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-A.\JTI3:OTlIZEID TEXIT-ISOOICS. 



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An Introductory Latijn^ Book. " 

Intended as an Elementary Drill Book on the Inflections and Prin(;i- 
pies of the Language, and lia an Introduction to the author's Gram- 
mar, Reader, and Coraposiiion. By Albert IIarkness, Ph. D., 
Professor in Brown University. 

INITIO. 1G3 Pases. 



A Latot Grammar. 



For Schools and Colleges. By Albert IIarknkss, Ph. D., Professor 
in Brown University. , , - .- . 

. ;*,* 12ino, 355 Pages.- 



■ •< ^\7-i-. J , 



V,*. . 



A Latix Reader. 

Intended as a Companion to the author's Latin Gramiriar ; with Ref- 
erences, Suggestions, Note?, and Vocabulary. By Albert IIarkness, 
Ph. D., Professor in Brown University. 

ISino. 212 Pages. 



'•J t 



A First Greek Book. 



Comprising an Outline of tlio Forms and Inflections of the Lar.guage, 
a complete Analytical Syntax, and an Introductory Greek Reader, 
with Notes and Vocabularies. By Albert IIarkness, Ph, D., Pro- 
fessor in Brown University, author of Ilarkness's Latin Grammjir, 

• 

&e., &c. 

12mo. SrO Pjiges. 



COPP9 CLARK & CO., 

riJBLISlIERS, 

17 and 19 KINO STREET EAST, TORONTO. 



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COPP, CLALK 



A Latin Grammar Tor Schools and Colle 






^ires. 



Bj A. HARKNESS, Pb.D., Profeiser in Brown University. ^ 
To explain the general plan of the work, the PuljUshers ask the attention 



/. 



I 



of teachers to the following^ extiacta from thi Preface : 

1. Tliis volume is designed' td present a aystemitic arrangement of the 
great facts and laws of the Lathi language ; tiKexhibjt not only graniinatical 
forms and constructions, ^u^aIso those vital principlea which underlie, con- 
trol, and explain themr^I I \ / 

2. Designed at once-<s a t&xt^ook for tha clais-voom, and a book of 
reference in study, it aira^-4es^introduce the beginner easily and pleasantly to 
die first principles of \1^ language, and yet to make adequate proviiiion for 
the wants of the more advanced atudeut. 

3. By brevity and conciseness in the choice of phraseology and compact- 
ness in the arrangement of forms and topics, the author has endeavored to 
com[)ress within the limitsiiof a convenient manual an amount of carefully- 
seljcted grammatKalTfEWtej^hich would otherwise fill a much larger volume. 

4. He has, raofeo^6T*^udeavored to present the whole subject in the 
light of modem sch'olarship. Without encumbering hi spages with any un- 
necessary discussions, he has aimed to «nrich them with the practical results 
of the recent labor ; in the field of phildlogy. 

6. Syntax has received in every paft special attention. An attempt has 
been made to exhibit, as clearly as possible, that beautiful system of laws 
which the genius of the language — that higliest of all grammatical authority 
—has created for itself '' 

6. Topics which require extended illustration are first presented in their 
completeness in general outline, before the separate points are discussed hi 
det^iL Thus a single page often foreshadows all the leading feature;* of mu 
extended discussion, imparting a completeness and vividncps to the iniprt's.s 
Ion of the Ifarner, impossible under any othtr treatment. 

7. Special care ha.s been taken to explain and fllustrate with the requisite 
fulness all diflicuU and intricate subjects. The Sulyunctive Mood — that 
severest trial of the teacher's patience — has been presented, it is hoped, in a 
form at once simple and comprehensive. 



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The '-A UTIWIUZ.ED TEXT BOOK'' Series. 

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LATIN GMIMAR 



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SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES. 



BY 



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ALBEKT HAKKNESS, Pn.I).,Ifec. "v 



PBOrSSSOR IN BROWN DNITEKSlXr. 



AUTHOR 0» J' 



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"a FIB8T LATIN BOOK," "A SECOND LATIN BQOE,^' "A FIKST QBEEIC BOOK,^' BTO. 

"'^^ — <i^' .— > ^..M tt' -- 



TORONTO 
COPP, CLARK cfc CO., 

17 & 19 KING STREET EAST. 



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ENTBaEit, according to Act of the Prorislonal Legidlatnre, in the year 1868, by 

ALBERT HARKNESS, 
In the Office uf the Registrar of the Proyince of Canada 



Entbbbd, according to Act of Congress, i year 1864, by 

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Bontbero 

District of New York, 



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PKEF ACE. 



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The work now offered to tlio public liad its origin in a dcsiro 
to promote the cause of Classical study. It lias long been the 
opinion of the author, in common with numerous classical teachers, 
that the subject of Latin Grammar, often regarded as dry and dif- 
licult, may bo presented to the learner in a form at onco simple, 
attractive, and philosophical. It is the aim of thjs manual to aid 
the instructor in the attainment of this most desirable. end. 

That the present is a favorable time for the production of a 
Latin Granunar scarcely admits of a doubt. Never before were 
there such facilities for the work. The last quarter of a century 
has formed an epoch in the study of language and in the methods 
of instruction. During this period some of the most gifted minds 
of Germany have been gathering the choicest treasures in the field 
of philology, while others have been equally successful in devising 
improved methods of instruction. In our own country too, the 
more enterprising teachers have caught the spirit of improvement, 
and are calling loudly for a better method than Las hitherto pre- 
vailed in classical study. 

The present work has been prepared in view of these facts. 
To explain its general plan, the author begs leave to specify the 
following points. 

1. This volume is designed to present a systematic arrangement 
of the great facts and laws of the Latin language ; to exhibit not 
only grammatical forms and constructions, but also those xital 
principles which underlie, control, and explain them. 

2. Designed at once as a text-book for the class-room, and a 
book of reference in study, it aims to introduce the beginner easi- 
ly and pleasantly to the first principles of the language, and yet to 
make adequate provision for the wants of the more advanced 
student. Accordingly it presents in large type a general survey 
of the whole subject in a brief and concise statement of facts and 



iv 



PREFACE. 



H 



laws, while parallel with this, in smaller type, it furnishes a fuller 
discussion of irregularities and exceptions for later study and for 
reference. 

3. By brevity and conciseness in the choice of jihraseology and 
compactness in the arrangement of forms and topics, the author 
has endeavored to compress within the limits of a convenient 
manual an amount of carefully selected grammatical facts, which 
would otherwise fill a much larger volume. 

4. lie has, moreover, endeavored to present the whole subject 
in the light of modern scholarship. Without encumbering his 
pages with any unnecessary discussions, ho has aimed to enrich 
them with the practical results of the recent labors in the field of 
philology. 

5. In the regular paradigms, both of declension and of conjuga- 
tion, the stems and endings have been distinguished by a ditVerenco 
of type, thus keeping constantly before the pupil the significance of 
the two essential elements which enter into the composition of 
inflected forms. 

6. Syntax has received in every part special attention. An at- 
tempt has been made to exhibit, as clearly as possible, that beauti- 
ful system of laws which the genius of the language — that highest 
of all grammatical authority — has created for itself. The leading 
principles of construction have been put in the form of definite 
rules, and illustrated by carefully selected examples. To secure 
convenience of reference and to give completeness and vividness 
to the general outline, these rules, after being separately discussed, 
are presented in a body at the close of the Syntax. 

7. The subdivisions in each discussion are developed, as far as 
practicable, from the leading idea which underlies the whole sub- 
ject. Thus in the treatment of cases, moods, and tenses, various 
usee, comparatively distinct in themselves, are found to centre 
around some leading idea or thought, thus imparting to the sub- 
ject both unity and simplicity. 

8. Topics which require extended illustration are first present- 
ed in their completeness in general outline, before the separate 
points are discussed in detail. Thus a single page often foreshad- 
ows all the leading features of an extended discussion, imparting a 
completeness and vividness to the impression of the learner, im- 
possible under any other treatment. 

9. Special care has been taken to explain and illustrate with 



1^ 



I 



niKFACE. V 

the requisite fulncsf? nil difticult and intricate subjects. The Sub- 
junctive Mood— that severest trial of the teacher's patience— has 
been i)rcsentcd, it is hoped, iu a form at once simple and compre- 
hcusivo. The different uses have not only been carefully classifie.l, 
but also distinguished by characteristic and appropriate terms, 
convenient for the class-room. 

For the benefit of those who prefer to begin with a more ele- 
mentary manual in the study of Latin, it is in contemplation to 
j)iiblish a smaller (Irammar on precisely the same jdan as the pres- 
ent work, and with the same mode of treatment. This will bo 
esi)ecially adapted to the wants of those who do not contemi)lato 
a collegiate course of study. 

A Latin Header, prepared with special reference to this work 
and intended as a companion to it, will be published at an early day. 

In conclusion the author clieerfully acknowledges his indebted- 
ness to other scholars, who have labored in the same field. The 
classification of verbs is founded in nart on that of Grotefend and 
Kriiger, a mode of treatment generally adopted in the recent Ger- 
man works on the subject, and well exhibited by Allen in his 
Analysis of Latin Verbs. 

In Prosody much aid has been derived from the excellent 
works of Ilamsay and Ilabenicht. 

On the general subjects of Etymology and Syntax, his indebted- 
ness is less direct, though perhaps no less real. His views of phi- 
lology have been formed in a great measure under the moulding 
influence of the great German masters; and perhaps few Latin 
Grammars of any repute have appeared within the last half cen- 
tury, either in this country, England, or Germany, from which ho 
has not received valuable suggestions. Li the actual work of 
preparation, however, he has carried out his own plan, and pre- 
sented his own modes of treatment, but he has aimed to avoid all 
untried novelties and to admit only that which is sustained by tlie 
highest authority, and confirmed by the actual experience of the 
class-room. 

The author is happy to express his grateful acknowledgments 
to the numerous Instructors who have favored liim with valuable 
suggestions ; especially to his esteemed friend and colleague, Pro- 
fessor J. L. Lincoln, of this University. 



Providence, R. I., May lOth, ISW. 



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rREi''ACE 



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TO THE REVISED EDITION. 



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The present edition is the result of a thorough and 
complete revision. The author has subjected every part 
of the work to a careful examination ; he has availed 
himself of the suffsjestions of the most eminent classical 
instructors, and, finally, as the surest of all tests, he has 
used the work in connection with all the principal Latin 
authors usually read in school and college. The mate- 
rials thus collected have been incorporated in this edition 
without either changing the plan or increasing the size 
of the work. By a studied attention to clearness and 
brevity, space has been secured for many valuable refine- 
ments of the lanGruaije. 

In this new form the work is now committed to clas- 
sical teachers in the hope that in their hands it n.ay pro- 
mote the cause of classical education in our land. 



j I 



BiiowN University, September, 1867. 



• J, 

CONTENTS. 

FART FIRST 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 

rngo. 

Alplinbct, 1 

Sounds of Letters, 2 

I. English Method of Pronunciation, 2 

II. Continental Method, 5 

Syllal)k>9, 

Quantity, .......... 7 

Accentuation, 7 

PART C ECO N D. 
ETYMOLOGT. 

CHAPTER I. 

NOUNS. 

Gender, 8 

Person and Number, 9 

Cases, 10 

Declensions, 10 

First Declension, 11 

Greek Nouns, 12 

Gender, 12 

Second Declension, 12 

Greek Nouns, 14 

Gender, 16 

Third Declension, 16 

Class I. — With Nominative Ending, 16 

Class II. — Without Nominative Ending, . . . .17 

Formation of Cases, . . 20 

Greek Peculiarities, 29 

Gender, 30 

Fourth Declension, • ... 34 

Gender, . . . •. 35 

Fifth Declension, 36 

Gender, 36 

Comparative View of Declensions, . • 37 

General Table of Gender, 39 

Declension of Compound Nouns, 39 



-„-,-^.^. . ^ ,.»-.-.— ,_—^ 



iii 



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CONTENTS. 



Irregular Nouns, . 

I. Indeclinable, 
II. Defective, . 
III. Ileteroclites, . 
JV. Iletcrogencous, . 



Page. 

40 
. 40 

41 
. 42 

43 



CHAPTER II. 

ADJECTIVES. 



First and Second Declensions, 


. 44 


Third Declension, 


47 


Formation of Cases, .... 


. 49 


Irregular Adjectives, 


50 


Comparison, 


. 51 


I. Terminational Comparison, .... 


51 


Irregular, 


. 51 


Defective, . . ^ . 


52 


II. Adverbial Comparison, 


. 53 


Numerals, 


54 


I. Numeral Adjective 


. 54 


II. Numeral Adverbs, 


58 


CIIArTER III. 




PEONOrXS. 


* 


Personal Pronouns, 


. 5!) 


Possessive, 


00 


Demonstrative, 


. GO 


Kclative, 


62 


InteiTopalive, ..... ... 


. 63 


Indefinite, 


63 


, CnAPTER IV. 




TERES. 




Voices, Moods, 


. 65 


Tenses, • • 


66 


Numbers, Persons, 


. 67 


Conjugation, ......... 


67 


Paradigms of Verbs, 


. 68 


Synopsis of Conjugation, 


88 


Deponent Verbs, 


91 


Periphrastic Conjugation, 


94 


Contraetic js and Peculiarities of Conjugation, 


. 95 


Formation of the Parts of Verbs, 


96 


Table of Verbnl Inflections, 


. 98 


Comparative Vi'^w of Conjugations, 


102 


Formation of Principal Parts, 


. 104 


I. Regular Formations, .' ^ 


104 


Euphonic Changes, 


. 105 


II. Irregular Formations, 


106 


Principal Parts in Compounds, 


. 109 



CONTENTS. 



ix 



Classification of Verbs, 

First Conjugation, ' . ' . ' 
Second Conjugation, * • • . 

Third Conjugation, .*'*'' 
Fourth Conjugation, . * ' • * 

Irregular Verbs, . . • • . . 

Defective *' . , 

Impersonal " . ' 



• • 



Adverbs, . 
Prepositions, 
Conjunctions, 
Interjections, 



CHAPTER V. 

PARTICLES. 



CHAPTEl? VI. 

FOEMATION OF W0P.D8. 



Derivation of "Words, 

Derivative Nouns, 
Derivative Adjectives, * 
Derivative Verba, 
Derivative Adverbs, 

Composition of Words, 
Compound Nouns, 
Compound Adjectives 
Compound Verbs, . ' 
Compound Adverbs, . 



PART THIRD 
SYN.JAX. 

CHAPTER I 

Section. SYNTAX OF SENTENCES. 

I. Classification of Sentences, . 
n. Simple Sentences, . ... 

ja Complex Sentences, 

IV. Compound Sentences. .' ' " ' 

CHAPTER il. 

SYNTAX OP KOUNS. 

I. Agreement of Nouns, . 

Predicate Nouns, * ' ' * 

TT ^, -^PP^s'tives, .."•••• 
11. Nominative, . . • • • . 



Page. 
110 
110 
112 
115 
125 
127 
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139 
139 
141 



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• « 






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153 



164 
156 
158 
159 



160 
160 
161 
162 



CONTEifTS. 



Section. 

ill. Vocative, 

IV. Accusative, 

I. Direct Object, .... 
Two Accusatives, 

II. Subject of Infinitive, 

III. Agreement of Accusative, 

IV. Accusative in an Adverbial sense, 

With or without Prepositions, . 
Accusative of Time and Space, 
Accusative of Limit, 
Accusative of Specification, . 

V. Accusative in Exclamations, 

V. Dative, 

I. Dative with Verbs — Indirect Object, 
Dati'. e of Advantage, 
Dative with Compounds, . 
Dative of Possessor, 
Dative of Agent, 
Ethical Dative, 

Two Datives, .... 
II. Dative with Adjectives, 
III. Dative with Nouns and Adverbs, . 

VI. Genitive, 

I. Genitive with Nouns, . 

II. Genitive with Adjectives, . 

III. Genitive ^vith Verbs, 

Predicate Genitive, 

Genitive of Place, 

Genitive in Special Constructions, 

Genitive and Accusative, . 

IV. Genitive with Adverbs, 

VII. Ablative, 

I. Ablative of Cause, Manner, Means, 
Ablative of Price, 
Ablative with Comparatives, . 
Ablative of Difference, 
Ablative in Special Constructions, 

II. Ablative of Place, . . . ^ 

Ablative of Source and Separation, 

III. Ablative of Time, 

IV. Ablative of Characteristic, 
V. Ablative of Specification, 

VI. Ablative Absolute, . 

VII. Ablative with Prepositions, 

VIII. Cases with Prepositions, . 



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CEAPTEPv III. 

SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES. 

Agi*eemcnt of Adjectives, 201 

Use of Adjectives, 202 

Comparison, 203 



I'X 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



CHAPTER IV. 

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS, 



Agrocmcnt of Pronouns, . 
I'ersonal and Possessive Pronouns, 

Reflexive Use, 
Demonstrative Pronouns, 
Relative Pronouns, 
Interrogative Pronouns, 
Indefinite Pronouns, . 



CHAPTER V. 

SYNTAX OF VEKUS. 



Section. 



I. Agreement of Verbs, 

II. Use of Voices, 

III. Tenses of the Indicative, 

IV. Use of tlic Indicative, ..... 
V. Tenses of the Subjunctive, 

Sequence of Tenses, 

VI. Use of the Subjunctive, 

I. Potential Subjunctive, .... 
II. Subjunctive of Desire, .... 

III. Subjunctive of Purpose or Result, . 

IV. Subjunctive of Condition, .... 
V. Subjunctive of Concession, 

VL Subjunctive of Cause and Time, 
VII. Subjunctive in Indirect Questions, . 
VIII. Subjunctive by Attraction, 
IX. Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse, . 

Moods and Tenses in the Oratio Obliqua, 
Pronouns, Adverbs, etc, in Oratio Oblique 
VII. Imperative, 

I. Tenses of the Imperative, . . . • 

II. Use of the Imperative, 

Vni. Infinitive, 

I. Tenses of the Infinitive, . . 

II. Subject of the Infinitive, .... 

III. Predicate after the Infinitive, 

IV. Construction of the Infinitive, . 
IX. Subject and Object Clauses, 

X. Gerund, 

Gerundive, 

XI. Supine, 

XII. Participles, 



CHAPTER VI. 

SYNTAX OF PAETICLES. 



Adverbs, . 
Prepositions, 
Conjunctions, 
Interjections, 



Page. 
20't 
206 
200 
208 
209 
210 
211 



212 
214 
215 
219 
219 
220 
223 
223 
225 
220 
232 
236 
238 
242 
244 
245 
246 
248 
248 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
258 
262 
263 
266 
207 



2*70 
271 
271 
274 



ii 






II 



• \ 



i ! 



r 



xU 



CONTENTS. 



Pago. 

274 



CHAPTER VII. 

Eules of Syntax, 

CHAPTER VIII. 

ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS AND CLAUSES. 
Section. 

I. Arrangement of Words, 281 

285 



II. Arrangement of Clauses, 



PART FOURTH. 
PROSODY. 

CHAPTER I. 

QUANTITY. 



I. General Rules of Quantity, 
II. Special Rules of Quantity, . 

I. Quantity of Final Syllables, . 
II. Quantity in Increments, . 

in. Quantity of Derivative Endings, . 
IV. Quantity of Stem Syllables, 

CHAPTER II. 

VERSIFICATION. 

I. General View of the Subject, . 
I. Metrical Feet, 

II. Verses, 
in. Figures of Prosody, 

II. Varieties of Verso, 

I. Dactylic Verse, 
II. Anapaestic Verse, 

III. Trochaic Verse, 

IV. Iambic Verse, . 
V. Ionic Verso, . 

VI. Choriambic Verso, 
VII. Logaeodic Verse, . 
VIII. Miscellaneous Vers^^, 
III. Versification of Virgil, Horace, Ov 



id, and Juvenal, 



300 
300 
302 
304 
305 
305 
308 
308 
309 
312 
312 
313 
315 
315 



APPENDIX. 

Figures of Speech, 320 

Latin Authoi-s, 322 

Roman Calendar, 823 

Roman Money, Weights, and Measures, 325 

Abbreviations, 327 

Index of Verbs, 828 

Index of Subjects, . . . . . . , . . . 330 



287 


^ 


289 


. i 


289 




292 




295 


■| 


297 


J 



' 



rage 
274 





i 


281 


i 


285 


■I'j 



A'. 

LATIN GRAMMAR. 



•♦• 



287 
289 
289 
292 
296 
297 



. 300 

800 
. 302 

304 
. 805 

805 
. '308 

308 
. 309 

312 
. 312 

313 
. 815 

315 



320 
822 
823 
825 
327 



■I 



1. Latin Grammar treats of the principles of the 
Latin language. It comprises four parts : 

L ORTnoGRAPUY, which treats of the letters and sounds 
of the language, 

IL Etymology, which treats of the classification, inflec- 
tion, and derivation of words. 

ni. Syntax, which treats of the construction of sen- 
tences. 

IV. Prosody, which treats of quantity and versification. 



PART FIRST. 
OIlTH:oail.APHY. 



828 
330 



ALPHABET. 

2. The Latin alphabet is the same as the English with 
the omission ofio. 

1. U supplies the place of w. 

2. // ia only a breathing, and not strictly entitled to the rank of a 
lette". 

3. J and v did not originally belong to the Latin : their places were 
supplied respectively by i and w, which were used both as vowels and as 
consonants. 

4. K is seldom used, and y and z occur only in words of Grv.ek 
origin. 

3. Classes of Letters. — ^Letters are divided into two 

classes : 






2 



SOUNDS OP LETTERS. 



I: i 

^1; I 



I I 

■■ I 

* \ 
9 



ir;i 



I ! 



; I 



i \ 



I •' 



1. 


m, 


n, 


r. 




h, 


s. 








P) 


b, 


f, 


V. 




c, 


g. 


k, 


q, 


J- 


t, 


d. 








X, 


z. 









I. Voweis, a, c, i, o, u, y. 

II. Consonants : 

1. Liquids, ... ... 

2. Spirants, 

3. Mutes: 1) Labials, .... 

2) Palatals, 

3) Linguals, .... 

4. Double Consonants, .... 

4. Combinations of Letters. — ^We notice hero, 

1. Diphthongs — combinations of two vowels in one syllable. The 
most common arc — ac, oc^ au. 

2. Double Consonants — x = cs or r/s; z = ds or ts. 

8. C7t, ph, th are best treated, not as combinations of letters, but only 
as aspirated forms of o, /), and ^, as A is only a breathing. 

SOUNDS OF LETTERS. 

5. Scholars in different countries generally pronounce 
Latin substantially as they do their own languages. In 
this country, however, two distinct systems are recogniz- 
ed, generally known as the English and the Continental 
Method^ For the convenience of the instructor, we add 
a brief outline of each. 



I. English Method. 

1. Sounds of Voioels. 

6. Vowels generally have their long or short English 
sounds. But 

1. 77iese sounds in Latin, as in English, are somewhat modified by the 
consonants which accompany them. 

2. B, final, or followed by another consonant, greatly obscures the 
vowel sound. Before r thus situated, e, i, and u are scarcely distinguish- 
able from each other, as in the English her, fir, fur, while a and o are pro- 
nounced as in far, for, but between qu and rt, a approaches the sound of 
o : quar'-tus, as in quarter. 

3. Dr, following qua, gives to a something of the sound of o : quad'- 
ritpes^ as in quadruped. 

7. Long Sound. — Vowels have their long English sounds 



1 strictly speaking, 4hcre is no Continental Method, as every nation on the conti- 
nent of Europe has its own method. 






ENGLISH METHOD. 



a, c, 1, o, u, y. 

1, m, n, r. 
h, 8. 

p, b, f, V. 
c. g, k, q, j. 
t, d. 



X, z. 



0, 



syllable. The 



cttcrs, but only 



J pronounce 
iguages. In 
ire rccogniz- 
Continental 
5tor, we add 



)rt English 



lodified by the 

obscures the 
lly distinguish- 
1 and are pro- 

the sound of 

of : quad'- 
ijlisli sounds 

2a on the conti* 



— a as in fate, e in mete, i in jozVie, o in note, u in tube, y in 
type — in the following situations : 

1. In final syllables ending in a vowel: * se, n, ser'-vi, 
ser'-vo, cor'-mc, ml'-sy. 

2. In all syllables, before a vowel or diphthong : de'-ns, 
de-o'-rum, de'-ae, dl-e'-l, 7ii'-hi-lum.^ 

?. In penultimate ' and unaccented syllables, not final, 
before a single consonant or a mute with I or r: pa'-tcr, 
pa'-treSy A'-thos, O'-thrys, do-lo'-ris. But 

1) A unaccented has the sound oi a final in America: mcn'sa, 

2) A after qu. See 6. 2. 

3) / (also y) unaccented, not final, generally has the short sound of 
c ; nobilis (nob'-e-lis), Anii/cus (Am'-e-cus). But in the first syllable of a 
word it has — (1) before an accented vowel or diphthong, its long sound, 
di-e-bus ; and (2) before a single consonant or a mute with / or r, some- 
times the long sound, i-do'-ne-us ; and sometimes the short sound, philos- 
ophus (phe-los'-o-phus). 

4) /and u in special combinations. See 9. 2 and 4. 

5) Before hi, gl, tl. — i/has the- short sound before bl ; and the other 
vowels before gl and il : Pub-lie' -o-la, Ag-la' -o-phon, At' -las. 

6) In compounds, when the first part is entire and ends in a consonant, 
any vowel before such consonant has generally the short sound : a in ab'-cs, 
e in red'-it, i in in'^t, o in ob'-it, prod -est. But those final syllables which, 
as exceptions, have the lo7ig sound before a cons nant (8. 1), retain that 
sound in compounds : post'-quani, hos'-ce. 

8. Short &;;'and. — Vowels have the short Enirlish sound 
— a as in fat, e in 7net, i in pin, o in not, u in tub, y in 
myth — in the following situations : 

1. In final syllables ending in a consonant : a' -mat, a'- 
onet, rex'-it, sol, con'-sul, Te'-thys ; exce])t post, es final, and 
OS final in plural cases : res, di'-es, hos, a'-gros. 

2. In all syllables before x, or any two consonants ex- 
cept a mute with I or r (1, 3) : rex'-ii, bel'-lum, rex-e'-runt, 
bel-lo'-rum. 

3. In all accented Syllables before one or more conso- 
nants, except the penultimate: dom!-i-nus,pat'-ri-bus. But 

\) A,e, or 0, before a single consonant (or a mute with I or ?•) fol- 

1 Somo give to i in both syllables oftibi aud sibi the short sound. 

2 In these rules no account is taken of h, as that is only a breathinj^ : hence the Orst 
i in nihilum is treated as a vowel before another vowel ; for the same reason, ch, ph, 
and th are treated as single mutes ; thus th in Athos and Othrya. 

3 Pcuultiiuatc, the last syllablo but one. 



a 



ENGLISH METHOD. 



lowed by c, ?', or y, before another vowel, has the long sound : a'-ci-es, 
a'-cri-a, me'-rc-o, do'-re-o. 

2) If, in any syllable not final, before a sinf^lo consonant or a mute with 
/ or r, except bl (7. 5), has the long sound : Pu'-ni-cm^ Ha-la'-bri-tas. 

3) Compounds. See 7. 0). 

2. Sounds of Dq)/ithon(/s. 

9. Ae and oe are pronounced like e : 

1) long: Cae'-sar (Cc'-sar), Oe'-ta (E'-ta). 

2) short: Daed'-iirlus (Ded'-a-lus), Ocd'-i-pus 
Au^ as in author : an! -rum. 

£!u, . . . neuter: neu'-ter. 

1. Ei and oi are seldom diphthongs, but when so used they are pro- 
nounced as in height, coin : /t<?i, prom. See Synacrcsis, C69. II . 

2. / between an accented a, <?, o, or y and another vowel has the sound 
of y consonant in yes : Acha'ia (A-ka'-ya), Pompe'ins (Pom-pe'-yus), Latoia 
(La-to'-ya), Harpyia (Har-py'-ya). These combinations of i with the follow- 
ing vowel are sometimes called semi-consonant diphthongs, 

3. Ui^ as a diphthong with the long sound of ^, occurs in e?«', /««/, hmc. 

4. If, with the sound of ?y, sometimes unites with the following vowel 
or diphthong: — (1) after q ; qui (kwi), qua, que, quae : — (2) generally after 
g ; lingua (lin'-gwa), Un'-guis, Ihi'-guae: — (3) sometimes after s; sua'-dco 
(swa'-deo). These combinations of tc are analogous to those of i mentioned 
above under 2. 

3. Sounds of Consonants. 

10. The consonants are pronounced in general as in 
English, but a few directions may aid the learner. 

11. C, G, S, T, and X are generally pronounced with 
their ordinary English sounds. Thus, 

1. 6' and g fire soft (like s and j) before c, i, y, ae and oc, and 
hard in other situations: ce'-do (sedo), ci'-vis^ Cy'-rus^ cae'-do^ 
coe'-na^ a'-gc (a-je), a'-gi; ca'-do (ka'-do), co'-go^ cum, Ga'-des. 
But 

1) Ch is hard like k ; chorus (ko'-rus), Chi-os (Ki'os). But see 13. 2. 

2) G has the soft sound before g soft: ag'-ger. 

2. S generally has its regular English sound, as in son, thus : 
sa'-cer, so'-ror, si'-dus. But 

1) S final, after c, ae, au, b, m, n, r, is pronounced like s; spcs,pracSy 
laus, tirbs, hi' -ems, mons, pars. 

2) In a few words s has the sound of z, because so pronounced in Eng- 
lish words derived from them: Cae'-sar, Caesar; cau'-sa, cause; mu'-sc^ 
muse ; mi'-scr, miser ; phys'-i-cus, physic, etc. 

3. T has its regular English sound, as in time : ti-mor, to-tus. 

4. X has generally its regular English sound like Is ; rex'-i 
(i"ck'-si), ux'-or (uk'-sor). But 



COXTINENT»AL METHOD. 



sound: a'-ci-esy 



Hieral as in 



1) At the beginning of a word it ha3 the sound of z : Xnn'-thua (Zau. 
thus). 

2) Between c or n and an accented vowel, it has the sound off/'.* cX" 
i'-lis (egzi'iis, as in exile); tu-o'-ri-us (ugzo'ro-us, a.s in uxorious). 

12. C, S, T, and X— Aspirated. — Ijcforo i preceded by 
an accented syllabic and followed by a vowel, c, s, f, and 
X are aspirated — 1\ s, and t taking the sound of sh, x that 
oiksh: so'-ci-us {i>>o' -sho-us), Al'-sl-um (Al'she-um), ar'-ti' 
urn (ar'she-um) ; anx-i-us (ank'-shc-us). C has also the 
sound of sh before eu and yo preceded by an accented syl- 
lable : ca-diC'Ce-us (ca-du'-she-us), Sic'-y-on (Sish'-e-on). But 

1. S, immediately preceded b- an accented vowel and followed by t 
with another vowel, has the sound of zh : Moc'si-a (Mo'-zlie-a). But some 
proper nouns retain the sound of ah : A'-si-a (A'-she-a), Lys'-i-as^ So'si-a^ 
27ic'-o-(Io'si-a, Ti/s'-i-as. 

2. T loses the aspirate — (1) after s, i, or x ; Os'-ti-a, At'4i-7is, mix'- 
ii-o : — (2) in old infinitives in icr ; ficc-ii-cr ■"—(3) generally in proper 
names in lion (tyon) : Phi-lis -ti-ouy Am-phic -ty-on. 

13. Silent Consonants. — An initial consonant, with or 
without the aspirate A, is sometimes silent : Thus 

1. C before n: C«c'-?fs (Xe'-us). 

2. Ch or ph before a mute : Chtho'-ni-a (Thonia), Phthi'-a (Thia). 

3. G or VI before n : ffua'-rus ; Mnc'-mon. 

4. F before s or t : Psy'-che, Ptol'-c-mac'-us, 

5. 2' before m ; Tmo'-lus. 



\z: sjics^pracs, 



II. Continental Method. 

1. Sounds of Voicels. 

14. Each vowel has in the main one uniform sound,* 
but the length or duration of the sound dei:ond3 upon the 
quantity of the vowel. See 20. 
The vowel sounds are as follows : 

a like ii in father : e. g. a'-ra. 

2yle'-hes. 
^ -n. 
o'-ro. 
u'-num. 
■ JVy'-sa. 



e 


a 


made 


• 

% 


e 


me: 








no : 


XL 


A 

o 


do: 


y 


6 


me: 



* These sounds isometimcs undergo slight modifications lu uniting with the various 
sousonants. 




;\ 



i 



G 



SYLLAELES. 



2. Sounds of D'q^Jithongs. 

15. Ac and oc like a in mailo, c. g. ae'-tasy coc'-hun. 

" out, 



ail 



(( 



ou 



" au'-rum,^ 



3. Sounds of Consonant ' 

16. Tlio pronunciation of the conscijants is similar to 
that of llio Englibli method, but it varies somewhat in dif- 
ferent countries. 



SYLLABLES. 



17. In the 



;'d has 



pronunciation of Latin, every t 
many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs ; thus the 
Latin words, more^ viccj acute^ and^^crsuade are pronounced, 
not as the same words are in English, but with their vowel 
sounds all heard in separate syllables ; thus, mo'-re^ m-cc^ 
a-cu'-te^ per-sua'-de. 

18. Simple words are divided into syllables as follows: 

1. After a vowel (or diphthong), with the Long Sound (7), consonants 
must be joined to the following vowel : pa'-ter, pa'-trcs, a-gro'-rum, sa-cro'- 
riim^ ait-di'-vi. 

2. After a vowel with the Sliori Soxmd (8), 

1) A single or double consonant is joined to such vowel, except after i 
unaccented : gen'-c-ri^ rcx'-i, dom'-i-nus. 

2) Two consonants arc separated : bel'4wn, mcn'-sa^ pat'-ri-hus. liut 
X following a consonant must be joined to the preceding syllable : Xcrx'- 
cSy anx'-i-us. 

3) Of three or more consonants, the last, or, if a mute with / or r, the 
last two must be joined to the following vowel : cjnp'-tus, tcm'-plum, clans'- 
tra, trans'-tra. 

19. Compounds are divided into syllables, 

1. Generally like simple words: ed'-o-mo (e, demo), an-tef'-e-ro (ante, 
fero), be-ncv'-o-lens (bene, volens), mag-nan' -i-mus (magnus, animus). 

2. But if the first part is entire and ends in a consonant, the compound 
is resolved into its component parts : ah'-es, ab-i'-re. 

J In other combinations, the two vowels aro generally pronounced stsparately, but 
ei and eu occur as diphthongs with nearly the samo sound as in English. 



•I 



JiImWO* 



ACCENTUATION. 



r 



QUANTITY. 

20. Syllables arc in quantity or length either long, 
short, or eoninion.' 

21. Long. — A syllable is long in quantity, 

1. If it contains a diphthong : haec. 

2. If its vowel is followed by J^ cr, 2, or any two conso- 
nants, except a mute with ^or r: rex^ mons. 

22. Short. — A syllal^le is short, if its vowel is followed 
by another vowel or a diphthong: di-cs^ vi'-ae, ni'-hil.^ 

23. Common. — A syllabic is connnon, if its vowel, natu- 
rally short, is followed by a mute with I ov r: a'-yrL 

24. The si?;n9 ", ", * denote respectively thut the »}liablcd over 
which they arc i)laced arc long, short, or common : ii-j rO-rum. 



AC C EX TU AT I ON". 

I. Pkimary Accent. 

25. Monoeyllablcs arc treated as accented syllables: 
mons^ nos. 

26. Other words are accented as follows : 

1. Words of two syllables — always on the first : men'-sa. 

2. Words of more than two syllables — on the penult* if 
that is long in quantity, otherwise on the ante2)enult : * ho- 
nO'-rls, con'-su-lis. But 

1) Genitives in i for ii and vocatives in i for ic retain the accent of tlio 
full form : in-ge'-ni for in-ge'-ni-i ; Mer-cu'-ri for Mer-cu'-ri-e. 

2) Penults commoii in quantity take the accent when used as long. 

3) Compounds are accented like simple words ; but 

(a) Tfie enclitics, que, ve, nc, appended to words accented en the ante, 
penult, throw back their accent upon the last syllabic of that word : hom'- 
t-ne'-quey ho,n'-).-nes'-gue. 

(b) Facio compounded with other words than prepositions, retains its 
own accent : cal-e-fa'-cit. 

■ - - - , 

1 Common, I. e. sometimes long and sometimes short. For rules of quantity see 
Prosody. Two Or three leading facts arc here given for the convenience of the 
learner. 

8 No account is taken of the breathing h (2. 2). 

3 In the subsequent pages tuo pupil will be expected to accent words In pronun- 
ciation according to these rules. The quantity of the penult in words of more than 
two syllables will therefore be marked (unless determined by 21 and 22), to enable 
him to ascertain the place of the accent. 

* Penult, last syllable but one ; antepenult, the last but two. 



8 



KTYMOLOGY. 



II. Skcondary Accents. 

27. A Bccond accent la placed on the second or third Hylluhle before 
the primary accent,— on the Hccond, if that is the (ir.st syllable of the wortl, 
or is lonj^ in (iimntity, olhcwise on the third : mon'-u-c'-runl ; mon-n-c-ra- 
tniin ; iH-stau -ra-vc -runt. 

28. Tn the same woy, n third accent is placed on the second or third 
Byllabio before the second accent: hon'-o-ri/'-i'Ccn-ttit'-iit-rnua. 



PART SECOND. 



' I 



KTYMOLOQY 



< !l 



29. Etymology treats of tlio classification, inflection, 
and derivation of words. 

30. The Parts of Si^ccchare — Nbuns^ Adjectives^ Pro- 
oiouns^ Verhs^ Adverbs^ Prc2)ositlo)iSy Coiijunctlons^ and 
Interjections. 

CHAPTER I. 

NOUNS. 

31. A Noun or Substantive is a name, as of a person, 
place, or thing : CicCro, Cicero ; Roma, Rome ; puer^ boy ; 

damns J house. 

1. A Proper Noun is a proper name, as of a person or place : CicSrOy 
Roma. 

2. A Common Nonn is a name common to all the members of a class 
of objects : vir, a man ; i^quus, horse. Common nouns include 

1) Collective iVbioJS— designating a collection of objects: popiilitSy 
people ; excrclttis^ army. 

2) Abstract Nouns — designating properties or qualities: virtuSy vir- 
tue ; justitia, justice. 

3) Material Kouna — designating materials as such: auruMy gold; 
lignuniy wood; iiqua^ water. 

32. Nouns have Gender., Nuniber, Person^ and Case. '■ 

GENDER. 

33. There are three genders — Masculine, J^emimne, 
and Neuter. 

34. In some nOuns, gender is^determined by significa* 
tion ; in others, by endings. 



I 



GENDER. 



ylliihlo bcfoi-o 
: of the word, 
• mo7i-u-c-ra'' 

cond or third 



inflcctioij, 

',iveSy Pro- 
t Ions J and 



la person, 
mer, boy ; 

Ice: Ciccroy 
fs of a class 

pOpulUSy 

WirtuSy \\v- 
p«n, gold ; 

Case. » 






iignifica* 



I 



35. Gknicual Rules von Gender. 
I. Masculinks. 

1. Names o^ Males : CicCw ; vir^ man ; rcXy king. 

2. Xanics of liivcrs^ Windsy and Months : lihcnuSj 
Ubinc; ^Vo^^^jf, south wind ; Aj^rllls^ Ain'U, 

II. FEMININE.S. 

1. Xanics oi I'hnalcs : mulier^ ■svonian ; Icacna^ lioness. 

2. Names of CohitricSy Towns^ Islands, and Trees: 
Acgyptus, Eg^^ pt ; ROma^ Rome ; Dclos^ Dclos j ^Jtn^6', 
pear tree. 

III. Neuters. 

1. Indeclinable JVoiins : fas, I'iglit; n/A<7, nothing. 

2. Jrords and Clauses used as indeclaiable nouns; triste 
vale, a sad flirewell ; difficile est amlcitiam manCre, it is 
diihcult for friendship to continue.* 

36. Remarks on Gender. 

1. Exceptions. — The endhigs^ of nouns sometimes give them ti gender 
at variance with these rules. Tiuis, 

1) The names of rivers— yl/6<J/rt, AUlay Lctkc, Slyx, and sometimes 
others, are feminine by ending. 

2) Some names of conntrics^ toims, islands, trees, and animals take 
tlie gender of their endings. See 47. 1. 

2. Masculine or Feminine. — A few personal appellatives applicable to 
both sexes and a few names of animals are sometimes masculine and some- 
times feminine, but when used without distinct reference to sex they aro 
generally 7nusculinc : civis, citizen (man or woman) ; cumes, companion ; 
bos, ox, cow. 

3. Mobile Nouns have dilTerent forms for different genders : Jillus, 
filia, son, daughter ; rex, rer/ina, king, queen ; Ico, leaena, lion, lioness. 

4. Epicene Nouns have but one gender, but are used for both sexes. 
Thoy apply only to the inferior animals, and usually take the gender of 
their endings: anscr, goose (male or female), masculine; aquila, eagle, 
feminine. 

PERSON AND NUMBER. 

37. The Latin, like the English, has three persons and 
two numbers. The first person denotes the S2)eaker ; the 
second, the person spoken to ; the third, the person spoken 
of. The singular number denotes one, the plural more 
than one. 

* Hero -vale and the clause amicitiam manere aro both used as neuter nouns. 
' Gender as determined by tbo endings of nouns will bo noticed in connection 
with the several declensions. 
1* 



10 



CASES. — DECLENSIONS. 



CASES. 
38. The Latin has six cases : 



Names. 

Nominative, 

Genitive, 

Dative, 

Accusative, 

Vocative, 

Ablative, 



English Equivalents. 

Nominative. 

Possessive, or Objective with of. 

Objective with to ov for. 

Objective. 

Nominative Independent. 

Objective with from^ hy^ in, with. 

1. Oblique Cases. — In distinction from the Nominative and Vocative 
(casus recti, right cases), the other cases are called oblique (casus obliqui). 

2. Case-Endings. — In form the several cases are in general distinguish- 
ed from each other by certain terminations called case-endings: Nom. 
mcnsa, Gen. men^ae, &c. 

3. Caaes Alike. — But certain cases are not distinguished in form. Thus, 

1) The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative in neuters are alike, and 
in the plural end in a. 

2) The Nominative and Vocative are alike in all pure Latin nouns, ex- 
cept those in us of the second declension (45). 

3) The Dative and Ablatim Plural are alike. 



m 



w> 



DECLENSIONS. 



39. The formation of the several cases is called Declen- 



sion. 



40. Five Declensions. — ^In Latin there are five declen- 
sions, distinguished from each other by the following 

Genitive Endings. 

Dec. I. Dec. II. Deo. III. Dec. IV. Dec. V. 



ae, 



is, 



us, 



ei.^ 



41. Stem and Endings. — ^In any noun, of whatever de- 
clension, 

1. The stem may be found by dropping the ending of 
the genitive singular. 

2. The several cases may be formed by adding to this 
stem the case-endings. 

1 See 119. 1. 



E ii 



FIEST DECLE5IS10N. 



11 



atin nouna, ex- 



llled Dcclen- 



FIRST DECLEXSION. 

42. Nouns of the first declension end in 

S and e^— feminine ; as and es, — masculine. 
But pure Latin nouns end only in a, and are declined ay 
follows : 

SINGULAR. 

Meaning. 

a table, 

of a table, 

to, for a tabic, 

a tabic, 

table, 

wit/i, from, by a table, 





Examiilo. 


JVom. 


mcnssi. 


Gen. 


mensac. 


Bat. 


monsae. 


Ace. 


incnsiim. 


Voe. 


inensii. 


Abl. 


mensa. 


Kom. 


mensac. 


Gen. 


mensariiiii. 


Dat. 


mcnsl^. 


Ace. 


mensa$i$9 


Voe. 


meusae. 


Abl. 


mcnsls. 



Cjise-Lndinga. 
a 
ao 
ae 
&n' 

ft 



ac 

arum 
IS 

ss 
ae 

Is. 



PLURAL. 

tables, 

of tables, 

to, for tables, 

tables, 

tables, 

with, from, by tables. 

1. Case-Endings. — From an inspection of tins example, it will 
be seen that the several cases are distinguished from eacli other 
by their case-endings. 

2. Examples for Practice. — With these endings decline : 

Ala, wing ; aqua, water ; causa, cause ; fortuna^ fortune ; 
2)orta, gate; victoria, victory. 

3. Irregular Case-Endings. — The following occur : 

1) As for ae in the Gen. offamilia, in composition with pater, rndtiVf 
filius, and flia : paterfamilias, father of a family. 

2) Ai for the genitive ending ae, in the poets : auld'i for aulae, of a hall. 

3) Um for dru7)i in the Gen. Plur. : Dardanidum for Dardaniddru?n, oi 
the descendants of Dardanus. 

4) Abus for is in the Dat. and Abl. Plur., especially iu dea, goddess, 
and Jilia, daughter, to distinguish them from the same cases of deus, god, 
and/^iW5, sou. 

4. Article. — The Latin has no article. A Latin noun may 
therefore, according to the connection in which it is used, be 
translatetl either without any article, with a or an, or with the : 
corona, crown, a crown, the crown. 



12 



SiiJCOND DECLENSION. 



43. Geeek Nouns. — Nouns of this declension in e, as, 
and es are of Greek origin, and are declined as follows : 

Epitome, ejntome. Aeneas, Aeneas. Pyrites, ^:)?/n7es. 





SINGULAR. 




N. epitome 


Aeneas 


pyrites 


G. epitomes 


Aeneac 


pyritac 


D. epitomac 


Acneac 


pyritac 


A. epitomen 


Aeuo&ni, an 


pyriten 


V. jpitome 


Aenoa 


pyrite, a 


A. epitom© 


Acnoa. 

PLURAL. 


pyiitC, a 


iV. epitomac 




pyritac 


G. epitomariiiit 




pyritarttm 


D. epitomis 




pyritis 


A. cpitomas 




pyritas 


V. epitomac 


• 


pyritac 


A. epitomis. 




pyrltls. 



1. Examples for Practice. — Aloe^ aloe; horcas, north wind; co?n- 
ctcs, comet. 

2. Paradigms. — Observe 1) That in the Plur. and in the Dat. Sing., 
Greek nouns arc declined like mcnsa, and 2) That ia the Gen. Sing.^ only 
those in e depart from the regular ending ae. 

3. Many Greek nouns assume the Latin ending «, and are declined like 
mcnsa. Many in e have also a form in a ; epitome, epiioma, epitome. 

44. Gender in Fiest Declension. 

Feminine endings : a, e. 
Masculine endings : as, es. 

Exceptions, — Masculine— { ' ) a few in a by signification : jt>ot"/a, poet ; 
agricola, husbandman. See 35. 1.— (2) JIadria, Adriatic sea ; sometimes 
(lamay deer, and talpa, mole. 



< 'i 



SECOND DECLENSION. 

45. Nouns of the second declensiou end in 

^r, ir, lis, os, — masculine ; um, on, — neuter. 
But pure Latin nouns end only in cr, «>, tis^ iim, and are 
declined as follows : \, , 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



13 



Servus, slave, Puer, hoy. Agcr, field. Templum, temple. 



declined like 
tome. 



pocta, poet ; 
; somctimca 







SINGULAR. 




N. serviis 


pu5r 


3gCr 


tcmplikm 


G. scrvl 


puerl 


agrl 


templl 


J), servo 


putiro 


agrO 


tcmplo 


A. serviim 


puerjiiu 


agrikin 


tcmpliliii 


V. scrvtS 


puer 


ager 


tcmpiam 


A. servo 


puero 


agrO 


tcmplo 




• 


PLURAL. 




JV. servl 


pueri 


agrl 


tempia 


G. scrvoritm 


puerorttm 


agroriim 


temploriiiii 


D. servis 


puerl» 


agrls 


tcmplls 


A. servos 


pueros 


agros 


tempia 


V. servl 


puerl 


agrl 


tempia, ' 


^1. servis. 


puerls. 


agrls. 


templls. 



1. Case-Endings. — From an inspection of the paradigms it will 
be seen tliat tlioy are declined with the following 





Case-Endings. 




1. us. 


2. er. 

SINGULAR. 


3. um. 


IL U9 


a 


um 


(i^. i 


i 


i 


J), o 


6 





A. liia 


iim 


tim 


V. 6 


1 


fim 


A. o 


5 

PLURAL. 





K I 


i 


s 


G. orum 


Orum 


orum 


J). 13 


is 


ia 


A. og 


03 


ft 


V. i 


1 


ft 


A. is. 


Is. 


IB. 



2. Examples for Practice. — Like seevus : a7imis, year ; dominus^ 
master. — Like pder: gener^ son-in-law; socer^ father-in-law.— Like 
AGER : /tt&er, artisan; magister, master. — Like templum: helium, 
war; regnum, kingdom. 

3. Paradigms. — Observe 

1) That puer differs in declension from servus only in d^-opping the 

' The endings for tho Nom. and Voc. Sing, are wanting in nouns in er\ thii» 
l^uer is the stem M'itliout any case-ending; tlio Ml form would bo jpu^/'ii*. 



I 



i 



1 

} 



i 



.! 



14 



GREEK NOUNS. 



endings us and c in the Nom. and Voc. ; Nom. jmcr (or puims, Voc. puer 
for pucr6. 

2) That agcr differs from vuer only in dropping c before r.' 

3) That tcmplum, as a neuter noun, has the Nom., Accus., and Voc 
alike, ending in the plural in a. See 38. 3. 

4. Ager and Puer.^ — Most nouns in er are declined like agei\ 
but tlie following in er and ir are declined like puer, 

1) Nouns in ir : vir^ vlri, man. 

2) Compounds in fer and ger : arntiger^ aiinigSri^ annor-bcarer ; sig- 
fiifer^ signifcr% standard-bearer. 

3) Adulter, adulterer ; Liber, Bacchus ; presbyter, elder. 
Ccltiber, Celtiberian ; "^ liberi, children ; socer, father-in-law. 
gSner, son-in-law ; Mulciber, Vulcan ; ^ vesper, evening. 
Iber, Spaniard."^ 

5. Irregulax Case-Endings. — The following occnr : 

1) I for a by contractiou, in the Gen. Sing, without change of accent: 
ingeni foi' ingenii, of talent. 

2) I for ie, common in proper names in itis, without change of accent : 
Mermri for Mercu'rie, Mercury. Also in fill for Jilie, son ; geni for genie, 
guardian spirit. 

3) Us for e in the Voc, the regular form in dens, god, but rare in other 
words. 

4) Uiri for cinim, common in a few words denoting money, weight, and 
measure : talentvm for talentorum, of talents ; also in a few other words : 
deum for deorum ; liberum for liherOrum ; ArgUum for ArgivotUm. 

G. Dens. — This has, Voc. Sing., den8; Nom. Plur., dci, dii, di ; 
Gen., deorum^ deum; Dat. and Abl., deis^ dlis, dis ; otherwise 
regular. 

46. Greek Nouns. 

Nouns of this declension in OS and on arc of Greek 
origin. 

1. Nouns in os are generally declined like those in us, except in the ac- 
cusative singular, where they have on : Delos, Dell, Delo, Dd6r, etc., island 
Delos. 

2. Nouns in on are declined like teynplum, with on for um in the nom- 
inative, accusative, and vocative. 

3. Most Greek nouns generally assume in prose the Latin forms in u^ 
and um, but sometimes, especially in poetry, they retain in one or more 
cases the peculiar endings of the Greek. Thus, 

' In puer, 6 belongs to the stem, and ia accordingly retained in all the cases; but 
in ager it is inserted in the Nom. and Voc. Sing., as the pure stem agr would be dif- 
ficult to pronounce. 

" Ccltiber and Iber have e long In the Gen., and Mulciber sometimes drops e. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



15 



«, vocpucr 



are in other 



1) Genitive Singular, (rarely u) : Androgco from AndrCgcSs. 

2) Accusative " o or on : Atho, Atlion " Athos. 

8) Nominative Plural, oe : cSnfiphoroe " caiicphoro3. 

4) Genitive " 6n(om)! bucolIcCn " bucollcon. 

5) Greek nouns in eus admit certain forms of the third declension : Or- 
pheus; G., Orplube ; D., Orphei ; A., Ori^hca ; V., Orphcu.—Binthus has 
Voc. Buntha, andj)ela{/us, V\\it. pelage. 

47. Gender in Second Declension. 
Masculine endings : er, ir, us, OS. 
Neuter endings : um, on. 

I. Feminine by Exception. 

1. Nouns feminine hj signification : Acgyptus, Egypt ; Corinthus, 
Corinth. Sec 35. 2, but observe that 

Many names of countries, towns, islands, and trees follow tho gender of their 
endings.— (1) Countries: Bospdrm, Isthmus, Pon^j/s, masculine by ending; those 
In um and plurals in «, neuter by ending.— (2) Towns : Canopus and plurals in i, 
masculine ; those in um and plurals in a, neuter.— (3) Islands : those in nm and 
plurals in a, neuter.— (4) Trees: oleaster and pinaster, masculine. Some names of 
shrubs and plants are feminine, like those of trees, while others take tho gender of 
',Leir endings. 

2. Otiier Feminine exceptions are 

1) Most names of gems and ships: amethystvs, sapphlrus. 

2) Alvus, bell}''; carbasitSfSail; colus, distaff; humus, ground ; vanmts, aieye. 

3) Many Greek feminines, as (1) nouns in odus, metros, thongus ; perio- 
dus, period ; diamkros, diameter ; diphthongus, diphthong ; (2) abi/ssust 
abyss ; atoinus, atom ; dialectos, dialect. 

II. Neuter by Exception. 

Feluffus, sea; virus, poison ; vulguo (rarely masc), common people. 



1 the nom- 



THffiD DECLEXSION. 

48. Nouns of the third declension end in 

a, e, i, o, y, c, 1, n, r, s, t, x. 

I. Masculine Endings: 

o, or, OS, er, es increasing in the genitive, 

II. Feminine Endings: 

as, is, ys, x, es not increasing in the genitive^ s ijreceded by 

a consonant. 

III. Neuter Endings : 

a, e, i, y, c, 1, n, t, ar, ur, us. 

49. Nouns of this declension may be divided into two 
classes : 

I. i^ouns which have a case-ending in the nominative 
singular. These all end in e, s, or x. 



16 



TIIIED DECLENSION. — CLASS I. 



HP ! 



II. Nouns which have no case-ending in the nominative 

singular. 

In clasg II. tlio Nom. Sing, is either the same as the stem, or is formed 
from it by dropping or changing one or more letters of the stem : comul. 
Gen. consulis ; stem, consul, a consul ; ko, leOnis, stem, lco7i, (Nom. drops 
n), lion; carmen, carminis, stem, carviin (Xom. changes in to en), song. 

50. Class I. — With Nominative Ending. 
I. Nouns in es, is, S imjncre,^ and x : — loith stem im- 
changed i?i nonihiative. 



Nubes,/. 


Avis,/. 


Urbs,/. 


Rex, m. 


cloicd. 


bird. 


city. 

SINGULAR. 


king. 


.N. nubCa 


livis 


urbs 


rex* 


G. nubis 


avis 


urbis 


regis 


J), nubl 


avi 


urbl 


rcgl 


A. nub^iu 


av^jn 


urbiJm 


regain 


V. nub€s 


avis 


urbs 


rex 


A. nub«S 


av^^' 


urb6 

PLURAL. 


rcg^ 


iV. nubes 


avCs 


urbes 


regCs 


G. nubi&m 


aviikm 


urbijkm 


rcgikm 


J). nubll>tks 


avibils 


urbibfis 


regibtts 


A. nubCs 


av€s 


urbes 


regfis 


V. nubCs 


aves 


urbes 


reges 


A. nubil>tts. 


avibiks. 


urbibits. 


reffibiis. 



II. Nouns in es, is, S hnpxire, and x : — loith stem chang- 
ed i7i nominative. 



Miles, m. 


Lapis, m. 


Ars,/. 


Judex, m. and /. 


soldier. 


st07ie. 


ai't. 

SINGULAR. 


judge. 


N. miles 


IctpiS 


ars 


judex ^ 


G. militis 


lapidis 


artis 


judicis 


D. militl 


lapidl 


arti 


judici 


A. milit^m 


lapid^in 


art^m 


judiefem 


V. miles 


lapis 


ars 


judex 


A. militl 


lapidS 


art^ 

PLURAL. 


judicC 


N. milites 


lapidCs 


artes 


judicSs 


G. militikm 


lapidiiin 


artiikm 


judicttjML 



' X in res = gs—g belonging to the stem, and « being tbo nom. ending ; but in 
judex, X = C8—C belonging to tlio stem, and s being the nom. ending. 
8 Impure, i, e., preceded by a conEonant. ^ Sometimes avi. 



aommative 



I stem loi- 









CLASS II. 




D. 


nnlitibik&i 


lapi'Jlbtts 


mtibdiM 


judiclbtks 


A. 


minted) 


lapidCs 


artes 


judlcCs 


V. 


inilttCs 


. ndes 


artcs 


judicCft* 


A. 


militil>fa»«. 


lapidlbus. 


artlbikji^. 


judiclbiis 



17 



III. Nouns ill as, OS, us, and e : — those in as, os, and 
lis with Stan changed^ those in c loith stem unchanged. 



Ci vitas,/". 


Ncpos, tn. 


Virtus, f. 


Mare, 7i. 


state. 


grandson. 


virtue. 

SINGULAR. 


sea. 


N. civitas 


llepoS 


virtus 


marfi 


G. civitatls 


uepOtIs 


virtutls 


marls 


D. civitfitl 


ncpoti 


virtuti 


mari 


A. civitatCm 


ncpOttJm 


virtutiim 


mar^ 


V. civltas 


nepDs 


virtus 


martS 


A. civitatC 


uel)Ote 


vii'tQt«5 


mari "^ 


^» 




PLURAL. 




JV. civltates 


ncpOtCs- 


virtutCs 


maris. 


G. civitatiiiii ' 


ncpOtiini 


virtutiliu 


mariikiu 


if. ' civitatibiis 


ncpotibias 


virtutib&s 


maribtis 


A. civitates 


ncpotCs 


virtutes 


mariii 


V. civitates 


nepotCs 


virtutes 


marisi 


A. civitatibiis. 


nepotibiis. 


virtutlbiis. 


maribits. 



51, Class II. — ^^Vitiiout Nominative Endixg. 

I. Nouns in 1 and r : — icith stem unchanged in nomi' 
native. 



Sol, m. 


Consul, m. 


Passer, m. 


Vultur, m. 


sun. 


C07lSUl. 


simrroio. 

SINGULAR. 


vulture. 


N. Bol 


consul 


passer 


vultur 


G. solis 


consulis 


passCris 


vulturis 


D. Boll 


consull 


passorl 


vulturl 


A. Bol^m 


CODS-d^lU 


passe reiBi - 


vulturem 


V. sol 


consul 


passer 


vultur 


A. sul4S 


considS 


passer^ 

PLURAL. 


vulture 


N. soles 


consiiles 


passerCs 


vultures 


G. 


constdiiiM 


passe rttm 


vulturfim 


D. solibiks 


consulibiis 


passcribiis 


vulturibiis 



1 Sometimes civitatium. 



2 Sometimes mare in poetry. 



Ill 



i' 



h 



18 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



i> * 



A. solCs 


consults 


paaserCs 


vultures 


V. sOlCs 


consults 


passorCs 


vultures 


A. sollbAs. 


cousulibtks. 


passcilbiks. 


vulturibtks. 


II. Nouns in o and r 


: — with stem changed iti 7iomina- 


tive. 








Leo, m. 


Virgo,/. 


Patcr, m. 


Pastor, 171. 


lion. 


maiden. 


father. 

SINGULAR. 


shejyherd. 


N. Ico 


virgo 


pater 


pastor 


G. Iconls 


virginis 


patris 


pastorls 


D. 1 colli 


virgtnl 


patrl 


pastorl 


A. Icou^ia 


virgmCafii 


patr^ni 


pastoreiu 


V. Ico 


-virgo 


pater 


pastor 


^4. IcOnd 


viigiu^ 


patrC 

PLURAL. 


pastures 


iV. lcon€s 


virgiiiCs 


patres 


pastures 


(r. Icoiiikm 


virginftm 


patrilm 


pastorikm ^ '' 


D. Iconlbfts 


virgiuibils 


patiibiks 


pastoribiis ^ 
pastorCs \ 


yl. Icones 


virginCs 


patres 


F". IconCs 


Virginias 


patres 


pastorCs V 


A. leouibtis. 


Tirginlbiis. 


patribfis. 


pastoribiis. 


III. Nouns in en, us, 


and ut : — with stem changed i?i 


womz^ia^ive. 








Carmen, w. 


Opus, n. 


Corpus, 71. 


Caput, 71. 


«0?l^. 


work. 


body. 

SINGULAR. 


head. 


iV. carmen 


opus 


corpus 


cfiput 


6*. carminis 


operis 


corporis 


capitis 


D. carminl 


operl 


corpori 


capltl 


A. carmen 


opus 


corpus 


capQt 


V. carmen 


opus 


corpus 


caput 


A. carminC 


oper^ 


corporC 

PLURAL. 


capita 


N. carminfi, 


operii 


corporsl 


capita 


G. carmintkiu 


operiiiii 


corporikm 


capitiim 


D. carminibils 


opcrXb&s 


corporibfis 


capitibiis 


A. carmind; 


opera* 


corpora 


capita 


V. carminft 


operii 


corporfi. 


capita 


A. carminib&s 


. opcrX|>ik». 


corporibiis. 


capitibiis. 



\. 



CASE-ENDINGS. 



19 



- iH nomma- 



62. Case-Endings.— From an inspection of the paradigms, 
it will be seen, 

1. That the nouns belonging to Class II. differ from those of 
Class I. only in taking no case-ending in tho nominative and voca- 
tive singular. 

2. That all nouns of both classes arc declined with the following 



Case-En 


dings 


• 




SINGULAR. 




Masc. and Fcm. 






Neuter. 


Kom. s ' (es, is) - 


a 




u 


Gen. 19 






is 


Bat. i 






i 


Ace. rm(Iin)' 






like nom 


Voc. like nom. 






(( 41 


Abl. f, i 






e,i 




PLURAL. 




Masc. and Fcm. 






Neuter. 


Nom. es 






a, la ^ 


Gen. urn, ium 






tim, ium 


Dat. ibus 






ibus 


Ace. C'3 






5i, ia 


Voc. G3 






ti, ia 


Abl. ibus. 






ibus. 



53. Declension.* — To apply these endings in declension, we 
must know, besides the nominative singular, 

1. The Gender^ as that shows which set of endings must be 
used. 

2. The Genitive Singular (or some oblique case), as that con- 
tains tho stem (41) to which these endings must be added. 

54. Examples for Practice: 

Class I. 

Rupcs, Gen. rupis, f. rock, hospes, Gen. hospiti^, m. guest. 
vestis, vestig, f. garment ; cuspis, cuspidis, f. spear. 

trabs, trabis, f. beam; mons, mentis, m. mountain. 

lex, legis, f. law ; apex, apicis, m. summit, 

libertas, libertatis, f. liberty ; sjlus, salQtis, f. safety. 

sedlle, sedllis, n. seat ; 

1 In nouns in x (= cs or gs), s is the case-ending, and tho c or fir belongs to the 
Btem. 

' Tho dash hero implies that tho case-ending is sometimes wanting, as ia all nouns 
of Class II. 

' Tho enclosed endings arc less common than tho others. 

* For Irregularities boo Formation of Cases (55-93) and Irregular Nouns. 




!|- 



vi: 



20 



ExHul, 
uctic), 
uiiHor, 
iiOinon, 



TIUllD DECLENSION. 

Class IT. 

Gni. cxHiili?, 111. niuiy. exile ; dolor, Ocn. 
nctioiiifi, 1". adioH ; ima^o, 

jinsoriH, in. r/oose ; iVator, 

iionilnia, n. name; tcnipua, 



tlolr)rl.<, m. jialn. 
iina<!;Tiiis, f. hnapc, 
Iratiis, 111. brollicr. 
tcuipoiKs, n. lime. 



FORMATION OF CASES. 
Nominative Singular. 

55. Tlic nominative singular may generally bo formed 
from any oblique case in one of two ways : 

I. By changing the ending of the given case to the 
nominative ending 

8 (es, is) in masculines and fcminines ; e in neuters : 
Ace. urbem^ Nom. iirhs ; dvcm^ avis ; 7iubcm, nubes. So 
Gen. maris (ncut.), Nom. marc. 

II. By dropping the ending of the given case: Gen. 

consulis^ Nom. consul; x^^^^^^^^i P^^^^'^' j X>cist6riSi 2^^^^^^' 

1. The First MExnon applies in general to mute stems. 

2. TiiK Second Method applies to most liquid stems. 

3. EopiiONic Changes: 

1) T, d, and r before 8 arc dropped; c and g before s unite with it 
and form x; i is sometimes changed to e: Gen. civitatit, N. civltas (for 
civXtats, t dropped) ; G. inilltis, N. m'llcs {militSf t dropped ond i changed 
to e) ; G. ri'ffis, N. rex (regs). 

2) 77ie endinr/s on and in of masc. and fem. stems are generally 
changed t^^ 3 : G. IcOnis, N. Ico (for Icon) ; G. virgmis, N. virgo (for virgin). 
But in neuters hi is changed to C7i : G. carmhiis^ carmen (for cannin). 

3) J7ie endings er and or of neut. stems are generally changed to US : 
G. opcris, N. dpus (for opcr) : G. corporis, N. corpus (for corpor). 

4) Other changes sometimes occur. 

Genitive Sijigular. 

I. GENERAL EULES. 

56. Class I. forms the genitive singular by changing the 
nominative ending into is : mdrCy mdris^ sea ; urbs^ yrbis, 
city ; m'lbes, nubis, cloud ; hostis, hostis^ enemy ; arx (arcs), 
arcis., citadel ; rex (regs), regis^ king. 

1. Class I. includes, it will be remembered, nouns in c, s (with a few 
exceptions), and x. 

2. The Nominatite Ending in this class is 

1) c in nouns in e : marc. 

2) s in nouns in s ; but if e or i precedes, it may be cs or is ; thus ic 
is s in urbs^ cs in nubes, and is in hostis. 



FORMATION OF THE GENrriVI-:. 



91 



S) « in nouns in x; as the doiihlo consonant x = cs ot gn^ tho c ov g 
bclonfjs to the Btom and tlu' s is the oiidiiij;. 

Accordingly the genitive cliunges the endings e, », <.s, and is into t», na 
above. 

S. iRnEGULAUiTiES AND EXCEPTIONS. — Sce spcclal lulcs, 58-8^. 

57. Class II. forms the genitive by adding is to the 
nominative ; sol^ solisy sim ; career^ carcCris^ prison ; 2Ktstory 
2yast0ris, shepherd ; llcn^ licnis^ spleen. 

1. Class II. includes all nouns of this declension not embraced under 
Class I. 

2. CuANQES AND lunEGULAniTiES. — Sco spccial rules. 

II. SPECIAL KULES. 

I. Words ending in a Vowel. 
Genitive Formation — Various. 

A. 

58. Nouns in a form the genitive in Stis ; pocma^ 
2)oemdiis, poem. These are of Greek origin. 

E. 

59. Nouns in e form the genitive in is ; mdrCy maris, 

sea. 

I. 

60. Nouns in i form the genitive in is, or are indeclin- 
able : sind^n, sindpis, mustard. 

Exceptions. — ^Tho compounds of mSli form it in Xtia : oxymcli, oxy- 
mchiis, oxjTQcl. 

O. 

61. Nouns in o form the genitive in onis: leOy leonis^ 

lion ; actio, actionis, action. 

Exceptions. — The following form it in 

1. Snis: — most national names, Macedo, Maccdonis^ Macedonian. 

2. inia: — Apollo; homo, man; nemo, nobody; <Mrio, whirlwind ; and 

nouns in do and go : grando, grandtnis, hail ; virgo, 
virgXnis, maiden ; except — harpugo, onis ; Ugo, onis ; 
pracdo, onis, also comedo, cudo, mango, spado, uncdo, udo. 
8. nis : — euro, caniis, flesh. 

4. enis : — Anio, Anienis, river Anio ; Kcrio, Neriems. 

5. us : — few Greek feminines : Dido, Bidus. 

T. 

62. Nouns in y form the genitive in yis (yos, ys), or 




'/■/ 



22 



TIIIUD DKCLEXSION. 



arc indcclinnblo : inisy^ mlsi/is (misyos, misys) copperas. 
These arc of Greek origin. 

II. Wortls entling in Mutes or Liquids : c, 1, n, r, t. 

Ge)iitive adds is. 
c. 

63. Tlicro arc two nouns in o : dleCy alCciSy pickle ; lac, 
luctiSy milk. 

L. 

64. Nouns in 1 form tbo genitive by adding is : sOl^ 
sulis, sun. 

1. Two add lis '.—fcl^fdlis, gall ; wic?, mellis, honey. 

2. J\ o«?t.s in XI lengthen a in the Gen. ; aiilmaly animalia, animal ; 
except sal, salt, and masculine proper names : Jlatuiibal, llaiinibdUs. 

N. 

65. Nouns in n form the genitive by adding is, but 
those in 6n form it in luis : paea?i, paeCmls, paean ; flamen, 
flumlniSy stream. 

1. Tlic few nouns in en (e long), mostly Greek, add ia : liin^ licnis, 
spleen. 

2. Nouns in an, on, in, yn are Greek, and sometimes have os for is 
in the Gen. : Pan, Pdnos for Tanis, god Pan. — Some in on have onis or 
ontis : acdon, acdonis, nightingale ; Xcntiphon, Xcnophontis, 

E. 

66. Nouns in r form the genitive by adding is : career^ 
carccris, prison ; fidgiir^ fulgiiris, lightning. 

1. Nouns in Sr generally lengthen a in tl '^en. : calcSr, calcCiriSy 
spur ; but a few retain the short vowel. — Far., corn, has f arris ; hepar^ 
liver, hcpatis. 

2. Some nouns in ex drop e iu the genitive : 

1) Those in ter : pater, patris, father ; except later, latSris, tile, and 
Greek nouns : crater, cratHris, bowl. 

2) Imher and names of months in ber : imher, imhris, shower ; Sep- 
tember, Septembris. 

3. Iter, way, has itinvris ; Jup1.tcr, JSvis. 

4. Nouns in or have generally oris : pastor, pastOris, shepherd ; Iflit 
a few retain the short vowel. Cor, heart, has cordis. 

5. Four in ur have bris : cbur, ivory ; femur, thigh ; jecur, liver ; 
rob7ir, strength; hnt femur has also fevihiis, and jecur, jecinoris, jecineris, 
and jocincris. 



\ 1 



FOKMATION OF THE GLNlTlVli:. 



23 



) coppcraa 
I n, r, t. 

pickle; laCy 
ng is : sul^ 



'idlis, animal ; 
■xnnibdUn. 

ing is, but 
,n ; flumen^ 

: /ien, liSniSy 

lavc OS for is 
have onis or 



LS : career, 

'ciir, calcCtris, 
irris ; hcpar, 

^riSf tile, and 
jhowcr ; Sep- 

cphcrd; lUit 

jifcur^ liver ; 
isj jecinvris^ 



T. 

67. Nouns in t form tlio genitive in Itis : caput, capU 
tiSy head. Caput and its compounds are the only nouns in t. 

III. Words ending in /S' preceded by a Vowel or Diph- 
thong. 

Genitive I^ormation — Various, 

AS. 

68. Nouns in as form the genitive iu Stis: actas, 
actdtis, age ; civitaSy civUdtis, state. 

Exceptions. — The following form it in 

1. Stis : — iinan^ atu'ttin, duck, and neuter Greek nouns. 

2. ^dis : — va.f, vudis, surety ; Areas, Arcadian, and fern. Greek nouns ;' 

lampas, lampiidis, torch. 
'*>3. Una: — inaa^ maris, a male. 
- 4. asis : — vas, vilsisy vessel. 
' 6. assis : — as, assis, an as (a coin). 
^ 6. antis : — only masc. Greek nouns ; adumas, antia, adamant. 

ES. 

69. Nouns in es (e long) form the genitive in is: 
fames, /amis, lumgcr ; nubes, 7iuhis, cloud. 

Exceptions. — The following form it in 

1. edis : — (1) edis ; hcres, hercdis, heir; mcrccs, reward. — (2) ^dis : 

pes, pedis, foot. — (3) aedis : praes, pracdis, surety. 

2. eris; — (1) Sris : Ceres, Ccreris. — (2) aeris: aes, acris, copper. 

3. e^ : — (1) etis : quies, rest, with compounds, inqnics, rcquics, 

and a few Greek words : llhcs, tapes. — (2)Sti8: abies,f\v 
tree ; aries, ram ; paries, wall. 
. 4. essis : — bes, bessis, two thirds. 
5. i : — a few Greek proper names : Xerxes, i. 

70. Nouns in ^s (e short) form the genitive in itis : 
miles, militis, soldier. 

Exceptions. — The following form it in 

1. Stis: — in fcrprcs, interpreter ; ^fcijff ?, crop ; ftf^cs, covering. 

2. idis : — obscs, "hostage ; pracses, president. 

IS. 

71. Nouns in is form the genitive in is: avis, avis, 
bird ; cdnis. canis, dog. 

' Greek nouns souictimcs Lave &do8 for adis. 



'fi 




24 TIIIED DECLENSION. 

Exceptions. — The following form it in 

1. ^ris : — chiis^ cinens, ashes ; cucuynis^ cucumber ; puhis, dust ; 

vomis, ploughshar. . 

2. idis : — capis, cup ; cassis, helmet ; cuspis, spear ; lapis, stone ; 

promulsis, autcpast, and a few Greek * words : as tyrmmis, 
idis, tyranny. Sometimes Ibis and iifjris. 

3. inis : — pollis, Hour ; sanguis, blood. 

4. iris : — r/lis, yliris, dormouse. 

5. issis : — semis, scmissis, half an as. 

6. itis: — lis, strife; Bis, Quiris, Samnis. 

OS. 

72. Nouns in os form the genitivo in oris : flos^jlOris^ 
flower; mos^ maris, custom. 

Exceptions. — The following form it in 

1. Otis : — cos, colis, whetetone ; dos, dowry ; ncpos, grandson ; saccr- 

dos, priest ; and a few Greek words : rhitioctfros, the rhi- 
noceros. 

2. odis •.—ctcstos, custodis, guardian. 

3. ois : — few masc. Greek nouns : hiros, hero ; Minos, Tros. 

4. bris : — arhos for arbor, tree. 

5. ossis : — OS, ossis, bone (os, mouth, regular : Cris). 

6. 5vis : — bos, buvis, ox. 

US. 

73. Nouns in us form the genitive in Sris or Sris : 
Idtus, lateriSf side ; corpus, corporis, body. 

1. Genitive in eris. — Acus, foedus, funus, genus, glomus, latus, mu- 
nus, olus, onus, opus, pondus, rudus, scelus, sidus, ulcus, vellus, V^nus, 
viscus, vulnus. 

2. Genitive in bris. — Corpus, decus, dedecus, facinus, fenug, frigus, 
I^pus, lltus, nemus, pectus, pecus, penus, pignus, stercus, tcmpuB, tergus. 

Exceptions. — The following form it in 

1. uris;— (1) uris: cms, leg; jus, right; jus, soup; mus, mouse; 

pus, pus ; nis, country ; tus (thus), incense ; tellus, earth. 
— (2) uris: Ligus, Ligiiris, Liguriau. 

2. uMb :—juvcntus, youth; salus, safety; sencctus, old age; servUus, 

servitude ; virtus, virtue. 

3. udis: — (1) udis: incus, any i\ ; pulus, marsh; subscus, dovetail. — 

(2) iidis : pccus, pecudis, a head of cattle. — (3) audis : 
fraus, fratidis, fraud ; laus, praise. 

1 Greek nouns sometimes have idos or even ios tor idia; Salamia has Salam'inis; 
Simois, Simoentis, 



■t: 



i 



FORMATION OF THE GENITIVE. 



25 



pulvis, dust ; 

Idjjis, stone; 
3 : as tyrannis. 



: flos^floris^ 



randson; sacer- 
ocSros, the rhi- 



s, 2Vos, 



:is or 6ris : 

mus, latua, mu- 
vellus, Vfinus, 

funu3, frigus, 
cmpus, tergus. 

mus, mouse ; 
c ; ielhcs, earth. 

age ; servUus, 

uSy dovetail. — 
3. — (3) audis: 



ha6 Salamlnis ; 



4. uis : — ijyits, r/riiis, crane ; sus, swine. 

5. untis : — a low Greek uanies of places : Trapcziis, jinds. 

G. bdis : — (ii'cek compounds in pus: tt'ij/us, tripudis, tiipod. 
7. eos: — Gieok nouns in f«s, when of this declension: lluscusy 
Tlicscos. 

YS. 

74. Xouiis in ys I'orni the genitive in yis, yos, ys : 
0(/ii'i/s, Othrifos. 

These are of Greek ori^^iii ; a few of them have ijdls: chlanujs^ chla- 
mydis, cloak. 

IV. Words ending in S iircccded by a Consonant. 
Genitive in is or tis. 
BS, MS, rs. 

75. Nouns in bs, ms, and ps form the genitive by 
changing S into is : urbs^ urhis, city ; hiems^ hicmis, win- 
ter ; da2)S^ dcqyis^ food. 

ExcKPTioNS. — The followhig form it in 

1. ipis : — nouns in ccpa from capio : pjrinccps, princ^ipis, prince. Also 

udcps, flit ; forceps, forceps. 

2. upis : — aiiccps, micuph, fowlor. 
?>. yphis ■—gryps, (jnjphis, gridin. 

Ls, Ns, i:s. 

76. Xouns in Is, ns, and rS form the genitive by 
clianging s into tis : ^;?^/5, 2^^dtis, broth ; mens^ tnoitiSy 
mind ; ars, artis, art. 

Exceptions. — The following form it in 

dis: — frojis, frondis, leaf; r/laiis, acorn; jugluiis, walnut. 

V. Words ending in A". — Goiitive in cis or gis. 

AX. 

77. Xouns in ax form the genitive in acis : ^^^.r, 2yaciSy 
peace. 

Exceptions.— The following form it in 

1. Scis -.—fax, facis, torch ; and a few Creek nouns. 

2. actis : — few Greek names of men : Astijanax. 

EX. 

78. Nouns in ex form the genitive in icis : judex^ 
judicis, judge. 

2 



I 



26 



THIRD DECL,ENSIOX. 



' 



5 > 



I : 



:*,-£ 



Exceptions. — The following form it in 

1. ecis : — (1) ecis : «/cx, pickle; vcrvcx, wothcr. — (2) ^cia : nej*, 

murder; fetuacXy mower. — (3) aecis : facx,faccis, Ices. 

2. egis: — (1) egis : lex, law; rex, king, and their compounds. — (2) 

egis : grcxy flock ; aqiCllcx, water-inspector. 

3. Gctilis : — supcUex, supcllecfdis, furniture. 

4. igis : — rcmcx, rcniigis, rower. 

5. is : — suicx, senis, old man. 

IX. 

79. Nouns in ix form the genitive in icis : rddlx^ ra- 
diciSf root. 

Exceptions. — The following form it in 

1. icis : — appendix, appendix ; culix, cup ; fornix, arch ; pix, pitch ; 

sixlix, willow, and a few others. 

2. xgis : — sirix, screech owl ; and a few Gallic names : Diirmiurix, 

Orgctorix. 
S. ivis : — nix, nivis, snow. 

OX. 

80. Nouns in ox arc : vox^ vocis^ voice ; nox^ noctis^ 
night. 

There arc also a few national names w^hieh form the genitive in bcis 
or bgis : Cappadox, Cappaducis ; Alluhrox, Allohrogis. 

ux. 

81 . Nouns in ux form the genitive in ucis : dux^ ducis^ 
loader. 

Exceptions. — The following form it in . 

1. ucis: — (1) ucis: Inx, lucis, light; Pollux. — (2) aucis : faxix 

(def.), faucis, throat. 

2. ugis : — (1) ugis : frux, friigis, fruit. — (2) ugis : conjiix, conjUgis, 

spouse. 

YX. 

82. Nouns in yx arc from the Greek, and form the 
genitive variously : Eri/x^ Erjjcis^ Eryx ; homhyx^ homhycis, 
silkworm ; Styx^ t^tl/Qi^-) Styx ; coccyx^ coecygis^ cuckoo ; 
onyx, 07ipeMs, onyx. 

X TEECEDED BY A CONSONANT. 

83. Nouns in x preceded by a consonant change X into 
cis : arxj arcis, citadel. 




-,>. 



1 .1 



FORMATION OF CASES. 



27 



, — (2) ^cia: wex, 
facx, faecis, lees. 
' compounds. — (2) 
!Ctor. 



:is : rddiXi ra- 

arch ; pix^ pitch ; 
ames : Diimnurix, 



3 ; 710X, noctis, 
c genitive in bcis 

S : duXy cluciSy 

m 

(2) aucis: faux 
conjiix, conjiigis^ 



and form the 
yx^ homhycis^ 
ygisy cuckoo ; 



change x into 



Exceptions. — A few Greek nouns form it in gi8 ; phalanx, plialaugis, 
phalanx. 

Dative Singular. 

84. Ending : — i : iirhs^ vrOi, city. But 

The old dative in e also occurs : acre, for acri. 

Accusative Singular, 

85. Ending : — like Nom., ^m, im. 

I. Ending : — like nom. in neuters : mtirc, marc, sea. 

II. Ending: — em, in most masculines and feminines: nrbs, tirlem. 

III. Ending : — im, in the following : 

1. In names of rivers and places in is not increasing in the genitive : 
Tibiris, Tibtrim ; Illspiills, Hhpdlim. 

2. In amussisy rule ; buris, plough-tail ; ruvis, hoarseness ; s^ils, 
thirst ; tussis, cough ; vis, force. 

3. Generally in : febris, pelvis, puppis, resiis, securis, turris ; some- 
times in: cldvis, 7nessis, ndvis,pars. 

4. In Greek nouns in is, G. is, and in many in is, G. 'idos or Idis, 
though the latter have also the regular '^idcm : poesis, pocsim ; Agis (Agi- 
dis), Agim or Agldon. For Greek nouns sec also 93. 

Vocative Singular, 

86. Ending : — like nominative ; rex, rex. But 

Some Greek nouns drop s : Pallas, Palla ; Orpheus, Orpheu. See 94. 

Ablative Singular. 

87. Ending :— S, i. 

I. Ending : — e, in most nouns ; itrbis, urbe, city. 

II. Ending : — i, in the following classes of words : 

1. In neuters iu e, al, and ar : scdllc, scdlli, seat; vcctigal, vcctigCdi, 

tax ; calcar, calcuri, spur. But 

The following have e: — (1) Names of towns in e; Fraenestc.—{2) 
Nouns in al and ar with a short in Gen. : sal, sale, gait ; nectar, 7iecturc, 
nectar. — (8) Far, farrc, corn. — (4) Generally rite, net, and in poetry some- 
times 7ndre. 

2. In adjectives in er and is used sal)stantively: September, Scjitem- 

trl, ^cpiomhor;^ familiar is, familiurl, friend. But 

Adjectives used us proper names, and juvenis, youth, have e; Juvend- 
lis, Juvendle, Juvenal. 

> Names of months are adjectives used substantively, with mensia, month, undcr- 
Btood. 



I 



1 



■s 



' 



l! 






,. 



1 • 



•I 



i -ii 



n 






^fai ■ 



ii 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



3. In nound in is with im in the accusative (85) : IWeris^ Tihtrim, 
llhuH ; sliis, sitim^ siti. 

III. Ending : — S or I; in nouns with em or ira in the Ace. : tinris, 
iicrrcm or turrim, tun-c or turri. But 

1. Jicstit, Ace. rcHlim^ rarely cm, has rcslc ; while nnvis^ navcm, rarely 
m, lias {generally navi. 

2. Grctk nouns in is, G. uUs, generally have r, even though the Ace. 
may have im : J^avls, Ace. Pariiii or l^iruhm, Abl. J'ande. 

',i. Some other nouns occasionally form the Abl. in i. — (1) several in 
is: ainnis, anr/uis, avis, b'dis, ciris, classis, coliis, ignis, orbis, postis, 
rdlis, iinrjuis, and a few others.— (2) some names of towns, to denote the 
place in which : Cartharjini, at Carthage ; TMri, at Tibur.— (;i) iinbcr, 
rus, sors, supcllcx, vesper^ and a few others. 

JVcmiinativc^ Accusative^ and Vocative Plural. 

88. Ending : — es, ^, iS. 

I. Ending : — es in masculines and feminincs : urbs, iirbcs. 

II. Ending : — a, ia in neuters : 

1. a in most neuters : carmen, carmhia. 

2. ia in neuters which admit i in the ablative (87. II.): miire, maria. 

III. Rare Endings are 

1. T/ie ancient endings — eis and is in the Ace. Plur. of masculines 
and feminincs with itim in the Gen. : clvcTs, civls, for civcs. 

2. 77tc Greek cnduigs — es, as, is, e. See 'J5 and 98. 

3. Vis, force, has I'lur. : vires, virium, viribiis, vires, vires, vir1.bus. 

Genitive Plural. . 

89. Ending : — urn, ium. 

I. Ending : — nm in most nouns : Ico, Iconum. 

II. Ending : — ium in the following classes of words : 

1. In neuters with ia in the plural, i. e., those in c, al, and ar (al and 
ar with, a in Gen.) ; mure, maria, marium ; animal, animcdia, animalium, 
animal. 

2. In most nouns of more than one syllable in ns and rs : ^ cliens, 
clientium, client ; cohors, cohortium, cohort. 

3. In many nouns not increasing in the genitive : 

1) Most nouns in es and is not increasing:'^ niihes, nubium ; avis, 
aviiim. 

2) Caro, flesh ; imbcr, storm ; lintcr, boat ; titer, leathern sack ; ven- 
ter, bell^ ; and generally Insabcr, Insubrian. 

' Some of these often Lave iim hi poetry and sometimes even iu prose, aspdrens, 
parent, generally has. 

2 But cunis, juvcnis, strues, vates, have um\ apis, mensis, scdes, volucrie, nm or 
ium ; compos, ium. 



GREEK PECULIARITIES. 



29 



Tiheris^ Tibtrim^ 

the Ace. : tiirris^ 

I'is, navcniy rarely 

though the Ace. 

i. — (1) several m 

•ns, to denote the 
ibur. — (;i) iinU'i\ 



Flared. 



iirhcs. 



'.): marc, inaria. 

Mv. of masculhiea 

c.s. 
8. 
(, vires, virlbus. 



?, and cir (at and 
alia, cmimaliuniy 

• 

and rs : ' dienSy 



s, nullum ; avis, 
thorn sack ; vcu- 

n prose, as pdre7is, 
es, volucris, nm or 



4. In monosyllables in s and z preceded by a consonant ^ and in a few 
ill s and X preceded by futoioel: "^ urbs, v.rbium, city ; arx, arcluin, citadel ; 
nox, nodium, night. 

5. lu many nouna in as and is (Plur. CUcs and Itcfi). Thus 

1) In names of nations : Arplnas, Arpinatium ; Samnix, Samnitium. 

2) lu Optimutes and PcjkUck, and occutiionally in other nouns in «.s : 
clinlas, ciintdtum, sometimes civitaliam, 

III. Raue Endings. — Bos has bourn : a few Greek words (especially 
titles of books) 07i'. Metamorphoses, Mdamorphoscon. 

IV. "Wanting. — The Gen. IMur. ia often wanting in monosyllables. 

Dative and Ablative Plural. 

90. ExDixG : — ibus : iirhs^ urhlbiis. 

Rare Endings arc : 

1. is or ibus — In neuters in a': potma^D. and A., j/ocmatlK, or poc- 

7nnttbns, i)Ocm. 

2. ubus — in bos, bubun (rare bobus for bovibus), ox; sus sitbus for 

su^bus, swine. 

3. si, sin — in Greek words. See 97. 

GREEK rECULIAPJTIES. 

91. Most Greek nouns of the third declension arc entirely regular, 
but a fow retain certain peculiarities of the Greek, and some arc entirely 
ij\declinable. 

Grcclc Genitive Singidar. 

92. Ending: — sometimes OS or i (rare) for is: Daphnis, Daphnulos 
for Daphnidis ; Xerxes, Xerxi for Xcrxis. 

1. Ending: — os. (1) Many nouns in as and is have fl(/os and idos 
for adis and idis : Pallas, Pallddos. — (2) Those in ys may have yos or ys: 
Ttthys, Tethyos. — ('3) Those in e?<s have co« ; Orpheus, Orpheos. — {i) Pan 
has PCtnos. 

2. Ending : — i. Proper names in es. Gen. is, sometimes have i for 
is : Achilles, Achilli. 

3. Ending: — us. Greek feminines in o, icho^ Dido, Sappho, have 
regularly tis in the Gen. and the Greek ending o in the other cases, rarely 
the Latin Oni, Onem, one ; Dido, Didus, Dido. 

GreeJc Accusative Singular. 

93. Ending: — often a: sometimes im, in; sometimes en for an: 

Pericles, Peridea ; pocsis, poesim, or pocsin, poem ; Xerxes, Xerxcn. 

1. The Ending a is used — (1) by prose writers in proper names and 
in aer and aether, — (2) by the poets both in proper and in common nouns. 

> Except (fips) opia and the Creek nouns, gryps, lynx, spkynx. 
' Namely, /a Mce, glie, lis, mas, nix, nox, os (ossis), f/«, generally /r a ?(S and 
7nus. 




I' t 

f 



" 



;l| 



30 



THIRD DECI.ENSI01S". 



2. The Ending im or in is used in Greek nouns in is, ficn. is, and 
sometimes in a lew in is, C en. Wis : poisis, pocsim, pocsin ; I^uris (I'ari- 
dis), ParXdeni, Parim, Parin. 

3. The Ending en is often used in proper names in cs, Gen. is, and 
Bometlraes in a few in cs, Gen. His-. Aeschmcs, Acscluiicn; ThCdcs, Tha- 
f:lc/n or llialcn. 

4. The Ending ym or yn. — Greek nouns in ys baA'C ym or yn: 
Othrys, Othrym or Othryn. 

Greek Voccctlve Singular. 

94. Ending sometimes drops s : Orpheus, Orphcu. See 86. 

1. S i.7 dropped, — (1) regularly in nouns in ciis and ys, together with 
proper names in a.s, Gen. antis: Perseus, Perseu; Cotys, Coty ; Atlas, 
Atla, — (2) generally in nouns in is and sometimes in proper nouns in cs : 
Daphnis, JJaphni ; Socrates, Socrates, or Socrdtc. 

2. Proper names in es shorten the ending to es, when s is retained : 
Socrates, Socrates. 

GreeJc ]Vomi}iatlve and Vocative Plural 

95. Ending : — sometimes es for Cs, especially in poetry : Arcades 
for Arcades. 

1. The Ending e is used in a few neuters in os : melos, mcle, song ; 
these neuters arc used only in the Xom. and Ace. lempc, the vale Tempe, 
is plural. 

2. The Ending is for cs occurs in a few names of cities : Sardis for 
Sardes. 

Greeh Genitive Plural, 

96. Ending : — on : only in a few words, almost exclusively titles of 
books : Metamorphoses (title of a poem), Mctamorphoseon. 

GreeJc Dative and Ablative Plural. 

97. Ending : — si, before vowels sin, poetic : Troudcs, Troasin. 

GreeJc Accusative Plural. 

98. Ending : — as : Ifacedones, Maccdonas. 

1. The Ending e is used in a few neuters in os : melos, melc ; Tempe. 
See 95. i. 

2. The Ending is occurs in a few names of cities: Sardis for 
Sardes. 

GENDER IN THIRD DECLENSION. 

99. The Gender of nouns of this declension, when not 
determined by the general rules (35), may be ascertained 
from their endings, as follows : ^ 

» Seo also 48. 



^t_ 



GENDEK. 



3f 

31 



in {.<?, ficn. zs, and 
sm; Fixrh (Pari- 

in cs, Gen. ts, and 
icn; ThalcSy 27ia- 

havc ym or yn: 



. See 86. 

1 ys, tof^ethcr whh 
'/ys, Co(y; Atlas, 
oper nouns in cs : 

hen s is retained : 



hiral. 

poetry: Arcades 

nclos, mcle, song ; 
', the vale Tempe, 

pities : Sardls for 



ilusivcly titles of 
I. 

(I. 

s, Troasin. 



)s, melc ; Tempe. 
ies: Sardis for 



>n, when not 
3 ascertained 



I. Masculine Ekdings. 
O, or, OS, er, es increaslmj in the ffcnitivc. 

o. 

100. Nouns in o arc masculine : scnnOy discourse. 
Exceptions. — Feminine, viz. : 

1. Nouns in o, Gen. \nis (i. c., most nouns in do and go, CI. 2), except 

cardo, ordo, iurho, masc, cnpldo and margo, masc. or fcm. 

2. Ciiro^ flcsb, and the Greek Argo, echo, an echo. 

8. Abstract and collective nouns in io : ratio, reason ; concio, an as- 
sembly ; except numeral nouns in io, which (except unio) 
are maac. ; ternio, quatcrnio. 

OR. 

101. Nouns in or arc masculine : dolor, pain. 
Exceptions. 

1. Feminine: — arbor, tree. 

2. XeiUcr : — ador, spelt ; acquor, sea ; cor, heart ; marmor, marble. 

OS. 

102. Nouns in os are masculine: mos^ custom. 
Exceptions. 

1. Feminine : — arbos, tree ; cos, whetstone ; dos, dowry ; cos, dawn. 

2. Neuter : — os, mouth ; os, bone ; and a few Greek words : chaos^ 

epos, ethos, melos, 

EB. 

103. Nouns in er are masculine: agger, mound. 

Exceptions. 

1. Feminine: — linter, boat (sometimes masc). 

2. Keutcr: — (1) cadaver, corpse; Iter, way; tiihcr, tumor; ubcr, 

udder ; ver, spring ; verber, scourge,— (2) botanical names 
in er, Gen. dris: Hcer, maple tree ; papCcvcr, poppy ; piper, 
pepper. 

ES INCE..ASING IX GEXTTIVE. 

104. Nouns in es increasing in the genitive are mas- 
culine : pes, genitive pedis, foot. 

Exceptions. 

1. Feminine: — com/jcs, fetter ; wierccs, reward; merges, sheaf ; quies, 

rest (with its compounds) ; segcs, crop ; teges, mat ; some- 
times also ales, bird, and quadrupes, quadruped. 

2. Neuter: — aes, copper. 



I 



h 



^ 'I 



! 



! 



til 



32 



TIIlliD DKCLEXSIOX. 



II. Femimne Endings. 



£?.B, is, ys, X, es not incrcasbif/ in genitive^ s />/*€oe(/e(? hj 

a consonant. 

AS. 

105. Nouns in as arc feminine: aetas^ ago. 

EXCEI'TION.S. 

1. JIa.scHluic: — as, an as (a coin), vas, surety, and Greek uouus in as^ 

G. antis^ as aJunuis^ adamant. 

2. Kcutcrt — I'cs, vessel, and Greek nouns in as^ G. utis^ as erysipelas. 

IS. 

106. Nouns in is arc feminine: ndvis, ship. 

Exceptions. — Mascitlbic : 

1. Nouns in alls, ollis, cis, mis, nis, guis, quis : nalalis, birthday ; 

collisj lull ; fascis, bundle ; vOmis, ploughshare ; igniSj 
fire ; sanrjuisy blood ; torquis, collar. But a few with 
these endings are occat;ionally feminine : aqiu'dis, canCdis^ 
ciiiiis, cluniSy amnis, ctnis, f~i7iiSy aiiguis, torquis, 

2. yla^'is, axle ; /w.s^is, club; pulvis,diu?,i\ 
hiirisy plough-tail ; fjlb^ dormouse ; scrobis (f.), ditch ; 

ItiplSy stone ; 
jnoisiSy month; 
orln^y circle ; 
postlSy post; 



sc7dlsy brier ; 
%m(f.), tiger; 
(orris, brand ; 
vcdiSy lever.' 



callis (f), path; '■ 
cassis, net; 
cauHs, stem ; 
corbis (f.), basket ; 
en sis, sword ; 
3. Compounds of as (a coin) : sanis, dceussis. Also LuercCdis, rnCaics 
(pi.). 

YS. 

107. Nouns in ys arc feminine: chldmys, cloak. 

Exceptions. — 3fascidi?ic : — names of mountains, Otfirys. 

X. 

108. Nouns in x are feminine : ^^arc, peace. 

Exceptions. — Masculine : 

1. Greek masculines : coma*, raven ; //toraar, cuirass. 

2. Nouns in ex and nnx; except the six feminincs: facx, forfcx, lex, 

ncx, iprcx), supcllcx, and such as are fern, by signification. 
85, II. 

' The examples maiked (f.) arc sometimes feminine. Corbis and tigris are often 
feminine. 

3 For nouns in is masculine by signification, sec 35. I. 



1 



GENDEK. 



33 



S 2>i'^ccded hij 



reck uouud in ui-. 



th^ as erysipelas. 



LiicrcCdis^ mCincs 



3. Four in iac: ciilix^ cup; fornix, arch; phoenix^ phoenix; varix 

(f.), swollen vein. 

4. One in uz : trudux, vine-layer. 

5. Names of mountains in yx, and a few other words in yx. 
C. Sometimes : calx, bed ; calx, lime ; Ijjnx, a lynx. 

ES NOT IXCKEASIXG IN GENrnVE. 

109. Nouns in es not increasing in genitive arc femi- 
nine: ndbes^ cloiul. 

Exceptions. 

1. Masculine: — aciniices : somctimea /)n/«m^>os and vrprcs. 

2. Kcuter : — a few rare Greek nouns : cacotthes, hippomdncs 

S TRECEDED BY A CONSONANT. 

1 10. Nouns in s preceded by a consonant arc feminine: 
urbSy city. 

Exceptions. — 2faseulinc: 

1. Dc7is, tooth, fons, fountain, mo7is, mountain, pons, bridge ; gen- 

erally iideps, fat, and rudc7is, caljlc. 

2. Some nouns in ns, originally adjectives or participles with a masc. 

noun understood, — (1) oricns, occukns (sol), cast, west, — (2) con- 
f liens, forrcns (amnis), confluence, torrent, — (3) b'idens, tridcns 
(raster), two-pronged hoe, trident, — (4) sextans, qtiadrans (as), 
parts of an as. 

3. Chubjhs, steel, hydrops, dropsy, and a few Greek names of ani- 

mals: t^pops, gryps, seps {{.). 

4. Sometimes : forceps, forccijs ; serpens, serpent ; slirps, stock. 

Aji^mans, animal, originally participle, is masc, fcm., or neuter. 



id tigris aro often 



III. Neuter Endings. 

a, e, i, y, c, 1, n, t, ar, ur, us. 

A, E, I, Y, C, T, AR. 

111. Nouns in a, e, i, y, c, t, ar arc neuter : i^octncty 
poem ; 7ndre, sea ; lac, milk ; caput, head. 

I. 

112. Nouns in 1 arc neuter: a7iimal, animal. 
Exceptions. — Masculine : — i7iuriil, mullet ; sal (also neuter in singu- 

lar), salt ; sol, sun. 

N. 

113. Nouns in n arc neuter: carmen, song. 

2* 



li: 



a4 FOURTH DECLENSION. 

Exceptions. 

1. Mancnllnc: — pcctcn^ comb; rc^, kidney; lien, spleen; and Crook 

masculines in an, en, in, on: paean, paean; canoti, rule. 

2. Feminine: — ae(/o?/, nightingale ; alcyon (halcyon), kingtiahcr; icon, 

imago ; simian, muslin. 

UR. 

114. Nouns in ur are neuter : fulgur^ lightning. 

Exceptions. — Masculine :— furfur, bran ; turtur, turtledove ; vultur, 

Tulturc. 

US. 

115. Nouns in U3 are neuter : corpus^ body. 

Exceptions. 

1. Masculine : — Icpitu, hare ; mus, mouse ; Greek nouns in pus and 

a few others ; triples, tripod. 

2. Feminine : — icllus, earth ; fraus, fraud ; laus, praise ; and nouns 

in us, Gen. utis or udis : virtus, virtue ; pdlus, marsh. 



FOURTH DECLENSION. 

116. Kouns of the fourth declension end in 
US, — masculine ; u, — neuter. 

They are dccHned as follows : 
FructuSj/rwiV. Cornu, Jiorn. 

SINGULAR. 



Case-Endinijs. 



N. fructiis 


cornil 


tis 


Q 


G. fructiis 


cornas 


GS 


Qs 


D. fructui 


cornfl 


UI 


Q 


A. fructftm 


cornfk 


&m 


Q 


V. fructiis 


cornfa 


fis 


Q 


A. fructa 


cornil 

PLURAL. 


Q 


Q 


N. fructfts 


cornnii 


lis 


ua 


G. fructuttm 


corniiiliit 


uum 


uum 


D. fructilJils 


corni1>iis 


ibus (ubus) 


ibus (ubus) 


A. fructiis 


cornuji 


U3 


ua 


V. ffuctfts 


cornuii 


us 


ua 


A. fructibils. 


cornXbiis. 


ibus (ubus). 


ibiis (ubus) 



1. Case-Endings. — Nouns of this declension aro declined with 
the case-endings presented in the above table. 



OEXDKn. 



35 



fcdovc ; vuUur, 



us ill pus and 
sc; and nouns 



2. Examples for Practice. — Cantmy song; cuvvus^ diariot; cuV' 
8US, course; nrsiift, verse; gait/, knee. 

.". Modification of Third Declension.— Tlio fourth declension is but n 
niO(li(ication of tlic tliinl, inoduced by contniction : i\n\» /ntdits, in the un- 
coiitractt'd form, was declined like (/t'Uf, ffruis, of Deel. III. : N. fi'uctuH, (J. 
fruduis = f nidus; ]). J'rudui, A. /nut nan = //•udu7/i,'V. jfnidtiK ; A. 
Jrudue —frxidn: Plur. "S.fruducs =/nu'tu8, etc. 

4. Irregidar Case-Endings. — The follow inj^ occur : 

1) Ubus for tbiis, used regidnrly in the Dat. and Abl. Plur. of 

ylc7/."», needle ; arct/)^,how, a rt u,<>, ']o'mt; lac u s, hiko ; partii-^, h'lvih ; ju^cu, 
rattle; (jio'rctK, oak; sjucui^, i\ci\ ; trlOns, tr'ihc; tt7'«, spit: oceusioually in a 
few other words, anj)orfii8, sinus, and ton^trus. 

2) Uis, the uncontracted form for ns, in the Oen. : fntduia for/rudus, 
C) U for ni, in the Dat. by contraction : cquUdtu for cquitatui, cavalry. 

117. Second mul Fourth Declensions. — Some nouns are 
partly of this declension and partly of the second. 

1. DOmus, house, declined as follows: 



PLUnAL. 

domua 

donuiuni, domurum 

domibus 

donius, domu.s ^ 

(lonu'is 

domibiis. 



SINGULAR. 

K. domus « 

G. domu.s, doinl 

D. donuii (domo) 

A. domum 

V. doniu.s 

A. domo (domu) 

In this word there i.s Rcnorally a difference of moaning between the forms of 
the second Dccl. and tho.so of the fourth ; thus, G. domus, of a house ; ilomi\ at liomc : 
A. PI. domus, houses; domos, often, homeward; to homes. 

2. Certain names of trees in its, as cnprcssits, f'lcns, lawns, pimis, 
thouf^h generally of Deel. II,, sometimes take those eases of the fourth 
which end in us and u ; N. Imirns, G. laurus, D. lauro, A. laurum^ V. 
laurus, A. lanru, &c. 8o also cdlus, dlstalf. 

8. A few nouns, especially scndlus and fionultus, though regularly of 
Deel. IV., sometimes take the genitive ending i of the second : sciidtiy 
tumulti. 

118. Gender in Fourth Declension. 

Masculine ending: us. 

Neuter ending : u. 

Exceptions. 

1. Feminine: — (1) acws, needle; cc5/?<s, distaff ; ddmus, house; munus, 
hand; portlcus, portico; tribus, tribe, — (2) idus^ ides; 
Quinquatrus, feast of Minerva; generally phius, store, 
when of this dccl. ; rarely spl^cus^ den, — (3) a few nouns 



I 



t 






il 



;l 



I 



J 



yo 



FIFTH r)i:rr,i:\,sio\. 



Casc-Eudings. 



Fcm. by Kipinificfttion (35. II.): 7jwn«, daughter-in-law; 
/Jews, fig troc' 
2. JVtU/cr :—sCciis (.srj-w.s), .sex ; rarely, spicus, den. 

ril'TII DECLENSION 

119. Nouns of the fillli ilcclc'iisiou end in e&j—femi' 
ninCf and are declined as IoIIowm: 

Dies, du)/. lies, th'oifj. 

SINQULAK. 

r«I 

r«I 

rC» 
rC 

I'LLUAI.. 

vHh 

rC^rfttn 

rCbik(!» 

rCs* 
rCs 

1. Cass-Endings. — Nouns of this dcclcnsiou aro declined wiib 
the casc-cndings presented in the ahovc table. 

^iii ei i3 generally short when preceded by a consonant, otlicrwiso long. 

2. Examples for Practice. — Acien^ battle array; effigies^ effigy; 
/acics, face; scries, series; sjhxIcs, form; spes, hope. 

3. Modification of Third Declension.— The fifth declension, like tho 
fourth, seems to be amoditicution of the third. It is produced by contraction 
{ces = es : cibus =■ cl/ue), except in the genitive, where ei comes from eis, by 
dropping s, and ertmi from eu7n, by inserting r. 

. 4. Irregular Endings :— d or i for ei in the Gen. and Dat. : acie for aciH ; 
2)ernicii for 2'e>'nic/ei. 

5.. Defective.— Nouns of this declension, except dies and res, want tlio 
Gen., Dat., and Abl. Plur., and many admit uo plural whatever. 

120. Gender in Fifth Declensiox. 

Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine. 

Exceptions. — Masculhic : — dics^ day, and mcridics, midday, though 
dies la sometimes feminine in tho singular. 

1 Also Fern. Avlieu it means ^^. 



a. dif'i 

D. diC'I 
A. di^m 
V. diCM 
J. die 

iV. dii^s 

J). diCbuH 
A. diC'S 

r. dic« 

jf. diClptts. 



C9 

ex 

d 

cm 

C'S 

8 

03 

Orura 

Obils 

03 
03 

0bu3. 



J 



s. 



COMrAIlATIVK VIEW OF DECLENSIONS. 



37 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE FIVE DECLENSIONS. 



121. Casc-Eiulincfs of Lfitin nouns.* 



I: acie for aciei ; 









SINOULAR. 




Die. I. 


Dec 


II. 


Dec 


III. 




Ftin. 


Mase. 


Ncut. 


M. A; r. 


Ncut. 


M 


S, u 


US— '^ 


uin 


s (os, is)^— 


V 


us 


(L ao 


i 


i 


is 


Is 


as 


1). ao 


o 


o 


I 


I 


ul 


A, ilm 


uin 


run 


em (Im) 


like noni. 


uin 


r. ii 


t'* *" 


Ulll 


like num. 


like noin. 


us 


A. fi 


r» 





oO) 


r- (T) 


n 










rHUAL. 


iV. no 


I 


!t 


r-s 


il (ia)^ 


us 


(f, firuin 


orum 


on'mi 


Cim (iCau) 


uin (iuui) 


uum 


y>. H 


Is 


is 


iln'is 


il;us 


ibus 


.1. iH 


OS 


j1 


f'S 


a (i;t) 


us 


r. no 


i 


jI 


t'S 


it (iu) 


us 


A. is. 


is 


id. 


ibus. 


Ibus. 


ibus 



Doc. IV, 



Noiit. 



a 
as 

Q 

a 

Q 
Q 



Hum 



D. V. 

Fotu- 

("'ft 

dl 

dl 

dm 




Ctuui 



ibus (ubus) Ibus (iibus) Cibus 

uii* es 

ibus (ubus) ibus (ubus).lcburf. 

122. I'y .'I closo analysis it Avill bo found, 

1. That the fivo declension^ arc only five varieties of one gen- 
eral system of declension. 

2. That these varieties have been produced by tlio union of 
(litrerent final letters in the various stems, with one general system 
of endings. 

123. According to this analysi?i, 

1. The stems in the five declensions end in the following 
letters : 

I. II. in. IV. 



a, 



o. 



u. 



consonant, 
(rarely i). 
2. The general case-endings are as follows : * 



V. 
c. 



• Tliis tivblo presents the endings of all nouns in the Latin language, except a fc\y 
ilcrived from the Greek. 

2 The dush denotes that the case-ending Is sometimes wanting : cr and ir iu Deck 
11., it will 1)0 remembered, are not case-endings, but parts of the stem (45. 1). 

2 The inclosed endings are less common than the others. 

••In this table observe, 

1) That different endings characteristic of different genders may bo found In one 
and the same declension. 

2) That a slight difference of declension is however apparent in the double forms 
in 5n, ?; cs, i; W7?j, ruin\ Wu.% is; but that in each of these double forms, the first 
eccms to have been tho original ending from which the second was derived. 



38 



COMl'ARATIVE VIEW OF DECLENSIONS. 






!| 



tli 



li :'l 



<i 1 1 





SINGULAR. 




Jfasc. and Fern. 




JVez 


N. s — 




e, m 


G. Is, i 




is, i 


i>. i 




i 


A. era, m 




like ] 


F". like nom. 




t( 


A. a (i) 




0(1) 



PLURAL. 

iV. (!3, i 
Cr. urn, rum 
7>. ibus. is 

A. 03 

K. like nom. 
A. ibus, is. 

3. The manner in which these endings unite with the different 
stems so as to produce the five declensions may be seen in the 
following 

COMPARATIVE VIEW OF DECLENSIONS. 



Ji (iji) 
iim, rCim 
ibus, is 
like nom. 

ibus, is. 





I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 




Mensa. 


Servo. 


Reg. 


Fructu. 


Re. 






SINGULAR. 






N. 


men^a- 


servo-s 


rcg-s 


fnictu-s 


re-» 


mensa 


servus 


rex 


iVuetus 


res 


G.- 


i mensa-i 


servo-i 


rcff-is 


fructu-is 


re-i{s) 


[ mensae 


servi 


regis 


i'ructus 


rei 


D. 


[ me7isa-i 


se.rvo-i 


rcy-i 


fructu-i 


re-i 


\ mensae 


servo 


rcgi 


fructui 


rei 


A.- 


f mcnm-m 


scrvo-m 


rcrf-tm 


fructu-{c)m 


)•( {c)m 


\ mcnsam 


servum 


regom 


fructuin 


rem 


v.- 


\ niensa- 


scrvo-c ' 


reg-s 


frnctu-s 


re-s 


\ mensa 


servo 


rex 


fruetus 


res 


A.- 


i incnsa-c 


scrvo-c 


rcg-c 


fntchi-c 


re-e 


mensa 


servo 


rego 


fructu 


re 






PL 


URAL. 






N. 


menaa-i 


scrvo-i 


rcg-cs 


fnicta-cs 


rc-cs 


mensae 


servi 


reges 


iVuetus 


res 


G. 


[ mc7isa-um 


scrvo-vm. 


rcg-um 


fnietn-nm 


rc-um 


[ meusarum 


servorum 


regum 


fructu um 


rerum 


D.- 


1 mcnsa-is 


scrvo-is 


vcg-ibns 


frnctn-ibus 


rc-ibus 


I mensis 


servis 


regibiis 


fructibus 


rebiis 


A.. 


( mcnm-cs 


servo-cs 


rcg-cs 


friictu-cs 


rc-cs 


\ mensas 


servos 


regos 


fructua 


res 


v.. 


\ mensa-i 


servo-i 


rcg-cs 


frnctu-cs 


re-cs 


' mensae 


servi 


regos 


iVuctus 


res 


A.- 


mcnsa-is 


scrvo-is 


rcg-ibus 


fruetu-ibus 


rc-ibus 


mensis. 


servis. 


regibus. 


fructibus. 


rebus. 



' Nouns in tta of Dec. II. have e instead of «. 



^ 



JTS. 



GENDER. 



39 



til tlie different 
be seen in the 



[ONS. 



)in 



;.s 



V. 

Re. 

res 
res 

re-i{s) 
rei 

re-i 
rei 

re {c)m 
rem 
res 
rC'S 

re-e 
rO 

rc-cs 
rC'S 

rc-iim 
rerum 

re-ibus 
rC'bus 

re-cs 
res 

re-cs 
res 

rc-ibm 
rebus. 



124. General Table of Gender. 

I. Gentler iii(lej)endcut of ending.' Common to all 
declensions. 



Masculino. 
Names of Males, of 
Rivers, WiXDd, and 
Months. 



Fciiiiiiiuc. 

Names of Females, of 
Countries, Towns, 
Islands, and Trees. 



Noutor. 

Indeclinable Noi'ns, 
and Words and 
Clauses nsed as Li- 
declinable Nouns. 
1 



II. Gender determined by Nominative Ending. 



Masculine. 
as, es. 

er, ir, us, os. 



o, or, OS, er, es in- 
creasing in the geni- 
tive. 



Declension I. 

Feminine. 
a, e. 

Declension II. 



I 



Neuter. 



uin, on. 



us. 



Declension III. 

as, is, ys, x, es not 

increasing in the 
genitive, 8 preceded 
by a consonant. 

Declension IV. 



Declension V. 
es. 



a, e, i, y, c, 1, n, t, 
ar, ur, us. 



u. 



PECLEXSIOX OF COMPOUND AND IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

COMPOUND NOUNS. 

125. Compounds present in general no peculiarities of 
declension. But 

1. If two nominatives unite, tliey are both declined: respuhlica 
= res puhUca^ republic, the public thing; jusjurandum = jusju- 
randrnn, oatli. 

2. If a nominative unites with an oblique case, only the nom- 
inative is declined: paterfamilias = p^^ter familias (42. 3), or 
imter familiac, the fatlier of a fiiniily. 

1 For exceptions, sec 30. 

2 For c.\ceiitiou3, see uuder the several declensions. 



f 



I i 



! 



^ 


: ! 




j 


1 


t ■ 
i 


1 


!i 










' 


1 '■ 


I 


i\ 



''*■ I 






I 



Kl 



I !' 



40 



COMPOUND AND IRREGULAR NOUNS. 



126. Paradigms. 



N. rcspublica 
G. relpublicac 
D. relpublicae 
A. rempublicam 
V. respublicu 
A. republlcfi 



iV. rcspublicac 
G. rerumpubliciirum 
I>. rebuspuljlicia 
A., respublicris 
V. respubllcac 
•'- A. rebuspublicia. 



SINGULAR. 

jusjurandum 

juriiijurandl 

jurijurando 

jusjurandum 

jusjurandum 

jurcjurando 

PLURAL. 

jurajurand;t 



jurajurandit 
jurajuranda. 



piiterfiimilias 

patrisfamiliaa 

patrilamilia3 

patrcnifamiliaa 

paterfamilias 

patrefamiliaa 



patrcsfamilias 

patrurafamilias 

patribusfamilias 

patrcsfamilias 

patrcsfamilias 

patribusfamilias. 



■ 1. The parts which compose these and similar words are often and pcrhr ps 
more correctly written separately : res i^uhlica ; jyatcv familias ov familiae. 

2. The parts of nspublica are res of the 5th Decl. and jjublka of the 1st. 

S. The parts oi jusjurandum axe jus of the 3d Decl. txad jurandum of the 
2d. Jusjurandum wants the Gen., Dat., and Abl. Plur. 

4. The parts oi paterfamilias f,re ^^aie;* of the 3d Dccl. audfatnilias (42. 
S), the old Gen. oi familia, of the 1st. Sometimes, though rarely, the Gcu 
familidrum is used in the plural : jjoires/amilklrut/i iov jJoiresfamilias. 

IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

127. Irregular nouns may bo divided into four classes: 

I. Indeclinable Nouns have but one form for all cases. 

II. Defective Nouns want certain parts. 

III. IIeteroclites {heterocUta ') are partly of one de- 
clension and partly of another. 

IV. Heterogeneous Nouns {hetcrogenea") arc partly 
of one gender and partly of another. 

I. Indeclinable Nouns. 

128. The Latin has but few indeclinable nouns. 
1. The principal examples arc : 

1) Fas, right; 7ief as, wron^ ; insiar, equality; mane, morning; tiihilj 
nothing ; pondo, pound ; sccus, sex. 

2) The letters of the alphabet, a, b, c, alpha, beta, etc. 

8) Foreign words: Jacob, Illtbtrri ; though these are often declined: 



» From iT^pos, another, and kK'ktis, iDjIcctiou, i. c, of diffodiit declenslona. 
' From 'drepos, another, and yr'vos. (ji.ndcr, i. c, of difl'crcut gcndora. 






•^^ 



V' 



DEFECTIVE NOUNS. 



41 



railias 

nilias 

raniiliaa 

miliaa 

tailias 



imllias 

familiag 

sfamiliaa 

imilias 

imilias 

sfamilias. 

often and pcrhf.pd 
'ias or familiae. 
uUka of the 1st. 
juraiulum of the 

aud/amilias (42. 
I rarely, the Gcu 
tresfamUias. 



four classes : 
for all cases. 

y of one dc- 

■) arc partly 



ouns. 



morning ; nih'd^ 



often declined; 

\i dcclcnslous. 
IgcQdurs, 



JacObus, Jacobi; Jllehen-is, IlUbcrri. Jesus has Jesum in the accusative and 
Jegit iu the other cases. 

2. Some indeclhiable nouns arc also defective: wa/ic wants the Gen. and 
Dat. ; fas and nefas, the Gen., Dat., and Abl. '•• 

II. Defective Nouns. 

1 29. Nouns may be defective in N'umba\ in CasCy or 
in both Kinnber and Case. 

I. KouHS defective in Kumhcr, 

130. Plural wanting.— ^^any nouns from the nature of their 
8igniti('iitiun wai)t tlie plural: iiyma, Kome; JM«ii7/a, justice; an- 
nun, gold. 

1. The principal nouns of this class arc : 

1) I'l'opcr names (except those used only in the plural) : Cicero, liOma, 

2) Abstract Nouns : fldts, faith ; jvstUia, justice. 
U) Names of materials : aiwum, gold.-, for rum, ivon. 

4) A fow others : vicridles, midday ; specimen, example ; snpellex, furni- 
ture; ver, spring; vcspera, evening, etc. 

2. Proper names admit the plural to Cic^i^uoXc families, classes; names of mate, 
rial?, to dcsitrnate pieces of the material or articles made of it; and abstract nouns, 
to designate instances, or kinds, of tlio quality; Scipvmes, the Scix)ios ; acra, vessoU 
of copiier ; avaritiae, instances of avarice ; odia, hatreds. 

In the iiocts, i\\Q. plur. of abstracts occurs in the sense of the sing. 

131. Singular wanting. — Many nouns want the singular. 

1. The most important of these arc : 

1 ) Certain personal appellatives applicable to classes : rnajoi-cs, fore 
fathers ; poster}, descendants ; gamni, twins ; libiri, children, etc. 

2) Many names of cities : Atlunac, Athens ; TJilbae, Thebes ; Delphi, 
Delphi ; Arffi, Argos, though the Sing. Argos occurs in Nom. and Ace. 

o) Many names of festivals: HaccJianalia, Olympia, Saturnalia. 

4) Many names not included in these classes. Such are : 

-■!/•?««, arms; diritiae, riches; e<Pfiequi^ie,t\\ncTii\ rites; ccrwrirtf, spoils; Idus, 
Idos; indutiae, truce; Insidiae, ambuscade; manes, shades of tho dead; m'inae, 
threats; wf)c?im, walls; «i?n!m, duties; ju^/ff/rtf, nuptials; reliquiae, rcmsixns. 

2. An individual member of a class designated by these plurals may be denoted 
by unus ex with tho plural : itnus ex liMris, one of the children, or a child. 

3. Tho plural in names of cities maj have reference to tho several parts of tho 
city, especially as ancient cities were often made up of separate villngcs. So in tho 
names of festivals, the plural may refer to the various games and exercises which to- 
gether constituted the festival. 

132. Plural with Change of Meaning.— Some nouns have 
one ^signification iu the singular and another in the plural : Thus 

SI.NGLLAU. PLURAL. 

Acdcs, temple ; aedes, (1) temples, (2) a ?ionse.^ 

Aqua, water ; aquae, (1) waters, (li) mineral springs. 

* Aedc8-Am\ some other words in tliis list, it will bo observed, have in tho plural 
two signilications, one corresponding to that of the singular, an*! tho other distinct 
from it. 



r 



I 



% 



I 



! 



i\ 



42 



DEFECTIVE JiOUNS. 



Auxiliuni, //dp ; 
IJonuui, a (joud thing, blessing ; 
Career, prison, barrier ,' 
Caatnim, cadle, Imt ; 
Comitiuiii, name of apart of the 

lioman furuiii ; 
COpiii, pie nt 11, force / 
Facultus, ability ; 
Finis, end ; 
Yw\.\\\vci,fortMne ; 
(j ratia, gratitude, favor ; 
Ilortus, garden / 
Inipcdimeutuiii, hindrance / 

LittCra, letter of alphabet ; 

Ludus, play, sj^ort ; 

^los, custom ; 

Natalis (dies), birth-day ; 

Oprra, ivork^ sercice ,' 

Pars, part: 

liostrum, oeak of sJiij) ; 

Sal, salt ; 



auxilia, auxiliaries. 

bona, riches, goods. 

carccrcs, barriers of a race-course. 

castra, catnp. 

comitia, the assembly held in the comir 

Hum. 
copiac, (1) stores, (2) troops. 
lacultdtcs, ictalth, means. 
iincs, borders, territory. 
Ibrtuiiac, possessions, icealth. 

frraliac, thanks. 
lorti, {I) gardens, {i) pleasure grniiuds. 
inipcdimeuta, (1) hindrances, (2) bag- 

Utterae, (1) letters of alphabet, (2) epiis- 
tie, writing, letters, literature. 

liuli, (I) plays, (^l) public spectacle. 

mures, manners, character. 

natales, pedigree, parentage. 

operae, workmen. 

partes, (1) parts, (2) a party. 

rostra, (1) beaks, (2) the rostra or tri- 
bune in Home (adorned with 
beaks). 

sales, witty sayings. 



II. Nouns defective in Case. 

133. Some nouns are defective in case. Thus 

1. Some want the nominative^ dative, and vocative singtdar : (Ops), 
opis, help ; (vix or vicis), vicis, change. 

2. Some want the nominative and vocative sinrfidar : (Daps), ditpis, 
food; (ditio), dltionis, sway ; (frux), frugis, fruit; (intcrnccio), iutcrnc- 
clonis, destruction ; (pollis), polllnls, four. 

3. Some want the genitive^ dative, and ablative j)lural : thus most 
nouns of the fifth declension. Sec 119. 5. 

So also many neuters ; far, fcl, mcl, pus, rus, tics ; especially Greek 
neutei's in os, which want these cases in tlie singular also : epos, mclos. 

4. Some want the genitive plural : thus many nouns otherwise entire, 
especially mouoByllables : nex, pax, pix ; cor, cos, ros ; sal, sol, lux. 

III. Nouns defective in Number and Case. 

1 34. Some nouns want one entire number and certain cases 
of the other : fort\ chance, has only fors and forte ; lues, pesti- 
lence, has lues, Inem, lue. Many verbal nouns in u have only the 
ablative singular: jusm, by order; manddtu, by command; rogd- 
tu, by rc(iuest. 

III. IIeteeoclites. — Two Classes. 

I. Ileteroclites with one form in- the nominative sin- 
gular. 

II. Ileteroclites with different forms in the nominative 
sincrular. 



IIETEROCLITES. 



43 







ace-course. 


1 


Id ill the comi- 




oops. 

IS. 


1 


calth. 


-^ 


Measure grounds, 
ranees, (2) hag- 


: ,j.'- 


pJiahet, (2) epis- 
, literature, 
ic spectacle, 
der. 
itage. 




party. 

he rostra or tri- 

(adoined with 





nynlar : (Ops), 

(Daps), (lapis, 
iccio), intcruc- 

'ol : thus most 

specially Greek 
\pos, melon. 
fherwise entire, 
sol^ lux. 



certain cases 
j; lucs^ pcsti- 
lavc only tho 
[mand; rogd- 



I* J * 



Imative sin- 
uommativo 




Class First. 

135. Of Declensions II. and IV. are a few nouns in m. 
See 117. 

136. Of Declensions II. and III. arc 

1 Jnqtmm, an acre ; regularly of tho second Deol., except in the 
(Ion. rUir., which is juuerum, according to the tliird. Other lorms ot the 

tl'.ird are rare. , . , r.. ^ c ,\ i • 

2. Vas, a vessel ; of tho third Dccl. in the fcnig., and of the second ni 

t!ic riur. : v«.v, r<7«is ; plural, m.sa, rrt,sor«)«. 

;{ Plural names of festivals in alia : Bacchanalia, baturnalia ; wincli 

are rc^'ularlv of the third Decl., but sometimes form the (ii'U. I'lur. m 

orum of the second. Ancllc, a shield, and a few other words also occur. 

137. Of Declension: III. and V. aro 

1. Rcquics, rest; which is regularly of the third Decl., but also takes 
the forms /-fif/Micwi and )V(/?«'c of the fiiVh. 

2. Famei^, hunger ; reguhirly of ti'.c :'>ii;d Deck, except in the ablative, 
/c!»u-, of the iifth (not fame, of the third). 

Class Second.^ 

138. Forms in ia and ies.— Many words of four sylkablcs 
have one form in ia of Decl. I., anA one tn ic8 of Decl. V. : harla- 
ria, harlaries, barbarism; duritia^ duritk^^ hardness; luxuria, 
lui'urics, luxury ; materia, matcrics, material ; mollitia, moUiticSy 
softness. 

139. Forms in US and um. — Many nouns derived from verbs 
have one form in its of Decl. IV., and one in vin of Decl. II. : 
condtus, condtum, an attempt; cvaitus, cventuni, event; 2)raete£tus, 
praetextum, pretext. 

140. Many other Examples might bo added. Many words which 
have but one approved form in prose, admit another in poetry : juvcntus 
(ntiij), youth; poetic, ywye/ita (ae): scncctus (fitis), old age; poetic, senccta 
(ae) : paupertas (atis), poverty ; poetic, paupcrics (ei). 

IV. IIeterogexeous Nouns. — Two Classes. 

I. With one forni in the nominative sinGrular. 

II. With different forms in the nominative singular. 

Class First. 

141. Masculine and Neuter. — Some masculines take in tho 
l)lural an additional form of the neuter gender: 

Jdcus, a jest ; plur., joci and ^'oca. 

locufi, place; " /oc?, topics, passages in books, places ; ^ca, places. 

sibdus, hissing ; " sibili ; poetic, slbila. 

142. Feminine and Neuter. — Some feminines take in tho 
plural an additional form of the neuter gender: 



' Sometimes called JicUundunt nouns, or abiinfiantia. 



44 



ADJECTIVES. 



T'-i 



Carb&stis, linen ; plnral, carhani. and carbarn, sailrt, &c. 
mart/arila, pearl ; " viarf/aritac and maryarita^ Onim. 
ostrca, oyriter ; " ostreae and ostrca, drum. 

143. Neutek and Masculine or Feminine. — Some neuters 
tuko in the plural u dillereiit gender ; tlius 

1. Some neuters become maHculinc in the plural : 

VodtDii, heaven ; j)lural, vocll. 

2. Some neuters generally become niasculinc in the plural, but some- 
'.irncd remain neuter : 

Frtnwn, bridle; ])\m\. freni^ sometimes /rf7m. 
rastruvi, rake; " rastri, " rastra. 

3. Some neuters become feminine in the plural : 

Mptduniy public feast ; plur., epulae, meal, banquet. 

Class Second. 

144. Forms in us and um. — Some noimE of the second 
declension Lave one form in us masculine and one in V7)i neuter : 
cli2)ezis, clipeum,, shield ; coimnentarius, commentarium^ comment- 
ary; cuVitii)^, cuhitum, cubit; juffuhis, jugulian, tliroat. 

145. IIeterooeneofs Heteroclites. — Some heteroclltcs arc 
also heterogeneous : coadtus (us), condtum (i), etibrt ; mcnda (ae), 
mendum (i), fault. 



-«♦♦- 



CHAPTER II. 

ADJECTIVES. 

146. The adjective is that part of si^eech which is used 

to qualify nouns : bonus, good ; magnus, great. 

The form of the adjective in Latin depends in part upon the gender 
of the noun which it qualifies; bonus pv^r, a good boy; bo7ia puelta, a 
good girl ; bonum tectum, a good house. Thus bonus is the form of the 
adjective when used with masculine nouns, botia with feminine, and bonum 
with neuter. 

147. Some adjectives are partly of the first declen- 
sion and partly of the second, while all the rest are entirely 
of the third declension. 

I. FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 



148. Adjectives of this class have in the nominative 



singular the endings : 



FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 



45 



Irf, &c. 
Itdf drum. 

some neuters 



licli is used 

)n the gondev 
ona puclln, a 
2 form of the 
le, and bonum 

rst decl en- 
arc entirely 



S. 



lominative 



Masc, Doc. II. 
US ' — , 



Fom., Dec. I. 



Ncut., Dec. II. 

um. 



They arc declined as follows : 

Bonu.s, ffood. 



iral. but some- W 






SINGULAR. 




H 




Masc. 


Fe7n. 


mut. 


9 


Norn. 


bonils 


bonii 


buntkiu 


H 


Gen. 


boni 


bonac 


bonI 


'9 


Dat. 


bono 


bonac 


bono 


' V 


Ace. 


boniini 


bon&iu 


bonttm 


.1 


Voc. 


bon^ 


))onii 


bonikiii 


F tliG second J 


All. 


bono 


bona, 


bono 


\ iwi neuter : ^ 1 
n, comment- M 


Kom. 


bonI 


PLURAL. 

bonae 


bonii 


teroclltes aro m 


Gen. 


bonOriiiii 


bonariini • 


bonorilni 


mcnda (ae), 'm 


Dat. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 


'^m 


Ace. 


bonos 


bonas 


bonii 


^^^M 


Voc. 


bonI 


bonac 


bonii 


91 


All. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis. 



Liber, free. 







SINGULAR. 






Ilasc, 


I'tm. 


Keut. 


Nom. 


liber 


llberii 


llberfun 


Gen. 


libC^rl 


liburac 


liberl 


Dat. 


hburo 


liberae 


libero 


Ace. 


1 bcrikiu 


liberiim 


liberiim 


Voc. 


libur 


iibCrii 


liberikm 


All. 


libero 


libera 


libero 






PLURAL. 


' 


Nom. 


liberl 


liberac 


liber& 


Gen. 


libcroriiia 


libcrariim 


libcroriini 


Dat. 


liberls 


libeils 


liberls 


Ace. 


hberos 


liberas 


lihriji 


Voc. 


in)i:rl 


liborac 


librrii 


AU. 


liburis 


libCrls 


liberis. 



The uosli indicates that the enJing is sometimes wanting. See 45. 1. 



'yioir 



IV 



'Wr^A 



46 



' I 



; . 





V 


ADJECTIVES. 






• 


Aegcr, side. 

SINGULAR. . 




Norn. 


aof^er 


acgrit 


acgriiitt 


Gen. 


acgri 


acgrac 


acgrI 


Dat. 


acgrft 


acgrao 


aegrft 


Ace. 


acgrilia 


aegriim 


acgriim 


Voc. 


aegcr 


acgrii 


acgrttm 


Abl. , 


aegrO 


aegrft 

PLURAL. 


aogro ; 


Nom. 


aegri 


acgrac 


acgrii 


Gen. 


aogroriiin 


acgrartkm 


acgroriiin 


Dat. 


acgiTs 


aegrls 


aegrls 


Ace. 


acgrOs 


aegras 


acgrii 


Voc. 


aogri 


acgrac 


acgrii 


Ahl. 


acgrls 


acgils 


acgrls. 



1. Moiuis is declined in Ihc Masc. like sa'vvs of Decl. II. (45), in the 
Fern, like mensa of Decl. I. (42), and in tbc N'eut. like iem2)lu7n of Decl. II. 
(45). 

2. Zlher differs in declension from bonus only in dropping vs and e in 
the Nom, and Voc. (45. 3, 1). Atf/cr difl'ers from liber only in dropping e 
before r (45. 3, 2). 

3. Most adjectives in cr arc declined like ac(/er, but the following in er 
and ur are declined like liber : 

1) Aspcty rough; lacer, torn; miser, wretched; prosper, prosperous; 
tener, tender ; but asper sometimes drops the e, and dexter, right, sometimes 
retains it : dexter, dextera or dextra. 

2) Satur, sated ; satur, satura, satiirnm. 

8) Compounds in fer and ger : viortifcr, deadly ; aliger, winged. 

149. Irregularities. — ^Thcsc nine adjectives have in the 
singular lus in the genitive and i in the dative : 

Alms, another ; nullus, no one ; solus, alone ; tdtus, whole ; 
uUus, any ; unvs, one ; altei', -tcra, -terum, the other ; uteVf -tra, 
'trum, which (of two) ; neuter, -ira, -triim, neither. 

1. The Regular Forms occasionally occur in some of these adjectives: 
aliae, niilU, for alius, nulllus ; altera, alterae, for alteri. 

2. /in ius in poetry is sometimes short; generally so in alteriiis. 

3. Alius has aliud for alium in the ucutcr; and shortens the genitive 
cdi'ius into alius. 

4. Like uter are declined its compounds : uterque, vtervis, uterlibet, titer- 
cnnque. In alteruter sometimes both parts are declined, as alterhts vtnus ; 
and sometimes only the latter, as alterulrlus. 






// 



acgri 
acr^ro 
acgittm 
acgrikm 
aegro ; 



nogrii 
icgrorttm 

legrls 
icgrii 
legrft 
legris, 

:cl. II. (45), in the 
m2)lum of Dccl. II. 

»pping Its and e in 
nly in dropping e 

the following in er 

>s2)er, prosperous ; 
, right, sometimes 



er, winged. 

cs have in the 
e : 

tOtus, whole ; 
ler ; uter^ -tra, 

these adjectives : 

1 alter ins. 

ens the genitive 

is, nterlibet, -utcr- 
alier-hts vMtis ; 



^ THIRD DECLENSION. 47 

II. ADJECTIVES OF THE TUIKD DECLENSION. 

150. Adjectives of the third declension may be divided 
into tln-ee classes : 

I. Those which have in ihe nominative singular three 
different forms — one ft)r each gender. 

II. Those which have two forms — the nia«5culine and 
feminine heing the same. 

III. Those which have but one form — the same for all 
genders. 

151. I. Adjectives of Three Endings of this declen- 



.y^.t.-^C/H^^^ 



s'on have in the nominative singular : 



Mosc. 

er, 



Fcm. 

is. 



Ncut. 

e. 



They are declined as follows ; 

Acer, sharp. 





SINGCLAR. 




Muse. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


N. ric«jr 


ficris 


ficrC 


G. acrls 


acris 


acrls 


D. aerl 


acrl 


acrl 


A. acr«iia 


acrijin 


acriS 


V. ac2r 


acris 


acrS 


A. acrl 


acrl 

PLURAL. 


acrl; 


N. acres 


acrCs 


acrisi 


G. acriiiiit 


acriikiii 


acrifim 


B. acril>iis 


acritoiis 


acribiks 


A. acrCs 


acres 


acria. 


V. acres 


acres 


acrid. 


A. acrlliiks 


acribiks 


acribiks. 



1. Like -4ccr are declined : 

1) Aliiccr, lively; cn?npcsfcr, level; cclebcr, famous; cckr,^ swift; 
cqucstcr, equestrian; paluater, marshy; pcdcster^ pedestrian; putei\ putrid; 
mlubcr, healthful ; silvcster, woody ; tcrrestcr^ terrestrial ; volucer, winged. 

2) Adjectives in er designating the months : Oddhcr, hris."^ 

2. The Masculine in is, like the Fern., also occurs : salubriSy s'dvcstris, 
for saluber, Silvester. 

1 This retains e in declension : celer, ceUris^ ceUre ; and has um in the Gen. riur. 
' Sec also 87. 2. 



48 



AUJErxiVES. 



/ 



X 



8. These forma In er nrc analopou.^ to tliosc in cr (whether nouns or 
ndjcctives) of Doc. 11. in dropping,' tlie i-iidiiif,' in the Nom. and Voc. Slnp;. 
tind in inserting c before r. TlniM mjo', ori^'iiially (ujyua., drops ?<«, giving' 
(irjr, and thun inserts c to facilitate pronunciation, giving ffr/cr; so acci\ 
originally acrls.^ drops u and inserts c ; t/c»', (xccr. 

152. IT. Adjectives of Tv\'o Exdixgs liJlvc in the 
nominative singular : 



1. 
2. 



M. ftn.l 1<\ 

is 

ior (or) 



Neiit. 

e, for positives. 

ius (us), for comparatives. 
They are deflincd as follows : 
Tristis, md, Tristior, more sad. * 

SINGILAR- 

M. and F. 
JV. tristior 
G. tristiorXs 
D. tristiOrl 
A. tristior^iw 
V. tristior 
A. tricitiOrc (i) 

PLURAL. 

JV. tristiores 



M. and F. 


Kent. 


JV. 


tristis 


trist^i 


c. 


tristis 


tristis 


J). 


tristl 


tristl 


A. 


tristi^ni 


tristC 


V. 


tristis 


tristl 


A. 


tristl 


tridtl ; 


N. 


tristes 


tristid 


G. 


tristiitm 


tristijiiai 


D. 


tristil>iis 


tristibtts 


A. 


tristes 


tristiii 


V. 


tristCs 


trlsti& 


A. 


tristibiis 


tristibiks. 



Kent. 
tristiua 
tristloris 
tristiorl 
tristiiid 
tristi's 
tristior^ (I) ; 



G. tristioriim 

D. tristiOril>iks 

A. tristiores 

V. tristiorCs 

A. tristiori1>iks 



tristiOrii 

tristiOrikna 

tristiuribtts 

tristiorit 

tristiursi 

tristloriI>iis. 



153, III. Adjectives of Ojste Ending. — All other ad- 
jectives have but one form in the nominative singular for 
all genders. They generally end in s or jr, sometimes in I 
or r, and are decimed in the main like nouns of the same 
endings. The following arc cxam23les : 



Felix 


) hap2^y. 


Prudcns, 

SINGULAR. 


prudent. 


M. (Did F. 


Kent. 


3f. and F. 


Kent. 


N. folix 


folix 


N. prudcns 


prudcns 


G. felicis 


felicis 


G. prudentis 


prudentis 


J), fellel 


felicX 


D. prudcuti 


■ prudent! 


I 


Comparative. 


For the dcclcuslon of Plus, sea 1G5. 1. 



,l];li 



TlllUn DFX'LENSION. 



49 



have in tlio 



A. MlcHm fdix 
r. ft'lix folix 

A. fcllcc, or I fclicc, or I ; 



G. fellciiiiii 

J), feliflbttw 

A. folIcCs 

r. fc'iicc« 

A. fellclbiis 



lolu-ifiiii 
rdiclbikM 
fclic'iii 

rdlclbiiiii. 



A. pnuk'nt^iu 

V. prtidons 

A. prutU'iite, or\ 

PLVKM. 

Ci. pi'iKU'iitiiliit 

1). pnuk'iitlbiif* 

A. piudontCM 

V. prudentC'M 

A. pruilonllbfts* 



pnidcns 
prudena 
prudentc, orl; 



pnidcntiii 

prudcMitiitiii 

I)rud( ntlbfis 

prudi'iitiil 

prudciitiii 

prudoutlbun;. 



FORMATION OF CASES OF ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD 

DECLENSION. 

154. Adjectives of the third declension form their cases 
in general like nouns of the same endings, but present the 
following peculiarities : 

I. Genitive Sinr/ular. 

1 55. This presents a few irregularities, but in general the same as 
In nouns (58-83). Thus 

1. Tlie following in Ss form the genitive not in the regular itis, but in 

1) Stis : — hisbcs^ imllf/cs, pracpcs, teres. 

2) idis : — diiscs, reses. 

2. The following in es form it in 

1) edis: — compounds oi pes, foot, as, altpcs, bipcs, tripes. 

2) Sris ; — pubcs, impiibcs (sometimes is), 
ii) etis : — wqnies, locuplcs. 

3. Adjectives in ceps form it in 

1) cipis, if compounded of capio : princcps, prindpis. 

2) cipitis, if compounded of c^put : anceps, ancipitis. 

4. Four in or form it in bris : — mhnor, immemor, bicorpor, tricorpor. 

5. Other examples. — (1) Compos and impos form It in iitis. — (2) Com- 
pounds in cors from cor have cordis : concors, discors. — (3) Caelcbs has 
cad ibis ; dis^dltis; intcrcus, intcrcutis ; praccox, praccocis; vctus, vctcris. 

II. Ablative Singular. 

156. I. Ending: — e or i, in comparatives and adjectives of one 

ending : tristiore or rt ; aitducv or cl. 
II. " i, in other adjectives : acrl, tristi. 

1 . Comparatives generally have c, and adjectives of one ending, generally 
' ; but participles in ana and ens have only e, except when used adjectively. 
3 



r 



-^'^ I 



60 



IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES. 




m 



c. 



2. The Alilativc in e in many ndjcctivpM of oiu* cndinfj cannot be veri- 
fied from (ineicnt uuthorM. — The ablativi' in i is in general preferable. 

y. Some have only e in genend use. — (1) J'tinner, paiijure, poor; 
pilbcs, pubire^ mature ; — (2) tlioHe in es, (J. itia or idis; alts, dCsca, dlvca, 
soHjtcH, tiuperstv8 ; — (3) cachbn, compos, impos, prirurja. 

4. The Ablative in o sonietiuiert occurs in poetry in positives of more 
than ouo ending : cojnominc lor i'Of/nom\ni, like named. 

III. NbminatluCy Accusative and Vocative Plural of 

Hcutcrs, 

157. I. E.vniNa : — IS in positiwH: acriS, tristi^. 
II. *' & in comparatives : tristiora. 

1. Vctua, old, has vetiril ; complurcs, several, haa compluria or com- 
pluru. 

2. The neuter plural is wantinj; in most adjectives of cue ending, ex- 
cept those in a«, ns, rs, ax, ix, ox, and numerals in plex. 

IV. Genitive Plural. 

158. I. Ending: ium in positives: acrium, tristium. 
U. " um in comparatives : triatiOrnm. 

1. Some adjectives want the genitive plural. 

2. Pliires, more, and complarca, several, have ium. 

3. The following have um ; 

1) Adjectives of one ending with only o in the ablative singular (156. 
3) : pauper, pauperum. 

2) Those with the genitive in ^ris, oris, uris : vetua^ vetcrum, old ; 
mcmor, inemurwn, mindful ; clcur, cicurum, tame. 

3) Those in ceps : anceps, anclpitum, doubtful. 

4) Those compounded with substantives which have um : inops (ops, 
opum), inupum, helpless. 



I 



m 



IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES. 

159. Irregular adjectives may bo 

I. Indeclinable : friif/i, frugal, good ; nequam, worthless ; mille, 
thousand. 

II. Defective: (ceterus) cetera, cdcrum, the other, the rest; (sons) 
aontls, guilty. 

III. Heteroclites. — Many adjectives have two distinct forms, one in ua, 
a, um, of the first and second declensions, and one in ia and e of the third : 
hildrus and hilciris, joyful ; exarilmus and exanlmia, lifeless. 

1. The Latin has but few indeclinable adjectives, except numerals (175). 

2. Some adjectives want 

1) The nominative singular masculine : (cetSrus) cetera, ceterum, tho 
other ; (Indicer) ludicra, ludicrum, sportive. 

2) One or more cases in full : (seminex) aeminecia, half dead, defective 
in the nominative ; exspes, hopeless, only used in the nominative ; exlex, law- 



COiirARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 



61 



ositivcs of more 



mpluria or com- 



um : inops (ops, 



less, only in nominative and accusative ; pernox, through tho night, only iu 
nominative and ablative. 

8) The neuter gender or genitive plural. See 157. 2 and IHS. 1. 

4) The singular : pniici, ac, a, few ; pU'rlquc, tho most ; the latter wants 
also tho genitive plural, Bupplicd by plurhul. Tho bingular of plirUjue 
occurs, but is very rare. In good prose exVtrus wants the singular , and in- 
fenis, supirm, and posterusavti used in tho singular only in particular expres- 
sions : 7nare infiruni, tho lower sea, i. c., south of Italy ; 7)iare Hup'trum, the 
upper sea, i. e., north of Italy, the Adriatic ; posterns iu expressions of time : 
(liempostennn, the following day ; node postira, on the following night. 

8. In most hetcroclites only one form is in common use in classic prose ; 
in a few, as in tho examples under 150. III., both forms arc approved. 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

160. A(ljcctive>^ have tlirec forms to denote fTificront 
degrees of quality. They are usually called the I'osltive, 
the Comparative, and the Superlative degree : nltus, altior^ 
altissunuSy high, higher, highest. 

Comparatives and superlatives are sometimes best rendered into Eng- 
lish by too and very, instead of more and most: doctus, learned ; dodiory 
more learned, or too learned ; dodianXmus, most learned, or very learned. 

161. The Latin, like the English, has two modes of 
comparison : 

I. Terminational ComjKirisoti — ^by endings. 

II. Adverbial Comparison — by adverbs. 

I. TuiiinxATioNAL Comparison. 

162. Adjectives are regularly compared by adding to 
the stem of the positive tho endings: 

Comparative. Superlative 

M. F. N. M. F. N. 

idr, idr, iiis. issimiis, issimS, issimum. 

Examples. 

Altus, altior, altissimus : high^ higher^ highest. 
Icvis, Icvior, levissimus : lights lighter, lightest. 

' Irregular Terminational Comparison. 

163. Irregular Superlatives. — Many adjectives -with 
regular comparatives have irregular superlatives. Thus 



I 



i 



i^ 



(■ li 



i 



- I! 



52 



IRREGULAR CO:irPARTSOX. 



1. Adjectives in er add rimus to the positive: ucer^ 

cicrior^ acerrimus, shaqi. 

ll^ius has veterrlmus ; viatuvus, both viaturrtmus and tnaturissimm ; 
dexter, dextimus. 

2. Six in ilis add limus to the stem : 

Facilis, dillicilis; ^rtsy, difficult. 
similis, dissimilis; like, unlike. 
gracilis, humilis; slender, low; 

thus : facilis, facilior, facilliinus. IinhcclUis has wihccilllnixis, but imbccU' 
Ills is regular. 

3. Four in rus have two irregular suj^erlatives : 

Exterug, exterior, cxtrcmua and extanus, outward. 

iuferus, inferior, infimua and imus, lower. 

superua, superior, suprOmus and summus, upper. 

posterus, posterior, postremus and postumus, next. 

1 64. Compounds in dicus, ficus, and volua are compared with the 

endings entior and entissimus, as if from forms in ens : 

Maledicus, malcdicentior, maledicentissTmus, slanderous. 
muniflcus, munitieentior, munifieentissimus, liberal. 
benevolus, bencvolentior, bcncvolentisslmus, benevolent. 

1. Egenus and providns (needy and prudent), form the comparative and 
superlative from egem and pro vide us : hcuco egentior, cgentissimus, etc. 

2. Mir'ficiftsimris occurs as the superlative of mirlficus, wondci'ful. 
8. Many adjectives in dicus audjicus want the comparative aud superla- 



tive. 



165. Special Irregularities of Comparison. 
Bonus, melior, optimus, 
malus, pejor, pcsslmus, 

magnus, major, maximus, 



parvu« 



minor, 



multug. 



f/ood. 

bad. 

great. 

small. 

much. 



minimus, 
plus, 1)1 u rim us, 

1. Plus is neuter, and has in the singular only N. and A. plus, and G. 
2)liiris. In the plural it has N. and A. 2^li'>'es (m. and f.), pliira (n.), tr. plu- 
rium, D. and A. pluribus. 

2. Dives, fmgi, nlquam : 

rk7,-«c \ divitior, divitisslmus, ) • t 

^^'""^^ jditior. ditissimus, \'"-^'' 

frugi, frugal lor, frugalissiinus, frvqnl. 

uGipiani, nc(piior, nequissiuius, worthless. 



5 ! 



r'l 



Defective Termuiatlonal ComiKirison. 

1 66. Positive Wanting : 
. Citerior, 
detei'or, 
interior, 
o^ior, 

' Thcso adjectives are formed from citva, de, intra, GreJc w/ci-y, praeot pro, 
prope, ultra. 



eitimus, 


nearer. 


prior. 


primus, 


former. 


deteri'unus', 


ii'orse. 


propior, 


proximus, 


■nearer. 


intimus, 


inner. 


ulterior, 


ultlmus, 


farther.^ 


ocissunus. 


swifter. 









ADVERBIAL COiirARISON. 



53 



lus, but imhccll- 



iparcd with the 



1 67. Comparative Wanting.— The comparative is wanting 

1. In a few participles used adjectively : mcnius, mcritisslmus, de- 



serving. 



2. In these adjectives: 

Diversus, diversisslmus, different. 

fiilsus, falsissinms, false. 

iuclytus, iuclytissiimus, renowned. 



novus, novissimus, 
sficcr, sacerrinius, 



new. 

saend. 

vld. 



vtjtus, vetcrrimus, 

1 68. Superlative Wanting. — The s\ipcrlative is wanting 

1. In most verbals in ilia and bills: docdis, docillor, docile; opta- 

l/dis^ oj/tabllio)\ desirable. But of these 

Some arc compared in full : amal/ilis, facUls, /crtilis, mobills, nohllisj 
titUiif, etc. 

2. In many adjectives in alls and ills : capitalis, capUalior^ capital ; 
civ'di'iy civilior, civil. 

3. Three adjectives supply the superlative chus : 

Adolcsccns, adolesccntior, minimus nfitu,' yoiinrj. 
juvenis, junior, minimus natu, youmj. 

scnex, senior, maximus nutu,' old. 

4. A few other adjectives want the superlative : ar/rcstls, aliiecr^ 
caecttSy diuturjnis, in/butKn, lonrjinqmia, oplrnus, prodivis, propinquus, 
sdltitilrisy suphius, surdus, teres, vulgaris. 

1 69. Both Comparative and Superlative Wanting. — Many adjectives 
have no terminational comparison : 

1. Many from the nature of their signification, admitting no comnarison ; 
especially such as denote material, possession, or the relations of place and 
time: a'/ reus, golden; adamanti/u/s, adamantine; paternus, paternal; Jio- 
maims, Roman; fiestenius, of yesterday; aedivus, of summer; hibernus, of 
winter. 

2. Many others. — Thus 

1) Those in 7ts preceded hy a vowel, except those in qnus : idoneus, suit- 
able; ncxins, hurtful, IJnt a few in vvs have the superlative: assiduns, 
strcmius. Other exceptions occur, especially in the poets : pius, piissiinus ; 
egrefjius, er/reijiisslmus. 

2) Many derivatives and compounds, cspechdly (1) derivatives in alls, 
His, 1/li/s, icus, inns, Orus : viortdlis (mors), mortal ; (2) compounds of verbs 
or of nouns: particeps (capio), sharuig; inaqnanimus (animus), magpani- 
nious. 

8) Also alhiis, almvs, caditcus, ferus, /csstis, gndrus, lassus, mlrus, muti- 
lus, ndem, ncfastiis, rUdis, et'j. 



b/fi'y, P''^t<i or P^f^ 



n. — Adverbial Co^iparisox. 

170. Adjectives wliicli want tlio terminational comparison, 
f<irm the comparative and superlative, when their signification re- 
quires it, by i)rerjxing the adverbs mdgis, more, and maxuue, most, 
to the positive : 



* Smallest or youngest in ngc ; greatest or eldest ia age. 
oniitt';d. 



A'u^u ia Bometimes 



54 



NUMERALS. 



Arduus, mugis arduus, raaxime ardiius, arduous. 

1. Other adverbs are sometimes used with the positive to denote difler- 
cnt degrees of the quality : admodum, talde, opptdo, very ; imprimis, ap- 
prime, in the highest degree ; minns, less ; minime, least : valde magna, 
very great. Per frndprae in composition with adjectives have the force of 
tery ; perdlfficUis, very difficult ; praecldrm, very illustrious. 

2. Strengthening Particles are sometimes used. — (1) With the comp'-.r- 
ativc: etiam, even, viulto, longe, much, far: etiam diligentior, even more 
diligent; 7iiaIto diligciUior, much more diligent. — (2) With the superlative; 
muUo, longe, much, by far; qitam, as possible: multo or longa diligentlsd- 
mus, by fur the most diligent; quam dlligentisslmus, as diligent as possible. 



Tillf 



NUMERALS. 

171. Numerals comprise numeral adjectives aud nu- 
meral adverbs. 

I. Numeral Adjectives. 

172. Numeral adjectives comprise three principal 
classes : 

1. Cardinal Numbers: umis^ one; duo^ two. 

2. Ordinal Numbers : primus^ first ; secundus^ second. 

3. Distributives : sinffidi^ one by one ; bltiiy two by- 
two, two each, two apiece. 

1 73. To these may be added 

1. MuLTiPLiCATiVES. — ^Thcsc arc adjectives in plex, G. pUcis^ denoting 
so many fold : simplex, single ; duplex^ double ; triplex, three-fold. 

2. Proportionals. — These are declined like bonus, and denote so 
many times as great : duplus, twice as great ; triplus, three times as great. 



174. Table of Numeral Adjectives. 



Hi: L 



4 ■. I 



Cardinals. 

1. unu3, una, xmum, 

2. duo, duae, duo, 

3. trcs, tria, 

4. quattuor, 

5. quinque, 
(). sex, 

7. septcm, 

8. octo, 

9. novem,' 

10. drccm, 

11. undecim, 



Oedinals. 
primus, '^rs/", 
secundus,' second, 
tortius, third, 
(\\\a,rtua, fourth, 
iHnntus, Jifth, 
soxtus, 
Septimus, 
oetfivus, 
nunus, 
dccTmus, 
uudecimiiH, 



Distributives. 
singuli, one f)>/ cue. 
bini, two hji two, 
terni (trini). 
quatcrni. 
quini. 
seni. 
scptr-ni. 
octoni. 
novf'ui. 
dOni. 
undOni. 



Prior is used in speaking of two, and alter Is often used for secundus. 



NUMERALS. 


55 


Cardinals. 


Ordinals. 


DlSTUIDUTIVES. 


12. (luodi'-i-ira, 


duodccinius, 


duodOni. 


13. tredC'cim or decora 


tertius dcclmus,' 


tcrni dOnl. 


ct trcs, 






14. qnattiiordecira, 


quartus decTnnig, 


fpiaterni dOni. 


15. quindecim, 


(luintus deciiuus, 


([uini doni. 


10. scdOcim or scxdu- 


sextus dccimus, 


sOni dCni. 


cira,* 






IT. soptciulocim,* 


septlmug decTmus, 


septcni dCni. 


18. duodevl^iiiti,' 


duodovicesimus,' 


duodevicOni. 


19. undcvigiuti," 


undeviceslmus,'' 


undcvicC'ui. 


20. vij^inti, 


viccslmus," 


vicOni. 


„, (vif^'inti Qnus, 
"lunu.s ct vij^'inti,' 


vicesimus prirau.s, 
unus ct vicesimus,""* 


vicPni singuli. 
singuli ct vicC'UU 


00 i viginti duo, 
"" (duo ot vigiuti, 


vicesimug secuudus. 


vicOni bini. 


alter ct vicesimus, 


bini ct viccui. 


80, triginta, 


tricesiinus,'* 


trict'ni. 


40. (juiidraginta, 


quadragesimus. 


quadrageni. 


CO. (|uiiuniagintiV, 


quinciuagosiraus, 


quinquagcni. 


CO. soxagiiita, 


.sexagcslmu.*?, 


sexagcni. 


70. scptuagiuta, 


septuageslmug. 


septuagcni. 


80. octoginta, 


octogesimus. 


octogeni. 


90. nonagiata, 


nonagcsTmus, 


nonagOni. 


100. centum, 


centcslmus. 


centcni. 


.„^ (centum unus, 
"(centum ct uuus,* 


centcsimus primus, 


eentcni singuli. 


centcslmus ct prinms 


ccnteni ct biiigulL 


200. ducenti, ??, a, 


duccntesimus, 


ducGni. 


300. trccenti, 


trecentcslmus, 


trcccni. 


40t>. quadringcnti, 


quadringcntcelmus, 


quadringeni. 


500. quingenti, 


quingentesimus, 


quingC'ui. 


000. sexcenti, 


sexccntesimus, 


sexccni. 


700. septingonti, 


septmgcntcslmus, 


scptingriii. 


80t». octingenti, 


octingentesimus, 


octingcni. 


DOit. nongonti, 


nongcntesimus, 


nongrni. 


1,0()(). niillo, 


millcsTmus, 


.singrda millia. 


2,000. duo mlllia,'' 


1 bis millesinius, 


bina millia. 



• Sometimes with the parts separateil: decern ct dcx; decctii et ncptcm. 

3 Literally two from twenty, one from twenty, by subtraction ; but these numbers 
may bo cxi)rcsse(l by ntldition: decern et acta; decern et norem ; so 28,29; 3S, .^9, 
eti-., either by .subtraction from tt-iginta, etc., or by additiou to viginti ; duodetri- 
ginttt or octo et viginti. 

» If the tens precede tho units, ct is omitted, otherwise it is generally used. So 
in English cardinals, twenty-one, one and twenty. 

♦ In compounding numbers above 100, units generally follow ten?, tens hundreds, 
etc., as in English; but tho connective et is either omitted, or used only between tho 
two highest denominations: miUn centum viginti or ini/le et centum viginti, 1,120. 

' !<ometimes Una millia or lis mille. 

* Simictimes decXinus precedes with or without et : dcclmua ct tertiua or declmtia 
tertius, 

'' Sometimes expressed by addition, like tho corresponding cardinals', ocidcus de* 
clnius and uonua dechinia. 

* Sometimes written with cr: vigeslmua ; trigesXmita. 



• ? ^ 



5G 



DECLENSION OP NUMERALS. 



M 



6-5ff. 



• lit 



CAnniMAis. 
10,000. (Icfcm millia, 
100,000. centum niillhi, 
1,000,000. decics contC-na mil- 
lia,' 



Okdinals. 
dccies millcslinus, 
t'CTities millcslmus, 
defies centies millo- 
slmus, 



UlSTKIUlTIVES. 

dena millia. 
centena millia. 
decics ccnteiiamillia. 



1. OvVinals with Pars, part, expressed or under.«tood, may be useil to 
express fractions: tfrt'ia ;j(//'.s, a third part, a third; fjuurta pars, a fourth; 
duac (<rfi(ii\ two thirds. 

2. iJinlrlbulivrs arc used 

1) To show the mimbcr of olyccts taken at a time, often best rendered 
by adding to the cardinal each or apiece ; tcrnos denarius acccjjcnaU, they 
received each three denarii, or three apiece. Hence 

2) To express Multiplication: dccies centena millia, ten times a 
hundred thousand, a million. 

3) Instead of Cardinals, with nouns plural in form, but singular in 
sense: bina castra, two camps. Here for sim/uli and tcrni, uni and trad 
are used : nnae littlrae, one letter ; trinae litterae, three letters. 

4) Sometimes in reference to objects spoken of J:i pairs : hnii scfiphiy 
a pair of goblets ; and in the poets with the force of cardinals : b'lrut hasti- 
lia, two spears. 

3. Poets use numeral adverbs (181) very freely in compoundiDg num- 
bers : bis srx, for duodecim ; bis scptem, for quattuordecim. 

4. Sexccnli and millc are sometimes used indefinitely for any large 
number, as one thousand is in English. 

DECLENSION OF NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 

1 75. On the declension of cardinals observe 

1. That the units, iinus, duo^ and trcs, are declined. 

2. That the other units, all the tens, and centum are indeclinable. 

3. That the hundreds are declined. 

4. That mille is sometimes declined. 

1 76. Tlio first three cardinals arc declined as follo'ws : 

1. Unus, one. 



Slngidar. 



Plural. 



N. 


uniis, 


una. 


unum. 


uni, 


unae, una. 


a. 


mil us, 


unlus. 


uniiis. 


unorum. 


unarum, unorum, 


D. 


unl. 


uni. 


uni, 


unis, 


unIs, unIs, 


A. 


unum. 


unam. 


unum, 


unos, 


wnas, una. 


V. 


und. 


un:1. 


imiim, 






A. 


uno. 


una. 


nno ; 


unIs, 


unis, unIs, 




2. 


Duo, tico 


• 


3. 


Tres, three. 


N. 


duo, 


duao. 


(hio. 


tn's, m. 


andf. triii, n. 


(J. 


duOriim, 


duuruni. 


duOrum,'' 


triura, 


triuni. 



1 Literally ton tiiiu's a himilrcil thousand; tho tabic mi^'ht bo carried up to an7 
desired number by using tho proper numeral adverb with centena millia : centies 
centena millia, 10,000,000; sometimes in such combinations centena millia is under- 
stood and only tho adverb is expressed, and pometimes centum millia is used. 

2 Duoruni and dudriun arc sometimos shorteac-d to dmniK 






NUMERAL SYMBOLS. 



57 



, ten times a 



trtbus, 


trlbQg, 


trC'S, 


trifl, 


tribus, 


tilbu.: 



1). (luobug, duilbus, duObus, 
A. diio:^, duo, duas, duo, 
A. duubus, duubus, duObus. 

1. The phiral of ««?/« in the sense of «/o«e may be used with any noun; 
vrti I b'i, tl.o Ubii alone; but in the strict nunietal sense of one, it is used 
or.ly wiih such nouns as, though plural in Ibini, are singular in sense : una 
aitira, one camp ; iinae litt'erae, one letter. 

2. Like iluo is declined ambo, both. 

3. Multi, many, and pi urimi, very many, are indeQnitc numerals, and 
as such generally want the sing. But in the poets the sing, occurs in the 
sense o." 'nan?/ a : multa hostia, many a victim. 

177. Ihmdreda, ducenti^ ircccnti, etc., are clcclined like tho 
I)liiral oi bonus: ducenti, ae^ a. 

178. Jlille is used Loth as an adjective and as a substantive. 

As an adjective it is indeclinable ; as a substantive it is used in tho 

singular only in the nominative and accusative, but in the plural 

it is declined like tho plural of 7)ia7'e (50): millia, millium^ mil' 

lUnis. 

"NVitli the /fi/hsfanflre Mille, the name of the objects enumerated is gen- 
orally in the genitive: Dulle homimihiy a thousand men (of men); but it is 
iti the same case as mille, if a declined numeral intervenes: tvia millia 
trcccnti jnilitcs, three thousand three hundred soldici'S. 

179. Ordinals are declined like &o?n/a and distributives like 
the plural of lonus, but the latter often have vm for drum in tho 
genitive; I'lnum for linOrnm. 



indccliuable. 



180. Numeral Symbols. 



unorum. 



AKAniC. 


nOMAV. 


ARABIC. 


ROMAN. 


ARABIC. 


ROMAN. 


1. 


I. 


16. 


XVI. 


101. 


CI. 


2. 


II. 


17. 


XVII. 


20(.t. 


cc. 


8. 


III. 


18. 


XVIII. 


300. 


ccc. 


4. 


IV. 


19. 


XIX. 


400. 


cccc. 


6. 


V. 


20. 


XX. 


500. 


10, or D. 


6. 


YI. 


21. 


XXI. 


GOO. 


DC. 


7. 


VII. 


22. 


XXII. 


700. 


DCC. 


8. 


VIII. 


30, 


XXX. 


800. 


DCCC. 


0. 


IX. 


40. 


XL. 


9(»0. 


DCCCt.i. 


10. 


X. 


CO. 


L. 


1,000. 


CIO, or >r. 


11. 


XI. 


GO. 


LX. 


2,000. 


CIOCIO, orMM. 


12. 


XII. 


70. 


LXX. 


10,000. 


CCIOO. 


13. 


XIII. 


80. 


LXXX. 


100,000. 


CC(MOOO. 


14. 


XIV. 


90. 


XC. 


1,OUO,000. 


CCCCIOJOO. 


16. 


XV. 


100. 


C. 






1. Latin Numert 


il Symbols 


are combi 


nations of: 


I = 1; V =: 5; X 


= lU; L 


= GO ; C 


= 100; IJ 


or D = C 


00 ; CIO or 


M = 1,000.' 



> Thousands aro sometimes denoted by a lino over tho s.vmbol: II = 2,000; V 
; 5,000. 

3* 



} 






. i:J 



y 



III 



1 1 



I ;. 



h <i 



68 NUMERAL SYMBOLS. 

2. In the Combination of these symbols, except 10, observe 

1 ) That the repetition of a symbol doubles the value : 11 = 2 ; XX = 
20 ; CO = 200. 

2) That any Bymbol standing before one of greater value, subtracts its 
own value, but that after one of greater value, it adds its own value: V = 
5; IV = 4(5-1); VI = 0(5 + 1). 

n. In the Combination of 13 observe 

1) That each (inverted C) after L) increases the value ten-fold : 
= 500; lOD = 500 X 10 = 5,000; 1000 = 5,000 x 10 = 50,000. 

2) That these numbers are doubled by placing C the same number 



10 
of 



times before I as stands after it: 10 — 500; CIO = 500x2 = 1,000; 
100 = 5,000; CCIOO = 5,000x2 = 10,000. 

3) That smaller symbols standing after these add their value : 10 = 
COO; lOCC = 700. 



500; IOC = 



II. Numeral Adverbs. 

181. To numerals belong also numeral adverbs, 
vcnionoe of reference avo add the following tabic : 

1. srmel, 071CC 

2. bis, twice 



ior con- 



3. 
4. 

5. 

(». 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 



ter, three 



13 



M 



times 

quaier 

quinquies 

sexies 

scpties 

octies 

novics 

deeies 

undeciea 

duodecies 
( terdeeies 
1 tredecies 

quaterdecles 
luattuordecies 



i; 



,.. (quinquiesdecies 
'''' (quindeciea 



16 



( sexiesdecies 



18. 



19.- 



I sedecics 
17. scptiesdecics 
( duodevieies 
1 octiesdceics 
j undevicics 
( noviesdecics 

20. vicies 

21. semol et vicies 

22. bis et vicies 
30. tricies 
40. quadragies 
50. quinquagics 

GO. sexagies 100,000. 

70. septuagies 1,000,000. 

1. In Compounds of units and tens, the unit with et generally pre- 
cedes, as in the table : bis et vicies ; the tens however with or without ct 
sometimes precede : vicies et his or vicies bis^ but not bis vicies. 

2. Another Class of numeral adverbs in nm or o is formed from the 
ordinals ; pr'inmm^ prwio, for the firet time, iu the first place ; tcrtium, 
tcrtio, for the third time. 



80. 
90. 

100. 

101., 

200. 

300. 

400. 

500. 

600. 

700. 

800. 

900. 
1,000. 
2,000. 



oetogies 



nonagies 

centies 

centies semel 

duccnties 

trecenties 

quadriugcnties 

quingenties 

sexcenties 

septingenties 

octingenties 



10,000. 



noningcnties 
millies 
bis millies 
deeies millies 
centies millies 
millies millies. 



1 Also written nongenties, 

3 Millies is often used indcflnitely like the English a thousand timee. 



'm 



^ 



PRONOUNS. 



59 



CHAPTER III. . 

PRONOUNS. 

182. The Pronoun is that part of speech which prop- 
erly supplies the place of nouns : C(jo, I ; tu^ thou. 

183. Pronouns are divided hito six classes: 

1. Personal Pronouns : tu^ i\\o\\. 

2. Possessive Pronouns ; meus, my. 

3. Demonstrative Pronouns: hie, this. 

4. Ilelative Pronouns : qui, wlro. 

5. Interrogative Pronouns : quis, who? 

C. Indefinite Pronouns : aliQuis, some one. 



I. Personal Pronouns. 

184. Personal Pronouns, so called because they desig- 
nate the person of the noun which they represent, are ejo, 
I; fjf, thou; sui (N"om. not used), of himself, herself, itself. 

They are declined as follows : 







SINGULAR. 




TIT* SJ \J 




tu 




0. mei 




t'll 


snl 


D. iiiilii 




tibi 


sibi 


A. luo 




to 


sc 


T^. 




tu 




A. nic; 




tG; 

IM.UUAL. 


so; 


X. 11 OS 




vos 




p nostrum 


\ 


vcstrum } 
vestrl ' \ 


sul 


I). nr)1)Is 




vobis 


sibi 


J. nos 




vos 


so 


V. 




vos 




A. nobis. 




vObls. 


se. 



1. Substantive Pronouns. — Personal ])ronouiis arc also called Suhstantive 
pronouns, Ijccansc llioy are always used as substantives. 

'J. Reflexive Pronoun.— A'?/ i, from its reflexive signification, of Jdmsclf, 
etc., is often called the Eeflexive pronoun. 

' On the use of these two forms see 446. 8. 
J 



CO 



niONOLNS. 



8. Emphatic Forms in md occur, except in the Gen. Phir. : egbmet, 1 
myself; luUdvut, diiul, oic. JJut the >'oui. tii has tuie and tutiviet, lor tQ- 
inut. 

4. Reduplicated Forms :—mi, tctf, mem^, for se, to, me. 

/'. Ancient and Rare Forms: — inis tor nici; tis tor tui; ml and mi for 
mihi ; iiulif, iHul, and iiuptv t(jr nio ; tal tor tc. 

0, Cum, when used with the ablative of these pronouns, is appended to 
them ; mccum, ileum. 



V n 



:>. 



II. Possessive Pronouxs. 

185. From Personal pronouns arc foimcd the Possess- 
ives : 

mens, ; v, ' . nostcr, our^ 

ttiiis, ti . ' r, vcstcr, yow, 

81UIS, hu. h'Y , '5, siius, their. 

Tlicy arc tleclincii as a ': stives of the first and second 
declensions : tneus^ mca, meum ; Jioster, nostra, iiostnini ; 
but mens has in the vocative singular masculine generally 
miy sometimes 'incus. 

1. Emphatic Forms, in //^e and 7net occur, especially in the Abl. Sing. -. 
sua2^te, siidmet. 

2. The Fatrials, nosfras, of our countrv, and vcstrns, of your country, are 
also possossivos. 1 hoy have the genitive in dtis, and arc declined as adjec- 
tives of Dec!. III., but are little used. 

o. Cujus and Cujas. — Cujus ( ,. iim, whose?) and <he patrial aijas (atis, 
of what country?) also belong tc possessives, though, not like other possees- 
ives, formed from personal pronouns, but from the interrogative quis, cujus. 
Sec 18S. 

in. Demoxstiiative Peoxouns. 

186. Demonstrative Pronouns, so called because they 
specify the objects to which they refer, are 

Ilic, ille, iste, ipse, is, idem. 
They are declined as follows : 

Ilic, t?iis. 





SINGULAR. 






PLURAL, 




M. 


F. 


^: 


M. 


F. 


K 


jY. hic 


haec 


hoc 


hi 


liac 


liacc 


(r. hujUS 


hiiiu.s 


hujus 


hOriini 


hfiri'ini 


lioriiiii 


J), huic 


hulc 


hnic 


his 


his 


Ills 


A. hunc 


hanc 


hSc 


liOs 


lias 


hacc 


V. 












A. hoc 


hac 


hoc: 


his 


his 


his. 



: egdmet, I 
met, lor ta- 



and mi for 
ppendcd to 



I Fossess- 



ausc they 



N. 
liaoc 
lioriiiii 
liis 
liacc 

I his. 



• 






PRONOUNS. 












Ille, 


he or that. 










SINGULAR. 








PLURAL. 






M. 


F. 


N. 




M. 


F. 


K 


K 


ill6 


ilia 


illftd 




illi 


iliac 


ilia 


a. 


illiris 


illius 


illiiis 




illorum 


illru'uin 


illorilm 


1). 


illi 


illi 


illi 




illis 


illis 


illis 


A. 

1 T 


illfini 


illilin 


illud 




illds 


illiis 


ilia 


1 . 

A. 


ills 


ilia 


illo; 




illls 


illls 


illis. 



61 



Isti', that. 

Tsti', that, is declined like ille. It usually refers to objects 
which are i)rcseiit to the person addressed, aud sometimes ex- 
presses contempt. 

Ipse, self, he. 





■ 




SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 




id sccoiul 


1 


31. 


F. 


^y. 


.V. 


/'. 




nostrum ; 


1 ^^"i 


ipse 
ipsius 


ipsa 
ipsi lis 


ipsiim 
ipsius 


ipsI 
ipsorum 


il)S.'io 
il)sriruin 


ipsa 
il)srfuui 


generally 


I ^^' 


ipsI 


ipsI 


il)si 


ipsis 


il)Sis 


ip: o 




1 ^- 


ipsiim 


ipsam 


ipsiim 


ipsos 


il)sas 


il ; 


c Abl. Sing. : \ 


ipso 


ipsa 


ipso ; 


ipsis 


il)s:s 


i "^sis. 


p country, are ' 
icd as adjcc- : 


■ 






Is, he. 


that. 






I 




SINGULAR 


) 3 




PLURAL. 




il crijas (alls, 


1 


M. 


F. 


.V. 


M. 


F. 


K. 


ther possess- ' 


H N. 


is 


V 

ea 


id 


il 


cao 


ca 


e quis, cujm' 


I ^' 


ejus 


ejus 


ejus 


coriim 


oaruin 


eoruiii 




I ^' 


ci 


ei 


ei 


lis (ois) 


iis (eis) 


iis (eis) 




1 ^* 


eiira 


cum 


id 


COS 


cas 


QU 




1 ^' 
















1 ^' 


CO 


ea 


eO; 


lis (eis) 


iis (eis) 


iis (eis). 



Idem, the same. 

Idem, compounded of is and dem, is declined like in, but short- 
ens isdein to ide)?i and iddem to ulem, aud changes in to n before the 
ending dem; thus: 



SINGULAR. 

M. F. JV. 

K. idem cadem idem 

6'. ejusdem ejusdem ejusdem 

J), eidi'in eidem eidem 

A. cundera eandcm idem 

A. eodeiii cadem eudem; 



PLURAL. 

M. F K 

iidem cacdem cadC-m 

corundum earundem eorundt-ni 

iisdi'm iisdcm iisdem ' 

eosdem casdcm etidvin 

iisdem iisdem iisdem.' 



* Sometimes eisdem In nil genders. lidem and iisdem arc in poetry dissyllables, 
and arc sometimes written idem and isdem. 



I- 



h > 

i 



u 






C2 



PRONOUNS. 



1. Emphatic Forms in m occur in the several cases ofhic and Romctimes 
in other (leinoiihtrutivcs : /ticv, /tdfCt'i, hocn' (also hice,ha>ce or haic, etc.), 
huju.see, hokce, hix(\: ; /Ktrutncc, hurunce (m clianjied to n), //tZ/'«/it'(c dropped j. 
lidore tlie intoirogalivo )ie, ct becomes cl : hiccliie, hoscliic. 

'J. IlllC and istic or isthic lor illc and ii^te occur. They arc declined 
alike, and are used only in certain eases. Thus 

Sing., ^i/tn. illlc, illaec, illoc or illuc, 
Ai'c. illunc, illanc, illoc, 
Ahl. illoc, illuc, illoc ; 
I'lur. illaec, (jcncrally Scut., sometimes Fcm. 

n. Ancient a>-,(i Rare Forms : 

1) Of Ji.i.K and isTi; : till, illae, illi, (Jen. for illius; isti, ixfai', idl for 
istius; iliac imA idnc, l)at. Feni. for illi and isti; also forms from ollus for 
ille : olli, oUa, olios, etc. 

2) Of Ii'SK, compounded of is nnd/;«c (is-pse = ipse) ; the uncontracted 
forms : Ace. eutn^'se, tampue, Abl. eo/me, ea/ise ; with re : re eajjse, rcaj?Si> for 
re ipsa, in reality ; also ijtsus, a, nni, etc., for ipse, a, nm. 

a) Of Is : (li, I'ae, eii, Dat. for ei ; ilhtis {Ujuh), edbus, iihiis (ibu») for iis. 

4) Sy.ncoi'Atku koums, compounded of ccce or cti, lo, sec, and .some cases 
of demonstratives, especially the Ace. of illfi and is ; ecnim lor ecce cum; 
ei'cum for e€ce cam ; eccos lor ccce eos ; cccillvm, eecc ilium, eccillam, cccc 
illam ; cllmn, en ilium ; vlhun, en illani. 

4. Demonstrative Adjectives: ICdis, e, such; tantus, a, urn, so great; tot, 
so many ; totun, a, um, so great. 2ht is indeclinable; the rest regular. 

For (dih, tlie Gen. of a demonstrative with moiU (Uen. of mail us, nieas- 
urc, kind) is often used: iDijuamodi, fjusmodi, of this kind, such; illiusmodi, 
istiusmodi, of that kind, such. 



ii': 



IV. Relative Pronouns. 

187. The Relative qui^ who, so called because it relates 
to some noun ov pronoun, expressed or understood, called 
its antecedent, is declined as follows : 







SINOULAH 






M. 


F. 


N. 


X. 
G. 


qui 
cujiis 


quao 
ciijus 


quud 
cujiis 


1). 


cui 


cul 


cuJ 


A. 

v. 


quL'iii 


quam 


(]u6d 


A. 


quo 


qua, 


quo ; 



M. 
qui 

quoriiin 
quibiis 
quus 



PL r UAL. 

F. 
quae 
quariim 
quibus 
quas 



N. 
(juao 
qudi-iiiu 
(quibus 
(juao 



qutbiis quibus quibils. 

1. Ancient and Rare Forms: qnojvs and quoi for cujus and cui; qui 
for quo, (lua, ([uo; qu'ts ((jueis) for quibus. 

ti. Cum, when used with the ablative of the relative, is generally append- 
ed to it : quibuscKVi, 

?>. Cujns, a, um, wIlosc, as a possessive formed from the genitive cvjus, 
sometimes occurs, 

4. Quicimque and Quisquis, wJtoever, arc called from their signification 
general relatives. (JuicuiKjue (quicunKiue) is declined like qui. Quisquis is 
"rare except in the forms : q?mquis, quidquid (quicquid), qiiOquo ; but an old 
genitive cuicui for cujuscujus occurs. 

5. Compounds resolved. — Quicvnque and similar compounds are some- 
times resolved and their parts separated by one or uiorc worda : qua re cun- 
que. 



PRONOUNS. 



68 



«. Uter and Uterconque, which and uhichever, nlso occur with the furco 
of rclutivi's. 

7. Relative Adjectives: qudlii*, c, such ns ; gt/anfui*, a, \\m, so crout ; 
gnof, as iiiaiiy us; quotufi, u, uin, of which nunibor ; iiiul the (h)ubh> ana loni- 
jiouiid forms: tjudustjudlis, qnaliscunque ,' quant unquantus, quantuncunque ,' 
qtiutquof, qittdcunquf ,' quotunci/nqne. 

i^Kotqunt is iiuU'clinablo ; in the other double forms hoth parts are de- 
clined ; in the forms in ciiiique, of course only tiie first part is declined. 

I'or (Quails the genitive of the relative with txdJi is often used : vvjiig- 
mbiU (sometimes en iinddi), vvjusceviodi, of what kind, such as; ciijuncniiquc- 
modi, cuicuimodi (for cujusci/j us/nodi, 4), of whatever kind. 



V. Interrogative Pronouns. 

188. Interrogative Pronouns arc used in asking ques- 
tions. The most important arc 

Qnis and qid Avilh tlicir compounds. 

Qiils (who, which, what ?) is generally used substan- 
tively, and is declined as follows : 





SINGULAR. 




M. 


F. 


iK 


K quis 


qufio 


quid 


(r. cnjiis 


ciijus 


cujiis 


D. eui 


CllI 


cnl 


A. quom 

V. 

A. quO 


quiim 


quid 


qua, 


quo; 



J/. 

qui 

quorum 
quibus 
quos 



PLURAL. 

F, 

quae 
quarum 

<lUll)US 

quas 



quae 
qurtri'lm 

(lUll)lIS 

<luao 



quibus qulbiis quibris. 

Qui (which, what ?) is generally used adjectively, and is 
declined like the relative qui. 

1. Quis and Quern sometimes occur as feminine forms. 

'J. Qui as an ahhitive with an adverbial force in the sense of Jtmv t 
sometimes occui's. The other ancient forms are tlic same as iu the relative, 
lb7. 1. 

3. Compounds of qni^ and qui are declined like the simple pronouns : 
quisnam, quina/ti, ecquls, etc. liut ccqttis has sometimes ecqua for tcqudt', 

4. Interrogative Adjectives: (l) Q>/dlis, e, whatv qnautns, a, um, how 
f^reat? qrtot, how many? quotus, a, um, of wliat number V iitir, utra, utrum, 
which (of two) ? See 141). ('2) The Possessive interrogative, ciijiis, a, um, 
whose V and the Patrial cvjns, jltis, of what country V 

Ciiju}^ is defective and little used. It lujs the Xom. and Ace. Sing., and 
the feminine also the Abl. Sing, and the ^'om. and Accus. I'lur. 



in 



VI. Indefinite Pronouns. 

189. Indefinite Pronouns do not refer to any definito 
persons or things. The most important are 

Quis and qui with their compounds. 



I 



- I 



64 



PRONOUNS. 



100. Qiil«, nny ono, and rjiii, nny one, nny, arc the same in 
form and declension as tho intcrrogativcs quis and qui. 

1. Quia and Qui nro generally used after si, fibi, nr, and num ; si quis, 
h\ i\\\\. Hut they also occur witliout such accompaniment, 

*J. Qua for Quae.— After bi, fihi, nc, and num, tlic l'"om. Sing, and Ncut. 
IMur. liavc tjuac or rjua : si (juao, si quu. 

191. From qviH and qni arc formed 

I. llie Intlffuiitcs : 

alfquis, aliqna, alfqiiid or alf(]nod, 8ome^ some one. 
qiiispiam, (luaepiam, quidpiam ' or quodi»iam, some, some one. 
f[tiid;mi, quacdauj, quiddam or quoddam, certain, certain one. 
qulsquam, ([uaequam quidquam,' anyone, 

II. The General Indefinites: 

quisc^uo, quaeque, quidqno" 07* qnodciuc, every, every one. 
quivis, qiiacvis, quidvis o?" qnodvis, any one you 2)lease. 
qiiilibet, quaelibet, quidlibet or quodlibet, any one you Jilcasc. 

1. Declension. — It may bo remarked 

1) That these compounds are jfenerally declined like tlie simple quis and 
qui, but have in the Neut. Sing, both quod and quid, tho former used adjec 
tiveli/, the latter suhi^tantirdi/. 

'J) That aliquin has aliq'ua instead ofaliquae in the Fern. Sing, and Ncut. 
riur. Aliqul for aliquis occurs. 

3) That qiiidain generally changes ni to n before d: guendam for quern- 
dam. 

4^ That quisquam generally wants the Fern, and the Plnr. 

ft) That unus jjrelixed to quisque does not afl'cct its declension : iniiis- 
quigque, unaquneqiie, etc. 

2. Other Indefinites are : alius, alter, titer, aiierutcr, neuter, vllus, nul- 
hi 8, ncvio. 

3. Other General Indefinites may be formed from utcr: 'uterque, both, 
each; vtervix, uterlibit, either you please. 

4. Indefinite Pronominal Adjectives : «7?/rt?/^^i6«/!, qualelibct, ofany sort; 
aliqnuntus, a, um, of some size; aliquot (indeclinable), several. 

For qualislihet the (Jen. of an iuucliuitc pronoun With modi may be used: 
cujusdammodi, of some kind. 



>♦• 



CHArTER IV. 
VERBS. 

192. VePwBS in Latin, as in English, express existence, 
condition, or action : cst^ ho is ; dorniit^ ho is sleeping ; 
legit, lie reads. 

J Sometimes written respectively, quippiam and quicquam, 
a Sometimes written quicquc. 



y£iii». 



0.'^ 



tho snmo ia 



193. Verbs comprise two i)riiicii):il classes: 

I. TjtANsrnvE Veiujs, — which luliiiit ;i direct object of 
tlieir iictioii : scnnim vcrbCraty he ])e:its the slave. 

II. Intkansitivk Veui5s, — wliicii do not admit such an 
object : ^>wcr currlt^ the boy runs. 

194. Verbs have Voix^ Jloody Tcnsc^ Number^ and 
Person. 

I. Voices. 

195. Tiicrc arc two Voices : 

I. The Active Voice, — which represents the subject as 
acting or existing : ^;«7e;' JlUum cunat, the father loves his 
son ; cst^ he is. 

II. Tho Passive Voice, — which represents tlie subject 
as acted upon by some other person or thing : Jiliits a 2)atre 
(unufur, the son is loved by his father. 

1. Passive Wanting. — Intmnsitlvo yeH)3 ^'oncmlly liavo only the 
active voice, but are soinctiiucs used iniperaonully in the pa.ssive. Hee 
yul. 3. 

2. Active "Wanting. — Deponent Verba ' arc Passive in form, but not 
ia sense: /c^yj^or, to speak. Ijutsee221. 

II. Moods. 

196. Moods arc cither Definite or Indefinite : 

I. Tho Definite or Finite Moods make up the Finite 
Verb ; they are : 

1. The Indicative Mood, — which either asserts some- 
thing as a fact or inquires afler the fact : lc(/itj he is read- 
ing ; legitiie^ is he reading ? 

2. The Subjunctive Mood, — which expresses not an 
actual fact, but a 2^ossibUity or concejytiouj often rendered 
by mci}/^ can^ cU- : legate he may read, let him read. 

3. The Impek-.tive Mood, — which expresses a command 
or an entreaty : ler/r, read thou. 

II. The Indefinite Moods express the meaning of the 
verb in the form of nouns or adjectives ; they are : 



• So called from depono, to lay aside, as they dispense, iu gcneml, ■with the octI''v 
form and the passive meaning. 



^r ?1J 



',\ '■ 



J- :, ';. 



\'i-l 



GG 



VERBS. 



1. The Infinitive, — which, like the English Infinitive, 
gives the simple meaning of the verb without any necessa- 
ry reference to person or number : legcre^ to read. 

-. The Gerund, — which gives the meaning of the verb 
in the form of a verbal noun of the second declension, used 
only in the genitive^ dative^ accusative, and ablative singu- 
lar. It corresponds to the English particijiial noun in ing : 
amancli, of loving ; amandi causa^ for the sake of loving. 

3. The Supine, — which gives the meaning of the verb 
in the form of a verbal noun of the fourth declension, used 
only in the accusative ^\\\ ahlative singidar: amatum^to 
love, for loving ; amdtu, to be loved, in loving. 

4. The Partic. ple, — which, hke the English participle, 

gives the meaning orthc verb in the form of an adjective. 

A Latin verb may iiavc four pariicipios: two in the Active, the Pres- 
ent and Future — aiiiana^ h)vin,u ; oinaturus, al)Out to love ; — and two in 
the Passive, tlio Porlcct and I'uture — amutus^ loved ; amandus^ dascrving 
to be loved. 

III. Tenses. 
197. There are six tenses : 
I. TiiRFJi: Tenses for Incomplete Action: 

1. Present : anio, I love. 

2. Irai^erlect : amahaht, I was lovipg. 

3. Future : amCiho, I shall love. 

11. Three Tenses for Completed Action: 

1. Perfect: awavi, I have loved, I loved. 

2. Pluperfect : amavcram, I had loved. 

• 3. Future Perfect : amavcrOy I shall have loved. 

198. Remaiiks ox Texses. 

1. Present Perfect and Historical Perfect.— The Latin Perfect some- 
times corresponds to our Perfect with have {have lovcd)^ and is called tlie 
Present Perfect ov Perfect Definite ; and sometimes to our Imperfect or 
Past (loved), j.nd is called the Historical Perfect or Perfect Indefinite. 

2. Principal and Historical. — Tenses are also distinjjuished as 

1) Principal : — Present, Present Perfect, Future, and Future Perfect. 

2) Historical : — Imperfect, Historical Perfect, and Pluperfect, 



VERBS. 



07 



initivc, 
ccessa- 

le verb 
n, used 
sinfju- 
ill iNG : 
aving. 
lie verb 
in, used 
tum^ to 

rticiple, 

ective. 

the Pres- 
.1(1 two ill 
,dc! serving 



feet sorac- 
Ciilk'd the 
Ipcrfoct or 
{finite. 

as 

re Tcrfect. 

let 



3. Tensea Wanting. — The Subjunctive wants the Future and Future 
I'erfect ; the Imperative has only the Present and Future ; the lulinitive, 
only tlie Present, Perfect, and Future. 

IV. Numbers. 

199. Tlicrc are two numbers; Sixgular and Plural.' 

V. Persons. 

200. There are three persons : First, Second, and 
Third.' 

CONJUGATION. 

201. Regular verbs are iullected, or conjugated, in 
four dillercnt ways, and arc accordingly divided into Four 
Conjugations, distinguished from each other by the 



infinitive endings. 



Conj. I. 

are. 



Conj. XL 

ere, 



Conj. in. 

Sre, 



Conj. IV. 

ire. 



202. Principal Parts. — Four forms of the verb, — the 
Present Indicative, Present Inlinitive, l*erfect Indicative, 
and Suphie, — are called from their importance the Pr'uicl- 
2xd Parts of the verb. 

203. Entire Conjugation. — In any regular verb 

1. The Present Stem^ may be found by dropping the 
infinitive ending: amdre ; stem, am. 

2. The Principal Parts may be formed from this stem 
by means of proper endings. 

3. Tlie Entire Conjugation of the verb throucrh all 
its parts may be readily formed from these Principal 
Parts by means of proper endings.^ 

* As in Nouns. See 87. 

2 For fuller Irontment of stems, see 2'11. 242. 

^ lu the Paradigms of regular verbs, tbe endings, both those which distiiiiL'iiish 
tlie Principal Parts and those which distinguish the forms derived from those paits, 
are separately indicated, and should be carefully noticed. 






C8 



VERBS. 






204. Siiiu, lam. 

Sum is used as an auxiliary in the passive voice of regular 
verbs. Accor(lin<jfly its conjugation, tliough quite irregular, must, 
be given at tiio outset. 



nUNCIPAL PARTS. 

I'roH. Iiul. PrcB. Inf. Pi'rf. InJ- 

suin, esse, fiu, 

Indicative JMood. 

PUESKNT TkNSE. 

/ am. 



Supine. 



8UU1, 

es, 
est, 



(.ijini, 
crat, 



ITU, 



ciit, 



fill, 
fuiritl, 

fuit, 



fut'iam, 

fiirras, 

fuOrat, 



fur'ro, 
fuL'ris, 
fuerit, 



SINGULAK. 

/ am, 
tlion art^^ 
he is ; 



I vas, 
thou toast, 
he was ; 



/ shall l)i\ 
thou irilt bc^ 
he will he ; 



I have bcc) ., 
thou hast i'T», 

he has been ; 



sumus, 

estis, 

sunt, 

iMPEnFKCT. 

/ was. 

o ram us, 

crutls, 

crant, 

FuTirnE. 
I shall or vdll be. 
ennuis, 
eritis, 
cruut, 

Teufect. 

I have been, ivas. 

fuimus, 

fuistis, 

fiu'runt, ) 
fuOr^, f 



PLCRAL. 

we arCy 
you arCy 
they are. 



tee were, 
you icerc, 
they were. 



li'C shall bcy 
you will be, 
they v'ill be. 



we have bceiiy 
you have been, 

they have been. 



I had been, 
thou hadst ben 
he had been ; 



ri-rrEUFEeT. 

/ had been. 

fucMumus, K'C had been, 
fuerfitis, you had been, 
fuurant, they had been. 

FuTuuE Perfect. 
I shall or uill have been. 



T shall have been, 
thou xvilt have been, 
he will have been ; 



fueriniiis, wc shall have been, 
fiieritT.s, you will have been, 
fuC'rint, thei/ will have been. 



J Or you are ; thou is confined mostly to solemn lUscourso ; la ordinary English, 
you are is used botli in the singular and in the plural. 



YERBS. 



69 



fuerim, 

fULTlS, 

fucrit, 



fuissem, 

fuissC'S, 

fuissut, 



Subjunctive. 

PnESENT. 

/ may or can be. 





SINGCLAR. 






PLURAL. 


sTrii, 


/ may be, 




sIniuH, 


tec may be, 


.«Ts, 


thou mayst br^ 




SltlH, 


you may be. 


Sit 


he may be ; 




sint, 


they may be. 






Imi'eukect. 






I miyht, 


coxild, U'Oidd, or should be. 


cssem, 


I might be, 




cssOmug, 


we might be, 


CSSC'S, 


thou miyhtst be, 




CSSC'tIs, 


you might be. 


csset, 


he might be ; 




csscnt, 


they might be. 






Perfect. 






I may or can have been 





I may have been, 
thou may fit have been, 
he may have been ; 



fuerimus, wc may have beetiy 
fui'ritis, you may have been, 
fuerint, they viay have been. 



Pluperfect. 
/might, could, would, or should have been. 



I might have been, 
thou mightst have been, 
he miglit have been ; 



fuissOmus, we might have been, 
fuissGtlg, you might have been, 
fuisscnt, they might have been. 



ImPEK ATIVE. 

I cstt", be yc, 

ostut(5, ye .shall be, 



Pres. (js, be thou, 

Fit. csto, thou shult be,^ 
csto, he xhall be*; 

Infinitive. 

Pue.S. css(^, to be, 
Vv.wv. fuisse, to have been. 
Kit. futrirus" esse, to be about to 
be. 

1. Rare Forms arc: for an, furCs, f^ref, fotrnt, and foi'if, for cssnn, 
esses, csxit, esseut, a.in\ futtlrus esse. See 2^»7. III. 2. 

2. Antiquated Forms arc : siim, siis, sivt, sient, for sim, sis, sit, sint ; 
nho fuiim, fuds, fuiit, fuant, for the same. 

* Tho Fut. may also be rendered like the Pres. orwltli let: be thou; let him be. 

* Futurua ia declined like bonus. 8o in the Infinitive, • futiirue, a, iim c««e. 



sunto, they shall be. 

P A K T I C I P L E . 

FuT. futfirus,^ about to be. 









S' K 



70 



FIRST COXJUGATIOX. 




I 

I 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 
^ ACTIVE VOICE. 
205. Anio, I love. 



Prca. I ml. 



amd, 



nilXCirAL TAKTrf. 
Trcs. Inf. rurf. IikI, 

amarS, uiiiavi.. 

Indicative Mood. 



Supine. 

ainatum. 



SIN 



amtlty 



amftbiiiii, 

iimabfi^}, 
amabiit. 



aina1>09 
amfEbit, 



anifivl, 

amfivisti, 

umuvit. 



iunuv*^rsliM, 

aiuav«^rfts, 

aniriv^k*ill. 



jimn tipd. 





PnKSKNI 


Tkxsk. 




I loi 


r, am 


loving, do Ivve 




GULAR. 






PLURAL. 


/ loVCy 




:' itmsllllcaf^. 


?"C love, 


thou loved ^ 






ainfttiK, 


yon love. 


he loves ; 






anirsMl, 


they love 



Imperfect. 
/ loved, was loviuffy did love. 



I wan lovinrj, 
thou wast loving, 
he was loving ; 



am2l1>2liniiN, ive tvere loving, 
anifil>iltls, 1/ou were loving, 
amalbaut, they were loving. 



Fl'TURE. 

/ shall or will love. 



I shall love, 
thou wilt love, 
he icill love ; 



ainsl1>Inii[k!<$, wc shall love, 
itmftbXtls, you will love. 



amilbuut, 

PERfiCT. 

/ loved, have ^ '■ ./. 
/ have loved, amS !5ni '•*<, 

thou hast loved, 
he has loved ; 



they will love. 



wc have loved, 
you have loved, 



I had loved, 
thou hadst loved, 
he had loved ; 



amavitiitls, 

amfiverian*, erC, they have loved 

Flu PERFECT. 

/ had loved. 

itniav^rftmus, ice had loved, 
SmavCratis, yoh had loved, 
amavCrant, they had loved. 

Future perfect, 
I shall or icill have loned. 



I shall have loved, 
thomeilt have hved, 
he v'ill have I ved; 



aniaviSrfmils, we shall have loved, 
jlmav^^ritls, y<)u will have loved, 
umav^rinl, they wi,ll have loved. 



m 



Arm' 



OICK. 



n 





Subjunctive. 


« 




PllE.-,i,XT. 






/ viay or can love. 






SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


dmi^ni. 


/ mivj love, 


amCjiiiiltii, 


we may love, 


ames. 


thou maynt lovCy 


ilinCtls, 


you may love, 


UlU^ty 


he may love ; 


uincnt. 


I /icy 7)10 y love. 



Imperfect. 
/ miyht, could, icould, or s!iould love. 



amftri^irt, I might love, 
anifiP«>j», thou miyhtst love, 
auifi.E'Cf , he miyht love ; 



amilremfas, we mifjht love, 
aniftpetlH, you miyht love, 
amilPcnt, they miyht love. 



Perfect. 
/ may or can have loved. 



amriv«*rlin, I may hove loved, 
itniavi^rtw, Ihou inayi^t have loved, 
ainfiveplt, he may have loved; 



amriv^ptniiks, we may have loved, 
amfivi^pltls, you may have loved, 
jiiuaverint, they may have loved. 



Pluperfect. 
/ miyht, could, tvould, or should have loved. 



amfivissi^ni, I miyht have loved, 
aniaviwsCs, thou miyhtxt have 

loved, 
aniaviHsCt, he miyht have loved ; 



ilmavis-isemiis, ?/« 7niyht have 

loved, 
umavis»etI»,yo« miyht have loved, 
iimiivisiiciit, they miyht have loved. 



Imperative. 



Pres. amfl, love thou ; 

FuT. amato, thou shalt love, 
aiuiltd, he shall love ; 

Infinitive. 

Pres. amftr^, to love. 
Perf. sliuuvissfi, to have loved. 
FuT. ilmatarjks^ css£, to 
about to love. 

Gerund. 

(ten. aiiiandl, oflrviny, 

Dat. iimandd, for loving, 

Ace. tliuandilm, loving, 

Ahl. jimando, by loving. 



be 



amftte, love ye. 

amatote, ye shall love, 
amantO, they shall love. 

Participle. 
Pres. amans,' loving. 

FcT. amatikruis,'' about to love. 
Supine. 



Ace. aniatiini, to love, 

Ahl. itrautfl, to love, be loved, 







'rtA 



■?^ 



..->«^- € 



M, ^^--. 



• Dcclino like pvudens, 153. 



' Decline liiio bonus, 143. 




I 



r I- 



■"^u '■'■»■; 



72 



FIRST CO\'jrGATION. 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

206. Amor, I am loved. 





PRINCIPAL PARTS. 


rrcs. Iiul. 


Pros. Inf. 


Pcrf. Ind 


am6r, 


umarl, 


amatus S 


I 


N D I C A T I V E M 

Tresent Tense. 
/ am loved. 


OD. 


SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


fimdr 






gmam&r 


umftrXs, or riS 






iimllinlinl 


amatikr ; 






uQiantfir. 




Imperfect. 






I was 


loved. 





amabaris, or r6 



umaltiiniiiir 

umabasnlnl 

rimai>antilr. 



amai>6ris, or re 
amai>Xt&r ; 



.auiiltils tiikm. ^ 
amiltiis ^» 
amatiis est ; 



amatits ^rasiii ' 
amiitiis i*!*^*© 
amiitiis '■m-h.t ?, 



amatiis <6r«> ' 
amatiis ♦3ris 
amattif ' li^rit ; 



Future. 
/ shall or will he loved. 

•"malslmiir 
aniabiiiiiiml 
amal»uiititr. 
Perfect. 
/ have been or was loved. 

iimatl siimiis 
amati cstls 
amati sunt. 
Pluperfect. 
/ had been loved. 

nmidi Uvumikii 
amati <Sratls 
amati ^rant. 

Future Perfect. *. 

I fihall or will have been loved. 

amati ^rXimiis 
amati iritis 
amati ^nint. 



J I^ui, fcisti, etc., are sometimes used for smn, es, etc., thus, awdtiin fiif, for 
amutus sv- i. So fu^ram, ftiSras, etc., tor iram, iras, etc. ; also fu^ro, fucris, etc., 
for ^>'o, ^ris, etc. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



73 



Subjunctive. 

Present. 
/ moil or can he lorcd. 



SINCULAn. 

ainCrI«, or re 
um£ttkr ; 



PLURAI.. 

aiiir^iufir 
inneiiiluil 
uineutrar. 



Imperfect. 

/ m'ujht^ couhl^ rcouhly or i>honld be loved 

uniarer 

amftrerls, or rH 
amaretiir ; 



auislreniiir 

aniareiuYuI 

amArcntTir. 



amutiks s^lin < 

auifittiM sis 
amatiks sit ; 



Perfect. 
/ )nay have been loved. 

amfitl slmtis 
iimatl sIltH 
amati sint. 

Pliterfect. 
/ mighty could, would, or should have been loved. 

ainatiis ossi^m ' 
amatttw ohsHh 
rmiatii.s css^t ; 



amatI CNi^Cinils 
aruati e^iisJVtlM 
amuti csseut. 



I:MrERATIVE. . 

Pres. anisire, be thou loved ; I inwTtniitxl., be ye loved. 
Fl'T. {Imator, thou shall be loved, 



ainriltir, he shall be loved ; 

I X F 1 >f I T I V E . 

Pres. aniarl, (<> be lovtd. 

Peuf. iiniutMH ess^i to hare bait 

l"i'( <l. 
Put. iluuitfini Iri^ to be, about to 

he loved. 



amaiittir, theij shall be loved. 
V A li T I c 1 1» I, i: . 

Pkki'. aiij.ilfts, hai'itii/ b<tu Ion,!. 
Flt. ama.Uiius, to be luvcd. 



1 Fiu'rimyfufrift, ctp., arc soinetimeb used for aim, sis, etc So iilso/Mis.S( ?», 
fnifteti, etc.. for CHsem, esses, etc. ; rarely /«<«i«ti for esse. 




M 



74 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 

SECOND COXJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

207. Moneo, I adclsc. 

rniNciPAL rAiiTs. 



Tros. Ind. Tros. Inf. 

moneo, monerS, 


Tcrf. Ind. Bnpine, 

monui, nionltum. 


Indicative ]Mood. 




Tresent Texsk. 


SINGl'LAU. 


/ advise. 

PLIUAL. 


moneo 
mun<ls 
mOn^t ; 




munCmus* 

monCtis 

muncnt. 


muneb&ni 
munCbils 
mijiiCbiit ; 


Imperfect. 
/ icas advising. 

muuJ3banius 
monebiltXM 

munebaiit. 




FL'TURE. 

/ s/tall or will advise. 


munCbO 
monebis 
tnOnebit ; 




monCbliiius 

muiiebXtiM 
muniibitiit. 


Perfect. 
/ advised or have advised. 


nionul 
nionuistl 
niouuXt ; 




niunuliiiktiii 
munuistis 
munuC'riiiit, or iiT^ 




Plcpe 
T had 


rfect. 
advised. 



munu^rsliu munueraMiiis 

munuiSras monu^ratis 

munu^rat ; monu^rant. 

Future Perfect. 
/ shall or will have advised. 

munuerd munu^rimiis 

monui^pfs munn^rttls 

monu^rlt ; monut^rint. 



ACTIVK VOICE. 



75 



Subjunctive. 

PUKSENT. 

I may or can advise. 



8INT.ULAR. 

moiiojiiii 



PLURAL. 

niniicaniilM 

niutieiltlM 

luoneniit. 



Imperfect. 
/ )/u\//il, could, would, or should adi'isc. 



iiiunt>rC*H 
munCrCt ; 



niunCrtiit, 



PiaUECT. 

/ maf/ have advised. 

niunu^rlH ^ niomiorlfls 

munn^rlt ; munu4Jriiit. 

Pluperfect. 
/ mif/hf, could, i/'ould, or should have advised. 



monuiss<5t ; 



monuis.tiieinuH 

rnunuissetl'.i 

munuisscnt. 



I M r E 11 A T I V E . 



Pies, nione, advise thoti; 

Pit, ?nonC*td, thoti shall advise, 
niunetO, he shall advise ; 

Infinitive. 

Pues. monCre, to advise. 
PKrvF. nionuisse, to have advised. 
Flt. monitftpus oss«^, to be 
about to advise. 

G E n ir N D . 

O'vji. uuuicndi, ofadvlsiuri, 
Dat. monendo, for advising, 
Ace, monendiini, advisinr/, 
Abl. monentld, b-i advishuj. 



advise ye. 



munCtot^, yc shall advise, 
muncnto, they shall advise. 

Parti ciple. 

Pres. moncns, advising. 
FuT. muiiitftrftw, about to advise. 

Supine, 



Ace. munituiu, to advise, 

Abl. moil lift, to advise, be advised. 



>'. 






70 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



y,. 



Il ! 

|) i 
■ t 



1 1 


1,; 


i 1 


1 







SECOND CONJUGATION. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

208. Moncor, / am adciacd. 

rniNCIPAL PAliTS. 
Tros. Iiul. Trca. Inf. I'crf. Iinl. 

inunedr, moneri, iiiomius siim. 

Indicative 31 o o d . 



Frksknt Tknsi;. 
/ am adviscil. 



SlN(ilLAU. 

inuiiCrls, or viS 
niunCiur ; 



monCbiir 
monCbttrlN, or r^ 
monCbiltikr ; 



IxU'KnKKCT. 

/ was ach'iscj. 



I'LUnAL. 

iiiuii4^iiiilr 

inotiCinlul 

inuncutur. 



niwiie1»riiiiiii*' 
iiionl>1>iliu\iiI 
uiuiijibaiitfiir. 



niunCbdrls, or viS 
mune1>Xtrtr ; 



FurruE. 
/ shall or will be adoiacd. 

mune1>1iiiiur 

mouCbliiiliil 

muiiobuniikr. 

Perfkct. 
/ have been or loas advised. 



monltiis est ; 



niunltits eras 
hioiiUus erilt ; 



moiuti suitiuH 
munitl cslls 
muiutl sunt. 

PLUrEnFECT. 

/ had been advised. 

munitl 4^rJltfl.s 
nioiuti eruul. 

Fill iti; ri;i!Ki;('T. 
/ lihull or Will have been advised. 



moiutils 4iri» 
monitiks ^rXt ; 



inoiiTtl ('rYiitui!* 
niuiuti iyritXs 
inuiiiti ^riiiit. 



Seo 20(5, foot notes. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



77 



SunjUNCTIVE. 

rUKSKNT. 

/ vHitj or can be advised. 

SINGLLAH. PLURAL. 



inniiffiir 
iiiunearlM, or r*3 

luuiiciltrtr ; 



uiuiieaiiiiar 
niniioAiHlnl 
inniiCHiitfir. 



iMI'KltFECT. 



/ iiilijlil^ cuiild, would, or should be adi'U>d. 



inuiiCrorlM, or vH 
inuuC*reiAi*5 



nionCri^mfif 

luund'C'inlnl 

monC'rofilttr. 



monltikss kIiii ' 
inuiiIliiH HlN 
m6mt&&( alt ; 



rEUIKCT. 

/ vHti) luivc been aduised. 

muiiTlI HlintiM 
niuultl (sltlM 
muultl sint. 

PLCPEnFECT. 



/ mighty could, xcould, or should have been advised. 



muiniikfi CNS^m ' 
luonltftN esses 
muuitfts es!!»<5t ; 



monitl esMeiiifis 
munltl eswetls 
muuiti esscut. 



IjirPERATIVE. 

Pres. niunere, be thou advised ; I mouCiuinl, be yc advised. 

FuT. mouetdr, thou shall be ad- 
vised, 
moiiCtdr, he shall be ad- 
vised ; 



IxriNITIVE. 

PuES. munepi, to be advised, 
Pekf. monitiis ess^i to have been 

advised, 
FuT. monitiim Irl, to be about 

to be advised. 



nioncntop, thei/ shall be advised 

Particitle. 



Perf. momtils, advised, 
FcT. monendtts, to be advised. 



a 



f 

i : 
i 'i 

i <. 
i ' 



» Sco 206, foot notes. 



i 




IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




fe. 






1.0 ^1^ ^ 



I.I 



^ B^ Hill 2.0 



1:25 ■ 1.4 



18 



1.6 



V 



<^ 



/y. 



■c^ 



.^ > 







Photographic 

Sciences 
Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 




iV 



V 




4»^ 







^. '^!\ WrS 







^ 












y. 







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. O^ 








78 






Tros. Ind, 

rego, 



THIRD CONJUGATIOX. 

THIRD CONJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

209. Rcgo, I rule. 

PRINCIPAL PARTS. 
Prcs. Inf. Pcrf. Ind. Supino. 

regSrS, rexi, rcctiim. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
/ rule. 



SINGULAR. 






plural.* 




regd 






rogluiii^ 




rc'gis 






ruglrlls 




regit ; 






I'CgUMt, 






Imperfect. 








/ tvas rulinrj. 






rrgebiiiii 






regebamtks 




regCbifts 






regel»a*ts 




ivgSlbiit; 






rcigebant. 






Future. 








/ shall or will rule 






reg&iii 






regCinils 




rogCs 






r?gCtis 




regCt ; 


Perfect. 


regent. 






/ ruled or have ruled. 




rexl 






rcxXiniis 




rcxistl 






rcxistXs 




rcxit, ; 






rcxerunt, or 


«r«». 




Pluperfect. 








/ had rided. 






rcx^r&m 






rcx^ramtts 




rex^rfts 






rcx^ratis 




rei^riit ; 






rcx^rant. 






Future Perfect. 








/ shall or tdll have ru 


led. 




rex^rd 






rex^rimiks 




rex^rls 






rexi^rltls 




rexCrIt ; 






rex^^int. 





active voice. 

Subjunctive. 

Present. 
/ may or can rule. 

SLNGULAR. PLURAL. 

regjim 
regas 
regat ; 

Imperfect. 

/ mi(jht, could, looulil, or should ride 

rog^r«Sm 



79 



rc-ganitls 

regatis 

regaut. 



reg^res 
reg^r«St ; 



rexi^rlm 

rex^rts 
rex^rit ; 



Perfect. 
/ may have ruled. 



regdremils 

reg^retls- 

reg^rcnt. 



rcx^rtmiis 

rexerftls 
rcx*^riiit. 



Pluperfect. 
/ might, could, woxdd, or should have ruled. 



rcxisseiu 
rexisses 
rexisset ; 



rcxissiemits 

rcxiss^tis 

rexisscnt. 



ImPEE ATI VE. 



Pres. rug^, ride thoic ; 

FuT. regitd, thou shall ride, 
regito, he shall rule ; 

Infinitive. 

Pres. rCg^r^, to rule. 
Perf. rexiss^, to have ruled. 
FuT. rectilrils esfiH^tohcabout 
to rule. 

Gekund. 

Gen. regendl, of ruling, 

Dat. regendd, for ruling, 

Ace. regcndikin, ruling, 

AM. regendd, by ruling. 



regito, 7'idc yc. 

regitotd, yc shall rule, 
reguntd, they shall rule. 

Participle 

Pres. regcns, ruling. 

FuT. rectllrtts, about to rule. 
Supine. 



Ace. 
Abl 



rectttm, 
recta. 



to rule, 

to rule, be ruled. 



i 



10 



TlllilD CONJUGATION. 



RlSHH 






THIRD CONJUGATION, 

TASSIVE VOICE. 

210. Rcgor, I ay a ruled. 





PIIINCIPAL TAIiTS. 


Trts. Ind. 


Trcs. Inf. 


rcrf. Ind. 


regdr, 


rcgi, 


rectus sfjm. 


Indicative Mood 




Present Tense. 




/ am ruled. 


/ 


SINGULAR. 




plural. 


rc-^^dr 






rcgimiar 


rrg<iris, or viS 






regimlnl 


■rt'gililr ; 






reguutiir. 




Imperfect. 






/ was ruled. 




n"gel>jir 






regebamiir 


ri"gel>arls, or 


re 


■ 


rcg^bamlni 


reg€l>atiir 5 




^ 


regebantiir. 




Future. 






/ shall or will be 1 


'ulcd. 


regilr 






regCmiir 


regeris, or re 






regemini 


regetiir 5 






regciitiir. 




Perfect. 






/ have been or was 


ruled. 


rcctiis «$iiiii * 






recti siimiis 


rcctiis ^s 






recti estis 


rcctiis est 5 






recti sunt. 




Pluperfect. 






/ Aac? been ridcd. 


rcctiis ^rslm ' 






recti ^ramiis 


rectus ^ras 






recti eratXs 


rcctiis drsit ; 






recti ^rant. 




Future Perfect. 


/ shall or wj// Aaye 6ce»» ruled. 


rcctiis ^rd * 






recti erimiis 


rcctiis ^ris 






recti iritis 


rcctiis 4^rlt ; 






recti ^ruut. 



1 SCO 20G, foot notes. 



passive voice. 

Subjunctive. 

Presknt. 
/ may or can be ruled. 



SINGULAR. 

regsir 
rugftrls, or vH 

regatiir ; 



PLURAL. 

regamilr 

regftmlnl 

rogautiir. 



Imperfect. 
/ might, could, icould, or shoidd be ruled. 



reg^r^r 

rt^g^rCrls, or re 
reg^retttr ; 



reg^remiir 

regCremlnl 

rog^rcntiir. 



Perfect. 
f may have been ruled. 



rcctils siin ' 
rcctvLS »I» 
rcctils sit ; 



recti simils 
recti sltls 
recti sint. 



Pluperfect. 
/ might, could, woidd, or shoidd have been ruled. 



rectdis essoin ' 
rectiis cssCs 
T-ectiis ess^t ; 



recti essSmiis 
recti e^sStXs 
recti cssent. 



Imperative. 

Pres. reg^r^, be thou ruled ; I regimiiil, be yc ruled. 



FuT. regXtdr, thou shalt be ridcd, 
regXtdr, he shall be nded ;, 

Infinitive. 

Pres. regl, to be ruled. 

Pekf. rectiis ess^^ to have been 

ruled. 
Put. rcctftm. Irl, to be about to 

be nded. 



81 



regiintttr, they shall be ruled. 

Participle. 

Perf. rectiis, ruled. 

Fut. regcn«lfis, to be ruled. 



4* 



See 206, foot notes. 






82 






FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

211, Audio, I hear. 

PRINCIPAL PARTS. 



. Ind. Pros. Inf. 


Perf. Ind. Supine. 


lio, audirS, audivi, auditiim. 


Indicative M 


OD. 




Present Tense. 






/ hear. 




SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


audi5 






audlmtis 


audls 






audltis 


audit ; 






audiunt. 




Imperfect. 

4 


P 




/ was hearing. 




audiSb&ni 






audi^banitJLS 


audi^bas 






audiebatXs 


audiebstt ; 






audiebant. 




Future. 






/ shall or will hear 


f 


audiiim 






audiemiis 


audies 






audi^tXs 


audi^t ; 






audicnt. 




Perfect. 






/ heard or have heard. 


audivi 






audlvXmiks 


audivisti 






audlvistis 


audlvit ; 






audiverwiiit, or €r^ 




Pluperfect. 






/ had heard. 




audiv^rftm 






audlv^ramiis 


audlv^r&s 






audlv^ratXs 


audlvcrftt ; 






audlT^rant. 




• Future Perfect. 






/ shall or will have heard. 


audlv^rd 






audlvCrtmtts 


audiv^rts 






audlv^rftls 


audivCrIt ; 






audlv^rint. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 



Subjunctive, 





Present. 




/ may or can hear, 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 




audi&m 
audias 
audiiit ; 


audiUmiis 

iiudiatls 

audiant. 




Imperfect. 




/ mighty could, tco 
audlr^m 
audlrCs 
audlrijt ; 


dd, or should hear. 

audlrCmiis 

audlrCtis 

audlpcnt. 




Perfect. 




/ may have heard. 
audlv^rXm audlv^rimtis 
audiverls audiv^rltls 
audiv^rit ; audiv<?rint. 




Pluperfect. 




/ might, could, would, or should have heard. 




audlviss^m . 
audlvissSs 
audiviss^t ; 


audlvissdniks 

audlvif-isetls 

audlvisscnt. 




Imperative. 


Pres. 


audi, hear thou ; | audita, hear ye. 


FUT. 


audltd, thou shall hear, 
audltd, he shall hear ; 


audltOt^, ye shall hear, 
audiunto, they shall hear. 




Infinitive. Participle. 


Pres. 


audlr^, to hear. 


Pres. audicns, hearing. 



Perf. 

FuT. 



audiviss^, to have heard. 
audltftriks ess<^, to he 
about to hear. 

Gerund. 



I 



83 



FuT. auditftpits, about to hear. 

Supine. 



Gen. 
Bat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



audlendl, 
audlendd, 
audiendiim, 
audiendd. 



of Jiearing. 
for hearing, 
hearing, 
by hearing. 



\.cc. 



audltilm, to hear. 



i 
i 



Abl. audittt- to hear, be heard. 



mm 



' 



1 



I 

i 



84 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

212. Aiidior, lam heard 

TRINCirAL rARTS. 
Trcs. IniL Pros. Inf. Tcrf. lud. 

audidr, auclirl, auditus siim. 

Indicative Mood. 

PuESENT Tense. 
/ am heard. 



SINGULAK. 

uudi5i* 

uudlrls, or riS 
uudlttkr ; 



Imperfect. 
/ icas heard. 



••uuliebiir 
iuulicl»ilrls, or rC 
audi«3l><ltiu* ; 



rrxRAL. 
audlinikr 
nudlmlnl 
uudiuntikr* 



audie1>aiutiir 

audiebainini 

audiebantur. 



hr heard. 



I shall 0. 
audiitr 

aiidierls, or r«S 
audi<3tikr ; 

Perfect. 

/ have been heard. 
audltiks sikm * 
audltits ii» 
audltiks est ; 

Pluperfect. 

/ had been heard. 
audlttts driim * 
audlttis £ras 
auditus tSrilt ; 

Fl'ture Perfect. 
I shall or will have been 
auditiis ^rO ^ 
audltils ^vt» 
audlttks ^rXt ; 



audieinftr 
audiemlni 

audil^ntiir. 



audltl stimits 
audltl cstis 
audltl sunt. 



audltl <^raintis 
audit! Gratis 
audltl erant. 

heard. 

audltl ^rXmi^s 
auditi iritis 
audltl ^ruiit* 



See 206, foot uotos. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



80 



PLLUAL. 

audiUmtti* 

audillinliil 

audiantikr. 



Subjunctive. 

Present. 
/ may or can be heard. 

SINGULAR. 

audij&r 

audiftrls, or r«5 
audiiltilr ; 

Imperfect. 

I mighty could^ xoould, or should be heard. 

nudlrer 

audlrfipls, or riS 
audlretikr ; 

Perfect. 

/ may have been heard. 



iiudlremftr 

audlrCinIuI 
audlrcntikr. 



audltiks sim * 
audltits sis 
audltus sit ; 



audltl sliu&s 
audltl sitis 
audltl sint. 



Pluperfect. 
/ miffhty could, wouldy or should have been heard 



auditfas css^m ' 
audltiks css^s 
audlttis css^t ; 



audltl css^mikH 
audltl css6tXs 
audit! cssent. 



Imperative. 

Pres. audir^, be thou heard; i audlmXnl, be ye heard. 

Put. OMdltUr^ thou shalt be heard, I 

audltdr, he shall be heard ; \ audiimtdr, they shall be heard. 



Infinitive. 

Pres. audlrl, to be heard. 

Perf. auditiis css^i to have been 

heard. 
Put. auditilm Iri, to he about 

to he heard. 



Participle. 

Perf. auditiis, heard. 

Put. audiendiis, to be heard. 



See 206, foot notes. 



3 



86 



VERBS IN 10. 



VERBS IN 10 OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION. 



Pres, Ind, 

capio, 



SINGULAn. 

capio, capis, capit ; 



213. Verbs in io arc generally of the fourth conjuga- 
tion, and even the few which are of the third are inflected 
with the endings of the fourth wherever those endings 
have two successive vowels, as follows : 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

214. Cajno, I take. 

PRINCIPAL PARTS. 

Prce; Inf. Perf. Ind. Supine. 

capere, cepl, captum. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

PLURAL. 

I capimus, capitis, ciipiunt. 
Imperfect. 
capiebam, -iebas, -iubSt ; | cSpiubfimus, -iebatis, -iCbant. 

Future. 
c2piam, -iCs, -iet ; | cSpiemtia, -ietis, -ient. 

Perfect. 
cfipi, -isti, -it ; I cepimus, -istis, -grunt, or SrS. 

Pluperfect. 
cepSram, -SrSs, -erSt ; | cepSramus, -Sratls, -erant. 

Future Perfect. 
cepCro, -er!s, -erit; | cepSrimus, -eritis, -erint. 

• Subjunctive. 

Present. 
capiam, -ias, -iSt ; | gapiamus, -iatis, -iant. 

Imperfect. 
caperem, -eres, erSt ; ] capgrGmus, -ergtis, -grent. 

Perfect. 
ceperxm, -?ris, -Srit; | ceperimus,' -eritis, -erint. 

Pluperfect. 
cepiss^m, -isses, -issgt ; | cgpissemus, -issetis, -issent. 



conjuga- 

inflected 

endings 



4m. 



ant. 



erg. 



it. 





VERBS 


IN 


10. 


I 


MTERATIVE. 


SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


Pres. cilpe ; 


1 


Cilplte. 


FCT. CilpitS, 

cjiplto ; 




Ci1pitott5, 
Cilpiunto. 


Il^FINITIVE. 




Participle. 


Pres. citpuru. 
Perf. cC'piss(3. 
FuT. capturiis CS3?. 






Pres. caplcns. 
FuT. capturus. 


Gerund. 




Supine. 


Gen. cjipiendl. 
Dat. capiendo. 
Ace. capiendiim. 
All. capiendo. 






Ace. captum. 
Abl. captu. 



87 



Pres, Ind. 

capidr, 



PASSIVE VOICE. 

215. Capior, I am taken. 

principal parts. 

Pros. Inf. Perf. Ind. 

capi, captiis sum. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense, 
singular. plural. 

capior, cSp^ris, capitur ; | caplmur, cilplmini, capiuntur. 

Imperfect. 

Ciipiubar, -iebaris, -iebatiir ; | cjipiGbamur, -iGbaminl, -iobantur. 

Future. 

capior, -iCris, -ietur ; | capiemiir, -itlminl, -icntur. 

Perfect. 

captiis Slim, Ss, est ; | capti sumus, cstis, sunt. 

Pluperfect. 

captus erSm, eras, drrlt ; | capti eramiis, eratis, erant. 

Future Perfect. 

captiis 6rS, Sris, erit ; | capti erimiis^ eratis, Snint. 



I 



■ 



88 



SINT.rLAU. 

cai)!:!!', -iarlrf, -iatur ; 



VERBS IN 10. 

Subjunctive, 

PnESENT. 

PLURAL. 

I citplatnur, •iamlnl, -iautur. 

I.MrEUFKX'T. 

cjtporcr, -i?rC'rId, -orCtur ; | cjtpi'n'mrii*, •crOnunl, -urcntur. 

Perfect. 
captuH Sim, sli4, sit ; | capti sinuts, sltis, siiit. 

Pluperfect. 
captQs cssom, cssgs, csaet ; | captI cssGmua, cssctit?, cssout. 

Imperative. 
Pres. Citpere ; | ciiplminl. 

FuT. cjjpltor, I 

cSpItor ; I crfpitnitor. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres. citpl. 



Perf. captus esse. 
Fdt. captiim iri. 



Perf. captus. 
FuT. ciipicndus. 



SYNOPSIS OF CONJUGATION. 

216. FIRST CONJUGATION. 

I. ACTIVE VOICE. 

1. Principal Parts. 



amo, 


amare, 


amavi, 


amatum. 






2. Moods and Tenses.' 




INDICATIVE. 


BUBJITNOTIva. 


IMPEB. 


INFINITIVE. 


PAUTICIPLB. 


Fi'cs. amo 


limora 


ama 


3mar6 


amans. 


Imp, jlmabam 


Smari^in 








Flit, iimabo 




Smato 


am/iturus css6 


amuturus. 


Perf. amavl 


amaverlin 




amavissfi 




.Pliip. rimaveram 


umuvis'iem 








F. P. sIrauvurS 










Gcrnm 


7, amandi, do, etc. Supine, slmutLwn, u. 





1 These tables, it will bo observed, arc so arranged as to exhibit not only tho 
synopsis of each mood through tho different tenses, as, Indic. anu>, amdbam, etc., but 
also tho synopsis of eech tenso through tho different moods, as, Pbes. amo, amem, 
ami, etc. Tho pupil should make himself so familiar with tho verbs, as they occur 
in his reading lessons, as to bo able to give tho synopsis of any ilibod through all tho 
tenses, or of any tenso through all the moods. 



iitiir. 



cut. 



. E, 



^VUTICIPLl. 

iiraans. 
runuturus. 



ot only tlio 
tw, etc., but 
OTo, amem, 
they occur 
)Ugh all tho 



SYNOPSIS OP COXJUGATIOX. 

11. PASSIVE VOICE. 

1. PrvixcirAL Parts. 
am6r, anuui, runatus sum. 

2. ^foODS AND Tk.VSES. 



89 



INDiriATlVB, 


BCnjUNCTIVK. 


IMl'EK. 


INKIMTIVK 


I'AUTICirLB. 


Ptrx. niiulr 


itiUt'l' 


aniilrO 


uiuuri 




/////). AmAljiu" 


iliuaicr 








Fnt. aniilhor 




{Imator 


jT ma turn Irl 


ilmnndua 


Pn'f. JtinAtus sum 


iimfltri?) Him 




lluuitUS CSi*6 


iluatua. 


IHiip. ainaturt rnl.n 
F. P. uiuutus eru 


araatud cssom 

















217. SECOND CONJUGATION. 

I. ACTIVE VOICE. 

1. Principal Parts. 



monco. 



raunere, ra6nuT, monitum. 



2. Moods and Tenses. 



Prcs. monco 


moncam 


mono 


monGrS 


moncus. 


I))ip. monC'bam 


raonC'ivm 








Fnt. monC'bo 




mouOtS 


monituriis C3s6 


muulturud. 


Perf. monul 


monui^rim 




' monuissfi 




Plnp. monueram 


munuissem 








F. P. monuoro 











Gerund, moncndi, do, etc. Supine, monitum, Q. 

II. PASSIVE VOICE. 

1. Principal Parts. 

mdneor, mdnerl, m6nitus sura. 

2. Moods and Tenses. 



Prcs. 


moncor 


moneiir 


Imp. 


monebar 


monerer 


Fut 


monebor 




Per/. 


monitiis sum 


monitus Sim 


Plup. 


monitus eram 


monitus csscm 


F.P. 


monitus liro 





monCrS 
monOtor 



moneri 

monitum iri 
monitus css6 



moncndua 
monitus. 



-i. 



! 



'I 
I 



90 



SYNOPSIS OF CONJUGATION. 

218. THIRD CONJUGATION. 

I. ACTIVE VOICE. 

1. Peincipal Parts. 



reg5, 



regere, 



rexi, rectum. 



INDICATIVE. 



2. Moods and Tenses. 

IMPER, 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

rf'gitm 
rt'gurc:n 



r5g6 



rc-gito 



INFINITIVE. 

rfegcrS 



recturus ess6 



Prcs. rego 

Imp. regebam 

fht. regam ; 

Fcrf. rexi rcxerim 

Fluv> rexerilm rcxissem 

F. F. rcxero 

Gerund, regcndl, do, etc. Supi?ic, rcctiim, u. 

II. PASSIVE VOICE. 

1. PmxciPAL Parts. 

regor, regi, rectus sum, 

2. Moods and Tenses. 



PARTICIPLE. 

r^gens. 



recturus. 



Pros, regor 
Imp. regebar 
Fut. regjir 
Fcrf, rectus sum 
Fltip, rectus enim 
F. P. rectus cro 



rt'gar 
regerSr 

rectus Sim 
rectus essem 



rfigerii 



rfigitor 



rSgl 



rectum iri 
rectus css6 



rfigendiis. 
rectus. 



219. VERBS IN 10 OF THE miRD CONJUGATION. 

I. ACTIVE VOICE. 

1. Principal Parts. 
capi5, capere, ceiDi, captum. 

2. Moods and Tenses. 



Pres, capio 


capiJIm 


cap6 


ciipcrS 


capi«ins. 


Imp. capiebam 


caperem 








Fut. c3piam 




capito 


captQrus css8 


«iaptQrua. 


Perf. cepi 


cgpSrim 




cepiss6 




Plup. cepenlm 
F. P. cepero 


cepissera 






t 











Oerundy cSpiendi, do, etc. Supine^ captum, »V 



PAKTICIPLE. 

rfegens. 



recturus. 



regendiis. 
rectus. 



NATION. 



11. 



capwns. 
c2ptQriis. 






SYNOPSIS OP COXJUGATION. 



II. PASSIVE VOICE. 
1. Principal Parts. 



91 



caDior, 



capl 



captus sum. 



2. Moods and Tenses. 



INDICATIVE. 

Prcs. cjtpiur 
Imp. capiebur 
Fut. caj)iar 
Perf. captus siira 
Plup. captus {•mm 
F. P. captus Oro 



8UBJCNCTIVE. 


iMPEn. 


ciipiar 
capC'i'fir 


capCio 
Citpltor 


captus Sim 
captus essem 





INFINITIVE. 

capl 

captum ill 
captus CS65 



PAKTICIPLK. 



capicndus. 
ca2)tus. 



220. FOURTH CONJUGATION. 
I. ACTIVE VOICE. 

1. Principal Parts. 
audi&, audiie, audlvl, audltum. 

2. Moods and Tenses. 



Pres. audio 


audlam 


audi 


audirc 


audiena. 


Imp. audlebam 


audu'em 








Fut. audiiim 




audito 


audlturiis ess6 


audlturiis 


Perf. audlvl 


audlverun 




audivisso 




Pliip. audlveram 


audlvisscm 








F. P. audlvuro . 










Gerunc 


?, audiendl, do, 


etc. Sup 


inc, auditiim, ft. 





II. PASSIVE VOICE. 

1. Principal Parts. 
audior, audiri, auditus sum. 

2. Moods and Tenses. 



Pres. 

Imp. 

Fut. 

Perf. 

Plup. 

F. P. 



audior 
audiebctr 
audiar 
auditus sum 
auditus onim 
auditus ero 



audiiir 
audlrer 

auditus sTm 
auditus essem 



audirS 
auditor 



audiri 

auditiim iri 
auditus esse 



audiendus. 
auditus. 



DEPONENT VERBS. 



221. Deponent Verbs have in general the forms of tho 
Passive Voice with the signification of the Active. But 



^. 



92 



DErONENT VERBS. 



K 



1. They have also iu the Active, the future infinitive, the participles, 
gerund, and supine. 

2. The Future passive participle generally lias the passive significa- 
tion ; sometimes also the perfect passive ; hortanduSy to be exhorted ; cx- 
pcvtiift^ tried. 

o. The Future Infinitive of the Passive form is rare, as the Active 
form is generally used. 

SYNOPSIS OF CONJUGATION 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

222. Hortor, I exhort. 

I. PrjxciriVL Parts. 
hortor, hortuul, hortatus sum. 

II. Moods and Tenses. 



INDICATIVE. 

Prcs. hortor ^ 
Imp. hortabar 

Fut. hortabor 

Pcrf. hortatus siim 
Flup. hortatiis eram 
F. P. hortatus ero 



BUBJUNCTIVE. 

hortor 
hortarer 



hortatiis sun 
hortutusessem 



IMPER. 

hortarfi 
hortator 



INFINITIVE. 

hortari 

hortaturus esse 
hortatus ess6 



PARTICIPLE. 

hortans. 

(hortaturus. 
( hortandus. 
hortatus. 



Gerund, hortandl, do, etc. Supine^ hortatiim, vi'. 

SECOND CONJUGATION. 

223. Vercor, I fear, 

I. Principal Parts. 
vercor, vereii, veritus sum. 



Pres. vereor 
Imp. verebar 

FuU verebor 

Pcrf. veritus stim 
Plup. veritus erjim 
F. P. veritus ero 



II. Moods and Tenses. 

vfireri 



verc3r 
vererer 



veritus sTm 
veritus essem 



vSrgrS 
vSretor 



vfiriturus ess6 
vSritus esse 



vercns. 

(vfirituriis. 
( verendtis. 
vfiritus. 



Gerund, v^rendl, do. Supincy veritiim, u. 



' Tho tenses are inflected regulrirly through the persons and numbers ; hortor, 
Jiortdrls, hortdhlr, Jwrtumiir, hortdmlnl, hortantHr. 

All tho forms in this synopsis have tho active meaning, / e(e7iort, I was exTiorU 
ing, etc., except the Part, in dua, which has tho passive force, aboxd to he exhorted, 
to he exhorted. From its passive force this Part, cannot bo used In Intransitive Dcp. 
vcrbSjCxccpt in an impersonal cense. Sec 801, 2 and 8. 



participles, 

c significa- 
lortcd; cx- 

tbe Active 



'AUTICIPLB. 

lortans. 

lortaturus. 
lortandus. 
lortutiis. 



vorens. 

( vfirlturus. 
1 verendus. 
vfiritua. 



era ; hoi'tor, 

was exhort- 
!>« exhorted, 
Dsitlvo Dcp. 



SYNOPSIS OP CONJUGATION. 93 




THIRD CONJUGATION. 


\ 


224. Scquor, I foUoic. 




I. PuiNCirAL Parts. 




sequor, sequi, sccutus sum. 




II. Moods and Tenses. 




INDICATIVE. 


SUBJUNCTIVE. 


IMPEE. 


INFINITIVE. 


PARTICIPLE. 




Prcs. sequor 


scquar 


sequel 6 


se(|ui 


efiqucns. 




Imp. sequGbilr 


scquorur 










Fut. suquar 




scquitor 


secuturiis csst! 


j p6cutarus, 
\ sficiuondus. 




Per/, secutus sum 


secutus Sim 




sCcutus esse 


secutus. 




Fill]), sccutiis eram 


secutus cssem 










F. F. st'CLitus ero 












Gerund^ sfiqucndl, do, etc. Supine, sccutum, u. 




225. Patior, / sifffer. 




I. PuiNcirAL Parts. 




patior, pati, passus sum. 




II. Moods and Tenses. 




Prcs. pati'jr 


patiur 


paterS 


pati 


paticns. 




Imp. patiebar 


patC'ier 










Fut. patiur 




patitor 


passuriis esse 


( passuriis. 
( paticndus. 


; 


Per/. passiiS sum 


passus Sim 




passus css6 


passus. 




Plnp. passus oi'am 


passus essCm 










F. P. passus ero 












(rcru7i(l, paticndl, do, etc. Supine, passum, u. 




FOUETII COXJUGATIOX. 




226. Blandior, I Jlaiter. 




I. Principal Parts. 




blandior, blandiri, blandltus sum. 




II. Moods and Tenses. 




Prcs. blandior 


blandiar 


blandiie 


blandiri 


blandiens. 




Imp. blandiobar 


blandiror 










Fut. blaiidiiir 




blandi- 


blandlturus es- 


(l)landitfiriig 








tor 


se 


Iblandiendus 




Pvrf. blandilu.s 


hlaiuiilus Sim 




blanditus csi-o 


blanditus. 




sum 












Plup. blandltus 


blanditus ca- 










eram 


sern 










F. p. blandltus 












«r8 


' 










Gerund, blaiidicndi, do, etc. Supine, blanditum, u. 




/*> 


* 








' 



' i 



i 'i 









94 



rKKirilKASTIC CONJUGATION. 






rERIPIlKASTIO CONJUGATION. 

227. The Latin has also two Periphrastic conjugations, 
formed rcsi3ectivcly from the two regular future participles 
combined with the various tenses of the auxiliary sitm. 

228. The First or Active Periphrastic conjugation, 
compounded of the Future Active participle and simij ex- 
]>resses an intended or future action or state : amaturus sum, 
1 am about to love ; moniturus sum, I am about to advise. 

229. The Second or Passive Periphrastic conjugation, 
compounded of the Future Passive participle and sum, ex- 
presses necessity or daty : amcmdus smn, I must be loved. 

I. Active PeripiiRx\.stic Conjugation. 

230. Amaturus sum, I am about to love. 



INDICATIVE. 

simaturus siim ^ 
iimaturu3 firitni 
iimaturus ero 
limritfuus ful 
amaturus fuSritm 



l^rcs. 

Imp. 

Fut. 

Perf. 

Plup. 

Fut. Per/, amaturus fuero ^ 

TI. Passive Peripiieastic Conjugation. 



SUnjDNCTIVK. 

amaturus sim 
amaturus essfim 

amaturus fucrim 
amaturus fuissfim 



INFINITIVE. 

amaturus esse, 
amaturus fuiss6. 



Pvcs. 

Imp. 

Fut. 

Perf. 

Plup. 



231. Amandus sum, I must he loved.^ 

amandus c^:s6. 



amandus siim 
amandus 6rSm 
{imandixs ero 
amandus ful 
amandus fucram 



amandus Bxm 
amaudiis esscm 



amandus fuisse. 



amandus fu5rim 
amandus fuisscm 
Fat. Perf. amandus i'ufiro 

232. The Pcriphrastio Conjugation, in the widest sense of the term, 
includes all forms compounded of i)articiples with sum : amans est, he is 
loving; amaturus est, he is about to love; amiUu^ est, he has been loved; 
amandus est, he is to be loved, or must Ije loved. But as the Pres. Part, 
with sum is equivalent to the Pres. Ind. (cniians est = amat), and is ac- 
cordingly seldom used, and as the Perf. Part, with stmi is, in the strictest 
sense, an integral part of the regular conjugation, the term Periphrastic is 
gencrJilly limited to the two conjugations above given. 

233. The First Periphrastic conjugation may be formed from either 
ti-ansitive or intransitive verbs; the Second from transitive verbs only, 
except in an impersonal sense. See 301. 2. 

* The pcripbrasUc forms aro inflected "egularly throVlgh tho persons auU num- 
bora: amaturus stim, es, est. The Fut. Tcrf. is exceedingly rare. 
" Or, I deserve (ought) to he loved. 



igations, 
rticiples 
um. 

ugation, 
mrti^ ex- 
rus sum, 
advise, 
ugation, 
sum, ex- 
le loved. 



TIVE. 

s esse. 
s fuissfi. 



c>:s6. 



fuisso. 



the torm, 
est^ bo is 
on loved ; 
res. Part, 
ind is ac- 
strictest 
hraslic is 

om cither 
rbs only, 



I aud num- 



PECULIAEITIES IN CONJUGATION. 



95 



CONTRACTIOXS AND PECULIARITIES IN CONJUGATION, 

234. Perfects in avi, evi, ivi, and the tenses derived 
from them, sometimes dro}) v and suffer contraction before 
s and r. Thus 

A-i and a-e become a : amavisti (araaisti), amasti ; amavtfram (amac- 
ram), amCtram ; amavissc (amaisse), arnassc. 

E-i and e-e become e : ncvi (to spin), nevisli (neisti), nesti ; ncvcrunt, 
(neerunt), ncrunt. 

I-i becomes i: audivisti (audiisti), audisti ; aiidivissem (audiissem), 
audisscm. 

1. Perfects in Ivl sometimes drop v in any of their forms, but generally 
without contraction, except before s: aiidlvi, audii, audiii, audiemm ; audi- 
visii, audiisti or audisti. 

2. Perfects in ovi. — The perfect of nosco, to know, and vioveo, to move, 
sometimes drops v and suffers contraction before r and s : novisti, nosti. 

S. Perfects in si and xi sometimes drop is, iss, or sis: scripsisti, scripsti ; 
dixisse, dixe ; accessistis, accestis. 

235. Ere for erunt, as the ending of the third Pcrs. PI. of the 
Perf. Ind. Act., is common in the historians. 

The form in ere does not drop v. In poetry erunt occurs. 
233. Re for ris in the ending of the second Pcrs. of the Pass, ia 
rare in the Pros. Indie. 

237. Die, due, fae, and fer, for dice, diicc, face, and fere, are the 
Imperatives of c//fo, duco, facio, and /cro, to say, lead, make, and bear. 

1. Dice, duce, aadface occur in poetry. 

2. Compounds follow the simple verbs, except those of facio which 
change a into i: confice. 

238. Undus and undi for cndus and cndi occur as the endings of 
the Put. Pass. Part, and of the Gerund of Conj. III. and IV. : dlciindus 
from dico, to say; putiundus, from potior, to obtain. 

239. Ancient and Rare Foums. — Various other forms, belonging 
in the main to the earlier Latin, occur in the poets, even of the classical 
period, and occasionally also in prose, to impart to the style an air of an- 
tiquity or solemnity. Thus forms in 

1. ibam for ielani, in the Imp. Ind. of Conj. IV. : sclbam for scieham. See 
Imp. of eo, to go, 295. 

2. ibo, Ihor, for iam, iar, in the Put. of Conj. IV. : scrvlhu for serviain ; 
oppertbor for opperiar. See Fut. of eo, 295. 

3. im for am or em, in the Pros. Subj. : edim, edis, etc., for cdam, as, etc. ; 
duim (from duo, for do), for dem.—ln sim, telim, nolim, malim (204 and 293), 
im is the common ending. 






1 



96 



VEEBS. 



4. asso, esso, and so, in the Fut. Pcrf., and assim, essitn, and si7fi, in llic 
Pcrf. Subj. of Conj. I. II. III. : /cuw (fucso) tor /etero (Jrom/acio) ; faxim for 
fecerim ; ausim, for ausus sim (for auserlm, from audco). llaro examples 
arc: levasso for levavero ; proMbesso iov pt'oMhuero ; capso for cepero ; a,co 
for egero ; jiisso for jiissero; occisit for occiderit ; taxis for tetif/eris. 

5. to and ?rti«w for tor, the former in both numbers, the latter in the sin- 
gular of the Fut. Imp. I'ass. and Dep. : arUtmto, arhilramino for arhitnltor ; 
utuiito for utuutor. 

G. iev for i in the Pros. Pass. Infiu. : amariii' for aindri; vidcrier for 
videri. 

FOKMATION OF THE VARIOUS PARTS OF TUE VERB. 

240. Principal Pakts. — From an insiicctiou of the 
paradigms, it will be seen, that the Principal Parts arc 
formed in the four conjugations with the following end- 
ings : ' 



o, 



are. 



' 1. Ill afeiu verbs . 



II. 



III. 



eo, 



ere. 



uvi. 



Ovi, 



2. Lh most verbs : 
^ CO, ere, ui, 

'' 1. Li consonant stems : 
o, t're, si, 

2. In voivel stems : 



utum. 
etum. 
itum. 

turn. 



I. 

II. 

III. 
IV. 








lo, 


ere, 


• 


tun 


1. 


i. 10, 


ire, 


ivi, 


Itum. 




Ex. 


VMl'LES. 






Amo, 


araure, 


amuvi, 


amatum. 


to love. 


Deleo, 
Moneo, 


dclere, 
monere, 


delevi, 
monui, 


deliitum, 
monitum. 


to destroy, 
to advise. 


Carpo, 
Acuo, 


carpSre, 
aeu6i-e, 


carpsi, 
acui, 


carptum, 
acutum, 


to pluck, 
to si tar pen 


Au 


die, 


audlrc, 


audivi. 


audltum, 


to hear. 



241. Entire Conjugation. — Again, from an inspec- 
tion of the paradigms, it will be seen, that all the forms of 
any regular verb, through all the moods and tenses of 
both voices, arrange themselves in three distinct groups or 
systems of forms : 



1 Tlie forma in evi and etum of Conj. II. do not occur in tho paradigms given 
nl)ove, but belong to the regular forms of those conjugations. For a fuller statement 
of tho formation of the Principal Parts with Exceptions, see 246-2C0. 



FORMATION OF PARTS. 



•7 



I. The Present System, with the Present Infinitive 
as its basis, comprises 

1. Tho Present^ ImiHrfect^ and Future Indicative — Active and 
Passive. 

2. Tho Present and Imperfect Suljunetke — Activo and Passive. 

3. Tho Imperative — Activo and Passive. 

4. Tlio Present Infinitive — Activo and Passive. 

5. Tlie Present Active and Future Passive Participle. 
C. Tho Gerund. 

These parts are all formed from the Present Stem, 
found in the Present Infinitive of tlie several conjugations, 
by dropping the endings — dre^ ere^ ere, 'ire of the Active, 
or — dri, erl, ^, tri, of the Passive : amm'e, present stem, 
AM ; monere, mon ; regere, reg ; audlrCy aud. 

II. The Perfect Syste^i, with the Perfect Indicative 
Active as its basis, comprises in the Active voice 

1. The Perfect^ Pluperfect^ and Future Perfect Indicative. 

2. The Perfect and Pluperfect Suljunctive. 

3. Tho Perfect Infinitive. 

These parts are all formed from the Perfect Stem, found 
in the Perfect Indicative Active by dropping i\ amdvi, 
perfect stem amav ; monui, monu. 

III. The SuriNE System, wi h the Supine as its basis, 
comprises 

1. i .le Supines in um and w, tho former of which with Iri 
forms the Future Infinitive Passive. 

2. The Future Active and Perfect Passive ParticiphS^ the 
former of which with esse forms the Future Active Infinitive, and 
the latter of which with the proper parts of tho auxiliary sum 
forms in the Passive those tenses which in the Active belong to 
the Perfect System. 

These parts are all formed from the Supine Stem, found 
in the Supine by dropping wn : amdtum, supine stem, 
AMAT ; monitum, moxit. 

242. Verb Stem. — The true basis of all verbal inflec- 
tions is the Verb Stem ; but this is generally identical 
with the Present Stem. Accordingly in nearly all verbs 
the Present Stem is also the Verb Stem. Thus am, the 
Present Stem of amo, is also its Verb Stem. 

1. In a few verbs the Present Stem has assumed one or more letters 
not found in the Verb Stem. Thus in fundo, vmco, the Verb Stems are 
fud, vie, but the Present Stems are fund, mnc, strengthened by assuming n. 

2. We add the following table of verbal Inflections. 



■•'ir 



If 



H. 



08 



VEEBS. 



TABLE OF 



PRESENT SYSTEM. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 







Indicative Mood. 










Present. 






mon 

rdg 

aud 


-8 
-e8, 
-8 
-i8, 


-as, 
-es, 
-Is, 
-is, 


•at; 

-It; 
-It; 


-amtis, 
-6mu3, 
-imus, 
-imiis. 


-atfa, 
-etis, 
-itis, 
-itis, 


-ant. 
-ent. 
-unt. 
-iunt. 








Imperfect. 






Sm 

mon 

r6g 

aud 


-abam, 

-ebjim, 
-6b.1,m, 
-iebfim, 


-abas, 
-ebaa, 
-ebas, 
-iebas. 


-abat; 

-ebat; 
-ebat; 
-iebat ; 


-abflmiis, 
-ebamtis, 
-ebamfls, 
-iebamiis, 


-abatis, 
-ebatis, 
-ebatis, 
-iebatis. 


-abant. 
-ebant. 
-ebant. 
-iebant. 








Future. 






mon 

rfig 

aud 


-abS, 
^b8, 
-2ra, 
-iSm, 


-abis, 
-ebis, 
-6s, 

-ies, 


-abit; 
-ebit; 
-6t; 
-igt; 


-abimiis, 
-ebimus, 
-emiis, 
-iemus. 


-abitis, 
-ebitis, 

-etis, 
-ietis, 


•abunt. 
-ebunt, 
-ent. 
-lent. 








Subjunctive. 

Present. 






mon 

r6g 

aud 


-Sm, 
-eSm, 
-vim, 
-iam, 


-Ss, 
-eas, 
-as, 
-ias. 


-«t; 
-eat; 
-at; 
-iat; 


-emiis, 
-eamus, 
-amiia, 
-iamus, 


-etJs, 

-eiitis, 

-atis, 

-iatis. 


-ent. 
-eant. 
-ant. 
-iant. 








Imperfect. 




I 


Sm 
mon 
rSg 
aud 


-argm, 
-erem, 
-6r6m, 
-irSm, 


-ares, 

-eres, 
-6res, 
-ires, 


-ar6t; 
-er6t ; 
-^r6t; 
-ir6t; 


-aremiis, 
-eremus, 
-gremiis, 
-iremiis. 


-aretis, 
-eretis, 
-gretis, 
-iretis. 


-areut. 
-erent. 
-Srent. 
-irent. 








Imperative. 








Present. 




Future. 




' SINQ. 


PLUR. 


singular. 


PLURAL. 


m5n 

r«g 

aud 


-5. 
-6, 


-atS; 
-6t8; 

-it6; 


-ato, 
-eto, 

-It", 
-ito, 


-ato; 
-etS ; 
-itg; 
-ito ; 


-atotS, 

-etotg, 

-itotg, 
-it5t6, 


-antS. 
-ento. 
-unt5. 
-iuntS. 


Pkes. Infinitive. 


Paetictpt.e. 


Gerund. 




Sm 
m5n 

aud 


-ar8; 
-6r6; 

-ir6; 




-ans; 
-ens; 
-ens; 
-iens; 




-andi. 
-endl, 
-endl. 
-iendl. 



Verbs in io of Conj. HI, have certjun endings of Coiy. IV. See 213. 



VIOIBS. 



00 



VERBAL INFLECTIONS. 

PRESENT SYSTEM. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

Indicative Mood. 

PUESENT. 



Hm 


-8r, 


-flris or !\.r6, 


-atur ; 


amiir, 


-amini. 


-antur. 


m5n 


-eor, 


-Cris or ere. 


-etur ; 


-emiir, 


-emini. 


-cntur. 


rcig 


-or, 


-eris or C'ri?, 


-itur ; 


-iiimr, 


•imini, 


-untur. 


aud 


-ior. 


-iris or irS, 


-:tur ; 
Impeufect 


-imur, 

• 


-imini. 


•iuntur. 


&m 


-aMr, 


-abaria or ^bari?, 


-abatur ; 


•abamur, 


-abamini, 


-abant&r. 


mon 


-C'bSr, 


-ebaris or i.baro, 


-ebatur ; 


-ebamur, 


-ebamini, 


-C'bantxir. 


r6g 


-Cbar, 


-C'barla or ebart5, 


-ebatur ; 


-ebamur, 


-ebamini, 


•CbantOr. 


aud 


-iebSr, 


-iebaris or iebard. 


-iebatiir ; 
Future. 


-iebamiir, 


-iebumiiii, 


-iC'bantiir. 


Sm 


-abor. 


•aberis or abgri*, 


-abitur ; 


-abiraiir. 


-abtmini, 


-abuntGr. 


mon 


-ebor, 


-ebCris or 5b(5r6, 


-ebitur ; 


-Cbimur, 


-ebimini, 


-ebuntur. 


rt5g 


-ar, 


-eris or 6re, 


-etur ; 


-6mur, 


-emini, 


-cntur. 


aud 


-iar, 


-iCris or ierS, 


-ietur ; 


-iemur, 


-iGmini, 


-ientiir. 



Sc^BJUNCTIVE. 

Phesent. 



Sm -Sr, 


-eris or 6rg, 


-etur ; -gmiir. 


-emini, 


-entur. 


mon -eSr, 


■earis 0^ eare. 


-eatur ; -eamiir. 


-eamini. 


-eantiir. 


r»g -Sr, 


-aris or arg. 


-atur ; -amur, 


-amini. 


-antur. 


aud -iSr, 


-iaris or iare, 


-iatiir ; -iamiir, 
Imperfect. 


-iamini. 


-iantiir. 


am -ar^r. 


-areris or arfirS, 


-aretiir ; -aremiir, 


-arCmini, 


-arentur. 


mon -erfir. 


-ereris or erCrd, 


-eretiir ; -6rCmur, 


•Cremini, 


-ercntur. 


rfig -^r6r. 


•Sreris or SrerS, 


-Sretur ; -grCmiir, 


-erCmini, 


-ercnt&r. 


aud -ir6r, 


-ireris or ire re, 


-iretiir ; -iremilr, 


-iremini, 


-irentiir. 




ImPEKATI VE. 






Present. 


FoTURi;. 




SING. 


PLTTR. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


am -arS, 


-amini ; 


-ator, -atof ; 




-antor. 


mon -er6, -emini; 
rfig -6r6, -immi ; 
aud -ir6, -imini ; 

pRES. Infinitive. 


-etor, -etor ; 
-itor, -itor ; 
-itor, -itor ; 

Fur. 




-cnt(5r. 
-untor. 
-iuntor. 

I.E. 






Paeticip 


8m 


-ari; 




-andiis. 




mon -eri ; 




-endiis. 




rfg 


-i; 




-endus. 




aud 


-iri; 




-iendiis. 





(• 



If 



li 



1^1 til 



Vn ! 



100 



VERBS. 



TABLE OF 



t! ' 



raunu 

rex 

audiv 

flm.1v 
niunu 
rex 
audIv 

Smav 
monu 
rex 
audiv 



amfiv 
in6nu 
rex 
audiv 

2mav 
munu 
rex 
audiv 

Smav 
monu 
rex 
audiv 



PERFECT SYSTEM. 

ACTIVE VO^ % 

Indicative uxood. 
Perfect. 



•I, 



•IstI, 



•Criim, -tjras, 



-ft; -imus, -istis, -Crunt, -6re. 

Pluperfect. 

-£rtlt; -firfimus, -drutis, •erant. 



Future Perfect. 
•Sr8, -€ri3, -Crit; -eiimiig, -eiitis, -erint. 

Subjunctive. 

Perfect. 



-erimiis. 



-dritis, -Crint. 



-^rim, -Sris, -Srit ; 

Pluperfect. 
-isbura, -issfis, -issSt; -issfimus, -issCtis, -issent. 
Infinitive Perfect. 



Supine System. 

Infinitive Put. Part. Put. 



Smat 
mdnit 
rect 
audit 



-Qriis esst?. 



-Oriis. 



Supine. 
-iim, -Q. 



VERBS. 



101 



LE OF 



■erunt, -Cre. 



•urant. 



-Srint. 



-Crint. 



-issent. 



JPINE. 



im, -fl. 



VERBAL INFLECTIONS. 

SUPINK SYSTEM. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

Indicative Mood. 

Perfect. 



(tmut -us 1 

niuiilt -us 

„„„. v„ sum, 

rect -ua ' 

audit -ua 



£s, 



est; 
Pluperfect. 



sfimus. 



CStIS, fiUQt. 



fimJlt -us 

rect -MS ^*''^™' ^''*^^' ^'"^'5 craraus, 
nudit -us 

Fdture Perfect. 

fim5.t -lis 

nionlt ua V y v v v «. v v v 

rect -ua ^^^' *''^'^^» ^"*' Crimus, 

audit -ua 

Subjunctive. 
Perfect. 

sla, sit ; simus, 

Pluperfect. 



«5rutla, drant. 



eritis, Crunt. 



^Dlut -US 

monit -us 

Sim. 
rect -ua ' 

audit -Ua 



sltis, sint. 



amat -Qs 

monit -iia „„ ^„ , y. , ^ 

rect -ua ^^^^i cssea, esset; essfimus, essttis, esscnt. 

audit -us 



Infinitite Perfect. 



3mat -iia 
monit -us 
rect -iia 
audit -iia 



essS. 



Infinitive Fut. 



• Part. Perf. 



amat 
monit 
rect 
audit 



-umiri. 



-us. 



,•1 
< i 



i* 



V. 



1 In the plural, -ua becomes -i : -i sutnm, etc. 



102 



C'OMPAKATIVE VIEW OF CONJUOATIONS. 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. 

243. The Four Conjugations, it will bo scon from tliis table, 
differ IVoiu oncli other only in the forinatioa of the I*i'incijpul Parti 
and in the endings of the J'resent System. 

244. But by a cioso analysis it will bo found 

1. That even thcso ditfercncos in a great measure disappear, 
and that the four conjugations become only varieties of one gen- 
eral system of conjugation. 

2. That those varieties have boon produced by the union of 
different final letters in the various stems with one general system 
of endings. 

245. According to this analysis 

1. Tho stems in the four conjugations end in the following 

letters : 

I. II. III. IT. 

a, e, consonant or u,' i. 

2. Tho general endings are 

1) For Principal Parts : 

o, t'ro, 81 (i), vi, turn. 

2) For Other Parts : — tho endings given above for tho third 
conjugation, b' * in tho Future, ho and lor are regular endings as 
well as am and ar^ and in the Infinitive Passive, cri as well as i. 

3. Tho manner in which these endings unite with the difier- 
cnt stems may be seen in the following 

COMPARATIVE VIEW OF CONJUGATIONS. 
PRINCIPAL PAETS. 



I. 


Ama-0 
' Amo,' 




ama-^re 


ama-vi 


ama-tum 




amare, 


amavi, 


amutum. 


YT 


Mone-o 




mone-^re 


i mone-vi 


mone-tum ' 


II. 


Mouco, 




monere, 


< mon-vi 
( monui, 


mon-tum 
monitum. * 


III. 


Reg-o 




rcg-ere 


rcg-si 


reg-tum 


■ Rego, 




rcgere, 


rexi, 


rectum. 


IV. 


( Audi-o 
\ Audio, 




audi-ere 


andi-vi 


audi-tum 




audire, 


audlvi, 


auditum. 




1 


Rarely 


0. 








9 


By contraction : ama-o — 


amo. 






• 


LIko deleo, deUre, delevi, 


deletum. Sco'240. II. 




4 


For changes eeo 247. 1. 







COMPAMATIVE VIEW OP CONJUdATIOXS. 



108 



noNS. 

Ins table, 
ltd Parts 



isappcar, 
one goii- 

union of 
al system 



following 



tLo third 
idings as 
ell as i. 
e differ- 



jin. 

turn* 
um 
um. * 

m 

um 
m. 



1. 
2. 

3. 
1. 
2. 
3. 



PRESENT SYSTEM.— ^c^'w Voice.^ 
Indicative. 



ama-ercm 
amurcm 



M 
M 



ama-c 
ama 

ama-tte 
am&te. 



Tresknt. 



I. 


11. 


III. 


ama-0 
aiQO 


mnnC'O 
iiionco 


rrff-o 

IfgO 


amu'ia 


mnnr-ii 
luonOs 


rrr/.ia 
rcgid 


ama-it 

' mat 


monc-it 
munct 


rcff-it 
ri'git 


ama-Xmus 
ainamua 


moncAmus 
monOmua 


ri'f/-\mHH 
rcgliuus 


ama-)tis 
ainfitia 


mone-)tiH 
monCtid 


rerf-lth 
rcgltia 


ama-unt 
umant. 


monc-unt 
moueut. 


rerf-unt 
icgunt. 




Imi-eufi 


:CT. 


ama-lbam 
amubam. 


mone-ibam 
monCbam. 


rcfi-chnm 
regObum. 




FUTCR 


E. 


ama-ebo 
amabo. 


mone-cbo 
monebo. 


rcg-am 
regam. 




SUBJUNC 


!TIVE. 




Tresej 


fT. 


ama-am 
amem." 


monc-am 
moacam. 


rcg-am 
regam. 



Imperfect. 



monc-fSrem 
monGrcm. 



reg-(frcm 
regorcm. 



mone-e 
mono 

monc-lte 
monete. 



Imperative. 

Present. 

reg-c 



rcge 

reg-Xte 
rcgite. 



IT. 

audi-o 
audio 

audi-ii 
audid 

audi-it 
audit 

audi-Xinus 
audimua 

audl-itU 
nuditia 

audi-unt 
audiuut. 



I andi-ebam 
I audiC'bam. 



axuli-am 
audium. 



audi-am 
audiam. 



audl-Xrcm 
audlrcm. 



nud'i-c 
audi 

audi-Xte 
audlte. 



* The Passive has the same changes as the Active : ama-or = amor ; ama-4ri9 
:= amdria ; mone-Ms = monlria ; audi-lria = audlria, etc. 
^ A changed to e, so throughout ; ama-as = amcs, etc. 



. ,1 



104 



COMrAEATIVE VIEW OF CONJUGATIONS. 



2S. I 

■I 
■\ 

3 P. I 



3S. 



2P, 



ama-ere 
omure. 



ama-cns 
amans. 



ama-cndi 
amandi. 



Future. 

regito 

reff- tto 
rt'gito 

rcffAUde 
regitote 

rcg-unto 
rcguuto. 

Infinitive. 

Present. 

monc-Sre I reg-^re I 

monere. | rogSre. | 

Present Participle 




ama'ito 


mone-\to 


amato 


nionC'to 


ania-\to 


mone-tto 


amuto 


moneto 


cnnaAtOtc 


mone-itotc 


amatotc 


nionetute 


ama-nnto 


mone-nnio 


amauto. 


moncnto. 



mone-cns 
monens. 



reg-ens 
regens. 

Gerund. 



monc'cndi 
moncndi. 



rcg-cndi 
regcndi. 



audlAto 
audlto 

audi-xto 
audito 

aicdi-Uote 
auditOto 

audl-iinto 
audiunto. 



audi-tre 
audlrc. 



avdi-ens 
audicns. 



audi-cndi 
audicndi. 



FORMATION OF PRINCIPAL PARTS. 

246. The general rule for obtaining these forms has 
already been given (240), but as they are the basis of all 
verbal inflections, a fuller treatment of the subject is desir- 
able. We notice 

I. Hegular Formation 9. 

II. Irregular formations. 

I. Regular Formations. 

247. The Principal Parts of verbs in the four conjuga- 
tions are formed with the following endings : ' 



I. o. 



are, 



11. 



III. 



1. In a few verbs: 
eo, ere, 

2. In most verbs ; 



uvi, 



evi. 



eo, 



ere. 



111, 



1. In consonant stem" : 



o. 



ere, 



2. In vowel stems : 



IV. io. 



ere, 
Ire, 



SI, 



ivi. 



utum. 

etiim. 
itum. 

turn. 

tura. 
itum. 



1 For examples, seo 2^10. 




to 
> 

to 
> 

tote 
ite 

into 
[ito. 



re 



as. 



ndi. 



)rms has 

,sis of all 

is dcsir- 



conjuga- 



FORMATION 01' PEINCIFAL PARTS. 



105 



1. The Endings ui and Hum are only shortened forms of evi and Hum : 
thus the full forms in moneo would be, rnonlvi, mon'etum ; by dropping e, we 
have monvi, montum / but to facilitate pronunciation, the consonant v after 
n is changed into its corresponding vowel u ; vionui (for monvi), and tho 
two successive consonants in montum are separated by a short i ; monUum 
(for montum). 

2. Analysis of Endings. — If we analyze the endings of the Perfect, we 
shall find that the final i is the ending of the first person, the preceding v tho 
tense-sign of the Perfect, and the preceding vowel the characteristic of tho 
conjugation. In the ending si, a is the tense-sign, while in the ending i the 
tense-sign is wanting. 

3. The Supine Ending is properly turn (245. 2), as the preceding vowels^ 
a, e, and I, are the characteristics of the conjugation, and i in Conj.lII.is the 
connecting vowel. Practically, however, it is more convenient and simple to 
treat these vowels as a part of the endings. 

Euplionic Changes in the Regular Formation. 

248. Before si and turn, in the Principal Parts of the 
Third Conjugation, certain eupho^iic changes take place. 

I. Before si of the Perfect. 

1. A k-sound (c, tj^ qu) or h ' generally ' unites with the s and forma 
X : ^ duco^ duxi (ducsi) ; reV/o, rexi (regsi) ; coquo^ coxi (coqusi) ; trShOj 
traxi (trahsi). 

2. A t-sound (c?, t) is generally dropped : * claudo, clausi (claudsi) ; 
mitto., misi (mittsi). 

3. B is changed to p : s&lbo, scripsi (scribsi). 

4. M is sometimes assimilated and sometimes strengthened with p : 
prcmo, prcssi (premsi) ; sumo, sumpsi (sumsi). 

5. R is somotimes assimilated: gSro, gcssi (gersi). 

II. Before turn of the Supine. 

1. A k'SOund (<?, g, qu) or h^ becomes c: rego, rectum (regtum); 
coquoy coctum (coqutum) ; truho, tracttim (trahtum). 

2. B becomes p, as in the perfect : scrlbo, so-iptum (scr btum). 

3. M is strengthened with p : ' sicmo, sumptum (sumtum). 

4. N is often dropped : vinco, victum (vinctum). Sec 242. 253. 2. 

5. R sometimes becomes s : gl^ro, gestum (gertum). 

1 Sometimes also gu or ■»: ex8ti7iguo, exstinxi; vivo, vixi. 

2 But is sometimes dropped : mergo, mersi (for mergsi, menei): parco, parsi. 
8 FluOy fluxi, and struo, strtixi, form their perfects in xi as if from a stem in a 

k-sotind, 

* Sometimes assimilated : cedo, cesai (cedsi). 

s Sometimes also gu or v : exstinguo, erstinctum ; vivo, victum. But v is often 
changed into its corresponding vowel u : solvo, solutum (solvtum). 

« But dropped in rumpo, ruptum (rumptum). 
5* 



i'i 









106 FORMATION OF PKtNCIPAL PARTS. 

II. Irregular Formations. 

I. Present Indicative. 

249. A few verbs of the Third Conjugation form the 
Present Indicative in io, ior, like verbs of the Fourth Con- 
jugation. These are 

1. The following with their compounds : 

Capio, to take ; cupioy io desire ; facio^ to make ; fodio^ to dig ; 
fiiffio, to flee ; jucio, to throw ; pUrio, to bear ; * quatio, to shake ; rupioy 
to seize ; supioy to be wise. 

2. The compounds of the obsolete laciOf to entice, and sp^cio^ to look ; 
allicio^ clicio, illicio^ pellicio^ etc. ; aspicio, conspicio, etc. 

3. The Deponent Verbs: (}.(idior, to go; morior^ to die; piitior, to 
suffer. 

II. Present Infinitive. 

250. 2>(?, ddre^ to give, is irregular in having are, in- 
stead of are. 

III. Perfect Lidicative Active, 

251. The Perfect presents three distinct Irregularities. 

252. First Irregularity. — Formation after the Analogy 
of other conjugations. — A few verbs in each conjugation 
form the Perfect according to the analogy of one or more 
of the other conjugations : 

sonui (2d), to sound. 

auxl {augsi^ 3d), to increase. 
petlvi (4th), to seeh. 

vinxi (vincsi, 3d), to hind. - 

1. ExPLANATiox.— j^rto, it will bc observed, though a verb of the first 
conjugation, forms its perfect in ui, after the analogy of the second ; augeo, 
of the second, forms its perfect in si {zi = gsi) after the analogy of the third ; 
peto, of the third, follows the analogy of the fourth, and vincio, of the fourth, 
the analogy of the third. Strictly speaking, such verbs are partly of one 
conjugation and partly of another, but they are generally classed with the 
conjugation to which the infinitive belongs. 

2. In the Fiust CoxjroATioN, a few verbs ^ follow the analogy of the 
Second : d5mo, donulre, domui, to tame. 

3. In the Second, a few" follow the analogy of the Tninn : anrjeo, avgcre, 
auxl (augsi), to increase. 

* Compounds aro of the fourth conjiijiatiou. 

8 For lists, sec under Classification of Verbs, 261, sqq. 



Sono, 
Augeo, 
Peto, 
Vincio, 



sonare, 
augere, 
petere, 
vincire, 



ibrm the 
rth Con- 



Jo, to dig; 
kc ; rupiOj 

iOy to look ; 

patio)\ to 

T are, in- 



sularities. 

Analogy 
QJugation 
5 or more 

nd. 

rease. 

d. 

of the first 
end; aiigeo, 
3f the third ; 
f the fourth, 
artly of one 
;ed with the 

ilogy of the 

'Kjeo, avffere, 






IRREGULAE FORMATIONS. 



107 



4. In the TniSD, a few follow the analogy of the First, Second, or Fourth : 
eterno, sternere, strdvi (1), to strew ; /renio,fremere,/n'mui (2), to rage ; peto, 
petere, petlvi (4), to seek. 

5. In the Fourth, a few follow the analogy of the Second or Third : 
aperio, aperire, aperui (2), to open ; vincio, nincire, vinxi (3), to bind. 

253. Second Irregularity. — Stem-vowel lengthened, — A 
few verbs in each conjugation form the Perfect in i, but 
lengthen the stem-vowel : 

Jiivo, jiivare, juvi, to assist. 



Video, 

Edo, 

V&nio, 



juvare, 
videre, 
c'dere, 
venire. 



juvi, 
vidi, 
edi, 
veni. 



to see. 
to eat. 
to come. 



1. Vowel Changed. — The stem-vowels a and (in compounds) i often 
hQCome e: /ado, feci, to make ; ejicio, cfSci, to effect, 

2. M OR If Dropped. — The Present Stem in a few of these verbs is 
strengthened by the insertion of JTor JV, which disappear? in the Perfect : 
rumpo, rupi (rumpi), to break ; vinco, vici (vinci), to conquer. See 2-42. 1. 

254. Third Irregularity. — BedupUcation. — A low verbs 
of the First, Second, and Third conjugations form the Per- 
fect in i, but reduplicate the stem : 

Do, dure, dodi, to give. 

Mordeo, mordere, momordi, to lite. 

Curro, currfere, ciicurri, to run. 

1. The Reduplication consists of the initial consonant (or consonants) 
of the stem with the following vowel, or with e, — generally with the follow- 
ing vowel, if that vowel is e, i, o, or u, otherwise with e; see examples above. 

2. Vowel Changed. — The stem-vowel is often changed : cado, cecidi (for 
cecadl), to fall. 

8. iV^ Dropped. — iVis sometimes dropped, because it does not belong 
to the Verb Stem, but has been inserted in the Present : timdo, tutudi, 
to beat. 

4. Reduplication with Sp or St. — In verbs beginning with sp or st^ 
the reduplication retains both consonants, but the stem drops the s : spondeo, 
spbpondi (for spospondi), to promise; sto, stUi (for stesti), to stand. 

5. In Compounds the reduplication is generally dropped, but it is retain- 
ed in the compounds of do, to give ; sto, to stand ; disco, to learn ; posco, to 
demand ; and sometimes in the compounds of curro, to run ; re-spondeo, re- 
epondi (redup. dropped), to answer; circum-do,circum-dedi (redup. retain- 
ed) ; circum-sto, circum-stUi, to encircle. The compounds of do which are 
of the third conjugation change e of the reduplication into i : ad-do, ad- 
didi (for ad-dedi), to add. 

IV. Hiqyme. 

255. The Supine presents two principal Irregularities. 

256. First Irregularity. — Formafloti after the A^ialo^ 
gy of other conjugations. — ^A few verbs in each conjugation 



I'i!' 



108 



FOllMATION OP PRINCIPAL PARTS. 



form the Supine according to the analogy of one or more 
of the otlier conjugations: 



Sono, 


sonure, 


sonui, 


sonitum (2(1), 


to sound. 


Augeo, 


angore, 


auxi, 


auctum (3d), 


to increase. 


Pcto, 


petCre. 


petlvi, 


petitum (4th), 


to seek. 


Yincio, 


vincire, 


vlnxi, 


vinctum (3d). 


to hind. 



1. In the First Conjugation, a few verbs i follow the analogy of the 
Second or Thikd : ddmo, domdre, domui, domitum (2d), to tame ; mo, secdre, 
secui (2d), sectum (3d), to cut. 

2. In the Second, a few follow the analogy of the Third : atiffeo, aiufere, 
auxi, auctum, to increase. 

3. In the Third, a few follow the analogy of the Second or Fourth : 
fremo, fremere, fremui, fremUum, (2d), to rage ; cujpio, cupere, cujolvi, o.qn- 
tum (1th), to desire. 

4. In the Fourth, a few follow the analogy of the Third : venio, venire, 
xini, ventum, to come. 

257. Second Irre^arity. — Ending Sum. — Some verbs 
of the Second conjugation, many in the Third, and a very 
few in the Fourth form the Supine in sum : 



Maneo, manere, mansi, mansum, 
Claude, claudSre, clausi, clausum, 
Sentio, sentiro, sensi, sensum. 



to remain, 
to close, 
to perceive. 

1. Euphonic Changes are the same in supines in sum as in perfects in si 
(248. I.) : claudo, clausi, clausum (248. I. 2) ; merge, mersi, mersum (248. 1. 
1), to merge; fiecto, flexi (for ftecsi, for flectsi, 248. I. 1 and 2), flexum (for 
Jlecsum, for flectsum, 248. I. 1 and 2), to turn. 

2. In the Fourth Conjugatton, only raucio, to be hoarse, and sentio, to 
perceive, with its compounds, have sum. 

258.' The several modes above described for the forma- 
lion of the Perfect and Supine may be presented for con- 
venience of reference in the following table : 

FORMATION OF THE PERFECT AND SUPINE. 

I. Perfect. 

1. regular perfect. 

Conj. II. Conj. III. 



CODJ. I. 

avi. 



ui. 



SI. 

i. 



Conj. IV. 
ivi. 



analogy of 
Conj. II. 



2. IRREGULAR PERFECT. 

JFirst Irregularity. 
analogy of | analogy of 



Conj. III. 



Conj. I., II. or IV. 



analogy of 
Conj. II. or III. 



For lists, 6ce under Claasljication of Verhi, 261, sqq. 



PERFECT AND SUPINE. 



109 



r more 

und. 
icrease, 
eh. 
Ind. 

gy of the 
w, secdre, 

eo, aiKjere, 

Fourth : 

pu'i, cupi- 

lio, venire, 

ne verbs 
i a very 

'emain. 

'Jose. 

oerceive, 

srfects in si 
m (248. I. 
flexum (for 

1 sentio, to 

e forma- 
for con- 



Second Irregularity. 



nj. IV. 
Ivi. 



logy of 
I. or III. 



Gonj. I. 


Conj. II. 


Conj. III. 


Conj. IV. 


Btem-vowel 


stcm-vowcl 


8tem-»o\vel 


stem-vov,ol 


lengthened. 


lengthened. 


lengthened (and 
often changed). 


lengthened. 



Tliird Irrecjularity. 
reduplication. | reduplication. | reduplication. | 

11. Supine. 
1. regular supine. 



atum. 



etum. 
itum. 



turn. 



Itum. 



analogy of 
Conj. II. or III. 



2. IRREGULAR SUPINE. 

First Irregularity. 

analogy of I analogy of 
Conj. III. I Conj. II. or IV. 

/Second Irregularity. 



I 



sum. 



sum. 



I 



analogy of 
Conj. 111. 



sum. 



PRINCIPAL PARTS IN COMPOUND VERBS. 

259. I. Compound verbs generally form their principal 

parts like simple verbs : 

Moneo^ raonere, monui, monitum, to advhe. 

Ad-raoneo, admonere, admonui, admomtum, to admonish. 

260. II. But compounds of verbs with dissyllabic su- 
pines generally change the stem-vowel in forming the prin- 
cipal parts : 

1. When the Present of the compound has 1 for e of 
the simple verb : 

1) The Perfect and Supine generally resume the e : 

Rego, regSre, rexi, rectum, to rule. 

Di-rigo, dirigero, direxi, directum, to direct. 

2) But sometimes only the Supine resumes the e : 

Teneo, tenere, tenui, tentum, to hold. 

De-tlneo, detinere, detinui, detentum, to detain. 

2. Whe?i the Present of the compound has i for a of 
the simple verb : 

1) The Perfect generally resumes the vowel of the 

simple perfect and the supine takes e sometimes a ; 

Capio, capere, cgpi, captum, to take. 

Ac-cipio, accipSre, accgpi, acceptum, to accept. 



l! 



m 



m 



110 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS. 



2) But sometimes the Perfect retains i and the Supine 

takes e : 

Rilpio, rapCre, rapui, raptum, to seize, 

Di-npio, diripere, diripui, direptum, to tear asunder. 

For Reduplication in compounds, sec 254. 6 ; other peculiarities of 
compounds will be noticed under the separate conjugations. 

CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS 

According to the Perfect-Formation,^ 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

Class I. Regular Formation. 

261. Principal Parts in : o, are, avi, atum. 

These endings belong to most verbs of this conjugation : the 
following are examples ; 



Amo, 


{tmjxrc, 


amavi, 


amatum, 


to love. 


Ciiro, 


curare, 


curavi, 


curatuni, 


to care for. 


Dono, 


donare. 


donavi, 


donatum, 


to bestow. 


Habito, 


habitare, 


habitavi, 


habitatum, 


to dwell. 


Honoro, 


honorare, 


honoravi, 


honoratum, 


to honor. 


Libero, 


liberjire, 


libera vi, 


liberatum, 


to free. 


Nomino, 


nominarc, 


noininavi, 


nominatura, 


to name. 


Pugno, 


pugnare, 


pugnavi, 


pugnatum, 


to fight. 


Spero, 


sperare, 


speravi, 


speratum, 


to hope. 


Voco, 


vocare, 


vocavi, 


vocatum, 


to call. 



Class II. Irregular Formation.'' — Three Irregularities, 

262. First liTegvlMity,— Perfect (and generally Su- 
jnne) after the Analogg of the Seco7id Conjugation, 
Principal Parts in : o, are, id, itum {generally), 

Crdpo, crepare, crepui, crcpitum, to crealc. 

Inci-Spo, are, ui (avi), Itum, {dtum) ; discr?po, are, ui {avi) . 

Ciibo, cubaro, cubui, cubitum, to recline.* 

Domo, domare, domui, domitum, to tmne. 



EnCco, 



enecare. 



enficui, 



enectum, 



to kill.* 



1 The Perfect-Formation is selected as the special basis of this classification, be- 
cause the Irregularities of the other principal parts are less important and can bo 
reac'ily associated with this formation. 

^ The lists contain all the simple verbs which belong to this class and such com- 
pounds as deviate in any important particular from their simple verbs. 

3 Compounds which insert m, as aceumbo, etc., are of Gonj. III. See 276. II. 1. 

* The simple ndco ia regular, and even ia tbo compouad the forms in dvi and 
dtum occur. 



I 

li 

d 
Z 



FIRST CONJUGATIO:^. 



Ill 



on, be- 


can bo 


h com- 


. II. 1. 


vi and 



Frico, 
Mico, 



fricarc, 
micarc, 



fricui, 
micui, 



(fri 



frictum, 
catum. 



to rub. 
to glitter. 



Dimlco, are, dvi («/), dtum; emlco, are, ni, iitum. 



Bupllco, multipllco, repllco, and euppllco are regular: are, dvi, dtum. 
Seco, secare, secui, scctum, to cut. 

Participle, secaturua, 
Sono, eonare, sonui, sonitum, to sound. 

Participle, sonaturua. Most compounds want Sap. lieaono has Pcrf. reso- 
ndvi. 

Tuno, tonarc, tonui, (tonitum), to thunder. 

Veto, votare, vctui, vetltum, to forbid. 

1. Poto, are, dni, dtum, to drink, Las aho potum in the supine. 

2. The Passive Participles coendttia and jurdtus {coeiw, to dine, and juro, t0 
swear) are active in signification, having dined, etc Potua, from poto, is also some- 
time active. 

263. Second Irregularity. — Perfect lengthens Stem- 
VoioeL 

Principal Parts in : o, Sre, i, turn. 

Juvo, juvare, jQvi, jutum, to assist. 

Participle jwca^j7;'M8, but in compounds jutilius is also used. 

Slauturn, 
lotum, 
lavatuiii, 

In poetry this is sometimes of Conj. III. : Idvo, lavcrc, Idvi, etc. 

264. Third Irregularity. — Perfect Reduplicated. 
Principal Parts in : o, are, i, turn. 

Do, dare, dedi, datum, to (fim. 

Sto, stare, stcti, statum, to stand. 

1. In do the characleristiq is short by exception : ddbam, ddbo, ddrem, etc. 
Four compounds of do, circumdo, peasumdo, satiado and venumdo, arc conjugated 
like the simple verb ; the rest are dissyllabic and of the third Conj. (280). 

2. Compounds of ato are conjugated like the simple verb, if the first part is a 
dissyllable, otherwise they take stUi for atM : adato, adaidre, adaiUi, adatdtum. 
Difto wants Perf. and Sup. 

265. Deponent Verbs. 

In this conjugation ^ileponcnt verbs arc entirely regular. 
Thus, 

Conor, conari, confitus sum, to endeavor. 

Hortor, hortari, hortatus sum, to exhort. 

Mirer, mirari, miratus sum, to admire. 



to wash. 



I 



112 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS. 



m 



I. 



SECOND COXJUGATTOX. 

Class I. Regular FoRiiATioN. 

I. CO, ere, cvi, etum.* 
II. CO, ere, ui, itum. 
III. CO, ere, ui, turn or sum. 
evi, etum. 



266. Principal Parts in : 



ore, 



eo, w*«, 

TJicse endings belong to the following verbs : 
Coniplco, complOro, complcvi, complctum, to Jill. 

So other compounds of pleo ; ns expleo, impleo. 
DC'lco, dclcre, delevi, delGtuip, to destroy. 

Flco, flOrc, flCvi, fletum, to weep. 

Neo, ncrc, nevi, nCtum, to spin. 

1. Ahdleo, ahoUre, alolevi, aholltum, to destroy, Is cdmpounded of ah and oleo 
(not used). The other compounds of oleo generally end in esco, and are of the third 
conjugation. See abdlesco, 276. II. 1. 

2. Vieo, viere, vUtum, to weave, bend, is rare, except in the part'ciplo vietua. 

II. eo, ere, ui, itum. 



These endings belong to most verbs of this conjugation. The 
following are examples : 



Citreo, 


carCrc, 


carui, 


caritum, 


to be without 


DC'beo, 


dcbure, 


debui, 


debitum, 


to owe. 


Hsibeo, 


habGro, 


habui, 


habitun., 


to have. 


Moneo, 


monure, 


monui, 


monitum, 


to advise. 


Noceo, 


nocerc, 


nocui, 


nocitum, 


to hurt. 


Pareo, 


parere, 


parui, 


pantum, 


to obey. 


Placeo, 


placere, 


placui, 


placitum 


to please. 


Tacco, 


tacere, 


tacui, 


taciturn, 


to be silent. 




III. eo, 


ore, 


ui, turn 


or sum. 



These endings, slightly irregular in the Supine, belong to the 
following verbs : 

Censco, 



censerc. 



censui. 



censum. 



to think. 



Perf. Part, census and censltus. — Perccnaeo wants Sup, ; reoetiseo has recen- 
sum, and recensltum. 

Doceo, docCre, docui, doctum, to teach. 



Misceo, 
Teneo, 



miscere, 
tenerc. 



scui, •] 



miscui 



tenui, 



mistum, 
mixtum, 
tentum, 



to mix. 
to hold. 



Detlneo, ere, m\ detenticm ; so oltlneo and retineo ; other compounds seldom 
have Sup. 
Torrco, torrfire, torrui, tostum, to roast. 

^ "We class cvi and etum, though belonging to but few. verbs, with the regular 
formations, because they are the full and original forms from which the more common 
ui and Uum are derived. See 247. 1. 



The 



eldom 



;gular 
imoo 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



113 



267. SrpiNE Wanting. — Many verbs, regular in the Perfect, want 
the Supine : tlic following are the most important : 



Aceo, to he tour. Mideo, to he wet. 

Calico, to he skilled. Nltoo, to shine. 

Cundeo, to shine. Oleo, to smell. 

I'lgeo, to want. Palleo, to be pale. 

Euilneo, to stand forth. P&teo, to he open. 

Fiorco, to bloom. lii>I«o, to be stiff. 

Frondeo, to bear leaves. Kiibeo, to be red. 

llorrco, to shudder. SIleo, to he silent. 

L&lco, to he hid. Sorbeo, to swallow. 



Sordeo, to he sordid. 
Splendeo, to shine. 
Stiidco, to study. 
Stupeo, to he amazed 
TIiuoo, to fear. 
Torpco, to be torpid. 
Tuint'o, to swell. 
VIgco, to flourish. 
Vlreo, to oe green. 



268. Perfect and Supine Wanting. — Some verbs, derived most- 
ly from adjectives, want both Perfect and Supine : the following are the 
most important : 



Albco, to he white. 
Aveo, to covet. 
Calveo, to he bald. 
Caneo, to he gray. 
Flavco, to he yellow. 
Foetco, to be fetid. 



ITfibco, to he blunt. 
Humoo, to be moiH. 
Inimlnco, to threaten. 
Lacteo, to suck. 
Liveo, to be livid. 
Macrco, to be sad. 



Police, to be poivcrful. 
Kenideo, to shine. 
Sciteo, to gush forth. 
Squalco, to he filthy. 
Vcgco, to be hvely. 



Class II. Irregular Formation. — Three Irregularities. 

269. First Irregularity. — Perfect in si (rarely i) after 
the Analogy of the Third Conjugation : 

Principal Parts in : eo, ere, si (i), turn or sum. 



Algco, 


algero, 


alsi, 




to be cold. 


Ardeo, 


nrderc. 


arsi. 


arsum. 


to burn. 


Augco, 


augero. 


auxi (gsi), 


auctum, 


to increase. 


Connivco, 


connivere. 


connivi, 
connixi, 




to wink at. 


* 








Ferveo, 


fervSre, 


fervi, 
ferbui, 




to boil. 


Frigeo, 


frigere, 


frixi (rare), 




to be coliL 


Fulgeo, 


fulgere, 


fulsi, 




to shine. 


Poetic fulgo, fulgire, etc. 






Ilaereo, 


haerere, 


hacsi, 


haesum, 


to stick. 


Indulgeo, 


indulgere. 


indulsi, 


indultum, 


to indulge. 


Jubeo, 


jubere, 


jussi. 


juBsum, 


to order. 


Langueo, 


languere, 


langui, 




to be langtiid. 


Liqueo, 


liquere. 


liqui (lijui), 




to be liquid. 


Lueeo, 


lucere. 


luxi. 




to shine. 


Lugeo, 


lugere. 


luxi. 




to mourn. 


Mdneo, 


manere. 


mansi. 


mansum. 


to remain. 


Mulceo, 


mulccre, 


mulsi. 


mulsum, 


to caress. 


Compounds have mulsum or mulctum. 






Mulgeo, 


mulgere, 


mulsi, 


mulsum, 


to milk. 


Prandeo, 


prandere, 


prandi, 


pransum, 


to dine. 


Participle 


, pransus, in 


an active sense, having dined. 





114 



CLASSIFICATION OF VJililW. 



Ridco, rldorc, rwi, risura, to lauffh. 

Strldco, stridure, Btridi, to creak. 

Suadco, BuudOre, suaai, sunsura, to adi<isc. 

Tcrgco, tergOrc, tersi, tersum, to wipe. 

T«rffO, of ConJ. III., also occurs : tergo, fi'C, «/, aunt. 

Torqueo, torquCrc, torsi, tortura, to twist. 

Turgco, turgCre, tursi {rare\ to swell. 

Urgco (urgueo) urgCro, ursi, to press. 

1. Cieo, ciire, civi, citum, to arouse, has a kindred form, cio, cire, civi, 
citum, from which it seems to Imvo obtained its perfect. In compounds the 
forms of the fourth Conj. prevail, especially in the sense of to call, call forth. 

13. For £uphonic Changes before si in the Perfect, see 248. I. 

270. Second Irregularity. — Perfect lengthens Stem- 
Vowel, 

Principal Parts in : eo, ere, i, turn (sum). 



Cslvco, 
Filveo, 
Fovco, 
Moveo, 
Puveo, 
Sfidco, 



cavCre, 

favOre, 

fovCrc, 

movOre, 

pavere, 

scdCre, 



cftvi, 

fuvi, 

fovi, 

movi, 

pavi, 

sedi, 



cautum, 
fautum, 
lotum, 
mOtum, 

scssum. 



So circumsideo and supersideo. Other compounds thus 
asseasum; but disaldeo, praealdeo, and resldeo M'ant Supine. 



Video, 
Vovco, 



videre, 
vovere. 



vidi, 
vovi. 



visum, 
votuin, 



to beware, 
to favor, 
to cherish, 
to move, 
to fear, 
to sit. 

asaldeo, ere, assCJi, 



to sec. 
to vow. 



271. Third Irregularity. — JPerfect Hediq^Ucated. 
Principal Parts in : eo, ere, i, sum. 

Mordco, mordere, momordi, morsum 



mordere, momordi, 

Pendco, pendGre, pSpendi, pensum, 

Spondee, sponderc, epopondi, sponsum, 

Tondeo, tondere, totondi, tonsum, 

For rcdupli^ntion in compounds, sec 254. 5. 

272. Deponent Verbs. 
1. Regular. 
licitus sum. 



to bite, 
to hang, 
to promise, 
to shear. 



Liceor, 

Mereor, 

Polliceor, 

Tueor, 

Vereor, 



FStcor, 
Medeor, 



Hc5ri, 

mereri, 

poUicGri, 

tueri, 

veiGri, 



fatCri, 
mederi. 



mentus sum, 
pollicitus sum, 
tuitus sum, 
veritus sum, 

2. Irregular, 

fassus sum, 



to bid. 
to deserve. 
to promise, 
to protect, 
to fear. 



to confess.^ 
to cure. 



* Confiteor, eri, confcssus ; so proflteor 



m 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



115 



ivi, 
the 

rt/i. 



;m- 



sidi, 



?e. 



«rw V • . • 1 iiiio«.'i iiua mill, a _ • . 

MIsurcor, m.sorCn, j ,„j^^.^^^,^ ^^^^^' /o pity. 

Rcor, rCri, riltus sum, to think. 

3. Semi-Dcponcnt. — Deponent in the Perfect. 



Audoo, 

<Jau(lL'o, 

Soleo, 



autlCrc, 

gauderc, 

Bolcrc, 



auaiis sum, 
gavLsus sum, 
sulltus sum, 



to dnrc. 

to rejoice. 

to be accustomed. 



TUIRD CONJUGATION. 



Cl.\s3 I. Regular Formation in the Perfect. 

t I. (io), ere, si, turn. 

273. Principal Parts in : } II. o, ere, i, turn. 

( III. o, ere, si or i, sum. 

I. o (io), 3re, si, turn. 

These are tlio regular endings in verbs whoso stems end in a 
consonant ; the following are examples : * 



Carpo, 


carpSre, 


carpsl, 


carptum. 


to pluck. 


Cingo, 


cingere. 


ciuxi (f/si), 


cinctum, 


to (jird. 


COmo, 


comere. 


compsi, 


comptum, 


to ad'>rii. 


Dome, 


demftrc, 


dcinpsi, 


demptum. 


to take amay 


Dico, 


dic<?rc, 


dixi, 


dictum, 


to my. 


Duco, 


ducfiro, 


duxi, 


ductura, 


to lead. 


Fingo, 


finggrc. 


finxi, 


fictum, 


to feign. 


Gero, 


gerftre, 


gessi, 


gestura, 


to carry. 


Nubo, 


nubfire, 


nupsi, 


nuptum, 


to marry. 


Pingo, 


pingere. 


pinxi, 


pictum. 


to paint. 


Promo, 


promftre, 


pronipsi, 


promptum, 


to bring out. 


Rt'go, 


regere, 


rexi, 


rectum, 


to rule. 


Scalpo, 


scalpgre. 


soalpsi, 


scalptum, 


to engrave. 


Sumo, 


sumfire, 


sumpsi, 


Bumptum, 


to take. 


Tr.1ho, 


trahfire. 


traxi, 


tractum. 


to draw. 


Uro, 


urero, 


ussi, 


ustum, 


to burn. 


Vfiho, 


vehSro, 


vexi, 


vectum, 


to carry. 


Vivo, 


vivSre, 


vixi, 


victum, 


to live. 



1. Change of Stem- Vowel in Compounds; see 2C0. 
Carpo: de-cerpo, decerp6re, decerpsi, decerptum, to pluck off. 
liego; di-rlgo, dirigfire, direxi, directum (260. 1,), to direct. 

Here deeerpo, tnough it has not the same stem-vowel as the simple carpo, 
forms its principal parts precisely like the simple verb ; but diriqo changes 
the stem-vowel m forming those parts, having i in the Pres. and e in the Pcrf. 
and Sup. 

2. Compounds of Obsolete Simple Verbs present the same vowel chaigcs: 
Z«c/o(obs.): al-licio, allicfire, allexi, allectum (2G0. II.), to allure. 

So illicio, pellicio. For elieio, sec 276. II. 
Specio (obs.) : a-splcio, aspicfire, aspexi, aspectum, to look at. 



For Euphonio Changes, see 2i8. 



It 



no 



CLASSIFICATION OF VEUI5S. 



11 



in 



II. 



&re, if 



turn 



Tlicso nro tlio ro^'ular endings of verbs whoso stems end in u ; 
the following are examples : 

Acuo, rtcut'ro, acul, ocntum, 

Aiguo, arguerc, aigu!, aigutuin, 

Coarguo and redargno want tho Suplno. 

Iinl)UO, iinburro, inibui, imbntum, 

Miiiuo, ininudre, minui, ininQtuni, 

liuo, rufirc, rui, rutum, 

Tart. rultHrua.—Corruo and irruo want Sup. 
Stiltuo, Btatuere, Btiltui, statQtum, 

Compounds change a into i : conttltxio, 
Trlbuo, tribuCre, tribui, tribQtura, to impart. 



to xharpni. 
to convict. 



to imbue, 
to diminish, 
to fall. 

to place 



1. Perfect xi. — The following in uo form the Terf. in art. 



coxi. 



Crxjuo, coquere, 

Exstinguo, cxstinguCro, exstinri, 

So oihor compounds otstinguo (rare): distinguo, etc, 



coctum, 
cxstinctum. 



Fluo, fluero, fluxi, 

Struo, etrufirc, Btriixi, 

2. Like verbs in uo arc the following : 

Ico, icdrc, ici, 

Solvo, solvere, solvi, 

Volvo, volvdre, volvi, 

m. 



fluxum, 
Btructum, 



ictum, 

solQtum,* 

volQtum,* 



to cook. 

to extinguish. 



to flow, 
to build. 



to atrike. 

to loofiC. 

to roll. 



CCSSl, 

clausi, 



ccssum, 
clausuni, 



o, ^re, si or i, sum.' 

These endings, slightly irregular in tho Supine, belong to tho 
following verbs : 

Acccndo, acccnduro, acccndi, acconsum, 

So other compounds of cando (obsolete) : incendo, succetido. 

Cf'do, ccdCro, 

Claudo, claudCrc, 

Compounds have u for au : conclude^ eaxludo. 

Cudo, cudfire, cQdi, cQsum, 

Defendo, defcndi5re, defend!, defensum, 

So other compounds oifendo (obsolete) : offbndo, etc. 

Divide, divid(5ro, divisi, divlsum, 

•Evado, cvadere, cvasi, evasum. 

So other compounds of vado, 275. 

FTgo, figure, fixi, fixum, 

Findo, findcro, f idi (findi), fissum, 

Flccto, flcctiTC, flcxi, flexum, 



to kindle. 



to yield, 
to close. 



to forge, 
to defend. 



to divide, 
to evade. 



to fasten, 
to part, 
to bend. 



> Fis hero changed to its corresponding vowel w. volutum for volvtmn. 
3 For euphonic changes before sum, see 257. 1. 



TIIIKD CONJUGATION. 



117 



u 



le. 



Fluo, flufiro, fluxl, 

Frcnuo, ficndi'ro, 

Lacdo, laoderQ, lacsl, 

Compounds have i for ne : itlUJo, etc. 

lu.si, 
nmiuli, 
lucrsi, 
niisi. 



LQdo, 
Mundo, 

llitto, 
Necto, 

Pando, 
Pccto, 

Pinso (piso), 

Plocto. 



liidfirc, 
inandtTC, 
inergCro, 
mittoro, 

ncctfirc, 

pandCro, 
pccterc, 

pinsSro, 



( nexi, 
( nc'xui,' 

pandi, 

pcxi, 



Plaudo, 



plectdrc, 
plaud6re, 



fluxum, 

( IVessuiu, 
laesum, 

iiiuiisuTn, 
luci-hum, 
luissuin, 

ncxum, 

j piussum, 
( pansum, 
pcxuni, 

ipinsltura, 
pistuni, 
pinsum, 
plexum, 
plausum, 



pinsi, 
pinsui, 

plcxi, 
plausi, 

Bo applaudo; other compounds have o for aw: exjMdo, etc. 

Prfihcndo, prehcnd(5rc, prehendi, prchcnsum, 

Often written, prendo, prendire, etc. 

Prfimo, premore, press!, 

Quiitio, quat(5ro, quass', 

Compounds havo cu for qua : conc&iio, etc. 

Bfldo, radfire, rftsi, 



toftoxD. 
to gnash, 
to hurt. 



to pi VI. 

to (.'ll'W. 

to dip. 
to urml. 

lo bind. 

to open, 
to coinb, 

to pound. 

to plait, 
to applaud. 



to ffrasp. 



prcssum (248. I. 4), to press. 
quassum (248. 1. 2), to shake. 



ros;.. 



rasum, 
rOsura, 
scansum, 



to shave, 
to gnaw, 
to climb. 



Kodo, rodfire, 

Scando, 8cand5re, scandi, 

Compounds have « for a : ascendo, descendo. 

Scindo, scindSre, scidi, scissum, 

Spargo, spargfirc, eparsi, sparsum, 

Compounds generally have e for a : aspergo, respergo. 

Tergo, tcrgfire, tcrsi, tcrsum, 

Also tergeo, tergSre (Conj. II.); compounds take this form. 

TrQdo, trudero, trusi, trusum, 

Velio, velluro, velli (vulsi), vulsum, 

Compounds in good use generally have velli. 

Verro, vcrrfire, verri, vcrsum, 

Vcrto, vertdre, verti, versum. 

Compounds of de, 2>fae, i e, are generally deponent in the Pres., Imptrf.^ and 
Future. 

Viso, viserc, vTsi, visum, to visit. 



to rend, 
to scatlo'. 

to wipe off. 

to thrust, 
to pluck, 

to brusi'.. 
to turn. 



1 Compounds tako this form in the Perfect. 






118 



CLASSIFICATION OF VEltBS. 



1..; 



J T 



274. ScpiNK Wantiko.— The following verbs, regular in the Perfect, 
want the Supine : 



Ango, dre, anxi, to stran<flc. 
Annuo, dre, i, to assent. 

So other compounds of nwo, but abmio, 
has Tart abnuilurus. 
Batuo, fire, i, to beat. 

Dlbo, ere, i, to drinh. 

Congruo, ere, i, to agree. 
Ingruo, ere, i, to assail. 
Lambo, ere, i, to lick. 
Luo, dre, i, to wash. 

Part. lulturus. Coi-ipounds— a&i«o, al- 
luo, etc. have Sup. lutum. 
M6tuo, ere, i, to fear. 



' Ningo, 5re, ninxi, to snow. 
Nuo, obs. ; see annuo. 
Pluo, ere, i or vi, to rain. 
Psallo, 5re, i, to j>lay on a stringed 

instrument. 
Sido, ere, i, to sit down. 

Perf. and Sup. generally supplied from 
sideo ; hcnco sedit aessum. So in com- 
pounds. 

Strido, ^re, i, to creaJc. 

Also etrideo, ere (Conj, II.). 

Sternuo, ere, i, to sneeze. 



275. Perfect and Supine Wanting.— Some verbs want both Per- 
fect and Supine. 

1. The following : 

Clango, to clang. 

Ciaudo, to be lame. 

Glisco, to grow. 

Hisco, to gape. 

Stinguo, to quench ; 



but distinguo^ ere, 
distinxi^ distinctum; 
so exstinguo. 
Temno, to despise ; but 
contemno^ ere., con- 



tempsif contemptum. 

Vado, to qo. See eva- 
de, 273. m. 

Vergo, to incline. 



2. Many Inceptivea. See 281. II. 1. 

Class II. Ikregulae Formation. — Three Irregulanties^ 

276. First lrTQ^2iXiij,'— Perfect after the Analogy of 
other Go7ijugatiotts. 

I. Perfect in avi, as in Conjugation I. 

Inveteraaco, inveterascere, invcteravi, inveteratum, to grow old. 

Pasco, pascere, pavi, pastum, to feed. 

Sterno, sternere, stravi, stratum, to strew. 

VetSrasco, veterascCre, veteravi, to grow old. 

II. Perfect in evi, ui, as in Conjugation II. 
1. The following : 

Aboleaco, abolescere, abolevi, abolitum, to disappear. 

8o indlesco; but addlesco has Supine aduUum; eadlesco, exoUtu/m; obsd- 
lesco, oisoletum. 

Accumbo, accumbfiro, accQbui, accubitum, to recline. 
So other compounds of cumbo, cuio. See cuho, 262. 



* For convenience of reference a General List of all verba involving irregularities 
will be found on page 828. ' 



TUIED CONJUGATION. 



119 



be Perfect, 



a stringed 

'own. 

ipplied from 
So in com- 

L 

). 

ze. 

both Per- 



mtemptum, 
. See eva- 
III. 

Hcline. 



arities^ 
cilogy of 



frow old. 
'^eed. 
trew. 
row old. 



tsappear. 
turn; oiad* 

ecline. 



regularities 



Alo, Slere, alui, 

Cello, obsolete. Sec excello below. 
Cerno, cem^re crevi, 

Colo, colore, colui, 

Compesco, compescere, compescui, 
Consulo, consulere, consului, 



Cresco, 



crescere. 



crevi. 



( all turn, 
I altum, 

ere turn, 
cultum, 

consultum, 
cretum, 



to nourish. 

to decide, 
to cultivate, 
to restrain, 
to consult, 
to grow. 



to knead, 
to elicit. 



Jncresco and succresco want Supine. 
Cumbo/or cubo, in compounds : sec aceumbo. 
Dcpso, depsere, dcpsui, \-^P^^^' 

Elicio, elicere, elicui, elicitum, 

Othor compounds of Idcio, thus : alllcio, ire, allexi, alUctum. 

Excello, excellere, excellui ^rare)^ to excel. 

Other compounds of ceWo want Perf. and ^nji.^axcc^i per cello, percelUre, per* 
can, perculsum. 

fremui, frcmitum, to rage. 

furui, to rage. 

gemui, gemitura, to groan. 



Fr^mo, fremore, 

Furo, furere, 

G6mo, gemere, 

Gigno, gignere, 

Lacio, obsolete. See elicio 



genui (/. g^no), genitum, to beget. 



LinOy 


lingre, 


levi, llvi 


, litum. 


to smear. 


Meto, 


metere, 


messui, 


mcssum. 


to reap. 


Molo, 


molfire, 


molui,. 


molitum. 


to grind. 


Necto, 


nectere. 


( nexui, 
( nexi, 


nexum, 


to bind. 


Occulo, 


occul^re, 


occului, 


occultum. 


to hide. 


Olesco, obsolete 


. See abolesco. 






Pinso, 


pinsSre, 


pinsui, 
pinsi, 


> pinsitum, 
■ pistum, 
pinsum, 


to crush. 


P6no, 


ponere, 


posui, 


positum. 


to place. 


Quiesco, 


quiesc6re, 


quievi, 


quietum, 


to rest. 


Rapio, 


rapere, 


rapui. 


raptum, 


to snatch. 


Compound 


3 thus: corr^pio 


, corripire, corripui, correptum. 




S8ro, 


serere. 


serui, 


sertum, 


to connect. 


S5ro, 


serere, 


sevi. 


Saturn, 


to sow. 


Compounds thus: consiro, ire, consevi, 


conA^m. 




Sperno, 


spernSre, 


sprevi, 


epretum, to spxtrn. 


Sterto, 


Btertere, 


etertui, 


— — to snore. 


Strgpo, 


strepere. 


strepui, 


strepitum, to make a noise. 


Suesco, 


Buesc5re, 


euevi. 


Buetum, to become accustomed. 


Texo, 


texfire. 


texui. 


textum, to weave. 


Trfemo, 


trcmerc, 


tremui. 


• to tremble. 


Vomo, 


vomure. 


vomui. 


vomitum, to vomit. 



2. Many Inceptives in esco form the Perfect in ui from their 
prhnitives. See 281. 1. 2. 



t;i!^ 



If) i: 

i 



lis! 









III 






120 



CLASSIFICATION OP VSRBS. 



Ill, Perfect in ivi, as in Conjugation IV, 
1. Tlio following: 



Arccsso, 
Capesso, 
Cupio, 

Filccsso, 

Incesso, 

Laccsso, 

Lino, 

Peto, 

Quaero, 



arcesscrc, 

capessurc, 

cupere, 

facessure, 

inccssCrc, 

laccsserc, 

linSre, 

petfire, 

quaerfirc, 



arcessTvi, 
capessivi, 
cuplvi, 

icessivi, 
facessi, 
incessivi or -cessi. 






arcossituiri, 
capessitum, 
cupltum, 

faccssltum, 



lacesslvi, 
livi or Icvi, 
petivi, 
quacsivi, 



laccssitum, 
litum, 
pctitum, 
quaesitum, 



to call for. 
to lay hold of. 
to desire. 

to make. 

to attack, 
to provoke, 
to smear, 
to ask. 
to seek. 



to hray. 
to taste. 



Compounds thus : acquire, ire, acquislvi, acquisitum, 

Rudo, rudSre, rudlvi, ruditum, 
Sapio, 6ap6ro, saplvi, sapui, 

Compounds have * for a, as reslpio. Deslpio wants Perf. and Sup. 

SlnOj sinere, sivi, situm, to permit. 

T6ro, terdre, trivi, tritum, to rub. 

2. A few Inchoatives in isco form the Perfect in Ivi from their 
primitives. See 281. I. 2. 

277. Perfect in ovi. — I^osco and its compounds form the perfect 
in Ovi after the analogy of aye, evi^ and Ivi : 

Nosco, noscfire, nOvi, nOtum, to know. 

8o ignosco. — Agnosco and. cognoaco have Hum in Sup., agnUum; dignosco 
and intemosco want Supino. 

278. Vowel Conjugation. — Nosco^ verbs in ?<o, and regular verbe 
of the first, second, and fourth conjugations form a complete vowel-conju- 
gation^ whose Perfects and Supines in the full form are entirely analogous, 
as follows : 



ao, 


uvi, 


atum ; 


amo (ao), 


amuvi, 


amatum. 


eo, 


evi. 


etum; 


deleo, 


delevi. 


deletum. 


W 


ivi, 


itum; 


audio. 


audivi, 


audltum. 


00, 


ovi, 


otum; 


nosco (noo), 


novi. 


notum. 


uo, 


u(v)i. 


utum; 


acuo, 


acu(v)i, 


acutum. 



279. Second Irregularity. — Perfect lengthens Stem- 
Vowel. See 253. 1 and 2. 
Ago, aggre, figi, actum, to drive. 

So cireumdgo and perdgo ; satdgo wants Tcrf. and Sup. Other compounds 
change a into i in the Pros. : abigo, ire, ahegi, abactum; but coigo becomes cogo, 
ire, coegi, coactum, and delgo, dego, ire, degi, without Sup. Frodlgo wants Sup., 
and amMgo, Perf. and Sup. 

CSpio, capfire, cepi, captum, to take. 

Bo antecdpio ; other compounds thus : acclpio, ire, ccclpi, acceptum. 



i 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



121 



TAo, 
Enio, 



fidere, 
fimerc, 



Gdi, 
emi, 



esiun, 
eniptuni, 



to eat, 
to buy. 



Bo ccimo; other compounds thus: adhno, ire, ademi, adenqdum. 

Fitcio, facere, feci, factum, to vudr. 

Piissivc irregular : Jio^fn^H^factus sum. See '294. 

So satisfddo and compounds of fiicio with verbs, but compounds with prepo- 
sitions thus : couficio, conJicJre, confici, coiifectini), with regular Pass, coujicior, 
cojiflci, confectus 6M?».— Compounds of facio with nouns and adjectives arc of Conj. 
I. : sigiii/lco, arc, uvi, dtum. 



Fodio, fodcre, fOdi, fossum, 

Frango, frangere, fi'Ogi, frtictum. 

Compounds thus: confrinyo, (re^ coufrtgi., confi'actum. 



to difj. 
to break. 



Ffigio, 
Fuiido 
Jacio, 



fiigurc, fTigi, fugitum, to fee. 

fundore, fudi, fusum, to pour. 

, jacerc, jGci, jactum, to throw, 

Siipei'Jacio has jdcium or jectum ia Sup.; other compouuds thus : a(jjh;io,ire, 
altjeci, ahjectum. 

Lego, legore, U'gi, lectum, to read. 

So compounds, except (1) colllgo, ere, colligi, coUectum ; so dellgo, ellgo, sell- 
go,— (2) diltgo, ire, dil&xi, dilectum; so inteMgo, negllgo. 



Linquo, 



linquere, liqui, 



Ruinpo, 

Scabo, 

Vinco, 



Compounds with Sup. : relinquo, Sre, rellqui, relictum. 

rupturn, 



rumpere, 

scabere, 

viucCre, 



rupi, 

scubi, 

vici. 



victura. 



to leave. 



to burst, 
to scratch, 
to conquer. 



280. Third Irregularity. — Perfect Reduplicated. Sco 
254. 1-5. 

Abdo, abderc, abdidi, abditum, to hide. 

So all compounds of do, except those of Conj. I. (264) : addo, condo, credo, 
dedo, edo, indo, ohdo, pcrdo, prOdo, reddo, trade, vendo ; but abs-condo generally 
drops redupUcation: aha-condi, 

Ciido, cadorc, cccidi, casum, to fall, 

Jncldo, ire, incldi, incusum; so occldo and recMo; other compounds want 
mpine. 

Caodo, cacdcre, cecTdi, cacsum, to cut. 

Compounds thus: conc'ido, ire, concldi, conc'istim. 

Caiio, canerc, cccini, canturn, to shig. 

Concino, ire, conclnui, ; so occlno and praeclno ; other compounds 

want Perf. and Sup. 

Credo, credere, credlJi, creditura,' to believe. 



Explained aa compound of do; eee aMo. 



122 



CLASSIFICATION OF VEEBS, 






Curro, 



currfire, 



ciicurri. 



cursum. 



to run. 



Excurro and praecurro generally retain tlio reduplication, excHcurri, praecA* 
eurri ; other compounds generally drop it. 

Disco, discere, didlci, 



Do, C'onj. I. See abdo. 

Fallo, failure, fefelli, 

liefello, ire, refelli, without Supine. 

Pango, pangere, P^pigi, 

Pango, pangCro, | P^^,^^' 



falsum, 



pactum, 
j panctum, 
\ pactum, 



to learn, 
to deceive. 

to bargain, 
to fix in. 



Compingo, ire, compegi, compactum; so also impingo. Depango wants 
Perf. ; repango, Perf. and Sup. 

Parco, parcfire, pcrperci (parsi), paraum, to spare. 

Comparco, ire^ comparsi, comparsiim. also with iS for a: comperco, dre, etc. 
Imparco and reparco want Perf. and Sup. 

P2rio, pardrc, peperi, partum, 

Vatticiplo par iturua ; compounds are of Conj. IV. 

Polio, pellfirc, pepiili, pulsura,' 

Pendo, pendere, pependi, ponsum,' 

Posco, poscfire, poposci, ^ 

Pungo, pungere, pupugi, punctum, 



to bring forth. 



to drive. 
to weigh, 
to demand 
to prick. 



Compounds thus : co7npungo, ire^ compunxi, compuncium. 

Sisto, sisterc, stiti, statum, to place. 

Sisio seems to have been derived from sto, and forms the Perf. and Sup. after 
that analogy.— Compounds thus: consisto, ire, constUi, constitum; but circumstili 
also occurs. 

Tango, tanggre, tetigi, tactum, to touch. 

Compounds thus : attingo,ir6, atllii, attaetum. 



Tendo, 



tcndcre, 



tetendi, 



( tentum, 



to stretch. 



tensum, 

Compounds drop reduplication and prefer Sup., tentum, but detendo and osten- 
do have tensum; and extendo, protendo and retendo have both forms. 

IS,""'"'' -blatum, ,0 



ToUo, toMre, ^ ^^^j-,. 

Attollo and extollo want Perf. and Sup, 
Tundo, tundfire, tutudi. 



raise. 



j tunsum, 
\ tusura, 



to beat. 



Compounds drop reduplication and generally take tuaum in Sup. 
"V endo, vendere, vendidi, venditum,' to sell. 

* Compounds drop reduplic^-tion, 254. 5. 

3 Comjjounds retain reduplication, 254. 5. 

* Explained as compound oido; see abdo. 



TniED CONJUGATION. 



281. Inceftives. 



123 



Inceptives end in 5co, and denote the beginning of an 
action. When formed from verbs, they are called Verbal 
Inceptives, and when formed from nomis or adjectives, De- 
nominative Inceptives. 

I. Verbal Inceptives. 

1. Most verbal inceptives want the Supine, but take the Perfect 
of their primitives. 



The following are examples : 



Acesco 

Aresco 

Calesco 

Floresco 

Madesco 

TSpesco 

Vircsco 



(aceo), 

(areo), 

Icaleo), 

Ifloreo), 

(madeo), 

■Jepeo), 

{vireo), 



accscfire, 

arcscfiro, 

calescfire, 

florescSre, 

madescfero, 

tepescfire, 

virescfire, 



acui, 

ami, 

cpiiii, 

florui, 

madui, 

t6pui, 

virui, 



2. The following take the Perfect a- 



tives : 

Ab61esco 

Coalesco 

C ncupisco 

Convalesco 

Exardesco 

InvStfirasco 

Obdormisco 

Rfevivisco 

Scisco, 



to become sour. 

to become dnj. 

to become warm. 

to begin to bloom. 

to become moist. 

to become warm: 

to become green. 

d Supine of their primi- 



(ab, oleo), fire, 

{con, alo), fere, 

icon, cupio), fere, 

{con, vateo), fere, 

{ex, ardeo), fere, 

{invetero), fere, 

{ob, dormio), fere, 

{re, vivo), eve, 

(scio), fere, 



SbolCvi, abolitum,^ 

coalui, coalitum, 

concupivi, concupltum, 

convalui, convalitum, 

exarsi, exarsum, 

invcteravi, inveterSium, 

obdormlvi, obdormitum, to'fall asleep. 

revixi, revictuiu, to revive. 



to disappear, 
to coalesce, 
to desire, 
to qrow strong, 
to burn, 
to grow old. 



scivi. 



scitum, 



8. The following are Inceptives only in form: 



Crosco, 

Fatisco, 

Glisco, 

Nosco, 

Pasco, 

Quiesco, 

Suesco, 



crescfere, 

fafiscfere, 

gliscfere, 

noscfere, 

pascferc, 

quicscferc, 

sucscfere, 



crevi, 



novi, 
pavi, 
quievi, 
suevi, 



cretum, 



ntjtum, 
pastum, 
quietura, 
suetum, 



to enact. 



to grow. 

to gape. 

to swell. 

to knoio, 

to feed. 

to be quiet. 

to be accustoincd. 



• 11. Denominative Inceptives. 

1. Most denominative inceptives want both Perfect and Su- 
pine. Thus 



Acgresco {aeger), to grow sich. 
Dltesco {dives), to grow rich. 

Dulcesco {dulcis), to become siveet. 
Grandesco {(jrandis), to grow la^'ge. 
Gravcsco {gravis), to grow heavy. 



Juvfenesco, (jtivenis), to become a youth. 
Mitesco {mitis), to grow mild. 

MoUesco {mollis), to groto soft. 
I'iiferasco {2)uer), to become a boy. 
Fingucsco (pinguis), to grow fat. 



2. The following have the Perfect in id: 



CrCbresco 
Uuresco 



{creber), 
{durus), 



fere, 
fere, 



crebrui, 
durui. 



to become frequent, 
to become hard. 



* So inblesco ; but addlesco has Sup. aduUwin; ex6!esco, eseoletum; obsdlesco, 
oliSoUtum, 



f^^ 



I 



124 



Evunosco 

InnHtesco 

Macresco 

Alaturesco 

Nigresco 

ObmQtcsco 

Obsurdosco 

RccrQdcsco 

Vilcsco 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS. 



ie, mnus), 
(in notus), 


6ro, 


Cvatnii, 


6 re, 


innotiii, 


{macer), 


fere, 


macrui, 


{maturus). 


6rc, 


inaturui, 


(niffer), 


fere, 


uigrui, 


{oh, r,mtus), 


fere, 


obinutui, 


(ob, surJiis), 
{re, crudus), 


fere, 


obsurdui, 


fere, 


recrudui, 


{vilis), 


fere. 


vilui. 



to vanish. 

to become known. 

to become lean. 

to ripen. 

to become black. 

to qroiv dumb. 

to become deaf. 

to bleed afresh. 

to become worthless. 



282. Deponent Verbs. 

Amplcctor, i, amplexua sum, 

8o complector, circumplector. 
Apiscor, i, aptus sum, 

Adlpiscor, i, adeptus sum, so indlpiscor. 

Comminiscor, i, commcntus sum, 

liemlniscor wants Perf. 
Expergiscor, i, cxperrectus sum, 

Filtiscor, i, ' 



Defgliscor, ?', dcfessus sum. 



Fruor, fvui, 

V art. fruiturua. 

Fungor, i, 

Gradior, i, 



fructus sum, 
fruitua sum, 

functus sum, 
gressus sum, 



Compounds thus: aggridior, i, aggressus sum. 

Irascor, i, 

Labor, i, lapsus sum. 
Liquor, i. 



Loquor, 



locutus sum. 



Miniscor, obsolete ; see commmiscor, 
Morior, i (Iri, rare), mortuus sum. 

Part, morlturua. 



to embrace, 
to obtaiji. 

to devise. 

to awake, 
to gape. 

to enjoy. 



to perform, 
to walk. 



to be angry, 
to fall, 
to viclt. 
to speak. 

to die. 



Nanciscor, i, 

Nascor, i, 

Part. nascUurus. 
Niter, i, 

Obliviscor, i. 



nactus (nanctus) sum, to obtain. 
nutus sum, to be born. 



nisus sum, 
nixus sum, 
oblitus sum, 
pactus sum, 
passuo sum, 



Pficiscor, 

Patior, i, 

PerpStior, i, perpessus sum. 

Plector, not used as Dep. ; see amplcctor. 
Prof iciscor, i, profectus sum. 



QuCror, 
Rgminlscor, 
Ringor, 
Sequor, 



questus sum. 



sccutus sum. 



to strive. 

to forget, 
to bargain 
to suffer. 



to set out. 
to complain, 
to remember, 
to groivl. 
to follotv. 



^N 



rOUKTII COXJUGATIOX. 



125 



Tuor, antiquated form for tucor, 272. 1. 
I'lciacor, i, ultus sum, to avenge. 

Utor, i, usus sum, to use. 

Vertor; sec dcvoitor, pracvertor, rovertor, 273. III. 
Vescor, i, to cat. 



Fldo, 



Semi- Deponent. 
fiderc, fisua sum, 



to trust. 



!r. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 
Class I. Regular Fokmatiox. 

283. Principal Parts in : io, ire, ivi, itmn. 

Tho following aro examples : 



Audio, 


audire, 


audivi. 


auditum. 


to hear. 


Condio, 


condirc. 


coudivi, 


conditum. 


to season. 


Ilnio, 


finire, 


finivl. 


linltum, 


to finish. 


LC'iiio, 


lenlre. 


lenivi. 


Icuitum, 


to alleviate. 


Munio, 


munire, 


munivi, 


muni turn. 


to fortify. 


Punio, 


punire, 


puuivi, 


punitum, 


to punish. 


Scio, 


scire, 


scivi, 


scitura. 


to know. 


SopGlio, 


sepelire, 


sepclivi. 


scpultum,* 


to bury. 


SItio, 
Vugio, 


sitire, 
vagire, 


sitivi, 
vagivi, 




to thirst, 
to cry. 



1. Perfect in ii for Ivi. — Fis often dropped in the ending of the Perfect; 
audii for audivi. See 234. 1. 

2. Perfect and Supine Wanting. — Desideratives (832. III.), except esurio, 
ire, — , itum; nuptitrio, Ire, ivi, and partiirio, ire, ivi, want both Pcrf. and 
Sup. Also a few others : 

Balbutio, to stamrr^r. Gannio, io barh. Singultio, to sob. 

CaccQtio, to be blind. Inoptio, to trifle. Supcrbio, to I proud. 

Ffirio, to strike. Sagio, to be wise. Tussio, to cough. 

F6rocio, to be fierce. 

Class II. Irregular Formation. — Two Irregularities. 

284. First Irregularity. — Perfect after the Analogy of 
the Second and Third Conjugations. 

L Perfect in ui, as in Conjugation II. 

Principal Parts in : io, ire, ui, turn. 

Amicio, amiciro, (amicui ^), amictum, 

Aperio, api^rlre, aperui, apertum, 

Operio, operiro, operui, opertum, 

SSlio, salire, salui (ii), (saltum). 

Compounds thus : desllio, Ire, ni {ii), {desultum). 
* Supine irregular. ' Probably not in actual use. ' From pdHo of Conj. IIL 



to clothe, 
to open.^ 
to cover.'' 
to leap. 



fJ: 



f, f I 



12G 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS. 



II. Perfect in si (i), as in Conjugation III. 
Principal Parts in: io, ire, sl (i), turn (sum). 

CompCrio, comperlre, comperi, compcrtum, to Icarn.^ 



Farcio, 


farciro, 


farsi, 


j fartum, 
"1 farctum, 


to stuff. 


Compounds thus: confcrclo. Ire, con/ersi, conferium. 




Fulcio, 


fulciro, 


fulsi, 


fultum, 


to prop. 


Haurio, 


haurire, 


hausi, 


haustum, hausnm 


, to draw. 


Kaucio, 


rauciro, 


raiisi, 


rausum, 


to- be hoarse 


Keporio, 


rcpcrire, 


repSri, 


repcrtum, 


to Jind.^ 


Sancio, 


sanclrc, 


sanxi, 


y sancltum, 
( sanctum, 


to raiifii. 


Sarcio, 


sarcire, 


sarsi, . 


sartum. 


to paicli. 


Sentio, 


sen tire, 


Bcnsi, 


sensum,'' 


to feci. 


SOpio, 


seplrc, 


sepsi, 


septum. 


to hcdfjc in. 


Vincio, 


vincire, 


vinxi, 


vinctum. 


to bind. 



285. Second Irregularity. — Perfect lengthens Stem- 
Voioel. 



Vonio, 



venire. 



veni, 



vcntum, 



to come. 
So compounds: advenio, eonvenio, devcnio, invenio, ohvenio, pervenio, etc. 



286. Dei o?f Ti::^7T Verbs. 
1. Begular, 



Blandior, 


iri, 




blandltus sum, 


to fatter. 


Largior, 


iri. 




largitus sum. 


to bestow. 


Mentior, 


iri, 




mentitus sum. 


to lie. 


Molior, 


iri, 




molltus sum. 


to strive. 


Partior, 


iri. 




partitus sum, 


to divide. 


Im per tier, 


Iri, imperiltus sum ; so dispertior. 




Potior, 


iri, 




potitus sum,' 


to obtain. 


Sortior, 


irn 


2. 


Bortitus sum, 

Irregular, 


io draw lots^ 


Asscntior, 


iri. 




assensus sum,* 


to assent. 


Experior, 


3ri, 




expertus sum,* 


to try. 


Metior, 


iri, 




mensus sum. 


to measure. 


Oppcrior, 


iri, 




oppertus sum,^ 
opperitus sum. 


to aioait. 


Ordior, 


.iri, 




orsus sum. 


to begiii. 


Orior, 


iri. 




ortus sum. 


to rise. 


Part. orUSrus.—l 


Pros, Ind. 


of 


Conj. III., oriris, oritur. 


Imp. Subj., orlrerc 


orirer.—Bo compounds 


but adoi 


^iot 


• follows Conj. IV. 





1 From pdrio of Conj. III. 

5 Co np. assentio juas a deponent form, assentior. Seo 286. 2. 

3 In the Pros. Ind. and Imp. Subj., forms of Conj. IIL occur. 

< Compounded of ad and sentio. Sec sentio, 284. II. 

8 Compounded of ex and 2^cirio ; 6b and pario. See comperio, 2S4. II. 



IBEEGULAll VEllBS, 



127 



Stem- 



t'c. 



II. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 

287. A few verbs which have unusual personal endings, 
are called by way of preiimincuce Irrcfjular or Anomalous 
Verbs. They are 

jSian, edo, fero, volo, fio^ co, queo, 

and their compounds. 

288. Sum, I am. 

Tho conjugation of sum has. boea already given (204.) ; its 
numerous compounds — absumy^ adsum, dmim, pi'nesum,^ etc. — ox- 
cci)t 2)ossu7n and prdsu7n, are conjugated in the same way. 

289. Possum, J am able. 
possum, poss6, potui. 

Indicative. 

Present. 
possum, pStgs, potest J possumiis, potestis, possunt. 

Imperfect. 
poteram, -gris, -Srat; poterftmus, -Gratis, 

Future. 
potSro^ -Srls, -Srit; poterlmus, -iritis. 

Perfect. 
potuI, -isti, -it; potulmus, -istis, 

Pluperfect. 
potuSram, -Sras, -8i'2,t; potu^iamiis, -iiratTs, 

Future I'erfect. 
potuero, -Cris, -6rit; potuerimus, -iritis, 

Subjunctive. 

*-' ! Present. 

possxm, possis, possit; possimus, possltls, possint. 

Imperfect. 
possem, posses, possSt; possSmus, possetla, possent. 

Perfect. 
potuerim, -eris, -grit; potuSrimus, -6r!tig, -2rint. 

» Abaum and praesum, like possum, have Pres. Participles, abeens and praesens. 



-Crant. 
-crunt. 
-grunt or erS. 
'Srant. 
-Srint. 



128 



IIUiEGULAR VERBS. 



*i 



: '- "J ■ 



n ) 



tei 



* PLUPEnKECT. 

potuisi&m, -Unas, -isaut; potuissOmus, -issGtIs, -isscnt. 

I M 1" li li A T I V E . — Wanting. 
Infinitive. Pahticiple. 

PuES. posso. PuES. potena {as an adjective). 

Peuf. pOtuisse. 

1. CoMrosiTiON.— /'o*v«Jtt is conipoundod ot pdtls, ftblo, and sum, to bo. Tha 
parts aro somctinics scpiiruted, aud then potia is iudccliuablo : pOtis aum, ^;W/« 
bilmu8, etc. 

2. iRnEGULAEiTiES. — In posaum observe 

1) Tliat potitt drops ia and that t final of tbo stem la assimilated before a: poa- 
6um for polaiim. 

2) That / of the olmple is dropped after t : jx)iui ibr pntfui. 

8) That the Infln. 2>088e and Subj. poaaem aro shortened forms for potease and 
poteaie.n. 

8. Old and Eaue Fobms. Sec 204. 1 and 2. 

290. PrOnKm, I profit, is compounded of pro, for, and sum, to 
bo. It inserts d Avhen the simple verb be}i:in9 witli e; jjj'Osumf 
2>rodc», 2jrodest^ etc. Otherwise it is conjugated like sum. 

291. Edo, Jca^ 

This verb ia sometimes regular, and sometimes takes forms like 
those of sum Avhich bei!;in in es. Thus: 



eilo, 



Ed5, 



edis, 

es, 



6der6, Gdl, Osiim. 

Indicative. — Present. 



edit ; 
est; 



ddimus, 



editTs, 
cstis, 



edunt. 



edfirum, ed^res, 
cssfim, esses, 



Subjunctive. — Imperfect. 

5der6t ; 2d6remus, Cduretla, 

essut ; essemus, cssetls, 



odercnt. 
essent. 



Imperative. 



Pres 

FCT, 



5 cde ; 

• Us;, 

i «ditO ; 
\ csto ; 



Sdito. 

estS. 

^ditotS, edunto. 

estotS, 



Infinitive. — Present. 
Sd6r§, esse. 

1. rASsivE Forms.— JS'siSr for idUdr (Indic. Pres.) and easetur for MiretUr 
(Subj. Imp.) also occur. 

2. Forms in im for am occur in Pres. Subj. : Mim, Sdis, Mit, etc., for Mdm^ 
idds, Mdt, etc. 

3. Compounds aro conjugated like the eimplo verb, but comido has In Supi 
comeaum or comeatum. 



IRREGULAR VERDS. 



120 



t. 



live). 
t)0. The 



o«: po8' 
tease and 



sum, to 



ms like 



lunt. 



lorcnt. 
sent- . 



tddretUr 

Mdrrty 

b Sup^ 



Fcr(5, 



292. Fcro, 7 hear. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

fcrriJ, tuli, 

Indicative. 



latum. 





SIXaULAR. 


PLURAL. 


Tres. 


ft'ro, fcrs, fort ; 


fenmus, fertw,* forunt. 


Imp. 


IC'iebiJm ; 


ffirebftniiis. 


FUT. 


ferilm ; 


frTOniua. 


]*EUF. 


tuli ; 


tulimua. 


I'LL' P. 


tult'iitm ; 


tQl«Mftinus. 


FuT. Perf. tuluro ; 


tulC'iimus. 




Subjunctive. 


rnE3. 


fcrara ; 


feramujf. 


Imp. 


ferrcm ; 


fcrn'raus.' ' 


Perf. 


tuldrim ; 


trjlt'iinius. 


Plup. 


tulissfim ; 


tulissGmus. 




Imperative. 


Pres. 


f6r;» 


fortfi. 


FUT. 


fertS, 


feitot^^ 




fertS ; 


ferunto. 




Infinitive. 


Participle. 


Pres. 


ferre." 


Pres. fercns. 


Perf. 


tuliss6. 




FuT. 


laturua cssS. 


FcT. latQrus. 




Gerund. 


Supine. 


Gen. 


f^rendi. 




Dot. 


fSrendo. 




Ace. 


fdrendum. 


Ace. latum. 


Abl. 


fereudo. 


Abl. latu. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 

ferSr, ferri, latus sum. 

Indicative. 



Pres. 

Imp. 

FuT. 

Perf. 

Plup. 

FuT. Perf. latus ero ; 



fSror, fenis, fertiir ; * 

fereMr ; 

fgrSr ; , 

latus sum ; 

latus erSm ; 



ferimur, ferimlni, fSrunttir. 

ferC'bamur. 

feremur. 

latl sumua. , 

latl Sramiis. 

latl erimus« 



1 Fers for fSris; fert iovfSrU; fertls totfiritls (i dropped). 
" Ferrem, etc. tor fSririm, etc. ; ferri torfSrirg (e dropped). 
3 Fir Tor/iri; /ert6,/erti,/ertdti for /mt5,/erW,/4rltdti (i dropped). 
* Ferris t'or/SrirU ; fert&r for /Oritur. 
0* - 



H 



1 



^li .1 



130 {/ irregular verbs. 

Subjunctive. 

ftrjtr ; fBr/lmur. 

ferrCr; Ibrrenmr.* 

Ifttus sTrfT; IfttI Hlmu3. 

latud css^m ; lati cdiiiOmus. 

ISII'ERATIVE. 






Tres. 
Imp. 
Pkuf. 
I'lui'. 



Pres. 
* Flt. 



f(Tr6 ; * 
fcitor,' 
fertor ; ' 



Infinitive. 



fci-iniinl. 
fcTUutor. 

Participle. 



Pres. 
Peuf. 

FUT. 



forrl.' 
liltu.s cssC. 
latum Irl. 



Perf. 
FuT. 



latus. 
furcndufl. 



1. iRHEOrLAuiTiES.— /'rfro, It wlll bo scon, bas two principal Irregularities: 

1) It forms its Perf. and Sup. tMl (rarely tetaii) and latum from obsoleto stoma. 

2) It >'rop8 tho connecting vowel e or t in certain forms of tbo Pres. Indie, and 
Infln., tbo Impcrf. BubJ. and tbo Imporat. It doubles r in tbo Pros. Infln. Pass. 

2. Compounds of fero aro conjugated liko tbo simple verb, but In a fow of tbcm 
tbo preposition sulTers a oupbonic cbango : 



(lb- 


auft5ro, 


nuforro, 


abstuU, 


ablutum. 


ad- 


afft5ro, 


afferro, 


attuli, 


aliutum. 


con- 


confSro, 


confcrro, 


contuH, 


collfitum. 


dia- 


diflfcro, 


differro, 


distuli, 


diliitum. 


ex- 


cflfero, 


cfferro, 


extull, 


eliitum. 


in- 


Infcro, 


inforre, 


Intull, 


illilCum. 


Ob. 


offi3ro, 


offerro, 


obtuli, 


oblutum. 


aiib- 


Buff(5ro, 


Bufferro, 


eustuli, 


Bubiutura 



Suat&li and aubldtum aro not used in tho sense of svffSro^ to bear, but tbcy sup- 
ply tho Perf. and Sup. of tollo, to raise. Seo 280. 

293. Volo, / am willing. ^•^'NolOy I am unwilling. — 
Malo, I prefer. 

volui. 
nolui. 
malu!. 



vol5, 

vis, 

vult; 

volumus, 

vultis, 

v61unt. 



v6l8, 
n6l6 
mal5, 


veils, 
noll6, 
mails, 




Indicative. 




Present. 




nol5, 




non vis, 
non vult ; 
nOlumus, 
, non vultis, • 
nolunt, 



I 



malo, 

mavis, 

mavult ; 

malumus, 

mavultis, 

malunt. 



' Ferrer, etc., for firirir, etc. ; ferri tor /SrirS. 

9 Fertdr for/MWr. 

» Ferrl ior firl (ConJ. IIL). 



r 



i^x^j u^L \ 


A 


y-t ' 


V--*' 


r-i re 


ic '-fl 


IRREGULAR VERRS. 
Imperfect. 


■; '' 


131 

» 


YolC'bitm, bfts, etc. 


1 nOlCbim, bos, etc. | 
FcTcnE. 


mftlGbSm, 


b.ld, etc 


vCUlm. 


1 nOhtra. 1 


malSm. 


■ '** 1 




rEEFKCT. 




' i 


volul. 


1 nolui. 1 


malul. 






Pldpeufect. 






volufinlm. 


1 nolu(?rilin. | 


milluerftm. 






Future Perfect. 




• 

r 


volucrS. 


1 noluero. | 


maluer5. 




Sub ju NCTi VE. 








Present. 




! 


vi'llm 

vfills 

vC'lit 

vC'liniiia 

v51Itis 

vSlint. 




nOlIm 

nolia 

nolit 

nolinius 

nolitta 

nulint. 


mallm 

malis 

mfiirt 

malimus 

nitilitla 

mallnt. 


* 

• 




Imperfect. 






velleni ' 

vellea 

vellt^t 

vellemus 

velletia 

vellent. 




noll^m 

nollea 

noUfit 

nollemua 

nolletia 

noil ;nt. 


mallfim 

mallea 

mallfit 

mallemtia 

mallctia 

mallent. 


- . 

I 


• 


Perfect. 






voluSrun. 


1 noluSrim. \ 
Pluperfect. 


malufirim. 




ToluissSm. 


1 noluissem. | 


raaluissSm 


nl 




Imperative. 




** ^N 




Present. 








I noli, nClitS. | 




. in 




Future. 






» 


1 nolitd, nolitote ; 
1 nolito, nolunto. 







» Vellem and veUe are syncopated forms for veUrem, velSre ; 6 la dropped and r 
assimilated; velirem, velrem^ vellem; veUre, velre, velle. So nolltm aad «oW«, for 
nolirem and nolire ; maUem and matte, for maUrem and maUre. 



r-i 



132 



IREEGULAE VERBS. 



vcUg. 



v61uiss6. 



volcns. 



Infinitive. 

Present. 
I nolI5. I 

Perfect. 
I noluisse. | 

Participle. 
I nolens. | 



malld. 



maluissd. 



1. CoMPO" TioN.— A'S^o is compounded of ne or nori and Tolo; mdlo^ of mdgia 
and Mo. 

2. Rare Forms.— (1) Of volo: volt, voUis, for milt, vultia ; sis, aultia, for si 
vis, ai'vultia; vin' for viane.—Qi) Of nolo; nevis, nevult {nevolf), nevelle, for 'non 
ris, non vutt, nolle. — (3) Of malo: mavdlo, maviUm, mavelle7n,SoT mala, malim^ 
mallem. 



294. Fio, I become. 



Pi8, 



fieri. factu3 sum. 

Indicative. 

PLURAl.. 

flmus, f itis, f iunt, 
fiebaTius. 
fiemus. 
facti siimus. 
facti e ram us. 
factI 5rimus. 



fiamus. 
fieremus. 
facti simiis. 
facti cssemvLS. 





SINGULAR. 


Pres. 


fio, fis, fit; 


Imp. 


f iObam ; 


FOT. 


fiam; 


Perf. 


factus sum ; 


Plup. 


factus erum ; 


Put. Perf. 


factus ero ; 




Subjunctive. 


Pres. 


fi3m; 


Imp. 


fierem; 


Perf. 


factiis Sim; .; „" 


Plup. 


factus essem ; ' ' 



Imperative. 



Pres. f I ; 

Infinitive. 



Pres. 
Perf. 
Put. 



figri. 

factiis essS. 
factum in. 



fitg. 

Participle. 

Perf. factus. 
Put. faciendus. 



1. iRBEGPLAEiTt.— jPio Is Only sliglitly irregular, as will be seen from the para- 
digm. 

2. Meaning.— Jf/o means (1) to become, (2) to he mad'}, appointed. In the 
second sense it is used as the passive of f ado. Bee 27!). 

3. CoMPotTNDB of flo are conjugated like the simple verb,»but conftt^ defit^ and 
infit are defective. Bee 297. III. 2. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



133 



E8, 



295. Eo, I (JO. 

irS, ivi, 

Indicative. 



itum. 





SIXGCLAB. 


PLURAL. 


Pres. 


CO, 19, it ; 


imiis, itis, cunt. 


Imp. 


ibSm ; 


ibumus. 


Put. 


ibo; 


ibimus. 


Perf, 


ivi ; 


ivimus. 


Plup. 


iverara ; 


iveriimus. 


Put. ] 


Perf. ivSro : 


ivCrimus. 



Subjunctive. 



Pres. 
Imp. 
Perf. 
Plup. 


cam; 
irtim ; 
iverim ; 
ivissom ; 


efimus. 
irOmus. 
iverimiis. 
ivissemus. 




Imperative. 


Pres. 
Put. 


it6, 


itS.^ 
itote 
cuntS. 


Infinitive. ■ 


Particitle. 


Pres. 
Perf. 
Put. 


ire. 
ivissg. 
itarus case. 


Pres. icns. Gen. euntis 
Put. ituriis. 


Gerund. 


Supine. 


Gen. 
Bat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 


eundi. 
eundS. 
eundiim. 
eundo. 


Ace. itum. 
Abl. itu. 



1. Ireegulabities.— £b la a verb of tho fourth conjagation, but It forms tho 
Bup. with a short vowel (Itum) and is irregular in several parts of the present system. 
It admits contraction according to 284 : istin for ivistis, etc. 

2. Passive iNFiNrriVE. — Fd as an intransitive verb wants tho Passive, except 
when used impersonally in the third singular itur, ibdtur, etc. (301. 3), but 'iri, tho 
Pass. luHn., occurs as an auxiliary in the Fut. Infin. Pa.ss. of tho regular conjuga- 
tions : amdtum iri, etc. 

8. Compounds of eo arc generally conjugated like eo, but shorten lin into it.— 
Veneo {venum eo) has sometimes veniebam for venlbam. Many compounds want 
the supine, and a few admit in tho Fut. a rare form In earn, iea, iit. 

Transitive compounds have also tho Passive : adeo, to approach, adeor, adlria, 
adltur, etc. 

Ambio is regular,like audio, though ambibam for ambiibam occurs. 



'I! 



J 



134 



IBBEGULAS YEBBS. 



296. Quoo, I am able. Nequeo, I am unable. 

QueOi qulre^ qulvi^ quitum, and Nequeo^ nequlre^ nequlvi (ti), nequX- 
tum^ are conjugated like eo, but they want the Imperative and Gerimd, and 
arc rare, except in the Present tense.* 

DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

297. Defective Verbs want certain parts: we specify 
the following." 

L Pkesent System Wanting. 

Coepi, I have begun. Memini, I remember. Odi, I hate. 

Indicative. 



Perf. 
Plcp. 
FuT. Perf. 


coepi. 

coepfirSm. 

coepgro. 




SUBJI 


Perf. 
Plup. 


coeperim. 
coepissem. 



memml. 

meminSram. 

meminero. 



mSmingrim. 
memiuiss^m. 



odi. 

od^ram. 

6der8« 



odSrim. 
Odissem. 



Perf. 

FCT. 



Perf. 
FuT. 



coepiss6. 
coepturus essS. 



Imperative. 

S. mgmento. 
P. m^mentote. 

Infinitive. 

meminisse. 



Participle. 



coeptus. 
coeptQr&a. 



ddisse. 
osuriis essS. 



osus.' 
osurus. 



1. Passive Fobm.— With passive Infinitives coept generally takes the passive 
form : co&ptus sum, Sram, etc. The Part, coeptw is passive in sense. 

2. Pbesent in Sensk.— Jfemlni and odi are present in sense; hence in tho 
Pluperf. and Fat. Perf. they have the sense of the Imperf. and Fat— JSRyvi, I know, 
Perf. of nosco, to learn, and consuiviy I am wont, Perf. of consuesco, to accustom 
one's self, are also present in sense. 

> A passive form, gultitr, nequttur, etc., sometimes occurs before a Pass. Infln. 

3 Many, which want the Perf or Sup. or both, bave been mentioned under the 
Classification of Verbs. 

" Oaua is active li sense, hating^ but is rare except In compounds : eaOfUit 
perosvs. 



DEFECTIVE VER«fc 



135 



II. Parts op Each SrbfEM WANTDfa. 
1. Aio, I say^ say yes} 



Indic. Pres. 5io, 



ais. 



alt; 



Imp. aiebto, -Cbas, -CbSt; 

Ferf. ait; 

SuBJ. Pres. al?.d, aiat; 

Imper. Pres. ai {rare). 

Part. Pres. aiens {as adjective). 

2. Inquam, / say. 



alunt 

-ebamiis, -ebatis, -ebant.' 

—— aiant. 



inquimus, inquitis, inquiunt. 
. 4 



Indic. Pres. inquam, inquTs, inquit; 

Imp. inquiebat ; 

Fut. ' inquies, inquifit; 

Perf. inquisti, inquit ; 

Imper. Pres. inque. Fut. inquito.* 

3. Fari, to speaJc.^ 

Indic. Pres. fatur; 

Fut. fabor, fabitur; 

Perf. fatus sum, es, est ; 

Plup. fatus erSm, eras, erilt ; 
Sue J. Perf. fatiia sim, sis, sit ; 

Plup. fatu8 essem, esses, esset ; 
Imper. Pres. farfi. 
Infin. Pres. fan. 

Part. Pres. (fans) fantis, Perf. fatus, Fut. fandus. 
Gerund, Gen. and Ahl. fandi, do. Supine, Ahl. fatQ. 



III. Imperatives and Isolated Forms. 

1. Impbratites.— av5, avSte; av6to; Inf. avfire, hail. 

salve, ealvetS, ealveto ; ' salvere, hail. 

c5d8, cettg, tell me, n've me. 

agS,® agit6, Come. 

apSgfi, begone. 



fati sumus, estis, sunt, 

fati eramus, eratls, erant. 

fatI simus, sltis, sint. 

iati essemus, essetis, essent. 



1 In this verb a and i do not form a diphthong ; before a vowel the i has the 
sound of y : a-yo, a'-i«. See 9. 2. 

" The interrogative form aiane is often shortened to ain*. 
' Aibam, atbas, etc., occur in comedy. 

* Also written inquibat. 

» A few forms of tho Subj. are sometimes given, but they are not found in the 
classics. 

• Fdri is used chiefly in poetry. Compounds have some forms not found in tho 
simple; thus: affUmur, affamlni, affiibar, effabSria. Subj. Imp, furer also occurs 
in compounds. 

"> Tho Fut. salrebia is also used for the Imperat. 
^ Age la also used in the sense of the Plural. 



It 



J! 



136 

2. Isolated Foums. 

Indic. Fres. Fut. 
confit, 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 



dcfit, defiant, defiet, 
infit, infiunt, 

Sub. Imp. forSm, lorCs, forgt, — 
Ind. Fres. ovat. Part, ovans, 
Lnd. Fres. quacso, quacsumus, ' 



Sub. Fres. Imp. 

confiiit, confieriit, 
defiat. 



Infin. 

conf ifirl, to be done. 
def ieri, to be loanting. 
to begin. 

forciit. Inf. for6.' 

he rejoices. 
I pray. 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

298. Impersonal Verbs never admit a personal subject. 
They correspond to the English Impersonal with it : licet., 
it is lawful, oportet, it behooves.' They are conjugated 
like other verbs, but are used only in the third person sin- 
gular of the Indicative and Subjunctive and in the Present 
and Perfect Infinitive. 



299. Strictly Impersonal are only : 



D6cet, dficuit, 
T -ivxt. 5 libuit, 

y ^ u j ITCUlt, 

•^^ca, ;j ijcitura est, 
Liqu6t, licuit, 



it becomes. * 
it pleases.* 

it is lawful.* 
it is evident.* 



prg«, |g| 



piguit, 
gitum est, 



it grieves. 



Poenitfit, poenituit, it causes re- 
gret ; poenitet me, / repent. 

MisSrot, miseritum est, 27 excises pz7^; Taeddt, it wearies; pertaedet, per- 

me miseret, I pity. tacsum est. 

Oportet, oportuit, it behooves. 

1, Participles are generally wanting, but a few occur, though with a some- 
what modified sense: (1) from libet: llbena, willing; (2) from licet: llce^is, free; 
licl*u8, allowed; (8) from poenitet : poenlteTW, penitent; poenUendiis, to be re- 
pented of ; (4) from pudet : pUdens, modest ; pudendi&s, shameful. 

2., Gebcnds are generally wanting, but occur in rare Instances ; poenitendiim, 
2)Mend5. 

300. Generally Impersonal are several verbs which de- 
signate the changes of weather, or the operations of nature : 



FulminfJt, 
GrandinSt, 
Lr^pidiit, 
Lucescit, 
Ningit (nindt), 



it lightens, 
it hails, 
it rains stones, 
it grows light, 
it snows. 



Pluit (P. pluit), 

RoriXt, 

Tonat (tonuit), 

Vesperascit, 



it rains, 
dew falls, 
it thunders, 
evening approaches. 



» Forem 3» essem :/ore = futurum esse. See 204. t. 
^ Old forms for quaero and quaerlmus. 

• The real subject is generally an iufinitire or clause, sometimes a neuter ' 
pronoun: hocJliH oportet, that this should be done is necessary. 

* These four occur in the third person plural, but without a personal subject. T 
So the Comp. dedicct. So also some of the others in rare iostancesi -^ 



IMPERSONAL VEKBS. 



137 



301. Many other verbs are often used impersonally. 
Thus 



1. The following • 

it hoppcns. 
it appears, 
it concerns, 
it is useful, 
it is evident, 
it happens, 
it is fitting, 
it delights, 
it displeases, 
it grieves, 
it happ> ns. 
it is exp, dient. 

it escapes {me). 



Accidit, 

Apparet, 

Attinet, 

Conducit, 

Constat, 

Contingit, 

Conveuit, 

Dclectat, 

Displicet, 

Dolet, 

Evenit, 

Expedit, 

Fallit ) ( . 

Fugit [ (^^)' 



Fit, 

Interest, 

Juvat, 

Patct, 

Pertinet, 

Plctcet, 

Pracstat, 



it happens, 
it concerns, 
it delights, 
it is plain. 
it pertains, 
it pleases, 
it is better. 



Praeterit (me), it escapes (rnc). 

RGfert, it concerp». 

Restat, it remains. 

Subit, it occurs. 

Suff icit, it suffices. 

SupCrest, it remains. 

Vacat, there is leisure. 



2. The Second iVriphrastio Conjugation (233) is often used 
impersonall}' . The participle is then neuter : 

Mihi scribendum est,/ must'torite; tibi scribendura est, you must 
write ; illi scribendum est, he must vrrite. 

3- Verbs which are intransitive in the active, i. e., do not 
govern the accusative, can only be used impersonally ia the pas- 
sive, and many others may be so used. The participle is then 
neuter : 

Mihi ereditur, it is credited to mc, lam believed; tibi creditur, i/ou are 
believed; illi creditur, he ia believed; certatur, it is contended ; curritur, 
there is running, people run; pugnatur, it is fought, they, we, etc., fight; 
scribitur, it is wi'itten; venitur, they come, we comCy etc. ; vi\itur, we, you^ 
they live. 



i 



*♦> 



CHAPTEE Y. 



PAETICLES. 

302. The Latin has four parts of speech sometimes 
called Particles: the Adverb^ the Preposition^ the Con- 
junction^ and the Interjection. 

ADVERBS. 

303. The Adverb is the part of speech which is used 
to qualify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs: celeriter 

■ currere^ to run swiftly ; tarn celer, so swift ; tarn celeriter, 
so swiftly. 



' (■ 









138 



ADVEE3S. 



N;! 



304. Adverbs may bo divided, according to their sig- 
nification, into four princij^al classes : 

v 

I. Adveebs 01 Place. 



ITic, 
illic, 
istic, 
ubi, 



HodiS, 
ibi, 
jam, 
jamdiu, 



here ; 
there ; 
there ; 
where ? 



hoc, 
illuc, 
istuc, 
quo, 



hither ; 
thither ; 
thither ; 
whither ? 



hinc, 
illinc, 
istinc, 
undo. 



II. Adverbs of Time. 



to-day. 
then, 
now. 
long since. 



nondum, 
nunc, 
nunquam, 
olhn, 



not yet. 
now. 
never, 
formerly. 



saepS, 
semel, 
turn, 
unquam, 



hence, 
thence, 
thence. 
whc7ice ? 



often, 
once, 
then, 
ever. 



III. Adverbs of Manner, Means, Degree. 



Adeo, 
alitor, 
ita, 
magis. 



so. 

otherwise, 
so. 
more. 



paen6, 
palam, 
prorsus, 
rite, 



almost, 
openly, 
wholly, 
rightly. 



sic, 
lit,,, 

valde, 
vix. 



as. 

much, 
scarcely. 



IV. Adverbs of Cause, Inference. 



CQr, 
quarS, 

quumobrem, 
quaproptcr. 



w7iy ? 
wherefore, 
wlierefore. 
wherefore. 



eo, 

ideo. 



idcirco, 
proptgrea, 



for this reason, 
on this account, 
therefore, 
therefore. 



305. Comparison. — Most Adverbs are derived from 
adjectives, and are dependent upon them for their compari- 
son. The comparative is the neuter singular of the pdjec- 
tive, and the superlative changes the ending us of the'ad- 
^'ective into e: 



•i# 



alius, altior, altissTmua, lofty. 

alte, altius, altissimo, loftily, 

prudens, prudentior, prudontissimug, prxident. 

prudenter, prudentius, prudentissime, prudently. 

1. Magis akd Maxime. — When the adjective is compared with magis 
and maxime, the adverb is compared in the same way : 

egregius, mSgis cgregius, maxime egregius, excellent. 
egregie, mSgis egrcgie, maxime egregie, excellently. 

2. Irregular Comparison. — When the adjective is irregular, the adverb 
has the same irregularity : 

b(5nus, melior, optlmus, good. 

b6ne, melius, oiJtirae, well. 

male, pejus, pessime, hadly. 

8. Defective Comparison. — When the adjective is defective, the adverb 
is generally defective : 



i 



COiirARISOX OP ADVERBS. 



139 



ni5vu3, 
utJve, 



detcrior, 
deterius, 



dcterrfmus, 
delcrrline, 
Doviaslmus, 
novisslmc, 



worse, 
worse, 
new. 
newlg. 



4. CoMi'AKED.— A few not derived from adjectives are compared : 

diQ, Jiutius, diutisslme, for along time. 

saop6, saepius, saepisslmc, often. 

sitis, satms, sufficiently. 

nuper, nuperrime, recently. 

5. Not Compared. — Most adverbs not derived from adjectives, as also 
those from adjectives incapable of comparison (1G9), are not compared : /ti'c, 
here; «?/nc, now; t;M^(7a;*t(^er, commonly. 

6. SuPEHLATivES IN OR ^wi are used in a few adverbs : primo, prlmum, 
poilssimum. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

306. The Preposition is the part of speech which shows 
the relations of objects to each other : in Italia esse, to be 
in Italy ; ante me, before me. 

For list of prepositions, see 433-435. 

307. Inseparable Prepositions. — Ambiy amb, around, about ; dis, 
di, asunder ; re, red, back ; se, aside, apart ; we and vc, not, are called in- 
separable propositions, because they are used only in composition. 

CON"JUN0TIONS. 

308. Conjunctions are mere connectives : pater TSTjilius, 
the father and son ; paLr avt Jilius, the father or son. 

309. Conjunctions are divided, according to their use, 
into two classes : 

I. CooEDiNATE Conjunctions, — which connect similar 
constructions : labor voluptasque, labor and pleasure ; Car- 
tJiaginem cepit ac diruit, he took and destroyed Carthage. 

II. Subordinate Conjunctions, — which connect subor- 
dinate with principal constructions: haec dum colUgunt, 
effugit, while they collect these things, he escapes. 

I. Coordinate Conjunctions. 

310. Coordinate Conjunctions comprise five subdivi- 
sions : 

1. CoruLATTVE Conjunctions, denoting union : 

Et, qu6, atqu6, ac, and. Etiam, quoque, also. NSquS, nfic, and not. 
N6qu5 — ncquii, ncc — ncc, ncque — ncc, neither — nor. 



140 



CONJUNCTIONS. 



2. Disjunctive Conjunctions, denoting separation : 

Aut, vcl, vc, sivo (sou), or. Aut — aut, vcl — vol, cither— or. SivO— « 
sivc, cit/i^r — or. 

3. Adversative Conjunctions, denoting opposition : 

Scd, autcm, vurum, vGro, but. At, but, on the contrary. AtquI, but 
rather. Cetcrum, but still. Tamen, yet. 

4. Illative Conjunctions, denoting inference : 

Ergo, igitiir, indo, proindc, Itique, hence, therefore. Sec also 58*7, IV. 2. 

5. Causal Conjunctions, denoting cause : 

Nam, namque, enim, etenim, for. 

II. SUBOKDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. 

311. Subordinate Conjunctions comprise eight subdi- 
visions : 

1. Temporal Conjunctions, denoting time : 

Quando, quum, when. Ut, ub', as, when. Quum primum, ut primum, 
ubi primum, simul, simulac, simulatque, as soon as. Dum, donee, quoad, 
quamdiu, while, until, as long as. Antcquam, priusquam, before. Postea- 
quam, after. 

2. Comparative Conjunctions, denoting comparison : 

Ut, iitl, eiciit, slcuti, as, so as. Velut, just as. Praeut, prout, ac- 
cording as, in comparison with. Quam, as. Tanquam, quasi, ut si, ac si, 
vclut si, as if. 

3. Conditional Conjunctions, denoting condition : 

Si, if. Si Hon, nisi, ni, if not. Sin, but if. Si quidcm, if indeed. 
Si modo, dum, modo, dummodo, if only. 

4. Concessive Conjunctions, denoting concession : 

Quamquam, licet, quum, although. Etsi, tamctsi, ctiamsi, even if. 
Quamvis, quantumvis, quantumlibet, however much, although. Ut, grant 
that. N6, grant that not. 

5. Final Conjunctions, denoting purpose or end : 

Ut, fiti, that, in order that. N5, neve (neu), that not. Quo, that. 
Quominiis, that not. 

6. Consecutive Conjunctions, denoting consequence 
or result : 

Ut, so that. Ut nOn, quin, so that not. 

T. Causal Conjunctions, denoting cause ; 



INTEEJECTIOI^S. 



141 



Quii, quod, because. Quum, since. Quoniam, quando, quandoqul- 
dem, sujuidem, shice indeed. 

8. Interrogative Conjunctions, clcnoting inquiry : 
N6, nounfi, num, utrura, an, ivhcthcr. An nun, nccnc, or not. 

INTEPwJECTIONS. 

312. lutcrjoctioiis arc certain particles used as exprcs- 
sions of feeling or as mere marks of address. They may 
express 

1. Astouishment : o, hcm^ chem, huiy aha, utat, pupae, vah, en, eccS. 

2. Joy: io, ha, he, eu, evoc. 

3. Sorrow : vae, hci, heu, cheu, ohc, ah, au, prd or proh. 

4. Disgust : aha, phuJ, upUgc. 

6. Calling : hcus, o, cho, ehodum, 
6. Praise : cugS, ejH, hcjU. 



-••♦^- 



CHAPTER VI. 



ac si. 






FOBMATION OF WORDS. 

' 313. Words may be formed in two ways : 

I. By Derivation ; i. e., by the addition of certain end- 
ings to the stems of other words : «mor, love, from amo, to 
love. 

II. By Composition; i. e., by the union of two or more 
words or their stems : benevolens, well-wishing, from benCi 
well, and voiens, wishing. 

1. Simple and Compouxd. — Words formed by composition are called 
Compounds ; those not thus formed are called Simple Words. 

2. Pbimitive and Derivative. — Simple words formed by derivation are 
called Derivatives ; those not thus formed are called Primitives. 



DERIVATION OF WORDS. 
NOUNS., 

314. Nouns are derived from other Kouns^ from Ad- 
jectives^ and from Verbs, 



142 



DERIVATION OP NOUNS. 



H.I ! 



I. Nouns from Nouns. 

315. Diminutives generally end in 

ulus ilia, uliun, cuius, cula, culum. 



liort-ulu.s, 

vir^-ula, 

oppid-ulum, 

tlos-culurf, 

part-i-cula, 

uiunua-culuni, 



•oni 


hortus, 


garden. 




virgn, 


branch. 




opplUum, 


town. 




llos, 


Jfowcr, 




pars, 


part. 




muiius, 


jyresent. 



a small riardeu^ 
a small braneli^ 
a small town, 
a small Jloircr, 
a small part, 
a small present^ 

1. Ulus, iila, ulum arc generally added to the stems of uouns of Dec. 
I. and v., and lO some of Dec. III. 

2. Olus, 51a, blum are used for iilus, ula, ulum, when a vowel pre- 
cedes : JiUdlus, little son, ivom Jiliu8 ; Jilidla, little daughter, ivom filia ; atri- 
blum.y small hall, from atrium. 

8. Sllus, ella, ellum ; illus, ilia, ilium, arc sometimes used, es- 
pecially with primitives of Dec. I. and II., whose stems end in 1, n, or r; 
but el and il in these endings generally displace the last syllabic of the stem : 
ocellus, small eye, from oculus ; fabella, short fable, from /abula / bacillum, 
small staff, from baculum. 

4. Oiilus, cilia, culum arc used with primitives of Dec. IV. and V., 
and witi'. some of Dec. III. These are appended 

Ij lofha ITominatice: Jlos^floa-cUlua; muUer, muliercula ; munu8,munus' 

2) To the Stem with a connecting vowel i, sometimes e : pons (bridge), pont-i- 
cHlus; pHrs, partic&la ; vulpes (fox), TulpecHla. 

3) To the Ste7)i of nouns in o (G. onis, inis), with stem-vowel changed to u: 
homo {man), homun-cHlus ; tirgo (maiden), iBirguncHla. Like nouns in o, a few 
other words form diminutives in uncMus, uncula : avus (uncle), avunculus ; domus 
(house), domuncaia. 

5. Uleus and cio arc rare : equuleiis, a small horse, from equus ; 
Jiomuncio, a small man, from homo. 

316. Patronymics, or names of descent, generally 
end in 



ides, 

is. 



ides. 



eis, 



Mes, 
as, 

Tantal-is, 
Thos-eis, 
Laert-Jas, 
Thesti-as. 



masculine, 
feminine. 

daughter of Tantalus, 
daughter of Theseus, 
daughter of Laertes, 
daughter of TJiestius. 



iades, 
3, CA0, las, 

Tantal-idcs, so7i of Tantalus ; 

Thes-ides, son of Tlieseus ; 

Laert-iados, son of Laertes ; 

Thesti-ades, son of T7iestius ; 

1. Ides (i) and is are the common endings. 

2. Ides (I) and eis are used especially with primitives in eiis. 

S. I^des, ^des, and ias, as, are used principally with primitives in 
iug, and in those in as and es of Dec. l.—AenSas has Aeneades, masc. and 
Aenli^, fem. ■ _ 



■^.- 



DERIVATION OP NOUNS. 



143 



arium, 

columb-ariutn, 

(luerc-Otum, 

ov-ilc, 



IVoru 


colunihii 


n 


(lUtTCUri. 


tl 


ovis. 



tus (itus), atus. 



4. Ine and 6ne aro rare fcminino endings : Xeplun-lnc, daughter of 
Neptune ; Acrini'One, daughter of Acriaiuj. 

Si 7. Designations op Place are oilcn formed with 
the entlhjga 

etum, lie. 

a dovecot, 

a forest of oakSf 

a shcrpfolJy 

1. Arium designates the place where anything is kept, a receptacle : 
aerdrium, treasury, from aes. 

2. Etum, used with names of trees and phmts, designates the phico 
where they tlourish : olivUum, an olive grove, from oliva. 

C. He, used with names of animals, designates their stall or foUl : bovllc. 
stall for cattle, from bos. 

318. Derivatives arc also formed with several other 
endings, especially with 

arius, io, ium, itium, 

statu-iii'ius, a statuary, 

lud-io, a plai/cr, 

saccrdot-ium, pricnthood, 

serv-itium, servitude^ 

vir-tU3, virtue, 

consul-utus, consulship, 

1. Arius and io generally designate one's occupation. 

2. lum and itium denote oflice, condition, or collection : scrvitlmn, 
servitude, sometimes a collection of servants. 

3. Tua and itus designate some characteristic or condition : virtus, 
manliness, virtue, from vir ; Juventus, youth, ivomj uveitis. 

4. Atus denotes rank, office, collection : consuldtus, consulship, from 
consul ; sendtus, senate, collection of old men, from senez. 

5. PATiUATi or Gentile Nouns. — See 326. 3. 

II. Nouns from Adjectives. 

319. From Adjectives are formed various Abstract 
Nouns with the endings 

itas, 

dilif/e7ice, 

friends/lip, 

goodness, 

solitude, 

sharpness, 

1. Itas, tas, ^tas. — Itas sometimes* drops i : liberias, liberty, from 
liber ; etas is used with primitives in ius : pietas, piety, from pius. Sometimes 



from 


statua. 




ludua. 




saccrdos. 




servus. 




vir. 




consul. 



ia, itia, 

diligent-ia, 

amic-itia, 

bon-itaa, 

sol-itudo, 

acr-imonia, 



ado, 


imonia. 


from 


dilTgens 


(( 


amicus. 


(( 


bonus. 


u 


solus. 


(( 


acer. 



114 



DKRIVATION OP NOUNS. 



i i 



the stem of Iho adjective is slightly changed : fadlia, facultas, faculty ; dijji' 
cUis, diJicuHoH, diiliculty ; pote/ii, 2>ott8tas, power; honestus, honottan, honesty. 

2. Itudo und itaa. — A few adjectives form uhstracts with both these 
endings : Jinnun, JirmUas, finnitudo, ilrnincss. Polysyllabic adjectives in 
tU8 generally change tun into thdo : follicUun, mllieitudo, solieitnde. 

o. Imonia is rare : J'uraimonia, parsimony, from jKirctui, changes c 
into 6'. 

111. Nouns fuom Veiius. 

1. From the Present Stem. 

320. From the Present stem arc formed Verbal J^ouns 
with various endings, esi)ecially with 

or; ium; men, mentum; billum, culum, brum, cnmi, trum. 

am-or. 



tim-or, 

gaud-ium, 

cert-a-n»cn, 

oru-Jl-mcntuni, 

voc-a-biiluin, 

vt'h-i-ciduui, 

fl-a-bruni, 

Bimul-a-crum, 

ar-a-trum, 



from 


amo. 


(t 


tinico. 


«t 


gaudco. 


ti 


corto. 


C( 


orno. 


u 


voco. 


(( 


voho. 


t( 


flo. 


It 


Bimiilo. 


(t 


aro. 



lovc^ 
fear, 

content, 

ornament, 

appellation, 

vehicle, 

blast, 

image, 

plough, 

1. Or designates the action or state denoted by the verb. 

2. Ium has nearly the same force, but sometimes designates the thing 
done : aedijicium, edifice, from aedifico. 

3. Men and mentiun generally designate the means of an action, or 
its involuntary subject : flumen, a stream, something whicli Hows, from jf?j/o / 
agmen, an army in motion, from ago. 

Those endings aro generally preceded by a connecting vowel : orn-a-m&ntum, 
ornament; vest-i-mentum, clothing. Sometimes the stem itself is shortened or 
changed ; fragmentum, fragment, from frango ; momentum, moving force, from 
moveo. 

4. Bulum, culum, bnun, crum, trum designate the instrumerit or 
the place of the action : vehiculum,, vehicle, instrument of the action, from 
i)eho ; stabulum, stall, place of the action, from sto. 

These endings generally take a connecting vowel. Sometimes the stem itself is 
changed: sepulcnivi, sepulchre, from sP2)elio. 

5. Ulum, vla.— Vlvm for culum occurs after c and g: vinc-ulum, a 
bond, from vincio / cing-uluvi, girdle, from cingo. Via also occurs : regu'a, 
rule, from rego. 

C. Us, a, O sometimes designate the agent of the action : coguus, cook, 
from coquo ; scriha, writer, from scriho ; erro, wanderer, from erro. 

7. Ela, ido, igo and a few other endings also occur : querela, com- 
plaint, from queror; cvpido, desire, from cupio ; orlgo, origin, from orior. 



DliUlVATlON OF NOUNS. 



145 



ly; diji' 

honcsly. 
)th these 
ctivc8 in 

luuii'cs c 



I JV^otins 
. truin. 



2. From the Supine Stem. 
321. From tlie Supine .stem are Ibrmed l\rb<d N^ouns 



with tlie eutlin'^s 



or, 



aniAt-or, 

aii(lit-()i', 

iiioiiit-io, 

uuilit-io, 

audit-US, 

t';iiit-!iH, 

|iict-um, 



lO, 

(Illl'iSUIlJ^ 

hraruKj^ 

tiiiif/iiijf, 
puintiu(/y 



US, 



ura. 



IVoiji 



44 
44 
44 



UIIIO. 

uudio. 

tllOIHM). 

uudio. 
audiu. 
cano. 
pitigo. 



1. Or denotes tlie aijenl or doer. W'lion t precedes, corresponding teiu- 
inine nouns arc generally formed by changing iur into (rix : victor, victrix. 
L'. lo, us, and ura form abdmcl uound, and denote the act itself. 



the tiling 

action, or 
from /wo; 

^lortencd or 
force, from 

\truinent or 
Iction, from 

Item itself is 

\nc-ulum, a 
jrs: regula, 

juus, cook, 

^rela, com- 
bm oi-ior. 



ADJECT I Vi:S. 

323. Derivative adjectives are Ibrmcd from JV^uuns^ 
Adjectives^ Verbs ^ and AdcerOs. 

I. Adjectives from Nouns. 

1. From Common Nouns. 

323. FuLXEss, — Adjectives denoting fulness^ ahm- 
dutice^ siqyphj^ generally end in 

osus, Icntus, 



atus, 



Itus, 



utus. 



fnll nf fourarjc^ from 

id7i(/rd, ** 

Invrdcd, 

horned. 



44 
44 



animus. 

opes. 

ala. 

turris. 

cornu. 



anim-d.sn?, 
op-u-lentus, 
al-utus, 
turr-itus, 

COrU-UtU;:', 

1. Uosus is used for osng in adjectives from nouns of Dec. IV. and in 
some others : friietuOsnr., fruitful. 

2. Lentus takes a connecting vowel, generally «, sometimes o : op-u- 
lentus, vin-o-lenius, 

3. Ustus and ustus also occur, but generally with a change in the 
stem: modestus, modest, from 7nodns ; judus,']\\?,\, {rom jus. 

324. ^Material. — Adjectives designating the material 
of which anything is made generally end in 

eus, inus, nus, neus; rarely aceus, atid icius. 



aur-ens. 


(/olilcHf 


from 


aurum. 


cedr-inus, 


cedar, 


a 


cedrus. 


popul-nut^, 


of poplar, 


it 


populus. 


popul-nous, 
7 


of poplar, 


(4 


populus. 



146 



DERIVATION OF ADJECTIVES. 



j'fn 






papyr-ficeus, 

lUiCl-Iciuri, 



of papyrus^ 
of brick., 



from 



papyrus, 
later. 



325. Ciiakacti:ristic. — Adjectives signifying belonging 
to., derived from., generally end in 



icus, ilig, inus, 
civ-icus. 



Ills; 



anus, 



civ-ilis, 

cqu-Inus, 

reg-iu3, 

mort-alis, 

urb-anus, 

salut-aris, 

auxili-arius, 

for-ensis, 



US, 


anus, ensis. 


from 


civis. 




civis. 




equu3. 
rex. 




mors. 

urbs. 

salus. 

auxilium. 

forum. 



3, Auo } alis, 

relating to a citizen, 

relating to a citizen, 

of pertaining to a horse, 

royal, 

mortal, 

of pertaining to a city, 

salutary, 

auxiliary, 

forensic, 

1. TiCUS is sometimes added to the Norn. : rus, rus-tkus, rustic. 

2. Elmus, ester, itimus and a few other endings also occur : pater, 
■paternus, paternal ; campus, campester, level ; mare, maritimus, maritime. 

2. From Proper Nouns. 

326. Adjectives from proper nouns generally end in 

anus, ianus, Inus; i^cus, icus, ius, easis, iensis; as, aeus, eus. 

of Sylla, 

lloman, 

C ccronian, 

Latin, 

Corinthian, 

Corinthian, 

British, 

of Cannae, 

Athenian, 

of Fidenae, 

Smyrncan, 

Pythagorean, 



SuU-anus, 

Rom-anus, 

Ciceron-ifmus, 

Lat-Inus, 

Corinth iilcus, 

Corinth-ius, 

Britann-icus, 

Cann-ensis, 

Athen-iensis, 

Fiden-as, 

Smyrn-aeus, 

I'ythagor-Cus, 



from 


Sulla. 


11 


Koma. 


(( 


Cic6ro. 


t( 


Latium. 


u 


Corinthus. 


1( 


Corinthus. 


(( 


Britannus. 


'(( 


Cannae. 


tc 


Athenae. 


u 


Fidenac. 


(( 


Smyrna. 


u 


Pythag6ras 



1. Ianus is the ending generally used in derivatives from Names of Per- 
sons ; but amis, inus, ius, and the Greek endings, eus and icus also occur. 

2. Snsis and canus (anus) in derivatives from names of countries sig- 
nify merely beinff in the country, in distinction from belonging to it : thus 
excrcUus JUspaniensis is an army stationed in, Spain, but exercUus Hispanicus 
is a Spanish army. 

3. Patrials.— Many of these adjectives from names of places are also 
used substantively as Patrial or Gentile Kouns to designate the citizens of 
the place : Coriiithii, the Corinthians ; Athenienses, the Athenians. 

II. ADJECmVES FROM ADJECTIVES. 

327. Diminutives from otliar adjectives generally end 
like diminutive nouns (315) in 



ii3 ; 



DERIVATION OP ADJECTIVES. 



147 



rus. 
belonging 

ensis. 

ivis. 

ivis. 

quus. 

ex. 

rtora. 

irbs. 

alu3. 

.uxiliura. 

brum. 

ustic. 

iccur : pater, 

maritime. 

' end in 
aens, eus. 

a. 
ro. 
um. 
ntluis. 
nthus. 
laniius. 
iiae. 
nae. 
nao. 
ma. 
lagftras. 

\imes of Per- 

^0 occur. 

)untrie3 sig- 
to it : thus 
IIi»paimu8 

:;e3 are also 
citizens of 



nliis, ilia, ulum, cuius, cula, culixm. 

long-ulus, a, um, rather long^ from longus. 

pauper-culus, a, um, rather poor, " pauper. 

1. OIus, ellus, aud illus also occur as in nouns. 

2. Cuius is sometimes added to comparatives: durius-culus, &oxn(i\\\n\i 
hard, froui durius. 

III. Adjectives feom Veebs. 
328. Verbal adjectives generally end in 

bundus, cundus; idus, ilis, biUs, ax. 



mir-a-bundus, 

vcr-e-cundu3, 

cal-idus, 

pav-idu3, 

doc-ilis, 

am-a-bilis, 

pugn-ax, 

aud-ax, 



from 


miror. 




vcrcor. 




caleo. 




paveo. 
doceo. 




amo. 




pugno. 
audeo. 



wondering^ 

diffident^ 

wartn, 

fearful, 

docile, 

worthy of love, 

pnrjnacious, 

daring, 

1. Bundus and cundus have nearly the force of the present participle ; 
but bundus is somewhat more expressive than the Part. : laetabundvs, re- 
joicing greatly ; and cundus generally denotes some characteristic rather than 
a single act or feeling : verecundus, diflident. 

These endings take a connecting vowel. See examples. 

2. Idus retains the simple meaning of the verb. 

8. Ilis and bilis denote capahiliti/, generally in a passive sense : ama- 
lilis, capable or worthy of being loved ; sometimes in an active sense : toTi- 
bUis, terrible, capable of producing terror. 

These endings are generally added to the Present Stem {hilis with a connecting 
vowel), but sometimes to the Supine Stem: flexihMis, flexible. 

4. Ax denotes incUnaiion, generally a faulty one : loquax, loquacious. 

5. Uu3, illus, icius, and ivus also occur: — (1) ^lus in the sense of 
idus'. vacuus, vacant. — (2) ulus in the sense of ax: credulus, credulous. — {?,) 
icius and Ivus (added to Sup. Stem) iu the sense of the Perf. Part. : fcticius, 
feigned, {vom Jingo (fctum); captlvus, captive, from capio (capium). , 

IV. Adjectives from Adverbs and Prepositions. 

329. A few adjectives are formed from adverbs and 
prepositions : 



hodiernus, 
eont'-aiius, 



of thin dag, 
contrary. 



from 



hodic. 
contra. 



^•ally end 



VERBS. 



330. Derivative Verbs are formed from Nouns^ Acljec- 
iiveSy and Verbs. 



I 






1^1 



:l 



if i 



148 



DERIVATION OP VERBS. 



I. Verbs from Nouns and Adjectives. 
331. Verbs formed from nouns and adjectives end in 





Conj. I. 


Conj. II. 


Conj. IV. 






o. 


eo, 


io. 






Conjugation I. — Transitive. 




arrao, 




to arm, from 




arma. 


euro, 
nomiuo, 
caeco, 
libfiro. 




to cure, " 
to name, " 
to make blind, " 
to liberate, " 




cura. 
nomen. 
caecus. 
liber. 




Conj 


usration II. — Intransitive. 




floreo, 
lucco, 
albeo, 
llfiveo. 




to bloom, from 
to shine, *' 
to be ivhitc, " 
to be yellow, " 




flos. 
lux. 

albug. 
flavus. 



Conjugation IV. — Generally Transitive. 

f inio, to finish, from finis. 



ti 



vestis. 
mollis, 
saevus. 



to finish, 
vcstio, tcfclothc, 

mollio, to soften, 

saevio (vitrans.), to rar/e, 

1. Asco and esco occur in luccptivcs. See 332. II. 

2. Deponent. — Derivatives, like other verbs, may of course be depo- 
nent : dominor, to domineer, from dornmus. 

II. Verbs from Verbs. 

332. Verbs derived from other verbs are — Frcquenta- 
tives, JneeptlveSf Desideratives^ and Dimimctives. 

I. Frequevt-atives denoto re])eated or continued action. 
They arc of the first conjugation and are formed 

1j» From Supines in atum by changing atum into ito: 



dam-Tto, 
vol-Ito, 



to exclaim, 
to flit, 



from 



clamo, 
volo. 



clamfitum. 
volatum. 



2. From other Supines by changing um into o, some- 
times ito : 



adjut-o. 


to nr,sist (.ffcn, 


from 


adjuvo, 


adjutum. 


habit-o, 


to have often. 


41 


habeo, 


habitum. 


lect-ito, 


to read often. 


i( 


lego. 


lectum. 



1) Ito is sometimes added to the Present Stem of verbs of Cohj. III. : 
ago, agito ; quacro, quacrUo. 

2) Esso and isso form derivatives which are generally classed with 



DERIVATION OF VERBS. 



14p 



5 end in 



aia. 

ra. 

imen. 

,ecus. 

)er. 



)3. 
X. 

bus. 
wus. 



lis. 
istis. 
lollis. 
cvus. 



3C be depo- 



rt' f7?^f;2?rt- 
'd action. 

into ito : 

latum, 
turn. 

O, somc- 



tuni. 
tuin. 
111). 

Cohj. III. : 



isscd with 



frequcntatives, though they arc intensive in force, denoting iameit rather 
than repeated action, and are of Conj. III. : facio,facesso, to do earnestly ; in- 
cipio, incipisso, to begin eagerly. The regular frequeutativcs sometimes have 
the same force : rapio, rapto, to seize eagerly. 

II. IxcEPTivES, or Inchoatives, denote the beginning 
of the action. They are of tlie third conjugation, and end in 
asco, esco, isco. 



to begin to freeze^ from gfilo, 

ruboo. 






tremo, 
obdormio, 



are. 
ere. 
ere. 
ire. 



gftl-asco, ^ 

rub-csco, to rjroio red, 

tifim-isco, to bcffhi to tremble, 

obdorm-isco, to fall asleep, 

1. Asco is used in inccptivcs from verbs of Conj. I., and in a few from 
nouns and adjectives : puer, 2)uerasco, to become a boy. 

2. Esco is by far the most common ending, and is used in incept'v a 
from verbs of Conj. II., and in many from nouns and adjectives : durus, du- 
rcsco, to grow hard. 

III. Desideratives denote a desire to j^erform the ac- 
tion. They are of the fourth conjugation and are formed 
from the Supine by changing um into urio : 



es-iirio, 


to desire to cat, 


from edo, 


esum. 


cmpt-iirio, 


to desire to buy, 


" tJmo, 


emptum. 



IV. Diminutives denote a fcehle action. They are of 
the first conjugation and are formed from the Present by 
chancfinc: the ending into illo : 



cant-illo, 
conscrib illo, 



to sincf feebly, 
to scribble. 



from 



canto, 
conscribo. 



ADVERBS. 



333. Adverbs are formed from JVoiins, Adjectives^ 
Particij^les, Pronouns^ and Prepositions. 

I. Adverbs from Nouns. 

334. Adverbs are formed from nouns 

1. By simply taking a case-ending, especially that of 
the ablative : 

tempore, tempori, in time ; forte, by chance ; jure^ with right, rightly. 

2. By taking special endings : 

1) atim, tim, denoting maxneb: ffrex,ffreffdim,hy herds; fur, furtim, 
by stealth. 



nS*-'-^ 



V.'. I i' 



m i! 









150 



DEKIVATIOX OF ADVERBS. 



2) itus denoting ouir.ix, souncE : coelum, cotlUus, from heaven ; fundus, 
funditus, from the foiiudation. 

II. Adverbs from Adjectives and PARxicirLES. 

336. Adverbs from adjectives and i)articiples generally 
end in 

e, cr, iter. 

dodus, docie, learnedly ; liber, Uhere, freely ; elegans, cleganter, elegantly ; 
m-udttis, X)rudenter, prudently; celer, celenter, quickly. 

1. Zj is added to the stems of most adjectives and participles of Dec. I. 
nnd II. See examples. 

2. Er and iter are added to the stems of adjectives of Dec. III.— er 
to stems in nt, iter to other stems. — Fr and Ucr also occur in adverbs from 
adjectives and participles of Dec. I. and II. 

3. Atim, im, and itus also occur in adrerbs from primitives of Dec. 
' I. and II. : singiiU, slngulCitm, one by one; passus, passim, everywhere; di- 

vimis, divinitus, divinely. 

4. OxHEii Forms. — Certain forms of adjectives sometimes become ad- 
verbs : 

1) Neuters in e, um-. rarely a: fdc'ile, easily; mvltum, multn, much, 

2) Ablatives In a. Of is: dcxtra, on the right; consiiUo, designedly; paucis, 
briefly, in few words. 

8) Accusatives in am: bi/ariam, in two parts; multi/ariam, in many parts or 
places {partem, understood). 

5. Numeral Adverbs.— See ISl. 

ni. Adverbs from Pronouns. 

336. Various adverbs are formed from Pronouns : thus 
from hie, ille, and iste are formed 

here; hue, hither; hinc, hence, 

there; illuc, thither; illinc, thence, 

there; istuc, thither; istinc, thence. 



hlc, 
illic, 

istic, 



IV. Adverbs from Prepositions. 

337. A few adverbs are formed from PreiDositions, or 
are at least related to them : 

intra, intro, within ; ultra, vitro, beyond ; in, intus, within ; sub, subf'is, 
beneath. 

COMPOSITION OF WOPwDS. 

338. The elements of a compound may unite in three 
distinct ways : 



COMPOSITION OF WOKDS. 



151 



I ; fundus, 
LES. 

encrally 

elegantly; 
of Dec. I. 

c. Ill.-er 
erbs from 

OS of Dec. 
vhcrc; di- 

ecomc ad- 

Eh. 

ly ; 2MUci8, 

ny parts or 



s: thus 



hence. 

thence. 

thence. 



ions, or 

/', subf'/s, 

three 



I. The two clcraents unite without change of form : ' 
decem-viriy the decemvirs, ten men ; ah-eo^ to go away ; 
ante-iwno^ to place before. 

II. One element, generally th^ first, is put in an oblique 
case, generally the genitive, dependent upon the other: 
Icffis-ldtor, legislator, from lex, legis, and lator, 

III. The stem of the first element unites with the second 
element, either with or without a connecting vowel — gen- 
erally i, sometimes e or u : belU-fjero, to wage war, from 
bellum and gcro, with connecting vowel ; magn-animus., 
magnanimous, from magnus and animus, without connect- 
ing vowel. 

1. Prepositio:.-3 in- Q,o\[vo%nioyi ^^n\iii\\do\\o\\\ag euphonic changes. 

A, ab, abs!— a bcf , 2 m and ?;; abs before c, p, t\ ab before tho 
vowels aud the other consonants: a-viitto ; abs-condo ; ah-eo, ab-Jicio. But 
abs before ^ dnps J : as-piorto ior abs-porto. Ab becomes aw iv\ au-ftro a.u<i 
au-fiigio. 

Ad, — unchanged before vowels and before b, d, h,j, m, and v; d gen- 
erally assimilated before the other consonants, but changed to c before q and 
dropped before gu and often before sc, sp, and st ; ad-eo, ad-do, ad-Jungo/ af- 
fevo, al'ligo ; ac-guiro, a-gnosco (ad and g*nosco), a-sccndo. 

Ante, — unchanged, except in anti-ciji)0 and anti-sto. 

Circum, — unchanged, except in circu-eo. 

Com for cum, — (1) unchanged before b, m, p : com-hlbo, com-mitto, — 
(2) m generally dropped before vowels, h, and gn : co-eo, co-haereo, co-gnosco, 
— (3) m assimilated before l,n,r\ col-llgo, cor-rumpo,—{i) m changed to n 
before the other consonajits : con-fero, con-gero. 

Xj, ex! — ex before vowels and before c, h,p, q, s, t, and with assimila- 
tion before/; e generally before the other consonants and sometimi's before 
2) and s : ex-co, ex-pono, ef-fero / e-duco, c-llgo, e-pbto, e-scendo. S after ex is 
often dropped : exs2)ecto or expecto. 

In, — " assimilated before I, m, r, changed to m before h, p ; dropped before 
gn; in other situations unchanged: il-ludo, im-niitto ; ini-buo, im-pOno ; 
i-gnosco ; in-eo, in-duco. 

Inter,— unchanged, except in intel-ligo. 

Ob, — b assimilated before c, f,g, p-, in other situations generally un- 
changed : oc-curro, of-ficio, og-gero, op-pono ; ob-jicio, ob-sto. But b is drop- 
ped in o-mitto, and an old form obs occurs in a few words : obs-oksco, os-tcndo 
for obs-tendo (b dropped). 

Per, — unchanged, except m pcl-llcio, pcl-luceo, and pc-Jero. 

Post,— unchanged, except in po-moeriutn a.nA po-mcrid'ulmts. 

* Except of course cnpbonic changes. 



I' I 



'1 

i 






.1 

I 
I " 



152 



COMPaSITION OF WORDS. 



Pro, — soin(,'tiino3/)roJ before a vowel : prod-co, frod-vjo. 

Sub, — b assiniilatod before o,/, </, 2\ generally before m and /•; dropped 
before sp ; in other situations unchanged; suc-cu7nbo^ sit-spkio iov sub-spicio ; 
sub-eo, fiub-dueo. An old furni subs shortened to sus occurs in u few words ; 
8U8-cipiOy sus-pendo. 

TranSj— drops » before s, and often ns befoic J, jy n : trans-eo, tram- 
fero; tran-nlio ior trans-silio ; tra-do {or irans-do ; tm-Jicio iw traits-Jkio ; 
ira-no for trans-no. 

2. Inseparable PREPasiTioxs (-'507) also admit euphonic changes : 

Ambi, amb: — amb before vowels ; ambL, am, or an before consonants: 
amb-itjo ; ambi-dens, a)n-2)uio, an-Quiro. 

Dis, di : — di» before c,p, g, t, s before a vowel, and, with assimilation, 
before /; di in most other situations ; dis-curro, dis-jwio, dif-Jluo ; di-duco, 
divibveo. But dir occurs in dir-iino and dir-ibeo {dis and habeo), antV both 
dis and di occur before^' : dis-juugo, di-Judico. 

Re, red : — red before vowels, before h, and in red-do ; re in other situa- 
tions : red-co, red-igo, rcd-hvbeo y re-cludOy re-veUo. 

COMPOUND NOUXS. 

339. In compound nouns the first part is generally a 
noun, but sometimes an adjective, adverb, or preposition ; 
the second part is a verb or noun : 



art-i-fex, 


artist. 


from 


ars and facio. 


capr-T-eornus, 

aequ-i-noetium, 

nc-mo. 


Capricorn, 

cipiinox, 

nobodji, 


it 


caper and cornu 
aequus and nox. 
no and homo. 


pro-nomen. 


pronoun. 


(1 


pro and nomcn. 



1. Genitive ix Compouxds. — In compounds of two nouns, or of a noun 
and an adjective, the first part is often a genitive: ^(?^is-^a^or, legislator ; 
juris-consnltus, lawyer. 

2. Compounds in fex, cen, and cbia are among the most important 
compounds of nouns and verbs ; fex from facio ; cen from cano ; cola from 
«olo ; art-i-feXj artist ; iub-i-een^ trumpeter ; agr-i-cc^a, husbandman. 

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. 

340. In compound adjectives the first part is generally 
a noun, adjective, or preposition, and the second a noun, 
adjective, or verb : 



let-i-fer, 

inagn-an 

per-liicliis, 



in agn -animus, 



dcatk-hearinff^ from letum and frro. 
magnanimous, " magnus and animus. 

very eas7/y " per and facilis. 



COMPOSITION OF WORDS. 



153 



COMPOUND VERBS. 



341. In compound verbs ''le first part is a noun, adjcc- 
tive, verb, adverb, or preposition, and the second is a verb: 



aed-i-fico, 


to build, 


from 


acdcs and facio. 


anipl-i-fico, 


to enlarge, 


(( 


ampins and facio. 


put-e-fUcio, 


to open, 


(( 


pateo and facio. 


bene-lucio, 


to benejit. 


i( 


bene and facio. 


ab-eo, 


to ffo awai/, 


<i 


ab and eo. 



1. Two Verbs. — When the first part is a verb, the second is always 
facio as above; pat-e-facio. 

2. Noun or Adjective and Veiib. — When the first part is a noun or ad- 
jective, the second part is generally, but not always, facio or afjo. These 
verbs then become fico and iffo of Conj. I. : aed-ifico, Sre, to build ; nav-igo, 
arcj to sail, from navis and ago. 

3. Vowel Changes. — Verbs compounded with propositions often under- 
go certain vowel-changes. 

1) A short and e generally become i: liaheo, ad-hibeo f teneo, con-tineo. 
But a, sometimes becomes e or u: carpo, de-cerpo ; calco, con-culco. 

2) Ae becomes i : caedo, in-cido. 

3) Au generally becomes o or u: plaiido, ex-plodo ; claudo, in-clicdo. 

4. Changes in Prepositions. — See 338. 1 and 2. 

COMPOUND ADVERBS. 

342. Compound Adverbs are variously formed, but 
most of them may be divided into three classes : 

1. Such as consist of an oblique case with its preposition: ad-modiim, 
very, to the full measure ; ob-viam, in the way. 

2. Such as consist of a )ioun with its adjective : Tio-die {hoc and die), to- 
day, on this day ; qua-rc, wherefore, by which thing. 

3. Such as consist of two particles : ad-huc, hitherto ; inier-dum, sopie- 
times ; in-su2)er, moreover. 

7* 



r 









^ 






PART THIRD. 

SYNTAX. 



-•♦» 



CHAPTER I. 
SYNTAX OF SENTENCES. 



SECTION I. 

'.ASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. 

343. Syntaa treats of the construction of sentences. 

344. A sentence is thought expressed in language. 

345. In their structure, sentences arc either iSimjjle, 
Complex^ or Compound : 

I. A Simple Sentence expresses but a single thought : 
Dcus mundum aedif Icavit, God made the icorld. Cic. 

II. A Complex Sentence expresses two (or more) 
thoughts so rjiiited that one is dependent upon the other: 

DOnec firis felix, multos numCrabis ttmlcos ; So long as you arc jiros- 
fcroiis^ you will number many friends. Ovid. 

1. Clauses.— In this example two simple sentences, (1) ^'You 7ciU he prosper- 
ous,'"' and (2) "Fo?t will number many friends" are so united that the first only 
spcciftes the time of the second: You will number many friends (when ?), so long 
ca you are prosperous. The parts thus united arc called Clauses or Members. 

2. Principal and Sitbordinate. — The part of the complex sentence which 
makes ooniplete sense of itse\{—7nuUos numerdbis amlcos — is called the Principal 
Clause,' and the part which is dopcudent upon it — doneo eris felix— \i called tho 
Subordijtate Clause. 

III. A Compound Sentence expresses two or more in- 
dependent thoughts : 

Sol ruit et monies umbrantur, T7ie sun descends and the mountains arc 
shaded. Virg. 

346. In their use, sentences are either Declarative, In- 
ten'ogatim. Imperative, or Exclamatory, 

I. A Declarative Sentence has the form of an asser- 
tion : 

Milti3Jo3 accusAtus< est, Miltiades was accused. Ncp. 



QCGS. 

)i]G:ht: 



more) 
other : 

irc pros- 



pro^pcr- 
irst only 
I, 80 long 
lera, 

CO which 
'Principal 
allcd tho 

lOre in- 
'ains are 
ye, In- 
asser- 



CLASSIFICATION OF REXTKNCEi^. 



155 






II. An Interrogative Sentence lias tiie form of a 
question : 

Quis non paupcrtiltcm extlmcscit, U7to ilocs not fear povcrtij i Cic 

1. Intereogative Words. — Interrogative sentences generally cont .'i 
some interrogative word — either an interrogative pronoun, adjective, or. . • 
verb, or one of the interrogative particles, ne, nonne, num. : 

1) Questions with ne ask for information: Solbitne, la he wrltin-j;? Ne <s 
always thus appended to soino other word. But ue ajipciuled to tho princijial verb 
often suRj^csta the answer ye'J, whllo appended to any other word, it ofteu siigtrests 
the answer flo. It Is sometimes appended to iitruiu, viim, or an, without allVcting 
their mcaninjr, and sometimes inserted in tho clause after utrum : 

lltruni tuceamne, an praedicem, Shalt I be tiilent, or shall I xpcik ! Tcr. 

2) Questions witli nonno expect the answer yei^: Sonne ncnfiif. Is he not 
writing? Non for nonna indicates surprise that there should be any doubt on tho 
question : Non i-'ldes. Do you really not see? 

3) Questions with num expect t'lc answer no : 'um scribif. Is he writing? 

4) Questions with an. See 2. 4) l)elow, 

T)) The Interrogative word is sometimes ora'.t.e.l, .■ somelimcB numqnid Is 
used for num, and exquid for ne or nonne : Ecq' ' r)a. ■ Do you not see? 

2. Double Questions. —Double or d' j.i ic\ivc questions oQ'er a choice 
cr alternative, and generally take one of *he Ho ring forms- 

1) The lirst clause has utrum, num, or n nd 'ho second an : 
Utrum ea vestra an nostra culpa est, /» M. </ urfanlt or ours f Cic. 

2) The first clause omits tho particle, and the second has an or ne : 
Eloquar an siicam. Shall I utter if, or keep silence / Yirjr. 

8) When the second clause is negative, tho particle generally unites with tho 
neirative, givinsi annon or necne: 

Sunt haec tua verba necne, Arc these your words or not t Cic. 

4) By the omission of the first clause, tho second often stands alone with un, in 
the sense of or : 

An hoc tlmCmus, Or do we fear this? Liv. 

6) Other forms are rare. 

3. Answers. — In answers the verb or some emphatic word is usually 
repeated, often w'lih. prorsvs, viro, and the like ; or if negative, with non: 

Dixitne causam? Dixit. Did he state the cause f lie stated it. Cic Pos- 
Bumusne tuti esse? Non possuraus. Can rce be safe t We cannot. Cic. 

1) Sometimes tho simple particle is used; allirmatively, «a/ie, dtiam, Ita, vero^ 
certe, etc., negatively, non, in)mme, etc. 

Yenitne? Non. Has he comet Xo. Tlaut. 

III. An Imperative Sentence has the form of a com- 
mand, exhortation, or entreaty : 

Justitlara cole, Cultivate justice. Cic. 

IV. An Exclamatory Sentence has the form of an 
exclamation : 

RelTquit quos viros, Wlial heroes he has left ! Cic. 
F-xflamatory sentences are often elliptical. 



5 



i 



.■*'-j 



ICO SIMI'LH SENTENCES. 

SECTION II. 
aiMVLE SLWTEXCES. 

Elements of Si:ntexces. 

347. The siinplt' sentence in its n tost. simple form con- 
tiistH of two (.lislinct parts, expressed or imijlied: 

1. Tlie SuiUECT, or that ot'wliieli it s|M':iks. 

2. The PiiEDicATi:, or tliat which is said of the subject : 

Cluilius moiltur, Clnillus dies. Liv, 

Here CluiliuH Is the subject, and movUnr the predicate. 

348. Tlie sinipk' sentence in its mo.s'^ crpandrd fotnn 
consists only of these same parts with their various niodi- 
liers : 

In liis casti'is Cltiiliu?, Albfinus rcx,ni(jrltiu" ; ClidJiusjUc Afhu)) khirj^ 
dies in this camp, IJv. 

Here Cfiii/iufi, A/ljdin/^ rex. Is the subject In its enlareod or modlHed fi)rm, and 
in his I'cistris mor'itur is the predicate in its cnluvjiod or modified lorin. 

349. Principal and SrnonDiNATE. — Tlie suhject and 
predicate, heinjjj essential to the structure of every sen- 
tence, are called the J*ruicipf(l ov J'Js,se?itial v\cmQuX^\ hut 
their modiiiers, beini; subordinate to these, are called the 
Snbordlnate elements. 

350. SniFLE AND Complex. — The elements, whether 
principal or subordinate, may be either simple or complex : 

1. Slmjyle^ when not modified by other words. 

2. Compjlcx^ when thus modiHed. 

Simple Subject. 

351. The subject of a sentence, expressed or implied, 
must be a noun or some word or words used as a noun : 

Rex (IC'crevit, Tlie l-ivrj decreed. Nop. Ec/o scrlbo, / loritc. Cie. 
Video idem valet, The word video has the same meaning. Quint. 

Complex Subject. 

352. The subject admits the following modifiers : 

I. An Adjective : * 

Populus Rurnamis decrcvit, Tlie Roman people decreed. Cie. 

II. A XouN either in apposition with the subject, in 
the genitive, or in an oblique case with a preposition : 



BIMPLE SENTENfKS. 



ir)7 



Cluillus rrr murltur, CfuH'ni.^ the kinrf <firs. Liv. Rox Tihtlilurnm^ the 
Iciiif/ of the Jiiiliili. Liv. \A\n.'t dc off wiix, Tlir hook on diUicK. Cic. 

1. MoniFiEns op Nouns.— Any noun may be modified like the suhjoct. 

2. ArrosiTiVE and its Si:dject.— The noun in apposition with another 
is called nu Apponitive, and the other noun is culled W\c tiuhjivt u\' tiie 
appositive. 

;;. AnvEitus with Noins.— Sometimes adverbs and adverbial expics- 
hions occur as modifiers of nouns: 

Non ijj;nuri suinus ante maluruni, HV are not ii/norant of past mtujor' 
tiin-:K, Virg. Victoria ilpud Cnldum, The victory at Cnii/itn. Nep. 

Simple Predicate. 

353. The siipjjlc ])R'(li('ato must he either a vci'b or t lie 
copuhi sum with ii noun or adjective: 

^lillirnles est aeefisiltiis, MifliadfH irnx arntanl. Nep. Tii es testis, 
Yon Ktr (I iritin'ss. (.'ie. Fortunu eaeea est, ForliDie In hliitd. ("ie. 

1. Like Sum several other verbs sometimes unite with a noun or adjec- 
tive to form the predicate. See oC"J. 2. A noun or adjective thus used is 
called a J'rolicate ^01/11 or Predicate Adjective. 

'J. Sum with an Adverb sometimes forms the predicate ; 

Omnia recte sunt, All thiitijs nre ritjht. Cic. 

Co.^rri.EX Pkedicate. 

354. I. The Vekij admits the following modifiers : 

I. Objective .Modifieks: 

1. iK Direct Object in tlie Accusative — that upon whicli 
t.iC action is directly exerted : 

MiUiadcs Athhiaa llberfivit, Miltiadcs liberated Athens. Nop. 

2. An Indirect Object in the Dative — tliat to or for 
wliicli sometliinGr is or is done : 

Ltiburi student, Thaj devote themselves to lahor. Cacs. 

3. Combined Objects consisting of two or more ca^cs : 

Me rogavit scntcntiam^ lie asked me my opinion. Cic. Pons )tcr has- 
tibus dedit, The bridge furnished a passage to the tnenvj. Liv. 

II. Adverbial iNIodifieks : 

1. Adverbs: 

Bella /("/ici/cr gcssit. He waged wars sncccssfullg. Cic. 

2. Adverbial Iixpressiofis — consisting of oLliquc cases 
of nouns, with or witliout prepositions: 



158 



COM r I , K X S INT !•: S( • KS. 



' ( 

,1 



lit hit rii.9/vin niurTtiir, f/r il!r.n (wlioro ?) In (hi.i camp. J,\v. Vfre con- 
vCnero, 'J'/ifif ttsucinb/t J {^whvu '{) in the upruuj. Li v. 

355. II. TI)o PiM:r)frATi': Xoux is niodifu'd in tlic v;i- 
rious ways spcciticHl lor the .siilyect (.Joii). 

356. Tlf. Tlio PnEDicATi-: Adjkctive adiiiits the fol- 
lowini^ niotliticrs : 

I. An Advkkm: 

Siitis liuiulli.s est, //(' h sirjjicicntfi/ humble. Llv. 
ir. A Noun in an ol)li(iiio case : 

1. Genitive: AvMi liiudis fuOrmit, 77irif vcrr <li. si roun of praise. Cio. 
U. Dative : Omni uctilti inorfl est coimiiuiiis, Death it common to (very 
a</e. Cic. 

3. Ablative: D'v^ui nwul Umldlhx, Thri/ arc ivorthi/ of fricmlship. Cio. 

SECTION III. 

COMPLEX SEXTENCES. 

357. A C^oniplox sontcnco (UIKts from a Simple one 
only in taking a sentence or clause as one (or more) of its 
elements : 

1. A Sentence as an Element : 

" Civis RonianiH smn " midif'liatiir, ^^ I am a Iioman citizen''^ teas 
heard. Cic. Allcjiiis (llcat iiiilii : " Xtilla liubcs vitia ; " iSomc one may say 
to me, " JIave you no fati'ts i " llor. 

i. In the first example, an entire sentence — Cieis Honulnini sum — is 
nsed as the Subject of a new sentence ; and in the second example, the sen- 
tence — iS'ulla habes vitia — is the Object of dicat. 

2. Any sentence may be thus quoted and introduced without chnnpjo 
of form as an element in a new sentence. 

II. A Clause as an Element : 

Tradttum est HomCrum caecum fuissc, 77iat Homer teas blind has been 
handed down by tradition. Cic. QuQlis sit unlmus, iinlraus nescit, The 
soul knows not what the sou! is. Cic. 

1. In these examples the clauses used as elements have undergone cer- 
tain changes to adapt them to their subordinate rank. The clause Homer um 
caecum fuisse, the subject of traditum est, if used as an independent sen- 
tence, would be J/o?nerus caccus/uit ; and the clause Qiialis sit animus, the 
object of nescit, would be Qualis est animus, What is the soul? 

2. Forms of Subordinate Clauses. 

1) Infinitive with Subject Accusative: 

Hoc niajorcs dlcerc audivi, I have heard that our ancestors said this. Cic. 

2) Indirect Questions : 



Vfrc con- 
II the vjv- 

thc Ibl- 



n'aisr. Cio. 
on to (vrry 

dship, Cio. 



iple one 
v) of its 



c may say 



tn sum — IS 
, <hc son- 

ut change 



i has been 
scit, The 

gone ccr- 
llovierum 
lent seu- 
Imus, the 



. Cic. 



coMrouxn sentencks. 



i:)0 



Quill (lies fOmt, Inccrtum cut, What a day may bring/orlh it u-ctrtoin, Ck. 

8) Relative Clausca : 

Hinti'iitlft, quae tritlsaltnn vMi'batur, T/ie opinion trhich tcnntd the aoj'tnt. LIv. 

4) Clauses with Conjunctions : 

Mo!» est ul tIFont, It In hln rimtom to »p''ak, CIc. PrUis'iuani lacot, aditiint, Tfn'y 
arfprcHtnt le/ort it in light. C'le. 

358. Infinitive Clauses sonictiinos drop tlicir subji'cts: 

Dlllgi jucundum est, ft it /ifmsnnf to he loved. Cii-. Vlvcre est cogl- 
tflro, To live m to think, Cic. Sec 5 IT). 2. 

359. ParticipU'S often supply the plaee of subordinate 
clauses. 

IMuto ser'ihrnn inortuus est, Flato diid vhilc icrithit/, or ichilc he ti'a.H 
xerUiny. Cic. fcfcc 570-578. 

SECTION IV. 

C OMPO Uy D S EXTEyCE s. 

360. Comi)Ound sentences express two or more inde- 
l)endent thoughts, and arc of live varieties : 

T. Copulative Sentexcks — in which two or more 
tliouglits are piesented in harmony with each other: 

Sol rult ot monies unihrantur, The sun descends and the ntonntains are 
shaded. Virg. 

IT. DisjuxrTivE SEXTExrES — in which a choice be- 
tween two or more thoughts is ofliered : 

Audendum est illiquid nut omnia paticnda sunt, Somefhiny vuist be 
risked or all thinys tnust be endured. Liv, 

III. Adversative Sextexces — in which the thoughts 
arc opposed to each other : 

Gygcs a nullo vldCbatur, ipse autcm omnia vldobat, Gyyes was seen by 
no one, but he himself saw all thinys. Cic. 

IV. Illative Sextexces — whicli contain an inference : 

Nihil iSboras, tdco niliil hilbcs ; You do nothiny, therefore you have 
not/liny. Tliacd. 

V. Causal Sextexces — wliich contain a cause or rea- 
son : 

Difficile est consilium, sum euim suli\s; Con.'iation is diffi for 
J am alone. Cic. 



160 



COMPOUND SENTEXCES. 






1. The Connectives gonemlly used in these several classes of compounds ar* 
the coiTcspondi:ig classes of conjunctions, i. c., copulative., di^u7ictice, adversative, 
illative, and causal conjunctions. Sec 310. But the connective is often omitted. 

2. Disjunctive Questions have special connectives. See 346. II. 2. 

361. Compound sentences are generally abridged when 
their members have parts in common. Such sentences 
liave comjjound elements : 

3. Compound Subjects : 

Ahorli^Tncrf Trojanlcnie ducem funl.sGi'o, llie Aborigines and the Tro- 
jam lost their leader. Liv. 

The two members hero united are: Ahorig'ines ducem amiacre and Trojdni 
ducem amisere; but as they have the same predicate, duccm amiftere, that predi- 
cate is expressed but once, and the two subjects arc united into the compound sub- 
ject: Aborig'ines Trojanlque. 

2. Compound Predicates : 

IsOmani purant consultantqiie, The Romans prepare and consult. Liv. 

n. Ccnnound Modifiers : 

AtliCnas («racciamquc llburuvit, lie liberated Athens and Greece. Ncp. 



-•♦♦- 



CHAPTER II. 
SYNTAX OF NOUNS 



SECTION I. 

AGREE "^rSXT OF KOUXS. 

EULE I.— Predicate Nouns. 

362. A Predicate Xoun denoting the same person 
or thing as its Subject agrees with it in case : * 

Ego sum iiuntiu?, I am a messenger. Liv, Scrvius rex est decluriltus, 
Scrviux was declared king. Liv. Orcstoni sc CS::!C dixit, Jle said that he 
was Orestes. Cio. Soo ;>53. 

1. hi Gknder and Numdek AgTocnient cither may or may not 
take ])lacc. Ihit 

1) If the Predicate Noun has diflorent forms for differcut genders, it 
must agree with its subject in gender : 

T'suR 111 '(.lister est, Experience is an instructcr. Clc. Ilistorla est magistra (not 
inaijister), History is an, im-tructtess. Cic. 



■ 



1 y^.Y Pred. Noun denoting a different person or thing from its subject, see 401. 
For convenience of reference the Rules will be presented in a body on page 274. 



lii 



AGREEMENT OF NOUNS. 



161 






sentences 



'.nd the Tro- 



2. With Finite Verbs. — Predicate Nouns are most frequent 

1) With .V«»i unci a few intransitive verbs .• cvddo, exsisto, appdrco,9.n\\ 

the like : 

Ego sum nimtius, I am a mesnenger. Liv. II(')mo mui^nus C'Vasi'-rat, lie had 
iiecome (turned out) a great man. Cic. Exstitit viudt'X libertfilis, lie became (stotxl 
forth) the defender of Uhetty. Cic. 

2) With Passive verbs of appointing, makinfj, naming, regarding, es- 
teeming, and the Ukc : 

Sorvius rex est dCclaratus, iS'^rri'i's was declared king. Liv. Mundus civitns 
existhnfitur, The icorld is regarded as a state, Cic. 

(1) In the poets, Predicate Nouns are used with jrrcat freedom after verbs of a 
fireat variety of signillcations. Thus with audio = appellor: Wqx audisti, I'oa hate 
been called king; 1. e., have heard yourself so called llor. 

(2) For Predicate AcciiMtice, see 373. 1. 

(■]) The Dative of the object for which (.390), 2)ro with tho AM., and Im-o or in 
ntimi'ro -with tho Gen. arc often kindred in ftwco to Predicate Nouns: ho.sti,2>ro 
fiodte, loco host is, in niimfro hostium, for or as an enemy. See also Pred. (Jen. 401. 

3. With Infijutives, Participles, etc. — Predicate Nouns arc used not 
only with finite verbs, but also with Infinitives and Participles, and some- 
times without verb or participle : 

DecMratus rex '^hma., Kitma Jinving been declared king. Liv. C.lmnio con- 
Bfdc, Caninius being consul. Cic. Sec 431, also Orestem under the rule. 

1) For Predicate Xominative after cshc, see 547. 

2) For Inlluitivc or Clause as Predicate, see 553, L ; 495, 3. 

RTTLE n.— Appositives. 
363. An Appositivc agrees with its Subject in case : 

Cluilius rex moritur, ChiiUns (he kinrj dint. Liv. Urbcfl Carthago 
atque Numantia, llic cities Carthage and Kamantia. Cic. See 352. 2. 

1. Ill Gexder and Number the appoJ<itive conforms to tlio 
same rule as the predicate noun. See 3(52. 1. 

2. The Srn.iECT of the appositlve is often omitted ; 

Ilostis hostcin occldcre vohii, / {ego understood) an enemy wkhed to 
day an enemy. Liv, 

3. Force of Appositives. — Appositives arc generally kindred in force 
to Relative clauses, but sometimes to Temporal clauses : 

Cluilius rex, Cluilius (who was) the king. Liv. Ffirius pucr didicit, Furiua 
learned, when a boy, or as a boy. Cic. 

4. Partitive Appositive. — The parts are sometimes in apposition with 
the whole : 

Duo rofjes, ille bello, hlc pace cTvitatem auxOrunt, Two kings advanced the 
state, the former by irar.the latter by peace. Liv. 

Conversely the whole may be in apposition with its parts. 

5. Clauses. — A noun or pronoun may be in apposition with a chiuse, 
or a clause in apposition with a noun or pronoun. Sec 415, 7; r>5:'>, IL 



f^ 






\ 






\i 



1G2 NOMINATIVE CxVSE. 

SECTION 11. 

2rOJ/IJ^ATIVi:. 

364. Cases. — Noiins have clilTerctit forms or cases to 
mark the various relations in Avliieh they are used. These 
cases, in accordance witli tlieir general force, may be ar- 
ranged and characterized as follows : 



T. Nominative, 
IT. Vocative, 

III. Accusative, 

IV. Dative, 
V. Genitive, 

VI. Ablative, 



Case of the Subject. 
Case of Address. 
Case of Direct Object. 
Case of Indirect Object. 
Case of Adjective Kelations. 
Case of Adverbial Kelations.* 



365. Kindred Casks. — The cases naturally arrange themselves in 
paii's : the Nominative and Vocative require no governinj^ word ; the Ac- 
cusative and Dative are the regular cases of the Object of an action ; the 
Genitive has usually the force of an Adjective, and the AbUitive that of an 
Adverb, 

366. Nominative. — The Xominative is cither the Sub- 
ject of a l"Jcntcncc or in agreement with another Nomina- 
tive. 

RULE ni— Subject Nominative. 

367. Tlic Subject of a Finite Yerb is put in the 
Nominative : ^ 

Scrvius rcgnavit, Scrvius rci(/ned. Liv. PStent portae, Tlie gatcn are 
open. Cic. Rex vicit, The king conquered. Liv. 

1. The Subject is always a substantive, a pronoun, or some 
worci or clause used substantively : 

Ego rc'ges tjeci, I have banished Jcings. Cic. 

2. SrBJECT Omitted. — The subject is generally omitted 

1) When it is a Personal Pronoun, unless expressed for contrast or 
emphasis, and when it can be readily supplied from the context : 

Discijiulos iiionco, ut studia anient, / instruct pupils to lore their studiijs. 
Quint. 

2) When it means men, people : Ffrunt, They say. 
^) When the verb is in.peraonal : Pliiif, It rains. 

3. Verb Omitteo. — The Verb is sometimes omitted, when it 
can be readily supplied, especially esf and snnt : 



' Tills nrranfrcmentls adopted In thedisousslonof the cases, because, It is thought, 
it will best prosent thoforce of the several cases and their relation to each other. 

^ Fur tlie Snl)Ject of the Inflnltivc, see 545. For the agreement of the verb with 
Us subjoel, see -100. 



NOMINATIVE. VOCATIVE. 



IG3 



Ecco tuac littfirac, Lo your letter (comes). Cic. Tot scntcntiac, There 
are (sunt) so many oinnioiis. Tcr. Cousul prufectus (est), The consul set 
out. Liv. 

1) Fdcio is often omitted in short sentences and clauses. Thus with nihil dliud 
(amplius, minus, etc.) quarts nihil praeterqiiam = merely, si nihil dliud, 
//«ej?j, etc. : Nihil aliud quam sti'tOrunt, They merely stood (did nothing other than). 
Liv. Also in brief expressions of o]»iuion : iWitia \\\\^, He does riyhthj. Cic. 

368. Agreement. — A Nominative in njxrccment "vvitli 
another nominative is either a Predicate Noun or an Ap- 
positivc. See 3G2 and 3G3. 

For the Fredicutc Nominative after a vcib with esse, sec f>17. 

SECTIOX III. 

VOCATIVE. 

RULE IV.— Case of Address. 

369. The Xamo of the person or thing addressed is 
put in the Vocative : 

Perge, Lacli, Proceed, LacUm. Cic. Quid est, Citlllna, Why is if, 
Catiline ^ Cic. Tuum est, Scrvi, rognuni, 77ic kingdom is yours, JScrvius. 
Liv. dii inimortfiles, immortal yods. Cic. 

1. WiTu Interjections.— Tlic vocative is used both with and without 
interjections. 

2. Nominative for Vocative.— In poetry and sometimes in prose, the 
nominative in apposition with the subject occurs where we should expect 
the vocative : 

Audi tu, poi^'ilns Albfiniis, Ifear ye, Allan people. Liv. Here popuhis may 
be treated as a Nom. in apposition with tu, though It may also be treated as an irreg- 
ular Voc. Sec 45. 5. 3). 

3. Vocative for Nominative.— Conversely the vocative by attraction 
sometimes occurs in poetry where wo should expect the nominative : 

Qnibus, Hector, ab oris cxspectatc vcnis, From uhat shores. Hector, do you 
anxiously aicaitcd come f Virg. 

SECTION IV. 

ACCUSATIVE. 

370. The Accusative is used 

I. As tlie Direct Object of an Action. 
ir. As t!ie Suhject of an Infinitive. 

III. In Afjreement Avith anotlier Accusative. 

IV. In an Adverbial Sense — with or without Prepositions. 
V. In ExcUiinations — ^yith or witliout Interjections. 



I 



I 



f 

I 






i 






S^W 



1 04 



ACCUSATIVE OF DIRECT OBJECT, 



I. Accusative as DiREfT Out^-t, 

EULE V.-Direct Object, 

371. The Direct Object of an action h put in tlie 
Accusative : 

Deu3 niundum acdifieilvit, God made the world. Cle. Llbura rem 
publii'iini, Free the repubUc. Cic. rOpuli ROmuni sulutciu dC'foiidite, De- 
fend the safef.ij of the Roman people. Cic. 

1. The Direct Object may be 

1 ) The Ohject, person or thing, on which the action of the verb is di- 
rectly exerted, us saUdem above. 

2) The Effect of the action, i. e., the object produced by it, as mun- 
dnm above. 

3) The Coffnate Accmnflve. Many verbs, generally intransitive, some- 
times become so far transitive as to admit an accusafive of cognale or 
kindred meaning : 

Eam vitam vi verc, to live that life. Cic. Mirum soraniare somnium, to 
dream a wonderful dream. Plant. Servltutcm scrvire, I'a nerve a servitude. 
Ter. 

(1) This accusative is usually qualified by an adjective as i\\ Tac first two exam- 
ples. 

(2) Neuter Pronouns and Adjectives often supply the place of the Cognate ac- 
cusative: 

Eildein poccat, IFe makes the same mistdl-ca. Cic. IToc st'idet unum, He studies 
this one thing {ih\?>oacs,i\v\y). Ilor. Id a.s,?-ciiiioT, I make t hi.'* assent. Cic. Idem 
gluriari, to make the same boast. Cic. 

(3) Tlie oliject is often omitted wlicn it is a reilexivc (154, 5) or can be easily 
supplied : mOceo === mOvco me, I move (myself) ; vertit = vertit se, ho moves (liim- 
self). 

(4) Some verbs are sorD«^'!r.;i.s "ansitivo and sometimes 'itransiti%'e: augco, 
duro, inc)plo, la, •>, ruo, sup;,: J- ' it?'bo, etc. 

2. "With or "Without other Cases. — Tlio direct object may 
be used with all transitive verbs, wliether with or without otlier 
cases. See 384. 410. 419. 

3. Transitive and Intransitive Yerbs. — Many verbs transi- 
tive in English are intransitive in Latin. See 885. Conversely 
some verbs intransitive in English are transitive in Latin, or at 
least are often so used, especially verbs denoting 

1) Feeling or Mental Slate : despFro, to despair of; daleOy to grieve for ; 
ffemo, to sigh over ; horrco, to shudder at; lacrltno, to weep over ; moereo, 
to mourn over ; m'lror, to wonder at ; rldeo, to laugh at ; sUio, to thirst for, 
etc. 

Ilonorcs desperat, //i; despairs of hon/)rs. Cic. Haec gemebant, TV*"// 
wercsiffhlncf 01 T these things. Cic. Detrimenta ridet, lie laughs at losses. Ilor. 

2) Tr^stt <.'V Smell: c/^t'o, S(</)io, and their compounds, both literally and 
♦ijljuratively : 



DIKECT OBJECT. TAVO ACCUSATIVES. 



1G5 



tive: augeo^ 



Olc^ ungucnta, lie smells of X'erfumcs. To!'. OrTtio rfidolet t.'illquli!tterr», 
lliC oration smcoi of ardiqnilij. Cic. 

4. Compounds oy Prepositions. — Wo notice two classes : 

1) !Many compounds become transitive by the force of the propositi'"'ii» 
with which they arc ccmpoundcil, especially compomids of c//Vi/w,^;tr, •?>'>- 
Ur, trans, tiiper, and suiter : 

Murmur concionem pcrvasit, A murmur u'cnt through the assembly. Lv.-. 
RhCnum transiuruut, jf/uy crossid (went across) tJie A'/iine. Cacs. 

2) Man; compounds, without becoming strictly transitive, admit an 
Accus. dependent upon the preposition : 

Circumstant sfiuutum, 27iei/ stand around the senate. Cic. 

5. Clause as Object. — An Infinitive or a Clause may be used 
as Direct Object: 

ImpSrarc cupiunt, They desire to rule. Just. Scntlmus calCrc igncm, 
Weperctivethatjireishot. C'ic. 

C. Passive Construction. — "When a verb takes the passive 
construction 

1) The direct object of the active becomes the subject of the passive, and 

2) The subject of the active becomes the Ablative of Cause (414) or the 
Ablative of Agent with a or ah (414. 5). 

ThCbani Lysandrum occIdCnmt, The Thebans slew Lysander. Passive : 
Lysandcr occisus est a ThCbauis, Lysander was slain by the Thebans. Nep. 

7. Accusative in Special Instance^*. — Participles ia dufi, ver- 
bal adjectives in hu?idns, and in Plautus a tew verbal nouns, oc ur 
with the accusative : * 

VitSbundus castra, avoiding the camp. Liv. Quid tibi banc curutio est 
rem, What care have you of this? Plant. 

372. Two Accusatives. — ^Two accusatives witboii* nry 
connective, expressed or understood, may depend \y<^y^ the 
same verb. They may denote 

1. The same person or thing. 

2. Different persons or things. 

Any number of accusatives connected by conju ions, expressed or unclcrslood, 
may of course depend upon the same verb. 

RULE VI— Two Accusatives— Same Person. 

373. Ycrbs of making, cnr >sing, calling, keg/kd- 
iXG, SHOWING, and the like, admit two Accueativo^ of 
tlic same person or thing : 

Ilarailcarcm imperatOrcm fccgrunt, Tlicy meide Ilamilcar commander, 
Ncp. Ancum regem populus creavit, T7ie people elected Ancn.t king. 
Liv. Sui ,mum consilium appcUarunt Senat n, lltcy called their highest 
council Sc7iatc. Cic. So praostitit propuguu-Orem libertatis, lie showed 



*] 



^ 



<i 









160 



TWO ACCUSATIVES. 



himself the champion of lihcrti/. Cic. Flaccum babuit colK'-gam, Jle had 
Flaccus as collcac/nc. Nep. 

1. PuEDiCATE Accusative. — One of the two accusatives is the Direct Ob- 
ject, and the other an essential part of the Predicate. The latter may be 
called a Pt-edicate Accusative. See 302. 2. (2), 

2. Vekbs with Puedicate Acccsative. — The verbs which most frequent- 
ly admit a Direct Object with a Predicate Accusative arc verbs of 

1) Making, electing: facio, cflficlo, red(l(»,— creo, tllgo, dCsijxno, docliiro. 

2) Calling, regarding : appcllo, nOmIno, vO'W, dico,— arbitror, cxistimo, duco, 
jullco, liubeo, puto. 

3) Showing : pracsto, praebco, oxhibeo. 

3. Adjective as Piieuicate Accusative. — The Predicate Accusative may 
be cither Substantive or Adjective : 

Iloiuincs caccos rcddit uvuritia, Avarice renders men Hind. Cic. 

4. Passive Consthuctiox.— In the Passive these verbs take two Nomina- 
tives, a Subject and Predicate, corresponding to the two Accusatives of the 
Active : 

Scrvius rex est dCclarilfus, Serrius was declared king. Liv. Sec 0C2. 2. 2.) 

RULE VII.— Two Accusatives— Person and Tiling. 

374. Some verbs of aseixg, demanding, teaching, 
and CONCEALING, admit two Accusatives in the Active, 
and one in the Passive : 

Me sententiam rogilvit, He asked mc mil opinion. Cic. Ego senten- 
tiam rogatus sura, / was asked my opinion. Cic. Phllosuphia aos res om- 
ncs docuit, Philosophy has taught its all things. Cic. Artes Odoctus fui;- 
rat, He had been taught the arts. Liv. Non te cCliivi scrmOnem, I did not 
conceal J'rom you the conversation. Cic. 

1. PEnsoN AXD Tnixr,. — Ono accusative generally designates 
the ]t'son, tlie other the thing: with the Passive the accusarivo 
of the Per.iOn becomes the subject and the accusative of the thing 
id retained : see examples. 

2. Vlkbs ■with two Accusatives. — Those most frequently so 
U3CU are 

1) Regularhj : celo — doceo, Oduceo, dodocco. 

2) Sometimes: Oro, exOro, r5go, iuterr5go, pcrcontor, flugito, 
pose J, leposco. 

3^ OriiER Constructions also occur : 

1; C'.'o: Ablative with a preposition : 

Me de Imc libro oi'luvit, Ilo kept mc ignorant of this hook. Cic. Pussivc : Accus. 
of Neuter piunnni or Abl. with de: Hoc cCliiri, fo he kept ignorant of this. Tor. 
CC'lfirl do consilii), to he kept ignorant of the plan. Cic, Tho Dativo is rare: Id 
Aid') kU cClfiri r.oa pv")tiiit. This codld not he concealed from Alcihiades. Nep. 

2) Verbs of Teaching : Ablative with or without a preposition : 

De sua ro nio ducet ; lie informs me in regard to his case, Cic. SOcratcm fldl- 
bus docuit, lie taught Socrates (with) the hjre. Cic. 



TWO ACCVSATIVES, 



107 



EACniNG, 



3) Verbs of Askingy Dnnandiny : Ablative with a proposition: 

Hoc a mo poscurc, to demand thin from me. Clc. Te iisilcm do rubus intorrugo, 
I ask you in regard to the same thingH. Cic. 

4) PctOy postaloy and qnacro talie the Ablative of the person with a 
preposition ; 

riiccm a Ilomilnis pCtiCrunt, They a^ked peace from the Romans. Cacs. 

4. Infinitive or Clause as Accu.sativo of thing : 
Te s3p6re docct, He teaches you to be wise. Cic. 

5. A Nei'teu Piioxgt'x or Adjectivk as a second accusative 
occurs with many verbs which do not otherwise tako two nccusu' 
lives : 

Hoc te hortor, I exhort you to this, I give you this exhortation. Cic. Ka 
mouC'inur, We are admonished o/ the fie things. Cic. 

6. CoMPorxD YEnns. — A few compounds of trans, circumy ad, 
and in admit two accusatives, dependcut the one upon the verb> 
tlio other upon the preposition : 

IbCnmi co[)ia3 tnijCcit, He led his forces across the Ehro. Liv. 

In tbo Passive, not only these, but even other conipoumls somcthncs admit an 
Accus. dopcndini; upon the preposition : 

rractcrvChor ostia Pantagiao, I am carried by the mouth of the Pantagia. 
Vlrg. 

7. Poetic Acctsative. — la poetry, rarely in prose, verhs of 
clothing, unclothing — ituhio, exuo, cingo, accinyo, imUico, etc. — 
sometimes talio in the Passive an accusative in imitation of tljo 
Greek : 

GSlcam indultur, lie puts on his hclmd. Virg. IiiQtile forrum cinpTtur, 
He girds on his vseless sword. Virg. Virgincs loiigam indQtac vestem, 
maidens attired in long robes. Liv. 

II. Accusative as Sltject op Infinitive. 

375. Tlie Accusative is used as the Subject of au-luliu- 
itivc ; see 545 : 

PlStonera ferunt in Italiam vOuisse, TJiey say that Plato came into 
Italy. Cic. 

Platdnem is the subject ofveniese. 

III. Accusative in agreement vmu an Accusath'e. 

376. The Accusative in aj^reemeiit witli .another Accu- 
sative is either a Predicate Noun or an Appositive : 

Orcstom se esse dixit. He said that fie was Orestes. Cic. Apiid IlC-ro- 
dotum. pntrem historiae, in Herodotus, the father of history. Cic. >Sce 
362 and 3G3. 



IGS 



ADVKKDIAL ACCUSATIVE. 



IV. Accusative in an AuvEiuiiAL Sense. 

377. Ill an Aclvcibi.-il sense the Accusative is used 
either with or williout l*re[)Ositii)ns. 

1. With Prkpositions. Sec iP/.i. 

L'. "WiTuorT I'uKi'osiTiox.s.— Tlie Adverbial use ol" the Accusative without 
I*roj)Ositions js prcseutetl in the lullowin^ rules. 

EULE VIII.— Accusative of Time and Space. 

378. DuKATioN OF Time and Extent of Space arc 
expressed by the Accusative : 

Komulud septcm et trigintii rogniivit aniios, liomulm rrigncd thirty- 
seven years. Liv. Quinque niillia p.'issuum ambularc, to tmlk five miles. 
Cic. rcdes octOginta distfire, to be ciyhttj fed iVMant. Caca. Nix (luat- 
tuor pedes alta, snow four fat deep. Liv. Uut 

1. DritATiox OF TiMK is sometimes expressed by the Ahlativo 
or the Accusiitivc with ii Treposition : 

1) Y\y the Ablative: Pugnfitum est hotis quinque, llic battle was 
fomjht five hours. Cacs. 

2) IJy the Accimiiive with Prcpoutinn : Per annos viginti certutum 
est, The icar was wayed for twenty years. Liv. 

2. Distance is sometimes expressed by th^ Ablative : 

Millibus passuum sex consedit, He encamped at the distance of six miles. 
Caes. Sometimes with a preposition; Ab millibus jmssuum duubus, at the 
distance of two miles. Caes. 

RULE IX.— Accusative of Limit. 

379. The Name of a Town used as the Limit of 

motion is put in the Accusative : 

Nuntius Rumam rCdit, 77ic mcssenr/cr returns to Rome. Liv. Plato 
Titrcntum venit, Plato came to Tarcntum. Cic. Fugit Tarquinios, JIc fed 
to Tarquinii. Cic. But 

1. The Accusative with Ad occurs : 

1) lu the sense of— A), toward, in the direetlon of, into the t'iciniti/ of : 
Trcs sunt viae ad Mutinam, Thrcare three roads to Mutina. Cic. Ad 

ZSinam pervCuit, He came to the vicinity of Zama. SuU. 

2) In contrast witli a or ab : 

A DiSnio ad Sin open, //wn. Dianium to Sinope. Cic. 

2. U-rhs or Oppubnn with a Preposition : 

PervCuit in oppldum Cirtam, lie came into the totvn- of Cirta. SalL 

3. Like Names of Towns tire used 



ADVIiUBIAL AOOUSATIVK. 



109 



is used 



c without 



iCE arc 

cd thirl y- 
live miles. 
Nix (lUiit- 

ALlativo 

hatdc was 
cortatum 



nix miles, 
Ijus, at the 



illlit of 

|v. riuto 
k Ik fed 



\iiti/ of : 
Cic. Ad 



iaiL 



1) The Accusatives dSmiun, dbmos, rus: 

ScI|)io dtJmuin ifidiictu.s est, tScijno wan conduckd home. CIc. D^mos 
abducti, h'l to tJmii' homes. Liv. llu.s Cvolilrc, to hastm in-to the eountri/. 
Cic. 

2) Soiiictiinos the Accusative of names of I.-<lands ami rciiiu.stilius : 
Liltonu coiil'Qgit Delmn, Lalona Jied to Uilos. Cic. rervenit Clier.sonO- 

.sum, J/e n'cnt to the Chirsomsits. Nop. 

4. Nunic3 of OlluT Places used as the limit of motion arc generally in the 
Accusative with a Preposit'-a : 

In Asiain rcilit, //e rtturus into Asia. Nop. 

Hut the prepo.sition is sometimes omitted before names of countries, and, in tlio 
poets, before names of nations n'ld even before common nouns: 

Aopyptum profri;.'it, lie ftvd to Egi/pt. Cic Ituliam vCnit, lie came to Jtalij. 
Virg. IbimuH Afros, Tl'e nhall go to the Africans, Virg. Luvluia vOnit iltdra, //«) 
came to the Larinimi shores. Virjj. 

5, A Poetic Dative for the accusative with or without a preposition 
occurs : 

It clitiii'ir cocio (for (1(1 cotlum), The ,\.'.i>ut ascends to heaven. Vlrj. 

EULE X.— Accusative of Specification. 

380- A Vcrl) or Adjective may take an Accusative 
to cleiiiic its application : 

Cajjita vclamur, ]Vc have our heads veiled (arc veiled as to our heads). 
Virg. Nubc humerus vlmictus, %vilh his .shoulders enveloped in a cloud, 
Ilor. ]Mllcs fractus nieml)ra labore, the soldier with limhs shattered U'ith 
labor (broken as to liis limbs). Ilor. Aeneas os deo sinnlis, Aeneas like 
a fjod in appearance. Virg. 

1. In a strict sense, the Accusative of Specification generally specifics 
the part to which the action or quality particularly belongs. In this sense, 
it is mostly poetic, but occurs also in prose. See 429. 

2. In a freer sense, this Accusative includes the adverbial use o(jiartein, 
vieem, nihil, of /(/ and (jcnns in id tenipi'iriH, id actdtis (at this time, age), id 
genus, oriinc (jenus, quod (jemis {for ejustjcncris, etc.), etc. ; also of su'tis, libra 
and of many neuter pronouus and adjectives ; hoe, illud, id, quid (451, 2), 
multum, sunimnm, cHlra, reliqua, etc. In this sense, it is common in prose. 

Maximam partem lacte vivunt, Theij live mostli/ (as to the largest part) 
vponmilh. Caes. Nihil moti sunt, Thy were not at all moved. Liv. Locus 
id tcmporis vacuus 6rat, The place was at this time vacant. Cic. Allquid id 
gfinus scribfere, to write something of this kind. Cic. Quaerit, quid possint, 
He inquires how powerful they are. Caes. Quid v6nis, WJiy do you come? 

V. Accusative ix Excla^iatioxs. 
RULE XL— Accusative in Exclamations. 

381. The Accusative oitlier witli or -without an In- 
terjection may be used in Exclamations : 
8 



170 



ilCCUSATIVE. DATIVE. 



!i: 



I. 13 



IIcu mc miflt^rum, Ah mc vnhappy f Cic. Mc mlsfinim, Mc mixerablr ! • 
Cic. lallileem sporn, lUoplivt hope ! Cic. Mo caccinn, Blind tliut I 
ami Cic. I'ro dcorum lidcm, In the name of the gods ! Cic. H't 

1. An Adjpctlvo or Ocuitivo gcneiully acconipaulcs this accusative, u.i in tlic rx- 
ftinplos. 

2. 0, IheUy heu aro tho Interjections most friqucnlly used with the Accusative, 
though otbcrs occur. 

8. Other Cases also occur In exclamations : 

1) Tho Vocative— vihcn an address as well as an exclamation Is Intended : 
Pro sancto Jupiter, holy Jupiter. Cic. InfClix Dido, Unhappy Dido. Virg. 

2) Tho A'om<>m</r«— when tho exclamation approaches tho form of a statement; 
En dextra, Lo the right hand (tiierc is, or that is tho right hand)! Virg. Ecco 

tuao litt»5rae, Lo your letter (comes)! Cic. 

8) Tho Dative— io designate tho person after Aei, ra«, and sometimes after ecce, 
#n, hem . 

Ilci mihi, Woe to me. Virg. Vao tibi, Woe to yon. Ter. Ecce tibi, Lo to you 
Uo hero is to you = observe). Cic. En tibi, T/us/or you (lo I do thia for you). Liv, 
Beu8Si/.2. 

• SECTION V. 

DATIV£:. 

382. The Dative is tho Case of tho Indirect Object, 
and is used 



II. 



With Verbs. 
With Adjectives. 



m. With their Derivatives — Adverbs and Substantives. 
I. Dative with Verbs. 

383. iNDiREn' Object. — A verb is often attended by 
a noun designating the object indirectly aftected by tlie 
action, that to or for whicli something is or is done. A 
noun thus used is called an Indirect Object. 

EUIE XII.-Dative with Verbs. 

384. The Indirect Object is put in the Dative : 
I. "With Intransitive and Passive Verbs : 

Tenipori cCdit, lie yields to the time. Cic. Sibi tlmuSrant, 77icy had 
feared for themselves. Caes. L3bori student, 77iey devote themselves to 
labor. Caes. Mundus deo paret, Tlie world obeys Ood.^ Cic. Caesilri 
tupplicabo, I will supplicate Caesar.^ Cic. Nobis vita dSta est, Life hat 

J Milton, Par. Lost, Iv. 78 

^ Is subject to God. 

' 'Will make supplication to Caesar. 



DATivK wrni vi:i:as. 



in 



ind that 1 

us in the ex- 
I Accusative, 



sndcd : 
Dido. Vlrg. 
astatfinont: 
Virg. Kcco 

lies after ecce^ 

Ibl, Lo to yon 
for you). Uv. 



ct Object, 



)stanlivo9. 



|t ended by 
id by the 
done. A 



lative : 

Int, They had 

uhemsclvea to 

Icic. Caesjiri 

est, Life ha» 



been ffi'itntcd to its. Cic. XumltOii duditur, JIc ia delivered to Xumitor. 
Liv. 

ir. Willi Tk.vx.sitive Verbs, in connection witli tlio ActU8A- 

TIVE : 

Tons iter hostlbus dt'tlit, Thf hrohir gave a pat^stif/c to the ennni/. Liv. 
LC'gt'8 flvitiltibu.s sui.s HcripsCrUHt, Thri/ jinjiared lawn for thiir statin. Cic. 

1. DofnLE CoNsTurcTioN.— A few verbs ndmit (1) the Dative of the per- 
son and tbc Accusative of tlic tliinjj, or ('J) tbe Accusative of tlie person and 
tbo Ablative of tbe tbing : aliciti ran dOndro, to present n tiiinj» io any one, or 
ali'pum re dondre, to present any one witli a tbing. For tbe Dat. of tbo pi'-- 
son, tbc Dat. of a tbins^ sometimes occurs, cspcciully if it involves persons or 
is in a measure pri sunilied : 

MQruni urbi circunulCdit, He surronndcd the city icitli a tcall. Nep. 

Tills (loiiblo construction occurs chlifly with : axpergo, eircumdo, circHw/ini- 
Jo, df»w, exuo, iinpertio, induo, inspcrgo, intcrdudo. 

2. To and For are not ahvavs signs of tbc Dative : tbus 

1) To, denoting mere motion or direction, is generally expressed by tbc 
Accusative witb or witbout a preposition (3TU. and 379. 4) : 

Vcni ad urbem, / came to the city. Cic. DCluni vOnlmus, We came to 
Delos. Cic. But tbo Dutivo occurs in tbc poets : It cluuior coelo, 2/te shout 
goes to heaven. Virg. 

2) For, in def<nce of, in bchnlfof, is expressed by tbo Abb \\'\i\\ pro ; 
for the sake of .for the 2>"rpose of, sometimes by tbc Accus. witb in. 

Pro patria niori, to die for one's country. Ilor. DimlcSre pro libertute, 
tofghtfor liberty. Cic. Siltis in Qsum, enough for use. Liv. 

3. Otiikr EN(ii.isii Equivalents. — Conversely tbe dative is often used 
>vbcre tbc Englisb eitber omits to or for, or employs some otber preposi- 
tion. We proceed to specify Uic cases in wbicb tbis dilTereucc of idiuni 
requires notice. 

385. The Dative of Advantage and Disadvantage is 
used with verbs sio^nifying to benefit or injure^ ^j/tY/.s*e or 
displease, command or obe)/, scree or i'csist ; also, indidyc.^ 
spare, pardon^ envy., threaten^ be angry.^ believe, persuade, 
and the like : 

Slbi prosunt, Tliey benefit thnnselvcs. Cic. Nocerc altCri, to injure an- 
other. Cic. ZOnOni placuit, It pleased Zeno. Cic. Displicct Tullo, It dis- 
pleases Tullus. Liv. Ciipldltutrbus impCrare, to command desires. Cic. 
Deo parOre, to obey God. Cic. Regi scrvirc, to serve the king. Cic. IIos- 
tlijua rf'sistfire, to resist the enemy. Caca. Slbi indulgCre, to indulge one's 
self. Cic. Vitao parcure, to spare life. Xep. Mibi ignoscere, to pa) don 
me. Cic. Minltans patriae, threatening his country. Liv. Ira.sci aniicis, 
to be angry with friends. Cie. Mibi crCdc, Believe me. Cic. lis pcrsuiV 
deie, to persuade them. Caes. 







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DATIVE "WITH VERBS. 



1. Other Cases. — Some verbs of this class take the Accusative : d'elcdo, 
Juvo, laedo, offendo, etc. ; fido and y^nfldo generally the Ablative (419) : 

MSrium juvit, He helped Marius. Nep. 

2. Special Verbs. — With a few verbs tlic force of the dative is found 
only by attending to the strict meaning of the verb; vubo, to marry, strictly 
to veil one's self, as the bride for the bridegroom ; mMeor, Xocmto, to adminis- 
ter a remedy to ; satisfacio, to satisfy, to do enough for, etc. 

3. Accusative or Dative with a difference of signification: cavcre all- 
quern, to ward off some one ; cavire alicui, to care for some one ; consiilere 
aliquem, to consult, etc.; alicui, to consult for; metuere, tlmere allqucm, to 
fear, etc. ; alicui, to fear for; prospicere, providere illiquid, to foresee ; alicui, 
to provide for; temjjerdre, mdderdri aliquid, to govern, direct; alicui, to re- 
strain, put a check upon ; temperdre (sibi) ah aliquo, to abstain from. 

A few verbs admit either the Ace. or Dat. without any special difference 
of meaning: adulor, to flatter; comitor, to accompany, etc. 

4. Dative rendered From, occurs with a few verbs of differing, di&sent- 
ing, repelling, talcing away : differo, discrepo, disto, dissentio, arceo, etc. . 

•Differre cuivis, to differ from any one. Nep. Discrepure istis, to differ 
from tliose. Hor. Sibi disseutire, to dissent from himself. Cic. See 412. 

5. Dative rendered With, occurs with misceo, admisceo, permisceo, jun- 
go, certo, decerto, lucto, altercor, and sometimes/</cjo (434. 2) : 

S6vCritatem miscCre comituti, to nnite severity with affability. Liv. 

Misceo and its compounds, as a\so junctus and C07ijHnciu8, aho take the Abl. 
with or without ctim. 

386. Dative with Compounds. — The dative is used with 
many verbs compounded with the prepositions : 

• ' ad, ante, con, in, inter, 






ob, post, prao, sub, super: 

Adsum amicis, / am present with ivy friends. Cic. Omnibus antc- 
stilrc, to surpass all. Cic. Terris cohaerot, It cleaves to the earth. Sen. 
Voluptati inhaerere, to be connected with pleasure. Cic. Interfuit pugnae, 
He participated in the battle. Nep. ConsKliis obstaro, to oppose plans. 
Nep. Libertatl opes postferre, to sacrifice tcealth to liberty. Liv. Populo 
praesunt, They nile the people. Cic. Succumbere dolorlbus, to yield to 
sorrows. Cic. Siipcrfuit patri, He survived his fqther. Liv. 

1. Transitive Verbs thus compounded admit both the Accusative and Dative : 
'- 8e opposuit hostibus, lie opposed himself to the enemy. Cic. 

2. Compounds of other Prepositions, especially db, de, ccr, pro, and circum, 
sometimes admit tlie Dative ; while several of the compounds specified under the 
rule admit the Abl.: assuesco, consuesco, insucsco, aaquiesco, sApersfdeo (also with 
Ace.), etc. , 

Hoc Caesari dC'fuit, This failed (was wanting to) Caesar. Caes. 

3. Motion or Direction.— Compounds expressing mere motion or direction 
generally take the Accusative or repeat the preposition : 



w 



DATIVE "WITH VERBS. 



173 



vc : delccto, 
^•c (419) : 

ve is found 
rry, strictly 
to adminis- 



ca vcr 



<e all- 
c; considers 
aliqucrn, to 
;see ; alicui, 
'ilXcui, to rc- 
i from, 
al difference 

'big, dissent- 
arceo, etc. . 
itis, to differ 
3. See 412. 

rmisceOfjun- 

Uty. Liv. 
take tbe All. 

used with 



mmbus antc- 
earth. Sen. 
fuit pugnae, 
ppose plans. 
iv. Popiilo 
to yield to 

eaml Dative: 

5, and circiim, 
iflcd under the 
deo (also with 



m or (lircetion 



Adire uras, to approacJi the altars. Cic Ad consules adirc, to go to the con- 
suls. Cic. , 

In some instances where no motion is expressed, several of these compounds 
admit some other consifuction for the Dative : 

In orature inest scientia, In the orator is knowledge. Cic. 

387. The Dative of Possessor is used with the verb /Sum : 

Mihi est noverca, / ?iave (there is to me) a stepmother. Virg. Fonti 
nOmen Aretlmsa est, The fountain has (there is to the fountain) //ic name 
Arcthusa. Cic. But 

1. The Dative ot the Name as well as of the possessor is common in expres- 
sions of naming: nvmen est, nomen ddtur, etc. : 

Scipirmi Africano cognomen fuit, Scipio had the surname Africanus. Ball. 
Here J/riciino, instead of being in apposition with cognomen, Is put by attraction in 
apposition with ScipUrni. 

2. The Genitive of the Name dependent upon nomen occurs: 
NOmcn Mercurii est mihi, I have the name of Mercury, riaut. 

3. By a Greek \vi\o}a, vblens, ciipiens, ox invltus sometimes accompanies the 
dative of possessor : 

Quibus belliun volentibus trat, They liked the war (it was to them wishing). 
Tac. 

388. Dative of Agent. — The Dative of Agent is used 
with the Participle in dus : 

Suum culque incommodum ferendum est, Every one has his own trouble 
to bear, or must bear his own trouble. Cic. 

1. Dative with Compound Tenses. — The Dative of the Agent is some- 
times used with the compound tenses of passive verbs : 

Mihi consilium captum jam diu est, I have apian long since formed. Cic. 

1) The Dative of Agent, with the Participle in dus, as in the Periphrastic Con- 
jugation, designates the person who has the worlt to do; while with the Compound 
Tenses of passive verbs, it designates the person who has the worli already done. See 
examples above. 

2) IIabeo with the Perfect Participle has the same force as est mihi with the 
Perfect Participle (3SS, 1): 

Bellum habuit indictum, lie had a tear (already) declared. Cic. 

8) The Ablative with a or ab occurs : 

Est a vobis consulendum, Measures must be taken by you. Cic. 

2. The Real Agent with Passive verbs is denoted by the Ablative with 
a orab. The Dative, though the regular construction with the Passive Peri- 
phrastic conjugation, does not regard the person strictly as agent, but 
rather as possessor or indirect object. Thus, Suum culque incommodum 
est, means. Every one has his trouble (cuique Dative of Possessor), and 
Suum culque incommodum ferendnm est. Every one has his trouble to bear. 
So too, Mihi consilium est, I have a plan ; Mihi consilium captum est, I have 
tt plan {already) formed. 

*, Dative with Simple Tenses. — The Dative is used with the tenses for 
incomplete action, to designate the person who is at once Agent and Indi- 
rect Object, the person by whom and foii (to) whom the action is performed; 



174 



TWO DATIVES. 



iiil 



IlSnesta bfinis viris quacruntur, Honorable things are sougld hy good 7nen, 
i. c, for themselves. Cic. 

4. Dative of Agent in Poets.— In the poets the Dative is often used 
for the Ablative with a or ab, to designate simply the agent of the action : 

Non intelllgor ulli, lam not understood by any one. Ovid. 

389. Ethical Dative. — ^A Dative of the person to whom 
tlie thought is of special interest is often introduced into 
the Latin sentence when it cannot be imitated in English : 

At t\bi vuuit ad mc, But lo^ he comes to me. Cic. Ad ilia mihi iu- 
tcndat animum, Let him, I pray^ direct his attention to those things. Liv. 
Quid mihi Celsus agit ? }VIiat is my Celsus doing ? Ilor. But 

1. The Ethical Dative is always a personal pronoun. 

2. Ethical Dative with volo and interjectio:^3 : 

1) With VoLO: Quid vobls vultis? What do yon wish, intend, meant Llr. 
Avarltia quid sibl vult, Wiat does avarice mean, or ^cMt object can it Jiatet Cic. 

2) With Interjections: hei, va- and some others: Ilci mihi, ah me. Virg. 
Vac tlbl, Woe to you. Tcr. See 831. 8. 3). 

RULE XIII.— Two Datives— To which and For whicL 

390. Two Datives — the object to which and the 
OBJECT FOK WHICH — occur with a few verbs : 

I. With Intransitive and Passive Verbs : 

Malo est hommibua avaritia, Avarice is an evil to men (lit. is to men 
for an evil). Cic. Est mihi curae, It is a care to me. Cic. Domus dedd- 
cori domino fit, 77ie house becomes a disgrace to its ovmer. Cic. VCnit 
Atticis auxilio, He came to the assistance of the Athenians. Nep. Hoc illi 
tribuebutur ignaviae, This was imputed to him as cowardice (for cowardice). 
Cic. lis subsidio missus est, He was sent to them as aid. Nep. 

II. With Teansitivs Verbs in connection with the Accusa- 
tive: 

Quinque cohortes castris praesidio rSIIquit, He left five cohorls for the 
defence of the camp (lit. to the camp for a defence). Caes. Pericles agros 
8U0S done rei publicae dedit, Pericles gave his lands to the republic as a 
present (lit. for a present). Just. 

1. Verbs with Two Datives are 

1) Intransitives signifying to be, become, go, and the like ; sum, fio, etc. 

2) Transitives signifying to give, send, leave, impute, regard, cJioose, and 
the like: do, dono, duco, habeo, mitto, relinquo, tribuo, verto, etc. These 
take in the Active two datives with an acc»:sative, but in the Passive, two 
datives only, as the Accusative of the active becomes the subject of the pas- 
sive. See 371. 6. 



DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES. 



175 



I good 7nen, 

often used 
action : 

to whom 
iced into 
Ciiglisli : 

la mihi iii- 
hings. Li v. 



mean t Lir. 
i/t«t?et Cic. 
ah me, Virg. 



which, 
and the 



is to men 

>6mus ded^- 

Cic. VCnit 

Hoc illi 

cowardice). 

3 AccusA- 

oris for the 
riclc3 agros 
public as a 



71, flo, etc. 
choose, and 

etc. These 
assive, two 
of the pas- 



2. One Dative Omitted.— One dative Is often omitted or Iti place supplied by 
ft Predicate Noun : 

Ea sunt usui, 77k«c things are of use (for use). Caes. Tu Illi pater cs, You are 
a father to hiin. Tac. 

8. With Audiens two Datives sometimes occur, the Dat. dicto dependent upon 
audiens and a personal Dat dependent upon dicto-audietis treated as a verb of 
obeying (386) : 

Dicto sum audiens, lam listening to the word^I obey. Plant Nobis dlcto aud- 
iens est He is obedient to us. Cic. Sometimes dicto dbediens is used in the aamo 
way : Magistro dicto obediens, obedient to hi^ master. Plaut 



II. Dative with Adjectives. 
EULE XIV.— Dative. 

391. With Adjectives the object to which the qual- 
ity is directed is put in the Dative : 

Patriae solum omnibus carum est, Tlie soil of their country is dear to 
all. Cic. Id aptum est tempori, This is adapted to the time. Cic. Omni 
aetati mora est communis, Death is common to every age. Cic. Canis sim- 
ilis lupo est, A dog is similar to a wolf. Cic. Naturae accommodatum, 
adapted to nature. Cic. Graeciae utile, useful to Greece. Nep. 

1. Adjectites with Dative. — The most common are those signifying : 
Agreeable, easy, friendly, like, near, necessary, suitable, subject, useful^ 

together with others of a similar or opposite meaning, and verbals in hilia. 

Such are : accommSdiitus, aequ3lis, ulienus, Amicus and inlmicus, aptus, carus, 
facilis and difficilis, fidclis and infidClis, flnitimus, grutus and Ingratus, !d6neus, ju- 
cundus and injiicundus, molestus, n6cessurius, notus and ignotus, noxius, par and 
dispar, perniciosus, prSpinquus, propriu?, saliitaris, similis and dissimilis, vicinus, etc. 

2. Other Constructions sometimes occur whore the learner would ex- 
pect the Dntivo : 

1) Accusative with a Preposition : (1) in, erga, adversus with adjec- 
tives aigmfying friendly, hostile, etc., and (2) ad, to denote the object or end 
for which, with adjectives signifying useful, suitable, inclined, etc. : 

Pfirindulgens in patrem, very kind to his father. Cic. Multas ad res 
pfiriitilis, very useful for many things. Cic. Ad cSmltatem procllvis, inclin- 
td to affability. Cic. Pronus ad luctum, inclined to mourning. Cic. 

2) Accusative without a Preposition with propior, proximus : 

PrCpior montem, nearer the mountain. Sail. Proximus mare, nearest to 
to the sea. Caes. See 433 and 437. 

3) Ablative with or without a Preposition : 

AliCnum a vita mea, foreign to my life. Ter. Ilomlnc filicnisslmum, 
most foreign to man. Cic. Ei cum Roscio communis, common to him and 
Hoscius (with Roscius). Cic. 

4) Genitive: (1) with proprius, commUm^is, contrdrius ; (2) with similis, 



17G 



DATIVE WITH NOUNS AND ADVERRS. 



I 



Ifi 



t 1 



I 



I I 



dissimilis, assimilis, conslmilis, jmr and dii^ar, especially to express likeness 
in character ; (J]) with adjectives used substantively, sometimes even in the 
superlative ; (4) sometimes with a finis, 'rlienus, insuetus, and a few others : 

Populi Romiini est propria libertas, Liberty is characteristic of the JComufi 
people. Cic. Alexandri simllis, like Alexander^ i. e., in character. Cic. Dis- 
■parsuijiml ike itself. Cic. Cujus pares, /i'/ttf M'Zto?«^. Cic. Amicisslmus hom- 
inum, t/ie best friend of the men, i. e., the most friendly to them. Cic. 

3. Idem occurs with the Dative, especially in the poets : 

Idem facit occidenti, JJe does tJie same as kill, or as he who kills. Ilor. 

4. For the Genitive and Dative with an adjective, sec 399. 6. 

III. Dative with Derivative Nouns and Adverbs. 

BTTLE XV.-Dative. 

392. A few Derivative Kouns and Adverbs take 
the Dative after the analogy of their primitives : 

I. Yeudal Nouns. — Justltia est obtemperatio luglbus, Justice is obe- 
dience to laws. Cic. Sibi rcsponsio, replying to himself. Cic. Opulento 
hunnni scrvitus dura est, Serving a rich man (servitude to) is hard. Plaut. 

II. Adveubs. — Congruonter naturae vivcre, to live in accordance with 
nature. Cic. Sbi constanter dice re, fo speak consistently with hhnsclf. Cic. 
rroxime hostium castris, 7i€xt to the camp of the enemy, Caes. 

1. Dative witii Nouns. — Nouns construed with the Dativo are derived from 
verbs which govern the Dative. With other nouns the Dative is generally best ex- 
plained as dependent upon somo verb, expressed or understood : 

Tugiraenta guleis militea facere jubet, He orders the soldiers to make coverings 
/or their helmets, Caes. Hero galeis is probably the indirect object of /ac^re and 
not dependent upon tegimenta. In conspectum vCnorat hostibus, lie had come in 
tight of the enemy. Caes. Hero hosClhus is dependent not ujwn conspectxim, but 
upon vendrat; the action, coming in sight, is conceived of as done to the enemy. 
See 398. .^ 

2. Dative -rf-rn Adverbs. — A few adverbs not included in the above rule occui' 
with the Dative: Auic Una =• Una cum hoc, with him. 

SECTION VI. 

GEKITIYE. 

393. The Genitive in its primary meaning denotes 
source or cause, but in its general use, it corresponds to the 
EngUsh possessive, or the objective with of, and expresses 
various adjective relations. 

1. But sometimes, especially when Objective (30G, II.), the Genitive is 
best rendered by to, for, from,, in, on account of, etc. : 

BSn&f icii gratia, gratitude for a favor. Cic. Laborum fuga, escape 
from labors. Cic. 



GENITIVE ^VITII NOUNS. 



177 



kencss 
11 in the 
atliers : 

Rowtn 
c. Ui3- 
us houj- 
ic. 

I. Ilor. 



ERBS. 



take 



ice is obc- 
Opulento 
rd. riaut. 

lance tolth 
nsclf. Cic. 

rived from 
lly best cx- 

1 coverings 
facire and 
id come in 
\eehi,m, but 
|,he enemy. 

; rule occui' 



klenotes 
Is to the 

Ipresscs 

tenitive is 
ra, cscaj)<i 



394. The Genitive is used 
I. With Nouns. 

II. With iVdjectives. 

III. With Verbs. 

IV. With Adverbs. 

I. Genitive avitii Nouns. 
RULE XVI.~Genitive. 

395. Any Noun, not an Appositive, qualifying the 
nieanini:^ of another noun, is put in the Genitive : 

Catunis urutiGnc?, Cato's orations. Cic. Castra hostium, the camp of 
the enemy. Li v. Mors namilcuris, the death of Ilamilcar. Liv. Dcum 
m&tnSy the fear of the r/ods. Liv. Yir consilii ma.^\, a man of (/reat pru- 
dencc. Caes. See 363. 

396. Varieties of Genitive with Nouns. — The principal 
varieties of the Genitive arc the followini? : 

I. The Subjective Genitive designates the subject or 
agent of the action, feeling, etc., including the author and 
possessor : 

Serpentis roorsus, the bite of the serpent. Cic. PSvor NumTdarum, the 
fear of the Nnmidians. Liv. Xenophontis libri, the books of Xenophon. Cic. 
Ffinum Xeptuni, (lie temple of Ncpiime. Ncp. 

II. The Objective Genitive designates the object tow- 
ard which the action or feeling is directed : 

Amor gloriao, the love of glory. Cic. Mornoria malOrutn, the recollec- 
tion of sufferings. Cic. Tiexxm xai^i\x9>^ the fear of the gods. Liv. 

III. The Partitive Genitive designates the lohole of 
which 2ipart is taken : 

Quis vestrum, which of yon ? Cic. Yitae pars, a part of life. Cic. 
Omnium sapientissimus, the wisest of all men. Cic. 

1. NosTUUM and Vestrum. — As partitive genitives, nostrum and ves- 
trum arc generally used instead of nostri and vcsiri. 

2. Use. — The Partitive Genitive is used ' 

1) With joars, nemo, nihil ; nouns of quantity, number, weight, etc.: 
inmllus, IcgiOy tidentum^ and any nouns used partitively : 

Equorum pars, a part of the Jiorscs. Liv. M6diranum trltici, a hushd of 
u'/uaf. Cic. Pecuniae ia\cnt\xxn, a talent of money. Ncp. Quorum Cuius, 
of whom Caius. Cic. 

2) With Numerals used Substantively : 



'Wf^ 






h 



178 



GENITIYE AVITH NOUNS. 



it 



n 



Quorum quaiUior, /our of whom. Liv. Sapientum octSvus, t?ic ciglith 
of the wise men. Ilor. 

(1) But the Genitive should not be used when the tw(» words refer to the Fame 
number of objects, even though of be used in English : Vivl qui (not quvruvi) dao 
eupcrBunt, the living, of whom two surcite. Cic 

3) With Pronouns and Adjectives used pubstantively, especially (1) 
with hie, ille, gttis, qui, alter, iiter, nctitcr, etc. ; (2) with coniparntives and 
8»ipcrlatives ; (3) with neuters : hoc, id, illud, qxiid ; nmllmn, plm, jdnri- 
mum, mhma, juhuimtm, tautuni, quantum, etc. ; (4) with omncs and aincti, 
rarely : 

Quis vcstrum, tcJiich of you? Cic. Consulum alter, one of the consuls. 
Liv. Prior hCrum, the former of these. Ncp. Gallorum fortisslmi, the 
bravest of the Gauls. Cacs. Id tcmporis, that (of) time. Cic. Multum 
opCrae, much (of) service. Cic. Honiiuum cuncti, all of the men. Ovid. 
But omnes and cuncti generally agree with their nouns : Omncs homines, 
all men. Cic. 

Pronouns and Adjectives, except neuters, when used with the Tart. Gen. talio 
the gender of the Gen. unless they agree directly with some other word ; see Consu- 
lum alter above. 

4) With a few Adverbs used substantively; (1) with adverbs of Quan- 
tity — ahunde, affdtim, liium, purum, pnrtim, qiwad, satis, etc. ; (2) with 
adverbs of Place — hie, hue, nusquam, vhi, etc. ; (3) with ^''^crbs of 
Extent, degree, etc. — eo, hue, quo ; (4) with superlatives : 

hr\cX'rv.vc\vSSi^iX\va, abundance of arms. Liv. Lucis nimis, ^/. .u.ck{of) 
lighi. O-ii. SSpieutiae pSrum, ^i^^^^(<j/')«;/s6?ow. Sail. Partim copiarum, 
a portion of the forces. Liv. Quoad ejus fac6re pStest, as far as (as much of 
it as) 7i€ is able to do. Cic. Nusquam gentium, nowhere in the world. Cic. 
Hue arrSgantiae, to this degree of insolence. Tac. Maxime omnium, most 
of all. Cic. 

3. Loci and lucGriim occur as partitive genitives in expressions of 
time : 

IntSrea 16ci, in the mean time. Ter. Adhuc locorum, hitherto. Plaut. 

4. For id ffcnus = ejtis ginSris, acciis, libra, etc., see 380. 2. 
6. For Predicate Genitive, sec 401. 

IV. The Genitive op Charactekistic designates 
character or quality^ including value, price, size, iceiyht, 
age, etc. 

Vir maximi consflii, a man of very great prudence. Nep. Mitis inge- 
nii juvenis, a youth of mild disposition. Liv. Vestis magni pretii, a gar- 
Dioit of great vahie. Cic. ExsKlium decern annOrum, an exile often years. 
Kep. Corona parvi ponderis, a crown of small weight. Liv. See 402, IIL 1. 

1. A noun designating character or quality may be either in the Gen. 
or in the Abl. Sec 428. 



t?ic ciglith 

to the pamc 
ivntvi) duo 

)cciiiily (1) 
rativea and 
vlun, pli'iri- 
and ciindif 

the consuls. 
tisslmi, the 
:. Mult urn 
men. Ovid, 
s boiuiues, 

jrt. Gen. take 

I; see Cvnsu- 

•bs of Quan- 
. ; (2) with 
P<i verbs of 

.uckiqf) 
ncDpiaruni, 
(as much of 
world. Cic. 
Dnium, most 



GENITIVE WITH NOUNS. 



no 



iressions 



of 



erto. riaut. 
2. 

lesigiiates 

Mitis inge- 
retii, a gar- 
of ten years. 
\ 402, III. 1. 

in the Gen. 



1) But it must be acpompanlcd by on ocyectlvc, namcral, or pronoun, unlcsa It 
be a compound containing such modifier; as htijuamndt = hiyus modi : trt<(in\ from 
tres dies ; bldui, from duo (bis) dies. With tridui and bidui, via or spatiuin is somk'- 
times omitted: Abcrant bidui, Tkey were two dayn" jounieif distant. Cic. 

V. The Genitive op Specification has tlic gciicral 
force of an AjDpositive (363) : 

Virtus coxiiXncwivic^ the virtue of self-control. Cic. Vcrbum vohiptfi- 
tis, the word (of) pleasure. Cic. Oppldum Antiochlac, the city of AiUioch. 
Cic. IcWws A\\?>oti\'AC, the land of Ausonia. Virg. 

397. Peculiarities. — We notice the following: 

1. The Governing "Word is often omitted. Thus 

Acdcs, tcmjflumy disctpulits, h')ino, juvvnis, piicr, etc. ; causa, grCttin, 
and indeed any word when it can be readily suppUed : 

Ad Jo vis {sc. acdem), near the temple of Jupiter. Liv. Hannibal anno- 
rum novem {sc. puer), Hannibal a boy nine years of aye. Liv. Naves sui 
coramodi (causa) fOcerat, He had built vessels for his own advantage. Caes. 
Conferre \itam Triibonii cum Doh'ibellae {sc. vita), to compare the life of 
Trcbonius with that of Dolabclla. Cic. 

1) The governing word is generally omitted when It has been expressed before 
another Uen. as in the last example ; and then the second Gen. is soDictimc3 attracted 
into the case of the governing word : Nutura hOminis bCluls (for heludrum naturae) 
antecudlt. The nature of man surpasses (that of) the brutes. Cic. 

2) In many cases where wo supply son, daughter, husband, wife, the ellipsis 
is only apparent, the Gen. .depending directly on the proper noun expressed : 

Hasdrubal Gisconis, Giseo'a Ilasdrubal, or Ilasdrubal the son of Gisco. Liv. 
IlectSris Andromache, //ec^or's Andromache, or Andromache the icife of Ilcetor. 
Vh-g. 

2. Two Genitives aro sometimes used with the same noun — 
generally one Subjective and one Objective : 

Memmii odium potentiae, Mcmmiuss hatred of power. Sail. 

3. Genitive and Possessive. — A Genitive sometimes accompa- 
nies a Possessive, especially the Gen. of ipse., solus, unuSj omnis : 

Tua ipslus Smicltia, 2/OMr O70/1 /WencfsA?/). Cic. Meum sollus pcccatum, 
my fault alone. Cic. NOmen meum absentis, my name while absent. Cic. 

Here ipslus agrees with tui (of yon) involved in tua; eolhta and absentis, with 
met (of me) involved in mourn. 

398. Other Constmcticns — for the Genitive occur. 

1. Ablative op Characteristic. See 428. 

2. An Adjective is sometimes used for the Genitive: 

Bellica gloria = belli gloria, the glory of war. Cic. Conjux HcctSrea 
= conjux Hectfiris, the wife of Hector. Virg. 



2 



ji '. 



180 



(ILMTIVi: )M'in NOUNS. AVmi ADJIJrilVES. 



3. The Possessive is regularly used for the Suhjcctive Gen. of I'cr- 
Eonal pronouns, rarely for the Objective: 

Mea (loin us, my house. Cic. FSma tua, your fame. Cic. 

4. Case with PuErosixiox.— A case with a preposition may be used for 
the (Jen. ; especially, 1) For the Ohjcctivc Genitive^ the Accusative with 
in, erga, adversus : — 2) For the Partitive Gmitivc, the Accusative with 
inter, ante, Spud, or the Ablative with ex, de, in: 

Odium in hominum gfinus, hatred of ov towards the race of men. Cic. 
Erga V03 iimor, love towards you. Cic. Inter rcgcs opulcntisslmus, the most 
ivcalthy of {among) ki/if/s. Sen. Unus, ex vlr'iAy one of the Iieroes. Cic. 

5. A Dative depending on the VEun is sometimes used, instead of the 
Genitive depending on a noun : 

Urbi {undamcnta jiicisre, to lay the foundations of {(or) the city. Liv. 
Cacsilri ad pfides projicere, to cast at the feet of Caesar, i. e., before Caesar 
at his feet. Cacs. See 392. 1. 

1) The two constructions, the Gen. and the Case wit'a Prep., arc sometimes com- 
bined in the same sentence. 






] 



II. Genitive with Adjectives. 
RULE XVII.- Genitive. 

399. Many Adjectives take a Genitive to complete 
their meaning : 

Avidus laudis, desirous of praise. Cic. Otii cfipTdus, desirous of Icis' 
lire. Liv. Amans sui virtus, virtue fond of itself. Cic. Efl'ieicns vuhip- 
i'itis, productive of pleasure. Cic. G lOriae mfimor, w«'n(//'«^ o/y/or^. Liv. 

1. FoKCE OF THIS Gexitive. — The genitive here retains it3 
usual force — ofy in respect of— and may be used after adjectives 
which admit this relation. 

2. Adjectives with the Genitive. — The most common are 

1) Yerbnls in az and participles in ans and ens used adjectively : 

Virtatum fferax, productive of virtues. Liv. Tfinax propositi, tenacious 
(steadfast) of purpose. Uor. Amans patriae, loving (fond of) It-is country. 
Oic. Fiigiens ISboris, sliujining labor. Caes. 

2) Adjectives denoting desire., Imowledge., skilly recollection, 
participation, mastery, fulness, and their contraries: 

(1) Desire, Aversiox— ai'ic^MS, cupidus, studiosvs ; fadldiosus, etc. ; 
sometimes acmulus and invidus, which also take the Dative : 

Contentiouis cu]yi(\\\s, desirous of contention. Cic. Supicutiiie stiidiosus, 
studious of (student of) icisdom. Cic. 

(2) Knowledge, Skill, RecolIiECTion with their contraries — gndriis. 



(JENITIVE WITH AIUElTIVKS. 



181 



iplete 



are 
itively : 



lection, 

s, etc. ; 
[diosus, 



igndrus, consullus, conscius, inscius, iifsciits, xrtuf, incertus, sufpensus ; prd- 
villus, prudens, imprudens ; jwrUus, impirltus, riidis, insult us ; tiiemvi', t»t- 
viemor, etc. : 

Kei gnSrus, acquainted icith the thing. Cic. Prrtdcns rci mlllHIria, skill' 
ed in, military science. Nep. rfiiltua belli, skilled in war. Nep. InsuCtiis 
\iihorh, unaccustomed to labor. Caca. iilonac ratmor, rnind/ul 0/ glor)/. Li v. 
ImiuCinor h&udilcii, /orget/ul 0/ kindness, Cic. 

(;5) PAnTicii'ATio.v, Fulness, Masteiit, with their contraries — afflnis, con- 
sors, e.vsors, expers, partkeps ; j^l^'i'USy/ertUis, r'efcrtus, eginus, inops, ciicuus ; 
jfdiens, iinpdtens, compos, impos, otc. : 

Afl'Inis culpao, sharing the/ault. Cic. Rfitiunis partlceps, endowed wlf/i 
(sliiuin;;) reason. Cic. Kitionis expcrs, destitute of reason. Cic. Vitiv luG- 
tus plena, a life full of/ear. Cic. Mci pfitens sum, / am master of injstJf, 
Liv. \iri\i\AACom\ios, capable of virtue. Cic. 

3. Other Adjectives also occur with tlio Genitive. 

1) A few of a sij^nification kindred to the above: 

MSnIfostus rCriini cSpIialiuin, convicted of capital crimes. Sail. Noxiusj 
conjuratiunis, guilty of conspiracy. Tac. 

2) Similis, assimilis, consimUis, disstmilis ; par and di^par, especially 
to denote internal or essential likeness. See 391. 2. 4). 

3) Sometimes aliSnus, communis, propriits, puhlicus, sact, , vlclnus : 
Alienus dignitatis, inconsistent with dignity. Cic. Viri proprius, char' 

acteristic of a man. Cic. 

4) In the poets and late prose writers, especially Tacitus, a Genitive of 
Cause occurs with a few adjectives, especially those denoting emotion ovfcd- 
ing, and a Gen. having the force of— ^■«, in respect of, for, especially ixnimi 
and iiigenii, with many adjectives : 

Anxius pStentiae, anxious for power. Tac. Lassus rnilltiae, tired of mil- 
itary service. Hor. See Gen. with Verbs, 400. 2 and 4. Aeger Snimi, ajjlicted 
in mind. Liv. Anxius animi, anxious in mind. Sull. lutfiger aevi, ivhoU 
in respect of age, i. e., in the bloom of youth. Virg. 

4. Partitive Genitive with Adjectives. See 39G. III. 3). 

5. Other Constructions for the Genitive also occur : 

1) Dative: Minus siibitis Svidae, hands ready for sudden events. Tac. 
InsuCtus morlbus RSmSnis, unaccustomed to Roman manners. Liv. F4cln6- 
v\ vacn^ con^cidL, a mind conscious of crime. Cic. 

2) Accusative with Preposition : Insufitus ad ■^wgao.m^t'unaceustomed 
to battle. Liv. 'EQvi^.\%?i6.omlA&, productive for all things. PTfei,. Avidus in 
novas res, eager for new things. Liv. -s^r^, 

3) Ablative with or without Preposition : PrQdcns in jflrc c!vili, 
learned in civil law. Cic. Riidis in jure civili, uninstructed in civil law. 
Cic. His de rebus conscius, aware of those things. Cic. VScuus de dCfensO- 
lihus, destitute of defenders. Caes. Cuns ■v&cuus, free from cares. Cic. K6- 
fcrtus bdnis, replete with blessings. Cic. 

6. The Genitive and Dative occur with tlie same adjective : 

Sibi conscii culpae, conscious to themselves qf fault. Cic. 



jni'.rt/s. 



182 



GENlTiVE Wnil VKRBS. 



U 



III. Genitive with Verbs. 

400. The Genitive with Verbs inchKles 

T. T'redic.'ite Genitive. 
II. Genitive of IMaco. 
Jll. Genitive in Special Constructions. 

I, Predicate Godticc. 

RULE XVIII.— Predicate Genitive. 

401. A Predicate Noun denoting a diilerent person 
or thing from its Subject is put in the Genitive : 

Omnia hostiura Craut, All things belonged to the enemy} Liv. R6n.1tii.s 
Ilannibillis 6rat, The senate was Hannibal's, i. e., in liiH interest. Liv. JQdi- 
cis est vOrum sociui, To follow the truth is the duti/ of a judgc.^ Cic. Parvi 
prMii est, It is of small value. Cic. 

1. Prkdicate Genitive and Puedicate Nominative. — The Predicate Gen- 
itive is distinguished from the Predicate Nominative and Accusative by the 
fact that it always designates a dilTereut person or thing from its subject, 
while they always designate the same person or thing as their subjects. Sec 
262. • 

2. Predicate Genitive and Predicate Adjective. — The genitive is 
often nearly or quite equivalent to a predicate adjective (353. 1): Mminis est 
= humdnum est, it is the mark of a man> is human ; stulti est = stultum est, 
it is foolish. The Gen. is the regular construction in adjectives of one end- 
ing : sapientis est (for sapiens est), it is the part of a wise man, is wise. 

402. Varieties of Predicate Genitive. — ^The principal are, 

I. Subjective or Possessive Genitive — generally best rendered by — 

of , property of duty, business, mark, cliaracteristic of : 

Ilaec hostium firant, These things were of (belonged to) the enemy. Liv. 
Est impfiratOris superare, It is the duty of a commander to conquer. Caes. 

II. Partitive Genitive : 
Fies nobilium fontium. You will become one of the noble fountains. 



Hor. 



III. Genitive of Characteristic — including value, price, size, weight, 
etc. : 

Summae fttcultatis est. He is (a man) of the highest ability. Cic. OpSra 
magni fuit. The assistance was of great value. Nep. 

1. The Genitive of I^ice or Value is generally an adjective belonging to 
prUii understood ; but sometimes pretii is expressed : 

^ Lit. were of the enemy, or were the enemy' t, 
» Lit. is of a judge. 



IS 



GEMilVE WITH VKItlJS, 



183 



person 

S6n5tii3 
iv. jQdl- 
c. Parvi 

icato Gcn- 
vo by tho 

ts subjc'jt, 
Pcts. See 

cnitivo is 
dminis est 
ultum est, 
' one end- 
isc. 

ipal are, 
;red by — 

'.my. Liv. 
r. Caes. 

ountains. 
e, weighty 

OpSra 
onging to 



Parvi prfitii est, It is ofUttU tnlue. Cic. Sec 390. IV. 
2. Price and Value with verbs of buying, felling, and tho like, arc ex- 
pressed 

1) Itogulnrly by the Ablative. Sec 410. 

ti) Soinetiines by the Genitive of a(ljective«,Iiko the Tred. Geu. of price: 

Veudo frQnientum plQris, I sell grain at a higher price. Cie. 

Hut tho don. is thus tisod only in indejfnite and general cxprossloiis of priro 
and value. A dellulto prico or valuo regularly requires tlio Aljlallve. 

3) In familiar discourse somctinics by the f^cuHiycs; aseis,/!occi, ni/iili, 
plU and a few others : 

Non flocci pendfire, not to care a straw (lov k of wool )/<;/•. IMuut. 

8. Mni and Ae/jui, as Predicate Genitives, occur in such expressions as 
aequi bdni/dcere and tdni cotuiilire, to take in good part. 

403. Verbs with Predicate Genitive.— Tho rrcdkate 
genitive occurs most frequently with sum and fdclo^ but 
sometimes also with verbs o^ seeming and regarding : 

Hacc hostium ftrant, Thc.»e things were the enrmr/'s. Liv. Oram RO- 
minae ditiouid fecit, He brought the coast under (of) Roman rule. Liv. 

1. Transitive Verbs of this class admit in the active, au Accusative with 
the Genitive, as in the second example. 

2. With Verbs of Seeming and Jicgardi ng— \Xilcor, habco, dQco, puto, 
etc.— esse may generally be supplied : 

IlSrainis vidotur, It seems to ba (esse) the murk of a 7nan. Cic. 

404. Other Constructions for the Genitive also occur. 

1. The Fossessive is regularly used for the Prcd. Gen. of personal pro- 
nouns : 

Est tuum (not tui) videre, It is your duty to see. Cie. 

2. The Genitive with Offieium^ Miinus, NigOtium, Proprium, : 
Senatus officium est, It is the duty of the senate. Cie. Puit proprium 

populi, It was characteristic of the people. Cic. 

The Predicate Genitive could in most instances bo explained by supplying some 
6uch word, but it seems to be more in accordance with tho idiom of tho Latin to re- 
gard the genitive as complete in itself. 

3. The Ablative of Characteristic. See 428. 

II. Genitive of Place. See 421. II. 

III. Genitive in Special Constructions. 

405. The Genitive, either alone or with an Accusative, 
is used in a few constructions which deserve separate men- 
tion. 



184 



GENITIVE WITH VERBS. 



1 



1^ 



t' I 



RULE XIX.— Genitive with Certain Verbs. 

406. T)ie Genitive is used 

I. With misSreor and misSresco: 

MisfirOrc 12borun), PUi/ the labors. Yirg. Misercscite repis, Piti/ tlie 
king, Virg. 

II. With reccrdor, mSxnini, rSminiscor, and obliviscor: 

Mt5minit praetdritorum, He remembers the past. Cic. Oblitus sum mci, 
I have forgotten myself. Ter. Flagitiorum recordari, to recollect base deeds. 
Cic. Remlnisci virtutis, to remember virtue. Caes. 

III. V/ith refert and interest: 

Illorum rOfort, It concerns them. SalL Interest omnium, It is the in- 
terest of all. Cic. 

1. Explanation. — The Genitive may be explaihcd as dependent upon re 
in refert, and upon re or causa to be supplied with interest. Witli the other 
verbs it accords with the Greek idiom, and with verbs of remembering and 
forgetting, it also conforms to the analogy of the Gen. with the adjectives 
memor and imniemor (309. 2. 2) ). 

2. Construction accouding to sense. — The expression Vcnit mihi in 
mentem, It occurs to my mind, equivalent to reminiscor, is sometimes con- 
strued with the Gen. : 

Vfinit mihi PlStonis in mentem, The recollection of Plato comes to my 
mind, or I recollect Plato. Cic. But the Nom. is also admissible : Non v6nit 
in mentem pugna, Does not the battle come to viind? Li v. 

407. Other Coxstructions with verbs of Hememher- 
ing and Forgetting also occur : 

1. The Accusative : M6mln6ram Paulum, Iremcmhercd Paulus. Cic. 

Tills is the regular construction for fnc tldng (not person), with ricordor, and, 
V ' bo a neuter pronoun or adjective, also with other verbs : 

'Triumphoa r^corduri, to recall triumphs, Cic. Ea rcminiscure, liemember those 
things, Cic. 

2. The Ablative with De : Rficordarb de cCtSris, Bethink yourself of the 
others. Cic. , > 

Tills is tbo regular construction for the person with rScordor, and occurs also 
with mdm'ini, though that verb takes the Ace. of a contemporary. 

408. The Construction with Refert and Interest is as 
follows : 

1. The Person or Tuing interested is denoted 
1) By the Genitive as under the rule. 



ity tlve 



m mci, 
c deeds. 



the in- 



upon re 
he other 
'ing and 
Ijcctives 

mihi in 
,ic3 con- 

?s to my 
on v6nit 



ICic. 
^dor, ami, 

of the 
bcurs also 

3« is as 



GENr IVE AVITII VERBS. 



18i 



2) By the Ablative Feminine of the Possessive : 

Mcji rCfert, /< concerna me. Tcr. Interest men, /< interests me. CIc 

This possessive regularly takes the place of the Gen. of personal pronouns, and 

may be cxi)huned as agreeing with 're in refert, and .vith re or causa to be supplied 

with interest. 

3) By the Dative, or Accusative with or wit/iout Ad; but rarely, and 
chiefly with nfert, which moreover often omit9 the person : 

Quid rcfert viventi, What does it concern one licing t Ilor. Ad me refort, It 
concerns me. Tlaut 

2. The Subject of Importance, or that which involves the interest, is 
expressed by an Infinitive or Clause, or by a Neuter Pronoun : 

Interest omnium recto facero, To do right is the interest of all. Cic. Vestra hoc 
interest, This intereds you. Cic. 

3. The Degree of Interest is expressed by an Adverb, by a Neuter 
used adverbially, or by a Gen. of Value (402. 1 and 2) : 

Vestra maximo interest. It especially interests you. Cic. Qui'i liostra rC-fcrt, 
What does it concern us t Cic. Magnl interest mca, Jt greatly interests me. Cic. 

4. The Object or End for which it is important is expressed by the Ac- 
cusative with ad, rarely by the Dative : 

Ad honorcm nostrum interest, Jt is important for our honor. Cic 

409. Genitive with other Verbs. — JMany othor verbs 
sometimes take the Genitive : 

1. Some Verbs of Plenty and Want, as egeo, iiidigeo, like adjectives of 
the same meaning (399. 2. 2) ) : 

Virtus cxercita';ionls indlgct. Virtue requires exercise. CIc. Auxilii cgerc, to 
need aid. Cacs. 

2. Some Verbs oi Emotion or Feeling like adjectives (3^9. 3. 4) ) : 

Animi pcndco, lam iincertain in mind. Cic. Discruclor Snlmi, / am trmihled 
in mind. Plaut. 

3. A few Verbs denoting Mastery or Participation like adjectives (899. 
2. 2) ), potior, adipiscor, regno : 

Sicil'ae potitus est. He became master of Sicily. Ncp. Eernm ndeptus est, He 
obtained the power. Tac. llegnuvitiiopuiornm, He was king of the people. Ilor. 

4. A Genitive of Separation or Cause occurs in the poets, with a few 
verbs — ahsiineo, decipio, disino, desisto ; mlror : 

AbstinCro Irarum, to abstain from anger. Ilor. Laborum decipltur, He is &«• 
gulled of his labors. Hon D^&lne (]VLiri}\aT\xm, Cease from complaints. Ilor. De- 
sistero pugnae, to desist from the battle. Virg. 

5. Sutago and Satagito admit a genitive dependent upon sat (390. 4) ), 
and verbs o( Promising admit the Gen. damni infecti : 

ECrum satagere, to be occupied tcith (have enough of) business. Tcr. 

6. Genitive of Gerunds and Gerundives. See 563 and 503. 5. 



ISG 



ACCUSATIVE AXD GENITIVE. 



;n 



h 



RULE XX.— Accusative and Genitive. 

410. A few transitive verbs .take both the Accusa- 
tive of the Person and the Genitive of the Thing : 

I. Verbs of Meminding^ Admonishing, 
II. Verbs of Accusing^ Convicting^ Acquitting. 
III. Jliscretf Poenitet^ Pudet^ Taedet, and Piget. 

I. Reminding, etc. — Te aralcTtiac commonSfScit, He reminds you of 
friendship. Cic. Milltes necessitatis monct, He reminds tJie soldiers of the 
necessity. Ter. 

II. Accusing, etc. — Viros sc61(5ris arguis, You accuse men of crime. 
Cic. Levitatia eum convincere, to convict him of levity, Cic. Absolv(5re 
injuriae eum, to acquit him of injustice. Cic. 

III. MiSEUET, PoENiTET, ETC. — EOi'um nos misfirct, We pity them (it 
moves our pity of them). Cic. Consllii me poenitet, / repent of my pur- 
pose. Cic. Me stultltiae meae piidet, I am ashamed of my folly, Cic. 

1. Tlie Genitive of Thing designates, with verbs oi reminding, etc., 
that to which the attention is called ; with verbs of accusing, etc., the 
crime, charge, and with mls^ret, pocnXict, etc., the object whicli produces 
the fcehng. See examples. 

2. Passive Construction. — The personal verbs included under this 
Rule retain the Genitive in the Passive : 

AccusStus est proditionis, He was accused of treason. Nep. 

3. Verbs of Reminding, mSneo, admdncOy commoneo, commonefacio, 
sometimes take, instead of the Genitive, 

1) The Accusative of a neuter pronoun or adjective, rarely of a sub- 
stantive, thus admitting two accusatives : 

Illud mo admSnes, You admonish me of that. Cic. 

2) The Ablative with de, moneo generally so : 

De proelio vos admSnui, I have reminded you of the battle. Cic. 

4. Verbs of Accusing, Convicting, sometimes take, instead of the 
Genitive of the crime, etc., 

1) The Genitive with nomine or crlmine : 

Nomiue conJarStionis damnSti sunt, Th^y were condem7ied on the charge 
of conspiracy. Cic. 

2) The Accusative of a neuter pronoun or adjective, rarely : 
Id me accusas, You accuse me of tJcat. Plant. 

8) The Ablative alone or with a preposition, generally de : 

De pficuniis rfipfitundis damnStus est, He was convicted of extortion. Cic. 

5. With Verbs of Condemning, the Punishm^ni may be expressed 



ccusa- 



t. 

J you of 
<irs of the 

of crime. 
IbsolvCre 

/ them (it 
^ my pur- 
Cic. 

dingy etc., 

, etc., the 

produces 

indcr this 



nonefuciOf 
of a sub- 



kd of tlie 



tJie charge 



GENITIVE WITH VEKIIS AND ADVERBS. 



187 



\rtion. Cic. 
jessed 



1) By the Genitive : 

Ciipiti3 condemnare, to condemn to death. Cic. 

(1) Votl damndri, to be condemned to fulfill a vow = to obtain a wish. 

2) By the Accusative with a preposition, generally ad : 

Ad bcstias condemnare, to condemn to the wild beasts. Suet. 

3) By the Ablative; and, in the poets, sometimes by the Dative: 
CSpite damnare, to condemn to death. Cic. 

6. With MisERET, PoENiTET, PuDET, Taedet, and PiGET, an Iiifiuitivo 
or Clause is sometimes used, rarely a neuter pronoun or nihil : 

Me poenltet vixisse, I repent having lived. Cic. 

1) Like MUiret are sometimes used mlairescU, convnlsHrescit^ m^fi^rciur, com ■ 
mls^retur. Like Taedet are used pertaedet, pertaesum est. 

2) Pudet sometimes takes the Gen. of the Person before whom one is a?hamcd : 
Me tui pudet, lam ashamed in, your presence. Ter. Pudet hominum, It ia a 

shame in the sight of men. Liv. 

8) l^ertaesus admits the Accusative of the object: 

Pertacsus ignaviam suam, disgusted uith his own inaction. Suet 

7. The Accusative and Genitive occur with other Verbs. — Thus 

1) With some Verbs of Feeeing with the accessory notion of acquitting: 
Eum culpae libfirSre, to free him^rom blame, i. e., to acquit him of 

fault. Liv. Sopurgo, decipio, and the like. 

2) With a few Verbs of Filling, like adjectives and verbs of plenty 
(399. 2. 2) and 409. 1), especially complco and impleo : 

Multitudlnem religionis implevit, lie inspired (filled) the multitude with 
religion. Liv. See 419. 2. 

3) With a few transitive verbs of Emotion or Feeling (409. 2), rarely : 
Te angis animi, You maJce yourself anxious in mind. Plaut. 

IV. Genitive avitii Adverbs. 

411. The Genitive is used with a few Adverbs : 

1. With Partitives. Sec 390. IIL 2. 

2. "With Pridie and Postrldle, perhaps dependent upon die contained 
in them, and with Srffo and Tcnus, originally nouns : 

Pridie ejus dici, on the day before that day. Caes. Postridie ejus dici, 
on the day after that day. Caes. Virtutis ergo, on account of virtue. Cic. 
Lumborum t5nus, as far as the loins. Cic. For ^e;^;^ with the Abl., sec 434. 

SECTIOX YII. 

ABLATIVE. 

412. The Ablative in its primary meaning is closely re- 
lated to the Genitive ; but in its general use, it corresponds 
to the English objective with — -from, by., in, loith, and ex- 
presses various adverbial relations. It is accordingly used 



y 

i 



188 



ai;lative of cause, maninek, means. 



w.i 



\ 



) 



AvithVcrbs and Adjectives, while the getiitivc, as the case of 
adjective rehitions, is most common with Nouns. Sec 393. 

413. The Ablative is used as 

I. Ablative of Cause, Manner, Means — including 

1. Ahlativc of Price. 

2. Ablative after Comparatives. 

3. Ablative of Difference. 

4. Ablative in Special Constructions. 

II. Ablative of Place. 

III. Ablative of Time. 

IV. Ablative of Characteristic. 
V. Ablative of Specification. 

VI. Ablative Absolute. 
VII. Ablative with Prepositions. 

I. Ablative or Cause, Manner, Means. 
BULE XXI.— Cause, Manner, Means. 

414. Cause, Manner, and Means arc denoted by the 
Ablative : 

Ars utilitute laudatur, An art is praised because of its usefulness. Cic. 
Gloria ducitur, He is led by glory. Cic. DuObus modis jBt, It is done iti two 
ways. Cic. Sol omnia luce coUustrat, T7ie sun illumines all things with its 
light. Cic. Acgcr crat vulnerlbus, He was ill in consequence of his wounds. 
Nep. Laetus sorte tua, pleased with your lot. Hor. 

1. Application of Rule. — This ablative is of very frequent 
occurrence, and is used both with verbs and adjectives. 

2. The Ablative of Cause designates that by "jMcJi, by rea- 
son ofwhich^ because ofwhich^ in accordance icith which anything 
is or is done. 

1) This includes such ablatives as mco judlcio, in accordance with my 
opinion ; mea sententia, Jussu, impulsu, monitu, etc. ; also the Abl. with 
doleo, gaudeOj glorior, lahoro, etc. 

The Abl. with aff^eio, and with sto in the sense of depend upon, abide by, is 
best explained as Means. Afflcio and the Abl. are topcther often equivalent to 
another verb: hdnors afficire = honorure, to honor; admlrdtione afflcire = ad- 
n'.irfiri, to admire. 

2) With Passive diXidi Intransitive verbs, Cause is regularly expressed by 
the Abl., though a proposition with the Ace. or Abl. sometimes occurs: 

Amlcltia propter se expfttitur, Friendship is sought for itself. Cic. 

3) "With Transitive verbs the Abl. without a Prep, is rare ; but cavsa, 
gratia and ablatives in u of nouns used only in that case {\o4i),juesu, rogdtu, 
manddtu, etc., arc thus used j sometimes also other words. 



ABLATIVE OF CAUSE, MANNER, ME.VNS. 



180 



In other cases, Cause in the sense o^—on account of^ because of, is gene- 
rally expressed— (1) by a Preposition with its case: ob, 2^>'opter, de, cx,prae, 
etc. ; or (2) by a Perfect, Participle with an Ablative : 

In oppidum propter timorcni soso rScipiuut, Thet/ bdakc themselves into 
the citi/ on account of their fear. Cues. Kcgni ciipidltutc iuductiis conjura- 
tioncni fecit, Influenced by the desire of ruling, he formed a cons^nraci/. Cacs. 

Cupiditdte in the 2J example really cxprosscs the cause of tlio action fecit, but 
by the use oHnductus, it becomes tho Abl. of Cause with that participle. 

8. Ablative of Manner. — This ablative is regularly accom- 
panied by some modifier, or by tho Prep, cum ; but a few ablatives, 
diielly those signifying manner — mOre^ ordlne, ratiOnc, etc. — oc- 
cur without such accompaniment : 

Vi summa, witli the greatest violence. Nop. More Pcrsilruni, iii the man- 
ner of the I'ersians. Nep. Cum silentio audlrc, to hear in silence. Liv. 
Per with the Ace. sometimes denotes J/rt«ner ; per vim, violently. 

4. Ablative of Means. — This includes the Instriniicnt and all 
other Means employed. See also 434. 2 ; 414, 2, 1). 

5. Ablative of Agent. — This designates the Person by whom 
anything is dore as a voluntary agent, and takes the Prep. A or Ab: 

Occisus est a Thebunis, lie was slain by the Thebans. Nep. 

1) The Abl. without a Prep, or the Accus. with i)er is sometimes used, 
especially when the Person is regarded as the Means, rather than as the Agent. 

Cornua Niimldis firmat, lie strengthens the wings with Numidians. Liv. 
Per Fabrlcium, by means of (through the agency of) Fabricius, Cic. 

2) Dativeofy];7f«^. See 388. 

0. Personification. — "When anything is personified as agent, 
th.o ablative with A or Ah may bo used as in the names of persons: 

Vinci a vcJluptate, to be conquered by pleasure. Cic. A fortQna ddtam oc- 
ciisiunem, an opportunity furnished by fortune. Nep. 

7. Ablative of Accompaniment. — This generally takes cum : 

Vivit cum Balbo, lie lives with Balbus. Cic. But 

In describing military movements, the preposition is often omitted, especially 
when tho Abl. is qualitled by an adjective: 

Ingcnti exercitu profectus est, lie set out with a large army. Liv. 

415. Kindred Uses of the Ablative. — Kindred to 
tlie Ablative of Cause, etc., are 

1. The Ablative of Price — that by which the trade is 
effected. 

II. The Ablative with Comparatives — that by which tho 
comparison is effected. 

III. The Ablative of Difference — that by whicli one 
object differs from another. 

IV. The Ablative in Special Constructions, 






1 



190 



ABLATIVE OF PRICE. 



RULE XXII —Ablative of Price. 
416. Pbice is generally denoted by the Ablative : 

Vendldit auro patriam, He sold his country for gold. Virg. Conduxit 
magno domum, He hired a house at a high price. Cic. Multo sanguine 
Pocnis victoria stetit, The victory cost the Carthaginians (stood to the 
Carthaginians at) much blood. Liv. QuinquTiginta tilentis acstimfiri, to be 
valued at fifty talents. Ncp. Vile est vigiuti minis, It is cheap at twenty 
minae. Plant. 

1. The Ablative of Price is used 

1) With verbs of buying, selling, hiring, letting, emo, vendo, conduco, 
loco, veneo, etc. 

2) With verbs of costing, of being cheap or dear, sto, consto, licco, sum, 
etc. 

8) With verbs of valuing, aestimo, etc. 

4) With adjectives of value, cd)'us, vendlls, etc. 

2. Exchanging. — With verbs of exchanging — muto, commuto, etc. — the 
thing received is generally treated as the price, as with verbs oi selling : 

VSce hc\l\im mUtaivit, He exchanged tvar for peace. Sail. But sometimes 
the thing given is treated as the price, as with verbs of buying, or is put in 
the Abl. with cum: Exsllium patria mutuvit, He exchanged country for exile. 
Curt. 

3. Adverbs of Price are sometimes used : bene emere, to purchase well, 
i. e., at a low price ; care aestlmdre, to value at a high price. 

4. Genitive of Price. See 402. III. 



RULE XXIII.— Ablative with Comparatives. 

417. Comparatives without quam are followed by 
the Ablative : 

Nihil est imabfliua virtute, Nothing is more lovely than virtue. Cic. 
Quid est melius bonitate, What is better than goodness ? Cic. 

1. Comparatives wixn Quam are followed by the Nomina- 
tive, or by the case of the corresponding noun before them : 

Htbernia minor quam Britannia existimStur, Hibernia is considered small- 
er than Britannia. Caes. Agris quam urbi terribilior, more terrible to the 
country than to the city. Liv. 

2. Ablative, when admissible. — The construction with qvam 
is the full form for which the Ablative is an abbreviation. This 
abbreviation is admissible only in place of quam with the Nomina- 
tive or Accusative, but is not necessary even here except for quam 
with a Relative : 



Cic. 



small' 
to the 



qvam 
This 
mina- 
quam 



ABLATIVE WITH COMPARATIVES. DIFFERENCE. 



191 



Sclmus sOlcm majOrcm esse tcrrS, We knoiv that the sun is larger than 
the earth. Cic. Amicltia, qua nihil nifilius hilbumus ; friendship, than which 
tee have nothing better. Cic. Sec also examples uuder the Uulc. 

1) In the first example the Ablative {terra) is admiasiblo but not necessary, 
quam terram might have boon used; but In the second example the Ablative ('/«u) 
is necessary, the conjunction quam would bo inadmissible. 

2) lu the examples under the tAilu the ablatives virtute and hoi\itdte are both 
equivalent to quam with .ho Nom. quam virtus and quam bonltas, which might 
have been used. 

3) Instead of the Abl., a Preposition with its case, ante, prae, praeter, or mipra is 
sometimes used : Ante lilios immunior, more monstrous than (before) the others. Virg. 

3. Construction with Plus, Minus, etc. — Plus, minus, amplivs, or 
longius, with or without quam, is often introduced in expressions of num- 
ber and quantity, without influence upon the construction ; sometimes 
also major, minor, etc. : 

Tecum plus annum visit, lie lived with you more than a year. Cic. Mi- 
nus duo millia, less than two thousand. Liv. 

So in expressions of age : nutus plus triginta annos, having been horn more than 
thirty years. The same meaning is also expressed by— major triginta annos natus, 
major triginta annis, major quam triginta annOrum, or major triginta annurum. 

4. Atque or Ac for Quam occurs chiefly in poetry and late prose : 
Arctius atquo h6d6ra, more closely than with ivy. Hor. 

5. Alius with the Ablative sometimes occurs. It then involves "• com- 
parison, other than : 

Quaerit Slia his, He seeks other tl ings than these. Plaut. 

6. Peculiarities. — Quam pro denoi^'^ disproportion, and many ablatives 
— dpinidne, spe, aequo, Justo, sUUo, etc. — arc often best rendered by clauses : 

Minor caedes quam pro victSria, less slaughter than was proportionate to 
the victory. Liv. Sfirius spe rCnit, He came later than was hoped (than hope). 
Liv. Plus aequo, more than is fair. Cic. 



RULE XXIV.— Ablative of Difference. 

418. The Measure of Differed fcE is denoted by 
the Ablative : 

TJno die longiorem mensem fuciunt, They make the month one day 
longer (longer by one day). Cic. BIduo me antScessit, He preceded me by 
two days. Cic. Sunt magnitQdine paulo infra dlgphantos, They are in size 
a little below the elephant. Caes. 

1. The Ablative is thus used with all words involving a comparison, 
but adverbs often supply its place : MuUum robustior, much more robust. 

2. The Ablative of Difference includes the Abl. of Distance (STS. 2), and 
the Abl. with ante, post, and abhinc in expressions of time (427). 



w\ 



m 






i 



192 ABLATIVE IX SPECIAL CONSTRUCIIONS. 

RULE XXV.— Ablative in Special Constructions. 

419. Tlie Ablative is used 

I. With utor, £ruor, fungor, p5tior, vescor, ami their corn 
pounds : 

Ph'irlmis rebus frulraur ct utimur, Wc enjoy and tise very many things. 
Cic. Magna est pracda potitus, He obtained great booty. Ncp. Vcscimur 
bcstiis, Wc live upon animals. Cic. 

II. With fido, confldo, nitor, and innltor: 

Nemo potest fortunac stilbilitiitc conf idiirc, Ko 07ie can trust (confide 
in) the stability of fortune. Cic. Sulus vOiitatc uitltur, Safety rests upon 
truth. Cic. 

III. With Veuds and Adjectives of Plenty and Want : 

Non tigeo rai;diclna, / do not need a remedy. Cic. Vacare culpa, to be 
free from fault. Cic. Villa abundat lacte, caseo, melle ; The villa abounds 
in milk, cheese, and honey. Cic. Urbs nuda pracsidio, a city destitute of 
defence. Cic. Virtutc praedltus, endowed with virtue. Cic. • 

lY. With dignus, indignus, contentus, and fretus : 

Digni sunt aralcitia, They are worthy of friendship. Cic. Natura parvo 
contcnta, nature content with little. Cic. FrCtus amicis, relying upon his 
friends. Liv. 

V. With bpus and usus: 

Auctoritate tua nobis opus est, We need (there is to us a need of) your 
authority. Cic. Usus est tua mihi opera, / need your aid. Plant. 

1. Explanation. — This Ablative may in most instances be readily ex- 
plained as the Ablative of Cause or Means : thus ■Qior, I use, serve myself 
by means of; fruor, I enjoy, delight Jiysclf with; vescor, I feed upon, 
feed myself with ; fldo, confido, I confide in, am confident because of, etc. 

2. Accusative and Ablative. — Dignor and transitive verbs of Plenty 
and Want take the Accusative with the Ablativo : 

Me dignor honorc, / deem, myself worthy of honor. Virg. Annis naves 
onerat, He loads the ships iiith arms. Sail. Ociilis se privat, He deprives 
himself of his eyes. Cic. See 371. 2. ... * 

1) Transitive verbs of Plenty and Want signify to fill, furnish with, deprive of, 
etc.: officio, citmido, comjiliio, impleo, imbuo, insiruo, oniro, orno, etc. — orlo, 
prim, sp6liOy etc. Dignor in the best prose admits only the Abl. 

2) For the Accusative and Genitive with some of these verbs, see 410. 7. 2). 

3. Dative and Ablative. — Opus est and usus est admit the Dative of 
the person with the Ablative of the thing. See examples. 



\ ^ n 



ABLATIVE IN SPECIAL CONSTRUCnONS. 



}9Z 



is naves 
ieprivei 

jprive of, 
—orho, 

2). 
Ltive of 



1) The Ablative is somctimea o Perfect Participle, or, with opus est, % 
Noun and Participle : 

Consulto opus est, Therein need qf del the rati an. Sail. Opu8 fiilt ilhtiocon* 
vcnto, There waa need of meeting Jlirtius. Cic 

2) With opmest, rarely with usu.s est, the thing needed may be denoted — 

(1) By the Noniinative, rarely by the Genitive or Accusative : 

Dux nobis 6pu8 est, We need a leader, or a leader is necesmri/ (a iipco^sity) 
for Its. Cic. TotniiOris opus est, Th«re ia need of time. Liv. Opus est cibuiu, There 
is need of food. Tlaut 

(2) By an Infinitive, a Clause, or a Supiuc : 

Opus est to vilcro, Jt is neceaeary that you he tcell. Cic Opus est ut hivera, It 
ia necessary for me to bathe (that I batlic). Plaut. Diclu est Opus, It is necessary 
to ie told. Tor. 

4. Otheu CoNSTurrcTiONS also occur. Thus 

1) Utor, frttor, fungor^ potior, and rescor, originally transitive, are occasionally 
80 used in classic authors. Thtir participle in dus is passive in sense. L'tor admits 
two ablatives of the same person or thing: 

Bio iitetur pStre, Ife wilt find (use) me a father. Ter. 

2) F'ldo, conftdo, and inn'itor admit the Dative, rarely the Abl. with in. 
Vlrtuti conf iderc, to confide in virtue. Cic See 3S5. t. 

3) Dignus and indigntta admit the Oen., fritua the Dat., nltor ami innltor the 
Ace. or Abl. with Prop., and some verbs of Want the Abl. with Prep. 

Dignus 6A\\\.t\%,icorthy of safety. Plaut. Pel frCtus, relying vpc-^i the thing. 
Liv. Vacare Ab 6pere, to be free from work: Caes. 

4) Genitive,— For the genitive with pfitior^ see 409.3, For the crc«i^i»fl with 
verbs and adjectives of Plenty and Want, see 409. 1, 4ia 7, and 899. 2. 2). 



II. Ablative of Place. 

420. This Ablative designates 

I. The PLACE IN WHICH anything is or is done : 

II. The PLACE FROM WHICH anything proceeds; — ia- 
cludmg Source and Separation. 

RULE XXVI.-Ablative of Place. 

421. I. The PLACE in which and the pla.ce from 
WHICH are generally denoted bj the Ablative with a 
Preposition. But 

II. !N"ames of Towns omit the Preposition, and in 
the Singular of the First and Second declensions desig- 
nate the PLACE m WHICH by the Genitive : 

9 



\ . 



'5 ft 






n 



j .tn 



Ul 



19i 



ABLATIVE OF PLACE. 






I. Ilannlljal in Itillia fuU, Hannibal was in Itahj. Nop, In nostrl.s 
castris, in our cauip. Cues. In Appia via, on the Ajtjtuin way. Cic. Ab 
urbe proriciHcItur, JJe deparls from the citi/. Caos. Kx AlVica, from Afri- 
ca. Liv. 

II. AtliCnia fuit, J/c was at Athens. Clc. IMbyiono niortuus c.;t, lie 
(lied at liufji/lon. Cic. Fiigit Coriutho, Jlcjlcd/rom Corinth. Cic. Houii'.;* 
fuit, Jle was at Rome. Cic. 

422. Names of Places not To^vns fiomctimos omit 
the proposition : 

1. Tho Ablative of rLAOU in ■\viiicn, somctimoa omits tho 
preposition": 

1) Generally the Ablatives — loco, I5cis, parte, ^;aWi5?/5, dextra, laeva, 
sinistra, terra, marl, and other Ablatives when (pialilied by tOlus : 

Aliipiid loco ponCrc, to i^ut anything in its 2dace. Cic. Terra niiiiciuc, 
071 land and tea. Liv. Tota Graccia, in all Grecee. Nop. 

'2.) Sometimes other Ablatives, especially when (qualified by adjectives : 

Hoc libro, in this book. Cic. 

In poetry tbo preposition is often omitted oven when tho ablative has no modlfler : 
Silvia agrisquc, i7i the forests and fields, Ov. 

2. Tlio Ablative of place from -wiucn sometimes omits tlio 
preposition, especially in poetry : 

Cridorc iiubibus, to fall from the clouds. Virg. Labi iJquo, to 
fall from a horse, llor. 

423. Names of Towns differ in their construction 
from other names of places, 

I. Generally in simply omittini^ the preposition. But 

II. In the Singular of the First and k-^econd declensions 
they designate tlie place in which by the Genitive. See 
examples under the Rule. 

1. Prkposition Retatned. — Tho preposition is sometimes retained, 
especially for emphasis or contrast : 

Ab Ardoa RSmam venCrunt, They came from Ardea to Eome. Liv. So 
also when the vieinity rather than the town itself is meant : Discessit a Brun- 
dlsio, He departed from Brundisium, i. e., from the port. Caes. Apud Man- 
tiniSam, near Mantinea. Cic. Ad Trftbiam, at or near the Trebia. Liv. 

2. The Genitive, it must be observed, never denotes the place fkom 
wuicn. 

The Genitivo-Forms denoting tho place in which, arc genitives only in form. 
They probably belonged originally to a case called the Locative, afterward blended 
with tho Ablative, except in tho Sing, of Dec. I, and II., where it is united with tho 
Gen. Accordingly these genitives are in force old Ablatives. 

8. Other Constructions for the Genitive also occur t 



Cic. 
Cic. 



ABIATIVE OP PLACE, SOURCE, SEPARATION." 



105 



nostria 
c. Ab 
n Afrl' 

c;;t, Jle 
llOmr.!' 

I omit 

its tlio 

a, laeva^ 
iiiilri(iue, 
cciivcs : 
I modifier: 

nits tlio 
t'qiio, to 

notion 

But 
ensioiis 
. See 

rciaiiicd, 

Liv. So 
t a Brun- 
pud Man- 
iv. 

A.CE FROM 



y in form, 
■d blended 
d -with the 



1) Ablative by Attraction : 

In ii\M\\c Wha\w\.vi\\u\w\\\<^, on tJie Allan mount and at Lavinium, Liv. 

2) Ablatire without Attructio/i, goiierully witli iv preposition : 

In ipsa Alexuiidrla, in AUxandria itaelf. Cic. Loiigu Alba, at Alia 
Longa. \"ivQ. 

This is the regular construction wlicn tho noun lakes an mljcclivo or udjcctivo 
pronoun, but tho Gun. dfimi (\i[. 'J) Ok<Xu\\\.i a liotmennice or dUciiun: 
Dutni Nuae, at his home. CIc. 

u) With an Appellative— «;•!».*, oj>pIdum—{hc name of the town is in tho 
Gen. or Abl., but the iippellative itaelfis in the Abl., gcneiully with n I'rep. : 

In oppldo Antiochiae, V/i the city of Antioch, Cic. In ojjpfdo CItio, in 
the town Ciiiutn. Nop. Albae, iu urbe opportQna, at Alia, a convenient citi/. 
Cic. 

424. Like Names of Towns arc used 

1. Many names of Islands : 

Vixit Cvpri, lie lived iti Cyprus. Ncp, Dclo proflciscitur, He proceeds 
from Delos. Cic. 

2. D^mus, rus and the genitives humi, mllitiae and belli : 

Ruri ii^erc vitam, to spend life in the country. Liv, Punii niilitiiieciuc, 
at home and in the field. Cic. Domo profugit, lie Jled from home. Cic. 

3. Tho Genitive of other nouns also occurs : 

1) By Attraction after names of towns : 

Romac Nunildiaequc, at Home and in Kumidia. Sail. 

2) Without Attraction in a few proper names and rarely also tho geni- 
tives arlnae,f6ciy terrae, Ticlniae : 

Dt5mum ChcrsonOsi h^buit, Jfe had a house in the Chersonesus. Ncp. 
Truncuiu rfeliquit arOuae, He hft the body in the sand. Virg. 

RULE XXVII.— Ablative of Source and Separation. 

425. Source and Sepaeatiox are denoted by tho 
Ablative, generally witb a preposition ; 

Source. — noc audlvi do pjlrentc meo, / heard this from my father. 
Cic. Oriundi ab SSblnis, descended from the Sahines. Liv. St2tua ex aero 
facta, a statue made of bronze. Cic. Jove natus, son of Jupiter. Cic. 

Separation. — Caedem a vobis depello, I ward off slaughter from you. 
Cic. Ilunc a tuis s'lris arcCbis, You will keep this one from your altars. 
Cic. Expulsus est patria, He ivas banished from his country. Cic. 

1. The Ablative of Source designates that from Avhich any- 
thing is derived, including jxircntage, material, etc. 

2. The Ablative of Separation designates that from which 
anything is separated, or of whicli it is deprived, and is used ; 



VK 



1, 

II. 



100 AULATIVJi OF 80UIICK, KErAUATIOX, TIME. 

1) With Intransitive verba signifying, to abstain from, be didant from, 
etc. 

2) In connection with the Accusative after transitive verbs signifying, 
to hold/fom, dtparatii fro7n , free J'l'om , and tlie like : ai'ceo, abdiiuo, Ueicrrco, 
tjlcio, cxcludo, cj'solvo, tibii'o, ptllo, ptv/iibeo, i-hndvco, Holro, etc, : 

3) A few verbs of separation adniit the Dative: {'licno,J'in'or, etc. See 
88^ 4. 

3. Preposition Omitted. — This generally occurs 

1) With Perfect I'artieiples denoting j)arcnla(je or birth— genUus, ndlus, 
ortuK, etc. : 

J5ve niltus, son o/ Jupiter. Cic. 

2) Witli Verbs of Freeing, except libera, which is used both with and 
without a preposition : 

Sonino solvi, to he released from sleep. Cic. But in the sense of acqnitiing 
these veibs admit the genitive (410. 7) : Allquera culpae llb6rare, to free one 
from blame, i. e., acquit \\\n\. Liv. 

3) With M6veo before the ablatives— ?oco, sendtu and tribu : 
Signuni ni6v0rc loco, to moce the standard froin the plac. Cic. 

4) The preposition is sometimes omitted with other words, especially ia 
poetry. 

III. Ablative of Time, 

RULE XXVIII.-Time. 

426. The Time of an Action is denoted by the Ab- 
lative : 

Octogosimo anno est mortuus, He died in Jus eightieth year. Cic. Yero 
convCnGre, They assembled in the spring. Liv. Katali die sue, on his birth- 
day. Ncp. IliSmc ct aestute, in vnnter and summer. Cic. 

1. Designations op Time. — Any word, so used as to involve the time of 
an action or event, may be put in the ablative : bello, in the time of war ; 
pitgna, in the time of battle ; ludis, at the time of the games ; memdria, ia 

aemory, i. e., in the time of one's recollection. 

2. The ABLATiys with In ia used to denote 

1) The circumstances of the time, rather than time itself: 
In tali tcmpcJre, under such circumstances. Liv. 

2) The time in or within which anything is done : 
In die bus proxlmis d6cem, in the next ten days. Sail. 

(1) This Is used especially after numeral adverbs and in designating the periods 
of life: hisHn die, twice in the day; in puerUia, in boyhood. 

(2) In a kindred sense 00010* also the Abl. with de and the Accus. with inter or 
intra : Do miSdia noctc, in the middle of the night. Caos. Inter annos quattuorde- 
cim, in (viMIAq) fourteen years. Caes. 

(3) The Ablative with or without in sometimes denotes the time within which 
or after which: paucis diebus, within (or after) a few days. 



;nifying, 
diivrrco, 

etc. Sco 



8, ndtus, 



nith and 

fqnitling 
fne one 



ecialljr ia 



ARLATIVR OP TI^IR, CnARACTrRISTTC. 



107 



le Ab- 

C. YtTO 

hi8 birth- 



e time of 

of war ; 

mdria, ia 



le periods 

Ih inter or 
Uttuordo- 

lin which 



427. ArrrsATTVK on Ahlativk. — Tho tiino sinoo an .ic- 
lion or event is denoted by Ahhlnc or Antn witli the Ac- 
cusative or Abhitive, and tlio tinus between two events, 
by Ante or Post witli the Accusative or Ablative : 

Abliinc annos ti ficcntos fiiit, Jk lired (wan) three hnndred years fince. Cic. 
Ahliinc minis i\\\fiiivn)r, four yearn since, Cic. II»5inCriiH aniiis niultis fiiit nnto 
Kuinuluin, Jhiner lived many yearn bij'ore liomulnn. Cic. I'uuci.s aiitt! (liCl>Uii, 
a Jew days before. Cic. I'ust dies puucos vcnit, He came after aftw days. Liv. 

1. Exi'LAN'ATioM. — (1) Tlio Acciisiitivo witli aM/«f is cxplaiiicd as Dura- 
tion of Time (378), with ante and post as dependent upon tljose prcjiositions. 
('J) The Ablative in both cases is cxphiinccl iis the Ablative of Dill'erence (il^). 

Wltli tlio Abl. ante nnd post are used ftdverbi..My unless nn Accus. is cxprcssi-d 
nftor tliL'iii, J'aitcis his (illis^ (liihus, lU'ans in these (thoso/eio days. 

2. NrMi:iiAi.3 wirn Ante axo Post. — These may bo cither cardinal or 
ordinal. Tints : five years after = quiuque annis post, or quinto anno j)ost ; 
or post qiiinque annos, or post quintnm annum ; or with 2>ost between the 
numeral and the noun, quinque post annis, etc. 

8. QuAM WITH Ante and Post. — Quam may follow ante and 2^ost, m.iy 
be united with them, or may even be used for jfosiquam : 

Quartum post annum quam r6di6rat, four years after lie had returned. 
Ncp. None anno postquani, nine years after. Nep. Kexto anno quam Crat 
cxpulsus, six. years after he had been banished. Ncp. 

4. The AuLATiVE o?" the Relative or QufM may bo used {or postquami 

Quul.iduo, quo occlsus est, four days after he was killed. Cic. 

IV. Ablative of Ciiaracteiiistic. 

EULE XXIX.— Characteristic. 

428. The Ablative Avitli an adjective may be used 
to cliaractcrlzc a person or tiling : 

Summa virtuto adolcsccns, a youth of the h'lr/hcst virtue. Cacs. Cilti- 
lina ingfinio malo fuit, Catiline icas a man of a lad spirit. Sail. 

1. Anr.ATivR OF CnAUACTEniSTic ia used 

1) With Substantives as in the first example. 

2) In the Predicate with sum, and the other verbs which admit a Predi- 
cate Genitive (403) as in the second example. 

2. The Adlative with a Genitive instead of the ablative with an adjec- 
tive is sometimes used : 

Uri sunt spScie touri, TJte urus is of the appearance of a bull. Cacs. 

3. Genitive op Characteuistic. — See 300. IV. 

4. Genitive and Ablative Distinguished.— The Genitive generally ex- 
presses permanent and essential qualities ; the Ablative is not limited to any 
particular kind of qualities. 



il 



%d 



198 ai;lative of specification, ablative absolute. 



V. Ablative of Specification. 

RULE XXX.— Specification. 

429. Tlie Ablative may be used with a word to de- 
fine its ajiplication : 

A'^C'Slliius nomine, non potcstate fuit rex, Agcsilaiis tvas king in iiame, 
not in power. Ncp. Claudus altfiro p6de, ^ame m one /oo<. Nop. Moiibiis 
Bimiles, similar in character. Cic. 

1. Force op Ablative. — This shows in what respect or particular any- 
thing is true : thus, king (in what respect ?) in name : similar (iu what re- 
spect y) in character. 

2. ACCUSATIVK OF SPECIFICATION. ScC 380. 

YI. Ablative Absolute. 

430. A noiin and a participle, a noun and an adjoctivo, 
or two nouns may be grammatically independent of {ab- 
solved fro7n) the rest of the sentence, and yet may express 
various adverbial modifications of the predicate. AVhen 
BO used they are said to be in the case Absolute. 

RULE XZXL— Ablative Absolute. ' 

431. The Ablative is used as the Case Absolute: 

Scrvio rcgnantc vjguerunt, They Jlourishcd in the reign of Serviics 
(Sovvius reigning). Cic. Kt'gibus cxactis, consules creati sunt, After the 
banishment of the kings, consuls were appointed. Liv. Soreno coclo, U'hc7i 
the skg is clear. Sen. Caninio consiilc, in the consulship of Caninius. Cic. 

1. Use. — The Ablative Absolute is much more common than the Eng- 
lish Nominative Absolute, and expresses a great variety of relations, — timc^ 
cause, reason, means, condition, concession, etc. 

2. IIow Rendered. — This ablative is generally best rendered (1) by 
a Clause with — whoi, while, for, since, if, though, etc., (2) by a Koun with 
a Preposition, — in, during, after, by, from, through, etc., or (3) by an Ac- 
tive Participle with its Object : 

Scrvio rcgnante, ivhile Servius reigned, or in the reign of Servius. Cic. 
Rcligione ncglccta, because religion was neglected. Liv. Perditis rfibus omni- 
bus, tamen, etc., Though all things are lost, still, etc. Cic. EquitStu praemis- 
so, subs6quCbatur, Having sent forward his cavalry, hefolloived. Caes. 

3. A Connective sometimes accompanies the Ablative : 

Nisi munltis castris, unktss tlie camp should bcfortijied. Caes. 






TE. 



CASES WITH PRErOSITIOXS. 



199 



I to de- 



f in namey 
Moiibua 



'cidar any- 
Q what re- 



4. An Infinitive or Clause may bo in the All. Absolute with a neuter pju-ti- 
ciple or adjective: 

Audlto Dfirlum mOvisse, persit, TTaving heard that Darius had tcitlidratcn 
(that Darius had, etc., having been heard), he advanced. Curt. MuUi, incerto (piid 
vitarent, intCriCrunt, 3fati>/, uncertain ivhut they should avoid (wliat they, etc., 
bi.'ing uncertain), perished. Liv. 

5. A Participle or Adjective may stand alone in the Abl. Absolute : 

Mnltum ccrtato, pcrvleit, lie conquered after a hard struggle (it having been 
much contested). Tac. 

C. QuiSQUE IN THE NOMINATIVE may accompany the Abl. Absolute : 

Multis sibl quisquc putentibus, tchile many sought, each for himself. Sail. 

VII. Ablative with Pkepositions. See 432 and 434. 



djcctivo, 

; of [ah- 

' express 

When 



)LUTE r 

of Servius 

After the 

oclo, U'hc7l 

iiiius. Cic. 

n the Enfj- 
)ns, — time, 

:c(l (1) by 
Noun with 
by an Ac- 

rvius. Cic. 
bus omni- 
11 praemis- 
Jaes. 



SECTION VIII. 

CASES WITH PREPOSITIONS. 

RULE XXXII.— Cases with Prepositions. 

432. The Accusative and Ablative may be used 
witli Prepositions : 

Ad SmTcum scripsi, / have written to a friend. Cic. In ciinam, into 
the senate house. Liv. In Italia, in Italy. Nop. Pro castris, before the 
camp. 

433. Tho Accusative is used with 

Ad, advcrsus (advcrsum), ante, upud, circa, circuni, circitcr, cis, citra, 
contra, erga, extra, infra, inter, intra, juxta, cb, penes, per, pone, post, 
practer, prope, propter, secundum, supra, trans, ultra, versus : 

Ad urbem, to the city. Cic. Advcrsus decs, toward tlie gods. Cic. Ante 
Ificcm, hrfore light. Cic. Apud concilium, in the j)rcsence of the council. 
Cic. Circa forum, around the forum. Cic. Citra flunicu, on this side of 
the river. Cic. Contra niituram, contrary to nature. Cic. Intra muros, 
within the walls. Cic. Post castra, hthlnd the camp. Caes. Secundum 
niitiiram, according to nature. Cic. Trans Alpes, across the Alps. Cic. 

1. Lilco Prope, tho derivatives T^royjio;* and proxhnus take the Accus. depend- 
ent perhaps upon ad understood. Exad versus (um) also occurs with the Accus.: 

Propior montcin, nearer to the mountain. Sail. Proxhnus marc, nearest to 
the sea. Caes, Sec also 137. and for compounds, 871. 4. and 37t. C, 

2. ]'ersus (um) and uftfjne as adverbs often accompany propositions, especially 
ad and in: Ad Alpes versus, towards the Alps. 



434. Tho Ablative is used with 

A or ab (abs), absque, coram, 



e 0/' ex. 



prae, 



pro, 



cum, 
sine. 



dc, 

t5nas : 



i 



i 



200 



CASES WITII PREPOSITIONS. 



Ab urbe, from the city. Cacs. Coram conventu, in the jrraence of the 
assembly. Nep. Cum Xwi\oc\\o, with Antiochus. mc. Hq iovo, from the f(j- 
rum. Cic. Ex Asia, from Asia. Nep. Sine cordc, without a heart. Cic. 

1. Many verbs compounded with ab, de, ex, or sttper, admit the Ablative 
dependent upon the preposition : 

Abiro maijistratu, to retire from office. Tac. Pugna cxciitlunt, TTiey retire 

from the battle. Cnes. 

Soinetlines the I'rop. is rcpoatcd, or ono of kiniTrod inonnjnp is used : 

Dc vita duccdci'e, to depart from life. Cic. DCcCderc ox Asia, to depart from 

Asia. Cic. 

2. The Ablative with or without De is sometimes used with lUcio, Fio, 
or Hum, as follows : 

Quid hoc homlne iTiciag, What are you to do with this man t Cic. Quid te {or 
de te) futnrnm est, What tcill Ijecomeofyou f Cic. 

Tiie Dative occurs in nearly the same sense : 

Quid huic hfimini facias, What are you to do with (or to) this man t Cic. 

8. A, ab, abs, e, ex. — A and e are used only before consonants, ab and ex cither 
before vowels or consonants. Abs is antiquated, except before te. 

4. Tinns follows its case : 
Collo tonus, up to the neck. Ov. 

5. Cu7n with the Abl. of a Pera Pronoun is appended to it : mecum, ti-cum, etc., 
generally also with a relative: qudcum, quXbuscum. 

435. The Accusative or Ablative is used with 

In, sub, subter, Buper: 

In Asiam profOgit, lie fled into Asia. Cic. Hannibal in Italia fuit, Ilan- 
nibal was in Italy. Nep. Sub laontem, toward the mountain. Caes. Sub 
monte, at the foot of the mountain. Liv. Subter t6gam, nnder the toga. Liv. 
Subter tcstudine, under a tortoise or shed. Virg. Siiper Numidiam, beyond 
Numidia. Sail. Hac super re scribam, I will write on this subject. Cic. 

1. In and Sub take the Accusative in answer to the question whither.^ 
the Ablative in answer to where? In Asiam (whither?), i-nio Asia; In Italia 
(where?), in Italy. 

2. Subter and Super generally take the Accusative, but super with the 
force oi—concrning, of, on (of a subject of discourse), takes the Ablative ; 
see examples. 

436. Prepositions as Adverbs. — The prepositions were originally 
adverbs, and many of them are sometimes so used in classical authors. 

437. Adverus as Prepositions. — Conversely several adverbs are 
sometimes used as prepositions with an oblique case, though in most in- 
stances a preposition could readily be supplied. Such are 

1. "With Accusative : prf>pim, proxlme, prldie, postrldie, usque, desftper : 
Propius pCriculum (ad), nearer to danger. Liv. PrTdie Idus (ante), the day 

before the Ides. Cic. Usque pedes (ad), even to the feet. Curt. 

2. With Ablative: pdlam, procul, 8l«i7<^ (poetic): 

Piilam popiilo^ in the presence of the people. Liv. Procnl castris, at a distance 
from the camp. Tac. 8!mul his, with these. Ilor. 

8. With Accusative or Ablative : clam, imitper: 

Clam patrcm, without ihefather''s knotoledge. Plaut Clam Tobis, without your 
knowledge. Caes. 



-.e of the 
I the /(M 
Cic. 
iblative 

»y retire 

art from 
Icio, Flo, 
aid te (or 



Cic. 

I ex cither 



jcaw, etc.. 



uit, //are- 
tes. Sub 
oga. Liv. 
beyond 
Cic. 

whitlier ? 
u Italia 

with tbe 
Ablative ; 

riginally 
lors. 

erbs are 
most iu- 



iper : 
the day 



(lidanc» 



tout your 



CHAPTER III. 



SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES. 
RULE XXXni-Agreement of Adjectives. 

438. An Adjective agrees with its ISToun in gender, 
NUMBER, and CASE : 

Fortuna caeca est, Fortune is blind. Cic. Vcrac amicitiae, true friend- 
ships. Cic. M agister optlmus, the best teacher. Cic. 

1. This Rule includes Adjectives, Adjective Pronouns, and Participles. 

2. Attuiuutive and Predicate Adjectives. — An adjective is called 
attributive, unless it unites with the verb (generally su7)i), to form the 
predicate,' it is then called a predicate-adjective : as caeca est, above. 

3. Agueemext with Clause, etc. — An adjective may agree with any 
word or words used substantively, as a pronoun, clause, injinitive, etc. : 

Quis clilrior, Wlio is mart ill^nhnous? Cic. Certum est liberos araari, 
It is certaih that childroi are loved. Quint. See 35. III. 

Au adjective agreeing v.ith a clause is sometimes plural, as in Greclc. 

4. Neuter with MAScruxE. — Sometimes the Predicate Adjective is 
neuter, wiien the subject is Masc. or Fcm. : 

Mors est cxtromum, Death is fie last (thing). Cic. 

5. Neuter with Gemtive. — A neuter adjective with a genitive is often 
used instead of an adjective with its noun j^ 

Multum 6pfirac (for multa opera), much service (much of service). Cic. 
Id temporis, that time. Cic. Vaua rcrum (for vdnae res), vain things, Ilor. 

6. CoNSTRucTiox ACCORDiyG TO Sexse.— Sometimes the adjective or par- 
ticiple conforms to the 7'eal meaning of its noun, without regard to gram- 
matical gender or number : 

Pars certare parati, a part (some), prepared to contend. Virg. NiJbis 
(for 7?!c, 446, 2), praesente, we (I) being present. Plant. Demosthenes cum 
ceteris erant expulsi, Demosthenes with the others had been binished. Nep. 

7. Agreement with Predicate Noun or Appositive. — Sec 4G2. 

8. Agreement with one Noun for Another. — "When a noun governs 
another in the Genitive, an adjective belonging in sense to one of the two 
nouns, sometimes agrees with the other: 

- Majora (for majorum) Initia rerum, the beginninifs of greater things. 
Liv. Cursus justi\yM^«^!/s) amnis, the regidar course of the nver. Liv. 

9* 



11 
If 



'4' 






% 



202 



AGKEEMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 



h ': 



439. AViTii TWO OR MORE Nouxs. — An adjective or 
pnrticiplc, belonging to two or more nouns, may agree 
witli tliein all conjointly, or may agree with one and be 
understood, with the others . 

Castor ct Pollux visi sunt, Cantor and Pollux were Men. Cic. Tfimfi- 
rltas iguorutioque vitiosa est, Mashncss and ignorance are bad. Cic. 

1. The Attuibutive Adjective generally agrees with the nearest noun : 
Agri omues et maria, all lands and seas. Cic. 

2. Different Genders. — When the nouns arc of different genders, 
they may denote 

1) Persons: then the adjective or participle agreeing with them con- 
jointly is masculine: Piter et aiater mortm sunt, Father and 7not/ier are 
dead. Ter. 

2) Persons and Things : then the adjective generally takes the gL-nder 
of the person : Rex regiaquo classis profccti sunt, The king and the royal 
fleet set out. Li v. 

3) Things : then the adjective is generally neuter *. Ilonures, victoriae 
fortuTta sunt, Honors and victories are accidental (things). Cic. 

3. Neuter with Masculine or Feminine. — With masculine or feminine 
nouns denoting inanimate objects, tlic adjective \i often neuter: 

Labor ct dolor sunt finltima, Labor and pain are kindred (things). Cic. 
Nox atqne pracda liostes rcmorata sunt, Night and 2>lunder detained the 
enemy. Sail. 

4. Two or more Adjectives. — Two or more adjectives in the singular 
may belong to a plural noun : 

Prima et vicesTma Ifigiones, the first and the twentieth legions, Tac. 
So in proper names: Catieus et Publius ScIi)ione3, Cnaeus and Publius Scipio. 
Cic. 

440. Use of Adjectives. — The Adjective in Latin 
corresponds in its general use to the Adjective in English. 

1. An adjective may qualify <•« complex idea fonned by a noun and an adjec- 
tive: aes (lliemtm cfrancle, a great debt. Ilorc ar(nide qnaWRas not oes alone, but 
aes aUaium. In tuich cases no connective is usfed between tlie adjectives. 

But tlie Latin uses the conjunction after multi even M'hare the English omits 
it: multae et ma{jnae tempestates-, many great emergencies. 

441. Adjectives are often used substantively '.' docti, 
the learned; multi, many persons ; 7}iulta, many things. 

1. In the Plural, Mnsculinc Adjectives often designate persons, and 
Neuter Adjectives things', fortes, the brave; dU'/tes, the rich; parq^'res, 
the poor ; multi, many : pauci, few ; omncs, all ; mci, my friends ; ntilia, 
useful things; i7iea, nostra, my, our things; omnia, all things; hacc, ilia, 
these, those things. 

2. In the Singular, Adjectives arc occasionally used substantively, 
especially in the Neuter with an abstract sense : doctus, a learned man ; 



^K 



f 



USE OF ADJECTIVES. 



203 



ctivo or 

y agree 

and \)Q 



c. T6m5- 
lic. 

rest noun : 



t genders, 

them con- 

mothcr are 

the gender 
id the royal 

s, victoriae 

or feminine 

liingo). Cic. 
ddaiiied the 

he singular 

s. Tac. 
bliiis Scij^io, 

in Latin 
Ensjlish. 

find an adjcc- 
es alone, but 
ves. 
nglisli omits 

Y ". docti, 
things. 

rsons, and 
; pavp''res, 
ids ; vtilla, 
; hacc, ilia, 

jstantivcly, 
rned man; 



t'ernm, a true thing, the truth; niJiil sinclri, nothing of Einccrity, nothing 
sincere. 

3. NocN Understood. — Many adjectives become substantives, by the 
omission of ♦heir nouns: patria (terra), native country; dcxtra (manus), 
right hand ; /era (bestia), wild beast ; hibcrna (castra), winter-quarters. 

4. With Res. —Adjectives with rc.9 are used with great freedom : rea 
adversae, adversity; n.^ sieundae, prosi)crity; res j)ublica, republic. 

5. From PuorEU Naaies. — Adjectives from proper names arc often 
equivalent to the English objective with of: pugna Marathonia, the battle 
of Marathon; Diana Ephesia, Diana of d^phcs'is ; Hercules Xenophontius, 
the JCcrcules of Xcnophon, 

0. Designating a Part. — A few adjectives sometimes designate a par- 
ticular part of an object: primus midlus, ultuniis, cxtri-mus,p)Ostrimus,inti-' 
inus, summus, infimiis, Imus, supremus, reltquus, cetera, etc. : prima nox, 
the first part of the night ; summts mans, the highest part of the mountain. 

In Livy and late writers, tho nouter of thcsa adjectives with a genitive soine- 
tiraes oceurs: 

Ad ultimum inoi)iae,/or ad ultlmam inopiaui, to extreme destitution. Llv. 

442. Equivalent to a Clause. — Ac^Jcctivcs, like 
nouns in apjjosition, are sometimes equivalent to clauses: 

Nemo saltat sobrius, JVo one dances when he is sober, or tvhen sober. Cic. 
Ilortensium vivum amavi, / loved Jlortensius, while he was alice. Cic. 
Homo nunquam sobrius, a man, who is never sober. Cic. 

1. Prior, primus, nltlmus, postrcmus, arc often best rendered by a rela- 
tive clause : 

Primus morem solvit, lie was the first who broke the custom. Liv. 
With the adverb 2)rimum, the thought would be, hejirst hrolce the custom, and 
then did something else, 

443. Instead of Adverbs. — Adjectives are sometimes used 
where our idiom employs adverbs : 

Socnttes vcnenum laetus hausit, ^cra^<'s cheerfulli/ drank the poison. 
Sen. Scnatus />v^?/eH.9 oonvenit. The senate assembled in great ninnbers. 
Cic. Roscius erat Roraac frequens, Koscius ivas frequently at Home. Cic. 

Adjectives thus used are: (1) Those expressive ^i joy, knoicledgc, and their op- 

posites: laetus, Vibens, inv'^tus, tristis, sciens, insciens, jyrudens, imprih/ens, etc. 

(2) Xullus, S('>luf<,tdtus,f(7ius; prior, primus, propior, proximus, etc. (3) In the 

Poets several adjectives ottime and place: 

Dinncfiticns vt'iov, I idle about home. Ilor. Vespertinns i)ete tectum, ^< eoe/j- 
i7iy seek your abode, llor. See Examples above ; also 'dUb. 4. 

444. Comparison. — A comparison between two ob- 
jects requires the comparative degree ; between more 
than two, the superlative : 

Prior horum, ^7^e/orw(?;' o/Mese (two). Nep. Gallorum fortissimi, ^/i* 
bravest of the Gauls. Caes. 



t- 



^■> 






•*».. 



204 



ADJECTIVES. PKOXOUNS. 



1. With the force op Too or Verv. — The comparative sometimes has 
the force of too, tint/sualli/, somewhat, and the superlative, the force of 
verr/ : dodior, too learned, or somewhat learned ; dodissimiis, very learned. 

2. Comparative after Quam. — When an object is said to possess one 
quality in a higher degree than another, both adjectives are put in the 
comparative ; but when it is said to possess one quality rather than an- 
other, both are in the positive, the former with inuf/is ov ^oiius: 

Clarior quam gratior, viore illustrious than pleasing. Liv. Discrtus 
mSgis quam sapiens, ^m6«^ rather than wise. Cic. 

In the first case the positive is sometimes used in one or both members ; and in 
the second case mdyia is sometimes omitted, and occasionally the adjective before 
quam is in the comparative. 

3. STRENGTHENixa WoRDS. — Comparativcs and Superlatives are often 
strengthened by a Prep, with its case, ante, prae, pi'aeter, supra (417. 2. 3), 
unus, iinus omnium, alone, alone of all, far, by far ; Comparatives also by 
eiiam, oven, still ; multo, much, and Superlatives by longe, multo, by far, 
much, quam, quantus, as possible : 

Multo maxima pars, by far the lavgeftt part. Cic. Res fina omnium difficillima, 
a thing by far the most difficult of all. Cic. Quam maximaecr)iiiae,/oro<'s as largo 
as possible. Sail. Quanta maxima vastitas, the greated possible devastation. Liv. 

4. Comparison in Adverbs has the same force as in adjectives : 
Quam saepissime, as often as possible. Cic. Fortius quam fclicius, with 

more bravery than success. Liv. 



— ♦♦♦ - 



CHAPTER IV. 



SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS, 

RULE XXXIV.— Agreement of Pronouns. 

445, A Pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gen- 
der, NUMBER, and PERSON : 

AnTmal quod sanguincm hiibet, an animal ivhieh has blood. Cic. Ego, 
qui te confirmo, Ixvho encourage you. Cic. Vis est in virtutibus ; caa ex- 
clta, lliere is strength in virtues, arouse them. Cic. 

1. Application op Rule.— This rule applies to all Pronouns when 
used as nouns. Pronouns used as adjectives conform to the rule for adjec- 
tives. See 438. 

The Antecedent is the word or words to which the pronoun refers, and whose 
place it supplies. Thus, in the examples under the rule, animal is the antecedent 
oiquod.1 and virtutibus the antecedent of eas. 



AGREE. MENT OF PRONOUNS. 



205 



'I 



](1 whose 
iteccdent 



2. Agreement with PERSorAL Pronoun. — When the antecedent is 
a Demonstrative in agreement with ,' "Personal pronoun, the relative agrees 
with the latter : 

Tu es la qui mc ornasti, I'ou are the gne who commended me. Cic. 

3. With two Antecedents. — When a relative or other pronoun, re- 
fers to two or more antecedents, it generally agrees with them conjointly, 
but it sometimes agrees with the nearest : 

Pucri miilieresque, qui, bop and women, who. Caei'. Peccfitum ac 
culpa, (juae, crrot' and fault, which. Cic. 

1) "With antecedents of different genders, the pronoun conforms in gender to tlio 
rule for adjectives (-l;}9. 2 and 3) ; hcnco /;«(?/'i inulieveaqiie (jui\ above. 

2) With antecedents of dilTerent persons, the pronoun prefers the first person to 
the second, and tlie second to the third, conforming to the rule for verbs. See 4G3. 1. 

4. With PRcniCATE Noun or Appositive. — A pronoun sometime.^ 
agrees with a Predicato-Nuun or an Appositive instead of the antecedent: 

Animal quern (for quod) vocamus hominem, the animal which tee call 
man, Cic. Thebae, quod {quae) ciiput est, Thebes which is the capital. 
Liv. Ea {id) urat confessio. That (i. e., the action referred to) was a con- 
fession. Liv. Fluraen Rhenus, qui, the river Rhine, ivhich. Cues. 

In the last example, qui agrees with the appositive Ilhenus ; in the other exam- 
ples, the pronouns quern, quod, and ea, are attracted to agree with their predicate 
nouns honiinem, caput, and con/essio. 

5. Co.NSTRUCTiON ACCORDING TO Sense. — Somotimcs the pronoun is 
construed according to the real meaning of the antecedent, without regard 
to grammatical form ; and sometimes it refers to the class of objects to 
which the antecedent belongs : 

Equitatiis, qui vlderunt, the cavah'ij who .<inw. Cacs. Eurura rerum 
\itT\imquc, each of thrse thinr/s. Cic. DGmociitum omittamus ; ilpud islo.s ; 
let us onut DcmoTitus ; with such (i. c., as he). Cic. 

C. Antecedent Omitted. — The antecedent of the relative is often omit- 
ted when it is indefinite, is the pronoun is, or is implied in a possessive : 

Sunt qui censeant, Tfiere are some who think. Cic. Terra rcddit quod 
accepit, The earth returns what it has received. Cic. Yestra, qui cum iu- 
te^rltate vixistis, hoc intfirest, TJils interests you who have lived iviih in- 
ii.ijrity. Cic. Here the antecedent is vos, implied in vestra. 

7. Clause as Antecedent. — When the antecedent is a sentence or 
clause, the pronoun, unless attracted (445. 4), is in the Xeuter Singular, 
but the relative generally adds idns an appositive to such antecedent : 

Nos, id quod debet, patria d51ectat, Our country delights us, as it ought 
(lit. tJiai which it owes). Cic. 

8. Relative Attracted. — The relative is sometimes attracted into the 
case of the antecedent, and sometimes agrees with the antecedent repeated : 

Judice quo (for quern) nosti, the Judge tvlcom you know. Ilor. Dies in- 



i-ftfcfcj* 



200 



TERSOXAL AND TOSSESSIVE rRONOUXS. 



Btat, quo (lie, The day is at hand, on which day. Cacs. Cumao, quam 
urbeni tenObant, Cuiiiac, which city they htld. Liv. 

0. AxTKCKUENT ATTRACTED. — 111 I'ootry, rarc'ly in prose, the antecedent 
is soinetiiues attracted into the ca.sc of the relative ; and .sometimes incor- 
porated ill the relative clause in the same case as the relative : 

Urbcm quam statuo, vestra est, The city ivhich I am building is yours. 
Virg. ^laltirum, quas Smor curas hibet, oblivisci (for maldrum eardrum 
(juas), tofor(jit the wretched cares which love has. Ilor. 

I. Peksonal axi) Possessive Proxouxs. 

446. The Xominativc of Personal Pronouns is used 
only for emphasis or contrast : 

Signlficilmus, quid scntiumus, We show ivhat loe thiiifc. Cic. Ego 
rCges ejeci, vos tyranuos introducitis, I have banished kiiujs, you introduce 
tyrants. Cic. 

1. With //«?f?f??i the pronoun Is usually expressed, and then the third person is 
supplied by hie, is, ille, wliieh arc then often redundant; tuquulein, you indeed, ille 
fjulde))!, he indeed. Qu'ideni adds emphasis; cqu'idem — C-go quidcm, 

2. The writer sometimes speaks of himself in the plural, using nos for ego, noS' 
tcr for mens, and the i>hiral verb for the sin^ilar. 

0. For 2>'ostrum and Vestrum, see 3'JG. 1. 

447. Possessive Pronouns, when not emphatic, are sel- 
dom expressed, if they can be supplied from the context : 

JIanus lava, Wash your Jiands. Cic. Mihi raea vita cara est, My life is 
dear to me. Plant. 

For Possessive with Genitive in the sense of own, see 397. 3. 



! 



f 

! 






Heflexivc \ise of Pronouns. 

448- Sul and Situs have a reflexive sense {himself 
etc.) ; sometimes also the other Personal and Possessive 
pronouns, together witli Is, Ille., and Ipse : 

So diligit, lie loves himself, Cic. Sua vi movetur, He is moved by his 
ownpoiver. Cic. 'Sla cons.o\ov, I console viyself. Cic. Persuadent Tulingis 
liti cum iis proficiscantur, They 2^ci'suade the Tulingi to depart with them. 
Caes. 

1. Inter nos, inter vos, inter sc, have a reciprocal force, each other, one another, 
together; but instead of inter se, the notm may be repeated in an oblique case : 

CoUoquimur inter nos. We converse together. Cic. Amant inter se, TJiey love 
one another. Cic. Homines hominlbus utiles sunt, dfen are useful to men, 1. e., to 
each other. Cic. 



REFLEXIV^E USE OP TKONOUNH. 



207 



, quam 

jccdcnt 
J incor- 



s yours, 
urdruin 



used 



c. Ego 
nii'oduce 

person is 
idecd, ille 

• ego, noa- 



ire sel- 
ntcxt : 

My I'lje is 



,imself, 
;sessivc 

:{d by Jiis 
.TuUngis 
•itk them. 

e another, 
caso : 
Tliey love 
en, 1. e., to 



449. ^^i(i afid Suits gcneraliy refer to tlie Subject of 
the clause in wliicli tliey stand : 

Se dlllgit, I/e loves himself. Cic. Justltia propter sC-so culcnda est, 
Justice (should be cultivated for its oivii sake. Cic. Anuuluni suiim dCdit, 
lie gave his ring. Ncp. 

1, In SuBOUDiN.vTE Clauses expressing the sentiment of the principal 
subject, Hui and Suus generally refer to that subject: 

Sentit animus se vi sua niovOri, The mind perceives that it is ?»or((l hy 
its own, power. Cic. A nie petivit ut secuiii esseni, //e adud iCroni) ?Ht' to fa; 
with him (that I would be). Cic. Pervesfigat quid sui civca coglteut, Jlc 
triid to ascertain what hi.i fellow citizens think. Cic. 

1) As Sui and Stius thua rcftT to nubjccts, the dcmonstrallvos, Is, llle. etc.. trrn- 
erally rtfcr citlur to oflier words, or to subjects, w'.iich do not iuhnit sui and sunn. 

Dcuni agnohcis ox '.'jus opiribus. You recognize a god />//(from) hin irorks. Cic. 
OblL'tit cTvitalem nihil cos miitiUuros, lie (jiiuls (he htate not to change amjtliing 
(that tbcy will). Just. 

2) In some subordinate clauses the writer may nt idcasurc use cither the Ho- 
flexlve or the Donionstrative, accordin;,' us he wishes U, present the thou^'ht as that 
of the principal subject, or as his own. Thus in the last example under -148, cum its 
is the proper language for the utiter without reference to the sentiment of the princi- 
pal subject; sc'cuin, which would be equally proper, ^vould present the thought us the 
Bentiment of that subject. 

o) Sometimes the Kefiexive occurs where we should expect the Demonstrative, 
and the Demonstrative where we should exi)ect the liellexive. 

2. Sees = Ills OAVX, ETC. — Suus in the sense of his own, fitting, etc., 
may refer to subject or object : 

Justltia suum cuique tribuit, Justice gives to every man his due (his 
own). Cic. 

3. Construction' according to Sense.— When tlie subject of the verb is 
not the real agent of the action, sui and euus refer to the latter : 

A Caesare invltor sibi ut aim legatus, 1 am invited by Caesar (real 
agent) to be his lieutenant. Cic. 

4. Suits Substantively.— The Plural of Suus used substantively— Zi/s, 
their friends, possessions, etc.— is used with great freedom, often referring 
to oblique cases: 

Fuit hocluctuosum suis, This was afflicting to his friends. Cic. Here 
suis refers to an oblique case in the preceding sentence. 

f). Sri and Surs sometimes refer to an omitted suVyect : 

Deforme est de se praedicaro, To boast of one's self is disgusting. Cic. 

6. Reflexives referring to different Subjects. — Sometimes a clause 
has one reflexive referring to the principal subject, and another referring 
to the subordinate subject : 

Pkcspondit nemlncm secura sine sua pcrnicic contendissc, I/e replied 
that no one had contended ivith him without (his) destruction. Caes. 

Here se refers to the subject of responjit and sua to nem'inem, tho subject of 
the subordiuate clause. 



208 



PROXOUNS. 



I, 



II. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

450. ///c, Iste^ Ille^ arc often culled respectively dc- 
nionstriitives of the First, Second, Jind Tliinl Persons, as 
A/c' designates that which is near the sj)eaker ; iste^ihut 
which is near the person addressed, and iUe^ that which is 
remote from both, and near only to some third person. 

Gustos liujus urbis, the guardian of this rifi/. Cic. Mfita UUxm incn- 
tcm, Change thai purpose of i/ours. Cic. Hi lllos nQ'^ll'^la, if i/ou di.srcr/unl 
thoae. Cic. 

. 1. IIic AND Ille in Contrasts. — Hie designates an object conceived 
ns near, and ille as remote, wliether in space or time : 

Xon antique illo more, sed hoc nostro fuit C'nldltus, lie was educated^ 
not in that aneicnt, but in this our modern loay. Cic. 

2. IIic AND Ille, foumer and latter.— In reference to two objects 
previously mentioned, (1) Hie generally follows Ilk and refers to the lat- 
ter object, while Ille refers to the former ; but (2) IIic refers to the more 
important object, and Ille to the less important : 

Ignavia, labor: ilia, hie ; Indolence^ labor: the former ^ the latter. Cels. 
Pax, victoria: haec {pax) in tua, ilia in deOrum potestutc est; Pence, vic- 
tory: the former is in your powers the latter in the power of the yods. Liv. 

3. IIic and Ille arc often used of what immediately follows in dis- 
course, and Iste sometimes indicates contempt : haec verba, these words, 
i. e., the following words ; istc, that man, such a one. 

4. Ille is often used of what is well known, famous : 
Medea ilia, that well-known 3Icdca. Cic. 

1) nic with or without h6mo, is sometimes equivalent to dgo. Alone it is some- 
limes equivalent to meua or noster. 

2) IIic, ille, and is are sometimes redundant, especially with qu'idern • ScTpio 
non miiltum ille quidcm dIcCbat, Seipio did not indeed say much. Cic. See 44C. 1. 

8) A Demonstrative or Relative is sometimes equivalent to a Genitive or. a 
Prep, with its case: hie dblor = dolor hujus rei, grief on account of this; haec cura 
= cui-a de hoc, care concerning this. 

451. Is and Ide77i refer to preceding nouns, or are the 
antecedents of relatives : 

Dionysius aufugit : is est in provincia, Dionysins has fed : he is in 
the province. Cic. Is qui satis hSbet, he who has enough. Cic. EUdcra 
audire mrdunt. They prefer to hear the same things. Liv. 

1. Is is often omitted, especially before a relative or a genitive : 

FlC'bat pater de f Ilii morte, de patris f Ilius, The father toept over the death of 
the son, the son over (that) of the father. Cic. See also 445. C. 

2. Is or Ipse with a Conjunction is often used for emphasis, like the Enylish 
and that too, and that indeed : 



DLMONSTUATIVE AND RELATIVE rUONUUNS. 



!>09 



some- 



e the 



\e 18 ill 
Jadcm 



\c(tih of 
En-'Hsb 



Unnm rem i-xpllcabo catnquc maxtmatn, One thing 1 xcUl erpUtin and that too 
a mont iiiiportitnl one. C'Ic. 

/(/ thu» used oftt-n refers ti) a clause or to the peneral tUouelit, and et ipxe is 
often best reiulereil, too or alw: Audirc Cratippuui, Idtjuo AlUCuis, to hear O'utip' 
piia, and that too at Athene. Cic. 

3. Idem Is Bouietimes best rendered, alxo, yet: 

Nihil fililo, quod uon Idem buneHtnui, S'olhing ufiefiif,ichleh in not afno honor- 
able. CIc. (iuum dicat— net{at idem. Though he aanerta—he yet dcnUa (tbo Baino 
denies). CIc. 

4. la— qui — ho — who, such— as, such— that: 

II suums, (jul esse debCinus, We are nuvhaa ire ought to be. Cic. Ea est gens 
quae nesclat. The race is auch that it knoica not. Liv. 

&. Jdem—ipd,' idetn—ac, atque, quavi, qudai, ut, cum with Abl. = the same— 
who, the same— as: 

Iidem mores, qui. The aame manncn which or aa. CIc. Est Idem ac full, lie 
ia the name aa he tcaa. Ter. 

6, In lieflejcite. Sec 448. 

452. I2ise adds emphasis, generally rendered self: 

Ipse Caesar, Cacsnr himself. Cic. Fac ut te ipsum custOdius, iS'<y? that 
yon guard yourself. Cic. 

1. Ipse with SuB.iECT.—7/Me belongs to the emphatic word, whether subject or 
object, but with a preference for the subject: 

Me li>se consoler, I myaelf {not another) connote myseJf. Cic. 

2. Ipse, Very.— //)^e is often best rendered by very : 
Ipse illc Gorgias, that very Gorgiaa. Cic. 

8. With Numerals Ipae has the force oT—just ao many,juat: 
1v\2,\nXai!ik'si\)s\,juHt thirty daya. CIc. 

4. Ipae in the Genitive with possessivcs has the force of own, one's oicn : 
Nostra ipsorum amTcitia, Our oicn friendship. Cic. Sec 397. 3. 

5. Ipae lieflexicey sometimes supplies the place of an emphatic aui or suns: 
Legatos misit qui ipsl vltam pttcrent, lie sent messengers to ask life for hi»i- 

self. Sail. 

in. Relative Pronouns. 

453. The relative is often used where the English 
idiom requires a demonstrative or j^ersonal pronoun ; some- 
times even at the hecrinnins: of a sentence : 

Res loquitur ipsa ; quae semper vilet; Tliefact itself speaks, ami this 
(whicli) ever 7ias ivcight. Cic. Qui proclium eommittunt, They engage bat- 
tle. Cacs. Quae quum ita sint, since these things are so. Cic. 

1. Relative with Demoxstkative. — Relatives and Demonstratives arc 
often correlatives to each other : hie — qui, iste — qui, etc. These combina- 
tions generally retain the ordinary force of the separate words, but see is 
— qui, idem — qui, 451. 4 and 5. 

1) Qulcungueam] «2(n'.97?«','?, whoever, whatever, sometimes have the force of 
every by the ellipsis of fieri potest: qtuicunque rdtiOne, In every way, i. <.,in what- 
ever Avay it is possible. 



I 



210 



RKLATIVU ANU INTERROGATIVE PROXOl'NS. 



2. A Demonstuative uiny supply the place of u Relative when other* 
wine two relative cluu.sea would bo brouj^lit tom'ther : 

(iliac nee hibCremus uec h'xa uldivmui, \y/iu:h we gJtould ndl/ier have 
nor ime. Cic. 

1) A IJcliitlvo f'Inuse wltlj /,< Is oftou cqulvaKiit to a substantive: // ijui an- 
diiiut = aiitiilort's, /udrem. 

0. Two Ria.ATivKS Noinutimos occur in the sanio clauHc: 
Artt's (juas (jui teiuMit, arts, w/kjuc jto.s.^uworn (which, who possess). Cic. 
4. A Kklativk C'laisk is soinetiiiics tviuiviiknt to J'ro with the Abl. : 
Quae tua pruiloiitiu est = qua es prudent ia — pro tua prudcntia = tiiu/i 
w your prudence, or you are of such prudence, or in accordance with your 
2)rudcncc, etc. : SpOro, quae tua prudenlia est, to valero, / hope you are 
well, such is your prudence (which is, etc.). 

T). Kklative with Adjlctive.— Adjectives belonging in sense to the 
antecedent, somctinica stand in the relative clause in agreement with the 
relative, osj)ecially comparatives, superlatives, and numerals ; 

Vusa, quae pulcherrlma vM6rat, the mod beautiful vessels which he had 
fcen (vessels, which the most beautilul he had seen). Cic. Dc servia suis, 
quem habuit f idfclisslmum, misit, He sent the most faithful oj' the daces widch 
he had. Nep. 

0. Quod Ejrphiire, or apparently so, often stands at tlio bcirinningof a sontcnco, 
especially before »*/, «).s/, f/«/, and sometimes before qui<u tjuniiidiii, i'tt'ni(i7)i,v{c. 
Ill translating it la sometimes omitted, and sometimes rendered by now, but, and : 

Quod si ceciderint, if or Init if they should fill. Cic. 

7. Qui (licittir, qui n'lciltur, or the corref^poiidinj,' active quem dicutit, quem 
rl'icant, are often used in the sense of so called, the so culled, rtliat they or you uiU, 
etc.: 

Vestra quae dicitnr vita, mors est, Your so colled life (lit. your, which ia 
called lift) is death. Cic. Lex isUi quam vocas non est lex, That law as you call it, 
is not a laic. Cic. 



IV. Interrogative Pronouns. 

454. Tlic Interrogative quis, is used substantively; 
qui, acljectively : 

Quis ego sum, TTVto am I? Cic. Quid fiieiot, What will he do I Cic. 
Qui vir fuit, What land of a man teas he? Cic. 

1. Qri9 AND Qni.— Occasionally quia is used adjcctively and qui substantively: 
Quis rex imquam full. What ling teas there ever? Cic. Qui sis, considCia, 

Consider n-ho you are, Cic. 

2. QiTD, ichy, how is it that, etc., is often used adverbially (3S0. 2), or stamls 
apparently unronnected, by the ellipsis of proj>f or or a verb: Quid <!nini, why then? 
what indeed (est or d'tcam) t Quid quod, what of the fact that? 

8. Two Interrogatives sometimes occur in the same clause: 
Quis quem fraudavit, who defrauded, and whom did he defraud (lit. who de- 
frauded whom)? Cic. 

4. Attuaotion.— The interro<:ative often agrees with the predicate noun* 
Quam (for quid) dicam vOluptfitcm vidCtis, You see what I call pleasure. Cic. 






riioxouxs. 



211 



V. Indkfimtk PuoNorxfl. 

455. Alifjui'.-^^ qutA^ qtti^ ami (jui^piam^ arc nil huloU- 
iiitt', tioine oncy any one: 

Est iinquiH, (Ivrc in sonic our. Liv. Dixit (pii^, snmr our mhl. Cio. SI 
quis rex, 1/ anij kiiiij. Cic. Alia res (luacpiiiin, anj olhtr thtiit/. C'if. 

1. AHifuin Is loss Indoflnlfo tlmn tptln, qui, mid ijuispht/n. 

2. (Jiiis and qui aro iisi'd (dilolly after ^/, n'>ni\ nr, aixl iiKin, Qui'h Is (,'i.ncrally 
used substuntlvi'ly and qui adjcctlvi'ly. Al'iqulu ai'tt-r «/, etc., I« cin|il»atlt!. 

456. Qu'idaniy n certain one, 'm less imkliiiUe lliaii 
ahquis : 

Qiiidam rlu'tor nntlqimc, a crrta'm ancient rhetorician. Cic. Accurrit 
qutilum, A certain one rtius up. Ilor. 

1. Qiihlam witb an Adjective Is sometimes used to qualify or aoftoii the Btato- 
ment: 

.Jiistltia mlilflca qiiaedam vldrtiir, Juatlce neons sotnerchat tronderfnl. Cic. 

2. Qu'ultnn with qiuUl and sometimes without it, Las the force of a certain^ a 
kind o/,t(n it iccre: 

Quilsl alumna quacdam, a certain /otter chitd as it were, Cic. 

457. Quisquani and nllus are used cliielly in no!]jativo 
and conditional sentences, and in interrogative sentences 
implying a negative : 

Noquc 1110 quiflfiuain agnuvit, Xor did an;/ one rrrogniz'; me. Tic. Si 
(\\u^(\\um, if am/ one. Cic. Nam cetidc.-} ullum ruilmiil esse, (/o ^o« //u'»^ 
there in any animal? Cic. 

1. Nimo Is the noftatlvc ot qnia'jnam, nnd like qnisquam is generally used sub- 
stantively, rarely adjectlvely : 

Noininem laeslt, lie /larmed no one. Cic. NCmo poi'ta, no poet. CIc. 

2. Nu/lus Is the negative of uflus, and is generally used adjectivoly, but it some- 
times supplies the (Jen. and Aid. onu'ino, which tjenerally wants those cases : 

Nullum animal, »o ffw/mff/. Cic. Nulllus aures. //t^* <?^/r« w/'/jo owr. Cic. 
a. Xullus for non. — XuIIim and nihil are sometimes tised for an emphatic nan : 
Nullus veuit, Ife did not come. Cic. MortuI nulll sunt, T/ie dead are not. Cic. 

458. Qu'tvis, Qu'trihef, any one wliatevcr, and QiilsqnCy 
every one, each one, aro general indetinites (191) : 

Quaelibet res, any thing. Cic. TiiGnmi quisquo nuccssfiriorum, each 
one of your frienih. Cic. 

1. Quisqice with Superlatives and Ordinals Is generally best rendered by all or 
by ever, alwayn, with primus by very. po!^sibl6 : 

EiHcurcosdoctissimus quisque contemnit, All themmt learned despise the Epi- 
cnreans.or the mod learned ever despise, otc. Cic. Primo quoque die, the earliest 
day j^ossihle, the veri/Jir.st. Cic. 

2. Ut Quisque — 'ita with the superlative in both clauses is often best rendered, 
the more — the more : 

Ut quisque .sil)i plurimum ocmfldit, Ita ma.Nlmc cxcelllt, The more one con^des 
in himself, the more he excek. Cic. 



■. I 



212 



PRONOUNS. VElllJS. 



459. Alms and Alter are ofcen repeated : (illits — alius, 
one — aiiotlicr ; alii — alii, some — others ; altc- — alter, the 
one — the other ; altiri — alteri, the one party — the other : 

Alii ffloriac scrviunt, ulii pecuniae, Some are slaves lo glory, olhrrs to 
monri/. Cic. Altcri dimlcant, altcri tlniciit, One j)ar(^ contends, the other 
fears. Cic. 

1. Alius repeated in difforont cases often involves nn ellipsis : 

Alius alia via civltfitem auxCrunt, They advanced the state, one in o:ie vny, 
another in another. Liv. So also witli dllas or uVUer : Aliter ulii vivunt, Home lice 
in one way, others in another. Cic. 

2. MWv Alius, Al'it(r, and tho Hkc, atque, ac, and et often mean than: 
Non rdius csscni atque sum, I would not he other than I am. Cic. 

3. Alter means tlie one, the other (of two), the second; illius, another, other. 
AVhen alter — alter refers to objects previously mentioned, the first aWer usually refera 
to the latter object, but may refer to either : 

Inlmlcurf, competitor, cum altCro— cum altuno, fl» enemy, a rival. Kith the lat- 
ter — icith the former. Cic. 

4. Uicrquc means loth, each oftivo, and in llie Tlu. hoth, each of two pariieSi 



•♦•■ 



CHAPTER V. 
SYNTAX OF VERBS. 



SECTION I. 

AGREEMENT OF VEHES. 

RULE XXXV.-Verb with Subject. 

460. A Finite Yerb agrees with its Subject in num- 
ber and PERSON : 

Dcus munduin aedtficiivit, God made the ivorld. Cic, Ego regos 
ejC'ci, vos tyrannos iutroducitis, / have banished kings, you iniroduce ty- 
rants. Cic. 

1. Partici.t.es in Compound Tenses agree Avith the subject 
according to 4:38. See also 301. 2 and 3 : 

Tlicbani accusati sunt, T/ie TJicbans were accused. Cic. 

1) In tlie Infinitive, the Participle in nm sometimes occurs without any reference 
to the pender or number of the subject: 

Diliulentia fi'itrirum quae imp(jravisset,//v??i douht that those things which he 
had commcxnded would take place. SalL 



AGREEMENT OF VEllBS. 



213 



NDM- 



2. Subject Omitted. See 3G7. 2. 

1) An Indefinite Subject Is often denoted by the Second Pcrs. Sin.r;., or by tbo 
First or Third Plur.: dlcas, yon (any one) may say; dlcimus^wo Q)coplo) say; 
cllcunt, they say. 

3. Yekb Omitted.— Sec 3G7. 3. 

461. Construction according to Sense. — Somctiinos 
tlie Predicate is construed according to the real meaumf/ 
of the subject without regard to grammatical gender or 
number. Thus 

1. "With Collective Nouns, 2i(t>'s, rmiUitudo, and the like : 

Multitudo Sbcunt, The multitude depart. Li v. Pars per agros dilapsi, 
apart (some) dispersed through the fields. Liv. 

1) Here mitltltudo and pars, though Sing, and Fcm. in form, arc Plur. and 
Masc. in sense. See also 438. 6. 

2) Conversely the Imperative Singular may he ufed in nddressinsr a multitudo 
individually: Adde dCfectionem Siciliac, Add (to this, soldier?,) the reiolt of Hicilij. 
Liv. 

8) Of two verbs with the same collective noun, the former is often Shig., and 
the latter Plur.: Juvcntus ru't certantque, The youth rush forth and contend, Virg. 

2. With Mlllia, often masculine in sense : 

Caosi sunt tria millia, Three thousand men were slain. Liv. 

8. With Quisque, Uterque, Alius — .4^/«m, ^^/t;'—yl/^erwm, and the like* 

Uterquo educunt, thei/ each lead out. Caes. Alter alterum vldemus, 
We see each other. Cic. 

4. With Singular Subjects accompanied by an Ablative with cum: 
Dux cum principlbus cupiuntur, Theleader with Ms chiejs is taken. 

Liv. See 438. fi. 

5. With Partim — Paitim in the sense o{pars—2>(trs : 

Bonorum partim neccssiiria, partim non nficessuria sunt, 0/ good 
things some are necessary, others are not necessary. Cic. 

462. Agreement avitii Appositive or Predicate 
XouN. — Sometimes the verb agrees, not with its subject, 
but with an Appositive or Predicate Noun : 

Volstnii, oppidum Tuscorum, concrematum est, Volsinli, a town of 
the 7mca7is, was burned. Plin. Non oranis error stultitia cstdlccnda, A'ol 
every error should be culled folly. Cic. 

1. The Verb regularly agrees M'ith tbo appositive when thiit is nrba, oj^pldum, 
or c'iv\tas, in apposition with plural names of places, as in the first example. 

1) The verb sometimes agrees with a noun in a subordinate clause after (juam, 
nisi, etc. : Nihil aliud nisi pa.v quacslta est (not quaeaUum), Nothing but peace 
was sought. Cic. 

2. The verb agrees with the predicate noun, when that is nearer or more em- 
phatic than the .subject, as in the second example. • 






214 



AGREEMENT OP VERKS. 



;i h 



463. Agreement with Compound Subject. — With 
two or more subjects the verb agrees — 

I. With ono subject and is iindei'stood with the others : 

Ant mores spcctari aut fortuna solot, Either character or fortune is 
v'ont to be regarded. Cic. IloinOrus I'uit et IlGsiudus auto Koiiiuni toiidl- 
tain, Homer and Ilesiod lived (were) before the founding of Rome. Cic. 

ir. With all the subjects conjointly, and is accordingly in the 
riural Number: 

Lcntuliis, ScTpio p(1iieriint, Lcntulun and Scipio pcriihed. Cic. Ego 
ct Cicfiro valemus, Cicero and I arc well. Cic. Tu et Tullia vulctis, You 
and Tullia are well. Cic. 

1. Person. — With subjects differing in Person, the verb takes the First 
Person rather than the Second, and the Second rather than the Third, as iu 
the examples just given. 

2. Pakticiples. — See 430. 

3. Two Subjects as a Unit. — Two singular subjects forming iu sense a 
unit or whole, admit a singular verb : 

S6natus pcJpiilusque intelllgit, The senate and people (i. c., the state as a 
unit) understand. Cic. Tempus uScessitasquc postiilat, Titne and necessiti/ 
(i. c., the crisis) demand. Cic. 

4. Subjects with Aut or Nec. — With singular subjects connected by 
antf vel, nec, neque or seu, the verb generally agrees with the nearest sub- 
ject, but with subjects diflfering in person, it is generally Plur. : 

Aut Brutus aut Cassius judlcavit. Either Brutus or Cassius judged. Cic. 
Ilacc ucque 6go nSque tu fCcimus, Neither you nor I have done these things. 
Ter. 



SECTION II. 
USE OF VOICES. 

464. In a transitive verb, the Active voice represents 
the subject as acting upon some object, the Passive, as act- 
ed upon by some other person or thing : 

Dcus mundum aedif icfivit, God made the world. Cic. A Deo omnia 
facta sunt, All things were made by God. Cic. 

465. Active and Passive Construction. — ^With trans- 
itive verbs, a thought may at the pleasure of the writer be 
expressed either actively or passively. But 

I. That which in the active construction would bo the object must bo 
the subject iu the passive ; and 

II. That which iu the active would be the subject must be put in the 
ablativd with a or ab, for persons, without it for things: (371.6) ; 



VOICES. TENSES. 



215 



Dcus omnia constituit, God ordained (dl things, or: A Deo omnia constl- 
tQta sunt, All things were ordained hy God. Cic. Dei piovldentiu niundiim 
adiurnistrat, 'The jirovidence of God rules the ivorld, or: Dei providentia 
mundus uduiIuistiilUir, Th<i world is ruled bij the 2>rooidence of God. Cic. 

1. The Passive Voice is sometimes equivalent to the Act. with a reflex- 
ive pronoun, hke the Greek iliddle : 

LSvantur in lluminibus, They bathe (wash themselves) in the rivers. Cues. 

2. Intransitive Veuus (I'Jm) have regularly only the active voice, but 
they are sometimes used impersonally in the passive : 

Curritur ad i)raetorium, They run to the]iraetori>'m (it is run to). Cic. 

S Deponent Verbs, though Passive in form, arc in signification transi- 
tive or intransitive : 

Illud nilrabar, I (idmircd that. Cic. Ab urbe proficisci, to set out from 
the city. Caes. 

4. Semi-Deponents (272. 8) have sorao of the Active forms and some of 
tiie Passive, without change of meaning. 



SECTION III. 

TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE. 

I. PnESENT Indicative. 

466. The Present Indicative represents the action of 
the verb as taking place at the present time : 

Ego ot Clciiro valCmus, Cicero and I are well. Cic. Hoc to rogo, / 
ash you for this. Cic. 

467. Hence the Present Tense is used, 

I. Of actions and events which aro actually taking place at 
the present time, as in the above examples. 

II. Of actions and events which, as belonging to all time, bo- 
long of course to the present, as general truths and customs: 

Nihil est amfibllius virtute, Nothing is more lovely than virtue. Cic. 
Fortes fortuna adjuvat, Fortune helps the brave. Ter. 

III. Of past actions and events which the writer wishes, for 
effect, to picture before the reader as present. The Present, when 
so used, is called the Historical Present: 

Jugurtha vallo mocnia circumdat, Jugurtha surrounds the city with a 
rampart. Sail. 

1. IIiSTORiCAL Present, — The historical present may sometimes be 
best rendered by the English Imperfect, and sometimes by the Engli^h 
Present, as that has a similar historical use. 



210 



TENSES OP TUE INDICATIVE. 



2. Presknt with Jamdiu, Jamdudum. — The Present is often used of a 
present action which has been going on for some time, rendered have, espe- 
cially after JamdiUf Jamdudum, etc. 

Jamdiu ignuro quid agas, / have not known for a long time what you 
are doing. Cic. 

1) The Impc-fcct is usod in the same way of a past action wbicb had been 
going on for some time. Thus in the example above, Jamdiu ignOriibam^ would 
mean, 1 had not known for a long time. 

2) The Present in the Infinitive and Participle is used in the same way of an 
action which has been or had been going on for some time. 

8. Present applied to Authors. — The Present in Latin, as in English, 
may be used of authors whose works are extant : 

Xftnophon fScIt Socritem disputantem, XenopJion, represents Socrates 
discussing. Cic. 

4. Present with Dum. — With dum, in the sense of while, the Present 
is generally used, even of past actions : 

Dum ca parant, Saguntum oppugnubatur, While they were (arc) making 
these preparations, Saguntum was attacked. Liv. 

5. Present fop. Fcture. — The Present is sometimes used of an action 
really future, especially in conditions : 

Si vincimus, omnia tutaftrunt, If we conquer, all tilings will he safe. Sail. 

II. Imperfect Indicative. 

468. The Imperfect Indicative represents the action as 
taking place in past time : 

Stabant nobtlissTmi jiiveneg, There stood (were standing) most nolle 
1/outIis. Liv. Colles oppldum cingobant, Hills encompassed the town. Caes. 

4G3 Hence the Imperfect is used especially 

I. In licehj dcscrijytion, ■■vhether of scenes or events : 

Ante oppidura plantties pStobat, Before the town extended a plain. 
Caea. Fulgentes gliidios videbant, They saw (were seeing) the gleaming 
swords. Cic. 

» 

II. Of cusfomary or repeated actions and events, often render- 
ed by was icont, etc. : 

Pansiinias opulabatur more Porsfirum, Pausanias was wo7it to banquet 
in the Persian style. Nep. 

1. Imperfect OF Attrmpted Action. — The Imperfect is sometimes used 
of an attempted or intended action : 

Sedabant tiimultus, They attempted to quell the seditions. Liv. 

2. Imperfect in Letters. — See 472. 1- 






FUTURE AND PERFECT. 



217 



III. Future Indicative. 



470. Tlio Future IiuTicativc represents tlic action as 
one which ^vill take phicc in future tinui : 

Scribam ad io^ I will write to you. Cic. Nunqnam j"iI)Prrril»innis, W'- 
shall never r/o antra!/. Cic. 

1. FcTURE WITH Imperative Force.— In Latin as in English, the Future 
Indicative .sometimes has the furce of an Imporativc : 

Curubis ct sciibes, You ivill take care and ivrite, Cic. 

2. Latix Futlre for ExciLisii Present. — Actions which really belong 
to future time are almost invariably expressed by the Future T(?nsc, though 
sometimes put in the present in Engli.sh : 

>'aturani si sequumur, nunquam abenablu. !S, If we follow naiu \','we 
shall never go astray. Cic. 

3. Future Ixdicative with Meuius. — "With melius the Future Indicative 
bc3 often the force of tl.'c Subjunctive : 

Melius perlbimus, We icoukl 2>eriih rather, or it would be better for us to 
perish. Liv. 



j 



IV. Perfect Indicative. 



nolle 
Caes. 



471. The Perfect Indicative has two distinct uses: 

I. As the Present Perfect or Perfect Definite, it 
represents the action as at present completed, and is ren- 
dered by our Perfect with have : 

Do genure belli dlxi, I have spoken of the character of the loar. Cic. 

II. As tlie Historical Perfect or Perfect Indefi- 
nite, it represents the action as a simple historical fact : 

Miltiados est accusfitus, Miltiadcs was accused. Nop. 

1. Perfect of what has ceased to be. — The Perfect is sometimes used 
where the emphasis rists particularly on the completion of the action, im- 
plying that what was true of the past, is not true of the present: 

Habuit, nou bdbet, He had, but has not. Cic. Fuit Ilium, Ilium was. 
Virg. 

2. PERFEr- Indicative with Paexe, Prope. — The Perfect Indicative 
with paene, prope, may often be rendered by mvjht, would, or by the Plu- 
perfect Indicative : 

Brutum non minus umo, 2^(i(>^( dixi, quaui to, / love Brutus not Uss, / 
mifjht almost say, or I had almod said, than I do you. Cic. " 

S. Perfect for English Present. — The Latin sometimes employs the 
Perfect and Pluperfect where the English uses the Present and Imperfect, 
especially in repeated actions, and in verbs which want the Present (207), 
10 



218 



I'LUPERFKCT AXD FUTUKE rERFECT. 



lit 



Memiuit priioturlturmn, Ih remembers the pat>!. Cic. Quum ad villain 
vGni, hoc me dclcctat, \V/u)i I come (liavu come) to a villa, this j)leases me, 
Cic. MomlnCrain VixuXmw, I remembered Paulus. Cic. 

4. PiiUFECT WITH '*o.sTQUAM. — Pustquam, vt, id pr'oiinm, etc., in the 
sense oias soon aft, are usually followed by the PeiCect ; sometimes by the 
Imperfect or Historical Present. But the Pluperfect is generally used of 
repeated actions ; also after postquam when a long or definite interval 
intervenes : 

Postquam cecldit Ilium, after (as soon as) Ilium fell. \ irg. Anno 
tertio postquam profugerat, in thi third year after he had fed. Ise^i. 

1) As a Ilarc Exception the Imperfect and riuporfcct Subjunctive occur after 
postquam (posteaquum) : Posteuquum aedilicasset classes, a/tir he had built Jleeta. 
Cic 

V. Plufeefect Indicative. 

472. The Pluperfect Indicative represents the action 
as completed at senie definite past time : 

Coplas quas pro castris coUocaverat, reduxit, He led back the forces 
which he had stationed before the camp. Caes. 

1. Tenses. — In letters the writer often adapts the tense to the time of 
the reader, using the Imperfect or Perfect for the Present, and the Pluper- 
fect for the Imperfect or Perfect : 

Nihil habebam quod scribcrcm : ad tuas omncs (^pist(51as rcscripscram, 
/ have (had) nothing to write : I hare already replied to all your letters (I had 
replied, i. e., before writing thiL.). Cic. 

1) The Perfect is sometimes iiHcd of Futnre actions, as events which happen 
ofler the writing of the letter but before the receipt of it will be Future to the writer 
but Paiit to the reader. 

2. Pllterfect for English Imperfect. — See 471. 3. 

3. PLrpERFECT TO DENOTE Rapiditt. — Thc Plupcrfcct somctimcs denotes 
rapidity or completeness af action : 

Urbem luctu complevSrant, Tliey (had) filled tJi^ city with mourning. 
Curt. 



VI. Future Perfect Indicative. 

473. The Future Perfect Indicative represents tiie ac- 
tion as one which will be completed at some future time : 

Romarn quum vdnoro, scrlbam ad tc, When J shall have reached Rome, 
I iriU write to you. Cic. Dum tu hacc leges, ego ilium fortasse convencro, 
When you read this, I shall jH'vhapjs have already met him. Cic. 

1. Future T ; .ifect to denote Certainty. — The Future Perfect is some- 
times used to denote thc speedy or complete accomplishment of the work : 
Etrn tiKMiin otUoiinn ]>rneBtTtftrn, 1 will gurely discharge my duty, Caes. 



(1 villain 
^ases me. 

, in the 

j by the 

used of 

iuterval 

;. Auuo 

ccur after 
lilt Jlee(8. 



INDICATlVli AND SUIWUNCTIVK. 



219 



action 

he forces 

i time of 
c Pluper- 

ipscrani, 
ers (I had 

ch happen 
the writer 



es denotes 
ourning. 



tiie ac- 
3 time : 

cd Rome, 
•nveiioi'O, 

t is some' 
e work : 

'ty. Caes. 



'J. The FuTcuii Perfect fou Exolisu Puescnt ok Flture is rare, but 
occurs in conditional clauses : 

Si interpretilri potuero, his vei-bis Qtitur, 1/ lean (shall have been able 
to) understand hlniy he uses these words. Cic. 

SECTION IV. 

USE OF THE INDICATIVE. 

RULE XXXVI-Indicative. 

474. The Iiidiciitive is used in treating of facts: 

Deus munduni aclifrcavit, God made (he vorhl. Cic. Nounc expiil- 
sus est patiia, Was he not banished from his coitutri/^ Cic. IIcc feci, dum 
licuit, I did this as long as it icas jjennilUd. Cic. 

475. Special Uses. — Tlio Indicative is sometimes used 
wlieie our idiom would suggest the Subjunctive : 

1. Tlic Indieative of tlie Periphraslic Conjugations is often so used iu 
the historical tenses, especially in conditional sentences (612. 2): 

Ilaec conditio non accTpienda fuit, TJils condition should not have been 
accepted, Cic. 

2. The Ilistorieal Ihiscs of the Judicative, particularly the Flnperfeefy 
arc sometimes used for Effect, to represent as an actual fiict something 
which is shown by the concext never to have become fully so : 

Vicfiramus, nisi rScepissct Antoniura, We sJiould have {lit. bad) con- 
quered, hadhe not received Antony. Cic. Sec 511. 2. 

3. Pronouns and Relative Adverbs, made general by being doubled or 
by assuming the sufTix cunqne (187. 4), take the Indicative : 

Quisquis est, is est sapiens, Whoever he is, he is icise. Cic. Hoc ultl- 
mum, lUcunque initum est, proeUum fuit, This, however it was commenced, 
was the last battle. Li v. 

4. In Expressions of Duly, Kccessily, Ability, and the like, the Latin 
bften uses the Indicative where the English docs not : 

Tardius quam debufirat, more sloivly than he should have done. Cic. 

1) So also in 8U7n with aequum, par, justum, miHius. vViUus, longum, diff'icYle, 
and the like : Longum est persequi utllitutcs, It would he tedious (la a loug task) to 
enumerate the uses. Cic. 

SECTION V. 

TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

476. Tense in the Sub] 



%• 



ive does not designate the 

n the Indicative, but it 

marks with great exactness its continuance or complclion. 



>juncti 
time of tlie action as definitely a 



I Ji 



220 

• 



TENSKS OF THE SUIUU ACTIVE. 



477. The Present and Imperfect express IncomphtG 
action : 

Valcant cTvrs, Mmj the citizens he tvcll. Cic. Utinam vera invt5nIro 
posscm, O that I were able lojind the truth, Cic. 

478. Tlie Perfect and Pluperfect express Completed 
action : 

Oblltus C3 quid dixfirim, You have forrjottcn what I mid. Cic. Tli6- 
mist()clo3, qmim fJraociam Iil)6ras.sct, expulsus est, Thcmiatoclcs was ban- 
ished, though he had liberated Greece. Cic. 

479. Tlic Future Tcnpcs are wanting in tlio Pu1>junctivc: the mood 
itself — used only of that which is merely conceived and uncertain — is so 
nearly related to the Future, that those tenses are seldom needed. Their 
place is however supplied, v/hcn necessary, by the periphrastic forms in 
rus (481. III. 1). 

480. Sequence of Tenses. — The SubjuncUve Tenses 
in their use conform to the folio win q; 






RULE XXXVII.-Sequence of Tenses. 

Principal tenses depend upon Principal tenses : His- 
torical upon Historical : 

Nltitur ut vincat, He strives to conquer. Cic. Xerao erit qui censcat. 
There will he no one loho will think. Cic. Quacsieras nonnc putarcm. You 
had ashed, whether I did not think. Cic. 

481. Application of the Rule. — In accordanco with this 
rule, » 

I. The Subjunctive dependent upon a Principal iaxiBQ—^presentj 
present perfect, future, future perfect — is put, 

1. In the Present for Incomplete Action : 

Video quid agas, / sec what you are doing. 

Vidi quid agas, 1 have seen what you are doing. 

"V idebo quid agas, / shall see ivhat yon do. 

Videro tjuid agaS; / shall have seen what you do. 

2. In the Perfect for Complete ,1 Action : 

Video quid egfris, I sec lohat you have done. 

Vidi quid egeris, / have seen what you have done. 

Videbo quid egeris, I shall see what you have done. 

Vid$ro quid egeris, / shall have seen what you have done. 



SEQUIINCE OF TENSICS. 



li'Jl 



Vi(lC'l)ani (iiiid it,<;6rcrf, 
Villi (luid ii;roros, 
Vidt'-nini (luid agorcs, 



II. Tho Subjunctive dependent upon a Historical tonso — im- 
pcr/icf, hintorical 2>crji'ct, ^y/z/^^r/yiy^ — U put, 

1. In the Ira])crfect for Inconiplote Action: 

J n'tw what t/ou ii'erc dohif/. 
I s(t,r' irhnt i/i)H vn'c lining. 
1 had seen what you were doing. 

2. In tlio riupcrfect for Completed Action : 

Vidi'bam quid Cglsscs, J saw what you had done. 

Vidi (pud c'^isscs, I saw tchut i/ou had done. 

Vuk'rain (Hiid ogisscs, / had seen what you had done. 

III. The l\'rii)hrastic Forms in rus conform to tho rule: 

Video fluid actQru3 sis, I see what you are going to do. 

YidObam quid acturus esses, I saw what you were going to do. 

1. FiTfUE SLTrMED. — Thc Future is supplied when necessary (-iT'.O, (1) 
by the Present i or Imperfect Subjunctive of thc perijihrastic fornis m rus, 
or(2) hy f lit itrum sit ut,'^\\\i\\ tho regular Present, am] futurumcsset ut, with 
thc regular luipcrfect. Tho tirst method is confined to thc Active, tho sec- 
ond occurs in both voices : 

Incertum est quam longa vita futura sit, It is 'uncertain how long life 
tcill continue. Cic. Incertum 6i-at quo niissuri classeni lorent, It zcas uncer- 
tain ichither they tvoidd send the fled. Liv. 

2. Future Perfect Supplied. — Thc Future Perfect is supplied, when 
necessary, by futurum sit ut, with thc Perfect, and futiirum csset id, with 
the Pluperfect. But this circumlocution is rarely necessary. In thc Passive 
it is sometimes abridged io futu rus sim and futurus essem, with thc Perfect 
participle : 

Non dubitoquin confectajam res fiitura sit,Idv not doubt that the thing 
will have been already accomiAlshcd. Cic. 

P . The IIisTonicAL Present is treated sometimes as a Prin- 
cipal tense, as it really is in Form, and sometimes as a Historical 
tense, as it really is in Sense • 

1. As Principal tense according to its Form : 

Ubii orant, ut slbi parcat. The Ubii implore him to spare them. Cacs. 

2. As Historical tense according to its Sense : 

Pcrsuadet CastTco ut rcgnum occuparet. He persuaded Casticxis io seize 
the government. Cacs. 

Y. The Imperfect SmjuNCTiVE often reff^rs to present time, 
especially in conditional sentences (510. 1); accordingly, when 
thus used, it is trciited as a P'^ncipal tense : 

1 Tlie Present, of course, after rrincipal tenses, and tho Imperfect after Histori- 
cal tenses, accortlin? to 4S0. 

' Futurum sit,ctc., after rrincipal tenses, ani/utflrum eseet, etc., after Ilistorl 
cal tcuiics. 



o.)>> 



SEQUKNCE OF TENSES. 



Mc-niurarc po.-jgom (niThM-i in locls hostc.s fuJcrlt, Tinir/IU (now) state hi 
V'httt jt/aan he routed the cnritii/. bull. 

YI. The Phksent and FnrnE Txfixitives, Present nnd Future 
Pauticii'LEh, as jilso (JicnuxDs and Siim.nks, >liaro the tense ot'tlie verb 
on which they depend, us they express only rclaticc time {hW. 571) : 

Rporo fore' ut coiithip^at, I hope it will happen (I hopo it will 1)0 that 
it in;iy liiippcii). Cic. Noii spOrfivcnit turc ut ad ao det'IcC-reut, //</*'<(/ u"^ 
hoped that thri/ would revolt to him. Liv. 

482. Peculiarities in Sequence. — Tlic followiiiL; 
l)ecuU;iritics in the soqucnce of tenses deserve iiotiee : 

1. Afteu Perfect Tense. — The Latin Perfect is sonietinies 
treated as a Historical tense, even when rendered with have, and 
thus admits the Imj)crfect or PUipcrfcct : 

Qiiuniiim quae subsidia hSbCri's oxi)usui,'^ nunc du'iim, Since I have 
shoioH what aids you have (or had)^ I will now apeak. Cie. 

2. After Historical Tenses. — Conversely Historical tenses, 
■when followed by clauses denoting conseq}(cncc or result., often con- 
form to tho law of sequence for Principal tenses, and thus admit 
the Present or Perfect: 

EpilmTuondas fide sic usus est, ut possit jfullcari, Epaminoridns nsrd 
such JidcUli/ that it may be judyed. Nof). Adeo excellebat Aristldes ab- 
stinoutia, ut Justus sit appellatus, Arididcs so excelled in self-coidrol, that 
he has been called the Just. Xep. 

This peculiarity arises from the fiict that the licftnlt of a past action may itself 
be prcacnt and may thus be expressed by a Principal tense. When tlie result belontrs 
to the present time, the Present. Is used: poasitji'idlcdri, may be judged now; wheu 
it is represented as at present completed, the Perfect is used : nit appcflutun, has 
been called i. e. even to the present day ; but when it is represented as simulta- 
neous with the action on which it depends, the Imperfect is used in accordance 
with the general rule of sequence (4S0). 

3. In Indirect Discourse, Oratio Obliqfa. — In indirect dis- 
(lourso (528. and 533. 1) dependent upon a Historical tense, tho 
narrator often uses the Principal tenses to give a lively eflect to 
his narrative ; occasionally also in direct discourse : 

Exitus fuit orfitiOnls : Nuquo ullos vacfiro agros, qui djtri possint ; 
77ie close of the oration loas, that there were (are) not any lands unoccupied 
iohich could (can) be given. Cacs. 



' Here //ire shares tho tense ofspcro, and is accordingly followed by the Present 
contlngaf, but below it shares the tense of sperdcerat, and is accordingly followed by 
the Imperfect deflcfrcnt. 

"^ Ejepi'hnii, though best rendered by our Perf. Def. with Jiave, is in the Latin 
treated as the Historical Perf. The thought is as follows: Sincein the preceding 
topics I set forth the aids ichich you had., I icill now speak., &f. 



II 



SECTION VI. 

USE OF THE SUliJUNCTIVE 

483. Tlic Subjunctive rcprcsoiitstlie action of tlio verb, 
not as an actual Ihct, but as sonicthinj^ supjtoscd or con- 
ceived. It may denote lliat tlie action i^ conceived, 

1. Am Possible, J'otential. 

2. Ah Desirable. 

n. As a Purix^sc or Kcsult. 

4. As a ("oiidition. 

5. As a Coiu'cssion. 

G. As a Cause or Itcason. 

7. As an Jiulircct Question. 

8. As dciieiuleut ui)()n anotlicr subordinnto notion : (1) Py At- 
traction atter another iSiibjunctivo, (2) la Indirect Discourse. 

484. Variktiks. — The Subjunctive in its various uses 
may accordingly be characterized as follows : 

I. The Potential Subjunctive. 
II. The Subjunctive of Desin'. 

III. The Subjunctive of Purpose or Kcsult 

IV. The Subjunctive of (Condition. 
V. The Subjunctive of Concession. 

VI. The Subjunctive of Cause or Keason. 
VII. The Subjunctive in Indirect (Questions. 
VIII. The Subjunctive by Attraction. 
IX. The Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse. 



1 , 



1, 



i\ If 

U 



10 Latin 
cceding 



I. The Potential SunjuNcriVE. 
EULE XXXVIII-Potential Subjunctive. 

485. The Potential Subjunctive re2:>rescnts the ac- 
tion not as real, but ix'^ possible : 

Forsitun quacratis, Perhaps you may inquire. Cic. IIoo nemo dixe- 
v\t^ No one would say this. Cic. Iluic cedamus, hujus condltiOncs audia- 
rnus, Shall we yield to hiw, shall tve listen to his terms ? Cic. Quid 
dubitet (= nOmo dubitat), H7io would doubt, or who doubts (= no one 
doubts) ? Cic. Quid faccrein, What was I to do, or iohat should I have 
done ? Virg. 

486. ArPLicATioN of the Rule. — In the Potential 
sense, the Subjunctive is used, 



22i 



rOTICNTIAL SUItJU^ftTIV'U. 






f. fii Dcclnratlcc S( utiiu'csAo cxi>rcsH nn wWunwAumilouhtfidhj 
or comlUionaUij^ as in the Hi>t ami .socoiul cxainplos. 

II. Ill Qnoftiona o/Apjxa!,^ to ni'k not what in, Imt what in(nj 
he or nlundil h<% trcncraliy iniplyliij,' a negative answer, as in the 
last c.\anii»le nnder the rnle. 

III. In Siihonl incite Claiit<rti, whatever tlic connective, to rep- 
resent the action ns 2>o8sible rather than rati: 

QiiiiiiKiuaiti fpulis citroat sf-ncctiis, tliotufh oH aae may he without ita 
J'nists. Cic. Qurmiaiii noii po^si-nt, xincc tlmj uoiitd not l/c able. Cues. 
Ubi res poscCrct, whenever the case might diniand. \a\. 

Hire the Siilijiinctlvc nftir ii>i(tm<jiiani, (juiniimn, and I'lt'i, In entirely lnil«'|K'n- 
(loiit oftliiin' (•cnjiinctioiiy. In this way iiiiiiiy conjuiiftloiis which do iKtt iLMitiiri- tlii: 
Hulijimc'tivi', udiifit that iikkkI whuifViT the thought roniiircs it. 

1. Uhe of the roTKNTiAi- SiBJt NCTiVE. — This f^ubjunctivo, it will be 
observed, has a wide npplicutioii, and is used in almost all kinds of sen- 
tences and clauses, wbethcr declarative or intcrrofjativo, principal or sub- 
ordinate, whether introduced by conjunctions or relatives. 

2. J/ow rendered. — T lie Potential ►Subjunctive is generally best rendered 
by our Potential signs — may, can, viud, mitjht, etc., or by shall or will. 

3. Inclination. — Tbc Subjunctive sometimes denotes inclination : 
Ego censeam, I should thini,', or I am inclined to think. Liv. 

4. l.Mi'KnFiXT FOR Plci'erfect. — In the Potential sense, tbc Impcrfecfc 
is often used wbeie we should expect tbe Pluperfect: ^/J^'^/'t*, you would 
have said ; cridi res, 2nitdnfi, you would bave thought; vidi-rcs, ccrnircs, you 
would have scon -. 

Mocsti, credircs victos, rtdcunt in castra, Sad, vanqitished you tcottld 
have thought them, they returned to the carnji. Liv. 

5. Si'BJUNCTivE OF REPEATED AcTioN. — Subordinate clauses in narration 
sometimes take the Subjunctive to denote that tbe action is often or indiji- 
mie^y repeated. Thus with hbi, whenever, quvties, as often as, quleunqnCy 
whoever, vt qiiisquc, as each one, and the like : 

.Id fCtialis ubi dixisset, hastam mittebat, The fetial priest was wont to 
hurl a spear whenever (i. e., every time) he had said this. Liv. 

C. Present and Perfect. — In the Potential Subjunctive the Perfect 
often has nearly the same force as the Present : 

Tu Platonem laudilveris, You icould praise Plato, Cic. 

1) TIio Porfect with the force of the rrosent occurs also in eomc of the other 
uses of the Sul)jimctive. 

7, Conditional Sentences. — The Subjunctive in the conclusion of con- 
ditional sentences is the Potential Subjunctive, but conditional sentences 
will be best treated by themselves. See 502. 

* These arc also variously called DcUheratire, BouMhiff, or Rhetorical 
Questions. 



sunjrxmvK. 



II. The Subjunctive of Desire. 



225 



« 






RULE XXXIX-Desire, Command. 

487. Tlio Subjunctive of Dc-irc represents tlic ac- 
tion not as real, but as dcaired : 

Vdleant elves, Mau the citizens be tcclf. ("ic. AniCmus piitriani, Lit u» 
love our eountr)/. Cic. IJobuio fitfire, Use your strength. Ck'. i^ciibero 
lie pijjM-Ore, Do not neglect to write. Cic. 

488. AiTLicATiox OF TUE RuLE. — Tlio Siibjiiiictivo of Dcsiro 
is used, 

I. To express a wisir, aa in j)r(tycr.% exhortations^ and entrea- 
ties^ tis ill tlio tirst and second cxanii)le3. 

II. To express a COMMAND mildly, as in admonitions, pi'ccQit'f, 
and warni?i(/s, as in the third and fourth examples. 

1. 'WiTii Utixam.— The Subjunctive of Desire is often accompanied by 
titiHnm, and sonictluies— especially in tbe poets, by vt, si, osi : 

Utlnani conuta cfl'icfiro possini, Ma^ I be a' '<i to necomplisJi, my endeaV' 
ors. Cic. 

2. Force of Tenses. — The Present and Perfect imply that the wish may 
be fulfilled ; the Imperfect and Pluperfect, that it cannot be fultilled : 

Sint b( uti, Jfa)/ they be happy. Cic. No transiSiis Il.Crum, Do not cross 
the I'Jivo. Liv. Utlnani posseni, utfnam potuissem, Would that I were able, 
would that I had been. able. Cic, See uL-^o -180. 0. 1). 

The Iniporfoct and riiipcrfect may often bo best rendered, should have been, 
ought to hare hecn : 

lice dIciTot. He fihould have said this. Cic. Mortem opputiisscs 3'o" should 
hare met deatti. Cic. 

3. Xeoative Ne. — Witli this Subjunctive tlic negative is ne, rarely non : 
Ne audeant, Let them not dare. Cic. Non iccCcIanuis, Let us not recede. 

Cic. 

4. In AssEVERATiONS.^Thc first person of the subjunctive is often found 
in earnest or solemn affirmations or asseverations : 

MSriar, si piito, May I die, if I think. Cic. Ne sitn salvus, si scribo, 
May I not be safe, if I write. Cic. 

So with ita and sic: SoUicItat, Ita vivam. As Ilice, it troubles me. Cic. 

Hero ita vicain means literally, may I so live, i. e., may I live only in case this 
is true. 

T). In Relative Clauses. — The Subjunctive of desire is sometimes used 
in relative clauses : 

Quod faustum sit, reijem create. Elect a kinri, and may it he an auspicious 
event (may which bo auspicio is). Liv. SSucctus, ad quam utinam pcrvenia- 
tis, old age, to which may you attain. Cic. 
10* 



i 



t 'I 



■1 



f ■■i 



22G SUBJUNCTIVE. 

III. SuBJUXCTIv'E OF PURPOSE OR ReSULT. 

RULE XL.— Purpose or Eesult. 

4S9. Tlie Sul)jiiiictive of Purpose or Result Ib used, 

I. With ut, ne, quo, quin, quominus ; 

Purpose. — Enititur ut vincat, J/e stvlccs that he may conquer. Cic. 
PCmit ne pcccGtur, He punisli^ that crime ma^ not be committed. Sen. 

Resilt. — Itavixit ut AtliGniensIbus Ciset ciirissimus, lie so lived that he 
was v(nj dear to the Athenians. Nep. 

II. With qui = ut is, ut ^go, tu, etc. : 

PuRi'osK. — Missi sunt, qui {ttt it) consulSrcnt Apollincui, They were 
sent to consult Apollo (who shoukl or that they shoukl). Nop. 

Result. — Non is sum qui {ut ego) his utar, / am not such an one as to 
vse these things. Cic. 

1. Ut with the Subjunctive sometinies foriuj wWb /acio, or cigo. rarely •with est 
a circumlocution for the Indicative: fueio nt ■llnam = dlco; fdcio ut, dcrVnun ~ 
Bfribo; InvTtiis facio ut rocorilcr, / umcillinghj recall. Cic. ' 

Conjunctions of Purpose or Ilcsult. 

490. Ut and Ne. — Ut and «e arc the regular c<;njunc- 
tious in clauses denoting Purpose or Result. Ct and ne 
denote Purpose ; ut and ut non, Result. 

1. With connective ne becomes neve,, neic, rarely ndque. NGve, nen, = ant ne or 
(t ne: LCgem tulit nOquis ftccusfinltur nGve muitfirCtur, Jle proposed a laio that no 
one should he accused or punished. Nep. 

491. Pure Purpose. — Tit and no — that.^ in order that., 
that not., in order that not., lest, etc. — are used after Aerbs 
of a great variety of significations to express simply the 
Purpose of the action. A correlative — Ideo, idcircc, etc. 
— may or may not precede : 

LC'snrn idcirco scrvi sunius, ut llberi esse possTmus, We arc servants 
of the law for this reason, thai toe may be free. Cie. See also the examples 
under the Rule. 

, 492. Mixed Purpose. — In their less obvious applica- 
' tions, ut and ne are used to denote a Purpose which par- 
takes more or less of the character of a Direct Ohject, 
sometimes of a Subject, Predicate or Appositive — Mixed 
Purpose. Tluis with verbs and exi)ressions denoting 

1. Effort. — striving for a purpose ; attaining a pnrposc : 

nitor, coutendo, stiideo, — euro, id ago, opoi'um do, etc., fucio, cfTicio, 
impetro, cous6quor, etc. : 



PURPOSE OR RESULT. 



227 



Contendit, iit vincat, He strives to conquer. Cic. Curiivi ut bfinc vivo- 
rem, J took care to had a good life. Sen. Efl'Ocit ut impCrator mitterOtur, 
He caused a cominaiider to be sent (attained his purpose). Nep. JJut see 4U5. 

2. Exiio^TATiox, Impulse — urging one to effort : 

admoneo, nioneo, liortor, — cogo, inipello, moveo, — oro, rogo, — impcro, 
f>raecipio, etc. : 

Te liortor ut ICgas, I exhort you to read. Cic. MdvCmur ut boui simus. 
We are influenced to he good, Cic. Tc rogo ut euni juvcs, I cu>l' you, to aid 
him. Cic. Sec also 551. II. 1 and 2; 5u8. VI. 

3. Desike and its Expkessiox : hence decision., decree, etc. : 

opto, postulo, — ccnsco, dccerno, statuo, constltuo, etc. — rarely volo, 
nolo, malo : 

Opto ut id audiatirf, I desire (pray) that yon may hear this. Cic. 86na- 
tus ceusufirat, uti Acduos dofenderet. The stuate had decreed that he should 
defend the Aedui. Caes. See 551. II. and 558. II. and VI. 

4. Fear, Danger : 

mctuo, timco, vereor, — periciilum est, cura est, etc. : 

Timeo, ut sustlneas, I fear you will not endure them. Cic. Vfircor ne 
laborcm augeam, J fear that I shall increase the labor. Cic. 

1) By a Difference of Idiom vt must hero be rendered that not, and ne by that 
or h-fif, Tlic Latin treats tbo clause as a wish, a desired purpose. 

2) After verbs of feariug ne non is sometimes used for ut, regularly so after 
negative clauses: Vereor ne non possit, I fear that he v:ill not he able. Cic. 

y) After verbs of fearing, especially tV/'eo>', tbo inliiiitivo is sometimes used: 
Vereor luudfire, I fear (hesitate) to j)raise. Cic. 

493. Peculiarities. — Expressions of Purpose present 
tlie following peculiarities: 

1. Ut nc^ rarely tit non, is sometiuies used for ne : 

Pracdixit, ut ne legates dimittftrent, Ife charged them not to (that they 
should not) release the delegates. Ncp. Ut plura non dicam, not to say more, 
i. e., that I may not. Cic. 

2. Ut is sometimes omitted, especially with Tola, nolo, indlo, 
facio., and verbs of directing, m-ging, etc. Xc is often omitted 
with cave : 

Tu vfilim sis, I desire that you may he. Cic. Fac habeas, see (make) that 
you have. Cic. SenStus dccrevit, darent operam consulos, TJie senate de- 
creed that the consuls should see to it. Sail. Sec also 535. 1, 2). 

3. Clauses with Ut and Ke may dei)end upon a noun or upon 
a verb omitted : 

FC'cit ])acem hiscondltiriuTbus, no qui alTTcerentur exsTlio, Ilemade peace 
on these terms, that none should be punished with exih. Nop. Ut It a dicam, 
so to speak (that I may speak thus). Cic. This is ol'teu inserted in a sen- 
tence, like the English so to speak. 



■ v 1 



t 



I 



228 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



_ 4. Nedum and Ke in the sense of mncli hx9, not to say, are used 
with tlie Subjunctive: 

Vix in tcctis frlgiis vitiitur, nCdum in mari sit fiicTlc, TJie coldis avoiicd 
tvitli dijJicitUy in our houses, much hss is it easy {to avoid it) on the sea. Cic. 

494. Pure Result. — Ut and ut iion — so that, so that 
not — are often used with the Subjunctive, to express simply 
a Ilesult or a Consequence : 

Ita vixit ut Athcniensibus cssct curissimus, He so lived thai he was 
very dear to the Athcnietns. Nep. Ita laudo, ut non pcrtTmescain, / to 
praise as not to fear. Cic. 

A correlative— J/rt in these examples— generally precedes : thus, )ta, ,«/c, /«???, 
tldco, tantopcre,— talis, iantus, ejusnivdi. 

495. Mixed Result. — In their less obvious applica- 
tions, ut and ut own are used with the Subjunctive to de- 
note a, Ilesult Avhich partakes of the character of a Direct 

Object^ /Subject, I'redicate, or A22^ositive : Thus 

1. Clauses as Object axd Eesult occur wWhfacio, cffUio, of 
the action of irrational forces: 

Sol cfTicit ut omnia flurcant, The sun causes all things to Ihoin, i. c, 
produces that result. Cic. Sec 492. 1. 

2. Clauses as Subject and Eesui.t occur -with impersonal verbs 
signifying it ha2^2^cns^ remains^ folloics, is distant, etc. : 

accidit, contingit, Gvcnit, fit, rcstat, — sCquitur, — abcst, etc. 

Fit ut quisque dClcctctur, The result is (it ha^p'pen!i) that every 07ie is 
delighted. Cic. SSquItur ut falsum sit, It follows that it is false. Cic. 

1) The Subjunctive is sometimes, though rarely, used when the predi- 
cate is a Noun or Adjective with the copula sum : 

Mos est ut nolint, It is their custom not to be willing (that they are un- 
willing). Cic. Proximum est, ut dCceam, The next point is, that I shoiv. 
Cic. Sec 556. I. 1 and 2. 

2) Subjunctive Clauses with vt, in the form of questions expressive of 
surprise, sometimes stand alone, by the omission of some predicate, as ere- 
dcndum est, verisimile est, is it to be credited, is it probable? 

Tu ut unquam tecorrigas, that you should ever reform? i. c., Is it to be 
supposed that you will ever reform ? Cic. 

3) See also 55G with its subdivisions. 

8. Clauses as Appositive and Result, or Predicate and 
Result, occur with Demonstratives and a few Nouns : 

Hiibot hoc virtus ut delcctct, Virtus has this advantage, that it delights. 
Cic. Est hoc vitiura, ut iuvidia gluriao comes sit, 77icre is this fault, that 
envy is the companion of glory. Iscp. 



runposE OK KEteUi/r. 



229 



' one IS 



AND 



496. PeculIxVkities. — Expressions of Result present 
the following peculiarities : 

1. Ut is sometimes omitted, regularly so with ajwrtct, generally 
with <j2)us est and neccsse est: 

Te oportct virtus truhat, It is necessary that virtue should attract you. 
Cic. Causam hubcat nuccssc est, It is necessary that it should have a cause. 
Cic. 

2. The Subjunctive occurs with Quam — with or without ut: 

LibSralius quam ut posset, too freely to he able (more freely than so as to 
be able). Nep. ImponCbat amplius quam fcrre possent, lie imposed more 
than they icere able to bear. 

3. Tantum ahcsf. — Aficr tantum dlcst ut, denoting result, a 
second ut of result sometimes occurs : 

Philosophia, tantum abcst, ut laudotur ut ctiam vituperGtur, So far is it 
from, the truth (so much is wanting), that philosoj^hy is 2)raised that it is even 
censured. Cic. 

497. Quo. — Quo, hy tchich, that, is sometimes used 
for ut, especially with comparatives : 

Medico diiro quo pit studiOsior, to give to the physician, that (by this 
means) he may be more atlcnlivc. Cic. 
P'or non quo of Cause, see 520, 3. 

498. Quix. — Quin (qui and ne), by ichieh not, that 
not, is often used to introduce a Purpose or Result alter 
negatives and interrogatives implying a negative. Thus 

1. Quin is often used in the ordinary sense of ne and ut non: 

RetTneri non poterant, quin tela conjiccrent. They could not he re- 
strained from hurling (that they might not) their weapons. Caes. Nihil est 
tarn difficile quin {ut non) investigari possit, 2^othing is so difllcult that it 
may not be investigated. Ter. 

iVfter verbs of hindering, opposing, and the like, qxiin has the force of ne. 

2. Quin is often used after Nemo, Kullus, Nihil, Quis? 

Adest nemo, quin videat, Tlt.ere is no one present who does not see. Cic. 
Quis est quin cernat, Who is there who does not perceive ? Cic. 
Is or /(/ is sometimes expressed after quin : 
Nihil est quin id intereat, There is nothing which does not perish. Cic. 

3. Quin is often used in the sense of that, Int that, irithout 
with a participial noun, especially after negative expressions, im- 
plying doubt, uncertainty, omission, and the like: 

Non est dubium quin bdnef icium sit, There is no doubt that it is a bene- 
fit. Sen. Nullum intermisi diem quin aliquid darem, I allowed no day to 



>v 



2S0 



SUBJUXCTIVE. 



I 
i 



pas.", without fji*:in(i somdJdng. Cic. Fac6re non possum qnin littfiras mit- 
tam, I cannot hut send a letter. Cic. 

1) Such exprossious arc: non dubito, non dubium est— non multum abcst, pau- 
liim ilbcst, nihil abcst, quid abcst?— non, vix, ac;u're abi-tinco; mlhl non Icnipcro; 
non, nihil i)racferinilto — lacrTc non jiossuni, liOri non potest. 

2) The Infinitive, for Quin with the Subjunctive, occurs with verbs of doubtin;,' : 
Quis dubitat patCrc Kuropam, Who doubts that Europe is exposed t Curt. 

3) yon Quin of Cause. Sec 520. 3. 

4) Quin is used in questions in the sense of why not t and with the Imperative 
in the sense of well, hut: Quin agitc, hut come. Virg. It occasionally means naij, 
even, rather. 

499. QuoMiNus. — Quominus (quo and minus), tJiat 
t/ms the less, that not, is sometimes used for ??eand ut non, 
lifter verbs of hindering, opposing, and the like : 

Xon dctcrrct supicntcm mors viuuminus rcipublicac consulat, Death docs 
not deter a wise man from deliberating for the republic. Cic. Non recQsavit, 
quominus poenam suljirct, lie did not refuse to submit to pimishmcrit. Xcp. 
Per cum stctit quominus dimicarOtur, It zvas owing to him (stood through 
him), that the engagement was not made. Cues. 

1. ilxpressions of hinlcring, etc., are: dcterreo, impedio, prohibco, — obsto, 
obsio' o, oftinio, — reciiso, i)er nic slat, etc. 

2. Verbs of hindering admit a variety of constructions : the Infl»itive, the Sub- 
junctive with vt, ne, quo, quin, or qzir'niuius. 



Relative of Purpose or Result. 

500. A Relative Clause denoting a Purpose or a Re- 
sult is equivalent to a clause with ut, denoting purpose or 
result, and takes the Subjunctive for tlie same reason. The 
relative is then equivalent to ut with a pronoun : qui = ut 
ego, ut tu, ut is, etc. : 

Purpose. — Missi sunt qui (ut ii) consuldrcut Apollmcm, Tlicg %vcrc sent 
to considt Apollo {who should, or that they should). Ncp. Missi sunt dulecti 
qui Thermopylas occuparcnt, Picked men tvere sent to take possession of 
Thermopylae. Nep. 

Resitlt. — Xon is sum qui (= nt ego) his utar, I am not such a 07ie as to 
use these things. Cic. Innocentia est alFcctio trdis animi, quae (= ut ea) ii6- 
ceat nemnii, Innocence is such a slate of mind as injures no oiie, or as to in- 
jure no one. Cic. 

1. Relative Pauticles. — The subjunctive is used in the same way in clauses 
introduced by relative particles ; iibi, nndc,e.tc.: 

Domum ubi habitaret, legit, lie selected a house that he might dwell in it 
(where ho might dwell). Cic, 



PURPOSE OR RESULT. 



231 



Sras mit- 

bcst, j)au- 
tcmpcro; 

doubting' : 
Curt. 

tiiiicrutive 
caus nan, 

;), that 
lit no7iy 

)calh (Iocs 

ecusfivit, 

?nt. Xcp. 

through 

CO,— obsto, 
e, the Sub- 



r a Re- 
pose or 



. The 
ut 



n 



were sent 
it (iGlecti 
fusion of 

one as to 
d ea) no- 
OS to in- 

in clauses 
well in it 






2. PrnposE and IlEstTLT. — Relative clauses denoting purpose arc readily recog- 
nized; tliose denoting result arc used, in their more obvious apiilications, after bi;c1i 
words as tarn, so ; talis, in, ejuHinbdi, sueh,a3 in the above cxauij)'.e3 ; but see also TjOI. 

3. Indicative after Talis, etc.— In a relative clause after talis, is, etc., the 
Indicative is sometimes used to give prominence to the fact : 

Mihi causa tfdis oblata est, in qua urfitio dcesse nCuiini potest, aS'kcA a cause haa 
been offered me, (one) in which nc one can fail of an oration. Clc. 

£01. Relative clauses ot* Result, in their less obvious 
applications, include, 

I. Relative clauses after Indefinite and General antecedents. 
Hero tam.^ tCilis, or sonic .such word, may often be .siiMpliod : 

Nunc dicis aliquld {ejitsmodi, or talc) quod ad rem pert meat, A^oiv you 
state something ichich belongs tothe subject (i. e., son-.tthing of such a charac- 
ter as to belong, etc.) Cic. Sunt qui puteut, there :.;"c mine who think. Cic. 
Nemo est qui non cupiat, there is no one who docs not desire, i. e., such as not 
to desire. Cic. 

1. In the same way quod, or a relative particle, I'ibi, nndc, quo, evr, etc.. with 
the Suhjunciive, is used after CNt, there is reason, non est, nihil est, there is no reason, 
quid eat, what reason is there ? non hdheo, .lihil hdbei\ I have no reason: 

Est quod gaudcas. There is reason why you should rejoice, or so that you way. 
Plaut. Non est quod crOdas, There /.s no reason why you fihould believe. Sen. 
Nihil habeo, quod incfisem sCucctutem, / hate no reason why I should accuse old 
age. Cic. 

2. Indicative after Indefinite Antecedknt. — A Relative clause after an 
indeflnitc antecedent also takes the Indicative, when the fact Itself is to be made 
prominent : 

Sunt qui non audent dlcire, There are some who (actually) do not dare to 
speak. Cic. Multa sunt, quae dici possnnt, There are many things which tnay be 
said. Cic. So also clauses with Rel. particles. See 1 above. 

In poetry and late prose the Indicative often follows sunt qui : 

Sunt quos juvat, there are some tchom it delights, llor. 

3. Restrictive Clai'Ses v.ith quod, as quod sciam, as Hir as I know ; quod 
m^mlncritn, as far as I remember, etc., take the subjuuctive. 

II. Relative clauses after Unus, Siihis, and the like, take the 
subjunctive: 

Sapicntia est una, quae mocstitiam pcllat, Wisdom is the only thing 
which dispels sadness (such as to di.spel). Cic. SoH centum Crantqui crcari 
possent, T7iere tccre only ons hundred who could be appointed (such that 
they could be). Liv. 

III. Relative clauses after Dlgniis^ Indigtius, IdOnciis, and Ajj- 
tus take the subjunctive : 

Fabulac dignac sunt, quae lej^antur, The fables are worthy to he read 
(that they should bo read). Cic. Rufiim Caesar idoneum judlcavorat queni 
mittfire' Caesar had judged Rufus a suitable person to send (whom he might 
send). Caes. 



1 I 

I 



2 -'3 2 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



IV. Relative clauses after Comparatives with Quam take the 
subjunctive : 

Damna mnjora sunt quam quae ( = nt ea) acstimiiri possint, T?ic losses 
are too great to be estimated (greater than so that they can be). Liv. 



!^' 



iV. Subjunctive of Condition. 

502. Every conditional sentence consists of two dis- 
i\\V't parts, expressed or understood, — the Condition and 
the Co?ichtsion : 

Si negom, rncntiar, If I should deny it, I should speak falsely. Cic. 
Here si ncrjcm, is tlio condition, and madiar^ the conclusion. 



•! 



I 



EULE XLI.— Subjunctive of Condition. 

503. The Subjunctive of Conditioii is used, 

I. Witli dum, modo, dummodo; 

Muncnt ir.genia, mode pcrmilncat indiistria, Mental powers rcmai}i, if 
only industry remains. Cic. 

II. With ac si, ut si, quasi, quam si, tanquanij tanquam si, 
volut, velut si: 

CrudC'lIti'itcm, vulut si iidossct, liorrebant. They shuddered at his cruelty^ 
as if he were present. Ca.os. 

III. Sometimes with si, nisi, ni, sin, qui = si is, si quis : 

Dies def Iciat, si vfilini U''.merare, The day uvidd fail me, if I shoidd 
wish to recount, Cic. Iraprobe fccoris, nisi munueris, You woidd do -wrong, 
if you shoidd not give warning. Cic. Si voluissct, dimicasset. If he had 
wished, he would have fought. Nop. 

1. Si Omitted. — Two clanses without any conjunction some- 
times have the force of a conditional sentence : 

Nfigat quis n6go, Does any one deny, I deny. Ter. RSges niG, nihil re- 
spondeam, Should you as/c me, 1 ■should make no reply. Cic. See also Imper- 
ative, 535. 2. 

2. Condition Supplied. — The condition may bo supplied, 

1) "Q J Participles : Non pStcstis, voluptato omnia dliigcntcs {si dlrlgi' 
tis), I'fitlnere virtutem, You cannot retain your manhood, if you arrange all 
things with reference to pleasure. Cic. 

2) By Obliqne Cases; NCmo muc spe (nisi spem hUheret) so offerret ad 
mortem, No one without a hope (if he had not u hope) would expose himself 
to death. Cic. 



8 8 



8 S 



CONDITIONAL SKM'KXCES. 



20.'] 



:akc the 
The losses 

V. 



WO dis- 
lon and 

I. Cic. 



'cmahi, if 

qnam si, 

lis crucltiij 

is: 

I should 
do 'wrong, 
If he had 

311 somc- 

e, nihil re- 

Iso Impev 

lied, 

(si dlrigi- 
rrangc all 

ifferrct ad 
se himself 



3. Irony.— The condition is Bometimcs ironical, cspociuUy wii'u nlxl 
vlro, nisi forte with the Indicative, and with (juasi, quasi v'ero with the 
I'rcscnt or Perfect Subjunctive: 

Nisi forte iusuuit, nnhns perhaps he is insane, Cic. Quasi vCro neccsse 
sit, as if indeed it were neccssari/. Cac3. 

4. Ita— SI, zTC.—Ita—si, so— if, moans only— if Siqxldem, if indeed, 
sometiiiK's has nearly the force of since. 

5. Et OMiTTiii). — See 587. I. 0. 

604. Force of Tenhes. — In conditional sentences tlio 
Present and Perfect tenses represent tlie siipposilioii as not 
at all improbable, the Inipertect and I'liipert'ect represent 
it as contrary to tlie fact. Sec examples above. See also 
470 to 478. 

1. ruESENT FOR Imperfecy. — Tho Proscut Subjunctive is sometimes used 
for the Imperfect, when a condition, in itself contrary to reality, is still con- 
ceived of as possible : 

Tu si hie sis, aliter scntias, If you tcerc the one (or, should be), you would 
think differently. Ter. 

V 2. Imperfect for Pluperfect. — The Imperfect Subjunctive is some- 
times used for the Pluperfect, with the nice distinction that iteonteinplateii 
tlic supposed action as going on, not as completed : 

Num Oplmiuin, si turn esses, temfirarium civem putarcs? Would you 
think Opimius an audacious citizen, if you were living at that time (Pluperf. 
would you have thought — if you bad lived) ? Cic. 

505. DuM, M'JDO, Du^nioDO. — Dnm, niodo, and dum- 
modo, iai conditions, liave the force of — rf onli/ 2^>'0Vi'dcd 
that, or with ne, if only not.^ provided that not : 

Dum res manoant, verba fingant. Let them make tvords, if only the facts 
remain. Cic. Modo permaneat industria, if only industry remains. Cic. 
Dummodo repellat periculum, provided he may avert danger. Cic. Modo nc 
laudarent, if only they did not praise. Cic. 

AVhen not used in conditions, those conjui.v.tioiiS often adnait the indicative: 

Dum le^-cs vigCbaut, while the laws ice re in force. Cic. 

503. Ac ST, Ut si. Quasi, etc. — Ac si, nt si, qnam si, 
quasi, tanqnara, tanqnani si, velut, velut si, involve an 
ellipsis of the real conclusion : 

Miserior cs, quam si oculos non habCros, You arc more unhappy than 
(esses, you would be) if you had not eyes. Cic. Crudelitatom, v61ut si ades- 
set, horrObant, I'hey shuddered at his cruelty as (they would) if he ivcre pres- 
ent. Cacs. Ut si in suam rem aliena convertantj as if they should appropri- 
ate others^ possessions to their oicnvse. Cic. Tanquam audiant, as if they 
may hear. Sen. 

Ceu and Slct'iti are fionietimes used in the fianl0^vay : 

Ceu bulla foront, as if (here were icar^, Virg. Sicuti aiidiri possont, as if they 
vould be heard. Sail. 



x-'i 



I 



234 



SUDJUJSXTIVE. 



1 ■ 



507. Si, Tsisi, Ni, Sin, Qui. — The Latin distinguishes 
tlii'cc distinct Ibrms of the conditional sentence with Sf\ 
maiy 71 i J sin: 

I. Indicative in Loth Clauses. 
II. Subjunctive, Present or Perfect, in both Clauses. 
III. Subjunctive, lni2)eriect or Pluperfect, in botli 
Clauses. 

508. First Form. — Indicative in both Clauses. — This 
form assumes the Rupj)osed case as real^ basing upon it 
any statement Avhicli would be admissible, if it were a 
known fact : 

Si hacc civitas est, civis sum ego, If this is a statc^ I am a citizen. Cic. 
Si non Ilccbat, non noccsse erat, Jf it tvas not lawful, it was not necessary. 
Cic. Dulorcm si non putcro frangurc, occultubo. If I shall not be able to 
overcome sorrov\ I will conceal it. Cic. I'arvi sunt foiis arraa, nisi est 
consilium dunii, Arms are of little value abroad, unless there is wisdom at 
home. Cic. 

1. Condition. — The condition is introduced, when aflirmative, hy si, 
with or without otlier particles, as quidcm, mudo, etc., and when negative, 
by si non, nisi, ni. The time may be cither present, past, ov future. See 
examples above. 

2. CoNCLi'siON. — The conclusion may take the form of a command : 
Si peccTvi, ignosce, Jf I have erred, pardon me. Cic. 

3. Si non. Nisi. — Si non and nisi are often used without any percepti- 
ble dili'crence of meaning ; but strictly si non introduces the negative con- 
dition on which the conclusion depends, while nisi introduces a qualijica- 
tion or an exception. Thus in the second example above the meaning is. 
If it teas not lawful, it follows that it tvas not necessary, while in the fourth 
the meaning is, Arms are of little value abroad, except when there is wisdom 
at home. 

509. Second Form. — Subjunctive Present or Perfect in 
both Clauses. — This form assumes the condition impossible: 

Ilacc si tecum patria 16quatur,nonne impctnire del)eat, If your country 
.should speak thus with you, ovyht she not to obtain her request? Cic. Im- 
prubc I'Gcuris, nisi munueris, You would do wrong, if you shotdd not give 
warniug. Cic. See also examples under the Rule, 503 ; also 486. 7. 

When dependent upon a Historical tense, the Present and Perfect are 
of course generally changed to the Imperfect and Pluperfect, by the law for 
Sequence of tenses (480). 

Mfituit ne, si iret, retrahcrCtur, He feared lest if he should go, he might 
be brought back. Liv. 



(ON 1> ITI O N A L S K NT K NC ' KS. 



235 



miijlit 



510. Third Form. — Suhjunctlro Imperfect or Pluper- 
fect in both t'kiiises. — Tliis lonii assumes tlu' su])posc(l case 
as contrary to the r'cdity^ and simply states what would 
liave been llie result, iftlio condition had been i'uHilled: 

Sapii'iitia non cxputcretur, si niliil ciTlccret, Wmlom vouhl not be 
sovfjht (as it is), if it accomplished tiothiiKj. Cic. »^i optima tenCiv possC- 
miis, hand sane conslllo o;:;CrC'inus, If vc were afi/r to tifciirc the hi</hist 
(joody ire should )ii>t iiideid need coniiscl. Cic. SI vuluisvet, dliiik-assct, // 
he had vished, he irou/d have fou(/ht. Nip. XiiiKiuain uMssot, nisi i-il>i 
viani niuiilvissct, I/c icotdd never have gonr^ if he had not prejMired for 
himself a wa*j. Cic. See also 4SC. 7. 

1. Here the Imperfect relates to Present time, ns in tlic first and second 
examples : the I'lKperfect to Past time, as in the third and fomlh exaniph-s. 

'1. In the Periphrastic forms in rtis and diis and in expressioTis of Duty, 
Kcccssit//, and Abiliti/, the Ptrftet and Impcrftct IiidicatUe sonielinies occnr 
in the conclusion. 

Quid futurum fuit, si plebs ai^itilri coepta casct, What ivonld have been 
the result, if the plebeians had begun to be agitated ? Liv. See also 51 -J, 2. 

1) When the context, irrespective of the condition, requires the Siilijiinelive, 
the tense remains unchanged witliout relVrence to the tense of tlie iirincipai vi rb : 

Aden est inopia coactus ut, nisi tiauiisset, Giiliiani rOpetiturus fui'iit., lie uas so 
Xireascd by tcavt tliat if he had notfatred, he irou/d hare nturncd to (iaiit. Liv. 

Here repHUilrus J'uerit isiu the Sul)j. not because it is in a conditional sentence, 
but because it is the Siibj. of Kesult with ut ; but it is in the Perfect, because, ir it 
Avcre not dependent, the Perfect Indicative would have beeu used. 

511. Mixed Fokms. — The Latin sometimes unites a 
condition belonsji-ino: to one oltbe three retjular ibnns with 
a conclusion belonging to anotlier, thus producing certain 
Mixed Forms. 

I. The Indicative sonietiincs occurs in the Condition with the 
Subjunctive in the Conclusion, but here the Subjunctive is gener- 
ally dependent not upon the condition, but upon the very nature 
of the thought : 

Pcrcam, si poterunt, May I perisli (subj. of desire, 487), if they shall 
be able. Cic. Quid timeam, si beiltus futurus sum, Why should I fear 
(4S0. II.), if lam to be happy f Cic. 

II. The Subjunctive sometimes occurs in tlie Condition with 
the Indicative in the Conclusion. Here the Indicative often gives 
the ellect of reality to tlio conclusion, even though in fact depend- 
ent upon contingencies; but see also 512 : 

Dies dOf icict, si velim causam dOfendere, The day icoxdd (will) fail 
me, if I should wish to defend the cause. Cic. Yiccramus nisi recCpisset 
Antonium, M'e had conquered, had he tiot received Antony. Cic. 



li 



230 



SUIJJUNCTIVE. 



8 



1. "'ho Future Indicative Is oltcn thus \xi,M in conscqiienco of Its noar rchition- 
Hlilp in I'oi'o to lliu Sulijunclive, as whatever is Tuturo is more or less contlni,'cut. 
Bee llrsl vx;ini|)le. 

2. Tlie lliiitorlcitl tenneM, csi»eclaily the Pluperfect, arc soniotlmes used, for effevt, 
to rei)resti)t as un actual faet soinethlii;,' which is shown by the context never ti) liavo 
hecoiDe fully so, as in the Liht fxaniple. 

8. Conditional sentences uiude uj) jiurtiy of the second J'orin (."09) and partly of 
the third arc rare. 

512. SuiiJUXCTiVE Axi> Indu'ativk. — The coMiLiiintioii 
ot'tlie Subjunctive in the Condition with llic Indicative hi 
the Conchision is oilcn oidy ai)[)arcnt. Thus 

1. When the trutli of tlio conclusion i.^ not in reality alTcctctl by lljo 
condition, us when si has tlu; force of even if, althoiKjh : 

Si hoc plilccat, tiimcu volunt, Even //"(although) this pleases them, thoj 
still ictKh. Cic. 

2. When that which stands as the conclusion U such only in appear- 
ance, the real conclusion being understood. This occurs 

1) With the Indicative o( Dibco, Posaiim, and the like: 

Qucm, si uUa in tc piCtasossct, colore dObObas, Whom you ougJd to have 
honored (and would have houored), if th^.c were any filial affection in you. 
C"c. Deleri exercitus potuit, si perso^uti victorcs csseut, The anny inljht 
liai" been destroyed (und would hav^ been), if the victors hadj/ursucd. Liv. 

2) With the Imperfect and Perfect Indicative of other verbs, especial- 
ly if in a periphrastic conjugation or accompanied by Pucnc or I'rdpe : 

Rfclicturi agros Crant, nisi litteras misissct, T7iey were about to leave their 
lands (and would have done so), had he not sent a letter. Cic. Pons iter 
paenc hoslibus dfidit, ni unus vir fuisset, T7iebrid(/e almost furnished apas- 
sage to the enemy (and would have done so), had there not been oneman. Liv. 

513. Relative txvot.vixg Coxdition. — The relative 
takes the subjunctive when it is equivalent to si or dum 
with the subjunctive : 

Errat longe, qui credat, etc., lie yreatly errs who supposes, etc., i. c., 
if or provided any one supposes, ho greatly errs. Tor. Ilaec qui vidcat, 
cogatur, If any one should see theae things, he tvould be compelled. V\c, 



i, 






Y. Subjunctive ix Coxcessiox-s. 

514. A concessive clause is one which concedes or 
admits somethinc:, generally introduced in English by 
though or althowjh : 

Quamquani intellTgunt, though they undersland. Cic. 



CONCKSSIOXS. 



237 



RULE XLIL- Subjunctive of Concession. 

515. Tho Su])janctivc of Concession is used, 

I. Willi licet, quamvis, quantumvis,— ut, ne, quum, alth()Uj;h : 

Licet inidout, plus tamcn ratio villohit, Thourjh he mmj deriilc, reason 
will yet avail more. Cic. Ut dOsint vires, tamon est luudauda volunta.^, 
Though the sti'tiifjthfalh^ still the icill should be approvLil. Ovid. 

II. V.'itli qui = quum (Itctt) is, quum iJgo, etc., tliougli he: 

Ahsolvite Verrcin, qui (quum is) sc fiitcatur liCciiulas cr-pif-^e, Acquit 
VcrreSf though he confesses (who may confess) that he has aceepted money. 
. Cic. 

III. Generally with etsi, tametsi, ^tiamsi : 

Quod scntiunt, et. i optlmuni sit, tamcn non audcnt dlc^re. They do 
not dare to state what they think, even if (though) it be most excellent. Cic. 

516. Concessive Clauses may be divided into three 
classes : 

I. Concessive Clauses with quamqnam in the best prose 
generally take the Indicative : 

Quamquam intellignnt, tamcn nunquam dicunt, Thoughthcy understand, 
they never speak. Cic. 

1. Tbo Sabjunctire- may of course follow quamquam. wlionovor the tliouirht 
Itself, irrespective of tlio concessive character of the clause, requires that mood ( t^^). 

2. The Subjunctive, even in the best prose, sometimes occurs with quamqnuia 
■wlicre we lUiould expect the Indicative: Quamquam ne id quidem suspIciOnem habu- 
trit, Though not even that gave rise to any su-spicion. Cic. 

3. In poetry and some of the later prose, the subjuncUvc with quamquam is not 
uncommon. In Tacitus it is tho prevailing construction. 

4. Quamqnam and efsi sometimes have tho force of ycf, but yet, and yet: 
Quamquam quid loquor, And yet what do Isayf Cie. 

II. Concessive Clauses with liccf, quamvis, qumitumv Is^ 
— i(t, iie, quum, although ; — qui = quum (or rtcet) is, ejo, 
tu, etc., take the Subjunctive : 

Non tu possis, quanturnvis cxcellas, J'ou iconld not he able, however much 
(although) you excel. Cic. No sit suramum m2him dolor, malum certe est, 
Tuou(jh pain may not bo the greatest evil, it is certainly an evil. Cic. Sec hlS. 

I. Ut and Ne. — This concessive use of vt and ne may readily be cx- 
])lained by supplying some verb like /ac or st/2^," thu3, w^ desint vires {7)\'>. 
I.) =fac or sine ut di'sint rlres, make or grant that strength fails. See -isO. 

The ConcrsHve Particle is sometimes omitted : 

Sed habeat, tamen, But grant that it has it, yet. Cic. 

Ut — SIC or ita, ai—co, though— yet, docs not require the subjunctive. 



'11 






■J 



I 



238 



SUIUUNCTIVi:. 



2. Qc.vMvia AM) QtJANTUMVis. — Tlicso nro strictly inlvorbs, in tlio scnso 
of houccer much, but tlu'v fifiu'rally j;ivi> to t!u« cliiuse tlio furco of ii coiicoa- 
sion. When u.it'd with tlirir siinj)lo adverbial force to «|ualify udjcctivcs, 
Ihoy do not allc'ct thi' mood of tho clause ; tpntmcU viulti, however many. 

8. iMooi) WITH Qi'AMVis.— Ill Cicero and tlie best prose, //uamiis takes 
the Subjunctive almost witiiout exception, fjcnerally also in Livy and Nepos; 
but ill tlic poets and hitor prose writers it otteii admits tlie Iiidicutive : 

Krat tliyiiltilte legia, (piamvis curCbat uomluo, J/c wan vj' royal dijnilij, 
tliOU'jh he ivax without the name. Nep. 

•1. Uelative IX CoNCEijsioxs. — Tlie relative dcnotinjij concession is equiv- 
alent to fled, or qnuin, iu the sense of thowjh, with a Demoustrutive or I'er- 
soiial pronoun, and takes the Subjunctive for the same reason : qui = iicat 
((piuui) lit, lied I'tjo, tu, etc. Sec examples under the Rule, 515. 

III. Concessive Chiiiseawitli tlie eonipomuls of si : rtsf\ 
ttlamsi, tiimetsl in tlie use of ]Moo(ls and Tenses conform 
to the rule for conditional clauses with si : 

Etsi nihil hibcat in so gloria, timcn virtQtcni .'^Cfpilliir, Though (jlory 
may not jws.nss aiiythi/i/j in itscl/y yd it folhic't virtue, Cic. Utiamsi mors 
opp6tenda cssct, cvtu i/ death ou<jht to hii nut, Cic. 

VI. Subjunctive of Cause and Time. 

RULE XLIII.-Subjunctivo of Cause. 
517. The Subjunctive of Cause or Reason is used, 

I. With quum (cum), since ; qui = quum is, etc. : 

Quum vita metus plena sit, since life is full of fear. Cic. Quae quum 
ita slnt, pcrge, Since these things are 6o, proceed. Cic. vis vrirltatia, 
fjuae {quum ea) se dGfcndat, the force of truth, since it defends Itself Cic. 

II. With quod, quia, quoniam, quando, to introduce a reason on 
anotlier'a authority : 

Socrates acctisiltus est, quod corrumperet juventutom, Socrates icas ac- 
cused, because (on the alleged ground that) he corrupted the youth. Quint. 



Ciiusal Clauses with Qmim and Qui. 

518. QruM. — Quum takes the Subjunctive •when it de- 
notes, 

I. Cause or Concession : 

Quum siiit in nobis ratio, pvudentia, since there is in us reason and pru- 
dence. Cic. Phocion fuit pauper, quum divltissimus esse posset, Phoeion 
was poor, though he might have been tcry rich. Ncp. See also 515. 



it dc- 



CAL'SE AND TIMi:. 



239 



11. Time wilh the acccssoiy notion of Cause or Con- 
cession : 

Quiuu <lliuIcSrot, ncclsus est, W/if^n he enifagfd hattk, he tcai slain. Nop. 
ZCiiuiii'm, quum Atliciiis csdcin, uiulicbaiu liciiuoiilcr, / a/lcu heard Zi.no, 
whtn I was at Athtng. Cic. 

1. QitM IN ^.\\\n\i\o-s,—Qnuin witli the Impcrfi'ct or riiipcifcct Siib- 
juiiclivL' is very I'miucut iu miiraliou even lu tuiiipuial cluuscs. boo cxuia- 
plos under 11. ubove. 

This uso of Quum with tho Subjiincllvo may in most Instances bo rcailily cx- 
j)Ialiioil l(y till! r.ict lluit it involves Ctiime as well as 7'itnc. Thn^ (juuin i/hittrih'et, 
ill the Hist c'xaiiiiiU', not only Htales tho time of tho action— occiMia cut, but also Its 
cau«L or occuttion: tho coKagonicnt was tho Oceanian of his death. So with quum 
tMseni, as prosonoo in Athons was an IndlsponsaMo condition of lioarin}; Zono. Hut In 
some instances the notion of Ciiime or Cuiicexsion is not at all apparent, 

2. Qt:uM WITH Tkmpis, etc.— C^^wwi with tho Siibjuuctivc is sometimes 
used to clmnictcrizc a period : 

Id sneculuin (|uiim i)leiia (Jraccia poClJIrum esset, that age whtn (such 
that) Grace wasJ'uU of pods. Cic. Erit tempus, (jmim dOsIdfires, the time 
will come, when you will. Ue.sire. Cic. So without tcmjjus, etc. : Fiiit '(uum 
arbitrSrer, there teas (a time) tvhen Ithomjht. Cic. 

3. Qltm mitii I.ndicative.— <2wwwi denoting tinie merely, with perhaps 
a few exceptions in narration, takes the Indicative : 

Quum (piiescunt, probant, While thy are quid, they approve, Cic. V^- 
ruit, quum uiScesse 6rat, He obeyed tvheii it was necessary. Cic. 

519. Qi'i, Cause or Reason. — A Rolativo clause de- 
noting cause or reason, is equivalent to a Causal chiiise with 
Quum, and. takes the Subjunctive for the same reason: 

fortunate iuhMcsccns, qui {qiinm tu) tnao virtilti.s IIomrMMmi praocO- 
ncm invOnr'ri.^, O fortunate youth, since you (lit. who) have obtained Jlorner 
as the herald of your valor. Cic. 

1. EynvALEKTS. — In such clauses, qui is equivalent to quum ego, quum 
tu, quum is, etc. 

2. I.N'DiCATivE. — When tho statement is to be viewed as a fact rather than 
as ft reason, the Indicative is used : 

IlSbeo sfinectuti grutiam, quae mihi scrmonis avldltatem auxit, I cherish 
gratitude to old age, ^vhich has increased my love of conversation. Cic. 

3. Qt;i WITH Conjunctions. — When a conjunction accompanies the rela- 
tive, the mood varies with the conjunction. Thus, 

1) The Subjunctive is generally used with quvin, quippc, iit, vtpofe: 
Quae quum Ita sint, since thet-e things are so. Cic. Quij)pc qui blandiu- 

tui', since hejlattcrs. Cic. Ut qui coloni cssent, since thy were colonists. Cic. 
But the Indicative is sometimes u;ied to give prominence to Wwfact. 

2) The Indicative is generally used with quia, quoniam: 

Quae quia certa ease non possunt, since these things cannot he sure. Cic. 
Qui qu6niam intelligi noluit, since he did not winh to be understood. Cic. 






n 



210 



SUBJU>;CT1VE. 






I 



I 



• \ 



\ 



Causal Clauses iclih Quod, Quia, Quoiiiaru, Quaialo. 

520. Quod, quia, quuniam, and quando generally take, 

1. Tlie Indicativ'e to assign a reason 2^osiiiccl>/ o?i one's 
oicn authority/ : 

Quoniam supplicutio docrct.a c.^t, since a IhanLvi'ivinrj lutR been decreed. 
Cic. (jiiiuie (luod Pi)ectant to, llcjokc that (bocau.-^o) theij behold >jou. llor. 

II. TliG SuBJUxcTiVE to assign a reason dord)t fully, or 
on another"^ s authority : 

Aristldcs nonne cxpulsus est patria, quod Justus o?sct, Wa^ not Arts- 
tides banished because (on the alleged ground that) he leas just? Cic. 

1. Quod with Dico, v.ic.—Dlco i\.x\(\puto are often in the Subjunctive 
instead of the verb depending upon them : 

Quod se bcllum gestures dicCrcnt =. quod helium gesturi cssciit, ut dice- 
bant, because they were about, as theu said, to wage tear. Caes. 

2. Clauses witu Qlou UxcoxNECTEn. See ool. IV. 

8. NoN Quo, KTC. — Noih quo, non quod, non quia, rarely 7}on quia, also 
quam quod, etc., are used with the Subjunctive to denote that something was 
not the true reason : 

Non quo haberem quod sciiberem, not because (that) / Itad anr^f/iinff to 
write. Cic. Non quod doleant, not because they are imined. Cic. Quia ne- 
quiverat quam quod ignoraret, because he had been unable, rather than because 
he did not knoiv. Liv. 

4. Potential Sl'ujunctive. See 4S5 and 4SG. 

EULE i.LIV.-Time with Cause. 

521. Tlio (Subjunctive of Time witii tlic accessory 
notion of Cause or Purpose is used, 

I. With dum, donoc, quoad, until: 

Exspcetas dum dicat, You are waiting till he speaks, i. c., that he may 
speak. Cic. Ea continebis quoad te vidcam, You will keep them till I see 
you. Cic. 

II. With antequam, priusquam, before, before that : 

Antequam de re publica dicam, oxponam consilium, I will set forth my 
plan before I (can) speak of tho. republic, i. c., preparatory to speaking 
of the republic. Cic, Priusquam ineipias, before you begin. Sail. 

1. Explanation. — Here the temporal clause involves purpose as well as 
tiTue : dum dleat is near'.y equivalent to uo dlcat, which is also often used 
lifter exspecto. Antequam dicam is nearly equivalent to vt postea dicam : 
I will set forth my views, that I may afterwards speak of the republic. 



CAUSE AM3 inJE, 



241 



mdo. 

ly take, 
i;i 071CS 

I decreed, 
lou. Ilor. 

'uUi/i or 

not Aris- 
;ic. 

bjuuctivc 
t, ut dice- 



quia, also 
thing was 

nij^tliing to 

Quill 116- 

an because 



cessory 



Lt he may 
till I see 



forth my 
speaking 

13 well as 
ten u.sed 
3 dicam • 
lie. 



2, With othei Conjunxtions. — The Subjunctive may of course bo used 
in any temporal clause, when the thought, irrespective of the temporal par- 
ticle, requires that mood; see 48'). III. 

Ubi res posceret, iv/wiueir the ettse uiiijld req"ii\. Liv. 

522. Du-Af, DoNKr, and Qload take 

I. Tlio Indicative^ — (1) in the sense of i('hih\ as lonff 
as, and (2) in the sense of u//fii, it'tlie aetiou is viewed as 
an actual fact: 

Dum IC'j^cs vTf^Oljant, f/.s- Iwnj ^« the hwa were in force. Vic. Quoad 
retmntiatum est, nidil it was (actually) uunounecd. Ncp. 

II. The /Subjunctive, uhen the aetion is viewed not so 
mueli as a fact as soniethinijj desired or 2)i'oposed : 

Differant, dum dc-forvcpcat Ira, Let them defer if, till their etnycr cools, 
i. e., that it may cool. Cie. See also examples under the rule. 

1. DoxEC, IN Tacitis, generally takes the Subjunctive : 

Rhenus servat violentiam cursus, donee Oceano miscciltur, Tlie Rhine 
preserves the ret^idily of its currmt, till it minejUs with the ocean. Tac. 

2. DoNEC, I.N Liv'i, occurs with the Subjutictivc even in tlie seubc of 
while, but with the accessory notion oi cause: 

Nihil trepidilbant dOnec ponle ag6rentur, T7ie7/ did not fear at all while 
(and because) thei/ tvtre driven on tloe bmhje. Liv. 

523. Antequam and Pkiusquam generally take, 

I. Tlic Indicative, when they denote mere priority of 

time : 

Priusquam lucct, adsunt, Tiieti ore ptxsent hi fire it is lie/hf. Cio. An- 
ti5quam in Slciliaai vGui, before I came into SicUy. Cie. 

II. The Subjunctive, when they denote a dependence 
of one event upon another. Thus, 

1. lu any Tense, when the accessory notion of purpose or cause Is in- 
volved : 

Priusquani incTpias, consulto opus est. Before you begin there is need of 
deliberation, i. e., as preparatory to your beginning. Sail. Tempestas mliiil- 
tur, antCquam surgat, Tlie t-empcsf threatens, bfore it rises, i. e., the threaten- 
ing of tlie tempest naturally precedes its 'isiug. Sen. 

2. In ^hc Imperfect and Phijxrfcct, as the regular construction in nar- 
ration, because the one event is -cnerally treated as the occasion or natu- 
ral antecedent of the other. See also 471. I 

Antequam urbein ciipfrent, bfore thiy took the city. Liv. I'riusquam 
de ineo adventu audire potuissent, in Mac6doniain perrexi, Before they were 
able to hear of my approach, J went into Macedonia. Cic. 

3. Prldie qnam takes the same moods as Priusquam. 

U 



•1: 



;; 



242 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



1) Indioativk or. Suiucnctive.— With crH^A^Mrn?i and 7)r/K«i2?/aH?, the Indica- 
tive ami Sulijunctivo are sometimes used without any ajtiiarent ditlVivtee of mciining, 
but the Sulijunctive prohably denotes a closer connection between the two events: 

Ante do ineommodis dieo, pauca diccnda, lit fore I (actually) npe<ik of dinitd' 
ra7itttffett, a few thiii(/K should be mentioned, (ic. Antequam de re lulbliea dicani, 
cxponaiu consilium, Bifore I xpeak of the rcjniblic, I will att forth nii/ j/laii. tie. 

2) Antk — QUASI, I'liius— yrAM. — The two parts of which init^ijuani, jiflasquiui)^ 
ond poxtquum are compounded are often separated, so that (inte, jiriu/i, or j/ont 
stands in the principal clause and qudm in the subordinate clause: 

I'aucis ante ditbus, quam Syracusao capereutur, a few days before Si/racuue 
was taken. Liv. See Trucsia, 704. IV. 3. 

VII. SucJU^xTIVE IN Indikect Qlestionj*. 

624. A clause wliicli involves a question without di- 
rectly Uiskii,^ it, is called an indirect or dependent question. 

EULE XLV.— Indirect Questions. 
525. The Subjunctive is used in Indirect (Questions: 

Quid dies fCrat iiiccrtum est, What a dai/ may bring forth is uncer- 
tain. Cic. Qiiiicritur, cur d<)cti.ssTmi liununcs di^scutiiuit, It is a question, 
why the most learned men disar/ree. Cic. Quacsirras, iionnc piltfirem, you 
had ash'd whether I did not think. Cic. Quillis .sit ammu3, tmimus ucscit, 
27ic soul knoics not what the soul is. Cic. 

1. With IxTERnooATivES. — Indirect or Dependent questions, like tlioso 
not dependent, are introduced by interrogative words : quid, cur, iionnc, 
Qudlis, etc. ; rarely by si, sive, sci, wbether ; uf, how. Sec examples above. 

2. SrnsTAXTivE Force. — Indirect questions are used stthtantivehj, and 
generally, though not always, supply the place of subjects or objects of verbs, 
lint an Accusative, referring to the same person or thing as the subject of 
the question, is sometimes inserted after (he leading verb. 

Ego ilium nescio qui fuerit, I do not know (him), who Juuvas. Ter. 

3. DinECT AKD Indirect.— An z/jc//;'ec^ question may be readily changed 
to a direct or indtpendent question. 

Thus the direct question involved in the first example is: Quid dies f/<ret; 
"What will a day brin;: forth? So in the second: Cur doctin^lnii homines disnent i- 
nut, Why do the most learned men disagree ? 

4. SrBjrxcTivE Omitted.— After nescio quis, I know not who = qvldam, 
some one ; nescio quomodo, I know not how, etc., as also after mlrum quan- 
tum, it is wonderful how much = wondcrftdly much, very much, there is an 
ellipsis of the Subjunctive : 

Nescio quid animus pracsagit, The mind forebodes, I knorv not whit (\i 
forebodes, praesd(/iat, understood). Tcr. Id mirum quantum piofuit, This 
profiled, it is wonderful how much, i. e., it woncjcrfully profited. Liv. 



INDIRECT QUESTIONS. 



243 



the Indica* 
of inclining, 
'o events: 
k of di.sdd' 
blica (Ik'jiin, 
liiit. C'ic. 

pfillfli/IUlU), 

ills, or j/ust 
'6 Si/racuae 



hout di- 
:][uestiou. 



lestions : 

h is nnccr- 
a qucntlon^ 
tfiieni, you 
11U3 uescit, 

like those 
ur, nonne, 
cs above. 
'iveJy, and 
:s of verbs, 
subject of 

Tcr. 

y changed 

(lies ffrat, 
les iiisneiiti' 

qyhhvn, 
rum qiKtn- 
tlicrc is an 

ot H'Jiat (M 
jfiiit, ThU 
iv. 



5. IxmuECT Qi-ESTiONS DiSTiKGfianEn. — Indirect Questions must bo care- 
fully distinguished from certain similar forms. Thus, 

1) From litlatice Clauses. — Clauses introduced by Relative Pronouns or 
Relative Adverbs always have an antecedent or com-lative expressed or \\n- 
derstood, and are never, as a whole, the subject or object of a verb, while 
Indirect Questions are generally so used ." 

Dieam quod sentio {rd. dauae). I tclll tdl that u'hidi (id quod) / t/iinh. 
Cic. Dicam quid intelligam {indind question), I will tdl whitt I know. 
Cic. Quaeiamus ubi malef leium est, Ld tis seek there (Ibi) tvhere the crime 
is. Cic. 

In the first and tbh-d examples, quod sentio and uhi—cf^t nro not questions, but 
relative clauses; id is understood as the antecedent of quod, and Mi as the antece- 
dent or correlative of uhi ; but in the second example, quid intiWiyam is an indirect 
question and the object ot dlcam : I icill tdl (what?) what J knoic, \. c, will answer 
that question. 

2) From Direct Questions and Exclamations : 

Quid aj^cndum est? Nescio, What is to he done? I know not, Cic. 
Vide ! quani conversa res est, See ! how changed is the case. Cic. 

6. IxpiCATiVE IX I.VDiRECT QfESTiGNS. — The Indicative in Indirect Ques- 
tions is sometimes used in the poets ; especially in I'lautus and Terence : 

Si nifimoiarc v61im, quam fideli animo fui, possum, J/Iwish to mention 
Jioiv muchfiddity I showed, I am able. Ter, 

7. Questions ix the Okatio Obliqua. Sec 500. II. 2. 

526. Single and Double Questions. — Indirect ques- 
tions, liicc those which arc direct (34G. II.), may be cither 
sinjjrle or double. 

o 

I. An Indirect Plnglc Question is generally introduced by .';omc inter- 
rogative word — either a pronoun, 'uljcctivc, or adverb, or one of the parti- 
cles nc, nonne, num. llero 7iHm does not inijjly negation : 

Rogltat qui vir esset (4^^!. IV.), lie asked iv?io he was. Li v. EpSminon- 
das quaeslvit, salvusne esset clipeus, Ejyaminondas inquired whdher his 
shidd teas safe. Cic. Dublto num dObeam, / doubt zchdhtr I ought, I'liu. 
See also the examples under the Rule, 525. 

II. An Indirect Double Question {whdher — or) admits of two con- 
structions : 

1. It generally takes utrum or ne in the first member, and an in the 
second : 

Quaeritur, virtus suamnc propter dignitatem, an propter fructus illciuos 
expetatur, It is asked whether virtue is sought for its own ivorth, or for cer- 
tain advantages. Cic. 

2. But sometimes it omits the particle in the first member, and takes 
an or uc in the second. Uther forms are rare : 

Quaeritur, niitura an doctrlna possit efflci virtus. It in asked whither vir- 
tue can be sccvrtd by nature or by iducation, Cic. See also 310. 1. 1). 



ml 



:l 



i .' 



244 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



1) Intliosccdndmcmbcr, n<'cn?, Rometiinos (7?? Hon, i3 used in tliCRonscof o;'«o<.* 

Silpicntia Lefiloa e/f iciat necne, quacstio est, Whether or not windorn m(ike>i men 
happy, in a quesfion. (Jic. 

'J) An, in the sense of whether not, implying an nflirmativo. is used after verbs 
and exi)rcssions of doul)t ami uncertainty: (d'dAlo <tn,n('Ncio <in,h(iu(l ncio <tn, I 
doubt whetber not, I know not whether not = I am inclined to tliinli; dtibium est 
an, incertum ed an, it is uncertain whether not = it is proltalile; 

Dul)itoan Tbrasybulum prinnun omnium punani, I doubt ichethcr I should not 
pluce Thraaybuhtsjiint of all, i. c., I am inclined to thinli I shoukl. Ncp. 

8) An sometimes has the force oiaut, perhaps by the omission of inccrtmn est, 
as use<l above: 

SimOuides an quia alius, Simonides or some other one. Clc. 



VIII. SUBJUXCTTVE HY ATTRACTION. 

RULE XLVI -Attraction. 

627. The Subjunctive by Attraction is often used 
in clauses dependent upon the Subjunctive : 

Vercor, ne, dum mTnuere vfilim laborcin, augoam, I fear I shall in- 
crease the labor ^ while I wish to diminish it. Clc. Tcmpiis est luijusniudi, 
ut, ubi quisque sit, ibi esse miniine vSlit, The time is of such a character 
that every one wishes to be lea:' of all where he is. Cic. Mos est, ut dicat 
senteutiam, qui velit, The custom is that he who wishes expresses his opin- 
ion. Cic. 

1. Application. — This rule is applicable to clauses introduced by con- 
junctions, adverbs, or relatives. Tbus, in tbe examples, tbe clauses intro- 
duced by dum, ubi, and qi/i, take tbe subjunctive, because they arc dependent 
upon clauses which have the subjunctive. 

2. Indicative or Subjunctive. — Such clauses generally take, 

1) The Indicative, when they are in a measure parenthetical or give spe- 
cial prominence to the fact stated : 

Milites nii!=it, ut cos qui fOgfirant pcrsfiqufirentur, Ife sent soldiers to pur- 
sue those who had fled, i. e., tbe fugitives. Cacs. Tanta vis probltutis est, 
ut cam, vel in iis quos nuuquam vidunus, dlligamus, ^uch is the force of in- 
tegrity that we love it even in those whom we have never seen. Cic. 

The Indicative with dum Isvcry common, especially in tlio poets and historians: 
FuCre qui, dum dubitat Scaevlnua, hortareutur risonem, There were those who 
exhorted Piso, while Scaeinnus hesitated. Tac. See also 4G7. 4. 

2) The Subjunctive, when the clauses are essential to the general thought 
of tbe sentence, as in the examples under the rule. 

3. After Infinitive Clauses. — The principle just stated (2) applies 
also to the use of Moods in clauses dependent upon the InGnitivc. This 



ATTRACTION. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 



21 



O 



often explains the Subjunctive in a condition belonging to an Infinitive, 
especially with won /)os«mwa: 

Nee buiiltas esse potest, si non per so expctfitur, Xor can goodness exist 
(= it is not possible that), i/ it Is ?iot mught/or itself. Cic, 

But clauses dependent upon the Infinitive are found most frequently 
in the Oratio Obliqua and arc accordingly provided for by 5J9. 

IX. Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse, — 
Oratio Ohliqua. 

528. "When a writer or speaker exiircssos thoughts, 
whether his own or those of another, in any other form tlian 
in the original words of the autlior, ho is said to use the 
Indirect Discourse — Oratio Obllqua: 

riatOncm frrunt in Italiam vOnisso, Thcij sai/ that Plato came into 
Itali/, Cie. lii'si)oiidoo te dulOrtni ferre niudr'iato, / rcpl// that you bear 
the a(Jliction with moderation. Cic. Utilcni arbitror esse ticieutiani, I think 
that knoiolcdge is useful. Cic. 

1, Direct and L\diri:ct. — In distinction from the Indirect Discourse — 
Oratio Obllqua, the oiiginal words of the author are said to be in the Direct 
Discourse — Oratio lieeta. Thus in the first example, PlUtonem in Italiam 
tenisse is in the indirect discourse ; in the direct, i. e., in the original words 
of those who made the statement, it would be : Plato in Itidiam vdnit. 

2. QcoTATio.v. — Words quoted without change belong of course to the 
Direct Discourse : 

Ivcx " duumviros " inquit " sficundum ICgcm facio," The king said, '*/ 
appoint duumvirs according to law." Li v. 



I 

i 

ii" 



V. 



;ivc spe- 



EULE XLVII.— Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse. 

529. Tlio Subjunctive is gc orally used in the In- 
terrogative, Imperative, and Subordinate clauses of the 
Oratio OblTqna : 

Ad postulata Cacsiirls rcspondit, cur venlrct {direct: cur venis ?), To 
the demands of Caesar he rejtUed, udiy did he come. Caes. Scrlbit LibiGno 
cum legiuno veniat {direct: cum Icgione veni), He vritcs to Lahiemis to 
come (that ho should come) with a legion. Cacs. Ilippias glOriatus est, 
annulum qucm habC'ret {direct : habco) so sua milnu confecisse, IHjtjdas 
boasted that he had )nade with his own hand the ring which he wore. Cic. 

NcE. — For convenience of reference the following outline of the use 
of Moods, Tenses, Pronouns, etc. in the Oratio Obllqua is here inserted. 



240 



OKATIO OULIQUA. 



I 

I 



530. ]\rooDS IN Principal Clauses. — The Principal 
clauses of tlio Direct discourse, on l)econiing Indirect, 
uiiderLTo the tbllowinix chanires of Mood: 



r> 



I. When Declarative^ tliey take the Infinitive (551) : 

DifcC'bat animos esse divlnos (direct: dmmi sunt divlni)^ He was wont 
to my that souts were divine. Cic. Pliitoncm Tuientum vC'iiisso rcpeiio 
{Plidn Tarcntum v7m(\ I find that Plato came to Tarcntum. Cic. Cito 
luliari se {.n'lror) uicijat, Cato was wont to saij that he wondered. Cic. 

II. AVhen Interrogative or Imperative., they generally 
take the Subjunctive according to IJuIe XLVII. 

1. Vkrb Omitted. — The verb on which the Infinitive depends is often 
omitted, or only implied in some preceding verb or expression ; especially 
after the Subjunctive of I'urpose : 

I'ythia praecC-pit ut Miltiadem impeiiltOrcm sumerent ; incopta pros- 
p6ra futura, Pythia commanded that they should take Miltiades us their com- 
mander, (telling them) that their efforts would be successful. Ncp. 

2. IluETOuicAL Questions. — Questions which are such only in form, 
requiring no answer, are generally construed, according to sense, in the 
Infinitive. They are sometimes called Rhetorical questions, as they are 
often used for Rhetorical effect instead of assertions : thus man j^ossit, can 
he? for non potest, he can not; quid sit turpius, what is more base? for 
nihil est turpius, nothing is more base. 

Here belong many questions which in the direct form have the verb in 
the first or third person : 

Respondit num mSmoriara deponere posse, lie replied, could he lay 
aside the recollection. Caes. Ilere the direct question would be : Num 
memoriam deponere possim ? 

3. Imperative Clauses with the Infixitive. See 551. II, 1. 

531. Moods in SunoEDiNATE Clauses. — The Subor- 
dinate clauses of the Direct discourse, on becomincc Indi- 
rect, put their Unite verbs in the Subjunctive : 

Orabant, ut sibi auxllium ferret quod premerentur (direct : nobis 
auxilium fer, quod premimnr), 77icy prayed that he icould iM'inr/ than help, 
because they v>erc oppressed. Caes. 

1. Infinitive in Relative Clauses. — It must be remembered (453), 
that Relative clauses, though subordinate in form, sometimes have the force 
of Principal clauses. When thus used in t je Oratio Obliqua, they may be 
construed with the lufinuive : 

Ad cum defortur, esse civem Romanum qui querfiretur ; quom (= et 
eum) asservatum esse, It was reported to him that there was a liomaa citizen 
wJio made a complaint, and that he had hen vlaced under (juard. Cic. So 
also comparisons : Te suspicor iisdem, qulbus me ipsum, commovcri, JsuS' 
pect that you are moved by the same things as lam. Cic. 



MOODS AXD TENSES. 



247 



2. Infinitive after certain Conjunctions. — The IiiHniiivc occurs, cs- 
pcciiilly ill Livy and Tacitus, even iu clauses after quia, quum, quaimjuatii, 
ami some other conjunctions : 

Dicit, se mocnlbus iuclusos tSnerc cos ; quia per a.u;ros vagiiri, //<' sa<;i 
that he keeps them shut up xvilhui the ivall.i, Incuu.^e (otherwise; t hi >/ would 
intialo' throuijh thejidds. Liv. See also h',A. I. 5 and (J. 

3. Indicative in Parentuetical Claises. — Clauses may be introduced 
parenthetically in the oratio ohliijua without strictly forming a part of it, 
and may accordingly take the Indicative: 

Keferunt silvam esse, quae appclliltur BacCnis, They report that there 
is a fund which ix calltd JJacenis. Cacs. 

4. Indicative in Clauses not Parenthetical. — Sometimes clauses not 
parenthetical tuke the Indicative to give prominence to the fact stated. 
This occurs most frequently in Relative clauses : 

Ccrtior fact us est ex ca parte vici, quam Gallis conccsserat, omncs 
di.sressisse, Jle was iiij'urmed that all had withdrawn from that part of the 
rillai/e tchich he had asaiff/icd to the Gauls. Caes. 

532. Tex.ses. — Tenses in llio OrntioOliliqiia gcMierully 
courorin to the ordinary rules for Iniinitivc iintl Siibiiine- 
tivc Tenses (480, 540), but the law of ISt-qiience of Tenses 
admits of certain qualilAcations : 

1. The Present and Perfect may be used even after a Ilistorical tense, 
to impart a more lively effect to the narrative : 

Caesar respondit, si obsidcs sibi dcntur, sesc paccmcssc facturum, Cae- 
sar replied, that if hostages should be (jiien him, he tcould make peace. Cacs. 

2. In Conditional scnteuccs of the third form (510), 

1) The condition retains the Imperfect or Pluperfect without reference 
to the tense of the Principal verb ; 

2) The Conclusion changes the Imperfect or Pluperfect Sulijunctlve 
into the Periphrastic Infinitives in rus esse and riiafuisse : 

Censes Pompcium laetaturum fuissc, si sciret, Do you think Pompey 
would hate njoiced, if he had knowit ? Cic. Cliiniltabat, si ille adesset, ven- 
turos esse, lie cried out that they tvould come, if he were present. Cacs. 

But the Kogular Infinitive, instead of the periphrastic forms, sometimes occurs 
in this construction, especially in expressions oi Duty, etc. (475. 4). 

3. Conditional Sentences of the second form (509), after Ilif-torical 
tenses, sometimes retain in their conditional clauses the Present or Per- 
fect and sometimes change it to the Imperfect or Pluperfect, according to 
the Rule for Sequence of Tenses (480) : 

Respondit, si cxpcriri velint, paratum esse. He replied, if they wished 
to make the trial he teas ready, Caes. LOgatos inittit, si ita fecissct, amicl- 
tiam futuram, lie sent meat^engcrs saying that, if lie would do thus, there would 
be friendship. Cacs. 









248 



OllATIO OIJLICiUA. IMl'KRAnVE. 



i i 
i i 



. 



1 I 



1^ ' 



JIV 



I 'I 






Hero 7)1 iff It is the Historical I»rcs(;nt. See 467. III. 

4. Tlio Future Perfect in a Subonlimitc cliiuseof tlio Direct diseonrsc 
is cliiui^eil ill the Imlirect into tlie Perfeet Sii)>jiUKtive utter u Principal 
tense, and into the Pluperfect Suhjinietivc alter a lii.storical ten.sc : 

Agunt ut diniiccnt ; Ibi irnperiuni fore, unde victoria fuerit, T/ii>/ ar- 
range that till'!/ hImII fi(jht f that the sovercojnfu shall be on the side whick 
ihall 7cin the victory (whence the victory may have been). Liv. ApparCbat 
regnaturuni, qui vicisset, It tvaa evident that he ivotUd be hinfj ivho should 
conquer. Liv. 

533. PiioxouNS, Adverds, etc. — Pronouns and ad- 
Tcrbs, as also tlie persons of the v* -bs, arc often eliani^ed 
in passii J from the Direct dl f oj 3 to the Indirect : 

GlOriatus c.-<t anniiUun so sua man ' ■, ' zao {dircrf : annuhuu ci^o 
mca manu conleei), //? boasted (hat L .J ih^'f\ tJic rinr/ loith his own 
hand. Cic. 

1. Pronouns of first and socond persons are often changed to the 
third. Tims above ryo in the direct discourse becomes .•?<', and mca becomes 
tua. In the same way hie and istc arc often changed to illc. 

2. Adverbs meaning here or now arc often changed to those meaning 
Viere or then / nunc to tu)n ; hie to illic. 

3. In ■'he use (<f pronouns observe 

1) That references to the Speakuu whose words arc reported are made, 
if of the 1st Pers. by ego, mens, 7ioster, etc., if of the 2d Pers. by tn, tuns, 
etc., and if of the 8d Pers. by sui, suus, inse, r^c, though sometimes by 
Lie, is, ille. 

'J) Thnt references to the REPORXEn, or Author, are made by ego, 
mcus, etc. 

3) That references to the Person Addressed by the reporter arc made 
by tu, tuus, etc. 

Ajiovistiis respondit nos esse iniquos qui se interpellaremus {direct : 
Tos estis iniijui qui me, etc), Ariovistus replied that we were vnjuit who 
interrupted him. Cacs. 

Ilcro nos refers to the Reporter, Caesar, ice Romans. Se refers to the Spea/cer, 
Arlovistua. In the second exami)le uuiler 523, te refers to tlic Person Addressed^ 

SECTION VII. 

IMPERATIVE. 
I. T'^XSES OF THE ImPEUATIYE, 

534, The Imperative has but two Tenses : 

I. The Present has only the Sceond person, and cor- 
responds to the English Imperative ; 

Justitiam co\q. Practise justice. Cic. Pcrgo, Cutillna, GOy Catiline. Cic. 



discourse 
Principal 
isc: 

, Tkci/ ar- 
siile which 
ApparC'biit 
vlio should 

and ad- 
L-lianixed 

ict : 

uluin e,i;o 
7t hi)i owit 

;ccl to the 
a becomca 

c moaning 

arc made, 
y tn, tauSy 
e times by 

c by ego, 

arc made 

IS {direct : 
'njuit 10 ko 

e Speakei% 
dressed. 



IMPERATIVE. 



249 



nd cor- 
lline. Cic. 



IT. Tlio Future lias tlie Second and Tliird persons, and 
corresponds to the imperative use of the English Future 
witii 6/ially or to the Imperative let : 

li consulcs nppcllaiitor, Thrj; shall he called consuls, or lei them hi 
called consuls. Cic. (^uod dixcro, I'ucitotc, You shall do what I saij (sliall 
have said). Tcr. 

1. FrrrRE von PnESExr.— The Future Imperative is sometimes used 
wliere we sliould expect tlie Present : 

Quoniam suppllcatio decreta est, cClcbratotc illos dies, Since a thanks- 
giving has been decreed, celebrate those days. Cic. 

This is particulHrly common in certain verbs: thus scio has only the forms of 
tbo ruture in coninioii use. 

2. Present kou Fitiue. — The Imperative Present is often used in poetry, 
and sometimes in prose, of an action which Lelonf^s entirely to tlic future : 

Ubi ficiem vu!6ris, turn ordincs disslpa, When you shall see the line of 
battle, then scatter the ranks. Liv. 



' II. Use of the Imperative. 

RULE XLVIII.— Imperative. 

535. The Imperative is used in coininands, cxlior- 
tations, and entreaties : 

Ju.stitiam cole, Practise justice. Cic. Tu nc code malis, Do not yield 
to misfortunes. Virp;. Si ([nid in tc pcccivi, ignoscc, If I have sinned 
against you, pardon mc. Cic. 

1. CincTMLOcrTiONS.— Instead of tlie simple Imperative, several circum- 
locutions are common : 

1) Cura vt,fac vt,fac, each with the Subjunctive : 
Cura ut vCnias, See that you come. Cic. See 480. 

2) Fac ne, eace ne, ciive, with the Subjunctive : 

Cave facias, Ikicare of doing it, or see that you do not do it. Cic. 

3) iVo^/, no/i^e, with the Infinitive: 

Noli imltari, do not imitate. Cic. Sec 538. 2. 

2. Imperative Clapse for Coxditiox.— An Imperative clause may be 
used instead of a Conditional clause: 

Licessc; jam vidcbis furentem, Provoke him (i. c, if you provoke him), 
you will at once see Mm frantic. Cic. 

3. Imperative Supplied. — The place of the Imperative may be variously 
supplied : 

1 ) Hy the Subjunctive of Desire MS7) : 

Sint beati, Let them be happy. Cic. Impii nc audcant, Let not the im- 
pious dar^. Cic. 

11* 



u 



i'l 






I 



250 



IMPERATIVE. INFINITIVE, 



2) By tho Indicative Future • 

Quod optluiuia vidcbltur, fucics, You will do (for Imper. do) what eliall 
seem best. Cic. 

536. The Imperative Present, like the EiiltHsIi Inipera- 
tive, is used in commands, exiiortations, and entreaties. 
See examples under the Rule. 

637. The Imperative Future is used, 

I. In commands involving future rather than present 
action : 

Rem pciiditotc, Yon sltafl ro/ift'ilcr fhr unhjcct. Cie. Cras putlto ; dubt- 
tur, Ask to-inorrow ; il shall be granted. I'luut. 

II. In laws, orders, precepts, etc. : 

Consrdos m'nuni p:1rciito, The connrih shall he suhjrrt to no one. Cic. 
Silln.s ])oprdi suprOina lex esto, The safety of the people shall be the supreme 
law. Cic. 

538. I.MPEnATiVE IN PROHimTiONS. — In prohibitions 
or negative connnands, 

1. The negative i^c, rarely non.^ acconipnnios the Ini])or- 
ative, and if a connective is required, nlcc^ or ncUj is gen- 
erall)" used, rarely nlque : 

Tu no code niali.^, Do not yield to wi.tfoi'fnnes. Yir;^. IlnmTncm inor- 
tuum in urbe ne s^ijClIto, neve Qilto, Thou shalt not bury or burn a dead 
body in the city. Cic. 

2. Instead of lie with the Present Imperative, the best 
prose writers generally use ?i6li and nOllte with the Infini- 
tive : 

Nolitc piitarc {for nc putatc), do not think (be unwilling to think). Cic. 



SECTION VIII. 

IN^FTXITIVE. 

539. The treatment of the Latin Infinitive embraces 
four topics : 

I. The Tenses of the Infinitive. 
II. The Subject of the Infinitive. 

III. The Predicate after the Infinitive. 

IV. The Construction of the Infinitive. 



in'FINITIvf:. 



251 



I. Ti:nsks of Till-: Infixitivk. 

540- The Infmitivo lias tliroo tonsrs, J^rrfUDt^ J\')'fect^ 
antl J')Uure. Tlu-y express however not :il»s<)lute, but rd- 
atlce time, deuotiiiL? respeetively Treseiil, I*ast,()r I'uturo 
time, relatively to the rriiieij)al verh. 

1. rEcuLiAniTiKS. — These (onsi-s present the leading peeiillarlllis !»i)ecilled umKr 
these tcntes in the ludieative. See 407. 2. 

541. 'Vhv I*im:si:nt Infixitivk represents tlio action 
as taking plaee at the time denoted by tiie j)rineipal verl) : 

('iii)i() me osso clC'incntem, I dot I re to be mihl. Cic. Maluit se iliilgi 
quuin niotiii, Jh />r>J\rrcd to be lovnl rather thun/mrvd. Nop. 

I. I;i:ai. Timi:.— niiicf thi' rcil liuie dinntid \>y tlie IVaent Inllnitive is the 
linn- ol'lhi- V('il> on which il di'iicndd. 

li. I'KESKxr vow FuTiUE.— The Fresent is souietitues used for the Future and 
soinetiniiH has littli- or no ri'tVren<'e to tiiiu': 

C'ras ar;,'intuin d.ire dixit, lie mtid he ifotild give the sifrcr to-morrQic. Ti r. 

a. FuESEST WITH Deueu, Fossr.M, etc.— Al'ttr tlie |iast tenses uf dfbeo, i>por(et, 
jxtxsui/i, and tlie IIIm'. the Fresenl Inlinitlve is usi-d where our idiom would lead us 
to expect tlie Ferl'ict; s()nietiiues also after iiitni'ini, and the lilii' : 

Dihuit olliciosior issc, I/e omj/U to /nue bten more attLiilice. Cic. Id potult 
f;U( TO, //<• nii'jht have dune thin. tie. 

542. The Pi:rfi:ct Lvfinfitve represents the action as 
eom])lete(l at the time denoted by the priiiei[)al vei'b : 

I'lutrineni ferunt in Italiam vC-ni.ssc, Therj mu that Plato came into Italy. 
Cic. C'onscius niihi eram, nihil a uio conin)i.ssuni esse, I was conscious to 
viytiiJf that no offaicc had bee/i committed by me. Cic. 

1. Hr-AL Time.— Hence the real time ilenotcd hy the IVrfect Inflnitive is that 
of the FerJVct tense, if de[ien(U'nt ui)on tlie Fresent, and lliat of the Fluperfect, if de- 
pendent ujion a Historical tense, as in the example.'*. 

2. Fi:i:ki;( T kok I'uksent. — In the poets the IVrfect In'liiitive i.-' sometimes used 
for tlie Fresent. rarely in prose ; 

Tetiffisse timent poctam. They fear to touch (to have touched) the poet. Hor. 

.">. Fassive Ini-imtive. — The Fassive Inlinilivc witti < vsc sonn'tinies denotes 
the 7'exiilt of the action : cictun c.sxe, to have been vancpiished, and so, to be a van- 
quished man. FuUae for esne emphasizes the comjiletencss of the action: victuH 
J'uisse, to Iiavo been vanriuished. See 575. 1. 

543. The Future Lvfinitiye represents the action 
as about to take 2)lace in time subse(j[uent to that oi" the 
princi[)al veri) : 

Brfituni visum iri .a mo piito, I think Jirntus will be furn by me. Cic. 
Or.^culum dituni erut victrices Athonas fore, ^tn oracle had b^en <jieeny that 
Athens would be victorious. Cic. 

Ilcnce after a Frincii)al tense the real time of the Future Infinitive is Future, but 
after a Historical tense the real time cau bo determined only by the context. 



252 



IXFINITIVi:. 






644. CrucuMLOfTTTON ran Fcti'kk Tn'Ftxitive.^ — In- 
stead of llio rc.L^ular Future? liijiiiitivc, tlui oiivuuiKx'Utiou 
ffitdnun (Sf<c iff, ov Jure iff, with tlic; Sulijuuclivc, — Frcsout 
after a Principal tense, and Jniptrlect afler u Historical 
tense, — is fre([Uently nseil : 

SjiOro foro ut contiuf^ut id iiohin, / /lopc thti will fall to cur lot (I linpo 
it will coino to pass tliat tliis may liappcn to u.s). Cic. Noii spOiilfCrat llau- 
ii!i)a!, fore ut ad so (lerictM-oiit, JlannlUd had not hoped that they would revolt 
to him. Liv. fcjcc oJO. 11. 1. 

1, CiRrrMi-ori-TioN yErrssAUT.— FjI^T/'hw* f.>i<i<? 7<^ or /T'/v?/^, wltli tlip Puljiinc- 
tlvo, for llio rutiiro Inlliiitivi', is comiuoa ia tliu ru-s^slvo, aad is tiiorcover nectssary 
iu liotU voiei-s in ull verbs wlik-h want the Hai)iuo nnd the Participle in run. 

2. I'oKR IT WITH rKiii'KcT Si'iurNrTUT^— Soiiictiinosyo/'t' »< with (lie Snlijunc- 
tivc, PiMl'oit or riuperl'cct, is U84'il with the loreo of a Future Perfect ; ntid In Pahsiv o 
iiud Deponent vcrbs,^«)/'« wltU tUo Perfect Partlelplu may bo used with tlio faino 
force : 

LIco me sutl» ildeptum fore, I i<(iu that I shall hare obtained enough. Cie. 

8. FUTUKfM ri'ISSE IT WITU Sl'BJUNCTlVR.—/'«<r<rM7?J /•</««« w< with the Sub- 
jnnrtive may be used in tho conclusion of a conditional acntenco of the third form 
when made dependent: 

Nlbi nuntii essent allTiM, cxistlinrdiant futurum fuhsp, nt opjddum ilmitterrtnr, 
They thought that the town icottlU have been Ivnt, if iiilinys had not been brvughi. 
Cues, iseo boo. 2. 



II. SUCJFCT OF InFIXITIVIJ. 



RUL^. XLIX-Sutjcct. 

545. The Subject of an Infiiiitive is i)iit in the Ac- 
cusative : 

Scntlmus calOro if2:nom, Wc perceive that fire is hot. Cic. riiiluneni 
T.lrcntuin vOnissc rrperio, /find that Plato came to Tarcntum. Cic. 

1. IIiSTOUiCAL Infinitive. — In lively description the Infinitive is some- 
times used for the Indicative Imperfect. It is then called the Historical In- 
linitive, and, like a finite verb, has its subject in the Nominative: 

llostes gaesa conjic6re, The cnei/ii/ hurUd their Jandlns. Cacs. 

Tho Historical Inllnilive may often bo explained by supplying coepit or coepc- 
runt; but in most instances it is better to treat it simply as an idiom of the language. 

2. Subject Omittkd. — The Subject of an Infinitive may be omitted : 
1) When it denotes the same person or thing as the subject of the prin- 
cipal clause, or may be readily supplied from the context : 

Magna nfigotia vOlunt igCre, Theii wixh to accomplish great ujulertakings. 
Cic. Peccslfe licet uOuiiui, It is not lawful for any one to sin. Cic 



'K.— In- 

liX'UtioM 

Lstoricjil 

r>f (I liopo 
6i'at IIun< 
■J u III revolt 



IP Riiljiinc- 
r necessary 

leSufiJunc- 

in I'uhslvo 

\ tho futno 

'. Cie. 

^h the Sub- 

tliiid form 

mitttrrtnr, 
II b rung hi. 



lie Ac 

c. 

is sonic- 
Diicul In- 

or coepc' 
languiige. 

iiittcd : 
the prin- 

rtaJciiitjs. 



INFINITIVE. 



253 



2) When it i.<t indefinite or general : 

I)III^i jaciuuluni cat, II U pleamtU to be loved. Cic. 

3. Infinitive Omittkd. — Enne nnd fuiHue. uro often oniittcd in tho 
compound fonna of tlic Infmilivo and >\itli proilieate adjectives, other in- 
linitivcrt Ichj frecpiontly (nril. f)); 

Andlvl y("5ITtiiiu Kahiiciiim, / hare hfitnl l/mt /ahruius wcu wont. Cic. 
.^^iC rill mi .4 nubis prGI'iiturua, Wc hope to biinjit ijou. Cic. 

Til. IMiKDICATE AFTEIi TNriNITIVI«\ 

546. A Prc'dii'Mtc Xonn or iVdjcotivc after nn Tiifitiltive 
rcLTularly agrct's witli lliu Siibjoct, c'Xi)rt'S>iLHl <n" uiulcrstooil 

Ej,'o 1110 rhldiam esse inallcm, T nhntild prefer to he Phidiaa. Cic. Ti Jldl- 
turn est, IlOtiiOi-iini caecuni fiiisse, It /tux fuen hniuUd down by tnulition- 
that Homer tons blind. Cic. .Iui;iirtlia ouuiIinH cJIrus esse {luntorkc.l injini 
live), JufjHi'tha was dear to all. Sail. 

547. A Prodleatc Noun or Adjoctivo, after an Tiiliiiitivc 
■vvlioso Subject is omitted, is otleii attracted into the Noiii- 
iiiutivo or Dative : 

I. It U attraotcd into tlu> Xomiimtivo to njrroc with tlio Siil>« 
joct of the jiriiicipMl verb, when tho hitter is the saiuo person ol 
tliiii<^ its tho omitted »SiiI»ject : 

Nolo esse laudiltor, I nm ttnirillhifjf to hfi an ciflnr/lsf. Cic. BcAtus csstf 
rfue viitfite nOiuo potc.'st, J^'o one can be happy without virtue. Cic. 

1. This occurs most frequently (1) after verbs o(diiti/, ahillti/, coitraijt\ 
custom, desin',lnijinnin(f, continuimj, tndimj, and the like — dobeo, possum, 
audeo, solco, cupio, volo, niah), nolo, iuclpio, periro, deslno, etc., and (j) 
utter various I'assive verbs of myiinj, tltinkinij,Jiudiiiij, mcininij, and the 
like — uicor, trudor,feror — credor, cxistlmor, putor — rCiperior — vidcor, etc.: 

Quis Fcicntiur esse debuit, Who oiujht to have been more learned? Cic. 
Parens dici potest, He can be called aparenf. Cic. Stolcus esse voluit, //<• 
ivifhcd to be a iStoic. Cie. Deslnant esse tiniuli, Let thiin ceai^e to be timid. 
Cic. Inventor esse dioitur. He in said to be the inventor. Cic. I'rudeus 
esse putilbiitur, J/e was thouyl to be prudent. Cic. 

2. Participles in the compou.jd tenses of the hifinitive are also attracted : 
Pollicitus esse dicitur, He is t 'id to havejjromised. Cic. 

II. Tlio Predicate 'N'otin or Adjeetivo is soinetiines attracted in- 
to tlio Dative to ajrreo with a Dative in tlie principal dan-e, wlion 
the hitter denotes the same person or thing as tiio omitted Subject ; 

ratruio tiTlirino plehis fieri non iTrrbat, // wan not lan'/id for a pntrl 
cian to be made tribune of the people. Cic. Milii negligeuti cjidc nou Ucuit, 
It 'Mas 7i^t permitted inc to be negligent. Cic. 



f : 



t. { 



II 



254 



INFINITIVE. 



1. This is rare, loit is tho ro^iilar construction aftor licet, and sometimes occurs 
after «<*(Y.sw as/, wlun used ulUr licet, and occasionally in other eoniieetions : 

Illis tiinidis licet esse, nobis necesse est fortious viris esse, Jt in permitted them 
to he ti/iiiif, it in Jiecet:sor>//or iih to he hnive iittn. Liv. 15ut, 

'2. Esen with lA^<^t the attraction does not always talce jilace: 

Ki consulcm Ueri licet, It in laujul for him to he made connul. Caos. 



IV". CONSTKUCTION OF THE INFINITIVE. 

548. The Iiifinitivo, with or M-itliout a Subject, lias in 
general tlie construelion of a Xouii in the Nomiiiutivc or 
Accusative, and is used, 

I. As a Xomin.ntive — SuLject of a Verb. 
II. As an Accusative — Object of a Verb, 
111. In Special Constructions. 

I. Inji)iitlce as Sidijcct. 

549. TliG Infinitive, with or witliout a Subject, is often 
used as a Nominative, and is tlius made tliu Subject of u 
sentence, according to Kule 111. : 

AViTii St'BJKf'T. — Fucimis est viiiclri civcni Konianuni, That n Hownu 
cidxcii should be bound is a crime. Cic. Coitinn est llljcfos iviiiui i, ft i-s cer- 
tain that children are loved. Quint. Legem br6vcm esse oiioitet, It is lures- 
sary (hat a Imr h' brief. Sen. 

WiTUoiT Sti!.n;cT. — Ars est dill'icills rem ]i'ibiicam rciifiie, To rule a 
state is a diJficuU art. Cic. C'ili'nm essejucuiuliim est, // it^ phanant to he hdd 
dear. Cic. Ilaec sclio ji'ivat. To know these thiii'js affords 2^leasurc. Sen. 
I'occarc licet iiCiiiTni, 7o sin is not lawful for any one. Cic. 

1. Inkixitivi; as Sihjix'T. — "Wlicn tlie subject is an infinitive, the Piedi- 
catc is cither (1) a Noun or Adjective with ,S'«w, or (li) an Impersonal verb 
or u verb used luipcrsonally. Sec the examples above. 

1) Te ^V8 = tcnipestivum is thus used with the Infinitive : 

Tempi..- est dlcrre, // is time In sjiea/:. Cic. 

'-. Infinitivk as Sin.ii:<T of an Im'ixitivi:. — The Infinitive may be tho 
subject of another Iniinitive: 

IntellTgi neccsse est esse deos, It must he 'understood that there are gods. 
Cic. Esse deos is the subject of infellifji, and intellirji esse deos of nlcessc est. 

". Ini'imtivk with T)i:MONSTnATivE. — The Infinitive sometimes takes a 
Demonstrative as an attributive in a<rreement with it: 

Qntbusdam hoc displicet phllosophuri, This philosophizing (this to phi- 
losophize) displeases some persons. Cic. VIvC're ipsum turpe est iiObis, To 
live is itsilf ignoble for us. Cic. 

4-. I'KitsoNAL roNSTitrcTiov FOR Impfhsonal. — With Passive verbs, in- 
bteud of tho lufiuitive with a subject uccusative, u roi'souul constructiou as 



Dinetimos occurs 
iR'ctioiis : 
permitted them 



Caoa. 



E. 



)ject, has in 
uiiiiativc or 



oct, is ofton 
•iibjt'ct of a, 

77i'it a Hawaii 
iiiiuii, It is cer- 
riet, It is ntccs- 

6 re, To rule a 
(tsant to hi! laid 
j^hasKvc. Sell. 

tivc, the Prcdi- 
nporsonal verb 

vo: 

vi' may be Ibo 

flu re are godn. 
)f! o( nccesseest. 

ctimcs takes ii 

'i(jf (this to plii- 
cst iiObis, To 

ivo verbs, in- 
;onstructiyu is 



INFINITIVE. 



255 






coiiiiuon, by which the Subject Accusative becomes the Subject N'ominativc 
of the leading verb : 

Aristldes justlssTmu.s fuisse triidltur (for Arlsthhm Jdstlmmum /uiyce 
trUi/Knr), .l/vW/./tw Is mid to hare httii mobt Juxt. Cie. 

Ij The Personal Construction is used, (1) rc<^\x\Av\y w'xiXi ridcor, jubi or, 
■litor, and the Simple Tenses of many verbs of saying, thinking, and the 
like — dio.r, trildor,/< ror, ju r/iilxnr, jii'ior, ij.'ist!rnor, etc., also with coijit'/ti 
v".n and dinltus sum with a Passive Infinitive, and (•_') sometimes with other 
verbs o?sa>/i/i(f, hIioicIikj, jurciiriiKj, JiiidliKj, and the like. 

Solem c mundo lollere vldentur, T/uy seem to remove the sun from the 
vnrld. Cic, Plutoncm aiulivisse dieitur, III' is said to httrc hmril I'luto. Cic. 
l)ii beuti esse intelllgnnlur, The ijuds arc u/idersf/iod to f/< hc/iji//. Cic. 

li) In successive clauses the Persouul construction is often followed by 
the Impersonal, 

3) Vidior with or without a Dative often means to funry, thiitfc : 
mihl videor or lUUor, I fancy ; ut lid- inur, as we fancy. 

II. Iiijinittce as Object. 

550. The Tiifinitivc, witli or witliout a Subject, is often 
used as an Accusal ive, and is llius made the object of a 
vei'b, according' to IJule \'. : 

Te (ilcunt oss(> sa])ie!itom, T/in/ sa// (hut i/ou ere vise, Cic. II.u'C 
vltare ciiphnus, IIV disirc io uioid th(^se thiitys, Cic. ManGro dOcrCvitj 
lie di child to remain. Nop. 

551. TxriNrnvE with Sciuixt AcrrsATivi:. — This is 
tiscd as obiect with a Ljretit variety of vorbs. Tlius, 

I. AVith Verbs of IVrceivinuc and I)e( lariii'j;, — Wrha 
iScnfi( /idi <:t iKrlanoidi. 

II. A\ ilh A'erbs of AVisliinui; and Desirini:;. 
III. AVitli \'eibs ot Kniwtioii and FeeiiuL;'. 

I. With Viauts of PiauT.TViNfi and DKcr.AuiNfi. — Sentlmus caU'ro 
iirnoin, We prredvc that Jrre is hot. Cic. .Milii iianavit tr sollieitmu esse, 
lie told me that ijon vuretroatded. Cic. Serip-serunl Tlifmistnelem in Asiani 
liaiisisse, Theij wrote that Themhtocles had [lonr over to Asia. Nep. 

1. Vkhd.v Skntikxpi. — Verhs of Pereeiciiig include those whicli involve 
(1) the exercise of the senses: audio, ridio, sentio, etcr, and (i.') the exeieise 
of the mind : thinking, believing, knowing, eOijito, 2>itto, exiaiiino, endo, 
ijiiro, — iidillhjo, seio, etc. 

t'. VKun\ Declauaxdi. — Verbs of Peclarincf are such na state or commu- 
nicate facts or thoughts: dleo, narro, nuntio, doeeo, ostendo, promitto, etc. 

y. KxiMiKssioNS WITH TiiK PoitcK OF Vkhiis. — Tlic Infinitive with a sub- 
ject may b(> used with expressions c<piivaleut to verbs of perceiving and de- 
claring. Thus: 



250 



INFINITIVE. 






With fdma fert^ report says, teHtia sutn, I am a witness = I testify; conscttu 
tnihi Hum, 1 am consciuiis, I know: 

Nuilum inilil rCifitaiii essu grntiam, tn os testis, You are a witness (can testify) 
tfiat no griHc/ui rat urn has been made to me, Cic. 

4. I'AitTiciPLE FOR LvFiNiTiVE. — ycrl)S of Perccivinjr tako (lio Accnsativo, 
with tho Present Participle, -wlieii ilie object is to be represented as actually 
seen, heard, etc., while cnpjagcd in a given action : 

t'alonem vidi in bibliolhC-cu sfideutcm, / saio Cato sitting in the library. 
Cic. 

r>. SiiuKOTS CoMi'AitED. — AVlicn Iwo siibjccts witli the same predicate 
are compared by means ol'(/'/(un, iihin — qui, etc. ; if tho Accusative with tho 
lulinitive is used in the first clause, the Accusative with its Iniiuilive omitted 
may fcdlow in the second : 

Pliloncni fCruiit Tdem f;cnsisso, quod Pythugoram, T he u say that Plato 
held the same opinion as I'ythaijoras. Cic. 

G. PuEDiCATKs C()MPAi{Kn. — Wlicn two predicates with tho same subject 
are compared and the Infinitive with a Subject is used in the lirst clause, the 
Iiiiinitive with its subject omitted often follows in the second : 

^'um putiitis, dixisse Antonium nilnucius quain fucturum fuissc. Do you 
think Antony sj^oke more fhreatcninyly than ne would have acted t Cic. 

Rut tlie second clause may take tho subjunctive, with or without nt : 

Aiuleo (liciT'ro ip>os poliiia cultorcs aiirorinn fore qiiam. ut coli j)iohibiant, /fA/rc 

sny that they icill themselves become titters of the Jields rather than jtreccnt them 

from being tilled, Liv. 

ir. "With Vkishs of WisrirNd and DKSinixn. — Tho Infinitive with 
Subject Accusative is also used with verbs of Wi.shiurf and jMso'inff : 

Te tua IVui virtfite cuj>iniUf", We rlcsirc that you should enjoy your vir- 
tue. Cic. Ponteni Ji'ibet rcscindi, He orders the bridye to he brohrn down 
(that the bii<lj!;e should be broken down). Caotf. Lex cum lu'cari vtituit, 
2'he law forbade that he should be jnit to death. Liv, 

1, Vi;nns OP WisniN'o.-— The Infiiitive is tlius used not only with verbs 
whitli directly express a wish, cupio, lolo, r.Olo, mala, etc., but also with 
many which involve a wish or command : putior, sino, to permit ; imj)ero, 
jiibeo, to command ; prohibeo, veto, to forbid. See also 55S. II. 

2. St:BjrxcTivB FOii Infinitive. — Several verba involving a wish or 
command admit the Subjunctive: 

1) Oplo. See 402. S. 

2) Vulo, niillo, noh>, impcro, and jubco admit the Subjunctive, generally with 
ut or 7ie : 

Volo ut respondcas, / tcinh you uould repUj, Cic. Miilo to bostis inotuat, 1 
prefer that the enem;/ should fear you. C"ic. 

i\) Cit)ifi'ih\ permiffo, rarely jidfior and /<)i)o, ndiTiit the Subjnnctlvo with ut: 
ConcC'do ut haec upta sint, / admit that these things are suitable. Cic. 

III. With Yeuds of Emotion ok FKKi.iNCf. — The Infinitive with Sub- 
ject Accusative, is also used with verbs o^ Emotion or Feeling: 



stifj'; contcttii 
ess (can testify) 

he Accusative 
;cd us actually 

in the library/. 

imc predicate 
ative witli tlio 
nilivo omitted 

sa>/ that Plato 

! same sul)ject 
rst clause, the 

riiisso, Do you 
d? Cic. 

t lit : 

iliibtant, I (hire 
I jj/'eccnt than 



ifinitivc wiili 
itairhiff : 
ijotf your vh'' 
lirolcni (loii'n 
nOcfiri vCtuit. 



ly with verbs 
nt also with 
•in it ; iitij^ero, 

\g a wish or 



generally with 

stis inotuat, / 

ivo with id: 
Cic. 

vc with Sub- 



IXFINITIVE. 



Ii57 



Gandoo, to inihi suadC'rc, I rejoice that you adclsc mc. Cic. Mirannir, 
te laetari, We wonder that you rejoice. Cic. 

Vi'ibs of emotion arc yitudeo, dofeo, mlror, qu^roi%im([ the like; al-^o ac^'re 
fft'o, {jrdr'tttrjf'ro, etc, 

552. Infinitive wiTnouT Suiuect Accusative. — Tliis 
is used as Object with many verbs: 

ViiK'i^ro scis, You know hoio to conq^icr (yoii know to conqiior). Liv. 
Cirdfdi e.><se coeperuiit, They began to (te ercdiilons. Cic. llacc vitare cu- 
piiinis, U'c desire to avoid thme thinyn. Cic. Suleiit cotiitarc, Tliey aro 
uccnstoined to think, Cic. NOnio uiurtcm cll'ugerc potest, So one is aide to 
escape death. Cic. 

1. Veuus with the Infinitive. — The Infinitive may depend upon verl.^ 
si<rnifyin<; to dare, desire, determine — bujin, continue, end — know, luirn, neij- 
led — oice, jirotnin', etc., also to be able, be accu,s(oined, be ivonl, etc. 

2. Infinitive as a Skconu Ou.iixt. — With a lew verbs — docio, eo.jo, an- 
suffiicio, anjuo, etc. — the luliuitivo is used in connection w ith a direct object ; 
sec 874. 4 : 

Te s^slperc d<5cet, He tmehes you to be nise. Cic. >'iItioue3 parcre assuo- 
fC'cit, y/c acciiitomed the nations to obty. Cic. 

In tlio Passive these verbs of course retain the Iiiflnitivc: 

Kum sum Uraece loqui clocemlus, Muat 1 be taiujIU to xj/eak Greek t Cic. 

3. Ixkinitive after Adjectives. — By a construction according to sense, 
the Inlinilive is used after adjectives in the sense of participles or verbs witii 
the Inlinitive : 

Est pariiius (vill) audiro, /fe ix prepared to hear (is willing to hear). Cic. 
I'elMes eedcre iiescius (= nescicns), I'dldts not knowinij how to yield. 
JJor. Avidi committfire pugnani, eaijcr to emjage battle. Ovid. 

This construction is rare in good prose, but common in poetry. 

4. Infinitive with I'kepositions. — The Infinitive regarded as a noun in 
the accusative, sometimes dojiends upon a preposition: 

Multum intSiest inter dare et uceiiiCre, There is a <jreat dijfere/ice Uiuxcn 
giving and rcceivimj. Sen. 

III. LifiiiUu'e in JSoccial Co7istruc(ions, 

553. The Tnflnitivo, witli or wltliont a Siibjcrt, iy 2:011- 
orally used as the Subject or Objeet of a verb, but .some- 
times occurs in otlicr relations. It is thus used, 

I. As Predicate ; see 3G2 : 

Exitus fuit CriltiOuis: sP)! nuUain cum Jiis umlcltiam, The eloni'. ofhin 
oration was that Jtc hnd no/riendshij) tvith thest. Caes. Ylv6re est cGj^iture, 
To lice is to think. Cic. 

Hero h)f/i~ilnilr)liinn is nsotl substantivel}', and Is tlio PreOieate Nominal'vo 
ufter/M;7, according to Itulc I. Cvy'ttclre is iu thu bamc coustructiyu alter eat. 









'! 



'■'? 



258 



INFINITIVE. 



II. As Appositivc ; sc^ 303 



Oiilfuliir. Jatuiii Lrat vicirluos AUiOna'^ fore. The. oracle that AtJuns 



voulil bi' lidovi 



itdd tiwn (jiciii. 



Cic. llliul .soli'o uiiiuii i.(ni lue uccI:i(iro 



tuus littfirM:', / am accudoiiud to wonder at this, that I do not r^ctivi i/our 
letter. Cic. 

1. Wirn ScujECT.— In this construction tiiu Inflnilivu tukcsasulijoctnccusatlvo, 
ns in till! e.\niii|ili'.s. 

2. I'lxi'i.ANATiox. - In tlio cxaniplps, the clause rictrlceft Athviut.. fore is in .ip- 
lio'ition Willi vrdciilum, ami the clause :ioH ine acclpire tiutti littiras, iu apiio^iiion 
witli illud. 

Til. In Excliinmtions ; sec 381 : 

Tl' sic vcxari, that ymi Hhntli' he thiitt tronUed ! Cic. Mono incopto dC- 
sistfirc victam, that / cantjuishcd should abandon my undtrtakuKj .' Virg. 

1. With Sl'iijkct.— In this construction the Inllnitive takes a Subject, as in the 
cxaiiiiilfs. 

'1. Kxi'LANATioN.— Tills uso of thc Infinltlvo conforms. It will be observed, to the 
use of AceiL-alive and Noiiiiiiativi; in excianiatidtis (:i>l, Msl. o). It may often be ex- 
jilained as an Aceus. by sturdy in;; some verb, as dolio^vW., or as a No.n. by sii;iplyin<j 
c rede lid II m f,st or <• red) f/)/e est. Thus the first example becomes: I (/riere (doleu) 
t/i(it ij(>)i, et<'., and the second becomes : h it to he mijijjoned (crC-dendiim est) that J 
rauquinhtd, etc. 

!?. iMi'AssioNF.n QuisTioNs.— This construction I3 most frequent in imjjassloncd 
questions, a» iu tho second example. 

IV. As Ablative Absolute. See 431. 4. 

V. To express Purpose : 

PCcus Cf^it altos vis6ro monlps, ITe. drove his herd to visit the lofty moun- 
tains, llor. Non pcJpulaic poiiatcs vculinus, We have not coins to lay uaste 
your homes. Virg. 

This construction is confined to poetry, 

VI. Poetic luiinitivc for GcruiKl. See 5Co. •>. 



SECTION IX. 

S UliJEC T A XD O nJi: CT CLA US ES. 

554. Subject ami Object CImuscs, iu wliicli, as we have 
just seen (540 and SaO), the lulinilive is so IVeely iiscci, 
assuuK' le:.'' distinct Ibnns : 

I. iNDiiiKiT '.^rKsnoNs. — Tlicse represent tbe Subject 
or Object as [nrcrri'^iatit'e in character: 

(iiiacrltur, ciu i'iaso.i'iant, /' is asl\d vhy they disagree. Cic. Quid 
i^euduin sit, iivscio, / ««> ."t knou what ought i > be done. Cic. Sec 525. 



it Athens 
I nccljifiro 
vii; ijouv 

icciibutive, 

•e is ill .1])- 
aiii>(;oiiiou 



icoplo ilG- 
Viig. 

t, as in tlio 

VPll, to tiio 
ftun bo I'X- 
■ .su;)pljing 
ire (<l6ii'(>) 
ist) (hat 1 

nj)assloiie(l 



fly moun- 
lay uasia 



c liavo 
y used, 

SuLjoct 

ic. Quid 

2 r>2r>. 



i 

J 



SUKIECT AND OBJECl Ci-AU.SKS 



250 



IT. TxFx.,iiivK Ci.AusKs. — Tlics.-* liavo simply tlio force 
of Xouns, merely supplying the phico of tlie Koriiinativo, 
or t!io Accusative: 

Aiil6fi.'116ro contlj^it, /' ?m.<) 7u'< annj fi)rtun^ to t'.rcij (to oxpol linpponod). 
(Jic. Mii;4iia iifiLioliii voliiit agcrc, JIc ivUlud to achieve (jnal undLitakiii'js. 
Cic. hjce 5iy, 5oU. 

TIL Si'iuuxcrivE Clauses. — These clauses introduced 
]»V ut^ ne^ etc., are only occasionally used as subject or ob- 
j 'ct, and even then involve Purpose or llesult : 

Contlgit lit pnti'iam viiullcaret, It vas hix good fortune to save h'm coun- 
try. Nop. V6!o ut lulhi respoudcas, I wish you would ansivtr me. Cic. 8eo 

4'JL', 4'.!.'). 

HtTo )it—riiiiKc(h'if is at onco siilijoot and ros.ilt : it was his good fortiino tt» pavo 
Ills country, or I, !•< j;oi)(l iurtuiie was siu-ii tliat In- saved liis (•(Hiiitry. In lli" second 
oxamplc, lit — r'.\<>pondeax expresses not only the object desired, but also tlie juirposo 
of llio dl•^irc. 

IV. Clauses with Quod. — These again arc only occa- 
sionally used as subject or object, and even then either give 
]»rominence to the tact stated, or present it as ;i Grounel or 
ileason : 

H6ii5f k'iiiiii ost quod ii2cossc est mori, It is a hUs/iiiKj that it is nn'issary 
to die. fcjeij. (liiiideo ipiod to, iatorpcllavi, I njuice that (because) / hase in- 
terrupted you. Cic. tjeo 520. 

Clauses with quod sometimes stand at the boyinning of sentences to announco 
the subject of remark : 

(^uod mo Apimemnoncm aomulari putas, falleris, As to the fact that you tluuk I 
emulate Ayaineinnoii, you arc iiiitstakcn. Nep. 



I. Forms of Sub.iect Clauses. 

555. Interuogative. — Subject clauses which arc in- 
terrogative in character, of course take the furni of indirect 
questions. See 525. 2 and 554. I. 

556. XoT Interrogative. — Subject clauses which are 
not interrogative, with some predicates take the Ibrm of 
Infinitive chuises, or clauses with quod j while with other 
predicates they take the form of Subjunctive clauses with 
ut.^ //(?, etc. Thus, 

I. "With most iinpersonnl vorhs and \, ith predicates pcmsi^tincj 
of cut witii a Noun or Adjective, the .Md)joct may he sui)i)lic'd (1) 
by tho luliuitivc "with or withuut a Subject AccubUtive, or, (2) if 



2G0 



6UI5j:::ct and oiukct clauses. 



tlic fa' 1: i-^ to bo mado |)rominciit or adduced as a reason, hy a 
cl'iUHu witii quod: 

Me pooiiiti.'* vixis.Ho, / rcgrd that I hare lived. Cic. Quod tc oJ!l'U(U mo 
pociiltet, / refjnt iuat (\iv because; / have ojfanded ijoa. Cic. 

1. SrnsTANTTVR PuKDiPATES WITH SmjuNrTlVK.— Mo3 est, nioris est, consnG- 
tudo obt, cuubuOtuiliuis fbt, It in a cuntoin, etc., uduiit the Subjunctive fur tlio lutia- 
itiv*' : 

Mos est hOuiinuin ut uolint, It ia a custom of men that they are not tciUiiig. 
Cic. 

2. An-JEPTivR pREDirATFS WITH SrnjrNcTivE.— r.iliquum est, proxTnium est, 
extrrinuui t-.'-t— vOruin e^t, vCri^iniilo ost, falsuiu est— gloriOsuui cat, luirum est, ojili- 
mum est, etc., admit the Subjunctive for tbo Infinitive: 

Ki'llquuin est ut oortriuus, it reiiwina that ice contend. Cic. Vcrum est ut 
bdnos (liligdnt, /' in true that thoj luvc the good. Cic. 

II. AVitli Iiiiporsonal verbs sipnifyinfr to happen — accMlit, con- 
tinj2:it, C'Vinit, tit — ut^ ut non, -witli tlio Subjuuctivo, is gencralJy 
used (4115. 2) : 

Tliriisybiiliv contiijit, ut palriain viiuliciirct, li teas t7ie good fortune of 
Thrasyhulus (LaMpcued to hiiu) to deliver his country. Nop. 

1. Ilorc belong nccalit ut. est iit./ufiirum r/tsr ut, or f>ro nt. Sec 5-11. 

2. CLiusi's witli <jHud also occur with verbs of liappcning. 

IIT. AYitli Tnij)ersoiU)l verbs si^rnifyini^ it f<>lh»rs^ rrmm'ii,9, is 
iJ/nf(iiit, and tlic like, the Hulyimetive clause with ut is g-eiieraily 
used : 

RCliiiiluTiur, ut quicscaraus,, li remains that we should sufimil- Cic. 
See 4ii.'i. 2. 

IV. Subjunciivo clause staiidiiijj alone. See 495. 2. 2). 



II. FoiiM.s OP (^/UECT Clauses. 

557. IxTERKOG.\TivE. — 01)ject clauses wliicli arc inter- 
ro2:ntivc i!i cMiiiractor, of couise, take the Ibnii oi' indirect 
qllcr^tions. Sec 554. I. 

558. XoT IxTE^nrcGATvrE. — Object ciiuscs wliich are 
not interrogative in ( har;i('tv'r, «.ii)))lyin<jj the place- of" direct 
objects after transiti. r verbs, scnietimes take tlic form of 
Inliiiitive clauses, sonietimos of Subjtmctive clauses, and 
sonietiincs of clauses witli .//<o(/. Thiis, 

I Verbs of deci.ap.tno take., 

1. llegularly tii' luliniiivo with Subject Accusative. See 
551. I. 

2. l)nt the Su'juijctive with ut or ?<<', when they involve a 
command : 



reason, hy a 
tc onVndi nio 

'tris est, consnC- 
e fur tho luliii- 

re not wilUiiff. 

proxTnmm est, 
uirum ost, ojiii- 

VOrum est lit 

•accidit, con- 
is generally 

od fort line of 
;e 544. 



, rcmnins, is 
is generally 



suhrnU. Cic. 

O Oi 

-• -;. 



1 arc intor- 
of indirect 

wliicli are 
G or direct 
le ibrin of 
;ui:5Cs, and 



alive. See 
y involve a 



OIJJECT CLAUSES. 



261 



T)ftl3bcllac dixit, ut nd mo scrTlt5rot ut in Iiaiiam veiareiu, lla told Lola- 
hcllit to write to me to come into Itn'j. Cic. 8ce -i'JiJ. 2. 

IT. Verbs of dkiehmixixo, statuo^ couhIUho^ dCccrno, and the 
like, tiike, 

1. (ienerally tho Infinitive, whvn tho snbject is the saino as 
tliat of the prineipal vtrh, rarely the Snlijunetive: 

IMaiiuro dOciOvit, /A' ihtt rmincd to remain. Ni-p. SluliiCniut, ut ilboilu- 
toiu dCleiuIcMcat, Tkcy ddtrmintd to defend lilert)/. Cic. SSco .").')1. 11. 

2. The Snlijnnotive with vt or nc (exiire:>sed or understood), 
Avhen a new subject is introduced: 

Constltufirat, ut tribuiuis qufirfirctur, lie had arrnitgcd that the tribune 
sJiould enter the complaint. Sail. Seuatus ducrCvit, darout opfiram cousules, 
The senate decreed that the consuls should attend to it. Sail. See -KiL'. 0. 

Sidtuo, dtcerno, etc., when tliev moan to thinU; deem, nujipose, etc.. leoorno 
rerla Hcuth ndi (.^Sl. I. 1), and of courj^e taki; the infinitive: 

Laiuleni sapiculiae staluo esse maxiiiiaui, / deem it to be the high-Cfit praiae of 
tcitiJoni. Cic. 

III. Verba of .striving, exdeavorixo, take the Subjunctive 
with lit or 7ie. See 402. 1. But conteiulo, n'ttor, stadeo, and teuto, 
generally take the Infinitive when the subject is the same : 

Locum oppuguilic contondit, Jle proceeds to dorm the ciff/. Caes. Tcn- 
tubo de lioc dkeie, / icill attemjd to .«/v«/t of this. Quint. See iJi'ii. 

IV. Verbs of oAr.^aNCf, making, accompusuing, take the Sub- 
junctive with ut, nc, lit lion. Sea 4'J2, 495. 

1. E.XAMPLES. — Ficio, cffk'io, pcrficio— adlpi.^cor, impetro — a.ss6(iuor, 
con.sequor, and sometimes i6io, are examples ot verbs of this cla.ss. 

2. Facio and Efficio. — Fiicio in the sense of assume, suppose, takes tlio 
InfinitivL'; <fficio in the sense of y^/'oiv, shoio, cither the luliuitivo or the Sub- 
junctive witii vt, etc. : 

Fiic aulmos non rfimar.Gre post mortem, Assume that souls do not survive 
<fter death. Cic. Vult elf iccre animos esse mortules, J/e uishes to show that 
souls are mortal. Cic. 

V. Verbs of emotion or feeling, whether of joy or sorrow, 
take, 

1. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative, to express the Ob- 
ject in view of which the feeling is exercised. See o51. III. 

2. Clauses with quod., to make more prominent the Reason for 
the feeling : 

Gaudeo quod te intcrpollilvi, I rejoice that (or because) I have interrupt- 
ed you. Cic. JJolubam cpiod socium auiiseram, I was grieving because I hail 
lost a companion. Cic. See 520. I. 

For Vekbs of DESiniso, see 501. II. 2. 

VI. Verbs of asking, demanding, advising, wabning, com- 



n 



I a 



% 






'if! 















Up 



2G2 



OIUECT CLAUSKS. GKRUNDS. 



^^ 



MANDixo, and tlio like, tako tho Subjunctive, generally with nt 
or lie: 

Oro lit lioiiiliics iiiT>6ros ronsorvps, I im/ilorr (Jmt ynn icnuhl prfftrve the 
vuhappi/ men. Cic. J'ustulaiit ut bigiiuiii clclur, Tln>/ dK-inand that tlm iii<J- 
nal be <jiven, lAv. 3co -ly^. 2. 

1. KxAMPLES. — Verbs of this class aro numorniis— the foUowInj nro cxainplos: 
'lYn, ro/i), iii'tit, jin'oor, ob>L'('ro — ll;l;:it(>, pustulo, jd'uccipio — lioitor, iiiuiieo, bUildco, 
IiLT.>uatl(.'o— im|itllu, iiicito, iiiOvco, coiiiiiioveo. 

'2. Used as Veuha l)EOLAUAM)t.— Some of tlicid verbs in pnrtiruliir sisiirtoa- 
tions bccomo rerha deduriunli (.%!. 2), ami acc<)nliii;:ly tiiko tlio liillnltivo wilb 
Subject Accusative; thus munto, in tho EvUsc of rtinind inn] jjcrsuddto in tho sciiso 
of con rince, 

3. Infinitive.— Evoii in their ordinary eiu'iiTlentions Kune of tlieso verbs, c pC" 
cially hoftor, vn'm-.o^ uiid puniulo, souictiiues take the liiliuilivo with or without a 
Suliject AccusatS* . 

I'ostiilat BO absolvi, He dcmnnda that he nhouhl ho acquitted. Cic. See 551. 
II. 1 aii.l 2. 

The InflnlLivc is much more co.umon In poetry than iu proso. 



SECTION X. 
GEuvyn. 

559. The Oeruii<l is a verb iu force, hut a uouu iu forui 
aud iuriectioii. As a verb it jxovenis oblique cases aud 
takes adverbial modifiers, as a nouu it is itself goverued. 

560. The Geruud has four oases: Genitive, Dative, Ac- 
cusative, aud Ablative, governed like nouns iu the same sit- 
uation : 

IJcilto Vivendi ciipidltute inccnsi sumus, We are anlmntcd witJi the ihnh'e 
of Uviiifj hdpinly. Cic. C'hartiv iiiutllis scilhcudo, pftj>er vitjit fur im'/iixj. 
riin. Ad agendum natus, born/or action. Cic. Iu Sgoiido, in acting. Cic. 

1. AccfSATivE. — The Accusative of tlic Gerund is used only after Prepo- 
sitions. 

2. Gerund Axn I.nfixitivk. — Tho periind .and the infinitive are kindred 
forms, expressing the nicining of the verb in tlie form of a noun (19G. 11.). 
They are also complements of each other, the one supplying the parts whicii 
arc wanting in the other. Thus the infinitive supplies the nominative and 
the accusative after verbs (H-is) ; the gerund supplies the genitive, dative, 
and ablative, and the accusative after prepositions. 

561. Gerunds with Di'-ect Objects are regularly used 
only in the Genitive and in the Ablative without a prepo- 
sition : 

Jus vocandi s5natnni, //;<? r/v^^^ ']f summoning th<' senate, Liv. Injurius 
f6rendo laudcm mfirObcris, J'cm will merit pnmt by bt:arin(j wrongs. Cic. 



ly witli tit 

' prffcrve ilie 
that the Hig- 

iro exam [lips; 
uiiuu, bufkduo, 

iilitr sigi^ifioa- 
iilliiitivo with 
o iu the buiiso 

10 verbs c .po- 
or without a 

Clc. See 551. 



GEIIUNDS AM) GKULNDIVKJi, 



2C3 



i 



in ill form 
cases uikI 
ernc'd. 

itivo, Ac- 
suuic sit- 

tU the ih'ttira 
fur U'v'd'inij. 
acting. Cic. 

after Prcpo- 

aio kindrod 

III (19G. II.). 

parts which 

illative ami 

ilive, dutivo, 

arly used 
a prepo- 

\s\ 111) arias 
^mjs, Cic. 



662. Or.nrNDivK. — Tiu> ]»lact> of tlie (lonind with a Di- 
rof't Objeet is suppiii'd l»y piittiiii,^ that oltject in tlio case 
of tlie (icriind and (•lianyin«j: tlic lattiT into liie [tarticiplc in 
'ihtu in agreement with it. Tlie partiriple is then vailed a 
(jLi'iindicc : 

Inlta smit consTlia uil)ls dcU-iidan = iirhoin dciondi, Phiuit lari' hiwn 
fiirmttl for dtxtmyhitj the citi/ (t)f' the city to be ile.struyed). Cic. Nuiiiii .hjI- 
cerdullhus creaiidia uiiluiiun udjOcil, \uma yave hin uttaiU^i/ii to the aj>i>viiU- 
incuP o/2'>'i*-iitii. Liv. 

1. Explanation. — Willi the Oorutid, tlio first cxnmiile woiihlbo : /uifct 
$unt cniisilia urbtin deUitdi, in -.vhich diUudi i.s ^ovtriied by onitiiia, and 
vrbtia by dilendi. In chaugiiij^ this to the (Jeruiidive construction, 

1) Urbevi, the object, ia changed into urbix, the case ol' the goruiid, and i.s 
governed by consilia. 

i.') iKlendi, the gerund, is changed into dilendae, the gerundive, in agree- 
racnt with vrbig. 

'J. GEniNnivE.— For the sake of brevity, the term Gerundive is used not 
only to designate the Partiiiple, but also the Comtntdion tin a uholi, inchid- 
iug both the participle and the noun with which it agrees. 

'6. Use ok Gkiundive. — The (jcrundive may be used for the (Jerund 
with a Direct Object, and is alnios*. invariably so used when the (Jerund 
would be iu the Dative or would depend upon u preposition. IJut see otly. 2. 

But in a few instftnces the Cicrund with .i Direct Object occurs in the Datlvo or 
dependent upon . a iirejiosition. Sec 5(U. 1 ; 5(m. 2" and 50(5. 2. 

4. OERrNMnvrs op rron, FRtoit, etc. — In general only the grrundivos 
of transitive veilis are used with their nouns as eqniv.ilents for (Jcrunds 
with Direct Oiijects ; but tlie giTundives of t'l/or, fninr, fumjor, jfbti'ir, and 
vescor, originally transitive verba, ndinit this construction: 

Ad niunus l\n\<^v\n\um, for di.^ch<irtfifitj the duty, Cic. Spes potiiuulo- 
rum casttonmi, the luqw (f fj<tt!iiij po.^fuK.-'ion if the camp, Cacs 

r). Passive Sense.— In a few instances, the CJerund has in appearance a 
passive .sense : 

Ndcpic hibcnt propriam percl[)ien<li notam, Xor hacc thcjj any proper 
mark of distinction, i. c., to distinguish theui. Cic. 

I. Genitive of Gkruxds axd Geruxdivks. 

563. The Genitive of tlic Gerund or Gerundive is u.sed 
■\vitli noims and adjectives : 

OEurND. — Ars Vivendi, ///(> rt/'^ <>/'//i//jy. Cic. Studiosns 6rat audiendi. 
He rvas deKirous of hearing, Nep. Jus v6candi pCnainni, Mf right (f.^utn- 
vioning tlte senate, Liv. Cujddus te audiendi, dtxirous of hearing yon, Cic. 

(Jeulnfm VE. — Libido ejus videndi, the dtsire of /-eeing him, Cic. I'litouis 
studiosua audiendi luit, Jle was fond of hearing I'lato. Cic. 



1 



204 



tiKKLNDS AND GEUUNDIVICH. 



1. Tlio ponillro of tlio Gerund or Gprnndivc occurs mtisf frequently— 

1) Willi ars, stienfia, cMii>uC'lutl<),— cuiildliiis, ilbidu, sluiluiiii, coii.-Ilium, 
voluntas, spes,— potestus, ruculta.-!, diU'Ieulliis, occS.^io, teuiputt,— gSmis, nitJ' 
dus, rfttio, — cuusa, {{lutia, etc. 

\>) With adjectives denoting; dtxiri', liioir1,,Iiji\ fkilf, recoVcdlon, nnd 
<lieir oppositis: uvldus, ci'jpldus, .stuiliosiis— conscius, ynunis, ii^nSms iicil- 
tiis, ini[)6ritiis, insuOtus, etc. 

2. Geui'NI) I'lfEFKnr.En. — A porund with a neuter pronoun or adjective as 
olijcct shouhi not be changed to the participial construction, because the hit- 
ter couhl not di.stingui>h the gender: 

Arteni vera uc I'ulau dijQdlcandi, the art of distinguUhiiKj true thiiKjs 
from tkefaUc. Cic. 

3. Gerund avith GENirivE. — Tlie Genind in the Genitive fiomctimos as- 
sumes so completely the force of a uoun us to govern the Genitive instead of 
the Accusative : 

liejicieiidi judlcum puteslaa, the 2>oiccr of cliallenging (of) the Judijcs. 
Cic. 

Hero rej'ieiendi may bo povorncd by potrstafi, and may itself by Its snbstantivo 
foroo fxawrn jihi'u-iitii,l]\o cliailcn^ririfrof lli .- jit(l;.'o,M, etc. ]>iit tlit-seand similar forms 
ill ifi arc someiinies exphiiiu-d not as Geruiida but as Goruiulivcs, liko Cicrundivcs 
with mci, nontri, etc. Hcc 4 below. 

4. rARTlCiriAL COXSTIUTTION WITH MET, NOSTKI, ETC. — With the Gcui- 

(ive of personal pronouns— ?/it/, nodri, lui, ccstri, sui—ihc participle cuds in 
di without reference to Number or Gender : 

Copia jililcandi tui {"fa woman), uu opportunity of aj^peaidng you. Ov. 
Sui conscrvandi causa, ^o/- the purpose of preserving themsdcts. Cic. Vestii 
ndhortandi amstx, fur the purpose of exhorting you. L\v. 

This apparent irregularity m.ay be acoountcd for by the fact that these penitives, 
thoui^'li used as Personal Pronouns, are all .strictly in t'orin in the neuter .siii^'ular of 
the Possessivcs menin, tuitm, suutn, etc., hence the participle ia di a^'rees \vith them 
perfectly. 

5. PciirosE. — The Genitive of the Gerund or Gerundive is sometimes 
used to express Purpose or Tendenev : 

Ilaec tradcndae Ilannibili victoriac sunt, These things areforthepujpose 
of giving victory to Hannibal. Liv. Leges pellendi claros viros, laws for 
driving away illustrious men. Tac. Piof Iciscitur coguoscenduc anticpiItStis, 
JIc sets out for the purpose of studying antiquity. Tac. 

This genitive is sometimes best explained as Predicate Genitive (401), ns iii the 
first example ; sometimes as dependent upon a noun, as pelkndi dependent upon liges 
in tlio second example; ami sometimes simply as a Genitive of Cause (;i!);J, 409. 4), as 
in the third example; though iu such cases, especially in the second and third, a/w«rt 
may be supplied. 

6. I.vFixiTiVE loii Gehunmi. — The Infinitive for the Genitive of the 
Gerund or Gerundive is often used iu the poets with nouns and adjectives, 
sometimes even in prose : 

Cupido Stygios innurc liicus, the desire to sail vpon the Stygian lakes. 
Vii g. Avldus committcre pugnara, eager to engage battle. Ovid. 



t^EIU'NDS AND GERCXDIVKS. 



205 



ncntly— 
, coil! Ilium, 
j^Ciais, in«J' 

hdiony nnd 
lui VIS -iifcrl- 

adjoi'tivo !\s 
ausc llif liit- 

' true thiii'js 

rtmotinics na- 
kc iustcud of 

) the judijca. 

Its siibstantlvrt 
it Miniliirloiiiis 
ko Gerundives 

ith (he CJciii- 
iciple ends iu 

Cic. Vcstii 

loso pcnitives 
U r sinsruliir of 
ees with tbeia 

is sometimes 

o)' the jnirpoi^e 
•OS, hiirsfor 
untlquilStis, 

(101), as in the 
(k-nt updn lii^m 
(:5!»:$, 409. 4), iia 
ml third, t'«H<>'« 

iiitive of the 
id adjectives, 

Hi y (J Ian lakes. 
id. 



II. Datim: or GKUiNns and Gi;urxi)ivi:."^. 

664. The T/ativc of tlio rJcnuKl or C^rimdivo is u.«!P(1 
vitli u I'rw verbs and adicctivi's uliicli ri'<«nlarlv irovern tlu» 
Dativf : 

Gi:ni'\n.— Qiniiii snlvcmli) inni osscnt, .S'/wc- t/n y ii'< n' not uhl,' tit jit:/. 
Cic. A(iua utilis «'.->l Idlji'iido, ]Viit< r U u»ifnl for drink iiKj. I'liii. 

GKiirNDiVE. — L6ciiin oiipldo condoiido cOjiCrnnt, Thy Sthctt'l a pfave 
for foundatfji a city. Liv. Tnnpdra dOinfslciidis IViictlbu.s uecuiiuuudutu, 
teasoHs suitabli for gatheriny fruits. Cic. 

1. Gi:nr.\n. — Tho Dativo of the Gonitul is rur(> and confined mostly to 
hite writers ; witii an object it is ahnost without o.vainplc. 

2. Gf.iuviuvk ok I'i iirosK.— In Livv, Tacitus, nud hito writers, the Da- 
tive of the (jleruiidivo often denotes purpose: 

Firnianchie vulOtudlni in Caiii[iilniaiii concessit, //,' with Ircw into Cam- 
2^ania to conjir/u hiti health. Tac. 

3. Gkuinoivf. with OrnriAL Xamks. — The Dative f>f the Gerundive also 
stands after certain ofiii iai names, as ilicetnviri, triumiiri, comitia : 

D6cemviros Iciflbus scribendis eieiivlmus, ]\\ hive apjioiiital a commit' 
tee of ten to prepare laws. Liv. But the Dative is perhaps best explained 
as dependent npoii the verb. 

lir. AcCUSATlVi: OF GliliUNDS AND GkUUXIHVK.S. 

565. Tlu; Accusal ivo of the (Jcnind or (Jcrundive is 
used after ii i'aw prepositions : 

GERrxn. — Ad discendum ])ro[)ensi siinuis, ll'i' are ineli/ie.l to learn (to 
learning;. Cic. Inter ludendum, //i or (/»/'/«y^^/rt^. Quint. 

GERrxDivE. — Ad co]cn(loii d'^ros, for cidtivatliif/ the fclJs. Cic. Ante 
condendam urbeni, before the f on ndimj of the city. Liv. 

1. Prepositions. — The Accusative of the gerund or gerundive is used 
most frequently after ad ; sometimes after inter and ob ; very rarely after 
ante, circa, and in. 

:*. With Object.— The accusative of a gerund with a direct object 
sometimes occurs, but is rare : 

Ad plucandum dcos pertinct, It tends to appease the gods. Cic. 

3. Purpose. — 'W'lihxi^vb^^of (/iriutj,j))>'Mifftni/, harma, titkimj, etc., the 
purpose of the action is sometimes denoted by tiie Gerund with ad, or by 
the Gerundive in agreement with a noun : 

Ad imitandum mihi piTtiJosItum exemplar illud, That model has been set 
before 7ne for imitation. Cic. Attrlbuit Itiliam vastandam (for a^i ca^^drt- 
dfwi) Cutilinac, lie assigned Italy to Catiline to ravage {to be ravaged). Cic. 
12 



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1.6 



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:^ 














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WEBSTER, N.Y. MS 80 

(716) 872-4503 









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3 





266 SUPINE. 

IV. Ablative of Geruxds or Gerundives. 

566. The Abliitive of tlie Gerund or Geniiulive is used, 

I. As Ablative of Means or Instrument: 

Geui;xd. — Mens discendo ulltur, The mind is nourished by learninr/. Cic. 
Sulutem hominlbus dando, by (jiving safety to men. Cic. 

Gerundive. — Logendis oratoribus, by reading the orators. Cic. 

II. Witli Prepositions : 

Gerund. — Virtutes cernuntur in agendo, Virtues are seen in action. Cic. 
Deterrcre a scribendo, to deter from writing. Cic. 

Gerundive. — Brutus in liberandapatria est interfectus, Brutus ivas slain 
in liberating his country. Cic. 

1. Prepositions. — The ablative of the gerund or gerundive is used most 
frequently after in ; sometimes after a (ab), de, ex (e) ; veiy rarely after 
cum and pro. 

2. With Object. — After prepositions, the ablative of the gerund with a 
direct object is exceedingly rare : 

In tribuendo suum cuique, in giving every one his own. Cic. 

3. Wititout a Preposition, the ablative of the gerund or gcrur.dive de- 
notes in a few instances some other relation than that of means, as time^ 
separation, etc. : 

Incipicudo rcfugi, I drew back in the very beginning. Cic. 



SECTION XL 

SUPIXE. 

567. Tlie Supine, like the Gerund, is a verb in force, 
but a noun in form and inflection. As a verb it governs 
oblique cases, as a noun it is itself governed. 

568. The Supine has but two cases : the Accusative in 
um and the Ablative in u. 

EXILE L.— Supine in Um. 

569. The Supine in um is used after verbs of mo- 
tion to express purpose : 

Legati vijnerunt res repetltuni, Bcpxdics came to demand rcstitntion. 
Liv. Ad Caestlrem congratuhltum convcnGruut, Thy came to Caesar to 
congratidate him. Caes. 

1. Tho Supine in mri occurs In a few instances after verbs which do not directly 
express motion : 






PAKTICirLES. 



2G7 



Filiam Agrippac nuptum di-dit, //e gate hiadaughtei' in marriage to Agrip- 
2X1. SiK't. 

2. The Snpine in um with the verb eo is equivalent to the forms of the first Per- 
iphrastic ConjugiUion, and may often be rendered literally : 

Bonos omnes porditum cunt, They are going roifcsfro)/ ail ilie good. Sail. 
But in subordinate clauses Iho Supine in jtm with the verb eo is often used for 
the simple verb : 

Ultum Ire, (— ulcisci) injfirias festlnat, ITc ititsteiis to avenge the injuries. Sail. 

3. The Supine in uni with iri, the intinitive passive of to, forms, ii will be re- 
membered (211. III. 1), the Future Passive Infinitive: 

Jjrfitum visum iri a me puto, I think Brutus will be seen hy me. Cie. 

4. The Supine in «/yias an expression of purpose is not very common, its place 
is often supplied even after verbs of motion by other constructions : 

1) By ut or qui with the Sul'Jtinctire. Sec 4S0. 

2) By Geru7ids or Gerundicci. See 503. 5; 5G4. 2; 505. 3. 

3) By Participles. See 5T3. V. 

570. The Supine in ii is generally used as an Ablative 
of Sf»ccitication (429) : 

Quid est tam jucundum audltn, WJiat is so agreeable to hear (in hear- 
ing) ? Cic. Difi'TcIle dictu est, It is difficult to tell. Cic. 

1. The Supine in ?i is used chiefly with— jucundus, optimus— facHis, proclTvis, 
difTIcilis — incrCdibilis, mcmorabilis — hOneslus, turpis, fos, nelas— dignus, indignus — 
opus est. 

2. The Supine in ?< is very rare, and docs not occur with an object. The only 
examples in common use are : aud'itu., cogn'itu, dictu, andfactu. 

3. As the Supine in 7i is little used, its place is supplied by other constructions* 

1) By ad with the Gerund: Verba ad audiendum jucunda, words agreeable to 
hear. Cic. 

2) By the Injinitive : Facile est vincCre, It in easy to conquer, Cic. 

3) By a Finite 3food with an adverb: Non facile dijudicatur amor Actus, P/'c- 
tended love is not easy to detect (is not easily detected). Cic. 



1 



ii 



mo- 



irectly 



SECTION Xll. 

V AR TICIPLES. 

I. Texses of Pakticiples. 

571. Participles, liko Infinitives, express only relative 
time, and represent the action as Present, Past, or Future, 
relatively to the principal verb. 

Pecui.iakities. — Tenses in Participles present the leading peculiarities specified 
under the corresponding tenses in the Indicative. See 4C7. 2. 

572. Pkesent Participle. — The present participle rep- 
resents the action as taking place at the time denoted by 
the principal verb : 

Ociilua se non videns alia cernit, The eye, though it docs not wc- itself (not 



2G8 



USE OF PARTICIPLES. 



seeing itself), discerns other things. Cic. Pluto scrlbcns mortuus est, Plato 
died while writiiuj. Cic. 

573. Future Participle. — The future nctive parti- 
ciple represents tlic action as about to take place, in time 
subsequent to that of the principal verb : 

Sipicns bcina semper plucitura laiulat, The wise man praises Ucssings 
which ivill always phase (being about to please). Sen. 

But the Future Passive generally loses in a great de- 
gree its force as a tense, and is often best rendered by a 
verbal noun. See 502 and 580. 

574. Perfect Participle. — The perfect participle rep- 
resents the action as completed at the time of the principal 
verb. 

Uva niaturata dulccscit, The grape, ivhen it has ripened (having ripen- 
ed), becomes sweet. Cic. 

1, The Perfect Participle, both iu Deponent and in Passive verbs, is sometimes 
used of present time, and sometimes in Passive verbs it loses in a great degree its 
force as a tense, and is best rendered by a verbal noun. See 5S0. 

2. Foi- the Participle with liabeo., sec 3S3. 1. 2), 



II. Use ,of Participles. 



575. Participles are verbs in force, but Adjectives in 
form and inflection. As verbs Jiey govern oblique cases, 
as adjectives they agree with nouns : 

Animus se nonvidens alia ccruit, The mind, though it does not see itself, 
discerns other tilings. Cic. 

1. Participles in the Present or Perfect, rarely in the Future, may be used as 
adjectives or nouns: scrjyjto ^/iw^o/a, a written letter; «ior^(«', the dead. Participles 
with the force of adjectives maybe used as predicate adjectives with sum; oceupdti 
frani, they were occupied; as a verb, had been occupied. 

576. Participles are used to abridge or shorten dis- 
course by supplying the place of finite verbs with relatives 
or conjunctions They are used with much greater free- 
dom in Latin than in English. 

577. Participle for Relative Clause. — In abridged 
sentences, the Participle often supplies the place of a Rela- 
tive Clause : 



USE OF rARTICIPl.KS. 



2G0 






Omnes Sliud iigentcs, uliud siinulantcs iniprobi sunt, All ivho do one 
thing and pretend another are dishonest. Cic. 

578. For other SuBORDrxATE Clauses. — The Parti- 
ciple often supplies the place of a subordinate clause with 
a conjunction. It may express, 

I. Time : 

nSto scribens mortuus est, Pinto died tchile xcritinij. Cic. Ituri iu 
proclium canunt, 2'hci/ sing when about to go into battle. Tac. 

II. Cause, Manner, Means : 

Sol oriens diem conf icit, The snn hy its rising causes the day. Cic. 
Milites renuntiant, se perf idiain verltos revcrtisse, The soldiers report that 
they returned because they feared perfidy (having feared). Cacs. 

III. Condition : 

Mendaci homini nc vOrum quidcm diceuti crOdcrc non solcmus, We are 
not ivont to believe a liar, even if he speaks the truth. Cic. Kcluctante aatura, 
irrltus labor est, If nature opposes, effort is vain. Son. 

IV. Concession : 

Scripta tua jam diu cxspectans, non audco tamcn flagitarc, Though I 
Jiave been long expecting your work, yet I do not dare to ask for it. Cic. 

V. Purpose : 

Perseus rSdiit, belli casum tcntuturus, Perseus returned to try (about 
to try) the fortune of war. Liv. Attribuit nos tricidandos CetbOgo, lie as- 
signed us to Cethegus to slaughter. Cic. 

579. Participle for Prii^cipal Clause. — The Parti- 
ciple sometimes supplies the place of a pnncipal or coor- 
dinate clause, and may accordingly be best rendered by a 
finite verb with and or but : 

Classem dCvictam cepit, lie conquered and took the fleet (took the fleet 
conquered). Nep. Re consenticntes vocabulis diff crObant, TJicy agreed in 
fact, but differed in words. Cic. 

580. Participle for Verbal Noun". — The Passive 
Participle is often used in Latin where the Englisli idiom 
requires a participial noun, or a verbal noun with of : 

In amicis ellgendis, in selecting friends. Cic. IlomCrus fiiit ante RO- 
mam condltam, Homer lived (was) before the founding of Pome (before Rome 
founded). Cic. 

581. Participle with Negative. — The I^articiple 



< 



h 



f.\ 






2V0 



rARTICLES. 



with a negative, as non^ 7ilhil, is often host rcnclcicd hy 
a participial noun and the preposition icithout : 

Mlscrum est, nihil pruficientem angi, It is sad to be troubled loithoiit 
accomiMshiiuj anythinfj. C'ic. Is'ou Crubesccus, icithout blunhinfj, Cic. 



-♦♦♦- 



CIIAPTEE YI. 

SYNTAX OF PARTICLES. 
RULE LL-TTse of Adverbs. 

582. Adverbs qualify vekbs, adjectives, and other 

ADVEKBS : 

SSpioTitcs fClIcTtcr vivunt, Tlic icluc live happily. Cic. Facile doetis- 
simus, unquestionably the most learned. Cic. Ilaud iilitcr, not otherwise. 
Yirg. 

583. Adverbs are sometimes used with nouns : 

1. When the nouns are used with the force of adjectives or participles : 

31inime largitor dux, a leader by no means liberal. Liv. Topulus late 
rex, a2>eople of extensice sivay (ruling extensively). Virg. 

2. When in sense a participle or verb may be supplied : 

Marius, plane vir, Marius, truly a man. Cic. Omnes circa popiili, c.ll 
the surrounding peoples. Liv. See also 353. 2. 

584. The Common Negative Particles are : now, ne^ 
hand. 

1. Kon is tho usual negative, ne is used in prohibitions, wishes and purposes 
(489), and liaud^ in liaucl scio an and with adjectives and adverbs ; hand mlruMle, 
not wonderful ; Iiand iWiter, not otherwise. A7 for ne Is rare. A"e nan after vide is 
often best rendered tchcther. 

2. Inno7i mndo 7Jo?j and in noil snlum non., tho second non is generally omitted 
before sed, or rerum, followed by ne — quidem or vix (rarely ctiam), when the verb 
of the second clause belongs also to the first : 

Assenti'ilio non modo amico, sed ne libero quidem digna est. Flattery is not 
only not xcorthy of a friend, but not even of a free man, Cic. 

3. Minus often has nearly the force of non ; si minus = si non. Sin dllter has 
nearly the same force as ei m'iiius. 



PARTICLES. 



271 



?2(?, 






585. Two ISTct^ativcs fire gcucrally cquivalonl to an 
nflirmativc, as in Euglisli : 



Nihil non crrogct, Let him claim everything. Ilor. 
non vidct, Sor did Zcno occrlooh this. Cic. 



Noc^uc hoc Zono 



1. ^"on before a general ncpaUvo gives It the force of an indefinite affinnativi', 
but after such negative the force of a general airirmative: 

NonnOino, some one ; nonniliii, something ; nonniinquam, sometimes. 
NOino non, ecery one ; nihil non, crenj thing; nunquam i\ui\,,' lwui/». 

2. After a general negative, nc — qu'ideni gives empliasis to the Legation, and 
n<<t27ie—neqae, 7icc&—ucce, and the like, repeat the negation distributivei} : 

Non praetereundum est ne idquidcui. We inunt not putts hi/ cceii thin. ( ic. Nemo 
uuquamnequo poeta neque orator fuit, Xo one was ever either a poet or o, ator. Cic. 

3. Sic and 'da mean «o, thus. ltd has also a limiting sense in so far v'lieh docs 
not belong to sic, as in \ta—si (..j03. 4). Adeo, to sucti a degree or result ; tam, tan- 
tojif're,so niucli,^rt.'« used mostly before adjectives and adverbs, and tantopero before 
verbs. 

586. For tlio use of Prepositions, see 432 to 437. 

587. Coordinate Conjunctions unite similar construc- 
tions (309). They comprise tive clu.scs : 

I. Coj)ulative Conjunctions denote union : 

Castor et Pollux, Castor and Pollux. Cic. SSnatus populnsquo, the sen- 
ate and people. Cic. Ncc 6rat difFicilo, Kor was it difficult. Liv. 

1. List. See 310. 1. 

2. Difference in Forci;. — Et simply connects; que implies a more intimate 
relationship; atque generally gives prominence to what follows, especially at the be- 
ginning of a sentence; ac, abbreviated from atque, has generally the force of et. 
Nique and nee have the force of et non. Et and rfiam sometimes mean eten. 

Atque and ae generally mean as, than after adjectives nnd adverbs of likeness 
and unlikeness; similis, dissimilis, similiter, par, pariter, aeqne, illius, lilitcr, secus: 
aeque ac, equally as; dlUer atque, otherwise than. See also 451. 5. 

3. QcE, AC, atqt:e,— (2«e is an enclitic, i. e., is always appended to some other 
word. Ac in the best prose Is used only before consonants ; atque, cither before 
vowels or consonants. 

4. Etiam, qttoque, adeo, and the like, are sometimes associated with et, atque, 
cr, and que, and sometimes even supply their place. Quoque follows the word which 
it connects: is quoque, he also. Etiam, also, further, even, is more comprehensive 
than quoque and often adds a new circumstance. 

5. CouRELATiVES. — Somctlmcs two copulatives are used : ot (que) — et (quo), 
tum — tum, quum — tum, both — and ; but qunm — turn prives prominence to the second 
wovd or clause ; non solum (non modo, or non tantnm) — sed etiam (vCrum etiam), 
jiot only — but also ; neque (ncc) — neqne (ncc), neither — nor ; neque (ncc) — et (que), 
not— hut (and); et— neque (nee), (hoth)—and not. 

6. Omitted. — Between two words connected copulatively the conjunction is 
generally expressed, though sometimes omitted, especially between the names of two 
colleagues. Between several words it is la the best prose generally repeated or 



h 



^^1 



272 



PARTICLES. 






omitted iiltogctbor, though que may be used with the last even when the coiijuiiotion 
1h omitted between the others: pax et tranquill'ttan et conconlia, or jxix, trunqiiil- 
VitUf, voncordiit, ov jmu; irnnqitiliitdH^ concord iaqitp. 

JJt is ol'teii omitted between conditioiiid cl:iiise», except before non. 

II. Disjunctive Conjunctions denote scpanition : 

Ant vcstra aut sua culpa, cither your fault, or hh own. Liv. Duiibus 
tribusvc Luris, in, two or thne hours. Cic. 

1. List. Sec 310. 2. 

2. Aut, vel, ve.— J «i< denotes a stronger antithesis than tW, and must be used 
If the «)ne supiiositlon excludes the other: aut rCru7n auf/afsiim,Q\thvr true or false. 

rd'nmpllesudiirerenee in the expression rather than in the thing. It is gen-rally cor- 
rective and is ol'tcn followed \>ypi/iius. ftiam or cl'ieam: laudutur vel itianiumCttur, 
bo is praised, or even (rather) loved. It sometimes means even and sometimes/or 
eicaniple. Velut often means/or e.i'amj>le. Ve for vel is appended as an enclitic. 

In negative clauses aut and ve often continue the negation : nonJt'mor aut vir- 
tus, neither (not) honor nor virtue. 

8. SiVE (si — ve) does not imply any real difference or oppcsition; it often con- 
nects different names of the same object: Pallas sice Minerva, I'allas or Minerva 
(another name of the same goddess). 

III. Adversative Conjunctions denote opj^osition or 
contrast : 

Cupio me esse cleiDcntum, scd mo inortiac condcmno, Iivish to he mild, 
hut J condemn myself for inaction, Cic. 

1. List. Sec 810. 3. 

2. Difference i.h 'Fov.cT..—Sed and verum mark a direct opposition; autetn 
and vero only a ♦'•ansition ; at emphasizes the opposition; aiqjii often introduces an 
objection; cct^rnw, but still, as to the rest; tdmen, yet. 

3. CoMi'ouNDS OP TAMEN are : attihnen, dedtdmen, veruntdmen, but yet. 

4. ArxEM and veuo follow the words which they connect: Jtic autem, hie vero, 
but this one. They are often omitted, especially before non. They ore admissible 
with qui tndy when it \^folloiced by its antecedent. 

IV. Illative Conjunctions denote inference : 

In umbra Jgitur pugnabinius, We shall therefore figM in the shade. Cic. 

1. List. Sec 310. 4. 

2. Other Words. — Certain other words, sometimes classed witli adverbs and 
sometimes with conjunctions, arc also lllatives: ea, ideo, idcii-co, propterea, quam- 
obrem, quapropter, quarc, quocirea. 

3. I(;it[;r. — This generally follows the word which it connects: hie 'iffUur, this 
one therefore. After a digression 'iq'iiur, fied, sed tumen, verum, verum tdmen, etc., 
are often used to resume an interrupted thought or construction. They may often be 
rendered I say : Sed si quis; if any one, I say. 

Y. Causal Conjunctions denote cause : 

Difficile est consilium: sum finim solus, Counsel is difficult, for I am* 
alone. Cic. Etenim jus amant, For they love the right. Cic. 
1. List. See 810. 5. 



or 



Cic. 



this 

etc., 

en be 



aii}r 



r ARTICLES. 273 

2. Etenim and Namque denote a closer connection than /nim nnd nam. 
8. K.MM loMows lis word. 

688. Suborclinate Conjunctions connect subordinate 
with principal conHtructious (309. 11.). Thoy comprise 
eiijlit classes. 

I. Temporal Conjunctions denote time : 

Pilruit quuni nCccsso 6rat, I/e obeyed when it teas necesmnj. Cic. Du'u 
6go in SIcIlia sum, while I am in ,Sici:/. Cic. See also 311. 1 ; r)'Jl-r)'J3. 

I. Dl'm addud to a ucgutivc means ye<; noH(/Mnj, not yet; rJa-f/MNj, scarcely yet. 

II. Comparative Conjunctions denote coini)arison : 

Ut optasti, Ita est, It is as you dtsind. Cic. Vclut si adcs.sct, a/< ij he 
were present. Cues. See also 811. 2 ; 503,501). 

1. CoRUELATivES are often used: Tarn — qiiani, r/,"), no — nv, a/t much n/t ; tarn — 
qunm quod niiixitrie, rts much as j/Of'tiihfe ; nou minus— qiiaui, ?iO(' li.ss than; iion 
niilgis — quani, not more than. 

Tam—qnam and ut—)ta with a superlative .are fiometlmesbest rendered l»y the 
with the couiparatlvo : %U nuu-'nnc — )ta 7naxiine, Ihc more — the more. 

III. Conditional Conjunctions denote condition : 

Si peccavi, ignoscc. If I have erred, pardon me. Cic. Nisi est con- 
cilium donii, vnless there is wisdom at home. Cic. Sec also 311. 3 ; 503. 507. 

1. N\si, if not, in negative sentences often means except, and n'isi quod, except 
that, may be used even in aflirmative sentene<.'s. iV5st may mean than. ^Ihil dliud 
n)si = nothing further (more, except); ninil dliud quam = nothing else (other 
than). 

IV". Concessive Conjunctions denote concession : 

Quamquam intclligunt, thouffh they vnderstand. Cic. Etsi nihil hubcat, 
although he has nothing. Cic. See also 311. 4; 515. 510. 

V. Final Conjunctions denote purpose : 

Esse Sportet, ut vivas, It is necessary to eat, that you may live. Cic. 
Sec also 311. 5 ; 489-499. 

VI. Consecutive Conjunctions denote consequence or 
result : 

Atticua ita vixit, ut Athcniensibus esset carisslmus, Atticus so lived 
that lie was very dear to the Athenians, Nep. See also 311. G ; 489-499. 

VII. Causal Conjunctions denote cause : 

Quae quum ita sint, Since these things are so, Cic. See also 811. 7; 
517. 518. 

VIII. Interrogative Conjunctions or Particles denote 
inquiry or question : 

QuaesiSras, nonuc putarem, Yov \od asked whether I did not think. 
Cic. See also 311. 8; 846. II., 525. 526. 



)^l 






i\ 



'i> 



■1 



11 



\ 



t^ 



274 



INTEIIJKCTIONS. RULES. 



> 



IV. Inteujectio> . 

689. Tntorjcctions are sometimes used entirely alono, 
as dn'ii^ alas! and KometimeH willi certain eases of nonns. 
See 381 and 381. 3. 

590. Varions parts of speecli, and even oatlis and im- 
precations, sometimes have tlie force of interjections. Thus : 

Pux (2>cace), be dill/ niisfirum, ml^diubllo, sad, lamentable / ora, prai// 
ugi", ugitc, come, u\l'.! mclicrcules, bi/ Jlercuks! per deutn I'iclom, in, the 
name of the (jods ! sCilea = si amies {for aiidics), if you v: ill heart 



-•♦♦- 



CHATTER YII. 
RULES OF SYNTAX. 

691. For convenience of reference, tlie principal Unles 
of Syntax arc here introduced in a body. The enclosed 
numerals refer to the various articles in the work ^^here the 
several topics arc more fully discussed. 

NOUNS. 

Agreement. 

I. A Predicate Noun denoting the same person or 
thing as its .Subject, agrees with it in case (302) : 

Ego sum nuntius, I am a messenger. Li v. 

II. An AprosiTivE agrees with its Subject in case (003) : 
Cluilius rex montur, Cluilius the king dies. Liv. 

Kominative. 

III. The Subject of a Finite verb is put in the Nomina- 
tive (3G'7) : 

Servius rcgnavit, Servius reigned. Liv. 

Vocative. 

IV. The Name of the person or thing addressed is put 
in the Vocative (369) : 

Perge, Laeli, Proceed, Laclius. Cic. 



RULES OF SYNTAX. 



275 






13): 



AccrsATivE. 

V. The DiuixT OiJjJiCT of an action i.s |mt in the Accu- 
Hativc (:i71) : 

Dous uiundum ucMlIfkavit, God made the world. Cic. 

VI. Ver1).s of ArAKivd, ciioosiNa, ( i.Lixr,, nKO/.^wDixr,, 
siiowiXij, and l!i(i like, admit two Acciiutivus of liiu same 
person or iliiiig (;J7.'J) : 

Iliimilcarciu imnGiutoroiu fOcrirunt, Thcij made Ilamilcar commander. 
Kt-l). 

Vn. Some verbs of ASKiNd, DKMAXDiNd, tkaciiixg, and 
CONCEALING, admit two Accusatives in tiie Active, and one 
in tlie Passive (374): 

Me soutcntiaiu rugfivit, lie asked me ♦■ opinion. Cic. 

VIII. DniATiox OF Tlmi: and Extent of Space arc 
expressed by tin; Accusative (378): 

Septcm ot ti'If^inta rcf^nJlvit annof, He reigned thirtii-scven years. Liv. 
Quiiujue luillia passuum ambulure, to walk Jive miles. Cic. 

IX. The Name of a Town used as the Limit of motion 
is put in the Accusative (379) : 

Xiintius Iiomam rtjdit, The messenger returns to Home. L.-. 

X. A Verb or Adjective may take an Adverbial Accu- 
sative to dellne its application (380) : 

Capita vr-lrumir, We have our heads veiled. Virg. Nube humCroa 
amictus, with his shoulders envelojjed in a cloud. Ilor. 

XI. The Accusative, cither with or without an Interjec- 
tion, may be used in Exclamations (381): 

Ucu mc mlsuruni, Ah me unhappy/ Cic. 



put 



Dative. 

XII. The Indirect Object is put in the Dative (384) : 
Tempuri cedit, He yields to the time. Cic. 

Dative of Advantage and Disadvantage (385). 
Dative with CompoinuU (380). 
Dative of Possessor (387). 
Dative of Apparent Agent (388). 
Ethical Dative (389). 



270 



RUT.KS OP SYNTAX. 



XIII. Two Datives — tlio oiukctto M'nicri and the oii« 
Jinn- Foil wmiii — uL'fur witli ii I'uw vcilxs (uuo): 

Millo vA lioiiiTiiIhus availtin, Avarice is (for) an ivll to men, Cic. 

XIV. AVith Adjoclivcs tlu^ oiukct to Avnu;ii tliu (puility 
is dirucluil is ])Ut in the Dative (JJOl) : 

OiTinHjus c.lrum est, II la dear to all. Cic. 

XV. A lew Derivative Nouns and Adverhs take the 
Dative after the analogy of their primitives (.'}92) : 

Ohtcmprrfitio k'',i:;il)us, obedience to the laws. C'ic. Coiif^'tut'litcr ufttu- 
liic, ayrccab^if to nature. Cic. 

Gkxitive. 

XVI. Any noun, not an Appositivo, qualifying; the 
luc.aninjj; of anotlier noun, is put in the Genitive (;j95): 

Catoni.s oiatiuiicH, Cato's orations. Cic. 

XVir. Many Adjectives take a Genitive to conii>leto 
their meaning (399) : 

AvTdus liiudi:^, desirous of praise. Cic. 

XVTTT. A Predicate Noun denoting a different person 
or thing from its Subject, is put in tiie Genitive (401) : 

Omnia liostium erant, All things belonged to (were of) the enemi/. Li v. 

XIX. The Genitive is used (40G), 

I. Witli misereor and mis^resco : 
MisC'rC'ro laborum, piti/ the labors. Virg. 

II. With recordor, mSmxni, reminlscor, and obllviscor: 
Mi^minit practiiritOrum, He remembers the past. Cic. 

III. With refert and interest ; 

Interest omnium, // is the interest of all. Cic. 

XX. A few verbs take the Accusative of tlie Person 
and the Genitive of the Thing (410) : 

I. Ycrhs of liemlndlnr/, Admoiiis/imff : 

Te amieltiao commonCfacit, He reminds you of friendship. Cic. 

II. Verbs of Accusing., Convicting^ Acquitting : 
Viros scfilt'ris arguis, You accuse men of crime. Cic. 

III. 3fiserety Poenitet, I^ildet, Taedet, and Piget : 
Eorum nos misSret, Wepitytliem. Cic. ,^- 



■I. 



RULES OF SYNTAX. . . 277 

_ f 

For the Gcniih^e of Place, sco Rulo XXVT. 

AlJLATIVK. 

XXI. Cau.sk, Manneu, and Means arc tlonotod l)y tlio 
Al)lative (414): 

t'tilitato liiiidfitur, It is praised because of its rt.irfulncss, C'lv. 

XXII. I'kice is gt'iiurally denoted by the Ablative 
(HO): 

Vt'iulldit nuro patiiiim, He Hold kin eoiinfri/for ^old. Vir;;. 

XX III. Comparatives without (juam are Ibllowed by 
the Ablative (417): 

Nihil est ilnir.biliu3 vlrtutc, Kothivrf is more lovely than virtue, Cic. 

XXIV. Tlio IMeasuiik of Difference is denoted ))y 
the Abhitiv«> (418): 

Uno die longior, longer hj one day. Cic. 

XXV. The Ablative is used (419), 

I. "With utor, firuor, fungor, p5tior, vescor, niid their com- 
poundd : 

riuiiniiri rObiis friiTmur, We enjoy very many thiny/t. Cic. 

II. With fido, confldo, nltor, innltor: 

S.'iliis vGrltfito nititur, Safety rests upon truth. C\c. 

III. With Verds and Adjectives of Plenty and Want: 
Non fgco niodicina, I do not need a remedy. Vac. 

TV. With dignus, indignus, contcntus, and fretus : 

Digni sunt fimicltia, They arc worthy of friendship. Cic. 

V. Witli bpu3 and usus: 

Aucturltfite tua nobis opus est, We need your authority. Cic. 

XXVI. I. The place in which and the place from 
WHICH are generally denoted by the Ablative with a Prepo- 
sition. But 

II. Names of Towns drop the Proposition, and in the 
Singular of the First and SeconG declensions designate the 
place in which by the Genitive (^1) : 

In Italia fuit. He was in Italy. Xcp. Ex AfiTca, from Africa. lav. 
AthOnis fuit, He was at Athens. Cic. Ilomac fuit. He was at Borne. Cic. 

XXVII. Source and Separation are denoted by the 
Ablative, generally with a preposition (425) : 



I 






I 



i 



1 ' 

* 



278 



EULES or SYNTAX. 






Oriundi ab Sablnls, descended from the Sahincs. Liv. Caedem a robis 
dOpello, / ward off daughter from you. Cic. 

XXVIII. Tlie Time of an Action is denoted by the Ab- 
lative (420) : 

Octogesimo anno est mortuus, lie died in his eightieth year. Cic. 

XXIX. The Ablative with an adjective may be used 
to characterize a person or thhig (428) : 

Summa virtute adulesccns, a youth of the highest virtue. Caes. 

XXX. The Ablative may be used with a word to de- 
line its application (429) : 

Nomine, nou putcstutc fait rex, He teas king in name, not in power. 
Xep. 

XXXI. The Ablative is used as the Case Absolute 
(431): 

Scrvio regnantc, in the reign of Servius (Scrvius reigning). Cic. 

Cases witu Prepositions. 

XXXII. The Accusative and Ablative may be used 
with Prepositions (432) : 

Ad aralcuin, to a friend. Cic. In Italia, in Italy. Xep. 

ADJECTIVES. 

XXXIII. An Adjective agrees with its Noun in gen- 
der, NUMBER, and CASE (438) : 

FortQna caeca est, Fortune is blind. Cic. 

PRONOUNS. 

XXXIV. A Pronoun agrees with its Antecedent in 

GENDER, NUMBER, and PERSON (445) : 

Animal, quod sangninem habet, an animal which has blood. Cic. 

VERBS. 

Agreement. 

XXXV. A Finite Verb agrees with its Subject in num- 
ber and PERSON (460) : 

Ego ^eges cjtici, I have banished kings. Cic. 



KULES OF SYNTAX. 



279 



de- 



111 



IxDicATi^E Mood. 

XXXYI. The Indicative is used in treating of facts 
(474): 

Deus mundum acdificfivit, God made the world. Cic. 

Sl'ijjuxctive Tenses. 

XXXVII. Principal tenses depend upon Principal 
*enses : Historical, upon Historical (480) : 

NitTtur ut vincat, He strives to conquer. Cic. Quaesifiras nonno putfi- 
rcm, You had asked whether I did not think. Cic. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

XXXVIil. Tlie Potential Subjunctive represents tlie 
action not as real, but ixs2)03sible (485) : 

Forsitan quacratis, 2)erhaps you may inquire. Cic. 

XXXIX. Tlic Subjunctive of Desire represents the 
action not as real, but as desired (487) : 

Yaleant elves, May the citizens be well. Cic. 

XL. The Subjunctive of Pukbose or Result is used 
(489), 

I. With ut, ne, que, quin, quominus : 

Enltitur nt, vincat, He strives that he may conquer. Cic. 

II. With qui = ut is, ut ego, tu, etc. : 

!Missi sunt, qui {ut ii) consiilSrent Apollinem, They were sent to consult 
Apollo. Xcp. 

XLI. The Subjunctive op Condition is used (503), 

I. With dum, mbdo, dummbdo : 

jlodo permaneat industiia, if only industry remains. Cic. 

II. With ac si, ut si, quasi, quam si, tanquam, tanquani si, 
v^lut, velut si: 

Velut si adesset, as if he were present. Caes. '. 

III. Sometimes with si, nisi, ni, sin, qui = si is, si quis : 

Si vfilim num6rarc, if /should wish to recount. Cic. 

XLII. The Subjunctive of Concession is used (515), 

I. With licet, quamvis, quantumvis, ut, ne, quum, although: 
Licet inideat, though he may deride. Cic. 



280 



EULES OF SYNTAX. 



II. With qui = quum (licet) is, quum ^go, etc., though he : 
Absolvito Vcrrcra, qui [quum is) futciitur, Acquit Vcrrcs, though he 

confesses. Cic. 

III. Generally with etsi, tametsi, ^tiamsi: 

Etsi optimum sit, even if (though) it be most excellent. Cic. 

XLIII. The Sl'bjunctive of Cause or Reason is used 
(517), 

I. With quum (cum), since ; qui = quum is, etc. 
Quum vita mfitus plena sit, since life is full of fear. Cic. 

II. With quod, quia, quSniam, quando, to introduce a reason on 
another's authority: 

Quod corrumpfirct juvcntutcm, because (on the ground that) he corrupt- 
ed the youth. Quint. 

XLIV. The Subjunctive of Time "witli the accessory 
notion of Cause or Pukpose is used (521), 

I. With dum, donee, quoad, until: 

Exspectas, dum dicat, You arc waiting till he speaks^ i. c., that he may 
speak. Cic. 

II. With antcquam, priusquam, before: 

Ant6quam de re publica dicam, before I (can) spcaJc of the republic. Cic. 

XLY. The Subjunctive is used in Indirect Questions 
(525) : 

Quid dies ferat, incertum est, What a day may bring forth is uncer- 
tain. Cic. 

XL VI. The Subjunctive by Attraction is often used in 
clauses dependent uj)on the Subjunctive (527) : 

Yi-reor, ne, dum mlnuere vSlim laborem, augeam, I fear I shall in- 
crease the labo7\ while I wish to diminish it. Cic. 

XL VII. The Subjunctive is generally used in the Inter- 
rogative, Imperative, and Subordinate clauses of the Oratio 
Obliqua (529) : 

Respondit, cur voniret, He replied^ why did he come. Caeg. Scrlbit 
LabiC'uo veniat. He writes to Labienus to come. Caes. 

Imperative. 

XLVIII. The Imperative is used in commands, exhor- 
tations, and entreaties (535) : 

Justitiam cole. Practise justice. Cic. 



I he: 
'hough he 



is USGcl 



reason on 
c corrupt- 

jccssory 

at he may 

ublic. Cic. 
ESTIOXS 

is unccr- 

used in 

shall in- 

e Inter- 
Oratio 

Sci'ibit 



exlior- 



T?ULES OF SYNTAX. 



Infinitive. 



281 



XLIX. The Sul)joct of an Infinitive is put in the Ac- 
cusative (545): 

Scntlmua calore ignem, M'c perceive that f re is hot. Cic. 

Paeticiples, Gerunds, and Supines. 

Participles are construed as adjectives (575), Ge.-unds 
and Supines as nouns (559, 507). lint 

L. The Supine in lan is used after verbs of motion to 
express pukpose (5G9) : 

VOngrunt res rfipetltiim, TJicy came to demand rcsiitiition. Liv. 

PARTICLES. 

LI. Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, and other ad- 
verbs (582) : 

Sapientcs fclicitcr vivunt, The wise live happlli/. Cic. 

1. For Prepositions, see Rule XXXII. 

2. CoNjcNCTioxs are mere connectives. See 587 and 588. 

3. Interjections are expressions of emotion or mere marks of address. 
Sec 58^ 



-•-•-•- 



CHAPTER YIII. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS AND CLAUSES. 



SECTION I. 

ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 

592. The Latin admits of great variety in the ai-range- 
ment of the different })arts of the sentence, thus affording 
peculiar facilities both for securing proper emphasis and foi' 
imparting to its periods that harmonious flow which charac- 
terizes the Latin classics. But with all this freedom and 
variety, there are certain general laws of arrangement which 
it will be useful to notice. 



(t 



282 



ARRANGEMEXT OF WORDS. 






I. General Rules. 

593. The Subject followed by its modifiers occu})iea 
the first place in tlie sentence, and the Predicate preceded 
by its modifiers the last i)lace : 

Sol Sricns diem conf Icit, The sun rising maJces the da;/. Cic. Aiuinus 
acjTcr semper orrat, A disawcd mind alwa>js cvvs. Cic. !Miltiadcs AlhCiius 
libCravit, Miltiadcs liberated Athens. Nop. 

594. Emphaiiis and euphony often affect the arrange- 
ment of words : 

I. Beginning. — Any word, except the subject, may bo 
made emphatic by being placed at the beginning of the 
sentence : 

Silent ICgcs inter arma, Laivs are silent in war. Cic. Kumitori Rfimus 
duditiir, Jieinus ij delivered to Numitor, Liv. I(jni agcr vastubiitur, 'The 
field was ravaged with fire. Sail. 

II. End. — Any word, except the predicate, may be ren- 
dered cmpliatlc by being placed at the end of the sentence : 

Nobis noil salisfiicit ipse Demosthenes, Even Demosthenes does not satixfj 
us. Cic. Cousulatiim pfitivit nunqua7n, lie never sought the consulship. Cic. 
Exsistit quaedam quacstio suhdifficilis, There arises a question someichat dif- 
ficult, Cic. 

III. Separation. — ^Two words naturally connected, as 
a roun and its adjective, or a noun and its genitive, are 
sometimes made emphatic by separation: 

Ohjurgdtiones nonnunqiu.ni incidunt necessdriae, Sometimes necessary ?•>■ 
proofs occur. Cic. Justitiac fungatur officiis, Let him discharge the duties 
of justice. Cic. 

595. Contrasted Groups. — AVhen two groups of words 
are contrasted, the order of the first is often reversed in the 
second : 

Fragile corpus Snimus sempiternus movct, The imperishable soul moves 
the perishable hody. Cic. 

596. Kindred Words. — Different forms of the same 
word, or different words of the same derivation, are gener- 
ally placed near each other : 

Ad senem sfinex de s^nectute scripsi, /, an old man, wrote to an old man 
on the subject of old age. Cic. Inter se aliis alii proaunt, They 'mutually bent- 
Jit each other. Cic. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



283 



.697. Words with a co?ir:Mox Relation. — A word 
which lias a common rehition to two other words connected 
by conjimctions, is phiced, 

I. Generally before or aftc both : 

Pacis ct artes et gloria, both the arts and the glory of peace. Liv. Belli 
pucisquo artes, the arts of tvar and of peace. Liv. 

• A Genitive or Adjective following two nouns may qualify both, but It more fre- 
quently qtiiililu's only tins latter: 

Haec percunclatio ac dcnuntiutio belli, this inquiry and thin declaration of 
tear. Liv. ^ 

II. Sometimes directly after the first before the con- 
junction: 

IlonOris ccrtumon et gloriae, a struggle for honor and glory. Cic. Agri 
omncs ct inuria, all lands and seas, Cic. 



same 
trener- 






II. Special Rules. 

598. Modifiers of Xouns. — Tlio modifiers of a nouu 
generally follow it. They may be either adjectives or 
nouns : 

Populns Romanus dCcrcvit, The Roman people decreed. Cic. IlCrodotiis, 
pSter historiae, Herodotus, the father of history. Cic. Liber do ofliciis, the 
book on duties. Cic. 

1. Noun. — A «ionn as modifier of anotlior noun is generally an appositivc, 
a genitive, or a case with a preposition, as in the examples. 

2. With Emphasis. — Jlodificrs when emphatic are placed before their 
nouns : 

Tuscus ager Romano adjacet, T^ie Tuscan territory borders on the Rotnan. 
Liv. CatOnis oratioues, Cato's orations. Cic. 

3. Adjective and Genitive. — When a noun is modified both by an ad- 
jective and by a genitive, the ual order is, udjcctiee — genitice — noun : 

Magna civium penuria, a great scarcity of citizens. Cic. 

599. Modifiers of Adjectives. — The modifiers of the 
adjective generally precede it, but, if not adverbs, they may 
follow it : 

Facile doctissimus, unqiiestioiahly the most learned. Cic. Omni aetali 
communis, common to every age. Cic. Avidus laudis, desirous of praise. Cic. 

600. Modifiers or Verbs. — The modifiers of the verb 
generally precede it : 

Gloria virtutem sSquitur, Glory foil oics virtue. Cic. Mundus deo paret, 
The ivorld is subject to God. Cic. Vchementcr dixit, IJe spoke vehemently. 
Cic. Gloria dQcitur, He is led by glory. Cic. 






i 



284 



ARRANGEMi:XT OF AV >KDS. 



1. Aftpti tiik Vkiih. — "Wlioii the verb is placed for the sake of cmpliasis 
nt the leijiiiiiing of the scutuucc, the luodilieid, of course, follow. See lirst 
exaniiile niuler i>'Ji. I. 

2. Emi'Hasis. — An emphatic modifier ruay of course stand at the begin- 
iiiiig or at the end of the sentence {')\^-i) : 

Fieiliiine cognoscuntur udolescentcs, Most easi!// are the young men rec- 
O'jnizcd. Cic. 

J5. Two on MORE MouiFiKus. — Of two or more modifiers belonging to the 
same verb, that which in ihought is most intimately connected with the veil) 
stands next to it, while the others arc arranged as emphasis and euphony 
may require : 

Kex Scythis bcllum intiilrt. The Jcing waged ivar against the Scf/thians. 
Nep. Mors propter brfivituteni vitac nunquani longc abest, Death is never 
far distant, in consequence of the shortness of life. Cic. 

601. Modifiers of Adverbs. — ^Tlie modifieTs of the 
adverb generally precede it, but a Dative often follows it : 

Valde vchfimcnter dixit, He spoke very vehemently. Cic. Cougruenter 
uaturae vivit, Jle lives agreeably to nature. Cic. 

602. Special "Words. — Some words have a favorite 
l^lace in the sentence, which they seldom leave. Thus, 

I. The Demonstrative generally precedes its noun : 
Custos Imjus urbis, tJie guardian of this city. Cic. 

1. Ule in tho sonse of well-known (450. 5) generally follows lis noun, if not ac- 
companied by an adjective: 

^MCdCa ill.i, that wetl-knoicn 3Iedea. (Jit 

2. Quisque. the indcflnito pronoun, follows some other word: 

Jusiitia suum culque trlbuit, Justice gives to every man his due (his own). Cic. 

II. Prepositions generally stand directly before their cases, but tt-nus 
and versus Ibllow their cases : 

In A.s,iSim-^voi^g\i, He fled irdo Asia. Cic. CoWoiQnnSyVptothenech. Ov. 

1. Afteu a PKONOtTN. — The preposition frequently follows the relative, some- 
times other pronouns, and sometimes even nouns, especially in poetry : 

Res qua de tlgitur, the subject of which we are trecting. Cic. Italiam contra, 
over against Italy. Virg. 

2. Cum Appended.— See 1S4. C and 1S7. 2. 

8. Intervening Words.— Genitives, adverbs, and a few other words sometimes 
stand between the preposition and its case. In adjurations 2)er is usually separated 
from its case by the Ace. of the object udjui'ed, or by some other word; and some- 
times the verb oro is omitted : 

Post Alexandri maftni mortem, after the death of Alexander the Great. Cic. 
Ad bene vlvendum,,/br /er/w;/ icell, Cic. Per te dcos u."o, I p>'ay you in the name 
of the gods. Tcr. Per ego vos deos = per deos ego vos Oro {pro understood). / 
pray you in the natne of the gods. Curt. 

III. Conjunctions and Relatives, when they introduce clauses, generally 



aiii{AXc;k:ment of words and clausks. 



285 



stand ut tlio beginning of such daurfca ; but autcm, tiihr qnukiHy (jHufp'c, 
vtfOy and {.^cncially \y;tu}'^ follow some otlicr word : 

Si pecciivi, ignosco, If IJiave erred, pardon, vie. Cic. li qui suporiorcs 
sunt, those who are superior. Cic. Ipse aiitem oiiuiia videbat, JJut he him- 
Si!f saw all things. Cic. 

1. Kmphatio Wop.ds and l!rr.ATiVKS often iircccdo tlio cniijnnction. 

Id lit audivit, ii,i he heard this. Is'ei). tiiuic (luuui iUi hiut, aincc these things 
are so. Cic. 

2. Nk — Qi'iDKM takes the cm[)hatic word or words between the two parts: 
No in oppidis quidoni, not even in the towns. Cic. 

8. Qu'ulem often follows />/'o««ii?i», superlatives, and ordinals: 
Ex nie quidem nihil audiot, lie ivill hear nothing Jroin me. Cic. 
4. Que, re,ne, introducing a clause or phrase, are trencrally appended to the first 
word, but if that word is a iiionosyllabic preposition, tluy are often appended to tlic 
next word: ad plibemve, for adte, etc., or to the people; inforoque = inquefaro, 
and iu the I'orum. Apud quosque, nnd before whom, occurs for euphony. 

IV. Kon, when it qualifies some single word, stands directly before 
that wofd, but when it is particularly enipliatie, or qualilies the. entire 
clause, it generally stands at the beginning of the clause : 

Ilac villa ciirOrc non possunt, They are not aide to do without this villa. 
Cic. Non fuit Jupiter mfitucndus, Jupiter was not to be feared. Cic. 

V. Inquani, sometimes Aio, i.itroducing a quotation, follows one or 
more of the words quoted. Tiie subject, if expressed, generally follows 
its verb : 

Nihil, inquit Brutus, quod dicam, Xothing which I shall state, said 
Brutus. Cic. 

VI. The Vocative rarely stands at the beginning of a sentence. It 
usually follows an emphatic word : 

Pcrge, Lacli, Proceed, Laclins. Cic. 

SECTION II. 

ARRAKGEMEXT OF CLAUSES. 

I. In Complex Sentences. 

603. Subject or Predicate. — A clause used as the 
subject of a complex sentence (357) generally stands at 
the be2:innin2^ of the sentence, and a clause u-^cd as the 
l^redicate at the end : 

Quid dies forat incertum est, WJiat a daij may hring forth is uncertain. 
Cic. Exitua fuit oriitionis : sibi nuUam cum his amicitiam esse, I7ie clone 
of the oration was, that he had no friendship with these men. Cacs. 

1. This arrangement is the same as that of the simple sentence. See r)93. 

2. Emphasis and euphony often have the same ctFect upon the arrangement of 
clauses as of words. Sec 591. 



280 



AR11ANGEM«5NT OF CLAUSES. 



€04. SuiJORDixATE Ellaiexts. — Clauses used as the 
subordinate elements ot* complex sentences, admit three 
dilFerent arrangements : 

I. They arc generally inserted witliin the principal 
clause, like the subordinate elements of a simple sentence : 

Hostca, ubi primiim nostros erjultcs conspcxCrunt, c616rltcr nostros 
pcrturbaverunt, The enemy, as soon as they saio our caralry, quickly put our 
men to route. Cacs. Sententia, quae tutissTina vidGbutur, vicit, The opinion 
which seemed the safest jiraailcd. Liv. 

II. They are often placed before the principal clause : 

Quum quicscunt, probant, While they are quiet, tJuy ■ nprove. Cic. Quu- 
lis sit animus, animua ncscit, Tlie soul knows not what the soul is. Cic. Si 
Uacc civitas est, civis sum ego, 1/ this is a state I am a citizen. Cic. 

This arrangeinent is especially common when tho subonlinato clause either ro- 
fcrs back to tho preceding sentence, or is preparatory to the thought of the principal 
clause. Hence temporal, co}ulition(t!,atiCL concensire clauses otten precede the prin- 
cipal clause. Hence also, in sentences composed of correlative clauses with in— qui, 
talis — quulis, tantuH — ijuantus, turn— quum, Ita—ut, etc., the relative member, i. e., 
the clause with qui, quulis, quuntus, quum, ut, etc., generally precedes. 

III. They sometimes follow the principal clause : 

Enltitur ut vincat, He strives that he may conquer. Cic. Sol cfficit ut 
omnia flOreant, The sun causes all things to bloom. Cic. 

This arrangement is common when the subordinate clause is ciMiei intimately 
connected in thought with the following sentence or is explanatory of the principal 
clause. Hence clauses ot Purjjose and Result generally follow the principal clause, 
as in tho examples. See also examples under articles 4S9-499. 

605. Latin Period. — A complex sentence in which 
the subordinate clause is inserted within the principal clause, 
as under I., is called a Period in the strict sense of the word. 

In a freer sense the same term is also applied to any 
sentence in which the clauses are so arranged as not to 
make complete sense before the end of the sentence. In 
this seni'e the examples under II. are periods. 

II. In Compound Sentences. 

606. Clauses cc/nnected by coordinate conjunctions 
(587) generally follow each other in the natural order of 
the thought, as in English : 

Sol ruit et monies umbrantur, The sun descends and the mountains are 
shaded. Virg. Gyges a nuUo videbatur, ipse alitem omnia videbat, Gygea 
was seen by no one, but he himself saw all things. Cic. 



cli 



us 
la^ 



on 

be 

lab 



do, 

pn 
do 



^ 



PAPtT FOURTH. 

P K O S O D Y. 

607. Prosody treats of Quantity unil Vorsification. 



-♦♦♦- 



CIIAPTEK I 



'liich 

ause, 

'ord. 

any 

to 

In 



aUANTITY. 

608. The time occupied in j^ronouncincf a syllaLlo in 
poetry is called its quantity. Syllables arc accordingly 
characterized as lo7ig, short, or comnion.^ 

609. The quantity of syllables is determined l)y poetic 
usage. But this usage conlbrms in many cases to general 
laws, while iu other cases it seems somewhat arbitrary. 

1. Syllables whose quantity conforms to known rules arc said to be long 
or short by rule. 

2. Syllables whose quantity does not conform to known rules arc said to 
be long or short by authority. 

3. The rules for quantity arc cither tjeneral, i. c., applicable to most syl- 
lables, or 8j)ecial, i. e., applicable to particular syllables. 



SECTIOX I. 

GENERAL RULES OF QUANTITY. 

610. Rule I. — Diplithongs and Contracted syllables 
are long : 

Haec, coena, aura ; alius for aliius, cogo for coTgo, occldo for occae- 
do, ni' for nihil. 

1. Prae in composition is usually short before a vowel : prcuacutus, 
praeustus. 

2. Ua, lie, m, no, and uu, are not strictly diphthongs, and accordingly 
do not come under this rule. 

' Sometimes long and sometimes short. 



iw 



288 



KUM« OF (ilANTiry, 



■ 



611. Jii Li: J I. — A vowel in loxq liY rosiTioN Lulbrc 
jy Xy z^ or any two eonsomintB : * 

Mfijor, n'xi, gfr'a, iiiC'iisii, scrviis. 

1. liut OIK! of the coiisommts nt least must bi-loii;,' to the same word a.s 
the vowel : ab rnpc^ jn'r S((M. 

1) A final vowel is not usually aHected by consonants at the hofriniun^ of 
the Collowing word, except bei'uiu if, kjj, sfj, uud ct, where a short vowel in 
rurc. 

2) //and f/must never be treated ns consonants under this rule,' except 
in rare instances where u is so used by Synaeresis. See GOtt. II. 

2. Before a mute followed by L or /?, a vowel natuially short becomes 
common : duplex, ''y'''> P'^d'cs. 

1) In Greek words u vowel is also common before a mute with J/ or ^V; 
Ticmcssay cjjcnus. 

2) A nmtc at the end of the first part of a compound before a liquid at 
the beginning of the second part makes the preceding vowel long by posi- 
tion: db-rui/iiio, vb-ro/jo. 

u) A vowel naturally long, of course, remains long before a Mule and 
Liquid : aver, dcris. 

". Compounds o{ jUgum retain the short vowel before j: l*ij('f/i(x, 
quadr^ijtigi'x. 

612. Rule III. — A vo'v^el before anotlier vowel, or 
a, diplitlioiig, is SHORT by. tosition : 

riu3, piao, doc(5o, triiho. 

No account Is taken of the broatliing h\ hence a in tniho is treated ns a vowel 
before another vowel. 

Exceptions. — The following arc long before a vowel : 

1. A, — (1) in the genitive ending ai of Dec. I.: aiddl, — (2) in proper 
names in dius: Cuius (Cajus), — (3) before ia, ie, io, iu, in the verb aio. 

2. Ej — (1) in the ending ei of Dec. V. when preceded by a vowel : diei ; 
and sometimes in ftdei, rei, spei, — (2) in proper names in eius : Pom- 

2)eiiis, — (.3) in ehe^l. 

y. I,— (1) in the verb/io, when not followed by ev. fiam,fiebam, but 
fieri, — (2) in the genitive alius. In other genitives i in ius is common in 
poetry, though long in prose, but the * in altenus is short, — (3) in dlus, a, 
nm, for dlvvs, a, um, — (4) sometimes in Dtdna. . . ; ^^\ 

4. O, — is common in 5he. 

* Strictly speaking, the syllabic, and not the vowel, is lengthened, but the language 
of convonicncc refers Lhe quantity of the syllable to the vowel. 

^ Q'<i (7'*i "nd «?f, when u has the sound of to, are treated as single consonants. 



ind 

No I 



the 

COE 



frus 



pnd, 



RUr.ILS OP QUANTITY. 



289 



k roper 
1 dlH / 

\i, but 

Ion iu 
liis, a, 



|gaage 

ita. 



r». In Orcok words vowcIh aro often lonp before u vowel, because long in 
the origiiinl : (i^r, Aini^as, JirLHi^, Jliutldu/i, 2'm.x. 

This ofli'ti occurs in proper narncn [n~-ia,hi,£uJi, lun,ilon,\o)i,dis^dis,Ciuii: 
Mudca, Alcxaiulria, rcnCus, Diirlus, Ur!on. 



SECTION II. 

SPECIAL RULES OF QUANTITY. 

I. Qt'AXTiTY OF Final Syllables. 

I. ^Tonosjllablcs, 

613. EuLK IV. — Monosyllables are long : 

a, dil, to, 80, do, si, qui, do, pro, tQ, dOrf, pCs, sis, bos, sus, pflr, sOl. 

Exceptions. — The following arc short : 

1. Enclitics : que, ve, ne, ce, te,pfip,pie. 

2. Mouosyllublos in b, d, 1, t : ub, ad, fid, mil, ut, It ; except nd/, wl. 

3. An, bis, cis, cor, es, fac, fir, i/i, u, nee, 5s (ossis), per, tir, qua (plur. 
indef.), quia, vir ; probably ulso vas (vidis), and sometimes ?iic und ?idc as 
Nom. or Ace. forma. . 

II. Polysyllahles. 

1. FINAL VOWELS. 

614. Rule Y. — In words of more than one syllable, 
the endings a, e, and y are short ; i and u, long ; o, 
conmion : 

Viti, miiriit, mare, misy ; marl, audi, fructu, cornQ ; ilm8, scrmo. 

616. A. final IS shovt: mensd, tcm2M^ home. 

Exceptions. — A final is long, 

1. In the Ablative : mensd, bond, ilia. 

2. In the Vocative of Greek nbuns in as (rarely es) : Aenid, Palld. 

8. In Verbs and Indeclinable words : amd, card ; circa, juxtd, anted, 
frustrd. Except ita, quia, eji, and puta used adverbially. 

616. "Hfinalis short: 5crye, wba, rUge. 

Exceptions. — E final is long, 

1. In Dec. I. and V. : eplidmd, rd, die. Hence in the compounds — hodiS, 
pridiS, postridiS, qudri. , . . . j . 

2. In Greek plurals of Dec. III. : Tempi, meli. - • ""' 
.13 



290 



RULES OF QUANTITY. 



3. In the Sing. Imperative Act. of Coiij. II. : vidnf, ddcl. But e is some- 
times Hliurt in cuvh 

4. Ill /i'r?,/frni?, oli?, nnd in Atlvt-rhs from adjectives of Doc. II.: ilod?, 
recti. Lxcopt Lent', inalc, iiij'<.rni', inUrid; ttiijicrne. 

617. 71 final M Bliort: mUt)^ indirj^ t'o/^. 

ExfEi'Tioxs. — Contructed endings are, of course, long: luUjj — niUni. 

618. I y</j(^/ is long : scrolj bOnl, audi, 

ExcKPTioNs. — I final is, 

1. CoMMo.N iu inihl, tlht, stht, III, iihi But 

Observe couipouijd.s Ibidem, IbU/uc, 'ibPjih, Hblnnin, ilblcls, Hhtcunque, nlcii' 
M, H\ciibl. 

2. Short,— (1) in nM, quaul, cut (when a dissyllaltle),— (2) in the Greek 
ending 8][ of Dat. and Abl. IMur. : Troasi, — (;jj iu the Dut. iiud Voc. Sing., 
which end short iu the Creek: Alexl, Tirlfdl. 

I'll follows the rule, but not the couipouuds, titlnam, Htlqne, slc&tl, 

619. U Jinal is long : fractu, coma, dlctu. 

ExcEi'Tioxs.— //iJw for in, and nhiu for non. 

620. O Jlnalis common: clmo, scrmo^ vlrgo. 

ExcEPTiovs. — final is, 

1. LoNO, — (1) in Datives and Ablatives : scrvd, illu, Qud,—(2) in Greek 
words, when it represents a long Greek vowel : ichu, Argo, — (3) in Adverbs: 
/also, multo, ergd, quandO, omninO ; except those mentioned under 2 below. 

2. Short iu du5, egd, odd, and the adverbs did, illicd, immd^ 7iiodd, and 
its compounds, dummbdo, quOniddo, etc. 



2. FINAL SYLLABLES IN MUTES OE LIQUIDS, — 
C, D, L, M, N, E, T. 

621. KuLE VI. — In Avords of. more than one syl- 
lable, 

Final syllables in c are long ; , • ' 

Final syllables in d, 1, m, n, r, t, arc short : 

alec, illuc ; illud, consul, Sm^m, carmfin, 3m6r, cSput. 

r 

Exceptions. — The following occur, - K" _ ■ 

1. Ddriec and lien. 

2. M final with the preceding vowel is generally elided before a vowel. 
Sec 6C9. 1. 



PUMCS or QIANTITV. 



201 



3. Ill Orook wonls, — (1) on in long; often niso an, in, nii,>/n: ffi/iiirn, 
AiH'hUdn, Tltil/i, Ihlphiii, Aifiii'iu, I'liorcijii, — c-') cr is Umg in ««""/•, (u/Zm/*, 
Ci'dtir, and u few other wonln willi long I'tidin;^ in tho original. 

4. Tlii.s rule docs not, of conrsi-, apply to s^llablo.s long hy iircvioim 
rulut). 



syl- 



vowel. 



.*{. FINAL SVLLAi;i,i:S IN S. 

622. Hilk VII. — III wuvtU of more than onu bvI- 
laljlc, the eiidiii<;;; as, es, and OS arc long; is, us, ys, 
short : 

ftmav^, mcnsilfl, moiiCs, iiQljO.^, liOj, scrviM ; tlvls, uibiH, buuu!», eorvfis, 
clihtmys. 

623. Aajuial U long : Acnciis^ bOnus^ ilh'is. 

ExcEi'TioNS. — AkJi/uiI is sliort, 

1. In anuH and in a few Greek nouns in ^s : Arcu!^, htmpaa. 

2. In Crcok Accusatives of Dec. III. : Aixudas, hirOas, 

624. TlBjlnali^Xou^: nubcs^ inOncs. 

ExcErxiONs. — Es final is sliort, 

1. In Nominatives Singular of Dec. III., which increase short in the 
Gen.: miles (Itis), ohm (Idls), intet'/ires ''fttis). Except ubiSs, arii,'>,2Htriig, 
CeriSj and compounds of pis ; as bijie^t, tnpis, etc. 

2. In /)e«e< and the compounds of t/»/ as (/(/ts,/»^/?^. 

S. In Greek words, — (1) in the plural of those which increase in the Gen. : 
Arcades, Tfoddcs,—(2) in a few neuters in os : Jlij^pdmenot, — (3) in u low 
Vocatives singular : Demostheids. 

625. ObJuuiI is long : cKstOs^ vlros. 

Exceptions. — Os final is short, 

1. In compos, impos, cxos. 

2. In Greek words with the ending short in the Greek ; D'elos, mclSs. 

626. Is final is short : dvis^ cdnis. 

Exceptions. — Is final is long, 

1. In Plural Cases : mcn&ls, scrcls, tolls. 
IIenco/8rl«, gratis, ingrdtls. 

2. In Nominatives of Dec. III., increasing long in the Gen. : Qulrls (Itia), 
Salamis (inis). 

3. In the Sing. Pros. Indie. Act. of Conj. IV. : audis. 
Mavis, qulrls, utervls follow the quantity oivls. 

4. In the Sing. Pres. Subjunct. Act. : possls, veils, noils, mails. 

5. Sometimes in the Sing, of the Fut. Perf. and of the Perf. Subj. : amd' 
iw-ls, d6cwi4s. 






292 



RULES OF QUANTITY. 



627. JJb final is short : scrvus^ bonus. 

Exceptions. — Us final is long, 

1. In Nouiinutives of Doc. III. iucrcasing long in the Gen. : vii'tus (utis), 
tellus (uris). 

Bnipdlua (ii short) occurs in Horace. Ars P. 05. 

2. In Doc. IV., in the Gen. Sing., and in the Nom. Ace. and Voc. Plur. : 
fnidus. 

3. In Greek words ending long in tb:^ original : Fanthus, Sajr>j)]i,us, tri^pus. 

But wo Imvo Oedlpfis ani pull/p&8. 

628. Ys^^iaHs short: chldmijs^ cheli/s. 

Exceptions.— Contracted endings arc of course long : Erynnys for Eryu' 
nyes. 

II. Quantity ix Increments. 

629. A word is said to increase in declension, when it 
has in any case more syllables than in the nominative singu- 
lar, and to have as many increjnents of declension as it has 
additional syllables: sermo, sermonis^ sermonibus. 

Sermonis, luivinj? one syllable more than scrmo, has one increment, while ser- 
tnonlbua has two increments. 

630. A verb is said to increase in conjugation, when it 
has in any part more syllables than in the second person 
singular of tha present indicative active, and to have as 
many increments of co7iJugation as it has additional sylla- 
bles : dmds^ dmdtis, dmdbdtis. 

Amdtis has one increment, dmahdtis twa 

631. If there is but one increment, it i? uniformly the 
penult, if there are more than one, they are the penult with 
the requisite number of syllables before it. The increment 
nearest the beginning of the word is called the first incre- 
ment, and those following this are called successively the 
secojid^ thirds and fom^th increments. Thus 

In ser^t7lon^^-b us, the fwst increment is 7?iOW, the second i; and in mon- 



1 3 3 



M^ 



"U-e-ra-mus, the first is u, the second e, the third ra. 

I. Increments of Declension. 

632. EuLE YIII. — In the Increments of Decleii- 
fiion, a and o are long ; e, i, u, and y, short : 

aetas, aetatis, aetutibus; scrmo, sermOnis; puer, pufiri, puororum; 



EULES OF QUANTITY. 



293 



3cleii- 



rorum ; 



fulgur, fulguris; chliimys, chlamydia; bonus, bonaium, bonurum; ille, 
illiiiuin, illuium ; miser, misuri ; supplcx, suuplicis ; satur, suturi. 

Vowels long or short by position arc of course excepted. 

633. A in the increments of declension is long : 2>(fXy 
2)cicis / bO?iuSf bondrimi/ duo, dudhus. 

Exceptions. — A is short in the first incromcnt, 

1. Of masculines in al audar: Jlaniuhal, Ilannlhalu ; Caesar, CacsarU. 
Except Car and Xar. 

-J.. Of nouns in s preceded by a consonant: daps, dap is ; Arabs, Arahis. 

0. Of Greek nouns in a and as: pocma, polmatls ; Pallas, Palladis. 

4. Of the following: — (1) haccar, Ji^par, jubar, lar, nectar, par and its 
compounds,— (2) anas, mas, vas (vudis), — (3) sal, fax, and a few rare Greek 
words in ax. 

634. O in the increments of declension is long: honor, 
honoris^' bomis, honorum j duo, duobus. 

ExcEPTioxs. — is short in the first increment, 

1. Of Xeuters: aeqnor, aeqnoi'is ; tcinpms, temporis. Except 08 (oris), 
ador (adoris), and comparatives. 

2. Of words in s preceded by a consonant ; i/iops, indjm. Except Cy- 
clops and hydrops. 

3. Of arbor, bos, Icpus, — compos, impos, vicmor, imniemor, — Allobrox, 
Cuppadox, praecox. 

4. Of most Patrials : Macedo, Macedbnis. 

5. Of many Greek nouns, — (1) those in or: rhetar. Hector, — (2) many 
in o and on increasing short in Greek : aedon, aedonis, — (3) in Greek com- 
pounds in pus: tripus {o(l\&), Oedipus. 

635. E in the increments of declension is short : ^9i^cr, 
2nicri ; liber, liber i. JCv3\, "v '^ '-:> 

Exception's. — E is long in the first increment, 

1. Of Deel. v., except in the forms /ic/ti, rel, and spel ; as dl'el, di'erum, 
dicbns, rebus. 

2. Of nouns in en, mostly Greek: lien, lienis ; Siren, Sirenis. So Anio, 
Anienis. 

3. Of Celtiber, Iber, ver, — Jieres, locuples, merces, quies, inquies, requies, 
2)lebs, — lex, rex, alec, dlex, vervex. 

4. Of a few Greek words in es and er, except a'cr and aetJier ; as Icbes, 
lebetis ; crater, crateris. 

636. I in the increments of declension is short : miles, 
mllitls, mllitibtcs / aticejys, ancljntis. 

Exceptions. — /is long in the first increment, 

1. Of most words in is: radix, radlcis/ felLr,fdlcis. 

But short in : appendix, cdlix, Cllix,flUx, fornix, nix, pix, sdlix, strix, »nii a 
few others, chiefly proper names. 






294 RULES OF QUANTITY. 

2. Of dis, glls, lis, tis, Quzris, Samnls. 

3. Of delp/ii/i aud a fow rare Greek words. 

4. For quantity of the ending ius, sec 012. 3. 

637. U ill tlic increments of declension is short : dux, 
duels; urcus, arcubus ; satur, satiiri. 

Exceptions. — U'l^ long in the first increment, 

1. Of nouns in US with the genitive in uris, utis, udis : jiis, juris; salus, 
salutis ; pains, paludls. Except intei'cus, Zujus,pecus. 

2. Of/ur,/i'ux, lux, plus,) Pollux. 

638. Y in the increments of declension is short : chld- 
mys, chlami/dls. 

ExcKPTioxs. — This increment occurs only iu Greek words, aud is long in 
those in yn, ynis, aud in a few others. 



II. Increments of Conjuf/atlon. 

639. Rule IX. — In the Increments of Conjugation 
(630), a, e, and o are long ; i and u short : 

amamus, amemus, amatOte, regimus, siimus. 

1, In ascertaining tho increments of the irregular verbs, f^ro, rfAo, and tlicir 
compounils, tlio ftill form of tlio second person, /c/7S, toHs, etc., must be used. Tliu.s 
iu/dre'odm and rolebam, tlic increments are re and fe. 

2. In ascertaining tlic increments of reduplicated forms (254), the reduplication 
is not counted. Thus d6dlmus has but one increment di. 

640. A in the increments of conjugation is long: 
dniCire. 

Exceptions. — A is short in the first increment of do : dare, dabam, cir- 
cujndabam. 

641. E in the increments of conjugation is long: mcJ- 
nere. 

Exceptions. — F is short before r, 

1. In the tenses in ram, rim, ro: amilveram, amavcrim, amavero; rex- 
h'at, rexerit. 

2. In first increment of the Present and Imperfect of Conj. III. : regcre, . 
rcffh'is, regerem, reglrcr. 

3. In tho Fut. ending beris, bere: amdbcris, or -ere, monebcris. 

4. Rarely in the Perf. ending erunt : stltlrunt for stderunt. Sec 235, 
also Systole, GOO. IV. 

642. O in the incu-ements of conjugation is long with- 
out exception : monetdte, regUiJte, 



EULES OF QUANTITY. 



295 



643. I in the incremGnts of conjugation is short: rcjl- 
tiSf reximus. 

Exceptions. — lis long, except before a vowel, 

1. lu the lirst iucremcnt of Conj. IV., except imus of the Perf. : audlre, 
audivi, audltum ; sentio, seiUimus, xensimus (perf.). 

2. In Conj. III. in the lirst increment of perfects and supines in ivi and 
Itum (27G. III.) and of the parts derived from them (except imus of Perf. : 
trlcimus) : cupivi, cujnverat, citpltus ; j^etivi, 2)etUus ; capcsslvi, cajmalturus. 
Gdvlsus from gaudeo follows the same analogy. 

3. In the endings imus and itis of Pres. Subj. : nmus, sltls ; vellmiis, 
Delltis (239. 8). 

4. In nollte, nolUo, noUtote, and iu the different persons of iham, ibo, 
from eo (295). 

T). Sometimes in the endings rimus and ritis of the Fut. Perf. and Perf. 
Subj. ; amdvenmm, dvidcerUid. 

644. XJ ill tho increments of conjugation is short : vOlu- 
mus. 

Exception's. — 77 ia long in the Supine and the parts formed from it: 
volutum, coluturus, dmdturus. 



mo- 



rcX' 



235. 



ith- 



III. Quantity of Derh-atiye Endings. 

645. Rule X. — The following derivative endings 
have the penult long : 

I. abrum, acrum, atmm ; 

flilbrum, simulacrum, aratrum. 

II. edo, ido, udo ; ago, igo, ugo : 

dulcedo, cupido, sOlitudo ; vorago, orlgo, aerugo. 

III. ais, eiSj ois, otis, ine, one — m patronymics : 
Ptolemais, ChrJsGis, Minois, Icilriotis, NOrinc, AcrlsiOne. 
Except Ddndls, Phocdis, Thebdis, Nereis. 

I Y. ela, lie ; alls, elis, ulis : 

querela, ovile; mortalis, fldelis, ciirulia. 

Y. anus, enus, onus, unus ; ana, ena, ona, iina : 

urbanus, egerius, patrouus, tribunus ; mcinbrana, habOna, annona, \Sr 



cuua. 



Except galhdnua. 

YI. aris, arus ; orus, osus ; avus, ivus ; 

Biilutaris, avurus ; canOrus, aiiimOsus ; octfivus, acstlviis. 



296 



KULES OP QUANTITY. 



VII. atus, Itus, utus J atim, xtim, utim j etum, ©ta : 

alatus, turrltus, cornQtus; singulutim, viritim, tributim: quercctum, 
munOta. 

Except (1) (hihelltu.9,fortuYlux, grCdu'itun, JutlUus, ho.ip'itiis, serr'/tiis, xplr'idif!, 
(2) affdtim, stdthn,aa(\. adverbs in 5<m*', as dlolnltuH; and (3) participles provided for 
by C:J9. 

VIII. eni, Ini, oni, — in distribulivcs : 
septum, quini, octoni. 

646. EuLE XI. — The following derivative endings 
have the penult shoi't : 

I. Mes, iMes, ides, — in patronymics : 
AeuGiides, Laertiadea, Tautdlldes. 

Except (1) those in Ides from nouns in ens and es; as, Pc/'uJcs (Peleus), N'eo- 
clldcH (Neock's), aud (2) AtHphidrdides, AmycHdes^Bclldee^Cufonldtn, Li/cuiyidcs, 

II. i^cus, ious, idus : 
Coriuthiacus, modicus, cupiJus. 

Except dmlcus, antlcns, aprlcus, meiidlcus, posticus, 'pUdlcus. 

III. blus, Sla, blum ; ulus, ula, ulum ; cuius, cula, cillum, — in 

diminutives : 

f iliolus, f iliola, atriolum ; hortulus, virgula, oppidulum ; flosculus, 
particula, munusculum. 

IV. Stas, itas, — in nouns ; iter, itus, — in adverbs : 
piutas, Veritas ; fortitcr, divlmtus. 

V. atilis, ilis, bnis, — in verbals ; inus, — in adjectives denoting ma- 
tcrial or time : 

vcrsatilis, docilis, amabHis ; adamantiuug, ccdrinus, crastlnus, diutmus. 

Except mdtutlnus, rfpenilnus, vespertlnus. 

1. His in adjectives from nounsi usually has the penult long : clvllls, Jios- 
illis, puenlis, vzrilis. 

2. Inus denoting cJiaracieristic (325) usually has the penult long : cani- 
tius, eqiilmis, marlnus. 

647. Rule XII. — The following derivative endings 
have the antepenult long : 

I. aceus, uceus, aneus, arius, arium, orius : 

rosaecus, pannuccus, subitancus, cibilrius, columbarium, ccnsoriua. 

II. abilis, atilis, atious : ^ 

flmabllis, vcrsatilis, Squaticus. 



EULES OF QUANTITY. 



297 



III. aginta, ig^ti, esimus, — in numerals : 
nonagiiita, viginti, cchtC'sIraus. 

648. KuLE XIII. — ^Tlie fullowing derivative endings 
have the antepenult short : 

I. ibilis, itudo, blentus, ulentus . 

crudibflis, sOlItudo, viiiuleutus, opulcntus. 

II. urio, — in dcsidcrativcs : 
csurio, empturio, partuiio. 



-m 



lY. Quantity of Ste»i Syllables. 

I. 1)1 Prhnitives. 

649. The quantity of stein-syllablos in primitive words, 
•Nvhen not d< ^i mined by the General Kulos (Sec. I.), is in 
most cases best referred to authority. Tluis, 

In mater, cCdo, scribo, dono, utor, the first syllable is long hy aiUhorily, 
while ill pater, t6go, mico, souo, uter, it is short hy autJiovity. 

650. Rule XIV. — The quantity- of stem-syllables 
remains unchanged in inflection : 

In DKCLEN'SiON, — ctvis, avcm ; nubos, nubium. 
In coMPARisox, — 16vis, Ifivior, levisslmus. 
In CONJUGATION, — munco, monebam, monui. 

1. Position may however affect the quantity: ager, dgri (611, C12) ; 
possum, potui ; solvOy solutum ; nolvo, tolutum. 

Here d becomes a before gr. The o in possum, solvo, and volro, long only by 
position, becomes short before a single consonant. 

2. Gigno gives geimi, genUum, and pono, jidsui, positiim. 

3. See also G51, 652. 

651. Dissyllabic Perfects and Supines have the first syl- 
lable long, unless short by position : 

juvo, juvi, jutum ; foveo, fovi, fotum. 

1. These rerfocts and Supines, if formed from Presents with the first 
syllable shori, are exceptions to 650, 

2. Seven Perfects have the first syllable short : 
bibi, deili, fldi, scldiy sKti^ sfiti, tuli. 

13* 



298 



RULES OF QUANTITY. 



I 
I 



8. Ten Supines have the first syllable short : 

cllurriy datum, lluniy lltum, quttum, » 'wm, rutum, satum, sltum, stur 
turn} 

652. In trisyllabic Recluplicatecl Perfects tlie first two 
syllables arc short : 

cjido, cecidi ; cuno, ctjcini ; disco, didici. 

1. Caedo baa c^chJi in distinction from c.''c\di from cddo. 

2. Tiic second syllable may bo made long by position : ciicurri, mOmordi. 

II. I/i Derivatives. 

653. Rule XV. — Derivatives retain the qnaiitity 
of their primitives : 

bonus, bonitas ; tinico, tiraor ; iiiiirans, ammOsus ; civis, civicus ; cura, 



euro. 



1. Frequcntativcs in ito, have i short: clarrilto. See S32. I. 

2. In a few Derivatives the sliort vowel of the primitive is lengthened : 



liomo, 


liumaiius. 


liiteo, 


luternii, 


lo.u'o, 


lex, legis, 


niiicer, 


niacfiro, 


nioveo, 


niobilis, 


pcrsono, 


persona, 


In a few 


Derivatives tl 


acer, 


Scerbus, 


dico, 


dicax, 


duco, 


dux, diicis. 


fido, 


fides. 


lucco, 


lucerna, 


moles, 


mOlestus, 



rfigo, 

s6cus, 

sedco, 

s6ro, 

suspicor, 

t6go, 



notuni, 
odi, 
sopio, 
vado, 
vox, vocis, 



r5x, rggis, legiila, 

secius, 

sedes, sedulus, 

semen, 

SHspicio, 

te<fula. 



nota, 

odium, 

sopor, 

vSdura, 

V(5co. 



This change of quantity in some instances is the result of contraction : movlhUis, 
moWilis, mobllis, and in others it serves to distinguish words of the same orthogroc 
phy : as tlie verbs l^ai% Uges, r^gis, r^ges, ^Mes, from the uouns legis, leges, regis^ 
reges, sedes, or the verbs dficis, duces, fides, from the nouns dilcis, duces, fides. 



III. In Compou'i:ds. 

654. Rule XYI. — Compounds, generally retain the 
quantity of their elements : 

antC-fero, de-fero, de-duco, in-aequiilis, pro-duco. 

1. The change of a vowel or diphthong does not affect the quantity: 
de-ligo {lego), oc-cido {cado), oc-cido (caedo). 

1 Fnim eisto, but stdtum from sto. 



EULES OF QUANTITY. 



299 



2. IxsKPARABLE PREPOSITIONS. — Dl, sg, and ve arc long, rS short : 
ne somctimea long and sometimes short : 

diduco, Beduco, vCcors, rfiduco, ncdmn, nfifiis: 

1) Di is short In dlrhno, dlsertm. 

2) Xe is long in nediim, uemo, ncquam, niqudquam, niquidquam, iieqitltia, 
and nece. In other words it i. short. 

8) lie is sometimes lengthened in a few words: rcllgio, reliquiae, rfph-it, rfpil- 
lit, rUtulit, etc 

3. Change op Quantity. — In a few words the (iiuintity of the second 
clement is changed. Thus 

Dlco gives -dicKS ; juro, -jero ; notiis, -7utus ; niiho, nuha : ni216-dlcu3, 
dc-j6ro, cog-uitiis, pro-nuba. 

4. Pro. — Pro is short in the following words : 

Piocella, procul, j^w/dims, prdj'dri, pro/cdo, 2^>'o/cstus, proficiscor, prO' 
fiteor, profutjio, ^>/'0/«f/«s, profundus, proiupos, proneptis, protercus, uud 
most Greek words, as proph'da, generally in pro/undo, prupdijo, ^>/'y/i/tc>, 
rarely in procuro, prbpellc. 

T). Stkm. — When the first clemout is the stem of a word (o38. III.), it 
is often followed by a short connecting vowel : 

cal-6-f iicio, lab-6facio, bcU-i-gcro, aed-i-fico, art-i-fox, ampl-1-fico, loc- 
ii-ples. 

Before /dfcjo in a few compounds e is sometimes lengthened : rtque/dcio, jidif/d- 
cio, pxitrPfdcio, tepefucio. The first c in videlicet is long. 

6. I LONG. — / is long, — (1) in the first part of compounds of dicft: mfiri- 
dies, pridie, postridic, quStidio, triduum, and (2) in the contracted forms, 
bl(jfae, trujae, quadrigae^ illcct, scilicet, tlhlcen for tlhlicen. 

But i is short in hlduum and quutrldutim. 

7. LONG. — is long in contro-, intro-, retro-, and qiiando- in composi- 
tion ; as: controversia, introduco, retroverto, quandoque, but quandoquiJem. 

8. Special Words. — Ilodic, quasi, and siquidem have the first syllable 
short. 



ll 



CHAPTER II. 
VEESIFICATION. 



SECTION I. 

GENERAL VIEW OF THE SV EJECT 

Q^^. Latin Versification is bused upon Quantity and 
Accent. Syllables are combined into certain metrical groups 
called Feet, and feet, singly or in pairs, arc combined into 
Verses. 

I. Metrical Feet. 

Q^Q. Feet are either simple or compound. For con- 
venience ofrelerence we add the Ibllowini' list: 

I. &impU Feet. 
DissYLLAP.io Feet. 



Spondee, 


two long sijUahles, 


Leges. 


Trochee,' 


a long and a short, — w 


Legls. 


Iambus, 


a short and a long, « — 


Parens. 


I'yrrhic, 


two short, w w 
Tpjsyllaeio Feet. 


Piitfer. 


Dactyl, 


a long and two short, — « w 


carminS. 


Anapaest, 


tiL'o short and a long, « u _ 


bSnitas. 


Tribrach, 


three short, « " "^ 


dfiminiis 


Molossus, 


three long, 


libertas. 


Amphibrach, 


a short, a long, and a short, « — « 


amicus. 


Amphimacer,' 


a long, a short, and a long, — « — 


nillites. 


Baccluus, 


a short and two long, « 


dolores. 


Antibacchliis, 


two long and a short, w 


pastoris. 



11. Compound Feet. \ 

These arc only compounds of the dissyllabic feet, and 
all have four syllables. 



* Sometimes called Clioree. 



Alst) called Cretic. 



MiirrrjCAL feet. 



301 



Dispondco, double spondee, 

Ditroclic'C, double trockve, 

Diiainbus, double iambus, 

Procclousinfitic, double yyrfhic, 
(irciUer Ionic, sjujudce ami pyirhi'. 
liCssor Ionic, pyn'hie and upondee, 
Cliotianibus, troclue (choree), andnamhus,— 
Antispast, iambus and trochee. 

First Epitrite, iambus and spondee, 
Second Epitrite, trochee and sj)on<iee, 
Third Ejtitrito, spondee and iatubus. 
Fourth Epitrite, spondee and trochee. 
First Paeon, trochee and pyrrhic. 
Second Puton, iambus and pyrrhic. 
Third Paeon, pyrrhic and trochte, 
Fourth Paeon, pyrrhic and iambus, 



w V V w 



w w ^ — 



\J ^ -^ \J 






\J \J — \J 



praOcCptorOs. 

civitutis. 

uinoCnTtils. 

ni5ni(5rlil. 

sCiitC'iilIS. 

ii(U')Io.seC'ns. 

IniiitltiOtis. 

viiiOcunduH. 

uinuveruiit. 

cundltorcs. 

auetorltils. 

iirnaMiGiitu. 

histoiia. 

JliiiuliIlTs. 

puerllls. 

teleritua. 



1. Common Feet. — The feet of most frequent occurrence in the best Latin 
poets are, 

1) The Dactyl and Spondee, used in tlic Heroic Ilcxatneter. 

2) Less frciiuent (he Iambus, Trochee, Tribrach, Anajmost, and Chori' 
ambus. 

2. Gnorps. — A Dipody is a j^roup of two feet ; a Tripody, of three ; a 
Tdrapody, of four, etc. A Iritmimeris is a {^roup of tlireo lialf feet, i. c., a 
foot and a half; Penthemimtris, of two and u half; ILjththtininuris, of three 
and a half, etc. 

657. Mktkioal Equivalents. — A long syllable may 
often be resolved into two fchort ones, as equivalent to it in 
quantity, or two short ones may be contracted into a long 
one. The forms thus prodi;ced are metrical equivalents 
of the original forms. Thus, 

Tho Dactyl becomes a Spondeo by contracting the two short syllables intoono 
long syl'ablo; tho Spondee becomes a fiactyl by resolving tho second syllable, or an 
Anapaest by resolving tho first. Accovdinsly tlio Dactyl, tho Spondee, anil the Ana- 
paest aro metrical equivalents. In Uko niauncr the Iambus, tho Trochee, and tho 
Tribrach are metrical eqaivaleiits. 

658. Metrical Substitutes. — In certain kinds of verse, 
feet are sometimes substituted for those which are not their 
metrical equivalents. Thus, 

Tho Spondee is often substituted for the Iambus or the Trochee, thougli not 
equivalent to cither. See C79, C83. 

659. icTus OR Rhythmic Accent. — As in the pronun- 
ciation of a word one or more syllables receive a speoui 
stress of voice called accent, so in the pronunciation of a 
metrical foot one or more syllables receive a special stress 
of voice called Rhythmic Accent or Ictus. 



I 



302 



FEET. VKRSES. 



1. Simple Kket.— Feet consisting of botli long and short syllables have 
the ictus unilurnily on tlic long .syllubles, unless uaod for oilier foot. Thus, 

The Dactyl nn<l tlio Trochee have tho Ictus on tlio first sylhiblo ; tlic Anapaest 
and tliu lambua on tUu lust. 

2. Eyt-ivALENTH AND SuDSTiTrTES.— Thcso takc Uic ictus of the foot for 
which they are used. Thus, 

Tho Spondee, when nscd for the Dactjl, takos the ictns of tho Dactyl, I. o., on 
tho flr.st syllablt-; but \vhL'n used I'or thu Atiapacht, it takes the ictus of tho Anupacat, 
i. t'., on the last syllable. 

1) Fci't consisting,' entirely of long or entirely of short eyllablcs arc gonorully 
equivalents or substitutes, and are accented accordingly. 

'2) Wlien two short syllables of an equivalent take the place of an accented long 
syllable of the orl^'inal foot, tho ictus rests chletly on the llrst of these two. Thus tho 
Dactyl used for the Anapaest lakes the Ictus on the first short syllable. 

3. CoMrorxu Feet.— These tike the ictus of the feet of which they aro 
composed. Thus, 

The Clionamhus (trochee and iambus) takes tho ictus of the trochee on the first 
Billable and thiit of the iainluis on the last. 

Uut Ionic feet are giiueraily read with tho ictus on tho first long syllable. 

660. Ansis AXD TiiKsis. — Tlic accented part of each 
foot is called the Arsis {ralslnrj) ; and the uuaccontcd part, 
Thesis {lower In f/). 

II. Verses. 

661. A verso is a lino of poetry, and is cither simple or 
compoiuid. 

I. A Simple verse has one characteristic or fundamental 
foot, which determines the ictus for the whole verse. Thus, 

Every Dactylic Verse has the ictus on the first syllable, because the Dac- 
tyl, its characteristic foot, has it on that syllable. 

II. A Compound verse has a characteristic foot for each 
member. See G92. 

662. Caesural Pause. — !Most verses aro divided into 
two nearly equal parts by a pause or rest called the caesu- 
ra* or caesural pause. See 073, 074. 

663. Metrical Names of Verses. — The metrical 
name of a verse designates, 

I. The Cliaracteristic foot. Thus, 

1 Caesura (from caedo, to cut) means a cutting; it cuts or divides tho verso into 
parts. 



NAMKS OP VERSES. 



003 



each 



.rical 



Dactylic, Trochaic, nncl Iiiinhic verses have respectively the Dactyl, the 
Trochee, und the luiiibus u^ tlie ehuracteiidtic fuut. 

II. The Number ot'Fect or Mcasmes.' Thus, 

1. Dactylic Ilexaineter \n Dactylic verso of six tiieasiires. 

U. A verse consistiiij^ of one measure is Monnmctn' ; of two, Dimdtr f 
of three, TrimcUt' ; of lour, Tdiwiukr ; vii\\v, Jintaiiultr ,• {)i t>'\\, JUxum- 
ttvr. 

III. The Completeness or Incompleteness of tlie meas- 
ures. TJius, 

1. A verso is termed Acntalcctii',w\\QVi its last measure ia complete; 
CatuU'dic, when it is incomplete. 

1) A Cdtatcctic verso Is said to bo caUihctIc in nylhlhtun, in (iixi/lfiVinm, or 
in ti'iKl/llilhnm, ncconlln;; ns tlio liiC()ni|)lotu foot Iia.i one, two, nr Ihrci" syllables. 
'J) A JJritfhynittdl.ctic verso wants tlio cliihin;,' foot ol" tlie la.-t Diiioily. 
8) An AcephalouH verso wants tho first svlliiblo of the first foot. 
4) A J/i/perciitulectic verso, also culled Ifi/jienneter, has an excess of syllables. 

2. Tlie full metrical name combines the three ])articular.s enumerated 
under I. II. and III., us Ikidijlic Ikxamdcv AcataUdlc, Dad>jllc Triindi.i' 
Vutaltdic, etc. 

1) But for tho sake of brevity tho term AcaUtlcctic Is often omlltcd when it can 
bo done without unibi;;ulty. 

2) Verses arc sonu'tlnies known by names which merely dcsisnato tho number 
of feet or measures. Thus lleTcamdir (six mcasurL-s) sometimes dc^i^'natos tho Dae- 
tylic Hexameter Acaialectic, and /Scnariun (six feet), tho Jinnbic Trimeter Aecita- 
ledic. 

664. Special Navies or Vjiisks. — Many verses are 
often designated by names derived from celebrated poets. 
Thus, 

Alcaic from Alcacus, Archilocliian from Archllochus, Sap/Juc from 
Sappho, Glyconic, from Glycon, etc. 

Verses sometimes recci/o a name from tho kind of Bubjccts to which they wcro 
applied; as Heroic, api»Ucd to heroic subjects; Paroemiac, to proverbs, etc. 

665. Final Syllaijle. — The final syllable of a verso 
may generally be either long or short. 

QQQ, Stanza. — A stanza is a combination of two or 
more verses of different metres into one metrical whole. 
See G99, VOO. 

A stanza of two lines is called a Didich ; of three, a Tristich ; of four, a 
letrastich. 



so into 



• A measure is a sinfrlo foot, except in Anapaestic, Trochaic, and Iambic verses, 
where it is a Dipody or Pair of feet. 



304 



MLTRE. FIQUUES OF mOSODY. 



667. j\ri:TiiK. — ^rctro Mgnifios measure ^ and is used to 
dcsiguiitt', 

1. A Foot or Dipody, as the nicasuro, or metrical ele- 
ment of a verse. 

2. A Verso or Stanza, as the measure of a poem. 

668. S(;anxi\g. — Seanninc^ consists in separating a poem, 
or verse, into the feet of wliieii it is composed. 



III. FiGUKES OF PkOSODY. 

669. The ancient poets sometimes allowed themselves, 
in the use of letters and syllables, certain liberties generally 
termed Figures of Prosody. These are, 

I. Syxat.oepiia. — This is the elision of a linal vowel or 
diphthong, or of a linal m with the preceding vowel, before 
a word beginning with a vowel : 

Jlonstr' lion-cud' iufoim' ingcns, for Moustrum horrcndum infurmo 
ingcus. Virff. 

1. No account is taken of //, ns it is only a breathing <^2. 2). Ilcncc hoi'' 
rcndum is treated as u word beginning with a vowel. 

2. Interjections, o, hen, (ih,proh, etc., arc not elided, but in other words 
the cli.sion generally takes place in the beat poets. 

3. Final e in the interrogative ne is sometimes elided before a consonant: 
I'yrrhin' connubia servas ? for Pyrrhinc connubia scrvas ? Virg. 

4. The elision ofs occurs in the early poets : 

Ex omnibu' rObus,/c)/' Ex omnibus rCbus. Lncr. 

5. Synalocpha may occur at the end of a lino when the next lino be* 
gins with a vowel. It is then called Synapheia. 

II. Synaeresis. — This is the contraction of two sylla- 
bles into one : 

auroa, dcindc, dclnccps, ildcm, lisdcra. 

1. Synaeresis is of frequent application. It may unite 

1) Two successive vowels, as In the examples above. 

2) A vowel nnd a diphthong: eaedem. 

8) Two vowels separated by /j,n3 only a breathing : j-rolnbeat, pronounced proi- 
heat. 

2. In the different parts of dlsum, ce is generally pronounced as one syl- 
lable : deesse.deest, deerat, deSrii, etc. : '>o ei in the verb anteeo : anteire, antei- 
rem, anteis, mdeit. 

3. I and u before vowels arc sometimes used as consonants with the 
sound of y and w : Thus, abieie and arxete, become ilhyete and aryets ; genUa 
and ienii^ become glnioa and UnwHs. 



riGuiiics OF Pi:o^.oi)Y. vauiktiks ok vi:i:si:. a05 

Tir. DiAicuESis. — This is ihc resolution of one syllable 
into two : 

.aunVi/wr imrao, Oi-pliCiis /or Orphoid, Holiiciulus, /or solvomUi.s, aWm 
for .silva. 

As n ninttor of fact tlio Lntin jiocts «cl(l<»rn, If rv imlly illvlilo any syllnblo 

Into two, nnd the i-XdiniiK's t'liu'iiilly I'.xpliiiiu'il hy dhu • aio only uiulciit Ibrins, 
occasionally used by thcin for cll'oct or convenience. 

IV. Systole. — This is the sliorteniiig of.i long syll:il)](< : 
tul6runt/or tCilOrunt, st0t6rimt/ur stCtciuiit (lioo), vulti'n/or VHlr-sno. 

Tills li a rare poetical license, occurring; most ficqiiciitly in tlio iltial vowcl.s and 
illl>litlion!,'s, which would otherwise be elldeil. Sou (itil). I. 'J. 

V. IJiASTOLi:. — This is the lengthciiing of .1 short syl- 
lable : 

Trliliiildcs/c;/* I'iruuWo><. 

1. This is a poetical license, u?od chielly in proper names and In final pyllaldes In 
the arsis of tho loot (.000). In the latter case the t*y liable Is Bald tu be Icnylhened by 
the ictua. 



SECTION II. 

VARIETIES OF VERSE. 

I. Dactylic Yeuse. 

670. All Dactylic Verses .are measured by single feet 
(GC3. 11.), and consist of Dactyls and their metrical equiv- 
alents, Spondees. The ictus is on the first syllable of every 
foot. 

L Dactylic Hexameter. 

671. The Dactylic Hexameter consists of six feet. Tho 
first four are either Dactyls or Spondees, the fifth a Dactyl, 
and the sixth a Spondee (GOo). 

The scale is,* 



Quadriipfi- | duntfi pu- ] trcm sonl- | tu qiiatlt | Qngiilsi 1 cSmpuin. Vlrg. 
ArmS vi- | rumquc cS- | no Tio- | jilo qui | primus ab | oris. Vivj. 
Indn- ! dum re- | glu5 jii- | bes rfiu(5- | vilrS do- ] lorcm. Vli'fj. 
lUia in- ( tCr s5- | sS mag- | na vi | brachia | tollQnt. Vlrg. 

* In this scale tho sign ' marks tho ictus (0o9). 
a The fmal i of illi is elided by Si/nnhfpha (000). 



306 



DACTYLIC HEXAMETER. 



672. Varieties. — The scale of dactylic hexameters ad- 
mits sixteen varieties, ])roduced by varying the relative 
number and arrangement of dactyls and spondees. 

1. Illustuatiox. — Thus a verso may contain, 

1) Five dactyls and one spondee, as in the iirst example above. 

ii) Four dactyls and two spondees. These agaiu admit four dillercut ar- 
rangements. 

J3) Three dactyls and three spondees, as in the second and third examples 
above. But these again admit six diO'ercnt arrangements. 

4) Two dactyls and four spondees. These admit four different arrange- 
ments. 

T)) One dactyl and five spondees, as in the fourth example. 

2. Ei'KECT OF Dactyls.— Dactyls produce a rapid movement and are 
adapted to lively subjects. Spondees produce a slow movement and arc 
adapted to grave subjects. But generally the best effect is produced in suc- 
cessive lines by variety iu the number and arrangement of dactyls and spon- 
dees. 

3. Spondaic Line. — The Hexameter sometimes takes a spondee in the 
fifth place. It is then called Spondaic, and generally has a dactyl as its 
fourth foot : 

Cara. do- j urn sobo- | les mag- | num JSvis | lucre- | mCntum. Virff. 

673. Caesural Pause. — The fiivoritc caesural pause 
of the Hexameter is cfftcr the arsis^ or in the thesis, of the 
third foot : 

Arma- | tl ten- | dunt ; || It | clamor ct | agminS | facto. Virff. 
Infau- I dum, re- | gina, || jii- | bes reno- | var6 do- | lorem. Virff. 

In the first lino the caesural pause, marked || , is after tendunt, after the arsis of 
the third foot ; and in the second line after reglna, in the thesis {iid Jil) of the third 
foot. 

1. Raue Caesural Pause. — The caesural pause is sometimes in the 
fourth foot, and then an additional pause is often introduced iu the occond 
foot. Sometimes indeed this last becomes the principal pause : 

CrCdide- | rim; 1| ver 1 illud e- | rat, || ver | maguiis a- | gebat. Virff. 

2. Bucolic Caesura. — A pause between the fourth and fifth feet is gen- 
erally called the bucolic caesura, because often used in pastoral poetry : 

IngOn- I tcm coe- | lo soni- | tum dfidit; |! ind6 s6- | cutus. Virff. 

8. Faulty Caesura. — A caesural pause at the end of the third foot is 
regarded as a blemish in the verse: , ' 

PulvCrii- I Icntiis c- j quis furit; || omnCs [ arma rfi- | quirunt. Virff. 

674. Caesura and Caesural Pause. — ^Thc ending of 
a word within a foot always produces a caesura. A line 
may therefore have several caesuras, but generally only 
one of these (sometimes two) is marked by the caesural 
pause : 



DACTYLIC VERSE. 



807 



ArmS vl- | nunquc ca- ] nC, ll Tro- | jao qui ] primus ab [ oiis. Virff. 

1. IIci'c there is a caesura in every foot except the last, but only one 
of these, that after cano, has the caesural pause. 

2. In determining which caesura is to be marked by the pause the reader 
must be guided by the sense, introducing the pause where there is a pause 
of sense, or where at least it will not interfere with the sense. 

3. The caesura, with or without the pause, is an important feature iu 
every hexameter. A line without it is prosaic in the extreme: 

IlomaC I moOnia | terruit | Impigfir | Hannibal | armis. £nn. 

675. Last Word of the Hexameter. — The last word 
of the Ilexumeter should be either a dissyllable or a trisyl- 
lable. See examples above. 

1. Two monosyllables arc not particularly objectionable, and sometimes 
even produce a happy eflcct : 

Pracclpi- I tant cu- | rae, || tur- | balaque | funfirfi 1 mens est. Vmj. 

Est is indeed often used even when not preceded by another ruonosyllablo, 

2. A single monosyllable, except est, is not often used at the end of the 
line, except for the purpose of emphasis or humor: 

Pariiiri- | tint niou- | tCs, || nas- j cctur | rldicii- | lus mus. Hot: 



Virg. 
is geu- 

r • 

foot is 



II. Dactylic Pentameter. 

676. The Dactylic Pentameter consists of two parts 
separated by the caesural pause. Each part consists of two 
Dactyls and the arsis of a third. The Spondee may take 
the i)laco of the Dactyl in the first part, bi.L not in the 
second : 



— V \J I __ 



Admonl- | tfi coc- [ pi || fortior 1 esse tu- | 0. Ovid. 

1. Pentameteii. — The name Pentameter is founded on tl j ancient divi- 
sion of the line into five feet; the first and second being dactyls or spondees; 
the third, a spondee ; the fourth and fifth, anapaests. 

2. Elegiac Distich.— The Dactylic Pentameter is seldom, if ever, used, 
except in the Elegiac Distich, which consists of the Hexameter followed by 
the Pentameter : 

SemisS- I pultS vi- | rQm || cur- | vis f 6rl- | untiir S- | ratris 
OssS, rii- | iuo- | sas || occullt | herbii do- | mus. Oc. 



III. Other Dactylic Verses. 

677. The other varieties of d;ictylic verse arc less im- 
portant, but the following deserve mention : 



308 DATYLIC, ANAPAESTIC, AND TROCHAIC VERSES. 

I. Dactylic Tetrameter. — This consists of the last 
four feet of the Hexameter : 

Iblmus I soci- I i, comi- | tOsquc. Ilor. 

In compound verses, as the Greater Archilochlan, the tetrameter in composition 
witli other metres, has a dactyl in the fourth place. See C91. I. 

II. Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic. — This is the Lesser 
Arehilochian, and is identical "with the second half of the 
Dactylic Pentameter : 

Arburi- | busque cu- | mae. Ilor. 

III. Dactylic Dimeter. — This is the Adonic, and con- 
sists of a Dactyl and l^pondee : 

^VlOntls 1- I mago. Hor. 

II. Anap^vestic Verse. 

678. Anapaestic verses consist of Anapaestic dipodios. 

An Anapaestic dipody consists of two Anapaests, but 
admits Spondees or Dactyls as equivalents. 

I. Anapaestic Dimeter consists of two dipodies: 
VeniGut ; aiinls || saccula • sGrla.' Sen. 

This is sometimes catalectic (GC3. III. 1), and has only a long syllable in place of 
the last foot. It is the n called Paroemiae. 

II. Anapaestic Monometee consists of ono dipody: 
Data rC'S • patriae. Aicson. 

1. In Anapaestic verse Dactyls are used sparingly, and are generally followed by 
Spondees. Each dipody generally ends with a word. 

2. The last syllable is not common, as in most kinds of verse (GG5), but subject 
to the ordinary rules of quantity. 

3. Anapaestic verso docs not occur in the best Latin Poets. 

III. Trochaic Verse. 

679. Trocliaic verses consist of Trochaic dipodies. 

A Trochaic dipody consists of two Trochees, or of a 
Trochee and a Spondee ; but it admits the Tribrach as the 
equivalent of the Trochee, and the Anapaest, of the Spon- 
dee. Tlie first foot has a heavier ictus than the second : 

1 In verses measured by dipodies, a dotted line is placed between the feet, a bIu- 
glo line between the dipodies, and a double lino in the place of the caesural pause. 



Til 



TROCUAIC VEESE. 



309 



WWW • www 



WW-. 



I. TrocJiaic Tetrameter Catctlectlc. 

680. This consists of four Trochaic Dipodics with tl:e 
last foot incomplete. The caesiiral pause is at the end of 
the fourth foot, and the incomplete dipody admits no equiv- 
alents : 



■ 

WWW 'WWW 

• 
• 

• 
• 


-L w ' — w 

www -www 

• w w ^ ' 


www •' www 

• WW — 



Nulla : vox hu- I miiiia • constat || al)squ6 j septcMii | llttS- j ris, 
RIt6 I voca- I ItJs v6- | cavit ll quas ma- j glstri | Ciiaeci- j a. 2lr. Man. 

1. In Pvopev Names, a dactyl may bo introduced in any foot except tho fourth 
and seventh. 

2. The Proceleusmntic for tho Spondee sometimes occurs. 

3. In Comedy the Spondee and its equivalents occur in tho odd feet, as well as 
in tho even, except in the last dipody. 

4. Tho Trochaic Tetrameter also occurs in tho earlier poets in its complete 
form, i. c., -with eight full feet : 

Ipso : summis | siixis • fixus || uspc- • rIs G- | visco- • rutus. Enn. 

II. Trochaic Dimeter Catedectlc. 

681. This consists of two Trochaic Dipodics with the 
last foot incomplete. In Horace it admits no equivalents 
and has the following scale, 









t, a filn- 

lUSO. 



Aula : dlvl- I tem mil- \ net. Ilor. 

1. This is sometimes called Iambic Dimeter Acephalous, i. c, an Iambic Dime- 
ter with tiio first syllable wantin;?. 

2. A Trochaic Tripody,— throe Trochees— technically called a Trochaic Dime- 
ter Brachycatalectic, or an Ithi/phalicus, occurs in tho Greater Archilochian. See 
601. I. 

3. For Sapphic Verse, see C91. IV. 

4. For Phalaecian, boo 091. V. 

IV. Iambic Verse. 

682. Iambic verses consist of Iambic dipodies. 

An Iambic dipody consists of two Iambi, or of a Spon- 
dee and an Iambus; but it admits the Tribrach as the 
equivalent of the Iambus, and sometimes the Dactyl or the 



I 



310 



lAMETC VERSE. 



l! 



Anapaest, of the Spondee. The first foot has a heavier 
ictus tliau the second. 

Ill its full form it has the folio win cf scale : 



www • www 



— WW 
WW — 



I. Iambic Trimeter. 

683. This verse, also called Senariiis^ consists of three 
Iambic Dipodies. 

I. The first dipody has the full form. 
11. The second ndniits no Anapaest. 

III. The third admits no Anapaest or Dactyl, and iu its second 
foot, no equivalent whatever. 

IV. The Caesural Pause is usually iu the third foot, hut may 
he in the fourth. 

The scale is, 



w — . w — 






—•WW • 



I 



Quid ob- : sfirii- | lis || an- • ribus | fuiulls j prfices? IFor. 
Neptu- i nus 51- | to || tun- \ (lit hi- | bOrnus j salo. Ilor. 
lias Iu- j tcr fipii- | las 11 ut 1 jiivat | pastas j ov<>s. Ilor. 

1. Proper Names. — In proper names an Anapaest is admissible in any 
foot, except the last, but must be in a single word. 

2. HoRACi:. — In Horace the only feet freely admitted are the Iambus and 
the Spondee ; their equivalents, the Tribrach, the Dactyl and Anapaest, are 
used very sparingly. The Tribrach never occurs in the fifth foot and only 
once in the first. The Anapaest occurs only twice in all. 

3. Comedy. — In Comedy great liberty is taken, and the Spondee and its 
equivalents are freely admitted in any foot except the last. 

4. CuoLiAMiiL's. — This is a variety of Iambic Tnmder with a Spondee iu 
the sixth foot and an Iambus in the fifth : 

Miser j CatO' ] 16 do- j sinas | ir.ep- j tire. Catul. 

Cholidtnhns mcana lame or Umping I(t/nhii,<i, unil is so called from its limping 
UT^vemcnt. It is sometimes called Scazon for tlie same reason, and sometimes Ilip' 
ponaciean, from Ilipponax, its reputed inventor. 

684. Iambic Trimeter Catalectic. — Tliis is the Iam- 
bic Trimeter with the last foot incomplete. But in Horace 
the only feet admissible besides the Iambus are the Tri- 



IAMBIC VERSE. 



311 



bracli in the second foot and the Spondee in tlic first and 
third: 



Vocu* j tus at- I que nun j vucil- | tu.i an- i dit. Jioi: 



ani- 
race 
Tri- 



IL Iambic Dunetcr. 

685. This verso consists of two Iambic Dipodios witli 
their nsual equivalents. But in Horace the only fuet ad- 
missible besides the Iambus are the Tribrach in the second 
place, the Spondee in the first and third, and the Dactyl in 
the first : r. 



w — • u — 



u w u 



Qufirun- i tur in \ sih is j arcs. Ilor. 
Imbrgs i nivCs- | que com- | parat. Hor. 
Ast 6go j vicis- I sini rl- i sero. Jlor. 

1. Iambic Dimeter IlyrEUMETER occurs iu Horace with the 
following scale: 



Puer I quis ex ] aula | capU- | Us. Ilor. 

This is sometimes called the Alcaic Enneasyllabic verse and forms tlie third lino 
in the Alcaic Stauza. See 701). I. 

2. Iambic Dimeteh Catalectic does not occur in the pure Latin poets. 
Its scale is, 



Miiuu I puCr j luqua- | ci. Fet. Arb. 

3. Iambic Dimeter AcErnALous. — Tliis name is sometimes given to the 
Trochaic Dimeter Catalectic (OSl), which is then treated as Iambic Dimeter 
without the first syllable. Thus 

Au- I la dl- I vitcm i munet. JTov. 

III. Iambic Tetrameter. 

686. The Iambic Tetrameter is littlo used iu Latin except in Come- 
dy. It consists of four Iambic Dipodios with their usual equivalents. The 
caesural pause is usually after the fourth foot : 

Quantum In- • tOllCx- | i modo • scnis ,i seatun- • tlam | dc nup- • 
tils. Tcr. 



I 



312 



IONIC AND CIIORIAMBIO VEESES. 



Tlic Tamhic Tetrameter Catalectic belongs mostly to comedy, but occurs also In 
€atullu» . 

QuOt cGin- • modus | rGs at- • tuli ? || quiit au- • tern ildc- 1 mi cu- • rus. Ter. 



Y. Ionic Yehse. 

687. Tlie Ionic a Minorc consists entirely of Lesser 
Ionics. It may bo either Tetrameter or Dimeter : 

WW — — Iww — — lww__|ww — — 



Siinul unctos 1 TibGiinis | humSios la- | vit iu uudls. llor. 
N6qu6 segni | pfido victus. Jlor. 

1. Horace has this metre only in one short ode (III. 12). In some edi- 
tions this ode consists entirely of Tetrameters ; but in others it is arranged 
in stanzas of three lines; the first two, Tetrameters, and the third, a Dimeter. 

2. In this verse the last syllable is not common, but subject to the ordi- 
nary rules of quantity, as in the Anapaestic verse. See G78. 2. 

3. The Ionic a Majore, Sotadean Verse, scarcely occurs in Latin, except 
in Comedy. In its pure state it consists of three Greater Ionic feet and a 
Spondee, but in Martial the third foot is a Ditrochce : 



\j — \j 



IKs cum gfimi- | na compSdc 1 dcdicut ca- | tonus. Man 



VI. CUORIAMBIC VeESE. 

688. Choriambic verses begin with* a Si')ondee followed 
by one, two, or three Choriambi, and end with an Iambus. 

Ill Horace the Choriambic verse uniformly begins with the Spondee, but in some 
of the otlier poets tbo Trochee, the Auupuost, or the Iambus occasionally takes tho 
place of the s^^toLdeo. 

689. A Choriambic verse with one Choriambus is 
called the Glyconia ; or, if catalectic, the Pherecrattan ; 
with two, the AscleijiacUcm / with three, the Greater As- 
clqnadecoi. 

I. The Glyconic has the following scale : 

JL_ I JLwwJ. I wi 
Donee | gratiis firam | tJbi. Jlor. 

II. The Pherecratean is catalectic, but otherwise iden- 
tical with the Glyconic. Its scale is, 



Vix du- I rare cjIiI- | nac. Jlor. 



' I. 



CIIORIAMBIC VERSE. 



313 



\ca7i ; 
As- 



iden- 



III. The AscLEPiADJLvN has the followhiG: scale: 

— — I — WW_||— S/W— I \J — 

Macc6- I na3 itiivls || cdlt6 rUg- | Ibus. Jlor. 

IV. Tlic Greater Asclei'iadeax has tlie folio win <x scale : 

Sen plQ- I res liiSinCs, || sen tribult || Jui>itcf ul- | tinuim. Jlor. 

This is aomotinics called Choi-iambic riiiinmctiir and soinetimca Choriatnlic 
Tctratneicr, 

I^plchorkuuhlc T 7.7*56'. 

690. When a verse begins with a Second Epitrite fol- 
lowed by one or two Choriambi, and ends with a Jjiicchius, 
it is called Epichoriambic. Of this there are two important 
varieties : 

I. The Sapphic Verse. — ^This consists of a Second Epi- 
trite, a Choriambus and a Bacchius : 

L ^ L - I J. » ^ L \^ J-'l 
Namqu6 mo sll- | vS || liipiis in j Siibiiia. Jlor. 

1. But the Sapphic verse may also be measured as a Trochaic Dipody 
followed by an Aristophanic verse, i. e., as composed of a Trochee, a Spon- 
dee, a Dactyl, and two Trochees. Sec C'Jl. IV. 

2. The Caesural Pause usually occurs after the fifth syllable, as i:i the 
example, but sometimes after tlie sixth. 

3. Catullus admits two Trochees in place of the Epitrite. 

II. The Greater Sapphic Verse. — ^This differs from 
the Sapphic proper only in introducing a second Choriam- 
bus before the Bacchius : 

Intfir aequa- | 163 fiquitat, || GallicS n6c ] liipStis. Uor. 
This is sometimes improperly called Otoriamhic Tetrameter, 

VII. LoGAOEDic Verse. 

691. Logaoedic verses consist of Dactyls, or their 
equivalents, followed by Trochees. 

I. Greater ARCHiLoriiiAX. — ^This consists of a Dactylic 
Tetrameter (677. I.) followed by a Trochaic Tripody. The 
first three feet are either Dactyls or Spondees; the fourth, 
a Dactyl ; and the last three, Trochees ; 
14 



! 



314 



LOGAOliDIC VEIISE, 



; ; 



— WW 



•* w w 



VitaC I suinmi br6- | vidspciii | ii«~s vfitat, l| inchd- j ur6 | loii{;ain. Ilor. 
The cacsural pause is between the two members. 

II. Alcaic Vekse. — Tliis consists of two Dactvls fol- 

lowed by two Trochees : 

1 If If • f "" 

— wwl— wwl— w • — w 

PurpurS- I o viirl- | us c(5- | lore. Ilor. 

III. Akistopiianic Veese. — This consists of a Dactyl 
followed by two Trochees: 

Cur n6qu6 j mill- j taris. Ilor. 

This verso is variously named, Aristophanic^ Choriamhia Dimeter^ and Cha. 
rianibic Dimeter Cataledic. 

IV. SAPniic Verse. — ^This prefixes to the Aristophanic 
a Trochaic Dipody consisting of a Trochee and a Spondee 
(C90. I.). The scale is, 



>y*. 



Isumquo i niG sU- \ vu lupiis | In Sil- | bina. Ilor. 

iodpphic verse may be classed at pleasure cither M'ith the Logaoedic versos, as 
hero, or with the Ejiidioriamhic verses, as in article 090. 1. 

V. PiiALAECiAisr Verse. — Tliis consists of a Spondee, a 
Dactyl, and three Trochees : 

^_|JLww|^w \ L ^\L u 

Non est I vlvfirS, il s6d vi- j 10r6 1 vita. Mart. 

This verse is sometimes called, from the number of its syllables, ITemlecafiyUahic, 
of cloven s. iblcs. It docs not occur in Iloraco. In Catullus it sometimes has a 
Trochee, or an Iambus, in the first place. 

VIII. Miscellaneous Verses. 

692. Greater Alcaic Verse. — ^This consists of an 
Iambic I^e?ithemwieris and a pure Dactylic Dimeter^ i. e., 
an Iambic Dipody, a long syllable and two Dactyls : 



VidGs : ut al- | ta li stCt uiv6 | candidum 
Sorac- i to uCe | jam || sustiu6- | aat ouiis. Hor. 

1. The Cacsural Pause is usually between the two members. 

2. In Horace the first foot is generally a Spondee. 

8. This verse forms the first and second lines of the Alcaic Stanza. Sv;e 
•f 00. I. 






M ISC i:r- LAN i:ous ve uh us. 



315 



693. Dactyuco-Ia:\ii{Ic Verse. — This consists of a pure 
Dactyllu Pent hem imeria (050. 2) and an Iambic JJundcr 



^ W W I -M W V I — 



Ju.ssus ub- I Iio do- I Ilium, || lure- • bur In- | cCito ; pedc. Iloi'. 

1. Tliis verse is soinetimo.i calloil KUyutmhuH. 

2. TLis verse and tlie following,' conipoiinds-tlio lamhico-DiwtijUc nnd llin Pi'i- 
aj)tiitn—hii\(i the poculiurity that the two members of each may bo triutod as sejia- 
riitu lines, as the lust syllable of the llrst uiember is common, as nt the cad of a lino. 

694. lAMnico-DACTYLic Verse. — This consists of an 
Iambic Dimeter and a Uactylic Pe)ithemlmerls^ i. c, of the 
same parts as the preceding, but in an inverted order : 



^ w w 



^ w w 



NIvCs- : qu6 dC- | ducuut ; Jovuin: || nunc niii6, [ nunc silu- | ao. Jlor. 

1. Tills verse is sometimes called IdmhtlerjUH. 

2. For the llual syllabic of tlic first member, see C03. 2. 

695. Priapeian Verse. — ^This consist "^ of a Ghjconic 
and a Pherecratecui (G89. 1. II.) : 



Qu5rcu3 I urida rus- ,' tlcii || confor- | mutS s6cQ- | ri. Catul. 

1. In this verse, as it aiipcars in Catullus, tlio Glyconic and tlio PhorccratCan 
appear with such variations as are allowed in that poet (6SS). llcnco the Trocheo 
querciis for the Spondee, in the example. 

2, For the final syllable of the first member, sec C93. 2. 



■«J ii 



.;: 






of an 
i. e., 



za. Sv^e 



SECTION III. 

THE V£nSIFICATI02r OF VIRGIL, HOE ACE, OVID, AND JUVEXAL. 

69C. Virgil and Jl^^tenal. — Virgil in his Eclogues, 
Georgics, and Aeneid, and Juvenal in his Satires use only 
the Dactylic Hexameter. See 071. 

697. Ov:d. — Ovid uses the Ilexaraeter in his Metamor- 
phoses, but the Elegiac Distich in his Epistles and other 
works. See 070. 2. 

698. Horace. — Horace uses the Hexameter in his Epis- 
tles and Satires, but in his Lyrics, i. e., in his Odes and 
JEpodes, he uses a great variety of Metre. 



i\ 



[I .t 



310 



METRKS OF lIORACn. 



I 
I I 



■ 



699. Lyrks ov IIoraci:. — ^lost of the Otlos find 
Kjiotlcs consist of Stanzas of two, tlirco, or four verses; but 
a few of tlicni consist entirely of n single kind of verse. 

Lyric IMKTRiis op IIorack. 

700. For convenience of reference the following out- 
lino of the Lyric metres of Horace is here inserted. 

A. Stcuizas of Four Ycrses. 

I. Aloaio Stanza. — First and f^coond versos, Grcator Aleaio?! 
(002) ; third, Ijuiihic Dimeter llypernietcr (085. J.) ; fourth, Al- 
caic (091.11.). 



1.)--^ i -^ 



8. _ 
4. 1. 



1-^— I-- \- 



In tliirty-scTcn Odes: I. 0, 10, 17, 20, 27, 20, .".I, 34, 35, 37 ; II. 1, 3, n, 
7, 0, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, ly, 20 ; III. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, C, 17, 21, 23, 20, 29 ; IV. 4, 
I), 14, 15. 

IT. Sappiiio Axn Adonic. — Tlio first threo verses, Sai)pliic3 
(691. IV.); the fourth, Adonic (077. III.). 

2. U - \^^\L 
3.) 

In Twenty-six Odes : I. 2, 10, 12, 20, 22, 25, 30, 32, 38 ; II. 2, 4, C, 8, 10, 
IG; III. 8, 11, 14, 18, 20, 22, 27; IV. 2, 6, 11, and Sec. Hymn. 

III. AsolepiadEan AND Glyconic. — Tho first tlirce verses, 
AsclepiadGuns (069. III.) ; the fourth, Glyconic (G89. 1.). 

.1.) ^ 

3. ) * . ' ■" -• 

In nine Odes: I. G, 15, 24, 33; II. 12; III. 10, IG; IV. 5, 12. \ ' 

IV. ASCLEPIADEAN, pHEnECRATEAN, AND GlYCONIO. — The first 

two verses, Asclepiadeans (089. III.) ; tho third, PherecratOan 
(080. II.) ; the fourth, Glycouic (689. 1.). . ^ . 

3.-^-1- . , 

In seven Odes : I. 5, 14, 21, 23; III. 7, 13 ; IV. 13. 



U \.f *- I w 



Mi:Tin:s op n ok ace. 



ai7 



I?. Stanzas of Three Vn'scs. 

V. Toxio A MixoijE (087). — llio first two vorscs, Totminctor.s : 
tlio third, Diniotor. 



U 



w w 

la OJe III. 12. 



--I 



-- I 



WW — 



I' 



C. Stanzas of Two Ycrscs, 

VI. Iamhk! Timmeter and Iamhio Dimeter (093, 085). 
1. 



2. ^ L : w JL 



— .www 



WW. 



Ill the first tt'H Epodos. 

Yll. Glyconio and Asclepiadean (080. I., III.). 

1. ±_|iwwl|wi 

2. See IV. 1. 
In t\vckc Odes: I. 3, 13, 10, SO; III. 9, 15, 10, 21, 2."), 2.<^; IV. 1, 3. 

VIII. Hexameter and Dactylic Tetrameter (071 ; 077. I.). 



1. 



In two Ode3 : I. 7, 28, and Epodo 12. 

IX. Hexameter and Dactylic Trimeter Catalectio (071 ; 
677. II.). 

1. See VIII. 1. ^ 
> - 2. -i- w w I i. w w I - 

In Ode IV. 7. 

X. Hexameter and Iambic Trimeter (071, GS3). 
, SooVm. laud VI. 1. 

In Epode 16. 

XI. Hexameter and Iambic Dimeter (071, 085). 
See VIII. 1 and VI. 2. ' 

In Epodos 14 and 15. 



■ 



lil 



It 



^'i 



318 



MliTUKS OF HOliACK. 



XII. IIkxamkicu and lAMnico-DAciYLic (071, G91). 

1. See VIII. 1. 






In Epude 13. 

XIII. Iammio TniMKTKU AND Dactyuco-Iamiuc (083, 093). 

J. 



1. See VI. 1. 



^ w w 



In Ejxxlo 11. 

XIV. TnocnAio Dimetcu Cataleotio and Iamuio TniMETEii 

C ATA LECTIO (OSl, G8-1-). 

1. i.w:lv|lw:_ 



— ^ • www 



In Oilc II. 18. 

XV. CJreateu AijcniLociiiAN and Iamuio Tiumeter Cata- 
LECTiu (O'Jl. I.; 084). 



1. 



I f 



2. Sec XIV. 2. 

Ill Ode I. 4. 

XVI. AnisTOPirANic and Greateu Sapphio (091. III. ; 090. 11). 

In Ode I. 8. 

D. Verses used Suigl}j. 

XVII. AsclepiadEan (089. III.). 

In three Odes : I. 1 ; III. SO ; IV. 8. 

XVIII. Greater AsclepiadEan (089. IV.) 

In three Odes : I. 11, 18 ; IV. 10. 

XIX. Iambio Tkimeteb (083). Sco VI. 1. 
lu Epode 17. 



I 



Minnies OP HORACE. 



010 



701. Index to thi: Lyimc ]\rimn:.s of IIoKAri:. 

TIm' Uoiuaii munonilrf refer fo articli's in the ptvccdiiif^ outliiu', 7<^0. 



HOOK I. 



Olios. 



1, 
5. 






11, 

i;;, 
11, 

15, 

10, 

18, 

20, 

iil, 
i>2, 

23, 

24, .. 

25, .. 
2«,_. 

27, .. 

28, .. 

29, .. 

30, .. 
3K .. 



\. 



32, 
33, 
3t, 
35, 
30, 
3V, 
38, 



1, 
3, 



Metros. 

XV H. 

II. 

VII. 

XV. 

IV. 

III. 

VIII. 
XVI. 

I. 
11. 

XVI II. 

II. 

VII. 
IV. 

III. 
1. 
I. 

XVIII. 
VII. 

II. 

IV. 

II. 

IV. 

III. 
II. 

I. 

I. 

VIII. 

I. 

II. 

1. 

n. 

III. 

I. 

I. 

VII. 

I. 

II. 



BOOK II. 



T. 

II. 

I. 



Odes. 

4, 

'>, 

<S 

7, 

'•», 
l'>, 
11, 
1-', 

13, 

11, 

15, 

10, 
17, 
IH, 

!'•', 

20, 



1, 
o 

"i 

3, 
4, 

r>, 

10, 

11. 
12, 

13, 

M, 

15, 

10, 

17. 
18, 
10, 
20, 
21, 
22, 

I >)Q 
I -", 

i 24, 

25, 



DUOIC III. 



Mctrt'8. 

II. 

I. 

II. 

I. 

II. 



II. 



III. 



II. 

I. 

XIV. 



IV. 

II. 

VII. 

III. 
II. 

V. 
IV. 

II. 

VII. 

III. 
I. 
il. 

VII. 

II. 



II. 



VII. 
VII. 



()<ll'9. 

20. 



2S, 
2'.», 
30. 



UOOK IV, 



I'N 
11, 



I. ' 13 
I. I 11 
I. 15. 



Mot res. 

I. 

II. 
VII. 



XVII. 



vir. 
II 

VIF. 

1. 

HI. 

H. 

IX. 

XVII. 

I. 

XVIII. 

u. 
III. 

IV. 



EI'ODES. 



f.u 



Jcs. 



10, 
11, 



14, 
15, 
10, 
17, 



SEC'ULAIl HYMN, 



Mclrcs. 

VI. 

VI. 

VI. 

VI. 

VI. 

VI. 

VI. 

VI. 

VI. 

VI. 
XIII. 
VIII. 

XII. 

XI. 

XI. 

X. 

XIX. 

II. 



t 



I ll 

i 






'I 
•41 



.»?*-L-: J-A«i _■ 



APPEI^DIX 



-♦♦•- 



L Figures of Speech. 



702. A Figure is a deviation from the ordinary /o?^??, 
construction^ or signijiccitlon of words. 

Deviations from the ordinary forms ure called Fi/pxres of Etymology ; 
from the ordinary constructions, Figures o/' Syntax, and from tlie ordinary 
significations, I^ffures of liJietwic. 

703. Tiie Figures of Etymology are the following : 

1. Apiiaeuesis takes a letter or sj'lUvble from the beginning of a word : '*^ I'or eat. 

2. Syncope takes a letter or syllabic from the middle of a word; vlrum for 
Tlrvrum, dixe for dixisse, 

8. Apocope takes a letter or syllable from the end of a word : tun' for tune. 

4. Prosthesis prefixes a letter or syllable to a word; t^ticli for tiill. 

5. Epicnthests i&serta a letter or syllabic in a wocii: Alcumena i'or Alcmena, 
ul'ituum for illltum. 

6. r-ABAGOGF adds a letter or sylkble to a word : d'tcier for d'lci. 
1. Metathesis transposes letters or syllables : pislris for prist! s, 

8. Antithesis substitutes one letter for another : volnxcs f&e vulnnt, olU for illL 
Sec also Figures trf Prosody, G69. 

• 704. The Figures of Syntax are the following : 

I. Ellipsis is the omission of one or more words of a 
sentence : 

HSbitabat ad Jovis {sc. templuvi). He dwelt near the temple of Jiqnter. 
lav. Abiit, Cvasit {et), lie Jios gone, has escaped. Cic. 

1, Asyndeton is an ellipsis of a conjunction. See 5S7. 1. 6 ; 5S7. lit 4. 

2. Zeugma is an ellipsis which employs a single verb with two sobjccts or ob- 
jects, though strictly applicable to only one : 

Pacem an bcllum gerens, icheftier at peace (ilgens) or waging tear. Sail. 

8. Aposiopesis., also called lieticentia^ used for rhetorical effect, is an elUpsis 
which leaves the seutence unfinished; 

Quos ego sed motos pracstat Gonipoaere fluctus. Wliom I hut it is let- 
ter to calm the trouMed leaves. Virg. 

4. Proverbs arc often elliptical. 

5. Ellipsis of Facto, Dico, Oeo. See 460. 3 ; 602, II. S. 

IJ. Pleonasm is the use of superfluous words : 

Erant itin6ra duo, quibus itincrlbus cxire possent, Tliere were tico ways; 
by iehich zvays they might depart. Caes. Eurusquc Notusque ruunt, BotJi 
Eurus and Xotus rushfo^'th. Virg. 

1. Polysyndeton is a pleonasm in the use of conjmictions, as in the last example. 

2. IIendiadys is the use of two nouns with a conjuuctlon, iuste.'wJ of a noun 
with an adjective or genitive : 



FIGUEES OF SPEECH. 



321 



Armis virisquc,/or viris armutis, tcith armed men. Tac. 

8. A.NAiMionA is the repetition of a word at the be^rinning of successive clauses : 
Me ciineta Italia, me finiversa civitas consuleiu dCcIaravit, J/o all Itali/, me t'la 
nholc nt<ite declared consul. Cic. 

4. Eph'iiora is the repetition of a ■word at the end of successive clauses: 
Laelius navus erat, doetus I'rnt, Laelius teas df'li{/enf. nas learned. Cic- 

5. Monosyllabic i)ropositions are often repeated before successive nouns, regu- 
larly so with et — et : 

Et in bellici.s et in civilibus olflciis, ^>ofh in military and in cicil offices. Cic. 
Other prepositions are soinetiuies repeated. 

0. A demonstrative, pronoun or adverb, id, Jioc, iUiid, sic, )ta, is often used 
.somewhat redundantly to represent a subsequent clause. So also quid, in quid censes 
with a clause: 

lllud te t'lro ut dlli^'ens sis, / ask- yon (that thing) to he (that you bo) diligent. Cic. 

7. Pronouns redundant with qu)dem. S' 3 44G. 1. 

8. Pleonasm often occurs with I'lcet: 

Ut liceat permittilur = licet, It is lawful (is permitted that it is, &c.). Cic. 

9. A word is often rejieated for emphasis. 

10. Circumlocutions with res, ginus, modus, and ratio are common. 

III. ExALLAGE is tlic siibstitiitioii of one pp' '^ of spcecli 
for another, or of one gramnuitical form for another : 

Popiilus late rex (for regnans), a people of extensive sway (ruling exten- 
sively). Virg. SCrus {slro) in coclum rcdeas. May you return late to heaven. 
Ilor. Vina cadis {rlnis cados) onerare, to Jill the flasks with tcine. Virg. 

1. AntimerIa is the use of one part of speech tor another, as in the first two ex- 
amples. 

2. lIvPALLAGE is thc usc of ODO casc for another, as in the last example. 

3. SvNicsis is a construction according to sense, without regard to grammatical 
forms. See 4;]8. C and 4G1. 

4. AnacolCtiion Is a want of harmony in the i nr^truction of the different parts 
of a sentence : 

Si, ut dicunt,onines Graios caao{Graiisu7it),if, as they say, all are Greeks. Cic. 

IV. IIypekbaton is a transposition of words or clauses : 

Practcr arma nihil (Srat super (snpcrerat), Nothing remained, exccptthcir 
arms. Nep. VSlet atque vivit {dvit atque rUlet), He is alive arid ivell. Ter. 

1. Anastrophe is the transposition of words only, as in the llrst example. 

2. IIvsTEiiox PpvOTEron is a transposition of clauses, as in the second example. 

3. Tmesis is thc sejiaration of a compound word. Sec 523. 'L 2). 

705. Figures of Rhetoric, also called Tropes, comprise 
several varieties. The following are thc most im2)ortant. 

I. Metaphor. — This is an implied comparison, and as- 
signs to one object the appropriate name, epithet or action 
of another : 

Ilei publicac vulnus (for damnnm), thc wound of the republic. Cic. 
Naufragium fortunae, the wreck of fortune. Cic. 

II. Metonymy is the usc of one name for another 
naturally suggested by it : 

11* 












(I 

I- 

I 



322 



APPENDIX. 



Aequo Marte (for p^'oclio) pugnatum est, They fought in, an equal con- 
test. Liv. Fiirit VulciFnus {ignis). The fire rages. Virg. 

By this fijjuro the cause is often put for thn effect and the effect for the cause; 
the i)roj)crty for the possossor, the place or age for the people, the sign for the thin^ 
sijjnifH'd, etc.: Mara for hellnm, Vulcunua for iffiiis, Succ/ius i'or v'nium, iiob'd'itaa 
for nvVlles, Graecia for Graeci, laurea/or cict&ria, etc. 

III. Synecdoche is the use of a part for the whole, or 
of the whole for a part ; of tlie special for the general, or 
of the general for the special: 

In vestra tccta (vestras domos) discedite, Depart to your homes. Cic. 
Static male fida carinia {ndvibus), a station unsafe/or shijps. Virg. 

IV. Irony is the use of a word for its opposite : 

Legatos honiis (for muhts) impfirator vcstcr nou admisit, Your good 
commander did not admit the ambassadors. Liv. 

t. Eiiim, ctcnim, sciricei, videlicet, nlvilrum, credo, and the like, are often 
ironical. See 503. 3. 

V. Hyperbole is an exaggeration : 

Ycntis ct fulmlnis ocior alis, swifter than the winds and the wings of the 
lightning. Virg. 

VI. Litotes denies something instead of affirming the 
opposite : 

Non opus est = pcrniciosum est, It is not necessary. Cic. 



II. Latin Authors. 



708. Tlie history of Roman literature embraces about 
eight centuries, from 250 B. C. to 550 A. D.,and has been 
divided by Dr. Freund into three principal periods : 

I. The Ante-Classical Period.— From 250 to 81 B. 0. The 
principal authors of this period are : 

Ennius, Plautus, Terence, Lucretius. 

IT. The Classical PEiiioD. — This embraces the Golden and 
tlie Silver age : 

1 . The Golden Affc— From 81 B. C. to 14 A. D. The principal 
authors are : 

Cicero, Nepos, Horace, Tibullus, 

Caesar, Livy, Ovid, Propertius. 

Sallust, . Virgil, Catullus, 

2. The Silter Age. — From 1-4 to 180 A. D. The principal 
authors are ; 



LATIX AUTIIOKS. EOMAX C^VLENDAII. 



323 



Phaedrus, Tho riinics, Quintilian, Persius, 

Vellcius, Tacitus, iSuetonius, Lucan, 

Tho ISenecas, Curtius, Juvenal, Maitial. 

III. Tho Post-Classical Period. — This embraces the P)razcn 
and the Iron Age : 

1. Tho Brazen J'jc. — rroiu ISO to 470 A.D. Tho la-incipal 
autliors are : 



Justin, 
Victor, 



Entropius, 
!Macrobiurf, 



Lactantius, 
Aujiouius, 



Claudian, 
Tcicutian. 



2. Tho Iron Age. — From 470 to 550 A.D. The principal au- 
thors arc : 



Boiithius, 



Cassiodoi'us, 



Justinian, 



Priscian. 



Til. The RoiiAx Calendar. 

707. The Julian Calendar of the Romans is the basis 
of our own, and is identical with it in the number of months 
in the year and in the number of days in tho months., 

708. Peculiakities. — The Roman calendar has the fol- 
lowing peculiarities : 

I. The days were not numbered from the beginning of tho 
month, as with us, but from three different points in tlio month: 

1. Tho Calends, iha first of each month; 

2. The Xoncs, ihofifth^ — but the seventh in March, May, July, 
atid October ; 

3. The Ides, the thirteenth^ — but tho fifteenth in March, ^lay, 
July, and October. 

II. From these three points the days were numbered, not for- 
ward, but backward. 

Hence after the Ides of each month, the days were numbered from the 
Calends of the following month. 

III. In numbering backward from each of these points, tho 
day before each was denoted by 2)rulie Culendas, Aonas, etc. ; the 
second before each by die tertio (not secundo; third, not second) 
ante Ccilcndas, etc., the third, by die quarto, etc., and so on through 
the month. 

1. Numerals.— This peculiarity in the use of the numerals, (lesijjnatinj tlie 
second day before the Calends, etc., as tlic third, and tho third as tho fourth, etc., 
arises from tho ftict that th« Calends, etc., were themselves counteil as tho first. 
Thus jiridie ante Cdlendas becomes tho second boforo tho Calends, dit tertio ante 
CMcndax, tho third, etc. 

2. Name of Month. — In dates tho namo of tho month is addeil in the form of an 
adjective in agreement with Cdlendas, iViintis, etc., us, die qiutrto ante Xijnas Jan' 
udrias, often shortened to, quaHo ante Nonas Jan. ovIV. ante Aonas Jan. or with- 
out ante, as, IV. ADnas Jan., the second of January. 



m 



I 



■■• 'i 



'< I 



324 






APPENDIX. 



■■I 



8. Ante diem.— Instead of die— ante, ante diem Is common, as> ante diem 
quartum Ndyias Jan, for die quarto ante JKonaa Jan, 

4, Aa Indeclinable Nouns. — Tho expressions ante diem— Cut., et j., prldie 
Cat., etc., arc often used as indeclinable nouns with a preposition, as, ey ante diem 
V. Jdu8 Oct., from the lltli of Oct. Liv. Ad prldie Nonas Maias, till tUo 6tli of 
May. Cio. 

709. Calendae for tiie Yeak. 



Daj-a of 


March, May, July, 


Jan. Aug. 


April, June, 




the Mouth. 


Oct. 


December. 


SopU Nov. 


February. 
Calendu'*. 


1 


Calendis.' 


Calendis. 


Calendis. 


2 


VI. "JSonas.i 


IV. Nonas. 


IV. Nonas, 


IV. N. lus. 


8 


V. 


III. 


III. 


IIL 


4 


IV. " 


Pridio Nonas. 


Pridic Nonas. 


J'ridic Xoiuis. 


5 


III. " 


NONIS. 


NONIS. 


■^T i^VA. 


6 


r.idie Nonas. 


VIIL Idua. 


VIII. Idus. 


VlU. J^l!:.^. 


7 


NONIS. 


VII. 


VII. ■ 


VIL 


8 


VIIL Idas. 


VI. 


VI. 


VL 


9 


VII. 


V. 


V. 


V. "^ 


10 


VI. 


IV. " 


IV. " 


IV. 


11 


V. 


III. 


IIL " 


IIL 


12 


IV. 


I'ridio IJus. 


Pridio Idus. 


Pridio Idus. 


Y.i 


III. "- 


IdIBCBv 


Idiuvo 


Idibus. 


14 


I'ridie Idas. 


XIX. Calcnd.i 


XVIII. Calend.2 


XVI. Calcnd.2 


15 


Idihcs. 


XVIII. 


XVII. 


XV. 


16 


XVII. Calcnd.2 


XV IL 


XVI. " 


XIV. 


17- 


XVI. 


XVI. 


XV. 


XIIL 


18 


XV. " 


XV. '' 


XIV. 


XIL 


19 


XIV. 


XIV. 


XIII. 


XL 


20 


XIII. 


XIII. 


XII. 


X. 


21 


XII. 


XII. 


XL 


IX. 


22 


XI. " 


XI. 


X. 


VIIL 


23 


X. 


X. " 


IX. 


VIL 


24 


IX. 


IX. 


VIIL 


VL 


25 


VIII. » 


VIII. 


VIL 


V. (VI.)3 " 


26 


VIL 


VII. 


VL 


IV. (V.) " 


27 


VI. " 


VI. 


V. 


IIL (IV.) " 


28 


V. " 


V. 


IV. 


Prid. Cal.(IILCal.) 


29 


IV. " 


IV. " 


IIL 


(Prid. Cal.) 


30 


III. 


III. " 


Pridio Calend. 




31 


Pridic Caknd. 


Pridie Calend. 







710. English and Latin Dates. — The table (709) will fur- 
nish the learner with the English expression for any Latin date, 
or the Latin expression for any English date ; but in translating 
Latin, it may be convenient also to have tho following rule : 

I. If the day is numbered from the Nones or Ides, subtract 
the number diminished by one from tho number of the day on 
which the Nones or Ides fall : 

1 To tho Calends, Nones, etc., the name of the month must of course be added. 
Before Nonas, Idus, etc., ante is sometimes used and sometimes omitted (708. III. 2). 

2 The Calends of tho following month are of course meant, as tho IGth of March 
for instance is, XVII. Calendas Apnles. 

8 The enclose*^ forms »i>ply to leap'tjear. 



ROMAN CALENDAR. MONEY. 



325 



VIII. ante Idus Jan. = 13 - (8 — 1) = 13 — 7 = 6th of January. 

II. If the day is numbered from tlio Calends of tlio following 
month, subtract the number diminished by two from tho number 
of days in tho current month ; 

XYIII. ante Cul. Feb. = 3] - (18 — 2) = 31 - 10 = 15th of 
January. 

In Leap-year tbo 24tli f.nd 25th February are both called tho sixth before tho 
Calends of March, VI. Cal. Mart. The days before tho 24th are numbered procisoly 
as if the inontli contained as usual only 28 days, but the days after the 25th are num- 
bered regularly for a month of 25 days : V., J V., III. Cal. JIart., and jjr'idie Cul. 
Mart. 

711. DiTigioNS OF Day and Niani. — The Roman day, from 
sun-rise to sun-set, and the night from sun-set to sun-rise, were 
each divided at all seasong of the year into twelve hours. 

1. Night "Watciieb. — Tho night ^fas also divided into four watches of threo 
r.omun hours each. 

2. Length of Roman IIoitb.— The hour, being uniformly -/j of tho day or of tho 
night, of course varied in length, with tho length of the day or night at different 
seasons of the year. 



r 



I :'5 



m 



II 



IV. Roman Money, Weights, and Measures. 

712. Coins. — ^Tlie principal Roman coins were the <^/.s', 
of copper, the sestertius., qul7iar>us., denarius., of silver, and 
the aureus^ of gold. Their value in the classical period was 
as follows : 

As, 1 to 2 cents. 

Sestertius, .4 " 

Quinurius, 8 '' 

DGnarius, 16 " 

Aureus = 25 donfirii, .... $1.00. 

1. As— TUE Unit ov Mo'.ev — ''ic As was originally the unit of iho 
Roman currency, and containid a ^.ound of copper, but it was diminished 
from time to time iu weight and value till at lust it contained only 1/24 of » 
pound. 

But whatever its weight, ,V of the an is always called an uncia, ^\ a sexfans, f»3 
a qnndrans, ^'j a tricns, /j a quincunx, y"j a semis, ^^ a eeptunx, ^.^ u hes, /j a do- 
drans, J 5 a dextans, JJ a deunx. 

2. Sestertius, Quinarius, and Denarius. — Tlio sestertius contained ori- 
ginally 2i asses, the qulnarius 5, and the denarius 10 ; but as the as depre- 
ciated in value, the number of asses in these coins was increased. 

o. As— THE General Unit op Computation. — Tlie as is also used as 
the unit in other things as well as iu money Thus 

1) In Weight— Tho as is then a pound, and tho uncia an ounce. 

2) In 3Ieasure.— tho as is then a foot or a jugOrum (T18),and tho uncia is tV of 
ft foot or of a jugcrum. 






326 



APPENDIX. 



8) In Interest— Thb as Is then (ho unit of Interest, which was one per cent, a 
montli, i. e., twelve jut year, the uncia is ^'j per month, i, e., 1 per year, and tho 
semis is ,"lj per iiiontli, i. c., 6 per year, etc. 

4) III Juhvritanee.—nio as is then tho whole estate, and tho nncia ^.^ of it: 
litres ex tisse, heir of tho whole estate ; heres ex dodrante, heir of t'l- 

713. Computation of Money. — In all sums of money 
the conmion unit of computation -was the sestertius^ also 
called nummus ; but four special points deserve notice : 

I. In all stuns of money, the units, tens, and hundreds are de- 
noted by sestertii with tho proper cardinals : 

Quinquc sestertii, 5 sesterces, vlginti sestertii, 20 sesterces, duccnli ses- 
tertii, 2U0 sesterces, 

II. One thousand sesterces are denoted hy iniU.e sestertii, or 
millc scstcrtium. 

III. In sums loss than 1,0C''^,000 sesterces, the thousands are 
denoted either (1) by raillia scstcrtium (gen. plur.), or (2) by ses- 
tertia : 

Duo millia scstcrtium, or duo scstortia, 2,000 sesterces; quinquc niillia 
scstcrtium, or quiuque sestertia, 5,000 sesterces 

With sestertia the distributives were generally used, as, blna sestertia, 
for duo sestertia. 

IV. ht sums containing one or move millions of sesterces, scs- 
tcrtinm with tho value of 100,000 sesterces is used with the proper 
numeral adverb, decics, vicies, etc. Thus 

Dficics scstcrtium, 1,000,000 (10 X 100,000) sesterces; Vicies scstcrtium, 
2,000,000 (20 X 1U0,000) sesterces. 

1. Sestert' jM— In the examples under IV., sestertium Is treated and (Inclined 
as a neuter noun in the singular, though originally it was probably tho genitive plur. 
of sesfi'i'tiiis, and tlic full expression for 1,000,000 sesterces was Decies centena millia 
sestertium. Centena millia was afterward generally omitted, and finally sester- 
tium lost its force as a genitive plural, a.d became a neuter noun in tho singular, 
capable of declension 

2. Sesterth'm Omitted.— Sometimes sestertium is omitted, leaving only tho 
numeral adverb : as, d^cies, 1,000,000 sesterces. 

3. SiGX IIS. — The sign IIS, is often used for sestertii, and sometimes for sester^ 
tia, or sestertium : 

Decern IIS = 10 sesterces (119 = sestortii). Dona IIS = 10,000 sesterces (IIS 
= sestertia). Decies IIS = 1,000,000 sesterces (!IS = sestertiu ji). 

714. Weight. — The hasis of Roman weights is the Libra, 
also called -4s ov Fondo^ equal probably to about 11 1 ounces avoir- 
dupois. 

1. OpNOES.— The L'lhra, like tho as in money, is divided into 12 parts called by 
the names given under 712. 1. 

2. Fhactions of Ounoks.— Parts of ounces also have speci'd names: ^ = 8tmi- 
uncia, \ — duella, J = sTcilicu.s, i = sextula, -J- ~ drachma, Jj = scrupulum, Jy = ob* 
olus. 



, : 



i 
i 



"WEIGHTS. MEASURES. ABBREVIATIONS. 



327 



tho 



by 









i 






715. Dev Mkascke. — ThoModiiis is tlio basis, Cfj,ual to iibout 

1, Sextakics.— This is ^\ of ft mndlus. 

'2. PAiiTS OF TUB bK.vruiifS. — Tlicrto liavc special names: J = liCmlna, J = ucc» 
tilbuhim, i\ = cyuthus. 

716. LiQUin Measi'ke. — The Amphora is tlio most convoii- 
icnt unit of tlie Roman li(|nid measure, and contained a Koman 
cubic foot, equivalent probably to about seven gallons, wine measure. 

1. CuLEra. — Twonty amphorae make one CiVens. 

2. Pakts of Ami'iioua. — Tlicfc have special names: \ = urnn, J=confriu'^, ^\ 
= scxtarius, „'„- = bC'mIuu,'jJj = quartarius, jjj = ucCtabulum, j}j = cyutbus. 

717. Long Measure. — Tbe basis of this measure is the llo- 
man foot, equivalent to about ll.G inches. 

1. Combinations of Feet.— Palmipes = li Koman feet; cubitus = IJ ; passus 
= 5; stadium = fi'Jo. 

2. Parts of I'oot.— Palrnus = -J foot ; uncia = ^'j ; digitus = ,V 

713. Square ^fEAsuRE. — Tho basis of this measure is tho 
Jtlgerum, coutainiug 28,8C0 lioman square feot, equivalent to about 
six tenths of an acre. 

Tho parts of the jugSrum have the same name as those of the As: uncia = ,',, 
ecxtans = ^'j, etc. See 712. 1. 

V. Abbreviations. 

719. Kamcs. 

A. = Aulua. L. = Lucius. 

Ap. = Appius. ^l. := Marcus. 

C. (G.) — Caius (Gaius). M'. = Manius. 
Cn. (Gu.) = Cuacus Mam. = Mamorcus. 

(Gnaeus). N. = NumC'iius. 

D. =: Dcclmus. r. = rubhuri. 



Q. (Qn.) = Quintua. 

S. (Sex.) = Soxtu.-*. 
Ser. = SiTvuis. 
8p. = Spilrius. 
T. = Titus. 
Ti. (Tib.) = Tibdrius. 



720. Other Abbreviations. 



A. D. = ante diem. F. C. = faciendum cu- 
Aed. ■=! aedilLs. ruvit. 

A. U. C. = amio urbis Id. = Idus. 

conditae. Imp. = impeiTitor. 

Cal. (Kal.) = Caleudae. Leg. = legiltus. 



Cos. = consul. 

Coss. — consules. 

D. = divus. 

1). D. = dono dSdit. 

Des. = de.signatus. 

D. M. = diis manibus. 

D. S. ~ dc suo. 

D. S, P. P. = de sua 



Noil. = Nonae. 

0. M. = optlmua max- 
imus. 

r„ C. = patres conscrip- 
ti. 

Pont. Max. ■= pontifex 
niaximus. 

P. 11. = populus Ro- 
man us. 



peeuuia posuit. 
Eq. Rom. = Equcs RO- Pr. = praetor. 

maniis. Praef. = praefcctus. 

F. = f lUu3. 



Proc. =: procon.sul. 
Ki. W. F. F. Q. S. = 

quod bonum, fC;lix, 

faustumfjue .sit. 
Quir. = Quirites. 
Itesp, = res publlca. 
S. = sSiiatus. 
S. C. = senfitus con- 

sultum. 
S. I). P. = salutcm di- 

cit plunmam. 
S. J'. (^ R. = st~^nritus 

j)oi)ulus(iue Romu- 

lUlS. 

Tf. PI. = tribunus plu- 
bis. 



hi 



ii 






) ij 



INDEX OF VERBS. 

721. Thin Index contains an ali)lialK'tlc'al list, not only of nil the 
h^iniplo verbs in connnon use which involve any importune irregularities, 
but also of such compounds as seem to require special mention. 

But in regard to compounds of prepositions, two important facts must 
be borne in mind : 

1. That the elements, — preposition and verb — often appear in tiie 
compound in a changed form. See ^38. 1 and 311. 3. 

2. That the stem-vowel is often changed in the Perfect and Supine. 
See 200. 



A. 

Abdo, fire, dtdi, dituni, 280. 
Ab-Tgo. See ucjo, 27'.K 
Ab-jieio. i^w jCtcio, 270. 
Ab-luo. See hto, 274. 
Ab-nuo. See annuo, 274.» 
Abnleo, f;re, evi, itum, 200. 1. 
Aboleseo, ere, oli;vi, ulltum, 270. II. 
Ab-ripio. See ropin, 270. 
Abs-eon-do. See abdo, 280. 
Ac-eendo, fire, i, censum, 273. III. 
Ae-eido. See cado, 280. 
Ae-elno. See ca7io, 280. 
Ae-eijiio. See capio, 279. 
Ae-eulo. See cdlo, 270. 
Ae-eumbo, 6re, cubui, cubltum, 270. 

II. 
Aceo, ere, ui, — , 207. 
Aeesco, ere, acui, — , 281. 
Ac-quiro. See quacro, 270. III. 
Aeuo, 6re, ui, utum, 273. II. 
Ad-do. See abdo, 280. 
Ad-imo. See Smo, 279. 
Adipiscor, i, adeptus sum, 282. 
Ad-ulesco. See abdlcsco, 270. II. 
Ad-6rior. See brior, 280. 
Ail-spieio. See aspU'io, 273. I. 2. 
Ad-sto. See sto, 204. 
Aegresco, ere, — , 281. 
Af-fero. See/tTO, 292. 
Age, def., 297. 
Ag-noseo. See 7iosco, 277. 
Ag-gredior. See grudior, 282. 
Ago, ere, egi, actum, 279. 
Aio, def., 297. 
Albeo, ere, — , 208. 
Algeo, ere, alsi, — , 209. 



Al-lTeio, 5rc, lexi, lectum, 219, 273. 

II. 1. 
Al-luo. See luo, 274. 
Alo, ere, jilui, alitum, altura, 270. II. 
Amb-igo. See ago, 279. 
Ambio, 295. 3. 
Amieio, ire (ui), turn, 284. 
Amo, parad., 205. 
Anq)leetor, i, amplexus sum, 282. 
Ango, fire, anxi, — , 274. 
Annuo, fire, i, — , 271. 
Ajmge, drf., 297. 
ApC-rio, ire, ui, tum, 284. 
Ai)iscor, i, aptus sun>, 282. 
Ap-])rireo. t>QC parco, 2(')0. 
Ap-p6to. ^^Q pcto, 270. III. 
Applico. Sce])lico, 202. 
Ap-pOno. Sec pOno, 270. 
Arcesso, fire, ivi, itum, 270. III. 
Ardeo, Ore, arsi, arsum, 209. 
Areseo, fire, arui, — , 281. 
Arguo, ere, ui, utum, 273. II. 
Ar-ripio. See rapio, 270. , 

A-scendo. See scando, 273. III. 
A-spergo. See spargo, 273. 
A-spieio, ere, spexi, spect«m, 273. 
As-sentior, iri, sensus sum, 280. 
As-sideo. See sedeo, 270. 
At-texo. See tcxo, 270. 
At-tineo. Sec fmco, 200. 
At-tingo. See tango, 280. 
At-toUo. See iollo, 280. 
Audeo, ere, ausus sum, 272. 
Audio, parad., 211. 
Au-fero. See/iJro, 292. 
Augeo, ere, auxi, auctum, 209. 
Ave, def., 297. 
Aveo, ere, — , 208. 



I 



I' ' 



INDKX OF VERBS. 



329 



..v 



B. 



nalbutio, Iro, — , 2Sn. 
IJiituo, ('ro, i, — , 274. 
IJiho, ('ro, i, — , 274. 
Bhuidior, iri, Itud sum, 220. 

C. 

Titdo, vvo, ci'culi, c'lsum, 280. 

CiU'cfilio, ire, — , 2K3. 

(!;if(lo, Ore, eecliii, eacsiun, 280. 

Calosco, ere, calui, — , 281. 

('alleo, C're, ui, — , 2tj7. 

Calveo, Ore, — , 2(18. 

Ciuuleo, Ore, ui, — , 2G'7. 

Cfiiico, Ore, — , 2('»8. 

Cmuo, ere, eficiei, cantum, 280. 

(Mpesso, 6re ivi, itum, 27(\. III. 

CVipio, Ore, cO[ , captiiin, 214, 270. 

Carpo, 6re, si, tuni, 273. 

Caveo, Ore, cfivi, eaututn, 270. 

Cedo, fii-e, ecrisi, ccsdum, 273. III. 

COdo, de/., 21)7. 

Cello, obs. Sec cxccllo, 270. II. 

Conseo, Ore, ui, censum, 2()(>. III. 

Cerno, ere, crcvi, cretuni, 270. II. 

Cieo, ere, eivi, citum, 209. 1. 

Ciiigo, 6re, cinxi, cinetum, 27o. 

Circum-sisto. See sisio, 280. 

(/laufijo, 6re, — , 275. 

Claudo, Ore, elausi, clausum, 273. HI. 

Claudo, Ore {to be lame), — , 275. 

Co-alesco, Ore, ului, sllltum, 281. 

Co-arguo. See argico, 273. 

Coeno, 202. 2. 

Coepi, def., 297. 

Cognosco. See noaco, 277. 

COgo, ere, coOgi, coactum. See ago, 

279. 
Col-lldo. See laedo, 273. III. 
Col-llgo. See lego, 279. 
Col-lQceo. See liiceo, 269. 
Colo, Ore, ui, cultum, 270. IL 
Com-cHlo. See cdo, 291. 
Comimuiscor, i, commcntus sura, 

282. 
Com-moveo. See moveo, 270. 
Como, Ore, compsi, comptum, 273. 
Com-parco (perco). See parco, 280. 
CompSrio, Ire, pOri, pcrtum, 284. 
Corapesco, Ore, pescui, — , 276. II. 
Com-pingo. EQcpango^ 280. 



Com-plector, i, plexus sum, 282. 
Coin-pleo, Ore, Ovi, Otuni, 200. 
Com-priino. See />/'r//jo, 273. III. 
Corii-puugo, Ore, puuxi, puiicliuu. 

See puiigo, 280. 
('on-eldo. See cudo, 280. 
Coa-eidn. See cttrdo, 2S(». 
Con-eiuo, See rdno, 2S0. 
Cou-elndo. Sec claudo, 273. ITT. 
Coii-ei'ipisco, 6re, cupivi, ciipituni, 

281. 
Coii-efitio. See t/tedih, 273. III. 
Cou-do. Si'c ahdo, 280. 
Cjii-ftneio. See/(i)*cio, 284. 
Con-ficio. See/aeio, 279. 
Conlit, dr/., 297. 
Con-t'iteor. Sec/5/ror, 272. 
Cou-friugo. i^ecfraiigo, 279. 
Congruo, Ore, i, — , 274. 
Coiuilveo, Ore, luvi, nixi, — , 209. 
Cou%s6ro. Sec svro, 270. II. 
Cou-i«i><t,o. See slutr, 2S0. 
Con-spTcio, ere, 8pcxi, spcetnin, 'Ivj. 
Cou-stltuo. See stuliio, 273. IL 
Con-sto. See sto, 204. 
Cousillo, fire, ui, turn, 270. II. 
Con-temno. Hcc tcnino, 275. 
Cou-texo. See tcxo, 270. 
Con-tiugo. See tango, 280. 
Cou-Villesco, 6re, vjllui, vrditum, 281. 
Cufiuo, Ore, coxi, coctuin, 273. II. 
Cor-ripio. See riipio, 270. 
Cor-ruo. See ruo, 273. 
CreI)reseo, ere, crObrui, — , 281. 
Credo, Ore, credldi, eredituin, 280. 
CrOpo, are, ui, Itum, 202. 
Creseo, Ore, erOvi, crGtum, 270. II. 
Crd)o, are, ui, itum, 202. 
Cudo, Ore, cudl, cusura, 273. III. 
Cumbo. See acciembo, 270. 
Cupio, fire, ivi, itum, 249, 270. 
Curi'O, Ore, cucnrri, cursum, 280. 

D. 

DOcorpo, Ore, si, turn, 278. I. 1. 
Dficet, impcrs., 299. 
De-do. See abdo, 280. 
Do-fendo, fire, i, fensum, 273. III. 
DO-fOtiseor. c^ae /utlsco7', 282. 
Defit, def., 297. 

Dego, Ore, dOgi. See dgo, 279. 
Deleo, Ore, Ovi, Otam, 200. 



(!■ 



!il 



I , vjl 



r t 



n 



330 



INDEX OF VERBS. 



Dt-'-lTRO. Pec Ivtjo, 270. 
Do-iutco. See mico^ 202. 
Drino, 6io, dcriipsi, dfinptuin, 27-'). 
Dc'-paii^^o. ^^^Ki panyoy 2Hi>. 
l)r!-|niino. Sec /vrtmo, 273. III. 
i)ep.s(), eie, ui, Uuiii, ttiin, 27t'i. II. 
l)e-seendo. See Hcando^ 27o. III. 
De-silio. See salioy 284. 
DO-sipio. See Hdpio^ 27t». III. 
De-teiulu. See tcndo^ 2. SO. 
De-tliieo. See tcnco^ 2t)(>. 
De-veitor. Sec vcrto^ 27.1. III. 
Dieo, ere, dixi, dictum, 273, 237. 
Dil-leio. Sec /cro, 21)2. 
Di^'-noseo. Sec nosco, 277. 
I)i-li;,'(). Sec %o, 27'.>. 
Diuiico, See mico^ 2(>2. 
Di-rigo, ere, rexi, rectum, 273. T. 1. 
DLseo, Ore, didiei, — , 280. 
Dis-crepo. Sec crtpo, 202. 
Dis-cuinbo. Sec accumbo, 270. 
Dis-pertlor. Hqq parlior, 280. 
I)is-plicco. i>co placeOy 200. 
DLs-sIdeo. Sec scdeo, 270. 
l)i-.stiuguo. Sec stlnguo, 275. 
I)i-sto. See sto, 204. 
Ditesco, ere, — , 281. 
Divido, ere, visi, visum, 273. III. 
Do, dilrc, dedi, diitum, 2()4, 
Dueeo, ere, ui, tuui, 200. III. 
Doino, fire, ui, itum, 202. 
Duco, ere, duxi, ctum, 273, 237. 
Dulccsco, ere, — , 281. 
Durcseo, fire, durui, — , 281. 



E. 



Edo, ere, Cdi, csum, 279, 201. 
E-do, ere, odidi, cdituui, 280. 
Egco, ere, ui, — , 207. 
Elicio, t're, ui, itura, 270. II. 
E-ligo. See %o, 270. 
Emico. See mXco, 202. 
Emineo, ere, ui, — , 207. 
Emo, ere, erai, cmptum, 270. 
Enfico, are, ui, turn, 202, 
Eo, ire, ivi, itum, 205. 
Esiirio, Ire, — , itum, 283. 
E-vado, ere, vfisi, vasura, 273, III. 
Evuuesco, ere, cvfinui, — , 281. 
Ex-ardeseo, ere, arsi, arsum, 281. 
Excello, ere, ui (rare), — , 27r>. II. 
Ex-cludo. Sec claudo, 273. 111. 



Ex-curro. See ciirro, 280. 
Kx-olt'Sfo. Sec al>i)li:sco^ 273. II. 
Mxpt'dit, imp(rM., !inl. 
Ilxper^^iseor, i, experrectussum, 282. 
Kx-pCrior, iri, pertus num, 280. 
Ex-pleo. Sec coniplco, 200. 
Ex-plico. ^QO pliro, 202. 
Ex-pIOdo. i^wpluiido, 273. III. 
Ex-stiuguo, ere, stiuxi, sUuctuui, 275. 
Ex-sto. See sto, 20 1. 
Ex-tendo. See tnido, 280. 
Ex-tollo. Sec tollo, 280. 



P. 



Facesso, ere, Ivi, i, itum, 270. III. 
Facio, ere, lOei, I'aetuiu, 240, 279, 

237. 
Fallo, *ere, fefelli, falsum, 2S0. 
Fai'cio, ire, I'arrii, iurtum, lurctura, 

284. II. 
Fiiri, def., 207. 
Fateor, eri, fussus pum, 272. 
Fiitiseo ere, — , 281. 3. 
Fittiseur, i, — , 282. 
Faveo, ere, ffivi, fautum, 270. 
Fendo, obs. See dcfciido, 273. 
Ferio, ire, — , 283. 
Fero, ferrc, tidi, latum, 1?92. 
Feroeio, Ire, — , 283. 
FcrvGO, ere, fervi, ferbui, — , 209. 
Fido, ere, fisus siun, 282. 
Figo, Cre, fixi, fixum, 273. III. 
Findo, ere, fidi, fissum, 273. III. 
Fiugo, ere, finxi, fictuui, 273. 
Flo, iifiri, fuctus sum, 204. 
Flfivco, ere, — , 208. 
Flecto, fire, xi, xum, 273. III. 
Fleo, ere, cvi, etum, 200. 
Flurco, ere, ui, — , 207. 
Florcseo, ere, llorui, — , 281. 
Fluo, ere, fluxi, fluxum, 273. III. 
Fodio, ere, fodi, fossum, 240, 279. 
Foetco, Crc, — , 208. 
Forem, dcf., 297. HI. 2. 
Foveo, ere, fovi, fotum, 270. 
Frango, ere, I'regi, fractum, 270. 
FrC'mo, ere, ui, itum, 270. II. 
Frcndo, ere, — , frcssum, friisum, 

273. III. 
Frico, arc, ui, utum, turn, 202. 
J'rigeo, ere, IVixi (rare), — , 269. 
Frondco, ere, ui, — , 207. 



INDEX OF VEUUS. 



2\ii 



Fnior, i, fnu'tus, fruttns sum, 2.S2. 
lM'i;:;i(), vvi\ iu<i\, ruj,'itiiiii, 'J I'.), *J7t'. 
Fukio, iif, i'lil.si, lultuni, 2Sl. 
Ful;;e(,, Ore, lulsi, — , 201). 
Fuliiiii iit imjjrm., :{ui». 
J''iiii(l(), ore, t'Qili, Ifisuin, 270. 
l''un;;or, i, I'linctus sum, 2si». 
l''ui'0, C'lc, ui, — , 2Tl). II. 



G. 

Cannio, Tro, — , 283. 

(Jaudco, ci'c, f^fivlsu.s sum, 2V2. 

(iemo, Ore, ui, itum, 27t;. II. 

(ifiro, 6re, gessi, gestum, 27:5. 

(Jij^no, riv, f^Cuui, };6ultum, 27i'>. II. 

<jlisc(), C're, — , 27 o. 

Gnulior, i, j^ressus sum, 21!), 262. 

(iriiudcsco, ere, — , 2Sl. 

(iiiuidiuut, ittipcrn., ;>i»U. 

(Inivcrico, eie, — , 281. 



II. 

Ilacroo, Ore, luio.«i, liaosum, 2(V.). 
llaurio. Ire, liausi, hauatum, Iiaustu- 

rus, hausurus, 281. 
IIel)eo, Cre, — , 208. 
Ilisco, ere, — , 275. 
Ilorreo, ere, ui, — , 2G7. 
Ilortor, 222. 
lluuioo, ere, — , 2G3. 



I. 



Ico, ero, lei, ictum, 273. II. 

Illleio, ere, lexi, lectum, 219, 273. 

I. 1. 
Il-lI(lo. Sec laedo, 273. III. 
Iinbuo, fire, ui, utum, 273. II. 
Immineo, Ore, — , 268. 
Im-parco. Seo. parco, 280. 
Im-pertior. 8ee part/or, 280. 
Im-I)in<i;o. i^cc panffo, 280. 
In-cemlo. Fee accendo, 273. 
lucesso, ere, Ivi, i, — , 270. III. 
In-cido. See cddo, 280. 
In-eldo. See cacdo, 280. 
In-crepo. See ov/w, 202. 
In-cresco. See crcsco, 27 G. II. 
lu-cumbo. See accumbo, 270. 



Tn-eutio. Reo <jiuit(io, 273. III. 
Iud-ij.'f(>, Ore, ui, — . See f>fio, 207. 
lud-ipiscor. See upiHcor^ 282. 
lu-do. See ahdo, 28(i. 
Indid;,M'0, Ore, tluisi, dultuui, 20'.). 
lucptio, ire, — , 283. 
luHl, dif., 2'.»7. 
Iii;;ru(),'6re, i, _, 'J7|. 
lu-Motosco, i^re, notui, 281. 
lu-tdeseo. See uhiiUiico^ 27t). 
Iu(|u:iiu, <A/., 2117. 
Iu-sidet>. ':^\:{i nidtn^ 270, 
lii-spic-io, ere, spcxi, speclum, 219. 
In-sto. See n(n, 201. 
lutel-lff^o. Sec /(V/rt, 270. 
Interest, ii»j)ii:i., 301. 
luter-uosco. See tiosro, 277. 
luvCterasco, fre, riVvi, rfituiu, 270. 
Iiiif 



eor, I, 



2H2. 



Ir-ruo. See rwo, 273. 



J. 

JiK'lo, ere, jcei, jaetum, 210, 279. 
ilulieo, Ore, jussi, jussuru. 209. 
Juro, 2()2. 2. 
tluvOne.seo, fire, — , 281. 
Juvo, fire, juvi, jfitum, 203, 



L. 



Labor, i, lapsus sum, 282. 

Laeesso, ere, Ivi. i(um, 27t'>. III. 

Lueio, obn. See alhclo, 273. I. 2. 

Laeteo, Ore, — , 208. 

Laedo, Ore, laesi, laestmi, 273. III. 

Lambo, Ore, i, — , 27 1. 

Lan;!;ueo, Ore, i, — , 200. 

Lapidat, iwpers., SOO. 

Largior, hi, itus sum, 280. 

Lateo, ere, ui, — , 2(57. 

Lavo, ere, lavi, lautum, lotuin, lava- 

tum, 203. 
L6go, Ore, legi, lectum, 270. 
Libet, hnpcrs., 200. 
LTeeor, Gri, itus sura, 272. 
Liect, inipcrs., 200. 
Lino, ere, llvi, lovi, lltum, 270. II. 
LiiKluo, ere, lujui, — , 270. 
LTqueo, Ore, Inpii (llcui), 200. 
Llijuct, impcrs.^ 200. 
Luiuor, i, — , 282. 



i 

^1 









332 



INDEX OP VERnS. 



Livoo, fTO, — , 2fi8. 
I/H|uur, i, Incutus .mim, 282. 
Lricco, r-ro, liixi, — , 2t)'J. 
Lficosi'it, iniprrs., 31 H). 
Lfido, oir, iQsi, liisuin, 273. III. 
lifi-^co, Ore, luxi, — , 20'.). 
Luo, r-iv, lui, — , 271. 

M. 

Macrosco, rro, inacnii, — , 281. 

MAdfo, r-ro, ui, — , 207. 

llildc'sco, 6 IV, niiuliii, — ,281. 

Mac'iTO, ("re, — , 2t)8. 

il.'ilo, iiiallc, iiialui, — , 20.3. 

MaiKlo, Pre, i, inanstim, 27.'5. III. 

M.liR'o, rro, inaiisi, inaii.suni, 2t'»'.). 

MatriiTSco, c're, lufitrirui, — , 281. 

IMt'deor, Ori, — , 272. 

Jlr-iiuiii, (frf., 21)7. 

Wcntior, hi, itiis .sum, 2St>. 

Mi'iiior, Ori, itus sum, 272. 

MtM<;o, (ire, inersi, mersuin, 273. III. 

M("!li(jr, ill, incusus sum, 28(>. 

Mt5to, ere, mcssui, inosdum, 270. II. 

Jlfituo, ("'re, ui, — , 274. 

Allco, are, ui, — , 202. 

Miiiirtcor, obs. iieo coinm''inisco)', 
2S2. 

Minuo, fire, ui, fitum, 273. II. 

Misceo, Cm'O, mi.scui, luLstum, mix- 
turn, 200. III. 

MMfoor, erl, itus or tuspum, 272. 

MlsC'ict, inipers., 299. 

Mitcseo, ere, — , 281. 

Mitto, ere, mLsi, missum, 273. III. 

Molior, hi, Itus sum, 280. 

Mollesco, ere, — , 281. 

Molo, 6re, ui, ituin, 270. II. 
_ M(')neo, Ore, ui, itum, parad.^ 207. 

Mordeo, ("re, mouiordi, morsum, 271. 

Morior, i (h-i), mortuua sum, 2-49, 
282. 

M('')voo, ere, movi, m("»tum, 270. 

Muleeo, ere, mulsi, mulsum, 209. 

Mulgco, ere, mulsi, mulsum, 209. 

N. 

Nanciscor, i, nactus sum, 282. 
Nascor, i, natus sum, 282. 
Necto, ere, ncxi, ncxui, ncxum, 273. 
III. 



Nec-lT;^o,' ("'ro, loxi, lectum. See 

/r//o, 279. 
Neo, ere, nCjvi, nrtum, 200. 
N(Mlue(), h-e, ivi, hinu, 290. 
Ni^re.seo, iSiv, iii;,Mui, — , 2.S1. 
Niii^^'o, (5re, ninxi, — , 271. 
Nitet), ("re, ui, — , 2t)7. 
Nitor, i, iiisus, uixus .'^um, 282. 
N(')l(), nc'ie, iiOlui, — , 29;{. 
Noseo, Cre, n(jvi, notum, 277. 
Nfibo, Cre, uupsi, miplutn, 273. 
Nuo, ohs. See annuo, 274. 
Nuplurio, he, ivi, — , 283. 2. 

0. 

Ob-do. See abdo 280. 
Olj-dormisco, 6re, dormlvi, dorml- 

tum, 281. 
Ohliviseor, i, oblitus suin, 282. 
()l)-niuterico, Cre, nmtui, — ,281, 
()b-sideo. Sec sijdco, 270. 
()l)-S(')lesco. See abulescOy 270. 
Ob-sto. See sto, 204. 
Ob-surdeseo, ere, surdui, — , 281. 
()!)-tTneo. See tcnco, 200. 
Oe eldo. Sec cudo, 280. 
Oc-eldo. See caedo, 280. 
Oe-ciuo. See cano, 280. 
Oc-elpio. Sec ctipio, 279. 
Occulo, ("re, ui, turn, 270. II. 
Odi, drf.y 297. 

Of-lendo. Sec drfcndo, 278. III. 
Oleo, ere, ui, — , 207. 
Olesco, obsolete. Sec ubolcsco, 276. 

11. 
Opfirio, Ire, ui, turn, 284. 
Oportet, impcrs.y 299. 
()p-p6rior, iri, pcrtus, perltus sum, 

280. 
Ordior, hi, orsus sum, 280. 
Orior, iri, ortus sum, 28(5. 
Os-tendo. See tendo, 280. 
Ovat, (/</., 297. 

« 

P. 

Paciscor, i, pactus sum, 282. 

Palleo, ere, ui, — , 207. 

Pando, 6re, i, pansum, passum, 273. 

III. 
Pango, ere, pSpTgi, pactum, 280. 
Pango, 6re. pauxi, pegi, panctum, 

pactum, 280. 



I'a 



P 



fi 



I 



G. 



INDKX OF VKUIW. 



333 



I*arco, dvc, popcrci (parsi), parsuin, 

2SI). 
Pitrio, vro, pt^pi^i i, partnni, 2 10, 280. 
I'lutior, iri, itiis sum, 28i}. 
I'iirtuiio, Ire, ivi, — , 2n;{. 2. 
Tiisi-o, riT, pilvi, pastum, 2711. 
I'iUco, Oif, iii, — , 207. 
rritior, i, piissus 8um, 22r., 21 1), 282. 
IMvoo, Oi'c, pavi, — , 27' >. 
IV"'t(), ("re, xi, xiiin, 27;'.. III. 
IVI-licio, 6re, loxi, IltIuiii, 2111, 27''5. 

I. 2. 
IVUo, ('ro, prpuli, pulsuin, 280. 
I'fiulco, Ore, pt-'pemli, peii.suin, 271. 
I'eiido, ere, pr-pemli, perisiiri), 280. 
Per-eello. See exccllo, 27t». II. 
rer-censeo. See ccnaeo^ 20(». 
Per-do, Cre, didi, dituiu. fc5ec abilo, 

280. 
Pergo {for pcr-rtgo), 5rc, per-rc.\i, 

per-reetuin. See rigo, 273. 
Per-pt'itior. ^ca pdtior^ 282. 
Per-sto. Sec nto, 204. 
Pcr-tineo. See tenco, 200. 
]*essuin-do. See do, 204. 
Peto, 6re, ivi, ituni, 270. III. 
l'i;;et, iinpcrs., 201). 
Pingo, ere, pliixi, piettini, 273. 
Pinguesco, 6re, — , 281. 
Pinso (piso), 6\v, i, ui, pitisltum, pis- 

tiiiri, pliisuin, 273. III. 
Plaudo, ere,.>-i, sum, 273. III. 
Plecto, 6re, xi, \um, 273. 111. 
Pleetor, not used as Dcp. Sec am- 

plcdor, 282. 
Pleo, obsolete. Seo compJeo, 200. 
Plico, are, fivi, ui, fitum, Itum, 202. 
Pluo, ere, i or vi, — , 274. 
Pocnitet, impcrs., 291). 
Polleo, ere, — , 208. 
Polliceor, Cri, itus sum, 27'2. 
POno, ere, posui, posltuni, 270. II. 
Posco, 6re, poposei, — , 280. 
Pos-sidco. See scdco, 270. 
Possum, posse, potui, — , 289. 
Potior, iri, itus sum, 280. 
Poto, are, uvi atum, uin, 202. 1, 2. 
Prae-elno. See cCmo, 280. 
Prae-eurro. Sec curro, 280. 
Prae-sideo. Sec mho, 270. 
Prae-sto. See sto, 204. 
Prac-vertor. Sec vcrto, 273. III. 
Prandeo, ere, i, pransum, 209. 
Prehendo, 6re, i, hcusum, 273. III. 



Prrmo, ("re, prcrvsi, pressum, 273. 

III. 
Pnid-Igo. Seo urjo, 279. 
PmmIo. See afx'h, 280. 
Proficisoor, i, prot'ectus sum, 282. 
Pro-liteor. i^rc fotror, 272. 
Promo, Ore, i)romp.si, piomptum, 

273. 
Pro-sum, prridesse, juofui, — , 290. 
I'rrttfiido. See ti itilo, 2{S0. 
Psallo, 6re, i, — , 274. 
I'udet, iiiiprrs., 2l»9. 
Puera.seo, ere, — , 281. 
Punj^o, Ore, pupugi, i)uuctuni, 280. 



Q. 



Quaero, ere, (luacsivi, ciuacdltum, 

270. III. 
Quaeso, (/./., 297. 
Quatio, Ore, (iuas.-<i, (juassum, 249, 

273. III. 
Queo, ire, Ivi, Ttum, 290. 
(^uOror, i, (piestus sum, 282. 
Quiesco, ere, quiOvi, quiotum, 270. 

II. 



I 



Rado, ere, rasi, rasum, 273. III. 
Kapio, 6re, r;tpui, raptum, 219, 270. 
Raueio, Ire, rausi, rausui^, 284. 
Re-eenseo. Sec cciiseo, ,' -0. 
Rc-erudeseo, Cre, erudui. Si. 
R6(l-arguo. See nryuo, 2V3. 
Red do. See aft(/o, 280. 
Re-foUo. See fallo, 280. 
Rfifero. See/(rro, 202. 
Rofert, impcrs., 301. 
Rego, ere, rexi, rectum, parad., 209, 

273. 
R5-linquo. Sec Unqno, 279. 
RCminirtcor, i, — , 282. 
Renldeo, ere, — , 208. 
Reor, reri, ratus sum, 272. 
Re-])aiigo. Sec />'«///"» -^*^' 
Re-pareo. See />»rt/ro, 2.S<>. 
RO-pOrif), Ire, ju'ri, peitum, 281. 
RO-sideo. See skIio, 27* >. 
Re-slpio. See supio, 270. III. 
Re-sono. Sec sbno, 2()2. 
Re-spcrgo. Sec apnrgo, 273. III. 
Re-tendo. See tcndo, 28<>. 



i 



1 » • I 

1; 



334 



INDEX OF VERBS. 



i 



Re-tmco. Sco tmeo, 2G(\. 
Kr-vertor. Sec verio, 273. III. 
Ku-vivisco, ore, vixi, victum, 281. 
Rideo, C'lo, rlsi, rLsum, 209. 
Rij^eo, Grc, ui, — , 207. 
Rin<,'or, i, — , 282. 
liOdo, fire, ro.si, msiiin, 273. III. 
Runit, hnpcrs.^ 3(tO. 
Rubeo, Ore, ui, — , 2G7. 
Kudo, fire, ivi, ituiu, 270. III. 
liiunpo, ere, I'upi, ruptuni, 279. 
Ruo, ei'C, rui, rutum, ruiturus, 273. 
II. 



S. 



Sa;,MO, iro, — , 283. 

Sulio, Ire, ui (ii), turn, 284. 

Salve, </f/., 297. 

Sancio, ii-e, sanxi, saucitum, sanc- 
tum, 284. 

Sapio, <5re, ivi, ui, — , 249, 27G. 

Sarcio, ire, sarsi, sartiuu, 284. 

Sat-ago. Sec ago, 279. 

Scabo, 6re, scabi, — , 279. 

Scalpo, fire, psi, ptum, 273. 

Scando, Cre, di, sum, 273. III. 

Scateo, ere, — , 208. 

Scindo, 5rc, soldi, scissum, 273. III. 

Sciseo, 6re, scivi, scitum, 281. 

Seco, are, ui, turn, 202. 

Sfideo, ere, sedi, scssura, 270. 

Se-lTgo. See %o, 279. 

Sentio, Ire, sensi, sensura, 284. 

Sepelio, Ire, ivi, scpultum, 283. 

Sf'pio, ire, psi, ptum, 284. 

S6(iuor, i, secutus .«um, 224. 

Sero, ere, sevi, satum, 270. II. 

Sfiro, ere, serui, fortum, 270. II. 

Sido, ere, i, — , 274. 

Sileo, Crc, ui, — , 207. 

Singultio, ire, — , 283. 

Slno, fire, sivi, situm, 270, III, 

Sisto, ere, stiti, statum, 280. 

Srtio, ire, Ivi, — , 283. 

Soleo, ere, solitus sum, 272. 

Solvo, ere, solvi, solutum, 273. II. 

Smio, are, ui, itum, 202. 

Sorbeo, ere, ui, — , 207. 

Sordeo, ere, ui, — , 207. 

Sortior, iri, itus sum, 280. 

Spargo, Cre, sparsi, sparsuui, 273. 
111. 



Spficio, ola. See aspteio. 

Sperno, ere, Bprevi, spretum, 276. 

Splendco, C-re, ui, — , 207. 
Spoudeo, Ore, spupoudi, spousura, 

271. 
Sfiualeo, ere, — , 208. 
Statuo, ere, ui, utum, 273. II. 
Sterno, ere, stravi, stratum, 270. 
Sternuo, 6re, i, — , 274. 
Sterto, 6ro, ui, — , 270. II. 
Stinguo, ere, — , 275. 
Sto, are, stfiti, .statum, 201. 
Strepo, 6re, ui, Itum, 27<'). II. 
Stridco, ere, stridi, — , 209. 
Strido, ere, i, — , 274. 
Struo, ere, struxi, structum, 273. II, 
Studeo, ere, ui, — , 207. 
Stupeo, ere, ui, — , 207. 
Suadeo, ere, si, sum, 209. 
Sub-do, ere, dldi, ditura, 280. 
Sub-igo. Sec (iffo, 279. 
Sub-sUio. Sec sd//o, 284. 
Suc-eedo. See cCdo, 273. 
Sue-ecndo. See acccndo, 273. 
Suc-ceusco. Sec ccnsro, 200. 
Suc-eldo. See ctido, 280. 
Suc-cido. See caedo, 280. 
Sue-eresco. See crcsco, 270. IT. 
Sueseo, ere, suGvi, suOtura, 270. II. 
Suf-fcro. Sec /tro, 292. 
Sul-flcio. Soe/<7r?o, 279. 
Suf-lodio. See/cif/<o, 279. 
Sug-gfiro. See ffero, 273. 
Sum, esse, fui, — , 204. 
Sfano, ere, psi, ptum, 273. 
Supevbio, ire, — , 283. 
Sup-pono. See/»'>«o, 270. 
Surgo {for sur-rTgo), ere, sur-rcxi, 

sur-rectum. See rcgo, 273. 



T. 



Tacdet, impcrs., 299. 

Tango, ere, tetlgi, tactum, 280. 

T inno, <ire, — , 275. 

Teiido, 6vc, teteudi, tcntum, tciLSum, 

280. 
Teneo, ere, ui, turn, 200. III. 
Tfipeseo, 6re, tepui, — , 28 L 
Tergeo, ere, tersi, tersuni, 209, 
Tergo, ere, tersi, tersura, 273. III. 
Tero, 6re, trivi, tritura, 270. III. 



INDEX OF VEliliS. 



335 



Tcxo, ero, ui, turn, 2^0. II. 
Tinit'O, T'lc, ui, — , 207. 
ToUo, C'lv, Hustuli, sublatum, 280. 
Tondeo, ere, tutondi, tonsuin, 271. 
Tuno, are, ui, ituin, 2(12. 
Torpeo, ere, ui, — , liG7. 
Toi(iueo, ere, torsi, tortum, 200. 
Torreo, Ore, torvui, tostuni, 200. III. 
Trado. See abdo, 280. 
Traho, ere, traxi, traetuni, 278. 
Tremo, eic, ui, — , 27<'). II. 
Trihuo, ere, ui, fituni, 273. II. 
Trudo, ere, trfusi, trusum, 273. III. 
Tueor, eri, tuitus sum, 272. 
Tumeo, ere, ui, — , 207. 
Tundo, ere, tutiidi, tunsum, tubuui, 

280. 
Tuor, for lucor^ 272. 
Turgeo, ere, tur.si {rare), — , 200. 
Tussio, ire, — , 283. 

U. 

Ulci.scor, i, ultus sum, 282. 
Urgco, ere, ursi, — , 20:). 
Uro, ere, u.ssi, ustura, 273. 
Utor, i, usus sum, 282. 



Vado, 6re, — , 275. 
Vflgio, ire, ivi, — , 283. 



".72. 



iir. 



Vegeo, ere, — , 208. 

Velio, ere, vexi, vectum, 273. 

Velio, (^re, velli (vultii)^ vulsuni, 273. 

III. 
Veiido, ere, dldi, ditum, 280. 
VOu-eo. See To, 205. 
Venio, ire, veni, ventum, 285. 
Venum-do. See (/o, 201. 
Vereor, eri, veritus t-uni, 223, 
Vergo, ere, — , 275. 
Verro, ere, verri, versum, 27 
Verto, ere, ti, sum, 273. 111. 
Vertor. See divcrtor, 273. 111. 
Veseor, i, — , 2^2. 
Vesp6raseit, hnjHrs., 300. 
Veteraseo, fire, riivi, — , 270. 
Vito, are, ui, ituui, 202. 
Video, ere, vidi, vl.<^uiii, 270. 
Vieo, €rc, — , C'luni, 200. I. 2- 
Vigeo, ere, ui, — , 207. 
Vilcseo, ere, vilui, — , 2S1. 
Vineio, ire, viiixi, vinetwin, 284. 
Vinco, ere, viei, victual, 270. 
Vireo, ere, ui, — , 207. 
Vircseo, ere, virui, — , 281. 
Viso, ere, i, um, 273. III. 
Vivo, 6re, vixi, vietum, 273. 
Volo, velle, volui, — , 203. 
Volvo, ere, volvi, vulutura, 27»'i> II. 
Vomo, ere, ui, itum, 270. II. 
Voveo, ere, vGvi, vOluni, 270. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Note.— The numbers rofor to articlefi, not to pages. Constr. = construction, w. 
= with, J\ = anil the followinjj, coinpds. = compounds, gen. or ge}iit. = genitive, 
gejiil. = gentler, ace. or accus. — accusative, aecs. — accusatives, adjs^ = adjectives, 
preps. — prepositions, etc. 

It has not been tliought advisable to overload this index, with such separate 
words as may be readily referred to chisscs, or to general rules, or even with such ex- 
ceptions as may be readily found under their respective heads. Accordingly the nu- 
merous exceptions in Dec. III. in the formation of the genitive and in gender, are not 
inserted, as they may bo best found under the respective endings, 55-115. 



A SOUND of, 6 if., 14. Nouns in 
*) a,— of 1st dec, 42; of 3d 
dec, 48; genitive of, 58; gen- 
der, 111; derivatives in a, 320, 
6. A, in nom., accus., voc. plur., 
88 ; in ace. sinj;., 93 ; chanf:;ed in 
conipds., 341, 3. A., quantity of, 
— final, CI 5 ; in increments of 
doc, 033; ofconj., G40. 

A, ab^ o6s, in compds., 338, 1 ; in 
conipds., w, dat., 38(5, 2. A, ab, 
abs, w. abl., 434, of agent, 388, 1, 
in personification, 414, G. 

Abbreviations, Vli>. 

Abhinc, 427. 

Ablative, formation of, — in 1st dec, 
42, 3 ; in 3d dec, 87, 90, »7; in 
4th dec, IKi, 4 ; in adjs., 156. 

Ablative, syntax of, 412-437. Of 
cause, manner, means, 414 ; agent, 
accompaniment, 414, 5 and 7. 
Of price, 410. W. comparatives, 
417. Of diller., 418. In special 
fonstrs., 410; 385, 5; 38(5, 2; 
431, 2; 411, 3. Of place, 42(> IK 
Uf source, 425. Of time, 42(5. Of 
cliarac,428. Ofspeoificition, 42'.>. 
Abl. absol., 43 1 ; w. ijidfif/w, 13 1 , (5. 
W. preps., 432 ff. Of gerunds, 
etc., 5G(5. Of supine, 570. 

Absolute, ablative, 430 If. ; infinitive 
or clause, 431, 4. 



Absque, w. abl., 434. 

Abstinco, w. ace. and abl., 425, 2 ; 
w. gen., 409, 4. 

Abstract nouns, 31 ; from adjs., 319 ; 
from verbs, 321, 2. 

Abunde, w. gen., 39G, III. 4). 

-abus, for /*, in 1st dec, 42, 3. 

Ac, for quam, 417, 4. Ac si, w. 
subj., 503, 506. 

Acatalectic verse, GG3, III. 1. 

AccCdit, constr., 556, II. 1. 

Accentuation, 25 ff. 

Accid'U, constr., 550, IT, 

Accingo, constr., 374, 7. 

Accompaniment, abl. of, 414, 7. 

Accomplishing, constr. of verbs of, 
558, IV. 

Accusative, formation of, — in 1st 
dec, 42, 3 ; in 2d dec, 45 ; 46, 
3 ; in 3d dec, 85, 88, 98 ; in ad- 
jectives, 157. 

Accusative, syntax of, 370-381. — 
Direct object, 371 ff. ; cognate, 
371, 1, 3); w. other cases, 371, 
2 ; w. conipds., 371, 4 ; w. verbal 
adjs. and nouns, 371, 7. Two 
aces., 373 ff. ; other constrs. for, 
37 1, 3 ; infill, or clause, 374, 4 ; 
jioetic ace, 374, 7. Subj. of infin., 
375. Agreement, 370. Adver- 
bial ace, 377 If. Ace of time 
and space, 378. Of limit, 379, 



II >' 

I I 



I (i 



INDKX OF SU15JECTS. 



337 



JS of, 



51.— 
|;nato, 

n7i, 

Icibal 

Two 

for, 

, t; 

[ifin., 

Ivcr- 

Itime 

1379, 



poetic dat. for, 379, 5. Of speci- 
fication, 380. In cxclam., 381. 
W. preps., 482 ff. Of gerundrt 
and gerundives, 505. Of supijie, 
509. 

Accusing and acquitting, con.str. of 
verbs of, 410. 

Aceplialous verse, 003, III. 

-aceus, adjs. in, 321. 

Active voice, 195. Act. antl puss, 
constr., 405. 

Ad, in con)pd.s., 838, 1 ; in compel.^. 
w. two aces., 374, ; w. dat., 380. 
Ad, w. ace, 433. 

-ades, in patronymics, 310 ; quanti- 
ty, 640, 1. 

Ad'huc locornm, 300, 9, i) (4). 

Adipiscor, w. gen., \h^, 3, 

Adjective, — Decl. of, 147 If. Forma- 
tion of cases, 154 If., irrcg., 159. 
Compari.son, 100 If. Numerals, 
172 If. ; decl. of, 175 ff. Deriva- 
tion, 322 If. Comp., 340. W. 
dat., 391. W. gen. 390, III. 2: 
399. W. abl., 414, 4l9. Agree- 
ment, 438 ff. W. the force of 
nouns, clauses, adverbs, 441 if. 
Use of comparison, 444. 

Admiscco, w. dat., 385, 5. 

Admunco, constr., 410, 3, 

Admonishing, constr. of verljs of, 
410. 

u4ffo/<?sccn^, compared, 108, 3. 

Adonic verse, 077, III. 

Adulor, w. ace. or dat., 885, 3. 

Advantage, dat of, ;!85. 

Adverbial ace, 377. 

Adverbs, — Numeral, 181. Classes 
of, 304. Corapar., 305. Deriva- 
tion, 333 ff. Composition, 342. 
For adjs., 352, 4. W. dat, 892. 
W. gen., 390, III. 4). As preps., 
437. Use, 582; w. nouns, 583. 
Negative.'?, iion, nc, hand, 584, two 
negatives, 585. 

Adver.sat(ve conj.^., 310; 587, III. 

Adversative sentence, 300. 

AdversuH, w. accus., 433. 

Advising, constr. of verbs of, 558, 
VI. 

Ae, sound of, 9, 15; changed to I, 
841, 3. 

Aedes, sing, and plur., 132. 

Acgcr, w. gen., 399, 3. 

16 



Acmulm, w. gen. or dat., 399, 2, 
2). 

Arnms, decl. of, 43. 

Avqui bold fnccre, 402, 3. 

Air, aether, ace. of, 93, 1, quantity 
of, 021, 3. 

-aeus, atljs. in, 320. 

Ajfailm, \v. gen., 390, TIT. !). 

y(///Vv<>, w. al)I. 414, 1, I). 

AjjinlK, w. gen., 399, (3). 

Age, e.\pre.s.sion of, 417, 3. 

Agent, — \h\. of, w. a or ab, 388, 1 ; 
Dat of, 388. 

Agreement, — Of Pred. Noun, 302 ; 
in gend. and nur'b., 302, 1. Of 
Appositive, 308, in gend. and 
numb., 303, 1. Of Adject., 438 ; 
w. clause, 438, 3 ; constr. accord, 
to sense, 438, ; \\. pred. noun or 
appositive, 438, 7 ; w. two nouns, 
439 ; 439, 2 ; w. part gen. 390, 
2, 8). Of Pronouns, 445; w. 
two antecedents, 445, 8 ; w. pred. 
noun orappositive, 44.'), 4 ; constr. 
accord, to sense, 445, 5 ; w. clause, 
445, 7. Of Verb, 400 ; constr. ac- 
cord, to sense, 401 ; agreement w. 
Ajipos. or Pred. noun, 402 ; w. 
comp. subject, 403. 

-ai, for ac, 42, 3; quant, of, 012, 1. 

-al, gen. and abl. of nouns in, 04, 87, 
Sl». 

Alcaic verse, 001 ; 091, II. ; greater, 
092 ; stanza, 700, I. 

Alknns, w. dat., 391, 1 ; w. abl., 
3'.)1, 2, 3); w. gen., 399, 3. 

AUquantus, altqu'iH, aliquot, 191 ; 
use o{ aliqtiis, 455. 

-alls, adjs. in, 325. 

Alius,— Ttcci 149. Indef. 191, 2; 
■w. abl., 417, 5; w. atque, ac, or 
ct, 459, 2. Alius — alius, 459 ; 
alius — alium, w. plur. verb, 401, 3. 

Alphabet, 2 ff. 

Alter,— VqvI 149. Indef, 191,2; 
altrrutrr, I'M, 2 ; alter — alter, 
459; alter — alter um, w. plur. veib, 
401, 3. 

Altereor, w. dat., 385, 5. 

Alvus, gender of, 47. 

Ambi, amb., 338, 2. 

Ambo, decl. of, 170, 2. 

Amphora, 710. 

Amplius without quam, 417, 3. 



i 



338 



INDKX OF SUIJJECl'S. 



■ I 



I i 



An, annon, niti, 11. 2; 520, 2, 2). 

Anacolutlion, 7()-l, III. 4. 

Anapaestic voihp, 078. 

Anaphora, Y(i4, II. 3. 

Aiiastroplie, 704, IV. 1. 

Animi, constr., aOl), i\. 4). 

Ante, in compels., yjiS, 1 ; w. dat., 
yso. Ante, in expressions of time, 
427 ; w. ace., 4;i3. 

Antecedent, use of tcrni, 445, 1 ; 
omitted, 445, ; attracted, 445, 9. 
Clause as antecedent, 445, 7. 

Antcquam, w. indie, or subj., 523. 

Antimeria, 704, III. 1. 

Antithesis, 7 03, 8. 

-anus, adjs. in, 8:i5 fi*. 

Anxius, w. gen., oU'J, 3. 

Aphaeresis, 7 03, 1. 

Apocope, 703, 8. 

Aposiopesis, 704, I. 8. 

Appendix, 702-720. 

Appositivc, — Agreement of, 863 ; in 
gend. and niunb., 803, 1. Subject 
omitted, 803, 2. Force of, 303, 3. 

Aptus, w. dat., 8'.)1, 1 ; opt^s qui, w. 
subj., 501, III. 

Apud, w. accus., 433. 

-ar, gen. and abl. of nouns in, CO, 
87, 89. 

Arcco, w. dat., 885, 4. 

Archilochiaii verse, 004; 07 7, II.; 
greater, 091, I. 

Arenac, gen. of jdace, 424, 3. 

-arts, adjs. in, 825. 

Aristophanie, 091, III. 

-arium, nouns in, 817. 

-arius, nouns in, 318 ; adjs. in, 825. 

Arrangement,— Of Words, 592-602, 
— (ieneral rule.«;, 593 IT. Eifect of 
emphasis and euphony, 594. Con- 
trasted groups, 595. Kindred 
words, 59(». Words with common 
relation, 597. Special rules, 598 
fl". Modifiers of nouns, 598 ; of 
adjs., 599 ; of verbs, (iOO ; of 
adverbs, 60i ; of special words, 
— Demon. Prep. Conjunct. Kel. 
Kon, 002. Ot Clauses, ()03-000, 
— Clause as Subj. or Pred., 003 ; 
ns Subord. element, 004 ; in Latin 
Period, 605 ; \\\ compd. scuteuce, 
606. 

Arsis and thesis, 660. 

As and its divisions, 712. 



-as, nouns in, Ist dec, 48 ; 8d dec, 
50; gciiit. of, 08; gend. of, 105. 

-as, for ac in g(>n., 42, 3; in Greek 
ace. plur., 98; in iiatronymics, 
310; in adjs., 820; (luantitv of, 
623. 

Asclepiadean verse, 089,111.; great- 
er, IV^. 

-asco, inceptivcs in, 382, II. 

Asking, constr. of verbs of, 374 ; 558, 
VI. 

Aspcrgo. constr., 384, 1. 

Aspirated letter.^, 4, 3. 

-asso, assim, in lut. perf. and pcrf. 
subj., 239, 4. 

Asyndeton, 704, I. 1. 

-atim, adverbs in, 384, 2. 

Atqne, lor quam, 417, 4. 

Attraction, of pronomi, 4 ; 5, 4 ; of 
antecedent, 445, 9 ; of i)red. noun 
or adj. after an inliu., 547. Subj. 
by attraction, 527. 

Attributive adj., 488, 2. 

-atus, iiouns in, 818 ; adjs. in, 323. 

An, 9, 15; changed, 341, 3. 

Audio, w. Pred. Noun, 802, 2, (1). 

Audicns, w. two datives, 390, 3. 

Aureus, the coin, 712. 

Autem, place of, 002, III. 

Authority, long or short by, 009, 2. 

Authors, Latin, 706. 

Avidm, w. gen., 899, 2 ; w. dat., 
399, 5; w. ace. and l)r('p., 399, 5. 

-ax, gonit. of nouns in, 77 ; verlials 
in, 828 ; w. gen., 399, 2. 

B CHANGED iop, 248. 
^ Being angry, verbs of, w. dat., 
385. 
Being disi .nt, constr. of verbs of, 

556, in. 

Believing, verbs of, w. dat., 385. 
; Belli, constr., 424, 2. 
I Bene, compared, 305, 2 ; w. verbs of 
I buying, 416, 3. 
' Benefiting, verbs of, w. dat., 885. 

Bibi, quantity of, 051, 2. 
' -bilis, verbals in, 328. 

Bonus, decl, 148; compar., 165; 
! honl constdo, 402, 3. 

Bos, gen. of, 72, 6 ; gen. plur., 89, 
III. ; dat., abl., 90, 2. 

Brachycataleetie, <)03, III. 

Brazen age, 706, III. 



C 
C 

c 
t 
c 



3cl doc, 

of, 105. 

in Grci'k 

Kjiiymic's, 

intity of, 

I. ; grcat- 

T. 

il-i ; 558, 



and pcrf. 



t >, 4 ; of 
red. noun 
17. Subj. 



1. in, 323, 
3. 

2, 2, (1). 
90, 3. 



•, GOO, 2. 

w. (lat., 
3'.)it, n. 
voibaLs 



", w. dat., 
vcrl)S of, 

385. 
vci'b.s of 

, 385. 

r., 105; 
)lur., 89, 



I -: 



INDEX OF SUIJJECTS, 



339 



-brum, nniuis in, 320. 
-bs, {^enit. of nouns in, 75. 
Bucolic eai'sura, (173, 2. 
-bulum, nouns in, 32(i. 
-boadus, verbals in, 328. 

CSOUXD of, 11 ir. Xouns in, 
1 48; gcnit. of, f.3 ; j^^end., 111. 

C, juantity of final syllables in, 021. 

Caesura, caesural pause, 002 ; in 
liexam., 073 If. ; in anapaestic 
verse, G78 ; in trochaic, 08O; in 
iambic, 683, 1V\; 080. 

Calendar, Roman, 7U7. 

Calends, 708, I. 1. 

Calling, verbs of, w. two accg., 373. 

-canus, adjs. in, 320, 2. 

Caput, genit. of, (i7 ; w. verba of 
condenining, 410, 5. 

Ctfbdsus, gend. of, 47. 

Cardinals, 172, 174 ; decl. of, 175 fT. 

Cases, etymology of, — Endings of, 
38, 2; in 1st dec, 42 ; in 2d dec, 
45 ; in 3d dec, 52 ; in 4tli dec, 
110; in 5tl> dec, 119; compara- 
tive view of, 121 ; general end- 
ings, 123. Formation of, in 3d 
dec, — njm, sing., 55 ; gen., 50 ft". ; 
dat., 84; ac-, 85; voc, 80; aid., 
87 ; uom., r :., and voc jdur., 88 ; 
gen., 8'J ; dat. and abl., 90. Greek 
cases, — K 



sing.. 



92 ; ace, 93 ; 



; da.., 382-392; gen., 393- 
; abl., 412-431 ; w. prcposi- 



voc, 94 ; nom. and voc. plur., 
95; gen., 90; dat. and aid., 97 ; 
ace, 98. Cases of adjs. of 3d dec, 
154-158. 

Cases, syntax of, 304-435, — charac- 
terized, 304 ; kindred, 305 ; nom., 
304 IK; voc, 309; accus., 37<)- 
381 
411 
tions, 432-437 

Catalectic verse, CG3, III. 1. 

Causa, gratia, 414, 2, 3). 

Causal C(mjunctions, 310, 311; 587, 
V. ; 588, Vir. 

Causal sentences, 300. 

Cause, abl. of, 414. 

Cause, iLnibj. of, 517-523,— Rule, 
517, 621; w. quum, 618; qui, 
519; qxiod, quia, quoniam, quan- 
do, 520 ; duni, dome, quoad, 522 ; 
antcquam, priusqunm, 523. 

Cause, denoted by part., 578, II. 



Causing, con.str. of verbs of, 558, IV. 

Cave, w. subj. for imperat., 535, 1. 

Cairo, constr., 385, 3. 

-ce, appended, iSti, 1. 

Clio, constr., 374, 2 and 3. 

-cen, compounds in, 339, 2. 

-ceps, genit. of nouns and adjs. 'n, 
75, 1; 155, 3. 

Cirto, w. dat., 385, 5. 

Cerlus, w. gen., 3'.»',t, ('J). 

Ch, 4, 3; .sound of, II, 1. 

Characteristic, gen. of, 390, IV. ; 
abl. of, 428; gen. and abl. distin- 
guished, 42S, 4. 

Choliambu.s, G83, 4. 

Choosing, verbs of, w. two accs., 373. 

Cliorianibic verse, 089 \Y. 

Ciiigo, constr. of, 374, 7. 

-cio, derivatives in, 315, 5. 

Circa, circitcr, w. ace, 433. 

Circuin, in conipds., 338, 1 ; compd.*!. 
w. ace, 871,4; w. two accs., 374, 
6. Circumdo, cir cut iif undo, constr., 
384, 1. Circuin, w. ace, 433. 

Cin, citra, w. ace, 433. 

Citerior, compared, lOG. 

C'duin, quantity of, 051, 3. 

Clam, w. ace. or abl., 437, 3. 

Clauses, as nouns, gender of, 35. 
Prin. and sub. clauses, 345, 1 and 
2. Clause as object, 371, r>; as 
abl. absol., 431, 4; as antecedent, 
445, 7. Indirect (juo <tions, clau.ses 
w. infui., sultj., aiiu tv. quod, com- 
pared, 5L4. Arrangement of, 
6tt3 ff. 

Caelum, plur. cocli, 143, 1. 

Cognate accua., 371, 1. 

Coins, Roman, 712. 

-cola, compounds in, 339, 2. 

Collective noun.s, 31. 

Colus, gender of, 47. 

Com, con for cum, in compds., 338, 
1 ; w. dat., 386. 

Combined olyects, 354, 3. 

Comitor, w. ace. or dat., 385, 3. 

Command, subj. of, 487 fF. Constr. 
of verbs of, 385 ; 558, VI. 

Conuuon nouns, 31; com. quantity, 
23. 

CommoncOy commoncfacio, constr., 
410, 3. 

Communis^ constr., 391, 2, 4); 399, 
3. 



340 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS. 



Commuto, constr. of, 410, 2. 

Comparative t'oiijs., JJll ; 588, II. 

Compaiativo (Ifj^ree, 10(»; wantinp^, 
Ki? ; fornicil by maffin^ 1 70. Coiii- 
parativt'S w. gen., y*.H», 2, 3) (2); 
w. abl., 417; w. quani, 417, 1; w. 
Ibrcc of too, 444, 1 ; bclbrc and 
after qiutrn, 444, 2; w. quaiii and 
the siibj., r>(ll, l\. 

Comparative view, — of docl., 121- 
\'1'6\ of conjugation, 24!} lU 

Comparison, — of adjs., 100; modes 
of, lUl ; terminational, 1(>2 \\\ ; 
irrcg., 103 ft'.; defeet., 100 IK; 
adverbial, 170. Use of, 444; in 
adverbd, 444, 4. 

Complco, constr., 410, 7. 

Complex sentences, 345, 357 ; abridg- 
ed, 358 If. Comp. elements, 350; 
subject, 352 ; predicate, 354. 

Compos^ gcnit. of, 155; w,. gen. or 
abl., 3'jy, (3); 419, III. 

Comjjosition of words, 313, 338 \^. 

Compound nouns, — decl. of, 125 If. ; 
composition of, 33i) ; comp. adjec- 
tives, 340 ; verijs, 341 ; prin. parts 
of, 259 ff. : comp. adverbs, 342. 
Comp. sentences, 345, 300; abridg- 
ed, 301. Comp. subject, predi- 
cate, modifier, 301, 1-3. Com- 
pounds of preps, w. ace, 371, 4 ; 
w. two aces., 374, 0. 

Computation of money, 713. 

Con, sec com. 

Concealing, verbs of, w. two aces., 
374. 

Concedo, constr., 651, II. 2. 

Concession, subj. of, 514 IK; parti- 
ciple, 578, IV. 

Concessive conjunctions, 311; 688, 
IV. 

Condemning, constr. of verbs of, 
410, 5. 

Condition, — conjunctions of, 811, 
688. Subj. of, 502; force of 
tenses, 504 ; w. dum, modo, dum- 
modo, 505 ; ac si, ut si, etc., 500 ; 
*i, wm, etc., 507 fl'. ; si omitted, 
503, 1; condition supjjlied, 5o3, 
2 ; first form, 508 ; second, 509 ; 
third, 510 ; mixed forms, 611, 512. 
Condition in relative clauses, 513; 
in oratio obliqua, 533, 2 and 3 ; 
denoted by participle, 578, III. 



Conditional PC-ntcnccs, 502 ff. 

Confido, w. dat., 385, 1 ; w. a1)l., 
419. 

Conjugation, 201 ff. ; of svm, 204. 
First conj., 205 11"., 201 IK; sec- 
ond, 207 1!., 200 IK ; third, 209 «'., 
273 n:; fourth, 211 IK, 283 IK; 
of verliH in io of the 3d conj., 213. 
rerij)lirastic, 227 IK Contractions 
and peculiarities, 234 iK Com- 
parative view of conj., 243 IK ; one 
general system, 244. Vowel conj., 
278. Coiij. of irrcg. verbs, 287 IK ; 
of defect., 297; of impersonal, 
298 IK 

Conjunctions, 308 ; coordinate, use 
of, 587 ; subordinate, use of, 588. 
Place of, in sentence, 002, III. 

Co7iscius, w. gen., 399, (2); w, abl., 
399, 5 ; w. gen. and dat., 399, 6. 

Conscius mihi sum, constr., 551, 3. 

Consecutive conjunctions, 311, 588. 

Consonants. 3, I. ; double, 4, 2 ; 
sounds of, 10 fK, 10. 

Co7isors, w. gen., 390, (3). 

Condituo, constr., 558, II. 

Consudvdo, consuetuditds esty con- 
str., 556, I. 1. 

Consulo, constr, 385, 3. 

Consultus, w. gen,, 399, (2). 

Co7itent7cs, w. abl., 419, IV. 

Contingit, constr., b7\C<, II. 

Contra, w. accus., 433. 

Contracted syllables, quantity of, GIO. 

Cohtractions, in conj., 234 ff. 

Contrarius, constr., 391, 2, 4). 

Convicting, constr. of verbs of, 
410. 

Coordinate conjunctions, 309. 

Copulative conjunctions, 310, 687. 
Copu.. sentences, 300. 

Coram, w. abl, 434. 

Countries, gender of names of, 35. 

-crum, nouns in, 320. 

Cuicuimodi, 187, 7. 

Cujas, 185, 3; 188, 4. 

Ctijiis, 185, 3; 187, 3; 188, 4; cu- 
jusmodi, mjuscemodi, citjuscum' 
gucinodi, 187, 7 ; ciijusdummodij 
191, 4. 

-culum, nouns in, 320. 

-cuius, cula, culum, nouns in, 315 ; 
adjs. in, 327. 

Cum, appended, IS!, 6; 187, 2; 



1 



Dl 



^■Wih 



INDEX OF SUIUIXTS. 



311 



con- 



cu- 
t-um- 
\odL 



115; 
2; 



(•n»), mm, in coitiikIh., "HS, 1. 

Cum, \v. al)l., 41)1. 
-cundus, vcMl)alrt in, SJ8. 
Vn/irii, omnoi, w. gen., COO, III. 2, 

Ci/jtiihtSy w. pjon., 300, 2. 

CiiplcHU, idiomatic use of dat., ."87, 

CiiptOy constr., 551, II. 1 and 2. 

D DROPPED before .t, 55, ,3; 
^ (luantity of final syllables in, 

021. 
Dactylic v(>iso, 670 ff. Dactylico- 

ianibic, G03. 
Piima, gcnd. of, 41. 
Dales, Lat. and Eng., 710. 
Dative, Ibiniation of, — in Lst dec., 

42, ;} ; in ;^d doc, 81, OO, 07 ; in 

4 til dec, lit), 4 ; in 5tli dec, 110, 

4. 
Dative, syntax of, 0S2-C02,— with 

veil)s, ;;S4 if. Of advant. and dis- 

advant., o.S5. W. conipds., 38t). 

Of possessor, 387. Of agent, 388. 

Ethical dat., 380. Two dat., 300. 

W. adjs., 301. W. nonn? nnd adv., 

302. Of gerunds, etc., 5(>4. W. 

verl)s of riejia:'. 425, 2, 3). 
Dafinn, quantity of, 051, 3, 
l)c, in compels. \v. dat., 380, 2. Dc 

w. abl., 434. 
Deccrvn, constr., 5a8, IT. 
Jhrtpio, \v. gen., 400, 4; 410, V. 
Declarative sentence, 34ti. 
Declaring, constr. of verbs of, 551. 
Declension, 30 ; first, 42 ; second, 

45; third, 48; fourth, 110; sec- 
ond and fourth, 117; fifth, 110. 

Comparative view of decl., 121; 

one general system of decl., 122. 

Decl. of compels., 125. 
Dkli, quantity of, 051, 2. 
Drdocro, constr., 374, 2 and 3. 
Defective nouns, 110, 5; 120*; def. 

adjs., 150; def. comparison, 100; 

deV. verbs, 207. 
Deliberative questions, \v. the sulij., 

480, II. 
Demanding, constr. of verbs of, 374 ; 

558, VI. 
Demonstratives, 180; use of, 450. 
J)<')i(iriiis^ 712. 
De])onent verbs, 221 ; 405, 2. 



Derivation, .",13; of nonns, 314 fV. ; 
of adjs., 322 If.; of vorb.-<, 030 If.; 
of adverbs, 333 If. 

Derivatives, quanfily of, 053; quan- 
tity of deriv. endings, 045 If. 

De-ideratives, 3;;2, 111. 

Jhsiiio^ \v. gen., 4O0, 4. 

Dt'siie, subj. of, 487 If. ; in n.<^scvera- 
tions, 488, 4 ; in rclat. clauses, 
488, 5. 

Desiring, constr. of verbs of, 551. 

iJcsisfo, w. gen., JoO, 4. 

Jj(Sjicro, w. aee., 371, 3. 

lirfcrior, compared, 100. 

Jhtcrrco, constr., 400, 1-2. 

JJcn.t, 45, 0. 

Diaeresis, OOO, III. 

J)iana, (piantitv of, 012, 3. 

Diastole, OCO, \\\ 

Die iov d!rr, 237. 

-dicus, compds. in compared, 104. 

Dilference, abl. of, 418. 

Dilfering, dat. w. verbs of, 385, 4. 

/>(//'(ro, w. dat., 385, 4. 

J)i(ju<)i\ constr., 410, 2. 

JJ'uj ■"!<, constr., 410; diyi'^x, qui, 
y\. sui)j., 5(»1, III. 

Dimeter, 003, 2. 

Diminutive, nouns, 315 ; dim. adjs., 
327; dim. verbs, 3;r2, IV. 

Diphthongs, 4 ; sounds of, ; quan- 
tity of,' 010. 

Dipody, 05(), 2. 

Direct oliject, ;;54', 1; 371. 

])h, di, 338, 2. 

Disadvantage, dat. of, 385, 

JJiscrepo, w. dat., 385, 4. 

Disjunctive conjs., 310; 587; sen- 
tence, 30o. 

Dis/Kir, constr., 301, 2, 4). 

Displeasing, vetbs of, \v. dat., 385. 

DiKHrntlo, w. dat., 385, 4. 

DIsshiii/h, constr., 301, 2, 4). 

Di.>;.><yllabic iierfi'cts and supines, 
quantitv of, 051. 

Distance, abl. of, 378, 2. 

Distich, (iOO. 

J};sfo, w. dat., 385, 4. 



Distributives, 
170. 



I'rs; 



174; dec!, o''. 



J)lti, compared, 305, 4. 
JJius, (piantity of, 012, 3. 
l>irrrsHx, conq)ared, 107. 
Livcx, compared, 105, 2. 






342 



IXDKX OF SLIUIXTS. 



J)occo, const!'., 374, 2 and H. 
J)o/(o, w. accua, 371, 3; w. clause, 

r.r.K, V. ; w. i.l.l., 411, 2, 1). 
JJoi/nis, (led. of, 117; gcud., 118; 

c'onstr., ;i7i», 3; 424, 2. 
Oo/iic, w. indie, or subj., 521 ff. 
J)o)io, constr., 384, 1. 
Double constr. of a few vciby, 384, 1. 
Double consonants*, 3. 
J)i(c lor (luce, 377. 
JJum^ damiiiodo, w. aubj., 503 fT. ; w. 

ind. or subj., 521 ff. 
JJttOy dccl. ol", 17tx 

17 SOUXD of, G, 14. Nouns in 
^j f,— l.st dec., 43 ff. ; 3d dec, 
48, 50; genit. of, 59; 89, 1; abl. 
of, 87, 1 ; gcnd., 111. L' in abl., 
b7; in Greek ace. plur., 98; for 
cl in gen. and dat., 119, 4; /i' in 
adverbs, 335 ; changed to /, 341, 3. 

I'J, quantity of — in ci, 119, 1 ; final, 
010; in increments of dccl., 035; 
of conjugation, 041. 

J'J or f J', sec C.V. 

L\cc with demonstratives, 180, 3; in 
cxclauiations, 307, 3 ; 381, 3, 

JiW/ftis, 188, 3. Ecqnid, 340, II. 2. 

Jidocco, constr., 374, 2 and 3. 

Ju/cnuH, w. geu. or abl., 399, (3); 
'419, III. 

J-'f/eo, constr., 409, 1. 

7iV/o, dccl. of, 184. 

ji'hcu, quantity of; 012, 2. 

El, 9. ^?, quantity of, 012, 2. 

-eis, in patronymics, 310. 

-eius, ([uantity of, 012, 2. 

Ejusmodi, 180, 4. 

-ela, nouns in, 320, 7. 

Elegiac disticli, 070, 2. 

Elegiambus, 093, 1. 

Jiloments of sentences, 347 ff. 

Ellipsis, 704, of /acvV>, oro^ 307, 3 ; 
0U2, II. 3. 

-ellus, ella, ellum, nouus in, 315 ; 
adjs. in, 327. 

-em, in accus., 85, 119. 

Emotion, constr. of verbs of, 551 ; 
658, V. 

Emphasis and euphony in the ar- 
rangement of words, 594. 

^en, nouns in, 51 ; en in (ircck ace, 
93; with demonstratives, 18(), 3; 
in exclamations, 307, 3; 381, 3. 



Enallagp, 704, III. 

Enclitics, accent of, 20, (a); quantity 

of, 013, 1. 
Endeavoring, constr. of verbs of, 

558, III. 
Endings, 41; in 1st dec, 42; in 2'1 

dec, 45, 1 ; in od dec, 52, 2; \i\ 

4lh dec, IKi; in 5th dec, 119; 

in the five decls., 121, 123; iu 

comparison, 102; iu conjugation, 

242. 
English pronunciation of Latin, ft. 
J'Jniin, place of, 002, III. 
-ensis, adjs. in, 325 ff. 
-entior, entLssimus, in comparison, 

104. 
Envying, verbs of, w. dat., 385. 
7i'o,\v. gen., 390, 2, 4). 
Epenthesis, 703, 5. 
Epicene nouns, 3(). 
Epichoriambic verse, 090. 
Epiphora, 704, II. 4. 
Lpilomc, dccl. of, 43. 
L'pidnm, plur., cpidac, 143. 
-er, gend. of nouns in, 47, 1 03. Adjs. 

in, 151; comparisjou of, 103, J. 

Adverbs in, 335. 
-ere, for crunty 235. 
Erc/a, w. ace, 433. 
Efffo, w. gen., 411. 
-emus, adjs. iy, 325, 2. 
-es, nouns in, 50, 119; genitive of, 

09; gender of, 104, 109, 119. cs, 

in nom., ace, and voc plur., 88. 
-es, final, sound of, 8, 1 ; tjuantity of, 

024. 
-esco, inccptives in, 382, II. 
-esso, essim, in fut., perf , and perf. 

subj,, 239, 4. csso, verbs iu, 332. 
-ester, adjs. in, 325, 2. 
-estus, adjs. iu, 323, 3. 
Ethical dative, 389. 
Etiamsiy ctsi, w. subj., 515, 510, 

III. 
-etuih, nouns in, 317. 
Etymology 29-342. 
Euy sound of, 9. 
Euphonic changes, 55, 8 ; before si, 

sum, turn, 248; 257, 1; iu prepo- 
sitions, 338, 1. 
Euphony, sec Emphaais. 
-eus, adjs. in, 324, 320. 
Eroiity constr., 550, II. 
-ex, genit. of nouns iu, 78. 



INDEX 01' sunjiiiri-s. 



343 



i5>, r, In compd:^. w. dat., ysc, 2. 7s>, 

w. abl., lul 
Exi'hanyiug, constr. of verbs of, 410, 

Exclamatory scntc > ?p5«, IMO, IV. ; ac- 
CMS. ill, ^sl ; . •., noin., dat. in, 
381, 13; inlitiii'- in, 50:i, 111. 

Kroro, constr., i ', 2. 

I'Jxpn's^ <j'.vor.s', w, gon., HOP, (r)). 

J'Jxtcrm, compared, lOo, o. 

Ej'tra, \v. act'., 4:>;). 

Jixtnnutia c.sV, constr., TioO, I. 2. 

ii'xMo, constr., 374, 7 ; 364, 1. 

17AC, for /rtrr, 237. 
Fado, w. prcd. gon., 40'}, 
Fahum cttt, constr., 55(1, I. 2. 
y'W/.s«.v, compared, 1(17. 
Famcif, ablfani?, 137, 2. 
Faini/id, genitive of, 42, 3. 
Fearing, constr. of verl)S of, 402, 4. 
reeling, constr. of vcrbd of, tjul ; 

558, V. 
Feet, inetrical, GjG ff. 
Feminine, 33. 
FcrJ'ovfcrc, 237. 
Fci'illis^ w. geu., abl., or ace, 390, 

(2) and 5. 
-fex, compds. in, 830, 2. 
-ficus, adjs. in, compared, 101. 
Fido, w. dat., 385; w. abl., 410. 
Fignres — of j)rosody, 000 ; of ety- 
mology, 703 ; of syntax, 70l ; of 

Hlietoric, 7u5. 
'i'illing, constr. of verbs of, 410, 7. 
Final conjs., 311 ; 5S8, V. 
Final syllables, qnantity of, 013 fl". ; 

final syllable of the verse, 005. 
Finite, or definite moods, 100 ; finite 

verb, 100. 
Fio^ quantity of, 012, 3. 
Fit, constr., 550, II. 
FlarfitOy w. two aces., 374, 2; w. 

snbj., 558, VI. 
Foci, gen. of place, 421, 3. 
Following, constr. of verbs of, C5G, 

III. 
Formation, — of cases, 55-08 ; of 

parts of verbs, 24U-20U ; of words, ' 

313-342. 
Fractions, 174, 1. 

Freeing, constr. of vorl)s of, -110, 7. 
FroiKiii, ])\.,fi'en/,/i'cna^ 143. 
Frecpicntatives, 332. 



Frr/K.f, w. abl., 410, IV. 

Fnii/i, in deel., 150 ; compared, 105. 

Frititt-y constr., 410. 

Fiiiif/ot', constr., 110. 

Future, 1'.'7 ; 241, I.; in indie, 470; 
w. I'orce of imperat., 47(-', 1 ; lor 
Kng. pres , 470, 2 ; w. meliitx^ 470, 
3. Wanting in subj., 470; how 
supplied, 1«1, III. 1. In imperat., 
534, 537 ; fut. for pre.s., and pres. 
for fut., 534, 1 and 2. In infni., 
513 11"; circumlocutiun lor, 541. 
In part., 573. 

Future IVrfect, 107; 211, II. ; in in- 
die, 473 ; to denote certainty, 4 73, 
1 ; lor Kng. pres., 473, 2. Want- 
ing in sul)j., 470; how supplied, 
481, III. 2, 

Futuruiii esse, fiiissc, fere, iif^ 511, 
1-3. 

Futurmii sit ut, 4S1, III. 1 u:ul 2. 

G\ F(>rXI) of, 11 ir.; changed, 
^> 2 IS. 

Gii'tdi'O, constr., 371, 3; 551,111.; 
55S, V. ; 414, 2. 

GciHO, w. aeeus., 371, 3. 

(icnis, geniler of names of, 47. 

Gender, 33 11" ; in 1st dec, 44 ; in 
2d dec, 47; in 3d dee., 00-1 15 ; 
in 4th dec, 118; in 5th dec, ll'J; 
general table of, 124. 

Genitive, formation of, — ending.'', 
4o ; ill 1st dec, 42; a.<t foi' (tc, v/ii 
for arum, 42, 3 ; in 2d dec, 45 ; 
i for ii, inn for onnn, 45, 5; o or 
on, 4('), 3 ; in 3d dec, 50-H3, 80, 
00; in 4th dec, 110; itin for ?w, 
11(>, 4; in 5th dec, 110; c or I 
for c?, 110, 4. In adjectives, 155. 

Genitive, syntax of, 303—111, — with 
no(ms, 305 ; varieties, 300 ; pecu- 
liarities, 307; other constrs. for 
gon., 308. W.a.lj.-!.,300. W. verbs, 
401 in Fred, gen., 401 {\\ ; other 
constrs. for, 4(»4. Of place, 4(il ; 
421, II. In special constrs., 405 
fi'. Ace and gen., 410, W. ad- 
verbs, 411. Gen. of gerunds and 
gerundives, 503. 

Gen it us, w. aid., 425, 3. 

(Jentile nonn.s, 320, 3. 

Gerund, — Xaturo of, 550. Cases of, 
60(J. Ger. and Inlin., 50(>, 2. W. 



\i'ii 



IM)i:.\' OF BVRIIX'l'S. 



direct f)1)joft, fir,]. (Ii-niriflivc, 
r>r»2; of ?tf<»% frnor, ctf., 5(12, 4. 
Tiiss. Hciiso ofliiT., f)(;2, fi. (Jen- 
itive of ^iT. mill {;(MUiulivo, bi!u\\ 
per. when piolerrcd, Dli;}, 2; pjo- 
j iiiidive witli dk'i, tiosfri, etc., T)!;;}^ 
4; of I'iposo, M't'.ij 5; inlin. i'or 

gcr., no.'t, 0. Out. of, nc. J ; of 

piiipose, with oflcial nanio^, 55-1, 
2 and 3. Acciis, of, 5(15 ; w. ob- 
ject, 5(15, 2 ; of purporiO, DGu, '6. 
Aid. of, 5(;(5. 

('loi'ioiium c.'yt, 55(), I, 2. 

(ilvc'oiiic verse, 0(11, fiSl). 

a/i"nis, w. <,'cn., J{U9, (2). 

(i olden a,ii;e, 7(i(». 

(iivek nouns, — in 1st dec, 43; in 2d 
dec, 40; in Sd dec., 'Jl-US. 

nA BnEATIIIXG, 2. 
^ Jliulria, gender of, 44. 
Hiippeninjr, constr. of verba of, 556, 

II. 
Hand, nc, non, 584. 
IIendeeasylliil)ic ver-so, COl, V. 
Ilendiady.-A, 704, II. 2. 
Ilejihtiieniinieris, (550, 2. 
Heroic verse, 604. 
Iletcroelites, i;]5 fl*. 
Heterogeneous nouns, 141 ff. 
Hexameter verse, 003, 2. Dactylic, 

071. 
UiCy istc^ iUcy dccl. of, 180; use of, 

450. 
//■ - (adv.), w. gen., S90, III. 4). 
Ilipponactean, 08o, 4. 
Historical tenses, 198, 2; hist, pres- 
ent, 407, III. ; hist, perfect, 471, H. 
irodic, cpiantity of, 054, 8. 
Horace, versification of, 098 IT. Lyric 

metres of, 700. Index, 701. 
J/orno^ w. accus., S71, o. 
Jlitc, \Y. gen., 5590, III. 4). 
Ilitjusmodiy 180, 4. 
Ilitimis, gender of, 47 ; constr. of 

hit7ni, 424, 2. 
Ilypallagc, 704, III, 2. , 
Hvperljaton, 704, IV. 
Hyperbole, 705, V. 
Ilypereatalectic verse, 003, III. 
Hypermeter, 003, III. 
Hypothetical sentences, sec C<>7idi' 

(iotial ditto. 
UysteroM proteron, 7U4, IV. 2. 



ISriTLIKS (he place of./, 2, .'1; 
) sound ol", IK; 14 IV. ; with the 
wunid of //, 9; i for /', vV, 45, 5. 
Nouns in, 48; genit. of, »'>0; gen- 
der of. 111; 7, final in dat., h4 ; 
in a))l., 87 ; for is, 92 ; for ci, 119, 
4 ; in perfect, 247, 2. /, ([uanti- 
ty of, — litiid, 018; in increinent3 
of ded., 03(); of conjugation, 043. 

-ia, nouns in, 319; in uoni., ucc, and 
voe. plur., 88. 

-iacus, adjs. in, 320. 

-iades, in pationymics, 810. 

Iiiml)elegus, 094, 1. 

Iambic verso, — Dipody, 082, Tri- 
meter, 083; choliiimbus, 083,4; 
catalectic, 084. Dimeter, 085 ; 
hypermeter, 085, 1 ; catalectic, 
085, 2 ; acephalous, 085, 3. Te- 
trameter, 080. 

IamI)ico-daclylic verse, 094. 

-ianus, adjs. in, 320. 

-ias, in patronymics, 310. 

-ibam, for icbam, 239, 1. 

-ibo, ibor, for iam, inr, 239, 2. 

-ibus, in dat. aiul al)l. plur., 90. 

-icius, adjs. in, 324, 328. 

Ictus, 059- 

-icus, adjs. in, 325 fl". 

Idem, deel., ISO; w. dat., 391, 3; 
use of, 451. Idem — </«/', ac or iU~ 
que, 451, 5. 

Wes, of the calendar, 708, I. 8. 

-ide.s, in patronymics, 310. 

-ido, 'nouns in, 320, 7. 

Jdonciis qid, w. subj., 501, III. 

-idus, verbals in, 328. 

•iensis, adjs. in, 320. 

-ier, for i in infin., 239, 0. 

Iqifur, place in the clause, C02, 

'hi. 

Iffnarm, w. gen., 399, Ci). 

-igo, nouns in, 32(>, 7. 

-ile, nouns in, 317. 

-ills, adjs. in, 325, 328 ; compared, 
10.3, 2. 

Illative conjs., 310; 587, IV. ; sen- 
tences, 300. 

lllc, dccl. of, 186; use of, 450. 

lllic iwille, 180, 2. 

Hlhcsinoili, 180, 4. 

-illo, verbs in, 33,2, IV. 

-illus, ilia, iiliim, in uouus, 315, 8 •, 
in adjs., 327. 



INDEX OF SllUIX/rS. 



345 



-irn, ill ncc, H.'), '.)'.] \ fur «<», or rm 
in pit'.-!. .Milij., 2n'.», .'{. 

Lutnctito)\ j,'ciiit. of, 155, 4; ^'on. 
plur., 158, .*{; w. p'li., oUI), 'J. 

-imonia, nouns in, ;il'.>. 

Iiii/in/io, const r., -IW, 1-2. 

Jnii)erativ(', I'.iCt. Tenses, 5:51. I'so, 
5;15 If.; pies., 5:10; fut., 5;'>7; in 
proIiil>itions, 5!'.8. 

Tni pern live sentence?*, o Ifi, III. 

Inipeil'cet tense, r.>7 ; 'J<1, I.; in iii- 
ilic., 4()S ir. ; in lively desciiplion, 
of onstoinatv or repeated action, 
•l<t',»; of atteinpiiil ai'tion, in let- 
ters, 4(')!t, 1 ami '1. in Suhj., 477 ; 
of present lime, 481, V.; after 
IVrf. D.'l'., 4S2, 1 ; for IMnperf., 
48t>, 4 ; in (lesin\s and \visli(>s, 
488, 2; in condition, 510; after 
antcqiuini \\\\\\ pnniiiiitnm^ 52^, 2. 

JinprrihiH, w. ^en., JJ'.V.t, (2). 

Lnpcro, constr., 551, II. 1 and 2. 

Impersonal vc'ri)S, 2'.)8 If. ; bu))jocts 
of, 55f,, r.-iii. 

Imjmiio, j-'onstr., i\H\, 1. 

Jinpleo, constr,, 41o, 7. 

Liipna^ gonit. of, 155; w, gen., .'3D'.>, 

(;5). 
Ji)i/iolcnif, w. gen., 300, (.')). 
Jnijiruihttx^ w. gen., J-JOO, (2). 
-in, in CJreek aces., 03. 
Li, in ctunpds., 838, 1 ; w. two acc.?., 

ti7 1, ; w. dat., 380. //<, w. acc. 

or al)l., 4:;5. 
Incej)tivos, inchoatives, 332, II. 
IiircrtuK^ \v. gen., 300, (2). 
Inclination, snl)j. of, 48(-), 3. 
Iiirlnuts, coini)arcd, IbV. 
Incicmcnt.s, 020 If. ; quantity of, 632 

If., 030 IF. 
Indeclinable nouns, gender of, 35 ; 

examples, 128. Indcd. adj?:., 150. 
Indelinite moods, 100. 
Indelinitc pronouns, 180; use of, 

455 If. 
Index of verbs, 721. 
Indicative, 100 ; use of, 474 ff. ; spe- 
cial uses, 475. 
Jiiii/r/eo^ constr., 400, 1. 
Jndif/nns^w. abl.,410, IV. ind'ignus 

<pu^ Av. 3nl)j., 51)1, III. 
Indirect discourse distinguislie(l from 

direct, 528. ."^unj. in, 520. Moods 

ill prin. clause, 530 ; iu sub. clause, 

15* 



53 1 . Tensc5», 532 ; rr.jnoun.««, iid- 
Veilts, etc., 5:5;!. 

Imlireel object , 351, 2.1'nle, 38l : 
indii'ect \v. direct, 384, II. 

In<Iirect (piestions, 521 If.,— Sidij. in, 
5J5. Inilic. in, 525, ; in orat. 
obli(pia, 53(», II. 2; sing, and dou- 
ble, 520. 

Iitiliho^ constr., "i7l, 7. 

Indidging, verbs of, w. dat., 385. 

liul'io, constr., 371, 7 ; 381, 1. 

»ino, in patronymics, .'!1»», 4. 

lufi rim, compared, 103, 3. 

Inliniiive, 100, II. Tcn.sos of, 540 
If. Sul)j(.'ct of, 515; of Hist, in- 
fill.. 545, 1. Predicate after, 510; 
attracted, 54 7. Constniction of, 
518 If. ; as Xom., 540 ; us Accus., 
55() If. ; w. another acc, 552, 2 ; 
in relative clauses, 531, 1 ; after 
conjunctions, 5.'il, 2; after aiijs., 
5." 2, 3 ; after preps., 552, 4 ; in 
.sp( cial constr.s., 553 ; as pred., 
553, 1.; as nppos., 553, II.; in 
cxehini., 553, 111.; as abl. abs., 
553, IV.; of I'ln-poso, 553, V. ; 
for (ieiur.d, 553, \'l. 

Iiifrii, \v. ace., 433. 

Jiif/aiH, w. adj's., 300, 3. 

Iiijin-iiig, verbs of, w, dat., SS5. 

Iiinitor, constr., 410. 

Jnopn, w. gen. or abl., 300, (3); 419. 

Iiisdiii;, w. gen., 300, (2). 

Inseparable prejjs., 3u7 ; 051, 2. 

I/ifipcrf/o, constr,, 384, 1. 

Instrument, a))l. of, 414, 4, 

LisiieiuK, \Y. gen., 300, (2); w. otliei 
constrs., 300, 5. 

Intrgcr, w. gen., 300, 3. 

In(fi\ in compds., 338, 1 ; w. dat., 
38(>. Iiitn\ \\\ acc, 433. 

Lifirvlnih, constr., 384, 1. 

hdcrcst, w. gen., 400, III. • 

Jnfrrior, compared, 10(). 

Inteijections, 312; w, voc, 300, 1; 
Av. uom., acc, or dat., 381, 3; u.se 
of, 580 If. 

Interrogative conjunctions, 311, 588. 

Interrogative pronouns, 188 ; use of, 
454. 

Interrogative sentences, — Form, 340, 
II. Interrog. words, 310, II. 1. 
Double quc-l., 340, 11. 2. iJeliber 
quest., 480, 11. Answers, 340. 11. 



31C 



INDKX OF SriULCTS. 



'\. Indirect (|Ut'St., n'J5 ; w. iiidli-., 

r.'jn, n ; Aui^U^ und double, 5'Jn. 

In indirect tliscourse, 52U 11". ; rhe- 
torical <|ues., rt.'M), 2. 
Iiiti rrot/o, w. two aces., 371, 2 ; ^. 

nee, and aid., :571, 2-3. 
Intra, w. aeeiis., 4;i3. 
Intransitive verb.x, r.t3 ; 371,3; iin- 

personal pass., 405, 1. 
-inus, adjs. in, 3'J t il'. 
Jiiridm, w. f;;('n. or dat., 300, 2, 2). 
Lii'ititK, idioinalie use ot'dat., oS7, 3. 
-io, verbs of 3d eonj. in, 213 11'.; 

nouns in, 31S, 321. 
lonie verse, G87. 
-ior, in eoniparativos, 1(V2. 
T/w, dccl. of, IHC; >ise of, 452. 
Jjisiis, lor ipxr, 160, 3. 
Iron a-ic, 7<'0. 

liony, 7<t5, IV. in eondition, f)03, 3. 
Irrefiulav nouns, 127 11". ; irre<i;. ailjs., 

151): irrejr. eoinpari.-on, 103 11", 
Iri'eiiuiar principal parts of verbs, 

210-258; irre-;. verbs, 287 ff. 
/v, «!ct1. of, 18(); use of, 451 ; re- 

llexivc, 418. Is — (/iti, 451, 4. 
-is, in dat. tnid al)l. of the 1st and 2d 

(leels., 42, 45 ; in genit. of 3d dec, 

52; in aec., dat., and abl. plur., 

88, III.; 00. Kouns in 1% 50; 

{jjcnitive of, 71 ; gender of, loO. 
"is, in patronymics, 310 ; quantity of 

is final, 020. 
-isco, incept ives in, .^32, II. 
Islands, gend. of names of, 35 ; con- 

str. of names of, 424. 
-issimus, in superlatives, 102. 
-Lsso, verbs in, 332. 
Jsfc, deel. of, 180 ; m^c of, 450. 
lafir, isthic, for inlc, 180, 2. 
J.stiiis7/io(li, 180, 4. 
-ita.i, nouns in, 310. 
-iter, adverbs in, 335. 
Ithyphalieus, 081, 2. 
-itia, nouns in, 310. 
.itimus, adjs. in, 325, 2. 
-itium, nouns in, 318. 
-ito, fre(iuentativcs in, 332. 
-itiido, nouns in, 310. 
Jfi!}ii, ([uantity of, 051, 3. 
■ itus, Houns in, 318 ; adverbs in, 335, 

«>. 
-ium, in gcnit. plur., 80 ; nouns in, 

318 u; 



-ius, adjs. in. 320; c|uantity of, 012, -. 

-ivus, udjs. in, 328, 5. 

-ix, genitive of nouns in, 70. 

J I'LACK supplied by /", 2 ; len<^'th- 
} ens preceding vowel, Oil. 
Jicu)', genitive of, 00, 5. 
Jesun, deel. of, 128, 1,3). 
Jocttn, pi., J"<'', ./'"", 141. 
Jithro, constr., 551, II. 1 and 2. 
Juijtruni, deel. ol", 130; use of, 71H. 
JiKjHin, quantity of tunipds. of, 01 1, 

3. 
Jinif/n, w. dat., C85, 5. 
Jnpidr, genitive of, 00, 3. 
Jiisjiinin(/itiii, deel. of, 120. 
.Juvenal, veisilication of, 000. 
JnvciKilin, abl. of, 87, 2. 
Juvriiis, abl. of, 87, 2 ; eotn[)nro(l, 

108, 3. 
Jiivo, w. nceu.s., 385, 1. 
Juxta, w. aeeus., 433. 



K 



IIAI^E, 2. 
J Knowing, constr. of verbs of, 
1. 



651, 1 



LNOrXS in, 4R, 51 ; gniil. of, 
J Oi; gt'iider, 112; <iu;in!ity of 

final syllables in, 021. 
Labials, 3. 

Ldcrinio, \v. aeeun., 371, 3. 
L'udo, w. aceus., 3s5, 1. 
Lnr, (['lantity of genit., 033, 4. 
LoNnus, w. gen., 3',)0, 3. 
Latin authors, 7oO. 
Latin grammar, 1. 
Latin jieriod, 005, 
-lentus, adjs, in, 323. 
Letters, classes of, 'A ; combinaiions 

of, 4 ; sounds of, 5--l(>. 
Libera, w, abl, or gen., 425, 3. 
fjl'ra, 714, 
Lf <t, w. subj., 515, 
Lin^iials, liipiids, 3, 
Litotes, 705, VI. 
Liium, quantity of, 051, 3. 
Logaocdic verse, 001. 
Lo/if/itts, without quam, 417, 3. 
-Is, gcnit, of nouns in, 70, 

MFATIIOXIC changes of, 248, 
? 3:)8, 1 ; ([uantity of final syl- 
lables in, 021 ; elided, 000, I, 



INDKX OF HriUECTS. 



347 



(.1, 



>48, 
syl- 



•>mn, (lilt, aiitl ahl. pltir. of nouns in, 

".*i>, 1. 
Mm/it, )intx'niit\ in advcrliiiil coin- 

jtarison, IT". 
A/iiifiiiiK, coniparod, l(i."i. 
Miijoi\ in cxjircs-fions of ngc, 417, 

a. 
Making', vc'il)s of, w. two aces., i'l73; 

w. Miiij., hrtH, IV. 

Main, const !•,, fiM, II. 1 and 2. 
Mains, coMipari'd, ht5. 
J/inii/(.\liis, w. j^tn., .')'.>!>, ;j. 
Alainicr, nR'ans, abl. of, 411; parti- 

tiplf lor, r)7y, II. 
Jlasfulino, Ji.S. 
IMatciial nouns, ."1. 
J/r, for //*//(/, IHl, n. 
iMeasuiv of din'('i(!ni'(>, nlil. of, IIS; 

nie'asuic in prosody, OCwJ, II.; Ko- 

man nicasuri', 71") 11". 
jMid, t)ii/K\ for iii<\ ISl, 5. 
Mcihor, w. dat., JJH.'), 2. 
Malins, dcsi^natin<^ part, 441, (>, 
Jfcltus^ w. ill! lie. ibr sulij., 47o, 2- 

4. 
J/tlos, jdiir. of, 95, 1. 
Jfttiic, 1S4, (■>. 
JIdiiiiii, w. grn., 400, II.; w. ncc, 

4t>7, 1. 
JA///.<r, w. jrcn., ."!)0, 2). 
-men, mcntum, iioun.s in, 320. 
Jf( ji.Sfi, (k'cl. oi", 42. 
.}/ri,fr, isi, r>. 

-met, forms in, 181, 3; 18."), 1. 
Ak'taphor, 70."), I. 
iAk'tatlicsis, 7<».'{, 7. 
i\k't()iiyniy, 70.'), II. 
]\Ietri', Gf.7. 
^Sh'trical o(|uivalcnts and .^substitute.'', 

-metres, (ircek nouns in, 47, 2. 
MdKO, constr., 38.5, 3 ; 4'.»2, 4. 
Mfiis, di'il., 185. 
JIl for iiti/ti, 184, 5. 
MU'ithi, constr., 424, 2. 
>1/^7/^, doi'I. and use of, 178. 
Million, '.ardinal lor, 174 ; symbol 

lor, 180. 
Million sostcrcos, Latin for, 713, 4. 
-mino, in iir Mativi's, 23'.>, 5. 
Minor, null' without quam, 417, 3. 
Miror, \y. u>. us., 371, 3; w. gen., 

400, 4. 
Mirum est, constr. of, 550, I. 2. 



J//.V for mr't, 181, 5. 

J//.S/VO, w. dat., or nM., oS.', 5. 

M'tsrrnn', tiiixiiuiiio, \v. «^cli., 4O0, 

Mivi'd, ronstr., 410. Mh'i'iSiU, 
)ni.s( r<(ui\ 410, C. 

Mobile noun.-J, ;ii'». 

Mitdrror, ronstr., 385, 3. 

Mo lilier, 318 If. 

Moditin, 7 I 5. 

Modo, w. ii\i\>}., 5(»3, 505. 

Muerco, w. accus., .'(71, 3. , 

MoiKo, constr., lid, :{. 

.Money, Homan, 712 11'. 

Monoiiieter, dlW!, 2. 

Moiiosyllaliies, (|iiantity of, t'.l;:. 

•Moutlis, Koman, 7o7 ; divi>ioii of, 
708 ; gender of names of, ;{5. 

Moods, 1 JIl-.,— Indie., 171 If. Siibj., 
•I8;j-5:;:j. Impeiat., 5:: I If. In- 
lin., 53'.)-553. (Jerund, 55l» fK 
Supine, 507 If. Tart., 57 I If. 

Jfos, mofis f.v/, idii.-tr., 550, 1. 1. 

-ms, gen. of noun.s in, 75. 

.Multiplieatives, 17'>. 

MtdtiiK, eom[iaiisitn o*', 105. 

Mutes 3. 

Muto, con.slr., 410, 2. 

1^ XOrXS in, 48; genit. of, 05; 

■^ ^ gend. of, li;{; ([uantily of 
linal syllahle.sin, 021. 

Name, dat. of, 387, 1 ; gen. of, :{87, 2. 

Names of towns, eonstr., 42;^. 

Natus, w. aid., 425, !!. 

Xe, nmii, ufntnc, interiog. piirtielen, 
oil, 8; in i-ingle (incslions, IJ-IO, 
II. 1 ; in double, ;;40, II. 2 ; in in- 
direct questions, 520. 

Xe, w. sulij. of desire, 488, 3; of 
purpose, 4.ii'J If. ; of conees.-inn, 
515. 

Xc, iion,hnn<l, 584. Xcv(\ 4 HO, 1. 

Xcrnc, 340, II. 2, 3); 520, 2, Ij. 

Xi'duin, \v. .subj., -VXi, 4. 

Negative.'', 584 ; force of two nega- 
tives, 585. 

Xcnio, indef., 191,2; n.sc of, 4.'i7, 1. 

XcqKdtn, indeel., 159; compared, 
105, 2. 

Xf — qnidcm, 585; 0O2, III. 2. 

Xcscio an, w. t^ubj., 52t), II. 2, 2). 

XfNcio quis, qnoiHodo, etc., w. indie., 
525, 4. 

Xtscius^ \s. gen., 399, (2). 



r 



348 



INDKX OF SUIUi:Ci-S. 



-neuR, .1(1 js. ill, ni*l. 
.Vriittr, c'locl. oi; 110; indc-f., ];»!, 
2 

Kcutor adjectives, as advi'ilis, .'i;].'), 
4; as cognate act'its., o?!, 1, li) 
(•J); as u second aceus., '•'>1\, 5; 
w. partitive genit., .'{'.)(•>, III. 2, .'jj 
(:{); as predicate, -ilJH, 4. 

Neuter nouns, noni., ace., and voc. of, 
o8, ;> ; neuter l>y signiliealioii, 15.") ; 
by «ndiiiir, in 2d dee., 47; in Jld 
dee., lll'ir. ; in 4tl» dec, 118. 

.v;, w. t;uiij., w.\ r»<v/ in 

jS'iiiils, \v. f^en., ;5'.m;, IIF. 4). 

jV/.s'", \y, sulij., 50;}, 5u7 IK 

N}toi\ eonsti'., 410. 

j\'o/o, constr., r>.')l, II. 1 and 2; noU^ 

-i(o, in proiiihitions, rj;>5, 1, y). 
Ko'iicii. (sf, const!'., ;iS7, 1. 
Is'oniinative, fonnation of", in o'd dec, 

n.j, 88, Uj ; nent. pliir. in adjs., 

1 n 7. 
Nominative, syntax of, ;5(>(i fl' ; as 

suhjeet, :'.(>7 ; agreement of, ;ii»8 ; 

tor' voc, ;{r.o, 2. 

iV(>», lie, /laiid, 581 ; pi. ice of non, 
(Ki2, IV., omitted, 584, 2. 

Jion, \T. f/'^o, qinxlj (/ubij quiity vr. 
sul)j., 5'JO, ;j. 

Nones in tlic IJomau month, 703, I. 
2^ 

Konnc.noii = niniiir. ']H\ 11. 1. 

^\o.s, loi- rv/o, 4 1 1), 2. 

jNW'r, ibr inofx, 44(t, 2. 

J^'()^■/^*^s, IS,'), U. 

i\Wr/, iio.sfruni, SOO, i ; 410, JJ. 

Nouns, etymology of, — gender of, C3 
IK ; peis. and nunil)., '>! ; cases, 
;i8 ; declensions, IlO-l'iO ; indeel., 
128; delect., 120; lieteioelites, 
i;}.") IK ; heterogeneous, 141. 

Nouns, syntax of, y(i2-4;>7, — Agree- 
ment, * 8()2 n*. Nom., i)(\\ \X. ; 
Voc, ;)f)0; Accus., 37<)-:)8l ; Dat., 
.".82-;i02; (Jen., ;50;}-411; Abl., 
4!2-i;U ; w. preps., 432-437. 

Xot't'd, compared, 1()7. 

j)'(jxhis, w. gen., 300, 3. 

-ns, goni^ of nouns in, ICk 

jVtfijo, Av. diit., 38,"), 2. 

KulluN, decl. of, 140 ; indoK, 101,2; 
use of, 457 ; for non, 457, 3. 

Xmi), iinyn<jnhf, 340, II. 1 and 2. 

Kundjcr, 37 ; in verbs, 100. 



Nuiuerjds, 171 H". ; adjs., 172 iT. ; 

• let), of, 175 IV.; symbols, 180; 

adverbs, 181. 
-nus, a<Iji'ctiveri in, 324. 
yi{'<(j>iuiii, w. gen., 300, III. 4). 

OSOrXDof, C, IK, 14 ; nouns in, 
5 48, 51 ; genit. of, (U ; geiid., 

100; derivatives ui, 320, 0. 
O, ((uantity of, — final, (')20 ; in in- 

cremt'iits, 034, 042; iu conipds., 

054, 7. 
Oh, in compds., 338, 1 ; in compds. 

\\\ dat., 380. Of), w. aec, 4!ui. 
Ohcd/viiKy w. two datives, 30O, 3. 
(Ji)eying, verbs of, w. dat., 385, 
Object, direct, indirect, coml lined, 
354; direct, 371 ; omit., 371, 1,(3); 

clause as an objott, 371 , 5 ; 557 11'. 

See Sriijict ami o/>Jevt chiKKcu. 
Olijective genitive, 300, II. 
(tl)li(iue cases, 38 ; use of, 370-437. 
ObJiriuro)-, w. gen., 4U0, II. ; otliev 

constns., 407. 
Ohsiafo, ohsfo, constr., 400, 1-2. 
Oc/or, compared, lOti. 
-odos, (Jreek nouns in, 47, 2. 
a-, sound of, 0, 14. 
Oj/ict'o, constr., 400, 1-2. 
O/n; (juantity, ()12, 4. 
O.'ro ji'id rclnli'o, AV. ace, 371, 3. 
OHin-, for vV/r. 180, 3. 
-oJu,s, ola, olum, in diminutives, — 

in nouns, 3.15, 2 ; in adjs., 327. 
O/imrs, w. gen., 3'.i0, III. 2, 3). 
-on, in Cireek gen. plur., 00. 
-one, in patron\nnics, 310. 
Ojii rtiiii (/«), w. sul»j., 402, 1. 
Optiinnia csf, constr., 550, I. 2. 
(f/)tis, constr., 410. 
-or, gender of nouns in, 101 ; deri- 
vation of, 320 IV. 
Oraliool>li(iua, see fudhrrt dixrinirsr. 
Ordinal numbers, 172, 174 ; decl. oK, 

170. 
Oro, \\\ tv\o aces., 374, 2 ; w. ?ubj. 

or infin., 558, VI. 3. 
Ortliograpliy, 2-28. 
OHx.i, w. abl., 425, 3. 
-o.s, nouns in, 50; genit. of, 72-, 

grild., 102. 
-OS, for Is in the genitive, 92. 
-o.s final, sound of, 8, 1 ; (luantity, 

020. 



iVii IT.; 
y, 18U; 



.1). 

louns in, 

0. 

I', m iiv- 
compile., 

comptld. 

9(\ 3. 

;]sr.. 

[)iiiliinc(I, 

7 !,_!,(_:!); 
i ; <uu 11. 
(itses. 

I. ; oIIk.'V 
1-2. 



'.'.'11. 



; dori- 

t'L-1. of., 

of, 72; 
utiutUy, 



INDEX OP tiUlUEClS. 



;;4'j 



{,'cn., 



-osus, nrljs. in, :)2;?. ■ 
Ovid, vi'i>ilii'iitioii of, r,07. 
-ox, gcnit. of liown.s in, SO. 

1>ALAM, w. ahl., 437, 2. 

1 I'alatalH, 3, II. 

J'a)i, gen. ami ace. of, (')."), 2 ; 03, 1 

I'iDithufi, voc. of, 40, 3, 5). 

y'«r and dtt/mr, con<tr., M'.'l, 2, 4). 

I'arago.Lic, 7U3, (J. 

PaidoninLT, verbs of, w. dat., "y^,. 

I'arocniiao vcr.-o, (Wi I. 

J'cj-K, in ffactloiis, 171, 1. 

J't/rdcpps^ gcnit. of, l.')"»; w 
3'.i'.», (3). 

Participles, 10<', II. 4. Tcnsc^, rel- 
ative time, 571. Aj.!:recnicnt and 
I' •■(*, 4.".8 and .'■>7"» IT. For n. 1. clause, 
("'77. Tor .sub. clansc, — time, cause, 
rianncr, means, condition, conc( s- 
pion, purpose, 578. For piin. 
clause, 57'.». For verbal noun, 
5S(). W. ne;rative, 5S1. 

Pai'liclos, ctyniolo;-'y of, — Adverbs, 
ytt:; n; ; picps., 3()(i If. ; conjuncis., 
30S if.; interject.^., 312. 

Panicles, syntax of, .')S2-r)l)0,— Ad- 
verbs, .'j.S2 11". ; preps., 5S(;, 432- 
437; conjuncts., oSl 11'.; inter- 
jects., ns'j t\\ 

rardiii, w. pen., 3'.»0, III. 4). Par- 
t'tin — jjiO'dni, i'ov p'li's — jxti's, 401, 
5. 

Partitive penitive, 3',»(), III. 

Parts of spcccli, 30. 

Pa run), w. pen., 3!)(), HI. J). 

J^n'i'iis, compared, Iti"). 

Passive voice, I'.tj ; passive cou.str., 
371, 0. 

Pull >'fai)iil'iitx^ dccl. of, 12(). 

P(iti(>t\ constr., T).")!, II. 1-2. 

Pat rials, 32(5, 3. 

Patronymics, 31G. 

Pause, caesura!, <)(»2. 

IVculiarities in conjup., 234 AT. 

l\/ii(/i(x, plur. and gend. of, 40, 5; 
47, II. 

Paics, w. accus., 433. 

Pentameter, (iO:5, 2. 

Pi-ntlieminieris, 0.*)i'», 2. 

Penults, quantity of, (Via IV. 

/Vr, in compds., 33H, 1; 371, 4; 
jxr, \v, ace, 433. J'lr luc atut, 



AW, 1. 



Perceiving, constr. of vcrb.'i nf, 551. 

Pi reohtor, w. two accs., 374, 2. 

IVrfect system, 241. 

Perfect and supine, formation of, 2r>8, 

Perfect, l'.t7; -J 11, 11. ; jm-s. and liisr., 
or d(4inite an ! indef, l'.»8; want- 
ing, 2i'.S, 275, 2.S1, 2S3. 

Perfect, syntax of, — in indie, 471 ; 
di f. and imlef, or jtres. and lii.-t., 
47'; of what has ceasfil |(» be, 
471, 1 ; w. jxtoif, projic, 471, 2; 
f( r V.n<i. I'res., 471, 3. In siibj., 
4V-<; in sciiucnce, 4S(); after hist, 
t.i.pc, 1S2, 2 ; ^;{3, 1 ; in desinvi 
and wishes, INH, 2 ; in condition, 
ro;); in orat. obi., 532 If. ; in in- 
lin., 512 ; for pres., 542, 2. In 
put., 571 ; for vi'ibal noun 5S0. 

Period, l-atin, arrangement of, (i(J5. 

Pcriphr.istie conjugation, 227 11". 

/'<>-;///,s', w. gen., 3''>'.>, (2). 

J'crini.srro, w. dat., 3S5, 5. 

Prrmif/o, constr., 551, II. 2. 

Person, of nouns, 37 ; of verbs, 2('^0. 

Personal pronouns, 18 1 ; use of, 440 ; 
rellex. use of, 448. 

Persuading, Vfrlis of, w. dat., 385. 

]\rtii((ht, pi rtacsitia ixt^ 41t>, 0. 

PitOy con.str., 374, 3, 4\ 

/V^ 4. 

Phalaeeian vcr.«o, GO], V, 

Phercei itean verse, 081>, II. 

J^icjct, constr., 41<). 

Place, a!)l, or gen. of, 421 ff. ; loca- 
tive, 423, 2. 

Plert.-ing, verbs of, w. dat., 385. 

I'lentv, constr. of verbs aiid adjs. of, 
4 1'.t, ill. 

PlrmiH^ w. gen, or abl., 3!)!), (3); 
41l>. 

IMeonasm, 7i>l, II, 

Pluperfect, 1<.»7; 241, II.— in indie., 
472; in letteis, 472, 1; foi- Fug. 
imp., 472, 2. In .'<ubj., 478; se- 
(|uenee, 48(>; In desires and wishes, 
4S8, 2; in condition, 51(»; after 
inifiipoiin n\\{\ //riiisii>tiiiii^ 523, 2; 
in orat. o'ol., 532; 533, 2-4. 

Plural, 37; wanting, 130; with 
change of imaning, 132. 

I'lus, without (piitiii, 417, 3. 

/'inii!fif, constr.. 410. 

Polvsvialeton, 704, II. 1. 
I J'oHC, \\. aceus., 433. 



350 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



I'o,'<co, w. two aci'S. or ncc. and al)l., 
374, 2; w. sul.J., r)58, VI. 

Position, loni; l).v, (111; sliort, 012. 

J'osilivc, 1(10; wiiiiling, IM. 

rosst's.<ivcv>J, 185; w. gen., .'597, 3; 
lor j:;en., 31)8, ;> ; w. nfn'l and /";)- 
^?Y.v/, 4(»8, 1, 2); u.-"e of, 417; 
relK'xivc, 448. 

Possessor, dat. of, 387. 

/W/, sound of, 8, 1. 

/'o.s/, in conkjids., 338, 1 ; in eonipds. 
w. dat , 38(). yW/, in expressions 
ol' time, 427; />oi7, \v. ace., 433. 

Jhsk't'iifi, compared, 1()3, 3. 

.Pdsfrfiniis, i'ori'e of, 412. 

rust rid ic, w. gen., 411; w. aeons., 

437, 1. 

Poxtulo, eonstr., 371, 3. 4). 

J'ofais, w. n;cn., 31)1), (3). 

I'otential sulijinietivo, 485 ff. ; iu 
deelar. sentences, 48(», I. ; in dc- 
Iil)i'iativo (piestions, 48(5, II. ; in 
snl). clauses, 48(), III. ; of repeat- 
ed action, 48(), r>. 

Potior, w. gen., 401), 8 ; w. al)l., 410 ; 
411), 4. 

/Vrtf, in compds. w. dat., 38G ; prac, 
w. abl., 134. 

Pnudifits, w. abl., 411), 3. 

Pracfcr, in compds., w. accus., 371, 
4 ; prarfcr, w. accus., 433. 

Predicate, 347 ; sinii)le, 353 ; com- 
pli'X, 354 ; compound, 301. Pred. 
nouns, 355, 302. I'red. adjs., 350 ; 

438, 2. Pred. gen., 4(H ; varie- 
ties of, 402; veil)S with, 403; 
other constrs. for, 401. Pred. abl., 
42S, 1. 

I'repo.'^ltion.'', 300 ; in.sop., 307 ; in 
coni])d.s., .");18, 1. In expressions 
of time and space, 378, 1 and 2. 
W. names of places, 37l>, 1, 2 and 
4. Pro witli abl., 384, 2, 2). ; 
Compds. \v. dat., 380. yl or ab 
w. abl. of agent, 388, 1 ; 414, 5. 
Case w. prep, for tlii' dat., 31)1, 2; 
for the gen., 31)8, 4 ; 31)1), 5 ; 4o7, 
2; 410, 4. Ciiin w. abl. of ac- 
companiment, 411, 7. Qiiam pro, 
417, 0. W. abl. of place, 421 ; I 
of soiu'ce and scpaiation, 425; of 
time, 4 20. Preps. \v. ca.'^t's, Hule, 
4:>2,431 tf. ; preps, as ad veil >s, 430. 

I're.sent, 1U7 ; 241, I.,— in iudic, I 



400 fr. ; of general truths, customs, 
h\A. pres., 407. In subj., 477. 
In imperat., 530. In inlin., 541. 
Part., 572. 

Present perfect, 471, I. 

Present svstem of foims, 241. 

Priapeian verse, GIi5. 

Price, gen. of, 390, IV. ; abl. of, 416. 

l'r}(li(\ w. gen., 411 ; w. ace, 437, 1. 

Primitives and derivatives, 313. 

Principal paits of verbs, 240, 24()- 
20(.). Prin. clauses, 345, 2; in 
oratio oblicjua, 530. Pi in. clo- 
ments, 349; ten,«e.s 198, 2. 

Prior, prliinis, 100 ; force of, 442, 1. 

J'rlns(jiunii, w. indie, or subj., 521, 
523. 

Pro, in compds. \v. dat., 380, 2 ; /)ro, 
w. abl. in defence of, 384, 2, 2); 
pro, w. abl., 434. 

Pro, (juantity of, in compds., 054, 4. 

Prontl, \w. abl., 437, 2. 

Prohihro, eonstr., 499, 1 ; 551, II. 1. 

Pronouns, 182 11'.; per?., 184; pos- 
ses., 185; demon., 18('); relat., 
187; intcrrog., 188; indef., 189. 

Pronouns, syntax of, 445—159, — 
Agreement, 4-15. Pcis. and Pos- 
se's., 44() il". Keflex, use of, 448 If. 
Demon., 450 If. Pel., 453. lu- 
terrog., 454. Indef, 455. 

Pronunciatien of Latin, 5-28. 

Propc, w. accus., 433. 

Proper nouns, 31. 

Propior, proxi)intf!, 100; w. accus., 
391, 2, 2); 433. 

Propiiis, w. ac'.us., 437, 1. 

Proprins, eonstr., 391, 2, 4); 399, 3. 

Propter, w. accus., 433. 

Pro.'^ody, 0O7-7(il,— Quantity, 008- 
054. Versilication, 055-701. 

Pronpicio, eonstr., 385, 3, 

Prosthesis, 703, 4. 

Providco, eonstr., 385, 3. 

Provklus, w. gen., 399, (2). 

J'roxinir, \v. accus., 437, 1. 

J'roxiiinim est, eonstr., 550, I. 2. 

Proxinws, w. accus., 391, 2, 2); 433. 

Prndois, w. gen., 399, (2); w. abl., 

399, 6. 
-ps, genit. of nouns in, 75. 
Piidit, eonstr., 410. 
Punishment, \v. verbs of condenm- 
hig, 41U, 5. 



INDEX OF SUnJECTS. 



351 



. accus., 



l',W, o. 



V. abl., 



dcuiU- 



Purpn, coiisfr., 410, 7. 

I'urj>()so, suhjum-tivo of, -ISO ff. ; vr. 
(.•((iijuiicts., -I'.M) ; piiio |iiir|)()se, 
4\>\; mixed, 'I'.i'i ; iH'i'uliaritios, 
4U'6; ill rel. duu.ses, rtUi) Jl". In- 
liii. of pm-posc, D');5, V. ; <;i'iuii(l, 
M'A, o ; aC)!, 2; supine, OO'J ; jku- 
tieiple, 578, V. 

J^i/)'ilcs, decl. of, 13. 

QU, clian<;e(1, 218. 
QiKK )•(), eoiistr., "jVI, o, '1). 

(JiKtlia^ quuti.scHiiqnr, quallfit/i'dlis, 
l<s7, 7; qualh, iiitcno^., 188, 4; 
(j'ia/i.sllfj(f,'n\{\{'{'., 191, 4. 

(iualitv, eiiaiacteiisiie, gonit. of, 090, 
.IV.; abl. of, 428. 

Quam, w. eoiiipanitivo'j, 417, 1; w. 
siipeilatives, I7i>, 2. Qiutia pro, 
w. abl., 417, (■). Qnam ii(, w. siibj., 
4'.»Ci, 2. Qiuiia si, w. subj., 5u;i, 
.ItM). Q'/ain riioif, \v. .sul>j., 020, ,'5. 

Cjxdiiiquaiii, w. indie, or subj., 510, 
1. 

Qndini'isj q!iantumv/s, w. subj., 515 
If. 

Qiinnilo, \\. indie, or subj., 520. 

Quantity, 20 If.; sijrns oi', 24. (Jen- 
oral rule.s for, Olu If. Speeiaj, 
OUi-Ool; final .syllables, 01 :j If.; 
inerenients, 02".» If. ; deriv. endings, 
015 If.; stem syllal)les, 041) If. ' 

QiKDitns, qi(antHi^ru)}(jni\ qnantus- 
qu'tnlKH, ls7, 7; indelinite, 188, 4. 

Qu<i:;i, \v. subj., 5t);), 5(>0. 

Qui, rel., iuterros,'., indef., 187 IF.; 
lor quo, qxn, lN7, 1; 18S, 2. Use 
of as rel., interro;;., indef., 45:5 If. 
Qui, w. sul)j. of purpose or result, 
48*.), 5(,)() If. Qui <Uci(H)\ roca/ur, 
45:5, 7. Quiriiiiqtn\ 187, 4. 

Quia, w. indie, or suly., 520. 

QniifdDi, indef, 191, 455. 

Qnidt'in, plaee in clause, »i02, III. 

Qni/ihct, 191 ; use of, 458. 

Qi(i)i, w. subj., 489, 498. 

QuitKim, 18S, o. 

Qninnrius, 712. 

Qiiippr, \v. relative, 510, 3. 

Qnin, interrojr., 188; indef., 180 ff. ; 
use of, 454 IF. 

QiiiK, for qnibiin, 187, 1. 

Quismnn, 188, 'S. 

Quispium, 191 ; use of, 455. 



Qnisquam, 191 ; use of, 457. 
Quisquc, 191 ; use of, 458 ; w. plur. 

verb, 401, .3. 
Quisqitlx, 1,S7, 4. 
Quititiii, ({uantity of, 051, 3. 
Qnii'in, 191 ; use of, 4 5S. 
Qho,v,\ gen. ;590, III. 4); w. s!d)j. 

of purpose, 489, 497. 
Qiioiiil, w. gen., 090, III. I); w. in- 

indie. or sul)j., 521 If. 
Quo^^, expletive, 453, 0; w. subj., 
520 ; clause w. qnod uiu'onneited, 
554, iV. ; (7'/o(^/ re<trictiv(>, 5(»1, :;. 
QnoJKK, qnoi, for ''"Jnx, eui, 187, 1. 
Qnuiiiiinis, w. subj., 491). 
j Qnonima, w. indie, or subj., 520. 
I Qnoqiic, \)\AK:ii in the clause, 0O2, III. 
Q'lot, ipf>tcnii(iiir, quotquol, (luotus, 
I qxotnsrn/iquc, 187, 7 ; 1N8, 4. 
1 Qitinn, w. subj., 515, 517 If. ; w. in- 
I die., 518, 3. 

]> DKOPPED, 55, 3; changed, 

A^5 2 IS; nouns in, 48, 51 ; genit. 
' of, GO; gender, lol, 103, 111, 
I HI. 

7i', (|uantity of find syllables in, G21. 

Riislruuiy plur. rn.s •/, rasti'a, 143. 

Rtdniii, ([uantit of, 051, 3. 

lie, red, 338, 2 

-re, for rix, 23t.. 

Reason, sul)j. of, 517 <T. See Orv.w. 

Jicco)'d<)i;\v. gen., lnO. II. ; w. aeeus., 
; 407, 1 ; w. abl. Willi dr, 4o7, 2. 

fiV<v/,sv), coiistr., 49;), 1-2. 

liedupHeated perfects, 254 ; ((uajitity 
of, 052. 

R^'fcrf, eonstr., 400, Til.; 408. 

Juftrtus, \v. gen. or abl., 399, (2) iind 
i 5. 

; Reliexive use of pronouns, 448 (F. 

Ketrarding, verbs of, \v. two aecus., 

1 373. 

Ii<f/)io, w. gen., 400, 3. 

Relative, 187; as adj., 415, 8; uso 
of, 453. 

Relative clause, w. potential subj., 
480, 1 ; w. sul)j. of desire, 488, 5; 
of purpose, result, 500 ; of result 
after indefinite or general antece- 
dents, afti'r unus, solns, dlr/iiuK, 
indiijiiHs, idoiirus, <t/)fus, iwul c'oui- 
par. w. qiKiiii, 5t>l, I.-IV. ; w. 
subj. of condition, 513 ; of conces- 



85. 



.'M)Kx OF srr.JK.-is. 



f-i; 11, r<ir» ; of c.^us •, icason, 51V, 

ri''; \y. inlin., 531, 1. 
I^'"'qt i/r. <. \ fODStr., 550, T. 2. 
l?on:i".U!ng, constr. ol" vcrbrf of, 550, 

II [. 
RcMiindin^r, ooii/'tr. of verbs (>f, 410. 
li< in'niiHco)\ w, gen., -lOO, II. 
iicpciited action, suhj. of, 4 SO, 5. 
Jif/iosa), with two iiec'H., Jm I, 2. 
Ik'sistinii. V('il)s of, w. llin dat., nS5. 
A'cymh/ir >, drcl. of, 12G. 
/i'rsfiit nf, 1!I5, 2. 
IiL'.-^ult, .>-u!)jiinctivc of, 4S9 .T. ; w. 

conjunc'Is., 41)0 fl'. ; of pure resalt, 

4'Jl; iiiixiMl, 41)5; i)Ci'uli;nitics, 

490. Willi relatives, 500. ycc 

lielativc cliotsr. 
Rrfiroifia, 7nl, I. H. 
Khe.orical (luestions', nno, 2. 
niiythnuc accent, 059. 
Jii(f(o, w. aeeus., 1571, '). 
Iiivoi's, {.'cndor of names of, 05. 
Jioi/n^ w. two aces., o74, 2; w. subj., 

55M, VI. 
*rfj, /ixait. of nouns in, 7o. 
Jiiiil ,^., w. gen., i;i!lt, (2); w. abl, 

^IH), 5. 
INilcs of Syntax, 591. 
J^'iis, const r., ;]79, 3 ; 424, 2. 
JlhIio/i, (luantity of, 051, 3. 

U SOFNl") of, 11 ff. ; nouns in, 48 

^f if. ; gonit. of, 08-70 ; gend., 110. 

Sitiry, c(»ini)an;(l, 1(')7 ; w. dat. or 
^gen., J591; liltlt, ',\ 'A). 

*Sff. /((', compared, ;?05, 4. 

So/'o^ \v. aceus., ;!71, 3. 

Sappl.ie verse, 0()4 ; 09O, I.; 191, 
IV.; greater sapi)liic, 090, II. 

Sdfiiffo, aataffilo, w. gen., 409, 5. 

Satis, w. gen., oDO, III. 4). 

f^tif/.tfario, w. dat., oS5, 2. 

tSui'iiii, ([uantity of, 051, 3. 

Seainung, 008. 

Seazon, 083, 4. 

/S()(//, (luanlity of, 051, 2. 

iSiciukIhiii, w. accus., 433. 

Semi-deponents, 272, 3; 282; use 
of, 4()5, 3. 

/SV»f.r, eomixircd, 108, 3. 

Sentences, syntax of, 343-301 ; das- 
sitieation of, 315 (f. ; simple, 317 
If. ; complex, 357 If. ; compound, 
300. See also Dalaruliv<\ Kt- 



clttmri/un/, Iinpcrativc^ Iiitirrofja- 

tlvr. 
Separation, .dil. of, 425. 
Scciuenco of tenses, 480 ff. I\ide, 

480. Application, 481 ; alter hist, 
pres., 481, IV.; after imp. suhj., 

481, V\ ; alter inlin. or part., 481, 
VI. Kxeeptions, 482 ; after perf. 
def., 482, 1 ; hist, tense, 482, 2; in 
orat. ()hli(iua, 482, 3. 

Sa]i(itui\ w. suhj. or inlin., 495, 2; 

519, 1. 
Serving, verl)S of, w. dat., 385. 
ScrvHH^ decl. of, 15. 
Sisr, 181, 4. 

)Sr.sfiHi>is,sfsfcy(!a, srsfcrtluni, 712 i\\ 
Showing, verhs of, w. two aces,, 373. 
-si, sin, in (Jreek datives, DO, 97. 
Silver age, 7<'0. 
-.sim, in perfect mihj., 239, 4. 
iSit/i/lin and it.s compds., constr., 391, 

Snnple, — sentence, 347 ff. ; elements, 

350; sidtjcct,351 ; predicate, 353; 

words, 313, 1. 
S;„u(/, w. al)l., 437, 2, 
*SV», w. suhjunetive, 503, 507 If. 
Sine, w. ahl., 434. 
Singular, 37; wanting, 131. 
Si no, constr., 551, II. 1. 
^7//V), w. aeons., 371, 3. 
Sitimi, (juantity of, 051, 3. 
-SO, in fut. perfect, 239, 4. 
*S'o///.s', decl. of, 149; solus (fii, w. 

suhj., 501, II. 
Source, abl. of, 425. 
Space, ahl. of, 378. 
Sparing, verhs of, w. dat., 385. 
Speeitication, ace. of, 380; genit. of, 

390, V. ; ahl. of, 429. 
Spirants, 3. 
Stanza, 000 ; stanzas of Horace, 099 

ir. 

Sfufniii, (ptantity of, 051, 3. 
Sf(i(H(\ constr., 558, II. 
Stem, 41 , in the five deels., 123. 
Stem-syllahlcs, (juantity in primitives, 

049 fU ; in derivats., 053 ; in 

compds., 05 1. 
*Sy;//, Nfifi, ([uantity of, 051, 2. 
Striving, constr. ( "veihs of, 558, III. 
S/i/i/iosiis^ w. ,en., 399. 
S/diy in compels., 338, 1 ; compds. w. 

dat., 380. SttO w. aec. or abl., 436. 



j-Ni>Ky OP BrniEcTS. 



.3r)3 



Interrogfp 

(T. I{ulc, 
; after liist. 
imp. sulij., 
• part., 'iMl, 
a Iter pfrf. 
,48'-', li; ill 

in., -1 '.>.-,, -J; 



■/./»i, vi'2 n: 
• iiccs.,;{7o. 
yo, 'J 7. 

','1. 

onstr., 391, 

; I'lcniontj!, 
licato, oDU ; 



nnv ir. 



|«.S' <IHI^ W. 



gi'iiit. of, 
)raco, (jDI) 



L 12n. 
^rimitivos, 
]()');{ ; ill 



558, HI. 
libl., 4;>5. 



< 



1 !;.'i.*." a? 



.^'liijoct, — Simj "..• pul^ ^ct ./..i ; c'>mn 
plcx, ;55'i ; compo T'i, Sin. .'^'.;?^«. 
nom., 'MM ; omii'v'l. ;■« ?, '. Su^,., 
ace, H75, 51..; o'.^'trcii, .'!.:. -:. 
Infill, na pv'>i . .^51>. 
sulij., n.lo ft. 

Siilijcft and (>J I 'f'!; 
Indirect ((Uisiion 
!^ul)junc'tive cla> 
willi Y«or/, cdniparcd, 554. Snh- 
jcct clauses, 555 iV. ; intcvrofr., 555 ; 
not inteiTo;^., 55(). Oljcct clauses, 
557 IF. ; intcrrog., 557 ; not inter- 
ro^., 558. 

Rulijoctivc f^onitivo, .".OC), I. 

Knlijunctivo, \'M\ \ syntax of, 48^?- 
5":>;;,— Potential Su'hj., 485 ft'. Subj. 
of desire, 4^7 ft'. Of purpose or 
result, 48;t-5(»l ; w. conJunet3.,4S'.» 
ft'.; w. relatives, 5(10 ft". Of con- 
dition, 502 ft'. Of concession, 5 1 5 
ft". Of cause and time, 517 ft". In 
indirect <n'.estions, 5'J 1 ft". Hy at- 
traction, 5-J7. In indirect dis- 
course — oratio olili(,ua, 528. 

Subordinat:,— cla'.J-ies, o45, 2; in 
orutio oldiciui", 531, Hub. con- 
juncts., oil, oSS ; t 'onient.s, 341). 

Sul)stantives, see Xoi'rs. 

tSi(f)f(r, in coinpd.'^. »v. ace, 871, 4. 
S'l/ifw, V «cc. or a '■!., 435 



SvTitax, r.l.".-C.o<;,~of sentence^ 
■;5i:{-;?r.l ; of nouns, :it')'2-4;i7 ; of 
adjectives, 4;'.S— 11 I ; of proiouns, 
415-45".!; of verbs, ■l(;t>-58l ; of 
particles 582-5'.to. liide.>< of syn- 
tax, 5'.)1. Arraii;.'eincnt of nonls 
.in<i clauses, 5'.)2-tJOt5. 

Systole, (50'.>, IV. 

^1^ SOrXD of, lift-.; nounfl in. 



T, 



;.i; :.' 



«.f 



i:.-o u:, 448 li: 



Sni, decl, 

/Sum, w. >^ t., I'bV; tv. pred. gcii. 

4o:}. 
^''7;rr, in a ir;t''s. \v. accu.''., 071,4. ; 

in coiupd V. ^> ith dat,, 380. ^npi , 

\v. a;'e. or .ibl,, 4r!5. 
Superlative, 100 ; ii'rc!:»., 103; want- 

in<r, j'CSlF. ; formed by vutxitno, 

170; w. pen., 3', o, 2, 3) (2). 
>S'Myw7'».«, compared, 1(')3, 3. 
Supine, IMO, II.; wantin".:, 207 ft*., 

271, 281, 2S3. I'seof,' 507 ft'. 
Supine system, 'Ml. 
A'/77>//co, w. dr., 385, 2. 
i^ifjira, w. accus.. 433. 
fSuxpriisux^ w. ;,'en., 3'.)!>, (2). 
*V«'/.v, decl. of, 185 ; xi-c of, 418 ff. 
Syllaljles, 17 ft". 
Synaeresis, 00'.>, 11. 
Synuloepha, Syni!ph;ia, 00'.>, I. 5. 
S" necdoehe, 7o5, III. 
Svnesis, 7oi, III. 3. 
Svnopsi.s of conjuu-ation, 210-226. 



18 ; f^enit. of, 07 ; f^endcr. 111. 

'y'drojiped, 55, 3 ; 2 IS. 
7', (plant ity of linal syllables in, 021 
y'<f<'/(f, coiistr., 410.' 
y'o/is, 180, 4. 
Tdljxt, <rcnder of, 44. 
T,mir(»}, w. subj., 515; 510, III. 
Tniif]iiam,tanqua)a si, w. subj., 503; 

500. 
Tdiititx^ ISO, 4 : tnufnn nhrxf, -lltO, 3. 
Teachiiijr, verbs oi", w. two aces., 

374. 
7a/ for A', 184, 5. 
'J'oiijtrro, c-nstr., 385, 3. 
y',)iiphni,, .'.el. lif, 15. 
Tenii)oral eoiij' i etions. m 1 ; 588, I. 
Tenses, 11*7 ,' prin. aiu Mst., 11)8; 

wantincr, lUS, 3. \':i ot. in iiidic, 

40('< ft". ; in >-ubj., 4 70 d'. ; se(|uene« 

of, 480 ft'.; in impcmt., 634; in 

infin., 54o; i>i part., 571. 
7'(;(".s', \v. p'u., 411; \v. abl., 434; 

after its case, 434., 2. 
Tirrac, {zeiiit. of place, 424, 3. 
Ti-sl'iii ^htti, eonstr., 55 Ij 3. 
Trfc, 181, 4. 

Tet(., meter verso, OC:'., 2. 
Tetrapody, t'Sti, 2. 
Tetraslieh, COO. 
Th, 4. 

Th.-sls, 000. 

-thongos, (Ircok nouns in, 4 7, 2. 
Tiiri'ateiiinj:, verlts of, w. dat., 385. 
-tim, adverbs in, 33 i, 2. 
Time, nccus. of, 378; abl. of, 378, 

2 ; 420 ; \y. the prep, i/i, 420, 2; 

w. <if)hhio,A'll. Time denoted by 

I'cc. or al)l. w. oiitc ov jioti/, 427 ; 

by i).nrtieip!e, 578, I. 
Time, with cause or jiurposc, subj. 

of, 521 Z 
Tniun, .onstr., 385, 3 ; 402, 4. 
77.S', lor tni, 181, 5. 
-to, for tor, in imjierutive. 239, 5. 



iioi 



INDEX or sri;.r!:(T;4. 



7 of, totn.f, 18(), 1. Tofus, tied of, 

ll'.>. 
Towuff, fictuler of iiainos of, 85 ; 

coiislr., — luriis., 'I'lU; with vr/)s 

oi <tj)/ti<litin, ■'>1'.\ li ; •^enit. or ubl., 

liil, II. 
Tiittix, in coniiids., 3;>S, 1 ; in compds. 

w. ace, ;{71, 1 ; w. two uccs., JiT-i, 

t». TntuSy w. iicc, A'Vn. 
Tnmsilive vi-ihs, 1 '.»:{; 371, 3. 
Tices, f^endoi- of names of, 3u. 
TiiiiiL'tcr, 01)3, -1. 
Tiipoily, (>r»('), 2. 
Tristicii, (HJC). 
Troi'liiiio verse, <'i70 fl'. 
-trum, nouiirf in, 320. 
7V, <loe'l. of, ^Sl. 
Tall, (luantity of, WTA , 2. 
-tus, nouns in, 3 1 s. 
TaiiH, (Ifcl. of, l.-^-j. 

USOU XD oi; <; n:, ll ; w. sound of 
1 V), \K Noiin.s iu ?<, IIG; gen- 
der of, 118. 
If, (|Uanlity of, — iinal, Gl'.); in in- 

ercnK'Hts, (■•:>7, t>l i. 
-u, for iti in ilat , 1 hi, J. 
f/ti, \y. fjfenit., 3'.tG, 2, -1). 
>llbus, ill dat. and aljl., 'JD; llC, 4. 
I'i, as diphlliontr, '.>. 
-uis, for MS, in jienit., IIG, 4. 
•ula, nouns in, ;;2o, 5. 
-ulcus., in derivatives, 315, 5. 
U/lu.s, deel. of, 14'J; indcf., 191, 2; 

v.sc of, 457. 
Ulterior, u/IIjuus, IGG ; force of, 

44 li, 1 
rV/m, w. a 'ens., 433. 
-ulus, ula, alum, in notuis, 315; 

320, 5 ; in idjs., 327 fK 
-um, Un'(trui.i, 42, 3 ; i'or arum, 45, 

5. 4); in p;tn. i)lur. of 3(1 dee.. Si). 
-undus, undi, lor <>«/;>.'?, cmfi, 23S. 
L'nns, deel. ol", UI», 17G; unus qui, 

w. sulij., 501, II. 

IfnUHtJHitKJHC, I'.U, 1. ' 

-ur, <;end. of nouns in, 114. , 

-ura, nouns in, 321. 

-urio, desideratives in, 332, III. 

-us, for e in voe. sir!||^15, 5 ; nouns 
in, 50 IK, llG;^nitive of, 7:'., 
llii; j,'ender, 115, 118. Deriva- 
tives in, 320, G; 321; us, Iinal, 
(luantify of, 027. 



Uxqur^ w. aeens., 437, 1. 
-ustus, adjs. in, 323. 
UxHK, constr., 4 l'.>. 
-ut, nouns in, 51; genit. (f, G7; 

gi'ud., 11 1. 
Ut, w. suljj. of purpose or result, 

4 S!) If. ; omitted, 4'J3, 2 ; w. </«/, 

51V», 3. 
Ut si, w. sultj., 503, 50G. 
Ut </His(/ni' — ita, 45H, 2. 
Ut-r, iitvrcHnquc,\Vd ; 187, G; 188, 

4, lUl, 2. 
UlerUhcl, utcrque, utcrvls, \\)\, 3. 

UtcniHc, w. plur. verl), 4<il, 3. 
Uthutiit, w. suhj. of desire, 4SSj 1. 
Utor, constr., 4'l'.i ; 41 'J, 4. 
Utf^otc, w. qn'i, Dl'.t, 3. 
Utrmn, 31G, II. 2. 
-utus, adJs. in, 323. 
-UU3, vt'ibal adjs. in, 328, 5. 
-ux, L^enitive of nouns in, 81. 

VPL.VCE supplied l)y n, 2. 
1 Vacuus, w. gen. or abl., 399, 
(3) and 5. 

Value, genit. of, 30G, IV. 

I'annus, gender of, 47. 

Vdut, vvluts'i, w. Hul)j., 5o3, 500. 

Verbal infleetions, tal)le of, 212. 

Verl )S, etymology of — (.'lasses, voiee.^, 
moods, tenses, ete., 192-203. 
Paradigms, 2(;4-215. Synopsis, 
21()-22G. T'eriphrastie eoiij., 227- 
232. C'ontraetions and peculiari- 
ties, 234-239. Formation of parts, 
240 If. Table of intlections, 242. 
( 'oin])arative view of eonjs., 243 If. 
Principal parts of verbs, 24G-2G0. 
("lassilieation of verbs, 2G1-28G. 
Irreg. veiiis, 2S7-29G. Deft'ct,,, 
2'.i7. Iini)ers., 298-301. J)eriv., 
330 ff. C<mii)ound, 341. Irreg- 
idarities of special verbs, 721. See 
also Trans'itire, Intrans., Finite, 
J)i'P'iUf)it, Scmi-depou,, Irnperso- 
iinl, Frcquoit,, Incejit,, Disidcrat., 
Dindnutive. 

\'erb.s, syntax of, 4G0, 581, — Agree- 
ment, '4Go 11'. Omitted, 3G7, 3; 
4t;o, 3. Voices, 4»)4 IT". Tenses 
of ludi"., 4()G If. Vi^f- of Indie., 
474. Ten,-<es of Subj., 4 7G 11". Psc 
of Subj., 483-533. Imperat., 534 
if. In'hu., 539-553. Subject and 



INDEX OV SlIUi:«TS. 



355 



objtH't clatisoM, nril ft. floniiid, 

6.»'.t-r>0t'i. f^iipiiK', bOl ir. I'arli- 

ciplc'S, 571-581. 
Vcilt-.-ti'iii, -ju;!, 212. 
I'rnor, cuutitr., 4'J2, 1, 
['crisiiiule at, vcruiu caf, const r., 

nnti, I. 2. 

I'tvo, plate ill i-laiisp, ('»<>2, III. 

Vi'i'.><t's, riOi ; iiaiiii's oi", (■)»;;] ir. 

Vi'isilicatioii, «">5.">, — l-Vot, ('>:>{) ft'. 
V'c'ific'.^, Ot)l 11". ri^iUir.s of pioso- 
dy, i'AW). Variutit's ul" vclso, G70 11'. 

T 'cv.sv/.s', w. af(.'us., '1:j3. 

Wwror, c'onsti'., -irj; 411t, 4. 

Vixtras, 1S5, 2. 

TV.s/n, vcstruin, r.OCi, III. 1.; '110,3. 

IV/o, c'onstr., 551, II. 1. 

I'ditu, coiiipiucd, 1H7. 

Vidniis, \v. dat. or gen., CUl, 1 ; 

T7r, (k'tl. of, 45, 4. 
Vii'r/lf, VLTsilifation of, GOfi. 
Vofative, loiiiiatiou of, S(i, 88; in 

(irock iioiitis, 'J5 ; in udjs., 151, 

157. Syntax of, liC)'.). 
VoicM, r.»5. .See also luuk'r Virbs, 

.s/f/dax of. 
Volcns^ idiomatic use of dat., -JHT, 3. 
Volo, constr., 551, 11. 1. 



-volus, conipdiJ. in, cnnipaird, 1(V!. 
N'owtis, ;;, I. ; sounds u)^, 11'., 1 1 IK ; 
l)cl'oro r, t>, 2. 

A\" PLACE 8upi)liod l.y «, '-». 
* » ) Want, constr. of vciIks and 

adjs. (if, 41".t. 
WaniiUjj', constr. of vcrl».s of, 558, 

VI. 
Wi'ijilits, Iioinan, 7M. 
Winds, gcndt r of names of, ,'!5. 
Wishin;;, tonstr. of vi'ibs of, 551. 
Words, arrangement of, 5'J2. 

X ROUND of, 11 ff.; nouns in, 
1 4S, 50; genitive of, 77-8o; 
gender of, 106. 

Y ONLY in r.icck word.-^, 2. 
J- ^ N(mI! ii.v 48; giMiitive of, 02; 

gender. 111. 
}', (piantity of, — fnial, 017; in in- 

ei'einents, tloS. 
»ys, griiirive of noinis in, 71 ; geiider 

of, 107; quantity of//.s linal, 028. 
-yx, genitive of nouns in, M2. 

ZUNLV in Greek words, 2. 
5 Zeugma, 704, 1. 2. 




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Ilarkuess^s Latin Grammar. • ^ 

From Prof C. S. nk.AinQ-niV and Prof. J. C. Van Bsnbohotin, o/ the Wtahyam 

Unirernity. 
**This work U cluA/, aowrate, and happy Id ita statement of principled, it almpli) }c4 
f-cXt il;irly, and i-tiit>racos tbe latest resewcbes io this departineDt cf philological sclcuua 
It will ap[icar in our cata^c gue.** 

Fr(ym Mr. KuiiltipuB ^itrrfT, Principal Fret Acatlftny, Xorwich, Ct. 
"This is Dot only tbe best I^tin Grummar, but one of tht most thoroughly [ rf^parot 
pchnol-boolis that I Unve ^ver 4^en. I have tnlroduued the book into the Free Aaa<le 
uiy, aud air '-••-'- •■' --*-» —i.i .i. . _ — u. „t „ .^..nft.'a .>Tnupi»no>> in t)i>^ nliisa-ruouL'* 



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