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Full text of "Early chapters of Seneca history [microform] : Jesuit missions in Sonnontouan, 1656-1684"

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6 5 f) - 1 6 S 4 , 

liV CHARLKS H.\WIJ':V. I). 1).. 

Author tif " K:n-lv Cluiptcrs of Cnyuj;'' Hi'ilory.'" Ai'.. *'■. :inil I'r''<i'li-nl ..f iIk- 
Cayny.i Couiily IIi■^ll>ri(■:ll Sucii'ty. 

Rt'piiiitfd from Colli'itioin of C. C. II. S., A'o. 3. 

A U 1! i; R N, \. V. 




^ ~[ }«.igp-uA J 




The nlaii (if till' in'csiMit work is simihir to tliiit nf the 
h'lifhi ('lid fill i-< nf ('ii//iii/it llisliirii. issued in isy.t, as tlic first 
(if a sci'ics inti'tnli'd to include a eoiuplete aecduiit ol tlie 
uiissioiiar.' labors of tin' I'Vcieli .lesuit Kat.liers, in tlie several 
lro(|Uois eautciis, in the last half of tlie seventeenth century, 
it has the same distiiftive feature, in the use made of the 
Relations for the iinrposes of local historv, which lielon,tiS to 
the previous pulilieation. Thest' reeop'is of two eentui'ies auo, 
are allowed to tell their own storv of devotion and liei'oisin. 
while tliev also serve a most trustworthy jiuide to the re- 
searches of the anti(inai'ian, to|lo^■|■allher, and ioeal historian, 
as will lie seen in the notes to the translations in the t<'Xt, 
and the aecomiianyini;- map. 

The wi'iler woidd aeknowled,u'e his indehtediiess, as in the 
prei>aralion of the Ctiyu^a Chapters, to Dr. .lohn (iilmaiT 
Sliea, author of C'dl/mlir Mif<siiiiis Ainnni/ lln' Inilinii 'I'li/n-s n/ 
till' II. M, (and kindred volumes illusti'atin,u' the early histoiw 
of theeountrv.) for his c'oiinsel and aid, which has lieen of 
service in various jiartienlars. 'I'he introductory chainer. 
which na..ates the lirst missionaiw visit lo the ln(hans 
within the present limits of the statt' of New York, and 
chapter \' II 1 which concliuU's the history of the S"iieca Mis- 
sion, were furnished l>v him. while the traiishition.-; that 

• • iIh- ImhIv of tin' w^>fk. w.MV -;iilimitt(Ml to his ciiivl'iil 
ivvisioii. It als(. -ivrs iiic plcasmv to diivrt alt.'iitiuii to tlic 
,„.1cs .nutnlxitr.l l,\ < Icii. .Inlii, S. Chirk. ..f Aul. urn. over 
his own initials, !is..f spcrial value Th.-y aiv the result uf 
much study and n's<'arcli. aud s.. far as thc.v relate to Indian 
villa<^'t' sites, i)f repeatoi iiersunal inspection of the several 
localities, until entire satisfaction has Keen reached. It is 
hardly possible to aiiprcciatc the patient lalior insi-ired l.y the 
true historic spirit, recpiireil to attain accuracy in thisdepart- 
ineiil of study. 

AnuKN, N. v.. .Inly. ISM. 

C. II. 

IS <'iirciiil 

illll til llic 
ilini, (i\cr 
' result of 

to Indian 
K' several 
lul. It is 
■ed l.v the 

lis (lepart- 
('. II. 

iiustiit ;i>Hi«.sinn.s ^5u'">i)) ll»'' «Si'iM'iii.s. 

Tilt.' earliest alteiii|il at missicin \vi>rk in \V. •stern New 
yiH-\< was that nf the I'Vaneisean Fatin'r .l(ise|pli ile i;i Koehe 
l>aillc>n, a /ealiMi< man who thoMLrh of hiuh I'aiik, helotiLrinii 
to the faniilv o|' the |)nl<es du laid, devoted hiinsell' to the 
American missions wilii all their hardships and |iri\ations. 

Sa>.'ard |preserve< the |'ollo\vin,ii letter of this elerL^vman 
addressed to a IVii'nd at AnLi'ers in I'Vanee, uivin^: an aeeouiit 
of his \i>it to the Neuter nation in Iti'Jt; 7. It nroperlv 
hirms a |ireliiniiiary ehM|iter of tlie ]i|-(;senl series, since after 
the o\erthrovv of tiie Neuters hy the Irocjiiois in ICiott, their 
territors was incorporated in the Seneca canton and one of 
the |iiinciple villajjes. ( iandoiiLrare, was at the time of the 
missionary lahors of tlie Jesuit Kalliers iinioiiL:' llie Seiiecas. 
composed laruvly of ea[)tives from the coiKpiered nation. In 
|lie wars between the livxpiois jiiid the Ilurons, which resulted 
in the ilcsti-iietion of tin- latter, in llil'.l, the Neuters took 
part with neithei': and it was their neutral position tliat,j:ave 
tln'iii their name. 

N.\|{I!AII\K UF lATIllOIi DK I, A UOCill-: liAII,l.(iN.' 

"Slit:— My hiimlih,' salutiUioii in the mercy of Jesus. It 
is still permitteil thoULih separated by distance to visit one's 

1 TrmiKlnU'ii by Dr. Joliii (iilniary Shi-a as the iiitroiliiilory iliapler of tlir present 
work. Till! note!*, ti);,'i'Uu'r with tin; Hkctcli of llriil.; vliicli follows the iiarriinvc, aiu 
ulsio from lii.i pell, excejit as otluTwUs iiiili<'ateil. 


f,,,,.ls l.V U.i-MV.-S .hi.'h -Vl.l.T :il-M,l tuT^nn. piVS.-Ut 

tlllll \Vi' «i|'lcll Wl'lll' 

tli;il I'V 

Onr luMii.n-iiivnMnn.slM'ili.t tins -'''■in 

, „• Ki.tlHTs aim ;in- :it a .li-t.,,.. fr-n, us. inn 

..„,,stlM'vl.':n- rllMuJ,t.:n..l.s.M,wlMt llu's. 

■ M-,„, l,nv.n. u.:nl,..mH.M:,v .r , v^'mI in ( .n:..iM 

,.•,,!,.... I w:. iu,lu i 1. ivU.M,. nupnU. .;• v,Mt . 

;,;::..„.n,.v ....... wi ■. .•an n-- =-' -- -• 

,,nv...l,l,..n..unhnll,l.'l.anUhM,...:..lM„.. .a, n,v, . . 

,v:.s..u .!■ 'la' wn.„.la.l n.a,l. I r |v,.,l a Myr .>-n 

; .1 ia/.. n-a..,lna. „. ,a.h ..M',. „. a nanon 

,.,,,,,,,,,„ N.ntn.l, uf xvha.lMla. n,,,.,v-t.a.nn,l-' tol. 
..U-r<^.a l.y s. , 1 a Ka.laT au,l tlu- pva 

.., out tVouMla. llun.ns wUlMlMs .k.s,,n. (),. nl,,., S, H.-i.. 
:!„. o,„. uauu.,1 «in.u..ll.. a,„l La Vall.v. !• naa.hnu.,, bv 
nalii'U.'^l.vlhrnara.u^.l'tlM.iVtun. 1 nual. tl,.. ar,,uaint. 

iualc uj 

.1... ,.n.nHS,.M ua. ,o .u„.- „. l. .ha, VnUcr ua .on. n. 

.;.vis,ons,ha,,w..haaiaiau,,,to.-i,iss..ll..l. ,1 ,o ,lnnk . 

living in ,lu.s,. nananes as tla's. i^opl,. ia-vu 

, .w.. Have no Uno.M.Ju'.. O ,,^'^, .,,. „ ,(„,„., ,„illo„. HoolU.c., 

,,,„,.„>.>. tU. «o.,K.l, -xcpt • ■ ;^^^ „,,, ^^,„, ,„.. ,i,„.,r,„..r..." H-l.i.i.m 

„.hoin,«aa r'""rrH^a I Nc^. '^' — '»"" -les ,1,.. Niagara, a. la., as 
1H41. ,., T4. It .« .;v>.U.m . > •; ^ • ■ .,„„„ „„„„ „„, „„„„ forced away 

"y ..- S>..u.n.s. »":;',_'■' ::^,; ,f ..unona.a..o„ wIk... Ka-lwr ..e la Uoelu. win- 
'" ''^'^irTennr . IC . ,.L In.,,.n- fn-M,!..,-, .l,e presuinptio,, is very .Ton. 
, ,.re.l to the W enr..>, « li" « i' vj,,,,,,,,, anil in wlnit is now New ^ ork. 


tlllllkill'4 III ;jivr lllilc.-.- \iill |Mlt tlli'lii lllnlcr nlili;j;ili(UI, illnl 

it 1- nfti'ii m'i'i'>siiry to iiiiikc l'iii</ stiiucs :iii>l i'M'm piis?. 
lii;iii\ iiii^lits svilliiiiit riiidiiiL^ any nilicr >Iii'1|ct I !i;iii llial i>l' 

till' .-tais. 111' I'llllilluil t ir Siitislai'tmii what In' liail [iKHii 

i.Hi'il ii-i, aipl wr sli'pt milv livi' iii'j'lit.-' in lln' womls, ami <iii 
tlii'>i\lli 'la\ \\<' aiTiN'nl at llif lifsl xilla'ji', wlirrr wcwriv 
vcrv well fi«cci\cil. tliaiiks to <>\\r I-"ii|, ami then \i< Iniii- 
nllicr \illa'j>'- wliii'li riiiii|M'tiiiL; with cai'li otlicr ln'mi'jlit, us 
I'.hmI. ,-iiiM(' \ciii<'iii. dtliiTs si|Ua.-lics, iu'iiitalii>ii\ ' ami tlif 
lic-t tlii'\ iia^l, aii'l ,Im'V wrrc astoiiislicil to sec iiic ilfcsscd in 
the st vie aii'l that 1 ih'sii'cil iic it him: 1 n'li ni'j inu tn tliciii. i>iil\ 
that 1 iii\iti'i| thiMii liv siuiis In raise their eyes to IleaNcu. 
ami make the >i;jii of the Holy (Vns.s and what tilled thein 
with wonder was to see lue retire at certain hours of the (la\ 
to pi'iiv to (iod, and ilexnte myself to inteiior exercises, for 
the\- had never seen relijiioUS. e.\ce|it towarU> the l'etunen\ 
and llic llufons. their neiiihliors. 

At last we reached the sixth villacc,' where 1 had ln'cn 
ailvi,-ed to remain ; 1 had ti couiicil held here, where vou 
wdl remark, liy the way, that they call all their asseinhlies 
councils, which t liev hold seated on the ui'ound, as olten as it 
])leas(;s their ehiets, not in a hall, Imt in a cal)in, or in the 
open Held, with vi-ry strict silence as loiiL:-asthe chief speaks, 
and thev are inviolable ol),~ervers of what they have once 
(•onclndcd and dctcrniine 1. 

'J'liero I told them thron;_rli the iisterpreter that I liiul eoine 
in the name of the I'Vcncli, to form alliance and frietiilship 
with tliein, and to invite theiu to come to the trade, that I 

I Si:.'ai(l ill lii> llnniii clii liuiKiry cNiilMiii- IhU lo he ihhcIhcI riini. 

; 111- calls lliis MitiM'iiiicnny OiiiiiiiitiKiiKliiii. In lliin Failur Itri'limf rail.- Ilic \illin.'c 
fuillii'>l IriHii I lie llmuii^', ainl only iiiicday'H joniiu y fnnii I lie Snifciis, '■llic la-ttdwnof 
till' Ni'iiU'i- imliuM (111 llii' caul side, callol Oiii;iiiiialira, the wniic iiiinic iib the river." 
liclallmi Hill, )i, *.'. Tlic town iiciirci't llic ll'uons \va^ Kiimloni ho. II). Tcoliij,'iiiloii 
wax inidivay. II). |). 'H. Hrclimrancl ('liiinniiniot vii-itcd is of ihcNcnlcr Iowiik aiul 
apparently itosmciI the Niii^jara. p. 7M. as Fattier de la Uodii- Daillon did. I'nrorliiiiiitely 
t'lianiplaiii niciilioii- im Ni-ntcr Nllliii:e in liis icM or iiuip. 


als..lKM-<Ml th'/in t.. iMTiiiit HI.' lo rriuain in tlicir ccmitry, in 

ihc 'iiw (if oiu- (lod. wliich 
'I'licv iU'ccpteil nil 

order to l.i-;il)lt' to iiistruet tlu'iii in 
is the onlv means of -'oin,- to IK-iveii. 
u.v oilers.' and assured n.e tliey were veiT i.leasin- to iIhmu, 
c.msoled l.v wl.icli. I made them a | of ilie little 1 had, 
;,s littK' knives and .,ther tulles, vvhieh they este.-m at a hiuli 
,,,i,v, for ill these .Mmntries never treat of aiivUim,- with 
Ihe Indians witlioul makin- them presents of ...miethin- or 
other, ana in return they l.e.uo, me (as they say) that is. tliev 
deelared me a eiti/en and a ehild of the .-ountiy , and -ave me 
in char-e(a mark of ureal alTeetion) to Sonharissen, who was 
„,y fath.. and mv host, for aeeonlin- to age, they are aeens- 
tomed to eall us eousm. hrother. s.m. uiu-le or nephew, .S;e. 
This one is the chief of the greatest .'reait and authority, 
who has ever been in all the nati<u,,<. for he is ehief not oi 
his villau-e onlv. luii of all those <.r his nation, t,) the number 
of twenty-ei-ht. ineludin- towns, .'ities, aii.l villages, l.mlt 
like those of the llun.n eountry, as well as of s.weral little 
hiunlets of seven or eight ealnn.. built in various places, 
eonvenient for lishing. hunting or cultivating the ground. 
This is without exami.le among the other nations to h vc 
ihsolulea Chief, lie ae.piired this honor and power by 
his eouraue. and for having several times gone to war against 
liie seventeen nations who are their enemies ana brouglit 
back heads, or brought in prisoners from all. 

' Th.ose who are valiant in this style are highly esteemed 

amoii'' them. And tliougli they have only the war club and 

tho bow, vet they are v^'iy war like, and dexterous in these 

After all this friendly welcome, our Krenehmeii hav- 

irretunied. I runiaine.l, the happiest man in tlie world. 

h,min"- to advance something there for God's glory or at 

least t"^ discover the nutans, which would be no small thing, 

:,„d to endeavor to learn the mouth of the river of the Iro- 

([uois in order to conduct them to the trade. 




iiiiitrv, III 
ihI. wliicli 
cpH'il nil 
It. llu'in, 
lie 1 liad, 
i!t a liiuli 
hiii;_^ svitli 
I'tliin,^' 'ir 
lit is. they 
1 L^avc tiu' 
, \v!iii was 
arc ai'ciis- 
phew, "l^i'. 
llil'l' not of 
lie iuiiii1h.t 
iges, Imilt 
voral littlf 
Ills places, 
)us l<) li \ e 
1 power liy 
Aiii' against, 
III l)roUL;lit, 

y esteemed 
ar dull anil 
MIS in these 
ehrnen hav- 
tlie world, 
glory or at 
small thing, 
r of the Iro- 

I have also ihiiK' my hest 'o ii'arn thcii-cii >ms and mode 
"I' I'l'''. ;iiid dm-ing my stay I visih'd them in their cal.ins, to 
know aii.i instrm't them, and I joimd thcni snllicirntlv 
'i''i'-':i''l'". ••md 1 often iii;,,l,. the little childivn. who aiv verv 
liriL:'.:' .'.ai'ls naked and dislieveled, make the sign of the 
IIolv Cross, and I reninrkrd th;it in all these ( (.iintries 1 never 
saw aiiv liiimphaeked. onr-eveil, nr mi'^shapcMi. 

I have always seen them linn ii. their wish to o-o with at 
least h)iir<'an<Mstothe trade, if | would guide them : the whole 
diliienlty w.-is that we did not know the way. Vrotpiet, an 
Indian known in these cnintries. who had eome ihrre with 
twentv of his people t,, hunt Lravei', and who to,,l< at least 
live himdred. was never willing to give ns any inai'k to know 
the month of the river. IIi' and several llnrons assured ns 
lirmlv that it was only ten days' ,<ail to the plaee ,<i trade, hnt 
we wei-e afraid of tid<ing one I'iver hir another, and losinti' 
our way or dying of starvation in the land. 

For I hive months 1 had every re;i.-,,M in the worM to he 
s.atisheil witii my peojile. j?iit the Ilnions liaxing discovered 1 talked of taking tliein to the trade, spread tliroiiuii all 
the village where they parsed, very evil MUPors .ahoiit me. 
that I was a great magician : I had disea-ed the air in 
their.'i.iintry and poisoncl sevenil : if they did not soon 
make way with me tliat I would set III-.' to their villaecs, and 
make all their children die; in line, that I w;is. as thev rep- 
resented, an . I /-/An; //('—this is their word to sigiiifv one wdio 
malci's sorcerie.-;. wdiich they hold in tin- giva^est lioi'ror : and, 
hy the way. know that there are many sorcerers who under- 
tak-e til cure the sick hy mummeries and other hincie.s.' 

In tine, these llnrons ha\e iiKvays told them so iimeli e\-il 
of the JM-eiich tlia.t tlu'v could imagine, in order to divert 
them from trading with ii.s that the Kreiicli were iiiapproach- 

I When 111,. .1, ■suits Hri'Lcur and ChuiunoiK.: .ulcinplcl ii inissiiiii .•iiiicni; llic Niutcrs 
ill 111 III, the s:iiiH. iiii-iis.'i'ioMs «,.,•,. iiifiiiiist Uiciii liy Iliirdiis. i;,.|,itioii lti)|, p. 7:,. 


iil)l(', liiirsii, sad ami iiu'liinrlioly mm. wlio liv(> on notnui:.' 
l,ut snakrs aiul poison; that wv eat tlie thnndi'r' (wlii.-l, 
tlu'V imauiiH- to be an uupurallflcMl iiioiistor, rolatiii.u- stiaii-v 
storu-s about it); that we all had tails likr animals, and 
that oiii' women had oidy one breast, which was in the mid- 
dle of the bosom: that they l)ore live or six children at ii 
birth, and tliev added a tlioiisand other absurdities to make 

us hated by them. 

And in fact these u'ood iieople who are very easily per- 
sanded, conceived such a mistrust of me, as soon as any one 
fell sick, they eame to ask me whether it was not true that 1 
liad poisoned him. that they would surely kill me if 1 did 
not cure him. 1 had much dillicidty inexcusin„ and defend- 
ing myseli. At last ten men oi the last village called Oua- 
romnon;-' one day's march from the llinxpiois, their kindre.l 
and friends, coming to trade in our village, eame to see me 
and invited me to visit them in return at their village. 1 
pi-omiscd todo so without hiii, when the had melted, and 
to -ive them all .«'me triHes, with whi.di tliey showed them, 
selves satislicd. 'riiereui.on they left th(> cabin where I 
lodged, all the time hiding their evil designs against me. and 
.seeing that it was growing late, tliey came back to sir me, 
and brusquely began to .piarrel with me, without provoca- 
tion. One knocked me down with a blow of his list, and the 
,,lln"r took an axo. and as he was about to lay iny head open, 
(iod diverted his hand and turned the blow on a post that was 
tliere near me. 1 receivcil several other ill treatments, but tiiat 
is what we come to seek in countries, (^lietiiiga httle. 


tlun- v.Mitcil tJifii- ;iiil;'('|- Oil the little |)r(i|)crtv we lnul j.'lt. 

'riit'V took (Mil- \vi'iliii';k, hlankfl, lircviafv ami ■ \k\j in 

which there svei-e soliic poi'ket-kui Ves. lieclli.s. ;i\v!<. ;iii,l 
other little thiiiLix of lik'e (|iialit\, and ha\ iiiu thns stri|.|ie.l 
me, they went nil' all tiiat iiiniit u\-e|-j,)veii at theii' <'\[ 
and on ai-rivin.i:- al their villaiic, on inakin.i!' an exaniiiialion 
ol the'ir hooty, toiieheil perhaps liy a repentance come fiMm the 
Most, liiuh, they sent, me hack uiir hreviars'. cumpass, writinu- 
tiesk, lilanketand sack, liiit, it was (piite emptv. 

On theii- arrival in my villau;e, called ( (iimaitisastoii, there 
were unlv women there, the men having- ljoiic to hunt stasis. 
On their retnrii they manifested to me tliat thev were sorrv 
lor liie disaster that had het'allen me, then no more was 
said alioiit it. 

The rumor s[)read forthwith to the Hnroiis, that I hail 
been killed, whereupon the good Fathers lirelieiif and de 
None, who had r('inaine<l ihei-e, sent (ireiiolje promptlv t^ me 
to learn the truth, with orders that if 1 were .■iliscto liriiiLi me 
back, to which I was invited by th(! h'tter which tlav 
had written me with the p(Mi of their j^ood will, and ! ilid not 
wish to Liain.say tlu'in, since such was their ;i-lvice and that 
of all the French, who feared more di.sastei's than pruiii 'hv 

my death, ami thns returned 1 to the countrv of • Huroiis, 

wliero I am at jiresent all admiriuL; the divine cU'ects nf 

'J^Ih! country of tliis Xeiiter nation is incoinparabl v .uroater, 
tiller and better than any other of all these countries.' There 

1 "There is also two days' JDiirney from llitsc' alie I'l'luii-) another iialiiiii of liuli.iiis 
who raise a j,'reat ([iiaiitity of tulmceo, oiithe side toivard.s llie soiilli, who areealled lh,> 
Neuti'r imtioiis wlio niiinher l.Ddi) warriors, who dwell west of the lake of the Kiitoiili. 
oiioroiis. Kll to KKI leaL'iies in extent," I.aviTdiere's eiiain|)laiii. l(il!l, |i. (k». "These 
Neulei-!! enjoy, aeeofdiii^r to the ri'port of sojne, elirhty lea^'iies of eoiiiiiry, where they 
raise very ;.'ood tohacc). whieli they Iraile with their neighbors. They UMsist the Chi-- 
veux Kelevez (Ottawa-i a^'aiiisl the Nation of Kire. of whom they are niorlal eni-inies; 
but between the Ilirorinois and our lliirons * * • th;-y had peaee and reninined neutral 
between the t.vo nations. • Sa;.'ard, p. Hiii " Kroni the llr^t town of the Neiiter nation 


is ail iiKTcilililL' ntniilx'i' of ilicrc. wliicli tlicv ilo not take 
one liy diic, as is (Imic on this siilc, hut iiial-:iivj tlirci' li('(l<i'cs 
in a spacious ]ilai'c. tlicv laiii tlicni all alicail, until tlicy <'()l- 
Icct thi'iu ill tiiis |ilaf(', when' tlicv tak'f tlnMii : ami tlii'V liaN'c 
this maxim I'oi' all kimls of animals, wiirlhcr they nccil them 
(U- not. to kill all tiifv iiml, I'oi' fear, as they -^ay, that ii' they 
ilo not take them tin' licasts would :;;<) and inform the otiicrs 
liow thcv hail liccM pursucil, and that afti'i'wai'ds. in llicir 
nciH's>:ity, they would no longci liud any. A Lircat almnd- 
anrc of moose of ell-:, heavci'. rat't'oou,-;, ami lilack S([uirn'ls, 
lafger than those of 1'' ranee, arc found there, a i;i'cat (luaniity 
of wild ircesc, tui'kcvs, ei'ancs. and other animals, which 
remain there all winlci', which is not Ioul;' nor riiioroiis as in 
('aiiada. and nosui'W had fallen thcri' on the li'Jd of Nnveni- 
licr, which was not at most more than two feet decji, 
and licgan to melt on the 2tith of .lannary. ( )n the Sth of 
March' there was no louijcr any at, all in the open places. 
tlioMuh there w;is a little, indeed, in the woods. Kcsidcncc 
thei'c is pleasant ;iml <'oiivciKcut "iioiiuii, the I'ivers furnish 
(pnuitities of vci'v cood lish, the soil v'iN'cs u'ood corn moi'c 
than for their want. There arc s(piashes, beans and other 
vegetahlcs in plent\-, and \- e ry siood oil which tlu^N' call a 
'J'ouroiilon.' so that I do not donht lint that wc should settle 

foiiiid oTi priHM'ciliii;; fioin here ilhi' lliin)n>i kri'pini.' (in sciiHli iir snntlnvc.-t it is iil)c)U( 
four (lays' journey lo the nidiith of Uu' so faii\ous river of that nation in Ontario or 
I,ake St. Louis, 'riiis side of tliut river and not lieyond it, as u eortain map states, are 
the most of tlie towns of the Neuter nation. There are three or four lieyond rans^ed 
from east to we«t towards the Nation of the Cat or KneehriUKUis. This river is that hy 
wliieh our i,'reat lake of the Iliirons or Mer Donee, whieli Hows first into that of Krie or 
the Nation of the Cat, and there it enters into the lands of tlie Neuter nation and takes the 
nanu' of Dnyiiiaahra, till it empties into Oidario." -I{(dation 1(141. p. Tl. 'Vlie map re 
ferred to is evidently ('lnini|i'ain s, of li;:iJ, where he makes the Niagara run from west 
to east and places the Neuters entirely west of Lake Ontario and sonlli of the Niajjara 
The oil sprMi!,'s in their eounliy were evidenlly east not west of that river. 

I 'I'his ll.Kes apparently the period of his stay in the eoiintry of the Neuters from 
November y.', ai.'li, to ahoul March 8, KKT. 

-• •■ 'I'he eo|iylst of the I'aihet's leltiu' mistook in my opinion, the Huron Wdrd Olor 
onton, which he makes to mean «i/,- for it is, properly spuakin;;, /(c/cA, or Oli '. hitir 
tiiii'li Ihi'ri- /.»•/- Saiiard. p. sii:i. 


tliiTc i';itlu'r than clscwlH'rc, ami, clmilii |,ss dii a Iummci' stav 
tliiTc wuiiM 1)1' lidpc of aihaiiciiiL: 'iml's 'jIdi'n-, wliicl: is 
inniv to 1h' xiii'jlit than anL^ht else, an<l iIumi- (•iin\(M'>i(in is 
'iiiiiv III lie li(i|i,'il |',.r the faith than that nf ihr Ilnrnns, and 
I am a>tiinisiii',| hciw tlu' ( 'unipan v nf Mi'ivhanls, siiicr 1 he 
1 iinc they ha\i' iMiiic In 1 hoc cdnnl rics, ha\ i' not inaih' sdimi' 
I'Vcnrhnicn winter ii: said cdnnti'v: I -av a-suredlv t hat. it 
WMiild 1„. \-,.rv easy to lead them \n tii" liMd<', wlih-h would 
Ilea ureat aiKantauc to l:() ami eome li\- >o short and eas\- a 
I'onte,' as | lia\ e alivadv told von, I'or to vo I radiiej to the 
IlniMiis aniiil all the dillienlt rapids, and alwavs in daiiLn-r 
<il drowning:-, is scarcely atti'aetivc. .and tlmi to niari'li lor six 
days from the linrons to this coiinti'S'. crossinu' the land li\- 
learfnl an.l awfnl routes ;is i ha\i' .-ecu the; ire insu]'- 
pni'tahlf hardships and he alone k'liows it. udio lia> fonnd 
liiinself amid them. 

1 .siy then that the Licntlcnicn associates should, in m\- 

"pillion, semi soim> I'Venclimen to winter in the < ntrv of 

the N'enters. who aiv hvs ivniotc than that of the llnnms. 

h'l' 'li''.V can d hy the lake of ihe lliroipiois to the 

place wheic the tradi' is held' in ten day- at most : this lalsc 
is tlicirs al.~o. the one oi: the one .-liore, and the others on 

I " I rdii.jolurc :il-ii .-.■i-ily llic |iriixiiiiily of ilir N.-iitri- i., (^iiuhi'i-. in tint Ihr lliv 
ii(|ucils iiii; iii'iirir 1(1 the- l''rcii(li ili:iii ihi' riiiroiK ;ni'. iiiiil 111.' Nciili'i-' arc iiiily ti t\:\\> 
jdiirnry friiiii lln' llinniui)is. wlionll lie s<jiiiliHiii(l."-N:'LMnl. 

■-• 'I'lic pliK-c (if Iniilc, iilrciidy scvcriil lime.-, niciilidntd, vm- oii Lake Si. IMcr, mIkiiiI 
lifly miles lieldw Mdiitrcal. !<iiL'ar(l in If.Sli says : " « * ".\f:cr luiviiii; liccii ic- 
frcslicd f(ir HiAcial days wiili dur 'nctlircn, and oi.idycd their sweet (•diivcisalidii. in 
(iiir liltl" fdiivenl. wc ascended in imr l)ar(|nen liy the Hiver St. I.a«ienee fur //if trdil, 
of Ihi V(i)ii iif VUliinj, which i.s from (^iieliec aliont fifty leau'iies. * * * * \Ve reached 
l.atte St. I'eler. which is si.\ (ir seven leai;iies Ihiil;. and lliree (ir fdiir wide in plaee.x, and 
four fathdins deep Hliere Ihe waler is still. * ♦ « * A Utile alidve Ihe (iiitlet (if Ihe 
hike we enter the hariidr (if (ape Victory and cast anchdr ahdiit .si.^ (ir .se\cn (I'cldck in 
the evening' (if the day iif SI. Maiidaien, when' already were encamped aldii!..'the bank, 
a yrc'd imndierdf savau'cs of varidiis niitiim.s for the tiinlmf hfiiinx ii'illi tin' Fniitli. 
t * * * Kioin the harlair (iiie sees in fniiit six dr seven islands ecivered with lieantifiil 
trees of iiniform hei'.dd. which cdnccal friim view the lake and Ilie river (if the Iro- 
(|nois, which disehar;;es itself into the u'reat river opposite tlie harlior." (Saiiai-ds 
llicldry of Canada, I, ira>-.l. S. ('. 


the utlicr, l-iit 1 si'c tiiic oli-itMi'lc, wliicli is tlicy lianlly l\iiii\v 
lii>w til iiiiiuM'ji' ciiiiocs. t's|ii'ciall\- at. rapiil-. iiltlmii^uli there 
ai'o 'nil\' tWM, Imt tlu'\' Mi'i' Ioiil; ami i!aii:;i'n)iis. 'I'licir r^a' 
ifailt' is liiiiitiiiL;' ami war. oiitslih' of tiiat llicv arc ^^rfal 
slii;:'<.ianls, wiioiii y<>n see like ln'iii/ars in I'" ranee, wlien Llie\ 
are full, lyin,L!' on tlieir iielly in the sun 'I'lieir life, like that 
of tlu^ llni'ons, vei'v (lissointe, ami their manners ami ens- 
tonis entirely the same. 'I'he lanLinaL^c is ilill'erent, li(i\ve\cr, 
hnt they undei'staml eaeli otluT as tiie Alij;"iinie(|nins aii'l 
Moiitajriiais do.' As for elothes. do not look for ai.y anion'^ 
theni, for they do not wear even hreeeh eloths, which ;s 
\'er\' sti'anii'e, and is scarcely found in the iiiost. sa\ap' iriln's. 
And to tell you the truth, it would not lie e.\j»edient to let 
all i\indft of people eoine hci'c, for the wi<'ked hfe of some 
French!nen is ii pernicious example to them, and in all these 
countries, the people though l)ai'l)ai .>us, reproach us, saying' 
that we teach them thinus coiitrai'V to \v'iai our l''reiiclnnen 
praetiec. 'I'hink, sii-. wiiat weight our woi'ds can have aftci' 
that : yet hetter is to l)e hoped i'or, since what consoled nn' 
on my I'eturn was to see that our countrymen had made 
their peace with our Lord, had confessed and received com- at Kuster, and had sent away tlieir women, ami have 
snieo l)eeii nioiv guarded. 

I must tell you that tliev ti'eated our Fathers so harshlv, 
that e\en two men of whom the.Iesuit l''athers hail deprixcl 
theinselvts for theii' aceonunodatioii, have lieen driven out liv 
foree, and they \vere unwilling to give diem a,iy provisions 
to nourish and suppoit some Imliaii hoys who desired to live 
with us, although they pi'oinised to luivo them roinuiierate(l 
by some of oi'r henefactors. It is cruel to he tn^ated in this 

' "Our Iliiniiis r;ill llic Ni'iitci imlnm .Mliw.nulmdnk, ii* inncli a- in fay. " I'rcipk iif 
a laiiKllat-'i' a little dilTtTi'iit." for aw to iialidiiri wlili'li ^pi'ak a laiij:iia;?i! that they (Id iiiit 
uiHliTclatKl at all, Iliry call tlu'tn .Vkwaiiakr. nf whatuver iiatinii tlicy may Ih', as ip" in 
cay "Slraiitji'rs." The [U'oplc df Neuter Natiiui in turn for tin- same reason eall iiur 
lIiiroTis "AlliwamUirDuk." Helatioii Kill. p. ;i. 

y kinisv 
ii tluTf 
icir Tim' 
re L:i'f;il 
WW they 
ike tliiit. 


lins aii'l 
(■ a 1 1 1 1 ) I il;' 
vliich :s 
I' tril»cs. 
lit to !t't, 

<pf SOIIH^ 
[,11 tliCS.- 

, siiyiii-- 

IVl' llt'tiT 

oldl ine 
il iiiailo 

I'll CI llll- 

mi liavt' 


II (lilt liV 

il to livt! 
il ill this 

" I'l'cipk iif 
they (1(1 iiol 
' hv, itn if lo 
<iii\ ci.ll imr 


sort, liyoiii viTv couiitrviiKMi, hut since we arc Friars Miiioi-. 
our ((inditloii is to suH'cr am! to prav to (io;! to L:ivc us 

It is said that two new l-'athers eanic to ns f.-oiii l-'raiicc, 
naiiieil l-'atlicr I»aiiicl Hoiii-sicr and l''athcr l-'rancis de J^in. 
\ille. who had liccii |irotiiised us already last vciir : if this ')•> 
so, I licLi you as a crowiiiiiL;' of all your troiiMe, that voii tako 
for ine, to let me have without fail a liaKit that tlicycaii send 
Hie, it is all that I ask, for no cloth is made here, an 1 ours 
tiein.L;' all worn out, I cannot do without one. 'I'lie poor 
rcliiiions of St. l"'r;;iicis having; food ami clothin,ii', this is their 
whole lot on earth: IleaNcn wc hope under favor of our 
jidodCiod in wliosi^ service we must voluntari! v devote our 
life lor the salvation of tlies(> lieni,Ldite(i people, in oi'dei' that 
it him, if he accept our care, to make Cliristianitv 
(lourish in these countries. (io(l permits inartvi'dom to those 
who mei'it it, 1 am sorry not to iie in that state, and vet 1 
am not nnawari' that to lie rccoii'ni/.ed a true servant of (iod, 
uiiemiist e.\ pose him. self for iiis brethren. Come then hravelv 
pain and toil, all dillieiilties and death itself will be a<.n'eeable 
to me, (iod's ^'raee beiiiy with me, which I implore bv tneaiH 
of the prayci's of all our uood friends ovei' there, whose, sir, 
and your most hiiinbh; ser\ant. 

1 am in our Lord. 
D;iled al Toanolmiii, a Huron village, ihls IStli dny of July, 1G27. 

Stephen ]?rule, wlioseoulotiy of the country of the Ni'iiters 
led Father de la Roche Daillon, to visit them, had, we must 
infer, already been in thaljiartof fliecountr\, and boon struck 
by its advanta;j('.s. Jle came over at a very early ajz'e and was 
employed l)y C'hainplain from about liilOaiid pi'ihaps earlier- 
He was one of the lirst e.xplorer.s, proceeding to the Huron 
(.•■ountry and aequiriiig their language so as to serve as inter- 
preter. (L!ivcrdiere"sChamplaiii, vi i)p. 244-26()j. As early us 


S(']iti'iiil)('rS, Itil'i. wlii'ii ( ■li;iiiip!;ii'i wns jircp;iriiii:' to join the 
IIuiMiis ill tlii'ir cxpi'ilitinii ii'jniiist the l'!iit<Mii>lioiiiii'iiiis, in 
('(•iitr;il New ^'(ii'k, Slr])licii Uruli' ^d out williii pintv of 
t\vi'l\'' llui'oiis iVoiu r|i|i('r Caiiii'l.i for tlic lowns of tlic 
('iiriiiitou;mii;iis. !iilii'> of thi' Huron- livinjx on tiic Siiscinc- 
li;inn;i, ami rviilcntly foiniinL;' pai't of tin' confiMTt'i'acv known 
later as tin- A mlasti'-;. (III. ll('>l.">. I p. ."'")| to soMiiv tl.cir 
foo|..Tatiiin auain-l the cnciay. 

lie ri'oNsi'il from I,;il^( ( )ht:n'io api'ai'cntly to tlic Siisipic- 
lianiia. liffcutcil ,i small Ii'oi|iiois pai'ly and cntcicd tin' Car- 
iiiitoiiaiinais town in triuiniili.' 'I'lic fof<TMiiai<-lii'(l too slowly 
to join ('liam|il't,ii. ami l>ri'i(' rclnrncii to ijicir ronnlry wIh'Ic 
li'" w iiiti'i'i'ij. !Ic ili'-i'i'iidi'd tlicir ri\ci' (till' Snsipii'liaiina. I 
visitinii' the iioiLiiii o"in^- triiics. mcclinij' scNcial wlio (•o:n 
'ilaincd of till" liarsliii.'-s of the Dntrli. At last lie stavt( d to 
I'cjoi'i liis conntrNincn. Imt liis party was attacki'd and scat- 
t('i'('(i li\- tlic Ii'oipioi.-. and l)i'iil(' losini:' liis way ciitci'cd an 
Ifoijiiois \'illa_ii'c. lie tried to eoii\iiiee tlicin tliat lie was 
not of the same nation of w lutes wlio had jiHt lic'ii altai'kiiiL:' 
llieni. lint tlie\- fi'll upon liim. tore out iii- nails and lieai'd 
and Ix'Lian to hnrn liim in dillerent parts of tlie Imdy. lie 
was far fi'oiii lieinL;' an e.\ein|i|ai'v eliai'aeter, Imt wore an 
A.UMins Dei, and when the Indians went to tear this from his 
iieek he threateneil tiieiii with the veii^eanee of Heaven, 
.Inst then a terriMe thunder storm came u]), his toniientois 
lied and the chief released him. After he had spent some 
lime with them thev escorted him four days" jwe.rney and he 
made his was- to the AtinoMatMitaiis, the Huron trihe occn- 
pviiiL;- the ]ieiiin-ula lietwecn Nattn\vassa,L!:i and Nratcliedasli 
hays on Lake Huron i Laverdiere's Cniamplain Ifil!', p]i. l.'U- 
14(1. 1(11;"), ]). 2<>: Sa.Liard, Histoire du Canada, |>. -KiO.) 

I ('ariimoiiiin wii^ in the oniiocis <if present Wiivcrly, in Tiosiii C'onnt.v, N. Y., on 
llic liiii' lu'twccn I'tMiiisylvaiiia iinil Ni'W Yort;. on tlic ciint side of Clifinnii^ Hiver. It 
wax enclosed liy a imiisaiU-d work, the remains of wliicli iirc . !1 plain to l)e seen, con- 
Ininini; alionl ten acres, lirnlc reporleil that in liil") il contained HtXl warriors.— J. S. C. 


II'' fciiiud Cli;iiii|)l;iiii in Itil^, iiml iiunlt' liis i'c|pnrt to 
liiiii. li was a|i|i:n'('iitly I'li this I'ctuni inaivli that he passed 
tlii-uiiuh till' tciTitnry <•!' tlir Neuters, ,is il WdiiM lie his saf«;st 
course. We lind him in (^)iiel)ee in Ill'J.'!, when ht wa> sent 
t(i meet and In'iiie down liie llni'ons edminij In ti'ade. ll(! 
returned with tiiem. h'adini;- a verv dis~(ilute hfe amnnL;- the 
liidians ia< SaL'^ard comiihiined ). - Laverdiere's Cliamplain, 
K'l'it, \i. ><\. W'iien Ki !"iik t^nehee he went over t'l the 
Ku,ulisli. and was sent up to tlie llurons in their interest in 
1(12!>, notwit!i<tandiug the l)itter I'epiNiaelies of ("haniphiin. 
(111. lO.'J'i. p. *Jt)7.) Saiiard. wi'itiiiL:- in l(i.".(), states that pio- 
voked at liis eondiiet tiie Herons put him to death and 
devoured him. — Sa.Liard, Ilistnii'e du Canada, p. 4f!t!, Lejeune 
[{elation l(l;!;i. p. J! I. The I'aet is not iiienlioued hy 
the Jesuits. I'Voin the remark of Father lireheuf (Relation 
Ki;-)."), p. 2S. I il would seem that he met hi.- death at the very 
town, 'I'oaiudiain. wheiiee I'ather ih; la Uoelie wrote. It was 
aliout a mile from 'I'liunder Bay. — Lavenliere's Cliamplain 
Kilit, p. 27. 

Such was tlic fate of the man who wa- tiuMirst to cross 
from;" < hitai'io to the Susipieliunna. and pass from the 
villaji;e of tlie Iroipiois throUL;li the Neutral territory to the 
sliores of Lak(! llni'o... 

'I'iir riMiiKlci' (if till' lir~i iiiis>i(iii niiiiiii'^ till' SiMh'cas in 
lll.'id \v;l^ l''iillit'l' .I(iS('|iIi ('li;illllliiiii)t, ;iii old Ilni'oii iiii~siiiii- 
ai'v, iitit liss ilistiiiL'iiislic I for liis flcii[iii'nrc tlmn for Ins 
piollS (|r\i)tioli, lie ciiliii' to ( )||()ll(lll!.'!l, the I'llliilill of tin' 
I ro^ I Hois Coiifi'dciMcv. tlic vcar | ires' ions, toMcllu'r with I'atlicr 
Chindf l);ililoii. and rcnsaincd llicri' dnriim' the winter of 
1(!")."> (5. |)re|i!irin^' the way for the estahlishnient i-f missions 
in tliese\eral IrDijUois cantons.' 

'riie following:- nari'ati\(' of ins work in fonndin,L;' the Sen- 
eca missions, is tr.nisl.ited from Chapter wil. of It'Uilinn for 
KioT.' vi/. : 

CONCKKN'INC TlIK IT IlLICAIIoN OK ■|'11K lAlllI AM().\(i Till': 


The eoinitry of tlie Sonnoiitonans (Si necas), which is mnch 

the most i'ei'tih' ami iiopulons of tlie cantons of tlie Iroijiiois. 

contains two \\.'y\ lai'jxc towns and a numl)cr of lesser vil- 

lajjrcs, besides a town of the llnrons named St. Michael, who 

took refnjie there in ordei' to csca|H! tiie common calamitv of 
.1..,; ;,...; mm,.,.... ii ,..i... i i .1 

'ir nation.' These llurons 

I Kiir tlic prcliiniiiai'y 1 

who have preserved their 
re Kitilij rlmiiiHs,,/ 


CM.-itiMlM lllnl |i:irtii'lll;ir Iinliits. V\\r .v|i;ilMti' IViiiii till' li,.. 
<|ncii>^, ;iiii| (diili'iil tliciiisi'Ucs with lifiii'j mic wnh ihciii in 
V'""! I'l'i'liii'.f .•iii'l lrirnilslii|). Nut liMsiip/ ii sulliciriit ihiiiiIiit 
of hilMii-crs til niltiv ;iti' tin' \vIim|,' i.lllii-i cNtciisiv c licM. we 
(•i>|i|i;;c niirsi'lvi'- to | H'cMi'li i li;j tlh''jMci I Ihllli'j- l.i tlli'lll. Ii;i\ • 
iiil; i'\<'hiiliL''i'il Willi tliciii pfi'Si'iit- nj' (■(■iTiiMniv ami ;ini;iiicc. 
I'"! ii-i soldi ii> I'';itlii'|- (lli;iiiiii.iiiMt, mi c'lir iirri\-;ii in the 

I Iriii|iiiii.;) i'iiiiiit|-y, liiiij ;ii|ii|itfi| the (';i\iil;;i> h* rhilijivii uI 

''ih'lltlii' III' wi'lit III S"l|i'iM tn ;ii|i>l>l llllll 1 |i|r .'iS liriitlli'l> 

I I I'll 'I'll, a ft IT Ihi' 11 Kill III Till' till' l-'ail 1 1 til which wr wmilil i|i>- 
I'l'-i' thrill. 

I la\ili,u as>i'iiililci| thi' sai'liriiis uf ( iaiii la'jaii, tin' |iniii'i- 
pal liiwii of tiic Sriii'ras, ami iiiaiii' thr rii>tiiiiiar\- jiri'smts 
I'l alliaiiri', lir n niiiiifiirci I iii all rai'iH'st ami rli'\atril tiiiii'ii|' 
viiirc til cxiilalii the ]irii!"i|ial truths nt' the ijiis|ii'l, which he 
scah'il with three very licaiitil'nl |ir('seiits that he hail res<'i'\cil 
l'"i' the |iiii'|iiisc ; ami tu press the iiiatlef still fartliiT, "Mv- 
self " he saiil, '• I eive with these as L'liaraiitee i if the tmt lis 
which 1 preach : ami if my life, which I cdiiseci'ate tn von, 
sliiiiilil se(.'iii toymi .if little acenimt, I oU'er to vmi the lives 
i)f all the Kreiicli wlm have fnlloweij me tu (ianiieiita'r as 
a t(>stiimiiiy (if the l"'aith which I |iriiclaim tu xmi. I)i, (-nii 
iMt put eoiitideiiee in these li\iiiu- presents — these m.lile 
lii'avcs'.' (Ian ymi he s.i simple as to think that such a 
ciinraLreiiiis liami wmilil leave their native 'joiintrv. llie most 
iiLirccalile ami lieaiitiful in the worM, siill'er sn ^reat liaril- 
ships a!;il come su far. tu liriiii:' vn a lie ? " 

1 Fur nil luciiiuit iif llijs inluoliii:.' (■iTi'iiioiiv to^'i'llirr « i!li tin' siici-cli nf SiKiiichiii 
2W11, Ilic ili»lln^'ui«liril en.viiUii (iniliir, on tlii' in'rii-iciii. see h'trli/ C/i'iii', ri ii>' (''Himid 
IIi'Iki'ij. pp. l."i, pp. (liMiiitio w,i> llie immu by wliii h llir Krt'iicli OiiVfrnor wii" kiiDwii 
to till' IriiqUoJM. 

■' Si'c iiiilo nil Scncra tiiH lis, p. u'."i. 

; The file iif tho OnnliiliiL'i Misj-inn nf SI, Mi ry. It was nlso tlii' scat nf a KriMicli 
ciiloiiy (pf sdinc f.irly prixiiix hIkp hail aiidiiipaiiiiMl llif missionaries friim (^ucl,i.c. 

iiMilcr coniiiinhd of M. Dii I'liys. ami was sitiiaiiMl on tin' iiortli siiliMpf the On jaira 

lake, alioul iniiUvay lietwi't'ii its two oxlri'iiiilii's. 


Till- rrsiilt |iiiivci| th;il tlii'si' liirlKiriaii-i wri'i' m >vr I liv tin- 
iliscdMiM- til' till- KatliiT. \'\tv iil'ti'i' dm' (li'liliiTatinn ovfi- tlu' 

IllJltli'l', tlli'V iill-Wrl'i'il liiill tlli'V lir||c'\ I'll wliat Wr lia<l till' 

L'<tn<liirs-i t'l |iii'Miil I'l llii'iii, ainl I'liilnai'i''! lln' I'aitI;, ami 
rlili'fati'd with ;^n'at r;ii m^tiios that llir I'atln'f uoiilil hvc 
with tlicin. till' lii'tiiT III iiisti'iul thrill ill mir invstcrio. 
'riirrc \\a- <iiir iimri' ih'i'ply loiirhnl ihnii tlu'i'i'st, wlinwniilil 
iiiit ciiiisriit that thi' l'';ithi'r ^liiMiM (Irpart iinlil hi', hiiiisi'ir, 
was iiistnirtcil ami iiaiiti/ni. ami he liad alsn olitaiiicd h'f his 
wife the ^aiiii' luii'i'im'ss. (ii)d has lilcsscd tlif lalmrs nf tlii-^ 
l-'atiirr with siiiiiiai' siirrcss in the ntiicf towns.' 

A nimiil'.riil ilaiHii, wlm i-i t!ii' cliirf nt this |M'ii|ilr, rcsnlvi'd 
ti) surpass all nlhiTS in zi-al, ami ti> In' hiiiisril' um- nj' ihr 
lirsl til Im'cimiu' a Chiistiaii. A ram'iT whirli had ratrii iiitn 
his thi;,di, hiiviiiLr niiiliiicd him to tin' hrd, thr hathrr 
altlxMi^li indis|'d. >a\v him and ruiivrrti'd him tii iIm' 
l*'aith III' whirli hi' will he a ^rrat siippnrt in his nuinliT, 
sinri''iiid M'l'ins with this end in \i('W, to ha\i' In'iili'd him of 
,1 disi'a whirli all thought to he iiicuraiilr. 

A nil 111'^ thr man V Ilnrons who liavr ki'|il thrir i'aith dnniiL' 
tlirir captiv it \ . thr l'"a!hii' iiii't witii a Woman who had pro- 
>i'i\i'd till' /ral of a '^ond Christian, and from whom he 
Icarnrd that dir llui'onsof the Islr of Orleans, contiiiiicd in 
the practice of oiir iclit^ion with all their former devotion ; 
and that one of them named .laeipies Otsiaoiiens. had aston- 
ished hv his hirtitnde the Iroipiois who Imriied him, not 
oniittiiiu' to repeat at length the usual praver.s and invokinff 
without ceasing the name of Jesus during the whole of his 
tort lire.' 

1 Si'r iiiilr DM Si'iiuca ImMi-', p •'.'). 

.' At Ihr ilisprrwiiiii iif thr lliinni nntiiiii anil witli it thr niixsiiiiiH, a niinilirr foii^'ht 
refuel' liiidir l''ri'iiih |ii(ili(liciii at t^iirhcr, iiTiil afliT a while wrrr rt'iiiini'il to the lulr 
iif DrU'ann in tlii' viciiilly, who'c a ihiii-rh ami a furl won' liuilt ; aiul ihc ciiltivaliiin iif 
llir coil n.iM: till' ri'fiit!ei'» an aiii|.!i' Bii|i|)i)it. (iiiiilfil by Kathi'ii- Lriinaril (iarii'aii and 
ChanniDniil, two of their j-nrviviii;.' |iasti)r.-< in their iiw n coiinlry, thiy are naiil In have 
lieeDine innilelH of piety anil <le\oliiin. 


Til.- Iliin.lisnf Sl.Mi.'li.'.rl' .||,| ,|,,t ,n;niif..>t niiv Ir«s s|,_mis 

"I' l-lrlV. licill- lill.Ml Witll jnv M^r .,„„(„ , .j f,|„,j,, 

• It'jir pMsI-.M. .'.•u'li jiskiiiLr rnrlhwitli iil)snliiti,.ii fur liinis.'ll' ..r 
l-apti-^ui fur his .•hihiivM. Kvni ih,. nM n,,.,, wh-, ,|,..|,is..,l 

mrNK.'* T..WN«.-\VI„.n thrs,.,,..,.,,, „,.,.■ llrM k„„»„ -.,,|„. «l„t.-.,.,„l fr ,|„„ 

m.. up ... Ih.. Kn.nrh .v,,,,!!. „f 1.,., 11.. 1„ mimT, ,|,..j. |„.,i , ,,h„..|,,„1 ,..«„. 

In 1.1(1. annnl,,,;,,,,.;,.!,,,,,,, ,|,„j. „„„. i,,,,,^ „, „,,• mii„l-,-. t«„ „r uhl.h , „.in,.,l 

Hh„iHlr..,lr,,Mn,..,.rh,,h..u,h-,-«fr„.„r» .)• .„.l,lrt.v A.thU. .,.,r„|„|y ,„,. ,„„, 

|.rohMhl, . ,r.... „f Mm. I,,r.,.,t «>.rn ..,„.|,„..,1 l,y .,„,,.. I„ l,i;r «h..„ M-i,...! I,v 

(i. ■.■.. m Uh, .... Allmny trmkr, .l„.,v «..r npvl„« f„ur Mlhi^-.... „..„.. „f „|,l. I, »../.■ 

l;" ''•, ^f•■'l"""• ' 1"".^"- -t 1-n,. »l.h thr l,.r.... town. »„. ,. V, M.l,.. 

''■'"""■"""'' """'"' '"■"""vlll-'l., l«.Mr,ay,"il„..v J.. .h..|rlu,.„.l„M- ,■,.„ 

en v..,.r- 1.. .,r,l..r ... l.rl„;c li.....<..|u.K .,..,„■ M... «.,.„1,." TI.Uu, ■ |.,y ,r,„. „f 

I... ,.r„.,. v,l,,„..,, |„„ ,„., ,„,„||..r „„..- ,„|,.ht ,„n.|, f„r,„..n.v v..:,r, .,r ,.„.r.. 

n...l.|« .1... tin.u ,.f tl... .)...,.l< Mi.Mn„, „„.„„.. .1,.. s..„..,. 1 „|,"„; |„sr t.,.. r.M.r 

|.rl...'l|mls,ll,w. ...c ,111,.. r..l,|,„-l,l„„-l,„i|,,„..,|i„il,..(„ll„u|,„.,|l„.M,..M 




(•AN.. A. II..)IU..I>.' 

'•■i< ili»l..., 




M iiiili' 

Sunt I,. 


M. ..J 

llAV.IIJI I.A.IAf;. 

'I. Ml. I.arl. 

Of (.AN.,A..A..o 1. \> kn.m., .■,.r.„i„ly ,,„.. ii, ,.;;; ,„„| „;,,: i, „■,.. on .1,.: t-r-a. 

.r.M.nhnk'i. -„}, I. .„n.„l,„,l .„„. |„.,Mlr..,l ...„1 ilfty |„„„..., I,,..,,,..,! „„ „„. ,„,, „r „ „,„;„ 
« , I.'.',' ^n"^',"", " "";■""""""" '" ""■^' <■■'""••■'■ "-■'■i'-" i' "- in .. lar.. .l,.i., .."hour 

^i , , ;," ',".:'"'',■'' "'"■' "'""-•"-"•'•> 1-v.. 1,..,.„ r„ I. .,.,..„• 1.. the. 

v.; In,,, .,f ll,„..h„.n 11,11. l...,H,„v,ll,. f,„„„i «„„„ k|,M .,f u w„rk, „ , ,|„. hlli „.,r,h .,f 
W...r „„.l »,„„.. ..V,. ,.„„., .,r,„ln.ll,.„ vlllau-., :,„v.. .....n fo,„„l .h-r.., :,.,f the 

h.. am. ,.f Mr. n. ,„in. I„ ,hi. vi,.i„l,y, ,„ ,ii,r..r..„t l,„...„i,„„ hav.. h«on r.n.n.l ,.,„... 

of ...|".rtant vIllaLV,. Thl- (ia.iira.l.n alia- (;a,„l,,::ar., wa- th.' ''St 
......H .,f ,lK. „,i^si„n:„i...-. ,1,.. , 'aiMtal „„.l r...i,lu,„.c. „f th.. ,hi..f ►a..h..,„ «|,„ ,,r..,l.|,.,l 

'T th..i.'iaiiili..i,iiiiil».pr Ih.. l.lh.. ' 

(iAS.„„-..A..AK,th,. "sr. .Ml,.ha..l-.,r ,!,.. ,Mi „arl..s, ,„.„|,i..,i |„-l,Hii,ailv hv .„, 

o.. hv l,..o h..,w,...„ „„. ,„„„, „f ,.a„a.„lal,„a «,„| Kas, Hl,„„„n..l,l ah„..t ,lv.. n.iu' 

"""";,"" "' ^ '•""■• "I'l"'"^* '" i'"v« h.... ,. .1,.. „, ,1.1, villa.,.. ...h,.,. .„.., ;;,.:. 

pn. lahly ,.n. „r in ,1,.. vi.ini.y „f ,1,. fh:,|,in far,,,. ,lir..,tlv -„utl, „f |).,„.,|„„„ ||- 

tJa.i.cH " (jf 11 

n.Mw„..aM,ern villa.^.. af,..r .h,.ir ,l..-,r,..-,i„n |„ i,;.s7 irra,l„ally .Irin.-.l ...,.i„ar,l 

a...l «..,... f,„„„, ,. ,„„„„.,.,, ,,.a,. ,a,,, „, s van r „r...-...„ uL... 1 ,• 1 ! ' 

«er.. .«.. .„lU.H..a., .,r ,h..f..,., „rcn„a .i,„a l,..ku ; in ,r.V.„„ ,l,v White .S,„ |„ - far.n 

t«.. .,„l,...-.,M.,h.,u..„. a.„l..„ l,„rr..|lV,.reek, f„„r ,nil.., s,„.,h.wv., of .;..„.... ; "in ,^V 
at lh<. Old CaMle two !.iilf« i,.,rth\v..Ht of (i,.t, 

SoN.NONTo.-AN alias Totla.....,,, Tc.,'ar..hi,.«. th. •• Con.-,.|,tl.,n " of ,1,. ,„i..^,.,a,.i,.- 
«u. located a. nil., a.,., a half N. N. NV. of l.oneoye Fall. i„ ,„. ,„un J M,.,,,! ,'. 


spcritv IkuI hliiitlcu 

iLt pleasau, :.s W..V the., f-its of ,ho ( ...,k.1, the 1 a 
,va. n.v..rtlu>l..s nl,li.Mto a.Tnve h.n.sell <.f th<MU. ,.u»n,^ 

work callinu him dsowheiT. ' „ . ,. 

O,, ,,s wav'k to ()non.h.K.O h. h:..l an excellent opiKn- 


V to ridicule a superstition ol tli 

,. iiitidels, his ,uuule 


„,,,. „,„u, ,.u,..i, ft. ""• i-":;;,";i;; ;;;:;;"";' ™ i:;!! "<, •< 

ftrtftlo Oft ft"^. "iftl ."'..I' -">.^ ''' '" ' „ ,.,„ I,.,., f„r,u ft ft.ilft .vft-t i.f H.fti,-n)ft 

nciullu'licul.if (•olH•>•u^<lako.-.I.S. I- ,,.„,,.„,« 

Wl,iU..tM,lyin,'«i.h 1,1. »i>clc.a ,M■u■^t. 1. ■ a. '"^ J ,„, „, f,„e,l t,. roturn, 

..i^ --.,u 1 .o „, B,.;.,no ,o ,u,. u. ^ ;;;';' ,^,^,;„„^^,, ^,,„,„ ,„ „., 

,,„,, ,,,,,,,,,,1 „>. . i,>l«r.m«^. < . Home. Afur .i .r . ^^ _^.,^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

„,„,,„„,.v .KKTibcl, he,! .he ■ •';-;"' :,„,„,,.,;aov.„e,l hin- 

.df ... UK. K.„.ly ,.f ,.«rfoo.u.n. WluU- n> h,s '"-'"^ • '" , / !' ^ , , „ „,o 

;:.'^""'^' ^r.:";r ;:;;u ; •' 1 X "i: i;':.;. -lu-o .. .... .., A...,-.ea. 

e.e.l.. i.n„u.aia...y to .he ""- ''^^ ->; ,, ., ' r.,;!.. wUh ,.,. „any 

""," ""'" :l, . f on K,>5 .o ir.rn. «he„ he ,va. a. On,..>.l,.,:a, an.l a nho,. May at 

work. vvithi.> f;icts fnnii.hed by I)r. hhea. 

I, sonjilit. It 
I low true 

ul liliiidi'd. 

the Katlun- 

111. jircssing 

IK'iit ()i)|><)r- 
;. his uuide 

n':< villiii;c." It 

11 hiMlll cif lli'"- 

fiiniiini; a iii;lit 

pnibiilily tlH! iiiui 

WL's-t "f lIulK'dJO 

ICC (if relics )mve 
15s, mill liiiMclrcds 
'Ills '."■Cilt villiiL'f 
ihicx licncc comc- 

itR (if tlio iircscnt 
r lIiiMctye Kails. 
,1 1 iriic town, 
ipyi-.i-: f^cvcriil dif- 
SlllliviUl fniiiul 
11 lliinl sninll mu', 

niUcd CiiAiMON- 
■UH a wino dresser, 
ed iissiiciiite lo rob 
ic fciired to return, 
iires, wliicli lie lias 
jf May. l(i:i '. as the 
•rted, devoted liiiii- 

theii also a student 
iicited tlie t'aiiada 
ID scut to .\iiicrica. 
, and with him pni- 
ill lli.'id. visitim; the 
ehee witli llic |iarty 
.ealli, oil llie vjlst of 
, and a shoit slay at 

o/l/ie l'lli/"l .S/lllll: 

: several sketches of 
ly derived from this 

li.'isini; prc.^fiilfil a hit df wikh] t,i cast hikhi twn imuihI 
.-tiiiii's \vhic!i tlicy t'liriuiiitcictl 111' liic ji iiinir\-. siiiTi m m Inl 
with the syiiihuls ot' a siipcistitimi of tliis |i('n|i|c wlm 111 
|ias>iiiL; thi'ow a siiiaU stici< iiiaiii tiifS(> stdiics in idkcii ,it 
ilirir hiiiiiaL;'!'. adihiiii' the wni'ds hmn' ,' (i<;!ct:niiim i\^ti(/iii,i/iif^ 
ihal is tn .-^ay : lluld I this is to pay my |iassatji' in m'dir that. 
1 may ]inicc'cd with satrty. ' 

I cannot omit ihr death of l)a\id I-f A[oyni' which sh'-nld 
seem [U'ccioiis in tlic eyes of Lt'ood men. as we hchcxc it to 
have ht>en in the siirlit of (lod lie was a \'oiinL;' man from 
I>ieli]u>. ■' a,L;ed ahout tliirty years, zeal h'd him iohi!- 
low the Father in this mission, beiiiL;- disposed hv a Lieini'al 
eonfessioii. A liemorrhaue wliieli weakened his hodv hir 
.some time, ihd not interrnpt for a moment liis enthn>iasm ; 
and he (hed on the banks of Laku Tiuhrru ( with the 
lientleiies.-, and resi^triiatioii of the eleet, blessinu' <iod for this, 
that lie was permitted to (he in tlie hind of the Iroipiois. and 
in t!ie work of spreadini:' the faith. Js not such a (h'ath an 
ampk"i'eeompense for a hfe (h'voted to the salvation of sonls, 
and a fitting illustration of the proteetiou of the Blessed \'ir- 

'■ On his return to Onoiid:ij.'ii, ('haiiinoiiot was immediately si'in wiih Fallier Menard 
tlie founder of the ('ayii<.'a mission, to the onuidas to open friendly relations with that 
most olistinaleof the Iroquois trihes. Wiiile on their way. and the llrsi niijlil they npent 
ni the woods, a chief in the company thus addressed the Fathers: ••Ah. my hrothers, 
you are weary. What troahle you have to walk 011 the snow, on ice and in the wati'r I 
But conrage 1 Let us not complain of the toil since we undertake it for so nohle a 
cause. Ye doMiions who inhahit tin' woods, lieware of injurin;; any of those who com- 
IKise this emhassy. And you Ireea laden with years, whom old a:,'e must soon h'vel lo 
the earth suspend your fall ; envelop not in your ruin those who yo topriven; the ruin 
of provinces and nations.' Uilufkoi Hi.");. Chap, xviii. p. 4ii. Thi.s is simiinr. both 
in sentiment and ima.L'ery, to the opening sentences of the preliminary cereiinniy of the 
Iroquois "Condolinj; eoiincil," which was convened to ni,,urn a deceased coiiiiciliir of 
tlie I.eajrue. and install his successor. See '/'/«- Irm/iuiii Hook cf lilte". edited liy Ilora- 
lic) Hale, M. A., I'liiladelphiu, ISN3 ; |ip. 117 111). 

.■ .\ seiiport town of France, at the mouth of the river Aripies, and lakes iis name 
from ••diep" an inlet, a place of considerable iinporlaiice as e.irlyasthe latli ci'utiiry 
Durinj,' the Franco-Derman w.irit was occupied hy tlie lierm.iii!- from Uecemlier l.s;n 
to July 1H"1. 


gill toward whom this young man manifested a devotion that 
was most remarkable? 

The central mission at Onondaga was broken ii[) the fol- 
lowing year (IGoT), on the discovery of a eonapiraey involv- 
iiiL' the massacre of the French colony located at Ganentaa 
Miid the death of the missionaries. The circumstances 
attending the timely disclosure of the treacherous plot and 
the manner of their escape, were fully narrated in the history 
of the Cayuga Mission. ' Sullice it to say here, that a war 
followed Ix'twecn the French and th(> Inxpiois which raged 
for two years, when negotiations for peace were concluded at 
Montreal, accompanied by the retpiest from the Iroquois 
embassy that the sevei'al missions might Ite reestablished. 
For this ]>ur!>osc. and not without misgivings on the part of 
the French for his personal safety. Father Simon Le Moyne, 
when on a visit to Onondaga in KioB, opened the way for tlie 
lirst missions, returned with the emba.ssy, and arrived at the 
Impiois capital the 12th of August, 16(50. He made a brief 
visit to the Mohawks who had taken no jmrt in the overtures 
f(U- peace, and maintained an im[ilacalile hostility to the 
French, but without success, and barely escaped with his life 
from the scene of his earlier labors, lie spent the autumn 
and winter in nMssi>)nary work, largely among the Onondagas. 
A notice (»f it occurs in the Relation of 1602, as follows : 

"Behold h.erea mission of blood and lire, of labors and of 
tear.«, of captives and of barbarians. It is a country where 
the earth is still red with the blood of th.e French, where the 
stakes yet stand covcre(l with their ashes: where who 
have .-survived their cruelty, bear its fatal marks on their feet 
and hands, their toes cut oil and their linger nails torn out, 
and whert^ in tine Father Simon Le Moyne has been for a 
year to soothe the sighs of this alllieted church, and to take 

1 Fmtij (luiplnf r:f rni/m/n lliflvry, pp. 2'.i, 30. 


votion that 

UJ) tlio f. )1- 

acy iiivolv- 
.t Ganciitaa 
IS plot and 
the liistory 
, tliat a war 
vliit'li raged 
Diicliidod at 
ic Irofiuois 
tlie part of 
Le Mdyne, 
way for tlie 
rived at the 
iiade a brief 
10 overtures 
ility to the 
with his life 
tlie aiitninii 
jllows : 
djors and of 
untry where 
1, where the 
■c those who 
DU tlieir feet 
ils torn out, 
been for a 
and to take 

part like a good pastnr in :ill ih,' iiii.-.f(irliiiics .if his dear 


"He was ehiclly nnjupicl during the winter with thivi> 

eiiui'ehes, one Kreiieh, one lliiron and ( lrn,pi,H.-. H,. 

pivsei'ved the piety among tin' French eaiilivi-;. and be- 
eanit,' himself the s<i!e (K'pository nf all their alliietiun.- : he 
re-established the Huron ehnivh, l'.>rinei'ly so llonrishin- in 
their own I'oimti'y; lu' laid the foundation of the Iroipiois 
ehmvli. going from place to plaee to baptize tin' cinldivn and 
the dying, and to instruct those who. in the miiist of bai-ba.- 
lism. wei'e not far from the kingijoiu of (idd. 

"A little eha]>el formed ><\' lu'anciics ami hark \\a> the 
sanctuary where (iod recciscd c\ci'y .lay the adoration of 

those who eom posed tliesi'thi' •liurdies. Ilciv the I-'iviich 

assembled each morning, half an hour licfoiv davlight, to assist 
at the august saerilice of the mass; ami everv evenim; to 
recite in eominoii the r(.>ary : and often too, duriiii;' tin' da\ 
to seek consolation from (io(| in then misfortunes, joining 
their mangled haiidsand liftiiiL; them to llcaxfii, thev i-ravcd 
for those who had thus mutilated them." , 

Owing to the continued hostilities of the ^b)hawks. it 
was not until It'.Cb, that the missions were reiu'wed. when 
all the eantons once more weleonied the missionarv l-'athers. 

I For an MOi-oiint of Lc Moyiic's vUit to Ciiyui.-ii, m'c A:iiIu C/^.'/.f,,:- ./ Iw/in/,i //;«. 
/iirij, p. -jri. 

The missKui among tlic Seiitvas was ivsiuiu'il in 1<W)>^. liv 
Fatiicr.laiiu's Fiviniii, wlio was in < )ni'ii(la!i:i in l(v)7. at the 
breaking u]) of tlie lr(M|iuiis missions, as lefciTcd to in tlir 
lircvious nnmlKT. His narrative oecnpiis (,'liaiiti'r IX of the 
R.h\tint\ KiTH. and is as follows: 


Onr lro(|nois missions made in the year li)()l> verv gi'ati- 
fvinu' progress. We then l)egan to pi'eaeii the (iospcl at 
nVdiinontotiiin, (Sencea), wliei'(> there is a ureati'r nnml)ei' nf 
people t'.Kin in the other fonr eaiitons of the lower Iroipiois. 
When I arrived here at ln> " of the year i(]()8, I was 
well received : Imu a fatal form of sickness breaking out at 
the time, desolaied the entiri' region, so that 1 was wdiolly 
oecnpii'd in visiting the cabins to instruct and baptize the 
sick, who were in e.xtremity. It pleased God to my 
hn!nbl(> laboi's, .so that in a short time. 1 bajitizetl more than 
one inindred and twenty persons, nej'rly all adults, of whom 
more than ninety dieii soon after baptism. I'Jnt as 1 was 
alone and could not leave; the lie](h more than une humlred and 
tifty died (without baptisnO in distri(;ts far removed from here, 
while engagc'il in lishin^:' or hunting. A necessity so press- 
ing impelled me to ask for assistance and beg Father (iai-- 
nier. who was at Onondaga, to cmne to my aid at the earliest 
moment. I5ut ])y the time <M' his arrival tlie contagion h>d 
ceased. Thus l)eing relieved from exclusive occupation with 
the sick we began to proclaim the (iosjiel 1o the people who 


1 1(!(58. In- 
>;")7. ;if the 

lo ill the 
IX (if the 


VL'i'v ui'ati- 
(idspc! at 

IIUlllluM' 111' 

• Jr()(|it(iis. 
)()8, 1 was 
:iiig nut at, 
as wliitllv 
a)itizc the 
IjIl'ss my 
inoro than 
, of wlioin 
, as 1 was 
iiKiiTi] and 
from hore. 

V so pi't'SS- 

athcr (iai-- 
he earliest 
tagioii Ird 
atioii with 
)eople wild 

ha>i never heard tlie name of .IisusChi'ist : and in order to d,) 

this with tlie ,uTeater sii< ss in dill'cr.Mit <hrfetioiis, l''ather 

<'''ii''ii''i' took- chaivi' of the town named ( ian<hiehira'joii.' 
whi'ie ill ;i short tiino hr hiiilt a \erv (•oiiim..dii ,ii< chaju'I to 
which tiii'v Hock from all sides for instruction. 

As for myself, 1,11 tiic 'i7tli of Sept. KiC.;*. I entered the 
town called (iandoii'jarai',- and was received with every 
demonstration of pirhiic jny. They had foi' s.iiiie time await- 
ed with impatiei mv edmiim'. 'I'he town i.- eom]in~e,| of 

the remnants of thi'ee (litiVrent nations which haviiiii' lieeii 
snliiliied liy the Inxpiois. were forced to snlimit at tlie i1is- 
eretioii (if their eniHiueroi's and to e-.tal)lisli themselves in 
their territory. The lirst n:ition is called OnnuniidL'a : the 
secoiirj tli,> Neuter and the third the Huron. ' The lirst two 
liave seldom if ever seen l-jiroiieans, neither have tlicv heard 
mention of the true (lod. As f,,r the third, they are a col- 
lection from iiiaiiv lini'dn villaucs, all of whom iia\-e lieeii 
inslnicteil in the l>'ai!li. and niaii\- of whom ha'l alreadv iieeii 

I Si'r ScllccaTowii^. |i, •.-,. 


■■' This w,is after {}>■■ Mil,ju-ann,i „r ilu. Ilimiiis. N.nlor- iiiid Kii.- ami | rev:,, lis to 
that of (iaiiiiastOi.'iit.< ; whence the inference that the OnnontioL'as were a Irilie of the 
Eries whose towns seem neve,- to have been visited iiy the Kreiich. "The t.Trilory of 
the Iro.|iiois." says Mr. Hale ^ //w/mi.. ««,/■ „/■ l/i/., p,,, :i->, ;»,, •• ,.„nstai,tiv ,.Mei.clinL'. 
as their united strensjlh made itself felt, hccanie the • (Jreal ■ - of the Indian liihes. 
or Ilie corainered Kri.- and lliirons many hniidreds were ..M-eiv,.d and adopted bv their 
con.inenirs. The Tuscaroras, expelled l.y the Kn-lish from North earolina. took r.'fnue 
witli the Inxpiois and hecame Mi,, si.xth nation of the Lea-ue. l^'roni still further south 
the Tntekies ami .Sapoides of Dakota .s|,,ck. after in,iny wars with the IriMpi.tis, Hell to 
then, fr,,ni their other em.niies and f aind a cordial wele ,me. \ chief Htlll -[,< |„ ,|ie 
council as a representative of the Tuleloes, thou-h the trihe itself has heeii swept away 
hv dis,.ase or ahsorhed in the larirer nations. Many fra-ments of trih,-s of Alironkin 
liiieaL'e-Delawares. Molu-ans. Mississa;;as-sou-ht the same hospitahle pndection 

which never failed them," ..\i:aln , I pp. II."., !Hi. i: " Those whoMippo,.etha! the llnnmH 

only survive in n few Wyandots. and that the Kries. Altiwamlaronks and .^ndastes have 
ntterly perished are ,i:really mistaken. It is ahsohitHv certain that of the twelve tlions- 
and Imlians who. now in the Inited States and Canada, preserve the Iroipiois name, 
the tirealer portion diTivc their d..,s,.,.„t, in wlnde or in |.art. from those comim^red na- 
tions. Xo other Indian ,.omm,iiiily. so far as we know, has pursued this ],olicy of in- 
coriioration t,) aiiythin- near the -ame extent or carrieil it out with anvtliiiii.' I'ikc the 
came hiiinanity." 

l,;,l,ti/.c.l l>y our Fathers k'l'oiv tli;.t (loun^liinir niitlo,, was 
(Icstrovc'l liv till' arms of the Iroiiiiois. ' 

Wliilo thrv wcivbuiMinu-iiu'arliai'rl. 1 iM'.iiaii vi/itiii-- tli.> 
ral^iiis in onicr tu know tlie jn'opK., ;ni.l cliirllv to s.rk out 
the >rattrir4 sli.v]. of th.' ancirnl .■linivl, of tlir Hurons, and 
en.l.'avor to lead them hark to the fohl of Jesus Christ. 
These li'ood people were overjoynl to see me ami hrar me 
speak of the Faith. It was n..t possible to satisfv their .le- 
^i,T in this re-ara. Some of tliem sai-l to me that it was not 
',.„on-h to prav to (iod hut on.-c a dav. Others eomplaiur.l 
tluit 1 spent too little tim.' in preaehin.^' of our LopI and 
Paradise. Some of them even rei>roaehed mr with iKirtiahtv 
in' that 1 hail pr.'h'rred others to th.Mn, as I did not visit them 
as much as I did the others, indeed these po..r soids were 
schun-rv and thirstv for ri-hteonsness smd their salvation, 
that 1 had diiUeultv in peisuadin- them that as soon as the 
diapel should be liuished, their -ond desires w.mld U- eom- 

plclelv satistied. 

xMy r.mnd of visits bein.L' tinislied. I found about forty 
adult Cliristians who had prescrve.l faith and prayer, been kqft 
f,,„nthe ..vnc.raldis..^oluteness of tlie eountry and were hvm- 
,n all the' puritv of Christianity. AH the rest of the llurons 
.ave proof of -ivat eau'erness for holy; and 1 have 
remarked in them an assiduity s.. exact and sueh ."onstauey 
j„ praver. public an<l private, that I liave ^^n^at hope that 
thev all will become devoted Christians. Shall not such 
li.l.'.litv and eonsiaucv in the Faith in tluse.i uvineible Hu- 
rons serve in the day of judgment to eondeinu the indolence 
.^„a oorruptiou of ti.e Christians .^f Europe? These barba- 
rians, who hiid just started into Christianity when the if)- 
,,uois compelled them by force of arms to take part with 
them, have nevertheless pre.<er\ed for this lonj; time tlieir 

1 111 iiii'.i. 

til 111 was 

\Uu>j the 
swk out 
rolls, iiiiil 
s Christ- 
hciir me 
their <le- 
. was not 
lioT'l ami 
isit I hem 
Dills were 
loii as the 
1 lie eoiii- 

loiit forty 

heen kept 

■ere liviii,!i 

le 1 III rot is 

11(1 1 have 


hope that 

not sneli 

eiV)le Ilu- 

' indolence 

cse Itafba- 

n the li'o- 

part with 

time their 


faith ill the mills! of tin' eoiTiiptioii of a p.'opl,' aliaiiiloin'ij 
to all sorts of vice ami sii[MTsiitiou : ami scarcely were thev 
imhunl with the principles of the (Hiiisiian rcli'jion, when 
they Were transporte'l into the very home of (lisonler ami 
ahoininations, ilestitiile at the same tinn' of pastors, ha viii,:^ 
neither preachers to fortify them in the I''ailli, imr confessors 
to recoiii'ile them with IIimI, ho;- anv of the extern. il nieaits 
with which Kurope is so amply provi'lcd. TImis i.) li\ !■ with 
liilelity, in ]irayers aii'l iiiiioeeiu'e of inanm'rs, ami with an 
anlor for their salvation e.jiial to that of ihe Ijrst Chrisiians, 
is it not soinethiiiL:' that om^ht one il.ay to put to shame ihe 
weakne.-s ami nnfaithfiilness of so maii\- ('atholics wlm cor- 
rupt ami ilestroy themselves, in the possession uf all the 
means of piety ami salvation? 

As for till' ( )iimiiitioijas, 'rsonmiiitoiian> (."^eiiccas) ami Neu- 
ters siin'c they have scarcely evei' seen Europeans or heji'ilnf 
the i'aitli, it is a work to ahsorh all the /eal of the nii<si(iii- 
ary, who will llml it no small lahor to enltivate a licM tiie 
Kvil < )iie has possessed for so many aii'es. The chapel heiiiL;- 
linisheil, the Iliirons caiiie to pray to (ioi| with ;:i'i,'at I'crvor. 
1 said the holy mass io them, and they assisted with a rever- 
ence and (k'votion which charmed me, and was pleasing- in 
the sight of Jlcaven. .V venerable person scr\'ed me as 
cateehist, and as he knew tin; prayers well, he proiKniiiced 
them with an ele\ated and distinct voice, easily nnileistooii 
and followed by all the others; and tins /.eal of the lliirons 
extended even to their children. These little savaucs were 
eager to ]>ersuade those of the other nations to aecoinpany 
them to the eliapel and |)ray with them. This eompi'lled 
their fathers and motliLi's to eome and sei.' what they were 
doing, and, in some cases, to follow their e.xaiinile, to avoid 
the shame of Ik ing outdone by them. 

What I have most ailmired in those lliirons who have 
for many years bei'ii Christians, is the open profession which 


tlicv aP'' a;'ciistniiii'.l to iiuilxo of tlicir faith, wliicli is more 
ililiirtiltlhaii one can woll iiiia^Mui', anions!: a im'ii|iK' \v holly 
iiitiili'l and liart>aroiis. without, hlushiiij.'' for the l:iisih'1, nor 
carinLT foi- the insults ami ridicule nf ihc pauans : ami so well 
convinceil were iiic other nations of tlieir constancy in the 
Faith, that they ,i;'ive iheui no nther name tlian that oi l>e- 
lii'vers, ami The l'"aithful : and such is the repuiatidii two of 
them have ai'ijuireil in the entire reninn for virtue, that all 
the |ieo|i|e I'evcre ihelll. 

One of these oears the iiiuiK! of .lames Atondo and the 
othei' Francis Ti-oroiddonLfo. The first e'iv(w himself almost 
(•out in nail V to |iravci', and in his oi'dinary conversation speaks 
onlv of (idd, alike to Christians and infidels. lie is very 
exact in his dliservanee of all the eommandnu'iits ot (iod. 
'• If von hut knew." he is vvont to say to them " what prayer 
is and the power it has to make us happy, you woulu all 
iir;iv ti) ( ioil without c(>asinL;'. ^ <iu are so careful in doiiLi' 
all that voiu' dreams rcipiire: you span* neither feasts nor 
presents, nor any cx[ieuse to render them pi'opitious and 
secure through them .trood success in lishiuti-. in huntiu.u'. and 
in war, and a lon^' life as well : Itnt nevertheless yon .see 
plainlv that vou are involved in poverty and misery : that 
sickness and the eueiiiy are every day takini:- many of you 
out of the world. As for myseli', I pray to the Master of 
Heaven and earth, and llu; Sovcreiiin Lord of our lives, ami 
lie eivesnie strong- audi viu'orous lu'alth at an age very ad- 
vanced. I catch ordinarily more tisli than you; 1 am, by His 
graci', lielter oil' than mui are, and what overwhelms me with 
joy is. that when I come to die, I liojie to he happy to all 
eternity: and as for yo'\ otlu>rs. you will only exchaii.ui.' the 
evils of this wretched life for torineuts and eternal tires." 

The second named Francis Teoroiihioiigo who was formerly 
the host of the late Father Le Moyne,' is an i)ld man of a^i- 

I See iR-connt in lithdhn Wi'2, p. H. 


i.< \nnvo 

:• \V 111 illy 
Sprl. lllll' 

1 <n well 
•V ill the 
lit of He- 
ll two (if 
■. tlmt ;dl 

aii<! tlic 
If aliniist 
III s I leak's 

is VlTV 

1 1| ( li II 1. 
it prayer 
A-iiiilu all 

ill iloiiu' 
easts nor 
mils aii^l 
liiiu'. ami 

vol I see 
TV : that 
ly of villi 
blaster of 
ives, ami 

very ait- 
1, liy His 

me with 
py to nil 
laii.u'e the 
ires. " 

laii of ap- 

jii'oviil faith, ami lias not. passed a siiiLrJeday in tweiitvseven 
year- without sayimr prayers. He instnieteil his wife 
ami ehiMivii ill the K.tith ami reared Ins eiitiic faiiiilv in 
lioliiir<<. Now that he is iiitellijj-eiit iii our invslcries and 
as lie IS familiar with the history of the New 'reslanieni, his 
j^realesl pleasure is in diseoni>inm about, it to all iie merts, 
both Christian and heathen, .so that, if tiie L'ospel had ne\-er 
been piiblislird in this eoiinlry by the ini.ssioiiaries. he alone 
had spoken (.•iioii-h of it, to justify the wavsof (iud eoiici'i'ii- 
iiiLi human siihation. 

lb' has said to me many tiiiifs, tliiil dnrim; the tweiitv 
years he has been separated from our I'athers. he srarcelv 
passed a day witliuiit e.arnestlv beseeeliiiiLi- our iiord the ^raee 
that lie should not die before beiny eoiifessed and without 
haviim- pi'eviously prayeil to (iod with some one of the mis- 
sioiiarie.^. "Ah my (lod," he said, •' Thoii hast shown .so 
.ureat indiil-i'iiee for me: Tlioii hast already ,l! ran ted nii' .so 
many fa\drs, wilt Thou refuse mo thi.s that I now ask ? Shall 
I be So unhappy as to die without boiiiu eoiifes.<ed? Ilast 
Thoii ealled me to Christianity, only to leave me to linish m'v 
life without partieipatin.u' in its holy mysteries'.' 'i'hr frailtv 
ol man i~ so <^' real and his n.atiire so inclined to sin. that I 
have slroiiL'' iv;ison to tremble as jjaiiltv befoi'e Thee, and de- 
.servin;.^- death eternal. And what will it avail me to have 
bi'cn b;ipii/.ed, to ii;ive prayed to Thee, if 1 am to br .-o 
wretched as to lie linally damned ? Xo, no. mv Cod, 1 hope 
for this favor of Thy mercy. Thou art all powi/rfiil : and 
when Thou will it. our Fathers will come to iusli'uet us. 
and I trust in Thy pity, that I will not, end niv life without 
the beiu'lit of reeeivinii' the saeranu.ait.s." I doubt, not 
]irayers so sacred may have eontri'xited niiieh to the cstab. 
lishmeiit <if tnis mi.ssion. On learning of my arrival, the lirst 
ihin;j- he said to mo was, " At last Cod has heard me. Con- 
fess me." 


At !iiiiitiit'r time wlifii convcrsiiiii' with liiiii nf liis dccc'i^fil 
|>aifiits. Ill' s;ii(| : " Why slmulil 1 n'grct thfin? My iiKitlicr 
dii'il iiiiiiir'liati'ly afirr iccciv i n;^ liaptisin. Ahuost all iiiv 
iii'ar rchilivcs liavr yirlih'il ihcir smils into ihr hainls of the 
Fathi-rs who iiiivc made them Christiui;s. 'I'hfv arc all hapiiv 
ill Paradise. I liopc soon to l'o ainl lind tlicni. Thf j^reatest 
uiilia|i)iiiicss I have had in iiiy lile," he adilcil with a sIliIi. 
" is that one of my cliildi'di died some \eai's since, wiilioiit 
i)eiiiir iilile to confess his sins. He was ihiri\ years old. He 
had livi'd liadly, and tlionuh I had taken pains to make him 
a L^xxl man, he des|) i'i|na!lv the law of (iod and the 
warnini; of his father: and what allliets me sorely is thai he 
died in this sad condition, without the opiiortunit v of licinu' 
reeoncile(l \yith (iod by eonfession. I haveonly oiio child in 
the world, and he is at present ont to war. If (iod di-pose 

ot him. I shall haye Imt little Irouhle n nsolinL;- nnself, 

since thou did'sl confess him jnsl hefoiv he went awav."' 
This goes to show what ideas our sayaL'^es haye of Paradise 
wliilc as yet they are not fully inslriieted in our mysteries. 

I hapti/.ed the past year a young woman of the more dis- 
tingiiished of .S'lieci, who died the day after lier liaplism. 
The mother was iiieonsolahle at her loss, since our sa\a'jes 
show extraordinary all'ection for their eliililren : and as I 
was cndeayoring to calm her grief liy representing the inli- 
nite hap[iiiu'ss her daughter was enjoying in Heaven, she 
artlessly said : 

•• Thou dost not understand. She was a here, and 
had at her command more than twenty slaves who are still 
with me. She never knew what it was to go to the forest 
to liriiiii' wood or to the river to draw water.' She knows 

' This [(nihahly Imd refcri'iici' I.) tliu villau'^' T.)tiiuti)ii iiortli-wi'st of IlmiiMiyc Kails 
wlitTf tlio river \vii« not (listiint from tlie town. Tli s win I'i'^lit yciirH jjri'vions to 
Or.'i'iiliii';,'!!'!' vi«lt in KlTi'. Willie resiiliii:; on the site Hoiith-west of the falls they proh- 
alily olitaiiieil water from the sinull liniok llowiiii west of tlie vllla''e.— .1. S, ('. 



;ill my 
s dl' the 
1 liiiiiiiy 

!i sijjii. 
M. lie 

ikc liim 
nut the 

th.'il lie 

'liil.l III 

• Ill' (lis- 
mI as I 

lie inli- 
c'li, she 

M'f, and 
arc still 
e forest 

• knows 

eoyc Fulls 
rovicms to 
tlifv prob- 

lintliin^' nlioiit lioiise-keepiii^r. Xow, I have no doiil.t thai 
heiiij; for the |ireseiit the only oiio of our faniilv in I'ar 
(idise, slio will have iini<'li troiilile to aceiisiom herself to 
the rliaiij,'e, for she will he eom|ielle(l to (In her nwii ccok 
in^. ^'<> for wood and water and provide with her own hand- 
what sh(« neeils to eat and ilrink. in truth, is she not to hr 
pitieil in having' no peisoii who is able to s<'rve hi'r in that 
plaee'.' Thon seist here one of my slaves who is siik. 1 
pray thee instrnrl her fully and show her the path In Heaven, 
that she Ity no means miss tlu'way. I>nt that she inav lio and 
lod>.^! with my dan;,diter !iiid relieve her of all the !ill"airs ..f 
her household." 

1 look advantai.a> of the oeeasion and of t he smi|ilieil \ if 
this woman, to instruct the sick slave I spokr to her: I 
found her disposed to listen to me; 1 e.\horled her: I in- 
stnietod her: sin; opened lur eyes to the triilh and desired 
of me liaptism, whieh I eoiild not. refns •, tliinkiii'^- her in iin- 
me(|iale dantrer of death. IJnt (in| determineil otlierwisi'. 
for in time her health was reston.'d ; and now she cMndnety 
herself in all respeets as a W(»rtliy Christian. 

After a while, as 1 .^onuht to instniet the mistres<--lie 
having graiinally given np her low and gross notions ol 
J'aradise— to enable her to form a more correct and wortliv 
idea of supreme ha|ipiness, she assured me that there wa> 
nothing in the world she was not willing to do to reach the 
]ilace; that she was resolveil tu go iind join her (]augliter. tn 
dwell with her in the same blessed sojourn : after which slie 
remained faithful in ))rayer and a.ssiduous in the means of 
instruction. She maiiifesied the same zeal in h;ivintf all 
iter slaves instructed how to pray to (iod : and it may !)e saiil 
that tlirough her alone, there were won to (iod more than 
twenty persons. 

During the six niontiis since I came here, I have baptized 
twenty or twenty-five savages. There are besides, ten or 


f.votvi- a.liilt.s wliu HIT pivpiin-.l t(. r.-.-eiw tliat .•iii.TMiiinif. 
Owiiii' to til.' umisuiillv iiliiiiitlaiil harvest of walnut-* tins 
vcar. till' jnv of till'' is so jfrcal. lliat i>nc sf.v^ -.cinivly 
iiiivlliiii- lint -anii'S, (limce^and feasts wliirli lli.-; earrv even 
to .jelani'li. althoii^'li they have n.. other Si'asonin- than lii.' 
oil. ' l')iil what eonsoies nie in all these ilisMi-,lei< i-, that 
i.nlv two of onr Christians have laeki-il the eonni-e i.. ivsist 
the' soli<'itatii>iis of the soiverer, to make a eeriain «noer>ti- 
tions hani|net \\\ which all who join th.' .lanee, ihr..w \u>\ 

nshos on tin' siek, thinkin- this In !»• a s.-veivien iv .Iv for 

the .lisease. 

The lroi|Uois, stfietl.v speak inu', liavi' hnt a sin-h- l»ivMnty 
and that the i)ivani. 'I'hev remler it ahsolnte snKnn-i"n. 
and fi.Ilow all its di'inands with sernpnlons exa •ines-. . he 
Seneeas af<' nuieh more di^vote.l than the others, 'I'heir 
reliuion. in this iv^avd. '/ofs to the last serni'l.', .-inee what- 
ever thev snpliose is told them in tlie divain. they linld llieni- 
selvL's al.solutelv lionnd \<> exeento as speedily as possihle. 
Tho otlior nations ennlent themselves with ohservin'.' the 
in,.re important dream< : Imt this people who are k.nked 
upon as living nioiv reii-ionsly than tlx'ir nei-lil"Ms, llnnk 
themselves uuiltv of a ^Tuatsiiiif they disro;^ard even one. 

Thev think of tiothiniji' else; they talk of nolhin-- ei^e: all 
their c'ahins an; full of thoir ilfeaiiis. The;, spare no lul.or 

I ••TlH'.v imrcli tljiMrimt»niul ii.oni^ over tlie flre to tnkf iiway llicir riiiik nillnca», 
HhU'l. ufU'nv.inU iiru.-ml, yirld a milky li.iii. r, nml llu- iiii.rii- an an.lHT-n.l.iir.l oil. 
hi tliese mini.'U'il t(i-<'tli.T. tlu-y <ll|i thc-ir nikc« at i;r.Ml ciiHTt.iiiimoit-. ami m) -ervu 
tlii-miil)li>llu'irnm"'<*aHaMi'Xlra<ir(llM;iry.luinty."I,f(l,Trr'-l)is.-„u.riislii'W ;i'.p.-Jl. 
•• lU-TTBKSi r.-TlK' kiTiiul is Iliick ami cily iiml "uu" •"■'■miiPH ramid ; licnci'. iloiiht- 
lodi. are iIitIvimI tlir nami'H of I!mII>tiui1 and Oilnnt. Tlic«r mil.- ar,- rardy wlu In tti.' 
mar'kef of Nf* Vork ami I'liiladrlidda. Tlu' Indian- who irdiahilnl llii-. ;-o-lon-. 
noiimltMl and l.oik'd tUon. and s,.]ianilinu' tlio oily nnh-lancc wlml. e.w.,m upon iHr Mil- 
face mixed it with their food." North American Sylvii, translated froai the French of 
V ANM.iiKw .Mi.MAix-farH, INlii Vol. l,p. m. - Siiku.-IUkk Hi. kokv. -The In- 
dian- who the »l.ores of I.ake Krie ami Lake Michi^-an. lay m. a of these 
nuts for the winter, a iiart of which th-y ponnd in wocmUm, mortars, and hoiluiL' Mie paste' 
ill water, colled the oily mutter wideh >« ims npoii the surface, to sea-nii theirahim-ms 
Ih. p. lH.-).-J. S. ('. 


,ii' [i;nii- til iii;iiiil'''.-t their ilr\ uIidh. hipI lli"ir lolly mi tins 
Xtlliji'cl Llni'S t'l till' l;l-l lili'iiJill'i' 111' cXi-i'S-i iliiau i Hillilc (illi' 
.ir.Miii.- tlili in;.' tin' iiiulit lii:i! lie li;i-i iKillM'.iiiiiii-rlf : ii|hmi 
\vlii<'li 111' I'isi's iiiiinrdiati'ly. wliolly iiaki'd. o.ii's tn a iiiiiiilur 
(if I'Mliiii"". ill i-ai'h III" \vlii''li III' iiiaki's tlif iiiiiiatts tlii'nw umt 
|ii< ImhIv a ki'Itli' lull iif '.vatcr. Ihiwcvit tmI.! it iiia;> 1h', 
AimiIIh'I' wImi ili-raiiicii liial In' was taken (M|iI ivi' ni' liuriini 
alive, eaiiseil li m>elf t>i lielhiiiiiil the h illnwinu' ila\, al'tei' the 
iiianner uf a prisoner to lie liuiiieij, |iersiiailiii,<4 liiiiisell' tliat 
havini: ill this wiiv siitis|iei| liis ilreiim, his liilelity wmilil 
!i\ert I'loiii him liie paiii ainl infamy nf eaiitivitv i>r ileatli. 
whii'h otherwise it Inul heeii rescale.l hy lii< iliviiiiiy he 
should sillier atiioii;^ his I'liemies. 

There ai'e some wlio liave lieen as far as (^tiii'liee. ami trav- 
eleil one humlred and fifty leagues to have a i\"'j: whieli tlii'V 
hail di-eanied llieveould pnrehase thei'e. It iseasy froiii this 
to indue in what peril we are every day aiiioii'.'' ;i people who 
would tomaliaw!< ns in eold lilood. if they dreamed they 
oneht to do this. Since it is a little tliiirj that uives olVeiici' 
to a sava'jc. it is eas\' for his imaLiiiiatioii miee exeited. to 
represent to him in a di'eam that ht^ should take veiiLteaiice 
on liim who had caused tlie oU'euec^ \V(' appear to ourselves 
as vietims liahle to l)e taken anv moment to 'orture; and 
since one is mai'le to die a hundred lillle•^ hy the ever ]ire,-eiit 
ima'jc of ileath, we esteem oiii'sclves liippy in a|iproacliiii.L: 
so near to martyrdom. 

The inlidel women. Kv inclinatiou natural to the sex, are 
the iiioi'c devotcil ill oliscrvinu' their dri'.ams, and followiiiL' 
the eoimnands of this idol. It is true that, the worslii|i which 
this people render, would rather p! l\)r a superstition than 
ii form of idolatry, as they neither pay adoration to the dream 
nor oll'er it any sacritiee. They ari' contidciit from a eeilain 
infallililc experience, that whatever tliey dream and fail to 
execute, it alwavs I'oiiu's liai-k to (hem in some misfortune, 


iiivsttM'ionslv ox)ii'osse(l in tlio dreniii. 1 linve roinarkod at 
the same time, that tlie greater ]»art of tliese savages are 'at 
less pains to obey their dreams whih" in liealtli, but the mo- 
ment tlicv have the sliglitest aihnent, th(>y are persuaded 
that there is no sueh sovereign remedy for tlieir liealing, and 
to save their hfe. as to do all they have dreamed. The sor- 
cerers, who an; the same as ju'iests of tlieir divinity, eontri- 
l)iite not a lilllf to establish them in this superstition, sineo, 
thcv are ahvavs called in to explain the dream : and, since 
they i<no\v adnnrably well how to turn it to their prolit. they 
live and enrich themselves of this jioor people, who, so soon 
as thcv ai'c sick, s]iaiv nothing in doing whatever the sorcerer 
declares the drram ordains.' 

This is the greatest obstacle to the spread of the Faith 
among people ; and it is not too much to say that it is 
the one stumbling block to the Christian ; since as to drunk- 

1 FtitlUM- (If Cai'lilol. who, wlicn niiiDii'^ tliij C.iyii'^iH. ^:lvi! tliis ^'^lll,i••^•t of ilri'iiins jinr. 
tionliir iiltomion. iiiiil scciiH to liiivu bocii mori' than iisnully siicccssfiil in convinciiii; the 
Indian minil of tlic iili.-nrdity of yiclilinu' tlicm implicit ohi^liencc, writi'S : " I liavf oar 
ni'<lly Ciinnatud thsir snpcr-titions, |):iniiMilai-ly tin; divine aiitliority tlioy nitnbntt,' to 
dreams, which may lie caid t!) he the Ibundalio!) of all their errors, as it is the sonl of 
their ivli'4ioii. I havi; neverlhelesa recoi;iiized two thiiiL's In my elTorts to eoml)at if 
I'Mrst, that it is nut properly thedre.mi that tliey worship as th? master of their life, hiit 
a certain one of the jienii they ciiU Ai,Mtkoachoria, who they helieve speak to tlu i in 
8lee|) anrl comnianil them to ohey implicitly tlieir dreams. The prin<'ipnl one of these 
spirits is Taronhiaona'.'on (I'pliolder of the lieavens ) whom Ihey reco;,'nize as a divinity 
and ohey as the supreme ma-ter of their life; and wlien tlu'y speak of a dream as divine, 
they only mean, that it i^ throiiiih it they know the will of (iod and what is iiecessary 
for the preservation of thei'-life: and furtherim)re that the actual (loin;;of the thiii'.'s 
ihey had seen in a dream, contrihntes to promote their health and happiness. They also, 
sometimes give the name of the master of their life to theohject^of their dreams, as for 
example to the skin of a bear or to similar thinsrs which they have seen in their sleep ; 
and because they rejiard them as ch'inns to which God has attached tlie good fortune of a 
loni: life. Thns they take special care to preserve them with this view, and when they 
are sick cover themselves with them or place them near their persons as a defence 
aL'aiiist the attacks of disease. The second tliini; I have recoj;nized in combatint; the 
4ibedieiiee they render to their dreams, is tlnit they are not able to nntlerstand how the 
sonl acts durinc sleep, in thns reiiresentin.u lo them objects distant and absent, as if near 
and present. They persna<le themselves that the sonl (piits the body dnrins,' sleep, and 
that it L'oes of itself in search of the tnim,'s dreamed and to the places where they see 
them ; and it returns into the body toward tlie end of the ni.iiht, when all dreams are 
dissiraled." See AVi//;/ Chiijitn-not' Ciujiiija Ilhtury, pp. .')!. .").">. 

Mimrkod at 
ages iuv'iii 
ut tilt' mo- 


.'iiliiig, ami 

The s..r- 

ity, c'oiitri- 

itioii. since 

ami, since 
|)rolit. tliey 
lid, SI) soon 
,lie sorcerer 

tjie Faith 
ly that it is 
s to (Iruiik- 

of ilreiims iinr. 
1 oi)nvini-ini;tlu' 
s ; " I Imvc car 
ley altnbiit(,' to 
it i« till' siinl iif 
ts to coml)at if 
>f tlu'ir lifi', liii( 
jieak to 111. 1 in 
)iil one (if lliesc 
ize as a iliviiiitj' 
Ireani ns divine, 
liat is iieceRsary 
ns; of llic tliiiif;s 
less. They also, 
r ilienins, as for 

in tlieir sieep ; 
(lod fortune of a 
, and when they 
ills as a defenf 
1 conihatint; the 
erstand how the 
hsent, as if near 
nrinj,' sleep, niul 

where they sec 
I all dreams are 


entiCfS, strongly as tliey are adilieted to it, iievcrtlieless, the 
women ami old men do not abandon themselves to excess. 
One is thus enabled to lioiic that tlieir example and the zeal 
of the missionaries, may moderate the (le|H)riment of the 
young warriors who breathe only for lilood and brandv. 

For the overthrow of this siipeislitioii of the dream. I hate 
loiind no method more ellicaeious, than to make them sec 
clearly and by way of inference, that the faithfnlness of anv 
number of people whom they know to have carried out the 
observance of their dreams, has neither saveil them from death 
or cajitivity, nor from destruction itself of their entire nation, 
'riiis coiisidiM'atioii has served me, in this ci'untrv, to uiide- 
eeive and open the eyes (if many, ilins leading them to dcti-st 
the whole thing, both the siiiierstitioii of the dream and the 
i)ad faith of the sorcerer. 

Nevertheless, in gereral. we mav sa\-, that there is nothing 
more ellicaeious to attract the Iroipiois to the ]''aith. tli;iii to 
subdue their pride by the might of arms : and bv as much 
as they fear those of the I'Veiicli, will they lessen the ol)sta- 
eles to their conversion. 

(iodhashis elect not only among the Inxpiois wher,. he 
has ills missionaries, but he jiermits them to go forth carrv- 
iiig war to regions most distant, and bring back captives to 
introduce them into the sacred liliei'ty of thechildren of God 
and tlieiic(> to Paradise, from the jiri.sons and lires of the Iro- 
(piois. 'Julius we are leil to adore from dav to dav the hidden 
and mysterious ways of Divine Pnn-idenee toward liis elect. 

Two captives of the Gandastojjue having been brought 
here to be burned, according to the custom, the first being 
so well instructed and giving all the marks of u saintlv dis- 
position to receive baptism, 1 conferred it, and after fifteen 
hours of terrible torture which he er.dured with true Chris- 
tian resignation, he left the earth to go to Heaven. The 
other at the first, was unwilling to listen to me, and ha,ving 


rej)Lillt;<l me iiuuiv times, I was at leuirth romiielled lo leave 
him, tliat at liis leisure he mi.i^lit rellert on what. I said to him 
of iieaveii ami hell : l)Ut in a sliort time he ealleil me to him 
of his own ai'eonl, savinir that it was all Liood, and tiiat he 
wished tt) obey (Jod and he save<l. 1 hapti/.ed him on ^ivin^; 
liiiii tlie nceessai'V instruction, after which it was manifest 
that faith was truly wrou<ilit in his heart. He was taken 
immediately to the place of toi'tnrc. and from the happy mo- 
ment of his conversion to his latest hi-eath, he sanii' all tlie 
time, with a courage invincihle— " Bnrii my liody to yotir 
heart's content: tear it in ]iieces: this loitMre will soon lie 
over, after which 1 ,l;o to heaven : I ,l;o to hcaxcn there to 
he clcrnallv happv." I Ic pi'ononnced these words with sneh 
faith and so Lireal fervor, that one of our L^dod Christians who 
witnessed the linrnin,:!'. and who did not know that 1 had 
instructed and hapti/.cd him, said to those standimj' hv : 
••'I'liis captive has truly the Faith : it must ecrtainly 1m- that 
he has hecn instructdl li\- soiuc one of mir [''atlicrs. who is at 

< iiinda-^toLlUe 

Thus it is that (ioil -ath'.''s his clecL from all parts of iln' 
World. A woman who had lieeii taken prisouei' from a e.iun- 
trv far distant, .-ome (la\- after hi'i' arrival here, was sei/.ed 
with a daiiLifrous malady. 1 repaireil immediately to the 
e;iliiii where she wa.s to endeavor to insti'uct her: hni she 
eou'.d not understan'.l me. as 1 was iiziiorant of the laneuanc 
of lu'i' (.'ounlrv, and it was not, pos.-ihle to lind any one to a<'t 
as inter[ireler. 1 saw nevcrthek'ss that she w;is rapidly sink- 
iiitf, and that she was ahoyt to enter the tinal aii'oiiy. Ki'om 
that moment mv heart was cut with uricf at sceiuL'' tiie loss 
ot' a poor soul whii'h <iod had hrou^ht to the vi'rv threshold 
of I'arailise, JA'avini:- the caliin, wholly penetrated witliaih'c- 
tion and .sorrow, 1 took myself to prayer and comnientlcd to 
(iod the salvation of this soul with all the fervor of which \ 
was capable: 1 employed at this .-ame p.iint the merit of the 


I l() k'uvc 

ill to IlilH 

ic to him 
(1 that lie 
i>ii ^ivin^l 
.•as taki'M 
appy iiii>- 
ii<f all the 

• to voiir 

II Sooll III' 

I thi'rr to 
with sin-h 
tians who 
lat 1 hail 
iliiiii' I'V : 
iy Ih' that 
who is at 

Ills of ilir 

III a i-oiiii- 
was si'i/.cil 
•Iy to till- 
• : Init shi' 

• la'iiLiuai!!' 
one to ai't 
liilly siiik- 

W. i'Voiil 
IIL!' till' loss 
with ailVc- 
iiicniU'il to 
111' which 1 
ii'i'it of the 

Holy \'ir:^iii of all lilt! saints. At last, having' I'oi' a Ioii.l'- tiuii' 
iiivoki'il till' coiiipassioii of oil!' Ij.ii'il ill lichalf of this woman, 
I was sti'oii'jiy iiirliiii'il to rrtiirn to her caliin ami n'roiniuit 
her ti I her l;ooi1 Aii'jrI. 

Si-aii'i'ly 1 iloiu'tlit! oiit> ami the othi'i-, wlini I saw m- 
Irr two vvoiiicii whom I iliil not know, anil who wen ii,.t ,if 
till' town whciv j ri'siilr: thr one aiiil then tin' oiIht ap- 
|iroai-lii'il iii'ar tlif sirk oiir ami LiiviiiL:' her iiianv rarcssi-. a<- 
snrril lur that thry wen' roiiu' to coiisoli' hrr ami that tln'v 
woiilil liy no mrans Iravr ln'i'. A nii'i'tintj- so ha|i|iv. -o im- 
lookril joi'. lii'i'atly surjirisi'd ini', .-im'c | rui;|i| not lint think' 
that this meant tiiat (iod had sent two .Xiilii'Is from llraM'n 
to iiistnici ami liaptizt' this poor woman. I ihrn a>ki'il if 
they were williiiL;' to ser\e me as interpreters, to |iroeiiiv for 
the siek person, alioni to expire, eternal happiness. Thev 
lioth oilVri'il tlii'm<elves to remler this 'jooil o!lici.. I ,.x. 
pl.aineil to her the mysteries of ,,\\v Kaitii : tinv repratfil ;i!l 
my worils in her laiiLiuaL'e. with plainness ami also siirh 
niietion as enli-liteiieil the spirit of the sick one ami at the 
same time tonrheil her heart. I wa- ileiiLihlcil with the zeal 
ami h'l'Vor wit!; whieii eacli of these l;ooi| catcdiists lalored 
forth" instrnctioii ofiais hiiviurn'r. 'I'he\- exhorted iicr and 
pressed her to ipiickly open \[i'\- o\r< to the truth, siiiec she 
had Imt a verv short time to live. 

They pointed her to the open liea\'ell leadv to reeeiee \\fV. 

Not eomeiit with faithfully inti'rpretiiiL'- mv woi'ds, tiii \- 
ai|il','d. themselves. inoti\es and re;i<nns. which at la^1 eom- 
pclled this poor woman, who was sc.-ircelv .-dile to speal^. to 
make a linal elVort for her salvation, ."^he then eansd me 
to approach her lied and .irave me to perceive that (Iod ilini- 
self had instructed lior, iiiid that. He had in tlii< short time 
wrought in her "reat things, j haplized her as ipiicklv as 
possihle, seeiiiL:' her so well disposed, and in some moments 
aftei-, she expired to go and possess in heaven eternal ,L:lor\-. 


Is not tliis a miracle of the .Ln-aco of dod ( And should 
w.' not he tlin<'e lini-py that lli> is so willin.L,' to serve llirn- 
solf of us. as the instniiaeut of His luercv? 

(1 should 
rvo llini- 


TiiiToiicliisidii of l''alli('i' l-Vt'iiiin's ii;iri';iti\-(', ilisclnsrs -miic 
lit the more serious ohsticlcs riiciiiiiitcrrd hv ihc inissioiKirics 
111 tlii'ir work, aihl at llic saiiif time Liivts a vivid pit ,i'i' of 
lroi|iiois life and iiiaiiiicrs iiion' than two (•cntiirics ai^o. The 
lirii'f rcrcrcia'c to the Cayiiua iiiission. recalls the lali^rs of 
the devoted and ucnille Mer.ard. its founder in IdoT. who 
lour year.- after, lost his life aiuoiiu the hu'ests which iior- 
ilered i,ake Suiierioi-, while on his wav t.> |iiaiit tin' cross 
aniouLT the savaire trihes of that distant region. a> he was 
among the first to do on the iiaid^s of our own ("avniia.' 

i KatlhT I!e\e MknaiiI). «1i(i wa^^ Imni in !iiO|. bi-pii in Kniih'r lanfcsMir I.i Mad- 
aiiic Daillilidiil. line cif lln- fimmliTS of MonircM! ; hiii iif lii« pii'Vinii* liislory «!■ know 
iiolliiiif;. IIiMaiiic lo Canada in till' h^poaiMi', h hiili ^aili'd fmni Dli'iipi' on tni' \.'f,lli nf 
Marr li, KiiM, and, aftiT inMii;.' ii)iii|iidli'il to |Mit liark liy »liirni«. rcarhi'd (^iiehcr in .Inly. 
AfliT lifiiiiriliiTrtor ipf tlic ri>iilini's. lie wa-< -ciil to llic I!nn>ii coiinln', ami siirfcrdcd 
liayinbaiit a^ missionary of iho AL'oiKiuins, NipissiiiL's, and Atontratas On llw fall of 
the lliirons lie was slalioniMl at 'riircr liiviTs until May liir.ii. when lir arcoinpaniid llic 
rrrnili I'vpi'ditioii to Onondaya, and from Ihcnii' aciomiianii'cl rhaiinionot to tlif Cay- 
iiijas in An:;nst of tlii' sanu' year. He reniained for two months, when he was nealled 
lo ()nonda;.'a, Init soon after reliuiied and remained until the missions were l)roken un 
ill II).")? : after wliieli he returned to Three Ulvers, and remained there iinlil he wan 
cliosen ill Aii^'ust KKiO to siicieed (iarrean In an atli'iiipt to heiiin missions iinioni: the 
Western Aljiompiiii trilies. He set out with a llolilla of Indians .ind after •.-real siilTer- 
inn reached Lake SiipiTior and foiinile 1 the mission of St. 'I'eresa anion;; the Ottawas 
at Keweenaw Hay, Oct. l.'i. He labored here dnrini.' the winter and was phiniiiiiL' a mis- 
sion niiioiii; the Dakotas, when his services were iir^'ently solicited liy a tiand of Hiirons 
then at the source of the IJlack river, a hraiicli of the Mississippi, Hi' set out for their 
villasfe In July IH-il, and perished of famine or liy an Indian liaiid, near the source of tlie 
Wisconsin in Lake Vieiix Desert In the early part of AuLTiist liiili. Kor the place of lilg 
dentil, which has been much debuted, we inlopt the theory of Kev. K. .lacker, -.vhii to 
rt dose 8tu()y of the data, add* a personal kuowl idj<e of Indian life mid their trials in 
Wisconsin and MiciilKnii. 


•n,,. iKirnmvc (-r Filth. ■!• Kivmin (rhap. IX /'<hilmn. 1C.7<»I 
i- c.iiK'luilcil as follows : 

I'vlniv liiii.-hiii.n lliis Urhilion coiiccnnii,- our lnM|ii,Hs mis 
sioii-. I will uivc hero in tlic form oi a journal, wliat ivmains 
to l.fsaiil of tin' coiiililioii m wliidi tlicy arc at pivscnl, ami 
of wliat has occurrcil this year. 

As thtTc wciv uo mon' sirk iu 'rsoiiuoutoiiaii, 1 started on 
■a jonrnoy to Onomlaga, where the mis-ionaries of this eoun 
try meet to eoulVr to.iiether on the methods of laliorin.i:- more 
elllei.Millv Uv the salvati.m of these people, and of overeom- 
iii'j tiie numerous olistaeles in the way of their conversion.' 

1 It-o „c,nrrol,li:.l.lnnnL'tlical.-oio.of Fallu-r Kmnin Ml ll,.: misHuimry oM.nnl 
l,..l,l i„ I.MSallr, ill oompany vvilli l«,) pricstK ,.f ih.' Sulpilian onlrr, M. 
Dollio- ^U. ea«s,m and lU'.K ,!■ .!>. Ualin.^., vi.itol lli« Snircas in fnrlh.raiir.. .,f 
l,i-ll,-l rMM'clili"" to pn.-coif Lis .li.o.vfri.- towanl U.e MisM-^Mppi. The pailv 
l,u,.l.'dal Hav, tlif iR'areni point l.y wator to Hi., piln.ipal villaL'.' ..I Son 
„ont.M,an. ,li..aMt al.ouMw.M.ty tiu- fnth of An;;.,.!, the vory .lay that Katli... arrivr,! at I'ayn-u ..n Lis way t.. an.l llvo or si.x .lay. affr 1... 
lia,l l.'ft tl... SiM.oca villaj-e. La Si.ll.. and Lis .■..mpanioiis ..s,„rt.-(l from tL.' Ljn.l 
in.' plao. Ly a lar-,. .•on...anv of In.lians to IL.. villa-.', wLer..tL..y aniv.d on tL..t«..lftL 
„r°\n'n^t,an.l «LI.L is ,lfs.nL...I in the journal ..ftL- i..'cpi..liti..n "as a cilU'eUon ..f 
cahihs .,nT..un,l...l uitl. palisa.les twrlvror Ihirt...... f... ' \ t..-elher at the t..p 

an.l s.ipp.irte.l at the Laso, Lehin.l the palisa.l.s, Ly laryc .asses of wo...l of the heitfhl 
.)f a man Tl... ....rtains ar.. not olln'rwis.. Ilanki'il l.nt form a simpl.. enelosnre, 

focllv -piare, so that forts ai-e not any prolu.tion. ' .\t the eo,.,., il hel.l the ne.M 
,l.,y n,,. srrvanl ..f l''all.e.- Kreniin a.te.l as interprel.r, an.l presents were e.xehan-e.l. 
L'l SHlle re.piesioi tha' a.apti.e from tL.' .■oi.ntry ..f the Toa-enLas ( th.' 
omonau'annha alsocalle.l Maso.ntins, nation ..f the Prairie. an,l Nation ..f I'-i.e, at 
time lo.'ate.l in thesoi.the.n part of present Wi-.-onsin. Lelween Lake Mi.liiu'an an.l th.. 
Mississippi, mi-ht 1.,. -iven Lim as a ;:ni.le to eondnet tlie uxp.'.liti.m t.. tliat people to .to as soon as the y..nn^' men. vvL., were away trading with the 
Dntd, t.;who.n they .i.rrie.l all their raplivcs. shoul.l return, whieli w.mld be 
in ten ..r twelve .lays. In the nwanwhil.- 1. .pianlity ..f Dal.h Lnuidy was Lroii^jLt to 
the villa-... foU.iwed, as usual by a drunken .lehaiul . whieh La Salle and his asso- 
elates w^ere threatened with .leath ; an.l a Toa-.'iiha ..^itive whom tliey desired for a 
-aide was put lo tlie en...| t..rlnr.. ..f six Lours' .luration. when his was cut 

?o pi.'ee- an.l prepared f..r the feast. Thus the visit ..f l.a Salle to th.. Senecas resulted 
in disapi.nintment, an.l hy tl... detenti.m he tLe m,.st favoral.le season for traveling-. 

Ih.. esiMdilLMi roaeLed no fartlier than tin- m.mth of (i.aiid river ,)ii the norlliern side 
of I ak.. l.;rie Tli..r« they were overtaken Ly winter and made their camp in the 
,i,.i.'LlM,riii.' woods, where th.'y remained until the followin<; sprint;, when I)e l'ass..ii 

■ni.Uialince went west, La Salle havin- r..|urn...l I.. Montreal the iirevl.Mis autumn. 
Il Inis Leen allef.-ed that Vather Kremin left Tsonnontouau for Ononda-a at this par- 

ti,.nl-.r lime, to actiii- as interpreter I.. La Salle and the Sulpitians, or aidinj; the 



Tin lotli of Aii<.nist. IfJdO, I liud tlio li!i|)|)ini'ss to ciiihraee 
Kallii'i- til" (,'.ii'lu'il at ( >io;ioii(Mi (('ayiin-a), rrom wliciicc I wrote 
to till' o'Imts of o:ir l''atliiM's, wlio are amoiiu^ tin' Iro piois. to 
ass'Miililr at ( )iinii(I;iL;',i till' last of tlii' iiioiitli, wIhtc we woiiM 
iiirrt tliciii. I li;iil the leisure in liic iiie;iii\vliile. to tarrv 
sotiic (lavs at tliis mission, where I was wil iiess of the faith 
ami eoiiraLic of the curlier ( 'iiristiaiis whom the late l'"ather 
Meuai'il hail, himself, huptizeil ; manv even of the inliilels 
thrnwcUcs, h;el- not foiyotteu the ]iravers whieh hi' IkuI 
taULrht them. Iiiiii'eilall in this rerenlchiiri'li, L;a\'i' lUf ver\' 
ufeat consolation ainl stronti; hope of the conversion of the 
entire country. Father ile Carheil is Lii'catlv liclovcil. No 

oi pposes the l'"aith. Many of the sachems come to prav 

to <ioil ill his httle chapel. He has uin Icrtaki'ii another, 
which IS to he much lai'Li'er ami more c, iinnioilii ms, am I which 
will lie ci.mplctci! in a couple of montlis. 1 think that then 
llic\' will come in ereat mimliers to worship ( ioil. It is |{em'. 

olijfct iif llicir ('iiU'i|iii-c. Hut llu'ii' i< 111! cvlili'iiii' lii' h:\> iii.;illcil nf i|[c|r cuiii 
iiiu'. miic'.i I. ^ lliMl ill" a»!'istami; was dc-ircd. Iiidfctl Ihc iiarriiiivi' of (luliiiri' \vim!il 
Hei'iii Id ilispii'c Df Ihr wlnili' slorv ii" an nccr tliiiiii'lil, ISprakiiiL' (if tlii' cuiiiicil lirlil 
(111 Ihuir arriviil at IIk' SriircatinMi. hi' says ; ■■ Wlu'ii \vc saw llic a^.Tinlily liiri;i' ciMiiiL'h 
«(' lii'L'an Id talk <>( liiisiii(s>, and ilnii it was ilial Mr. ilc la Sullr avowcil thai lir «a« 
mil aliK' III iiiakr liiniscir iiiidrrsliiixl." 'I'lii' iiifi'iniii' here i» 111. li, Ijis Siilplllaii com. 
paiiiiiii-' ha 1 liiTii led li> Mi|v|)i>se I. a Siille eapalile (if coiiviThiiii; \\ illi the SenecaK. and 
only when it e iiiie In llie pnlnl. was it discovered lliat he Odiild iiiil. Iliit more than 
this. Tlie niirralive eiintinni- ; "On the other liand, my interpreter caw lliat lie did 
not know I-'rcneh w.-li eniniith lo make liiiiiself well iiiider.slood liy ii*. henee wedeeiiieil 
It more e\pe(lient lo make use of I''alher l''reiiiiii's man to make our speeeh and lo 
report lo i|s what the Indian.^ niiirlit say ; and in fail llie inatler wa.s so transacted It 
is to li.' reiii'irke 1 liial Katlier I''reniin was not then at his mission station, lint liad i;one 
;i few days liefore to ()n(iiida:.'a to attend a nieeliii;; to he held of all tlie iiiissionaries 
sc.ittered amoiii; tile l'"ive Iroiiuois luitlons. There was only Kather l'"remin's i.ian 
there who served as an interpreter." It appears then, that Dollier de ( 'a-soii had ail in 
lerpreler also, who hriike down, and that then they applied lo [•atlier Freiiiin's maii. a 
doniie cir mission aid. who aelii illy did all they iei|iiired. 

Tliire is no hint in the whole narrative of dissatisfaction willi Kreiniii's man, or of 
any reluctance onhispirt to serve them. In fad, the iinpressioii from the ..loleis, 
that tliey('aine prepared, entirely indepeiideii' (.f the missionary, hut when I,a Salle 
and Itollier de Casson's iiiler|iieter. lioth admitti.'d their inahilily, ihey were Ihankfu! lo 
olitaiii the services of .finin's iiiaii. I'arkinaii. in his L<i Saltt, Ac., (IHHili p. 14, com- 
pared with his DUcor.rij (>l Ihf llrmt IIV.>7 (ISIi'.hp. |:i, coinpletely rejects the chttifre of 
\a Salle aL'ainst the tlesiiita. 


liis iissdciuto, who is Ix^th the iuvlnti'i'l .iiul litiiMiT. It will 
ill 111) ivspcct rrsi'iiil)l(' the fahiiis of the savairi-N, cxcriit in its 
I'Dvci-inu' of l)ark. In all other partiriilai'S it will ri'smiM.' a 
hoiisf such as tlu'V l)uihl in France. liehiml tlie altai' he has 
eonlrive;! to make n small room. Kvei'v one in the whole 
town s|)eal<s of the skill of Rene. Ileilispeiises various me(l- 
ieinos which he pfeiiares, hiniseli', on the spot ; he dresses all 
kimls of wonmls ami heals them : he treats all the sii'k. 
Manv Cayn.^as .saiil tome, that l)Ut for him they svould have 
(lied. One cannot believe to what i-.xtcnt, he is loved hy 
these .sivatres. Would that it miuht ploasi" (iod that each of 
our mis.-ions hail a man hl<e Inn: I 

The 'idlh of Auiiiist, Father dc Carheil' and mvself. ar- 

iKatlicr Stki'iikn dk Caiuik.u. wu" lorn ;it ViiMinc. Ndvi'iiiIut 'Jii, 1(1);). lie ciilcrcil 
IliL' SiM'irly (if .Icwns, Aic'iisl 30, ID.V,'. iinil anhcil in Caiiiiilu. Aii^.'ii.'^t (I. KiiKi. lie \Mi» 
xi'iil to till' Cnyuija .Missinn in I(i(i-<. wIumt lii' rmiainril until His 1, at tin.' liioaliinL' up 
of till' Iroiiniiiri Mission, when hi' «a< driven frani the eanliin liy Orelianiic ami Sara- 
iiiia. the two pnneipal ehiefs of the tiilie. lie thi'ii liLraine eonnceleil with the Ollaw.i 
Mission, where he lahoreil until early in the next eentiiry. eharlevni.x, who caw him 
ill IT;.'!, at the ai;e of .'■s, descrilies him as then '-rull of viL'or anil viviielty." He liail 
sacrillcc'l the i.'reatest talents which ran ilo honor to a man of his profession, and in 
hopes of a fate liUe that of many of his lirelhren, who had hedewed Canadii with their 
hlood. Ill' hail emplovi'd a kind of violence with his superiors to olitiiin a mission w hose 
ohsciirity sheltered him from all aniliiticai. and olVereil him only crosses. There he 
lahored iintiriliL:ly for more than sixty yeiirs. He spoke Huron and Iroipiois with as 
miieli ease and elei;ance as his native toiii.'iii'. and wrote treatises In both these Ian 
jIiniKeH. Kreiich and Indians concurred In ri-Lrardin^' him as a saint and (.'eiiliis of the 
highest order. It was tliroui.'li the liilliienee of de Carlieil that the faiiiiais Huron 
Chief, Kondiaront. (omnionly known as •• The Hat," was converted to Christianity, and 
wlio, (himself an eNtraordinary man.) was accustomed to say that there weie lint two 
Krenchnieii of talent in all Canada. theCoiinl ile Krontenac and Father de Carhell. The 
Indian name of this Father was Aondechcte. He eaily impres.sed the ('ayii«as with 
his coiiraL'e liy aetini,' as a sentinel on a certain occasion when a niiiior that a party of 
Andastes. their most dreaded I'lieinles. were near at hand, had tilled tlie town with 
alarm, and when he accomiiaiiieil their warriors to repel the e.'ipected attack. In ITOJ, 
and while stationed at MIcliilimacimic. lie liore a prominent part In what is known an 
"The IJrandy liuarrel." in resistim; with his personal intliieiice and the power of the 
pen, what he sijles liii his letter to the French Intendant: "the deplorable and infii- 
moiis tratllc in hraiiily, " which he declares jms been friiilfiil only " of disorders, bru- 
tality, violence, scorn ami insult." amonj; the Indians, till it had become impossible to 
maintain the missions, and nothing remained " but to abandon them to brandy sellers 
as a domain of drnnkemiess and deliauchery ." Father de Carlieil died at (iuebi'c In 
July, 17J(). at the advanced a^'e of in years. For a more extended skeleli of this ut- 
comiillslnd missionary, see Etnly rlunittinof Cdijuyu l/it-loii/, pp. TH 81. 


It will 


rivnl i.t Oiioii.lii-iii. where in waiting for Katlier I'.nivas wli.> 
is iit Oneida, and Father I'lerron who is at M..hawi<. I ha.l 
time to consider the allairs of nnv e;,rly mission; and all 
appeared in the same state it was when wi- left it. in the veai' 
Ifi.-.S, except that the ( )noiHla<.'as were -reativ hnmiliate.l 
sh.irtlv ai'ter l.v the ( iandastouiu:, as nearly all their hraves 
iiad heen slain in the war. 'i'hey spoke to ns with great am 
llcness. and in all respects were more traetahle than lu'lore. 
There IS a ehnreh ot' early Cin'istians which nnnd.ers ahont 
forty who live l)e<'onnngly. Many present themselves for 
instrnction. (laraeontie is onr trm- friend. That Prince and 
Orator visited me with all the and did 
lor ns many kindnesses. 

The 2tith of Angiist, Father Hruyas' and I'icrron arrived, 
and we had the consolation of seeing onr entire nnmlier (six)- 

I FuMi.T J A.iiK^ Huiv.v.-, w,is ,1 nntivr c.f LyoiiH, nriivnl ■■! (^m.Imm , Au-ui-t m W,i) 

■"' '""■ mil <.r .July, ..f 111., fcllowini; voir, set mil f„r Ih- Mohuwk ((lunnv iiihl 

ihoio- Ml S,.|.loiilMT f„r Oiifi.lii. IlMvini; l„.,Mi ai.i..)iiil,.,l cliicf „f „11 H,,. I,„',,„„i« 

""''"""'• i" '"'I '"■ "''ii'- 1 "> 'I"' M"liiuvks. 11,. was ,ini„ii:; tl,,. Soiccas in li;7:i. hut 

icliinir.l U< Ihc Mulmvvks iiml roiiiiiiKMl iImtc iiniil smctimI,.,! I.v l-'iitluT Kniiicis Vaillaiil 

al Ti..nn(inl,)iiiioi, in h;;-!. In ir,K4 lie war< in cliaiw ut ll». mis. ,t ih,, Saiill SI 

Lmiis. „i, tl„. M. I.:nvroi.v. and in Uisr accompanied tlic [•'ivncli .-xpnlilicm airain-t llio 
Scnccas under Iicnnnvill... lie was a-ain al Ilie Saiill in aim. and in KlM l.ecame snpe- 
run (if Ins „rder in Caiinda ami retained liii,- p(,siii(,n iinlil 1700. In IWHi the Onc.nda-as 
lieiiiL' desin.iis lo cm.hide a peace, visiicl Mxiilreal and invited ■•'allicr liniya-. t.) 
leliirn as .\n,liassad( r willi lliem, liiil Iheir roinest was refused unlil tliev w.iiild cm- 
elude a Irealy al Miaitreal. and in llie fall iif that year he was sent with Mai(,r l.a Val- 
liere with the kiiifi's letter anniiiincin!; the terminali.m c,f h,,slilities helweeii Kni-land 
and Frame. (/.„ Ihth.n,, IV. i:)l,) In the siininier nf KIR) th,. Irnrpuiis renewed Iheir 
rcpiest and Father liruyas proceeded to Ononda-a (/,r( l'i<ll,^,i>; IV. HS.i where he ar- 
rived in .Miunst and returned the month followin- with a deleyatnm llial e<ui<laded a 
linal i.eaee helweeii the French an.l Five Nalimis which lasted for in. .re than .".il years 
He vi.siie.l Onomlaj;a a„ain in duly iroi on public affairs, and acted as inlerpreter to lli« 
Iro(|iiois at thet-rand ralillcalion of peace in .Xu-nst IoHowIul'. Iiv all ilie Indians (/,i 
Pi,(h,,i,: IV.-,Mi.i lli.s death look place anmni; the Iro(|uoisin 1712." He was the lest au- 
thority of liii< day as a „f the .Mohawk laiiL'ua-e. and compiled several works 
III that dialect. (His Rucinen .\;/„i,'r,.'< puhlisiied hy Dr. Shea as niimlier X of hi- lin- 

■ Includinj! Fathers Gamier and Milet at Onondaga, whose names are not .'ive.i in the 
le.xl. Father IMerron was transfBrred the followins; year from the Mohawk lo the 
Seneca Mission and Uarnier accompanied Fremin on his return to the Senecas Father 
PiEHRE Mii.ET arrived in Canada in I«(i7, and was sent the followinj,' year to Onondaga 


1,,._r..tlii'r tM (ii'lilMTiitc <ni all iiiattt-rs. <liiriii<,^ llif sis ilays we 
wriv cnuiiuvd iu coiiciTtiii^' nifasuivs iionifiil tn the success 
of our missions, ami for ovcivoiuiu.u' the olistadcs whicii lii;i- 
(Icr the pro.Liivss of the Kailh in liie <'ountrv "I the Irtxpiois. 
As we Wire about to separate, jo au li-oijuois luessenuer ol 
Monsieur, tiie (loveriior. arrived there from Montreal, witii 
lielts of \vatni)um. ami K>tters from your Ueverenee ami Irom 
|'"athei' Chaumonot, l>y winch we were ailvisol tlie 
French liail mas>acreil. near Moiilreal. .seven Ouci.his witli 
.,,,' of ilie nio-t tlistiuL'uislieil of the Senecas. This news 
iroilneeil ;i terrible e.\.'itt;nieul tlii-ouuiiout tlie nation. .\ 
nediiitelv to (Iclilicrale on what IkkI h'cu 
we were summoueil to lie present. I lie 
deputy coldly rchearsr.l the whole allair. lie was hold to 
clKiuueoM his own responsil.ility, the belts, taking the more 
hcautiful one of live tiiousaml heads, all lilack. which he ;ic- 
cordc'l to tin.- nation ami only -avc to the Sciiccas that wliicli 
■hhmI. lint llie letter of Fatner riiaumo- 
thesi' matters : and we ;ill strcnu- 
ed him t<i act 
( iaracontic haviicj 


council wiis helii imi 
done, and at wd'^ 'h 

was the least estecni( 

not hail infoi-med us of al 

onslv oppo.sed him in this, and at, last coinpe 

in strict accordance with his instructions. 

i-om Seneca uave to him the l>clt which 
to him : " it is too far for me to 

met. in the town, one 

was for tliat nation, sayin,u' 

wliflT iR' iviovoi thf iimiif ..f Tcli.irnnlii.i-iiiilir.i, m llic lo.iU.r up lo luavvli, llr «m> 
ivniovol a. omi.1.1 ill ai;i ami liihon-.l il.or unlit July mi. "lien h.' l.'fl and joined l)r 
1,1 li„n,- nn l.iik.. SI. Francis, Ann. 1. M tlie le.inest of Ilie Maroni.- ile KenonvUle. lie 

in l(!H."i. wliere lie aeted a- imerprcler in lliH" ; 

was ai.).oiiiIe(l Cliaplain to K.nt Kroiit, iiae in )(i«... where lie aeien a- iM,er,Me,e, „. ...n, . 
Mi,d ill aw siiceeedeil ile I/iinlierv ilie as Chaplain of Ilie fort M Nia-aia, lie lelnined 
loToiI Kronlenae in aiS'.t, and lieiiiy lured ontside the palisade.s to attend a dymi.' In 
diiin was taken prisoner l>y tlie Oneidas and liis life sa-.ed liy adoption into an Oneida 
family Itnrini: Ids eaplivitv tlic Kn-lish made many elToils. tUoii-h in vaiii, to -et luin 
in llieir p.mer, wliieli purpose (iovernor Fletelier sent Direk Wessels lo oneiila. 
He WIS ...lopted inl.i tlie Iril.e liy u Clirisiian a-orander, Susan (i.menta-ramli. and re- 
eeived tlie name of Olassete. that of the leadiiiL' saelieni of the llrst or Turtle Inaneh .d 
the irilie. Father Milet e..iitiiiued in thiseapaeity until the fall of Hiiliwheii he returned 
toQnehee. lie askeil to he returned ayuin as missionary to those Indians, tint the 
aspeet of the times did not permit it. CliarlevoiN who was in Camula from 1705 lo IVvV 
live,l several years with Milet and speaks of him in terms of lii;:h esteem. Katlier 

y.ilet died at (Jileliee. Dee. :il, 1708. 


< (lays we 


vliii'li hi;i- 

Ir. >i|ii()is. 

ssciiiifr III' 

[rivil, witli 

ami IViiiii 

tliat thf 

'idas will I 

riiis iii'ws 

latinii. A 

t hail U'i'ii 

;rnt. TUr 

as lioM l<> 

;■ tilt" llliirc 
lii'li lit' ai' 

that wliic'ii 

r ( 'hauiiiH- 
all sti'fim- 
him t<) act 

itii' haviiiL! 
holl whirl I 

I' fof me In 

4:i\(M, lie wii> 
t and juiiu'd l)i' 

• KlMKIllVilll.', Ill' 

iTprilci- 111 1118"; 
11, lie riMiiriii'il 
li'iid a d\ ins; I"- 
mill an Oneida 
vain, tciu'el Idni 
s.'-els t<i iineida. 
laL'iandi, and re- 
rnrlle liianeli (d 
I lien lie returned 
Indians, tint tlie 
fmni iron 111 \7ii 
esteem, Kather 

,•.■■() iiiyscir l{r|iri'S('iit till. II t'. thy saclioiiis tin' vi.j.'i' ami 

'''■^il'<' "f Oi till." A< t.i the hell ilcsiLMini f,,r tln-sc nf 

Oiii'iila, he said that siiir.' tliry wniilil slii.rtlv <-iimi' t.. (► i 

''■'i-'i '" li"''l ii .ui'iiiTal ci.iinril, hi- wi.iiM imiki> knuwn \n 
thiMii thr will III' Om.iitiii. Witliniit doiiht a .-iii-lf all'aii- nf 
this iialiifc is niosl, mifortiiiititc. ami is riioiiL;|i tu ivkimlli' 
war lictwccii the Iroijuois ami French. 

S.-aivcly !i;id the council liiiishcil its l)iisiiic>,<. when thciv 

was heard thrmi'^ii th.. t,,\vn. tl ry of an < )iicida. who had 

loitiinately escaped fruiii the liamls of a lroo|, of warrioi's of 
the nation of the Xex I'erees. At this cry. they rrasseiidiled 
ill council, to listen to the ndiearsal of the adventure. '• Wc 
were. ' he said, •• live in one '..and. We were returning' \icto- 
nous with two prisoners, of 'roiiaL;aniih;i : l.iit iinfo, tunatelv 
eneoiintcrinii' a coiii|.:ii:y of warriid's of the nation of the Nez 
I'erccs, we were defeated, my four comi-ades haviiitr I.een 

slain, or taken to;,^'etliei- with our tw aptives: I alone inn 

e,<c;i|iel fr,,m the comhjit.' Consider well the matter in dis- 
pute and how it shculd roiise to veii,t:eiuice a pe..plu so lierce 
and ;is are the Iroipioi.<." We did i,ol letu'ii 
what action w;is taken oii the snlijcct. I am al.le to 
a,-siire yon i,<. that we are, liy thc'jraceof (i,.(|, prep;iivd for 
any event, airordimj- as it shall please Ilim to dispo,<e of ii,<, 
and that we est(>ein onisclves too happv to he ahle to oiler 
oiir lives a sacrilice to Him. 

'I'akiiiLrourdep.artnre from ()iiond;iL;;i, we arrived on the7tli 
of Sej.teinher, at (Jaiidachiora^on ;' ami, as we were pas.^inu 
throii,uli (ianda,ti-aiv>.^ a drunken .savage .seized F.ither Cir- 
nier with (.ne hand and rai.^ed the other at two diireivnt times 
to .stal. him with a knife: l.iit fortunately, a woman happened 
near eiioiiLdi to this harliarian, to wrest the knife fr,.m his 

I'lUmlNoHen''' ''"''''''■"'''' "'^""' l""\'"''ly "' "»^ ronauannlni to the Nez I'er.e.- <,r 
' See Seneca Tiiwni-, p. 2.",, " ibid. 


liiiiiil, iiml ]>ri'v<'iiU''l liiiii fiimi ciin-viii'j- fiiilli<T liis liriiltil 
ili'>i;iii. I r.iiiKi not lull iiilniiri" in this fncMimti'i', tin- lirm 
iicss iui<l si.'lt'-|"issi's.-«ion of the Kalhcr \vli>> du\ mil luMiiiy iIk- 
l.'iisl ^il:ll «'f fi'iir. 

Thivr .lavs aflfi- (lur arrival, he took fliai'<:«' of ilu- mission 
..I' (iaiulachioiaj-on,' w\h'W then' an- thn-c or' lour Cliristian.- 
who liavf niadf open jirofosioii (,!' their iaith. lie iias oiilv 
the chaiyt' of a sin.ulc town, at Ica.-t for tli.' pivsmt yrar, in 
onlcr that hr iiiav ha\«' linir to ai'.|uiiv iiii>iv ]ici-hTtly ih.' 
hiiiiiHa'jv of the coiiiitrv, alul make for huasrlf rules aii'l a 

dictionary, that he may instruct the others: Ik e 1 am 

..lih'jcl to take ;'are of the llirec otlier towns. 

'I'lic tweutvsc\eiith of .^.•[itcmhcr, as I was al'out to Icavi'. 
to assume charge of the nnssioii of St. Michael. I was tak<'ii 
ill. ami eompelleil t,M rcmam for several days until the vio 
leucc of the attack was passeil. 

After the lirst of Sciitcmlicr. the youth of tla' jilace, ac- 
c.nliu'j to the custom, start for the .ipeii cMimiry: and tiic 
rest of the inhabitants who are ahle to endure tlu' f.itiL'iic- ..l 
Ihi- war or the chase, f.illow soon after. Of the latter thcr- 
are alw.ut live hundred capalile of war, di\ idcd mto many 
hands who all uo a-amsL the 'ronii,i:annha. and lour or live 
hundred to hunt the Leaver, which they lake in the directi.Mi 
of the country of the llnrons. The latter take their women 
and ciiildrcn with them, so that there remain only a small 
nnmlicr of old peoivle. 1 learn that it is the same at ( ioi,.- 
goiien.antl that they. also, divide ihem.selve.'i into hunters and 
warriors. This is very deplorahle, tus the result is that num 
hers from these nations die withont baptism, as these expe- 
ditions are attended with the loss of many people, and what 
urieves me is thai we are not able to remedv the evil. But 
(i,.d who knows His elect does not iVil to furnish them the 

1 8oo Senna Tnwiis, p. viS. 


Ills linitiil 
', tin- linn 
lii'tray iIp' 

lit" iiii.xsiuii 
• ('liristi;iii> 

Ic IlIlS (llllv 
rllt Vr;ir. Ill 

i-rtVctly til.' 
rules iiii'l ;i 
ii'iH'c I am 

III t'l \i'.\\ ' 
I was tak'i'M 

it'll till' Vio 

I' jilai'c, ■,{'•■ 
•V : and tiif 
■ l',ili'_'iii'~ 111 
laltci- lluT" 
iiitd many 
I'luir ui' livi' 
he ilirci'lii'ii 
lirir WDiiu'ii 
(iilv a small 
iiiH' at ( i'li"- 
liunti'i's ami 
s that uum- 
; iIk'sc cxpL'- 
Ic, ami wliut 
ovil. But 
ish tluMU the 

lav.)ial)li' ..pimrtiinity to j/aiii Parmiisi'. W'c aiv nftm hin^ 
• liM-t'd liv Hiicli al.s.'iircs ami cxiM'ilitioMS c.niii.iMh h> ihcs.. 

I !'''•• '''"'I' l:il'Mnii;j h.r tlirir iiistnictioii with lii.' >ii s-i 

w.- .••Mild (Icsiiv. The -ivjitri' |,art of tlmsr who ImImm- i,. 
III.' towns wh-Tc we wciv cstaMislicd. aiv away fithcr at the 
war or thr cliasc, luiic iiioiiths out of tlicyrar: and I'or a 

iiioiitli pivvioiis to their drpartiiiv, the youth are aeeustoi | 

toal.aiidoiithems.'lves to excess iii driiikin-. till lli.'v l,iv,,mr 
filfi«Mis: so that exeO|iliii-r the old peopl.. and the wommi 
who are not addieted to sm-li <lisorders. it is next to impo^. 
'il'lr to lind op|iortuiiity to speak to them. 

The Seneca arrived Ky wav of Oiioiida-a. in eliari;'e (,f the 
licit of wampum, whi.'h ( )ii,,ntio scut to the Seiiecas, in the 
tiiiitter <!!' the death of .uic of their warriors, who was slam 
l.y the Kreiich. 'VUr helt was received \ mIi a liinrked eoi.l- and ;i!tlioii-h the exemplary puiiis, iiient which Mon- 

■-"■'"' 'li'' "'"Vi' ■ inllic'cd upon the assav-ins. led ilicm t,, 

•■'l'l"'"\''' "'' 'lis ( duct :M,d applaud his jii>ticc, j tJiink-, ,|,.v. 

'•rtheless. that thev would hav.- heeu u h lietter satislii'd 

with ten liclts of wampum than with the death of three 
Krenchmeu, since they woiild not lie disposed to render the 
same jiistiiH' in situilar cireuiiii-taiiee.s. Tiiey (lee!;ire. h,,\v- 
ever, that they are content with this satisfaction; and I ,\,, 
Hot think they will dare to carry their resentment farther. 
ii"i' attempt aiiythinu' atiains! the Kreiieh. 

The 27tli of Scptemlier, as 1 thought my.self sullicicntiv 
recovered from my illness. I .m^t out on the joiiriiey, !<• take 
fluirge of the mi.ssiou of St. Michael in the town e;illed (Jan- 
dagarae.' (Mir hravo Christiati, I'lancis Tdioronhiongo, met 
me iind eoiidiicted mc to one of the lin(!r cabins of the town, 
that of a person of consideration although an unheliever. authoritA gave mc protection the insolence of 
the dnmkard.s. 

The third of .Xoveiuher, which was the Sunday after the 

' Si'C Seiucii TowiiH, p. M. 



Kestivul of All Saints, the .'iKipel l>cmg in onlcr. 1 invitcil 
nil (,ur savaiTfs to come there to pray to God and lie present 
at tlie Mass, whieh 1 was to say early in the niornin-. 'I'he 
,.hap. ! l)ein^• full of pe.iple, I he-an my exhortation l.v tlr- 
,.|;innL^ the ohjeet of my eomin.L!', and accordingly begged 
them to open their eyes to the truth, to recogni/e the God of 
heaven anil earth, to put away everything that was displeas- 
iim to llim. and hy their consistent iidelity, ren.ler them- 
selves worthy of eternal happiness. 1 hope of the goodness 
of God, that His grace will dispose their minds to relish the 
truth of Christianity, and undeceive their vain snperstition. 
b.vide drunkenness aiui the dream which are the two olista- 
( ;c-s to the Faith among the liotpiois. 

Father Garnier continues to laljor liravelv in the town ot 
Gaudachioragou. God serves Himself of him for the con- 
version of some souls toward whom His compassion has been 
cxtraordinarv. More than twenty persons, happily, having 
heen baptized, .lied most Christian hke. Hut it is evi.lenf 
that suirerinus are tlie lot of the apostolic missi.uiary, and 
t,li:,t or, must Liivc himself up to the providence of (h'd, 
iahop-.g hard, and leading a life which may be called one 

/•.n.'inuai i'eath. 

Thr mi, "ionarv labors of Father Fremiu in Xew York, 
closo with the fo.'.'-oing narrative, he having been transferred 
to important .-erv,je in the vicmiiy of .Montreal.' 

1 FatluT .Fames Fukmin iinivrd in Caim.b in W>r,. He ,uTonn'm,k.,l Halilon to On 
,„ula.'aiu LMiiaml roMainnl there ...,til tlu. bvaklnj; .,,. of tl>,. n.i.sions ia .Man- 1,.'wastlu.nfov ^^yo years at Misca ; next year at TlMve Itivors an.l Cape .le la 
Maaelelne. In ItTO lie was assi-.-nod to ll,e Cayn.-a M.sM.n,, Imt di.l n..t .erve aia 
next year was seal to the Mohawks. Near the elos,. of Kids he ylMte.l the Senecas ami 
resided at Sonaontoaan and renniined then, nntil the arriyal of Farther Oanuer ,., the 
followins; year, when 1... eh.a.ed his resi,le.,ee to (ianda.arae. the soath-eastern c,f he 
^eneea Mlla-es, lahorin,- in that yiUa.'e an,l (iandatzaro tt.Uil UuO. when he was reeal led 
,,ul assi.n.ed to the mi->i.m of St. Francis Xavler, then located at l.a Prairie. Ihis 

li;;ii, and in lliT'.l he yisited France in it^ 

aiission was removed to the Saalt St. Limis in li;;ii , ,,, ,,.,., 

hehalf. lie was airai.i in Canada in liiS-', and .lied at l,inel,ec on the -Jiuh of .Inly, in.'-. 

■, 1 iiivitcil 
bo |ires('nt 
niii'j. 'I'lii' 
lion l>v ili'- 
"■Iv bcuue'tl 

^ .7 >- • - 

tlio (i(k1 <>i' 
as (lisjiloas- 

IkUt tllflil- 

R! uoodiiess 
() i-clisli the 
' two ol)sta- 

tlic town 111' 
or tlie con- 
;)ii has been 
lilv. liaviiig 
, is evident 
;iouarv, ainl 
ice of (iimI, 
.' calleil (Jiie 

Xew ^'l)^ls-. 
1 iraiislV'ri'eil 

ioil Dalilon to On- 
is.-ioiis in Miircli. 
" unci ('apt' ik' hi 
id licit nM-vc anil 
il till' SoiU'C'iis and 
liiT (iariiicr in tin' 
ntli-eastirn if tin- 
'11 lie was ri'calk'd 
l.a Prairie. Tlii" 
sited Krimce in il> 
iluilKif .Inly, li«i-,'. 

I'lii' la>l c'iiaptcr I'cMii'hi.lccI the accinint >>< tlie missimi fur 
the year ICdU when Father Kiviiiin wasealldi to the resilience 
I'! St. I'Vaiieis Xaviei' i))i|ic.~ite .Nb.ntival. leaviiiLj- l-'ather 
<iarnier in snk' eharui; of tlie Seiieea .Mi^sicm. 'I'he I'.ilicw. 
iiiii' narrative I'cir tiie sncet'edine- year i< e.Mitaiiied in Ciiapter 
\. of I'riiiliini lt)71 : Seeoiid part. 

Ahlioiiiili the iiaticiii of the Si'iieea mav i.e nmre rude aial 
sa\;i-e. ha\iiio- less iiitereciirse with the Kreneh. and hirlher 
from the rei|iiisite disposition to eiiiiiraee tin' l-'aitli. iie\ crllie- 
less oil r l''at hers who ha\-e laliored in their missions h.rtjie 
past two liavc foMinl there elioiee soiils: and l''ather 
(iarniei' wlioat [iresent has the t'litire eiiai'-cof them, rcpiots 
a.'^sistaiiee in the hope that these [leoide who are more immer- 
oils than all the other lroi|nois, may at len-tli be ta'iied, and 
,iiive excellent scopi' to the xeai of the missionaries whom it 
may plea.-e (bnl to send anioiiL;- them. 'I'he little that he 
sends its is wi'll adapted to touch and attract hearts tilled 
with the Holy .Si)irit. The miracles of grace wrought there, 
give us to see that the hand of God is not shortened ; more 
than one hundred and ten baptized this vear, are manifest 

1 The plnee was cir-l-iiially den-iied as a resort for the missionary l''alliei's,to wliieli they 
nii-ht retire iiMlK'ir animal retreat.s or in ease of sickness : hnt it had already become 
:i nii.ssioii lioine wliere converts from the several Iid,,nois cantons nii-ht take refie-e frcnii 
the constant persecntioii of their own kindred, ami also from the had example and cm-- 
ruplin- inllneiico of tlieir I'a-an coiintrymeii who were l.eeoiniii- iinn-c and more 
deliaiiched by their inlerconrse with New York traders. The new villa-e increased 
rapidly, and in IiiU, had its or-ani/ed -overninent with permanent Cliristian instilntioiis 


ino.-fs of this. ;i> well :is tlH> lorvor ami (•oiimgc of soiiu' souls 

of lilt' fleet. 

An oldChiistiun iKUucl Kraiu-is 'relioronliiotiiroof the lirst, 
of ihe church of St. Michael, distiii.Lniisheil for his eiuiucnt 
virtue ami for tlie authority lie has aci|uire(l over those of liis 
own nation (lluroiis), havinii" recently lost by death an inti- 
mate friend, a f/ood and very virtuous Christian, very sud- 
denly, was so inijn-essed l>y the circumstance of the import- 
ance of dyin^;- well, and the necessity of ready at any 
moment to make the passage on which depends eternal hap- 
piness or misery, that ho is not aMe to divert ids thouuhls. 
Such was the efTeet of this grace upon him, that from that 
time h(> formed the ri'solution. which he has inviolably \<cy\. 
to debar himself from all feasts where he saw any appearance 
of superstition or of sin : and as the time approached when 
the intid(d savages course througli the towns for the aeeom- 
plishment of their dreams, he nuide public proclamation in 
the towns of St. Michael and St. .lames, that no juM-.-on should 
approach him or any of his rchitives t.> satisfy his dream, 
since he liad done with this ceremony, and renounced these 
tliiniz'sat his liaptism : and as he di.l not recognize in a dream 
anvthing divine, so he would neither render worship to his 
own dream or the divams of otiiers. 

One of the sachems of the town for whom that people have 
great respect, and desire to please, ajiproaching him in the 
course of this public ceremony witii a threat that unless he 
accorded to him wliat he had dreamed, he would iminite to him. 
as is the belief of people, all the misfortunes tliat might 
befall him. tlie luenance did not in the least disturb liim. 
He replied, ])roadly, tliat being a Christian, he had. no fear : 
he made the same reply to all who importuned him on the 
subject. This Christian cmsistency has won for him such 
coiitidenee and respect, tliat if lie happened unexpeetedly in 
a oathering where the iididels are conversing together of 


301110 souls 

of tin" lii'st 
is oiiiiiu'iit 
hose of lii< 
itli ;ui inti- 
vorv suil- 
hi- import- 
ady at any 
lenial hap- 

s lilOUlilltS. 

from that 
ilahly kcy\. 
icheil when 
tho accoiii- 
amatioii in 
r.-oii sliouM 

liis (hx'am, 
meed tlu'se 

in a cli'i'am 
I'sliiu t'l liis 

people have 
him in the 
it unless he 
jniteto him, 
s that mi.iilit 
listurl) him. 
a<! no fear : 

hiiu on the 
:ir him sueh 
xpectedly in 

together oC 

things iuunodest or to tlie disparageiiient of the Faith or ..I 
Christianity, they immediately ehange tiieir e.)nversation : 
iiianv apply to him for instruction in our li,)ly mvstcries 
whi.'h he understands pertVctly : also to learn the pravers.' 

Divine I'rovidenee serves iiimself thrufteiicrof allliction tw 
-hsposr them to listen to his holy speech: humiliation and 
misfortune render th.-m the more docile. Tht> same Katiier 
writes us that lu'ver has he had more attentive hearing than 
sine;- til.. I.uriiiii-- of the town of St.. ^[lehael whieli ocenrre.l 
hist spriiin-, when all the calniis with the .•hapel, wre re- 
<lii<-ed t,, ashes, without the possihility of saving aiivthin-, 
iK'Uher furniture, ch'ii, nor anything iieeessarv to life. These 
||""i' peopled,, n,.t appi-ar in any wise trouhlcil hv it, l)Ut 
on the contrary tliey testify to the Father that lln^v recou- 
iiiwdod has punished them justly for tlieir inlidelitv and 
the re,si.-tance they had maintained till then, to the prourc.<.> 
oi" the gospel. 'I'liey earnestly that he will hy no means 
leave them; tiicy promise .so .soon as they have rebuilt their 
eahinsand their pali.sade lor .security against their en,Mnie.s 
to «<et up a chapel much more heaiitifiil than the former one, 
and that they will he more a.ssiduoii.s in prayer than in the 
past. The Father .adds that tliey make their' [.rotestation in 
terms so strong and with such marks of sincerity, that lu- is 
lirmly persuaded they will keep their word. Fia/, ,i„/.. 

We recognize even more .sensii)ly in their fatar maladies 
the elleets of grace, and the fruits the daily instriietion.s pro- 

'This ;.;;,,1 „„„ „,„! |,|, „if,, ,,,f, „,,. „,,,,^,^,^^ j,,^^._^^ ,^_ ^^...^ ^^.^^^ _^ ^___^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ 
>-liii,l 1., Hj.-.i,,. thoir ii-Miainini; ,la.v.i ul tlu- missi,,,, of llu- Moumaln of Monlrrnl ■ lm\ • 
1.1;; Dccoiuf tn-v l,y tlio .leatl, of tla- head, „f th« cabin i.i whi.h ho ha<l hcrM .o lo.,- a 
-lavf. II.. was recHved then., with joy ; already known l.y tht- annual liclalionH of tin- 
Jesnits for his fn vrnt piety, he jiistilied his reputation l,y his eondnet at the mission l.y 
his lalmrs for the poor and allliete.1. where he llnally beeaine blind, as was si.pp„„ed bv 
his devotion. He died in lIliM, at the advaiired a-e of Hill years ; and the in- 
scription over the place of his burial, in one of the ancient lowers on the Mountain of 
Montreal, reads : •• He was by his piety and probity the e.vainple of Christians, and the 
wonder of unbelievers. ■ 


,Uico on inin.lstliat. at the timo. npiu-ar tl.o more rel.ellinus 
■Mn\ opuosea to tl.e Iniiih. 1 ^^ive liere aM.o.i- otluMS two -.,• 
tlnvr e.-aini-Ies whiel. uppcar to bo attei.Je.l with o.rcuiu- 
';taiicc>' tie more ren.arkable. 

A Seneca o"" the t.nvu of St, James,' very age.l ami a per- 
son oi eonsi.U ration, liaving been taken siek, the Vatlier 
visite.1 him aiul olTcre-l on his part to re.uh iimi all possible 
assistanee h.r the relief of his malady and the salvation ..f 
his sonl. He refused both rou-hly, so that the Father was 
compelled to withdraw after some kind attentions, in order 
nut to prejudice him at the outset. Many days pass.-d with 
him in this ill nature, during which the Father was able t 
do nothin-, except to intercede with (Ind fur the mlscn,b,.- 
.,^e who to all Imniaii appearance must die without baptism 
und'm unbelief, the .Ux.r of his cabin <'losed and all access to 

him denied. ■ , . i 

In the meanwhile, the Father was well apprised tiiat he 

WHS vi-^il>lv sinkiicj, which was to him an unspeakable sor- 

,,nv. it is onlv for those wh.. have had the expericiu'c. to 

nnderstand wllat it is to see a sin-le unfortuualc s..ul, that 

one has come to seek from across the sea. so near to pcrd.tion 

without bein- ai.le to give aid an<l succor in rescuing it Irom 

the dan-er: but the goodness of C.od who shows Uim-ell 

..unuUy favorable to the poor savage us to the greatest mon- 

a,vh <.f earth, c.xtended his hand toward him in an unh.oke.l 

[,„• manner. As these people are guided by their dreams, it 

was permitted that in sleep he should sec the Father who 

uave him a medicine elTicacious for his recovery. I Ui> 

was enou.di to induce him to send with all possible dispafh 

iu.d on h'is own part, beseech the Father to come and visit 

l,i„; inHueduitclv. He was found at St. Michael, where. 

awaiting tlu moment of grace, he had gone t.. visit his 

1 Onndfif!'*™- ^'''' "'"'' "" ^''»^'"^" l'J«''"'' !'■ -"'• 



MS tVVi) ' ti- 
ll circuin- 

\ml !i ]ier- 

10 Full 101- 

11 |)()ssil)l(' 
Ivation iif 
'atlicr was 
-. in oiilei' 
asscil willi 
■as aMi' t 

■ iniscralh^- 
it liai^tisiii 
11 access ti> 

>(1 that lu' 
itkal)k' siir- 
)ei"icnc('. ti) 

I soul, that 
.1) [icnlitioii 
ing it IVoiii 
eatcst 1111)11- 

II uiiliii>ko(l 
r (livains. it 
KatluT \vln) 
vt>ry. This 
jle ihspatoli 
lie and visit 
had, where, 
to visit his 

eliiireii. lie left evervtliing at lliis news luul ivtiinie.l with 
;ill iM.ssihIe s|.ee,|. 'ri„. siek man was .,\erj..vr(l at his .•.,ii,- 
'".- : """''" lii"i l''l<'' ii seat at his hed aini sanl u, him: 
"Oiii-asera (which is the liulian name C.r th,. Father) -ive 
me, I i>ray thee, inimcliately. the medicine: I h;ivc seen it, 
while di'eaiiiinu-. i,, t|iy hands and it will cmv inc.' -Ah" 
my hn.ther," repli<>,| the Kafher, - must willinoly, j ani ah-mt 
to give thee a medicine, hni very din'erent :ind far hctter than 
that which thon hast seen in tlie (hvaiii : thou art m no 
I'artlier iiee,l for the lio,ly, whi,-h is in no comhtion to he 
l)eiielited : a inL-dicine of this iiatniv, would onlv seive to 
hasten tlie end of thy life. The givat Master of IHe. wh.) 
loves thee, comnianils me to give thee a nu'da-inc which is 
wiiollv iK'avenly. and will restore lih' and health t.. thv soiil : 
deliver it from eternal death: pi'oiMire for it instcaij ,,f ihis 
\nnn- life which we have in common with the animals. ;i life 
of^everl.asting happiness in heaven, hy the help of haptism." 
While the Katli.M' was speakin--, the Holy Spirit wroiiLiht 
npon the heart of tli(> sava-e, ami at the word haptism of 
which he had spoken many tin.cs witlKJiit ellVet. he r.,ii>e,l 
himself as from a deep sleep and hesonght him. eariic-tl v. to 
remind him of the insiructi..ns, which at other times he had 
given him to prepare him to receive the sacrament, 'i'his 
the Father was pronijit to do, and the sick man listened with 
jcy and eoiisolation. Having iievertliele-;s judged it proper 
to defer his baptism iiiilil the morrow, at the break of dav he 
visited him and found him in holy impatience to see hmiself 
■>i the miinber of the ehildren of God, having passed tlie en- 
tire night in acts of faith and contrition, ami in recitin-- the 
prayers taught him the previous ihiy, which in no particular 
had he forgotten, so far as observed by the Father, the sick 
one having repeated thetn from memory in his pre.seiice. He 
then received holy baptism with sincere devotion ; and hav- 
ing pas,scd the whole day and mght in praising (ind, askinj.-- 


thnt Ih- iiii-lit. 1h' taken to i)nn!(lis<'. lio dinl Uie f..ll()vviii<i 
(Inv. tliis iinprossion with liis pastor, that lie was m- 
fnllil'lv of the nuiiihcr of the ch'ft. 

1 miichKlr this <'hai>tfi' Willi an extract from a letter which 
1 liavc reeeivc.l from this same nnssioiiarv in those terms : 
-Drnnkenness eause.l l-v the hevera.ues which the iiifi:lels 
,,l„;iin from the ll..llaii(tei-s. bn-n.-ht iiioiv than .'iL^itv 
K'ii-ues 1)V land, is imw more universal than ever, extending 
,.vcii tu tiie women : and tlu'se disorders roiilinuc for tWi'lve 
orlifteen days after the arrival of each hand of traders. Dur- 
iii'j- all this time as there is neither food nor lire in their 
,.;,l,ins, thev are abandoned dav and nidit. The rest of the 
IH'ople llee for eoiieealmeiit to the lieMs and tlu' woods. 
Amid all this debauchery, the virtue of our Christians shines 
,,ut bri-htlv. They are steadfast in their duties and show as 
m-eat aversion t.. these orL^ies, as they are forei-;n to their 
pn.fes.-^ioii. 'I'he tlrunkards. themselve.s. eviiu'O this resiio.'t. 
that they do not come near the ehapel.' We have our :-^- 
semblies as usual on Sundays, and our Christians ,uatlier 
with <ireat pains from their hidin,<; phiees, heariiiK mass with 
as much quiet and devotion as at any other time of the year. 
1 have eoncern for the siek, not knowinu where to lin.l 
them. 1 have not failed to bapti/.'j certain ones, among 
them, an acbdt, who after a year of labor, ,uave me mueli 
oMis.ilation. He wasaeateehumenaiul sullieiently diligent in. 
the ordinary lu-aver.s One day, linding him very ill, 1 .judged 
it proper, with his eo'.isent, to prepare him for- baptism. I in- 
structed him to thi.s end, in the mysteries of our faith, and 
caused him to perform tiie acts neeessary to prepare liim for 
this saerament, wliieli, nevertlieless for good reasons, 1 de- 
ferred. Then linding hini delirious and iu danger of deatli. 1 

1 This w,i« oftn. the -nlv rofu-e of iho mi^.ioiu.ry niraiiKt personal violence to wliicli 
fn.n. v„riouHC,msc.s, ho was ; .noro ..specially, i.i soones as are her.' 


■ was ill- 

•r wliicli 
e Um'mis : 

I ciLrlity 
)!■ twrlvf 
■;. ])ur- 
' in llicir 
'St of the 
V woods. 
IIS sliiiK's 
1 siiow ilS 

to tlioir 
s rosiioct. 
(' our v- ■■ 
IS millM".' 
iiass witli 

tlio year. 
vc to lind 
's, aiiiouL: 
me iiiueli 
liliueiit in 
, 1 jiidjied 
sin. 1 in 
faith, and 
fe him tor 
ons, 1 dc 
of deatli. 1 

ili'iice ti) wliicli 
all lis lire lien' 

did not .^^criiple to liaptixe him. Som,. time after (■omiiiL:' to 
him.^flf, he eaUed me and sidd aiiorily that I had (hveived 
him: that in his dream lie had found himself in heaven 

wliere the Kreneji had received him with tlie \vl p.^ that 

tliey (sava,ues)aie aeeiistomed to make on tlie arrival of thrir 
captives of war, and tiiat at tiie time he made iiis escape, tiicv 
ah-eady had the lin> brands in their hands to Inirn liim. As 
for tiie rest, tiiat tlie water v Inch I poured ujion his !ie;id 
was a s|iell and .-';(. ivery which would cause his death ur li.\ 
his fatt! to he hnriied eternally in tlie other world. 1 h;id to (iod, more especially, in this junetiire .so miex- 
pected: iiiid at last, Ile^i-aw me irrace after three hours ,.f 
conllict. with and kindness, to convince and unde- 
ceive him. He <>:ive up all these ilelnsions caused l,v the 
demon that would destroy him. lie recovered with admin- 
lilf hehavior his first t!i()uo|it,-i, and tli.- scntimonts of a soul 
triilv converted. Jle only desired to die. rather than olfend 
(Iod any inoiv, and he eternally happy m heaven. He ma.le 
of his own accord a petition at the close of the ordinarv 
prayers in these words: ■' 'I'hou who art in heaven have pilv 
oil me: draw me. as soon as possiMe from here below, that 1 
may lie jicrfectly hap])y in heaven." 

One other siek [lensoii has consoled me still more, actiiiLi iii 
the matter of his health in a most e.xtraonlinarv manner for 
a savajre. and who has pven noble testimony to the Faith. 
'I'o ,u-ain him to (Jod, l)e.sides tlie frequent in.structions I -ave 
him. I spared myself in no respect night or dav. to minister 
to liim and lead him to believe that I stron-iy desire.l his 
recovery. One day, iicrceiving clearly that my remedies were 
without eifect. and that he was contiimlly growinir worse. 
iievertheles.s, seeing my extraordinary earnestness to relievo 
him, he said ♦o me: '-My brother, I .see well that thou art 
my friend, bin I pray thee no longer tliiiik of my bodv. but 
ai)ply thyself rather to save my soul : it is all over: T sliall 


»lio ; I e;iii in) Imijicr (li>ulit. iiinl wliiit is iiMpurtMiit is tn die 
well." I llitMi iuslnii/U'ii liim fully iiml l)a|itizcil liiiii Knuii 
tliiit tiiiic, well salislieil and tiiiiikiiiif only of Parmlisc, ho 
cniiiinciiciMl ti> sinn' his soiili', \vhi<'li tliry call the dcatli smiL!'. 
1)111 ill vcrv dillVrc;:! terms from those he formerly would 
have used, ill stfaits or while an unheliever. '■ it is .lesus, 
he said, "who is the Master of my life; he leads me to heaven, 
iiexcr more to sin: nevermore to dre.'im: the ureal Master 
ill he.'iveii forliids it." 'riiese W(;re his last sentiments whieli 
he (duiii; to e\eii unto death. 

Afleral! it is to he eoiifessed that these peoples arestronuly 
(ipposed to the l'"aith, and that the eouvi'i'sioii of even one 
sava^ic is a stroke from heaven. The freedom that tliev elier- 
isii more than their life ; the arrogance which is their nature 
as well as the of their resolutions: the impurity in 
which they are reare(l ; the strong attachment tney have t(.r 
their dreams and suiiL-rstitious customs , their spiu'ts and or- 
ilinary occu|)ation in the chase ami in the war, which i'eii<lers 
them unsettled and keeps tlieiii for the most of the time in 
the licld or forest, l)csides the demon of drunkeiinoss, which 
has posse.s.sed them for sonu> ye;irs, are without doiiht great 
liinderaiices for the permanent estiihlisiuuent of religion. 
Nevei'tlicless, tlu; zeal, tlic trust, the dev.)ti(>ii, patience and 
forliearaiice of our missionaries, surmount all these obstacles 
and eive us rea.soii to hope that God will lucivase the bless- 
iiiLis alreadv he.'.towcd, beyond even wdiat He at present gives 
to tlieir labors. It is already a grtat advaiiUigo, that they 
know the language; that they have found access to their 
minds ; that they are loved and esteemed iViuong them : that 
thev have entire freedom to preach, in public and private, 
the word of (iod, .aiul that there is seareely n family in all 
their country that is iKJt more or less instructed in the prin- 
cipal mysteries of our Faith. Many po.ssess the Faith, 
although still attached to theii' evil customs and are not 


IS til (lie 
K roll I 

idisi', lio 

itll SullL!'. 

V would 

. Jesus," 

I li(';ivi'ii. 


ts wliieli 

\-eii olio 
lev clier- 
ir iiiitiire 
|)iirity ill 
lia\e |oi' 
s ami or- 
1 I'eiulers 
! lime ill 
<s, which 
iil)t ^reut 

eiice ami 
he bless- 
eiit ijjivcs 
,hat tliev 

to their 
■111 ; that 
I private, 
11}' in all 
the prill- 
le Faith, 

are not 

Christians l.v profession. They eviiiee this in their inaladies 
when often of their own aeeonl, they scml Inr oiir I'alhers 
lest they shoiihl die without l)a|itisni. 

i'rayers are ivLTiilarl v ohserved in eaeh town, l.oih inoriiiiiL; 

and eveiiin.:, in tli.' chapel where the eateeli ens are -atli- 

ered. and where ("hristians rcceivcoii Suiidav the sacraments. 
'Hht.' als,, thev <:n tlirou-;ii the cutechisni, in addition to the 
instrnetioiis e-ivi'ii them each day in their cahiiis. Nnmhers 
of little ehildivn escape to lica\( n throiiizh tlie<jraceof hap- 
tisni, it heine (,iic(,f the chief solicitudes of our Fathers to si'c 
to it that not asin.el.-onc of these dies without the sacrament. 
It istlin-that. in spite of hell, little chinches iiiak.' pro- 

.lii-css. There is iioi f them that does not (Mmtain eiioice 

souls, who imitate the fervor and charity of the (Christians of 
the lirst a,ues. and furnish hy their u-ood example a powerful 
motive for the conversion of others, in a word, our evangel- 
ical lahorcrs arc so far from thinking- that there is iioihiiii-- to 
hcdoncfo!' the Faith anion.,' jicoplcs. that thev call 
upon us from all sides and ask us for reiiii:i)rcenients with all 
CMnc.'ivalilc urecney, jiarticularly those who lahor in these 
lands full of liriersand thorns, for the culture of peoples \n<>\v 
harharoiis and rehcllious toward the (losiicl 


The follow! I i.L,' IfttiT of FiilliiT .luliiiii (raniicr, still in sole 
i'li;ir,Lf(' of the three missions of the Cnnee|ition. St. Mieliiiel 
:uul St. Jiimcs, oceiijiies Cluip. \'ll. Fiist I'iUl of h'riiuini,. 

'I'hc spiritual eonditioii of tliese missions, depends liU'L'ely 
upon temporal alTair.s, and more than all on the (lisposition of 
mind to maintain peace with the French. Tlu' sachems of 
the town of (landaehic .i;ou' had L'iven me the iissnrance. 
in a council assembled for the purpose, that they desire<l to 
prav to tiod, and in fact certain of thcni be.L'aii to do this: 
and though I had not as yet seen in them the essential prin- 
ciplesof the Faith,, their example led the people 
to listen to mciind gave me every lilierty to visit an<l instruet 
the siek. Hut rumors of a French invasion, very soon, 

verturned these small l)eginnin<f.-<. Their minds being 


thus badly disposed, the evil one takes occasion to raise an 
outerv against the Faith and those who preach it. An old 
man who came here some years since froiri (loiogoiien— a 
troublesome spirit, l)ut skillful in speech, who does what he 
will with our Senecas and jiasses ain(jng them for a wonder- 
ful person — jiroves to them that the Faith produces death, 
for the reason that of whole families who formerly eml)raced 
it, when the late Father Menard, the apostolic missionary, 
i-esiiled at Caytiga, not a single .soul, as he declares, remains 
lie further says, that the Black-gowns are only here as spies 
who report everytliing to Onoutio, that is, Monsieur the Gos- 

1 StT iiDte "D Seneca towns, p. B5. 

II III side 

, Mirlmrl 

Iv lillinn. 

iisilioii (il 

U-llL'lllS (if 

,i'sirf(l to 

do tliis ; 
itial i>riii- 
lie [n'oplc 
<1 iiistrii'jt 
.'ry soon, 
ids bciiii:' 
) raise an 
All old 
goiic'ii — a 
■! what lie 
I woiidcr- 
•I's dcatli. 
, roiiiaiiis 
e as spies 

the Gov- 

• Tiior. or that they are son •erers who a.Tnmpli^h liv dis,-ase 

what Oiioiitio could not elTivt liy Ion f i,riiis. I know of 

ueortainty that they have den'ierafcd (•oiicrrniiiL-- niv (h'ath 
as a spy and as a sorcerer; oiir host himself, Oniionkenrita- 
oiii,' tlie most pnmiiiieiit of th(> chiefs of this -ivat nation, 
has often proposed to his sister to kill mc, whil.' sh.'. at tlic 

same time, has shown a ,<riv;it distrust of na ace,, nut ,,f 

Ikt htllc daughter wla. often fell sick. As I d,, nut n'tiiv 
at as early an hour as is their i-iistoin. and as I n>iiialii a 
eonsideral.lo time in the eveiiin- to pray t.) (lod in the 
••hapcl, they persuade themselves that I .■aniiot eiiiph.v mv- 
self in any other maimer, than in holdin-- comniiinicati/.ii 
with some .lemon in plottin<rthe ruin of their I'amilv. 'I'Iiih 
my life, hnmanly speakin,L^ depends iipnn the health of tins 
little dan.irhter, iind I run a jrivi,t risk of losiiiL' it. if she 
should die. There would he as much cans.- for iiie to fc;,,-, 
should any (.lie 1,1 in,u- the news of the |,roliaMe march of the 
French into this c(.iinlry. Maiiv have assured me in a.lvaiice, 
thatshoiild this happen, they would certainly tomahawk iii,..-' 
Ill tiiis it is. my Reverend Father, that I am happv. a:id 
that I esteem the felicity of my missi(,n which compels me 
toc,,nsid<"r each moment as the last of m v life, ,aiid t,, lal.or 
.joyfiillN- ill this state for the salvation of tlie>e po,,r souls. 

1'i.rit.ioiii or (iamlacliinit,'„ii asHMant uf T.^-arMnhi,.. a. kc.|„-r „f th,. «,..! 
.'Ill door, tlu- latter fxerdHiii- j,iri«llcti(,ii .,v,.r tlic i„„st n„ril,.ri, „f tlir tvv,, w,.-t,.rii 
towns, tin' Soniiontoiian of the Helatlonf. 

•■ FalliiT Mi'iianl at Cayii-u was rc|',lly tlircat.'m'.l willi .|,.,itii a- a 8(,rciT..r He 
relali'. tliat a warri,.r lo,l«in^' in the san,.. raliin. for tlir,.,. i,„,|„. i„ ,„o-,.,.si,.i,, m,,'.,,,,,,. 
.•(1 to kill liim. aiul wasonly prcvoitrd l,y l,i, |,„st «,„| r,i,,i,| S M,nrl,io.-«T, tl„. ,l,i..f of 
th.' .antoii. The perseciitloii of the M,issio„„ry Fathers as sor.-erers was i|s„ ,„iiii,ioi, 
anioiiK the lliirons. They were chan:e.l with eaiisini; .w,t only personal eal unities, l„„ 
all the miseries of the n,ition, ami at times it woiil.l appear, that nothmi; short of spe 
eiftl divine intervention stayed or lurned the miirderoii. h.ow of the infuriated say. 

a-e. Father .lollies was killed am.inL' the Mohawks on ehar.-e of he soreerer A 

helief in sor.ery and witrhcraft appears to have prevailed very ,-enerally amon.^' the 
Indmnsof .Xnieric. The Z.inis i„ their re^vn, visit to the .^tlantie eoast in eliar«e 
of Mr. Frank II. Cnshint'. while passlns; through .Salem, looked n|.on the place with «reat 
reverence and awe, as heuife' the place where witches once lived, and were hurried. 


Otif sitiL'K' iiil'iiiit st'cMrc ill licavcii iIii'hUl'Ii linly hiiptisiii, is 
suiricifiit to ciiiiii.m' iiitii swci'tiicss nil tlicsi' iiitU'r trials. 

'I'liis oM iiiiiii «>f wliMiii 1 liavo s|ti>lv<'ii. takoH iidvaiitiint' III' 
cvrrvtliiiiL:' tliiit has iu'imhtciI of liilc. iiinl iiariiriilarly of wliat- 
cvrr tliosc who lia\ r licfii to (^iU'lirc. havi' n'|")rU'(l au'aiiist iis 
It iiv IK) iiH'aii-' iH'cih'il iliis. to turn from pravcr ami to ciii- 
hitter ULfaiiist lis a pcoph! so siis|iicioi|^, ainl who arr ciiiiri'lv 
uivi'M M|i to sorceries aiii| sii|i.'rstitioiis : iKiin- they cease to 
collie to the cha|ii'l. If I enter theii' caliiiis to seek out the 
sick, tlii'y rec-anl me with an evil eye: and if I attein|it to 
instruct, the\- orilinarily iiiternipt ine with insultiiiL' s|iceeh. 
An\' smlden outhreak of drunkenness, in siieii circuinstanet'S. 
com I ids me I o retire to the chapel win 're 1 ha\ e alway> found 
rcfiiuc 1 wonder that, in these troiihlos, never Imt in a sin 
tde instance. Iia.^ a drunk.ard eonie to seek me tliciv. ;tnd him 
thev |ii'eventcil. ncvci'thelcss, from doiiii: me injury. i»ur 
in;i' eleven months there have dicij in all the towns of this 
nation, thirty-three liapti/ed persons, almost all iid'ant<. We 
have l)apti/,ed seven others who are still sick: in all forty. 

'I'lie iiiercv of (iod has liecii ereat toward certain h;ipti/.ed 
adults, ainoiiL; others, toward a c,-ipti\c of the ( )ntonacaimha 
or Cliaoiianonu, ail\!incc(l in auc : onlinarily they lirine- as 
captives, onl V tin; voun,Li' iiu'ii fi'om con ntrii.vs so distant, (iod 
.so ordt>re(l it that, hajipilv, 1 slnnld lind myself in this place, 
on his arrival with an interpreter, the only one! know of 
this langnaiic in this eounti-y ; he heard with pleasnn' all that 
I tau;iiit him of the chief mysteries of our Kajtli and of eter- 
nal happiness in paradise. At lene;tli I found him disi)osed 
to haptisin. and 1 think he entered heaven the same day he 
arrived at Tsonnontoiian. Divine Providence had conducted 
liim bound, more than three hiinilred leagues, to eiiahle him 
to find here the true liberty of the children of (iod. 

A woman beinir sei^icd with, threw herself in the 
midst of a lai'Lie lire and before she could be rcsciieil, was so 


s.'vnvlv l.iini.Ml, t|i;,t til,. l„,i„.SMf Iht hai,,], „,i.| iinMs U-U 
:i\vii.v nil,, i.i't.'r 111,. otlhT. As I was imi in t|„. \ iHn-.r,.. jn 
'Im' fiiuc. a vni.'i- iMviicliinaii that I haw with iih', wh.'. is 
wrll ac(|iiaiiitr,| with the laiiuHiijrc aih 1 i).'rf..n,is\v..i-thilv th.' 
"Ilir.-of a cat. ■(•hist, hastfiicl thither: ainl haviii- fnmi.l iicr 
111 Ih'I' lijjhtiiiiiMl, s|...l^(. t.. hcmf (i.MlaiMl His salvation, in- 

-triicicl an. I ii.tI',.i-|!i.m1 r,,r h.T jill th.' n. ssarv acts on th.. 

".•.•iisi,,ii aii.l lia|ili/c,l h.T. This |.o.,r .•ivatiiiv spi'iit, the 
cijiht or ten <hi\sthat ivni.ain.Ml ,,f h.T lilc, m |,ia\ .^r : liiis 
was licr.inly c..ns..lati..n in h.^r t.^rnhl,. siitrcrin.i;. an<l cxtr.Miic 

•''•'■""'""""■1" -'f ill! liiiiM.'in SI r, whi.'h sh.' cn.lurc.l with 

u.lniirahh- pali.ncc, in th.' h<>| I' cL-nial lilV. 'I'hcs,. aiv 

'■tl'.vts ..|- .liviii.- -ra.v. whi.'h iii;.k.. th.Mns..|\...s uiHlcrst..,,,! 
Ill these coimtrii's most ..l.vioiislv. and wliieh,'ite »hc t..ils. fati-iics ami allliriiuns ..I' a mis- 
si. mai'v. 

A Christian v..iiiii.- m; f ;istranL'.. iiatam wh,Mlie,| a iiio-t 

Niintiv ilcath, touch,.,! Ill,, u-ivallv wlH.n.'v.'r I .•ncoiiranv.i him 
I" I"<'V l"<i"'I *liirine- his last si.'kiiess: Ins .■iirc..t'ioii an, I 
'l.'votion wci-,. visihi.- in his eves, ..ver his coiint..nane.. an.l 

"'•'"' '''''^ '"'"'' lii" ■•^1" h: his ivhitives wer.- strn.'k with 

ii'liiiii'i'ti"ii : hi-assniv,l me ..\ .t an,l owr a;jain, that h,. ,|,- 
sire.l .leath thai he mi-jn, the in,.iv s|,e,..|i|y s.v iiims.'ir m 
iK'iiveii. .Such sentim.mts ;tn. a m,.st manifest token of 
l.'iitJi. A Christian llnnni w,imHn has <;iven to us similar 
|'r<'«'l's: sh.. short, all,. we,| h.-rsulf to he |uTsuu<le,| iu 
!li<' prostration caus,.,l l.y a h.ii.u- si.-kness. that a sui.ersutioiis 
feast w.)ul.l heal her; hut she disc. v.-re,l h.^r mistak... an,l ,.f 
iier..wii accord desir.Ml t.. mak.; puhli.; re|.aiati,.n, manitest- 
iiiii- ^Tcat ^Mi,.f at haviuir oht-ved the instriim,.nts of h.-ll. 
whom she U|.i.rai,le,l iu.n;o,.,l earnest f,.r the wicke.liiess ihev 
had shown in .trivin^r t,, h,,.r ji.lvice .so dete.stal)le.' 

' Kalh,.r,leCarl, «iveH an account ..f o.i,. „f i1„.h,_. fi.«,|. of iR'alhii;, to wliici, l.f 

","V,"" "'•".' ' '"''""• •■'"• "f ^"" ''"»"°"- "f tl'fCay,i!<„«i..„.-,sv. .'■:„rly Clnmhn 
'It (-(KJ'i'in U)xU>nj,]ii,.M:\. j ^"<i <>■" 


'riiclluronsof tlie Mission of St. Micliiu-1, miinit'est ^'rcfitrr 
(l.>sire tiKiii ever to rctiini to Qiieboo to iuigmciit the clmivli 
of Notre Damo do Foye.' Some of tlum wlio an« not now 
Christians, dedare that tlion they would cmhra.-e tlie Faitl,. 
The most notable and aged of tliem all, took up the word hi 
continuation of a short lesson that 1 had given touching this 
matter, and declared that for himself, he w<.uM not wait sm 
long a time to become a Christian: that he had from thl^ 
hour formc<l the resolution: that he renounced his drcam^ 
and all that was forbidden of Q.mI : that he would i)reseiit 
himself for continual instruction : that he would not fail a 
single day to as.sist in the jirayer and that he would exhort, 
others to follow his example. He has held to his word thn^ 
far, and 1 hope that soon he will be baptized. 

I conclude for the present, with a worthy act of Chn.-^- 
tian courage. An aged i)er!^on of this little church, who lia- 
l.erformed witli great edification the ollice of catechist f.^' 
nioie than twenty years, diiring which it had been deprived 
of a |)astor, in conse(pience of the wars of many years, hav- 
ing learned that his only son had been killed on the spot in 
a battle with the Gandastogue. he was alllii-ted to the last, 
degree, although with entire resignation to tlie will of God. 
which he constantly evinced in acts of heroism. But what, 
surprised every one wa.s, that a second report having been 
brought in, that the young man was not dead and that tin; 
wounds he hail received did not appear to be mortal, as In- 
had been borne away on a sort of a litter, tlu; old man at. 

I This mission was founded by Father Joseph Chaumonot, from a small Huron colony 
which son-lit refnu'c on the Isle of Orleiins opposite (iuebec, and which he him*lf a. - 
companied, the year after the destruction of their nation. Here he remained with the 
exception of the vears l(i.W-8, when he wa« at Onondaga preparing the way for tli- 
establi''hmcnt of tlie Irocpiois mi.-sions. In 16il.3. the of his death, he reniove.l tli.- 
missi(m K. a new site where he erected a cl nrch and chapel modeled on the Holy 
House of Lorette. and perfectly like it i" .orm, materials, dimensions and furniture. 
Kiom this circumstance the mission took the name of Lorette. Here the Ilurons loni 
enjoyed great piosperity.-See Shea's Calhollr Mimoiij!. pp. 197, I'.ta. 


est grcnb'i' 
:lie ctiurrli 
r(> not now 
> the Fait'L. 
.ho word ill 
iii'hinL;' llii- 
not wait so 
1 from tlii- 
bis (In^aui^ 
nlil present 
1 not fail a 
onld exlioi't 
s word tliu- 

■t of Chri.-- 
I'll, who ha- 
atechist toi' 
en deprived 
■ years, hav- 
I the spot in 

to the last 
will ot God, 
But what 
liavin.uf been 
iiid that tilt? 
mortal, as he 

old man at 

oiice ivgaiiied his spii'its and hreatliing into his faith new 
\ luor, he ])assed the day in rendering thaiiksiiivint:- to (iod, 
inll of reverenee and gratitude 'I'lie whole vilhm'e gathered 
111 a body at his eabiii in oi'der to testify to him their joy, 
;iiid they left it with a lii^li estimate of his virtue. 

Alter all, I have remarked that it is not so mneli tln' de- 
uvueraey of manners that prevents onr savages from lifiiig 
Christians, as the false ideas wdiieh, for the most part, tliev 
iiaveeoiireriiing th(> Kaitli and of ( "liristianity. I know m-arlv 
two hundred families, among others, in linn and ]iermaneiit 
iii.'irriages, who bring up their children morally well : who 
i'lrnid their daughtei's too free outside acipiaintaner, so that 
they are kept fiom dissipation and lewdness: who have a 
hori'or of drunkenness, and who only need the l'"aitli to lead 
III all respects Chrisliandike lives. It is this gift of God that 
we implore without eeasiiig for these poor souls, who are the 
priet! of His lijood, and whom I commend \'ei'v spi'cialK, my 
IJeverend Katlier, to yoiii' holy prayei's and pious sacrilices. 

TsoNXONIOIAN, ,hdvi((). IfiT'J. 

mall Huron colony 
icli lie him*lf m- 
roinained with thi! 
K the way for tliii 
th, lu' removed tin? 
Ifk'd on till' Holy 
ins and fnrnitnri'. 
•e Uie Ilnronsi Um'j 


This Ifttirol' Fatlicr Ganiier ('(iiiijM-iscs cliiiiitcr \'1I. I'f Iv- 
inlinii 1(572-."),' aiul iiertaiii.s to the missions of the ('oiirf|iti()ii 
aiMi St. Mi<'hai'l. 

•■We have lu'vcr ilischar.Li'i'il oui' <]uties with more of i|uift, 
or with more of frciMlum tliaii tiie present yeai-. The Kathei' 
P. Hail'eix.' Mi'i'ived at the Coueei)tion, at tlie I'lul of .Inly, a 
niontii after \ resumed ehariiv of St. Miehael, where I liad 
not been for a year, as the villaiie had entirely Imrned (h>wii, 
and as I was left alone at 'I'sonnontoiian. I have received 
all the satisfaction 1 eouhl hope for in (Mir Christian.s, from 
their assiduitv in fre(inentin,u- the chapel, morning and even- 
iiiL;'. for the pi'aver. ami from thcii' jiromptness in comiim' 
fverv Sundav to the instruction that I give them before the 
niiiss. as well as foi' the /eal with which many of them heai- 
testimony in support of the paiMy of the Faith in the pres- 
ence of lewd persons who talk against it. A certain pei'son 
liavim;- saiil, one day :it a superstitious feast which she had 
uiven, that the fear of my i-ejiroofs had kept lici' for a length 
of time to her duty: "the fear of <!(id ami His judgments 
should restrain you always," replied a good Christian who 
was iiresent : and as he was ac(piainted wil'h oui' mystei'ics. 
lie followe(l with excellent instruction in the lieai'lu'^- of all. 

What has ^iven esteem to the [trayer, is the example of 

I WMhm ci ii'ii "'(■■■fl I'ltime de ittm reiiuirqmMe mix MUnionn tin Ptres tie la Comimij- 
i,i, ill .IciiKiit hi XimilU Friiriii leK(iii>ie>' 16?,' «/ 1«T3 I'ar It Iln: I'n- Clmili- Dahlon. 
'Y\\\» Ui'liitioii was printed by .loliii (iilinary Slieii in IWil. 

■.' KiitliiT HalT.ix had li^ft llie ini'viciU!* vear tn lake charge of tlif Cayiiu'a mission in 
tiic aljHfhio of KallKTdeearluil for the recovery of his health. A'-- 

IV (if i[iiii't. 
['lie Katlu-r 

i)f .1 Illy, a 
icrc 1 hail 
'iH'il down, 
e ivccivf'd 
lians, from 

and even- 
in coMiinu' 

licforc the 

llicni lu'ar 
II the pros- 
iain pi'i'son 
eh she had 
DP a length 

istian who 

ig of all. 
exani|ile of 

s lie In ( 'nmixiij- 
Claude Dnhlon. 

yiiiii mission in 


the pnnei|ial mdi who ai'e forerno.^t to eoiiie to pi-av to Goil. 
Tlie Cliiel of the llurons allows no occasion to pas.s, withoiil 
exhorting, esiieeiaily, tlie old men to cndn-acc the faith with- 
ont delay; and were it not fortlie eagerness with which thev 
ivem- to .«upei'stiti.>us rennMiies in their sicknesses, thischnivh 
wonld lai-gely ineivase in a short time. Tii- Xeiitei's and 
the Ononti.igas, who form a jiart of tiie town. ar(! at 
softened hy the example of the Ilnrons and at pre.^eiil eome 
to the pi'aver in eonnnon with them. 

As there is not yet a eha[>el in the town of St. .laine.s, 
which, however, at oiio time was largei- than .<• Michael, I 
was ol.liged to make np tin; want, hy freipient visits ainoii.r 
theeahins, l.oth to hapti/e the sick iid'ants and to instrue^ 
the adnlt sick and others. I a.ssist tliem in the praver, after 
the instrnction in the cabins; and many have nmie to' meet 
nie at St. Michael and to pray todod in the chapel. The 
complaint th:it eaeh one m ikes to me when I go to .see them 
is, that we jirefer the Jliirons to them; and that of all the 

ffofpiois princijKd town.s, this is the only • that has not a 

mi.^s.ionary among tluMii ; if your J{eveiviice would do us the 
favor to sen.l us a third, I have hope that he will be well re- 
ceived.' It is necessary thei'e for the commence, nent of a 
church, which can only be successfully done l,v a person who 
resides on the spot, since there are many infants and adults 
who die before I learn of their and conse.jiieiitlv 
without a.ssuranee; for the rea.son that I am not on the 
ground, whatever diligence I, it will be that som<' con- 
tinually escape. 

r have baptixod since the month of July, 1()72. forty-three 
infants, of which twenty-nine rejoiced soon after in the hai)- 
pincss which baptism had brought them, and manv of the 
others still languish; and twelve adult.s, of whom nine died 

I Kathur I'iorron was s„on after sent to St. .lames l„ accnlanee with this reimest, 

slioi'llv iifu-r tlieii' l.iiptisiii mid left im; oxrcllciil signs of 
tliL-ir jiRMlostiiKition. Uesi.les those, iimny iiifiuits arc dead, 
bapti/.rd ill precediiigyears. Among tlie twelve adults wlioni 
I l.aptized, the divine mercy apiR'aml more especially toward 
i-ertiiiii ones who app(.Mred to olTer tlie greatest resistance to 
the u-race. The tirst was an old man, strongly attached to 
the superstitions of the eoniury, and ahove all to the princi- 
pal one, which is the fnll'.llnicnt of their drea'-s. (iod served 
Himself of this, at the same time for his salvation : for after 
haviiiLi- listeneii often to wiiat had been said of the great 
Master of all things who is in heaven : of the mercies which 
He bestows upon those who are obedient, and the judgments 
which lie inllicts ni>on these who are rebelliou.s, »t was per- 
mitted that He Himself be shown to him in a dream, which 
offered to him his frien<lship, and promi.sed to him all kinds 
of flood in heaven. 1 had no further diHi.Milty in persuad- 
c wouM listen to the word of (Iod. he would 

ing him tliat ii n 

have pitv upon him. " I doubt no more." replied the sick 
man. ■■ 'nake me to understand His will as soon as po.ssible, 
that 1 mav execute it. 

1 l.'n.(iiifiit r..ffr.'iioe is in tlx' previoim nrlidcs of lliis series, as iiidccil tliroiinli- 
,„ii lioih the lliinin im.l lt(.(|.w>is IMafum.*, t,. Ilie louver i.f ilreiiins ov.t the siiviiu'e 
iiiiiiil, whieh wlieii .mie iiiter|)retc(l, were to be exeeiitetl at all hazards. The Seneeas, 
H.conliiiL' ti) l-'ather Fieiiiiii, were exeeeiliiislv serupuloiis in Ihis oheiliente to their 
diviiiiiy This superstition retained its liold amoiif.' them loiii; after, as nniy lie inferred 
from the followin- incident civeii by Morgan in ills lrnr,mU Letwn, lin n note to p.u'e 
■i\ 11 wliich, in this conneelion, will be read with interest ; In IHIO the ecOebrated Corn- 
planter chief of the Seneeas, resii;ned his cliiefship In conse(iaenee of a dream. " Our 
in" a New Year's celebration at his villai.'e on the AlleL'any, he went from lionse to h..use 
for tliree oavs. announcing; whenever he went, that he had h.ul a dream and v.ished to 
l.t Home erne ti> L-ness it. On the tliird <lay a Senei'U told him he would relate ins 
dream Seeinj; liini nearly naked and shiverin..; witli cold, lie said, yon shall lienceforlli 
be eall.'d Onono, meanim: coM. This si-nilled mat bis name, (iyantwalui, sh.)uld pass 
away from liir. nn.l with it his title us chief. lie then explained the interiiretation to 

ornplanter nuire fully : that he liad had u snmcieni term of service for the -ood of the 
nation ; that he was ^'ro>vn too old to be of mn.h further use as a warrior or a conn- 
sellor and that he nnisl therefore apppoiMt a successor ; tlnil if he wished to lire, 
serve the continued ixood will of the (ireal Spi it. he must remove from bis house and 
i<is;hl every article of the workmanship (r invention of the white man. ('ornplanter 
havins; listened with earnest attention to tliis interpretation, confessed that it was cor- 

signs of 
arc (load. 
ills whom 
ly tovvaitl 
istaiico to 
tac'lied to 
lie iiriiu'i- 
od served 
: for after 
the great 
'ies which 
t was per- 
im, wiiieli 

all kinds 
I persiiad- 

he would 
I the sick 
< possihle, 

idi'i'il tliniiii;li- 

IIT till' SIIVHS.'"' 

The SuiU'Ciii-. 
lieiiti' to their 
my lie iiifenx'il 
It note 10 ii.'ij,'!' 
■Ii'l)rateil ('i)rii- 
Ireiiiu. " Oi'.r 

llOUW to lli.ll-c 

11 nd v.islieil to 
oiilil rcliiti' lii> 
Imll lifiicefoflli 
liii, xlioiild pat's 
iti'iprflatioii to 
llif ii'utd of till' 
rioi- or a conii- 
wUlu'd to i)ii'. 
1 liis house anil 
1, t'ornphinter 
hat it WHS coi- 

Anothci-old man of the Onenro nation, whom 1 had so- 
licited for a Ioiil:- time Io liceoine a Christian, fell sick: his 
wife, who was tlie only one to take c;ii'e of him also was 
taken sick and died :t few days aftci', as she had lived, in a 
<'hrisliaiidil;e wav. Thi' maii>'cin,-- himself in the last e.\- 
treniitv, commenced to listen to the instrnetion tliat I -ave 
'ii'-- 'le had no other consol.ation npon eailh lint the hope 
<if l',M'adi-.e, which strengthened in him coi.tinnallv in the 
mcasni'c that lie Ki'i'amc (jis'jnsted with liis life. 

! coHclnde with the hapti-m of ;i yoimn- wom;,!! who Ian- 
eiiislied for,-, loirj time. ,<,!». was of a nvntie and innocent 
dispo-itioii and i'eadil\- i-emeinliei-, ■, as wimI as listened i,, 
my in-iiai,-tioiis. IJoth her p.n'eiits. who had ;, .^reat a\-er- 
sion to the l''aith, told her coniinnallv that she should not 
listen to me: that I ou!y deceived hci' and that she woid.l 
'i'l'l ill h'MVen onlv tires in place of the happiui'ss I jiad 
<MU<'d her t . h ip- for. As the sava.u-c-; have Li-rcat respect 
foi' their paivnts and lielieve ivaddy all tUat thev sav to 
them, thi- -oo.lwouian foralcn-th of time pra\e,l to (Joel 
I'onditionally : "if it i< true one is happ\- in heaxcn, 
'i'hoii who ai't the Master of it. ha\-e pitv on mc and conduct 
me there aftci' my dcaih." Aftei' laliorin;; for a loim time to 
remo\e tlu' suspirion with wlii.'h they had inspired her, 1 
l'"'l 'li' n.solatioii of .seciiiL; her d.'part life eutirelv con- 
vinced of the truth of the i-'ailh, and with great desire to go 

i-ortl.v L'lU'sscd and that liu wi\* ii-solvfd to cxeciitii it. His prcscnis, wliich lie had re- 
ceived Iroiii Washiiii.'lon, .Adams, .lelleiv-on and otheys, hr odleeted to^'etlier, with the 
exce[plioi' (if his loniidiawl;, ,ind Imrned them. ,\moi his pre>ents tlnis consnnied, 
wan a lull uniform of an .Mn.iiean officer, iruhidinu' a.i eleirant -word and his medal 
ijiven him hy Wasliiii-|„n. He Ihen seleeled an old and inlimate friend to he his suc- 
eessur. ;ind sent to him hi^ tcunahawk and a helt of wampum to announee his resolu- 
tion und wishes. Allli.Mi!.'h contrary to their cii-toms. the Seneeas, out of reverence for 
his extracu-diuary dream, at once raised up «- chief the person seleeleil hy ('(u-iiplanter, 
and iuv.'sied him with the name of (Jyaiitwaka, whicli he hnre iliirim.' his life, foru- 
lihmier. after this event, was always known auioii;,' Ilie Inxpiois nnder the niiiiie of 
Onono. His tomahawk, the last relic of Corniihmter, is now iu the Sta,e Historical Col- 
lection at .\lliany.'' 


to heaven, wliicli made licr iiiiportiiiiatc to bo bapti/AMl as 
soon as ]iossil>le. Scciu-ji; licr in so lioly a disposition. T ac- 
corded to luT (lesiiv : and f,'oinijr to sco her tlio following day, 
1 learned that she had died soon after her baptism. At the 
same time, I learned that a yonth wo>in<leil with an arrow, 
was in extremity; I ba|)ti/ed him and in an hour afterward, 
ho died. Seven adults and ei>,dit children l)apti/.ed by Father 
Kalteix, who died shortly after baptism, increased the num- 
ber of the elect.'' 

It was in this y<!ar (1()7.'5) that Krontenai! began the fort, 
which subseipiently bore his name, near the outlet of LaUe 
Ontario; but in order to (piiet any suspicions the ircxpiois 
might take at such a movement, he despatched La Salle to 
Onondaga, the capital of the confederacy, to arrange for a 
council to be hehl at Kente' the last of Juno, and shoiild he 
judge proper, to convey word of the same to the other vil- 
lages. The following letter of Father Garnier to Krontenac, 
written from Tsonnontouan, under date of July 10, 1073, 
(translated from the Margry Documents, 1. pp. 239-240,) will 
show how the proposition was received by the Senccas. 

"After presenting you witii my most humble respects, and 
assuring vou that I share largely in the general joy at your 
liappy arrival in the country, praying God that IIo would 
assist you by His spirit, in order that your plans may suc- 
ceed to the advancement of His holy service; for the honor 
of the King, and for the welfare of the whole country, it is 
my further duty to inform you of what js passing in this 
quarter regarding the King's service. As soon as I received 
yourconimands, conveyed liy Sieur de la Salle-, I ma<le them 
known to the savag(.'S of tliis nation, which three 
principal towns: two arc composed of the natives ol the 

1 Tlic place wa-< clmnu'eil at llu' n'(iiii'3t of tlu- Iro(iiiois, ami the council was hold al 
Ciitanicoul, the silo of llie iiV".K<ti(l fort. 


laptiz-ed as 

ition, T ac- 

)wiiig (lay, 

1. At llio 

an arrow, 


hy Father 

I tlie iiiim- 

in tlie fort, 
let of Lake 
le Irocjuois 
Na Salle to 
aiige for a 
1 sho\ild lie 
3 other vil- 

10, 1073, 
1-240,) will 

!sp(!('.ts, and 
joy at your 

He would 
is may suo- 
r the liotior 
)iintry, it is 
sing in this 
s I received 
ina<le iheni 
prises three 
ives of the 

iiicil wus hold at 

eoimtry, ;inii the third, of the rciimaiits of several Huron 
nations, dcsiroycd hy the lro(|Uois. AltogrtluM', they are 
abl(! to raise alioiit eight hundred men, eapaltle of conduct- 
ing \v,ir against their ciuMuies. 'i'lie chiefs of each vilhce 
have been deputed to meet you at the jilace which you have 
designated. They liave made peace with all the nations with 
which M. dc Courcelies' had forl)i(lden them to make war, 
the King having taken them under his protection. They 
have recalled all their young men, n.imoreto turn tluMrarms 
against that region. Their greatest desire now is, to carry 
on commerces with Montreal whither tlu^y will gladly tjike 
their skins, if their commodities Hnd as good a market there 
as at Orange, where this year they have advanced in price. 
They greatly desire that the French should dwell in their 
country, above all such as will be mostu.seful, as blacksmiths. 
and armorers. These are the re(]uests tiiey make for them- 
selves. 1 am, etc." 

The French occupation of the Niagara iiiver under La 
Salle, in 1(578, rendered itexpedient to send another embassv 
to the Seneca.s, to quiet their suspicions, more partieularlv 
with reference to the })rojcct of building there a vessel to 
facilitate jiurposes of trade.-' The mission was conlided to 
the Sieur de la Motte, accoin[)anied by the Recollect Fatiier 
Louis Hennepin, who records the journey of five days from 
Niagara, in th(> dead of winter', ami their reception at the 
Seneca village.-^ Th(> next day after tlu^ir arrival (January 1, 
l()7ii), mass was celebrated in the little bark chapel and a 
.sermon was iireaclied iiy Hennepin, lioth the Fatli(!rs, (Jar- 
nier and RaU'eix, being ]iresent. The council was conveniMl 
the following ilay, compulsed of fort v-two sachems; "and 

1 'riic pi-cdcrt'ssdr .,r Knuitcnai- .1-^ (Mi\<'ni()r nf New I'lancc!. 

■•' Foi' II full nocciuiit nf this iMitiTpiiso nnd tlu' suliscciuoiit fiirtimeii of tho vcf^sel, wu 
The liiiiltibiij (iiul ]'<i!/(i;/r (,/■ Ih, (,ii,ff<m in limi, hy O. U. .Mnrfhall. 
•' Sh«rt^ Ui'iiiioiiin, lhsf)ii)fl,,n (if l,<ii(hi<uiii, pp. 7.") 81. 

altl„.u-h tln'Sf (says II.MiiK'pin). wlio luv ulmost all 
|;,r^,. nuMi. wciv iii.Mvl.v wnipiH'.! iii rolx's ..f hv.ww <.r wolf 
skins iiinl >"iii'' i" I'l'"'!^ S(ininvl skins. ol't.Mi with a i.ipc in 
t|„. MHHilli, no SiMiatnr ..f Vcni.'c ever assnnicd a -rravrr 
,,„, I, ,,.„;,, irrur spok.- with inoiv wci-iit than the InHjUois 
s;„.h."ns in ihcir ass(Mnl>li.'S." After the m\vy\n-r\i'v had 
.■xi.h.ii.'Ml -Aw nl.j.'ct, of tins visit, statin.-- " th;it tlic Si-'ur dc 
;, •• ,1.., thrir fncii'l. was liMin- t.. ImiM a ,i:iv;it wh.mK'Ii 
(_M.' ,-. U) .• ;nul seek l;'>u(|s in l-luruiic I'.v a .iidrtcr w;iy than 
,1,,,; .; ti„' •■:'f till' St. l,:iwrcncr. in onliT t.. supply 
,l„.,n with tlu .anu'al a .■hciiper fiitr." witli ..tiicr ivasoiis. 

ihc rUSti.ll.iirV plV.-<MltS Wi'lV ( 1 isl Tl! Ml t cm 1 in liclllllf (.f tin' 

l.-,,.i„.l, ,,i,tinn, (■.,n>i>tin- -f li-^'Is t.. the viilnc -f f.-ur Iniii- 
,1|.,.,| livivs. r.iit l"'f"iv Ins sp.vch. Sicnr dc la Muttc 
,l,.,ii;nHlcd th." withdrawal the .•..nncil. of the .Irsiiil 
(lanmT, of whom hi; was suspicions: and llennriMn.' iiioi- 

1 Lori- IIi-.nnkimn waslmrn iit Atli. \n Hainliiit. II>' .■ tli.' ..nlir "f Si. 
Kr.nci- MS a lU.M.r in Hi.. ll«nM. ct .■..i, at ll.lliuiu. in (lu- pi-.viu.e of Ait„iv II.' 
,,,iv..,l in C'ana,la in S,,,.,.,nl...r l.;;:...-,, Ihe-an... v-.-..! «ilh, Cayeli.T. Sioir ,1,. 
|.,s.,ll.-t..«lH.m Lnni. XIV l.a.l i:nint...l U-ll.Ts.,f noliilil.v aial iM' M.|..'ni.ay ..f I...!, a >Uml tin,.. prvvLm.. H.' .ionrnry..,! ax a ,nissi,.na.y t.. .lilT,.r..nt p.nnt.^ 
.,ml from K.nt will, a sinijleconMrnninn n.a.l.. a j.mrn..y ..n .n.m-..ln...s t„ 1... 
o.nntry..rtl,.' Inapioi,, ^i^^' tin', an,l M..lm«k .anl.ins. al Ih.' 
latter nu...tli.^'Falh..rl(rnvas,a...l n.alii.i. a ..f lnH/,-„.7«.- .U/'''"'.'. art..,- vvhi.. , 
|„. retun,..,! t." K.,rt KnaUrna.- an.l Iniilt a .nis>i„„ 1,.,,,-.' It. which ln„,n,„. an.l l.f..n,h 
,,il.l,...„ «■..,-.. associat...! U-.'-.thur in a ...^...1. In l(i:S lu. was „„.. ..f llu' nninh...; 

-..l..c.t..,lt..a....o,ni.aMy his r.niith v„ya.... ..f ,lis,.nv..ry tnthe s,.nth.w..s o, 

,h.. ,'roal lakes. Th.. party U.ft F..rt,. in Noven.h.T. an.l a t..r o.mst.n^' 
..lun.'th.. n..rtlu.rn slnav .,f Lake Ontarh. vrach..,! T..iaiai;..n at th.. hea.l ..f th.' lakr. 
On the (ilh of |)..e..,nh..r th..y reaeh..,! the >n,a,.h ..f th.. Nia^-ara fiver whi.h ....,|ne 

In.l ev..r yet entere.l. The n..Nt .lay ..x,,l..rati...,s were .na.l.- to tin.l a snitahle plaee 1,. 
.i.nstrne. a vessel almve the falls, whi.-h n.snlte,! in sel...tinL' a point <n. <-'ayni;a cieek 
„ear tliepr.-si.nt hamlet ..f l-a Salle. While the workmen were en.-ai,-...! in the cm- 
.;tr.i.-ii.n. of this, the llrst vess.^l to navic-'ate the npper lakes, he a...-..>npani...l s.enr .1.. 
la Mott...M. a live days- winter .iourney through the f.-rest to the .reat village S.m..n- 
ton.n of the Seneeas, ..f ^vhieh Te^Mr..nhi..s was .hief sachem, an.l h..nee. s.-metiines 

,,,|1...|'t, ronhi..s town. This was then ha-ale-l .m 11... west si.l.. of Il..n..oy.. cr....k. a 

mile an.l a hair N. N. W. of llon, Falls. Father .Inlian (iarnier was th.'!. ineharL'e 
of the .Misshm at this villa.'e, Sieur .le la Motte to .leliver his messa,... t,. 
the eoiincil in his pr..sence, for whi.-h reason (oirnh.r witlulrew accmpani...! hy Hem,..- 
nin b,.thhi^'hlv..lTen.k.,l. The v..ssel, nann.l the laitl.m, was lamiehe.l ,.arly ,n Ihe 
Iprin.- hm.ledwithafor^e.ship carpenter's to..l» and the iron w.,rk for a vessel to he 

iilmost all 
el dl' wolf 
I ;i iMpc in 
a ;iia\<'r 
■ lr(ii|U(iis 
iiTliT had 
(' Sk'UI- (Ic 

it WhimIcII 

• \\;iv tliau 

to >Up|il\ 

.'!■ rcasiiiis. 
lalf (-!' tlw 
four Inni- 
la Mottr 
the .I('~uil 
I'lmi.' uior 

till' ortlir iif SI. 
■ of Arlciis. Ml' 
ivclicr, Siciirdr 
•i'_'tii(iry i)f Korl 
iillircnt point.''. 

KlW-sllIX'!' to till' 

caul 1)11*. Ill till' 
ifn. iifliT wliicli 
iiois iiiiil Kri'iicli 

of till' lllimlHT 

e sonlliwi'sl iif 
I afliT CDUstiiif.' 
leinl iif till' liiki'. 
ivliirli nil biirqiu' 
suit.ihli' pliu'i' lo 
ni t'ayui;ii cri'i'k 
ii;i'<l ill tliu con- 
ipimiiil Sienr ilu 
t villin;!' Siiiion- 
ii'ncc. soini'tinu's 
lloni'oyi' iTi'i'l<. a 
lis ilu'ii ini'liaiL't' 
T liis nifssai^c to 
lanicii liy Ilfniic 
L-liud early in llii' 
ror a vosKol to lie 

tilioil at tlio airi-oiit L'iviMi to tlic iiiissioii;ir\- of ili,. villnL'c. 
witliilfcw witli hiiii ainl took no fartlirr part, lor that daw in 
thi' pronvdin-S. 'I'lif nrxt ihiV the .S'Hrras ivpllrd to the 
piv>ciit.>^, artiric iiy .-irtic'h'. cxprcoinu- th.'ir siti-lartioii and 
'l"''i' tlianks. On tin' last dav -.f thr icninril, a hand of 
Seneca warriors l.ri)n<j:lil in a •■ IIontona,L;-;ilia" captive and 
aft(>r suliieetini^- him t.) the ciistom.arv torlnres. allowed the 
children tocnt Kits of llesh from the dead ImuIv, and eat tlcm. 
Disiiiisted with the whole scene, d.' I, a .Motte and his com- 
panions withdrew from the ehiefs I' and without dclav 
retracci! their steps thr.iM'jh the f.irests to the Niaiiara I'iier. 
Ill the meanwhile the work of the missionaries, iiov. In 
forced hy the arrival of Father .lohn I'ierron from the .»|, 
hawk, was eontcst.i;d at evcrv step, cspeeiallv liv tin med- 
icine men, who were ever nsiiii:- their inlliieiice with the 
people, for th;- perseciitiiin of the missionaries, "(i,-, 'lier 
was licensed of sorcerv. .ind a- aceiisatioii and condemnatioii 
were nearly .synonymous, they determined to toina vk him. 
'i'he e.Neciitioncr was named and paid : Init Coil averted tin' 

iiiiill on llic lmiiks,,r ilic niinoiH river, and marhM on its prriloiis voya-o Au-iim 7. 
KiT!). CoastiM- aloiiu' 111.' iiortli sli„re of Luke l-:rie, Ihn.iiLdi laken St. e'lai'r and lliiioii. 
they reaehed St. I-naee of Micliilliniaeinar. and aflerwaid an island at tile enlianee of 
(ireen li.iy, uliere the ear-o was unloaded and iraiisf.Tied to small lioats, anil the vessels 
reloaded with furs and sent liaek to Nia-ara. Tlioy reached the soiitliern e.Mieiiiity of 
I.akeMiehi-aii Octolier -.Nth, from which two routes led to the Illinois; one IbUowed 
hy .Maniiielte and .loliet on their return l.y way < f Desplaines and t'liicai;o river- ; the 
other hy way of St. .loscph'.s on the ,ast side of the lake, to present South Head, and 
thence hy a short iiortai;e to the Kankakee imd down it t„ the Illinois. I,a Salle chose 
the hitler and consiructed at the mouth of St. .loscpli's a fort nameil the Kort of Mia- 
niis. On the 3d of Decemher they ascendeil the St. .Joseph's lo the portau'e. and thence 
descended the Kankakee and Illinois to present Peoria, where a second fort was coiii- 
inenced under the siirnilicaiu name of Fu:f Cn r,nin/r i<r the Itroken Heart, for this 
apparently marked the extreme western limit of l.n Halle's third attempt and t'liinl fail- 
ure t., reai'h the -reat Mississippi. Here the kee. was laid of a l.aniue. in which it was 
I.roposed to descend the Mississippi From here, with two companions, Michael 
Accanit and Anthony Anf,'iielle. Hennepin, on Kebrnarv^Mith, wmh sent to explore the 
upper Mississippi, and lay the foundation for missions anion- the nnkn<.wn tribes 
They descended the Illinois to the Mi.ssissippi and thence ascendin- the lattcT thromdi 
the drirtin« ice. were on the lllh of April ICHIl, e.iptured hy a party of !',•(» Sioiix who 
were descendinj,' the river to make war on the Miami's, Illinois and Tam«roas.-,J. S. C. 



l.lnw. Kntr.MN s.MiMlit to l.';i(l :i ^ly'uvi ,Lnrl to llir tnitli, l)Ut 
siiL'li WHS the hiilri'il tlu'ii iiri'vailiuL'' ;i,L'aiii.-l tli'' iiiis>i<'ii!ifii'S, 
tliat she spniii:!; fn'iii llic sick I'uiicli ami t.uT his I'ai-i' wit'i 
lior nails, till lif slivaiiiol with llcirHl not hMwcviT, 
dcsi'air; coiilimiii);.' his visits, his kiml ami L'tnllf inamiiTs 
disabusinl her. She listoiicil. was conviiu'i'il, and to his con- 
solution (licil piously uttt-rin^' a prayer to .Icsns the (livi-r of 

1 8ho«'« CallioW' .Wj»»ion(i. 81)8 3. 

lltll, l)Ut 




liin t'oii- 

(iivt-r ol 


Tliis ctiiiptcr will (\)n(!lii(l.' the liistorv i>f tlic Sciiccii Mis- 
sions ; and comprises all tliat iiiav lie ^MtlidHMl from l{,-l,i 
film IHT.'i !».' 

Father iiafVcix writes from Sounoiit(niaii in lliese torms : 
" We endeavor to let nocliildrcndio without huptism. I have 
conferred it on many this year, l(!7o, several of whom died 
after recoivin-? it. As they are our surest <,'ain, they form 
our ^rreatest eonsolalion, and wc' wateh over tlietn witfi 
ai)eeial eare, and Uod very often in re;4ard to these innocent 
little ones diseovers tlie treasures of liis s})eeial Providenc^c. 
Freipiently mothers who had no inclination for the faith have 
come to me to restore to health their dyin<r children, who 
expired after I had jriven tliem spiritual health liy haptism, 
instead of the hoilily health they had hrou/^ht me to confer. 
I had for six months been wateiiin-r a sickly little child. 
Our fear of makinjj; apostates, in case they recover from dis- 
ease, makes us wait to the last, till dan^'erof death. S.itan 
envious of the <rlory which this child will render to God for 
all eternity in heaven, it was carried away to a cabin remote 
from the village, and deep in the woods. 

besides this 1 hianied that it was dyiIl.!.,^ One day as I 
was ready to say mass, I was told that some; were ^foin<f to 
that cabin. 1 had l)CLf<j;ed tliem to let mc know when any 
one was g()in>r. 1 left the villa>^e with who .-et out to 
go there, and I ascertained the road they took. After mass 

1 The several IriinKliitioiH roiitaiiied in lliin clmpter woro miide l.y Dr. ,I„liii (iilmary 
Shea, for Uiu prcBciit work. 


I stiirtol. 'I'lii' chilir.-* ^iiMiiliiiu iiii'ji'l iii;i(li' iiic liiid pinplc 
lit I'vrrv fork of the roiid. r>iil 1 sIdiiM ncvr li;i\r u"! 
tliori'. Iiail iiiit, tlirt'c vniinir I'liililn'ii. who lia<l c'(.iiir Irmn ihc 
|ilacc wliitlicr 1 was ).'<'ii)^f, ami wl:i> \vciv mi tlinr way \\>>\\\r. 
(•lian,i;vil tlirir iniiul. Tlicy tui'iii'.l liad; with inc. ImU ^'aiii 
piTnl aroiiiul in tin- wtmils so liiat I lost >i'jlit of tlicm. I 
oviTlouk tlii'iii at last an'l riMi'licil ilir imIiui, lait foiiml ncitlMT 
tlic nintlicr nor tlir '\\\wj. I'liild tlidv. altlion-!i tlir tliivc 
cliiMivn liail left till-Ill iIk'Iv >liortlv licfoiv. I smt tlncc 
tinier lo call the niotlicr from a nci'j'lilioriii'j licM to wliidi 
siif was in till' lialiit of t'oinii'. 'I'lirri' tiinrs, t.'o, I went llirrr 

nivscif, ami as I was rrtiirnin'-: tlif last time si iitiTnl the 

raliHi with hrr .•liiM from another <lirn'tion. 1 ivmai 1 

some time with it wliilf she went to frtdi water, uliidi i nscil 
to liapti/t' the chilli, which 'ticil soon after. 

Von sec iiow a inissioiiarv should not spare himsclt, 1 -'t 
if he has not Lireal tact, he will lose manv o|i.pi rt iinilics of 
acting' foi' the salvation of the children. 

" Last, vear they haptixi'd lioit Iroquois. 'I'he yeai' licfuie 
Father (larnicr hajitizcd oo in one of the Seneca towns, and 
l-'ather i'ierron !• ■ at Sonnoiitonan.'' 

lil'-.I^A'IIoN' ll'>7;l -I, C'llAl'. V. MIS.slON.S ()!•■ .sT. MICIIAKI. \M> 
>(■. .lAMlOS AMOMl 'I'llK i^l'lNKi'.V.s. 

If the liiiiians of tlio town of St. Michael wero as well 
weaned from the superstitions of the country as they have 
liitherto preserveil themselves from the vice <if drunkenness, 
tlu'i-e would he no diiliculty in makin.Lr them Ljcnuinc Chris- 
tians. Most of them solie-it haptism fi'oni i''atlicr (iarnier, 
who is ohliLied to refiist.' them, they will not renounce 
certain daiiees and other superstitious ceremonies, whicli they 
employ as remedies in sickness. Two thin.irs render tlii'ir 
attachtiK^nts to this kind of folly more dillieult to hreak. 

1 |irii|i|c 
; I \ r ^1 it 

Viiiii tilt' 
y Imiiic'. 
lit si'aiii- 
lii'iii. I 

I llfitluT 
ir thrn- 
lit tlilt'i' 
.1 wliicli 

■lit tlicrc 
■ml the 
li I iK.'il 

iscir, i-'t 

lllitH'S <lt' 
II' lii'l'iirr 


\i;i, AND 

iis well 

li'V llMVI' 

lie Chris- 
licli tlicy 
Km- tlii'ir 
I) l>reiik. 


'''"' '■''■"' '^ ''"' f"'^" '"'I f ivrnvcririir thnr Ii.,,!il, ],y this 

","■•''"'• ''''"• •'"' ' '■' ""• l""lit whirh iiKi„vi|..nv,.'lV.m, 

'"■'"• l'l"^li"^n,.tpivv.M,t,.,| twM uf th,.,H.,.,vst|-,iMnlirsiii 
'l;"'"^^ii li"ins..itni... ;inrx,M,n|,|,.,,r ,■,„„•...,. ,.„„| |i,|,.|„v„, 
'""'•"" •'"• "">'■'■ ^"llliiralih'.ih.'lMiiilrh il. I.\ ;,l,;il„|.,|,iM..thr 
';'■'"■" ''■ ''"'^•' -M|"TMltln|,., thrv ,|..,,Mvr,| I h..,„>,.| vr. nf 

'iM'nnlvstMvlrf, thi.,nt,M,.|i..vrtl,,,,.v,.mnMi| ..M,v,n,. 
Ill till',-.' )i.M,r savjiiivs. sitiiilar rilVi-is of 

want. \Vr ul'tfii M'.' 

•■' l"'\,ura.M.. aiirM.haii ir.tii, v i.i ury virtnr 

A lliin.i. ■ whn ha,| 1,,,,. I,..,.|, ;, Christian, alt-r 

''•'""'- ''''■'' '".^'••■■•'t i •.'iHT i„l,iii,.,| with I, h .h'h 

'M'TmI ,.,,„..,,,„.,., |V,.lin,^ |„.,s,,|f attarkr.l l,v a .i.\,.|v ,h>. 

'•'■'''• "'"""" I '!"■ '•'•■'"'••I' ^'> •-. toassinv him. n, th.. 

I"'*'"'"' ' ■•'" l"''' iMii'liv.hthat .hrwi> I t.M|i,.,ssh..ha,| 

'"'■''• '■'•"""""•iiivvrrvlhiiiu at \anai w,ih h.T ,,r..h.<M..n 

"' '■'"■'^"■'"ity. A. slir s , saw h.rsrif l„..,.t l,v thr 

"""'"■""• '"■■ii=Hi'ls.M,thsa,vrrsnf ihiTuuMtrv. w ■..;..! h.T 

"'I'"''"'""'"""" I'Msttofll hiTtI aiis..;.|- hiT-lrath <Un 

"■" '"•■' '■''"" '" '"• ''i'l "I' their i.M|.nrtiiiiitv. aii.l .Jvin- as 
''"■ "■•'"■ ''■•"' li''i'>''lf -am...! I,, the iiii.Mh' nf th.. lirlils 

'''"'"'■" ^''" '^'''"- '"''•^l< 'I". Kathrr t, .,.,,„„. ,n,| sii vst, to 

iin-swiiir ,,i,,„s,,|,, This iiulih. art „irrit...| h.r ..l.taiii- 
m^.iisa ivwar.1 ill this hlr. thr ,.,„iv,.rsi,,u ,,|- h.r hMshaml 
\\lnh-sh..hv..| li.' woi, 1,1 nrvcr listen tnaiivthiii.^mr.-anlti. 
ins l-in,.l,a,iti/..,l: l.nt. as s,.„n as she was ,h.a,l. h,. was the 
(irst t.. ask this favnr, with L:ivat, Tims ,1,,,.. (i.„l 
'lisplav m these far .■i.iiiUries, as well as elsewhere, that he is 
the Master uf hearts, f. tni„.ji ,.,,1,1 attra.-t then, ellieaeiously, 
'" ""•"""■•"I'i 111 the maimer that ii.. pleas,... I[e s,.,.„,s f„ 

'■■^l'"''' ■•^'•'"^' "t 'Ih' irnf .leath. aii.i ,..npl,,vs li,„lilvail- 

nu-nt t,. restore health to th,. soul, as h,. ,|„1 m the,.' ,,f a 
vouiii: woman, the infeetioi, ,.xlialm,i: whose li,„lv |,a,l 
M.a.le them turn out of .several i-ahms, although the In.lians 
'"•e fai on, ,„..,. ,„ „„,|, ,„,^^,,.^_ .,,,_^. „^i,,,- ,„.,,,^, ^^,^^^ ^^.„ 


Irs.s i^u, ami lliis inrcrtiwiis n 1 )r diil n.>t prevent liis assiduous 
visits t(i insli'uct her. llcloinul licr vorv well .lispostMl by 
tlie lively aiilireliensinii nl the sulVeiMU,L;s of a future lif''. ami 
by ilee]i s(prrow for liaviuu' iii'lul^eil iu a life of sin The 
Katliei' (lei'uied it expedient to LH'ant lier the ,l; race of baj)- 
lisin, and he had I'easou for prompt action, for the sai'ratnent 
was inmie>liately followe I by deatii. 

Thei'c are. others whom God eonverts by the ministry and 
exhortations of those who resist eonversion tlieinselves. An 
Indian of the town of the Coneeption has already obtained 
the salvation of several of his relatives, but has heeii unwill- 
ing to labor for his own salvation. He is a man of very 
good sense, who has always taken pleasure in the instruction 
of the missionaries. As he has nineli intellcet, he is well 
versed in the mysteries of our reli.t^ion ; he calls himself a 
Christian by choice, although his life has hitlierto rendered 
him unworthy of bai)tism. When he learns that any of his 
relatives or friends is dangerously ill, he goes and instructs 
him, and to be more easily believeil by the patient, he assures 
him that he has long examined what the Black Gowns say, 
and that after all his examination, he could find notiiing that 
did not conform to the truth ; that moreover he is persuad- 
intr them oidy to do what he intends to do himself; and he 
intends really to solicit baptism when he sees he is going to 
die. He says these things so appositely and skillfully, that 
scarcely one fails to be convinced, or be perfectly prepared 
by him to receive that sacrament. He did this recently so 
hapjiily in the case of one of his nei)hews, that Father Gar- 
nier was delighted at the fervor with which this young man 
solicited baptism, and the rare dispositions with which he 

received it. 

But of all the means which God employs most in these 
three towns of St. Michael, Si. James and the Conception, 
which belong to the nation of tlie Seneeas, tluit which most 


Wlicadously rciiwrts tlu« In.iians, is mis-Tv and Immi.t al)an- 
'loncl hv all civatuivs. None aro lH-l,t,,T ,lis|,.,sr.l t., hear 
instnu-tions or more prompt in olK-yiiijr tlio niovcmmts of 
gni<-c. t'.iaii the poor slaves or other persons destitute of all 
succor, and forsaken l.y all the world. These trive the mis- 
sionary tlie, frreatest consolation, and amid their t(Mnporal 
Kuscnes. they more voluntarily receive the K'>'>d tidin.^s of 
then- eternal ha].piness. The Father has l,apti/e.l this year 
some of this class, and they all live as true Christians. " lie 
rnioht have expected the same success witli many others, if 
lie had had time enough to continue to instruct' them and 
at the same time attend the sick who have been very nam- 
erous. and many of whom died after receiving baptism. 


Father RafTeix, who has charge of this mission writes as 
follows: "The great number of superstitions, which have 
gathered here with these tribes, which have taken refuge here 
after the destruction of their own countrv, raises up a very 
notal)le obstacle to the propagation of the .^ospel The 
remoteness of the Frcncli, whoso settlements the Senocas 
rarely visit, makes the teaching of our Faith seem strancre t,. 
them. ],ecause they have luwcr seen any one believe^md 
practice it. Moreover libertinage and moral corruption which 
makes them publicly approve an.l praise all vices, do much 
to induce them to live like beasts, and make them insensible 
to all t;.at concerns salvation. Not but that a vcrv -rood 
natural disposition is in >nany, and that mo^t of 
them are much loss subject to their passions than Europeans 
But where corrupt nature ales, men give way to bad exam- 
pie, and these rich natures which will one day do wonders 
when virtue controls them, are as yet too weak to resist 
iinman respect. Few adults would die without rcceivin- 


1nii>tisiii, if wo coiilil lind llicm alone In instruct tlicni : Imt 
tlic slianu; of jnissinL'' for Cliristiinis in tlu" ryv of tliosc who 
arc not. is a ureat olista(;lo to tlicii' conversion. Ami for tliis 
reason I l:avc liccn unalilc this year to liapti/.e more than ten 
adults, wlio all (lied after iveeivin^- that lllessin,L^ Many of who i>rav to God when they are alone in the chapel. 
would he ashamed to do so ln'fore those who do udt pray. 
A V(jun,L;' woman took poison in conse(picnce ot some Lii'iev- 
ous displeasure she had received. 1 went to >ct' her in hci- 
ca'.)in sevei'al times tospeak to licrof her salvaiion. Unman 
ri'speet sealed her lips. From time to time 1 took her ic/me- 
dies and some delicacies, that she miuht relish nioiv easily 
what ! said of (ioil. and of the eternal happiness oi' misery 
of her soul. As lon.i:- as liei' husliand or mother was !ie:ir 
her, sIh! would not speak at all. I saw clearlv that I mint 
lind lu'r alone, and that very soon, foi' she was near hei' end. 
1 went there sometimes so early or <o late that I lost mv way 
in the fields as 1 returned. .\.t last one day when her hus- 
band was away, and her mother went for water, she opened 
her lu'art to me, praying to (iod with mnch fei'voi' to pardon 
her sins. She then listened very voluntarily to the instruc- 
tions 1 aave her, and prepared to re./eive liapt.ism. All. it is 
true, are not so completely slaves of human res|)cct. * >ne ol 
the saehems of the town called me to say : " lleiv are mv 
nieee and Li'i'and-dauuiiter. who can do no more, tliev have 
lingered long. Tell them clearly, all ahout the prayer, so a> 
to pre[)are them as well as you can to l)(X'ome. Christians. 

[ should regret it deeply, if this old num. wdio is not yet 
baptized, should himself the grace, which two <>[ his 
daughters, his nieee ami grand niece have I'eceived this year ; 
and which, we have grounds to believe, they carried unsul- 
lied to heaven, for they died .soon after baptism. 

Traveling one day with a man who was i-eturning from a 
war party, iis L eonversed with him on |-cligion and the my>- 


n ; liur 
i.-f wliu 
fol' tins 
liiiii ti'ii 
laiiy tif 
<l I'rtiy. 
(■ Li'ricN • 
r ill licr 

T l'(.MIR'- 

' easily 
• misery 
as !i(';ir 

1 iinHt 
AVI' cml. 
iii\' way 
icr luis- 

1 panl'Mi 

All. it is 

One of 

arc iiiv 
.'V have 
iT. sti as 

lint yet 
(> !.)[ liis 
lis year : 

'll llllSlll- 

iS IVdiii a 
tlie iiivs- 

t-nos of faiih, Ik. rdatcl to me tiut of the ehi,.f. ,,i 

their army, hohlhin- <,„„ near th(> eiiemv's eonntrv, ha,| 
sahl that they must -o fearlessly into a<-ti,.i). ' - For mv' nirl ■■ 

'' ">""""'l- "I nil, far from ,.|,lerlaii:in.- anv h'ar- fori 

l<n..wlhat .lothiii- happens lo „s. exeept l,v the permis<„,n 
"I Inniwhoisin heaven, whom 1 a.lore ami whom I mvoke 

siiHv I eml,raee,l I'll rist .ai.ity.- W ,1 th;,l all po>,| 

'li"-:HMeeo„ra,^e. aii.l eoiiM riseal„,ve Immai, nspeet 
,''■"'""" •'^l"-''-^'l"" pleasure wliieh I h.|, o .,,„.■ an 

';''' •"^'" "I"' l''"""'''M a Christian lor several veaix aiHi who 

'''"'■" '"" '"''""- I" 'I"' ' iitry. -Ah.- he saiil ■■ When 

will It hemv happiness 1,, remove to the e,,nntrvof Kai,I, 
;' = """- ""■ "''■'■'H'h. ami live no |,,n^er where do,] h i„ ' 


^nownan.I where lie,ssoof,enoiren,|e,l? How happv -honhl 
I live ami .lierimon, mv I'lvihren, the ( 'hristians of Onehee 
'"•'" '"l"''''!'''" laMa.,h.|aineV If land mv lamilv )lo not 
^-•on leave this eonmrv. mv son. my .Taial-,ia,„h,er an,l mv 
^^■";' ;^-'" '"--^l—'l to lose ihelaith am,,) ,l„s inhdeluv 
^'"'' ''"''^"H-herv, wheiva> if tliev liveil anion, ■ ChriMi'ins" 
;IhT w.H.M I,,.., ve.ll,vlo||,.w,n,iheire,„„l ,,„,,-. ' „; 

nas aeeonlin^ly re>olve,|. eosi what It will, to set out a month 
'"'"<•" t" >vs,deat(..iiehee. Ilewilino, ae, ,„|,.sh ,, with- 

•■nt^reat roil and diliienltv. < iod has his predestined everv- 
where; hut this oo..,! .,,,,,!,,,, I, ^,,,,,^.,.^^,,,,j,^^,_.^^,^^^^_^^^^^^^ 

" "-'11 1- l"i- lervent and zealons missionaries, win. ,.on',e 
iH^iy .eten to eiihivate ,|iis nn^ratefnl and sterile land -o 
make llie seed yield a hundred h.ld. 

^ Of the nnmher,.f these j.redestined. are espeeiallv the 
HUle<.hildreii, whom we endeavor never to allow to die i,n- 
'apti/ed. 1 have ..onferred it. on a -ivat iinml„.r this vear 
I'-ni-teeii of them died after reeeiving it. As ihev arc our 
•■surest gam, they are aL«) our greatest eoiisoliition 

Tlie following e.xtraet.s eml.raeo all that is conta'ine<l in the 
l^elatioiiseoneerning the Seiieea Mis.sious from 107;:! to 1(J7«)- 


UELATION 1()74. 
"If Katlier Curlioil does not siiuctify liiniM'lf ns tnu<:h as 
he acsircs, it is ccrtaii: that he (1<k;s so, as do Fathers (hiruier 
•ui.l llatrei.v in the towns of Sene.^a, \v].ich are the rnosc 
ivn.oto from us, and also apparently from th<> Kaith. How- 
ever these two brave missionaries make many cnqnests 
from the enemy. Katlier Pierron has -one to join them to 
take care of a large town, wliieh we have not been able 
hitherto to provide." 


Fathers Pierron, RatTeix and Gamier, who labor in three 
different towns, are, so to say, oblige.! to carry their lives m 
their hands at all times, for they are in almost habitual dan- 
ger of being massacred by those savages. 
° In fact, since the Senecas entirely defeated the Andas- 
to'uies who were their ancient and most formidable ene;uies. 
their ii.solence knows no bounds. They talk o.dy of renew- 
ing- thewM- against our allies, and even against the brench. 
and bcinning by the destruction of Fort Catarokoui. They 
not lomr since resolved to tomahawk Father (iarmei. treat- 
in.r hitn as a sorcerer. T^iey had not only selceU'd. but 
oven paid the man who was to strike the blow, and we 
should no longer possess this missionary had not God pre- 
served him bv a most .i ip iku Providence. All these msnlts 
do not prevent the Fatiier- '-om performmLT their i'liu-t.ons 
boldly, civing instruction in their cabin and chapels, where 
thcy'h'a've bapti/..Ml more than a hundred persons within a 
year and tliev lin.l that lifty, children and adults, die every 
year! after baptism. However, if these savages take up arm.s 
;,oainst us, as thcv threaten, our missions are in great dan- 
ger, either of being ruined or at least interrupted, as long as 
the war lasts. 

:nu(;li as 


he rnosc 

. llovv- 

tlu'iii to 
.'cii able 


ill three 
r hves in 
tual (lan- 

c Aiulas- 
i)f ronow- 
j Kreiieh. 
li. They 
liei, treat- 
jcUmI, hut 
, !it\il wo 
(j<)(l pre- 
ese insults 
leis. wlicre 
* within a 
, (lie every 
ic n\) arms 
great chin- 
as lonu' as 


UELATIOX l()70-7. 

The upper Iroquois, that is to say. those whose Ian. Is are 
most reinot>- fnnu the French settlena.Tits, espeeiallv the 
Seneeas and Cayugas. are the most haughty and insolent of 
all. They go so far as to pursue the nii.ssionaries tomahawk 
ni iiaud, pelt them with stones, demolish their chapels and 
thou- little oabin.s, licupmg on them a thou.sand other kinds 
of ill treatment. 

* * * * * * * .» -x. 

1 ean diaw nothing else from the letters of Fathers de 
Carhoil, Pierron, KafToix and Gamier, who are among the 
upper Irocjuois ; their greatest and almost sole occupation is 
U) surter, and so to say, die each moment, under the blow of 
continual throats and insults which these savages necessarily 
breathe against them, hi spite of all tlii;", they liave not 
neglected to wrest many souls from hell. For his part. 
Father Pierron has baptized since a year ago, ninety of these 
Indians, almost all children, of whom liftv died after baptism. 

* * * * * * " * * * 

In one town of the Seneca.s, where FatherGarnier is, there 
have died within a year forty children and forty adults, bap- 
timl. As for Father Kallei.x, who is in another town of the 
Seneca.s. he rej.orts that ho jM-ofited well by a pulmonary 
disor(U;r with wliicli God has chastised those savage inhabi- 
tants, and which carried oil" in a month sixty small children. 
"I have not sinired myself in order to be able to obtain the 
grace of baptism for them, as well as for adults whom 
God made known to be Jlis in the course of this fatal 

KELATIOX l()77-8. 

Further on. [-'athors Ralleix an.l (iarnier, who an; at Son- 
nontoua!:, an.l where the danger is greatest (because it is the 
nation which more especially desires war) have conferred 


,,„,,„„. ,i„s vcar bai-lisin -n two huiulr.Ml niul Uvrlve. lunon:^' 
■.•h.>„. llirreare u.oro than sevcHy chiMreu, a luut ..I Nvh.m. 
have -c-n." to iucreaso tlie cliuivli triumi.haiit. 

i,.,,,,n' rvidcntly svas rocalliMl in KuT, and KatluT 
■,.avinL;- Father -Inhan <iarinri" 

Father 1' 
UillToix' some \H'ars hitcr 

writinu- to SiegMihiy, .Inlv S, H>54, sa\.- 



Father (iarniei-, a 

.lesuil, who was a i 

iiissiuiuiry to the suiil 

, Kath.v .loMS lMKr.....N -• nn. to V.u,uU .lunc i'^h. UK. from 11... I rov.nrv of . 
' 1 , 1«>1S wl,..n Kath..,- I'-RMMin was son to tlu- S..n.Mas. hr was mh-.t., .■(! 

„„.,„., l.,an,M- '''''''7:'':'' ',.,„,,,,, ,„ „ir... wliiU. iM attoulat.o. at a .ouiuM, « 

m„„j. wl„c I ,1 K,,t» .i.TliUT.l that !,.■ <o„M „.. l.»,i:o- c.inlinui. ,„ a pla..' 

,,,,,,.,,H.t...-,.iss,;.^-^^ "■ "-'• ■""> '-"'" 

:!";"; :m ; ,• l.^,ue « .a„y o..a o.s,o„.s. „o,. ti,dr «t.a..,„„>.„t to fa.„.s, 

iun a - ' . -"I'l"'" ^■a.U-..'i-l.erto th. v..ic. of Il..avo, o,- that ot 

„, ,!,.• A„tl,..r .)f Uf'' . t >..l m. l,u,, ,,i,„ii.|,..a (iara...„,ti... tl,..()„o„.la.-'a. 

U,,as,,p,.,.s,itionsa„,li„.le.-..n,,la,u^^ouU...t l^^l. a ^ ,^ ^^^__^.^ _^^ 

rc„tl..r...l ■■mri.M,. aUl in sc..u,-,ni.' t >,s "^ "''■,'* ,,,„,„(,, ,,f ,„al,li.l,i„u la.lian 
„„,„d .1>. F,-..„.-l, on .1- cast. a...l --'";;; ^^^U . i.^ ft-n N.w K„.la„,l 

'"""■""":' ""."";:,:.• I m »«,>. I.n..e fo,iowi„« year .,e^v..s at Is,.. 

HKO H.. ai..,l at (in.l,.... i» IT-,'-), l-rok-n <low„ w,tl, vrars an.l lotl. 

K M .r 1.-, ,.s .iAKN.KU, wan „ora at f..,„...ral i„ tl,. ..iocs. ..f Ma„s. al,o„t 1. . . 

\ ; , w r . tt celei.rat...l H.„o,lio,i„.. U«r„i.r. He oa.n.. t.., w„l,. 

""' ""', , , Oc h.^Uita a„.l, after .eael,i„^ so,„e years. e,.„,plete,l l„s M„,l,e. 

,t,llascholasl,c. ntktol, , 1 ,~.a,, ^-ui, M.eoes^ linal exaiim.ati..,, in 

S^ue r s ;:: ^e";. ;;! :;:::o.i::a;::r,a„„re. a, o„ei.>a. o,. ..ana ... 

:.::•';;;;...«.,. ■.et,.r...... ate as nt. ana a^ 

i:;;;; -;:;;'r;;;: L:r o^^:!::::;; s:;::;;:r;;- .y of i,is .a. a.,a a„s...ri,y. 


of whom 

,11(1 Katlui- 
: (iariiii'i' 
i;84, says : 
lo the saiil 

vinif ol Cliaiu- 
wiiK MHi'i'tKled 

■ III a iDuncil, a 
erstiliou^ I'l'i'''- 

.'lll it I'XpiMllfllt 

iniif in a plai'f 
cr of 111'' tri'Ut- 
liaviiii; iiiMiltoil 
1 :ii l\u- iiidispii- 
I'lii, and addi'd 
iiufiit to fal>U>s. 
* Id^iiii: lii^ time 
.■avcii <ir tliut iif 
iod. Tills «avr 
iumI tlial llii'iici'- 
I'll a rtoii'.'iiitidii 

■ tlu' t'tck ; and 

■ . tlii'Onondaua. 
cd ill Acadia li> 
alilifliiii;; Indian 
m Ni'w Eii'^laiid 
IS sent to liandii- 
■opc ill UmS. Sit 

■pt. iM llewai- 
Iks ill \'J'>'> • was 

■ lio w IS at Isle 
and honccas till 

SciHvas, after lH'iii,<rinfon,i,.,| s.vivilv .-f intnitinn i,, „,:,k,. 

war. . ■<,,,, „.,1 in t,h,. sai.l|ii<' {. Inult l,v tlic (lovcnmr 

t.- tra.l.'ou Lake Oiilari..), which wa~- anrliuiv,! m ;, Iml,. 
riwrscv.'ii h«a-u,"s I' their vilhuv, aih! whciv ail ilir In,. 
qiiMJ^ iisei] to funic tn trade." | N. V. (,',,]. |),„., \\ ,, ^-jii l 
III Noveiuhrr 171)2, Mr. De ( 'ninens ,,,n„„ii„v,| ih,,i K^^lier 
(ianiier and Fallier Vaillant' had -mie to the Seiieeas, ae- 
<'"»ipanied hy Capt.ain I),. .Marie,.iirt, ;ii,d some Freiieh men 
to arrange their estaMishnient. |il,. ,, T;-;. | (i;,,„i,,. ;,,m1 
\ aillaiit musl have left s i afi,.,-, as (iarnier w;is sent hark- 
in 170;], (il). 7o():)aiid Vailkmt in 17ol. lih. |,. 7(;l>.) 'I'here 
was a mi.s.sionary as kite a.s 17U(), ^h. |i. 77r,.) 

I Kailn.r Fran... Va>u.,vnt i.k Cksms. ran,,. ,., r,„„.,ia as a stud..,, in ,.i:„ ,0- 
..■ivcdlioly orders at qurh^; I),.,.,.„il.,.r ,s,, ir,r.-,. a.x-onlin^- U, ,h. /.i.',. a,ro„„/„„;,,.„ 

and r,,da..d Fatli,.- liniyas ,.„„„r, „, Tio„no„,o„„.„ „..,„. ,.,..,„ c;a „uX 

.n Vux II,. was r..-,d,.,it anions; tliv Mohawks in Pis:., and accon.panlod DoionOlii.'s 
rM.|d,tn.n at-amsi ,l„. s,,K.,.as in Kisr, and in th. l.c^innin- of Hi-H vi>i(..,l AM.anva, 
•Anilias^ador lo (iov.rnor Donj^an on lli. part of tin. Canadian CJovmnneni, on uhich 
o,-ras,o„ IR. aninitt.d l, willi al,il>ly.-.V, „■ )•„,<■ ro, Min„U,. V. 311 At tl,„ 
oonHnsion of this n.,o,ia,io„ li.. pro,.....U.d to Catararoiiy. iprosm, Kingston. '..srortnl 

hytuo Indians, who wct. s,.„t by (iov.rnor Don,.,,, to prm-.n, , havintj any Inter 

oonrso with t e Moliawks, 1,|. f.,r,„,.r llo.K. The l.reakin. on, of Kin. WMIian.' war 
"•""I"' al.andonnient of Kort Cataiaeony, diove him bark l„, bnl after the 
peace he was sent in r.„y.l with Father (iarnier ,m, a mission lo the Senecas, bv whom 

(^ was depmeil Ml UUi to (Mvernor Vamlienil to demand satisfaction for „ v olat o 

.1(0 Ireatyon the part of the „e returned immediately to the Se ,e „. 
conribnted to thwart the etforts of Col. Schnylerat Ononda.a who soi,,d, re 

.n, le I.,ve Nations to expel the French tnissionaries.- fharlevoix H, S<J.J .■..„„ 
Vaillan was succeeded in imr in the Seneca Mission by the Rev. Father d ileu a d 
rctnrned to France In in.-,,-OTulhm'lian, N. Y., Col nis,„ry IX W 

Mans, about MM. 
to Canada, while 
lileted Ins studies. 
i\ exaniiiialioii in 
lonihiL'a and Sen- 
liniary, ITHO. He 
rtho derived from 





0^*1 < 




1656— 1684.