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Full text of "Ethnology of the Ungava Bay District, Hudson Bay Territory [microform]"

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SMITUSONIAN INSTITUTION-BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 



ETHNOLOGY 



UXGAV4 DISTRICT, HUDSON BAY TERRITORY. 



By LUCIEN M. TURNER. 






159 



Int 



Th 



8l>( 



CON TUNIS. 



Page. 

Intiodiictiiin "'^ 

I'ort t'liimi) mill tlio surroiiiuliiiK ntjiioii lt>7 

( 'liiiml.' jp 

Auroiils !'•' 

Vt'Kftiitioii I7;i 

Aiiinml lilV^ 171 

M;llnmlll^ 171 

l!ir.ls 175 

Tilt' iiiilivt' inlialiitiiiits of tlio toimtry — fteiicnil skctcli 175 

The. Kskimo 175 

Thr In.liiiiis 1«1 

!S]ii(iiil iici'imiit cif till' iiiMi)ili' MToniid Fint Chiiini 1X4 

Tilt! KokHoiiKMi.viit 1*^1 

rii\ sical chiiraiti'i NtiiH 1X1 

Disciisi's 1X7 

MiiiriiiK.! IHX 

( liil.lr.Mi 1!H) 

Huriiil cMsiKiiis 191 

Hili;;i.)ii !!•« 

OiililDorlilo -'0'.' 

Tiittoiiin); -'07 

Cliitliiiin 208 

Dwriiiiiifs 2:j:{ 

lloiisrliold cuticles 2L'K 

FoimI mid its pi(>|iiiriitii)ii 231.' 

Toiiiirto mill siiiill' 2;il 

MciiiiH (if liaiiN|Hirt:iticiii 2;ir>_ 

Hy wiiti'i' 2:<5 

( )ii land 210 

Wfapoiis and iitlicr liiiiitiiifj iiiiplcnicnts 2 Hi 

Hiiiiiiuf; 2I!I 

Mixct'lliiiH'iiiis iiiipli'iMi 'nt-< 25'J 

AiiiMsi'iiiriils 251 

Art 259 

Stiny-tcllinK and lidkldif 2(>l) 

<>ti){iii ol' the I linn it 2()l 

I'lii) riiiiiint; (if lUt( wliitr pccijilf 2()1 

Oriijiii of li\ inj; tliin^is nn tln' rartli anil in tin' watrr 2(il 

( >rii;in ot' lilt' KU'll"'!""'^ 2(il' 

driiiiii of till' iMviui 203 

Oiijiin 111' till' i|nadiiin;;iilar spots on tin' Ioo.i'm liack 202 

(•riniii ot' the ;;nlls 263 

( tiisin of till) hawks 203 

Origin of the '-wallow 203 

11 KTIl 11 1«1 






fe-i 



.S» 



i<;2 



CONTIONTs. 



( i:ll :i.(iiMMl 111' llir |ir(i|i|i> MKimul I'ull t llitilc - ( imtiiuii'il. 
riir KiiKsciimiiiyut—t Hill 111 mil. 

.siiii,\-lflliiiH mill I'olKlim — Coliluiiii'il. 



Thr liiiii 

rii( 



i.ir. 



l.i.v 

I iri;;iii cil' iiiiisc|iiil(ii'N 

Slury 111' till' iiiiiii mill lii^ i»\ wil'r 
Till' liv;lls . 



PhCi-. 

L'liU 

jiia 

L'tiH 
L'lll 
•JM 
•JM 
2(U 
L'(i,-> 



riir JraliiU!! 111:111 

SliHv 111' tlir iir|ili,iii tiii> 

Tlir iiriyiii 111' (111' Mini, iiiimii, iinil xtinx litKJ 

.\iiiiiriis 2(iB 

I'llr >kv 



11 



t iiiiU 



riir N'ciii'iinl iir '■ Nii»kii)iif 



•jii? 

I'liT 



l'ilin'ili:il rliiu'.irtrrislii'.s 2li7 

(liilliiiii; 



SWl 

l'iiii;ii:iliiiii 111 t lie nU ills I'lir rlntllillK 1.'!I2 



llwcIliiiyN 

SWIMI hllllSI'S 

lloii'i'llnlil iitrllsiU, rtr 
Tiiliai'i'ii :iiiil )il|irH 



Mfaii-i 111' li'mis)iiii'tiitiiiii 



Hv «;ilrr 
Kv imiil 



Wi'ii 



2il8 

•.mo 

3(M) 
;t(Vi 
•Ml 

•.m 

.S()8 
8 Hi 



II Mill 111 K 

Mi>(ill;iin'ciiis iiii)ili'iiii'iitN. tiiiils, I'tr HIT 



Aiim^iiiuiils 
l"<sli\ :iN . . . 



riiikiiii'i 



Stiiry 111' tli(> wolvi'iiiii' mill llir lirmil 

Stnlv 111' till' Wiihi'lllir 

Till' ili'iT mill llii' siiiiinrl 

Til. 



1;; liiiili whii Willi til livr with tliti dt'iT 



3L'2 
:<27 

•A-J-! 



3L'8 
:tnO 



rill- Willi ">. ilaiiyliti'i' (.'iiiny til NiM'k liiT Invrv 

Till- ilrvil |iiiiilsliiiiy; II li.ir 3IW 



A wiilvi riiir ilrsiriiv s his >i,sii'r 

Till' nililiil mill ihr I'rnu 

Tlir wiilvftiiii' mill thrriirk .. 
("riatliHl 111' lii'Dplr hy lllr \Mil\ 



I'iiir mill thr iiiiiskriil 



3:«t 
3:»« 



I irijiiii 111' thr whili^li «|iiil 1111 Ihr Ihrnat iil' the iiiartcii 338 



'I'lii' liiillaii anil lii> liravi r wilV 



■|h( 



riitilirHiillii" liaii 



33it 
3U) 



Thr ^liirit jiniiliiif; a rhihl h It li\ it;< iiairiit.- 3I!J 



Fall' 111' t\\ II Inilian iiirii 
Till' staivliii; wnlvi'viiif 



r 



If -larviiiu liiilians 



3i:t 



:U!t 



lUSTRATlONS. 



I'ana 

Pi, All, X.\X\'I. \'if\v im KdUsiiiik l.'ivcr 170 

XX.WII. Kskiiiici tint '-'I'll 

XXX\'III. Sfoiip tiihiMcii iiiju's HOJ 

XXXIX, Uirihtmik cuiior, Nciu-iiot, Kok.soiiK river iiiittcrii Hiil 

XI.. .N'rnciiiil siiowslioi — " swiillowtiiil" H(I8 

XI.I. NcMi'Miit sikiwbIhic — '■ lii:ivi'r-tiiil" HIO 

XI. II. Ni'iiiiiDl sMDWsliiic -■• riiiind-ciiil" . . Ulli 

XI. III. Dull, IiKli.iii Wdiiiiiii, lull ilri'-<. Nfii. nut MZO 

I'lii. i;i. i;sUiim. Kiavc 192 

li:>. Mii-ir .l„ll I!t7 

T.i. Hilt III' iiiauic' iIdII 1!W 

L'l. Talisiiiiiii iittiicliid to iiiayir (lull 1!H> 

■JX I'lilisiiiiiii IW 

Ji;. TaliMiian 1!K> 

'J-. Talisiiiaii 200 

liX. I'.skiiiio woiiian'.s ainiili'l 201 

•J'.>. I'.skiino liiril.skiii cap..* 2I» 

HO. KsUiirio iiiMii's (Icorskin coiil if'rniit ) 210 

HI. I'.,skiiiici man's ilrrrsUiii ruat I hack) Ull 

:iL'. i:sUiiMi) man's sralsUin mat ( front \ 212 

;{:t. l'.>Uinio man's si'alsUin ciiat (siilf 2II{ 

HI. INkinio woni.in's ilccrskin iciat 21 1 

II."). I^Kkimo woman's clccrskiii mat 21i) 

llli. INkimo woman's deerskin coat 2I."> 

H7. I'.skimo woman's iloerskin mat 21(> 

I'lM. Kskimo woman's sealskin coat 21H 

Hit. Kskinio woman's ileerskin "oat 217 

1(1. Maek view of same 217 

II. Kskimo lioots 2IK 

IJ. Kskimo shoes 2l!t 

t:i. lee sIhm'n, Hndsoii strait Kskimo 2111 

I I. I.oiiy wateriiroof si^alskin mitten 220 

!.->. Waterproof ),'nl I'riiek . 221 

III. Snow )io;;){leN — tront '-'22 

17. .'^iiow j{o}{j{leH — rear 2'J.'i 

■18. Uesi'i'tt'd K.sVinio snow houses near Fort (Jliimo 221 

lit. SoapstoiKi lamp, Koksoaf;in,\ lit 22!> 

.")0, Soapstone lamp. Koksoasm.x nt 2;.".l 

'il. Soa|istinie lamp. Koksoafiinyut 2l'1I 

."^i:;. Frame for diving mittens 21)1) 

.'jH. Soapstone kettle 2,'iO 

51, SSoapstom- kettle 231 



y :, 






164 



ILLUSTUATiUNS. 



Fi. 



:>,-.. w. 



(li'li 



."i(!. SimInKIii liiicUi't 
r>7. Sialskiii run • •• 



Tc.lii 



Vnga. 

mi 

'M'J 
23» 



."i!i. Kskiiiiii I'liii 

(10. liii>;\vliip 211 

til. How, r.iist .M;iiii I'.Miiiiiiii (tiiicKi aid 

»U. How, Kiifit M:iin KNkiino (siiltM 2111 

ti;i. Arripw. Kiisl Miiiii l'',Kkiiui> 217 

<!l. .\ri(>\v. Kant .Miiiii K.'^kiiiiii 247 

Ji'i. .\iiii\v, i;nNt .Mil ill i;»Kiiii(i 217 

titl. How ciisc, K.ist Miiiii l'.,Hkiiiiii 218 

•IT. 1 1. 1 Ml I sprar liir killing m.'iI.h, Iroiii kiiiak, KokHoak 249 

•>.">. Tiiynlr licail for liaiitl Hprar 250 

till. Sr.ilskin lloat 2.'i(> 

70. Ivor.v Hiiiiw kiiilr, KokNiiaKiii.viit 25il 

71. Itark-Miatilirr, KiiksoaKiiiyiit 253 



Ivors iii't'illr casr, Koksiianiii.viii 254 



73. 
71. 
7">. 
7ti. 
77. 
'x. 
7!". 
Mil. 
SI. 

s'2. 

Kf. 
81. 

X."i, 
XI 1. 
XT. 

MS. 
Ml. 
!•(!. 

m. 

!l'J. 

!i;{. 

IM. 

ll.'l. 
ill I. 

!I7. 

'.IX. 



1 Ill' pane, KoksoaKm.Vnl 254 



ilskiii iii'i'illo nisliioii. with tliliiililr. KokNiiaKiii.viit . 



KiikNoaniiiyiit 



"('ii|i anil lia 

Kootliall anil ilrivrr, Kok.-toaninvnt 

jloiiiinors, llnilMiiii .sliait i'.Nklino. 

l!»kinio ilnll, man 

l'..skinio iloll. woman 

I'.skinio ilojl, w iinian 

Kskiiuo (loll, » om.iii 

ICskiiiio \ iolin 

I tints rar\ 111 in i\ o|\ 4 . 

1 1 II man liKiiir 1 :ii\ nl In i\ nrv 

Iniliaii mrilii'ini' loil<;i' 

Inilian imiili't of lirarskin 

Inilian ImikHkin coat. nian'H 1 front 1 

Inilian liink.skin coal, man's 1 li.n k 1 

Iii'tail of iiattcni paiiitcil mi linlian ^'armeiit. 
Ilct.'iil (if pattern paiiitcil on ilciiskin nil"'.. . 

Inilian Imikskin lr;;;;in);s 

Inilian tiioccasins 

1 ml Ian mi t tens 

Itc.'uU'il licailiiaml, Ncmiiot 

Man's « inter coat ( front i 

.Man's winter coat i liack 1 

I Ida 1 1 of ornament, It ion 

.Man's w inter coal, with liooil 

M.in's winter coat, with hood 

Nemnot woman in fnll winter ilreNs 

Sealskin heaiHianil, Nemnot 

.^kin scraper ( front >, Nemiiot 



254 
25« 
258 
257 
258 
258 
2.MI 
25H 
25!t 
200 
2li0 
274 
275 
281 
282 
282 

28a 

281 
285 
2HII 
287 
288 
288 
28(t 
2!lfl 
2111 
2!t2 
2!t2 



liiii. 
101. 
lOL', 

lii;i. skin Hera per (siil«), Ncnonol 2!I2 

nil. Skin-cli ni.iiii; tool, Nemnot I'lta 

IO."i. Skin-eleaniny tool ( iroii-lilatleil ), Neneiiot 21t| 

1 1 Hi. I 'aim sticlv. Nemnot -JtH; 

loT 2iM> 

lll^. I'aint stick, Nenem.t 2!HJ 

lim. I'.iint stick, Nenenol 297 



ILLU8TKAT10N8. 



165 



Fut.Ud. 
111. 

IIL'. 

u:i. 
111. 

ii,-i. 
iit>. 

117. 

IIH. 
II!". 
lliO. 
12 1. 
VSJ. 
IL'3. 
11' I. 
IL',-.. 

vy>. 

Il.'7. 

ijN. 

llMt. 
I3(». 

i:»i. 
i;tL'. 
i;t;t. 
i;ti. 
i;r). 
i:ui. 
i;i7. 
i:w. 
i;t!t. 

140. 
141. 
141' 

I4;i. 

144. 
145. 
14fi. 
147. 
14H. 
14!t 
15(1. 
151. 
151'. 
153. 
154. 
155. 



I'niiit milk, Nononnt 

raliit riip, .Nt'liriiiit 

raiiil rii|>, Nciii'lliit 

I'liiiit ril|i. Nfiu'liiit 

NclHlKit Iliiliiiii tent 

Wiiiiilcii liiiclirt. Ni'iicnot . 



I'ilUf. 

m 

207 

2»>7 

aiw 

2118 

301 

lliri'hlinrk lniHUrt, .Vriiciint HOI 

Itirrlit.iirU liaski't. Nnicuot TOl 

XinHr |itsllr. Nfllfliot 30!l 

WiHidiii s|ii(iiii nr liiilln. Nciicmit Ht'Si 

Wiioilrii H|ii 1(111 iir lacllr, Ni'iii'iiot H02 

W'iMiili'ii N|ioiiii oi' laillc, Ni'iii'iKit dOii 

Wciiiilt'ii N|iii(in iir liiillt', Nciifiuit H03 

Siimc lolianu ]ii|iii 314 

ri|ir clfaii'T. NcliiMicit 3(>.l 

S|iiiiiii I'lir a|i|il,\ iim urcaHc to ciiiini' 30tt 

rolii'KKaii, Nriii'iiot. ni(lt' viiMV 307 

TiilMiKjjaii, Nriicmit. rnim aliiivt' 307 

NiiK'iicit siiinvsliof, wiiiHlt' liar 30S 

NtMicnnt »1iow«Imh', siiinlr luir 3((!t 

.SihiwmIicm' nrt'illc, Nclicliot 310 

Wiiixlt'ii Himushoc, l.ittli' Wliali- river .... 311 

ll.iw. Ncncn.it 312 

Aniiw. Ni'iicnot 313 

.\rio\v, Noni'iiot 313 

Arriiw, Ni'iiriiol 313 

Arrow, Ni'iirimt 311! 

DftT laiiir, NciM'iuil 311 

Whitt' whale Npear. I.Wtle Whale river 314 

I'oiiit of white whale spear eiilarffeil 314 

Heindeer Hiiare, Neiieiuit 31."i 

CriKiketl knife, NotiPiiot 317 

\wl, Neiienot 31S 

Siiiiw HJKivel, Neiieliol 31M 

leo Heoiip, N'enelKtt 31S 

31!> 

Ciiiiili, w ith hirihhark eaHe ami eli'aiier 3i;o 

hiiarilN for w oniaii's hair 320 

Swiiiimiiij; Imanl 321 

FiHiihoiik ami line 321 

Cup anil hall, N<'nenot 324 

Oriiiii, Nenenot •121 

nriini, Little Whale river 325 

Kattlo, Nenenot 32ii 

Target, reindeer, hnek 32(i 

Target, reindeer, due 32t> 









% 



I) 
I 



il 

'I 

a 
l( 



r;niN()LO(;Y oftiir rNcjAVA district, Hud- 
son HAY TKKKITOKY. 



\i\ 1,1 iir.N M. 'rt'KNKU. 

(KlHTI'.n IIV JllllN MiKIMM'll.) 



INTRODUCTION. 

riiKiivii bay is nil tlio iinrtlitMii const of old Labrador— tho last trroat 
bi^lit of tlu^ strait between the oeeim and tlie inoiitli of Hudson bay. 
Its (iliief alllueiil is Koksoiiii or Soutii river, wiiieli is several liiindred 
miles lonnand taUes its rise in a |iietiiresi|ne ft^looucry of lakes looped 
tliiouKli the liifihlands half way down to (^iiel)ec. 

I'Olfr CIIIMO AM) Tin; SUltlSoINDINd IfKliloN. 

Fort <'hiinn is in lon;,'itude »).s ' 1(»' west of (ireenwich and latitude 
r»S S' n(Ulh. Tlie post is on the ri^Jit bank of the Koksoak river, 
about '-'7 miles from its iriouth. The elevation of the level traet on 
which the houses are situated is but a few feet above hlp;h-water mark. 
The location was selectt'd (Ui acctuint of its comparative drym^ss, and 
also because tlu' river atVords a safer aiicliora;,'e in that vicinity than 
lower ilowii. 

The early Moravian missionaries, Ion;; before established on the At- 
lantic coast, desired to extend their lal>ors for the conversion of the 
Eskimo to their teachings. .Vbout tln^ year 1S'J."< a vessel aseeiuh'd the 
Koksiiak river for the purpose of selecting; a new missionary station. 
N'j'arly opposite l''(Ut Chimo is a beacon, yet stantliuK- erected by the 
people of that vessel. Theii' reception amoufi the natixt-s was sucli 
that they ;;ave a ;;lowin;; account of it on their return. The Hudson 
Itay Company immediately took stei)s to en-ct a tradin^j i)ost upon the 
river, and a small party was sent in the year 1H31 from Moose Factory 
toestablisha tradin;;' post where Ihc trade wiuild appear to promise 
future developnuMit. The men remained there, obtainini;- a precarious 
subsisteiu'.e, as the vessel deliveriii}; them supplies visited that place 
oidy once in two years. Tlu'ir houses were simple, coiisistiiiK' of a 
sinjile structure for the ollicial in charue, another for the servants, and 
two more for the storage oi' ;;-oods. A [talisade was erected around the 

11)7 









168 



THE HLDSUN liAY ESKIMO. 



liMUsos to prevent the iutrnsion of the natives, Indians and Eskimo, 



pr 

who were so lately at war witii eaeli other that the rancorons feeling 
had not siilisided and nii<;'ht break out afresh at any moment withont 
wiirnini 



Till' remnants of the palisade were yet visible in ISSli. The 
establishment of this trading;' post had a paeifyin}; iutliieuce npon the 
natives, who soon foniid they eonld do better by proenrinj,' the many 
valuable fur bearinj;' animals than by enfiagin^' in !•. bloody strife, which 
the traders always deprecate and endeavor to prevent or suppress. 
After many trials to establish an overland communication with the 
stations on llamilttui iidct, it wasfound to l)eimpnw;tieable, aiuliu 1843 
f! t^ station was aliandoncd. 

John M'Jican. in a woik entitled ''Twentytive Years in the llndsou's 
IJay Territory."' gives an account of that jvution of the country that 
came under his knowledge from tin' year IS.JS to l.S4;». 

In the year bStitl the steamer iMbrailor was l)uilt and sent with a 
party to reestablish the post at b'oit Chiino. Since l.StJti the i)osl has 
been a pa\ ing station, and in later yeais a good piotit has been made. 

Fort Clilmo is the chief trailing station of the Ungava district. The 
I'ngava district proper is the aiea iMubraced by the watershed whose 
outtlow drains into I'ngava bay. The eastern boundary is tiormed by 
the foothills on the west side of the coast range, which is the western 
liiuit of l^abrador. This lange has a trend northwest and southeast to 
latitude ti(>o, where it makes a somewliuf abrupt angle and pursues a 
nearly north course, terminating with Cape Chidley and the Hnttons, 
the latter a low groiii» of islets some 7 miles north of the cape. 
The southern boundary is the '•Height of Ijand," near latitude 5."P. 
This region is estimated to be from I,(HM» to .'i,0(H» feet above sea level. 
The greater portion of it is comparatively level. <ind on its surface are 
iniuimerable lakes of various sizes, some of which are quite large. The 
western boundary is not so well known in the southern part of the 
region, as it has been seldom traversed. It seems to be a high eleva- 
tion extending toward the northinuthwest, as nunu'rous streams run 
from the sonthwcst and west toward the central or Koksoak valley, 
l^skimowho have traveisedthe region many times rcjtort that theclcva- 
ted land abruptly ends near "»K° .'50', and that there is formed a wide 
swampy tract, estimated to be about 80 miles wide, which opens to the 
northeast and southwest. The northwestern portion of the distiiet 
is a gr«>at area abounding in abrupt hills and itrecipitons mountains of 
various heights. These heights, estimated to range no higher than 
U.titMt feet, ti'rminate al)rui)tly on the western end of the strait, and 
the nii.:>erons islands in that portion of the water arc, doubtless, peaks 
of tliis saiiM' range continuing to the northwest. 

It will bft thus seen that the district of I'ngava is a huge amphi- 
theater opening to the north. The interior of the district is exee.ss 
ively varied by ridges and spurs of greatci' or less elevation. The 



' Two vuU. ill one. I.iiikIuII. 1H4'.I. 



TlllSKK.] 



Till': lIKKiUT OK LANU. 



ir,9 



fartli.T south one triivels. tlif liiji'lior aiul nune incpil.irly disitoscd 
ai«) tilt' liills iiiiil inouutaiiis. Tlu^■<o spurs arc usually itarallcl to tUo 



main 



laniii's, although isolatoil spurs occur 



I'hicli extend at riglit 



ifthc liifilicr i'k'vations arc cov- 
ered with snow for the entire year. The suiiiiuits ol'tlui lower ones sue 



anfjlcs to the main ranjje. The to]ts 



slirouded with snow as early as the 1st of Sei)tenilter, and by the 1st 



of October the 



-now line descends nearly to their buses. The lower 



lands are full of swanii)y tracts, lakes, and ponds. 
The more elevated regions are tot.dly destitute of vegetaticu). except 
,hicli i"ivcs to the hills a somber color, anything 



(he ti 



lie tripe ties nxjlies, wliici 
but inspiring. Fully three-fourths of the more elevated region is, with 
llie exce|)tion of black lichens, barren rock. Hverywhere is the evi 
deuce of long continued glacial action. The soiithei n exi)osures of all 
the hills show the same character of wearing, and, in many instances, a 
tiiu' polish on the rocks forming their bases. This smo()thiiess extends 
nearly to the summits of the higher peaks. These again arc somewhat 
rougher and of^en broken into Jagged, angular fragments, frequently 
of immense size. The more moderate elevations are usually rounded 
summits on whose higher piutions may be tbuud huge bowlders of rock 
having a dilferent character from that uitoii which they rest, proving 
that they were carried there by masses o»' h-e in the glacial ages. The 
northern extremity of all the ridges and spurs indicate that the ghu'ial 
sheet moved to tlu" uorthnorthwest. tor these portions of the rocks are 
so jagged and sharp edged as to appear to have been broken but yes- 
terday. 

The rivers of this district are numerous and several ure of great size, 
although but two of them are navigable for more than KHt miles, and 
this only for boats of light draft. 

The river usually known as (tcorge's river (Kan'gfiktflua'Iuksoak) is 
the largest on the eastern side. This stream takes its rise about lat- 
itmle o'P and pursues a moderately tortuous course nearly luu-thward 
and falls into the eastern side <»f Tngava Hay. It has a wide bay-like 
mouth narrowing rapidly at the mouth proper. Swift rapids are formed 
here on account of an island near the center. I'.eyoud this the river 
expands and has an average width of half a mile for a distance of abtuit 
IS miles where the river bends eastward and forms rapids ihv over 
2 miles. It is navigabh' for the steamer l.dhnnior only abtnit 1- miles. 
H«'yond the rapids it runs tolerably .sm(M>th and deep for nearly 40 
miles and thence to the source is a series of lapids and falls, rendering 
portages frequent, and making it utterly impractieahlc forevcii a heavy 
skilf to ascend beyond 70 miles from the mouth. Indians assert that 
high falls occur about l.">0 miles f-oin the mouth of the (Jeorge's river. 
The water is said to fall from a territic height, almost iierpcudicularly. 
and it causes the ground to tremble so that the thundering noise may 
be heard for more than a day's journey from it. 

The tide at the month of (ienrge's river rises r,:\ feet, and at the 



'm 



■» 






»<!SKi.- 



it -'iMss.,. 



1^4 



•B 



I 



170 



TIIK HI'DSON ItAV KSKIMO. 



Aiiclioriifjo. ()i)i)<tsito tho. newly fstublislicd station of 1 ort (ieoifie. 



soin* 



12 niiU's from its mioiiIIi. 42 feet. 



Wliiilc liver is tlie next iniportiint river towai I the east. OtV tlio 
niontii of tliis river isa Imjie island, loeally i;no\vn as Bij;- island. This 
liijili island extends paridlel to tlieeuiirse of the river, iiid a reef, con- 



lieetiliy its iijiper 



end with the inainland. Ix'fouu's dry at low water. 



The course of Wjiahi river is not well known. About. 4(( miles ui> this 
stream it suddenly eontraets and btMonies a more creek, Ibrnnu};' the 
outlet of a lar,i;(> lake. whost> position is not satisfactorily determiiu'd. 
It is to the banks of this lake that certain families of the liulians re- 
l)air fo!' sumnuM- tishinj;'. 

I'he. lu'xt larjiC river is the Koksoak. This stream is tiu' larjicst in 
the district, it takes its rise from lakes situated on the plateau — 
the ' Heif^rht of iiand," — and pursm-s a course haviu};- a {jeiu'ral 
diieeiion norlhnortlieast. On cmerj^in^' fnuu the lake it is rather 
small. Itut forks and unites an'ain about 10 miles below. The current is 
is sluii'^i; li at the ui)per einl, ami the eastern branch is so nariow that 
the 'ndians have to part the overhanjiiiif;' alders and willows to atl'ord 
their canoes a j)assaije. This bra'ich is said to be the sluuter way to 
the lake ami is not so ditlitult to ascend, the eastern branch beinjf 
shallow and containin<; a number of ra|)ids. 

Itelow^ the Junction of tins branches the river rapidly becomes larj-cr 
and contains several very hi-ih falls, below which the river tlows m)rtli- 
west foi' a couple of hundred yards and then curves to the nortlinoith- 
east for a distanec (d"."» miles. This portion is only about 7< 10 feel wide. 
It then turns .ibruptly westward and lushes swiftly throufjh a narrow 



^'or.n'e only 2()(> feet wide tiu' a distain-e of about 7 miles. 'I'his course is 
noted for se\era; rapids. tliroiij;h whidi a boat can not make its way 
without jjreat ditliiulty. At the end of this 7-nnlc run the rivi'r ajjain 
IxMids abruptly to the east, and continues that course with little north 
in;; until the last bend, some <».") miles below, is reached. At the lower 
end of the 7 mile run the ledges ami reefs are too numerous to count. 
I'rom this place to the mouth of the liarch river tin- Koksoak is ob. 
structed l>y islainls. bars, and shoals. ISclow these, liow«'ver. it 
becouu's ijuite broad, until nearl.v opposite the hiu'h point or promont(U'y 
liclow the mouth of the l.arch { I'l. xxxvi). l''rom this Iceality it is mo- 
hotoMous fill the last bend is rea<'hed. some I miles above h'ort ('himo, 
V here it suddeidy turns to tlie north .ind pursues thai d.cction to tiie 
sea with littli' vaiiatioii. At the last bend, however, a lary'c island. 



^icalh Ivnowii 



I'.i- i 



slaiid. not onl\- obstiucts bn' '-i 



id> 



na\'i;iation 



foi' boats draw iiiyiivcr •• feet. Small boats, siu'h as skill's and naii\e 



boats, ascend to the lower end of 7 mile run. The 
tioii to t''avel in anv kind of vessel 



ncipal obstruc- 
the Koksoak from liiy island 
to the nnintii oi' thi' barch rixcr is (he presence ot' two tails or rapids 
aliout 10 miles tVoin l''ort Chimo. 



Thcexiremt rise and fall of the tide at the mouth of the rive 



is <>2 




-w. 



AROUND FORT CIIIMO. 



171 



ieet .'( iiiclu's. The iisiiiil rise 



ami fall is fi'diii S to V2 (eet less, (lepeiul- 



iiig on the stage of the river. At Fort Cliiiiio the title rises as much 
as ni feet. The haekwater is held in cheek as far as the upper rapids 
in a common stage of water, ami during a high rise in the month of 
June the water is "backed" some .'i miles beyond the ui>i»er rapids.^ 

The branches of the Koksoak river are few and unimportant. The 
larger tributary is the Lareli river. It is a rapid and almost unnavi- 
gable stream of variabh- depth, mostly shallow, and 100 to nearly 400 



yards wnle. 

At aluait Mt miles from its inoutli tlie Larch fcnks, the h)wer or 
sou thwes^t fork draining the eastern sides of the same mountains whose 
western slopes are drained by the Little Whale river. This southwest 
fork of the Larch river is ipiite small and .searely capable of being 
ascended, although it nuiy, with great caution, be di-scended. This 
is the cour.se Ibllowed by the Little Whale river Indians when they 
traverse the country to join the Naskopies of the Koksoak valley. 
The northwe.st branch of the Larch is still smaller and is rejiorted to 
issue from the swampy tract of land in about latitude ."is-^ .'{0'. 

The next large river is the Leaf. Its mouth is about M miles n(uth 
west of Fort Chimo, ami it Hows into a peculiarly shaped bay named 
Tass'iyak, or -like a lake."' The length of the river proi.er is estimated 
to be but 10 miles, llowiug from a very long ami narrow lake, having its 
longer axis extending southwe.stward and draining the greater part of 
the swampy tract lying in latitude .".So :w. The southwestern i)ortioii 
of this tract is merely an area coven-d with innunu'iable small lakt.'S so 
intimately connected by short water courses that it is dillicnlt to 
determini- whether water or land constitutes the greater i>art of tin- 
area. The rivers to the west are ot less importance and drain the 
rugged area tbrming the northwestern portion of the district, or that 
l»art lying under the western third of Hudson strait. 

The prin«ipai portion of Hudson strait that came under my observa 
tion is I'ngava bay. This bay is a jiocketshaped body of water lying 
south of the strait and toward its eastern end. Soundings in various 
portions of this bay indicate a depth of L'S to 7(t fathoms tor the central 
area. The bottom appears to be nniforndy the washings from the fresh 
water streams. The extreme tides of Hudson strait tend to produce 
the most violent currents in this bay. Opposite the entrance of Leaf 
liver iiay is a wliirli»ooi of «'onsiderable si/e. which causes nnu'h trouble 
to navigation. It is safe enough at high water l>nt very dangerous at 

half- tide. 

The large island known as Akpatok lies in such a position as to 
break nuich of the current along the south side of the middle of the 
strait, but to give additional force to the currents at either end. This 
island is about 100 miles long ami has an average width of is miles. 
It is the largest islaml in the strait proper. 

The coast line«if the northwest poition of the mainland is imperfectly 



>t'l4^ 






172 



THE HUDSON BAY KSKl.MO. 



known, as is the western coast forniinn- the eastern aliore of Hudaou 
hay. Navigation in any portion of Hudson strait is iitteiuled with 
much danger, not alone from tlie tremendous energy of the tides but 
also from the quantity of ieo to be found at all times. Durin;;- the 
months of August and Sepl uiber the strait is etmiparatively free from 
large llelds of ice, Init after that date the harbors, coves, and other 
aiu-horag«'s are apt to be frozen up in a single night. 

(LniATE. 

The temperature is controlled l>y the direction of t!ie wind. The 
warnu'st wiiuls are southeast, south, and southwest during the sum 
uu'r. The northeast wiiuls bring (if backing) fog, rain, or snow; the 
north wind is usually cold ami disiiosed t(» disjM'rse the clouds. The 
northwest wind is always very cold in winter and chilly in summer. 
Westerly wiiuls are uuidcrate in winter and summer. The southerly 
winds are warm at all seasons if blowing hard, but very cold if Idowing 
lightly in winter. I thin.v the co'dest light winds of t!ie winter are 
from a point little west of south. Tlu'V are doubtless ibie t»» the cold 
from the elevated region — the lleig::t uf Land. 

The greatest amount of cloudiness occurs in the spring ami fall; 
rather less in ,Iuly and August, and least during December, .lanuary, 
and I'ebinary. The average doudiiu'ss for the entire year is not less 
than eighty-two hundredths of the vi.sible sky. 

.Sleet falls mostly from the midille of September to the beginning of 
December. Snow then succeeds it ami continues to be the oidy form 
of ]U'ecipitation until the middle of April, when sleet and snow fall 
until the first rain sets in. The season of rain is very erratic. It may 
rain by the first of May, but rarely does. Snow falls every month in 
the year: the I'd of .luly and the fith of -Vugu.st were the dates farthest 
apart tor tiiis forinof i»ieci]»itatiiin. Thecharacler of the rain is usually 
moderate to hard for the summer sh(>wers; although .several notable 
exceptions of abundant ilashes occur during late June and all of .luly. 
The August and Se])tember rains are usually light to moderate, but 
often persistent for several ilays. The snowfalls are light to heavy ill 
character, rarely, howevci', lasting more than twenty-four hours. The 
sleet is usually precipitated in severe siiualls. The lower grounds are 
permanently covered with sim)W by the 1st of December, this covering 
lemaining uiiti*! the I(»th of June. At the latter date only the heavier 
drifts and the snow of the ravines remain, it entirely disappears by 
the last of .luly at all elevations no higher than that of I'^ort Cliimo. 

The higlier hills retain snow until the last of August, but none is lo 
be seen in the vicinity of l-'ort <"himo after that date. I'y th<' middle 
of .Se])feinber snow again covers the tops of the disJant high hills. 

I'ogs rarely oct;ur so far inland as Fort ("himo. Those (teciirring are 
in July and .Vugiist. At times they are very dense; and, as they form 
during the earliest hours of the day, they are usually dis-sijiated by 4 



CLIMATE AND VEOETATION. 



173 



ti» 7 ii. III. While tlie ice is setting in tbu I'iver, iiiid diiveu bacii uiid 
lortli l»,v the tides, huj^e voliiiiies of steam arists from tiie iiiiiy water 
and are sjiread over the hind by tlie lif'lit winds luevai'iinfj at that sea- 
son. Tiiis moisture deposited on tiie hushes and trees forms a most 
beautiful sight. 

AtTUOUAS. 



Auroras may be seen on most of tiie, elear nights of the year. The 
month of .lime is, on aeioiinr of its light nights, the only uunith in 
whieh an aurora is not observable. 

/ 

VKGK'I'ATlflN. 

The northern limit of trees on the Labrador coast is in latitude .'57'-'. 
Here the conifers are stiinteil and straggling. Beyond the coast range 
they attain a sliglitly higher altitude and thence continue to a jwint 
about thirty miles north of the mouth of (leorge's river. On the west- 
<'rn side of the mouth of this river the trees are pushed back 15 to -M> 
miles from tlie sea. At the mouth of Whale river, the trees attain a 
iieight of 3(( to ."i(> feet on the eastern (right) bank and within '2 miles 
of the shore. On tlie left bank tiu' trees do not approach to within Kt 
to 1.") miles of the coast. .\t tin- month of l-'alse river they form a 
triangular extension and attain considerabie size, due in great measure 
to the peculiar formation of a huge ampliitheater whose north wall 
serves aa an adniiiable proteetiim against the cold winds from the bay. 
On the western side <if l-'alse river the tree line extends in a soiitii- 
westerly direction across the Koksoak and to the banks of the Leaf 
river nearly ut its .snurce from the large lak.'. From the south side of 
this lake the trees i.re very niiicli scattered and attain ineoiisiilerable 
size, scarcely lifted for other uses than fuel. 

A line from this lake sou iwest to the eastern shore of Hudson 
bay forms the northern limit of trees for the northwest portion of 
the region. The j.eople (I'.skimo only) who dwell north of this line are 
dependent upon the stunted willows and alders, growing in the deejier 
ravines and valleys having a .southern exposure. Large pieces of wood 
arc miicii sought for by the ICskiino of the inathwest portion, for use 
in constructing their kaiaks, umiaks and i)addles, as well as spear 
shafts and smaller reipiirements for which the distorted stems of wil- 
low and alder will not sntlice. 

South of the line given as the northern limit of trees the growth 
slowly attain?* greater size and extension of area. The timber north of 
the Height of Ijand is comparatively small, the spruce and larch rarely 
attaining a size greater than 12 to I.") inches at the ground and rapidly 
taiiering up for L* feet or so above the surface. .Vbove the Iieight of li 
(Vet the stems slowly tajier ami. in a few instaiiecs, i)rodiice symmet 
rical stems for more than l."> feet. The trees growing within 4(1 miles 
of Fort Chimosehhrni exceed 10 inches in diameter, and of the larger 



re* 

1 
.1 
1 






'ft 



174 



Tin: iiii>so\ iiAV i>KiM(). 



ti'iinks till' Utjix iwv si'lt'i'ti'il III I'nriii tlir iiiiilcriiil t'nuii wliidi llir wiilU 
ufnil tin- Itiiildiiifis ,it iliiit phirc iiri' wMistnutnl. 

'I'lir illilcis. \\ illows. jiimI a lew otlirr Itlislics ;itl;lill il jjri'iltfl' or less 
si/0. (l)'iiciHliii;;' iipoM (lie sitnalinii anti aiiKiniil nl' |ir<it<'cti(iii alVDiilcd. 
I lia\i' seen as laijTi' steins dl" tlu'sc slinilis ;ii(>\viii';' \\ itliiii a mile nf 
Full ("iiiiiKi as I have scni at cillin' l»a\is inlet or l{i;;iilt't. 

Tlu" llowei'iiifi' plants are spai'sely sealtereil over the nnrtiierii aieas, 
ami tlieii mily in most suitable soils. The jjioiind remains t'ro/en Irnni 
the la>t of Octiilier— earlier some seasons — to the last ol' May. oi e\eii 
into the miihlle ot .lime. The appearance ol' the annuals is smiilen, 
ami the\ rapiill.N attain theii' full si/e and i|niekly fall before the ehill- 
in^ winds ot' autumn. 

AMMAI. Ill K. 



The marine mammals alone appe.ir to be well known, but the number 
of eetaceans eaii reitaiiil.\ be inereamed above t he iiumiier usually re- 
potted iuhabitiii;; the waters iminediateiv borderiii<: upon tliere;;iou. 

The phoeids are best known for the leasoii that oil the .shores of 
soutlu'ast Labrador the iiursiiit of spei'ies of this t'amily is carried oii 
eaeli spriiiji to an extent probalil.N' snriiassin;; that anywhere else on the 
face of the ylnbe. 

W the month of Little Whale river, the wiiite whale is ta!:en to the 
number of .'lOd each year. allliou;;h the ca|itnri' is steadily docreasin;;'. 
The Indians here ilo the greater part of the labor of driviii},% killiii};, 
tlasiiij;', and preserving' them. At Fort ("liiino another station for the 
pursuit of white whales is carried on. Mere the Fskimo do f hedriviii^f 
and killiniL;. while the Indians perform the labor ol removiii}^: the blub- 
ber and reiiderinj:' it lit for the oil tanks into which it is placed t<i ))Ut 
it beyond the action of the weather. The skin of the white whale is 
tanned and converted into a leather of remarkably piod ipiality, espe- 
cially noted for beiii^' nearly wateii»root'. 

Ot' the land mammals, the leiiideer is probably the most abundant 
of all. it is t'oniid in immense numbers in certain localities, and foriiis 
for many of the inhabitants the principal source if snlisistence. while 
to nearly all the residents its skins are absolut«'ly necessary bt jiro- 
tect them from the sexcrity of the winter. 

The black, white and brown bears are common euoiijfh in their re- 
spective areas. The former rarely raiincs beyond the woodlands, never 
belli;' loiind so far north as I'ort t'himo. The white beai' is common iii 
th«* northern portions bordering:' the sea and is occasionally found as far 
south as the strait of Itelleisle. to which it has been carried on iceber;;S 
or liehls of ice. .\kpatok island and the vicinity of Cape <'hidley are 
rcportetl to be localities infested w illi these brutes. 'I'he brown or bar 
reii ;;rouud bear appears to be restri( tetl to a narrow area and is not 



ANIMA1, l-IKK. 



175 



plHitiful, yet is .'om.noM ......ujih f. k.-rp the Imliai. iu wholsomo .In^.l 

..r its vifi<»iis(lisi)i>siti<tii wlii'ii »'iini;if»l, 

TlM- siuallcr inainiimls o.fur in Kivatcr or loss abniulance ac.-onlin- 
,0 the «,ualitv a.Hl M"»u.tit,v of food ..» h.^ ohtainnl. Th- wolv.s, tox.s, 
and wolvvriiu's arc prHty evenly .list.ibuted tl.roUK.out ti.e reji.on. 
-n... iiaivsuiT round in the woodi'.l traets for the smaller apeciea and on 
the barren retihms for the hi rj;er sjiecies. 

Illlll>^. 

The aetual rosidonts were arcertain.'d to he less than twenty speeh-s 
for the iiortliern iiorlion of the fiitiuva district. 

Of the a.Mual residents tin- two spe.'ies of the -e„ns hmiopus are the 
most abundant ..fall birds in the region, ami f..rn, an important art.elo 
„nood for all '•■asses of ,.eo,.le inhabiting the district. The w.nter ex- 
,,.ts an i.nportant iutbience on the smaller resident species Durinji' the 
winter of ISSii-'SH tin- nnmber of the lour species <.btained ol the «enus 
\r,n,tl,is was almost in.M'cdiblc. Their ..otes mi-ht be luMrd at any time 
durin-- that season, which was cohl, thou-h rc-ularly so. and not spe- 
Hallv storinv. In the winter of 1SS;!--SJ not a single imlividual wasob- 
sJrved fro,,; the middle of Novcnber to the last of March. I he sa.ue 
n.„,arUsmav well apply to the white-win-ed cossbill ( hun, ImmpUra), 
which was verv abnmlant the lirst wintc. but .lurin;;' the last w„,ter a 
yrvy small tlock onlv wasohs.Tved an.l these we,v appa,ently va>in,nts. 
\„„.„}.- the water bir.ls. certain species whi.'h we,e expected to occur 
xvereconspicu.nslv absent. The ,.l,a,acter of the country forlnds them 
,,,,rinu- their von',,;;, as there is little to fce.l ui-on: and (n,ly a lew 
Inecd in the imn.ediate vicinity of K.nt Chinio. A,i,o„- the -nils, 
l,n>is onirnhilns smithsonhnnis is cctainly the only one broedii,;;- m 
^;,„„„,^„„:,. „.i,„in r„,ava bay. Of the terns, the A.ctic tern (N^nm 
.nnnlisar, was- the only one ascertained to b.ee.l ,n Hudson stra.t. I 
;„„ „„f eertain that they .h. b,eed then- eve,y yea.'. -MthoUKl, 1 saw 
then, in eaily .Inly, ISS:;, under conditions that led n,e to believe that 
they were on their way to their nests, yet it was not until 18.St that a 
iiun,ber (,f e-K^ «eie secu,ed near that locality. 

Of the s.m.ller wad.'rs. but two specic-s we,e act,ially ascertained to 

hn-ed in the vicinity of Fort Chimo. yet twoor thr.l- other species were 

..l.served umn-r such circiimstauces us t,. leave no doubt that they als.» 

breed there. 

•HE NATIVE INHABITANTS OK THE COUNTRY- GENERAL 

SKETCH. 

riir. i.sKiMc). 

The northern portions of the coast of the region nude.- consideration 

,,,,. i„habite,l bv the Hskimo. who designate themselves, as usual, by 

the tern, -Innnit," peoph- iphiral of innuls. -a person"). Ihat they 

liave been much n,..dilied by contact with the whites is not tobc .h.ubted. 






h. 



176 



THE UIU80N HAV ESKIMO. 



aiKl itis(M|nally trrtiiiii that their laiiKUiiKc i^* foiiMtantly iindorijoint; 
iiioilillcatioiiH to suit tlic |iiii'|iiis*>s of tlif missionary and fratlci, wlio. 
not iM'iiij; a))l<> to pronounce tin' ilinicult ;;iittnral .H|if«>ili of tli*>s(> ])l'o|iI(>, 

r(>(|uiri> tlit-ni t nlorni to tlioir own pronnniiatioii. Tlit- n>f;ion inliab 

itt'd liy llic Innnit is strictly littoral. Tlu'ir distribution tails properly 
into tliifc subdivisions, due to the three Hul>triiial distinetions whieli 
they maintain amonjj themselves. The lirst sr' ."vision endirares all 
the liinuit dwellin;; on tin- Labrador eoast pp and alon^^ the .south 

Hide of Hudson strait to the mouth of Lt. er, \vhic!< flows into 

rnjjava bay. 

These people apply tiie term Su hi' iil myul to themselves and are thus 
known by the otiiei' subdivisions. This term is derived from Sn hi' 
iiuk, tlie .sun. and the latter |iart of the word, meanin;.^ peoph> (literally 
"those that (hvell at ttv in'"): hence, people of the sun. sunny side, be- 
<'ause the sun sjiines on them tirsl. At tin- pn'sent time these peoph^ 

ar« nlined to the seashore and the adjacent islands, to which tiiey 

rcpair for seals and other lbo<l. South of llaniilton iidet 1 could learn 
of but one ot' tlu'se people. 

The innuit of pure blood do iu)t bcfrin to apjtear until the mi.ssionary 
station of Kopedale is readied. Here a nundter of families dwell, 
allhou;;h mostly at the instillation of the missionaries. Itetween tliis 
station and Hebron are several other Moravian missionary stations, at 
each of which dwell a ;;reater or less number of pure Innnit. North 
of llcliron to <'apc Chidley there aie but few families, some seven in 
all, eniltracin;; a population of less than 10 souls. (Mi the west side of 
Cape (liidley, as far as the mouth of «ieor>;e'H river, only aljoul ei^iht 
families live. These with the (ieoij;e's river Innuit comi»rise less than 
."»(> individuals. There is a stretch of coa>l borderiii}; I'lijjava bay, 
fi(un (Icoiyc's liver to the Koksoak river, which is uninhabiteii. 



'i'hc Koksoak riser peojile include only four oi live families and n 



um 



liei less than .'iO souls. The next people arc those dwellin;; at tli»» 
muiitli of Leaf river, itut they are more properly to be i;onsi(iei;'d under 
the next sulidivision. 
Till- exact launber of the Sfdilnlmvut couhl not be detinitelv deter 



mined. Thcv 



su 



l)di\ idcd into a iinmber of small 4'onininniti( 



each bearing a intnic compouiidetl of tlie name of their home and 
niyut, "the people of," 

The inhabitants of Cape Chidley are known as Ki lln'l;r myut. from 
the word ki lln'lk, witunded. cut, incised, lacerated: hence, serrated, on 
account of the chaiactcr of the rou;;h Kicks and nH)nntains, 

The natives of (Jeorye's liver aie known as Kan'm'ikflua'luksoafT- 
niyut; those of the Kok.soak river are known as Koksoafjiiiyut. 

The second subdivision includes tlie Innnit dwelling on the aica 
lyiiifi between the mouth of Leaf river, thence northward, and almi^ 
the south side of Hudson stiait. Tlieir western and .southern limit 
extends to about latitude 00^. 



TTINI*.] 



THE PKOPLE, 



177 



TIm'si* Inniiit un^ known by tluM>tlH'i' siilMliviHiuns us Ta li.tj; iiiyut, 
Tlicy iipi'ly tlic siiiiH' t(Min to thcmsolveM. The wonl is <UTivf<l from 
Tii link, a slfatlow; lioiicc |>«>n|ili! of Miu Hliadf or sIiikIow uh (tJHtiii- 
({iiisliiMl tVoiii tlio Hfi hi' III iiiyiit, or ptMtpIo of tlii' li^lit or sllnsllirll^ 
TIm'sc |ii'o|)Ic art' but litH«' inHiU'iH'»'«l by roiitac-t witli tlu' wliiti" trad 
ers, wlio apply to tlu^iii tlic tfriii '' Nortlionit>rs." Their liabits and (iih- 
toiiiH arc priinitivt', and many appear to be cntirt'ly diHtinct from thu 
ciistonis of their iieifrlibors soiitii and east. The eharaeter of the region 
in whieli they dwell is very ru^'^'ed. Hiik*) nionntain spurs and short 
ran^rcs ramify in every direetion, forming tieep valleys and ravines, 
alon^' wliit'li tliese people iiiiiHt trav«>l to reaeh the trading station of 
h'ort Chiino of the Unnava ilistriet.or elHc to Kort (ieor^eof tlu' Moose 
distriet. 

The distance to the furiner is so frreat that only thr«>e, four, or tivu 
sled;;es are aniuially sent to the Iradinjipost for ' • purpose ufeonvey- 
in^ the furs and other more valiialtle eommodities to be bartered for 
ammunition, );nns. knives, llles and other kinds of hardwsire, and to- 
bacco. Certain persons are selected fr«»m the vaiious camps who have 
personally made the trip and know the trail. These are commissioned 
to barter the furs of each individual for special articles, which are men- 
tioned and impressed upon tint mind of the man who is to ciVect the 
trade. The principal furs are those of the various foxes. Amoii}; them 
are to be found the l»est cla.ss of silver foxes, and wolverenes and wolves. 
Those to be sent are procured the previous winter, and when the snow 
falls ill November or early Mecember the line of sleds starts out for the 
tradinjr post. The sled which represents the wants of the imue west- 
ern of these Inniiit speeils to where the second may be, am! they repair 
to the place of mcetiii;; with the thiril, and thus by traversin<r the line 
of coast tlu' arctic caravan is made up. Provisions are supplied by the 
wayside, and when all is in readiness a southern course is traveled until 
the frozen morasses on the soiitli of the hills are reached. Thence the 
course is toward Leaf river and across to Kort ('himo. Uy the la.st 
week of April in the (irst week of May the visitors are expected at the 
trading |iost. They usually biin^ with them about two tilths of all the 
furs obtained in the ilistri<-t; indeed, the i|uantity ol'tei! exceeds this 
atiKMint. They sehhim remain loiit^er than the time needetl to complete 
their bartering, as the rapidly melting' .snow warns them that each day 
of delay adds to their labor in returning'. 

The homeward Journey is more fi'e<|uently made alonj; the coast, as 
there the snow is certain to remain lonj^er upon the ground. It is not 
infrequent that these travelers experience warm weather, which detains 
them so lon^ that they do not reach the end of their journey until the 
middle of the .summer or even until the be;riiiiiin}i of the ne.xt winter. 
Many of the Inniiit whw accompany these parties have never seen white 
men until they arrive at Kiu-t riiimo; wimien are often of the party. 
TheHe people are usually tall antl of line physique. The men are larger 



* I 



t 



11 ETIl- 



-12 



*f 



178 



THK HUDMON BAY ESKIMO. 



tliaii tilt* Hv*>riip' wliit«« iiiiiti, wliilr the wdiikmi i;oiii|>iiro fiivorahly in 
■tatiirt' witli til*' woiiicii Dt'iiii'tliiiiii lioi^'lif in otiior conntrifs. 

Tlioy liiiv«> <|uitt> ilitl«-rfnt cuHtiMnH IVoin tliom^ ot'tluMr |ir«N«-iit hvigii- 
t)()rs. Tlit'ii' liin^iiap' is iliiilfctinilly ilistiiict; iiluint its niiii-li sii iih 
the Miiliuiyut ilitlcr Ironi flit- KiiviiiKniyiit of Niirton Sniind, Alasliji. 
Till- Talni^'niyiit liavc a ratiifr iiaisli tone; tlifir ((utttiriils urtMlcrpiT 
an<i tiic vitwcis usually ratli«'r nmro |ir()l<in^'«'<l. Tlu>y arc much Kivfh 
to aniiist'ini-nt anil still retain nniny of tin- old pinit's, which the Hfthl'iil- 
niynt have for^xotten or no lonp'i enpi^e in. Their ileail are treated 
with no rereniony. They simply lasli the limbs of the deceased to the 
body and expose the corpse to the elements, removing it, however, from 
innnediate si^'ht of tiie camp. Old and inlirm |)e«iple are treated with 
8e\erit.N, and when dependent n|ion otlitMS for their food they are sum- 
marily dis]io8ed ol by strantjulation or left to perisli when the camp is 
moved. 

WomtMi are held in little respect, although the men are very jealims 
of the favors of their wiv«>s, and incontinence on the part of the lattci' 
is certain to be more or l«'ss sevc^rely punished, '''he male ollV'nder, if 
notoriously ptMsisteiit in his etforts to obtain forbidden favors, it) 
usually killed by the injured lover or husband. 

(laniblini; is carried on to such a defrree annmt; both .sexes tinit even 
tlu'ir own lives are staked upon the issue of a ganu'. Tlie winner often 
obtains the wife of his o])i)onent, and holds her until .sonut tempting 
otVer is nnide for her return. The only artich* theypos,s«'.ssisfie(|uently 
wafrered.and when they lose they are greeted with derision. The women, 
especially, stake their oidy pirnient rather than be without opportunity 
to , ay. The usual name is played witii a number of tiattened pieecH 
of walrus ivory. On one side are a ninnber of dots foriiung various 
crude designs, which have receiv«'d mimes from their fancied resem- 
blance to other objects. These iiuist be matched. The game some- 
what resembles dominoes, and whether it is original with these Innuit 
I wuH unable to c(mclude. They stoutly nniintain that it originated 
with themselves. I suspect, however, it ha<l its origin in the indtation 
of some one who had observed the playing of (lonnn(»es on board of 
some of the whaling vessels visiting these wat4Ts. 

For other amusements these Innuit indulge in a number of tests of 
personal strength, such as wrestling and leaping. 

Feasts are held at stated times in huge structures built of snow blocks. 
The exact signilication of these feasts was not lcarne<l, owing to the 
limited stay these people made eaeh year at Fort Cliimo. Their dress 
consists of the skins of seals and reindeer. The .sealskins are worn 
during rainy weather and by those who are in the canoe or kaiak. The 
.skirts of their garments are ornamented with an edging of ivory pieces 
cut into a pear-shape, having a snnill hole pierced throngli the smaller 
end. 

These pieces of ivory, often to the number of many scores, give a 



Tt'UFtail.l 



THK PKOPT.K. 



179 



IMM'uliiir iiiftlo iiM tlir vvt'iin'r uiilkx iilmit;. Tlu^ir boDts an' notlccuhly 
tlitti'ifiit i'loiii tlxmi' iiiikI*' l).v tlii' KokHoitk rivur |ifu|>l<>, inaMiiiiKli iisiIh^ 
MoloM »n> ol'tt'ii iiiiiilr with Hti'iitH of Nt'iilskiii tliiui^'H sowed on ii I'iiIho 
Hol«', wliicli is attiulii'd to tin- iiikIit Kiiifacc ol' tlu' soli- iiiopcr. Tin' 
Htri|iH of llioii^ ai'o tai'kt'd on by a Ntoiit stitch, tli«'ii a sliort loop is 
takt'h up, and anotlo'i' stitch mws a portion of tin- rfniaindiTot tlie strip. 
This IS I'oiitinnt'd until thiu'iitin^ uudt-r siirfait' consists of a scries o*' 
Hhort loops, which, when in contact with the smooth ice, prevents the 
foot from slipping. TiiiH sort of footgear is not nnidc in any other por- 
tion of the district. 

'i'he third subdivision com|iris<'s the Innnit dwcMin^ on the eastern 
Hhore of Hudson iiay, between latitudes .'iK and M '. 

The nundter of these Iniuiit could not be detlniteiy ascertained, as 
they trade, for the most part, at Fort (ieor^e, beloii^'in^ to the Moose 
district. I'lach year, howt^vor, a party of less than a do/.en indiviuals 
. journey to l''ort Chimo for the purpose of bartiMiti^ furs ami other val 
ualdes. Those who come to I'oit riiimo are usually the same lacii year. 
In lanpia^'e they ditVer t;reatly from the Koksoak Iniuiit, inasmuch as 
their speech is veiy rapiil and niucli haisher. .Many of the vvords aru 
<piite dissimilar, and even where the word has the same sound it is not 
unusual that it has a meaning more or les.H ditfercnt from that iisud by 
the Koksoak Inniiit. As the^e people have been Ion;; under the advice 
and teachings of the missionary .society of l.ondini, it is to lie expected 
that they, especially those neuter thu trading; station, are more or less 
intliieiiced by its teaching'*. Their customs difl'er somewhat from the 
other Innuit, tlion(;h this is due ir a^reat measure to the impossibility 
of procuring the rieces.sary food, and skins for jrarments, uidess they 
are constantly scouring; the plains and hills for reindeer or the shore 
for seals and other marine creatures. 

These pe4»ple ate called by their neij;hbors and themselves I'tivi' 
myut, Iti'vnk siguities the other, farther, distant side |of a portion of 
land); hence, the word itivimyiit means people of the other side. 
The mu'tln>rn Itivimyut arc probably the most super«titious of all the 
Innnit dwelling; in the re};ioii un«ler (;onsideiatioii. 

Althoujfh the missi«)nari»'s have devoted considerable energy to the 
work of coiivortiiig these ]>eople, and though many of them inofe.ss 
Christianity, these professions prove on examination to be merely 
noiiunal. As soon as the converts arc beyoiul the t«'acher's intlueiice, 
they return to the shaman for guidance. 

In the spring of l.SH,'{ a i)arty of these people visited Fort Chimo. 
A great number of the Koksoak p«'ople were ill, some IJO miU-s above 
the station. The visitors had among them a shanuin renowned through- 
out the land, lie, with the connivaiu-e of two or three of the people 
with whom he stop])ed, began soiiu' of the most a.stonishing intrigues 
to ilispel the evil sj)irit atHieting the people. Several men werejtarted 
from their wives, and these were «'ompelled to dwell with other men 



i:\ 



180 



THE HUDSON BAY ESKIMO. 



who wore at the bottom of the consjiirawy. Other coiiplea had to flee 
from that place to prevent beiiip .livorced, at least temporarily. After 
a time the visitors descended to Fort Chimo, and while the bartering 
was going on the shaman announced his conversion to Christianity, 
and vowed never again to return to pra<'ticing shamanism. On the 
return of the harried fugitives they jiassed the cam]) of the Koksoak 
river people, where they had a few days before been tlie guests, and 
stole their supplies of reindeer nn'at and other valuable jtroperty, oven 
attempting to purloin a kaiak; and they had proceeded many miles 
thciue before they were overtaken and con»i)e]led to relin-inish the 
stolen jiroperty. They were se«'n some nu)nths after by some Tahag- 
mynt, to whom they stated their fear of returning among the Koksoak 
people. A inori^ plausible scamjt does not dwell in those regions than 
this sha. nan, whose nanu' is 8apa. Ilis ])ower over the sjdrit control- 
ling the reindeer is widely believed in and invoked by the other sha- 
mans, who feel incapable of turning the heads of the deer and thus 
compelling them to wander in the desired direction. 

Amtiug these people only have 1 heard of a son who took his mother 
as a wif»', and when the sentinu'nt of the comnuuiity compelled him to 
discard her he took two other women, who were so jter-secuted by the 
motlu'r that they believed themselves to be wholly nn«ler her influence. 
HIm' even caused theui to believe they were ill, and when tlu'y actually 
did beconu^ so tlu'y both died. 

In fovmer years the liinuit extended entirely around the shore of 
Hudson bay. Now there is a very wide gap, extending from the 
vicinity of Kort George, on the eastern coast, to the vicinity of Fort 
Chnrchill, on the western coast. At the |)resent time the Innuit 
occnpy tiie areas designated in these renuirks. That they fcuinerly 
extended along the Atlantic coast far to the s(mth of their ])reHent 
limit is attested by an abundance of facts. 

The Innuit of the eastern shore of Hudson bay, the Itivimyut, 
informed m(> that the Innuit dwelling on the islanils of Hudson bay, 
nu)re or less remote from the mainland to the east, are teiined Ki'glk- 
tag'myut, or islaiul jM'ojile. They relate that those islanders have 
(piite different customs from the mainland peoiile, inasmuch as their 
clothing consists of the skins of seals and dogs, rarely of reindeer 
skins, as the latter are procurable only when one of their number 
comes to the sliore to trade for such arti<'h's as can not be obtained on 
his locality. The spear, kaiak, bow and arrow are used, and they 
have but little knowledge of firearms. These ])e(»ple are representeu 
as often being driven to greatest extremity for food. It is said that 
their language differs considerably from that <tf their neighbors. 

The Innuit, as a rule, are pea<'eful ami mild tempered, except when 
aroused by Jealousy, Tiiey are, hovT"ver, <|uick enough to resent an 
insult or avenge an injury. They form a pernmnent attachment tor 
the white man who deals honestly ami truthfully with them, but 



TUBNEB.1 



THE INDIANS. 



181 



if be attempts any decepticm ov trickery thoy are certain to be ever 
suspicions of Jiini, and it is diflicult to regain tlieir favor 

Tl.eir courage and ability are not to be doubted, and when they are 
given a dne amount of encouragement they Nvill perform tlie most 
arduous tasks without complaint. 

THK INDIANS. 

The Indian inhabitants of tliis region may be divided into three 
groups, diflering but sbghtly in speech, and even less in habits. 

(1) The Mountaineers, "Montagnais" of the early Jesn.t nnssioua- 
ries, roam ..ver the areas south of the Hamilton inlet and as far as the 
Gulf of St. Lawreiuu'. Their western lin.its are impertectly known. 
They trade at all the stations along the accessible coast. Manyot them 
barter at Uigolet and Northwest river. 

1» customs thev differ little from the Indians to the north of them. 
Their means of subsistence are the flesh of reimleer, porcupines, and 
various bir.ls, such as geese, ducks, ptarmigan, and grouse. 

The habits of the reindeer in this portion of the <<.untry are very er- 
ratic They are often absent from large tracts for several years, and 
appe'arit.g in abundance when little expecte.l. The sca.yity of the reu.- 
deer ren.lers the foo.l supply ..nite pre.ari..us; lu-nce, the Indians rely 
much upon the flesh of the porcupine, hare and buds for their prin- 

*" Their'clothing is of the tanned skin of the dei'r when they are able 
to i.rocuie it. As nearly all the skins of the reindei-r are us.'d for gar- 
ments few ire prepared for other purposes; hence the northern stations 
(FoctChiuu.) furnish great numbers of these skins in the parchment con- 
dition to be purchased by the Mountaineers, who cut them into hue 
liues for snowshoe netting and other purposes. 

They procure the furs of marten, mink, fur beaver, niuskra s, yiixes, 
wolverines, wolves, and foxes. A c.,n8i.lerable number of black bears 
are also obtained by these Indians. Hy the barter of these furs they 
proc-ure the arti.-les m..de necessary by the advent of the white people 
among them. They are quiet and i.eaceable. Many <.f them profess a 
regard for the teachings of tlu' Roman missionaries, who have visite.l 
them m..ri> or less frequently for over a humlr..d and fifty years. I was 
u.utble to ..btain the term by which they distinguish themselves from 
their nei.-hbors. That they are later comers in the region than the 
Innuit is attested by the bloody -arfiire formerly .-arrie.l on between 
them, of which many pro..fs yet exist. The Mountaineers applied to t he 
uiore northern Indians the term of reproach, "Naskoiue. Ih.s word 
denotes the contempt the M..untai:.eers felt for the Naskopies when 
the latter failed to fulfill their promise to assist in driving the Innuit 

from the country. _, , , ,. 

It was impossible to obtain a satisfactory estimate ..f the numbers of 
the Mountaineers. My stay in their vicinity was too short to learn as 
nmch about them as was desired. 



"-. 



I 



182 



THE nrnsoN bay Eskimo. 



(2) The Iiidiiiiis (Iwelliiij!: to tlie aontliw«'8t of the Hiifjava district 
ditl'er rather more tlian the Mouiitainocrs, in their speet'li, from tlie In- 
dians (if tiie I'njjava district. Tiiey average, for both .■(exes, slij;htly 
taUer tlian the Naskopies. TI.e men are s|)are, and have small limbs 
and extremities. The eheek bones are also more prominent, althou{>-h 
this !s ])artl.v dne to the thin visajfc. The women are disno.sed t4) be 
stont, and in the older women there is a decided tendency to corpnlence. 
The coniidexion, too, is considerably darker. The meii vear hmg hair, 
nsnally cut .so as to fall Jnst upon the shouhlers. The hai; ot the women 
is (piite heavy, and is worn either in braids or done u]) in folds upon the 
side of the head. 

In their per.sonal habits they a:'o much more ti<ly than their eastern 
relations. Their dress differs but little from that of thoir neijilibors. 
The women dress in cloth nnide of material procured from the traders, 
and some of these appear respectabh' enough when ,so drcs.sed. They 
have been so louff in contact with the white jieople at Moose Factory, 
some of whom had brou{,'ht their wives from lionu' with them, that the 
women have imitated the diess (tf the latter. Ceitain of these women 
are skillful in working fancy articles. The men occupy tlieii' time in 
huntinfj; and lishing. The reindeer have in leceiit years become .so 
scarce in the vicinity of Fort (ieor;,'e that many of the Indians have left 
that hicality and journeyed to the eastwaid. dwelliufj in proximity to 
the NasUopies. or cm'U with them. 

Hotli sexes are mild and sedat*', althoufih the women aie exceediiifily 
{garrulous when well acipniinted. 

These Indians aie often emjiloyed to assist in the capture of the 
white whale, which ascends the lower portions of the larj^er streams of 
that district. They are the only Indians whom I have .st en eatiiit; the 
tiesh and blubbei' <)f these whales. The Naskopi«'s will not touch it, 
declaring it to be too fat. The tins and tail are poitions highly prized 
while they are helping render out the blubber of these whales at Fort 
Chimo. 

A point of great dissimilarity between the Naskojjies and the Little 
Whale river Indians is that the birch bark canoe of the lattei- is much 
more turned n|> at each end. jjroducing a cralt well adapted to -the 
swift currents of the rivers. The occupants are skillful boatmen, and 
will fcarl<'.ssly face wind and wave that would appall the heart of the 
Naskopie. Sails are soiiu'times erected in a single canoe. At times 
two canoes are lashed together and a sail spreail from a single mast. 
This double boat is very convenient for the traveler. These people 
are strongl> addicted to the jtractice of polygamy: and while they are 
Christians externally, they are so only as long as they are within the 
reach of tin' missioiniry. 

Anutng those who had come to dwell in the I'ngava district w«'re 
several who had. because of the opportunity, taken two wives. The 
missionary. F. <l. I'eck. suddenly appeared amimg them as he was on 



Tl'BNKU.] 



THE HABITS OF THE INDIANS. 



183 



his way to London. On learniiij^ of the conduct of the people he gave 
them a sound ratinff and besouglit them to relinquish the i)i'a(!tice. 
They assented, and sent tlie second wives away until the missionary 
was out of the country, and tlien they took them back. 

(iiils are often taken as wives before they attain puberty, and fortius 
reason they seldom have large fanulies. Two, three, <tr four children 
form the usual number for each family. They are satisfied if the first 
child is a male; and to the mother who delivers only female children a 
term of contempt is often applied. The women a]>pear to be well 
treated, and occasional laxity of morals is not noticed au'ong them so 
long as it is not notorious. 

Theii' beliefs and traditions were not learned by me, (Ui account of the 
presence of these people at Fort Ohimo when <»ther labors occupied my 
entire time. 

Their jmrchases are made with furs of the same kinds as those pro- 
cured in the I'nfiaya district. Tiie black bear is procured in f^reat 
numbers by these Indians. They preserve the under lip, dressed and 
ornamented with beads and strips of cloth, as a trojjhy of their pi owoss. 

The hari)oon used in strikin^j tiie whit*' whale of their rivers is an 
imi>Iemeiit doubtless peculiar to those people, and much resembles that 
of the Innuit. 

(|{) Tiie third division of Indians includes those dwelling for the 
most part in the Ungava distiict. The total number of these Indians 
is about .'{50. They apply the term Ne ne not — true, ideal men — 
to themselves, althou^Mi known by tlie citithet Naskopie, which was 
applied to them by the Mountaineers of the .southeastern portion of the 
region. 

They differ slightly in «iistoms from their neiglibors, but their speech 
is somewhat dilfeient, being very rajtidly uttered and with most sin- 
gular iullections of the voice. A conversaticm may be begun in the 
usual tone, and in a moiiieiit i-hangcil to tliat of a whining or petulant 
child. It is impossible for the white man to imitate this abrupt intlec- 
tion, which appears to be more common among the males than tlu> 
lemales. During ordinary conversation one would errontuiusly siij. 
pose, from the vehemence of gesture, that the speaker was angry. 
They are much more «leinonstrative than their neighbors, often siiout- 
ing at the full strength of their voices when an ordinary tone woidd 
apparently sutlice. That theii' voice is i>eiietrating may be inferred 
from the fact that during quiet days it is not unusual for jiarties to con- 
verse from opposite sides of the Koksoak river, at Fort t'himo, where 
the river is nearly a mile iind a half wide. 

As certain words are spoken in a voice sciarcely louder than a whis- 
per, i did not believe it possible that tlieyctmid understand each other 
at so great a distaiu-e, until I .saw the people on the oi)posite shore 
doing what they were bidden by tho.se with me. 

When the wonu'u get together it is anuising to observe the eagerness 






184 



THE iriTDSON BAY ESKIMO. 



of tlie old ( ronos oiulfavorinfj to luakc tlioir voices Iieard above tlio 
rest. Tlio clerk, while tiadiiif: with tliein, often teases them until the 
entire nuniher turn their voices on hin>. and the only relief ho has is to 
exi)el them all from the st4)re and admit oiuM)r two at a time, while the 
remainder throng the windows and shout at the ti)}) of their voice's. 

During the spring, when Hocks of Canada geese are winging their 
way northward, the Indians will imitate their notes so «-losely that the 
birds do not discover tiie source until loo late. Home of the i)arty 
nnike one lutte, while the others imitate tlu>otlier mitc. It seldom fails 
t<» beguile the geese to the spot. 

Owing to tiie inipossil)ility of getting a reliable jterson to tea(di me 
the language of these jieople I was able to procnie but few words. 
The number ol)tained, however, is sullicient to prove that the i»eoi)le 
of this region, e\<'luding the Innuit and whites, belong to the Cree 
brunch. The Mountaineers and Little VVhah' river Indians belong to 
the sanu> stock, and the ditVereme in their language is due wholly to 
eiivircuinient. 

The liulians ami Innuit of this region are more or less directly in 
ccntact. .\t Kort (Miimo it is especially so. Here, as elsewhere, they 
(h) not iniermix, an Indian lu'ver taking an Innuit wife or the Innuit 
taking a s(pniw Ibr a wite. 1 kiu'w of one instance where a Naskopie 
went to dwell with some Innuit cam|)ed near the mouth of the Kok- 
soak, but after remaining away for a few days he returned to his own 
peoi>Ie. 

SPECIAL ACCOUNT OK THE PEOPLE AROUND FORT CHIMO. 
TIIK K(>KS(iA(iMVt' 1. 



The Hskimo with wlio'v. 1 was brought in contact at Fort Chimo were 
thos(! behmging to ihat imnu'diate vicinity. They term themselves 
Koksoagmyiit, or peojile of the Koksoak or IJig river. 

The jtcoplc who apply this name to themselves do not number more 
than a score an*l a half. There are but four families, and among these 
are some who belong to other localities, but now dwell with he Kok 
soagmyiit. They cimsider themselves a part ' ! the i)eoplc dwelling as 
far to the north as the western end of Aki»at4>k island, and to the east 
as far as (leorge's river. The llskimo dwelling between tho>e jxiints 
have similar hitl)its, and range indiscriminately over the hunting 
grounds of that locality, sehlom going farther southward than the con- 
.iiience of the Larch ri\er (U' f he North rivei' with the Koksoak. 

Among these few natives now inhabiting the Koksoak valley we tind 
the men to be above the stature usually ascrilted to the Kskimo. .Ml 
but one of the aduh males are above .") feel S inches. The smallest 
man is little more than 'if, feet tall. .Miare well proportioi ed and pre- 
sent an exceptioinilly good i)hysi(pie. The feina.les are also well ;iro 
IK)rtioned, and, in fact, appear to compare well with females of civili/ed 



11 KNERI 



AKOimO FORT CHIMO. 



185 



coiiiitiies as far as tlieir stature is coiicprned. The lower extremities of 
both sexes really are shorter than the genera,; ai)|)earaiu!e would indi- 
cate, and thus the body is somewhat lonfjfer. The great individual 
variation in the i)roi)ortional leugtii of the legs is doubtless the result 
of the way infants are carried in the hood on the backs of the mothers. 
In this eonstraiiii'd position the limbs were obliged to eonform t<i the 
shape of the body ou whi(;h the child, in a manner, grew. While the 
limbs are not decidedly curved, yet they arc not so nearly under tiie 
body as those of the whites. In walking, theiiiner edges of the feet 
often touch «'ach other, and, in a manner, tend to eausc the boots to 
slip outward on tiic feet. 

The head, hands, ami teet appear fairly proiuutioned; although, as a 
rule, they have small hands and feet. Tiie females haveproi>ortionally 
smaller feet than hands. The head may seem larger than it really is, 
on account of the tiattened featur«'s of the fatre. 

The average nose is lar;;eand Hat, and the jirominenceof this organ 
is often diminished by the wide chetiks and overhanging forehead. In 
most cases the chin projects less than the nose. The average face is 
round and Hat, but there arc exceptions, as I have s-en one or two 
persons whose faces were a regular oval, and with the ex;;eptioii of the 
Hat front, seen from a side view, were as well fornu'd as one will meet 
among other people. 

Tiie skin has the sa'ne diHcrences of color as among white peo]>Ie. 
The greater number of i»eoi»le aie moderately dark, but this depends 
very gieatly on tlu' season of the year. I have iu)t seen any white 
people so much ehanged as these are by *lu^ exiM)siire to the sununer 
sunshine. In the winter they i re conHned to their huts and bleach to 
a lighter color. A couple of Wt'cks' exjutsure renders them scarcely re- 
••ognizable as the same itcrson--. TJu' young <hildren are usu.dly lighter 
than the adults, although s.nuc are (piite dark. The hair is coarse, 
long and abun<iant, aiiii tUvays straight. 

■ Tlie few half breeds .scc.i at Fort Chinio are the young children of 
the male servants of the <<>mi)any, who havt- in two instances taken 
full blooded Kskimo wc.nen for wives and who were married by the 
agent of llu' company. These children arc quite pretty, the male fa- 
voring the mother and the girl reseniltling the father. With these, as 
with the children of natives, nnnii dei)ends on tiu*. cieaniiiu'ss of the 
person. The soot and other tilth accumulating on their faces and 
hands, seldom washed, of eouise modifies the api)earance of the ex- 
posed portions of the body. Home of the giils would be attiactive 
enough if a copious amount of water was used to renu)ve tlie ridges of 
dirt which are too jdainly visible. The liaiuls n\v often much disHg- 
ured from numerous iits and bruises, which, when healed over, leave 
a heightened scar of a whitish color ((uite ditferent in color from the 
snrroumling tis.sue and often presenting an unsightly appearance. 

By the tinu' puberty is attained the girls tpiickly change, ami in a few 






18fi 



THE HUDSON HAY ESKIMO. 



years hcffiii to sliow tlic rosult of tlu'ir arduous lilc by the apjieanun'e 
of wrinkles, liafjfjanlness, and pMUMul l>rt'akiu}j down, wliicli, alt)iou(;h 
it may pro^jtrcss slowly, is sohUuu recovered from. 

Like the rest of the hiiiuit. the Koksoafiiuyut are usually i)eaeelul 
and mild tempered. Amouf; themselves afl'iays are of rare oeeurreiice. 
Jealousy arouses the worst passions, and the murder of the otl'eiuler is 
generally the result. When a person becomes so bad in character that 
the community will no lonjicr tolerate his presence he is forbidden to 
enter the huts, partake of food, or hold any intercouise with tiu' rest. 
Nevertheh'ss, as lonjj' as he threatens no one's life, but little attention 
is paid t" him. Should he be {guilty of a murder, several men watch 
their o|ipi)rt unity to surprise him and put him to death, usually bystou- 
iufj. The executioners make no concealnu'nt of their acticui. ami are 
supported by puldic o|)inion in the eomnmnity. 

Ill the case of a premeditated murder, it is the duty of the next of 
kin to avcn;;!' the deed, though years may pass, while the nuirdcrer 
pursues liis usual occupations undisturbed, before an opportunity 
occurs to the rclati\e for taking him by surprise. Sometimes tlui victim 
is not overcome and turns upcm the as.sailant and kills him. The man, 
now guilty of two munlers. is sutfen'd to Iiv»' oidy at the jdeasure of 
the ])eoj)le, who soon decree his death. That mnrdei' is not api)roved, 
cither by the individual or the community, is well attested by the fact 
that the island of .Vkpatok is now tabooed siiu-e the murder of jtart of 
tlu' crew of a wiecked vessel, who eami)cd on that island. Such a ter- 
rible serene was too rn;.. ii, even for them; and now not a soul visits 
that locality, lest the ghosts of the victims should appear and 8tipi>li 
cate relief from the natives, who iiave not the jtroper oflerings to uuike 
to appease them. 

Aged jH'ople who liav*^ no relatives on whom they may depend for 
subsistence are often quietly i»ut to death. When an old woman, for 
in.staiu-e, becomes a burden to the conunuuity it is usual for her to be 
neglected until so weak (rom want ol' foixl that she will be umible to 
keep lip with the people, who siuldenly are seized with a desire to 
remove to a distant locality. If she regains their camp, well for her; 
otherwise, she struggles along until exliauste<l and so»mi perishes. 
Sometimes tliree or four of the males retrace their stejis to i'«'cover a 
lost wlii|> or a fcugotteii ammunitiiui bag. They rarely go fartlu'r than 
where they lind the helpless jiersoii, and if their track be followed it 
will be found that the <'oi|)se has stones piled around it and is bound 
with thongs. 

An old woman at Fort Cliimo had but one eye, and this was con- 
tinually sore and very annoying to the jieople with whom she lived. 
They proposed to strangle her to relieve her from her misery. The 
next morning the eye was much better and the ])roposed cure was 
postponed. 

Cases of suicide are not rare, considering the few people of that 



TURNRR.] 



DISEASES. 



187 



.>.ciility. Pitcliinp: tln'inselvcs from a clilV or ])nMluciiig strangiiliitioii 
ar»^ t.;o usual iiiotlio«l.s. Soinetiiiu'.s a gun is usi"'. Iteiuorsi' ami (lis- 
appoiiitctl lov*> are tli** only clauses ot'siiiuidi'. 

A man discovered, during a period of great Hearcity or fcKul, that 
while he went in (|uest 4»f food his wife had seeretly stored away a 
<|nantity of fish and ate of them during his absence oidy. Coming 
houu! unexpectedly, he caught her eating and she endeavored to secrete 
the renuiinder. He ipiietly went out of the snow hut and Itlocked up the 
entrance. She inquired why \u: did so. His rep)" was for her to come 
<nit and she would diseovei' why it was done. His tone was not at all 
reassuring. She renmined within the hut and perished from starva 
tion, knowing she v ould lie killed if she went out. 

Instanc«'s are rep<uted where, in times of great scarcity, families have 
been driven to cannibalism after eating their dogs and the clothing and 
other articles made of skins. Unlucky or disliked women are often 
driven from the camp, and such must journey until tiu;y llnd relief ur 
perish iiy the wayside. 



The principal diseases Irom whic'i liiese people sutfer arc pulmonary 
troubles, cliieliy arising from their tilthv mauncr of living in crowded 
huts, too ill ventilated to allow the eseajM' of tlui odors emauatingfrom 
their own bodies and from accumulations of slowly decomposing animal 
fiHid. All openings must be clos«>d as ipiickly as possible in order to 
economize the heat within, I'oi- when once chilled it isditlicult to I'estore 
the house to the projier degree of warmth. An Mskinio would always 
lu'cfer to erect a new hut of snow rather than jiass the night in one 
which has been deserted foi' only a single night it' the doorway has not 
been tightly closed with a block of sn(tw. 

Within the walls, reeking w ith the exhalations of various ]>utrid mat- 
ters, the people breathe and rebreathe the air tilled with poisonous 
gases; so fnll.N one hall Of the Ivskinio dieof pulmonary troubles. The 
other prevailing diseases are tlios" causing devitali/ation of the blood, 
such as scurvy. Sores break out on the shoulders, elbows, knees, and 
ankles. The ravages of tln'se diseases jirocced at an astonishing late, 
soon carrying off the atllicted person. 

The nu'ans of relief usually i'lnployed are those which the shaman ;iir 
conjurei', as he is locally known) is able to etfect by woiking mi tlu im- 
agination of the si(;k, v\|i(i is in this contlition easily intlueiu'cd. The 
will powt-rof both the patient and shaiuiin is stretched to its utmost 
tensi(Mi, and as faith with them, as with nniny others of fairer skins, 
often produces moi»'. of the relief than !lie ministrations of drugs or 
drafts, tlui cure is etfected, oi' <'lse the shaman, like the ithysiciiin, 
has not the devil on his side. 

'•'he nmgnitude of the disease is generally measured by the amount 
of the patient's worhlly wealth. 



•as, 






'ir 



188 



TlIK m'USON »AV ESKIMO. 



MAKKUOK. 

A woiniin is iiiarritMl as scon after puberty as a iiiaU* eoiiips alonjj 
who has tin' r<'(|iiisit«' pliysical st'fii;;;tli to Ibrt'i' her to beeoine his wife. 
Maii.vof tlie I'eniah's are taken before that perioti, and tlie result iHtlnit 
f(>w ehihh'en are born to sneli unions an<l the eliihlren are ^eiu'rally 
weakly. 

The eereniony lietween the eoujth's is quit*' sini]ile. The sanetion of 
the parents is sonietinies obtained by favor or else bonj^ht by niakiu},' 
eertain presents of skins, furs, and other valuables to the father aiul 
mother. The}>irl is sonu'tinu's asked for her eonsent, and, if unwilling;, 
often enlists the sympathy of the mother, and thealfair iH])ustponed to 
ii more favorable oppiutnnity. or till the suitor be«u)mes disjjiisted with 
her and lakes somebody else. 

If the parents are not livinj,'. the brothers or sisters must be favora- 
bli> to the union. There is often so mneh intri;,niin(; in these matters 
that tlie e\aet truth can neldoiu be as«-ertained. 

Where all obstaeles -ire removed and only the girl refuse.s, it is not 
Ion;; before she disappears uiysteriously to remain out for two or thre*' 
niyhts with her best fennile friend, who thoroughly sympathizes with 
her. They return, and b»'foie long she is abdneted by her lover, and 
they remain away until she ])roves to be (horou^hly subjeeted to his 
will. 1 kn<'w of an instaiu'e wlu'ie a yirl was tied in a snow house for 
a period of two weeks, ami not allowed to ^'o out. She tinally sub- 
mitted, and they returiu'd with the other couple, who were lessobstit'))- 
erous, and <loubtless went alon;:: to hel]) their nuile friend and com- 
jtanion. Th»' wonnin left her husband in the e(Mirse of two or three 
weeks, and w hen he was asked about it he aeknowled^'ed that she had 
|)nlled neaily all the hair from his head and showed numerous bruises 
where she had struck him. This .sanu' woman was afterward tied to a 
sled to make her a<'eompany the nuin she .subsecpiently «'hose as her 
liusband, who wished hei' to ^o to another part of the eountry. It was 
a lively time, some of the old wcunen jMishinjj her and jtersuading, the 
younger ones doiny: all in their power to obstruct her. t'hildren are 
often mated at an early age, and I have known of several instances 
where two friends, (b'slrous of cementing their ties of fellowship, engage 
that their children yet unborn shall be nnit^Ml. In .siu-h instances the 
children are always recognized as married, and they are aUowed by thi' 
parents to be so called. I knew a snnill boy of less than seven years 
who always addressed a girl of api)aiently a year older as his wife. 

The nuirriageabh' age of the femah' vari4's greatly, although puberty 
takes place early. 1 have known of a child of fourt^'en having children. 
I heard of a half-breed girl, on the Labrador coast, who be«;ume a 
mother a few months alter the age of thirteen. 

Monogamy is gene* ally the rule, but as there are so many countera<'t- 
ing intluences it is seldom that a nmn keeps a wife for a number of 
years. Jealousy resultiug frouj a laxity of morals produces so much 



TflNtU.] 



MARRIAGE. 



189 



disuRrcemi'nt that ono or tlio oHi«r i>f tl»< partios iiKually l«.'av«' with 
little cerenamy. 

Ill rare iiiHtaiu'CH, wiicre there is a ((Uiipatibility of tenijier and a (lis- 
|M)sitinii to (roiitiiieiice, tiie pair reiiiaiii to;;ether tor lite. 

Many of the fjirls bear children before they are taken for wiven, but 
as such iiii;idents do not destroy the respet^tability of the mother the 
girl iloeH not ex]icrieiiee any difficulty in ]iroeuriii^' a liiisbaiid. Ille- 
);itiinate chihlreii ar«- usually taktMi care of by some a^^ed woman, who 
devotes to it all her eiierf^ies and atl'ections. 

The number of chihlreii born varies jjrnatly. for, altliouy;li these Kski- 
inos are not a ])rolitie race, a eouiile may occasionally claim parentage 
of as many as ten children. Two or three is the usual number, and 
many die in early childhood. 

When the family is prosperous the hnsbaiid often takes a second 
wife, eitiier with or without the approval of the first, who knows that 
her household duties will be lessened, but knows also tiiat the favors of 
her husband will have to be divided with the second wift. The sctond 
wife is often the cause of the tirst wife's leaving, tlnuigh sometimes slio 
is sent away herself. Three or four wives are sometimes iittained by a 
prosperoiiH man, and one instance was known where tiic head of the 
family had no less than live wives. The occupation of ii single snow 
hoiis«> by two or three wives brings them into close intiinacy and often 
])roiluces <|iiarri>ling. The man hears but little of it, as he is strong 
enough to settle their dilliciilties without ceremony, and in a manner 
better adapt4'd to create res|M'ct for brute strength than alVectioii for 
him. 

The femalcH outnumber the males, but the relationship among the 
Koksoagmyiit is now so t-lost^ that many of the males seek their wives 
from other localities. This, of course, connects distant people and in- 
terchange of the natives of both sexes is <;oinmon. 

Separation of couples is etVe<-ted in a simple maiiner. The one who 
so desires leaves with little ceremony, but is soinetimes sought for and 
compelled to return. Wives are often taken for a jieriod. and an ex 
change of wives is fre(iuent, either party being often hai>py to here 
h'ased for a time, ami returning without concern. There is so much 
intriguing and scandal inongering among these ]ieoplc that a woman 
is often compelled by the sentiment of the comiminity to rclimiaish 
her choice and join another who has bribed a conjurer to «lccidc tliat 
until she comes to live with him a certain person will not be relieved 
from the evil spirit now tormenting him with disease. 

The only way for the couple against whom such a j»h»t has been laiil 
to escn]ie separation is for them to tlee to another locality and remain 
tlien^ until the i)crson gets well or dies, wliereui»on the conjurer declares 
it was their cohabitation as man and wife which alllicted the invalid. 
A designing woman will often cause a man to cast ott' the h'gal wife 
to whom he is much attached and come and live with her. In such iu- 



li--,- -.-si 



ll 



ll 



■ffioaowMa^r^ 



100 



TlIK HITU80N BAY KSKIMO. 



Mtaiicfs til*' t'orint'i- \vit<> sehloiii reHuiits tlit' iiitniHioii upon li«>r atl't'ctioiiH 
anil ri>;lits hut occaNionally );iv«'H tin* ntht-r a m>v«rt« tliraMhiu); and an 
injunrtioii to look to liersi^lf It-st mIh' lie tlisranltMl also. Tlit> rliildrtMi 
oC the (list otl' woman art' IrcqiuMitl.v taken l)y Iht and they p) to livr 
with liiT icIativcM iis nuuiiiils on whom dfvolvc Ihi' labor of scwcrost 
kinds, slu> l)fin}; ^lad to obtain tli«« i-«'l'uMt< of tht'hovt'l to support lu>r 
litV in oriltT tlnit lii>r childnMi may lii* well takfii cart' of. 

Honu' wives arc considcrcti as very "unlucky"' and a -tr trial ar« 
cast off toshilY foi' tiiemselves. A woman who has obtained the rc|)uta 
tion of Itcinj; unlucky for her husband is eschewed by all the men lest 
she work some ciiarm on them. 

In social relations the head of the family comes first, and the oldcHt 
son second, tiie other sons followin-; according; to respective ayes. 

The .sons of the tirst wife, if there l>e more than one wife, take pre- 
cedence over those of the second or third wife. It may be that a 
man has lost liis tirst wife and takes another. The sons of these two 
are considered iis those of one wife so far as their relation to each 
othei" is concerned. When the father becomes superanimt<'d ttr his 
sons ai'c old enough to e. ible him to live withr)ut exertion, the nnin 
a^emeiit of atfairs iU'volv«s <.n the eldest son, and to the second is 
dele;riited the sc" uid place. Kach may be occni»ied in dilVerent alVairs, 
but the elder alone chooses what he himself shall do. 

If the father live to a ^reat ap', and some of the uhmi certainly at- 
tain the a;ic of more than 80 years, he may have >xreat grandchildren 
about him, and these never tail to show resjiect foi' their ancestor. 

All this family may dwell in a sinjjle tent, or in two or more tents. 
Wher«' the leadei' directs, there they all repair, althonnh each one 
who is at the head of a family n<ay be lett to employ himself as he may 
prefer. These sons, with their wives an(' ,'hildren, form a conuinmify, 
which may have other persons added to it, namely, the persons who 
are related to the wives of the sous. Theie may be but one <romnninity 
in a locality, and this is locally known to the wliite people as the •• jjanji" 
of tlu' head man. 

Kamili«'s whose members have decreased in nnnd»er by death or by 
nuirria^^e may seek the com|ianionship of one of these communities for 
protection. Tlu^ new arrival at onceacknowledf^es his dependence .iiid 
is, in a nianiH'r, under the intluence, if not control, of the lca<ler of the 
(;onununity which he.joitiH. 

KIIKN. 

A new born babe must not be washed until six or eifjht hours have 
elapsed. It is then placed to the breast an<l rarely },'ets any water Ut 
drink until old enou};;h t«> help itself to it. 

The child nniy be named while yet in utero. There bein;; no dis- 
tinctions for sex in names the apjiellatiou can scan-ely be amiss. Sev 
eral names may be a(;tjuircd from the iuo.st trivial circiuustances. Old 



Trm»«R.) 



CHU.DRKN. 



191 



iiaiiios insi.v bodiHciirded and ntnv tiiuiicH HiihHtitiitcd or rvrtiiin iiaiiii's 
iV|>|)li«-d by c-oi'tiiiii pt'oplc uiid not nst>(l Ity otiicrs, 

liovu tor otrsprin^' is of tlii^ dft^post iind ptiri'Ht <-liiira«-ti>r. I Inivti 
nnvoi'Mocn adiHi'espt'ctliil l'i.skinio('liild. MoMifis niid tuthviH n«>v*T in 
Hict corporal piinishmviit on their rhiidn-n, lor tlu-Mi' ar«> early taiiKiit 
lo olioy, oi' latlHT tii(\v an^ ipiici{ to pfrcfivo that tlicir parents arc 
their protectors and to them they must ;;o tor assistance. ()r|)han ^irls 
aru taken as niirses lor snnill ciiildren, and the nnrse so enipioycd has 
seUhnn any tronlth^ in controlling the <'hild. 

Anion); yonn^ children at play the ;rr«'atest harmony prevails. An 
accident losnltinf; in suttluient harm to cause tears olttains the sympa 
thy of all, who strive toappeaw^ tiie injured child by olVers of the ;;reat- 
«st share of tlio pinie, tlie little fellow often smiling with the prospec- 
tive pleasure while the tears yet course down hisbej,'rimed cheeks. In 
a moment all is forgotten and Joyous shouts sout<d merrily as the 
chubby youngsters of both sexes redoiiitle their exertion in playiufj 
football or buihlint; toy Innises in tiie newly fallen snow, where, on the 
bed of snow within tlu^ wall of the hut, the doll of ivory, wood or rays 
rolled int(» its semblance, plays th(^ part of hostess whom they pretend 
to visit and with whom tlu'y converse. 

Amonjj the younger boys ami girls, of l(t m 12, there is a great 
spirit of cheerful rivalry, to prove their ability to secure such food as 
they ari' able U* capture. If they can procure t'uough to purchase some 
ammunititui with which to kill ptarmigan they hoou have a certain 
auKUint ofcrredit. This enal>les them to provide some coxelcd luxury 
for their parent.s, who, of couise, aid ami encourage tliem to beconu> suc- 
cessful hunters. Within the huts the girls display their skill liy sew 
ing fragments of cloth into garments for dolls or striving to ]>atch 
their tattered clot lies. 

The older boys look with contempt upon these childish occupations 
and, to show their su|)eriority. often torment the younger ones until 
the father or niotlu'r compels them to desist. Pranks of various kinils 
are played upon each other and they often exhibit great cunning in 
their devices to annoy. These boys are aide to accompany their elders 
on hunting trips and run ahead of the team of dogs attached to the sled 

lllltlAl. 1 rsKiMS. 

When a |>erson dies the body is prejiared l»y binding it with cords, 
the knees being drawn up and the heels placi'd against the Itody. The 
arms are tied down, and a covering of deerskin or sealskin is wrapped 
around the body and fastened. The lu-arcst relativ«'s on approach of 
<b>ath remove the invalid to the outside of the house, f(u-ifhe shoidddie 
within he must not be carried out of the door but through a liole cut in 
the side wall, and it nuist thenbt^ carefully closed to prevent the spirit 
ofthei)ers(m from returning. The body is exposed in the oi)eii air 
along the side of a large rock, or taken to the shore m liilltop, where 



1| ^-4 



■t 



%^ 



192 



THK IirnSON BAY ESKIMO. 



Htoiit'H ordittt'i'i'iit si/,('K III'*' |)iU>(l iiruiiiiil it to ]>r(>vi>iittlit«bii'(lHmMl iini 
iiiiiIh IVom trt'ttiiiK at it, (Svo Fij?. -I.) It is <(iii(«i(l«M('il a K''''"^ <»rt<'iim* 
it aili)^' lie sfi'ii oatiii^' tli«> ticsh t'roin a Ixxly. In cast- of a holnvoil 
rliild i\y\i\n it is soiiictiincH takt'ii witli tli*> ii(>()|)li> to whom it liclon^'fil 
if tlicy Mtnrt for aiiotlicr locality iM'l'on' tlccoinitoHitioii Iiiin pronri'ssi-d 
too tar. 



• 


* 








y ^ f%He,^~f\ '^ ■' 



Flu, lit. EHkiiuu gruvd. 



Tilt' living' iM'isoii rosif,'iis liiniselt'lo t'lit*- witli meat <•allnIl«>s^<. Diir 
h\<^ illness, «'V«>ii tii<>U};li it ImmiI' iiinst |>ainl'ul ilhinirtfr, cniiiiilaiiit i.s 
seltldiii licanh ami so irn-at is I'ortitudt^ tliat tlic scvt'icst paroxysms 
of pain niicly product- even a movement of the muscles of the conn 
teiiaiice. 

The frienils often exhihit aM excessive amount of Miict; Imt only in 
exceptional instances is much weeping indul;;cd in. The loss of a 
hushand often ei-tails ^reat liai ..ips on the wife and small children, 
who eke out a scanty living by the aid of others who are scarcely ahle 
to maintain themselves. 

These jvcopje have an idea of a future state and believe that death 
is merely the separation of the soul and the material iiody. The spir- 
its of the soul pt either up to the sky, "keluk," when they aie called 
Keluymyut, or down into the earth, " Nuna." and arc called "Nana 
myut.'' These Iwoclasseaof sjiirits can hold communication with each 
other. 

The pla<'c to which the .soul {;oes <li pends on the ciuidm t of the per- 
son on earth and especially on the manner of ids death. Those who 
have died by vifdenee or starvation and women who die in childbirth 
are.Mijiposed to go to the region above, where, though not absolutely iu 



Tt HNRII I 



KKLIOION. 



i!»;{ 



want, tlicy Htill liick iiniiiy iit' ili«> liixiirioH fiijiiyoil hy \\ui Niinaiiiyiit. 
All (li'Hii'i' to p» to tli<> lowor n^^ioii ainl al'tttiwanlH (^rijoy th« iiiisisiiit' 
III' ((jtiiiniiiiiratiiiK with tli<^ liviiiKi which iirivile^'O in ili-iiir<l to thu.Hi; 
who ^o aliovo. 

Il'ik>atii ntsiiit t'roiii natural caimoH tiii> spirit is HuppoMtMl to dwell on 
th*> «>ai'th aftor haviiiK un<lor);oi:(^ a prohatioii of lour yrarn n-st in 
thf ifravi*. During; this tiiiit> the t;rav«>nniy Im> visiti-d ami t'oixl otVcnul 
atitl Moii^M siin^', and the otlerin^, roUHiNtint; of oil and tifsh, with to 
han-o for HmokiiiKimd rliewin^, iHt-onHunifd l>y tin- living' at the {{rave. 
Articles of elothiii^; nniy also be depositeil near thejjrave fortlie spirit 
toelothe itself after the {{arnsents liav<^ disappeared in the ])ro(;esH ol 
decay. It is <-iistonniry to place such articles aH may be deemed of 
immediate uhc for the departed soul in the {;rave at the time the body 
is interred, .\mmunition, (;un, kaiak and its appurtenances, with a 
shirt, {{hives, knife, and a «Mip from which to drink are usually so de- 
posited. The spirit of the dead man ap|iropriates the spirits of these 
artich'H as soon as thuy decay. It is often said when an article be 
comes lost that so and so (mentioning' his name), has taken it. 

Home of tlu« p«Miple |irefer tii expose their dead <in the tiat top of a 
hi{;h point extending; into the water. The remains of others are placed 
ahiun the shore and covered with rocks, while still others are taken to 
the smooth ridges on which may nearly always be found a huue bowlder 
carried by jjlaeial action and deposited there. Here p'uerally on the 
south side tlui body is placed on the bare r<icky ridjje and stones arc 
piled around and upon it. 

While these peoph' have but little fear of the dea«l man's biun's they 
do not ajiprove of thei:- beinj,' disturbed by others. The Indians, how- 
ever, are known to rille the {graves of Kskimo to obtain the guns, ehith 
inj;, etc., which the relatives of tln^ deceased have placed there. 

There are no such elaborati- cereuHuiies pertaininj; to the festivals 
of the dead anion;; the iieople of Umlsuu strait as obtain among the 
Kskimo of Alaska. 

KKI.KitoN. 

Amon^r t1ia«»e peojile there is no such person as eliief; yet there is a 
recofjnized leader who is influenced by another, and this last is the con 
Jurer or medicineman. These two persona determine among themselves 
w hat shall be <lone. It sometimes happens that slight differences of 
<ipinion on the projier course to pursue collectively will cause them to 
go in different dire«tions to meet after a few months' separation, by 
which time all is forgotten and former relations ar«^ resumed. 

AH the affairs of life are sujiposed to be under the control of spirits, 
each of which rules over a certain eh'ment, and all of which are under 
the direction of a greater sjiirit. liacli jierson is supposed to be at- 
tendetl by a sjiocial guardian who is malignai't in character, ever ready 
t<i seize upon the least occasion to work harm upon the individual whom 
11 KTll 13 



i^ 



i I 



194 



THE HUDSON BAY ESKIMO. 



it ii('C(»iii])inii('S. As this is an evil spirit its good otlicos and assistance 
can be obtained by i)roi>itiation (»nly. The ])erson strives to keep the 
jjood will of the evil spirit by oll'erinjjs of food, water, and clothin};. 

Till' spirit is often in a material form in the shajte of a doll, carried 
somewhere abont the i)erson. If it is wanted to insure success in tlie 
chase, it is carried in tin; bag containing the amnuinition. 

When an individual fails to overcome the obstacles in his path the 
misfortune is attributed to the evil wrought by his attending spirit, 
whose good will must be invoked. If the spirit i)rove stubborn and re- 
luctant to grant the needed assistaiu-e the person sometinu's beeonms 
angry with it and iuHicts a serious chastisement ujm»u it, deprives it of 
food, or strijis it of its garments, until after a time it proves less refrac- 
tory and yields obedience to its master. It <»ften happens that the 
person is unable to control the intlueuce of the evil disi>osed spirit and 
the only way is t« give it to some person without his knowledge. The 
latter becomes immediately under the control of the sjiirit, ami the 
former, released from its bah'fnl effects, is able siu'cessfully to proscv 
cute the affairs of life. In the eimrso of time the person generally re- 
lents and takes back the spirit he gave to another. The ]»erson on 
whom the spirit has been imi»oscd should know notliing of it lest he 
should refuse to a<'(H>pt it. It is often given in the form of a bundle of 
clothing. It is su|»i)ose(l that if in hunting somebody merely takes the 
bag to hang it up the iuHuencc will pass to him. Tiu' spirit is sup- 
posed to be able to exert its intluence only when carried by sonu> ob- 
ject having life. Hence the person may cast it away for a time, and 
during that period it remains iiuTf. 

Besides this class of spirits, there are the spirits of the sea, the 
land, the sky (for be it understood that the Kskirno know nothing of 
the air), the winds, the ch)uds, ami everything in nature. Kvery cove 
of the seashore, every ])oinl, island, and prominent rock has its guard 
iaii spirit. All are of the malignant type and to be ])ropitiated oidy 
by acceptable^ offerings from persons who dcsirc! to visit the locality 
when' it is supposed to reside. Of c<mrse some of the spirits are more 
powerful than others, and these are more to be dreaded than those 
able to intlict less harm. 

These mincu- spirits are under the control of the great spirit, whose 
name in "Tung ak."' This one great spirit is more powerful than all 
the rest besides. The lesser spirits are immediately under his ccmtrol 
and ever ready to obey his command. The shaman (or conjurer) ah)m> 
is supposed to be able to deal with the Tung ak. While the shaman 
does not profess to be sujierior to the Tung ak, he is able to enlist his 
assistance and thus be able to control all the undertakings his profes- 
sion may call lor. 

This Tung ak is nothing more or less than death, which ever seeks 
to torment and harass the lives of people that their spirits may go to 
dwell with him. 



TriiNKii.) 



UELKlION. 



196 



A Icgeinl related of tlie oriRin of the Tung ak is as follows: A father 
had a sou and daughter whom he, h»ved very mm;*. Tiie, children fell 
ilt and at last died, although the father did all in his power to alleviate 
their mifferings, sliowing his kindness and attentions to the last mo- 
ment. At their death the fatlu-r beeame changed to a vicious spirit, 
roaming the world to destroy any person whom he nught meet, deti^r- 
ndned that, as his dear children died, none others slumld live, 

Tung ak visits i)eople of all ages, constantly placing obstacles in 
their pathway to prevent the accomplishment of their desires, and 
provoking them beyond etiduraiice so as to «-anse them to become ill 
and die and go to live with him. Tung ak uo hmger knows his own 
<liildren and inmgiiies all persons that he meets to be his chihlren. 
Famine, disease, and death are Si'Ut abroad to search for these lost 

children. 

People at last hegan to devise some means of thwarting the designs 
of Tung ak and discovered that a period of tasting and abstinence 
from contact with other j.cople enthtwed a person with supernatural 
powers and enabled him to learn the secrets of Tung ak. This is 
acccmiplished by repairing t.» some lonely spot, where for a greater or 
less period the hermit abstains from food or water until the iinagina 
tion is so worked upon that he believes himself imbued with the power 
to heal the sick and control all the destinies of life. Tung ak is sup- 
posed to stand near and reveal these things while tht» p.-rsor. is under 
going the test. When the i)erson sees the evil one ready to seize upon 
him if he fails in tht> self imposed task to become an "Angekok" or 
great (Uie. he is much frightene.l and beseeches the terrible visitor to 
spare his life and give him the power to relieve his peojile from mis- 
fintune. Tung ak then takes pity on him, and imparts to him the 
secret of preserving life, <»r driving out the evil which causes death. 

This is still the jirocess by which the would-be shannin tits himself 
for his supernatural duties. 

The newly Hedged angekok returns to his people and relates what 
he has s«'en and what he has d<nu'. The listeners arc awed by the 
recitals of the suft'erings and <udeal, and he is now ready to accom 
plish his mission. When his services are required he is crafty enough 
to demand sulVicit^nt <ompensation, and frankly states that the greater 
the ].ay the greater the good bestowed. A native racked with i»ain 
will gladly part with all of his worldly possessions in order to be re- 
stored to health. 

The shaman is blindfolded, or else has a covering thrown over his 
head to prevent his countenance from l>eing seen during the incan 
tation. The patient lies on the ground before him and when the shaman 
is worked up to thepro|)er8tateoffren/,yheprostrateshimselfuponthe 
alllictcd person and begins to ci.asethe evil from its seat. The patient 
ofti'ii receives blows and Jerks sutliciently hard to dislocate the Joints. 
As the spell itrogresses the shaman utters the most hideous muses, 



=*«wi 






m 



196 



THK HIDSON HAY KSKIMO. 



slioutiii}.' lii'iT iinil tliorciis tlu'cvil Hcos to iUioMuM- itortioii of tliobody, 
seeking' ii rcticiit tVoiii wliicli tlif sliiuiiau shall ho tinabli^ to dislodge 
it. After a liiiic victory is diM'liii'wl; the operutor di'iins to liave tho 
(lis(>ase iiikIci' liis (•oiitrol, and aitliougli it should cscnpo and inaku 
itself apiiii felt in the patient, the shanum eontiuues until the person 
cither jjets well or dies. If the fornu'r, the n^putation of the shaman 
is increased itroportionally to tiic payment bestowed by the ertlicted 
one. If he dies, however, the conjurer simply refers his failure to the in- 
t<'rference of soniethi.it' which was beyoinl hist'ontrol. This may havo 
been the intlnence of anything the shaman may at thi> monuMit think 
of, sucli as a sudden appearance in the changing auroras, a fall of 
snow, or a dog knocking down something outside of tlu^ house. If the 
peojile deny tliat the dog did the act, the siiannin replies that the (U>g 
was the instrunuMit in the hands of a spirit which escaped him. Any 
little incident is sutlicient to thwart the success of his manipulations. 
If any i)erson be the subject of tlu' shaman's dis|)leasure he or she 
must undergo some sort of jmnishment or do an act of peinmce lor the 
interference. It is not unusual to see a person with the harness of a 
dog on his back. This is worn to relieve him or sonuibody else of 
a spell of the evil spirit. The tail of a living dog is often cut from its 
body in order that the fresh blood may be cast upon the grouml to be 
seen by the spirit who has caused the harm, and thus he may bo ap- 
I)eased. Numerous nnitilations are inllicled upon animals at the coiu- 
mand of theconjurei', who must be consulted on nearly all the important 
undertakings of life in order that he may manage the spirits which will 
insure sju'cess. 

The imi>licil belief in these i)ersonages is wondertul. Almost every 
peison who can do anything not fully understood by otliers has more 
or less reputation as a shanum. 

Some men. by observation, beconu' skilled in weather lore, and get 
a great reimtation for supernatural knowledge of the f-iture weather. 
Others again are fannnis for suggesting charms to insure succ«'ss in 
hunting, and, in fact, the occasions tor consulting the«'onJuier areprac- 
ti<-ally innumerable. One special cpialiticatiiUi of a good shaman is the 
ability to attract large numbers of deer or other game into the region 
where he and his friends are hunting. 

Some of these shamans are superitir hunters and, as their experience 
teaches them the habits of the deer, they km)W at any season exactly 
where the animals are ami can anticipate their future nntvements, in- 
llueneed greatly by the weather. Thus the projihet is able to estimate 
the jtroximity ov renu)tcnessof the various herds of stragglers from the 
main body of deer which were in the locality during the i>receding fall 
months. Thesis hunters have not only a local reputation btit are 
kmiwn as far as the people have any nutans of comnnuiicatioi'. 

In order to cause the deer to iimve toward the locality where they 
limy be desired the shaman will erect, ou a pcde placed iu a favorable 



THR TALISMANS. 



197 



TrBNKB.l 

of the animals. ,f ^-ut riiinio iV\ii.-2±) It is (luite 




Maili.MlnU. 



,,,^,1 pm'.MkMl l.i.n. His nan..' is Sa'pa. _ ^^„ 



"'"•IT' -■* 



,li 



Ik 



lOS 



THK HUDSON HAY ESKIMO. 



tlio bolt of poliir-bt'iir skin (kiik-cniifr'-uiit) (Fif?. -3) are limig strings 
of t'olorcd beads and varions aniulcts. TIh'so arc, (irst, a woodon d<dl 
(Fig. L'J) (inuj; wak, a little man) linn^' to the belt so that hefaees out- 
ward and is always on the alert; then, two bits of wood (ajifowak) (Vig. 
L'5) to which haiif,' strands of beads and lea<l drops; next, ii string of 
three bullets ( Tij-. L'(i) to syndudize the readiness of tlie hunttir when 
fiiinie approaches; and. last, a seniicireular piece of wood ornainenlcd 
witli strings of bi-ads (I''ig. 27). 

This last is called the tu a'-vi tok, or hasteiu'r. The hunter holds if 
in his liand when he sights the game, ami th<j tighter he grasps it the 




'J:i. H.Ml (ifiiia(;ii(l..ll. 

faster he is supposed to get .»vor the ground. It is supposed that by 
the use uf this one may be able to travel faster than the wind and not 
even touch the earth over which he passes with such incredible speed 
that he overtakes the deer in a nionuMit. The (Mitire affair, as it hung 
on the jtolc. was caUed tung wa'gn e'nog ang',or a nniterialization of a 
Tungak. 

This object hung there for several <lays until I tliought it had served 
its piirjiose and could now air,. id to change ownership. The local «^on- 



TllK TAUSMANS. 



199 



„i„f,/an..n,g the l.onsos of the station. UMUmxi^i^ over its 





Kid. '"i. TiiliBiimn. 




Fid. 2(1. 'riiliHiiiiiii- 



Fill. 24. Tiiliaiuiui iittttilu-*! 



^,.oso.n-am.vlK.nuu.voh >ll^ S^ ^.^ ,....tho., with the 

assiduity unt.l he ronvahM.ed -^ ^' ^„.,.„ th. sohMaus. of 

,avi,." ..f son.e oUl ha^s. d.-'n-^^ ''''/,.. 'lev things wo.v ,,it.h.a 
,.r hushand's iUn.ss -;;^;;;: ^ ^ l,;!;;.. n:iativ.s. 
out and she was couipellod to.iounuj i 

Another ilh.stratio.. ean>e under ^^^^^'^^ ,„ ^,s soon 

A widow w=.s taken to w.t.;^>y ^ ^ - " ,^ ^,^„„„. .,, ,,,„, ,h. 

takeu violently ill and she was a. "^^ ' > ^^.^,^ ,,„,,,.„„. rnless 

,ause of it, as the spirit other '^^-'^^^'^iTZ:^^ L>L. U was then 

Hla. were east olV the K..ksoaU n>an wonU n.Nc. 






fl 



^M i 



200 



TMK HUnSON HAY ESKIMO. 



iilso I'oiiiid tliat unless tho vile <*t' uiiotlitM- iiiiin aliotihl «i('s«M't liiin and 
iM'i'oini- tlic wile ol'ii Tiiuii wlio already liad t\vi» of this woman's sisters 
as wives tiie sick man would di(\ Tiie wonniu iind her husband 
escaju'd divorce by tleein^ from tho, camp. 

The shaman may d<» about as h«^ jdeases with the niairiatre ties, 
whieli ol'tener eonsist of sealskin thongs than respect and love. Many 

old hays have ac(|uired ?;. eat repu- 
tations for l)«'in};' able to interjjret 
dreams. An instance of dream in- 
terpretation, which also illustrates 




how 



a |>erson may acquire a lu'w 



nanu', caMienn<ier my observation. 
A wonnm, sitting alone, heard a 
noise like the i'iip])in<; of someone 
at the door desiriii}; idmiltance. 
She said, "Come in." No oiu' ap 
|)eared, and she inquired of the 
flirl who licti'd as nurse for her 
child if anyone had knocked at 
the door. A negative answer was 
yivcn. h'urther (|uestionin}i of a 
white nuiii, who was asleep near 
by, reveale*! that he had made no 
sucii sound. T\w. woniaii knew 
tliat no nuiii had died within the 
l>lacc and si( his spirit coulil not be siM-kinji' admittaiu'c. She went 
to an old \\oman and related tiie affair, and was informed that it was 
the rajipiii^ of her brother, who had died suddenly some two years 
iieloii'. She must go lioiiie and prepare a cup of tea, with a slice of 
itrcad, and fiivc it to tlie nurse, as her iuother, Nakvak (the one who 
died) wa.s hnnjiiy and wanted food. She esjtccially enJoin»'d upon the 
woman tliat tlie f^irl must now be known as Nakvak (nie<i'iinj; •Mound") 
and that iiiroii;:li her the dea<1 would procure tin; food which, altliou};li 
it subserves a ;i<)od luiiposc in iiourishinj; the living, len<ls, by its ac 
companying sjiiiit, to allay the pangs of hunger in the ilead. 

As I have alieady said, everything in tiie w<uld is believed to have 
it.H attendant spirit. The spirits of the lower animals are like those of 
men, but of an inferior (udei'. As these siiiiits, of course, can not be 
destroyi-d by killing the animals, the ICskimo believe that no aiiHumt 
of .shii'ghter can realy decrease the numbers of the ganu'. 

A grt ;it spirit controls the reindeer, ile dwells in a huge cavern 
near the end of Cape Chidley. He obtains and controls the spirit of 
every deer which is slain or dies, and it depends on his good will whether 
the jicople shall obtain future supplies. The form of the spirit is that 
of a huge white Itear. The shaman has the power to prevail upon the 
spirit to send the deer to the peojilc who are represented as sulfering 



TITRNRK.] 



AMULETS. 



201 



lor want of food. Tlic spirit is iiiforiiied tliat thi' people liavc, mi no way 
otUtiiiU'd iiiiii, as tliu sliaiiuui, as a mediator butweeii tiiu sjiirit and tliu 
peo[il«s has taiit'U f;;rcat (!aro tliat tlm i)ast ibod was all eaten and that 
hist spring.', when the tVsniale deer were retnrnlnf,' to him to be delivered 
ol' their ycnin^, none of the young (or ftetal) doer were devoured by the 
dogs. After iniieh incantation the shaman announees that the sjtirit 
eondescends to supitly the people with si)irits of the deer in a material 
form and that s(M)nanabnndanee will be in the land, lie enjoins upon 
the |)eople to slay and thus obtain the approval of the spirit, wh'ch loves 
to see good peopht enjoy an abumlauee, knowing that so long as the 
people refrain from feeding their dogs with the unborn young, the 
Hpirits of the deer will in time return again to his guardianship. 

Certain jiarts of the fhst deer killed must be eaten raw, others dis- 
carded, and others must bo eaten cooked. Tlu' dogs must not be al- 
lowed to taste of the Hesh, and not until an abundance has been ob- 
tained nnist they be aHowed to gnaw at the; leg bones, lest the guanlian 
spirit of the deer be offended and refuse to send further sui)plies. If 
by some misfortune the dogs get at the nu'at, a ])ie<'e of the offending 
dog's tail is cut off or his ear is cropped to allow a How of Idood. 

('e^emoni(^s of some kind attend the captuie of the fiist slain animal 
of all th<^ more lm]>ortaiit kinds. I unfortunately had no o()portunity 
of witnessing many of these ceremonies. 

As a natural conseciucnce of tiu' superstitious i)eliefs that T have de- 
scribed, tlie use of amulets is universal. Some diarnis arc worn to 
wardofVthe atta<'ksof evildisposcd spirits. Other charms are worn as 
rcmendirances of deceased relatives. These have the form of a heail- 
less doll depending from sonu- portion of the garment wtirii on the up- 
per part of tiic body. 

As many of tluMr personal names are derived from 
natural objects, it is usual for the pers(tn to wear a 
little image of tiic objiH-t foi' which he is named or a 
portion of it; for example, a wing of the biid, or a bit 
of the auinial's skin. This is 8\ipposed to gratify the 
spirit of tiie obje(^t. Strang*' or curious objects ne\ er 
before seen are soiiu'times considen-d to bring suc- 
cess to the finder 

Two articles select^'d from my colh'ction will illus- 
trate different forms of amulets. The first. No. ;{(I1S, 
is a little wooden model of a kaiak. The other (.'((M.IU, 
l-'ig. 2S) was worn on the back (»f a woman's coat. It 
is a small block of wood carved into four human 
hi Is. These heads represent four famous conjurcis 
noted for their skill in driving away diseases. Tiie 
woman, who came from the eastern shore of Hudson's 
bay, was trtuibled with rheumatism and wore this charm frtun time to 
time as she felt the twinges of pain. She assured me that the pain 




Flo. 'JH. Kskiino wo 
mail's aliiiilcl. 



\ 






%. 



202 



■rilK HUDSON HAY KSKIMO. 



always tlisa))|uMirtMl in a t'«'W hours when slie woic it. It was witli tlw^ 
jiroatt'st (lillltiiity thai I porsiiadcd hor t<» i)art with it. She was, how- 
ever, about to loturn honu', and couhl jjot anittlicr thero. 



lH'TOnoK I.IKI 



'rh»> Kskiini) a«'<|uire an cxtondiMl knowh'djje of tiu* country i)y early 
a«'<-oni|)anyin^ tlu>ir parents on hunting trips, and as they have to rely 
upon memory alone, they must he observant and carefully nnuk the 
snrrouudinfis from all tlu' views atl'orded. The faculty of memoiy is 
thus cultivated to an astonishing degree, and seldom fails, even in the 



mi 



ist severe weather, to insure safety for the individual. 1 knew 



iti 



^tiek h 



>d in the 



d 



ijattertHJ stalks of 



imong 

which attaiiu'd the height of the rod, yet after several hours he found 
the spot again without the least hesitation. Kvery rise of land, every 
curve of a stream, every eoxf in the seashore, has a name descriptive 
of something connected with it, and these names are known to all who 
havei occasion to visit tli*^ place. Though the aspect of the land is 
entirely ehangi'd l»y the mantle of snow which covers all the snniller 
objects, a huntei' will go straight to the place where the carcass of :\ 
single deer was cached many months before on the open beach. The 
Kskimo are faithful guides, and when contidenee is shown to be reposed 
in them they take a i»ride in leading the party by the best route. In 
traveling by night they use the north star for the guide. Kxiicriem-e 
tea«'hes Ihcm to Ibrctcll the weather, and sonut reliance may be i)lae«'d 
on their ])redictiims. 

Their knowledge of the seasons is also wonderful. The year begins 
when the sun has reaclu-d its lowest jmint, that is, at the winter 
s<ilstice, and summer begins with the sunnner solstice. They recognize 
the arrival of the solstices by the bearing of the sun with reference to 
certain fixed landnnirks. 

The seasons have distinctive nanu's, and these are again subdivided 
into a great number, of which there are more during the warmer 
weather than during the winter. The reason for this is obvious: so 
many »'hanges are going on during the sumnu-r and so few during the 
winter. The principal events are the return of the sun, always a 
signal of joy to the people; the lengtlMUiing of the day; the warm 
weather in March when the sun has attained sntlicient height to nnike 
his rays less slanting and thus be more fervent; the melting of the 
snow; the breaking up of the ice; the oi)eu water; the time of birth 
o ■ various seals; the atlvi'ut of »'xotie birds; tin; nesting of gulls, 
eiders, and other native birds; the arrival of white whales and the 
whaling season; salmon fishing; tlu> ripening of salnumberries and 
other species of edibles; the time of reindeer (irossing the river; the 
trapping of fur-bearing animals ami hunting on land and water for 
food. lOaeli of tlu'se perioils has a s]»ee,ial nameapjtlied to it, although 
se\ t-ral may overlap eiu;h other. The ai)pearame of mosquitoes, sand- 



Tl'RNRR.l 



Ol'TDOOK LIKE. 



203 



HicH, and liorst'tlics an' iiiarktHl by diitt's anticipattMl witli <■<. .ucrabUt 
a])[)rdieiisioii of iiniioyaiu-c. 

Ill order to Hkctcli tlic^ annual routin«> of life, 1 will buuin with tho 
br«'aki!i(; iiji of the ire in Hiding. Tlic KokHoak river breaks its iee 
about tlie last of May. This period, however, may vary as uiiieli as 
ten days earlier and twenty days later than the date siieeilied. T\w 
icv ill rn{,'ava bay, into which that river Hows, must be '''ee from the 
Kreat»'r portion of the shore i<'e before the river ice can push its way 
out to sea. The winds alone intiuence the bay iee, and the <'liaraeter 
of the weather toward tho head waters of the river determines i;.i tiiu«^ 
of breaking. 

The Kski'.io has naturally a keen perception of the signs in the sky 
and is often able to predict with certainty the ert'ects of the preceding 
weather. When the season lias sufliciently advanced all tlie behuig- 
ings of each faiiiily are put together and transported down the river on 
sleds to where tli«i ice has not y«>t gone from tin' mouth of the river. 
It is very seldom that the river ice extends down so far. To the edge 
of the ice the tent and dogs, with the umiak, kaiak, and other p<;rsonal 
liropcrty, are taken and then stored on shore until the out ide ice is 
free. 

The men wander along the beach or inland hunting fc reindeer, 
ptarmigan, hares, and other land game. The edge of tie water is 
searched for waterfowl of various kinds which appear earliest. Some 
ventuiesome seals appear. In the cour.se of a lew days the u-e in the 
river breaks up and the shore ice of the buy is free; and ii there is a 
favorable wind it sotm |)ermits th; niiiiak to be put into the water, 
where, by easy stages, deiiendiiif; on the weather, the quantity of tloat- 
ing ice, and the food siipplv, t!se linnters creep alongshore to the object- 
ive point, be it either east or we.'! of the Koksoak. Sometimes the jiarty 
divide, some going in one direction and others in another. 

The men seek lor seals, hunting in the kaiak, the women and chil- 
ilren .s»'aiching the islets and coves for anything edibh'. As .soon as 
the sea.son arrives for the various gulls, eiders, and other sea birds to 
nest the women and children are in high glee. Kvciy spot is carefully 
e.\ai.;ined, and cv'ty accessible nest of a bird is robbed of its contents, 
by the L'.">tli of . I line the people hav«' exhausted the supjdyof eggs from 
the last situations visited and now think of returiii;ig, as the birds have 
again deposited eggs and the seals are be«'oining scarcer. 

The Eskimo arrange to assist the company to drive white whales 
when the. season arrives. This is as .soon as they apjiear in the river at 
a siitlicient distance up to warrant that tlu^ nu'asures pursued will not 
drive them out of the fresh water, for if they left they wcmld not soon 
return. The date usually 11 xed ujion is about the 12tli of 'iily. The 
natives are suminoned, and a large sailboat or the small steam launch 
is .sent along the coast to the jilace where the people were expected 
to arrive the .'ith of the month. The natives are brought to the 



^l|' 



204 



TIIK HUDSON HAY ESKIMO. 



wliiiliiitf Mtiitioii, wluMi' tlii'.v (Mininip, to await t]K> setttng (»f the in't« 
toriiiint; the sides of tlic incldsuro into wiiirli tliv whales are to be driven. 

The natives spoar tin' wliales in tho ]>(mnd, drajf tlieni ashore, skin 
tlieni, and help take the oil and skins to tho post, some ei^ht ndlus 
t'artlier np tho river. 

The same natives whoenp;aK*'d in tho whaling are emph)yod to attend 
tiie nets for ."..ilnion, wliicii arrive at variable dates from tho -'5th of 
.Inly to the \M of Heptendter. Two or more adidt nude Kskimo, with 
tiieir relatives, oeeiipy aeertain loeality, Kenorally kiuiwn by tho naino 
of the person in eharge of that season's work. The place is oeeuiaed 
antil the rnns of tiie lish are over, when it is time for tho natives to be 
up the river to spear n-indeer wliieh cross tho river. 

This hunt ing lasts until the deer have begun to rnt and the males havo 
lost the fat fromthesmallof the back. Thoseason is now so far advanced 
that tho ice isalri>ady forming along tho shore, and unless tho hunter 
intends to remain in that h)cality ho would better begin to descend the 
river to a place lu'arer the sea. The river may IVeoze in a single night 
and the umiak be unabh* to withstand the constant strain of the sliarp- 
edged cakes of tloating ice. 

The head of tho family decides where tho winter is to be passo«l and 
moves thither with his party at once. Hero he has a few weeks of rest 
from the season's labors, or spends the time eonstructing a sled for the 
winter Journeys he may havein view. The snow has now fallen so that a 
snow house may In- constructed and winter (piartors taken up. A num- 
ber of steel traps are procuretl to be set for foxes and other fur-bearing 
animals. The ptarmigans arrive in largo flocks ami are eagerly hunted 
{\>v their flesh and feathers. The birds are either consumed for food or 
sold t(» tho company, which pays t>\ cents for four, and pun'hases the 
body feathers of tho birds at the rate of i pounds of the feathers tor 
25 cents. 

The Kskimo soon ciuisume tlieamonntof deer meat they brought with 
them on their return and subsist on tho th'sh of tho ptarmigan until the 
ice is firm enough to allow the sleds to bo used to transport to the 
pres«'nt camp meat of animals slain in the fall. 

The traps are visited and tho furs are sold to tho eomi)any in ex- 
change for flour, tea, sugar, nu)lasses, biscuit, clothing, uiid amnuini- 
tion. Hunting excursions are mside to various localities for stray bauds 
of deer that have become sepaiat<'d from the larger herds. 

The white men empIoy(''s of tho con.pany have been engaged in cut 
ting wood for the next year's fuel, and the Kskiuio with their dog teams 
an; hired to haul it to tho bank, where it may be floaied down in 
rafts when the river opens. 

Thus passes the year in the life of tho Kskimo of tho inunodiate 
vicinity of Koi't Chinio. Some of the Koksoagmynt d(t not «'ugage in 
these occupations. Some go to another locality to live by themselves; 
others do not work or iiunt, because it is not their nature to do so. 



TniNHH.I 



OlTTDnoK MFK. 



205 



III all iiml«rfakiiiKs for thiMiiHi^lves tli«y (lolibornto long, with iiiik-Ii 
licsitiition and apparnit ruliictaiii't>, lit>tori> tlii>y (Ici'hln upon tint liio'iit' 
action. Tlicy t'onsult t'acli other an<I wcij^h (iiea(lvaiita>,'«'sot' tliis over 
that locality for Ramc, and Hpccnlatit on wlu'thcr tlicy will lie alllirtj'd 
witii illness of tlit'insclvrs or family. Wiioii the resolution is tlnally 
Hiado tojoiirney to a irortaiu place, ouly the most serious ohstai-les ean 
thwart tlicir imrposc. 

At all seasonsof the year the women have their allotted duties, which 
they perform without hesitation. They hriun the wood and th(* water, 
and the food from the Held, if it is not too distant, in which case tlii^ 
men pt after it with the tlo;; teams. The women also fashion the skins 
into clothing and other arti.-les, and do tiie cookinfir. After a hunt of 
several days' duration the husband's a|ipearaiiee is anxumsly awaited, 
as is indicated by the family s<>aiiniiiK the direction whence lii^ is ex 
pected. The load is taken from the sled or boat and the incidents of 
the chase recited to the ever ready listeners. 

In the early spring the women are busily enfriip<'d in making boots 
for summer wear. The skins of the seals have been prepared the fall 
before and stored away until wanted. The inethod of tannin^r the 
skins is the same for each species, dilVerinn only in its si/e and weifjlit. 

('ertain large ve.saels made of wood or metal, eliielly the latter, as 
they are easily procured fnnii tiie traders, are used to hold a liquid, 
which is from time to time added to. When a siinicieiit ainoiint is 
collected it is allowed to ferment. During the interval the skin of the 
seal is cleansed from fat and llesh. The hair has been removed by 
shaving it olV or by pulling it out. The skin is then dressed with an 
instrument designed for that purpose, made of ivory, deerhoni, stone 
or even a jiieci' of tin Set in the end of a stout stick several iiiciies 
long. The skin is held in the hand and the chiselslniped im|)lenieiit 
is repeatedly pushed from the person and against a portion of the 
skin until that jiart becomes jtliable and soft enough to work. It is 
further softened by rubbing between the hands with a motion similar 
to that of the washerwoman rubbing clothing of the wash. Any por 
tion of the skin which will not readily yield to this mani|>ulatioii is 
chewed with the front teeth until it is reduced to tiie required plia 
bility. -Mter this operatum has been comiileted the skin is soaked in 
the lii|uid, whi<'li has now ripened to a sutlicieiit degree to be elVective. 
In this it is laid for a period lasting from several luairs to two or tiiree 
<lays. The skm is now taken tait ami dried. The subsequent opera- 
tion of sottening is similar Ui that Just described, and is linal. It is 
now ready to be cut into the rcMpiired shape for the various articles for 
which it is in(oniIed. If it is designed tor boots for a man, the measure 
of the height .)f the leg is taken. The length and width of the sole is 
measured by the hand, stretching so far and then bending down the 
long or middh^ linger until the h'ligth is measured. The width of one, 
two, or more lingers is sometimes used in addition to the span. The 



'■'«: 






wi 



JOfi 



THE III'DSON MAY KHKIMO. 



I*>ii;:tli is thus miiiktil iind the skin IiiIiI«mI ovt>r so iis to liavt> it <l()iil)lt>(I. 
Tii*< kiiil'o iisimI ill iiittiiiK is siiapt'd likv tlut roiiiiil kiiit't- us<>«l liy tlu> 
liiiriii'ss-iiiakrr or sliocinakci'. 

TIh'I'c is ill our colUrtion ti wimmIimi niodol of this tbriii of knife (No. 
.'<()22), wliii'li nowadiiys always lias a blade of metal. Forniurly slato, 
Hint, or i\oi'y wiis iiH<>d for tli<>s«> bladtm. 

Tilt' instiuiiu'iit is always |nisli«'d by tlio porHoii tiaing it. Tlio «\v« 
aionoKiiidi's tli*' kiiif*>,«'\ccpt on work for a wliit*> man, and tluMi gifator 
cart' is rvnciscd and inaikH employed indicating tlut roquirud si/.c. 
Tills round knifo is callrd nlo. 

Aiiotlier iiii|iortant duty of tlio wonu'ii is taking caro of tlio family 
boots. Wlicii a piiir of boots lias been worn for some time, during a 
few hours in warm weather they absorb moisture and iteeoine nearly 
half an inch thiek on the Holes. When taken otV they must be turned 
iiisid«> out and dried, then eheweil and scraped by some old woman, 
who is only too glail to have the work for the two or thr«'e biseuit she 
may reeeive as pay. Any leak or hole is stitehed, and when the sole 
hiis holes worn through it, it is patcheil by sewing a piece on the under 
side. The tn read used in sewing the boots is selected from the best 
strijts of sinew from the reindeer or seal. 

Some woineii excel in boot-making, and at some seasons do nothing 
but make boots, wiiiie the others in return prepai' Mie other garmeiits. 
When the time comes in spring for making sealskin clothes, the women 
must not st'w on any piece of deerskin which has not yet been sewed, 
lest t he seals take otfeiise and desert the locality which has been selected 
for the spring seal hunt, to which all the people look forward with long- 
ing, that tlicy may obtain a supply of food ditVereiit from that which 
they have had during tin- long winter months. As there v.iu be no 
harm in killing a (b-er at this season, the Uesli may be used, but tho 
skin must be cast away. 

As before stated, the entire family accompany the expeditions; and 
as the females are often tlie more niimenMis portion of the population, 
tiiey row the umiak at iheir leisure, now and then stopping to have a 
few hours' run on shore and again embarking. While tiiiis journey- 
ing they are at times ii sleepy crowd, until something ahead attracts 
attention; then all become animated, pni suing the object, if it be a half 
Hedged bird, until it is ('aptured. Great amusement is thus aflbrded 
for the time, after which they relapse until some excitement again 
arouses them from their a]>parent lethargy. At the cam]i the men go 
in <iuest of larger game, leaving the women and (children, who search 
the shore for any living ereatuic they may tiiid, destroying all tiiat 
comes in their way. Smoking, eating, and sleeping occupy them until 
they arrive at a locality where IikmI is abundant. There they earnestly 
strive to slay all that comes within reswh, and thus oft^Mi obtain much 
more than they re<|Uire, and the remainder is left to i>ufrefy on tin' 
rocks. The women do the skinning of the seals and birds obtained on 



riHNi'.ii I 



TATTUOINCJ. 



207 



MiIh I rip. Till' skins of hinln iiic rcinovrd in ii itcciiliar iiiiiiincr. Tlio 
wiiiKN iiKi cut oil' at tlit' liixly, and IIiioiikIi tlir inrisiiin all tii«- licsli uimI 
hoiiUH iir«^ takt'U out. The skin is tlicn IiiiikmI inside out. Tlit> (grease 
is removed by scnii»iiit,' and clu'wiiiK. Tlie skin is dried and preserved 
till' w«'iir on the leet or fttv tlie purpose of eleansin;; the hands, wliieli 
luivelieeonie soiled with hlooti or otiier olVal in skinning lar^e );aino. 

Wiieii the season arrives for hunting the reindeer for their skins, 
with whieh to make elothiiiK' for winter, the women iielp to prepare the 
tiesli and hriii^' the wood ami wat«>r for the camp, whiU' the men are 
ever (»ii the alert for the herds of deer on the land or erossin); the 
water. The wonn-n lian^j the skins over poles until the ;.'reater portion 
of the animal matter is dry. when they roll them up and ston> tlum 
away until the party is ready to retuin to the peirnanent eamp lor the 
wintei'. Here the nkins eolleeted are carefully examined and Huilahle 
ones selected for winter pirinents. 

The skins are moistened with water and the adherent lleshy parti 
eles are removed with a knife. They are then roujihly scraped anil 
again wetted, this time with urine, which is suppimed to render iheni 
more |)lialde. The opeiation is practically the same i>s that of tanning 
sealskins. The hair is, of course, left on the skin. When the skins 
are tinally dry anil worked to the reipiired |)liat)ility, they are cut into 
shape for the various articles of appaiel. The thread used in sewiufi 
18 si'.iply a strip of sinew of the pinper size. The libers are separated 
b;, s|)littin^' olV a siillicient amount, am! with thelin^M-r nail tl!estri|>is 

freed fi all knots oi' smaller strands which would prevent drawing; 

throutrli the needle holes. The thread for this purpose is never twisted 
oi' plaited. The needle is one procured from the trader. .Snnil! bone 
needles. iitTitations of these, are sometimes used. In fminer years the 
bone needle was the only means of carrying the thread, but this has 
now, except in the rarest instances, been entirely superseded by one 
of metal. 

'i'he thimble is simjily a piece of stitV sealskin sewed into a rinj; 
half an im'li wide to slip on the lirst lin^'cr, and has the sanu' nanu' as 
that member. In sewin^^of all kinds the iieedU' is pointed toward the 
operator. The knife used in I'littin;; skins is the same as that pre 
viously di'scribcd, Scis.sors are not adapted to cutting; a skin which 
retains the fur. iio far as my observations pies, scissors are used only 
for ciittin;; textile fabrics procured fiom the store. 

in the use of a knife woim'ii aciiuire a wondcrous dexterity, j^uidint; 
it to the desired curve with much skill, or usinj^ the heel of the blade 
to remove strips which may need trimmiii},' olV. 



■ I 



In former years the women were fancifully tattooed with I'urved 
lines and rows of dots on the face, neck, and arms, ami on the le;;s \\\\ 
to mid-thij,'h. This custom, however, fell into disuse because some 






2(i« 



THE IiriiSON ItAY KSKIMO. 



sliiiiiiaii lUrliiicd that a iiruvailiii^ inist'ortuiie wnn the reaiilt nt'thc tat- 
tooiiif,'. At present tl>o tattooing,' is vonliiit'il to a few siiiffh- dots on 
tlie body ami fare. VVlicii a jjirl arriv«'s at puberty she is taken to a 
seehided h>eali(.v by sonic ohl woman versed in the art and stripped 
otlier clothing;. A small qnantity of halt'(;harred lamp wick of moss is 
mixed with oil from the lamp. A nee«lle is nsed to prick tht^ akin, ami 
the i»asty substance is smeared ov«'r the wound. The bh)od mixes with 
it, and in a day or two a dark bluish s]tot alone is left. Tlu! operation 
^intliuies four days. When the girl returns to the tent it is known 
that she has lie^^uu to menstiiiate. A menstruating woman nuist not 
wear the lower narmonts she docs at other times. The hiiul lliip of her 
coat must be turned up and stitched to the back of the garment. Her 
right hand must be hall-gloved, or, in other words, the tirst two Joints 
of each linger of tiiat hand must be uncovered. The left hand also re- 
mains uncovered. She nnist not touch certain Hkins and fotid which 
at that itarticular season are in use. 



Like most Eskinui, the lioksoagmyut are clotlie«i ahnost entirely 
in the skins ot animals, tliough the men now wear breeches of nude- 
skin, duck. Jeans, or denim procured from the tradings) e. Heindeer- 
skin is the favtuite material for clothing, thimgh skins of the dif- 
ferent seals are also used. The usual garments are a IxMuled fiock, 
of dilfercnt shapes fin- tlu' sexes, with bretn-hes ami boots. The latter 
aieof variiuis shapes lor ditfercnt weather, aiul there are many pat- 
terns of mittens. Hain frotks of .seal entrail are also worn «)ver the 
furs in stormy weatlu-r. Sonu' of the people are very tidy ami ke«'p 
their clothing in a respectable «'ondition. Others arc careless and 
often present a most filthy sight. The aged and orphans, unless the 
latter be adopted by some well to do person, nuist often be content 
with the cast ol)'a])|iarel of thcii' more fortunate- tellow-beingH. 

The hair of the skins wears ott" in those places most liable to be 
in contact with other objects. The elbows, wrists, and knees often are 
without a vestige of hair on the clothing. The skin wears through 
ami then is )>atched with any kind of a piece, which often presents a 
ludicrous appearance. 

The young boys and girls are dresse<l alike, and the females do not 
wear the garments of the adults until they arrive at puberty. It is a 
ludicrous sight to witness some uj" the little <»nes scarcely able to walk 
dressed in heavy deerskin clothing, which makes them a|>pear as 
thick as they arc tall. They exhibit about the sanu> amount of pride 
of their lu'w suits as the «Mvili/.eil boy does. They are n(»w able to go 
out into the severest weather, and seem to delight in rolling armind in 
the snow. 

Ini'ants at the breast, so small as to be carried in the nudher's 
hood, are otten dressed in skins of the reindeer fawns. The garment 



TVBXKll. 



CLOTHINO. 



209 



for these is a kind of "coinbinatioii," tlu- trousers mu\ body sewed 
tofjotlier and cut down the back to enabh'. the infant to p't them on. 
A cap of cahco or other ch)th and a pair of skin st4ickinfxs completes 

the suit. 

Hoth men and women wear, as an additional protet-tion for their feet 
in cold weather, a pair or two of short stockinj^s, locally known as 
"dutlles," frctm the nann^ of tlie material of which they are made. 
These "dntliles" are cut into the form of a slipper and incase the 
stockiiifis of the feet. ()v«'r tlu'se are worn the mocirasins, nnule of 
tanned and smoked deerskin. The Kskimo women are not adei»ts in 
nnikintj moccasins; a few only can form a wclltittinj,' pair. Tii(>y 
often employ the Indian women to make them, and. in return, j;ive a 
pair of sealskin boots, which the Indian is unable to nuike, but hifihly 
prizi's for siunmer wear in the swamps. 

Th»> Koksoagmyut do not wearcaps, 
the hood of the frocks l»ein^' the only 
In-ad covering. There is, however, in 
my collection a caj* obtained from one 
of the so called " Northerners," who 
came to Fort Ciiimo to trade. This 
cajt (No. ■Wt'-'. Fig. '-".») was evidently 
coi>ied from some white man's cap. 
The front and crown of the cap are 
nmde of (j;tiillemot and scapififon 
skins, and tin- sealskin neckpiece also 
is lined with these skins, so tliat when 
it is turned ui» the whole eai> seems to 
be nnide of l)ird skins. 

Wo may now proceed to the descrip 
tion of tlic ditVerent garments in de- 
tail. 

The coat worn.by the nuMi and boys, 
and by tlic girls until they arrive at wonninhood, lias the form of a 
loose sliirl, seldom rewhing more than •_' or ;5 iiu'hes hclow the hips, 
ami olU'U barely covering the hips. The neck hoh- is large enougli to 
admit tlie head into the hood, which may be thrown bac'k or worn over 
the head in i)lace of a cap. 

The Inmiit of the southern shore of the western end of Hudson Strait 
often cut the coat open in front as far up as the breast (Figs. .'«► and 
;U, No. ;t-"-'t). The favorite material for these coats is Ihc skin of the 
reindeer, tliree good sized skins being required to make a full sized coat 
for a man. <"oats nnidc of liglit snnuner skins ar»> used as under 
ch)tliing in winter and for tin' only body chtthing in sunnncr. The 
skin of tiie harp seal (/'/i()C((f/»(i7iM«(/(V(() is also used for coats, but only 
when the supitly of reindccrskin runs shiut, or when a nnin can atlbrd 
t«) have an «'xtra coat to wear in wi't weather. It is not a very good 
II Kill M 




Km. '.'II. K-tViino liinNkiii i ap. 









210 



THE UIDSON HAY KSKIMO. 



iiiatoiial for clotliiiiK', as tliu skin is roii^lily taiiiifil, ami no anioiiiit of 
working' will rondt-r it nioro tiian niodt'iati'ly pliable. Fi;;s. '.V2 an<l 'M 
rei>n'si'nt a sealskin coat. These eoats are often triinnuxl ronnd tlie 
e(l},'»'s with fringes of deerskin '2 or ;? inches wide, m little poudiints of 
ivory. 




The eolleetion ennlains eleven of these eoats, Nos. .{2lil, ;(l!t,S-,r((Mt, 
and .{iVhS of deerskin, ami Nos. .'fl.'i.'.s. .'UCJ-.i.ViT ol sealskin. 

The peenliar shape of tlu' woniati"> coat is West nmlerstood Ity refer 
once to (he aeeoinpanyiiiK lignres (Kigs. ;U. .Tt, .t(i, .'{7 ami .W). The 
enormous hood is used loi earryint; the infant. When sittiiit;, the 
female nsimlly disposes the front liap ,so that it will lie spreatl npon 
the thifihs. or else pushes it lietween her le^s, while the hind tlap is 
I'itlier thrown aside (»r sat ni>oii. 

It is not nnnsnal for the women to display ronsideraltle last« in 
ornamenting,' their frarineiits, yisiua the steel ^^i ay pelt of the harp .seal 
to eontrust with the iiiai k of the hariior seal, and so on. The ed;jes of 
the hood and sleeves are frequently trimmed with skin tVoin a dark 



CLOTH I NO. 



211 



i'olort'd younndoy, or a strip of poliirlM'iir skin, wlios*- loiifj white liairs 
sIilmI tilt! rain iM-ttcr tlian tliosc of any otlicr inaninial. 

It is not raru to lind ioojis of sint'w or of soal8i\in attaclicd to tin* 
breast or liack of a woman's tianncnts. Tliest; arc fortyin;;; small arti 
cU's, sncli as a nocdh" case or a snulfbag, to tlicclotliinjf for cunveniencf 
and to itrt'voiit loss. 

A iiociiliar style of ornamentation is sliown in Fi;;. .SO and 40, No. 
3005, a woman's coat Irom Fort (Jhiuio. Tlu; front of the skirt is friugtul 




Kill. :(!- l-'.Hkitiiit iiiiin''. ili'iTsklii I it.il (iMtk.i 

with little lead drops, liei:nslia|ird in the ii|)iier row ami pear-shaped 
in the htwer, and pierecd so that they «'an he .sewed on. Tlie.se lead 
drops are furnished liy the trader at the piiee of about a cent and a 
half each, in trade. The trimming of this froek eosi, therefore, about 
I?!. The four objei ts danf,diiij; Irom tiie front of the froek are pewter 
s]Mion biiwls. Across the breast is a friiinf of short strinjjs ofditVerent 
eidored b«'ads, red, black, yellow, white, and blue. .)iu;;linK ornaments 
are much pri/.e«l. 



««?••"-' 



i: 






.1 



,JI 



212 



TilK III'DSON HAY ESKIMO. 



The till tiifis from i»liig t<tl>acco arc oap'i'ly Mtnglit for, p«'rforat('(l 
iiiid attiiclieil ill pendant strands ',i or 1 ini^lics loii^ to s«>alskiii strips 
and tliiis serve tlie place of beads. I saw one woman wh(» eertainly 
liad not less than a tlioiisand of these tafjs jiiifjliiifj as she walked. I 
liave also seen coins of various countries attached f( I'le arms antl 
dress. One coin was Brazilian, auothcr Spauish, a' several v. ere 




Fill. ;i; 



iii.di :i Hfiil<>kiii > iiiii (tnint). 



Kii;:lisli. Coins of ilu- |>rovinces were i|nile tinnierous. These were 
all doubtless olitaiiied Iroiii the sailors who aiinuall.v visit the place, in 
i'xcliaii;;c for little tiiiikels prepared l).v the men anil women. 

The eollectioii contains live of these coats. Nos. .{(H).'!, .■{:."jr»-.JL*L'7 ot 
deerskin, ami .'{.")(lt of sealskin. The last is a ver.v elaborate ^Miiiieiit, 

made, of hands ely contrasted [lieces of the skin of two kinds of 

seals, the harbor seal and the harp seal, arranji*'*' '" -i "<'iit pattern. 

It is not common to (Miine across a yjarmeiit of this kind, as the 
skins of the propel or desired kinds arc .-onietiincs hard to obtain. 



Wf.AlKNS (iAlOIKNTS. 



<> 



13 



Tho woman may bo Hoveral yoars in {jt'ttiii}? flic rifflit kind and may 

hav«' eUtiffod many exdian^cs l)eloi«>! \tv\u<i suited wiHi the i|nality and 

color. Tlu^ daikcsfr .skins of llic Ka sij; yak (har)»or s«al) arc liiyldy 

pri/i'd l)y botli sexes. The women 

s(^t tlie liifj^lier valne u])on tlwin. 

The men wear two styles of le;; eov 

ering, namely, l)re(^ehes like a white 

nnin's, bnt not open in front, and 

reaehiii}; but a shoit, distane*' below 

the knees, oi trousers endiiij; in 

stocking; feet. Sometimes in very 

(■<»ld weather these tronsers may be 

worn under the breeehos. Itoth 

bi'i't'ches and trousers aie v«'ry 

.short waisted. lion;; stoekin^s of 

short haireil deerskin with the hair 

in are also worn. Tln^ women in 

winter wear breeehes nnide of deer 

skill fastenetl around the hips [)y 

means of a draw.strinfj and extend- 

int;; down the leys to where tiie tojts 

of tlie boots will cover them a lew 



iiicl 



les. 



Kon 



.f til 



e women wear 




trousers which rt-ach only to the up- 
per part of fhi' thi;ihs and arc con 
tinuous with the lio<d which covers 
the foot, thou;^h in that case a pair 
(d° half'iMiots arc added to protect 
tiiefeet. The hips are covered with 
breeches which descend low einiiifili 
on the thifxli to lie co' crcd by the 
Icjifjiujjs. This style of ai>|»arel for 
the lower portion of the body is l'"' 13 Kskiniomnn'flflral8)(ino«at(«I<le). 
often cxtiavaj^antly patched with various colored pieces of white and 
dark stri|>s of skin from the alidoinen and sides of the rcindcci'. 
When new and not .soiled they are ipiite attractive and often contrast 
well with the tastefully (nuainent<-d coat. 

The Utuii boots or lej;j:in;;s are I'eniovcd when dirty wot k is to be 
done. Thus, skins to be scraju'd ami dressed arc held a',Miiist the 
bare h'j^. 

The lefitiiiifTs also serve as j^ockets to iiold \iirioiis kinds of lilth^ 
things, like knives, tobacco, ami so on. 

A per.sou rarely owns more than a single pair of breeches; con 
setpieiitly I was unable to obtain any for the collection. 

The hoots and shoes are of dilferent materials anil somewhat ditl'cr 
eid patterns for ditl'erent .scastms of the year. All have moccasin 



211 



Tin: iirnsoN hay kskimo. 



solos (tC stout iniitcrial fmiicil up mi iiicli or two al 
toiij;iit' coveiiiiji' llm fo|> of (he foot, joint'd to a In'o; 
passes roiiiid bcliiiid tlio ankle. Then tlie lr;:s ar 
eiioiiyli to leaeli to tlie knee or elso almost to tim ; 



i 


I'oni 


Hi 


a< 
e 


lie. 
eitl 


'1 

er 


ai 


kle. 





the Coot, a 
hand wliich 
' liiach' loiij; 



rii 



halt- 



hoots are worn o\ei' the t'lir stoekiiiys iu waim weatlier. or outside the 




Ki'i :n i:«kirM. 



"IffrnVm rnnl. 



]i>u<^ boots in very severe weathei'. Indian nioeeasiiis are also \V(mi, 

sometimes over a pail' <»l' inside shoes and sumetiines as inside shoes. 

I'or fhiek wa!,'ipr< ol' soles the skin of the heaver or the liiu",) seal is 

used. The former wears the better. White « liale skiiiisalso nsed 



TrilS'Kll 1 



women's (;aumknts. 



215 



for iiitlixtr alioos, or for sliot-.s to be worn in cold dry wciitlior; tlic skins 
<if tlio siiiidlcr seals aro \v. <d, soniclinips with tln^ lit'sli side ont and tlie 
hair in, souH'tiincs witli tin- H:r;iin side ont. These thinner skins are 
comparatively \..aerproor it the hlatk epidermis is allowed to remain 




Fid. r,. K.kiiiH. woiiia.rs .lr..|-.kin . ,.:it. Ki- :in V.Muu, wntn.Mi-. .l.-r-Uiii ."rtt 

on. Tlie l.eautilnl .'reaniy white leather. ma<le hy aUowin;; the skin to 
ferment until hair and epidermis are seraped otV tojjetiier and then 
stn'tchin;,' the skin and expnsin;;- it to dry t'old air, does not resist 
water at ail, and <iMi only he nsed for soles in perfectly diy weather. 
Hnckskin suits are also used to eiialih" the wearer to walk hetter 
with snowshoes on, as the feet .ire not si> liahle to slip or eht;; with 






, i ' 



•J I (I 



Trii; IU'DSON HAY KSKIMO. 



snow lis ihcy would ho irtlic rotttiiiK were of soalskiii. Tliis lutter lias 
jilso aiiotlu'i' smons disadvimtaKo. II' it, is v«'ry rold it ilo<>s not pt'iiiiit 
tlif iiioistmv rr<»in tli*> («•<>( to pass out us it fm-zes, rriKioiiiifr tlic Itoot 
sfilVaiid slippiTvoii riir snowslioc, wliij,. tlic Imclvsliin is porous and 
I'fadily allows tlio moist nii' ro *>scapt>. 




Fin. :.T. Il.k.nu. «„„„.„•« .lm„k In , „„l „ t, I.",.,. :iH..-K.kl„,n w,„„an - .l.-.Tski,, r„„. MM. 

T.li.. t..n-iu' and lurl Land an- H.'iuMally niadi- of tanned sealskin, 
eontrastin- ..olors l.ein- often nse.l. The ie«s are o| sealskin, with the 
hair on, or of reindeer skin. 

The li^inres represent a pair of sealskin hoofs with Imckskin feet 
{I'isi. Ill and a pair of half hoots with white sealskin soh-s, hiaek seal 



TIMINKII,] 



womkn'« oarmknts. 



217 



Hkiii voiiKUc iiiiil lii'clstnip, iiiid biirkHkin lo|m (Fifj. J'J). Tlic tiiiiiicd 
and Hinokfd rcindiMT skin for t)i«>sc tojts was piirrliastMl rntni thn Nas- 
co|>i«« Indians. 

A ]M><-nlii>r Ntyle of nliot^ ('''if,'. J-'*), of wliicli I <'oll»M't('.d fom i>airs, in 
nscd by tli(^ so cidlcd " XortJH'iiuTM," wlio dtMivc most <»f fiicir snltsist- 
ciM'c from tlic sea in winter, iiiid who constantly Imve to travel «in the 
i«'e, which is tiften very slip))ery. To jnevent slipping, narrow strips of 




Kiu. :{lt. — KHkiiuo wt>iiinii'rt tlfrr-skin mat. Flu. 4<>. Iiiii-krtiilr ot* smtiu*. 

sealskin are sewed npon a piece of leatiier, which makes an untlersolu 
for the shoe, in tlit^ manner shown in tiie fi^nre. 

One endof thestri|» is first sewed to the snbsole and tlie strip pushed 
up into a loop and stit<-hed a^ain, and so on till a piece is made bi^ 
enoufjli to cover the solt) of the shoe, to widcli it is sewed. These ice 
shoes are worn over the ordinary waterproof boots. 

As I have ainuidy said, these boots ait', all made by the women. The 

ole is cnt out by eye and is broadly elliptical in sli.ipe, soim'what 

{• »inted at the toe and heel. The h-y is formed of a single piece, so that 



"«!.' 



x.'.i' 






iv 



218 



TIIK HrnsoN HAY ESKIMO. 



TrHNiin 



tlHTc Im hilt niu' scam; tlic tonj^iio or i»ic«!o to (•(►ver tlio iiistpp mny 
or limy not b<> a separate pi('c*>. Il'it is, the It'); seam etwiius in front; it' 
it t'onns one piccowitli the ie^ iiiecte, th«t seiun is heliiiiil. When tlie 
h'ii is sew.'d lip iiiid the toii};iie pi'(»|H'rl,v iiisertiMl tlie solo is sewed on. 
It is ta<'l\eil at th)^ heel, toe, ami oik'O on opposite sides of the f<Hit,ti» 
the iipp«T. Tlie sewiiijj of the sole to the upper is jjeneially ben;mi lit 
the side of the seiim and eoiitiiiiied around. Per|MMidienlai' ereases 
at the iieel, and imivi> iiiimeniiisly around the toes, take up the shi<;k of 
the Hole aiitl are carefully worked in. The making of this part of the 
shoe is most dithiult, lor unless it is well sewed it is liable to admit 
water. The ereases (u* "^fathers" are stiteliud tlicuugh «umI fhrouKh 
with a stout thread, which holds them in place while the o|H>ration 
proceeds, and which besides has a tendency to pn-vcnt the f^at hern 
from breaking,' down. The heel, which comes well up the back of the 
boot, is stitlened by means of several threads sewed ]M>rpendicularly, 
and as they are drawn shorter than th«> skin, they prevent the heel fruin 
falling' and tiiiis jjcllin;; " run down." 

Tliei scams of tlie boots, which arc turned inside otittliiring the opera- 
tion, are so arran};ed on the ed<;cs that one will overlap and be tacked 
with close slitchcs over the rest of the seam. This is done not <.nly for 
comfort wiicii the boot becomes dry and hard while beiii;; worn, but also 
to take the strain from the stitches which hold theedf^es tofjt'tlu^r. The 
value of a pair of boots depends much on the care bestowed in tanning 
and in sew ing. 

The hands are protected by mit 
tens of ditVeronl materials. I'ur or 
hair mittens are wtuii only in dry 
weather, as the hair would retain t(Mi 
much moisture. 

Among the Inniiit the mammals 
are divided int^t two classes: the 
noble and the inferior bea.sts. The 
skinsof the former arc used, though 
not exclusively, by the men, while 
the latter may be worn only by the 
women. No man would debase him 
self by wearing a particle of ihe fur 
of the hare or of the white fox; the 
skins of these timid creatures are 
reserved for the women alone. Kither 
sex may wear the skins of all other mammals, except at certain times, 
under restrictions imposed by superstition. 

The women wear mittens of hare or fox skin, with palms of sealskin 
or Indian-tanVicd bird's skin. Reindeer skin with the hair on is also used 
for mittc]!-*. The heavy skin from tin' body is selected for the sake of 
warmth. Wi;en these mittens are to be used when driving dogs the 
palm is made of sealskin, to enable the wearer Ut get a tlrm grasp on 




I'm. 41. Kikimii luioti*. 



the 
dilVei 
Hpcci| 
tens 
bear I 



W(1MKnV flAHMKNTS. 



2t9 



TriiNRnl 

the, wl.ij. Iniiull.'. TlM^ Kkin ..f tli.- .I.'.t's loirL-KS. wl.i.-h lias l.uir oC. 
,lilV.T.'nt.lmni.U'r from that cii tlir lH.d,v,als.. inak.-s.xcollcnt mitt.-ns, 
Hponally Huit.-.l Cor liaiMllinn snow in hniminy tl.o snow lint.. Mit- 
toiiH arc Hi.n.otinios tVin>r.'.l n.un.l tin- wiist will, a strip «•• wl.ito 
Itfarskiii to keep out the wind. 





Km 4'.' I'.nU;. '\»«* 

All n.ittrns l.av.. such short thun.l.s that thry an- v.-ry in.-..nv..nirnt 
for a whilt' nnin, who hahiln 
ally hohls his thunih sprrail 
away from tin' palm, wlimsis 
the Inniiit usually k»'»'p th»' 
thunilt api>osfil to tlu' palm. 
Thf wrists of the mit It'll also 
art' so short that ronsidt'raliUi 
of the wrist is oftt'ii exposed. 
The sh'»«vt'8 of tin' jat-kt't ar«^ 
ficiu'rally frinjrcd with wolf or 
dot,' skin to itrolcft this »'X- 

lM>s('d portion of tin' wrist. 
Similar inittt'ns of Idack 

Hoalskin aro iilso worn l>y the 

nuMi during; damp woathcr, ov 

wluMi haudlinn- ohjcrts whif.h 

would easily soil a pair of 

furrtMl mittens. 1 have ni'Vt'r 

si't'U a w.mmu wear this kind 

of roverinn- for th.' hand. It appears to he.'x.-lusncly worn hy the men. 
The nn'u who enjiatre in the late fall seal huutiut: proteet theuhau.ls 

with waterproof ^Muntlets, whirl, .eaeh well .ip over the lorearn.. 

These keep the hands from beint,' wet Wythe spi.iy and by the .Ir.p 




Km. 4:1 In-xlmi'H, llml«"ii xiniil KHkiimi. 












220 



Till", mn»HoN HAY kskimo. 



fnim tlif pud'Hc. h'itf. 1 1, No. IMNITI, n'|>i'(tH«>iit,s oiio of tlins«> loii); 

iiiififiiH, imimIc III' lilaik t:knii*>(l 
Mt'iilHkiii, iiimI ftltii'i\ with a Htrip 
of Iniiry Hi>alHkiii ov«4' an inrli 
wiilf. Tilt' liiu'k oi' ii|i|M-i' |Hir- 
tioii (if till' iiiittvii JH iiiad<> of 
a sin^fli' piece of hiark Hkiii, the 
vi\)H' of wliieli is eriiiipeil ami 
tiiriieii iinilei' to protect the tin 
;.'crs. Tlie palm is a se])arate 
piei-e, joiiieiltothe liiii-k piece, ami 
on it is II projecting' part to form 
thciiiiiei'lialfof thetiiiiml). The 
oilier iialf of the fhiimh anil the 
miller side of the foieariii are 
maile of a sjii;;le |iiece, stitched 
to the pal III port ion and that which 
covers the hack of the hand and 
arm, so that, including tlieeil)riii;; 
of hair.N' skin, there arc only lour 
piec4>s of skin entiM'iii;; iiit^i the 
make of a pair of these niitlens. 
They are worn only liy the men, 
anil only when they are eii>;ajieil 
in wcirk where the liands would lie immcvseil in wat«'r iliiriiiK cold 
.vcathei. As the skin from wliicii they are made is the same as that 
used for water-tii.dit lioots. it is olivioiis tlhit no iiioistiire can touch 
the skin of the hand. 

I'or protection from rain and wet they wear over llicir other clothes 
a waterproof hooded frock ( h'iy:. 4."i) made of seal entrails, prcferalily 
the intestines of the hearded sea! (Hriiinathiin Inn-hut iix). The lutes- 
tines of animals killed in Octolier ,'ire eonsidcicd liie liest for this pur- 
pose. They then are not so fat and rcipiire less tlicssint,' to clean them. 
The contents are removed and they are llllcd with water and tlior 
oujihly washed out. The fat and other tleshy matter adiierintj are re- 
moved liy iiicaiis of a knife used as a scra|ici. This liein^ done, the in- 
testine is inllated with air and strung' ahm;,' the tops of the rocks to dry. 

Wli iry it is caret'ully tiattened and roiled into ti;,'lit hiindles, like a 

s|iool iif ribbon, and laid away until wanted. 

WIhmi re<inirei| for use it is split li)nt,ntudiiially, and when spread 
open is of variable width from .'$ to ,"» inches, depending; on the si/o of 
the animal. The ed},'es of the strips are examined and any uneven |Mtr- 
tioiiHaieciit olf, niakin;,' the strip of uniform width. There are three 
separati' pieces in a ixarinent — the body and IiinmI asoiie and the sleeves 
as two. Sometimes the sleeves are made lirst and sometimes the btxly 
is sewed lirst, and of this latter portion the hood is lirst formed. Strips 





Kii. l."i \Vi»lrr|irii"f i:iill'n.ik 

,„.,■. I l.rli.-vr. irnur.l nuiuinf,' stitd.rs. VVl.i'i. -A .s,.ni.irnt In.KtI. is 

„ht;iini..l a tl.inl strip is addnl. an.l s until tlu- ir.,..iml numbr.nl 

,„.,.,M..Hli.ula.' strips f..nn a sulVu-inil width to suit.miu.I tin' hu.ly. II..- 
uMt.-..Mlj;..sa..- tlM-n i..in.-.l an.J tin- 1....1.V ..f tl.u ^a. .u.'Ut is n.n.i.l.-tf. 
P.nlions an- nil out ami llu' In.o.l ass.inns ll..- .l.-siiv.l sl.apr, hmmu 
l.liufi a ni-l.t.ai. iittach.-.l t.. th.-l.od.v ..fa nifililKown. ■n..'sl.a"vvs an- 

s,.w.".l in a similar ti nor an.l allixi-.l t.. tl.c IkmI.v ..Itln- naimiM.I. I ho 

M-ams nu. p.-ipnulirularly and not ar.uind tin- b..d,v in a spiral mann.-r 
as in ^M.nu'nts mad.' I.v th." uativ.'s of Alaska for similar purp..s,.s. 
Til.' .'.Igi' ."f tli.> luH.d, the wrists, ami the bottom of th.' t,'amu-nt are 



■'■5)^-# 



K^.--^i 



222 



Tin; IILDSON BAY ESKIXIO. 



strcn^tlitMiutl by iiioaus of tliiii .strips of sciilskiii ^4e^vu<l on tlif outside 
of tliosc pails wiu'io lli«y are most liable to bt; torn. Tiii'. j^aiiiieiit is 
worn (inrin}>; wet weather or while in the kaiak travelinfjcni a ronjili sea. 
The bottom of the (garment is tied around the hoop of the kaiak in 
v.hieh the wearer sits an<l thus «'lfeetnall,v slu-ds the water from the 
body, exce|>l the I'aee, and keeps it from enterinj,' the kaiak. 

Sometinu's a drawstring eloses tlie lioo«l tightly around the faee and 
jirevents the spray from entering. The string is usually tied at the top 
of the liooil, in which ease it is rather ditlicult to untie. 

When not in use the niatt'rial must be well oih-d and rolled up or it 
will become so stitVtIiat it can not be worn until it has been relaxed by 
dip|)ing in water. The sinew with which it is sewetl swells when wet 
and tighteub the seams. 

There is great dilU'rence in the length of the garments worn by the 
'.'astern and the western Kskinu) as well as in the inaiiiier of arranging 
the strips of which they an- made. Tiie one worn by the people of 
Hudson stiait scarcely reaches to the hips of the wearer and is long 
t'lioiigii only to tie around the hoop of the kaiak. The ones worn by 
the ICskimo of Northern sound, Alaska, falls to the knees, and those, 
made by the .Meats are so loiiu that they interfere with the feet in walk- 
ing. Tii(^ inati'iial prepared by the eastern natives is not so good, as 
it is coarser antl stitfer than that of the sea lion ( Hionatojiiaii xtcllvri), 
used by the natives of .Vlaska. 

The weight of one of these garments when dry scarcely exceeds or 
7 ounces. 

To protect the eyes from the glare of the snow, which is especially 
trying when the sun is still low in early spring, snow goggles are 
worn iinule to admit the light only through a narrow slit. (Figs. 40, 




Km. W. Smiw (judi-'liH - fniul. 

and 47.) Nos. .{ISti, ;{1H7, .tlSH, ,tlS<», ;{|<l(», .{llll. MWJ, .".IIU, ;U!»7, ;»11»S, 
.'M!M», .'tl-MKi, aiMi ;{U'(I1 in the collection show such snow goggles made of 
W(mhI. a somewhat curved piece of wood is tasliioiied to tit Uie fa<'e 
over tiie eyes; a notch is lilted for the nose to rest in. The hiwer side 



Tl'RNBR.) 



EYE-l'KOTKCTORS. 



223 



is about Iiiilfaii iiicli tliit-k, I'orniiii^ a flat surt'at-o. Tlio tVoiit is |iit)h'ii- 
diciilar and l)liU'koiii>(l witli suot or (;uii|M)wder mixed witli oil and ap- 
plied to daiki'ii tliu Iron! siirtiutc to absoib thu li^lit of tliu sun's rays. 
Above this is u l«'dg« of half au inch projcetinf,' over the narrow loiigt 
tudinal .slit through which tlio wearer may lo«ik. Tiiis projoetiou is 
sometimes not blaekeuudou the underside, and wliere wood is searee it 
is left off altogether. Withiu, on the side next t<» the eyes, it is usually 




w ^oi^^Ii'ii - rear. 



gouged out U> allow tin- eyolasiies free muvenient. A pieee of sealskin 
is alHxed at each end and either tied in a knot over the head to hold 
the wood ih position, or else a wider strip of skin is slit and one portion 
Worn on the top of the. head wliile the other tits ihe baek of tlie head 
to jtrevent the goggles from tailing otf when the wearer stooiis down. 






l>WKI.I.IN<i>. 

The winter dwellings of the Kskimo of Hudson strait consist of the 
usual form of snow house. In this eonneetion I may as well state that 
the popular impression that the snow house described by Arctic travel 
ers is the only thing to be called an igln is (luite «Mroiieous. The word 
" iglu"is as fully generic in the KskiUui language as the word'-liouse" 
is in the Knglish language. The correct term, as applied by the lOskimo, 
to the snow house used as a dwelling is •« ig In ge ak " (l''ig. IS.) 

The lirst rcipiisite for a snow house is snow. It must bo of sutlleient 
depth and possess certain well defined (inalities. The snow may fall, 
but until it has a<'i|iiiie(l suflicient depth for the si/of iiloeks re<|uired 
and firmm-sseiu>ugli for strength to withstand the superposed weight of 
the structure it is usel(>ss. .\n instrumtMit termed smtwknife (prinfik), 
shaped likeashort sword, is used for the purpose of cutting the blocks. 
The ICskimo seeks a place where the insertion of the knife into the Iwd 
(d'snow will prove that tiu^ snow is in the proper eoiidition. lie unist 



,lM 



224 



THE HUDSON BAY KSKIMO. 



tluMi cut out a liloik of ii sizf fi>iivi>niciit to lu' lif'tt'tl. This is usually 
rcjiM'tcd ii8 it iiiiiy be ii rt'^iilar or broki'ii. Atlditioiiiil blocks, in size 
from H to 10 iiu'lics tliicK, 2 tVct wide, and slifrlitly iiio'o in l«>n^th arj>, 
nit by a motion iiuicli rosomblinfj tlui act ofsawin;.', fuinnfj the dcptli 
of th«* blado. The knife thou cuts the bottom olV squarely and the 
block is lifted out. the builder standiii}? where tlu f'-rst bhtckswere cut 
from. The blocks are arranged on the bank of snow around th«! pit in 
which the man stands. The lirst blo<'k usually is somewhat triaufjular 




rtu. 46. IK'SiTtfil EBkmiu uuow liuuHt'H. iii-.it- I'url Clituio. 

in shape tor a purpose hereafter mentioned. Tlie second block is cut 
out and placed in-ar the lirst, the end cli]ipcd with the knife to aUow 
tile lirst joint to be close toncther. .\ tiiird bhnrk is cut and jtiaced by 
the end of the second. It will now be seen that the line of idocks is not 
straifjlit. but curved concavely within, .\dditional blocks are cut and 
placed end to end with each Oilier nnlil the lirst one laid is reached. 
Here a lon}:cr block is cut to lay upon the incline*! side of the triaiiKU 
hir shaped block lirst used and so placed as to "break "the joints, and 
thus reiidei' the structure more stable. .Vdtlitional blocks ai'e jtlaeed 
on tlu> lirst row, and as tin- operation ])rocee<ls it will be seen that the 
iilocks lie in a siiiral Ibrm. gradually drawing in as the structure rises, 
formiii}; a dome shaped wall of snow. The key block at the top is 
carefully cut to lit llie ajierture and inserted Irian the outside by the 
assistance of anollier ]>erson. All the joints are carefully stojtped up 
with sp.iwls of snow in- with snow crushed between the hands and 
forced within the crevices. 
The Hoop of the .-mow house is the bed of snow from which the build- 



DWELLINGS. 



225 



iiifj iiijitciial was taken. Tin' door is cut by taking bloiskw of snow 
Iroin iiikIi'I' tlit' Itottoin I'ow of tliu foundation blocks. A trench is 
made, iiiul along the. side of it the blocks arc ])lac(>d. Am arclied cov- 
ering of the material forms a sheltered passafjeway to the door. 

When the snow house is to be ocMiipicd for a considerable time the 
doorway may liave walls of snow blocks ])iled as hi};h as the shoulders, 
with the top Ictt open. This shields the entrance from wind and drift- 
iuff snow. Various forms of entrance are constructed, often very tor- 
tuous; and when nnide a refnj^e by the numerous doj^s they arc not 
pleasant paths ahiiig which to (;ree]) on hands and knees, for a panic 
may seize sonu- cowardly <'anine and all tin doys stru^ififle to net sud- 
denly out into tlie open air. Vicious animals oft«'n wait until a white 
man fjets about half way throujih tiie entry and then unike a sudden 
assault on him. 

The interior of the house is arranj^ed uccordiufj to the number of 
persons inhabitin;^ it. 

A raised bed, on which to sit during,' t\w day and sUvj) during the 
night, is formed either by leaving a part of the siu)w bank or else by 
bringing in blocks and arranging them as a solid mass. On this are 
spread bows of spruce, or dry grass, if obtainable, otherwise line twigs 
of wilhtw or alder, and over these heavy n-indeer or bear skins are 
thrown. On these bed skins are laid other softer skins of reindeer, 
with which to cover the jtcrson on retiring to sleep. A windov. is 
sometimes set in the sitU; of the structure toward the sun. This is 
simply a i)iece (tf thick, clear ice, from a lake, set in the wall of the 
dome. It admits light, although it is generally light enough during 
the day witliin the snow-house unless the walls be built parti»'ularly 
thick, but great thickness in certain situations becomes 'lecessary lest 
the winds and drifting snow wear away tlie sides of tlie stiucture, 
causing it to admit the cold or tumbledown. Around the outside of 
the hut is sometimes built a protecting wall of snow blocks, two or 
three feet liigli, to i>revent tlie drifting snow from wearing away the 
side of the dwelling. A storm of a single night's duration is often 
sulhcient to destroy a house. 

The interior walls, in severe weather, beconu' coated with frost films 
fiom the breath, et(\, comh'nsing and crystallizing (Ui the inside of the 
dome and often prt>senting by the lamplight a brilliant sliow of 
myriads of rellecting siufaees scintillating with greater luster than 
skillfully set gems. 

If the roof is not carefully shaped it is liable to cave in from tln^ 
heal within softening the snow, especially in moderate weathei', and 
(hen the entire structure falls. 

Wiu're the owner of the iiouse iias considerable jtossessions which 
must be protected from the dogs and the weather, a similar structure 
is prepared alongside of the dwelling and often connected with it by 
11 ETil lo 






I 



226 



Tin; iiinsoN HAV kskimo. 



means of i ('omiiimiicatiiifj; piissa;;!' way. An exterior opcninK may b« 
i:i»le ami closed willi a block ol' snow. Tlit^ lai';;»'r artitiles, sueli as 
l)a;;s of oil and bundles of skins, are put inside before the walls are up, 
if inleiided to be stored for some time. 

As I bavc slept in these snow bouses 1 can as.sert tbat, wlule very 
uncond'ortable, tlu'y alVord a protection wliieli can not be dispen.sed 
witli. When file doorway is open tliey soon become very cold, and 
when closed upon several persons the heat becomes intolerabh'. Odors 
from the food remain lon^ aftei' the remnants are disposed of. ami 
where one has been occupied for a lon^; period the accunndation of 
lefuse becomes so yreat tliat a new structure is indisi)ensable in order 
to jfct rid ol it. All the work of the dillerent members of the family 
is performed within the walls. The skins of animals are tlrcssed and 
tanned there. The oll'al of ^^anie and the hair from dressed skins 
min};l(> in one mass, which soon putr«'lies and creates such a stench 
that only an I'iskimo \. itii most obtuse sei.se of snu;li could inhabit the 
place. 

When sprinj; conies the huts ''ej;in to melt and in the course of a 
few warm days fall d'wn. if the weather is too inclement to permit 
a skin tent to lie occupied, the lirst hole in the wall may be patched 
with a deerskin but this will all'ord very limited protection from the 
cold of riiylits, , ir. however warm tlied.ays, the iiifihts will, until late 
in May, be so ciild that only the older individuals withstand the 
cohl. 

When the structure falls, melted by sun or rain, the miserable 
occupants must erect lemiiorary shelter of deerskin or cloth on the 
bare rocky rid;ies. Tliosc too |ioor to own a skin tent have ofti'ii but 
a blanket of deerskin, si i etched over three or four poles, set to shelter 
them from the chilly northerly wi:ids usually prevailing; at that season. 

lien' tlu'y must sojourn until the ice breaks from the shores of the 
coves ami bays, enabliiifj the hunters to procure seals from the sea. 
Alonjf the shores one may often liiid canipin;i: sites of these poor wan 
derers searcliin;j tliro'i.th the day for food and at nij^lit campirif; under 
the lee of a wall of rock with litth other coverin^r than that worn diir- 
iiiji theday and this often soaked with spiay or rain. 

Improsidence and indolence result in the most cruel privations 
toward the end of winter. Many who are too weak and emaciated 
from lack of (bod to piirsnetlieclia.se to (jjain a liviii;; starve before 
reaching; the sea and are left to perish. 

When the season is more advanced, and the weather warm epou;;!!, 
those who are iiidnstrioiis and provident eiiouj;li to be the possessors 
of .sealskin tents, move into them for the season. 

The skin t<'!,i (I'l. xxxvji) is usually made of tiie skins of the huffcst 
.sijiiare Hipper seals, those too heavy lor any other purpo.se or not nec- 
essary for other uses. 



TIIK '1'I;N1'. 



227 



Tho iniiiilMT of skins iit'«rssaiy to Inrin ii ti'iit viirifs witli tlic size 
n«|iiiiv(l. Hfiu-iiillyiismiiiiyiis ten to liltwii air usc.l, iiinl siicli a 
t«'iit will arcoiiimodate a j^ood sizt'd I'amily. 

Til.' hair is seldom icinovf.l fnmi tlif skin, wliirli is simply stictclicd 
as it coinrs iVom tli." animal and freed iVom fat and tlcsliy partich'S. 
Tin- cdfirs are tiimmcd and a siitViritnt mimlu'r of skins arc st-wcd to- 
.Tthcr to ionn a icnuth for one side of tlic lent. The lcn>;tli of the in- 
dividual skins makes the lieiKld of the tent. A similar width i„ ,,;e- 
pared for the opposite si.le. The tw(. pieees meet at the rear of the 
strnetnie and are there tied to the poles. A se|)arate pieee forms the 
door and may be tlirown one side when a i>erson enters or jroes out. 
The poh's of the tent are arraiified as follows: Two pairs of poh-s are 
joined near the ends with stoni tlion-s and ereeted with the lower ends 
spread to the proper width, lorinin^itlie ends of the tent, on which the 
rid-epole is laid. A siii-le i.oh- is now pla<ed near eaeh end of the 
ridp'pole. rest in- on the npriKht i-airs. to prevent lateral motion. 
Two more sii.'li l.rares are i.laced on ea<-h side and sprea.l .so as to give 
a .somewhat rounded end to the tent. Near the iniddh- of the ri.l-e- 
poh' is a pair of shorter jioh-s h'anin- a-ainst it to prevent the weight 
of the sides from l..mdiii},' the rid-eiM.le. It will l)e seen that eleven 
p„les aiv neee.ssaiy to support along lent, as the skins are very heavy. 
The .skins and poles .'an he transported when the umiak is ahle to 

earry them. 

In case of .•ontinned rains tlie skins are placet, so as nearly to meet 
over the ridge ami additional skins cover the space left hetwieii the 
edges. When the lent is In be taken down the two widths are folded 
over each by itself, and then rolled into a eomiiact bundle by begin- 
ning at each' end and folding toward the center, leaving sullicient space 
between the rolls tor a i-erson to get his head and slnmlders in. Two 
persons, one for eaeh roll, now assist the carrier, who kneels, bows his 
head and idacs the load on his head ami shoulders. The two assist 
him to rise and the heavy load is taken to the umiak ami placed in the 
bottom lor ballast. The slanter |.o|cs are lirst laid in on the nbs ot 
the boat to ke.'p the skins from the water should any seep throng:, the 
seams. The second bundle of tenting is lanl on the lir.st. 

The tent of skins is the usual shelter during the seascui from the lirst 
rain until a sullicient fall of snow occurs in the early wint.'r from which 
to const ruct an iglii ghcak. 

The interior of the skin tent is necessarily quite roomy on I'cnmut 
of the number of occupants. The farther end often has a slick ot 
t imber laid accsst he IhM.r. and behiml this is the bedding tbr the owner. 

his wives, and childivn. A man who is able to own a tent of this char- 
acter is also wealth V enough to have two av more wives. Ahmg the 
n.maiuderol the sides within lie the other occupants, either in gr.uips 
orsinglv. .lepcndingonthe degree of relationshii. esisling between 



■«'«* 



228 



TlIK IUDSON HAY KSKIMO. 



tlu'iii. (itit'sts and others tciiipi>raril,v iil)i<liii^ willi tlio luist arras- 
si;jii('(l i'.ii.v iiortidii of tin- teiil tlial flic host may clioosc to sch-rt. usu- 
ally, it';;i'('at honor is to Itc shown, tiit> plat'c lately oecnpieil by liiinself. 
The central poition is reserved lor a llicplace lorcookin;; and heatiny 
]iin'|ioses. In this strnetur«' iscairicd on all manner of work ineideiilal 
t<) the season. The tent is taken tVoiii plaee to plaee liy means of the 
umiak when the tood supply of a locality is exiiausted or another ru 
fjion i)romiscs firealei' abundance. 

All these summer occupations rciiuirc a nund)ei'of persons to success- 
fully prosecute them, hence the numltcr dwdlin;; in <mu> tent is not 
of> u ditrimental, as the adults walk alon;; the shore to dra^' the boat 
is iclievc it fiiun their wcifjlit. 

Tlio owner of a tent is considered an important individual, and his 
t, is retained by every uumus. A peiiod of illness max cause him 
■n> loM' i.M Ills behuifiin^is and then on lecovcry he has to start lift) 
anew. eral seasons may elapse belnre a sullicienl number of skins 

will be procured for him to make a tent, and this i> immovable without 
a boat to traiis]>(U't it, for when a sled mi;;'ht be used ibr that purpose 
Ihei' • is always enough snow from which to erect a shelter. 

'Miriiifi'thc winter f'c skins are stored away on posts erected fortius 
jiirposc, <u' (Ui piles of locks where the various species of small animals 
will in)t destrov them bv eatiu"' holes in Iheoilv skin. Mice ami ei-mines 



are verv destructive to these skins, often causii 



ad havoc in a short 



tinu>. 1J\ the s])rin;j' the owiu'r may be miles away from the scene ol 
the prcN'io'is autumnal hunt and l>e unalile to an aft*'r the tent, which, 
with t'>" :.umnier lain and decay, bcccunes useless, inijiosin^r the severe 
task ' f collcctiufi skins tbr a secfunl tent. 

In former tinu's these people inhabited pern\anent winter himscs 
like those used by the Ivskimo elsew lieic, as is shown l>y the ininsof 
sod and stone houses to lie seen in various parts of the country. 
These appear to have had walls of stone built up to support the roof 
timbi'rs, with the intcrsiici's tilled up with turf or earth. I'rom the de- 
pression remainiii}; in the inside of these ruins, the llocu- seems to huM' 
been excavated to a ;;reater or less depth. 

The present inhabitants relate that their ancestors dwelt in these 
huts, but can not explain why they were deserted, oi- why such 
struct iii'cs are not erected at tlu' present day. 

nnoiaiiii.n akthi.ks. 

There is very little in tln-se dwelling's that can be called fnrnituro, 
besides the bed jilaces already it'ferred to. The other articles !ei|uisitc 
for housekeej.infi consist ol a lamp of soajistonc, kettles to hany o\or 
it, a frame suspended above the lamp tbr drying; various artit'les, and 
sundry wooden bowls, buckets, and caips, besides similar ves.sels nnide 
of sealskin. 



ITOrSKHOLlt ARTICKKS. 



229 



Tlu' Iiiiiip (poiiilii), wliicli is tlic only houitp dI' bent iiiul liplit in tli« 
8Uo\v lumse, is, lonelily siicaiiinfr, a laif,'t' sliailow bowl of soupsfone 




I'm III. Siiii|iHti)iioliimi), K(ikM(iii(!iii.viit. 



flil«'»l with oil, whicli is hnnuMl by mh'imis of ii wick of moss, iirranRPd 
roniid one ci^jX*' of the howl. 
Tlu' material IVoni wlii«li tiiiwc liinips art- niadi' oct-nrs in isolated 




Khi.TiO. SonpHti rv i-Ciiksoairmyiit. 

bowlders on tbe snrliice oltlie jirouiid at various plai-es in tlu' region. 
Tlu'se bowlders are olt<'n of ureal sj/e. 

Tlie f^eiieral form of these lamps, wliiih will be best nmlerstood from 
the' fijjiires (Fitjs. I!), ."iO. 51), is nearly always the same, the variations 
beiiif.' apiiarenlly dne to the lack of mate; ial. The <'avity tor holdinp; 
the oil varies in ( aiiacity, accordinj: to the size of the lamp, from half a 
pint to nearly three (pmrts. It is, however, never tilled to the brim, 




Fki. 51. Sciaiistum; lamp. Kok8iia!;m.viit. 

for fear it shonld run over. Tlie eonsumpticm of oil dejiends npon the 
number of wieks li<>hted at onee, and also on the character of the 
wick. 

The wi(;k in general use is prepared from a kind of mosa, which 
grows in large i>atches close to the ground, the stalks rising perpen- 



2.'{() 



Tin; iiinsoN iiav kskimo. 



iliciiliirlv. iiiiil tlit'wliol 



t' so iiiMtti'd ((i;;«>|li('r tliiit it iiiav lie cut hit 



• li'sircd till III. Kniiii ihcsc p;itclu's pieces are cut an iiieli or t 



a tliinl <>r an iiieli tliiik ami I 



o any 



wo wide 



wo or three iiielies in leiiKtli, anil laid 




away to dry. Wjieii one of these is to he used tlie woman sipiee/os 
the libers louetiier with her teeth, trims it, and sets it in the ,,i|, .,,,,1 



lights it. Tile li^jit from one ol these wicks i 



an iiicii wick led with a ;;ood (jualify of kerosene. The heat i 



caily e»|iiaIto that of 



sveryj;r«'at. 




Km 



lapsliUM ki'ltiK 



For cookiii;;. .1 larger wick isiiscd, or two of th 



le smaller ones set side liy 



de. Over thelani|> is placed a frame ti.r dryin- wet hoots, mit 



and such tiiiii'^s. !•" 



• •-' represents one of these (No. .{(HS) 



a semicircle or liow of wood with the ends fastened ti 



whi 



tens, 
cli is 



of wood, .\cross these strands of si 



• a strai},'ht piece 



iieworsealskin forms a .sort otiiet 



II IINKII I 



ilni si:iM»i,l» AIM i<m;s. 



>;n 



tiii^ liiiv in;; litVfio )iit'slii-s, >ii this ii'Hts llic jii'tiilc to Ix* <|i ii'il. I'n- 
ilcr mis is it .sii|i|Miil t'oniK'il nt' two sliai |) |i<iiiit<-il pt'^s wiiitli iii<' stuck 
into tliii Hniiw tormina the hIiI** of tli<' lint. On tliv ontt'iond of tli<>Hv 
is t'iisti'nt-il, III' hiiil aii'ii>- tlii-iii, a |iir i- nt' wmitl. 'I'lir slnipi' of tli^ 
Niipliorl isthiit iil'ii Inn;;' stiiplc with si|Miiir riii'iirrs. Ill stinu- instiiiirrs 
till' |i«-;;s t'oriii only a wiiic V shape, anil tht' Iraiin- Inr siippiirlin;; llio 

iirtirlos laiil ilii'f.'tly on this. .\ Itloi'k of w I hollowi'tl out to icri'ivit 

till' foiivi'V hottoiii of till' lamp .s sonirliinrs nsnl to support IhriattiT. 

In foi'iniT tiini'si'oi Itiii^ovcr tht'sr ianips was itniMTsaliy prrfiiniii'il 

in ki'ttli's of siiiipstonc. in wliirli cnoiiiii;; was also iloiii' by pnltiii;; 




V\u M. SiMpstulii Ki till'. 

Iicatt'ii stnin's into tiir watir. 'riii'sc soapsloiic kitllrs an', Iiowi'Vit, 
qiiitr siipiisoiliii l>y iitnisijs of iivili/»'(l niainiliU'tiiii'. I, howcvi r, sur- 
ci'idi'd in roilcriiiiy: two full sized >tonr kctth's, ami oiu'liltlcoin', inailc 
for a chilli's toy. 'i'hc li;;uics ^ l'i;;s. 't.i, 'i\) show the shape of these vi'S 




Till. r.:.. W(kh1, II .li-<li. 

sels sutlieiently well. 'I'lie haiiilles are niaile of strips of wlialolionc. 
'I'he larj;er kettle i No.;M7!i) is nearly 1.'! inches Ion;;-, anil will hohl nearly 
a liallon. 'I'hey weie niatleof (lilleieiit capacities in loiiner times, vary- 
inj; fi'iiiii alioiit a pint to a full ^^alloii. 

(Hiliiii;; shallow dishes (pii ;:lni' tak) for holdinu oil or food are carved 
rioiii larch knots. T!ie tigiiie (l-'ij;. .V») reiireseiils a model of one of 






i'. 



■If " 



232 TIIK IU'ltSON HAY ITiKIMO. 

tli«>s«>. II\iikt'ls iiiitl I'lipH III' viirtiiiiH h'v/.vh tor liohliiiK wiitn- iiiwl otluT 
lliiiils nil' iiiihIc III iiinntMl mimiI Mkiii sowcil witli siiu'w. 'I'lif siil«>s ol' tlir 
hiirki't iirt' II strip ut'stal Hkiii liciit into a liii^, 
witli ii roiiMil jiiiTf lit' st'iil Hkiii st-wt'il mi I'nr a 
liiiltoiii. Sniiu-liiniM a siMJ skill hail is aililnl, 
or a wiiodt'ii liaiiill«> srwril to tlic lips of tlir 
nip. iiiakiii^' it iiitn a ilipjirr (h'ius. r»(l, "»7.) 
W'ihmUmi Itaskt'ts airiiiatir in a siniiilar I'asluoii 

si rip of spriicc 
wiHiil is lit'iit iirar 
ly liiriiliir. Tilt' 
niils of tli<> Nti'ip 
aic fasti'iii'il with 
tint' iron wire. Tlii' 
lioltiiiii is a si'pa 
rati* pirt-t' anil lias 
a riiii or tt\ti*' fur 
till- iippi'i- part to 





I'l'i. .')<!. >r,ll-.kllt Inn kft. 



ViK. .'.7. SrllNkin I'llp, 



■ ri" ■ I " 

set oil, anil is liclil in place lis means of small wooileii pe^'s iliiveii 
tliniii;;li anil into tlie holtoni. 

'I'iie lapaiily of these vt'sseis is selihiin more than a eoiiple of i|iiarts, 
anil ;:eiierali> less. They are iirineipally iiseil to laille water into ilie 
roiiUin;; Kellles. All these vessels of native inaiiiifaetiire are heiiifj 
rapiilly tlisplaied liy tin eiips ami small kettles. 



I iMili AM) IIS I'UI.I'AIIAI 



I'liiler eertain eoiiilitions a ;;ieat poriioii of their fooil is eaten raw, 
iiiit it is in\ariabl.\ niokeil \^llell it conveniently can lie. I'^m/eii fnoil 
is consiinieil in ^'leat i|iiantitie.s. I liave scon thetii stri|i anil ilevoiir 
tiie hack, fat, anil llesh froin llie body of a ileer wliiletlie tiliers were yet 
iiniveiiii;;. 'I'lie entrails of many species of liirds are taken from the 
111 Illy anil. whiU'yet warm, swailoweil iiiurli after the manner of swallow 
iiiK an oyster. 'I'lie ey:;;s which have lieeii iiieiihateil lo an aihaiieetl 
decree ale as ea;ceily devoured as those quite fresli. 

The deer meat, killed the previous fall and fro/en for three or four 
nioiilhs. is ciil into liii;;e chunks and ;;iiawed with as iiiiich satisfae 
tion as tiinii;ili li was the tiiiest pastry. On siudi occii.sions I have seen 
the person appointt'd to clio|i up the fto/.eii meat scatter the pieces 
amoii^' tlieexpectani crowd w illi as little ceveinony as that of throw in;; 
cais of corn to Ihe ho^j^s in a jieii. For a change the fro/en pici-es of 
meat are someliiiies warmed or thawed befoitf the lire. 

'I'lie liloiid of (he deer is often mixed with the halfili;;ested mass of 
food in the stoinach of the animal, and the stoinach, with its conleiils, 
with the ailililioii of the blood, eaten raw or boiled. Soinetimes it is 
laid aside to I'uniieiit and then frozen und oat^'ii in tliis condition. 



II II Mill. I 



I'OMU AM) ITS rUI-.l-AUATIUN. 



23.*{ 



Sfrips of t'iif from a simI and flii> Itlooil of tlit> aniiiiiil ar<> put into a 
kfltic anil lit'att'il. 'I'lii' oily liijniil in fati^ii with tlic ;;i'i'ali'»i relish- 
Seal oil is nMcil for food in iilmnt tin* same manner as we use synips, 
Y«ius of almost dail.\ internmrse witli these people have failed to sliow 
the ability nf an> person to diink seal ui whale oil willioiit illness 
lesiiltinK'- The,\ never drink pure oil nnder any eirenmstaneoH, ex- 
eept as a laxative. The stateno'nf often made that tiiese people 
drink oil as loud is simply preposterous, Sinli statements donlttless 
arose from seein;; other preparations nf foo'' havin;; an almndaiM'e of 
oihipon them. Lean llesh is often dipped iiitn oil and then eaten. If 
partaken of wilhont oil in as ;;ieat ipiantities as these people reqnii'*>, 
a torpid condition of the fixer and aiimentaiy eunal results, and they 
thus employ the pure oil to relieve themselves. 

Vey:etal»le food is Utile used except in the vicinity of the tradin^j sta 
tions. 'I'liose aecustoiiH-d to the use ol' lloiir, liread, peas, lieans, and 
rice are very fond of then', and often express re;^ret that they will ho 
deprived ol' them when on their hunting expeilitions. 

Native plants alford little lie! p as food. Miiriii;; tin' season when the 
various lieriies aie ripe ail the people u'ori^e themselves. They have a 
special foiidiu'ss foi' tlie akpik ( li'iihiis ilin momnriis). Th«' sun scarcely 
red«lens the side of ihese lierries. locally known as "bake a; pie,'' be- 
foi'e thechildren scour the tracts wherethey (;row, and eat oi' tiie half- 
ripened fruit with as miieli relish astln* eivili/.ed boy doesthe i'ruil pur 
loiiied from a nei;^hbor's orchard. Other berries contribute their share 
as food. 

When on trips the women often feather a few jjreeii herbs ami put 
t i-m in a kettle of water and make an infusion in lieu of tea. They 
are fond of te.i. cutlee. and sn;^ar Molasses is eaten alone oi with 
something: dipped in it. 

The l')skimo drink often and asiimishin;; ijiiantities of water at ii 
time. If the wcatlicr lie very cold they often driidi the water which 
has been healed on a lire, assertiii;; that the hot water does not weaken 
them as nnich as cold water would do. 

When a seal has been killed and is beiii;;' broii^fht to camp, the 



hunter si;;nities his success iruiu a distance, ami tli 



>se III cam|) raise a 



joyous shout. The animal is drawn ashore and skinned. The llesh is 



de\onrc( 



I raw 



IS the pn 



iocs on, or may be divided, certain jmr 



tJons beintj ;ji veil the dilb'reiil persons, 'i'lie blood is collected, and 
when the meat is boiled it is mixed with the hot liijuid and forms a 
nutritious dish, ea^icrly devoured b; both adults ami youiif,'. The 



ehildren revel in tliis dish to 



acrilice of cleanliness. 



Tlie feast is continued until the llesh has been devoured and the poo 
pie jjortjed to their utmost capacity. Sioriis are toltl and ;;eneial 
}{ood humor prevails. The dilVeieiit species of tlsh which frequent the 
sUalhiw waters of the bays are useil as Ibod. 



^ 



234 



rilK IlinsoX ItAY KSKIMO. 



I'OIIACIO AN1> SNIKI'. 



\.. 



All the udults luv iniilicted to tlie use of tobacco, both for amokiiip 



and 



clU'WIII 



an 



I in tlit^ form of sniitV, altlioiigli it is not (nciyonc! 



tliat uses tobacco in all llircc ways. 

The ]*\ii}i tobacco, used for smokin,i and chcwinp, is carried in a 
sniail ponch of seal skin attached to thcbclt, which kcc|)s it from bcin^ 
damiM'Hcd b.\ iK'rs)>iration or laiii. Watches are also carried in tiie 
same receptacle. Fi^'. .">S (No. 711S,5) is such a bajj, made of hairy 
sealskin. The edf^es alone are trimmed with li<;hter c<dorcd strips of 
sealskin. .V strinj; holds the mouth of the bay toj^ether after it is 
rolled up. .\ loop at one corner enables the bearer to allix it to liis 
belt when travelinji to avoid the necissity of openinfj; the bajj in whicli 
he usually carries sfich snudl thiufjs. 

Leaf tobacco is preferred for the preparation of snulf, but as this is 
not always to lie had pluj; is often used. This is shredded ujt and 




FlU. ■.!•■. 'I'iiIkii'i'ii 111 Mcll. 



dried, and when dry enough is rednceil to a pow(h'r by iiicl>>sin{j a 
i|nantit> in a f tid ol seal skin and pounding it with a ston*^ or stick. 

Snulf is kept in a i)urse-sliaped l-aj;', closed at the mouth with a 
thonti. To it IS attached a little sjioon made of ivory. N'arious Ibrnis 
(if this im piemen I are made. The general appearance is that of a c<un- 
mon s])ooii. of which the ends and sides of the bowl aic cut olf. .\t 
llie end of the handle is a sli;;lit dt'prcssion for coniaiidiifi t he suutV, 
whieh is held lirnd.\ against the m ilice of the nostril an. I inhaled by a 
sudden indrawin;; of the breath while the thnndt of the other hand 
closes the opposite nostril. 

The old women ajiijcar more addicted to the use of snulV than any 
of the men. The etfect of inhaling the stroii;; snulf is <piickly shown 
in the face. It seems to atfect people more than the use itf tobacco in 
uuy other way. 



TUi'Nmi.) 



MKANS Ol" TUANSI'ORTATION. 



235 



MK.XNS Ol' lUANSl'ril!l'\ill(N. 



Iiv WATKIl. 



The principal iiit'iuis of lonvcyiincc by water with tlu> Eskimo of 
lliulsoii stiiiit, is the iiiiiiiil\, rd'cricd ti> l».v most wiitcrs as flic woman's 
boat. Tiii.s u]))icllatioii is not more applicable than wonld bo the term 
family boat. The women nse the boat alone only tni rare occasions, and 
tluMi in qniet water and for sliort distances. Men are nearly always in 
it, and under the ynidaiice of one of these, tln^ boat is used for long 
journeys. 

Tlit^ form of the nmiak, in the rofjion under (MUisideration, ditlers 
inreatly from tliat of the I'skinio of Itering sea. (See Fij;. .')!», from a 
nntdel.) 

The si-ce of tlu' l)oat is variable accordinj;- to the means of the builder 
anil the siz<' of the family to be conveyed in it. 'i'lu^ length of the keel 
is from 10 to '2't feet. Over all tlie lenjuth is 1 or L* feet greater than on 
the ke<'l. It will be tlHh= seen that the ends are nearly perpendicidar. 
It is dillicult to determine ; I the lirst jilance whi<'h is the bow ami which 
the stern, so neaily alike are they. They only dilfer in the former be- 
iu'fi somewhat wider at the upper edjic or rail. 







Klo. r)U. I'*sktnin tiiiiiiik. 

The keel is a straijjht piece of wood hewed IVom a siufjle stick, nearly 
4 inches stpian'. The stem and stern posts are nearly alike, the latter 
basin;; but little slojic, i.inl are »'Ut from curved or crooked stems of 
trees. .\ tree may be fo ind. whicli, when hewed, will form the stern- 
post and lieel in one length. Otherwise the fore and aft jxtsts have 
places cut out for the insertion of the respective ends of tlu^ keel, and 
are fastened lirmly by stout thon.us of sealskin thrust through holes 
bored in the wooil and ingeniously lasiu-d. As the bottom of the 
umiak is tlat the sides of the ixittiuu are formed ot'sipiare rails of sulli- 
cieut length and ,i;i\en the desii'cd spread. They are held at the ends 
by being joined to the keel. Crosspieces notched at the ends se|)arate 
the bottom rails and aie steadied in jiosition by beiu^ notched so as 
to sit on the sipiare kvv\. On the I'inis of the crosspieccs is laid a sec- 
ond rail which jtreveuts them from rising and ,ser\es to strengthen the 
eiuls of the ribs, which are set alternately with the cro.sspieces of the 



k 



23fi 



THE HUDSON BAY ESKIMO. 



»: 



kt'oi. Tlic libs arc iittadu'd to tlic lowor or bottom mil by moan?, of 
sealskin lasiiiiifj. Aloiij; tlu- upitcr «mu1s of the ribs is jdaced a loiif,'*'!- 
rail of sniallcr tliaiiu'tt'r and usually shaved round, 'f his rail is usually 
set half its dianu'ter into rounded notches of the upju'r ends of the ribs 
and fastened by thonj^s. Within and below the top rail is a shorter rail, 
{generally smaller than the njiper, tied by tiionjjs to the ribs and posts 
fore and aft. A wide board projoctii;jj; several inches on «'aeh side of 
the stern serves as a seat for the steersman. The einls of tlu' top rails 
are laid over this board and attached to it. A similar board is placed 
at the forward end or bow, but is, of course, lon<rer .ts tliat end is the 
widei' of the two. 

Three to live thwarts, sorviufi as seats for the oceu])ants, arc idacod 
at prn]icr intervals, liavinjj their ends restintr on the insi«le to|) rail. 
One of these thwarts also serves to steady the mast, wliich is ste|)ped 
into tiie keel and lashed to the tiiwart. 

On tlie side of the boat and restinji on the toj) rail are pieces of wood 
(irmly lashed. A notch, or rowlock, is cut into them to serve as rests 
for the heavy oars. The oars are held into the notch by means of loops 
of stunt thonjj, the ends of the loops passinj; each oliu'r, one from for- 
ward and the other from aft. and thioii«;h both of the loop ends the in- 
ner end of t lie (lar is thrust. Tlu' loops scive to hold the oar when not 
in use. otliciwise it w(»uld lloat away; yet the j)osition of them allows 
the oars to licalonj;side in the watei'. The oars are heavy and asnuich as 
l(t feet lonii for a larp' umiak. 'I'he women ^icnerally run the b(»at and 
are assisted by the younj;cr men of the j)arty who nmy not be waikiufj 
alonj;' the shoi'c. Two or mori' females sit side by side and if they be 
insullicicnt a third person faces them and assists in the labor. It is a 
lavorite jilacc for a youn;v man with his sweetheart. The steerKinan 
sits on the after ixtard and attends to the helm ami sail when the latter 
is in use. The sail is a nearl.\ sipiarc sheet of cloth spread by a yard 
across the top. The lower corners have each a rope which the helms- 
man holds. A fair wind only can be used to advanta;^!' as tiie ooiniak, 
from its Hat bottom, is unable to jio to windward. With a bree/e nearly 
at^ liiey can l>c ma<le to sail at a };(iod speed. 

The <'o\('rin;i' of the umiak is mad<' of skins of the largest seals. 
Tlie skins are freed from hair and all adhering; tlesli an*l fat, and 
stretched to tlu'ir utnM)st tensicui. 

They ai'c then cut into the pri>])er shape and sewed tofjethor. The 
edye ol'one skin overlaps that of tlie other and the lap is tiieii tackt'd 
over the shorter ed;je and attacheil to the other .skin so as to form two 
seams at each junction. 

Those pint ions whicii are to cover the bottom are sewed with special 
can-, as the seams arc liable to Itti strained in shoviuj; the boat over the 
oais wiicn it is taken from tlie water iit each camp. \\'licn skins aie 
acwed side to side in sulUcieuL number to lit the leiiyth of the frame 



MEANS OF T..ANSPOKTATION. 



237 



they :\rv liftwl iiioiind it iiiul temporiidly placed in position. Tlie 



super 



Huoiis portions are eut out or additional pieees put in un 



til it 



fits properly on the frame. Iloles, .? or 1 inelies apart, are cut in the 
edges of the skin and stout tlionj;s are passed throunh tiiese antl over 
the top rail to the inner rail. All the strength of the individual is now 



ilie'l to draw the skiu over the top rail. Being wet it readily stretches, 

tliciently tight the lashing 



api 

ami when the entire covering is drawn su 



around the rail is i)ernianently fastened. The boat is then turned keel 
up to dry. [f the skin has been jjroperly cut and slreti hed it sounds 
like a drum when struck. 

When in use the greatest cave must be exercised to prevent contact 
with rocks, but in shallow water it fre(|uently happens that a hole is 
cut in tiie skiuof tlui boat, when the rent must be patched with a piece 
of skin. Durvig tlie winter moiu!>s the umiak is placed on sti-.ging of 

fmice and other aninnils. 



its to protect it fnnn tlie ravages 
Journevs of considerable length are nni 



lertakcn in these boats. A 
large family, or two or nH)re families, may remove to a distance to try 
their fortunes. Tliey always stop at nigiit antl during bad weather, 
ai. .he Journey is accomplished by easy stages. Al' (he portable 
possessions of the family are taken in these boats, which are often 
loaded to such a degree that tin* older ])eoplc have to walk along the 
shores and only go into the umiak to relieve souu' (tne who desires to 
walk. Where the l)caeh is good a tracUng line is attached to the bow 
and those on shore dra^ .he boat along, 'flic dogs which accompany 
(he party ar»t sometimes harnessed and made to i»ull. The tracking 
line is called into rei|uisition whenever a trip is nnide up a river to the 
hunting grounds for reindeer. 

The kaiak or skin canoe used by the Ivskimo of Hudson strait be- 
longs to the (iiecsiland type. It is quite diii'erent from that used by 
the natives of .Maska. These boats vary from IS to :.'(» feet in length; 
(he greatest v.iuiii, one third of the distance alt the hole where the 
rower sits, being one .seventh to (Uie ninth of the entire length of the 
kaiak. Tlie ends aic sliai)). the prow much more acute than the 
stern. The bottom is (|nite tlat ami the frame for the keel and sides 
at the bottoiu is arranged similarly to that of the umiak. The prow 
is simply an extension of the keel and slo])es above the water to a 
height nearly double that of the stern. The slope of the stern is 
gradual and short. The side (iiiilu'rsat tic bottom have the upper 
surface gouged so as to allow the lower ends of tlie nearly |terpendicu 
lar ribs to rest in the groove. The riiis extend across the bottom, rest- 
ing on the side timber and keel. Their iiiiper ends are iiiserte<l in the 
upper rail, which extends the <'ntire length of the kaiak. The upper 
rails arc held apart by crosspieces of ditVeient iengths. according (o 
position. On the (op of (liese upper erossiiieces is laid a piece \vlii(di 
extends to the nose of (he kaiak. .V similar, Imt siiorter one. is laid 






'l|„. 



i 



23S 



rili: HUDSON liAY ilSKlMO. 



n 



iVdiii I lie liolc w licrt^ tlif lowtT sits to till' sloiii of tilt' Isiiiiik. TIh' liolo 
for liis liody is pliici'd hctwccn ii |iiiirol' crosshiirs \vli('n\ tlic (>i|iiilil*riiiiii 
will be lies! niaiiitaiiit'tl. Tiit' iioop of wood which outlines the hoh^ is 
vai'iiihlf ill shape, Imt n'sonibles half of a short fllipsc. tlic jjostcrior of 



ihicli is sli;rlill\ <'iirv<'(l to tit tlif hade of tl 



owcr. .lust foiwiird of 



the, soat tlii' upjxT sui'farc of the canoe is sonu'whal elevateil by the 
curvature of the crossbars, and it thus en ililes the rower to have 



•reater freedom for his limbs than he olheiwise would, 'i'h 



is part leu- 



iai' part, the elevation just forward of him. aloiu^ resenildes any i)ortioM 
of the kaiaks used by the .Maskan Ivskimo. and of tliese, only the sub- 
it Harrow. — .1. 



trill 



;in tiie \icinilv of Iteriiifr strait land thence to 1* 



>I.) lia\(' llial part of the kaiak so fashioned. NN'ith that exception the 
top of tiie Hudson strait kaiak is Hat on the top. Just forward of the 
hatch, two or three stout lliciiij;s are sewed to the outer cdp- ot' each 
side of the Imat and e\leiid across the top. A si mi la i' tlioiin' is placed 
behind. Under tiiesc ihoni. 



re placed the paddl'', also the spear- 



ind other hniitii 



and otner 1111111111,1;' f;ear. Small i:ame is sonictinn s 1 ied to these. 

The <iMtlit, ciiiisistin;j of spears and their appurlenanees, properly be- 
lonjis with tlie kaiak. < >f these implements, there are dinerent kinds, 
dciieiidin^i' on tiie jiaiiie and the season oi" the \e;ir. \s the kaiak is 
used only durin;,' the seasons of open water it is laid aside during;' the 
winter. 

I reiiieiiilicr an instance oeciiirinu opposite I'oi* Chiiiio. A kaiak 
had bi'cn left iinlil liie ice in the ii\er was tirm eihinuli to enable the 
vessel to be iii(iii;;lil o\ er on it to ilie ^tjtioii. ()'i<^ day a woman d<'- 
clarc<l that siie cmild see a wolf leaiiii;^' lln- -kin fiuin the frame. It 
was scarcely credi led. but in I lie course of liallan hour the wulf slarted 
across towards I he po>i. It was met and .vln. wed some disposition to 
attack, bill was sliot. I walilied to sec where the men wi'iit to look at 
the kaiak, ami when they icailied tiie plai-e 1 «,is astounded that tlu; 
woman could discern e\en the kaiak at siicii a ili-tiUice. 

The spear used lor while whales and larf,'e scats consists of a wooden 
shaft of ti iT S fet'l ' , Icii^itii, lia\ in,!,' a proiectinn on the side, made of 
ivory and sine ■' i^U' the lin of a lisli. i'liis (in ^iiaped piece rests 
ayaJ-st the fo: hiirii. while the remainder of tiie liaiid ;:ias]»s the 
shaft. 'I'lie lowv 1- end of the sliafi terminates in a piece of bone or i\ory 
of I to l.\ imdies iiMliameter. ( l''i,u. (i7.) .\ soci^et is made in liic end of 
the bone ]iortioii, and tlie wdodeii shaft is nicely titled into it and fas- 
tened either by thonffs or 1 ixcts. At tiic f;ii tlier iMid of the bone head is 
a Ihiiubh^shaped hole <j;ou;;'ed out, ami into this a short jiicce of straight 
bone or i\iiry is lilted, having'' the ends so shajicd that they will work 
smoothly into liie hole at the end of the bone head, of the spear. The 
farther end of tiiis bone shaft is so shapi'd that it will work into the 
bone or i\ ciry port ion of the piece into w liich I he spear point is fastened. 
The point is shown in tlM^ accoiniiaiiyiii;;' li,L;u''e (l'"ig'. ^'>'^) and is not 



TUIINBB.] 



TilK KAIAK. 



239 



inucli viiriod in pMieial shape. Tliero are twojoiiits between the Hi)e<ar 
I»oint ami tlie hone shaft liead. Tliis enables tlie s])eai 'point to bc- 
eonie easily detaelu^d when the Kaine is pierced, if tliis wert^ not so. 
the bone or ivory would soon break witii the violent motions of tlie 
aninnil, and the iin]>Ienient would be rendered useless until re]>aired. 
Thongs eonnecl the various paifs toj;ether, alsoconnectiuf;' tlieni with 
the main shaft of the s])ear. A lonj,' line, usually left lyinji in a eni\ 
just in front of the hunter, {.iives ample seope for play until the animal 
is exhausted. If the sea is rou^'h or the hunter unable to coite with 
the (juariy, the tloat, to be described bdow, is thrown over and the 
seal or whah^ allowed to take its course, the hunter followin.ur and en- 
deavoriufi to harass the animal as much as jxtssible, fiiving it a stab 
with the hand spear whenever occasion niVeis. 

In addition to the whale or sc.il i«'i*ai', the hand .<^pear, tloat, and 
paddle, the kaiakcr ma.\' hrtvc a \v<»»xicn shaft, on the end of which are 
three prongs of barbed iron •• »'-h j»ri>ng .S to lo indies long, and set in 
the Ibrni of a divergent trid. , f. With rhi> imi|4<ineiit, small seals and 
the white coated young are kiH^d. !'ir»ls. umi, ar« sometimes speared 
with this trident. 

The liiiml board, or inn)lemfi»f with wliicli •••Mtam spears are hurled, 
is a piece of wood of such sli.s'ft*' thaii - ijeseiniiiuii 4\ill ylve hut little 
idea of its form. It is about II i*iiri»*»si*e»ni;. llai, ami bas a groove on on ■ 
side into which the rear end of l|»i» r.f»win" sliivft liiwtx*. .Mad is sttpported 
by the three liiigeis of I lie hand » tide liiKe iiMlev (in.}st^ (its iuffio a lioU 
cut thr«>ugli tlie board, of the slup*- in :<<«mi<hmui«iAii^ tlMt-digit. 'I'lietiir 
of the linger rests against Hi*' »4Juat* ,<0i-tini- m fm av . <**tlier nntehes 



ree 'tJlijiiM-; 



O !le in 



are cut along ti'e >i(ic ol' tlielM>,ii4 *••> ♦^'latt'"' ' 
positii"* togi\e a liiiii grasp on ibf .t-swl oi , i of 1 1 le iwiard The 

tliiunb turns over so tm to lie diiwTli' ►> < .♦>->*fliwvf. to s-tie;wly it, wlule 
the ot Iter linucr^- j;i she speat tili» r siira;,''!! motioii lien 

the ariM is iliawn ba.k and raised •■ .ei jt»»ndi"nlariv Wmj-i it 

reaches that position rht- uuMtioii waB-»*«ffi«d aiiW'rtte lingers i.ttfiMtf USae 
implement he'' iig the groove. T >• ,i n| «mi°«l t-H' ttll1'o^^ ^Ht'''.jtm>~i\ 
and tlu' speai h . .vered if the nhj. ■• ...i- i»mi Im^u sfi'''^". i|P t%ir 
aim was good the ^pear remains aJni«f-h.»»# tn xiw utruggling mmiiil, 
and the liaiui lard is (iiiiciil> plaicd under oise.)!' rli»'lli>. up-. .iMiSii#>H 
across the topof the kaiak. The pad<i .-■» Iiiif>i«l iui Blie left i«a»»»^* »ml 
ready lor instant use. 

The paddle is (|uite hearr and of v :.ibl.''S«-5tii^!, ka0itKttl-hmt, nar- 
row blailes. which are alteri-uiiely dipped lllti' •.iii«- I I'WJUt. •fcp •»»' of 
the paddle leiiuii'essonie pra»'«Mt»' beU»re one hHcranw^. MvwmmwdUtit. 
V\ hen in use the paddle rest:« on the edge of Ci»» i>«»«»f;, jwwmg the 
rim of the hatch, and moves alor 't in ilie motion -•t ^m^^rffu*-,-**. 

As the paddle dips into the ii*'r the driiipiiiur o<*»«! <»i«Mn»!» the 
clothing to become wet. TiMjbsiate this, these people n*^ i. .«-»-» of 



M ' 



240 



THE iriTDSON HAY KSKIMO. 



plaited rope or skin to slip nciirly to the befjiiiiiiiiK of tlic. blade. This 
cau.'t's tlu' dripi>iii.n' to Tail outside of tlie kuiak; and in eold weatlier is 
very iitci'ssary, iiiilrss heavy mittens of tanned sealskin he .orii. 

An iuiplenicnt nsed for hooking' into the body of a midien sea of 
whale is made in the following' manner: A pieeeof \voo(J. is ))repared 
about .S feet lonj^ and three fnui'ths of an inch thiek. having' a width of 
an inch and a half. The lower end of this has a sti'oii.<;' hook iiiad(M>i' 
8toiit iron set into it. Ahtiij,' the inner edy;c of the wooden shaft two 
or three notches are cut. The end near the jterson has a V-shajx'd 
notch cut into it. This is used for ail the pnrposes of a boat hook, and 
also to retrieve a sunken animal. A wcijiht is attached to m-ar Iho 
liook end to keep tiie shaft |»erpen»licnlar in the water. .\ line of sntli- 
I'icntlcn^th is attached to it. The hunter has marked the locality. and 
with the hook "feels" tin- bottom lor the name. When found the hook 
is Jerked into the skin and the ol)ie<!t brou.uht to the surface. The 
stall' is very accessarv while the kaiak is iiciu;;' moved tlnon;;li nar- 
row ehannels amon^jf the iee fields. It is, in fact, available in aiany in- 
stam-es where tlie iiadille would, from itshuu'th, l»e useless. 'J'he kaiak 
outtit would lie iiu-(unplete without Jlu' hook 

A yoiinj; man starts out in life with a ^un and amnninitiiui witli 
wliieh to prociue ;ianie. It' he has the euer^iy to become a siu'ct ssful 
hunter he will soon be able to make a kaiak. and thus procure the 
marim> mammals whose skins will atlbrd a c<)veriii<^ tbi' an umiak and 
in the course of tiiiu' ad<litional skins tor .i tent. These ])ossessi(»ns 
usually cume in the order laid down, and w hen they are all procured he 
is ;;ciuMaliy able to have others under his direction assist in transport- 
iti<;:them t'rom plat" to place; and thus he becomes the head of a uens 
or famil\'. incliidiii^ his brothers ami sisters with tlieir husbands, 
wives, ami children. These usually move in a body wherever the head 
may dictate, and all their iiossessious accompan.\ them on the Jouriii'y. 
brothers otten live toj^cther and own tiu' tent and umiak, the re 
inaitiderof the household affairs beln^ considered as indixidual prop- 
erty ami mil to be nsed iiy all without permis.-ion. 

Scaue ol the mi'U ai'e too improvident to prepare these s]<iiis when 
the\ have t lie opportunity, and thus they are unable to (i\\ n a kaiak^ 
which pr( \enls them from p'ONidin^ fhem--i'l\t's with the umiak and 
tent. 'I'liesc )iers(ms nuist li\(' wil.i others oi' dwell by tiu'?nsel\cs and 
pass a miserable existence, scarcely noticed h\ Iheir l'cllow> cscn oar- 
in,i:' a season of abundance. 

The collection contains (Uic fall si /.ed kaiak. with ail its littinus. mid 
their models, inclndinu' a toy kaiak cut tVoiii a walnis tiisii. Tlie ni'iilel 
is just '.* inches lon;^ and ipiitc pcrf>'cl in Ibiin. Tiie doiiiile liladcd 
])addle accompanying;' is made from the same material, and is six inches 
km-. 






Tlie (ini\ersal means ot' transpiutation im land is the sled, draw n by 



I'l'lINi:!!.! 



TIJAVKIJNU (IN LAM). 



>41 



«li 



Til 



(■ iiiiiiilin' ( 



I'll to (Iriiw a sled varies ar(;iir(liii>j' to 



till* distaiici' In III- travclcil. Ili< i iiaiarlcr nl' llii' niiiiitry. tlic cniKlilidii 
(if tlitt aiijinals, and the \viM<;'lil (il'llic load t(i lie drawn. P'roni one. t(i 
twenty ddus may lie nsed. Tlie e(iniMi(in team IWi' i;eiuTal pniiHises is 
seven III' nine animals. 

The metlidd (if const met in;;- sleds dilVeis sliylitly in ditVerent iiartsiil" 
the region, and then only where the material may lie dilVieiill to nlitain 
or a hea\v sled mav not lie needed. A tree of a snitalile si/e is 



selected, generally larch. Iiecanse of it 
.somewhat heavier than the s|irnce. 



ireate 



■<tren«tl; allhona:li 



It i 



s neees' 



arv, liir greater stren;;th. that each ruiine 



^in,^lo 



jiiece of timlier. The len^tth of tlii^ riinniM' is t'rom lU-tn Id feet; the 
heij^lit vai'ies from lit to IL' inches. The piece inns lie as nearly free 
frutii knots and cross;;rain as iiossilile, foi' thesis defects render the 
wood very brittle during cold weather. The rnnners are riinK'hly hewn 
at the place wlieie uri.ninally cut, and, when needed, they are lironinht 
to the teinporai'y campiii;;' place of the Ivskiinci. aiid tlier(Mlrcssed with 
plane and saw to the reipiircd form. The liiittoin of tlii^ runner is 
nsnally U.l to,", inches thick, ^radnally iiecomin^- thinner liy onehalf an 
inch to an inch toward the top. This enables the, sled to make a wider 
track at the linttuni and encounter less friction of the runner Nides 

Th(^ curve at the forward end is hni^ and 
may lie as iiiiich as ■'{ feet of the curved part. 



against the snow crust. 



very ^nai 



Inal 



Th 



which rises above the Icm 



if the- lower ed^e of t he riimier. Tlii> 



Tl 



le riiiiners are 



enables the sled to creep easily oxer any (ibstriiction 
now jikKied parallel, separated by ii distance of It to Iti inches, and oil 
these all! fastened crussbars ."> inches wide, of sullicieiit leiiirth to 
allow abiiiit an inch \ii proiect ii\er the outer ed-.;*' of each runner. 
Near till' cuds of these slats is cut a notch on each eilu'e, Sometinu's 
a hole is also bored thiMiiuh the slat between the notches. T'liese are 
for the purpose of fasteiiiiiL;' ilie slats to the runners. A siilUcieiit 
number having; been prepanil. and placed I or •_' niches apart, they are 
now laid on the Hat top of the runner. Holes are Imred tlirouiih the, 
lop of the runner to correspond wilh the holes and notches of the slats. 
'i'liroii^h these and (i\er the slats ,i stout piece ol' luav.\ sealskin line 
is threaded, and so on thrnUL^h and over the slats and runner iiMlil it is 
tirml.v fastened. The line iiiii--l be well soaked in water to render it 
llexible and allow it to stretch, olln rwisc the joints where it was tied 
would soon work loose. The line shrinks while drxiii;;', and draws as 
ti^lit as though made of the best iron. No metal is nsed, tor the 
reason t.iat it would snap as easily as chalk during' cold weather. 
The use III the thongs in biiiiliii;; the slats to the runners allows free 
dom to the motion ol' the sled when passing over ineipiaiities of stir- 
tace. where a rigidity of the sled Would soon cause it to break. The 
bottom ol'lhe riiiiiier is shod with iron broii;;lit liy the traders lor that 
11 i;iii 1(» 



.,,,^,, _■• 



•_'I-J 



I'lli; III lis<i\ 11 W IISKIMu. 



|ilir|)t>si>. It IS .sllii|il,v <'\l l';i w lilr Imm)|> 111)11 :iimI ol' :i wlillli lulil. It is 
l':|s|('li('il nil w it li screw s. the Iic^hIs nt' w lilcli iirr roiiiilt'lNillik. 

AiHitliii' Kiiiii (if sImm' is |iiiI (III win 11 tiii\('liii,u' ill \fvy »i>lii ut;iilicr. 
A s\Mllli|i,\ IIMik IS si'Mlfllcil I'df snij uT li:ilt'-ili'i'ii|ii|>i)snl \ ('^('1:11 mil 
:Miil imic liiiiiiii-«. ;i-. iHMily IVrc iVoiii siiiiil :iihI urin"'! ;!■< |">ssili|r. || 
miisl iiussi'ssci'i'tMiii i|iiiiliius(ir it limy iKit li;i\r tlif rciiiiisitc stifiijjtii— 
llilli'li. I |i|'(>>illlif, ;is iniU'tui' iit'trii l'<'i|iiir<'s |<i iic Iciiijicrrii with iiiiiir 
III' li'>s liMc or siiiiil wIk'ii il IS Ion mil nr tun |Mii>r. 'I'Ik' IvsUnnn irin 
[ii'i's Ills iLortiir Willi III)- ;iliMUNt iiii|i;il|i;ilili> ■■nil i'miiimI iiiiiIci' tlic laiv'iM 
s|HiMili(i.i;' tires of I lie tiiirst. It 1^ t lie slowly ilfcolll|ios('il V(';;<'tiltioii 
I'lillrii tV Mil lii'iiiirlii's :inil li'iiiiKs. 'I'lii' iiiiiiMM'i' of |iri'|iiiriii:;' il is iis 
liillows: A liiiui' ki'lllr is |i;il'ti!lll,\ lillcil \Ml II t III' lii;iti>iril llliil liiMti'il 
to thr oolilliu |Hi||il, Im'Iii;^' colistiilil ly stirrcil, ;iiiil wliili' vi'l cool 
ciioiiyli all I'oarsc stii'ks, urass hlailcs. iicliidcs. cic. an- cart'l'iilly ic 
iiiovril as till' liiiL:i'rs discuvcr Iliriii In woikiiii;' tJic mortar. The sicil 
IS turned iverwilli the liottom ot the riiimer ii|). 'I'iie iiiiiil is now 
a)i])|ieil ly the haiiils. a toiiple of pdiinils lieiii.!^' taken and pressod on 

the niniier, which has |iie\ loiisly I n wilted. This |iiocess of adding; 

to the iiiniier IS eoiitiiined until it attains an additional de|itli of.'! or I 
iiiehcs and a width ot' :'• to ."> inclie>. it now lesenddes the rail of a 
staiiwa.x. Wlnai it lias jiccii thoionuldv none u\erto till iiji an> in 
e(|iialilies tlie sled Is s(i ,i-ide in order that the imid iiia,\ freeze solid. 
Tlie sled liuist he II. I ml led w it h care, a-- 1 he leiol jai or joil will liii'aU 
the "se' I inu " nnnl. Afti'i' ii is fro/en the owner takes a |i!aiieaiid 
jilani's :i dow n to the iiro|)ir sli,i]ie and sniooi hues-. It is somewhat 

dilliellll to desclllie tile >iia|ie in Words, unless it lie eom|iai'<'d to the 
ii()|H'i' pill I of tlie T 1,1 1 1 cif a I aihoad in ,ei ted — iieilhcr i on nil id nor llal, 
liiil .so fashioned as to ;^i\e the I isi liearinj; siirl'ace with the least 
friction. When i'h' plane has imislirij its work the coloi' of IIh nnnl 
is a rii'li chestimt lirown. The Iniildei now takes water in his month 
and spirts il in a spray alon;; the nnnl. .\s soon as liie water toinlies 
the I nniier it iniist he spread e\ mly w il ii a hand ini ascd in a in it ten of 
reindeer skin, riilihin,^ liael; and t'ortli until the riinnii looks lilvc a har 

of hiaek yhlss. The sled is t hen iead.\' for use. ( ! leal care is neressji y 
to a\old locks or stones. ■!., tliesr cut llic |ii)lis|ird llllld and ldil;',hen il. 

If a snddeii lindi causes a portion of ihe nnnl to drop out tlie piece is 
fro/en on auaiii h\ iiieans ot' water, or if ernnihled a piece ot' ice is cut 
to liic shape anil caused to adhere oy water fi'ee/.inu' il to (he runner. 
It ;s not olieii that one nia\ I'm! a sh-d shod uith lione. as is i |,c 
ciisiom Willi the llsjvinio farlliii iiorlli, aiul cspccmlly farther west. 

The (Mll.\ instance where I lia\e seen liolie Used was hy some of the 

lieople from the western e\tieinit\ of Hudson strait. These had onl\ 
a portion *if Ihe 'iirve and a part of the runner shod with hone and 
pieces ot reindeer lioril. seemed to the Illniicr li> ine.ins of pej;s. 

The uie.itcst olijcctioii to the use ot' iniid i- lliat a few hours of 
wariiilli may cause it to loosen and render it worthless. Ihe polish 



TlIK UUii .s|,i:i>. 



243 



siill'crs when triivrliii;;' oscr r(iii;;li ire, luiil «'S|i«('i;ill,v wlicn^ siiimI has 
ilril'tcd iVoiii some f\|)(is(>il Itiirik to tlitt .sinracr ol' the sniiw. 'I'liis 
I'iiiisi's \('i'.\ hai'il piilliii;;', and snoii i'niii;'hi>iis ||ii> niiiriiii;^ siirtaccor the 
sh'il. '!"(» repair siu-h daiiiauc the iiativr sldps, at a ciaivriiiciit iilacc, 
to ohiaiii water, whieh is sjiirled mi tlie riiiiiiei' ami iiiblied eveidy 
iiiilil it aeijiiires a thickness (if one ei^hlli 1)1' an ineli. 'I'his eoatiii};' of 
ice may last forllie entire ilay ot travel where the •' roads" are yiiod. 

'riie harness for tliedii;;s consists of two lai';;t' nooses, placed one 
alio\e the other. 'I'liese are joined liy two per|)endiciilai' straps of I or 
o inches in len;;'lli at a snilicient distaiwe IVoin flic end to allow tin- 
head of the do;; to pass liiron}{'li so that one noose will lie alon<;' the 
hack and the oiher lielwcen the forclcLt's. At the real' ends of the 
nooses i-, a loiij; llioiij; of the heaviest sealskin of varialile len;;tli 
depemlin;;' on liie position or place the do^' is to have in Ihi'team, 
The body harness is made of sealskin, with or without the liair on, 
stout canvas, or other material which may he convenient. 'I'liin mi- 
•Iressed sealskin makes the best liariiess, and is not so liable to <tliaie 
the neck o! the aiiiiiial. I he trace attached to each do^' is'<.:eiicrally of 
stoni sealskin thon^ciil I liice (•i;;litlis ot' an inch wide, and the corners 
are carcl'iilly jtared until the trace in form resembles a iioop for a small 
kej;, The trace \aiies from Hi to .'id t'ect in lenj;tli, and is attached to 
a longer but much stonier thonji' of heavier sealskin or walrus hide 
prepared in the form described lor the trace. 'I'he tlioiii; to u liicli all 
of the Iraces ol' variable leiiyths are fastened is termed the ••bridle."' 
The biidii' has. nsnallv. a piece of ivory, called •' toj;;;le,'" at the end 
farthest from the sled. A tew inches back of the to;;-;;le is a short 
piece of stout tiion;; plaited in the bridle end. This tlioii^' has a slit 
cut in the farther end. It is passed tliroii,uh slits cut in the end of each 
trace and then loojied on tiie to;;j;le. it will now be understood that 
the Iraces all start from one pla<'e. but their ditVereiil lenjitlis j;ive dif 
tereiit posit icms to the ilo.us of the team so that they may move freely 
ainoii.y ioui;li pieces of ice without iiiterferiiifi- w itii each other. This 
has some adsaiitam's, iuit it necessitates watchiun' the traces as they 
are liable to calcli around ,\u\ projection above the surface. 

The bridles arc also of var,\iu;i lengths, from l.'» to 10 feet. The rear 
end hasiwostoul I inm^^s plaited into it. l'ormin<; a loop for each tlion^-. 
These are know n as the ■•yoke." and are looped over tojij;les. one on 
each inner .>ide of the runner. 

Any load lo lie carried on the sled is usually placed so as not to pro- 
Jci't much over the side, foi' in deep snow . with a crust too weak to sup- 
port the wcifjht. it would simply act as a draii' and seriously impede 
liint'l if not entirely stop it. The load must also be distributed to tim 
liesl advantage alon^ the sled so as not lo have too jjreat a weij;lit at 
either the tVoiil or rear, althoiiii'li ueni'rall.v a heavier portion is placed 
behimi to allow llie sled lo steer or follow. 'I'he runners are so low 



'■M' 






• I 



lU 



'IIIK HUDSON IIAY ESKIMO. 



Miai tlu'Mlcil st'Idoiii ti|is('ts unless the ice is very loiijili. in vliicli t'lisc 
it itl'tni i'«-<|uirt's Iwo ini ii liialtrnd to il, another to tree the iiares tVoin 
(ilMtrnetions, and a t'onitli to lead or drive tlie dof(s. A smaller niiin- 
her reiidi'r traveiin^i nndi r siieli eonditions very tedious. 

Tluj driver is always armed with a whi|i ( I'i;;. tltl). There appear 
to lie as many kinds of whips as there are individuals iisin;; them. 
ICach whip eharacteri/.es, in a inaiiiier, the person who makes it. A 



41 




jiTcat amount of in;;eriiiity is expended in ineparinj.;- tiie lash, wliieli is 
simply iiideserilialile. The handle ot the wliip is from !t to 1 1 inehes in 
leiiffth and siiaped somewhat like the handle of a sword wilhoiit the 
j,'nai(l. A stont loop of thoiiy is atlixed to the stoc^k aliove where the 
hand j-rasps it. This loop is thrown over the wrist to prevent the 
weight of the whip drawiiit,^ the stock from the hand and also to ri-tain 
tbo w hip when it is allowed to trail hehind. 
At the farther cud of the stocli a puitiun uf the wooil is cut out to 



MANAliKMKNT <»l" 1»0(} TKAM. 



245 



allow tlic insertion ol' llie end of tlu' Insli wliicli is tiistcncil by iiiciuiH 
of IhuMllioii^rs. Tlii^ InilttMiil of the lush is live si\t<'i>nllis of an inch 
thick iiiitl lU'uil.v li indies wide. It is composed of ei;;ht heavy thonjjs 
plaited in a pi'cidiar manner, depending on the numltcr of tiion;;'s used 
and t!i« fancy of the maker. The thongs are plaited by insertint,' tin) 
end of each thon^ tlii'(Mi;:h a succession of slits cut at the proper dis- 
tance and so matted to;4etlier that it is dillic.ull totleteiinine the 'Mun" 
ofthethony. The si/e decreases 'rom the handle l)y dropping out ii 
strand until at IS inches tVoni tht« stock only foui' thongs are left, and 
thesi> form a Hipiare plait for a foot in length. This stpnire form is sue- 
ceoded by only two thongs which make a tiat jtlait of 2 feet in length. 
At the end of this a simple piecu of heavy thong completes t\w. lash. 
The length of a whip amy bo as nuicli as .3.') feet, weighing .'$ or i pounds, 
Sona^ of the natives acipiire a surprising dexterity with this fornddabh^ 
weapon, often being aide to snip the earof a particular dog at a distance 
of the length of the whip. I have know u them to snap tlu^ head from 
a ptarmigan sitting along the path of the team. Children practice 
with the whip as soon as they can manage it. 

The lOskimodog fears nothing but the whiplash. They attack each 
other with savage ferocity, and several dogs may be eugaged in ter- 
rillc battles, yet the swish of a whip or even a stick tlnown hurtling 
through the air is sutlicient to cause them to slink oil' in abject terror, 
whining juteonsly in fear of the expected lash. 

The weight or load put u|)oti a sled nniy be as much as 1,L'(M) pounds. 
The character of the road alom- deterndiu's the weight, nund)er of 
dogs, and rate of travel. The latter may average over a smooth sur- 
face ."> miles hiMiily tin- i welvc hours continuously, excluding tlm few min- 
utes given the dogs to "blow" (rest), etc. I knew an instance where 
flii'ce men with empty sh-d and seven dogs tiavelcd iH miles in eighteen 
houis. I have gone I'.t miles in three hours: and again I have known 
only .1 or I nnles to be nnule in ten hours, through rough ice or diieji, 
newly fallen snow. 

The disposition v.ml condition of the dogs chiefly determiiK's the num- 
ber attached to the sled. With these animals there is tlu^ same ditfcr- 
I'Uce as is to be found in horses or other beasts of draft. Siuue are 
eiM'rgctic and well l>chaved; others as stubborn or la/y as is possiltlc. 
Strange dogs in the team arc liable to be pitched upon by all the others 
and with the long traces ensues such an entanglement of lines, dogs, 
and flying simw as is dillicnll to conceixe. The good (pialities of the 
dviver an' manifested by his ability in keeping the dogs in order and 
showing promptness in separating them when i|narreling. Fighting 
among the dogs can always be pievcnted bv the «lriver keeping the 
dogs in proper position. 






i'9» .. 



•-:-/' 




#. 







IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT~3) 




7- 



^ 









/. 













1.0 ^« 



M 12 5 



I.I 



1.25 



us U£ |2.2 

? Hi '" 

Hf 1^0 112.0 



1.8 



u ini 1.6 




Photographic 

Sciences 

Corporation 







# 



^v^^ 



<*-^ 





N> 



^<b 



V 



33 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. M580 

(716) 872-4503 








6^ 



r> 



.^ 
&• 



» 



fe 






6^ 







24(j 



THE HUDSON BAY K.SKIMO. 



WKAl'O.NS AM) OTIIKU III NTINti IMI'I.KMKNTS. 



'Ill 




Tlieso iH'oplt' aro now i)i(»vi(i('tl with lircaiiiis. wliicli lia\r cntiicly 
sii|it>rsc(l<'(l I lie liow iiinl aridw. 

The l)(t\v roiiiici'ly iisctl in this n'fj;i()ii apiicars ti» liavf ln'cii similar 
to tlic (iiuMibtaiiifd Iroiii a party of Ivist .Main Inniiit, wlio iiiadf tlicir 

way to I'ort ('hiino. Tliis liow has acconl- 
iiifily lit'cn tifjiii'cd and described ( l''ij;s. (»1 
and (H'— i)01.l7). 

It is made of hireh wood and has a i>aelv 
\\]^ ofei{jlit<hndih' strands of twisted sinew. 
This sinew is in one pioee sixteen tinu's the 
lenjjth of the bow. One eini is looped and 
l)assed over one "noci;" of the bow and ear 
ried iiaeii and forth from noeli to noek eijiht 
times. Tiiis baekinj;' lias t wo tnrns of I wist 
|iiit in fi'um the mi(hile to increase its elas- 
lieity. and is lashed to the middle of the bow 
with a stout thonji' of reindeer skin. Tlie 
bowstiinj; is of twisteil sinew with a I'lop at 
i each end. 

£ With this bow were se\'eii arrows. Three 

■^ of these an^ for sliootinj;' reindeer and wolves. 

^ They have an iron point set in a short fore- 

Z shaft of reindeer antler, and a wooden shaft 

7 about 1(1 inches loll};' ( l''i}i'. (i.'i). Three more 

" are pointed with larjie nails, one of wliiidi 

i has been beaten to a chisel shaped point 

~ (I'igs. (II and (i."»). They are iiileiided for 

- larjie j;iime at short laiijic or for small 

£ jiaine, such as iiares and plarmijiim. These 

six arrows an; feathered with tiie tail feath 

ers «d' the ra\'eii. The last arrow is a sim 

pie shaft, without feathei inn mm' liead, and is 

intended for small ;;°ame, such as a w I 

hare croiicliiii<; under a s|inice tree, or I lie 
little red si|iiirrel on the lop id' a low tree. 

In drawin;; the bow, the Ininiit insatiably 
hold tiie arrow between the middle two lin 
fiers of the rij;ht hand, and the string is 
drawn with all four lingers, and released by 
straijlhteninK' them. 

The bow and arrows are carried in bow 
case and (piiver tiisteneil toficther and sliing 
on the back. l'"it;'. (i(i represents a model (No. .'?2.">7) of sncli a lio\\ case. 
The bow case is made of itiicUskiii and is ofsiillicient leiijith to con 




TI'HNKU.) 



lUNTINO IMPI-KMKNTS. 



247 







tain ihi' l)i)\v, cxcpiitiiiii- tlic ftxtrt'iiu' t'lid, wliieh is left projecting 

coiivciiii'iice ill liandliiiji. Tlic casi' is tied aioliud the bow at 

piojeetiiif;' end. Tlie quiver is attaelied to 

tlie bow ease and contains two models ofar- 

rows for sliootiii.n' lar^e ;;aiiie. Tlie arrows 

are tipped with leat'sliaped jHeces of tin. 

Tliry are featliered witii portions of feathers 

ai»pareiilly taken from the tail of a raven. 

Tiie iiioiith of the ijuiver is also drawn np 

with a strinjj" to prevent the loss of ariows. 

I lia\t; not seen the l^skiiiio of llndsoii strait 

use such a eover for their bows and arrows, 

but the oiiportniiities to observe them aie 

ver,v limited, as few are used. 1 am led to 

eonelnde that only tin' poorer individuals of 

either locality iiavc the bow and arrow at 

{he. present day. 

I have already deserilted the lar.ye harpoon 
used for St rikiii,!; white, whales and laiji'e seals 
from the kaiak. A short iiead spear ( Kij;' <»7, 
>;o. DOKiliis used for dispatchinji' wounded 
seals or while whales, or jbr killiii,i;- white 
whales when they have lieeii driven into a 
shallow arm of the sea when the tide ebbs 
and lea\cs lliciii partl\- niieovered. It has a 
short wnudcii siiaft with a ferrule of ivory. 
holdiii<;a short ivory loose shaft, kept in place 
by tlioiifis. on which is mounted a to,uj;le head 
like that iiM'd on the biji' harpoon. The line 
is either attached to the kaiak or to a small 
lloat made uf the inllaled intestine or sUiii of 
a seal. The l<i;i.nle heails for these spears are 
made of i\niy, and titled with iron blades 
(l''ij;'. (!S). I liaxc already refeiied to the 
larn'c sealskin ll<ial in deseribiiiji' the kaiak. 

Ki;;-. (i!t ( Nu. .'{."i.")! ) is such a larj;e sealskin 
lloat tu' ii \a tiik. The skin is removtd from 
the body by sUiniiin^- aruiiiid the uunis and 
larefully takiiij; out all the llesh and bones 
through this oiitice, .\s Hie iiperatioii pro 
ceeds the skin is turned back and at the 
completion of the work is inside oiit. The 
llesh side, now the exterior, is careliilly 
scrai'.ed to free it from all tieshy matter. The 
hind tiippers are cut oil' at the ankle and the 
skin either sewed or stoutly wraiijied with 
thoiiy. The fore llippeis are nsiially lell at 



for 
the 




•'■'W.-s-, ■ ■ 



f't. anil t'l'y Arrows 
Mai, I ICskliiiH 



248 



TIIK lirnsoN ItAY KSKIMO. 






il 



tiiclit'd to tlu' skin after tlu' Hesh liaa been scraped from tlioiii. Tlio 
skin is now iuHated witli air and Iniiig up to dry. In a few hours it 
is tnrn«'d with the hairy side out and again iidhited 
fcH' aw hilt'. Tlie niontli and ill! otiier openings in tiie 
skin are earefully sewed up. A large button of iv(uy, 
shaited nuu'h like a i)ulley, nearly 2 inches in diame- 
ter, is put where tlie niontii of the skin is and a por- 
tion of the skin carefully wrapped around it, thongs 
of sealskin tightening tiie moist skin in the groove of 
tlu> mouth])iece. Thispiecehas a hole about one-third 
of an inch in diameter bored through it. The hind 
flippers ami tail have a stick of li or .'5 inches in length 
jdaccd within the skin and are then lirndy bound 
around the stick, which servestostop upanyhole and 
also to fuinish a handle by which to drag or hold the 
tioat. The hole in the mouth piece is iihiggcd with a 
stopitcr of wood. When the tloat is wanted for use 
th(> skin is intlated. When inllated the float has a 
diameter abdut two thirds the length. If it is to be 
attached to a tracking line tlie float is fastened i>y 
the stick, wliich is secured within the skin of the 
himl tlippers ami dragged backwards. The function 
of the lioat in this instance is to prevent the tracking 
line from becoming ''fouled" among flie rocks and 
stones of the beach along which the line runs in tow- 
ing a boat (or umiak). In a similar manner it is 
allixcd to tlie harpoon line used Ibr large marine 
nninnnals, such as the white whale and tin' larger 
species of seals. This float not only retards the llight 
of the speared animal, lint it serves to mark the spot 
where it sinks, foi- at ccitain seasons tin' seals sink 
as soon as they die. A speared animal always sinks 
morecpiickly than one shot d* ad with a ball, probably 
because its struggles are more prolongeil in the liist 
instance and eshaustion of breath is more complete. 

The h.iir of the animal whose skin is intended rbra 
float is sometimes scraped off before the skin is re 
mo\e(l from the body, otherwise it may be left until 
the skin is partly dry and then be slia\ed off. The 
nninner of loosening the hair is similar to that used 
by butchers of hogs, only that the boiling water is 
|)ourert on and a small paieh of hair pulled off al a 
time, instead ofsniimerging the entire animal. Tlu^ hair from liie green 
skin must be caiefnlly palled tint or else the black scuii" adhering will 
4ie (Irtached and tlins render tlie skin less nearly watei'prool'. 

'J'iie skins <a' bags used for holding oil ami fat arc pre|tarcd in a sim- 



ii\ 



i: 







VVi. fiO. Tlow ciisi". 
KuMi M.tiii Kiki 



TL-IIM'.Il.l 



IIl'NTINO. 



240 



ilar niiiinuT. except iiif;' tliiit tlir linir is Icff on tlic skin iinil (lie liiiiry 
si(l<^ Jt't'l witliiii. The oil iiiul liit aicimt in tlii' sidn at tlio'iiuslcrioicud 
and it is tlion tifd u]i like a tloaf . The 
largest st^dskins ait^ used lor oili)an's, 
and may contain as niiicli as .UK) pounds 
of fat or oil. 

Wlieii a sack of oil is sold the Ita.u' is 
usually returned totlieseller. w lioaiiaiu 
(ills it with oil or converts the skin into ' 
bootless or soles. The leather having 
become thoroni;hly in:i>reguated with 
the oil makes the iu'st for \v«Mir, often 
resisting moistnie for three or four 
days of continuous wet. 

Itefore leaving the subject of weap- 
ons and llieir accessories, I may men- 
tion No. ."itM)'.). a small pou<rh made of 
thick sealskin. The shape is somi'wiiat 
like that of a leg of mutton. 'IMiis is 
used for cairyiiig gun caps. The neck 
is oidy large enougii to permit one cap 
to fall out at a tinu'. 




ni N iiMi. 
I have alread\' referred brielly to the 



Km. 



Hiiii.l spiMi- I'di- liillitij; si'mIs I'niiii 

UmIiiU K..ksn;ik 



various uu'thodsof taking seals, while whales, and other game, while 
describing I hi' boats, spears, and other apparatus used in their pursuit. 

The most impoitaiit hunt of the year. iiowe\ cr, coiiies in the aiituiiin. 
wheii the reindeer are migrating in large herds and crossing the rivers. 
The deer are wauled now for their tiesli tor food mid their skins for 
clothing. I',\crylhing necessary for the chase is taken in the umiak. 
iu\ per ha I )s, a whalcboal. to a locality coiiNcnieiit to w here I lie animals 
crossover. Here the tciil is pitclieil. and a camp is made. The hunt 
CIS scour the neighboring land for herds ot' reindeer, which arc seen 
running about under the impulse to seel; the opposite se\. As they 
arrive from dilferent dii'ectioiis, those of one sc\ must cross the river. 
Since the females fninish the lighter skins for clothing, and the males 
the greater amount of meat and a lica\iei' skin liu' varnais purposes, 
deer ol' i)oth sexes are eipially usel'ul. 

A band of tluee or tour, or as many as a hundred. iiia.\ be sighted 
slowly winding their way through the openings of the timbered areas 
on the oiiposite siileof the river. The native with telesco|)c, or binocidar 
in focus, observes their movements until they pans*' a monu'iit on the 
bank and then plunge ipiickly into the water, where they keep well 
together until the ojiposite shori> is reached. Mere, if undisturbed., 
they will stand to allow the water to driji from their bodies, and then 
will walk slowly along to a eonveiiienl pla.cc to climb tiie bank aud 



"ft-!,.-. 



i-,i^i.. 



1 



•250 



I'lir. IHDSON HAY KSKIMO. 



IM'iiftiiite 1 lit' strip of woods or hiisluis and <'m»'r}j;t' into tlic open coiiii- 
try bi'.voiid. As soon us tin- iiativt' scrs tlif dci-r evciyMiin;; is ]iiii' in 

readiness on tiie kiiiak, and with 
(|ui( k stiiikcs ol'tlit'donblc bladi'd 
paddle lie is behind and lielow tlie 
now territied aninnds. Tliey rear 
and phm^e in tVantie eont'usioii. 
endeavorinj;' to escape tlieii' most 
dreaded toe. Tbe linnter eabnly 
drives tbelierd tiiron^ili the water 
as the siu'pherd does his lloek on 
land. Those disposed to break 
away are rounded up and driven 
bark. The j;reatest eare must be. 
exercised not to let the animals 
•;ct below the kaiak, or they will 
swim faster with the stream than 
the linnter can paddle. As lliei(^ 
are generally. I wo or morekaiaks, 
it ii an easy matter Cor the men 
to driv«' the aiiiinals wherever 
they desire. When llic camp is 
abo\e. the deer are driven diaji- 
oiially across so as to inak«' llicn; 
come out near the camp, it' 'le 
site is below, tlu^ animals i.re 
allowed to (iio]> down to a con 
vciiient place. These nuincuvers 
deiieiid on the wind, as (lie sense 
of smell of the deer is very acute 
at tills MMson. and the scent of the camp, if detccte<l. would throw the 
aiiinials into such terror that, the ,nieater iiumbci' would escape. 




l:I.Iii;i.I Iim liMliil -IH'iil 




Vh; Cil SriiNk.n linMt. 

When near I he place I lie hunter takes his deer spear, which is exactly 
like tlie one used by the Indians, and ipiietly slabs the aniuml in a 



IirNTIXd DKER. 



251 



vitiil siMit, t'lKloiiVdiiiif;- so to wound the boast that it will liavc only 
»'iion};li stroii^i'tli to t'liahlc it to attain tlic siiallow water or sliore, and 
not to wainlt'i' oil'. Anionj;- tlm liiindrtMls of times I Inive inul the 
opportunity to witness this, \ ne\-er knew a deer woun<led with the 
spear to turn haeii to swim in the direetion from wiiicli it eanie. They 
ai)pear to dn'ad the water, and strive most frantically to reyain tin' 
land where, if mortally wounded, tiiey stand; the limbs jiradually 
di\er;;inj;' to sustain their treiiiblin)^- body ; tlie eyes yazinj^' piteously 
at the foe, wiio often moeks their dyinjf struj;i;les, or pitches a stone 
at their ipiiveiinj;- leu's to nndce them fall. .\ eonvnlsive. struji'^le as 
the blood tills the internal cavity, ai sudden i)it(!li, and the life is ;ionu 
without sij;h or ;;roan. As many of tlu^ herd as can be speared are 
(piickly dis])atclied and the entire number sccui'ed if possible. It is 
supjiosed that the ones which letuin to the shore whence they came 
tiive the alarm ami frij;hten other arrivals away from the starlinj;' 
point. The hunters striv(^ to |)revent tiieir return, and will otten allow 
two, lu'ar the camp, to escape in order to pursiu^ the ri'treatinji' animal. 
Those which ha\(' been killed and art! lying in the water are dra};'>i;ed 
on land and skinned. The pelt is taken oti'as that of a beef is when 
skinned l>y a butcher. The ears and the skin of the head are left on. 
The bod\ is opened and the viscera are renu)ved. The intestines are 
free<l from tlic fat : tiie stomach is cleaiiseil of the <;reater poition of its 
contents, and the blood which collected w ithin t he ca\'ity is scooped up 
with the hands and ladled into that receptacle; and both are reserved 
for food. The heart anil liver are taken to the camp, where they help 
to form a \ aricty in the animal food of these peo]>le. Other portions ot' 
the lii'sh are also consumed. The sinew , w iiicli lies alon;;' the lumbar 
re;;ion just lielow the superlicial nuiscles, is exposed by a cut. and with 
the point of a knife or tip of the ling'cr loosened from its adherent llesh. 
i )neend, usuall\ the forward eiul. is detached ami a stout thonjj tied to 
il. and it is jerUed from its iittaclnncnt by a vi.yorous pull. It rt'ipiires 
a strong piTson to remove this tendon from the body of a lean animal. 
.\ stroke of the knife fiees the wide layer ot' sinew liom blood and 
particles ot'tlesh. This is now laid aside for awhile, then washed to 
I'k'c it from the blood, which would stain il dark in color and also tend 
lodiminish thcstrenutli ot the libers iiy rotting them. It is now spread 
out and allowcil to dry. 'i'he body is cut across tin' small of the back 
anil laid aside. The hi'ad is severed from the neck and discarded if 
there be no portion of the Ikumis which is needed to ser\cso?ne purpose, 
such as a hainlle for a luiil'eor other tool. If the head be that of a 
,\(iung deer it is otten taken to the camp and put into a pot ami boiled 
in the conditiim in w liich il comes from the held. When cooli<'d for a 
long time il becomes M'vy soft; the nniseles of the jaw being reduced 
to a semigelalinous condilinn. which makes an excellent ai'licle of 

food. 

Tin' lougne is in\ariaiil.\ taken out eniire, and is considi'rcd the 






•■^-s 



'!^l 



- ^W?J-,v 






rilK IIL'DSON HAV ESKIMO. 



fir 



}in'iitt'st (IclitMcy, t'itlicr IVo/cii, niw or cuDkcd, or dried iind smoked. 
Ill liii't II toii^iir tVorii tlie n-indn'r is ^ood iit any tiint> or t'oiiditioii. 

Tiic liiiid(|iiartt'rs are .seldom separated, hut aie placed witliiii tlie 
tlioiacii- cavil \'. and cither cached near the scene of slan;;hter or phieed 
on tjie Ivaiak and taiieii to a spot wiiere otiiers are deposited from which 
siijiplies may tie taivcn \\ lien the food for the winter is reipiired. 

Here and there aloii;- the hank will be placeil the body of a sin;;le 
deer, sometimes two or three, which ha\c been killed too far from thu 
pit'sent camp for the liiiiiter to brinj;' them home. These spots are 
marked or remembei-ed by some visible siirroundiii;;, lest the (U'ej* 
snows of winter olisciiie the locality, and olteii the place »'aii not be 
found when wanted. The cache in which the llesli is (lc|iositcd is 
sini)il.\' a I'ew stones or bowlders laid on the ;>'roiiiid and the meat put 
n|iontliem. A rude sort of wall is made by piliii;;' stones iip(Mi the 
meat until it is hidden from the rava;:es of raseiis. ;;ulls. Ibxes. woUes 
and the detested woherine. 

As soon as the hunter considers that the deer of that jiarlicular 
locality lia\e ceased to cross, he will repair to another station and }jo 
throiiyli the same process. The deer which are first slain, when the 
hiiiitinu' season arrives, and the weather is still so warm that the llies 
and ih'C(iiii|io>itioii iniii the meat, are reserved for sujiplies of do;;' food. 

MIX I.I.I. ANI 111- I M I'M ; Mi: Ms. 

I have already, in the earlier panes of this paper, referred to various 
tools and implements. 

In addition to llicse, the l\oks()a;;niyut have comparatively tew tools. 

Ill luriner a;;es stone and i\nr> were t'ashioned into crude iiii piemen ts 
for the purposes wiiicli arc now better and more ipiiekl.\ seived by in- 
striiiiiciits ot' iron or steel. 

These pi' iple have iiow iieeii so lonij in more or less direct contact 
with traders who iiine supplied them with these necessaries that it is 

rare to tiiid oi f t he kiii\es used in ti inner times. ( 'eitain operations, 

however, are e\'eii to t liis da.v better |iertbrnied with a knife madt; of 
ivor>'. The ice troiii tliekaiak liottom or the sides of the boat may 
liest be removed by means of an ivory knife, lesembliiifr a snow knife 
but shorter. The steel knife is always kejit sharp ami if so used would, 
on the nnyieldiiii:', frozen >kiii cnveriii;:' of those vessels. <piickly cut a 
hole. The I'.skinio living remote fiom the tradin;;' stations use a snow 
knife made frmii tlie tusk of a walrus or the main stem of the reindeer 
antler. 

'i'iiat steel or iron is deemed an improvemenl on the t'ormer materials 
from wliicli eiitiinu' iiistriiments were made is shown by the crude 
nieaii> now emiiloyed. If the person has not a knife an unused spear- 
head, liaviiij; an iron point, is often employed instead for skiniiiiij;- aiii 
nials and ilres>inu the skins. 

JSluiie heads lor weapons of all kinds have been discarded. Ivory 



I IIIM.Il 



.mis(i;ij,am;()i s imi'i.kmdnis. 



258 



;: 



Hpt'iiisiiif lit times used liiil these only wlieii the liiiiiler is ehtse l<. Ilie 
prey. 

Solium of the men hiive iiei|iiii'e(l ennsiih-i'iihle skill in liisliinniiij-' iron 
into (he lecinireil slniiie. They eajieily stiiml iir(Minil ;inyone who miiy 
be at work, and evince the Mn-atest eniiosity in iinytliint; 

\H'\\ . 

The eDJleetioii contains two of the snow knives rel'eneU 
to above. No. 30(17 is a larjje, snow knife, made from the 
lower poll ion of (lie main s(emof the ]M)rn of (he male rein- 
deer. I( is simply half of the split horn with the miiidle, 
scooped out. The !eii;ith is IJ implies. This form of jnstrn- 
ment is used more especially to smooth down the ine(|iiiili- 
ties of the blocks of snow after beinj;- placed in position. 
Xo. .-Jl 10 {Via. 70) is a larfje snow knife mad(^ 
of walrus ivory. It is i;i iiches Ion;; and 
nearly L' inches wide (or (he j;r«'ater par( of 
(he blade, which (erminates in a ronnded 
jMiint. The ins(rnmen( has (wo edjics, and in 
general apjiea ranees resembles a <loMbleeilj;ed 
lioMuui Hword. The handle is cn( (o (i( (o the 
hand. 

Anion;;- other pecnliar imiileinenls eollcc(ed 
is one represend'd in l''i^. 71 (No. .'$."i.M), which 
is a ''backscratcher."' This ins(riimen( con- 
sis(s of a shaft made from a limb of a larch 
tree. It is 17 inches Ion;;' and about three- 
fonrths of an incli (hioii^rli, ila((ened lo less 
than half an inch and (aperin;;' toward the 
emi to beheld in the hand. On the lower end 
is a dish-shaped piece of reinder horn, two and 
|,^ .^^ one eighth inches lon«- and seven ci^litiis of 

snn« ' Kni'iv^ an inch wide. Through the center of the 
piece (it laa'ii an oblony hole has liceii cut lor 
the insertion of the shaft or handle. The ed.ucs of the 
horn piece are sharp as can be made. This jiicce is one 
third of an inch thick, and having' (he sharp cdKc np is 
eonveiiieiit for (hrus(iii^- down the back to scratch one's 
Keif in i>Iaees where the hand could not reach on account 
of thick deerskin elothin^'. The Kskiino name of the in 
striimeiit is ku-mo-ii-tik, or that which removes lice. 

The steel needles obtained from the traders are kept in 
a little ivory receptacle of vari<uis shapes, two of which "slTai'.ii,,''; k,,'' 



L'MlVllt. 



are shown in I"'i;;s. 7L' and 7.">. 

This is hollow and lllled with any siiliaK'nuin moss. One end is per- 
niaiiently closed by a wooden or ivory plu^, held in by IKtlc peus. The 
plug in the other end is easily taken out. The needle ease is usually 



'#/■ 



■351 



-I 

< 

V,l. 



2r. t 



riiK HI DstiN r.AV i;sKi\ii>. 



f. 
8 



picn'rU iMirffixr ii loop U\ u lii*-li it iiiay lie liim;; lolhr lirll hi llir 
Ncrdlrs ;ir»'also kept in a Uiml «>»* sniiMI (usliioii (Ki^. 71) niiMlc ol' 




i: Iviirv iiiTillf raac. 
Ki>ksHiii:<ii\ lit. 




Km. 7:1. Ivtirv I Ill- litw. 

KuKmomuiiix lit 



•"" ■"■—-■ -^--n_ 



s«'i»lskiii. clabMriitoly luiumH'iittMl witli Itt-inls iiiid siiillcil with s)>liii;;iinm 
moss. The cusliion ispeiloiatftliintuinl tlic iduc id ificivt- the ncciMrs, 

whicliwiiiilti 111)1 easily pi 
tliriill;;h tlir ttill^li skill. 
i\i'('iiiii)iaii\iii<; iiii*> III' 
tht>s<> iic-tllf nisliiiHis ill 
thf ciilh-i-tiiiii is out- of 
llie 1)1(1 fasliioiit'il thiiii 
(!.V, lili's such asjirc st ill nsnl, 
allliDiiuh iiK'tal thiiiilili's 
an' pn'tcntMl, It is siiii 
ply a strip *>i sralskiii 
sewed into a iiii^i laijic 
T-T •? — ^«. •■ .^» eiioiiuli to lit the iDretin 

j;er, ami is usually at- 

I'l(i.74.-S<Ml»kllllHt(ll.rn-l.i"li Willi Ihirnlili'. K"ksiwi.Mii> "I f;,,.l|,.,| t,, t||,. neeille 

eushinii by a tliniij; with mi ivory t<);;-;:le mii the riid, ti* prcNciit the 
thiiiihle I'roiii slippiiij; otV. 

Small articles ii>ed in sewing, smh as serajis of si. iii, needle eases, 
sinew threail, tliimliles, etc.. are cairied in siiia'l l)aj:- ordeerskin. which 
are often elaborately oinameiited with beads of various colors, like the 
specimen in the collecitioii, No. .'i(»l7. 

AMI ^IvMKN I-. 

Notwithstanding- the fact that these people have had their lot cast 
u|)on the frozen shoie^ of the sea. tlie.v appear liai)i)y and contented 
iiud loath to leave the land of their birlh. .Vllhoiigli it is a eoustiiiit 




AMI'HKMKNTS. 



stniKKh' iiinitlsl llir tcriiMr storms ol' a rc^'inii wlit'ic I'lir fi;^lii niuiitlis 

ill lilt' yi'iir lilt' soil is I'ni/cii iiiiil flu* few wuriii iliivs ol' siii cr In iiij.' 

lorlli ti sciiiity vc;;»'lati(iii, yet sii stiidif;' is tlicir lnvr liii' llicsc iiijins 
pitalilf sliiiri's thai llii' alisctil piiii' I'nr a ii'tiiin anil snoii liisr liicir hojil 
(III life il'Mit'y an- nut aliir to ilo so. 

iMiriii;; IJiiMiili-i'vals lirlwfi'ii liii- hiMilsinil wIu'h romj is still |i|<-ii 
(iliil, till' I'lskiino (li\cit llicnisclvcs willi ;;aiiirs of various kinds .if i Jicii 
own. 'I'lii'y iiii' alsoiiiiick to ailopl oMut panics which rf(|iiiic onliloor 
I'M'icisc. 

h'ool hail rails out i-vcryiioily, iVom Ihc a;;»'il anil lit-nt iiioihci ol' a 
niiiiii-i'oiis liiiiiily to I hi' loililliiit;yoiiii;isli'i'srai<'i'ly alilc lo i|o iMorr than 
waililli' miiliT Ihi^ liiiidi'ii of his ht'a\y (li'ciskin cloilu's. Wrestling 
aiming Mir turn is iiiiliil;;ril in for hours al a liiiii'. Tin' ii|>|ioni'nls 
ri'inovi^ all tlii'ir siipiMlliions ;;ariiii'iils, sci/.ti cacli otln-r aniMiiil the 
waist ami lock hands lichiiid each other's hacks. The fcfl arc spread 
widely ai)art and each endeavors to draw, hy the stnn-th of I he aiins 
alone, the hack of his opponent into a ciiive and ilins hrinu him ulf hi - 
feel. Then with a lift he is ipiickiy thrown llal on his hack. The fall 
m list he such that the head touches the yroiind. Where the conl est ants 
are nearly mati'hcil the strnnnle "'ay continue so lony- that oneid'them 
y;i\es up from exhaustion. The feet are m'ver used foi' trippiiij;. Sncii 
a procedure witnld soon cause the witnesses to slop the slnniulc. 

The IvskimoamI Indians often eiijia^^i^ in comiiarativc tests of liicir 
streii;;tli ill wiestliu;,'. The Kskiino prove the hctter men in these 
en;;a;;ements. Throwing' stones at a mark is a sjiort for the yoniifi'er 
men, some of w hom acquire siirjirisin;;' dcNterity. 

If a pai'k of playiiiji-cards can he ohtained Ihey ciifj^aue in yames 
which they have learned from the white people and teach cacli other. 
Small stakes are laid on tin' result of the ;iaiiie. Tlic uomcii appear to 
evhihit a ;;reater passion for ;;amhliiij; than the incn do. They will 
wa;;er liie last article of cloihin^- (Mi their persons till llic loser appears 
in a iinde condition hefore spectators. Then the winner will usually 
relnrii at least a part of the clotliin;;', with an in.juiiclion to jilay more 
and lose less. 

The yoiiiiK' K"l"* often play the ^aine of takiiiji an ohjcct and secret- 
iiiy if within the closed hand. Another is called upon to nuess ihecon- 
lonts. She makes impiiries as to the size. cohu'. etc. of the ohject. 
From till! answers she uradiially Knesses wiiat the thino is. 

A favorite ^anie. somethiiiji like cup ami hall, is played with the 
follow inji' iniiilemeiits: .\ piece of ivory is shaped into the form of an 
eloiifjate cone and has two deep notches ov steps cut from one side 

( I'iii. To). Ill tl ne next the hase are hored a nninher of small Iiolcs 

and one or two holes in the upper step. The apt\ has a single lude. 
On the opposite side of thehase twoholes are made ohliquely. that they 
will meet, and throiijih them is threaded a slnnt piece of Ihoiiu. To 
the other end of the thong is attached a peg of ivory, ahout 4 inches 



*}t 

"f-"'' 



- 1 



.A;.- 



•'A« 



lit 



nil; 111 looN iiw liSKiMo. 




TI'MN»B I 



(lAMI'.H, 



257 



to IIIKt* tllt« HI Ilk t<Mlk, IIH llio l);lll is ttM'llli'il. TIlc si/.c of till' llllll 

varies iVoiii :\ tn 7 iiu'lics in ilitiMirti>r. Tlicy Iiiim" imt \ff itnivcd 

at |it>rti'rliiiii ill inaUiii;; a s|ili«>iiral I'nriii lor tin- luill, l>nt it isol'ti'ii 

an a|i|ili> sliapt'. It is niailo Ity takiii;; a jtini' nl' liiK'kskiii, or 

st'iilskiii, ai.tl I'littiii;; it into a cirnilar tiain, tlirii patlicriii}; tin* 

nl;;i'saini ctiiniii>j tlic favity witli dry moss or t'catlirrs. A lirciilar 

pitM-t- ol'skin is tlicn inst'itcii to III! tlir spai't' wliirii is Irt't by tlir iiicoin 

pli-tc Katiii>riii){s. Tliis hall is very li;;lit ainl is<lriv«'ii I'illicrhya iilow 

iVoiii tlu' foot or rlsi> by a wliip of |i(>(iiliar coiistriU'lion. Tliis \vlii|» 

fonsists ot a liandlt' of wood S to lli intln's in li>ii;;t li. To pr<>v*>iit it 

fi'oiii slipiiin;; oat of tlio liiiiid wImmi the lilow is stnick. a stout tlioii); 

of H<>alskin is niadc into tlii> I'orin of a ion;; loop wliicli is |iasst'd ovor 

tlii> liand anil ti^liti'iiM around tli<> wrist. To tlio lUrtluT uiul of tliu 

wliipliandlrai't-at- 

tallied a iiiiinhci' 

of stout thongs of \: 

lira\'y sfalskiii. 

Tlu'Ht' tlioiifis liavc 

tlicir ends t ird 

around tlir handle Ll 

and tliiis t'oiin a 

nuinher of loops of 

\'2 to I'D inehes in 

lenn'tli. These are 

then tied together 

at tlie liottoni in 

order to uive tlieiii 




>{r eater wei;; 



ht 



Ih.. 



lliMuill 



lliiil><Mii Striiit Knki 



when tliehall is sirmk by them. A lusty Kskiino will often send tlm 
ball over a liiiiidred yards tliroiiKli tlie air with siieh force as to knock 
a person down. 

At l-'ort Chiiiio the y;aiiieis pluyeil during the late winter afternoons 
wli(>n the temperatiirv is .'l(P tu' 10 itelow zero. It is exeitiiiK and 
vijjoroiis play whore ii larye crowd Joins in the >:aiiie. 

Sometimes the ball is in the form of two irre;;iilar hemispheres Joined 
(o^t'ther, makiii;; a sphere wliith can be rolled only in a eertain di 
reetion. It is very awkward and prodnees miieh eonfusion by its 
erratiecoiir.se. Nos. .'UlM, ;VJ,S7, and .'Utld are footballs of the pattern 
tirst lUvseribed. 

The Iniiiiit wlioeome tVoin the western end of Hudson strait, the so- 
ealled ''Xortherners," have a ;;ame whieli they pla.v with sets of pieces 
of ivory cut into irie;iiilar shapes, and marked on one face with spota 
arranged in dilVercnt patterns (Ki;;. 77|. The immberof pieces in a .set 
varies from (Ml to IIS. The nam" of the sft is \ ma /u' a hit, and 
somewhat le.sembles our uaine of dominoes. 

The puue is played in lh«' IbllowiuK iiianuer: Two ov imu'c pcrson.s, 



-m- 



•■Vi . 



11 KTU- 



-11 






Ha- 



2.'»o Till', iiri>soN r.Av kskimo. 

itfcdi'din;;' to tlir iiiitiilxT (if pieces in the set, sit tlowii iiii<l pile tli(^ 
pieees helore them. One of llie phi.vers mixes the pieces t<»}{«'thei' in 
plain view ttl' I he others. When this is done lie calls them to take tlm 
_,;Q^ pieces. I'iach person eiiileavors to obtain a 

jj0lt2ii^% half or third of thimnmber if theie he two 

or three players. 'I'heonewho mixed npthe 
pieces lays dow n a piece and calls his oppo 
nent lo match it with a piec«- having a siini 
lar desifin. If this can not he don»' l>y any 
of the players the iirst has to match it and 
the juiunc continncsnntil ont> of the persons 
has exhansted all of the pieces taken hy him. 
The pieces are desi;;ne(l in pails, haviiii; 
nanu'.s siich as K.i mm tik (sled), Kaiak^ca 
HOC), Kale s;'k (navel), A ma /at (many), a 
tan s'k (I), Mil kok ('_'). I'lii;;- a sni ('■>), Si la 
nnit (I), and Ta li mat (.~>). I'.ach of liie 
iiamo.s ai)o\(' innsi he matched with a pic'.'c 
of similar kiml. althonj^ii the other end of the 
niece mav lie of a dif y—^.^k jnmt. 

(■rent desi^in. .\ Kaiii 
utik may he matciied 
uitii an .\nia/nl if 
the lattci- has not a p, 
line or bar cut across ./ i 
it: if it has the bar itVJKj 
mnsi be luatclied with i" 
an Ama/.nt. 

riii-^ f:ame is known 

to the people of the I iij;ava district, but those 

only who lia\c learned it frnm the Noi tiu'iiicrs 

are able to play il. 'i'iie northern I'.skimo staiu' 

the last article they p.issess on the isMie of the 

K'anu'. Their wi\es arc tlisposcd of temporarily, 

and otten are totally rcliminished to the victor. 

I have heard that tiie wises so disposed of often 

sit down and win themselves back totheir former 

owners. 




Km. 78.— i:sKi l,.ll 111. 

to the people of the I 
onlv w ■ 





I'NUiniit ilnll. wiininii. 

and lar<;e qnantities of 



lit wliicli 1 observed anion;;' tm-se people 



TlllNV.Ul 



ART. 



•25!) 



was ii viuliii (if tlu'ir nwii iiiiimiracliirc, iiiailc, nl' ediirst', i 
III' tliiisc tlify liad srcii used iiy the wliiti's. Its turm is 
wt'll sliMwii hy till' li;;iirc ( l''ifi. SL'),aii(lis 
inadt' of hircli of spruce, and tin- two 
sti iii;;s a If of coarse, loosely 1 wisted sinew. 
'I'lie how lias a sliip of w lialelione in place 
of horsehair, ami is resined with spiiice 
uiiMi. This liddle is held across the Pip 

when played. 

The old woman ot 
whom I procured the 
instiinncnl was al>le to 
])lay se\cral airs — smdi 
as they sinii' ainonu 
themsch es. I was snr 
l»ri>cd at the facility 
with w iiich she made 
the varion^ notes on 
such a elude imitation 
of a \ iolin. 



II unit: 
sntlicit 



itioii 
Idly 







I'Mii 



iiti'ii e\liiliited in the trimmiiii; of their ^;arments. and also by tliedolKs, 
ivli'ch I have alu-adv leferred to and tl;;nred. 



>0() 



IIIK III 1)S»»N IIAV KSKI.MO. 



J J. 

I 




l-il«' all ollifr KskiiiHi, fii,- Kok- 
suiiKiii.Viit iiic cxtu'cdiiiniy |,,;i(l i.f 
story tclliiif,'. .Sitliii^^ in tli." Imt, en- 
HHiii'il in liicii rvciiin;-' work, tlu- old 
lien tell what fliny Invc seen a-d 
lirai'l. Tlic (lid wdincn relate the his- 
tory of tin- iMM.pl.- of (nini.T days. .l,.|H.ndiii- <.ntln'ly on nu'inory, often 
intoisi.eised\Mlh ivcitations apparently n.n'JKn to tia- thrrtul of the 



Flli. h|. Illllll;lll (i;.'liri' 



<MrMil in iviiiv . 



TURNEH.l 



FOLK T.ORK. 



2ni 



legend. The younger niombeis sit witli staling eyes and i-onutonances 
wliiciii show th(Mr woiidfiing interest in tiie na.ratioii. Far into the 
night the droning tone of her voi<'e, eontiniuss leciting tht? events of the 
jmst until (tne by one the listeners drowsily drop to sleep in the posi- 
tion they last assumed. 

I was Ibitunately able to eoileet a number of these aneient legendary 
stories, stune of them of ionsiderable lengtli. 

Oiiji'm of the. Innuit. — A man was created from nothing. !t was 
sununer and he j(»urneyed until hc^ found a woman in another land. 
Tht! two beeame man am] wife, and from tliem sprang all the people 
dwelling there. |It is <^\trenu'ly ditlicaltto get the native to gobey(»nd 
the immediate vicinity in which he lives while I'elating these stories 
and legends. They invariably maintain that it was "here'' that the 
event took i)laee. | 

The (Utmhuj of the White People. — The l']skimo wert^ on the verge of 
starvation and had eaten nearly all their food. They saw that in a few 
more days death wmild come, 'i'lie greatest Tun^aksoak or great 
Tung ak deteimined to bring relief and proi>hesied that peojtle having 
light hair ami white skins would (-onu' in an innnense umiak. He 
placed a young puppy on a chip and another on an old sealskin boot, 
and set them adrift on the water. The puppies drifted in ditlereut 
diiections, an<! in the course of time the one on the clii|> retiu'iu'd and 
bronght with it the Indians. A long time after that, when the ]»coi»le 
had nearly tbrgotten the other puppy, a strange white object like an 
iceberg canu' directly toward the slnne. In a few moments the puppy, 
now a man, announced that the people had vwww .', ith many curious 
things in tlieir vessel. The. man imnu'diiitt-ly beeaimi a dog. 

ih-ij/iii of liritnj thiiois on the earth mul in the iroter. — A long time ago 
a man who was cutting down a tree obser\'ed that tiie chips continued 
in motion as they fell from the blows. Those that fell into the water 
becanu' the inhabitants of the water. Those that fell on the land be- 
came the various animals and in time were nnidc the food of mankind. 
(This was the version given me by a person living at Fort Chimo.) 
Another person from farther west gave the following account of the ori- 
gin of the living things of the earth; I'reviinis to a time when water 
covered the earth the people lived on such food as they could always 
find preparc<l for them in al»un<lance. They did not know of any ani- 
nmls at that tinu' (Ui the land or in the water. The wat«'r linally went 
away and the seaweeds became trees, shrubs, bushes, and grass. The 
long seaweeds were the trees and the smaller kinds became the buslics 
and grass. The grass, howevei'. was in sonu' nninner put in various 
places by a walrus at a later date than the appearance of the trees. 

.\ wiMuan who had lost her husband lived among strangers. As they 
desired to change the phute of their habitation, they resolved to Jimrney 
to another point of lainl at a distance. The woman who was depemling 
on charity had become a burden of w hich they wished to riil themselves. 



*'4T 






- -i 



w 



2 (1 2 



THE HUDSON ItAV KSKIMO. 



i 3«< 



€ 



Sollicy put iill tlu'ir lifliiiifjiiifis info tlic niiiiiik jumI wlicii tlicy won' 
(III I lie \v;iy flu'y scizcil tlic woiiiaii and casMicrovt'iboanl. Slic striifj 
}:;I('(I to ri'fjaiii tlicsidcof tlic ItoaLaiiil wlicn slir sciznl it, llicotiicrscnt 
oil' licr lin.ncis wliicii loll into tlic water and clian^'od to seals, walrus, 
w lialos, and white hears. Tlie woman in her despair, screamed her de- 
termiiiatioii to Jiave revenue lor the eriielty p(;rpetrated niton her. 'I'he 
thiimli.heeame a walrus, the lirst Hn;>'er a seal, and the middle lin^^cr a 
white hear. W'iieii the former two animals se<' a man they ti',\ toes 
eajte lest they he served as the woman was. 

The white hear lives hoth mi the land and in the s<'a, hiit when he 
ju'rceives a man reveiiiit'l'iil I'eeliii^is till Itim, and he determines to de 
stroy the person who he thinks inntilated the woman from whose linjier 
he spraii;;. 

(h-ir/iii ()/ tlir (iidllimots. — While some children were ]>layin;^ on the 
level top of a hij;h clilVoverliaiijiiii};' the sea. the older children watched 
the yiiiinyer ones lest they should fall down the hliill". Ilelow them the 
sea was covered with ice, and the strip alonjr tho slun'e had not yet 
loosened to permit the seals to approach. Soon afterward a wide 
eiiM'K opened and the water \\as tilled with seals, hut the childi'eii did 
not observe them. 'Piie wiml was «;old. and the children romped in 
lii;;h j;lee, enconrauini;' each other to ;ii'eater exertion in their sports 
and shouted at the top of their voices. The men saw the seals and 
liastenod to the shore to put their kaiaks into the water to pnrsne 
them. At this the children increased their shouts, which frightened 
the seals till they dived out of siyht. One of the iiieii was aiit;ry. and 
e.xclaimed to the others. •' 1 wish the clitf would topple o\*'rand hnry 
those noisy children for scaiinu the seals." In a moment the clilf 
tipped <i\'cr and the po'tr children fell .iiiion^ the fragments of lin;:v 
rocks and stones at the hotiom. Here they were ehan^'ed into ;iiiilli' 
mots or sea jtijieons. with red leet. and excn to this day they thus 
dwell anioiifi' the d. hris at the foot of clitls ne\t to the water of the sea. 

Oriii'm iif Ihrnimi. — The raven was a man. who, while other people 
were collecting' their household pio|ierty preparatory to removing to 
another locality, called to them that they had forjiotten to hriii;;- the 
lower hianket of deerskin ii.sed for a hed. This skin in the I'.skimolan 



;na«e is c; 



lleil k 



The man used the word so often that thcv told 



him to f^et it hinisclt'. lie hiirricil somiH-hthat he was « liaiij^ed intt 
a raven, and now uses that sound for his note. I'A'en to this dav wliei 



th 



e camp is 



heii 



!"■ remove! 



1 tl 



le raven Hies over and shouts "KakI 



kak!" or, in other words, "Do not forj;et the hianket." 

OrKjiii iif thr iiuailriuiijidnr si>iils oil llir loim'x hiirk. — .\ man had tw't 
children that he wished miyht leseiiihle each other. He painted the 
one (loon) with a white hreast and square spots on the hack. 1'he 
other (raven) saw how comical the loon ap|ieared, and lan^hed sonin<-h 
that the loon hecaiiie ashamed and eseapid to the water, where it 
Jilwa.vs pi'csents its white hreast in order to hide the spots of the hack 



FOKK LOliK. 



2(;3 



wliicli caused so iini<'li ridicuh'. The riivcii clinlcd tlif iitlcinpl lu be 
liiiiutcd ill like iiiiiniifv, mid sitintly rcl'iiscd to conic iic;ir. 

Or/.(//*M;/'///c i/ff/Zx.— Sdiiic juMtpIc in ii Ixml desired tn .ui> anmiul a 
point of land wiiicii proiccted far into tiie wntcr. As (lie water tiiere 
was always in a violent conimotion under liie end of tlie iioiiit wliieli 
teniiinaled in a lii;iii clilVsonie of tlie women were requested to wall; 
over tlie neck of land. One of tlieiii ,i;ot out witli lier cliildien in order 
to li^-liteii llie lioat. Slic was directed to j;() over llie place, and tliey 
l»roiiiised to wait for lier on the otiier side. Tlie |>eople in tlie boat 
!iad ;;one .so far that tiicir voices, i^iviiit;' the dire. 'lion, hecanie iiidis 
tinet. Tlie poor woman liecanie cniifnsed and sn-pcetcd they waiitiMl 
to desert her. She remained about the clilV. constantly cryin.u- the last 
words she lieaitl. She ultimately chan.ucd into a .uull. and now shouts 
only the sound like "//(> i>nr. ijoonr. on r, nrr," rli: 

(h-i(ii)i of the li<iirhs.— \uu)\\ii the people i.f a villau'e was a woman 
who was noted for the shortness of her neck. She was so constantly 
teased and toiinented about il that she often sat tor hours on the edoe 
(d' lii;;li places. She changed into a hawk, and now wiieii she sees 
anyone she immediately e\cl,iinis, -Kea: kea I kea I who. who, who 
was it that cried 'slnat neck.'"' 

thiiiin ol' till sifftUoir. — Some small children, who were extraordi- 
narily wise, weie playiii;^ at buildiiiii; toy houses on the edj;c of a liif;h 
elill near tiie villaj;e in wliiidi they dwelt. They were envied fcr their 
wisdom, and to tliem was <;iveii the naiuc ••/ulu.uaunal^."' or, like a 
raven, which was supposed I > know all the jiast and tntnre While 
these cliildren wert' thus amusiii.u themselves they were chanjifd into 
small birds, which did not tbr-ct iheir last oeciipatioii, and even to 

this day tliey < e to the clitl's. near the camps of the people, and 

build houses of mud. which t In-y alli\ to the side of t lie roek. Kveii 
the raven does not nioh'st lliem, and the I'.skimo eliildrcn love to 
wal<'li the swallow build ids ijilu^iak of mud. 

77„. /,„,-,-._Tlie hare was a child who was so ill treated and abused 
by the other people, beeause it lia.l Ioiiil;- ears, that it went to dwell by 
itself. When it sees anyone the ears are laid down on the back, tbi', if 
it hears the shout of a iierson.it thinks they are talking; of its loii^;- 
ears. It has no tail, iiecause it did not tormcrly have one. 

Thr irolf was a poor wouiaii, who had so many children that she 
could not liiid enoiij;li Ibr them to eat. They became so .i;auiit and 
hnnjiry that they were chanutMl Into wolves, eonstautly roamiiif;- over 
the land scekiu.u Ibod. The cry of the molher may be heard as she 
strives to console her hiin-ry cliildien, saying that Ibod in plenty will 
soon be fiuind. 

I.icr are siipiiosed to drop from the body of a liuuc spirit, dwelliu/ 
ill the rej;ioiis above, who was punished by liaviiiu- these pesis (on 
Htantly torment him. In his raiic to free liiniself the lire dropped 
down upon the peojile who conilcmned him to this punishment. 



1 

i 

•i 



! ' t 



iCA 



TlIK HUDSON IJAY ESKIMO. 



II 






i„ 



Or'Kjin of montiiiitoi'n. — A iiiiiii had a wife wlio was iiofjlifjeiit and 
failed ti» scrape liis sUiii (^lotliinn' inoperly wlu'ii lie returned tVoni liis 
expeditions, lie endeavored to itersiiade her to nu-iid her ways and 
do as a wife slionld d(». Slie was a} liii directed to remove the aeeii- 
niulated laytM' ol' dirt from the man's eoat. She petulantly took the 
fiarment and eleiined it in sueh a sloveidy way that when the husband 
discovered tiui condition of the eoat he took sonu' of (he dirt from it 
and tlunji' it after her. The particles chanj^od into mosquitoes, and now 
(ill spriiifi), when the warm dayscoiiu' and the women iiave the hihorof 
eleaniii;;- clothes to perform, the insects <jalher around them, and the 
women are thus reuiiiided of the slovenly wife and what iiefcl her. 

Storj/ of' tin: mtiii iii'd his for irij'v. — A hunter who lived liy himst'lf 
found when he r«'turiied to the plaet^ after an absence that it had been 
visited ami evfiytliiiif;' \n\\ in (U'der as a dutiful wife should do. This 
liai)pene(l so otten with no visible sijjns of tracks that the man deter- 
mined to wateli and see who would .scrape his skin clothing and boots, 

liaiifj them out to dry. and t k nice hot food reaily to be eaten when 

he returned. One day he went away as thouj;h jjoin;;- olf on a hunt, 
but secreted himself so as to observe the entrance of anvtiiiiiu; into the 



hou 



After a wliile he 



fox enter. Me susi>ccfed that the fox 



was aftei- food, lie (piietly slipped up to the house and on enteriii};' 
saw a most beautiful W(mian diessed in skin clothing' of wondrous make. 
Within the house, on a line, huiiu the skin of a fox. Tlie man ini|nired 
if it was she who had done these thinj^s. She replied that she was his 
wife ami it was her duty to do tlu>m, hopin;; that she had |ierforiiied 
her labor in a manner satisfactory to liim. 

-Vfter they had lived tofictliei- a short tinu'tlie linsband detected a 
musky odor abnnt the house :ind inipiired of her what it was. She 
ri'plied that she emitied the oilor and if lie was uoin^- to timl fault witli 
hei' lor It she would leave. Sin' dashed otf her clot iiiuii and, resnniin^T 
the skill of the fciN. slipped (piietly iwa.s and has never been disposed 
to visit a man siiu'c that time. 

The followinji' is a story obtaine(l from l.abrailor: 

Tlir rirttls. — lletweeii two nnMi there existed keen iivalr>'. Isacli 
asserted himself to lie the strnn;.;cr and ciideaNored to proxe himself 



supei lor 



to the other. One 



them declared his aliilit\ to I 



orm an 



island where noin' had hitherto existed. lle])icUed up an imnu'use 
rock and iinrleil it into the sea where it 



iiecann- an r^laml 



r 



it her. 



with his foot, pushed it so hard that it landed on the t 



up of anol Ikt 



ishinil lyin;:' far beyond. The mark of ijie tixitinint is \isible to tlli^ 
day, and that iilace is now known as Tn kiii tol<. 



Till 



I- ji II Ions mil II 



— .\ 



man li 



II ii 



I liiVf Wit li two wonn'li :i 



ml w; 



Jealous of them timl lie wcnild not permit tln'mto look npon others, 
much less speak to tiM-m. Tiie women tiiially wearied of the restric- 
tions placed upon them and resohed to desert the man. 'i'hey lied 
along the coast until they wcic faint finm iinn^ 



,er. 



At len-^th Ihev 



FOLK L(»I{|;. 



2b'5 



<;aine upon tlic body of a whale cast on tli»'. slioro. \h'w tlicy doter- 
iiiiiuMl to dwell for a time. The man sonj^lit for tlie women in every 
possible plaee with no siieeess. A eonjiuer was ectnsulted, and after 
miM'h deliberation, he told the deserted man to journey to a place 
wlu're he would tiiid the carcass of a whale and to secrete himself in 
the vicinity and watch lor the women. He started out accordingly 
and before lonj; ha<l the jtieasure of seeiii;;' the two women. They 
detected the man liastenin};' toward them and tried to secret** them- 
selves until he Hhould K^'t l>y. He seized one of them, however, and 
IxMind her with tlion;'s. The other was less disposed to sidnnit, and 
the man j)Ut out her eyes to deprive her of the privile;;e of looking; at 
any man. They remained about that locality for some time, and 
various animals of the land c.ime to the carcass to feast u|)ou the re- 
mains. Tilt* man caught a great number of foxes and other valuable 
furs and after a time returned to the camp whence he canu". 

SlDfji «/ the iiri>h(in luiji. — A snmll boy, who liad neither father, 
mother, nor any living relatives, was dwelling with some people who 
maltreated him in every way their fancy <-oul(l suggest. He was kept 
in the entry way to the hut, like a ilog, and was permitted to eat only 
of the skin of walrus when they had it to giv** him. At othei' tinu's they 
wouhl throw to him what they themsehes would not eat. They I'or- 
bade him to have a knife with which to cut iiis food, and he was com- 
lielled to gnaw tlie bones like a 'log. A little girl, the daughter of the 
head of the family with wiiom In* lived, would secretly take to him a 
kniie w itli whicii todivilethe to;igli skin of the walrus. .She also car- 
ried food of beltei' (piality to lili i when she could ilo so clandestinely. 
Tlu'si- kind attentifuis pleased 'lim \i'ry much, and made him long for 
an op|i >!? 'lily to escape. Itut how was he to better his condition 
when tin- hand ot' everybody was raised ai.iiiist him on account of his 
tieatment at home .' The littl" girl who had so «ilteii bel'riended him 
could not assist him to escape from siu'li a life. He endeavored to lay 
a plan, but it eaiiie to naugiit. There seemed no help for him. One 
night lie abandonecl all lin]ie and tlii'cw liimselC on the gnaind in des- 
pair. NNliile tiieic he ga/.ed al tiie iiri^ht moon, and the moie intently 
his ga/«'\\as li\e(l upon il tiie more he tiiougli! he discerned the face 
of a man in it, and al last he eiied to the man to come and hcl|i him 
escape from his iiiiseraliie life. The man came down i'umi the moon 
and ga\(' the jtour buy a liiglittnl beating, but the more he was iieaten 
the larg<'r he seemed In gmw. Alter awhile lie became so stiung that 
he could handle a large rock as easily as he had hitherlo handled a 
litlle sloiie, A large, round bowhlei' fruiu the beach was m) iiuu'e to 
him than a imllel held in the hand of a strong man. 

The moon man llieii told the lioy that he was large enough to take 
care of himself ami lo as he pleased with the peopir who had ti'catcd 
him so badly. With lliis liie l wo pailed. and the moon man went to 
his hole ill tiie sky, while the boy walked along the lieach picking iii) 



Vh 



2(1(5 



Tin; IlfliSoN HAY KSKIMO. 






rorks iiimI tiissin;; tliciii aloii;^ tlic sIk ic until the cliiiriirtcior tlif watfi'^s 
cdjic was ciilii'i'lv tlianjucd. WIhmi tlit> hoy JiiriNcd at llic liiit it was 
<la,\li,ulit, I'lii' )m> liati tairii'd so Ioii},miii tlic ImmiiIi ti'stin^ his strtMi^tli 
that the iiiuht iiail slipiicd away. 

The p('(i|ilc \M'H' Iciiillfd wiit'ii tiicy saw to what i-iioi'iuoiis propor- 
tions the ahnsrd l)oy had ;;rown. lie hrrann' IVrn/icd tin- instant lit> 
saw his lininci' iii'isctMitors, and sci/in;; liist oim> and tiit'ii th<> otlicr in 
his hands dished them a;;ainst tiii> ro<-ks. Tin' lilood ami hraiiis rail 
in streams. One of tin' men, .scoin;;' his doom, lic^'^cd lor liiN lite and 
promised \\\> kaiak, >pears. sjeil, and wile if he should he spared. The 
euia^ed hoy coutinm'd tin- slau;;iitei' until <uMy the little ^iil who had 
.so often helViended him was left. She iieeann- his wile, and in th«> 
eonrse of a few hours the man, whose mnne was Kou je ynk, lieeami* 
of a natural si/e a;;'ain and passed his life in <'oud'ort. 

This story was olitained from a man tVom (.aluiuhu'. The h'skiino 
assert that this oeeurred near Ohak (often pronouneed Okak), miw a 
ndssionary station. Tliey show the roek, wiiieli a little ima;;inatioii 
;;ives the appearanee of liaviu;; dried liiood and liraiiis still upon it. 

'/'/((■ iirijiin of' llic sini. iiiiinii, <(n<l shirs. — .\t a time w lien darkiioss 
eoviMed tiie earth a nirl was ni;,'litl,\ visited by sonu' one whose identity 
sin* eould not discover. Sin' determined to tlnd out who it (MXild he. 
She mixed sonu' soot with oil and jtainted her lireast with it. Tiienext 
time she discovered, to her liori'or, tliat hei' brother had a hhndv circle 
ot soot around his nmutli. Siu> upliraidcil him and h(> denied it. 'i'he 
father and niotiier were very an;;rv and scolded the pair .so severely 
tliat the son tied from tiu'ir |ireseuce. The dan^hier seized a brand 
fi'om the tire and pursued him. lie ran to thosky to avoid her but she 
tiew alter him. 'I'he man chanp'd into the moon and tlie i^irl wholioro 
the torch iiccanu' the sun. The sparks that Itew t'roin the brand became 

the stars. The sun is constantly pursuiii;;' the i n. which keeps in 

the darkness to avoid bein;;' discovered. Whi'ii an eclipse ocenis they 
are su]»posed to meet. 

Aiiiiirds. — .\uroras are believ<'d to be the torches held in the hands 
of spirits scekinjj t lie souls of those who have just died, to lead them 
<ivt'i' the abyss terminatin<;' t he ed;i'e of the world. .\ nariow pathway 
leads across it to the land of bri;;litness and jdcnty, where disease and 
pain are no more, and where food of all kinds is always rca(l,v in abun 
dance, 'i'o this ])la<'e none but the dead and the laven can ;:(i. When 
the spiiits w ish to eommnnicate with the people of the earth the.v make 
a whistling; noise and the earth people answ«'r oidy in a whisperinj;: 
tune, 'i'he I'lskinio sa.v that they ai'e alile to call the aurora and con- 
verse with it. They semi nu'ssa;;es to the dead thidu^jh these spiiits. 

The si,!/. — The sky is supposed to be an immense dome, of hard ma- 
teiial, reared over the earth, hm^; from east to west and shoiler from 
north to south. The ed<^cs of the land and sea are biuindcd by lii^di, 
precipitous sides, shelving; outward or sloping; inward to prevent any- 



Trii"-.li ) 



•■()|,K MiKK. 



2f]7 



tliiiij; liviii^j nil tlic ciirlli IVkiu ;;t>iii;; to tlic region hcyoml. Tlicie is 
tlic .sut'.nu' (illiiulil iiiul liciil. Tlir (loiiif of I lie sky is vciy ((liii, and at 
times nivi'ivd witii ciystals ((tTrost wiiiili rail in llif I'niin (»!' snow or 
IVost liliiis to tlic cartli. anil llicii Ilii- si<y iKToiiifs clear, 'i'lic cIiiikIs 
arcsiipiMiscd to lie lai'^'c ltaj;s (if water, cuntnillcd iiy two old wiiiiumi 
wild run with tliciii acrnss ilir sky, and as tiit- water escapes {'ynui fiie 
seams it tails in the I'lirin nl' rain to the eaitli. Tlic tlnindcr is their 
voice and the li^lhlnin;; is their tnrcli. If a spark falls from this oil 
anyone he dies and }foes to the rc;fion aliove. 

77(C iriiiil.i. — .Kl each of the cnriicrs of the earth there dwells an im- 
mense lull iiiviiicildc spirit, whose head is many times lar;;cr than all 
the remainder of his lio-'v. When he lircathcs the wind Idows and 
ids lireath is felt. Hon.c breathe violent storms and others gentle 
/epliyrs. The male spirits dwell at the north, norllieast. nortliwcst. 
and west. The females dwell at the reinaiiiini;- points, and each princi- 
pal spirit has iiiiinineralile internicdialc and less powerful attendants. 

llli; NKM.Niir OK "NASKnl'IK." 

The Indians of the l'nj:ava district are locally known as Naskojiic. 
a term of reproach applied to llicin l>y the iiioiintainccrs(tlie Monta^nais 
of the early desiiif missionaries) dnriiiy the earlier days when the 
former acted falsely in ime of their concerted strn^iLdcs with the Kskimo 
of the eastci'ii coast. 

The iianic ;:i\en to IhcmseUcs is Nenenot, a word meaning;' tine, or 
ideal red men. To the west of tlie.se people dwell a Itraiich of the tribe 
aloii^ the e.ist shore of iiiidsini bay. To tli«' southeast dwell the moiiii- 
taiiiecrs. 

The western people ditVci' ;;icatly i:i cnsjonis and man> words of 
their lan;;na;;c from the Nenciiots. The iniMintaineers dilVer but little 
in their cnstoins, and only in speech as niiicli as would be expected 
from theditVerenl locality in wliii'h they dwell. 

These three tribes have distinct boiindaries. beyond which tiiey seldom 
wander. Of late years, however, a ^jradnal inlinx of tln^ western people 
has poured into the I'liiiiava district, due to tiic decrease of the food 
sni>ply alon;;' that portion of the eastern coast of Hudson l)ay. 

Tiie Nencnots appear, fnnn the best information I could obtain on the 

subject, to have I n driven to their present location during- the wars 

waf,'ed a.uaiiist them by the Iroipiois in times lon^- lione by a. id reiiiem- 
bered only in tradition. 

They assert that their orijjinal home was in a country to the west, 
north of an immense river, and toward the east lay an enormous body 
of salt water. The toriner was supposed to be the St. liawreiice river 
and the latter to be Hudson bay. When they came to tli(>ir iiresent 
place they say that they Ibiind I'lskimo alone, and these only aloiij;- the 
coast. They are a branch of the (■ree stock, as their lansuan'c clearly 
indicates. 



■ f 



208 



TIIK IllIiHON HAY KSKIMO. 



i ^m 



Many years a;;o war was wap'il upon Minii b\ tlio pnoplc wliose 
naiiH' is rt'iii('iiiln'i«'(l willi tnror t-vt'ii to this day. Most cruel atro<>itii>H 
were itcipt'tiatetl. aiitl in despair they lied tVoni I lie lainl of tlieir tatheiH, 
wliere tiiey ha<l lived as a niiineious jteople, ami were pursued by Mieir 
inereiless toes until but a remnant leaelied what is now kiiowi- is the 
"llei;;lit of Land." 

Itein^; now driven to a stran^t* land, where they t'ouni'. (M'ouh 

Kskinio oil all sid»'s, only a lew years elapsed before they oaehed 

too n;i'(>iitly u]>on the land whieh the h!skiino had always held, ('on 
tention and stru$;;,r|es arom-, enlininatini^: in a disposition to ti;;ht, and 
ill the eoiirsif of time tlesnltory warfare, carried on by single eoinbiit or 
oryani/ed raids. This lasted for many yeais, e\t'ii after the advent of 
the white men as traders aloiifj the eoa.st. So>ne of the battles wj^rw 
attended with ;>reat slaughter on both sides. The Hskimo Heldoiu vtMi- 
tilled far from the roast on their raids, but foii;rlit bravely wlieii at- 
tacked on their own j,'rouiid. In most instances they outwitted tliu 
Iinlians by dt>coyin;; them into ambush, and killiii;; ^'leat numbers of 
tln'in. Within the present century tiiey ha\i' bet'ii more peaceably 
disposed toward each other. Sincu the arrival of the white men at 
various points alon;; the coast these troubles have coased, and tlu' 
Indians and Ivskimo are now on intimate terms; not that either |>ai'ty 
have any special rej;ard for the new t-oiners, but they lia\e a mutual 
fear of each other, and the white man now eiifja^es their entire atten- 
tion. 

In the early stru;,'};les the Imlian tbiind the Kskinio to lie a sturdy 
opponent, possessed of fjreater endurance and perseverance than liiiii 
self. After the conclusion of the troubles they withdrew to their pres 
eiit haunts, and now wander indiscriminately over the land, althon^di 
the Ivskimo seldom ventures far into the interior unless it be alon^ thu 
valley of some laifje stream. They even cam|i aloiif^side of each otiu'r, 
and a^icd Indian men and women, who have been left behind the parties 
of yoiiii}; people who are in (piest of fur bearin;^ animals duiiii}^ the 
wint«'r months, are only too j^lad to have a camp of jolly ICskimo near 
at hand. With theiii they can live as parasites until their hosts are 
e\haust"d of supplies, or until they move to another locality to i'elie\e 
themselves of the importunities of their unbidden tcuests. 

The Indian is not the physical superior of the Kskimo. It is true, 
they arc* more cxjiert on snowshocs. because the Hiiowslioes beloiifj: to 
their mode of life. They are used by the Eskimo only when they can be 
purchased liy barter from the Imlian. The l'jskiniosnowsh<ie is merely 
a rude imitation of the Ibini used by the nei;;hlioiin^ Indians. In the 
canoe the Indian is at home; so also is tht> ivskimo in the kaiak. which 
braves the severest weather and the rouy;liest water, on which the In 
diaii would only j^a/e in dread and never venture. 

.\bility to endure fati};nc is less in the Indian than the I'jskimo, wlio 
accomplishes by i»atieiil persistence what the Indian desires to do in a 



I'lIK NKNION'OT. 



26!> 



liiiny. I liiivo imt ohHcrvcil IniliiiiiM cany smli lu-avy IoikIh as llms** 
Im)|'Iii> on till* slioiililt'i'H of Ivskiino, wlio, witli i>ast>, iiscriitlfd a liill of 
siiili iilinipt stt'i'piit'HH tliiit an iiiiiMiniinlxTiMl iicisoii rliiiilii'd it with 
dillinilty. Stnoriil Ksliinio iiu-n astcndt'd this liill, tacli uitii a liaircl 
of thiiii'on his siioiihli'i's. 

The Indian is altlt^ to witlisland llio «>ll'«-i-t of cohl as wi^ll as thtf 
Kskinio. Thf <-iothint; of the hittci' is ct-rtainly Ix'tttT adapted to pro 
liM-t af^ainst coltl. hi tiinrs of st-aicity of food tln^ liSkinio is abl*^ to 
pt witliont food for anninlxM' of days and ytM porfoiin a <-unsidi>ial)h« 
amount of |)iiysical hiitor, wiiilc tin- Indian wonid r(>i|nii't« food on tin- 
sciotnl or tliird day, ami rt-fnst* to move until it innl itron fnrnisln'd. 

In foniparison witha ^vhit«^ nnm nndtM- tin' same eoiiditions the na 
tives of t'itin'r elass wouitl soon show siyns of inferiorit and under 
inolon^ed exertion hnt few, even of tin' l''skinio, w<nil<l endure tini 
strain. Tin- priiu-i|ial strenntli of tlnse people is shown in their sue- 
«'ess ill tin- ehase. 

Th«^ ehildren are obedient to their ])arents, who seldom ever einistise 
t)n>m. Disrespect to parents is unknown, and in their inteniinrs«> witii 
each other there are no elasliin;:s dnrin;,^ youtli. Not until the jeal 
onsies awakened under the stinuilns of their sexual instiints arouse 
their |>assi(His do" they t»e;;in to show enmity and Initrcd toward eaeli 
other. 

The males evidently exiiihit, jealousy to a less decree than tiu> o])|io- 
site sex. The men, after a protracted absence from each other, often 
emhraetuiinl shed tears ot' joy at meetinj,'. The women are less denn.n 
strative. 

The uumlier of children born exceeds the ininiber of deaths. Mor- 
tality appeared to be low for the two years I was near these people. 
The prt^vailinn diseases are of the lun^^s and bowels. The lun;f dis 
eases are iinluced by <-onstant exposure to exti'enu's of wet and cold 
and the iidndation of foul air laden with terebinthine odors, arising 
from the resincnis woods used for fuel. Changes of the wiinl blowiuf; 
in at the door cause the interior to l)econH' tilled with snn)ke, which is 
endured rather than admit tln^ cold air from without. 

Abslineme fiom fresh food for a lon^ tinn>, with dry nu-at only to 
subsist upon, is often broki'ii by the sudden capturt^ o\' deer. This 
affords an opportunity for ^'orjiin^' until tiMMlifjestiveorfians are weak 
ened ami seri(ms complications arise. It is i|uit«> jn'oltable that ;;luttony 
directly produces half of the ilhu'sses that occur amctn;; these people. 
The insntliciency of clothiufj; does not apparently intiuence health, as 
they seem utterly regardless of exposure, and loiiy' continued dwellinj;- 
in the tents probably imlnees nearly, if not <|uite. all the other illsalllict- 
iujj them. Indolent ulcers and scrofulous complications are frequent, 
but only in few instauees ai'e of such <'haractei' as to prevent their fol 
lowinj; their usual oecupatH)ns. Durinj; illness they are stolid, and 
appear to sutler intense pain without the twitching of a musile. When 



'J7<t 



riii: III usuN ii\Y 



>KIM(). 



ja« 






ilcath :i|i|ii'i)ii('lii'i 



liiis liiit Unit' trinii, iiiitl is iiwailcil uilli imlillfi 



»'IH'»', 



Till' iriiicilii's fin|)l<ivril UK' oiily tliusc iilloidi'il l)\ till' iM'iitiiiu III' till* 
ill II III II III I tlir iMiiiiil>liii;;s III till' sliaiiiiiii, wlm rliiiiiis In liavr run I ml of 
till' siiiiii wliii'li raiisrs all ilisi'ani' ami ili-atli. Tlii-y air. ii-iwi'vi-r, 
lirill lu'lii'MM's ill till' I'llirary nl' |iiiliiill> riilil|iiillliilril li,\ llic uilill* 
liailiT, vUin is I'lilly as i<riiiiraiit of tlic iliscasi' as tlir siiliii'it liimsi'ir is. 
Ol'ti'ii a liarinii'NS iiiixtinr nl nil ink. nil |M'|i|ii'r, Ki>iK*'i<<>i' olln'i jMiii 
^I'lil siilislanrr is ^iv )>n, witli ;i niiilli|ilirily < rninriisin^ ilin'rtiuns, hi'- 
wilili'iinn till' nn'ssi'iijji'i ilis|ialrlnil fm ii'liri, \\\u>. in ii'|it'aliii;; tlii'iii, 
ol>i>ii iiiaki's iiiistitki-saiiil ailvlM's thai tin- wliiili>i|iiaiitity lii'swallnwi'il. 
Till' I'lVi'il is siiiiii'liiiii's iiiaHiial. anil llii- palirnt ii'ihmts. I'dwiIits 
all' iiiMii'il UN IT till' si-at i>r pain ami liniini'iils sw allnui'il vt illi a\ iility. 
Stniii^i' as it iiia\ si'i'in. lliry nltni irimit j^iMiil I'tl'i'i-ts, anil ian>l> tail 
til ask lin iiiinr (if tlir saiiir kinil. Itnlli si-si's attain a "irat a«:i'— in 



siinii' instanrrs ri'iiaiiilv 



i\ 111; 



i\rr si'M'iits \('ar.> 



Skmii' assi'i t that 



tlii'N xM'ii' wi'll ailvaiirril in \rars lii'l'iar tlir wliitr nirii rainr in \>^'2 



11 



ir niaiTiaui' ri'ii'ininiv 



■iiinply a ronsi'iil tn li\i> lii;;i'tlii'r. nlitainril 
li.\ n'i|iu'>l it' piissililc, anil l>y loirr, il' nrrrssais. Tlir man laki-s a 
will' as siiiiii as III' ciiiisiili'is hiinsi'lt' alih' In siip|iiirt mir. W'hrn tlii' 
rri'i'iiiiiiiy is In lir niiilrrtaki'ii llir nnisi'iit of llir ;;iiTs pairiits ur iirar 



rst nlativi's is si>ii;:lit. anil li,\ Imlili 



xiit Irmplin;: iinliirrmi'iits in 



thr fiinii of pi'i'si'iils. tlir siiilur wins tliiiii In his tinnr. Tl onsiiit of 

thr yii'l. if shi' has nut \it liifii mariiiil is. of nnirsi', ;;iaiilril. if slin 



ilrsill's to rill 



(Iv \»'i|i till' wishi's iif lii'i' ri'lalivi'! 



If 



It. th 



P 



pi'itivi' liiislianil IS II 



ifiii null that tlii'\ ran iln nnthiii;; in turn Iiit lii-art. 



Till' niatliT is iiinli'istonil, ami in a shnit tiinr slir is taki'ii fnnililv to 



his nr his falhri's tiMit, i'lii'lii' liiiuliii;;' tin' rniiph- is vny 



anil 



on till' h'ast proMiratioii may In- ilissnlvnl liy Vithi'i pai't,\. ('nntinrmi' 
nil till* |iart nl' I'ithi'i' wifo nr hiisliiiinl is niiiisiial, ami nnl,\ iiotnriniis 
iiirniitinriiri' is snlVnii'iit tn raiisf tlii> nlfrmlrr In In- jinl away. 'I'hi'ir 
soxiial ri'laliniis an- vi'i.x Innsr ammi^ thi'msi-lM's, lint thi'ir iniiiiorality 
is I'ontillril tn tliril'OWIl pi'nph'. Tn takr a si'iniiil, a thil'll, nl't'Vrll a 
fniirth will', is lint iiiirnmiiiiiii, lint thr aililitioiial wivivs air takrii ptiii 
I'ipally for tlu^ pnrpnsi' of pi'ilnrniinji; lalmr impnsi'il l»y the I'lii'ifiyof a 
siirrrssfiil limitiM'. 1 1 is only hi- wraltliy im-.i wlmraii atl'onl a plurality 



of wivrs. 



Till' srvrral wi\rs nl'ti'M ilwi'li ill thr sami' triit. lint 



.kal- 



imsii'S Iri'qiii'iitly aiisi- thry ri'snrt to ti^ihtiiiK amoiifj tluMnsi'l\i's to 



spltli' their ilitfrii'ii 



Thr hiisliaml Innks on ralhih' until inaltiT: 



jfo ton far. W'hi'ii III' inti'i'fi'ri's tlii' vvnini'ii air suri' of liriiij.; sonmlly 
thmslii'ii. A woman, howcvri', ofti'ii assails hi-r hiisliami, and in .somu 
iiistaiiii's givi's him an nninrnifiil pniimliii;;, iniirh tn tin- ainnsi'mi'iit 
of till' liyslanilrrs, who iMirniiia^^r lirr to iln Iiit lii-st. Thi' man is a 
siiliji'it fnr riiliriilr fnr wei-ksaftiTwanis. I'iithiT si-x ran I'inliiri' ln'iiit; 
lii'ati'ii. lint lint lii'iii<; laii^hi'il at. Tliry lari'ly fni'^ivi' a wliiti' man who 
laughs at their ilisrnmlituri'. .\ii amuslnj; iniiili'iit ni-riirri'il within ti 



TrHNKMl 



•nil", NI'.NI'.No'l'. 



871 



Htiiiif's ilii'ow of I'NirM'liiiiiii. All lii(li:iii liiitl lii^ clotliinu "^triitpid 
IVoiii liiiii liy Ills I'lirii^cil wile, Slii> tlii-ii loir llic It'iil IViMii tin- |m*Ii-s, 
loaviiiu liiiii iiiikftl. Slii> tonk llit'ir |ii'i)|M>rl,v In IIm' iiiiidc, wliirii hIii^ 
piMltllrtl Mt'vn'iil iiiili-s lip till- sti'i'itiii. Ill- lollowt'il aliiii;; I Me liiuik 
until slic ri'lciitnl, wlicitMipoii tlirii titriiicr rclalitiiis wcif rfsiiiiinl, us 
tliiiii),'li iiiitliiii;; liiiil tlisliii'iM'il tilt' liiiriiioiiy nl' llnir lil'o. Tli<* iiiiiii wiis 
so scvi'it'ly planiUMJ by his tMainailrs tliat lor many days in- scaitcly 
sliownl Ins lii'utl out of tin- triil. Itivalry l'*>i' llic favor of a woman or 
man is onasionally tlif soiiicc of s(«rioiis alVrays. An instaiu'c was r«'- 
latcil to mt> wId'ic two mrii soiikIiI Hh' lianil of a woman, and to scl-tU^ 
wliii'li should liavf licr, thi\v di'lormiiii'il to ;^o in tlirir caiiofs to tlir 
lakoiirar hy and ll;>lit with tlii'ir di>«>r spiMis. (>ni> of thr mm was 
kill«>d and tlii> otlirr llinciipoii olitaint>d tli<- woman, who is now liviii<;. 
Tlif SCSI'S liavc tlii'ii' sptH'ial laltors. W'omi'ii pi'iform Iht' driid^fiy 
and Iniii;' lioiiii* llii' I'ooil slain liy tlii'ii' liiisliands. ft'trhiii^' wood and 
watrr, tannin;: till' skins, and making; tliriii into ilothin;;. Tin- lalMir 
of I'l'i'i'tiiiK llictt'iils and hauling tlii' sleds when on llicii Joiinicy dur- 
ing: till' wiiitrr falls upon thfin, and, in fad, tiny prrfoi in tin' Kii'ati'r 
part of I III- man II. il lal>or. 'I'ln-y ari'mnsidi'icd inferior to tlii'mcn. and in 
thi'ir social lift' they soon show the ciVects of llic hanlship> lliey iin 

deiK". 

T\n\ fciiiaies arrive at piiltcily al llii^ a;:t' of I t m- \'>, .ind art^ taken 
as wives at even an earlier ajif. So early iire tliey taken in maniayi' 
tliat liefore they are M years of ajie they often appear as thiMi^ih they 
were ."•<•. Some of llieiii are iiidetaisly iifjI.Vi smd are so lie^iiimed witii 
smoke from the resintms wooti iiseil lor fuel ami with llltli that it is 
purely ^jiu'sswork tti even approximate their ant'. The women appear 
tt> lie exempled from I lie eiiise of Kve, ami tit liver tlieir eliildreii witli 
us litth> (Mtiiei'rn as is exliiliited anion;; tiie Itrnles. 'I'lie child is not 
uMowed to receive nourishment until the tliinl day. and no water must 
ttnicli its Itotiy. The infant is swaddleil in wrai)pin;;s of skins and 
cloths. Spha;;iiuiii moss is iiscii ncM the litiily and clian;;ed evi'iy other 
day. Tliey lit';;iii to walk at an early a^'t'. ami this is, doubtless, the 
principal cause tif the bow in;; of the le;;s so iiflcii observed. Tiie;;irls 
arc iiejjiected and the boys ;;ivt'n every atlvanta;;i'. The latter soon 
diseovtM- their im|>ortanct' ami rarely fail to show their thimiuceriii;; 
ways to the other sex. 

It is quite rare that twins are born. It is not usual for a mother to 
have more than four eliihlren, although as many as six orei;;lit may be 
born. As tlie paternal tuiKin is oft.'ii obscure, the person liaviii;;- that 
woman as wife at the time of the child's birth is supposed to be its 
tiither. 

The mortuary euatoms of the Naskopie were but imiierfectly learned, 
for when a death occiirretl at the trading; statitm the liody was buried 
like u white inan's. .\ shallow ;irave was liiji' in a sandy soil, as this 
olVeretl less trouble in tlifJKiiijy, and the body placed in a rudely con- 



.^' 



t3' 






27: 



TllK. IllDSON HAY KSKIMO. 



if 



structcd ciitHii ;iii<l covcil-iI willi dirt. A siiiiill liriincli IVoiii a tit'owas 
piact'd ;il till' liciiid «>r the j;ra\r, luif willi what sifjiiilicalion I rould 
iioti-.tiislactorily d«'teriiiiiu'. I rcccivi-d tin- reply tliat tlic wliito inoii 
{lut s(>inetliii>}':at tlu^ head of tlicir graves, and so do Ihe Indians. 

Away troni the post th«^ Indians snspiMid their dead tVoiii tlie 
bianehes of trees, if the •iioiiiid l»e tVo/en too liard to exeavate, aiul 
endeavor to retnrn in th<- l'olIo\vin<: suninier and inter tiie ]io<ly. A 
person \vh<» has distin.uiiislied hiniselt'anionu' the piMiph' is often Iniried 
where ilie tire lias Itceii lonfi'eontiiuu'd within the tent and thawed tlu^ 
fjronnd to a sut^lcient depth to cover the body. The tent is then re- 
moved to another location. The Indians have not that drea<l of a 
corpse which is siiown .so plaiidy anionfi the Kskimo. The former have 
been known to strip tl.i' clothinf; from recently deceased I'.skimo. and 
it is not inl're(|uent for tliem to appropriate the pnii orother imi)Iemcnt 
placed by the side of a dead Innuit. 

In iesi)onse tomy inipiiry how they dispo^^ed of theii' dead in former 
ajjes, I obtained evid( ce that scatfold iturial and suspension fiom trees 
were formerly practiced and that subterranean burials were introduced 
by the missionaries. 

The dean areuionrue(l tor actronliuf; to the position tliey occn]iied in 
life, a favorite child often causinjj an alarniiu}: ;;rief in the mother who 
mourns for many (hiys. constantly bemoaning her loss and reminding; 
the listeners of the rri'.'ts in the child's nature so well remembert'd. 
The body is taken to the place of llnal rest by the friends, the relations 
seldom iU'companyiny- it. 

The life of these peoi)le is a constant strujjfjle to obtain food and 
raiment. Nothiufj, however unimportant, is done w ithout much delib 
ation and repeated consultation with friinids. 

They are also guided to a fjreat extent by theii- dreams, foi' they ini- 
ajiine thatm the nijjht they are indirect coniuiunication with tlu'spirits 
which watch o\er their<laily occupations. Certain i)ersons obtain nnicli 
renown in di\iniii;;' the dreams and these are consulted with the n'lcat 
est contidence. The drum is brou^^ht into use, and during its tumult 
the person jtasses into a state of stupor (U- trance and in a few mo- 



men 



ts arouses himself to reveal tlu> meaning of the other's dn-a 



m. 



Superstition holds these people in its ter;ible sway an*! ev»'rything 
not understood is attributed to the working of tine of the numerous 
spirits. 

ICvery object, however simple, ajipt-ars to lia\e its ]»atron spirit, 
which, in order that it may pertbrm its services for the weltare of the 
people, nnist be propitiated w ith otferings most pleasingand acceptable. 
to it. The rule seems to be that all spirits arc by nature bad. and 
nuist bt! proj)itiatcd to secuic their favor. Ilach person has a patron 
spirit, and these must always be placated lest misfortune come. These 
spirits assume an intinite variety of forms, and to know just what tbrm 
it assumed when it inllieted its baneful effects, theshanums or medicine 



RKLIUrON'. 



273 



inoii must !)(' <'(nisiiltt'd. Tlicsr :nc supposed to bo iu diri'ct coutiict 
witli sui'li spiiits. Tlu«, spirit will iipjK'iir only iu thu dnrkui'ss of the 
c'oujuliu;;' liousc, iiud then juMiuit itself to be iipi)eiised by .some atone- 
ment made by the iillliicted. wliicli can be made known only thion-ih tlie 
slianniu. lie alone indicates tlie course to be ])ui'sued, and liis direc 
tions. to be explii'itly followed, are often so coufusiufi and impossilde 
lliattlie person fails to perform tlieni. All these minor spirits are under 
the control of a siuj;le jjreat spirit having' its dweilinf;- in the sky, a term 
as illimitable with those ])eople as with ourselves. 

I'lach animal has its piotectivc spirit, which is inferior to those of 
man. The soul, if such e\|n'ession may be used, of all animals is inde- 
structible, and is cai)able of reappearing; aj;ain and ayain as often as 
the material form is destioyed. There are spirits of beasts, birds, lishes, 
insects, and i)lauts. Each of these has a liouu' to which it returns after 
death, which is simply-i cessation t)f that period of its material form, 
and each may be recalled at the will of the shanniu. If an animal be 
killed it does not decrease liie nund»er of that species, for it still exists, 
altliou;:h iu a ditVcrent form. 

Tne Canaila jay is sujiposcd to inform the vaiious animals of the ap- 
proach of Indians, and these rarely fail to kill the Jay wherever lound. 

.\ species of mouse is supposed to ha\(> such dread of man that it 
dies the instant it wanders near the track of a person. They otten tlud 
these tiny creatures near the path, and believe them to be unable to 
cro>s it. 

As the dusl< o;'eve draws near, the silent tiittiiijiof the common short - 
eared owl {.[sio iircii>iti inns), and the hawk owl (Siiniia fitncriii), 
attracted by the sounds of the camp, creates direst confusion. The 
announcenu'ut of its presence causes the entire assend>Ia,i;t' <'l' lu'ople 
to be alert and hastily sus))cnd some unworn j;;'.rment, that the i)ird 
may perceive it ami thus know that tlic people are not so )>oor in their 
worldly possessions as the spirit Wi(|' ti (pi may think; as it only 
anno.vs ]»eople who are too pour to have extra };arments. .\s this 
slioit eared owl tVcipU'iits only the lower lands, the Indians assert that 
they i»re compelled to select the hii;her points of laml as their campinn' 
sites in order to escape t'rom him. 

The shaman, as I have already saiil. is believed to be able to control 
all these dilVerent sjjirits by his niajiic art, auu t(> tbretell the future, 
but he nnist be conc»'ale<l from \ icw while carrying;' on liis mysterious 
performances. Hence a special structure must be erected in which the 
shaman pies thioufjli various c(Mit(Mtious of body until in a state of 
exhaustion and while iu that weakened condition he fain'ies these 
thin;;s which have siu'h wonderful hold on the minds of the people. 

The tent (Fij;. S.^) is hiyh and of small diameter. Kvcry crack ami 
crevice in the tent is carefully closed to exclude even the least ray of 
lit-ht. 

When within it, the shaman beK'ius his operaticms by groaning and 



11 KTII- 



■18 



274 



THE IiruSON HAY KSKIMO. 



i -*:% 



ik-i 



K 



fira<lually incrcasiiiij tlu^ pitch of voice until his .scrcochinf; csni bo 
heard a ttreat (listaiae. The din of tlic di"ini adds confiisioii to tlie 
eereiiiony. Tliis jjoes on until the shaman annomiees the appeanincc 
of the spirit witli v. iioiii he (U'sires toconiinune. ll«Mini»loies the sitirit 
to grant the request, and in the course of time informs the people out- 
side that he has succeeded in securing the services of the sjtirit. All 
within becomes quiet and only whisiieriiigs are heard. 

Th«' spirit promises to lullill theobligation he has undertaken. and the 
conjuror throws ever (lie tent and states tlie result of the interview. 
This result is always favorable, as his repulat'un depends upon its liaj)- 
peiiiiig. Auy untoward circumstance, sncli as a jierson turning o\er a 
stone or breaking a twig from a bush wliih* traveling, is snillcient cause 
to break the spell, and tlie blame can be laid on (lie sluuildcis of such 




-^m^jMM 



■'il^ii^lD^, ■ .:-:^_,.-> 



■■■■■ ». 



VUi. H.'.— Illilian llU'ilirinr ]uil;;i'. 

an offender. If the ic(|nest be nut granted within tiic >lipiil;iled lime 
as aniuuinccd by liie siniinaii at tiic end of the ceremony, some one is 
certain to iiave been tlie cause itf displeasing thesi»iiil, wiio now with- 
holds tlu^ favor until reparation for the olfeiise is made. Tht! conjurer 
is not slow to make some one do |ieiiance w idle lie himself is gaining 
time, as he takes good car*^ not to attempt anything out of season. 

When an Indian kills one of tlie larger and liercer wild beasts it is 
(customary to reserve a portion of the skin or other part of the body as 
a memc'ito of the deed. 

These mementos are sacredly kept to .''how the jirowess of the 
hunter and at the sume time they scrsc as a token of the weiiltli pro- 
cured by bartering the pelt of the animal to thetiinlcr. The wolf, 
bear, and wcdvenue are considered worthy of reiiieiiibiance, and of the 




"'"^'^"' OCCUPATIONS. 27;') 

first imd hist iiientioiicd animals a daw or a tii» of an car may serve as 
a souvenir. 

The under lip of the l.ear(Ki;;. SO) is tiie jxntion jireseived. The 

.Nlvin is eut ott" and spread thit to dry. The flesh side of tlie skin is 

l»ainted M'ith powdered hematite 

mixed with water or oil. 

The outer edye^ or lips arc orna- 
mented with a sin^jlc row of many 

colored beads. At (lu' ai)c.\ or mid 

die of the lip is attached a pendant 

in tln^ form of a (isii. The lisli is ;> 

or 4 inches Ion;;-, made of clolli and 

has a row^f heads extending around 

the entire circumference of the 

N'lifitii of tiie body. 
These mementos arc procured with 

jircat difticulty from the iiuiitcr who 

has risked Ids life in tlic strn;:«Ies 

atteiKling tlu' capture of thi' beasts, 

for the barren yround bear of tliat 

rc>,non is not a timid crealiirc like 

tiie l)lack bear; and iiidcss t|ic 

hunter is well prepared for llie aiii 
nial he would do well to let it alone. 

The occupations of the sexes are so numerous that a detailed account 
alone would sullice. as the various seasons have their icyular rontine la- 
bors besides those unexpectedly apjjearin;;. In the -prinj-- the Indian.-, 
of both sexes couM' In tlic]iostof Kort Chino to trade their wintci's hunt 
of fiirbearinH: animals. About the ndddlc of March wmd is brouj;lit 
that the camp of old men and women with a lunnbcr of children, left 
from the parties si-alteied in all directions dnriii;; the previous fall, are 
slowly approachinn' tlio jtosl. They come by easy stages, campinj;- 
here and there for a day oi- two. but stri\ inj; to be near about the tinu' 
that the earlier jiarlies come in to trade, 'i'licsc latter stra,t;,ule alon'; 

'■'■ tlu" middle of April to the last of May, those who had ascended 

the streams to the headwatersoften not ariivini;- until after the breakinj;' 
of the ice in the river, which may be as late as the I. '(th of June. When 
they collect at the post tlieyhavean o|ipurtnnit,\ to meet after a sepa- 
ration of months and enjoy a period of rest, 'i'hetradinji' of their furs 
and other articles continues slowly until the parties have imidetheir 
selections of j^iins, ammunition, tobacco, and (dot lis, a quantity of Hour, 
biscuit, peas, beans, rice, and sii;^ar. Molasses is purchased in enor- 
nmus .pmntities. a hoj-shead of !l() ;>alloiis snniciiiin' for only three or 
four days' trade, (itiicr articles of varied character, fnmi needles and 
lu'ads to calico and cloth, are bought liy the women. 

The parties receive tiie allowance {;iveii in advance for the prosecu- 



l''i(i Xi.— liidiiin uiimli't of l>i';irt<kiii. 



. I 

'a 



276 



TIIK IIIDSON 1!\Y KSKIMO. 



'IWH 



■•Ji- 



tioii oftlif cnsuiii;;- winlci's hunt, alter wliicli tliey me relied on to raft 
down tlic supply of wood cut hy tlie white men for the next winter's 
su]»ply of fuel. This consunies the season until the middle of .July. 
Strafijilers aic out even later. The men, ineaiitinu', select the locality 
where they will remain for the summer and fall. The winter is to be 
oeeujiied in yrettin^ furs. I';a<h head of a party announces hisintende<l 
location and the i>arties ;;ra<lually lea\'e the jtost for their destination. 
Some of the Indians in foiiner years were emjiloyed to assist the salmon 
tishiuu.but they proxed to beunreliiiile. either thidu^ih fear oft he turltii- 
leut waters of the Koksoak or inattention to theii' task. They were 
easily allured tVoin tic nets 1>y the appearanc(> of any <;'ame, and as 
the tides in that river do not wait even for an Indian, serious losses 
resulted from cai'elessuess. Hence their places in later years are tilled 
by Ivskimo. who are better adajded to the work. 

The various parties disperse in ditVcrenl directions in ord<'i' that the 
«>utire district may afford its |)roducts for their benclit. The Indians 
know the lurbits ot' the animals in those rej;ions so well that they are 
sun', if they jio to a particular locality, to tind the uame lliey are in 
(|uest of. 

The reindeci' provides them with the j;realer pari ol tlieir food and 
the skins ot' these aninmis atford them clothing. 

Althouuh their tiiod iMUisists ot' reindeer. ]itarmi^an, tish. and other 
jiiniM', the deer is their main rcliaiu'.e. and when without it, however 
jiicat Mie aliundancc of other lood. they «'onsider themselves stars in;;. 

'I"he deer are procured in scvcial ways the |)rincipal of which is by 
the use of the lance oi' spear. In the months of .Scptcndicr and Octo- 
tober they 4'ollcct from variciis directions. Uuiin^j the spring; the 
females had repaired to the tree less hills and mountains of the Cape 
< 'hid ley re;: ion !o brin;;- forth their yoinii; on those elc\ ations in early 
.luiU' {>v late May. .After the youn;,' have become of uc'od si/.e the 
mothers lead them to ceitain localities whither the males. Iiavin;; ^ouc 
in an opposite direction, also rctnin. Tliey meet s.:mewliere aloii;:- the 
baid<s of the Kok.soak rivei'. usually ncai the conllucn. i of that riser 
with the Noiih or I. arch. While tliousands of these animals arc con 
;.;'i'c;:'ated on each bank small herds are cont inually swimminu back an«! 
forth, impelled by the sexual instinct. The hair of the youn;,' iininnds 
is now in cNccllent condition foi- makin;: skin ;:armeuts. The females 
are thin, iiot yet haxiny recovered t'rom the exhaustion of furnisiiin;;' 
food liu' their youny: and material for the new set of antlers, which ap- 
pear immediately after the birth ot' the fawns. The skin is, howt-xer, 
in tolerable condition, especially in late Octobei'. The bacic of the 
male is now covered with a lar;:c mass ot' fat kiiown as "back fal.' 
This deposit is abiait 1 to U inches thick by J feet broad and '_'<» imhes 
Ion;;. The males are full of \iy(U' and in the best possible t'onditioii 
at this sea.son, as the antlers have become diy and cease to draw upon 
the animal for material to supi)ly theii immense ;;i'owt!i. 



■rniNKit.i 



IMNTINCi. 



277 



Till! liuntiiijj |»iirti('>*, nlwiiys mi tlic iilcrt for tlic ln'ids of deer wliicli 
arc, hiistcniiifj to Ww usscMublin;;- |il;ic('. lollow them ii|), and in tlit* 
course of time C(»nJ«!ctur(^ at wlnit point tiny will (•onf;i('jiatc. Here 
tlicy cstiiblisli eanii»s andiiilcrccpt tliedecr wlien crossinji' thv. streams. 
The canoes are held in readiness, wliih' the Imnters scan tlu^ opiidslte 
liillsides Cor deer (ilinf-' aloiij;' the, mirrow paMis tliron;;li tiie forests and 
Inislies towards the river t»anl<. Arriveil there, tin' deer, alter a ino- 
nu'iit's pause, eagerly taivc to tiie water, hohily swimininj;' as tliey 
(piarterdown stream with tlie cuirent. The animals swim liif;h in the 
water, scarce1.\ more than a third of tiu' body immersed. They move 
eompai'tly, in a crowd, tin-ir antlers appearing' at a distance lik(^ 
the branches of a tree tloatinji' with the current. The Indian crouches 
low and speeds for the canoe. Silently it is pushed into the water, 
and two or thice rowers take their places within. Itapid i)nt noise- 
less strokes j;i\('n by slurd.N arms soon brin;n the boat below and to the 
rear of the body oi'decr. who are now thrown into the ;;rcatest conster- 
natiim as they perceive their most dieaded foe suddenly by their sile. 
The deer endeavor to rctreal, but the nu'n are between them and the 
sluu'e. The occupants of the can "c now drive the deer (|uarterinj;' up 
sti'eam and toward the shore wiicrc the camp is situated. Should 
they, by siune mistake on the pari of the hunters, start downstream, 
they are ci-itain to be separated, and swim so rajiidly that unless 
there be two canoes they will, for the most part, escaiie. If the 
herd is well kept lop'thcr the\ ina.\ be driven at the will of the pur- 
Slid-, lie strives to diiect theiii to such spot that when the llirust 
with the spear is jiiveu only sullicieiit vitality will Ik^ lett to enable 
the stricken animal to re^iain the shore. When the spear ti mcIics the 
vital iiart. the animal plnnucs Ibiward and the inslniment is witlnlrawn, 
A hurried thrust pierces ain-lher -.ictini, until all the herd, if small, 
may be slain. The wounded animal now feels the internal ca\ it\ tilliii<>' 
with blood, and seeks the nearest land wlieieoii its ebbiui;' strength 
scarcely allows it to stand. .\ few wistful turns of the head to the 
rijjlit or left, a sudden spreading of its limbs to support the swayiiifi 
body, a pluiiLTc tbrward — the coinnlsive sti iiuules that maik the end. 
If the band is laryc. some ucncrally escape. Siiine may be so wounded 
that they i>luiiye into the bushes perhaps but a few yards and there 
lie and die, furnisliiiij;' food for the beasts and birds of prey. 

The carcasesof tlic deer are strijiiicd of skins and fat and the viscera, 
are removed. The fat is laid one side, that from the intestines Ik inji 
also resci-ved lor future remleriiii;'. 

The skinsarc taken to the cami.- and piled up. Those which are not 
to be tanned immedialely are hunt;; over poles to dry, the llesh side 
turned upwards. 

The meat is stripped from the bones and taken to the tents, whtM'e it 
is exposed to the sniolvc and hot air over the lire and ipiickly dried. 
Some of the Indians are so expert in stiippiiie' the llesh from the skcle- 



278 



IIK lll'KSON HAY KSKIMO. 



i -4^ 



m 



»'^ 



ton tli:it till' «-\iU't litnii ni' outlines iirilic tiiiiiniil an> pri'sci'votl in <li(^ 
procjcss (if (liyin^. Tlic ilryin;;' ticsli acqiiirt's n vfi',\ (link brown cdlor 
troni the smoke and lilooil lel't within tlit^ tissuus. i'tMtaiii |ioi'tions of 
the dry meat, i>s|ie('ially those from the Hanks and abdominal walls, 
ai'«^ ijiiile jialaiablc; they are ('risp, and have a rich iintty llavor. The 
intercostal miiseles are also choice jiort ions, while someof the tlesli from 



the. haunches is drv and nearlv tasteles 



The back fat is often d 'ied 



and smoked, but aci|nires a disa;;reealile rancid taste. 

The Ion;; bones arc cracked and th« marrow o\tra»^ted. This sub- 
stance is the most highly prized (lortioii of Mic animal, and in seasons 
of jilenty the deer are often slaiijihtered I'oi' the marrow alone. The fat 
is |ilaced in pots or kettles and reiideretl over a tire. It is then poured 
into another vessel to cool, and foi'ms a valuable article of trad(> and a 
necessity tor food, and is also reipiired in the process of tannin;:' the 
skins, 

Th(^ lioiies contaiiiin;: the marrow are cracked and placed in a ketth>, 
liiin;; over a slow lire, and the substance, melted. The marrow brings 
a hi;;lier price than the tallow, and is esteemed a choice article of food. 
The heads are thrown to one side until the decom|iosin;; brain is wanted 
to be mixed with tiic semi put rid liver for the puiposeoflannin^^'thcskins. 
When the llcsh lias dried sutlicicntly it is taken down and ]inl into 
jiiicka^ics of about thirty |iounds" wei;>lit each. These bundles are 
enveloped in the pai(-liiiient like sulii ..tancous tiusne, and stored away 
until they are needed for food. A species of mold attacks the tlesli if 
it i^i not friMiucntly inspected and dried, lint as it is harmless, it does 
not injure the meat. Indians for w(>eks at a time subsist entirely on 
this dried meat. They also have a season of plenty when the female 
deer and the bucks of less than two years are on tlicir way to the Cape 
Chidlcy rcuioii. Mere the lemales brin;; forth their Ndiin;; unmolested 
by tlu> old bucks and also less annoyed by the myriads of mos(|uitoes 
which throii;,' the lower parts of the country. 

'I'he crossing,' place of the females and youn;i bucks is at or near Fort 
Cliimo at least each alternate year. About the ."ith to the lOth of May 
the assembled Indians anxiously await the coming; of the ;ranie. In 
the course of a few days the welcome cry of ''Deerl" is heard, and the 
camp immediately be(^<imcs a scene of ^^reat excitement — men liurryin;^ 
to yet their K""'< n"d ammiinition, wdiiien shouting the direction of the 
jfanie, and children riinnin;; to the liiKhei- eminences to watch the herds. 

The men endeavor to occupy a narrow delile, where the herd will pass 
betweenthe hills to the level land beyond. Some station themselves at 
the top of the ravine, while the swittest runners hasten to the head of 
the defile to lie in ambush until the deer, nryed from behind, rush past, 
to be met with a volley of balls from all sides. I'anic seizes the ani- 
mals, and wherever they turn an Indian confronts them. I'ntil the 
deer iccover from their paralysis, and once more obey their instinct to 
escape, iiundters of them stand ipiietly waiting to \n' slaughteredj 



HfNTIXC! DRKR. 



270 



otlu'is walk iiiu'oiicfiiicdly iitunii. s liiiKl.v dcpiivtMl of tlio power >»f 

llinlit. Tilt* liiiliiiiis liiinicilly close upon tlieiii, and in a lew minutes 
the entire lienl is destroyed or disi)ersed in all direetlons. 

The {iiins used on this occasion are the cheapest kiiul of niu/zle-load- 
'\t\ii sin;;le-l)arreled sliotfjuns. The balls used are of such siz«^ that they 
will drop to (he liottoin of the chandier. No patching' is us^d, and a 
Jar on the ;ironnd is deemed sulVicient to settle the ball upcui the pow- 
der. The employment of a lanirod woidd reipiire too nuich time, aa 
(he Indian is actnated l>y the «:esire to kill as many as possible in the. 
shorlesi time. They <lo not use the necessary care in loadintr their 
jiiins, and olten the ball becomes lodMt.,1 in (lie chamber and the ^uu 
bnrsts when liicd. When sliootin;i' dowidiill the ball often rolls out. 
It is snrprisiuj;- that so few fatal ai'cidents occur. A (laantity of pow- 
der is iionred directly into the liiin from its receptacle, theball dropped 
down, and a cap taken from between the lingers, whee it was placed 
for convenience. Hunters often praci > c tlie motions of rapid loadinj; 
and lirin;;-. They are remarkaltly expcil, snrpassnifi- the (•'.skiinoin this, 
thoM^^h the l''.skimo is far the better marksman. 

,\ third method pursiH'd is that of snariii};- the deer. 

A |)lan adopted to capture deer in the winter is as follows: A herd 
(if deer is discovered, and um'u and women put on their snowshoes. 
The deer are surrounded and driven into a snowbank many feet deep, 
in which the a(Vri^;lited animals plunjie until they nearly bury them- 
selves. The hunters, arnu'd with the lauce. pursiu' them and kill tlieni. 
Tliis mi'ans of procuring: deei' is ouly ad<ipted when the herd is near a 
convenient snowbank of projier depth. The snow falling in the winter 
(•ollects in j;nllies ami ravines, and only in seasons where there has been 
an abundance of snow will it attain sullicieut depth to serve the pur- 

jiose. 

Smaller .;ame, such as ducks, i;eese, ptarmigan, hares, rabbits, por- 
cupines, beavers, ami an occasional lynx, atl'ord variety of food. Ptar- 
mi<ian are slaujihtered by thousands. Hundreds of p(Minds of tlieir 
feathers annually purchase small trinkets for the Indian women, and 
duiinK' this seasmi it is unusual t(» see a w(uuan without scune feathers 
of these birds adheriuj;' to her clothiuji or luiir. 

The women and men annually destroy thousands of the efjjjs atid 
young of these binls. Wabbits and hares, too, fall beneath the arrow 
or shotgun. Porcupines are more couunon toward the simrees of the 
streams falling into llud.sou Strait. They are found in trees, from 
which they gnaw the l>ark and terminal portions of the branches tor 
f(Ktd. The porcupine unist be carefully cleaned lest the tlesh be untlt 
for food. The hair and spim-s are remove<l by .scorching or by pouring 
Imt water over the body. 

Of the cainiv(n(Mis mammals the lynx only is eaten, and this when 
other food is scarce. I'.ears are so rare that they form but an unim- 



2X0 



Tlir. liri)S(»\ llAV KSKIMO. 



'«'•* 



|>(ii'tiiiit |iiirtiiiii III' tlic liitliairs dirt. Wuh'ci'int'H. wnlvrs, iiiiil tuxi'S 
iU'i' lu'vcr fiitcii, 

I'Msli 1)1' viirioiis kiiiils aic pltMitil'iil. The lakes anil streams aboiiiid 
witli saliiioii ill siiiiiiiM r, and Iniitt, \vliitt> llsli, suckers, and a lew less 
edniiiKiii speries are eajicily soiifjlit I'or I'ltod. I''isli are eaUKhl wi!li the 
lioiiK or net. I'isliiii^ tliroii^'li holes in Ihe ire aD'oids an ample supply 
of line trout, and the net set aloii^' Hie shore upon Ihe disa)>peai'anee 
of the lee is sure to reap a rieh haul of white lish, siiekeis, and trout. 

In the preparation ol' the food little care is exercised >o prevent its 
coiiiiii}: ill contact with ohjcctionaiile snlistances. Tlic deer meat is 
laid upon the stones of the lieach and ])arlicles of ^rit imbed tliem- 
sehesin \Uv substance. The llesh for cook in;;' is often drop])ed into 
tlie vessels in which the fallow or marrow is beiii;,' r<-iidcrcd. Xeitlier 
children nor adults have any re;;nlar jieriods of eatin;;. but apjiear to 
be always hiiii;;ry. It is thus not iiiinsnal to see a liltliy child thrust 
its hand into the coolin;;' fat to <.i)taiii a <-hoice portion of meat as it 
settles to the bott(Un. 

The d ,>' meat is often poiimlcd into a coarse powder by means of 
stone (H' metal pestles. The meat is placed upon a smooth, hard stone 
for this |iiii|)ose. The li^iaiiieiits are |)ieked out, and when a siitlieieiit 
ipiantity has been prepared it is put into baskets or ba;;s and stored 
away for future use. 'IMie cracked bones from which the marrow was 
e\tra<-ted are calcined and reduced to powder and used as an ibsorbeiit 
of the fat from the skins in the process of tannin ;;:'. 

The unborn yoiiiip; of the reindeer, taken from the mother in the 
spring!', are considered a prime delicacy by Indians, as well as Kskimo. 
The t'H'^s, ol'\'arious species of birds are ea;;'erly soiiffht for. and it mat 



ters little whether tliev are fresh or far advanced in incubation 



Th 



eiubrvo bird, with the attached yolk ot' the e;;-} 



swallowed with 



intliiite ^jiisto 



The Indian seldom eats raw lle.sh unless dried meat b 



excepted. 

I'lnoii^ih has been written concernin;;' tin' reindeer U< show that with 
out it the very existence of the Indian would be imperiled. I'xitli food 
and elotliiii;:. the prime necessities of life, arc oiitained from the 
animal, and its numbers do not seem to decrciuse with the u.^rciless or 
thoughtless slaii;iliter. Ilniidreds of carcases are never utilized. I 
counted IT.'J carcases on one side of the livi'r in ;ioiii;i a distance of 
about .St) miles, and when I came to their eam])s 1 saw inerediide piles 
of meat and skins ^-'oiii^f to waste. The winter months are occupied 
by men in liuntiii^ the various fui-bearin;; animals, the principal of 
which are white, red, cross, and black or silver foxes, maitcns, minks, 
wolverines, wolves, muskrats, and beavers: tlie.se are almndant. I'ew 
lynxes and bear are obtained. A cfinsiderable number ol' others are 
found in this re;;'ioii and att'ord tine skins. 

Steel trajis are {jfenerally set, various sizes of traps beiii;;u,sed for the 
ditt'erent animals. A u:reat number of otter and beaver are shot in the 



ci.ol'HINd. 



281 



\viit<'r. DciMU'iillH cfuisisliii};' <>•' n !<»>,' mI' wdoil set upon limine I tri}i{J*'r>* 
nircly liiil to kill mink iiixi inartoii. Tlic lynx is iisuiill.v tiiki-ii by nu'iins 
of a Hinir»> witii tlie looj) n\vv a circle of low ]M'jjf* siiiroim»linn' the ton;;ne 
of tlic 11 Jill re 4 set of tiij^^fcrs. Tlic spring', nsinilly ii litlie snpliii},', 
is stronfj onoii};li to lift I lie l'orele;;sof tlicaninnil from the fin in ml when 
the noose enclrclcH ItH nei-k. 

The Indian <-oiiceives the wolverine to lie an aninnil emltodyinn all 
the cniinin;;' ami mischief that can lie contained in the skin of a licast. 
To its cnnidnn- is added yrcal bodily slicn;;th. cnahlinj;' this mcdinui- 
sized animal to accomidisli dcstrnction ajiparently mndi beyond its 
strenjitli. 

I'" very other animal in the 
foiests where it dwells |)i".'fcrs 
to fi'ivc it the |iath rathei' than 
enfiaji'c in strnjiKle with it. 
When sci/ed in a trap a wol- 
verine olfcrs a sturdy resist- 
ance. Mvcn a famished wolf, 
to my personal knuwlcdut', will 
stami and look at it, bnt not 
attempt to cope with it. In 
this |iarticnlar instance, how- 
ever, Hie woll' may have con- 
sidered the i»redieament of the 
wolverine another means of 
stralc^ry employed by that ani- 
niiil to entrap the wolf, and so 
deemed it w ise to I'cmaiii at a 
respectful distaiiie. 

Kvery form of torture which 
the Indian mind is capable of 
conceiviiifi: is iiillictcd upon 
this animal when it i> cap 
lured. .Ml manner of vile 
nanu's and reproaciics are ap 
plied to it. The Indian enjoys 
rclatin;; how he sinjicd its fiir 
oil', bioke its bones, and tor- 
mented it in many wa,\s. as it 
slowly exjiircd under his hand. 




< 

J 



1■'|||.^7.— IiKliiUiliiickskin TOat,niim'« (fnuit), 



The apparel worn by the rii;;a\a Indians is (piite distinct for the 
ditlereiit sexes. The method of prejiarinfi the skins for !!ie inaiiiifac- 
tiiie of };arments is the same, but the forms of the ^arnients for the 
sexes are so dilVerent as to rcqnire special c(Hisideration. 



'>8'» 



TIIK Ill'DSOX HAY KSKIMO. 



<l 





IIKNKH) (l.trilllNd. 288 

]«'iif;tli of tilt* mat, iiiul llifN*' an- the siilf .si-aiiis, 'l'lit> .HtMiiii iit tlit> 
skill, till* iimilioli', sl*M'\r. iiiiil I'dllai iiic Ihc slioitn' oni s. I'lic lont is 
alwiiyH iiioi'f or less oniaiiit'iitt'il witli cxtravapiiit paiiitt-ii ilcsi^rns. 
Tlif <'o1(ii's ami oIIk'I' iiiatcrials iisnl tin' paiiitin;; llicsc ilfsi<;'iis will Im* 
tioscrilM'il ill aiMitlicr i-oiiiuMtioii, as wt^ll as tlic iiiaiiin-i' ol' ai)|>l,viii); 
tlifiii. 

'i'lic patlfriis of Ilii'Sf i1<*- 
Hi;j;iis will he licst iiiiili'istooil 
l»\ n-fcroiuc to the li).Mir«'S, 
wliicli show soiiif of tiii'iii ill 
(Iclail (Fi^s. s'l. !io,. 

Tilt loi's iisi'il oft«>ii |ir<>- 

sfiit slai'lliii}; coiiiliinalioiis 

of ml, hint', yrllow, anil 

brown. Tlit- portions of tlic 

Kiiinii'iits upon wliii'li tlirsr 

«'olors art' pliicfil arc tlio 

front cdycs of llic opi'iiiii;,' 

of till' coal, tlic wiisis, and 

riii};;s aroniiil the amis or 

sh'ovi's, the skirt anil p.vra FM.wi-n-iuii.iiiwii.T,, ,,„int..i n,Mi..Tsi,inr..iif. 

mill shaped designs over the hips. The piece Intended to widen the 

skirt liehiiid is always ('iiliicly covered with a dcsif;n of some kind. 

Over the oiilside of the 

seams a line of paint is 

always applied, iiL'arly 

always of a red oilnown 

color. 

I'"rtM|iieiitly a series of 
quadrat c lilotclies or 
Kipiiires i>roduced by 
\'arioiisly colored lines 
runs from the a])e\ of 
the piece inserted in tliu 
skirt to tiie colli 

Theleiifithof 
is such as to real 
iniddhMd'thetli 
eoveriiiKS for tl 
limbs and for tl 
are ipiitu distiiic 
the hips the ;;a 
a sort of brei 
which the le>;s 
short as oiih 



the ujijier port it 
thigh. Thebreec 







2s| 



Tin: iiiuhun iiav kskimd. 



l4t) 



<«!■ 



A piiir Mt'llicsc hiccrlics is iu'Vt'r oiiiiiiiit'iiti'il with imiiit, iis tlioy iir« 
iisiiiill> iiitt r\[>i)Sfil to \ it'w. 

A Miiir ol'lt'^rfriii^s t-Ntriiils tVoin the u|>i)«>i' portiun ot'tlio tliiKit to Dm* 
iiiiklt's. 'I'lu' Ii'y«:i'>>i'* (I'lK. '••! ' i>ii' oiH'li iiiihIc ot' a siiifjlc pit'rc soiiu'- 
\\ hut ill tiic lonii <il° a iiai row ha;; ope n at varli ciiij. Tiicy ar<- lirii. in 
position hy nicaiiH of a sliin;,' attaiin-ii in t'lont and i'aMtfiicil to tin- 
iipju'i' jiortions of tlic l>i«'('cli»'s. Tiic scam is on tlic lailcf sIiIp of tlic 
If^iyin^s aiitl aloii^' il is st'W'd a st rip of ilrciskin lia\ iiiy; tin- film's cnl 
into trill;:!'. 'I'lic l<';i;;in;;s art' paiiitcil in niiii'li tli«> saint' fasliioii as tlic 
foat. 

Till' iiioffasins (I'i^. D-) art' lart'ly oiiiaiiit'iitt'il.t'xt'ipt witli lit'atlsoii 
tilt' toiiK:iiu or fist' witli a striji of rctl, blue, or lilai k tiotli. 

Ill till' I'onstriii'titHi of a nioitasin tlif nifasiiri* of tin- foot is taken if 
il is iiitmili'il lor a pt'ison of iiiipoi taiiii' or if tlif niakrr atti'inpis to ilo 
skillliil work. 'I'lii' solt' is tiit out llisl in tlif sliapt'of a parali<'lo;;i'ani. 
'i'lif i'tl;;rs art' tiirnt'il up anil irt'isi's niailf ai'Ttiiiiil tlial portion of tlif 
tlffi'.skin wliii'li siiiroiiiiils tlif tof.s anil a |iai'l of tlif siilf of tin* fool. 





Fici. {I'.'. Illiliiili in 



The frt'asfs art' inadf pfipfiiilifiilar in tntlfi to take up a pint ion tif 
tJM' slai'k of tlif skill. Tlicy art' lifld i i position by a stoiil siiifw tliit-atl 



run lliroii;;li fat'li (iiif antl around to 



oilier sitlf to prt'Vfnt tlifiii 



from sfparatiii;: and llnis •' I >a ;,';,'! 1 1 ;i " over tlif tofs. This is the most 
pai'tii'ulai pai I of thf wtu'k ami on tlifsf stitilifs tlt'|ii'nd tlif skill of 
llif makfr. 'I'lif sides of the foot and heel are not eieasetl as the lieel- 
sfain takes up thf slack for the posterior (lortion of tho inofeasiii. 

Tilt' tony:iu' of llie iiioccasin is a piece cut into a shape rfseiiiblin;j 
that luemlier w itii the tip of it over the toes, 'i'his is seweil to the 
etly;es of the creases, ami between it and the creases is often sewetl 
a nariow well of skin <ir cloth. The supeitluous edy;es of tliti slipiier- 
slia|ie(l shoe are now trimmed ot)'. and the to|>, or poitioii to cover the 
ankle, is scweil on. This portion is a lony; narrow strij) of inferior 
skin of suHicieiit size to overlap in front and to coint^ well abtwo the 
ankles. It is left o|ieii like the tops of laceil shoes, -lust below, or at 
the edp- of the tops, a Ion;; tliouK of tleerskiu is insertetl tlinai;;h sev- 
I'lal holes, which allows it to jiass around the heel and below the 



11 llNKII I 



( l.oTIIINd 



2Hr 




28fi 



TltK mitSON ItAY KSKIMO. 






tlie tlminb jtortioii has boon rociit uiul sowed. Tlio wrists of tlio mit- 
tens iuo ol'ton {jaiidily tirnanioritod with strips of rod or black olotli. 
Dosi^ns (if siiiiplo oharaotor, such as linos and croiss linos prodnoin^ 
lattice woik li^nros. aro Iroqiu'iitly i»ainfod on tin- back (d' tlio niitton. 
lioads in rows and zi^/.a^ linos ornanwut Hio wrist, and strainls of 
boads arc p(>ndant I'roin tlu^ ontsido soanis. Tiio strands aro oi'lou 
tii)i)od with tassolsof vario;j;alod wooion tliroads. Tho niittons intended 
for severe weatiier aro ofton lined with the tiiin skin ot a f<etal I'oin- 
deer, which has short, soft hair. <iieat exertion oft«'n craiisos thehainls 
to j)ors])iie and moisten tho hair, and tiiis freezes tho instant tho mit 
ton is removed from tiu' hand, and is liable to froozi- the lin;;eis 
within it. 

The lioail-dress ot' the men for the snmnn'i' is often a lary;e cotton 
handkerchief wound tnrban'fasiiion aronnd tho head to prevent tlio 
Ion <r hair t'roni blowinjj over tho face. These handkoi'cjiiofs iiro of the 
most {jaudy patterns, and if they iiro not worn a simple tlion;;' of deer- 




skin .servos tho ]m\\ 



I'M,. III.— Krllcliil ll>'ililliall<r Nrlli HOT. 

lO ]ini'pose. 'J'lio ;;irls and newly married wives often 



make bands of iioads. some of wliicli are <|nilo attractively dcsiynod, 
!'or their lovers or hnsbands. Those baiiils aro about an inch wide and 

^i>VlU'!tt ilii'li<>< ti itin- 'IMli> itliil V !lf'it hkll <rt In,|iiif1 vvi t li wt I'i i k^ i il' wt: in 'IMiik 



<ov«'rai mcnes loni;. {'lie ends aro len;rlhoned with strips of skin. The 
land is placed over the forehead and tied by tho striiijis behind. 'I'liose 
lioadliaiids aro ;;cnerally the most intricate desi^^ns of bead work which 
die.so Indians displa.v (l'"i};. ',M>. 

.\ cap ot' deerskin is ot'ten vvoiii. but it always seems to bo in the way, 
and is used mostly in wot woallu'r. .\ pioi f stitl' doorskiii is some- 
times made into the shape of a visor of a cap and worn over tiie eyes 
dniinf; the sprinjj when the ^jlai'o of the snn on the snow jirodin'os such 
<listressin;; inliammation of the eyes. It is fastened to the head by 
moans of strap.s tied behind. 'Hie jjreator part of the men prefer to ffo 
witliont head covorinf;'. Some who are able and love a disjilav of I'aney 
colors liav'i- a cap made of red cloth and ornainented with ImmiIs worked 
into ovtravaKaiit patterns. The cap is a lti;;li conical alVair. and from 
the wei;;lit of boads u|ion it olton tails to one snio ot'tlio head. 



CLOTIIIN'f!. 



w 



The winter coiit (Fij^s. !».->, i)(i) worn by flic mules is of ditrcvent 
piitforii from that worn in summer, and is made of skins witii the hair 
inside. 

Two skins, one of whicli forms tlu^ i)ack of (he eoat tlie other tlie 
front, are sewed by side seams runninj;- from I he armpit (o tiie bottom 
of the skirt. On the slionlder a seam runs to the neck on each side, 
the l»ack skin exlendinj;- hij;li enou-h to form tiie neck wliile the otiier 
skin readies to tiu^ i k in front. Mere it is sli^litlv 



a distance of se\eral ine 
the neck liole. 

Somet i mes a V- 
siia|ied piece is in- 
serted into liie slit at 
tiie front of tlie neck. 
To widen tiie skiits a 
similar sliaped piece 
is lei into the middle 
of the back skin ; or 
it may be |iiit between 
the side seams tor the 



same purpose 



eu! out or slit for 
les to allow the insertion of the head throuL'h 



Tin 



bottom of the skirt i> 



decorated. (I 



(IM. 



!t7 



At the ba<'k of the 
neck a piece aitout s 
inelies sipiare is at- 
tached to the^armeiit, 
'This soinelimes serves 
as a collar, and some 



limes it yives 



ddi- 




tiotial ]H'otectioii by a 
tloulile thiekiKVss to 
tlio shoulders, \ciy 
often the tirst part to 
feel the elVect of the. 
pierciiiff winds. 

.\ lew otthe coats for winter iiave a hood attached to them ( l"i.ii. OS, 
!t!t) sewed on the back of the neck, which when drawn ovei' the head 
serves at once as cap and jirotectioii. 



The collar and hood are invi 



ibly made from the skins on the sides 



of the head of tlu^ deer. If two or more head skins are re(|uired they 
are sewed into the form of the deer's head. The collar is ornamented 
with fVin-^escut from the edf;es of the skin. Sometimes the interscap- 
ular itrote<'tion is cut into three or four points, each (um of which is the 
elieek skin of a deer, and 
mainder beini; left free and terminal 



sewed only a portion of the lcn;;tli. tlie re- 
illy' with a series of lon.ystraiidsor 



fringes. The sleeves of these ■;arincnts have nothing peculiar about tli 



em. 



288 



Till' HUDSON r.AV r.SKIMO. 



■m. 



'■». 1 



As tlK' Iiiiliiiii IS always in I lie vicinity of tlio lit-nls nl' dcor it is iiu 
easy matter li>r liim to obtain tin' sivins when in licst ronditior., and 

I'roni tin' liner sl;ins sii- 
IM'iioi' f^anncnts aro 
made. Tin' sliain- ot tlie 
Indian's coat is not so 
wi'l! adapted to atVonl 
protection as tinit of tin' 
l^skiino; in'nce. tin'wliite 




XrRNER.l 



CLOTIIINC;. 



(Il( 



289 
M.f wiiifciMvlHi, tlM.tlMTnK.nu.Uu- lia.l n„t ivgistnvd hi;:!,,,. ,i,a,i -'(.o 
I..' ow /,.,■„ thr weeks, with „„ protection tor their h.«s ...x.-epl a pair of 
01(1 l,uek,sl<i,MeKH,„}.s so short that the botto.i, did not reaeh witinn .{ 
or 4 inehes of the dilai>idated n.oeeasins. The feet w,>re, so far as 
could iK, aseertained, ehielly prote.-te.l by a wrapping, of old Imlin- 
eh.th covered uith a pair of moeeasinswhieh no white man w,m,M have 

been seen ^vea^in^^ I observed also that ..o ad.liti 1 el.,thini;' was 

purchased for the return trip. 

Tlie j,'arrnents worn 
by the women in the 
warmer season consists 




'Mk- 



290 



TIIK Hl'DSON MAY KSKIMO. 



■l: ( 



petxiiiiicf as. loaded with clothinp of most inisci'llaiicoiis character, tliey 
\vaddlc over the snow. The winter cap is .siinihir to that worn ly tlie 
men, but is not so peaked. It is an object (»n wliich th«'y expend a 
iiw'iit anionnt of hibor. Tlie material is nsnally a kind of cloth hu-ally 
known as Hudson bay cloth, either red, dark blue, li^ht bhic. or black. 
The cai>s of the nuMi and women are nsnally made from the better 
grades of this cloth, while the dresses of the womei- and the leyjiings 
of the men are of llie inferior grades. 

If the cap is to be all one color, iii which case it is always red, the 
cloth is cut in two jtieces only, and put together so as to i»roduce acup- 

shajM'. iSonietimes 
five or six pieces are 
cut tVoni t wo orthree 
dillcrent c(dors of 
cloth and the strips 
sewed together. 
Over the seams 
white tape is stwed 
to set olV the colors. 
In the center of tln^ 
striji is a rosette, 
cross, or other de 
sign worked with 
beads, and around 
the rim rows of 
beads variously ar- 
ranged. 

The body is cov- 
ered witii a iieavy 
robe nunle of two 
deerskins sewed to- 




g« 



tlier. Tiiis robe 



is otU'ii plain, and 
when ornamented 
designs are painted 
only on tlie bottom 
of the skirt. Thest^ 
robes are always of 
skins with the iiair 
on. The tiesli side 
is often nibbed with red ocher while the extreme edge may be i)ainled 



^ith a narrow stripe of the same 



mixed with the viscid matter (»b 



tained from the roe of a 8|tecies of lish. The edge stripe of paint is 
always of a darker brown tlian the other colors from tin- admixture of 
that substance with the earth. 
This garment is put upon the body in a manner impossible to describe 



TCHNEK-l 



CLOTIIINO. 



201 



iiiuldilliciill to uiMliTstainl «'V«'ii wiu'ii \vitiicss»Ml. It is lu'ld .(iK<'tlior 
by siiiiill loops of sinew or deerskin. A Kelt around tiie wiiisi keeps 
it up. 

The women also wear in winter a sleevt^less f;o\vii macliinf;' little below 
tlie knees and as liiyli as the eliin. 'I'ln- sleeves are imt on separately, 
like lej;fjin);s, Tliey are usually made of red or blaek tlotli. 

The gown is often oxtravajjrantly deeorated with paint. Tin- Hash 
side of the skin is rubbed with red o(dier. on whieh aie painted in ilo- 
scribable d«signs. .V strip of deerskin dotted with lieads Imrders tlm 
{jown, and from the edn« "f th«^ strip hany; strin>is of these ornaments, 
terminating in variously eolored tassels of tlwead. 

The lejigiufjs t' the women ditler 
from those of the iuen. They extend 
lii}lher aiul the bottoms cover the lops 



>f the inoeeasin 



Thev are made (d" 



a flapping; ornament. The "wii 



skin or elotli. the lattei' blaek or red. 
To cut out a pair of Ic;i;;in};s re(|uiios 
skill. The cloth is doubled and then 
cut nearly in a circular Ibrni. A si/e 
.suflicicnt to lit the limit is sewed up 
leaviu}^ the <rescent-sliapeil remainder 

are 
olten edffed with cloth of a ditl'erent 
«'olor ami on the outer border rows ot' 
beads eom]>lete the decoration. The 
two crescents are lett free, and as the 
wiial st'parates them they tlap most 
fantastically. They are always worn 
so as to be on the outer side of the lej^s. 
The bottoms of the le;;^in;;s are hea\ ily 
loaded with numerous rows of faiwy 
beads. 

Moccasins are alike for both sexes. 

As additional protection from cold 
the shoulders are covered with a man 
tie of soft skins from yoiin;; (h'cr. 
Blankets purchased fiom the traders 
are also sometimes thrown over the shoulders or around tlie waist. 

('hildreii are (dad lik<' adults, except inji' that their apparel is less 
earefully made iind they often present a dis^jiislin;; ajipearanee, with 
their clothin;;' gla/.ed with tilth .ind f;listeiiin;j with Ncrmin. 

Infants usually have their ^arnuuits made in tiu' ■■cumhiMation" 
form. The (rap forms a .separate piece and is tilted so closely that it is 
not removed until the ;;rowth of the head bursts the material of which 
the eap is made. 

When traveling men and women smoke or snnlV a "ikmI deal. To- 




292 



THE Hl'DSON HAlT ESKIMO. 



■'*h 



€ 



biicco iiiid II few otlier iietessary art iclcs arts faniwl in a l)aj,' known as 
"lire liaj;." Tlicsc are made of clotli and tiinuncd with beads, and ai« 
ol'tcn (juite lasti'lully ornanienlcd. 

Till' detailed lijiiires wiiich 1 have i>resent«d siiow ninrii belter than 
any dcsiription tlie desifjns n ed in ornanu'ntinjj tln-ir eh)thinK. Some 




(»f tlie i»atterns aie rnde eojties of (lie de.sitrns I'oiintl npon elieap hand 

kerehiefs, scarfs, and oliu'r ]»rinted faliries. 

I inive abeady s|iol;en of tlie lieadl)ands worked !or the na-ii by their 

\ ives and sweethearts. Sneii a 
headl)an(l, ni;Mh>of seiilskiu pro 
eiired from tin- Ivskiino. is shown 




in i'iii-. 101 



.Uliti 



Th 



«SN^ 



Km. Kil. 



headband is nsed to snp|iort the 
\vei;ilit of a load <'arried on the 
baek. relievinj; the strain on the 
shoulders and nnikin;; it easier 
|f^ to breathe. The band passes 
over the I'oicliead to the baek, 
where it is attaihed to liu' load. 
Vaiions forms of these head- 
bands or |)ortajie straps art- 
made. HoMu^tinies a piece of 
birch baik is placed under the 
strap where it touches (he fore- 
head. It is said that the bark 
does not beconn' wet IVoni the 
moisture induced by the se- 
vere exertion and thusbuin the 
heati. 



I'llKI'AltATIllN i>V TMK. M\I.\S l(ii: <lirnilMi 



IJaviufi now ^iiven a general description of the clothing of the Ncne- 



rUKPAKATION OF SKINS. 



203 



not, I iiiiiy imx'oed to desciihf tli<- i»io»'c,s.s of pivpariiijj;- tin* skins of 
wliicli tliis cldtliiiiH' is nnult^ The skins of tie dew, wlii<'li nrc to bo 
(•onveitf<l into buckskin lunl iKiiclinicnt, aw ).ii«l to one side inn lionp, 
Just iis they »'iinu', from the bodies of the aninials or after tiiey have 
K'one tiironfih a proeess to be siibse((uently described. 

When the skins have laid in tliis lieap for several days deconiiuisi- 
tion sets in and loosens the hair so it will readily pull out. When the 
I)elt is ready for scraping: u is thrown over a round stick of wood .sonio 
.'{or t iiu'hes in diameter and .{ or 4 feet lon«', nuo. end of which rests 
on the ground wliihi the otlier is pressed 
Ufiainst the al)domen of the woman who 
is doiiif,' the work. Then she takes a 
tool like a 




imong 



294 



THE MIDSON HAY KSKIMO. 






■e 



To rciiKivf tlic iKllififiit jiintit'lcs on tlic llt'sli sidr of the skin a pe- 
niliiir instiuinciit Inis Imh-ii ili>visi><l. Tin- tiliia, or lai';j:«' liono of tlie 
hind It'- of the icindcer, is usi'd for tliis |>ui|ios«i (Fiy. 104). Tin' jx'- 
tnliar sliapt' of the ])ont> n>ndi'i's if partiiularly \\*'\\ adapted to form a 
foiiiliination of saw. fliisfl, and ffowaa at Mu^ sanii> tinu'. Tint lower 
poitioii of tilt' l>ont' is (lit siiuait'Iy oil'. .V ]tart 
of one .sidf of tlit' i'»'inaind«'r is cut so as to li-avc 
one side (tiiti iniu't- side of the Iton*') in the .shape 
of a chisel, haviny: either a stiai>:ht etlfie or el.se 
sli^litly rounded. On this ed;,'e are eut a mini 
lier of line notehes. which </\Vi' tiie «Mlge of the 
iiistriiiiient a serrated form. Some of the hones 
have a spatula siiaped piece of iron or steel cut 
with the .serrations upon it and the metal piece 
set in the cavity of the bone. If the lej; of a deer 
is not convenient a wooden handle shaped lik«^ 
thehiii^ liandle of a mortisin;; chisel is fashioned, 
and to it is atlixed the metal ]ioiiit liy means of 
stout lashiii},'s(l'ii;. lort). .\roniid tiie iipjier por- 
tion of the wooden shaft a notch or {groove is cut, 
anil in this is tied a stout tlion;.' in such manner 
as to form a loop to prevent the hand from slip 
pinj;' down the smooth hone when the Mow is 
struck. 

The manner ol'iisin^ this instrument is |iecnliar 
and encclive. The skin is thrown, with the tiesli 
side n\>. over a stake 2 or .'{ feet hi;;h driven 
liriidy into the ;:-roniul. The person kneels down 
before the stake, and when the skin is placed so 
as to atlord a <-onveniunt portion to be},nn u|M)n, 
an cdj^e is taken between the linp'is of the left 
hand and lifted slij;htly from the ;;rounil, A Idow 
is y:iven with the tool which .sejiarates the .sub- 
cutaneous tissue, and by ri^rhtly directed bhiws 
this may be separated from the skin entire. 
skill is then laid aside for further woikiiifj. Tlie siibcntaiieous 

iiir 




The 

tissue is washed and dried, after which it is used tor a, variety of | 



poses, such s coverin^is for bundles ot dried meat and other articles. 

Till' skin is worked over with this instriimeiit to free it from a portion 
of its moisture and is now ready to receive the tannin;;' material which 
consists of a mixture of putrefying' brain, liver, and fat. They .some- 
times soak the skill in wine, which is reputed to add ^neatly to the last- 
ing qualities of tiie leather, but the odor of that liipiid la.sts as long as 
the skin. 

The t niiiii^ material is laid on the tlesh side of the skin in a thin 
lavei .Hid by iiibbiii;; with the hands it is well worked in. Several 



I'KKI'ARATION OF SKINS. 



295 



lionrs or (lays eliii)s»' siihI the suijcillnoiis riiattt'i' is scrapcMl ofV. Tim 
skin is then scraped and riibhcd iM-twcni the liands, liit- liardcr jioitions 
with a sciapiT ifscinblin};' a small scoop, nntil all tiu^ skin is worked 
into a pliablo condition. It' Mic skin is yet too oily a ipiantity ol' p<>\v- 
»lcrcd chalk, clay, calcined hont', or even tlour, is tiiormif'hly rubbed 
over it to absorb any tatty matter yet remainiii^j;. 

The skins having the hair on, tor clothiii};-, or those intended for 
buckskin, are treated in this manner. Those intended tor jtarchment 
are simply rubbed with a <|uantity of fat, and tiien allowed to dry in 
that condition, beln^^of a yellowish or italej^liu; color. 

Where a gn-at innnber of skins haveto be prepared, and some of the 
nuueenergeti* men haveas manyastwoor three huinlred Imckskins and 
parchment skins for tl." sprintj trade, a constant a])plication to this 
labor is necessary in <uder to prepare them in season. This, in a nnin 
ner, uccouuts for the number of wives wiiich an energetic or wealthy 
nnin may have in order that the products of the chaso falling to his 
share may be promptly attended to. 

When the skins iiit»'nd<'d foi' sale arc selected tiu'y are Imiidled u'/ 
ami covered witii parclnnent skins or the subcutaneous tissue. 

Tht^ skins intended for use among them.sclvcs aic geiu'rally inferi )r 
grailes, such as tho.se cut in the skinning ])roces8, or else those obtaii' 
»'d in the earlier or the later jtart of tlie sea.sou. 

.\ species of gad tiy infests the deer, puncturing th" skin on both 
sides of tin- spine, and depositing within the wound an egg wliich in 
time is transformed into a grub or larva. These larvie attain tiie si/c 
(»f the tirst joint of tlie little linger, and at the opening of tiic sju'lng 
weather work their way through the skin and fall to tin- ground, where 
they nmlergo mctamor])hoses to become perlect iuisects. 

A single animal may have hundreds of these grubs encysted beneath 
the skin, which, on their exit, leave a deep supiiurating cavity, which 
h«'als slowly. The skin forming tin' cicatrices does not have the .same 
texture as the untouched portions. 

When tln' skin is dressed it reveals these scars, and of coiuse, the 
value of the skin is diminished according to their number. The In 
dian often endeavors to conceal them by rubbing Hour or chalk over 
ihem. 

The seas<ni when the skins are in the best coinliticm is from Septem- 
ber to the middle of Hecember. Tiie freshly deposited eggs have not 
yet i)roduc»'<l larva- of sutlicient si/e to injure the skin, and the wounds 
l»rodiucd by those dropping out in the month of May have healed and 
left tint skin in condition. 

Certain skins intended for special purposes must be smoked. The 
process of smoking tends to render it less liable to injury from mois- 
ture. The|»yroligneous vapors act as antiseptics and thus at least 
retard dec(unposition of those articles nmst exposed to wet. The tents 
iin«l foot wear are always tanned with the smoke and this process is 



)(■■ 



•J'MJ 



TlIK lll'HSON ItAY KSKIMO. 



i «*i 



iihviiys siil)si'i|iH>iit Id tliiif of liriii^iii^ tlif skins into tli*> ))lial)l iiili- 

liiiii. 

riic pi'iM't'ss ii(lii|)t<>(l l)y tlifso liiiliiiiis ill sinokiii;*' tlic tU't'iskins is 
iis follows; Tin- woods mo scarflicd for lottcii wood of a s|M'(i;d 
cliiiriii'fi'r. it must l)«> sitVtM-ti'd with a kind of dry rot wliitdi icndt'is 
tlic tllxTs of a spoiiyy iiatniT. Tliis is prot nitMl and tlioroiigidy diifd. 

Tlic skins to l)t^ smoked arc 
«»'lt'('ti'd and two of nearly 
tlie same si/eaiid condition 




ire clioscii, a 



lid 



sewci 



1 inti 



the foi'iii of a lia^' with the 
hairy side vitliiii. 'I'lie alter 
portions of the skin arc siis)icndcd from a ;'on\eniciit pole and the head 
and neck portions left free or open. 'I'o the cdjfcs of these is sewed a 
cloth, usually a )iierc of haliii;'; doth, and this is also left open. The 
rotten wood is placed in a pan or vessel and as it siiiol 
dels, never iairiiin^ into a lila/e. the pale, blue, pnn;>'eiit 
smoke is -allowed to ascend within the cavilv of the 



deerskin )ia< 



The cloth is mcrch to form a condnit for 



llic smoke as the skin should not lie ton near the lire 



.\s the pidce 



(iiliniies the skins arc inspected he 



Iwccii Ihc stitches of the sew in;; ;|||() w lieu the opera- 
lion has processed siillicicntly they are taken down. 
It will now he loiiiid that the surface has assumed a 
pah', clear 1m<»\\ n color, the shade of which depends on 
the l(Mi;;'th of the (>\|misiii'c to the smoke. 

'I'lie cloth is rcniovcd and the skins are immediately 
folded, with the smoked side within, and laid away for 



several da\s to sc; 



I son. 



If. however, the skin he left ti 




the inlliience of the air the colorin;; matter iminediatcly 
disajipears Icaviii;; it ol a color oiil.v slightly dilVerent 
from what it wa.s before it was smoked. 

'I'lic scars, made by the larva- of the insects, do not 
"take" the smoke as well as the healthy iiortioiis and so preseuf a 
pitt«'d or scaly appearance, i'lum the skiii.s having an aliiindance of 
the scar.s are made the tents and inferior ;;rades of mocciisins and tli(> 

tops of the bctterclass of foot 

wear. 




The paints used forib'coratiny 
the buckskin ^'arincnts are ap 
plied by jiieans of bits of bone 
or horn of a peculiar shape best undeistood from the liy:ures (Fijjs. 
liMl-IKM. 

'I'hosc with two, three or four tines are used for niakintj the comuli 
cated patterns ol' parallel lines, and arc always made of antler, while 
the simple form is sometimes of wood. 



DKCOUAIION. 



207 



A liloiik ofwtidtl with one or imii)' liiiwl sliiiptMl ciivitics cut in it (Ki),'. 
Ill) sers'i's to iiohl I lie inixi'ii paints, t'siicciaily win-n Hi-vt'iiil t'oloi's mv 
to lit* iist'ii in HUt'Cfssion. 

Sniiill wooilon liowls 
iirt- iilso t'niplovril. 

{FiK«. n-'-ii;<.) 

The piKHu-nls nscil 
iirc ])i'ocnrt'il I'loni ilil' 
i'li'Ut .soiiitcs. From the tnuk'rs arc obtained imiiyo in the ciiidtM-on- 
(litioii or in the t'oirn of wasliin;; Itlin-, vern.ilion in small liuckskin 1)aij;s, 

An almmlance of rctl earth occurs in se 




I'lO. 11111.— I'^illl •*liili. NiIM'Ilnl. 




I 

: 1 



guide 



•'!tM 



rili; IIlJDSON HAV ESKIMO. 



iildiii- miiiU's till- draw iiijj. however iiitrinitc it may !»«'. Tin- artist frc- 
<|iit>iill,v iittciiipts to iiiiitatc Honiu of tlio d«>liiat<t <l*'Hi^iiH on a {{iiiuly 
liaiiiliiiiii lianilki'iriiii't' oi' noiik' similar tabiic. Thf priiicipiil Hoiircc of 
till' liiMiialiUt JH a lai<u near tiif lit>a<lwatiTs of (it'oige'.s rivui' wlitno it 




t-'lu. Il:i. — I'illlll rll|i. N««ll<-llnl. 

occui's as 11 mass of ilisinte^jratt'tl rork iiloiif,' the marfjiii. Tli« water 
has hy fn'tv.iiifj; split fjrt'atqiiaiititiis from tin' mass aii<l wludi tlu'n^ is 
a strong; wiml from tlif opposite liircftioii the wat«M isofti-ii laslMsl into 
a blooilifil foam. 



IIW II I.IN<l>i. 






The Nt'iHMiof livf, both in snmiiu'r an<l in winter, in drerskin tent, 
(sec I'iy:. 1 1 n, which aie eonstnicted in tin' followiny; manner: A snili- 






.MT-Aa '.w.vti 



\^y.^, ». ■*Mm,.-,.>i,. ■»" 







Km 114— N'i'iii'iiiit Inilimi li'iit. 

eiont number of snnll poh-s cut from the woods are deprived of their 
branches and broiijiht totlie camp site. A location is ,select<'d and tho 
l>oIes are erected in a circle, with t<ips leanin;^ toward the center so as 
to form a conu Ut to 14 feet in hei^^ht, having; a diamettir at its base of 



TI'MNIH.I 



l>\VKI,I,IN(m. 



290 



fu)Ui in tt» IH fcrt. Tilt' skins t'orinin^' tin- rovor iirc tlioso of tlit> rein- 
«lt'<'i', aixl tliii.si> 8t>U>rt*'i| fur tliis |iiii'|)om> arc usually of aii inferior 
^mimIo. a HiitllritMit iiiiiiil»-r aic s*>\vcil lo;;ftlii'i to fonn a strip loii); 
ciioukIi to I'tvM'li aroiinil tlu> poli-'t wiicii set up. As tho tents ditVcr in 
si/,1* arrorilinK to tli)> iinnilivr of piMipl*> who oinipy tli<'ni, tin* skinH 
scwt'd tojft'tlnT nniy Im' from t'ijfiit to tvvflvi-. Tin' (list strip is niado 
fia' tln« lowfi- part of tln« polos and is attarluMi to tlicni liy nn-an.s (»f 
sti'iii|;s liistt>nt>d witliin. A scfoinl strip is nnidc to pi antnnd the iip- 
\H'i |>arl of tln> polos, and is, of ronrso, »'(>ri('sp(Hidin;;Iy shoitiT. It is 
plai'od last so as to ovorlap tho lowoi- Inoatltli and thus provcnt lain 
ami snow from Mo\n in^' in. 'I'ln- door is usually mado of oni' lar^^o skin 
or two sinallor oiifs. It is tiod to tlu> poles at the upper eoriiers and 
at the lower has a small lo^ of woo<l as a weii;ht to pr«vent it from 
Happing. The poles at the apex ar«> notiovere«l andthroii^ili them tlm 
smoke from the lire built in the eenter witliin asionds and linds exit. 

The interior of the tent is arriiii}<ed t<i suit the oeeupants. Thutloor 
is usually eovered with the luanelies ot' youuy spriiee, and when eare- 
fully laiil these tin in an adiniralile inuteetion fiom the cold f;ri'oundaiul 
a soft carpeting. 

The women «Mio lay this thiol imi display ({leat taste, and eertain of 
them are iioti'il l«>r tlirir skill in ilis|Hisin;^ the lirainhes. The eeiitur 
of tin* tent is I'csei'v ' I for ihe lire wliieh is hiiilt there aiuon^ a tevr 
stones. 

The oeeupants urran^e t liemselves iteeordiiit; to the imiMirtiMiee of the 
plaee tliey oeiiipy in tin* family. The owner cu' head man is always t^i 
Im' found on the sidt* opposite the lire. This is cousidored a plaee of 
honor, to whieh all uiiests wlio are to lie eomplinu'iiteil are invitt-d to 
a seat. 

The other ineinbers of the <:roiip arrange tlii*ms('lvfs alon^ the sides 
ol the tent, and those who have lieen adopted iiitu the family oeeiipy 
positions next the doorway. 

Over the tire may lie poles reaehiny aeross tin* tc'iit, and on tliu.sc will 
be .snsponded kettles and pots obtained from the traders. The eooking 
utensils are few in number, one vessel .servin;; various imrposes. 

The hunting' \n\\v and the skins of animals, to^'t her with the artieles 
belon;;in}; to the fennih's may lie seen suspended from various |)ortions 
of the interior. Around the ed^jes are the blankets o»" deerskin, and 
tlio.se bou(;ht from the trailers, lyiiiy in disorder. The outer ed^e of 
the interior is slightly raised abovefhe eenter, and atlbids a eonvenient 
slope for those who desire to sleep. The oeeupants always sleep with 
their feet toward the tlreplaee, around wliieli there is no brush, lest it 
be .set on tin* during; sleep and destroy the tent. 

They have repilar hours tor sleeping, ''iit as tlie.se are (Uily for ii period 
of short «lui..,'on, it is not unusual to tiiid half the inmatos asleep at 
any time a tei t. is visited. 

The preparation of the food appears to }>o on at all times, and there 



.'500 



THE IIIDSON HAY KSKIMO. 



i *»l 



iiiv no lejiiilii!' lioiiis lor iiiirtakiii}; of Jlu'ir iiu-als, as cacli prrsoii i^ats 
wlit'ii coiivniiciil. The food is taken tlirci'tly from i\w pot or kettle, 
and eaeli one helps liiinself. Forks are not used, and the food is divided 
with a knife or torn with the linfjers. 

SWKAT llorsKS. 

The Xeiienol are in the habit of takinjr steam baths, for whieh j)nr 
pose they use a suda'ory or sweat house, const rnet«'d as follows: A 
uuiid>er of flexible poles of small si/e, usually willow or alder, whieh 
ffiow (o sullieient si/.(^ alon;; the banks of the streams, are bent to form 
a hemisplierieal or dome shaped stineture, whieh is covi'red with tent 
skins. A sandy locality is selected or one free from snow in winter, 
and a tien-e tire is built. When it is well underway a nundier of stones 
aie thrown into the tir«' to heat. When the heat is snlVicient the lire is 
I'emoNcdant! Mie strut tuie is (piickly erected over the hot st<nies and 
some one fniiii tluM)utsid<' laslens do\\ n the ed;;t's of th" tentin;;' with 
stones to |)rcv('nf the loss of heat. A kettle of wat«'i' |irevioiisly phued 
within the balh house is used to poui over the stones, when heat 
rises to a sniVocatinji dcjjree and jiroduces the desired peisi)iration. 
Water is not used to bathe in, tliou^li stnnetinies a sli;;ht quantity i.s 
poured upou the liead only, '''iu^ bather remains within tiui hut until 
the heat has nearly exhaustetl him. 

These baths are freqiu'Utly takt'ii.aiuJ often wIm'Ii he has just started 
on a Journey the head of the family will be sei/.ed with a tlesire to have 
a bath. KverythiuK must await this operation belbre tin- Journey is 
resumed. 

An annisiny: incident oei-urred at Fort Chimo in the spring; of ISSi'. 
That sea.son the reindeer were extrcnn'l\ iininerousal that place, asthey 
were t'l'ossiii;;- to f;o to the northeast to drop the fawns. Often when 
the in ids or bainls weie panic stricken they rushed amon^f the Indian 
tents, (he houses of the station, and, in fact, every win're. vsitli yelping 
do^s and screaming; w(unen and children at their heels. .\u old nnin 
and wile were in the sweat house at a lime when a very lar;,'e drove of 
the deer, ill their frantic endeavors to escape their piirsiieis, headed 
directly for the bath. Soiii<> one screamed to the occujiants to look out 
for tlii> deer. The man and wife made their exit Just as a score oi' mor«' 
of the animals reached the spot. The man t^tre up the teiitin;; of the 
bath house and whirled it in the air, while tlie old woman cut the nntst 
astonisiiin^' antics. The vvlioh^ |)opulation witnessed the oeeurr(>nee 
and did not fail to help increase the tniiiult. Sijjnsof former sudatories 
are <|uit4- comimui alon;; the paths where the Indians have traveled fo|- 
many years. 

noCMCIIlll.l) I'TI'.NMll.S, Ki'C. 

I'^ach houselndd is supplied with sundry wooden vessels of various 
sizes (l''i((. 1 1.')) which serve for bucket>- tor hohliii^r water and for drink- 



HOI SI •.HOLD 1:TKN8I1.S. 



IW\ 




,.}, 



302 



THE HUDSON BAY K8KIMO. 



M**t 






quir«Ml si/«', Tliis bit;; is ust'tl to hold the rluthing, fins, aiidotlicr valii- 
nl)l»'s. Wlicii on a trijt th«'y art^ invariably earn)')!. If tho jonrney be 
perfornu'd on foot tlio two ends are tied witli a thonf? and the bag 
tlirown over the shouhler. 

In preparinji food stone pesth's of various sizes were 
formerly used of tiie shape shown in Kig. 118. Tliese 
pestles are now mostly out of date and superseded by 
cast iron ones x.itii steel faces, pnx^ured from the 
traders. The metal pounders, however, are so heavy 
that they are objectionable to i)eo|»le who have to 
make their bnnlens on the ]>ortages as licht as ])(>s 
sible. 

Sp(Mtns to lift pieees of floating meat from the hot 
li(|nor in which it is eiHiked, are made of reiinleer 
antler and of wood. The pattern of theso spoons is 
shown in the lignres (Fig. lilt). One shape (No.S'Wl, 
Figs. IL'O, llil, lliL'), was ]ierhaps (■o])ied from a eivil 
i/.ed ladle. Pots are sns|>ended over the tire with pot- 
hiHiks of reindeer anth>r iiung n)» by a 1(H)]) of thong. Those ])otliooks 
are also made of wood. 



HlHAl ti> AM> ril'Ks 




Fill. 118. Stone pf»tl( 
Nt'ueniit. 



Like all Other Indians, 
these p«>ople are inordi 
nately fond of tol)a«'eo 
for smoking, chewing, 
an«l snntt': the latter, 
however, is used only by 
aged individuals, espe- 
cially the females, whose 
countenances show the 
etVet-t in a manner (juite disgusting. 
bocco of as much importance as the 





iff — WiMHieu ^iMMin nr lailli', Nt'iii'iml. 



ehiy pipe and a plug of tobaeeo. 

three or four hanl biscuit (which 

'Canadian i)adloek." doubtless bee 

are of secondary consideration. VV 



liu — WiMNlcn H|)<H>ii i>r ladl*', Neiionot. 

The men consider a supply of to- 
supply of amnninition for the pros- 
ecution of the chase. The tirst 
reipiest u|M)n meeting an Indian 
is that you furnish him with a 
chew or a pii)e full. Little satis 
factory intercourse can bi- had 
with him until he is mollitied by 
a gift of tobiu-co. The tirst thing 
that an Indian receives when ar- 
riving at the trading ])ost is a 
The pint of molasses and the 
have received the local name of 
luse they are so dinieult to open), 
hen the spring arrivals are camped 



S i 







Tlir.NBH.) 



HOU8KHOLD UTENSILS. 



303 




at thu station it is not uiiiiMual tor sovural to contrllmto a niiin\)or of 
pluK-s of tobactco and a ;j;allon of inolasstis. Tiicsc ari! boiled to};ctiici' 
and then water is added to tlio mixture. Tliis villainous compound is 
drunk until a statu of stupelm^tion ensues. Tlie muddletl cneaturo 
under the intiuenee uf that li<|uor seems like an idiot. The etfcet is 
terrible and does not wear away for several days. The pipes used for 
Hinoking are made of stone, obtained from river jtebbU's, usnully a fliu^ 
grained eompaet sainlstone. The color of this stone varies frun a dark 
reddish brown nesirly the color 
of clotted blood to a lighter 
shade of thiit ccdor. The red 
stones often have spots of eveiy 
size ami shape of a yeUowish 
drab whieii form a strange »'on- 
trast with tlie darkt'r colors. 
The diirkt'r the stom^ the less 

spotting it will have. The best ''■"'• '-''-'^■' " ^i'""'" "'' '"'""■ ^""' '• 

of all the pipes and those most valued are of greenish sainlstone having 
strata (tf darker colors whi(!h ap])car as beautiful graining when the 
])i))e is cut into form and polished. 

Other i»ipes are of hard slate and very dark witliout nuu'kings. All 
the material is hiird ami the etVect of the lire within renders them liar 
der ami liable Ut crack if used in very cold weather. Thesti ])ipes vary 
but litth' in shape (1 have tigured three— IM. xxxviii and Kig. l-'.'5— to 
show the pattern), but ther«^ is ccuisiderable dill'erence in size. The 
largest ones ae made of the green stone, while the smaller ones are 
nnnle of other stones. The 
stem is of spruce wood and is 
prepared by boring a small (^ 
hole through the stick length- 
wise and whittling it down 
t«) the retpiired size. It is 
from t to H inches long and is 
often (Miiamenteil with a band 
of many colored beads. 

The rough stom^ for a pipe '''" '"-^^■""'-'' " "i-"-' "■• '-"" ^■'"■"">"••■ 

is selected and chipped into crude foiin. The successive operations of 
wearing it down to the desired size are accomj)lished by meansof a 
coarse tile or a harder stone. Thi' amount of labor bestowed ui)on a 
pipt^ consuuies several <lays' time before the hnal polish is given. 

The value set upon these jiipes is according to the color of the stone, 
ivi much as the amount of lalKu- expended in making them. They are 
always tilthy, partly on account of the bad «iuality of tobacco used. 
The ashes and other accnnuilations witlnn are removed by means of a 
l«Mlkin-shaped instrument of bom' or horn. The back of a broken InuMi 
comb is a favorite material for nuiking a decorated pipe-cleauer (Kig. 




I 

i 



804 



THK Hl'UHON 1!AY ESKIMO. 



If*-! 



124). Till' (iriiiiiiicntiitioiis (■(Hisist ot'cnicit'orn! liiiil (|uii(liiitc liffincs on 
tlio liiiiullf. The toliiu'co used tor .smoking' is tlic common. 'st black 
pliiji <>r very inferior iiimlity, soaked witii iiioliisses .mil licorice. This 
moist tobucco is cut into pieces and a coal of (ire placed upon it. Thuy 
prefer this .piality, and purchase the li>,diter ami <lrier kinds oidv t^i 
serve as kindling' lor the darker sort. 

They do not know how to brew or I'erment liipiors of any kind, and 
as the importation of intoxicants is wisely prohiliiled, the native his no 
opjiorl unity to indulgt! in his eravinj; lor li(|Uors, the siii)ply id' which 
was identifnl in former years. A s|»riicc b,'er is made by tjie servanis 
of tile comi»any for the Iwdidays, and a taste is sometimes fiiveii tu a 





k\J 



Kii.. I'.'.'t. Stoiii' tuliaii CI |ii|H 



li'.. Ii;4. -I'lpi'iliiiii. I \. riinol, 

favorite Indian, who is so easily allccled that a pint of this mild beci 

will send him reeling and happy to his lent, where it soon I omes 

known that lu-cr is to be iiad. The importunities for drink arc now so 
frei|iieiit, tliat the l»arrel must be emptied of its contents in order to 
avoid the eonstaiit be},'^nntrs for it. 



: 



MKANS 111- III.WM olMA lliiN. 



Ifi WAIKIl. 



All the Indians of this •ej.qoji use birch bark canoes, of the patt«'rn 
shown in the limine (I'l. xxxix, from a photojiiaph; th<' collecti<.n also 
contains six wooden models of these canoes). The style of canoe used 
by the Little Whale river Indians of the eastern side of llmlson iia,\ 
Las very much more sheer at the bow and stern than tiiose used in the 



fte 






[::i:i_if 



''■■jrf- 



m 



li— , 



\m^ 



f. 



« 
r 



TlIllNKn.) 



TBANSI'dlJTATION HV WATKU. 



305 



valley of tlu^ Koksoak. Tlu- *-aiio*Mit'i'ii(Oi iiulivitliiiil ditVcrs tVoiii oMitirH 
avconlin^ to tlif pt'i-soual tastoor ii«>«-<l ot'tlii^ iiiakcr. The ruquiritiixMits 
nro tliattlie caiiuc Htiall he ablo to transport liimselt'aiiil t'aiiiily, to{;cMi(U' 
witli the liouseliold uroiierty, wln'iiever it is dt'sircd to cliaiifje caiiipH. 
Hoiiu'of the canoes in»« small, otiieiH laifje, <tften possessed by two or 
more individuals in eoninion. 

These eanoei^ are eonstrncted in llm following,' manner: Trees are 
seleeted whieli when split will allbnl a numhe>- of strai^ht-fjrained 
Hiats tree trom knots. Tlutse slats are shaved to the required thiek- 
nesH and laid .iside to s«>ason. They are >'t or 4 inches wide and less 
than one thini of an inch in thickness. The exterior or longitudinal 
strips are placed so that their cd;:es will touch each other. The inside. 
Htri|)s or rilis are ]ihiced about their own width apart, and ot'coiirsit aie 
phuM'd at ri^^lit an;;les to the lon^ritudinal slats. They are thinner than 
the side strips and become almost like shavin;;s at the bow and stern. 
The two layer.i of slats t'oiin a kind of sh«-ll upon which the skin of 
bark (its tijjhtly. The first process with the i)ark is to fre»^ it from the 
outside scalin;; layers; the next is to .soak it for several days in fresh 
water to .soften it; otherwise, when dry it would crack like an eH:j;shell. 
When it has macerated a snilicient time it is taken out and laid over a 
form of clay or other earth, which has previously been rou;;hly molded 
to the shape of the interior of the canoe. The bark is now sewed aloiif; 
theedjjcsof the strips with roots of the spnut- tree. These are lon^f 
and tou^jh, and resemble splits of rattan when juoiierly juepaied for 
the i>uritose by splittinj,' and shavin;,' with a knife. Various sizes ot 
these roots are used for the ditVerent portions. The threads are also 
soaked in water until they become so tiexible that they may be tied into 
a knot without breaking. 

When the bark skin rudely conforms to the shape of the mold of 
earth, the rails or rouml strips of wood aloii^ tlie inner edp' of the 
canoe are placed in position and the ends of the bark strips lai<l over 
it and sewed. A secoiul rail is now laid upon the tiist and diawn 
down to it by means of th»' root thon},'s. A jiieceof wood is shaped for 
the bow and lUie for the stern and inserted in ito.sition, and the end 
st'ams of the »*anoe are sewed over tlu^se pieces. 

The interior is then ready for tiu^ lon;fitudinal strijis, which are placed 
ut the bottom tirst and gradually built up on each side until the rails 
are reached. The ribs or transverse strips are next jtlaced in position. 
Five or nnue crosspieces, or thwarts, are fastened to the side rails to 
give stirtness to the sides and to i)revent collapsiii};;, and they may be 
.set either below or above the rail. The jjreatest care must be exercised 
t<) }jive t«» both sides of the canoe the same shape and to have the keel 
evenly balanced. This is rudely rcfjulated by the eye duriiifr the process 
of construction. After all the strips are put in, the boat is allowed 
to season and dry. This causes the bark to shrink, and while dryiiifj 
the whole is frequently inspected to discover any splits or cracks iu 
11 r/rii 20 



•"1 
■ ) 



% 



30fi 



TlIK Ill'DSON ItAY r.sKIMO. 



|UI| 



C 



tilt' hark. Tlic liulinii cl'tcn wj-ts tlir ciiiio*'. lest it dry too nipidly and 
split iiiidtT tin' tension. Wlicn tiii' I'oiin and inaKi' ai«> ,satista«'torv tlm 
HraiiiN ai)' HiiM'arcd with a iiii\tiir<>ol'H|irun' ;:iitii (or ifsin bought Iroiii 
tlu' tradiTN"), iiii\<'<l with seal oil to rt'iidrr it It'ss <'asily liiokcn. This 
iiiixtiir*' is wliilf hot lai<l upon the dry siirtati' with a small paddl*'. 

Al't«'r the (;iiai has st'a^oiicd tor a da\' or so Ihr caiiot* is put upon tlu' 
xvatorand ti'stc*! tor its spn'<l and soaworthint'ss. All h-aks and ut'cdrd 
n>])airs arc iinint'dialrly attrndt'd to. and it is at Ifn^^tli 
rt'ady t'oi' wkv. 

Many persons havr not I hi' skill nti'ded to const rnct 
a tanoc, and they employ those who have liad csperiiMiet^ 
and are known to Imild an cM'cilent lioat. 

'riiere are two kinds of eatiocs in use anion^r those In- 
dians. ditVerin^' only in the sha))e of the stern ami prow, 
'I'lie ori;iinal form was nearly Hat alon;: the rails ami had 
the liow and steiii hut little turned n|). Of later .\eais 
intercourse with some of tiicir nei;:iiliors has induced 
them to modity the nearly strai^'ht cd^e canoe int(» an 
inli-rmcdiate shape iietween their own and tiiat of tint 
{'last .Main Indians, whose canoes are very min-h tnrm'd 
up. and are ai'knowiedncd to he far superior vessels to 
tliose of the rn};a\a Indians. 

.\s the forests in the vicinits of I'ort (!hirno do not 
contain hirch trees, and none aie found until the head- 
waters of the Koksoak arc reached, where they are too 
small to atVord hark of sunicicnt si/.e and thickness, tli» 
Indians are compelled to procuie the liark from thu 
liaders, who imjiort it (rum the .St I.awrem-c lixer ami 
^ulf stations to I''ort <'himo. It comes in hundles lar^u 
enon;;li to cover a smjile carioe of UKxIerate si/.e. If a 
canoe is to he very larjic two bundles are rcipiired. The 
value of a bla«'k fox skin purdia.ses a liundlc of l)ark. 

Durin;;' the sp.rinji nionlhs, while tiie weather is some- 
what warm, the men are cnjia^'cd in preparing; the strips 
and i)ark for the cam>e whicii is to convey them up tlu* 
river when the ice breaks ami the rixer is open for navi- 
fjaticui. 

iddle has a single blade with a handle s<-an'eiy 

in half the len}j;th of the jiaddle. It is used with 

mils, the strokes bcinn ^'Im'u imi alternate sides as 

liirou;rli the water. 

y that a poi tane be made the voyajjer takes the 

Iders by letting; one of the center thwarts rest on 

The hands ate thrown backward to hold up tin; 

the ;,nound. .\ headband, such as I have already 

irk or idoth, often fancifully onuiinented with 




described 



TURNKH.] 



TUANSPOUTATION HY WATKR. 



307 



bciulM, (Its over tlir loivlif,,,! ami is aftarlu.,1 to tli.- sid.-s of il,,. ..ui.... 

by ninins „f (1„mius, wlu.l, iMrv.il tl„. rari.... IVnin slippi,,., „(r the 

slioiildcrs us the p(.rtciqiii(kl,v tniv- 

cisos tlif iijirrow pathway tlirmiyli 

tlio tr<'»'s and 'mslics. Tlio (jroiiiid 

isol'tcu so iii.ivt'ri and ioukIi tliat 

InnKdctonrsliavt'toht' inadt^ l»y tlui 

portor, while tin' lest «if the party 

nniy nou Mhortn' path to tiM> |ilaci> 

whoif the ra will a;;ain he plarcd 

in the water. A p:.M of the ni-i-fs 

saiyt'(piipMi('iits(or a trip in a cai 

arc picn-s of hark, mot threads, and 
^nin to repair any damage resullin^r 
Iron- an areidental eonlael with a 
stono or sna;i. 

Without llu'l»ir(h i)ark laiioethe 
Indian would have dillirnlty in oli- 
taininjj his living, as il is even nioit! 
nee essary than the sled, ami nearly 
as useful as the snowshoe. 

The paddles used with these ca- 
noes are ahout."i feet lonj;, havin;,' a 
blade about .10 inches lon^r „,|,| ^ 
wide. The hamlle terminates in a 
sort of km)l». The padtlle referred 
to, forapplyiu}- the «um ami f;rease 
to till) seams of the eaiioe, has the 
shai>e of a llaltened spoon with 
rminded howl (Ki{r. Il'5). The {.'uin 
is heated, and while hot is poured 
iiUmii the seams ami pressed into 
the interstiees of the stitches with 
the paddle. When a patch is to be 
applied over a fracture or broken 
pliM'C in the bark, it may be made 
to adhere by the sticky proiterties 
of the j;um alone, if the distance to 
be traveled is not ^reat. 
then nmde ami the wax hei 
piece of bark is«'df,'ed with 
and pressed lirmly over 
A second coat is applied 
edfjos of the bark, after tin 



be 



eonie cold. A fc 



w mimitt 



to repair an apparently 




3U8 



Tin; iiinsuN iiAV i;.siviM(). 



!.•'* 



• 



ll\ I \N|i. 

Fur I'iiirviii^' IdiiiIh oMT lli*> snow itll llic Imlinns of tliJH i't>f;iiin uho 
Imp- .sIi'dH (I'iys. Ilii!, IL'7) ciillrd In liiis kim, wliicli is ii wonl «'«|iiiv!i- 
lent to fill' wfll kiKiwii iiaintt '•toho^ffiiii." 'I'Ih'si' slcils, us usi-il uiiioiiff 
till- Iiiiliiiiis iiikIit ('oMsiilmitioii, •lilVor M-iy ^rnitly in si/i> jicturiliii^ to 
tin- use lor wiiiili ilicy iirc »lrsi;;iic(l. 

The nii'tlioil iircoiifltnit'tiiin is ns liillowH: A lirt* is sclfi'tt'il iis IVoo 
IVoiii Uiints as |iiissiiili> iihil tvM) lioai'ds of less tiiiiii iiii inrli in tliicltiii'ss 
an' lu'wnl or split rioin it. 'riicsi- iinanis an' I'lirlin'r dit'ssi'il to tin' 
rt>i|iiirt>tl tliit'ivnt'ss ami wiillli. 'I'ln' liiial o|M'ralioii consists in sliavin;; 

tlirtii ilow n willi a " rrookcil 
kiiil'i'" to litlii' inori' than lialf 
an iiirli ill tliii'knrss. Oiitt 
I'll;:)' of rarll lioai'il is tlu'll 
slrai;;litrni'il ahil tlir two 
r(l;irs plartil to);i'tlli T. 'I'lKt 
li'ii;;tli is rari'lv nioii' lliaii 
l.t t'icl. Till' I'i'onI ciiil is 
straiiit'il or licatnl in a kt'ltlr 
of hot w ati'i' until tin' lioanis 
lu'rolllf tlt'xililr. 'I'lic I'llils 
art' tiirnril ii|) t.> tin- iloiit'ii 
cni'M' anil t lii'n lu'iit over at 
tin' I'liil. \N lii'iT till y aif lirM 
III |iositiiiii h,\ a tiaii^M'i'su 
bar of woiiil. 'i'liis liar is 
sli;;litl.\ lOliraM' on tlir siijc 
iii'xt llic sli'il ami ;;i\<'s tli«; 
iiosr a riirvi'il >lia[ir. Tlio 
ciii'M'il jiortion ot I III' trout 
may rise as inm-li as IS inilir.s 
aliovi' tin' siiii'art' o\rr wliii'ii 
tlK^ slrd triivils. At tins 
plan' whfie tin' riirvr lM';iJns a scroml traiis\ rrsi' liar is pland. and 
at a distain-i' lirliiml it a tliiid. t'onrtli. and lillli liars arc fastened. 
Konietiini's an additional liar is to lie Ion ml on tlic upper side of the liot- 
toni. These bars are all fastened to the two bottom boards by means of 
thon}{s of parchment (b'crskin, and run lliron;,di holes on the bottom 
boards. ( >n the underside the thoii;;s are let into places cut out between 
tilt' two hides, so that the thoiitjs will not be woin when jiassinj,' over 
the snow. They are iiKually fastened in four places, one at each end of 
the bar and one on each side of the crevice between the edp's of the 
tw(» boards. !''roin the nose of the llrsi bar run a jtair of very stout 
thony:s or else twisted sinew, which are drawn ti;;ht eiion;jh to prevent 
the nose and curve from strai;;hteniii;r out. From the end of the lirst 




Flu I'JH. — Ni'iH-iml rtiitiwhiiuc. '^iiifc:!)' Itar. 



DUNItU 01 IIHNULUUI 



lllveNTM »N>iu«lHri'OHt Pl.«l 




NENCNOT ^NOWSMur " SWALLOW-TAIL 



% 



i1* 






TtnimtB.) 



TRANSPORTATION l!Y I.ANI). 



300 



bar to tin- last one <»ii tlio lu'd of tlio sled is run ii stout twisted thoiipf 
under tlu' cikI oI'imcIi liar, wiiicii tlu'io ii:is ',i iiotdi cut on t)i(>, undtT 
side lor tlm line to puss tlirou>;ii. Tliis line serves to stien^^tlien the. 
md«>s and prevent the two boai'ds IVoni slippi i<r past eaeh other when 
l»assiiiK over inequalities of the j,'round. At t le ends ot the first bar 
and eoMueeted with the side lines are two lon^' stout thon;;s of twisted 
skin, often -."» feet louj,'. These are used as triices, by which th«' sleil is 
drafjjjed. The shape of tiie hottiun is often fashioned after all the re- 
mainder of tin work has bein done. The widili of the nose is rarely 
more than '.I incln s; at the lirst bar it is altout II imdies and as much 
as IH inches between the lirst and second bars. I'roin tht^ wnlest jiart 
to the heel it jj;radually nairows to a width of ."» to 7 inches. 

Two boards are used, as one of sulhcicnt width could not be obtained 
from th«> forests of that ic-jiim. Ucsidcs. a single board would certainly 
split, whihi two obviate this 
dandier anil render the sled less 
stilV. In passinji' ovei' lonyh 
places the sled nuist bend to 
coiitbrm to incijualities or else 
it would break. !n the con 
struction of this vchicli the In- 
dian displays nuu'h skill and a 
perfect knowlcd;;e of the re- 
i|uirements of tli«' case. The 
loatl is ])laced so as to dispose 
the wei;:ht on that portion which 
will bear chietly on the j;ronnd. 
The {jreat lenylh of the sled en- 
ables the person to ^luide it 




moie readily. 

Wheuouajourney theyoiinncr 
women and the nu>n dra;; it 
alonj;. When liic men return 
to the station to trade they 
alone dra;i it. A small do^ is 
scnuetimes hitched toil lu a tlioui;. but as the animal is so small ami 
li;;ht, it alVonls but little assistance. The animal, however, wnnld cer- 
tainly wander olf in search of yame alon^' the track, and by beinf;- 
hitcheil to the sh-d is kept within boumls. 

All the honsehohl etVects. cousistin>: of tent, cookinj; utensils, cloth- 
ings and otlier articles are (ilaced on the sled when the peiiple are 
ehan;;in^ camp. 

The Nenenot are skiUed in the manufacture and use of simwshoes, 
of which four styles are used, vi/: The "swallowtail," "beaver tail," 
"idund emi," antl -sin-ilc bar" ( I'iKs. IL'S, I •_",»). .The franu- is of wood. 



nearly aii 



inch wiile and half an inch thick, usually in two pieces, Joine 



W: 



310 



TIIF, lirnSON 1!\Y ESKIMO. 



r< 



"m < 



r. 




l).v loiij; lap s|»litri's wriipiK'd witli th'ciskiii tlioiifis, citlier at tin- sitU'S 
(»r ciuls ol' the shot'. In th«< .siiifih-liar slioc tlic t'laiiu' is on oiio slip, 
si»li('('»l at th«' t(H'. Hircii is the favorite iiuitiMial for siiowslioes, 'nt is 
rarely to lie had except by those Iiitliaiis who ast-eml the Koksoak So its 
headwaters, so that spiiiee and lai»'h are neiieially used. 

The arrai:;i<'iiient of the toe and heel bars of the snow- 
shoes will be iiest understood from the lifjnies. They are 
nsually jdaeed within the frame, and set in moitises in the 
inner side of the frame, before the wrappinjj of tlu^ ends of 
the frames has been drawn to^iether; otherwise the bars 
eo!''(l not be plaeeil in the holes to receive them. 

('he nettinfi' is made of ileerskin, with the hair removed, 
and allowed to dry into a condition usually known as parch 
ment. This is cut into stri|>s of variaiile width, depending; 
on the ]>articiilar use for which it is wanted. 

A needle of bone, horn, or iron (I'My;. l.'Ut) is used for net- 
tiu^thesnowshoes. The shapeof tiu> im]>leuu-nt is Hat and 
rounded at eiu h p(»int, to enable the needle to be used either 
backward oi' forward. The eye which carries the line is in 
the middle. Various sizes of needles are used toi' the dif- 
erent kinds of lu^ttint,', of which the nu'shes dilfer fj't'ntly 
in size. 

The liiu-, IS K*"ierally lOto !,'<> feet in Icnjjiii.aud when the 
lu'ttint;: is completed it somewhat resendiles the st-atin^r of 
a caiu' bottomed chair. Emh iiidiviilual varies his work 
accordiufj U> tancy, but as the netting between the bars is 
made of coarser line, more compactly woven, there is less 
dilVerenire tiiere than at the toe or heel. 

The netting of the toe is of liner line and mesh*>s than 
the middh- or between the bars; while that between the 
heel bar and heel of the suowshoe is linest of all. 

The netting between tin- bars holds the Joints of the 
franu's where they laj* over each other. 

The toe and heel spates of netting are held in place by 

the line passing uinler the threads which are wrapjied 

e bars from the netting between them, ami again 

led or slipped through lou])s of thread or line 

let through the frame of the snowshoe. 
le center of the toebai' is a space left in the netting 
he bars to admit tht; toes of the wearer and allow 
' walking. This space is semicircular ami is in- 
nds of line passing over the toe bar and forming 
> diagoind lines of the netting passed around them 

Id to the foot by a wide buckskin thong attached 
I'c back of the toe bai'. The entls must be far 




uifurAn or I iMNu-tViV 



ElEvCMH AN.-.UAL HtPOUT Pi. XlI 




NfNCNOT SNoWSHi'E: REAVf H-TAIl . 



TURNKH.] 



SNOW SIIOKS. 



311 



enough apart toiidmit tliu witltli of tlic. toot as tar as tlu' toos, and 
must bo tlifu (haw n down to jm'Vi'nt tin' loot iVoni pusliing too far 
forward and striUiiiK' a;iaiii.st tluf toe Itar. Tlie loop passinfj ovor tho 
toi's nnist b(^ slark cnou^'li to allow fret^ niovciin'iit of the foot. When 
the Htrai) suits I hi' foot it is passed around tin' lu'd of the wears-r and 
tied snllifiently tij>ht to jjive ease ami coinfoit. If too tipht, the 
weijjht soon presses the tendon of the heel. If too loose, it d"ops down 
and the toe slijys from under the to(^ hand. 

The siufile bar sin)wshoes are not nun-h used, boeanse they are some- 
what dlllieult to nnike. They are of two styi.'.s. One, has the bar 
dii.'etly under the eenter of the foot. It is wide, and should be stron}; 
enoufih to sustain the weight of any wearer. Thi other style is where 
the siufiie bar is at the tVo< t of the toes, which pattern ditlers from 





FUI. l:tl Wimil. n slinWHlim'. l.illli' Wllillr linT. 

the -'beaver tail'' style on'y in the absence of the heel bar. This 
pattern is eonsideretl the easiest of all to wear ami walk in when cmee 
h'arned. The foot straps are exactly like those of the eomnnin kinds. 

The sinnle liar in the middle of the snowshoe renders it a matter of 
great discomlort until one is accustomed to it, as the straps are simply 
loops for tin- toe and heel. This pattern has been already ll^jured. 
The larjjest snowsh )es measure as nnu'h as liS inclus across ami 3 
feet in lenjith. 

Some of the Indians acquire tjreatexi)ertness in the use of these snow- 
shoes, ami are able to run (|Uite rapidly with them. The width of the 
shoes causes one to stratldle widely to allow one siu)wshoe to pass 
above and over the other, ('are must be exercised that while brin^iiiiff 
tlu^ rear foot forward tlu^ frame does not strike the ankle and produce 
a serious bruise. In ascending; a iiill the toe nuist elevate the snow- 






IW. 



TIiE HIDSOX It AY r.SKINfO. 



I 



;<ii' 



if- 






•*li()f fo :i >itl :i >tiimhl«'. !ii dt'sri-mliiif^ llif lioil' must l)«' (liniwii \v»^ll 
hack or ii ])it<'li IutIs «»v('r 1iim<1 i'iisucs, iiiiil soiiit'iinics tliu 
f'riuiics striko the back of the liciul. 

To |iiit fluMii (111 tlio t'cct till' loot must filter tlir looptVoin 
I'orwiiKl toward llic i«'ar. ami wlicn the loop is on tlic loot 
til- latter iiiiiNt bv tiiiiM'il wjlliiii tlic loop and tlicii jiasscd 
iiiidiT III*- too band. 

Kvciybody wears snow shoes — men, women, and ehildieii. 
Without them travel in winter would he an impossibility, 
and as the ea|ttiire ot'liirs ;- m.ule in winter and the ■;roiind 
to be hunted o\rr imis* of neeessjly lie ol' j;real area, the 
snow'shoe lu'eomes a nect-sslty as much as the canoe in siiiii- 
mer. 

I eollectetl t wo ]ieculiai' pairs ol' siiowslioes, made of Ih.t 
spruce boards (l-'iy:. l.'U). Tlieyareshapedexaclly like netted 
snowshoes of the "beaver tail" pattern. and the ai ran;j!emi'nl 
ot" the foot strap is tiie same as usual. 

Tlu'y came from the I.ittle \\ hah ii\er Indians, who in 
formed me that they wert- worn oii .voft snow. 

In the sjiriiiH of theyear, when the snow is rapidly melted 
by sun, the netted snowshoes become '■lo^;;ed with slush, 
renderiiijr the \vei<flit very fati;;uiiij::. \\'ooden snowshoes 
ar(! admirably ailapted for that season <it'the year, and may 
be made in a few hours, while the notti'd ones reipnie sev- 
eral days' assiduous laboi'. The Indians of the ivoksoak val- 
ley do not use the wooden snowshoes. 

Wl AI'iiN-*. 

In tbrmer times these Indians used the bow and arrow 
exclusively, but they have now nearly discarded these wea- 
p<ins for the yuns which they iirociire from the traders. 

The bow and arniw is. however, still used to kill ptarmi- 
gan, liare.s, and rabbits. The b<iw (I'Mj;. 1.'!-) consists of a 
piece of larch or spruce wo<id of I to (i feet in lenf,'th. It is 
only slightly narrower an«l thinner ;'t ihe ends, and nearly 
an inch thick and an inch and a lialf wide at the central por- 
tions. Itnt little iiifienuity is displayetl in the constiui'tion 
of these weapons. They have considerable elasticity, and if 
broken it is easy to obtain a jiicc^ of wood from the forestand 
fashion another. The strin;;: is ;: strand of dei'iskin, twisted 
or rolled. It is rart^ to tind a bow that has a sin^jle striiij;-. 

The arrows aie usually - teet or 'M inches long, and featli 
(led with three ptarmigan feathers. (I'Mgs. I.'J.'^-I.'Sti.) The 
head is usually an egg shaped knob, terminating in a slender 
point which soon breaks oil'. 

This weapon is usvd for small game, as the cost of amniii- 
^ Ntuliuot "" "'tioii is too great to sjiend it upon game as icadily procured 



nuRf*!! nr fTMMH nr.f 



tLlvfNtM A*.* uAl Mff^OMf PL. XLPI 




NfNCNor .' NOWSHOt " HOUNO-END.' 



nat 






WRAPONB. 



313 



by tliis clu'apt'r niotliod. Tlu? lii<liaii is very exjicit in tlio, use of tlio 
bow jiimI iinow, and is abl*> to itiiotk over a |)tat'iiiigaii or (uoiu-hiii); 
lian< ttvrry tini»< at 25 yards. The force with wiiich tho arrow is pro- 
jt't'tcd is astonishing. I iiavttsecna ptaiinijjan roll*>d for many yards 
amid a perftTt rloiid of feathers wlicn sfriiek by t lie arrow. It often 
U'iiTH tho entire sid«i out of the bird. 

In former years the airow did {^reat exeention amon^ tiie. deer in 
the wat«>r or dee|> snow banks amon^; wiiieli they tlonndered whon 
driven into them l>y the Indian who, on snowshoes, was able to travel 
where tiie d<'er saiik nearly out of slyfht. 



t 



II 



I 



Kiu. i:t:i. -Arrow, 

NflH-nnt. 



Ki". I:i4. AiTiiw, 
Nt-iit'Uiit. 



Km. la.").— Arrow, 
Nt'iioiiot, 



Km. i:iO.— Arrow, 
Nt'iiriiiit. 



Amonfi the Indian boys it is y»'t a favorite amusement to shoot 
Hinail bir<ls with tlie bow and arrow Small crossbows also are used 
by children. They have doubtless been made after those brought by 
some white man. The children have ^'reat sport with these bows. 

The spear, already leferred to, for killintj the swimminj;' leindeer, is 
shown in Fifj. I'M. The woodei' shaft is (> feet loiifj, aiul the steel 
point, which is made of a tiat tile beat(>n down to a (piarter of an inch 
square, is 11 inches lonj;. It is set into the end of the shatt and 
fastended by a whip|)infj of sinew. 

The weapon is held by the hand in a manner jteculiar as well as un- 
c'.ufortabIe. The closed hand over the butt end of the weapon is so 



314 



THK HIDSON HAY KSKIMO. 



pliu'ed as to Iijiv«> tlic lingers iipwanl iukI tlii^ mitsiilo of tint liaiid 
towiml tliu point, this rather awkwani ^rasp oiialtlfs tiio ptTson to h>t 
p> of tii« weapon in case of throatcncd (lisastcr losultinjj 
fionianiisdin'ctcd tlirnst. ThiM-ollt-ction also contains thittu 
models of (Umt spears, Nos, .'{-•O.T-.'JL'OT. These are (»ften 
also used as arrows to siitMtt at lar^rer piine when the In- 
dian is ont hunting' ptarini^'an, hares, and rabbits. A hun- 
jjry wolverene or a fainiHlied wolf would prove troidde- 
some to kill with the blunt arrows. These models ditl'er 

fiom the lary:er spear 
ord.v ill si/.e. 

The Little Whale 
river Indians use a 
peenliar spear for kill 
in;; white whales. 
(KiKs. I.W, l.W). It is 
modeled after the Ks 
kiinoharpoon.biit has 
no "loose sliatt," or 



i; 



!:■" I 






Kki. 
lain' 




Fio. i:W.-WliiIi' whale npiar, 

I.lltll- WllHllMi\tT. 




Km. 1:19, -I'niiit 111' wliito 
wliair H|irat rlilarKtil. 



rather, the fore shal't and loose shaft are in one piece, and lias a eireu- 
lar wooden disk fitted to the butt of the shaft, wliit'h takes the i)laeeof 
the bladder float, and servos to impede the motions of the animal wheu 



TI'RNKM.) 



WKAI'ONS. 



3 IT) 



Htrmk. Kciiidorr luith'i' is .^.MlistitiittMl lor tli(^ ivory of tliti Kskiiiio 
weapon, 'riic idinh's ni»' of ropiMT or iron and ri't^tcd in. 'I'lii'si- 
s|)«>ai's arc S or 10 IrrI lonj;. 

'Ilu' snaru (l''i^'. 14(1) lorins one nC tlic less important metliiMlH of 
prornriii;; these animals. It is of parelnnent m nle from the skin of the 
leintleer ent into thin nariow tlion;,'s. Se\ era! of these strands, nsually 
three, a le plaited to;it'tlier to forin si layer; and of these layers tiiroe 
are plaited together to form the sna.e line. It often is nnide, however, 
of thiee single strands eat smm'W hat widei and ereased so that they will 
lie well when thu tiirui; are plaitud. 'the nmre strands the <;reater the 




I'l'. I4i'. Ki'inili'irHiiiiri'. Ni'iii'imt, 

llexihility of the line, but as there mast be a eertain anu)unt ofstitl' 
ness to hold it in position the many strands nnist be woven more 
ti;;litly toj;ether. Tiie lenKtli varies from l(» to L'O feet, and at tlu- 
enil is a loop formed liy tnrniii;:' tile strands back and splicing tiicm. 
'rhroiitih the loop the other end is passed, and the noose is made. 

When a herd of deer is discovered in a fasdiable locality the pe(»ple 
of the vicinity are informed and hasty piepa rations are made. 

The ert'ort is to eanse the deer to pass thron^ili a narrow defile eon 
tainiiifjr bushes. The snares are tlicii placed in iiosition by tyinji the 
free end of the line to a suitable tree and snsjiendin;;' the noose where 
the heads or antlers will become entani;led. Some are ]ilaced so that 
when the foot is lifted the noose is cariied aloiij.;- and tightens ou it. 



1 

.1. 1 
-p. 



»*; 



310 



TIIK liri)St>N HAY KKKIMO. 



il 






K 



'I'lic |ii<ii|iU> .siinniiiiil tilt' iiiiiiiiiilM, anil at u kIvimi Hi^'iial slioiit anil 
ri'cati' llir K><''it*'^^' *li<>i to roiil'iiHt^ tlii' rittatiit'i'M, wliicli pliiiiKi' touanl 
till- |ilari> wht'ii' till' siiai'i-s aii' H4>t. Oni* or two liiintriM lonriMlril in 
that liirality appear snilili-nly anil I'liitliiM' riint'nsi' tlio now panii-- 
stiirkrii aninials, wliiili rnnli ini-vi'iy dircrtion ln-t'ori' tlii-ir titr.s. Tlii-y 
liiTiiMii' inuni'slii'il ill llir nnoNi-s ami iti- lit'lil until their tliroatn iinu'iit 
III' tlii'y air I'Jiokril liy tlir rnril. 

It li'i>i|iiriitly liapjii'iis that two ili'i'i will he ran^'lit in asinKi*' Miiait'. 
i'lio Inilians assnt tliat il is a niiiMt liKlirioiis si;r|it to witii«>s.s two 
.stnnly Imrksrauy^lil liy tlio aiilliTs in a sin>;li' Hiiair. Tlii'y uppoar to 
ai riisi- i-arli ollii'r of IJii- iiiist'ortiino, anil Ntru};^'*' ti-rrilily to tVi'i> tiirin 
Ni*lvi's. Ill tlio animals wliiili an* stian;;lril liy tin* iioosi' tin* ront;i-st«>il 
lilooil ilisti'iiils till' M'liis ai il ii'IiiUms tin- tii-sli vi'iy dark. 

I'ri'vioiis to tlir (;i>niTal iisrot');iiiis tin- siiaiin;; nii-tliod waNot'};ri>at«>r 
inipoi'tani'o tlian at tli«' prrsi'iit day. i'.vt'ii now tin- Indian i|oi>s not 
los(^ any ii|iportiiiiity ol°i'in)iloyin); tlii' snaii'. 

SoiiH' ot tlir snairs ail' iiiadr of tanni'd skin, wliirli is sotttT and is 
oftrii oi'iiaiiii'nti'd with strands uf lii-ads attarlnd to t lie i' ml of tin' liiii'. 
Sonii' of tlii'iii ari'iolornl ri'd, with a inixtiiii' ofvrrinilion and hi-inatito 
lartlis, thiniird with water. 



I have alri'iuly descrilied the methoilH of hunting the reindeer and of 
laptnrin;: small ;;aiiie. 

The lieaver is not plentiful in the I'npiva distriel, and not until the 
headwaters of the Koksoak and the lakes near the soini'" ::'.' (Min^'es 
river are reat-lied are they to lie found at all, e\('i'|itiii}; oeeasional 
stia;;}ilers. 

The Indians have few ol the skins of this animal to sell at the trailing; 
post of l''ort i'hiiiio. 

The met hods of eaptiire ilitVei' in some respeets I'roin tliosi- i-lsewhere 
emiiloyed. 

The haliits of tin- beaver are so well known that a statement of their 
manner of lift- is imiieiessary. 

The food supply north of latitude .m is so limited in quality and 
ipiantity that the seareity of the animals is due entirely to the iibseiiee 
of the food neiessary for their existenie. 

When the dams and strnetnres made by the beaver are tlisroveied 
the people devise nieuns to eaptnre it. 

If it is eonveiiieiit to j;et at the holes leading; to the stnietiue, wliieh 
are always underwater so ileep that it will not freeze to tlie bottom, 
they areclosi'd with a stick of wood and an opeiii!i)r made in the to]) of 
the hut. The animal is then eaiiffht by the hind h'jis or tail and lilted 
out. It seldom attempts to defend itself at (irst. As soon as the hunter 
ean do so he jerks the animal out, and with a Idow on its head kills it. 
li'liu shouhl pause for an instant from the time the hand is put on the 



TI'MNINt 



III'NTINO. 



\m 



iiiiiiiiiil until tlio ili'iith blow is Kivt'ii, tliiit vt'iy iiistunt lir ici'tiiiiily 
willlMi Ititlon Willi tt-rtli itit shiii'|) iiiiil |hi\v<-i'I'iiI tlnit tii*> ihi'.^iT.s iiiiiy Im> 
Hiii|i|H-il iViiiii till' liiiiiil IIS tlioii^'li Willi a pair <it° Hlicars. Tli<> wniiiiil 
tliiiM iiitlirli'il is ii|>«>ii vi'iy si'M'it' anil iliOlnilt to lifal, as llii* liittt is 
not only nittiii^ Imt rnisliiii);. 

\Vlii>n> tlit> wiitn- run Ih> ilniiiuil iVom ilic |iunil or laki* 
in wliirli tlir iH-aviM's' lint is Imilt. tin* linlians ol'tm li-avit 
it Iiiiil 110*1 iliy liy iliiinniinu olVtlii* sii|i|ily anil allowing 
tlin wati'i' toiliain away. As soon as tin' lioiisi> is out ol' 
water tli<> orriipaiit i>iiii>r(;i<s ami is killnl, Itravcrs air 
Miiiit'tiiiu'.s shot wliilc s|Mtrtiii^on llii> wati-r iliirin;: moon- 
li^lit ni^'lits. 

Sonii' ot' tli(> iiniinals ari< <-a|itiirril liy niraiis of a iii't of 
|irniliar I'onstriirtioii. This ni't isol'lln, ili'i'iskin tlion^s 
iii'tt«<«l into It riri-h> nearly 'J IVi't in ilianicti'i-. witli mi'sluts 
iilMiiit an inrli si|iiaii-. The meshes in the outer row are 
threaileil upon a stout tlioii;; ot'<l«>erskln, in Im^lli alioiit 
foiirtimes tlieiliameterol' the net. Tliis thou;; is now tied 
at the omis, ami over one enil thus lied is slipped a liii;: 
iHiide ol'sprnee root and wound witii >inew to stren;;llieii 
it. This riiiK is alioiit an ineh in iliaineter.oiily sultirient 
to allow t'reedom ot tlieemlrtol' the line. It is fastened 
to one of the meshes of the net in order to keep its plaeu. 

Wliel*^ the water is too deep and only a single heaver is 
in the lodye the el is earefiilly spread over the mouth of 
the e\il so plated as to t'orm a purse into wliieh H head 
and iieek of the animal will he thrust as it have ilie hut. 
The mouth of the pnrsr now ti;;htens from the lin;; slip- 
pin;; alon;; the striii;;, and thus slian;;les the animal or 
else eaiises it to drown as it strll^;;^les to escape from tlie 
ti;jliteniny; eord. 

The net is said to lie a very elteetive means ot' eaplurin;; 
the heiiver and will sueeeed when it has Iteiometoo wary 
to li«« sliot on the surfaee of the water. 

The llesh of the heaver is eonsidered valuable food by 
these people. They pri/e it hifjhly and prefer the llesli 
of the leiuiile to that of the male. 



') t 



-<i. 



I'lu 111.- (nink.,! 
k 11 ills Ni'iiviiiit. 



MISCKI.LANKlUS IMPI.FMI'.NTS, TiMlI.S, Kll'. 

One of the most important tools used by the .Neiieno'. is the >*e ooked" 
knit\< (Vi'^. 1 11). Those instriiinents are made from steel tiles or knife 
bladeH. They are of various sizes depeiidin;; on the amount of material 
at liiuid. Th*> Indian takes a pieee of metal and ;;rinds one side of it 
ti.tt and smiMith; the other is ed^ed like a drawing; knife. The blade is 
now heate«l niul bent to the ilesiied euive. Some a:e more hint teaii 
other.s and some have only the point bent to one side. The few left- 



■!,; 



318 



THE HUDSON MAY ESKIMO. 



liandcti i)crs()ii8 have tlio bliule tbnnotl to suit tlieinsolvcs. It is sot in 
a handle t'.iirved fvom the user und bent upward like the bhuU\ At the 
end of the handh> is <>enerally ti» be found a thoiif? on whieli a wctoch-n 
button is phiced lor attaiihnieut to the belt, as no man ever {jfoes off on 
a Journey without this Ivuite, however short may be the distance. 

The handle is lu'hl in the liaiul at right angh's or across tiio body and 
invariable drawn toward tlu^ user. It is employed for all ]mrposes of 
whittling orsliaving w(M)d and one would be surprised to observe what 
large strips will separate when started with tiiis apparently frail blado. 






?l 




Klli. U'J Aw 1 N'i'IM'llllt. 




Kill. ICI, -tiiiiiw kIhivi'I, 

Nrlli'llitt 




Vui. 141. In- Mniop, 
NiMII'Illlt. 



The strips and slats of canoes, jiaddles, snowshocs, and in fact i-very- 

thing that can be cut from wood, ar ade with this knife. It requires 

nuich skill to guide the blade so as to cut the wood evenly; and to this 
end the thuiab, which is placed ui>on tiu! outerextremity of the handle, 
nnist steady the blade. The strain of the blade upon the handle is 
very great, and it must be sei-urely held by mens of stout thougs 
wra])ped around it. 

The crooked knife is a form ()f instruuuMil in use among the Indians 
and Kskimo alike, and one of the lew implements which those widely 
differing peoj)le have in common. 



Tl'HNER.) 



TOOLS. 



319 



Awls (Pig. 142) are ma(l« of st.'o.l ov iron. Tii.^ hiick or spiiiij,' of a 
pockotkiiifo or a portion of a small tile appears to bo. the favorite mate- 
rial for formiii},' tliem. Tliey are usually eliisel-shape.l and liave reetan- 
Rular corners. Tiie handle into whieh the metal is fastened is gen- 
erally of deer horn. The shape of tiie handle varies from a Y 
shape to that of a crescent. 

These tools arc constantly required for piercing lioles in the 
various woods used in manufacture, .\iliclcs of simide con- 
strm-tion the Indian prefers to make for himself, rather than i»ay 
an extortionate price to the trader. He is aide to accomplish re- 
markable results with riule tools of his own make. 

Snow shovels are made of wood and are much used, for dur 
ingthe winter, when the snows are »-oiistantly accunniiating 
around the camps, the occupants necessarily remove some to 
form a pathway from the door of their tent, and as snow forms 
an admirable protection, it is thrown <;il)ank(Ml up around their 
tents to prevent the wind from b!(»wing under. In the spring 
nearly all the aged people carry one of (he wooden shovels to 
clear away a patli or as a hel|t to walk whih' the slushy snow is 
80 treacherous. Fig. 143 represents a common form of wooden 
snow .sliovel. These are oft^'ii painted with Vermillion ur indigo. 

Fig. 144 show.s a siiecial form of snow shovel designed for 
cleaning the ice from the holes througli which the people tish. It 
usually has a blade made fiom the brow antler or one of the 
broad palms from the horns of the reindeer. The horn portion 
is attached to the wooden shaft «»• handle by moans of thongs 
running through holes bored for that j»urpose. 

The ice picks (Fig. 14.'>) used in times gone by were pieces of 
reindeer luun or bone, shaped like a narrow mortising chisel and 
ati'ached to statls of wood. The chisel or pick was fastened to 
the staff by means of stout thongs to i»revciit ii side movement 
from the groove into which it was set. The iiiiper end of the 
staff was at times shod with bone lu- liDrii so as to be available 
for i walking staff. 

The ice pick of the present day has a i)iece of iron or .steel 
,substitut«'d for the horn (tr bone; but, being heavy, it is not so 
otten cairied fr(un place to iilnce. An Intlian will in an incredi 
bly short time i>iercti a hole through ;$ feet thickness of ice with « 
it. -V white man can not e(|iial them in this work. Ki.i.iis. 

(!onibs for the hair are purchased I'loin the traders. They are highly 
prized and are kept in little birehbark bags. For cleaning out the 
dirt which collects on the comb the tail of a porcii|)ine is used. The 
needles or spines are picked out of the tail, leaving the stitV, coarse 
hairs, which scrvt^ the purpose of cleaning the condi tpiite well. This 
tail is usually append«'d to the comb-case. 



,^ 






320 



TUK HIDSON HAY KSKIMO. 



in* C if 



i 



K 






The iiativt's soiiu'tiiiies iiiukc woodt'ii rcmib.s like tlH><iiiuslio\vii in Fifj. 

14(>, ill imitation of those ])iii'('liiisf(l. 
After a woman's liair has been combed half of it is eoUeetetl on eaeh 

si(b' of tlie head and rolled 
or wound up on .small 
jiieces of board {Vin. 147) 
similar in shape to the 
"winders" on which darn 
\uii or knitting cord is 
\viapi>ed. Strands of 
Ix'ads are now placed 
upon these to hold the 
hair in place. 

A remarkable object is 
shown ill Kifi. M.S. It is 
one of a pair of boards 
procured from one of the 
Little Whale river liidi 
aii.s, by whom they are 
used to assist in swim- 
min>;. One board is held 
in each hand and used as 
a paddle to push the 
swimmer aloii<;. Indians 
able to swim arc scarce. 
I have not seen these 
boards in use, and am not 
able personally to speak 
cniicerninn' their alle;;('d 
function. 
The lish hook shown in Kij;. M1> has a barb of steel or iron. It is on 

the smaller hooks made of om- of the ribs of th)> larp'r trout. 




Km. Uti.— Comb, witli birckburk ciiHt' uihI i-b-iim-r. 



The bo\s have m 



AMIMMIM^.. 

» consideration for the females of their own aye, but 
treat them as inferiors and lit 
for nothiiif; but to be subjects 
«)f almost (runstant annoyance 
and persecution. When a 
number of boys c<»llect they 
are .sure to maltreat the. wo- 
men, even those advanced in 
years, and appear to delifjjht 
in any opi»orfunity to sub- 
ject them to the ludest mis 

ventures to peep from the tent in summer a shower 




TrHNBIl ] 



AMUSEMENTS. 



321 



of Wiit«'r is atiro to be Hiiiifj on licr by sonu' boy. In winter snow- 
balling is ('(|ually annoying;, and wlion ]mrti»'s of women p) to the 
woods to get fuel tiie i)ack of lioys is sure to waylay tliein as tlu^y 
return. If the boys ean sejjarate tlie women their fun is complete; 
their dresses are torn and tlieir bundles of fuel scattered. Tliey often 
retaliate, liowever. a?id strip tiie clotliing from some unfortunate boy 
who is comi)elled to return to <'amp in a mule condition, much to the 




Flo. HH Swiminiiii; Imard. 

amusement of the peojile. This form of (lis;;rare appeals to be (he most 
s«'vere which can be intlnted upon a male; and the Jokes to which he 
is afterward subjected keep him the object of ridicule for many days. 
Besides practical jokes ui>on women, iiinnin};, Jumpin};, wrestling:, 
an<l pnu'ticiuK with the bow ami otiier weapons suited lo their ajje, aj)- 
pear to \h' the principal amusement'^ of 
the boys. The j;irls liavc never been 
observed to play at frames of any kind. 
Their chief occupation is to keep away 
from the l)oys. While walkinji on' the 
j;irls <j;oiicrally toss stones or chips in 
th«> air ami strive !o ket'p at least *"■■.< 
of them lip at once. The I'iskimo often 
practice this also. and. as it ai)pcais to 
be a p'lieral source of amusement 
anion;;; the Inniiit. I siispot that tlie 
Indian borrowed it from thciii. VVrcs 
tliiig appears to be the principal test 
for physical sticnylli ami .-c\ ere con 
tests often eiiga;iethe stronger individ 
iials. They wrestle in the I'.skimo 
fashion, and fre<|iii'ntl\ indulge in 
trials of strength with these people. 
As would be expected, the stidny,cr 
Kskiino are always the \ictors. All tliese contests, whether among 
themselves (H' witli the Mskinni. are earned on vitli the best of good 
humor. 

II r.TH -'1 





l''i.sl)))(>i>k :iii() liiu> 






322 



THE HUDSON BAY ESKIMO. 



KKHTIVAt S. 









I'Vasts are jfiveii now ami then to tu'lchratc siic<m'ss in limiting; an<I 
similar acliievenicnts. 

Ill l.S8.'{ I was iiivitt'd to attt'iul a It'ust of Curs to he yiveii l».v one of 
tlu' most eneifictic of tlie liiilians. We repaired to tiie tents spread on 
tlie top of a liijiii wall of rock a few rods from m,v house. As I ap- 
in'oai'hed the seeiie I observed a tent of ditferent eonstriieticni. It was 
nearly oval at its base and had a diaineter of about 18 feet and a iciigth 
otJaboiit -'5 feet. The top was drawn to an apex resembling the com 
moil roof of a house. The entranee to tin' strueture faeed southeast. 
On a jiole. supported with one end on the apex of tlu^ tent and the-other 
restiiifi on a i)()st. were numbers of skins of various animals — wolves, 
wolverine, beaver, otter, foxes, and miiskiat, tofjether with a number 
of the linesf reindeer skins. The sound of tlie diiim was hearil within 
the structure and as 1 apjiroached the door the noise ceased. I pau.sed 
and was invited to enter. Immediately two old men next the dnunmer 
moved to one side and niotinned nic to ^it down on the pile of deer 
skins re.served lor me. It was evident that the feast iiad l>een in l»ro{;- 
rcss for some time, .\ioiiinl the interior of the structure fjioiipsof men 
were idly disposed, some re('liiiiii<:' and others standinj;'. Not a word 
was spoken for .some time, and this fja\«' iiK'opportunily to loo ; ;n(iund. 
The tloor was covered with bouf^hs from the neif^hboriiifj spriic*' tri'c.s, 
arran;;ed with unusual care, forminj; a sot't carpt tiny' tor tliost s»'i»t«'d 
within. 1 saw a number ot' piles of deerskins and several small heaps 
covered with cloth. To break the silence 1 iminired it' tiie drum was 
tircil. A smile f^ieeted the iii<|nir\. Immediately an old man came 
forward, ti};hteiie<l the siiari' of the drniii. and arranjicd the '^trin;;. sus- 
pending it from one of the tent poles at the proper hei;.;ht for nse. He 
then dijiped his tin>,'ers into a vessel of water ami • luiMl^ied ,i leu (}ro|)s 
on the membrane of the drum head to prev<'iit it from breakinj.^ iiiider 
the blows to be delivered. The performer then seized the «lrumstiek 
wifli the riy;ht hand and t^ave the nembranea few taps; the transverse 



cord of twisted sinew, liohli' 



all evlindeis of wood attached to 



it, repeated the v iratiou with 'ncic.sed emphasis. .\ .souff wasbef,'uii 
and the drum beaten in rythm to the monotonous chant ot' o ho, o ho, 
et<-. Three souths with tympanic aecompaiiiment followed. The soiijis 
ajipeared alike and were easily learned. In the meanwhile the Kiiest.s 
were treated to a straii(;c hHikin;; coin|iound which had lain hidden b*>- 
neatli one of the cloths and is known as ''pemmican." I was solicited 
to accejit a piece. The juevioiisly assembled fjiiests had eitlu-r bronyhf 
their own bowls and saucers to eat from or else appiopr ated those 
available. Not to be at a loss. <ine of the yoiiii;; men remarked that he 
would tind one. From aiuony' the accumulated tilth around (Uie of the 
center jioles sujiportinf; the structure a bowl was inoduccd. Tiie man 
coolly took the handkerchief which was tied around his fori'liead to 
kecji his matted liair Irom his t'ace ami wiped out tiie interiiu' of the 



TCHildt.l 



FESTIVALS AND GAMES. 



323 



bowl, and pliiuiiiK a pit'ce of the peminican within it, haiitlcd it to the 
attiMulant whose (hity it was to otler it to inc. 

I, however, found it <iuite intMlible. Other >;ue,sts constantly arrived 
and some departed, made ha))|)y by their share, of this eompound of 
raneid tallow and nnirrow with a due admixture of pounded dry uieat 
of the reimleer. I soon departed, and attempted to take the remnant 
of the pemmii^an with me. This was instantly forbidden, and infornni 
ti(»n fjiven me that by so doiiij,' I siionld <',ausea!l the deer to desert the 
vieinity, and thus nnike tlie peojtle starve. I explained that such was 
not my desire, and aftei' wisliiajj continued prosi)erity and enjoyment, 
I made my way out. I was then inl'oiined that the feast would con- 
tinue tor a tinu', and wind up with an invitation to the womumi. who 
had hitherto been excluded, to come and eat the i- lunaiits left l)y tiic 
nu'n. At the end of two days thereafter rl»e ii^.tnx concluded and a 
dan«'e took i)lace. In this performance tlM-t*- wa* notiiinj: remarkable. 
The men saufj s(mi«:s and kiekeil \i]> tl»»<< hcc|-«. wlijt^- riw udinen 
shrufified their shoulders as they swayed thei bodie?* tumi n-jJit to 
left, and assunu'd varioiis other posture>, tlthm _ ' th»-tr limb* were 
ai)parently kept in a ri^iid position, occasion. «llyurt-«Tin;; tn'-w plitnidits 
as the nuMi nnide humorous <'omplimcnts to "krar ^jwitMrons iHist. 

This feast was }i;iven !>> one wtio hud been ^iiwiwudlx sncccssfnil jn 
the t-apturc of fur bearing; animals, and. to pr«»v— -iik 'v...Mltli. (Iis|*la.uc(l 
it before the assemblage and ^ave a feast incouinM**rai'itMn<'>f lii,~ al>>fliii'v . 
Other feasts of a sjjMdar character occur. :n»W! lilVi— liot- rln- in ti*> 
s|>eeial feature. 

The i)iincipal source of amuscuient witli tktf ••*n i*' t^o- ^mmh*- i'>I 
<lran;rhtsorcli<'cker> \Nhilelhe men are in the iv^wror'trt'lir -■'llsMies 
awailiiifj: tin tpproacii of band- of deer their idl*' lUMtw^it m..' nioyeti 
over this {rami-. Neither hni'.^wt . r the si^jitMra^T iVM*^^ '*«t)ic>''iit i<: 
distract tiiein. so intently ur they disorbed. 

o as ill ci\ iliz;u(r>n. \MtlM«iilJt>«#is8Kit d4iV«i.— nc'N. ; 



1 Uc ^ame I- piayeo as ii< 
am not aware that wa;ics ai 



upon II > I'^sile, 



i*»'Th<- it*eii are 



ii as skillliil player-- m Mny piirt«.l' lie 



so ex]H'rt that they woulii 
world. 

Small boards that may be iiried in the ImiitiH}; i«s»yjnf \tM^i .iieB»j|»s 
to while away the tedium ol i lie Ion;;- winter c\eiiiintts <> 'lltuMliN "W lijdtt 
of the lliekeiiii;;- lire of the dry limbs of spniie. K;i lo th^- uj^sliitf Hl» 
players eiifiafie, and are only distiiiiied ^vi(ell om thr-ti r^m*^ ■'^Mm 
panions starts from his sleeji to relate a vw>m[rou> d^eatn anirtll hMt/fjit 
expounded b> the listeners, who sit :»>;lia>t ,iK rhc iiM-latiiMis. 

They also have a piiee coi re.spomlinj; to enp ami i«||." bwr nK *► 
played with ditfeieiil implements from what lie 'vUinu: iisc. as way lir^ 
seen by iet'crriii;j to l''in', l.M'. The luillow ci » are made frowi I In- 
t«*rminal ]>lialan>;i's of the reindeer's foot. The tjil tied to the end of 
the thoii}; is that of a marten oi a mink. I'lie player liolil> tlie jte^ in one 
hand, and tossing up the boiu's tries to catch the nearest none on the 



'i 



3J4 



IMF, HfOSON HAY KHKIMO. 






C 



point of the ]u>ir. TIm' oltjt'ct of llif ;;;)ino is to catrli tliv bono tlio 

fjn'iitt'st |..issil»l(' iimiibi'i' of (iincs. It is in no sense a {linnhlinj; fjanu*. 

Tlio only nnisicul inslrunicnt iist'd l>y tlit>se iieoplt' is tin- «lruni or 

tiunbonrine, wliieli isof tliO form sliown in Fi}j. l."»l. Tlu'sedrunis vary 




Kid, IWI. Cup ,.;iil ball Niiiiii.il 



H(l, KHI. Cup ,.;iil liall .Niliill.il 

in (liaiiu'tcr from '_"_' to L'(! inclirs, and are constriicfrd as I'oHmws: The 

barrel is mad'' of a tiiin slat of sprme, bent into a lioop, willi the ends 

*^ joined in a lap. s|die4'd nearly 




a foot Ion;;, which leii^tli is 
sewed i)y four iieipcndicnJar 
seams. Tlie stiteJM's are made 
with deerskin thread put 
k\ throiifil* |terforatioiis, near 
to^etlier, made \\ ith an awl. 
The next operation is to pre- 
pare for a In-ad a thin rein 
deer skin, wiiich lias been 
tanneii. The skin is moist 
ened and sewed so that all 
holes in it ait- riosed. A nar- 
row hoopof a si/e to lit ti^jlitly 



•■"■ '■•'-!>■ .Niii.ni.i. ,.,,^^ hoopof a si/e to lit tightly 

over the baircl of tiie 'iiiim is made and the moist skin stretched ovei' 
it. The ed};cs >if tlic skill are turned inward, and within this hoop iu 
plaeeil the barrel of the drum. 



musk; and (iAMKS. 



325 



A second hoop, two or tlirt'c times as v m e ii« tlic first, is prepari'd 
iiiul littt'd over the. liiUTcl and licad. It is puslu'd down as tar as the 
elasticity of tli<' iiKMnlManc will allow, or al)ont liall'tlic width oftlio t4tp 
hoop, Thronyh the, oat-.;- lioop have Ikhmi made a number of holes and 
eorrespondiiij,' but alternate lioles nnide in the farther edge of tlie barrel 
of the drum. 

Throu}j;h these holes a stout thonfj is threaded and pasaing from the 
edfjeof the barrel to the outer hoop is drawn so ti^^htly as to i»usli the 
inner hoop alonjjtlie outer <'irrumferenee of the i)arrel and thus ti^'hten 
the mendtrane to the ie(|uiied de^^ree. The outer Iioojmiow i)ro.j«'('ts an 
ineh or more beyond the membrane and thus |»roteets it from injury by 
eareless hantllin^'. 

Across the membrane is stretc-hed a sinow cord on which are strun;j, 
at riH;ht an}j;les to tiie cord, a number of barrels made from the (pulls 
of the win;;' feathers of the willow ptarmigan. Across the uudorside 
of the meiidu'ane is streti'hed 
a similar <'ord with (pulls. 
These serve the purjiose of a 
snaif on the drum. The stick 
used lor iieatiii;> the drum 
(•(Uisists of a jiiece of rciiuleer 
horn 'lit so as to have a thin 
and narrow haiuMe a foot in 
length and terminating in a 
iviMil) more than an inch lon^ 
ainl as tlii( k as tiu- porlioM of 
horn permits. The drum is 
suspended (inm the poles of 
the tent by iiiei'iis of tlioii^'s. 
The i)crforiiicr tightens the snares, and sprinkles a few drops of water 
on the drumhead lest the blows, cause it to split under tiie strain. 
Nothing is (hmc, nothing c(mteini)latcd witliniit soundin;;' the drum. 
It is siU-nt only when the people are asleep or on a tramp from one 
locality to another. 

If a person is ill tiic drum is l)eatcn. If a pci'son is well the (Irumis 
beaten. If pro»pcrous in the cliase tlie drum is beaten; and ifdcath 
has snat(;lie(l a member from the coinmunity the drum is beat(Mi to pre- 
vent his sjiirit IVom letiirnin^' to torment tlie li\'iii^'. 

The drumlieat is often accompanied with sin^in^- which is the 
most disc(U'dant of all sounds siippose(l to be hannonious. 

The drums used by the Little Wiiale river Indians ( l"i^. liiJ, No. 
• ">L'i!.'{) dilVers ^'icatly in construction from those made by the I'n^ava 
Indians. The size is rarely so ;;reat, seldom exceediiij;' '2- iin-hes. 
Tliese drums have two heads or mendu'anes titled on the barrel ;ind 
secured by means of a sinjije hoop lor carli head. The two hoops are 
then connected by tlie lijihteiiin;;' strings. 




I.ilili' Wliiili- liviT. 



.'{•if) 



TIIK Hl'DSON HAY KSKIMO. 



Tlio inoiiibi'iiiu's are invariably iiiatli' of <let;r skin in tii*> parc.liiiKMit 
('(iiidi.'ioii iiikI not nl' tanned skins. The stnires or thoni^s across the 
lieatis are tiuer and have pieees of wood instead ot'tiuills as "rattlers." 

The drnnistiek is a piece of 



reindeer horn cut as hot'ore 
described; or else, as if to 
add to the din, a ^nn-eap 
box is pieree<l thr(Hi«:h from 
side to side and a few peb- 
bles or shot placed within. 
A stick is tin-n inserted in 
the bole thnin<:h the box 
and the whole covered with 
bnckskin to prevent separa 
tion of the lid and bov. This 
makes a distraetin^j noise. 
Rattles for tlit- cliildii n i t'\>i. \r>',U ;iii' made of a liooj* of wood bent 
to a circular form and covcrc<l witli twi heails oi- memliraiics. Within 
it arc placed a lew pctiblcs or shot, to [irodin-e a lattlin;; sound when 




I'lci i.'il.— Kiiitlc, Neninu., 







Ki.. i:.». . Iiir:;ft -I'lnili'ir. lunk. 

Mic meinbranes aii' di.\ . A cord attached to the circumference enables 
the iiitllc III he suspended ti'oiii the tent polr in front of the chilil for 
whose amn-<cmenl it is intended. Other toys arc made for the diildren, 




Flu l.'iS. -TarK^t, ri'iiulier, tloo. 

but they were not easy lor us to obtain. 1*1. XI. ill represents a doll, 
diessed in a woman's full suit of elotlics. The boys ainiise thein.selves 
by shooting wilh blunt arrows at images ot reindeer, bucks, does, and 
tawiis. cut oil! of Hat boards stuck up in the snow (Fijfs. l.")4. I.'m). 



UunCAU ilF ffTMNOLOUV 



CLtVCNTH ANNUAL lltPORT PL »llll 




0(11-1. INDIAN WOMAN, f Ul L DRESS, NENENOT. 



h 

IE' 



• it 






ll'HNWll 



h'ni.KLOKK. 



3-27 



Klll.Kl.llllK.. 



Diiiinn tlu( loiiy svintcr nitjiitw or dtiriiiy tin- inM-iod.s ol' cold or in- 
cIciiuMit wc'iithcr ill which fiie liMliiiiis imiy not vciitiirf out, fiiey sit 
aroiiiiil Mic tin- tiiiii ii'latv Htorics iiiti'iiili-il tor tiic iiistnu'tioii as well 
lis nitoi^aiiiiiii'iit of tlui .voiinjfcr iM-oplf. Tiic older ini'ii have a tjn'at 
stock of these stories, and iiiiiiiy of I lie women are noted for their ability 
ill entertaining the eliihiren, who sit, with staring eyes and o|ieii mouth, 
in tiie arms of their parents or elders. 

The foUowing stories eaine to nie direitly and not throiijih the 
niediiini of another white person, and probably I am the only white 
person w ho has heard some of them. I have endeavored to ;;ive them 
Hs nearly in the form of the oii^^inal as the ditl'erenees between the 
Kn(;lish and the Indian laii;;iiaKes will permit. 

<S7(»»7/ ({/■ till' irolrrrcHf inul the hrttiif. — A wolvi'ieneealli: ^f all the birds 
together addressed them tlius:"l)o you not know that I am your 
brotherf Tome to me and 1 will dress you in feathers." After having 
dressed them ui> he made wings for himself and said: "Now, brotlier.s, 
let us fly.'' The brant told the wolverene, "You niiisl not Itsik below 
while we are flying over the point of land wiien you hear a noise 
below. Take a tiiiJi when we take a turn." 

The first turn they to«ik the wolverene did not look below. l>ut at the 
second turn tiiey took, when they came over the point of land, the 
animal looked iiclow when he iieard the noise of the shouting Indians 
and down he <;aine like i buiidl«> of rags.' 

All the Indians ran up to him and exclaimed "There is a braiit fallen 
down." One of the old Indian women got hold of him and began to 
pluck his feathers otV. then to disembowel him. She of course smelled 
tin- horrible stench and exclaimed, "This goose is not fit to eat as it is 
already rotten I " She gave the carcass to one of tiie childieii to throw- 
away. Another old woman came up and impiired, "Where did you 
throw the brant goose t<»? llow could it be rotten? It is not long 
since it was killed." The former oUl woman replied to her, "<io and 
see, if you do not believe." She went and found nothing but the dead 
wolverene. 

Stoiif uj thf irolnriiit. — A wolvi-rene was iiiniiing along the sea- 
shore and perceived a number of geese, brant, ducks, and loons sitting 
in the wat^'r a short distance off. The wolverene addrcNsing them said, 
"Come here, brothers. I have tonnd a pretty bees' nest. 1 will give it 
to you if you will come on slaue and have a dance." All the birds 
went on land. The wolverene said, "Let us have a dance and I will 
sing. Shut your eyes and do not open them until wc are done dancing. 
He began to sing, "A ho'u ura liou inu'-mii'-lnlm'." The last word was 



I 
I 
* 

11. 



iWIh-u ttii> IiHliiiiiK iH-rccivi' a llot-k lit' tht'Hr liniiil tliry iiiiiki- a hiuit (-latiinr. whirli trl;:lit(>iii4 the 
bird.-, MO iiiiirh lliat thi'y liisr tlii'ii' i(<iisi'm, lull to tlir uriiniiil anil arr tlinn killed. TlifHt* liirilH an* 
nn)\ Ht'i'ii ill t*ii' Hpi-iiif; iiii^ratiniiK ami thru in ^n-at iiiiiltitiiili'M. whili' in the fall it irt rare to aee even 
a Hingle ludividual ua tliey have a ilitreri'iit return route than iu :ipriug. 




o 



'^f 










IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 



1.0 






2.5 
2.2 



I.I 






1.8 



1.25 



U III 1.6 



6" — 



Photographic 

Sciences 

Corporation 




V. 




// 







/./ \/J^^ 















23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. MS80 

(716) 873-4S03 




'% 





328 



THE HUDSON BAY ESKIMO 



If** I 



'.Si 



so oth'ii iPpt'iittMl (iic(U)iiipaiii«'tl wifli tlic a«'t of tlu' wolvert'iio snip- 
]>iiig (ifV tlic lu'iuls ot'tlu> birds) tliiit t\\o loon opciitMl one eye au*l saw 
tlio lu'iullcss duck!', kicking. The loon ran to tlie water and exclainu'd, 
"Onr brotlior has kilh'd us! " The wolvercno ran alter thehion but the 
loon dived undiT tin- water and eanu' uj) a distance ofl' aiul cried out, 
"A ho ho ho ho ho ho!" The wolvereiu' screiinie*!, "Hold your tongue, 
you H'd e\e<l fowl." The wolverene returned to where the ducks ha<l 
been killed: pliu-ked their feathers olV and cleaned them; put them 
into a large kettle and boiled tiiem. 

While artendihfr to the cooking he saw a whisky-jack (I's' ka tcon) 
{I'criKoriKs rnaaileiisin) flying about. The wolverene took a firebrand 
and threw it at tlm bird, exclaiming, "Voii will be telling on me, you 
long tongued bird!" The Jay flew away and t«dd the Indians that 
"Our brother (wolverene) has killed a lot of ducks and has them 
cooked," adding, "I think he is sleeping. I'll show you where he is if 
you will come." The Intlians rejilied, "We will go, for we aie very 
hungry." They went and found the wolverene asleep alongside the pot. 
The Indians ate all of the meat of the duiks. After they had fiiushed 
the meat tiiey jtut the bones ba«"k into the kettle and went away. The 
wolverene awakened aftxu' a time, took his dish and said to himself, 
"Now, I siiall have my dinner." 11*^ poured all the broth int4) his dish 
and found notliing but the boiu's remaining. In his surprise he said, 
"Surely, 1 have been sleepingalong time; the meat is all boiled away." 
The jay toM him that he had t«»ld the Indians. The wolverene said, 
'•Why did you tell? you stupid bird; I was keeping a nice pie«'e of fat 
for you.' Von will not, now. get it for your im|>udence." 

Thf (Urr iinil tUi' nquirfil. — A reiiMieer calle«l ail the manunals and 
birds together aiul announced that he would give names to all of them. 
When he came to name the squirrel he inquired of the little creature 
what name it would i)refer. The squirrel replied that it would like to 
ha\e the same name as the black bear. The reindeer smiled and in 
formed the s(iuirrel that it was too small to have the name of the bear. 
The squirrel began to cry and wepi so long that his lower eyelids 
became white. 

The youHfi mini who went to lirr with the devr. — A young man one 
morning told his old father that he had dreamed the night Itefore that 
a deer liad asked him to come and live with them. The old father re- 
plied, "That is a good sign; you will kill many deer after that dream." 
Tiie yimiig man went away to hunt, and while out he saw a large herd 
of (h'cr. A young doe from the bantl ran up toward him, and he was 
about to tire at her when she said to him, " Do not lire, for my father 
has .sent me to you. I'h-ase put up your arrows." She came nearer 
and informed him that her father had sent her t«) ask him to ciune and 
live with the deer forever. 



iTIit'juy IH wrti known In )ii- |iiiitii'iilurly I'niul dI' fat iil uiiy kind, hent-ti tliu tuiiiptiug nmrrti-l with- 
held wan u Duiirc'u t'ur future redvcilun. 



FOI,KI-ORK. 



329 



Tht^ young iiiiiu inquired, " How could T live with you when it is 
upon deer that I live ? I live in a tent and can not live outside. I ean 
not live witlumt fire. I can not live without water." The doe replied, 
"We have jtlenty of fire, water, and meat; you will never want; you 
will live forever. Your father will never want, as there will be enough 
deer given to him." The man consented to go with them. The doe 
jtointed to a large hill and said, "That is <mr lumie." She told him to 
leave his deerskin uiantle, snowshoes, and arrows on the ground, but 
to keep the bow. As they were walking along they came to a big 
valley. She infoimed him that that was their patli. The two went 
toward tlie steep hillside and fcnind the ground to be covered witii deer. 
SouH' of the deer were frightened when they saw tiie nmn coming, and 
started to run. Tim doe's father said to the frigliten«'(l deer, " Do you 
lutt i»ity the poor Indians who have to hunt for their living while we do 
not?" When the young man ami the doe came up, the father of the 
doe addressed the young man, asking if he was hungry. Tlie man re- 
plied, '• Ves." Tlie father then gave him a piece of ni«e nu^at and some 
fat. After the man Inid finished eating tlie fatlier impiired, " Is your 
father also hungry?" The son replied, '■ Yes." 

The ohl buck informed the young man that they would give tlie son's 
father some deer tomorrow. After the young man had slept out one 
night ids father, in the morning, went oiil to hiok for his son, but 
fouiul only his mantle, snowshoes, and arrows, which hail been cast 
aside the day before, and also found the tracks in the valley i; ading to 
the home of the de«'r under the hill. The old man returned to his tent 
and told the other Indians that his son had gone away to live witii the 
deer. The ohl man then said, "Let us make snares and we will yet 
take him, as he can not run as fast as the deer." The Indians jnepared 
a number of snare nooses and went to the valley to set them among the 
luishes on the path. The fatlu'r of the young doe saw what was going 
on in the valley and told the rest, -Let us go and give the ohl man 
some deer." He told the young man to I'oine with them. The man re- 
plied that he could not acccuupany them, as he would be left behind in 
no time while they were running. The old Imck instructed the young 
mail to keep among the rest of tlic deer and lie would not be left be- 
hind them. All the deer then went (Uit to the valley. The young man 
kept aiiKUig them; and as fhey were going thnmgli the bushes he 
heard the shouts of the Indians wiio were concealed behind lliem. 
The deer saw the snares and some of the animals fell into the nooses 
and were cauglit. Tlie remainder, witli the young man, were soon be 
yiuul the snares. The Indians began to kill the deer which had been 
taken in the nooses, and when they had finished they found they had 
not captured the young man. They consulted together and de»'lded to 
searcii among the tracks of the escaped deer to ascertain whether his 
foot-prints were among them. They found his track and also the mark 
of his bow as he had draggetl it along in the snow. 



-h'A 



330 



THl", Hl'DSON IIAV KSKUfO. 



1- r 



Tlic ,voiui}{' iiian's liitlitT tln'ii said, "Let him go if he thinks lie is 
able to livo with tiie dtiei;" and the ju'oplt' returiuHl to tlieir ttMits. 

Tlif iroWn ildiKjhtff goinij to seek lirr loret: — An ohl iiiothtM' wolf ono, 
niornint;' said to her daiighfcr, '■ You imist go and look for your lover or 
I'lsf we shall all starve to deatli. as your brothers can not kill any deer." 
The daughter iufjuired of her mother, *• Who is my lover?" The mother 
replied, '-The otter is your lover. lie lives in the water. If you go to 
the narrows of the lake you will find him." Tlu' daughter said she 
would go. So early in the morning slu' started ott", and as she was go- 
ing along the shore of the lake she saw an open hoh- in tiu' iee, and 
in the water the otter was sitting. The wolf went up to the otter, but 
the otter swam away and was going to dive, when the wolf said, *'l)o 
not dive and go away. My n)othersays you are my lover." The otter 
asked, " How can 1 b«' your lover when I live in the water?" The wolf 
replied, '-Yon can live on the land as well as in the water." The otter 
answered liack. •' F will not live on the land." The wolf retorted, "Yon 
will linve to live on the land, and if you do not come out I shall smother 
you in the water." The otter said, " You can not smother me, for 1 have 
a number of holes luade in the lake ice." Theotterdoveinto the water 
and disai)peared. Tiie wolf began to howl dismally when the otter 
vanished. The wind began to blow and drifted the snow furiously. 
The snow fell into the otter's lireathing holes ami tilled tliein with 
slushy snow, which soon froze and completely stopped all the holes in 
the ice but one where the wolf was sitting. This hole was kept <'Ieiir 
of snow and ice by the wolf scraping it out as fast as it collected. 
Soon she heard the otter going to the holes for breath, but when he 
came near the hob- where the wolf was sitting she couhl hear liim 
snutliiig foi' air. and she stood with open jaws ready to seize him wlu'U 
lie should ajipear. The otter was nearly exhausted, so tlu' wolf went 
olf a little distance, and the otter came up to the surface of the water 
nearly out of breath. He cr«'i)t out of the water and rolled himself in 
the dry snow to take the water olf of his coat of fur and exclaimeil to 
the wolf. •• I will live with you; I will live with you." The wolf then 
a«ldressed her lover and said, "Did 1 not fell you I would smotlu'r 
you?"' The otter di<l not reply to this, but asked her, " Have you got 
a piece of line? (rive it to me, and I will gu to catch some tish for you 
if you will go and prei»are a tent." The wolf drew out a piece of lishing 
line and handed it to the otter. The otter went down into the same 
hole in the ice whence he had come. He was gone some time, and in 
the meantime the woll was busy making the tent, which was complett'd 
before the otter returned. Soon alter, however, the otter came buck to 
the hole with a long string of tish which he had killed and had them 
all stiiing on the line. He left the string of lish in the hole in the i(e 
with ori< end of it fastened to the ice. The otter rolled himself in the 
snow t( remove the water from his fur, and then went to the tent to tell 
bis wife U> go and get the tish wliieh he had left in the hole iu the ice. 



iUllHER.] 



FOLK U) UK. 



331 



Tlie wolf went iind liiiiiK'd up the line, which was full of tish, und befjan 
to devour so many that soon she could scarcely move. She hauled the 
lemaindoi' of the tish home to the tent. 

The otter was sleei)in}f when siie returned. She proceeded to clean 
th«' tish and put on a. lar>;e Utfttle full of the tish to l»oil for supper. 
Slie then crept into bed with her hu.sbaud, and the next morning she 
was delivered of a youn;; otter and a young wolf. After the father and 
motlu-r hail taken their brealvfast the latter sat with her head hanging 
down and seemed to be in a miserable mood. The otter impiired of the 
wife wolf, "VVHiat is the matter with you that you sit so (piietly ?" The 
wolf answered: ''I wish I liad some deerskins with wliich to make 
(•lt)thing for the diildren. How nicely 1 should dre.ss them!'' Tlie ot- 
ter replied: "Open the door and 1 will sliow yon where I get the 
deer." It was yet early, and the otter went away to seek the deer. 
The otter saw a Itiind of thirty deer, but had no gun with which to kill 
them, so he frightened them, aud as they were running away he sprang 
at them each, aiul .jumi»ed through them from end to end. He killed 
all of tliem in this manner and then rolletl in the snow to cleanse him- 
self. After that was done he weiuled his way home, ami on arriving 
informed his wife (lor it was then a little after sunset) that on the mor- 
row she sliouhl go to bring home the deer he had killed, adding that 
she »(»uUl follow his track, and thus tlnd them. The wife had a big 
pot of tish cooked for him when he returned, and when he had tinished 
his supper he went to bed. As soon as the wife suspected her husband 
to l)e asleep she went after the deer, and by hauling four at a time she 
soon had them all l)rought, a ;d laid tiiem before the tent. When that 
was tinished she went to bed. In the morning the otter told her to 
get ap and nuike a tire, as she would have to go for the carcasses of 
the deer which he had kille<l the day before. The wite replied: "1 
have already laought them all honu'."' The otter asked her: "How 
could you bring them lionu> in tlie dark .'" The wife answered: " Look 
out through the door if you do not believe me." The otter looked and 
saw the thirty deer all piled up before the door. He turned and looked 
at his wife, but made no remaik. The wolf asked him : " Why do you 
look at me, so hard?" The otter said: ''I was woinlcring how you 
could get them home in such a short time." Tlie w<ilf said: "Come, 
aud take your breakfast, for you will have to help me skin the deer." 
After they had tinished eating their breakfast they began to skin the 
deer, and soon had tiu'ui done. The wolf told her husband to make a 
stage 01' scaffold for the meat, adding that she would clean the skins. 
The otter prepared the stage, which in a short time was completed. 
The nu'at was placed on the stage and the skins hung up to dry around 
the tent. They then went in to take tlu'ir supper. The wife was not 
in a talkative mood, aud soon went to bed. The next morning the 
W(df hung her head down, and the otter seeing her again in such mood, 
inquired what was the matter with her that she should be so quiet. 



-■■n 



.•}32 



THE mUSOX UAY ESKIMO. 



c:: : 



Tlic wolf roplit'tl: '• I am tliiiikiiiKof my poor fntlicr and niotluT and 
linitlicrs; I siipposo tlioy will all be starvi'd to dt'atli. M.v old fatluT 
told im; to toil you to ]>iit a mark on the middio of tli«> lakt> so tlioy 
wonldkiiow wlu'ie I am." Tlu' otter wont to the middlt> of thelaku and 
fii'i'ti'd a pile a.s a mark by which the wolfa relations should know it. 
The brothers ol tli ^'ter's wife were on the hill looking for the mark 
set up by their sister's husband, and when they saw it they ex- 
claimed: "Our sister has saved us! our sister has saved us!" 
and ran back to their old father's home to <;ive him the joyful in- 
telli^enc*' that they liatl seen the maik put up by the husband of theii' 
sister. The ohl wolf then tohl his family that they wctiild ^o and seek 
their sister and daughter to live with hei' and her husband. They 
;•" went to the hill by the lake, and from the toji of it they saw the 
mark, and from it they tbllowed the track of the otter until they 
saw the tent in the edf^e of the w<tods. They exclaimed : "There is 



tuir sister's tent, for the deerskins are hanjiinu outside 



Thev raised 



such a.joyfnl shout at the prospect before them, that the noise fright 
en»'d sonu" yonuj^ otters (for the family had now become larger) which 
were playiiijn outside. The little ones scaiai)ered in and hid them- 
selves beliind their lathei''s back. The fatlicr impiired, "What is the 
mattei', that you are so frifihtened f" The little ones rejtlied : "We 
are runninj; from the llunfjer'' (for that was the name they applied to 
the wolves). The mother rejilied : ''l*erhai>s they see my father, 
mother, and brothers roiniii;;." The otter told his wile to <,'oont and 
see. She complied, and when she opened the do(U' they saw a row of 
•jaunt wolves ; nothing;- but skin and btnies. The newcomers immedi 
ately fell to. and bejjan to devour the nu-at which was on the stajje. 
The otter's wife remonstrat«'d, and said : •• l>o m)t be so ;'re«'dy ; my 
husband is not a stin^ry man. i take my meals when he is sleeping, 
anil pretend not to eat piinh duriiiy; the day." They all went into the 
tent and tlie otter soon went to bed. Wlu'ii they thought he was 
asleep, they be;;an to eat all the raw meat and lisli, ami .soon tinished 
it. In the nn>rniiiu; when the otter had awakened, he remarked to his 



wife 



■I think vonr brothers will make a fool of me, 



The wife 



asked: "What makes you think so ?" Tl tter replied: "They 

look at me so hard, that I do not know where to turn my eyes." After 
bieakfast the otter and his wolf brotlieis went away to look for deer. 
They .soon came upon a band of them, and tin; otter t(dd the w<dves 
to '^(t and kill them. The wolves ran after the deer, but yot <udy one 
of them. After the deer were fri^jhteiu'd by th«' wolves, the otter 
si»ranK idter the deer and soon killed every (Uie of them in the same 
manner he had killed tlieotheis. He then cleaned himself in the dry 
snow and returned home. The wolves had slai'ted for the tent belbre 
the otter, so when the latter letiirned they ask»'d tluMittcr : "How 
nniny deer did you kill ?" The otter replied : "I killed all that were 
in the band, '' uddinj;, "In the morning you will have to go for the 



TrRNIR.] 



FOLKLORE. 



333 



deer." So evoryHiiiifT was fi<»t ready f«U' an early start and they all re 
tired to bed. Wlien tliey awakened in the morning, one oft lie wife's 
brothers said to another : " Looli at onrotter brother; lie has a white 
mouth." Theotter turned to his wife and said to her : " Did 1' not 
tell you that your brothers would nnike a fool of nu'?" The otter tiien 
took his two otter ehildren in his arms, and told his wife that she 
wouhl lia\e to make her living as best slu* could, as he would not live 
with her any more, that lie was k(''"H away to leave, her. lie darted 
otVtothe lake, and disappeared under the ice, and was never seen 
a|;aiii. 

Tht^ (hvU pmiiithinn n liar. — A bear (mackwh) had two yoiinjf enbs 
wliieli she did not want to let know that summer had eome, Init kept 
tlu'm in tlie <len and would not let them jjo out. The yoiiiif; ones con 
tiuiially iiKpiired if the sununer had come, and rejx'atcd the (juestion 
every time the mother returned from the outside. Slie invariably an- 
swered, "No." Some days after she fell asleeji, when she had returned 
from one other trijjs, and while slee|)in;i her mouth opened wiile. The 
yoiiny onea said to each other: •' Surely the summer is come, for there 
are ureeii leaves in our mother's mouth." The mother had told her 
ehildren how beautiful was the siiiiimt-r time, how jireeii the trees, how 
juicy the plants, and how sweet the berries; so tlie cubs, impatient, 
while lon;;inj;' for summer tliiit they iiiin'hl enjoy what was outside of 
their den, knew by the leaves in their mother's moiitli that she had de- 
ceived them. The older cub told the yoiin^icr that they would .slip out 
at the top of the ileii and p) out while tlieir niotlicr was yet slcepinj;-. 
They crei>t out and foiiml the weather so line and the suridun<liiij;s so 
pleasant that they wandered .some distance olV by the time she wakened 
from her sleep. She ran out and called loudly for her children, seem- 
in>;ly surprised, and exclaimed: *• .My sons, the suinmei' has come; the 
Slimmer has come." The cubs hid when they heard their mother's 
voice. .S)ie called to them until nifihtfall. The older <iili said to his 
brother: "I wish tliede\il (.\(|air) would hear licr and kill her for 
telling; us the summer had not conic, and keeping' us in the iioiisc so 
loiif,' when it was already pleasant outside." 

The mother bear soon screamed to her sons: ••The devil has heard 
me and is killiM^ me." 

The cubs heard the devil killing their motlier with a stone, poiindiii;; 
her (Ui the head. 

They lu'caiiie frifihteiied and ran away. 

.1 inilririiic (lixlnijis his sixto: — A wolverene havin;; wandered far. 
for several days without food, suddenly came upon a bear. Tiic I'ormer, 
leeliufj very hungry, conceived the plan of destroyin;; his larger prey 
by strataj;em. The wolverene cautiously approached the bear and ex 



claiiiieo; " Is that von. sister 



The bear turiicil around and saw tlit; 



wolverene, but in a low tone which the wolvercm- did not hear, said to 
herself: -I did not know that I had a brother." so ran (piickly away. 



i»'t« 1 






334 THE HinSOX BAY ESKIMO. 

Th«' wolvt'H'n*' nuitiniH'd to Hcreain: ''roiiit' lu'ii', sisUir, our fiitlicr lias 
sent iiu' to look for yon. Voii wimo lo.st wlipii you won' a littlo ^irl 
out pitkiiiK berrii's." Thus spokt'u to. the Itcar ai)proa('ho(l timsuit- 
posi'd brotluT, wlio inl'ornu'd \wv that he knew (tf a phico, on the hill 
tlu'it', where a lot of uito berries were reatly for eatiiij{, saying: '* Do 
yon not seethe berries fjrowing on that hill, sister?" The bear ans- 
wered: " I can not see so p;reat a distance.'' So the two went up tin' 
hillside where the berries pew. When they arrived at the jdaee, ami 
it was some distance otV, the bear asked: ••How is it that your eyes are 
so piodf" The wolveione replied: IMy father nuished a lot of cran- 
berries into my eyes and put me into a sweat house." The bear .said: 
••I wish my eyes were as y;<Kid as yours." The wolverene answeretl: 
'* I will make your eyes as piod as mine if you will jjather a lot of 
cranberries while I prepare a sweat house." The bear went to fjather 
l>erries while the other prepared the house during her ab.seme. The 
wolvereiu' selected a stone having a sliarj) edge, which she concealed 
under the moss in the sweat house, while .she juocured a larger stone 
for the pillow. 

After the sweat house was comideted the wolverene ci led out : 
•'Sister, the sweat house is llnishedl" The bear niturned. biinging a 
quantity of berries. Tlu'y both w«'nt into the sudatory, whercupctn 
the wolverene instructed the bear to lie with her head upon the stone 
pillow, while he pre|iared the crushed berries to jiut in her eyes, lie 
then .-aid to her: •• Now, sister, do not move; you may lind the berries 
will hurt the eyes and make them very .sore, but they will be better 
soon." The wolverene tilled the bear's eyes full of the sour berries, 
which made her exclaim: •• IJi-other. they aic making my eyes ver.\ 
sore."' The wolverene answered : •• Yon will lind hem the belter for 
that. .Vfter I get yoni eyes full of ih»' berries I will blow my breath 
on them."' After the eyes of the bear were full of licrries the wolvcr 
enesaid: •• Vou are too good to be a sister." so he struck her on the 
head with the shari»-edged stone and cleft her skull betwet n the eyes 
and killed her. 

Tlir rolthit mid tin f vug. — One day a rabbit was waiulering among 
the hillsides, and at a short distance from him he observed a tent 
belonging to sonu' Indians, lieing tindd he crept up to the side of 
the teiit and ])eeped through a snndl hole, and .saw inside of it a frog 
sitting near the lire. The rabbit seeing no danger accosted the frog 
thus: "Brother, what arc you doingf The frog replied: I am play 
ing with the ashes. My brothers have gone of!' hunting and I am here 
as I have a very sore leg and can not go far." The labbit rejoined, 
••come with me and I will keep yon?" The frog answered. " I can <iot 
walk as my leg is too .soie." The rabbit ottered to carry the frog on 
his back. The rabbit took the fiog and giving him a toss threw him 
on his back and said: "This is the way I will carry yon." So they 
started for the lionu' of the rabbit, where, upon arriving, the ral»bit 



Tl'HNKB.I 



FOLKLORE. 88ft 

placed tlu* froj,' iiisidi- (if the tent wliilc tlie former wont out to look 
for 8oiiietliiiiK ><• <""•■ ^Vliilr seckiny food the labliit suddenly spied a 
smoke euilinjj from amonj,' tlie willows wliieli yrew idon;,' tlie hraneh of 
the creek, lie became frightened and started to run homeward exclaim- 
ing. " I have for>,'otten my crooked knife and I must no quickly to 
;,'et it." (This i)art, or what the ral>l»it says to himself, is siinKiisa 
song; with an attempt at imitation of the rabbit's voice.) The rabbit 
ran hurriedly home and spraufj into the tent, wliereui)on the fro;; ob- 
serving the fright of the other inquired, '• Hrother, what is tlie matter 
that you are so excited ?" The rabbit answered, *• I saw a lar^e smoke." 
"Wliere is it?" inquired the frog. The rabbit reidied, •' It is fioni 
among the willows along the creek that runs near by." The frog 
began to laugh at the foolish fear of the rabbit and answered him that 
the smoke proceeded from the lodge of a family of beavers, and taunted 
the rabbit for being afraid of such a timid creatuic as a bciver when 
they are good to eat, addingthat his own (frogs) brothers often carried 
him to the beavers' iiouses to kill them wlien tliey were out of food; 
although his brothers could never kill any of them. 

The rabbit was ph'ased to hear the hog was such a great hunter, and 
gladly offered to carry the frog to the lodge of the beavers that some 
food could be jirocured. The Irog aecepted tlic otfer and was carried to 
the creek bank. The rabbit then built a dam of stakes across the 
stream and below the lodges in order that the beavers should not 
esca|ie. The frog then direct^-d the rabbit to break into the top of the 
lodge so rhat the frog might get at the beavcis to kill them. While 
the rabbit was breaking into the lodge of (he beavers, the frog jiur- 
posely loosened some of the stakes of the weir below in order to allow 
the beavers to escape, hoping that the rabbit would become angry at 
him for .so doing. When the rabbit saw what mischief the frog had 
(hine, he took the frog and roughly shoved him under the ice into the 
water. This did not harm the frog as it could live under water as well 
as on lanil, but the ralibit did not know that, so he believed he had 
drowned his brother the frog. The rabbit then returned to his home, 
regretting he had acted so harshly and began to cry for his brother. 
The frog in the nieanwhih'. killed all of the beavers and tied them 
together on a string, then slowly crawled to the rabbit's home with 
his burden on his liack. The frog (uejit up to the tent but was 
afraid to enter so he began to play with the door tlap of the tent to 
make a noise to attract the attention of the rabliit within. Finally he 
cried out to the rabbit, ••Brother, give me a piec«' of lire (or I am very 
cohl." The rabbit did not rec<ignize the tired, weak voice of his brother 
frog, and. afraid lest it be some enemy endeavoring to entice him from 
his home, jiicked up a iiiece of dead coal which had no tire on it and 
Hung it outside. The frog then said, " Urother, there is no tire on this 
piece and I can not cook my lieavers with it." The rabbit then ran out 
(piiekly and tenderly carried the frog inside, and immediately the latter 



^ 



ti 



33fi 



Till", HUDSON' BAY ESKIMO. 



C" '■■ 



l'? 



I;. 



bcptii to moan iiiid apitcar to sut!)>i' so iinich that tlio rabltit iiM|nir«Ml 
wliat was tlio iiiatt4'r antl askod it' tli«> bcavors liatl liittt'ii liiiii. Tliu 
frog said, "No, it was yon who pive iiu' sui-li a hard piisli tliat you 
have hurt me in the side.'" Tlio rabbit a«sun>d tliefroj: that tho injury 
w.is uidnfontiDiially raust-d. The fmn then dirotited tlu' rabbit to prtv 
par*' and t'ook tlu> bfaviMs. Tli*> rabbit w<>nt out to t'ctrli tlioni but hn 
bof^an to«>at and didnot stop until they wure all dt'voun-d. After hav- 
ing tInishiMl eating them the rabbit went for a walk. Krt> long he 
notieed a huge smoke curling from the farther end of a valley and be- 
coming greatly fiighteiu'd lieex('lainie«l, "I ha\e forgotten my erooketl 
knife and I nuist go (piiekly to get it." lie daslied into his door in a 
KMTible state of mind. The frog eoolly inquired. •' What is the matter 
that you are so seared?" The ranbit said, " i have seen a great smoke 
at the farther end of tluM alley through whieli the ereek runs.'' The 
frog laughed hnidly at his fear and said. "They are deer; my brotliers 
often had iiie to kill tiiem, as they eimld not kill any, when we had no 
meat." The rabbit was delighted at that so he oftered to carry the 
frog toward the place. The frog din-cted the rabbit to make a snow- 
shoe for the one foot of the frog. The rabbit soon had it made and 
gave it to hisbrother. The frog then said, "('any me up towards the 
smoke.'' The rabbit slung the frog on his back and away they went in 
the direction of the deer. The frog then told the rabbit to stand in one 
place and not to move while he (the fiog) would work at the deer, and 
when he had tinishcd he would call him u)) to the place. 

The frog killed all the deer in a \eiy short time, skinned them, and 
stuck the head and lu-ck of one of the deer into the snow so that it 
would be looking toward the place whence the rabbit would come. 
The frog then took tlii> lungs ot one of the deer and put it out to free/.e. 
The coM turned the lungs white as tallow. The frog shouted for liiH 
brother rabi)it to come quickly. When the rabbit came boniiding near 
he saw the eyes of the deer's head staring at him in a queer manner; 
he was somuch alarmed that lieexclaimed tothefrog, "ISrothei, lies . s 
me.'' The frog smiled and said, "I have killed him; he is dead; «-ome 
on; 1 have a nice piece of fat saved for you.'' (It was the frozen lungs 
of the deer.) So he gave the rabbit a large piece and told him to eat 
it all and cpiickly, as it was better when frozen and fresh from the 
deer's back. The rabbit greedily swallowed large portioim and did not 
obseive the deception. AtYer a time they built a lodge or tent for the, 
night. Some few hours after the tent was made the frozen 'leer lungs 
which the rabbit had eaten began to thaw and it made tho rabbit so 
violently ill that he vomited continually the entire night. The frog 
had hcrved him this trick as a punishment for having eaten all of the 
beaver nu'at two days before. 

Tlir irolririHr iniii the rock. — A wolverene was out walking on the 
hillside and came upon a large rtxk. The animal inquired of the 
rock, " Was that you who was walking just now?" The rock renlied, 



n'nKEii.l 



FOI-KI.OKK. 



337 



"No, I can not tnovr; Ihmhc I cannot walk." The wolverene iciuitcd 
that lie Iniil seen it WKlkiii);. The rock i|niekly int'onned the wolverene 
that he uttered a I'al.Hehood. The wolverene remarked, "Von need not 
si)eak in that nianiier for I liavti seen yon walkiii);." The wolverene 
ran otV a little distance and taunted the rock, challen;;in;.^ it to catch 
him. The wolverene then apinoached th*^ rock ami having struck it 
with his paw, said, "See it' you can catch nu'." The rock answered, 
"I can not run but I can mW." Th»> wolverene l)e;;an to laii},'h and 
.said, "That is what I want." The wolvereim ran away and the rock 
ndled utter him, keepin;; Just at his heels. The animal hnally Iteyaii 
to tire and commemed to juni]» over sticks and stones until at last the 
rock was touching' liin heels, .\tlast the wolverene tripped over a sti«'k 
and tell. The rock rolled over on him and ceased to move when it 
came U])()n the hind parts of the wolverene. The animal screamed, -(let 
otV, ;;<) away, you are hiirtin^r me; you are lireakiiiK niy liom-s." The 
rock remaineil motionless and replied, "You tcninented me and had 
me run after you, ,so now I shall not stir until some one takes me olV.'' 

The wolverene rei)lied, "I have nniiiy i>roihers and I shall tail them." 
Ilecalled to the wolv»^s and the foxes to come and remove the rock. 
These animals soon caiiu^ up to where the rock was lyiiiu' oil the 
wolverene and they asked him, "Mow came voii to nt't under the rock ?" 
The wolverene replied. "I challenyeil tli« rock to catch me and it 
rolled on inc." The wolves and foxes then told him that it servetl him 
ri;ilil to be under the rock. They endeavored, after a time, to <lis- 
l»lace the rock but could not move it in the least. The widvercnc then 
saiil, "Well, ifyoucaniiot ;;et me out I shall call my other brother, 
the liKhtnint; and thunder." So he beyan to ciill tor the lijihtnin;; 
to come to his aid. In a few imiments a hntjje <lark cloud came rush- 
intJ fnun the southwest, and as it hurried m* it made so much noise 
that it frightened the w<dves and foxes, but they asked the li;;htuiii>; 
to take olV the coal of the wolveiene but not to harm his flesh. They 
then ran away. The li^ihtiiinj; darted back to gather force and struck 
the rock, knockiii},' it into small pieces and also comidetely stripped 
the skin from the back of the wolvenuie, tearing the skin into small 
jticces. The wolverene stood naked, but soon bej;an to pick up the 
pi«'ccs of his coat and told the liy;litiiiiijj;, " Vou need not have torn my 
coat when you had only the rock to strike." 

The wolverene ^iathered up his pieces of coat and said he would jio 
to his sister, tlu^ fro};-, to have her sew them to-nether. Me repaired to 
the swamp where his sister dwelt and ask<'d her to sew them. She 
did so. The wolverene took it up and tohl her .she had not put it 
to<;etlier properly and struck her on the head and knocked her tlyiiiK 
into the water. IIo took up the coat and went to his younger sister, 
the mouse, lie directed her to sew his coat as it should be done. The 
mouse beuan to .sew the i»ieces top'ther and when it was done the 
wolverene carefully examiued every seam and said, "Vou have .sewed 
11 KTII 22 



'MiH 



TIIK HUDWN HAY ESKIMO. 






it vi'i \ well; \tiii will live ill till' tall iiivvu t;i'aMH in tlu> huiiiiimm' iiimI in 
Hias> lmii,st'> ill the winter.'' Tlir wohcit'iif put iiii liis cdat anil went 
11 way, 

Crxiliiiii (</' i>n>itli hi) llii wi'li'n'nir iiiiil tin' nninknit. — Am ii \viilv«'i'»'lif 
was waiiili'i'iii;; aioii;: llif liaiik of a rixiT lii> saw a niuskiat swiiiiiiiiiiK 
ill t lit- *'(!;:<' Ill till' wati'i'. lii- accostcil the latttT animal with tlit^ in 
i|iiii'\, '■ \\ lio air yiMi .' Alt' yon a man <»' a woman*'' Tin- niiiskrat 
aiiswt'ii'd. "I am a woman." Tlic wolvcri'in' inloiim'tl licr that lu^ 
•vniilil takr liri' t'lir a wil'i'. 'I'lic miiskrat it'plii'il, "I li\«' in tlii^ watci'; 
how can I \>v your wife.'" Tin- v.ohcn'm' told lu»r that HluM'oniil livi- 
on tilt' lanil as wtll as in tlu- watt r. Tli«> mnskrat went np on tlir hank 
to wlu'ic tlu' wtiKiTcnc was stallliill;,^ 'I'liry solci'tcd a plat'c iinil 
8lit« hf^'an to pit'pair a liomi' tor tliriii. 'I'lu'y ate tln>ii Hiippci'M and 
I tiri'd. Soon alter a child was liorn. Tht' wohcrcnc Int'ormt'd his 
wife that it would lie a white man and father of all the white people. 
When this child was liorii it made a natnrai exit. In due time a seeond 
child was lioi ii w hicli the wolverene decreed should lie an Indian and 
the tatliei of their kind. This child was liorii from its mother's month. 
After a time a third child was liorn.and the wolverene anmninced it to 
be an Kskimo and father of its kind. This child was born tih iinn. In 
the natural coniseot events a fourth child was horn, and the wolverene 
decided it to he an lioipiois and futlitu' of its kind. This child was 
horn from its iiiother's nose, .\fter a time a tiftii <'lii1d was liorn and 
the wo!\erene decreed it should he a Ne;;roand fatliei of its kind. This 
child was horn from its mother's ears. Tlies«M-hildieii remained with 
their parents until they f,'row up. Their mother then called them to 
uethei and aiinoiinced to them that they must separate. She sent 
them to dilVererit places of the latid, iind, in part inj;, directed them to 
^o to tlic w hlte men whi'iiever they were in need of anythiiifi, as the 
whites would have eveiythiiifi ready for them. 

Orlijin III' thr irliitisli ,v/<r*f oil tin Ihroiit of the martin. — A man hail a 
wife whom a marten fell in love with and endeavored to possess. 
W'heiievci the man would ;;o away from his home the maiten would 
enter, sit h.\ the woman's side, and endeavor to entice her to leave her 
hnsliaiid and pi to live with him. One day the man returned itnex 
pectcdly and caught the maiten sitting by the side of his wife. The 
marten ran on!. The man in(|iiired of hi.s w ife w hat the marten wanted 
there. The Woman replied that the marten wis striving; to induce her 
to desert him and hecome his own wife. 

The next time the man wentotf he told his wife to till a kettle with 
water and imt it on the tire to hoil. The man went outside and 
.secreted himself near the house, lie soon saw the marten <;<i into the 
house. 

The man .stole iniietly to the door of the house and listened to the 
marten, which was talkiiif^ to his wife. The man spraii}^ into the hou.s«^ 
and .said: "Marteu, wiiat are you doing here, what are you trying U) 






I'ol.KLoUK. 



;}.'{!• 






II RNKK I 

tlo.''' 'I'll*' iiiiiii Hi-i/t*(l tlu> kt'ltir III liol watt'! iiiwl iliiHlit'd it mi ilii' 
lui'tist of tilt' aiiiiiiiil. Till' iiiarti'ii lii';;aii to sriatih ills Inirniii;: luisiiin 
anil laii iMit intu tliiMviitnls; ami litM'aiiHi' iii> was ho scvi'it'ly liiiit lie 
now k('i'|iH ill tilt' ilttiist'Ht t'oifrttH, away IVoiii tlic si^lit of man.' 

till' liiiliiiii mill his hiiii'ir iril'v. — Out' day an Imlian \\a> liiiiitiiiy 
aloii;; the Itiinix Ilia strfaiii ami in tlu' tlistaiiii' saw a liiavi'i's Ihmim'. 
Ilia iiioiiifiit lit' |it'ii-t'iv«'<l a liciivci' MwiiiiiiiiiiK titwiiitl liiiii. Iltilifw 
ii|> ami was lai tlit- point of sliootiii;^ it wlii'ii tiif aiiiiiial i'\< lainu'tl, 
"Do not slioot, I lia\t* soini'tliiti^ to say to you," 'l'lii> Indian iiiiiniicd, 
"Wliat is if you liavf to say t" Tlio lit'iivor aski'il him, ••Would yon 
havi' me for a wifi'f" Tlif Imlian i'i'|ilit'il. "I liin not livt< intlii' uatcr 
with yon." 'riir Itcavt'r answiTi'd, "Von will not know yon ait'livinu 
in till' watt'i. if ytiii will follow iiit;." Tlic Imlian fnitlit'i rt'tnaiki'd that 
In' could not livt'on willows ami other woods likf a lifavi-r. Tin' licavi'i 
assnrt'd him that wlii'ii i>atiii<,r tlit'in In* would not think tht'iii to lie 
willows. Shf atldt'tl, " I have a iiitf liou«t' to livt? in," The man ic 
plii'il, "M.\ Itrothcr will ln' lot)kin;: lot' mr if I romc in and In* will not 
know wlii'ii' I am. Thf bfavfr dirtM'ti'tl thf man to takf off his clotli 
in^' ami loavc tln'in on the hank and to follow hi-r. Thf Imlian did as 
III' was instrni'ti'd. .\s ht'was wadiii;;' thronuh tin' watt'i' hi' did not 
fi't'l till' watt'i lonchiii;: him: so tlit'y |irt's(>nll.\ lit><:an toswim and soon 
ri'ai'hfd thf lioiiii' of till' lifavtT. The Wcavt'i told him as shf |iointt'd 
ahead. ''Tht'ii' i> my lioint', and you will lind it as ;;iiiid and nmifori 
aldt' as yoiir own tfiil. " Tht'y holh t'liti'it'il ami sin- soon set iicforc 
him som»> t'ooti whirli hf tlid not ii't'o;;iii/t! as willow Mark. .Vfli'i' tlic\ 
liati sit'pt two niy;hts his hiothfr licrami' alaiini'd and wt'iit to scart'h 
fill him, ami soon found his tiai'k. In followiu;: it up his lirothcr came 
to wht'i't' he had left his clothin^t on thf hank of the slieain. 

The lii'other was tlistii'ssfd ,it tindiii;; such thinj:s. so went sorrow 
fully hack to the tent thinkin;; that his Inother had lioeii ilrowiicd, and 
so toltl the iitlier Imliatis when he aiiist'd, Willi a heavs lieait he 
went to lied ami in the morning he awakeneil ami told his w lie that he 
hail tireamed his Inother was living; with a lieaver. lie told his •,vife 
to iiiakf some new elothinK tor the lost ludthi'r as lif would -x:! and 
seek the haunts of the lieavei's to tliseover his ttroihi'r. The man ocen 
pied himself in inakiii;; a pair of siiowshoes, while the wife pre|iareil 
the ehithiiifj. The next tlay she had the clothinji done and he directed 
her to make them iiito^i small Imnille as he woiilil start on the search 
early the iie.xt morning'. Other youn;^ iiien desiretl to accompany him 
on the search, hut were ad vi.sed to remain at home as their pre.sence 
wtiiilil prevent him from reacliiii;; the beaver's retreat. I'larly in the 
iiioriiin;i he started oil. lakiiin' tlieclotliis ami snowshoes w itli him. 
After stdiie time he found the i»lace where the heaver l;ad her house 
anil in which he siispectctl his Itrother to lie livin;:. lie went to work 
to make a ilani across the stream so as to decrease the deptli of water 
aroumi the heaver's bouse. The wife had lioriie two children to the 



340 



THE HUDSON HAY E^<KIMO. 



!■■ 






linsband by tins time, ami when the tUtlier had seen the water going 
Irmii tlicir Ihiiisc he l«»hl thechiltlren: " Your uncle in coiniiif; and he 
is certain to kill you." The water had soon ^ow down sullicicntly to 
enable tlic man l(? cross tiie stiM'am to where the house was situat«'d. 

On arrivinsi there he bej;an poumlinji' at the lutid walls. The lather 
told the children to p) out or else the house would lull on them. The 
mail outside i|iiiclily killed the two yoiinj,' ones. The wile knew she 
woiilil soon be killed also, and alter they had heard the deathblows 
jiiveii to their children she said to her husband, " If you are sorry that 
I am killed and ever want to see me a^rain, keep the ritrlit hand and 
arm of my body take (»IV the skin and keep it about y.ai." In a tew 
minutes the brotiier had be;;iiii ajraiii to tear out the sides of the lod}jc. 
The linsband told her to ;;iiout, and that his love lor her would make 
him kee|i her i'i;;lit hand. She then went out ami was quickly killed 
with a stick. When this was done and the husband had heard it all 
he was very sorry for his wife. .Vf^ain the man began to destroy the 
rest of the house and soon had a large hole in the wall of one side. The 
husband then said to him, "What are you doing? You are making ine 
scry cold." The brothei replied, "I ha\e brought sdine warm clothing 
for yon and .son will not feel c(dd." "Throw them in." said the bus 
band, "for I am freezing." lie put on the clothes, and while lie was 
doing it the brother noticed the hairs which had grown on the other's 
back, but said nothing about it. Tiie husband then sat in his house 
until the other was near freezing to death. The brother then said lo 
him. "Come with me: you can not stay here." The husband demanded, 
as a condition of returning, that the brother should never say anything 
to him to I lake him angry if he went back. The brother pi(miised 
l.iin not to do so. They then Started to return, the brother taking the 
Itodies of the children and mother on his back, the husband walking 
ahead. They soon arrived at the home of their people. The brotlu'r 
iliiew down the beavers and directed his wife to skin them. The lius 
band of the beaver asked for the right hand and arm of the bea\fr 
who had 1 ' his wife. It was given to him. lie got one of theothci- 
women tu skin it, and told her to dry the skin and return it to him. 
Tliree nights alter llieir return to (heir jteople a great many beavers 
were killed and a li>i';:e kettle full of llesli was boiled for food. The 
)>eoitle pressed the runaway brother to eat of the llesli of the b4'av«'rs. 
lb- informed them that if it was the llesh of a female beaver he would 
not eat it. Theyt<dd him that <lie llesh (d' the male bea\ < i ^ was all liii 
i>lied long ago. They forced him to eat a large piece of meat, and when 
he had swallowed it 'hey gave him more of it. The second piec(> was 
no sooner down ids throat than a large I'iver gushed from his side. 
'I'he Indian juni)ied into ihe river, while the rest ran away in tenor 
and, as these latter looked down the river, they saw the man swimming 
by the side id" his wife who had been a beaver. 

Thr cinlKfimHHv hurv. — .V hare, which had lost his iMireiils, lived 



iriiNEril 



FOl.KLOKE. 



841 



witli bis {viaiMlinotlu'r. One day, t'ecliug very Imiifjry, ior they were 
extri'iiu'ly jkioi', lie a.sked his niaiulmotlu'r if lie ('(Hihl set a net to 
catch lish. The tihl woman hui^hec! at the idea of a liare catcliinff 
lish, but to humor liini, she const-nted, for slie was iudnlncnt to him 
because he was her only charge and h)oked forward to the time wIumi 
lie shouhl be able to sujtport her by his own exertions, and not to rely 
on the scanty sujudies which slu' was able to obtain. These were' very 
meager, as she was inlirni, and dreaded exposure. She then told him 
to go and set the net, but added that she li;'d no lire to cook them 
with, even if he shouhl catch any. The hare promised to i)rocure lire 
if he caught the lish. He went to set the net in a lake where he knew 
lish to be ]>lentiful. The next morning lie went to tlie net and found 
it to be so full of lish that he was unable to take it np. lie lifted one 
end and sav there was a lish in every mesli of the net. lleshnok 
(Hit some of the tisli and then drew out the net. I'art of the lish were 
buried, and a large load taken home. He put the tish down 
outside of the tent, and went in. He told the old woman to <"lean the 
lish and that he would go across the river to the Indians' tent and get 
the lire with which !o cook them. The old woman was speechless at 
such proposed rasliness, but as he had been able to catch so many lish 
she refrained remarking on his contemplated itrojeet of obtaining lire in 
the lace of sncli danger. Wliilc the old woman was cleaning tlielish he 
went back after the lu't which he had put out to dry on the shore of the 
lake. 

He foldeil it up, jdaced if under his arm. and ran to the edge of the 
river wliich was far too wide to Jump over, He used hi.-' cunning and 
assemliled a nund)er of whales. These animals came pulling up llio 
stream in obedience to his command, lie ordered them to arrange 
themselves side by side across the stream so that he could walk across 
on their backs. He most dreaded the Indians, but Jumped into the 
watei' to wet his fur. This being done he sprang from one whale to 
another until he was safe on the opposite shore. He then laid down in 
the sand ami bade the whales to disperse. Some Indian children soon 



playii 



long the sandy bank and saw the hare lying tliere. 



One of the children ]>icked up the hare and started liume with it. 
W'lii'U the boy arrived and told how he had obtained the hare he was 
directed to put it in the iron tent (kettle) where there was a inight lire 
crackling. 

The child put down the hare, njton which an old man told the boy to 
kill the hiMc. The hare was terril>ly friglitened, but opened a part of 
one eye to ascertain whether there was any jdace of exit beside the door. 
In tlie top of the tent he observed a larg*' round hoh'. He then said 
to himself: "I wish a spark of tire would fall on my net." instantly 
the brands rolled and a great spark fell on the net and began to Inirn 
it. The hare was afraid of the lire, so he sprang out of the hole in the 
apex of the tent. The Indians saw thi-y had been outwitted by a hare, 



342 



THE HUnSdN BAY ESKIMO. 






iiiid lu'fian to shout and itiiisue the iiiiinial, whidi attained such speed 
that when ho came to the baidcof the river he had not time to recall the 
whales. lie jiave an extraordinary leajt and deai'ed the entiie ex|i;iiise 
1)1' the water, lie examined tiie net and found the lire smonlderin}?. 
On arrival at his own home he said to ';is grandmother: "Did I not 
tell you I would fjet the tire?" The ohl woman ventured to inouire 
iiow he had crossed the river, lie coolly informed her that he had 
inm)»cd across. 

Tlir sjnrit (iiii(lin(/ it cliihl Irft hij its porcnt.s. — An Indian and his 
wife had itut onechild, which was so infested with vermin that when 
tile i)arents contemplateiLy.oln;;- to the tents of sonn' distant friends 
the father advised tlx- mother to leave the child behind. The next 
morning after the mother had taken down the tent the little Itoy asked 
her "Motiier, aroyi'U not {joing to jtut on my miu'casins?" the mother 
replied. "1 shall put them on after I have put mi my snow shoes." The 
httle lioy said. "Surely y(;u are not going to leave me I" She said. "Net;" 
lint took '.old ol' her sh>d and started oil". The little lioy cried out, 
"Mother, you ai'elei' ing me," and einh-avored to oveitake her in his 
liare feet; Imt the mother soon was out of sight. The little hi>y hegan 
tci cry and retraced his steps to the ten' place. There he cried until 
the spirit of a dead man came to him and asked. "Where is ycair 
iiiiillier .' " Tiie liiiy replied, "She has gone away ami let'l nie." "Why 
i!id sini lea\c yuii.'" asked the old man. "Heciiisel was so cuvcred 
witli lice." replied tlie lioy. The sjiirit siiid it wuiild remove all of the 
lice, hut three. So it Itegau to pick them otf. .\fter this was done tlie 
sjiiiit; aslvccf. "Where di<l your mother go?" The hoy pointed out her 
track. The spirit then said to the hoy. " Wiaild mui like to gotoyoiii' 
mother.'"' The hoy answered. " \'es." Tliesjtirit put the hoy on hishack 
and startt'd in the path made hy the sled of his mother. After a while 
they caine to a tree miiiI in looking at it the lioy saw a porcupine sitting 
among the luaiiches. 'I'lie hoy greatly licsired to have the animal. 
So he said. ■ (irandfatlier. f wish you would kill the porciipiiu'." The 
, lid man answered. " It will make loo much smoke for me to kill 't." 
After a time they caiiiy across a hare wliicli the hoy again desired t<' 
ii;!\ e. To this the man assent e(l. So he jiiit the lioy down in th«' snow 
and soon caught the hare and killed it. It was now liecoming dark, 
sc tlic,\iiiadc tlicii lamping jilace for the night. The spirit gave the 
li(i,\ the hare. and told him to cook it. .M'tertlie meat wa.> cooked the 
!ioy asked the old man what parts of the animal he piefi'ired. The 
old man said "(live, me the fangs and kidneys." The hoy gave h, in 
those parts and consumed the remainder himself. They laid down 
to sleep Mini in the morning they again started :>\\ the slc<l track. 
.Mioiit noon they came to the ttMits of the Indians, Mid among them 
'v.H tin; tent of tlie father and mother of the little hoy. The sjiirit 
placed the hoy <1ow ii on the outside near the door of the mother's tent 
and told hiiii to go in. The lioy entered and saw his lather and mother 



TI'BNER. I 



FOr.KLORR. 



343 



sittiiiff near the the. Tlu; motluM- in astoiiislmiciit siii«l, "nusbaiul, is 
tliis not our little boy whom we deserted at our hitecanipT' The 
husband asked the boy, "Wlio broufflit you here V The little boy an 
swcred, " My tiiandtather." The mother in«iuired, " Who is your yraud 
>i ther?" The father asked, '• Where is ho now?" The boy replied, "lie 
is sittiu}-- outside." The father asked his wife to looiv outside and see 
if any one was there. The wonuin did so and intbruied hiiu that "1 
see someone sittiii}: there, but I do not know who it is." The .spirit re- 
plied, "Youshouhl call wr somebody when you are ho ohc to leav(! your 
ehild to perish " The husband directed his wife to invite the old man 
into the tent. 

The spirit declined to enter. The father then asked the son to tell 
him to ctuuein. The boy went «mt and conducted tlu^ old man within 
the tent. Tiu' latter seated himself across rlie the (this is intended to 
iiu'an ojipositf the do(U- but on the other side of tl^' lire). They slept 
in the tent that niKlit, and when the little boy awakened he found all the 
people preparinj;- to .snare deer. The people asked the little boy to ac- 
company them, lie did so, ami when he was ready to start he asked 
the (dd man what part r)f the deer he sluudd brinn' luune for him. The 
old man replied that he wouhl enjoy the luu-s better than any other 
part. The boy i)romiscd to briny,' a quantity for him on his return in 
the. evening. Towisnl «'veniu- the boy returiu'd loaded with choice 
bits for tlnMihl man who had comlncted him to his father and mother. 
While outsi.le of the tent he calhd to the ohl man, saying that 
he had brou-xht home some food for him. Hearing no reply he entered 
the tent, and not .seein^r the man he inquired of his mother where 
the i)erson wa •. The mother aummnced that he had d'>parte<l, but did 
not know where he had gone. It was late, lait the boy resolved to rise 
early and toHow his track, lie was up at daybreak, an.l tindiuff the 
track followed it until he o!>served tlie spirit crossint-' a larj^c lake 
whii'h was frozen over. The boy cried out to the old man to wait for 
him. The spirit awaited his approach. The b..y said to him. "^yi'y 
did you p» away wlicn I ha<l promised you sonu'ehoicc food ?" The 
spirit replied that it couhl not dwell anion';- livinjj peoi>le, as it was 
only a spirit and tiiat it was returnin-- to its abode. The ohl man ad 
vised tiu'boy to retu.n to his people. Tin- boy did so, but the lU'Xt 
morning the desire to see the jfood ohl man sci/ed the boy, and auaiu 
he started to lind him. The other people then tied the boy to a tree 
and he soon for^;()t his benetaclor. 

r„l, of tin, liiilidii mni.—'Vwo Indian men who imd {loneolV forthe 
fall and wint.M's iiunt wer.> livin-;' by themselves. Tliey were very un- 
successful in procuriiif,' furs and food, s.. that when tlu" dej.ths of win- 
ter had appn.ached and the cold was intense they resolve<l to seek the 
eaini. of their friends. Th.'V were provided with uothin- but bows 
and arrows. Th.' next moinin- tliey started olV and tramped all day 
without seein- a livin-thinu-. They made their .'amp and lamented 



.'U4 



Tin: urusoN hay Eskimo. 



> 



» !./ 



•• If? 



tlic.v had no t'odd. Tliey liiially prepiued to sloop, wlu'ii one of them 
rtniiiikcd to tlic titlior, '*To-nif,'ht I shall droaiii of porcupinj's." They 
sh'pt, and in tho niorninfj tiic one related that he had soen a lot of 
ponnpines around the tent while he was drcaniinjjr. They determined 
to jdoceed. bnt the one finally tliou{,'ht if they would stfip there for the 
day anil sueeeediny: nij,'ht they would inive all the por»!ni)iiie meat they 
v.onld want. They remained there that day, ami in themid<lleof the 
ni^l'lit they were aroused liy a noise whiiih i)roved to be porcupines 
fjiiawinK thf bark from the tent poles. The oiu' man said, "Slip out 
and kill sonu' with a stick;" but added, "do out in your bare feet." 
Ii«> went out barefooted and killed two or three, and dashed back into 
tho tent with his feet nearly Irozen. He stuck his feet into the htit 
ashes an<l told the other nnin to briuf; in the aidmals. The other nnin 
did so. ami bej;an to prepare the llesh for cookinjj;. They ate one of 
the porcupines, and by daylifjht were ready to begin their jouriu'y. 
They went idly alon-i, shooting their arrows in sport at anything they 
coulil see. They continued this anuisement until near sunset, when 
one exclaimed, "My arrow lias struck something: see. it isinoxiiig." 
Tlic other re]>licil. " What can it be. when it is sticking only in the 
snow?'' Tlu' other said he would try ami tind out what it was. lie 
cautiously examined, and found when lie began to dig it out that the 
arrow ha<l entered tin' den of a lieai'. So they scratched away tin- 
snow and soon saw a long. bl;:ck hair sticking out of the hole. He 
jumped back and exclaimed. " It is some sort of animal with black 
hair." The other it-plicd, "Let us tiy and get it out. It may be good 
to eat." They tinally drove the beai' out and sooii killed it. They be 
gan toskin it. "iiich was soon done. One of the men then said, "It 
is too big and ugly to eat ; let us leave it." The other, however, cut 
otV a large piece of fat and put it on the sled. They then prepared 
theireamp, and when morning came t'ley started olV and traveled all 
day. N\'lien night came they made their camp and miou had a huge 
tin- liiirniiig. One of the men hung the piece ot' fat o\t-r the !irc and 
the oil soon dripped into the lire. It created such a nice snn-ll that 
one ol'tli»-m said. •• I.et us taste the fat ; it may be good to eat." They 
tasted it and found it so good that tln-y rated each otiier soundly for 
being so tbolish us to leave >uch nice tlesh so far behind them. They 
resolved to return for it. So they retiirm-d for the careassot'the bear, 
which wa-i far bchinil lln-iii, and as it had tasted so good they <le- 
termiiicil to lose no time in starting. The\ went imnu-diately, although 
it was now dark and \cry cold, Tlie\ came to the place wlu-re it hail 
been led ami discovered that the wolves and foxes had eaten all the 
meat, leaving nothing but the bones. They w«'re \eiy aiigi\. ami be- 
gan to lay the blame each on the other for having left it. They r»'- 
gretteil they had left such meat foi- wolves and foxes, 'i'hey d»-- 
termineil to proceed to where they had camped tiie third tim*-. On 
tin- wa,\ tlie\ liecann- very thirsty, ami, stopping at i creek to drink. 



TiRNEK.) FOLKLORE. 345 

they (hank so long that their lips trozi' to tiie ice of the water hole, 
and they miserably i)eri8he(l by t'ree/.iuf,'. 

Tliv sfitrrhiji irolrrtrnv. — On the approach of winter a wolveiene, 
which had been so idle duriiif;' the suninu'r that he inul failed to store 
up a snpply of provisions for himself, his wife, and children, bc^yan to 
feel the |»an},'s of hiin};er. The cold days and snowstorms were now at 
hand. The father one day told his wife that he w<tuld go and try to 
discov«M' the jdace wlu're his brothers, the wolves, were passing the 
winter ami from them he would emleavor to procure some food. The 
wife desired him not to remain away long, else the children would starve 
t<» dentil, lie assured her that he would be goiu' no long.'r than four 
(lays, and nnide preparations to start early on tlu^ succeeding morning. 
In the uKu-ning lie started and continued his Journey until near night- 
fall, when he came to the bank of a river. On looking at the ice wiiich 
c(tvcred its surface he descried a jiack of wolves ascending the river at 
a rapid rate. Hehiinl these were four others, whieli were running at a 
leisurely gait, lie soon overtook the latter group, and was perceived 
by one of these old wolves, wiiich remarked to the others, "There isour 
brother, the wohcreiu', coming." The aninnil soon Joined the wolves 
anil told them that he was starving, ami asked for food. The wolves re- 
](lied that they had none, but that the wolves in advanct; were on tlie 
track of some deer and would soon imve some. The wolverene iiupiired 
where they would camp for the night. They told him to continue with 
them on the tnick of the others until they came to a mark on the rivt^r 
bank. The wolves, accomiianied by the wolvereiu', continued their way 
until one of the old wolves called atteii'^ion to the sign on the bank and 
proposed tliey should go up to it and await the return of the others. 
Tliey went np and began to gather green twigs to make a clean lioor 
ii( the bottom of the tent. This was no sooner done than the young 
woJ\«'sithe hunters) returned and began to put up the tent jioles. The 
old wohi's siiid they themselves would soon ha\e rlie tent covering in 
place. The woherene was astonished at what he saw and wondeied 
whence they would procure the tenting ami tii'e. The old wolves 
laughed as they observed his curiosity, ,ind one of them rennirked, 
"Our brothel' wonders where you will get the tent cover fioni." The 
wolverene replied, •• 1 did not sa,\ that; I only said my brothers will 
soon have up a nice and comt'ortable tent fiU' me." Th(» wolves then 
sent him otf to collect some dry brush with which to make a tii'c. 
When he returiu-d the tent was already on the poles. Ilt^ stood outside 
holding tlie brush in his arms. One of the wolves t(dd him to bring the 
wood inside the tent. Ilecntered and gave the brush to one of the young 
wolves (the leader of the hunters). The lea(h'r jdaced the brush in posi- 
tion to create a good tire, and whil»^ that was being done the wolverene 
wondered how they would start the lire. One of the (dd wolves re- 
marked, "Our brother wonders where and how yon will get the tire." 
lie made no reply, as one of the young wtdves( the leader) took up a kettle 



346 



THK HUDSON HAV KSKIMO. 









iiml wt'iitoiifsido to jfot some snow to molt lor wiitei', and letiirnod with 
it lull of snow, lie set the kettle down antl sprau}? quickly over the 
pile of lirush and it started into a bla/.e in an instant. It was now 
an opportunity for the wolverene t<» wonder wheneo should come the 
supply of meat to l>()il. One of the old voIv«'s said, "Our brother 
wonders where yon will };et sonu' meat to cook for supper.'' One of 
tlu' yonnjj wolves went out and brought in a brisket of deer's meat. 
As soon as the wolverene saw the meat he asserted that he did not 
wonder about the source of the sup])ly <»f meat, but that heonly wished 
there was some meat rea<ly for cooking. The meat was cut up and 
l)laced in tlu' kettle and when it was ready it was servtwl out. The 
choicest portions were sch'cted for the wolverene and pla«ed before 
him with the injunction to eat all of it. lie emleavored to consume it, 
but the (puintity was too gr<'at even for him. tie, having linislied his 
meal, wasabout to place the remainder (Hi one of the poles when a 
wolf, oltserving his action, told him not to place it theie or els«> the 
nii'at would cliangc into bark, lie then laid it down on a piece of 
clean biiishwood and when he suspected the eyes of the wolves weie 
in>t turned toward him lie stealthily inserted the portion of meat be 
twccii tiie tenting ami the poh'. Tlie wolves saw his ac't ion and in a 
few minutes the wolveiene became very sleepy ami soon retired. One 
ol the wolves can-fully dis|daced the meat from the pole, where the 
wolverene lia<l i)nt it. ;ind thrust in its stead a pici-e of bark. In the 
morning when the wolverene awakened his lirst thought was of the 
r«-mnantof food, lie reached up for it and found nothing but thepiec<> 
of Itaik. The wolves were on the ah-rt and one of them said. "Did I 
not tell you it would change into bark if you put the meat in tiiat 
plaie?" The wolverene iiung his head and answered, "Yes," and 
again laid down to sleep. I5y tiie time he awakened I lie wolves had a 
second kettle of meat cooked. They desired the wolverene to arise 
and eat his ineakliist. The leader told him to hasten with his meal, as 
he iiad discosered some t'resli deer tra^'ks. The wolverene thought he 
Would watch iiow tiiey broke c;inip and .see wln-re they put the tent- 
ings. lie went oil' a few stejis and whih^ his back was turiu'd the tent 
disappeared and he failed to discover where it was secreted. The ;ini- 
nials then started otV, the young ones taking the lead wliile the four 
old ones and the wolverene followed leisurely behind. .Vt'ter they had 
crossed the river the wolverene Itegan to wonder « here tiiey woiihl 
halt for the night. One of the old wolv«'s told him they must follow 
the track of the leader and they would come to the sign made for the 
sit«! ot the eam|). Tiiey continued for the entiie day, but Just la^fore 
sundown they came aiMoss the bones of a freshly killed deer from which 
every vestige of meat had been removed, apparently eaten by wolves; 
so the wolverene thought he would stand a ]ioor clianc<' of getting a 
supper if that was tiie wiiy they were going to act. The party t^oii 
tinned on the track and .soon came upon the mark for the tent site. 



KOI.KI.OUK. 



347 



Tlic wolvort'im was };liwl to mat, but sat down and lM';;aii t<> look iilifud 
in the distance tor tlic it'tiiniinK liunters. After a lew minutes lie 
looked around and saw tlic tent standing? there. The wolves tlien sent 
tlie wolverene lor dry brush, while they {gathered preeii branches for 
the tent tloor. lie brought so small a (|uantity that it would not 
sulhce. The younff wolves returned at the same time and they 
direct«'d hiiri to ayain luocuro some brush. When he returned he 
found they had stripped all the fat otf of the deer meat, al- 
though, he had not seen Iheiu liriuff any when they returned, and 
placeil it around the inside edKcs of the tent. The brush was jtut 
down and a^ain the leader Jumpeil over it and a bright, crackling tire 
started up. The wolves then said to themselves in a low toiuMif voi<'e: 
"liCt us t-o outside and see wiiat our brother will do when he is lelt 
aloiu- with the fat." They went outside and immediately the wolverene 
selected the incest and largest piece of fat and began to swallow it- 
The wolves at the same moment inquired of him: '•Hrother, aie there 
any holes in the tent <'over?" His nuiuth was so lull, in his haste to 
swallow the fat. that it m-arly choked iiim. They repeated their in- 
quiry ami the wolverene gasped out the answer, "yes." The wolves 
then said: -Let us go inside." The wolverene sjirang away from the 
fat and sat down by the lire. Tliey put on a large kettle of meat and 
soon had their suiiiiei' ready. They gave the wolverene all the fattest 
|>ortii.ns they could tlnd. Having eaten so much of the tVo/cn fat he 
became so violently ill, when the hot food melted the cold fat in his 
stomach, that he vomited a long time, ami was so weak that he became 
chilly iind shivered so mm-li that he could not sleep, lie asked for a 
blanket, l>ut one of the wolv - placed his own bushy tail on the Itody 
of tin- wolverene to keeji him warm. The wolverene shook it otV and 
exclaimed: "1 do not want your fou'-smelling tail for a blaidvct." So 
the wolf ga\i I, -i a nice ami soft skin blanket to sleep under. When 
he awakened iic annonnced his intent ion to ret u. >i to his faiuily, as they 
would soon be dead from hunger. One of the old wolves directed the 
younger ones to make up a sledload of meat for the wolverene to take 
home with him. The wolf did so. but made tlie load so large ami long 
that the widverene could not seethe rear end of the sled. When it 
was ready they told him of it. and. as he was about to start, he reiiuested 
they wouhl give him some lire, as he could not make any without. 

The leatlcr asked how many nights he would 1 n the journey Inane- 

ward, lie answered, three nights. T'uc wolf told him to lie down in 
the snow, lie did so and the wolf Jumped over his body three times. 
but strictly eu.joine<l upon him not to look back at the sled as he was 
going along. The wolverene i)romised he would comply with his iu- 
.structi(ms. After the aiumal had started ami got souu' little distaiu'c 
from the camp of the wolves he tlumght of the iiecidiarly strange things 
he had witnessed while among those animals; and, to test himself, he 
comluded to try the uuMliotl of making a tire. Me stopiiod. gathered 



348 



TllK IIl'DSON HAY I'.SKIMd. 






ii i|Uiiiilily iit'dry lii'Msli iiii*l placed it as lie had souii tlio \volv«>Marraii};(^ 
it. lie tlitii sprang over it and a \mjio lliuv niivi' cvidt'iiro of tlie 
|io\v«'r w Itiiiii iiim. Il<> was so astoiiisiii-d that lu^ icsoIvcmI to camp 
tJM'i'*'. II«^ iiifltt'd solium snow and drank tim water and rctiit'd to rest, 
without Inivin^r lookctl at tlioslt>d. Thu Mt-xt iiiornin;;' iit> stiirtotl early 
and niadi' Ills ramp Ix'forr snnscl. as he was very tired, lie leathered 
some hinsii and ina*(e tlie tire liy janipin;; over tlie pile ot fuel. His 
supper was only some nndted snow whieli he drank ami retired. In the 
nKirninu he started to eonfinue his journey homi'ward and still had not 
seen the sled wliicii he was dra;;;iin;;. As he was ready to start he 
was so eontident of his ability to create tire that lie threw away his 
Hint and steel. lie tiaveled all day until toward sunset he was so 
fati^iu-d that he concluded to make his camp for the ni;;ht. lie was so 
elateil with his newly aci|uireil faculty of makin^jf tire that he eajrerly 
gathered a ;;reat (piantitv of dried twij^s and hranchcs, until a lary:e 
heap \Nas hel'ore liiia. lie jumped over it. and tinned round to see 
the tiames creep up ami watch the sparks lly. There was not a sif;n ot' 
a bla/.e or a spark to meet his ^a/.e. lie a;:ain Jumpeil over it. ami 
a^^aiii. until lie was so exhausted that he could not clear the to|i of 
the pile, and at last he knocked the top of it over, as his failin;; 
strcn;;'th did not eiialile him to avoid it. The only tiling left for him 
to do was to return for his tlint and sled, which he had so c\nltiii;.dy 
thrown aside. The animal berated himself soundly for liavin;: done 
such a silly trick. Not liavinj^seen the sled he was surprised to tind 
how tpiickly he rc;;ained the site of the camp ot' the previous iiiirlit. 
Having recovered his tlint and steel he ictiirncd, and soon had a tire 
started; but it was now iiciir daylifjlit. lie resolved to start on his 
Journey as soon as he had some v\atcr melted liu' a diink. lie be;;an 
to think how quicklv he had made the trip for his tlint and steel, 
and concluded that the ;;reat len;:'th of the sled had lu-en pur|)osely 
made to cause him unnecessary t'ati^'iie, as it could not be so very 
heavy, or else that he must be extraordinarily strouf^. lie determined 
to examine it. and did so. He could not see the farther end of the 
load, lie llattered himself that he was so very stroiij;, and concluded 
to continue his journey, lie attem])ti(l to start the sled, and found 
he could not move it in the least, lie upbraiiled himself for permitting 
his curiosity to };et tli(i better of his sense, lie removed a poition of 
dry meat and a bundle of fat. and made them into 11 load to carry on 
his back. He jdaced the remainder on a stap'. and was about ready 
to >tart homeward to his v\ ife and children, whom liv believed must be 
by this time nearly dead from starvation. 

He put the |»ack of meat on his baik and set out. That eveninj,' he 
arrived at his home, and as soon as his wit'e heaid him her heart was 
iih\t\. He entered and informed the family that he had brou;{lit home 
a i|iiantity of meat and fat, and had procured so much as to be unable 
to carry it all at once. His wife beg{;ed him to fetch her a pieet; of 



FOLKI-OUK. 



349 



incut, as s'lci wiis nearly .starved. lie wont out ami l»r(Hi>jlit in a laiKt- 
l)i»'('e (if lilt. Til*', wile devonred sncli a qnantity <>•' it Mint she lieeanui 
very ill, and siilVeifd all liuonKli (lie ni^lil. In the morning the wol- 
verene stated he wonld retnrn lor the meat wldeli lie had stQred away 
the previous day. lie started in the early niorniiiK. so as to return by 
daylight. 

As soon as the wolverene looked upon the sle<l loaded with meat 
the spell was broken. One ol'tiieold w(dves ordered the yonny wolves 
to }iO and destrity the meat and fat which the w<»lv( rciie had left <m 
the stajje. They ca^-crly set ont on the track of the sled, and soon 
saw the sta^rinf^ where the wolvercin' liiHJ stored the remainder of the 
food. When they v.mw up to it tiiey fell to and devoured all hut a few 
scraps of it. The wolves then wont away, and in a few hours the wol- 
verene returned, lie saw whi-' had hapiicin-d and cxclainu'd : ''My 
hrotiiers have ruined nie! My l>rothcrs have mined niel" lie knew it 
had lieen done because ho had looked back at the sled, although 
strictly enjoined ujion not to do s(» under any eircnnistaiice. lie with- 
ered uji the frajinu'nts which the wolves had left and returned home. 
When he airived there he informed hi.'', wife that his brothers had 
;uined him, because they had i-ateu all the meat whicii he imd stored 
av.ny while ont liunlinji'. 

Thf Htan'tmj Iiiiliiiiin.—X band of Indians, who had ne;:lected to store 
away a supply of food for a time of .scarcity, were upon the point of 
starvatiitn. .\n old nmn who lived at a little distance from tiic camp- 
ing: place of tiie tiand. had wi.sdom to lay by a jfood store of dry meat 
and a number of cakes of fat, so that he had an abundance while the 
other imiirovident peoitie were lu'arly famished. They ajiplicd to him, 
be;;;iin;; for food, but they were refused the lea.st morsel. One day. 
however, an old man came to him askin^' for food foi' his children. Tiie 
man Ki»ve him a small piece of mcii( When the man's eiiildren ate 
this fodd they be^m to cry for more. The mother told iu-r little l)oy to 
slop cryinjr. He peisjsh'd in his clamiu' until his mother asked him: 
"Why do you not ^i'o to the old I'' sets kwa nc po?" (tlie name means 
One whose neck wrinkles into folds when he sits down). Tiiis old 
man hearti the mother tell her child to j,'o to iiiin, and muttered to him- 
s«'lf, '-That is just what 1 want." 

The little boy went to the ohl man's tent door, and littinj,' aside the 
llaissaid: "I want loconu'in." lie went in and the old man addressed 
the boy by hisown name.sayinj;-: " What doyon want I' setskwaneiio .'" 
in such a kindly voice tiuit the boy felt assured. Tlie Itoy said: "I 



am very hungry and want some 



food." The old man in(iuired in an 



astonished xoicc 



llnu'nv' aiul your meat failinf; down from tiie 



stajii' 



Tlie old man bade the buy sit down, while he went out to the 



staux' and selected some choice portions and brou;;lit them into the tent 
1 trave them to the boy. The old man then asked the iioy if he had 



ami a 



a sister. The boy said that he hail a father, mother, and one sister. 



;?:)() 



rm; iudsox may kskimo. 



fit M 

In* Iff 






Attn' till- Im),v liiiil lliiislu>«i catinp;, tlu' olil iiiiiii ilinTtnl thi' hoy to 
roiiuMvitli liiiii iiiul H«><- the nit'jit stipes. Tlicy went out iiinl tlic olil 
iiiaii said: "Now, pt lioiiif and tell your I'atlu'i' tliat all of this I'ootl will 
belong' to you it' lie will jjivc iiic liis ilaiiKlitiT." Tin' littU' Itoy wont 



<l 



iii<> aiMl i'<>|)(>att><l what the old man had Raid. 'I'ho I'atlit-r si;;iiill*'d 
his williii;iiu>ss to f,'iv«- his dau;:lit<'r in niai'i'ia;ic to tlii> old man. Th*> 
boy I'lMuriit'd to th«> old man and stated that his t'atlicr was willing; to 
{jive away his dau^fhter. The old man immediately went ont, took son<<' 
meat and tat from the sta^e, and then cooked three lar^^e kettles of fooi 
When this was done he seh><-ted a suit of elotluiiK' foi' a man and two 
suits for women. llt> |)hu'od the nicer one of the latter near his own 
seat, and the other two suits directly on the opposite side of the lire 
|dae«> (the place of honor in the tent), lie then told the little boy to 
call all the Indians, addiiij;: ••Tiu're is your father's coat, your mother's 
ilress, ami your sister's dress. Tell your parents to sit where they see 
the clothing," pointiii;; to the clothes intended tor them, ami tin- 
sister to sit near tin- old man, pointing; to his own place. 'I'lie lioy ran 
ont and apprised the peo])le, to(;ether with his own relatnins. The iioy 
returned to the (dd nnin's t«-nt before the fjnests arrived. The boy's 
father came tirst. and tlie boy said: " I'athei', there is your c<iat." The 
mothei' then enteied, ami the boy said; ".Mother, there is your dress." 
The sister then entered, and the iioy pointed to thejlress, sayinj,': "Sis 
t<'r, there is your dress." All tin- otin-r Indians then came in and seated 
themselves. Tin-y took two kettles of meat and iuoke tht^ fat into 
pieces and feasted until all was «-onsuined. The old nnin helped his 
wife, her father, mother, ami brother to the contents of the other kettle. 
When all the food was tiiiisht-d the old man said to the boy, "(' sets 
kwa ne po, ;;») and set your deer snares." The old man went with him 
to fimi a suitable place. They could liiul oidy the t lacks of deer made 
several days previously. They, liowesi-r, set thirty snares and retiii iied 
inline. The next morniny they all went t<» the snares and found a deer 
in ea<'li one. The people bepin bi skin the deer and soon had a lot of 
meat ready for eookinp. They befjaii to feast, and continm-d until all 
was done, liy this time a season of abuiidance had arrive«l. 



m i* m • n tt dm miit gtmea .'--