ,,,p,oys two 
Hundred ^eet on eacli^^e rrohal recently 'been purchased for 
hundred workmen. A plot oi gro ^,,1^. of accom- 

the erection of a new and much '-^^1^^^^"^:^^ , ,„,, industrial 
modating one thousand employees ^'^'^''^ ;;^ J^„ f patches by 
establishments more -tevestnig than a^n^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^,.^ ,,.,j, 
a^achinery. We ^ave -rf ou c a^r. h^^^b .^^^ .„.p,oyed-the 
wonder would be excited at the size o ^^^^^ _ 

ponderous lathes and massive planers of t''" ^^-^"^ J r^,!,, drills 
Z here the tools and machines ^^^^ > — ^^ ..^ich the 
eor probing the ^^^^ -;,^:,C 's ,0 tlnents of a spider, web. 
wheels revolve, are almost ^« ''"" correctness of the aperture, 

The gauges, which are used to ^-^^ ^^^ ^ i,,;^ or the ten 

ave so delicate as to mdicate t^e ^^^ ^^^ ,^^.,a ,, form 
thousandth part of an inch, lie -^"^ ^,.^ , .u-es, ground 

the teeth of the scape- wheel out of the sol m _^^^^^^ .^ 

aown to the vrov^^^^^^:^;::::^^:;::^^^. d^ps which they 

snudl wheels or discs, and so fine do icy ^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^^^ 

can remove are only the thirtieth l-^" ;^;;'^^^^^^ ,f a.e tooth, so 
this infuii^essimaA portion can be aken -" ;"y , „.„a 

easily are their ^^^^^^^f'^^^^^l he ^uindred thousand 

and worth a|.vit^^;s ^-;^^- ^ ^^l^, ,, ,,, „,Ued eye. resem- 

screws, worth i^S^i.COO. llase bU w _ perfectly as 

ble particles of rifle powder, arc hiush^ ;;^; ^ nter-sunk heads. 

those bolts with which we are f""'''7''^^; ;,i,.i,.,,. The threads, 

threads, and grooves ^^- ^^^ ^^^;^J^^ ^^ ^^, ^re cut with per- 

of which ther. are tw.. hundred and «« > ^^ ^^ ,,, ,,,, ,j., 

feet accuracy by means of d,es. an o. ;'■-;-„,,,,, a n.achines 

except with the aid of a micrometei. ^" "'J^ ^,,^. i,,,,,.,,,,,, of 

.,,i^h are in use in his ^{^l^^^^^ZZ^ kept employed 
Mr. Howard, and over a dozen persons are 



in making tools to supplant those which are slightly worn, as well as 
new tools, which are required in a constantly increasing business. 

One distinguishing feature of American made Watches is the simplicity 
of tli'jir construction. The fusee and chain, which are found in all English 
Watches, are dispensed with, the motive power being api)liod direct, 
and not dissipated amid a useless complication of machinery. In 
some foreign Watches there are as many as six hundred ditt'erent j)arts, 
rendering them a perfect labyrinth of cogs and wheels, and this com- 
plexity of construction necessarily increases their liability to derange- 
ment, which, in the American Watch, is lessened two thirds, and the 
friction at least one half Another distinguishing feature which is a 
necessary result of the mode of manufacture, and which was adopted 
at the beginning, is the perfect uniformity of parts, by which every 
Watch of the same class is a duplicate of every other. The European 
practice of Watchmaking is, to give a few wheels to one workman, a 
few "iuions to another, who fashion them without any uniform guide 
except experience and manual dexterity, hence, the parts are very 
rarely interchangeable? In the American manufactories, on the con- 
trary, a large number, say five thousand of the dillerent parts, are 
wrought by machines in separate depn tments, and finished in detail, and 
the pieces are then taken indiscriminately from the several apartments 
to what in a Locomotive building would be called the "Erecting 
Shop," where they are put together and adjusted, and being made by an 
unvarying rule, they cannot fail, unless the machines are imperfect, to 
fit correctly and accurately. Hence, one result of this perfect cor- 
respondence of parts is, that if any one be lost or broken by accident, a 
duplicate can be obtained from the factory at slight cost, by letter, and 
any watchmaker can adjust it in its place ; thus the great ditriculty and 
expense which attend the repairing of other Watches are avoided. 

But, besides these advantages which the Howard Watches have, in 
common with other American Watches, they h /e some peculiar to 
themselves, and secured by patent One is an irrangement by which 
the manufacturer is enabled to use a longer and wider main spring than 
can be employed in the usual way, apply a series of finer toothed 
wheels and pinions producing an easy and uniform action, and at the 
same time they are protected from damage by the violent recoil caused 
by the very common accident of the breakage of the main spring. A 
main spring may break in these Watches, but the otiier parts cannot be 
injured thereby. The Stop works, too, are secured on the bridge or 
plate of the Watch, on which the force in winding is exerted, and thus 
the train is rol'-jved from all extra strain, while in Watches where the 
Slo|) works are placed on the barrel, the force of winding is applied on 



1, as well as 

ho simplicity 
n all Enj^ 
l)lio(l direct, 
chiiiory. la 
llereiit parts, 
1(1 this com- 
to derail ge- 
rds, and the 
B which is a 
was adopted 
which every 
he European 

I workman, a 
iiiform guide 
rts are very 

on the con- 
nt parts, are 
in detail, and 
d apartments 
e " Erecting 
2: made by an 
imperfect, to 
perfect cor- 
)y accident, a 
jy letter, and 
(litriculty and 
dies have, in 
3 peculiar to 
ent by which 

II spring than 
finer toothed 
n, and at the 
recoil caused 
n spring. A 
rts cannot be 
he bridge or 
ted, and thus 
les where the 

is applied on 

the train giving an increased and unnatural motion to the balance ad 
at, he 11 time endangering the teeth and pinions, especuUly li the 
divisions are line and the Watch carelessly wound. 

, ..sides Watches, very Hne Clocks are also made m t>- -- X ^ 
suited for offices and public buildings, and ranguig m pr ce f' > ' ^"^^o 
S: or more A Clock made here for the Boston Custom-hou.e co t 
I ,( and the best are guaranteed not to vary more than two seconds 
fn ear Mr. Howard' we are informed, is also the originator o the 
Marble Faced Clocks, for which there is now an extensive demand. 

Donald McKay's Ship Yard, 

In East Boston, is a famous locality, made illustrious by the genius 
0? its proprietor in naval construction. It was here that some oi the 
: r it Id fastest clipper ships that adorn the American Marine we^ 
fashioned into shape, and were launched upon tiie waters. ^^^'^ 
is a brilliant and extensive one, and includes the '[^^^J^, 
"Ocean Monarch," of fifteen hundred tons each; the " btaffoids ...e 
an^l'' Empress of' the Sea," two thousand tons , the " Sovereign and 
'champiinof the Seas," twenty-four hundred to- I tbo S - f 
Empire" and "Chariot of Fame." twenty-two hundred tons the 
" L ghtning," twcntyone hundred tons ; the " Commodore Pei-rv and 
.. jIp " U'enty-four hundred and fifty tons ; the <' Donald McKay, 
twt'v five hundred and ninety-four tons ; and the " Great llepubhc," 
forty -five hundred tons, old measurement. ^ ,. . ,onn f,^n, 

Donald McKay was bom at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in 1809, fion 
parentage of Scottish origin, whose ancestry, in an unbroken l.iie, can 
11 traced back to the fifteenth century. His youth was pass.M on 
farm; but the natural proclivity of his mind manifested itself at u, 
ar y age, for at nineteen he is accredited with having constructo. a 
ishhig-' mack of creditable proportions. Within a short time afte - 
ward, he was apprenticed to learn the trade of ship-building in >ew 
York at which he served diligently, and after a few years he com- 
menced business for himself at Newburyport, on the river 
Here he built several ships for New York and Boston houses, and uv 
mained until 1845, when he removed to his present locality in Last 

^^ Wi"mi the opening of the California trade created a demand fnr a 
large class of clipper ships, Mr. McKay set about their construct, on 
ami so successfully that his name soon became famous in all commercial 
ports He built over lif. v of these ships of considerable size, of which 



the largest have ah-cady been mentioned. The " Great Republic," of 
forty-live hundred tons register and six thousand tons storage ciii»iicity, 
was launched on the 4th of October, 1853, in the presence of sixty thousand 
spectators, and attracted attention at every port she visited not only 
for her great size, ';ut the beauty and symmetry of her nodel, and the 
luxuriousness of her decorations. This vessel was subsequently re- 
duced to three thousand tons, old measurement— one deck, which had 
been partially burnt off, having been removed— but she is still sailing 
from the port of .New Yorli, and performing her duty creditably. 

In a little over a year after the launch of the " Great Republic," ' ir. 
McKay had launched eleven other vessels, ten of which were ships of an 
aggregate of twenty-four thousand six hundred tons, which, at the then 
estimate of cost of eighty dollars a ton, makes the total value nearly 
two millions of dollars. Six of these vessels were built for James 
Raines & Co., of Liverpool, a house extensively engaged in the Aus- 
tralian trade. One of these, the " Lightning," of two thousand two 
hundred tons burden, was launched on the 2d of January, 1854, and 
was the first ship built for England by a foreign nation. Indeed, until 
a few years previous, the British law piohibited the purchase of foreign 
vessels. The "James Haines," another of these ships, sailed from Bos- 
ton to Liverpool in the remarkable time of twelve days and six hours. 
Mr. McKay, like Steers and Webb, has shown a positive genius in 
ship-building, and made those radical changes in his models that none 
but a man of original conception would dare to undertake. His pri- 
mary idea was to construct vessels for speed and capacity, and in this 
he fully succeeded. His fleet coursers of the deep have sped from clime 
to clinie, at once the wonder of the world and the heralds of his own 
fame California, Australia, China, and the East Lulies, have been 
brought, as it were, to our doors, and by a few months' voyage, their 
products are landed in our ports. The clipper ships with which his 
name is identified have eflccted a revolution in long voyages to distant 
seas almost equal to that which steam has made in navigation to 
Europe, and it is probably no exaggeration to say, as has been said by 
some writer, that " the advantage to commerce, and the renown which 
has resulted to the American Marine, are more due to the genius 
and perseverance of Donald McKay than to any other living man." 

Mr McKay has recently returned from Europe, where he gave critical 
attention to the iron-clad ships of war built by France and England ; 
and has recently written a series of very interesting papers on the sub- 
ject in whicli he makes a scientific comparison between the iron-clad 
vessels of the United States and those which I'-^ve fallen under hi3 
inspection abroad. 



Lcpublic," of 
iy^a ciipiieity, 
,ed not only 
)del, and the 
equently re- 
c, which had 
} still sailing 
epublic," ".Ir. 
re ships of an 
h, at the then 
value nearly 
It for James 

in the Aus- 
housand two 
ry, 1854, and 
Indeed, until 
lase of foreign 
led from Bos- 
,nd six hours, 
tice genius in 
lels that none 
ike. His pri- 
ty, and in this 
icd from elinie 
ds of his own 
BS, have been 

voyage, their 
nth which his 
iges to distant 
navigation to 
s been said by 
renown which 
to the genius 
ving man." 
he gave critical 
and England ; 
ors on the sub- 
II the iron-elad 
lien under his 

The Hinkley & Williams Locomotive Works, 

Located on Harrison Avenue, are entitled to rank among the great 
Iron Works and Machine Shops of Boston. The organization ot the 
Company, under its present corporate title, dates only from April, 
IHU buV it may be called the successor of the "Boston Locomotive 
Works," which was incorporated in 1848, and the works occupy a site 
where Locomotives have been built since 1840. 

The buildings are very extensive, and, with the yards, cover an area 
of five acres of" ground. They are erected in two paralle ranges, 
which are connected by a building sixty by thirty-five feet, and used as 
a Copper and Sheet b'on Shop. The Machine Shop which is new, 9 
■ two imndred and ten feet long by sixty feet wide. All the shops are 
provided with appropriate tools of modern construction, and, in busy 
seasons, furnish employment to several hundred men. 

These Works arc a monument to the energy, foresight and practical 
eeaius of their founder-HoLMES Hinkley, Esq., the late President ol 
the Company. His history is the record of an eventful life, abounding 
in remarkably successful achievements, mechanical and hnancial, and 
equally unexpected and startling reverses. The son of very poor 
parents, he was early inured to hardship. At an age when others aic 
at school, acquiring the rudiments of an education, he was compe led to 
Ko out into the world, and seek his own means of sustenance. He iirst 
learned the trade of carpenter, and, in early manhood, plied the imple- 
ments of that craft. Subsequently, be was employed as a pattern- 
maker of machinery for factories, and here acquired a sufficient ki.ow- 
lad-e of mechanical principles, to venture upon the construction of 
machinery. Accordingly, in 182r.. he rented an old building on Lenox 
street, Boston Neck, and, with his accumulated earn ings_a capital ot 
two hundred and fifty dollars-he began his career as a machinist. Us 
first bars of iron, he carried on his shoulders from the store, where they 
were purchased, to his place of business. Among his early attempts 
at Machine-making, was the construction of a Stationary Steam Engine, 
which when finished, was the third one built in the State of Massa- 
chu^'tts It was an entire success, and .the demand for his engines so 
rapidlv increased, that, previous to 1840, he had constructed a larger 
number than any other machinist in New England. 

In 1840, he undertook to build a Locomotive upon a somewhat d. lor- 
ent model from any then in use. His friends souglit to discourage hun 
from the undertaking, while there were not wanting those who sneeiod 
at what they termed his "reckless attempt." But he worked on. 
cheered onlv by his own faith in ultimate success. When this machine 




.,.. ecnplctcd. it was ai^eult to fina ^^^-;^;::^ ^l^ ^ 
Kastern Uailroaa bought ,t. «-^lJ^^^^^^^^ „, the, were 

H- He proceeded at once to ^^^ZZ: was .o weU assured 
completed, the suecess of the lirst i contracted 

,U,t all of them were ordered, and, m two years,^ .^^ ^^^_ 

for and delivered. From this t"- J^ f^. M • ^^>^,^^_^^^^^^_ 

noetiun with Mr. Freeney, ^''^^ ^^J ^,^,J Uurin, this 

or the '• Boston ^-n^Uve Wor ^ - ^J^ ^^^^^^^^ ,,^ j^„,,. 

and Superintendent. H.o ^^"^^* '"^^ '^ , J j,;„ f^^^ inuulrcd feet, 
motive shop was extended *« a length o. mo, than ^ 

,nd the business so rapidly P-^P«;f '/' ^j^ „ . .'^^f LL. At 
the Company was valued at "P^f ^J,^;,. ^Z;,^,"^ 1 „f the details of 
this time, Mr. Uin.ley res.gned ^'^«;;;;X however, were found 
the business into the hands o y«""^- '^^^^J^', ,"; the breakers of 
inadequate to the taslc of pdo mg the vesse tl o , ^^^^.^^^ 

that stormy period. ^f^^^^T^J^Z^l ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^ 

n,ass of rum . ^JJ^" J ,^ „„aertake the task of remedy 
that age would have had the com ago ^,_^^^^^^ 

i„g the consequences of .o great ^^^l^"^^, ^^^ .^miration, 
.. pluck," however, wbieh eanno^^^^^^ ^ ^0^ a \ase of the works 
he determined to make ^ ^ ^^ f , J,,,,,,,,,,, k.v. Adams Aver, 
from the assignees, and associat ng ^^^^^^^^ ^^„.^^^_ 

with himself, h. proceeded to » '^^^ ^ ^j^,,,,,,, ,f ,„ „„. 
the scattered threads ^.^"J^d^l^tgHtv, became manifest. When 
.ullled character, and .';^' ^^^^^f ^^^^^ ; fo,. had dealt, and who had 
the iron merchants, with whom ^be corp ^ ^^ ^^^^.^^ 

suffered largely from its fadurn, -^^^''^^^^^^ ,„ ,,pp,y ,,hat- 

thev cheerfully assented; and one -^J^'^^^^^^^ j„ J.^.^t^ ,,,, 

ried on the Foundry business m ^J ^^ -^;f ^;;;j ,,_ ,,„, to Boston 
„i„,self an honorable -^-^\''' ''''''''^^' ^^l^^:^, ' A survev of the 
to re-establish himself in the same Ime of busmc.s. 



It, finnlly, the 
1(1 eiul t)f the 
oro they wore 
well assurod, 
3rc contracted 
iikloy, in cun- 
y & Freeney, 
,. Uurhis this 
[Hilarity second 

under the title 
V as President 
rged, the Loco- 
X hundred feet, 
the property of 
of dollars. At 
if the details of 
ever, were found 
the breakers of 
structure which 
and buried in a 
and few men of 
task of reniedy- 
ith true Yankee 
t and admiration, 
lase of the works 
Lev. Adams Aver, 
nd toilsome ellbrt, 
vantage of an un- 
manifest. When 
lenlt, and who hail 
u a line of credit, 
lI to supply what- 
cs, in order to aid, 
5f the various rail- 
carried their orders 
his shops, and the 

, had 'formerly car- 
d who had won for 
•ity, came to Boston 
5 ' A survey of the 

mo^nocts in connection with the works then in operation, induced him 
prospects n ^^^ ^^ ^,. ^,,^, j,,,,„„.c.. 

;:;::;;;r "r b"he';Lton .l.... work. wh. a cop^u... 

ship WIS formed, consisting of Messrs. Holmes Imkey, ^^^^^^ 
ims Daniel F. Child, and Adams Ayer, un.ler the style ol H kUs 
w'lmlTco., U. the manufacture of Locomotives, Bo.lers. lank. 
Castings, and machine work generally. 

Soon aftpr the formation of the copartnership, the attatk was ma<ie 

tc « y, r „««on, L. .™,.o. V,y „«lUng u„ now fumnoo, «. . 

•";:;',;;!;■ M';'Hi,,u'v:'ro-coi,,. ..,o r,.,,,. „»„,» of «,o n«i.™,K 
;::;•. T„cy -..■„« a ,wi,«, t„..n.o., by ^- >■■; f ;;■ 

i, vcrv IlivoraWy .|.»t.'n "f !'" i'" S'™' ■"■"""'"> '" '„ 

;: ' W.,„o,We;, .„ ..,« ,.,.....,» or scvo,.„, .,u„„rc,l, aro ,,, u» on 
l„v r»ilroa.l, ; a„<l, in point of wo,-k,na.,»l,.l., arc o„«»l to any ma<le 

'"ir^Ml^vas. chosen tl.c flvst Pvc*icnt of ,.,c new Co.npany. 

,,..cca,c. ,l,c crsnnization i. a. '»''»"■»;,''""';. j, .";,,,;",' 
.|A„v,»WiLUAMS. Trca,..ror and Oonoral Manage, . mN..v I. LR* ...„t; «l.c, »i„.,k,, K. C....... a,.a 1.,anc.» L. Bulia. .. 

constitute tho Board of IHrcctors. 



Welch & Griffiths' Saw Manufactory, 

„.ent. in the UuUe.l HtateB. It en ul o t ^^^, ^^^^^_^^^^^^_ 

the first to demonstrate the 1'^" t>ea > Y, n sK ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ 

luring largo Saws in tins connt.y, '^^ "^1 » ^ L^X,,,.oiM second 

iu the work of bniUling up a new countiy, w.tb I 

o„Vy to the ^ZT^'Z' n^mo.i entirely dependent upon foreign 
I'revioua to 1830, wc v,tu imported were so mi- 

„,anufacturers for a supply of saws ^^^^^^^^^^ Jj ^^ .f^n., that 
perfectly adapted for the serv.ce ^^^^'^Zi, unl, on the part 
[ho management of them was an x^ d. , ^_^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^,^ 

of the circular saw, a dangerous "P<^'*^ ^.tories in the United States, ' 
not, probahly. more than three «- ^-^^t cs n t ^^^_ .^ .^ ^^^ 

aud the value of the saws, made ^'^'''''^l^^ mu. Cuaules 

n.ated. five thousand dollars pex' annu- In that >^^^ . > ^^^^^ ^^.^^.^^ 
GuirFiTHS, who had been engaged >" "^ ^^^^^,^,5^,, i,i„,,elf in 
came to the United States, and ^^^"»;";^ 7^^„,,^.^^ circular saws, 
Boston, though the attempt to -f' J .tXep'r dieted. Within 

especially, was pronounced v'^;^;-^^' L en ernrise bv Mr. William ' 
aBhorttimeafterthis,hewasjou.ed mtue^t^^^^^^^^ ^^,^^^^^ ^ 

WELCH, establishing what is now the wtll known 
Griffiths. f guccess were numerous, 

For a long time, the <^^^^^' ^JZ the minds of many against 
as there was a ^'^^^^f^^''^''' ^J,,^^. It required great 

American ^^-^'^^^'^^^JZ^^^lZ^ into the market, and 
perseverance ..o mtroduce these ne v g ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

American .Manufactures. thirty-seven years, this 

Fvom 1830 to the present tm,e, a V^'^^^^ J ,,,,,, operations ; 

fu-m have been steadily progressmg and ..^n^^^^^ 1^^^^^ ^^^^ 


,eeome as familiar as ^^^^^^'^f ^;;';J^;,,ts introduced in the processes 

Among the many -^-^ ^piov^me ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 

of saw manufacturmg, by Mcssis Wee, ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

,,,,. patent --^•"-^^- ^^^ ^^ Jf/L^t^^^^^^^ proprietors. By 
aad the same time, and of which tney 

^KLOH . amrnxas' 8A^v man.faotorv. 


licHO cstablish- 
of liiiving been 
]ri, ol' nuu\»ifac- 
nccra, fiit,'!iged 
pleincut second 

it upon foreign 
ted were ko iui- 
;o perform, that 
and, on tbo part 
time, there were 
United States, * 
xcced, it is csti- 
ir, Mu. CiiAiiLES 
in Great 15ritain, 
iblisli himself in 
•y, circuUir saws, 
n-edicted. Within 
, by Mr. AVilliam 
iirm of Wolcli & 

is were numerous, 
8 of many against 
It rc(iuired great 
, the market, and 
to the wants of tbo 
n both, and proved 
;turing a saw that 
but of overcoming 
)f prejudice against 

ty-scvon years, this 
g their operations ; 
"united States and 
iose reputation has 

iced in the processes 
IS, wc may allude to 
3 of the saw at one 
ole proprietors. 13y 

,0 ,i,„y-four. with the ^^'^!^^Z ,,,, ,Lro will be no varia- 
,,„ i. umde perfectly even .a ^^^^^'^^^^^^^ ,, ^unness, from the 
tion in any part; or can '^^^''^'f^'Z^^^^^^ be desired; and, as 
„„are of the saw to the ^^\'[ ';^2;iZZ, by this procesM^- 
tlu.c are no ^1-^ or th.n sj^t^m ... .- J^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ •„ 

:::;:;; :; t;;;"ii-a ::« power. .. saw smooth, save .m. 

ber, and not be liable to become untrue ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

It is greatly to the c- \;f^,, ''^^; ,,„ ,,em readily to sell an 

ducts fully up to the highest standard. 

Chubbuck & Eons' Machine Works, 

ViuUUOUuik ~< ~- — 

.t Ko.bury, are by no .^«^-:— ^^^r^^ e^-^- 
of the buildings, which consist s>mply of t ^^y ^.^^^^^ ^^^ 

ninety by thirty-five fee with a b^^j'^^ ^| ^^ ^^.^^^ ,,,„ tools and appU- 
fect These are well filled, m fact ^^o uied w ^^^^^.^ ^fty 

lies as are ordinarily fo;md in macduneshc^i.^^^^^^^^^ 
U„„ds; but neither in budduigsn^^;^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^, ^„, i, 
fair representative ot many ^^^^''^ J^J^^^^^^ Chubbucks' Works are 
other portions of the country. ^ ^ f/J^.i^,,,,, ,,oWems to solve 

of national "^^P-^^?;:;*,;^ J^ : of the prophet, the Mecca of 
in mechanics, regard them as mo u 

America. - ., • c^ym. has the reputation of 

The founder and ---,7;;^,;/,,^ tldeh our country, though 
being one of the most skdful n a b,n sts of ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ 

fruitful in men of th,s ^^l^' J^^l '^f ^.ehanie arts, that, it is said, 
an irresistible disposition "^^^^^^^^^ ^7;;fty „Ues to obtain a situa- 
.hen a mere boy he walked a hundred and ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^,^^^,^,, 

tion in a machine shop. Af^r much 11 ^,^^^^^^^_ ^^^^^^^ 

entrance into th6 shop of M. '^; '^ ^^^ ^jf, ,,,ent was so far de- 
though not regularly mstructcl, h,s mec ha ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^.^^^ ^^^ 

veloped that in ^ttle -ore than a y^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^,, ,y 

repairing of the machmery of a cotton 

Mr. Bigelow, of Loom "otonety . ^^jy nineteen years of 

After the accomplishment of that j ok g y ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

n.e, he was made Superintendent of the Maclnn 


1 nftnv «ovpral vears' service there he was for a 

engines on the l.oston and I'-'-f-'a nT s". of bis profession to 
Having now become too ^-^''^'^'''\X^X^\iC vZu opened in 
rennun an employee, he, in company - ^ ^ ;/• ^^ \^^ ' ^^ p,,,, 
I8i'l the first ren-ular Machine Sliop in lloxbuvy. in^^^'- 
Ivl" !»«W Ey M. B. V. Cam„W>. c»,..,.i...i.g the ..... of CUub- 

- •"« •• <""""-^ rr;: ;:°;r.s; ,;...; :n,:.,. l .... 

bcrs are now made evoij ycai oy p^^,, f^,, t,,o ordinary 

originated a new form of Governor, -'>« ' '^ 'f;^^'^;„ L,,r .>f engines 
Ball Governor, which has been ^^^f^^^'^^^,^ ,enuvvkable 
and found to perform the o .ces :^^ J;^;^^"^^^;^^, ,, ,,, ,ons. 
.ificiency. This Governor has --'"'"'l' ^ J.^^;'"^^;,. ,,,,, aissolution 
who in 1859 received a patent for h,s -- «- '^Zw.n.K in 1859. 
.f the «rm ^H. ;;j;el. he^^ c^^ 

erected his present \N oiks, wn tn ry^ ...^re designed 

near Chickering's mammoth Piano '-""-">; ^^ ,^,, ,, ,,iaely 
u,ainly-or the building "^ ^^^^-"f ;:^J ^'u e nie that they are 
has Mr. Chnbbuek'.s fame ^l^-^'^f/'^ ^,'',;;^.i„, y to construct^ 
resorted to by all who have no el - - ;^ ^ ,^^.,^ ,,„.,^ 
and at times are a complete cunosity-shop. Of the L ^^. 

those of the Boston Belting Company ^ / ^ ^' ,^ :t..e.power cu- 
one hundred and twenty - «-; ^ ^ the Inaehinery of both 

pacity, arc among the lai|, , and nu cU , .^^^ j,, 

Ihese -tablishments was designed a. N-- j„,;,, ^,,,„, 

the day when the plain tubular »>- -•' ;; \^;-;; ,.,,, „„, n.ule in 
was not thought likely to come ■-'"^^^ 't p Chubbuck and Camp- 
the vicinity of Boston was b lit .1 the s ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ 

'-'■ '''''^: ;:i tir :!i:^ss r: :t Mr^chubbuck. w^ks. 

the prominent item in tlu, . um ,, . ,^ ,,,. ^g^surod by his aehieve- 
his Usefulness in ^''^ l-*^-""; ^ ^.ad " ' ndseeilaneuus." his 
,,,„t. in this direction. Unde. t»>o - ^ ° ^^^^^ ^ ^_^^_ .^ 

^'--'^^ Vr":-= :;li::;y' 
purposes If an ^ " P "f J ,^,,, ,,,,0 ,, veiled upon as a final 

hvoken down. Mr ^^'^^Jl^,^^,,,,, ,o,,,ivcs a new result in his 
resort to rejuv'.-nate it , 1 a manuu ;,tcd to adapt it, and 

husiness, Mr. Cl.u'.'^u'k -b t .0^"- -^'^ ^ ^ ,,,^ „,,, ,,rge 

i„veut menus and machinery foi ■■ /^ '"^ ^^^.j^.^, ,,,, „ado in the 

■e he was for a 
I running of 

profofision to 
ratt, optMied in 
W:, ^Ir. Pratt 

firm of Chub- 



lus mechanical ^^•^°"f,j\;;'f ',,;,,, ,, ^ wooden roller serves 
very sin.ple and eflect.vo, "' -^' f'^^^' ^ J .pUcated apparatus, 
a purpose hitherto aecomp .shed by ^^""^^ ;,, „,, (i,,,,, ,h„re 

\u- Chubbuek's sons, who are ^^^^^''^f J^^ , ' ,,^ are efficient 
ti,,ir father's fondness for intncaces m much.nt.j, 
coadjutors in the business. 

engine known 
lieh large num- 
crs. He also 
or the ordinary 
i.'.jor of engines 
ith remarkable 
one of his sons, 
• the dissolution 
bbuek, in 1859, 
Boston line and 
Y were designed 
•s, but so widely 
ic, that they are 
ery to construct, 
irines built here, 
ad Company, of 
horse-power cu- 
achinery of ))oth 
;led by him. In 
Ir. James Nason, 
first one made in 
bbuck and Cuinp- 
es may be called 
hubbuck's Works, 
sd by his aehicvo- 
>iscellaneo\is," his 
n of other men's 
■rative, or perhaps 
ied upon ns n final 
a new result in his 
ed to adapt it, and 
t. The first largo 
ever made in the 
[ide and largely de- 

The Adams Sugar Refinery, 

, south Boston, is, with one e^epti^^^^^^ 

States, and in its "in-mtmen .s one ot ^^^^^^^ ^.^^^^^^ 

world. The ground on -l-h t .^^bu.U. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ,„,,,,,,ise of 
thousand square feet, was rescue individual elVort, the;e::2^t;:s:S::d::Llitythose erected by the great 

.nencod ; twelve thousand I'"-, ^^ ^ ^; ; l,,,ited, over which a 
filling of five thousand squares olgtavd.^^^^^ ^l^^ ,,p,rstructure of 

heavy granite ^^'^-^'''''\':XJT'i^-^^ feet in thickness at the b:vs« 
Uriek was erected, the wall, bung t • . ^^ ^^^_^ ^^.^.^^^ 

and ninety feet >>'«''' /^'I'^'^j' ^^ o/ which were used iurty 
live hundred thou.aud bnck-t h a> ^ ^^ ^.^^^^^ ^^^^^^ j.,, 

cargoes of sand, four ^^'-7^;;; ,X building is one nundred and 

teen hundred casks ol ^^^ ^^^^: ::i .,,« «^ries in heigh,. The 

eigtaeeu feet long '^y;'"^*' > '\^ ';, J „, ,,ick, are supported by one 

,l,,,s, which are e.ther ot ""»;; " ' °^,,^ ^, ,,aition to the n.ain 

„„,lr..d and shxtytwo ^^'J/.^ "",,,,, two l.undred feet long 

building, there is a ^'''^ '^ [^ ^ 1 ve'stories high, for Refined 

Uv fif.y feet deep; also a -l^"^* ; thirtv by forty-eight feel, 

sugar; a charcoal ^7-. ^^^ ^ n,;te'high ;'a .letaehed 

with a chimney one ';:-'-^' ;' .^;;'; ,1 , chimney one hundred and 
--tnr::i:h;r^:---:her buildings of various ..s.r 

partments. the first '^^^^'^' ^t'ZJL r'- The Uaw 



.vbere it is boiled to a certain degree, then passed through the various 
f 1 . rs and fiually received the largo vacuum pans. >vh e Ihe 

in dian.eter, and each ^^^V^l^^ the Sugar under- 
m the upper story a.. ^^^^J^'^^^J^ ,,„,„ is iu the rear of 
„r.„u tin. i^rnppss of caniication. lut ciiivii.u«' 

goes tht process 01 nrovided with every uouveuieDce 

the floor containing the filters, and .s prov uta j 

Setii ADAMS, the projector o th.s ^-^^^'J' ^ ^^.,,^3^ 

"" '-'"I't I,: r ::^^ v„rK or Lro U,.,. » y.»r „» „..u.n,.,„.Ucr 

rc.,ov=,l to n'^'""' »™ ; „„ „l«rv„tiun, l,c «..,ulrc.l ..ini.ic.l 

"°T; 'fit ,, cWcf^^^ , ,,,r,.-,,i,„ i„ i„v...ti„g 

kuowlclBc of '^« ^ 3; ,,„,|„,^i„ „,„ machinery l,u»in..s. ; «„d 

i„ 1831 ho «°"''"'"'f/",^™;„ '",„,,„ |,„,| i„v„nt>Hl, ».„! which 
the l.rin.i..B l.r..s. which ''','''°''^'';",j,,,,,„,,,,, „,,„.„ l„,„r,»U 

ho ,ul»»iucutly purchased. In ^f ■ "'" , ,,,„ ,,, , „„,, cmbarlicd 
hi. famous», ho croctol » "«"'""''"' ;„"'^„„„„, . ,„,.a„jr 

profilaWo copartnership. 



he various 
where Ihe 
aouldrt and 
n, 'iiiide in 
o drij), the 
iinks in the 
s Kflinery, 
hieing pots 

hy twonty- 
ling and til- 
md ibnr feet 
;oal tu iill it. 
ugar under- 
the rear of 

gar per day, 


> renmrlvably 

;hind, wliose 


•ress, one of 

the progress 

has received 
) Windhisses, 

in IHltT, and 
tieed to learn 

nnijority he 


ired s^nllicicnt 

in investing? 

)UsinesH ; and 

interested in 
ed, and which 
/hose interests 

had invented 
and embarked 
jntor a royalty 
Is of the two 

Adams, which 
xnd pecuniarily 

.„o »... .,u.c.,.ca to U .,. -»:*■>,::;-; ,„ „,„„ . .ere 

U,„ ,,ow,,oi„ Oollosc ™ M--;»'f ;; :^ :;,''' :";o„,l..csnu, to 
„r .««tc.,. of Art. and ^ "'^,^^,„'f X, ^i. »™irtca lor to.ny J«« 

fortune of more than a million of dollars. 

J R Bigelow's Paper Hanging's Manufactory, 


„r v„io„. »,a,u '™™ ^;v •;«; y „„;i" „„„ nr,- ...V «.,- 

'^T;'t,°:.'Iu,.. a^ 1°„,,»°vo r™n,c t«,„,lin«., I a .,„„o 

"'" , : fiv V tlirly.livo fccu TI.0 entin- o,tal,li»l.n,n,t 1,.h u„ 

'"■;r»!l-v':' ™rccUo„ with .1,0 Wall !■«,»- ma„„r„,„ro anto- 

..oiety of the cost. a. n .oh. ^VT,; o hu .- i 1H41, all the 
ago. When Mr. «igelow ^-^^^J^^ '; , 7,, „„„, ,,,eeHS, 

machines for printing two colors, and, in 18o. , goi up 
matnuKs ' *^ „ g„j...ossrul mndiine m tins cmnliv lor 

, to have been- he « «^ J ;^ ; ,,^ ^,,^,,. ^,,, li.ue nu.chinu* 
printing si.\ or more eohns at ont op uvu 



,,avo boon i„tnK]uccd_-on the same principle-to print twenty colors^ 
W th ,e introduction^of n.a.hines for printing came the neces.ty o a 
pr for continuous hanging up of the paper and rap.dly dry .g the 

clrs The ciuick working of the printing machu^e o«t.t. pp 
h more priLitive method of- hanging up the paper by ban I and 
drying it simply by the atmosphere, it became necessary to u. duce 
a ue expeditious means of drying that should compe e w.t tl.^ 
pr tin. machines, and thus keep them in constant operat.on 
h.._to any great extent-the territory of the factory, and tn.s 
M. l.g.^ow accomplished by introducing a series of - c - -- 
heated by steam pipes-for the paper to pass through. Ih.s an n„c 
' .' t_Jilh the nvention of machinery for taking the paper fron. tl e 
u hin r hrough these hot air chambers as fast as it cou d be pru.tcH^^ 
:';:iated J-new era in the manuf.ctu.e of i;;P- ^^^^ ^ 
has been tlie direct means of reducing the prices to the pustnt low 
Ja" . w i are within the means of all classes, and, at the same t>m 
m kinlthis one of the staple products of the country. P""tn,g paper 
r the hand process-as it was done twenty-six years ago-was along 
sL -u 1 c.xK.nsi^o method; for, in the same spa :e of tune, and wh 
he .'a ne .uu of operatives that could pri.t one thousand rol . 
tn thousand rolls can now be produced by the new mechanv^a^ 
metl d •UHl in stvle, finis.,, and color, the goods now made are yeiy 
; ;. O IV a }.. years prior, the paper was made i-^-ts^ 
IV inclu.slong, and pasted together before printmg. but for the las 
i y s it h ; been made in bundles containing from one thousand 
to to thousand vards. Twenty-five years ago it was cju.te a matter 
C i cture wlK-ther this branch of manufacture could be made a 
Ba> land self-sustaining one in this country, our markets_up o 
a 10 that been supplied almost entirely by nnportat.on 
o Fe and English Paper Hangings. The manufactories m tins 
m. te hin in their 'inHincy, with small resources and with so 
X .ouragement that, out of about twenty pei^ns and rms w^o 
vcre tlu.a engaged in this business in the New England States, M 
r^igelow IS the only representative n.u.mfacturer iu those States at 

'"MrBigelow is also connected with the firm of J. K. Bigelow 
n.!yden & Co., Boston, and all the goods made at his factory are sold 
at their warerooms. 




cnty colors. 
!cessity of a 
r drying the 

f hand, and 
to introduce 
3te with the 
tion without 
ory, and this 

chandjcr.s — ■ 
'his arrange- 
per from the 
d be printed, 
[angiiigs, and 
3 present low 
10 same time, 
'rinting paper 
i — was along, 
ime, and with 
lousand rolls, 
w mechanical 
made are very 
[1 sheets, about 
ut for the last 

one thousand 
quite a matter 
lid bo made a 
larkets — up to 
)y importations 
actories in this 
es and with so 

and firms who 
ivnd States, Mr. 
hose States at 

J. K. Bigelow, 
factory are sold 

„ p s Converse, Treasurer, 
The Boston Rubber Shoe Company-E. S. Conve 

-.Of eight incor.ratedeo.^->^^^ 

engaged in the -^^^^^^^•f'ZlX'^^^^^^ ^^^ ^"^""^ ^'^*'' ""nr^ 
The manufacture of AVatei F«J^' ^^^^.„.i,d ,vith n.any d.ffi- 

t,e beginning, like mos f;"^^^ ll^outchouc, was used by the 
culties. It is true that India llubber o .^^ ^^^^._^,.^,^,^ 

lives of the tropics, for a vanety o ^ e . ^^^.^. ^^^^_^^^^^^ 
,vere known to Europeans It waB-o ^^_^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^,^, 

rough and ""eouth mdc. , m app - ^- ^^. ^ ^ ^.,,^^^ „^^^,,,, 
clay model often adhermg to he ^^^ ^^^^^^._^,^ ^^^^^ , 

smeared with the ^'"-' ^'^"^^^ "^J rblcd the natives to thread the 
,vas shaped -to fla-bcaux, w uch o^^^^^^ ...t up .heir rustic 

narrow foot-paths of their ^^^^^Z fm iv prey. «ut the projectors 
villages,andto vevealto he fi^-- nhi ^^M^^^^^ ^.^^^^^^ 

or pioneers in the munui^ictur "he ,„„anageable atVairs. 

something very aiffo...^^ -- ^- ^^ j,^ . ^ ,„..„,, .ul, whenever 

in.ported from '--/" ;;^';;\„ Uie winter, required a F"'-.- 
brought from the closet foi u.e in ,,,,^^.^. ,,„,,,a 

process of warming, to overcome then on i . J ^^^^ ^^^^_^,^^^ ^^,^^^ 
riu article which should — »^^'il^',,,« , .hich should be 
noueof theol^ectionab^ .-U^^ ^;^,^^ ^,^, ,,,,„,, , Jinisli ; 

not only -^^'f:f'y?i^Z^, the late improvement winch corn- 
though they probably did not ^^^^^ ^,,^; ,,,,,,„.. 
bines with these the qua m of ^.1 ^^^^^. ^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ . ,„, 

With every step of \-^^;^^l^^^^,, of accomplishing the same 
every difiiculty o-''-'"';' "J ,"; dollars were e.xpciidea in -peri- 
vesult were discovered. ^ '^°"^' ";;^^^^,^.^, , ,,,,it which could have been 
„,enting with costly c'Iumoic . o p .U c ^j^^^„^„ ,^,, 

attained with cheaper mateiials an d y ^,„.,.,,.Vnig ii.venUons 

invented devices and "'^^^^ .^^^ ; , ..structed. to accomplish a 

rendered useless. Costly -f ';;:.;; ',,,,nUy : of this nature was 
aeanite inni-- or overe n c a pcc.a ^^^ ^^^^.^ ^, „^,^.^^.,,,, 

tUe "Friction Machine,' ^*'.^V we may remark, which has never 
and John C. IMckford ; -^ "^ ^^ ^^ .,j,„iy. that uses coaled cloth, 
been superseded, and wh c ^ay t ^ V ^^^^^.^^ ^^^^^^,^ ,,, the 
ands indispensable ; the ^^^ J, , .^essure of many tons ; 
.nauufncture of solid he s, - "^ ^^ ^.,^^ ,^,, ,,,,,,ve upper portion of 
the -Burring Machine," ^^'^'^^'^^^^^^^^^ 

,be heel, so that the --'^^^^Ve ,' I uventionof Christopher Meyer, 


Esq of New llrunswiek, N. J., which diamond, the bottoms of the 
solos' nnd stamps them in relief with the device of the ,Banufactu:cr 

From obstacles incidental to the starting of any branch of manu- 
facturing by processes not well «n.-erstood, the organisation which wa8 
^;^e IdVv the Boston Rubber Shoe, Company, failed to be remunera- 
tive to the Stockholders. A few of them, however, having faith m 
her r."al success, purchased the stock from those holders wo were 
wi ling to part with it, procured an increase of capital by Act of he 
L .ishUurJ of Massachusetts, reorganised, and determined to conduct 
the^jusiness of the Corporation by more direct and responsible agents 
A a means to that end, they induced Mr. E. S. Converse to relim.uish 
his other business, and devote his entire attention to the management 
of the affairs of the Company, as Buying and Selling Agent and as 
Tr uvor Such confidence was placed in his ability that a inost 
I in i ed power was given him. and the result vindicated the wisdom 
and opri ty of their course. The " Boston" goods began to have a 
To d Son in the market, and to compete successfully with those 
longer-established factories. The dark days of 1857, -^^^ ^^ 
so many business firms of repute in insolvency, obscured for a time 
he risi g Companv ; and. to add to their embarrassment, the price of 
aw mat rial advanced enormously; but the temptation o -de ove^ 
U the use of inferior rubber, was withstood ; the financial ability am 
vesources of their Treasurer carried the Corporation safely through ho 
!i ind it came out of the trial with an established credit, and a 
manu'fa.turing reputation second to none. For the first time in Us 
historv, dividends were paid to Stockholder.s. 

Dui-i g the war, the .lemand thereby oeeasioned for blankets ponchos, 
rubber overcoats, haversacks, tents, etc.. was so great, t a the indue 
ent to Companies, which were already in possession ot the re,,.i.t 
,>„chinerv, to mamifacturo such articles, was strong. Moreo e , the 
: u n ; with that expended in producing boots and shoe . 
was 1 ght. and the profits large ; while the trade in shoes was much n- 
.iK.d,^.nd the business greatly unsettled by the 7^f-•" ^^^^^^ 
changes in houses in the West and elsewhere. The Union llubb . Co 
o New York, however, had obtained from Mr. doodyear the exclusive 
Ih ", use his process in the manufacture of Clothing. Some manu. 
; 1 M.S attempted to ignore this fact, and proceeded to eontrae with 
be Government to furnish supplies of the articles named^ App« y 
successful in evading the many legal decisions which had - ' '''-''-l 
the vali.lity of the " Goo.lyear Patent," and the conse.iuent right of M • 
..year to dispose of it as seemed most proper, it was no i.nti 
p yment was ex ected on aeeount of the contracts that the nUnugmg 



:oms of the 
;h of nianii- 
1 which wa8 
le reiiuinora- 
ing faith in 
rs who were 
y Act of the 
1 to conduct 
isihlc nRoiits. 
to roliiKiuish 
,gcnt, ami as 

that ahnost 
I the wisdom 
in to liavc a 
ly with those 
hich involved 
d, for a time, 
, tlio price of 
1 to tide over, 
al ability and 
y through the 

credit, and a 
st time in its 

ikets, ponchos, 
lat the induco- 
■ the reiiuisitc 

Moreover, the 
3ots and slioes, 
was much cur- 

from constant 
ion llul)her Co. 
,r the exclusive 
Some manu- 
o contract with 
d. Api>arent'y 
liad cstablislicd 
cnt right of Mr. 
t was not until 
t the inlViuging 

• r 1 il...f there was a serious obstacle in their path. The 

c»„.,«l., u„lc». .1.0 ,..ruc, '"»-;'«,;j ',':;:„ J „e.l 

writteu l.cnuit or order tron, them. '^ "" ^„^„ ,.,,,„ |,..i 

been iuviiJod, wUiel. could usually oo '„,,,, „f the Doslon 

Ohio, in view ot the c,reu,„»tauec. 1^» J' =' ,,„„, „ 

dilVerciit st.ndlioiut, l,iej .>t o""- i» j , ,, 

,e,„, ri,ht «f t'"x:x,,'r,';x,: hoi::;:^:,, ,„ ea. ...t 

maiiuLclures, Vut aigiiilied tlitii ut™i- , shou,.. reciuire 

(,„,„„.„y should oh.»iu cou.ruc.. f ■ " "^ ;™ ; .^'rhM, '..or- 
larger »u,ndio», i" a give,, tuue, hau '''"J ••» '' ™^ t,,„ Union 

^;;;ri";- ::fc*:;':r: r" :;:,doh i.i,ed .» i.. .ho r,,d in..eeao„ 

or the Un,ted Stales olteuJs ^_^^.^,,^^ „, „,„ 


period, had a reputatu.n e.iual to the bes^ m t he . .^ ,^,.^ 

Consumer fron, „e,„g =har„od au CKorhdau ,»»; '^^ .'; 

urge „rol,.s in .,„s "">t"'''7 , '" Id . " [st n hr.u.l, ,s, ,.. 
|,„«ed ,.y. and the niouoi.o,y lh»t w said to iM»l 

elVeel, only nouilua,. 



The Downer Kerosene Oil Company-Sam'iel Downer, President, 

Ts notable for the extent of its Works in South Boston, and at Corry, 
Pennsylvania; and especially for the fact, that its products were the 
first that became extensively known to the public, and performed an 
important part in popularizing Coal Oil as an illuminator. A brief 
history of the introduction of this remarkable material may not be in- 
appropriate in this connection. 

As early as 1850, a Mr. Luther Atwood, a natural chemist, and sclt- 
educatcd, and then in the employ of the late Dr. Samuel R., 
discovered a lubricating principle in the coal tars of the gas-houses, 
for whicb he obtained a patent, under the name of Coup Oil. Like 
many other new discoveries, although possessing merit as a lubri- 
cator it was onlv partially successful, and large sums of money were 
lost in the costly efforts made to bring it to perfection. After the 
failure of these efforts, the parties in interest ne.xt proceeded to the 
manufacture of the asphaltum of the celebrated Pitch Lake, in the 
Island of Trinidad ; and although that article had very deeded merit, 
still from the unhealthiness of the climate, and other dilliculties, tlie 
project was abandoned, and with great pecuniary loss. It was at this 
time 1857 that Messrs. Luther Atwood and Joshua Merrill, who were 
at th'at time engaged in the erection of a Coal Oil Factory at Glasgow, 
in Scotland, had their attention turned to the light oils of coal as an 
illuminator. Mr. James Young, of Bathgate, Scotland, had in 1850 
obtained a patent for their manufacture from coal, but his attention had 
been principally directed to their heavy ends as a lubricator, and tor 
its p'lr-ithne The light ends as an illuminator had beea offered for 
sale both in Europe and America, but they v.cre of such an ordinary 
appearance, and had such an intolerable odor, as to prevent their use 
iu families. It was at that time, and in Scotland, that Mr. Atwood 
purified those oils light and sweet, and they were the first ever so 
purified that were offered to the public. Their success was humed.ate, 
•md their extension all over the world very rapid. These experiments 
on the hvdro carbons of the coal series had now licen continued for 
over five Vears; their manufacture then was intricate and dangerous, 
and accompanied with severe destruction of machinery, and loss by 
fre(.uent conilagrations ; and with the exception of the Boston Works 
of Mr Downer, all had been abandoned from these causes. Illuniination 
had booame the principal idea, and lubrication and parafftne secondary ; 
but as the whole manufacture was entirely new, with no help from 
books or experience, the task of creating works to meet the now 




and at Corry, 
ucts were the 
pei'fornied an 
tor. A brief 
iiay not be in- 

niist, and solf- 

R. Philbrick, 
ic gas-houses, 
up Oil. Lil<e 
it as a lubri- 
)f money were 
n. After the 
jceeded to the 

Lake, in the 
decided merit, 
diHicuUies, the 

It was at tliis 
irrill, who were 
ry at Glasgow, 
( of coal as an 
1, had in 1850 
IS i-ttention had 
ricator, and for 
i)eea offered for 
ch an ordinary 
rvent their use 
at Mr. Atwood 
\Q first ever so 
was immediate, 
;se experiments 
n continued for 

and dangerous, 
ry, and loss by 
! Boston Works 
19. Illumination 
ffine secondary ; 
li no help from 

meet the now 

o,.n«c all the mental and pliysical f^y "' . .,( „,'^„,„,,1 f,.r 

the Brackenridge eannel of ^^^"'^J7';' . -^^^^^r, f,on, Scotland, Mr. 

lmu>ediately after the return of ^'^^ ^^^J^^^*^;^^,,^ ^^,,5,,, were put 

Powner commenced his P-^^^V'lMorrlTTe process of retin^ 

under the superintendence of ^^ f^^^^^'^'^Zos.n. Oil Co., 
i„g. then a secret, was also^oU.N.^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ 

of New York, for a royalty, and ^ ' ; '^ ^ j ^^.,.,,,„, oil Works Works. I- ^^ ^f^^^ j;Z^;l^^a Mr. William At- 
wcre built, under the d,reet>on ot ^ ; ^ '^^^"^ ^^^^ returned from 

wood (-'-;'^\-^,:-;: ;3:tsett t^ries, after expend- 
,beir -^l-^;- , / "^^'^on their works, supplied the commun,ty 
ing nearly a """^' '^J/'^^,^,,^ ^f Illuminating Oil during the second 
;:ri-:S::::!^;i- being able to supply the demand 01 

^nrltl. the discovery of the --ng v^-^ -^ -c.^^:^; 
vania, was made. The first «- -^ ^^^^ ; ,,etion was eight 
that year ; and wlth>n four ^^^^^^ J, ,,,, ,„„Vred to fiow 

thousand •»-•«^P;^•;^:f •;;':,';, Bave\t, as there was then no 
into the creek. w^j;>u ^ "^/^^^ ^^^^ „„„„„, ,„e of twenty to forty 
market for it. Ihe price „^,.i,„u.d and but little visited— 

cents per barrel. The -g-a was then seml^d^am^ ^^.^^ ^ 

with poor, and much of the time ""Jf ;^'^;j X,;,i,,ted farms. Tt 
dense forest, interspersed with -^y^^/ ^^^j'.lt the necessity 
was under these circumstances t ha M • I own^^^ _^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ 
of again attempting another entu p. c^ the first and 

,.dy to work the middle portions «J J^^ . l'^^^;^' ,,,, ^,,, u.e wells 
hist ends for fuel, or flinging them away ^J^J^' j^^ „.,,,,,,a 
,vere deemed essential, or ^-^<^f ;tt:^^Z^ Weslern Hail- 
a farm at the then terminus of ^^^,^^"^^,;,te primeval forest had 
road, and on wbicli a.d t^ s^r^um. ^ ^^^^^^^^,^^^, ,, ,,-. 
barely been disturbed -and h tc u _ ^^^. ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^.^^, 

William II. L. Smith, ^;;;^ ^^^^^^l^^, of 'iHOl. their present 
,f Corry, was common ce^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^..^^^, ,.^„^^ , 

extensive \N orks. I Ho nietimn „,i pi,..,rinir the forest, erecting 


was acfouM)hshea only at lue expe. ^ 

t,.„,„ 0,e -'S ''>°;;;« '' ,;„,'^" ,: '^^.r .,„1 bn>cU,s, and i.,-ov,.a v.ry 

,„,„„ ,., .„„„ -r:;r .;rr eiit :::/. ■«-'.>. 

Bcvon thousand .ul.« «Uu s, . na „iho«ds_ 

e,taMisbmeM»or^nou»U,n . -1^^^^_^^^^^ and EHc, UuWo 

1': on c.^rds':'::: ":>;.»>; •. .nd . . t.e ..a. „„r..,c,. «*. 

or tho Oil Ucpi»» of W"""™ '■""'""■.'""'"■one or tl.o «mr,ds of tho 
,,rosi.nt coulu.y. I out > , ,i4„j ,„ „„„„al pvoduclion is now 

r°';'""'";:™r c, s : twwio ,.„cryw„c„,n 1..™;.. ij 

ten times larger tiiau ui^ .,, i „„,i,-o,1 vessels It is a prominent 

,„,.,, ,„ U,e u,ost -';^;-» ::;-""■;,, : n..,,. four ™lmo„, 

cover about seven acres ot gioima. i " y ^ ,„„g j^^ jn-ticle that 

., .aliens o^.enule Petr^enm -^ „„, ,^, 

bas no superior for Its cnte sataj ^^^^^^^ ^._^^ ^^ ^^^. 

perfeetiou of its punhca .on I ^^lX\^m.i<^^n the excell-nce of 
bowner, and those --^^^^^lo h r;pon ec "sarv to accomplish 
tuen- products, without -^-^;;; , f j; , I" ., .-.ieh their brand 
it- and thoy have been ^T^'^^^;^^,, i,,,,„ ,ave been con- 
has obtained u. all --•^^'';\ ".^^ "^,;;,, vicissitudes, and rapid, and 

consumers with an illuminator safe, cheap, and bnllunt. 

^. fi-m i n ^ 

Work> (wliich 
I maiiuria'Uiri) 
en, wliij, will' 
people. Tbia 
)!• and discoiu- 
1 of the soil a 
juild tlio roads 
ueroii- rivulets 
Ml luiiuired feet 
id proved very 
irease of popu- 
contains about 

four railroads — 
d Erie, Buffalo 

northern outlet 

. ■ "*-p 

marvels of tho 
since its success 
oduetion is now 
1 in its zenith it 
It is a prominent 

continent; from 
some of them of 

puritication, and 


are all built of 
md in both places 
!arly four millions 
c an article that 
its light, and the 
stant aim of Mr. 
the exccll''!!co of 
ary to accomplish 
which their brand 
on have been con- 
es, and rapid, and 
' business, and with 
a place of deposit, 
Gction in supplying 






B -fj "•'■ '"■\' ■'> >: 





Lowell, twonty-six nulcs northwest of Boston, has been called not 
in™.riatelv the "Manchester of America." The lustory ot the 
: s nule here in 18.1, with a view to the ..tahlishu.nt ol 

a ul^ctories, ha. already been alluded to in tins wo.L n ^.^^ 
18(;(; the city contahu-d a population of 3G.876 persons, 22 s 
school-houses, ..>24 dwellings, 1 Banks, with an aggrega e .,u a^ 
of S-> :!oO 000, besides 4 .Savings IJanks having au aggregate deposit ot 
t 000 000. The distinguishing characteristic of the city, however, ,s 
ftt inunense Cotton and Woolen Mills, which consume, wee ly, ove. 
800,000 pounds of Cotton, and neady 100,000 pomu . oi W o. 

The MKanrMACK Man.factcrinu Company, wlueh eonuuenced o,^- 
rations in 1828, has six Mills and a Print works, a ^>^^^^;;\^^^^^ 
$2,000,000. runs-8S,000 spindles. 2,31. loon.s, en.p oys l^'^V'""- 
u .1 (;->0 males and produces 450,0li0 yards ot Prints per ^^vvl. Ih.s 
X ;;:' b^on eiedaUy succoss.U in the -i^->-> f .;;-;---: 
whi h are distinguished for neatness, con,parn>g, ... all espec.s favo 
Tb V with the best made in England. John C. Pall.'ey ,s Age-.t^oi the 
Smpanv. and IIen.w Burrows is Superintendent of ^'- P.-M.rU.>,^ 
The Hamilton MAN.PAcrmi.NU Company. e......nenccd .. 1S25. has 

5 Mi is a,.d a Print Works, a capital of ^1,200,000, rn,.s 51.2.8 sp.n- 
dles 1 348 looms, a..d, in 18.;7. en.ployed 850 fanaies, 42. n.ales and 
p duces weekly 235,000 yards of Prints. Fla.nels, T.cks. Sheet.ngs 
and Shirtings. The Prints are all madde,-s, i., from one to s.x colors, 
vn tl w 'ekly produce is about 120,000 ya.-ds. O I. Moulton -s 
Agent of the Co.npany. and Willia.n llarley Supermtendent ol the 

''i;;o'Ir^ELL MAN.rAOT,.u,NU CoMV.VNV has a capital of $2,0,.0,000^ 
,„„, ,0 500 Worsted and Wool spindles, 2.S16 Cotton sp.ndks 258 
ver Carpet loo.ns, 174 other loo...s, employs 1,000 females a,. 4:, 
!■< a..d produces weekly 35,000 yards Carpets. 13.000 van Is hheet- 
t a.,d 4 500 vards Stuff goods. The Carpets co..s,s,ol two and 
Iplv ingr.un, and a.v excellct fabrics of their class, bo, h as respec s 
Ke and ptrnu.nenee of -lye. Sanu.el F.vy i« Agent o th.s ( ompany . 
' T ,:M.l,n..K,SKK COMVANV has 4 Mills and 3 Dye uuses, e.nploys 
n e,.pital of *-50,OoO. ru.,s l.;.4.)0 spindles, 250 Pwoadcloh looms, and 
u row employs 320 females, 452 males, and produces weekly 

5 rsl'K'besides Broadcloth. Doeskins, Cassin.ercs. etc. 'I h.s 
Conlany uses annually 1.000.000 teasels, 1,300.000 pounds of fine 



„„„,, »„„ U,m<, poumU of PU.C. Oliver 11. Porry is Ag™t of the 

Clotl.s, SheotingH an-l Sl.irtingB, and b.OOO dozen llobic . 
F Salmon is Agont of tlic Company. 

The other Cotton Mills a^ - ^l^;--" ^,oO,000 ; spiudloB, 

oo,r,08-, looms, -n; f--'-/-l^^°^7',,^^^^^^^^ 20 

product 130,000 yards Shcotings and Shntmgs >o^^ 4 

looms. 830; ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^'.^^^jto^^ ,oo^^^ Chirles P. 
125,000 yards Cotton, ■■ aI 8,000 jauts vvooiit j. 

Battles, Agent. r, Miila ■ canitid, $1,200,000 ; spindles, 

The CooTT Cr.TTON :,lu,hS-5 ^^f ' ;7 .\ .^1^. 2i)0; weekly 

,1,324; looms, 1,87S; IVmales -l^^"^^ ;^^.^^;. ^^^^^ ^ .,,, and 

product, 3r>0,000 yards Drillmgs, >o. 4, bhcetu..s, 

Pnn. Cloths. William A- IJ^^^ce^ Agen^^ eapitaUl, 800,000 ; 

Th«^ MA..-.ACUUSETT8 Ci^'ON MlM.b-0 A .. . 1 

r.;™,y: No"';;:, it' ;,:'° ;.•...-..«» ^» -™ -^^ ^^«^-" -' "■« 

(•„,,,,,»»; -";;«'»;;<•: |,„, „ , ,,,,1 or tm.m, cmi.i.>- •«) 

,,,:,';;;; K.;:;«w 1,1 ...«.■» >'„o»o.«o. ,.^1. «;■> .io„*„, 

ThoLuwKixMAiUiNKMiopi ^ . ,,.^ p r Machim'ry, 

£,:^:n,:;;ii^t:trM^w™.-A„aLM .u.. 

'^'i:3;::r;:::Kr^--»" -> « 



Agent of the 

s, a cnpHal of 
1,300 females, 
lings, Priiiting; 


,000; spimllos, 
,, 120; weekly 
)f!. 14 anil 20. 


ipital, $(100,000; 
ales, 215 ; week- 
Icn gooils. John 

ipimllcs, 25,960 ; 
weekly product, 
xls. Charles P. 

[)0,000; spindles, 
les, 290 ; weekly 
s. Shirtings, and 

pital, $1,800,000; 
,1500 ; males, 400 ; 
g.^, Shirtin.u'ri and 
1 the Agent of the 

1,000, empl >ys 40 

irds, and bleaehes 

y and funntlry, era- 
Paper Maehinery, 

Vudrew Moody hoH 

, i- i„. ;„ fi„.'ale about 2,500 hands. Pro- 

Athcrton, 1?. I", ^t'vt ^ mi Mae'.Mie^; the Foundry of 

Colo .(; N amh , "n . f.,,,.-,,,,,,. Mannfartory of Sniimi'l 

Wa.»„.uu. '•"''?'■";« ^;„,„'';„r,c,,,rinB Ccup.ny ; the 

?::„,'.rnowI, & <^<...^^^^■, ana, .»»., tl,o ..vat Laboratory of ,,. 

" nV'lvtrtmcdidnal preparations aro, r»rl,ap,, more wMoly a,ul 
J;,iart;;U:;:t .,. aV;roroi.„ eooaUU. tl,a„ U.„ pro.n^^^ 

other manufarturing ».al,li»l,n,cut nr I.owoll. 1 1™ «™ " 

„„aUy, a.o,.t *«0,«0« i„ in nc.v,,.^^^^^^^^ '::^: :t^.. 

,■„„ ,ra.„i.o„.y I;;-';,;;; '::;;:;:;, 1 ,;:';;:';;• Engii... Frcnc, 

l,y sloam power, ,n tiu . '™" ',',,, ^, „,,uonce of li* 
este„de.l publicity, lluT, »'""• ' ! ■ " . ., „„„ „a,l„,„ of pure 

p„„„a, of ,.r.,g. of ;.';;*;°'„ ',";;„„'■ ;r„l°»ug.r, co'tine 

T; ::;;-:*:" an ;,ai:xpt,„;i. : ^.r ,in.c .,„.ee ii^s 

about bt>0,l»*^i—"i'i'*-'"h ' Av.-1-X'Co use annually, 

alone, of »«41,1»0. lie.i.los these, ^""-..^.f,^ ■,"„,, 3„„,„,-,„ 


;r:«';:;:rlar::;n:r;..;.':..,iyoxcee,,i,.. th,. or a„y o,hcr nrn, 
in Massachusetts. 

he mills at Lowell, 

of the males, |1.20 

rodueo of a loom of 

am, 83 yards ; and 

other manufacturing 


c ' a-M JUA-g ! am t.t* M ■ 




1,> 1844 sevoral ••ai-itulists of lioslou (IlIiuu nui i ) 

,,,i.U was "--'^"'"^r ,; r/v nt.Hou. Abbott Lawrence, President; 
,,nowi«g Olivers as .is i,wt b. Ho ^^^^^^^ ^ 

U-well. ana Ig-Uus ^--^ ' f ^^,^^; '^^Ldod to erect a Da,n at 
,..r and Chief Eng.ucor. '^^^^ ^,^, , i,,, „>a fall for the 
a cost of §250,000 across the Meinma*., b'^" n 

feet. ;.• ing that space for ^^f^:^ ^j,,, ,, ,,y a cum- 

Tl. :a-st Mills erected we.. ''^^^^ ^ ^.^,„,,, ,f ^l.HOO.OOO. 
pnny incrporated m Febrnai), 184«,, ^J ' • ^,^^,.^ ^^uU six 

V Jprine pal bnilding is 5^0 ^;^1;>^^ ^ ^^ ^,: \,,,„ ,.ve 
,„Hes high with tw.. w.ngs - -^ ^^^ .^ ..diuary seasons oou- 
45,000 spindles, employ 1200 optiauxL , 

.„;„ Sr.OOO bales of cotton ,„^^ ^.a, with a capital of 

I,. 1853 the Pac.hc ^^' ^^^^^ "''Von. pany were at the time 
,:2.500,OOO. Tl e factory ot ^» ';'^'"" ' ^ ,,^. ^^j ,,,i,ding is 
„,,. ,cre erect.1 .he hu-ges, .n the -" '^ ; J ^^ ^^^ ,>,, ,iver 
so.; feet long, six stories high u. f-'^-'^-^' f/ f , '^^ 'ct three stories 
,,„ildi,.g is 1000 feet long, with w.ngs ^K f->t - -- -t .^ 

„igh. This company has 110,000 ^l!'-^'^';- '*' * ~ g„,as to the 

. 1 , <j iw\n ai>i>rn.lVOS, anil pioum-'^^ ft"' 

full operation empl'J.V« •^-*'<"' opuau%. , i 

,,,,,/of .nearly f.nuM.ullions .,f dollars aun,,ally^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

Th. ..Washhu;ton Mills," "-^-ra d " __1 ;^«. - J ^,,5,, 
*1, 5.10,000. and occupy tl'o of the Ua ^l ^ 

Lied in i.5t T..e .nills t.rm M>-;;^^"S rl ^1 :'. it is sSd. 
,,, ,00 feer in Ireadt'. b.>twecn the «*" ^ '' '^ ^y^oluu 

tiV. largest in the v .rid devoted to the manufacture of 1 aaey 
Goods. They employ 2,a00 operat . 



the last of 
,u the banks 
viis iucorpo- 

at this place 
f $1,500,000, 
r, having the 
3, President ; 
ton, John A. 
•row, Treasu- 
;ct a I>iim at 
d fall for the 
ml to that at 
acturin^' pur- 
iiile in length, 
4 feet deep in 
stance of 400 

lis," by a coiu- 
)f $1,800,000. 
cntro Mill six 
Nimpany have 
y seasons oou- 

ft capital of 
re at the time 
ipal building is 
Bar. The river 
>cl, three stories 
IS, and when in 
a goods to the 

vo a capital of 
Le Mills," which 
\) feet in length 
ul are, it is said, 
f i''aucy Woolon 

Jr,.J,l :: .„« T,.»;c„eo .M.e,.i,,e SUo„, :*^'ly-,;'« f ""^ "»■' 
A,,,,,,,.. Ihc no. cnlCTiirises .if L«wrc..ce wc m»J mention tU 1 m ' 

;:;r:;f iLr::rwV:r:? »;;-«>;; ,.„; .„,.. »,.. «„„.... . 

^"t*, t,..o co,„,»nic,, L»-rc,„.c „» ''- ■•'■•l!VT.";„'':ln:'. 
William R«»cll ,t Son, S. S. f>»*«';»''\''l''"';,'^?'w ' 4 

Maehin.. Shops, those of Albert Blood, J. C. Hoadly .1, Co., Wcbstu 
DusUn & Co.! and Ueury Arnold. Pntent Fliers for cotton maclune,, 

,, pn,..iU,. is a now .U.e ^.r .extUo ...Hce to .. .c^ --^^l^- ::;,::;:" ll^' 
wo„1 una .u.eertiMe .fbeinK .„nn or woven on ; '^ J ^^ .^ ' ^ ,J,,,, „, 
,,nn/,p». riant for Hl,« .s l•'''^^ -\ '': ' '^[;;J:fi,,g^,^. n.Uori.i 

avnilablc a. a .ub.tUu.., for l,o o, . ."--^ " ' ^^' „,^. ' ,,,, .,„e e.tnbli.lio.l 

i,.tS51.but,hofir.tAnUprov.aeawH. - .^ ,^^^_ ,,, ,,^,, 

by him in with (.oor^rc W. 1 own "" "^ „ ,„;„ „t Watcr.own. 

.Lnwich, l.,o„o Islnn.. In .he ---'>-;;^;'; J^^^; Hrni.ri.i.c. .,r u.e a. a 
Ma«s„chu.ett.s «l.ero it was fully ,l,Mi>n„s rate 1 "' * "^ ^ „i^t„,„ „f Ualf 

«„l,s,itu.c for cotton m the n^anufacturo o. CaUooo. ' " ^^ ' -^; J,_, . , ,„.^ ,.,„,,i„,,, 
,.,t,on ana Imlf flax. Since then Rreat -Vroven.c > ^ V, n ^^ .,r vario.i 

„„l ,,oc...o., ana .evcrtl factories have been -'"'" ' ;„ " , :;,„„h,..„ Foltin« Co. 
.M. fro,,, this .aaterial. Hosiae, the company "^ «• " ^, ^,,,„,,, Mas... «r« 

,„a -he My^W Mills, a. Winchester, f--."""';:,J^j;' ;;"„«« of which are now 

r::;rr,;:zrs:;.::::r=r:;:u^c..,„ s.r,.,.. 

•here arc milN for preparing tlic (ihro. 



oxlensivcly, by Stodman .^ Fuller unci "^ ^]''\\^^'l'l U^.dcn Sc 
Board from i.ulverizcd leather scraps ,s n>ade by ^ "^ J J" J^^^^ ^^^, 
Co Wool Hats by Desmond Brothers, Files by Iredcuck Butler, 
Sasii, Doors aud Blinds by Williams & Berry. 


The principal industry of Lynn, it is hardly necessary to say, is the 
Ihe puncn ^ ^.^^^_^^ ^^^^^ commenced here bc- 

;::t K : u"::^ W;:;and thou.,> o,her towns embarUed nj 

ev el velv Lv,>n till maintains its snpronmcy as the pnnc.pal seat 

r h nmu^cturo Tho total value of all the pursuits 

r \n n <io ^^3,7an,043, the whole of which, with the exeeiHion 

r a 0^0 uin led thousand dollars, is to be credited to the Shoe 

f 1 Tlm^ ^- '• «-^ ->'^ ^^^^^ manufacturers, who had a capital 

incUf sMO nnplovod 5,7Gt males, 2,SG2 females, and pro- 

T^r; 1 It ' ' t-i ot' Shoes, worth $4,807,375. Besides these. 

t^^^:\9Z^oJ^^^^^^^^^> 6 Last manufactories, 3 manu- 

,eie vere IV. . ^^^ ^ ^^ Leather-Cutting Machines, 

„e oriesof SI c 00 s, ^^^ ^^^ „^. j„,,,,,y ,o„„eeted 

"•;";,' S 00 trtlcTh min.or manufactures of Lynn were of Glue, 
Bt,i:onB:n::!: Lightning Bods, Tin aud Sheet-irou Ware. Cigars, 

"r'n^vc'luiV;:!"! in the same County, there were 103 manuf^tu. 
i J lishments, that had a capital of $0%,000, ^^f^y^^'^ 

^^nX:.:" SS^^a TL. towns is largely of a 
llic memo. partakes of the essential 

rr'of:: n. rci ?:.,».■>• ;.- t- ««..•«'-- »' "-: 

, r...nro Hrii-elv generally contain a Counting room, a Solo 

::t:;tr^Un-^oek room, two Cuttmg rooms (one for tho 
u e^ e th • and o c for tlu- solos), tho Bound Shoo room, the '1 nm- 
n e V o' and the Sales and Packing room. Sometimes a Last room, 
r' tie '"less importance, are provided. The first operation is to 
t e various portions of the Boots aud Shoes according to sizes 



! by Etlwaril 
Cavils, very 
n. Ijoatlier 
1. Ilaydcn k 
Butler, and 

;o say, is the 
icctl here bc- 
I einbavkcd iu 
principal scat 
iiiug pursuits 
lilt' exception 
to tlic Slioe 
had a capital 
ales, and pro- 
Besides these, 
jrics, 3 nianu- 
:ing Macliines, 
ctly connected 
were of Glue, 
Ware, Cigars, 

03 manufactui"- 
ra ployed 5,001 
y iu Shoes, of 
1, Uoading and 

^ is largely of a 
of the cri^ential 
liouscs of those 
>• room, a Solo 
uis (one for the 
•00 Ml, the Trim- 
les a Last room, 
operation is to 
-cording to sizes 

.vd half-sizes, which are pat up with all the necessary trunnungs >u 
"et '' of GO pairs for the coarser kinds, and 24 pairs for the finer ,na . 
ti These \ets arc numbered, recorded, and packed >u bo^.s .o 
sent to the operatives or workmen to whom they are cluu-ged. 1 
cuttin-' out of the soles is generally done by maclunery. A kn e w h 
r";r;;iinear edge i. set in a fnune and worked with a treadle a,.er t 
manner of a lathe. By a late^-al motion m the it can be 
adapted to the cutting of any recpusite width of sole, and once 
fixed to a given width the process of cutting is very rapid, and materia 
is saved by the leather being cut at right angles to the suiface instead 
of diagonaUy as by the ordinary knife. The stitching of the upper 
leather is now generally done by sewing machines, the binding by te- 
ntaies. and the other parts by males, who are styled " workmen' o 
<Mours-' These oi.erativos do not belong to Lynn exclusively, but 
many of them reside in other parts of the State, and in Maine, ^ew 
Hampshire, and Vermont. _ 

For the convenience of the operatives residing m distant locablus, 
the materials iu their prepared state are collected from tlie manutac- 
turers by expressmen or carriers. These deliver theni to the workmen 
for whom ihey are intended, and on receiving the work made up dcl.NU 
that to tlie manufacturer, ami then receive the payment due to the lor.uer 
for their labor. The remuneration of these carriers is generally a small 
per centage on the amount. 


Taunton, situated on the Taunton River at its junction with Mill 
River 35 utiles south from Boston, is the seat of a number of very .mpor- 
Tant manufactories. It has been said that Iron Works were estab .shed 
here as early as 1052,' and the various manufactures of iron, as hwks. 
Screws Stoves, Locomotives and Machinery, continue to be among the 
promin'ent branches of its industry. In 1800 the value of the tacks, 
brads, and horse-shoe nails made by the Taunton Tack Conipany A 
Field & Sons, and Lovett Morse, amounted to ^370,000. The Bay State 
Company produced Screws to the amount of $150,.m.O, having a .'apital 
invested of $175,000, and employ.l 220 hands. Stove and other east- 
„.s to the amount of §310,000 were made by Eddy & Co., the i-uund y 
and Machine Co., Lemuel M. Leonard, Bartlett & ^;'^;;;; ^V ^j 
Tauntou Iron Works Co., employing in all a capital of $1.)0,000, ami 

(1) Sec Vol. 1., i>Mgo iry. 




,. .u mon The Locomotive Works of 
three hundred and <'ig^.*y-^!^'^"%^'°; . r^,, Taunton Locomotive 
Taunton are the largest n. ^ew ^and^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

Company, incorporated .a If^T. e^P y g„^,, ,„ d.s- 

ancl has made three hundred LocojtweB amo g ^^^^^^^.^^ .^ 

tinouished for speed and power ^^^ /^ f ^J^^J ,,, Mississippi river 

that in 1860 produced ^'-^^'^^'^^^'''^^^^^^ 

of six hundred and thirty-two tb- f ^^^^^^^^^ ^^,;,/,../,, f,,,,es. 

,U-ed and forty-eight males and ^^^^Tnll^na produced Cassimeres 

One Woollen Mill -P^^^^ ^'T ten 1 ota^ dollars. The " Whit- 
of the value of one hundred and t- t -us k ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^_^^ 

teuton Manufacturing Company, ^^1^°^^ ™4^,^ WiLLAUO Lover- 

was re.rred to in ^^ ^;j^::^;^J^: ::::L.. to the amount 

rif ^rt:^::" — ^ol.^, hy three estahlishments. one 

of them quite '^^\'']'''''- ^ ^^^^^^ manufacturers arc quite ccle- 

Another branch m which ^^e Taunton ^^^^ ^_^,^^ ^^ 

„rated, is that of BrUannia and l^^^;'^;? '.^^ \^^^„,f.,eturers of the.o 
Reed k «ar.on arc among the ^-^^^'^^^^^^ ^, ,,,,„,;,! and rich- 
,nieles in th. country, and ^1-- wa- n pu ty ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^,^ ^^_^^^ 

ness of design, are not ^-'l'--^ ,^\'2b,,,,,, but having spared no 
Plate Company" was n.oro --^ ^ J^; ^.^^^ ,„,,,,„ and procuring 

,,ag.H, (<asks, Leather, f ^^ ^ „„ , The I'hanux Mannfadur- 
and lUinds, Stoneware, an '^^ / ' X,,,,, ,,,„,. en.ployed i.. th. 
ing Company has a capital of lo ty tho ^^^^.^^^^ 

...L,..tur.- of 13lacU ^:;^;;:- ^^ ^ ^J^ .t, of which .1. U 

are also made ^y/*"^ ^^ ^ ' , ,„., of all' the nn.m.facturos o 
Presbrey is Agent. Hu. tota ^^^_^_ ^^ .^^^ ^^^ ^^.^^ ^^,^^ ,„ 

Taunton in l^^^'/^'^*';'!^, ';1 Jy the Taunton Cupper Mauu- 


The most remarkable estaldishme. ^ ---(^ t^rS^^^^ 
fduiulcr, is 




ve Works of 
)n Locomotive 
ind fifty hands, 
1 some so dis- 
;U attention in 
[ississippi river 
omotive Works 

il Cotton Mills, 
, to the amount 
oying two hun- 
y-eight females, 
iced Cassimeres 
g. The "Whit- 
. near Tanntou, 


e, to the amount 
ivblishmentri, one 

rs are quite cole- 
:'S. The fmn of 
ractnrers of thefo 
iiuitevial and rich- 
•ter Britannia and 
having spared no 
uMi, and procuring 
r wares fully equal 

;lude Bricks, Car- 
ooks, Sash, Doors 
laniix Manufactur- 
es employed in Ui'" 
sh. Those articles 
y," of which .1. I' 
n niiMiufacturcs of 
,1 of wliich was 111 
iiton Copper Manu- 
Co. are Agents. 

•0111 whatever stand- 
it, the variety of its 
the celebrity of its 

William Mason's Machine Works. 

The founder of this splendid -*hment he^-^^- tl^^h^ 
teliigent and ingenious mechan.cs ^^^J^^]^,^,, the age in 
and l)V the force of native genms, leave their mipre 
Jhich'theylive. New England ^] :^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^A 
,,.„, and they in turn have rewarded l-"" b^ ^^J; f^^; [^ Lts fron. 
,,„ry of America. We however arc_ not P^J^^^; ,^^^,,,, ...u. 
which to write a biography of this emment m chamc ^^.^^ 

it to say, that after a ^-y'^^^\^^^'\'l'ZTZA 2 Mason, in 1829, 
.hop, the cotton mill and --^/^f^f J /^^J' Connecticut, con- 
when about twenty-one years of age, "\,^;"*,^ '^ - ^e of diaper 
structing and setting-up power ^--J^ ^J^ f Ld of work in 
,i„on-believed to have been the firs ^<1^P^««^^^^^^^^ ^ ^,,^ .^ticle of 
,he world; subsequently, in ^'Ibngb^ ™— ^^^^^^ ,„ 
.. ring travellers," or ring frames, which ^^^ ';;;>. ^/\; ^,,,„to„. 

..thr;stle" or ''^--l^-itlirtll^^'^tr:^'-'^ ^^^^^ 
Massachusetts, which, aftei many sa a u ^^ ^.^ 

reverses, caused by the ^^^'^'\'' f^'^^l^^^^^^^^ 

future triumphs. It was here, when oremanfoiCocl ^_^^^^_ 

n^achinists, he perfected the great -v^^/ to ^1 o use cotton 
Acting Mule," a -^^^^^^^^ r: " -"f . 7]l ^1 be snpevfluons. 
machinery, that a detailed '^--;!;.^<'^;'f ..r^ througi friendly 
Here, in 1842, when his employeis '^;^ J;'^^' .^^ .^ ^^ ,,,, ,,orks. 
assistance became the principal ownei --^ ^^^^'^ ^^^^ ,^^^ 

The prosperous times which --^^^ ^^^^ ^flt chanical ahili- 
..ontidence of cotton and other manufac us nh- 

^cfnUlwlied a tins ncss whlcli in a \tiy u" ^^ 

"r" ""!:, t "wa ae.iB", «- "'">'« ""'"'","-'» "'"■"";,'; 

,„,„ „f cotton Machinery. 1.. ''"»'''"", ,,,„,,,,,,,,s wl.i.l. Iiavo 
„, ,„ ,„,,™ „na introduce 'l'"-"" ','',,„, ,.„„.„,„p,i„„, ,„,! 
""''"•"'1 '" '''"'"r ;1„T. r i tn:...nn.i,.o,.o, /,e,»n.lri». 

322 manupacti;res of tavnton. 

e.„.s," .,.c»uso ton, IU„ ■:"««;""^,^ ,^:' ti; /^ ,, „,o„, .1,0 

;::r:.::':o. "::.;',;: ... ;„*., or .,,e w.,^.., .^.* 

of the lower grades of cotton goods, aiK^or tin. f'^''Y\lio the 
"tTS Mr Mason mado an »<UiHon to tbo Wovks prcviouMy 

ji:,^?!; ."'purpose o. -■Y':^i::.r;v:fc::r ::r^ 

nnrl in 1853 he hroughtouthis Urst Loeomotut, wuil.i 

characteristic fertility of Ecmas, l,. an„c< to '•"f'^^' 

,„,,.., ordinate a -« —'^^'-raL;:? ^Ih .-We,, .aid 

tcrnal uppcanmee wi h ^-^^^ '^"'''^ "^ • ^^ewEnji-li.nd engines 

engines the dome was l'^^^^, ^^^^^^^:;';^'^Huler and smokestacks 

;• 1 r lio-ht has necessarily the appearance of great ^^ cj^ht, was 
comparatively light, has necessaiuj wh oh sunnortcd its load with the 
thus brought directly over the t uck, J^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ,i, ,„tward 
symmetry of a pedestal in ^^'^^^';^-^^^X^,on^ braces- 
incumbrances, such as frames and then ^^^ J^J^ '^^^.^j^^ ,, ;, f„n 
resembling a ship's shronds-thus leav ng ^^^^^^^^^^ .,,, 
view, and a clear range Irom -^d o d ^ d n ^^ 

.oriental lines^f h. --^^- 'i;:';-:;^ JJ, ..a disposition 
'^ZZ:^^^:^^^^ expression to the whole sufficient to raise 
it to the dignity of a work c^ ^^^.^ ,,,„,ination of American 


«^ T"t 2i:tr s: :=r:r :^.;:::ie disposition 

ma„sl.,p. 1,1 mechamm,, o, „ ,,,„„ee_„.l,ilo, at the same tl,i,c, a 

°' "*:« :':„':r e .:^ « Ul r: carelcs 'worUntao to produce 




•c as "Amori- 
L'l-ican cottons 
v-iiig tliem tlio 
lOQ, American 
ivld in the sulo 
[it age they are 
ton, hut to the 
tc\hy American 

rks previously 
Locomotives ; 
t once attracted 
design. With 
From the bcateu 
y beauty of ex- 
it has been said 
Kngland engines 
y Jsew England 
Botive. In his 
,f the equalizing 
nd smokestacks 
e, and the sand- 
, which although 
:reat weight, was 
its load with the 
Tded all outward 
liagonal braces — 
king parts in full 
the boiler. The 
ipe, etc., heighten 
IS and disposition 
sufficient to raise 

ation of American 
sign and accuracy 
ccelleucc of work- 
•eeable disposition 
t the same time, a 
)rkman to produce 
3US ornament and 
1st be the work of 
the machinist who 

..produce an .e..t design. iiW^eon^^^^^ 

„.atter of workmanslnp, ^^fl^^^^^ ,,„„ a Locomotive may 
finish. No one, wo are Mue, ^^U1 .Itny ^^^^ ^^^,^.^^^ 

possess beauty, ami we p.ty -^ -;^^; ^^ ^r that .quality in its 

of the Uogers or ^^^^ ^ j/^'^^ tms of art may be as beautiful 
out'iuo, arrangement udaad^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^j^,, ,^ 

as those of nature, f though the onjc 

certain outward which th established, 

When >he L°--^^^'-,^^'^^;^ 1 I ^ g f^-avy for the manu- 
Mr. Mason made a step forwaid ^y ^ ^ thin-^ ei>. that he attempts, 
facture of Car Wheels, n t^; - ^^ ^^jt^^^e ealled •' spoke," or 
he aims at ""l^^^^" ,,"":;, - wheels, a shape which it is said 


uniformity with the driving wheels us existence a.^-ainst 

When the government was caiajntd ^^^^_^ _^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

the attacks of traitors, -'^\>.7;^J°;;';,f the authorities, Mr Mason, 
thousand etlicient muske s at ^ 'J-^^^^^ l;^^,, ,,, necessary faeilities 
in common with many others et alou pi v ^^^^ ^^^,,^,^,,, 

for the manufacture o 1 iv ain .• I^ e -c ^^^^^^. ^^ ^^^.^^^ ^^^ 

iZtX^:^:^:^^--^-^^ .or a tlmehe produced 

It will thus be seen that Mi. ^ Locomotives, Car Wheels, 

facture of Cotton and Wooll n_ ^^ '> "f^^;,.,,^^^ ^„ ,, , aistinet busi- 
and Firearms-each of which is ^^^^ ^^^^^^ to task the 

,esB, in separate -*=f >.f ^^^^^V ^' t;" "ol et them all successfully, 
ability of a single individual ; wh Ic, to con ^^^^^^ _ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

,e,iuires the talents and powe.s ot .''^^j'^,; ;,, exhibiting in all its 
Js- really remarkable ^^^f ^'^^^^ ^^^ inventioi^hat if its 
details so much system, combined > 1> J'^^';^^^^,^^ ,^^, ,,ned upon to 
founder and proprietor were not living, we 
speak of it in terms of enthusiasm. ,^,.,a i„ Masoi 's Ma- 





A. Field & Sons' Tack Factory, 
In Taunton, is the oklost eslublishod and n)ost extensive Tack manu- 
fecto " in to United States. It employs nearly three hundred per- 
ons and operate, about two hundred machines of te Rood and 
Snehard patents, with late improvements. ^«»7 ^^^'^ -^^X 
will produce each over four hundred pounds of bhoe Md,s daily, 
w hie the varietv in the products of the establishment is no ess aston- 
TsW V han the quantity. Between live and si.x hundred unds of 
aclTs' brads, and nails, are made in these Works, rangm, rom t 
mall pill-box copper tack, of which «-,^'^-'-"! V^'^' ";f . '^^^^ 
of an ounce, to boat nails, of which each one w.U weigh a half ounc . 
Over tv^o thousand tons of metals, of various kinds, are converted into 
tacks and small nails every year. 

Until late in the last century, the manufacture of nails, tacU,, 
etc in this country and in England, was exclusively a manna prices. 
It was during the emergencies of the Revolutionary War. which called 
t! exercise the inventive talents of the country, that the fn'st at emp 
pear to have been made to produce Cut Nail. Tacts About 
ryear 1775, Jeremiah Wilkinson, of Cumberland Rhode Island a 
n nufa turer f hand cards, tired of making the tacks x-e,uired in h. 
Ts n ss by the old and tedious process of hammering, adopted the x- 
pednrot cutting them with shears from iron hoops, or other h.n 
m'^r and afterwards heading them in a vice. This method he after- 
Ta ds applied to the manufacture of other small nails producing pro- 
bably t^i>rH-st cold cut nails ever made. The same pnncple ,s carried 
ut 1 y a^ ropriate mechanism in most of the modern ma- 
eh lies ^Jl. eh were introduced only ten or twelve >.ars later the lui- 
venion having apparently bee, me a necessity ^^ - ^^^ ^^ "^^^ 
everv form of labor-saving expedient. Between the yeais 178 and 
he dose of the century, machinery was estimated to have doubled he 
innua 1 reduction of nails in Massachusetts. Severa of the most dis- 
Tg" 1 ed of early American inventors employed their 
a Tv rv early ago-in devising machinery for cutting muls. Among 
Lse w r P 'vki^s, Whittemore, Reed, and Blanehard, while ot liers m 
F,I"l about thci same time, labored, though less suecessfu ly, t 
'ccCish the same end. Attention appears to have been first dn-ected 
^o hZove-nents in the shears, and the independent operations of cut- 
tin- the nail and of heading the same. 

The first patent for nail making was registered in the United Stat. 

vlZm. in August, 1791, by Samuel Briggs Senior and Jun o . 

t > i llphia, who deposited with the State authorities ot Teiinsyl- 


ensive Tack nianu- 
hrco huiulred poi'- 

of the Uoeil and 
e of their machines 

Shoe Nails daily, 
3nt is no less aston- 

hundred kinds of 
i, ranpiinp; from the 
vill weigh but half 
weigh a half ounce. 
i, are converted into 

f nails, tacks, lirads, 
ly ft manual pmcess. 
y War, which called 
ihat the first attempt 
and Tacks. About 
nd, Rhode Island, a 
;acks required in his 
•ing, adopted the ex- 
hoops, or other thin 
his method he after- 
nails, producing pro- 
ie principle is carried 
lern nail-cutting ma- 
years later, their in- 
of an age fruitful in 
the years It 8!) and 
d to have doubled the 
veral of the most dis- 
l their powers— some 
utting nails. Among 
ichard, while others in 
1 less successfully, to 
lave been first directed 
cnt operations of cut- 

l in the United States 
;s. Senior and Junior, 
Litliorities of reiinsyl- 




I :■ 



■- lilM 

,56 1^ 

!: Sis 1110 




1.25 1.4 1 6 

=s^ r== 

■• 6" 








"^ ;> 

^ ^•^' V 

%\f % 






(716) 872-4S03 











Collection de 

Canadian Institute for 

Historical MIcroreproductlons / Institut Canadian de microreproductlons historiques 




vania Iho model of a machine for making nails, gimlets, rivets, etc., in 
June, nS9 ; but it does not appear whether it was for makin- wrought 

or cut nails. •, q <.„ 

The construction of the first cut nail machine has been ascribed to 
.evoral porsous, among whom were Benjamin Cochran, a shopmato ol 
Eli Whitney (about Um)), Kzekiel Reed, of IJridgewater, Massachusetts, 
Jacob Perkins, of Newburyport, Massachusetts, and the late A\ alter 
Hunt of New York. The first letters patent for nail cutting machinery 
on the patent records were issued in March, 1794, or 1795, to Josu.h (J. 
Pearson, or Pierson, of New York, who, four years later, put in opem- 
tion on the Uamapo in llampstead, Kocklaud county, New \ ork, the 
oxtJnsive rolling and slitting mill and .lail works of Pierson k IJrothers, 
which in 1810, cut and headed by water power upward of one mdlion 
ponn.l's of nails annually. The nail cutting machinery of Jacob Per- 
kins ihough invented as early as 179(1, at the age of twenty-four years 
was not patented until January, 1795. Like many others, he found 
the invention, though efficient, a source of pecuniary en.barrn.ssment, 
in conscquenco of an inju.licious partnership, with which h.; csta,.- 
lished a manufactory two or three years later at Amesbury, where a 
nail company was chartered in 1805 with f. capital of nearly half a 
million dollars. The machine cut and headed nails at one operation, 
and was an advance upon any thing previously in use. In Dr. Morse's 
Amn-ira, Oazcllcrr, published in 1797, mention is made of a machme bv Caleb Leach, of Plvmouth, which would cut and head live 
tbou.Mul nails in a day, wUli tl.e aid of one boy or girl. In the same 
connection it is stated that there was a machine at Newburyport m- 
vente.l by Mr. .Jacob Perkins, which would turn out two hundred thou- 
san.l nails in a day, of a .p.ality superior to English nails and twenty 
per cent cheaper. In IsKl, IN'rkins took out another patent lor cut- 
ii,,,. nails and brads, and during the same year the nail eiitting ma- 
..lunerv o»' Massachusetts was patented in England by Joseph C. Dyer, 
an American merchant -esident in London. The mechanism ot ler- 
kins and Dyer was soon after put in operation at the IJntannia Nat) 
Works in Birmingham, which was the first ol cold cut 
nai's bv machinery in that country. Its features were those ol i.owcr- 
ful rotary pressers or hau.mers for s.,ue../.ing metal rods into th.' tornis 
of nail shanks, pins, screw shafts, rivets, etc.. of .■utters for separating 
the pn.per lengths, ami of dies operated by revolving cams or cranks, 
for forming the heads by compression. It was the type of many later 
inventions for the same purpose, in which the machines have been im- 
proved i)y greater simpii.'ity of parts and acceleration of speed. 

In addition to the patents already mentioned, not less thau ton others 



wore granted before ibe cIobo of the last century for cutth^g or cutting 
weic gianitii operations 

and beading -^. ^^^ ^ J a V:^n.tson. cf Pennsyfvania, in 

were --'--^J^jf ;* ^^^ ^^.^ ,,„,, Peter /acl>ario, of Maryland, 

^;;::^a^^at t::Z., n.n. ind ..rads. Tbe .acbine of K^ 

rLi iirst n ontioned. as it was afterwards improved by l'-^ "- ' -se 

Reed of Kingston, Massaclnisetts, and otbers, was one of tl e n.ost 

^1 ll pieces of mecbanism ever devised for tbe purpose, and ,s x- 

n Velv used at tbis time. Of numerous patents gran ed to 

R :;;fo; in.provements connected with nail -Ub,g and otber meeban 

.al operations, tbe iirst in bn.c -/^^^^ ^ j"- ]^:^. 

:;tC- : ;:;.:r '^:i t:vLk cbiciy .. ..ting and be^ 

r asand taeks, the llrst bearing date February, 1807, and .neludmg 
r V 1 ^Plianee In 180.. The addition of nippers to Reed's mac .o 
was the subieet of a patent to S. Chubbuek, of Massachusetts, .n 1835. 
Tl atlt ight to lis machine, which completed the nai- at one ope- 
V ^^s purchased by Oldwine and of .x.vssachu- 
s who pit upwards of twenty machines in operation at Maiden 
Maid us^tts, and establisiied two other lactories in tbe u-on region 
ff t Xy kill valley in Pennsylvania, which subseu.ently became 
1 ;h;:;pal nail producing region of the Union. ^^^^^;;;;^ 
in ooervtion in these establishments were capable oi makmg 1 fteen 
.nStl of nails annually, with tbe aid of sixty men and boys^ 
T chine was afterwards adapted to cutting brads by Oldwu.e. n 

18lV Reed patented a tack machine, or an improvement on he old 

w ch enabled a single hand with one machine to cut an. head 
a i„..,o opevation si.vty thousand tacks in a day. These .-chmes to 
^Uich Held added in 1825 a feeding apparatus wo- alrea y m o n - 
tion at Pemi)roke and at Abington. Massachuset s. At tlu latter 
1 e in 1815, one hundred and tifty millions of card tacks were nuule^ 
XV m y add Ihat among the early patents for this manufacture ^v.s 
o^e grafted in 1805 to Increase Kimball, for a machme fo making 
nails^ brads, and sprigs, for which originality has been claimed. 

The grca; value of the cut nail machinery thils introduced and per- 
fected at great labor and expense, was first brought to the notice of the 
pullie in the report of Albert Gallatin, Secretaiy of the Tr-"ry, on 
[he manufactures of the United States, made to Congress in 810. To 
there stated that two-thirds of the whole quantity of iron flattened by 
I linery. in the United States, was used in the manufacture of c«. 
3 vhL had extended throughout the whole country, and being 
U gotber an American invention, substituting mach.inery for manual 




itting or cutting 
two operations 
Pennsylvania, in 
■ie, of Maryland, 
acliinc of Ezckicl 
by his son, Jesse 
one of the most 
I'poso, and is ex- 
granted to Jesse 
nd other mechan- 
d in June, 1801, 
l)tained ten addi- 
cutting and head- 
iOI, and including 
to Reed's machine 
ithusetls, in 1835. 
nai'i at one opc- 
i-rs, of Massachu- 
ration at Maiden, 
in the iron region 
i)siM[iiently became 
'ifty-two machines 
of making tiftecn 
:ty men and hoys. 
Is by Oldwine. In 
cement on the old 
to cut ami head at 
rhese machines, to 
•e already in opera- 
nts, At the latter 
d tacks were made. 
3 manufacture was 
iiachine for making 
cen claimed, 
ntroduced, and per- 
, to the notice of the 
of the Treasury, on 
ingress in 1810. lie 
of iron flattened by 
manufacture of eu*. 
country, and being 
mehinery for manual 

labor, deserved particular notice. The only nianifactory of tacks 
alluded to in that report was one in I>ristol county, probably at Taun- 
ton, that produced eleven niillioiis of tacks aiunially. 

Among the early invenlioiis for cutting brads and small nails was a 
niacliiiic patented in 1807, by Jonathan Kills, of Ma.ssachus('tts, a part- 
ner of Perkins; one by Seth JJoyden, now of Newark, New Jt'rsey, 
patented in IPIT); a brad and sprig machine, by G. Jenkins, of IMy- 
moutii county, Ma.ssaohusetts, in 1817; and the most valuable of all, 
the brad and tack uiaclMue patented l)y Samuel llogers, of I'lyniouth, 
and Thomas IJIanchard, of JJoston, in the same year as tiie las*, men- 
tioned. This maoiiiiie, which is one of the most valuable now em- 
ployed, was devised by lilanchard, at ((uite an early age, to relieve the 
tedium of the old process of tatting tacks from metal plates, and after- 
wards heading them one by one by the aid of a heading tool or clomp, 
attached to a lever and moved by the foot, while the head was flattened 
by one or more blows of a hammer. The ingenious inventor haii pre- 
viously sought to abridge the labor of counting and weighing, as he 
was rociuired to do the (piantity assigned him as his daily task. This 
he effected by a very ingenious coimting machine, consisting of a rat- 
chet wheel, moving one tooth everv time the heading tool grasped a 
tack, and by a bell to indicate the completion of the allotted number. 
The tack nuichine was commenced about 1800, when ho was eiglitcen 
years of age, and, under the greatest discouragements, was steadily 
kept in view and often remodelled, during a period of si.\ years, when 
it was jtroduccd in such a slate of perfection that, tlie iron being snp- 
plic<l through a tube or hopper, and the power applied, five hundred 
tacks were made in a minute with more finished points and heads than 
were ever made by hand, and weighing onlv half an ounce per thou- 
sand. The right to this machine was purchased by a company for five 
thousand dollars. 

The following description is applicable to the machine now most ex- 
tensively nsi'd in this country for cutting nails of all sizes. It consists 
of a main shaft for carrying the cams, driven by a belt over a |iu!ley, 
and provided with a metal tube, through which pa.sses the nail rod, 
holding the nail rod by means of pincers. In order to give the brad or 
nail its wedge shape, the cutter is set oblique to the direction of the 
nail plate, which is reversed after each cut, by which means every nail 
lias a uniform taper. The reversing of the nail plate is effected by 
means of a rocking shaft, which receives its motion from the shaft 
through a gearing and crank, producing an alternate motion to the 
segments, which is eommuni"atcd to the guide tube by a belt and pul- 

y, the nail plate being fed . > the cutter by means of a wei;jlil, the 


nail rod with its attached plate vibrating freely within the guide tui.e. 
The cutter having the width of a nail plate, is adjusted by screws to 
the cutting block ; the nail plate, lying between guides, rests on the 
iron block and bears by the action of the weigi.t (before meul.oned) 
against the face of the cutter. The vibratory motion of ^he latter i8 
effoctod bv the aid of a crooked lever worked by means of an eccentric 
on the main shaft ; the cutter block forming the short arm of this lever 
has a short circular movement about their common centre. '1 he ever, 
cutter block, and the axle arms or trunnions upon which they work are 
all cast in one piece. The lever of the heading die is worked by a 
crank pin and rod attached to a wheel on the main shaft. To prevent 
the nail from falling from its place before the completion of the stroke, 
a small pair of nippers, operated by means of a cam on the main shaft. 
are placed below and in front of the cutter block. These are worked by 
the rods Thj working of the machine is as follows : 

The nail plate rests against the frame of the cutter, the lever resting 
on the point of the cam or eccentric ; as the latter revolves, the lever 
falls lifting the edge of the cutter above the cutting block, and also 
aboJe the nail plate ; the latter, by the action of the weight, is thrown 
forward under the cutter to a stop the width of the required nail. At 
this point bv the revolution of the eccentric, the lever is raised which 
lowers the edge of the cutter, shearing off a wedge-shaped strip of 
metal having the length of the width of the nail plate. This is seized 
at the same^instant by the nippers below the cutter, and immediately 
after the rod, by the action of its crank, raises the lever of the heading 
die and the nail is comjileted at a stroke. As the complete nail <lrops 
from the opening nippers, tho nail plate is advanced under the cutting 
shears for anothev nail. In ...e factory of the Messrs. Field, shoe nail 
uiachines .'.'•<• used which arc provided with a self-feeding apparatus, by 
which si.x plates are advanced to the cutter at one time without manual 
assistance. Tliese machines are the invention of William H. Field, 
of Taunton, and the patent is owned by A. Field & Sons. 

Nails and Tacks having been cut, retpiire to be annealed, which 
renders them more tough and somewhat malleable, and at the same 
time imparts to them their rich blue color. This is done by heating 
them hot in iron boxes in an oven, and leaving them to cool slowly. 
The Messrs. Field have also ingenious machines for leathering carpel 
tacks which perform the work with extraordinary rapidity. 

Ai'bert FiELP, the senior proprietor of these Works, was born in 
Norton, Massachusetts, July 4th, 1705. During the war of 1812, he 
was cmploved at Sharon, Massachusetts, in the file manufactory of 
the ingenious Seth Boyden, elsewhere alluded to. Shortly after be- 




L the guide tulio. 
;ed by screws to 
,es, rests on the 
fore mentioned) 

of *he latter is 
s of an eccentric 
arm of this lever 
Ure. The lever, 
h they work, are 

is worked by a 
!ift. To prevent 
ion of the stroke, 
n the main shaft, 
se are worked by 

the lever resting 
ivolves, the lever 
5 block, and also 
veight, is thrown 
pquired nail. At 
ir is raised which 
!-shaped strip of 
. This is seized 

and immediately 
er of the heading 
)mplete nail drops 

under the cutting 
■s. Field, shoe nail 
ling apparatus, by 
lie without manual 
William 11. Field, 

i> annealed, which 
, and at the same 
s douo by heating 
;m to cool slowly. 
' leathering carpel 

'orks, was born in 

,0 war of 1812, he 

lie manufactory of 

Shortly after bo- 

coming of age he went to the city of New York, and attempted manu- 
facluring Tacks by horse power, but after a few months removed to 
Taunton, and was employed by Crocker & Kichmond, the extensive 
nail manufacturers, with whom ho remained for about nine years. 
In 1827, in a small building, on the site of his present Works, he com- 
menced to manufacture Brads, with one machine, built by himself. 
In 18.30, he purchased one of Reed's Tack Machines, and employed 
Elijah S. Caswell to run it. This person has been in his employ since 
that time, and has made great improvements on both the Reed and 
Blanehard machines. 

In 1831, he employed Otis Allen (who is still with the firm) to take 
charge of the packing, and to him much credit i.s due for his eflicient 
management of the packing and shipping departments since that time. 

Under Mr. Field's jedieious management the business prospered, 
one machine after another was built, the buildings were from time to 
time enlarged, improvements in the methods of manufacturing were 
originated or adopted, until now he is the head of the leading concern 
in his business in America. 

Like most men who have achieved success by their own endeavors, 
Mr. Field has given evidence of possessing an original and ingenious 
mind. He designed and was the first nianufav-turer of that peculiar form 
of tack known as the gimp tack, for fastening linings on carriages and 
furniture. He drove out of the American market the Kuglish clout 
nails, by producing a dififerent and much superior nail for the same 
purposes, and at a less price ; and by various improvements in ma- 
chinery, succeeded in producing Tacks of an uniform thickness and 
quality, until, now, Field & Sous' Tacks are a staple of American com- 
merce, and are exported not only to the West Indies, South America, 
and Australia, but to Germany, Africa, China, and in fact to nearly all 
parts of the world. 

Mr. Field is no less estimable as a man than eminent as a manufac- 
turer. He has aimed to invest the profits of his business so as to yield 
the greatest good to the greatest number of his fellow-citizens. He was 
one of the original projectors of the gas works in the city of Taunton, 
and is now President of the Company. Ho also established the Taun- 
ton Foundry and Machine Company, and the Mount Hope Iron Com- 
pany at Somerset, Massachusetts. As an employer he has been re- 
gardful of the interests and welfare of his workmen, and is reworded 
with their good-will and attachment. Though not a member of 
any cliurch organization, he has contributed liberally to aid in the 
erection of houses of worship ; and of one church in Taunton, 
which, when fiaiuhed, will cost over $50,000, ho and hia sons have 



contributed more than one half the amount. Thus th,s venerable p.o- 
ncer and patriarch presents an example of liberality m the u.e and 
distribution, as well as skill and success in the acciuisition of a fortune. 

Reed & Barton's Works, 

For the manufacture of Britannia, Albata, Nickel, Silver, and Silver- 
riated Wares, at Taunton, Massachusetts, are the oldest, and one 
of the largest in the United States. About 1824, Mr. Isaac Babb. t, 
the inventor of what is known as the Babbitt Metal, commenced .he 
manufacture of Britannia ware at this place, and may be called the 
founder of the business. Subsequently, the business estabhshed by Inm 
passed through the hands of Jiabbitt & Grossman, West & Leonaul, he 
Taunton Britannia Manufacturing Company, none of whom found u 
profitable, until, finally, Henry G. Reed an.l Charles E. Barton who 
were apprentice boys to son>e of the other firms, assooated 
another, because proprietors, and by industry and perseverance sue- 
ceeded in building up one of the largest manutacturmg concerns m the 

'"Them-incipal buildings have an aggregate length of about one thou- 
sand feet, and are divided into departments for special purposes such 
as the machine room and rolling rooms, the burnishing rooms, 
rooms, press rooms, buffing rooms, polish rooms, and others. In then- 
press room thev have a number of presses of in.mense power-one 
screw press weighing about seven tons, for stamping designs and 
figures upon the' different articles of their manufacture; and their 
stock of dies is most complete. Their show room presents a brilliant 
array of specimens of their workmanship that would attract attention 
and 'extort admiration even in an exhibition of Solid Silver Ware. 

Within the last five years, this firm have made important additions 
to their list of manufactures, and now produce, besides Britannia and 
Silver-plated wares, all kinds of Electro-plat-d Nickel Silver I able 
Ware and Albata Spoons and Forks, that can only be surpassed by 
solid s'lver Thev have increased the number of their hands to nearly 
five hundred, and'have added so largely to their facilities for manu- 
facturing that it maybe said every tool or machine that can be used 
advantageously in the business will be found in their workshops. 

Within the same period also, this firm have made great improvementa 
in the patterns and styles of their wares. It is one of the advantages of 
electro-plating that all ornaments, however elaborate, or designs, how- 




3nerablc pio- 
. the use and 
of a fortune. 

', nnd Silver- 
est, ami one 
[saac Babbitt, 
)ninicneed tbc 
be called the 
)lished by biiu 
t Leonavil, the 
'bom found ii 
, Barton, who 
jsociated with 
ses'crancc sue- 
;oncerus in the 

bout one thou- 
purposes, sueb 
rooms, plating 
licrs. In their 
36 power — one 
jT designs and 
[re ; and their 
^ents a brilliant 
ttract attention 
Iver Ware. 
)rtant additions 
Britannia and 
,1 Silver Tal)le 
10 surpassed by 
hands to nearly 
ities for manu- 
hat can be used 
it improvements 
le advantages of 
)r designs, how- 

ever complicated, that can be produced in silver, are equally obtaina- 
ble b}' this process, and one of the benefits that such iirms as Iteod & 
Barton confer upon the country, is that they familiarize tlio American 
people with forms of beauty and elevate the standard of public taste. 
An American artisan can now command exact copies of the choicest 
phitc in the repertory of kings. The Anglo American, said the London 
Art Journal, some years ago, seems the oidy nation in whom the iovo 
of ornament is not inherent. "The Yankee wliittles a stick, but his 
cuttings never take a decorative form ; bis activity vents itself in de- 
stroying, not in ornamenting; he is a utilitarian, not a decorator ; ho 
can invent an elegant sewing machine, but not a Jacipiard loom ; an 
electric telegraph, but not an embroidering machine." This repioaeh, 
if ever true, is rapidly losing its force. Even American artisans, while 
properly maintaining that ornament should be subordinate to utility, 
are yet beginning to understand that " a thing of beauty is a joy for- 
ever," and in schools like those of Reed & Barton, where chaste de- 
signs are multiplied and wares rivalling those of the jeweller and silver- 
smith are made and sold at prices accessible by all, the American 
people arc being educated in taste and love of the beautiful, whicli is 
said to be the finest ornament and purest luxury of a land. 





V.TL RiVFR Which lies at the head of the eastern arm of the Narra- 
tal of the respective Coiupames. 

Name of Mi'l ur 

Xn.v ('• iiiiil ^^'- ^'""• 
Fall I'ivi'i- Miui'y... 
I>,„'ii-s<'t Mun'i; C<). 
AimiiWii" Miui'j... 

M:>fsi'-^suit Mill 

AuK'"*""* ''lii"!"— • 
Mi'tai'i'iiK't Mill.... 
Full Itivor IVint « K< 
Aini-'iiciiii l.inen Co... 
Uiiii.M Mill Co 
(ivHiiitu Mill" 

Dnrf.'.' Mills 

IViMUiisuli Mills 
Ruliusiiii Millo 

Sl.iniUcu.l Caiiitftl. 


SliiiidWw.j Capital. 



, '.wo.uuo 

50,9" 5 
' 200;0Q0 


. 700.UOO 

38,7;i0 1 

9,240 I 

34,24K I 

»v.!ri i 

. 14,4.4S' 











3;U,202 I $5,023,375 

capacity if printing about twenty-five ^"-f^^rl/ and with the 
Z. iL date the f-iUtics have been great Y -1 gd,^a^^^ _^ .^_ 

purchase of the Bay State ^-^t Works m 18(2 U^^^^^ 

creased to about fifteen thousand pie s p i w el ot y ^^ ^^.^^^^^ 

each, or thirty-five ^l^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ «^ ^'''''''■ 
They employ a capital m eal ^^^ ^^ .^ ^, ,^, Company, is 
jEFFEiisoN Borden, Esq., ono ot the oufciu 
still its Treasurer and General ^^anager^ ^„„,„,,„eed opera- 

The AMERICAN I^-e^nCompanv a I l Rv r "^^^^^ 
ting their machinery in Decembe, 1853, ^^thte^^^^^ PUbw and Table 

and sixteen ^P^"'^-' -:;^S"^,^ ^ra^ 

Linen, Coatings, Hu^^aba^, ^.-J'J^.^ u.if manufacture until 1858, 

They employed a ^^^^\^\;2^^^^^^^ 

.vhentheir mill ach n, d^^^^^ „,,„„factunng Print Cloths. 

sand two hu.idrod and n.nety-s.x sp... nianufac- 

Tl.ey still operate thlrty-five hundred spindles in 



of the Narra- 
■ the iiriiu'ipul 
ill V)c seen by 
nenceinent of 
id the Capital 
Lie active capi- 

f S^limiUw., t-'i'pit"'' 

38,7;iti I 
34,'ilH I 


•. liAiS) 


• 23;so» 






' 200;0Q0 

1 20O.U00 

. 700.UOO 

oool 3;W,202 *5,«2;5.:i75 

)BKS, one of the 
le United States. 
IS started with a 
;3 per week ; but 
ed, and with the 
lir capacity is in- 
f forty-five yards 
ards per annum, 
cry of $500,000. 
tue Company, is 

ommenccd opera- 
sand four hundred 
'illow and Table 
>ther Lingn goods, 
facture until 1858, 
I of thirty-one thou- 
iring Print Cloths, 
he Linen manufac- 

uro, and propose to add to their Cotton machinery fifty-two thousand 


Jesse Knny & Son are the owners of the Wiimsutta Steam Mill, 
employed in manufacturing a superior grade of Fancy Cassiineres. It 
was built in 1849, with eight sets of muchinery. Capital §150,000. 

The Fall River Iron-works Company was organized in 1821, with 
a capital of $24,000, and commenced the manufacture of Iron in Febru- 
ary 1822, with 'one set of Rolls for makir.g Nail Plates, and twelve 
machines for Cutting Nails. Their production of Iron and Nails at 
that time was about five hundred tons per annum. They have gradu- 
ally increased their operations until they have, in 18GG, eight sets of Rolls 
and one hundred and five Nail Machines, producing four thousand five 
hundred tons of Hoop, Bar, and Wire Iron, and one hundred thou- 
sand casks of Nails, of one hundred pounds each, equal to five thousand 

They also have a Foundry producing eighteen hundred tons Castings 
per annum for machinerv purposes, and a Machine Shop and Roller 
Shop, for building and repairing Machinery. In 1845, they the 
Metacomet Cotton-mill, with 21,600 spindles; and a Gas AVorks, 
which supplies the Mills, stores, and private dwellings with (ias. 
The capital employed by the Corporation at the present time is about 
one million of dollars. Richard Borden, Es,]., one of its originators, 
is Treasurer and General Manager of the Company. 

Besides these. Fall River has three important Machine Shops : 
of Marvel, Davol & Co., Kilbirn, Lincoln & Son, and Wm. M. 
Hawes & Co. ; the Flour Mills of Chace & Nason, David II. Brav- 
ton & Co., D. Brown & Son; the Twine and Stocking Manufactory 
of E M. Swart & Co., and other manufactories of some importance. 


Springfield, according to the last Census returns, had 37 Manufac- 
turing Establishments, with a capital of $1,074,000, that ^f^y^^'^^^ 
nnle and 63t female hands, and yielded products valued at *2,0C5,o J4 
This was exclusive of the Arms n-anufactured at the Government 
Armory located here, which is one of the most important arsenals of 
construction in the United States. 

The establishment that employed more hands and produced a larger 


value than any in Sprinfrfieia, with tho exception of the Indian 
«)ielmrcl Cotton Mills, was the Cur Manufactory of tho 

Wason Manufacturing Company. 

The construction of Cars is comparatively a new department of 
manufactures in the United States, but in consequence of the vast 
and rapid extension of railroads it has become one of considevablo 
ma.n,it«de. It is a singular fact that nearly all the companies that have 
been ov'-ani/.cd with a lar-e capital for tho prosecution of this business 
have no"t been successful, and those whose manufactories arc now the 
larii-cst, commenced with scarcely any capital except their individual en- 
terprise and experience. 

ibout twenty years a^o, Thomas W. and Charles Wason commenced 
on the banks of the Connecticut Hiver, preparing lumber for road 
livid.-cs and did a small business in repairing and building (Jravel and 
Freii'ht' .-"ars In 1840 they advanced a step forward by leasing a lot 
of ground on which they erected a shop for maidng Freight and Bag- 
gage Cars, procuring the wheels and most of their castings from a 
nci^ghboring foundry. In 1848 the " Springiield Car and Engine Co., 
whi.'h had been or-anizod in the year preceding with a capital ot 
^100 000 for the building of Cars and Eng.:ies, and had erected exten- 
sive buildings for the purpose and filled them with ma.l M.ery.l.ndmg 
that the business could not be economically conducted •..>K..r their exist- 
ino. organization, determined to dispose of their stock and tools in the 
Car department, and Messrs. T. W. & C. Wason became the purchasers. 
In 18^.1 Mr Thos W. Wason became sole proprietor of the works by tho 
purchase of his brother's interest, and in the latter part of t'-o same year 
purchased a foundry for making Car Wheels and other crstings. In 1853 
he disposed of one-half his interest in the Car Manufactory to another 
,,0,-soii which established the lirm of T. W. Wason Sc Co., who con- 
linued iHisiness us a firm until 1862, when the "Wason Mam.factnring 
Company" was organized, and incorporated with Thomas U. AA ason, 
rresident, George C. Fisk, Treasurer, Henry S. Hyde, Clerk, and L. O. 
Hanson, Superintendent. 

Tills Companvis now largely engaged in the manufacture of eveiy 
variety of Passe'nger, Emigrant, Baggage, Freight, Hand and Horse 
Cars, and recentlv purchased tho extensive property formerly ONVM.ed by 
the "Springfield Car and Engine Company," the original cost of which 
with the buildings and machinery was over $120,000. The buildings, 
eligibly situated near the passenger depot at Springfield, are most sub- 
stantially constructed, and cover nearly four acres of ground. Ihey 

WASON MANirACTritlNIi ('(iMl'ANY. 

f the Indian 

;partmeiit of 
! of tlio vast 

lies tliat have 

tliis business 
i are now tlio 
individual cn- 

n eommonced, 
[• for JJailvoad 
g (Jravel and 
y leasing a lot 
gilt and l?ag- 
istings from a 
I Engine Co.," 
I a capital of 
crcoted exten- 
1 Miery, finding 
ujr tlicir exist- 
ed tools in the 
the pnroluiscrs. 
he works by the 
ft' same year 
;tings. In 1853 
,ory to another 
Co., who con- 
nas W. AVason, 
:'lerk, and L. O. 

racturc of every 
md, and 1 torse 
inerly owned by 
al cost of which 
The buildings, 
Id, arc most sub- 
■ ground. They 

comprise a two-story I)rick building iJTO fi'ot long ai'd 70 feet wide, 
oecui)ied upon the lower lloor by the olliccs, the eiiginc-rooiii (coiil.iining 
a '.)()-horse power engine, bull; by Tliursloii (Jardiier it Co. of I'nivi- 
dtnee, 1\. I., iittcd with the "Corliss" cut-olT), the macliine sliop, SO \>y 
70 feet, and the passenger and t'reiglit car-liiHly and truck Imil'iing de- 
parliiieuts; upon the njiper lloor by the ciibinet room, where tlie seats, 
sasli, doors, idiiids, and inside work of passenger and street-cars arc 
made, and liy the street car-liuilding department. Tlie bliicksniitli shop 
is of brick, 180 feet long and 44 feet vide, and contains :!0 fires. Tlicro 
are also a l)rick idaniiig mill 70 by 44 feet, a brick dry-lioiise, and :i largo 
wooden paint sliops (in the second slory of one of which is Ihe upliotsicry 
department), having accoiiimoihitioiis for iiaiiiting 10 imssciigcr cars, 
](■) freight cars, and street ears at one time. The foundry, where all 
tlie car wheels and eastings used by tlie Coiniiany are math;, adjoins tiie 
Car Works, and occupies a In'ick building 1 12 by 70 feet. This l>raiieh 
of tae business is still owned sejiarate and apart from tlie car works. 

The machinery in the Car Works is of the most comidcle nature, no 
expense having been spared in the construction, ^.'oihiiig is left to be 
done by hand that can by any possibility be aceomplislied by uiiichiiiery, 
and a high degree of excellence in the pnjducts is tlius necessarily at- 

Cars from tliis establishment have been sent to Egypt, Cliina, Ilrazil, 
Venezuela, and to all parts of llie United Stales and Caiiadas. A largcs 
portI..ii of tiie rolling stock upon the I'aeilie slojie bears their trade- 
mark. Improvements are constantly being nuide in all classes of Citrs, 
especially liassenger and street cars, of wliicli tiiis company l.ave turned 
out large numbers tnat for beauty of finish and thorough workmansliip 
cannot be suriiassod. Tlie iirst Sleeping-Car ever l)uilt in this coiiniry 
came from these works ; and since tlien addition alter addilioii has iieen 
made to ilicir conveniences, until now there seems no room for furtlior 

Al)out oOO men are now employed in these works, who receive monthly 
from ten to twelve thousand dollars. All the dillVrent di^iartmcnls are 
presided over by competent and experienced forcmi'ii, umUr the general 
superintendence of L. O. Hanson, a meinlier of the l.ilc firm of T. W. 
Wason & Co. The Company use in tlieir business about 1,000 tons of 
cast-iron, 450 tons bar-iron, 30,000 pounds of Ijrass and composition 
castings, 450 tons of coal, and a million feet of iiimber aiiiuially. Tlio 
aggregate business, including car repairing, amounts to over l?.500,()00 
per year. 

The foundry, purchased in 1851 for the manufacture of car wheels, is 
now owned by Mr. T. W. Wason, S. W. Ladd, and (i. W. Lawrence, 


trading uuder the name and firm of Wason, Ladd & Co. They manu- 
l-fexclusively Cur Wheels, both single and dou le ^;;^^^ 
uMv (\istintrs fnrnishiKg the same not only to the Car W oiks but to a 
Zl!;::;^^ leading ^w Engl.nd railroad combes, jo^^^ 

plovment is afforded to 25 men, and uiv.vards of 2000 tons of tht 
quality charcoal pig-iron are used annually. 


CncoPKK, near Springfield, has, several important -^""f-t^ries^ 

The e re two establishments that make Agricultural uiplements one 

t em Vmittemore. Belcher & Co.) largely; one L-^»- ^-^ '"^^ 

1 Ictory one of Loom-Harness, Reeds and Bobbins, one of Copper 

^^:S le of Military Accoutrements Firearn. are^aj^ '^ 

i.:se,;,:;;::;e;:2,.3ioon.— a^^^ 
^;:rrr:i=ti^;;;:rk;"':.>.-^^^ - t^n . 

at the AMKS lAANUFACxmuNO Company, remarkable al>ke for tl e 
V V r t^ of articles made, the n ultipUcity of operations earned on. 
In r excellence of its manufactures. Its founder was Nathan R 
ana tue cxLtucL ni,i,.kor#e Falls the manufacture of 

Ames, who in 1829 commenced at Chi.koj^e tans ii 
Cutlery with nine workmen. Mr. Ames was born in 1803. and d td in 
m It ho oarlv age of 44. Thoucch not an inventor, he possessed a 
vo^^^l'e u i is ght il the practical value of new inventions, an at the 
le :; his death he was regarded as one of the ^^ ^^^J^^ 
-•,.an mechanics. Since his decease the bn miess of the Company lias 
i^urh ended by his brother. James 1 Ames, a gentleman thor- 
o^^ly'umod ii. mciinism. and possessing administrative of 

'-' '-IS manufactures of the Amos Company maybe divided into Hnir 

H. s^ia linery, Sw.rds an<l Ord..ance, Gilt and IMated Wares, a.ui 

, onTo Castings. The li.i. of machines ma.le here is vei-y co.npru.en- 

Tnl i mles heaw Tools, massive Castings, horizontal •..■b...' 

W! 1 La hes Phvning Machines, and Cotton Mach...e.7. '1 h- me- 

1!: ! 1 ^m U d splay.^ by this Co.npany is a,.p,-eciated ab.-oa.: as well 

a In 1854 the British Government sent out commissioners to 

,11 who employed the Ames Comp.uiy to build machines for 


They manu- 
ed, and Rail- 
irks but to a 
Constant em- 
is of the best 

iiplements, one 
Gather Belting 

one of Copper 
< are made by 
r $100,000 per 

which in IHfiO 
mnds of cotton, 
)f cotton goods. 
in the town is 
le alike for the 
ions carried on, 
was Nathan P. 

manufacture of 
i03, and died in 

he possessed a 
tions, and at the 
mincnt ot Anier- 
le Company has 
frentlennin thor- 
ative aliilities of 

livided into four 
lated Wares, and 
very compruhen- 
rizonlal TMvbine 
linery. The me- 
ed abroad as w»'ll 
commissioners to 
,chiuea for making 

Ihe Stock or woodwork of muskets, and which now are in use at the 
.^jilicld Armory, near Wo3lwieh, England. 

Tlic manufacture of Swords was one of the earliest attempted by 
Mr. Nathan P. Ames, wlio in 1831 obtained a contract foi furnisiiiiig 
them to the United Slates Government, and sim-e that time nearly all 
tlie government Swords have been made at tliis establisliinent. 

During the present Rebellion they have very greatly increased their 
facilities, so as to be able to furnish large numbers of Saures, Swords, 
and Bronze Guns to the government, ijcsides keeping their otlicr linuiches, 
such as the umnufacture of Plated wares and Machines, in full o[)eratiou 
for tile su))ply of the market. 

They were one of the first, If not the first, to introduce the Electro- 
Plating and Gilding process into this country in 1839. 

Probably however this establishment has obtained its greatest celeb- 
rity tor its artistic manufactures in iron and bronze, and tlie colossal 
Statues of DeWitt Clinton in G.eenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn— Franlv- 
liii, in Scliool Street, Boston— and the equestrian Wasiiingtou in Union 
S(iuare, New York— are highly creditable specimens of their skill in this 

Tills Company have a capital of $'^50,000 invested, and employ about 

500 workmen. 

IIoLYOKE, on the right bank of the Connecticut River, nine miles 
above Springfield, was desitrncd i»y its iirojectors to be one of the great- 
est manufacturing towns in the United States. Acting under a clmrter 
granted by the State of Massachusetts to the Hadley Falls Company, 
with an authorized capital of §4,000,000, a number of capitalists pur- 
chased about 1200 acres of land, and constructed a dam across tlie river 
1,018 feet in length between ilie abutment.s. and 30 feet high at liie 
liead-water, obtaining power suflicient to drive at least 1,000,000 spin- 
dles. Tliey laid out a town on a plan calculated to secure many advan- 
tages to its future inhabitants, and erected two large Cotton Mills, each 
•2(;s i'eet long and fi8 feet wide, five stories in height, and a Machine Shop 
448 feet long and 00 feet wivie, besides a large Furnace and Blacksmiths' 
Sliop, and ecpiipped f.iem with machinery and tools of the best description. 

In ls()0 the town had a(!npital invested in manufactures of $-',072,100, 
employed 72() males, 1,271 females, and p- .duced an aggregate annual 
value :)f $2,108, r)00. The princiiial manufactories were the l-ymnii 
Mills that had 50,000 spindles and 1,200 looms, the Hampden Mills witli 
10,000 spindles and 310 looms, the llolyoke Paper Coiupuii,, liio Par- 
sons Paper Company, the Wire Manufiwtories of William E. Rice, Iw- 
Machine Shops, and two manufactories of Loom-Harness mid Keeds. 



s,„.,.„.,.. F.u.», ...out fia, .no, -;'-;,,t[:t:;,t.i:*: 

„„l„wonUy as a „,a„ul„.»n,,g ,to ^u -1"! y ^ .^^^, ^,_^^^..^ 

It coi.l«ii.s th<j largest ma.iufaotc-j of tulluy 
kuowii as 

Lamson & Goodnow's Cutlery Works. 

I.UC .nost or .he other re.narU.Uy -^^f ^J— tlu^^^lr^^:^^ 
..nts of the mUed GtaU., this ^^^^^^l^^'l^Z^^.a the 
„av5„s Leon Imuukd by Ml^ l^^Lenczc ^; ^j ^^;'.:^;.\,^, Mr. Lun.on 
,.,,„„,,.t.,.,.e of (Cutlery at tins ph^o a) t y.. 14 ^, ^_^^ 

is the sou of SUas La.nson, -'^^;;''' l^^X^I^Z^o.. to iis invention 
of bert Scythe Snaths-thc han. les ^^ ^^'^^^"^^ ^,,, „„nv, i:,ther 
Having been made straight; and lor " '^> ^^^ ^ ^;,. i„ ,,,, Mr. 
and sons, l>ave been nn>n«faetun,rs ^! ^"^ ^ ^^ ' ^ ,., Cuth.vy man- 
A F UoodnoNV became associated Mi. Lams on 

..eture. «->^''^^f '^;;;::- :;:j^cr:f 3^::':::.. the ,n.,,ndices 

At tliat tunc Amenean Culitry uau j imrduare, was 

„„u,U..l by l.oH> .le»l«™ »"•' oonsama. ..1 ''" ',„„!„,|„^,„„„ „,. 
.„|«,.|»t to a,».,af«cM,.-e all that c„uM 1 » .1 f.^ , ,,, .,.,, „,. 

„„,„i,„.r,. I-....C.VO,-, not only "'« :"'; '"V , 1 «■ Ml-' ""«' 

uf their work." .,^^.^. ,^,„i j.,,,,,,, K,.ives, 

In thif manuiaetory, lablecmu v, ,. „i,„.i, of it 

Augers and IMts, a.e nuule '^'-"-Y- -^^ XfZ^\^ I'o.-a by 
• i"v-t..l and construcved . t e -t^b .si e ^ ^^ ^,^^_ ^^^^ 

tvip a,ul drop-haunuers, whud. u.easnr oH "" ^,^^^ .„., ^,, 

,,,„U,Uiml of blade rcciuu-cd. and ';-"' \; 'j,. ,,,,.., ,, 

Iwnlde. or bolster is^vmed 'r ^^^;::;;:Z'T'^ ^^^^ '^ '"-' 
constructed as to ,ive the re,u,red •'"" " ;^,^ .,^ ,,^, l.uun.enuK. 
,,„ssed again under the tr,,-hammer '^"'\" \ \^,„^, ,;„„ ,,„..,eu. 
Uin« it the re,,un.d thickness and ^''''^V^;^ '';:^ ;.' " Atter this 

,„, „u. steel so as to i-^--; ,,,;;,.^;:;;' ^ ^.r:!:.! ..uiri,,. ti. 

. ,,,,iou is perforuuMl. wh-ch .s ' '-^ . ;^,^,„,„,, •„,,, ,,,,,, ,on-aiuin« 



nsrrieUl. on the 

Connecticut, is 

11 tlic fiict that 

United States, 

[uving osliihlish- 
nmll bcui""i"SS, 

I coinnicni'fd the 
,-2. Mr. liUiiHon 
the present form 
^ to his invention 
tlie fiunily, i'iither 
Ics. In isU Mr. 

tl\e Culh'vy man- 

nic the iire.indiies 
of Imrdwiire, wiH 
t forty men were 
lO introduction of 
'luturinir were iu- 
l,iol> elicited from 
iry in tlie United 
vs of Ciiih'ry iuivc 
ture of Tools, and 
Hvially in the i rac- 
lugree of the linisb 

1(1 I'ocket Knives, 
I'hinery, much of it 
l)liide is forued by 
lint of steel for the 
iito shape ; and the 

II dies or swuucs so 
The Made is then 
its last haninieriuK, 

same tinic cunden- 
(inaliiy- Alter this 
id and reiiniriii;;- the 
in}!; press coniaiidng 
process that secures 

uniformity to all; and then it is returned to the drop-hammer and at a 
low iieat is struck between a pair of iinisliing dies, so made as to touch 
every i)art of the Idade, and by lids means is straightened perfectly. 
Tiic l)ladc having been thus forged is ready to receive the stamp of the 
Company, which is put on by means of a large press operated by one 
man somewliat as a hand printing-press. An e.xpert operator will 
Mamp ;!,;■><"> hlades per day. Now tlie blade is ready to l)e hardened 
vnd tcmi)ered, a very nice operation for which they use a maeidiie of 
<lieir own invention, and patented l)y tliem. 

This machine consists of a series of cast-iron tubes, say -Ih inches 
internal diameter and H inches long, widch are placed directly over the 
firc-ljo.K in sucii a manner as to allow the heat to pass all around them. 
In tlicso tubes tlic blades are placed by tlie workman, commencing at one 
end of the machine. There is room in each tube for two Itlades— 
s>), as one is taken out anoliier is put in ; and after tlie lire is once 
allowed to pass around the tubes, tiie wurknmu continues to |)ul in and 
take out of eaeli tul)e in succession, not having to wait for tlie bhidcs to 
heat, as they heat uniformly, and in i)erfeet time, to the degree rei|inred. 
When heated and taken from the tubes they are placed in a val of pre- 
pared oil and ccoled ; and when »akcn out and cleaned of tlic nil, they 
are passed into a sand batii heated by the same (ire used for the tubes. 
In this bath they remain, watched l)y nn experienced iiand, until they 
lire heated and reduced to tlu> rciiuisile temper. 

Ai'ter the IJlade is tempered it is ready for grinding and poli>hing, 
operations that are performed i)y hand, by skilled workmen, and in sub- 
stantially tiie same manner as in Shellield. The blade is m.w ready for 
tlie Handle, which is made from ivory, pearl, Inu'ii-tips, cattle sidn-bunes, 
cocoa wood, rosewood, e'lony, or bufi'alu horns. 

Tiie Handles are cut into shape l;y saws, then passed through various 
macliines, giving them the rc(pur.d shapes, and fitting tlicni to receive 
the Hlades. Ordinarily the handles are fastened to the blade by cement 
or rivets, but in this estal)lislimcnt most of the handles are atlarhed liy 
special processes, that secure them lirmly and prevents the pos>il)iliiy of 
tlieir IcciMiiing loose l)y use or exposure to hot wa'.er. These imiirove- 
ments are patented by this Company and used only by them. 

This Company make about live hundred dillerent styles of Cutlery, 
and consume in their manufacture 200 tons of Steel per year, IS.OOO 
pounds of Ivory, loO tons of Kbony. :iOO tons of llosewood, :500 Ions 
of Cocoa wood, 400 tons of C.ial, 100 tons of (irindst.uu's, 10 Ions of 
Kiiiory. 5 tons of Sheet lirass and IJrass Wire, and about a0O,OUO pieces 
of Shin Hones. 

Tiie buildings are constructed so as to form a hollow sfpiare, and 




«r.e nf LrroxmA TUc main buiMing, which i? 
cover an area of seven aer s « f^^ 'wide and two stories high. M\- 
of brick, is 208 feet Ion, by 5 ^^;^^ ^^ ,^^, ,,^,^ ,,, ,,,icb 
joining this is their ^l^'^^;^:^,^^ rin^^aLner. and other heavy 
they run twenty-one l"!-' -i"""*^ *;;' J;,^ ^^jyi , j^ the I'olishinp 
„,„,.hinevy. At the opposite end of the "[^^ ^" ) ,;,,,,,.,. 

Shop, no feet long by 25 feet con a ^^ J^ndli and fur 

The other ^^^^--^:,;'l^ir^,^^., and Tcnperin, 
riuishing; and another, 112 by -o, lo ,. ^ .,.,. not sullieiently ko 

the Blade. Extensive as these bndd.ngs a.e t au K^t J ^^ 

to acconnnodate the ---'"l^ "jrV ^h^: U^^^^^^ -arly 
erect, during the present year (18G4), ntw o 

double the capacity of tl>e 1'^--;^ ;-;^^^;;'^; superintendence of J. W. 

Ti>c manufacturing department s "- ^ ;'' ^;^^^^,. , „f the time 
Gardner, who has been with the t^-"!'- ^^^^f^^n- who is the 
since they engaged in the manulactu.. of lablc Cutlet), 
inventor of some of their most popular stjles^ ^ 

For several y^rs the ^^^:]Z^Z:.'cLX" ^ith 
rated as the '■La.nson & ^^^'^^'l^; treasurer, and J. W. 

^;m-utlery to the amount of *«^0,mU) annua^ 

^" '"'''r- Ltst iS: ::^^X -hmLy to use the 
Vermont, where the {n>t KilKs wtit j ^^^^ ^^_ 

Minie ball or its equivalent and wher - ^ '^^^ ,^^ ^^mory 

..,,„ery and tools were n,ade tlnvt are now >" - ' '' ;;^.,J„,i„„ ,ith 
in England, at KnUeld, near IKu. ^ . > ^^^^^^^^^^^ .^ 
E. E. Lan.son, under tl>e name o ^^ ^■J^^'';^ ^.,„,,,,ted in 

now making Springlicld ^^"'-'^^"l^^l^XLr these weapons. 
1861 to supply tl>o Governnumt - > ^ / ^'^^^oved. They also 

"-vly '^'> "^:^^^\'7 Si^;r Ikin^ «u- and Pistols, 
n.anufactnre all k.nds ot >»";""' ^ ^, . , „,,,,,,ry to lit out 

moving ,.atterns and dra. ngs - ^ J ^ n.anufaeturing a new 

, complete Armory. ^''^'^ "" "7' ':"^.,,,„,ing prinei,.le, which 
,.,,,,,..Lo.ding Uille. constructed on '^"^ '^^^^J^ ad without 
,.,, ,„.n iired nine tinu-s in eleven -'^^ ; ^ ^ ^^"^ , ,,,, n.nute. the repeating, .t i>as b en lued ^^^ \ j^j,,^. 

Thiristhe most, rapid ;^-f -;;;;; ;t::r:Xnd has been 
,„, W,n teste.1 by order o the ^^"""^: " , „^^. ^ ,„,longst« 

r..omn.ended as a ellieumt weapon '- ;^' ^^ "•.^•„,^. ,,„,, under 
tue class called "magazine guns," .he '" ^ ^Z, ai.Verent kinds 
,,, „,n-el. Ex,.er,s who have ^' - ^^ ^,, ,,,„ 

of breech-loading guns have expressed a p.tlc.cnce 



lilding, which i? 
jries high. A«l- 
et wide, m which 
and oilier heavy 
; is the rolishing 
•ows of polisiiers. 
llaudles and fur 
and Tempering 
not sutVieiently so 
iipany propose to 
! ttlVording nearly 

lendence of J. W. 
i- part of tl»e time 
vy, and wlio is the 

Company incorpo- 
r Company," with 
isurer, and J. W. 
red workmen, and 

rinory at Windsor, 
.ehinery to use the 
ter part of the ma- 
he principal armory 
, in association with 
ON & Company, is 
aving contracted in 

I of tliese weapons, 
.proved. They also 

Guns and Pistols, 
necessary to lit ont 
manufacturing a new 
ing principle, which 
lipeatcr; and without 
iity times per minute. 

advised. This Uilie 
rtment, and has been 
fs' use. Ilhdongsto 
'ing in tlie slncli under 

II of the dillVrcnl kinds 
succ for this, and even 

predict that it will inaugurate as important an era in the history of fire- 
arms as did the invention of Colt's Revolver. The repeating principle 
of this gun will be applied to Pistol.s. 

Ever since the invention of firearms the attention of ingenious men 
has been directed to the discovery of a perfect weapon loading at llic 
breech. If our countrymen have succeeded in making a perfect weapon 
of this kind they will be entitled to the credit of having made an inven- 
tion second only in importance to the invention of gunpowder. With 
such a weapon, an army lying on the ground and almost protected from 
harm, could pour into its antagonist a "sheet of fiame and shower of 
lead" that none could withstand. With such a weapon and the metallic 
watcr-i)roof cartridge an army could make its most successful attacks in 
the heaviest rain-storms. With such a weapon and cartridgt^ the pres- 
ent army of the United States, without calling for, much less imiiressing 
or conscripting one additional man, would bo invincible by any foe 
armed with the ordiimry musket or rifle, and standing exposed while 
"drawing ramrod" and going through the ceremonial re(|uircd in load- 
ing at tlie muzzle after each single shot. Distinguished generals have 
expressed the opinion that the adoption of a weapon of projicr con- 
struction, loaded at the Itreech, would doui)ie the ellective force of an 
army, but in this instance common sense is (piite etpial to the most ma- 
ture military experience.* It is believed that the ollicers of tin; govern- 
ment are now taking all of this class of arms that can lie maiiufaclured, 
but if it can be proved that they are not, the next generation will not 
judge them with the leniency of the ju'esent. 

Messrs. E. G. Lamson & Co. are now employing about 400 men in 
thei- Armory and Machine Shop. 

(1) Miijur-Oenoral llo.-ocrnni<, in a letter diitpd Xovenilicr I.Stli, ISOn, str.lod— " Tlin 
aovcniineiit luis nlreiuly bocomo eoivviiiooa that broceli-loinliii)?, rovdviiiir flmiiiliereJ, 
or MnglechiirKe.l arms, sIduUI bo used for cavalry ftn<l other mountfil tr.M^l«. It .^houUl, 
and in my opinion will, ultimately iid.ipt thorn for infantry. I have no doubt that couhl 
such arms, of proper construetion, bo substituted at once for those now in use, it would 
add not less than lifty per cent, to the foreo or power of the troops now in the field. In 
other words, wo should aurimeni our army onthalf by ehanging the weapons." 




[The following are the Statistics of the principal manufactures of 
Worcester County, which includes, besides the City of Worcester, the 
manufivL'turing towns of Clinton and Fitchburg, for the year ending 
June 1, IsGO :] 





1 . 


No. of 
MMiinfiU-tiiros. ineuln. 

AKrionlliinil implements 3 

Fauuius; mill.'* 


Plow Imndl*''* 


Straw cmiiTs 


Bolta, nuts, etc 

Boots aucl sluios 


Brass I'ouiulinii 

Bi'ooins ;inil linislios 

Broom ;uiil tool Iiiiiidlos.. 


Cabiupt t'uniiluro 

Chairs 62.. 

Callloiips !■•• 

Cane splitting l-- 

Car linings 1 .. 

Carpets I--- 

CuTiagea 33... 

•Cars 2... 

Carpenters' tools 2 .. 

Casks anil liarrels l-.. 

Clothing 37.. 

Cofflus ■»•• 

Comhs 2.5 .. 

Copying presses 1... 

Cotton goods 2.. 

Batting anil waililing 2... 

Cordage 2 .. 

Yarn, thveiid, wiek, etc C... 

Cotton and woolen machinery 7... 

Eavo tronu'hs I... 

Edite tools 6... 

Envelopes I.. 

Firearms 2.. 

Flour 67.. 

Oun powder !•■ 

Hand cards 3.. 

Haidwaro 6 . 

Hose and bellluK 2. 

Hosiery '■• 

Hubs, spokes and felloes ....... W.. 

Iron founding; 8.. 




1,52 ..100 













H.OOO .... 








140. '-10.... 



.1,000 .... 



no, .100... 

2.000 .. 
32>,300 .. 











$2.1, SOO,, 








4,070, "i31. 








Value of 
4.212 5,040 9,50.1,307 



4 2O.90O 


7 7,200 


479,001 1,311 1,231 1,421..54,') 

1(«,2S0 108 , 

11,300 .. 
















2S3,70S 1.39.. 

3,178 10.. 

114,665 262,. 

;!,ooo 9,. 






4,137,.114 2,380,008 2,970 3,345.. 

7,470 ., 


115,460 . 

261 ,6.10 . 



40.7.10 . 

10 . 

21.900 1.32., 

28,220 . 
54,910 . 


9 .... 

62 .... 

63 ... 







1,39,720 174.. 


8,1 60 











1 12,000 

131. .300 






manufactures of 

)f Worcestei', the 

the year euiling 


Viiliin of 












4 20,fiOO 


7 7,200 


.1,231 1,421 ,n4.'. 







. 3,345., 

1 . 

. 20.. 

. 80.. 








8,1 fiO 
















131 ..iOl) 



Iritn, ri>lU'd 


Lasts and b.wt trees 


LiniMi i,'oi>ds 

liOcciiii.'Iive aud car ropaii-iug,. 


Luinl'or, jilaiieil 

" sawed 


Macliiiie-caril elotliiui; 

Macliiue knives 

Mallealile eastings 



JleUiil.'.iii eases 

Mnsloal insirumeuts 

Musical reeds 




Packed pto visions 

Palnileaf hats 

Paper, prinlini; and writing,.. 

Paper, wrapiiing 

Patent machines 

Patterns and models 


Piano and nielodeon legs 

Pocket Books 

Pottery ware 


Printing 'j- 

Refined cider 

Keeds anil harness, etc 

Saddlery and harness 

Sash, doors and blinds 



Shoe nails 

Shoo peijs 

Shoemakers' tools 


Soap and candles 

Steol traps 


Straw goods 

Tin aud sheet-iron ware 


Wooden ware 

Woolen goods 

Woolen yarns 

Total, Inelmling miscellane- 
ous manufactures not abovo 

Xo, of 

1- Capital 




Value of 











Ijtl 10,000 













387,100 .,., 

977„120 .... 

317 .... 




114 7.10... 


. 100 




3.000 .,,. 

'JO ... 



20,000 .... 










:i4."j,,TiO .... 


3,12 .. 





149..1.).1 ..„ 






70 ... 

. 10 

























13.27.1 ... 


.V2. too 










18, .100 


.I), 200 







liOO ... 










7,000 ,., 

11.000 ... 




67,700 .... 


. 110... 

. 445 





. 114... 




S1,000 ... 

42,000 ,,. 


.. 10 






.. H 



2,llii0 .... 


















.. 136 .... 















6,3.10 ... 













.. 36 




16,400 ., 






.. 102... 

























... .2... 































64 ,,100... 



... 182... 



82,200 .. 


.. 101,. 






.. .394,. 

... 28,... 


. 26,,.. 


162.800 .. 

.. 332.. 

3 ... 



, 1,910.000... 

.. 3,(W7,,131,. 

... 2,00;5.. 

... 1,106,,, 

„ 6,19,5,112 





„. 33,... 









The Washburn Wire Works-lchabod Washburn & Moen, Proprietois 

Worcester has lonff been known as one of the most Ao'vishin, and 
eu^-nr sing of the inte^-ior cities of New England, and notedespee, 1 
tl vadetv and extent of its mannfactures. The leading inter .t .n 
le y d • d by the amonnt of the prodnct (which is no« con. em- 
■; :t\hL tl^ statistics show),is Wire f -•>;^; ^ . ^^j;^^ 
and largest of the establishments in this manufaclure is the \^ asliburn 

"^Th^"^ were founded in 1834, by Ichabod Washburn who had 
p.:J;:::;i been engaged in maUing wire at No^-"e- ^ --- 
County where he built a small factory as early as 1831 At tlu 1 1 me 
W Dr w n. as an American manufacture was in its nfancy-m act 
Cnm Wi w.; not- made from the rods to any extent in t is coun tr ^ 
Wt little had been made was of an -^^-r quality that tm.hHO 
excite a prejudice against American wire. This prejudice Mr. ^^ ash 
bu n resolv d to overcome, which could only be done by making au 
^^iH? better quality than the imported; ^^^ ^J^f^ ^^ '^^ '^^ 
evident from the fact that in five years after he had budt h J^ «vt ALU 
card wire was no longer imported. In this he was aided first by the 
:ln Horded by'a favorable tariff, and secondly by a large home 
S ma d The County- of Worcester has long been the principal seat of 
i m nufactuve of Card., both hand and machine, in this country 
I .. ho F rles for three generations, and other celebrated makers of 

^L 1 ::;d:o;Lig, ha^ pursued this -7- -t:ic=:: 

Indeed until recently but .few cards were made out of Massac Imetts^ 

'uu'u, ™ ot™b r o Lr« w» ordLnavi,, do,,. i« that oo«„lry. 
Cart W c™U,,uea to bo for ,aa„,yo.r» ll,o leading arlic o of man- 
Ca,.l W,ro «»"': „„ tj„j, became ,u demand 


ten, Froprietois 

it flonrishin!; and 
noted espeeially 
jading interest in 
is now considera- 
; and tlu; oldest 
s the " Waslibnrn 

ashburn, who had 
hvillc, Worcester 
31. At that time 
s infancy— in fact 
t in this country. 
ly, that tended to 
jndice Mr. Wasli- 
ine by making an 
lat he did this, is 
jilt the Grove Mill 

aided first by the 
y by a large home 
le principal seat of 
e, in this country, 
lebrated makers of 

branch of business. 
t of Massachusetts. 

success was due to 
, that not only ira- 
)duct. In 1851, at 
dmitted by the large 
uid machinery supe- 

tinies as much wire 
one in that country, 
iding article of man- 
Is became in demand 
Ml the invention of 

wire for telegraphic 

its manufacture, es- 
luctor of the electric 



fluid than ordinary wire. Previous to the adoption of the process of 
galvanizing, the scale had to be removed from the wire by means that 
required an exposure to acids from fifteen to twenty minutes, wliich ren- 
dered it brittle. To obviate this defect Mr. Washburn secured the con- 
trol of an English patent for a process by which tiie wire is passed 
til rough a tube heated so as to bring it up to a slight red heat, and then 
llirough a cold acid bath, remaining in it however hardly a second, from 
which it emerges in a perfectly clean condition, and not injured as it 
usually is when long exposed to acids. Wire made in this way has borne 
the weight of trees falling upon it without breaking. The importance 
of great tenacity in telegraphic wire is too evident to need remark. The 
following Table represents the common numbers of iron wire used for 
this purpose, and its strength as plain wire, and also when coated with 
zinc — the figures representing in pounds the strain at which each had 
broken : 

Plain Iron. Oalvanizod. 

No. 6 2,300 2,390 

No. 1 2,010 2,210 

No. 8 1,820 1,985 

No. 9 1,520 1,(5(55 

• Plain iiou. Galvanized. 

No. 10 1,2t0 1,:!85 

No. 11 1,043 1,155 

No. 12 832 992 

No. 13 631 886 

Messrs. Washburn and Moen are the only makers of Patent Gal- 
vanized Wire in the United States, and notwithstanding it is established 
that the system which they have adopted uniformly secures the ad- 
ditional strength of 12^ per cent, in tension, and the same in the section 
power, over any other mode of galvanizing yet adopted, they sell it at 
same prices charged by others for the ordinary wire. 

When the popularity of Hoop Skirts created a demand for Crinoline 
Wire, this firm engaged extensively in its nninufacture, and they are now 
by far the largest producers of this wire in the United States. Tlie steel 
used in making crinoline wire is imported from England in the form of 
coiled rods of about ^ of an inch in thickness. 

The first operation to which it is suljjected, is heating it to about a 
bright-red heat, in a furnace adapted for the purpose, by which it is 
softened. It is next cleansed with an acid to remove all oxide from its 
surface, after which it is coated with rye-flour and dried in a special ap- 
paratus. It is now ready for drawing, which consists in reducing the 
Bteel rod to a much less diameter and at the same time greatly extend- 
ing its length. One end of the rod is first pointed on an anvil down to 
the size or number to which it is to be drawn on the "gauge plate." 

The wire, after it has Iieeu pointed, is passed through a hole of 
the proper size in a steel draw-plate, which is secured fast to the 


IX- , 7 It takes 1,0 less tim,. t»i.-lH,i-»f l>o»c,- to ,l™w 11.. »lul 

of the .netul very close teethe, -"'^-"'^^^^t;!,'; ^' I^^^ ,„ u.e 
it can be drawn a seeoml lime it requires to be .ollcuccl a, 
:L;:;;iin. rurnaco. ana aUerwards eleansed in 1^ ---: ^ ^ 
nreparccl for the first drawing operation. It i. then d awn nn , 
i:r;hole in a draw-.late and reduced ^^o -s.uk1 s on ^ 
,,, been reduecd to the requisite size and wh t w a 
„,.,Ui has been -tended to two Uio^ pud. U.t^^^^^^ 

by drawing from one reel and P^f "" '^ ^^ r^^'.^^^^i 3, ,„,,i,., it 


. in covering wire. f ii„„=. Tlw wire after being tern- 

Tl,k process raa, l.o .lescnbcd «s (""■>»■«■ J "• " °; " . ^J ,„ „ 

fc„„„ „ca,- tl,« lloor ami tl,o «-<. 1'""' '; '""5„ „,,,„„ „„„„„|, a 

,„,,„,„, ,„„..i,i„t.s ■- ;'»™t,7>;; t ; .::U„ML,'iia. „>a. 

^ ^-■'•"■••';':;::::-rt,:';:;:t;,:!;.i:.«'-u:ti.i,«s,et.^^ 

•u-c thus moved thej bi.ucl ti y ^^^^^^ ^^ 

country of Wuo for M-lea •»"•-";. ,:rm:o,.oll.c,l 1,, a 
„i.,„,ro,-,e »\™;»V:r"A •; . 1 1 *- "f *» '«" Mr. CMekfr- 

THE wAsnnuuN wiiik wokks. 


to a drawinS" 
1 the drawing- 
it and p\ills it 
to wire gauge 
Iraw tlie steel 
•sses the atoms 
rittle. Before 
I again in the 
anner as it was 
iwn tl\rough a 
so ou until it 
I few yards ir. 
s then flattened 
)f pressure steel 
d by passing it 
of oil where it 
lead heated to 
ring niueh prac- 
eess for teniper- 
Moen have fa- 
a'ek. They fur- 
lehines employed 

after being tem- 
1 are placed in a 
he middle of the 
ivssing upward, a 
ord-braiding ma- 
ers the wire with 
i-es by a series of 
e, and while they 
md thus perfect it 
250,000 yards of 
ry, and when run- 

value of this class of wire consists in its power of tension, which de- 
pends largely upon the practical skill of the nninufacturer and tlie pro- 
cesses employed in tempering. Mr. Washburn invented a mode of 
tempering wire longitudinally, for which he obtained a patent, and tlic 
wire made at these works is distinguished not only for great stren'j,'tli 
but uninu'inity of temper, smoothness of surface, and higii finish. It is 
used in all the best pianos made in this country. Tins firm also nndvc 
tine Plated Wire, which is wound around tiic bass strings of other mu- 
sical instruments. Besides tliese leading descriptions of wire, the firm 
make all the varieties of Steel Wire for Needles and for Machinery and 
Springs, and also wire from refined iron for (Jun Screws — in fact all 
kinds of round, flat or oval, iron and steel Wire. 

Since ISoO Mr. I'iiilip L. Mocn has been associated with Mr. Was'i- 
burn in the proprietorsliip of these works, and has had cliarge of tiie 
financial department of the affairs of the establishment, Mr. Moen is 
regdrded by the community in which he lives as one of their best finan- 
ciers. The firm have two nulls in Worcester, the (Jrove Mill in the 
northern part of the city, which has a roof ir)00 feet in lengtli, and a 
Binaller mill in the southern part of the city, where the coarse kinds of 
wire are made. They employ about (iOO hands, including 40 fenuilcs, 
and produce an annual value exceeding a million of dollars. 

The increase in the demand for Wire within the last twenty-five years 
has been enormoiM. When Mr Was!d)urn commenced, in 1831, his 
production was limited to about 300 pounds per day : now his works 
filone produce about 7 tons of Iron and 5 tons of Steel Wire per day — 
and the product of the whole country, it is estimated, is aljout 90 tons 
a day. In Great IJritain there has been a similar increase. About 
sixty years iigo nearly or quite the whole i)roduct of iron wire in Eng- 
land was made at Prestwood, and taken to Birmingham with a two-horse 
team twice a week. It did not probably exceed four tons per week. 
Now one firm in Manchester inannfactures lOo tons per week, and this 
is prol)aljly not more than one-tenth of what is made weekly in Great 

;ole makers in this 
i to 1S50 all the 
monopolized by a 
late Mr. Chicker- 
iced to engage in 
3 succeeded in pro- 
iglish. The great 


Washburn, Barnum & Ca/s Car Wheel Works 

.^t.blishmcnts of Worcester, but the senior part- 
^'^^'":': -IIX wRru:inu..ctunn, interests for many years, 
iHT has been id.Mtilita wiu nromotintr its i)rospenly. 

,„a has been largely "-trumonta m pu^ ^ S , (,J„„,',ieut, where ho 
Mr. Nathan Washburn .s a « _^^ ^J j,,.^,;,,^, to 

was engaged in .naUing iron ^^^^^^^^^^ ,, ,,e .anufacturo 
lishing himself in Woreester. he wa« al o e j, R . ^^^^^^ ^^,^ 

.aron,at l^'^eVburg Massaohu^^^^^^ ^^_^._ ,^ ,,. 

woollen maehinery, at Kocne^it , ^^ ^^^.^^^^ ^^^ g^^,. 

tained his Qrst patent for an improved ^ ^^ ,„ ,,, f,„ of 

eessful as he desirecU.o ^^>J^^ttei g i partnership in the Car 
1848, and went to Wovc-te^ , e ue^^ S ^^J^^^^ ^^_^^^^^ ^^ ^^^, 
Wheel manufacture with L. A convci Washburn 

:.rse .. Washburn, which -^jll^^-'tJ^eVlther improvement 
became the sole proprietor. In is* _ ^^ ^^^^^^,^^ ^^ 

,, oar Wheels, wl>i^ was patonte^^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^,,.,„.,„,. 

Washburn's Patent Wheel. He . ^i^, i^^b and 

,ion of the areb with the curved ^''''l^f ^""^'Z .^ of the metal in 
,in,, and an improvement in the manner of spog ^^^^.^^ 

U.'wheol so as to 1-auce great sUenghu leliev^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ 
when cast and properly chilled. «>"« avo n ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^.^ 

,,Ui.h ordinary wheels are liable -^«" f^ ; '^^ ,,^ ,„,,,,,, of the 
,vheel was such that 'it no -f f ^ f ^ Xblnt of foundries for 
foundry at Worcester but^ ed to ^^csta , ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

casting the -^--^ /^^^ VJ,, ,, Brandon. Vermont (which are m 
places. At the Car Wheel vvoi j^ , j^ ,,ow bemg 

U„„„eaby thi,u,vc„tor) J .uj»^ ^^ ^,^^ ,„„„.„,.,„ 

„,a>lc. It "■-.'""'■"■'.y f" "^'tvMo hot from lh« ..ouUIb in a ,,i. of 
,„SC.t in Now EnglanC, and oon.,.t o' '«» 1 oBu B ^^^^ ^^_^ ^^^^ 

,, ono ■-"'« -7^7r i' d:r :::; iay .y rony foe., wiu. . 
„,,^ a. ono ^j;-.-;:-^: ;:::r: i^.':e ti „o „a,pn- 

Tires, for which Mr. W a^uourn without 

,e„,od, winch roiis tho tiro to '« P'JJ * f:;:;': .hj„,.unlao,„ro, 
boring. Vnlil rcooniiy nnporlcJ iron waa u«ia 


NATHAN \VASIIiail.N\s OAR WllKI',!, WOllKS. 



e senior part- 
i\' niiiny years, 

Lieut, wliero ho 
ivious to citab- 
le niamit'acturc 
['or coUon and 
a 1847, he ob- 
it being as suc- 
•e in the fall of 
hip in the Car 
m-stylc of Con- 
Mr. Washburn 
ler improvement 
vidcly known as 
iOn the coinblna- 
ting the hub and 
of the metal in 
3 it from strain, 
of the defects to 
he success of this 
e business of the 
of foundries for 
York, and other 
lont (which are in 
rheel is now being 
at the foundry in 
moulds in a pit of 
)oled in ovens ex- 
re now among the 
■mills four hundred 
I hundred and fifty 
,y forty feet, with a 
all about four acres 
rolling Locomotive 
ne that he has pa- 
of any size, without 
a this manufacture. 

but tires are now made from tlie produce of tiie ore-ueds at Siilisbury, 
in Litclilieid county, Conni'dicut, which supplied llie metal from which 
cannon, siiot, antl shell were made during tlii^ Kevolulionary war, and the 
heavy guns with which the " Old Ironsides" was armed. Jt is lu'lieved 
that this iron is fully ecjual if not superior to the Knglish for the purpose. 
'I'hesc Works, while under his administration, were also largely em- 
ployed in roUir.g llailroud Iron, producing about four hundred and fifty 
tons per week, and during tiie Llebellion were filteil \ip for the manu- 
facture of (Junbarruls, of whicii they produced as many as live tliousanii 
per month, i'revions to the commencement of tiie recent Kebellion, 
gunbarrels were welded under the blows of trii)-hamniers, upon anvils 
which contained a die— after the maimer of the present " drop"— of the 
form desired, a similar die being placed above within the descending 
hammer. This process of welding the barrel required numerous heat- 
ings and repeated blows, ami was both costly and laborious. Mr. 
Washburn 'was among the first, it is said the very first of the private 
establishments, to employ the rolling machine in this manufacture, 
whith has reduced the cost of nuddng a gunbavrel from twelve cents 
to lour. The barrel being heated to a white lu.-at in the furnace, is 
passed ihrough rolls, or consta..ily decreasing grooves until it has at- 
tained the proper dimensions. It weighs ten pounds when it enters 
the first roll, and when it issues completed it weighs less than seven. 
The plan is English, and was brought to this country by an individual 
who enjoyed a monopoly of his art for a long time, but the process is 
a secret no longer, being now employed we believe in most of the best 

In 1S()5, Mr. Washburn disposed of his interest in these Works, and 

erected, in the immediate vicinity, a brick foradry, two hundred by 

sixty feet, for the manufacture of his improved Car Wheel. This 

foundry has a capacity for producing ont hundred wheels a day, but it 

is i)roposcd to increase its facilities by the addition of mills for rolling 

Locomotive Tires. In the same year, Mr. Washburn, in association 

with William C. Barnum and other capitiviists, purchased the extensive 

Uolling-mills and Iron-works at Spuytcn Duyfel, near Yonkers, New 

York, where the best qualities of merchput Bar iron are now being made 

from Pig-iron produced at their Blast Furnaces, near Canaan, Connecticut. 

Mr. Washburn is the architect of his own fortune. Commencing 

life with no advantages not usually possessed by ordinary workmen, he 

has achieved by hand and brain both wealth and an honorable position. 

It is a current observation in Worcester that to no other man is the city 

more indebted for its manufacturing importance and reputation for en- 




WiUiam A. Wheeler's Iron Foundry, 

Thon.h not so extensive as the others that Imve been remarked nyKju 
i t' everal reasons entitled to rank a.nou, the "otaWe ma^uh. u^ 
of Worcester It is one of the oldest cstabhshment of the k.nd in tl t 
Stl. ^g been eonunenecd by Mr. Wheeler in 1825 and has b 
™d by ti:; san.e proprietor ibr a period of "-^^ ^J^^;^^,^/ 
„r.t Sleam-Engine employed in the State west of Bo.ton was put up 

"'Mr^n::trwas also the first, it is said, to -nufa.U.e llot^iv 
Furnaees in Massachusetts, and it is a somewhat renuxrkable fact hat 
n Xa di.g the number of new articles of this cla.s with winch 
u l^i f vicinity have of late years been supplied. Ins Furnace 

Si-i^ltc^lisLd popularity, though but few change, imvel.^ 

;;;:;rin hto provide anSnerease of radiating surface sn>fce .ts nUro- 

'"Wh^ct^ Ir^n Works are located centrally in Worcester, on the line 
,f Uu N hua and Worcester Railroad, and comprise an Iron foundry, 
f t 'Cdry, a Machine Shop, Forge, and ^-/^'IJ-'ll^j - 
buildings, that cover in all about two acres of grou d ihc uaclu e 
iJ nrnished with every convenience for expedit.ous work 1 
u uiacturcs of the establishment comi,rise almost every ot 
mS^ Railroad, Iron, Rrass and Con.position Cast .gs. Stoves, and 
1 Air Furnaces for wood or coal, Tilt and Drop Uunmers AWtc, 
and Steam Ripe, llvdrants. Retorts, Boring Mills an.l Runchmg 
r ss" R db.g ron Work, Cauldrons, Kettles, etc. The I atteru 
S in ; vid'l with a large stock of patterns, accunndated .u tl,o 
c'nlSe of years, and the assortment Tor shafung, gearing, and general 

mill work is csnecially noticeable. 

M Vh elerisone of the most highly res.ectod and u.gcn,ou. a 

wcU aso eof the oldest of the American iron founders nowengaged 

n a t ve business. Among the latest of his inventions are nnproved 

, a d T i,.llnmmers, which are now extensively used for the ,nanu- 

JlZe of Firearms and .iobbing. and a number of them are now m use 

in the government armories. « 




lai'kccl upon, 

! kind in the 
iiul lius ljL>on 



I was put up 

ture Ilot-Air 
iblc fact that 
:S with wliicl) 
1, his Furnace 
igcs have l)e('n 
sinfce its intro- 

:er, on the lino 
Iron Foundry, 
liop, and their 

Tlie nuicliine 
us work. Tlie 

description of 
Rs, Stoves, and 
.nuuers, '\\ ater, 

und runehinfi; 
, The Fatteru 
Ululated in tho 
ng, and general 

id ingenious, as 
•s now engaged 
IS are improved 
jd for the numn- 
1 are now in uso 

Richardson, Meriam & Co., 

Whoso works are at Worcester, are in every respect among tho leading 
niaimfacturers of Wood Working .Machinery in tho United Slates. 
As the successors of the original manufacturers wlio first made this a 
si'eciality, and with which firm all the members of tlie present linu 
were at one time connected, tbcy may also be called tho oldest eslal)- 
lished manufacturers in their dopa;-tment in this country. 

Previous to ]^A',{), the manufacture of Wood Working machinery 
was not carrijd on as a separate and distinct branch in any part of the 
United States. In that year, tho firm of J. A. Fay it Co., eommeiieed 
the business at Keene, New Hampshiro, and by sntierior workmanship 
established a reputation that extended even to Europe. As their busi- 
ness Increased it became necessary to enlarge their manufacturing facili- 
ties. Accordingly, in 1853, they pnchased a small concern in Wor- 
cester, and organized a In-anch under tho name of ,1. A. I'ay it Co., 
of Worcester, making its Ijusiness alVairs distinct from those of the 
parent establishment in Keene. 

Jn April, 1854, ISIr. Fay died, but his widow continued the Imsine-s 
with the other partners until ISGl, when the prostration of Inisiness 
incideni to the breaking out of the Rebellion, rendered a dissolution of 
the lirm advisable, and, accordingly, its ail'air.s were settled so fn' as 
they could be, and every demand paid. 

In April, 1852, Horace A. llicliardsou, Rufus \. .Aleriain, AVillinin 
B. Mclver, and Samuel F. IJond, ail of whom, as we have staled, bad 
been connected with the old lirm, commenced business under the name 
of Richardson, Meriam it Co. Mr. Richardson was a nephew of Mr. 
Joslin, of tiie lirm of J. A. Fay it Co., and )• j enjoyed the benefit of his 
uncle's counsel and experience to a largo extent. lie has been cuu- 
ueeted with tho manufacture of Wood Working machinery since 181(i, 
and from 1858 to its dissolution was a member of the firm of Fay it Co. 
Mr. Meriam entered the employ of that firm in 185;J, and for several 
years was their foreman in the wood deparlmenl. ^lessrs. Mclver 
and 13ond entered the employment of J. A. Fay it Co. in 1855, the 
former as journeyman, the latter as an apprentice in the machinery 
department. They were devotfd to the business, becaiiio e.xccUeiit 
workmen, and to them was assigned that part of the work which re- 
(piin'tl tho greatest skill to execute. At the formation of this linn it 
was predicted that its career would bo short lived on account oi' the 
advor.«e state of tho Nation's affairs, but the combined oxiierienee of its 
meml)ors, resulting in the i)roduction o*" the most perfe(^t Wood Win-k- 
ing machinery ever mnuufaclured, insured a complete and uiidoubU'd 


,„l,stitoU,.|; iron for wood stee for .. J ,„„ ,i,„„je. 

f.„ .»t iron, wheoovor a Ik * , K 1 ^^^ ,^^^^^_ ^.^_^^_ ^^ ._^, 

„,.dm,.» the follo»i,iR "'»^;' 7;;;,°' r'Ling machine,, invented l.y 
The mw Culler Arm for O'^'^' '"',»,, L„„cr3 Patent dated 

of tl.o operator. Wooaworth's Plnninp Machines, 

The Ej-pnn>^n:e Fi'td Ucerwj lui \i,,rfh21tl) ISfiG, is 

„„„„„ I, „. Willian, «■,»'';"; :;l::':X*''n.,L.n tested 


helbre usihI. . ^„, , ,,„ at- SF Bond, for which 

The Self Oilin, '^"^-•^'\'^''' ^T^^^l o„e c<- those vnluahle 

Letters I'ntent issued ^^ /-'"/l- f ' ^ ^o's e-ry machine in u.e, 

and relates to Unit (Itsinpu ^,,„. .,,..j -,„ the lower or box part, 

,„„ el, „r l"'-"'f"«J';;7;l ,,!''„;:, of the latter, .hlle 

„,„! i, drawn out on to the ;""""' ,, ,„ „,„ ,„,„„ ,„„,ion, re- 

,„e .,r,d«., or »y «"« °; . : , " T u invention i, d„ly a,,..- 

r,:;' ::r;t: int':;.;^™:::., ...d i, now .p,di«d to .„ 

,hen.a.-hinet.oftln.irman»l..eture. .„, „„,, „,„ki„B in.- 


„„„ „rod„ee n;*- - ;■• :;;,;;,; „r,;;: ';;, a warehon.. at No. 
„„1 it, ndvantap'» are very al.imrenl. 

t. w. pond's machine tool works. 


lly in appcar- 
ave constaiUly 
new putteruh, 
wr.iujrht iron 
,1 the change, 
sizes, so that 
her purpose, it 
itions made by 
iplietl to their 

IS, invented hy 
s Patent <lated 
rer attached to 

■ value, without 
personal safety 

minfi Machines, 
eh '27th, 18fiG, is 
t has been tested 
veal merits, and 
iiost satisfactory 
5 than any thing 

. Bond, for which 
of those valuable 
y machine in use, 
ml boxes in which 
)\ver or box part, 

■ the latter, while 
same motion, re- 

lion is duly appre- 
low applied to all 

one, makiiisr ii»- 
vhich arc furnished 
. several Mouldinii' 
it bid fair to surpass 

mt seventy hands, 

hundred ihousitiui 

1, \vareho\ise at No. 

ion of iheir patrons, 

L. \7. Pond's Machine Tool Works 

May be called the pioneer of those establishments which, from their 
number, have given such a distinctive character to the city of Worcester 
that some one has said if lie were called upon to define its position, he 
would answer that it was bounded on the north by Engine Lathes, on 
the east by Planers, on the south by Steam Engines and IJolt Cutters, 
and on the west by Machinery for all sorts of purposes. Mr. Pond is 
the successor of Samue! Flagg, who came from JJoylston^aud estab- 
lished in ^\'orcestcr the iirst manufactory of INlachiuists' Tools. At 
that time it was asserted that he could sui)ply, with his small force of 
six or ten men, all the tools of this description that would be required 
in the United States ; and no one predicted that, in less than twenty 
years, Worcester alone would employ in the aggregate a thousand men 
on this class of machinery. 

Mr. Pond began in Mr. Flagg's establislnnent as an apprentice, then 
became foreman, and not long afterwards a partner. In 1854 the 
original manufactory was destroyed in the great lire, and though the 
loss was very heavy through the failure of the Insurance Companies, 
every creditor was paid in full, and no one was ever solicited to accept 
less than the amount of his claim justly duo. Subsequtntly, during the 
same year, Mr. Pond purchased the interests of the other partners, and 
soon after erected a new building near the former site, and commenced 
the manufacture of tools for his individual account, which he has since 
successfully prosecuted without a partner. 

The main building in which hi= manufacturing operations are now 
carried on is one hundred and ninety-four feet long, forty feet wide, 
and three stories high. To this are attached a smith's shop, pattern 
shop, and boiler room. Among the remarkable machines to lie .seen in 
the lower lloor of the main building is an immense iron planer weighing 
thirty-two tons, another weighing fifteen tons, and a horizontal bori>ig 
and turning lathe, particularly adapted to boring steam cylinders. This 
lallie originated in this eslalilishmcnt, though it has l)een extensivelv 
copied ^y others. The second lloor is ai)propriatcd principally to the 
manufacture of medium-size Engine Tal)les, Drilling .Machines, and 
the manufacture of Tafts' celel.raled Patent Rolling l-cver Punching 
luid Shearing Machin.'S, Mr. Pond having the .■.xclnsive right of 
manufacture ; while the third floor is used in part for the nuinnractuiv 
of light machinery— also the manufacture of a new and greatly im- 
proved Sin-ing Cali|)er, said by experts to be deslined to sup.'rsede 
those of English manufacture, as they cVi- be furnished for about one 
half the CO-.. The machinery is driven by an upright (loui)le.cylin(l.'r 


l.inoof .xtyhorso-power.ancjo.out one hunared an. t.onty-fivo 
b^ucb are cniployed in the -^abh. nuent^ .^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ 

Mr. Pond has the reputation of ^^'^»^' ^^ ;;;f '^^^^^ with in.lin.d amis in the United States. ^I^^^ ^^^1 U^s of .ears to 
to keep the cutter ni V^^^'^^^'^^^^Zl^ and efficient action. The 
loet diameter, is renmrkable foi its ''"^ ^ ^„,, ; ,,„ious 

,H,diiig machine, adjustahle to ^y^^^t^vo..^ Uib or Lock 
aa-air. lUs engine lathes ^^^ ^^^^^ Z^, ^^^. in operation 
Rest, so arranged that the tool - h - ^^^^^^. j^^^,. ^j. ,,, 

,vith the same convenience as the "^^^^^^ he easily removed, leav- 
Host is so constructed that the uppe ^ ;«;; ^/^^ I,,, i,,„ Planing 
U.g the lower Partwellarrjmgedor^o^^^^^^^ Gears, the pecu- 

Machines are provided with "^.^^^ ° ,,y ^^e 

Uarities of which are the ^^^'''^^^:^" ^f the Kack and Gear. 
«erew, and the increased strength and d...a hty ^^^^^_^^^ ^ 

At a late exhibition of macm-ry ^^^^^ ^Wweighed twelve tons, 
lathe for turning I--'^^^^ ^"""^'^^^ila ia point of finish, 
,„awas pronounced by experts a -^ •^^,^;,,,, ^.d spindles of 

^vhile its proportions were ^"'^»^'^^- ,,^ ^ \ '"\,.,„.., and in convenience 
his Locomotive Driver Lathes are unnbso^^^ ,,, 

for shitVing the ---^^/"^ J J ', ;"^^ ; rder to accomniodate 
speed of the cone, are not «-^^'^"''' ' f^ '^^,^;,^.^,i„„ aemand for his ma- 
the public, and supply the ^'^^'^^^^^^^'^^ ^ew York city, at 

nuvchinery in motion. . ^^ ^j,, Massachusetts 

Mr. Pond is now, for a tlnrcl teim, i* ^..uu.^s of a practical 

ests of his State. 

Wood, Light & Co., Worcester, Massachusetts, 

^,ose reputation for --^^-^^:^^^ZXy^'^^^ 
,.or quality is second to none -;,';;;^^'^'^C,o^L^^^, known s 



[lu twcnty-fivo 

quality to any 
h iiicliiK'il "I'lUri 
f ffciirritueisilit 
it action. Tbi 
niost iugi'iiiouri 
ed Gib ov Lock 
ben ill opi-ratioa 
iowev hall' of the 
■ rcmovi'tl, loav- 
[ivM-a, the pecu- 
ion given by the 
i Rack and Gear, 
pond exhibited ft 
rrhod twelve tons, 
point oV iinisli, 
:; and riiiindleH of 
id in convenience 
for changing the 
p to aceoni'nodate 
nand for hi^ lua- 
e\v York city, at 
a good assortment 
,i_this l)eing the 
c samples of such 

the Massachusetts 
jects of a practical 
ud industrial iuter- 


^nd Tools of a supo- 
;upy for their Works 
c building known .s 
lomnicncemenl of its 
Vood and Joseph F. 
ud cxpc-.lencc in the 

construction of Machinery. Mr. Light, who may be Grilled the senior 
l.urtner, inasmuch as he was connected with Hrms that preceded the 
present copartnership, was formerly employed in the celebrated Foun- 
dry of Cyrus Alger, in South Boston, and is a practical Machinist of 
acknowledged ability. Mr. Wood, previous to His removal to Worces- 
ter, was several years Master Mechanic in the workshops of the .James 
^^erew Company, at Somerville, New Jersey, and possesses a genius 
for originating improvements and solving intricate problems in meehan- 
ism that entitles him to a high rank among American Inventors. 

The Tools made by this firm are distinguished for good material, 
care in construction, and a suitable proportion of weight— or, in other 
words, adaptedness to the work reipiired to be done by them. Tliey 
include all the usual varieties of Lathes, Planers, Boring Mills. Verti- 
cal Drills, Milling and Profile Machines, and a variety of novel ma- 
chines not ordinarily made in such shops, such as Traverse Drills with 
an upright attachmem, Nasmyth Hammers, and Gun Barrel Welling and 
Finishing Machii 'S — in fact, this firm seem to possess the ability to con- 
struct any kind of Tool that may be recpiired, however spei'iul or peculiar 
the purpose. Most of the Tools made l)y Wood, Lights Co. iiave also 
certain distinctive features and novel devices in their constituent parts, 
designed to promote the convenience of who operate them ; and 
many of the improvements that are now generally atlopted by Tool 
I lilders originated with this firm. For instance, Messrs. Wood, Light 
V Co. originateil the arrangements in Lalhcx, now used by many Tool 
builders, for changing the motion of the screw from right to left hand, 
bv the use of three gears upon a plate inside the head-stock, with the 
hub of plate running through the stock, ou which is fastened an arm or 
lever with index pin attached. When the arm is raised to a certain 
point, the pin is thrown by a spring into a hole drilled in the head, and 
holds the gears in connection with the gear on the spindle, giving the 
si.rcw a right hand direction. When a left hand direction of the screw 
is recpiired, the pin is drawn and the am dropped, so that the pin falls 
into a hole in tiie head-stock and holds the gears in connection there- 
with. At an early day, this firm also made an important improvement 
in the friction feed of Lathes, designed to take the place of the chain 
feed formerly employed. This form of feed is regarded I)y those prac- 
tically 'amiliar with its advantages, as among the most simi)le and 
perfect iu use. To remedy the difliculty frecjuently complained of by 
persons using lathes, that the journals cut and grind through neglect 
in oiling, Mr. Wood has invented and patented a Self-Oiling Attach- 
ment, that keeps the journal always lubricated. The cup is so placed 
tliiit oil always finds its way to the journal until the cup is empty. 


Which can voadily be seen, and then easily repleni.hcl. Experionoo 
t^JZA..a that the hest totals for Lathe heads are e-t sU.1 a,.d 
cast iron-, and as. by this attadnnent, the .ournals are alwajs lupt 
oiled the „b)oction to their cnttins is cfteclually removed 

M; Wood has also recently patented an improved Lathe fbr t.n. , . 
shamn. that i. said to do double the work of any ordmary lathe ■ 
n e period of time. The bed is cast with a bottom for.nm, 
ci'tem wh ch is partly fdled with soda water, and by an arrangement 
of m II pumplnd cup. which admits water to the tool at tts cu m. 

,,,,t, both\he\ool and the ^^^^^^ -^^^^' ^^: ^"^ ^"^^^^ 
Lreat increase in the effective action of the Lathe. Ih.s Inn a .o 
^:uf"ure Lathes ^r turning irregular f.rms. of a'-«t any desM^ 
shape both outside and inside of any of metal, and unpiovtd 
naihines for turning ends of rods and -Uing Screw on the same. 

In the manufacture of Planers, Messrs. Wood. Light & Co. ha^c 
xuade important improvements, directing their attention o 
emedv t .e defects in the "shipper." 15y a novel arrangement they 
r e ; bled to- change the feed from fmo to coarse in an instant, ranging 
from a fine cut to one and a half inches wide; and, secona y, he bet 
ipp 1 i d sc^ .nected from the motion of the table, and all the parts 
p iced the outside of the machine, where they are easily oiled, and 
w e '-, i.-.-cl. repaired. This firm also n.anufacture a Planer w t 
Tosshea, and tool-stock on both the front and rear of the upright Jn 
h s :n^. ine two pieces of metal maybe placed on the bed at the same 
th e allnvin.r .ay eight feet between points of tool on the two sides 
o hot t. and the one will be pinned by the forward and the other 
^y t, e lack a;tion of the table. This is. in effect, two I laners m one 
luiring onlv the power of one. but performing the work of two, and 
peSiXe rvicealle in manufactories requiring duplicates of many 

nieces of moderate length. . xi ^ 

' Me'srs Wood, Light & Co. are one of the few firms in this coun ry that 
. Jmfacture the Nasmyth Steam Hammer. Their Hammers of this pat- 
" te notable for greater weight of material than s ovdmanly ein- 
ploved and also for certain improvements, that give them such solid t 
d .tr n..h, that, though in constant use night and day, for years in weld- 
I r,i,,„a bars, they have not suffered from the .|ar or renmred repairs 
."stead of casting the posts in one piece from bed-plate to cylinder, as ,.. 
ual V done, thev cast two posts, as high as may be desired, and phu. 
.^n then, a hea;-y iron plate, that firmly holds the machine from sp e d- 
i L or springing. Upon this, again, two other uprights are placed, be- 
twon V icl the Hammer slides, and upon these the tablature, and upon 
Ltthe cvlinder. The posts are firmly bolted together, and made in thi. 


led. Experionr'^ 
[ire cast steel niul 
are always kept 

Lathe for turniii!,' 
ovdiiiary lathe in 
jottom forming a 
f an arrangement 
tool at its cutting 
the result being a 
.. This lirm al^o 
nost any desirable 
tal, and improved 
on the same. 
Light & Co. have 
;ntion especially to 
arrangeniept they 
an ins'^aut, ranging 
, seconaV, the belt 
e, and all the parts 
re easily oiled, and, 
^ture a Planer with 
of the upright. On 
the bed at the same 
1 on the two sides 
rward and the other 
two Planers in one, 
le work of two, and 
duplicates of many 

is in this country that 
Hammers of this pat- 
an is ordinarily cm- 
•c them such soliditv 
lay, for years, in weld - 
r, or rc(i\iired repairs, 
jilate to cylinder, as is 
1)0 desired, and place 
machine from spread- 
rights arc placed, be- 
10 tablature, and upoii 
ther, and made in thia 



way there is no strain upon the castings, besides being more easily 
transported and set up. 

During th(> late Rebellion, this firm engaged largeh- in the construc- 
tion (it'Gun IJarrcl Machinery, and supplied the United Stai<-s Armory 
at Springfield with a large number of the Milling and I'rofile Ma- 
chines they have in use. This branch of their business tiiey eonlinue, 
ami are now .supplying Austria and other portions of Kurope with 
Edging Machines. Mr. Wood is the inventor of an ingenious machine 
for turning grooves in gun-barrel rods. 

About eighty persons are ordinarily employed in these Works. 

L. & A. G. Goes' Wrench Manufactory, 

In New Worcester, is one of those peculiar manufactories that can 
rarely be fo\ind outside of New England. It is a large and important 
concern, that has made fortunes for its proprietors, tlnjugh devoted to 
the manufacture of a single article, with only seven different sizes. It 
owes its origin to the invention of one man, a house-carpenter, who 
conceived the idea that it would be au improveiuent ujton all former 
methods of manufacturing wrenches, by having the screw or rosette, 
for movinsr the sliding-jaw, maintain the same relative i)osition, at all 
times, to the handle. Described in the technical language of the patent 
of April Ifilh, 1841, Mr. Loring Coes claimed, as his invention, "the 
moving the sliding jaw by a screw, combined with, and placed by the 
side of and parallel with, the bar of the permanent jaw i>ud handle 
when thi; required rotation for sliding the jaw is given i)y the head or 
rosette, which retains the same position relatively to the handle during 
the operation; and also moving the sliding jaw by a screw combined 
with, and placed by the side of, and parallel with, the bar of the per- 
manent jaw, in combination with a rosette or its equivalent, retained in 
its position relatively to the handle." At that time, both tin* inventor 
and his brother, who became associated with him, were so entirely 
withou' means, that they had dilfieulty in procuring the malleable iron, 
recpiisite to manufacture the original sample. Overcoming the obstacles, 
however, incident to a want of capital, they succeeded in introducing 
a few of their improved wrenches into the market, when their superior- 
ity was at once recognized and acknowledged, and orders flowed in 
upon them ; so that, in 1845, they were enabled to a building 
in New Worcester, formerly a woollen mill, and fit it up as a manu- 
fuclorv. The original building was one hundred feet long by thirty- 




five feet wide, to which they have since ndded another of the same size, 
aud a l)iacl<sniith shop, seventy-five liy fifty feet. At this time, tlicy 
employ, in those buildings, about fifty hands, who produce, by the aid 
of the best machinery, ten thousand wrenciies per month. 

Tiie jtrucc'sscs of manufacturing screw-wrenches, as conducted in an 
cstiiblishnicnt like this, arc very interesting. The bars and slianNs, 
which are of wrought iron, are drawn under trip-hammers ; thoniih 
this firm have invented and patented a machine for rolling them. 'I'his 
machine, which, however, is not yet in, consists of a pair of pecu- 
liarly-constructed rolls, with a novel guide for holding and directing the 
bar in an ol)li(pie or inclined position, as it is drawn through the rolls. 
The heading of wrencli-blani.s is done in this establishment with aston- 
ishing rapidity, bj' means of a machine invented and patented by L. & 
A. G. Coos. It consists of a combination of an anvil-block, side-dies, 
gauge and hanmier, the gauge being arranged so as to define the rela- 
tive position of the sevti'al parts, with regard to the blank, for the 
purpose of paring down the thin ))art of the jaw, and the hammer being 
provided with a tripping-arm, so that, when tripped, the hammer will 
not fall upon the cam; and also with a foot-lever or treadle, in com- 
bination with a hinged catch, for catching and holding the hammer. 
After the blanks arc headed, they are passed through milling miiehines, 
then the -sliding jaw is put on, and they are then ground on grind- 
stones. This firm have invented a novel and ingenious machine for 
holding the \v-reuch to the grindstone, and in such a manner, as to wear 
the stone evenly. The handles are made of apple-tree wood, and 
turned in a machine, bj'- the aid of which, one man, it is said, can finish 
eight hundred in five hours. The wrenches, when finished, are put up, 
six in a package, and twelve packages in a box. They are of seven 
different sizes, i-anging, in length, from six to twenty-one inches, and 
classified as " bright " and " black," the former being brilliantly polished. 
This firm have adopted, as th(Mr trade mark, a ball governor in a tri- 
angle, which is placed upon all packages. Coe's wrenches are now a 
standard article in the stock of hardware merchants throughout the 
United Stntes, and are sold largely to Cuba, Australia and California. 

The Messrs. Goes, by their inventive genius and business talents, 
have accumulated handsome properties, and are owners of nearly one- 
half of the village of New Worcester, with largo tracts of adjacent 
land. ]5i>th have filled, creditably, the positions of Aldermen and 
members of the City Council, and Mr. A. G. Coes is now a member of 
the Massachusetts Legislature. They have been prominent, also, in 
establishing the ^[cchanics' Association of Worcester, and are directors 
in various companies, organized for the public benefit. 


f the same sizo, 
this time, llicy 
luce, by the aid 

conductccl in an 
irs and sliniiNs, 
ninicrs ; thouiih 
ng them. Tliiri 

a pair of pccu- 
nd directing llio 
iroiigh the rolirf. 
lent with aston- 
itented by L. & 
block, side-dies, 
I define the rela- 
e blank, for the 
e hammer being 
he hammer will 
treadle, in com- 
ig the hammer, 
lilling machines, 
round on griud- 
ous machine for 
nner, as to wear 
•tree wood, and 
5 said, can finish 
bed, are put up, 
ley are of seven 
-one inches, and 
lliantly polished. 
(vernor in a tri- 
nelies are now a 

throughout the 

and California, 
msiuess talents, 
s of nearly one- 
acts of adjacent 

Aldermen and 
)w a member of 
jminent, also, in 
uid are directors 


T. K. E.VRI-E A 00. 'S 0AUt)-Cr,OTniNO M.\NUFACT(>I{Y. "o9 

T. K. Earle & Co.'s Card-Clothing Manufactory, 

In Worcester, is the oldest establishment of the kind in the United 
Stales. It was founded by J'liny Karle, the uncle of Messr.s. T. K. and 
Edward Earle, who now comprise tlie prcsont lirni. lie was tlii» lirst 
manufiU'lurer of Machine Card-Clothing in liiis country, and bis (irst 
customer was Siunuel Slater, who has been repeatedly mentioned in 
this history, lie left to his nephews and successors many important 
improvements, which they have used as a basis of still other improve- 
ments, that have rendered this manufactory confessedly pre-eminent in 
this In'iiuch of manufacture. 

Messrs. Earle it Co. have now over a hundred machines for the 
manufacture of Card-Clothing in constant operation in their new mill 
on Grafton 8treet, near the Western liailroad depot, combining many 
important improvements, that enable thein to i)roduce an article as 
uniform and perfect as can be desired. Tiiey cut up about twenty- 
three thousand.s sides of leather in a year, consume si.\ty-two tons of 
wire, from Xo. 18 to 'M\, and produce from four to five hundred scpuiro 
feet of Card-Clothing per day. They keep on hand a stock of Dofl'er 
Rings of all widths, with all the fractional variations, to meet the 
urgent demand which f; 'quently arises from accident. They have also 
introduced a new kind of Fancy Cards, which have given great satis- 
faction. Their Diamond Point or Angular Wire has become an indis- 
pensable Card for Feeders, Tumblers, and Leader-ins in all line work, 
and is much used in coarse heavy work for all cylinders. They furnish 
Aprons for Combing Silks and Worsted, Fillet for Apperly's Tatent 
Self- A Cling Card Feeder, and Cards of Diamond-rointed Wire, of brass 
or iron, for Cleveland's Drying Machines. 

For several years Messrs. Earle & Co. have been experimenting on 
Cards for the manufacture of Flax Cotton, the importance of which 
has already been alluded to. They are now prepared to supply every 
variety required iu this branch of manufacture. They also publish a 
pami)lilet of estimates of the number of feet of Card-Clothing required 
to cover the variotis wool -'ud cotton carding machines. 

During the year 18(15, the members of this firm, in association with 
others, erected, in Worcester, extensive works for the manufacture t.f 
stoves, especially of a s*ove invented and patented by Sidnky Smitk, 
the Superintendent of the Company, which possesses properties that 
elicited expressions of wonder and surprise from professors and scieii- 
tific men who iiave examined it. It ia claimed that, by the peculiar 
construction of the fire chambers, this new form of Stove jiroduees 
a pure oxygen flame, consumes those gases that are usually lust, and 



warm a room ; while in the su vc „ ,..,„.,„ teenin"- the oven 

witnei^scd tliein. vaptv President; Edward 

The officers of the Company are T. K. T^^«'^^- ^Zfy Smith Su- 
EAR..E. Treasurer ; J. S. Uooeus, Secretary ; and Sidney 


The Sargent Card-Clothing Company 

• 1 • iQpr with acanital of one hundred thousand dol- 
Was organized, in 1806, with a cap ai ^j,,^ ;„ ^rchi- 

. ^r tlio himincs'i has no superior in this couimy. 

the L door, the ^'-7';^;,:""^ .,,,,,!,,, boilers, which consumes 
with interest one of llanison . non exi cn-^ine-room, 

,, ^^^I^^Xr;:^^^^^^^-^ r ^^! los.l.oise than 
where a tlnrly-ho s -pouci c if, ^^_^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^ 

the flutter of a lady s tan. ^^^^^^^^ f^^ f,^ „,„;„ ,uildin.. the 
uianulactovy of packing boxe.. 1 ^^«^'"" ' " ,;,. ,.f,,, ,,,. forty 

• if >,. ..t.nuU in an immense room, one hunciietl ana ni..) lui . j 
;;:;:. Ml ed ad floored with a mixture of Roman cement and 
!:;r^^ apartment is used exclusively for currying pun^oses^ and 
is furnished witl all conveniences that can be made sorviceaJo m the 

'1; ll^g up a winding staircase in one of Uie towers the -achine^^ 
5. t e r-- of tlie building, on the second story, is reach d Here 
.en hands are constantly employed in «-"" -■^"••"•^,. " " ;^^ 
.: irv used in the establishment. This is a notable pecu auty of 
e ctorv, and will have its legitimate influence on the price, of its. 




)f coal or wood 
tlic Stoves de- 
pose in coniinon 
erature, and yet 
t; tliorc arc four 
■eping tlie oven 
and viipors into 
lite certain tliat 
! never yet been 
tests of tills in- 
tLosc who have 

sident; Epward 
DNEY Smith, Su- 


•ed thousand dol- 
er, that, in arehi- 
ts interior for the 
antry. The main 
rty feet wide, four 
two towers in the 
end. Entering at 
loni, and examines 
s, which consumes 
the engine-room, 
ith less noise than 
oom occupied as a 
main building, the 
I lifty-four by forty 
Ionian cement and 
rying purposes, and 
l3 feorvicea>Jc in the 

■s, the machine-shop 
is reached. Here, 
nufacturing all the 
utable peculiarity of 
on the prices of its^ 

products. On the same floor is the leather-room, where the curried 
leather is dressed and made ready to receive the card teetli. All of tlie 
machinery in tins room is of the latest style, and eml)races many im- 
provements not in use in other mills of the kind. Parallel witli this 
apartment is a room where tlie cards receive the finishing touch, pre- to i)acking and sliipment, and in front are the counting-room and 
private ollices, most tastefully and conveniently arranged. 

On the next floor, the visitor finds the machines in operation, making 
cloiliing for cotton, woollen and flax card.s. Tiiere are few things in 
the world of machinery more Ijeautiful, or more strikingly illu.stralive 
of the mechanical genius of man, than one of these machines in motion. 
The original machiiu! used for inserting wire was jialented, in 1810, l)y 
Tlionms Whittcmore ; but the real inventor was Elijah Smith, of Wal- 
pole, Mas.s. The Hon. Daniel Webster said of it, that it seemed to bo 
more nearly endowed with human intelligence than any other machine 
ever invented ; and John Randolph, after looking at it, exclaimed, 
" All but the immortal soul !" It .eizes the wire with its steel fingers, 
bends it, punches holes in the cloth, leather, or paper, then inserts the 
wire, at the rate of one hundred and ninety teeth per minute ; and, if 
the slightest derangement take place, or the least imperfection is niani- 
fe.ste<l in the manufactured product, it stops, and waits until the difli- 
culty is remedied. The machines here are all new, and present im- 
portant improvements over those in ordinary use, in the rapiility of move- 
ment and mechanical conii)ination. With the improvements that have 
been made, only three men are required to tend over seventy-five 
machines. There are fillet machines in these works that will in.serfc four 
hundred teeth per minute. The spacious room is as light as daylight 
can make it, and, by the skilful arrangement of colors on beams and 
posts, the glare of unrelieved whiteness is avoided. The fourth story 
is a counterpart of th.e third, and, wiien the establishment is fully 
equipped, it will contain two hundred and eighty machines. 

In general plan and completeness of detail, having regard not only 
to the requirements of the business, but to the comfort of the opera- 
tives, this new mill may fairly be regarded as a model. It is built in 
the most substantial manner — and, in its construction, all possible pre- 
cautions have been taken against fire — a point which is too often neg- 
lected in these days. There has been no stinting in outlay, and the 
same lil)eral policy which is visil)le in the construction and arrange- 
ment of the mill, governs the entire business. The most expert work- 
men in the country have been secured, noted for their skill in making 
uniform work, the only true test of a good card. 

The visitor of mechanical tastes is forcibly attracted by the ma- 
chinery, all of which, as has been said, is made on the premises. It seems 


;,|53 ,„;MAUKA,„.B MA«FACT0RTK« OF «.,.HE»TK», 

supurnilcndoiicc of Mi l^l'WiN ^ ^^.„^-.,,,p„ ;„ this busiiH^ss ; an.l 

^'''''''*' nf this mill as may l.e inferred from tl.o foregoing, 

The resources of tl "^^ ^ .^andard Card C\oMu^ of 
aro very extensive, and, ^^ "'^ ^'^^^ ^.^.j .^.^^ to the consumer, this 
all kinds in immense quant ties, "^^ 'J' ^ • ^^ description, 

company will furnish to order ^^^^^^^^ ^, J,,,, and wool 
manufacturers' -M^pHes of every vaue^ a U > 1^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^„ 

hand and stripping cards, etc.. ^f=- ^' ', J^^^^^^ 
tailclcrs of Woollen Maohmory, ruuBb-su & Gaoe. 

E 0, Cleveland * C..'. «>n^ae.ory of MaeMner, for Woollen Mill. 

i;;-^,^r:r'S:r;r.o^o^-..^ '»- 

cultural implements m ^ew ^^^"Slan U M ^anufa.^turing 

the State of Vermont, has been '-« ^, , „, early 

interests of Worcester since he was -g n J - " ^^ 
perfected himself in the arts ;^ j^^;^;^' ;V 1^ fin, of Joddard, 
making, and, for several years, ^-^^" ^"^^ "^^^ J^ ,^ ,heir employ, he 
Kice & Co., makers of paper ^ ^^ ^, J I ,p,, „,,,,, „nd spent 
was sent to Cuba, to ^^n^^jf^f^'l'^tZ- to Worcester, he became 
eighteen "-"f ^f ^^f^jl^e^ H u^^^^^^^^^^^^ Co., manufacturers of 
..onnccted with the firm of Th^y*^ • A^J^. prosecuted a success- 

Machinists' to.s ; -^-:::;;jr;::::;:o?iB54 destroyed the 
fid business for eight, unui b 

fl,l-,Vi:i,A\I> ,t CO. S MACIIINF, M AN'IFAfTnllY. 

i!i'ci\uily and 
unvlmj ill llii' 
It; iniiiu'diiito 
ciinl iiiiiUor, 
)iisiin'ss ; aiul 
f;-lmL'SS ill llio 

,tcst improve- 
ill ivll vi'spt'cts 

tho fovepoing, 
•a Clotliiiip; of 
coiisiniu'r, this 
vy dosfi'iption, 
otlon and wool 
10 comimny in 
irm of Sauuent 
the successful 

oiitire estiihlisiinicnl. iiiid, tliroii<rh llie faijun' of Iiiiiirance ('ompiinii's, 
llii' greater iiart df tin- acciiniiiialioii oi' years nl' lulior was instuntly 
swept away, Mr. Cleveland liieii eniharkeil in [hi\ niamiraelni'e of 
s|i('eial machines for woollen faelories, iieinii sliorlly uflcrwai'ds Jciined 
li\ .Mr. Mason, and the concern spci'dily l)ecani(! eiilitlcd to rank anionix 
liie most important of its lass in the I'niled Slates, liavin!i; produced 
lie:!"!',' a mUlion dollars" worth of woollen machiiierv in a sinirle vear. 

Such, in brief, i.s an outline of the iiistory of one of New Knuland's 
foromcst lucchanics. At this time, Messrs. Cleveland it Co. oniploy 
from one hundred and fifty to two huiidrod men, and produce, it is 
believed, a greater variety of woo -ihiishing machines than any other 
conc(!rn iu America. This, in fact, may be called their specialty, 
though their manufactures include tlic entire range of machines, om- 
ployed in converting wool into doth. Mr. Cleveland lias made and 
patented several important improvements in machines for linishing 
cloth, but it would lie impossible to give a lucid explanation of them, 
without the aid of drawings. SuRico it to say, that this establishment 
has supplied many of the iargest woollen mills in N"W Kngland, in- 
cluding those of Kdward Harris, the Lippitt Manufacturing (.'om- 
pany, OIney & Metcalf, and Taft, Wecdeii <k Co., in Kliode Island, 
with a greater part of their carding aud other important machinery. 

r Woollen Mills 

It occupies the 
d feet long, fifty- 
shops, Taint aud 
C. Mason ; hotli 

departments of 
Ruggles, Nourse, 
"actnrers of agri- 
d, though born in 
he manufacturing 
jf uf^c. Ho early 
ling and pattern- 
. firm of (Joddard, 
. their employ, he 
jr mills, and spent 
)rcester, he became 
, manufacturers of 
Dsecutcd a success- 
.854 destroyed the 

Oliver Ames & Sons' Agricultural Implement Manufactory, 

Is the largest establishment of the kind in Xow Kiigland, and, some say, 
in the world. This firm are the successors of, Mason it Co., 
who succeeded Ruggles, \ it Mason, who commenced the business 
in Worcester in 183(). To Diaper Ruggles, Joel, and John C 
Mason, the farmers of America are under many obligations for their 
unwearicl assiduity in supidying them Vvith superior IMows, at low 
prices. They found the cast-iron plow a riule and imperfect implement 
— they left it so nearly perfect iu point of elliciency and convenience as 
hardly to be susccjitible of further improvements. When they engaged 
in the manufacture, about a hundred cast-iron IMows supplied the annual 
ilemaud. Twenty years afterward, they made and sold in a single year 
thirty thousand Plows, of one hundred and fifty dilVerent forms. Their 
manufactory, originally in a small shoi) now or lately used as a stable, 
then in the basement rooms of " Court Mills," became, by the addiliou 
of building to building, to accommodate an increasing business, nearly 
as remarkable for its extent as for its importance. 


"1 ,,,0 t^-----\-t:::a:\s^"^^ 

Sons, who bad been ^^'f '"f'^^^f ,",;"; a^h' Sbovels bave fo. many 
„,anafacHu-c,tbatofSbovclsandSp^^^- ^^^^ .^ ^^^^ b,,dwave trade. 

vo.rsbecn ^ wolUknown and lead "g^ar^^^^^^^ ^^^^ .a.uiacture at 
^'oarly sixty years ago Mr. Amt ,^„„^,, buymg tbe 

Easton. Massacbusetts, in tbe ^^^^^^ J^ time-manufaetur- 
iron and steel for not more ban a do/..n ^^^ ^^^^^^, ^^^^^^,„g 

i„, tbem, carrying tbom to ^'^'l^y^n.h to see bis establisbment. 
,,;.. stock, no bowever ^-^^^^^^ ,, ,,. country, and per- 
tbus begun, grow to be tbo ^^^^^^ , ,.„„ twenty to twenty- 
haps in tbe world, requmngfoi ^^^^^^ ,.„„ twelve to oigbteentons 
five, tons of Swcdi.b and ^^'^^^'^L^ and lifty bands, and pro- 
of cast-steel, cn.ploying abovU In^^ -^ ^^^^^^_^ ^^^^^ ,,. „,„ ,, a 
aucing about four tbousaud ^^«^:: ;;;,,J,,,Hding of tbe 
,„i,lion and a quarter Pf ^^ -V''^ ; J ; ^^,^.^ twentv-live feet long, witb 
Sbop at Nortb Easton .s we d 1 ' ^^^^ - ^^^.,^,,^^ ,^ „,,,,,, 
an L ninety feet ^n length , '^n<l ti^ ^^.^.,^ ^^„t^,„s ^ . 
^erand fifty ^et by seventy ^e -^;;^^ ;^;„ ..^b a tly-wbe.d 
.tean, engine of one hundred d - ^^ '^ J^^^. ,,„, ,o„,. 
attached, twenty feet '" ^ ->" ^J^'^ .^ f,,,ton. and F-.rge Shops .t 
,5esides tbe Shovel ^'^'-^'^'y/ J^, '^. and the AgrieuUural ImpU- 
West Uridgewater, .^''^^ 'l^ /^'^ t;::'A,nes & Sons have a n.anu- 
„u.nt Manufactory in ^^ oats cr^ „av Cutters, and a variety 

of ,1,0 n.nv» of Ita W...u,r„ ^"'''- ,„ „„ ,,,„,•„„„ b»lN 

above Ciumcy Mai Mi, aim 

iuarl<et. ,j,r- 

The Crompton Loom Workf, 

r.ot«ri..,nov.,fWot,.,.».or«l.. ..''■; ■ ,„„.,y „, „„„! .,,.1 

f„„t .mt fcw oB„»-n . U. « « t- ^1,^^,,^,,, „„ „, p„.,„ ,„,. 
l„B,.„iou. ......imiory, «.»! -' "'"',"' ,;„„„,„ „t woollon boo.1«. H 

poUcc to tUo 7-l»«';; : , ,„„u,r«c,nrc,. i., 0,. K.*ru 

t„,crs of cotton goods. 



)Uver Ames & 
Jred brunch of 
, have ft) :• many 
ardwave trade, 
nauuiacture at 
ler, buying the 
5 — nianufactur- 
eedi-, procuring 
i establishment, 
juntry, and per- 
k'cnty to twenty - 
to eighteen tons 

hands, and pro- 
day, or nearly a 
of the Finish'.ng 
B feet long, with 
Iding is one hun- 
vhieh contains a 
, with a (ly-whecl 
ne tons. 

I Forge Shops nt 
grifultural Imple- 
iMis have a manu- 
(<rs, and a variely 
■ making nearly a 
er fifty with steel 

rich sticking soils 

the spacious halls 
ilire length of the 

, noteworthy ninnu- 
lund. 'Hiere are in 
„,.i,,ty of novel and 
us arc of greater im- 
• woollen goods. It 
urers in the Kastern 
008 to the mauufac- 

The name of Crompton is one that for nearly a century has been dis- 
tinguished in the annals of ingenious inventors. Toward the of 
the last centurv, Siunuel Crompton patented in i^ngland a combination 
of the jeunv and water-franu-, calling it the Mule, now in general 
in Cotton factories, and received from the IJritish Parliament a gratuity 
of £5,000. Recently there died in England Thomas Boiisor Crompton, 
who invented a valual)le apparatus for drying papor, and who was th.> 
„wner of the celebrated Farnworth Mi'' . In 18:57, an ingenious 
Knglishman, named WiLtJAM Cuumpton, tame to America, and in the 
following year invented a Loom for weaving figured cussimeres, for 
which he received a patent from the (iovernmeiit of the United States. 
Jle then visited England, and received a patent there, returning witii 
his family to America in IS'.V.). In 1840, this Loom was introduced 
into the Middlesex Mills, in lAJwe'.i, where its operation was so satis- 
fiietory as to establish its claims to being a most valuable mac'.ine; 
but like manv other meritorious inventions, it was slow in gaining the 
eonlidence of"those whom it was destined so largely to benefit, and the 
inventor, in consequence of pecuniary misfortunes and ill health, re- 
' alized but little ocneiil from his invention during the e.xisteiico of the 
liatent, which expired in 18r.l. At that time his son, Geoiuie Cromv- 
TON, hail become of age, and entering into partnership with Merrill E. 
Furbush, tiiey enpajred in the manufacture of the Loom, and by 
(■xtrenie care in the workmanship, mid some improvements, the Cromp- 
tou Loom soon took a position at the very head of all machines for 
lisrured weaving. Tiiis partnershii) lasted until 18.V.t, when Mr. Fur- 
biish witli.l' <w, and Mr. Crompton has sin-e continued the busiiu^ss 
alone, extending his facilities and improving his machinery until he has 
now probably the most complete Loom Works in this country. 

The main "building is of lu-ick, with projecting arched ends, one hun- 
dred and ten feet long, fifty IVet wide, and three stories high, with a 
basement used for jrrindiiig and pidishing, wood working, making pack- 
ing bo.xes, etc., and a jiart is appropriated to an engine of forty horse- 
power, wivch propels the maehiiiery. In this building the sliaftinir is 
turned, the small work finished, and the frames for Lo(uns are in;ule. 
These rooms, with tiieir long lines of shafting, the revolving eo!:r.\vhec!s, 
tl.(! vices, lathes, and intricate and compound tools, present to the 
visitor when in full operation a scene of the most lively inspiring 
industry. Attached to the main building, forming with it an L. '« ""' 
r.lacksniith shop, and beyond a IJoiler shop, surmounted with a ei,im- 
ncy of enormous height. At some distance from the miinufactory, but 
cunnected-wilh it by a covered briilge, is a two-story friune building, ono 
hundred and eighty-five feel long by forty-fivo feel wide, which is used 


,,. „.„i,„ ,o,.>.l.or or " sotting up" I-oom. Tl.o Fou.ulvy is a sopnnU. 
lH,il,lin,c, one Imndro.l and tx\uil\ i . • i " ^ . - ,,,,-■.,,. 
shop lor cleaning eastings attached, forty Ly s.x.y ^et ^^^^'l^ 
i„ ,L is m-opeiled hv a (Corliss engine of twenty horso-l)o^^e.. T iu. . 
W^ ^ r cated vvithin an enclosed lot, having a lV..nt on a pvun-.p 1 

r.nZ,! of 1 k, «-i.l. . vi.w of ...,...i„s ».....l,o,. »,»l mu.h .»..r,. ..x- 

;:;;;::f;::t:H;.i,.».,....i,,,-o. .yu .,-■■■.. ■ >'■"" 

.„' ,un,l out .n »-on,BO of one hu,.,l,-.,l .nc, twctv-Bvc Lo » ,.. 

■ month. 




• is a P(-iiiir;i!i' 
wide, witli :v 
he miii'liiru'i-v 
nvcr. Tliose 
oil ii priiiciital 
re of sjcroiiiiil. 
ihc pniprii'tor 
uurniisod Iniid 
V b\n'nin<2: tun 
nuch mori- ex- 

aiii aiul faiiey 
,le srirtlis, nmt- 
iiiiln'd pecks 11 
each inacliiiie. 
for fi'fiey weav- 
,0 bands of the 
Mid iinprove- 
ii very dilTereiit 
luaehiiie for ils 

[>iity-livo haiid^, 
five Looms per 


Frnn,..u.H, in Worcester County, is the -'";>'• -->raW^tensivo 
,„,„,,,,„,.. of I'aper, Chairs, Ih.nhvare -l^ '^ ^^i ,o 
,n wUi of this city, as a inanuiaCurin, centre, ,s hu,ei> to 1 

Lerprise of one nian, Alvah Croelar, of the hnn o, nn., a. ^ -• 

HANM- .t Co., I'aper nu.nufacturers,=H ,U, removed Iron. Ikank-.-n, 

lld-nlint of t-iillll 

(jf till) ilK'i 

Ai.vvii CitocKKu, 01' ViTc iiiiriKiii. 

" ■ r""':::^^;::-:i^;;:,^'rK;::;:;,.:n.r':^:::'::::: 

k,.,„ „„ 1,.,,. r,,.,nti,c , ,„„„.,.. .,-«na...s II.™ « "'"-";. \. ,„. , „. 

■»" • ; ■""", -7;:;t r:\i ;:■:!"'" -"''•»- '"■ ' ■■■="' '-" 

do evon 111 tl.o e.ulv ui;.' ol MX .V '"- "^'"- • , ,.,„,„ „,at tin.o 

^''': - '":;:':■::;;;:;;;: ;:;: :^;;t.; '::':"! l •'-• '■> "••- --^ - -'^• 
o^sr:,;:;;;;:.' ' ;..-^::^- --^v- .>., ».,......., .,. u., ..o.„ «>... .... ... 

of Ills rlH'^s 'vv ni;ilit , um'"n.i>ri.iMi^- 

„,y ..„.,... T.... -.^ ^;-:r;,;;^ :::;:,;:::::■ :,:;::::... w,.: ..„. .,...• 

;=:-j;:; *;::;.»::,:.;;-.:-"■■ ; :-r;*;:';;rrn';;:s.;! 

-' ^''"*;;;;:;r;::,;';;;:'::r i;":;i.«-r;:i::=X..... .■......-" 

;:;;;::::;;;;:,:;,;:;:'.:;;: : ...■■■■ • '"'.;:'.: « "■"■" - 

•■■- '■"'t^in "::::'.n:" - ^."".^;:"""" • -^ ■■ '- rr '- 

:;::",:;::;;:;;-.;■-.':-«'"« '■;•*,'■; """-■" ' '" """ ' 

i„ ,,,„,, iw .1..- ,.'•"'"•' "< ' ' '■'■ "' "">■ , ,„,„ „, , ii,„ r... .*! r« r.- .1,.. 

-t:;:::, ::T,;r: :;: . :^^^^ ' .^ «■ 


X. II,, to Filclil)uvp;li, in 1823, for the purpose of stnrtinp^ -.uul uporat- a now rupor mill, wiiidi had l.ecn built, by General Leonard Bur- 
iMiik, to replace one destroyed by lire. At that time, Fitehbursh was a 
slniirslins village, of some twelve hundred inhabitants, ai.l eiijuymg 
oniv''wc"kly communication, by mail, with Uoston and Worcester. 
Karly in 1820, he couimenced, with a small capital, to build a mill, for 
making Paper by 1 and, at " Old Crockerville " (a mile and a half from 
the town, in a birch swan.p, which he cleared), and began to make 

ho used; and the last quiirlcrly bill ho n.ado i-howod that .omo of his vapcr had hoon .^olJ 
well nnd sowo to men of ,-tniw, while the eu.mnis.ioii house inloniied him " tli.y had con- 
cl.uled not to guarantee," leaving nguinst him a large balanee in their favor, line, then, 
,v,s hi^ position; he had not, up to that time, made any prolit, owed tw.lvc thou>Mnd dol- 
lar, on the original investment, and, c.nnn,is=;ion debt ineluded, four thousand dollars 
mure while ton thousand dollars, in addition, were re,,uired for his new maclunery. llis 
property, loeatcd as it was, would, on a foree.l sale, aeerue but lillle to his creditors: and, 
though' his old debts were carefully distributed, his eomu.ission debt, though not due, was 
huully and unscrupulously called for. With no friend to lend him a dollar, what was to 
be done in sueh a crisis ? Under the " Grab Law," failure, then, was destruction, and no 
money could be had. 

There was i^'". "'"^ c.iurso left-sell his I'aper directly to consumers ; o|.en barter 
neeonnts, with yearly settlements only, for all the stock he wanted, all over the eoimtry. 
Adde.l to this stock was his Cotton Waste-then used first by 'umsell, s.. lar as he is adv.sed- 
in mailing white I'aper. Thus, he worked on, from month to month, .Uiniig the day, and 
fr,..,u..nlly taking his product, during the following night, to Uoston. till l.s: I, tiiuliiig the ditlieultv i" paying both debt and interest. 

\ ludierou« anecdote will serve to' illustrate his imsition at this time. There wero then 
no 1! mk. about Fitchburgh. and commission houses controlled business, at that period, in 
lioston It being impossible for him to continue with his commission house, and without 
capital, he found himself, one morning, in Host n, with the notes of two well-known lirnis, 
for the paper he had teamed forty-seven miles from Fitehburgh. during the night. ]Io 
looked round for scune liank. to get the money on his notes. Verdant, weary, suppos- 
iug the bu-imss of a liank was to d%co,int notes, he stop,,ed his team beloiv the •• .New 
I'nglainl " Marching in. and believing he was right, proceeded ut onec to the cashier's 
d,-k pulling out hi- promises to pay from his ,,.H.ket. ib.nnin.led the money. The cashier 
Mll■or^lcd him, with n graceful bow, '• they did not discount." With a voice that 'Mno 
hccn heanl to the bottom of the street, and looking the cashier in the eye, Mr. t locker 
exduimd, •' I have not a cent to go home with, sir! 1 have workmen and deb.s to pay. 
Mu-^t have it ; shall fail, sir ! I must and will have it." His manner, his old " 1 oui-and- 
Tcrrv " «uit coupled with his strange singing voice, was too much for the cashier, tellers 
„ud"eU.vk< who all joined in a loud roar of laughlei. While the applicant wa- trying to 
o.,„-id.T what it might mean, ..till keeping his eye on the cashier, the noise brought tho»ideul from his room. Illy suppressing his own risibles. he asked hini his name, and 
where he lived: and, finally, repeated the inquiry, if he did not know that Hanks did not, 
then discount " 1I"W should I know that!" sang a stentorian voice; Mr. C. still main- 
,„i„i'i,g his altitude, and green enough to suppose they were trying to impose un him, and 
„„„ he had some inherent, inalienable right there, while his highwayman sor- ot bearing 
„„s a dilemma of no ordinary kitid. Literally to get rid of their ignorant and persistent 
customer, ns his paper was good, the rresident told him, "if he would get on Ins box. and 
go right home, telling no one where he got 1 Is money, tho cashier might take his pa;ier. 




ing mid iipornt- 
Leouaril l?iir- 
tchl)urgii was a 
i, iii.l (Mijuying 
uul Woreestor. 
I)uil(l a mill, for 
and a liair from 
began to make 

[laiici' Imd licon sold 
him " tli'j- liiiil con- 
■ favor. IIi'ii.'. then, 
lw( Ivi! tliini.-iiiul dol- 
ur thoiiMuiil dollars 
cw machiiieiy. His 
) his ciTilitui's : anil, 
though not ilue, waa 
I (lollar, what was to 
destruction, and uo 

unicr.* ; o]M>n tiartcr 
ill over the oountry. 
liira:* he it^ advised — 
duriii,;; the ilay, and 
till 1m; I, tindin;,' tho 

no. There wero llicn 
en, at that jieriod, In 
n house, and without 
W'l well-kni'wn linna, 
urinf; the nifrlit. lie 
t, weary, and suiipos- 
enin hel'ore the •' New 
onee to the eashier's 
money. Tlie eashier 
voiee that nii}iht '-avo 
1 the eye, .Mr. Croeker 
men and deht." to ]iay. 
•r, hi? old " Toni-and- 
or the easliier, tellers 
iplieant was tryinj; to 
the noise I'vonght tho 
:ed him his name, and 
iv that lianks did not, 
jcj Mr. C. still mnin- 
o InijioJc on him, anJ 
lyman sor* of liearing 
;norant and persistent 
iM j;et on his hox. and 
ght take his puper." 

Lodger Caps ia November of that year. This, wc I)clio\'c, was the 
liioiieer of tlie five large Paper Mills, now owned by Croeker, I5iirbank 
it Co., which produce from seven to eight tons of paper ptsr dsiy. 

In 1. '{.3, he purchased the Burbank property, before referred to, 
where he was first employed, and which ho has since almost covered 
with shops and foundries. It was here that tho first .Machine shop 
and foundry, ever erected in Filchburgh, was built. Soon after this 
purchase, ho was tho first to use I'alm-leaf ai-' a fibre for mtikin;; coarse 

In I8;tt, Mr. t'roeker wa.s employed by the town to get a road further up the XasluiH 
Valley, and the landholders opposing it, and asking exorbitant prices for their land, he 
boujjht the whole Nashua Vallev. to Westminster line. ,i;ave the land for the road, f;ained 
only by a protracted struj^j^le, and thus laid the foundation of his present fortune. All the 
mills of hi^ linn arc in this valley. 

In ls:i.'), .Mr. Oocker was returned to tho Lej;islaturo of Massaehuselts, and. in 18;i(), 
voted, with his friends, in favor of the i^tato Subscription to one million of st"ck, in the West- 
ern Railroad. Ho endeavored, also, ai this period, to arouse the people of I'ilehbnrf^h and 
vicinity to the great importance of steam eommunieation with Jioston, eitlier by a branch 
road to the Lowell trunk, at Lowell, or to the Worcester trunk, at Framinnliam. expending 
cimsiderable sums, from his own pocket, for surveys; his motto, at that time, being 
" Xorthern Massaidiusetts must have steam coinnnini<:ation with tide-watir, or [ !e away 
into utter insignilieance," It is not a little remarkable that both of the suiviys which he 
then made to Lowell and E'ramingham, have since been followed by railro;ols. 

The period of lH'.u arrested all publio enter|irises, while " Snuvc i/ni //> nt " Wiis the cry 
of almost every business man. The scp-rcity of the circulating medium was tlnu so great, 
that some of the souinlest men gave up in utter despair. Mr. Croeker remembers but few 
of his custo'e .s who met their papi'r, and relates an anecdote of the period, illustrative of 
the straits to wnich business men were then subjected. 

He had paid his jirotested notes, as they came back ujion him, until he had found the 
"inside bottom " of his )iocket, with every dollar duo him, all over the country, that be 
could scrape together. Still, his protested paper ke])t coining. Having never failed to 
meet his jiaper, he was driven almost to distraetiim. .Mortgage, he would imt ; it was his 
cardinal pidicy never to do so. Finding, by examining his note-book, that, if the notes all 
came back, ten thousand dollars would meet the Dank portion of his liabilities ; and, living 
oat of town, he prevailed U]ion tho cashier of the Fitchburgh Hank to let his jirotested paper 
ueeuiL'.ilate to the Monday forenoon of each week ; still not knowing where he could get 
the money, but believing in that I'ower who blesses those that try. He became so excited, 
at last, that, on a Wednesday, l>revious to the .Motnlay settlement, sleep was {.ut of the 
(juestion. His fevered imagination prcsentecl images of jail limits and a beggared family, 
luitil, at last, a vision a]ipeareil, though probably an hallucination, that a ilebt, ilui! him 
for a family he had suppoiccd for some three years, from the extreme .Sou. h, would be paid, 
fiid that tJie debtor would bo at Fitchburgh, the following Saturday, to pay biin, though he 
knew ho had been a bankrupt. To his repeated assurances to his wife to that elVeet, she 
eciiilJ only express her fears that his brain was cither turning, or had entirely turned. 
The Saturday morning breakfast, however, following another sleepless night, be harnessed 
" Did Whitey" and rode to town, meeting the iilmliinl debtor before the ibior yard gate 
whiTO his family resided, as ho knew or dreamed ho would. "Come in," said this instru- 
ment of (iod's mercy, " ivnd get your money. You did not let my poor family sulTer, did 
yioi? What, on earth, ails you? What do those tc -s mean? Southerners will always 
pay a delit of honor! I 1" After satisfying it, the ilebtor took out another )vaekage of 
United Slates liank bills, saying, " Here, my boy, take that." Mr. C, then, tried to tell 


Han-in- or Wall Taper, softening it with strong alkali and bkadi, nf 
which large quantities have since been used. 

:SIr ("rocker has filled several positions of public trust and ron- 
fulence. with honor to himself and advantage to his const iHients. He 
ha. been an or-anizer and President of llailroad Companies, a nu-mlM-r 
of the Massachusetts Legislature, a Senator in 18f.2 and 1865, and has 
recently been appointed, by the Governor, Commissioner of the btate 
work on the lloosac tunnel. 

him alK,„t .IK. uMC.vtainty of his security. Hi. roply was: "You trustcl .ne, .u,l fcl n,y 

"'S; .i,:;;:^;-";aH::;o *.. ..,.. ...o ... .. uin.t.y .eu.... «,.„ ,.. ...... ....;„, 

^';,.e L: ..■ vn. J... ..,,.0. ...ieh .,. Xncw „.. a.ive., ti.e a ^-'^j;—^ 

ing six-footer (th,„„h will, a heart as kin.l ana^n-ntle as a 1an,l.), rephcl : Y' ' \ 

r. ,.,. ,lu. <..e„na re<iuest, tlu. easluer. l<,K,wi„., tl,at the Hank 15oanl wnuM he],, M.. ( .. 

,.e al ' lor h..,,,. and heUevin. he had „o .nonoy. a,ai,. res,,„n...., •• What are you go..^ 

oao,froe.<ery- •• Pay l" was the re,,.y. "Whercy how? when- ■' Money. Mr aU c 

le thae, uncovering, lVon> an ohl, rusty poeUet-buoU, two largo packages o >uk 

]" le' '• hills, .nel, was the entire absence of currency, the cashier began o .h.nht h > 

^ l;,;ies. an,., with a countenance ,.f n.ter surprise, ahnost of cnj^ernat.on . at^ so .nuch 

u,ouev couM be found anywhere, exelaiuunl : '• I vow, ('roeker : d.d you steal U .' 

rrou %:;; to m-2, yU. Crocker had ,,ros,,.:rous years of business : when. ,n a , a 
fire levelled his best null, and a large sloekhousc full of paper and rags, but 

'Z ;"':; was reelected to the Legislature, having again eon. out in Jwor of Stean. 
Cc . unieaUon with lloston, by a route entirely independent of ^]^ ^^^ J ^^^^ 
trunk. He obtained the charter fro.u the Legislature, aga.nst the .nlUtence ot both and 
^U their biUer sneers and opposition-denounced as a huu.bug and in,postor-hc obta,ned 

th€ stock, and built the road. He was 

Mr Cocker ....uMnlo Fitehburgh on the first, March Mb IM... Hewa> 

cK. cd ,he nr.' l-resid...t of the fitehburgh Uoad, but resigned it the .lune. to 

ace P ,-tof ..resident of the Vertnont and M.ssaehuse.t- liailroad, unt.l, and re 

Sn' d that on its eou.pletiou to lirattleboro. This road, having hut little .tock, was bn.U 

^'rr.::t;^t';s-0. ,U.. CroeUcrwas engaged largely iu various railroad enterprises, 
c=neci..lly in aiding the Troy and liostou nn,l the Tunn.d llailroads; and, durmg IM,- . 
X fse 1.1 imndred Jtures, in their behalt; in New York and Veru.ont n Nov.n 
r^ t is^.., the largest lire that ever occurred at Fitehburgh took place, and Mr- rocker 
t 'cb i and .Machine Shop, on which there was but a trilling insuranec. 11ns c.r- 
^,,! nee Induced bin, to rCini.ish public .ile, and, in , 85y he lirm o, Crocker, lU.r- 
\ . b s ,■ , now the larirc.t I'aper Manulaelurcrs iu Fitehburgh. w:-s lorn.ed. 

'tXXl t::^^^ 1 , - ...■ -.'urauce. al st incredible, and h,., 

,.„;.,„ a as nu,ch labor as any of his ago in this country. Lis l,.e has been lull ot 
LaHli". incidents .r I danger, passed over, and ho ha. made tnuny hu.rbread.h escape, 
from dcalli, without a sea.- upon His person. 




and bloach, nf 

trust p.iul <'"ii- 
nstiUients. Ilf 
niiifs, a nioni'ii'r 
,(1 1865, and luis 
ler of the Stato 

stoil iiic, iuul foil my 

luinliis lioiidv. c'liHinc! 
I'l', a stern, iMJiimianil- 
lioa : •' Will, wluit iif 
ril winilil lii'lp ^li'. ''•• 
"Wliiit lUTVou goius 
"Mouoy. Av," lit lilt 
> ini.."U:igi>s 111' "Nifk 
or bcijiin to (liml)t liis 
irniition, that so much 
you steal ity" 
s: whin, in a night, a 
I white lagH, with hvit 

out in favor of Steam 
B Lowell or Woreefter 
iifhfeiice of both ; anil, 
imiiostof — ho obtuiiiotl 

eh fith. IStS. He was 
the folliiwinp; .lune, to 
ait, until liuilt, ami re 
t little stock, was built 

IS railroiul enterprises, 

s; ami, ihiring 18IV-S, 

I Verniunt, On Nnveni- 

place, ami Mr. CrocliiT 

ifl insurance. 


.' liriu of Crocker, linr- 
,-;is l'orn\eil. 
lihle, anil has, finibalily. 

Us life lias been lull of 
any huirbreailth cscaias 

The Putnam Machine Company, 

At Fifchhm-cfh, liavc rccontly orcctcd a ^Macliiiio Slioj), that is ]iri)l)ahly 
tlie innst I'emarkablo of any in tlio United States. It is ori<rinal in 
desisn, liavinir fur its areiiitect tlie Presit'.'nt of tiie company, and eoiii- 
))iiies. in tiie form of its eonstruetioii, points of (>xeelieiieo and eoii- 
venioneo tiiat are I'arely fonml in any similar Works. 

Tiio main l)uihlintr is of hrick, four inindred imd eio-jity-soven feet 
long and forty-four feet wide, willi seven wiiio's proji-etiiiu: from tlie wrst 
side, at reirnhir intcrvtds, wlioso avera^'e dimensions arc iifty-two liy 
tinrly-si.K feet ; oitposite to wiiieli, on tli(> east side, are simihir pro- 
jections of lesser dimensions, used as oillces for vhe forcnten of llie 
various dcpnrlments. In these winjjjs, the individual parts of the Mm- 
chiiies and Tools manufactured in the central portion of the Imililinir 
are put lo<>-ctlicr, or " set up," and thus very little liandlino' is rc(|nircil ; 
while the arranfremeiit of the ollices is such, that each miinii!icr has iit 
all times a ready and com)»lete survey of all the opcriitions in his 
department. The lloor of tht; niiiin slio]) is composed of eemont or 
contn'etc, several feet in thickness, so solidly compaeteil that not tlio 
least jar or vihrat ion in the movement of the machinery is manifest. 
The roof, which is of slat(!, is supported l)y a row of iron columns ex- 
tendino- the whole leniilh of tlie premises, which is as nearly lii'e-i)roiif 
us it is i)ossii)le to construct a hnildinj^. 

The machines used in the various mechanical operations are rano'iil 
alonii- the central bidldinj^, and derive power from a seventy-live horse 
engine, communicated hy means of a sinjjfh! line of shafliiiir nearly five 
hundred feet lonj^. Anion?; the remarkiihle tools in these Works, is 
a Lathe that will swini,' twenty feet; a Planer that will plane tliirly- 
six feet Ion;.? and seven feet square; and an cnormoua Crane that will 
handle wilh ease a weiirht of twenty-live tons. Attached to the Ma- 
chine Shop there is a IJhicksinith Shop smcnly hy thirty-six feet, tin 
Enirine House Ihirly-fonr by twiuity-eio-ht feet ; and separate from it, at 
a short distance, is an Iron Foundry one hundred and twenty-live l)y 
sixty-si.v feet; a Urass Foundry tliirty-eisrlit by twenty-si.x feet; a 
Pattern tind 15ox Shop eijrhty by forty feet ; and a Pattern Shop 
seventy by thirty-six feet. The Works are located directly on the 
Vermont and Massachusetts Hallway, from which the coal and iron 
can bo delivered, and by which the finished products can bo trans- 
ported without the necessity of much handlin'j:. All these buildin;:s 
are amtdy funn.sheil with wimlows, which, besides impartinfr in air of 
cheerfulness to the interior, tends to secure acciu'iicy of workmanship. 
The list of Machines add Tools nni nil fact ui'i'd at iiese Works is 



,„ito comprclicnsive, but they may be classifiea under the general heads 
of Steam Engines, Machinists' Tools, Woodworth's Planers, and Mdl 

^^r' Steam Engines. This department of the Putnam Machine Com- 
uanv's Works has been, since March, 1859, under the charge of Lou.s 
1> i3artlett, form.n-ly Saperinteudent of the Boston Steam Engine Co 
(better known as "Otis Tufts"), an able mechanic, and an "^ventor ot 
many important in.provements. He has aimed to combine simpLc^'tv of 
construction with economy of fuel, and has greatlyreduced the numb 
of parts usually found in Steam Engines. The Engines c«-tmcted heic 
have a patent reglating cut-off gear, which is so contrived that the cut-off 
b.s a range thvou-.hout the whole length of the stroke, or, in other 
wu-ds, the ordinary regul.toi-valve is dispensed with, the governor ac - 
i„. directly on the steam-valves, by means of which the steam, admit- 
ted to the cylinder at boiler pressure, is cut olf by action of he 
,,>vevnor at any point in the entire stroke. These Engines are also 
distin<^uished !■-• a peculiar arrangement of poppet valves and steam 
n.,ssa['es The lower disks of both the steam and exhaust valves arc 
of smaller diameter than the upper ones, so that the valves can bo 
readily withdrawn for cleaning or repairs by simply removing the 
eoverhig plates from tin. top of the valve chest. The c-Btruction o^ 
the chest is remarkably simple, compact, and economical. Another 
...euliarity of the Putnam Engine, is that the cam shaft for opening and 
closing the valves is run at a less number of revolutions than the main 
.buft by which the steam may be used through the whole length of the 
stroke ov be cut off at any point ; and also, in consequence ol reduced 
speed overcomes certain mechanical diinculties hitherto experienced m 
. 'eut-off -ar." The Company own the patents for the improvements 
that give^heir Engines their distinctive character-among which may 
be mentioned a Cylinder Oiler, by means of which the waste of oil at- 
tending the use of the ordinary injecting apparatius is avoided. I Ins 
(^omprnv have built Engines for the U. S. Navy Yard at Po.-t.mouth, 
N H . ami other government workshops ; for the U. S. Watch Company 
at Jersey City, and the National Watch Company at Chicago ; for many 
'.ailing manufacturing establishments in New England and the West- 
ern States ; four for California, two for the Sandwich Islands, and one 

''"Q^MTcniNisTs' Tools. This department of these Works is under 
rharce of J Q. Wbumit. who is the joint inventor, with S. W. Putnam, 
of the Frictional Feed Gearing for Engine Lathes. All the Lathes con- 
suucted here have a peculiar feed arrangement, that is more simple and 
convenient than that ordinarily applied. The disk for throwmg the side- 
feed in or out of uction, i« oi.ei.ited by a swivel or un.oi.-jumted nut; 


he general beads 
luuevs, and Mill 

Macliinc Com- 
elmrgo of Louis 

;eam Engine Co. 
d an inventor of 
line siniplicniy of 
ucud llio number 
i constructed here 
ul tliat the cut-off 
■oke, or, in other 
the governor act- 
the steam, admit- 
by action of the 

1 Engines arc also 
valves and steam 
xhaust valves arc 
tlic valves can be 
ply removing the 
he construction of 
lomical. Another 
aft for opening and 
ons than the main 
vhoie length of the 
jquenco of reduced 
L-rto experienced in 

the improvements 
•among which may 
the waste of oil at- 

is avoided. This 
ard at Portsmouth, 
S. Watch Company 

Chicago ; for many 
land and the Wcst- 
ich Islands, and one 

se Works is under 
with S. W. Futnam, 
All the Lathes con- 
t is more simple and 
)r throwing the side- 
ir union-jointed nut; 



the cross-feed is thrown in or out of action by the agency o a hand 
w, c and the power is transmitted from the driving w eel to e . u. 
opcraung the cross-feed by means of a hollow shatt. ' '- ;^^; ^ ^ 
two feed arrangements, one for ordinary turnmg, and the othe lo. ^aov 
u, i :. All tie beds of the Tools made here are in one castn.g. and 
^U ;im of the company to construct tools that canm>t 1. ex..l a 
ia strength and quality of material. Particular Z^^^-^;;,,^; '^^^ 
thoroughness as well as nicety of workmanslup uwdl tla d • d^ 
such a proportion in the relative parts is observed a exp..nencc has 
demonstrated tends to render a Tool serviceable ior a long l-^^- 

3 WooDWORTii's Plankus. An in.portant departn^'ut o the e 
Works, under charge of Charles liurleigh, is appropnated «-^ >^'-^. 
to manufacturing these Pi.ners. The present -f^.';-;/; J 
these popular planing machines originated, .t .s sa.d w t ^^'^^^ 
Putnam who were among the iirst to engage ,n bu.ldn>g ti>em. 1 oi 
ove six een years they have been the vrincipal manufacturers, and from 
Ztotime'have adopted improvements which render the mac lunes 
now constructed by them as nearly perfect as it >s probably poss.b e to 
make them. Among the latest of these improvements, are patent ox- 
tension connecting gears, by which the strain on the n.termeduxte geai. 

'' f The MillWork, Shafting, etc. , arc under charge of John Burney. 
This Company, like most machine shops, construct a great va- 
ric of nuscelianeous machinery. They dilTer, however, irom n.any 
others in having tools and facilities for constructi.ig very heavy 
m I^eV, espec;;ily Shafting. During the late Ivebellion, they und.. 
took a contract with the government for building the cast-ste 1 Biak In 
Gun, which involves great nicety of construction. Some <^^ ^^J^^ 
manufactured by them weighed forty-four thousand pounds. 1 he> e 
also the builders of the Burleigh Drill which is used m excavatmg the 

^ThTpuram Machine Company, which now employs two hundred 
hands is the successor of J. & S. W. Putnam, who commenced bus.- 
tl in Fitchburgh in 1838, with no capital, and worked for a .me w, 
no assistance except o,>e apprentice and one journeyman. ^ ^^ - 
ori-vinallv from Peterborough, N. H., and are related to ^^"^''^^^ "^ 
nam. of llevolutionary n.emory. After twenty years' experience duun 
Thi h time they established their claims to a position among the best 
m Itanics of th'e country, they organized a C»."P-y. t at was m- 
corpouued in 1858, with a capital of forty thousand ^^o^^^ - ^^ ^ . 
increased in 1866 tj, one hundred and twenty thousand ^^^ '[^ «_ \^; 
shares, numbering three hundred and twenty, are all owned m F.tch- 


,.ut; BENaAMiN SNOW, .h., i--';;;'^^^- j5^,.,^,,„. Snow, .h-., 
directors- John Putnam, S W. ^ ''''■^' "^ Uodnkv Wal- 


LACE, and Geoiwe E. Towne. 

The Walter Heywood Chair Company, 

, , , ■ . nf tl.o tlivec luvR-cst Chair Manufacturing Estab- 
in Fitchburg h >b o o ^^ J" i dates its origin from 1842, when 
lishuu-nts ni the I uilca btatcs. ^ ^^^ 

Air Walter llt-ywood commenced mauufactuung 01 an. %vn 
All. »\iiHLi xivj „„viii>i' onlarn'ina; n s Uicuuies 

u.„,d. 1.0 .»:--■•;;,-;; *\;;::t\v:>::wo'e Lu.y«a .y a., 

from time to time, u> in 18*J. "'leu 
l,„t wore roliuilt with groot oxpeailio... 

Tl,o Work,, .» at present eo„»trurtec,, ™"" ' ° ^^J^j,,," „ „„„ 
i,„., two of .l,om of l,riek and o„e o .™n|^ J « "Ze" ..rie' U,h , 

Varnisl. Ilooms. and other auxiliary o-'-^^;^^' ^^g.^,^,,, ,^ ,,,„«. 
.,emaeldneryen>pl^ J..^^^^ 

factuvc sixty-fiv. dozen ^'•-^;' •';,'",,;,,,, ^f tools and maclunes 
but dinicult to describe. ^^ "~^ ,, . ,^ ,,,1 fmishing wood. As 
that arc suited fcr boring, ^ ^J^'f^.^^^ ^J ^^ J exported to 
,..,.,v all the Chairs produced in J^^ ^^^'^^ate pieces, to save 
,,veign countries, they -^ />- ;f " ^^".^ ^ ^ for convenience in paint- 
imlk in transportation. l^'"""\^^"\'°" ' ' ' .^ . „,rt this necessarily 
,.,, they arc ^^^ V'^'T :SL ^ ^ -^eture, so that the 

i,„,,lios delicate and nice machineiy u ^^ .^^_ 

aillrcnt parts will go together again r^d y^ J^^^;^^ ^^^^^..^ 
eiplo is applied in this manufacture. - - ^^^'^^^ ;3 ,, ,,,t by what 

numerous and ingenious. 




.ncl cloUiirs oi\eli. 
^\, hiis (lisplayed 
rder, uiul luis so- 
opartuH'uls, who, 
recognise liim "S 
linal. The Coui- 
. Pltnam, Tresi- 
Uautlett, Clerk. 
AMiN Snow, .Ir., 


•I'ho Walter lloywood Cliair ronipany employ in tlu-ir simps about 
oiu' Imnilrea and Tifty men, and as many more women and childivn, who 
(•ane and seat eliairs at their homes. JJesides tlio ordinary eune-seat, 
tliey manulacturc larj-x'ly wood-hottom Chairs, adapted i-i slyle of 
siiiipu and finish to the tastes of foreign markets. 

Mr. lleywood, the tbnniior and Pre.sident of this Company, is a d(!- 
scendant of one of the Pilgrim families who camo over in the " May- 
llower" and laadcd at Plymouth llock. 

nufacturing Estab- 
from 1842, when 
airs with about ten 
arging his facilities 
B destroyed by fire, 

r three large build- 
Liain building is one 
three stories high; 
ir stories in height ; 
ong, thirty-two feet 
re arc Dry Houses, 

s sufficient to manu- 
iubtcdly remarkable, 
f tools and machines 
fiiushing wood. As 
lent are exported to 
aratc pieces, to save 
convenience in paint- 
and this necessarily 
ufacture, so that the 
fact, the same pvin- 
■atches by machinery, 
wood is bent by what 
es for the purpose arc 




rTho following arc the Statistics for Providence County, which in- 
eludes, besides the City of Providence, a part of Pawtucket and ot .-r 
inanufacturlng towns, for the year ending June 1, 1800, as prepared lur 
this work at the Census Ollice.] 


No. of 

2 . 
4 . 


AsriciiUunil iiiiplempnts, , 


Hloiicliiuj; luiildyiMiig 

Kohliins and sp.uplri 

Bol*..", iiuts, waslii'iii, ptc... 

Boota aud sliues 

Boxes ' • 

BraHS foiiniiiiiK' ^•■ 

Bread • '' • 

Bricks " • 

Cabinet furninin> 1" 

Calico iniutiiiK ■^ 

Carriages 24. 




Coffee aud siiioo.s 2.. 

Combs 1 

Confectiouory 8.. 

Copper smitliiu;? 1- 

Cotton go.ids 59. 

Cottou yiini, bnttliii( & cordage 27 

Cottoli-seed oil !• 

Distilled ii<iuors 1 

Doors, sash mid blinds 13 

Dye woods 

Files 2 

Fire eujjliioK 1 

Flour and moal 



Hats and tups 

Hietres, nisl-iroii 

Ilorsi' shoes 

Ho.-.e and lioltiiii: 

India nilibiM- (,'"ods 

Iron foundinK 




Looking slass & pictuie frames 


" planed 


M»oUinery, cotton 









Valno of 
























































. 3" 

. 1,826,400 













. 62 





,. 904.... 

.. 1,071,586 











30 „., 

. 15 










.. 6,516.105 



. 405 ... 

.. 661... 











61, ,100 

7.5,17,-i .... 

. 129... 



















35 .. 


702,000 .... 








... SO... 

... ■ 60.500 



23 .. 

... 18... 




.. 100... 



6,000 ,... 



IS. .500 








... 44 . 



00.5S4 .. 

... 221.. 




... 1498.., 

,... 263.. 

.... 2,251,2-2 





•••• •' 













MO .IftO... 


.... 6.57., 
.... 719., 

i..,. 659,194 

CE, R. I. 

?c County, which in- 
*a\vtucket and otlicr 
18G0, as i)rei>ared lor 

Main Femalo Vnlup of 
huuils. Imuda. pioduit. 

10 ♦!•'■'>« 

40 140,0!iO 

390 30 «•»,*'» 

3.1 la 2C,:>T7 

122 181), :1W 

341...... 18 277,i-,:> 

24 37.iiUi 

29 6?.:(:7 

SO 4 258,.'iU 

160 62,111)0 

12,> 1 ISl.-*"'^ 

96.) 3" l,S26,4O0 

192 7 232,740 

07 ]r)7,M0 

g9 62 204,,'>:i(i 

370 904 l,071,;■i^n 

13 1 84,."iOn 

29 3.'>,0tKi 

30 15 100,.W.-. 

17 - 40,0on 

3,591 4.142 6,516,111-) 

40.) eel 98.s2(l.-) 


3 62,111)0 

129 219,i;sii 

8 69. SOU 

ijS \ 80.1101) 

3.:i 3(i,0(iO 

35... 6e"."'-2 

. 64 197,7:i.-. 

IS SG ■ eo..-poo 

23 18 52.2.'H> 

190 200,01") 

". 14 IS-'OO 

73 2,39,000 

69 44 24ii,7iB) 

221 21S.22.-) 

,. 1498 263 2,251,2-2 

20 77.31)7 

22 45,000 

.'. 10 22,500 

32 42..-)75 

71 24fl,.'iiiO 

.". 6.J7 797.97.1 

719 ;..,. 659,194 



VV I , ' N " *■' 





No. of 
Manufacturei. meutv. 

Malt liquors 2 

Marljlo work 8 

Matiiomaticul lustruraents 1 

Kails 3 

I'ackoil urovlsiona 4 

I'aiont ini'ilifiaes 1 

I'rinliiiijanil rul>lishing 3 

Ucoil- and loom-haruess fl 

Sad irons 1 

SaJJlijry and harnoss 12 

Sails 2 

Screws, wood 2 

Scytlios 1 

Scwin« macliinpR 1 

S'liits and furuishinff goods.... 2 

Silver-plated & Britauuia waro 6 

Silver ware 3 

Soap and cundlcs 4 

Spiral epringa 2 

Steam and ({as pipes 4 

Stoves 4 

Tiu and sheet-Iron ware 2S 

Wireworkini? 1 

Wheel wriglitlng, 16 

Woolen goods 26 

" yarn 1 

Wronght-lron pipe 1 

Total, Including miscellane- 
ous manufactures not above 
specified ... 








2.) ,000.... 









18,800 .. 







4,000 .. 




l'),(XIO .., 

803 *17,fl36,aS5 

Aggregate In Rhode Island... 1191 
Do. do. In 1850.. 864 

Increase 327 

Jtll, 342,619 $6,671,812 

Increase 84 per cent. 





Valne of 









.. 108 






.. 223 

















.. 120 









... 315.... 

. 300 



.. 100 







. 64 






.. 235 












.. 270 


92,577 .. 

... 126... 









... 1742... 

. 883 





















7,872 3,051 J18,.593,61C 

On the Manufactures of Providence. 

Providence is one of the wenltliicst and most enterprising of Ameri- 
can cities in |iroi)orlion to its poiiulation, untl tlic greater part of its 
ciiiiital aiul enterprise is now invo.8te(l in manufactures. It lias !)ccn es- 
timated that if all its wealth could bo etpially divided amongst tho 
inhaliitnits, each man, woman and child, would bo eirJtled to nearly 
seventeen hundred dolliirs. Uesides the numerous niniiufactorics located 
within the city limits and the vicinity, there are ninny important estal)- 
lishmenls in other parts of Rhode Island, and other States, that ore 
owned by citi/ens of Providence. A few years since. Dr. Snow, of 
Providence, investigi cd the sulijeet, and ascertained that 77 Cotton 


Tr^ oso 000 yards of Cotton Cloth per annum, beside^ i mt- 
narv tunes 3.i,i«0,uuu }aiuh ui Y ^p th,,;,. luill* \vc bel eve, 

i„g abont 24,000 pieces per week ; bnt none o thui milL,, yarn ^o. 12 at tlnrtj on ^^ ' ^^^^ ,,,ic in 


the ronvavkablo manufactories not only of the city, but 
States. Of this class are 

The Corliss Steam-Engine Works. 
On March 10 1840, we find in the Patent Office Reports that a 

z;::;r: V ,,s:;: l;" .xt,.ni„o .«■.. ,.-■.«;■...». 

..,. thP f'lct that any one of then, is renumbered at all. 
rt Crt:^.^ L it possesses n.ore t,.u -db.ary va .. 
u to all the inventions th..t have been made dur.,.g the 1. 

„^ Jels. there are few. if any, which have attracted a .^ 
^0 of public .Utclion th..n Mr. C-;!-' ""J^^^^^^ ^, " ,.^ ^ 
K .n.En^i..c_no..e probably, unless it be the invention. . ndm 
P ., th t have passed through ordeals so costly and try., g- 



>s, locatcil out- 
e finii of A. & 
ivtjaufe in ordi- 
, beside priut- 
ills, wc believe, 

tablirilniients for 
of thepo is tliut 
;IUS0 CitMl'ANY, 

uaiiy years. It 
olliing is known 
ncenient, except 
5oth Dycinf? anil 
,t. Wlien it was 
jr bleaching was 
arn, at the ticket 
In the year 1819 
ound, payable in 
the ftverajje price 
cent per pound, 
■idence, there are 
so widely, having 
ided notice among 
ut of the United 

!c Reports that a 
idence, for an iiu- 
icenient is usually 
iition ; and as the 
patented exceed a 
!en pateiiled in a 
■enignibcred at all, 
,u ordinary value. 
J during the las^r 
attracted a larger 
provenieiits in the 
iuvtntions in India 
ostly and trying— 
ir claims to a high 
all slate, as hi'ielly 

and succinctly as wc can, tlie object and nature of these important im- 

The object of Mr. Corliss' improvement was to secure a more ccpiablc 
motion to stationary engines than hud l)een before olitained 1)y icnder- 
iiiir the regulator purely automatic and pnictically perfect, and to save 
fuel by applying and utilizing the entire expansive force of the steam, 
rrevioua to his invention it had been the practice to construct engines 
:u which ihe steam and exhaust-ports of tlie cylinder are opened aiul 
closed by slide-valves, witii valve-^ connected rigidly— that is, where one 
was moved, the other moved with it to tlie saiae extent— and it was 
found that the force refpiired to move the valve wiiile closed, its ottice 
having been performed, was expended fruitlessly, and tended only to 
increase ,he wear and tear of the engine. Mr. Corliss proposed to avoid 
tiie saeriliee of power by moving each of the steam and exhaust-valves 
independently by means of one, of a series wliich are all 
attached to a common disc, wrist-plate, or other equivalent device, which 
is secured to ami moved witli a rock shaft. The several wrists wiiich 
work the different vnlves are arranged upon the wrist-plate in such po- 
sitions witli rpspect to the roils and levers, or otlier devices wliieli con- 
nect them with the valves, that they shall act like so many cranks, each 
of which viln-ates near its dead p'int, or point of slowest throw, and 
therefore imparts but little movement to the valve it actuates when the 
latter is closed : while each moves with its fastest tiirow, and therefore 
commuin"catcs the greatest movenicnt to its valve when the latter is 


In addition to this, :Mr. Corliss invented a method of regulating the 
cut-oir of steam in its passage to the engine, by combining tlie governor 
with the catches, that liberate the steam-valves by means of nioval)le 
cams or .stops, so that when the velocity of the engine is too great tliese 
cams will be moved by the regulator to such positions tliat catches on 
the valve-rods may tlic sooner come in contact witli tiiem to liiierate tlie 
valves and admit of their being closed by the force of weight or springs, 
and thus cut off the steam in proportion to the velocity of the engine— 
this being done .<!ooner when the velocity of the engine is to bo reduced, 
and later when it is to be increased. In this arrangement tii rot lie- 
valves are dispensed with altogether and the governor adjusts the mo- 
tion by indicating the cIiDuge required to the levers which move the 
steam-Valves, which are opened or sliut by quick or sudden motions, and 
tiius the whide expansive power of tlie steuiii is saved and used. In 
.jther words, the regulation of the engine is made perfect by tlie pe- 
"iiliar way of combining the governor with the cul-ofl', and the cut-nif is 
made perfect by the automatic adju.-tal»ility secured by that connection. 

^^^ MANVFACTniES OF ^U0^•11)KNCE. 

No one can fail to sec that these improvements, if in practice they 
are found encetive, must be of vast utility. A ^^f-^:^^^^ 
steam-engine, says the apparatus for opening? and the passag ^ 
of more importance to the perfection of the than y 
other part o^' is n.echnnism. Ti>ese improven>ents may b. saul n. fact 
1 r volu.ionized the construction of the stean.cngine ; and „. v.ew 
c^- history of other meritorious i,>ventions, one .s not surprised to 

1 a thtthe inventor and his friends have been compelled to expend 
". y ^5 000 in establishing the claims and defending tl>e> s gnar- 
n d t 1 by the patent laws. But ai'ter u thorough invest.gat.on 
; to ule the language of the Comn.issioner of Patents ,n granting u 
ext ns on of thest patents, May 9. 18.3, after "every •— ;;"-'^; - 
;S^rabilities and great legal sagacity and experience -• ^ sugg 
wfre used to secure a correct decision." the Court decided that the 
ventiou was " new and patentable." 

novelty of the invention ,ma thus been inr , , ,„ exiunination in tl.o 

.,.. .. ,ae...s Uavo r^^^^^^^ Z H t Ic^^Itieiit. the other two havin. 
Circuit Court of the United States tor ^ . ^^^ 

„.vor been controverted. The court was composed "^ f ^ /J ;°^,„„„g ,,„ ,„„,t di,- 

o, • ,1' tlw. nutrict The counsel on botli siaos wtro imi". (, 

.Judge Shipmanot the District ^' „„i„„,i_,„.,aols and drawings were 

=:,=j:r::i:iV='EH:-rrr;.. • 

:,:;: r r:;s:; :;;:; i- »::».... - -. »' ---- —~ 

Btriotlv Hocordnnt witK these seven,; prior decisions. ^^ 

rated, it iH not now necessary to recite desonptions "/ '?;;'" .,„^ „„,,,, ,„ He 

"'■xr;;:;:;;;:"as been rai,od m rCatlon to the usefulnc. and importance to the puhlic 



n practice they 
authority on the 
ng the passages 
M\ginc ilmu any 
,y I).' said in fact 
rinc ; and in view- 
not surprised to 
)clied to expend 
f tiie rights guar- 
igli investigation, 
ts in granting an 
means wiiicli tlic 
ce could suggest 
ided that the in- 

■E, March 9, 1863. 
tension of six rntcnil 
I. issued on the 10th of 
h of July, 1859. The 
the Office— nnJ four of 
ill) cxiuniniUion in tho 
t, tho other two having 
son of tho Circuit, nnd 
re uniong tho most Jia- 
iilols and ilrawings wore 
t legal sagacity anil cx- 
n. Tho (^lu^t, after ft 
il patentable." 
|)alenls, the question of 
, iinil tho Ex»niincr-in- 
iil deductions therefrom 

orfcro with tho claims of 
d to, and wore minutely 
. nothing hi\? been fouml 
•ision 80 uniformly reile- 
nl invention?, nor to an- 

of voinl.H alleged to bo 
liat having examined tho 
itents by the light of the 
objections and arguments 
Reicnt reason for refusing 

novelty in his invention. 
I the fovciul clu'.ms, or to 

1 importance to tho public 

In introducing tliose Engines the inventor and tnanufacturcrs adopted 
the novel plan of dllVring to lake the saving in fuel, in a given time, as 
their pay, or a stipulated amount in cash, at the option of! i)urcliascr. 
To the James Steam iMills, at Newburyport, .Mass., they olhn-ed to fur- 
nish two new high-pressure engines with 18-inch diameter of cylinder, 
4 feet stroke of piston, and take, in lien of a slipidated sum, five tinu's 
t!ie value of tho coal saved the lirst year, the coal being reckoned at si.v 
dollars per ton. The amount received i)y the manufacturers under this 
iirrangement was Sr,),7;5t -22, the saving in coal during the first year 
being $;!,;)4(i 84; and in addition, Wm. C. Ualch, Agent and Treasurer 
of these ndlls, certifies that there was ten per cent, increased production, 
so that the actual saving in a cotton mill of Vi,i)2i spindles in one year 
was $4,:]41-2S. To ihe Ocean Steam Mills, at Newburyport, Mass., 
they propDscd to take their former engines as they stoixl, and fiindsh a 
new one, for the saving of fuel in two and a half years, or for i5:5,(100 in 
cash, at the option of the purchasers. The proprietors deciiled to pay 
the cash sum, and did wise by so doing, as the saving in fuel amounted 
to three thousand dollars in about two year.s. To .Messrs. Crocker, 
IJrothers & Co., jjroprictors of the Copper-Rolling Mill at Taunton, 
Mass., they propositi to furnish an Kiigint; that would do one-third more 
work than the one they were using, with a consninplion of less than one- 
half the coal, namely, two tons for five, or forfeit one dollar per i)ound 
for every pound per day used above that amount. The i)ropriet(U's 
(;ortify, that though they increased the work of the engine about one- 
third by the addition of machinery, and also increased the production 
of their mill by the uniformity of motion secured by the improvements 
in the mode of regidation, yet the average consumption of Pennsylvania 
coal has not exceeded two gross tons per day; or, in o\her words, the 
real diirerence in tlie engines, in proportion to the amouni of work i)er- 
formed, was 2 tons against 6§ tons. To the Atlaidic Delaine Mills, 

of this invention; nor, in view of tho testimony olieitcd, and of tho admissions made, 
can such nuostion bo reasonably entertainod, except in its bearing ui,o,. the ,,ucsl.on of 
the adequacy of tho remuneration already realised by ll.e invenloi— i.i relation to which 
il maybe athrmed, that tho invention, being confessedly of vast imp"rlan...e, and tl,o in- 
genuity, time, persistence in labor, capital invested originally, and expense incurred ui 
introducing it to the public and in defending tho right guaranteed by tho patent laws, all 
being great, the romuncralion already received as shown in tho statement of tho pe- 
tilionor, is regarded as falling far short of an equitable reward. „<,.,»,„ 

It is therefore Ordered, that llio said I-eltcr- I'alcnt. numbered respectively 76.1. Toil, 
700 75S, 7tU. 762, an,l roi.suod to iJeorgo II, Corliss, on tho 12.1, of .luly, IS.fl, be and 
tbe same are hereby extended for tho term of »oven years from j;"''^"'";;'^,/';;;:'!;:"""" 

thereof. ' . " . , « . .. 

Comuiusioncr of Palontl. 



Providence, R. I., whose engines previously re.iuircd six tons of coal 
per clay tl.ey proposed to furnish new en-incs that would give the same 
power at an exi)enditure of coal not exceeding three tons per day, u..dor 
a penalty of one dollar per pound for every p..u,.d of coal euuM.inea 
beyond that amount, and pay $25 per .lay for every day during the l.rst 
year that the engine should fail to give the requisite motive power 
The actual amount of coal consumed by the new engine was less thaU 
two and a half tons per day. Such conlracls as these strdce us as 
curious and certainlv evince in a remarkal)le manner the conhdence ot 
the ma'nufi.cturers in the value of Mr. Corliss' improvements. At the 
preser' unie, as their engines are now working in several hundred of the 
lar-n-st manufactories of the country, and their value so well attested, 
we"presnme it would be difficult for them to make contracts payable in 

saving of fiel. 

The Works of the Corliss Stoam-Engine Company are among the 
most prominent of the manufaciuring establishments of Providence. 
They are among the first objects that attract the attention of passengers 
enterin.' the city l)y the railroads from Boston and Worcester. They 
were built during the years 1848, '4t) and 'oO, and occupy an area of 
nine acres The Machine Siiop alone covers about an a<-re of ground, 
bein- COB feet long, with .a average width of 70 feet. The IJoilcr .Shop, 
Smitiis' Shop, Iron and Hrass Foundries, are all spacious, and well- 
equipped with appropriate tools. The Patterns are made and stored m 
a separate l.uihling. which contains large and ulrv Drafting Rooms m 
its second storv. In their aspect, and especially in the interior arrange- 
ment these buildings present a marked contrast to works of a similar 
description, being light, cheerful and comfortable, a circumstance that 
not only imparts pleasure to visitors, but conduces to the health of the 

workmen employed. .„ . • 

The capacity of this establishment for dispatching work will be in- 
ferred when we state that an order for an !• ngine of :350-h.)rse power, 
Micluding boilers and all the appurtenances, has been executed in sixty 
davR-and also including a gear fly-wheel of 2.5 feet diameter, l8-in.-h 
fac"e 51-inch pitch, weighing 64,000 pounds, turned, and with cogs on 
the face cut with the accuracy of clock-work. Finer siiecimens of work- 
manship than some of the engines tunud out at these works are not 
produced in this country or in Europe. 

Within the last ten years Mr. (^orliss has patented a number of very 
important improvements having rel.tti.)n to the objects of the Company s 
manufactures.- Among those which are probably destined to prove of 
the greatest practical importance, we would instance his recent invan- 
tion for obviating the necessity of using salt water in Marine Engines, 




; tons of colli 
give the same 
per day, uiidor 


luring the tirst 
motive power 
! was less than 
e strike us as 
• conlideni'c of 
iients. At the 
hundred of the 
) well attested, 
icls payable in 

arc among tlie 
of Providence, 
n of passengers 
)reester. They 
upy an area of 
acre of ground, 
he IJoiler .Shop, 
L'ious, and wcll- 
le and stored in 
.fting Rooms in 
nterior arrangc- 
irks of a similar 
rcumstance that 
lie health of the 

ivork will be in- 
aO-horse power, 
ixecuted in sixty 
iametcr, l8-ini'h 
id with cogs on 
ucimens of work- 
works are not 

number of very 
jf the Company's 
ned to prove of 
his recent invan- 
Marine Engines, 

bv the substitution of an Improved Boiler with an apparatus for con- 

boilers where pure water is used, are found practically to la^t i xn 
twv years w thout becoming destroyed by rust or .lecompos.fon. 

T X rnal view of Mr. ("orliss' new boiler is simply a dome ab 
eJS^n diameter, with eight furnace ^^^^^ ^^^j' ^':;;;^,^ 
i elo of the base. Internally there are --n vertical cyun^ucao 

1, nf the di-imete:- of 32 inches and height of ten lect, .ui.iii^m 
:»„»».;.! cvli,„lc, Wilcr, »rvl„s » a ' ,,.... .cnu-c . 

the smoke-flue which surmounts the dome above them. 

All these congregated boilers being cyl.ndncal, and of mall d. am . 

uenture to the latter in the form of pure distilled water. I has In 

»bp actual necessity of replenishing the boilers. _ 

llie atui.ii in-'i-n.-iiij 1 , • 1 .,„ ifi.intic vovaires, it IS onlv 

T„ r,-fWA,H. the smnll waslo ,lm-,i.K l....g Atl.nt.t un .t ^ 

„,.„,.„'• t., .l.lJy a H„n.ll diH.iUi„s ai„u>r,>t»«, operaloa b, Ihc 

'T,,,'':: ''t''i;,,s« .1.0 voy..c,, .l. ,„o,,, in,,0Hn„t bce„,,,c» U,c 


MANi i'AC"n:uKs OF piiovni';NCE. 

))otli of tliein have become already unsafe, on tlieir arrival out, from the 
coiToision or " aoney-couibetl" condition of the boilers, and siiKgesting 
modes of gettini,' them home under canvas to oi)taiu new boilers. Tiie 
elliciency of these sliips of war thus actually depends ou the proervaliuii 
or the Ijoilers as tlie source of their motive power. 

The Corliss Stcam-Eiisrine Company was incorporated in June, 1856. 
with a capital stock of $:^Ut),000. At present tlie capital employed is 
nearly double tids amount. Its olVicers are Ukohue 11. Couus.s, I'resi- 
deut ; Wm. Cuiiuhs, Treasurer ; John II. Clark, Agent. 

The Providence Tool Company's Works 

Are another of the establishments of rrovidence that are entitled to a 
place among the remarkalde manufactories of America. Tliis Company 
has l)een a pioneer in certain brandies of the Hardware manufacture, 
and at the outbreak of the present rebellion was one of the first of the 
private establishmen.s that engaged in the manufacture of Firearms. Its 
history is brielly as follows : 

In 184;'), several gentlenuMi associated themselves together for the 
purpose of engaging in the mannracture of Carpenters' and other 
Mechanics' Tools, more especially IMane Irons of all kinds, Chiscl.-<, 
Augers, etc., and erected a stone buihling 80 by 4(» feet, two stories 
high, with a wing lid feet by 52, one story high. The lociilion se- 
lected was but a few rods from the harl)or, aifording every desirable 
advantage for shipping, and also accfssil)le l)y streets from every side. 
The capital at first was of small amount, and the numl)er of hands em- 
ployed did not exceed fifty. In 1847 tlie Company was incorporated, 
under the special law of the Stale, as the I'rovidence Tool Company; 
and in the following year tliey made an addition to their works of a 
stone structure 4U by 40 feet, three stories- high, witii basement. In 
1849 a wooden building was added l:i2 by 40 feet, including a wing 
one story high ; and in ISf):} a brick building ('.7 by 40 feet, four stories 
in height, making length of main building 187 feel, and width 40 feet. 
In the subsecpient year there was built and put in operation a fiirmue 
of brick designed for casting parts of machinery, and various port ions 
of articles manufactured by them, such as phucs for hinges, etc. Thus 
building was added to building, until the estaijlishment grew to be one 
of the most prominent in that city of manufactories. 

As fast as the buildings were completed they were filled with ma- 
chinery—and as a facility for transporting materials about the works, an 
under-ground railroad was provided. Among the important machines 



al out, from the 
, and siij,fgesting 
iw boilers. Tlie 
the in-e.-ui'valioii 

[1 in June, 18S6. 
itiil enii)l(>y(;d is 
Coiujss, I'resi- 


are entitled to a 
This ('oiupiiny 
are nuinnfacture, 
it' the first of the 
of Firearms. Jts 

to2;etlicr fur the 
nters' and other 
1 kinds, Chisel.s, 

feet, two stories 
The lo(!alion se- 
(^ every dcsirahle 

from every side. 
il)er of hands eiu- 
vas ineorporated, 
J To(d Cdnipany ; 
> their works of a, 
ih basement. In 
including" a wins^ 
IJ feet, four stories 
mid width 4(1 feet. 
peration a farnuee 
1 viirions purl ions 
Hn)j;es, etc. Thu.s 
ut grew to be one 

re filled with ma- 
bout the works, an 
iportant machines 

which tnis Company was tlie first to intn.duee, were tin; presses for 
[(iinehinjr throujrh cold iron. The first press of tins deseriiition ever 
made in this eonntry, was one got up in Pennsylvania by Mr. ,1. O. Ar- 
nold, who was sul)scquently employed by the I'rovidenee Tool ('om])any 
in constriietinf,' and operalini!; presses fur euld punchiiiLr. .Tiie ('i)nipany 
have now in use '2.i of these presses, one w(!i,u:ldnp; twenty-five tons, wiiieii 
readily punches from cold iron, nuts four inches ,s(piare and two inches 


Durina; the period that the Conii)nny occupied the ])reinises we have 
mentioned for the manufacture of Tools, they added to their list of 
articles many noi before made to any extent in thi,s <'ounlry, and which 
have contrilmted essentially to the mechanical facilities of tlie ii,<,'e. 
They devoted attention especially to the production of those minor but 
important i)arts of machinery wiiieh facilitate the operations of loco- 
motive, car, and ship-builders— such as Niiis, Washers, Chain-Links, 
Chains, Stirrups and Levers, Hooks and Thinildes, Sister Hooks. Con- Shackles, Clinch Rinirs, Marline Spikes, Plate llinp's, Draw 
riates, IJniiter Heads, Can llini-s, Holts, etc., and thus ])rovided ma- 
ciiinist's, sliip chandlers, ami others, witli articles like these, ready to hand 
cheaper than they could make tli.'in, and far more iierlcct. When, 
however, the demand for firearms became urgent, in eoiiseipieiae of the 
present rebellion, the Company converted premises into an Armory, 
haviiif; ererted a new establishment in tiie north jiart of the city for their 
business proper, consistill^' of a main buildinjr 401) feet i)y To, one story 
hi-h, with several smaller imildiii^rs in the rear for furnaces, carpenter 
Shop', storehouse, etc. This they . .nipped with all the re.,ui.ite tools 
for the of their manufactures, including those ne<'.'>sary for 
making United States Cavalry Salires, Musket Hayonets, and Kanirods. 
Besides the '2:i presses for cold-iMiiiciiint!; that have been already alluded 
to. there are 20 Trip-Hammers, f..r heavy and light for-iii'/. They 
en'iploy in this establishment over JJOO hand,s, besides some ;-^()(l in the 


The Armory and Tool Manufactory are under one corporate name 
and one management, and, though two miles, are connected by a 
private telegraph, operated by a clerk in the ollice ,.f each establishment. 
The Prcsi.lent of the Company is IlicirAiu. Huiu.en, the w.U-known 
manufacturer of Fall lliver, Mass., and the resident Agent and Treas- 
urer is John B. Anthony, of Providence, to energy and enterprise 
our country i. indebted for au important addition to the number of her 
first-class > lanufactories. 



The American Screw Company. 

The manufaoture of Wood or Gimlot-Pointed Screws, is at present a 
n he United atates. It is carried on by but one Couupany, 

;:3 r,„o «; Voces, ,. t„ ■,..... i. ■„ ..a. ^ »;»!. . -» 

a.„ca,c.;,,»„a the,, ..raw,, to .„o ^X,! *!: Ic, U, ^ .uld 

and triunnu.g tl»e burr. Tliey aie tnen .^^^^^^^ 

each maelunc. Botli tue bnapmt _ , ^,^,^,.,„ the macliine extends 
lingers to receive them, convejs t. em 

''■~r«s "-—•--- '"-'•,'-■•■■' 

The ^^7-- f ;,,^7:f,f screws per day, or 4,200,000 gro.s 

capacdy ot ^-^^^^"^ [''^^SZ an average 600 bands, 300 male and 
durnff the year. It enipiojs on im » h Thn value of 




wa, is at proscnt a 
but one Coutviiiiy, 
,. I., where Screws 

The Coinpuiiy lias 
viously cnsruireil iu 
f^le anil New Kng- 
itrols the best lua- 
ing screws, having 
!d to facilitate the 

have been nniilc in 

acted in these facto- 
hI perform functions 
xcept by dexterous 
uade is all imported 
ds, after whicli it is 
s. Tlie first of tlie 
ic length desired and 
te of about 90 blanks 

second story, which 
operation by shaping 
e groove in the head, 
e story higlier, where 
ve them the giralet- 
5crews per minute for 
g machines art yearly 
the machine extends 
ting appatatus, holds 
screw into a box pre- 

probably a dozen of 
iken to another room, 
nd allowing the same 

hands are constantly 
ws in these factories, 
hines, which have the 
ly, or 4,200,000 gross 

1 hands, 300 male and 
wages. The value of 

liars, the gross prod\U!t 

in ISfiO being $1,080,000. Over three thousand tons of iron are con- 
sumed in the factories, and the trimmings or chips average thrco tons 
per ilay. 

The Providence Machine Company-Thomas J. Hill, Proprietor, 

Ts one of the most extensive and complete establishments in Xew 
FnMand for manufacturing Cotton and Woolen Machinery. Although 
U ,ni,ht be supposed, fron> its title, to belong to a Company it is he 
" p:r,v of one individual-Tnos. J. IIu.l, of Providence. The Innld- 
inn-! arc of brick, three stories in height, and pr.'sent an appearance, 
e.xa-rnally, that is very in.posing. The .naiu MacRine Shop ,s tu'o 
hundred and twenty feet long by sixty another, paral el to 
it, two hutulred by thirty-six feet ; the two being connected together m 
the centre. There is also a Foun.lry eighty by sixty fe.^ ; a 1 atte.n 
- Shop, ninety-five by twenty-six feet ; and Storehouses and o her budd- 
i„gs covering in all an area of about five acres. In these bu.ldmgs are 
produced, annually, a half million dollars' worth of Machinery used . a 
cotton and woollen mills, especially Roving Machines, indud,.^ the 
various kinds of Fly Frames, Slubbers and Speeders, Selt-Acting 
Mules, Spinning Frames, Copper-Dresser Rolls, and Spindles. 

Mr Hill the Proprietor of these Works, is one of the few men who 
have rendered an important service to America by aiding to make her 
independent of England and other countries in her supplies of cotton 
machinery. He was born in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 80o, and 
served his apprenticeship as a machinist with Pitcher and (,ay, o 
that town, and remained with them and their successors until April 
1830 He then removed to Providence, and entered the employment 
of Samuel Slater, the pioneer of cotton spinning in America, taking 
charge of his machine shop, which was located on the first fioor of the 
Providence Steam Cotton Mill, on Eddy street. During the first year 
he received as compensation the sum of one dollar and fifty cents per 
day lie commenced his second year on a salary of $000, which con- 
tinued until the spring of 1834 ; when was formed the copartnership of 
the Providence Machine Company, composed of Mr. Slater and Mr. 
Hill the former furnishing the room and power, the latter his services 
and 'skill This arrangement continued even after the decease of Mr. 
Slater and with some modifications, until 1846, when Mr. Hill, having 
accumulated a capital of nearly fifty thousand dollars, purchased the 
old Stonington Depot, and erected the building which is now Ins prin- 
cipal machine shop. He also purchased the tools of the Providence 


Machine Oonnoany. and conm.cnced business under the style of the 

''Mr' Hill during bis youth, was renmvkable for bis great physical 
Ml. 1.11, '7"° ^^^,,,t, ,vork with astonishiLsr rapulity. 

tr ;ir „';;; z 2 1 w,,,,, „„. .>,. t... -..-*;.";««: 

, • „ . nnn of his owu tnii-haDimers. lie lias a 

this? -1-t does bo say about It r eminence in bis de- 

The distuiguis ni. H^ >1. ^lat ^ g ^^^^^^ ^ .^ ^^^^^^^ ^_^ ^ 

"r Z ""kH -.l «; 1 s p a«n.n.uU.r to Cmn.l, .!,« ,.».ter.3. 
7! Z .re 1° „ s . to him tor hi. nvi"-.!, ft«y -"« ">,cr,or .0 

tor .,,,,-<.v.l Ihrt snuply J ' "^ ■; „,,,,„„„, „,,,;, „,u.,.i.d 
o„rt»iu n,,i„«ry «' J -' J ^ '\''^;, , ,„ \,„„ ■„,„,„ „ ,u„,g„. 

'""'"''■""■■ ,";,X , i ,.i w h .ud, dclevmincd will .,..1 heavy 
r"'"''""! pt « o-m..n and I*"-,,, .but ovo,- affr-vard 

',i':.r,;,;;;,.;iid .:.r.,„„h»is »!,.., h. put „po„ .u „r.p«- -*„.» 

of a iviachiiie, r „.H,no is Pre'^ident of the Lime Rock 

-M . ii;n ii.w nmiissed a large tortuno, 18 1 ii'-"*" "" 
Mr. U.ll h. s am. ssco h ^^,^j.^. institutions of 

r :;;:'r s;,r\n::*;:r ;iwi., in., a h:,h .c,„t. 

*„ I!; honor aaJ iu.ogrl.y Ibroushout thu oommuuUy. 




• the style of the 

his groat physical 
lonisliilisr rapidity. 
Jay's labor, be was 
nmers. Ho bas a 
L'spofting now nia- 
so uuii'oi'uily aceu- 
scrap lieap at bis 
out coiulcnnu'd has 
I maebiiicry, bo bas 
iiaimfactuvers, wben 
lias Mr. Hill seen 

cmineuec in bis dc- 
ecd bis labor ou a 
bis knowledge had 
i staiuUird. Instead 
jrfeclion, it was just 
machine with such 
s left to be done till 

L't a certain piece of 
iirnish the patterns, 
they wore ini'erior to 
thought they "would 
mid stamped the pat- 
wns again presented 
other occasion, when 
Icted, whicli operated 
uive caught a sledge- 
inined will and heavy 
;, that ever afterward 
n the proper working 

dent of the Lime Rock 
. public institutions of 
md bas a high reputa- 

The Hope Iron Works, 

At Providence, Rhode Island, is in several respects one of the most 
remarkable manufacturing establishments of New l']ngland. I: is re- 
markable for the rapidity of its growtb, for the admirable system with 
which it is managed, and for the great variety of novel and excellent 
Machines that it has produced. 

In March, 18^7, Mr. Joseph P. Manton, the present Agent and 
Superintendent of the Company, in association with a few others, com- 
menced busines'- n. .-^ small foundry, with a capital of twenty thousand 
dollars, and cm- ' ■ at the beginning about ten men. In ten years 
the concern I -?< ffiO> n and developed until now the Works mcludo 
Three Machine rii^ >' =, a Pattern and Blacksmith's Shop, and Foundry, 
with an invested c'apital of over two hundred thousand dollars, and 
employing two hundred men. This rapid growth is not due to any 
peculiarly fortui ate or adventitious circumstances, but rather to the 
extraordinary fertility of inventive genius that has been displayed iu 
supplying acknowledged wants by novel means. 

One of the subjects that Arst engaged Mr. Manton's attention, was 
an improved method of handling Anchors and Chains on ships, which 
resulted in the invention of what is known as Manton's Patent Wmd- 
Insses. This has effected a revolution in the methods of taking iu and 
letting go anchors. Instead of having two turns of the chain around 
the barre . of the windlass, as formerly, requiring the chain to be stop- 
ped and fleeted every few fathoms (a tedious process in cold weather, 
or when the chain is muddy), now the chain is merely laid over a chain 
gear, and stows itself in the locker below as fast as taken in ; while. 
In letting go the anchor, instead of having to got a range of chain on 
deck in advance, by the improved method a ship is always ready to 
anchor without previous arrangement, with any range of chain— saving 
two thirds the time in each case, besides making life safer, and the 
vc,«sel less liable to accident or loss. Resides these, Mr. Manton bas 
devoted much time to various improvements for saving manual labor 
on ship l)oard, and for convenience in loading and discharging, 
an item of great importance for vessels in port when I'.ere arc no 
convenioncos for handling the cargo. 

The Windlasses for the " Monitors" engaged during the late war, 
were budt at this establishment. 

When the late ll(d)ellion broke out, there was a great demand at tb.- 
various armories for an imi)roved Drop I'ress, to strike up forgings of 
parts of the gun, and the Hope Iron Works succeeded in producing tin- 
most successful Drop Press that had been invented. Having been 


,l,o..oa<rblv tested in gun work, and proved its excellence it lu,. since 
r d!Xd tthe v^ious shops, where work is struck upjn <i>.l>l-^- 

U::^ arts of Sewin, Machines, ^'^f ^^'^^ ^^^r^;,f "' 
Ti.U-avos Kettles Tools, Harness and Saihnakcrs' Irmuning., Ue. 

t" 's^le ti e n po Iron Works are n.anufacturers o lUbcock 
&^ CS Cut-OiV lor Steam Engines. The pecul ar.ty and 
L AMIcoxs la cu f^jjows -.-Steam is introduced into 

advantages oi this Cut-Oil arc as loumv ^^ 

the cvlinder at full boMer pressure, and is cut-oif by ^1*^ '"K^" J'' 

Id y when sufficient stem has been admitted to n-nta..| t en- 
gine steadily at a given speed, the governor so acting upon e t-^ff 
valve as to determine the amount of steam recpurcd. b- ns 

engine, a more correct result is attained by a simpler mcchan.m than 

''^^1::Z 'r:;:L. by a positive motion, dispensing wiU. d^ 
tachabl valve gear, dash pots, cams, etc., and the arrangemen ,. .uch 
t 'x Ic ' team mav be allowed to follow any portion of the stroke o 
tp ton a point ^f great value in an engine with extreme varying 

"t:c'i::v;^:-';n;y a .....^^.^^ l> communication 

wiU^t b ler, whereby the cylinder is maMitained continuously a a 

i! lperatu;e. This is |Vnmd to cHect v great u. A^ 

necialiy where the steau- ,s expanded many times, ami oniv b. tlK 

r .^"■'nn iaHr, can the fullest b-nellt of expansion be seen d^ 

Thl ngine has a plain slide valve, ^ .rked by an eccentric, with a 

cut- IT valve on the ba-k. actuated by a small .team -l."< Ic 

The valve gear of this .pplemental cylinder is so construct d h 




iencc, it l>ns ^ince 
!k upiniliiplit'ivte, 
s, Cutlery, Axes, 
•iniming-', t-'te. 
turers of Uabcocrk 
ho peculiuvity and 

is intvoilncH'il '"to 
• closing tlie valve 

maintain tlie on- 
g upon the c\it-off 
red. Bnt, in this 
)r lucehanirim than 

[ispensing with de- 
rrangcnient is such 
on of the stroke of 
th extreme varying 
is required. 
Hor, on an entirely 
led under all varia- 
)criments, made by 
les, extending over 
variation each side 
nces, and a heavily- 
i the load without a 

r free communloatioa 
ikI continuously at a 
reat saving i" fuel, 
nes, and only by the 
xpansion be Hceured. 
,• an occentrie, with a 
iun cj-linder. 
^ so construct I'd that 
viiries the instant at 
,ivm to enter the main 
iisj resistances may re- 
viilvcs, and ihey each 
tlius c'v.b'iilying the 
after the wear conso- 
les in the highest de- 

cree all the improvements in steam-engines at the present day, and 
works steam expansively with a perfection in regulation of speed that 

cannot be excelled. 

la addition to the specialties named, they budd the foUowmg.- 
■Vutomatic Bolt or Stud Machine, for milling-up and cutting bolts and 
ituds, which are exact duplicates of each other, for use in 
«„d locomotive machine shops; Marine Portable and Kngines 
and Boilers; Planing Machines; Lathes; Tools; Pumps; M.aftmg 
and Gearing; Mill and Rubber Machinery; Marine lladways; and a 
ffreat variety of miscellaneous machines for various uses. ^ 

Thev have a large and efficient corps of mechanical engme.M-s and 
mechanics, who possess the necessary skill to plan any novelties in 
mechanics that may be called for, an.l each Department is under con- 
trol of a foreman who has had long training and experience in tbe 
svstem observed in the mechanical details. 

' The Officers of the Hope Iron Works are-GEOROK Ciiattf.bton, 
President ; F. S. Manton, Secretary; and Joseph P. Manxon, Agent. 

The Gorham Manufacturing Company 

Is one of the most interesting of the manufacturing establishments of 
Providence. It is the ripened fruit of long experience, a cultivatc^l 
mste and a largo accumulated capital. It dates its origin Iron. 1831, 
when Jabez Gorham established himself at Providence as a nmnu- 
f,„.turer of pure Silver Ware. In 1841, he was joined by his son, 
and prosecuted a constantly increasing business until 1817, wlu'U ho 
retired After his retirement, the son became the senior of the lirm, 
which continued as a copartnership until ISCf,, when th.. present com- 
pany was incorporated, with John Goriiam, President, (i..iuiAM '1 iiui- 
bkr' Treasurer, C. C. Adams, Agent, and .J. F. P. Lawton, Seereiavy. 

Durin.' a period of over thirty years, the founder and his su.Ti-sors 
conline.rthemselves exclusively to the production of Pure Silver Ware. 
In ISM, the manufacture of large arti.'les in silver ware was nnd.'r- 
taken, and in order to derive every possible advantage that cnild be 
gained from visiting the manufactories of the old world, .Mr. (iorham 
made r.'p.'ated voyages to Kurope, aiul sought among the sdver-nuths 
of France, England and (Jernuiny, for every thing by winch the art 
might be improved in America. lie imported costly nnu^hiuery : 
collected a valuable Lil)rary of work.: of art, and procured the ser- 
vices of the best Kuroi-'an and American artists. The.-e out ouh 


adopted the designs SO Cherished by the artists in ^:;^l^^^^; 
but wrought from the dictation of more modern thought. Ihcy 
nle more harmony between use and design. It ha. been .el 
said " The freedom of the country's institut.ons, which leaves us 
Ipdnt on men and things, has given some of its tone to t ns .u . 
lu An.evican designs, the modern predominates; >« /-.•'"P^'' f ; 
tique and medieval. The American designer m part g.ves th spu.t 
of the Living Age ; the Dead Past is revived by the European." 

The iiessrs. Go^'ham, from the first, established a high standard fo 
the quality of their Silver Ware, and never lowered it. Jso a grain 
of metal nters into the composition of a single item manufactured by 
thi c mpany that has not been thoroughly tested. The silver mus 
asayto the standard value.of the United States Mint or be thrust 
ad ; u.d none is used, except standard coin, before it ,s so assayed 
They have always ollered to their customers to abide by the test of an 
imnartivl assay and, when found wanting, they will pay costs, and e- 
;;re the Sve service with another that shall have proved worthy 

"^n:::Lr^eL, by the aid of improved machinery capabh. do- 
signe", and adherence to a uniform high standard of quality in 
attaiuing a position at the very head of American Silversmiths, 
Messrs."Gorham & Co.. in 180.3, directed their attention to the manu- 
facture of Silver-riated Goods. There was a great ^l-"^;'! f "" 
advancement in this branch of the art. For this, one of the fi m 
visited Europe several times. The best foreign and American ma- 
chinery was secured, without regard to cost, and after two yeaij ..t 
::;Lion, the machinery was finished, and in 1865 the Plated Ware 
was oflered for sale. The expectations of the company were fullv 
realized They were successful in their new enterprise ; and to-day 
the Silvor-Platod Ware of no manufacturing company in t^ic world 
Itands higher than does theirs. Not only will the dealers o New York 
-where they have long had Salesrooms-attest this, but dcak.s 

throughout the country. r • i. i ciu,.,. 

The (i-.rham Plated Stock is formed on a base of nickel sihn, 
which is electro-plated witii the pure metal. The patterns and styUs 
are quite as artistic, and just as ehvborately finislied as are those ,n 
.olid silver; and so thorough is the deposit, that not even an expert 
,,,, >„,.,„ close examination, say whether a Salver or an Uru be ..f 
.olid silver or simply plated. It is said that the Plated ^^ are made 
by this companv will withstand the wear of a generation. 

At tliis"the Gorham Manufacturing Company occupy five large 
,n,ikli..'s that have about sixty thousand feet of flooring. Iheso 




n silver in Europo, 
rn thought. Thoy 

It has been well 
s, which leaves its 
is tone to this avt. 

in Europe, the an- 
part gives the spirit 
he European." 
i a high standard for 
red it. Not a grain 
,em manufactured l)y 
ed. The silver must 
5 Mint or be thrust 
;fore it is so assayed. 
lide by the test of an 
ill pay costs, and re- 
l have proved worthy 

achinery, capable do- 
mdard of (piality, in 
iierican Silversmiths, 
ittention to the manu- 
great demand for an 
this, one of the firm 
n and American ma- 
id after two years of 
1865 the Plated Ware 
I company were fully 
nterprisc ; and to-day 
omi)any in the world 
dealers of New Y"rl< 
test this, but dealers 

base of nickel silver, 
'he patterns and styles 
lished as are those in 
luit not even an exiieri 
ialver or an Urn be <>f 
the Plated Ware made 
tone ration. 

iipany occupy five large 
ut of Uooring. These 


buildings are divided into compartments ; and one distinguishing fea- 
ture of this company is that it is entirely sclf-sustiiining, having shops 
not only for Designing, Modelling, Chasing, Casting and Rolling, but, 
also, a' Carpenter's Shop, Photograph Gallery, and Machine Shop 
whore tool.s are made and repaired. About four hundred persons are 
employed in the various departments. 

Among the remarkal)le machines in those works, arc Rolls Unit 
weigh more than twenty tons, and Drop Presses with bed pioe(«s 
weighing from four to twelve tons each. As a support for those pon- 
lierous machines, immense i>ilos have been driven deep into the oailh, 
and on the top of these rests a solid nuiss of granite seven feet in 

So successful have the Oorham Company boon in originating now 
designs in Plated Ware, that the manufacturers in Hngland have 
imitated them in a lower grade of wares, which they have exported 
to this country for sale. ]5ut, while the comidiment implied in this 
transaction nuiy be gratifying to the Amori<'an niar.ufacturer as an 
indication that native talent finds appreciation al)i'oad, it is (luestiona- 
ble wh<'ther purchasers will not prefer the genuine article to a Euro- 
pean copy of inferior quality. As a protection to such as may desire 
wares of undoubted purity, the Company have adopted, as a trade- 
mark, an Anchor, with their name, which they stamp upon all wares, 
both solid silver and electro-plated, that they manufacture. 

The Fletcher Manufacturing Company 

Have one of the largest and most imposing manufacturing fitructuros in 
the city of Providence, though their iirodnctions are designated by he 
modest term of " Siiuill wares," There are two factories, both coiii- 
parativolv new, and lastoi'ully and oriiamontally constructed of luvsseil 
liriek and cut .stone. One of these buildings is one hundred and oiglily- 
four feet long ami sixty-four feet wide, and live stories in height, with 
ii llleachery and Dyehouso attached of the sumo width, and one liiiii- 
dred and twenty-lhroo feet long. The machinery in this manufactorv 
is propelled liy an engine of three hundred and til'iy horse power. The 
other building is one hundred and lorty-rour led long by forty-seven 
feel wide, and also livv stories in height, with a Storehouse and Kinish- 
ing Shop attached, one hundred and ten feet long, thirty-live feet wide, 
and two stories in height. The niaehinory in this building is propelled 
by an euLnno of one hundred and tifty horse power. These I'aeturics 


„„,.„ .,0. e,Me«„ =.*s -. ^ '^^^■^-- 
five hundred pounds of Cotton Yarns, «^ ^^ Lamp Wicks, 

doo; of this -tablishn..,t th..^^Una^lJ^ .^ ^^^^^ ^^.^^ 

The Works are "r^^'^,^;^;!;^:^,^,^, Secretary and Agent, 
Thomas Fletcher, Pres dent. "^^%,^^'' , „,e the successors 

and .louN S. ORMSHEE Treasu ^^^ ^^^'^^ ;„,,,,f,eture in a 
of Thomas Fletcher, who, in 1793, ^""^"^^ ;|^ . ,,;, ,^,.,,„,e, way of Lamp Wicks, ^es an^ WeM -^^ AT ^^,^^^^_^^^^ ^^_^^^ 
in 1824, the busn.ess was can. d «» ^^ ^^^,,^^.,. „,„t,,r, 

William, under the firm-style o l;^ ^ 1 a O. ^^^^_^^^_ 

,oscph, was soon after admitted and the ^^l!;^^^ ^^,^ ,„,,i,,i 
Brothers, who added the manufacture «f ^o..e L c^ - ;^.j^^^^ 

business, and employed two ^-f >"-''-- ^ ^J ,t heh the productioa 

in the manufacture of Boot and bhoe ^ vcos of wh c 

is now enormous, and from year to yea ^-^^^^^^tCuu 

capacity of their Works, but without a ^^''7,;^^^; / \^^ l^^i^tcher 

18.;0, when, by the admission ol sons as pa. n - be ^^^^^^ 

Brothers k Co., which continued untd 18G5, when 

facturing Company was '"^^^'P^;^;^^;,^; ^^ ^^^, Company, was bora 

:;;:::l:^;;l;«"nK;,.,.o, .,. . ,.... h.„. to ws pc,-scv.n„. n,.uu.u,., 




t, daily, twenty- 
indred and IHty 
to Lamp Wicks, 
raids, and other 
a novel de^cvip- 
igniticunco ou tlu) 

,ted in 1805, with 
rotary and Agent, 
re the successors 
numufacturo in a 
iVftcr his decease, 
3ons, Thomas and 

Another brother, 
langed to Fletcher 
es to their original 
•27, they embarked 
deh the productioa 

and increased the 
lie lirm-slylc until 
it became Fletcher 
the Fletcher Mauu- 

ompany, was boru 
of Providence from 
came into his hands 
uiall, and carried on 
ared with those now 
•esent establishment, 
)ersevering industry, 

BUt of the Company. 

George Chatterton's File Manufactory, 

In Providence, is one of the most noiable establishments of the kind 
in the country. It is not at all remarkable for the extent of the l)uild- 
ings or amount of its produets, but as the place where the most highly 
prized File is made that is sold in the American market. 

Mr. Chatterton is a descendant of a long line of File-makers. His 
father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, were File-makers in Eng- 
land. He served an apprenticeship in the eelebrated manufactory of 
W. <fe S. Butcher, of Sheflield, and learned all that could be ac(iuired 
of the art in the best shops in England. Having made himself ob- 
noxious to the English government by a too strenuous advocacy of 
Reform, at a time when less latitude of opinion was tolerated than 
now, be came to the United States, in l.^Hi), and ehose Providence as 
the Held of his future operations. (\)mmeneiiig with no capital l)iU a 
thorough knowledge of his trade, he had ditliculties to s'urmount which 
only those can appreciattf who have go»e through a similar ordeal. It 
is said that he frequently travelled two hundred miles on foot, exliil)it- 
ing samples and soliciting orders. His skill ami perseverance, how- 
ever, triumphed over the obstacles in his way originating in the want 
of capita!, and after ten years' labor he found himself in a position to 
undertake operations on a larger scale. 

In 1851, he visited England, and made arrangements to secure con- 
stant supplies of the best (pnililies of English Steel, both for use in his 
own manufactures and for sale to others. On his return he secured a 
building where he could have; the advantage of steam power, and lilted 
it with all the modern appliances for the sucei'ssful prosecution of his 
business. At this time he emploj-s about thirty men in his File Manu- 
factory, has an engine of thirty-five horse power, and is, besides, a large 
importer of English Steel. 

AVithin the time comprised in his business career in America, there 
have been several large estaldishments organized for nmnufacluring 
Files by machinery, but none have as yet succeeded in jirodueing an 
article that has superseded, in the favor of nuinufaeturers, lla^ Chalter- 
ton Hand-Cut File, There is a radical difference in the operation of 
making Files by machinery and cutting them by hand-lal)or. Cutting 
by machinery presupposes an absolute number of teeth in the blaidv to 
be cut, entirely independent of any conditional rccpiisitcs to insure 
sharpness in the tooth ; and as these conditions constantly vary during 
the operation of cutting, the most improved machines have failed to 
produce uniformity as regards .sharpness and depth of the teeth pro- 
dueed. In hand-cutting, the shariier the chisel the sharper the tooth, 


While roo-ularity and evenness are the result of nicchanieal skill aTul 
practice The number of teeth to n,ake a good F.le ,s not ah.oluts 
provided the reqiflsite sharpness is obtained 

^ Mr. Chattert^ has -adily^dhe^to t^ : .^^o ' Idllen. 
;:.;rr^et:^ Ur\;::;:H:t ttioual Armories .m. the 
ficCo Files used in the manufacture of guns. These hies we™ 
"Inljt imported, and their manufacture in this country was an .m- 
portant element of national economy ^^.,,„ a,,,,,,, 

Mr flliatterlon beOnsfS to tlie class oi loici^m 
,„ Jl, " o lor. ISrinSing wi.l, sMU, p»ti«„c., a»a »U.n y ; 


Pawtucket, in Providence County, four miles north of tl>e City of 

1 principal actor was one of the first ma- 

:t::U *' c X h "aid „1, attention to the ..nnfaeture of 
tZ^^:,. a-a - * ,o„ i, .ow proprietor o, .the ™o,t ,.- 

,.„,,„. ,^^,rU, in the P'-. 'J ^;--,' -; tk.t in HOC t„oy en,- 
Whoa Brown, Almv « olatei tanit lu a 

1 rAfv Svlvanus Brown to construct their machuiery under the 
ployed Ml ^>1^'^' "; •;7'^^^. „, ,^,,ued in his own shop, under 

Mr. Slater was mcU.sp.1-^^^ 

an impostor who ha be.n w _.t K t ^ ^_ ^_^ ^^^ ^_^_^^^.^^^ ^^^,^^ ^^ 

pri.o. he -•-"^"'^'^\^^j?f ;.";„,,,„ and again that ho had seen 
avoid their consure. ^^•''''^^;;'^2^^ iJrown persuaded him to re- 

it in successful operation in England, ^» • '^J^"^ /. ,,j,^^ ,,,„„ 

main, declaring, with — ^uerab e resolut on 'VU^J^^ 

t.. Wlulp nernlexed with this diflioalty, whitU tmeaieuLu 
I'ir Xf e,i;:?ri.«, Mr. Brown went Lonre to dinner one <l.y, and 


hanical skill and 
is not al>suluto, 

selling bis Files 

' ol' nii(UUo-nien. 

.rniories with ll>e 

These tiles were 

)untry was au im* 

s whom Amei-iea 
;e, and stunly per- 
ilwavk of eiviliza- 
intial, not nominal 

JAMES S. brown's machine WORKS. 


while sitting by the fire he casually took up a pair of hanil-earils with 
which his wife liad been crj-ding cotton. Carefully examining them, his 
attention was attracted by the peculiar bend or crook in the teeth. 
Fired with a new suggestion, he hastened to his shop, proceeded to 
nuike in his card a bend or crook similar to that which he had observed 
in the hand-card, and started up the machine— which immediately per- 
formed its work with satisfactory results. Thus it was that the great 
obstacle was removed— not by the suggestion of a nuirvellous dream in 
tiio mind of Mr. Slater, as has been currently reported, nor by mere 


In 1792, yiv. Brown invented and used the first Slide-Lathes for 
turning spindles ; also the first machines for (luting rolls. These ma- 
ciiines were constructed of hard wood. They were of great utility, 
and enabled one man to accomplish the work of six. 

Dvth of the City of 
:uring place. Tliis 
ly partly in Massa- 
ic boundary was so 
It was here that 
try by water-power 
this History. An 
I, however, was not 
Line of the first nia- 
the manufacture of 
tor of the most ini- 

Bt in 1790, thoy em- 
lachinery under the 
is own shop, under 
vith closed doors and 
and spinning frames, 
id to hia dismay that 
proved a failure ; and 
iatea would deem him 
ion a visionary enter- 
II of running away to 
rain that ho had seen 
persuaded him to re- 
' This machine shall 
1 threatened to baffle 
dinner one day, and 

James S. Brown's Machine Works. 

His son, Mr. James S. IJrown, now proprietor of the most extensive 
Machine Works in Pawtucki^t, is even more distinguished than the 
faUier as a Machinist and au Inventor. In 1817, while yet a boy, he 
went to work on cotton machinery in the shop of David Wilkinson, in 
Tawtucket, and in 1819 he went into the employ of Messrs. Pit(!her & 
tjay, in Pawtueket, on the Massachusetts side of the river. He re- 
mained with them until 1824, when Mr. Gay retired from the firm, and 
Mr. Urown was taken into the business as a partner by Mr. Pitcher. 
This lirni, under the name of Pitcher & lirown, did a successful business 
in the manufacture of cotton machinery till September, 1842, when 
Mr. Pitcher retired from the business, leaving it entirely in the hands 
of Mr. IJrowu. The Slide lied u.sed on Turning Lathes, by which the 
beight of the tool can be adjusted while the lathe is in motion, was in- 
vented by Mr Brown, while in the employ of Pitcher & Gay, in 1820. 
Among other useful tools, now familiar to machinists, Mr. Brown, in 
the year ISoO, invented his Gear Cutter for cutting Bevel Gears. The 
advantage of this machine is, that it rccpiires no change of the head- 
stock to make the proper taper in going once round the wheel. 

After the introduction of the celebrated Sharpe & Roberts' Patent 
Self-Acting Mule into this country, Mr. Brown immediately turned his 
attention to their manufacture, and in building these machines has ac- 
quired a reputation .second to no machinist in the United States. Mules were first introduced into the United States by Major 
Bradford Durfee, of Fall River, Mass., in the years 1839-40. Major 
Durfee was then agent of the Annawam Cotton Mill at Fall River, and 


vi it.d Furono on business connected with Lis company. Wl.ilc in Kn?- 
e' "Led of Shurpe S. Uoherts .ix of their Mulo Head .u.U. 
■I .V were shipped to Bon.e port in France, when... they were re.h.ppc 
to i e untr u>d forwardedto Mr. Durtee at Fall lliver. From l- all 
Ri • they sent to Messrs. I'iteher ^^ l>.rown at Pawtnclcet, and a 

:ire L runnin. in the Annawan. Mill, and ;'--—;;;.- 
Fall ir.ver Cotton Mill. The lirst Sh.r,.e .^ Uoberts' feelf-Ope at.„. 
M I. nnule in this country were built by Pitcher & Hrown tor Messrs. 
TlllB Cluxce, of Vallev Falls, R. I., where they are now in suc- 
':.t;"o 'ra . Mr. Rniwn applied himself wi,h great diligenc. to 
erl'ii;; and .implilying the worU on this Mule i"ve.U.on maUu.g 
manvnew and ingenious tools for that purpose. oh. nn- 
r^::l made l.y him on this Mule was l^ttin. a .«.. V^ .u 
he nuddle of the carriage under the head n. P'"- «\ ^^^; .;^'^ f^ 
..ears-which improvement is believed by many to be the htc ol 

foundry of (Jeneral Bhepard Leach, in Easton, Mass., up to 1H47. In 
" ar he purchase.l the lan.l on which his present estahhshn.ent s 
c t n 1 .vcted a Foundry Building forty by eighty feet and made ; . in.s therein on the last day of that year. Tins lurnace has 
^.J ^h^m ;;nce with all the castings he has required inh.s busmess. 
'^uf^Zo and well-arranged shop in which his busmess ,s now 
ea ried on was erected by him in 1849, Having deeded to budd, he 
w nt at the outset with the dilheulty of not linding m the marko 
:i: ^Us as he required. With characteristic energy an sel -re^jan.. 
bo purchased a tract of land in I'awtuclcet nver, cal ed Ruckbn s 
tllll^^Uaining a lino bed of clay, and --^^-'-^ -;^ ''^^^ 
His .,o,> is built entirely of bri.-k from lus own bruk-ja.d. It ,s 
r u r 1 feet in length by sixty in breadth, two and a halt 
i! > V ia large wing attached in which is stationed the 
a ' « IkJ I e power for the whole shop. In addition to th,s shop 
ird Z' e is a substantial Pattern House forty by seventy- wo feet 
t d a >a stories above the basement, built in 1850, and severa 

?,ol Ho er Turning Lathes, the Fluting Engine unproved by bun. 
l: ma! ^th'r of his Tools, are well known to machm.sts, and un- 
eciualed for the several purposes for which they are used. 


Wliilc in Eti^- 
lo Head Slocks. 

were rcshipped 
vcr. l''i'uin Fall 
'awtiicket, and a 
remainder in ilio 
i' Self-Operating 
I'own for Messrs. 

are now in suc- 
!,'reat diligence to 
iveniion, making 
kniong oilier im- 
j a Culvh Jlox in 
a set of flnmging 
je tlio life of ibe 

rocured from tlie 
, up to 1H4'T. In 

estahlisliment is 
ity feet, and niado 

This I'nrnace has 
•ed in his business. 
s business is now 
i^eided to build, ho 
iig in the market 
ry and self-reliance 
•, called lJucklin'3 
red his own bricks. 

brick-yard. It is 
, and a half stories 
d the steam-engine 
Idition to this shop 
y seventy-two feet, 
n 1850, and several 
ivenienlly arranged 
to make this one of 
kind in the country, 
f them built by Mr. 
letters-patent. Ilia 
B improved by biui, 
machinists, and un- 
e used., ,TENK8 & sons' machine W0HK8. 


The Sharpo & llobcrts' Mule, and the Long Flyer Speeder, are the 
only cotton-mantifueturing machines which Mr. Hrown has built for 
several years, When the English Fly-Frame was being generally in- 
troducoil, he was urged by many manufacturers to build that maclune 
for them ; but he stcadilv efused to do so, with a firmness that seemed 
to them almost like obstinacy, insisting upon it that they were not what 
manufacturers of cotton wanted, and that the American long-llyer llo- 
viug Machine could be rendered far superior to the English Fly- Frame. 
He turned his attention to the improvement of the American Speeder. 
After careful studv and many experiments, he succeeded in accomplish- 
ing the desired result, and took out a patent for his improvements ni 
January, 18r.7. The result has fully verified the correctness ot lus 
opinion ' Almost from the time that he took out his patent for his im- 
provements, the demands of manufacturers compelled him to abandon 
the buildin- of Mules, and to turn the whole fuive of his shop to the 
construction of his Patent Speeder ; and nearly the entire Inire of 
another larsrc machine shop in the vicinity has been in 
makino- the^same machine, without being able to supply the demand. 

Amon"- the manv inventions of Mr. Brown, for which he has .seenred 
letters-prtent, is his improved Turning Lathe, for turning bodies longi- 
tudinally of irregular surfaces, and in a great variety of forms lh.3 
machine, which was designed for turning cotton-machinery rolls, has 
acquired a new reputation sin