Skip to main content

Full text of "On the Cyclopidae and Calanidae of Lake St. Clair, Lake Michigan and certain of the inland lakes of Michigan [microform]"

'iu 



^. 



^ 







IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




1.0 



I.I 



lU 



1^ 1^ 



1^ 12.2 
2.0 



I^ 



I.B 



L25 liiliu ill 1.6 



% 



v) 



A- 



'^? 



w 



^ 



ew 



> > 




V -^ 






z;^ 



(^ 




/A 




Hiotographic 

Sciences 

Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) «72-4S03 






\ 







a>^ 





N> 



% 



V 







\ 



■fv 



^^^%^ 



CIHM/ICMH 

Microfiche 

Series. 



CIHM/ICMH 
Coliection de 
microfiches. 




Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions / Institut Canadian da microreproductions historiques 





Technical and Bibliographic Notes/Notes techniques et bibllographiques 



The Institute has attempted to obtain the bes; 
original copy available for filming. Features of this 
copy which may be bibliographlcally unique, 
which may altar any of the images in the 
reproduction, or which may significantly change 
the usual method of filmirg, are checked below. 



E Coloured covers/ 
Couverture de couleur 



I I Covers damaged/ 



n 



n 



D 



Couverture endommagie 

Covers restored and/or laminated/ 
Couverture restaurie et/ou pelliculAe 

Cover title missing/ 

Le titre de couverture manque 

Coloured maps/ 

Cartes gAographiques en couleur 

Coloured inic (i.e. other than blue or black)/ 
Encre de couleur (i.e. autre que bleue ou noire) 



I I Coloured plates and/or illustrations/ 



Planches et/ou illustrajons en couleur 



Bound with other material/ 
Reli6 aveu d'autres documents 



Tight binding may cause shadows or iistortion 
along interior margin/ 

La reliure serr^e peut causer de I'ombre ou de la 
distortion le long de la marge intArieure 

Blank leaves added during restoration may 
appear within the text. Whenever possible, these 
have been omitted from filming/ 
II se peut que certaines pages blanches ajouties 
lors d'une restauration apparaissent dans le texte. 
mals, iorsque cela 6tait possible, ces pages n'ont 
pas 6x6 filmies. 

Additional comments:/ 
Commentaires suppl6mentaires; 



L'Institut a microfilm^ le meilleur exempiaire 
qu'il lui a 6t6 possible de se procurer. Les details 
de cet exempiaire qui sont peut-Atre uniques du 
point de vue bibliographique, qui peuvent modifier 
une image reproduite. ou qui peuvent exiger une 
modification dans la mithode normale de filmage 
sont indiquAs ci-dessous. 



I I Coloured pages/ 



Pages de couietsr 

Pages damaged/ 
Pages endommagAes 

Pages restored and/oi 

Pages restaurtes et/ou pelliculAes 

Pages discoloured, stained or foxet 
Pages dicoiorAes, tachetAes ou piqutes 

Pages detached/ 
Pages ddtachies 

Shcwthrough/ 
Transparence 

Quality of prir 

Qualit^ in6gale de I'impression 

Includes supplementary materii 
Compicnd du materiel suppl^mentaire 

Only edition available/ 
Seule Edition disponible 



I I Pages damaged/ 

I I Pages restored and/or laminated/ 

r~7| Pages discoloured, stained or foxed/ 

I I Pages detached/ 

r~Jj Shcwthrough/ 

r~n Quality of print varies/ 

I I Includes supplementary material/ 

I I Only edition available/ 



D 



Pages wholly or partially obscured by errata 
slips, tissues, etc., have been refilmed to 
ensure the best possible image/ 
Les pages totalement ou partiellement 
obscurcies par un feuiiiet d'errata, une pelure. 
etc., ont 6t6 fiimies A nouveau de fa^on 6 
obtenir la meilleure image possible. 



This item is filmed at the reduction ratio checked below/ 

Ce document est filmA au taux de reduction indiquA ci dessous. 

10X 14X 18X 22X 



26X 



30X 

























y 






























12X 








16X 








20X 








24X 








28X 








32X 


i 



The copy filmed here has been reproduced thanks 
to the generosity of: 

D. B. Wflldon Library 
University of Western Ontario 

The images appearing here are the best quality 
possible considering the condition and legibility 
of the original copy and in keeping with the 
filming contract specifications. 



Original copies in printed paper covers are filmed 
beginning with the front cover and ending on 
the last page with a printed or illustrated impres- 
sion, or the back cover when appropriate. All 
other original copies ere filmed beginning on the 
f:rst page with a printed or illustrated impres- 
sion, and ending or. the last page with a printed 
or illustrated impressioii. 



The last recorded frame on each microfiche 
shall contain the symbol — ^ (meaning "CON- 
TINUED"), or the symbol V (meaning "END"), 
whichever applies. 

Maps, plates, charts, etc.. may be filmed at 
different reduction ratios. Those too large to be 
entirely included in one exposure are filmed 
beginning in the upper left hand corner, left to 
right and top to bottom, as many frames as 
required. The following diagrams illustrate the 
method: 



L'exemplaire filmd fut reproduit grAce it la 
g«n6rosit6 de: 

D. B. Weldon Library 
University of Western Ontario 

Les images suivantes ont titi reproduites avec le 
plus grand soin. compte tenu de la condition et 
de la nettetd de l'exemplaire fiim6, et en 
conformity avec les conditions du contrat de 
filmage. 

Les exemplaires originaux dont la couverture en 
papier est imprimde sont film^s en commengant 
par le premier plat et en terminant soit par la 
dernidre page qui comporte une empreinte 
d'impression ou d'illustration, soit par le second 
plat, selon le cas. Tous les autres exemplaires 
originaux sont filmds en commenqant par la 
premidre page qui comt;>orte une empreinte 
d'impression ou d'illustration et en terminant par 
la dernidre page qui comporte ure telle 
empreinte. 

Un des symboles suivants apparaitra sur la 
dernidre image de cheque microfiche, selon le 
cas: le symbole — ^ signifie "A SUIVRE ". le 
symbole V signifie "FIN". 

Les cartes, planches, tableaux, etc.. peuvent dtre 
filmds d des taux de reduction diff^rents. 
Lorsque le document est trop grand pour dtre 
reproduit en un seul cliche, il est filmd d partir 
de Tangle supdii^ur ^nuche, de gauche d droite, 
et de haut en bas. en prenant le nombre 
d'images n^cessaire. Les diagrammes suivants 
illustrent la m6thode. 



1 


2 


3 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




;^f"^»"' 



Bulletin of the Michigan Pish Commission 
No. 5. 



OM THX 

CYCLOPID^ AND CALANIDtE OF LAKE ST. CLAIR, 

LAKE MICHIGAN, AND CERTAIN OF THE INLAND LAKES OF MICHIGAN. 



Bv C. DwioHT Marsh, 

PBOFEHSOB of BIOLOQT in RIPON COLIiBOS. 



Rbsclts of a BiOLoaioAL Examination of Lakk St. Claib Undkbtaken Fob the State Boabd of 
Fish CoHMissioNEBa in the Sumheb of 1898 undkb the Supebtibion of J. E. Rbighabd, 

AND OF SiMILAB WOBK IN THE SCMMEB OF 1894, IN THE ViOINITY OF CHABIiKTOIX 
UNDEB THX SVPEBVISION OF H. B. WABD. 



LANSING 
ROBERT SMITH & CO., STATE PRINTERS AND BINDERS, 

1896. 




li.ft-i -■ ,iJ»..--«*S«i.V!MS.vi>ri;. ■«>►.«> ■ - 



T 



''"T 



Bultetin of the Michigan Fish Commission 

No. 5. 



ox TUE 



CYCLOPID.K AND CALANID.E OF LAKE ST. CLAIR, 

LAKE MICHIGAN. AND CERTAIN OF THE INLAND LAKES OF MICHIGAN. 



Bv C. DwKiHT Marsh, 

PbOFESSOR of BlOLOOY IN RirON COLLEGK. 



Kksclts of a Biological Examination of Lake St. Clair Undeetaken Fou the State Boabd of 

Fish Commissionebs in the Summeb of 1893 under the Supervision of J. E. Reighabd, 

AND of Similar Wobk in the Summer of 1S94, in the Vicinity of Charlevoix 

under the Supervision of H. B. Ward. 



LANSING: 
ROBERT SMITH & CO., STATE PRINTERS AND BINDERS, 

1895. 



mm 



. .m 



l> 



ONTHECYCLOPID.i: AND CALANID^: OF LAKE ST. 

CLAIR, LAKE MICHIGAN, AND CERTAIN OF 

THE INLAND LAKES OF MICHIGAN. 



From the standpoint of the pisciculturist, perhaps no class of animals 
outside the fashes themselves is so important and interesting as the ento- 
mostraca. It is a well known fact that these minute cruetacea form the 
entire food material of the young of some of our most important food 
fashes, and in many cases form a large part of the food of the adults. 

Ihey are universally distributed. Every stream, lake, pond, and pool 
has Its population of these minute creatures. Moreover they are present 
in some places in enormous numbers. In the deeper waters of our lakes 
the surface waters to a depth of about thirty feet fairly swarm with cope- 
pods. In limnetic collections there are always present some Cladocera, 
but the great bulk of the material in any lake will consist of two or three 
species of Diapfomns and as many of Cyclops. 

Inasmuch as the occurrence and abundance of animals is largely depeu- 
dent on their food supply, it will be seen that an accurate and thorou<di 
knowledge of entomostraca is of fundamental importance, if we would 
have an exact knowledge of the conditions controlling our fish. 

The material on which this paper is based was obtained from the 
lollowing sources. 

1. Collections made by Professor Reighard in certain lakes in southern 
Michigan in the summers of 1891 and 1893. 

2. Collections made by Professor Reighard in the northern part of 
Jjake Michigan in the spring of 1898. 

3. Collections made by Professor Reighard during the biological exam- 
ination of Lake St. Clair in the summer of 1898. This involved a verv 
large number of collections in the months of July and August, and its 
results probably give us a very accurate knowledge of the copepod fauna 
of Lake ht. Clair in the summer season. In connection with ihis work a 
tew collections were also made in the Detroit river and in Lake Erie 

4. Collections made in July and August 1894 in connection with the 
scientifac work ol the Michigan Fish Commis.siou at Charlevoix This 
involved a careful examination of Round Lake and Pine Lake, collections 
in Lake Michigan and the lakes on Beaver Island, and cursory examina- 
tions of the small lakes in the neighborhood of Charlevoix 



\> 



^ 



MICHIGAN FISH COMMISSION-BULLETIN NO. 



5, Collections mado by Dr. R. H. Ward in Soptember, 18'.>4, in Emmet 
and CheboyK'iu Counties, alou^ the '* Inland Route." 

Inasmuch as thest' collections were made for the most part, in the 
summer season, and more especial attention was paid to the larger bodies 
of water, the results of the examination cannot be considered as giving us 
a complete knowledge of the fauna of the State. A more careful examina- 
tion of the smaller lakes and of the stagnant pools would doubtless add 
some species to the list. Vet th(* number of those species would be small, 
and for the larger bodies of water the list as given in this paper is prob- 
ably very nearly complete. 

This becomes evident when one remembers how nearly identical are the 
fauna' of the deeper waters of our lakes. To such an extent is this true 
that one can prophesy (luite exactly what species will be found in a collec- 
tion from any of the lakes of this latitude. The collections from the 
deeper water will almost invariably give the following species: — Diaptomns 
orefionrnsis, Cycloi>^ f)revis])inosiit<, C. Li'uckarti iind C. Jluvi'dtilia. C. 
alhidiis and V. scrnilat)is may be present, but belong more properly to the 
littoral fauna. In the larger lakes, in addition to this list we may find 
Epischurn lacnslris. D.'-iplomns sirllis, 1). .Ishhindi, I), miniitiis, and 
LiiiinocdUmiifi niacrnrus are not commonly found except in the Great 
Lakes and in the bodies of water in direct connection with them; in the 
Great Lakes, too, C. piilchrllii.^ takes the place which C. hri'i^isinnosiis 
holds in the smaller lakes. 

I). Eeifiliardi is tiie only new species which I have found in the Michi- 
gan collections. As I have already remarked in a former paper ('93 p. 192) 
the species of Didpiomns are, in some cases, (juite limited in their distribu- 
tion, and apparently Didpionnis is much more susceptible to the influences 
of its environment than is Cj/clops. Very little is known of the life his- 
tories of the species of Diitpiomus, and it is possible that a more complete 
knowledge may lead to a reduction of the number of species. But, so far 
as I can see, all the forms described vary within comparatively narrow 
limits, and there is no evidence whatever to lead us to question the separa- 
tion of the forms. 

I have indicated, in the accompanying chart, the distribution of the 
species. It has not seemed necessary to indicate the character of the indi- 
vidual collections in Lake St. Clair and Lake Michigan as no particular 
significance is attached to such facts. 

The sketch maps will show most of the localities where the collections 
were made. 

It is interesting to note the greater richness of the copepod fauna> of our 
lakes as compared with those of the continent of Europe. Zacharias finds 
seven species of copepods belonging to the C/iclopi'div and C<d(undiV in 
the Ploner See. In Lake Michigan there are nine, and that includes no 
littoral species; in the lakes on the Beaver Island there are eight, in Pine 
Lake nine, in Round Lake eleven, in Intermediate Lake eleven, and in 
Lake St. Clair sixteen. The large number in Lake St. Clair is probably 
explained by the fact that, being very shallow, it has the species of the 
smaller bodies of water and of the stagnant pools, and in addition, because 
of its connection with the Great Lakes, has also their limnetic species. 



CVCLOPID.E AND CALANID.E OP MXCHKIAN LAKES. 






9) 



o 



1 •<jnuo,)X)oA 
•ejjBq. Bujivf niAj, 


i 1 i i -^ 1 ! 1 i i i + ! -i- - ^ 1 i 


anBTi inx|«-l)a94ii 


iiii+ii4-iiiii4- + + 4-i 

' ' ' 1 t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


••i«i CBHUB 1 i i i i i i i 4- 4 i i i i + I 4- i ! 

' ' • till 1 .1 


••»1»K) IS '-MBq 


+ 4-4- i 4- ■'- 4- 4- -f- 4- 4- 4- i 4- f- 4- 4- 4- 


■i)ua(>,) X|UA 
-ojJBq,) 'ei|Br[ puno^i 


14-4- 1 4- 4 j 4- -^- 4- 14 ; ^ + ^ i i 


•Xjiiuy;) 


4- -h 4 14-4 i i i 4 14- i i 4 ! i j 


■itnnu,) qbH 
-Xoqai|,) 'JBAiii uodJIij 


i i j i i i i 1 i ! 1 i 1 4- i 4- + i 


tetuuijj '95|BT lajuifb!,] 1 i i ! i '^ ! i i ' ! ! "^ ! '^ i "*' i i 


■jC^nuoj aBM 


i i 4 i 4- 4 i i 1 i i 4- i i 4 j ; i 


OBliiqom eifB^j 


-t- 4- + i 4 4- 4- ; 14 i -^ i ; 4- ; i i 


Bjnoi 'euBT uaoq 


iiii4-4;iii;4i 


4- ; i i 




; I : ; 


'/()ano;) luujav 


i i i -^- -»■ i j + 4 i : - f 4- 4 -»- 4- 4 


-ioqeqj 'Joajh UBtpni 


: ; 4- ; 4- 4- ; I i 4- :' 4- i ; ! 4- ; ; 

! I I ' I ' ' ' ' ' ' 


■oua »1«T 


i : ; ; '^ + i ; '+" + 1 + 1 : + ! ; i 


•ijnno;) tras 1 i i : 1 i ; i ' : i i ; , ■ • ' 
-^oqoq;) 'Jieaj^) eSpoQ ; 1 1 ; ; ; 1 ; ; ' ; 1 ; + ; *' 1 j 


•jaAja jioj^ea 


4 4-4- ; i 14- i 4- 4- i i ; 


14- ; i 


leoiaia 'eJiBT pejjooaj i ; ■ -r -i- -f- -r , . + , , — , 


4 4- i i 


^eaung '93[vj das;) 


M i M H i ^ M + 1 ^- + H i 




4- 1 ; I 


'ejjBq pnaoH Jo ](obih 


i:i;i;;i+i;+:+;+;i 


q^nog 'pnB(ei jdABeg ';;:i'*'+i:"'i;"^i'^ + +; + 


•ejjBT 
q;jofii 'pnBiBj JSABeg 


:::+::;;+i;'i+;+;: 


•ijuno;) 
xjOAepBq;) '»j[VJ JBag 


1 i 4- ; 4- 4 i I 4 i ! 4- ; 


4 4- i i 


■niMpiBQ jBen ajjBT :;;;;;!!+!;;; 


i - ; i 




>tomaB fiicilis.. 

Ashlandi 

" niinntns 

" Keighardi 

" oregonensiH 

chnra lacnstris 

nocalanns inacrnrns... 

opsater 

brevispinoBus 

' pnlchellns 

' parens 

Lenckarti 

' fnscns 

' albidns 


« z a X 


5 IJ * 





6 



MICHIGAN F18H COMMlSblUN- BULLETIN NU. o. 



Pint* Lake Ih prculiarlv poor in its nnnihor of epecioH. TIuh in strikini^'ly 
RppHiviit wlu'ii w»' ••onipannt wilii Inttrnu'diate Ijake. I'inc Lakt* was vt'iy 
tlioroui^hly cxatnint'd, and it in likt-iy that we iire atvjuaintt'd with all the 
species occnrrin^c there, and yet the niunber \h only eiL,d»t. All the collee- 
tionH from Intrrmediale Luke were nwuh' in one ihiy hy a party which went 
down from Charlevoix and remained <ady a few hourw. and yet the nnmber 
of ditToreut forms is eleven. Intermediate Lake seems to bi' an nnusnally 
rich collectin^jj ground, for with the exce[)tion ttf l^ake St. Clair and llonnd 
Lake, no other lake hIiowh such a lary;e nund)er of species, and both Lake 
St. Clair and llonnd Jjakt> have l)een very thoroiiLchly exploreil. Moreover, 
iu the case of Konnd Lake, several of the species may be considered as 
inimi^n-ants from Jiako Michigan. 

In ;<eneral it may lie sfiid that the copepod fauna of Michigan does not 
differ materially from tliat of Wisi-onsin, which 1 have already described 
in a former report, ( Marsh ''.'•<. ) This is only what one would expect 
because of the very wide distribution of the species, as already noted. 
(Marsh '08, p. I'.IL) 

Inasmuch as many of the si)ecieH have been imperfectly described, it 
has seemed best to me in preparing this paper to devote Home space to 
more detailed descriptions, and particularly to furnish some figures in 
addition to those already published, and iu this way to supplement the 
work of preceding papers, 

The literature of the Cojx'poihi is so scattered that it is very difKcult for 
any one except a specialist to make determinations of species that are at 
all satisfactory. Without doubt this fact has deterred many from attempt- 
ing any study of the Copepoda. Much valuable work in regard to the 
distribution of species might be done by amateur investigators if there were 
any work giving brief directions by which the species might be determined 
with a fair degree of accuracy. This lack, with the advice of Professor 
licighard, I have attempted to supply in the present paper. Preceding 
the notes on DUipiomns and Cyclops, 1 have given a brief synopsis of the 
species of those genera. These synopses, which, with some modifications, 
aiie like those in my paper on tiie copepods of Wisconsin, are intended 
simply to furnish a means of recognizing the species by some of their most 
obvious characters. While the first six plates may be considered as sup- 
plementing the work of my W^isconsin paper, I have thought best, iu 
order to aid in the ideutitication of species to add the seventh, which 
repeats some of the figures of the former paper. I think that by means of 
the synopses and plates, any one who has the patience to make the neces- 
sary dissections, will be able without much difficulty to identify our species 
of Cyclops and DUipiomns, at least as far as adult forms are concerned. 

I have included in the synopses some species which have not yet been 
found iu Michigan, but which have been reported from Wisconsin, and 
will, doubtless, after a more thorough exploration, be included in the 
Michigan fauna. 



I 8triki'iit,'ly 
C(< WRH very 
ith all tlu' 

the ColltHV 

vliicli went 
III! miuibt'i' 

iinuBUHlly 
111(1 Ikoiind 
both L(ikt> 

Moreover, 
iHidered us 

in docs not 
' described 
aid expect 
idy noted. 

:»8eribed, it 

K' space to 

ti^^ures in 

lement the 

lilHcult for 
that are at 
n attempt- 
ard to tlie 
there were 
leterniined 
Professor 
Preceding 
[jsis of the 
tlitications, 
e intended 
their most 
red as snp- 
bt best, in 
Dtli, which 
^' means of 
the neces- 
Dur species 
icerned. 
)t yet been 
onsin, and 
led in the 



4 



CVCLOPID.K AND CAI.AXin.i: OF MlCllKiAN LAKES. 7 

FAMILY CALANrD.i:.-(lKNUs DIAITOMUS Wf.stwooi.. 

KEY T«» Sl'CCIEH OF DIAPTOMIS FICOM CIIAUACTKIUSTK S oF THE MAI-E. 

Antepenultimate joint of antenna without appendage, 

Fit'tli feet nearly etpial in leny;th, .. orrgoitrnsis. 

Left fifth foot snorter than rij^ht. 

Inner ramus of left tifth foot about e(pial xn leti^th to 
lirst joint of outer ramu.s, terminal liuuk of ri^ht foot 

not markedly anj^ular palliiliift. 

Inner ramus of left tifth foot about twice as lon^ as 
first joint of outer ramus, terminal hook of ri^ht foot 
with an abrupt ani^le at about midway of its len^^th, Rt i</hnr'li. 

Antepenultimate joint of antenna witli hyaline lamella, lt[)fo/)HS. 

Antepenultimate joint of antenna with ai)pendat>:e, 
Appendage short and blunt, 

Left fifth foot hardly reachint^ end of basal joint of 
right, lateral spine of terminal joint of right foot 
weak, reaching about to end of joint, species large, 

occurring only in spring, _ aniujiimrus 

Ijeft tifth foot reaching to about one-third the length 
of the terminal joint of the right, lateral spine of 
terminal joint large, reaching to nearly one-half the 

length of the terminal hook, nirijii. 

Appendage as long or longer than the penultimate joint, 
Terminal hook of right tifth foot broad, lateral s^iine 

minute, _ iiiimitiis. 

Terminal hook falciform, 

Lateral spine nearer outer extremity of joint, sicills. 

Lateral spine stout, nearer base of joint, Ashland i\ 

DiAPTOMUs siciLis Forbes. 
Plate VII, fine, land 11. 

1882. D. sicilis Forbes, p. 645, pi. VMT, rigs. U and 20. 

1884. " " Herrick, p. 142, pi. Q, tig. 18. 

1889. " " De(^uerno and Richard, p. 23, figs. 13 and 11. pi. II, 

tig. 13. 
1891. " " Forbes,- p. 702, pi. 1, tig. (5. 
1893. " " Marsh, p. 197, pi. Ill, tigs. 8 and 10. 

D. s/ci7/.s is found everywhere in the Great Lakes, in Lake St. Clair and 
in the Detroit River. It is also found in Pine Lake, and very likely occurs 
in other bodies of water having direct connection with the (Ireat Lakes. 

I do not know of its occurrence in bodies of water away from the 
(ireat Lakes, except in Green Lake (Marsh '91 and '93), and Lake Geneva 
(Forbes, '90), and both of these are deep-water lakes. 

DiAPTOMCS AsHLANUi Marsh. 
Plate VII, fig. 2. 

1893. D. Ashlawli Marsh, p. 198, pi. Ill, figs. 11-13. 
When I described this species in my paper on the C'yclopidte and 
CalanuUv of Wisconsin, I knew of only two localities for it, Lake Supe- 



8 



MICHIGAN FISH COMMISSION— BULLETIN NO. 5. 



i I 



rior and Lake Erie. It occurred in the collections from Lake St. Clair 
and the Detroit River, but not abundantly. In the Lake Michigan col- 
lections it was a common species, but not nearly so numerous as D. 
minntns. I found it in none of the smaller lakes except Round Lake and 
Pine Lake. 

DiAPTOMus MiNOTus LilljeboFg. 



Plate VII. fig 3. 

1889. D. mmuhis DeGruerne and Richard, (Lilljeborg) p. 50, pi. I, figs. 
5, G and 14, pi. Ill, fig. 25. 

1891. D. si'cilis var. imperfect us Forbes, p. 703. 

1891. " " Marsh, p. 212. 

1893. " " Marsh, p. 199, pi. IV, figs. 1 to 3. 

D. minutus is, perhaps, the most common of all the Diaptomi in the 
collections from Lake St. Clair and the Great Lakes. With D. sicilis and 
D. Afrhlandi it forms the great bulk of tlie Crustacea in the limnetic col- 
lections. While I have found it in one or two of the Wisconsin lakes, it, 
like the two preceding species, has not so far been found in any of the 
Michigan waters which do not have direct connection with the Great Lakes. 
The three species may be fairly considered as characteristic of the fauna 
of the Great Lakes. 

It is with considerable hesitation that I have considered Forbes's imper- 
fectus identical with minutus. One can not be certain of the identity of 
the two forms from the description given by Forbes, and yet from the 
localities which he gives for his variety, it seems very probable that the 
two are the same. He speaks of it as common in Lake Superior and Lake 
Michigan, and in some adjacent lakes, and in Lake Geneva. Inasmuch as 
D. miuutus is so common in the Great Lakes it is not at all probable that 
it has been overlooked by so accurate an observer as Professor Forbes, 
and as he reports impcrfectus as an abundant form, I think the probabili- 
ties are that imperfcctus is a synonym of minuius. 



DiAPTOMus OREtiONENSis LUljeborg. 



Plate VII, fi«. .5. 



1889. D. oregouensis DeGuerne and Richard, (Lillj.) pi. II, fig. 5, pi. 

Ill, fig. 8. 

1893. " " Marsh, p, 200. pi. IV, figs. 4 and 5. 

D. oregonensis is the common limnetic species of the smaller lakes. It 
occurs in the Great Likes, but uoc abundantly, while in the smaller bodies 
of water it usually forms the larger part of the limnetic fauna. 



:e St. Clair 
!ichigau col- 
}rou8 as D. 
d Lake and 



0, pi. I, fig8. 



\torui in the 
). sicilis and 
imnetic col- 
jin lakes, it, 
any of the 
jreat Lakes. 
)f the fauna 

bes's imper- 
identity of 
j&i from the 
ible that the 
Dr and Lake 
[nasmuch as 
robable that 
SBor Forbes, 
le probabili- 



CYCLOPID.E AND CALANID.E OF MICHIGAN LAKES. 9 

^ DlAPTOMtS RKUiHARDI, Sp, UOV. 

Plato I, figs. 1-4. 

The first segment of the cephalothorax is considerably shorter than the 
second. The first two pegments form nearly half the length of the cepha- 
lothorax. The last segment is armed behind with two very minute spines. 

The first segment of the abdomen of the. female is elongated, nearly 
equal in length to the remainder of the abdomen and the furca. It is 
dilated laterally and in front and bears two rather small lateral spines. 
The second segment is about one-third shorter than the third. The third 
segment is slightly shorter than the furca. 

The antennae reach the end of the furca. The right antenna of the 
male is swollen anterior to the geniculating joint; the antepenultimate 
joint has no appendage. 

The outer ramus of the fifth foot of the female is two-jointed. The third 
joint is represented by the customary two spines. The inner ramus is 
one-jointed; it is somewhat longer thaa the first joint of the outer ramus, 
and is armed at tip with minute setfi^ and two spines. 

In the right fifth foot of the male the basal joint is quadrangular, about 
one-half longer than broad. The length of the first joint of the outer 
ramus is about equal to its width. The second joint is elongate, concave 
on its inner margin; at about one-third of its length there is a minute 
spine on its inner margin; the rather long lateral spine is situated at about 
two thirds of its length. The terminal hook has a single abrupt angle at 
about one-half its length. The inner ramus is one-jointed and equals in 
length the first joint of the outer ramus. 

The left fifth foot of the male reaches a little beyond the middle of the 
second joint of the outer ramus. The basal joint is about as broad as 
long, and is somewhat shorter than the basal joint of the right foot. The 
first joint of the outer ramus is about as broad as long, its distal end con- 
siderably narrower than the proximal. The second joint is about twice as 
long as the first, and the tip is expanded into two finger-like processes, of 
which the outer is much the larger and is armed on its inner surface with 
a pad bearing minute setse. The inner ramus extends to rather less than 
one-half the length of the second joint of the outer ramus. 

Length of female, 1.1395 mm.; male, 1.0248 mm. 

This species, which is nearly related to D. orfnoncnsis, is yet readily dis- 
tinguished by the characters of the male fiftli foot. I found it in the 
collections from only three localities,— the North Lake on Beaver Island, 
Intermediate Lake, and Crooked Lake. 

I have named this species in honor of Professor Reighard who has, 
directly and indirectly, done so much to increase our knowledge of lacus- 
trine faunffi. 



II. fig. 5, pi. 



Br lakes. It 
laller bodies 



10 



MICHIGAN FISH COMMISSIOxX-BULLETIN NO. 5. 



(Jenus EPISCHL'RA FOKHF.S. 



Plate 11, figs. 1-6. Plate 111. fige. l-H. 



Epischcra lacl'stuis Forbts. 



18-41. IScoi'ioiihora vdqaits Pickering', p. 62. 

lSb2. E. lariistris Forbes, pp. 541 and 0-:!S, pi. VIII. tigs. 15, 16, 21, 23, 

pi. IX, H^. M. 

18^4. E. lacushis Herrick, p. 1.31, pi. (J, tiy;. IH. 

1889. " " DeGuerne and Eichard, p. 90, pi. IV, figs. 3, 9 and 10. 

1891. " " Forbes, p. 704, pi. I, figs. 1-5; pi. II, fig. 7. 

1893. " " Marsh, p. 200, pi. IV, fig. 6. 

I have very little doubt that, as stated by Herrick ('84, p. 131), the 
S('Oi>i(>phoi'(i r(((j(ivf< of Pickering is the same as l^J. lucnstris. The state- 
ment in regard to the armature of the abdominal furcte can apply to no 
other genus, and as only one species of Kpischuva has been found in the 
Great Lakes, there would seem to be little doubt as to the identity of Pick- 
ering's species. If then we follow the laws of priority as strictly as do 
some authors, we should throw out Forbes"s name. But I cannot think it 
wise when a name has been so long incorporated in our literature, and is 
founded on an accurate and easily recognized description, to throw it aside 
in favor of a name accompanied by a description which, it is true, probably 
applies to this .uiimal, but is manifestly inaccurate in some particulars, and 
may be in all. 

It is not necessary to give a detailed description of this species, as tliat 
Uas already been done by other authors, but, as very few figures of it have 
been published, it has seemed best to me to draw quite a number in order 
that they may serve for comparison of this genus with others, and of the 
various species of Epischin-a with each other. 

A few points in the anatomy, which have not been noted by others should 
be mentioned. 

Forbes has recently ('93, p. 255) called attention to the fact that the 
fourth abdominal segment of the male is without a process, and that the 
fifth bears two processes. 

The antenna' are 25-jointed. In the female, clavate sensory setaj are 
present on all segments except the 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 20th, 2l8t, 22d and 
24th. The 8th and lltli segments have each a short spine. The left 
antenna of the male is like those of the female except that the sensory 
setii' are much longer, particularly on the basal segments. The right 
antenna of the male is 22-jointed, with a hinge between the 18th and 19th 
segments. The 19th segment is formed by the union of the 19th, 20th and 
21st of the typical antenna, and the 20th by the union of the 22d and 23d. 

The outer rami of the swimming feet are three- jointed, and the inner 
one-jointed. In all the feet the inner ramus bears five sette. In the first 
foot the first and second joints of the outer ramus have each one external 
and one internal seta. The terminal joint has six setie. In the second, 
tliird. and fourth feet, the first and second joints of the outer ramus have 
spines externally instead of seta- as in the first foot. The terminal joint 
has two short spines externally, a long terminal spine with its outer margin 
deeply serrate, and four aette on the internal margin. 



[N NO. 5. 



i 



CYCLOPID,l<: AND CALANID.E OF MICHIGAN LAKES. 



11 



E. lacusii-is was a common species in the collections from Lake St. Clair, 
Lake Michit,'an, ana many of the smaller lakes. 



Genuh LIMXOCALAXUS Saks. 



I,, tigs. 15, 16, 21, 23, 



IV, figs. 3, 9 and 10. 
1. II, tig. 7. 



k ('84, p. 131), the 
rustris. The state- 
:ni can apply to no 
} been found in the 
he identity of Pick- 
ity as strictly as do 
it I cannot think it 
ir literature, and is 
)n, to throw it aside 
, it is true, probably 
•me particulars, and 

his species, as that 

w figures of it have 

a number in order 

others, and of the 

3d by others should 

) the fact that the 
jcess, and that the 

e sensory seta) are 
20th, 2l8t, 22d and 
t spine. The left 
t that the sensory 
ments. The right 

the 18th and IDth 
the lyth, 20th and 
)f the 22d and 28d. 
ted, and the inner 
setie, In the first 

each one external 
;. In the second, 

outer ramus have 
Che terminal joint 
;h its outer margin 



LiMNOCALANL'S MACRURUS SftrS. 



Plate IV, tigs. 1 and i, Plato V, figs. 1-5. 



1803. L. )i/(icrHrnf< Sars., pp. 228-229. 

1882. " " Forbes, p. (US. 

1880. Cenfrcpdycs Grimaldi DeGuerne, pp. 1-10. 

1888. 7^. rnr/c'vo-MS Nordqvist, pp. 31-37, pi. I, figs. 9-11; pi. II, figs. 

1-5; pi. Ill, figs. 1-4. 

1889. L. uKicrurus DeGuerne and Richard, p. 77, pi. IV, figs. 5. 11, 

and 12. ' 

1891. L. iiKicriirns var. aitrtus Forbes, p. 700. 
1893. *' " Marsh, p. 201, pi. IV, fig. 7. 

For the description of L. mdrnii-Hs we must depend largely upon the 
elaborate description and figures of Nordqvist. 

Forbes ('91, p. 706) thinks that our form is sufficiently different from 
tue European to rank as a distinct variety. When preparing my former 
paper ('93) it did not seem to me that there was good reason for establish- 
ing a new variety. Recently I have made a more careful examination of 
the details of its structure, using material from Detroit Eiver, Lake Mic - 
igan, and Green Lake. So far as the specimens I have examined are con- 
cerned, the points of difference mentioned by Forbes ('91, p. 707) do not 
exist. It seems to me that the twenty-fifth antennal segment is clearly 
separated from the twenty-fourth, and not consolidated as stated by him. 
In all my specimens I find the hook like spines on the eighth and twelfth 
segments. 

Nordqvist and Forbes are in agreement in regard to the terminal teeth 
of the mandible, but Forbes finds one seta instead of the two figured by 
Nordqvist; in this respect my observations confirm those of Forbes. The 
accessory spines have been evident in my preparations. It would seem 
then, that unless L. macnims is susceptible of local variations — a highly 
improbable supposition- that Forbes's variety can not stand, for the only 
point of difference on which it rests is the existence of one seta on the 
mandible instead of two. 

The second joint of the second maxillipede differs slightly from Nord- 
qyist's figure, and I have accordingly figured it. (PI. V, fig. 5.) The 
difference appears to me. however, unimportant. 

It is impossible to tell whether our species may not diff'er from the 
European in the armature of the antenna, as that was not worked out in 
detail by Nordqvist. In regard to the sensory seta', he simply states that 
they are present on some of the segments, but does not state their number. 

In the female, clavate sensory seta^ are present on all joints except the 
4th, 20th, 2l8t, 22d, and 24th. The seta' are distributed as foUov^s: the 
first joint has three; there are two on the 2d, 3d, 5th, 7th, 9th, 10th, 11th 
13th to 19th inclusive, and 22d to 24th inclusive; the 4th, 8th, 12th 20th, 



— ^^^^ 



12 



MICHIGAN FISH COMMISSION-BULLETIN NO, 5. 



and 2l8t have one seta; the Oth has none; the 25th has four setie, one o: 
which is i)lumo8e; tlie 8th and 12th have, in addition to the ordinary anc 
sensory set jo a hook-like spine. 

The left antenna of the male is armed like the female antenna. 

The ri^ht antenna of the male is 22-jointed, the 19-21 being united ir 
one, and the 22d and 23d. The joint is between the 18th and 19th. The side 
of the 17th is produced into a blunt spine, and the 18th and 19th are armec 
on the inner margin with rows of minute spines. The number of the sensorj 
setaj is the same as in the left antenna and in the antenna of the female 
and not greater as stated by Nordqvist. In fact the differences in th( 
armature of the right and left antenniv are only apparent, and are occa 
sioned by the coalescence of the 19th-21st and the 22d and 23d joints. 

It has seemed best to me to figure the swimming feet and describe them 
in some detail, in order to get a basis of comparison with similar forms. 

In the first foot both the first and second basal joints are armed inter- 
nally with a plumose seta. Tlie first two joints of the exopodite have nc 
external spines; the terminal joint has two external spines, two apica 
setit— the outer spinulose on its outer margin — and three internal set* 
The terminal joint of the endopodite has one internal seta, two apical, anc 
three internal. 

The second, third and fourth feet have no seta on the second basal joint 
and the first and second joints of the exopodite have each an external spine. 
In all the feet except the first there are groups of two or three minute 
spines at the bases of the spines of the exopodite. 

The second and third feet are alike. The terminal joint of the exopo 
dite has four internal setiu, and the terminal joint of the endopodite haf 
two external seta' and four internal. 

The fourth foot is like the second and third except that the termina 
joint of the endopodite has three internal sette. The fifth feet have m 
eeive on the basal joints. The second joint of the exopodite in the femah 
is prolonged internally into a hook-like expansion. The exopodites of th( 
male are two jointed, the terminal joints having a peculiar constructioi 
more easily understood from the figure than from any written description 
The terminal joints of the endopodite in both male and female are arme( 
with two external, two apical, and two internal seta?. 



FAMILY CYCLOPID.E.-GENUS CYCLOPS Muller. 



KEY TO SPECIES OF CYCLOPS. 



Antenna:" 17-jointed, 

Fifth foot one-jointed, armed with one spine and two 
long set tv — a large species of dark color, 

Fifth foot two-jointed. 

Second joint of fifth foot armed with seta and short 



aUn 



spine. 
Terminal 



feet 



joint of outer branch of swimming 

armed externally with three spines, 

Furca o* moderate length — occurring in pools, Ainericanui 

Furca elongated, outer f ureal seta abbreviated to a 

short, thick spine— limnetic in habit, hrevispinosui 



tf NO, 5. 



CYCLOPID.E AND CALANID.E OF MICHIGAN LAKES. 



13 



s four setti?, one of 

the ordinary and 

e antenna. 
1-21 being united in 
and 19th. The side 
and 19 th are armed 
imber of the sensory 
3nna of the female, 
e differences in the 
irent, and are occa- 
and 23d joints, 
t and describe them 
ith similar forms, 
ats are armed inter- 
le exopodite have no 

1 spines, two apical 
three internal sets. 

seta, two apical, and 

e second basal joint, 
ch an external spine, 
two or three minute 

joint of the exopo- 
the endopodite has 

Dt that the terminal 
e fifth feet have no 
>podite in the female 
he exopodites of the 
•eculiar construction 
written description, 
ad female are armed 



MULLER. 



id two 

aier. 

[ short 

Lg feet 

Is, Americaniis. 

ed to a 

brevispinosus. 



Terminal joint of outer ramus of swimming feet 

armed externally with two spines. parens. 

Second joint of fifth foot with two terminal set.v, 

Furca short — occurring in pools, mivits. 

Furca elongated — limnetic in habit, pulchellus. 

Second joint of fifth foot with one terminal and one 

lateral seta, _ LeuckdHi. 

Second joint of fiftli foot with throe setic, 

With clavate seta on twelfth antennal segment, 
inner margin of furca not beset with hairs, egg- 
sacs lying away from abdomen, albidus. 

Seusoiy hair on twelfth antennal segment, inner 
margin of furca beset with hairs, egg-sacs close 

to abdomen, ' fusciis. 

Antennio 16-jointed, fifth foot three-jointed, mo'lestus. 

Antenna' 12-jointed, fifth foot one-jointed, 

Furca variable in length, armed externally with a row of 

fine spines. s<'rrulatus. 

Fuva short, without armature of spines — a small limnetic 

species, Jtiiviatilis. 

Antenujie 11-jointed, 

Swimming feet 3- jointed, phaleraius. 

Swimming feet 2-jointecl, hicolor. 

Antenna" 8-jointed, fimhriatus. 



Cyclops ater Her rick. 
Plate VI, figs. 1-4, li, and 12. 

1882. C. aier Herrick, p. 228, pi. Ill, figs. 9-12. 
1884. " " " p. 14.5, pi. Q, figs. 9-12. 

1887. " " " p. 14. 

The cephalothorax is oval, nearly as broad as long, with the lateral 
angles produced caudally. The first segment eij^uals two-thirds the total 
length of the cephalothorax, 

The antennio are 17- jointed, about as long as the cephalothorax, its seg- 
ments having the typical armature of the CijcJopvUv. The last two seg- 
ments have a smooth hyaline lamella, which in the last segment projects 
as a flat, blunt process beyond the end of the joint. 

The abdomen is of moderate length, the last segment being armed 
posteriorly with a row of fine spines. The furca is rather more than twice 
as long as its width. The lateral spine is situated near the end. Of the 
terminal seta>, the outer is slightly shorter than the inner, the second is 
about twice as long as the outer, and the third about three times as long. 

The swimming feet are armed as follows: 



Outer br. ex. 3 spines. 
ap. 2 setcO. 
in. 3 setie. 



FIKST FOOT. 

Inner br. ex. 1 seta. 

ap. 1 spine, 1 seta. 
in. 3 "^etfe. 



y " 



14 MICHIGAN FISH COMMISSION— BULLETIN NO. 5. 

SECOND AND THIRD FEET. 

Outer br. ex. W spines. luuer br. ex. 1 seta. 

ap. 1 spiue, 1 seta. ap. 1 spine, 1 seta, 

in. 4 setiv. in. 8 setie. 



Outer br. ex. 2 spines. 

ap. 1 spine, 1 seta, 
in. 4 seta". 



FOURTH FEET. 

Inner br. ex. 1 seta. 

ap. 2 spines, 
in. 2 setje. 



The fifth foot is one-jointed, and armed with a stout spine and two loi 
jseljo. 

Average length 1. 77 mm. 

A large, very robust form, of striking appearance because of its dee 
colors. The colors of the St. Clair specimens were as follows: antenn; 
antennules, swimming feet and furcal seta' dark blue, almost black. Tl 
caudal margins of the cepbalothorax have the same color. On each 8i( 
of the abdomen, and extending to the ends of the furc.j is a strip of tl 
same color but darker. Borders of the cephalothorax tinged with gree 
Oviducts white. The ovary is orange. 

To the naked eye it resembles closely in form, size, and color an Arr 
nurus with which it is found associated. This may be a case of protectii 
mimicry. 

This species was originally described by Herrick in 1882, and is me 
tioned by him in his succeeding reports of 1884 and 1887, but has be' 
noted by no other author. It was discovered by Professor Reighard 
the St. Ciair collections, and was worked out very thoroughly by him. 
is from his notes that the above description is taken. 

This seems to be a somewhat rare form in this region. I have found 
few individuals in Rush Lake, Wisconsin, and in Michigan, besides in t 
St. Clair collections, have found it in Twenty-Sixth Lake, Intermedia 
Lake and Susan Lake. Where it occurs it is easily detected because of 
large size and prominent colors. Tiie specimens from Round Lake 1 
more of tlie red color, so much so that tliis, on a superficial examinatio 
seemed to be the most prominent color. 



CvcLOPS UKEvisriNOSUs Herrick. 



Plate VIl, fig. 12, 

1884. C. brevispinosHs Herrick, p. 148, pi. S, figs, 7-11. 
1893. " " Marsh, p. 205, pi. IV, figs. 11 and 12. 

C. hre^nsjnnosiis occurred in the collections from Lake St. Clair, t 
Detroit river, Lake Erie, Susan Lake, Beaver Island, Intermediate Lake a 
Round Lake. I have found it in collections from Lake Superior and La 
Ontario, but. curiously, never in Lake Michigan collections. 



IN NO. 5. 



Ci'CLOPID.E AND CALANID.E OF MICHIGAN LAKES. 



15 



1 seta. 



)S. 



it spine and two long 



} because of its deep 
as follows: antennne, 
i, almost black. The 
color. On each side 
ircij is a strip of the 
IX tinged with green. 

;e, and color an Arre- 
)e a case of protective 

in 1882, and is men- 
id 1887, but has been 
'rofessor Reighard i'^ 
loroughly by him. It 

gion. I have found a 
chigan, besides in the 
:h Lake, Intermediate 
letected because of its 
;om Round Lake had 
perficial examination, 



Cvc'Loi's I'L'LCHKf.r.us Koch. 
Plate VII, fig. U. 

jmlchcllus Koch. H. 21, pi. 2. 

bicusjmlaius Claus, p. 209, pi, Xi, figs. 6 and 7. 

" p. 101. 
jnilcheliiis Sars, p. 2-4<). 
bicuspidatus Heller, p. 71. 

Fric, p. 221. tig. 6. 

Hoek, p. 17, pi. I, Hgs. 7-lL 
jmlchelhis Rehberg, p. 548. 

helgolandicus Rehberg ('80a). p. 64, pi. IV, fig. 5. 
Thomasi Forbes, p. 649, pi. IX, figs. 10, 11, and 16. 
pcciinaUifi Herrick, p. 499, pi. VII, figs. 25, 28. 
Thomasi Cragin, p. 13, pi. Ill, figs. 1 18. 

Herrick, p. 151, pi. U, figs. 4, 5, 7, and 8. 
pulchcllus Daday, p. 220. 

Vosseler. p, 194, pi. V, figs. 19-28. 
" Laude, p. 50, pi. XXI, figs. 14r)-155. 

Thomasi Forbes, p. 707, pi, II, fig. 8. 
hicuapidatua Brady, p, 18, pi. V, figs 1-5. 
Thomasi Brady, p. 14, pi. VI, figs. 1-4. 
bicnsj>i(latus Schmeil, p. 27. 

Richard, p. 229, pi. \'I, fig. 6. 

Schmeil, p. 75, pi. II. figs. 1 3. 
Thomaxi Forbes, p. 249, pi. XXXIX, figs. 9-12, pi. XL, fig. 13. 
inddu'llus Marsh, p. 207, pi. IV, figs. 18-19. 

C. ]>ulch('Uiif< is the common Ctjclo/is of the Great Lakes. It occurs 
sometimes in smaller bodies of water, but in the collections from Michi- 
gan I have not found it from any of the small lakes except Pine Lake and 
Round Lake. 

According to Forbes ('82 b) C. pidcheUus and the Diapiomi form the 
greater part of the food of the young white fish. 

Cvc'Loi's I'ARcus Herrick. 



1838, 


C 


1857. 


ti 


1863. 


a 


1863. 


(1 


1870. 


(1 


1872. 


(> 


1876. 


« 


1880. 


t( 


1880. 


(1 


1882. 


(( 


1888. 


(( 


1883. 


(< 


1884. 


(( 


1885. 


i( 


1886. 


<t 


1890. 


(( 


1891. 


<( 


1891. 


(( 


1891. 


u 


1891. 


<. 


1891. 


(( 


1892. 


li 


1893. 


(( 


1893. 


(( 



1882. C. parens Herrick, p. 229. pi. VI, figs. 12-15. 

1884. " '< ' p. 148. pi. R, fig. 22. 

1893. " " Marsh, p. 20b, pi. IV, fig. 1(5. pi. V, fig. 1. 

I have found C. parens only iu the collections from Lake St. Clair. 



3,7-11. 

;s. 11 and 12. 

u Lake St. Clair, the 
Intermediate Lake and 
ike Superior and Lake 
lections. 



1863. 

1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

1880. 
1884. 



CvcLoi's LF.uiKAKTi Sars. 
Plate Vll, tig, 15. 

p. 289. 



C. LciK'karti Sars. ^,. 

" siiiiple-f Poggenpol, p. 70, pi. XV, figs. 1-8. 
" triiiiic(n'ni,s Uljauiu, p. 80. pi. IX. figs. 12 and 18. 
" Leenirenhockii Hoek, p. li), pi. III. rigs. 1-12. 
" siitiple.r Rehberg, p. 542. 
Herrick, p, 150. 



ff. 



IG 



MICHIGAN FISH COMMISSION— BULLETIN NO. 5. 



oUhonoidcs Herrick, p. 150, pi. 8, figs. 2-6. 
Lctichirii Dnday, p. 218. 
simplex Daday, p. 28(1. 
ix'ch'mthis Daday, p. 22:{, pi. I, figs. 7-13. 
Ki'mplf.r Vosseler, p. 193, pi. IV, Hgs. 15-17. 
" Herrick, p. 17, pi. \11, lig. 1, a-j. 

Thallwitz, p. 79. ^ 

" Laude, p. 55, pi. XVI, Tigs. 42—15: pi. XVII, fige. 46-5 
Leiickarti HchvaeW, p. 25. 

<;l„.r Forbes, p. 709, pi. Ill, tig. 15; pi. IV, figs. 16-19. 
Sroiirfrhll Brady (?) p. 10, pi. IV, figs. 1-8. 
Liuckaitl Kicbard, p. 230, pi. VI, fig. 20. 
Schmeil, p. 57, pi. III. figs. 1-8. 
Marsh, p. 209, pi. IV, fig. 17; pi. V, figs. 2-6. 

I have no doubt that, as stated by Sehmeil, C. Lmckurfi Olaus and ^ 
LeiickaHi Sars are identical, and that possibly by strict laws of priorii 
Clans should be given as authority for the name. Yet, as the descriptic 
by Claus is not only imperfect, but in many respects inaccurate and mi 
leading, I have preferred to retain the designation of ('. Lcftrkarti Sai 
Other points in the synonomy are discussed in Sehmeil '92 and Marsh 'ii 

As would be expected, this species was distributed almost universally 
the waters examined. 

Cyclops pi'scls J urine. 



1884. 


C. 


1885. 




1885. 




1885. 




1886. 




1887. 




1890. 




1890. 




1891. 




LS91. 




1891. 




1891. 




1892. 


" 


1893. 


i( 



1820. 

1841. 

1850. 

1857 

1863. 

1863. 

1863. 

1870. 

1872. 

1876. 

1878. 

1882. 

Ib84. 

1885. 
1886. 
1888. 
1890. 
1890. 
1891. 
1891. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 



riate VI, figs. 5, 7 aud 11. 

Monocidus (picidricornis fiiscits Jurine, p. 47, pi. II, fig. 2. 
C. signaius Koch, 11 21, pi. VIII. 
" <iii(iilricoriils rm: c Baird, p. 203, pi. XXIV, fig. 5. 
•' roromitns Claus, p. 29, pi. I, fig, 5, and pi. II, figs. 1-11. 

" p. 97, pi. II, fig. 16; pi. X, fig.'l. 
" sign<dus Sars, p. 242. 
" coroiudns Lubbock, p. 199. 
Heller, p. 71. 
Frie. p. 218, fig. 12. 
Hoek, p. 12. 
" sigiudus Brady, p. 100, pi. XVII, figs. 4-12. 
" ieituicornis Herrick, p, 227. pi. V, fig. 14; pi. VI, figs. 1- 

and 20. 
" {('unicornis Herrick, p. 153, pi. R, fig. 16; pi. Q', figs. 8- 

and 20. 
" signafns Daday, p. 208. 

Vosseler. p. 189, pi. IV, figs. 6-10. 
"' fuscus Sostari(.', p 58, 
" sigucdiis Tballwitz, p. 79. 

Lande, p. 33, pi. XV, fi^s. 1-12. 
Brady, p. 6, pi. 2, fig. 5. 
" fuscns Eichard, p. 223, pi. VI, fig. 6. 
Sehmeil, p. 22. 

p. 123, pi. I, figs. l-7b; pi. IV, fig. 2. 
'* signcitiis Marsh, p. 211. 






N NO. 5. 



CYCLQPIDyE AND CALANID.K OF MICHIGAN LAKES. 



17 



7. 



pi. XVII, figs. 46-50. 

V, figs. 16-19. 
-8. 

k 

pi. V, figs. 2-6. 

Hcl'iirli Clans and C. 
;rict laws of priority 
;et, as the description 
} inaccnrate and mis- 
)f ('. Lciirkarfi Sars. 
eil '92 and Marsh '93. 
almost imiversally in 



47, pi. II, rig, 2. 

s:iv, fig, 5. 

)1. II, figs. l-ll. 
, X, fig. 1. 



In my paper on tlie Wisconsiu (\ijrlo})i<l<v and Cahcnidiv ('98), agreeing 
with H^rrick and Brady, I expressed my belief that the two forms here 
called //t.scw.s' and alhidus, the coroiidtun and tcnnicoriiis of Claus, belonged 
to the same apeciea, fuse us being the more mature form. Since writing 
that paper I have exahaiued a large number of specimens from widely 
separated localities, and I must acknowledge that I was wrong, and that, as 
stated by Schmeil ('92), the two forms must be considered distinct, for I 
have been utterly unable to find the connecting forms. The points of dif- 
ference, as stated so elaborately by Schmeil, hold good for the American 
specimens. C. fnscns has a sensory hfiir on the twelfth antennal segment, 
the hyaline lamella of the 17th segment deeply notched, tlio tliird segment 
of the antennule short, the inner borders of the furca thickly beset with 
hairs, and the egg sacs lie close to the abdomen, while C. (tlhidus has a 
clavate seta on the twelfth antennal segment, the membrane of the 17th 
segment serrate or smooth, the inner borders of the furca either without 
hairs or with only i.je hairs, and the egg sacs lie separated from the abdo- 
men. These characters, with the greater size of C. fusciin, serve to dis- 
tinguish the species, while the less evident characters mentioned by 
Schmeil are easily demonstrated. 

One characteristic not mentioned by Schmeil I have found constantly in 
my specimens. The larger of the two terminal spines of the endopodite 
of the fourth foot, instead of being serrated on its edges as is customary 
in all the spines of the swimming feet, is beset on its inner margin with 
long, rather irregular teeth, as shown in the plate. (Plate VI, fig. 7.) If 
this peculiarity exists in the European forms, it would seem probable that 
it would have been noted by some observer, but I have nowhere seen an 
account of it. It may serve then to indicate a slight variation from the 
European type. 

I have found C. fuscns in the Michigan collections from only one 
locality, Intermediate Lake. I have found it in several Wisconsin locali- 
ties, though nowhere abundantly, and it is probable that it occurs in other 
localities in Michigan. 

Cyclops alhidus Jurine. 



.-12. 
U; pi. VI, figs. 1-11, 

16; pi. Q', figs.y-U. 



)-10. 



,; pi. IV, fig. 2. 



Plate VI, figs. 8 10. 

1820. Monoculus quwlricornis alhidus Jurine, pp. 44 and 47, pi. II, 

figs. 10 and 11; pi. Ill, fig. 24. 

1841. C. annulicornis Koch, H 21, pi. VI. 
1850. " quadricornis var. h Baird, p. 202, pi. XXIV, fig. 4. 
1857. " tenuirornis Claus, p. 31, pi.. Ill, figs. 1-11. 

1857. " penmdus Claus, p. 35, pi. Ill, figs. 12-17. 
1863. " tenuicornts Claus, p. 99, pi. I, tig. 3; pi. II, fig, 17; pi. IV, 

fig. 5. 
1863. " tenuiGoi'nis Sars, p. 242. 
1863. " annulicornis Sars, p. 243. 
1863. " tenuicornis Lubbock, p. 202. 
1870. " ienuicornis Heller, p. 71. 
1872. " " Fric, p. 219, fig. 12. 

1874. '• Clausii Poggenpol, p. 70, pi. XV, figs. 4-14. 

1875. " signfdus Uljanin, p. 29, pi. IX, figs. 6-11; pi XI, fig. 8. 

1876. " *' Hoek, p. 12, pi. I, figs. 1-4. 



18 



187f^ 
1882. 
1883. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1888. 
1890. 
1890. 
1891. 
1891. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 



C 
it 

<i 

ti 

K 

U 
i< 
(( 
It 
i( 
<l 
<( 
(( 
.1 
II 



MICHIGAN FISH COMMISSION-BULLETIN NO. r>. 

teiiuk'orniH Brfidy, p. 102, pi. XVII, tigs. 1 10. 
" Herrick. 

Cragiu, p. 3, pi. II, H^s. 1 14. 
si'tpidtus var. f(is(i(tcoi)ns Ci'n\r'iti, p. 2, pi. II, fi«. 15. 
ienuicornis var, a Herrick, p. 153, pi. Q', d^a. 1 7. 

Daday, p. 211. 

VoHseler, p. 189. pi. IV, tigs. <J 10, 
(ilbidus Sostariv, pi. I, tigs. 3, 4 and 12. 
tnmivoriiis Tliallwit^, p. 79. 

Lande, p. 3(5, pi. XVI, ligs. 22 32. 
(fijrimis Forbes, p. 707, pi. li, fig. 9; pi. Til, fig. 14. 
albidus Hclinieil, p. 23. 

annulicornis and ienuicornis Richard, pp. 224 22G. 
alhi'lns Schineil, p. 128, pi. I, figs. 8-14b; pi. IV, tig. 2. 
signniiis Marsh, p. 211, pi. V, figs. 7-9. 



Hchmeil states that the antenn.e of C. (ilhidus are armed with crowns o 
spines as in the case of C.fuscus. This seems to be rarely true in ou 
forms. Although I have examined with great care large numbers of matun 
females, it is only in very few specimens that I have found this peculia 
armature. The membrane of the terminal antennal segment is ordinaril; 
serrate. The common form corresponds to the annidicornis of Sars anc 
Richard, which, according to Schmeil, Richard now allows to be a variet; 
of albidus. The disUnguishing characteristic of (iniiulicornis is the rudi 
mentary seta of the inner margin of the terminal segment ot the endopo 
dite of the fourth foot. This is represented in most of my specimens onl; 
by a minute spine. (PI. VI, fig. 9.) In two individuals I have found ii 
place of this minute spine a short seta. (PI. VI, fig. 8.) In these two speci 
mens the circlets of spines were present on the 8th, 9th, 10th, 12th, 13tl 
and 14th segments. It was this form evidently that Cragin called C 
tennicornis ('83 pi. II, tigs. 1-14), as is shown very clearly by the figure 
of the fourth foot and anteunule, although he did not figure the circlet 
of spines on the antennal segments. C. signafus y&r. fasciacornis Cragir 
it is not possible to identify with certainty, although it seems probabl 
that it is albidus. C. (jyrinus Forbes does not have the antennal circlets c 
spines, but does have a short seta instead of a minute spine on the fourt 
foot, thus agreeing with Cragin's figures of C. ienuicornis. This wou 
seem to be intermediate between the two forms I have seen. It is diflScu 
in such a case to tell just where the limits of species should be drawn, fc 
we are entirely ignorant of the life histories of the forms, and it is certai 
that the Cyclopidtv have wide limits of variation. It seems tome safe 
for the present, at least, to consider such minute differences as varietal, an 
not to increase the number of species. 

C. albidus is not very abundant, but occurred in many of the 8:. Cla 
collections, and in some of those from other points in Michigarj It is 
universally distributed species, but does not occur in great numbers. 



Cyclops fluviatilis Herrick. 



1882. C. fluviaiilis Herrick, p. 231, pi. VII, figs. 1-9. 

1883. " magnoctavus Cragin, p, 5, pi. II, figs 14-23. 

1884. " Jluviaiilis Herrick, p. 159, pi. Q', figs. 1-9. 
1887. " " Herrick, p. 15. 



N NO. f». 



CYCLOPID.K AND CALANID/K OF MICHIGAN LAKK8. 



19 



1 10. 



, II, fi«. 15. 
1KB. 1 7. 

10. 



;i2. 

II, fig. 14. 

, 224 220. 
pi. IV, tig. 2. 

krmed with crowns of 
e rarely true in our 
;e numbers of mature 
3 found this peculiar 
egment is ordinarily 
ilirornis of Sars and 
illows to be a variety 
ulicorni's is the rudi- 
;ment ot the endopo- 
)f my specimens only 
uals I have found in 
In these two speci - 
9th, 10th, 12th, 13th, 
lat Cragin called C. 
[early by the figures 
3t figure the circlets 
fasciacornis Cragin, 
;h it seems probable 
e antennal circlets of 
e spine on the fourth 
icornis. This would 
B seen. It is difficult 
should be drawn, for 
)rm8, and it is certain 
It seems to me safer, 
rences as varietal, and 

many of the 8g. Clair 
in Michigan It is a 
great numbers. 



9. 
3. 



I8'.»l. r. ituK/noctni'iis Brady, p. lU, figs. 14. 

1H«)3. " Jlnviatills Marsh, p. 211, pi. V, figs. 14 and 15; pi. VI, fig. 1. 

(\ Jhin'dlilis occurH in niofit of the limnetic collections in all except the 
smalieHt bodiuH of water. 



Cycu»ph sKKRur.ATus FiHoher. 



1851. 
1853. 
1857. 
18(53. 
18(13. 



1803. 
1870. 

1872. 
1875. 

1878. 
1878. 
1880. 
1882. 

1882. 

I8:s3. 

1881. 
1884, 
188.>. 
188(). 
1890. 
1890. 
1891. 
1891. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 












a 8erriilatns Fischer, p. 423, pi. X, figs. 22, 23, 20 31. 
I.illjeborg, p. 158, pi. XV, fig. 12, 
ClauH. p. 30, figs. 1 3. 
Sars, p. 254. 
ClauH, p. 101, pi. I, figs. 1 and 2; pi. IV, fig. 12; pi. 

XI, fig. 3. 
Lubbock, p. 197. 
Heller, p. 72. 
Fric, p. 222, fig. 18. 
I'ljanin, p. 34, pi. VIII, figs. 1-8. 
Brady, p. 109, pi. XXTI, figs. 1 (i. 
" var. uionidints Brady, p. 110, pi, XXII, figs. 7 14. 

mjilis Reliberg, p. 545. 

' " Forbeti, p. 049. 
sernihdiis Herrick, p. 230, pi. V, figs. 1 -5; pi. VII, fig. 10. 
pedinifer Cragin. p. 0, pi. IV, figs. 1-7. 
serriihihis Herrick, p. 157, pi. (), figs. 17-19. 

" var. cleiians Herrick, p. 1^8. 

(iqilis Daday, p. 240. * 

■ " Vosseler, p. 190, pi. V, figs. 29-31. 
" Thallwitz, p. 79. 

'' Lande, p. 00, pi. XVII, fig. 09; pi. XVTII, figs. 70-80. 
scrriilufns Schmeil, p. 29. 

Richard, p. 234, pi. VI, figs. 6-12. 
(ujills Forbes, p. 710. 

scrrtdatiis Schmeil, p. 141, pi. V, figs. 6 12. 
Marsh, p. 215, pi. VI, figs. 2-5. 
This well known species occurs everywhere iu Michigan waters and with 
the same variations in structure which I have noted in the collections 
made in Wisconsin. (Marsh '93, pp. 215-216.) 



1838. 
1851. 
1853. 

1857. 
1803. 
1803. 
1803. 

1872. 
1874. 

1875. 

1878. 
1882. 



C 






Cyclops i-halekatus Koch. 

phalcntius Xoch, H 21, pi. IX. 

nnifhonirpovles Fischer, p. 420, pi. X, figs. 24, 25, 32-38. 
Lilljeborg, p. 208. 
Claus, p. 37, pi. I, figs. 0-10. 

" p. 102, pi. IV, figs. 1-4. 
Lubbock, p. 202. 
jthdlerdius Sars, p. 255. 
('(inthocitrpoides Fric, p. 223, fitr. 19, 
Idxcimts Poggenpol, p. 72, pi. XV. figs. 22-24; pi. XVI, figs. 

7 and 8. 
ph(il(}-afuf< Uljauin, p. 38, pi. IX, Hub. 1-5. 

Brady, p. 116, pi. XXIII, figs. 7-13. 
adule.^cevs Herrick, p. 231, pi. VI, figs. 15-20. 



1883. 


( 


1884. 




188r). 




1887. 




1888. 




Ih'.tO. 




1891. 




1891. 




1891. 




1S9:!, 




1893. 





20 Micnm.xN Fisir commission bulletin no. T). 

(\ pcrmmuliis C'raj^in, p. 7, pi. I, figs. 9 18. 
" phiilcnihis Herrick, p. K)!, pi. II, figH. f) 10. 

Daday, p. 252. 

Hi'irick, p. 14, pi. VII, fi«8. 2, a d. 

8o8tariv, p. 71, pi. 11, H^s. 21 22. 

Latule, p. 75. pi. XX, Hgs. 12C. 130. 

Schmeil, p. 3(). 

Brady, p. 25, pi. IX, fig. 2. 

Richanf, p. 238, pi. VI, tig. 12. 

SchiiMMi, p. 170, pi. VIII, ti«8. 1 n. 

Marsh, p. 2ir), pi. VI. fi«8. (5 and 7. 

I have found (\ phdlcrnhis in the I'olh'ctions from only three localities, 
Lake St. Clair, Intermediate Lake, and Twenty-sixth Lake. Very litt 
attention, however, was paid in the collections to the smaller lakes ai 
stagnant pools, and it is probable that in such localities it occurs geneial 
distributed through the State. 

CvciiOi's nt(;or,OK Sars. 
Plate 1, figs. 5-7. 

('. hicolor Sars, p. 253. 

diaphamiH Rehberg, p. 547. 

Herrick, p. lOO, pi. R, fig. 12. 

Daday, p. 246. 
bicn'seiosus Daday, p. 255, pi. Ill, figs. 3, 5 and 10. 
(liaphanns Herrick, p. IG, pi. VII, figs. 3 a e. 

Lande. p. G7, pi. 18, figs. 91-98. 
hicolor Schmeil, p. 34. 
<li<(phanns Richard, p. 23(5, pi. VI, fig. 26. 
hicolor Schmeil, p. 118, pi. VI, figs. 6-13. 
♦' Marsh, p. 217. 

I have found C. hicolor in the collections from three of the Michig 
lakes — Lake St. Clair, Intermediate Lake, and South Lake on BeaA 
Island. Doubtless more thorough collections from small lakes and stt 
nant pools would furnish other localities, tliougli this species seems to 
nowhere very abundant. I have found, in a collection from a lake 
northern Wisconsin, an egg-bearing female \7ith ten-jointed antennw, 
fourth and fifth joints of the eleven-jointed variety being united in o 
Unless this specimen should be considered a monstrosity, we would in 
that this species can reproduce in either the ten or eleven-jointed stage 

I have added to the synonomy as previously given C. hrcviaeiosus Dad 
I do not feel certain of the identity of the two forms, and yet it seems 
mo probable that they are the same. I can not read the Hungarian, 
from the Latin synopsis and the figures I can not help thinking t 
brcvisctosus is the same as hicolor. The points of diiference are the 
lowing. The furca of hrcvisetosus is longer than in typical hicolor. '. 
armature of the swimming feet does not correspond to Daday's descripti 
but the one figure which he gives of a swimming foot closely reseml: 
the structure of hicolor, and does not correspond to his own descripti 
The antenna? of hrevisefostts are ten-jointed, but they correspond exactlj 
the'structure of my ten-jointed specimen of hicolor. In all other respe 
the descriptions agree. 



1863. 


C 


1880. 




1H84. 




1885. 




.1885. 




1887. 




1888. 




1891. 




1891. 




1892. 




18Vt3. 





N NO. n. 



CYCLOIMD.K AND C'ALANID.K Ol' MR'IIKIAN LAKKS. 



21 



10. 



,Rd. 

22. 
s 136. 


. 1 11 

md 7. 



ii\ly three localities, - 
h Lake. Very little 
he smaller lakes and 
les it occurs geneially 



3, 5 and 10. 
fi a e. 

8. 

6. 



ihree of the Michigan 
luth Lake on Beaver 

small lakes and stag- 
is species seems to be 
Bi'tion from a lake in 
ii-jointed autennro, the 
' being united in one. 
trosity, we would infer 
eleven-jointed stage. 

C. brcvisetosus Daday. 
18, and yet it seems to 
id the Hungarian, but 
ot help thinking that 

difference are the fol- 
i typical hicolor. The 

to Daday's description, 

foot closely resembles 

his own description. 

y correspond exactly to 
In all other respects 



UTBlJOfSRATMIV. 

Although the list of papers consulted is very iieRrl> the sanu" iis that of 
my paper on the Wisconsin Ci/cloin'da and ra/fnj/'/<»', 1 Iihvh thoiii;li it 
beHt to insert it in this paper tor convenience of reference. 1 have not 
had the opportunity of sfeing tlin original paper of I'oggenpol, nor the 
papers of Sostariv and Thallwit/, and the (luotations from those authors 
are taken from Schmeil. In all other cascM 1 have personally veriKed the 
references. 

liAiRU. W.: 

'50. Natural History of the British EntoinoHtraca. Kay Sue, Lond. 
Brai>\, (I. S.: 

'78. Monograph of the free and semi-parasitic Copepoda of the Brit- 
ish Islands, 3 vols,, Kay Sue, Jjond. 
'01. Revision of the British Species of Fresh-water Cyclopida> and 
C'alanida>. 
Natural History Transactions of Northumberland, Durham and 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Vol. XI, part 1. 
Claus, ('.: 

'57. Das Genus Cyclops u. s. einheimische Arten. 

Arciiiv. fur Naturgeschichte, XXIII, 1 Bd., pp. 1 10. 
'63. J)ie freilehenden Copepoden uiit besonderer Beriieksichtigung 
der Fauna Deutschlands, der Nordseo und des Mittelmeeres. 
Leipzig. 
Craoin, F. W.: 

'83. A Contribution to the History of the Fresh-water Copepoda. 
Trans. Ivans. Acad. Sci., Vol. VIIL 
Daday, Jeno. : 

'85. Monographia Eucopepodorum liberorum in Hungaria hucusque 
repertorum. 
A. M. tudomunoys Acad6mia Altai a Vit^z-alapb^l. 
DeKay, J. E.:, 

'44. Zoology of N. Y., VI, Crustacea. 
Fischer. 8.: 

'51 -'53. Beitrage /ur Kenntniss der in der Umgegend von St. Peters- 
burg sich tinJenden Cyclopiden. (und Fortsetzung). 
Bull. Soc, Imp., Moscow. 
FoRHES, S. A.: 

'82a. On Some Entomostraca of Lake Michigan and Adjacent 
AVaters. 
Araer. Naturalist, Vol. XVI, pp. 537 542, and 640-649. 
'82/>. The First Food of the Common VVhitetish. Rep. U. S. Com. 

Fish and Fisherien for 1881, pp. 771 782. 
'91. On Some Lake Superior Entomo.stracfl. Rep, U. S. Com. Fish 

and Fisheries. 1887, pp. 701-718. 
'93. A Preliminary Report on the Aquatic Invertebrate Fauna of 
the Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and of the Flathead 
Region of Montana. Bull. U. S. Fish Com. for 1891, pp. 
209-258. 
Fuic, A.: ^ 

'72. Die Krustenthiere Bohmens. Archiv der naturwiss. Landesdurch- 
forschg. von BOhmen., 11 Bd., IV Abth., pp. 203-269. 



II m«r^ --.I a».. 



22 



MICHIGAN FISH COMMISSION— BULLETIN NO. 5. 



DeGuerne and llirnARO.: 

'89. ll(5vi8iou (les Calanides d'eau douce. Mem. de la Soc. Zool. d 
France, Vol. II. 
DeGuerne, J.: 

'86. Description du ('enivopdijrs Grimdldit, Cop6pode uouveau d 
Golf de Fiulande. Bull. Soc. Zool. de France, XI. 
H l: ller, C. : 

70. Untersucluiugen iiber die Crustaceen Tyrols. 

Berichte des medic, naturw. Vereins in Innsbruck. 1 Jhrg. p{ 
()7 96. 
Herrick, C. L.: 

'8:2. Cyclopid.e of Minn, with Notes on other Copepoda. 

10th Ann. Rep. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Sur. Minn. pp. 221 -235. 
'83. Hetero,<i;enetic Development in Diaptonuis. 

Amer. Nat. Vol. XVII, pp. 381-389, 499 505. 
'84. A final report on the Crustacea of Minnesota included in th 
Orders Cladocera and Copepoda. 
12th Ann. Rep. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Sur. Minn. 
'87. Contribution to the Fauna of the Gulf of Mexico and the Soutl 
Mem. of Denisou Sci. Assoc. Vol. 1, No. 1. 
Hoefv, P. P. C: 

'70. De Vrijlevende Zoetwater — Copepoden der Niederlandsch 
Fauna. 
Tijdsch. d. Nederl. Dierkund. Vereenig III. 
J URINE, L.: 

'20. Histoire des Monocles qui se trouvent aux environs de Gen6v( 
Koch, C. L.: 

'35, 41. Deutschlauds Crustaceen, Myriapoden und Arachniden. 
Lanpe, Adam.: 

'90. Materyjaly do Fauny Skorupiakow Widlonogich Kr^lestwa Po 
skiego. Widlonogi Swoboduie Zyjace I. Rodzina Cyclop; 
Warsaw. 

LlLL.TEBOECi, W.: 

'53. De Crustaceis ex ordinibus tribus; Cladocera, Ostracoda, 
Copepoda in Scania occurrentibus. 
Marsh, C. D wight: 

'91. On the Deep Water Crustacea of Green Lake. 

Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts and Letters, Vol. VIII, pp. 211-213. 
'93. On the Cyclopida' and Calanidie of Central Wisconsin. 
W^is. Acad. Sci.. Arts and Letters, Vol. IX, pp. 189-224. 
N0RDQVI8T, Osc. : 

'88. Die Calaniden Finlands. Bidrag till Kannedom af Finlai 
Naturoch Folk, heft 47. 

PooOENrOL, M. J.: 

'74. List of the Copepoda, Cladocera, and Ostracoda of the Envin 
of Moscow. (In Russian.) Trans, in Crag.ii '83. 
Rehberg, H.: 

'MO. Beitrag zur Kenntniss der freilebenden Siisswasser Copepodl 

Abh. (i. Natur. Ver. xu Bremen, Bd. VI, pp. 533-554. 
'80rt. Weitere Bemerk. iiber d. freileb. Siissw. Copepoden. 

Abh. d. Natur. Ver. zu Bremen, Bd. VII, Hft. 1, pp. 61-G7. 



^^m 



I NO. 5. 

de la Soc. Zool. de 

p6pode uouveau du 
ice, XI. 

isbruck. 1 Jhrg. pp. 

pepods. 

inn. pp. 221-235. 

). 

sota included in the 

[inn. 

exico and the South. 

der Niederlandsche 



cyclopidj: and calanid/I<: of Michigan lakes. 



23 



KiCHARD, Jill.: 

'Ul. Ileoherches sur le SysttNme glandulaire et sur le Systt^me norveux 
des Cop6pode8 libres d'eau douce, suivie d'lme R^'vision des 
EsptNces de ce Groupe qui vivent en France. 
Aunalos des Sciences naturelles, Zoologie. T 12, pp. 113 270 
Sars, G. O.: 

'63. Oversigt af de indenlandske Ferskvandscopepoder. 

Forhandliuger i Videnskabs-Selskabet i Christiana. 18(52. 
SoHMEiL, Otto: 

'91. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der freilebenden Siisswasser Copepoden 
Deutschlands mit besonderer Beriicksichti^uug der Cyclopiden. 
Zeitschr. f. Naturwis. (54 Bd. 1 and 2 Hft. 

'<.)2. Deutschlands freilebende Hiisswasser-Copepodeu. 1. Theil- 
Cyclopidae. Bib. Zool. Heft 2. 

SOSTARIC. 

'88. Beitrage zur Kenntniss. (?) 
Thallwitx. 

'90. Entomostraken, (?) 
Uljanin, W. N. 

'75. Crustacea of Turkestan. Parti. (In Russian.) 

YOSSELER, J. 

'86. Die frpilebenden Copepoden Wiirttembergs und angrenzender 
Gegenden. Jahreshefte des Ver. fiir Vaterl. Naturkuude in 
Wiirtt. 1886. 



environs de Geneve. 

and Arachniden. 

logich Kr6le8twa Pol- 
I. Eodzina Cyclopy. 

locera, Ostracoda, et 



iake. 

II, pp. 211-213. 

1 Wisconsin. 
:, pp. 189-224. 

:annedom af Finlands 



racoda of the Environs 

^M '83. 

siisswasser Copepoden. 
pp. 538-554. 
Copepoden. 
Hft. 1, pp. 61-67. 



Fig. 1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 



4. 

5. 
6. 



Fig. 1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 



EXPLANATION OP I'LATE.S. 
PLATE I. 

Diaplomu,^ Reighardi ~Mth feet of female x 840. 
" abdomen of male x 195. 

" " fifth feet of male x 223. 

" abdomen of female x 190. 

Ci/clops bicolor abdomen of female x 269. 
" antenna of female x 883. 

" " 10-jointed antenna of female x 325. 

PLATE IL 



Fig. 1. Epischuralaciifitris—antennH of iemalexlVS. 

2- " " right antenna of male X 113. 

3. " " 



li 



6. 



antennule x 113a. 
mandible and palpus x 217. 
second maxillipede x 217. 
tirst maxillipede x 217. 



PLATE IIL 

Epischura Z«cn.s/ns— first foot x 217. 

" second foot x 158. 

" fifth foot of female x 217. 

" " fifth foot of male x 153. 

" abdomen of female x 113. 

" " abdomen of male x 118. 



24 



k 



iiii; 



M« 



MICHIGAN FISH COMMISSION— BULLETIN NO. 5. 



Fig. 1. 

2. 



Fig. 



Fig. 1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 

5. 
6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 
11. 
12. 



Fig. 1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

6. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



L. m( term-US' 



L. macnirus- 



« 



PLATE I\. 

right antenna of male x 275. 
left antenna of male x 275. 

PLATE V. 

first foot X 275. 
second foot x 275. 
fifth foot of female x 275. 
fifth foot of male x 275. 

second and third joints of second maxillipede 
275. 



PLATE VL 

Cyclops (J /er— abdomen of male x 146. 

" receptaculum seminis x 118. 

fourth foot X 113. 
" 11th, 12th, and 13th antennal segments o 
female x 113. 
/><scus— terminal joints of female antenna x 217. 
rt^er— terminal joints of female antenna x 217. 
fuscus — terminal joint of endopodite of fourth foot : 

217. 
(fZ6/(/us— terminal joint of endopodite of fourth foe 
X 280. 
" terminal joint of endopodite of fourth foe 

X 280. I 

" antennule x 217. 

fuscus — antennule, first three joints x 217. 
o/er— outline of cephalothorax of female x 108. 

PLATE VII. 

Diaptomus sicilis — fifth feet of male x 140. 

'' Ashkmdi — fifth feet of male x 140. 

" minutus—Mth feet of male x 140. 

fifth foot of female x 250. 
" orcijoncusis — fifth feet of male x 140. 

" pallu ( us— Mth. feet of male x 200. 
*' lcptoj)us—Mth. feet of male x 138. 

" sdnguinciis — fifth feet of male x 138. 

" Birgti—Mth. feet of male x 136. 

" snfigii incus — terminal joints of male antenna x IJ 

" sicilis — terminal joints of male antenna x 136. 

Cyclops brcvispinosus — fifth foot x 250. 
" modcstus — fifth foot x 250. 
" j)ulchellus — fifth foot x 250. 
LcuckarH—m\\ foot x 250. 



(( 






PLATE VIII. 

Sketch map of Lake St. Clair and vicinity, showing collecting stations. 

PLATE IX. 

Sketch map of Charlevoix and vicinity showing collecting stations. 



^ NO. 5. 



econd maxillipede x 



tennal segments of 

antenna x 217. 
atenna x 217. 
dite of fourth foot x 

jodite of fourth foot 

podite of fourth foot 



nts X 217. 

if female x 108. 



40. 

X 140. 

5 140. 

B X 250. 

lie X 140. 

5 200. 

xl38. 

ile X 138. 

136. 

of male antenna x 136. 

ale antenna x 136. 



; collecting stations, 
lecting stations. 






'// r/ m 




/Mm 




K 



"' / ^ •ill ^ \ ^' 



o 




Pl.ATH 



^^ 



1 1 



?■> 

'fit 
I 




HLATh II. 



I 1 




PLATE III. 




- ^^.-■:. jl . 'r-^ 



■' I 

1 i 



"■,""► 



'■I*' I 




PLATE IV 



■Hi . 
'•I 






imi,, 

I.M||I 



:^H|i 



■ iiti 




PLATE V. 



Ml* 






i 



5. 



I! •• 



■n\ 




PLATH VI. 



l*lc 



I** 



h 



I'* 




PLATK \I1. 



^ 



r^^ 



P 
1 



V' 




Hl.ATE VIII. 



■^ 



»•<«' 



VK;1 



liWtf, 



■ '..,1 /•» " 



l.'| 



y ■ 



y 



^" 



^ 



■ 




PLATR IX. 



-Siisi: 




PLATR IX.