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Full text of "Student's reference book of history and geography [microform]"

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HISTOR 



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GEOGRAPHY 






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Public School Teacher 



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Toronto, 1897 

PRINTED AT THC SCMTINtt OrFICE, TORONTO 




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STUDENTS' 



....Reference Book.... 



OF 



HISTORY 



AND 



GEOGRAPHY 



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BY 



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Public School Teacher 



JRlVE^JWISiVI^JK:, • - OIVT, 



PRICE, - 20 CENTS 



Toronto, 1897 





V 



Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year One 
Thousand Eight Hundred and Ninety-Seven, by Wm. R. Wood. 
at the Departmant of Agriculture. 






PREFATORY NOTE. 



In submitting this little book to the public the writer lays 
no claim to literary excellence. It is merely a compilation of 
facts stated in as concise a form as possible, and arranged in 
such a way as it is hoped will make them easy of reference and 
at the same time will give a connected view of the progress of 
five centuries along the lines of Invention, Exploration, Re- 
ligious Organizations and Literature. 

Sections five and six, while primarily intended for the use 

uf the pupils of our Public and High schools, will, it is believed, 

be found to contain much that is of interest to the general 

reader. 

Wm, R. Wood. 
RivERBANK, June 1st, 1897, , 



1 

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** Writers of history by an exact and scrupulous dili(fc.v,^c and 
ohservatioriy o'^it of monuments^ names^ vjords, p^^overbs^ tradi- 
tionSj private records and evidences, fragmeuU of stories, passages 
of books that concern not story, a)id the like, do save and recover 
somewhat from the deluge of Time,^' — Bacon. 




, i. 



nEtt'se««!WMm wvaw 






SECTIONS 



I. Inventions. 
il. Exploration. 

III. Literature. 

IV. Religion and Morals. 
V. Historical Definitions. 

VI. Geographical Definitions. 



m 



SECTION I. 



Events in the History of Invention and Discovery in the In- 
dustrial Arts and Sciences, and other similar advances, 
since the beginning of the Fifteenth Ctntury. 

I4»0. IVinting from wooden blocks iixtroduced by Faust, 
1442. 
Guttenburg uses types cut from metal, 1444. 
Cast metal types first used, 1452. 
Manufacture of glass in England begun, 1457. 
Caxton's printing press set up at Westminster, 1473. 
Straight-grooved-bore rifles used in Germany. 
liWO. St. Pelers at Rome begun, 1506. 

Spirally star-grcoved rifles invented by Koster, 1520. 
Newsheet, "Gazetta," printed in Venice, 1536. ^ 
Diving bell first used (about), 1538. 
Copernican theory of the heavenly bodies first pub- 
lished, 1543. 
Royal Exchange established in London, J 566. 
Dip of magnetic needle first noted, 1676. 
- Wheel-lock guns (ignited by friction) invented, by 
Auremberg, 1577. 
*' English Mercurie," war-notes, printed, 1588. 
Kepler discovers elliptical orbits of the planets, 1594. 
Ittoo. Gilbert's theory of terrestrial magnetism (a single 
magnetic core from pole to pole) announced, 1600. 
Galileo discovers the satellites of Jupiter, 1610. 
James I., of England, issues '• Book of Sports," 1618. 






W-^^' 



6 



1700. 



1795. 



studenth' rbference book 

London " New River," (a canal supplying water) com- 
pleted, 1619. 
Van Drebbel's air thermometer constructed, 1021. 
Vernier's scale first used, 1631. 
Founding of Royal Society, 1662. 
Speaking trumpet invented, 1670. 
Silk carding inventioa patented, 1671. 
First electric machine constructed by ffuericke, 1672. 
Tourniquet first used in surgery, 1674. 
Roemer's discovery of the velocity i»f light, 1675. 
Foundation of Greenwich observatory laid, 1675. 
Return of first predicted comet, 1682. 
Newton's *' Principia," which enunciates the Law of 
Gravitation, published, 1687. 

Firelock (flint and steel) muskets introduced, 1(590. 

Roemer's transit instrument invented, 1690. 

New coinage issued in England, 1696. 

Newton's thermometer invented, 1701, 

Newcome's atmospheric engine patented, 1705. 

St. Paul's Cathedral completed, 1708. 

Hawksbee's electric machine constructed, 1709. 

Fahrenheit constructs his mercurial thermometer, 1714. 

Aberration of fixed stars noted and explanied by 
Bradley, 1720. 

Halley's diving bell c(mstructed (about), 1720. 
William Ged discovers the process of stereotyping, 

1725. 

Reamur's scale for marking thermometer nitroduced, 

1730. 
Muschenbrock's pyrometer invented, 1731. 
Nautical chronometer invented by Harrison, 1736. 
Eclipse of Mercury by Venus noted, 1737. 
Leyden jar invented, 1746. 
Heliometer invented by M. Bouguer, 1747. 



OF HISTORY AND OEOORAPHY. 7 

'■.■.■*■'.' ■ , ; • 

Porcelain first painted on, 1749. . A* 

Roebuck's method of manufacturing sulphuric acid 
perfected, 1749. . 

1150. British Museum founded, 1763. * 

Bridgewater's canal from Worsley to Manchester, first 

in England, 1758. 
Lightning conductors first constructed by Franklin, 

1760. - 

Accidental discovery of kaolin in France, 1766. ' ? -/ 
James Watt constructs his model of a steam engine, 

1765. , ■ . ■;;.,..,,:...::. 

Ark Wright's water-frame spinning machine constructed, 

1769. . 

Society of Civil Engineers organized, 1771. :.. > : 
Hydrochloric acid gao discovered, 1772. 
James Watt surveys course for Caledonian Canal, 1773. 
Oxygen and chlorine discovered, 1774. 
Herschell's five-foot reflector constructed, 1774. 

1775. Jasper or Wedgewood ware invented by Josiah Wedge- 
wood, 1775. , . , V 

Volta's electrophorus invented, 1775. }'''y'-::'r'''i'X- 

Hydrogen discovered by Cavendish, 1776. 

Bonneman devises incubating apparatus, 1777. 

Crompton's mule-jenny (a movable frame for the 
spindles in spinning) invented, 1779. 

Nairn's two-fluid electric battery invented, 1780. 

Herschell discovers planet Uranus, 1781. 

Volta's electric condenser invented, 1782. 

Royal Society of Edinbursjh incorporated, 1783. 

Fiifu embossed book for the blind printed, 1784. 

Watt's steam hammer patented, 1784. 

Cort's process of rolling and puddling iron introduced, 
1784. 




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Chlorate mixtures exploded by percussion first used in 
. rifle shooting, 1786. 

Cause of acceleration in moon's revolution discovered, 

1787. 
Meikle invents grain threshing mill, 1787. * 

SiT.eaton's diving bell constructed, 1788. 
Herschell's great telescope co- *^ructed, 1789. 
Metal strontium discovered, 1793. 
Decimal system introduced in France, 1793. 
Semaphore signal towers first established by the 

French, 1794. 
Leblanc's process of soda ma^^ufacture introduced, 1794. 
Discovery of anti-v6.r'olous power of vaccination (about) 

1796. 
Voltaic pile constructed, 1799. 
^SOft. Laughing-gas suggested as an aniesthetic, 1800. 

First of the asteroids discovered, January 1, 1801. 
First census of Great Britain taken, 1801. 
Caledonian Canal begun, 1803. 

Development of eloctro-chemical decomposition, 1806. 
• i Metals potassium, sodium, barium, strontium, calcium 

and magnesium first obtained by electricity, 1807. 
Fulton's first steam voyage. New York to Albany, 1807. 
Captain Manby invents life-mortar for throwing mis- 
sile with chain attached, 1807. 
Aluminum discovered, 1808. 
Deluc's dry electric pile constructed (gold and silver 

paper), 1809. 
1810. Evening schools first established, 1811. 

Lighthouse on Inchcape (Bell Rock), completed, 1811. 

Brewster's dioptric lighthouse invented, 1812. 

First iiteamer used for commercial purposes (" Comet" 

on the Clyde), 1812. 
Davy discovers electric light and the voltaic arc, 1813. 






?■' 



,»**'-' 



■ 



OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



9 



Stephenson's locomotive constructed (6 miles an hour), 
1814. 

First steam printing press, " Times," London, 1814. 

Permanent jihotographic pictures produced, 1814. 

Davy's safety lamp invented, 1815. 

Stephenson's safety lamp invented, 1815. 

Elementary form of bicycle constructed, 1815. 

Kaleidoscope invented by Brewster, 1817. 

First steam voyage from England to America, 1819. 
1830. Action of electric current on magnetic needle noticed 
by Ersted, 1820. 

Petroleum first discovered in Ohio, 1820. 

Introduction of lithography, 1821. 

Tengrove's rocket apparatus constructed, 1821. 

Prof. Danifcll invents an improved pyrometer, 1821 . 

First mechanics' institute founded in London, 1823. 

Caled<mian canal completed, 1823. 

Pins first made by machinery, 1824. 

First steam voyage to India, 1825. 

Lachiiie Canal opened, 1825. 

Thames tunnel begun, 1826. 

Bell's reaping machine patented, 1826. 

Amalgamated zinc first used in galvanic battery, 1826. 

Dye stuffs first obtained from coal tar, 1826. 

First railway in the United States, Quincy, Mass, 1827. 

First horseless carriage constructed in England, 1827. 

Rings of Saturn measured, 1828. 

Hot air blast introduced in iron manufacture, 1828-30. 

Bessel's heliometer mounted, 1829. 

Welland Canal opened, 1829. 
1830. S^-^nhenson's engine " The Rocket," beginning of rail- 
^■'-'^ds, 1830. 

Leloge's water-filter invented, 1831. 

New London Bridge opened, 1831. 




, V 






10 



1840. 



STJDENTS KEFERENCE BOOK 

Barlow announces his theory of the electrical origin of 
terrestrial magnetism, 1831. 

Faraday discovers induction of electric currents, 1832. 

Ericcson's caloric engine invented, 1833. 

Hussty and McCormick obtain a patent for reaping 
machines, 1833-34. 

Gospel by St. John, first book of Bible printed for the 
blind, by James Gall of Edinburgh, 1834. 

Lucifer matches come into use, 1834. 

Accidental discovery, by Liebig, of method of deposit- 
ing a coating of silver on glass (afterward, about 
1840, used in the manufacture of mirrors), 1836. 

Daniell's electric battery constructed, 1836. 

Colt's revolver patented, 1836. 

First railway in Canada (Laprairie & St. John, P.Q.), 
1836. 

Electro -metallurgy discovered, 1837. 

Cook and Wheatstone's magnetic semaj)hore signal ap- 
paratus, June, 1837. 

Steinheil's 3-mile telegraph, July, 1837. 

Morse's automatic recording telegraph, October, 1837. 

Grove's nitric acid battery constructed, 1839. 

Discovery of daguerreotype, 1839. 

Ozone discovered by Schonbein, 1839. 

Armstrong constructs his hydro-electric machine. 1840. 

Calotype or Talbotype process of photography pat- 
ented, 1841. 

Metal uranium first isolated in a pure form, 1841. 

Wilson's improvements on the Nasmyth steam ham- 
mer, 1843. 

Introduction of gut i percha, 1843. 

Bunsen's carbon b tery invented, 1843. 

Thames tunnel completed, 1843. 

First telegraph line in America, 1844. 



1« 



OF HTSTOKY \ND GEOGKAPHY. 



H 



1860. 



New Brunswick and Canada Railway begun, 1844. 
Ross' telescope at Birr, Ireland, completed, 1846. 
Elias Howe invents the sewing machine, 1845. 
Faraday shows that all bodies are affected by magnet- 
ism, 1845. 
Dr. Galle discovers the planet Neptune, 1846. 
Sulphuric ether used as an antt3sthetic, 1846. 
Gun cotton invented by Schonbein, 1846. 
Smithsonian Institute organized by U.S. Congress, 

1846. 
First telegraph line in Ontario. 1847. 
Survey of course of Suez Canal, 1847. 
Chloroform first used as an anajsthetic, 1847. 
Gold fields of California discovered, 1847. 
Great bell of R.C. Cathedral, Montreal, cast, (13^ 

tons) 1847. 
Type casting machinery patented, 1848. 
St. Lawrence canals completed, 1848. 
Brewster constructs the stereoscope, 1849. 
Bomb-shells invented, 1849. 
Northern railroad, Canada, begun, 1850. 
Dalgreen invents a cast inm gun, 1850. 
Ruhmkorff's induction coil invented, 1850. 
Britannia tubular bridge (over Menai Strait) contruct- 

ed, 1850. 
First submarine telegraph, 1851. 
Discovery of gold in Australia, 1851. 
Collodion discovered, 1851. 
Crystal Palace built for Industrial Exhibition, London, 

1851. 
Enfield rifle invented, 1853. 
Condensers for induction coils introduced, 1853. 
Wilson's "Circular balanced valve" applied to the 

steam hammer, 1853. 




iSi 



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m.: 



12 



STUDKNTS REFERENCE BOOK 



1860. 



Torpedoes first used, 1854. 

Bunsen first produces pure strontium, 1855. 

Niagara Suspension Bridge completed, 1855. 

Balance construction of portable steam cranes adopted, 

1856. 
Grand Trunk Railway completed to Toronto, 1856. 
Spherograph invented, 1856. 
Alden's type-setting machine invented, 1856. 
Bessemer process in steel manufacture introduced, 

1856. 
Uranium first obtained in compact form, 1856. 
First attempt to lay Atlantic Cable, 1857. i-' z'-- ■Mr^^ ? 
Great Eastern launched, 1858. < ,, ;v -r 

Suez Canal begun by DeLesseps, 1858. 
Suez Railroad opened, 1858. 
Decimal currency adopted in Canada, 1858. 
Bishop's great floating derrick (London) built, 1859. 
•First large iron-plated warship built, 1859. 
Completion of Victoria Bridge, Montreal, 1859. 
Gold discovered in British Columbia, 1859. 
New bronze coinage in Great Britain, 1860. 
Spectrum analysis invented by Bunsen and KirchoflP, 

1860. 
Petroleum first discovered in Ontario, 1860. 
Gatling gun invented, 1861. 
Metal thallium discovered, 1861. 
Snider's rifle patented, 1862. 
Metropolitan underground railway opened, 1863. 
Telegraph to India via Persian Gulf completed, 1865. 
Holtz's electric induction machine invented, 1865. 
First " Walter" Press erected, Times, London, 1866. 
Atlantic Cable successfully laid by Great Eastern, 1866. 
Matrix compositor for stereotyping invented, 1867. 
Pratt's typewriter invented, 1867. 



OP HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



13 



j^i^ht^ 



1870. 



^sri' ■'■'■' •;' 






1880. 



Dynamite invented by A. Nobel, 1868. 
Lockyer and Janssen discover the chromosphere, 18^8. 
Use of the Air Brake introduced, 1869. 
Submarine telegraph cable laid between Brest and St. 
Pierre, 1869. ,. , ,. , 

Suez Canal completed and opened, 1869. 
British telegraphs transferred to the Government 1869. 
Mont Cenis tunnel opened, 1871. ■ 

Martini-Henri rihe invented, 1871. <r ': • / .^v 

First elevated railroad, New York, 1872. - ! :. : ;^i l' 
Book sewing machine invented, 1872. 
"Challenger" cir^^umnavigating voyage for exploring 

the sea-floor, 1872-76. 
Gold dollar made unit of value in the United States, 

1873. 
First extensive manufacture of Remington typewriter, 
^'^^873. ^•^^^-^^•■■''-■-^:'^" ---^^^ 

Postal Congress at Berne ; Universal Postal Union 
■ formed, 1874. 3; 

Prince Edward Island Railroad opened, 1875. { '• 

Metal gallium discovered, 1875. ^ .- vm? 

Grand Opera, Paris, opened, 1875. v - ' 

England purchases the Suez Canal, 1876. f ■■' ■ 
First railroad hi China opened, 1876. ;f 

Intercolonial Railroad opened, 1876. - : 

Phonograph invented (not perfected), 1877. 
First C.P.R. locomotive at Winnipeg, 1877. 
Silver remonetized in the United States, 1878. 
Cowper's autographic telegraph invented, 1879. 
Fleuss' diving dress invented (oxygen supply and caus- 
tic soda to absorb carbonic acid), 1880. 
Great bell of St. Paul's (17i tons) cast, 1881. 
Electric cars snccessfully run at Paris, 1881. 
Armoured trains used in England, 1882. _ ;._ 




i 



14 



STUDENTS REFEaENCE BOOK 



1890. 



Nickel discovered in Canada, near Sudbury, 1883. 

Brooklyn Bridge completed, 1883. 

Bartholdi's Statue of Liberty begun, 1884. 

Washington monument completed and dedicated, 1885. 

M. Pasteur introduces inoculation for hydrophobia, 
1886, 

Great lens of Lick telescope completed, 188G. 

Welding of copper iSrst accomplished, 1886. 

Canadian Pacific Railway completed, 1886. 

Colonial and Indian Exhibition, London, 1886. 

Electric welding discovered, 1887. 

Phonograph perfected, 1888. 

Graphophone invented, 1888. 

Lick observatoiy and telescope, California, completed, 
1888. 

Electrocution adopted as method of capital punish- 
ment in New York State, 1889. 

Koch's tuberculosis cure announced, 1890. 

Button's pneumatic balance lock for ship canals in- 
vented, 1891. 

Campania, Cunard Liner, launched on the Clyde (600 
ft. long, 75 ft. wide), 1892. 

Electric street railways established in Montreal, 1892. 

Acetylene comes into use as an illuminant, 1894. 

Race of motor vehicles at Paris gives an impetus to 
invention in that line, 1895. 

Element Helium identified by spectroscope, 1895. 

Prof. Roentgen discovers X rays photographic pro- 
cess, 1896. 

Process of color photography discovered by M, Chas- 
sagne, Paris, 1897. 




OP HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



16 



SECTION II. 



Chronology of Discovery, Exploration and Colonization. 

Prellmliinry Not«.— The geographical knowledge of an- 
cient and medisBval nations extended only to West- 
ern and Southern Asia, Northern and North-eastern 
Africa and Europe. In 986, A.D., Bjarne Herjulf- 
son, on a voyage from Iceland to Greenland, was 
driven south-westward out of his course and passed 
within sight of the coast of the North American 
continent. In 1000, A.D.. Lief, son of Eric the 
Red, visited the continent and passed south along 
the coast as far as what is now New England, where 
having noticed grapes growing he named the country 
Vinland. Two years later, Thorwald, a brother of 
Lief, spent some months exploring the coasts for- 
merly visited by his brother ; and in 1007 another 
hardy Norseman, named Thorfinn, led an expedition 
of 160 men to America and spent three years on its 
shores. None of these men, however, made any 
permanent settlement and the knowledge of their 

- discoveries did not spread to continental Europe. 
During the latter half of the thirteenth century 
Marco Polo, a Venetian, made several remarkable 
journeys across Southern Asia, penetrating as far as 
Tonquin, and on his return published an account of 
what he had seen. 

1400. Christopher Columbus visits Iceland, 1477. 

Bartholomew Diaz reaches the Cape of Good Hope, 
1487. 



if" 



16 



STUDENTS REFERENCE BOOK 






't 



ColumbuH discovers San Salvador and other West India 

Islands, 1492-93. 
Second voyage of Columbus ; explores the West 

Indies and North-west coast of S«juth America, 

1493-96. 
John Cabot visits Newfoundland, 1497. 
Sebastian Cabot reaches lat. 07° 30', and then explores 
south to lat. 38° and discovers Florida, 1498. 
Third voyage of Columbus, 1498. 
1500. Cortereal's expedition to Labrador and Newfoundland, 

15()0. 
Cabral visits Brazil, 1500. 
St. Helena discovered by Portuguese, 1502. 
Death of Columbus, 1506. 
Mauritius discovered by Portuguese, 1507. 
Ponce de Leon takes possession of Florida for Spain, 

1512. 
Balbua reaches the Pacific Ocean, 1513. 
Cordova discovers Mexico, 1517. 
French settlement attempted in Acadia (N.S.), 1518. 
Magellan leaves Spain on voyage of circumnavigation, 

1519. 
Magellan enters and names the Pacific Ocean, 1520. 
Conquest of Mexico by Cortez, 1520. 
Magellan's expedition (he having been killed) reaches 

Spain, 1522. 
Verazanni explores Labrador and Newfoundland, 1524. 
Cabot discovers the La Plata, 1526. 
Pizarro conquers Pern, 1533. 

Jacijues Cartier's first voyage to the St. Lawrence, 1534. 
Jacques Cartier's second voyage, exploration of the 

St. Lawrence, 1535-36. 
De Soto reaches the Mississippi, 1540. 
First exploration of the Amazon, 1540, 



^m 



'ft I 



OF HISTORY AND OEOORAPHY. 



17 



Expedition of Cartier and Roberval to the Fjt. Law- 
rence, 1641. 

Australia charted by the French as Java Le Grande, 
1542. 
IMMK Stephen Burroughs reaches Vaygatz Strait, 1656. 

Drake's first voyage to South America, 1572. 

Forbisher visits Newfoundland, 1676, 

Sir Humphrey Gilbert's voyage to Amerioa, 1576. 

Drake coasts along Upper California, 1578. 

Florida settled by Spaniards, J ^80. 

Pet and Jackman enter Kara Sea, 1580. 

Sir H. Gilbert takes possession of Newfoundland for 
Great Britain, 1583. 

Raleigh attempts to colonize North Carolina, 1685. 

Trinidad colonized by Spaniards, 1588. 

Falkland Islands discovered by IJawkins, 1594. 

Spitzbei^on discovered by Barentz, 1596. 

Mauritius taken by the Dutch, 169§ (afterwards aban- 
doned). 
l«oo. Colony at Port Royal (N.S.) established, 1605. 

Barbadoes settled by jbhe English, 1605. 

Torres Strait visited and named, 1606. 

Henry Hudson rieaphes lat. 80° 30^, iiorth of Nova 
Zembla and SpM^zbergep, 1607. 

Virginia founded by S^r Walter Ralejgh, |607. 

Cham plain fou^d/s Quebec, 1608. 

Champlain ascends the Richelieu to Lake Champlain, 
1609. 

Dutch settleijaent at New York, 1609. 

First passage around Cape Horn, 1609. 

Hudson's first voyage to Hudson's Bay, 1610, 

Bermudas settled by the English, 1611. 

Guiana settled by the Dutch, 1613. 



il 



V I 



r 



^: ! 



18 



STUDENT S REFERENCE BOOK 



Champlain discovers Lakes Nipissing, Huron and On- 
tario, 1616. 

Voyage of the Mayflower and settlement of the *' Pil- 
grim Fathers," 1620. 

First English colony in Newfoundland, 1622. 

New Hampshire settled by the English, 1623. 

Barbadoes colonized by Sir W. Courteen, 1625. 
1625. French Colony established in Newfoundland, 1626. 

New Jersey and Delaware settled, 1627. 

Gulf of Carpentaria visited and named by Carpentier, 
1628. 

Bahamas settled by the English, 1629. 

Swedish settlements in Pennsylvania, 1631. 

Rhode Island settled from Massachusetts, 1631, 

Antigua (W.I.) colonized, 1632. 

Maryland founded, 1634. 

Connecticut settled from Massachusetts, 1635. 

First British settlement at Madras, 1639. 

Tasman discovers and names Van Dieman's Land 
(Tasmania), 1642. 
1650 Jamaica taken from the Spaniards, 1653. 

French settlements in Michigan, 1670. 

New York and New Jersey taken by England from 
the Dutch, 1674. 

Pennsylvania granted to Penn by Charles II., 1861. 

La Salle descends the Mississippi, 1682. 

Paraguay founded by Jesuits, 1690. 

French settlement in Hayti, 1690. 

Scotch expedition to Darien, 1698. 
ITOO. French Canadians form a settlement at Detroit, 1701. 

Kolessof discovers the Kurile Islarids, 1713. 

Mauritius re-colonized by the French, 1715. 

Manitoba and Kewatin explored by French merchants 
from Montreal, 1731. 



vso. 



1800. 



.Tld 



rom 



701. 



lants 




X>V mSTOKY AND G£OO^APHY. 

/ 

'Frenchmen explore the Missouri, 1733.'/- 
Behring's secoml expeditioa, 1 740. ^*^' «2 /On*. 
Captain Oook visits Australia, X^*1<1, *My 

Hearne crosses fron* Hudi^on Bay to the reouth of the 



Copper mine, 1771. 



.'./# 



.V 



'V 



........ / i..'»» 

First British settlement in Australia (t*t. Ja^ksonX^ 
1788. ... 

First transportation to Botauy Bay, 17^8. 

Bass Strait explored, 1790, 

English colony at Sierra Leone, 1790, 

Mackenzie crosses from the moUth of tlie Mackenzie 

River to the Pacific, 1789-93, 
Moreton and Hervey Bay (Australia) explored, 1792, 
Mungo Park's first voyage to Africa, 1795, 
Norlh-eas't coast of Australia explored, 1801. 
Wellesley province purchased by Great Britain, 1802. 
Colony of Victoria explored and surveyed, 1802. 
First settlement in New South Wales, 1803. 
First settlement in Tasmania, 1803. 
Scoresby reaches lat. SV 30', north of Spitzbergen, 

1806, 
Ascension Island first occupied, 1^15, 
Singapore Island purchased by Great Britain, 1819. 
Alexander's and Pete^rs' land (in the Antarctic ocean) 

discovered, 1821. 
Malacca taken from the Dutch, 1824. 
Captain Parry reaches lat. 82° 40* in boats mid sl-edges, 

north of Spitzbergen, 1827. 
Peninsula Boothia Felix discovered and named bj 

Booth, 1829, 
Melbourne, Australia, founded, 1835. 
Complete exploration of Australian coast, 1837-43, 
i^abr^na L^nd discovered, 1839™ 



lir 



«'i 



tii' 



flD 



students' reference book 




Ross Antarctic expedition discovers volcanoes Erebus 

and Terror, 1840. 
Victoria Land discovered and coast traced from lat. 

71° to lat. 78° 10' (highest south latitude reached) by 

Ross, 1841 43. 
Hong Kong ceded to Britain by China, 1842. 
Franklin starts on his last voyage, 1845. 
Labuan becomes a British possession, 1846. 
Livingstone discovers Lake Ngami, 1849. 

18S0. Robert McClure discovers a North-west Passage via 

Banks' Strait, Melville Sound and Barrow Strait, 

1860. 
Livingstone crosses Africa westwards, 1853-54. 
Livingstone re-crosses Africa eastwards, 1854-56. 
Oudh annexed to the British Empire, 1856. 
Remains of Franklin Expedition found on the borders 

.)f King William Land, 1867. 
Speke discovers Victoria Nyanza, 1858. 
livingstone explores the Zambezi and discovers lakes 

Shirwa and Nyassa, 1868-63. 
Baker ascending the White Nile, reaches the Abert 

Nyanza, 1864. 
Spitzbergen accurately mapped by Nordenskoild, 1868. 
Austro-Hungarian Polar Expedition starts, 1872. 
Return of Austro-Hungarian Polar Expedition after 
discovery of Franz Josef land ; explored to lat. 

82° 5' N., 1874. 
Cameron explores lower half of Lake Tanganika, 

1874-76. 

I»I5. Stanley explores the Victoria Nyanza, 1876-76. 
Captain Nares reaches 8S° 20' N., 1876-76. 
Stanley descends tho Congo, 1877. 



OP HISTORY A5D QBOORAPHV. 



21 



The Vega of Gothenburg, under Nordenskoild, accom- 
plishes the N.E. passage and eyph)re8 the coast of 
Asia from the Yeiiesei to Behring Sea, returning 
(1879) via Suez Canal, 1878. 

American Arctic ExpMition under (Ireeley reaches 
lat. 83° 24' N., 1883 

Return of Nansen Expedition, which reached lat. 86" 
14' W., 1896. 





^M 


*■ 


i » 






■ ,\ 












'r ^ 

... . , ■ 



22 



students' reference booh: 



SECTION ni. 



f> 



i -; 



-h,. V, Literatuie and Authors. 

Prellnilnai'y Note.— In earlier English history the chief 
names connected with literature are Be'^e, *' the 
Venerable" (d.735), who wrote a "History of the 
Church of the Angles " ; Bacon (1214-1292), who 
wrote a scientific work, entitled ""Opus Majus"; 
and Chaucer, "The Father of English Poetry'"' 
(1328-1400), whose chief work was " The Canterbury 
Tales." Wickliffe's trrtijsi.ition of the Bible wa* 
published in 1380. 

''The EllzHbethan Era, the first period of great literary 
. activity in England, was preceded by four great 
events : 1st. The Revival of Learning ; 2nd. The 
Reformatum ; 3rd, The extension of Geographical 
knowledge by the discoveries of such men as Vasco 
;', de Gama and Christopher Columbus, and 4th. The 
announcement of the Copernican theory of the 
heavenly bodies. 

This period derives its chief glory from such names as. 
Shakespeare, the first and greatest of dramatists ; 
Milton, unsurpassed in epic poetry, and Bacon, 
prince of the scientists of the time. 

The time of the ¥lcl.orlnH Era corresponds in a general 
way with that of her Majesty's reign ; and as that 
reign is the longest in the history of our nation^ 
and the most glorious in the moral, social and politi- 



1 



OP HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



23 



cal advancement it has «een, so is it unprecedented 
in the vastness, variety and general excellence of 
the literature it has produced. Among others, four 
chief causes may be assigned for this wonderful 
literary acti"ity and success : 

Ist. The extension of public education and general 
enlightenment. 

2nd. The advances in the art of printing, book- 
binding and publishing. 

3rd. The improved means of transit and inter- 
communication between the different parts 
of the world. 

4th. Religious and Parliamentary Reform, which 
has given to the humblest member of 
Church and State an interest and a voice in 
the greatest questions of the day. 

Out of hundreds of worthy names we select the follow- 
ing as being *>emeof those who deserve highest rank: 

In History — Macaulay, Carlyle, Hallam, Park- 
man, Green, McCarthy. 

In Fiction — Thackeray, Dickens, George Eliot, 
Lew Wallace, Hawthorne, Charlotte Bronte. 

In Poetry — Tennyson, Longfellow, Whittier, Aus- 
tin, Browning. 

In General Literature — Arnold, Drummond, Lyt- 
ton, Newman, D'Israeli, Kipling. 

Among Living Authors, the following are some of the 
names attracting most attention : 

Ian McLaren {Dr. Watson), J. M. Barrie, Alfred 
Austin (Poet Laureate), William Watson, C. G. D. 
Roberts, Margaret E. Sangster, .7. W. Riley, Rud- 
yard Kipling, Conan Doyle, F. Brete Harte, 
W. D. Howells. 





■ 


m 




■ ,""' 


1 






mi 


m 





Ii $■ 



24 
14M. 



students' reference book 



ISOO. 



ISM. 



GeoflFrey Chaucer died 

1400. 
Caxton born 1410. 
Sir Thomas More bora 

1480. 

St. Francis Xavier born 
1506. 



Sir T. More's " Life of Ed- 
ward V." First work in 
modern Enjjlish, 1609. 
Erasmus' " Praise of Folly," 

1610. 
More's " Utopia," 1516. 
TiUther's Ninety-five Propo- 
sitions, 1617. 
Erasmus' * ' Colloquies, " 1 522. 
Tyndale's translation of the 

Bible, 1626. 
** On the Revolution of the 
Heavenly Bodies," by 
Copernicus, 1630. 
Calvin's "Institutes of the 
Christian Religion," 1534. 
News sheet, *'Gazetta," 

printed in Venice, 1536. 
Bibles placed in the parish 
churches, England, 1640. 



Edmund Spencer born 

1663. 
Sir Philip Sidney born 

1664. 
Francis Bacon borii 

1561. 






OP HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



25 



KMNK 



Spencer's "Shepherd's Cal- 
endar," 1579. 



Marlow's "Tamburlaine," 

1587. 

** English Mercurie" war- 
notes, printed 1588. 

"Faerie Queen, 1590." 

" Venus and Adonis," 1593. 

"Every man in his Hu- 
mor," 1596. 

Bacon's Essays, 1597, 



Christopher MarJov' 

born 1562. 
Shakespeare born 1564. 
Ben Jonson born 1574. 



Dr. Ussher born 1580. 
Sir Philip Sidney died 
1886. 



Marlow died 1593. 



Edmund Spencer died 
1598. 



Bacon's ** Advancement of 
Learning,'* 1606. 

Milton born 1608. 
Samuel But^ ir born 1612. 
Ben Johnson made Poet Jeremy Taylor " 1613. 
Laureate, 1616. . Shakespeare died 1616. 

Sir Walter Raleigh exe- 
cuted 1618, 
Bacon's "Novum Organum," 

1620. Algernon Sidney born 

1622. 
Francis Bacon died 1626. 
John Bunyan born 1828. 
John Locke born 1632. 



t 
♦ ■■■ 


1 



26 



1650. 



1700. 



students' reference book 



Milton's " Allegro and Pen- 
Keroso," 1633. 

Milton's "Comua," 1634. 

Sir W. Davenant made Poet 
Laureate, 1637. 

Milton's "Lycidias," 1638. 

Taylor's "Holy Living, "1650. 
" "Holy Dying, "1651. 

Walton's " Complete An- 
gler," 1653. 



hj'r 



Ben Joniiondied 1637. 



Dr. Ussher died 1656. 
Daniel Defoe born 1661. 
Jeremy Taylor died 1667 



John Dryden made Poet 

Laureate, 1670. 
"Pilgrim's Progress," 1670. 
"Paradise Regained" and 

"Samson Agonistes," 1671. 



Milton died 1674. 
Samuel Butler died 1680 



Dryden's " Absalom and 

Achitophel," 1681. 
Newton's " Principia," 1687. John Bunyan died 1688. 

Alexander Pope born 
. 1688. 

. T. Shadwell made Poet 
Laureate, 1690. 
Locke's Essay on the " Hu- 
man Understanding," 1690. 
Nahum Tate made Poet Lau- 
reate, 1690. 



The "Tatler" established 
1709. 



Benjamin Franklin born 
1706. 

Dr. Johnson born 1709. 



n. 



1760. 



OF nrSTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



Pope's "Essay on Criti- 
cism," 1711. 

The " Spectator" established 
1711. 

"Rape of the Lock," 1713. 

Niciiolas Rowe made Poet 
Laureate, 1715. 

Ljiwrence Eusden made Poet 
Laureate, 1718. 

" Robinson Crusoe," 1719. 



"Gulliver's Travels," 1726. 
Thomson's "Seasons," 1727. 

C. Cibber made Poet Lau- 
reate, 1730. 



David Hume born 1711. 



Horace Walpole born 
1717. 

Joseph Addison died 

1719. 
Adam Smith born 1723. 
Adam Smith born 1726. 

Goldsmith born 1728. 
Edmund Burke born 

1730. 
William Cowper born 

1731. 
Daniel Defoe died 1731. 



Swedenborg's "Opera Mine- 

ralia et Philosophia, " 1733. 

Pope's "Essay on Man," 



Robert Burns born 1769. 



Hume's "History of Eng- 
land," 1762. 






f 



1735. 


.' 1 ;' :','- 




i 


• 


Edward Gibbon 


born 


]n 


^ 


1737. 






" Cas'.la of Indolence," 1748. 








" Elegy in a Country Church- 


* 






yard, 1760. 








Wm. VVhitehead made Poet 








Laureate, 1757. 






.;,.W 



28 



STUDENTS REFERENCE BOOK 



m 



" Vicar of Wakefield," 1764. 
*' Deserted Village," 1770. 



Smith's ''Wealth of Na- 
tions," 1776. 



Warton made Poet Laureate, 
1785. 

*' Daily Universal Register" 
(afterwards, 1788, "The 
Times") estivblished 1785. 

Cowper's "Task," 1785. 

First volume of Burns pub- 
lished 1786. 

"Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire," 1787. 



" Reflections on the French 
Revolution," 1790. 

H. J. Pye made Poet Lau- 
reate, 1790. 



Wordsworth born 1770. 
Sydney Smith born 

1771. ^ 

S. T. Coleridge born 

1772. 
J"mes Hogg born 1772. 
Robert Southey born 

1772. 



Henry Clay born 1777. 
Thomas Campbell born 

1777. 
Washington Irving born 

1783. 
Leigh Hunt born 1784. 



Henry K. White born 
1785. 



Lord Byron born 1788. 
J. Fennimore-Cooper 

born 1789. 
Adam Smith died 1790. 
Benjamin Franklin died 

1790. 




►rn 1770. 
h born 

ge born 

)rn 1772. 
ey born 



)rn 1777. 
bell born 

ving born 

>rn 1784. 

hite born 



»orn 1788. 
re-Cooper 

aied 1790. 
nklin died 



OP HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



29 



Roger's " Pleasures of Mem- P. B. Shelley bom 
ory," 1792. 1792. 

Felicia Hemans born 
. 1793. 

Edward Gibbon died 

1794. 
W. C. Bryant born 1794. 
John Keats born 1795. 
Thomas Carlyle bom 

1795. 
Robert Burns died 1796. 
Edmund Burke died 

1797. 
Thomas Hood born 
1798. 
Campbell's *' Pleasures of 
Memory," 1799. 
Igoo. William Cowper died 

1800. 
Southey's " Thalaba," 1801. Cardinal Newman bom 

1801. 
Edinburgh Review first pub- Hugh Miller bom 1802. 

lished 1802. 

R. W. Emerson born 

1803. 
Nathaniel Hawthorne 
born 1804. 
*' Lay of the Last Minstrel," Lord Lytt<m born 1805. 
1805. H. K. White died 1806. 

Longfellow born 1807. 
Edinburgh Ency6lop8edia be- Whittier bom 1807. 

gun 1808. 
Quarterly Review established 0. W. Holmes born 
'1809." 1809. 



•1 

ii 




JlM 



Imi ^ 






30 



STUDENTS^ REFERENCE BOOK 



Campbe^' s "Gertrude of Teh ny sou born 1809. 

Wyomiiig," 1809, W. E. Gladstone born 

Knickerbocker's " History of 1809. 
New York," 1809, 

Thackeray born 1811. 
E. A. Poe born 1811. 
•'Thanatopsis," 1812. Mrs. H. B. Stowe born 

First Cantos of " Childe 1812. 

Harold's Pilgrimage" pub- Charles Dickens born 
lished 1812, 1812. 

Robert Browning bom 
1812, 

Shelley's "Queen Mab," 

1813. 
Southey's " Life of Nelson,'* 

1813. 

The Queen's Wake.'* 
'Waverley," 1814, 

Charlotte Bronte born 
181H. 



i 



Hallajn's " Middle Ages, 
1818, 



7> 



Heavysege born 1816. 



Rev. C. Kingsley, A. H, 
Clough, Maria Evans 
(George Eliot), J. R. 
Lowell, Walt Whitman 
and John Ruskin born 

1819. 
J ohn Tyndall born 1820, 
Alice Gary born 1820. 
Keats died 1821. 
Jenny Lind born 1821^ 



I 



OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



31 



1895. 



Rogers' " Pleasures of Mem- 
ory," 1822. 

♦' Bracebridge Hall," 1822. 

First Mechanics' Institute, 
1823. 



E. E. Hale born 1822. 

P. B. Shelley died 1822. 
Francis Park man born 

1823. 
Phoebe Gary l^orn 1824. 
Byron died 1824. 
T. D. McGee born 1825. 
W. W. Collins born 

1825. 



"Constitutional History of 
England,"by Hallam, 1827. 

"Poems by Two Brothers," 
1827. 

Irving's " Columbus," 1828. 

ChristimL Guardian estab- 
lished by Dr. Ryerson, 
1829. 

"Poems, chiefly Lyrical," 
Tennyson, 1830. 

Irving's " Alhambra," 1832. 
Carlyle's " Sartor Resartus," 
1833. 



Lew Wallace born 1827. 

D. G. Rossette born 
1828. 



S. L. Clemens (Mark 

Twain) born 1830. 
Sir E. Arnold born 1831 . 
Scott died 1832. 
L. M. Alcott born 1833. 

C. H. Spurgeon bom 

1834. 
S. T. Coleridge died 

1834. 
Geo. DuMaurier born 

1834. 
Wm. Morris born 1834. 
CeliaThaxterborn 1835. 







32 



students' reference book 



E. B. Browning's "Prome- 
theus Bound," 1836. 



"Pickwick Papers," 1837. 
Carlyle's "French Revolu- 
tion, 1837. 



Longfellow's "Psalm of 

Life," 1838. 
" Hyperion," 1^39. 
"Excelsior," 1841. 

H. Miller's " Old Red Sand- 
stone," 1841. 

Poemc by Alfred Tennyson, 
1842. 

Wordsworth made Poet Lau- 
reate, 1843. 

E. B. Browning's "Drama 
of Exile," 1844. 

Thackeray's " Vanity Fair," 

1846. 
Tennyson's " The Princess," 

1847. 
Longfellow's "Evangeline," 

1847. 

" David Copperfield," 1849. 

Macaulay's " History of En- 
gland," 1849, 



Mrs. Hemans died 1836. ^ 
Alfred Austin born 1836. 
James Hogg died 1836. 
T.B.Aldrich born 1837. 
A. C. Swinburne born 

1837. 
W. D. Howells born 

1837, 
Walter Besant born 

1838. 
Bret Harte bom 1839. 
L.delaIuime("Ouida") 

born 1840. 



Southey died 1843. 

Sydney Smith died 1846. 
Thofl. Hood died 1846. 
Arch. Henry Sayce born 
J 846. 



OP HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



33 



iHftO. 



Free libraries firat opened, 

1050. 
Miller's "Footprints of the 

Creator," 1850. 



Wordsworth died 1850. 



Tennyson made Poet Laure- Robert L. Stevenson 
ate, 1850. born 1850. 

"In Menioriam," 1850. 

Thackeray's " Rebecca and 
Rowena," 1850. 

Prof. Henry Drum- 
mond born 1851, 

^'Esmond," 1852. 

*' Hiawatha," 1855, 

"•Thackeray's **The New- 
comes," 1855, 

E. B. Browning's '* Aurora 
Leigh,'' 1856. . 

Miller's "Testimony of the 
Rocks," 1857. 

*' Autocrat of the Breakfast 
Table," 1857. 

*' Courtship of Miles Stan- 
dish," 1858. 

*"Carlyle'8 "Frederick the 
Great, 1858. 

•*' Origin of Species," 1859. 

*"The Land ard ^he Book," 
by W. L. Thompson, 1859. 

"^'The Professor at the Break- 
fast Table," 1860. 

*' Tales of a Wayside Inn," Thackeray died 1863, 
1863, 

Hawthorne died 1864. 



Washington Irving died 
1859, 



J. M. Barrie born 1860. 



M 



84 



students' keference book 



Emerson's " Oration on the 

Death of Lincoln," 1865. 
Ibsen's'* Brand,'* 1866. 
Ibsen's'' Peer Gynt," 1867. 



" The Poet at the Breakfast 
Table, 1872. 

•* Short History of the Eng- 
lish people," by J. R. 
Green, 1874. 

Tennyson's "Queen Mary," 
1876. 

MuUer's " Chips from a Ger- 
man Workshop," 1875. 

Whittier's Centennial Hymn, 

1876. 

Tennyson's " Harold," 1877. 

Ibsen's " Emperor and Gali- 
lean," 1878. 

Emerson's " Fortunes of the 
Republic," 1878. 

Sir E. Arnold's "Light of 
Asia," 1880. 



T. D. McGee killed, 

J 868. 
Chas. Dickens died 1870. 
Alice and Phoebe Cary 

died 1871. 
Lord Lytton died 1872. 



W. C. Bryant died 1878. 



Revised version of the Bible, 

Oxford, 1885. 
3. M. Barrie's "Better 

Dead," 1887. 



Thos. Carlyle died 1881. 
R. W. Emerson died 

1882. 
Longfellow died 1882. 
D. G. Rossetti died 1882. 



OY HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



35 



ISM. 



"A Window in Thrums," 
1889. 

'* My Lady Nicotine," J 890. 
"The LiUle Minister," 1891. 



M. Arnr4d died 188a 



Kipling's "The Other Jungle 

Book," 1895. 
** Beside the Bonnie Brier 

Bush," 1895. 
" Poems Here at Home," by 

J VV. Riley, 1896. 
*' Motley,".!. VV. Bengough, 

1896. 

"Kate Carnegie," 1896. 
Kipling's "Seven Seas," 

1896. 
''Low Tide on Grand Pre," 

by Bliss Carman, 1896. 
**A Child World," J. W. 

Riley, 1896. 
" The Mind of the Master," 

by Ian MeLaren, 1896. 
" Enster Bells," M. E. Sang- 

ster, 1897. 
*^ Margaret Ogilvy," 1897/ 



Cardinal Manning died 

1892. 
Whittier died 1892. 
Whitman died 1892. 



*' 3ill Nye" died 1896, 

W. Morris died 1896, 
Geo. DuMaurier died 
1896. 



Prof. Jlenry Drum- 
mopd difld 1897. 






nii^ 






36 



STUDENTS REFERENCE BOOK 



■m 



ii: J 



SECTION IV. 



./.. 



Chronology of Events in the World of Religion and Morals. 



'ff) 



l*r<^liitilnarT Sfote.— Events before 1400 A.D.: 
Cbristianity was carried during the first century, 
chiefly by the apostles Peter and Paul, to many 
jroiiits in Southern and Western Europe. From these 
points it advanced and soon became firmly estab- 
lished in all the countries along the coasts of the 
Mediterranean. It was introduced into Ireland 
about 432 A.D. by Patrick, (afterwards canonized 
Ireland's patron saint) ; into Scotland about 563, by 
Columba, an Irish monk ; and into England in 596, 
by Augustine, sent from Home by Pope Gregory. 
About the same time the followers of Columba had 
penetrated into the north of England. 
The following Ecumenical Councils bad been held be- 
fore 1400 A.D. : 
I. Nicea, 325 A.D. 
II. Constantinople, 381 A.D. 

III. Ephesus, 431 A.D. 

IV. Chalcedon, 451 A.D. 

V. Constantinople, 553 A.D. 
VI. Constantinople, 680 A.D. 
VII. Nicea, 787 A.D. 
VIII. Constantinople, 869 A.D. 

Special at Placentia, 1095 A.D. 
Special at Clermont, 1096 A.D, 



OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 37 

IX. Ist Lateran, 1123 A.D. 

X. 2nd Lateran, 1139 A.D. 

XI. 3rd Lateran, 1179 A.D. 

XII. 4th Lateran, 1215 A.D. 

XIII. Lyons, 1245 A.D. 

XIV. Lyons, 1274 A.D. 
XV Vienna, 1311 AD. 

The following are the dates and leaders of the dif- 
ferent Crusades and religious wars undertaken by 
European Christians to drive the Mohammedans 
from the Holy Land : 

LEADERS. 

1st. 1097... Godfrey of Bouillon. 

Hugh of Verniandtus. 

Robert of Normandy. 

Robert of Flanders. 

Bohemund of Tarentum. 

Raymond of Toulouse. 
2nd. 1 149 , . Emperor Coiirade TI. 

Louis VII. of France. 
3rd. 1190 Frederick Barbarossa, Emperor. 

Richard I. of England. 

* ' Philip II. of France. 

4th. 1203 .. Baldwin of Flanders. 

5th. 1228 Frederick II. of Germany. 

6th. 1244 Louis IX. of France. 

7th. 1270 Louis of France. 

Prince Edward of England. 
8th. 1291. 

The Mohammeaans were at last successful and the 

Crusaders forced to leave Palestine. 

Kvents lending np to the Rerornititloii t 

Such men as Wickliflfe, IIuss and Thomas A'Kempis 
held reformed views on religious subjects before the 








iti' 



38 



STUDENTS REFERENCE BOf>K 



1400. 



ISOO. 



n:i 



- _ ^ 

time of Luther, and by their preachings had ronsedl 
the people to a sense that the Churh of Rome was 
not in everything pure and perfect. They were 
" Reformers before the Reformation. '^ 

The revival of learning and the translation, pub- 
lication and study of the Bible led people to read 
and think for themselves, and showed them pure 
Christianity as oppc>sed to the greedy and licentious 
lives led by the clergy of the time. 

The sale of indulgences by the Pope and his agents 
roused conscientious men to a sense of the hypocrisy 
of the hierarchy of the Church. 

Law passed in England condemining heretics to be 

burned, 1401. 
16th Ecuu>enical Council, Pisa, 1409; 
17th Ecumenical Council, Constance, 1144-1448. 
John Huss burned, 1415. 
18th Ecumenicel Council, Basle, 1431-1443. 
First preaching of Savonarola, 1482. 
Martin Luther born, 1483. 

.Birth of John Knox, 1506. 

Tetzel, a Dominican friar, selling indulgences near 

Wittenberg is opposed by Martin Luther, 1617. 
Martin Luther burns the Papal bull, 1620. 
Franciscan friars, selling indulgences in Switzerland, 

are opposed by Zwingli, 1520, 
Diet of Spires resolves that the princes of Germany 

have full power to order ecclesiastical affairs in their 

own dominions, 1526. 
Conference of Protestant leaders at Berne, 1528. 
Second Diet of Spires decides all changes in the Church 

unlawful except such as may be authorized by a 

general council (Protested), 1529. 



'^Mk. 




OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



39 



k 



1550. 



1«00. 



Confession of Basel, 1530. 

Convention of Augsburg, 1530. 

Tetrapolitan Confession, 1531. 

Alliance of Protestant princes, a crisis, 1631. 

Treaty of Nurnberg, a victory for Protestantism, 1532. 

Henry VIII. declares himself head of the English 
Church, 1634. 

Society of Jesus (Jesuits) founded by Loyola, 1534. 

Protestant convention at Smalkald ; the Smalkald Arti- 
cles drawn up, 1637. 

John Knox becomes a Protestant, 1543, 

Council of Trent begun, 1545. 

King's Primer (Prayer book) issued in England, 1545. 

Luther dies, 1546. 

First Prayer Book of Edward VI. issued, 1549. 

Roman Catholicism restored in England by accession 
of Mary, 1553. 

Cranmer, Ridley, Latimer and Hooper burned, 1555. 

John Knox returns from exile and preaches at St. 
Andrew's, 1569. 

Gallic Confession, 1569. 

Thirty-nine Articles revised and approved by convoca- 
tion and Parliament, 1571. 

First Presbytery in England formed, 1572. 

Massacre of Huguenots, St. Bartholomew, 1572. 

Palatine and Heidelberg confessions, 1576. 

Arminius becomes pastor at Amsterdam, 1588. 

Defeat of Spanish Armada, a victory for Protestant- 
ism, 1688. 

Jesuits re-instated in France, 1603. 
Hampton Court Conference, which resulted in the trans- 
lation of the Bible, 1604. 
King James' version of the Bible prepared, 1608-1611. 



h'" 



I*. 



Jii 



40 



STUDENTS KBFERENCE BOOK 






- Bt'-i 

m 



m 



f-nr 



1650. 



1700. 



Doctrine of Divine Right of Kings originates during 

this period. 
Recollet Fathers arrive in Canada, 1615. 
Puritans leave England to seek "freedom to worship 

God," 1620. 
Laud attempts to force Scotland to use the Prayer 

Book, 1637. 
Scottish "National Covenant" drawn up, 1638. 
Presbytery of Carrickfergus, Ireland, formed, 1642,' 
Westminster Assembly forniulate Confession of Faitli 

and larger and shorter Catechisms, 1643. 
Solemn League and Covenant, 1643. 

Canada made an Apostolic Vicariate under Laval, 1659. 
Corporation Act passed, requiring officials to obey 

the King and receive the sacrament in the English 

Church, 1661. 
Act of Uniformity passed, requiring all ministers to be 

ordained by a Bishop and to use the Prayer Book, 

1662. 
Conventicles forbidden by Act of Parliament, 1664. 
Five-mile Act, 1666. 
Persecution of Covenanters in Scotland. 
First yearly meeting of Quakers, 1672. 
Settlement of Friends in Philadelphia, Penn., 1682. 
Friends who had been imprisoned for their faith set 

at liberty, 1686. 
Roman Catholics forever excluded from the Throne of 

England by Bill of Rights, 1689. 
First Presbyterian congregation in America organized, 

1690. 

First Protestant missionaries (Danish) arrive in India, 

1705. 
First Presbytery in America (Philadelphia) organized, 

1705. 



OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



41 



1750. 



Act of Union makes Preabyteiianisni the established 
religion of Scotland, 1707. 

First Presbyterian Synod in America organized, 171(>. 

New Testament translated into French by Abauzit» 
1726. ,:^ 

Protest of four Presbyterian ministers in Scotland, 
origin of Secession Church, 1733. 

Religious movement at Oxford and afterwards through- 
out England and parts of America, led by the Wes- 
leys and Whitfield, resulting in the organization of 

, the Methodist denomination, 1738. 

Jesuits expelled from Portugal, 1759. 

Jesuits suppressed in France, 1764. 

Methodist meetings first held in America and classes 
organized in New York, 1766. 

Jesuits suppressed in Spain, 1767. '■''^^'■■■-■-■■''-■^' ^s 

First Methodist church in America — Wesley Chapel- 
dedicated, 1768. 

Jesuit Society suppressed by Pope Clement in all the 
States of Christendom, 1773. 

Kev. John Murray organizes the first Universalist 

Church in the United States at Gloucester, Mass., 

1780. 
First Sunday School opened by Robert Raikes, 1781. 

General convention of Protestant Episcopal Church; 
revised Prayer Book and Articles, issued as "The 
Proposed Book," 1785. 

First community of Shakers formed, 17S7. 

Protestant Episcopal Prayer Book adopted, 1789. 

Rev. Dr. Carroll appointed first R.C. bishop of Balti- 
more, 1789. 

Dr. Carroll forms Synod of twenty priests, 1791. 

New Connexion Methodists organized, 1797. 



I 



! 



f- ; «■ M 



A: :: 



m^ 



«rUl>£NT8 HEFBRBNCE BOOK 



1895. 



Union of Presbyterians and Congregationalists in New 

York, 1801. 
Pope Pius permits partial re-estjiblishment of Society 

of Jesus, 1801. 
Sanhedrin of Jews called at Paris by Napoleon, 1806, 
Primitive Methodist Church formed, 1807. 
Organization of first "Cumberland Presbyteiy" in 

Kentucky, 1810. 
First American Missitmaries sent to India, 1812. 
Society of Jesus completely re-established by the 

Roman Catholic Church, 1814. 
Day of Thanksgiving for the restoration of peace in 

the United States appointed by President Madison, 

1816. 
African Methodist Episcopal Church organized in 

Philadelphia, 1816. 
Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church organized 

inNew York City, 181ft 
First Methodist Conference in Canada (Niagara), 1819. 
Jesuits banished from Russia, 1820. 
One Presbytery in Lower Canada and three in Upper 

Canada formed into a Synod for the two Provinces, 

1820. 

American Temperance Society organized at Boston, 

1826. 
Secession of Hicksite (Unitarian) Friends from the 

Orthodox, 1827. 
Protestant Methodist Church organized in England, 

1829. 
Catholic Emancipation Act passed in England, 1829. 
Methodist Protestant Church organized in Baltimore, 

1830. 



sv 






Mix: 



Mr 



.OF HISTORY AND OlSOORAlPHT. 



43 






1850. 



Union of Synod of Ireland and Secession Church of 

Ireland, 1830. 
Ab(jlition of Slavery in British Colonies, 1833. 
Association Methodists organized, 1835. 
Parker's Missionary Hospital in Canton, China, 

opened, 1836. 
Division of American Presbyterian Church into two 

sections, old and new schools, 1838. 
Father Matthew commences temperance crusade, 1838. 
Parker's sermon " On the Transient and Permanent in 

Christianity " preached, 1841. 
Book of Morm<*n published, 1841. 
The "Disruption" in Scotland; formation of Free 

Church of Scotland. 1843. 
Wesleyan Methodist Church organized, 1343. 
Jews first admitted to British Parliament, 1845. 
Liquor traffic suppressed in the State of Maine, 1846. 
Dr. Geddie, first Foreign Missionary of the Presby- 
terian Church in Canada, sent to the New Hebrides, 

1846. 
Migration of Tjatter Day Saints to Salt Lake, 1847. 

Order of Good Templars originated in New York, 1851. 

Alcoholic drinks in State of Maine confiscated, 1851. 

Fi..st organized Prohibition movement (United King- 
dom Alliance) in Great Britain, 1853. 

J. Hudson Taylor sent to China by China Evangeliza- 
tion Society, 1853. 

Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception promulgated 
by Papal authority, 1854. 

Ratazzi's bill for the abolition of convents (Italy) lost, 
1854. 

Associate and Associate Reformed Churches of North 
America unite as U^nited Presbyterian Church, Pitts- 
burgh 1858. 



M-- 



lit! 



It 



ill 



'!!; r 




44 

1800. 



1870. 



STUDENT 8 REFERENCE BOOK . 

Annual Thanksgiving Day appointed by President 

Lincoln, 1863. 
Spurgeon's Sword and Trowel established, 1865. 
Salvation Army established as the Christian Mission 

in London, England, 1865. 
American Branch of the Red Cross Society organized, 

1866. 
Centenary of American Methodism celebrated, 1866. 
Jesuits banished from Spain, 1868. 
Irish Church disestablished, 1869. 

Union of the two bodios of Presbyterians in the United 
States of America, 1870. 

Organization of the Colored Methodist Episcopal 
Church in America, 1870. 

American Wesleyan Conference enjoins the use of 
unfermented wine in the Sacrament, 1872. 

Church of England Temperance Society formed, 1873. 

Episcopal Church in the United States separates, a 
new church. The Reformed Episcopal Church, being 
formed, 1873. 

Jesuits expelled from the German Empire, 1873. 

Brooklyn Tabernacle opened, 1874. 

Congregational Union Total Abstinence Society en- 
dorsed, 1874. 

Canadian Presbyterian Churches unite, 1875. 

Union of Presbyterian Churches in England, 1876. 

Wesleyan Methodist Conference inaugurates Temper- 
ance movement, 1877. 

Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle formed, 
1878. 

Salvation Army extends its work to America, 1878. 

United Methodist Free Church organize a Temperance 
League, 1788. 





OP HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



45 



I 



1880. 



1890. 



Wesleyan Methodiat Conference forniH Tempernnce 

and Band of Hope Union. 1879. 
Primitive Methodists form Connexional Temperance 

League, 1879. 

Edmunds' law against Mormon polygamous marriages, 
1882. 

Incorporation of Salvation Army of America, 1885. 

Rabbinical Convention at Pittsburg adopts a reformed 
Jewish platform, 1885. 

Order of Evangelists adopted by Protestant Episcopal 
Church, 1886. 

Advance of Salvation Army into Utah, 1887. 

Fourteen missionaries of the China Inland Mission 
leave America for China, 1888. 

Council for North America of the China Inland Mis- 
sion constituted, 1889. 

Catholic Summer School of America established near 

Plattsburg, 1891. 
Parliament of Religions held at Chicago during the 

World's Fair. 
Mgr. Satolli appointed Papal Ablegate to the United 

States of America. 
Council for North America of the C. I. M. sends out 

28 missionaries, 1896. 
Secession of American section of the Salvation Army, 

" God's American Volunteers," 1896. 
Mgr. del Val appointed Papal Delegate to Canada, 

1897. 



II ' 



46 



SirDBNTS REFERENCE BOOK 



SECTION V. 



Act of 
Furllanieni 



Definitions of Terms in History. 

AcceHHlwn. The coming of a sovereign to the throne. 

A bill that has received a favorable vote in both 
Houses of Parliament and has been assented to 
by the Sovereign or the representative of a 
Sovereign. Acts of Parliament are also known 
as Statutes or Laws. 

Adjourn. To dismiss the members of Parliament, to meet 
' again at a fixed time, when any unfinished busi- 
ness may be resumed. 

AdmlnlHtratloii. The Cabinet or Ministry ; the work done by 

them as a Government. 

AUleriiien. The members of the municipal council of a city. 

AUlniice. A union of powers, generally for defence or pur- 
poses of war. 

AnibttHHador. A messenger or agent of the highest rank sent 
from one sovereign or government to another. 

Anarchy. A state of political and social confusion arising 
from want of government. 

Anarchists.— Members of secret revolutionary 
societies having branches in many of the 
foremost natio^^s of the present time. 

Arbitration. The settling of a dispute in a peaceful manner by 
submitting the question to two or more men 
(called arbitrators), who decide the terms of set- 
tlement and by whose decision the disputing 
parties agree to abide. 



OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



^ 



Archon. 



I^j 



ArlNtocrney. 



Arninnieiit. 



Amiy. 



Bin. 



Bill of 
Attnlnder. 

Blockade. 



Under the ancient Athenian constitution, a chief 
officer or magistrate chosen to superintend civil 
and religious matters. 

The nobles or peers of a nation ; government by 
the nobility. 

A strong body of men equipped for war ; applied 
to land or naval forces. 

A collection or body of men, organiiied under 
officers and armed and trained for war. 

Arclierf). Soldiers who use bow and arrow. 

A proposed law under discussion by a Legislature. 
After it passes it becomes a Law, Statute or Act 
of Parliament. 

A law condemning one charged with treason or 
felony to death, banishment or confiscation of 
property, without a trial in the ordinary courts. 

Surrounding a place by military forces so that all 
means of intercourse with other places are taken 
away. 
Boiulmrdiiieiit« Firing shells or other destructive missiles into a 
town to destroy the buildings. 

A statement of the finances of the country uiade 
at each session of Parliament by the Finance 
Minister in Canada, and by the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer in the Imperial Parliament. 

A word formed from the initial letters of the 
names CliflTord, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley 
and Lauderdale, intriguing advisers of Charles 
L, and now used to denote a clique of plotters 
or schemers whose object is the advancement of 
some scheme of their own, regardless of the in- 
terests of or even at the expense of the nation. 

The Ministry or Executive, that body of men 
who actually superintend the transaction of the 
business of Government. 



Budget. 



CiibiiL 



Cftblnet. 



F 







48 



STUDIJNTS' REFKKJSNCE BOOK 



Campatgii. 



Cnptttil. 



Ceusuft. 



The Imperial Cabinet iH a body of men selected 
by the Sovereign through the Premier and en- 
trusted with the administration of the Govern- 
ment. It necessarily consists of : 

1. The Prime Minister, 

2. The Lord Chancellor. 

3. The Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

4. The Home Secretary. 

5. The Foreign Secretary. 

6. The Colonial Secretary. 

7. The Secretary of State for India. 

8. The Secretary of War. 

9. The President of the Privy Council. 
The Dominion Cabinet consists of : 

1. The President of Council and Premier. 

2. Minister of Public Works. 

3. Minister of Customs. 

4. Minister of Railways and Canals. 

5. Minister of Militia and Defence. 
0. Minister of Agriculture. 

7. Minister of Inland Revenue. 

8. Mmister of Marine and Fisheries. 

9. Minister of the Interior. 

10. Secretary of State. 

11. Postmaster-General. 

Part of a war completed during one season's opera- 
tions, or part of a war occurring in one dis- 
trict ; a section of a war. 

The chief city of a country, state or province. 
The seat of government. 

A numbering of the people in a country. In the 
British Empire a census is taken every ten 
years, the last being in 1891. 



m 




OP HIHTORY AND OEOORAPHY, 



41) 



t'liiirtcr. 



Civil LiNt, 



CloMwr*'. 



A document given by a sovereign, government or 
other authority, promising certain rights or 
conferring certain special privileges on a person, 
a cf>mi)any or a corporation. 
Clrcuiiii..iTiK«ii«,.. Sailing around. The globe was first circum- 
navigatetl by Magellan, 1519-22. 

The money reciuired for the payment of v>arlia- 
mentary officials and conducting the various 
departments of government. 

Closing the debate on any question when a suf- 
ficient time has been allowed for its discussion 
C«,.Mervntlv«. One of the political parties in Canada. The 
leaders of the party since Confederation are as 
follows : 

Sir John A. Macdonald, 
J. J. C. Abbott, 
Sir John Thompson, 
Sir Mackenzie Bowell, 
Sir Charles Tupper. 
CoiiNtltneiicJcH. Electoral divisions of a country, each of which 

sends a member to the legislature. 
CoiiHtitntloii. The rules or laws which a nation, an association or 
a cofnpany adopts for the regulation of its gov. 
ernment. It generally indicates what officers 
or bodies of men shall hold authority and do- 
tines what the [)ower8 and duties of those in 
authority shall be, as well as by what rules of 
action and order they shall govern themselves. 
The €oiiMtltiitl4>u of Cireiit Brltiiln is the whole 
body of law, custom or i)recedent which 
defines the powers of government in all 
its departments. It is not contained nor 
stated in any one formal document. 



II 



50 



student's reference book 



The Constltntloii of €aiiR<ln i» contained in the 

British North America Act passed by t^he 

Imperial Parliament in 1867. 
By that Act the Dominion Government is 

defined to ccmsist of : 
1st. The Governor-Genera-I, appointed by the 

crown for five years and receiving a salary 

of $50,000 from the Dominion Treasury. 
2nd. His advisers, the Cabinet or Ministry, 

chosen by the Governor-General through 
^ i the Premier from the party having a ma- 
S } jority in the Houae of Commons. 

3rd. The Senate, the members of which are 

appointed by the crown for life. 
4th. The House of Commons, a representa- 
tive body elected by the people. 
The Dominion Parliament has the following 

powers : 
1st. To raise a revenue by imposing customs 

on excise duties. 
2nd. To control the militia and all matters of 

international importance. 
3rd. To manage postal affairs. 
4th. To issue currency. 
5th. To maintain penitentiaries. 
6th. To appoint jadges. 
7th. To manage important public works. 
. 8th. To control or dispose of any Crown land» 

which do not belong to any of the provinces. 
By this Act, also, the Provincial Governments 

were to consist of : 
1. A Lieutenant-Governor, appointed by the 






Governor-Gen < 
termi of years, 






of the Dominion for a 



©P HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



51 



r-i 



ComsuIh 



CosiTciitloii. 



€oiivciie. 



Corporittloji. 



2. Th€ advisers of the Lieutenant-Governor, 
or Executive Council. 

3. A Legisla4:.ive Council (optional with th« 
provinces). 

4. A Legislativtj Assembly, elected for f(.ur 
years by the people. 

The Provincial Governments have the follow- 
ing powers : 

1. To control education. 

2. To appoint and maintain courts of justice, 

3. To build and maintain asylums and jails. 

4. To regulate the sale of intoxicating liquor, 

5. To manage and dispose of Crown lands 
within the province. 

6. To raise a revenue by direct taxation. 

Or praefur!>i in ancient Rome were elected annually 
and invested with legal authority . They were 
first elected in 509 B.C. Consuls in France 
were three supreme magistrates first appointed 
in 1799. 

A consul is a person cf>m missioned by a nation to 
represent it in a foreign country to protect and 
advance its interests. 

Any gathering of people for business. A Conven- 
tion Parliament is one convened without th« 
authority of a Sovereign as that of 1039. 

To call together the members of Parliament for 
business. It is done by the Sovereign or a 
representative of the Scjvereign. 

A council, association, company or other body of 
men authorized by law to transact business aa 
an individual, A body corporate. 




i 



62 



CroM^ii LiiimIh. 



€riiMi«lcs. 



ta-Ml 



CuHtoniD. 
Beuiocraey. 



llcpoHitlou. 



lllctMtor. 




ntsMolve. 



UyuttHly. 



Klecttoii. 



"fi 



ft-— 



STUDENTS llEPF ENCE BOOK 

Lands not owned by any individual, but under 
control of the Government, to be disposed of 
as it may see fit. v r , 

Wars of the cross, undertaken at the instigation 
of Peter the Hermit to drive the Mohammedans , 
from Palestine. There were eight, the first 
leaving Europe in 1096. - r ; , 

Duties imposed by Government on goods passing 
f into or out of a country. -.■S'\.--^'iC^J/^:M'A:>i^:---^n-' 
A form of government where the chief power is 
in the hands of the people, who administer it 
either directly by an assemblage of the popu- 
lace or indirectly by means of representative 
bodies: rule by the people. ^^.:V\.:.' :. ^'■- ':..■:■ -■■^ :.' C 
The dethroning of a king or other sovereign ; put- ^' 
I ting a sovereign off the throne. • ?r't :5' 

In ancient Rome, men chosen in times of special 

' danger to the State and invested with supreme 

^ authority. The first dictator was appointed in • 

■■ 501 B.C. '->■-•■ V--- v?o' / :-^ ,.,,r.;:f^'-;vv.v;;: .,: , 

To dismiss the members of Parliament and call' 
for a new election. 

The sovereigns of a country that belong to one 
family or are descended from a common parent. 

Deciding by vote which candidate shall be the 
member to represent a district in a legislature. 

A tleiieral Klectlon is one in which each constitu- 
ency under the jurisdiction of a legislature 
selects a repre9?ntative. 

A By-Electlou is one in which a single constituency 
selects a representative on account of the 
seat having been rendered vacant by death, 
resignation or other cause. 



E 



Fa 



ate 



rei 



OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



53 



■y 






EnibnMHy. l*ersons intrusted with messages between govern- 
ments ; the mission of an ambassador ; the 
official residence of an ambassador. 

Excise. A tax levied by Government on articles of home 

manufacture. 

Executive. That part of government which actually transacts 

its business. The Executive in Canada is chosen 

G'p-i by the Governor-General, through the Premier, 

from the party having a majority in the House 

: ■■ of Commons and thus are responsible to the 

people. ':'^^: ^:. ''"■:■-':-■■,:.--'■•■:'' '-''rf'^ :->:'■:- M 

ExtnuUtloii. The sending back to their own country of crimi- 
nals who have run away to escape justice (See 
^ Ashburton Treaty, 1842). ^ -^^:^^^-^^* ■ 

A Parliament such as that of the Dominion, which 
represents a number of provinces, each one of 
which, however, retains the management of its 
own local affiiirs. ''■■• - '^' 

Feileral A form of government such as that of the United 

Kepiibllc. States, consisting of States which, while ac- 

knowledging this union under and subjection 
to a central Government, yet retain for them- 
selves certain rights of local self-government. 
Federals in the American civil war were those 

who maintained the Union. 
€4»»fe<lerntes were those who desired to secede. 

EeiiluiiN. Members of a secret revolutionary society com- 

posed mainly of Irishmen and American sym- 
pathizers whose object was the establishment of 
an Irish Republic. In 1866 they made several 
raids into Canada, but were repulsed and their 
schemes frustrated. 



federal 
Pari lament 



■'r;VS; 



il 



51 



STUDKNTS'^ REFERENCE BOOK 



FlHcal Policy. The plan a political party takes, or would take If 
elected, to supply itself with a sufficient revenue 
for the maintainance of Government. 

Fortlfleutl4»ir. A place strengthened fur attack by earthworks, 
walls or otherwise. 

The right of voting for a member of Parliament. 

Allowing articles of trade to be imported free of 
duty. 

The study of the progress of men and nations in 
the past and of events connected therewith. 

Under the feudal system, acknowledgement of 
overlordship by a man on receiving land as a 
vassal : ackiiowledging one as a superior, lord 
or king. 

rmnifKmfloii. The coming of settlers into a country. 

Impeacliment, Trying a public officer before the peers as a judi- 
cial body for misgovernment or other public 
crime. 

liiHurrectloiu Open and warlike opposition to the authority of 
Government ; rebellion. 
liMHrgciiti^ are those who take part in an insurrec- 



li'ntiiclilM'. 
Free Trade. 

History. 
Homage. 



lion ; rebels. 



lutrlgae. 



luv anion. 



Jingoism. 



JiuSlelary. 



Plotting against established government or au- 
thority. 

Attacking or marching into a country with armed 
forces in a hostile mannei. 

Writing or s[)eaking in a boastful and insulting 
manner of going to war with another nation ; 
inciting to hostility. 

The courts and officials invested with the power 
to administer justice in a nation ; the whole 
body of judges. 






f-m. 



% 



OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



55 



^f 



of 



liCglMlator. 
LeglHlatiire. 



LestNlntlve 
Union. 

JMagliifrnlc. 



mayor. 
Ministry. 



Monnrrliy. 



One experienced in the study and practice of law. 

One who makes or helps lo make laws. 

Any body of men in a nation invested with the 
power of making and repealing laws. 

A union of two or more states under one govern- 
ment, there being no local legislatures. 

A justice of the peace ; one who dispenses justice 
in the local police courts ; one intrusted with 
some branch of executive governmenc. 

The chairman or presiding officer of the council 
in a town or city. 

(See Cabinet and Executive). 

A t'oftlliion MinlHtry is one composed of mem- 
bers drawn from more than one of the 
political parties in the Legislature. 

A nation in which the supreme power is vested in 
one person, who generally holds the office he- 
reditarily. 

A llhittcd nionnrcliy is one in which the power is 
shared by a body of advisers, Council, or Par- 
liament. 

The following are the greatest limited monar- 
chies of the present time : British Empire, 
Austria-Hungary, Germany, Greece, Italy, 
Belgium, Denmark, Japan, Portugal, Spain, 
Sweden and Norway. 
An nliMoInte nionnrchy is one in which the sove- 
reign has absolute legislative and administra- 
tive power. 

The following are the chief absolute monarchies 
of the present time : China, Morocco, Per- 
sia, Russia, Siam and Turkey. 



(| 






1 '*' 






56 



STUDENTS REFERENCE BOOK 




t^ 



Monopoly. An exclusive right given to a person or company 
to trade in a certain commodity or in a certain 
district. 

Mmihrlpnlity. A township, village, town, county or city, having 
a council for the control of its own local affairs. 

Mnttiiy. A rising of soldiers or sailors against their su- 

perior officers or against the State. 

Nftvy. The ships of war belonging to a nation. 

Ncgoiilatlon. Holding intercourse between the governments of 
different nations respecting any matter of inter- 
national concern. 

Government by a few. A form of government in 
, which a small, exclusive class hold supreme 
power. 

The party in a legislative body which opposes the 
Administrati(m for the time being. 

A regulation made by the Sovereign through the 
executive without passing through the houses of 
Parliament in regular coursse as a statute. Or- 
ders-in-Council are required to be afterwards 
ratified by Parliament. 

Pairly fiSoveriinient. The selecting of the members of the execu- 
tive from the political party having a majority 
in the Legislature. 

In ancient Rome a free-born citizen, a land owner. 
One who belongs to an aristocratic family. 

One who loves his country. The name is applied 
in contempt to those who took part in the 
Rebellion of ] 837-38. 

The rank or dignity of a nobleman (duke, mar- 
quis, earl, viscount or baron) ; tlie body of 
peers in a nation. 



Olligarcliy. 



Oppoi^lflofli. 



Order-lii- 
C^nucll. 



Pntrlciaiii. 



Patriot. 



Peerage. 



OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



57 



Plntforin 
or Policy 

Plebiscite. 



Piracy. The crime of attacking and robbing a ship on the 

high seas. Those who engage in piracy are 
called pirates or corsairs. 

A statement of the views and plans of a party in 
connection with the principal questions of the 
day. 

A vote of the whole body of electors on some 
disputed question of legislation. An ai)peal to 
universal suffrage, 

Pleiilpoteiitlnry. An ambassador or envoy at a foreign court, 
having power to transact business t>r carry on 
negotiation on behalf of the country he is sent 
from. 

A statement by a political party of its views and 
intended legislation in connection with the prin- 
cipal questions of the day. 

The science of government. It sometimes is used 
in the sense of partyism and to refer to the 
platforms and contests of political parties. 

Soraething done or said that may serve as a rule 
for action in similar cases which may occur 
afterwards ; a decision given which may serve 
as a rule for the giving of later decisions on 
similar questions. 

Premier or The person to whom the Sovereign or Governor- 
Prime Minister. General intrusts the formation of a Cabinet 

and the leadership and management of the 

Government. 

The highest officer in a republic, holding office by 
being elected for a term of years. 

A president is said to be Imingnruted when he is 
solemnly inducted into office and assumes his 
official obligations. 



Policy. 



Politico. 



Precedent. 



President. 



■■:» 



i i 



•} 



W 



58 



STUDENTS REFERENCE BOOK 



l*rivy€«iiiieil. The advisers of the Sovereign, a numerous body ; 
the Cabinet is really a committee of the Privy 
Council ; the Cabinet Ministers are chosen from 
Parliament and become Privy Councillors on 
being so chosen. 

Prolilbltloii. Stopping the public traffic in intoxicating liquors. 

Prorogue. To close Parliament at the end of a session. It 
is done by a sovereign or a representative 
of the sovereign. All unfinished business is 
dropped and at tl e succeeding session must be 
begun as if nothing had been done. 

Protecttoii. The plan of imposing high duties on certain manu- 
factured articles of import in order to further 
the interests of home manufacture of those 
articles. 

ttuornni. The number of members of an association, a com- 

pany or a legislative body required by its con- 
stitution to be present before business can be 
transacted. 

Ratlflcntloii. The approving or sanctioning of a measure by one 
in authority or by a body of men in authority. 

Rebellion. Open opposition or resistance to the authority of 
government. 

Reciprocity. Free trade on the part of two or more nations 
trading one with the other, the commercial 
rights and privileges of both being equal. 

Reeve. The chairman or presiding officer of the municipal 

council of a village or township. 
Reforui Party. One of the political parties in Canada at present 

in p«)wer under the leadership of Hon. Wilfrid 

Laurier. 

RcKlnie. Form of government ; the administration of a 

certain leader or party. 



OF HISTOKY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



69 



Responsible 
Government 

BevolHtlon. 



Oepubllc. A commonwealth or political state in which the 
government is in the hands of an elected body 
or of the people collectively. The United 
States is a Federal Republic (q.v.). 
Tne following are tbe principal republics of the present time : 
United States, France, Brazil, Argentine Republic, Bolivia, 
Chili, Colombia, Equador, Mexico, Orange Free State, Para- 
guay, Peru, Switzerland. Uruguay, Venezuela and the 
greater Republic of Central America (recently formed by 
union of three smaller republics). 

RepreNentntlve A government elected by the people, each mem- 

Ciovernuient. ber representing a certain district or a certain 

number of the population. 

A government drawn from the majority of the 

Commons and thus responsible to the elec- 
tors. 

A sudden change in the government or in the 
constitution of a country, as that of 1688 in 
England, that of 1789 in France or that of 1776 

• in America. 
^•Jiool Boiml. A body of men elected by the people of each 
school section to transact busniess in connec- 
tion with the maintenance of the schools. 
A disorderly rising in a country tending towards 
treason or rebellion. 

Placing an army in position against a fortified 
place in order to attack or reduce it. 

In Canada the Upper House of the Dominion 
Parliament, the members of which are ap- 
pointed by the Crown for life. 

A sitting of parliament. 

A sum of money granted by Parliament generally 
for some purpose of public utility ; a sum paid 
by one government to another to meet war 
expenses. 

A vote, or giving one's voice in deciding a ques- 
tion or choosing a representative. 



Sedition. 



Slese. 



Senate. 



Session. 
Subsidy. 



SnflVage. 




60 



STUDENTS KEPERENCE BOOK 



Sovereljen* Moiiart'U or Kniperor. The chief ruler in a monarchy. 
The office is generally hereditary, but in Great 
Britain the succession to the throne is under 
control of Parlianient. 
In Great Britain the following are the clilcf pre- 
roKutiveM of the HovcrcilKii i 

1. To declare war. 

2. To pardon those who break the laws. 

3. To confer titles of nobility. 

4. To veto a bill and thus prevent its becoming 
law. 

6. To convene, prorogue and dissolve Parlia- 
ment. 

Syiidlcnte. A company or body of men formed to prosecute 
some particular enterprise or financial scheme, 

Tarlir. A list of articles of counnerce with the duties 

imposed on each when passing into or out of a 
country. 

A Keveime Tariff is a list of charges imposed only 
for the purpose of supplying money to defray 
the expenses of government. 

A Protective Tariff is one which is intended to 
further home manufacture of certain articles 
by imposing high duties on such articles when 
being imported from other countries. 

Tlieoeracy. A government under the direct control of God, as 
that of the ancient Israelites was. 

Treason. The crime of plotting against or betraying a gov- 

ernment or a sovereign. 
A traitor is one who is false to his country or is 
guilty of treason. 

Treaty. A formal agreement or contract between govern- 

ments or sovereigns. 



#■■ -*' 



Tyniiiiiy. 
Veto. 



Warden. 



OF HtSTOKY AND GEOGKAPHY. 



61 



A temporary peace sometimes agreed to } iween 
hostile nations in time of war. 

Oppressive government ; encroachment on the 
rights of the i)eople. 

To refuse assent to and thus forbid from becom- 
ing law. 

The Sovereign of Great Baitain, the Governor- 
General of Canada and the President of the 
United States have in their respective countries 
the power to veto the Acts of the Legislatures, 
but it is seldom if ever exercised. 

•The chairman or presiding officer of a County 
Council. 




Il 



1 ', 

j '" 










t 


_; 


...- 


■, 






}: 


] ~ 


I '' 




- 


i 


t 


•|; 


i 


i 


1 


L 


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62 



STUDENTS IIKFEUENCE BOOK 



SECTION VI. 



Cieognipliy. A description of the earth, its land and water surface, 
the atmosphere by which it is surrounded, its size 
and place as one of the heavenly bodies, its motions 
and their results, the races that inhabit it and the 
divisi(m of its surface by those races into distinct 
countries, provinces, cities, etc., and of the various 
plants and animals that are found on its surface. 

Matli<*nintlnil <;coskiii>iiy describes the form, size and 
motions of the earth and its relation to the other 
heavenly bodies. 

riiyglcnl (ieogriipliy describes the natural divisions of 
the earth's surface and the varying atmospheric 
conditicms which cause diflference )f climate in dif- 
ferent parts, 

Polltlnil Ueogrnpliy treats of the earth's surface as 
divided by man into countries, etc., the government 
of these divisions and their relations to one another. 

The A large, dark body, shaped somewhat like an orange, 

iliirtli. kept suspended in space and moving in an elliptical 

path around the sun by the attraction of the sun 

and planets. 

1. Its form is said, technically, to be that of 

an oblate spheroid — %.€., a sphere slightly 
flattened at two opposite points (the 
poles) on its surface. 

2. Its dinnieier from pole to pole is 7,899 miles. 

The equatorial diameter is 7,925 miles. 






mm 



■*■ 



OP HISTORY AND OKOORAPHY. 



63 



The Land. 



3. Its flrciinirereiir(> is 24,85tj ti.iles. 

4. Its tireii JH abouh 197,000,000 fi((uaro niileH. 

6. Its volniiie or Holid Cfnitents ia about 200,000,- 
000,000 cubic miles. 

6. Of its Niirrnco only about one-fourth is land, 

the remaining three-fourths water. 

7. The Earth has two motloiiHi 

1st. A (billy rotation on its own axis, 
resulting in the succession of day 
and night. 

2nd. A yearly revolution around the sun, 
which with the inclination of its axis 
results in the changes of the seasons. 

8. The AxIh of the earth, an imaginary line join- 

ing the i)oles, is inclined at an angle of 
23| degrees from a line perpendicular to 
the plane of the earth's orbit ; this in- 
clination, with the motions of the earth, 
causes the differences in the length of 
day and night and also the changes of the 
seasons. 

9. The Poles are the opposite ends of the earth's 

axis. 

10. 'rhe Uqnntor, an imaginary line passing around 

the earth at equal distances from the 
poles, divides the earth into northern 
and southern HeiiilnpltercM or half globes. 

11. The continents, Asia, Africa and Europe, are 

termed the Enslern Hemisphere or Old 
World, and North and South America 
the Western Heuitspliere or New World. 
The Surftiee of the Globe is divided into tive con- 
tinents, having approximately the followmg 
areas : 



FM 



C4 



students' reference book 



North America 


8,330,000 sq. 


miles. 


South America . . 


7,500,000 " 


^^ 


Asic\ , . ^ k , ■ . , 


17,000,000 " 


a 


Africa .. ., ». 


11,500,000 " 


n 


Europe . . .^ . . 


3,800,000 '' 


(< 



f)»pe. A point of land jutting out into the water. • 
'-.:A- ;* A promontory or headland is an elevated rocky cape. 
(Continent. The largest division of land. . -. 

8liorr ***" ^^^^ lyii».i? along a body of water. 

Bcltn. An island, often three-cornered, between two mouths 
of a river, having been formed by earth and sand 
carried down by the river. 

iHlniiil. A portion of land entirely surrounded by water. 

The following are f^ome of the largest Islands, with 
their areas : 

Australia 2,950,000 sq. miles. 

New Guinea 306,000 

Borneo 240,000 

Madagascar 220,000 

New Zealand, South Island, 55,000 
' New Zoalaiid, North Island, 
England .. 50,820 sq. miles 
29,820 " 
7,300 '' 



45,000 



It 



(i 

n 
i i 



Scotland 
Wales 






88,000 
43,200 
32,531 
20,000 



n 



a 
a 
n 



vy u oa .. .. .. .. .. 

Ireland 

Ceylon 

Moiiii(n!u. A huge mass of earth and rock rising over 1,000 feet 
above the common level of the land. 

1 . A Mountain Kiii.tge is a series of mountains in 
a line. 



mummmmmummii.jKmBammmm^mitvmsfTsrs 



wmmixmrnmimiitjaliiiti 



* 



IS 

d 



,h 



8. 



et 



m 



PInln. 



OF HISTORY AND UECKIKAPHY. 



2. A fl«u„t«in ^yntem is a number of mnges neur 

to one another and separated only by 
elevated valleys or defiles. 

3. A lllli is t,ne elev.-i,ted mass of earth (and sonie- 

tiuies rock) less than 1,000 feet above the 
common level of the land. 

4. A V«i«.a,i« is a mountain or hill which sends 

out from an opening, ^t or near the top, 
smoke, ashes, cinders and lava. 
J. An extinct volcano is one which has at some 
time been active, but has now ceased 
to emit smoke, etc. 
2. The crater of a volcano is the opening fnmi 
which the smoke, etc., arc forced out. 
r>. A IMiitenii or TnUIe-IaiHl is a broad area of 
land much elevated above the surround- 
ing country. 
(>. A Moiiiitalii PnHH is a narrow road or defile be- 
tween mountains. 

7. A %«liey, i>Mle or 4,;ieii is a depression between 

hills or mountains. 

8. A 4'Hitoii (pr. can'yon), is a long, narrow gorge 

or ravine between mountains. They are 
found chiefly in the Rockies and other 
UK.untains in Western North America. 

9. In Asia the highest n)oi».:itain is Mt. Everest, 

29,000 ft..; in South America, Mt. Acon- 
cagua, 22,800 ft.,: in North America, Mt. 
St. Elfas, 19,30C ft., and in Europe, Mt, 
Blanc, 15,700. 

A large tract of level land with.>ut any great eleva- 
tions or depressions, 
1. Prairie. A large tract of level, frrtile land, having 
few, if any, trees, but covered with tali, coar.se 




^ M" 



! i i # '^ 




66 



students' reference book 



grass and flowering plants (term used chiefly in 
the western parts of North America.) 

2. Sjivaiiiiali. An open, grassy plain or meadow, (term 

used chiefly in tropical America.) 

3. PampiiH. Wide grassy plains (Term used chiefly in 

the south of South America.) 

4. Llanos. Vast grassy plains. (Term used chiefly in 

the north of South America.) 

5. Laiides. Heath covered or sandy plains. (Term used 

in France and other parts of Western Eur()})e.) 

6. steppes. Low lying, wide stretching plains. (Term 

used in Russia and Siberia). 

7. Selvas. Forest covered plains. (Used chiefly of the 

basin of the Amazon. ) 

8. Wesert. A dry, barren, sand-covered plain. 

An Oasis is a watered, fertile spot in a desert. 
The greatest deserts are Sahara in Africa, Gobi in 
Central Asia, and the Arabian Desert." 

9. Mrtor. A tract of waste land covered with heath. 

TUe Waiters of the lilobe occupy about three-fourths of 
its entire surface. Of this very much the greater 
part lies south of the equitor. The following are 
the largest bodies, with their approximate areas : 



Arctic Ocean 
Antarctic Ocean 
Pacific Ocean 
Atlantic Ocean 
Indian Ocean 
Mediterranean Sea 
Hudson Bay 



4— " 



Lake Superior 
0<r«aii. The largest division of salt water 



20,000,000 sq. miles. 

25,000,000 " " 

50,000,000 " " 

25,000,000 '' " 

25,(K)0,000 " " 

950,000 " '' 

600,000 " 

32,(K>0 '' 



(( 



m^ 



OP HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY, 



67 



©cpiiu Currents. Movements of large bodies of water 
m tlie ocean, caused mainly by the evaporation in 

; tropical regions exceeding that in other parts of 
the ocean, and the speed of rotation in those 
regions also being greater than in the temperate 
and frigid zcnies. Cold currents from the north 
and south flow towards the equator, to take the 
place of that which is evaporated, but are deflected 
by the more rapid rotation in the regions to which 
they flow, and are also much modified by the con- 
formation of the land they encounter in their 
courses. 

"Thles. Risings o." the water in the ocean caused by 
the attraction. They occur regularly, there always 
being a tide wave on that side of the earth which 
in its diurnal rotation is turned toward the moon, 
and another on the side of the earth directly oppo- 
site to that. 

Fiooil tide. The rising or flowing up of the water. 

Kbb tide. The falling or flowing out of the water. 

Spring tide. High tidos at new and full moon, the 
attraction of sun and moon acting in a line. 

M«ni ide. Low tides at the moon's first and third 
q irters, the attraction of sun and moon act- 
ting at right angles. 

Waves. More or less violent movements of the sur- 
face waters of oceans and other bodies of water 
caused by winds or by swift flowing currents. 

Arclilpclago. A sea contai. Mig a great many islands. 

Hay or «nir. A body of water partly enclosed by land. 

Caual. An artifieial watercourse for commercial or irrigation 
purposes. 



f 



\ 



i 



- 4 -t- 

I ■ 
ri - 



,68 students' bbfebence book 

Channel. A body of water wider than a strait connecting larger 
bodies. 

Lake. A body of water entirely surrounded by land. The 
following are the largest lakes of the world with 
their greatest length and breadth, and height com- 
pare! with the sea level : 

Length. Breadth. Height. 

Superior 355 miles 160 miles 000 ft. above S.L. 

Michigan 320 *' 80 *' 578 

Huron 280 " 190 " 678 

Victoria 

Nyanza..230 '* 220 *' 4,000 

Albert Nyanza 97 " 22 ♦* 4,000 '' 

Bli^ckSea....700 " 400 '* Sea level. 

Caapian Sea . .740 ** 430 '* 84 ft. below S.L 

Tanganika. ... 500 " 50 " 2,600 ft. above S.L. 

Nyassa 350 ** 38 *' 2,600 

Aral Sea 265 " 145 " 300 ft. below S.L. 

Dead Sea 46 '• 9 *' 1,308 

River. A large stream of water flowing through the land. 

1. C'reeky rlvnlet, brook, brooklet and rlU are names of 

smaller streams. 

2. The source of a river is where it begins to flow. 

3. The MMMitli of a river is where it discharges or 

empties itself into another body of water, 

4. A rlver-basln is the land which is drained by a river 

and its tributaries. 

5. A tributary* tributary river or affluent is a stream 

which flows into a larger river, 

6. A river-bed is the channel which a river has formed 

for itself in the surface of the earth. 

7. A confluence is a place where two or more rivers 

flow together. 




OP HISTOKY AND OEOGKAPHY. 



Q'^ 



8. The rlglit bnuk of a river is on one's right going 

down stream. 

9. The left bauk of a river is on one's left going down 

stream. 

10. A rnpia is a place where the water descends a slopft 

and consequently moves at a speed greater than 
the usual rate of the river. 

11. A c»tanict» ciLscjule or yraterriill is a place where a 

river falls over a cliff or precipice. 

12. An estuarj is the wide mouth of a river in which 

the tide ebbs and flows. 

13. A doiia is an island formed in the mouth of a river 

by alluvial deposits of sand or earth. 

Atmosphere, or air, is the gaseous envelope which covers 
and encloses the earth. It is composed mainly 



of a mixture of the two gases, o 



■^j» 



en 



and 

nitrogen (pure air has 21 parts O. to 79 N. by 
weight) ; but exhalations from decomposing mat- 
ter, the waste gases of factories and the breaths of 
animals combine to maintain an amount (really 
very large, but small in comparison with the whole 
volume) of carbonic acid and other gases. 
The atmosphere is usually supposed to extend to 
a height of about 50 miles above the surface of the 
earth. 
Motions. Heat and other modifying causes so affect 
the atmosphere that it is never at rest. Masses 
of air particles in motion are termed winds ; or if 
the speed of these currents is excessive, gales or 
storms. The speed of storms is sometimes as high 
as 150 miles an hour. 

Trade Wln«l». Constant winds blowing within the tropics : 
on the north from the N.E. towards the 
equator, and on the south from the S.E. towards 



70 



•STUDENTS KETERENCE BOOK 



the equator. They are caused by the intense heafc 
and consequent area of low pressure over the 
equator, and the inflowing currents from the north 
and south are deflected towards the S. W. and N. W. 
respectively by the rapid rotation of the equatorial 
regions. They are so named because their steadi- 
ness makes them of advantaj^e to commerce. 

Lniid Winds which occur in the coast regions of tropical 
aud Seal countries in the evening and forenoon respec- 

Breezeti. tively, i.e.: A breeze from land to sea in the 

evening and a breeze from sea to land in the 
morning. Causes — The land in the day I ime ab- 
sorbs the sun's heat m(jre rapidly than the sea, 
and there is» consequently, over it an area of low 
pressure toward which the cooler air from the sea 
flows. The land in the night radiates its accum- 
ulated heat more rapidly than the sea, and conse- 
quently over it there is an area of high j)ressui*e 
from which air flows towards the sea. 

Dlo]i.soonf4 Periodical winds occurring chiefly in the Indian Ocean 

or Season and the southern part of Asia. Causes — During 

WliMiA. summer in the N. Hemisphere the plateau of 

f South and Central Asia are areas of warm air and 

consequent low pressure towards which winds 

blow from the cooler ocean. During summer in 

the 8. Hemisphere the case is reversed, the ocean 

■ " • being an area of warm air and low pressure while 

the land is cold arid the air currei»ts set towards 

the south. Violent storms usually accompany the 

changes of the monsoons in April and October. 

HnrmaUaii. A hot, dry wind which blows perir>dically 
across Northern Africa towards the Atlantic ocean. 



OP HISTOKY AND GEOGRAPHY. yj 

"'"';'"• t, •':"; '''^""'^■•'y '''»<' Wowing towards Egypt 
usually lasts about fifty days) 

*'""lfrica '";\'""' "'"' """"'« '" Northern 
Afnca and Arah.a, often bearing choking clouds 

of dcert sand and du8t which prove fatal to the 

caravans. 

8I..«..« «r s«,a„„. A wind blowing towards the Medi- 
terranean from Northern Africa. 

Other local winds are the Texas northers, the 
Argentine pamperos and the Peruvian punas. 
U««... Bodies of aqueous vapor floating in visible forn. in the 
air. If the vapor floats low over the land or ocean 
It IS termed mist or fog 
«'lrr«, i, a form of light senn'-transparent, fleecy cloud, 
generally floating high in the air 

""'""'"' '» " f"™ "f «l»»cl composed of dense, bulky 
masses. > " •^j' 

«tr,u„. is a form of cloud elongated horizontally and 

generally seen near the horizon 
The falling of water drops caused by cloud particles 
condensing, uniting and becoming too heavy to be 
supported by the air. 
Six-sided water crystals formed in the air when below 
the freezing point, and falling to the earth in 
flakes of varying degrees of hardness. 
Minute water particles deposited on cold substances 
from the nmisture in the air in contact with them. 
The Ile«v.„,y Rortle- consist of fixed stars or suns 
planets satellites or moons, comets and meteor.s 
or aerolites. 

They are divided into two classes : 
l8t. LumlnouM b«rtle.-Those which shine by their 
own light ; 



Rafii. 



Snow, 



Dew 



^7i. 



72 



STUDENTS REFERENCE BOOK 



Fixed 

8tnrH. 



2nd. Keflectlns bodies -Those which shine only by 
reflecting light from a luminous body. 

Bodies like our sun, but many of them larger and 
brighter, shining with their own light and perhaps 
attended by planetary bodies forming other solar 
systems like our own, but unseen by us owing to 
the inconceivable distance at which they lie. The 
stars are divided according to their appearance 
into stars of the first, second, third, etc., magni- 
tudes and according to the position they occupy 
into star groups, clusters or constellations. The 
largest and brightest of the fixed stars is Sirius, in 
the constellation Canis Major. 

The iiuii. A vast globe of hot, luminous matter, supplying light 
and heat to the earth and other planets. Its di- 
ameter is 883,000 miles and its distance from the 
earth about 96,000,000 miles. The sun seems to 
be stationary with regard to inferior bodies, but 
is supposed with the fixed stars (of which it is one) 
to be performing a revolution inconceivably great 
in magnitude and in duration around some un- 
known but mighty centre. 
The Solar HyMteiii consists of the sun as a centre, with 
the planets, comets and satellites which move 
around it. 

Plaiieli. Dark bodies which move in elliptical orbits around the 

sun and reflect its light. 

The following are the principal planets, with their 

diameters and their mean distance from the sun : 

Diam. Dis. from Sun. 

Jupiter ... ..... 84,846 475,692,000 

Satani 70,136 872,137,000 

Neptune 34:,276 2,745,998,000 



OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



73 



'''"""* 33,247 1,753,809,000 

***'••'' 7,925 95,000,000 

^«''"'* 7,510 60,134,000 

^'^^^ry 3,058 35,392,000 

BateluteH, or Moons (sometitnea called secondary planets). Dark 
bodies which move around planets and give them 
light by reflecting' the light of the sun. They are 
less in size than the primary planets around which 
they move. 

The Moon, the satellite which attends the earth, is a 
globe 2,153 miles in diameter and situated at a 
mean distance t)f 237,600 miles from the earth. 
Tt accomplishes a revolution around the earth in 
27 days, 7 hours, 45 min., but as the earth is at 
the same time moving on its orbit, we have new 
moon only once in 29 days, 12 hours, 41 min. 

ConietH. Luminous bodies, consisting of a more or less well 
defined nucleus and a long, hazy and less luminous 
tail. The diameter of the nucleus is generally 
small, seldom exceeding 3,000 miles, but the 
le-igth of the tail is often very great, reaching in 
some cases the amazing length of 150,000,000 
miles. Their orbits are generally very eccentric • 
some move whr)lly within the bounds of the solar 
system, while others visit it only at intervals of 
many years, their orbits being greatly elongated 
ellipses, of which the greater part lies away in the 
depths of unmeasured space, far beyond the orbit 
of our sun's most distant planet. 

Meteors, or ^rolites (commonly though wrongly called shouting 
stars). Luminous bodies seen in the higher re° 
gions of the atmosphere, generally between 50 
and 75 miles above the surface of the earth. 



74 



STUDENTS* REPEKENC'E BOOK 



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Their origin has not yet been satisfactorily ex- 
plained, but they are supposed t*) be small bodies 
moving in the system, which coming within the 
sphere of the earth's attraction are drawn towards 
it, and on entering our atmosphere, ignite, be- 
come luminous, and are destroyed by combustion. 
Masses of a peculiar stone (jr metallic substance 
which have fallen in various countries are sup- 
posed to have their origin in these meteors. 
Nebula;. Vast masses of faintly shining vapor or cloudy matter 
which have been found in the heavens. 

The Nebular Theory supposes that the bodies 
now composing the solar sysf i once formed a 
nebula, and that this nebula, gradually cooling, 
threw off great masses from the central nucleus, 
which, cooling faster than the nucleus, have 
formed the planets, while the sun, originally the 
nucleus of the nebula, yet remains in a fiery 
state. 




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