Skip to main content

Full text of "History of education [microform]"

See other formats



^ A 






^1^ 1^ 

£ IS 12.0 

























Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historicai Microreproductions / Institut Canadian de microreproductions historiques 


\, ~ Bt.^,A\)^ 

-i> . 

Ttchnical and Bibliographic Notaa/Notaa tachniquaa at bibliographiquas 

Tht^ inatltuta has attamptad to obtain tha baat 
original copy avallabia for filming. Faatvaa of thia 
copy whioh ntay b« MbHograpMeaNy unlqua, 
which may altar any of tha imagaa In tha 
raproduetlon, or which may Mgnlflcantly changa 
tha usual mathod of filming, era chaclcad balow. 







Colourad covers/ 
Couvartura da coMlaur' 

Covars damagad/ 
Couvartura andommagAa 

Covars rastorad and/or laminatad/ 
Couvartura rastaurAa at/ou pailiculAa 

Covar titia missing/ 

La titra d« couvsrtura mannua 

Colourad maps/ 

Cartas gtegraphiquas an couicur 

Colourad ink (i.a. cthar than blua or biack)/ 
Encra da coulaur (i.a. autra qua blaua ou noira) 

Colourad piatas and/or illustrations/ 
Planchas at/ou illustrations an coulaur 

Bound with othar matarial/ 
RalM avac d'autras documents 

Tight binding may causa shadows or distortion 
aio'ig intarior margin/ 

La raliura sarrAa paut causar da I'ombra ou da la 
distortion la long da la marga intAriaura 

Blank laavas addad during rastoration may 
appaar within tha taxt. Whanavar possibia, thasa 
hava baan omittad from filming/ 
II sa paut qua cartainas pagas blanchas ajoutias 
lors d'una rastauration apparaissant dans \m taxta. 
mais, lorsqua cala Atait possibia, cas pagas n'ont 
pas k%h filmAas. 

Additional commants:/ 
Commantairas supplAmantairas? 

L'Institut a microfilm* la malllaur axamplaira 
qu'll lul a AtA poaalMa da aa proourar. Laa dAtaiia 
da cat axamplaira qui aont paut-Atra uniquae du 
point da vua bibllographiqua, qui pauvant modlf iar 
una Imaga raprodulta, ou qui pauvant oxigar una 
modlfteation dans la mAthoda normala da fiima^a 
sont IndiquAs ei-dassous. 



Colourad pagas/ 
Pagas da coulaur 

Pagas damagad/ 

Pagas andommagAcs ! 

i'" . . ' " 

Pagas raatorad and/or laminatad/ 
Pagas rastaurAaa at/ou palllculAas 

Pagas discoloured, sttinad or foxad/ 
Pagas dAcolorAas, tachatAas ou piquAas 

r~1 Fagat datachad/ 

Pagas dAtachAas 


Quality of prir 

QualitA InAgaia da I'lmpraaaion 

Includas suppiamantary matarii 
Comprand du matArial supplAmantaira 

Only edition available/ 
Seule Aditlon diaponible 

rri Showthrough/ 

I I Quality of print varies/ 

I I Includes supplementary material/ 

I — I Only edition available/ 


Pagaa wholly or partially obscured by erirata 
slips, tissues, etc., heve been ref limed to 
enaura tha best possibta Image/ 
Lee pagaa totalament ou partiellement 
obscurcies par un fouillel d'errata, una palura. 
etc., ont AtA filmAes A nouveau da fapon A 
obtenir la mqiliaure image possible. 

This item is filmed at the reduction ratio checked below/ 

Ce document e.:t fiimA au taux da rAduction indiquA ci-dessous 

10X 14X 18X 22X 













Th« copy film«d h«ra has baan raproducad thanks 
to tha f anarosity of: 

iMorisMt Library 
Univtraity of Ottawa 

L'axamplaira f ilmA fut raproduit grUca k la 
gAnArositA da: 

BibliothAqua Morittat 
UnivanM d'Ottawa 

Tha imagas aopaaring hara ara tha bast quality 
possibia consldaring tha condition and laglblllty 
of tha original copy and in icaaping with tha 
filming contract spacif Ications. 

Original copias in printad papar covars ara filmad 
baginning with tha front covar and anding on 
th« last paga with a printad or illustratad impras- 
sion, o." tha back covar whan appropriata. All 
othar original copias ara filmad baginning on tha 
first paga with a printad or llluatratad impras- 
sion, and anding on tha last paga with a printad 
or illustrated imprasslon. 

Las imagas sulvivntas ont At* raproduitas avac la 
plus grand soln, compta *4nu da la condition at 
da la nattatA da I'axamplMira film*, at wn 
conformity avac las con<^itlons du contrat da 

Las axamplairas originaux dont la couvartura an 
poplar art ImprimAa sont filmte sn commandant 
par la pramiar plat at an tarminant soit par la 
darnlAra paga qui comporta una amprainta 
d'imprassion ou d'illustration. soit par la sacond 
plat, Mion la cas. Tous las autrae axamplairas 
originaux sont fllmte an commanpant par la 
pramlAra paga q^ji comporta una amprainta 
d'imprassion ou d'illustration U an turminant par 
la darnlAra paga qui comporta una talla 

Tha last racordad frama on aach microflcha 
shall contain tha symbol ^^- (moaning "CON- 
TINUED"), or tha symbol ▼ (moaning "END"), 
whichavar appSias. 

Un das symbolas sulvants apparattra sur la 
darnlAra imaga da chaqua microflcha, salon la 
cas: la symbde — »> signifia "A SUIVRE". la 
symbols ▼ signifia "FIN". 

IMaps. platas, charts, ate, may ba fiSmad at 
diffarant raductlon ratios. Thosa too iarga to ba 
antiraly includad in ona axposura ara filmad 
baginning in tha uppar laft hand cornar, laft to 
right and top to bottom, as many framas as 
raqu'^ad. Tha following diagiama iilustrata tha 

Las cartas, planchas, tableaux, ate, pauvant Atra 
filmte A das taux da reduction diffArants. 
Loroqua la document est trop grand pour Atre 
reprcduit en un seul ciichA, il est filmA A partir 
da I'angle aupArieur gauche, do gauche A droite, 
et de heut en bas, an pranjnt le nombre 
d'imagas nteessalra. Les diagrammas sulvants 
illustrant la mAthode. 










■ ■*•'! . "■'■•. 

^ ^ 


T , i'i. 


^ ^ s 


;•'■ ( 


^v^i . If 



vr-".- ' «r-^'v^ 

7»nr^T,-~7T'.T^' I 


■;> • ' J 
















Entered at Stationers 






The importance of a knowledge of the history of edu- 
cation was never so fully recognized as at the present 
time. Normal schools and teachers' colleges give this 
subject a prominent place in their professional courses, 
superintendents require candidates for certificates to pass 
examination in it, and fa-niliarity with it is an essential 
part of the equipment of every well-informed teacher. 
The history of education portrays the theories and methods 
of the past, warns of error and indicates established truth, 
shows difficulties surmounted, and encourages the teacher 
of to-day by examples of heroism and consecration on the 
part of educators whose labors for their fellow-men we dis- 
cuss. To the teacher this study is a constant help in the 
schoolroom, the trials of which are mec with the added 
strength and inspiration from contact with great teachers 
of the past. 

No text-book can be said to contain the last word upon 
any subject. Least of all can such a claim be made for a 
history of education, which aims to trace the intellectual 
development of the human racf^. and to indicate the means 
and processes of that evolution. Any individuals or factors 
materially contributing thereto deserve a place in educa- 
tional history. As to which of these factors is the most 
important, that is a question of choice, upon which, doubt- 
less, many will differ with the author. Some educators, 
whose claims to consideration are unquestioned, have been 



reluctantly omitted on account of the limitations of this 


On the other hand, many teachers lack time for ex- 
haustive study of such a subject. This book is designed 
to furnish all the material that can be reasonebly de- 
manded for any state, county, or city teacher's certificate. 
It also provides sufficient subject-matter for classes in 
normal schools and colleges and for reading circles. 1 he 
material offered can be mastered in a half-year's class work, 
but, by using the references, a full year can be well employed. 
For those who desire to make a more extended study of 
particular topics, the author gives such authorities as years 
of careful research have shown to be most valuable. Every 
investigator knows the labor involved in finding suitable 
material. To spare the reader something of that labor, 
the literature is given at the beginning of each chapter. 
By following the collateral readings thus suggested, this 
book will be found suitable for the most advanced classes. 

The plan of references embraces three features: (i) lit- 
erature at the beginning of each chapter ; (2) foot refer- 
ences to special citations ; and (3) a general bibliography 
in the Appendix. In the first two, titles are sometimes 
abbreviated because of their frequent repetition. In case 
of doubt the reader should refer to the general bibliog- 
raphy, in which all the authorities cited are arranged 
alphabetically, with full titles. 

It is generally conceded that the plan of an historical 
work should be based upon the evolution of civilization. 
In common with other recent writers on educational his- 
tory, the author accepts the general plan of Karl Schmidt 
in his " Geschichte der Padagogik," the most comprehen- 
sive work on this subject that has yet appeared. But the 
specific plan, which involves the most important and vital 



characteristics of this book, is the author's own. The 
details of this specific plan embrace a study of the history 
and environment y of the internal^ social^ political^ and reli- 
gious conditions of the people, without which there can be 
no accurate conception of their education. 

Our civilization had its inception in that of ancient 
Egypt, and thence its logical development must be traced. 
If desirable the teacher can omit the chapters on China, 
India, Persia, and Israel. It will be found, however, that 
the lessons taught by these countries, though negative in 
character, are intensely interesting to students, and most 
instructive and impressive. These countries are also ad- 
mirably illustrative of the plan employed in the book, and 
thereby prepare the way for later work. That plan is 
more fully set forth in the Introduction, a careful study of 
which is recommended to both teacher and student. 

The author wishes to acknowledge his appreciation of 
the valuable assistance in the preparation of this volume 
rendered by Dr. Elias F. Carr and Professor W. J. Morri- 
soL, both of the New Jersey Normal School. 


State Normal School, 
Trenton, N.J. 









Introditction 15 

I. Purpose of the history of education. 2. Plan of study. 3. The 
study .)f great educators. 4. Motlcrn systems of education. 5. Gen- 
eral outline. 


China 20 

I. Geography and hi.story. 2. The home. 3. The elementary 
school. 4. Higher education. 5. Degrees. 6. Examinations. 
7. Criticism of Chinese education. 8. Confucius. 


India 29 

I. Geography and history. 2. The caste system. 3. The home. 
4. The elementary school. 5. Higher education. 6. Criticism of 
Hindu education. 7. Buddha. 


Persia . . , 36 

I. Geography and history. 2. The home. 3. The State educa- 
tion. 4. Criticism of Persian education. 5. Zoroaster. 


The Jews 40 

I. Geography and history. 2. The home. 3. The Jewish school. 
4. Esteem for the teachers. 5. The Schools of the Rabbis. 6. Criti- 
cism of Jewish education. 7. The Talmud. 





Egypt 46 

I. Geography nnd history. 2. The caste system. 3. The home. 
4. Kducalion. 5. Criticism of Egyptian education. 6. General 
summary of oriental education. 



I. Geography and history. 2. Manners and customs. 3. The 
Olympian games. 



I. Historical. 2. The difference in spirit between Athens and 
Sparta. 3. Ihe home. 4. Education. 5. Criticism of Athenian 


Athenian Educators 

I. Socrates, — life, method, death. 2. Plato, — life, his " Repub- 
lic," scheme and aim of education. 3. Aristotle, — life, pedagogy, 
estimate of him. 



I. Historical. 2. The home. 3. Education. 4. Criticism of 
Spartan education. 5. Lycurgus. 6. Pythagoras. 


Rome ............. 

I. The Age of Augustus. 2. Geography and history. 3. The 
home. 4. Education, — elementary, secondary, higher. 5. Criti- 
cism of Roman education. 







Roman Educators 

I. Cicero, — life, philosophy, pedagogy. 2. Seneca, — the teacher 
of Nero, great orator, writer, etc., pedagogical writings. 3. Quin- 
tilian, — his school, his " Institutes of Oratory," pedagogical prin- 





Christian EnurATiON -Tntroduchon . . . . . .89 

I. Geni'.il view. 2. New principles introduced by Christianity. 
3. Importance of the individual. 4. Obstacles which the early 
Christians had to meet. 5. Slow growth of Christian education. 


The Great Teacher 

I. Life and character. 2. Impression which Christ made. 3. His 
work as a teacher. 4. An example of pedagogical practice. 



General View of the First Period of Christian Education ioi 

I. The period covered. 2. The connection of the Church with 
education. 3. The monasteries. 4. Influence of the crusades. 

5. Of the Teutonic peoples. 


The First Christian Schools 104 

I. The catechumen schools. 2. Chrysostom. 3. Basil the 
Great. 4. The catechetical schools. 5. Clement of Alexandria. 

6. Origen. 


Conflict between Pagan and Christian Education . . .in 
I. General discussion. 2. TertuUian. 3. Saint Augustine. 
4. Augustine's pedagogy. 


Monastic Education 116 

I. Monasteries. 2. The Benedictines. 3. The seven liberal arts. 
4. Summary of benefits conferred by the monasteries. 


Scholasticism 121 

I. Its character. 2. Its influence. 3. Summary of its benefits. 





Charlemagne 125 

I. History, character, and purpose. *», Personal education. 
3. General educational plans. 4. Summary of Charlemagne's 


Alfred the Great ....... 

I. History and character. 2. F lucational work. 



Feudal Education 132 

I. Charfcter of the knights. 2. Three periods mto whi.h their 
education was divided. 3. Education of women. 4. Criticism of 
feudal education. 


The Crusadf.s as an Educ.\tional Muvkmknt . . . .136 

I. Causes of the crusiidos. 2. The most important crusades. 
3. Summary of tht-ir educational value. 


The Rise of the Universities 139 

I. What led to their establishment. 2. The most important 
early universities. 3. Their privileges. 4. Their influence. 


Mohammedan Education 143 

I. History of Mohammedanism. 2. The five Moslem precepts. 
3. Education. 4. What the Mohammedans accomplished for 
science. 5. General summary of education during the Middle 


The Renaissance 148 

I. The great revival. 2. Principles proclaimed. 3. The move- 
ment in Italy. 4. In Germany. 5. Summary of the benefits of the 
Renaissance to education. 

''I|''lij!l?'" W 'l"lli*!!- <fV."-'J'^(i upp«J»ii' iwi II iiifuiivji iyiiijiia^> 1 t^^^im^fmr 





Humanistic Educators 155 

1. Revival of the classics their purpose. 2. Dante. 3. Petrarch. 
4. Boccaccio. 5. Agricola. 0. Keuchlin. 7. Erasmus. 8. Peda* 
gogy of Erasmus. 


The Reformation as an Educational Influence .... 

I. Conditions at the beginning of the sixteenth century. 2. The 

invention of printing. 3. Vhe rulers of the leading countries. 

4. Intellectual conditions. 5. Luther. 6. Luther's pedagogy. 

7. Melanchthon. 



Other Protestant EDUCATt)RS 174 

I. Sturm. 7 The Cyninasiuin at Strasbnrg. 3. The celebrated 
course of study. 4. irotzendorf. 5. Neander. 


The Jesuits and their Education 182 

I. The order. 2. Loyola. 3. Growth of the society. 4. Jesuit 
education. 5. Use. of emulation. 6. Estimate of their educational 
work. 7. Summary. 8. The Port Royalists. 


Other Educators of the Sixteenth Ckntury . . . . 
I. Roger Ascham. 2. Double translating. 3. Rabelais. 4. First 
appearance of realism in instruction. 5. Montaigne. 6. Summary 
of progress during the sixteenth century. 



Education during the Seventeenth Century , , . . 
I. Political and historical conditions. 2. The educational situa- 
tion. 3. Compulsory education. 4. The Innovators. 


,J*i \* 'y. ■• '^I'iif^ -.iU. 






Educators of the Seventeenth Century 

I. Bacon. 2. The inductive method. 3. Ratke. 4. His peda- 
gogy. 5. Comenius. ^. The " Orbis Pictus." 7. Summary of his 
work. 8. Milton, 9. Locke. 10. Fenelon. 11. His pedagogy. 
12. La Salle and the brothers of the Christian schools. 13. Sum- 
mary of the educational progress of the seventeenth century. 




I, Pietism. 2. Francke. 3. The Institutions at Halle, 
training of teachers. 5. The Real-school. 

4. The 





General View of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries . 
I. The abolition of slavery. 2. The extension of political rights. 
3. Science as an instrument of civilization. 4, Religious freedom. 



Modern Educators — Rousseau 

I. Life. 2. Pedagogy. 3. The " Emile." 



Modern Educators — Basedow .... 
I. Life. 2. The Philanthropin. 3. Writmgs. 



Modern Educators — Pe talozzi 

I. Childhood. 2. "^ hooling. 3. Life purpose. 4. The Chris- 
tian ministry. 5. The lavjr. 6. Farming. 7. Marriage. 8. At 
Neuhof. 9. Authorship. 10. At Stanz. 1 1 . At Burgdorf. 12. At 
Yverdon. 13. Summary of Pestalozzi's work. 






Modern Educators — Froebel 272 

I. Life. 2. As teacher. 3. His first school. 4. The kinder- 
garten. 5. The " Education of Man." 


Modern Educators — Herbart 278 

I. Life. 2. Experience as a tutor. 3. As a university professor. 

4. His practice school in the university. 5. Writings. 6. His 

pedagogical work. 7. Work of modern Herbartians. 



Modern Educators — Horace Mann 284 

I . Life. 2. Work as a statesman. 3. As an educator. 4. His 
Seventh Annual Report. 5. Love for the common schools. 


The School System of Germany 

I. Administration. 2. School attendance. 
4. Support of schools. 5. The teachers. 

3. The schools. 




The School System of France 

I. Administration. 2. School attendance. 
4. Support of schools. 5. The teachers. 

3. The schools. 




The School System of England 

I. Administration. 2. School attendance. 
4. Support of schools. 5. The teachers. 

3. The schools. 



The School System of the United States 309 

I. No national system. 2. State systems — Administration. 
3. School attendance. 4. The schools. 5. Support of schools. 
6. The teachers. 

f I !i,W|i!»4J!Pi)M!N»«»'FWiw t^ivi^' ■^"m!^^■e^^wm^'»^'m^m'm'"fw !»w J 








The history of education l)egins with the childhood of 
the race, and traces its intellectual development step by 
step to the present time. As such history is academic in 
character, and furnishes information concerning the edu- 
cational systems, methods, theories, and practices of the 
past, it should be placed early in the professional peda- 
gogical course, to serve as the foundation for an improved 
educational science which profits by the experience of 
mankind. The history of education presents many of the 
great problems that have interested thoughtful men, shows 
how some of these have been solved, and points the way 
to the solution of others. It studies educational systems, 
selecting the good, and rejecting the bad, and introducing 
the student directly to the pedagogical questions that have 
influenced the world. For these reasons, the study of 
education should begin with its history. 

Karl Schmidt says: "The history of the world is the 
history of the development of the human soul. The man- 
ner of this development is the same in the race as in the 
individual ; the same law, because the same divine thought, 
rules in the individual, in a people, and in humanity. 
Humanity has, as the individual, its stages of progress, 




and it unfolds itself in them. The individual as a child 
is not a rational being ; he becomes rational. The child 
has not yet the mastery over himself, but his environment 
is his master; he belongs not to himself, but to his sur- 
roundings. The oriental peoples are the child of humanity. 
Classical antiquity represents the period of youth in 
the history of the zvorld. . . . Christ is the type of per- 
fected manhood. The history of the individual reflects 
and repeats the history of humanity, just as the history 
of humanity is a reflection of the history of the Cosmos, 
and the history of the Cosmos is an image of the life of 
God; all history, be it that of humanity or of the indi- 
vidual, of the starry heavens, or of the earth, is develop- 
ment of life toward God." " Where there is development, 
there is progress. Progress in history is only the more vis- 
ible, audible, perceptible embodiment of God in humanity." ^ 
In the study of the education of a people it is necessary 
first to become acquainted with their social, political, and 
religious life. To this end a knowledge of the geography 
and history of their country is often essential, because 
of the influence of climate, occupation, and environment, 
in shaping the character of a people. Examples of this 
influence are not wanting. The peculiar position of the 
Persians, surrounded on all sides by enemies, required a 
martial education as a preparation for defensive and offen- 
sive measures. Physical education was dominant among 
the Spartans, because of serfdom which involved the abso- 
lute control of the many by the few. No less striking are 
the effects of physical conditions upon all peoples in stim- 
ulating mental activity and in developing moral life, both 
of which processes are essential to true education. The 
intellectual product of the temperate zone differs from that 

1 " Geschichte der Padagogik," Vol. I, pp. i, 2. 







of the torrid zone, the product of the country from that 
of the large city. For these reasons stress is here laid 
upon the geographical and historical conditions of the 
peoples considered. 

For the same purpose we must study the home and the 
family, the foundations upon which the educational struc- 
ture is built. The ancient Jew looked upon children as the 
gift of God, thereby teaching the great lesson of the 
divine mission of children and of the parents* responsi- 
bility for their welfare. This race has never neglected 
the home education, even when it became necessary to 
establish the school. The family was the nursery of edu- 
cation, and only when diversified duties made it no longer 
possible to train the children properly in the home was 
the school established. Even then the purpose of the 
school was but to give expression to demands which the 
home created. The spirit and purpose of the education 
of a people can be understood only when the discipline, 
the ideals, and the religion of the home are understood. 

When we have learned the environment of a people, we 
are ready to study their elementary education. This takes 
us into the schoolroom, introduces us to the place where 
the school is held, indicates the course of study pursued, 
the discipline, methods of instruction, spirit and training 
of the teacher, as well as the results obtained. After this 
we are ready to consider the higher education, which com- 
pletes the system and measures its efficiency. 

Another task demanded of the student is to draw lessons 
from the educational systems studied, to note what can be 
applied to modern conditions, and to avoid the errors of 
the past. The product of a method, as shown in the char- 
acter of the people pursuing it, is of great interest in esti- 
mating the value of a scheme of education. 


HIST. OF ED. — 2 




.sx: ; 

Great movenunts have often been the outcome of the 
teachings of some individual who, inspired by a new idea, 
has consecrated his life to it. Through such men the 
world receives new and mighty impulses toward its en- 
lightenment, civilization takes vast strides in its develop- 
ment, and man approaches nearer his final emancipation. 
Confucius, Socrates, Augustine, Charlemagne, Luther, 
Bacon, Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, are names that sug- 
gest the uplifting of humanity and the betterment of the 
world. The study of the lives of these men, of their vic- 
tories and their defeats, cannot fail to be an encouragement 
and a suggestive lesson to teachers of all lands and all times. 
The history of education must therefore consider the biog- 
raphies of such men as well as their theories and their 

Finally, modern systems of education are the outgrowth 
of the experiences of the past. They represent the results 
attained and indicate present educational conditions. Noth- 
ing can better summarize the total development reached, 
or better suggest lines of future progress than a compara- 
tive discussion of the leading school systems of the world. 
The last chapters of this book, therefore, are devoted to a 
study of the school systems of Germany, France, England, 
and America. These are typical, each being suggestive of 
certain phases of education, while one of them has largely 
influenced the education of several other countries. Each 
furnishes lessons valuable to the student of history. Al- 
though many practices in other countries may not be 
applicable to our conditions, the broad-minded, genuine 
patriot will not refuse to accept sound principles and 
good methods from whatever source derived. 




Pre-Christian Education 

Earlier Christian Education 

Modern Education 


General Outl 








• • ' 

. Egypt- 


f Athens. 
Classical. \ Sparta. 



! Rome. 


The Gn .t Teacher. , 


Monasticism. ' • , ' 



Scholasticism. •' 


Ull • ' 


The Crusades. , 

The Universities. ^ , ^ ^^ . . ( 



The Renaissance. ■^"^'' " 


The Reformation. 


The Jesuits. 


The Sixteenth Century. 


• • 

The Seventeenth Century. 

The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Cen- 

'- Jn 



. Present School Systems. 


I % 


li ) 



Literature. — i^^?r//>/, The Chinese; Clarke, Ten Great Religions; 
Houghton, Women of the Orient; Doolittle, Social Life of the Chi- 
nese ; Johonnot, Geographical Reader ; Lord, Beacon Lights of History ; 
Ballnu, Due West and Footprints of Travel ; Floetz, Epitome of Uni- 
versal History ; Barnes, Studies in Education ; Stoddard's Lectures. 

The civilization of the " Celestial Empire " has certainly 
contributed but little to the advancement of the world. 
Were it not that this nation furnishes a most striking illus- 
tration of the evils of false methods, the study of Chinese 
education might be omitted without loss. But a system 
of education that produces intellectual stagnation, that 
fails to stimulate national and individual progress, that 
fosters narrow egotism, suggests negative lessons which 
the student of education will do well to heed. The result 
in China furnishes the best argument against a method cf 
instruction that appeals solely to the memory. This alone 
is a sufficient reason for a study of Chinese education, aside 
from its strange and unique characteristics which never 
fail to interest the reader. 

Geography and History. — The Chinese Empire occu- 
pies a position on the eastern side of the Asiatic continent 
within about the same parallels of latitude as the United 
States, extending from twenty degrees latitude on the south 
to fifty-three degrees on the north. Its area is about four 
and a quarter million square miles, being somewhat larger 




[i> i??'Ji i 




than that of the United States. Its population is esti- 
mated at abouc six times that of our country. It has 
an abundance of rivers, intersected by numerous canals, 
which greatly facilitate internal commerce. Many parts 
of the country arc densely populated. The people are 
largely engaged in agriculture. Tea and silk are the 
chief articles of export, while rice and millet form the 
principal food. 

The Chinese belong to the Mongolian or yellow race. 
They are an industrious, frugal, and temperate people, 
though the opium habit is very general and is disastrous 
in its effects. Doubtless the overcrowded population, 
which has driven many to live in boats and in crowded 
apartments, has had much to do in molding the Chinese 
character. They are slow to admit modern improvements, 
being content with their lot and conservative in the main- 
tenance of their customs, religion, education, and social 
practices. Consequently they have for many centuries 
made but little progress. Their authentic history covers, 
according to extant records, a period of nearly four 
thousand years. The government is an absolute mon- 
archy; the emperor is regarded as the father of all his 
people and has complete power over the lives of his 

The Chinese language contains no alphabet ; each sym- 
bol represents a different word ; the substantives are in- 
declinable, and the verbs are without inflection. It thus 
becomes necessary in mastering the language to learn 
by rote a vast number of signs and characters, — a pro- 
digious feat for the memory. 

The religion most widespread among the Chinese 
is Buddhism (which was imported from India), though 
ancestor worship is still universal. Women are the princi- 




pal worshipers, yet the Chinese believe that women 
have no souls. The belief in transmigration of souls is 
implicit, and this is used to keep woman in a most degraded 
condition. If a woman is obedient to her husband and his 
relatives, and is the mother of sons, she may hope to return 
to this world, in the future, as a man, and thus have a 
chance ultimately to reach huddha's heaven. The belief 
in the transmigration of souls explains the vegetarian diet 
of the Buddhist. No zealous Buddhist will touch meat or 
even eggs, neither will he kill the smallest insect, lest he 
should thus inadvertently murder a relative.^ The men 
care but little for any religion beyond a veneration for 
their ancestors. 

Polygamy is very generally practiced, the limit to the 
number of wives being determined by the ability to support 
them. Women usually become more religious as they 
advance in years, and they spend much time in worship- 
ing in the temples. It is they who preserve the national 
religion and make most difficult the work of mission- 
aries. ^ 

The Home. — The wife exists only for the comfort of her 
husband. It is her duty to serve and obey him. If she 
abuses her husband, she receives one hundred stripes; 
but abuse from him is not a punishable offense. Instruc- 
tion, at home as well as at school, is confined to boys. 
T! J birth of a boy is indicated by hanging a bow and 
arrow over the door ; that of a girl, by a spindle and yarn. 
In naming the number of his children, the father counts 
only the boys. Boys are clothed m the finest material the 
family can afford ; girls, in rags. Parents may destroy 
their children, but only girls are ever sacrificed. The 

^ Mrs. E. E. Baldwin, Foochow, China. 

''' Houghton, " Women of the Orient," p. 14. 




mother can seldom read and write, her chief duty being 
to instill into her children the two cardinal Chinese virtues 
— politeness and obedience. The relation of parents and 
children is the highest and purest representation of the 
relation between the Creator and the creature, and to ven- 
erate the parents is the first and holiest of all duties, 
higher than the love of wile to husband, higher than the 
reverence for the emperor; therefore the emperor's father 
cannot be his subject. 

To the Chinaman all other duties are included in filial 
duties. The bringing up of the children is left almost 
entirely to the mother. The training begins very early, 
and greatest stress from the first is laid upon obedience. 
Disobedience is a crime punishable by the father with 

There are no illustrated children's books, no nursery 
rhymes to inspire the imagination, none of the bright and 
useful things so necessary to a happy childhood. The 
child grows up with but few playthings calculated to stim- 
ulate the powers of the mind. 

The Elementary School. — At about six or seven years 
of age the child enters school. Sometimes a few parents 
unite to employ a teacher for their children. The govern- 
ment has no concern for the qualifications of the teacher ; 
no license to teach is required, there is no governmental 
inspection or control, nor does the State assume any 
part of the expense of the school. Attendance is not 
compulsory, and yet male education is so universal that 
scarcely a boy can be found who does not enjoy opportuni- 
ties for education. Charity schools are furnished by the 
wealthy for those who cannot afford to contribute toward 
the maintenance of a school. 

There are no public schoolhouses. The school is some- 







i 1 


times held in the temple, sometimes in the home of the 
schoolmaster, and sometimes in the home of a wealthy 
patron. The furniture of the schoolroom consists of an 
altar consecrated to Confucius and the god of- knowledge, 
a desk and a chair for the teacher, and the pupils' desks 
and stools, provided by the children themselves. No effort 
is made to render the room attractive. 

The child is admitted the first time with much cere- 
mony in order that the day may be one of pleasant 
memories. He also receives a new name, the name of 
his babyhood being dropped. Indeed, a cha.nge of name 
accompanies each new epoch of his life, as the time he 
takes a new degree, the day of his marriage, etc. Thus 
the boy enters upon his new work. The first years of 
study are devoted to reading, writing, and the elements 
of arithmetic, which studies complete the education of 
the majority of the pupils. No effort is made to in- 
terest the child ; he is simply required to memorize and 
write as many as possible of the fifty thousand charac- 
ters. Not until after the names of the characters have 
been le^ined by rote is there any effort to teach the 
meaning of the words which they represent. The child's 
writing, too, is mechanical, for the expression of thought 
is but a secondary consideration. Thought awakening 
is not encouraged in the Chinese course of education. 
Fear, not interest, is the motive which drives the child to 
study. Memory is the chief faculty to be cultivated, and 
each child vies with the others to make the most noise in 

The teacher is greatly revered, only less so than the 
father. His discipline is rigid, the rod not being spared. 
There are no new methods to learn; the practice to- 
day is the same as that of hundreds of years ago ; itKoiX' 


»i i0M i n iw »i i vMKum ' m mmmmmm* 




sists simply in hearing what the children have learned 
by heart. 

The second stage of study consists of translations 
from text-books and lessons in composition. This work 
brings some pleasure to the child, as it is a little less 
.mechanical. The third stage consists of belles-lettres 
and essay writing. Only a few ever reach this stage, 
and the purpose of this advanced work is not intel- 
lectual development, or even the accumulation of knowl- 
edge, but to prepare for a position under the govern- 
ment, which can be reached by no other means. Even 
in these last two stages of study memory is the prin- 
cipal faculty brought into play. Without great ex- 
ercise of this power the vast amount of material can 
never be mastered. 

Higher Education. — There are no high schools, but 
men who have taken degrees gather about them young 
students, who are to devote themselves to study, and 
give Ihem instruction in the Chinese classics and pre- 
pare them for the State examinations for degrees. Great 
attention is paid to style, and in order to cultivate a 
good style, students are required to commit to memory 
many of the productions of their classical authors. They 
write a great many essays and verses, which are criti- 
cised by their teachers. The attention is confined solely 
to the Chinese classics. The educated Chinaman is usually 
ignorant of any field of knowledge not embraced in his 
own literature. 

There is in the royal library at Pekin a catalogue 
consisting of one hundred and twelve octavo volumes 
of three hundred pages each, containing the titles of 
twelve thousand works, with short extracts of their 
contents. These works treat of science, medicine, as* 





■ \ 


3 i 

' ' ''('In 

: Mi 

' ' "m 













tronomy, and philosophy, while history has an especially 
rich literature. The Chinese knew how to observe the 
heavens four thousand years ago, and yet were unable 
to construct a calendar without the help of the Euro- 
peans. They invented gunpowder, the mariner's com- 
pass, porcelain, bells, playing cards, and the art of 
printing long before they were used in Europe, yet 
they lacked the ability to use these inventions as in- 
struments to their advancement. 

China is divided into provinces which are subdivided 
into districts. Candidates must pass three examinations 
in their own district and those who are successful re- 
ceive the lowest degree, that of " Budding Intellect." 
Many thousands enter for this degree, but only about 
one per cent succeed in attaining it. The possession of 
this degree does not yet entitle the holder to a public 
office, but most of those who have secured it become 
teachers, physicians, lawyers, etc. Once in three years 
there is another examination for the second degree, called 
" Deserving of Promotion," conducted by an examiner sent 
from Pekin. A third examination is also held once every 
three years, in Pekin, and success in this is rewarded 
by the title ''Fit for Office." Holders of the last two 
degrees are entitled to an appointment to some office, the 
highest aim of a Chinaman. All of these examinations 
are conducted with great strictness and fairness, no one 
being excluded. Thus every Chinese child of ability has 
the opportunity to reach the highest positions in the 

There is a still higher degree called the " Forest of 
Pencils," which is open only to members of the Royal 
Academy, the Hmilin. The acquirement of this degree 
is the greatest honor to be attained ; its possessor is 



highly esteemed, and may hold the highest offices in the 

During the last few years, military, polytechnic, and 
other high schools have been founded in China, and teach- 
ers from France, Germany, England, and America have 
been placed in charge of them. 

Criticism of Chinese Education. — i. It is not under 
government control. 

2. It has no interest beyond the boundaries of China, 
and regards no literature save the Chinese classics. 

3. It is non-progressive, having made practically no 
improvement for many centuries. 

4. It cultivates memory to the neglect of the other 
powers of the mind, and places more emphasis on the 
acquirement of knowledge than on the development of 
the human faculties. 

5. It obtains its results through fear, not by awakening 
interest in or love for study. 

6. Women are not embraced in the scheme of education. 

7. It produces a conservative, dishonest, untruthful, 
cunning, and cowardly people. ? 

8. It reaches practically all of the male sex, and there 
is opportunity for all to rise to the highest positions of 
honor, but its methods are so unnatural as to awaken little 
desire for education on the part of the young. 

9. Its motive is debasing to the character. 



CONFUCIUS (B.C. 550-478) 

The name of Confucius is the one most revered among 
the Chinese. To him and his disciples are due not only 
the native religion, now supplanted by Buddhism, but 
also the language and literature. He began to teach in 

ii !'i 

I 1 



a private school at the age of twenty- two. He rejected no 
pupil of ability and ambition, but accepted none without 
these qualities. He said, " When I have presented one 
corner of a subject, and the pupil cannot make out the 
other three, I do not repeat the lesson." The following 
are extracts from the analects of Confucius : — 

1. What you do not like when doae to yourself, do 
not to others. 

2. Learning without thought is labor lost; thought 
without learning is perilous. 

3. To see what is right and not do it is want of 

4. Worship as if the Deity were present. 

5. Three friendships are advantageous : friendship 
with the upright, friendship with the sincere, and friend- 
ship with the man of observation. Three are injurious: 
friendship with a man of spurious airs, friendship with the 
insinuatingly soft, and friendship with the glib-tongued. 

6. Shall I tell you what knowledge is } When you 
know a thing, to hold that you know it ; and when you do 
not know a thing, to confess your ignorance. 




■ ^ '' ,'r,'- 

s' 1 i 

1 ,' 

f '' ' 1 

, ' ' ! 



' ■ 1 

Literature. — Marshman^ History of India ; Ragozin, Vedic India ; 
Spofford^ Library of Historical Characters ; Butler^ Land of the Veda ; 
Houghton^ Women of the Orient ; Clarke^ Ten Great Religions ; Johon- 
noty Geographical Reader ; Macaulay^ Essays ; Ballon^ Footprints of 
Travel ; Stoddard'' s Lectures ; Encyclopaedia Britannica; Arnold^ Light 
of Asia." 

Geography and History. — India lies between the sixth 
and thirty-sixth parallels of north latitude. It is bordered 
on the north by the Himalayas and on the south by the 
Indian ocean. The climate in general is hot, which 
makes the natives indolent and accounts for their lack of 
enterprise. The country is very rich, the chief products 
being wheat, cotton, rice, opium, and tea. The area is 
about one and a half million square miles, and the popula- 
tion two hundred millions. 

The early history of India is obscure, as the Brahmans, 
from religious scruples, have ever been opposed to historical 
records. It is certain that there was an aboriginal race 
which occupied the country from an unknown period, and 
that a branch of the Aryan ^ or Indo-Germanic race came 

* The Aryans are supposed to have originally occupied the country east of 
the Caspian Sea, though some authorities locate them north of it. The 
branches of this race are the Hindus, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Celts, Teu- 
tons, and Slavs. These branches are related in language and color, and the 
peoples that find their common origin in the Aryans represent a large part of 
the world's enterprise and progress. 


U A' 

m' K 






% ' 

to India and struggled for supremacy. The Aryans suc- 
ceeded in reducing the natives to subjection or in driv- 
ing them into the mountains. The comparatively pure 
descendants of these races are about equal in number in 
India, their mixed progeny composing the great mass of 
the Hindu population. The Sanskrit was their classic 
language, and the Veda their Bible. 

The Caste System. — There are four great castes in 
India : — 

1. The Bra/imaus, or highest caste, who are the priests, 
scholars, lawyers, physicians, teachers, etc. This order is 
highly reverenced by the lower castes, and its members are 
dignified, abstemious, and sedate. Their highest ideal is 
to bring their desires and appetites under complete con- 
trol. They exercise great influence in the land.^ 

2. The warriors y who comprise the army and the office 

3. The merchants y mechanics ^ and farmers ^ who consti- 
tute the bone and sinew of India. 

4. The servants^ who receive no education excepting in 
matters of politeness and other things connected with 
their station in life. 

Each caste must pay respect to the higher castes, and 
association with persons of a lower caste is considered a 
degradation. The English government of India does not 
interfere with the caste system, but it is gradually break- 
ing down. 

Besides the above-mentioned castes, there are trades- 
men's castes which have grown up as new occupations 
have been introduced. Thus there is a potters' caste, a 
weavers' caste, a carpenters* caste, etc., each son following 
his father's trade. This accounts for the marvelous skill 

^ See article in Johonnof s ** Geographical Reader," p. 197. 



^■' v 

■ i 

of the craftsmen of India in weaving carpets and fine 
muslins, in metal work, and other arts, — workmanship 
not equaled anywhere else in the world. 

Brahmanism and Mohammedanism are the chief reli- 
gions. Buddhism overran the country in the fifth and sixth 
centuries b.c, but it did not seem to be suited to the Hindus, 
and iiow it is found in its purity only in Ceylon. Unlike 
the Chinese, the Hindus are a very religious people. The 
ShastasMeclare that " when in the presence of her husband, 
a woman must keep her eyes upon her master, and be 
ready to receive his commands. When he speaks, she 
must be quiet and listen to nothing besides. When he 
calls, she must leave everything else and attend upon him 
alone. A woman's husband is her god, her priest, and 
her, religion. The most excellent work that she can per- 
form is to gratify him with the strictest obedience." ^ The 
system of sale of girls at birth, for wives, of early be- 
trothal and marriage, of perpetual widowhood under most 
degrading circumstances,^ and the practice of polygamy 
make the condition of woman in India still worse than in 

The English now rule the country with such wisdom 
and justice that the people are generally contented and 
loyal. Reforms have been introduced, commerce has been 
established, improvements have been made, and new life 
has been awakened. They have also established schools 
and universities ; but as the purpose here is to give a pic- 

^ A commentary on the sacred book, the Veda of the Hindus. 

2 Houghton, " Women of the Orient," p. 34. 

*A betrothed girl becomes a widow upon the death of her promised hus- 
band even though she be only two or three years old and may never have 
seen him. She must always remain a widow, and as such is constantly 




k ' n 


* ■ ' '4 

1 '^ 

1 1 

i -jp 


L.i 1 w 

|/| |f[ 

I., i| 










ture of Ihe caste education, the English system will not be 

The Home. — Woman hAs no educational advantages in 
India, and .^ le is regarded more as the servant than as the 
. equal of her husband. She may never appear uninvited 
Y in the presence oi/^ny man except her husband. This 
has worked great hardships for her, especially in cases of 
sickness, as she can have no medical attendance unless a 
female medical missionary can be reached. This fact has 
opened a ^rtile field for missionary enterprise which has 
been a great blessing to Hindu women. 

A member of a caste may marry in his own or in a 
lower caste ; thus the Brahman may have four wives, the 
warrior three, the farmer two, and the servant one. 

Parents love their children, and expect of them unques- 
tioning obedience. Children are taught to love and honor 
their teachers even more than their parents. They are 
taught to reverence and respect older persons under all 
circumstances. Contrary to the Chinese idea of educa- 
tion, which is to prepare for this life, the Hindu idea is 
to prepare for the future life, and children in the home, 
from their earliest years, are trained with reference to 
this idea. 

The Elementary School. — All teachers belong to the 
Brahman caste. They receive no salary, depending upon 
gifts for their support. They are mild in discipline, and 
generally humane in their treatment of their pupils. The 
instruction is given under trees in the open air on pleasant 
days, and in a tent or shed when the weather is bad. In- 
struction is given in reading, writing, and arithmetic, 
though religion constitutes the principal theme. Memoriz- 
ing the holy sayings of Brahma occupies a large portion 
of the time. While the Chinaman worships nature and 





his ancestors, the Hindu worships Brahma. The cultiva- 
tion of the memory is considered important, but by no 
means so essential as in the Chinese system. 

The reading lessons are from the Veda. In writing, the 
child begins by forming characters in sand with his finger 
or a stick, then he writes upon leaves, and finally upon 
paper, with ink. The work in arithmetic is very elemen- 
tary, being only such as will fit the learners for practical 
life. Servants and girls are excluded from even this limited 

M. Ida Dean says : " How amused you would be if you 
could take a peep at a school in India taught by a native 
teacher. The school is often held in an open shed, and 
no pains whatever is taken to keep it clean. Often the 
rafters are festooned with cobwebs and dirt. Of furniture, 
save the teacher's low desk, there is none. The teacher 
uses a grass mat, while the boys sit cross-legged on the 
earthen floor. The teacher, in a singsong voice, reads a 
sentence which the boys shout after him. Then another 
sentence is read, w^hich the pupils likewise shout in a sing- 
song voice, while their bodies sway to and fro. This goes 
on until sentence after sentence is memorized. No one 
knows nor cares what he is saying. The teacher never 
explains. Neither teacher nor pupil is ever bothered by 
that troublesome and inquisitive little word why.'* 

The castes are taught separately, and especial attention 
is given to such instruction as will fit them for their station 
in life. The highest virtues to be cultivated are politeness, 
patience, modesty, and truthfulness. Morning, noon, and 
evening there are impressive religious ceremonies in the 
school, and the pupils must throw themselves at the feet 
of their teacher with reverential respect. There is no 
theory of education among the Hindus, each teacher in- 

HIST. OF ED. — 3 

•ill3' 'Si 










structing as he pleases, according to historic custom. 
This precludes any considerable improvement in method 
or advance in the art of education. There is no authority 
to decide upon qualifications of teachers, the only essential 
requisite being that they shall belong to the Brahman 

Higher Education. — The Brahmans are the only edu- 
cated class, although warriors attend their schools for the 
purpose of such study as is necessary in connection with 
their calling. The farmer caste, too, may attend the 
Brahman schools to learn the studies pertaining to their 
caste. They pursue in their schools the study of grammar, 
mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, medicine, law, litera- 
ture, and religion. Many of them still speak their classic 
language, the Sanskrit. As their religion is based on 
philosophy, this study takes precedence over all others. 

"The Hindus are believed to have originated the 
decimal system of arithmetical notation which has been 
transmitted to us through Arabian channels." ^ 

The end of Hindu wisdom is to rise above all human 
suffering through knowledge. Wuttke says, ** Christians 
pray, * Thy Kingdom come ' ; the Chinese, * Thy King- 
dom remain ' ; the Hindus, ' Let whatever thou hast created 
pass away.' " 

Criticism of Hindu Education. — i . It is not universal, 
a large part of the people being excluded from its benefits. 

2. It is based on castes and the promulgation of the 
caste system, which is baneful. 

3- It depends too much upon the cultivation of the 

4. It has no philosophy of education, and, therefore, 
is non-progressive. 

^ Williams, " History of ivlodern Education." 



5. It does not properly honor woman, and excludes her 
from its advantages. 

6. It produces a dreamy, self-satisfied, indolent, selfish, 
and non-progressive people. 

7. It makes the people self-reflective, which doubtless 
accounts for their profound philosophical and mathematical 

\ \\ 


Buddha lived in the first half of the sixth century b.c. 
He sought to overthrow Brahmanism and taught that all 
men* are brothers, that they should show friendship, kind- 
ness, pity, and love toward their fellow-men. His religion 
and his spirit approach nearer to Christianity than any 
other oriental faith, and doubtless his influence was great 
for the uplifting of the race, though it cannot be classed 
as technically educational. " Self-denial, virtuous life, 
suppression of all self-seeking, love for fellow-men," said 
he, " are cardinal virtues which bring blessedness to man- 

Buddhism is a religion based on moral acts. In a cor- 
rupted form it has many millions of adherents in China, 
Tibet, Japan, and other countries ; but it is found in its 
purity only in Ceylon. c^^ii , ws'^i»w^u*: ♦u 



/s ©• /«. 






^ ' f 

< w 

< n 

' "1 


' 13 




Literature. — Benjamin, Story of Persia; Ragosin, The Story of 
Media, Babylon, and Persia; Rawlinson, The Seventh Great Oriental 
Monarchy; Myers, Ancient History; Clarke, Ten Great Religions; 
Lord, Beacon Lights ot History ; Fergusson, History of Architecture. 


Geography and History. — Persia lies in the pathway o\ 
the great caravans which formerly carried on trade be- 
tween Europe and India. It consists largely of a high 
plateau, surrounded by mountains. Large parts of the. 
country are sandy and dry from lack of sufficient rain, and 
therefore are unproductive. The people are a branch of 
the Aryan race. They doubtless lived a nomadic life, 
and were obliged to be ever ready to defend themselves. 
Success in defense against the frequent assaults of their 
surrounding enemies stimulated them to become a nation 
of warriors. This fact had much to do in shaping their 
education. Cyrus the Great conquered Media and brought 
Persia to the summit of her greatness. The Persians 
boasted that they had become great by the sword, hence 
they cared but little for agriculture or manufactures. They 
levied tribute upon the nations they had subdued. Home 
production was therefore unnecessary, and they could 
devote all of their time to the art of war. About one 
fourth of the population are still classed as wandering 
tribes, and the nation is an aggregation rather than a 
unity of peoples. 




The early Persians worshiped fire, and holy fires which 
only the Magi, or priests, were allowed to approach, 
were kept perpetually burning upon the mountain tops. 
The sun also was worshiped, the Persian kneeling 
with his face toward the cast at sunrise in beatific joy. 
This worship may have been borrowed from the Egyptians, 
who were conquered by the Persians, and with whom they 
stood in close relations. In later times the religion of 
Zoroaster became the religion of the people. 

The Home. — Wife and children were required to show 
the father great respect. Each morning the wife was 
expected to ask her husband nine times, "What do you 
wish me to do.?" The teacher stood next to the father 
in the child's esteem. The child was kept at home 
under the care of the mother until seven years of age. 
An astrologer gave him a name and outlined his future 
destiny by reference to the stars. It was forbidden to tell 
him the difference between right and wrong before his 
fifth year. No corporal punishment was administered 
before his seventh year. The mother was greatly be- 
loved by her children, though women were excluded 
from education. The position of woman was much higher 
than in either China or India. The chief training of chil- 
dren in the home was physical. Throwing, running, 
archery, riding, etc., were the principal employments of 
children. Absolute truthfulness and justice were early 
inculcated. A quick eye, a steady hand, accurate power 
of observation, and unwavering courage were qualities 
sought for in every child, and all of the training in the 
home, as well as in the later education, had for its aim the 
acquirement of these powers. Thus children were early 
taught to be self-reliant and fearless. 

The State Education. — i . Persian education was ' na- 





I . 

' i] 

-it, . 







tional in character. After the seventh year the boy was taken 
from home and educated entirely by and for the State. 

I lis training in the use of ar ns, in riding, and in other 
athletic exercises was continued. There were large pub- 
lic inptitutions in which the boys were quartered, and 
simplest food and clothing were given them. Besides 
the training for war, they were taught religious proverbs 
and prayers, and were bd to practice truth and justice. 
This education continued until their fifteenth year. The 
teachers were men who had passed their fiftieth year, and 
who were chosen for virtue as well as knowledge, that they 
might serve as models to their pupils. 

♦ 2. The second period of education consisted of a mili- 
tary training, which occupied the ten years between the 
age of fifteen and twenty-five. 

3. The final period was that of the soldier, which con- 
tinued till the fiftieth year, when the Persian could retire 
from the army with honor. The most competent were 
retained as teachers. 

Reading and writing were taught to a limited degree, 
but the chief end of education was to prepare the citizen 
for war. The Magi were educated in astronomy, astrology, 
and alchemy, and many of the dervishes have ever been 
renowned for their acuteness, sense of justice, great 
powers of observation, and good judgment. 

Criticism of the Persian Education. — i. The State robs 
the family of its inherent right to educate the children. 

2. It neglects intellectual education, giving undue 
prominence to the physical and moral; and demands too 
great a part of the active life of man. 

3. It makes the highest aim of education to prepare for 
war, and therefore does not cultivate the arts of peace. 

4. it excludes woman from the benefits of education. 





Zoroaster, the founder of the Persian religion, was a 
great teacher. The exact date of his birth is unknown, but 
it is generally placed at about b.c. 600. The testimony of 
ancient classic literature confirms the belief that he was an 
historical person, A tablet unearthed in Greece contains 
an account of his life and his doctrines. Pliny says that he 
laughed on the day of his birth and that for thirty years he 
lived in the wilderness on cheese. He was the founder of 
the Magi priesthood, but did not teach the worship of fire. 

His philosophy is dnalistic. There are two spirits or 
principles that rule the universe. These are Ormuzd, the 
principle of light, and Ahriman, the principle of darkness. 
These two opposing principles are in constant conflict, each 
striving for the mastery. Man is the center of the conflict, 
but Ormuzd as his creator has the greater power over him. 
All influences are summoned to bring about the success of 
the good, and in the end it will surely prevail. No 
remission of sin is taught, but judgment is represented as a 
bridge over which those whose good deeds outweigh their 
evil deeds are allowed to pass to paradise : in case the evil 
deeds outweigh the good, the person is cast off forever ; 
in case of a balance of good and evil deeds, there is 
another period of probation. 

This dualism shows itself in nature as well as in the 
spiritual world. Order is opposed to lawlessness, truth 
to falsehood, life to death, good to evil. It is a religion 
in which the ideas of guilt and merit are carried out to the 
extreme. Zoroaster believed that he was the prophet 
chosen to promulgate these doctrines, and his influence as 
a teacher upon the Persian nation was unquestionably great. 
Persia is now a Mohammedan country. 



\ , 

■ i 

1 ij-| 

'■ \\ 



m'. • 'X 

) • ' i 






Literature. — Hosmer^ Story of the Jews ; Clarke^ Ten Great Reli- 
gions; Durrelly New Life in Education; Myers, Ancient History; 
Stod(iard''s Lectures ; Lordj Beacon Lights of History ; Josephus, An- 
tiquities of the Jews ; Morrison^ The Jews under Roman Rule ; Larnedy 
History for Ready Reference ; Hegel, Philosophy of History ; Report of 
the United States Commissioner of Education, 1895. 



I wit 

Oeography and History. — The Jews were the ancient 
people of God, the "chosen people," whose history is 
recorded in the Old Testament Scriptures. They reached 
their greatest power and glory during the reigns of David 
and Solomon, and they occupied Palestine, with Jerusalem 
as their capital city. Within this small territory, some six 
thousand square miles in extent, have occurred some of the 
most important events of history, and the Jewish race has 
been the representative of God's purposes toward man. 
The Almighty communicated directly with his people, 
who were thus made acquainted with the divine will. The 
early Jews were nomadic in their habits, living in tents, 
and tending their flocks. The patriarch, who was at the 
head of a family or tribe, made laws for the people under 
him and governed them according to the command of God, 
whose representative he was. Because God directly or 
through the patriarch led and instructed the people, their 
education, like their government, is called theocratic. 

The Jews lost their independence B.C. 63 in becoming 
subject to the Romans, and in a.d. 70 Jerusalem was 



\ t^ i '^ . 

^t/.v ^vau.^ijrj;>u^< 




destroyed and the Jews were dispersed. Since that time 
they have been wanderers on the face of the earth, and 
there is no part of the world where they are not to be 
found. They have maintained their racial characteristics 
with remarkable purity; but their early agricultural in- 
stinct has changed, and they have become a commercial 
people. This is doubtless owing to the persecutions which 
have almost universally followed them, making the acquire- 
ment of fixed property unsafe. 

The Home. — The Jewish family was the purest of antiq- 
uity. In general, monogamy was practiced, and the wife 
was regarded as the companion and equal of the husband. 
Children being accepted as the gift of God, the father 
stood in the same relation to his children as Jehovah 
stood to man. Therefore the father's highest aim was 
to bring up his children in the knowledge and service 
of the Lord. We have here the highest and best type 
of family training to be found in history, a characteristic 
that still holds in Jewish families wherever they exist, 
and that has contributed largely to the maintenance of 
the strong racial peculiarities of the Jews. The father 
taught his boys reading and writing, and the mother 
taught the girls household duties ; but the latter were not 
entirely excluded from intellectual training. 

Great attention was given to the rites and ceremonies 
of the tabernacle and the Jewish law. History was also 
taught as a means of stimulating patriotism. The 
Jewish child was early made acquainted with the Scrip- 
tures, and history, law, and prophecy became familiar 
to every Jew. As there were no schools, this was all 
done in the home by the parents. Religion was the cen- 
tral, thought of all education, and preparation for the 
service of the tabernacle and the worship of God was 


: V\ 



1 ■ '■■ wm 





I I 



early given to every child. Thus in an atmosphere of 
love and piety the Jew discharged his sacred duty with 
care and faithfulness. Obedience to the commands of 
parents, veneration for the aged, wholesome respect for 
their ancestors, and familiarity with the Jewish law 
were instilled into the minds of all children. Music 
and dancing were taught in every household, not for 
pleasure, but as a means of religious expression. By 
prayer and holy living, by precept and example, by word 
and deed, the father discharged the duty committed to 
him by God, leading his children by careful watchful- 
ness toward the ideal manhood which was revealed to him 
by the teachings of Holy Writ. 

There were no castes among the Hebrews, and the same 
kind of training was given to the children of rich and 
poor, high and low, alike. No other race of people has 
given such careful home training to its children, from 
earliest times to the present. 

The Jewish School. — There were no Jewish schools 
until after the destruction of the nation and the loss of 
their civil liberty. After the defeat at Jena the Prussians 
turned to education as the sole means of retrieving their 
national greatness ; the same was true of the Austrians 
after the defeat of Sadowa, and of the French after the fall 
of the empire at Sedan. But the Jewish people had set 
this example eighteen centuries before. Dittes says, " If 
ever a people has demonstrated the power of education, it 
is the people of Israel." 

The rabbis required, a.d. 64, that every community 
should support a school, and that attendance should be 
compulsory. This is the first instance of compulsory edu- 
cation on record. If a town was divided by a stream with- 
out a connecting bridge, a school was supported in each 



part. Not more than twenty-five pupils could be as- 
signed to one teacher, and where the number was greater 
an assistant was employed. If there were forty pupils, 
there were two teachers. It will thus be seen that tht 
Jews put into practice eighteen centuries ago a condition 
of things which, owing to the complexity of our civiliza- 
tion, is with us to-day largely an unrealized ideal. 

Teachers were respected even more than parents, for 
it was held that parents prepared their children for the 
present, but teachers for the future. None but mature 
married men were employed as teachers. It was said 
that ** he who learns of a young master is like a man who 
eats green grapes, and drinks wine fresh from the press ; 
but he who has a master of mature years is like a man who 
eats ripe and delicious grapes, and drinks old wine." 

The child entered school at six. Previous to that age 
physical exercise and bodily growth were to be the ends 
sought. " When he enters school," says the Talmud, 
" load him like an ox." Other authorities, however, en- 
couraged giving him tasks according to his strength. The 
subjects taught were reading, writing, natural history, 
arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy. The Scriptures were 
taught to all the children, and all were versed in religious 

The methods were good and attractive, great effort 
being made to lead the children to understand, even 
though it might be necessary to repeat four hundred 
times. The discipline was humane. According to the 
Talmud, " children should be punished with one hand and 
caressed with two." Corporal punishment was adminis- 
tered only to children over eleven years of age. 

The Schools of the Rabbis. — Karl Schmidt says : 
** Culture in a people begins with the creation of a litera- 

\ '> 









I Ml 

ture and the use of writing." The oldest monument of 
writing among the Israelites is found in the tables of 
stone containing the Ten Commandments. Moses, David, 
Solomon, and Isaiah, and the other prophets were the 
founders of the Hebrew literature. 

Among the instrumentalities of higher education were 
the Schools of the Prophets, which taught philosophy, 
medicine, poetry, history, and law to the sons of prophets 
and priests, and of leading families. These schools were 
influential in stimulating the production of the historical, 
poetical, and prophetic books of the Old Testament. 

But more important as direct means of higher education 
were the Schools of the Rabbis. These sprang up in 
Alexandria, Babylon, and Jerusalem in the early centuries 
of the Christian era. They were private institutions 
founded by celebrated teachers. Doubtless it was in such 
a school as this that St. Paul was brought up at the feet 
of Gamaliel. The principal subjects studied were theology 
and law, — politics, history, mathematics and science being 
excluded. The collection of the sayings and discussions 
was begun in the second century a.d. and afterward took 
form in the Talmud. 

Criticism of Jewish Education. — i. It exalted the 
home and insisted on the control of children by their 

2. It gave to woman an honored place in the home. 

3. It gave an intelligent interpretation of the school 
and its functions. In regard to school attendance, the 
number of pupils under one teacher, the respect due to 
teachers, the course of study, and many other matters, it 
showed practical wisdom. 

4. It taught obedience, patriotism, and religion. 

5. It provided only for Jewish children. 




6. It was mild and generally wise in discipline, though 
mistaken in forbidding corporal punishment before the 
eleventh year, while admitting 'ts use after that. 

7. It developed an honest, intelligent, progressive, God- 
fearing people. , 

8. It produced some of the greatest poets and historians 
of the world. 


This book, as we have seen, is the outgrowth of the 
discussions of the rabbis, whose sayings, collected from 
the second to the sixth century a.d., are herein contained. 
It proclaims with great minuteness rules of life which the 
faithful Jew still rigidly observes. It has aided in per- 
petuating Jewish laws, ceremonies, customs, and religion, 
and has been the most potent means of preserving the na- 
tional and racial characteristics of the Jews for nearly two 
thousand years. Driven from one country to another, they 
have always carried the Talmud with them and have been 
guided and kept united by its teachings. During the last 
quarter of the nineteenth century the study of the Talmud 
has been evived, not only among the Jews, but also among 
Christians and students of all classes. 


1. Even if the gates of heaven are shut to prayer, they 
are open to tears. 

2. Teach thy tongue to say, " I do not know." 

3. If a word spoken in its time is worth one piece of 
money, silence is worth two. 

4. Thy friend has a friend, and this friend's friend has 
a friend ; be discreet. 

5. The world is saved by the breath of school children. 



. < ti a 



Literature. — Maspero^ Egyptian Archaeology ; Wilkinson,, The An- 
cient Egyptians ; StoddarWs Lectures ; Myers,, Ancient History ; Rout- 
ledge,, The Modern Wonders of the World ; Johonnot,, Geographical 
Reader ; Edwards,, A Thousand Miles up the Nile ; Knox,, Egypt and 
the Holy Land ; Ballon,, Due West ; Clarke,, Ten Great Religions ; 
EberSy Uarda ; and Egyptian Princess ; Curtis^ Nile Notes of a Howadji. 

Geography and History. — Egypt consists of a narrow 
strip of land about six hundred miles long, Iyii:g in the 
northeastern part of Africa. Its geographical importance 
is due to the river Nile, which flows through it, and which, 
by its annual overflow, enriches the soil, and makes one 
of the most productive portions of the globe. For many 
centuries reservoirs for the storage of water in time of the 
overflow, and irrigation canals for its later distribution, 
have secured the country against drought, and thus 
abundant harvests were always assured " independent 
of the seasons and the skies." This, with the mild climate 
and exceedingly rich soil, made food attainable with slight 
labor, furnishing an abundance, not only for its own popu- 
lation, but making Egypt the granary of the Mediter- 
ranean countries. We learn from the Scriptures, of the 
visits of the sons of Jacob to Egypt to buy corn of Joseph 
when famine existed in their own land. These conditions, 
which made living so cheap, were doubtless the main 
causes of the early settlement of the valley of the Nile, 
and the rapid increase in its population. In confirmation 






of the foregoing we have the testimony of Diodorus 
Siculus, a Greek writer, who visited Egypt nearly two 
thousand years ago. He tells us that the entire cost to 
bring up a child to manhood was not more than twenty 
drachmas (less than four dollars of our money ).i 

Of the antiquity of Egyptian history we have abundant 
evidence. Swinton says, " Egypt is the country in which 
we first find a government and political institutions 
established. Egypt itself may not have been the oldest 
nation t but Egyptian history is certainly the oldest his- 
tory. Its monuments, records, and literature surpass in 
antiquity those of Chaldea and India, the two next old- 
est nations." 2 The records of the history of Egypt are 
found in abundance carved on her monuments, tombs, 
buildings, implements, etc. They were written in hiero- 
glyphics, the meaning of which was unknown until the dis- 
covery of the " Rosetta stone," which furnished the key 
to their interpretation. 

The ancient Egyptians excelled in mechanics and arts. 
It is doubtful whether to-day we know as muc i of certain 
sciences as they did four thousand years ago. Their 
applications of mechanics, engineering, dyeing, and em- 
balming still remain to us "lost arts." The wisdom of 
the Egyptians was proverbial, and the great scholars 
of other countries made pilgrimages to Egypt to study 
philosophy, literature, law, and science. 

The Caste System. — The caste system existed also in 
Egypt, but in no such strict sense as in India. The first 
and highest caste consisted of the priests, who represented 
the learning and wealth of the country. They owned 

^ The student should bear in mind the fact that the purchasing power of a 
sum equivalent to four dollars was much greater in those days than now. 
a "Outlines of the World's History," p. 12. 





;. j 



ii ■; 




one third of the land, upon which they paid no tax. They 
h'^ld all the offices, were the surveyors, engineers, teachers, 
— indeed, their caste alone furnished all the higher pro- 
fessions. They ruled the land with an iron hand. Con- 
cerning their influence, Swinton says, " The priests were 
the richest, most powerful, and most influential order. It 
must not be supposed, however, that the modern word 
* priest ' gives the true idea of this caste. Its members 
were not limited to religious offices ; they formed an order 
comprising many occupations and professions. They were 
distributed all over the country, possessing exclusively the 
means of reading and writing, and the whole stock of 
medical and scientific knowledge. Their ascendency, both 
direct and indirect, over the minds of the people was 
immense, for they prescribed that minute religious ritual 
under which the life of every Egyptian, not excepting the 
king himself, was passed." ^ 

The second caste consisted of the military class, who 
also belonged to the nobles. There was freer intercourse 
between the two higher castes than was possible in the 
Hindu system. It was not uncommon to find brothers be- 
longing to different castes. Ampere found an inscription 
on a monument mentioning one son as a priest, another 
as governor of a province, and a third as superintendent 
of buildings. To each member of this caste was assigned 
a parcel of land (six and one half acres), which also was free 
from taxation. These two higher castes were especially 
privileged, and the gulf between them and the lower castes 
was very wide. 

The third, or unprivileged caste was subdivided into 
three orders: (i) the farmers and boatmen; (2) the 
mechanics and tradespeople; and (3) the common 

1 " Outlines of History," p. 20. 





laborers. Between these, also, there were bonds of 
common interest, though a decided difference between the 
orders was recognized. 

The caste system may be outlined as follows : — 

I. Priests^ who represented the learning and wealth and 

ruled the hind. 
II. Soliiiers, who, though lower in caste than the priests, 
Egyptian yet associated with tliem. 

Castes. 1. Farmers and AW/y/tv/, who stood the highest in 

rank of tiiis caste. 
j 2. Mechanics and tradespeipie^ who ranked next. 
' 3. The common iaboreis. 


The slaves were lower than the common laborers, and 
were not classified among the castes. They were generally 
captives taken in war. Respect and reverence for the 
higher castes were by no means so marked as in India, 
and outbreaks between the various classes were common. 

The Home. — Woman occupied a much higher plane in 
Egypt than in China or India, though polygamy was prac- 
ticed by all classes except the priests. She was the recog- 
nized mistress of the home, possessed some education, and 
largely directed the education of the children. Children 
of wives of different castes had equal rights before the law 
to inheritance. Great attention was paid to religious cere- 
monies, and the children were taught piety and obedience 
in their early youth. They were highly regarded in the 
Egyptian home, and were brought up in an atmosphere of 
love and filial respect. The day of a child's birth was 
regarded as determining its destiny. The child was brought 
up on the simplest food, and furnished with scanty cloth- 
ing, in order that its body might be strong and supple. 

The Education. — The education, like that of India, was 
suited to the different castes. Priests were the only 

HIST. OF ED. — 4 




■I fit 

m ■' 


Rill I 



teachers. While chief attention was given to the educa- 
tion of boys, girls also received some instruction. The 
principal subjects taught in the lowest caste were writing 
and mathematics. The papyrus plant, found along the 
Nile, furnished a material on which writing was practiced. 
In arithmetic we find an anticipation of modern principles 
in the concrete methods employed. Religious instruction 
was also given. Bodily exercise was severe, running being 
a favorite pastime. The expense of schooling was very 
small. The boy usually followed the trade of his father, 
though this was not an inflexible rule. The occupation he 
was to follow had some influence in shaping his education. 
The higher castes received an extensive education, in- 
cluding a knowledge of higher mathematics, astronomy, 
lan^^uage, natural science, medicine, music, engineering, 
and religion. The annual overflojv of the Nile necessitated 
the construction of reservoirs and irrigation canals, ^nd 
caused frequent changes of boundary lines. Fo U 
this a knowledge of mathematics was necessary, and 
this study was therefore greatly encouraged. Institu- 
tions of higher learning for the training of priests and 
soldiers were found at Thebes, Memphis, and Heliopolis. 
The Museum of Alexandria, which reached its highest 
prosperity about the middle of the third century B.C., and 
which made Alexandria the center of the learning of the 
world at that period, attracted philosophers and investi- 
gators from Athens and Rome. In connection with the 
Museum was the celebrated Alexandrian library, which 
was fostered by the Ptolemies, and which contained a vast 
collection of books, variously estimated at from four hun- 
dred thousand to seven hundred thousand volumes.^ 

^ It must be observed that the ancient volume, or roll, contained much leit 
matter than the modern book. 



Criticism of Egyptian Education. — i. It was dominated 
by the priests under the caste system, and did not recog- 
nize equality of man. 

2. It encouraged greater respect for woman than other 
oriental systems, but took little account of her intellectual 

3. It made use of concrete methods, at least in writing 
and arithmetic, for the first time in history. 

4. It was non-progressive in its elementary education, 
the father generally expecting his son to follow his calling. 

5. In higher education it was justly noted, as it attracted 
wise men from Greece and Rome to study its science and 

t ■ 


With the discussion oi Egyptian education, the con- 
sideration of oriental systems ceases. Concerning the 
education of the Phoenicians, Babylonians, and other 
oriental nations we know but little. To the Phoenicians the 
invention of the alphabet, glass making, and purple dyeing is 
generally credited, and the knowledge of these things was 
communicated to the Mediterranean nations with whom 
they engaged in trade. The classical countries were mate- 
rially influenced by Egyptian culture, and the way was 
prepared for a broader and more enlightened interpreta- 
tion of the purpose of education, and for a more successful 
evolution of civilization on soil better suited to that end. 
We may briefly summarize the lessons of oriental educa- 
tion, as follows : — 

I. The Oriental systems fostered class distinctions by 
furnishing but little enlightenment to the lower classes, 
and affording superior advantages to the privileged few. 



2. They were non-progressive, for centuries witnessed 
no improvement in methods of instruction, reached no 
higher ideals, and marked no advance in civiUzation. 

3. They did not feel the need of trained teachers. 

4. The importance of the individual was not appreciated, 
and man was regarded as belonging to the State. 

5. The end sought was good conduct, which was to be 
attained through memorizing moral precepts. This gave 
undue importance to the memory. 

6. Little encouragement was given to free investigation ; 
authority of teachers and ancestral traditions were the 
principal factors employed. There was therefore no stimu- 
lus toward progress or intellectual growth. 

7. In general, woman had no part in education, 
being regarded as incapable of any considerable intellec- 
tual development. 

8. In China the motive of education was to prepare for 
success in this life ; in India, for the future life ; in Persia, 
to support the State ; in Israel, to rehabilitate the nation ; 
and in Egypt, to maintain the supremacy of the priests. 

9. In no case was the conception reached that the aim 
of education should be to emancipate all the powers of 
man, — physical, intellectual, moral, spiritual. 

10. Finally, v.^e may sum up the conditions that pre- 
pared the way for classical education in the words of 
Karl Schmidt : " In Greece at last the idea of human 
individuality as the principal end, and not as a means to 
that er.d, was grasped. Conformable to this truth, all 
human, social, and political conditions were shaped and 
education given its form. This idea of the emancipation 
of the individual became established in Greece with a 
brilliancy which attracts attention to that land until the 
present time.' 




Literature. — Davidson^ Education of the Greek People; Felton^ 
Ancient and Modern Greece ; Grote, History of Greece ; Curtiits, His- 
tory of Greece ; Morris^ Historical Tales (Greek); Mahaffy, Old Greek 
Education ; Social Life in Greece ; The Greek World under Roman 
Sway ; Clarke^ Ten Great Religions ; Guhl and Koner. Life of Greeks 
and Romans ; Timayenis^ History of Greece ; Wilkins, National Educa- 
tion in Greece ; Lord^ Beacon Lights. 

,'!1i Mflf 


Geography and History. — Greece lies in the center of 
the ancient world. The numerous islands between it and 
the mainland of Asia made stepping-stones for the hardy 
mariners who, filled with the spirit of adventure, pushed 
out farther and farther from the Asiatic shores until 
they reached Greece — the first European country to be 
settled. Here we find another branch of the great Aryan 

The coast is broken up by many indentations which 
afford fine harbors and invite seafaring life. The surface 
is mountainous, the ranges cutting the country up into 
many sections or states. The climate is varying, depend- 
ing upon proximity to the sea, and upon the elevation. 
The scenery is beautiful, and the soil in the valleys is fer- 
tile. The productions are fruit, grain, and silk. As might 
be expected from the nature of the country, the people 
show much commercial enterprise. The area is about 







twenty-five thousand square miles, and the population 
about 2,200,ocx). 

The Greeks were a brave and ambitious people, and 
their history is full of .leroic deeds and stirring events. 
The many small states were often hostile to one another. 
Athens and Sparta were the two most important cities. 
Around them centered two diverse forms of civilization, 
and in them were developed two very different standards 
of education. It will be necessary, therefore, to discuss 
separately the eciucation of these two cities. When the 
Grecian states were united in defense, no outside power 
was able to conquer them; but, unfortunately, jealousies 
often arose which brought them into conflict with one 
another, and which finally caused the overthrow of all. In 
art and literature Greece reached the summit of her glory 
in Athens in the age of Pericles, the fifth century B.C. The 
work accomplished by Athens has been the inspiration of 
the world for nearly twenty-four hundred years. 

In government, in manners, and in customs the Greeks 
were very different from the oriental nations. The spirit 
of political freedom prevailed here for the first time in the 
history of the world. Doubtless the small size of the 
states, which were separated from each other by natural 
boundaries, was an important factor in stimulating the 
people to secure and maintain this independence. " Man's 
character is formed by the surroundings of his home." 
The beautiful valleys and mountains, the varying climate, 
the sea with its many islands and harbors, the soil, in 
the main yielding its fruit cily by hard labor, were 
elements well calculated to produce a hardy race, — a 
race with lofty ideals, loving beauty both of mind and 

The Olympian Games. — Because of their national popu- 




larity and their direct influence on the education of the 
people, a description of the Olympian games is not out of 
place in a history of education. At first they were re- 
ligious in character. They were celebrated in honor of 
Zeus, at Olympia, in Elis, which became the Holy Land 
of Greece. They took place once in four years, and this 
period, called an Olympiad, furnished the basis of com- 
puting time. The first Olympiad begins with B.C. TJ^. 
All of the states took part in these contests, and when at 
war, hostilities were suspended during the games, that 
visitors might attend them unmolested. Thus once in four 
years the various states of Greece were united in friendly 
contest and joyous festivity. 

At first there was only the foot race, but afterward 
wrestling, jumping, and throwing the spear were added. 
Still later, chariot and horse races, and contests in painting, 
sculpture, and literature, were included. Only Greek citi- 
zens of good moral character could enter the contests. The 
prize, though but a simple wreath of laurel or olive, was 
most highly esteemed. At first spectators were attracted 
from the different parts of Greece only ; but af ter^vard the 
games became great fairs for the exchange of commodities, 
as well as contests which attracted people from all parts of 

The Olympian games tended to unite the people and 
cultivate the arts of peace. They encouraged the develop- 
ment of perfect bodies, the training being designed to pro- 
duce superior athletes. They inculcated broader views, 
bringing together people from different parts of their own 
land and from other lands. They incited intellectual am- 
bition by adding in later times literary productions. They 
created a manly spirit and stimulated a national patriotism. 

ipj't W 



1« J 


i-Mvftjjt'' >ifla-«ai.-tj^ 



Literature. — (See general literature for Greece.) Harrison^ Story 
of Greece ; Macaulay, Essays ; Oirtius^ History of Greece ; Davidson^ 
Education of the Greeks ; WilkinSy National Education in Greece ; 
FreemaUf Historical Essays. 

History. — The ideals of Athens — educational, political, 
and moral — were in direct contrast to those of Sparta. 
At Athens, love of liberty, love of knowledge, and love of 
beauty went hand in hand. Though the body was not 
neglected, as is proved by the beautiful types of manhood 
preserved for us in Athenian art, the Athenians believed 
that the truest beauty was to be reached only by the 
development of the mind. 

Hence Athens brought forth great men like Pericles, 
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, she created a literature that 
has influenced the world, she developed art to its highest 
excellence, and gained for herself a permanent and high 
place in the world's history. Sparta did none of these 
things, therefore her ruin was sure and speedy ; while the 
decline of Athens was slow and her influence still lives. 

The spirit of Athens was liberty, while that of Sparta 
was tyranny. It is true that Athens had slaves ; indeed, 
only one fourth of the inhabitants were free ; but even the 
slaves had a large share of freedom, and enjoyed some 
means of education. We learn that children of the wealthy 
were committed to trusted slaves, called pedagogues^ who 




escorted them to school, instructed them in many things, 
and had a right to punish them for disobedience. This 
could not have been allowed by parents with such high 
ideals had the slaves been debased as were those of Sparta. 

In Athens we find for the first time the democratic idea 
of government; this was by no means so completely 
realized as it is in modern times, especially in the western 
world. The " Age of Pericles " (b.c. 480-430) forms the 
most brilliant period of Athens, a period hardly surpassed 
in some respects by any other in the world's history. 
Solon (B.C. 638) was the great lawgiver of Athens. His 
wise laws had much influence on the prosperity and intel- 
lectual development of the people. 

The Home. — In Athens the child was left with the 
mother until the sixth or seventh year. The toys were 
greater in variety than with any other people of antiquity. 
They were much the same in character as those of modern 
times, and their purpose was to amuse the children rather 
than to furnish a definite preparation for life, as in Persia 
and Sparta. Play, therefore, was recognized as an im- 
portant factor in the child's life, and the toys in use stim- 
ulated and encouraged the joyous element in the child's 
nature. That toys are a potent influence toward healthful 
mental and physical growth is an educational truth that 
has been fully recognized by us only within recent years. 
And yet the Athenians appreciated it in the home, twenty- 
five centuries ago. 

The training was intellectual and humane, though strict 
obedience was enforced. Great attention was paid to the 
works of the poets, selections being taught to all the chil- 
dren. The father interested himself chiefly in the education 
of the boys, and when he was unable to discharge this duty 
an elderly male relative was selected as mentor, who devoted 


"1 1! 1 

' ^i 








lip'' :M ill 




his leisure hours to such training. Little attention was 
paid to the mental training of the girls. 

Women were not held in so high esteem as in Sparta, 
nor were they as worthy of respect. The husband exer- 
cised over his wife the same authority as over his children. 
Neither by social position nor by intellectual attainment 
was she his equal. " Her own chamber was the world of 
the Athenian woman ; her maids were her companions ; 
household duties and the preparation of clothing for her 
family were her employment." 

Education. — The father was free to choose for his 
children their school and the character of their education. 
The State furnished gymnasia in which schools could be 
held, fixed the qualifications of teachers, the school hours, 
and the number of pupils to a teacher. Once a year 
public examinations were held, the expense of which the 
State defrayed. The schools were private institutions, 
supported by private means, though under State inspection. 
The teachers were philosophers or wise men, thoroughly 
competent to discharge the duties of their office. 

At six or seven years of age, the boy was sent to school 
in charge of a pedagogue, or leader of the young, — 
usually an old and trusted slave. While not intrusted with 
the actual teaching of his charge, he was responsible for 
his morals and manners, and was allowed, as we have seen, 
to administer punishment. The pedagogue was the con- 
stant attendant of the boy. The character of the school 
chosen depended upon the means of the parents. 

The first two years were devoted chiefly to gymnastics. 
The two subjects of the elementary course were gymnas- 
tics and music, the latter term including reading and writ- 
ing. But little arithmetic was taught, as the Athenians 
believed that the object of the study of arithmetic was 

■.■C'{.i;'ilj!i^.vl'--i^ J^'^ 




simply utility, and but little arithmetic was needed for 
practical use. " Calculating boards " made the reckoning 
for all business needs a purely mechanical process. The 
idea of education was the development of the beautiful, 
and they held that arithmetic contributed but little to this 
end. The works of the poets were given prominence 
throughout the Athenian education, and pupils were 
required to commit to memory many selections. Later, 
under the Sophists, the study of grammar was begun. 

Children of the poorer classes were kept in school until 
their fourteenth or fifteenth year, when they learned a 
trade. Those of the rich remained in school until their 
twentieth year. The course of study of the latter included 
music, rhetoric, grammar, and philosophy. At twenty the 
youth's education was regarded as completed, and the 
young man became a citizen. Teachers were paid fees 
and not fixed salaries. 

It was the atmosphere of Athens, more than the disci- 
pline of the school, that fostered culture and inspired 
learning. The aim of education was the beautifuly and 
the ideal was the aesthetic in mind and body. 

Criticism of Athenian Education. — i. It sought to edu- 
cate the entire man, giving him beauty of form, keenness 
of intellect, and nobleness of heart. 

2. It acknowledged the right of parents to direct and 
determine the education of their children. 

3. It recognized the importance of the individual as no 
other people had before. 

4. Strict, but not blind, obedience was required of the 

5. It produced great men, with high moral and intel- 
lectual ideals, but these ideals were centered in Athenian 


■1r -/ 

\ V. 

I 'if I 





ij ■ ,' 




6. It excluded women and slaves from its benefits, and 
was by no means universal. 

7. It recognized the value of play as an educational 
force, thereby anticipating the kindergarten. 

8. The State exercised a certain control over the school 
by furnishing places where it might be held, by defraying 
the expense of examinations, by determining the number 
of pupils to a teacher, by fixing the limit of school hours, 
and by deciding upon the qualifications of teachers. And 
yet the choice of education was free, and its lim was the 
good of the individual and not the glory of the State. 




4 '. I 

Literature. — Bulkley^ Plato's Best Thoughts ; Schweglery History of 
Philosophy; Morris, Historical Tales; Curtiiis^ Histo.> of Greece; 
Lordf Beacon Lights ; Spofford^ Library of Historical Characters ; 
Jowett^ The Republic of Plato ; Vogely Geschichte cler Padagogik ; 
Emerson^ Representative Men ; De Quincey^ Plato's Republic ; Hegel^ 
Philosophy of History. 

SOCRATES (B.C. 470-399) 

Socrates was the son of a sculptor of Athens. Though 
he learned his father's trade and followed it in early man- 
hood, he relinquished it to devote himself to the study of 
philosophy, for which he had a natural bent. In person 
he was far from fulfilling the Athenian ideal of beauty, 
being short of stature, corpulent, with protruding eyes, 
upturned nose, large mouth, and thick lips. His domestic 
life was not happy, his wife, Xantippe, being a noted 
shrew. His failure to provide for the material welfare of 
his family, though quite natural in a man to whom all 
material things seemed unessential, must have sorely tried 
her patience. But Socrates bore her scolding with resig- 
nation. Indeed, he seemed to regard it as furnishing an 
opportunity to practice the philosophic patience that he 

Socrates believed that he had a divine call to " convince 
men of ignorance mistaking itself for knowledge, and by 
so doing to promote their intellectual and moral develop- 










ment." Like many other philosophers, he spent his time 
in the streets, markets, and other public places, arguing 
with any one who would stop to listen or converse. This 
manner of teaching was common in Athens, and he never 
lacked hearers. The whole atmosphere of the classic city 
was charged with the spirit of intellectual activity and 
philosophic discussion. Socrates did not teach positive 
doctrines, but assumed ignorance himself in order to con- 
vince others of ignorance. By a series of suggestive 
questions he would lead his pupils or opponents into 
admissions which finally established the truth that Soc- 
rates saw at the outset. This is known as the *' So- 
cratic Method," or the dialectical method, and this form 
of inductive teaching was an important contribution to 

Although Socrates left no writings, his great pupils, 
Xenophon and Plato, have given the world a full account 
of his teachings. Plato speaks in highest terms of his 
moral character, declaring that " he was not of this world." 
Xenophon also adds his testimony in the following words : 
" No one ever knew of his doing or saying anything 
profane or unholy." Socrates believed in one Supreme 
Being, the intelligent Creator of the universe. He also 
believed in the immortality of the soul. These doctrines 
were altogether contrary to Greek polytheism, the prevail- 
ing religion of Athens, and they prove him to have been 
far in advance of the age in which he lived. While he 
established no school, Socrates nevertheless must ever rank 
as one of the world's greatest teachers and thinkers. 

In his death he fully exemplified the truth of his own 
philosophy. He was accused of corrupting the youth and 
denying the deities, and was condemned to die by drink- 
ing a cup of hemlock. He calmly submitted to his fate, 



refusing to avail himself of an opportunity to escape. Ac- 
cording to the account given in Plato's " Phaedo," he spent 
his last hours discussing with the friends who attended 
him the question of the immortality of the soul. 

PLATO (B.C. 429-347) 

Plato was a disciple of Socrates, and to him we are 
chiefly indebted for an account of the teachings of his 
great master. For twenty years he sat at the feet of the 
philosopher, and drank from the fountain of knowledge 
possessed by that wonderful man. He also traveled in 
other lands, particularly Egypt and Italy, in pursuit of 
knowledge. He became one of the most remarkable 
scholars and philosophers, not only of antiquity, but of all 
time. When forty years of age he founded a school at 
Athens, though it is not as a teacher that he is chiefly 
known, but as a writer and sage. " Plato among the 
Greeks, like Bacon among the moderns, was the first who 
conceived a method of knoA^dge." His great work is his 
" Republic," in which he pictures the ideal State and out- 
lines his scheme of education, which is built on ideals of 
both Spartan and Athenian citizenship. From Sparta comes 
the thought of an education which shall be controlled by 
the State from birth ; while Athens adds the aesthetical 
aspects to those purely physical. 

In his scheme he divided the people into the following 
classes : — 

1. The common people. They should be allowed to rise, 
but no education is provided for them in his scheme. 

2. The guardians or citizens ^ who shall study music 
and gymnastics. Music includes literature, that is, human 
culture as distinguished from scientific knowledge. Writ- 


Ml ■ 

• ^1 




ing and arithmetic are also included under music, the latter 
not being studied for practical purposes, but to develop 
the reason. 

3. The rulers^ who, in addition to the preceding sub- 
jects, shall study geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, and 

The State is to have absolute control of every citizen ; 
it shall arrange marriages, destroy weak and unpromising 
children, and remove the healthy babes at birth to public 
nurseries, where mothers may care for the children in 
common, but will not recognize or take special interest in 
their own children. Boys and girls are to be educated 
alike. Great care is to be taken that nothing mean or vile 
shall be shown to children ; their environments shall be 
beautiful and ennobling, though simple. 

From birth to seven years of age the child is to have 
plenty of physical exercise. He shall hear fairy tales and 
selections from the poets, but careful censorship must be 
placed on everything presented to him. Suitable play- 
things are to be provided, precaution taken against fear 
of darkness, and by gentleness combined with firmness a 
manly spirit is to be produced. Beauty of mind and body 
are to be harmoniously united. 

From seven to thirteen intellectual as well as physical 
activity is required. 

The special education begins at twenty by the selection 
of the most promising youths. At thirty another selec- 
tion of those able to continue their education five years 
more is made. 

Higher mathematics, astronomy, harmony, and science 
constitute the work of the first ten years, and philosophi- 
cal study that of the last five. Fifteen years then are to 
be given to the service of the State, after which, at fifty, 





the student may return to the study of philosophy for 
the remainder of his life. 

Education is to be compulsory, as the child belongs to 
the State and not to the parent. 

Plato gave predominance to intellectual rather than to 
physical culture, as he said, " If the mind be educated it 
will take care of the body, for the good soul improves the 
body, and not the good body the soul." 

He taught that it is the aim of education to bring all 
of the powers of man into harmonious cooperation. 

It will thus be seen that Plato's scheme of education 
centers around the oriental idea that man belongs to 
the State, and the main purpose of education is to fit 
him to serve the State. And Plato clearly set forth 
how the education which he demanded should be attained, 
and therefore he is to be remembered as originating the 
first systematic scheme of education in history. 

ARISTOTLE (b.c. 384-322) 

Aristotle was born in Stagira in Macedonia, and from 
this fact he is called the Stagirite. For twenty years 
he was a pupil of Plato, as Plato had been of Socrates. 
Aristotle was not only one of the greatest philosophers 
that ever lived, but he enjoyed the distinction of being 
the teacher and chosen counselor of Alexander the 
Great. Much of the greatness of the man who con- 
quered the world and "wept because there were no 
more worlds to conquer" was due to his wise teacher. 
Alexander loved and revered Aristotle as much as his 
father, declaring "that he was indebted to the one for 
livings and to the other for living well.'' Later in life 
he assisted Aristotle in founding a school at his native 
place, Stagira. 

HIST. OF SD. — 5 






' :. X 




It is not simply as the teacher of Alexander the 
Great that Aristotle is to be remembered in the history 
of education, though that would entitle him to lasting 
fame. After tke education of Alexander was finished, 
Aristotle went to Athens, where he founded the Lyceum. 
Here he lectured for many years, in the morning to 
his riper pupils on philosophical subjects, and in the 
evening to the masses on such topics as were within 
their comprehension and as would tend to elevate them. 

His pedagogy may be briefly outlined as follows : — 

1 . Education is a lifelong task, beginning at birth and 
continuing till death. The first seven years are to be 
spent in the home under the fostering care of the parents. 
During this period the child is to have no severe tasks, 
but chief attention is to be given to physical develop- 
ment. He must learn obedience, as the first step to an 
ethical life. His food and clothing are to be simple, 
and his toys and games of a character to stimulate 
wholesome activity. At the age of seven he is to enter 
upon the direct intellectual training, and nothing must 
interfere with this during the next seven years. From 
fourteen to twenty-one the education is to include such 
exercises as directly prepare for life. The diet is to 
be simple, the physical training severe, for the double 
purpose of counteracting the tendencies of the ado- 
lescent period, and of preparing for war. 

2. Education includes the development of the body, 
the character, and. the intellect. Courage, endurance, 
self-denial, temperance, truthfulness, and justice are essen- 
tial characteristics to be sought. The purpose of instruc- 
tion is to develop the imperfect, untrained child into the 
well-rounded, intelligent, and patriotic citizen. 

3. The course of study, which begins seriously after 




ti; : ■! 
■I. : •' 

the seventh year, includes music, gymnastics, drawing, 
grammar, rhetoric, and mathematics. Later, dialectics, 
philosophy, and political science are to be added. 

4. Woman is to have part in education that she may 
properly train her children, and may, by an intelligent 
understanding of the laws, uphold the State. 

5. Aristotle considered education as the most im- 
portant and most difficult of all problems. He based 
his pedagogy upon a knowledge of the individual. 

6. His method was the analytical. He began w'>h 
things and advanced from the concrete to the abstrac*. 

The foregoing will show that Aristotle began the ScUdy 
of problems that still occupy the minds of educational 
thinkers, after more than twenty-two centuries of serrch 
for the truth. Some of the problems he discussed have 
found their solution, and the seed sown by the great thinker 
has come to fruitage. Karl Schmidt says, " Aristotle is 
the intellectual Alexander. Rich in experience and pro- 
found in speculation, he penetrates all parts of the universe 
and seeks to reduce all realities to concepts. He is the 
most profound and comprehensive thinker of the pre- 
Christian world, — the Hegel of classical antiquity, — 
because, like Hegel, he seeks to unify all knowledge, 
brings together the scattered materials of the present into 
one system, constructs in a wonderful intellectual temple 
the psychical and physical Cosmos, the universe and God, 
proclaims the destruction of an earlier culture epoch, and 
sets in motion waves in the ocean of history that are 
destined to influence the intellectual life of all centuries 
to come. . . . Aristotle stands for the highest intellectual 
summit of antiquity, — the bridge which binds the Grecian 
to the modern world, — the philosophical mouthpiece and 
the intellectual master of twenty centuries." 

p ■ 


,1'; ,!) 

f:. , 

' il 



Literature. — (See general literature for Greece.) Sankey^ Spartan 
and Theban Supremacies ; Smithy History of Greece ; Plutarch's Lives ; 
Momberty Great Lives ; Spofford^ Library of Historical Characters. 

History. — Sparta was the capital of Laconia, the south- 
ern province of Greece. Its inhabitants consisted of : — 

1. Citizens y composed of nine thousand families of 
nobles, who ruled the other classes. 

2. Perioeci} composed of thirty thousand families of 
freemen who lived in the territory surrounding Sparta, 
but who were subject to the nobles. 

3. Helots^ about three hundred thousand in number, 
who were slaves. 

The Perioeci and the helots, with the love of freedom 
characteristic among the Greeks, chafed under their yoke 
of subjugation, and eagerly watched for opportunities for 
revolt. Only by an exercise of superior force could the 
nobles maintain their supremacy, and they were obliged to 

^ The Perioeci (dwellers around) were the older population of the land, 
who inhabited the mountains and hillsides about Sparta. They were farmers, 
and they also worked the mines and quarries, manufactured articles for the 
Spartan market, and carried on the commerce. Though freemen, they were 
allowed no part in the government, could not bear arms, and had to pay 
tribute to Sparta. 

* The Helots were probably peasants who occupied the land about Helos, 
and, defeated in war, became Spartan subjects. They could not be sold or 
given away, but belonged to the inventory of the farm. 





seek by martial training the strength they lacked in num- 
bers. Hence the education of the Spartan youth was of 
necessity military, and every citizen was trained to become 
a warrior. 

The Spartans were dignified, austere, and of few words, 
** laconic " in speech. The young were expected to be 
silent in the presence of their elders except when ad- 
dressed. They were taught to give way to their seniors, 
especially to old men, whenever they met upon the street or 
in a public place. 

The Home. — The child was left in charge of the mother 
until six or seven years of age. Toys inciting to warlike 
sports were provided, and childhood was made happy. The 
father usually superintended the child's training, but some- 
times an aged relative assumed the responsibility. The 
treatment was hun^ane and intelligent. From the first the 
child was taught implicit obedience and modesty. 

The Iliad and the Odys:,ey have been called the Bible of 
the Greeks, and children early learned extracts from the 
works of the great poet. Homer. The Spartan mother was 
highly respected by her husband and her children, and she 
was noted for her chastity and nobility of character. She 
entered fully into the Spartan idea, and cheerfully gave 
her sons to her country, while she often inspired them to 
deeds of bravery and patriotism. The lofty and self-sacri- 
ficin '' patriotism of the Spartan mother is illustrated by her 
word, upon sending her son to battle, — " Return either 
with ) our shield or on it ! " 

It is said that weak and unpromising children were 
either killed as soon as they were born, or abandoned to 
the wild beasts upon the mountains. This was because 
the State would assume the training only of strong chil- 
dren, such as were likely to make good soldiers. It is 


! i 


' 1" 

■ 1 1 

V 1, 

1 '. 



ii ' 

1 1 I 





probable that many of these abandoned children were 
rescued and reared by the lower classes, which would 
partially account for the fierce resistance so often offered 
by these classes to those who deprived them of liberty. If 
such an inhuman practice had been encouraged by other 
nations of the world, many of the greatest benefactors 
of the race would have been consigned to an untimely 
death, for some of the noblest men that have ever lived 
were weak in infancy. 

Education. — At six or seven the boy was taken from 
the home, and the State had entire jurisdiction over his 
education. The boys were placed in groups in charge of 
young men who were responsible for their education, 
which was almost wholly physical. They lived on very 
simple food, and were often obliged to appease hunger by 
theft. They were taught that crime did not lie in the com- 
mission of the offense, but in its detection. Their dress 
from seven to twel/e consisted of a long coat of very 
coarse material, the same for summer and winter. They 
were taught to bear blows without a murmur, and instances 
are related of boys being whipped to death without cry- 
ing out. 

Children sat at table with older men and listened to 
their conversation, but they were never allowed to speak 
except in answer to questions. Thus they absorbed wis- 
dom and were incited to deeds of bravery by the stories of 
heroism related by their seniors. 

The State furnished barracks poorly provided with the 
comforts of life, in which the boys slept in severe weather ; 
at other times they slept in the open air. They were 
wholly separated from their homes, and completely under 
control of the State. The purpose was to secure strong, 
beautiful, and supple bodies, inured to hardship, as a 



preparation for the life of the soldier. The only intellec- 
tual education was music, which consisted in playing the 
lyre as an accompaniment to the dance. Reading and 
writing were despised as bei^t, '^X only for slaves. 

At the age of twelve the boy exchanged the long coat 
for the mantle, thereby entering upon manhood. From 
this time until the age of thirty, much the same form of 
training was continued, though it became more definitely 
military. At thirty the Spartan youth became a citizen 
and was expected to marry. Girls also received gymnas- 
tic training, in many cases with the boys. The purpose of 
this was to develop strong and beautiful wives and mothers. 
The effect of this coeducation of the sexes was in the 
highest degree salutary, impurity among women being 
unknown in Sparta. We have already noted the patriotism 
of the Spartan mother. Woman was highly esteemed in 
the home. Her praises and her reproofs were alike 
respected, and all her opinions bore much weight. 

Criticism of Spartan Education. — i . It produced men 
and women of beautiful physique. 

2. It inculcated obedience, politeness, modesty, sobriety, 
respect for the aged, courage, and patriotism. 

3. It checked luxury and extravagance. 

4. On the other hand, it gave little attention to intel- 
lectual training, hence it produced few men of lasting 

5. Its aim was martial supremacy, and this attained, the 
State fell into a hasty decline because of the instability of 
such a foundation. 

6. It excluded a large part of the inhabitants from its 
benefits, only the nobles being included. 

7. It was selfish because it trained for Sparta and not 
for Greece, or for humanity. 

, ; 1 
i 1? 


I i: 




8. It taught the duty of man to the State, and not the 
duty of man to man. 

9. It took boys at an early age away from the influences 
of home, thus robbing the parents of the sacred preroga- 
tive of directing the education of their offspring. 

10. It produced men cruel in battle and revengeful in 
victory, men incapable of cultivating the arts of peace. 


There is so much that is mythical and uncertain con- 
cerning Lycurgus that many have doubted whether he ever 
lived. Curtius, however, says, " There really lived in the 
ninth century B.C. a legislator of the name of Lycufgus." 
Lycurgus formed the constitution which gave Sparta its 
peculiar institutions, and which established its place in 
history. His laws were intended to check luxury and to 
inculcate the simplest habits. Some of his important laws 
led to the introduction of the following customs : — 

1. All the men ate at common tables, fifteen at a table. 

2. Children sat at these tables, but were required to 
maintain silence save when addressed. They were not 
allowed to ask for food. The object was to teach them 
good manners, to inculcate implicit obedience, and to im- 
part to them the wisdom of the Spartan fathers. 

3. The food was of the simplest kind. 

4. Sparta was divided into nine thousand parts, a part 
for each of the nine thousand citizens, or noble families. 
The provinces under Spartan rule were divided into thirty 
thousand parts, a part for each Perioeci family. 

5. Iron was made the only m.oney, so that the people 
could not become rich ; for its great weight rendered bur- 
densome the possession of a considerable amount. 

6. All children belonged to the State, to which only 



soldiers were valuable, therefore weak or deformed children 
were cast out. Marriage was also controlled by the State. 
Lycurgus exerted a great influence upon Sparta, and his 
laws were responsible for her peculiar political system and 
her resulting greatness. 




Pythagoras, though not a Spartan, is associated with 
southern Greece. Little is known of his early life. He 
was born on the island of Samos, about b.c. 582. He was 
familiar with the Ionic philosophy, and probably visited 
Egypt for study, a custom common amorg scholars of that 
time. Such a visit would in part explain his knowledge of 
mathematics, as the Egyptians had long been masters in 
that science. One of his teachers was Thales, the father 
of philosophy. The fundamental thought of the Pythag- 
orean philosophy was the idea of proportion and harmony. 

" Through number alone, the quantitative relations of 
things, extension, magnitude, figure (triangular, quadran- 
gular, cubic), combination, distance, etc., obtain their 
peculiar character ; the forms and proportions of things 
can all be reduced to number. Therefore, it was concluded, 
since without form and proportion nothing can exist, 
number must be the principle of things themselves, as well 
as the order in which they manifest themselves in the 
world." (Schwegler's " History of Philosophy.") 

While mathematics was the central idea of his system, 
medicine, physics, and philosophy were also taught in his 
school. He did the world great service in the discovery 
of the so-called Pythagorean theorem in geometry, that 
the square of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is 
equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. 



!: 11; 

a: \\i 






Literature. — Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire ; Buryy The Roman 
Empire ; Churchy Pictures from Roman Life and Story ; Clarke^ Ten 
Great Religions ; Gibbon^ Decline and Fall of Roman Empire ; Lord, 
Beacon Lights; Capcs^ Roman Empire; Merivate, History of the 
Romans ; Shumway^ A Day in Ancient Rome ; Mommsen, History of 
Rome; Liddell, History of Rome; Ploetz, Epitome of Universal His- 
tory ; Gilman, Story of Rome ; Collins^ Ancient Classics. 

The Age of Augustus. — The history of Rome covers a 
period of a thousand years. From the little village on the 
Palatine Hill Rome grew to be the mightiest empire of 
the world. The " Age of Augustus " represents not only 
the summit of military glory, but also the highest civili- 
zation, and the noblest ideals of the Roman people. It 
was the age of Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Livy, and Seneca. 
Rome was at peace with the world, and therefore had time 
to devote to art, literature, and other intellectual pursuits. 
It was during this period that Christ was born. 

Like Sparta, Rome for a long time maintained her 
supremacy by force of arms, and therefore encouraged 
physical education, But when she became mistress of the 
world, and came in contact with the culture of the Greeks, 
she began to feel the need of an intellectual and aesthetic 
development. Accordingly it became the fashion to study 
Greek, to bring teachers from Athens to Rome, and to 
send young men to Athens to study. The Roman Eippire 
was therefore the medium through which Grecian culture 




was transmitted to the western world, and during the 
Augustan Age the center of learning was transferred from 
Athens to Rome. 

Gibbon says, " The first seven centuries were filled with 
a rapid succession of triumphs; but it was reserved for 
Augustus to relinquish the ambitious design of subduing 
the whole earth, and to introduce a spirit of moderation 
into the public councils."^ The Augustan Age shows 
Rome at her best, and a study of the educational system 
at that time will be most fruitful for the student of 

Geography and History. — We have seen that Rome 
began with a small territory in the center of Italy, and 
that province after province was added, until in the time 
of Augustus she ruled the world. Italy, the center of the 
empire, has a diversified surface, a mild climate, and a 
fertile soil. In the time of Augustus, the Roman Empire 
embraced all of the border of the Mediterranean, extended 
as far north as the North Sea, as far east as the Euphrates, 
as far south as the Sahara, and west to the Atlantic. 
With the great Mediterranean entirely under its control, 
including the seas, bays, and rivers tributary to it; with 
its rich territories; and with its vast population, which 
represented most of the enterprise and civilization of the 
world, — this great empire possessed wonderful advantages 
for the spread of Christianity, for the dissemination of 
intelligence, and for the improvement of the human race. 

The government of the Romans was generally some 
form of republic, the people always being jealous of their 
rights. Their religion took on gross forms of idolatry, 
for they readily adopted and worshiped the gods of the 
Grecians, Egyptians, and other conquered peoples. Tem- 

1 "Decline and Fall of the Roman. Empire," Vol. I, p. 2. 

I ' 

I 1 
I; i 

!: iR 

I % m 



pies to Faith, Hope, Concord, and other virtues were 
erected and maintained. The Romans were very super- 
stitious. These facts have a bearing upon Christian edu- 
cation, and will explain some of the chief difficulties which 
it had to encounter. 

The Home. — While in Athens the father had charge of 
the education of the boy in his early years, in Rome that 
duty devolved almost entirely upon the mother. In early 
Roman history the matron was celebrated for her virtues 
— fidelity to her husband, love for her children, and queenly 
guardianship of the sacred precincts of the home. The 
name of the Roman matron became a synonym of all 
that is noble, wifely, and motherly in the home. Without 
doubt the character had sadly deteriorated at the period of 
which we write, but there still remained with many the 
lofty ideals which had been fostered in earlier times. 

The husband was the head of tl house, but to the wife 
was committed the care of the children and their instruc- 
tion for the first six or seven years of their lives. She 
taught them strict obedience and politeness, and instructed 
them in the "Twelve Tables of Roman Law." ^ 

The mother also took great pains to teach her children 
correct pronunciation. She taught them their letters, — 

^ The "Twelve Tables " were formulated about B.C. 450. They constituted 
the code of written law, and were written or engraved on tables of wood. They 
settled usages long in practice, but never before written, defining the rij^hts 
oi plebeians and patricians. They were aj^reed to only after ten years of dis- 
pute and mutual concession. They resembled Solon's laws, owing, doubtless, 
to the commission which was sent to Greece to study the laws of that country. 
These tables were destroyed when the Gauls sacked Rome (B.C. 390), but 
their contents had been widely committed to memory, and were handed down 
from generation to generation. The mothers saw to it that these lavv? were 
early taught to their children, who thus came to venerate them and to have 
respect for authority. 



first the name and then the form, a practice which is peda- 
gogically false, as Quintilian pointed out. She also taught 
them poems from the great masters. In taking pains with 
pronunciation she prepared the way for later training in 
oratory, which was the most important study in Roman 

Only when Rome had begun to decay did mothers commit 
the trainin^^ of their children to nurses and slaves. When 
Rome was at her best, the child grew up in an atmosphere 
of love under direct care of the mother, who shaped his 
morals and guided his religious life as well as his early 
mental development. Around the mother centered all that 
was ennobling and elevating in the first seven years of the 
child's life. The father had but little to do with this 
period, and did not interfere with the mother's work. His 
duty lay in public life ; hers lay within the home, and 
well did she meet her responsibilities until the time of her 
debasement with all the other elements of Roman society. 

Elementary Education. — At six or seven years of age 
the child was sent to school in charge of a slave, who car- 
ried his books and protected him from harm. I'his was in 
imitation of the practice in Athens, where the pedagogue 
performed a like office. But the duties of the Roman slave 
do not seem to have been as responsible as those of the 
Athenian pedagogue. As we have seen, in Rome the 
mothers looked after the morals of their children with 
great care, and the attendant of the child to school was 
regarded as but little else than a servant. In some of the 
wealthier and more aristocratic families, however, in addi- 
tion to the slave who performed the menial duties men- 
tioned, there was also a pedagogue who attended the youth 
to school and to the theater, superintended his games, and, 
in short, accompanied him wherever he went. This peda- 






gogue was intrusted with full power to discipline and to 
direct the morals of his charge. In some cases several 
boys were placed in the care of the same pedagogue. 
On the other hand, it often happened that a boy had a 
whole retinue of slaves, each having his special duty to 

The schools were in charge of litemtors^ usually men of 
little culture and no social standing. These institutions 
were public, though supported by private means. The 
discipline was severe, strict obedience being exacted by 
the teacher, who made use of the rod when he thought it 
necessary. The subjects taught were reading, writing, and 
arithmetic. Great care was taken with pronunciation, just 
as had been done in the early years under the mother's 
instruction. In writing, the characters were traced with 
the stylus on waxed tablets. Arithmetic was learned for 
its utility. Indeed, the whole purpose of the schools was 
to prepare the children for practical life. The easier poets 
were read, explained, and committed to memory, not so 
much for their content as to fit youth for public speaking. 
Obedience, politeness, modesty, cleanliness, and respect 
for teachers were virtues insisted upon. These schools, 
which covered the instruction of children from five to 
twelve years of age, did not, as already intimated, reach 
the very highest classes, who preferred to employ private 

Secondary Education. — At twelve the boy entered a 
school taught by an educated man, called literatus. Many 
of the teachers of this class were Greeks. Here, in addition 
to the studies of the elementary school, the pupils were 
taught the Greek and Latin languages ; and the poets, 
history, oratory, philosophy, and criticism were also studied. 
The school of the literatus was much better than that of 



the literator^ but it reached only a limited number of the 
Roman youth. 

Higher Education. — Upon entering his sixteenth year, 
the boy was inducted with ceremony into the dignity of 
manhood, and was clothed with the toga viriiis, the 
dress of men. He now chose his calling and began 
definite preparation for it. Five vocations were open to 
him, — namely, oratory, politics, arms, law, and agriculture. 
Those without talent or inclination for any of the others 
devoted themselves to agriculture. They were taken to 
the farms, where they received definite instruction in the 
principles and practices of this occupation. To those who 
chose oratory, politics, or law, were assigned persons ex- 
perienced in their respective fields, and the boys were 
taken to the forum, the senate, and other places where 
they could hear renowned orators and become familiar 
with public life. They had also definite instruction in 
their chosen branch. Those who entered the army were 
placed in charge of military officers, who taught them 
military tactics and the practical duties of life in camp. 
These learners also gave attention to oratory and other 
intellectual studies. 

It will thus appear that in their schools, as in life, 
the Romans were thoroughly practical. Each boy was 
carefully prepared for the life which he had chosen, by 
being inducted into it during his school course. Cicero 
asked the question, " What have we to learn .'' " and 
answered it, " To honor and strengthen the State, in order 
that we may become the rulers of the world." Roman 
parents demanded that their children should be trained in 
the practical duties of life, in order that they might know 
how to become rich. Therefore all training for children 
was in this direction. 


i _ 


I .Xi 



While this in general ^as the purpose of education, the 
Romans had their ideal of what an educated man should 
be, and that ideal found its expression in the name of 
orator. He who was the best orator was the best educated 
man. The schools, however, were for boys, little account 
being taken of the education of girls except in house- 
hold duties. Still, women were more respected, and had 
wider privileges than they had before enjoyed. Most of 
the wealthy citizens employed Greek tutors for their sons, 
and sought to ape Grecian manners and culture. Educa- 
tion was completed by study in Athens and by travel — 
advantages within reach only of the very wealthy. 

Criticism of Roman Education. — i. It took great care to 
instill respect for law and obedience to parental and civil 

2. It honored the home and taught respect for the 
mother. In this, Rome took a great step in advance over 
many nations of antiquity. 

3. It was not a State institution, and therefore could not 
offer equal advantages to all. 

4. Its end was to prepare the youth for practical life 
and to fit him for the acquirement of wealth, rather than 
for the development of all the human powers. 

5. It was superficial, and sought to apply Greek culture 
to Roman conditions and character. 

6. it did not take a strong hold upon the Roman people 
so as to shape the course of the nation. 

7. It ignored the claims of the masses, including women, 
to equal education and equal rights. 




Literature. — (See Literature, Chapter XI . ) Forsyth^ Life of Cicero ; 
Spofford, Library of Hiscorical Characters ; IVatson, Quintilian's Insti- 
tutes (Pedagogy, in Bks. I & II). 

CICERO 1 (B.C. 106-43) 

Cicero was born b.c. 106, of noble parents. As a 
boy he had the advantage of the best schools and 
teachers that Rome could furnish. Later he studied 
at Athens, under the greatest Greek masters, and be- 
came proficient in the Greek language. According to 
the common practice among the better classes in Rome, he 
spent some time in travel to complete his education, visit- 
ing Egypt, Asia Minor, and other parts of the known world. 
But Cicero's education can hardly be said to have been 
" completed " as long as he lived, for he remained a student 
even in the midst of his most exacting duties of State, and 
often employed teachers, especially in oratory. Forsyth 
says of him, " Philosophy and oratory seem to have been 
the two chief objects of his study ; but if of any man 
before Bacon appeared that might be said which the 
great master of modern philosophy claimed for himself, 
that he * had taken all knowledge for his province,' it 
might be truly declared ol the youthful Cicero. His 
appetite for knowledge was insatiable, and his desire for 
distinction boundless."^ 

* Forsyth, " Life cf Cicero." This is a very complete, just, and discrimi- 
nating treatment of Cicero and his relation to the times in which he lived. 
2 « Life of Cicero," Vol. I, p. 30. 

HIST. OF ED. — 6 81 




Becoming an advocate in Rome, he devoted himself 
chiefly to the defense of men high in position, often those 
who were charged with bribery, extortion, or other abuse of 
political trust. Some of his finest orations were delivered 
on these occasions. In the meantime he lost no oppor- 
tunity to advance his own political interests. He was elected 
to one office after another until he reached the height of 
his political ambition, — the consulship of Rome, the loftiest 
position attainable by the Roman citizen. As consul he 
devoted himself with such zeal, integrity, and success as to 
win the title " Father of his Country." While he held this 
office he exposed the conspiracy of Catiline and saved 
Rome from civil war. He conducted the office with 
honesty and efficiency. Indeed, at a time of great corrup- 
tion, Cicero stands out during his entire life of nearly 
sixty-four years as the purest patriot, the broadest-minded 
statesman, the noblest man of the age. PI is honesty in 
public or private life is unquestioned. Of his intellectual 
greatness Forsyth says, ** The greatness of his intellect 
dwarfed that of every other man alive." ^ 

That he was vain of his accomplishments admits of no 
doubt. That he also sometimes lacked moral courage 
and was vacillating seems also true. But he was incor- 
ruptible in a corrupt age ; above reproach when impure 
life was the rule , and when treason was common, he 
remained a firm patriot. His celebrated *' Philippics " were 
delivered against practices which indicated the approach- 
ing ruin of the republic. That ruin was complete when 
the Second Triumvirate was formed, — an event which 
also sealed the doom of Cicero. Upon learning that he 
was proscribed, Cicero attempted to escape from Italy, but 
was overtaken and assassinated. His head and hands 

1 Vol. II, p. 213. 



were carried to Rome and presented to Antony, who gave 
the head to his wife, Fulvia, whose crimes Cicero had 
often rebuked. Forsyth says, " She took it, and pkicing 
it on her lap, addressed it as if it were alive, in vords of 
bitter insult. She dragged out the tongue, whose sarcasms 
she had so often felt, and with feminine rage pierced it 
with her bodkin. It was then taken and nailed to the 
rostra, together with the hands, to molder there in 
mockery of the triumphs of his eloquence, of which that 
spot had so often been the scene. A sadder sight was 
never gazed upon in Rome." ^ 

Cicero*s Pedagogy. — It is not as a teacher, but as a 
writer, tnat Cicero demands a place in educational history. 
His writings furnish the finest examples of Latin style, 
and his orations are studied for their classic beauty and 
rhetorical finish. He wrote many philosophical works, in 
which are set forth advanced ideas on education. Espe- 
cially was he in advance of his age in regard to the pun- 
ishment of children. He held that corporal punishment 
should be resorted to only when all else has failed ; that 
the child should not be degraded in the mode of punish- 
ment; that punishment should never be administered in 
anger, should be deferred until ample time for reflection 
has been allowed to both teacher and pupil ; and that 
reasons for it should be given, so that, if possible, the 
child may be led to see the justice of the punishment 
inflicted. The teachings of Cicero on this subject are of 
great pedagogical importance, and they have at last come 
to be recognized in the school practice of the present day. 

While these were Cicero's most important pedagogical 
teachings, he also taught many other truths valuable in 
education. Among them are these : that education begins 

1 Vol. II, p. 317. 




1:! :!| 



in childhood, and is a steady growth throughout life ; that 
memory should be cultivated by learning extracts from 
classic authors; that great care should be taken to make 
the amusements and environments of the child such as lo 
elevate and refine, as well as properly to develop its 
powers ; that at the suitable time some calling should be 
chosen for which the youth has evident fitness ; that re- 
ligion is the basis of morals, therefore careful attention 
should be given to religious instruction. 

SENECA (B.C. 3-A.D. 65) 

Seneca was one of the most distinguished men that 
Rome produced. Even as a boy he showed remarkable 
talent, and his father furnished him the best educational 
opportunities by placing him under the greatest masters 
in the city. He also had the benefit of travel in Greece 
and Egypt, after which he practiced liiw in Rome. The 
student of education is interested in Seneca chiefly as the 
tutor of Nero, who was committed to his charge at the age 
of eleven. Without doubt the lad had already formed 
vicious habits, as his teacher had great trouble in manag- 
ing him; nor did Seneca eradicate those evil tendencies 
which bore such terrible fruit in Nero's later years. 

Nero retained his love for his teacher for a long time, 
keeping him as a trusted counselor for several years. 
Seneca drew up all of Nero's state papers, among others 
one defending the crime of matricide, Nero having put his 
own mother to dcj ith. This brought deserved odium 
upon Seneca's name. It indicates that he was a time- 
server, lacking moral independence and firmness. This 
may explain his failure in the training of his royal pupil. 
Nero himself wearied of his old teacher and frica I xnd 



condemned him to death. Seneca, however, committed 
suicide, a mode of death quite in accord with his Stoic 

Seneca was the most eminent writer, rhetorician, and 
orator of his time. He anticipated many modern ethical 
teachings, and in some of (lis writings we find a strong 
religious sentiment, quite like that of Christianity, leading 
one to think that he may have been influenced by Christ 
^nd his nisclples, with whom he was contemporary. On 
ttle other hand, some of his teachings are decidedly repul- 
sive to Christianity. 

Seneca*s Pedagogy. — i . Like Cicero, he believed that 
punishment should be mild and reasonable. " Who con- 
demns quickly, condemns willingly ; and who punishes too 
much, punishes improperly." 

2. The office of education is to correct the evil tenden- 
cies in the child. 

3. The character of each child must be studied, and 
each individual should be developed according to his 

4. Do not flatter the child, but teach him truthfulness, 
modesty, and respect for his elders. 

5. Take great care that the environment of the child is 
elevating, and allow only pure and ennobling examples to 
be reflected before him. 

6. Give the child but few studies, in order that he may 
be thorough and acquire right habits of learning. 

7. The office of teacher is one of the most important of 
all offices. "What the teacher, who instructs us in the 
sciences, ^mparts to us in noble effort and intellectual 
culture, is worth more than he receives ; for, not the 
matter, but the trouble ; not the desert, but only the 
labor, is paid for. . . . Such a man, who consecrates his 





whole being to our good, and who awakens our dormant 
faculties, is deserving all the esteem that we give a benevo- 
lent physician or our most loved and dearest ki dred." 


No other Roman contributed so much pedagogy to the 
world as Quintilian. He was born in Spain, but early 
moved to Rome, in order to be trained in the atmosphere 
of culture which that city alone afforded. His education 
was conducted by his father, a celebrated rhetorician, to 
whom he owed the particular direction of his powers 
which afterward made him so famous. He chose the 
law as a profession, because it offered the best opportunity 
for the exercise of oratory. Not finding the practice of 
law congenial, he soon abandoned it, and devoted his time 
to teaching. He founded a school at Rome, and con- 
ducted it with great success for twenty years, having 
for pupils children from the most distinguished patrician 
families. Among these were the grandnephews of Domi- 
tian, possible heirs to the throne. This was the best 
school in Rome at that time. Vespasian honored Quin- 
tilian by creating for him a chair of rhetoric and con- 
ferring upon him the title " Professor of Oratory." This 
is the first instance in history of State endowment of 
a chair for teaching a specific subject. Royal recognition 
was not without effect upon the fortunes of Quintilian, as 
it placed him in the front rank of the teachers of Rome. 

^ Authorities differ as to the dates of Quintilian's birth and death, placing 
his birth at from A.D. 35 to 42, and his death from A.D. 95 to I2C^ Drieser, 
who is perhaps the best authority, places his birth at a.d. 35, but does not fix 
the date of his death, which, however, was probably much later than A.D. 95 
-as he lived to a ripe old age. 



This, together with his subject, the teaching and mastery 
of which were considered by the Romans to be the climax 
of education, enabled him to wrest supremacy from the 
Greek teachers who so long had enjoyed a monopoly of 
teaching in the city. 

When fifty-three years of age, Quintilian retired from 
his school, and devoted himself to authorship. In the first 
two books of his great work, " Institutes of Oratory," ^ he 
sets forth his ideas on education. This is the most remark- 
able treatise on education bequeathed to us by antiquity. 

He taught that as oratory was the climax of Roman 
education, especial attention should be given to it. He 
was not in sympathy with the prevailing use that was made 
of oratory. Oratorical contests were frequent, and they 
excited popular interest. Courts, lawyers, and public 
speakers resorted to all the tricks of speech to win popular 
favor, and audiences demanded something startling, dra- 
matic, and unusual. Quintilian tried to stay this tide, and 
taught that oratory should conceal itself. He met, how- 
ever, with poor success in reforming the evil. 

Quintilian's Pedagogy. — His pedagogical teachings, some 
of which we present, are of the greatest importance. 

1. There should be no corporal punishment, as punish- 
ment administered to slaves is not suitable for children 
who are to be citizens. 

2. Nurses must be irreproachable in life and language, 
so that children be not brought 'xi contact with anything 

3. Amusements should be turned to account as a means 
of education. 

4. Teachers should be men of ability and of spotless 

1 Institutio Oratoria. 




5. Children should begin early with a foreign tongue, 
as their own language will come to them naturally in their 
intercourse with those about them. 

6. Education should begin with the earliest childhood. 

7. The forms and names of the letters should be learned 
simultaneously, playthings being utilized to assist in this. 

8. Care should be taken that children do not acquire a 
distaste for learning. 

9. In learning to read, advance very slowly. 

10. Writing should begin with tracing, and the copies 
should consist of moral precepts. 

1 1. The individuality of the child should be studied. 

12. Public schools are preferable to other means of edu- 
cation, because they do not subject the child to greater 
moral danger, whi^.e they stimulate him by association, 
friendship, and example, to nobler endeavor. 

13. Under the literatiis, grammar, composition, music, 
geometry, astronomy, and literature are to be studied. 

14. The climax of education should be rhetoric. 



Literature. — Bryce, Holy Roman Empire ; Guisot^ History of Civili- 
zation ; Lord^ Beacon Lights ; Sheppard, Fall of Rome ; Draper, Con- 
flict between Religion and Science; Clarke, Ten Great Religions; 
Gibbon, Decline and Fall of Roman Empire ; Laurie, Rise of Universi- 
ties ; UtilU, Studies in Mediaeval History ; Arnold, Essays in Criticism ; 
Lecky^ History of European Morals ; Hegel, Pliilosophy of History. 



i. \ 


Oriental civilization was based on the theory that the 
Individual belonged to the State, and could have no interest 
except that which was bound up in the interests of the 
State. Christianity, on the other hand, taught that while 
the individual has duties which he owes to the State, and 
while he must h)ok to the State for his plotection, and for 
the preservation of his material intercBts, he owes a higher 
allegiance elsewhere, and no fetters can be placed on the 
aspirations or wants of his own soul. In a word, Christi- 
anity taught the importance and worth of the individual. 

The great teachers, Confucius, Buddha, Socrates, Plato, 
had many glimpses of truth, but Christ is truth itself. He 
discovered to the world the final principle of the value of 
the human soul, and brought to fruition the truth that "all 
men are equal before God." This thought made human 
development possible; a new principle was introduced 




upon which civilization could build and advance, and im- 
prove to the end of time. Perhaps the highest test of 
civilization is found in the respect shown to women. 
Measured by this test, the oriental nations ha\e made but 
little progress, as the position of woman with them is much 
th(! same to-day as it was centuries ago. While this is 
true ot each individual nation, we have found among the 
nations themselves, as we have traced the growth of civili- 
zation, steady improvement in the condition of woman. 
Thus, in Athens and Rome, where we find the highest 
types of ancient civilization, there was also the greatest 
respect for woman. In no country of the East was it 
equaled. If the Jews aie mentioned as an exception, it 
must be admitted that the Jewish women held the highest 
place among those of antiquity ; but this eminence was 
given by the Jews only to the women of their own race, 
and was by no means universally accor . ^d to womankind, 
as If is by the spirit of Christianity. If we discover a 
greater respect tor woman in Rome or Athens than in 
China or India, it only shows the movement of civilization 
toward the west. 

The comini': of Christ marked a new era both in religion 
and education Let us look at some of the lessons which 
Christianity teaches. 

1. God is the conunon Father of all men. — This does 
not limit the blessings of the world to the Jew and ex- 
clude the Gentile. All men of whatever race or color 
may approach God as their Father, and all are equal in 
his sight. This gives hope to all, and makes possible an 
exercise of faith in the present and in the future life. 
It proclaims a higher citizenship than that of the State, 
and demands allegiance first of all to God. 

2. The universal brotiierJiood of man. — This principle 

CHRirrriAX i^ducat/ojv 


sweeps away castes, abolls les slavery, destroys class dis- 
tinctions, and gives equal rights to all mm. It stimulates 
love tor fellow-men, checks selfishness, promulgates pea(^e 
and good will, and implants the spirit of the Golden Rule 
in the iiearts of men. 

3. Marria<re is a divine rite and linsband and n ife arc 
equal. — Nothing like this teaching had been practiced in 
the pagan world. Woman v as simj)ly the servant, the crea- 
ture, of man. She was to do his bidding, and might 
be divorced for trivial cause, or for none. Man was 
supreme and his will was law The home in the Christian 
sense did not exist, because the husband and wife were 
not one. 

4. Childrrn are the gif* of God. — This vas a Jewish as 
well as a Christian teaching. If chil(^ on are the gift of 
God, the power of life and death over them cannot rest 
with the father, as in China, Persia, or Rome. It is the 
duty of the father to preserve them, teach them, train 
then) for this life, and prepare them for the life to come. 
Since the children come from God, the pious jiarent must 
consider them as a sacred trust which he docs not neglect. 
Hence he must see to it that they are pro])erly educated. 

5. The central pedagogic truth of Christ's teaching is 
this: All education is for the individual. Oriental edu- 
cation had for its end the interests of the State. Christian 
education has for its end the interests of the individual. 
The State is the creature of man, and not man the creature 
of the State. Man will create, and support, and preserve 
the State for his self-protection and for his own good. 
The highest ideal of the State is that in which the people 
rule, that which furnishes the greatest liberty. This is 
the logic of Christianity, and the logical concUision of 
education. It is really for the individual. The world 












1.0 ^^ ^ 

"* m 12.2 

1.1 l.-^'^" 

— II& 

M ijiml!£ 





WnSTn,N.Y. 145M 



4^ 4^ 







i -.. . 




; 'h 

■%,'■., -■ 



':■.■,.'■■■ ''' 


■ . - ^ 

' ; ■ ■-■ : ' '' ;.:■':; 


■„■■';: '<.f- .". 




has been slow to learn this lesson taught by Christ ; but 
now it is mastering it more thoroughly every day, as shown 
by the more liberal forms of government, the broader in- 
terpretation of courses of study, and the greater attention 
to the needs of the individual child. 

All these teachings of Christianity hJLve a direct educa- 
tional meaning, and suggest lessons for all humanity. For 
the school is not the only contributor to the education of a 
people. Every truth that affects mankind, every principle 
that touches the home or the State, has its influence upon 
the life and character of the individual, and is, therefore, 
an element in his education. 

The natural consequence of these principles is that edu- 
cation must be universal. Every child must be fitted for 
the duties of life, both for his own sake and for the sake 
of the State of which he is a part. As an individual, he 
must work out his destiny, and to make this possible in the 
broadest and best sense from the Christian standpoint both 
mind and heart must be developed. As a member of the 
State he must assume duties in public affairs which require 
the possession of superior intelligence. This is particularly 
true in free governments which are the logical product of 
the spirit of Christianity. While the idea of universal 
education had its beginning with the Christian era, we 
shall see that many centuries elapsed before it reached its 
fulfillment. There were many serious and almost insur- 
mountable obstacles against which the early Christians 
had to contend, and these made progress necessarily slow. 
Let us look at some of these obstacles. 

Their Poverty. — The early Christians were almost with- 
out exception poor. Christ appealed to the poor and 
lowly, and chose his disciples from among them. The 
acknowledged followers of the Nazarene had to face 

'.- .^JL'.i. 




confiscation of property, persecution, death. Homeless 
and without protection they wandered about, ai.d had 
neither the opportunity nor the right to acquire property. 
They, therefore, had little means to apply to the education 
of their children. They could neither establish schools nor 
employ teachers ; they could give only such instruction as 
the limitations of their poverty, their misery, and their fear 
permitted. Consequently, only the most meager training 
could be secured, and that almost wholly in religious 

Their Own Ignorance. — Chosen as they were from the 
lowly ranks of life, many of the early Christians were 
ignorant. Most of them were servants and slaves, who 
had been converted from paganism, and who did not 
possess even the rudiments of education. They had to be 
instructed in the rites and ceremonies of the Church, and 
in the practices and requirements of their new belief. 
Unlettered as they were themselves, they could scarcely 
undertake to educate their children. It is marvelous that 
under these conditions any attempt was made to do it ; 
yet we find that great pains were taken even in the early 
centuries of the Christian era to perform this duty toward 
those who were regarded as gifts of God and heirs of 

Their Small Number. — Even When free from perse- 
cution and under comparatively happy conditions, they 
were so scattered and so few in number, as well as 
so poor, that to maintain schools was almost an impossi- 
bility. They would not permit their children to attend the 
pagan schools, as they feared moral and intellectual con- 
tamination. The only safety, especially for the converts 
from paganism, was in being " separate from the world " 
about them. So where their numbers were sufficient they 




established schools of their own. But in many communi- 
ties they could not do this; hence they could only teach 
their children at home. 

Opposition of the Rulers. — Rome, ruled the world, and 
her highways, her commerce, her military expeditions, 
and her mighty enterprises furnished excellent means for 
the spread of Christianity. But while Rome had many 
religions, adopted from her conquered peoples, Chris- 
tianity was so different from these that the rulers were 
readily brought to regard the Christians with suspicion. 
Humility, returning good for evil, refusal to avenge, were 
contrary to the Roman spirit. Therefore many persecu- 
tions followed, which disturbed the life of the Christians so 
as to make impossible the work of educating their children. 

Lack of Christian Literature. — The early Christian 
Fathers fully realized the dangers that surrounded their chil- 
dren. To come in contact with pagan schools, or even with 
pagan literature, they felt to be dangerous. How easy 
it would be for pagan converts to fall away, or even for 
others not pagan, attracted by popular influences. For 
Christianity was not yet popular. Hence the only safety 
of the converts lay in totally abstaining from the use of 
pagan literature. Here was introduced a discussion that 
affected the Church and educational progress for centu- 
ries, and caused learned men when converted to abjure their 
favorite authors who had furnished the material for their 
education in their early years. Having no literature of 
their own, and condemning the use of pagan literature, the 
Christians found it hard to overcome the obstacles which 
stood in the way of Christian education. As a result, 
almost the only things taught to children were certain parts 
of the Bible, and the rites and duties of the Church. 

Other Difficulties. — New ideas do not readily take hold 



of the world. Men naturally cling to the old and tried, 
and are not easily turned to new thoughts and practices. 
The teachings of Christ were so radically new that men 
were slow to adopt them. Their acceptance involved a 
change of habit, the abandonment of customs not before 
regarded as evil, the yielding up of social caste, the hum- 
bling of the individual. Herein existed a most serious ob- 
stacle to the establishment of Christian education. 

These are a few of the great difficulties that had to be 
met, many of which were not overcome for centuries. We 
shall see, as we trace the development of education, how 
the new ideas which had their birth with the Christian era 
struggled for recognition, how they have become estab- 
lished, how they have brought great blessings to mankind, 
how they have aroused ambition and awakened hope, and 
how they give promise of still greater advancement in 
times to come. The boundless field thus opened to man- 
kind, and the knowledge of how to enter and possess it, 
constitute the world's great inheritance from Christ. But 
to know how to appreciate and use this inheritance, we 
must study the slow and painful growth of these new 
educational ideals from the Christian era till the present 







Literature. — The Bible ; Beechery Life of Christ ; Hanna^ Our Lord's 
Lif^ on Earth ; Geikie^ Life of Christ. 

Life and Character. — Christ was born in Bethlehem, 
spent his early life at Nazareth, entered upon his ministry 
when thirty years of age, continued it for three years, and 
was then crucified by the Romans at the instigation of the 
Jews. These are simple facts of history corroborated by 
both sacred and profane writings. All agree that his was 
the most noble character that ever appeared on earth. 
The most careful study of his 11 'e for nineteen centuries, 
by friends and enemies, by scholars and critics, by philoso- 
phers and statesmen, by Christians and unbelievers, only 
adds to its luster, and sustains the conviction that, though 
he was a man, he was also more than man. The most 
critical research, the most careful examination of his life, 
his motives, his teachings, only compel the testimony 
that he was " without spot or blemish." The great have 
studied his sayings and his life, and have bowed in 
admiration before the sublime teachings of the Son of Man. 
The simple and unlettered have listened to his words 
of truth and been comforted. Faith has been awakened, 
hope inspired, love quickened, and man redeemed by the 
power of the Christ. Millions have been influenced by the 
sweetness and purity of his life. The spirit of Christianity 
has led to the founding of hospitals, asylums, and institu- 


t ,-i^kx^^ t U. J>A^ A 

1^^ ^^llu-f=_&^^M,^ a 

it.1 l4 ,*:. A' 




tions of mercy everywhere ; to the establishment of schools 
and colleges ; to the universal spread of education ; to the 
uplifting of the individual ; to the furtherance of human 
brotherhood; and to the fostering of peace among men 
and nations. 

Christ produced a profound impression alike upon the 
great and the small. Rousseau says of him, "The life 
and death of Jesus Christ are those of a god." Napoleon 
says of Christ, " His birth and the story of his life ; the 
profoundness of his doctrine, which overturns all difficul- 
ties, and is their most complete solution ; his gospel ; the 
singularity of his mysterious being; his appearance, his 
empire, his progress through all centuries and kingdoms, — 
all this is to me a prodigy, an unfathomable mystery. I 
defy you to cite another life like that of Christ." It has well 
been said that " Christ is the God who is man, and the man 
who is God." 

Nor was the impression upon the lowly less profound. 
He called ignorant fishermen to discipleship, and by three 
years' contact and instruction prepared them to " go into 
the world and teach all nations." The inspiration of his 
life and teachings made them able to stand before kings, 
and to " confound the wisdom of the wise." 

His Work as a Teacher. — But the question here is not 
concerning Christ as the founder of a religion, nor of his 
divine character or life, but of Christ as a teacher. He is 
justly entitled to be called "The Great Teacher." Karl 
Schmidt says, " By his doctrines and through his deeds, 
— in and with his entire life, — is Christ the teacher and 
educator of humanity." His method is the foundation of 
all true teaching. Let us note some of the important 
characteristics of this method. 

I. // was suited to his hearers. — When Christ taught 

HIST. OF ED. — 7 










the people he used material that they could comprehend. 
Thus, when he spoke his parable of the sower, while he 
sat by the seaside, the multitude before him had gathered 
from the villages and farms of the country round about. 
They therefore could thoroughly appreciate the lesson. 
His parable of the vineyard was doubtless suggested by 
the vine-clad hills cf Judea, and the lessons taught were 
made more forcible by their suitableness. In his conver- 
sation with the learned Nicodemus he plunged at once into 
the most profound doctrines, but when he talked with the 
ignorant Samaritan woman, his approach to the truth he 
would teach was most simple and gradual. No one ever 
failed to understand him, and he is a most remarkable 
example of the teacher suiting himself to the capacity of 
his pupils. 

2. It was full of illustrations. — When he wished to 
teach the evil oi covetousness he told of the rich man and 
his barns ; he encouraged faithfulness by the parable of the 
talents ; he stimulated to fruit bearing by the story of the 
fig tree ; he taught mercy by the account of the Good 
Samaritan ; joy over repentance was illustrated by the 
story of the ninety and nine. And so we find that by 
ample and suitable illustration the Savior enforced the 
sublime truths that he taught. 

3. // was simple and yet logical. — There was no effort 
to be philosophical, yet the teachings of Christ are full 
of philosophy. The language used and the manner of 
putting the truth were so simple that the ignorant man 
and the child were never left in doubt as to his meaning. 
Nevertheless his teaching was not haphazard ; it was 
connected and logical. It contained so much of truth, so 
systematically put and so rriuch to the point in view, that, 
while it appealed at once to the understanding of his 





hearers, it also furnished material for thought for the most 
learned of all ages. Whether it was a parable or a story, 
an admonition or a rebuke, a sermon or a prayer, a word 
of comfort to the sisters of Bethany or an argument with 
the chief priests, a familiar conversation with his disciples 
or a stern rebuke of the scribes and Pharisees, — Christ 
always expressed himself with simplicity and clearness. 

4. // drew from Nature. — Christ loved to walk in the 
fields with his disciples and draw lessons from the plants, 
the birds, the sowing of the farmer, the gathering of fruit 
from the vineyard, the ripening harvests, and the whi^^per- 
ing breezes. " Consider the lilies of the field how they 
grow ; " " behold the fowls of the air ; " *' a sower went 
forth to sow ; " "a certaiii man had a fig tree planted in 
his vineyard ; and he came and sought fruit thereon and 
found none ; " " lift up your eyes and look on the fields; 
for they are white already to harvest ; " " the wind bloweth 
where it listeth," — these and many other texts show that 
Christ was familiar with Nature, and loved to call upon her 
for illustration and example. 

5. It elevated the truth and sought to enforce it. — Christ 
gave himself a sacrifice for the truth. He allowed no 
thought of personal safety or success to overshadow the 
truth. All his words, his acts, his teachings, aimed at 
establishing the truth. He overthrew old systems and 
introduced a new spirit into the world, even the spirit 
of truth. He was the very essence of truth, declaring 
to Thomas, " I am the way, the truth, and the life." He 
thus gave to teachers for all time a noble example and 
an immortal principle, vital to their success in true teach- 
ing. It is the tJiitJi that must be taught and practiced by 
every one worthy of the name of teacher. 

6. // was earnest and full of sympathy. — The earnest- 

ly , '. 






> A 




ness of Christ aroused the populace to shout " Hosanna I " 
and provoked the bitter hostility of his enemies. It drew 
multitudes into the wilderness and attracted crowds wher- 
ever he went. His sympathy went out to the people 
as " sheep having no shepherd." It led him to feed 
the multitude, heal the sick, raise the dead, take little 
children in his arms and bless them, and weep over 
Jerusalem. He came close to the lives and hearts of 
those whom he instructed. This is one of the grandest 
lessons that the Great Teacher left for teachers of all 

These are some of the chief characteristics of Christ's 
spirit and method. He loved little children, and taught 
his disciples, when he had set a little child in the midst of 
them, " Whosoever, therefore, shall humble hhnself as this 
little child, the same is greatest in the kingdom of heaven." 
Every one of the principles above stated is essential to the 
teacher, and these principles contain the sum and sub- 
stance of all true pedagogy. Well has Karl Schmidt ex- 
pressed the truth, when he says, "Christ, the perfect 
teacher, gave by his example and by his own teaching the 
eternal principles of pedagogy." 


r- Tpil^ppi^jp 




.; I 

<f * i 

This period covered the time from the birth of Christ 
till the Reformation. It included the early centuries of 
struggling Christianity, in which old customs had to be 
combated, and the new ideas, born with the coming of 
the Savior, and propagated by him and his followers, 
were slowly and surely to take possession of the world. 
These fifteen centuries embrace those known in history 
as the " Dark Ages," during which progress was in- 
deed slow. But when we remember the obstacles which, 
as we have seen, were to be met, the prejudice to be 
set aside, the great changes inaugurated, and the limited 
means at command, we marvel at the great results at- 
tained. Let us now briefly examine some of the factors 
that are prominent in Christian education during its 
first period. 

I. The apostles and Church Fathers were foremost in 
all educational matters. — These men were not simply 
spiritual leaders; they caught the spirit of the Master, 
and sought to instruct the head as well as the heart. 
They established schools and themselves became teachers, 
directed educational movements, formed courses of study, 
and by fostering education furthered the success and 
perpetuity of Christianity. Men like Pa;:l, Origen, 
Chrysostom, Basil the Great, and Augustine did much 








good, not only in buildin^j up the Church, but also in 
promoting education, the chief handmaid of the Church. 
Indeed, all educational progress during the early Chris- 
tian centuries centers around the names of these men. 

2. The Church ivas the sponsor of the schools. — During 
this long period the State had not yet assumed the obliga- 
tion of educating her youth, and we find only rare instances 
of the State taking any part in the training of the young. 
No attempt at universal education was made, and none 
could be made, for the Church could not furnish the 
means to do it ; consequently nearly all educational 
effort was directed to training the priesthood and pro- 
viding for the perpetuity of the Church. The Church 
was the mother of the schools, and to her fostering 
care alone do we owe their establishment and main- 
tenance during this long period. Her authority was 
supreme, and acknowledged by all temporal powers ; 
hence the subjects studied in the schools and the per- 
sons chosen to share the benefits of education were 
such as would subserve the interests of the Church. 

3. The monasteries rendered valuable sou ice to educa- 
tion. — They were long the centers of learning, being the 
only places where schools existed. They were the re- 
positories of valuable manuscripts, which were copied 
with marvelous diligence and preserved for future 
generations. The monasteries adopted courses of study 
which, however incomplete, were eflficiently carried out, 
and formed the basis of future courses. The influence 
of the monasteries for many centuries was of great 
value to learning. 

4. The crusades brought new life into education. — 
While the crusades were primarily religious move- 
ments, they were also educational in their results. They 


infused new life into the stagnant conditions of Europe. 
They aroused the people to physical and mental, as 
well as religious, activity. They led to the establish- 
ment of schools and universities. 

5. The Teutonic peoples were tlie chief instrument of prog- 
ress. — Rome began to decline, and the Teutons of the 
north, whom Rome had never been able to subjugate, be- 
came her conquerors. The Latin race had served a great 
purpose in the world's history, but now a better, purer, and 
nobler race took up the work of civilization. The physi- 
cal and intellectual vigor of the various branches of the 
Teutonic family, — the German, the Anglo-Saxon, the 
Scandinavian, — which has won for them leadership in 
evangelization, in commerce, in educational enterprise, 
showed itself unmistakably during the period under dis- 
cussion. These peoples alone were capable of assuming 
the ever increasing responsibilities of Christian civilization, 
and happy was it for the cause of education that its de- 
velopment was so largely intrusted to the Teutons. 

These are the principal agencies to which were com- 
mitted the most vital interests of humanity during the 
first fifteen centuries of the Christian era. We shall see 
that some grave errors were made, errors that blocked 
the path of improvement sometimes for centuries ; we 
shall find that narrowness, bigotry, prejudice, and igno- 
rance often hindered the introduction of truth because it 
did not coincide with tradition ; we shall see how the 
Church assumed prerogatives that did not belong to her. 
especially in the field of scientific research, and thereby 
delayed human progress ; nevertheless, we shall ever 
remain thankful to these agencies for the encouragement 
they gave to education, and for whatever good results they 
were instrumental in attaining. 







Literature. — White, Eighteen Christian Centuries ; Durrell, A New 
Life in Education ; Laurie^ Rise of Uni^ ^rsities ; Lecky, History of 
European Morals. 

We have already seen that the early Christians were 
obliged to endure great hardships and surmount great dif- 
ficulties in securing education for their children. Indeed, 
during the first two centuries almost all that was done was 
to train the converts in the rites and ceremonies of the 
Christian Church. But as they grew stronger in numbers, 
and as persecution diminished, they could give greater at- 
tention to education. Unwilling to make use of pagan 
schools, which could not satisfy their chief need — to pre- 
pare for the new religion — they gradually established their 

Catechumen Schools. — The first Christian schools were 
catechumen schools. A catechumen was a person who de- 
sired instruction in the new faith with a view to baptism 
and admission into the Church. As many of the converts 
had been pagans, and as all were ignorant of the require- 
ments of the Cnurch as well as of the new doctrines, such 
instruction was absolutely necessary. Therefore the con- 
verts were divided into classes, at first two, later, four ; and 
instruction was given them in the rudiments of Christianity. 
In the beginning the catechumen schools were for adults 


< ll 



only, but afterward children were admitted, and reading 
an»^ writing were taught. Previous to this change, if chil- 
dren received any secular instruction at all, it was given 
at their homes by parents or tutors, or in the pagan 
schools. At the close of the second century Protogenes 
established a school at Odessa, in which reading, writing, 
texts of Scripture, and singing of psalms were taught. 
This was the first Christian common school. Other schools 
followed rapidly as the persecutions ceased, until Rome 
became Christianized, and pagan schools gave place to 
Christian schools throughout the empire. Two great 
names are closely connected with this movement. 

CHRYSOSTOM (347-407) 

One of the greatest representatives of the early Christian 
Church interested in education was Chrysostom.^ He was 
born at Antioch in Syria, and educated in the pagan 
schools, but the influence of his devout Christian mother 
kept him true to her faith. He was noted for his elo- 
quence, hence the name by which he is known in history, 
for Chrysostom means golden-mouthed. John Malone says 
of him, " First of the great Christian preachers after the 
Church came from the caves, he was not less able as a 
teacher." ^ He became bishop of the Church, and was the 
greatest pedagogue of his time. Some of his educational 
principles may be stated as follows : — 

1. As Christ lowered himself to man's estate in order 
to raise man to his estate, so the teacher must lower him- 
self to the capacity of his pupils in order to elevate them. 

2. Christ did not reveal everything to his disciples, 

1 Warner's " Library of the World's Best Literature," Vol. VI, 3665. Lord, 
*' Beacon Lights," Vol. I, Lecture on Sacred Eloquence. 
a Warnei'8 LJbrar>, Vol. VI, 3666, 

I 1 '1 






suggesting sometimes truths for them to discover ; so the 
teacher must not do for his pupils what they can do for 

3. The foundation of all true education is the Christian 
life and example ; therefore teachers and parents must 
walk circumspectly before children. 

4. WomcHj especially mothers, are the natural educators 
of children. 

5. Religious instruction is an essential factor of the 
school work. It is of the highest importance that chil- 
dren should be brought up " in the nurture and admonition 
of the Lord." 

BASIL THE GREAT (329-379) 

Basil the Great was born at Caesarea. He studied at 
Constantinople and Athens, and sat at the feet of the 
greatest pagan philosophers and teachers of his time. He 
was not perverted by their teachings, but told them frankly 
that, though they possessed all learning, he had found 
something greater than this, and that was the Christ. 
Basil was one of the foremost Fathers of the Church, a 
great writer, and a promoter of education. He was very 
fond of classic literature, and, in face of the bitter 
opposition of many of the Church Fathers, urged its 
proper use in the schools. He was instrumental in found- 
ing monasteries, hospitals, orphanages, and refuges for 
the poor. 

Pedagogical Teachings. — i. Every misdeed should be 
punished in si ch a way that the punishment shall be an 
exercise in sel command and shall tend to correct the fault. 
For example, if a child has lied, used protane language, or 
been quarrelsome, give him solitude and fasting. If he 

J.'A.. / &*!■ lo.iiA.'iM^diia c! 



is greedy and glutto.ious, let him stand by and see others 
eat while he remains hungry. 

2. Orphan children and those that are dependent should 
be taught in the cloister. 

3. The Bible, with its stories, promises, history, and 
doctrines, should be the chief text-book. 

4. Not only monks and priests should be allowed to 
teach, but also the laity. 

5. Children while still young and innocent must be 
taught good habits and right precepts. 

It is worthy of note that Chrysostom and Basil were the 
first to mark out definite lines of Christian instruction. 
During this period, also, the first songs of the Christian 
Church originated in the huts and caves of the poor. 
Thus in religious instruction and church song the founda- 
tions of the Christian common school were laid. 

Catechetical Schools. — The principal catechetical school 
was established at Alexandria a.d. 181, by Pantaenus. 
Others were located later at Antioch, Odessa, and Nisibis. 
The Alexandrian school, however, was by far the most 
important. Alexandria, at the close of the second century, 
was the seat of philosophy, as Athens had formerly been. 
It possessed the most important library in the world, and 
students and sages from all parts of the world flocked to 
this place of learning. Laurie says, " The great Alexander, 
in founding Alexandria, connected Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, not merely by mercantile bonds, but in their intel- 
lectual and literary life. Here arose, under the Ptolemies, 
a complete system of higher instruction, and libraries such 
as the world had not before seen. The books were lodged 
in the temple of Serapis, and accumulated to the number 
of seven hundred thousand. They formed the record of all 
human thought, until they fell a prey to internal civic and 


■» 1 



. m 



"> ■ I . i 



religious dissensions. Tlie Serapeum dates from B.C. 298, 
and, after recovering from the fire of b.c. 48, it finally dis- 
appeared about A.D. 640." 

Under the stimulus of these surroundings, and with such 
an abundance of literary material at command, pagans and 
Christians vied with each other in their search for truth. 
But the pagans had better schools and better means of 
preparing themselves for intellectual combat. Christian 
teachers were called upon to defend their faith against 
subtle philosophers and trained thinkers, who had had the 
advantage of excellent ;ichools. In order to meet this 
apparent defect and fortify themselves against their skill- 
ful opponents, the Christians established the catechetical 
school at Alexandria, the most celebrated school of its 
kind at that period. It took the name catechetical from 
the fact that the method of instruction was largely that of 
catechising, though lectures were also given. Many pagans 
had been converted to Christianity, and it was necessary that 
they should be taught the reason of their faith, in order 
that they might maintain their ground when they came in 
contact with unbelievers. This was particularly necessary, 
if Christianity was to hold its own, in a city like Alexandria, 
where so many learned men had gathered. It was also 
necessary for the extension of the new faith among men 
of superior intelligence. Thus the object of the catecheti- 
cal school was to instruct learned men in the doctrines and 
usages of the Church, to prepare believers to meet the 
arguments of the philosophers, and to train teachers. 

While it was a sort of theological school, it also taught 
philosophy, rhetoric, grammar, and geometry. From the 
nature of things it atIU be seen that the catechetical school 
was for adults only, and it may be called a kind of uni- 
versity, whose chief attention was given to the study of 

»a«HiTM.aii^li ifflf_iti^..ii f '■- hfrt iii'liTn^A ''%d,tft&^>^uiL..x^ -> 

,IL.%. iojra^L^j^^ U^ £^ -&-. 




the Scriptures and the promulgation of religious doctrine. 
The catechetical school was much highei than the cate- 
chumen school in its course of study and in the intelligence 
and learning of its students and professors. 



Among the most promising oi* the pupils of Pantaenus 
was Clement of Alexandria, who was his successor in the 
direction of the school. Clement was brought up a. pagan, 
but was not satisfied with the heathen religion, and made 
a careful study of Christianity. He traveled everywhere, 
and sought out old men who had listened to the apostles, 
or whose parents had done so ; and thus he hoped to learn 
the truth directly. As a result of his research, he became 
profoundly impressed with the purity of the morals of the 
Christians and the truth of their religion. He was a great 
teacher as well as Father of the Church. 

His Pedagogy. — i . Faith is the cornerstone of knowledge. 

2. Mosaic law and heathen philosophy are not opposed 
to each other, but simply parts of the same truth. Both 
prepared the way for Christianity. Jewish law and Greek 
philosophy are steps in the development of the world 
which prepare the way for revelation. Christianity is the 
fulfillment of law and philosophy. 

3. He brought all the speculations of the Christians and 
the culture of the Greeks to bear upon Christian truth, and 
sought to harmonize the two. 

The teachings of Clement gain in importance when we 
remember the bitter strife in the Church over the use of 
classic literature, which lasted for centuries, and the 
scholastic movement a thousand years later, which also 
sought to harmonize philosophy and religion. 






ORIGEN (186-253) 

Origen was a pupil of Clement in the catechetical 
school at Alexandria, and became his successor. Besides 
being brought up in an atmosphere of culture in his 
native city, and surrounded by influences that stimulated 
intellectual growth, he was fortunate in having a man of 
learning for his father. From him he learned Greek, mathe- 
matics, granmiar, rhetoric, logic, and a knowledge of the 
Holy Scriptures. He began to teach in the catechetical 
school when only eighteen years of age, a remarkable 
fact when one remembers that he had among his students 
learned pagan philosophers, and that it was very unusual 
for so young a man to be allowed to teach. He was 
abstemious in his habits, self-sacrificing, generous, and 
withal consistent in his life. 

Origen's Pedagogy. — i. Never teach pupils anything 
that you do not yourself practice. 

2. The end of education is to grow into the likeness of 

3. Pupils must be taught to investigate for themselves. 

4. The teacher must seek to correct the bad habits of 
his pupils, as well as to give them intellectual instruction. 

Under Origen, the catechetical school at Alexandria 
reached its highest prosperity, and its decay began soon 
after his death. Already in the middle of the fourth 
century its power and influence were practically gone. 

None of the other catechetical schools ever reached the 
fame of that at Alexandria, and they, too, gradually 
disappeared. Indeed, as the Roman Empire became Chris- 
tianized, and as Christians gained in education and intel- 
ligence, there was less and less occasion for the existence 
of schools of this character. 


. l^i'ld -L^UlikfesSt^4ti» <itw^^«./;<^{^'^r^ 



Literature. — Lord^ Beacon Lights; Spofford. Library of Historical 
Characters ; White^ Eighteen Christian Centuries ; Fisher, Beginnings of 
Christianity; Draper, Conflict between Religion and Science; Brother 
AgariaSy Essays Educational. 

V If 




As Christianity became more powerful ; as the Roman 
nation privately and officially accepted the new religion ; as 
the bishops of the Church came more and more to be 
recognized as the vicegerents of Christ and the apostles ; 
as the Church authorities became convinced that tolerance 
of paganism was dangerous to believers, and irreconcilable 
with the principles of Christianity, — as these things became 
apparent, it was seen that nothing would suffice short of 
the utter destruction of pagan schools. Pagan philosophy 
and art rt^ere tolerated only as they served the Church. 
Pagan education had an earthly purpose; the new educa- 
tion, a spiritual aim, a preparation for eternal life. 

The pagan temples and schools preserved the spirit of 
paganism long after the Roman Empire had become Chris- 
tian, and the leaders of Christianity finally became con- 
vinced that ultimate success would be reached only when 
these institutions were destroyed. The conflict between 
these two parties continued during the fifth century 
and until 529, when a complete victory was gained 

by the Christians. After 529 we have therefore only 



1 1 



i i':^ 





Christian schools to consider. For the next thousand 
years education was entirely in the hands of the Church, 
whose power was not always exercised for the good of 
humanity, but often for the furtherance of her own ends. 
Siill, it must not be forgotten that all that was done for 
education was done by her, and therefore the world owes 
her a debt of gratitude, as later pages will show. She did 
not undertake the education of the masses, a task that was 
beyond her power, and perhaps beyond the scope of her 
vision. Yet great honor is due the Church for what was 
accomplished in education during the Middle Ages, and to 
her alone must be given credit for an advancement in civil- 
ization by no means small, considering the difficulties to be 
met and the obstacles to be overcome. During this long 
period there were many bright spots in the educational 
firmament, many brilliant leaders of the Church who also 
were conspicuous educators, and many important move- 
ments toward higher civilization. An examination of this 
period has led recent historians to abandon the term 
" Dark Ages." A more careful study of some of these 
leaders and the movements that they inaugurated will be 
reserved to later pages. 

We shall find the spirit of the period best illustrated by a 
study of two great men who are preeminent in the educa- 
tional affairs of the time, — namely, Tertullian and St. 

TERTULLIAN (150-230)1 

Tertullian was born at Carthage of pagan parents. He 
was converted to Christianity when forty years of age, 
and by his talent, his zeal for the new religion, and his 
faithfulness, he rose rapidly until he became Bishop of 

1 See Draper, "Conflict between Religion and Science," p. 59, 



' *'.i *| 

Carthage. He was an orator, a writer, and a teacher. 
His enthusiasm as a Christian led him to condemn the 
indolence and vice of priests, and finally to withdraw 
from the Church. He joined the Montanists, a sect that 
believed in personal holiness, withdrawal from the world, 
and the speedy second advent of the Savior. Having 
received a thorough training as a jurist at Rome, he 
became a great controversialist. 

He was the founder of Christian Latin literature, being 
bitterly oppose' to everything pagan. He would use 
nothing manufactured by the pagans, would not dress like 
them, nor have anything to do with their schools or writ- 
ings. This of course excluded classic literature, and was 
in direct opposition to the teachings of the catechetical 
schools, especially that of Alexandria. Tertullian's attempt 
to create a literature for the schools which should take the 
place of classic literature, while it produced discord for 
centuries, and influenced other great men to follow his 
example, had no permanent result. Perhaps the down- 
fall of paganism may have removed all danger to the 
Christians from pagan philosophy and letters; at all 
events it is certain that in later centuries the Church was 
most efficient in preserving them. Tertullian held that 
philosophy of whatever kind is dangerous, claiming that 
it makes man arrogant, and less inclined to faith. 

In the fourth century the Fathers of the Church were 
opposed to pagan literature. The "Apostolic Constitu- 
tions" commanded, "Refrain from all writings of the 
heathen ; for what hast thou to do with strange discourses, 
laws, or false prophets, which, in truth, turn aside from 
the faith those who are weak in understanding." It was 
urged that, " As the offspring of the pagan world, if not, 
indeed, inspired by demons, they were dangerous to the 

HIST. OF ED. — 8 

I" 'I 


\ \\ 

1 1! 





new faith." This introduced into education a narrow view, 
which evoked many bitter discussions, and which it took 
centuries to eradicate. 




ST. AUGUSTINE (354-430) 

Augustine was born in Numidia, Africa. His father 
was a pagan, and his mother a devout Christian. Augus- 
tine grew up in the faith of neither, and in his early 
years seems to have had no settled belief. As a student, 
he was wild and profligate, though attentive to his studies. 
I '.He became thoroughly versed in Greek] and Latin. He 
studied at Carthage and later at MilarT At the latter place 
he made the acquaintance of St. Ambrose, Bishop of 
Milan, who was instrumental in Augustine's conversion. 
His life was radically changed, and he who had been the 
wild, careless unbeliever became the greatest of the 
Church Fathers. Like Tertullian, he condemned the very 
classic literature to which he was indebted for his intellec- 
tual greatness. His greatest literary works are " City of 
God" and "Confessions." 

"Confessions.** — In this work are found his chief peda- 
gogical teachings. Karl Schmidt says, " In his * Confes- 
, sions ' he develops a complete psychology of the human 
soul, from which the pedagogue can learn more than from 
many theories of education." 

This work shows step by step his own development 
from childhood to mature manhood, — how a word, a look, 
an act may awaken passions, and lead to evil desire, or 
stimulate to noble deed or self-sacrificing consecration. 
From his own life and experiences he portrays the whole 
nature of man. Augustme is called the " St. Paul of the 
fifth century," and he certainly was the greatest man, 




since Paul, that the Church has produced. His writings 
have shaped the doctrines of the Catholic Church, and he 
is the most noted of all Catholic Fathers. We believe, 
however, that some of his pedagogical teachings were 
so erroneous that they hindered the progress of civilization 
and injured the Church. Draper says, "Augustine antag- 
onized science and Christianity for more than fifteen cen- 
turies." He based all teaching on authority rather than 
on investigation. If the Church passed upon a question, 
religious or scientific, her teaching was to be accepted 
without question. This caused great trouble in later 
years, especially when scientific research proved that the 
voice of authority was sometimes mistaken. But we shall 
recur to this subject later. 

Augustine's Pedagogy. — i. All teaching is based on 
faith and authority. 

2. All pagan literature must be excluded from the 

3. The chief subject in the school course is history 
pursued in the narrative form. 

4. Make abundant use of observation in instruction. 

5. The teacher must be earnest and enthusiastic. 
While the Roman Empire became officially Christian 

in the fourth century under Constantine, it was not 
until Justinian decreed the abolition of pagan schools 
and temples, a.d. 529, that paganism, as we have 
seen, was finally destroyed. Thus the long conflict was 
ended, and henceforth we have to do only with Chris- 
tian education. We now enter upon the thousand years 
of the world's history known as the Middle Ages, the 
close of which brings us to the Reformation. 

\ \ 

i > I 




Literature. — Lord,, Beacon Lights ; Lecky^ History of European 
Morals ; Myers,, Mediaeval and Modern History ; White, Eighteen 
Christian Centuries ; Draper,, Conflict between Reli^;ion and Science ; 
Harper,, Book of Facts ; Mrs. Jameson^ Legends of Monastic Orders. 

Monasteries. — Monasteries were established as early 
as the third century a.d. ; but it was not until the sixth 
century that they became powerful. The spirit of as- 
ceticism, urged by the Church as one of the most im- 
portant virtues, took a strong hold upon the people, and 
led many to withdraw from the world. For such the 
founding of monasteries became a necessity. The mon- 
asteries were the result of the ascetic spirit, and their 
teaching was based upon authority and not upon free in- 
vestigation or original research. Thus there was intro- 
duced into society and education a principle that impeded 
progress for a thousand years. 

Most of the time during this period the Church held 
supremacy over the State with authority unquestioned. 
This authority was carried not only into spiritual mat- 
ters, but also into social, political, and educational affairs. 
Everything that seemed to conflict with the Bible, or 
with its interpretation by the leaders of the Church, 
was denounced as false. Thus those who promulgated 
any new scientific discovery that overturned the theories 
of the past, were often condemned by the Church be- 



cause the Bible did not teach the same. It was en- 
tirely forgotten that the Bible is a book of morals and 
religion, and not a text-book of science. If this truth 
had been recognized, the Church would have been spared 
much ridicule, and scientific research many stumbling- 
blocks. The antagonism of the Church to investiga- 
tions thiit discredited her authoritative teachings, even 
outside of religion, retarded science for many centuries. 

The Benedictines. — The most important monastic order 
from the standpoint of education was that of the Benedic- 
tines. St. Benedict founded the first monastery of the 
order that bears his name — Monte Cassino, near Naples, 
— in 529. It will be remembered that this is the date 
of the abolition of pagan schools by Justinian. On the 
site of Monte Cassino had stood a pagan school. The 
monastery which supplanted it remains to the present day. 

Benedict's two important principles — to which clois- 
ters hitherto had been unaccustomed — were industry and 
strict discipline. These principles made the Benedictine 
the most successful and beneficent uf all monastic orders. 
It grew rapidly, and within one hundred years from its 
foundation there were more than two hundred and fifty 
Benedictine monasteries. It is claimed that the order has 
produced 4600 bishops, 1600 archbishops, 200 cardinals, 
40 popes, 50 patriarchs, 4 emperors, 12 empresses, 46 
kings, 41 queens, 3600 canonized saints, and 15,700 au- 
thors, and that prior to the French Revolution it possessed 
37,000 cloisters. There have been times when the wealth of 
this order in some states comprised more than half of all 
the property. The Benedictine monks tilled the soil of the 
country surrounding their monasteries, literally making 
the "desert blossom as the rose." They were untiring 
in zeal for the Church and in deeds of mercy. They 






< 'M 

1 -- *Ji.I- a-l-.--j^ 



established cloister schools in Italy, France, Spain, Eng- 
land, Ireland, Germany, and Switzerland. Monte Cassino 
(529), Italy; Canterbury (586) and Oxford (ninth cen- 
tury), England; St. Gall (613), Switzerland; Fulda (744), 
Constance, Hannburg, and Cologne (tenth century), Ger- 
many ; Lyons, Tours, Paris, and Rouen (tenth century), 
France ; Salzburg (696), Austria ; and many other schools 
were tounded chiefly by the Benedictines. Among the 
many great teachers that they produced were Alcuin of 
England, Boniface of Germany, Thomas Aquinas, Duns 
Scotus, and Abelard. It thus appears that the Benedic- 
tine order took a deep interest in education, and their 
work deserves a most honorable place among the educa- 
tional agencies of the period under discussion. 

The Seven Liberal Arts. — We have seen that much 
attention was always given to religious instruction in the 
Christian schools. The Bible, the doctrines of the Church, 
and its rites and ceremonies were at first exclusively taught. 
But later secular branches were introduced. These secu- 
lar branches were known as the seven liberal arts, which 
comprised the following subjects : — 

The Seven 
Liberal Arts. 

I. Trivium^ 

II. Quadrivium 

„ < Reading and 

I. Grammar. { „^ . . " 
i Writmg. 

2 Rhetoric. 

3. Logic. 

1. Arithmetic. 

2. Music. 

3. Geometry. 

I 4. Astronomy. 


This course required seven years. Latin was the only 
language used, and consequently the native tongues suf- 

^ Laurie thinks that these names were first appropriately used about the end 
of the fourth century. 





fered. The trivitim was the most popular course ; 
such knowledge was considered an absolute necessity 
for any one making claim to culture. After completing 
the trivium, those who wished for higher culture studied 
the qiuidriviiim. 

Under the term grammar were included reading and 
writing, as well as the construction and use of language. 
In rhetoric the works of Quintilian and Cicero were studied, 
and sermons delivered in the churches were made to serve 
for a practical application of the rules. In logic the 
works of St. Augustine were used in the exercises of con- 
structing syllogisms, of disputation, and of definition. In 
arithmetic y before the introduction of the Arabic notation, 
numbers were considered to have a mysterious meaning. 
The hands and fingers were used to indicate numbers. 
For example, the left hand upon the breast indicated ten 
thousand ; both hands folded, one hundred thousand. Fo/ 
the practical purposes of life the reckoning board was 
used. This was a board with lines drawn upon it, between 
which pebbles were placed to indicate the number to be 
expressed. For example, the number 3146 would be in- 
dicated as follows : — 


/ ' \ 




I n n I 

Music was designed for the church service. Knowledge 
of music was held to be positively essential to priest and 
teacher. Under the term music were also sometimes in- 
cluded the fine arts, painting, drawing, architecture, sculp- 
ture, etc. 

In geometry Euclid was used. Lines, angles, surfaces, 
and solids were studied. With geometry there seems to 
have been connected a meager study of geography. Early 





. i>;-»Svr' -.W:?.V*.-Sfci4^.»^ 



maps have been found, one dat'ng from the seventh cen- 
tury, being in possession of St. Gail monastery. Astronomy 
was closely connected with astrology. Its practical appli- 
cation was limited to the formation of the Church calendar, 
fixing the date of Easter, etc. 

This celebrated course of study formed the basis of sec- 
ular instruction in the monasteries, and, indeed, in all 
schools, for several centuries. Religious instruction al- 
ways remained a prominent feature of the work. History 
had no place in the curriculum. 

Summary of Benefits conferred upon Civilization by the 
Monasteries. — i . They preserved classic literature. Though 
many of the Church Fathers, as we have seen, were bit- 
terly opposed to pagan literature, the monasteries copied 
it with great industry and preserved it with care. The 
archives of these institutions have yielded up some most 
remarkable and valuable manuscripts that otherwise would 
have been lost to the world. 

2. They kept alive the flickering flame of Christianity. 
The Middle Ages were indeed dark for Christianity, as 
unbelief, ignorance, and faithlessness prevailed. But the 
monasteries were centers of religious interest and zeal. 

3. They maintained educational interest during this 
long, dark period. We have seen that the monasteries 
contained the only schools. Through them the Church 
kept up whatever educational interest survived during the 
Middle Ages, and her work then conserved the energies 
employed in later educational enterprise. 

4. They originated a great course of study by giving to 
the world the seven liberal arts. 

5. They furnished places of refuge for the oppressed. 

^Mxj]UiU<.^ 4r ^.£:A,l^d,^iA^ t£:i^m^.l,mMr.^ 

A\(i^.idk HLiAwii;^ ^^ . 

Ci& WK-Ui^l.. tiv.!idk-)dl 

i&{^jk»tMaitik^J ^ 

-, .^ * S ' 



Literature. — Fishery History of the Reformation; Lord, Beacon 
Lights ; Thalheimer, Mediaeval and Modern History ; Schwegler, His- 
tory o*" Philosophy; Seebohnty Era of the Protestant Revolution; 
Hegely Philosophy of History. 

CoMPAYRE remarks, " It has been truly said that there 
were three Renascences : the first, which owed its begin- 
ning to Charlemagne, and whose brilliancy did not last ; 
the second, that of the twelfth century, the issue of which 
was Scholasticism ; and the third, the great Renaissance 
of the sixteenth century, which still lasts, and which the 
French Revolution has completed." ^ 

As scholasticism, in a sense, was the rival of monasti- 
cism, and as it covered a large part of the Middle Ages, 
we shall discuss it at this point. Scholasticism was a 
movement having for its object the harmonizing of 
ancient philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, with the 
doctrines of Christiaiiity. It covered a period reaching 
from the ninth to the fifteenth century, and displayed its 
greatest activity between the eleventh and thirteenth cen- 
turies. It is called the philosophy of the Middle Ages. 
The term scholastic is also applied generally to forms of 
reasoning which abound in subtleties. Scholasticism was a 
dissent from the teachings of St. Augustine and the ascet- 
ics. It laid chief stress upon reason instead of authority^ 

1 ** History of Pedagogy," p. 71. 











thus asserting a vitally different principle, which would 
tend to change the whole spirit of education. 

The first prominent leader of this movement was Erigena, 
who lived during the ninth century, and was the most inter- 
esting writer of the Middle Ages. He was also a great 
teacher, and was called to give instruction at the court of 
Charles the Bald, and afterward at Oxford. He opposed 
the prevailing tendencies of the monasteries to base all 
teaching on authority, and made its foundation philosophy 
and reason. Schweglcr^ denominates Anselm (born about 
1033) as " the beginner and founder of scholasticism." 
Thus it was not till the eleventh century " that there was 
developed anything that might be properly termed a Chris- 
tian philosophy. This was the so-called scholasticism " ^ 

Greater than either of these was Abelard (born 1079), 
who by his eloquence attracted great numbers of students 
to Paris. It is said that "few teachers ever held such 
sway as did Abelard for a time." He made Paris the cen- 
ter of the scholastic movement, attracting students from 
all parts of the world. He did more than any of his 
predecessors to give accepted ecclesiastical doctrines a 
rational expression. Scholasticism influenced the estab- 
lishment of institutions of learning in England, Germany, 
Italy, and Spain, some of which later developed into great 
universities. Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, and Occam 
may also be mentioned as great schoolmen. Of the first 
two Schwegler says,^ " At the summit of scholasticism we 
must place the two incontestably greatest masters of the 
scholastic art and method, Thomas Aquinas (Dominican, 
1 225-1 274) and Dtins Scotus (Franciscan, 1 265-1 308), the 
founders of two schools, into which after them the whole 
scholastic theology divides itself, — the former exalting the 

i " History of Philosophy," p. 186. 2 /^/^,^ p, jg^. 8 /^,-^,^ p, ,35^ 




understanding (/w/^/^T/z/j), and the latter the will {voluntas), 
as the highest principle, both being driven into essentially 
differing directions by this opposition of the theoretical and 
practical. Even with this began the downfall of scholasti- 
cism ; its highest point was also the turning point to its 
self-destruction. The rationality of the dogmas, the one- 
ness of faith and knowledge, had been constantly their 
fundamental premise ; but this premise fell away, and the 
whole basis of their metaphysics was given up in principle 
the moment Duns Scotus placed the problem of theology 
in the practical. When the practical and the theoretical 
became divided, and still more when thought and being 
were separated by nominalism, philosophy broke loose from 
theology and knowledge from faith. Knowledge assumed 
its position above faith and above authority, and the reli- 
gious consciousness broke with the traditional dogma." 

Toward the end, another thing contributed to the down- 
fall of scholasticism. The philosophical subtleties of dis- 
cussion made the schoolmen lose sight of the main issue, 
and devote themselves to the most ridiculous questions. 
Karl Schmidt^ mentions the subjects of these discussions, 
some of which ar6 as follows : " How many angels can 
stand on the point of a needle } " " Why did Adam eat 
an apple instead of a pear } " " In what language did the 
serpent address Eve } " " Can the rite of baptism be per- 
formed with air, sand, or earth ; with beer, fish broth, or 
rose water, as well as with water.?" Of course, the dis- 
cussion of such absurd questions does not mark the true 
spirit of scholasticism, but only indicates its deformity in 
its last days. That it did a great deal of good will appear 
from the following summary : — 

Summary of the Benefits of Scholasticism. - i. It at- 

1 "Geschichte der Padagogik," Vol. II, p. 265. 



■ If 






tempted to harmonize philosophy with Christianity, and 
may be called the first Christian philosophy. 

2. It sought to base learning on reason and investiga- 
tion, rather than on authority. In this we find the first 
impulse of that movement which later led to the founding 
of science. 

3. Many universities were established through the scho- 
lastic influence, notably, Paris, Heidelberg, Bologna, Prague, 
and Vienna. 

4. While it failed to establish them, it at least recognized 
the desirableness of a universal language for schools, and 
a universal church for man. 

5. Although, with the exception of the universities which 
it founded, its direct work in education cannot be said to 
have been permanent, yet it imparted fresh vigor to edu- 
cational endeavors. 

6. Schwegler says,^ " It . . . introduced to the world 
another principle than that of the old Church, the principle 
of the thinking spirit, the self-consciousness of the reason, 
or at least prepared the way for the victory of this princi- 
ple. Even the deformities and unfavorable side of scho- 
lasticism, the many absurd questions upon which the 
scholastics divided, even their thousandfold unnecessary 
and accidental distinctions, their inquisitiveness and subtle- 
ties, all sprang from a rational principle, and grew out of 
a spirit of investigation, which could only utter itself in 
this way under the all-powerful ecclesiastical spirit of the 

1 " History of Philosophy," p. 189. 

f : 

I tliuLji. 5- AaiEJi. .'■;.; .«\; 

,vik:.,*^ii^!^i^'itoi'i.i>ii^A';Wje!ALA?.:wii-^, *. 

hi. :t'.:^'.hi:-:i'iLa-_-y>iti: 




Literature. — Ferris^ Great Leaders; Emerton, Introduction to the 
Middle Ages; Guizot, History of Civilization; Wells^ The Age of 
Charlemagne ; Bryce^ The Holy Roman Empire ; Churchy The Begin- 
ning of the Middle Ages; Lord, Beacon Lights; White, Eighteen 
Christian Centuries ; Laurie, Rise of the Universities ; Bulfinch, Legends 
of Charlemagne ; Encyclopaedia Britannica, Article on Charlemagne. 

History, Character, and Purpoje. — Charlemagne was not 
only the greatest ruler of the Middle Ages, but one of the 
greatest and wisest rulers the world has known. By birth 
and instinct he belonged to the Teutonic race, to which, as 
before stated, the world's enlightenment has been com- 
mitted. Like Alexander the Great, Charlemagne united 
many peoples into one, until he ruled over the territory 
now included in France, Germany, parts of England, 
Austria, and Italy, — in fact, his empire comprised the 
richest part of central Europe. He designed to rebuild 
the Roman Empire, and was crowned " Emperor of Rome " 
by the Pope, in the year 800. While he protected the Pope 
and was loyal to him, he did not admit the papal supremacy 
in matters of State^ 

Two very important influences were wisely utilized by 
Charlemagne in his work of civilization, namely, the politi- 
cal ideas of the Teutons, and the adhering power of the 
Christian church. He cherished German customs, and 
left, in various parts of Germany, many monuments of his 



■ 'I 

S! r 





love for that people. He was of commanding presence, 
being seven feet in height, and of good proportions, blond 
in type, and of genial manners. His real capital was at 
AiA-la-Chapelle, but Rome was a nominal capital. Bul- 
finch says of Charlemagne: "Whether we regard him as 
a warrior or legislator, as a patron of learning or as the 
civilizer of a barbarous nation, he is entitled to our warmest 
admiration." If his successors had possessed the ability, 
enterprise, and breadth of view that characterized him, 
the world might never have known the period in history 
commonly called the " Dark Ages." 

Personal Education. — When Charlemagne arrived at the 
estate of manhood and ascended the ihrone, he was igno- 
rant of letters and lacked any considerable intellectual 
training. His education had been that of the knight who 
believed that skill in the use of arms and physical prowess 
were of far more importance than a knowledge of letters.^ 
After he had come to the throne, and especially after he 
had conquered his foes and had leisure to study the wel- 
fare of his people, he realized his deficiencies, and sought 
to overcome them by diligent study. 

He called to his court the most learned men of the 
world, received personal instruction from them, and had 
them read to him and converse with him while at his 
meals. In this way he overcame, in a measure, the de- 
lects of his early education. He thoroughly mastered 
Latin, became familiar with Greek, and learned also gram- 
mar, rhetoric, logic, music, astronomy, and natural his- 
tory. He never learned to write well, owing to the late 
period of life at which he began, and to the clumsiness 
of the hand accustomed to wielding the sword rather than 
the pen. 

1 See « Feudal Education," Chap. XXII. 

•■■■ \^'!ikiijc:. •Vft^W.-ii W-ri g^tiifctflSf iftiiiti tfflfejtifi'riVi'l ^A^P^^ ■' ' ' ■■'" "-' ■"■ - ^u!l:^--:a;A!ti>^ 





Among his instructors was Alcuin of England^ the most 
celebrated teacher of his time. Charlemagne established 
the " School of the Palace," and placed Alcuin at its head. 
Here the children of the emperor as well as his courtiers 
were taught. He had his own daughters learn Latin and 
Greek. France is indebted to Alcuin for its polite learn- 
ing. Alcuin was also the counselor of the emperor in the 
educational matters of the empire, and it was probably his 
influence that led Charlemagne to adopt such broad views 
concerning the culture of his people. 

General Education. — We have seen that the prevailing 
idea was that education should subserve the interests of 
the Church. Charlemagne turned the current ot thought 
toward the national idea. He believed in religious train- 
ing, but wanted to found a great State, and therefore in- 
sisted that those things which encouraged intelligent 
patriotism should be taught. He protected the Church, 
but insisted that the Church was subordinate to the State, 
and that his will was law over both. Consequently he 
required priests to preach in the native tongues rather 
than in Latin, and decreed that monasteries that would 
not open their doors to children for school purposes should 
be closed. The priests, he insisted, should be able to read 
and write, should have a knowledge of the Holy Scriptures 
and of the chief doctrines of the Church, and should in- 
struct the people in these things. 

The seven liberal arts formed the basis of school in- 
struction. Monks were not to remain in idleness and 
ignorance, but were required to teach, not only in the 
monasteries, but also outside of them. He also encouraged 
education among his nobles, and plainly intimated that 
merit and not noble birth would entitle them to favor. 
Charlemagne visited the schools himself, and required the 







bishop to report to him their condition. He thus became 
a superintendent of schools, being as familiar with the 
educational interests of his kingdom as he was with every 
other interest. He sought to teach first the priests and 
nobles, and after that the masses of his people. He in- 
troduced the practice of cotnpidsory education for all chil- 
dren, and decreed that truant children be first deprived 
of food as punishment, and if that did not suffice, that 
they be brought before him. 

Reading, writing, arithmetic, and singing were taught, 
especial attention being given to music, which was of use 
in the church services. The Apostles* Creed and the 
Lord's Prayer were also taught. In 8oi Charlemagne 
decreed that women and children should receive instruc- 
tion in the doctrines of religion, because he believed re- 
ligion to be the foundation of a civilized nation. 

Charlemagne's career shines out in brilliant contrast with 
the ignorance and superstition of his age. The world was 
not yet ripe for his advanced ideas, hence when the work 
lost the support of his strong personality, its effects soon 
became obliterated, and a retrogression of civilization 

The clergy, who had entertained but little sympathy for 
the enterprises of the emperor, soon closed the monas- 
teries to outside students, and returned to the vicious 
practices from which the authority and energy of Charle- 
magne had aroused them. His work was not wholly 
in vain, however, for he laid the foundations of the Prussian 
school system.^ 

Summary of Charlemagne's Work. — i. He elevated the 
clergy by demanding greater educational qualifications of 
them and by insisting that they do their duty. 

* Professor Masiiis, Lectures in the University of Leipsic. 



2. He gave dignity to native tongues by requiring the 
priests to preach in the vernacular of the people, at the 
same time making the services of the church of more 
use to the people. 

3. He opened the cloisters to the purposes of education, 
and thereby greatly extended their usefulness. 

4. He sought to perpetuate religion and insure the 
stability of his empire by making education compulsory 
and universal. 

5. He believed in the education of women. 

6. He laid the foundations of future school systems, 
and indicated certain principles that are still recognized 
as valid. 

HIST. OF ED. — 9 




_ ■ i^ 5 -.^ 



Literature. — Ferris^ Great Leaders ; Lord^ Beacon Lights ; Mom- 
bert, Great Lives; Spoffoni, Library of Historical Characters; Green, 
History of the EngUsh People. 

History and Character. — Alfred became king of the 
West Saxons in 871 at the age of twenty-three. As a boy 
he had already shown remarkable energy and ability, and 
as a man he more than fulfilled the promise of his early 
years. England was divided into several kingdoms, the 
Danes having taken possession of the eastern part of the 
island. Alfred carried on war against them for many 
years with varying success, until he made peace by skillful 
diplomacy in giving them territory. He afterward showed 
remarkable statesmanship in winning them to peaceful 
acquiescence in his sovereignty, and thus he came to rule 
over united England. 

He laid the foundation of England's naval greatness by 
building ships to defend the country against Danish pirates. 
Many stories are told of his simplicity, his perseverance, 
his strategy in defeating his enemies, and the love with 
which he inspired his people. Karl Schmidt says, " Alfred, 
as victor in fifty-six battles, as lawgiver, as king and sage, 
as Christian and man, as husband and father, is rightly 
called — 'The Great.'" 

He was very methodical in his habits, and divided his 


miftW-iltllrliftiilii'i'i I' 1 1 ■ 




day into three equal parts of eight hours each : eight 
hours he gave to government, eight hours to religious 
devotion and studv, and the other eight hours to sleep, 
recreation, and the recuperation of his body. 

Education. — Alfred did not learn to read until twelve 
years of age. His mother then stimulated him by the 
promise of a book to that one of her sons who should first 
commit to memory a Saxon poem. With indomitable 
energy he ma.stcred reading, learned the poem and 
secured the prize. Throughout his life he gave i^ii ch 
attention to literary matters. He translated many por- 
tions of the Bible, as well as other books, into Anglo- 
Saxon, and encouraged literary efforts in others. 

Without doubt the intellectual activity of Charlemagne 
acted as a spur to Alfred's personal ambition and to his 
desire to elevate his people. Although he did not follow 
the example of Charlemagne in seeking universal educa- 
tion for his people, he did urge that the children of every 
freeman should be able to read and write, and should have 
instruction in Latin. The distinction thus made in the 
purposes of these two great rulers has been perpetuated 
till the present time, the Germans encouraging universal 
education, while the English have attended chiefly to the 
education of the higher classes. Alfred establisned many 
monasteries and made them centers of learning. It seems 
clear that he assisted in laying the foundations from which 
Oxford Univerrity grew. He left his impress upon the 
English people as no other ruler has done, implanting 
love for law, justice, freedom, national honor, and the 
domestic virtues which characterize that nation. His 
influence is felt upon English institutions to this day. 





Literature. — Stilli, Studies in Mediaeval History ; Bulfinch^ Legends 
of Charlemagne ; Enter ton^ Mediaeval Europe. 

Emerton defines feudalism as "an organization of 
society based upon the absence of a strong controlling 
power at the center of the State." ^ It marks a step in the 
reorganization of society which was slowly going forward 
during the Middle Ages. It was an element in the move- 
ment toward freedom, in which men of large landed pos- 
sessions gained the allegiance of vassals by gifts of land, 
in return for which the latter bound themselves to defend 
the former in case of attack. "The tie by which the 
higher freeman bound the lower one to himself was ordi- 
narily a gift of the use of a certain tract of land, together 
with more or less extensive rights of jurisdiction over the 
dwellers thereon. By means of this gift he secured the 
service of the lesser man in war, and as war was the nor- 
mal condition of things, such service was the most valua- 
ble payment he could receive." ^ 

While it is true that the feudal lords were in many cases 
little else than robber chieftains, especially in the earlier 
history of the system, it would be false to history to 
picture them in general as being of that character. The 

1 " Mediaeval Europe," p. 478. « /^,-</,^ p. ^go. 




knights were chivalrous in battle, ever ready to fight for 
their religion, as shown in the crusades, to defend the 
weak, to show greatest respect for woman, and to main- 
tain freedom. Fortified in an impregnable castle on 
some eminence, with his loyal retainers about him, the 
feudal baron was able to defy kings. The system marks a 
stage in the development of civilization, and when feudal- 
ism fell into decline its purpose had been fulfilled. 

With such an independent manner of living, and such 
ideas of their own rights, it is not strange that the knights 
had a form of education peculiar to themselves, and this 
education is full of interest to the student. There was 
little in the schooling of the monasteries that could appeal 
to them, and their ideas of manhood were very different 
from those of the ecclesiastics. Prowess in the use of 
arms, skill in horsemanship, acquaintance with the chival- 
ric forms of politeness and with knightly manners, were of 
far more importance to them than ability to read and write. 
Indeed, they despised book-learning as something beneath 
their own dignity, however suitable it might be for their 
vassals. In such a school as this Charlemagne grew up. 
It was a school of action rather than of thought; a school 
which looked to the present rather than the future. 

The education of the knights was in striking contrast 
with the prevailing modes. Instead of the seven liberal 
arts, the seven perfections of the knight were taught, — 
horsemanship, swimming, use of bow and arrow, swords- 
manship, hunting, chess-playing, and verse-making. Their 
purpose was to prepare for the activities of the life in 
which their lot was cast ; that of the monasteries was to 
preserv^e learning to fit men for the duties of the Church, 
and to prepare them for the life to come. It must not 
be inferred, however, that the knight was unmindful of 




religion, for he was inducted into knighthood by most 
solemn religious ceremonies and vows. 

The education of the knight was divided into three 

First Period. — The first seven years of the boy's life 
were spent in the home under the mother's careful direc- 
tion. Obedience, politeness, and respect for older persons 
were inculcated, and stress was also laid upon religious 
training. By the development of strong and healthy 
bodies the boys were well prepared for the later educa- 
tion upon which they entered after the seventh year. 

Second Period. — After the seventh year the boy was 
generally removed from home to the care of some friendly 
knight, in order that he might receive a stricter tir^ning. 
Here he remained till his fourteenth year, chiefly under the 
care of the lady whom he served as page. He was taught 
music, poetry, chess, and some simple intellectual studies, 
besides the duties of knighthood, especially in relation to 
the treatment of women, and to courtly manners. 

Third Period. — At fourteen the boy left the service of 
his lady and became an esquire to the knight. He now 
attended his master upon the chase, at tournaments, and 
in battle. He was taught all the arts of war, of riding 
jousting, fencing. It was necessary that he should have 
a watchful eye to avert danger, protect his master, and 
quickly anticipate his every wish. The service of this 
period completed his education, and at twenty-one he was 
knighted with imposing ceremonies. After partaking of 
the sacrament, he took vows to speak the truths defend tht 
weak, honor womanhood^ and use his szvord for the defensi, 
of Christianity. 

This form of education was most potent in preserving 
knighthood for several centuries and was a powerful factor 



in shaping the destinies of Europe. It wac; faithfulness to 
the vow to defend Christianity that led finally to the over- 
throw of chivalry, as will appear in the study of the crusades. 

Education of Women. — The girls remained at home and 
were taught the domestic arts, as well as the forms of 
etiquette which were practiced in this chivalric age, and 
which the peculiar homage paid to woman made neces- 
sary. They were also taught reading and writing, and 
were expected to be familiar with poetry. Daughters of 
the better families were sometimes collected in some 
castle, where a kind of school was organized, in which 
they were instructed in reading, writing, poetry, singing, 
and the use of stringed instruments, religion, and some- 
times in French and Latin. Among no other class during 
the Middle Ages was such great attention paid to the 
education of women. It was the duty of mothers to see 
that their daughters were carefully prepared to sustain the 
peculiar dignity of feudal womanhood. 

Criticism of Feudal Education. — i. It honored woman 
and gave her the highest position afforded by any system 
during the Middle Ages. 

2. It gave the world a splendid example of chivalry, 
teaching manliness, courage, devotion to the right as it was 
understood, and the espousal of the cause of the weak. 

3. It contributed to literature through the compositions 
of the Minnesingers. 

4. It counteracted the ascetic tendencies of the mo- 
nastics by encouraging an active participation in life's 

5. It restricted its advantages to the privileged class. 

6. It despised intellectual training, while laying great 
stress upon physical prowess. 

7. It lacked the elements of progress. 


■ i\ 

- 1^ id_>-A 


Literature. — Michaitd, The Crusades; Emerton, Mediaeval Europe; 
Momberty Great Lives (see Godfrey) ; Myers, Mediaeval and Modern 
History ; Guizot, History of Civilization ; Lordj Beacon Lights ; Archer 
and Kingsfordy T\i& Crusaders; W^>^//<?, Eighteen Christian Centuries ; 
Andrews, Institutes of General History ; Ridpath, Library of Universal 
History (article on the Crusades). 

Among the most remarkable movements that took place 
during the Middle Ages were the crusades. The Saracens 
had overrun and conquered the Holy Land, and the Chris- 
tian nations of the west attempted to recover from the 
hands of the infidels the soil made sacred by the life and 
death of Christ. For a long time the pilgrims who made 
journeys to the tomb of the Savior were undisturbed, as 
their pilgrimages were a source of profit to the Saracens. 
But when the Turks gained possession of Jerusalem, they 
began to persecute both the native Christians and those 
who came from abroad. Peter the Hermit, who had suf- 
fered from these cruelties at Jerusalem, returned to Europe, 
and by his crude eloquence and earnestness stirred the 
people almost to a frenzy. Obtaining the sanction of the 
Pope, he gathered an immense crowd of men, women, and 
children, atid started for the Holy Land. 

They encountered great hardships, many died of hun- 
ger, disease, and the hostility of the people through whose 
countries they passed, and the remnant who reached the 
Bosporus, were totally destroyed by Turkish soldiers. 


•-uSJ^^a^Jjll^ajjtlt^i* A^.'aSjO^fc^rf^tj^fajLmt . £i^^.^u 

«4i^ k>i« jfSf^3£^j!tAi^. 



The first successful crusade was organized by the feudal 
lords, who gathered an army of six hundred thousand men 
under the leadership of Godfrey of Bouillon. They had 
connected with their army one hundred thousand splendidly 
mounted men. After untold losses and horrors, which re- 
duced their forces to sixty thousand men, they succeeded 
in taking Jerusalem. They established a Latin kingdom 
with Godfrey at the head, and thus accomplished the pur- 
pose for which they had set out. This crusade lasted from 
1096 to 1099. 

For about fifty years the Latin kingdom held its own ; 
but it was constantly harassed by the Mohammedans, 
until it became necessary to organize a second crusade. 
The leaders in this were Conrad IIL of Germany and 
Louis Vn. of France. Jealousies soon arose between the 
rival leaders, who cared more for personal glory than for 
the purpose of the crusade. As a result, only a small por- 
tion of the three hundred thousand soldiers ever reached 
the Holy Land ; and this crusade, which lasted from 1 147 
to 1 149, resulted in failure. 

Forty years later Saladin, a Mohammedan ruler, having 
captured Jerusalem, a third crusade was organized. This 
was led by Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, Frederick 
Barbarossa of Germany, and Philip Augustus of France. 
Barbarossa went overland, but Richard and Philip, profit- 
ing by past experiences, made the journey by water, thus 
accomplishing it with greater ease and fewer losses. The 
rivalries between the different nationalities engaged pre- 
vented successful warfare ; but a truce was made with the 
humane Saladin,^ whereby he guaranteed protection to the 
Christians, and thus the crusade came to an end. This 
crusade^lasted from 11 89 to 1192. 

1 See Lessing's " Nathan der Weise." 



, 'I 



iiti. > ».,fi(i'..\ > ■/,■!■_ 



Other crusades followed from time to time for several 
centuries, with but little advantage gained over the condi- 
tions granted by Saladin. 

Results of the Crusades. — This, in brief, is a historical 
account of the crusades.^ It remains for us to note their 
educational value. 

I. They drew various nations together by one common 
^ 2. They increased the knowledge of the manners, cus- 
toms, culture, products, and civilization of the East. 

3. They stirred up commerce, especially that of the 
Mediterranean, making Venice and Genoa great commer- 
cial centers. 

4. They broke up the power of feudalism. Lord and 
vassal together entered upon enterprises of danger and 
suffering, which were great levelers of class distinction. 
In the enthusiasm of the holy cause, many feudal lords 
disposed of all their worldly possessions, and became as 
poor as their vassals. This broke up the feudal estates. 

s^ 5. They widened the horizon of thought, made Euro- 
peans more liberu.i, and prepared the way for an intel- 
lectual and religious revival. 

\^ 6. They emancipated philosophy from theology. As a 
result of movements inaugurated by the crusades, the uni- 
versity of Paris established the faculty of philosophy sepa- 
rate from that of theology. 

\ 7. Cramer says, " The crusades were a reaction of the 
laity against the clergy, of the senses against the spirit, of 
sight- against faith, of the deed against the word." 

1 It would be impossible to give a full historical account of the crusades in 
a work of this kind. The reader is referred to any standard work on that 

subject. T 

' ' 



Literature. — Laurie^ Rise of the Universities ; Hallam, Middle Ages ; 
Gitizot^ History of Civilization; Paulsen, The German Universities; 
Hiirsiy Life and Literature in the Fatherland ; Brother Azarms^ Essays 

We have seen that the Church had almost entire con- 
trol of education during the Middle Ages. Through her 
infiaence schools were established and maintained, learn- 
ing was preserved, and the interests of civilization were 
promoted. She was also influential in the founding of 
universities, though not to her alone were these institu- 
tions due. Laurie says : — 

" Now looking first to the germ out of which the 
universities grew, I think we must say that the universi- 
ties may be regarded as a natural development of the 
cathedral ^ and monastery schools ; but if we seek for an 
external motive force urging men to undertake the more 
profound and independent study of the liberal arts, we 

^ The cathedral schools were institutions connected with each cathedral for 
the purpose of training priests for their sacred office, but they were not limited 
entirely to priests. Instructions in the seven liberal arts was imparted, and 
also in religion. Parochial schools were established in many places for the 
purpose of training children in the doctrines of the Church. Thus, as early 
as the ninth century, the Church sought to extend the benefits of education te 
the people as well as to the priesthood. While the parochial schools Avere 
limited in» their instruction, somewhat after the manner of the early catechu- 
men schools, the changed conditions of Christianity permitted a much broader 
training than formerly. 


1 1* 







can find it only in the Saracenic schools of Bagdad, Baby- 
lon, Alexandria, and Cordova. The Saracens were neces- 
sarily brought into contact with Greek literature, just 
when the western Church was drifting away from it ; and 
by their translations of Hippocrates, Galen, Aristotle, and 
other Greek classics, they restored what may be quite 
accurately called the ' university life ' of the Greeks." 

The first universities, however, can hardly be said to 
have been inspired by the influence of the Church. Nor 
did the State assist in their establishment, though it after- 
ward sanctioned them, and conferred upon them their 
peculiar privileges. The first universities grew out of y 
organizations of scholars and students who joined them- 
selves together for the purpose of study and investigation. 
The oldest institution of this kind was that of Salerno, Italy, 
which Laurie says was a "public school from a.d. 1060, 
and a privileged school from iioo." It taught medi- 
cine only, and was established by a converted Jew. It 
was entirely independent of both Church and State, and 
attracted students from many countries. 

The next university was that of Bologna, Italy. It also 
had only one faculty, that of law. In 11 58 Frederick I. 
recognized the institution by giving it certain privileges. 
It awakened widespread interest throughout Europe, so 
that by the end of the twelfth century it is estimated that 
twelve thousand students had flocked to Bologna, most of 
them from foreign lands. This is an indication that the 
revival of learning was quite general throughout the 

But the greatest university of the Middle Ages was that 
of Paris, which attracted at least twenty thousand stu- 
dents. The university of Paris was evolved from a cathedral 
school, and it always retained a strong theological ten- 



* i i 

dency. Philip Augustus gave it privileges as a corpora- 
tion, and Pope Innocent III. recognized it as a high school 
of theology. The course of study was by no means narrow, 
as it was held that broad knowledge was essential as a 
preparation for theological study. Consequently it was 
not long before a philosophical faculty ^ — the first in his- 
tory — was added as separate from the theological faculty. 
The greatest name connected with the university of Paris 
is that of Abelard. Early in the twelfth century he at- 
tracted great numbers of students, and it was his person- 
ality that made Paris the greatest university of the Middle 

The university of Oxford, England, was founded in 1 140,^ 
that of Cambridge in I2(X). The oldest German univer- 
sity is Prague, founded in 1 348. Then follow : Vienna, 
1365; Heidelberg, 1386; Cologne,^ 1388; Erfurt,^ 1392; 
Wiirzburg, 1403; Leipsic, 1409; Rostock, 1419; Greifs- 
wald, 1456; Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1457; Trier, 1472; 
Tiibingen, 1477; and Mainz, 14^7. In France, after 
Paris, Toulouse, 1233; Orleans, Cahors, Caen, Poitiers, 
Nantes, and others during the fourteenth century. In the 
same century at Lund and Upsala in Sweden, Christiania 
in Norway, and Copenhagen in Denmark. Italy, Spain, 
England, Ireland, and Scotland also felt this wonderful 
impulse. These universities were usually modeled after 
that of Paris. 

The European universities were early granted certain 

^The complete university has four faculties, which embrace all human 
knowledge. The historical order of precedence is as follows : Theology 
(1259-60), Law (1271), Medicine (1274), and Arts or Philosophy (1281). 
The last includes all subjects not embraced in the first three. Thus all 
branches of science, history, language, mathematics, etc., belong to the 
" philosophical " faculty. 

* Laurie, " Rise of the Universities." * No longer in existence. 







privileges, many of which are accorded to this day. In- 
deed, some of these privileges were assumed and allowed 
before the institutions had official recognition by charter. 
These educational associations acquired so much influence 
and power that princes and popes vied with each other to 
gain favor with them by granting them special privileges. 
One of the most important of these is that the government 
of the student body rests with the university faculty, both 
as to their life in connection with the university, and also 
outside of it. Thus to this day if a student is arrested by 
the police, his case is turned over to the authorities of the 
university for trial and punishment. This was an impor- 
tant concession largely growing out of the fact that a great 
many of the students were citizens of other countries than 
that in which the university was located. It will readily 
appear that this privilege alone would have a tendency to 
create a world for university students and professors apart 
from that of the citizens. Doubtless the moral tone among 
the former was often very low. Students took advantage 
of the situation created by their peculiar privileges, and 
disregarded laws which the citizens were obliged to obey. 
Conflicts between these two classes, therefore, were fre- 
quent and bitter. 

The universities stimulated a desire for learning, created 
a respect for it, and began a movement toward free inves- 
tigation, and for the promulgation of liberal ideas, which 
gains strength with each decade of the world's history. 
They have greatly contributed to the growth of knowledge, 
to the advancement of science, and to the elevation of 








Literature. — Warner, Library of the World's Best Literature (see 
article on the Koran) ; Johonnot, Geographical Reader ; Lane- Poole, 
Story of the Moors in Spain ; LonU Beacon Lights of History ; Thai- 
heimer, Mediaeval and Modern History ; ^'////^, Studies in Mediaeval 
History ; Irving, Mahomet and his Successors ; Church, The Begin- 
nings of the Middle Ages; Andrews, Institutes of General History; 
White, Eighteen Christian Centuries; Myers, Mediaeval and Modern 
History ; Mombert, Great Lives ; Clarke, Ten Great Religions ; Fer- 
ris, Great Leaders; Laurie, Rise of the Universities. 

We have thus far described the work of Christian edu- 
cation. Parallel with this and almost entirely independent 
of it grew the educational work of the Moslems. This was 
a very important movement most valuable to civilization. 

History of Mohammedanism. — Mohammedanism dates 
from the time of the Hegira, or flight of Mohammed from 
Mecca, a.d. 622. From this date Moslems reckon their time, 
as the Christian world reckons from the birth of Christ. 
Mohammed first appeared as prophet when forty years of 
age. The religion of the Arabs was a most degraded one, 
and there was great need of the reformation which Moham- 
med undertook. The prophet was not well received at first, 
and, being obliged to flee from Mecca, he retired to a cave 
at Medina, where he meditated and studied. It was during 
this retirement that he wrote the Koran, the Bible of 
the Mohammedans. He claimed that the angel Gabriel 
appeared to him, giving him a new revelation, which was 





'. ! 





more significant than that of the Christians. Indeed, these 
so-called revelations were strangely suited to the varying 
ambition of the founder of this religion. The Koran 
teaches that as Jesus was greater than Moses, so Moham- 
med was greater than Jesus. 

There is no doubt that the new religion was an improve- 
ment upon the degraded form of worship that Mohammed 
found among the Arabs, or that in the beginning of his 
activity he did much to purify and elevate his people. 
But as he gained great numbers of adherents, and as ho 
acquired power, Mohammed became a warrior, and at- 
tempted by the sword to compel belief in his doctrines. 
Moslemism met with such wonderful success that already, 
during the life of Mohammed, all Arabia was conquered 
to this belief, while his successors spread his teachings 
into northern Africa, western Asia, Spain, ard Turkey. 
They carried their triumphant arms into F ce, intil 
they were checked by Charles Martel; they overran 
Austria and threatened the complete subjugation of 
southeastern Europe, until John Sobieski dealt them a 
crushing blow before the gates of Vienna, and forever 
destroyed their ambition for northern conquest ; they occu- 
pied Spain for seven hundred years, and still retain Turkey 
as their sole European possession ; they have extended 
their power over many parts of Asia and Africa, until now 
they number about two hundred million souls. 

The five chief Moslem precepts are : — 

1. Confession of the unity of God. "There is one God, 
and Mohammed is his prophet." 

2. Stated prayer. 

3. Almsgiving. 

4. The fast of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Mo- 
hammedan year. 

^hia^^i^ i^u.L«t-^k^.,j.jck«^t l}<^^.«^ -'--«^«i>-SjJ*totfJ„A*. ^ ,^_^ __ ^ 




5. Observance of the festival of Mecca. Every Moslem 
is expected to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in 
his lifetime. 

Education. — When Mohammedanism became secure in 
its power, it turned its attention to education. The suc- 
cessors of Mohammed were called caliphs, and the caliphs 
of Bagdad and Cordova rivaled each other in fostering 
learning. Schools were established in all large Moslem 
cities and in many smaller towns. Their scholars trans- 
lated the works of Aristotle and other Greek authors. 
They taught mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, and 
grammar. They originated the science of chemistry, and 
made great advances in the study of algebra and trigonome- 
try. They also measured the earth, and made catalogues 
of the stars. Every branch of knowledge was studied, and 
students were attracted from all parts of Europe to their 
schools, especially to Cordova. 

Students lived in colleges with the professors, and there 
was an atmosphere of culture and investigation not equaled 
in any of the Christian universities of the Middle Ages. 

Spain reached the summit of Moslem education during 
the reign of King Hakem III. (961-976). This king fos- 
tered education, being himself a man of learning. He 
had a private library of six hundred thousand volumes. 

Education was not confined simply to the higher schools 
and universities. There were also a great many elementary 
schools. The first work of these was to teach the Koran, 
which was used as a reading book. The Koran gives us 
the most perfect picture of the oriental mind that we 
possess. Children of the poor attended school from their 
fifth till their eighth year, when they were allowed to go 
to service. Children of the rich entered school at their 
fifth year and remained till their fourteenth or fifteenth 

HIST. OF ED. — 10 

I .1 










year. After that, if parents could afford it, boys traveled 
until their twentieth year, uifder care of a tutor. This 
completed their education. Any person could teach who 
chose to do so, no authority fixing the qualifications of 

The Mohammedan schools began to decline in the 
eleventh century. At the present time, but little attention 
is paid to education in any of the countries under the sway 
of Islam. 




1. Paganism gave way to Christianity, and the benign 
influence of the latter began to be felt in the recog- 
nition of the importance of the individual. 

2. The Church undertook the direction of education, 
which, though necessarily limited chiefly to the ec- 
clesiastics, had also a great influence upon the masses 
at large. 

3. The Church Fathers were the leaders in intel- 
lectual as well as in spiritual matters, while monks and 
priests were the principal teachers. 

4. The monasteries were the centers of educational 
activity, both in fostering scholarship and in preserving 
classic literature. 

5. Secular courses of study were established, the 
most important being the "seven liberal arts." 

6. Education was based on authority, and free in- 
vestigation found but little encouragement, except among 
tliC scholastics. 

7. The State assumed no part in the training of the 
young. Charlemaj le's educational work is an exception 




to this rule. He asserted the prerogative of the State 
to control education, recognized the necessity of uni- 
versal education, and the principle of compulsory at- 

8. The crusades checked the growth of feudalism, 
aroused the intellectual as well as the spiritual energies 
of the people, led to a broader conception of man's duty 
to his fellow-man, and prepared the way for greater 
religious and political freedom. 

9. As an important result of the stimulated educa- 
tional activity, both among Christians and Moham- 
medans, many universities were founded. 

10. The Middle Ages contributed but little to science, 
and progress was seriously checked by the antagonism 
of the Church to scientific investigation. 



%' i 





Literature. — Williams, History of Modern Education ; Quick, 
Educational Reformers ; Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire ; Andrews, 
Institutes of General History; Fisher, History of the Reformation; 
Reeve, Petrarch; Symonds, Renaissance in Italy; Seebohm, Era of 
Protestant Revolution ; Spofford, Library of Historical Characters ; 
Hegel, Philosophy of History ; Draper, Intellectual Development of 

\\\ ' 

As the fifteenth century drew to a close there were 
unmistakable evidences of the dawn of a better day, 
and the long period known as the Dark Ages was to 
be succeeded by a brighter and more glorious era. The 
Church no longer held undisputed sway over the con- 
sciences, lives, and material interests of men; the feudal 
system had begun to disintegrate; the world had been 
aroused to new enterprise by the discovery and explora- 
tion of distant continents, by the invention of paper, 
the printing press, gunpowder, and the mariner's com- 
pass; the Ptolemaic system of astronomy had been 
superseded by that oi Copernicus ; the great empires 
of the Middle Ages had disappeared, and upon their ruins 
had been constructed smaller nationalities which spoke 
a language of their own. The period in which these 
remarkable changes were taking place is known as 




that of the Renaissance. It cannot be confined to definite 
chronological limits, but is the period of transition from 
one historical stage to another, in which there was a 
** gradual metamorphosis of the intellectual and moral 
state of Europe." The Renaissance must be viewed 
as " an internal process whereby spiritual energies latent 
in the Middle Ages were developed into actuality and 
formed a mental habit for the modern world." It pre- 
pared the way for the Reformation, and introduced the 
era of wonderful progress upon which modern civiliza- 
tion has entered. It was the new birth, the regeneration 
(renascence) of the world. 

The most important instrumentality for carrying for- 
ward the great work thus inaugurated was the Teutonic 
race. The despised northern barbarians, who had con- 
quered Rome, had become civilized and Christianized, 
and were found to possess the sterling qualities which 
made them capable of bearing the great responsibilities of 
progressive civilization. The proud Roman Empire had at 
last succumbed to its internal weaknesses and vices, and 
had disappeared forever from the face ot the earth. 

With the greater enlightenment of men had come once 
more an appreciation of the value of the classic languages, V 
and Greek, the language of the Eastern Empire, was no 
longer regarded with antipathy. The revival of learning, 
which had its inception in Italy and spread northward, 
found its most important expression in the new interest 
awakened in the classic languages. It is in this, the 
so-called humanistic phase of the Renaissance, that the 
student of education is chiefly interested. To this we turn 
our attention. 

We have already alluded to the social conditions, the in- 
ventions, and discoveries, which prepared the way for the 

: Hi 






V I 

revival of learning. New and powerful impulses were 
shaping the progress of the world, and the leaders of the 
humanistic movement were not slow to utilize the instru- 
ments thus opportunely furnished them. Chief among 
these was the art of printing, which enabled them to mul- 
tiply and distribute copies of the classics, that had been 
consigned to comparative oblivion. 

Another important element must be considered if we are 
to understand this revival. We have seen that during the 
Middle Ages the ecclesiastics largely shaped the int-sllec- 
tual activity of Europe, that mystery was made of science, 
and chat the authority of the Church was supreme on all 
questions of education as well as of religion. A new and 
vital doctrine was taught which had much to do with the 
intellectual and spiritual emancipation of man. This new 
doctrine may be stated as follows : — 

Man is a rational^ volitional, self-conscious being, born with 
capabilities and rights to enjoy whatever good the world 

This doctrine, it will readily appear, is capable of being 
perverted to an excuse for unbridled license, as was done 
by the Italians ; or, rightly interpreted, of being productive 
of great good, as in the case of the Germans. 

Another new doctrine taught was that there was good- 
ness in man and his works even previous to the Christian 
era, and that a study of the writings of all who have con- 
tributed to human progress is essential to culture, and of 
value to mankind. This was an argument for the revival 
of the study of Greek, which had for centuries been neg- 
lected. Indeed, Gibbon tells us that in the time of Pe- 
trarch, " No more than ten votaries of Homer could be 
enumerated in all Italy." 

Again, it was held that the gates of learning must be 

1 1 - 



opened to all and not limited to the clergy, the recluse, 
and the sage. Intellectual culture must be offered to 
all men, to make them better and happier, and is not to be 
confined to the few for the purpose of increasing their 
power and widening the breach between the classes. The 
Renaissance made learning popular, it created a passion 
for culture, it aroused and stimulated widespread desire 
for greater enlightenment. It restored humanity to its 
birthright after centuries of monasticism and scholasticism. 
It gave to the world the priceless treasures which had so 
long lain hidden and useless in the archives of the monas- 
teries, to serve for the enlightenment of mankind. 

We may now turn our attention to a more detailed 
history of this revival and its effect upon different peoples, 
and to a brief study of some of its great leaders. 

Humanism in Italy. — Italy was the first to catch the 
impulse of humanism. Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio 
in the fourteenth century inspired men with their new 
ideas, and set in motion influences which were attended 
with results often far from good. They revived the study 
of Latin and Greek classics, extracted manuscripts from 
their hidden archives, incited in society a passion for learn- 
ing, and created a popular literature in their own vernacu- 
lar. They implanted a love of freedom of thought in the 
Italian masses. Their enthusiasm for the new learning 
attracted scholars from Germany, France, and other coun- 
tries, who spread the influence in their own lands. 

The effect of humanism upon the Italian mind and 
life was pernicious in the extreme. It led to infidelity, 
to immorality, and to a return to many pagan prac- 
tices. This was owing to two chief causes. First, the 
influence of the Church with all its existing evils, and 
second, the passionate nature of the Italian people. Karl 



,,. I 







Schmidt says, " Humanism, but not morality, ruled in the 
Vatican." The popes encouraged art and science, and 
sought to gather about them an atmosphere of culture 
rather than of piety. Their frivolity served to encourage 
loose practices, and their infidelity gave excuse for throw- 
ing off the restraints of Christianity and for the return to 
pagan license. 

The history of the Church at this particular period 
shows that she had fallen into a sadly demoralized condi- 
tion ; that this great institution, which had exerted such a 
benign and elevating influence upon mankind, and whose 
record was in the main so noble, was in great need of 
reform. In the exaltation of the intellectual the spiritual 
was neglected. This was particularly true in Italy, the 
center of ecclesiastical life, the home of the head of the 
Church. And yet, with the many monasteries and monks, 
with the hordes of ecclesiastics, with the vast amount of 
property controlled by the Church, and with the traditions 
of centuries acknowledging her authority, it will be seen 
that she possessed a power in Italy not equaled else- 

The people interpreted the teaching of Petrarch that the 
world was made for man's enjoyment, as a plea for license 
and absence of restraint. Even monks and priests, who 
had been held to the rigid life of the cloister, imbued with 
this teaching, indulged in excesses that were subversive of 
both morals and religion. 

But without doubt there was a great intellectual move- 
ment in Italy. Draper says, "Between 1470 and 1500 
more than ten thousand editions of books and pamphlets 
were printed, and a majority of them in Italy, demon- 
strating that Italy was in the van of the intellectual move- 



Humanism in Germany. — A far different result was 
attained among the Teutonic peoples. The best students 
of Germany went to Italy, and, becoming acquainted with 
the new education, returned to introduce it into their own 
universities. Being less under the influence of the Church 
in her decadence, and possessing the moral stability which 
had brought the Teutonic race to the front, the Germans 
obtained good where the Italians had absorbed evil. The 
same principle, with different interpretation, under differ- 
ent conditions, and in different soil, brought forth far dif- 
ferent fruit. Thus Petrarch's teaching was interpreted to 
mean that the good things of earth are not to be abused, 
and that man's acquirements are to be consecrated to his 
self-development and to the glory of God. 

The German humanists revived the study of the classics, 
Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, until, at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, these languages were taught in every 
German university. The Bible was studied in the original, 
and classic writings were redeemed from obscurity, printed, 
and given to the world. Heidelberg and Tubingen became 
centers of the humanistic movement, and Agricola, Reuch- 
lin, and Erasmus were the great leaders. 

Summary of the Influence of Humanism. — i. It laid 
the foundation for future liberty of thought and con- 

2. It revived the study of the classic languages, and 
gave them a place in education which they still hold. 

3. It utilized the art of printing by placing the works 
of ancient authors in form to be used by the world. 

4. It increased the number of students in the universi- 
ties, and stimulated intelligence among the masses. 

5. It changed courses of study, making them more 


, ii« 




' \ 




<■■ ,(■ 




p I 



6. It exerted an influence on schools of all kinds by 
giving better preparation to teachers. 

7. It stimulated all forms of elevating activity, — in 
art, in science, in exploration, in invention. 

8. It prepared the way for the Reformation, which 
broadened and perfected the work thus inaugurated. 





Literature. — Spofford, Library of Historical Characters; Symondsy 
Renaissance in Italy; Reeve, Petrarch; Ma'-.iulay, Essays; Warner , 
Library of the World's Best Literature (see articles on Dante, Petrarch, 
and Boccaccio) ; D'Aubigni, History of the Reformation ; Morris, Era 
of the Protestant Revolution ; Leclerc, Life of Erasmus ; Fisher, History 
of the Reformation ; Mrs. OUphant, Dante. 

The mission of the humanistic leaders was to " awake 
the dead," for Greek had become in the fullest sense a 
dead language, and while classic Latin was still read, its 
spirit was not comprehended and therefore it also was 
practically dead. We have seen that the Italians were 
the first to catch the inspiration of this revival, and Ger- 
many, France, Spain, and England "were invited to her 
feast." The great leaders of Italy were Dante, Petrarch, 
and Boccaccio. It is not the purpose here to discuss 
these men in all of their intellectual activities, but simply 
to consider the part of their work that had a bearing on 

The Italian Humanists 

DANTE (1 265-1 321) 

Dante was born and educated in Florence. He was 
favored with a devoted teacher, Brunetto Latini, who was 
said to be "a great philosopher and a consummate mas- 
ter of rhetoric, not only knowing how to speak well, but 


N 1 

1 ! i 









to write well." Under him Dante became familiar with 
all of the great Latin poets, with philosophy, history, and 
theology. Dante always spoke of his teacher with great 
affection. Those were times of revolution and political 
disturbance, and Dante was readily drawn into politics. 
This caused his banisnment and even endangered his life. 
Dante's greatest work is the " Divine Comedy," which 
has made his name immortal. His was the first great 
name in literature after the long dark period of the Middle 
Ages. It is said of him that "he was not the restorer of 
classic antiquity, but one of the great prophets of that 
restoration." He brought the Italian language into use in 
literature and gave to it a dignity that it has never lost. 
Dante prepared the way for the humanistic movement and 
was therefore an important factor in this great revival. 

PETRARCH (1 304-1 374) 

The father of Petrarch was an eminent jurist, and he 
desired his son to adopt his profession, but Petrarch had 
neither taste nor capacity for Roman law. He was deter- 
mined to be a man of letters. Like Dante, he too mixed 
in politics, and several important diplomatic positions were 
given to him. Though he succeeded in learning a little 
Greek late in life, Petrarch was not a Greek scholar. This 
did not hinder him from being a warm advocate of the 
claims of the Greek language as an important element of a 
liberal education. Although he possessed a manuscript of 
Homer, " Homer was dumb to him, or rather he was deaf 
to Homer." 

Petrarch was the real founder of humanism. Being 
enthusiastic for the works of antiquity himself, he inspired 
the Italians with a remarkable zeal in the pursuit of classic 
lore ; nor was his influence confined to the limits of his 




native country. He was the first to make a collection of 
classic works, and to bring to light the literary treasures 
which the monasteries had so carefully preserved for cen- 
turies. He inaugurated that great movement which " re- 
stored freedom, self-consciouSiiess, and the faculty of prog- 
ress to human intellect." He recognized that the most 
wonderful thing in the world is the human mind, the 
emancipation of which can be brought about only through 
its own activity. He was the first to appreciate the impor- 
tance of Greek in human culture. Unlike Tertullian, Je- 
rome, and Augustine, he believed that classic authors, 
together with the Holy Scriptures and the writings of the 
Church Fathers, produce the broadest intelligence. All of 
these have the same purpose, and all are necessary to 
human enlightenment. Petrarch broke down the unfruit- 
ful methods of the scholastics, and laid the foundations 
upon which modern education is based ; namely, intellectual 
freedom, self-consciousness, and self-activity. 

BOCCACCIO (1313-1375) 
The third of the great Italian leaders in the humanistic 
movement was Boccaccio. At the age of twenty-five, 
while standing at the grave of Vergil, he decided to devote 
himself to a literary career. He admired the great work 
of Petrarch, and was proud that, " at his own expense, he 
was the first to have the works of Homer and other Greek 
authors brought to his native land ; that he was the first to 
call and support a teacher of Greek ; and that he was the 
first among all Italians who could read Homer in the orig- 

The German Humanists 

Ihe German mind is more earnest, disputative, and 
practical than the Italian, therefore the trend of German 


, lll 




S * 



humanism was at first chiefly theological, and the study of 
the classic languages, especially Hebrew and Greek, was 
undertaken for the purpose of better understanding the 
Holy Scriptures. Only a few scholars, however, wore in- 
terested, and not until a violent attack was made upon 
Reuchlin, was general attention attracted. 

AGRICOLA (1443-1485) 

RuDOLPHUS Agrjcola was the first to prepare the 
northern countries for the reception of the classic revival. 
After studying for some time under the great Italian mas- 
ters, he returned to Germany and accepted a professorship 
at Heidelberg, where he delivered courses of lectures on 
the literature of Greece and Rome. He lectured also at 
Worms at the request of the bishop, and drew around 
him a large number of students in both places. Hallam 
says of him, " No German wrote so pure a style, or pos- 
sessed so large a portion of classic learning." He pre- 
pared the way for the introduction of humanistic teach- 
ings and some of his pupils became the great leaders of 
that movement among the Teutonic peoples. 

The testimony of Erasmus concerning Agricola is as 
follows : " There was no branch of knowledge in which 
he could not measure himself with the greatest masters. 
Among the Greeks, he was a pure Greek, among the 
Latins a pure Roman. . . . Even when he spoke ex 
tempore^ his speech was so perfect and so pure that one 
could easily believe that one heard a Roman rather than 
a German. United with his powerful eloquence was the 
broadest erudition. He had investigated all the mysteries 
of philosophy, and thoroughly mastered every branch of 
music. In his later years he devoted his whole soul to 



the mastery of Hebrew and to the study of the Holy 
Scriptures. He cared but little for glory." 

REUCHLIN (1455-1522) 

Reuchlin may properly be called the first great German 
humanist. He was educated at Freiburg, Paris, and Basel, 
and gave especial attention to the classic studies, which 
had almost disappeared from the university courses in 
Germany. He took his master's degree at Basel, and then 
began to lecture on classical Latin and Greek. Being a 
born teacher, he drew about him a great number of stu- 
dents, who became interested in classic studies. He made 
several visits to Italy, where he imbibed the humanistic 
theories of the Italians, though he was already far ad- 
vanced in those theories before he went to Italy. In 148 1 
he was appointed professor at Tubingen, which thus be- 
came the first German university to teach humanistic 

At Linz, where he had been sent on an embassy, he 
made the acquaintance of the emperor's Jewish physician, 
with whom he began the study of Hebrew. This marks 
an important epoch in his history, as he is best known for 
his Hebrew Grammar and Lexicon, published in 1506, 
and for his championship of the Hebrew literature. Ow- 
ing to the scarcity of classic text-books, Reuchlin was 
obliged to mark out courses for his students, and, in a 
measure, to supply text-books for them. Much of his 
work in the university had to be dictated, and students were 
obliged to copy their work from manuscripts. He pub- 
lished a Latin lexicon and prepared the manuscript of a 
Greek grammar which he never published, but from which 
doubtless he drew in his work with students. 




1 * 


fir J 




!■ :T;i 


■ 'M 




In 1496 his friend Count Eberhard died, and Reuchlin's 
enemits succeeded in alienating the new prince, so he was 
glad to avail himself ot the opportunity to gc to the uni- 
versity of Heidelberg. Here he gave chief attention to 

While in Heidelberg he became involved in an unfortu- 
nate controversy regarding Hebrew literature, a contro- 
versy which was forced upon him. John Pfefferkorn, a 
converted Jew, zealous for the conversion of his race, 
obtained an order from the emperor to confiscate and de- 
stroy all Hebrew works which opposed the Christian faith. 
Reuchlin was appealed to as the highest authority on 
Hebrew, and he urged tha^ instead of destroying the lit- 
erature, two professors should be appointed in each uni- 
versity to teach Hebrew and thereby refute the Jewish 
doctors by making the students acquainted with the 
Bible. The struggle continued for years, and although 
the Church and even the universities were against him, 
Reuchlin was finally victorious, thereby saving a noble 
literature to the world. This was a great victory for 
humanism. A short time before his death Reuchlin re- 
turned to Tubingen, where he closed his illustrious career 
in 1522. 

Reuchlin v/as the first to introduce Greek into Germany, 
and the first to recognize the necessity of a knowledge of 
Hebrew in interpreting the Holy Scriptures. He began 
a reform in the schools which prepared the way for a like 
movement in the Church, and in Luther he saw the man 
who was destined to carry both of these reforms to fulfill- 
ment. " God be praised," said he, " in Luther they have 
found a man who will give them work enough to do, 
so that they can let me, an old man, go to my rest in 



ERASMUS (1467-1536) 

Erasmus was born at Rotterdam. Though not a Ger- 
man, he belonged to the Teutonic race. He has well been 
called a "citizen of the world," as he lived in so many 
countries, and came to be the most learned man of his 
time. He was left an orphan at an early age, and his 
guardians placed him in a convent. They wished to 
make a monk of him so that they could inherif his patri- 
mony, but this plan was resisted by the boy ici a long 
time. The life of the convent was very dijin^ixful to 
him, and though he afterward took vows, he never was 
in sympathy with asceticism. Possibly the ci'^ruption in 
the monasteries at that time may have had something to 
do with the repugnance of Erasmus to the monastic life. 
He was certainjy greatly relieved v/hen the Pope absolved 
him from his vows. 

Erasmus was precocious as a child, and it was early pre- 
dicted of him that he would be a great man, a prediction 
which he fully verified. Through the influence and help of 
the Bishop of Cambray, he was enabled to go to Paris for 
study, though the means furnished were not: sufficient for 
his support. He took pupils and gave lectures, thereby 
supplying the deficiency in his funds. It is recorded that, 
in his eagerness for books, he said, ** When I get money, I 
will first buy Greek books, and then clothing." He also 
studied at Oxford, and afterward at Turin, where he took 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity. Though many higi 
offices in the Church, and many positions in universities, 
were offered to him, he refused them all, preferring to be 
an independent man of letters. Erasmus was recognized 
as the supreme literary authority of the world, and this 
lofty position was the summit of his ambition. Nothing 












I I 

could turn him aside from the path that led to that eminence, 
and, once attained, nothing could attract him away from it. 

Basel had become the center of the new printing indus- 
try. This led Erasmus to choose that city as his home for 
the latter part of his life, and here he furthered the cause 
of humanism as no other man had done, by editing and 
giving to the world many of the classic treasures of the 
monasteries. He translated Greek works into Latin, 
thereby making them available to the world, as Latin was 
better understood than Greek. His translation of the 
Greek Testament was his most eminent service, though 
his " Colloquies" are better known. His " Praise of Folly" 
is a satirical work, in which he holds up to ridicule the 
ignorance and vice of the monks. 

Though he never broke away from the Church, without 
doubt his sympathies were with the reformers. But 
neither the persuasions nor the denunciations of Luther 
could bring him to take a decided stand on either side. 
He thoi.ght that the reform could be wrought within the 
Church. He accepted the dogmas of the Church, and re- 
mained within it as long as he lived. 

Erasmus was the exact counterpart of Luther. He 
appealed to the limited few, Luther to the masses ; he to 
the educated and higher classes, Luther to the ignorant and 
lowly ; he was a man of reflection, Luther a man of action. 
The apparent vacillation of Erasmus may have been due 
to ill health, to the influence of the Pope, to the ties of the 
Church in which he had been reared, to the satisfaction he 
found in his eminent literary position, and to his dislike 
for controversy. 

Erasmus gives us some very valuable pedagogical teach- 
ings, which may be summed up as follows: — 

Pedagogy of Erasmus. — i . The m.other is the natural 



educator of the child in its early years. The mother who 
does not care for the education of her children is only half 
a mother. 

2. Until the seventh year the child should have little to 
do but play, in order to develop the body. It must have 
no earnest work, but must be taught politeness. 

3. After the seventh year earnest work must begin. 
Latin and Greek (which should be studied together) must 
be taught early so that right pronunciation and a good 
vocabulary may be attained. 

4. The first subject to be learned is grammar. Lan- 
guage is necessary before a knowledge of other things can 
be gained. 

5. Teachers should be better trained and better paid, 
and suitable places must be furnished for the schools. 

6. The religious side of education must not be neg- 

7. Great attention must be paid to the cultivation of the 
memory : (<?) by a proper understanding of the subject ; 
{b) by logical order in thinking ; {c) by comparison. 

8. As the bee collects honey from many flowers, so 
knowledge is gathered from many sources. 

9. The foundation of all training of children must be 
laid in the home. Parents should know what their chil- 
dren ought to be taught. Above all things children must 
be taught to obey. 

10. The first care with girls is to inculcate in them re- 
ligious feelings ; the second to protect them from contami- 
nation ; the third, to guard them from idleness. 

., \\ 



. lit 

] 1'; 




Literature. — White, Eighteen Christian Centuries ; Taylor, History 
of Germany; Draper, Intellectual Development of Europe; Guizot^ 
History of Civilization ; Lord, Beacon Lights ; Seebohm, The Protestant 
Revolution ; Fisher, History of the Reformation ; Bryce, The Holy 
Roman Empire ; Morris, Era of the Protestant Revolution ; Hurst, 
History of the Reformation ; Lewis, History of Germany ; Myers, 
Mediaeval and Modern History ; Schiller, The Thirty Years' War ; 
Hallam, Literary History ; Kiddle and Schem, Cyclopaedia of Edu- 
cation ; Dyer, Modern Europe ; D''Aubigni, History of the Reforma- 
tion ; Yonge, Three Centuries of Modern History ; Motnbert, Great 

Historical Conditions. — At the beginning of the six- 
teenth century we find the stage of political, religious, and 
educational activity transferred from the shores of the 
Mediterranean to the north of the Alps. We have seen 
the great work of civilization taken from the Greek and 
Latin races and committed to the Teutonic race. We 
have traced the humanistic movement from its birthplace 
in Italy to Germany, where it found a more congenial 
atmosphere and a more suitable soil. The world was ripe 
for a great revolution, which was destined to advance the 
interests of mankind with gigantic strides. 

The invention of printing by Gutenberg, in the middle 
of the fifteenth century, must be mentioned as the primary 
material agency in forwarding this advance. It was said 




of this art that it would "give the deathblow to the super- 
stition of the Middle Ages." It multiplied readers a 
hundredfold; it stiiuul.ited authorship; it revolutionized 
literature, because it made the preservation and dissemina- 
tion of thought easy ; it was a mighty influence in bring- 
ing about universal education, a principle for which the 
Reformation stood. 

Another event of great importance was the discovery of 
America, which stimulated various European enterprises. 
Thus, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, the world 
awakened from its long sleep, and educational enterprise 
was born anew. 

The German Reformation had been preceded by similar 
movements in other lands. Huss and Jerome of Prague, 
in Bohemia, Wyclif in England, Zwingli in Switzerland, 
the Waldenses in Italy, and the Albigcnses in France, had 
raised their voices in solemn protest against the abuses of 
the Church, and many of the reformers had paid for 
their temerity by martyrdom. But the German Reforma- 
tion, under the leadership of Martin Luther, was destined 
to exert a mighty influence throughout northern Europe, 
and to set in motion impulses which were to shape all later 

The chief rulers of Europe were Frederick the Wise of 
Saxony, known as Luther's friend, Henry the Eighth of 
England, Francis the First of France, and Charles the 
Fifth, king of Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Austria, and after- 
ward emperor of Germany. Leo the Tenth was Pope, 
and he had great influence in temporal affairs. Emperor 
Charles V. was the most powerful ruler of this period. 
Though a foreigner in manners, customs, and sympathy, 
and unacquainted with the German tongue, he became 
emperor of Germany by bribing the electors who had a 







) . 

1 > 




■ i. 



1 66 


I . 1 

V i. 

if I: 


voice in selecting the ruler of that nation. It is said that 
he paid $1,500,000 to these corrupt electors, besides making 
many promises of future favors. He was treacherous, and 
never hesitated to break the most solemn pledges when his 
interests so demanded. Bayard Taylor says of him, •* His 
election was a crime, from the effects of which Germany 
did not recover for three hundred years." 

Intellectual Conditions. — These, then, were the external 
conditions which existed at the beginning of the sixteenth 
century. The Church, which had been the mother of 
schools, had become corrupt and degenerate ; priests were 
ignorant and immoral ; and good teachers were no longer 
to be found. Education was at such a low ebb, and the 
advantages offered by the schools were so poor, and of 
such a doubtful character, that but few persons cared to 
avail themselves of their privileges. Even the universities 
failed to educate. Luther says, " Is it not pitiable that a 
boy has been obliged to study twenty years or longer to 
learn enough bad Latin to become a priest, and read 
mass.''" Again he says, "Such teachers and masters wc 
have been obliged to have everywhere, who have known 
nothing themselves, and have been able to teach nothing 
good or useful." 

There was need, then, of reform in education as well 
as in religion, and Luther took the burden of both upon 
his shoulders. As an educational reformer, he has earned 
for himself the world's gratitude. It must be admitted 
that Luther's main purpose was the reformation of the 
Church, and that his educational work merely grew out 
of the need of general intelligence as a necessary ad- 
junct to ihat work. Of the existing conditions, Com- 
payre well says, " With La Salle and the foundation of 
the Institute of the Brethren of the Christian Schools, the 

1 1 



historian of education recognizes the Catholic origin of 
primary instruction ; in the decrees and laws of the French 
Revolution, its lay and philosophical origin ; but it is to 
the Protestant Reformation, — to Luther in the sixteenth 
century, and to Comenius in the seventeenth, — that must 
be ascribed the honor of having first organized schools for 
the people. In its origin, the primary school is the child 
of Protestantism, and its cradle was the Reformation." ^ 

LUTHER 2 (1483-1546) 

Martin Luther was born at Eisleben, Germany, of poor 
and humble parents. He was brought up under the rigid 
discipline of the typical German home, in which the rod 
was not spared. Upon this point he writes, ** My parents' 
severity made me timid ; their sternness and the strict life 
they led me made me afterward go into a monastery and 
become a monk. They meant well, but they did not under- 
stand the art of adjusting their punishments." 

When he was fourteen years of age, his parents, then in 
better circumstances, sent him to Magdeburg to prepare 
for the university. But the expense being too great, he 
was withdrawn from this school and sent to Eisenach, 
where he could live with relatives. Here he sang in the 
street for alms, and his sweet voice attracted the attention 
of Ursula Cotta, a wealthy lady, who took him to her 
own home and gave him an excellent teacher. 

When eighteen years of age he entered the university of 

1 " History of Pedagogy," p. 112. 

2 Special reference is made to Draper, Vol. H, p. 208; D'Aubigne, pp. 85, 
598; Fisher, p. 85; Dyer, Vol. H, p. 3; Lord, Vol. HI, p. 219; Seebohm, 
pp. 97, 103; and also to Froude, " Short Studies on Great Subjects," pp. 37, 96; 
Mombert, "Great Lives," p. 175; Yonge, "Three Centuries of Modern His- 
tory," p. 78. 

I ^'M 



: n 


1 68 


■ If 

Erfurt, then a center of humanistic learning. He made 
marvelous progress in his studies until he took his degree. 
His father had intended him for the law, but Luther de- 
termined to devote himself to tae Church, much to his 
father's disappointment. Accordingly he became an 
Augustinian monk when twenty-two years of age. Unlike 
many of his brethren, he kept up his studies while in the 
monastery, and was called to a professorship in the new 
university at Wittenberg in 1508, where he found an 
ample field for his remarkable powers. Two years later, 
he went as a delegate to the papal court at Rome, where 
his eyes were opened to the condition of the Church in her 
holiest sanctuaries. Returning to Wittenberg, he continued 
his studies and his lectures, and drew about him a great 
number of students. His lectures and his writings against 
the practices of the Church became so pronounced that he 
was summoned before the Diet of Worms and commanded 
to retract. This he refused to do in the memorable words : 
"Here I stand; I cannot do otherwise. God help me! 
Amen." On his return from Worms, fearing for his safety, 
his friends took him prisoner and confined him in the Wart- 
burg castle at Eisenach. During the nine months of his 
confinement he translated the Bible into German.^ Luther 
took great pains to make the language so pure and plain 
that it could be understood by the common people, to whom 
he appealed. He was never ashamed of his humble origin. 
When he came to be the honored friend and trusted ad- 



1 This was not the first translation of the Bible into German, but former 
translations had been intended for scholars; Luther's was intended for the 
common people. By the simplicity of the language used, Luther brought the 
Holy Word within the comprehension of the masses, who were woefully igno- 
rant. The general use of the printing press at this time made the translation 
opportune, as it placed the Bible within the reach of all. It thus became a 
powerful instrument for universal education. 



viser of princes and kings, he was wont to say, " I am a 
peasant's son; my father, grandfather, and remote ancestors 
were nothing but veritable peasants." 

The language of Luther's translation of the Bible be- 
came the standard German, which was to supplant the 
many dialects. 

His great watchword was, " Make the people acquainted 
with the Word of God." But the Bible was of little use to 
the masses so long as they could not read. Luther therefore 
set himself sturdily to the improvement of the schools, 
which were in a deplorable condition. He urged the prii.- 
ciple of parental responsibility for the education of chil- 
dren. "Believe me," said he, "it is far more important 
that you exercise care in training your children than that 
you seek indulgences, say many prayers, go much- to 
church, or make many vows." His pedagogy constitutes 
the foundation of the German common school system of 
to-day. Luther, then, must be remembered as the great- 
est educator of his time for two reasons. 

1. He gave the German people a language by his transla- 
tion of the Holy Scriptures. 

2. He laid the foundation of the Geruian common school 

Luther's Pedagogy. — i. Parents are responsible for the 
education of their children. 

2. It is the duty of the State to require regular attend- 
ance at school of every child, and the parents must be 
held accountable for non-attendance. 

3. Religion is the foundation of all school instruction. 

4. Every child must learn not only the ordinary sub- 
jects taught at school, but also the practical duties of life, 
— boys, a trade ; girls, housework. 

5. Every clergyman must have pedagogical training 



' " i'l 


: It 









and experience in teaching before entering upon a 

6. The teacher must be trained, and in that training 
singing is included. 

7. Children must be taught according to nature's laws, 
— the knowledge of the thing must precede its name. 

8. Due respect should be shown to the office of teacher, 
and by example and precept every teacher should be wor- 
thy of respect. 

9. His course of study included Latin and Greek, his- 
tory, mathematics, singing, and physical training, besides 

10. Every school should have a library. 

11. It is the inherent right of every child to be edu- 
cated, and the State must provide the means to that end. 

The principles above .^ ited are fundamental in the 
German school systems of the present time. Religious 
instruction, trained teachers, compulsory and universal 
education, are the central principles of the schools of 
Germany and of many other nations. Luther could not 
give his chief attention to education, but with deep insight 
he saw the necessity of it, and laid the foundations upon 
which later generations have built a marvelous structure, 
true to the design of its architect. 

MELANCIITHON (1497- 1560) 

Philipp Mclanchthon was the friend, colaborer, and 
adviser of Luther. Luther was a resolute, energetic, 
impulsive man ; Melanchthon was quiet, reserved, and 

^ This was because the pastor had an oversight of the school, a practice 
still very common in Germany. 




conciliating;. There is no doubt that these two men of 
such opposite dispositions exerted a sakitary infiucnce 
upon each other, — Luther stimulated and encoura<^^ed 
Melanchthon ; Melanchthon checked and restrained Lu- 
ther. It is certain that each was helpful to the other, 
and that the great cause of the Reformation, to which 
they mutually consecrated themselves, was furthered by 
their friendship and union. 

Melanchthon had excellent training as a boy, and early 
showed signs of unusual ability. At fifteen he took his 
bachelor's degree at Heidelberg University, and when only 
eighteen years of age Erasmus said of him, " What hopes 
may we not conceive of Philip^) Melanchthon, though as 
yet very young, almost a boy, but equally to be admired for 
his proficiency in both languages ! What quickness of inven- 
tion ! What purity of diction ! What va.stness of memory ! 
What variety of reading ! What modesty and gracefulness 
of behavior! And what a princely mind! " 

After completing his course at Heidelberg, he went to 
Tiibingen, where his studies were directed by Reuchlin, who 
was his kinsman. He gave public lectures at Tubingen 
on rhetoric and on various classic authors, attracting world- 
wide attention. In 15 18 he was called to the Greek pro- 
fessorship at Wittenberg, where he made the acquaintance 
of Luther. - Bishop Hurst says, "The life of Melanchthon 
was now so thoroughly identified with that of Luther that 
it is difficult to separate the two. They lived in the same 
town of Wittenberg. They were in constant consultation, 
each doing what he was most able to do, and both working 
with unwearied zeal for the triumph of the cause to which 
they gave their life." 

His success at Wittenberg was assured from the first. 
Though youthful in appearance, being but twenty-one 






I '' 

1 '^ 

i f^ 



years of age, his pure logic, his profound knowledge of 
philosophy, his familiarity with the Scriptures, his perfect 
mastery of the classic languages, his fine diction, and his 
broad knowledge awoke enthusiasm at once. Wittenberg, 
possessing two such great men as Luther and Mclanchthon, 
became the center of humanistic studies, not less than two 
thousand students being attracted to its university. Mc- 
lanchthon was an inspiring teacher; among his pupils 
were men who afterward became leaders of thought in Ger- 
many, and who did much to shape the destiny of Europe. 

Perhaps Melanchthon's greatest service to the schools 
was his publication of text-books, which were very much 
needed. He wrote a Greek grammar for boys when him- 
self but a boy of sixteen. Grammar he defined as "the 
science of speaking and writing correctly," a definition 
that has been scarcely improved upon. Ten years later 
his Latin grammar was published, after being tested for 
some years in his classes. For more than one hundred 
years this was the principal Latin grammar in use, and 
there were not less than fifty-one editions of it. 

He wrote also text-books on logic, rhetoric, and ethics. 
It will be seen that the trivium — grammar, rhetoric, logic 
— furnished the foundation of his literary activity, so far 
as the schools are concerned. He was active also in 
authorship of theological works, producing the first theo- 
logical work of the Protestant Church, the " Loci Com- 
munes," which Luther placed next to the Bible for 
theological study. 

The interest of Melanchthon for education made him 
the chief adviser and leader among the school men. His 
advice was constantly sought in the educafional movements 
of Germany. After visiting the schools of Saxony, he 
drew up the " Saxony School Plan," which furnished the 



basis of various similar organizations throughout Germany. 
There were three fundamental principles in this system. 

1. There must not be too many studies in the schools, 
and Latin should be the only language taught. 

2. There must not be too many books used. 

3. The children should be divided into at least three 
classes, or grades. 

In the first grade, reading, writing, the Lord's Prayer, 
the Creed, prayers and hymns, and some Latin should 
be taught. In the second, the Latin grammar, Latin 
authors, and religion. In the third, completion of the 
grammar, difficult Latin authors, rhetoric, and logic. 
Williams calls this " Melanchthon's somewhat artless 
ideas of a proper school system," which he excuses as 
being " marked possibly by the crudity of a first effort at 
organization, but more probably controlled in form by the 
fewness of teachers in the schools of his time." 

Melanchthon is also known as the first Protestant 

To sum up the educational work of Melanchthon, we 
find that he was a " born teacher," attracting and inspiring 
thousands of young men whom he instructed ; that he was 
the author of many text-books for the schools, and of 
theological works ; that he was an educational authority ; 
that he outlined a complete school system ; and that he 
was the adviser and friend of Luther in the work of the 








S %'■ 



! 1 


' i r 

"r . 

The educational work of Luther and Melanchthon 
bore remarkable fruit. Luther had urged parents to 
see to it that their children should be educated, and had 
appealed to magistrates to assist the Church in main- 
taining schools. He insisted upon compulsory educa- 
tion in the memorable words, *'The authorities are bound 
to compel their subjects to send their children to school." 
As a result schools were organized in Nuremberg, Frank- 
fort, I If eld, Strasburg, Hamburg, Bremen, Dantzic, and 
many other places. Eton, Rugby, Harrow, and other 
educational institutions were founded about this time in 

Melanchthon's course of study (Schulplan) for Saxony 
had appeared in 1528, and in 1558 the school law of Wiir- 
temberg, by far the best yet enacted, went into force. 
Other German provinces adopted more or less efficient 
school systems, and for the first time in the history of 
Christian education, the duty of the State to assume 
the responsibility of the education of its subjects was 
recognized. Out of these primitive systems have grown 
the completer systems of the present, after more than 
three centuries of experiment, study, and struggle. 

The Reformation taught the right of every person 
to an education, primarily, it is true, for religious ends, 
and it gradually came to be understood that the State 




must assume that duty. For the Church had neither 
the means nor the power to accompHsh universal educa- 
tion. But it was not till the nineteenth century that 
this end was reached, whereby the advantages of educa- 
tion were offered to the child of every parent of what- 
ever rank or station, and the State assumed full control 
of the schools. 

This was the great work marked out by Luther and 
Melanchthon, and their pupils and disciples carried that 
work to its fulfillment. Among these immediate followers 
we may mention Sturm, ^ Trotzendorf, and Neander, 
who contributed to educational reform. 

i m 


STURM 2 (1 507-1 580) 

Johann Sturm is counted among the greatest schoolmen 
that the Reformation produced, though he belonged to the 
French rather than the German reformers. He re- 
ceived an excellent training in the schools of Germany, 
and completed his education at Paris, where he after- 
ward became professor of Greek. He soon gained such 
a wide reputation that when only thirty years of age he 
was called to the rectorship of the Gyvinasiuni at Stras- 
burg, a position which he held for forty-seven years, 
and where he gained lasting fame. This fame rests 
not on his work as 2. teacher, but as an organizer and 
an executive. Paulsen doubts his having been a great 
teacher. He says, '* He was a man who gave his at- 
tention to great things. He had his hands in universal 
politics ; he was in the service of nearly all the European 

^ Though Sturm was not a lAitheran, he was a Protestant, being a fol- 
lower of Calvin. 

2 See Quick, *' Educational Reformers," and WiUiams, " History of Modern 
Education," p. 88. 



■ II 
il i^< 

potentates, drawing his yearly salary from all. ... It is 
not probable that such a wonderful man was also a good 
schoolmaster." ^ 

But his great work was the organization of the Stras- 
burg Gyjnnasinm^ especially its course of study, which 
became the model for the Latin schools for many years. 
Sturm's counsel was sought by schoolmen all over 
Europe, and he came to be the recognized leader of 
educational forces. His school course took the boy at 
six years of age and provided at first a nine years', 
afterward a ten years' course, ending at the sixteenth 
year of age. He added a five years' course to this later, 
and evidently planned to found a university. ^ 

Sturm believed that the mother should have charge 
of the child for the first six years of its life. In his 
ten years' course he required ten years of Latin, six of 
Greek, besides rhetoric, logic, rehgion, and music. He 
introduced the practice of translating Latin into Ger- 
man and then translating it back mto L-atin. ^ His 
course took no account of German, history, mathematics, 
or science. He thus sought to reinstate Greece and 
Rome, but entirely neglected those things which pre- 
pare for life. Williams says, ** With regard to Sturm's 




1 " Geschichte des Gelehrten Unterrichts." 

'^ Sturm's school course appeared in 1538. It was not the oldest school 
course of the Protestants. The oldest school course for a German school 
was prepared by Johannes Agricola and Hermann Talich in 1525 for the 
school at Eisleben, Luther's birthplace. Indeed, Paulsen thinks that 
Melanchtiion had a hand in its preparation. He says ("Geschichte des 
Gelehrten Unterrichts," p. 182), "This is the oldest published school course 
of the Reformed Church, which, if not composed by Melanchthon, was 
without doubt outlined, or at least approved, by him." This was discovered 
in 1865 by F. L. Hoffmann in the Hamburg city library. 

* See Ascham, p. 191, and Ratke, p. 2io. 



\ % 

plan of organization, it should be borne in mind that it 
is the very earliest scheme that we have, looking to an 
extended^ systefnatic, zvell-articulated course of studies 
for a school of several teachers, in which is assigned 
to each class such portion of the subject-matter of the 
course of instruction as is suited to the age and stage 
of advancement of its pupils." ^ 

This course of study attracted the attention of all Europe. 
Karl Schmidt says that in 1578 "his school numbered sev- 
eral thousand students, among whom were two hundred of 
noble birth, twenty-four counts and barons, and three princes 
— from Portugal, Poland, Denmark, England, etc." 

Paulsen, while not belittling the work of Sturm, thinks 
that the celebrated course has but little in it different from 
the courses of the Wittenberg reformers. He says, " If 
Melanchthon had had the planning of a school course for 
a large city, it would have been much the Lame (as Sturm's). 
The Saxon school plan of 1528 was effective only in small 
cities and country places. The basis of both (Melanch- 
thon's and Sturm's) is the same, — grammar, rhetoric, dia- 
lectics, with music and religion. In the large schools, 
like those of Nuremberg and Hamburg, a beginning of 
Greek and mathematics was added." ^ 

Sturm's course has the merit of definiteness, thorough- 
ness, and unity. There seems to be some doubt as to his 
success in carrying it out. It is certain that but few stu- 
dents completed his course compaxxd with the number who 
began it. Instead of sixty to seventy pupils in the last 
class, there were only nine or ten. The influence of Sturm, 
however, spread not only over Germany, but also reached 
to many other countries, and his Strasburg course of 

1 " History of Modern Education," p. 91. 

2 "Geschichte des Gelehrten Unterrichts," p. 197. 
HIST. OF ED. — 12 

II r 




A 1^1 




' ( 




Vli : 


14' ipl 


study shaped the work in the classical schools for many 

TROTZENDORF (1490-1556) 

Valentine Trotzendorf was born in poverty and beset by 
many difficulties in boyhood. His mother was a constant 
inspiration to him, and when he was disposed to give up the 
struggle, her words, " My son, stick to your school," led 
him to continue until he overcame the obstacles. When 
ready for the university he went to Leipsic, v/here he 
studied Greek and Latin for two years. In 15 15 he be- 
came a teacher in a village near Leipsic, a position that 
he retained for three years. He then went to Wittenberg, 
where he studied under Melanchthon for five years, and be- 
came very intimate with that great teacher. His fame as 
a teacher was made at Goldberg, where he was thirty-five 
years rector of a school. Like Melanchthon, he believed 
that the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and 
that the school is an adjunct of the Church. With Sturm, 
he laid great stress upon the classic languages, and in- 
sisted that his pupils should speak in the Latin tongue. 
As a teacher he possessed remarkable power. He loved 
to mingle with his pupils, converse with and question them, 
and he had great skill in drawing them out. In his in- 
struction he employed many illustrations, and proceeded 
from the concrete to the abstract. 

His discipline was unique and original. He introduced 
a practice before unknown, namely, that of self-govern- 
ment on the part of the students, an experiment that has 
been tried in recent years with excellent results in many 
American institutions for higher learning. Trotzendorf 
established a senate of twelve students, a ririn and other 
officers, who were made responsible for tne gOvVriiment of 



the school. These constituted a court of which he was 
president. Offenders were brought before the tribunal 
and tried with great formality and dignity. Ihis body 
sentenced the culprit to sucji punishment as his guilt 
merited, the master reservllig lb mfiisetf the right of being 
a court of final apj^eal. Besides the officers above named, 
there w^ere others who were in charge of the boys in their 
domestic relations, — such as keeping guard over their 
punctuality, ta)jle manners, diligence in study, etc. It was 
consiqciecl a high honor to hold one of these oflfices. The 
scheme worked well under Trotzendorf ; it taught self- 
government, and inculcated the spirit of freedom as well 
as an intelligent submission to law. Trotzendorf thus gives 
an example of school government which is quite in accord 
with the spirit of modern times. He also had his best 
pupils instruct the lower classes under his supervision, and 
thus prepared them to go forth as teachers. Teachers 
from his school were sought for by intelligent patrons of 
education in all parts of Europe 

NEANDER (1525-1595) 

Michael Neander was another of Melanchthon's pupils 
who became great as a teacher. Neander was for forty-five 
years the sole teacher of a Latin school at Ilfeld. Though 
he never had many pupils, his school was pronounced by 
Melanchthon as " the best seminary in the country." He 
was a most successful teacher, and the students whom 
he sent to the university were found to possess the very 
best preparation, and always stood among the first. He 
was well versed in medicme and chemistry, and was one 
of the best Greek and Latin scholars of his time. Con- 
trary to the practice of his contemporaries, he favored the 
teaching of geography, history, and the nn.tural sciences. 

\ f ' 




1 n 



1 1 

1 80 


His position in regard to the sciences nlaces him in ad- 
vance of other educators, and in this he was a follower of 
Melanchthon, who also believed that science should be 

Neander is celebrated also for the Greek and Latin text- 
books which he wrote. Speaking of these books, Paulsen 
says, " What he especially emphasized is : as few and as 
short rules as possible, and these rules are to be progress- 
ive ; at the proper time they are to be committed to 
memory. The pupil must also commit words, phrases, 
and sentences to memory, which is equally important." 
Lastly, he gave a careful outline of the work of a boy 
for every year from the sixth to the eighteenth. This 
was especially valuable for that period v/hen parents and 
teachers alike had nothing to guide them except the mo- 
nastic course of study, and when the world was giving birth 
to new theories in education as well as in religion. 

Neander's whole life was concentrated on the work of 
teaching, and in the schoolroom he found his greatest joy. 
Here, also, he made a lasting impression upon his pupils 
and upon mankind. His father was mistaken when he 
addressed the boy, ''Into a cloister with you; you will 
amount to nothing in the world." 

Other great teachers in the schools and in the univer- 
sities carried forward the educational work begun by the 
great reformers. Many cities had founded schools, and 
several of the German states had established school sys- 
tems. The educational ideas of the Protestant Reforma- 
tion had taken deep root, and were destined to spread 
over the whole world, gaining in force with each succeeding 

The practical outcome of this great movement was the 



establishment of schools in every village in Germany 
under the direction of the pastor, and where he was un- 
able to teach, under his clerk or assistant. As the chief 
purpose was to prepare the children for entrance to the 
church by confirmation, religion was the center of the 
school course. But reading, writing, arithmetic, and sing- 
ing were also taught. 

The clerk of the church gradually became the school- 
master, and while the relations of these two offices have 
materially changed, there is still a close official connection 
between the two, particularly in the country. In many 
cases the pastor is the local superintendent of the school, 
and the teacher is the clerk and chorister of the church. 
As fast as Lutheran churches were organized, schools 
were also established in connection with them. Nor were 
boys alone included in the work of education. Girls' 
schools were organized and an effort was made at universal 
education. Many provinces adopted advanced school laws, 
and the principle of compulsory education was recognized, 
though by no means successfully carried out. 

Thus was born in the middle of the sixteenth century 
the common school, and thus was recognized the right of 
all men to an education, and a practical illustration of the 
means of securing it was given to the world. 


1 1 

;i . K 




%^ \n 





! t 







Literature. — Draper, Intellectual Development of Europe ; Durrell, 
A New Life in Education ; Dyer, Modern Europe ; Fisher, History 
of the Reformation ; Guizot, History of Civilization ; Ferris, Great 
Leaders ; Lord, Beacon Lights ; Parkman, The Jesuits in North Amer- 
ica; W 7/ //t', Eighteen Christian Centuries ; ^//V^, Educational Reform- 
ers ; Symonds, Renaissance in Italy ; Hughes, Loyola ; Lamed, His- 
tory for Ready Reference. 

The Order. — The remarkable spread of Protestantism, 
however, was not to ^o on unchallenged. Already before 
the rupture of the Church, the need of a better educated 
clergy had been acknowledged. Erasmus felt this when 
he ridiculed the ignorance and vice of the monkH and 
priests, whose lives he so well knew. To check the growth 
of Protestantism, to advance the interests of Catholkisni, 
and to regain the lost ground, the Pope gave his sanction 
to the founding of the Jesuit order. Through the educa- 
tion of the young, which the reformers had emplo) cd as 
the most important instrument in furthering their aims, and 
which is ever recognized as the most essential principle in 
the permanent establishment of a new religion, the Hew 
order was also to work. Not indeed with the masses and 
with the young children, according to the practice of 
Luther, but with the flower of the land, with the wealthy 
and influential, with those who were to lead and govern, 
with the youth who were entering manhood.^ We shall 
see that the work of the "Order of Tesus" was so effective 

1 1 

;5ie Hughes' "Loyola," pp. 4, 14, 43, 46, 68, 72, 82, and 86 (lines 12-23). 




that it not only checked the onward march of Protestant- 
ism, but it even restored many provinces and communities 
to their fealty to the Catholic Church. We shall see also 
that it originated the most successful educational system of 
the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, a 
system having a definite end in view, and whose adherents, 
by indomitable energy, by self-sacrifice, by oneness of pur- 
pose, secured remarkable success. 

LOYOLA (1491-1556) 

The originator of the Jesuit order was Loyola, a Span- 
ish nobleman. While recovering from a severe wound 
received in battle, he read some religious books which 
made such a profound impression upon him that he re- 
solved to consecrate himself to religious wor]'. Not being 
an educated man, he devoted some years to study, and 
while at the university of Paris he gathered aroimd him 
other young men who also were ready to consecrate them- 
selves to the service of God. They formed themselves 
inli) the "Order of Jesus," uiLh the avowed purpose at 
first of -escuing Jerusalem fiom (he hands of the infidels. 
This was nol lo be done by force of anil6> AS itt case of 
the crusaders, but by peaceful nie4|ls. '(^(jls purpose was 
abandoned, but the zealous missionary s^jlrit (tf the Jesuits 
endured. In 1540 Pope Paul ITT. recognized the new 
order and gave it the sanction of the Church. The organi- 
zation was military in character, Loyola becoming its first 

Growth of the Society. — Its growth was remarkable 
from the outset. In 1600 the order possessed 200 schools ; 
in 1 710, 612 colleges, 157 boarding or normal schools, 59 
houses for novitiates, 340 residences, 200 missions, and 24 
universities. The college at Clermont had, in 165 1, 2000 



; dX 


I I 


1 84 




students, and in 1675, 30CX) students." These institutions 
controlled the education of the Catholic Church in all Eu- 
ropCv and many Protestant youn<^ men also were attracted 
to the Jesuit schools by their superior teachers and their 
thorough training. 

The society became so strong that successive popes 
attempted in vain to check its power. It spread to China 
and Hindustan, to the Indian tribes of North America, 
and to South America. Its creed and its practices aroused 
the suspicion of princes and people, of many Catholics 
as well as Protestants. The Jesuit order has been described 
as ** a naked sword whose hilt is at Rome, and whose 
point is everywhere." In 1773 the Jesuits were in posses- 
sion of 41 provinces, and had 22,589 members, of whom 
11,295 were priests. Since that time many popes have 
denounced them, rulers have f pelled them from their 
countries, their property and poA^er have been taken from 
them, and theii inHuence has been so checked that they are 
no longer a danger. 


Unlike the monastics, who withdrew from the world, the 
Jesuits mingled with the world ; they assumed no peculiari- 
ties of dress, and held themselves ready to act as mission- 
aries to the most remote parts of the world, as agents of 
the society to which they so fully consecrated themselves, 
and as teachers of youth. They established schools every- 
where, and placed them in charge of teachers of remarka- 
ble skill and pedagogical training.^ They made no effort 
to reach young children, their schools being designed for 
boys not less than fourteen years of age. Primary educa- 
tion did not enter into their scheme. They sought to 

1 See Hughes' " Loyola," pp. 46, 113, 156, 282. 



reach sons of princes, noblemen, and others who consti- 
tuted the iufliiential classes. They were justified in mak- 
ing no attempt to reach the masses by the instructions of 
their founder in his "Constitutions," in the followin^^ 
words, "None of those wiio are employed in domestic 
service on account of the society oupjht to learn to read 
and write, or, if the\ know these arts, to learn more of 
them. They shall not be instructed without the consent 
of the General ; for it suffices for him to serve with all sim- 
plicity and humility our Master, Jesus Christ." 

It is worthy of especial note that all teachers of the 
Jesuit schools were carefully trained before they were 
allowed to give instruction. This is the first time in 
history that the necessity of ■ pecial preparation for 
the work of teaching was lecoj^nized as an essential 
element in the work of education. 

Every Jesuit school was divided into two departments, 
the lower, studia infcriot'd, consisting of five classes, and 
the higher, studia siipcriora, requiring two or three years. 
Boys were admitted to the lower course at the age of four- 
teen, and the work consisted chiefly of the study of the 
humanities, while that of the advanced course embraced 
philosophy and theology.^ With reference to these courses 
of study, Compayre says, " Scientific studies are entirely 
proscribed in the lower classes, and the student enters his 
year in philosophy, having studied only the ancient lan- 
guages. Philosophy itself is reduced to a barren study of 
words, to subtle discussions, and to commentaries on Aris- 
totle. Memory and syllogistic reasoning are the only facul- 
ties called into play ; no facts, no real inductions, no care 
for the observation of nature."^ 

1 See Hughes' " Loyola," p. 151. -Y.. Schmidt, Vol. HI, p. 230. 

8 " History of Pedagogy," p. 145. 



! { ■ 















^^# '^"^V" 

i|I.O £K£l^ 


» i 

s; ii£ 12.0 









«VnSTIR,N.Y. 145*0 


¥p^ ,!«^/V ^rv\ 


•,.W.>rU;!iL\.:*»iJ..;^iJtiL.A'^ikXii::. --:><;;#. _'':JJ.; 



1 86 


After the society had been in existence some forty 
years, Claudius Aquaviva became its General Superior. 
He at once began the study of the educational problem, 
using all the resources of his office in obtaining information, 
and employing his executive ability in producing an im- 
proved method of study. A committee of twelve most 
eminent churchmen was appointed in 1581 to study the 
question, and three years later another commission of six, 
representing different countries, began the labor of prepar- 
ing a course of study. Their work was not completed until 
1599, and it was called the Ratio Stiidioriun} This has 
remained the guide of Jesuit institutions of learning till the 
present day. 

Emulation as an Incentive. — Emulation w^as employed 
to stirnulate pupils to work and to secure good conduct. 
Prizes, decorations, rewards, titles were offered as a means 
of attaining desired ends. This appeal to low motives 
develops low ideals. The pupil was encouraged to inform 
against his comrades, and was rewarded, " not only for his 
own good conduct, but for the bad conduct of his com- 
rades if he informed r-gainst them." Such means of disci- 
pline cannot be justified on any ground. 

While corporal punishment was allowed, it was generally 
administered by an official disciplinarian, usually some ser- 
vant of the institution. It was seldom used, however, the 
disciplme being mild and humane. 

Criticism of Jesuit Education. — As to the efficiency of 
the instruction in the Jesuit schools, opinions widely differ. 
Bacon .and Descartes indorse it in highest terms, while 
Leibnitz, Voltaire, and others are equally strong in its con- 
demnation. Bacon remarks, " As to whatever relates to 

1 See Hughes's " Loyola," p, 141, for full description of this work and out- 
line of the course. 

fT»'HW;'M»^'"''*>'<5'W.HH*f?,m'"' ■■?'•" 



the instruction of the young, we must consult the schools 
of the Jesuits, for there can be nothing that is better done." 
Leibnitz, on the other hand, says, " In the matter of edu- 
catioU; the Jesuits have remained below mediocrity." Com- 
payr6 also takes the latter view in these words: ''They 
wish to train amiable gentlemen, accomplished men of the 
world ; they have no conception of the training of men." ^ 

Mr. Quick says : " I have said that the object which 
the Jesuits proposed in their teaching was not the highest 
object. They did not aim at developing all the faculties 
of their pupils, but merely the receptive and reproductive 
faculties. When the young man had acquired a thorough 
mastery of the Latin language for all purposes, when he 
was well versed in the theological and philosophical opinions 
of his preceptors, when he was skillful in dispute, and could 
make a brilliant display from the resources of a well-stored 
memory, he had reached the highest point to which the 
Jesuits sought to lead him. Originality and independence 
of mind, love of truth for its own sake, the power of re- 
flecting and of forming correct judgments, were not merely 
neglected — they were suppressed by the Jesuit system." ^ 

Summary. — Summarizing the educational work of the 
Jesuits, the following estimate would appear to us to be 
just: — 

1. Their educational system was by far the most efficient 
and successful of any during the sixteenth, seventeenth, 
and eighteenth centuries. 

2. This, however, applies only to higher education, as 
primary education was neglected by them. 

3. Their training sought to secure brilliant culture 
rather than intellectual emancipation ; it appealed to the 
memory, and cultivated the power of subtle reasoning, 

1 " History of Pedagogy," p. 143. ^ " Educational Reformers," p. 35. 






1 88 




!i VW' 

but not the whole man ; its aim was not freedom and the 
development of the individual, but the advancement of 
the interests of the order. 

4. They produced a course of study, the Ratio Stndi- 
orum, which lays principal stress upon the humanities and 

5. They taught the necessity of trained teachers, and 
developed a remarkable power and tact in the work of 
instruction and school management. 

6. The chief means employed to secure results was 
ermdation, which is an appeal to the baser motives, and 
is therefore to be used in a guarded manner. 

7. They were indefatigable in missionary enterprise, 
and zealous in the propagation of their principles, both 
religious and educational. 

8. They stimulated authorship, advanced learning, and 
produced many great men.^ 

9. They exerted a powerful and sometimes dangerous 
influence upon the social and political movements of their 


Opposed to the Jesuits was another body of Catholics, 
sometimes called Jansenists from the organizer of the move- 
ment, and sometimes Port Royalists, because their chief 
school was at Port Royal near Paris. Their purpose was 
to check the progress of the Jesuits, to promote greater 
spirituality in the Church, and to revive the pure Catholi- 
cism of St. Augustine. Among their great leaders may be 
mentioned Pascal, Nicole, and Launcelot. The spirit of the 
Jansenists was very different from that of the Jesuits, and 
their methods were more modern. They gave preference 

1 See Hughes, " Loyola," p. 133. 



to modern languages, made studies interesting in them- 
selves, and sought to develop the understanding. Their 
discipline was humane, but firm. 

Their greatest contribution to education is the phonic 
method of spelling. They also laid stress upon the use of 
objects, the development of the sense perceptions, espe- 
cially in early childhood. One of their axioms was, " The 
intelligence of childhood always being very dependent on 
the senses, we must, as far as possible, address our instruc- 
tion to the senses, and cause it to reach the mind, not only 
through hearing, but also through seeing." This appears 
to be the first instance in which object teaching was taught 
as a principle, a principle which Bacon, Comenius, Pesta- 
lozzi, and Froebel worked out, and which has been one 
of the most important factors of modern educational 

Compayr^ summarizes the purpose of the Jesuits and 
the Jansenists in these words : " They represent, in fact, 
two opposite, and, as it were, contrary, phases of human 
nature and of Christian spirit. For the Jesuits, education 
is reduced to a superficial culture of the brilliant faculties 
of the intelligence ; while the Jansenists, on the contrary, 
aspire to develop the solid faculties, the judgment, and 
the reason." ^ 

1 " History of Pedagogy," p. 139. 


1' ■ 


!' - S. 

o- i ■ 


' ffi 

,L^. -V 



Literature. — //. M. Skinuer, The Schoolmaster in Literature, The 
Schoolmaster in Comedy and Satire ; Gi//, Systems of Education r, 
Quick, Educational Reformers ; Williams, History of Modern Educa- 
tion ; Besant, Rabelais ; Monroe, Educational Ideal ; Collins, Mon- 
taigne ; Emerson, Representative Men ; Vogel, Geschichte der Pada- 
gogik ; Carlisle, Two Great Teachers (Ascham and Arnold) ; Brother 
Azarias, Essays Educational. 

We have thus far discussed educators who were di- 
rectly connected with the great Protestant and Catholic 
movements. There were others who were more or less 
independent of these movements. Among these we may 
mention Roger Ascham, Rabelais, and Montaigne. 

ASCHAM (1515-1568) 

Roger Ascham was the most celebrated English educa- 
tor of the sixteenth century. He was educated at Cam- 
bridge, and studied three years in Germany. He had a 
thorough knowledge of the classic languages. For these 
reasons he was chosen tutor to Elizabeth, a position which 
he held I'or two years. Upon her accession to the throne, 
Ascham came to read with her several hours a day, and 
she retained her affection for her old teacher throughout 
his life. 

His chief literary work is his " Scholemaster," which is 
the first educational classic in English. Dr. Johnson says 
of this book, " It contains, perhaps, the best advice that 




ever was given for the study of languages." This method 
was as follows, given in Ascham's words : " First, let him 
teach the child, cheerfully and plainly, the cause and mat- 
ter of the letter (Cicero's Epistles); then, let him construe 
it into English so oft as the child may easily carry away 
the understanding of it ; lastly, parse it over perfectly. 
This done, then let the child by and by both construe and 
parse it over again ; so that it may appear that the child 
doubteth in nothing that his master has taught him before. 

" After this, the child must take a paper book, and sit- 
ting in some place where no man shall prompt him, by 
himself let him translate into English his former lesson. 
Then showing it to his master, let the master take from 
him his Latin book, and pausing an hour at the least, then 
let the child translate his own English into Latin again in 
another paper book. When the child bringeth it turned 
into Latin, the master must compare it with Tully's book, 
and lay them both together, and where the child doth well, 
praise him, where amiss, point out why Tully's use is 

"Thus the child will easily acquire a knowledge of 
grammar, and also the ground of almost all the rules that 
are so busily taught by the master, and so hardly learned 
by the scholar in all common schools. The translation is 
the most common and most commendable of all other exer- 
cises for youth ; most common, for all your constructions 
in grammar schools be nothing else but translations ; but 
because they be not double translations (as I do require), 
they bring forth but simple and single commodity; and 
because also they lack the daily use of writing, which is 
the only thing that breedeth deep root, both in the vv^it for 
good understanding, and in the memory for sure keeping of 
all that is learned ; most commendable also, and that by 







the judgment of all authors which entreat of these exer- 


" 1 


Ascham often refers to his illustrious pupil in claim- 
ing merit for his system. He says, " And a better and 
nearer example herein may be our mosi noble Queen 
Elizabeth, who never took yet Greek nor Latin grammar 
in her hand after the first declining of a noun and a verb ; 
but only by this double translating of Demosthenes and 
Isocrates daily, without missing, every forenoon, and Hke- 
wise some part of Tully every afternoon, for the space of 
a year or two, hath attained to such a perfect understand- 
ing in both tongues, and to such a ready utterance of the 
Latin, and that with such a judgment as there be few now 
in both universities, or elsewhere in England, that be in 
both tongues comparable with her Majesty." Mr. Quick 
thinks that while Ascham may have thus .flattered his 
royal pupil, there is no doubt that she was an accom- 
plished scholar. 

We have seen that Sturm made some use of double 
translation, but Ascham is entitled to full credit for the 
method, which he adopted from Pliny and perfected. 
Many teachers of language since that time have employed 
this method with excellent results. 

RABELAIS 2 (1483-1553) 

Though there is some obscurity as to the exact date of 
the birth of Rabelais, it is generally believed that he was 
born the same year as Luther, 1483. He was the son of a 
French innkeeper, and, after completing a classical course, 
was consecrated to the priesthood. His great ability and 

1 H. M. Skinner, "The Schoolmaster in Literature,'" p. 20. 

2 For special reference see Besant's " Rabelais." 


independent thinking, and his humanistic tendency, excited 
the envy of his Franciscan brethren, and he was con- 
demned to his cell for life on bread and water ; but through 
the influence of powerful friends he was freed and allowed 
to go over to the Benedictines, with whom, however, he 
did not remain long. He became an independent preacher, 
and as such had many friends among the reformers, chief 
among whom was Calvin. His intimacy with Calvin led 
the more radical reformers to be suspicious of him, and 
not without reason. Walter Besant tells us that, " One 
hears he is a buffoon — he is always mocking and always 
laughing. That is perfectly true. He laughs at the pre- 
tensions of pope, cardinal, bishop, and priest; he laughs 
at monkery and monks ; he mocks at the perpetual itera- 
tion of litanies ; he laughs at the ignorance and supersti- 
tion which he thinks are about to vanish before the new 
day of modern learning." ^ Nor was his sympathy with 
the reformers any more marked, Besant further adds, 
" It was at that time all important that, as in England, the 
scholars should range themselves on the Protestant side. 
Rabelais refused to do this. More, he set an example 
which deterred other scholars, and kept them, in sheer 
impatience, in the enemy's camp."^ 

The great literary work of Rabelais is embodied in a 
series of chronicles, the fiist of which is called "Gar- 
gantua " and the second, " Pantagruel." It is believed 
that these were popular names of giants in the Middle 
Ages. In these books we find Rabelais's pedagogy .^ The 
giant Gargantua attends a school in which scholastic 
methods are employed. The author skillfully ridicules 
the methods, and shows the utter inefficiency of the 
instruction by contrasting the result in Gargantua and 

1 " Rabelais," 192. 2 jhid., 193. * " Schoolmaster in Comedy and Satire," 9-33. 
HIST. OF ED. — 13 










h 1 

k n 

Eudcmon, a page of the king. Gargantua, a man of fifty- 
five, is introduced to Kudemon, a boy of twelve. The former 
is awkward, bashful, and does not know what to say, while 
the latter meets Gargantua cap in hand, with open coun- 
tenance, ruddy lips, steady eyes, and with modesty be- 
coming a youth. In reply to the polite and intelligent 
conversation of the lad, Gargantua " falls to crying like a 
cow, casting down his face, and hiding it with his cap." 
Compayr^ says, " Tn these two pupils, so different in man- 
ner, Rabelais has personified two contrasted methods of 
education : that which, by mechanical exercises of memory, 
enfeebles and dulls the intelligence ; and that which, with 
large grants of liberty, develops intelligences and frank 
and open characters." 

The deficiencies of the oU education (the scholastic) 
being thus shown, Rabelais places his pupil under Ponoc- 
rates, Eudemon's teacher, who has produced such practical 
results. He then opens up his system of pedagogy in the 
plan pursued for the redemption of Gargantua. 

Realism in Education. — Compayre's estimate of this 
pedagogy is as follows : ** The pedagogy of Rabelais is the 
first appearance of what may be called realism in instruc- 
tion, in distinction from the scholastic fonnalism. The 
author of ' Gargantua * turns the mind of the young man 
toward objects truly worthy of occupying his attention. 
He catches a glimpse of the future reserved to scientific 
education, and to the study of nature. He invites the 
mind, not to the labored subtleties and complicated tricks 
which scholasticism had brought into fashion, but to 
manly efforts, and to a wide unfolding of human nature." ^ 

In comparing Rabelais with Lucretius, Walter Besant 
says, " Both, at an interval of fifteen hundred years, antici- 

1 "History of Pedagogy," p. 91. 




" 1 


patcd the nineteenth century in its restless discontent of 
old beliefs, its fearless questioning, its advocacy of scien- 
tific research."^ Compayre thinks that Rabelais is "cer- 
tainly the first, in point of time, of tbat grand school of 
educators who place the sciences in the first rank among 
the studies of human thought." ^ it would seem, then, that 
the author of " Gargantua " is worthy of a most honorable 
place among educational writers. Rabelais began a move- 
ment, which was destined to revolutionize educational 

The educational scheme of Rabelais embraced the study 
of letters, of nature, of science, of morals and religion, of 
the physical well-being, — in short, of everything necessary, 
as Herbert Spencer would say, to complete living. 

MONTAIGNE 8 (1533-1592) 

Of a very different character from Rabelais was Mon- 
taigne. Rabelais was radical and extravagant, Montaigne 
conservative and discreet ; Rabelais sought development 
of all the faculties alike, Montaigne gave preference to 
the training of the judgment; Rabelais would thoroughly 
master every branch of human knowledge, Montaigne was 
content to skim over the sciences. And yet, Montaigne 
must be recognized as an important factor in education, 
not only for his own teachings, but because undoubtedly 
Bacon, Locke, Rousseau, and other apostles of reform 
were greatly influenced by him. Bacon furthered Mon- 
taigne's theories concerning the importance of science, and 
by his inductive method rendered the world a far greater 
service than his great French contemporary. Locke 

1 " Rabela'.s," p. 187. = u [jjstory of Pedagogy," p. 96. 

8 See Collins, " Montaigne." 









enlarged upon Montaigne's ideas of physical training. 
Rousseau accepted a vital doctrine of Montaigne in the 
following words: "He (Emile) possesses a universal 
capacity, not in point of actual knowledge, but in the 
faculty of acquiring it ; an open, intelligent genius adapted 
to everything, and, as Montaigne says, if not instructed, 
capable of receiving instruction." 

Montaigne's father was a French nobleman, who fully 
appreciated the responsibility laid upon him in the educa- 
tion of his son. Doubtless his training had much to 
do in shaping the pedagogy of the illustrious son. It was 
wise, mild but firm, natural, and thorough. The tutors 
and servants who surrounded him were allowed to speak 
only in Latin. That tongue thus became as familiar as 
his native tongue. Indeed, it is said, that at the age 
of six he was so proficient in the language of Cicero, that 
the best Latinists of the time feared to address him. 
Nor was his knowledge confined to Latin alone. He 
was instructed in modern lore as well. At the age of 
six he was placed in the college of Guienne, where he 
remained seven years. His experience there, so contrary 
to that under which he had been brought up, led him to 
be utterly opposed to corporal punishment. Of the 
methods of discipline employed in the scheol, he says, 
"The discipline of most of our colleges has always dis- 
pleased me. They are veritable jails in which youth is 
held prisoner. The pupils are made vicious by being 
punished before they become so. Pay a visit there when 
they are at their work ; you will hear nothing but cries, — 
children under execution, and masters drunk with fury. 
What a mode of creating in these tender and timid souls 
an appetite for their lessons, to conduct them to their 
tasks with a furious countenance, rod in hand ! — it is an 



iniquitous and pernicious fashion. How much more be- 
coming it would be to see the classroom strewed with 
leaves and flowers than with blood-stained stumps of birch 
rods ! I would have painted up there scenes of joy and 
merriment, Flora and the Graces, as Speusippus had his 
school of philosophy : where they are to gain profit, there • 
let them find happiness too. One ought to sweeten all 
food that is wholesome, and put bitter into what is dan- 
gerous." ^ 

Here we find a strong plea for humane forms of punish- 
ment and a severe criticism of the prevailing practice of 
flogging, a practice which did not cease until long after 
Montaigne's time. It is an equally forcible plea for 
beautiful and pleasant schoolrooms, decorated with works 
of art intended to awaken and cultivate the aesthetic 
sense of the children, while contributing to their happi- 
ness. It has been left to the educators of the end of the 
nineteenth century to take up and seriously act upon this 
suggestion made over three hundred years ago. "The 
purpose of education," said Montaigne, "is the training, 
not of a grammarian, or a logician, bjt of a complete gen- 
tleman." Education should be of a practical nature. The 
child must become familiar with the things about him. 
He must learn his own language first and then that of 
his neighbors, and languages should all be learned by 

A decided weakness in his system is found in his ide^s 
concerning women. He made no provision for their edu- 
cation, and, indeed, expressed great contempt for their abili- 
ties of either mind or heart. 

Montaigne's chief literary work is his " Essays." Com- 
payr^ pronounces Montaigne's pedagogy, " a pedagogy of 

1 Collins, " Montaigne," p. 14. 





good sense," and further adds that he has *' remained, after 
three centuries, a sure guide in the matter of intellectual 

Observation and experience were to be abundantly em- 
ployed, and visits to other lands, together with intercourse 
with intelligent men everywhere, were to " sharpen our 
wits by rubbing them upon those of others." 

To sum up, we m. ^ say that the pedagogy of Montaigne 
teaches the training and use of the senses ; the study of 
science ; the learning of the mc.her tongue first by conver- 
sation, and then the language of our neighbors witli whom 
we come in contact ; the abolition of corporal punishment, 
and the bea\Ttifying of schoolrooms. This surely is no 
small contribution to education. His definition of education 
is worthy of note. He says, " It is not the mind only, nor 
the body, but the whole man that is to be educated." ^ 

Summary of Educational Progress during the Sixteenth 
Century. — i. Humanism had reached its climax and be- 
gun to decline. It stimulated invention and discovery ; it 
revived classic liteiature and put it in such form that it 
could be used ; it emancipated the mind ; it prepared the 
way for later reforms ; it produced great educators such as 
Petrarch, Erasmus, and Reuchlin. 

2. The Reformation took up the educational work of 
humanism, and carried it forward. It instituted primary 
education, the education of the masses, compulsory edu- 
cation and parental responsibility therefor ; it asserted the 
right and duty of the State to demand and secure universal 
education ; it elevated and gave dignity to the office of 
teacher; it formulated several school systems, and laid the 
foundation of the present German school system. Amc ig 

^ A good sumirary of Montaigne's educational ideas may be found in Col- 
lins's " Montaigne," p. I03. 

, 7»lKii».akilV,rT» 





its great educators were Luther, Mclanchthon, Sturm, and 

3. The Jesuits established a remarkable system of 
schools, noted for their thoroughness, for their singleness 
of purpose, for their rapid growth, and for their trained 
teachers. They gave little attention to primary education, 
but sought to reach the higher classes. Emulation was 
the principal incentive employed. 

4. Opposed to the Jesuit education was that of the Port 
Royalists. They appealed to the intelligence of the chil- 
dren and cultivated the sense-perceptions. They invented 
the phonic method of spelling. 

5. Sturm's celebrated course of study was introduced 
during this century at Strasburg. 

6. The method of double translations in learning a lan- 
guage was taught by Ascham and Sturm. 

7. In Rabelais we find the first appearance of realism, 
which bore rich fruit in later scientific education. 

8. Montaigne opposed the use of the rod, and taught 
that the schoolroom should be made attractive. He also 
advocated the study of modern languages by conversalion. 
and gave science an honorable place in the curriculum. 

It thus appears that the sixteenth century surpassed 
many previous eras in its contributions to educational 











Literature. — Taylor, History of Germany ; Guizot, History of Civili- 
zation ; Schiller, The Thirty Years' War ; Dyer, Modern Europe ; 
Lewis, History of Germany ; Macaiilay, History of England. 

Political and Historical Conditions. — The seventeenth 
century was remarkable for the wars for religious suprem- 
acy. The Reformation had challenged the authority of 
the Church, aroused a questioning spirit, and instilled into 
men's minds a love for religious liberty. During the latter 
half of the sixteenth century, Europe had swayed back and 
forth between Protestantism and Catholicism, according as 
success in arms had favored one side or the other. The 
spirit of Protestantism had taken possession more espe- 
cially of the common people, who formed the bone and 
sinew of the armies. Bitter animosities existed between 
the adherents of the papal church and the reformers, which 
found expression in bloodshed, rapine, and destruction of 

England was torn asunder by civil war, which resulted 
in the death of Charles I. and the establishment of the 
Commonwealth under Cromwell, — the struggle between 
Cavalier an i Roundhead, between established church and 
Puritan, ending finally in the revolution of 1688. The 
country was in a religious ferment during the greater part 
of this century, caused by a growing jealousy for the 



maintenance of the principle of the right to worship God 
according to the dictates of one's own conscience. Nor 
was the struggle less virulent or disastrous in continental 
Europe. The religious upheaval of the previous century- 
culminated in the terrible conflict known as the Thirty- 
Years' War; this lasted from 1618 till 1648, when the 
Peace of Westphalia secured religious liberty to all men. 
Northern Germany, Austria, France, Holland, Denmark, 
and Sweden, as well as minor countries, were involved in 
this great war. 

L'^t Bayard Taylor paint the result of this fearful 
struggle. " Thirty years of war ! The slaughters of 
Rome's worst emperors, the persecution of the Chris- 
tians under Nero and Diocletian, the invasions of the 
Huns and Magyars, the long struggle of the Guelfs 
and Ghibellines, left no such desolation behind them. 
At the beginning of the century, the population of 
the German Empire was about 30,000,000; when the 
Peace of Westphalia was declared, it v/as scarcely 
more than 12,000,000! Electoral Saxony, alone, lost 
900,000 lives in two years. . . . The city of Berlin con- 
tained but 300 citizens, the whole of the Palatinate of the 
Rhine but 200 farmers. In Hesse-Cassel, 17 cities, 47 
castles, and 300 villages were entirely destroyed by fire ; 
thousands of villages, in all parts of the country, had but 
four or five families left out of hundreds, and landed prop- 
erty sank fo about one twentieth of its former value. . . . 
The horses, cattle, and sheep were exterminated in many 
districts, the supplies of grain were at an end, even for 
sowing, and large cukivated tracts had relapsed into a 
wilderness. Even orchards and vineyards had been wan- 
tonly destroyed wherever armies had passed. So terrible 
was the ravage that, in a great many localities, the same 








t ^m 





* ■ if; 

;| ■;!,. 


".5 t 

amount of population, cattle, acres of cultivated land, and 
general prosperity was not restored until the year 1848, 
two centuries afterward ! 

" This statement of the losses of Germany, however, was 
but a small part of the suffering endured. . . . During 
the last ten or twelve years of the war, both Protestants 
and Catholics vied with each other in deeds of barbarity ; the 
soldiers were nothing but highway robbers, who maimed and 
tortured the country people to make them give up their last 
remaining property. ... In the year 1637, when Ferdi- 
nand II. died, the want was so great that men devoured 
each other, and even hunted down human beings like deer 
or hares, in order to feed upon them. 

" In character, in intc]li2"'".nce, and in morality, the Ger- 
man people were set back two hundred years. All branches 
of industry had declined, commerce had almost entirely 
ceased, literature and the arts were suppressed, and except 
the astronomical discoveries of Copernicus and Kepler, 
there was no contribution to human knowledge. Even 
the modern High German language, which Luther had 
made the classic tongue of the land, seemed to be on the 
point of perishing. Spaniards and Italians on the Catholic, 
Swedes and French on the Protestant side, flooded the 
country with foreign words and expressions, the use of 
which soon became an affectation v/ith the nobility, who 
did their best to destroy their native tongue. 

" Politically, the change was no less disastrous. The 
ambition of the house of Hapsburg, it is true, had brought 
its own punishment ; the imperial dignity was secured to 
it, but henceforth the head of the ' Holy Roman Empire * 
was not much more than a shadow. ... As for the mass 
of the people, their spirit was broken ; for a time they 
gave up even the longing for the rights which they had 



lost, and taught their children abject obedience in order 
that they might simply live." ^ 

The Educational Situation. — These political conditions 
had a marked influence upon education. Schools were 
abandoned, colleges gave up their charters, and people 
were content to allow their children to grow up in ignorance. 
Indeed, it was not to be expected that, in the midst of their 
poverty and sorrow, parents should care for education. 
And yet, some most important and wise school laws were 
enacted and put into force, which form the basis of the 
present German school system, as well as the school systems 
of n.any other countries. In 16 19 the Duke of Weimar 
decreed that all children, girls as well as boys, should be 
kept in school for at least six years, — from six to twelve. 
This is the first efficient compulsory education law on record 
intended for all classes of children. 

Besides Weimar, Wiirtemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt, Meck- 
lenburg, Holstein, Hesse-Cassel, and other provinces were 
active in school work. They organized schools, appointed 
teachers, and formulated school regulations. In 1642, 
Duke Ernst of Gotha adopted a new school regulation 
which was a century in advance of the time, and this ac- 
tion was taken when the Thirty Years' War was at its 
height and in a territory sadly devastated by contending 

This 'law required every child to enter school at the be- 
ginning of his sixth year, and to remain in school until he 
could read his mother tongue, had mastered Luther's cate- 
chism, and was well grounded in arithmetic, writing, and 
church songs. A course of study was marked out, the 
schools were graded, and methods of instruction were out- 
lined. The greatest defect in the system was the lack of 

^ " History of Germany," p. 409. 





> J 


f if 

i; ■ J, I 



■ 7 

! "i 


competent teachers. Discharged soldiers, worthless stu- 
dents, and degraded craftsmen who could read and write, 
and who possessed a little knowledge of music, continued 
for many years to be employed as schoolmasters. But little 
progress could be made under these adverse circumstances ; 
and the only reason for encouragement was the fact that 
the duty of parents to keep their children at school was 
everywhere recognized. 

The Innovators. — We must here mention also the In- 
novators or Reformers, whose period of educational activ- 
ity falls chiefly within the seventeenth century. Among 
these appear the names of Francis Bacon, Ratke, 
Milton, Comenius, Rollin, F^nelon, and Locke. These 
men started movements wh.xh revolutionized education 
and laid the foundation of modern methods. The de- 
mands of the Reformers are summed up by Quick as 
follows : " First, that the study of things should precede, or 
be united with, the study of words; second, that knowledge 
should be communicated, where possible, by appeal to the 
senses ; third, that all linguistic study should begin with that 
of the mother tongue ; fourth, that Latin and Greek should 
be taught to such boys only as would be likely to complete 
a learned education ; fifth, that physical education should 
be attended to in all classes of society for the sake of 
health, not simply with a view to gentlemanly accomplish- 
ments ; sixth, that a new method of teaching should be 
adopted, framed * According to nature.' " ^ In another 
chapter we shall study the life and work of some of these 

'• Quick, " Educational Reformers," p. 50. 





Literature. — Churchy Bacon ; Macaulay, Essays ; Spofford^ Library 
of Historical Cliaracters ; Lord, Beacon Lights ; Montagu^ Life of 
Bacon ; Barnard^ English Pedagogy ; Quick, Educational Reformers ; 
Williams, History of Modern Education ; Laurie, Life and Works of 
Comenius ; Comenius, Orbis Pictus ; Barnard, Journal of Education ; 
Milton, Tractate on Education ; Fattison, Milton ; Fowler, Locke ; 
Leitch, Practical Educationists ; Gill, Systems of Education ; Schweg- 
ler, History of Philosophy ; Courtney, John Locke ; Vogel, Geschichte 
der Padagogik ; Compayri, History of Pedagogy ; Finelon, Education 
of Girls. 

BACON 1 (1561-1626) 

But little is known of the early years of Francis Bacon, 
but it is probable that he was well trained, as his father 
was a man of good education, and the boy was able to enter 
Cambridge when only a little over twelve years of age. 
His father was for many years Lord Keeper of the Seals, 
and this brought Francis in contact with court life, where 
his precocity made him a favorite with the queen. He 
thus early acquired that taste for the court, by which he 
climbed to the height of his ambition only to fall there- 
from in ignominious defeat. 

He remained at Cambridge only about three years. 
Lord Macaulay sums up the result of Bacon's university 
experience in the following words : " Bacon departed, 
carrying with him a profound contempt for the course of 
study pursued there, a fixed conviction that the system of 

^ For special reference see Macaulay's " Essays," VoL II and III. 









. I 


academic education in England was radically vicious, a 
just scorn for the trifles on which the followers of Aristotle 
had wasted their powers, and no great reverence for 
Aristotle himself."^ 

Some think that thus early, while not yet fifteen years of 
age, Bacon began to formulate that inductive system which 
made him a great benefactor of the human race. There 
seems to be but little proof of this ; and, if it be so, he 
laid it aside until near the close of his life, and devoted 
himself to politics. After leaving Cambridge, he went 
abroad with the English ambassador at Paris, with whom 
he served until the death of his father compelled his 
return to England. Unexpectedly finding that his patri- 
mony was gone, he began a career at the bar, and rose 
step by step, amid many discouragements, until he reached 
the height of his ambition, the Lord High Chancellorship 
of the realm. In reaching this position he resorted to 
many of the tricks of the politician, and sacrificed his best 
friends to further his selfish interests. Concerning his 
actions toward his benefactor, Essex, Macaulay says, " This 
friend, so loved, so trusted, bore a principal part in ruining 
the earl's fortunes, in shedding his blood, and in blacken- 
ing his memory. But let us be just to Bacon. We believe 
that, to the last, he had no wish to injure Essex. Nay, 
we believe that he sincerely wished to serve Essex, as 
long as he could serve Essex without injuring himself."'^ 
Such seeming mitigation of Bacon's ingratitude serves only 
to bring the Lord Chancellor's cowardice more completely 
to light. 

This lack of principle and greed for office, together with 
the luxurious tastes which kept Bacon constantly in debt, 
made him susceptible to corruption. Accordingly he ac- 

1 « Essays," Vol. Ill, p. 354. 2 7,5^^ Vol. HI, p. 368. 

tk • J^u. ;.ik --■■:: ■>. iiViv" i!.;; js 

a-J i.f .- .ir-A^irAila ia ■U.'A^.ai&iii 





cepted bribes ; and, when exposed, his degradation from 
the highest office under the crown was most complete and 
humiliating. He was summoned before the bar of Parlia- 
ment ; and, finding the evidence against him complete, he 
admitted his guilt and pleaded for clemency. These are 
the words of his confession, " Upon advised consideration 
of the charges, descending into my own conscience and 
calling upon my memory to account so far as I am able, 
I do plainly and ingenuously confess that I am guilty of 
corruption, and viO renounce all defense." 

He was found guilty and condemned to imprisonment in 
the Tower during the pleasure of the king, and to a fine of 
;^40,ooo ; he was forbidden ever to sit in Parliament or come 
within the verge of the court, and was forever debarred 
from holding office. He never paid the fine, was released 
from the Tower after two days, was permitted to visit the 
court, and was summoned to the meetings of Parliament.^ 
He never, however, took any part in public affairs. The 
king granted him a pension upon which he lived the re- 
mainder of his days. Thus disappeared from public life 
one of England's greatest statesmen, whose political career 
ended in disgrace. But during the remaining six years of 
his life, he wrote his principal works, which made him 
famous for all time, and which mark a new era in educa- 
tion as well as in the world's progress. 

In 1620 his greatest work, the " Novum Organum," 
was published. In this appears his Inductive Method, a 
great educational discovery, which has been of inesti- 
mable value to mankind. It revolutionized science, and 
suggested the application of the forces of nature to 

1 For a full description of his trial consult Macaulay's "Essays." Also 
his biographer, Montagu, whose judgment of Bacon is much milder than 






the wants of man, thus opening to man's enterprise an 
illimitable field for research. In the three centuries 
since Bacon's discovery, .'Science has made vast strides, 
and yet is only at the threshold of its possible develop- 
ment. The watchwords of the inductive method — experi- 
ment, investigate, verify — have led to the establishment 
of laboratories, to the founding of experimenting stations, 
and to the study of Nature herself. As Macaulay puts 
it, "Two words form the key of the Baconian doctrine, 
Utility and Progress." Again he says, "The philosophy of 
Plyto began in words and ended in words. . . . The phi- 
losophy of Bacon began in observation and ended in arts." ^ 

Macaulay depreciates the work of Bacon, and shows 
that he was not the original inventor of the inductive 
method, "which," he says with truth, "has been prac- 
ticed ever since the beginning of the world by every 
human being." ^ Nor was he the "first person who 
correctly analyzed that method and explained its uses," 
as Aristotle had done so long before. But these facts do 
not detract from the glory of Bacon any more than the 
discovery of America by the Norsemen five hundred years 
before the time of Columbus detracts from his glory. 
The same process of reasoning would take all credit 
from every philosopher that has ever lived, for with 
equal truth it may be said that every mental process 
" has been practiced ever since the beginning of the 
world by every human being." 

Bacon's teachings resemble those of Montaigne, 
though Bacon's work was far more important and com- 
plete than that of his French contemporary. His peda- 
gogy may be summed up in these pregnant words from 
his own pen : " A judicious blending and interchange 
1 « Essays," Vol. Ill, p. 459. . 2 /^^^., Vol. Ill, p. 470. 


between the easier and more difficult branches of learn- 
ing, adapted to the individual capabilities and to the 
future occupation of pupils, will profit both the mental 
and bodily powers, and make instruction acceptable." 

We find in Bacon, then, the beginning of a new era 
in education. It remained for Comenius, Locke, Rous- 
seau, Pestalozzi, and their compeers to apply to specific 
educational systems the great truth contained in the in- 
ductive method ; and to scientists and investigators of all 
kinds has been intrusted the mission of furthering, through 
this method, the marvelous scientific development which 
has almost re-created the world. 



RATKEi (1571-1635) 

Perhaps the first to urge the reforms which constitute 
the basis of educational theory was Ratke, a German, 
born in the province of Holstein. He originated a scheme 
by which he promised to teach any language, ancient or 
modern, in six months. He traveled throughout Europe, 
endeavoring to sell his discovery to princes and men of 
learning. Purchasers had to agree strictly to maintain the 
secret. • Professor Williams speaks of this conduct as fol- 
lows : " These were the acts of a charlatan peddling some 
secret quack nostrum." ^ Mr. Quick says, " He would 
also found a school in which all arts and sciences should 
be rapidly learned and advanced ; he would introduce, and 
peacefully maintain throughout the continent, a uniform 
speech, a uniform government, and, more wonderful still, 
a uniform religion. From these modest proposals we 

1 Also Rateke, Radtke, and Ratich. Paulsen pronounces the last " an 
abominable mutilation of Latinization." 

* "History of Modern Education," p. 141. 
HIST. OF ED. — 14 





should naturally infer that the promisor was nothing but 
a quack of more than usual impudence ; but the position 
which the name of Ratich holds in the history of educa- 
tion is sufficient proof that this is by no means a complete 
statement of the matter." ^ 

Many thinkers fully believed that the schools were in 
bondage to the classic studies, that they did not prepare 
for life, and that science, which had begun to show signs 
of awakening, should have a place in education. The ex- 
travagant theories of Ratke, therefore, attracted attention. 
Opportunity was given him to put his theories into practice, 
first at Augsburg, then at Kothen, and finally at Magde- 
burg. In each instance he utterly failed, more from want 
of tact in dealing with men, — with those in authority, as 
well as with his teachers anc^ pupils, — than from lack of 
soundness in theory. Of course much of his theory was 
worthless, especially that referring to the mastery of a laii- 
guage in six months, and that proposing uniformity in 
speech, government, and religion. 

Ratke's method of teaching a language was not original 
with him, being similar to, though not so effective as, that 
advocated by Roger Ascham, more than a hundred years 
before (see p. 191), and suggested first by Pliny, fifteen 
centuries earlier. Ratke required the pupil to go over 
the same matter many times, to learn the grammar in 
connection with translation, and finally to translate back 
into the original. He proposed to follow the same course 
with all languages, and have all grammars constructed on 
the same plan. 

The work which Ratke began was more successfully car- 
ried out by others who followed him, and thus fruit has 
been borne to these new and radical ideas. 

1 Quick, " Educational Reformers," p. 51. 



Quick sums up Ratkc's pedagogy in a few words, as 
follows : ^ — 

1. Kvcrything after the order and course of nature. 

2. One thing at a time. 

3. One thing again and again repeated. 

4. Nothing shall be learned by heart. 

5. Un'tormity in all things. 

6. Knowledge of the thing itself must be given before 
that which refers to the thing. 

7. Everything by experiment and analysis. 

8. Everything without coercion ;2 that is, by gentle 
means, and not oy the use of the rod. 

Others have worked out these principles until they have 
become thoroughly incorporated into every system of 
modern pedagogy. 

C0MENIUS2 (1592-1670) 

By far the greatest educator of the seventeenth century, 
and one of the greatest in educational history, was Johann 
Amos Comenius. He was born in Moravia, and belonged 
to the Protestant body known as the Moravian Brethren. 
His early education was neglected, a fact that was not 
without its compensation, for, not beginning the study of 
Latin until sixteen years of age, he was mature enough to 
appreciate the defects in the prevalent method of instruc- 
tion. One of his most valuable services to education grew 
out of his attempt to remedy the defects thus discovered 

Of the schools he attended, he says, " They are th 
terror of boys, and the slaughterhouses of minds, — place > 

* " Educational Reformers," p. 53. 

2 Especial attention is called to Laurie's " Life of Comenius." For other 
works, see Appendix of Bardeen's edition of Laurie's " ComcHius." 









where a hatred of books and literature is contracted, 
where ten or more years are spent in learning what might 
be acquired in onC; where what ought to be poured in 
gently is violently forced in, and beaten in, where what 
ought to be put clearly and perspicuously is presented in 
a confused and intricate way, ?s if it were a collection of 
puzzles, — places where minds are fed on words." ^ 

In speaking of his own experience at school, he says, 
" I was continually full of thoughts for the finding out of 
some means whereby more might be inflamed with the 
love of learning, and whereby learning itself might be 
made more compendious, both in the matter of charge 
and cost, and of labor belonging thereto, that so the youth 
might be brought by a more easy method unto some nota- 
ble proficiency in learning." ^ 

The life of Comenius, which extended over nearly eighty 
years, was full of vicissitudes and trials. Briefly told, it 
is as follows : He was left an orphan at an early age, had 
poor educational advantages in childhood, began the study 
of Latin at sixteen, and completed his studies at Heidel- 
berg at twenty-two, having previously studied at Herborn. 
After leaving the university, he was teacher of the Mora- 
vian School at Prerau for two years, and then having been 
ordained to the ministry, became pastor of Fulnek. Here 
he remained for a number of years, living a happy and 
useful life. In the meantime, the Thirty Years' War had 
broken out, the battle of Prague had been lost by the 
Protestants, and the town of Fulnek sacked. Comenius 
lost everything he possessed, and this misfortune was soon 
followed by the death of his wife and child. After hiding 
in the mountains for some time, he was banished from his 
native land, together with all the other Protestants. This 

^ Laurie, " Life of Comenius," p. 14. ^ Preface to the '* Prodromus." 


took place in 1627, when Comenius was thirty-five years 
old. Though he often longed to return to his fatherland, 
he was never permitted to do so. 

He settled in Poland, and began by the study of the 
works of Ratke, Bacon, and other writers to prepare him- 
self for the great task of educational reform. Of this 
experience he writes, " After many workings and tossings 
of my thoughts, by reducing everything to the immovable 
laws of nature, I lighted upon my ' Didactica Magna,' which 
shows the art of readily and solidly teaching all men all 

He visited England, Sweden, and Hungary in the in- 
terests of education, and was invited to France, but did 
not accept the invitation. While living at Leszno, Poland, 
for a second time his house was sacked and all his prop- 
erty destroyed. Among other things, his work on Pan- 
sophia, and his Latin-Bohemian dictionary, on which he 
had labored for forty years, were burned. He closed his 
days at Amsterdam, Holland. In addition to the great 
honors bestowed upon him by the various countries that 
sought his advice on educational matters, he was made the 
chief bishop and head of the Moravian Brethren. Raumer 
forcibly sums up the life of Comenius as follows : " Come- 
nius is a grand and venerable figure of sorrow. Though 
wandering, persecuted, and homeless, during the terrible 
and desolating Thirty Years' War, yet he never despaired, 
but with enduring courage, and strong faith, labored 
unweariediy to prepare youth by a better education for a 
happier future. Suspended from the ministry, as he him- 
self tells us, and an exile, he became an apostle to the 
Christian youth ; and he labored for them with a zeal and 
love worthy of the chief of the apostles." ^ 

1 Raumer, " Geschichte der Padagogik." 

r ! 







1 W:. 

Pedagogical Work. — The '^reat educational works of 
Comenius are his " Gate of Toxigues Unlocked," the " Great 
Didactic," and his " Orbis Pictus." Mr. Quick thinks that 
the " Great Didactic " " contains, in the best form, the prin- 
ciples he afterward endeavored to work out " ^ in his other 
educational writings. " The services of Comenius to peda- 
gogy," says Professor Williams, " were of a threefold char- 
acter, in each of which, his merit was very great. First, 
he was the true originator of the principles and methods 
of the Innovators. Second, he was a great edr .ational 
systematist. Third, he was the author of improved text- 
books, which were long and widely famous." ^ This is a 
fair summing up of the remarkable activity of this man 
with the exception of the first point. Montaigne, Ratke, 
and Bacon had previously taught many of the fundamental 
truths which Comenius merely amplified and brought to 
practical fruition, and he himself acknowledged the influ- 
ence of the last two men upon him. That the whole 
purpose of the life of Comenius was far nobler than that 
of Ratke or Bacon, there remains no room for doubt. 
Compayr^ says, " The character of Comenius equals his 
intelligence. Through a thousand obstacles he devoted 
his long life to the work of popular instruction. With a 
generous ardor he consecrated himself to infancy. He 
wrote twenty works and taught in twenty cities. More- 
over, he was the first to form a definite conception of what 
the elementary studies should be."^ 

Bacon gave the inspiration and Comenius worked the 
truth into practical form ; Bacon invented a new theory of 
scientific investigation, Comenius employed that theory in 

^ ** Educational Reformers," p. 73. 

2 "History of Modern Education," p. 151. 

* " History of Pedagogy," p. 122. 




: .1 

education ; Bacon originated and Comenius applied. This 
does not detract from the merit of Comenius any more 
than his work detracts from the merit of Rousseau, Pesta- 
lozzi, or Horace Mann, all of whom gathered inspiration 
from him. 

Summary of the Work of Comenius. — (i) He was the 
author of the first illustrated text-book, the " Orbis Pic- 
tus."^ The cost of illustrations was for a long time a 
serious barrier to 1 heir general adoption in schoolbooks ; 
but modern inventions and improvements have removed 
this obstacle, and many of the text-books of to-day are 
as valuable for their illustrations as for their text. The 
"Orbis Pictus " appeared in 1658. 

(2) In his " Greai Didactic," he presents a scheme for 
general organization of the school system which covers 
the first twenty-four years of life. It divides this time into 
four equal periods of six years, each as follows : — 

1. Infancy^ or the mother school, from birth up to six 
years of age. 

2. Boyhood, the vernacular or national school, from six 
to twelve. 

3. Adolescence, the Gymnasium or Latin school, from 
twelve to eighteen. 

4. Youth, the university (including travel), from eighteen 
to twenty-four. 

" The infant school should be found in every house, the 
vernacular school in every village and community, the 
gymnasium in every province, and the university in every 
kingdom or large province." This scheme, with variation 
of details, forms the basis of present school systems : 
first, the period in the home with the mother till six ; 

1 See " Orbis Pictus," edited and published by C. W. Bardeen, Syra- 
cuse, N.Y. 

1 i 




•i 'I 









I,' I 

second, the period of general education in the common 
school, from six to twelve or fourteen ; third, the period 
of preparation for the professional schools, from twelve 
or fourteen to eighteen ; and fourth, the professional 
or university course, from eighteen to twenty-four. The 
last is usually divided into a college and a university 

(3) The educational principles of Comenius were revo- 
lutionary as to the , school practices of the time. They 
have come to be almost universally accepted at present. 
We can here state only a few of the most essential.^ 

1. If we would teach and learn surely, we must follow 
the order of Nature. 

2. Let everything be presented through the senses. 

3. Proceed from the easy to the difficult, from the 
near to the remote, from the general to the special, from 
the known to the unknown. 

4. Make learning pleasant by the choice of suitable 
material, by not attempting too much, by the use of con- 
crete examples, and by the selection of that which is of 

5. Fix firmly by frequent repetitions and drills. 

6. Let all things advance by indissoluble steps, so 
that everything taught to-day may give firmness and 
stability to wbit was taught yesterday, and point the way 
to the work of to-morrow." ^ 

7. Let everything that is useless be eliminated from 

8. Learn to do by doing. 

9. Each language should be learned separately, have 
a definite time assigned to it, be learned by use rather 

1 Laurie's " Life and Works of Comenius," p. 77. 

2 Ibid.^ p. 105. 

im>mwvt'> I "Mpiinpfifiw^f i»,ikipwi{i:'! 



than precept, — that is, the practice in learning should be 
with familiar things, — and all tongues should be learned 
by one and the same method. 

10. The example of well-ordered life of parents, nurses, 
teachers, and schoolfellows is very important for children ; 
but precepts and rules of life must be added to example. 

11. As knowledge of God is the highest of all knowl- 
edge, the Holy Scriptures must be the alpha and omega 
of the Christian schools. 

Comenius gives explicit directions as to methods of 
instruction, class management, discipline, courses of study, 
including a discussion of each branch, and moral and 
religious teaching. He presents these directions in the 
most remarkable and complete series of precepts and 
principles to be found in educational literature.^ 

MILTON (1608-1674) 

John Milton was " the most notable man who ever kept 
school or published a schoolbook." While his fame 
rests on " Paradise Lost " and other great literary works, 
he deserves a place among educators for his "Tractate 
on Education," and for his sympathy with educational 
reform. He anticipated Herbert Spencer's celebrated 
definition, — " To prepare us for complete living is the 
function which education has to discharge," — in the 
following words : " I call, therefore, a complete and 
generous education that which fits a • man to perform 
justly, skillfully, and magnanimously all the offices, both 
private and public, of peace and war." 

He criticised the schools of his time and sought to 

* For full discussion of the pedagogical principles of Co^ ''nius, see Pro- 
fessor Laurie's great work. 







i , 

1 'i^ 

make them more practical. Like the earlier Innovators, 
and in harmony with the spirit that was rapidly grow- 
ing, he thought that too much time was given to the study 
of Latin, and urged that science, music, physical culture, 
and language as a means of acquiring a knowledge of use- 
ful things, should receive more attention in the schools. 
Quick says, " A protest against a purely literary education 
comes with tremendous force from the student who sacri- 
ficed his sight to his reading, the accomplished scholar 
whose Latin works were known throughout Europe, and 
the author of ' Paradise Lost.' " ^ 

Milton's experience in teaching was confined to a 
small boarding school, such as those usually resorted 
to for educating the sons of the better classes in Eng- 
land at that time. For pupils he began with two 
nephews, to whom were soon added a few other boys. 
These were sons of Milton's friends, and some of them 
came as boarders, others as day students. Milton seemed 
to like the work of teaching, and it was during this 
period that his " Tractate " was vvritten. He probably 
taught school in this way for eight or nine years, and 
then was appointed to a small office under the govern- 
ment, which secured his living. The rest of his life 
was devoted chiefly to literary work. 

Milton's "Tractate." — The principal lessons from this 
educational work are embodied in the following quotation : 
'* The end then of Learning is to repair the mines of our 
first Parents by regaining to know God aright, and out of 
that knowledge to love him, and to imitate him, to be 
like him, as we may the nearest by possessing our souls 
of true virtue, which being united to the heavenly grace ( 
of faith makes up the highest perfection." ^ This ^ 

1 " Educational Reformers," p. 59. ^ " Tractate," p. 3. 

f - r f 

-i;i ^'^^££d.iji_iLv.^ j^v & .i'ih^'i. 



rather cumbersome definition shows how fully Milton 
was possessed of the Puritan spirit, which then con- 
trolled England, and which magnified religious zeal. 

Milton's scheme of education may be briefly summed 
up as follows : — 

1. The school premises should consist of a spacious 
house with large school grounds, intended for about one 
hundred and thirty students from twelve to twenty-one 
years of age, who should receive their complete second- 
ary and university education in the same school. This 
scheme, .so unique in Milton's time, is practically carried 
out in France and the United States, where the con- 
nection between the lower and higher schools is direct. 
In England, the land of its inception, and in Germany, 
there is no such direct articulation between the lower 
and the higher schools. 

2. The course of study embraces, first, the Latin gram- 
mar, arithmetic, geometry, religion, and Greek authors to 
be read in translation ; second, Latin authors, geography, 
natural philosophy; third, Greek, trigonometry, — intended 
to prepare for fortification, — architecture, engineering, 
and navigation, anatomy, and medicine. 

This course is supposed to be completed at about the 
age of sixteen. The harder topics now follow, together 
with the study of those subjects intended to teach ethical 
judgment. Milton says, **As they begin to acquire char- 
acter, and to reason on the difference between good and 
evil, there will be required a constant and sound in- 
doctrinating to set them right and firm, instructing them 
more amply in the knowledge of virtue and the hatred 
of vice." Then come Greek authors. Holy Writ, poetry, 
and "at any odd hour, the Italian tongue," ethics, and 
politics. He is consistent with his definition of educa- 







tion, — "that which fits a man to perform justly, skill- 
fully, and magnanimously all the offices, both public 
; nd private, of peace and war," when he would train 
men to be " steadfast pillars of the State." He addiL 
in his course also the study of law, including Roman 
edicts and English common law, a knowledge of He- 
brew, and possibly Syrian and Chaldaic. 

Nor were physical exercises omitted. Sword exercises, 
wrestling, military tactics, riding, etc., were to be daily 
practiced, each in its proper time. Finally, the young 
man, when about twenty-three years of age, should travel 
abroad, and thus, when mature enough to comprehend 
them, become acquainted with the geography, history, and 
politics of other countries. This was to be the final prep- 
aration for citizenship and service of country. Mr. Brown- 
ing pronounces this a " magnificent and comprehensive 
scheme." The most serious criticism of it is, that it marks 
out much more than the average young man can accom- 

\ ';»i 


LOCKE 1 (1 632-1 704) 

John Locke was the son of a Puritan gentleman who 
took active part in the wars for religious freedom fought 
during the latter part of the seventeenth century. With- 
out doubt the stirring scenes enacted and the great moral 
mo\ements which occupied England had a great influence 
upon Locke's life. He was carefully trained at home 
until he was about fourteen years old, when he entered 
Westminster School, a Puritan institution, where he re- 
mained for six years. He then entered Oxford, and in 
due time took his bachelor's and master's degrees. In 

^ See Fowler's " Locke." Also Quick, Compayre, and Williams. 

— ■ 

uj jSO; .JjAtiJ^^x'^^tkiiiX.a^r'A^'.^J^^-'^ 



1660, when twenty-eight years old, he was made tutor of 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he lectured on Greek, rhet- 
oric, and philosophy. He interested himself in theology, 
but never took orders ; and he also studied medicine and 
for a time practiced it. His own health was precarious, he 
having suffered from chronic consumption nearly all his 
life. Nevertheless, he accomplished a tremendous amount 
of work. The friendship of the Earl of Shaftesbury gave 
Locke some political prestige. He lived in the family of 
that nobleman for many years, and was the tutor of his 
son and grandson. 

Locke's great work, on which his fame securely rests, 
is the "Essay concerning Human Understanding," which 
stamps him as the greatest of English philosophers. This 
appeared in 1690. His most important educational work 
is entitled "Some Thoughts concerning Education." Com- 
payr^ says, " From psychology to pedagogy the transition 
is easy, and Locke had to make no great effort to become 
an authority on education after having been an accom- 
plished philosopher." Further, the same author says con- 
cerning the essential principles discussed in "Thoughts 
concerning Education," "These are: i, in physical educa- 
tion, the hardening process ; 2, in intellectual education, 
practical utility; 3, in moral education, the principle of 
honor, set up as a rule for the free self-government of 




In Locke, for the first time, we find a careful set of 
rules as to the food, sleep, physical exercise, and cloth- 
ing of children. While modern science rejects some of 
these, most of them are regarded as sound in practice. 
Plenty of outdoor exercise, clothing loose and not too 
warm, plain food with but little meat or sugar, proper 
hours of sleep, and beds not too soft, early retiring and 


:, I 



% '{ 




'1. !•; 

1 4 'Sit W! 

f ■lir 

rising, and cold baths, are means prescribed to harden the 
body and prepare it to resist the attacks o£ disease " A 
sound mind in a sound body " is the celebrated aphorism 
which sums up Locke's educational theory. 

As to moral education, Locke declares, "That which a 
gentleman ought to desire for his son, besides the fortune 
which he leaves him, is, i, virtue; 2, prudence; 3, good 
manners; 4, instruction." In his course of study the 
idea of utility prevails. After reading, writing, drawing, 
geography, and the mother tongue are mastered, Locke, 
like Montaigne, would teach the language of nearest 
neighbors, and then Latin. Even the Latin tongue should 
be learned through use, rather than by rules of grammar 
and by memorizing the works of classic authors. 

While his system of education was planned for sons of 
gentlemen, Locke urged the establishment of "working 
schools " for children of the laboring classes. This was in 
line with his utilitarian ideas, as the intent was not so much 
intellectual training, as the formation of steady habits and 
the preparation for success in industrial pursuits. Locke's 
plan was for a sort of manual training school, the first 
appearance of such a project in history. 

Locke did not believe in universal education, nor in the 
public school. Only gentlemen were provided for in his 
formal scheme, and herein he followed the path marked 
out by Alfred the Great eight hundred years before, 
which England has not completely forsaken to this day. 
Since he had done all his teaching as a private tutor in 
the family of a gentleman, one can easily understand his 
advocacy of that form of instruction for the favored few. 
Locke's teachings in this respect are gradually losing their 
hold even in England, the most conservative of all coun- 
tries in educational matters, and the latest great nation 


to accept the principle of universal education. During the 
last quarter of a century England has been earnestly seek- 
ing to give every child, whether of gentle or of humble 
birth, rich or poor, what his birthright demands, — a good 
common school education. 

The influence of Locke upon cducntion, then, has been 
very great. Williams remarks that " he inspired Rousseau 
with nearly every valuable thought which appears in the 
brilliant pages of his ' luiiile.' He seems himself to have 
derived some of his most characteristic ideas from Mon- 
taigne, and possibly also from Rabelais." ^ Although 
Locke differed from other educational reformers in many 
respects, though he was somewhat narrow in his concep- 
tion of education, owing to his environment, he opposed 
the dry formalism that characterized the educational prac- 
tice of his time, and sought to emancipate man both 
intellectually and physically. 

FENELON (1651-1715) 

F^nelon was born of noble parents in the province of 
P^rigord, France. During his early years his father at- 
tended very carefully to his education, and later his uncle, 
the Marquis de F^nelon, became his guardian. Though 
delicate in health, the boy showed remarkable aptness in 
learning. At the age of twelve he entered the college of 
Cahors, and thence went to the university of Paris. He 
was destined by his parents for the Church, for which, by 
natural temperament and pious zeal, he was well fitted. 
He preached at fifteen with marked success, and took up 
a theological course at St. Sulpice. At the age of twenty- 
four he was ordained priest. He desired to enter the 

^ " History of Modern Education," p. 181. 





missionary field, first in Canada, and later in Greece, but 
had to abandon this purpose on account of ill health. 

Saint-Simon, in his " M^moires," describes F^nelon as a 
man of striking appearance, and says, "His manner alto- 
gether corresponded to his appearance ; his perfect ease 
was infectious to others, and his conversation was stamped 
with the grace and good taste which are acquired by 
habitual intercourse with the best society and the great 

For ten years F^nelon was at the head of the convent 
of the New Catholics, an institution which sought to reclaim 
Protestant young women to Catholicism. In this position, 
as well as in all his lifework, though himself an ardent 
Catholic, F^nelon's course was so temperate and just that 
he won the warmest admiration even of Protestants, who 
did not accept his faith. Among his friends were the 
Duke and Duchess of Beauvilliers, who had eight daugh- 
ters and several sons. At their suggestion, and for the 
purpose of helping them in educating their daughters, he 
wrote his first and most important educational work, 
"The Education of Girls." Compayr^ pronounces this 
"the first classical work of French pedagogy." He fur- 
ther speaks of this book as " a work of gentleness and 
goodness, of a complaisant and amiable grace, which is 
pervaded by a spirit of progress." ^ It appeared in 

In 1689, when thirty-eight years of age, F^nelon was 
chosen preceptor of the grandson of Louis XIV., the young 
Duke of Burgundy. In this position his remarkable pow- 
ers as a teacher were brought to light, and he applied the 
theories which he had promulgated. The young duke, who 
was eight years of age, was of a passionate nature, hard to 

1 " History of Pedagogy," p. 165, 


control, and yet, withal, of warm-hearted impulses. It is 
said that " he would break the clocks which summoned 
him to unwelcome duty, and fly into the v/ildest rage with 
the rain which hindered some pleasure." The "Telema- 
chus"^ of F^'nelon, perhaps his greatest literary work, was 
composed at this time, as were also his " Dialogues of the 
Dead ' and his "Fables." The inspiration of all these 
works was found in the charge committed to him — that of 
properly instructing his royal pupil. Fenclon thus cn^itcd 
the material through which he interested the boy ji.d 
taught him the intended lessons. The " Telemachus " was 
designed for the moral and political instruction of the 
prince ; through his " Dialogues of the Dead " he taught 
history ; and his " Fables " were composed for the purpose 
of teaching the moral and intellectual lessons which he 
wished to impart to his illustrious, but headstrong, pupil. 
F^nelon's success with the prince was phenomenal, as the 
passionate boy became affectionate, docile, and obedient. 

The success of the experiment, however, was never put 
to llie final test, as the duke died before coming to the 
throne. There seems to be no doubt that the cure was 
permanent, and it is not believed that, like Nero, he would 
have relapsed into his former viciousness and cruelty. 

One naturally compares Fenelon with Seneca. To both 
were committed children, heirs apparent to thrones, — 
willful, cruel, disobedient, and hard to control. In 
Seneca's pupil t^e seeds of cruelty remained, to germinate 
into the awful tyrant ; in Fenelon's the evil seemed 
to be permanently eradicated, and the result was a prince 
with generous impulses and noble intentions. And this 
result was largely owing to the difference in the teach- 
ers, — Fenelon, the gentle, but firm, patient, painstaking 

1 " Schoolmaster in Comedy and Satire," pp. 73-100. 

HIST. OF ED. — 15 

' "I 





1 .i^^t' 

' -hi 



conscientious man ; Seneca, the more brilliant, but vacillat- 
ing and timeserving sycophant. 

Fenelon^s Pedagogy. — i. There must be systematic care 
of the body. Therefore regular meals and plain food, 
plent}^ of sleep, exercise, etc., are essential. 

2. All instruction must be made pleasant and interest- 
ing. Play is to be utilized in teaching. In this he antici- 
pated Froebel. 

3. Let punishments be as light as possible. Encourag3 
children to be open and truthful, and do not prevent con- 
fession by making punishments too frequent or too severe. 
Punishment should be administered privately, as a rule, 
and publicly only when all other means have failed. 

4. Present the thing before its name, — the idea before 
the word. Study things, investigate. Employ curiosity. 
In this he was a disciple of Bacon and Comenius, and a 
prophet to Pestalozzi. 

5. Allow nothing to be committed to memory that is 
not understood. 

6. Girls, also, must share the benefits of education. 
Especial attention should be given to teaching them mod- 
esty, gentleness, piety, household economy, the dirties of 
their station in life, and those of motherhood. 

7. Morality should be taught early and by means of 
fables, stories., and concrete examples. 

8. Proceed from the near at hand to the remote, from 
the known to the unknown. Thus in language, after the 
mother tongue, teach other living languages, and then 
the classics. The latter are to be learned by conversation 
about common objects, and by application of the rules of 
grammar in connection therewith. In e^eography and his- 
tory one's own environment and country should be learned 
first, then other countries. 



9. Example is of great importance to all periods of life, 
but especially to childhood. This F^nelon practically 
illustrated by his own life and by the concrete cases which 
he used. Voltaire says of Fenelon, " His wit was over- 
flowing with beauty, his heart with goodness." 



In 1 68 1, La Salle, a devoted priest of the Catholic 
Church, organized the Brothers of the Christian Schools. 

The idea primarily was to awaken interest in elementary 
education. He perfected the work already done by Peter 
Faurier, Charles Demia, and others. The method of 
instruction, up to this time, had been largely individual. 
The pupils were called up to the teacher, one by one, 
or at most two by two, and, after the lesson had been 
heard, they were sent back to their seats to study. La 
Salle conceived the idea of grading togetheir pupils of 
the same advancement, and teaching them simultane- 
ously, — a practice now employed in primary schools 
everywhere. It is known as the Simultaneous Method. ^ 
Brother Azarias says of this method, " Because we all 
of us have been trained according to this method, and 
see it practiced in nearly all of our public and many 
of our private schools throughout the land, and have 
ceased to find it a subject of wonder, we may be 
inclir^ed to imdervalue its importance. Not so was it 
regarded in the days of La Salle. Then a Brothers' 
School was looked upon with admiration. Strangers were 
shown it as a curiosity worth visiting." 

1 Especial reference is made to Brother Azarias, " Essays Educational." 






La Salle laid down many explicit rules concerning pun- 
ishment, methods of teaching, and school organization in 
a book called "The Conduct of Schools." While modern 
criticism would condemn many of these rules, we think, 
with Compayr6, that " whatever the distance which sepa- 
rates these gloomy schools from our modern ideal, — from 
the pleasant, active, animated school, such as we conceive 
it to-day, — there is none the less obligation to do justice 
to La Salle, to pardon him for practices which were those 
of his time, and to admire him for the good qualities that 
were peculiarly his own. " ^ 

He established the first normal school in history at 
Rheims in 1684, thirteen years before Francke organized 
his teachers' class at Halle, and fifty years before Hecker 
founded the first Prussian normal school at Stettin. La 
Salle magnified the teacher's office, and urgently demanded 
professional training for instructors of the young. Brother 
Azarias forcibly sums up La Salle's great work in this 
respect as follows : " He is the benefactor of the modern 
schoolmaster. He it was who raised primary teaching out 
of the ruts of never ending routine, carried on in the midst 
of time-honored noise and confusion, and, in giving it 
principles and a method, made of it a science. He her'ged 
in the dignity of the schoolmaster. He was the fi': t to 
assert the exclusive right of the master to devote his wh j' 
time to his school work."^ 

Education, therefore, owes to La Salle three important 
contributions, — (i) the Simultaneous Method of Instruc- 
tion, whereby a number of children of the same advance- 
ment are taught together; (2) the first Normal School, 
established at Rheims, France, in 1684; and (3) a dignify- 
ing of the teacher's profession by setting apart trained 

1 " History of Pedagogy," p. 276. * " Essays Educational," p. 238. 


!", iJWWjUfW^W'Twnit' I vs "'■ 




persons who should give all their time to the work of 

Summary of the Educational Progress of the Seventeenth 
Century. — i. School systems were established and com- 
pulsory attendance made efficient in Weimar, in 16 19, in 
Gotha in 1642, and in many other cities, showing a grow- 
ing recognition of the principle of universal education and 
the duty of the State to assume the responsibility for its 

2. A school of educators, known as the " Innovators," 
laid emphasis on sense-realism, — the study of things, the 
contact with nature, the education that is of practical 

3. Bacon laid the foundation of all future scientific re- 
search by his inductive method. This increased the riches 
of the world beyond calculation, taught how investigation 
is to be made, laid the foundation of modern science, and 
gave direction to all later education. 

4. Ratke, though erratic and vulgar, instituted whole- 
some reforms in the teaching of languages, and promul- 
gated theories which, under later reformers, bore rich 

5. Comenius, one of the greatest educators of all time, 
produced the first illustrated text-book, planned a general 
organization for schools in several countries, which is the 
basis of present systems, and proclaimed theories which 
are now universally accepted as the guide of modern peda- 
gogical practice. 

6. Milton, though primarily a literary man, lent the 
weight of his genius and his great name to school reform. 
He marked out a course of study which contemplates a unity 
of purpose from the elementary school to the university. 

7. The great English philosopher, Locke, also found 






». ' ; -I 

u« \i 



time to devote to education. His principle, " A sound mind 
in a sonnd body,' directed attention to physical education. 

8. In the noble French priest, F^nelon, we find an exam- 
ple of theory practically applied. He gives, also, for the 
first time, a place in pedagogy to the education of girls. 

9. In general, we find that the seventeenth century laid 
stress upon the principle of utility, gave great impulse to 
science, called attention to the care of the body, decreased 
the influence of classic studies, brushed away the fabric 
which superstition and conservatism had woven, produced 
some of the greatest educators that have ever lived, and 
laid the foundations on which modern education is built. 


■4W !Hf»|pV'f*"*^WW"«J" '■ 



Literature. — /i?<?/«, Encyklopadisches Handbuch; Strack^ Geschichte 
des Volkschulwesens ; Dyer, Modern Europe; Rein, Am Ende der 
Schulreform? Russell, German Higher Schools. 


Pietism is the name of a movement in Germany which 
sought to revive spiritual life in the Lutheran Church. In 
that church, religion had become purely a matter of intel- 
lect, instead of heart. Cold formality and adherence to 
the letter, rather than the spirit, had taken possession of 
the Protestant Church. Like the Jansenists in France, 
who had a similar purpose with reference to the Catholic 
Church, and later the Methodists in England, who sought 
to awaken religious zeal in the Church of England, the 
Pietists of Germany endeavored to vitalize religious life, 
and to lead men away from creeds promulgated by human 
agency, to the pure word of God. The Pietists differed 
from the orthodox Lutherans not in doctrine, but in insist- 
ing on the necessity of a change of heart and a pious life, 
instead of mere adherence to formal doctrine. 

The Pietists founded the university of Halle, and this 
remained the center of the movement until it had run its 
course. Pietism had its inception during the latter part 
of the seventeenth century, and it extended through the 
first half of the eighteenth century. Its originator was 
Philipp Jakob Spener, a man of remarkable zeal and godly 
life. Though it met with bitter opposition on the part of 







the orthodox Lutherans, it certainly did great good, not 
only to its adherents, but to the Church at large, by awaken- 
ing deeper spiritual life. Its influence was also great in 
reviving Biblical study in Germany, in improving the char- 
acter of teachers, and in giving a spiritual direction to the 
studies of the schools. It has left an enduring monument 
in the great Institutions that it founded at Halle. The 
greatest of the Pietists was August Hermann Francke, 
who is celebrated, not only as a theologian, but as a 
philanthropist and teacher. 


FRANCKE 1 (1 663- 1 727) 

Francke's early education was conducted by private 
teachers, though his parents, who were intelligent at:d 
God-fearing people, exerted a strong influence upon him. 
At thirteen he entered the highest class of the Gyimtasiiim 
at Gotha, where he remained for one year. Here he was 
introduced to the reform teachings of Ratke and Comenius. 
Two years later he entered the university of Erfurt as a 
student of thecljgy. He studied also at Kiel and Leipsic. 
While he gave particular attention to Hebrew and Greek, 
he also learned French, English, and Italian. He seemed 
to be gifted with a talent for learning languages, for during 
a short residence in Holland in later life he learned the 
Dutch language so well that he was able to preach in it. 
Under the instruction of a Jewish rabbi, he read the 
Hebrew Bible through seven times in one year. After 
spending some time as teacher in a private school, he 
returned to Leipsic as Privat Docent^ in the university. 

1 Rein's " Encyklopaclisches Handbuch," Vol. II, p. 336. 

2 The Privat Docent is the first step in the professor's career in the Ger- 
man university. He is allowed to lecture in the university, but receives no 
pay except fees from the students who hear him. 



Having become acquainted with Spener and his teach- 
ings, Francke became an earnest Pietist. Kis success in 
lecturing and his zeal in religious work drew around him a 
large number of students. This awakened the envy of the 
old professors of the university, and they began a persecu- 
tion which caused his dismissal. He then went to Erfurt 
and preached with remarkable success, drawing great 
crowds by his earnestness and eloquence. Persecution 
again followed him, and he was banished from the city. 

About this time the new university of Halle called 
Francke to the chair of Greek and oriental languages 
and afterward to that of theology. He began his work 
in 1692, and remained in that position for nearly thirty-six 
years, until his death. As this position did not furnish 
ei.ough to live upon, he became pastor of the church in 
the neighboring village of Glaucha. In his pastoral work 
he came in contact with poverty, drunkenness, and every 
form of immorality. Moved with pity, he collected small 
sums of money, which he distributed among the poor after 
catechising the children. 

At Easter, 1695, he found seven guldens ($2.80) in the 
collection boxes, which he declared to be " A splendid cap- 
ital with which something of importance can be founded ; 
I will begin a school for the poor with it." This was the 
beginning of the great orphan asylum at Halle, — 
an enterprise the magnitude of which we shall describe 
later. Without visible income, with no means at com- 
mand, but with a sublime faith in God and humanity, and 
an overwhelming sense of the ignorance and misery 
of the children about him, Francke began at once the 
great work; nor was his faith misplaced, as the result 
shows. He gathered together a few children and placed 
a student over them as a teacher. Soon the better class 



Pi Ail 

of citizens took an interest, and desired him to provide a 
school for their children. Two rooms were rented, one 
for those who could not pay and the other for those who 
could. This was the foundation of the free school and the 
citizens' school still connected with the Institutions. In 
the fall of 1695, Francke founded the orphan asylum. 
Money flowed in from all parts of the country as people 
began to understand the great work. Francke was thus 
able to branch out in many directions. He established a 
Pedagoginm to prepare teachers for his and other schools ; 
free meals were furnished to students who devoted a 
part of their time to teaching in the institutions ; separate 
schools for boys and girls, a Gymnasium^ a Real-school^ a 
bookbindery and printing establishment, and many other 
institutions were founded. 

The Institutions at Halle. — In a few years Francke had 
in successful operation a marvelous system, a work founded 
upon love of humanity and dependent upon philanthropy 
for its suppiort. The results attracted attention from all 
Europe, and students came from many lands. " At the 
death of Francke in the year 1727, the following report of 
the Institutions was sent to King Frederick William I. : 
(i) In the Pedagogisntj 82 scholars, 70 teachers and other 
persons ; (2) in the Latin school, 3 inspectors, 32 teachers, 
400 pupils, and 10 servants; (3) in the common school, 
4 inspectors, 98 male teachers, 8 female teachers, 1725 boys 
and girls ; (4) orphans, 100 boys, 34 girls, 10 overseers ; 
(5) at the free table, 225 students, 360 poor children ; (6) 
employed in the drug store, bookstore, etc., and other per- 
sons in the establishment, 82." ^ This makes a total of 
over 3200 persons instructed, sheltered, employed, or 
otherwise connected with these great Institutions. The 

1 K. Schmidt, " Geschichte der Padagogik," Vol. Ill, p. 462. 

. .itiiiii£iif!w//^i,'>tgijJ, :"^'^i.iCl-i4;vjUidt.i«^ 

.qiHiii;p J 11.1 1,1. 




foundations were so firmly laid that the progress has been 
steady from that time to this. At present there are no 
less than twenty-five different enterprises connected with 
the Institutions^ among which may be mentioned a free 
school for boys, and one for girls ; a common school for 
boys, and one for girls ; a royal Pcdagogium ; a Latin 
school ; a higher girls' school ; a Real-gymnasium ; a pre- 
paratory school for the high school; a Real-school ; an 
orphan asylum for boys, anc' one for girls ; a boarding 
house for students ; a Bible house, which has distributed 
about 6,500,000 Bibles and religious works; a teachers* 
seminary (normal school) for each sex; a bookstore, a 
printing house, and a drug store.^ About 3000 children 
receive instruction in the various schools, and about 1 18,000 
have been recipients of the benefits since the Institutions 
were founded two hundred years ago. The cost is about 
one million marks a year, which is covered by endow- 
ments, by tuition fees, by profits from the productive de- 
partments (bookstores, printing ^establishment, etc.), and 
by moneys received from the State. Francke's idea of 
depending upon voluntary gifts has been abandoned. 

All this work is the result of the energy of a man who 
began with a capital of less than three dollars, and a vast 
amount of faith to found "something of importance." 

The Training of Teachers. — While Francke's greatest 
work for mankind was the Institutions mentioned above, 
we must notice one field of his activity that is of especial 
importance to us, — that of the training of teachers. We 
have seen that, on account of the scarcity of funds, he 
was obliged to rely upon students to do the work of in- 
structing the children committed to his care. The young 
theologians made use of this opportunity as a stepping- 

1 See Rein, " Encyklopadisches Handbuch," Vol. II, p. 348. 







stone to their future calling, the ministry, and Francke, 
perceiving this, sought to secure the most pious and gifted 
among his theological students for this work. He also es- 
tablished a pedagogical class {Pedagogium). After two 
years' membership therein, the student was allowed to teach 
provided he pledged himself to devote three years to teach- 
ing in the schools. This class met once a week for criticism 
and discussion under the leadership of the inspector of the 
school, and the various inspectors met Francke every 
evening for further instruction. The results soon attracted 
widespread notice, and created a great demand for 
Francke's teachers. Although this was very crude peda- 
gogical training, it may be regarded as the inception of 
the normal school, which has now come to be an essential 
part of every educational system. 

The Real-school. — A third service is credited by many 
to Francke, namely, the founding of the Real-school'^ of 
Germany. The best authorities give that credit to Pro- 
fessor Erhard Weigel of Jena. Whether or not the idea 
originated with Francke, he was ready to accept the 
necessity of such a change, and founded schools for higher 
learning in which Greek and Latin were not required, and 
in which more attention was given to modern languages 
and science. 

1 The Real-school is the great rival of the Gymnasium in Germany. The 
latter is the old established school which bases culture on the HtunanitieSt — 
the classic languages, and literature. The Real-school is more modern and 
gives greater attention to the Realities^ — to things of practical utility. Pre- 
cedence is given to the modern languages, sciences, and arts. While the 
chief purpose oi the Gymnasium is to prepare for the learned professions, that 
of the Real-school is to prepare for practical life. The relation of these two 
institutions to each other and to the university led to the Berlin Conference 
in 1890, at which it clearly appeared that the younger is outstripping the older 
and more conservative institution. See Russell, ** German Higher Schools." 

Ti ':^i^\,''iik\^.^. >ak 







Literature. — Z>/^?r, Modern Europe; Duruy, The French Revolu- 
tion ; Vouge, Three Centuries of Modern History ; Andrews, Institutes 
of General History ; Lord, Beacon Lights ; Taylor, History of Ger- 
many ; Giiizot, History of Civilization ; Draper, Conflict between Re- 
ligion and Science. 

The history of the world since the seventeenth century 
has been crowded with events, and characterized by move- 
ments of greatest moment to mankind. It is not the pur- 
pose of this work to discuss political movements, to 
chronicle wars, or to study the great upheavals of society 
except in so far as they have a direct bearing upon educa- 
tional questions.^ 

The political chains that fettered the nations of the 
world have gradually been broken until greater liberty has 
been secured, a more perfect acknowledgment of the rights 
of the individual brought about, and a more tolerant re- 
ligious spirit fostered in every civilized land. These 
things have exerted a tremendous force in the intellectual 
emancipation of man. At last the long struggle of the 
centuries begins to bear legitimate fruit, and the supreme 
educational purpose of Christianity, that of asserting 

* It must be freely admitted that such influences are powerful in shaping the 
destiny of man. and that they have had much to do with education, as we have 
often shown in the foregoing pages. We must, however, leave the tracing of 
the movements to each individual student. 









and maintaining the importance of the individual, seems 
destined to complete realization. The noble truths of broth- 
erly love, equality before God, and human rights were ob- 
scured during the long centuries, — obscured sometimes by 
the very institution whose chief aim is to scatter light and 
give gladness to men. It has remained for modern educa- 
tion to rediscover the educational principles which the 
Great Teacher promulgated, and which through the strug- 
gle of centuries failed of recognition, and bore indifferent 

Among the many social and political changes that have 
taken place during the last two centuries, we may mention 
a few that have a direct influence upon education. Preced- 
ing centuries had prepared the way, — had broken the 
ground and sown the seed, and now the world was ready 
to reap an abundant harvest. 

The great political events of this period m? e briefly 
summarized as follows : — 

1 . The abolition of htiman slavery. — Great Britain, 
Spain, France, Russia, and finally our own country have 
forever removed the shackles of the slave within their bor- 
ders. Perhaps the greatest of all emancipation acts was 
that of Russia, which, in 1861, without bloodshed and with- 
out serious disturbance, by royal decree, set free forty mil- 
lion serfs. The abolition of slavery in nearly all civilized 
countries is the greatest political triumph of Christian civi- 
lization. Without this there could never have come that 
higher intellectual emancipation which is the aim sought 
in all education. 

2. The extension of political rights. — This is another 
victory that must be credited to the period under discus- 
sion. At the beginning of the eighteenth century there 
was scarcely a nation that acknowledged the right of the 

>i :&>£ulLu:¥ i*!^ 

. Ai^ifX£i^4B, SUL.^.AA.^>,M1^&sA^^ 





individual to a part in pjovernment, or to personal freedom. 
Men were in vassalage to their immediate lord, who, in turn, 
was obliged to acknowledge the " divine right " of the king 
over him. With the exception of Switzerland, who for cen- 
turies had maintained her freedom, and of England, who had 
secured the rights of man only by much bloodshed, there 
was scarcely a people in the world that possessed the right 
of self-government. Even England had secured that right 
only in the latter half of the seventeenth century under the 
leadership of Cromwell. This right she did not concede 
to her colonies, however, until the American Revolution 
wrested her richest dependency from her, and forever 
established the principle of self-government for a sov- 
ereign people. 

Immediately following the American Revolution came 
the French R "volution, which taught the Old World the 
ideas so heroically conceived, so bravely supported, and so 
successfully realized in the New World. Nor is this all. 
The same principle has compelled the rulers of most of the 
European nations to divide the responsibility of govern- 
ment with their subjects, and to grant their people enlarged 
powers but little short of absolute sovereignty. 

3. Science has been recognized as a poiver-fnl instninu} J 
of civilization. — Through scientific discov.eries there has 
been a wonderful accession to material wealth, invention 
has been stimulated, and progress has been made in all 
directions. The spirit of investigation has been fostered, 
old theories and superstitions have been abandoned, and 
truth has been established upon their ruins. In this 
direction more has been done by science during the eight- 
eenth and nineteenth centuries than during the whole 
previous history of the world. Man has now become 
master of heretofore unknown forces which he may utilize 

! .f 

\ to".. 




as a blessing for the human race. We shall see in later 
pages that scientific investigation has become the greatest 
educational principle of modern times. 

4. Religions freedom has been attained. — The sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries witnessed many struggles for 
religious liberty, which resulted in no decided victory.^ It 
was not until the last two centuries that complete religious 
freedom was gained. Men are no longer bound to ?xcept 
ecclesiastical decrees without question, but every one may 
weigh and consider, and freely decide for himself. Civil 
law protects, civil society sustains, and public opinion 
justifies men in the exercise of personal liberty in religious 

By the realization of these great principles educational 
progress has been encouraged. The greatest obstacles 
have been removed, and the future opens with possibilities 
of universal brotherhood, universal peace, and universal 

It remains for us to study some of the men who have 
contributed to the educational progress of the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries, to trace the chief movements in 
the intellectual development of the race, and to examine 
the school systems of the representative nations of ^the 
world at the present time. 

I 'I 



Literature. — Davidson, Rousseau ; Graham, Rousseau ; Morley^ 
Life of Rousseau ; Rousseau, Emile ; Mitnroe, Educational Ideal ; 
Vogelj Geschichte der Padagogik ; Quick, Educational Reformers ; 
Weir, The Key to Rousseau's Emile (article in Educational Review, 
Vol. XVI, p. 6i) ; Compayri, History of Pedagogy. 




ROUSSEAU (1 71 2-1 778) 

Jean Jacques Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzer- 
land. His father was a watchmaker, and upon him 
devolved the education of the boy, as the mother died 
in childbirth. Rousseau's father was a man of dissipated 
habits, careless of responsibility, and of very violent tem- 
per. He interested himself in his son far enough to teach 
him to read, and supplied him with the worthless novels 
which he himself was fond of reading. This unwise 
course doubtless had much to do in shaping the character 
of the boy. Probably it was the evil efi-ects of this early 
literature that led Rousseau later in life to oppose teaching 
young children to read. Quick says, " Rousseau p'ofessed 
a hatred of books, which he said kept the student so long 
engaged upon the thoughts of other people as to have no 
tim.e to make a store of his own." 

Abandoned by his father at the age of ten, he was taken 
into the family of his uncle, who apprenticed him, first to 
a notary, and r.fterward to an engraver. At the age of 







I \m 

sixteen he ran away, and began a life of vagabondage. 
While yet a young man, he became involved in intrigues, 
which, accordinr to his own account in his *' Confessions," 
were no credit to him. Madame de Warens, a young 
widow with whom he lived for some years, sent him to 
school at St. Lazare, where he studied the classics and 
music ; but he soon lapsed again into vagabondage. He 
picked up a little music, and attempted to give lessons in it, 
but with small success. He also took a position as private 
tutor, but he had no talent for teaching. Later in life he 
married Ther^se le Vasseur, a woman from the common 
ranks of life. She bore him five children, all of whom 
he committed to foundling hospitals without means of 
identification. He did this because he was not willing 
that his own comfort or plans should be disturbed by the 
presence of children. Rousseau had reason to regret this 
heartless and unnatural course when, in later years, he 
sought in vain to find some trace of his children. Com- 
payre says, " If he loved to observe children, he observed, 
alas, only the children of others. There is nothing sadder 
than that page of the * Confessions,' in which he relates 
how he often placed himself at the window to observe the 
dismission of a school, in order to listen to the conversa- 
tions of children as a furtive and unseen observer ! " ^ 

In 1749 Rousseau successfully competed for a prize 
offered by the Academy of Dijon on the subject, " Has the 
restoration of the sciences contributed to purify or to 
corrupt manners.-*" Rousseau entered this contest quite 
accidentally. He saw the notice of the contest in a news- 
paper, and decided at once to compete. Of this event he 
says, "If ever anything resembled a sudden inspiration, 
it was the movement which began in me as I read this. 

1 " History of Pedagogy," p. 286. 



All at once I felt myself dazzled by a thousand sparkling 
lights ; crowds of vivid ideas thronged into my mind with 
a force and confusion which threw me into unspeakable 
agitation ; I felt my head whirling in a giddiness like that 
of intoxication. A violent palpitation oppressed me ; un- 
able to walk for difficulty of breathing, I sank under one 
of the trees of the avenue, and passed half an hour there 
in such a condition of excitement that when I rose I saw 
that the front of my waistcoat was all wet with tears, 
though I was wholly unconscious of shedding them. Ah, 
if I could have written the quarter of what I saw and felt 
under that tree, with what clearness should I have brought 
out all the contradictions of our social system ; with what 
simplicity should I have demonstrated that man is good 
naturally, and that by institution only is he made bad." 

This essay made him famous, and its publication was the 
beginning of a remarkable literary career. His principal 
literary works are his " Confessions," in which he declares 
that he conceals nothing concerning himself ; the " Social 
Contract," an anti-monarchic work, which many believe in- 
cited the French Revolution; "Helo'se," a novel over- 
strained in sentiment and immoral m its teachings, but 
" full of pathos and knowledge of the human heart " ; and 
" Emile," his greatest work, which contains his educational 
theories. The " Emile "^ was an epoch-making book, which 
excited great interest throughout Europe. It is said that 
the philosopher Emanuel Kant became so absorbed in 
reading it that he forgot to take his daily walk. 

Pedagogy. — ia) Rousseau's first principle is, "Every- 
thing is good as it comes from the hands of the Author of 
nature ; everything degenerates in the hands of man." 
It follows, then, that education has only to prevent the 
I " Schoolmaster in Literature,'* pp. 40-63. 

* i1 





entrance of evil, and let nature continue the work begun. 
It is to be a negative, as well as a natural, process. The 
fallacy of this principle is very forcibly shown by Vogel ^ 
as follows : " The very first sentence of * Emile,' that man 
by nature is good, is a fundamental error ; for by nature, 
that is, from birth, man is neither good nor bad, but mor- 
ally indifferent. Only when the individual possesses ma- 
ture self-consciousness does he have a correct idea of good 
and evil. If man by nature is good, it is inexplicable how 
evil can originate within him. External things may, indeed, 
furnish motives to evil, but are never in themselves evil; 
the evil arises rather from the conduct of the individual 
toward outside objects. If, then, evil does not come 
from without, and is not by nature already within the 
heart, it is impossible that there shall be such a thing as 

(b) The first education is physical and it begins at birth. 
As the physical wants of the child are natural they should 
be satisfied, but the clothing should be of such character 
as not to interfere with the perfect freedom of the body. 
Great care must be taken to distinguish between the real 
wants of the child and its passing whims. To gratify the 
latter because of the crying of the child will tend to form 
bad habits. In this connection may be taught the first 
moral lessons. It thus becomes important that the speech, 
gestures, and expressions of the young child shall be care- 
fully studied. This is the first suggestion of the necessity 
for child study. The idea was later developed by Pesta- 
lozzi and Froebel, and is one of the most important fea- 
tures of recent pedagogical activity. 

if) The child's second period begins with his ability 

1 "Geschichte der Padagogik,** p. 127. See also Compayre, "History of 
Pedagogy," p. 286. 



to speak and continues till the twelfth year. No attempt 
must be made to educate the child for his future, but he 
must be allowed to get the full enjoyment of childhood by 
freedom to play as he will. Let him run, jump, and test 
his strength, thereby acquiring judgment of the material 
forces about him, and learning how to take care of him- 
self. Leave him free to do what he will, let him have 
what he wishes, but, as far as possible, he should be led 
to depend upon himself to satisfy his wants. Give him 
perfect freedom, for freedom is the fundamental law of 
education. If he disobeys, do not punish him, — disobedi- 
ence works its own punishment; therefore, do not com- 
mand him. The training of the senses is the important 
work of this period ; therefore, there should be as little 
moral training as possible, and absolutely no religious 
training. The only moral idea for the child to learn is 
that of ownership. He is to be prevented from vice in 
a negative manner, that is, by never being allowed to 
meet it. "The only habit that a child should be allowed 
to form is to contract no habit." 

He is to have a preceptor devoted entirely to him, not 
to instruct or control him, but to lead him to discover and 
experience for himself. In regard to his intellectual in- 
struction, Rousseau says of Emile at twelve years of age, 
" that he has not learned to distinguish his right hand 
from his left." Books are entirely proscribed, and, indeed, 
they are useless to him as he cannot read ; the only in- 
tellectual knowledge the child receives is that which comes 
from things through his own experience. 

This is a brief outline of the erratic, impossible, and 

inconsistent training that Rousseau provides for Emile 
during this period when the foundation of character in the 
child must be laid. Greard says, " Rousseau goes beyond 




progressive education to recommend an education in frag- 
ments, so to speak, which isolates the faculties in order to 
develop them one after another, which establishes an abso- 
lute line of demarkation between the different ages, and 
which ends in distinguishing three stages of progress in 
the soul. Rousseau's error on this point is in forgetting 
that the education of the child ought to prepare for the 
education of the young man." 

{d) The third period extends from the twelfth to the fif- 
teenth year. It is the period of intellectual development. 
With no habits of thought or study, being little else than 
a robust animal, in three years Eiiiile is to obtain all needed 
intellectual training. True, Rousseau excludes everything 
that is not useful, and places limitations even on that. 
For example, he naturally lays great stress upon the 
physical sciences which are to be taught in connection 
with things themselves, — out of doors, by travel, and in 
actual life ; but he allows no history, or grammar, or an- 
cient languages. No books are permitted save " Robinson 
Crusoe," which Rousseau finds entirely suitable for Entile. 
A trade is to be learned during this period. 

While in general we condemn Rousseau's scheme of 
education, there is much in his methods that is most 
excellent. On this point Compayr6 comments as follows : 
" At least in the general method which he commends, 
Rousseau makes amends for the errors in his plan of 
study : * Do not treat the child to discourses which he 
cannot understand. No descriptions, no eloquence, no 
figures of speech. Be content to present to him appro- 
priate objects. Let us transform our sensations into ideas. 
But let us not jump at once from sensible to intellectual 
objects. Let us always proceed slowly from one sensible 
notion to another. In general, let us never substitute 



the sign for the thing, except when it is impossible 
for us to show the thing.' " ^ 

(^) The fourth period of education begins at fifteen, the 
period of adolescence. At this time, " Emilc will know 
nothing of history, nothing of humanity, nothing of art 
and literature, nothing of God ; but he will know a 
manual trade." Rousseau himself says, ** limile has but 
little knowledge, but that which he has is really his own ; 
he knows nothing by halves." He has a mind which, " if 
not instructed, is at least capable of being instructed." 
The remaining work to be done in the^ education of Emile 
consists in training the sentiments of affection, the moral 
and the religious sentiments. The feeling of love for his 
fellow-beings is now to be cultivated. The error of this is 
shown by Compayre, who says, " For fifteen years Rous- 
seau leaves the heart of Emile unoccupied. . . . Rousseau 
made the mistake of thinking that a child can be taught 
to love as he is taught to read and write, and that lessons 
could be given to Emilc in feeling just as lessons are 
given to him in geometry." 

In morals Rousseau taught that the first duty of every 
one is to take care of himself ; we must love ourselves 
first of all, and find our greatest interest in those things 
that best serve us. We must seek that which is useful 
to us and avoid what harms us, instead of loving our 
enemies and doing good to those that hate us, as taught 
by Christ. We must love those who love us, while we 
must avoid and hate those who hate us. 

As to religion, Emile does not yet know at fifteen 
that he has a soul, and Rousseau thinks that perhaps the 
eighteenth year is still too early for him to learn that fact ; 
for, if he tries to learn it before the proper time, he runs 

1 " History of Pedagogy," p. 298. 

»': n 



the risk of never really knowing that he possesses an 
immortal soul. But as religion furnishes a check upon 
the passions, it should be taught to the boy when eighteen 
years of age. He is not to be instructed in the doctrines 
of any particular sect, but should be allowed to select that 
religious belief which most strongly appeals to his reason. 
Modern investigation has proven the utter fallacy of Rous- 
seau's teachings in this respect. Indeed, it seems to be 
established that the most orthodox period of the child's 
life occurs before the fifteenth year, the time when Rous- 
seau would begin his religious training. Conformable to 
this truth, many sects confirm children and receive them 
into the church at or before the fifteenth year.^ 

(/) Having brought Emilc to the period of life at which 
he is to marry, Rousseau proceeds to create in Sophie 
the ideal wife. It is not the education of women as 
such that Rousseau discusses, but their education with 
reference to man. He says, " The whole education of 
women should be relative to men ; to please them, to 
be useful to them, to make themselves honored and 
loved by them, to educate the young, to care for the 
older, to advise them, to console them, to make life 
agreeable and sweet to them, — these are the duties of 
women in every age." Consequently the sole instruction 
woman needs is in household duties, in care of children, 
in ways to add to the happiness of her husband. Her 
own happiness or development does not enter into 
Rousseau's scheme. This is the weakest part of his 
educational theory. The world is gradually awakening 

1 See address of Professor Earl Barnes, Proceedings of the National 
Educational Association for 1893, p. 765. Also article by Dr. G. Stanley 
Hall in Pedagogical Seminary^ Vol. I, p. 196. Note also the religious de- 
velopment of Laura Bridgman. 

' ^^^^S& ^lei. r . 

i. ^ s-k.^i.A, }.±>Ais^>jlc£-L^..4i£^jr^d^fi££eL£ 

%^is^trj^^i&.^ jE&££i 




to the fact that woman's intellectual capacity is not 
inferior to that of man, and the prejudices of ages are 
slowly disappearing. 

Rousseau's pedagogical theories made a profound im- 
pression throughout Europe, and though often inconsist- 
ent, extravagant, and visionary, they set the world to 
thinking of the child and his psychological development. 
A new direction was thus given to educational theory 
and practice, and upon this basis Pc^talozzi, Froebel, and 
other modern educators have built. Rousseau must, there- 
fore, be reckoned among the greatest pedagogical writers of 
modern times. Karl Schmidt pronounces the ** Emile " "a 
Platonic republic of education, — nevertheless, Rousseau'^- 
work is a great universal achievement, the importance of 
which Goethe recognizes when he calls the book the 
nature-gospel of education." ^ 

1 " Geschichte der Padagogik," Vol. Ill, p. 559. 




BASEDOW » (1 723-1 790) 

The name of Basedow is connected with what is known 
as the Philanthropinic experiment. He was born at Ham- 
burg, his father being a wigmaker. Not being appreciated 
in his home, the son ran away and bound himself out 
as servant in the household of a gentleman. Through 
the influence of this man, who discovered his extraor- 
dinary abilities, he was reconciled with his father, and 
returned home. He was sent to the Gymnasium at Ham- 
burg, and afterward, through the assistance of friends, 
went to the university of Leipsic, where he studied theol- 
ogy. Here he lived a rather wild life, and upon the com- 
pletion of his studies was found too unorthodox to take 
orders. Accordingly, he became tutor (Hauslehrer) to 
the children of Herr von Quaalen. In this position he 
showed great aptitude and originality in the instruction of 
children. His method of teaching included conversation, 
adaptation of play, and use of the woods, fields, plants, 
birds, and other works of nature. 

" Owing to his original manner of teaching, Basedow 
obtained the best results. In teaching Latin, for instance, 
he began by pointing to objects and giving their Latin 

1 Special References, Williams, " History of Modern Education " ; Quick, 
"Educational Reformers," pp. 144, 288; Lang, "Basedow" (Teachers' 
Manuals, No. 16). 




names. His pupils, in a very short time, learned to speak 
Latin almost as well as their native language. Basedow 
himself learned French, after the same manner, of the 
governess of the house." * 

He next became Professor of Morals and Polite Litera- 
ture at Soroe, Denmark, where his unorthodox writings 
again led him into trouble. He was removed to the 
Gyuinasiuin at Altona. Rousseau's " Emile " produced a 
profound impression upon him, as it had done upon many 
other thinkers in Europe, and many of his theories are 
probably traceable to that book. Basedow was convinced 
of the need of a radical reform in the schools of Germany, 
and set himself the task of effecting it. Bernsdorf, the 
Danish minister of education, became interested in his 
writings, and, together with several of the crowned heads 
of Europe, assisted him in bringing out his " l^^lementary 
Book" (Elementarbuch), which foreshadowed his plans. 
It was modeled after the " Orbis Pictus " of Comenius. 
The interest of these distinguished patrons shows how 
urgent was the need of an educational reform. Basedow 
also made the acquaintance of the great literary men of 
the time, chief among whom was Goethe. In temperament 
he was misanthropic and peevish, owing in part, doubtless, 
to ill health brought on by overwork and worry. . 

The Philanthropin. — Indirectly through Goethe, Prince 
Leopold of Dessau was attracted to Basedow. The prince 
determined to found an institute in which the plans of the 
great educator could be carried out. The institute, called 
the Philanthropin, was established, and became cele- 
brated throughout Europe. Quick says : " Then, for the 
first and probably for the last time, a school was started 
in which use and wont were entirely set aside, and every- 

1 Lang, •' Basedow," p. 6. 



thing done on * improved principles.' Such a bold enter- 
prise attracted the attention of all interested in education, 
far and near ; but it would seem that few parents con- 
sidered their own children vilia corpora (vile bodies), on 
whom experiments might be made for the public good. 
When, in May, 1776, a number of schoolmasters and 
others collected from different parts of Germany, and even 
from beyond Germany, to be present by Basedow's invita- 
tion at an examination of the children, they found only 
thirteen pupils in the Philanthropin, including Basedow's 
own son and daughter." ^ 

The main purpose of the Philanthropin was to give 
Basedow an opportunity to carry out his new educational 
ideas. A prominent feature of the undertaking was that 
it should be a model institute "for the preparation of 
teachers in the theory and practice of the new education." 
The institution was to be a " school of true humanity. Its 
name was to give evidence of its object — the education of 
youth in accordance with the laws of nature and humanity." 
In it Basedow was to exemplify his ideas of education. 
The best of teachers wei ^ to be employed, the best appli- 
ances furnished, and the instruction was to be founded 
entirely on sense-perception. The Philanthropin was 
opened in 1774, and at once awoke universal interest. 

But this school, conceived in love for humanity, founded 
with the noblest of purposes, and exemplifying much of 
sound educational philosophy, was destined to be short- 
lived. It was abandoned in less than twenty years. This 
downfall was owing to several causes, some of which may 
be mentioned, i. The institution was purelv secular in 
character, and the world was not yet ready for this. Parents 
were suspicious of a non-sectarian school, the idea of 

I "Educational Reformers," p. 150. 

^i^r«i4t6iiJ^^l&^^. ^ 1 u£.j. 





which was so contrary to that of the traditional church- 
school. Hence the small number of pupils in the Philan- 
thropm, even at the height of its prosperity under Basedow. 

2. Altogether too "^^^V subjects were included in 
the course. Quick outlines the work undertaken as fol- 
lows : "(i) Man. Here he would use the pictures of 
foreigners and wild men, also a skeleton, a hand in spirits, 
and other objects still more appropriate to a surgical 
museum. (2) Animals. Only such animals are to be 
depicted as it is useful to know about, because there is 
much that ought to be known, and a good method of in- 
struction must shorten rather than increase the hours of 
study. Articles of commerce made from the animals may 
also be exhibited. (3) Trees and plants. Only the most 
important are to be selected. Of these the seeds also 
must be shown, and cubes formed of the different woods. 
Gardeners' and farmers' implements are to be explained. 
(4) Mineral and chemical substances. (5) Mathemati- 
cal instruments for weighing and measuring ; also the air 
pump, siphon, and the like. The form and motion of the 
earth are to be explained with globes and maps. (6) 
Trades. The use of various tools is to be taught. (7) 
History. This is to be illustrated by engravings of his- 
torical events. (8) Commerce. Samples of commodities 
may be produced. (9) The younger children should be 
shown pictures of familiar objects about the house and its 

There are very many suggestive ideas in Basedow's 
course, which have been adopted in modern schools ; but 
the trouble was that he demanded too much, and he 
himself acknowledged later in life that "he had exag- 
gerated notions of the amount boys were capable of 

1 '* Educational Reformers," p. 15 J. 

-J •cii'^k*ie^:,iit^^ii'-ii 






h ■ 






learning," and accordingly his curriculum was very much 

3. Another reason for the failure of the Philanthropin 
was Basedow's indiscriminate condemnation of everything 
that had been done before, and of all who failed to agree 
with him. This awoke the antagonism of teachers every- 
where. All reformers are apt to be radical in their own 
views and denunciatory of the opinions of others. Had 
there been less to criticise in Basedow himself, he would 
doubtless have triumphed over all opposition. But his 
educational theories and practices did not produce the re- 
sults which he predicted for them, and his opponents were 
quick to mark every weakness that his system betrayed. 

4. More fatal still, perhaps, was the unfitness of Base- 
dow for the directorship of the institution. He was capri- 
cious, lacking in self-command and proper balance, visionary, 
and often suspicious of the teachers under his direction. 
Such causes prevented the experiment at Dessau from 
fulfilling the bright hopes of Basedow and the friends 
who assisted him in starting the enterprise. 

Basedow retired after four years' leadership, and the 
institution continued for a few years with varying success, 
under such men as Campe, Salzmann, and Matthison. 
Yet, when the Philanthropin was closed in 1793, the 
teachers, dispersed throughout Germany, carried the new 
gospel wherever th y went, arousing fresh interest in 
education and doing much for its advancement. 

Quick thinks that Basedow's system possessed great 
merits " for children, say, between the ages of six and 
ten." Kant was greatly disappointed at the result. Rous- 
seau's " Emile " had awakened his interest in education, 
and he looked to the experiment at Dessau for an exem- 
plification of the new ideals. His estimate of the work 




accomplished is as follows : " Experience shows that often 
in our experiments we get quite opposite results from what 
we had anticipated; We see, too, that since experiments 
are necessary, it is not in the power of one gCxieration to 
form a complete plan of education. The only experimental 
school which, to some extent, made a beginning in clearing 
the road, was the Institute at Dessau. This praise at least 
must be allowed, notwithstanding the many faults which 
could be brought up against it — faults which are sure to 
show themselves when we come to the results oi vr experi- 
ments, and which merely prove that fresh experiments 
are necessary. It was the only school in which teachers 
had liberty to work according to their own methods and 
schemes, and where they were in free communication both 
among themselves ^nd with all learned men throughout 
Germany." ^ 

Writings. — Basedow's chief educational writing is the 
book called the " Elementary." The " Book of Method " 
was the first to appear, and was really the first part of the 
" Elementary." Concerning the ''Book of Method," Lang 
says, "This famous manual was undoubtedly the greatest 
of Basedow's educational writings. ... It was full of 
valuable suggestions. It set educators to thinking, and 
has been a powerful motor in bringing abcat a change in 
school instruction." 

The " Elementary," containing Basedow's complete 
scheme of education, has been called the " Orbis Pictus 
of the eighteenth century." The general opinion is t^it 
Basedow obtained the root ideas of this work from Lo- 
menius, Locke, and Rousseau. There is but little that 
is original in his pedagogical principles, but he made an 
effort to carry out the progressive teachings which had 

^ Kant, " Ueber Padagogik." 




entered into the theories of advanced thinkers but had 
not been worked into practice. Still, the problem of 
education became through Basedow better understood, and 
he is deserving of a place among the great educators of 
the world for his experiment at Dessau toward the solution 
of that problem. The experiment was crude, but it has 
borne fruit in modern schools and their methods, in better 
school buildings and apparatus, in trained teachers, in 
milder forms of discipline, in the improved study of nature, 
and in a broader and more philanthropic view of m^n's 
duty to his fellow-man. 




PESTALOZZI (1 746-1827) 

Literature. — De Guimpsj Pestalozzi, his Life and Works; Krtlsiy 
Life, Work, and Influence of Pestalozzi ; Quick, Educational Reformers ; 
Von Raumer, Life and System of Pestalozzi ; Durrell, New Life in Edu- 
cation; Gill, Systems of Education; Skinner, The Schoolmaster in 
Literature ; Barnard, Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism ; Vogel, Geschichte 
des deulschen Volksschulwesens ; Rein, Encyklopadisches Handbuch 
der Padagogik. 

JoHANN Heinrich Pestalozzi was born in Zurich, Swit- 
zerland, January 12, 1746. His father was a physician of 
great intelligence, and his death before the boy reached 
his sixth year deprived the latter of a wise counselor. The 
character of the mother is shown by the dying appeal of 
Pestalozzi's father to his servant Babeli : " For God's sake 
and in the name of mercy do not forsake my wife. When 
I am dead she will be helpless, and my children will fall 
into the hands of strangers." 

Babeli repHed, " I will never leave your wife, if it should 
please God to take you hence. I will remain with her till 
death, if she wishes me to do so," a promise which she 
faithfully kept. Kriisi thinks that, " The sacrifices of a 
mother for her children do not show more nobility of soul 
than was displayed by this poor, uneducated girl, who gave 
up all her worldly interest for a family not her own." Who 
can say that Pestalozzi himself was not inspired to his long 
lite of devotion to the interests of the lowly by the unselfish 
consecration of this lowly woman to his family } 

HIST. OF ED. — 17 





Pestalozzi did not care for companions of his own age. 
He was peculiarly a mother's boy, content to grow up 
dreamy and impractical at her quiet hearthstone. Conse- 
quently he was awkward and reserved, easily imposed upon, 
and lacking in self-reliance. These qualities remained with 
him as long as he lived, and caused him many painful fail- 
ures. On the other hand, the pious example of his mother 
and the tranquil life he led with her made the boy reflect- 
ive and imaginative, while his soul became filled with 
great thoughts for the well-being of mankind. His grand- 
father, a country pastor, whom he often visited, by his 
simple, godly life exerted a great influence in shaping 
Pestalozzi's religious character. 

Schooling. — At school he was the butt of ridicule among 
the scholars because of his awkwardness, his simplicity, and 
his ingenuousness. His comrades dubbed him " Harry 
Oddity of Follyville," a nickname that carried no reproach 
with it, but was intended to express good-natured appreci- 
ation of his characteristics. Mr. Quick tells us that "his 
good nature and obliging disposition gained him many 
friends. No doubt his friends profited from his willingness 
to do anything for them. We find that when, on the shock 
of an earthquake, teachers and scholars alike rushed out of 
the schoolhouse, Harry Oddity was the boy sent back to 
fetch out caps and books." While not brilliant as a scholar, 
he was by no means dull. He was more ready in grasping 
the content than Xh^form of the subject. Consequently all 
through life he never overcame his weakness in some of 
the commonest requirements of education.^ 

1 In regard to the criticisms made against him at Burgdorf, Pestalozzi says : 
" It was whispered that I myself could not write, nor work accounts, nor even 
read properly. Popular reports are not always entirely wrong. It is true I 
could not write, nor read, nor work accounts well." 



Life Purpose. — After completing the work of the ele- 
mentary schools, he entered the university of Zurich, 
where he sustai'^'^H himself with credit. Even while 
yet a boy he joined a league of students which was 
intended to resist injustice. Of himself and his fellow- 
students, he says, " We decided to live for nothing 
but independence, well-doing, and sacrifice for love of 

Speaking of society as he saw it, he says, " I saw 
the unfortunate condition of all mankind, especially of 
my own countrymen, in all its hoUowness. I saw in- 
dulgence despoiling the highest moral, spiritual, and 
civil interests, and sapping the lifeblood of our race as 
never before in the history of Europe. I saw finally 
the people of our nation steeped in poverty, misery, 
and universal want. From youth up the purpose of 
my life has been to secure to the poor of my country 
a happier fate by improving and simplifying their 
educational privileges. But the only sure foundation 
upon which we may hope to secure national culture 
and elevate the poor is that of the home where the love 
of father and mother is the ruling principle. Through 
the unselfishness, truth, strength, and purity of their 
love, parents kindle faith in their children. This leads 
to that implicit obedience which is based on confidence 
and love." 

Love for humanity, desire to ameliorate suffering, and 
thorough unselfishness furnished the key to Pestalozzi's 
purpose and lifework. 

The Christian Ministry. — It was this lofty pur- 
pose that led him first to attempt the work of the Chris- 
tian ministry, a work which his aged grandfather 
encouraged. But he failed in his first sermon, and at 

uA&.^kJh^iii:*-/^i'it^^^ii^ii^^i^^-> i 



if t 

I, r* 

once decided that he had mistaken his calling. Kriisi^ 
says that " he stopped short in his sermon and made 
mistakes in the Lord's Prayer. This may have been due 
to embarrassment, which made the young minister for- 
get the sermon which he had been obHged to commit 
to memory. More likely, however, it was an exalted 
idea of the proper qualifications of a clergyman, com- 
pared with his own humble merits, which induced 
him to exchange the study of theology for that of 

The Law. — His motive in devoting himself to law 
was the same that had led him to the ministry, — his 
desire to be a blessing to his fellow-beings. He saw the 
peasantry cheated and imposed upon because of their 
ignorance, and determined to become their champion. 
Kriisi thinks that his study of the law must " have pro- 
duced negative results by showing him the insufficiency 
of human legislation to do away with abuses, unless 
supported by principles of charity and justice." He 
therefore gave up this enterprise also. 

Farming. — The advice of a dying friend, Bluntschh, 
" Never embark in any operation which might become 
dangerous to your peace of mind, because of the sim- 
plicity and tenderness of your disposition," may have 
had its effect upon Pestalozzi. He now entered upon his 
third venture. Having induced a wealthy firm in Zurich 
to advance him money, he bought about one hundred 
acres of unimproved land in the canton of Aargau, where 
he proposed to raise madder as a means of profit. 
Once more his real purpose was philanthropic, as he 
intended to show the poor peasants improved methods 
of farming whereby they could obtain better results for 
1 " Life, Work, and Influence of Pestalozzi," p. 17. 



their labor and thereby be enabled to live more com- 
fortably. He named the place Neuhof. 

Marriage. — At this time he had just passed his 
twenty-first year. We pause to mention an event that 
had much to do with his happiness and with his later 
life. He had made the acquaintance of Anna Schulthess, 
a young lady of considerable means, and sought her 
hand in marriage. His letter to her, proposing marriage, 
is remarkable for its frankness, for the ingenuous con- 
fession of his own weaknesses, and for its correct 
estimate of himself. A few quotations from this letter 
must suffice.! << My failings which appear to me the 
most important in relation to the future, are improvi- 
dence, want of caution, and want of that presence of 
mind which is necessary to meet unexpected changes 
in my future prospects. I hope, by continued exertions, 
to overcome them ; but know that I still possess them 
to a degree that does not allow me to conceal them 
from the maiden I love. ... I am further bound 
to confess that I shall place the duties toward my 
fatherland in advance of those to my wife, and that, 
although I mean to be a tender husband, I shall be in- 
exorable even to the tears of my wife, if they should 
ever try to detain me from performing my duties as 
a citizen, to their fullest extent. My wife shall be the 
confidant of my heart, the partner of all my most secret 
counsel. A great and holy simplicity shall reign in my 
house. ... My dear friend, I love you so tenderly 
and fervently that this confession has cost me much, 
since it may even take from me the hope of winning you." 

Anna was not discouraged by the picture which the man 
she loved drew of himself, and she consented to become 

1 Both Quick and Krusi give this letter in full. 




his wife. They were married in his twenty-fourth year, 
and thus began a long period of happy wedded Hfe that 
extended over fifty years. Quid;, tells us that "the fore- 
bodings of the letter were amply realized, . . . and yet we 
may well believe that Madame Pestalozzi never repented 
of her choice." 

Neuhof . — But to return to Pestalozzi's experiment in 
farming, matters had not progressed well. The Zurich 
capitalists became suspicious, and after an investigation 
decided to withdraw their support, thus precipitating fail- 
ure. Of this Pestalozzi himself says, " The cause of the 
failure of my undertaking lay essentially and exclusively in 
myself, and in my pronounced incapacity for every kind of 
undertaking which requires practical ability." One cannot 
fail to admire the energy and courage of the man, who, 
conscious of his own weakness, still persevered in great 
enterprises until he achieved success. 

It was not for himself, but for humanity, that Pestalozzi 
labored, and no discouragement could daunt, no failure 
defeat, no lack of appreciation or misunderstanding check, 
the ardor of his zeal for the great work that absorbed his 
life. Around him were men and women in poverty and 
misery, whose children were growing up in vice and igno- 
rance, to perpetuate the evils under which their parents 
suffered. With the spirit of his divine Master, Pestalozzi 
sought to elevate and bless those around him. 

Accordingly, after the failure caused by the withdrawal 
of the financial suppor*: heretofore mentioned, he started 
again at Neuhof, using his wife's money. He opened an 
"industrial school for the poor," which Kriisi calls "the 
first school of its kind ever conceived, and the mother of 
hundreds now existing on both sides of the Atlantic." 
This was in 1775. He gathered fifty children together, 




and fed, clothed, housed, and taught them without com- 
pensation ; in return for this they were to work in the 
fields in summer and at spinning in the winter. But this 
experiment also was doomed to bring disappointment. The 
children were lazy, shiftless, and dishonest; their work 
was of little use to Pestalozzi, because of their lack of 
skill and their bad habits. They would often run away as 
soon as they were well fed and had a new suit of clothes. 
Parents were unappreciative and dissatisfied, demanding 
pay for the labor of their children. Was there ever a 
more discouraging situation than this which Pestalozzi had 
to confront, when people demanded pay for accepting the 
philanthropic and unselfish measures taken for the good 
of their children and for their own elevation 1 

This could not continue long, and in 1 780 Pestalozzi was 
obliged to close his school. He found himself badly in 
debt, with his wife's property gone. But even under these 
overwhelming misfortunes he says, " My failure showed 
me the truth of my plans," and this has long since been 
verified, both in his ideas of farming and in the industrial 

Authorship. — The next eighteen years, though passed 
by Pestalozzi in extreme poverty, were not unfruitful. He 
began to write pamphlets and books, the first book being, 
"The Evening Hours of a Hermit," which appeared in 
1780. His second book, " Leonard and Gertrude," ^ was 
published the year following. It created great interest 
and brought Pestalozzi immediate fame. The government 
of Berne presented him a gold medal, which, however, he 
was obliged to sell to procure the necessities of life for his 
family. In " Leonard and Gertrude " Pestalozzi gives a 
homely and touching picture of life among the lowly, and 

1 " Schoolmaster in Literature," pp. 83-110. 





fi m 

shows how a good woman uses her opportunities for up- 
lifting and educating, first her own family, and then her 
neighbors. In this work she is aided by the village school- 
master and the magistrate, who are inspired by her example 
and leadership. Pcstalozzi wrote several other books dur- 
ing this period, but none to equal " Leonard and Gertrude." 
Stanz. — In the meantime, the French Revolution broke 
out, and Pestalozzi, influenced by the writings of Rousseau, 
became an ardent champion of the new order of things. 
^Hje-^eems to have acquired considerable political influence, 
^■^fy^sis the Directors of the Government of Switzerland thought 
y-^' it necessary to win him to their cause by giving him a 
political office. They therefore asked him what office he 
wanted, and he replied, "I want to be a schoolmaster.' 
Accordingly, when the French had pillaged the inhabitants 
and burned their homes, ostalozzi was sent to Stanz, — 
the only village left in the canton of Nidwalden, — to estab- 
lish a school.^ Now for the first time he found himself in 
the calling for which his whole nature had yearned, for 
which he was peculiarly suited, and in which he was 
destined to become famous. 

At the age of fifty-three Pestalozzi began his work at 
Stanz. The government gave him an empty convent in 
which to hold his school, and, before it was ready for 
occupancy, children flocked to it for admission. The 
devastation of the land by the French and the consequent 
lack of the necessities of life among the people increased 
the difficulties of Pestalozzi's task. His own description 
of the beginning of his work is full of eloquence. Speak- 
ing of the school, he says, " I was among them from morn- 
ing till evening. Everything tending to benefit body and 
soul I administered with my own hand. Every assistance, 
1 See Kriisi, p. 28, for an account of his appointment. 


■^"''"■•■"fl lll I I ' 





every lesson they received, came from mc. My hiind was 
joined to theirs, and my smile accompanied theirs. They 
seemed out of the world and away from Stanz ; they were 
with me and I with them. We shared food and drink. I 
had no household, no friends, no servants around me; I 
had only them. Was their health good, i enjo) ed it with 
them ; were they sick, 1 stood at their side. I slept in 
their midst. I was the last to go to bed and the first to 
rise. I prayed with them, and taught them in bed till they 
fell asleep." How true is the .saying that, " He lived with 
beggars in order that beggars might learn to live like 

Thus living with them, teachmg them, inspiring them to 
be good, devoting his whole thought to their welfare, Pes- 
talozzi, who was described as "either a good-natured fool, 
or a poor devil, who was compelled, by indigence, to per- 
form the menial office of schoolmaster," began a work 
Ihat has revolutionized educational method. 

But the same discouragements that had met him at 
Neuhof attended him at Stanz. Parents brought their 
children to the asylum only to be clothed, and then re- 
moved them upon the slightest pretexts. Nevertheless, 
the work of Pestalozzi at Stanz was not a failure, though 
the school was rendered houseless by the French soldiers 
in 1799, and had to be abandoned after less than five 
months' existence. Kriisi comments upon this period of 
Pestalozzi's life as follows : " Let those who now witness 
the mighty changes that have taken place in education pay 
grateful tribute to the man who first took up arms against 
the hollow systems of the old school routine, and who 
showed the path to those delightful regions of thought, 
in whose well-tilled soil rich harvests will ever be reaped 
by the patient laborer. 



.viji •* Vi 






"To the philanthropist and friend of education, Stanz 
will always be a hallowed spot, exhibiting, as it does, the 
picture of this venerable teacher sitting among the out- 
cast children, animated by the very spirit of Christ, and 
by a great idea which not only filled his own soul, but also 
inspired those who witnessed his labors. " ^ 

Burgdorf. — Ikit Stanz proved the turning point in Pes- 
talozzi's career. He was soon chosen assistant teacher 
at Burgdorf. His experience at Stanz, without books and 
without appliances, had compelled him to invent methods 
of interesting the children. He was thus brought to the 
use of objects, and here we have the beginning of practi- 
cal object teaching. It was not long, however, before the 
head master of the school became jealous of him because 
he secured the attention and affection of the pupils, and 
Pestalozzi's dismissal was obtained on the ground that he 
did not know how to read and spell correctly, a charge 
which, as we have seen, was without doubt true. As to 
his method of teaching, Ramsauer, one of his pupils, tells 
us that "there was no regular plan, not any time-table. 
... As Pestalozzi,' in his zeal, did not tie himself to any 
particular time, we generally went on until eleven o'clock 
with whatever we commenced at eight, and by ten o'clock 
he was always tired and hoarse. We knew when it was 
eleven by the noise of the other school children in the 
street, and then we usually all ran out without bidding 
good-by." Certainly no one will commend such school- 
room practice, and at first glance Pestalozzi would seem 
to merit only censure ; but his enthusiasm, his zeal for the 
good of his fellow-beings, and his consciousness of possess- 
ing the truth triumphed over his lack of system as well 
as over other obstacles. The school committee of Burg- 

1 " Pestalozzi," p. 36. 







dorf apprcciiitod this, as is shown by their report. "He 
(Pestalozzi) has shown what powers are hidden in the 
feeble child, and in what manner they can be developed. 
The pupils have made astonishing pr()<;ress in some 
branches, thereby proving that every child is capable of 
doing something if the teacher is able to draw out his 
talent, and awaken the powers of his mind in the order 
of their natural development." [♦^v^^*-.'^ ' 

Upon his dismissal from this position he united witnvvi^^^^ 
Hermann Krlisi in founding a private school. Pupils 
increased in numbers, and at 1 ast Pestalozz i was on the 
road to success as well as fame. He gathered a strong 
corps of teachers about him, who not only contributed to 
the success of the institution, but sat at the feet of their 
recognized master, and loyally supported his measures. 
During his life at Burgdorf, he issued his work entitled 
" How Gertrude teaches her Children " (1801), in which he 
attempts to give his system of education. " A work," says 
Professor Hunziker,^ " whose contents in no way meet the 
demands of the subtitle." (The full title is, " How Gertrude 
teaches her Children ; an Attempt to direct Mothers how 
to teach their own Children.") 

Yverdon. — In 1804 Pestalozzi was obliged to vacate his 
quarters at Burgdorf, and after some hesitation he moved « 
his school to Yverdon, into an old fortress, " which," says 
Kriisi, '* having stood many a siege of invading armies, 
was now captured by a schoolmaster; and it was hence- 
forth to become more formidable in its attack upon igno- 
rance, than it had before been in its defense of liberty." 
At Yverdon Pestalozzi was enabled to carry out the prin- 
ciples of education which he had so long held, and this 
place must be recognized as the Mecca of Pestalozzianism. 

1 '• Encyklopadisches Handbuch der Padagogik," Vol. V, p. 315. 




\ >: 

< V- 


His success at Burgdorf had drawn to him the attention 
of the world, and now educators, philosophers, and 
princes began to study his theories, while many visited the 
institution to witness its peculiar workings. Without 
doubt the many visitors seriously disturbed the work, as 
Pestalozzi took great pains to show what his pupils could 
do, especially when men of influence came. During the 
first five years there was great prosperity, the number 
of students reaching one hundred and fifty. Pestalozzi 
usually arose at two in the morning, and commenced liter- 
ary work ; and his example was followed by his teachers, 
one of whom testifies, " There were years in which not 
one of us was found in bed after three o'clock, and sum- 
mer and winter we worked from three to six in the 
morning." ^ 

At first the teachers were thoroughly united, cordially 
carrying out the teachings of " Father Pestalozzi." But 
after a time private ambitions and personal jealousies crept 
in and destroyed harmony. Many of the best teachers 
left and the school was closed.^ In 1825, after an exist- 
ence of twenty years, the institute at Yverdon was aban- 
doned, and once more Pestalozzi saw the apparent failure 
of his hopes. He died two years later, at the age of 

Mr. Quick comments upon this event as follows: "Thus 
the sun went down in clouds, and the old man, when he 
died at the age of eighty,^ in 1829,* had seen the apparent 
failure of all his toils. He had not, however, failed in 

1 " Encyklopjidisches Handbuch," Vol. V, p. 319. 

2 Kriisi, whose father was associated with Pestalozzi, gives a full account of 
these dissensions. He also tells many interesting incidents connected with 
Pestalozzi and his school at Yverdon, p. 45. 

* Should be eighty-one. '* 1827. 

— T-w^ »-wiTf»"y " 



reality. It has been said of him that his true function was 
to educate ideas, not children, and when twenty years 
later the centenary of his birth was celebrated by school- 
masters, not only in his native country, but throughout 
Germany, it was found that Pcstalozzian ideas had been 
sown, and were bearing fruit, over the greater part of 
central Europe."^ 

Professor Hunzlker says of Pestalozzi's influence, 
" Eighty years hav^ passed since Pestalozzi was laid in 
the grave. The social thinker, who pointed out the way of 
reform for humanity in his * Leonard and Gertrude,' who 
attempted to solve the enigmas and inequalities of social 
life in his ' Inquiries concerning the Course of Nature in 
the Development of Mankind,' is almost forgotten. Brt 
the name of Pestalozzi shines brighter than ever in the 
field of pedagogics. In every branch of education we hear 
the warning cry, return to Pestalozzi ! Let the watchword 
for the future be : Pestalozzi fonvcr ! '"^ 

Summary of Pestalozzi's Work. — No one can study the 
history of Pestalozzi without discovering the secret of his 
educational purpose. It is revealed in every enterprise he 
undertook, in every book he wrote, in his whole Hfework.^ 
Le*" us briefly sum up the work he accomplished : — 

1. He showed how the theories of Comenius and Rous- 
seau could be applied. By this a decided impulse was 
given to educational reform, and the way was prepared for 
the wonderful educational revival of the present century. 

2. His greatest pedagogical principle is that education 
consists in the harmonious development of ail the human 

1 "Educational Reformers," p. 183. 

'^ " Encyklopiidisches Handbuch," Vol. V, p. 320. 

* " In him the most interesting thing is his life." — QuiCK. i 



, f 


3. Development should follow the order of nature. 
While he doubtless borrowed this thought from Rousseau, 
unlike Rousseau he held that the order of nature requires 
the child to be taught with other children. 

4. All knowledge is obtained through the senses by the 
self-activity of the child. 

5. Instruction should be based on observation, espe- 
cially with voung children. Hence objects must be freely 
used. There are three classes of object lessons, — those 
applying to fonn, to number, and to speech. Mr. Quick 
says, "By his object lessons Pestalozzi aimed at, — (i) 
enlarging gradually the sphere of the child's intuition, that 
is, increasing the number of objects falling under his imme- 
diate perception ; (2) impressing upon him those percep- 
tions of which he had become conscious, with certainty, 
clearness, and precision ; (3) imparting to him a compre- 
hensive knowledge of language for the expression of 
whatever had become or was becoming an object of his 
consciousness, in consequence either of the spontaneous 
impulse of his own nature, or of the assistance 01 tuition." 

6. The mother is the natural educator of the child in its 
early years. *' Maternal love is the first agent in educa- 
tion ; . . . through it the child is led to love and trust his 
Creator and his Redeemer." It follows, therefore, that 
mothers should be educated. 

7. He illustrated his principles in his methods of in- 
struction. He employed the phonic method in spelling ; ^ 
made use of objects in teaching number ; graded the work 
according to the capacity of the children ; taught drawing, 
language, composition, etc., by use, thus illustrating one 
of the aphorisms of Comenius, — '* We learn to do by 
doing r 

1 Not original with Pestalozzi, — see Port Royalists. 

b -K 



8. But the greatest lesson that Pestalozzi taught is 
embodied in the word lo%^e. He loved little children, he 
loved the distressed and lowly, he loved aM his fellow-men. 
By the spirit which actuated him, by the methods of 
instruction employed, by a life of disappointment and 
apparent failure, by the appreciation of his service after 
he had gone to his rest, by the accelerated growth of his 
teachings throughout the world, he more closely resem- 
bles the, Great Teacher than any other man that has ever 
lived. Dr. Harris says, " He is the first teacher to an- 
nounce convincingly the doctrine that all people should 
be educated, — that, in fact, education is the one good gift 
to give to all, whether rich or poor." ^ Hence there is no 
character in educational history more worthy of study and 
more inspiring to the teacher than Johann Hcinrich 

1 For statement of his principles, see Compayre, p. 438 ; Williams, p. 312 ; 
Krusi, p. 169. 


FROEBEL (1 782- 1 85 2) 

Literature. — Lange, Collected Writings of F. Froebeh Kriege, 
Friedrich Froebel ; IJowen, Froebel and Education by Self-activity ; 
Herford, The Student's Froebel ; Froebel, Education of Man ; Quick, 
Educational Reformers; ^l/z/wr^^, Educationalldeal; IVilliams, WhXory 
of Modern Education; MarenJiolts-IVnlow, Reminiscences of F. Froebel; 
Rein, Encyklopadisches Handbuch der Padagogik. 



' •% 

Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel was born at 
Oberweisbach, a village in the beautiful Thiiringian Forest 
of Germany. The first ten years of his life were spent 
at home under the instruction of his father, who was a 
Lutheran clergyman and had six villages under his pas- 
torate. The many cares of his office prevented the pastor 
from giving his son much attention, and as the stepmother 
neither understood the boy, nor took much interest in him, 
he spent most of his time in the woods, with birds and 
flowers as his companions, and received far less rudimen- 
tary training than most boys of his age. But at the age of 
ten an important change took place in his life. He went 
to live with his mother's brother, who sent him to school 
for four years. Here he was taught the elementary 
branches and a little Latin. He tells us of the pro- 
found impression made upon him the first day of school 
by the text of Scripture that the children repeated. It 
was, "Seek ye first the kingdom q1 God.' iia says, 




"The verse made an impression on me like nothing 
before or since. Indeed, this impression was so lively 
and deep, that to-day every word lives fresh in my mem- 
ory with the peculiar accent with which it was spoken ; 
and yet since that time nearly forty years have elapsed." 
His progress in the school does not seem to have been 
very great. 

At fourteen he returned to his father's home, and soon 
thereafter was apprenticed to a forester. Here he was 
entirely in his element, and he tells of four aspects of this 
life : " The homelier and more practical life ; the life spent 
with nature, especially forest nature ; the life of study, 
devoted to mathematics and languages, for which he foimd 
a good supply of books ready to hand ; and the time spent 
in gaining a knowledge of plants, in which he was much 
helped by books on botany lent him by a neighboring doc- 
tor." ^ But he obtained little help from the forester, so at 
the end of three years Froebel withdrew, and soon there- 
after entered the university of Jena. He seems to have 
studied hard during the year and a half he spent at Jena, 
but to have accomplished little. He became involved in 
debt, and was imprisoned for nine weeks in the university 
"Career."^ After his liberation, he left tlie university. 

As Teacher. — Meeting with little success in various 
enterprises in which he engaged, he at last drifted to 
Frankfurt-am- Main, where he made the acquaintance of 
Dr. Gruner, head master of the Model School. Dr Gruner 
quickly discovered Froebel's talent, and urged him to 
ac -ept a position under him as teacher. Froebel reluc- 
tantly consented, but in speaking later of his first cxperi- 

1 Bowen, "Froebel," p. ii. 

3 For a part of this debt Froebel's brother, also a student, was resp(jnsible. 
The amount of the debt was less than twenty-five dollars. 
HIST. OF ED. — 18 




it I 

a ! 

ence in the schoolroom, he says, " It seemed as if I had 
found something I had never known, nit always longed 
for, always missed ; as if my life had at last discovered its 
native element. I felt as happy as the fish in the water, 
the bird in the air." 

Although Froebel succeeded at once in his new profes- 
sion, thereby justifying Dr. Gruner's opinion of him, he 
felt that he needed special preparation for the work of 
teaching. Accordingly, in 1808, after two years' experi- 
ence in teaching, having in the meantime visited Pestalozzi 
at Yverdon, and having read his works, he gave up his 
position and joined the institute at Yverdon. 

He took with him three of his pupils to tutor, and "it 
thus happened," he tells us, " that I was there both as 
teacher and scholar, educator and pupil." Froebel spent 
two years at Yverdon, and his testimony concerning Pesta- 
lozzi is interesting. He says, *' He set one's soul on fire 
for a higher and nobler life, though he had not made clear 
or sure the exact road toward it, nor indicated the means 
whereby to attain it." This sums up in a word the secret 
and extent of Pestalozzi's power. Dittes thinks that **the 
origin of the kindergarten is due to the pedagogical revival 
of Pestalozzi." Froebel himself, speaking of his experi- 
ence at Yverdon, says, "■ I studied the boys' play, the 
whole series of games in the open air, and learned to 
recognize their mighty power to awaken and to strengthen 
the intelligence and the soul as well as the body." Here 
we find the first suggestion of the kindergarten, which has 
made Froebel famous. 

After leaving Yverdon, Froebel spent about two years 
at the universities of Gottingen and Berlin in furthering 
his preparation for educational reform, to which he had 
devoted himself. In 181 3 war for German liberty broke 

!HpiHBr'"!^,i.-.l»«iB.^jll' u Illi.W* 



out, and Froebel, with many other students, enUsted. It 
is not the purpose here to follow his fortunes as a soldier, 
but while in the army he made the acquaintance of two 
young men who afterward became associated with him in 
educational enterprise, — Wilhelm Middendorff and Hein- 
rich Langethal. 

His First School. — In 18 16 Froebel opened his first 
school at Griesheim, under the high-sounding title of " Uni- 
versal German Educational Institute." At first he had his 
five nephews as his only pupils. Soon after, the school 
was removed to Keilhau, near Rudolstadt, in the Thiirin- 
gian Forest. Here he was joined by his old friends Mid- 
dendorff and Langethal. This institution continued for a 
number of years with some success, until 1833, when 
Froebel removed to Burgdorf, Switzerland. The Prussian 
government, far from giving encouragement to the insti- 
tution at Keilhau, had regarded it with suspicion. A 
commission was sent by the government to examine the 
institution, and although the report was highly complimen- 
tary to Froebel's work,^ the persecution did not cease. In 
1 85 1 the government prohibited kindergartens, as forming 
" a part of the Froebelian socialistic system, the aim of 
which is to teach children atheism " ; and this decree was 
in force till i860! 

Indeed, to this day, Prussia does not regard the kinder- 
garten as an educational i- stitution, nor does she give aid 
to it as such. The kindergarten is officially recognized as a 
sort of day nursery, its teachers are not licensed, — hence 
have no official standing, — and '*^?verything that pertains to 
the work of the elementary sch^Kjls, every specific prepara- 

1 The sole recommendation of the commission that might be interpreted as 
a criticism was that the ^oys should have their hair cut ! See Bowen's" Froe- 
bel," p. 26, for the full report of the visiting commission. 




tion for the work of the latter, must be strictly excluded, 
and these schools can in no way be allowed to take the 
character of institutions of learning. Especially can nei- 
ther reading nor arithmetic be allowed a place in them." ^ 

But Froebel received more encouragement in Switzer- 
land. He admitted children from four to six years of age, 
and organized a teachers' class to study his theories. Al- 
though Froebel did not remain long in Switzerland, that 
land proved congenial to his ideas, and the kindergarten has 
flourished there from his time to the present. Great credit is 
due to this country, which extended its hospitality to the 
two great educational modern reformers, Pestalozzi and 
Froebel ! 

The Kindergarten. — Mr. Herford says of Froebel's insti- 
tution at Burgdorf, that, " Here we recognize the rise of the 
kindergarten, not yet so named." ^ The name came to 
Froebel a few years later as an inspiration. He had re- 
turned to Keilhau and opened a school in the nelgliboiing 
town of Blankenburg. For a long time he had been pon- 
dering over a suitable name for the new institution. 
"While taking a walk one day with Middendorff and Barof 
to Blankenburg over the Steiger Pass, Froebel kept re- 
peating, * Oh, if I could only think of a good name for my 
youngest born ! ' Blankenburg lay at our feet, and he 
walked moodily toward it. Suddenly he stood still as if 
riveted to the spot, and his eyes grew wonderfully bright. 
Then he shouted to the mountain so that it echoed to the 
four winds, ' Eureka ! Kindej'garten shall the institute be 
called ! ' " 

But, like Pestalozzi, Froebel was wholly incapable of 
financial management, and the institution at Blankendorf 

1 Rescript from the Prussian Minister of Education, April 7, 1884. 

2 " The Student's Froebel," XV. 




had to be closed. He devoted the remainder of his Hfe to 
lecturing upon his theories in different parts of Germany. 
He appealed to mothers, and endeavored to instruct them 
in the duty of training young children. He taught that 
the mother is the natural teacher of the child, and that it 
is her duty to fit herself for the sacred responsibility that 
God has placed upon her. His greatest disciple among 
women was Baroness Bertha von Marenholtz-Bulow, who 
materially helped him while he lived, and, since his death, 
has published one of the best accounts of his life and work.^ 
The ** Education of Man.'* — Froebel gives his philosophy 
of education in his ** Education of Man," but his most popu- 
lar work is " Songs for Mothe*" and Nursery." His greatest 
contribution to the work of educational reform is the kin- 
dergarten, an institution that has been ingrafted upon the 
school systems of many lands, and that is destined to be- 
come ever increasingly potent for good. In no country 
in the world has the kindergarten taken so strong a 
hold and made so great progress as in America. The 
purpose of the kindergarten, according to Froebel him- 
flelf, is, "to lake the oversight of children before they are 
ready for school life ; to exelt illi Jnnuence over their whole 
being hi correspondence with (ts (latuie ; to strengthen 
their bodily powers ; to exercise their senses ; to employ 
the awakening mind; to make them thoughtfidly ac- 
quainted with the world of nature and of man ; to guide 
their heart and soul in the right direction, and to lead 
them to the Origin of all life, and to unison with Him." 
If conducted in the spirit of its originator, how is it pos- 
sible for such an institution as the kindergarten to find 
enemies anywhere among true educators ? 

i"Handbuch der Fioebelischen Erziehungslehre," "Reminiscences of 
Friedrich Froebel, Child and Child-nature." 



11. : 


4mi^ i 


1W(r- - 



ill ; 



* IT- 










HERliART (1776-1841) 

Literature. — De Garmo, Herbart and the Herbartians ; FelkitJ, Intro- 
duction to Herbart ; Van Lieu\ Life of Herbart and Development of 
his Pedagogical Doctrines; Yearbooks of the Herbart Society; Lange, 
Apperception ; Reiv, Outlines of Pedagogics ; also, Encyklopadisches 
Handbuch derPiidagogik; Wilbnann^ Herbart'spadagogischeSchriften. 


It is probable that no system of pedagogy is attract- 
ing so much attention and a^"akening so much interest 
at the present time as that c. Herbart. Professor Rein 
says, ** He who nowadays will aspire to the highest ped- 
agogical knowk'dgc, cannot neglect to make a thorough 
study of Herbar's pedagogy." Johann Friedrich Herbart 
was born at Oldenburg, May 4, 1776. His grandfather 
was rector of the Gynuiasium at Oldenburg for thirty- 
four years; his father was a high official under the govern- 
ment ; but his mother seems to have wielded the most 
influence over him. She watched over his studies with 
greatest care, and, indeed, studied Greek herself to spur 
him on. Though gentle and mild, she was firm in disci- 
pline. The father was satisfied to leave 'the direction of the 
education of his son to her. There was, however, little 
sympathy between the father and mother, and there were 
frequent family dissensions, that must have had a bad in- 
fluence on the lad. These disagreements finally led to a 
separation. A tutor employed for Herbart at this period 





develofied in him a speculative tendency and taught him 
the power of forcible expression. Ilerbart learned to 
play on several musical instruments, and at the age of 
eleven displayed considerable talent as a pianist. 

When twelve years of age he entered the Gymna- 
siutn at Oldenburg, and six years later completed the 
course. Pie entered the university of Jena ii\ 1794 and 
became a student of Fichte, who was sure to inspire a young 
man of Herbart's philosophical bent. His attention seems 
to have been dire( ted to educational questions, though he 
had not yet decided to be a teacher.^ 

As Teacher. — After thi e years at Jena, Herbart be- 
came tutor (Hauslehrer) in the family of Herr von Steigcr, 
governor of Interlaken. This his only experience in 
teaching children. ** Herbart's experience as a teacher," 
says De Garmo, " would seem too small a thing to mention 
— some two or three years in a private family in Switzerland 
with three children aged respectively eight, twelve, and 
fourteen. Yet to a man who can see an oak tree in an 
acorn, who can understand all minds from the study of 
a few, such an experience may be most fruitful." It is 
certain that Herbart often drew upon this experience in 
his later writings. While in Switzerland he visited Pesta- 
lozzi, with whom he was deeply impressed. Opinions 
differ as to the harmony of theory between Pestalozzi and 
Herbart. Professor Rein thinks that, " In the ideas of 
Pestalozzi are found the outlines of Herbart's pedagogical 


Having decided to devote himself to academic teaching, 
he gave up his position in Switzerland and went to 
Bremen for further study. During the two years spent 

1 Professor Rein indicates that Herbart discussed educational questions at 
this period. See " Encyklopadisches Handbuch," Vol. Ill, p. 468. 





Sf l£o 12.0 







WnSTIR,N.Y. 145M 


•:)-:.!■:. • -t. 

^Z^'^i^■ ^- »*■ 

.; ■•S/j 







% ■■! 


there, he wrote several essays on educational subjects, but 
gave his chief attention to the study of Greek and mathe- 

As Professor. — In 1802 he took the first step in his 
academic career as Privat Docent at the university of 
Gottingen. This with him was a period of great literary 
activity.^ In 1809, he was called to the chair of philosophy 
at Konigsberg once occupied by Kant. He calls this 
" the most renowned chair of philosophy, the place which 
when a boy I longed for in reverential dreams, as I 
studied the works of the sage of Konigsberg." ^ 

His Practice School. — Here he established a pedagogi- 
cal seminary, having a practice school in which the 
students instructed children under the criticism of Herbart 
himself. Concerning his pedagogical activity at Konigs- 
berg, Herbart says, ** Among my many duties, the consider- 
ation of educational questions is of especial interest to me. 
But it is not enough to theorize merely ; there must be 
experiment and practice. Furthermore, I desire to extend 
the range of my own experience (already covering ten 
years) in this field. Therefore, I have long had in mind 
to teach daily for one hour a few selected boys In the 
presence of such of my students as are familiar with my 
pedagogical theory. After a little, these students are to 
take up the work I have begun, and give instruction und'er 
my observation. In time, in this way, teachers would be 
trained, whose method by means of reciprocal observation 
and discussion must be perfected. As a plan of teaching 
is valueless without a teacher, and indeed a teacher that is 
in sympathy with that plan, and is master of the method, — 

* For list of works produced, see De Garmo's " Herbart and the Herbar- 
tians," p. 17. 

'^ Felkin's translation of " Science of Education," p. i6. 

'il 1: 



SO perhaps a small experimental school, such as I have 
in mind, would prepare the way for future greater under- 
takings. There is a word from Kant, * first exj erimentai 
schools and then normal schools ! ' " i 

This was the first practice school in connection with the 
chair of pedagogy in a university ; the idea, however, does 
not seem to have taken very deep root, as, with the excep- 
tion of the celebrated practice school at Jena, under Pro- 
fessor Rein, there is not one now in Germany. Most pro- 
fessors of pedagogy conduct a Seminar, in which some 
practice work with children is done, but none of them 
maintain a practice school. 

Literary Activity. — Herbart's literary activity at Konigs- 
berg was great. He worked out his psychological system, 
and wrote also on philosophy, history, and pedagogy. 
But his greatest works in the latter field are his "A B C 
der Anschauung,*' 2 and his "Allgemeinc Padagogik,"^ 
both of which appeared while he was still at Gottingen.* 
In 1833, after twenty-four years in Konigsberg, he returned 
to Gottingen, where his lifework was completed in 184T. 
Upon his retirement from Konigsberg, the practice school 
was closed. Ten years later, a pupil of Herbart, Karl 
Volkmar Stoy, established the practice school at Jena, of 
which mention has already been made. Two schools of 
Herbartians exist in Germany, the Stoy school, which 
attempts to follow Herbart very closely, andv the Ziller 
school, which is freer in its interpretation of him. The 
chief exponent of the latter is Professor Wilhelm Rein of 

1 Willmann's « Herbart," Vol. II, p. 3. 

2 « The A B C of Observation." 

• " General Pedagogy." 

* The best collection of his works is that by Willmann, " Herbart's Pada- 
gogische Schriften," which has not been translated into English. 



Jena, the place which is at present the center of Herba-tian 
activity. In America this movement is under the direction 
of the National Hcrbart Society. 

His Pedagogical Work. — Aside f i om the educational 
movements organized by Herbart and his followers, the 
credit is due to him of being the first to elevate pedagogy 
to the dignity of a science. Professor Rein says, " Her- 
bart has rendered an undisputed service in that he 'has 
elevated pedagogics to the rank of a science. No one has 
ever repented of having become familiar with Herbart's 
teachings, for, in any case, he has thereby added richly to 
his own attainments. The development of our people will 
be fortunate if the education of the youth shall be intrusted 
more and more to those who stand and work upon the lines 
laid down by Comenius, Pestalozzi, Herbart. 

** The pedagogic thinking of Herbart has indeed borne 
rich fruit in Germany. Other peoples, also, have been 
blessed by his teachings. Thus Herbart, whose span of 
life did not reach to the middle of this century, lives in the 
present. He created the basis of a science of education, 
which furnishes a safe starting point for all pedagogical 
theories, and which bears in itself the most fruitful germs 
for future development." ^ 

Modern Herbartians have carried forward that devel- 
opment far beyond its original outline. The terms 
" many-sided interest," " apperception," " concentration," 
" culture-epochs," " the formal steps of instruction," " corre- 
lation," and "harmonious development," are phrases that 
have become common in educational literature. The limits 
of this volume do not permit a discussion of these subjects. 
Indeed, many of them belong more properly to the dis- 

^ " Encyklopfidisches Handbuch der Padagogik," Vol. Ill, p. 485. 


'n 'If "•'. 



ciples of Herbart, rather than to Herbart himself.^ Her- 
bart's ideal was that education should aim to produce well- 
rounded men, fit for all the duties of life ; men well devel- 
oped physically, intellectually, morally, and spiritually. He 
himself was not one-sided, being an enthusiastic teacher 
as well as psychologist and philosopher. 

1 For discussion of these subjects see the Yearbooks of the Herbartian 
Society, and other works referred to on page 278. For the completest list 
of references to Herbartian literature, see " Encyklopndisches Handbuch " 
Vol. Ill, p. 485. 



.l«^>|l^l>>PW| I 'I. V^Ji'J' 

ll ^i 

V. U 



HORACE MANN (1796- 1859) 

Literature. — Mrs. Mary T. Mann^ Life of Horace Mann ; Hinsdale^ 
Horace Mann ; Winship, Horace Mann, the Educator : Lang^ Horace 
Mann ; F. IV. Parker., Article in Educational Review, Vol. XII, p. 65 ; 
Wm. T. Harris., Educational Review, Vol. XII, p. 105 ; Martin., Educa- 
tion in Massachu^tts. 

Colonel Parker says, " It would be difficult to find a 
child ten years of age in our sixty-five millions who does 
not know of Abraham Lincoln or George Washington ; but 
the third, at least, in the list of the builders of the Ameri- 
can republic is not known to millions of intelligent peo^Je. 
Washington and Lincoln represent the highest types of 
heroism, patriotism, and wisdom in great crises of republic- 
building ; Horace Mann, the quiet inner building, the soul- 
development of the nation," ^ 

Horace Mann was born at Franklin, Massachusetts, 
May 4, 1796. Inured to the hard work of the farm, with 
but a few weeks' schooling in the winter, never blessed 
with very rugged health, left at the age of thirteen by the 
death of his father with the responsibilities of a man, it is no 
wonder that he " retained only painful recollections of the 
whole period which ought to be, with every child, a golden 
age to look back upon." ^ 

* Educational Review, Vol. XII, p. 65. 
2 Mrs. Mann, " Life of Horace Mann," p. 10 





When nearly twenty years of age, through the influence 
of Mr. Barrett, an eccentric teacher who came to the vil- 
lage, he decided to go to college, and in six months he 
prepared for the sophomore class of Brown University. 
This preparation was a tremendous undertaking which 
broke down his health for life. He now had an opportu- 
nity to satisfy the cravings for knowledge, which the 
hardships of his early life had not been able to stifle. 
He was graduated with the highest honors of his class 
and decided to study law. He spent two years at Brown 
University as tutor, meanwhile privately studying law, 
and then resigned that position to enter the law school at 
Litchfield, Connecticut. Two years later, at the age of 
twenty-seve'i, he was admitted to the bar. 

As Statesman. — He was called upon to serve his state 
in the legislature, and later as representative in Congress. 1 

The year 1837 marks a new epoch in the educational 
history of Massachusetts. " Although Massachusetts had 
had schools for nearly two centuries, the free school had 
been, to a great degree, a charity school the country over. 
. . . Horace Mann, liko Thomas Jefferson, saw clearly 
that there could be no evolution of a free people without 
intelligence and morality, and looked upon the common 
school as the fundamental means of development of men 
and women who could govern themselves. He saw clearly 
that the whole problem of the republic which was present- 
ing itself to intelligent educated men rested upon the idea* 
of public education." 2 

As Educator. — Accordingly, having secured the pas- 
sage of a law establishing a State Board of Education, 

1 Mr. Mann completed the term made vacant by the death of John Quincy 
Adams, and was reelected for the two succeeding terms. 

2 Colonel Parker in article cited. 

■^^ — JT'^T 





Mr. Mann was made its secretary at a salary of one thou- 
sand dollars a year. To accept this work, he gave up a 
lucrative law practice, fine prospects of political prefer- 
ment, and probable fortune, as well as professional fame. 
He entered upon an educational campaign full of discour- 
agement, colossal in its undertaking, and sure to arouse 
bitterest animosities. Of this period Colonel Parker says, 
" The story of his early struggles in this direction has not 
yet been written. When it is, it will reveal a profound 
depth of heroism rarely equaled in the histoiy of the 
world." Mr. Mann visited all parts of the state, lectur- 
ing to parents and stimulating the teachers. He was often 
received with coldness, sometimes with active hostility. 

His Annual Reports. — But he persevered until the 
whole state was awakened. He continued in this work 
for twelve years, and presented its results in his An- 
nual Reports, the most remarkable documents of Amer- 
ican educational Hterature.^ In the meantime, he visited 
Europe, studied the schools, and gave the results of his 
investigations in his celebrated Seventh Annual Report. 

Mr. Martin summarizes the work of Horace Mann dur- 
ing these twelve years as follows : "In the evolution of the 
Massachusetts public schools during these twelve years of 
Mr. Mann's labors, statistics tell us that the appropria- 
tions for public schools had doubled ; that more than two 
milhon dollars had been spent in providing better school- 
houses ; that the wages of men as teachers had increased 
sixty-two per cent, of women fifty-one per cent, while the 
whole number of women employed as teachers had in- 
creased fifty-four per cent ; one month had been added to 
the average length of the schools ; the ratio of private 

1 For an analysis of these Reports, see Dr. Harris's articl ■ in Educational 
I\cvi'.w, Vol. XII, p. 112. 

'r«s: ,c.ij.i.{_ii.i.'i; i^:4is\Va.^i£iitv>J'>«»^'ii^;i-;-:t',^'"^^<;'.:i;t:-*ii^U»^:t^^ 





school expenditures to those of the public schools had 
diminished from seventy-five percent to thirty-six per cent ; 
the compensation of school committees had been made 
compulsory, and their supervision was more general and 
more constant ; three normal schools had been established, 
and had sent out several hundred teachers, who were mak- 
ing themselves felt in all parts of the state." ^ 

Love for the Common Schools. — He believed most fully 
in the common school, declaring that, "This institution 
is the greatest discovery ever made by man. ... In two 
grand characteristic attributes, it is supereminent over all 
others : first in its universality, for it is capacious enough 
to receive and cherish in its parental bosom every child 
that comes into the world ; and second, in the timeliness of 
the aid it proffers, — its early, seasonable supplies of coun- 
sel and guidance making security antedate danger." 

In his first Annual Report Mr. Mann asserts that, "The 
object of the common school system is to give to every 
child a free, straight, solid pathway, by which he can 
walk directly up from the ignorance of an infant to a 
knowledge of the primary duties of man." Horace Mann 
could hardly have anticipated the kindergarten for the 
infant years, and the high school at the end of the course, 
as they now stand in the common school systems of our 
country. And yet, what has already been accomplished 
in our educational scheme fulfills the prophecy implied in 
his words. 

The best known and most important of Mr. Mann's 
written documents is his Seventh Annual Report, in which 
he gives an account of European schools. Concerning 
this Mr. Winship says, " He had made a crisis, and his 
Seventh Report was an immortal document ; opposition to 

^ "Euucation in Massachusetts," p. 174. 







the normal schools was never more to be heard in the 
land, and oral instruction, the word method, and less 
corporal punishment were certain to come to the Boston 
schools." ^ 

After severing his connection with the State Board of 
Education, Mr. Mann served in Congress from 1848 to 
1853, and was defeated in his candidacy for governor 
of Massachusetts. At the age of fifty-six he accepted the 
presidency of Antioch College at Yellow Springs, Ohio, a 
position which he held until his death in 1859. He closed 
his last address to the graduating class at Antioch with 
these noble words : " Be ashamed to die tintilyou have won 
some victory for humanity y He himself had won many 
great victories for humanity, — in the improvement of the 
common school systems of 'is native country ; in the es- 
tablishment of free schools ; in the founding of normal 
schools where teachers might be trained ; in the adoption 
of milder means of discipline ; in the improvement of 
schoolhouses ; in the better support of schools ; in better 
methods of instruction ; and in the inspiration he gave to 
teachers for all time. Therefore he at least had no need 
to be "ashamed to die." 

1 " Horace Mann," p. 76. 

V'*' -J-^i-I-^ ** 



Literature. — Parsons^ Prussian Schools through American Eyes ; 
Klemm, European Schools ; Prince^ Methods in the German Schools ; 
Seeleyy The German Common School System ; Russell^ German Higher 

We have traced the historical development of education 
to the present time. It now remains for us to examine 
briefly the educational systems of a few leading countries, 
in order that comparisons may be made, lessons drawn, 
and the present condition of education clearly set forth. ^ 

The plan of discussion to be followed in each of the 
four systems considered will embrace, i, Administration ; 
2, School Attendance ; 3, the Schools; 4, Support of Schools ; 
5, the Teachers, 

Administration. — Each German state is independent in 
its school system, though there are many features in com- 
mon, and there is a mutual understanding on most educa- 
tional questions between the various states, which makes 
their systems practically uniform. The system here de- 
scribed is that of Prussia, which, being the largest, most 

1 It will, of course, be impossible within the limitations of this work to give 
more than a mere outline of these systems. The reader will find full discus- 
sions in the works referred to in the Literature. Particular attention is called 
to the Report of the United States Commissioner of Education for 1896-1897, 
Vol. I, for recent data. 

HIST. OF ED. — 19 289 








■ I: 

1! li 


populous, and most influential of the states comprised 
within the German Empire, as well as the foremost in 
educational development, may well be taken as a type. 

There is a minister of education whose jurisdiction ex- 
tends over the whole kingdom. He represents the school 
interests in the imperial diet or Rciclistag, listens to appeals, 
distributes school moneys, and is the general educational 
executive officer. Each of the thirteen royal provinces has 
a school board whose presiding officer is ex officio the royal 
president of the province. With him are associated other 
royal counselors,, and pedagogically trained men, — school 
superintendents and principals. This board consists of 
men of highest integrity and intelligence. Their duties 
extend to the higher institutions of learning, and to 
institutions for the unfortunate ; they have charge of the 
school finances of their provinces, adopt the school books 
that are used in the higher schools, and appoint teachers in 
the normal schools. They report annually to the minister, 
and as much more frequently as he may require. 

The thirteen royal provinces are subdivided into the ^0- 
ci\\Qd. governments (^Regienmgcn), of which Prussia contains 
thirty-six. These governments have an administrative school 
board similar to that of the province, with duties within 
their territory corresponding to those of the provincial 
board. They come into close touch with the schools, have 
a voice in the appointment of teachers and in the selection 
of text-books for the elementary schools. Their work 
is especially with the common schools, while that of the 
provincial boards is with the higher schools. 

The governments are subdivided into districts. There 
is a district school board similar to that of the larger 
territories mentioned, but the chief and most important 
school officer of the district is the school inspector. The 

WM JW'l "7»w - 



district inspector is always a man of pedagogical training 
and experiente. He is appointed for life and devotes his 
whole time to the schools in his district. His efficient and 
wise inspection of the schools insures their success. The 
district school board erects school buildings, determines 
the amount of the teachers' salaries, oversees their pen- 
sions, enforces compulsory attendance laws, decides upon 
taxable property, fixes boundary lines, and provides for the 

Finally, there is the local school board for each separate 
school. These men have charge of the external matters 
of the school such as the direct enforcement of attendance, 
the repairs, supplies, etc. ; but they may not interfere with 
the teacher in his work. In the country villages they have 
a voice in the choice of the teacher. The teacher may 
appeal to them in matters that need immediate attention. 

In the administration of the schools men of the highest 
character are chosen without reference to their political 
leanings. There are usually teachers among the number, 
on the principle that those who have made the most care- 
ful study of education are the most competent to admin- 
ister it. 

School Attendance. — Every child in normal health is 
required to attend school between the ages of six and 
fourteen for every day that the school is in session. Par- 
ents are held responsible for the attendance of theij* chil- 
dren, and may be fined or imprisoned for non-fulfillment 
of the requirements of the law. In case parents are un- 
able to secure the attendance of their children, the Litter 
are placed in reform schools. The law is carried out with 
great strictness and wonderful efficiency. For example, 
in 1893, out of 5,299,310 children of school age in Prussia, 
there were only 945 unexcused absentees, — that is, 2 iu 




10,000. All parents expect their children to be in school 
every day, and the children grow up fully impressed with 
the idea that they are to attend school regularly. The chief 
reason for the efficiency of compulsory attendance in Ger- 
many lies in the fact that it covers every school day, and 
therefore does not allow the formation of habits of truancy. 

The Schools. — The common school (Volksschule) of 
Germany reaches every child, as we have seen. In vil- 
lages the sexes are aught together ; but in cities they are 
generally separated. The school hours are from eight to 
eleven in the forenoon, for six days in the week, and from 
two to four for four days in the week, Wednciday and 
Saturday afternoons being holidays. These hours may 
be varied to suit local conditions. The school is in session 
for about forty-two weeks each year. Each teacher is 
required to give about twenty-eight hours of service per 
week, while the pupils must attend from sixteen hours 
(for beginners) to twenty -eight The schools are not yet 
universally free, though many localities have made their 
schools free, and the tendency is strong in that direction. 
The common school is intended for the common people, 
and it is not followed by a high or secondary school. 
This is the greatest weakness of the German school 
system. It perpetuates the class system, and effectually 
prevents the child from rising above his station. 

The sole opportunity fo/ the child of the lowc classes 
to receive a higher education is through the normal school, 
and even this privilege is limited to a small number of the 
pupils who show special abilit}^ We may mention also the 
Continuation schools, which are held evenings and Sundays. 
Tiiey furnish an opportunity for the child who has com- 
pleted the common school to review his work, and als j to 
add some subjects that will be of utility in his life work. 

V' 'M^f'.'W.if'JlW^'f! 

I |^|f«I^ITy«l> iJJf^ flr«^»^^ "-m?' V-'T»^' '■ W.'^-il " . 'H 'Vr ■■ ■ ■» • T ■ 1 ■ ' -(WW, w, ■ 



In general, there are two classes of secondary schools,^ 
the Gymnasium, which prepares for any of the four fac- 
-.Ities of the university, — theology, medicine, law, and 
philosophy ; and the Realschule^ which prepares only for 
the last-named faculty, — philosophy. The Gymnasium '^ is 
very conservative, laying principal stress upon the classics, 
while the Realschule is more progressive, emphasizing 
modern languages and the sciences. Neither of these 
schools succeeds the common school, and the boy who is to 
pursue one of these courses of study must begin at not later 
than nine or ten years of age.^ Thus, if a professional life 
is chosen for a boy, he cannot attend the common school, 
— at least not for more than the first three or four years, — 
but must be sent to one of the two classes of schools above 
mentioned, for they alone prepare for the university, and 
without a university course he cannot enter a profession. 
The university is the crowning institution of the German 
school system. 

Support of Schools. — About one half of the expense of 
the schools is paid from the general state fund, one third 
from local taxation, and the balance comes from income 
from endowments, church funds, tuition, etc. The general 
tendency is to make the schools free, according to the rec- 
ommendation of the minister of education, but some com- 
munities still continue to charge tuition. In these cases, 
there are poor schools for those who cannot pay tuition, 
thus affording school privileges to all, but at the same time 
making a class distinction. 

^ In addition to the Gymnasia and the Realschulerif there are also the 
Progymnasia, the Realgymnasia, and the Prorealgymnasia, which, as their 
names indicate, are modified forms of the two principal types. 

2 See footnote on p. 236 for explanation of the work of these two schools. 

' Russell's " German Higher Schools " fully describes these institutions. 





The Teachers. — All teachers of the Prussian common 
schools are normal graduates, or have had an equal peda- 
gogic preparation.^ Graduates of the university seldom 
enter the common school work ; they teach in the secondar) 
schools, in private schools, and as tutors. The common 
school teachers generally come from the common schools. 
If a child shows special aptness for teaching, the attention 
of the school inspector is called to him, and, with consent of 
his parents, he is sent to a preparatory school for three 
years. His work there is entirely academic in character. 
At seventeen he enters the normal school and has another 
year of academic work, after which he begins his technical 
work. His normal course is three yearj, the last year 
being given almost entirely to professional work. Each 
class in the normal school contains from thirty to thirty- 
six students, Uius making the total number of students in a 
German normal school about one hundred. As only about 
thirty can enter from the whole district, it will appear that 
the opportunities for children to extend the common school 
course are very limited. 

After completing the normal course, the graduate is 
provisionally appointed to a position for three years. He 
is now under the oversight of his former principal, as well 
as of the district inspector. If he proves successful in 
teaching, he is required to pass a final examination, chiefly 
on pedagogical questions, and then has a life tenure, and 
can be removed only on the ground of inefficiency or im- 
morality. The average tenure of office with teachers is 

^ In 1893 there were only 241 teachers out of 71,731 in Prussia, who were 
outside of the above requirement. These 241 were old teachers who began 
before the \ iW was so strict, and who, because of their efficiency, are retained. 
In a few years this band will entirely disappear, and all will be normal 



twenty-five years. The salary is often very low, but with 
free rent, fuel, a,id light, the schoolmaster's income is by 
no means inadequate. His salary increases with the years 
of service, and his prospective pension also increases year 
by year.^ 

The German schoolmaster is a state officer. He com- 
mands, by virtue of his position, the respect which his 
character, his self-sacrifice, his efiiciency, and the great 
work that he is doing deserve. "It is the schoolmaster 
that has won our battles," said Von Moltke ; and it is he 
that is preparing Germany for the arts of peace as well as 
those of war. 

The Prussian school system is the most efficient in the 
world, at least so far as the education of the masses is con- 
cerned. It has practically obliterated illiteracy in the king- 
dom, more than 99J per cent of the recruits received into 
the army in 1893 being able to read and write. Many 
countries have materially improved their school syvStems 
by adopting some of the lessons taught by Prussia. 

The three most important features of the German school 
system are : — 

1. Only professionally trained teachers can be employed. 

2. Such teachers are appointed *o permanent positions. 

3. The attendance of every child during the entire school 
year is compulsory. 

' For full statement of salaries and pensions, see "German Common School 
System," pp. 172, 195. Though the German teacher's salary is much smaller 
than that of the average American teacher, taking into account the greater 
purchasing power of money in Germany, the simple habits, and fewer demands 
upon the prrse. the German teacher is fully as well off as the American. 



Literature. — Parsons, French Schools through American Eyes; 
Richard, The School System of France ; Weigert, Die Volksschule in 
Frankreich ; Schroed.r, Das Volksschulwesen Frankreichs ; United 
States Commissioner's Reports. 

Administration, — France, like Germany, has a minister 
of education who sits in the cabinet of the president. The 
work of his office is divided into three departments, higher, 
secondary, and primary, and at the head of each there is a 
director. There are two advisory bodies in charge of edu- 
cation. One has general oversight of all the school inter- 
ests of France. The other is divided into three boards, 
appointed by the minister himself, for supervision of the 
three departments above mentioned. The general board 
consists of sixty members, fifteen appointed by the presi- 
dent of the republic, and the others appointed by the board 
itself whenever vacancies occur. This body meets once a 
year to hear reports, to pass upon the general school policy, 
and to legislate for the schools. Out of its membership is 
chosen an executive committee that meets once a week, 
and upon which devolves the chief management of educa- 
tional affairs. This committee is answerable to the general 
board, to which it renders an annual report. Men of the 
highest character and intelligence constitute this board. 

The whoie of France is divided into seventeen parts 
called academies. These divisions do not coincide with the 




political divisions, but are made merely for convenience in 
school administration. Each acad^mie has a school board 
to which is committed the general ovf^rsight of all edu- 
cational interests within its territory, and particularly the 
care of the higher schools. 

A narrower division is into d^partements. There are 
ninety of these in France and Algiers. Each is governed 
by an educational council which has charge of the elemen- 
tary schools. The principal officer of a d^partement is a 
school inspector, a trained educator who devotes all his 
time to the schools. In each d^partement there is a normal 
school for each sex, though in a few instances two <//- 
partemcnts combine to maintain one normal school. 

Ihe d^partement is subdivided into arrondissements. 
Each has an executive officer and a council in close 
touch with the schools. Lastly there are the cantons^ 
whose school board has direct control of each individual 

In this manner from the highest to the lowest division 
there are executive officers with well-defined duties — 
all working together in perfect harmony and with great 
efficiency. Trained teachers often sit in these councils 
as members and advisers. Thus the highest pedagog- 
ical training of the republic is utilized to obtain the 
best administration *of the school interests. 

School Attendance. — School attendance is compulsory 
upon children from six to thirteen years of age for every 
school day. As in Germany, the child is not compelled to 
attend the public school, but must receive instruction for 
the required time and in a manner approved by the State. 
It is the right of the child to be educated, and the State 
asserts its prerogative to secure that right to the child, what- 
ever be the attitude of the parent. But the manner of se- 

luau^i ■«< iiLimjpu iifmt^rr 



curing it is left to the parent if he chooses to exercise that 
privilege. Although France has had compulsory education 
only since 1882, the law is effective, and grows more so 
each year. In 1895, 91 per cent of all the children of 
school age attended school regularly. 

The Schools. — In the arrangement of her schools, 
and the perfect articulation between them from the mother 
school to the university, France has the most perfect 
system in the world. The mother schools {Jcoles mater- 
neiles) take children from two to six years of age and 
care for them from early morning till evening, thereby 
permitting parents to go out to service. They combine 
the idea of the day nursery and the kindergarten. 
These schools, in communes of 2000 or more, are sup- 
ported by the State, as are other schools. 

Instead of the mother school, sometimes the infant 
school {kole infantine) takes the child from four to 
seven and prepares him for the primary school. This 
school is more nearly like the kindergarten than the 
mother school. It is supported wholly by the State and 
is a part of the school system, its work being entirely 
in sympathy with that which follows. In this respect, 
France has taken a more advanced step than any other 

With the lower primary school (Jcole primaire ^limen- 
taire\ which covers the period of from six to thirteen years 
of age, begins compulsory education. The sexes are always 
taught separately except in villages of less than five hun- 
dred inhabitants. The pupils all dress in the same garb. 
The school is in session five days in the week, Thursdays 
being free. There is no religious instruction in the schools. 
A peculiar and very important factor is a book of regis- 
tration for each child, in which specimens of work in each 




subject are entered once a month for the whole school 
course. This book is kept at the school, and. furnishes an 
accurate indication of progress to parents or inspectors.^ 

Following the lower primary school is the higher pri- 
mary (Jcole primaire sup^rienre), which has two courses, one 
for pupils who wish to review their elementary work and 
add some subjects, with the view of better preparing for 
the ordinary walks of life ; and the high school course for 
those who wish to prepare for academic life. The former 
is indefinite in length ; the latter requires five years, thus 
being completed at the eighteenth year. Here appears 
another superiority over the German system, in which, it 
will be remembered, there is no connection between the 
common and the high school. 

These high schools prepare for the normal school and 
for the university. There are also many other kinds of 
schools under State support, — such as technical schools, 
apprentice schools, schools of mines, etc. In the advan- 
tages offered to young men for perfecting themselves in a 
trade or calling, France surpasses all other countries. 

Finally there are the State universities, fifteen in num- 
ber, the professors of which are appointed by the State. 
While the State pays all salaries, the maintenance of the 
buildings depends upon fees, endowments, and such local 
support as is obtainable. These institutions are open to 
students from the higher primary schools, thus making a 
complete system from the lowest school to the highest, and 
offering remarkable advantages to all. All degrees are 
given by the St^te, thereby securing perfect uniformity. 

Support of Schools. — All of the schools above men- 
tioned, from the mother school to the university, are free. 

* See Parsons, " French Schools through American Eyes," p. 82. 

''■o't'ii.k L .ttf^«r-isr«_ . 



Th'j expenses are distributed as follows : ( i ) The State 
pays the salaries of all teachers, administrators, and in- 
spectors, and all the expenses of the normal schools. Thus 
it will be seen that the bulk of the expense of education is 
borne by the State in general. (2) The d^partetncnts erect 
the normal school and furnish the apparatus and supplies 
for the same. (3) The communes pay for the needed sup- 
plies, for the janitor, and for other local necessities of the 
elementary schools. They may also tax themselves to 
increase the salaries of teachers beyond the State allow- 
ance. Each community thus has the power to decide 
whether it will be content with an average school, merely 
fulfilling the State requirements, or whether it will have a 
superior school taught by the best teachers obtainable. 

The Teachers. — There are two classes of normal schools 
in France, the elementary, of which there are eighty-seven 
for men and eighty-five for women, — practically one for 
each sex in each of the departments, — and the higher, 
of which there is one for men, one for women, and one 
for kindergartners. Nearly all teachers are graduates of 
normal schools, and as no candidates for positions are con- 
sidered unless they hold a normal certificate, in the near 
future all the teachers of France will be professionally 

Candidates for admission to the normal school must be 
at least sixteen years of age, of good moral character, and 
of fair abilities. They must pledge themselves to teach for 
not less than ten years. ^ The elementary course covers three 
years. After graduation, the young teacher is appointed 
provisionally until he has taken a final examination, which 
must be within ten years. If he has been successful in 

^ This is no hardship, as they fully expect to devote their lives to teaching. 



the schoolroom, as well as in this second examination, he 
becomes a permanent teacher, and can be removed only 
for immorality. 

The course in the advanced normal school takes three 
or more years, depending upon the preparation with 
which the candidate enters. Only those between eighteen 
and twenty-five can be admitted. These schools train 
principals, superintendents, inspectors, and teachers for 
the elementary normal schools. They are the model 
schools of France, and shape the educational practice of 
the republic. Graduates from the elementary normal 
schools are not debarred from entering the higher normal 
schools ; thus ambitious teachers are encouraged to pre- 
pare themselves for higher work. 

No other country in the world does so much as France 
to assist young teachers in their preparation. In all of 
the normal schools mentioned, tuition, board, room, and 
books are free. And when the young teacher has been 
graduated, the State recognizes its own work by giving 
him the preference in appointments. 

There are five classes of teachers in the elementary 
schools, the lowest being the fifth. The young graduate 
teacher begins in the lowest class and works his way up. 
The annual salaries for the different classes are indicated 
by the following table : — 

Classes of Teachers 


Fifth Class . 
Fourth Class 
Third Class 
Second Class 
First Class . 








Additional allowances are made in large schools, and 
the communes often supplement thf above amounts. 
The annual salaries of principals are as follows : — 



NoKMAL Schools 

Both Sexes 



Fifth Class 

Fourth Class 

Third Class 

Second Clacs 

First Class 









The assistants in these schools receive : — 



Normal Schools 

Both Sexes 



Fifth Class 

Fourth Class 

Third Class 

Second Class 

First Class 




In addition to these amounts there is also a small allow- 
ance for rent. 

After thirty-five years of service, the teacher may retire 
upon three fourths of his salary as a pension. 

Without doubt France has outstripped all other nations 
in educational progress during the last twenty-five years, — 
the period in which her school system has been constructed. 
The three great signs of advance in French education are 




the establishment of free schools (1881); compulsory educa- 
tion and t/ie secularization of the schools (1882); and the 
restriction of teachers to lay persons (1886).^ The strong 
features of the French school system may be stated as 
follows: — 

1 . Completeness and harmony of the system, covering the 
period from early childhood till the prescribed education is 

2. Thoroughly trained teachers. 

3. Tivo kinds of normal schools to meet the various 
educational requirements of teachers. 

4. Liberal support of schools of ali kinds. 

5. Admirable administration of the schools. 

^ Previous to this the members of religious orders could teach in the public 




Literature. — Sharpless^ English Education; Craikj Education and 
the State ; Barnard^ English Pedagogy ; Clark^ The State and Educa- 
tion ; Gtlly Systems of Education ; Balfour j Educational Systems of 
Great Britain and Ireland ; United States Commissioner's Report for 

Nearly a thousand years ago Alfred the Great encour- 
aged education of the higher classes to the exclusion of 
the masses — a principle that has governed education in 
England until within recent times. Statistics taken in 1845 
showed that only one in six of the inhabitants could read, 
one in four write, and one in fifty cipher as far as the Rule 
of Three. Since 1870 important changes have been made, 
the government has begun to give support to general 
education, and the number of children in the elementary 
schools of England has increased from 1,500,000 in 1870 
to 5,000,000 in 1895.^ 

" The principal features of the law of 1870 were (i) the 
obligation assumed by the government to secure school 
provision for all children of ages 5 to 14; (2) the recogni- 
tion or creation of local agencies (private or church 
managers or elected boards) for the execution of this pur- 
pose ; (3) provision for securing efficient instruction by 
means of an annual grant from the treasury to be distrib- 
uted to the local managers upon the results of examina- 
tion and inspection by government inspectors; (4) the 
creation of a central agency to carry out the provisions on 

^ The total enrollment in 1896 was 5,422,989. 





the part of the government and of new local agencies or 
school boards which every school district must elect except 
upon satisfactory evidence that schools efficient and ade 
quate to the needs of the district were otherwise provMed ; 
(5) the admission of private and public elementary schools 
to a share in the government grant upon the same condi- 
tions ; (6) the requirements Ihat board schools should be 
strictly non-sectarian and the children of private schools 
protected from enforced sectarian instruction by a con- 
science clause." ^ 

Administration. — Under the provisions of this law, the 
general educational interests are administered by a " Com- 
mittee of Council on Education," whose vice-president is at 
the head of the English school system. This committee 
distributes the funds and has general oversight of elemen- 
tary education. The most important factor of the system 
is the Royal Inspector, a trained educator placed over a 
limited district. He visits the schools and examines the 

The immediate care of the school is vested in a local 
board. In 1807, Joseph Lancaster, a Quaker, established 
what are now known as the "board schools," whose 
watchword was "religious but undenominational." These 
schools received no encouragement from the government, 
as they represented the dissenting element. Four years 
later, Andrew Bell, a Churchman, founded what were called 
the "national schools." ^ These two organizations rivaled 
each other in establishing schools over all England, but 
both failed to reach the masses. 

Since the law. of 1870, Parliament has not only made far 

1 Report of the United States Commissioner of Education for 1896-1897, 
Vol. I, p. 12. 

* Now called voluntary schools. 
HIST. OF ED. — 20 



more liberal grants for schools of both classes, but has 
extended the influence of the local boards. The established 
policy is to provide schools for all children. Where one 
organization already occupies the field its school is recog- 
nized by the government, and the other society cannot 
establish a school unless two are needed. Each local 
board continues to manage its own school, the State giv- 
ing financial aid and exercising supervision alike in both 

School Attendance. — The school age is from five to four- 
teen, and the local au^^horities are required to compel attend- 
ance for that period excepting in cases where the pupil 
has obtained the educational certificate of exemption, 
which cannot be given before the child is eleven years of 
age. Compulsory attendance is effective, the average at- 
tendance in 1896 reaching nearly 85 per cent of the en- 
rollment. England has stringent laws in regard to the 
employment of children in factories, mines, etc., which are 
well enforced. 

The Schools. — We have already mentioned the board 
and the voluntary schools which supply the principal means 
of elementary education. The voluntary schools are under 
the fostering care of the Church, and their enrollment in- 
cludes more than half of the children. Secondary educa- 
tion is carried on in private institutions. These are well 
endowed and are called "public schools." ^ Among the 
most noted may be mentioned Rugby, Eton, Harrow, 
Winchester, Westminster, and Shrewsbury. The univer- 

^ Important changes in English educational administration have recently 
been made (1899). The most vital change is the establishment of ", Board 
of Education for England and Wales. It marks a decided step forward, and 
goes into effect April i, 1900. See Educational Review^ Vol. XVIII, p. 414. 

2 It will be seen that the term " public school" has a meaning in England 
very different from that in America. 



sity has no part in the EngUsh system of pubUc education, 
nor is there any high school system following the elemen- 
tary schools. 

Support of Schools. — The expense of the elementary 
schools is met by parliamentary grants, by local taxes, by 
school pence, by endowments, and by private subscrip- 
tions. Parliamentary grants cover about 64 per cent of 
the total, local taxes about 20 per cent, and the remaining 
16 per cent is made up from the other three sources. 
The tendency is to increase the government grants and the 
local taxes, and to abolish school pence, thereby leading 
eventually to free schools. The government grant for 1 895 
was an increase of nearly two million pounds sterling over 
that of 1894, and that of 1896 was a still greater increase. 

The Teachers. — The training of teachers is as peculiar 
as the other features of the English system. Lancaster 
and Bell introduced the monitorial system, by which one 
teacher could take charge of a large school, the older 
pupils teaching the younger ones. This idea has been 
perpetuated in the "pupil teacher" scheme. Children 
thirteen or fourteen years old are apprenticed to a school 
to assist in the work, and in return receive instruction and 
a small stipend. At eighteen they enter the teachers' col- 
lege for a two years' course. They may instead at this 
time take an examination for the teachers' certificate, and 
if successful, they are known as " assistant teachers." 
That the " pupil teacher " idea has lost its force is shown 
by the following facts. From 1876 to 1893 the increase of 
graduate teachers was 114 per cent, the increase of "as- 
sistant teachers " 691 per cent, while there was a decrease 
of 15 per cent in the number of "pupil teachers." This 
would seem to indicate that England is demanding better 
prepared teachers. The 131 teachers' colleges graduate 

> i/f 


about 19CX) students each year, which is about two thirds 
of the number of teacher- needed. 

Teachers' positions are practically permanent, and the 
salaries are good, being an average of ;^6oo a year for 
men and ^385 for women. The foUowmg table shows the 
salaries in London for the year 1895 : — 


Head Masters $1643.00 

Head Mistresses 1179.00 

Assistant Masters 741.00 

Assistant Mistresses 002.00 

The State does not pension the teachers. 

When one considers the traditions that have controlled 
English education for centuries, and recalls the conserva- 
tism that rules English life, one can only marvel at the 
tremendous strides taken by England during the last quar- 
ter of a century. Victor Hugo says, " The English patri- 
cian order is patrician in the absolute sense of the word. 
No feudal system was ever more illustrious, more terrible, 
and more tenacious of life." England has had to overcome 
her patrician ideas in regard to education, and her growth 
in the last twenty-five years has been more rapid and more 
effectual than for a thousand years before. Although she 
still has many problems to solve, her recent educational 
enterprise places her in the front rank among the nations 
of the world in school matters. 

, !| 



Literature. — Boone^ Education in the United States ; Williams^ 
History of Modern Education; Barnard^ American Journal of Educa- 
tion -^ Horace Mann, Annual Reports; United States Commissioner's 
Reports, especially that of 1896. 

Each state in the United States has its own independent 
system of education ; there is no national system. In 1867 
Congress established a National Bureau of Education, the 
function of which is " to collect statistics and facts show- 
ing the condition and progress of education in the several 
states and territories, and diffuse such information respect- 
ing the organization and management of schools and school 
systems and methods of teaching as shall aid the people of 
the United States in the establishment and maintenance of 
efficient school systems, and otherwise promote the cause 
of education throughout the country." The bureau issues 
an annual report, which is replete with information con- 
cerning the educational interests of our own and other 


The United States government has given vast tracts of 
the public domain, as well as large sums of money, to the 
various states, out of which have been cheated, in some 
cases, large school funds which yield a permanent income.^ 

1 In 1836 there was a large surplus in the national treasury, which, by 
act of Congrers, was ordered " to be deposited with the several states, in pro- 
portion to their representation in Congress." The amount so distributed 
equaled about $30,000,000. Most of the states receiving this deposit set it 
aside as a permanent school fund. See Boone, " History of Education in 
the United States," p. 91. 





Up to 1876 the United States had granted nearly eighty 
million acres of land for educational purposes. 

The Bureau of Education is obliged to rely on such sta- 
tistics as its correspondents are willing to give, yet its 
work has been so valuable, its information so extensive 
and accurate, and its educational purpose so high, that cor- 
dial cooperation is generally given. This annual report 
is the finest issued by any nation in the world.^ 

i w 


Administration. — At the head of each state school sys- 
tem, there is an executive officer usually called the State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. He is chosen for 
from two to four years, sometimes by popular vote, some- 
times by the jcint houses of the Legislature, sometimes by 
the State Board of Education, and in some cases is ap- 
pointed by the governor. His duties are to make reports, 
to examine teachers, to inspect schools, to distribute school 
moneys, to hear appeals in school matters, and to have 
general oversight of the educational interests of the state. 
In some states there is a State Board of Education that 
cooperates with the State Superintendent. The interests 
of education seem to be best conserved when there is a 
non-partisan State Board of Education, which appoints 
the executive officers and has general charge of the 

The second administrative unit is the county, over which 
is placed a Superintendent of Schools. He is chosen by 
popular vote or is appointed by the State Board of Educa- 
tion, and holds office generally about three years. He 

1 See an article by M. Stevens on " The National Bureau of Education," in 
the New York School Journal, Vol. LVI, p. 743, for a full description of this 
bureau and its work. 



must visit the schools, examine teachers, hold institutes, 
distribute school moneys, and oversee the educational 
work. The number of schools under the inspection of the 
county superintendent is often so great, and the territory 
so large, that his work cannot be well done. In many 
cases the compensation is so small that he is obliged to 
devote a part of his time to some other occupation. The 
work is of sufficient importance to demand the full time of 
a competent man ; and the salary ought to be proportion- 
ate to such needs. 

The next division is that of the township, though in 
most states the school district is the next unit. The so- 
called " township system " has been adopted in several 
states, and recommended in others. This system has a board 
of education which appoints teachers, purchases supplies, 
and manages the schools of the whole township. The dis- 
trict system has outlived its usefulness. It maintains more 
schools than are warranted by the srnall number of pupils. 
Many of these could be abandoned in favor of better 
schools in neighboring districts, to which the children 
could be sent. It often secures for its trustee a man of 
limited education and narrov/ views, who conducts the 
school on the cheapest plan possible, while the larger ter- 
ritory of the township furnishes better material from which 
to choose ; it limits its educational plan to the most ele- 
mentary course, whereas the "township system" contem- 
plates a central high school open to all children of the 
township. The "township system" also admits of the 
employment of a special school inspector or superintendent 
if desired. In some instances, two or more townships unite 
in the employment of such a superintendent. 

School Attendance. — The school age commences at from 
four to six and extends to from eighteen to twenty-one, 





I ii 

varying greatly in the different states. The United States 
Commissioner's Report now covers the period of from five 
to eighteen. On this basis he reports that about 69 per 
cent of the children who are of school age are enrolled in 
the schools, while the average attendance is about 68 
per cent of the enrollment. This is a very low per- 
centage as compared with that in Germany, France, and 
England. The longer period covered by us (five to eight- 
een) thus acts unfavorably. No child should be compelled 
to go to school ucfore six, nor after fourteen. 

School attendance in the United States is by no means 
as regular as it should be, even during the period (six to 
fourteen) that naturally belongs to education. To remedy 
this, compulsory education laws have been passed in most 
states. They cover periods varying from eight consecutive 
weeks and a total of twenty weeks during the year, to 
the full school year. These laws are generally a dead 
letter, partly because of their own weakness, and partly 
because of the indifference of the people. Compulsory 
attendance to be effective must cover the whole school 
year, and must carry a sufficient penalty for non-enforce- 

The Schools. — The schools of the United States may 
be classified as follows: i, the elementary school having 
an eight years' course which should be completed at four- 
teen ; 2, the secondary school with a four years' course that 
fits for college or its equivalent training ; 3, the under- 
graduate school or college with its four years* course ; and 
the graduate school or university. The elementary school 
is generally separated into primary and grammar grades, and 
is sometimes preceded by the kindergarten. The second- 
ary school usually offers commercial or other practical 
courses to those who do not wish to prepare for college. 



Colleges differ greatly in the scope of their work and in 
their courses of instruction. Some universities open their 
doors to those who are not graduates of colleges. In all 
states the elementary and the high schools are free, 
while in some the entire expense of the child's education 
from kindergarten to university is defrayed by the govern- 

Support of the Schools. — The annual cost of the schools 
of the country is about two hundred million dollars. About 
two thirds of this is raised by local tax, about one fifth by 
state tax, and the balance is derived chiefly from perma- 
nent funds, etc. The preponderance of the local tax shows 
that to each community is intrusted the important matter 
of deciding as to the quality of school it will maintain. 
The American people have always been liberal toward 
education, and no money is voted so freely by legislative 
bodies as that necessary for the education of the young. 

The Teachers. — There are over 400,000 teachers in the 
United States, of whom about one third are men and two 
thirds women. Only about 10 per cent of these have had 
a professional training. The average term of service is 
five years, and about 80,000 new teachers are needed every 
year. To supply this number the normal schools and 
other institutions for training teachers are utterly inade- 
quate, and will remain so until the average term of service 
is lengthened. 

The principal institutions for training teachers are the 
normal school, the city training school, the pedagogical 
departments of universities, and teachers' training classes. 
To these may be added the teachers' institute and the 
summer school, which while they stimulate and instruct 
the teachers, cannot be said to give them a professional 




The course of the normal school usually covers three 
years, and embraces both the theory of education and 
practice in teaching children. Within the last few years, 
many colleges have established chairs of pedagogy, but the 
work remains inadequate for a professional training so 
long as practice in teaching is not added to the require- 

Teachers are appointed by local boards generally for 
one year, though they often remain undisturbed year after 
year. The average monthly salary of men in 1896 was 
$47.37, and of women $40.24. 

So long as professional training of the teacher guarantees 
neither permanence of position nor adequate remunera- 
tion, many men and women with ability to teach will be 
tempted to devote their energies to other work, leaving 
the nation's most sacred trust, the education of its chil- 
dren, to those who will not or cannot properly prepare them- 
selves for that great responsibility. 

But there is in present tendencies no need for discour- 
agement. Everywhere brave men and women are begin- 
ning to prepare themselves in earnest for the high calling 
of teacher, hopeful that the future will bring them the 
recognition they deserve. 

With free schools, abler teachers, consecrated to their 
calling, and better courses of instruction; with a people 
generous in expenditures for educational purposes, a co- 
operation of parents and teachers, and a willingness to learn 
from other nations ; with the many educational periodicals, 
the pedagogical books, and teachers' institutes to broaden 
and stimulate the teacher, — the friends of education in 
America may labor on assured that the new century will 
give abundant fruitage to the work which has so marvel- 
ously prospered in the old. 


The following works have a bearing upon some phase of the many 
topics considered in this book. Most of them have been mentioned in 
abbreviated form either in the literature at the beginning of each chapter 
or in the footnotes. They are here given with their full titles. 

Adams, Fkancis. The Free School System of the United States. 

Allen, W. F. A Short History of the Roman People. 

Andrews, E. B. Brief Institutes of General History 

Archer, T. A., and Kingsford, C. L- Crusaders. 

Arnold, Edwin. The Light of Asia. 

Arnold, Matthew. Essays in Criticism. 

Arnstadt, F. a. Rabelais und sein Traitd d'Education. 

AscHAM, Roger. The Scholemaster (edited by E. Arber). 
AzARiAS, Brother. Essays Educational. 


Balfour, Graham. Educational Systems of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Ballantine, H. Midnight Marches through Persia. 

Ballou, M. 11. Due West ; or, Round the World in Ten Months. 

Footprints of Travel. 
Bardeen, C. W. The Orbis Pictus of John Comenius. 
Barnard, Henry. English Pedagogy. 

Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianisni. 

American Journal of Education. 
Barnes, Earl. Studies in Education. 
Barrows, John Henry. World's Parliament of Religions. 
Beecher, H. W. Life of Jesus the Christ. 
Beeger und Leutbecher. Comenius Ausgewahlte Schriften. 
Benjamin, S. G. W. The Story of Persia. 

Persia and the Persians. 






I r'- 

Besant, Walter. Rabelais. 

Boone, Richard G. Education in the United States : Its History from 

the Earliest Settlements. 
BoRMANN, K. Padagogik fUr Volksschullehrer. 
BowEN, H. CouRTHOPE. Froebel and Education by Self-Activity. 
Brooks, Phillips. Letters of Travel. 
Browning, Oscar. Milton's Tractate on Education. 
Brugsch-Bey, H. History of Egypt under the Pharaohs. 
Bryce, James. The Holy Roman Empire. 
A Short History of the Roman Empire. 
Bulfinch, T. Legends of Charlemagne. 
Bulkley, Rev. C. H. A. Plato's Best Thoughts. 
Bury, J. B. A History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to 

Butler, N. M. The Place of Comenius in the History of Education. 
Butler, W. Land of the Veda. 

Capes, W. W. Roman Empire of the Second Century ; Age of Anto- 

Carlisle, James H. Two Great Teachers— Ascham and Arnold. 
Carlyle, Thomas. French Revolution. 
Church, Alfred J. Pictures from Roman Life and Story. 

Pictures from Greek Life and Story. 
Church, R. W. The Beginnings of Middle Ages. 

Clark, Henry. The State and Education. 
Clarke, James Freeman. Ten Great Religions. 
Collins, W. Lucas. Montaigne. 

Combe, George. Education : Its Principles and Practice. 
Comenius. The Orbis Pictus. 

Grosse Unterrichtslehre (see Zoubek). 
Compayre, Gabriel. The History of Pedagogy (trans, by W. H. 

Courtney, W. L. John Locke. 
Cox, Sir G. W. The Crusades. 
Craik, H. The State in Relation to Education. 
Curtis, G. W. Nile Notes of a Howadji. 
CuRTius, Ernst. History of Greece (5 vols.). 




D'AUBIGN^, J. H. Merle. History of the Reformation of the Sixteenth 

Davidson, Thomas. Rousseau and Education according to Nature. 

The Education of the Greek People and its Influence on Civilization. 

Aristotle and the Ancient Educational Ideals. 
De Garmo, Charles. Herbart and the Herbartians. 
De Guimps, R. Pestalozzi, his Life aad Works (trans, by J. Russell). 
De Quincev, T. Plato's Republic. 

DiTTES, F. Geschichte der Erziehung und des Unterrichts. 
DooLiTTLE, Rev. J. Social Life of the Chinese. 
Draper, John W. Conflict between Religion and Science. 

History of the Intellectual Development of Europe. 
DuRRELL, Fletcher. A New Life in Education. 
DuRUY, Victor. History of France (trans, by Mrs. Carey). 

A History of the Middle Ages. 

History of Modern Times, from the Fall of Constantinople to the 
French Revolution. 
Dyer, T. H. History of Modern Europe (3 vols.). 

Ebers, Georg. Uarda. 

An Egyptian Princess. 
Educational Review. 

Edwards, Amelia B. A Thousand Miles up the Nile. 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Representative Men. 
Emerton, E. An Introduction to the Study of the Middle Ages. 

Mediaeval Europe. 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
Encyklopadisches Handbuch der Padagogik. 

Felkin, Henry M. and Emmie. Herbart's Science of Education. 
Felton, C. C. Greece, Ancient and Modern. 
Fenelon, F. Treatise on the Education of Girls. 
Fergtisson, James. History of Architecture in All Countries. 
Ferris, G. T. Great Leaders. 

1 »-t 

■i^ ^ 

m^mrw^'^fW^^ iimifilip^^faif^^ni^MW^M^ Hpgiililil n\ iiif^iii 



Fisher, G. P. History of the Reformation. 

The Beginnings of Christianity. 
FoKSYTii, W. Life of Cicero. 
FovvLKK, Thomas. Locke. 

Fkazkr, Rohkkt W. British India. 
Frekman, Kdwakh a. Historical Essays. 

Froebel, F. The Education of Man (trans, by W. N. Hailmann). 
Froude, James Anthony. Short Studies on Great Subjects. 

Life and Letters of Erasmus. 

i , I 


Geikie, C. Life of Christ. 

Gibbon, Edward. History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman 

Gill, John. Systems of Education. 
GiLMAN, A. Story of Rome from the Earliest Times to the End of the 

Graham, H. G. Rousseau. 

Green, J. R. History of the English People (4 vols.). 
Grote, George. History of Greece (12 vols.). 
GuHL and Koner. The Life of Greeks and Romans. From Antique 

GuizoT. History of Civilization (4 vols.). 


Haxmann, W. N. History of Pedagogy. 

Hallam, Henp V, View of the State of Europe during the MidJJe 

Ages (3 vols.). 
Literary History of Europe. 
Hanna, William. Life of Christ. 
Hanus, Paul H. The Permanent Influence of Comenius (Ed. Review, 

N.Y., Vol. Ill, 226). 
Harper's Book of Facts (compiled by J. H. Willsey). 
Harrison, J. H. Story of Greece. 
Hegel, G. W. F. The Philosophy of History. 
Herbart, J. F. The Science of Education. (See Felkin.) 
Herford, WiLLLAM H. The Student's Froebel. 





Hinsdale, B. A. Horace Mann. 
HoRTON, R. F. A History of the Romans. 
HosMER, J. K. Story of the Jews. 
Houghton, R. C. Women of the Orient. 

Hughes, Thomas. Loyola and the Educational System of the Jesuits. 
Hurst, John F. A Short History of the Reformation. 
Life and Literature in the Fatherland. 

Irving, Washington. Mahomet and His Successors. 


Jameson, Mrs. Anna. Legends of the Monastic Orders. 
JOHONNOT, James. Geographical Reader. 
JOSEPHUS, F. The Works of. 
JowETT, B. The Republic of Plato. 


Kiddle and Schem. Cyclopaedia of Education. 

KiNGSFORD, C. L. (See Archer.) 

KiTCHiN, G. W. History of France. 

Klemm, L. R. European Schools. 

Knox, Thomas W. The Boy Travelers in the Far East. 

In Egypt and the Holy Land. 
KdNiGBAUER, J. Geschichte der Padagogik und Methodik. 
Kriege, Matilda H. Friedrich Froebel. 
Krusi, H. Life, Work, and Influence of Pestalozzi. 

Labberton, R. H. New Historical Atlas and General History. 
Lane, Edward W. Account of the Manners and Customs of Modern 

Lane-Poole, S. The Story of the Moors in Spain. 
Lang, Ossian H. Rousseau : His Life, Work, and Educational Ideas. 
Basedow : His Life and Educational Work. 
Horace Mann. 
Lange, Wichard. Gesammelte Padagogische Schriften von F. 


^^ ^^ .. \.._ ^ 


c£t ^CL. ^ ;&tJi I UL ... ^ 




Langhorne, J. and W. Life of Plutarch. 

Larned, J. N. History for Ready Reference (5 vols.). 

Laurie, S. S. Rise and Early Constitution of Universities. 

Comenius : Kis Life and Educational Works. 
Lavisse, Ernst. General View of the Political History of Europe 

(trans, by Charles Gross). 
Lecky, W. E. H. History of European Morals (2 vols.). 
Le Clerc. Life of Erasmus. 
Leitch, J. MuiR. Practical Educationists and their Systems of 

Lessing, G. E. Nathan der Weise. 
Lewis, Charles T. History of Germany. 
LiDDELL, H. G. Student's History of Rome. 
Lord, John. Beacon Lights of History. 


The Life and Works of 


Macaulay, T. B. Essays. 

History of England. 
Mahaffy, J. p. Social Life in Greece. 

Old Greek Education. 

The Greek World under Roman Sway. 
Mann, Mary, and George Combe Mann. 
Horace Mann. 

Educational Writings of Horace Mann. 
Marden, Orison Swett. Rushing to the Front. 
Marenholtz-Bulow, Bertha von. Reminiscences of Friedrich 

Froebel (trans, by Mary Mann). 
Marshman, J. C. History of India. 

Martin, G. H. Evolution of the Massachusetts Public School SysLem. 
Martin, W. A. P. The Chinese ; Their Education, Philosophy, and 

Maspero, G. Egyptian Archaeology (trans, by Amelia B. Edwards). 
Merivale, C. History of the Romans (7 vols.). 
Michaud, J. F. History of the Crusades (trans, by W. Robson). 
Milton, J. Tractate on Education. (See Oscar Browning.) 
Mombert, J. L Great Lives. 

History of Charles the Great (Charlemagne). 
Mommsen, Th. History of Rome. 
Montagu, Basil. Life of Francis Bacon. 




MoRLEY, John. Life of Rousseau. 

Morris, Charles. Historical Tales (Greek-Roman). 

Morris, William O'Connor. The French Revolution and First 

Morrison, VV. Douglas. The Jews under Roman Rule. 
MuNROE, James P. The Educational Ideal. 
Myers, P. V. N. Mediaeval and Modern History. 
Ancient History. 

Niedergesass. Geschichte der Padagogik. 


Oliphant, Mrs. Montaigne. (See W. Lucas Collins.) 

Painter, F. V. N. A History of Education. 

Parkman, Francis. The Jesuits in North America in the Seventeenth 

Parsons, J. Russell. Prussian Schools through American Eyes. 

French Schools through American Eyes. 
Pattison, Mark. Milton. 

Paulsen, Friedrich. The German Universities : Their Character 
and Historical Development (trans, by E. D. Perry). 
Geschichte des Gelehrten Unterrichts, auf den deutschen Schulen 
und Universitaten. 
Ploetz, Epitome of Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern History. 
Prince, John T. Methods of Instruction, and Organization of Schools 
in Germany. 


Quick, Robert H. Educational Reformers. 

QuiNTiLiAN. Institutes of Oratory; or, Education of an Orator. (See 


Ragozin, Z. a. The Story of Chaldea: from Earliest Time to Rise 
of Assyria. 
The Story of Media, Babylon, and Persia. 
Ragozin, Mrs. J. A. The Story of Vciic India. 

HIST. OF ED. — 21 



Raumer, Karl von. Geschichte der Padagogik. 

Life and System of Pestalozzi (trans, by Tilieard). 
Rawlinson, G. Five Great Monarchies. 

Ancient Egypt. 

Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy. 
Reeve, Henry. Petrarch. 
Reimer, Karl. Michael de Montaigne. 

Emil, oder Ueber die Erziehung. 
Rein, W. Am Ende der Schulreform? 

Encyklopadisches Handbuch der Padagogik. 
Reports of the United States Commissioner of Education. 
Richard, Ernst. The School System of France. 
KiCHTER, Karl. Pestalozzi. 

A. H. Francke. 
RiDPATH, J. C. Library of Universal History. 
Rousseau. Emile. 

RouTLEDGE. The Modern Seven Wonders of the World. 
FyssEL^, James E. German Higher Schools. 


!i I 

^! -1 

' (i 

Sankey, C. The Spartan and Theban Supremacies. 

Schiller, Friedrich. History of the Thirty Years' War (trans, by 

St;HMiD, K. A. Encyklopadie des gesammten Erziehungs und Unter- 

richtswesens (11 vols). 
Schmidt, Karl. Geschichte der Padagogik (4 vols.) (edited by 

Wichard Lange). 
Schneider, E., und E. von Bremen. Das Volksschulw<: lea im preus- 

sischen Staate (3 vols.). 
Schroeder, Chr. Das Volksschulwesen in Frankreich. 
ScHWEGLER, A. A History of Philosophy (trans, by Julius H. 

Srebohm, F. Era of the Protestant Revolution. 
Seeley, L. Common School System of Germany. 
Srtdel, F. Froebel's Padagogische Schriften (3 vols.). 
Sharpless, Isaac. English Education in Elementary and Secondary 

SnEPPARD, J. Y. The Fall of Rome and the Rise of New Nation- 

\:. ii 




Shoup, William J. The History and Science of Education. 

Shumway, E. S. a Day in Ancient Rome. 

Sine, James. History of Germany. 

Skinner, ri. M. The Schoolmaster in Literature. 

The Schoolmaster in Comedy and Satire. 
Smith, William. History of Greece. 

History of Rome. 
SoNNENSCHEiN & Co. Cyclopaedia of Education. 
Spofford, a. R. Library of Historical Characters ( 10 vols.). 
Steeg, M. Jules. Emile ; or, Concerning Education (trans, by 

Eleanor Worthington). 
Stille, C. J. Studies in Mediaeval History. 
Stoddard, John L. Lectures on Travel. 
Strack, K. Geschichte des deutschen Volksschulwesens. 
Symonds, John Addington. The Renaissance in Italy. 

Taylor, Bayard. History of Germany. 
Thalheimer, M. E. Mediaeval and Modern History. 
Timayenis, T. T. History of Greece (2 vols.). 


Ufer, C. Introduction to the Pedagogy of Herbart. 
United States Commissioner of Education Reports. 


Van Liew, C. C. Life of Herbart and Development of his Pedagogi- 
cal Doctrines. 
VoGEL, August. Geschichte der Padagogik als Wissenschaft. 


Warner, Charles Dudley. Library of the World's Best Literature. 
Watson, J. S. Quintilian's Institutes of Oratory; or, Education of 

an Orator. 
Weigert, Max. Die Volksschule in Frankreich. 
Weir, Samuel. Key to Rousseau's Emile. 
Wells, C. L. The Age of Charlemagne. 



West, Andrew F. Alcuin and the Rise of the Christian Schools. 

White, Rev. James. The Eighteen Christian Centuries. 

WiLKiNS, A. S. National Education in Greece in the Fourth Century 

Wilkinson, Sir J. G. Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyp- 
tians (3 vols.). 

Williams, Samuel G. The History of Modern Education. 

WiLLMANN, Otto. Herbart's Padagogische Schriften (2 vols.). 

WiNSHiP, Albert E. Horace Mann, Educator. 

YONGE, C. D. Three Centuries of Modern History. 

ZouBEK, Fr. E. a. Comenius. Grosse Unterrichtslehre. 

fN « I 


A. B. C. der Anschauung, Herbart's, 281. 
Abelard at University of Paris, 141. 
Benedictine teacher, 118. 
leader of scholasticism, 122. 
Academies, in French school administra- 
tion, 296, 297. 
Agricola. Johannes, school course of, 

176 «. 
Agricola, Rudolphus, father of German 
humanism, 153, 158. 
lectures of, 158. 
Ahriman, principle of darkness in Per- 
sian religion, 39. 
Albigenses, reformers in France, 165. 
Alcohol, Arabians discover, 145. 
Alcuin of England, Benedictine teacher, 
teacher of Charlemagne, 127. 
Alexander the Great, pupil of Aristotle, 

Alexandria, catechetical school at, 107, 
Museum of, 50. 
Saracenic school at, 140. 
school of rabbis at, 44. 
seat of philosophy, 107. 
Alexandrian library fostered by the Ptole- 
mies, 50. 
Alfred the Great, becomes king, 130. 
character and history of, 130. 
education of, 131. 
encourages education of higher classes, 

establishes monasteries, 131.. 
founds Oxford University, 131. 
influence on English education, 131. 
literary work of, 131. 
statesmanship of, 130. 
Algebra, modern form of, 145. 
Allgemeine P&dagogik, Herbart's, 281. 
Ambrose, St., bishop of Milan, 114. 
America, discovery of, 165. 
American Revolution, establishes princi- 
ple of self-government, 239. 
Analects of Confucius, 28. 
Analytical method of Aristotle, 67. 
Anatomy, in Milton's scheme of educa- 
tion, 219. 

Annual Reports, Horace Mann's, 286. 

of Bureau of Education, 310. 
Anselm, founder of scholasdcism, 122. 
Antioch, catechetical school at, 107. 
Antioch College, Horace Mann presi- 
dent of, 288. 
Apostles, active in education, loi. 
Apostles' Creed, taught during Charle- 
magne's reign, 128. 
Apostolic Constitution quoted, 113. 
Apprentice schools, in France, 299. 
Aquinas, Thomas, Benedictine teacher, 

leader of scholasticism, 122. 
Arabians, services to education, 145. 
Architecture, in Milton's scheme of edu- 
cation, 219. 
Aristotle, analytical method of, 67. 

Athenian philosopher, 56. 

called the Stagirite, 65. 

pedagogy of, outlined, 66, 67. 

pupil of Plato, 65. 

teacher of Alexander the Great, 65. 
Arithmetic, in Charlemagne's reign, 128. 

in Chinese schools, 24. 

in India, 32, 33. 

in Jewish education, 43. 

in Milton's scheme of education, 219. 

in monastic education, 119. 

in Roman schools, 78. 
Arrondissements, in French school sys- 
tem, 297. 
Art, in Athens, 56. 

in Egypt, 47. 
Arts, seven liberal, 118, 127. 
Aryans, in Greece, 53. 

in India, 30. 

in Persia, 36. 
Asceticism, influence on civilization, 116- 
Ascham, Roger, English educator, 190. 

method of, 191. 

Scholemaster, 190. 

tutor to Elizabeth, 190. 
Assistant teachers, 307. 
Astrology, applications of, 120. 
Astronomy, applications of, 120. 

Arabians' services to, 145. 

Copernican system, 148. 





Astronomy taught in Egypt, 50. 

taught in Mohammedan schools, 145. 

taught to lews, 43. 
Athenian education, criticism of, 59. 
Athenian educators, 61-67. 

Aristotle, 65 -67. 

Plato, 63-65. 

Socrates, 61, 62. 
Athens, 56-60. 

aesthetic education in, 58, 59. 

Aristotle founds Lyceum ai, 66. 

art and literature in, 54. 

center of learning, 75. 

contrasted with Spuria, 56. 

criticism of education in, 59. 

democratic government in, 57. 

history of, 56. 

home in, 57. 

laws of Solon, 57. 

Pericles, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, 56. 

philosophers from, at Museum of Alex- 
andria, 50, 51. 

glay important factor in child life, 57. 
:omans study at, 74. 

study of poets, 57, 59. 

training of children. 57. 

woman's status in, 58, 90. 
Attendance, compuirory, in English 
schools, 306. 

in French schools, 297, 298. 

in German schools, 291, 293. 

in United States schools, 312. 
Augustine, St., City of God, Confessions, 

conversion of, 114. 

influence of, 18, 115. 

life of, I " , 

pedagogy, 115. 

services to education, loi. 

works of, used in monasteries, 119. 
Augustus, age of, 74, 75. 
Azarias, Brother, on La Salle, 228. 

on the Simultaneous Method, 227. 

Babylon, Saracenic school at, 140. 

school of rabbis at, 44. 
Bacon, Francis, character of, 206. 

Comenius applies principles of, 214. 

degradation of, 207. 

Inductive Method introduced, 207, 208. 

influence of, 18. 

life of, 205. 

Montaigne's influence on, 195. 

new era in education, 209. 

Novum Organ urn, 207. 

object teaching of, 189. 

on Jesuit schools, 186, 187. 

pedagogy of, 208, 209. 

political advancement of, 306. 

Bacon, Francis, reforms of, 204. 
Bagdad, caliphs foster education, 145. 

Saracenic school at, 140. 
Barrett, influences Horace Mann, 285. 
Basedow, Elementary Book {^Elementar- 
buc/i), 251. 

failure of, 254. 

life of, u^Q. 

methods of teaching, 250. 

pedagogy of, 253, 255, 256. 

Philanthropin established, 251, 352. 

professor at Soroe, 251. 

writings of, 255. 
Basel, center of printing industry, 162. 
Basil the Great, life of, 106. 

pedagogy of, 106. 

services to education, loi. 
Beautifying of schoolrooms, 197, 198. 
Bell, Andrew, founds National Schools, 

Monitorial system of, 307. 
Belles-Lettres, in Chinese education, 25. 
Benedict, St., principles of, 117. 
Benedictines, growth of, 117. 

principles of, 117. 

schools founded by, 118. 

teachers, 118. 
Berlin Conference, 236 «. 
Bernsdorf, Danish minister of education, 

Besant, Walter, on Rabelais, 193, 194, 

Bible, only literature of early Christians, 


study of, 153. 

translated by Alfred the Great, 131. 

translated into German, 168. 
Biographies of educators, 18. 
Blankenburg, Froebel's school at. 276. 
Bluntschli, advice to Pestalozzi, 260. 
Board of Education in United States 

school system. 310. 311. 
Board schools, established in England, 

Boatman, third caste in Egypt, 48. 

Boccaccio, humanistic leader of Italy, 155, 

influences of, 151. 
Body, care of, 221, 230. 
Bologna, university established at, 124. 
Boniface, of Germany, Benedictine 

teacher, Ii8. 
Book of Method, Basedow's, 255. 
Books, school, adoption of, 290. 
Bouillon, Godfrey of, leads first crusade, 

Brahma, Hindu worship of, 33. 

Brahmanism, Buddha seeks to over- 
throw, 35. 

INDEX 327 

Brahmans, highest caste in India, 29, 30, 

Children, in India, 3X 

31. 32. 34. 

in Persia, 37. 

miirriage of, 32. 

in Rome, 76, 77. 

Brotherhood of man, value of principle. 

in Sparta, 69. 


weak, cast out in Sparta, 69, 73. 

Brothers of the Christian Schools, La 

China, 20-28. 

Salle organizes, 227. 

belief in transmigration of souls, 22. 

Brown University, Horace Mann at. 

civilization of, 20. 


classics of, 25. 

Browning, on Milton's scheme of educa- 

Confucius, i8, 24, 27, 28. 

tion, 220. 

conservative character of, 21. 

Buddha, religion and spirit of, 35. 

criticism of education, 27. 

Buddhism, in China, 21, 22, 27. 

degrees in, 25, 26. 

in India, 31. 

elementary schools in, 23, 25. 

religion based on moral acts, 35. 

examinations in, 26. 

Budding Intellect, Chinese degree, 26. 

geography and history of, 20, 21. 

Bulfinch. on Charlemagne, 126. 

jovernment and language in, 21. 

Burgdorf, Froebel at, 275. 

ligher education in, 25. 

Pestalozzi teaches at, 266. 

lome in, 22. 

Burgjindy, Duke of, taught by L6neIon, 

ack of toys, 23. 

224, 225. 

motive for education, 52. 

relation of parents and children, 22, 23. 

Caen, university at, 141. 

religion in, 21. 

Cahors, university at, 141. 

science and inventions in, 26. 

Calculating boards, in Athens, 59, 

treatment of women in, 22. 

Caliphs, foster education, 145. 

Christ, disciples of, 92, 93. 

Cambray, Bishop of, aids Erasmus, 161. 

influence of, 96, 97. 

Cambridge, University of, 141. 

life and character of, 96, 97. 

Campe, leader of Philanthropin, 254. 

methods of, 97, 98. 

Canterbury, cloister school at, 118. 

nature study of, 99. 

Cantons, in French school system, 297. 

principles of, 90, 91. 

Caste system, in Egypt, 47-49. 

teacher, 97-100. 

in India, 30, 32. 

truth preached by, 99. 

Catechetical schools, 107, 108. 

t)rpe of perfect manhood, 16. 

decay of, no. 

value of teachings of, 89, 95. 

Catechumen schools, of early Christians, 

Christian education, 89-314. 


aim of, 91. 

Cathedral schools, 139 n. 

Alfred the Great's influence, 130, 131. 

Catholic Church. See Church. 

Basil the Great, 106, 107. 

Cavaliers, struggle with Roundheads, 200. 

Benedictines, 117, 118. 

Celestial Empire, civilization of, 20. 

catechetical schools. 107. 

Ceylon, Buddhism in, 35. 

catechumen schools, 104. 

Charity schools, in China, 23. 

Charlemagne, 125-129. 

Charlemagne, education of, 133. 

Chrysostom, 105, 106. 

encourages education, 127, 128. 

church connection with, loi. 

history, character, purpose of, 125, 126. 

Clement of Alexandria, 109. 

influence of, 18. 

conflict with pagan education, 111-115. 

School of Palace established, 127. 

crusades, 102, 136-138. 

summary of work of, 128, 129. 

difficulties in establishment of, 95. 

Charles V., of Spain, Emperor of Ger- 

feudal education, 132-135. 

many, 165, 166. 

first Christian schools, 104, 105. 

Chemistry, taught in Mohammedan 

general view of, 89, loi, 103. 

schools, 145. 

importance of individual, 91. 

Children, a sacred trust, 91. 

lessons and principles of, 90, 91. 

home training among early Christians, 

monastic education, 102, 116-120. 


Origen, no. 

among Jews, 41, 42. 

St. Augustine, 114, 115. 

in Athens, 57. 

scholasticism, 121-124. 

in Egypt, 49. 

seven liberal arts, 119, 120. 




1 i 

Christian education, slow growth of, 92, 
^3. See also Renaissance, Human- 
istic educators. Reformation, Protest- 
ant educators, Jesuits, Modern edu- 
cators. School systems, and sixteenth, 
seventeenth, eighteenth, and nine- 
teenth century education. 
Tertullian, 112, 113. 
Teutonic peoples, instrument of civili- 
zation, 103. 
universities, 139-141. 
Christiania, university at, 141. 
Christianity, influence of, 96, 97. 
lessons of, 90-92. 
See also Christian education. 
Chrysostom, educational principles of, 
105, 106. 
life of, 105. 

services to education, loi. 
Church, animosities between Catholics 
and Protestants, 200. 
authority in Renaissance, 150. 
controls education, 112, 139. 
corruption of, 151, 152, 166, 168. 
degradation of, 151, 152. 
influence of St. Augustine's writings 

on, 115. 
supremacy of, 116. 
the mother of schools, 102. 
Church Fathers, direct educational move- 
ments, lOI. 
opposed to pagan literature, 113, 120. 
Cicero, called Father of his Country, 
character of, 82. 
death of, 82. 
education of, 81. 
life of, 81. 
pedagogy of, 83. 
Philippics of, 82. 
Roman consul, 82. 
services to education, 83. 
works of, studied in monastic educa- 
tion, 119. 
Citizens in Sparta, 68. 
City of God, St. Augustine's, 114. 
Classic languages, Humanists revive 
study, 149. 
in Trotzendorf 's pedagogy, 178. 
new interest in, 149, 150. 
Classic literature, revival of studv of, 

_ 155-157- , , 

Tertullian excludes, 113. 
Clement of Alexandria, pedagogy, 109. 

pupil of Pantaenus, 109. 

teacher, 109. 
Clermont, Jesuit college of, 183. 
Climate a factor in education, 16. 
Cloister schools established. ii8. 

Clothing of children, Locke's rules re- 
garding, 221. 
Coeducation, in France, 298. 

in German villages, 292. 

in Sparta, 71. 
Colleges, in United States school system, 

312. 313- 
Colloquies, Erasmus's, i6a. 
Cologne, cloister school at, 118. 

university of, 141. 
Comenius, Johann Amos, banished, 212. 

Didactica Magna, 213. 

education of, 211, 212. 

educational works of, 214. 

honors bestowed on, 213. 

influence of, 18. 

influence of Bacon on, 214. 

Latin Bohemian dictionary of, 213. 

member of Moravian Brethren, 211. 

object teaching of, 189. 

Pestalozzi applies principles of, 26^. 

reforms of, 204. 

settles in Poland, 213. 

summary of his work, 215. 

trials of, 212. 
Commandments, Ten, oldest writin/fj 

among Israelites, 44. 
Committee of Council on Education, in 

England, 305. 
Common schools, importance of, 287. 

in Germany, 292. 

in United States, 310. 
Commonwealth, established, 200. 
Communes, in French education, 300. 
Compass, invention of, 148. 
Compayr6, on Comenius, 214. 

on Jesuit schools, 185, 187. 

on Jesuits and Jansenists, 189. 

on La Salic, 228. 

on Locke, 221. 

on Montaigne's pedagogy, 198. 

on Rabelais's Gargantua, 194, 195. 
•on Rousseau, 242, 246. 

on the Reformation, 166, 167. 

on the Renaissance, 121. 
Composition, in Chinese education, 25. 
Compulsory educadon, among Jews, 42. 

Charlemagne introduces, 128. 

in England, 306. 

in France, 297, 298. 

in Germany, 170, 181, 203, 291. 

in United States, 312. 

Luther insists on, 174. 
Plato's scheme of, 65. 
Conduct of Schools, La Salle's, 228. 
Confessions, Rousseau's, 242, 243. 
Confessions, St. Augustine's, 114. 
Confucius, altar to, in Chinese school- 
rooms, 24. 



Confucius, analects of, 28. 

influence of, 18, 27. 
Conrad III., of Germany, leads second 

crusade, 137. 
Constance, cloister school at, 118. 
Continuation schools, in Germany, 292. 
Copenhagen, university at, 141. 
Copernicus, astronomical discoveries of, 

148, 202. 
Cordova, caliphs of, foster education, 145. 

Saracenic school at, 140. 
Corporal punishment, among Jews, 43. 

Basil the Great on, 106. 

Cicero's views regarding, 83. 

in Jesuit schools, 186. 

Quintilian's views regarding, 87. 
Cotta, Ursula, befriends Luther, 1C7. 
Council, Educational, governs French 

d^partements, 297. 
County, school administration of, 310. 
Cramer, on the crusades, 138. 
Criticism, of Athenian education, 59. 

of Chinese education, 27. 

of Egyptian education, 51. 

of Feudal education, 135. 

of Hindu education, 34, 35. 

of Jesuit education, 186. 

of Jewish education, 44, 186. 

of Persian education, 38. 

of Roman education, 80. 

of Spartan education, 71. 
Cromwell, Commonwealth under, 200. 
Crusades, influence on education, 102, 
103, 136-138. 

results of, 138. 
Curtius, quoted, 72. 

Dancing, taught among Jews, 42. 
Dante, banishment of, 156. 

birth of, 155. 

Divine Comedy, 156. 

education of, 155, 156. 

humanistic leader of Italy, 155. 

influence of, 151. 
Dark Ages, slow progress during, loi. 

end of, 148. 
David, founder of Hebrew literature, 44. 
Dean, M. Ida, on schools in India, 33. 
Decimal system originated by Hindus, 

De Garmo, on Herbart as a teacher, 279. 

Degrees in China, 25, 26. 

in French Universities, 299. 
Demia, Charles, 227. 
Democratic government in Athens, 57. 
D^partements, erect normal schools, 300. 

in French school system, 297. 
Dervishes, in Persia, 38. 
Descartes on Jesuit schools, 186. 

Deserving of Promotion, Chinese degree, 

Dessau, institute at. See Philanthropin. 
Dialectical method, of Socrates, 62, 
Dialogues of the Dead, F6nelon's, 225. 
Didactica Magna, Comenius's, 213. See 

Great Didactic. 
Discipline, in Chinese schools, 24. 
in Indian schools, 32. 
in Jewish schools, 43. 
in Roman schools, severe, 78. 
Discoveries, during Renaissance, 148. 
District inspector, in German schools, 

District school board, in Germany, 290, 

District system of education, in United 

States, 311. 
Dittes, quoted, 42, 274. 
Draper, on St. Augustine, 115. 
Drieser, on Quintilian, 86 n. 
Dualistic philosophy, of Zoroaster, 39. 
Duns Scolus, Benedictine leader, 118. 

leader of scholasticism, 122. 
Dyeing, in ancient Egypt, 47. 

Earth, size of, ascertained, 145. 
Eberhard, Count, Reuchlin's friend, 159. 
Education of Girls, F6nelon's, 224. 
Education of Man, Froebel's, 277. 
Egypt, 46-52. 

antiquity of its history, 47. 

caste system in, 47-49. 

criticism of education in, 51. 

dyeing, embalming, etc., in, 47. 

geography and history of, 46, 47. 

higher education in, 50. 

home in, 49. 

influence of priests in, 47, 48. 

mechanic arts in, 47. 

military class in, 48. 

motive for education in, 53. 

pilgrimages to, for study, 47. 

polygamy in, 49. 

status of woman in, 49. 
Egyptian education, criticism of, 51. 
Eighteenth century education, general 
view of, 237-240. 

See also Modern educators. 
Elementary Book {Elementar due A) .Base- 
dow's, 251, 255. 
Elementary education, among Arabians, 

in Athens, 58. 

in China, 23. 

in England, 306. 

in France, 298, 299. 

in Germany, 192. 

in India, 3^-34. 






Elementary education In Rome, jj. 

in United States, 312. 

neglected by Jesuits, X84, 187. 
Elizabeth, Queen, taught by Roger As- 

cham, 190, 192. 
Embalming in ancient Egypt, 47. 
jimile, Rousseau's, 243-249. 
Emulation, as incentive in Jesuit schools, 

186, 188. 
Engineering, in Ancient Egypt, 47-50. 

in Milton's scheme of education, 219. 
England, administration of schools, 305. 

attendance in s>jhoois, 306. 

educational enterprise in, 308. 

school system of, 303-308. 

support of schools in, 307. 

teachers in, 307, 308. 
English rule in India, 31. 
Environment, a tactor in education, 16, 17. 
Erasmus, Lolloquits, 162. 

compared with Luther, 162. 

humanistic leader, 153. 

life of, 161. 

literary authority of world, 162. 

on Agricola, 158. 

on Melanchthon, 171. 

pedagogy of, 162, 163. 

Praise or holly, 162. 

studies of, 161. 

translation of Greek testament, 162. 
Erfurt, Francke preacher at, 233. 

university of, 141. 
Erigena, leader of scholasticism, 122. 

principles of, 122. 
Ernst of Gotha, Duke, school law of, 203. 
Essay Concern mg Human Understand- 
ing, Locke's, 221. 
Essays, Montaigne's, 198. 
Essex, benefactor of Bacon, 206. 
Eton, college at, 174, 306. 
Euclid, used in monastic education, 119. 
Eudevton, page in Rabelais's Gargantua, 

Evening Hours of a Hermit, Pestalozzi's, 

Examinations in Athens, 58. 

in China, 25, 26. 
Exercise, Locke's rules regarding, 221. 

Fables, F^nelon's, 225. 

Factory laws, in England, 306. 

Family, the foundation of education, 17. 

See Home. 
Farmers, caste in India, 30. 

education of, 34. 

third caste in Egypt, 48. 
Fathers of church, opposed to pagan 

literature, 113. 
Faurier, Peter, 227. 

Fear, motive for study In China, 24, 27. 
F6nelon, compared with Seneca, 225, 

education of, 223, 224. 

Education of Cm Is, 224. 

head of convent of new Catholics, 224. 

pedagogy of, 226, 227. 

preceptor of grandson of Louis XIV, 

priest, 224. 

reforms of, 204. 

works of, 225. 
Feudal barons, influence of, 133. 
Feudal education, 132-X3S. 

criticism of, 135. 
Feudalism, crusades break power of, 138. 

defined, 132. 
Fichte, Herbart student of, 279. 
Finances, school, 290. 
Fit for Office, Chinese degree, 26. 
Food of children, Locke's rules regard- 
ing, 221. 
Forest ot Pencils, Chinese degree, 26. 
Formalism in instruction, 194. 
Forsyth, on Cicero, 81, 82, 83. 
France, administration of schools, 296, 

attendance in schools, 297. 

mother schools in, 298. 

normal schools in, 297. 

school system, 296. 

support of schools, 299, 300. 

teachers, 300. 302. 
Francis I., ot France, 165. 
Francke, August Hermann, called to 
University of Halle, 233. 

education of, 232. 

founds orphan asylum at Halle, 234. 

Institutions at Halle, 234, 235. 

organizes teachers' class at Halle, 228. 

Privat Docent at Leipsic, 232. 

Real-school, 236. 

training of teachers, 235. 

work among poor, 233, 234. 
Frankfurt-am-Main, Froebel teaches in, 

Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, leads 

third crusade, 137. 
Frederick I., recognizes university at 

Bologna, 140. 
Free schools, established in France, 298- 
in Germany, 293. 
in United States, 313. 
Freiburg-im-Breisgau, university at, 141. 
French Revolution, lessons of, 239, 264. 
Froebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August, as 
teacher, 273. 
at Burgdorl, 275. 





Froebel, F. W. A., at Universities of GiJt- 
tingen and Berlin, 374. 

at Yverdon, 274. 

Education of Man, Songs for Mother 
and Nursery, 377. 

F^nelon anticipates, 236. 

first school of, 275. 

influence of, 18. 

kindergarten of, 276. 

lectures of. 277. 

life of, 272, 273. 

object teaching of, 189. 

on Festaloz/i. 274. 

school at Griesheim and Keilhau, 275. 

soldier, 275. 
Fulda, cloister school at, 118. 

Gargixntua, Rabelais's, 193. 

Gate of Tongues Unlocked, Comenius's, 

Geography, a factor in education, 16. 

in Milton's scheme of education, 219. 

in monastic education, 119. 

Neander favors study of, 179. 
Geometry, discovery of Pythagorean 
theorem, 73. 

in catechetical schools, 108. 

in Jewish schools, 43. 

in Milton's scheme of education, 219. 

in monastic education, 119. 
Germany, administration of schools, 289. 

attendance in schools, 291. 

effects of Thirty Years' War on, 201, 

humanism in, 157. 

school system of, 169, 199, 289-295. 

State assumes responsibility of educa- 
tion, 174. 

support of schools, 293. 

teachers in, 294. 
Gibbon, Edward, quoted, 75, 150. 
Girls, education ot, among Jews, 41. 

F^nelon advocates education of, 226. 

in Athens, 58. 

in China, 22. 

in Egypt, 50. 

in Rome, 80. 

in Sparta, 71. 

sale of, in India, 31. 

schools for, in Germany, 181. 
Glaucha, Fran eke pastor at, 233. 
Goethe, on the Emile, 249. 
Goldberg, Trotzendorf rector at, 178, 
Gottingen, University of, 280. 
Government, administrative school board 
of, in Germany, 290. 

democratic, in Athens, 57. 

no control of schools in China, 23. 

of Romans, 75. 

Government, self, in schools, 178, 179. 
Graduate school in United States sctiool 

system, 312. 
Grammar, study of, begun, 59. 

in Athenian schools, 59. 

in catechetical schools, 108. 

in Mohammedan schools, 145. 

in monastic schools, 119. 
Gr6ard on Rousseau, 246. 
Great Didactic, Comenius's, 213, 214. 

organization of school system in, 215- 
Great Teacher, The. See Christ. 
Greece, 53-55. 

art and literature in, 54. 

Athens and Sparta, 54. 

geography and history in, 53, 54. 

manners and customs in, 54. 

Olympian games in, 54, 55. 

political freedom in, 54. 
Greek culture, influence on Rome, 74, 

75. 80. 
Greek language, importance of, in human 
culture, 157. 

in Milton's scheme of education, 219. 

in pedagogy of Innovators, 204. 

introduced into Germany, 160. 

Reuchlin introduces study of, 160. 

revival of study of, 150, 151, 153. 

study of, in Rome, 74. 

taught in Sturm's sciiool course, 176. 
Greek text-books, Neander's, 180. 
Greifswald, University of, 141. 
Griesheim, Froebel's first school at, 275. 
Gruner, Dr., head master of Model 

Sciiool at Frankfurt-am-Main, 273. 
Guienne, Montaigne studies at, 196. 
Gunpowder, invention of, 148. 
Gutenberg, invents printing, 164. 
Gymnasia, furnished by State in Athens, 

Gymnasium, course m, 293. 

established by Francke, 234. 

purpose of, 236 «. 
Gymnastics, taught in Athens, 58. 

in Sparta, 71. 

Hakem III., fosters education, 145. 
Hallam. on Agricola, 158. 
Halle, Institutions at. 234. 

Pietists found university at, 231, 332. 

teacher's class at, 228. 
Hamburg, cloister school at, 118. 
Hanlin, Royal Academy, in China, 26. 
Harris, Dr., on Pestalozzi, 271. 
Harrow, college at, 174, 306. 
Hebrew, revival of study, 153. 

used in interpreting Scripture, 158, 




Hebrew Grammar and Lexicon, Reuch- 

lin's, 159. 
Hecker, founds first Prussian Normal 

School, 228. 
Hegel, Aristotle compared to, 67. 
Hegira, Mohammedanism dates from, 

Heidelberg, center of humanistic move- 
ment, 153. 

Reuchlin at, 160. 

University of, 124, 141. 
Heliopolis, institution for higher learning 

at, 50. 
Hilo'ise, Rousseau's, 243. 
Helots, in Sparta, 68. 
Herbart, Johann Friedrich, enters Gym- 
nasium at Oldenburg, 279. 

in Bremen and Switzerland, 279. 

life of, 278. 

literary activity of, 281. 

on importance of common schools, 287. 

pedagogy of, 282, 283. 

practice school at Konigsberg, 280. 

professor of philosophy at Konigsberg, 

student of Fichte, 279. 

teacher in Switzerland, 279. 
Herbartians, work of modern, 282. 
Herford, on Froebel, 276. 
Hesse-Cassel, active in school work, 203. 
Hesse-Darmstadt, active in school work, 

Hieroglyphics, Rosetta c-tone furnishes 

key to interpretation of, 47. 
High Schools, connected with common 
in France, 299. 

in United States, 313. 
Higher education, among Jews, 44. 

in China, 25, 27. 

in Egypt, 50. 

in India, 34. 

in Rome, 79. 
Hindu education, criticism of, 34, 35. 
Hindus. See India. 
History, a factor in education, 16. 

natural, taught in Jewish schools, 43. 

Neander favors study of, 179. 

taught in Roman schools, 78. 

taught in schools of prophets, 44. 
Holstein, active in school work, 203. 
Holy Land, of Greece, at Olympia, 55. 

pilgrimages to, 136. 
Home, foundation of education, 17. 

in Athens, 57. 

in China, 22. 

in Egypt, 49. 

in India, 32. 

in Persia, 37. 

in Rome, 76. 

Home, in Sparta, 69. 

of Jews, 41. 
Home training, among early Christians, 

Horace, Roman poet, 74. 
How Gertrude teaches her Children, Pes- 

talozzi's, 267. 
Humanism, art of printing aids, 150. 

decline of, 198. 

in Germany, 157. 

in Ita'y, 149-151. 

Petrarch founder of, 156. 
Humanistic educators, 155-163. 

Agricola, 158. 

Boccaccio, 157. 

Dante, 155. 

Erasmus, 161. 

German, 157-163. 

Italian, 156, 157. 

mission of, 155. 

Petrarch, 156. 

Reuchlin, 159. 
Humanities, studied in Jesuit schools, 185. 
Hunziker, Professor, on Pestalozzi, 267, 

Hurst, Bishop, on Melanchthon, 171. 
Huss, reformer, 165. 

Ilfeld, Neander's school at, 179. 

Iliad and < vssey, called Bible of Greeks, 

Illustrate -books, first, 215, 229. 

Illustration, teaching by, 98. 
India, 29-35. 
Brahminism and Mohammedanism in, 

Buddha, 35. 

caste system in, 30. 

criticism of education in, 34. 

elementary schools in, 32-^34. 

English reforms in, 31. 

geography and history of, 29. 

higher education in, 34. 

home in, 32. 

motive for education in, 52. 

polygamy in, 31. 

religious ceremonies in schools, 33. 

schoolhouses described, 33. 

skill of craftsmen in, 30, 31. 

status of woman in, 31. 
Individual, education for, 91. 
Individuality, of children, 88. 
Inductive method. Bacon's, 207, 208, 229. 
Industrial School, Pestalozzi establishes, 

Infant school {icole infantine) in France, 

Innocent III., Pope, recognizes Univer- 
sity of Paris, 141. 

T I 



Inquiries concernirtg Course of Nature \ 
in Development oj Mankind, I'csta- ' 
lozzi's, 369. 
Inspector, in Oerman schools, 290, 291. 

Royal, in English school s>stoi!i, 301?. 
Institutes 0/ Oratory, Quintilian's, 87. 
Institutions at ll.ilU*, 234. 
Instruction, method of, in India, 33. 
Introduction, 15-19. 
Inventions, Chinese, 26. 

during Renaissance, 148. 
Isaiah, founder of Hebrew literature, 44. 
Israel. See Jews. 
Italy, humanism in, 149-151. 

intellectual movement in, 15a. 

Jansenists, introduce phonic spelling, 189. 

purpose of, i88. 

services to education, 189. 
Jena, center of Herbartian activity, 279, 

Jerome of Prague, reformer, 165. 
Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom established 
at, 137. 

pilgrimages to, 136. 

school of rabbis at, 44. 
Jesuits, criticism of education, 186. 

education of, 184. 

emulation as an incentive, 186. 

founding -f order, 182, 183. 

growth (jt society, 183. 

Loyola, 183. 

military character of order, 183. 

opposition of Port Royalists to, 188. 

school system of, 183-188, 199. 

spread of power, 184. 

summary of educational work, 187, 188. 
Jews, 40-45. 

compulsory education among, 42. 

criticism of education, 44. 

education in home, 17. 

esteem of teachers, 43. 

geography and history, 40, 41. 

Higher education among, 44. 

home of, 41. 

mission of, 40. 

motive for education of, 5a. 

prophets, 44. 

religion of, 41, 42. 

schools of, 42. 

schools of the prophets, 44. 

schools of the rabbis, 44. 

status of women, 41. 

the Talmud, 45. 

theocratic education of, 40. 

training of children, 41, 42. 
Johnson, Dr., on Ascham's Scholemaster, 

190, 191. 
Justinian, abolishes pagan schools, 115. 

Kant, Emanuel, quoted 254, 255, 381. 
Kcilhau, Froobd's school ai, :yyK.. 
KfpU;r. astronomical discoveries ot, 20U. 
Kindcrg.irten, Froebel founder of, 276. 

in I'russia, 275. 

in Switzerland, 276. 

in United Stales, 277, 313. 

prohibited, 275. 

purpose of, 277. 
Knight, chivalry of, 133. 

education of, 133. 

seven perfections of, 1^3. 
Knowledge, defined by Confucius, 28. 
Konigsberg, Herbart teaches philosophy 
at, 280. 

practice school at, 281. 
Koran, Mohammed writes, 143. 

used as reading book, 145. 
Kriisi, Hermann, on Pestalozzi, 260, 261, 
265, 266. 

on the sacrifices of Bilbeli, 257. 

Pestalozzi founds school with, 267. 

La Salle, Conduct 0/ Schools, 228. 
organizes Brothers of the Christian 

Schools, 227. 
services to education, 228. 
simultaneous method introduced, 227. 
Laborers, third caste in Egypt, 49. 
Lancaster, Joseph, establishes Board 
Schools, 305. 
monitorial system of, 307. 
Land grants, for educational purposes, 

Lang, on Basedow's Book of Method, 

Langethal, Heinrich, joins Froebel, 275. 
Language, Ascham's method for study 
of, 191. 
classic, see Latin, Greek, classic lan- 
guages, double translation in teach- 
mg, 199. 
in pedagogy of Innovators, 204. 
modem conversational method, 197- 

taught in Egypt, 50. 
taught in Roman schools, 78. 
Latin, in Locke's system of education, 


in Melanchthon's course, 173. 

in Milton's pedagogy, 219. 

in pedagogy of Innovators, 204. 

in Sturm's school course, 176. 

in Trotzendorf's school course, i88. 

revival of study, 151, 153. 
Latin Kingdom, established at Jerusa- 
lem, 137. 
Latin Schools, Strasburg Gymnasium the 
model for, 176. 





% rf I 

Latin text-books, Neander's, i8o. 
Latini, Brunette, teacher of Dante, 155. 
Launceiot, leader of Port Royalists, 188. 
Laurie, S. S., quoted, 107, 139, 140. 
Law, in Milton's scheme ot education, 

studied in Egypt, 47. 

taught in Gyinnasiu, 293. 

taught in schools ot prophets and 
rabbis, 44. 
Leibnitz, on Jesuit schools, 187. 
Leipsic, University of, 141. 
Leonard and Gertrude, Pestalozzi's, 263, 

Leopold of Dessau, establishes the Phi- 

lanthropin. 251. 
Letters, forms and names to be learned 

simultaneously, 88. 
Library at Alexandria, 107. 

at Pekin, 25. 
Literat>rs, in charge of Roman schools, 

Literature, Hebrew, 44. 

in Athens influences world, 56. 

lack of Christian, 94. 

opp->sition to pagan, 94, 113, 115, 126. 

pi.grimages to Egypt to study, 47. 
Literatus, teacher of Roman school, 78. 
Local school board in Germany, 291. 
Loci Communes, Melanchthon's, 172. 
Locke, John, education of, 220, 221. 

educational works of, 221. 

Essay Concerning Human Understand- 
ing, 221. 

his influence on education, 223. 

Montaigne's influence on, 195, 196. 

reforms of, 204. 

tutor at Christ Church, ?2i. 
Logic, in monastic education, 119. 

taught in Sturm's school course, 176. 
Lord's Prayer, taught in Charlemagne's 

reign, 128. 
Louis VIL of France, leads second cru- 
sade, 137. 
Loyola, founds Jesuit order, 183. 
Lucretius, 74. 

compared with Rabelais, 194, 195. 
Lund, univeisity at, 14:. 
Luther, Martin, Augustinian monk, 168. 

contrasted with Erasmus, 162. 

educational reforms of, 166. 

influence of, 18. 

lays foundation of German school sys- 
tem, 169. 

leader German Reformation, 165. 

life and struggles of, 167. 

pedagogy of, 169. 

profcsso' ^\ Wittenberg, x68. 

KeuchUi ')B, z6o. 

Luther, Martin, summoned before Diet 
of Worms, 168. 
translates Bible, 168. 
work marked out by, 175. 
Lutheran churches, schools in connec- 
tion with, 181. 
Lyceum at Athens, founded by Aristotle, 

Lycurgus, influence in Sparta, 73. 

laws of, qz. 
Lyons, cloister school at, 118. 

Macaulay, Lord, on Dacon, 205, 206, 

Magi, Persian priesii, 37, 38. 
Mainz, university at, 141. 
Malone, John, on Clirysostom, 105. 
Mann, Horace, An-iu U i<eports, 2d6. 

at Brown University, 285. 

at Litchfield, 285. 

educational campaign of, 286. 

life of, 284, 285. 

on common schools, 285. 

president of Antioch Co, lege, 288. 

Secretary of State Board ot Education, 

services to education, 288. 

Seve.ith Annual Report of, 286. 

statesman, 285, 288. 
Manual training school, Locke advo- 
cates, 222. 
Maps, early, 120. 

Marenholtz-Biiiow, Bertha von. disci- 
ple of Froebel, 277. 
Manner's compass invented, 148. 
Marriage, Christ's teaching on, 91. 

controlled by State in Sparta, 73. 
Martel, Charles, checks Mohammedan- 
ism, 144. 
Martial training, in Sparta, 69-71. 
Martin, on work of Horace Mann, 286. 
Massachusetts, new epoch in educational 
history, 285-287. 

normal schools established in, 287. 
Mathem.atics, central idea of Pythago- 
rean system, 73. 

discoveries of Hindus, 35. 

taught in Egypt, 50. 

taught in Mohammedan schools, 145. 
Matthison, leader of Philanthropin, 254. 
Mecca, Mohammed's flight from, 143. 

pilgrimages to, 145. 
Mechanics, third caste in Egypt, 47, 48. 

third caste in India, 30. 
Mechlenburg, active in school work, 203. 
Medicine, in Milton's scheme of educa- 
tion, 219. 

taught in Egypt, 50. 

taught in Gymnasium, 293. 


INDEX 335 

Medicine taught in schools of prophets, 

Monasteries, Alfred the Great estab- 


lishes, 131. 

Medina, Mohammed flees to, 143. 

benefits to civilization by, 1-20. 

Melanchthon, Phiiipp, colaborer of Lu- 

center of educational activity, 146. 

ther, 170. 171. 

center of reiigious interest, 120. 

early life and studies of, 171. 

power of, I I'd. 

educational work of, 172, 173. 

services to education, 102. 

first Protestant psychologist, 173. 

suppress scientific discoveries, 116, 117. 

Greelc professor at Wittenberg, 171. 

Monastic education, 116-120. 

lectures at Tubingen, 171. 

Monitorial System, defined. 307. 

Loci Communes, 172. 

Montaigne, education of, 196. 

Saxony scho^>l plan, 172, 173. 

hssays, 197. 

service to schoo.s, 172. 

influence on Locke, 223. 

text-books, 172. 

pedagogy of, 195, 197, 198. 

work marked out by, 175. 

Montanists, teachings ol, 113. 

Memory, cultivation of, in Chinese edu- 

Monte Cassino, monastery at, 117, 118. 

cation, 24, 25, 27. 

Moravian Brethren, Comenius member 

in Cicero's pjdagogy, 84. 

of, 211, 213. 

in F^neion's pedagogy, 226. 

Moravian School, Comenius teacher of. 

in humanistic education, 163. 


in India, 32-34. 

Moses founder of Hebrew literature, 44. 

Memphis, institution for higher learning 

Mosiemism. See Mohammedanism. 

at, so. 

Mother-school {ecole matentelle) in 

Merchants, third caste in India, 30. 

France, 298. 

Methodists, purpose of, 231. 

Motive of education, among Jews, 52. 

Mid Jendorf, Wilhelm, joins Froebel, 275. 

in Athens. 59. 

Middle Ages, progress during, 146, 147. 

in China, 27, 52. 

Military class, in Egypt, 48. 

in Egypt, 52. 

Military schools, in China, 27. 

in India, 34, 52. 

Military training, in Persia, 38. 

in Persia, 38, 52. 

in Sparta, 69. 

in Rome, 80. 

Mi.ton, John, defines education, 217 

in Sparta, 69, 71. 

reforms of, 204. 

Music, cultivation of, among Jews, 43. 

scheme of education, 219, 220. 

during Charlemagne s reign, 128. 

teacher, 218. 

in Athens, 58, 59. 

Tracta'e, 218. 

in Egypt, 50. 

Mines, schools of, in France, 299. 

in monastic education, 119. 

Minister of education in France, 290, 

in Sparta, 71. 


in Sturm's school course, 176. 

Minnesingers, compositions of, 135. 

Missionary enterprise in India, 32. 

Nantes, university at, 141. 

Model school at Frankfurt-am-Main, 273. 

Napoleon, quoted, 97. 

Modern educators, 241-314. 

National Bureau of Education, in United 

Basedow, 250-256. 

States, 309, 310. 

Froebel, 272-277. 

National Herbart Society in America, 

Herbart, 278-283. 


Mann, 284-288. 

National Schools, Andrew Bell estab- 

Pestalozzi, 257-271. 

lishes, 305. 

Rousseau, 241-249. 

Nature study, Chrir.t advocates, 99. 

Mohammed, flight of, 143. 

inductive methods lead to, 208. 

precepts of, 144, 145. 

Navigation, in Mil.on's scheme of edu- 

spread of doctrines of, 144. 

cation, 219. 

writes Koran, 143. 

Neander, Michael, teacher at Ilfeld, 179. 

Mohammedan education, 143-147. 

text-books of, 180. 

five Moslem precepts, 144. 

Nero, pupil of Seneca, 84. 

history of Mohammedanism, 143-145. 

Neuhof, Pestalozzi's experiment at, 261, 

scientific progress made, 145. 


Mohammedanism, history of, 143-145. 

Nicole, leader of Port Royalists, 188. 

in India, 31. 

Nile, importance to Egypt, 46. 




Nile, inundations encourage mathemati- 
cal study, 50. 
Nineteenth century education, general 
view, 237-240. See also Modern 
Educators and School Systems. 
Nisibis, c icchetical school at, 107. 
Nitric acid discovered, 145. 
Normal schools, in France, 297, 
in Germany, 290, 294. 
in Massachusetts, 287. 
in United States, 314. 
La Salle establishes first, 228. 
teachers appointed in, 290. 
Novum Organuiii, Bacon's, 207. 

Obedience, cardinal Chinese virtue, 23. 
Object teaching, beginning of, 266. 

of Jansenists, 189. 

Pestalozzi's, 270. 
Occam, leader of scholasticism, 122. 
Occupation, a factor in education, i6. 
Odessa, catechetical school at, 107. 

first Christian common school 



Olympia, Holy Land of Greece, 55. 
Olympiad, basis for computing time, 55. 
Olympian games, influence and charac- 
ter of, 54, 55. 
Orations of Cicero, 82, 83. 
Oratory, ideal of education in Rome, ^t, 
78, 80. 

Quintilian's views regarding, 87. 
Orhis Pictus, Comenius's first illustrated 

text-book, 214, 215. 
Order of Jesus. See Jesuits. 
Oriental civilization, basis of, 89. 
Oriental education, aim of, 91. 

summary of, 51, 52. 
Origen, character of, no. 

education of, no. 

pedagogy of, no. 

service to education, loi. 
Orleans, university at, 141. 
Ormuzd, principle of light in Persian 

religion, 39. 
Orphan asylum, at Halle, founded, 233, 

Oxford, cloister school at, 118. 
Locke tutor at, 221. 
University of, i; i, 141. 

Pagan education, conflict with Christian, 

Pagan liierature, opposition to, 94, 113, 

115, 120. 
Pantaenus, establishes catechetical 

school, 107. 
Pantagruel, Rabelais's, 193. 

Paper, invented, 148. 
Paradise Lost, Milton's, 217. 
Paris, cloister school at, 118. 

university at, 124, 140, 141. 
Parker, Colonel, on Horace Mann, 284,< 

Parliamentary grants for school expenses, 

Parochial schools, 139 n. 
Pascal, leader of Port Royalists, 188. 
Pastor, superintendent of German schools, 

Paul, services to education, 102. 
Paul III., Pope, recognizes Jesuits, 183. 
Paulsen, on John Sturm, 175, 176, 177. 

on Neander's text-books, 180. 
Pedagogium, established by Francke, 

234, 236. 
Pedagogue, duty of, in Athens, 56, 58. 

in Rome, 77. 
Pedagogy, begins with history of educa- 
tion, 15. 

elevated to dignity of a science, 282. 

of Agricola, 158. 

of Alfred the Great, 131. 

of Aristotle, 66, 67. 

of Ascham, 190-192. 

of Bacon, 207-209. 

of Basedow, 251-256. 

of Basil the Great, 106. 

of Benedictines, 118, 119. 

of Boccaccio, 157. 

of Charlemagne, 127-129. 

of Christ, 91, 97-100. 

of Chrysostom, 105. 

of Cicero, 83. 

of Clement of Alexandria, 109. 

of Comenius, 214-217. 

of Confucius, 28. 

of Dante, 156. 

of Erasmus, 162, 163. 

of F6nelon, 226, 227. 

of Feudalism, 132-135. 

of Francke, 234-236. 

of Froebel, 275-277. 

of Herbart, 282, 283. 

of Humanists, 153. 

of Innovators, 204. 

of Jesuits, 184-188. 

of La Salle, 227, 228. 

of Locke, 221-223. 

of Loyola, 183. 

of Luther, 169. 

of Mann, 285-288. 

of Melanchthon, 172. 

of Milton, 218, 219. 

of Mohammedans, 145. 

of Nfontaigne, 195-198. 

of Neander, 179-181. 



Pedagogy, of Origen, no. 

of Pestalozzi, 269-271. 

of Petrarch, 151. 

of Plato, 63-65. 

of Port Royalists, 189. 

of Pythagoras, 73. 

of Quintilian, 87. 

of Rabelais, 194, 195. 

of Ratke, 211. 

of Reuchlin, 160. 

of Rousseau, 243-249. 

of St. Augustine, 115. 

of Scholastics, 124. 

of Seneca, 85. 

of Socrates, 62. 

of Sturm, 176, 177. 

of Tertullian, 113. 

of Trotzendorf, 178, 179. 
Pekin, royal library at, 25. 
Pendulum, applied to reckon time, 145. 
Pensions to teachers, in England, 308. 

in France, 302. 

in Germany, 294. 
Pericles, Age of, 54, 57. 

Athenian statesman, 56. 
Perioeci, in Sparta, 68. . 
Persia, 36, 39. 

criticism of education, 38. 

geography and history, 36. 

home, religion in, 37. 

military education in, 16, 38. 

motive for education in, 52. 

state education in, 37, 38. 

status of women in, 37. 

training of children in, 37. 

Zoroaster, 39. 
Persian education, criticism of, 38. 
Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich, childhood 
and character, 257, 258. 

Christian ministry, 259. 

failures of, 259, 260, 262. 

farming, 260. 

influence of, 18. 

law, 260. 

lesson of love taught by, 271. 

marriage, 261. 

Neuhof, experiences at, 262. 

object teaching of, 189. 

pedagogy of, 269, 271. 

purposes of, 259. 

school at Burgdorf, 266. 

school at Stanz, 264, 265. 

school at Yverdon, 267, 268. 

schooling of, 258. 

unites with Kriisi, 267. 

work of, 269. 

writings of, 263, !:54. 
Peter the Hermit, crusade of, 136. 
Petrarch, father of humanism, 155, 156. 

HIST. OF ED. — 23 

Petrarch, influence of, 151-153. 
lays foundation of modern education, 

Pfefferkom, John, antagonism to He- 
brew works, 160. 
Phaedo, Plato's, 63. 
Philanthropin, established, 251. 

failure of, 252-254. 

purpose of, 252. 
Philip Augustus, of France, aids univer- 
sity at Paris, 141. 

leads third crusade, 137. 
Philippics, of Cicero, 82. 
Philosophical discoveries, of Hindus, 35. 
Philosophy, in Athens, 59. 

in catechetical schools, 108. 

in Egypt, 47. 

in gymnasium, 293. 

in Jesuit schools, 185. 

in Mohammedan schools, 145. 

in Roman schools, 78. 

in schools of prophets, 44. 

natural, in Milton's scheme of educa- 
tion, 219. 

of Christ, 98. 

scholasticism, 124. 
Phoenicians, invent alphabet, glass mak- 
ing, and purple dyeing, 51. 
Phonic method of spelling, introduced, 

Physical education, in Aristotle's scheme, 

in Athens, 58. 

in Erasmus's scheme, 163. 

in F6nelon's scheme, 226. 

in Feudalism, 133, 135. 

in Innovators' scheme, 204. 

in Locke's scheme, 221, 229. 

in Luther's scheme, 170. 

in Milton's scheme, 220. 

ir Persia, 38. 

\\ Pestalozzi's scheme, 263. 

in Plato's scheme, 64, 65. 

in Rome, 77. 

in Rousseau's scheme, 244. 

in Sparta, 70. 
Pietism, influence of, 232. 

purpose of, 231. 
Plato, Athenian philosopher, 56. 

disciple of Socrates, 63. 

first systematic scheme of education, 65. 

founds school at Athens, 63. 

republic, 63. 

State to have control of citizens, 64. 

testimony to Socrates, 62. 
Play, educational force in Athens, 57, 

in F6nelon's pedagogy, 226. 

in Froebel's system, 274. 



Poetry, in Athens, 57, 59. 

in Roman schools, 78. 

in schools of prophets, 44. 
Poitiers, university at, 141. 
Political freedom of Greeks, 54. 
Political rights, extension of, 239. 
Polygamy, in China, 22. 

in Egypt, 49. 

in India, 31. 
Polytechnic schools, in China, 27. 
Port Royalists, purpose of, 188. 

services to education, 199. 
Practical training of Roman children, 79. 
Practice school, at Jena, 281. 

at Konigsberg, 280. 

Herbarfs, 280. 
Prague, battle of, 212. 

university established at, 124, 141. 
Praise of Folly, Erasmus's, 162. 
Prerau, Moravian School at, 212. 
Priests, inriuence in Egypt, 47, 48. 
Primary education. See Elementary Edu- 
Printing, invented, 26, 148. 

influence on universal education, 150, 
164, 165. 
Printing press, invented, 148. 
Privat Docent, in German universities, 

232 n. 2. 
Progymnasia, in Germany, 292 n. 
Pronunciation, in Roman education, 76, 

Prophets, schools of, 44. 
Prorealgymnasia, 292 n. 
Protestant educators, 174-18 1. 

Gymnasium at Strasburg, 175. 

Melanchthon's course of study, 174. 

Neander, 179. 

Sturm, 175. 

Trotzendorf, 178. See also Humanistic 
Educators and Reformation. 
Protestant Reformation, 165-173. 
Protestantism, spirit of, among common 
people, 200. 

spread of, checked, 182. 
Protogenes, establishes school at Odessa, 

Provinces, thirteen royal, school admin- 
istration in, 290. 
Prussia, kindergarten in, 275, 276. 

school system of, 128, 289-295. 
Psalms, translated into Anglo-Saxon, 131. 
Ptolemaic system of astronomy, 148. 
Ptolemies, found Alexandrian library, 50. 
Public schools, first Christian, 105, 107. 

in England, 306. 

in France, 298. 

in Germany, 293. 

in Massachusetts, 286. 

Public schools, in Rome, 78. 

in United States, 313. 

Quintilian advocates, 88. 
Punishment, Basil the Great's views re- 
garding, 106. 

Cicero's views regarding, 83. 

F6nelon's views regarding, 226. 

in Jesuit schools, 186. 

Montaigne's views regarding, 196, 197. 

Quintilian's views regarding, 87. 

Seneca's views regarding, 85. 

See also Corporal Punishment. 
Pupil teachers, 307. 

Pupils, number assigned to one teacher 
among Jews, 43. 

number of, fixed by State in Athens, 58. 
Puritans, struggles with established 

church, 200. 
Pythagoras, life of, 73. 

mathematical system of, 73. 

philosophy of, 73. 

Quadrivium, second course in seven 

liberal arts, 118, 119. 
Quick, on Ascham, 192. 

on Basedow's system, 254. 

on demands of Reformers, 204. 

on Jesuit education, 187. 

on Milton, 218. 

on Pestalozzi, 258, 268, 269, 270. 

on Ratke, 209. 

on Rousseau's hatred of books, 241. 

on the Philanthropin, 251, 252. 
Quintilian, education and life of, 86. 

founds school at Rome, 86. 

Institutes of Oratory, 87. 

pedagogy of, 87. 

receives title of Professor of Oratory, 86. 

works of, studied in monastic educa- 
tion, 119. 

Rabbis, schools of, 44. 

Rabelais, compared with Lucretius, 194, 


friend of Calvin, 193. 

Gargantua and Pantagruel, 193. 

influence of Locke on, 223. 

introduces realism into education, 194. 

life of, 192, 193. 

pedagogy of, 194. 
Ramadan, fast of, 144. 
Ramsauer, on Pestalozzi's method of 

teaching, 266. 
Ratio Studiorum, of Jesuits, 188. 
Ratke, method of teaching language, 209, 

pedagogy of, 211. 

reforms of, 204. 
Raumer, on Comenius, 213. 



Reading, in Athenian schools, 58. 

in Chinese schools, 24. 

in Jewish schools, 43. 

in monastic schools, 119. 

in Persian schools, 38. 

in Roman schools, 78. 

in schools of India, 32. 

not taught in Sparta, 71. 

taught during Charlemagne's reigfn,i28. 

taught by Quintilian, 88. 
Real-school in Germany, course in, 293. 

founded, 236. 
Realgymnasia, 292 n. 
Realism, in education, 194. 
Reformation, as an educational influ- 
ence, 164-174, 199. 

conditions at beginning of sixteenlli 
century, 164. 

instills love for religious liberty, 200. 

intellectual conditions, 166. 

invention of printing, 165. 

Luther, 167-169. 

Melanchthon, 170-173. 

spread of educational ideas of, 180. 
Registration, book of, in French schools, 

Reichstag, school interests represented 

in, 290. 
Rein, Professor Wilhelm, chief exponent 
of Ziller school, 281. 

on Herbart's pedagogy, 278, 282. 

practice school under, 281. 
Religion, center of school course, 181. 

Chinese, 21, 28. 

Christian. See Christianity. 

in Egypt, 48, 50. 

in India, 31, 35. 

in Mi' ton's scheme ol education, 219. 

in Persia, 37, 39. 

• of Jews, 41,42,45. 

of Romans, 75. 

taught in Sturm's school course, 177. 
Religious freedom attained, 201, 240. 
Religious instruction, Cicero advocates, 

in Egypt, 50. 

in German schools, 170. 

Rousseau's views regarding, 247, 248. 

See also Christian education. 
Removal of teachers, causes for, 294, 301. 
Renaissance, 148-173. 

defined, 148, 173. 

humanistic movement, 149-163. 

influence on Teutonic race, 149. 

inventions and discoveries during, 149, 

revival of classics, 150. 

universal education advocated, 150, 


Rcuchlin, humanistic leader, 153. 

introduces Greek into Germany, 160. 

professor at Tubingen, 159. 

services to Hebrew learning, 159. 

teacher of Melanchthon, 171. 
Revival of learning. See Renaissance. 
Revolution, American, lessons of, 239. 

French, 239, 264. 

of 1688, 200. 
Rheims, first normal school established 

at, 228. 
Rhetoric, in Athenian schools, 59. 

in catechetical schools, 108. 

in monastic education, 119. 

in Sturm's school course, 176. 

the climax of education, 88. 
Richard the Lion-Hearted, leads third 

crusade, 137. 
Rod, discipline of, in China, 24. 

Montaigne's opposition to, 196, 197. 

used in Roman schools, 78. 
RoUin, reforms of, 204. 
Roman educators, 81-88. 

Cicero, 81-84. 

Quintilian, 86-88. 

Seneca, 84-86. 
Rome, 74-80. 

Age of Augustus, 74, 75. 

birth of Christ, 74. 

criticism of education, 80. 

education in, 77-79. 

educators of, 81-88. 

geography and history of, 75, 76. 

government in, 75. 

home in, 76. 

home training of children, 76, 77. 

influence of Greek culture on, 74. 

oratory highest art in education, 'j'j, 

persecution of Christians, 94. 

philosophers from, visit Museum of 
Alexandria, 50, 51. 

practical training of children, 79. 

religion of, 75. 

supremacy of, 74. 

utility the aim of education, 79. 

woman's status in, 90. 
Rosetta stone, furnishes key to interpre- 
tation of hieroglyphics, 47. 
Rostock, University of, 141. 
Rote learning, in Chinese schools, 24. 
Rouen, cloister school at, 118. 
Roundheads, struggles with cavaliers, 200. 
Rousseau, Jean Jacques, ^";«/7<?, 244-248. 

influenced by Montaigne, 195, 196. 

life of, 241, 242. 

on Christ, 97. 

on education of women, 248. 

pedagogy of, 243. 



[111 'M 

' 1 

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, Pestalozzi ap- 
plies principles of, 269, 270. 
scheme of education, as outlined in 

Entile, 244-248. 
works of, 243. 
Rugby, college founded at, 174, 306. 
Russia, serfs freed in, 238. 

St. Augustine. See Augustine, St. 
St. Gall, cloister school at, 118, 120. 
Saint-Simon, on F6nelon, 224. 
Saladin, captures Jerusalem, 137. 
Salaries of teachers, in England, 308. 

in France, 300, 302. 

in Germany, 295. 

in United States, 314. 
Salerno, university at, 140. 
Sallust, Roman writer, 74. 
Salzburg, cloister school at, 118. 
Salzmann, leader of Philanthropin, 254. 
Sanskrit, language of India, 30, 34. 
Saracens, conquer Holy Land, 136. 

schools of, 140. 
Saxony School Plan, principles of, 172, 

173. 174, 177. 
Schmidt, Karl, on Alfred the Great, 130. 

on Aristotle, 67. 

on corruption of the church, 151. 

on culture, 43. 

on emancipation of the individual, 52. 

on history of humanity, 15, 16. 

on Tohann Sturm, 177. 

on St. Augustine's Confessions, 114. 

on scholasticism, 123. 

on teachings of Jesus Christ, 97, 100. 

on the Entile, 249. 
Scholasticism, benefits of, 123, 124. 

defined, 121. 

downfall of, 123. 
Scholeniaster, Roger Ascham's, 190. 
School attendance, in England, 306. 

in France, 297, 298. 

in Germany, 291, 292. 

in United States, 311, 312. 
School board, in England, 305. 

in France, 296. 

in Germany, 290, 291. 

in United States, 310. 
School fund in United States, 309. 
School government, Trotzendorf's re- 
forms in, 178, 179. 
School hours, in Athens, 58, 60. 

in Germany, 292. 
Schoolhouses in India, 33. 

public, none in China, 23. 
School inspector, in German schools, 290. 
Schoolmaster, German, position of, 295. 
"School of the Palace," established, 

School pence, expense of English schools 

met by, 306. 
School practice, Herbart's, 280. 
Schoolroom in China, 24. 
School system, Comenius's organization 
of, 215. 

of England, 304-308. 

of France, 296-303. 

of Germany, 289-295. 

of United States, 309-314. 
Schools, apprentice in France, 299. 

catechetical, 107. 

catechumen, 104. 

cathedral, 139 n. 

charity, in China, 23. 

church, 102, 181. 

cloister, 118. 

common, 78, 88, 105, 107, 181, 286, 
287, 292, Q93, 298, 313. 

elementary. See Elementary Schools. 

established in Germany, 180. 

graduate, in United States, 312. 

Gymnasium, in Germany, 293. 

high. See High Schools. 

in Athens, under state inspection, 58, 

industrial, for poor, 262. 

infant, in France, 298. 

Jesuit, 183-188. 

Jewish, 42. 

manual training, 222. 

Mohammedan, 145, 146. 

mother, in France, 298. 

national, in England, 305. 

normal. See Normal Schools. 

of mines, in France, 299. 

of the prophets, 44. 

of the rabbis, 44. 

pagan, abolished, 115. 

parochial, 139 n. 

primary, in France, 298, 299. 

public. See Public Schools. 

Real, in Germany, 236, 293. 

secondary, in United States, 312. 

summer, in United States, 313. 

support of, in England, 306, 307. 

support of, in France, 299, 300. 

support of, in Germany, 293. 

support of, in United States, 313. 

teachers' salaries in. See TeachiMg, 

technical, in France, 299. 

undergraduate, in United States, 312. 

voluntary, in England, 305 «., 306. 
Schulthess, Anna, marries Pestalozzi, 261. 
Schwegler, on number, 73. 

on scholasticism, 122, 124. 
Science, among ancient Egyptians, 47, 

instrumental in civilization, 239. 

monastic opposition to, 116. 



Science, natural, Neander favors study 
of, 179. 

natural, taught in Egypt, 47, 50. 

of Ciiinese, 26. 

Rabelais gives first rank to, 195. 
Scientific discoveries, results of, 239. 
Scriptures, Holy, in schools, 217. 
Secondary schools, in United States, 312. 
Secular courses of study established, 118. 
Self-government of students, Trotzendorf 
introduces, 178, 179. 

the principle established, 239. 
Seminar, in Germany, 281, 
Seneca, compared with Fenelon, 225, 226. 

education of, 84. 

pedagogy of, 85. 

religious sentiment of, 85. 

suicide of, 85. 

tutor of Nero, 84. 
Sense-realism, Innovators advocate, 224, 

Serapis, temple of, library in, 107, 108. 
Servants, fourth caste in India, 30. 

marriage of, 32. 
Seven hberal arts, 118. 

basis of school instruction, 127. 
Seventeenth century, education during, 

Seventh Annual Report of Horace Mann, 

Shaftesbury, Earl of, friendship with 

Locke, 221. 
Shastas, commentary on Vedas, 31. 
Shrewsbury, school at, 306. 
Siculus Diodorus, Greek writer, 47. 
Simultaneous method, inaugurated, 227. 
Sixteenth century, education of, 164-199. 
Slavery, abolition of, 238. 
Slaves, in Athens, 56. 

in Egypt, 49. 

in Rome, 'j'j, 

in Sparta, 68. 
Sleep of children, Locke's rules regard- 
ing, 221. 
Sobieski, John, checks Mohammedan 

advance, 144. 
Social Contract, Rousseau's, 243. 
Socrates, Athenian philosopher, 56. 

death of, 62, 63. 

dialectical methods of, 62. 

doctrines of, 62. 

influence of, 18. 

life and home of, 61. 

methods of teaching, 62. 

personal appearance of, 61. 

religious belief of, 62. 
Solomon, founder of Hebrew literature, 

Solon, Athenian lawgiver, 57. 

Some Thoughts Concerning Education, 

Locke's, 221. 
Songs, church, 107. 
Songs for Mother and Nursery, Froebel's, 

Sophists, teachers of grammar, 59. 
Soroe, Basedow professor at, 251. 
Sparta, 68-73. 
coeducation in, 71. 
contrasted with Athens, 56. 
criticism of education, 71. 
history of, 68. 
home in, 69. 
Lycurgus, 72, 73. 
martial training in, 69, 70, 71. 
physical education in, 16. 
State control of children, 69, 70, 73. 
status of woman in, 69-71. 
tyranny, the spirit of, 56. 
Spartan education, criticism of, 71. 
Spelling, phonic method introduced, 189. 
Spencer, Herbert, on function of educa- 
tion, 217. 
Spener, Philipp Jakob, originator of Pie- 
tism, 231. 
Stagira, Aristotle founds school at, 65. 
Stanz, Pestaiozzi's stliool at, 264. 
State, assumes responsibility of educa- 
tion in Germany, 174. 
controls citizens in Pluto's scheme of 

education, 64. 
controls education in Persia, 37, 38. 
controls education of Spartan children, 

controls schools in Athens, 60. 
interest of, aim of oriental education, 

supervises English schools, 306. 
supports schools in France, 298. 
State Board of Education, duties of, 311. 

established, 286. 
State school system, in United States, 

State support of public instruction in 

American schools, 310. 
Stettin, first Prussian normal school at, 

Stoy, Karl Volkmar, establishes practice 

school at Jena, 281. 
Strasburg Gymnasium, organization of, 
175, 176. 
Sturm, rector of, 175. 
Studia inferior a and superior a of Jesuit 

schools, 185. 
Sturm, Johann, education of, 175. 
influence of, 177. 
rector at Strasburg Gymnasium, 175, 

school course of, 176, 177, 





Sulphuric acid, Arabians discover, 145. 
Suimner scliool, in United States school 

system, 313. 
Superintendent of schools, duties of, 310. 

Superstition of Romans, 76. 

Support of schools, in England, 306. 

in France, 299. 

in Germany, 293. 

in United States, 313. 
Swinton, on antiquity of Egyptian history, 

on influence of ICgyptian priests, 48. 

Switzerland, lierbart in, 279. 

kindergarten in, 276. 

Talich, Hermann, seliool course of, 176 n. 
Talmud, extracts from, 45, 46. 

influence of, 45. 

on discipline of children, 43. 

origin ot sayings in, 44. 
Tax lor schools, in United States, 313. 
Taylor, iJayard, on Charles V., Emperor 
of Germany, 166. 

on Tliirty Years' War, 201. 
Teach'Ms, in Athens, 58, 59. 

in China, 23, 24. 

in Egypt, 49, 50. 

in England, 235, 307. 

in France, 300-302. 

in Ciermany, 290, 291, 293, 294. 

in India, 32, 33, 34. 

in Jesuit schools, 185. 

in "Jewish schools, 43. 

in Mohammedan scliools, 146. 

in Persia, 38. 

in United States, 313. 

professional training of, 163, 170, 188, 
228, 235, 280, 294, 307, 313. 

salaries of, 58, 59, 286, 295, 300-302, 
308, 313. 

tenure of office of, 294, 302, 307, 

'leacher's Institute, m United States 

school system, 313. 

Technical schools, in France, 299. 

Ji'iemachus, F6nelon's, 225. 

Tenure of oftice of teachers, in England, 

in France, 302. 
in Germany, 294. 
in United States, 314. 
Tertuliian, birth of, 112. 
conversion of, 112. 
founder of Christian Latin literature, 

joins Montanists, 113. 

Testament, Greek, Erasmus's translation, 


Testament, Old, books of, stimulated by 

prophets, 44. 
Teutonic nations, leaders in civilization, 

103, 149. 
Text-book, first illustrated, 215. 
Thales, father of philosophy, 73. 
Thebes, institution for higher learning 

at, 50. 
Theocratic education, of Jews, 40. 
Theology, in Gymnasium, 293. 
in Jesuit schools, 185. 
in schools of rabbis, 44. 
Thirty Years' War, 201, 212. 
Toga virilis, when assumed, 79. 
Toulouse, university at, 141. 
'lours, cloister school at, 118. 
Township system of education, in United 

States, 311. 
Toys, lack of, in China, 23. 
of Athenian children, 57. 
of Persians, 57. 
of Spartans, 69. 
Tractate on Education, Milton's, 217, 218. 
Tradesmen's castes, in India, 30. 
Tradespeople, third caste in Egypt, 48. 
Training school, in United States, 313. 
Translation, double, for language study, 

Transmigration of souls, Chinese belief 

in, 22. 
Trier, university at, 141. 
Trigonometry, in Milton's scheme of 
education, 219. 
taught by Mohammedans, 145. 
Trivium, first course in seven liberal arts, 

118, 119. 
Trotzendorf, Valentine, discipline and 
methods of, 178. 
life of, 178. 

pupil of Melanchthon, 178. 
rector at Goldberg, 178. 
Tubingen, center of humanistic move- 
ment, 153, 159. 
university at, 141. 
Twelve Tables, of Roman Law, 76. 

Undergraduate school, in United States, 

Understanding, development of, 189. 
United States, administration of schools, 
attendance in schools, 311. 
education in, 309-314. 
land grants for education, 309, 310. 
State system, 309, 310. 
support of schools, 313. 
teachers, 313, 314. 
Universal education, advocated by Char- 
lemagne, 128, 131. 



; move- 

Universal education, in German schools, 

131, 170. 
Universal German Educational Institute, 

at Griesheim, 275. 
Universities, established through scho- 
lastic influence, 124. 
in England, 306. 
in United States, 312, 313. 
preparation for, in Germany, 293. 
privileges granted to, 142. 
rise of, 139-142. 
services of, 142. 
State, in France, 299. 
Upsala, university at, 141. 

Vasseur, Th6r6se le, wife of Rousseau, 

Veda, Bible of India, 30. 

reading lessons from, 33. 
Vergil, Roman poet, 74. 
Vespasian, honors Quintilian, 86. 
Vienna, university established at, 124, 141, 
Vogel, on errors of llmile, 244. 
Volksschule (common school) in Ger- 
many, 292. 
Voltaire, condemns Jesuit education, 187. 

on F6nelon, 227. 
Voluntary schools, in England, 305 «., 

Von Moltke, quoted, 295. 

Waldenses, reformers in Italy, 165. 
War, preparation for, chief end of edu- 
cation in Persia, 38. 
Warens, Madame de, befriends Rous- 
seau, 242. 
Warriors, education of, 34. 
marriage of, 32. 
second caste in India, 30. 
Weigel, Erhard, founds Real-school, 236. 
Weimar, Duke of, law for compulsory 

education, 203. 
Westminster, school at, 306. 
Williams, Professor, on Comenius's ser- 
vices to pedagogy, 214. 
on Locke, 223. 
on Ratke, 209. 

on Sturm's school course, 176, 177. 
Winchester, school at, 306. 
Winship, Mr., on Mann's Seventh Annual 

Report, 287, 288. 
Wittenberg, center of humanistic studies, 
Luther professor at, 168. 

Women, education of, among lews, 41. 

education of, during Charlemagne's 
reign, 128. 

education of, in Aristotle's scheme, 67. 

education of, in Athens, 60. 

education of, in China, 47. 

education of, in Egypt, 50. 

education of, in India, 35. 

education of, in Persia, 38. 

education of, in Rome, 80. 

education of, in Sparta, 71. 

education of, Rousseau's ideas of, 248. 

improvement in culture of, 90. 

Montaigne's contempt for, 198. 

status of, among Jews, 41, 44. 

status of, among oriental nations, 90. 

status of, in Athens, 58. 

status of, in China, 22, 27. 

status of, in Egypt, 49, 51. 

status of, in India. 31, 32, 35. 

status of, in Persia, 37. 

status of, in Rome, 76. 

status of, in Sparta, 69, 71. 
Working schools, Lock.? .irges estab- 
lishment of, 222. 
Writing, during Charlemagne's reign, 

in Athens, 58. 

in Chinese schools, 24. 

in Egypt, 50. 

in India, 32, 33. 

in Jewish schools, 43. 

in monastic education, 119. 

in Persian schools, 38. 

in Roman schools, 78. 

neglected in Sparta, 71. 
Wiirtemlierg, active in school work, 203. 
Wiirzburg, University of, 141. 
Wuttke, quoted, 34. 
Wyclif, reformer, 165. 

Xantippe, wife of Socrates, 61. 
Xenophon, testimony to Socrates, 62. 

Yellow Springs, Antioch College at, 288. 
Yverdon, Froebel at, 274. 
Pestalozzi's school at, 267, 268. 

Zeus, Olympian festivals in honor of, 55. 

Ziller School, 281. 

Zoroaster, dualistic philosophy of, 39. 

founder of Persian religion, 39. 

religion of, in Persia, 37. 
Zwingli, Swiss reformer, 165. 


f^^ V